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The American 



Ontario 



Review of Reviews 




AN INTERNATIONAL 



M AGAZ I N E 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



Volume XXXVII. 



January-June, 1908 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY 
New YORK: 13 ASTOR PLACE 



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Copyright, 1908, by The Review of Reviews Co. 




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INDEX TO THE THIRTY-SEVENTH VOLUME OF 

THE AMERICAN 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS 



JANUARY-JUNE, 1908. 



Abyssinia : Raid on Italian posts in, 154. 

Advertising, Magazine, G08. 

Aerial navijiation : C'onquest of the air, HS. 

Africa, South, P]ast, and West, Notes on, 154, 278. 

Airships. See Aerial navigation. 

Alaskan, Awakening of the, 177. 

Allen, William II. Better business method.s for 

cities, 15)."). » 

American, Temper of the, 284. 
Anarchism vs. socialism, 538. 
Anarchist, Problem of the, 538. 
Animals, Actions of, during earthquakes, 104. 
Animals, Restoration of lost parts in, 743. 
Appalachians, National forests in the, 45(). 
Arbitration, Progress of, (558 ; treaties in the 

Senate, 410. 
Argentine Republic. Economic advance of, 733 ; 

dictatorship in, 403 ; prosperity in, 404. 
Arkansas capitol frauds, (>5(». 
Art season in New York, 42.*». 
Arts and crafts in America, 5r»l. 
Asquith, Herbert Henry, English Premier, 700. 

Bagdad railway. Question of the, 222. 

Balkans, New economic era in, 407-8 ; rivals for 
supremacy in, 482. 

Banks : See under Financial affairs. 

Bigelow, John, New York's first citizen, 421. 

Bjorkman, Edwin. William James, the man and 
the thinker, 45. 

Bjorkman, Frances Maule. The new anti-va- 
grancv campaign, 200. 

Books, The New, 112, 252, 380, 507, 630, 753. 

Brown, C B., San Francisco two years after, 082. 

Brown, Dr. John, 038. 

Brownsville colored troops affair, 0-7, 304. See 
also under Political Affairs. 

Bryan, William J., explained, 500. 

Bryce, Ambassador, Visit of, to Ottawa, 277. 

Busch, Wilhelm, the German caricaturist, 492. 

Business conditions in the West and the South- 
west, 715. 

Business leadership, 398. 

Business man, European, in retirement, 05. 

Business questions, 275. 

Business recovery, Outlook for, 135, 299. 

Canada : 

Affairs in, 529, 062. 

Immigration policy of, 350. 

Industrial peace legislation in, 100. 

Japanese immigration question in, 277. 

Parliament, Opening of, 18. 

The new nation to the north, 557. 

Treaties between United States and Canada, 
New, 529. 
Cannon, Joseph G., as a Presidential possibility, 

720. 
Carlos, King, of Portugal, Assassination of, 280. 
Carmen Svlva (Queen of Roumania), 019. 
Carnegie Institution, Magnetic work of the, 321. 
Cartoons of the Month, 32, 161, 289, 416, 544, 

670. 
Casson, Herbert N. New American farmer, 598. 
Castro, the ungrateful, 600. 



Catholic centenary in New York, 659. 
Central American confercnci'. 17, 611. 
Chapman, Arthur. In the land of the sheep 

barons, 305. 
China : 

Foreign rcdations of, 149. 

(Jermany's civilizing work in, 627. 

Germany, Fnited States, and China — Are they 
natui-al allies? .372. 

Japan, Relations with, 408. 

Language (piestion in, 213. 

Law r(»form in. Need of. 218. 

Railroad progress in. 149. 

Russia and .Japan, China versus, 536. 

Tatsu Main affair. 408. 
Chinese exclusion, Spirit and letter of, 603. 
Christ's death. The date of. 488. 
Cities, Better l)usiness methods for, 195. 
Civil service at Washington. 221. 
Cleveland's three-cent sti-eet railway fares, 655. 
Coal-mine disasters. 142, 225, 349. 
Comets, Is the world to be destroyed by? 241. 
Communal ownership and co-operation in 

Sweden, 232. 
Congo, Official Belgian statement on, 154. 
Congress. Affairs in : 

Arbitration treaties in the Senate, 410. 

Aldrich financial bill, 132-3, 400. 

Appalachian and White Mountain forest re- 
serves bill, 044-5. 

Brownsville colored troops affair, 6-7, 394. 

Central Bank i)roi)osition, 133. 

Chronological record of proceedings, 27, 156, 
284, 411, 539, (565. 
Congressional methods, IneflScacy of, 520. 

(Criticisms of Congress. 6.50-2, 518. 

Emplovers' liabilitv bill. 522-3. 

Fowler financial bill, 132-3, 400. 

House, — What it failed to do, 518. 

Naval expenditures, 049-.10. 

Naval {piestion in, .515-517. 

l*resident's message on convening of Congress, 
Comment on, 1(). 

President's message of Januarv 31, Comment 
on, 268-9. 

Speaker. The, and his power. 519. 

Wood pulp tariff question, 649, 
Conventions and other gatherings, 657, 719. 
Cooley, Alford W. An improved naturalization 

system, 464. 
Corporations, Industrial, in President Roosevelt's 

message, 11. 
Corporations in modern business, 628. 
Cortelyou, George B., as Presidential possibility, 

720. 
Cosmopolitan clubs in American university life, 

317. 
Cuba, American mission of peace in, 261. 
Cuba, Civic progress in, 144-146. 
Cuban problem, — How it might be solved, 65. 
Cummins, Governor, as a Presidential possibil- 
ity, 9. 
Curacao a really successful tropical colony, 230. 
Currency reform : A central bank, 35. 

Danish-American university exchange, 625. 
De Boigne, Countess, 638. 



IV 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



Bering, Jackson K., a leader in the coal industry, 
726. 

Detroit River tunnel, 227. 

Dodd, Samuel C. T., the master builder of Stand- 
ard Oil. 355. 

DuPuy, William Atherton. The awakening of 
the Alaskan, 177. 

Edmonds. R. li. A national inventory, 593. 
Educating our boys : the cost, 374. 
Eggs, Nutritive capacity of, 743. 
Electricity, the renewer of youth, 732. 
Electricity's recent triumphs, 49. 
Embassies, Our, and their needs, 521-22. 
Encyclopedias, past and present, 311. 
England, George Allan. International socialism 

as a political force, 577. 
Entomology, Bureau of, at Washington. G84. 
Europe, Northern, Fixing the status of, 663. 

Fairbanks, Charles W., as Presidential possi- 
bility, 721. 
Farmer, The new American, 598. 
Financial : See also under Congressional Affairs. 

Bank deposits. Guaranteeing, 134, 340, 345. 

Banker, country. The, 353. 

Banker, Value of, 249. 

Banking system and the panic, 12. 

Bond buyers. Cautions for, 375. 

Bond or mortgage? 375. 

Bonds, Buying, 501. 

Bonds, Equipment, Extra income from, 751. 

Bonds, Gilt-edged, selling cheap, 108. 

Business depression. Calculating the, 504. 

Crisis, our, A German economist on, 98. 

Currency reform : a central bank, 35. 

Experts declare their confidence, 246. 

I'inancial warnings, 378. 

Good cheer for 1908, 377. 

High income with peace of mind, 502. 

If you can afford to take a chance, 107. 

Investment securities, 106. 

Legislation, Necessity for, 13. 

Making money work, 247. 

Mining propositions for the small investor, 
632. 

Money hoarders during the panic. Story of, 82. 

Panic, End of, 131. 

Panic, Remedies for, 132. 

Panics, — How they come and go, 131. 

Pennsylvania Railroad, 633. 

Public utilities and the investor, 631. 

Railroad stocks. Problem of, 505. 

Speculation and gambling, 109. 

Speculation, Use and abuse of, 748, 750. 

Signs of the times, 250. 

Trustee, Rules for a, 635. 

Watching tj-ade barometers, 110. 
Foraker, Joseph B., as Presidential possibilitv, 

721. 
Forbes-Lindsay, C. H. The work of the Keep 

Commission, 190. 
Foreign relations touched on in President Roose- 
velt's message, 15. 
Forest protection in France and Japan, 735. 
P"'orest reserves : Supreme Court decision limit- 
ing the private owner, 646. 
Forests, The fight for the, 87. 
B>ance : 

Army, Fighting value of, 223. 

Commerce, State aid to, 152. 

Financial prosperity of the French people, 152. 

Military and naval forces, Decrease of, 152. 

Politic-al affairs in, 279. 

I'opulation question in, 361. 

Social i)roblems in, 6(53. 
Fuel waste, Question of. 94. 

Gary, Elbert H.. of Iho Steel Trust, .354. 
(iems, artificinl. Making, ().30. 
(Jeniuses, What they eat and drink, 370. 
(Jeorgia, Prohibition in, ()56. 
Germany : 



China, The United States, and Germany, — Are 
they natural allies? 372. 

Colonial system, Weakness of, 237. 

Commerce, German, Have we been unfair 
to? 99. 

England and Germany, — The friendship of, 486. 

Constitutionalism in. 20-21. 

Financial problems of, 151, 535. 

Polish lands, Expropriation of, 21, 406-7. 

Political affairs in, 20-21. 

Problems of, 20. 

Prussian suffrage right, 151. 
Gold flood and its problems, 77. 
Gold. Mechanical handling of world's stock of, 

220. 
Goldfield, Nevada : Miners' strike at, 16. 
Great Britain : 

Agriculture, English, Is it to revive? 278. 

Asquith, Premier. Iilquipment of, 532, 700. 

Budget, The, presented, 662. 

Economic problems of, 278. 

Germany and England, — The friendship of, 486. 

Home rule in Parliament, 533-534. 

Law reform in. Need of, 744. 

Liquor, legislation, 405. 

Ministry, New, 530-531-532. 

Parliamentary affairs, 404-5. 

Politics in, 153. 

Trade Conditions in, 153. 

Tweedmouth, Lord, The Kaiser's letter to, 406. 

Unemployment in, 489. 

Haiti, Revolt in, 403. 

Harris, G. W. George Meredith at eighty, 183, 

Hearst ; a political problem, 582 ; see also under 

Political affairs. 
Hill. David Jayne ; Episode connected with his 

appointment to Berlin, 522. 
Hindu in America, ()04. 
Horse vs. health, 623. 

Howard, I^. O., Government Entomologist, 684. 
Hudson tunnels connecting New York and New 

Jersey, 425. 
Hughes, Charles E., Governor of New York, Work 

of, 527-8 ; see also under Political Affairs. 
Human race — Is it degenerating? 629. 

Ibsen's development, Danish interpretation of, 
626. 

Iglehart, Ferdinand Cowle. The nation's anti- 
drink crusade, 468. 

lies, George. Electricity's recent triumphs, 49. 

Immigration for fiscal year 1906-7, 16-17, 387. 

Indian, The, as laborer and agriculturist, 728. 

Industry, army of, " Red Cross " for, 201. 

International Bureau of American Republics, 
Building of. dedicated, 6.58. 

International Law, American Society of, 657. 

Ireland, Awakening of, i\()'2,. 

Irrigation : Government's great storage dams, 689. 

Italy, Problem of re-migration in. 19. 

Ireton. Robert Emmett. Currency reform : A 
central bank. 35. 

Jackson. Luis. Railroad freight rates. 707. 
.lames, William, the man and the thinker, 45. 
Japan : 

Aoki, Ambassador, Recall of, 25. 

Canada ami South America, Japanese in, 224. 

China, Relations with, 664. 

Coolie emigration, 28^^. 

Elections in, 664. 

Exposition in Tokio in 1912, 239. 

Financial troubles, 410. 

Immigration question. 25-26. 

Ministry, Crisis in, 148. 

Naval progress since Husso-.Taj^anese War, 731. 

United States, Feeling toward, 25, 147, 2(U), 
392-.3. 
Jew, t went let b-centui'v, Coniedv in the tragedy of. 

3.59. 
.Jewish ('hurch, " Modernist " crisis in, 103. 
.Jewish farmers, 617. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXl^II. 



Jews in New York City, 389. 

Jones, Ernest La Rue. Conquest of the air, 58. 
Josiah V. Thompson, a leader in the coal indus- 
try, 726. 
Jury, trial by — Should it be abolished? 607. 

Keep Commission, Work of the, 190. 

Kellogg, Arthur P. The man out of work, 336. 

Kelvin, Lord, 57; America's interest in work of, 

17L 
Kentucky, Tobacco war in, 16. 
Knaufft, Ernest. Arts and crafts in America, 

561 ; The art season in New York, 423. 
Knox, Senator, Philander C. Some speeches by, 

272-273 : as Presidential possibility, 722. 
Koch, Robert, What medicine owes to, 555. 
Kommissarzhevskaya, Madame Vyera Feodo- 

rovna, 365. 

Labor : 

Combinations of, 398-9. 

Hatter's case. Supreme Court decision in, 399. 

Influence of, 524. 

Pacific Coast labor market, 392. 

l>abor markets, Ebb and flow of, 387. 

Labor questions in President Roosevelt's mes- 
sage, 14. 

Labor wars. State intervention in, 746. 

Unemployed, The. oi to-day, 336, 489. 
La Follette, as Presidential possibility, 722. 
Lane, Franklin K. Railroad capitalization and 

federal regulation, 711. 
Laszlo (Philip) and his portrait of President 

Roosevelt, 550. 
Latitude, Variations in, 737. 
Laut, Agnes C. Canada, the new nation, 557. 
Leading'Articles of the Month, 87, 220, 348, 477, 

603, 720. 
Lemenager, Henri V. The government's great 

storage dams, 689. 
Life cycles. Curious, 245. 
Liquor problem : 

Alcoholism in the French Army, 360. 

Anti-liquor legislation in Great Britain, 405. 

Georgia, Prohibition in, 656. 

Legislation all over the world, 153. 

The nation's anti-drink crusade, 468. 

War on alcohol in Russia, 499. 

Nebraska experiment in saloon regulation, 657. 
Literary invasion, American, of Europe, 740. 
Lobingier, Charles Sumner. Need of law reform 

in China, 218. 
Lochner, Louis. Cosmopolitan clubs in American 

university life, 317. 

MacDowell, Edward, an American genius, 301. 
Magdalena Bay, Story of, 477. 
Magnetic work of the Carnegie Institution, 321. 
Maps and diagrams : 

Alaska's reindeer stations, 177. 

American literary invasion of Europe, 741. 

Balkans, New railroads in, 482. 

Canada's economic possibilities, 559. 

Central America, Independent states of, 17. 

Galilee, magnetic survey yacht, cruises of, 323. 

Government's storage dams, Shoshone, Path- 
finder, and Roosevelt, 689, 691, 693, 697. 

Haiti and San Domingo, 403. 

Hudson Tunnel, New York City, 426. 

Magdalena Bay, California, 478. 

Newspapers and periodicals. Annual increa.se in 
consumption of, in United States, 73. 

New York City Department of finance and its 
functions, 198, 199. 

Route of Atlantic fleet from Hampton Roads 
to Magdalena Bay, 460. 

Swamp lands of United States, 434. 

Wood pulp area of United States, 73. 
McCulloch-Williams, Martha. The tobacco war 

in Kentucky, 168. 
Marquis, Albert Nelson, 639. 
Mars, What it is like, 242. 
Meredith, George, at eighty, 183. 



Methodist quadrennial conference at Baltimore 
and its work, 660. 

Michelsen, Prof. Albert A., awarded Nobel prize 
for science, 42. 

Missouri owned the railways. When, 96. 

Mitchell, Guy Elliott. 'To farm America's 
swamps, 433 ; Checking the waste of our na- 
tional resources, 585. 

Moore, Isabel. I'ortugal in the family of na- 
tions, 325. 

Morocco, Affairs in, 154, 279. 

Municipal affairs : Cleveland's three-cent fares, 
655. 

JNIunicipal Research, Bureau of, 141, 195. 

Municipalization, real. Two centers of, 93. 

Music, Do Americans love? 155. 

National inventory. A, 593. 

Natural resources. Our, 401, 524, 593; White 

House conference on, 642-4. 
Naturalization reform, 391, 464. 
Navy : 

Atlantic fleet's cruise to the Pacific, 88, 147, 
266, 276, 402, 456, 529, (509, 661. 

Our ships under criticism, 267. 

Naval affairs, 137. 

Naval matters in President Roosevelt's mes- 
sage to Congress, 15. 

Navy, Shall we maintain a? 515-17. 

Value of our naval power, 267. 
Nebraska experiment in saloon regulation, 657. 
Negros, American, Clannishness among, 394. 
Nettleton, Gen. A. B. Shall bank deposits be 

guaranteed? 340. 
Newspaper and the forest, The, 71. 
New York City : 

Ahcarn case, The, 141. 

Charter Revision Committee's preliminary re- 
port, 141. 

Electric tunnels in, 140. 

Health conditions in, 390. 

Jews in, 390, 391. 

Foreign elements in, 388, 389, 390. 

Political improvement in, 391. 

Transit progress, 390. 
New York State : Legislative situation, 655, 

527-8 ; Anti-race track gambling legislation, 

142, 528. 
Nitrogen and the food supply of the human race, 

741. 
North Sea question, 281. 
Nobel prize for American science, 42. 
North, Arthur Walbridge, 636. 
Norton, J. Pease. The gold flood and its prob- 
lems, 77. 
Norway's neutrality, Europe's guarantee of, 101. 

Obituary, 31, 160, 288, 415, 543, 669. 

Opium, War on, (X)5. 

Oregon's referendum, 656. 

Oscar II., Sweden's democratic monarch, 38. 

Panama, Progress at, 143. 

Paper manufacture and wood pulp, 71. 

Parker, Capt. John H. How the Cuban problem 

might be solved, 65. 
Persia, Affairs in, 282. 

Philippine representatives at Washington, 265. 
Philippines, Secretary Taft's report on, 262-264. 
Photography, Color, 240. 
Photography, Long-distance, 367. 
Plant-growing under electric light, 620. 
Political affairs : 

Brownsville affair as an issue, 394-5 ; 654. 

Bryan's good chances, 653-4. 

Convention, National, How it is reported, 725. 

Corporation failure in politics. 271. 

Cortelyou movement, The, 8-9. 

Cummins, Governor, as a Presidential possi- 
bility, 9. 

Delegates, Seeking for, 138. 

Democratic Presidential candidates, 527. 

Democratic discord, 526. 



VI 



THE AMERICAN REFIEIV OF REVIEWS, 



Democratic Party — Has it a future? 723. 

Denver selected for Democratic convention, 9. 

Electoral process. Our, 5. 

Gray, Judge, as Presidential possibility, 10. 

Harmony, A season of, G43. 

Hearst:' A political problem, 582. 

Hearst's new party, oU(>-7. 

Hughes, Governor, of Xew York, Work of, 8, 
527, 528. 

Hughes movement, The, 271, 655. 

Johnson, John A., as Presidential possibility, 10. 

La Follette's position, 307. 

Money in the preliminary canvass, 395. 

New York delegation to Republican National 
convention, 272. 

New Y'ork State Democratic convention, 527. 

Political notes, 273-274, 525. 

President, Nominating a, 331. 

Presidential prospects, 30,5. 

Prohibition and politics. 300. 

Republican candidates for Presidential nomi- 
nation, 720. 

Republican convention, Who will run the? (553. 

Roosevelt third-term movement, 3-5. 

Taft and Foraker, 0. 

Taft candidacy, The, 7, 525, G52. 

Taft, Is federal patronage used for? 271. 
" Polish Mother of Schools." Work of the, 238. 
Polish question in the German Reichstag, 22-23. 
Porto Rico, American mission in, 202. 
Portraits : ♦ 

Aerenthal, von. Baron, 483. 

Aldrich, Nelson W., 132, 275. 

Alexandra, Queen, of England. 22. 

Alexis, Czarewich of Russia, 730. 

Allen, William H., 107. 

Alphonse XIII., of Spain, 22. 

Amaral, Ferreira do., Rear-Admiral, 280. 

Anderson, Don Luis, Oil, 612. 

Andrews, Bishop E. G., 160. 

Ansel, Martin F., Gov., 648. 

Arrhenius, Svante. 750. 

Asquith, Mrs. Herbert H., 703. 

A.vquith, Rt. Hon. Herbert Henrv, 405, 514, 
530, 701. 

Austurias, Prince of the, 536. 

Augusta, Kaiserin, of Germany, 22. 

Ault, J. P., 322. 

Bacon, Robert, 612. 

Bancroft, George, 753. 

Barnum, William M., 428. 

Batres-.Ia.uregui, Antonio, 612. 

Beveridge, Albert J., 651. 

Bigelow, John, 421. 

Billington, Miss, 485. 

Blanchard, Newton C. G,ov., 648. 

Bonilla, Policarpe, 612. 

Bonner, Hugh, 414. 

Brewer, David J., 40L 

Brockhaus, .315. 

Brownson, Admiral, 137. 

Brudno, Ezra, 3.59. 

Brucre, Henry, 196: 

Bryan, William J., 274, 646. 

Brvan, William .Tames, 157. 

Buchanan, William I., 612. 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 120. 

Burton, Sir Richard, 115. 

Busch, Wilhelm, 493. 

Calvo, .Toa(|uin B., (512. 

Camoens, Luis, 370. 

Caniplx'IJ-Bannerman. Sir Henry, 532. 

Canfield, Dorothy, 125. 

Cannon, .Joseph (J., 275. 

Carlos, King of Portugal, 90, .325. 

Carnegie, Andrew, 646. 

Cavcndisli, Sponcer Compton. 534. 

Centra] American Peace Conference, 612. 

(Churchill. Winston, 76,3. 

C'laude, Monsieiii-, 51 L 

Cleveland. Fivderick A., 196. 

Conger, Kenyon B.. 431. 

Conway, Moncure D., 29. 



Cook, Frederick A., 510. 

Cooley, Alford W., 392. 

Corbin, John, 756. 

Corea, Luis F., 612. 

Coronulas, L. A., 155. 

Crane, William Murray, 526. 

Creel, Enrique C, 612. 

Cromer, Lord, 508. 

Cummins, Albert B., 9. 

Curtin, Jeremiah, 253. 

Cutler, John C, Gov., 648. 

D'Amade, General, 153. 

Danby, Frank, 766. 

Davidson, James O., Gov., 648. 

Davidson. Thomas, 113. 

Davies, J. Vipond, 429. 

Day, W^illiam R., 401. 

De Morgan, William, 768. 

Deneen, Governor, of Illinois, 645. 

Dering, .Jackson K., 727. 

Devonshire, Duke of, 534. 

Diderot, Denis, 313. 

Dix, Morgan, Rev. Dr., 669. 

Dodd, Samuel C. T., 356. 

Dodd, William E., 380. 

Donald, Robert, 510. 

Doyle, William T. S., 612. 

Eastman, Dr. Charles A., 117. 

Edison, Thomas A., 380. 

Edward VII., King of England, 22. 

Elizabeth, Queen, of Roumania, 619. 

Ellis, Havelock, 758. 

Emory, William H., 461. 

Evans, Rear-Admiral Robley D., 2, 5, 457. 

Farman, Henri. 64. 

Fessenden, William Pitt, 114. 

Fiallos, E. Constantino, 612. 

Finley, John H., 389. 

Fisk, Pliny, 428. 

Folk, Joseph W^, Gov., 645, 654. 

Foraker, Joseph B.. 7, 274. 

Fort, John F., Gov., 648. 

Fowler, Charles N., 13. 

Franco, Joaquin, 19. 

Fuller, Melville W., 401. 

Fulton. Robert, 253. 

Gale, Zona, 128. 

Gallegos, Salvador, 612. 

Garfield, James R., 190. 

Gary, Elbert H., 354. 

Gary, Frank B., 410. 

Glenn, Robert B., Governor, 647. 

Godov, Jose F., 612. 

Goethals, George W., 143. 

Goodsell, Daniel A., Bishop, 660. 

Gore, Thomas F., 157. 

Grandfield, Charles P., 285. 

Grant, Gen. Fred. D., (>. 

Gray, George, 527. 

Grillparzer, Franz, 114. 

Hall, Charles Cuthbert, 543. 

Hamilton, Gen. Alexander. 31. 

Hansbrough, Henry Clay, 133. 

Harlan, John M.. 401. 

Harmon, .Judson, 665. 

Haskell, Charles N., 1.34. 

Hearst, William Randolph, 397. 

Hepburn, William P.. 136. 

Ileri-arte, Luis Toledo. 612. 

Hill, David .Jayne, 523. 

Hill, .James J., (546. 

Hitchcock, Frank H., 192, 395. 

Hoch, Edward W\, 134. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 401, 647 

Hotta, Viscount, (564. 

Houston, Sam, 122. 

Howard, L. O., (5S5. 

Howard, (Jen. Oliver Otis, 2.53. 

Hughes, (Miarles E., 272. 

Jackson, Sheldon, 182. 

.racobs, Charles M., 429. 

James, William, 47. 

Johnson, John A., (Jov., 10, 413, (545, 654. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXl^IL 



Vll 



Jordan, David Starr, 383. 
Keep, Charles A,, 191. 
Kelvin, Lord, 57, 173, 175. 
Kennedy, Charles Rann, 757. 
Kenny, Miss Annie, 485. 
Knox, Philander C, 273. 
Koch, Robert, Dr., 556. 
Kokovtzov, M., 229. 
Komiakov, Nicholas, 92. 
Kommissarzhevskaya, Madame, 365. 
La Follette, Robert M., 398. 
Laszlo, Philip A., 550. 
Latane, John H., 508. 
Lawrence, Mrs. Pethwick, 485. 
Lea, Gen. Homer, 768. 
Legarda, Benito, 265. 
Leger, J. N., 117. 
Lemieux, Rodolphe, 277. 
Leupp, Francis E., 729. 
Lewis, T. L., 286. 
Lieber, Franz, 316. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 424. 
Littlefield, Charles E., 524. 
Lloyd-George, Rt. Hon. David, 531. 
Logue, Cardinal, 659. 
Low, Seth, 519.» 
Madriz, Jose, 612. 
McAdoo, William G., 427. 
Mac Dowell, Edward, 301. 
McKenna, Joseph, 401. 
McKenna, Rt. Hon. Reginald, 533. 
Magoon, Charles E., 144. 
Manuel II., King of Portugal, 258. 
Mascart, Prof. E., 175. 
Mason, A. E. W., 122. 
Maxwell, William H., 389. 
Mehmed Ali Bey, 155. 
Mejia, Federico, 612. 
Mejia, Jose Maria Ramon, 574. 
Meredith, George, 184. 
Mertyn, H. E., 322. 
Meyer, George von L., 517. 
Meyer, Hans, 315. 
Michelson, Albert A., 42. 
Milton, Hail, 539. 
Milyukov, Paul, 150. 
Mitchell, John, 646. 
Moody, William H., 401. 
Millai Hafid, 279. 
Munroe, Charles E., 143. 
Miinsterberg, Hugo, 614. 
Murray, Lawrence O., 16, 192. 
Nathan, Ernest, 20. 
Neill, Charles P., 16. 
New, Harry S., 4. 
Noel, E. F., Governor, 645. 
Norway, Queen of, 22. 
Oakman, Walter G., 428. 
O'Brien, Thomas J., 283. 
Ocampo, Pablo, 265. 
Osborne, Thomas M., 723. 
Oscar, King of Sweden, 39. 
Owen, Robert L., 157. 
Palmer, Alice Freeman, 754. 
Peckham, Rufus W., 401. 
Penna, Affonso, President of Brazil, 147. 
Peter, King of Servia, 236. 
Peters, J. C, 322. 
Pillsbury, Capt. John E., 128. 
Pinchot, Gififord, 193, 644. 
Pizarro, 123. 

Portugal, Carlos, King of, 90. 
Portugal, Crown Prince Luiz Filipe, 326. 
• Portugal, Queen of, 22. 

Portugal, Manuel II., King of, 258. 
Portugal, Queen Maria Amalia of, 327. 
Price, Overton, 194. 
Procter, Redfield, 386. 
Purdy, Milton D., 392. 
Putnam-Weale, B. L., 509. 
Randall. James R., 286. 
Ransdell, Joseph E., 14. 
Redmond, John, 534. 



Rheinbaben, Baron von, 151. 

Robins, Elizabeth, 761. 

Rodriguez, Salvador, 612. 

Roosevelt, President, 2, 5, 551. 

Root, Elihu, 612. 

Russia, Czarewich of, Alexis, 730. 

Ryan, Thomas F., 135. 

Sakurai, Tadayoshi, 115. 

Sanchez-Ocana, Victor, 612. 
, Sedgwick, Anne Douglas, 120. 

Sellers, Coleman, 175. 

Servia, King Peter of, 236. 

Sheldon, George L., Governor, 645. 

Shibusawa, Baron, 148. 

Smellie, William, 314. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 158. 

Smith, Charles Sprague, 139. 

Smith, Herbert Knox, 16. 

Smith, John Walter, 539. 

Smith, William Alden, 400. 

Socialist Congress at Amsterdam, 755. 

Spain, King and Queen of, 22. 

Spain, Son of the King and Queen of, 536. 

Spears, .John R., 507. 

Sperry, Charles S., Rear-Admiral, 463, 661. 

Stead, William, Jr., 495. 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 130. 

Stevens, Durham W., 536. 

Stewart, John W., 538. 

Stimson, Frederic J., 511. 

Stoddart, James Henry, 29. 

Supreme Court .Justices, 401. 

Swanson, Claude A., Governor, 645. 

Sweden, King and Queen of, 23. 

Sweden, King Oscar of, 39. 

Sydow, Reinhold, .5.35. 

Taft, Charles P., 396. 

Taft, Henry W., 6. 

Taft, William H., 6, 139, 263, 396, 677. 

Tetrazzini, Luisa, 154. 

Thomas, Charles M., 463. 

Thompson, .Tosiah V., 727. 

Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin), 57,173,175. 

Toledo, Luis, 155. 

Tower, Charlemagne, 521. 

Turrettini, Col. Th., 175. 

Tweedmouth, Lord, 487. 

Ugarte, Angel, 612. 

Unwin, Prof. W. C, 175. 

Urussov, Prince, 381. 

Vanderlip, Frank A., 295. 

Van Eeden, Frederic, 61(5. 

Victoria, Queen of Spain, 22. 

Voltaire, 314. 

Vorys, Arthur I., 140. 

Ward, William L., 525. 

Wells, Mrs. Borman, 484. 

Wenzell, A. B., 127. 

White House Conference on Natural Re- 
sources, group portrait, 642. 

White, Edward D., 401. 

Whyte, William Pinkney, 415. 

Wiley, Harvev W., 553. 

Wilfley, Lebbeus R., 409. 

W^ilhelm II., Emperor of Germany, 22. 

Williams, Clark, 528. 

Williams, John Sharp, 520. 

Williman, Claudio, 574. 

Willson, A. E., Governor, 645. 

Winder, John H., 727. 

Wister, Owen, 613. 

Woodford, Stewart L., 271. 

Woodford, Walter R., 727. 

Zamenhof, Dr., 358. 

Zelaya, Jose Santos, 496. 
Portugal : 

Affairs in, 404. 

Assassination of King Carlos, 279. 

Colonies of — What thev might be, 745. 

Dictatorship in, 18, 403. 

Elections, The, 536. 

Manuel II., the new king, 281. 

Political conditions in 89, 280. 



VIU 



THE AMERICAN REKIEIV OF REVIEWS. 



Portugal in the family of nations, 325. 

I'ortugal in the work of civilization, 369. 
Postal savings banks and parcels post plans, 517. 
Proctor, Senator Kedfield, the late, 38(). 
Progress of the World. 3, 131, 2r)9, 387, 515, (543. 
l*rohibition and politics, 399. 

Prohibition in the South, Moral dignity of, 479. 
Prothero, G. W., 037. 

Quebec Tercentenary, 402. 
Queen, Future, Training a, 618. 

Race problems of America, 394. 
Radio-culture, 620. 
Railroads : 

Accidents and the color sense, 481. 

Anthracite roads and the Hepburn act, 136. 

Capitalization and federal regulation, 711.^ 

Emploj'ees. Death and disability roll of, 95. 

Finances of, 135. 

Freight rates too low, 707. 

Missouri owned the railroads. When, 96. 

Power of, in the State, 348. 

President's message. Railroad questions in, 
10-11. 

Public oversight of, Need for, 136. 
Record of Current Events, 27, 156, 284, 411, 539, 

665. 
" Red Cross " work for the army of industry, 201. 
Reeve, Arthur B., Why not a " Red Cross " for 

the army of industry? 201. 
Resources, national, Checking the waste of, 585. 
Robinson Crusoe's land, 739. 
Rome, Hebrew mayor of, (Ernest Nathan), 

19-20. 
Rome, Making a seaport of, 362. 
Roomer, Problem of the, 243. 
Roosevelt, President : 

Bitterness against, 269-270. 

First message to Sixtieth Congress, Comment 
on, 10-15. 

Message of January 31 to Congress, Comment 
on, 268. 

Third-term movement, 3-5. 
Root, Elihu, Work of, in the Cabinet, 264-5. 
Rosewater, Victor. Nominating a President, 331. 
Rossiter, W. S. The newspaper and the forest, 

71. 
Russia : 

Affairs in, 282. 

Budget for 1908, 229. 

Duma, The, a real parliament, 663. 

Duma, the third. Meeting of, 24-25. 

Dumas, First two, and the prospects of the 
third, 91. 

Labor leader on the revolution in, 624. 

Milyukov, Paul, a constructive statesman, 149. 

Naval bill -defeated, 407. 

Reaction in full swing, 352. 

Revolution, The, Genesis of, 150. 

Russia's " return to Europe," 729. 

Russia, the greater. What will it be? ()22. 

Russo-Turkish relations, 282. 

Santo Domingo, American policy toward, 2(52. 
San Francisco two years after the fire, 682. 
Schurz, Mrs. Carl, 639. 
Scientific achievement, American, I*aucity of, 

(513. 
Servia's economic prosperity, 23(5. 
Shaw, William B. John Bigelow, New York's 

first citizen, 421. 
Sh(!ep l)arons, In the land of, 305. 
Shepherd, William R. Education in South 

America, 570. 
Sherman anti-trust law, Proposed modification 

of, :i98. 
Sicnkievvic-z's appeal against Prussia, 41K). 
Smitii, Edward Snell. Dr. Wiley, government 

chemist, 552. 
Smyth, Newman, (540. 



Socialism, International, as a political force, 577. 

South America, Education in, 570. 

Spain, Affairs in, 404. 

Spain in the work of civilization, 3(59. 

Spanish-American War anniversaries and prog- 
ress since, 259. 

Speare, Charles F. Business conditions in the 
West and the Southwest, 715 ; Frank A. Van- 
derlip, banker-journalist, 293. 

Speech, an international, — Is it needed? 357. 

Springer, J. F., America's interest in the work 
of Lord Kelvin, 171. 

Stead, William, Jr., 494. 

Stead, W. T. The real Mr. Asquith, 700. 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 130. 

Steel-making in the United States, Cost and 
profits of, 480. 

Stevens, Durham W., Assassination of, 537. 

Suffragettes, English, Campaign of, 484. 

Supreme Court of the United States, 401. 

Swamps of America, Reclamation of, 433. 

Swan, Howard. China and the language ques- 
tion, 213. 

Sweden, Communal ownership in, 232. 

Sweden, New King of, Gustav Adolf V., 23. 

Taft, William Howard : See also under Political 

Affairs. 

As Presidential candidate, 675, 722. 

Development of, as a statesman, 264. 

Training for Presidency, 675. 

Philippine report, 262-264. 

Peacemaker in Panama, 
Tariff and revenue matters in President Roose- 
velt's message, 13-14. 
Tariff commission, Proposed, 137, 400. 
Tetrazzini, Madam Luisa, in New York, 155. 
Theater, People's, at St. Petersburg, 366. 
Tramps, how Poughkeepsie deals with, 211. 
Tridon, Andre. The European business man in 

retirement, 85. 
Tripoli, Wliat is to be the future of? 364. 
Tobacco war in Kentucky, 168. 
Tuberculosis, Recent progress in curing, 105. 
Tunnels in New York^ 140. 

United States, Germany, and China — Are they 

natural allies? 372. 
United States in Spanish Latin-America, 260-262. 

Vagrancy, Anti-, campaign. The new, 206. 

Vanderlip, Frank A., banker-journalist, 293. 

Van, Eeden, Frederic : author, mystic, socialist, 
615. 

Van Norman, Louis E. The achievement of the 
Hudson tunnels, 425 ; How science fights the 
insect enemies of our crops, 684. 

Venezuela, American claims against, and Presi- 
dent Castro's reply, 529-30. 

Wade, Herbert T. A Nobel prize for American 
science, 42 ; The magnetic work of the Car- 
negie Institution, 321. 

War, The hell of, 497. 

Water supply. Securing new, for an Australian 
capital, (598. 

Waters, navigable. Future of our, 9(J. 

Watson, II. C. Outlook for business, 299. 

Wellman, Walter. Taft, trained to be Presi- 
dent, (575. 

Wiley, Harvey W.. Government Chemist, 552. 

Wilfley, Judge Lebbeus R., Exoneration of, 409. 

Will, Thomas Elmer. National forests in the 
Appalachians, 450. 

Winder, .Tohn H., organizer of the coal industry 
in the South, 726. 

Windmiiller, Louis. Encyclopedias, past and 
I)resent, 311. 

Wolff, Henry Drummond, 637. 

Woodford, Walter R., of Pittsburg Coal Co., 720. 

Woi'ld — Is it to be dfvstroyed by com(>ts? 241. 

Zelaya, the menace of Central America, 496. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1908. 



The Commanders - in - Chief of the 

Navy and of the Fleet .Frontispiece 

The Progress of the World — 

The Third-Term Movement 3 

Mr. Roosevelt's Position 3 

The Latest Statement 4 

The Electoral Process 5 

Taft and Foraker 6 

The Emergence of Governor Hughes 8 

Mr. Cortelyou in the Limelight 8 

Denver for the Democrats - 9 

Johnson and Gray 10 

The President's Great Message 10 

On the Railroad Question 10 

The Question of Industrial Corporations 11 

The Money Question 12 

The "Strike" of the Banks 12 

Tariff and Revenue Matters 13 

Labor Questions in the Message 14 

The Public Domain and the People 14 

The Army and Navy 15 

A Million and a Quarter Immigrants 16 

The Central American Agreement 17 

Opening of the Canadian Parliament 18 

The Dictatorship in Portugal , . . 18 

Re-migration Troubling Italy 19 

The Hebrew Mayor of Rome 19 

Pressing German Problems 20 

An Exciting Session of the Reichstag 20 

Expropriation of Polish Lands 21 

A New^ King in Sweden 23 

The Duma Repudiates the Autocracy 24 

The Premier Affirms Autocracy 25 

A Struggle Over the Budget 25 

The Recall of Ambassador Aoki 25 

SettHng the Immigration Question 25 

Earthquakes in Persia 26 

With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 



Electricity's Latest Triumphs 49 



Record of Current Events 

With portraits and other illustrations. 



27 



Some of the Recent Cartoons 32 

Currency Reform : A Central Bank.. 35 

By Robert Emmett Ireton. 

Oscar II., A Democratic Monarch 38 

By A Swedish-American. 
With portrait. 

A Nobel Prize for American Science 42 

By Herbert T. Wade. 
With portrait of Albert A. Michelson. 

William James, Man and Thinker . . 45 

By Edwin Bjorkman. 
With portrait. 



By George lies. 

With illustrations. 



Lord Kelvin (portrait) 

The Coming Conquest of the Air. 

By Ernest La Rue Jones. 



57 
58 



With illustrations. 



How the Cuban Problem Might Be 
Solved 65 

By Captain John H. Parker, U. S. A. 

The Newspaper and the Forest 71 

By W. S. Rossiter. 



The Gold Flood and Its Problems. 

By J. Pease Norton. 

The Story of the Hoarders 



77 



82 



By William Justus Boies. 

The European Business Man in 

Retirement 85 

By Andre Tridon. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

The Fight for the Forests , 87 

The True Significance of the Pacific Cruise . 88 

The Political Crisis in Portugal 89 

The First Two Russian Dumas and the Pros- 
pects of the Third 91 

Two Centers of Real Municipalization 93 

The Question of Fuel Waste. 94 

Death Roll of Our Railway Employees 95 

When Missouri Owned the Railways 96 

The Future of Our Navigable Waters 96 

A German Economist on Our Financial Crisis.. 98 

Have We Been Unfair to German Commerce ? 99 

Industrial Peace Legislation in Canada 100 

Europe's Guarantee of Norway's Neutrality. . 101 

"Modernism" and the Church of Israel. . . » . . I03 

How Animals Act During Earthquakes 104 

Recent Progress in Curing Tuberculosis 105 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Leading Financial Articles — ■ 

Investment Securities 106 

If You Can Afford to Take a Chance 107 

Gilt-Edged Bonds Selling Cheap 108 

Holding on to Stock Bargains , 109 

The Line Between Speculation and Gambling. 109 

Watching Trade Barometers 1 10 

The New Books 112 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

The Novels of the Season 120 

With portraits and other illustrations. 



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From a .Slcrco).'r.ipli. Copyrii:lit V)07. by Underwood & Underwood. N. Y. 

THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE NAVY AND THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 

OF THE FLEET. 

V-* President Roosevelt and Rear-Admiral Evans, who commands the American fleet on its cruise 

to the Pacific. 
(rhotoKi-aplicd on tho Mayflower at ITampton Roads on tho nioniint; of the (l(M>:niui(% Dccombcr 10.) 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 



Vol. XXXYII. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1908. 



No. 1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



The 
Third-Term 
Movement. 



The movement to force a third 
term upon President Roosevelt 
had begun to assume not only a 
great and swelling volume, but also an or- 
ganized and definite character, when it was 
checked and probably thwarted by a formal 
announcement from the White House on 
December ii. In the vicinity of New York 
City, it is true, there were many who be- 
lieved that Mr. Roosevelt's popularity was 
fast waning, and that the third-term senti- 
ment could not have carried the national Re- 
publican convention even if the President had 
given it his tacit encouragement. But this 
Wall Street notion that the President's 
strength with the people was abating did 
not have much evidence to support it. Sev- 
eral of the States were preparing for very 
early Republican conventions, in which dele- 
gates pledged to President Roosevelt were to 
have been chosen by way of example to the 
rest of the country.- Attempts to fasten upon 
the President a culpable responsibility for the 
financial panic had only resulted in the clear 
bringing to light of a contrary opinion; for 
it became more and more evident that Re- 
publicans and Democrats alike throughout the 
length and breadth of the land were disposed 
to lay all the blame for the country's financial 
difficulties upon the managers of great cor- 
porate and financial interests. Undoubtedly 
public opinion went much too far in pro- 
nouncing its verdicts of guilt upon Wall 
Street and upon trusts and corporations in 
general. Everybody had helped to build up 
the great edifice of expanded credit, and the 
reaction in some form or other was bound to 
come. But here our question is. How was 
the reaction affecting the political strength 
of President Roosevelt? And the answer is, 
according to the best evidence we can gather, 
that the country was standing with the Presi- 
dent very solidly, and was overwhelmingly 
anxious to keep him in office. 



Mr. 



But Mr. Roosevelt all his life has 
Roosevelt's been a close student of American 

political history. And he has 
never for a moment wished or intended to 
go counter to the established tradition that 
forbids a third consecutive term. His dec- 
laration on election night in November, 1904, 
was a mature and convincing statement that 
the country fully accepted. Unquestionably, 
that statement has helped to give strength and 
weight to the President's policies ; for no one 
has been able to say that he was acting with 
reference to a control of the next convention 
in his own interest. But although the Presi- 
dent's own personal position has been clear 
and unambiguous, it is not strange that the 
third-term movement should have seemed for 
a time to have been beyond any possible check- 
ing or control. Hundreds and thousands of 
the most experienced political observers in the 
country were saying in private, if not in pub- 
lic, that the next national convention would 
beyond doubt be stampeded for the President ; 
that he w^ould be nominated and elected in 
spite of himself, and that he could not on any 
proper ground decline to take the oath of 
office and serve as President if the electoral 
college chose to continue him in the White 
House for four years more. 



His 
Unequaled 
Strength. 



This feeling was due to several 
causes. First of all yv^as the Presi- 
dent's marvelous popularity, re- 
gardless of party lines, and the eager convic- 
tion of the masses of plain people that Mr. 
Roosevelt is the real leader for our times, and 
that he is needed for the further development 
of his policies. Second, and closely akin, was 
the feeling on the part of State and local poli- 
ticians that with no other name at the head 
of the ticket could they so easily carry their 
States and secure Republican victories in al 
their local contests. Thus there was a belie 
even among Democratic politicians that, be 




THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



sides carrying the safely Republican States, 
Mr. Roosevelt could carry Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and IVIissourl (which he 
carried in 1904 by 30,000 majority) , and that 
he would have even a good chance in North 
Carolina. Distinguished Democrats in At- 
lanta have intimated that Mr. Roosevelt 
might also carry Georgia. It is easy to see 
then why local Republican politicians, wish- 
ing to elect State and county tickets, should 
have clung to the hope that Mr. Roosevelt 
could be induced to take the nomination. 
Further than that, there are many federal 
officeholders who have been appointed by the 
President, and who would on all grounds be 
glad to have their chief remain at the head 
of the Government. If some of these office- 
holders had not participated in the third-term 
talk, their reserve would have been without 
precedent in the history of politics. In an- 
swer to criticisms launched against the undue 
activlt}' of some of these officials, it is enough 
to say that the third-term movement, in so 
far as it had strength, was genuine and spon- 
taneous, and that it was neither helped nor 
hindered appreciably b}^ anybody's schemes or 
designs. Some weeks ago President Roose- 
velt had been informed that certain office- 
holders were openly advocating his renomi- 
nation, and he issued orders that Government 
employees must not enter district or State con- 
ventions with a vlew^ to forcing him into the 
position of a candidate. 

j^^ Still another reason for the great 
Latest strength and persistence of the 
a emen . xhir^-tcrvci movement was the 
lack of any other name to conjure with. 
Everybody was read}^ to admit that the Re- 
publican party possessed a number of men 
who would make good Presidents, but there 
seemed to be no one as yet who had appealed 
to the popular mind and heart, and there- 
fore It was a serious question whether any- 
body but Roosevelt could beat Bryan. When 
the Republican National Committee met at 
Washington in the first week of December to 
choose a place for the holding of the con- 
vention and to do other work of a prelim- 
inary sort, the political atmosphere was over- 
charged with rumors. When the committee 
visited the White House to pay its respects 
to the President, it was believed that Mr. 
Roosevelt would remove the perplexities that 
weighted the minds of the political managers 
by making a final declaration. He put It off, 
however, for a few days, imtll the committee 
had (ibpersed and the convention call had 



been issued. At this point it may well be 
recorded that the nominating convention will 
be held in Chicago on June 16. Mr. Harry 
S. New, of Indiana, succeeds Mr. Cortelyou 
as chairman of the National Republican 
Committee for the period in which conven- 




Photcgraph by Pach Bros.. N. Y. 

HON. HARRY S. NEW. 

(Chairman of the Republican National Committee.) 

tion arrangements are t6 be made. It is 
customary for purposes of the campaign itself 
that the Presidential candidate should name 
the chairman of the committee. On the nth 
cf December there was issued from the 
White House a statement as follows: 

In view of the issuance of the call of the 
Republican National Committee for the con- 
vention, the President makes the following 
statement : 

On the night after election I made the fol- 
lowing announcement : 

" I am deeply sensible of the honor done me 
by the American people in thus expressing their 
confidence in what I have done and have tried 
to do. I appreciate to the full the solemn re- 
sponsibility this confidence imposes upon me, and 
I shall do all that in my power lies not to for- 
feit it. On the fourth of March next I shall 
have served three and a half years, and this 
three and a half years constitute my first term. 
The wise custom which limits the President to 
two terms regards the substance and not the 
form, and under no circumstances will I be a 
candidate for or accept another nomination." 

I have not changed and shall not change the 
decision thus announced. 



\ 



1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



5 



How 

It Was 

Accepted. 



The President has in public as 
well as in private reiterated this 
declaration many times since it 
was first made, in 1904. It was not neces- 
sary for him to speak again, yet the somewhat 
perplexed and discouraged friends of various 
candidates desired a renewed announcement, 
and the President of course had no objection 
to gratifying them. The psychology of 
masses of men is hard to understand. Just 
why this last statement should be received 
as conclusive, while doubt should have been 
cast upon identical statements made a little 
earlier, is not for us to discuss. It is enough 
to say that the politicians who were propos- 
ing to hold early conventions in several 
States and pledge their delegates to Mr. 
Roosevelt will probably refrain from such a 
course. Other candidates will now be per- 
mitted to test the sentiment of the people, 
and from this time forth the game w^ill be 
played with much activity and zest. 



The 



Meanwhile it is well to call at- 
Eieciorai tention to the peculiarities of our 
ro ess. sys|-eni of electing a President. In 
the strict and official sense it is not a candi- 
date for the Presidency who is presented for 
the sufiErages of the voters, but rather a 
group of Presidential electors in each State. 
The people choose the electors and the elec- 
tors choose a President. If the Chicago con- 
vention should declare that in its judgment 
the Presidential electors in the several States 
ought to cast their ballots for Mr. Roosevelt 
for the Presidency, and should decline to 
nominate anybody else, the men nominated 
as Republican electors in their several States 
would if elected doubtless cast their votes for 
Mr. Roosevelt. And if the Republicans 





Bkyan : " I have no such scruples." 
From the Evening Journal (Jersey City). 



Copyright, 1907. by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 

THE PRESIDENT GIVING HIS FINAL INSTRUCTIONS 

TO REAR-ADMIRAL EVANS, BEFORE THE START 

OF FLEET ON THE PACIFIC CRUISE, 

DECEMBER l6. 

should have a majority in the electoral col- 
lege, Mr. Roosevelt would be declared elected 
when the votes were counted in due form. 
Under those circumstances, it is not to be 
supposed that any man could decline to take 
the oath of office if in possession of his physi- 
cal and mental powers. Mr. Roosevelt has 
not said that he would refuse to serve as 
President if elected. He has merely said that 
he would not accept a nomination. His 
platform is contained in his last message to 
Congress. If the American people chose to 
make him President, no acceptance of a nom- 
ination would be absolutely necessary. Yet 
while all this is theoretically true, and ought 
not to be forgotten, it is not to be supposed 
that anything of the sort is at all likely to 
happen. Nor has any one thought of sug- 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OE RE^fElVS. 




Photograph by Charles M. Clark, Philadelphia. 

THE ARRIVAL OF SECRETARY WILLIAM H. TAFT AT NEW YORK, ON DECEMBER 20. 
(From left to right: Secretary Taft, his son Charles, General Frederick D. Grant, and the Secretary's 

brother, Mr. Henry W. Taft, of New York.) 



gesting that Mr. Roosevelt's statement lacked 
anything of sincerity or completeness. There 
is no possible reason why he should say that 
if the American people elected him President 
he would refuse to take the oath of office. 
Our party forms have become so well estab- 
lished that they are like unwritten clauses of 
the organic law. 

Taft ^^ ^^ probable that when the con- 
and vention assembles at Chicago, no 
candidate will have the support of 
anything like a majority of the delegates. 
The most prominent candidate is Mr. Taft, 
Secretary of War, who arrived in this coun- 
try on December 20, having sailed from a 
German port December 7. Mr. Taft found 
that the support of his own State was disputed 
by Senator Joseph B. Foraker, who had de- 
clared himself a Presidential candidate In re- 
sponse to an Invitation from the Republican 
clubs of Ohio. To state the matter precisely, 
Mr. Foraker was Indorsed for re-election to 
the Senate and also for the Republican nomi- 
nation for the Presidency at a joint meeting 
of the executive and advisory committees of 
the Ohio League of Republican Clubs, on 



November 20. The resolutions adopted by 
this League repudiated the idea that Mr. 
Foraker should be retired to private life " be- 
cause he was not able to agree with President 
Roosevelt as to the rate bill, or joint state- 
hood for New Mexico and Arizona, or about 
the Brownsville matter." Mr. Foraker's let- 
ter in reply was made public November 29. 
He declared that he did not wish to appear 
as a candidate for two offices at the same time, 
and he accepted '' with heartfelt appreciation 
the support for the Presidential candidacy 
M'hich the committees have so generously ten- 
dered." His letter In a somewhat extended 
manner expressed resentment against the 
'* suggestion that the office of United States 
Senator is to be stripped of all the real honor 
attached to It by making Its Incumbent a mere 
agent to register the decrees of somebody else 
instead of the representative of a State 
charged with the constitutional duty of leg- 
islating according to his best judgment for 
the welfare of a great nation, accountable to 
his constituency for his acts and votes, but to 
nobody else." He proceeds to explain and 
defend his course In the Senate, as If his 
right to act freely had been denied. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD, 



Mr. 



It does not seem to us that Mr. 
Foraker's Foralcer is justified in attempting 

to make a public issue out of such 
a question, inasmuch as nobody could prop- 
erly dispute his thesis. The Senate has its 
constitutional powers and prerogatives and 
its place of dignity. For a good many years 
past, instead of its being subordinated to other 
departments of the Government, the common 
criticism has been that the Senate had become 
too dominant. Speaker Cannon and the 
House of Representatives have been deeply 
indignant at the undue pretensions of the 
Senate ; and the Executive for many years pa^t 
has found the Senate anything but readily 
acquiescent. Mr. Foraker will not succeed 
in convincing the country that President 
Roosevelt or any other President in lecent 
times has been able to dictate to the Senate. 
That body has shown itself more than able 
to take care of itself. A real difficulty about 
the Senate is its failure to represent the peo- 
ple in a duly proportionate manner. And this 
is one of the reasons why Senator Foraker's 
course with regard to joint statehood seemed 
open to criticism. It is altogether wrong that 
Arizona and New Mexico should come into 
the Union as States with four Senators. They 
have not a sufficient development of trained 
population or of established institutions to 
justify their balancing in the Senate great 
States like Ohio, Pennsylvania, or New York. 
Mr. Foraker is a very brilliant member of 
the Senate, a public speaker of great power, 
and a man who has a strong hold upon his 
fellow citizens of the Buckeye State. He had 
a perfect right to his own views upon ques- 




tions that came before the Senate, and «!urely 
nobody interfered with his expression of those 
views, inasmuch as he was able by his opposi- 
tion to certain measures to shape the delibera- 




HON. JOSEPH B. FORAKER, OF OHIO. 

tions of the Senatorial body during most of 
the session. He was in a very small minority 
on several of these questions among his Re- 
publican brethren of the Senate ; yet he had 
his own way for more days in that distin- 
guished body than any other man has had for 
a long period of years. Surely then he will 
not be able to convince the public that any- 
body has been able to interfere with the free 
exercise of all his prerogatives as a Senator. 
His debating of the rate bill was brilliant and 
cogent and well worth while. His persistent 
forcing of the Brownsville issue was a mas- 
terful piece of work. His attitude against 
joint statehood defeated the pending bill. 
Since he was so successful, therefore, he has 
no ground of complaint. 



The 

Taft 

Candidacy. 



THE RIVALS. 

Foraker : " Just wait till she sees me in this coat 
and hat." — Prom the Tribune (Minneapolis). 



It would now seem more than 
likely that the Ohio contest will 
end with Mr. Taft's strong In- 
dorsement for the Presidency and Mr. For- 
aker's equally strong Indorsement for re-elec- 
tion to the Senate. The managers In Ohio 
of Mr. Taft's campaign deny that the com- 
mittees endorsing Mr. Foraker were repre- 



8 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



sentatlve. But this criticism is not important. 
The thing that signifies is Mr. Foraker's 
acceptance of the indorsement. It is the 
opinion of the country that Mr. Taft's man- 
agers in Ohio have not been very wise or 
dignified in their methods. Mr. Taft occu- 
pies a great public office and has served the 
country for a good many j^ars w^ith prestige 
and distinction. He is well-know^n from one 
end of the land to another, and the fact of 
his candidacy has nowhere escaped observa- 
tion. It would seem quite sufficient to let 
public opinion and the Republican party do 
the rest. Any semblance of a scrambling for 
delegates on the part of those regarded as 
authorized to act for Mr. Taft will do him 
more harm than good. President Roosevelt 
has not the slightest desire to dictate to the 
party or to the country. Undoubtedly for a 
good while it has been his opinion that Mr. 
Taft would make an admirable President, 
and that he would very probably prove the 
most available candidate. Mr. Roosevelt, be- 
ing a frank man, could not well hold such a 
view without having it become known. And 
there is no reason why he should have kept 
that opinion as a secret. But the Adminis- 
tration is engaged in carrying- on the work of 
the Government, and it is not using its influ- 
ence or power to promote the selection of 
Mr. Roosevelt's successor. Mr. Taft has 
dignity as well as knowledge and experience, 
and he knows that the Presidency is not a 
thing to be sought with any eagerness of 
striving. Those who favor him have a right 
to work hard to secure delegates, but they 
must be careful not to put Mr. Taft in a 
wrong light before the public. 

neEn,ergence There seems no longer any doubt 
of Governor as to the emergence of Governor 
ug es. Hughes of New York as a Presi- 
dential candidate. If he has desired to be 
brought forward, he has not made such a 
desire apparent in any way. He has been 
Governor of New York for one year only, 
and has never before held office, nor had he 
been known to the public except In connec- 
tion with some important investigations, such 
as that of the insurance companies. Yet he 
has made a great impression upon the people 
of the State of New York, and it was gen- 
erally admitted last month that he would 
command the support of the New York dele- 
gates in the national convention. It must 
always be remembered that politicians do not 
support a man for high office because they 
admire his character and talents (although 








GOVERNOE HUGHES COMING OUT OF ECLIPSE. 

From tlie Times-Union (Albany). 

they do not undervalue those things), but 
because they believe he can lead them to vic- 
tory. Governor Hughes made an amazing 
canvass against Mr. Hearst In the autumn of 
1906, and demonstrated his ability to carry 
the State, where the odds seemed against him. 
The Republicans of the country at large do 
not know very much about Mr. Hughes, but 
all that they have heard is in his favor as a 
man of high personal and public qualifica- 
tions. Beyond this, what they know Is that 
he carried the State of New York In a hard 
fight. It seems wholly likely, therefore, that 
New York, and perhaps New England, may 
support Governor Hughes In the Chicago 
convention. 

Mr. corteiyou ^^ '^ ""^ ^^^^} ^hrec months too 

in the soon to predict what growth the 

ime ig . ^^j^ ^^^^ Hughes movements 

may have before them. There Is no possible 
reason for other than generous and apprecia- 
tive competition. Following his. commenda- 
ble activities as Secretary of the Treasury at 
the time of the panic, there arose a wide- 
spread discussion In political circles of the 
possbility of making Mr. Corteiyou the Re- 
publican nominee. That a great deal of ac- 
tive work was being done In the promotion 
of the so-called " Corteiyou movement " was 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



asserted with some apparent grounds of 
truth. It was also said that in certain States 
the third-term movement was being pushed 
by officeholders as a mask for the Cortelyou 
boom. On December 17 JVIr. Cortelyou 
came out in a dignified statement of general 
denial. Mr. Cortelyou has met the test of 
some great responsibilities. He seems never 
to have disappointed the expectations of those 
who gave him work to do, whether private or 
public. The positions he has filled, including 
that of chairman of the Republican National 
Committee, have given him an extensive ac- 
quaintance among public men. Those who 
have been most closely associated with him 
seem always to be the ones who admire him 
most and trust him most completely. Mr. 
Roosevelt had reason to know him well be- 
fore he put him in the cabinet and before he 
made him his campaign manager. More 
than almost any other man in public life, 
Mr. Cortelyou has learned the lesson of self- 
control. He will not, therefore, allow the 
buzzing of the Presidential bee to distract 
his attention from his duties as Secretary of 
the Treasury, nor to weaken his usefulness as 
a member of Mr. Roosevelt's cabinet. His 
friends have a right to mention him for the 
Presidency, and if the Republican party 
wants him it will know where to find him. 
It is not at present likely that there will be 
any strong attempt made by the Cortelyou 
men to take the New York delegates away 
from Governor Hughes. 

^^^^ Meanwhile Senator Knox, who 
other will be presented by the Pennsyl- 
vania delegation, has many good 
words said about him throughout the coun- 
try; and Speaker Cannon, who will be pre- 
sented by the Illinois delegation, seems likely 
to prove a more active candidate than was at 
first expected. The candidacy of Vice-Presi- 
dent Fairbanks has not of late been so much 
noticed in the press as that of several other 
men. But it will doubtless be brought into 
prominence again by reason of the decision of 
the Republican managers in Indiana to hold 
their conventions early next month, and to 
select their delegates at once with instruc- 
tions to support Mr. Fairbanks. He will thus 
be the first of the so-called '' favorite sons " to 
be officially launched by the party authorities 
of his State. The friends of Senator La 
Follette of Wisconsin take his candidacy with 
entire seriousness, and believe that the only 
chance for Republican victory this year is 
with an aggressive Western candidate of rad- 




GOVERNOR ALBERT B. CUMMINS^ OF IOWA. 

ical view^s and a record of achievement. Fi- 
nally there is Governor Cummins of low^a, 
whose friends have not been insistent in 
their mention of him_, but who has elements 
of strength that may shine out boldly 
when the convention is trying. to reach final 
conclusions. Governor Cummins has a strong 
personality, is well known to represent the 
Rooseveltian policies in the broad sense, is a 
strong but not fanatical advocate of tariff re- 
form, has been a successful Governor for 
three terms, is a lawyer of high professional 
standing, and is free from any disqualifying 
circumstance of public record or private life. 
His availability is positive as well as negative. 



Denver 



The Democratic National Com- 
forTfie mittee met at Washington in De- 
Democrats. ^^^^^^ ^^^ selected Denver as 

the place for holding the party's convention, 
the date being July 7, which is just three 
weeks later than the Republican convention 
at Chicago. Denver is building a splendid 
new auditorium ; and in addition to other in- 
ducements it offered to contribute $100,000 
to the Democratic campaign fund. Mr. 
Bryan is strong in that part of the world, 
and the selection seems to foreshadow his 
triumphant indorsement as the Democratic 



10 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEWS. 



noimnee. But the Democrats were judicious 
in providing an interval of several weeks be- 
tween the two great conventions. An oppo- 
sition party, in its choice of leaders and in 
its statement of issues, must be much influ- 
enced by the selections and attitudes of the 
party in power. 




GOVERNOR JOHN A. JOHNSON^ OF MINNESOTA. 



Johnson 

and 

Gray. 

receptive 



It is now quite distinctly un- 
derstood that Governor Johnson 
of Minnesota will be at least a 
Democratic candidate. This re- 
vival of the Johnson boom seems to have fol- 
lowed the Governor's visit to Washington 
early in December, where his reception was 
exceedingly cordial, and where he made a 
brilliant success in the always difficult role of 
a Gridiron Club speaker. Meantime, the 
Democrats of Delaware, on December lo, 
through their State committee, unanimously 
adopted resolutions endorsing Judge Gray 
for the Presidency. No one can deny that the 
Hon. George Gray would make a Demo- 
cratic standard-bearer of great distinction and 
strength. Much, however, must depend upon 
the Republican choice. Shrewd Democratic 
politicians fear that with so conservative a 
canch'date as Judge Gray the party might be 
split, half of it supporting Mr. William R. 



Hearst as an independent candidate. The 
strength of Mr. Bryan lies in the fact that 
he would be able to hold the party together. 
Thus the chief elements of opposition to Mr. 
Bryan in the State of New York have al- 
ready been completely won over through the 
formal acceptance of the Nebraska man by 
Mr. William J. Connors, of Buffalo, who 
is chairman of the State Committee, and by 
Mr. Charles F. Murphy, who is leader of 
Tammany Hall. 

The-presi- ^^ ^^^ Opening of the first session 
dent's Great of the Sixtieth Congress, early in 
essage. X)ecember, Mr. Cannon, of Illi- 
nois, was again chosen as Speaker of the 
House, while Vice-President Fairbanks was 
in his place as presiding officer of the Senate. 
The message of the President was of too great 
length to be instantly read*and comprehended 
by the country. Many newspapers which had 
never before failed to print the annual mes- 
sage In full, found it necessary to epitomize 
portions of It. It would perhaps be a good 
idea if a brief and terse summary of such a 
document could go out officially, along with 
the unabridged state paper. The first and 
most Important part of the message deals ex- 
tensively with the subject of Interstate com- 
merce. Apart from the President's lucid 
method of presenting his views and giving the 
reasons for them, he makes definite recom- 
mendations which ought to be culled out, re- 
phrased, and set before the country afresh 
when Congress returns to its work from the 
holiday vacation. 

On the ^^ respects railroads, the Presi- 
Raiiroad dent says : " There should now be 
either a national incorporation act 
or law licensing railway companies to engage 
in interstate commerce upon certain condi- 
tions." Again he says: " The law should be 
so framed as to give to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission power to pass upon the 
future issue of securities, while ample means 
should be provided to enable the commission, 
whenever \n its judgment It Is necessary, to 
make a physical valuation of any railroad." 
Third, the President repeats his advice of a 
year ago regarding railroad agreements, and 
says: "Railroads should be given power to 
enter Into agreements, subject to these agree- 
ments being made public In minute detail and 
to the consent of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission being first obtained." What the 
country now wants is action on these specific 
recommendations rather than general discus- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE JVORLD. 



11 



sion. We have had a good deal of legislation 
at Washington, and a vast deal in the States, 
on the railroad question. The three recom- 
mendations now made by the President are 
of great importance. They will have to be 
faced by Congress in the present session. The 
last one certainly ought to be enacted ; that is 
to say, railroads ought to be permitted to 
make agreements with one another, particu- 
larly as regards rates. Most people w^ill be- 
lieve that the further issue of stocks and 
bonds might properly be subjected to the ap- 
proval of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. The question of federal license or in- 
corporation is involved in much practical 
difficulty. It has seemed to us an advisable 
thing. The great conference recently held in 
Chicago, made up of representatives of all in- 
terests, unanimously favored the earnest con- 
sideration of these changes in the law. The 
people throughout the country should ask 
their Representatives and Senators to face 
these questions in the present session. 

The Question '^^^ "^^^ subject that the Presi- 
of industrial dent deals with is the Sherman 
orporations. jj^i^i.^-j-ugt law as it relates, not to 
railroads but to industrial corporations and 
combinations. It is advised that Congress 
should specifically extend the regulation and 
control of the federal Government to great 
industrial corporations. It is advised that 
Congress should provide for the granting of 
national charters of incorporation to large 
business concerns. It is advised that an in- 
terstate commerce corporation thus brought 
under federal supervision should not be al- 
lowed to hold the stock of any other company 
except as it is authorized to do so by a proper 
public»body. It is advised that the enforcing 
of the interstate commerce laws relating to 
business corporations should not be left to the 
slow process of actions brought in the courts, 
but should be in the hands of an executive 
body like the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. It is advised that the Sherman anti- 
trust law " should be so amended as to for- 
bid only the kind of combination which does 
harm to the general public, such amendment 
to be accompanied by, or to be an incident of, 
a grant of supervisory power to the Govern- 
ment over these big concerns engaged in in- 
terstate commerce." 

Define and ^^^^^' ^^^"' .^^^ Certain definite 
Meettiie recommendations. The Presi- 
dent's discussion of them is clear 
and strong. The issues should be clearly 



joined in the present session of Congress upon 
these specific points. The Sherman anti-trust 
law as it stands does not meet existing busi- 
ness conditions. The business combinations 
of the country ought to be under federal 
supervision, with a reasonable amount of 
publicity as to their finances and methods, 
and with a corresponding protection against 
capricious local attacks. These are momen- 
tous recommendations that the President 
makes, and have to do with matters that have 
been under general discussion now for a num- 
ber of years. It is time to crystalh'ze the 
issues and to fight them out squarely in Con- 
gress. President Roosevelt has had to deal 
with four Congresses, namely, the Fifty- 
seventh, the Fifty-eighth, the Fifty-ninth, 
and the present one, the Sixtieth. His poli- 
cies about railroads and corporations have 
been developed through this period. He has 
witnessed under his leadership the breaking 
up of the universal practice of railroad rebat- 
ing, and this has amounted to a practical 
revolution in business. He has seen the 
checking of certain methods which were too 
rapidly bringing the railroad systems of the 
country into unified control through so-called 
" holding corporations." He now advises 
certain further steps in the development of 
the policy of national regulation of railroads, 
and he lays these matters before a new Con- 
gress which has its full two-years' period be- 
fore it, and which will expire by limitation of 
term on the day when President Roosevelt 
goes out of office, namely, the fourth of 
March, 1909. 

Complete ti,e The intervening of a Presidential 
Work election, with its diverting inci- 
dents, ought not to obscure the 
country's perception of the main points of 
policy that it is the business of the present 
Congress to deal with. The railroads should 
have protection as well as regulation ; they 
should know their rights as well as their 
duties ; they should be made to serve the pub- 
lic faithfully and efficiently, and they should 
be allowed to earn good feturns upon their 
investments and their efforts as business or- 
ganizations. The completion of Mr. Roose- 
velt's railroad policy at the present time 
ought to give stable equilibrium to the rail- 
road situation for a generation to come. 
Again, as respects the big industrial corpora- 
tions, Mr. Roosevelt has shown that the law 
is supreme, and everybody is now ready to 
admit it. But although the authority of law 
is vindicated, the statute provisions of law 



12 



THE AMERICAN kEFIElV OF REVIEWS. 



have been shown to be very inadequate, and 
to some extent absurd and unjust. Mr. 
Roosevelt lays down a policy for the chang- 
ing of the statutes and for the better admin- 
istration of the law. In its main outline this 
policy is right and wise. The great busi- 
nesses of this country are legitimate in their 
commercial motives and in their general lines 
of conduct. The large way of doing busi- 
ness has come to stay. But these enterprises 
have to be subject to legal regulation, and 
they cannot be properly supervised by the in- 
dividual States. The working out of actual 
legislation may prove difficult, but it is not 
impossible, and the Sixtieth Congress ought 
to undertake it and see it through. 

_^^ The third great task that should 
Money be recognized by the Sixtieth Con- 
Ques ion. gj-ggg ^5 especially devolving upon 
it has been given urgency by the recent bank- 
ing panic and the continuing money strin- 
gency. There is no legal remedy for the 
business optimism that leads men in flush 
times to extend their credit, and to put too 
much capital into fixed investments. Peri- 
odic reactions, therefore, iix business are 
bound to come. But the people regard the 
money function as essentially governmental, 
and look upon the banks as the creatures of 
law and public administration. When the 
banks, instead of facilitating the circulation 
of money, proceed with one accord, from one 
ocean to the other, to prevent its circulation, 
there ensues a business condition that entails 
terrible suffering upon millions of innocent 
people and that drives thousands of honest 
and solvent businesses to ruin. We have 
been witnessing a most amazing spectacle. 
The people are in the habit of taking the sur- 
plus money which they do not need for the 
transactions of the day and depositing it in 
banks, subject to their withdrawal at any 
moment. But the banks of this country sud- 
denly and without notice some weeks ago 
seized the money thus placed in their cus- 
tody, refused to let the owners have it, and 
at the same time refused to lend it on ap- 
proved securities to borrowers. By every de- 
vice in their power the banks gathered in 
money and held it in their vaults. They 
were ready to take a depositor's money at 
the receiving teller's window, while within 
five minutes they were firmly refusing to let 
him have any of it at the window of the pay- 
ing teller. Our article on page 82 understates, 
in our opinion, the amount of bank hoarding 
in the smaller towns and cities. 



The "Strike" ^^^ result was the sharpest pa- 
0/ the ralysis of current business that 
the country has ever known. The 
crops could not be moved because the banks 
had possession of the people's money and 
would not give it up. If this had not been a 
country of law- and order, and if every bank 
had been mobbed by indignant depositors and 
compelled to do business in its usual and 
proper way, the panic would have ended in 
twenty-four hours, inasmuch as the money 
thus brought into circulation would have 
passed as freely again into the window 
of the receiving teller as it passed out 
of the window of the paying teller. Ob- 
viously, the real trouble was not with the 
people who controlled the banks, since they 
are exactly the same class of people as the 
rest of the reputable business community. 
The whole fault lay with our banking sys- 
tem. We have a system that works ad- 
mirably at all times except when it is sub- 
jected to a test. All sorts of efforts were 
made to bring gold from Europe, with the re- 
sult of vast importations. Clearing-house 
certificates were issued in lieu of money by 
the banks of a hundred different cities. All 
sorts of pay-roll checks and extra-legal forms 
of paper promises and emergency currency 
were put into local circulation in place of 
proper money. The United States Treasury 
poured its surplus into various banks of de- 
posit throughout the country ; it sold Panama 
Canal bonds in order to get more money to 
lend to the banks ; and it sold emergency 
notes, as if the Government itself were in 
need of money, for the sake of getting still 
more money to lend to the banks. And yet 
there was a great abundance of money all the 
time, only the banks were keeping it locked 
up in their vaults. 

., . The simple trouble is that no 

Need ^ 

of one bank: can stand alone m a 

o-opera ion. ^j^^ ^^ fright when its depositors 

have precipitated a run upon it ; and our sys- 
tem provides no way by which the strength 
of the banking system at large can adequately 
support the isolated bank in its moment of 
need. In times of financial stress and strin- 
gency in other countries, relief is afforded by 
a banking system whose motto is: Always 
pay out money just as fast as possible, taking 
good security for it, and if necessary raising 
the interest rate. But in these other coun- 
tries the banking system has some form of 
central support to rely upon. Many experi- 
enced people in this country are now advo- 



THE PROGRESS Of THE WORLD. 



13 



eating the establish- 
ment of one or more 
great central banks of 
issue, which shall rep- 
resent in principle, 
whatever be the legal 
relationship, the power 
and strength of bank- 
ing co-operation. If we 
had any perfect remedy 
to offer to Congress or 
to the banking com- 
munity, it would not 
be withheld. All that 
we can say is that our 
present system, which 
is in many respects ad- 
mirable, needs some 
further development in 
order to give it greater 
strength in times of 
sudden and severe 
storm. So far as the 
safety of our currency 
goes, nobody could 
wish anything better. 
The proposals for giv- 
ing greater elasticity 

to the outstanding volume of currency are Hughes, and will bring about a more perfect 
w^ell enough in their way. But they do not regulation of trust companies, with other im- 
quite reach the real difficulty. It is not so provements in the banking laws of the State. 
much that we need more currency when the The Secretary of the Treasury, in his report 
crops are moving and business makes an to Congress, strongly urges the adoption of 
unusual demand, as that we need a better some plan to remedy the difficulties that w^e 
protection for the banks, so that they may have lately experienced, but makes no definite 
not feel that they must sacrifice both their suggestions. The Controller of the Currency, 
depositors and their approved borrowers for Mr. Ridgely, does not hesitate to criticise 
the sake of maintaining their own solvency, the neglect of currency reform ty Congress, 

and he is in favor of a central bank of issue. 

^^^^ The present stringency will grad- Mr. Fowler, chairman of the House Com- 

Wiii Be ually be relieved, and no legisla- mittee that deals with questions of currency 

tion of a hasty kind is needed to and banking, has for some years had his own 

help an immediate situation that is slowly plans and views ; but from this time forth he 

working itself out. But the present Con- ought to insist less rigidly on his own ideas 

gress cannot properly avoid a careful and and bend all his energies toward securing an 

deliberate treatment of the whole subject, agreement upon some workable plan. 

and the country expects it to reach some large 




Photograph by Lazarnick, N. Y. 

HON. CHARLES N. FOWLER. 
(Chairman of the House Committee on Banking and Currency.) 



Tariff and '^^^ President's message deals 

Revenue with a great number of topics 

that cannot be acted upon by the 

present Congress. These parts of the mes- 



and valuable conclusions. The President 
does not make specific recommendations, but 
asks Congress to deal with the subject. For 
the District of Columbia and for the Terri- 
tories he advises that trust companies be put sage are, in fact, addressed to the country, al- 
under the same regulation as national banks, though in form they are laid before the legis- 
Governor Hughes, by the way, has consti- lative bodies. For example, the President 
tuted a very able commission to recommend declares that " there is an evident and con- 
changes in the banking laws of the State of stantly growing feeling among our people 
New York. The results will doubtless be that the time is rapidly approaching when 
laid before the State Legislature by Governor our system of revenue legislation must be re- 



14 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




HON, JOS. E. RANSDELL, OF LOUISIANA. 

(Chairman of the National River and Harbors 
Congress which met at Washington early in Decem- 
ber. He was re-elected.) 

vised." Yet he makes It clear In what fol- 
lows that It win not be revised under his 
presidency. He takes up the tariff question, 
for Instance, and says that tariff revision can- 
not be accomplished until after the Presi- 
dential election. He advocates an Income 
tax and an Inheritance tax as a part of the 
revision of our revenue system, and thus lays 
down a programme of cardinal importance 
that must certainly be deferred for action un- 
til the Sixty-first Congress assembles two 
years hence. He places particular stress upon 
the advantages of a graduated Inheritance 
tax. His object evidently Is to get the sub- 
ject under thoughtful discussion In the coun- 
try, as preliminary to Its consideration by 
Congress at some future time. 



Labor 



The matters for which the 
Questions In frIends of Organized labor have 
essage. ^^^^^ contending at Washington 
are set forth In a friendly spirit by the Presi- 
dent. Thus he asks Congress to find some 
way to limit the abuse of injunctions and pro- 
tect those rights which from time to time the 
granting of Injimctlons Is thought to Invade. 
He advocates an Inspection of railroad opera- 
tion for the sake of a more perfect knowledge 
of the facts regarding accidents, and he ad- 
vocates further legislation extending the prin- 



ciple of the liability of employers for all In- 
juries sustained by their workmen. He asks 
t-hat the principle of the eight-hour day 
should be extended to the entire work of the 
Government, Including that of public con- 
tractors. In addition to existing laws regard- 
ing the investigation of Industrial disputes. 
Congress Is asked to create a board for com- 
pulsory Investigation of facts, with a view to 
limiting the evils of strikes and lockouts. 
Under a general discussion of the relations 
of capital and labor, Congress is asked at this 
session to pass a thorough and comprehensive 
act regulating the employment of w^omen and 
children In the District of Columbia and the 
Territories. He does not withdraw his former 
recommendation of the use of the Interstate 
commerce power to prevent the employment 
of -children under fourteen In factories and 
mines, as proposed In the Beverldge bill. 
But first of all the President thinks Congress 
should deal directly with the subject in the 
District of Columbia and the Territories. 



The Public '^^^ President deals at length 
Domain and with Certain sublccts whIch have 

the People. i j r 1 i • u' 

had a loremost place in his 
thoughts and efforts during his entire period 
in office. Thus he writes of the forestry 
question with convincing weight, and advo- 
cates the establishment of the proposed Ap- 
palachian and White Mountain reserves. 
The various phases of the public land ques- 
tion In the West are presented with great 
knowledge and force. The progress of the 
Irrigation policy is explained, the large pro- 
posals for inland w^aterway development are 
set forth, and the value of the work of the 
agricultural department for the further train- 
ing of the nation in scientific farming is 
made the subject of what is virtually a com- 
pact little essay. In connection with the dis- 
cussion of the forests, the President advocates 
the repeal of the duty on wood pulp. The 
most fascinating section of the message de- 
scribes the work of the biological survey and 
shows how important to the country has been 
the Government's study of Insects, birds, and 
animal life of all sorts. There Is a section on 
the relation of the Government to public 
health. The recommendation of Mr. Mey- 
ers' plan for postal savings banks will have 
peculiar timeliness, and the proposal to ex- 
tend parcels post system on rural routes will 
prove popular. From the standpoint of the 
people's welfare as promoted by Government 
activity, this message is undoubtedly the most 
comprehensive ever written by any President. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



-1'5 




Copyright, 1907. by Underwood & Underwood, N, Y, 

THE RECEDING FLEET OF AMERICAN BATTLESHIPS LEAVING HAMPTON ROADS DECEMBER l6, FOR THE 

PACIFIC COAST. 



T, T here are elaborate discussions 

The 

Army and of matters relating to the army 
'^"^' and the navy. The necessity of 
keeping the army organization efficient in 
time of peace and giving the officers and en- 
listed men a better compensation for their 
services, are points convincingly set forth. 
The presentation of navy questions has espe- 
cial interest in view^ of the impressive de- 
parture of our great fleet of sixteen battle- 
ships on December i6 for the long voyage to 
the Pacific Coast. The President went to 
the rendezvous at Hampton Roads to bid 
farewell to the fleet ; and the sailing was an 
imposing affair. The expedition is under- 
taken with the perfect good-will of all na- 
tions, including Japan, and with the ill-will 
>of nobody excepting a few carping critics in 
this country. The President advocates a pro- 
vision this year for four large battleships, and 
afterward for one battleship a year. He asks 
for the completion of our scheme of coast 
fortifications, and apropos of the sailing of 
the fleet he shows how useful the expedition 
will be as a training for the navy and an 
object-lesson in all that relates to sea power. 



Some 

Foreign 

Relations. 

conference 



In paragraphs relating to foreign 
affairs, an excellent summary is 
given of the work of the peace 
at The Hague. Congress is in- 
formed that peace and prosperity now reign 
in Cuba. Apropos of the exposition to be 
held at Tokio, the President finds opportunity 
to refer to the cordial relations between this 
country and Japan. The tariff relations be- 
tween this country and Germany are fully 
explained. The President asks for authority 
to revise the existing arrangement with China 
in such a way that we may show our friend- 
ship by remitting further payment of in- 
demnity. Relations with Mexico and Cen- 
tral America are set forth ; Secretary Root's 
visit to the neighboring Republic and the 
conference of the Central-American republics 
at Washington being especially noted. The 
message ends with glowing praise of the work 
of the Bureau of American Republics. It 
is a document of immense value and import- 
ance, and can only be appreciated as it is re- 
read from time to time for reference to its 
treatment of particular questions. It re- 
flects the great range of our Government's 



16 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF RhFIEWS. 




i'aoioijrapu by Harris & Ewinp^. 

Hon. Herbert Knox Smith 



Copyright, 1907. by Waldon Fawcett, 
Hon. Lawrence O. Murray. 



Hon. Charles P. Neill. 
THE COMMISSIONERS SENT BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO INVESTIGATE THE GOLDFIELD MINERS* STRIKE. 



activities, while It also Illustrates the Intimate 
knowledge and the strong convictions of the 
President In the various fields of public work. 

j^^ Early In December I0,000 ml- 

Goid field ners at Goldfield, Nev., went on 

Disturbances, , m i ^u • 

Strike because their wages were 
paid In cashiers' checks, Instead of currency. 
Most of the Goldfield miners had been 
members of the Western Federation of 
Miners or of affiliated organizations. After 
the strike some of the mines attempted to 
open with non-union miners. Various deeds 
of violence were charged against the strikers, 
and It was probably a knowledge of the 
methods that the Western Federation had 
employed In Colorado and elsewhere, In 
years past, as much as any real or threat- 
ened Injury to person or property, that led 
Governor Sparks to call on the federal 
Government for troops. President Roose- 
velt promptly dispatched military aid to the 
Nevada authorities, but he also sent to Gold- 
field a commission consisting of Assistant 
Secretary Murray, of the Department of 
Commerce and Labor, Commissioner of La- 
bor Nelll, and Commissioner of Corpora- 
tions Smith, with Instructions to make a 
thorough investigation of the difficulties be- 
tween mine-owners and miners. The com- 
mission had the necessary authority and was 
directed to report to the President. 



Kentucky's ^^^- AugUStUS E. Wlllson, of 

Tobacco Kentucky, the first Republican 
executive to be Inaugurated In 
that State m twelve years, had barely taken 
the oath , of office, last month, when It be- 
came necessary for him to take decisive 
measures to suppress the riotous spirit of the 
tobacco planters In the Hopklnsville district, 
where mobs had destroyed warehouses and 
terrorized the Inhabitants. The Governor's 
next step was to Invite members of the to- 
bacco growers' societies and buyers repre- 
senting trust interests to meet together, wath 
a view to an adjustment of differences. The 
hostility existing between the farmers and 
the trust Is Intense. Injunctions restraining 
the shipping of " pooled " tobacco were sus- 
tained by the courts, one of the judges mak- 
ing use of this significant language: "I 
would rather an Injustice should be done 
one man than that 100,000 men should suf- 
fer everlasting ruin." Large growers re- 
ceived anonymous letters containing threats 
that If they should attempt to ship their 
tobacco, the crop would be burned. 

A Million and ^conomlc Conditions In this coun- 
a Quarter try havc caused a remarkably 

Immigrants, i ^ f r • i L 

heavy return ot loreign laborers 
for winter sojourn In their native lands. Com- 
missioner Sargent informs us that the total 
immigration for the fiscal year 1 906-1 907 was 



THE PROGRESS OP THE WORLD. 



17 



1,285,349, a total exceeding the greatest 
figures of any preceding year by more than 
180,000. The greatest number of immi- 
grants came from Austria-Hungary, — 338,- 
000 of them. Italy came next, sending us 
285,000 odd. The Russian Empire sent 
259,000; China 960, a decrease from the 
figures of the preceding year; and Japan 
30,000, an increase of about 100 per cent, 
for the year 1906. One significant fact 
brought out by the Commissioner's report is 
that a great number of immigrants landed at 
Southern ports, an increase to these destina- 
tions caused, in the opinion of the Commis- 
sioner, by the growing desire of the Southern 
States to draw the better class of labor from 
abroad. The relatively large increase in the 
immigration from Japan is no doubt due to 
illegal entry from over the Canadian and 
Mexican borders. The total amount of 
money brought into -the country by immi- 
grants last year was over $25,000,000, an 
average of almost $20 per person. The 
Commissioner strongly recommends the call- 
ing of an international conference on immi- 
gration and emigration ; that marine hospital 
surgeons be stationed at the principal points 



of embarkation abroad to examine aliens 
about to start for this country; and that a 
treaty be negotiated with Mexico respecting 
immigration through that country. 

The Central ^^ ^^^ ^^^ most significant event 
American of the past month in Latin 

Agreement. \ • , 

America was the agreement 
upon two general treaties and six conven- 
tions of peace and friendship between the 
republics of Central America. The treaties 
do not provide for a union, as had been ex- 
pected in some quarters ; they do pWfovide for 
arbitration, for the establishment of an inter- 
national court to settle all possible differences 
which may arise between the countries. They 
treat further of commerce, navigation, and 
extradition. The court, which will consist 
of five judges, one named by each republic 
from its most eminent jurists, to sit for five 
years, will have jurisdiction over any ques- 
tion which any one or two of the Central- 
American governments may agree with any 
foreign government to submit to it. Unless 
for very special reasons the court is to sit at 
Cartage, in Costa Rica. The treaties are to 
remain in force for ten years. 




Guir of 

■ Honduras 






^ 



^^ 






iTegucigalpji 

■Ji'iii'/ysr -1.'; . ^ 



.■fiy 



< 



WtsnaC 






j^^^^ The most practical and in- 
Geographicaiiy tercsting result of the con- 

Impossible. r i .1 

Terence, however, is proba- 
bly the convention which in substance 
amounts to a declaration by the dele- 
gates of all the republics that the ter- 
ritory of Honduras shall be neutral 
ground. No troops on a w^arlike errand 
are to be permitted to cross Honduran 
territory, and since it is impossible for 



V ATLANTfC oc.^ 



^*f 



^^r 
•1l^ 



Mosquito 
Gulf 

Color 



«e 



Quif of 



'^j 



4^ 



PKS^S^ 



THE INDEPENDENT STATES OF CENTRAL AMERICA, WHICH HAVE JUST AGREED UPON THE NEUTRALITY 

OF HONDURAS. 



18 



THE AMERIC4MMEyiElV OF REl^IEWS, 



the ttoops of any two of the other four coun- 
tries to clash without crossing Honduras, 
war in Central America would seem to be 
geographically- impossible. There was also 
adopted a convention providing for the es- 
tablishment of a Central-American univer- 
sity system, one providing for an internation- 
al Central-American bureau corresponding 
to arfd allied with the International Bureau 
of the American Republics at Washington, 
one dealing with the customs duties and tar- 
iff schedules, and one providing for better 
means of communication between the five re- 
publics. .This convention will make easy the 
building of the Central-American section of 
the much-discussed Pan-American railway. 
The conference adjourned on December 17. 
With the taking of the Cuban census and 
the near approach of the presidential elec- 
tion, after which the island may again re- 
ceive its " unaided independence," there has 
been a renewed interest among the American 
people in Cuban matters. The figures show 
a Cuban population of somewhat over 2,- 
000,000. A review of the situation in the 
island at the "present time, by a keen Amer- 
ican observer, appears on another page of the 
Review this month. 

Opening of the ^^"^^^^'^ Parliament began its 
Canadian winter session on November 28. 

Parliament. t l- it ^ r^ i 

In his speech Lord Cirey, the 
Governor-General, announced that during 
the last fiscal period the public debt of the 
Dominion had been reduced by $3,000,000. 



In the legislative program, among other 
propositions, are to be found the Oliver 
Land bill for the settlement of homesteads 
in the F'ar West, the bill providing for the 
more rigid inspection of insurance com- 
panies, a measure for old-age pensions, an 
amendment to the Dominion Elections Act 
to guard against bribery and corruption, and 
a proposed amendment to the provincial con- 
stitutions, providing that Manitoba, Ontario, 
and Quebec shall be permitted to extend 
their boundaries to Hudson and James Bays. 
During the early days of the session the 
Franco-Canadian tariff treaty was signed 
and approved and much animated discussion 
had over the question of Japanese exclusion. 
Premier Laurier, in a speech at Ottawa on 
December 3, declared that, as long as he re- 
mained at the head of the government, noth- 
ing would be done to jeopardize the British- 
Japanese treaty. Commercially and finan- 
cially Canada appears prosperous, and has 
apparently suffered not at all from the mon- 
etary disturbances in our own country. 
The present session of the Dominion Parlia- 
ment is probably the last before a general 
election. The Liberal government is still, 
in power, with a majority of fifty behind it,, 
and will doubtless maintain its control 
throughout the present session. The enthusi- 
astic reception accorded to Mr, Borden^ 
leader of the opposition, however, on his 
recent tour of the Dominion, would indicate 
that the next general election will prove a 
severe struggle for the Liberals. 




now Aurc rnv. mkjuiv fai^i.kn ! 
riovolntlon. oxpellcd from Knssia, Ix'jjs lulmlr.slon 
at T'ortusal's door. 

From Iho TiincH (Now York). 



^^^ Party government in Portugal 
Diciatorship in the year 1 906 had come to 

or iiga . ^^^^^ little more than the con- 
trol of public office exclusively for private 
" graft," wit'h a working understanding be- 
tween the two dominant parties whereby 
offices were openly bartered and sold. 
A third party, under the leadership of 
Senhor Franco, a vigorous young patriot 
(Secretary of the Interior from 1894 to 
1897) became powerful during the past two 
or three years and finally secured the confi- 
dence of the King. During the past sum- 
with the full knowledge and approval of 
King Carlos, Senhor Franco cut off parlia- 
mentary sinecures aggregating more than 
$2,000,000 annually. Some of this money 
has been diverted to the civil list of the King 
and some devoted to settling the arrears of 
the always underpaid government employees 
and soldiers and sailors. The Premier, 
moreover, has refused to summon Parlia- 



THE PROGkESS OP WE IVOkLD. 



19 



ment within the time prescribed by law and 
has suspended many constitutional guaran- 
tees, thus making himself virtual dictator. 
Those who are best informed on Portuguese 
conditions assert that his dictatorship is fa- 
vored by the great mass of the population, 
and is in the interest of justice and decent 
government. All reports of a possible revo- 
lution against the King and the dynasty are 
vigorously denied from Lisbon. • Senhor 
Franco announces that he will prove the be- 
neficence of his dictatorship by its success. 
If conditions are such as to justify it, the 
government, it is announced, will hold elec- 
tions in April for the new Cortez. A more 
detailed account of the causes leading up to 
the political troubles in the little Iberian 
kingdom is given in one of our "Leading 
Articles " this month. If there is a revolu- 
tion it will undoubtedly be one by the court 
and the politicians. The people, 80 per 
cent, of whom are illiterate, are indifferent 
to the contest between the politicians and the 
crown, and the army and the navy, which 
have profited by the discomfiture of the poli- 
ticians, are not likely to respond to any in- 
vitations to revolt. 




Re-migration 



Three such widely different 
"Troubling topics as the wholesale return to 
^*"'^' Italy of thousands of Italians 
frightened away from American cities by 
the business depression, the holding of a 
papal consistory at which four new cardinals 
were created, and the election of a Jew and 
a Free Mason to be mayor of the city of 
Rome, were interesting Italians last month. 
Germany, Austria, and the Scandinavian 
countries have also had serious problems of 
re-migration forced upon them by our un- 
favorable business conditions, but Italy ap- 
pears to have suffered the most in this way. 
The returning thousands of Italy's sons do 
not bring with them sufficient money to sup- 
port them for more than a few weeks, and 
many are practically penniless. The prob- 
lem is a serious one for the, national and 
local authorities, and its gravity is aggra- 
vated by the serious condition of labor in 
King Victor Emanuel's domain. Many 
strikes have marked the past year in Italy 
and there is much suffering among the lower 
classes, owing to the great increase in the 
cost of living. There is not much of interest 
for Americans in the papal appointments at 
the consistory held on December 16, all the 
appointees being Italians, and only nominal 
honors coming to American prelates. 



SENHOR JOAQUIN FRANCO. 
(Portugal's Premier-Dictator.) 

Tu u i. If the shades of the Roman Em- 

The Hebreiv i i t • u 

Mayor peror 1 itus and the Jewish 
of ome. chieftains of the year A.D. 70 are 
permitted to exchange reminiscences in the 
other world, their memories of the capture 
of Jerusalem by the Romans in those early 
years of the Christian era will be shocked by 
the election of a Hebrew, Past Grand Mas- 
ter of the order of Free Masons, to be mayor 
of the Eternal City, the world's center of 
Catholicism. Despite the dramatic points of 
this incident, however, which have been 
dwelt on in the daily press, Signor Ernest 
Nathan will make an eminently appropriate, 
logical, and useful head, — not of the capital 
of the Caesars or the center of Catholicism, 
— but of the bustling, enterprising, modern 
Italian city on the Tiber, which needs many 
civic reforms. The election had really no 
religious significance whatsoever. Signor 
Nathan, who comes of one of the oldest Ital- 
ian families of Jewish blood, is a Liberal and 
a disciple of Mazzini, whose friendship he 
enjoyed. Though born in England and edu- 
cated at Oxford, Signor Nathan is an Ital- 
ian of the Italians, speaking the language of 
Dante with elegance and precision. He has 
held a number of offices in the gift of the 
municipality and has an excellent record for 
public spirit. His election by the '' bloc " 
of anti-clerical parties (the vote stood 60 to 
2 in the Board of Aldermen), while without 
religious significance, may be taken as a re- 



20 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



buke to the political activities of the Cler- 
icals. Those who know Signor Nathan do 
not expect him to meddle with state politics 
or religious questions, but to give Rome a 
thorough, up-to-date, clean administration. 




SIGNOR ERNEST NATHAN. 

(The newly-elected Mayor of Rome.) 

Pressino Upon his return from what he 
- German himself has referred to as his 
most pleasant and profitable visit 
to England, the German Kaiser finds public 
interest throughout his empire wrought up, 
— it might almost be said, overwrought, — 
concerning three highly important matters; 
the failure of Chancellor von Biilow to re- 
tain a decided governmental ascendancy in 
the Reichstag, resulting in his forced admis- 
sion of ministerial responsibility to the Par- 
liament; the discussion over the new budget, 
and the radical step taken by the Prussian 
Diet in introducing a bill providing for the 
compulsory expropriation of the lands of the 
Poles. The Chancellor's parliamentary em- 
barrassment and its outcome has resulted in 
a virtual revolution in German administra- 
tive methods, finally bringing the empire 
into line with the truly and fully constitu- 
tional governments of the world. It will be 
interesting to trace the steps in this progress. 



An Exciting ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^S^' ^^. ^''^l ^^ ^^■ 

Se6's/o/7 o/t/je membered, the Reichstag, the 
eic s ag. Jq^^.^j. J^ouse of the German Par- 
liament, was dissolved because it had refused 
to sanction the government's proposal to in- 
crease the army budget. In the election that 
followed the government was supported by 
a substantial majority. The Chancellor's 
victory, however, was in reality achieved by 
such a narrow margin that he was able to 
carry out his policies only by bringing about 
the coalition of the two conservative groups, 
— the National Liberals and the three fac- 
tions of the Radicals. A serious defection 
from the government's side became evident 
late in November when Dr. Herman S. 
Paasche, first vice-president and one of the 
National Liberal leaders, in a stirring speech 
attacked the government for extravagance 
and for sheltering the army officers con- 
cerned in the Harden-von Moltke scandal. 
Herr Bebel, the Socialist leader, followed, 
presenting letters and quotations from the 
Bismarck and Hohenlohe memoirs to prove 
the existence and power of the von Moltke- 
Eulenberg camarilla, and asserting that the 
guilty parties were members of such high 
classes in Germany that the police were 
afraid to name them. In discussing the bud- 
get Herr Bebel reminded the members of 
the great increase in the cost of living, caus- 
ing widespread suffering in the lower 
classes. He produced statistics to show that 
at the present day there are 4800 children in 
Berlin who never have dinner, and only 
bread and coffee for breakfast and supper, 
and asserted that the unemployed in the 
German capital now number over 40,000. 
In reply, the Chancellor and General von 
Einem, Minister of War, admitted the evil 
practices referred to, but denied the exist- 
ence of a camarilla and accused the Socialist 
leader of exaggeration. The decision of the 
Emperor that .Counts von Hohenau and 
Lynar, who were implicated in the Harden 
disclosures, cannot appeal to a special court 
of honor, but must take their chances in the 
civil court, was pointed to as evidence of the 
imperial sincerity, firmness and independence 
of judgment in the matter. 

Real Con- '^^^ pressing need for approval 
stitutionaiism of the budget, upon which the 

in Germany. • , i . 

government is dependmg to pass 
its naval bill, rendered it necessary for the 
Chancellor to secure an undoubted majority 
in the Parliament at an early date. After 
the sensational speech of Dr. Paasche the 



WE PkOGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



21 



Reichstag adjourned, on December 4, for Expropriation ^^^ ^^st result of the new order 
the purpose of determining whether the of Polish of things in the Reichstag is a 
" bloc " would sanction or repudiate the "" *' modification of the drastic pro- 

position taken by its vice-president. Chan- posals of the government introduced in the 
cellor von Biilow called into conference the Prussian Diet to take Polish estates by force, 
leaders of all the coalition groups (Herr von In his speech from the throne at the opening 
Narmann and Baron von Gamp, for the of the Prussian Diet, on November 26, 
Conservatives; Herr Ernst Bassermann, for Chancellor von Biilow, who is also Minis- 
the National Liberals; Herr Miiller and ter-President for Prussia in the diet of that 
Herr Meingen, for the Radicals; and Herr kingdom, read the budget proposals and in- 
Liebermann von Sonnenberg, for the Agrari- troduced a bill authorizing the government 
ans), and plainly informed them that should to acquire Polish estates by condemnation 
Dr. Paasche be upheld by the Parliament he proceedings under the law of eminent do- 
would be driven to one of two alternatives: main. The bill provides for a credit of 
he must either resign his office at once, or $87,500,000 to continue the purchase of 
advise the Emperor to dissolve the Reich- land and $12,500,000 for condemnation pro- 
stag. Thus, for the first time in the history ceedings. Prince von Biilow admitted that 
of the empire, a Chancellor appealed to the the attempted colonization of lands in Polish 
majority in Parliament for its support. His Prussia had been unsuccessful. The untir- 
appeal meant nothing less than that the Ger- ing patriotism of the Poles has succeeded in 
man ministry is now responsible, — not to the keeping these lands so largely in Polish hands 
crown, but to the Reichstag. Of course, this by paying any amounts for the estates that 
epoch-making change could not have been prices have become higher than the govern- 
effected without the sanction of the Em- commission could meet. " It has, therefore, 
peror, and it is intimated from Berlin that become necessary to give the government the 
the Kaiser understood the necessity for his right to dispossess the Poles by legal process." 
Chancellor's action and approved of it before In brief, the Minister-President asked the 
starting on his trip to England. In the co- Diet to give him an appropriation for the 
alition caucus the position taken by Dr. expenses of condemning the lands of the 
Paasche was repudiated by the National Lib- Poles by German tribunals. It is necessary 
erals, who then entered into an agreement for German national welfare, the Chancel- 
with the Conservatives and Radicals to give lor insisted, that the lands now possessed by 
the government a vote of confidence at the the Prussian Poles, be taken over and thor- 
reassembling of the chamber. The changed oughly Germanized, if not by sale, then 
situation in Germany, bringing the empire through condemnation by the court, 
into line with parlia- 
mentary workings as 
they are in Great Brit- 
ain, is no doubt the re- 
sult of the development 
of a real and active 
public opinion. It is not 
necessarily a permanent 
change in the constitu- 
tional practice of the 
empire. The Kaiser, 
having once sanctioned 
it, however, with the 
majority of the Reich- 
stag co-operating, it 
does not seem likely 
that the government at 
Berlin will ever revert 
to the old semi-auto- 
cratic method of pro- 
cedure mitiatea oy ois- j,^^^, friendship of king edwaed and kaiser wilhelm. 
marck and folio VV^ed by p^^ce : " who would have believed they could play a duet so harmoniously?' 
all Chancellors since. From the Amsterdammer (Amsterdam). 




22 



THE AMERICAN RE^IElV OE kEyjElVS. 




THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



23 



What Will 

the 
Poles Do ? 




This 

rude 

disturb- 
ance of the Indus- 
trial and social 
life of the Polish 
subjects of the 
German crown 
aroused vigorous 
opposition in the 
Reichstag, — not 
merely among the 
Poles and the So- 
c I a 1 Democrats, 
but among even 
the . government 
supporters. As a 
result of this op- 
position and the 
consciousness that 
the ministry Is 
practically depend- 
ent on the will of 
the majority In the 
Imperial Parlia- 
ment, the govern- 
ment has agreed to 
reduce the appro- 
priation asked 
from $100,000,000 
to $66,000,000 In 
all, and to limit 
the expropriation 
process to certain 
districts to be de- 
termined by the 
Diet. Although 
there appears no 
legal means of pre- 
venting the carry- 
ing out of this lat- 
est phase of the 

Germanization campaign. It does not seem repressive measures serious demonstrations 
likely to those who have followed the intrica- have taken place throughout Galicia, Aus- 
cies of the Polish problem In the three parti- trian Poland, assuming even a riotous char- 



KING GUSTAV V. AND QUEEN VICTORIA. 
(The new Swedish monarchs.) 



tlonlng countries that the Chancellor will 
succeed In his repressive measures. The pa- 
triotism which, through nearly half a cen- 
tury, has by Individual effort and public con- 
tribution nullified the anti-Polish animus of 
Bismarck and his followers, will find a way 
of meeting this new danger. The Russian 
Poles also have been afflicted. The school 
association of the old kingdom having fallen 
under the ban of Governor-General Skallon, 
more than 1600 Polish schools In Russia 



acter In Lemberg, the capital of the province. 



A New 
King in 
Sweden. 



Sweden's new king, Gustavus 
Adolphus, or Gustav Adolf, V., 
who ascended to the throne on 
December 8, within a few hours after the 
death of his father, Oscar II., Is believed to 
entertain Ideas of a very different character 
from those of the late king on the subject of 
his country's role In European politics. In 
the first place, he always disproved of his 



were closed during late November and early father's lenient and kindly attitude toward 
December. As a protest against these severe Norway when that country separated from 



24 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiEWS. 



Sweden. Several days before King Oscar's 
death, while the present kin^ was Regent, 
the majority of the cabinet resigned owing 
to the Regent's refusal to permit Sweden to 
become a signatory to the treaty insuring the 
integrity and neutrality of its sister country. 
This matter is treated at a greater length on 
another page this month. The late- King 
Oscar's career and his gentle, manly virtues 
are set forth, also, in the excellent article by 
Mr. Bjorkman. In matters of foreign pol- 
icy, King Gustav is believed to lean in the 
direction of Germany. He has at any rate 
always cultivated a close intimacy with the 
Kaiser. Personally he is a man of studious 
habits, not so democratic as his father and 
without the latter's peculiar charm of man- 
ner. King Gustav was married in 1881 to 
Princess Victoria, daughter of the Grand 
Duke of Baden. They have three children : 
Prince Gustav Adolf, Duke of Scania, who 
married in June, 1905, the Princess Victoria 
of Connaught ; Prince Wilhelm, and Prince 
Eric. The present Crown Prince and heir 
to the throne and Princess Victoria have one 
child, whose name is also Gustav Adolf, 
born in April, 1906. 




The Duma ^ short life is predicted for the 
Repudiates the third Russian Duma, even 

w ocracy. gj^Qj-^gj. x\\ixr\ the lives of its two 
predecessors. Conservatism, if not reaction, 
is admittedly so strong in the empire that the 
least radical movement on the part of the 
people's representatives is likely to call down 
the wrath of the Monarchists. Despite the 
apparently Conservative makeup of the 
Duma, however, the Reactionaries are not 
having things all their own way. After 
some heated discussion over the propriety of 
using the words " autocrat " and " constitu- 
tion " in the address to the thro'ne, the form 
finally adopted was this : 

Most Gracious Sire: Your Imperial Majesty 
has deigned to greet the members of the third 
Duma and to»invoke the Almighty's blessing on 
the legislative work before us. We, therefore, 
take the liberty to express personally to your 
Imperial Majesty our feelings of gratitude to 
the supreme head of Russia and our thanks for 
the right of popular representation granted to 
Russia and secured by the fundamental laws of 
the Empire. 

Have confidence in us, Sire. We wish to 
devote all our ability, knowledge, and expe- 
rience to strengthening the form of government 
which was given new life by the Imperial will 
in the manifesto of October 30, 1905; to pacify 
the fatherland, to assure respect for the laws, to 
develop popular education, to promote the gen- 
eral welfare, to be a buttress for the greatness 
and power of indivisible Russia, and to thereby 
justify the confidence reposed in us by his Ma- 
jesty and the fatherland. 



The 
Address to 
the Throne. 



THK 

STOLTI'IN 
inflopond'Tit, 
direct." 



The words " supreme " and 
" popular " were substituted for 
" autocratic " and " constitu- 
tional " after a bitter struggle between Re- 
actionaries and Constitutional Democrats, 
the adopted form proving victorious by a 
vote of more than 2 to i. When the Duma 
had rejected the proposition of the Conserva- 
tive leader,. Vladimir Purishkevich, to the 
effect that all attempts to establish a consti- 
tutional regime having failed, and the Em- 
peror in reconstituting the Duma having 
shown his autocracy, the word " autocrat " 
should be in the Parliament's address to the 
throne, a dramatic scene followed. The 
members of the Extreme Right declared that 
the Czar had been insulted and they with- 
drew from the hall. The Constitutional 
Democrats, who had held for the insertion 
of the word *' constitution," agreed to with- 
draw that term if the term " autocrat " were 

also withdrawn. The victory for this idea 
SIro ; lliis bird will surely talk as we 1 j ^u i. ^u ^ • r ^u D ^o.'^^ 

^ showed that the two wmgs of the Russian 

From Till: (Berlin). Constitutionalists, the Octobrists and the 



TA.MENi:SS OK THK TUIUD DUMA. 

TO THE Czar : " The others were a bit 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD, 



25 



Constitutional Democrats, can unite. This 
proves that the majority of even this con- 
servative Duma regards as its minimum the 
fulfillment of the promises made in the 
famous manifesto of October, 1905. 

The Premier ^" ^^^ following day ( Novem- 
Affirms ber 29), in the course of the 

Autocracy, j^j^igterial declaration. Premier 
Stolypin set forth the attitude of the govern- 
ment in these w^ords : 

The Emperor has often shown, in the face of 
extraordinary difficulties, how highly he prizes 
the basis principles of the new regime of repre- 
sentative government within the limits estab- 
lished by himself. Nevertheless, the historic, 
autocratic power and free will of the monarch 
stand out as the most precious assets of the 
Russian state. They have created the present 
institutions, are destined to save Russia in time 
of danger and disaster, and will bring her back 
to the path of order and historical truth, 

- In reply to this the Radical orator, Feodor 
Rodichev, in a stirring speech, insisted that 
autocracy had never done anything to ele- 
vate the condition of the Russian people, but 
had found its expression in hundreds of 
courts martial w^hich had " oppressed Rus- 
sia with a Byzantine despotism." Referring 
to the military regime he used the expression 
" the Stolypin necktie " as a sort of com- 
panion phrase to the famous " Muraviev 
neckerchief " of unsavory memory, both 
phrases meaning the triumph of the hangman 
over the legal procedure of justice. The 
ministerial declaration outlined a number of 
projects, including the reform of the Zem- 
stvos (the system to be extended to Poland 
and other border lands), reform of the 
courts, and measures for the development of 
the army and navy. As soon as normal con- 
ditions are restored, said the Premier, '' the 
government promises to devote its attention 
to the internal development of the empire 
and the settlement of the agrarian problem." 
Then came the long drawn out struggle over 
the budget, which has already precipitated 
what is apparently an irreconcilable conflict 
between the Parliament and the crown. 

A struaaie ^^^^ ^he Duma and the Council 
Over the of the Empire, the two houses of 
" ^^ ' the Russian Parliament, have 
asked that the Minister of Marine submit 
to their Committees of National Defense the 
details of the program arranged by the Ad- 
miralty and inv6lving, it is reported, an out- 
lay of $500,000,000. This request has been re- 
fused, and the Parliament informed that if 



the demand be persisted in, dissolution will 
come immediately. The fundamental right 
of any Parliament is the power pver the 
purse. Will the Czar dare to force the 
issue? Other interesting and important 
happenings of late November and early 
December in Russia were the dramatic 
opening of the trial of General Stoessel 
for cowardice in surrendering Port Arthur 
to the Japanese ; the arrest and convic- 
tion of a number of Social Democratic 
members of the second Duma, including 
Nicholas Tchaikowski and the peasant depu- 
ty, Annikin, for sedition and conspiracy last 
year, and their exile to Siberia ; the payment 
by Russia to Japan of $24,000,000 as the 
balance due the Mikado's empire for the. 
maintenance of Russian prisoners during the 
war ; and the visit, of Secretary Taft to the 
Russian capital on his way from the Far 
East to this country via Europe. The Amer- 
ican Secretary of War was much interested 
in the sessions of the Duma. 

TL o // ^ When it became known that, on 

The Recall of r i i r 

Ambassador the eve of the departure of our 
battleship fleet for the Pacific, 
the Japanese Ambassador, Viscount Aoki, 
had been recalled by his government, there 
was much nervous apprehension evident not 
only in some of the journals of our own 
country, but quite generally in the press of 
Europe as well, lest this recall presage a 
really dangerous tension in the relations be- 
tween the two countries. That this feeling 
was entirely unjustified, however, soon be- 
came evident when the Japanese Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs publicly explained that Am- 
bassador Aoki was recalled at his own re- 
quest " because of purely personal and home 
reasons," and, further, when the appoint- 
ment was semi-officially announced of his 
successor. Baron Kogoro Takahira. The 
former Japanese Minister at Washington 
and incumbent during the trying days of the 
Russo-Japanese war is entirely persona grata 
to the American Government a;id the Amer- 
ican people. He is well known in this coun- 
try as a diplomat of native gifts and excel- 
lent experience, and a firm believer in the 
necessity for close friendship between his own 
country and the United States. 

SettimQ the ^^^^ immigration question ^ be- 

immigration tween the two Countries is in a 

fair way of being settled by 

diplomatic negotiation, although (according 

to the official report of Commissioner-G^- 



26 



THE AMERICAN kE^lElV OP REl^JElVS. 




Copyright by Waldo n Fawcett, Washington. 



BARON KOGORO TAKAHIRA. 

(Who succeeds Viscount Aoki as Japanese Ambassa- 
dor at Washington.) 



eral of Immigration Sargent) more than 
twice as many Japanese were admitted to this 
country than in the preceding year. It is true 
beyond a doubt that many of these came in 
without legal right and entirely without 
knowledge on the part of their home govern- 
ments. A number of Japanese statesmen, in- 
cluding Baron Ishii, chief of the bureau of 
commerce, have announced in the newspapers 
and in public addresses that their government 
has not only, consented to a more rigid con- 
trol of the character of emigrants, but is 
planning a limitation of emigration. Al- 
though the authorities at Tokio have not is- 
sued any official statement in the matter, 
Raron Ishii has announced publicly that, in 
his opinion, " it will be necessary, in order 
to keep absolute faith w^ith the United States, 
to prevent emigration of labor thither alto- 
gether." In reply, also, to a committee from 
a number of Japanese emigration agencies a 
few weeks ago. Foreign Minister Hyashi de- 
clared, in the presence of the Canadian en- 



voy, Hon. Rodolph Lemieux (Postmaster- 
General and Minister of Labor of the Do- 
minion), that the plan of his government 
was *' closely to limit all emigration to the 
United States and Canada." Ambassador 
O'Brien, representing this country at Tokio, 
moreover, at the annual meeting of the Ori- 
ental Association on December ii, asserted 
positively that '' so far as our two countries 
are concerned, there is now not one serious 
question which remains unsettled." That 
the alleged Japanese apprehension and irrita- 
tion over the voyage of our Pacific fleet have 
been only figments of journalistic imagina- 
tion is more than proven by the cordial mes- 
sages of good will from Japanese political 
leaders on the occasion of the sailing of the 
ships. Foreign Minister Haj^ashi, Admiral 
Togo, Prince Ito, Count Okuma, and other 
prominent statesmen, even expressed the hope 
that our warships would call at Japanese 
ports. The Mikado's empire, these gentle- 
men declare, is anxious to give our ships and 
sailor men a hearty welcome. 

Earthquahes Central Asia has been the scene 
/«. of stirring events during the past 
few weeks. Early in November 
a terrible earthquake occurred at Karadagh, 
in northern Bokhara, during which more 
than 12,000 people perished. Reports indicate 
that in this convulsion of nature, which was 
one of the most appalling on record, more 
than 30,000 cattle died and five or six towns 
were overwhelmed. Not far to the south 
of this devastation a political earthquake 
struck the Persian capital. The Persians 
have not had a very long experience with 
constitutionalism. Apparently the experi- 
ment is not to succeed, for the resignation of 
several ministries in a few weeks and an 
appeal to Britain and Russia to put down 
two insurrections indicate the unhappy con- 
dition of the Shah's domain. Early in De- 
cember the Persian Parliament addressed a 
petition to the British and Russian govern- 
ments to assume charge of peace and order in 
the kingdom and indirectly of the govern- 
ment. This is the first practical test of. the 
recently concluded Anglo-Russian agreement, 
but it would seem, also, if Britain and Rus- 
sia respond, to mark the end of independent 
Persia. 




Photograph by Brown Bros., N. Y. 

ALIENS LEAVING AMERICA IN DECEMBER, TO RETURN TO EUROPE. 

(The eastbound steerage business on the Atlantic liners last month was unprecedented.) 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS, 



(From November 20 to December 20, 1907.) 



PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS. 

December 2. — Both branches of the Sixtieth 
Congress meet for the first session. .. .Joseph 
G. Cannon (Rep.) is re-elected Speaker of the 
House. .. .Both branches adjourn immediately 
after the opening ceremonies out of respect for 
the memories of Senators Morgan and Pettus, 
of Alabama. 

December 3. — The President's message is read 
in both branches. .. .The Senate, in executive 
session, confirms the appointment of ex-Senator 
Blackburn, of Kentucky, as a member of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission. .. .In the House, 
Speaker Cannon reads a greeting from the new- 
State of Oklahoma and announces the member- 
ship of the Committee on Banking and Cur- 
rency. 

December 5. — In the Senate, Mr. Frye (Rep., 
Maine) is elected president pro tern. 

December 9. — In the Senate, several resolu- 
tions providing for an inquiry into recent Treas- 
ury bond issues are introduced. 

December 11. — In the Senate, Mr. Davis 
(Dem., Ark.) speaks on his bill for the aboli- 
tion of trusts. 

December 12. — The Senate passes a resolution 
asking Secretary Cortelyou to furnish figures 
bearing on the recent financial stringency. .. .In 



the House, the Committees on Rules and Mile- 
age are announced by the Speaker. 

December 16. — In the Senate, Mr. Tillman 
(Dem., S. C.) attacks the Administration on the 
financial question and Mr. Culberson (Dem., 
Tex.) introduces a resolution calling for infor- 
mation as to Treasury relief measures. .. .In the 
House, the Speaker announces the membership 
of the Committee on Appropriations. 

December 17. — The Senate passes the bill of 
Mr. Dick (Rep., Ohio) extending the time dur- 
ing which the State militia must conform their 
organizations to those of the regular army. 

December 18. — In the Senate, Mr. Tillman 
(Dem., S. C.) introduces resolutions calling for 
information as to corporations engaged in inter- 
state commerce and the liquor traffic. 

December 19. — In the House, the make-up of 
the committees is announced by Speaker Can- 
non. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— AMERICAN. 

November 20. — The Ohio League of Repub- 
lican Clubs endorses Senator Foraker for re- 
election and as a candidate for President. 

November 23. — The President makes public 
a letter to members of the cabinet, forbidding 
third-term activity by federal office-holders. 

November 27. — The official count shows Ralph 



28 



WE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REt^iElVS. 



C Watrous (Rep.) elected Lieutenant Gover- 
nor of Rhode Island by a plurality of nine 

votes Judge T. M. G. Jones, of the United 

States Court, issues an injunction forbidding 
the enforcement of nine of the railroad regu- 
lation laws passed by the special session of the 
Alabama Legislature. 

November 29. — Senator Foraker announces his 
purpose to fight for the Ohio delegates to the 
Republican national convention and to give up 
the Senatorship in order to make the contest for 
the Presidency. 

December i. — The third annual report of the 
Third Assistant Postmaster-General, made pub- 
lic at Washington, shows a gross deficit in the 
postal service for the year 1907 of $6,692,031.47. 

December 2.— Adam P. Leighton (Rep.) is 
elected mayor of Portland, Me. 

December 4.— Nevada N. Stranahan resigns 
as Collector of the Port of New York and 
President Roosevelt appoints Edward S. Fow- 
ler as his successor. 

December 5.— President Roosevelt's order di- 
recting more severe physical tests for army offi- 
cers is made public General Funston is in- 
structed by the War Department to send troops 
to Goldfield, Nev., to preserve order in the mine 
strike Secretary Cortelyou, in his annual re- 
port to Congress, asks for the speedy passage 
of a remedial currency law, but makes no spe- 
cific recommendations A committee of the 

National Rivers and Harbors Congress in Wash- 
ington presents a memorial to Vice-President 
Fairbanks and Speaker Cannon asking an ap- 
propriation of $50,000,000 a year for waterway 
improvement. 

December 6. — The Republican National Com- 
mittee meets in Washington; Harry S. New, of 
Indiana, is elected chairman. .. .Secretary Cor- 
telyou decides to issue only $25,000,000 of the 
Panama Canal bonds, and announces that he 
has accepted bids for this amount. 

December 7. — The Republican National Corn- 
mittee, in session at Washington, selects Chi- 
cago, June 16, as the place and date for hold- 
ing the national convention. .. .Federal troops 
arrive in Goldfield, Nev. .. .Secretary Cortelyou 
announces the allotments of Panama Canal 
bonds to national banks. 

December 9. — John F. Ahearn, Borough presi- 
dent of the Borough of Manhattan, New York, 
is removed from office by Governor Hughes on 
charges of neglect and misconduct. 

December 10. — The Department of Agricul- 
ture estimates the total cotton production for 
the year 1907-1908 at 5,581,968,000 pounds.... 
George A. Hibbard (Rep.) is elected mayor of 
Boston over John F. Fitzgerald, by about 2000 
votes. 

December it. — President Roosevelt repeats his 
announcement made on election night in 1904, 
to the effect that he would not again be a can- 
didate for President. .. .The President appoints 
a commission to go to Goldfield, Nev., and re- 
port to him the exact status of affairs there. 

December 12. — The Democratic National 
Committee, in session at Washington, decides to 
hold the national convention in Denver on 
July 7- 

December 15. — President Roosevelt and party 



leave Washington for Hampton Roads to vieW 
the departure of the battleship fleet for the 
Pacific. 

December 16. — The fleet of sixteen battleships 
leaves Hampton Roads for the cruise to the 
Pacific Coast. .. .Comptroller Ridgely in his an-, 
nual report recommends the establishment by 
the Government of a central bank of issue and 
reserve. 

December 19. — John F. Ahearn, who was re- 
moved from office as president of the Borough 
of Manhattan, New York, is re-elected by the. 
Board of Aldermen. 

December 20. — President Roosevelt orders the 
troops at Goldfield, Nev., withdrawn on Decem- 
ber 30. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— FOREIGN. 

November 20. — The first election for a Parlia- 
ment in the Orange Free State takes place ; the 
result is a victory for the Dutch party.... The 
French Chamber finishes the debate on the devo- 
lution of church property, the government pro- 
posals being carried by a large majority. ., .The 
government of Salvador issues a decree grant- 
ing amnesty to political prisoners and allowing 
the return of exiles ; the state of siege is sus- 
pended. 

November 21. — Ernest Nathan, a Jew, is 
elected mayor of Rome, Italy.... The German 
imperial budget authorizes the borrowing of 
$65,000,000 and emphasizes the necessity for im- 
posing new taxes to harmonize expenditures 
and revenues. .. .The Russian Duma appointed 
officers and a drafting committee. 

November 22. — The Metropolitan Water Board 
issues a report on the future water supply of 
London. .. .The German Reichstag reassembles. 

November 24. — Justine Fernandez, Minister 
of Justice in the Mexican cabinet, resigns. 

November 25. — The Portuguese Government 
establishes a special tribunal empowered sum- 
marly to try political offenders, whose offenses 
will now be classed with those of anarchists. . '. . 
The new ministry of the Orange River Colony is 
announced ; Mr. Fischer is Premier and Colonial 
Secretary, General DeWet Minister of Agricul- 
ture, and General Hertzog Attorney-General. . . . 
The longest parliamentary session on record in 
New Zealand closes (it began on June 27). 

November 26. — A protest is made by the Pro- 
gressive party at the meeting of the London 
County Council against the manner in which the 
Moderates are blocking educational work in 
London. . . .The Prussian Diet meets ; Prince von 
Billow introduces his bill for the expropriation 
of Polish landlords. .. .The Russian Duma de- 
bates the address and decrees that the title 
" autocrat " is no longer tenable within the Rus- 
sian state. 

November 27. — The Australian Government 
agrees to the adoption of a penny postage with 
Great Britain. 

November 28. — Prince von Billow, at the 
opening of the German Reichstag, makes a not- 
able speech defending the Emperor, the Ger- 
man army, and himself. .. .Earl Grey, at the 
opening of the Canadian Parliament, discusses 
the Newfoundland fisheries question and immi- 
gration matters. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



November 29. — In the debate in the German 
Reichstag on the budget it is stated that the 
imperial debt now amounts to $1,000,000,000, 
having increased since 1901 $400,000,000. .. .In 
the French Chamber, the government's naval 
estimates and proposals for the reorganization 
of the navy are adopted. .. .In the Russian 
Duma, M. Stolypin defines the ministerial policy. 

December 3. — The Russian Duma adjourns 
without coming to a vote on the ministerial dec- 
laration. .. .Senhor Machado, the opposition 
leader in Portugal, declares that the Republicans 
favor meeting force with force and says that 
they possess bombs as well as arms. 

December 4. — Prince von Biilow forms a coal- 
ition with National Liberals in the German 
Reichstag in support of the government.... 
Premier Franco, of Portugal, announces his de- 
termination not to compromise with the opposi- 
tion.... The Liberal party of Panama opens a 
campaign to select a successor to President 
Amador. 

December 7. — Japan takes measures to im- 
prove the financial condition of the empire. 

December 8. — On the death of King Oscar, 
of Sweden, Gustav V. takes the oath of office as 
the new King. 

December 10. — The trial of General Stoessel 
for surrendering Port Arthur is begun at St. 
Petersburg. .. .Announcement is made in the 
Russian Duma that $93,000,000 will be needed 
for extraordinary expenditures. 

December 12. — Dr. Ernest Brenner, a Radical, 
is elected President of Switzerland. .. .Don Car- 
los, the Spanish pretender, seeks the aid of the 
Pope in his efforts to regain the throne of 
Spain. 

December 13. — The Prussian Government an- 
nounces the modification of its expropriation 
proposals. 





THE LATE MONCURE D. CONWAY. 

(The eminent American author.) 



THE VETERAN ACTOR, JAMES HENRY STODDART, 
WHO DIED LAST MONTH. 

December 14. — The Russian Social Democrats 
held responsible for the dissolution of the sec- 
ond Duma are severely punished, some being 
exiled to Siberia. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

November 21. — In support of the plan for a 
union of the Central-American republics Presi- 
dent Zelaya, of Honduras, announces that he is 
willing to resign his office. 

November 25. — Ten thousand Arabs are re- 
pulsed by the French army in Algeria, losing 
1200 killed. 

November 26. — The Australian claims against 
Germany regarding the Solomon and Marshall 
Islands are settled by arbitration. .. .The draft 
of a proposed peace treaty is submitted to the 
delegates representing the five Central-American 
republics at the conference in Washington. 

November 2y. — A French force is attacked on 
the Algero-Moroccan frontier. 

November 28. — In reply to overtures from 
the American Ambassador, the Japanese for- 
eign office announces that every precaution is 
being taken to prevent a recurrence of past im- 
migration frauds. .. .The Moroccan army in- 
vades Algeria and forces the French troops to 
retreat, until reinforcements arrive. 

November 29.-— Japanese immigrants are de- 
tained at Victoria owing to a dispute between 
the steamship agents and the United States and 



30 



THE AMERICAN REFIElV OF REI/IEIVS. 



Canadian immigration officials. .. .It is an- 
nounced at Ottawa that the Franco-Canadian 
treaty is the first of a series of trade agreements 
to aid Canada in marketing her products. 

December 3. — Viscount Aoki, Japanese Am- 
bassador to the United States, is summoned 
home. 

December 5. — Minister Hayashi announces 
that Japan will limit all emigration to the United 
States and Canada. .. .Baron Takahira is for- 
mally appointed Japanese Ambassador to the 
United States. 

December 7. — It is reported in Tokio that a 
satisfactory settlement of the emigration ques- 
tion has been reached. 

December 10. — The Moroccan foreign board 
accepts the demands made by France and Spain. 

December 11. — Great Britain sends ten vessels 
to patrol the West River for the protection of 
shipping from Chinese pirates. 

December 15. — The yellow-fever quarantine 
against Cuba is removed. 

December 16. — The Italian embassy at Wash- 
ington takes measures to investigate the recent 
killing of Italians in Louisiana. 

December 17. — Great Britain and Russia de- 
cide upon joint action in Persia to prevent the 
threatened uprising. 

December 20. — The Central American peace 
conference at Washington, having reached an 
agreement on a treaty, comes to an end. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

November 20. — The United States purchases 
£262,000 from the Bank of England in bar 
gold. .. .Delegates from fifteen Atlantic Coast 
States organize at Philadelphia the Atlantic 
Deep Waterways Association. 

November 21. — The American Civic Associa- 
tion and National Municipal League meet at 
Providence, R. I. 

November 22. — The steamship Mauretania 
completes her maiden voyage across the Atlantic 
in five days five hours and ten minutes. .. .J. P. 
Morgan and President Baker, of the First Na- 
tional Bank of New York, confer with Presi- 
dent Roosevelt on the financial situation. 

November 23. — It is announced that the Nobel 
prize for chemistry has been awarded to Sir 
William Crookes. . . .The French army dirigible 
balloon La Patrie travels a distance of 275 kilo- 
meters at an average speed of forty kilometers 
(see page 58). 

November 24. — It is announced that Rudyard 
Kipling has 1)ccn selected to receive the Nobel 
prize for literature. .. .Large investments in 
small lots of railroad and industrial securities 
are reported in New York. 

November 25. — Dr. Rash Ghose is unani- 
mously elected president of the Indian National 
Congress. 

November 28. — The railway strike in India is 
settled by the intervention of the secretary of 
the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants. 
. .. .In the wf)rk of widening Blackfriars Bridge 
in London four men arc killed through the fall- 
ing of a caisson. 

November 29.— Announcement of the award 
of the Nobel prize in physics to Prof. Albert A. 



Michelson, of the University of Chicago, is re- 
ceived from Stockholm (see page 42.).... Miss 
Florence Nightingale is appointed by King Ed- 
ward to the Order of Merit. .. .Receivers are 
appointed for the New York City Railway Com- 
pany. 

November 30. — The $50,000,000 issue of Pan- 
ama Canal bonds is found to be largely over- 
subscribed when bids are opened at the Treas- 
ury Department in Washington. .. .The ter-pen- 
tennial exposition at Jamestown is closed.... 
Twelve thousand aliens sail from the United 
States, returning to Europe. 

December i. — Six torpedo boat destroyers 
start from Norfolk, Va., for the Pacific Coast. 
....More than 400 workmen are discharged at 
the Charlestown, Mass., Navy Yard.... The 
New York City Charter Revision Commission 
embodies suggestions in a report to Governor 
Hughes. 

December 2. — The Canadian Pacific steamer 
Mount Temple, from Antwerp, runs on the rocks 
near Halifax; the 62,3 passengers and the crew 
of ninety-nine are rescued. 

December 3. — Secretary Taft makes a plea for 
world peace at the American banquet in St, 
Petersburg. .. .An attempt is made to assassin- 
ate President Cabrera, of Guatemala. 

December 4. — Secretary Taft is received in au- 
dience by Czar Nicholas and spends about five 
hours with him.... The National Rivers and 
Harbors Congress opens in Washington. .. .The 
Comptroller of the Currency issues a general 
call on clearing-houses throughout the country 
to report the condition of national banks. 

December 5. — The steamship .Mauretania es- 
tablishes a new east-bound transatlantic record, 
beating the Lusitania's best time by twenty-one 
minutes. .. .A committee of the National Rivers 
and Harbors Congress, in session at Washing- 
ton, memoralizes Congress for an appropriation 
of $50,000,000 a year for waterway improvement. 
.... President Roosevelt's order directing more 
severe physical tests for army officers is made 
public. .. .The National Bank of Commerce of 
Kansas City, Mo., closes its doors. 

December 6. — Secretary Cortelyou decides to 
issue only $25,000,000 of the Panama Canal 
bonds, instead of $50,000,000 as originally con- 
templated. .. .Thirty persons are drowned in the 
sinking of the Brazilian coasting steamer Guasta. 
....A British turbine torpedo boat destroyer 
makes a new record for her class by steaming 
35.952 knots. .. .More than 300 miners are en- 
tombed by an explosion in the mines of the Fair- 
mont Coal Company near Monongah, W. Va. ; 
few are rescued. .. .The Fort Pitt National 
Bank of Pittsburgh is closed by the Comptroller 
of the Currency at the request of the directors. 

December 8. — More than 100 men are killed 
and wounded in engagements with Bulgarian 
bands in Macedonia. 

December 9. — The bursting of two great water 
mains causes a general suspension of business in 
St. John, N. B. 

December 11. — The Texas Appellate Court 
upholds the ousting of the Waters-Pierce Oil 
Company from the State and the assessment of 
penalties aggregating $1,690,000 for violation of 
the State anti-trust laws Harry Orchard is 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



31 



on the witness stand in the trial of George A. 
Pettibone for compHcity in the murder of for- 
mer Governor Steunenberg of Idaho. 

December 12. — Boris Saraffov and another 
Macedonian revolutionist are murdered in Sofia. 

December 16. — Sixty miners are reported 
killed in an explosion in the Yolande coal mine, 
Mississippi. .. .Elastic currency is the theme of 
the annual meeting of the National Civic Fed- 
eration in New York City. 

December 17. — The new British turbine tor- 
pedo boat destroyer obtains a final speed of 
thirty-seven knots. .. .Exercises commemorating 
the centennial anniversary of the birth of the 
poet Whittier are held in many New England 
cities. 

December 19. — Ninety-three persons are killed 
and 100 injured by the explosion of a powder 
magazine in Palermo, Sicily. .. .The funeral of 
King Oscar of Sweden is held at Stockholm. . . . 
More than 250 miners are entombed and killed 
by an explosion in the workings of the Pitts- 
burg Coal Company at Jacobs Creek, Pa. 

December 20. — Secretary Taft arrives in New 
York from his journey around the world. 

OBITUARY 

November 19. — Rev. Dr. Alexander S. Twom- 
bly, of Newton, Mass., Congregational minister 
and author, 75. 

November 20. — Brig.-Gen. George E. Pond, 
U. S. A., retired, 60.... Gen. James Stewart 
Martin, of Salem, 111., ex-Congressman, 82. 

November 21. — Capt. James H. Holmes, one 
of John Brown's band of abolitionists, 74. . . . 
Charles F. Taswell, associate justice of the 
Colorado Supreme Court, 56. 

November 22. — Prof. Asaph Hall, the well- 
known astronomer, 78. 

November 24. — Sir Henry E. Colvile, major- 
general in the British army, 55. .. .Col. Frank J. 
Bramhall, author of books on the Civil War, 60. 

November 26. — Gen. F. M. Kelso, of Fayette- 
ville, Tenn., a veteran of the Confederate army. 

November 27. — Cyril Flower, first Baron Bat- 
tersea, 64. 

November 28. — Rev. Dr. Wendell Prime, for- 
mer editor of the New York Observer, 70.... 
Stanislaus Wyspianski, the Polish poet, 38. 

November 29. — Gen. Leon Jastremski, of 
Louisiana, a Confederate veteran, 63. 

November 30. — Dr. George F. Shrady, a well- 
known physician of New York, 70. 

December 2. — Rev. Dr. Elijah E. Chivers, 
of the Baptist Home Mission Society, 57. 

December 3. — Albert Ware Paine, of Bangor, 
Me., author of the law giving the accused in 
criminal cases the right to testify in their own 
behalf, 95.... Gen. Allen ihomas, former Min- 
ister to Venezuela and veteran of the Confeder- 
ate army, 77. 

December 4.— Gen. Louis Saenz Pena, ex- 
President of the Argentine Republic, 77 

Henry O. Havemeyer, president of the Ameri- 
can Sugar Refining Company, 60. 

December 8.— Kmg Oscar, of Sweden, 79 

Mrs. Louise M. Taft, of Millbury, Mass., mother 
of Secretary of War Taft, 80. 




GEN. ALEXANDER HAMILTON. 

(Grandson of the first Secretary of the Treasury; 

General Hamilton died last month at 

the age of 92.) 

December 9. — James Henry Stoddart, the vet- 
eran actor, 80. ...Prof. Moritz Schmidt, of 
Frankfort-on-Main, a well-known laryngologist. 

December 10. — Gen. Alexander Hamilton, 92. 

December 11. — Benjamin Champney, of Bos- 
ton, a well-known landscape artist, 90.... The 
Rt. Rev. George Howard Wilkinson, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, Scotland, 74. 

December 12. — Boris Saraffov, Bulgarian rev- 
olutionary chief. 

December 13.— Col. A. S. Colyar, of Tennes- 
see, a member of the Confederate Congress, 90. 

December 14. — The Rt. Rev. Leighton Cole- 
man, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Dio- 
cese of Delaware, 70. .. .William Bliss, of Bos- 
ton, president of the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road, 73. 

December 15. — William Stead, son of William 
T. Stead, editor of the Review of Reviews of 
London, collaborator with John Morley 'on the 
biography of William E. Gladstone, 40. .. .Prof. 
Juan L. Contreras, the Mexican scientist. 

December 16. — Carola, Queen Dowager of 
Saxony, 74. 

December 17. — William Thomson, first Lord 
Kelvin, the noted scientist, 83.... Dr. William 
Bayard, of St. John, N. B., said to be the oldest 
practising physician in the world, 94. 

December 19. — M. Filossofov, Minister of 
Commerce and ex-Comptroller of the Russian 
Empire. 

December 20. — Charles M. Skinner, author 
and playwright, 56. 



SOME OF THE RECENT CARTOONS 




LOOK who's here. — From the Plain Dealer (Cleveland), 




FIRST IT WAS THE BEAK ; THEN IT WAS THE TilUJj. 

Uncle Sam: "111, come back out of that! drat this pesky menagerie, anyway!" 
From the kiaturday Olobe (Utica)> 



SOME OF THE CURRENT CARTOONS. 



33 



="^3S:. X.-:-.?^$= 




-' Ml. ■ \\^^i,_ -• 
"pike's peak or bust! " — From the World (New York). 




" that's the biggest ' PUNKIN ' I EVER RAISED/' 

From the Spokesman-Review (Spokane). 



the OPENING OF THE SIXTIETH CONGRESS. 

From the News-Tribune (Duluth). 



34 



THE AMEklCAN HEyiElV OF REVIEWS. 




THE STATIONARY CRUSADER. 

Tresident Roosevelt: "FOLLOW ME!" (or 
35,000 words to that effect). See the President's 
message to Congress. 

From Punch (London). 





THE FILIPINO S FIRST LESSON IN HIS NEW BOOK, 

From the Ohio State Journal (Columbus). 




" GOOD lt;«:k.'^ 

TJnclo Sam wishing .\dtniriil Evans and his floot a T'ncle Sam (.\propos of the Pacific cruise): "I 
safe voyage. don't know where Em going, hut Pm on ray way." 

From tlic Krmiuu Mail (X<'w YorI<). From tiio Ncics (Baltimore). 



CURRENCY REFORM : A CENTRAL BANK. 

BY ROBERT EMMETT IRETON. 

rj ANKERS, business men, and legislators Fowler and American Bankers' plans advo- 

all agree that our bond-secured cur- cate emergency credit currency. The Treat 

rency system is defective, unscientific, and in- plan, a bond-secured emergency note sys- 

elastic, yet they are unable to unite on a sub- tem, and the Shaw proposal emergency cir- 

stitute possessing the simple, primary essen- culation. These are the best-known and 

tials of safety and elasticity. That we are most widely-advocated measures, and briefly 

committed to-day to a currency system which epitomized are : 

owes its inception to the necessity of finding American Bankers' Plan : Providing for an 

a market for Government bonds many years " emergency " credit currency by permitting any 

ago, is due principally to the apparently ir- national bank, actually engaged for one year, 

•111 a- ^ ' u 1 • • • « nru:^ and with a surplus of 20 per cent, of its capital, 

reconcilable conflict mbankmg opinion This ^^^ .^^^^^ additional notes without security equal 

Congress has been quick to use as a toil to to 40 per cent, of its bond-secured circulation, 

defeat almost every request for remedial leg- subject to a tax of 2>^ per cent, per annum on 

islation. It is a patent fact that bankers are the average amount outstanding; and a further 

not in accord on this, issue and that their t:^'^:Ttl:yftJZr^[:' "^ "'"''' 

views are strangely divergent. Indeed, in Central Bank: Providing for a central bank 

many cases, they are confused and elemen- of issue, with capital of not less than $50,000,000, 

tary, and not a few bankers admit their in- to carry a large reserve of gold, and act as 

ability to discuss the issue at all. custodian of the Government's metallic reserves 

^ as Its agent in redeeming all kinds of money, as 

JOINT CURRENCY COMMISSION. [^s receiving and distributing agent, doing at its 

branches the work now done at the Sub- i reas- 

This tends to explain the fact that, prac- uries, and to deal exclusively with banks. The 

tically, the first concrete effort of our bank- P^^" Tu'^^^fJ^'^l^^ ownership of this bank 

•" J J , 111 part by other banks and in part by the Gov- 

ers to amend our currency system dates only ernment, but vests its management exclusively 

from 1906, when a currency commission, con- in the Government. 

sisting of appointees of the American Bank- Chamber of Commerce : Providing for the is- 

ers' Association and of the New York Cham- ^f .f ^ of additional notes equal tb 35 per cent. 

, , ^ . ^^j , . 1 ot Its capital by any national bank whose bond- 

ber of Commerce, met in Washington and secured circulation equals 50 per cent, of its 

formulated a plan for presentation to Con- capital stock, subject to a graduated tax of from 

gress in December of that year. The meas- 2 per cent, to 6 per cent., according to the 

ure failed to pass, but the incident marks the amount of additional notes taken out. 

t_ ' ■ r . , 1 . treat: Providing for a bond-secured emer- 

beginmng of unity and concurrence on this gency note system, in contradistinction to a 

issue among our financiers. At that, the plan credit currency system. Under this plan na- 

adopted did not represent the views of everv tional banks would be empowered to issue 50 

banker in this country, nor does it to-day; Pf^ ^^"^- of their circulating notes on security 

, ^ . . , ... V • f 1 1 other than Government bonds, and the same 

but it carried with it the prestige of the only ^ould be retired in four, six, and eight months 

representative organization of the nation's from September i of each year. 

bankers, and as such compelled the attention Fowler: Providing for a credit-currency sys- 

of Congress. That body, with characteristic ^^"\ ^^ 'Tl^ permitting national banks to con- 

.,. J , . , J • 1 u T r >> 1 -n vert bank-book credits, or deposits subject to 

resiliency, passed the Aldrich relief bill check, into bank-note credits, or credit currency. 

and shelved the emergency currency plan of Shaw : Providing for " emergency " circula- 

the commission. tion by national banks up to 50 per cent, of their 

capital without a deposit to secure its redemp- 

BEST-KNOWN RELIEF PLANS. tion, but subject to a tax of 5 per cent. 

Other suggestions for monetary reform of ^^^^is intensifies remedial demand. 
recent date are those of the New York Since the fall of 1906 the question of cur- 
Chamber of Commerce, former Secretary of rency reform has been the leading subject 
the Treasury Leslie M. Shaw, United States for discussion in bankers' conventions. In 
Treasurer Charles H. Treat, and Represent- the majority of cases when prominent finan- 
atfve Charles N. Fowler. The Chamber of ciers delivered public addresses throughout 
Commerce favors a central bank, and, as an the country the same issue was selected, 
alternative, a plan for asset currency. The Magazines and newspapers in the same period 



36 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



have given generous space to this vitally Im- 
portant Issue, and even some Senators and 
Representatives had been heard to concur In 
the general demand for currency remedial 
legislation. All this, however, Is as noth- 
ing compared to the effect of last Novem- 
ber's distressing experiences. Bad banking 
and a defective currency system were largely 
responsible for our crisis, if not Its precipitat- 
ing causes; hence, to-day, from every section 
of this country the demand Is universal for 
legislation that will reduce to a minimum 
the dangers of the prevailing system and give 
us instead an elastic and liquid currency. 
President Roosevelt has urged upon Con- 
gress its duty In this respect, and has assured 
us that we may expect a permanent and sub- 
stantial measure of relief. 

So we find the people and the press prac- 
tically a unit on the question of currency 
amendment, but not certain, by any means, 
of the form of the appropriate remedy. 
Bankers profess to be equally perplexed, and 
It is entirely probable that Congressional re- 
lief, following the line of least resistance, 
will come In the shape of another compromise 
and satisfy none. Of the plans outlined, the 
American Bankers', Fowler, and Chamber of 
Commerce recommendations seek to preserve 
our present bond-secured bank notes, and 
would extend circulation through the me- 
dium of bank-credit currency In order to 
provide the needed elasticity. Collateral 
security for such note Issues is not required 
under any of these plans, but taxation is re- 
lied on to force their retirement when not 
longer needed, and in case of a failure of a 
national bank such note issues would be re- 
deemed by the United States Treasury, 
which would recoup Itself, in turn, from the 
redemption- fund created by the tax im- 
posed on such circulation, and from the assets 
of the failed bank. The Shaw proposal 
favors emergency circulation unsecured but 
heavily taxed, and the Treat plan (an 
adaptation of an Idea of former Secretary of 
the Treasury Chase) opposes credit or emer- 
gency currency, and would establish a bond- 
secured emergency note system. The ultra- 
conservatives favor the Treat suggestion. 

Diametrically opposite to all of these Is 
that of the central bank. Tentatively offered 
by the Chamber of Commerce, in the fall of 
1906, as a probable remedy for our currency 
dilemma, it received but passing notice. In- 
deed, its own advocates had an alternative, 
aforementioned, at hand when they proposed 
it. Nevertheless, the Increasing discussion of 



our financial problem brought it to the atten- 
tion of the public, particularly In the last 
three months, and many prominent bankers 
and certain of our most Influential news- 
papers unhesitatingly endorse it. Perhaps 
some Idea of its strength may be gathered 
from the following demonstration. 

RESULTS OF A CURRENCY POLL. 

Within one month, the writer personally 
conducted a currency poll of the presidents 
and cashiers of leading banks throughout the 
country, for a leading financial newspaper. 
New York City was not included. A ballot 
was prepared containing an outline of the 
plans aforementioned and mailed to several 
hundred bankers, with the request that they 
Indicate their preference, assign their rea- 
sons and return to sender. The results were 
most surprising and unexpected. Replies 
were received from almost 400 voters In 
thirty-three States. The Central Bank of 
Issue plan led the poll, receiving 33 per cent, 
of all the votes cast, and the plan of the 
American Bankers was second, having been 
favored by 29 per cent, of those balloting. 
The Shaw, Treat, Chamber of Commerce, 
and Fowler plans followed In the order 
named, and, combined, did not equal the 
vote of either of the dominant recommenda- 
tions. In addition. It Is worthy of mention 
that fourteen voters rejected all plans and 
sixteen submitted original solutions for this 
perplexing issue. 

The voters were representative men, and 
the vote as a whole may be assumed to be a 
fair reflex of banking opinion on currency 
reform. It was unquestionably the only vote 
ever taken on all the current plans outlined, 
and probably the heaviest ever recorded In 
favor of a currency measure. It is asseverated 
by those present and participating, that the 
resolutions on currency reform passed in the 
Atlantic City convention of the American 
Bankers' Association last year were put to a 
vote when there were not more than 100 
delegates present and voting. The poll re- 
ferred to quadrupled that result; and It can 
be claimed, moreover, that never in a con- 
vention was the same opportunity for de- 
liberation and Individual expression of opin- 
ion given a banker as In the privacy of his 
office when considering the newspaper ballot 
aforesaid. From the results of this poll two 
facts are clear: The marvelous spread of 
sentiment in favor of the central bank and 
consequent recession of the American Bank- 
ers' plan, and the deeply rooted divergence 



CUkREMCY REFORM: A CENTRAL BANK. 



87 



of opinion among bankers. The fact that 
fourteen should reject all six plans, and like- 
wise that sixteen should submit new plans 
shows the confusion and uncertainty, not to 
say empiricism, prevalent in the ranks of our 
financial fraternity. 

CENTRAL bank's ADVANTAGES. 

Emergency currency based solely on a high 
interest rate is undesirable, and, at best, a 
palliative. What we want is an issuance of 
properly protected bank-credit notes to insure 
elasticity; rediscounting. facilities; control of 
the discount rate ; and the prevention of soar- 
ing interest rates. These, and more, a cen- 
tral bank will furnish. Such an institution 
would deal exclusively with banks, receive 
and disburse Government moneys, act as 
Government agents in reducing paper money, 
issue currency, and rediscount for banks. It 
would serve as a buttress for the national 
banks and as a sanctuary in times of panic. 
It would prevent the hoarding of Govern- 
ment money in the Treasury vaults by act- 
ing as its custodian, and it would terminate 
the periodic appeals of the money market to 
the Treasury for relief. By dividing its 
stock among the national banks of the coun- 
try in proportion to their capital its relation 
to each would be uniform, and through the 
constant changing of its paper its assets 
would be available always and its assistance 
to business constant. Moreover, it would 
eliminate the Sub-Treasury system, and pre- 
vent inflation and contraction, liable to fol- 
low the Government's disbursements and 
collections, by keeping the nation's money at 
the disposal of trade and commerce. 

We have no banking system to-day. Each 
bank is an independent unit, playing a " lone 
hand " in the game of finance, and with 
never a thought of its relation to the system 
as a whole. This may lead to disaster. 
When banks realize that suspicion is lurking 
in the public mind, they become suspicious 
of one another and hurriedly attempt to 
amass reserves. This was the case last No- 
vember and led to gigantic hoarding by the 
banks, to the utter paralysis and confusion 
of business and banking. Under a central 
bank this would not happen, for the latter, 
possessing the right to issue credit bank 
notes, could regulate its issuance automatic- 
ally and precisely through its relations with 



all the other banks, thus meeting every de- 
mand, extraordinary and otherwise. 

CLEARING-HOUSE CERTIFICATES INADE- 
QUATE. 

Clearing-house certificates are our only 
recourse iinder present conditions, but how- 
ever serviceable to banks, as a means of de- 
fense in a currency famine, they lead to 
chaos in business. Domestic exchange is 
halted. Collections and remittances cease. 
Business men can neither make remittances 
nor avail themselves of their bank accounts, 
and are forced to suspend through no fault 
of their own, but through the total insuffi- 
ciency of our financial machinery, which 
proves inadequate to the strain to which it 
is subjected. What is the inevitable result? 
Depression, blighting and lingering, which 
must continue to visit us so long as the 
Government takes no step to prevent panics, 
but leaves to the bankers themselves the task 
of devising ways and means to arrest them 
as often as they occur. Were a central bank 
established the case would be different. Bank- 
credit notes of such an institution, responsive 
to the demands of business, expanding and 
contracting readily, would replace the cer- 
tificates aforementioned, insuring steadiness 
and safety to the merchant, the depositor, 
and the banker alike. 

Every country in Europe has a central 
bank, and the Bank of England, Bank of 
France, and Imperial Bank of Germany, or 
Reichsbank, are pertinent illustrations of 
worth and service. Japan copied our system 
thirty-five years ago, but later discarded it 
for the central bank. We alone among 
highly civilized peoples have no such insti' 
tution, and to profound political prejudice, 
that is absolutely without foundation, must 
responsibility therefor be ascribed. It is a 
melancholy commentary on our character 
and an admission of our inefficiency, that we 
are unable to adopt for our financial ends a 
method, so helpful to other countries. A bill 
for a central bank is now before Congress, 
having been introduced in the Senate by 
Senator Hansbrough, and this may force the 
issue. Certain it is, — as shown by the 
currency poll above referred to, — the tra- 
ditional prejudice of the Jacksonian era 
against a central bank is disappearing with 
the years. 



OSCAR II., SWEDEN^S DEMOCRATIC MONARCH. 

BY A SWEDISH-AMERICAN. 



/^NCE when the late king of Sweden, 
faithful to a favorite practice of his, 
paid an impromptu visit to a public school 
in some provincial town^ he bent over the 
littlest of a class of wide-eyed and gaping 
little maidens, and with his accustomed 
stately kindness of tone, that had in it no 
vestige of condescension, he put to her the 
question : 

'' Canst thou name me the three greatest 
of our kings? " 

After some faltering the girl stammered 
forth the names of Gustavus Adolphus, 
Charles XII., and, — Oscar II. The twinkle 
in the monarch's glance grew merrier as he 
asked again : 

" And canst thou also tell me something 
I did to deserve that honor?" 

The little flatterer pondered, pouted, 
whimpered, wept, and then gasped out in 
open despair: " N-n-no — I can't think of 
anything at all ! " 

" Well, dear, don't take it so hard," re- 
joined the king, as he put his hand sooth- 
ingly on the head of the sobbing girl. ** I 
cannot think of anything myself." 

Some there are who might take issue with 
that verdict, but, all in all considered, the 
claim of the gentlest and sweetest of modern 
monarchs to the love of his people and the 
respect of the whole civilized world lay in 
what he w^as rather than in what he did. 
It w^as his faith in the cause of justice and 
truth, his sincere respect for the rights of 
nations as of individuals, and his warm love 
for all mankind, which enabled him to fill 
that hardest duty of a ruler, — the duty of 
subjecting his own will to that of the people. 
And from those qualities he drew the 
strength to refrain from action at a time 
when to do anything at all would have been 
to provoke a sanguinary clash between two 
kindred nations. The Swedes have long 
been fond of relating how Charles XV. on 
liis deathbed turned to his brother and suc- 
cessor with the remark: 

" It will hold together as long as you live, 
Oscar, but God help your children ! " 

With " it " the dying king was supposed 
to have meant the union between Sweden 
and Norway, and for years the wisest heads 
on both sides of the Kjolen Mountains 



dreaded no thought so much as that of what 
might happen when King Oscar died. It 
was generally supposed that the Norwegians 
would take no radical step while he was 
still alive, and it was as generally feared in 
some quarters, hoped in others, that his son 
would meet such a .step in a manner that 
could lead to nothing but war. Heavy as 
the sorrow of the king was when the long 
feared crisis finally arrived, in 1905, I be- 
lieve personally that his sorrow was mingled 
with a strong sense of relief at being able to 
deal with it in his own spirit. Not that I 
think his son actually held any of the war- 
like views with which he too frequently has 
been credited, but that it would have been 
so much more difHcult for the younger and 
less loved man to check the chauvinistic pro- 
clivities of a certain element in Sweden, 
which, though not representative in every 
respect, has always wielded a disproportion- 
ate influence, through its hold on the admin- 
istrative. And when, apropos of King Os- 
car's death, the leading Swedish-American 
newspaper in the East, the Nordstjernan, 
says editorially that " it depended on him 
alone that the two nations were not drawn 
into a useless war," it expresses beyond 
doubt a universal opinion as well as a reason 
more weighty than all others for granting 
real greatness of character to the departed 
ruler. 

THE KING AS ARTIST AND WRITER. 

Another proof that his high reputation 
everywhere was based on inherent merit, 
and not reflected from the office with which 
he was vested, may be found in the assertion, 
heard from everj^ one who came in personal 
contact with him, that he w^ould have made 
his influence felt in the world no matter 
where fate might have happened to start him. 
Like a majority of the Bernadottes, he was 
by nature an artist, and he gave ample evi- 
dence of creative ability as well as of keen 
and catholic appreciation. As a poet he pro- 
duced a few things that not only won praise 
from polite academicians, but went to the 
heart of the people itself. His translations 
are counted among the literary treasures of 
his country'; he wrote at least one play that 
still possesses enough vital power to tempt 




OSCAR II., KING OF SWEDEN. 



Born January 21, 1820. 



Died December 8, 1907. 



German managers into staging it every now 
and then ; his works on military history have 
been translated into several other languages, 
and his speeches will for a long time to come 
serve as models of Swedish prose. Add to 
this that he displayed on many occasions a 



personal courage rarely found in royal per- 
sonages except on the battlefield, w^hile his 
familiarity with every phase of public busi- 
ness compelled the respectful hearing even 
of those least inclined to listen to him. The 
most delicate tact and an irresistible charm 



40 



THE AMERICAN REl^IEW OF REFIEWS. 



of manners were joined with a simple majes- 
ty of bearing that caused delighted comment 
wherever he appeared. Not without reason 
has It been said that the kingllest of Euro- 
pean sovereigns was he who had the least 
portion of royal blood in his veins. And 
probably It was this happy gift of nature, 
making him look a king in every inch, that 
freed him once for all from the need of any 
artificial protections for his dignity. All 
through life he moved among other men not 
as a being made in a different manner, but 
as a man. 

FOND OF THE SEA AND OF MUSIC. 

His grandfather, the former Field Mar- 
shal of France and Prince of Ponte-Corvo, 
was still on the throne when he was born in 
1829, as the third son of Crown Prince Os- 
car and the beautiful Josephine of Leuchten- 
berg. He seemed far removed from the 
throne then, and thus he found freedom to 
develop himself more in keeping with his in- 
dividual tastes and inclinations. Another 
factor to be borne in mind is the character of 
his governor and principal instructor, the 
historian, F. F. Carlson, who gave to ^ his 
pupil a fondness for scientific exactness as 
well as an insight into the true causes of 
civilizatory development found none too fre- 
quently in professional thinkers, and hardly 
ever in princes. The things that drew him 
most strongly in those days were the sea and 
music. 

One of the foremost of Swedish com- 
posers, A. F. LIndblad, taught him the 
latter, while his fondness for the former w^as 
richly satisfied during the years when he 
worked his way through the ranks of the 
Swedish navy. And his position on board 
the various' man-of-war's-men in which he 
traveled on many seas In those days was 
never merely ornamental or even exceptional. 
He took not only the title but also the work 
of the offices he held, from midshipman to 
admiral. 

COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE. 

It was characteristic of him, too, that 
when he married, he did so out of love. On 
a tour through several countries in 1856 he 
was fortunate enough to meet Princess So- 
phia of Nassau. The courtship was brief and 
ardent. Within a few months occurred the 
engagement, and the wedding foUovved In 
less than a year. To the last that royal 
couple remained strongly devoted to each 
other in spite of widely differing tastes and 



temperaments. She has all her life been 
intensely religious, with a strong leaning 
toward pietism, and Illness has still further 
developed this inborn tendency. He, on the 
other hand, was always gay, llghthearted, 
fond of merriment, and given to many pleas- 
ures and pursuits which his spouse could only 
look upon as far too w^orldly. 

A CONCILIATORY RULER. 

Duke Oscar Frederick, as he was known 
In those early days, found himself the heir 
apparent to the throne after death had un- 
expectedly removed the two claimants with 
rIgJKts prior to his own. And on the suc- 
cession of his eldest brother, he became the 
Crown Prince. It was a delicate position, 
which imposed on him a reserve foreign to 
his nature. As it contrasted sharply with 
the unceremonious jollity of his brother, 
King Charles, he came by degrees to be re- 
garded by those Ignorant of his true charac- 
ter with a distrust bordering on dislike. 
Thus when the succession fell to him in 
1872, he found himself little understood and 
less loved. It took him years to overcome 
the prejudice. As far as I can remember. It 
was his sanction of the Impeachment pro- 
ceedings by the Norwegian Radicals against 
the retiring Conservative ministry which, in 
the early '8o's, first served to turn the 
trend of public opinion In his favor, both in 
Sweden and In Norway. That act w^as one 
of the many by which he showed his ability 
to submit his own inclinations to the de- 
mands of the people without becoming a 
mere tool In the hands of any one political 
party. About the same time he succeeded In 
bringing about a deeply needed and by him- 
self long-cherished reform of the popular 
educational system in Sweden. Previously, — 
It was, in fact, his first important step after 
his ascension to the throne, — he had on his 
own initiative proclaimed full freedom of 
worship for persons not belonging to the 
established church. 

A Scandlnavlanism of the purely senti- 
mental kind, — the kind that talked without 
ever dreaming of putting the talk into deeds, 
— had prevailed until then on the peninsula. 
Intermixed with it was an equally senti- 
mental sympathy witli France. Though 
himself the grandson of a Frenchman and 
still keenly devoted to French literature and 
art. King Oscar had the foresightedness to 
recognize that the interests of the country 
were more closely bound up with those of 
Germany. And one of the most striking 



OSCAR II., SWEDEN'S DEMOCRATIC MONARCH, 41 

features of his reign has been the growing Gustavus Adolphus (now the Crown 

cultural intercourse between the nations in Prince) and the Princess Margaret of 

.the north and their neighbor south of the Connaught. 

Baltic. And while the king discouraged Up to the last King Oscar remained 

the speech-making, empty Scandinavianism active and interested in all public affairs, 

against which Ibsen was fond of launching Though he had experienced several brief but 

his most vitriolic invectives, he fostered in- rather severe illnesses of late years, the end 

stead a fellow-feeling between Sweden, Nor- came without warning, after a few days of 

way, and Denmark that found its expression indisposition, suddenly taking a fatal turn, 

in practical co-operation, in the equalization A kindly " thanks " for a small favor ren- 

of commercial and industrial regulations, in dered him by a member of his family was the 

the breaking down of as many as possible of last word heard from his lips. Previously 

the unnecessary barriers between them. As he had expressed his wish to the members of 

the years passed on and the trend of his his cabinet that no interruption in public 

labors became understood and appreciated, or private business be made on account of 

he found a part of his reward in a steadily his death, 
increasing respect for him throughout the 

• ^^' 2 ij . . .u . . J1 THE NEW KING AND QUEEN. 

civilized world, — a respect that repeatedly 

found expression in requests that he act as King Gustavus V., who took the oath of 
arbiter of international differences. He had office within a few hours of his father's death, 
always bee'n fond of traveling, and this fond- on December 8, has suffered something re- 
ness he continued to indulge up to the last, sembling his father's fate as Crown Prince. 
Unlike those of some other monarchs having Overshadowed by the more brilliant gifts 
a similar taste, his comings and goings on and more attractive personality of the parent, 
the continent of Europe were always the he has for years been spoken of in a rather 
objects of pleasant and welcoming comment, disparaging manner in Sweden, while in 
If gossip had to name King Christian of Norway he harvested outright hatred in re- 
Denmark ** the father-in-law of all Eu- turn for his determined upholding of the 
rope," King Oscar was surely " the friend union. On frequent occasions during the 
of all the world." Apace with his own fame last decade he has acted as vice-regent while 
grew the prosperity of his people. On either his father was sick or traveling, and in this 
side of the Kjolen his reign marked an era way he has found chance to display qualities 
of unprecedented economical, social and that have gradually changed the popular 
spiritual progress which not even the inter- regard of him from one of suspicion to one 
nal dissensions of the sister nations could of hearty respect. His nearsightedness, his 
interrupt. reserve of manner, his very sincerity and 
Not only as a ruler but as a father King serious mindedness have militated against 
Oscar was both wise and fortunate. Four him, but it seems probable that he will prove 
sons came to him through his marriage, and the very best ruler Sweden could desire at 
these have proved men of his own type, the present juncture. He is slow to make 
Never did he do more to win the approval of up his mind, and will not do so until he has 
his subjects and of thinking men and women searched every phase and detail of the prob- 
everywhere than when he permitted the mar- lem before him, but once he has come to a 
riage of his third son, named after himself, conclusion he pursues his path without look- 
to a young Swedish noblewoman, Froken ing to right or left. 

Ebba Munck of Fulkila. While the prince The new queen was the Princess Victoria 

had to renounce his right of succession and of Baden, through whom, by a strange play 

his position as a royal prince of Sweden, his of circumstances, the claims of the extinct 

relations to his father and the other mem- House of Vasa, — the last direct descendant 

bers of the royal family remained the same of which passed away a few days after King 

as before his marriage. As the years went Oscar, in the person of Carola, Dowager- 

by a third generation grew up in the palace Queen of Saxony, and daughter of the de- 

at Stockholm, — again a brood of long-limbed posed King Gustavus Adolphus IV. of 

and broad-shouldered sons w^ith wholesome Sweden, — -may be said to have become joined 

tastes and bright minds and kindly tempera- with those of the reigning House of Berna- 

ments. And at last, when the king was dotte, and through her, her son, the present 

seventy-eight 5^ears old, a great-grandchild Crown Prince, is a descendant of both those 

wa^ laid in his arms, — the first son of Prince houses. 



A NOBEL PRIZE FOR AMERICAN SCIENCE. 

BY HERBERT T. WADE. 

'\X7'HEN the trustees of the Nobel Fund the promotion of peace to President Roose- 
in their awards for 1907 decided to velt in 1906 naturally met with the enthusl- 
confer the annual prize for physics on Prof, astic approval of the people of the United 
Albert A. MIchelson of the University of States, and so this more recent honor to an 
Chicago, the event was significant as being Illustrious physicist is considered as much a 
the first time that this distinguished honor recognition of American science and capacity 
had been paid to an American man of for original work and minute specialization 
science. The award of the Nobel prize for as it is a well merited tribute to the dis- 
tinguished recipi- 
ent. Furthermore, 
It is an added 
source of gratifica- 
tion that Professor 
Michelson's work 
represents most 
largely the results 
of American train- 
ing and environ- 
ment and has been 
carried on for the 
most part In Amer- 
ican institutions. 

Born at Strelno, 
Prussia, December 
19, 1852, he was 
brought to this 
country as a boy, 
and from the San 
Francisco high 
school entered the 
United States Na- 
val Academy at 
Annapolis, where 
he was graduated 
In .1873. The 
young ensign's in- 
terest in physics 
and chemistry led 
to his detail to the 
teaching staff of 
the Academy in 
1875, and it w^as 
here that he com- 
menced his experi- 
mental work that 
soon developed In- 
to such impor- 
tance. He was at- 
tracted especially 
toward the prob- 
lem of the velocity 




PROFESSOR ALBERT A. MICHELSON. 
(Winner of the Nobel Prize In Physics, 1907.) 



A kOBEL PRIZE FOR AMERICAN SCIENCE. 



43 



of light, which since the days of Galileo 
had appealed with such interest to physicists. 
Although a speed of 186,000 miles a second 
is as much beyond the grasp of the ordinary 
mind as it was beyond the crude though 
ingenious methods of Galileo, yet in 1849 
the French physicist Fizeau was able to ap- 
proximate this quantity, using apparatus the 
principal element of which was a rapidly 
rotating toothed -v^^heel. This method was 
improved on by Foucault in 1850, who em- 
ployed a rotating mirror and a much shorter 
distance for his beam. Here the velocity was 
obtained by observing the displacement of 
the reflected light in a telescope, rather than 
by its eclipse, as in Fizeau's experiment. 

RE-DETERMINING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT. 

It was an improvement of this method 
that young Michelson devised, and obtaining 
at an expense of $10 a small revolving mir- 
ror, with such apparatus as the Naval Acad- 
emy laboratory afforded and he could con- 
struct, he made a series of determinations 
which gave as a mean value of the velocity 
of light 186,500 miles. This preliminary 
work so commended itself to the scientific 
men of the navy that the sum of $2000 was 
placed at his disposal and special apparatus 
with a small frame building in which it was 
installed was constructed, so that early in 
the year 1879 the first observations could be 
made. The care taken in these experiments 
and the delicacy of adjustment and manipu- 
lation aroused the admiration of older physi- 
cists and astronomers, and the values ob- 
tained for the velocity of light from these 
observations were considered an important 
advance in accuracy and precision. It may 
be said in passing that the importance of this 
quantity does not He merely in its use in 
optical problems at the earth's surface, but 
assuming that light travels with the same 
velocity in interplanetary space as in a vac- 
uum, Its velocity becomes an Important con- 
sideration In astronomy. It affords a most 
useful method of determining the solar par- 
allax and the distance of the sun, either by 
considering It in connection with observa- 
tions of the eclipses of the satellites of Jupi- 
ter or with the astronomical quantity known 
as the " constant of aberration," derived 
from observations of the fixed stars. 

At the conclusion of these Important ex- 
periments, Michelson, who by this time had 
reached the grade of master, was assigned to 
the Nautical Almanac Office In Washington, 
where his studies In light were continued. 



Then going to Europe he was able to enjoy 
the facilities of the laboratories of the Uni- 
versities of Berlin and Heidelberg and of the 
College de France, and Ecole Polytechnique, 
and was brought into close contact with the 
great physicists who then presided over these 
institutions. In this way he was able to de- 
velop some experimental ideas which he had 
previously evolved. 

STUDYING THE LIGHT WAVES. 

Realizing in his study of light waves that 
greater use could be made of the principle 
of interference, he began a series of experi- 
ments which since have found wide applica- 
tion and development at his hands. Not 
only has he been enabled to determine the 
most minute distances in terms of the wave 
length of light, but one of the early applica- 
tions of his experiments was to the determin- 
ing of the relative motion, if any, between 
the all-pervading ether and the earth. This 
involved measuring the relative speeds of 
beams of light in different directions as re- 
gards the motion of the earth. While this 
and subsequent experiments led to negative 
results, yet they brought about improvements 
of the apparatus in the form of the inter- 
ferometer, so that it became most useful for 
spectroscopy and metrology. 

Convinced that a career devoted to science 
was more to his nature Michelson resigned 
from the navy in 1881, and was called to 
the Case School of Applied Science, at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, as professor of physics. Here 
ample opportunity was given for research 
and the range and scope of his experiments 
with the Interferometer were greatly In- 
creased, numerous papers on this subject be- 
ing communicated to scientific journals and 
learned societies. At Cleveland a repetition 
of the experiments on the velocity of light 
was undertaken and more accurate values 
secured, while the relative speeds of the 
waves in air, water, and other gases and 
liquids was obtained. So well recognized by 
this time was Professor Michelson's repu- 
tation that In 1887 he became vice-president 
and chairman of the section of physics of 
the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and In the following year 
w^as elected a member of the National Acad- 
emy of Sciences, that small group of Amer- 
ican scientific Immortals. That this growing 
reputation was not confined to the United 
States Is shown by the fact that the Royal 
Society of London In 1889 conferred on 
Professor Michelson its Rumford Medal, In 



44 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



recognition of his researches on optics. In 
this year he became professor of physics in 
Clark University, at Worcester, Mass., 
where in addition to supervising research by 
graduate students, he further developed the 
practical use of the interferometer in the 
measurement of distances. When it is stated 
that the length of a light wave varies from 
TT.Vto of an inch for red to -5-9,Vo-o j^^ 
violet, the difficulties in the way of using 
such a quantity can be understood. But it 
was here that Professor Michelson's manipu- 
lative skill was able to achieve success, and 
he was able to measure with accuracy small 
distances in terms of the waves of light of 
a fixed position in the spectrum. 

A NEW STANDARD OF LENGTH. 

The accuracy of this work so appealed to 
Dr. B. A. Gould that when he attended the 
meeting of the International Committee of 
Weights and Measures at Paris as the dele- 
gate of the United States in 1892, he 
brought the matter before the eminent 
physicists and metrologists composing that 
body. Accordingly an invitation was ex- 
tended to Professor Michelson to carry on 
and extend his investigation at the Bureau 
International des Poids et Mesures at 
Sevres near Paris, with a view to determin- 
ing the length of the International Prototype 
Meter in terms of the wave length of light. 
Professor Michelson proceeded to Paris, and 
in one of the laboratories of the Bureau in- 
stalled his apparatus. A year was spent in 
the careful adjustment and the making of 
observations, but when the latter were com- 
puted the results were most satisfactory, 
their harmony indicating a high degree of 
precision. The prototype meter Professor 
Michelson found was equal to 1,553,163.5 
red waves of the spectrum of the metal cad- 
mium, 1,966,249.7 of the green, and 2,083,- 
372.1 of the blue, with an absolute accuracy 
of one part in 2,000,000. 

This research fixes the standard of length 
now used, independent of time and all other 
considerations, as the waves of light are un- 
alterable. Even if the properties of the 
ether should change as the solar system 
moves through space, it would be hardly less 
than 20,000,000 years, says Professor Mich- 
elson, before any such effects would be 
material in changing the wave length of 
light. On the other hand the present plati- 
num-iridium standard meter preserved most 
carefully in the vault of the Bureau Inter- 
national, even in spaces of time more readily 



appreciated by the mind, may undergo such 
changes as may unfit it for use as a standard, 
not to mention its possible loss, damage, or 
destruction. As the standards of the metric 
system underlie the metrology of the entire 
world, the importance of permanently de- 
fining them cannot be underestimated as an 
achievement in physics. 

Professor Michelson's return from this 
successful work at Paris enabled him to take 
up the organization of the department of 
physics of the University of Chicago, to the 
head of which he was appointed in 1892. 
Arranging a large and commodious labora- 
tory, he gathered around him skilful teachers 
and investigators who were able to profit 
from his direction and experience, so that 
this department has achieved and maintained 
an enviable place among those of American 
universities for teaching the fundamentals of 
science as well as for the furtherance of 
original investigation and research. Here 
conditions of equipment and organization 
have enabled Professor Michelson to carry 
on his original work without a diminishing 
of its amount or quality. 

THE ECHELON SPECTROSCOPE. 

In connection with his spectroscopic 
studies he has devised a new instrument 
known as the echelon spectroscope, where 
the effects of magnetism on the light waves 
and other phenomena can be studied. Just 
as his apparatus for measuring the velocity 
of light showed an improvement over that 
of Foucault, so with the new spectroscope 
the separation of special lines observed by 
Zeeman when the light was under the influ- 
ence of a magnetic field was strikingly in- 
creased. He has also extended the use of the 
interferometer to astronomy in connection 
with the telescope, and its power to resolve 
the light from the various stars into particu- 
lar and peculiar kinds of radiation has made 
it a most useful instrument. Also by the 
study of the characteristics of the radiations, 
considering the vibration of the ether as a 
form of motion, Professor Michelson has 
greatly increased the range of spectroscopy. 

In 1899, as lecturer in the famous Lowell 
course, at Boston, Professor Michelson ex- 
plained in a series of lectures recent develop- 
ments in the study of light, and these ad- 
dresses, printed in the Decennial Publications 
of the University of Chicago under the title 
of " Light Waves and Their Uses," afford 
an excellent insight into modern physical 
methods. In this same year, as one of the 



WILLIAM JAMES, THE MAN AND THE THINKER. 45 

American representatives at the jubilee of spect and admiration, if not the understand- 

Sir G. G. Stokes, the celebrated physicist and ing, of the average man, the world of science 

authority on light, Professor Michelson pre- at the other end of the scale to which the 

sented an address to this distinguished savant, physicist working in what is known as pure 

and in turn was honored with the degree of science largely addresses himself, has hardly 

Doctor of Science from Cambridge Uni- received the same general attention and ap- 

versity. The Royal Institution of London preciation. It is in this fieU that Professor 

also made him an honorary member, and in Michelson has achieved such great success, 

1900 he received a grand prize from the and it bears out a remark of a famous physi- 

Paris Exposition. cist often quoted by him, " that the future 

While the astronomer deals with magni- truths of physical science are to be looked for 

tudes so great that they challenge the re- in the sixth place of decimals." 



WILLIAM JAMES, THE MAN AND THE THINKER. 

BY EDWIN BJORKMAN. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM JAMES, the out-of-the-way nook that the visiting stran- 

foremost exponent of Pragmatism and ger needs a chart and compass to find his way 

the representative of contemporaneous Amer- to it through the labyrinth of meandering 

ican philosophy who looms largest in the avenues that is Cambridge, 

public eye not only in his native country The academic career now brought to a 

but all over the world, retired officially on formal, if not actual, end has not only sur- 

October i from the chair of philosophy at passed the ordinary in duration and produc- 

Harvard University, which he had occupied tiveness, but it has, to an exceptional extent, 

for ten years. A pension from the Carnegie been characterized by a steady growth, an 

Institution has enabled him at last, — he is incessant opening of new vistas and widening 

now sixty-five years old, but as hale and of outgrown horizons. It would be hard to 

strong and active as a man of fifty, — to real- find a finer illustration of that modern, scien- 

ize a long cherished desire of devoting his tific spirit which enjoins the searcher after 

whole time and energy to the completion of truth from ever stopping in the belief that 

several philosophical works already planned, the final goal has been reached at last. To 

Though the public and science must be Professor James the words of Emerson have 

gainers by a change which enables Professor always applied in full force: '' His life is a 

James to put into final form those ideas and progress, and not a station." The exact 

theories that have raised him to the emi- sciences drew him at first. He studied medi- 

nence he now holds in the world of thought, cine and took his degree of M.D. in 1870, 

this change will mean a severe loss to the but he never practiced. Instead, he taught, 

university and the student body. The loss giving the major portion of his attention to 

would be still greater were the institution to physiology. Eight years saw him as instruc- 

be deprived not only of Professor James' tor and assistant professor in that subject at 

teaching but also of the inspiring influence the university from which he had graduated, 

of his personality. But his life will continue But his future life work was calling him 

to be centered in and about Harvard, where even at that early day, although its voice w^as 

he has been at home almost uninterruptedly still coming out of the *' sub-conscious " 

since he first entered the Lawrence Scientific only. By degrees he turned more and more 

School as a student in 1861. His familiar, from matter to mind, from the body to the 

briskly moving figure, his bristling beard, soul. He began by interpreting the psycho- 

and his smiling eyes, will still be seen logical theories of Spencer, and ended by 

around the Delta, and innumerable student working out new ones of his own. From the 

pilgrimages will undoubtedly be made from first his steps tended toward new and un- 

that region to the cosy house on Irving broken paths, and his honor of having opened 

Street where Professor James lives with his these cannot be lessened by the paralleling of 

wife and sons, — a haven of peace snuggling his work by other men in some cases. 

so close among elms and shrubbery in an As a part of the curriculum, psychology 



46 



WE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiElVS. 



was merely a subordinate division of the 
department of philosophy in those days. In 
1880 an assistant professorship in philosophy 
was given the young psychologist, and five 
years later this was made a full professor- 
ship. But only in 1889 was Professor James 
given a separate chair of psychology. In the 
following year appeared his first great work, 
the " Principles of Psycholog}^" It had been 
nine years in the making. But it took hardly 
that many months to spread the name of the 
author throughout the civilized world. For 
the two volumes contained a complete expo- 
sition of what is now familiar to every stu- 
dent of psychology and philosophy as the 
Lange-James theory, the essence of which 
may be roughly expressed in the contention 
that our feelings are the result rather than 
the cause of our instinctive reactions against 
impressions from without. While still dis- 
puted, — and frequently with fanaticism, — 
this theory has been gaining ground ever 
since it was first published, and even where 
it has not been accepted in its entirety it 
has had the power to modify previous con- 
ceptions of our emotional processes. 

Like more than one prominent psychol- 
ogist in modern times, Professor James was 
irresistibly led on toward philosophy in its 
widest sense, — as a synthesis of all human 
knowledge for the interpretation and modifi- 
cation of man's relationship to life. In this, 
tendency, which in 1897 resulted in his 
transfer to a chair of philosophy at his own 
request, he was undoubtedly speeded by the 
increasing predominance of experimental 
psycholofr>% the methods of which have left 
him unsympathetic from the start in spite of 
his own firm belief that physiological 
changes underlie all psychological phenom- 
ena. In 1897, too, was published the volume 
entitled " The Will to Believe, and Other 
Essays," in which may be found his first 
definite announcements of pragmatic theories. 
These took then principally the form of a 
protest against the dogmatism, absolutism 
and fatalism of the orthodox Hegelian phil- 
osophy prevailing at Oxford, and represented 
here by Professor Royce of Harvard with 
such ability and originality that his works by 
many are valued even above those of Francis 
Bradley, the most effective thinker among 
the English Neo-Hegftlians. The two win- 
ters of 1900-01 and 1901-02 were spent by 
Professor James at Edinburg and Aberdeen, 
where he went to deliver the Gifford lecture 
courses on philosophy. The result of that 
venture across the ocean was his second mon- 



umental work, the " Varieties of Religious 
Experience : A Study in Human Nature." 
And again he was found to have rendered a 
contribution to human learning that was in 
a large degree original and in every respect 
significant. In that work the pragmatic at- 
titude of looking toward results rather than 
causes prevailed throughout. It accentuated 
on one side the unifying effect of vital re- 
ligious emotion on man's existence, and on 
the other side the futility of all religious 
forms that have ceased to influence human 
life actively. Harald Hoffding, the Danish 
philosopher who ranks among the greatest 
minds of the day, and who himself is the 
author of a remarkable Philosophy of Re- 
ligion, says concerning the work of Professor 
James: *' Long time has passed since I read 
a book that had the power of this one to 
make me look at man and life with new 
and refreshed vision." And right here it 
may be well to quote another utterance by 
the same writer about his American col- 
league: "James belongs to the foremost 
thinkers of our time. He combines compre- 
hensive knowledge with great power of ob- 
servation, keen critical judgment with ideal- 
istic enthusiasm, and freedom from prejudice 
with sincere conviction." 

THE EXPONENT OF PRAGMATISM. 

In late years Professor James has more 
and more claimed the attention of laymen 
and experts alike as the expounder and de- 
fender of a new philosophical method, — a 
method that had been vaguely glimpsed by 
one of our most brilliant and most diffuse 
thinkers (Charles Pierce) years before its 
true nature and proper application were 
grasped and explained by Professor James, 
Prof. John Dewey of Columbia, and Prof. 
F. C S. Schiller of Oxford. These three 
men stand fundamentally for the same thing, 
although one of them calls it Pragmatism, 
the other Instrum.entalism, and the third 
Humanism. James and Dewey arrived at 
their conclusions simultaneously and inde- 
pendently of each other, one applying the 
new ideas to logic in particular and the other 
to psychology. Schiller, who received in- 
spiration from both the others, has turned 
his attention more toward pure metaphysics. 
At present the importance of Pragmatism 
may be judged chiefly by the stir it has 
caused in the world of learning. And its 
actual bearings are still seen only by a small 
minority. Putting the matter into very 
broad and crude terms, it may be said that 




PROFESSOR WILLIAM JAMES. 



Pragmatism Insists on the correlation of 
philosophy to real life. Instead of turning 
backwards for inspiration and authentica- 
tion, it sends Its vision forward. It does not 
pretend to be a new philosophy, whether this 
word be used to designate a cosmologlcal con- 
ception or an attitude toward life. It Is a 
method rather than anything else, a way of 
working that leads to the weighing and 
judging of truth by the consequences Its ac- 
ceptance may have to men. It professes to 
teach how truth may be recognized, not what 
the truth Is. Of those who have preached It 
so far, none has done more than Professor 
James to carry out its innermost spirit by 



making it intelligible to all thinking men 
and women. With this object in view he 
delivered a course of lectures, first at Boston 
and then at Columbia "University, publishing 
them later In book form under the title of 
" Pragmatism : A New Name for Some Old 
Ways of Thinking." Plain and clear a^ Is 
the language of this volume. It has been 
largely misunderstood, where It was not wil- 
fully misinterpreted. 

One thing that Professor James declares 
with particular emphasis in this as In all his 
other works Is that what we generally call 
" truth " cannot be regarded as, — to quote 
another Pragmatlst, — " an unalterable sys- 



48 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



tern of objective truths that subsist inde- 
pendently of the flux of human experience." 
To him truth is being constantly produced 
by interaction between man and the world 
around him; or, as Professor James himself 
recently expressed this thought: ** Mind en- 
genders truth upon reality." But Pragma- 
tism goes further still by recognizing as truth 
only what has meaning and importance in 
man's life, judging the value of a truth by 
the consequences to man of its acceptance as 
such. And by this exercise of selective power 
man becomes able to exert an influence on 
the encountered reality, just as he is influ- 
enced by it. In other words, man not only 
helps to make the truth but to "make," — 
i. e., to change and reconstruct, — the world 
itself. Thus, according to Professor James 
and his followers, man ceases to be the help- 
less victim of a fate made for him by a 
power wholly outside of himself, as not only 
the theologians but also the philosophers of 
materialistic as well as idealistic leanings 
have insisted on making him. Another im- 
portant phase of this new tendency of phil- 
osophic thought is its refusal to recognize 
the complete supremacy of reason as taught 
by the prevalent rationalistic philosophies. 
On this point Prof. W. P. Montague of 
Columbia University said recently: " It is 
safe to say that Pragmatism, whatever else 
it may imply, stands for a protest against 
interpreting experience in terms that are ex- 
clusively cognitive. Existence does not con- 
sist primarily either in being perceived or in 
being conceived, but rather in being felt and 
willed." Taking into consideration not only 
these features of the new school, but also 
others not touched on here, it is clear that it 
tends directly away from that all too com- 
mon academical attitude which looks upon 
knowledge as something existing in and for 
itself, without regard to its usefulness to man. 

A MUCH-BELOVED PHILOSOPHER. 

Whether Professor James be considered as 
thinker or as teacher,* as writer or as man, 
his most characteristic qualities are catho- 
licity and charitableness of spirit, toward 
thoughts not less than toward men. He 
has unbounded faith in mankind as well as 
in individual men, and yet he is rarely if 
ever deceived. It is not blind trust but ex- 
treme acutencss of perception that fills him 
with limitless sympathy and turns him into 
what one of his friends described as a " dis- 
penser of spiritual alms." Persons in trou- 



ble, many of whom have been led by the 
study of his works to regard him as a sort of 
physician for the soul, are ever knocking at 
his door, and few are those that go away un- 
helped, while none is turned aside unheeded. 
In each man he manages to find a trace of 
good ; through the darkest case he spies a ray 
of hope. And men show naturally their best 
sides in his presence, both intellectually and 
morally. If there be anything of worth in 
them, his gentle words, so totally free from 
all intellectual snobbishness, are sure to re- 
veal it. 

In the lecture-room, in his books, and in 
his daily life, he is above all honest, both in 
•dealing with himself and with others. He 
is equally frank in confessing failure and 
claiming merit, in granting the limitations 
of all philosophy or those of his ow^n. In 
spite of his vast store of knovvledge and his 
deep insight into the nature of men and 
things alike, he never permits himself to be- 
come dogmatic. Obscurity is hateful to him. 
A master of style, he does not disdain to em- 
ploy colloquialisms, or even slang, if thereby 
he may make himself more easily under- 
stood. And to him the truth that is not 
known and understood is not yet any truth 
at all. His students have always mixed their 
admiration for him with a goodly portion of 
pure love, and they are often heard to de- 
clare that whatever be best in them, whatever 
they possess of sincerity, directness and un- 
conventionality as writers and instructors, 
they owe to the example set by Professor 
James. One result of his passion for clear- 
ness, on the platform as well as in print, has 
been to make many think him less deep than 
he is: the plainness of his style seems sadly 
lacking in profundity when compared with 
the veiled and oracular utterances of other 
philosophers. His openness of spirit has 
manifested itself strikingly in his attitude 
toward Christian and Mental Science as well 
as toward psychic research, the claims of the 
latter having always found in him a tolerant 
although far from credulous listener. 

If anything more be needed to make clear 
just what kind of man he is, I will add a 
little anecdote before I close. Not long ago 
a former pupil of Professor James lost all 
his personal property, including his library, 
through fire. A few days later he received 
by express a box containing fifty volumes 
which Professor James had picked out from 
his own rich store of books as being particu- 
larly needful and helpful to the sufferer. 



SOME OF ELECTRlClTrs RECENT TRIUMPHS. 

BY GEORGE ILES. 

(Author of " Inventors at Work.") 



AylT'HEN man in the making first kindled 
fire, he took a long stride toward be- 
coming man as he is. Fire gave him warmth 
in winter: it opened to him gates of the horth 
otherwise forever shut. After sundown it 
bestowed light, so that he could then w^ork 
or travel, hunt or fish, instead of idling in 
caves or huts as when destitute of glow^ing 
ember or flaring torch. When a blaze died 
out the earth below its ashes was found 
baked to hardness: here lay the proxnise of 
bricks and pottery, so that at last the walls 
of Ninevah were reared, the vases of Etruria 
took form. When a flame fiercer than com- 
mon melted sand to glass, there was prophecy 
of a telescope for Galileo, a camera for 
Daguerre, a microscope w^hereby Pasteur 
should detect the deadliest, because the min- 
utest, foes of man. All the streams of lead 
and iron, copper and ziitc, ever smelted from 
ores; all the acids, oils and alcohols that ever 
dropped from alembic or still, took their rise 
in that tiny blaze as it flickered under its 
creators' hands. Unknowingly there, too, 
were laid foundations for the mighty engines 
of Watt and Stephenson, Parsons and De 
Laval. Thence, also, sprang the tides of 
iron and steel which to-day gridiron the con- 
tinents, wall every steamship to resist the 
ocean surge, and build machines to exalt a 
hundred-fold the weaving, digging, hammer- 
ing thrust of the human arm. 

Could mankind harness an agent still 
mightier than flame? Yes, and we are now 
in the midst of that subduing, for never 
more than at this hour were the masters of 
electricity triumphant. We have but to 
glance at a few of their recent conquests to 
see that electricity can do all that flame does, 
do it better, and accomplish tasks infinitely 
beyond the reach of fire, however ingeniously 
applied. 

ELIiCTRIC HEAT BETTER THAN FLAME HEAT. 

Flame, as a direct source of heat, is at 
best a faulty servant. In consuming oxy- 
gen it produces carbon dioxide and other 
harmful gases ; it wastefully warms huge vol- 
umes of inert nitrogen, with the result that 
temperatures are much reduced. If the 



fuel contains sulphur or phosphorus these 
much impair the quality of molten iron or 
seething steel. In dwellings, in mines, on 
shipboard, the necessary consumption of air 
is a dire evil ; more serious still is the out- 
pouring of deadly gases. Flame labors under 
other disadvantages. It is on the outside of 
a crucible or retort that it beats ; the shell to 
be penetrated, if the steel plate of a big 
boiler, may be an inch thick; much thicker, 
and non-conducting as well, is the brick wall 
of a bake-oven. Flame produces much heat 
of little worth because of low temperature. 
'Fhe whole Atlantic Ocean might be luke- 
warm and still leave a potato unboiled. It 
is the margin by which a temperature over- 
tops the degree needed for boiling, melting 
or welding that decides its value. Yet more : 
flame at most has a play of only a few inches. 
Even when it raises steam, the best of all 
heat-carriers, that steam rqay be borne no 
further than a mile without excessive loss. 
All these faults and wastes disappear when, 
instead of flame, we employ electric heat, not- 
withstanding the cost of its round-about pro- 
duction by a furnace, a heat-engine and a 
dynamo. In many cases the engineer can 
happily dispense with fuel altogether, and 
draw upon a waterfall, as notably at Niaga- 
ra. Electricity, in whatever mode produced, 
may be easily and fully insulated, taken, if 
we please, lOO miles, and there, through 
non-conducting mica or asbestos, enter the 
very heart of a kettle, or still, to exert itself 
as heat, without an iota of subtraction. It 
has no partner, gaseous or other, to work 




A CRANK WELDED BY THE ELIHU THOMSON 
PROCESS. 



50 THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF kEl^IElVS. 

Injury or levy a tax. Electricity, too, by a iron-smelting and steel-makinG. 
transformer, may be readily lifted from low 

to high voltage, or pressure, immensely The extreme heat of the electric furnace, 
widening its effective play in soldering, weld- with its exclusion of all undesired substances 
ing, smelting. At any temperature desired, whatever, make it an ideal means of smelt- 
there, with perfect constancy, electric heat Ing iron or producing steel. In reviewing a 
may be maintained, with no need that a remarkable series of experiments, Mr. F. W. 
branding or smoothing Iron return period- Harbord, the eminent English metallurgist, 
ically to a Hre, with risk of scorching. says: " Pig Iron can be produced on a com- 
mercial scale where electric energy Is $io 
ELECTRIC WELDING. ^^^ kilowatt foT a year, as against $7 per ton 

A capital example of the convenience and for coke. Steel, equal to the best Sheffield 
economy of electric heat Is displayed In the crucible steel, is obtainable electrically at 
art of electric welding, due to Elihu Thom- less than the present cost of producing high- 
son. Two steel bars to form parts of a class crucible steel." The Keller electrical 
crank are clamped together, and a current Is process for pig Iron has required In a first 
sent through their junction. At every point run .475 horsepower year per ton; In a see- 
where contact is imperfect, resistance to the ond run, .226. In steel making the Kjellin 
current Is greatest, and the highest tempera- method has consumed .116 horsepower year 
ture appears. Electric heat thus goes just per ton, the Heroult method, .153, the Kel- 
where it does most work. At the Instant of ler method, .112. Only very few waterfalls 
welding the two pieces of steel are forcibly in the world can furnish electricity at Mr. 
drawn together; wlien cool they sever under Harbord's limit of $10 per year for a kilo- 
stress anywhere but at their weld. In like watt, or ij/^ horsepower. For other pui:- 
manncr the tires for bicycles and automobiles poses than the production of heat, as for 
are united, the rails for railroads, the links motive power or lighting, the current would, 
of chains, the tubes for boilers, the contain- as a rule, have much more value. In New 
ers for compressed gases, and so on through York retail customers pay the Edison Com- 
a long list. The chemist, with as much gain pany 10 cents per kilowatt hour, or $876 
as the metal-worker, adopts electric heat. per annum. Clearly a much lower rate must 
CARBON YIELDS LIGHT.RIVALS THE DIAMOND, '^'^'"'}}f ""'j Hvalry ' betwixt the electric 
AND MINIMIZES FRICTION. """"^^^ ^""^ 'he blast furnacc. 

n V. I 4-U U- r U • 1 1 LIGHT ALMOST TREBLED. 

Carbon, perhaps the chier chemical ele- 
ment, has forms as diverse as coal, graphite, Two methods by which electricity may 
and diamonds. Both as an element and In afford heat are Illustrated In ordinary elec- 
its compounds, It has for years engaged the trie lighting. An Edison lamp has a flla- 
skill of Edward Goodrich Acheson, at Nlag- ment of carbon which so resists a current as 
ara Falls. There, with electric heat of ut- to rise to a vivid glow. A second mode Is 
most intensity, he converts anthracite Into shown In an arc-lamp, whose two carbon 
graphitlzed carbon rods, almost pure. Their pencils first touch, then withdraw, leaving 
conductivity Is four-fold that of the best between them an arc of dazzling radiance, 
natural graphite. These rods serve as cur- An Incandescent lamp, so far from requiring 
rent-carriers in an electric manufacture of air, demands a vacuum. To-day the best 
alkalis, Impossible without their agency. Mr. lamp of this kind has a thread of tungsten, 
Acheson makes graphite serviceable as a pig- of an efficiency two and one-half times great- 
ment, and also In a form useful as a lubrl- er than that of a carbon filament. Tung- 
cant. As little of his flaky graphite as I sten may safely reach 1850 degrees Centi- 
part to 300 of oil greatly heightens the value grade; carbon may not surpass 1660 degrees, 
of the oil in lubrication. He has discovered Only within two years have the difficulties 
that by adding a little gallotannic acid to of treating tungsten for lamps been over- 
thls flaky graphite It remains suspended In come. In one process the metal Is crushed 
either oil or water. As an indivisible liquid to powder, united with a binding material to 
the mixture may be pumped throughout a form a paste which Is squirted through a dk 
huge machine shop, and drop from Its noz- as a thread; the binder Is then removed, leav- 
/les as if pure oil. Mr. Acheson makes also Ing the tungsten by Itself. It Is much more 
carborundum, a compound of carbon and sil- fra~gile than carbon, and must be carefully 
icon, an abrasive second only^o the diamond, handled; its filaments may be disposed down- 



ELECTRICITY'S RECENT TRIUMPHS. 



51 




THE FOREIGN MONEY ORDER DEPARTMENT, GENERAL POST OFFICE, NEW YORK, LIGHTED WITH COOPER 

HEWITT LAMPS. 



ward only. Its rays are so bright that they 
are usually dimmed by a semi-opaque globe, 
with, of course, considerable loss of light. 

The Westinghouse tungsten lamp has 
twenty candle power, for a current of 
1.25 watts per candle; it lasts 1000 hours 
with hardly any lessening of brilliancy ; 
it costs 90 cents. Side by side is a carbon- 
filament lamp, of sixteen candle power, for a 
current of 3.1 watts per candle; with a use- 
ful life of 450 hours; it costs 18 cents. With 
current at 10 cents per kilowatt hour, light 
from tungsten is about half as expensive as 
from carbon threads, inclusive of lamps in 
both cases. 

A Cooper-Hewitt tube in economy excels 
a tungsten lamp as much as that lamp dis- 
tances an Edison bulb. It is of clear glass, 
about 21 inches long, with a small cup at 
each end inside. When in circuit a little 
mercury running from end to end starts the 
light, which, coming as it does, from an ex- 
tensive surface, is so moderate in brightness 



as not to need a shade, with its destruction 
of light. In the automatic design here illus- 
trated a switch closes the circuit, at once a 
magnet tilts the lamp for its start; this de- 
vice assures relighting should there be an 
accidental interruption of current. In this 
type, *' H," a candle power requires .64 
watt; with a tube twice as long, type '' K," 
the outlay sinks to .55 watt per candle, or 
1356 candles per horsepower. The light is 
green and unsuitable for houses, stores, or 
wherever else colors are to remain normal to 
the eye. Apart from this restriction the 
Hewitt tubes have wide applicability to fac- 
tories, mills, foundries, composing rooms, 
freight sheds, docks, streets and public 
squares. They are used in the New York 
Post Office. In photography their beams are 
particularly rapid and effective. 

How in cost does light from electricity 
compare with light from flame? In its best 
form, with rays directed downward, a 
Welsbach mantle gives 25 candles for each 



52 



THE AMERICAN REFIEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 



cubic foot of gas burned an hour. With gas 
at $1.25 per 1000 cubic feet, and tungsten 
lamps consuming current at 4 cents per kilo- 
watt hour, the cost is the same, leaving out 
of account the expense of either mantles or 
candles. 

ELECTRICITY AT HOME. 

Carbon-filament lamps are much cheaper 
to-day than at first; a like fall in price may 
soon give popularity to lamps of much higher 
economy. On equal terms electric light is 
preferred to any other; it is the safest of all, 
sends out no fumes and but little heat, while 
it leaves the air unconsumed. In many an- 
other service electricity stands ready to lift 
the burdens of housekeeping, to create new 
comforts at home. 

Last October the Brooklyn Edison Com- 
pany exhibited in New York the best array 
of electric appliances for the household ever 
brought together. A suite of rooms, to form 
a home, were equipped with every electrical 
aid. The kitchen had a coffee percolator, a 
frying kettle, a waffle iron, all heated at 
small cost. In the laundry was a smoothing 
iron always at the right temperature, need- 
ing no renewals of heat at a stove. A variety 
of motors operated a clothes-washer, a wring- 
er, a sewing machine, a dish-washer, a buffer 
to polish silver, and a vacuum cleaner for 
rugs and carpets^ A Brunswick refrigerator 
of one horsepower made a pound of ice every 
hour. Fan motors here and there were 
blowing a grateful breeze; in winter they 
might hasten the warming of rooms by driv- 
ing air over their steam coils. 

1 hese household motors are an unmatched 
gift of electricity. On a minor scale, for 
domestic labor, heat engines are out of the 
question. Steam motors are economical only 
when large. Gas engines of as litfle as five 
horsepower are built, but they are unwel- 
come tenants in a house. All heat engines 
exhale gases or vapors, need qualified attend- 
ants, introduce a risk of fire or scalding. 
Whether small enough for a cottage, or big 
enough to drive a steel rolling mill, an 
electric motor is equally efficient and de- 
sirabk-. On request it takes a walk, as in 
tlie traveling crane of a ship yard or quarry. 
In any use a flexible wire conveys all its 
energy, dismissing chains and belts, cranks or 
pulleys. And when idle it asks no pay. 

PUTTING POWER IN BANKS. 

Suppose we have a windmill, waterwheel, 
or other prime mover, now swift, then slow, 



and after that absolutely still. How can we' 
store its power at times of surplusage for 
hours of dearth? If we compress air, or lift 
water to lofty tanks, our outlay will be large, 
our losses by friction very considerable. But 
let us harness a storage battery and we shall 
be well and cheaply served. Every foot- 
pound of spare energy may be instantly and 
safely banked there, and withdrawn at need 
with small deduction. Not only in house- 
holds, office-buildings and factories has this 
battery high utility, but also as a means of 
travel, as in the runabout. The gasoline au- 
tomobile has a field of Its ow^n, as a high- 
power machine which may go indefinitely 
far. It may develop forty horsepower from 
a Herreshoff motor weighing but 415 
pounds, and furnish a horsepower for an 
hour for each pint of gasoline consumed, 
picking up from the air, as it goes along, the 
oxygen for combustion. The electromobile 
carries much less effective fuel in its lead or 
Iron, and besides must bear such acids and 
alkalis as its combinations demand. Last 
October Mr. Edison show^ed me his new 
nickel-iron cells, from which, for every fifty- 
three pounds, he expects a horsepower for an 
hour. Despite Its weight the electric vehicle 
is popular on many accounts ; it starts at a 
touch, asks no expert driver, is simple and 
safe, odorless and cool; and, above all, its 
habit is to stay in order. In their best de- 
signs electromoblles run fast and far. A 
Babcock machine travels twenty-six miles an 
hour on a level road. A Detroit machine 
has gone from Detroit to Toledo, seventy- 
two miles, in 220 minutes, with charge 
enough left for thirty miles more. A lady 
as she pays a round of calls or goes shopping, 
a physician visiting his patients, a family 
taking the air, all find the runabout prefera- 
ble to the automobile^ whose power and 
swiftness are excessive, with mechanism diffi- 
cult to control, costly to keep In repair. 

MOTORS ON THE RAIL. 

Incomparably more Important than the 
runabout Is the electric locomotive, which. In 
Its first estate, as the trolley-motor, has vastly 
expanded the suburbs of our cities, and 
created thousands of healthful homes. Pass- 
ing from city streets and country roads to 
the tracks of steam lines, this motor is work- 
ing a quiet revolution, by virtue of Inherent 
superiority at every point. To begin with, 
an electric: locomotive has left its fuel and 
furnace, Its boiler, water-tank and engine at 
home. Unburdened by their weight it is 



ELECTRICITY'S RECENT TRIUMPHS. 



53 




KITCHEN EXHIBIT OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES. AT MADISON SQUARE GARDEN^ NEW YORK CITY, 

OCTOBER, 1907. 



also free from their hazard of fire or scalding 
in case of mishap. With no tender to drag, 
this locomotive bears on its drivers so large 
a part of its total weight that it gets up 
speed in about half the time needed by its 
steam rival. Last July the New Haven 
Railroad began running its electric trains to 
New Rochelle from New York, sixteen 
miles, since extending this service to Stam- 
ford, seventeen miles further. An alternat- 
ing current, at ii,ooo volts, enters a car 
from an overhead wire through a pantagraph 
which permits much more play than does the 
common trolley-wheel. These Westing- 
house locom.otives, hauling 200-ton trains, 
which stop on an average every 2.2 miles, 
must net twenty-six miles an hour. On long 
runs they must go sixty-five to seventy miles 
an hour, or take 250-ton trains at sixty 
miles an hour. At such paces a steam loco- 
motive would have low efficiency; its cylin- 
ders would be too quickly emptied to be kept 
fully supplied with steam. At all speeds 
electric locomotives have their economy un- 



impaired. Nor is this all ; a heavy train, on a 
steep grade, may call for two or more steam 
locomotives. It is hardly possible to keep them 
in step so that they exert an even, uniform 
pull. A train might be a mile long, and with 
electric motors distributed throughout its 
length, all would advance as a single ma- 
chine when controlled by the Sprague mul- 
tiple-unit system. And again : a steam loco- 
motive is impelled by the to and fro action 
of its pistons, which, at high speeds, some- 
times deliver blows so violent as to lift the 
wheels from the track. An electric motor 
turns round and round, so that it never 
works this injury. 

TAKING POWER AFAR. 

Whether for railroad service, factory toil, 
city lighting, or aught else, It Is an inestima- 
ble boon that electricity may be borne for 
scores of miles at comparatively small cost 
for conductors, with Inconsiderable leakage 
by the way. The Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company of California has stations at their 



54 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REI^IEIVS. 



farthest 318 miles apart, supplying, all told, 
about 8o,cx)0 horsepower. Its chief currents 
have the enormous pressure of 60,000 volts. 
Each insulator, of stout porcelain, is made 
up of three separate, conical hoods. 

WIRELESS WORDS. 

Thus far we have glanced at services long 
performed by fire, and now better executed by 
electricity. Let us now view feats of elec- 
tricity that fire cannot attempt at all. In 
communicating messages, flame began to play 
a notable part long ago; first, as flaring bea- 
cons; then, in lamps such as those still swing- 
ing along railroad tracks. But all such 
means are narrowly limited In scope, and 
utterly fail when fogs descend or storms 
arise. Because an electric wire may be In- 
sulated for hundreds of miles it has created 
the telegraph, perhaps the chief gift bestowed 
by the electrician upon mankind. Electric 
waves are not only transmissible by a wire, 
they may be committed to the ether of free 
space, as by Marconi, so that with no metal- 
lic or other medium, save the aforesaid ether, 
he enables Ireland and Nova Scotia to signal 
to each other as if on opposite banks of- the 



Hudson, instead of being divided by the 
tempest swept Atlantic. The four Marconi 
towers at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, each 215 
feet tall, are surmounted by poles of fifty 
feet more, making a total height of 265 feet. 
Some fifty aerial wires run from these poles 
horizontally for several hundred feet as a 
directive system. Thus far seventy kilo- 
watts, about ninety-three horsepower, has 
sufficed in transmission. The plant Includes 
a steam engine of 500 horsepower, and an 
alternator of 350 kilowatts at 2000 volts. 

And speech as well as signals may be car- 
ried by the ether. Among the methods of 
wireless telephony may be mentioned that of 
Prof. R. A. Fessenden. For several months 
he has been transmitting speech from Brant 
Rock, Mass., to Brooklyn, N. Y., almost 
200 miles, nearly three-fourths of the dis- 
tance being overland. His alternator runs 
at 81,700 cycles per second, employing either 
a single armature machine of i;^ horse- 
power, or a machine of double this capacity. 

WHY NO TRANSCONTINENTAL 'PHONE? 

No telephone line, of the Bell type, joins 
New York and San Francisco : its double 







WESTINGHOUSE LOCOMOTIVE^ WITH TRAIN, NLVV YORK, NEW HAVEN .K: llARTFORU RAILROAD. 



ELECTRICITY'S RECENT TRIUMPHS. 



55 




THE INTERIOR OF THE FESSENDEN WIRELESS TELEGRAPH STATION AT BRANT ROCK, MASS. 



circuit of heavy copper wire would cost too 
much. 

A telegram takes Its w^ay along a succession 
of lines, each joined to the next by a self- 
acting repeater. No such contrivance is yet 
available in telephony, whose currents, fur- 
thermore, are so very slight as to be seriously 
impeded In passing through switchboards or 
other mechanism, no matter how well de- 
signed. • 

MUSIC PURELY ELECTRIC. 

Through a telephone we may listen to a 
distant orchestra or choir, but the effect Is 
not pleasant enough to give it popularity. 
To-day, the telephone adds to its old task of 
reproducing operas or symphonies as exe- 
cuted, the rendition of music wholly electric. 
In his telharmonlum Mr. Theodore Cahlll 
proceeds upon the fact that when a current 
Is reversed, or alternated, hundreds or thou- 
sands of times a second. It utters in a tele- 
phone a distinct musical note. When the 
alternations are few, the notes are grave; 



when the alternations Increase In their fre- 
quency, the notes rise in pitch. A performer 
at a keyboard touches off pulses from scores 
of diverse alternators, each voicing a simple 
note. Such notes duly blended recall the 
complex overtones of the flute, the oboe, or 
other Instrument. Effects beyond these, 
wholly new and delightful, are created, so 
that Mr. Cahill has conferred a fresh re- 
source upon composers and executants. His 
central station in New York resembles a 
powerhouse, with its engine, its groups of 
alternators and switchboards, its wire fes- 
toons. The music is sent forth on ordinary 
telephone lines anywhere within loo miles, 
and so powerfully that at any desired place 
an audience of 500 may together hear Its 
weird and sympathetic strains. 

ELECTRICITY FOR UNIVERSAL SERVICE. 

Our survey thus far, scant though it is, 
may suffice to show that the inventor and 
the manufacturer have fulfilled their duty 
with respect to electrical art. They have de- 



56 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



signed and built excellent motors and dyna- 
mos, heaters and lamps, chemical dividers of 
all sorts, batteries of many types, all at mod- 
erate prices. Where electricity is cheap, as 
at Niagara Falls, these devices are in general 
use, both in factories and homes. Where the 
current is comparatively dear, we find its 
public acceptance much less wide. A good 
deal, too, depends upon the business manager 
of a central station. When he is bold and 
enterprising he repeats such a success as that 
of the telephone. To take a striking case: 
the Pueblo <S: Suburban Traction & Lighting 
Company recently wired gratis several hun- 
dred houses in Pueblo, Colo., at an average 
cost of $7.64 each for the first batch of 384 
houses of seven lamps apiece. It is now earn- 
ing from these dwellings enough to pay for 
the wiring twice over. Wholesale installa- 
tions in this fashion reduce cost to the 
lowest notch; they give a launching jolt 
to the inertia of heavy-heeled citizens. A 
like policy, extended to sewing machine 
motors, fans, smoothing irons, chafing dishes 
and the like, would undoubtedly inure to 
the profit of central stations, while at the 
same time greatly lightening the tasks of 
housekeeping.. 

A central station earns most when its ma- 
chinery is fully and constantly at work. 
Hence the importance of introducing heaters 
and motors usually busy at other than the 
" rush " hours of the day. Between mid- 
night and dawn, when demands for current 
are slack, is the time to restore exhausted bat- 
teries for electric vehicles so that, by virtue 
of buying their energy at low prices, they 
may more strongly than ever compete with 
gasoline motors. In ice-making, electro- 
platmg, and many other industries, a market 
may be found for current that to-day has no 
sale. And the more the field for electricity 
is widened, the cheaper it will become, with 
the effect, familiar in the gas business, of 
still further broadening the demand. 

A SUPREME LAW OF EVOLUTION EMERGES. 

Only when electricity thus becomes our 
universal servant will its mastery mean as 
much for mankind to-day as, long ago, did 
the first kindling of fire, with slowly won 
arts of furnace and lamp, oven and smelter, 
crucible and still. A point to be kept steadi- 
ly in view is that it was this old resource, 
flame, that in flouering gave birth to electric 
art. When Volta, as recently as 1800, built 
his battery, to create the first electric stream, 
he did so because rich in golden gifts of fire. 



His glass and porcelain, his plates of zinc 
and silver, his acids, were all bestowed upon 
him by flame. And it is by devising econom- 
ical heat-motors, whether using steam, gas 
or oil, that the modern engineer enables the 
electrician to generate currents readily and 
cheaply. 

This flowering of old resources into new, 
of transcendent sweep, of subtler probe, is 
plain in every decisive advance of humankind. 
Let us ask. How came fire to be kindled at 
first? In all likelihood by a surpassing feat 
of manipulation, directed by the sagacity 
which only dexterity could awaken and in- 
form. Probably in clashing flints together to 
shape rude arrows, or chisels, a savage flashed 
out a spark upon a tuft of dried fibre which 
at once leaped into a blaze. Or, it may be 
that in drilling a stick an armorer was re- 
AA'arded for uncommon persistence and stress 
by a tiny flame, with its hint for repetition. 
The superiority of such a man to the kins- 
man next below him in skill and brains may 
have been slight enough; no* wider, indeed, 
than the " variation " which is Darwin's unit 
of advance. But in the passing from mere 
warmth to fire a new world was entered, 
abounding in powers and insights impossible 
to beings who, though human, had not risen 
above the ability, shared by other creatures, 
merely to change the forms of leaves, bark 
and wood, of clay or stone. With fire to 
work his will man was able to alter proper- 
ties as well as shapes, to gain copper and 
iron from ores, glass from sand, pottery from 
clay. 

The argument here briefly indicated I 
presented in detail in " Flame, Electricity, 
and the Camera," published in 1900. To 
the proofs then adduced, many more might 
now be added, especially with regard to the 
researches of Crookes, Thomson and Ruther- 
ford. These investigators, armed with a 
glass bulb nearly vacuous, employ electricity 
to break down atoms into electrons about 
one-thousandth part the size of the hydrogen 
atom. These electrons are all alike what- 
ever their source may be, whether lead, cop- 
per, gold, or aught else. As fire made man 
master of the molecule, electricity now en- 
ables him partly to resolve the atom itself 
into units which may be the foundation 
stones of nature. The fireless savage dealt 
only with the surfaces of things; when he 
created fire at will he passed below surfaces 
to the molecules which build up masses; to- 
day the electrician disrupts the atom itself 
to reach nature's very heart. 




Copyright by Falk, N. Y. 



LORD KELVIN, FOREMOST ELECTRICIAN OF HIS AGE. 

[William Thomson, the first Lord Kelvin, who ranked as one of the greatest mathematicians 
and physicists of his time, was born at Belfast, Ireland, in 1824. At a very early age he became 
a student at Glasgow University, where his father, James Thomson, was professor of mathe- 
matics. The son, however, removed to Cambridge and was graduated from St. Peter's College 
in 1845 ^s second wrangler. The next year he was called to the chair of natural philosophy at 
Glasgow University and held that chair continuously for a period of fifty-three years. As a 
young university professor he was greatly attracted by the new science of electricity, and when 
the American, Cyrus Field, began the laying of cables across the Atlantic he was appointed con- 
sulting engineer. In this cable enterprise Professor Thomson gave valuable assistance, making 
inventions of instruments for receiving the messages and working the line, and devising other 
important apparatus. Later he perfected methods of taking deep-sea soundings while a ship was 
under way, and devised a provision for overcoming the influence of a ship's magnetism on the 
compass. Among his non-electrical inventions it is said that the machine for predicting the level 
of the tides in any part of the world is the most important. In the electrical field he contributed 
materially to the introduction of accurate methods of measuring current. Professor Thomson 
was raised to the peerage in 1892. He visited America in 1884, 1897, and 1902. He was pro- 
foundly interested in the electrical development at Niagara Falls. In 1896 Lord Kelvin's jubilee 
as professor at Glasgow University was celebrated with great enthusiasm. It was attended by 
delegates and visitors from all parts of the world. Lord Kelvin died at Glasgow on December 
17, 1907, at the age of eighty-three.] 




THE FRENCH WAR DIRIGHJLE " I.A PATRIE,'' WHICH COVERED I42.8 MILES IN 7 HOURS AND 5 MINUTES, 

ON NOVEMBER 23, I907. 

(A few days later it was torn loose from restraining ropes and was last heard of as touching in Ireland 

fur a moment, again ascending.) 



THE COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 

BY ERNEST LA RUE JONES. 



pOR over tu^o centuries man has been try- 
ing to invent a means vi^hereby he might 
navigate the air. Many have been the fan- 
tastic schemes for realizing this great desid- 
eratum, but- not until within the last few 
years has anything like success been attained. 
This success is but comparative, and it has 
been attained by but one type of apparatus. 
In order to have a clear understanding of 
the subject it is necessary to state the two 
divisions in which apparatus for flight is 
classed, — lighter than air and heavier than 
air. Even this classification, while generally 
used, is incorrect. By a " lighter-than-air " 
machine is understood one that depends for 
its buoyancy on a gas of low specific gravity. 
But a machine may be built heavier than air 
and still use gas as the principal aid to per- 
fect buoyancy, with planes to lift the differ- 
ence between the total weight of the appa- 
ratus and the weight lifted by the gas. The 
motor, l{ driven fast enough, would move 
the planes against the air with force enough 



to lift this balance of weight. Thus it is 
seen that a more distinctive word must be 
used to distinguish what is generally meant 
by a heavier-than-air machine. Of late the 
word " gasless " has been introduced, and it 
seems to fill every requjrement. Now, then, 
we have properly designated the two general 
classes, the lighter-than-air and the gasless. 
The gasless type subdivides into three, — 
the aeroplane, the orthopter or beating-wing 
machine, and the helicopter or direct-lift 
machine. The aeroplane obtains its lifting 
capacity by being forced against the air by 
vertical propellers at a speed so great that the 
pressure on the under side, properly inclined, 
will cause it to rise and maintain its course 
through the air, either parallel with the earth 
or at varying angles. The orthopter is a close 
imitation of the bird, with flapping wings, 
but in merely soaring or gliding it would 
have the attributes of the aeroplane. The 
helicopter, or " hellish-copter," as its friends 
jokingly call it, depends upon driving effi- 



THE COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 



m 




From the Scientific American. 



FRENCH AKROPLANE, THAT OF R0I5ERT ESNAia.T- TELTERIE. 



cient horizontal screws or propellers at a 
speed great enough to pull the machine ver- 
tically or ohliquel}^ into the air. 

The French war (Jiri<^ihle La Patrie is a 
true type of the lighter than air. The Santos 
DuT7iont No. i6 is a heavier-than-air appara- 
tus, using gas as a means of lifting the greater 
part of the weight. Horizontal planes were 
expected to lift the small balance, but an 
accident in the trial of this machine, or bal- 
loon, prevented an actual test of its possi- 
bilities. A later invention of the same type, 
the Malecot, achieved a short flight, but also 
came to grief. Both accidents were due to 
other causes than to the application of this 
idea itself. 



There is no m.achine of the gasless type 
which combines all three classes. To illus- 
trate the aeroplane we would take as the 
best example that of Wilbur and Orville 
Wright, of Dayton. They have adopted the 
two-plane glider introduced by Chanute and 
Herring. The Gammeter orthopter would 
be a true specimen of that class ; and the 
Kimball model an example of the helicopter. 

We naturally ask what has been done m 
every line to give promise of definite results? 
In the gas type we have reached practical 
perfection. There are serious difficulties 
which cannot be overcome. The gas bag it- 
self is a plainly evident one. The weight of 
material and machinery has already been 




THE NEW FRENCH AEROPLANE OF LOUIS BLERIOT, HIS SEVENTH MACHINE. 



60 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REHElVS. 



brought to the lowest limit of safety, and it 
is obviously impossible to decrease the volume 
of gas employed. Beyond certain limits in 
size it is believed we cannot go. Zeppelin 
has already gone to the extreme in size and 
capacity, but has been able to keep from ex- 
ceeding practicability. La Patrie has been a 
great success, but it has not achieved quite 
the results of the Zeppelin. We can now 
count at least four perfectly practical, useful 
dirigible balloons, the Zeppelin, the Parseval 
and the Gross in Germany; and La Patrie 
in France. 

With the 413-foot Zeppelin a speed of 
thirty-four miles an hour has been attained, 
and over 2CO miles covered on one recent 
ascent lasting eight hours. This stands as 
a record of its kind. The Parseval dirigible 
has attained a speed of twenty-eight miles, 
and so has the military airship of Major 
Gross. The German Government is very 
secretive in regard to these two, and little 
but general information is obtainable. 

For five years the wealthy Lebaudy 
brothers financed the building of the well- 
known Lebaudy. In 1906 it was given to 
the French Government, and a duplicate was 
ordered and called La Patrie. This, with 
a speed of some twenty miles an hour, has 
proved so successful that a few weeks ago 
orders were given for five more, to be called 
Repuhlique, Democratie, Liberte, Verite, 
and Justice. On November 23, 1907, La 
Patrie traveled, sans escale, from Paris to 
Verdun, a distance of 142.8 miles, in seven 
hours and five mJnutes, a mean speed of 





A FULL-SIZF.n AMEKICAX DRTHOPTER. lUHLT BY 

CLEVELAND. 



THE MODEL HE-LICOPTER OF WILBUR R, KIMBALL 
OF NEW YORK. 

over twenty miles an hour, and this against 
a wind which blew at one time twenty-four 
miles an hour. November 30 a sudden 
violent^ gust of wind tore the airship from 
the grasp of the soldiers at Verdun and it 
was last reported as having come to earth in 
Ireland. There were conflicting reports as 
to whether any one was on board the ship or 
not. Of late, little information has been ob- 
tainable from the French engineers, while In 
the past considerable information has been 
gleaned. 

The importance of the dirigible balloon 
to governments is shown in some degree by 
this episode: A great German rubber com- 
pany obtained the 
agency for the French 
dirigible In America. 
Just as they were 
about to enter Into ne- 
gotiations the French 
manufacturers sudden- 
ly cancelled all con- 
tracts. Thus, the se- 
crets of the recent suc- 
cesses in France with 
the dirigible balloon 
will probably remain 
with the French. But 
there is this question 
which comes up: The 
rubber cloth used in 
the Lebaudy balloons 
is made in Germany, 
and v\'e wonder If the 
German concern will 
continue to sell its 



II. C. GAM METER, 



THE COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 



61 




The United States 
Government has done 
nothing in the develop- 
ment of the dirigible 
or the flying machine, 
and the private citizen 
has had no incentive 
to expend time and 
moneys with the hope 
of disposing of it to 
the (j o V e r n m e n t . 
The international bal- 
loon race at St. Louis 
and the great success 
attained abroad have 
done much to interest 
the Ciovernment, and 
before long we may 
have a dirigible to 
compete with those of 
Europe. As a guide 
material to France. They certainly would to the desire of the American people for 
not do so in time of war between those the furtherance by the Government of aero- 
countries, nautics in this country, it is interesting 
The British Government has also pro- to note that the International Aeronautical 
duced this' year the NuUi Secundus, or, offi- Congress, held in New York, October 28 
cially, Diriir'ible No. i, under the direction and 29, 1907, passed the following resolu- 
of Colonel Capper. After several trial tion : " Resolved, By the International Aero- 
flights, with rather impromising results, the nautical Congress, assembled together in 
balloon was wrecked, revealing imperfect New York, that the President of the United 
construction and inadequate engine power. States be requested to call the attention of 
The Italian Government is actively at work Congress to the advisability of providing the 
on a dirigible, and \\t may look for definite departments of the Government charged 
results there. Spain also is building a dirigi- with these duties funds sufiicient to establish 
ble 115 feet long, with two twenty-four aeronautical plants commensurate with those 
horsepower motors. of other nations." 



THE " PAKSEVAL " DIRIGIBLE BALLOON IN I906. IN I907 THE ENDS WERE 
MADE SOMEWHAT MOKE POINTED. 




From the Scientific ylmerican. 



GRAF VON ZEPPELIN S THIRD DIRIGIBLE. 



62 



THE AMERICAN REI/IEU^ OF REF/EIVS. 




A. ROY KNABENSHUES SMALL DIRIGIBLE OVER COLUMBUS, OHIO. 



flight was first made by Santos Dumont, 
when he covered his 723 feet. But in Octo- 
ber, 1907, Henri Farrnan introduced a new 



The real gasless flying machine is about to him two prizes, one for the first aero- 
be, or has already been, realized, and only plane to fly 195 feet and one for the first 
remains to be perfected and placed upon the to go at least 325 feet. Ellehommer, in 
market. In 1905 the Wright brothers w^ere Denmark, in January, 1906, flew a distance 
able to fly twenty-four and one-fifth miles in of 167 feet in a " Wright-type" machine, 
thirty-eight minutes and three seconds. The In April, 1907, the Delagrange aeroplane 
flight was stopped then only by exhaustion made a flight of 164 feet, though in a previ- 
of fuel. This flight was made over a circu- ous trial a distance of 196 feet was attained, 
lar course, and the average speed was over Bleriot made a flight of 492 feet in an aero- 
thirty-eight miles an hour. On a straight plane during the summer of 1907. 
course the speed would have been forty miles. The world's public record for dynamic 
The machine, with the operator, weighed 
925 pounds. ■ The Wright flight caused a 
rush of foreign inventors into the field. 

Santos Dumont, 
who had had no pre- 
vious experience with 
a gasless machine, in 
September, 1906, was 
able to fly about twen- 
ty-five yards in an 
aeroplane weighing 
465 prjunds with the 
operator. Succeeding 
flights were longer, 
until o n November 
12, 1906, he main- 
tained a uniform flight 
for 723 feet, at a speed , , , , 

or twenty-tive miles an ,^^^^ kkencii dikkwble balloon "ville de paris/ 

hour. This won for to m. deutsci:. 




belonging 



THE COMING CONOUEST OF THE AIR. 



63 




THE SANTOS DUMONT NO. I4, WHICH MADE THE FIRST PUBLIC FLUIHT OF A DISTANCE OF JZ^, FEET. 



design of aeroplane, and in his first flight 
approached' the distance of Santos Dumont. 
In the second trial he negotiated 935 feet, 
190 feet more than Santos Dumont's record. 
On November 18 this distance was again 
increased, to a kilometer, six-tenths of a mile. 
A complete circle and return to the starting 
point was accomplished, but the machine 
touched the ground for an instant just before 
and just after rounding the post at one end 
of the course at Issy-les-Moulineaux. The 
weight of the machine is iioo pounds, and It 
is propelled at a speed of twenty-five to 
thirty miles an hour by a fifty-horsepower 
motor.. The supporting surface is 560 square 
feet; thus nearly two pounds are supported 
by every square foot of area. This flight 
established a new world's record. The 
Wright brothers' flight cannot be placed 
among records of public flights, for their 
work has been done in secret, and we have 
accepted the fact of their flight on the veri- 
fied statement of witnesses. 

With the helicopter little has been done, 
and less with the orthbpter. M. Cornu has, 
perhaps, done the most work with the heli- 
copter, and his model, weighing thirty and 
one-half pounds, rose in the air " most satis- 
factorily and maintained a steady course." 
Wilbur R. Kimball, of New York, has built 
an eleven-ounce rubber-driven model which 
has flown very successfully, the longest 



flights being about fifty feet, at a speed of 
ten feet a second. He has become impressed 
with the commercial possibilities of such an 
apparatus and expects to have a man-carrying 
machine completed in the near future. Otto 
G. Luyties, Baltimore, has completed a full- 
sized helicopter in which he places great 
faith, and he is intending to compete for the 
Scientific American trophy for gasless ma- 
chines. There is also another helicopter 
building in Connecticut which promises 
much from results obtained thus far. 

The orthopter has, by those who are con- 
sidered qualified to judge, long been assigned 
among the impossible, though some small re- 
sults have been attained. The claim is that 
nothing is to be gained by copying nature, 
except in principle, and that the application 
of nature's laws can be improved upon by 
man. 

The helicopter, to the laity, seems to be 
the besf type of the gasless machine. An 
aeroplane must start with a speed of at least 
twenty-five miles an hour in order to main- 
tain flight, while experiments with a model 
helicopter, with a load of one pound to the 
square foot of surface, showed a speed of 
twelve miles an hour suflScient to maintain 
the machine in the air. With the helicopter 
one can advance at a more speedy angle than 
with the aeroplane, and there is the possibil- 
ity of hovering at an angle within the limits 



64 



THE AMERICAN REJ/IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



of a comparatively small space ; and the angle 
of descent is sharper. But the drawback to 
this type is the unreliability of the present 
light motor. With the aeroplane the stop- 
ping of the motor is not disastrous, and a 
long glide to earth can be made, but with 
the helicopter the safety of the operator 
depends- at once on the motor going until 
stopped by the operator on landing. 

It will be seen that we actually have at 
least four practically perfect dirigible bal- 
loons and as many gasless machines which 
promise the accomplishment, of dynamic 
flight In the very near future. While 
flights of a ■ few hundred feet In dynamic 
machines are only " grasshopper jumps," a 
lesson is learned each time, and as long as- 
the flights continually Increase In length we 
know that the lessons have been effective. 

The age of the flying machine Is here, — 
and now. The dirigible balloon surely has 
some advantages over the dynamic apparatus, 
but the latter has a preponderance over the 
dirigible. The dirigible may be called a *" 
stepping-stone, although In another direction, henri farman, the holder of the world's 
to the flying jiiachine. The dirigible is mere- public record for dynamic flight. 

ly a balloon made steerable, while the fly- 
ing machine is a new thing all the way flies will be the succesSj and until we attain 
through, not an adaptation of any present that end we must consider adaptations and 
method of travel. A flying machine that jumping apparatus comparative. 





IIENKI JAKMAN, STARTING A FLIGHT IN THE MACHINE WHICH MADE A KILOMETER IN A CIRCLE. 



HOW THE CUBAN PROBLEM MIGHT BE SOLVED. 

BY CAPTAIN JOHN H. PARKER, U. S. A. 

[Captain Parker's long residence in Cuba, his experience with American army conditions, 
and his sympathetic study of Cuban conditions under the most favorable circumstances, make 
the following analysis and plan of his, — worked out, as it has been, during years of contact 
with the Cuban people and surrounded by the conditions m which they live, — unusually inter- 
esting and important. Of course, the views presented are his own, but his experience and 
equipment, we believe, justify the rather extended space we have given them. — The Editor.] 



\1/'HEN the power of the United States 
destroyed that of Spain in Cuba, In 
July, 1898, the duty of establishing and 
maintaining a just and lawful government 
devolved upon the conqueror. From the 
international point of view (no nation caring 
to controvert, by force of arms, the Ameri- 
can occupation of Cuba), the form of gov- 
ernment was an afifair of international ad- 
ministration, to be settled by the United 
States. The fact of American control was 
the only essential one in the situation. From 
the point of view of foreign nations which 
were interested, that fact alone fixed the in- 
ternational responsibility for ,law, order, 
tranquillity, and justice in Cuba. Its ac- 
ceptance by the United States fixes upon 
her a continuing responsibility until there 
shall be established a permanent Cuban Gov- 
ernment, capable of conducting Its affairs In 
a manner acceptable to Its neighbors. 

In the performance of the obligations thus 
imposed the United States established first 
an American military government, then an 
Independent Cuban Republic, whose stability 
was guaranteed by the United States, and 
lastly a provisional administration of that re- 
public, under Its own constitution and laws, 
for the very purpose of executing that guar- 
anty of stability without which the Cuban 
Republic could never have been. Such Is a 
condensed history of the relations of the 
United States with Cuba since the sinking 
of the Maine down to the present time. 

Now arises the question as to future rela- 
tions between the United States and Cuba. 
The International situation Is the same as 
before. It Is a matter of purely Internal 
administration for the United States. All 
the nations of the world have aiJquIesced In 
the second American occupation of Cuba. 
Their approval Is not less sincere because 
implied. American control is absolute and 
complete. American responsibility Is corre- 
spondingly complete and Indivisible. A dis- 



cussion as to whether the former Cuban 
Government was wise and efficient Is for- 
eign to this point, however much It may be 
germane to other questions. A discussion 
of the capacity of the Cuban people for self- 
government Is equally Irrelevant on this 
point. It Is the international duty of the 
United States to establish and maintain a 
just and lawful government In Cuba, of 
some sort, as much as It Is her duty to main- 
tain a similar government In Alaska or 
Missouri or the District of Columbia. 

SELF-DEFENSES AND THE PANAMA CANAL. 

It has also become Imperative that the 
United States do this on account of consid- 
erations of self-defense. Since its first In- 
tervention In Cuba the United States has 
embarked upon the construction of the Pan- 
ama Canal, a work of great International 
Importance, but one of far greater Impor- 
tance to her own defenses. Now Cuba Is 
the key to the locks of the Panama Canal. 
The nation that controls Cuba can Inevita- 
bly maintain control over the Atlantic exit 
of the canal. If the nation exercising such ^ 
control be hostile to the United States the 
latter must lose to a hostile power the great 
advantage resulting from such control of 
the canal now being built as a public enter- 
prise by the United States at her own ex- 
pense. If this control doubles the defensive 
power of the United States, or doubles the 
offensive power of an adversary against the 
United States, as the case may be, It follows 
that American control over Cuba Is just as 
Indispensable to the Interests of the United 
States as control over the canal Itself. Such 
control does not necessarily Imply either an- 
nexation or Incorporation of Cuba Into the 
political system of the United States ; but 
it does Imply such a future relation that the 
right of the United States to make use of 
Cuban ports as bases of military-naval opera- 
tions In time of war will be fixed beyond 



66 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REKIEIVS. 

controversy. By virtue of our actual occu- United States for her defense against foreign 

pation we have that right now. It would aggression. 

{^ ^ , J . *= (3) These relations must contain nothing 
be lolly to surrender it. contrary to our form of government ; and there- 
Another consequence flows from the geo- fore the relation between the two countries must 
graphical position of Cuba and its recent be one capable of subsisting under the Consti- 
• 4. u'lv r ^i ^A,^:^:^*-^r^4-;^r^ a ^.^,,r^fvT7 tution, laws, and treaties of the United States. 
instability of administration A country (^^'^hese relations must be such that they 
which has many and serious disturbances ot will" not greatly prejudice any of the large in- 
public peace, and also has a large foreign terests of the people of the United States, merely 
element in its population, with large busi- as a matter of practical politics. They must con- 

^^r.^ ;.,4-o^«o<-n ^^.,4->-^llo^ k,r -f^ro.'rrr^ /-ot^.Vol talu uothiug to wouud the high pride and sensi- 

ness interests controlled bv loreign capital, , . .. r ^1 /- u ^ i ..1 

, - , ^ t- » tiyg nature of the Cuban people ; for, otherwise, 

is syre, sooner or later, to become a source Cuban discontent will make of them a source of 

of international peril on account of incom- weakness rather than strength. 
petent administration. This is more espe- (5) With growing international responslbili- 

cially true if such country is so strategically ties upon her hands; with a considerable part 

•^ , , . 1 -^ L- i- 01 her military forces at present immobilized 

situated that it may become a subject of by exterior possessions; with at least the possi- 

contention among other nations. Such is bility of emergency use for these forces previous 

precisely the situation in Cuba. to the completion of the Panama Canal, it is im- 
portant to the United States to have its relations 

THE FUNDAMENTAL CONDITIONS. with Cuba settled upon a permanently satisfac- 
tory basis as soon as possible. 

Stated tersely, therefore, the two funda- 
mental conditions which must govern all re- ^ factor in the Cuban problem, also de- 
lations between the United States and Cuba manding promptness, is the paramount neces- 
are these: ^^ty for permanently satisfactory sanitary 

, . ^, T^ . , ^ ... , conditions in Cuba. Her communication 

(i) ihe United States must establish a capa- „ -^u ^-u^ o^,,<-i,«...^ .^^^4-,, ^-f 4-U^ tt.^;*-^;! 

ble government in Cuba, with which it must es- ^ ^^^ the southern ports of the Umted 

tJjlish such permanent relations as are necessary States is so direct and short that continuance 

in the event of a war in which the Panama of peril to the American public from the 

Canal would play a part. (2) The United yellow fever pest, the cause and prevention 
Slates must maintain such stability of that gov- fi-i» n j^j* 

ernment, and such a system of administration «^ which are now so well understood, is 

of Cuban laws, that Cuba shall never become a unthinkable. Our Government would be 

source of international peril on account of in- worse than* recreant to its duty to its own 

competent government. ff it should fail before the termination of 

The obligations of the United States the present intervention to impose some sat- 

above stated are the foundation of the pres- isfactory guaranty that this peril to the 

ent American occupation of Cuba. They American public shall be forever suppressed, 

are recognized not only by the Government in so far as proper sanitary precautions in 

of the United States and by that of Cuba, Cuba can accomplish that result. 
but also by the revolutionary elements of Economic relations here also play a part, 

the Cuban population, as shown by their The differential duty on sugar is just enough 

prompt laying down of arms as soon as to compel the export from Cuba of the raw 

American intervention was assured, in Sep- material, mostly to refineries in the United 

tember, 1906. States. These, of course, like all protected 

The live question is what form the future interests, will stoutly resist any solution that 
relations between the two countries shall entails curtailment of their privileges. Sim- 
assume. The answer to this question is the ila^ protests will come from the tobacco in- 
solution of the Cuban problem. Some ele- terests, probably, and from every American 
ments of these relations can be determined: interest that fancies it has a little to lose by 

^T^ Tino,. ci.^,,1.1 u^ r.( u L closer commercial relations with Cuba. As 

(1) 1 hey should be of such permanent na- r . , ,. , , 

ture as not to require continual readjustment. ^. matter ot practical expediency, the solu- 

1 he prosperity of both countries depends on tion must be as little objectionable to these 

this condition; that of Cuba much more so than interests as possible 
that of the United States. 

(2) They must be so adjusted that Cuba will ANNEXATION WOULD RESULT IN ANOTHER 

Trln'tl ^ 'T'^'l^'^-l ^c^l^"''''- ^''\^ ""^ ""^''r * RACE PROBLEM. 

Strength, to the United States, in the event of 

any foreign war. This is of equal importance to Political considerations also enter. We 
both countries; to the United States because. 1 1 u • << 1 

otherwise, her relations with cX woukl inv f'''',^^ ^^^^ ^"^ ^^^^ vigorous race prob- 

mol)ilizc some portion of licr fighting strength ; ^^'"''' ^" ^^^^ hands. At the present time 

and to Cuba because that island relies upon the there is no race problem in Cuba. The races 



HOU/ THE CUBAN PROBLEM MIGHT BE SOLl^ED. 67 

live together amicably. But if Cuba enters rights and obligations existing by force of 
into the political system of the United necessity. Similarly, it imposes no conditions 
States, immigration from the States will upon Cuba. It only defines a part of con- 
soon create a *' race problem," and one that ditions imposed by necessity, under which 
will be far more difficult of solution than conditions government must exist in Cuba, 
that in the Southern States. We must steer whether they be defined at all or not. Geog- 
clear of that rock. A country that cannot raphy, history, and commerce have created 
maintain a stable government of its own will these conditions ; not the Piatt Amendment, 
not lend greater stability to existing Ameri- But the Treaty of Paris did impose a con- 
can institutions. The " State of Antilla " dition that must be respected until the terms 
is a beautiful dream, but absolutely imprac- of the treaty shall have been fulfilled. That 
ticable of realization in the present genera- condition is the one which gives to Spain 
tion. The Supreme Court has held that the same rights as to the United States in 
* free trade with colonies does not follow the matters of commerce in Cuba for a period 
flag; hence future commercial relations of ten years, which will end on February 
with independent Cuba can be regulated by 4, 1909. This condition is one imposed 
treaty or by Congress, as may be necessary, not by natural laws, but by man. The 
The court has also held that citizenship, in United States might tolerate free trade with 
so far as exercise of the suffrage and enjoy- Cuba, but could never permit free trade 
ment of the '' Bill of Rights " are concerned, with Spain also. Consequently a perma- 
does not follow the flag. These privileges nent adjustment of commercial relations 
are conferred not by occupation, but by with Cuba must necessarily wait for the ex- 
specific legislation. Hence these matters are piration of that treaty in order that its pro- 
capable of regulation, if the theory of an- vision giving equal right in Cuban ports to 
nexation is abandoned. Spain may be eliminated from the Cuban 

Among the permanent relations that must problem, 

be considered, of course, are the treaties Cuba's immediate needs. 
of the United States. Of these the Piatt 

Amendment is not the only one, nor even Cuba, it will be conceded, needs at once: 

the most important one, to be considered. (j) a great, practical, educational develop- 

The Piatt Amendment incorporates into the ment along the lines of practical experience in 

laws of the United States and into the con- self-government, exercise of personal rights; 

stitution of Cuba only a part of the mutual J"'^„uf/f:'°^i'?i T'^ °''"' ^" Cuba before any 
... , 1 -1 republican form of government can be success- 
duties imposed ^ upon the two^ countries by ful without outside aid and support. 
their geographical and historical relations. (2) That aid and support must come from 
It would be the duty of the United States ^he United States. It is practicable to give this 

to establish and maintain a free and re- rl^ w?,"^,^ n'1v'°V' "^'J^'^"^ i^^^^?!^ •!"§ 

, ,. , f • r-. 1 -f ^uba into the political system of the United 

publican form of government in Cuba if states, thus adding an element of weakness, 
there had never been a Piatt Amendment; rather than strength, to our own institutions. 
free, because the genius of our institutions , (3) That aid must come in the form of set- 
permits of no other kind ; republican, because !,^5l^°"r'''r '^^^T' uv 'T' ^' m^ *''"?.'" 
^ , 1 • 1 • • -1 1 11 nation of existing treaty obligations will permit; 
no other kind is permissible under that su- and in the form of wise initiative, discreetly 
preme law from which our Government de- exercised, looking toward such changes in Cuban 
rives its only right to make laws or treaties, ^^ws as will develop in her people capacity to 

Neither Congress, nor the Senate in com-- ZZ\''lT^Jl^r'^^-^f''''^ ^""^ govern them- 

... • 1 1 T» • 1 1 11 selves under a republican system. ihese changes 

bination with the President, through the niust look toward reduction of the paternal atti- 

treaty-making" power, can possibly derive a tude of the central government, with corre- 

right to establish any kind of government sponding exercise of greater power by local au- 

foreign to that Constitution from w^hich both t"*^"^^^'^- 

derive all the power and authority with There appears to be one way in which 
which they are invested. A temporary mili- these ends can be accomplished vi^ithin Amer- 
tary government for purpose of defense, in ican limitations without injury to the self- 
case of necessity, — yes; but a non-republican respect of the Cuban people. The educated 
form of government, under the Constitu- Cubans see clearly that a period of tutelage 
tion, laws, and treaties of the United States, is necessarj^ The uneducated Cuban cares 
— never. So the Piatt Amendment confers nothing about politics, really; what he wants 
no rights, imposes no obligations, upon the is results. He would just as leave have these 
United States. It merely defines part of results flow from a paternal autocracy as 



68 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEIVS, 



from the most liberal democracy. He Is 
ignorant of the machinery by which results 
are accomplished ; but he knows conditions 
are hard for him, and will welcome what- 
ever ameliorates his hardships, provided it 
be a genuine amelioration. Promises alone 
will not keep him quiet; they would only 
dam up the waters of revolution, to bring 
on another and worse inundation. 

A '' protectorate " over Cuba already ex- 
ists. We have the facts, however it may 
be called. Names matter little. That pro- 
tectorate must take some form for the im- 
mediate future which will permit of pre- 
ventive, as well as corrective, measures. The 
present intervention is purely a corrective 
measure, not initiated until the mischief was 
done. For the future there must be a sys- 
tem that will prevent a recurrence of such 
troubles by terminating the conditions that 
create them. 

WHY NOT FOLLOW ENGLAND'S EXAMPLE IN 
EGYPT ? 

The English sj^stem in Egypt illustrates 
what must be done. The Khedive's govern- 
ment has remained intact ; but Lord Cromer 
had the initiative in such measures as were 
deemed essential by the British Government. 
An exactly similar system in Cuba is not 
advocated. It would be plainly impractica- 
ble, owing to our different form of govern- 
ment at home, with responsibility to a legis- 
lative body, as well as to the executive. But 
some of the features of England's Egyptian 
system might well be incorporated into the 
future relations between Cuba and the 
United States. 

For the United States the indispensable 
things are: 

(i) Adequate control to prevent revolutions 
and extravagance. 

(2) Adequate initiative to introduce the grad- 
ual education in democracy that must occur in 
Cuha before any republican system of govern- 
ment can be successful without outside help. 

For Cuba the indispensable things are:' 

(i) Stability of system, with gradual ad- 
vancement toward complete independence by the 
development of capacity for self-control in and 
among her people. 

(2) Readjustment at the earliest possible 
date of commercial relations with the United 
States, in such a manner as to give to Cuban 
products their natural market as nearly free as 
possible. 

This means to be exercised by the United 
States merely two things: initiative and 
veto. The veto she has now over Cuban 



foreign relations and against such outbreak? 
as that of August, 1906. She must have 
more; the right of veto of the conditions 
which give rise to such outbreaks. Nothing 
less will insure stability of any Cuban Gov- 
ernment. 

Initiative in the Cuban Government is not 
one of the rights of the United States under 
present treaties. // is one of the necessities 
of the situation. It must be recognized and 
made a definite part of future relations. Yet 
that initiative must not extend to any lim.it 
that will curtail true Cuban independence, 
for such a condition would be intolerable to 
the pride of the Cuban people, and would 
entail worse disorders than those which have 
been so happily suppressed. 



A 



COUNCIL OF ADVISERS. 



One admirable result has been accom- 
plished during the present intervention. It 
consists in a system of actual supervision of 
various departments of the Cuban Govern- 
ment without in any known manner giving 
offense to the Cuban people. In each of these 
departments there has been detailed an 
American, known as " Adviser " to such a 
department. He is an American official, 
without function under the Cuban Govern- 
ment, and without pay therefrom ; but his 
presence gives the tone and balance neces- 
sary for the smooth running of the machine. 

It would not be possible, or even de- 
sirable, to save the coming Cuban Republic 
from all mistakes, for that would prevent 
it from obtaining the best experience. 
With governments, as with individuals, the 
best results come from learning to avoid re- 
peating the same mistake. Hence the re- 
tention of an American adviser in each de- 
partment of the new Cuban Government 
would be unwise, even if all errors could 
thereby be prevented ; but the retention of 
some American advisers,, to exercise the 
necessary functions above indicated, would 
appear to be the logical outgrowth of a tried, 
approved, and successful system. 

The collective body, when assembled, 
might be designated " Council of Advisers," 
and might exercise the necessary powers 
without offense. Such a body would consti- 
tute, in fact, an auxiliary to the legislative 
body, a check on the executive, and a power- 
ful stimulant to right progress. 

As the present tentative system works 
out, each department has its " adviser." Each 
adviser has his assistants in the various 
provinces, who maintain toward the Provin- 



HOIV THE CUBAN PROBLEM MIGHT BE SOLVED. 



69 



clal Council a position similar to his own in 
the central government. Herein lies the 
germ of a suitable system. It would work 
out as follows: 

Previous to the date on which the Treaty 
of Paris terminates, February 4, 1909, a new 
treaty should be negotiated with the Pro- 
visional Government of Cuba, to take effect 
at that date. This treaty should contain 
not only a definite adjustment of commercial 
relations between the two countries, but also 
the necessary authority to institute and main- 
tain a Council of Advisers in Cuba. The 
re-establishment of the Cuban Republic, like 
its first organization, should be made condi- 
tional upon its acceptance of the provisions 
of this treaty. 

The Council of Advisers should con- 
sist of one president, one adviser for each 
department of the Cuban Government when 
necessary, as for example, the Treasury De- 
partment, Sanitary Department, and that 
of Foreign Affairs, and one for each prov- 
ince. Each member thereof should be an 
American, entitled to the diplomatic privi- 
leges in Cuba, and an official of the United 
States, not of Cuba. 

The functions of these officials should be 
threefold : to observe, to propose, and to 
exercise the judicial functions hereinafter 
described. Thus each adviser to a province 
would exercise the right of proposing meas- 
ures to the Provincial Council. The ad- 
visers to the several de'partments of govern- 
ment would exercise a similar right. The 
Council of Advisers as a body should have 
the right to propose such legislation as 
might seem expedient to the Cuban Con- 
gress, and in their collective action would 
exercise the judicial function to be described. 
All proposals would be merely advisory in 
character, and therefore would not curtail 
the legislative rights of the Cuban bodies. 
Diplomatic privileges are given to render 
these officials as nearly independent and im- 
partial in the discharge of their duty as 
may be humanly possible. It should be pro- 
vided by the treaty that no adviser may hold 
or acquire any property interests in Cuba 
during his incumbency, nor receive any 
emolument or perquisite whatever from the 
Cuban Government or from any citizen 
thereof during his incumbency. 

NO INFRINGEMENT OF CUBAN SOVEREIGNTY. 

These measures provide for initiative and 
restraint. They leave absolutely intact all 
the essential attributes of sovereignty now 



enjoyed by the Cuban Republic: the right 
to diplomatic representatives abroad ; to coin 
money; to fix weights and measures; to 
regulate internal and external affairs, the 
latter subject to the same restrictions now 
imposed by treaty; to make and enforce 
laws; to maintain a Cuban judiciary, inde- 
pendent of foreign interference, and to 
maintain such national forces as may be 
necessary in the Cuban Republic. With 
these sovereign rights all intact, the Cuban 
people could well pride themselves upon 
their own free and independent government, 
acknowledged by all the nations as such, — 
a position for which so many Cuban heroe« 
and martyrs fought and died upon the field 
of glory, and for which the w^hole Cuban 
people have made so many sacrifices. » 

In the foregoing plan no system has yet 
been proposed by which can be determined 
the delicate questions arising from the pecu- 
liar relations between Cuba and the United 
States. The defect of the Piatt Amendment 
is that, essentially, action under it is cor- 
rective, but not preventive. Before inter- 
vention could occur Cuba had to be re- 
duced to a condition of anarchy, through the 
annihilation of all legally constituted gov- 
ernment. That was the condition which re- 
sulted from the resignation of President 
Palma and all legal successors to the presi- 
dency. Not until then was it possible to 
intervene, and then only by the use of armed 
force. It is greatly to the credit of Mr. 
Palma and his advisers that they perceived 
this; especially so to Mr. Palma, in his 
marvelous exhibition of self-abnegation in 
order that the conditions might be fulfilled 
under which the right and duty of the 
United States to end the civil war would be 
unquestionable. 

CORRECTING THE DEFECT IN THE PLATT 
AMENDMENT. 

Preventive as well as corrective measures 
are necessary. The fatal defect of the Piatt 
Amendment is that it creates no automatic 
machinery for so regulating relations that 
interv^ention will never be necessary by force 
of arms. That machinery must be created, 
its functions defined and incorporated into 
the future relations of the two countries In 
the same manner as the Piatt Amendment, 
before stability in Cuba can be assured. 

Fortunately, the system above outlined 
lends itself perfectly to this necessity. It is 
true that under the actual relations of the 
two countries laws are liable to be enacted 



70 



THE AMERICAN REl^IElV OF REyiElVS. 



prejudicial in their operation to the interests 
of the United States and other foreign coun- 
tries, either directly or through the hard- 
ships they work upon the Cuban people 
by indirectly leading to revolution. It is a 
consequence that flows from the immaturity 
of the Cuban people for democratic forms 
of government, above fully explained. It 
is also true that there is at present no sys- 
tem by w^hich the United States can exer- 
cise the necessary corrective measures over 
such matters except in the present extremity 
of armed intervention to suppress resultant 
anarchy. But it is possible to amplify the 
pouers and duties of the Council of Ad- 
visers in such a M^ay as to guarantee proper 
action on such matters in a legitimate way, 
unobjectionable to the people of Cuba, and 
entirely satisfactory to the interests of the 
United States. 

In the last analysis, the final governing 
body of the United States is the Supreme 
Court. Before its findings fall all acts of 
Congress, all executive decisions. Its inter- 
pretations determine what is law, and have 
never been disputed. Probably it is the most 
important, most powerful, and most digni- 
fied body of men in the world to-day. A 
similar body, with the function of passing 
on those matters of mutual interest between 
Cuba and the United States as a judicial 
body, would be unobjectionable to Cuba, 
and would prevent the occurrence of '' rev- 
olutions " like that of August, 1906, by re- 
moving their causes before abuses should 
grow into social crimes. Such a body would 
be the medium through which the United 
States would exercise that oversight in 
Cuba now conceded to be necessary in order 
to maintain stability of administration. 

Hence it is proposed that the Council of 
Advisers shall be convened at stated inter- 
vals as an international court of revision, 
with power to determine Avhether such acts 
of the Cuban Government as might be prop- 
rrly brought before it for judicial determina- 
tion were prejudicial to the interests of the 
United States under its treaty with Cuba, 
and to annul such laws and decisions 
as might be thus determined to be objec- 
tionable, subject to revision of its own de- 
cisions by the Supreme Court of the United 



States. When so convened, it would be de- 
sirable to add a suitable number of Cuban 
representatives to this tribunal. 

The foregoing does not, however, pro- 
vide for that stability. of relations and ad- 
ministration which is also essential to a 
permanent solution of the Cuban problem. 
This must be had by outside aid for some 
time to come; and it can be arranged for 
without offending that national pride which 
is a high asset of the Cuban people, and 
which is just grounds for hope of eventual 
capacity for absolute independence. 

" SCHOOLMASTER WITH REAL POWERS." 

The interests of the United States in 
Panama, of which Cuba is the key, require 
a considerable force in the Caribbean, with- 
in striking distance of that possession. Her 
treaty rights in Cuba include coaling- sta- 
tions, with the right to fortify and garrison 
them. Nothing could be simpler than to do 
this at such points as Guantanamo, Bahia 
Honda, and such other points as may be 
necessary, and to maintain there sufficient 
force to give all necessary aid to her diplo- 
matic representatives in Cuba in the exer- 
cise of their novel, important functions. 

Such a system would provide schoolmas- 
ters with real powers to teach the art of 
self-government to the people of Cuba. It 
would leave the Republic of Cuba as a dis- 
tinct entity, still capable of negotiating 
treaties and maintaining relations with other 
nations. It would leave the Congress of 
the United States free to regulate future 
commercial relations with Cuba, that coun- 
try being a separate international entity. 
It would insure all due initiative in all 
necessar}^ governmental reforms. It would 
give ample assurance of a stable government 
in Cuba in the power of the Council of 
Advisers to summon to their aid American 
arms, in case of necessity, to prevent revolu- 
tion, rather than to suppress it. The date 
of the inauguration of this system coinciding 
with the expiration of the unnatural condi- 
tions imposed by the Treaty of Paris, would 
mark the end of the Cuban problem, the 
beginning of permanent prosperity, and sta- 
ble, progressive, republican government in 
the Pearl of the Antilles. 



THE NEWSPAPER AND THE FOREST. 

BY W. S. ROSSITER. 



npHE natural resources of the United 
States have always been regarded as 
practically limitless. There exists indeed a 
popular conviction that exhaustion in one 
section is sure to be offset by the discovery 
elsewhere of similar resources in even greater 
abundance. Although mere settlement of 
many sections of the United States resulted 
in the destruction of the timber covering 
large areas, so much remained that the for- 
ests even of the Eastern States still ap- 
peared to be inexhaustible. It is not alto- 
gether pleasant, therefore, to awaken to the 
fact, so seriously stated by the President in 
his recent message to Congress, that the 
magnitude of lumbering operations, especial- 
ly north and west, threatens the early ex- 
haustion of the timber supply of the coun- 
try. This is especially* significant and omi- 
nous because large sections of the United 
States, comprising possibly more than half 
of the national domain, ha^ been settled 
but a few decades, and no State except 
Rhode Island can be regarded as densely 
populated even at the present time. 

It was -estimated by the Bureau of For- 
estry of the Department of Agriculture that 
the total annual cut of timber for all pur- 
poses in the United States at the present 
time is approximately 100,000,000,000 feet, 
while the growth of timber approximates 
from 30,000,000,000 to 40,000,000,000 feet. 
Thus consumption is approximately three 
times as great as annual growth. The Bu- 
reau of Forestry, indeed, estimates that the 
standing timber of the United States will 
be exhausted within thirty-three years from 
the present time. The annual consumption 
of timber Is approximately as follows: 

pKObDCT AND DISTRIBUTION OF TIMBER IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1906. 

Amount in Per cent. 
Required for board feet. of total. 

Totals 97,868,736,000 100.0 

Lumber 37,550,736,000 38.4 

Shingles 2,376,000,000 2.4 

Hewed cross ties 2.325,000,000 2.4 

Pulp wood 1,599,000,000 1.6 

Cooperage stock 1,067,000,000 1.1 

Round mine timbers 993.000,000 1.0 

Laths 764.000,000 0.8 

Wood distillation 857,000,000 0.7 

Veneer 327,000,000 0.3 

Poles 210,000,000 0.2 

Fuel, domestic and miscel- 
laneous 50,000,000,000 51.1 

It will be observed that nine of the eleven 



items specified relate to what may be termed 
usual or commercial uses of timber. The re- 
maining two items, — pulp and distillation, 
— are merely the raw material of a finished 
product seemingly having no relation to 
w^ood. Of these two uses for timber, the 
amount required for pulp Is more than twice 
that required for distillation, and is Increas- 
ing rapidly. Moreover, the demand of the 
paper manufacturer thus far has been con- 
fined to certain varieties of wood, upon 
which. In consequence, serious Inroads have 
been made, so that the domestic supply is 
near exhaustion and importation upon a 
large scale has already begun. The relation 
of paper to timber, therefore, possesses so 
much present Importance that It Is consid- 
ered in some detail in the pages which 
follow. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER FROM WOOD. 

Paper manufactured from the fibre of 
trees began to be a commercial product In 
1867, but did not assume great importance 
until 1890. During the seventeen years 
which have elapsed from that date, this 
branch of paper making has grown to such 
proportions that it overshadows all others. 
Wood paper has been produced so cheaply 
and abundantly that all classes of the com- 
munity, from publishers to storekeepers, 
have been enabled to use It with a liberality 
bordering upon extravagance. 

Thus far soft woods alone have been 
utilized In paper making. Spruce furnishes 
three-fifths of the total amount used and 
hemlock one-fifth. The remaining fifth Is 
composed principally of poplar and balsam. 
In the United States these varieties of tim- 
ber are found, chiefiy In the Virginias, New 
England, New York, Pennsylvania, and the 
Northwest. Unfortunately they are (or 
were) among the most important of all the 
soft woods, the uses for which are of course 
Innumerable in American communities. 
Obviously the additional consumption of 
great quantities of such timber merely as 
raw material for an apparently unrelated 
product could lead to but one result, since It 
proved to be a new use for the class of wood 
In greatest demand for every-day commercial 
purposes. 



72 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



In 1867 the timber of New England, New 
York and Pennsylvania, compared with the 
present forest resources of that region, was 
practically untouched. The forests of the 
White ]\IountaIns, Green Mountains and 
Adirondacks doubtless contained soft wood 
sufficient for the normal requirements of the 
Eastern States for an indefinite period. Be- 
cause of proximity to raw material and mar- 
kets, and also because these States were cen- 
ters of manufacturing industries, and hence 
of labor, machinery and power, most of the 
larger paper mills were established in New 
England, New^ York and Pennsylvania. 
This group of States thus bore the brunt of 
the demand for pulp wood, and still con- 
tinues to do so, although practically no ex- 
tensive tracts of soft wood now remain in 
this section. In consequence of the decreas- 
ing reserve of pulp wood in the localities 
which have heretofore contributed a large 
proportion of the raw material, several of 
the more distant States are now being drawn 
upon to furnish the required supply. Of 
these States, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michi- 
gan, Oregon and Washington are the prin- 
cipal producers, and considerable spruce and 
hemlock, and also wood pulp, have been 
brought over the border from Canada. The 
former enters free of duty; the latter is sub- 
ject to a tariff of 15 per cent, ad valorem, 
amounting to from $1.66 to $5 per ton. 

The Eastern States in thus yielding their 



consumption would not now threaten ex- 
haustion of the varieties of timber required 
if the demand had not increased out of pro- 
portion to the normal growth of an industry. 

Constant progress has been made in the 
treatment of wood pulp and in the invention 
of more perfect machinery for the manufac- 
ture of paper. A few years since the maxi- 
mum product of the largest paper machines 
in existence was 300 feet of news paper a 
minute, but at the present time In many mills 
such machines have been superseded by others 
of much greater capacity, capable of pro- 
ducing from 500 to 618 feet of paper per 
minute, the sheet having a width of 164 in- 
stead of 100 inches. 

Unfortunately no exact information is 
available concerning the amount of wood 
paper used in newspapers and magazines, or 
in connection with other requirements, in 
1880 or 1890. The consumption was meas- 
ured, however, in 1900 and 1905, and was 
as follows: 

AMOUNT OF WOOD PULP PAPER IN POUNDS USED DUR- 
rXO THE CENSUS TEAR IN NEWSPAPERS AND PERI- 
ODICALS AND FOit OTHER PURPOSES, 1900-1905. 

Year. 1900. 190.^>. 

Totals 3,448,385,670 5,375,363.830 

Per cent, increase... ... 55.9 

Newspapers and iperi- 

odicals 1,078,237,670 1,821,629.830 

Per cent. Increase. . . ... 68.9 

All other uses 2,370,148,000 3,553,734,000 

Per cent, increase. . . ... 49.9 

During the quarter-century elapsing from 
l88o to 1905, the unusual increase which 

MANUFACTURE OP PAPER, 1900 TO 1906. 

, 1905. ^ f 1904. ^ , 1900. ^ 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent, 

of of of 

Cords. total. Cords. total. Cords. total. 
3,192,002 100.0 3,050,717 100.0 1,986,310 100.0 

1,737,899 54.4 1,663,410 54.5 1,058,944 53.3 
* ... t37,001 1.2 tl65,781 8.3 

486,662 15.3 477,616 15.7 207,565 10.4 
561,791 17.6 531,634 17.4 348,687 17.6 
645,428 20.2 577,623 18.9 369,217 18.6 



PRODUCTION OF WOOD TO BE USED IN THE 

, 1906. ^ 

Per cent, 
of 
Locality. Cords, total. 

Totals 3,661,176 100.0 

New England, New York, and. Penn- 
sylvania 1,901,080 51.9 

Far West (Oregon and Washington) 99,134 2.7 
Middle West. Minnesota. Wisconsin, 

and Michigan) 634,141 17.3 

All other States 555,542 15.2 

Canada 738,872 20.2 

* Not reported separately. f Oregon. 

wood to the paper manufacturer have con- 
tributed for comparatively small return much 
of their most precious natural resource, and 
the one which In future years would un- 
doubtedly prove of the greatest financial and 
natural vahie. Many land owners in New 
England deeply regret that within the last 
twenty years they have sold timber land or 
timber from their farms which at the prices 
readily secured to-day would represent a 
small fortune. 

However much it may be regretted that 
the trail to raw material for paper led to 
the forest, it is possible that the resulting 



occurred In the total amount of paper con- 
sumed was principally due to two causes: 
increase In circulation and increase in the 
number of pages per issue of newspapers and 
periodicals. The increasing size of publi- 
cations In turn has resulted from two causes: 
cheapened composition and increase in adver- 
tising patronage. 

INCREASE IN CIRCULATION OF NEWSPAPERS 
s AND PERIODICALS. 

The aggregate circulation during the cen- 
sus year of American newspapers and period- 
icals increased fivefold from i88o to 1905, 



THE NEWSPAPER AND THE FOREST, 



73 





NO PRODUCTION! 
LESS THAN 
100,000 TO 500,000 



00000 CORDS 



mU 500.000 AND OVER 

MAP OF THE UNITED STATES SHOWING PRODUCTION OF WOOD FOR PULP. 



or from slightly more than 2,000,000,000 to 
nearly 10,500,000,000 in 1905. Increase of 
circulation, however, is of course modified by 
changes in population, and thus should be 
measured upon a per capita basis. In 1870 
the per capita circulation of all publications 
issued in the census year was 39 copies, in 
1880 it was 41.2, in 1890 it was 72.2, in 
1900, 103.0, and in 1905, 125.0. While a 
practically stationary condition is thus indi- 
cated during the first decade mentioned, the 
increase in each of the succeeding periods 
was so great that the people of the United 
States were patronizing newspapers and 
magazines in 1905 three times as liberally as 
in 1880. 

FEU CENT. OF INCREASE IN CIRCULATION AND IN 
AMOUNT OF PAPER USED IN NEWSPAPERS AND PERI- 
ODICALS, 1890 TO 1905. 

Circulation 

Year. per year. Paper. 

1890 125.8 192.3 

1900 68.3 95.0 

1905 31.4 68.9 

Great as was the increase in circulation, 
It Is obvious that increase In consumption of 
paper was even greater. Since there Is to be 
expected a certain general relation between 
these items, it is clear, from the marked varia- 
tion here shown, that paper must have been 
affected by influences other than mere cir- 
culation. 



INCREASE IN NUMBER OF PAGES. 

In 1880, 1000 copies of newspapers and 
magazines averaged 91.5 pounds In weight. 
In 1890 this figure advanced to 11 8.4 
pounds, in 1900 to 137.3, and five years 



isro 



1860 



1890 



1900 1535 



ISS 



too 



TB 



60 



25 



■ I 1 I I 1 

- 1 : ' 



DIAGRAM SHOWING THE INCREASE IN THE ANNUAL 

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF NEWSPAPERS 

AND PERIODICALS, 187O TO I905. 



74 



THE AMERICAN REKIEIV OF REVIEWS. 



later, in 1905, an average thousand copies of 
American publications weighed 176.4 pounds. 
Thus from 1 880 to 1 890, the average weight 
increased 26.9 pounds, or 29.4 per cent., and 
from 1890 to 1900, 18.9 pounds, or 16 per 
cent.; but from 1900 to 1905, a period but 
half as long as the others considered, the in- 
crease was 39.1 pounds, or 28.5 per cent., 
and if the average thousand copies continues 
to increase in weight during the second half 
of the present decade at the rate of increase 
thus shown for the first half, the ten-year 
increase from 1900 to 19 10 will reach almost 
eighty pounds, or 58.2 per cent. In 1905 
the weight per thousand of the paper, and 
hence the number of pages, in all newspapers 
and periodicals, was almost exactly double 
that shown for 1880. 

The increase here indicated in the amount 
of paper consumed is confirmed by the fact 
pointed out in the Federal Census report on 
printing for 1905, that the average number 
of pages in all newspapers and periodicals in 
1880 was 4.4 pages, and in 1905, 8.8 pages, 
or double the average reported in 1880. 

In almost all industries the amount of in- 
crease measures the change which has oc- 
curred : shoes, for example, or hoes, pianos 
or pins and needles, are constant quantities, 
but in the case of newspaper and periodical 
increase, the product which reported a five- 
fold increase from 1880 to 1905 is thus 
shown to have been twice the bulk in 1905 
of that reported in 1880, hence for the paper 
required the forests of the United States 
were drawn upon in 1905 for ten times the 
wood pulp required in 1880. What this in- 
crease in size amounts to in pounds is best 
illustrated by computing the circulation of 
1905 in terms of the number of pages re- 
ported in J 880. Upon the modest basis of 
that year, when composition was expensive 
and publishers had not learned to riot in 
wood paper, the 1905 circulation would have 
required 908,612,600 pounds, or 913,017,- 
230 pounds less than were actually used. 
Mere increase in the number of pages in 
American newspapers and periodicals in 
1905 as compared with 1880 thus represents 
each year the soft wood product, — princi- 
pally spruce, — of approximately 50,000 acres 
of forest land. 

To a limited extent increase in bulk is 
the natural result of increased circulation, 
but there are two far more important rea- 
sons: the introduction and general use of 
typesetting machines, and increase in adver- 
tising. The former exerted its greatest in- 



fluence in increasing the size of publications 
in the decade from 1890 to 1900, and the 
latter probably in the half decade so far 
measured, 1900 to 1905. 

THE ERA OF COMPOSITION INFLATION. 

The beginning of machine composition 
may be said to date from the close of the 
decade 1880 to 1890, but so few machines of 
this character were then in use that they 
were not reported at the latter census. Dur- 
ing the decade from 1890 to 1900 the use 
of these machines was extended to practically 
all the large newspaper offices of the country. 
In 1900 there were approximately 4000 
machines in operation in newspaper offices. 
Thus w^hile the larger establishments were 
equipped with typesetting machines during 
the decade mentioned, it remained to further 
extend the use of machines during the pres- 
ent decade to smaller daily papers and to some 
weekly papers, so that in 1905 more than 
6000 machines were reported to be in use in 
newspaper offices. The immediate effect of 
the use of typesetting machines was a greatly 
increased amount of composition for the same 
expenditure formerly made for hand work. 
Not only did the output in pages of reading 
matter increase to a noteworthy extent, but 
further increases often occurred by substi- 
tuting nonpareil (a smaller face) for minion, 
as the prevailing size of type. In a news- 
paper office one machine is generally ex- 
pected to yield an amount of composition 
equal to the work of five men. The 4000 
machines in operation in 1900 were there- 
fore equivalent (less operators) to an army 
of 16,000 additional compositors, theoret- 
ically capable of setting nearly 41,000,000 
thousand ems during the census year, or 
enough nonpareil composition to completely 
supply the practical requirement of 418 daily 
newspapers, each printing eight pages every 
day for one year.* 

It is obvious that this extraordinary in- 
crease offered to the enterprising publisher a 
chance to outstrip his competitors in the 
amount and variety of the reading matter 
which he presented. In consequence the size 
of the daily issue increased to some extent, 
while the Sunday issue greatly expanded and 
was made a medium for the publication of 
general literature. In this way the Sunday 
issues of important newspapers have become 
practically huge magazines. 

♦ The aggregate composition In all the daily news- 
papers in the United States during the whole of the 
census year 1880 was approximately 90,000,000 
thousand ems. 



WE NEIVSPAPER AND THE FOREST, 75 

In 1905 there were 456 daily newspapers as follows: Advertising, 149; illustiacions, 

issuing Sunday editions, the aggregate cir- 89; reading matter, 150. The proportion of 

culation of which was 11,539,021. If each reading matter varied from 25 per cent, to 

of these Sunday newspapers averaged thirty- 56 per cent., and for all six issues was 38.7 

two pages, the paper required for each issue per cent., or scarcely more than one-third 

would have been sufficient to have formed a of the total pages. The reader, therefore, 

library of 5,90.7,978 volumes of 500 octavo who purchased these newspapers for literary 

pages each. edification was burdened with the equivalent 

In New York City alone, the aggregate of an octavo volume of advertisements of 

circulation per Issue in 1905 for the six prin- 1192 pages, and of perfectlng-press art of 

cipal Sunday newspapers was 1,803,000 712 pages. While entirely beyond definite 

copies. They averaged sixty pages per Issue, statistical demonstration, it may not be amiss 

hence each copy represented the amount of to suggest that jf the proportion of reading 

paper required for an octavo book of 480 matter, advertising, and pictures thus found 

pages. If the circulation of all Sunday to exist In New York Sunday newspapers 

papers and of the six leading New York were applied to all Sunday newspapers (It Is 

papers be considered on the basis of aggre- reasonable to suppose that the proportions do 

gate Issue for the census year, the total annual not vary materially) the " library " previ- 

clrculatlon of the former slightly exceeded ously mentioned would contain 2,286,387 

600,000,000 copies, while that of the latter volumes octavo of reading matter, 2,268,663 

amounted to 93,729,000, or 15 per cent, of volumes octavo of advertising, and 1,352,926 

the total. volumes octavo of ** art," the amount of ad- 
vertising thus equaling that of reading mat- 



INCREASE IN ADVERTISING. 



ten 

INCREASE IN THE COST OF WOOD PAPER. 



2.r»7 


2.59 


1.7 


1.9 


1.89 


2.18 


3.45 


3.55 



The part which advertising has played in 
increasing the number of pages of news- 
papers and magazines has become Increas- The changes which have been in progress 
ingly Important during the period of pros- In connection with cost of paper used in all 
perity which the country has of late experl- periodicals are Illustrated in the following 
enced. Prior to 1890 the receipts from ad- summary: 

vertising amounted to considerably less than ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ p^^^ vou^^. 

half of the total revenue of newspapers and ,^ ^^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^ 

, . . 1 1 -T Items. 1890. 1900. 1905. 

magazmes, subscriptions and sales contribut- ^u ^.^p^^. ^^^^^ j^ newspapers 

ingjmuch the larger share. In 1890 the pro- and poriodicais 4.3 

portion contributed by each class of assets NoR'spapers in rolls 

1 ^ 1 i^ j.\^ J. ^ ^ • i. Newspapers in sheets 

was about equal; after that date receipts wood fibre book paper 

for advertising rapidly outstripped those 
from subscriptions and sales, so that in 1905 The general facts here presented, how- 
advertising constituted 57.7 per cent, of the ever, are more clearly Indicated by conslder- 
total returns and subscriptions and sales but ing expenditures made for white paper by 
43.3. representative newspapers in the larger cities. 
It was recently stated to the writer by Selecting typical papers of Chicago, Boston, 
leading publishers In different cities that the New York, Philadelphia and Washington, it 
principal change which occurred during the appears that the average price per pound 
five-year period from 1900 to 1905 v»^as a which they paid in 1900 was 1.6 cents, and 
decided Increase In the number of pages per In 1905, 2.0 cents. It seems clear that the 
issue (especially in daily nev>^spapers as dis- advance here Indicated Is likely to continue, 
tinguished from the Sunday Issues), due to _ 

. ^ . J . . .• 11 J J- ^HE PROBLEM OF AVOIDING INCREASED COST 

increase in advertising, practically no addi- ^ 

*.' \ J- .. U • ^ J T OF PAPER. 

tionai reading matter being presented, in 

some cases the increase In size, due to volume There are three alternatives open to the 

of advertising, was so great as to represent publisher In attempting to avoid increased 

an average annual Increase of from one to cost of the white paper which he requires to 

three pages per Issue. maintain circulation and size. The first 

The issues of the six principal Sunday alternative is the one to which publishers 

newspapers published In New York City on are at present turning as practically the only 

December i, 1907, aggregated 388 pages, an source of relief. An amendment to the tariff 

average of 64.5 pages. These were divided laws of the United States which shall per- 



76 



THE AMERICAN REl^IEW OF REVIEWS 



mit the entrance of paper and of wood pulp 
free of duty, in order that the forests of 
other countries (specifically Canada) may 
effectively supplement our own. It cannot 
be claimed that the plan thus proposed com- 
pletely adjusts the difficulty, since the supply 
of spruce and other pulp woods in Canada 
is by no means exhaustless and an export tax 
appears probable. It is obvious, therefore, 
that this alternative is an uncertain one, and 
at best merely postpones ultimate shortage. 

The second alternative may be better 
termed a scientific possibility: it is the de- 
velopment of a satisfactory raw material 
other than the limited varieties of wood now 
used. To that end already the chemist and 
inventor have long been at work. Even the 
federal Governm.ent is endeavoring to assist 
in the solution of this problem. In his cur- 
rent estimates the Secretary of Agriculture 
requests an appropriation of $10,000 to con- 
duct experiments in developing a suitable 
raw material for paper. It must be admitted, 
however, that the results thus far are not 
commensurate with the expenditure of time 
and money already made. The day appears 
to be still distant when corn and cotton 
stalks, plants, or straw can be utilized as a 
satisfactory and thoroughly practical base. 
Experiments have, however, resulted in the 
production of excellent white paper from 
woods hitherto unused. From eighteen vari- 
eties useful paper can now be manufactured, 
but the practical limitations in most cases 
still govern use ; either the product is satis- 
factor}' for particular uses only, or the 
amount produced from a given unit of wood 
is too sm.all to yield a reasonable profit, or 
there are mechanical, scientific, or natural 
difficulties yet to be overcom.e. 

The third alternative is much more radi- 
cal. It has been shown that the increase in 
the use of white paper has been principally 
due to two causes, — natural increase in cir- 
culation, and rather unnatural increase in 
the number of pages in each issue of news- 
papers and magazines resulting from ma- 
chine composition and expansion of adver- 
tising. • 

Obviously circulation cannot be decreased, 
but on the contrary must continually in- 
crease, as the nation advances in wealth and 



intelligence. It would, however, be possi- 
ble to decrease the amount of composition 
used in most newspapers and some magazines 
without detriment to the publishers or loss 
to the public. Much of the reading matter 
which is now printed in Sunday newspapers 
may be classed as " filler," a,nd possesses no 
value to any one. The impression left upon 
the reader's mind in connection with it, is 
that the editors of the different sections of 
the Sunday papers have been straining every 
nerve to pad out their space with matter 
which possesses no permanent and little or 
no passing value. It would be possible, in- 
deed, to reduce the amount of reading matter 
presented in daily and Sunday newspapers 
by perhaps 20 per cent, before causing any 
loss to the community; it would be possible 
also to decrease space which is now being 
devoted to advertising by increasing the rate. 
If all advertisements were condensed in the 
same proportion, it is probable that the re- 
sulting return would, for all concerned, be 
precisely the same as at present. 

He would be a bold reformer indeed w^ho 
obstructs the path of seeming progress by 
deliberately advocating reduction in the size 
of American newspapers and periodicals, but 
if the figures and assertions of the forest ex- 
perts of the federal Government are correct, 
and if no other satisfactory raw material for 
paper is discovered, the near future will 
compel the paper and publishing industries, 
willing or unwilling, to adjust themselves to 
entirely new conditions. 

Whatever the present opinion of publish- 
ers may be concerning the necessity or wis- 
dom of a great number of pages per issue, 
thoughtful and intelligent persons generally 
find the bulk of modern publications, espe- 
cially of Sunday newspapers, a source of 
continual annoyance. The huge comic pic- 
ture supplements are often so puerile that 
they induce a sense of melancholy; yet mere- 
ly to divert thoughtless men and women for 
a brief Sunday morning hour with impossible 
and extravagant pictures printed in loud 
colors, thousands of stately spruce and hem- 
lock trees upon the northern hills, which 
have raised their graceful branches to the 
sunshine and rain of many changing seasons, 
have lived, — in vain. 



THE GOLD FLOOD AND ITS PROBLEMS. 

BY J. PEASE NORTON. 

TN the present disturbance of business pros- the over-supply of gold. 

perity there are at least four factors 
which are fundamental to all those economic That high prices exist, there is no ques- 
effects that are currently classed as causes, tion. All average price levels, w^hether Eng- 
namely: First, the world-wide deprecia- lish or American, show in eight years more 
tion of gold, which has been and is operating than 50 per cent, increase. In other words 
to undermine the use of gold as a stand- it requires $1.50 to buy what $1 would pur- 
ard of value in various insidious and com- chase on the average eight years ago. If 
plicated, although sure ways; second, the these are not famine prices, because during 
ill-regulated practices of capitalization of eight years the crops have been bountiful, 
corporations proceeding under a compara- progress extremely rapid, and the standard 
tively new combination of economic condi- of living throughout the world upon the in- 
tions, involving underwriting, investments of crease, then the causes should be sought in 
commercial and savings banks, trust compa- the depreciation of money. If the statistics 
nies, and insurance companies, and especially agree in showing the quantity of gold in- 
the methods of acquiring ownership by ma- creasing, the cost of production per ton of 
jority control for purposes of merger; third, ore diminished radically by new inventions, 
the inadequacy of our currency system with and the world's stock of gold showing a 
especial reference to the bond secured bank marked and sudden increase, little doubt re- 
note system, constituting a most important mains. The facts are plain. A golden del- 
problem in the field of currency as a medium uge is already upon us. In the year 1700 
of exchange; fourth, the rapid expansion of the annual production was $7,000,000, in 
the banking industry under the guise of trust 1800 $12,000,000, in 1900 $262,000,000, in 
companies without proper legal requirements 1907 $425,000,000, and the rate of increase 
covering reserves. is accelerating. When we remember that the 

Because these problems have suddenly de- larger amount of each year's production is 
veloped new aspects on account of economic added to all that has been produced before, 
changes, the whole field requires not only unlike all other commodities, that at the 
careful analysis by experts, but also delicate present rate of acceleration the world's stock 
and effective legislation by Congress. From can double in less than twelve years, and 
a brief survey of the disturbing factors men- finally, that the causes of the gold flood are 
tioned above, which are at the root of the not sporadic and exceptional, but entirely ra- 
financial crisis of 1907, it will be possible to tional, namely, the ingenuity of chemists and 
discuss more intelligently the financial situ- metallurgists, who have succeeded in reduc- 
ation with reference to the remedies pro- ing the profitable working cost per ton of 
posed. ore from $14 to less than $2 at the present 

Although gold is the measure of the prices time, by new inventions, this question of gold 
of all commodities as a standard of value, depreciation becomes easily the financial 
prices may increase because of a cheapening problem of the age. For the amount of 
of the standard relative to commodities or cheap gold ore is unlimited in nature. Mr. 
because of an increase in the value of com- Frederick Upham Adams, in the August 
modities relative to the standard. In the one issue of Success, quotes Mr. John D. Rocke- 
case, inventions in gold mining and new dis- feller as saying: " It seems to me that one of 
coveries of gold would be active. In the sec- fhe most startling conditions this country 
ond case, above mentioned, short crops, defi- must face is the overproduction of gold." 
cient economic progress, and gfreat pressure 

f , ,. fu x u • . THE RESULTING INFLATION. 

or population on the means or subsistence 

would be the effective causes for the high The situation is not complex. Instead of 
prices. High prices may, then, be classed his- a Congress as in the Civil War issuing mil- 
torically in two groups, (a) inflation prices lions of paper greenbacks which did not rep- 
due to a depreciated money, (b) famine resent the amount of work which good 
prices due to want. money hitherto had cost, now a freak or 



78 



THE AMERICAN REl^IElV OF REyiElVS. 



combination of nature and human science is 
flooding the world with golden metal which 
does not represent the value of the gold of 
yesterday; as the cost of to-day's production 
largely determines the value of all the stock 
on hand, the sudden decrease in cost has re- 
sulted in the ordinary phenomena present in 
all inflation. A rapid increase of prices re- 
sults. A great speculation ensues to make 
profit by the rise. Men borrow and pyramid 
their profits in the speculation in commodi- 
ties, securities and land. Under this borrow- 
ing demand, interest rises until the increase 
in the rate tends to offset the loss in principal 
to the lender. For, if normal interest is 5 
per cent., and prices rise on the average 5 
per cent, per annum, a normal interest for 
such inflation must be 10 per cent. Other- 
wise the principal loaned will be impaired 
when repaid by the borrower, measured in 
purchasing power for the lender. 

THE HIGHER INTEREST RATE. 

Without going into a technical explana- 
tion of the results of a world-wide gold de- 
preciation, which have been fully described 
theoretically by Prof. Irving Fisher* of Yale 
University in " Appreciation and Interest " 
in 1897, and later in his recent treatise, 
" The Rate of Interest," the subject may be 
usefully summarized in answer to the ques- 
tion : Assuming that a world-wide gold de- 
preciation is in progress, how may business 
men and investors take advantage of this 
great economic change, to the end of limit- 
ing losses in their present commitments, and, 
so far as possible, reaping profits by wise 
foresight in guarding their future financial 
operations?. 

Assuming 4^/^ per cent, as a normal rate 
of interest and 4^/^ per cent, as the average 
rate per annum at which prices have in- 
creased for the past ten years, the lender, in 
order that his principal shall not be impaired 
must exact a high rate, 9 per cent., which 
is no hardship to the debtor, since the land, 
the commodities and the securities (if equi- 
ties) will tend to rise in proportion to prices, 
namely, 4^ per cent, each year on the 
average, with certain exceptions. 

EFFECT ON MORTGAGES, STOCKS, AND BONDS. 

1 he man who invests his own capital in 
real estate neither gains nor loses by gold 
depreciation. The man owning real estate 

* Hcadors intorostod in this most Important sub- 
joct should consult the writings of Fisher and Holt. 
An oxr-fjlont introduction is Holt's " (iold Supply 
and IMosporitv. 



heavily mortgaged at previous low rates of 
interest gains largely, since the value of the 
property will advance but not the debt. The 
man who holds the mortgage loses what the 
other man gains. This inequality is ad- 
justed by the increasing interest rates. 

It will be profitable for business men to 
carry large stock of goods, bought on every 
recession in prices, and to advance the prices 
without delay. Large profits thereby be- 
come possible, on account of the appreciation 
in the value of the stock. 

The common shares of corporations repre- 
sent the equities and correspond largely to 
the case of the man who purchases land on 
mortgage. Common stocks will greatly ap- 
preciate in value unless special reasons inter- 
vene. Among special reasons are : First, the 
difficulty of raising prices of services or goods 
sold by the corporation, as in the street rail- 
way corporations, where the law fixes a 5- 
cent fare ; in railways, so far as rates may 
not be readily raised ; secondly, the difficul- 
ties of raising large amounts of new capital 
at high interest where extensive new con- 
struction has been or must be shortly under- 
taken. Otherwise, the stocks of companies, 
the more heavily bonded at the old rates of 
interest the better, provided net earnings may 
readily increase and no new capital is re- 
quired, and always provided the management 
consists of honest men, should show great 
profits. For the bondholder's loss becomes 
the stockholder's gain. 

It will be unwise to buy low interest 
bonds unless the buyer has offerings of equal 
security to his present holdings on a far 
higher basis than at present prevails. Dur- 
ing the lulls, when general interest rates for 
a short time decline, largest profits will be 
made in selling bonds when they rally ow- 
ing to lower interest, and immediately re- 
investing in the stock of companies, soundly 
managed, having low-priced equities and 
heavily bonded, the bonds dating before 
1901. 

THE NEW YORK CITY BOND ISSUE. 

Doubtless, the sale of $40,000,000 cor- 
porate stock and bonds by the city of New 
York will mark no less the commencement 
of a new era of investment values than the 
necessity for early changes in the laws regu- 
lating the investments of savings banks and 
trust institutions. That we are on a new 
investment basis few may longer doubt. 
That $40,000,000 4]/ per cent, bonds, tax- 
exempt, should bring only 102 on the aver- 



THE GOLD FLOOD AND ITS PROBLEMS. 



79 



age, a basis yield of about 4^4 P^r cent., add- 
ing the amount of the tax to bring this in- 
vestment into comparison with securities sub- 
ject to tax, said i^^ per cent., an equiva- 
lent yield of nearly 6 per cent, for New 
York City bonds, will prove for the majority 
of financiers sufficient indication of the trend. 

The price of the New York City bond is- 
sue represents the havoc which gold depre- 
ciation has wrought up to this date. How 
great is the fall in New York City bonds, 
few even now realize. In 1904 the New 
York City 3^ per cent, bonds were dis- 
tributed to the public as high as 104. Since 
then a decline has occurred of twenty-four 
points, or, say, 25 per cent, in this gilt-edged 
investment security. From the standpoint of 
the holders the comparison is even more dis- 
couraging, because the purchasing power of 
the dollar in the brief interval of three years 
has declined 10 per cent., as measured by the 
index number issued by Dun last May, when 
presumably on account of the extraordinarily 
rapid advance in prices this ancient statistical 
landmark was abandoned. Consequently, 
the holder of the 3^'s finds that not only 
has he lost 25 per cent, of his capital meas- 
ured in dollars, but that $80 will only pur- 
chase what $72 would three years ago. 
Therefore, measured in the real test of 
purchasing power, the holder has lost 32 
per cent, of his capital, and received in 
the meantime an interest return of 3^ per 
cent., little more than one-half the current 
time rates now ruling for a year. That the 
effect must go farther, no sane critic can 
doubt. How far this movement may go, it 
will be impossible to say for two years or 
more, inasmuch as the conflicting tendencies 
produced by political disturbances pending 
the election, confuse the effects of the depre- 
ciation of the standard of value. 

That there has been secret selling of 
bonds of well-informed interests in amounts 
reaching great proportions is doubtless within 
the knowledge of a few. The difficulty in 
unloading bonds on account of the narrow 
market which many issues and specialties pos- 
sess makes it difficult to show the real quota- 
tions which many issues would bring. 

SAVINGS-BANK AND INSURANCE INVEST- 
MENTS. 

That a situation has developed in the 
finances of savings banks as well as in insur- 
ance companies requiring changes in the laws 
regulating the investments of savings banks, 
the New York City issue forcibly suggests. 



That the laws should restrict investments of 
savings banks to bonds and mortgages seemed 
safe to the law-makers because the thought 
of loss by depreciation of the standard of 
value was lacking; moreover, the laws 
helped the sales of bonds by large dealers. 
In New York, Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut the laws were made drastic enough. Sav- 
ings banks were practically compelled so far 
as securities are concerned to make only 
loans to corporations (by being forced to 
purchase the bonds) and restricted or rather 
barred from investing in the equities which 
represent the growth of this great country, 
the richest in the world. Fixed investments 
consist of two classes : Simple annuities un- 
determined as to annual rate, which in capi- 
tal value are common stocks, and the combi- 
nation of an annuity of stated rate and a 
principal sum due at the end of so many 
years, which in capital value are known as 
bonds. In former times such securities rep- 
resented capital invested, because the rate of 
interest in all industries was subject to com- 
paratively srriali differences. In foreclosure, 
this value could be liquidated. On account 
of insufficient regulations controlling capi- 
talization, worthless pieces of paper from the 
standpoint of liquidation under foreclosure, 
inasmuch as they represent simply contingent 
earning power, have been sold to trust in- 
stitutions for investments. 

THE DEMAND FOR AN ELASTIC CURRENCY. 

As a result of the speculation resulting 
from gold depreciation and advancing prices, 
and the immobility in the character of cer- 
tain investments of trust institutions already 
pointed out, the tropic conditions natural in 
hot-houses of inflation rapidly developed. 
The volume of clearings increased not only 
in quantity but also in value, on account of 
higher prices. The demand for currency to 
transact this hot-house business became 
really a practical question for the bankers. 
Without studying the causes, Congress has 
proceeded to remedy this real, though un- 
natural, demand for more currency. Like 
the man who, by tugging at his boot straps 
to reach a higher plane, pulled so hard that 
he not only seriously injured his back, 
but tore the straps out of his boots, so the 
insistent demand for more currency to trans- 
act this unnatural business resulted in fur- 
ther inflation and increased speculation. The 
increase in bond-secured notes has amounted 
to $400,000,000 within a few years, — an in- 
flation by fiat money on top of nature's In- 



80 • THE AMERICAN REl^/ElV OF RE^IEIVS. 

flatlon through the cheapening of gold. The nies carried little if any reserves, redeposit- 

Aldrich bill assisted the bankers in this in- ing in other institutions. The result is that 

flation movement by directing the secretary within fifteen years the average reserves 

to deposit all the Government funds in the against deposits for the banking industry, 

banks. During every fall, on account of our which should include the trust companies, — 

inelastic currency and the genuine business since trust companies are little more than 

expansion on account of the harvest business, banks free of reserve regulations, — have been 

this demand has been intensified. on the average cut in two. As a result a 

This legitimate demand for an elastic cur- sudden run made it impossible to maintain 

rency, presented at successive Congresses by specie payments, because the reserves were 

the Hon. Charles N. Fowler, chairman of entirely inadequate for the business at- 

the House Committee on Banking and Cur- tempted. 

rency, has been consistently shelved by Con- .Washington comes to the rescue. 
gress, although the system of asset currency 

as used in Canada and elsewhere is in every The fright engendered by the failure of 

way sound and practicable. That the cur- the Knickerbocker Trust Company produced 

rency should be elastic and vary with busi- a psychological panic. It destroyed public 

ness demands is not only reasonable, but con- confidence. Because the reserves were insuf- 

clusive. The short-sighted policy of Con- ficient, institutions through the country sus- 

gress in continuing to make the bank note pended specie payments. Currency sold at a 

circulation depend on the Government debt, premium in Wall Street. The fear in the 

will, unless modified, produce in the end a land required immediate allaying. Grasping 

great crisis. For in event of war, the $600,- the solution, the Administration acted 

000,000 worth of 2 per cent, bonds held by promptly in a way capable of accomplishing 

the banks against the bank notes, now selling the results desired. By immediately offering 

above par, would, if the Government issued bond issues of $150,000,000, all told, to be 

$2,000,000,000 or $3,000,000,000 bonds for used to provide an emergency currency, a 

war purposes, greatly depreciate, since so psychological impression was produced at 

large a sum would require at least 4 per cent, one stroke, largely restoring confidence, 

interest, on which basis the 2's would no>t be As soon as it became apparent that the 

worth over 60, jeopardizing the $600,000,- difficulties had been met, and the intensity 

000 of the present assets of the banks by at of the crisis allayed, it was decided unneces- 

least 40 per cent. ~ sary to actually sell more than a fraction of 

When, then, these conditions of inflation the amount offered. Had the smaller 
had been carried to a pitch, and many in- amount been offered at the start, little would 
vestments believed to be good were in reality have been accomplished psychologically. The 
only contingent annuities without value in move of the Administration, psychologically 
case of foreclosure, and the inelastic currency speaking, tended to balance in restoring pub- 
system was. laboring under a heavy discount lie confidence, the extent such confidence had 
rate, which is the safety valve of an inelastic been destroyed by the opening event, the sus- 
currency, the psychological blow was struck pension of the great Knickerbocker Trust 
which caused the crisis to become acute and Company, the two events marking the be- 
universal, — the failure of the great Knicker- ginning and the end of the great crisis, 
bocker Trust Company. Great credit is due to President Roosevelt 

Txr AT^T^^TT.^,, .,. r„T ^ ^.^^..^ , o arid Secretary Cortelyou in so splendidly 

inadequate banking reserves. . -11 • • • 

copmg with an alarmmg situation. 

A president of a large savings bank recent- Now that public confidence in a measure 
ly commented on the fact that the crisis did has been restored, and the time of normal 
no injury to savings banks and rather tes- monetary stringency is rapidly passing, two 
tified to their splendid solidity. As a mat- disturbing factors have for the time been 
ter of fact all savings banks retired behind tempered. The canceling of loans by banks 
the sixty days' notice clause. The national will proceed throughout the country. The 
banks remained solvent by suspending pay- volume of trade will lessen. In a short time 
ments. The suspension of specie payments money will begin to accumulate in the banks, 
was the result of insufficient reserves. The and business will pass into that state of tor- 
reserves of the national banks were insuffi- por which is most discouraging to business 
cient simply because trust companies. State men. 
banks, private banks, and insurance compa- In the dismay at fortunes wrecked and 



THE GOLD FLOOD AND ITS PROBLEMS. 



81 



profitable business swept away, the Immedi- 
ate mental reactions of men are two : Respon- 
sibility for the crisis, in order to fix the 
blame, and, second, remedies of many kinds 
largely designed to affect some of the innu- 
merable minor phases which have struck the 
minds of men in vivid ways. 

SOME SPECIFIC REMEDIES. 

Many special interests under the guise of 
remedies for the crisis are suggesting changes 
in our financial system dangerous to the in- 
terests of our people. Leaving out of the 
question the many impracticable suggestions, 
the possible remedies, when financial, politi- 
cal and commercial conditions are carefully 
weighed, are few. On the whole, it is prob- 
able that no direct legislation at all would be 
most advantageous for the prosperity of the 
country. Stripped of technicalities, the fol- 
lowing measures, which are the substance of 
several bills to be introduced, would be salu- 
tary, provided a currency campaign shall not 
result. 

(I) Require the State banks, trust com- 
panies, etc, to become national banks. 

(a) By extending to the national banks 
complete powers possessed by trust companies 
and requiring adequate reserves against notes 
as against deposits. 

(b) By taxing all institutions upon de- 
posits by a graduated scale decreasing with 
the proportion of reserves held, similar in a 
way to the lo per cent, tax on bank notes of 
State banks. These two laws. If carefully 
worked out, would insure uniform adminis- 
tration of banking Institutions and enforce 
adequate reserves. Trust companies and 
State banks would be forced to become na- 
tional banks. 

(II) Give to the national banks the right 
to issue bank notes, unsecured by Govern- 
ment bonds against which reserves should be 
required, provided the bank has already out- 
standing say 60 per cent, of the present Gov- 
ernment bond-secured notes. In this way 
the transition to the Canadian system of asset 
currency can be gradually brought about 
without Injuring the prices of Government 
bonds now held by the banks. 

(III) Henceforth, Government bonds 
should not be the basis for circulation to a 
total amount greater than the $600,000,000 
now outstanding, although they may be 
given In exchange the privilege of becoming 
the sole security for Government deposits. 

These remedies may be adopted by the 



present Congress to advantage. But the 
danger to business is great, since a prolonged 
currency discussion in Congress Is apt to 
throw the entire question into the presiden- 
tial campaign. 

REASONS FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF A GOLD 
COMMISSION. 

The remedy for the problems arising from 
gold depreciation, from the irregularities in 
regulations governing the investments of 
trust institutions, and, finally, the suffering 
caused by the financial crisis of 1907, may 
well be entrusted to a gold commission. Ex- 
tensive testimony should be taken, and thor- 
ough investigation carried on in order to ob- 
tain the statistical data necessary for final 
recommendations. Moreover, this is an In- 
ternational question, and negotiations should 
be carried on with foreign countries. If the 
reasoning of experts that prolonged deprecia- 
tion tends to upset the relations of the vari- 
ous classes in a society is correct, grave social 
conditions must shortly develop. Extensive 
readjustments of wages must ensue if the 
present cost of living does not come down. 
Already It costs 50 per cent, more to live 
than ten years ago. If, as has been stated, 
prices may* advance in three years 30 per 
cent, more, this will mean that within thir- 
teen years the cost of living will have 
doubled. 

From the standpoint of business, could the 
political and financial-legal conditions of dis- 
turbance be removed, — now that the periods 
of malignancy of the disturbing factors are 
temporarily passed, — prosperity would rap- 
idly renew its course, and a bitter commer- 
cial depression be largely avoided. For In peri- 
ods of gold depreciation, crises although vio- 
lent are of short duration, provided political 
factors do not intervene. The crisis of 1857 
was quickly passed, but the agitation pre- 
ceding the Civil War immediately followed. 
Could all interests agree to compromise by 
the appointment of a gold commission with 
extensive powers to investigate and recom- 
mend legislation to the Congress of 1909, 
this whole subject would be removed, to the 
great advantage of business, from the r^alm 
of politics as a disturbing cause. These ques- 
tions are too, perhaps, safer in the hands of 
experts than in the throes of partisan efforts 
and their misuse by unprincipled political 
agitators. There are these two alternatives, 
— a gold commission or a stormy campaign 
disturbing business. 



THE STORY OF THE HOARDERS. 

BY WILLIAM JUSTUS BOIES. 

"^JEVER before in the history of this coun- taken out by the banks of Philadelphia, Chi- 

try has the mania to hoard money de- cago, Boston, Pittsburg, St. Louis, and other 

prived the people of so vast a sum as that points, the hoarding mania extended, and 

which has been withdrawn from circulation soon developed into a national movement of 

since the opening days of the October panic, grave consequence. 

It has been a most curious, unreasoning, but u n 

• L 1-1 ^1 u 1 TRADING IN CURRENCY. 

picturesque movement, with which the banks 

of the great cities have ever had to deal, and Although the craze began through the 
now that the different phases are becoming withdrawal by timid depositors who were 
better known, it is clear that all sorts and honestly concerned as to the solvency of their 
conditions of men have engaged in the prac- banks, there can be no doubt that much of 
tice, and that thousands of big and little the vast sum taken out of circulation was 
banks throughout the United States have withdrawn deliberately for the purpose of 
helped it along. The movement has been too securing the premium on the currency that 
broad for any one to trace closely, but it is the hoarders knew would be paid as soon as 
safe to say that, taking the country as a the currency famine became at all acute, 
whole, fully $100,000,000 in currency has Within a week after the loan certificates 
been locked up by timid individuals, banks, were issued, currency became so scarce as to 
and corporations. It has been estimated that make it difficult for the banks of New York 
fully half of that sum was withdrawn from to supply their, customers w^ith pay-roll 
the banks and trust companies in the imme- money. This led to serious complications, as 
diate vicinity of New York during the ex- hundreds of mill owners found themselves 
citement attending the unprecedented runs in a position where they could not meet their 
on three or four trust companies of the me- wage schedules, and were in danger of hav- 
tropolis. ing to shut down their plants. Although the 
The movement was given great impetus more intelligent class of laborers might be 
by the action of the New York Clearing content to receive certified checks and vari- 
House banks in authorizing the issue of loan ous forms of " token money," the greater 
certificates on October 26 last. It is true, proportion were too ignorant to be reasoned 
however, that hoarding had begun two or with, and could not be induced to take any- 
three weeks before this action was taken, thing but the actual currency. In the South, 
The banks- were obliged to authorize especially, this trouble caused great embar- 
loan certificates because of the tremendous rassment, as was evidenced by a ** hurry 
drain of currency to the interior, which call " from a cotton planter for a qufck ship- 
largely accounted for the $12,900,000 cash ment of 5000 silver dollars to be used in pay- 
loss shown in the bank statement of the day ing off negro help. The planter had to pay 
that the loan certificate expedient was re- a premium of $150 to make it worth while 
sorted to, and by the heavy withdrawals of for the Wall Street money brokers to scour 
currency by individual depositors. As soon the city one Saturday afternoon to procure 
as the newspapers announced that cash set- the coin. 

tlements by the banks had been temporarily This state of affairs soon made the buying 

suspended the safe-deposit companies re- and selling of currency an important part of 

ceived applications for thousands of " one the banking business, and by November 4 

month boxes." That meant that the hoard- the financial columns of the newspapers were 

ers wanted a safe place to store their money full of the announcements of money brokers 

pending the resumption of normal conditions, stating that they were ready to " trade " in 

and that they thought that the situation currency. That was the inducement that 

would be sufficiently settled within a month thousands of hoarders had been waiting for, 

to enable them to either re-deposit their and within two days the currency premium 

funds or invest them permanently. What became the most important quotation in 

was true of New York applied in a way to Wall Street. The money changers did a 

other centers, and as loan certificates were thriving business immediately, and as soon as 



THE STORY OP THE HOARDERS. 



83 



their announcements were out there was a 
steady procession of shamefaced people to the 
Wall Street offices bent upon selling what 
currency they had. This throng of greedy 
hoarders represented all the types of a great 
city, ranging from the rag picker of the East 
Side, who had sewed his currency in his 
clothes for safe keeping, up to the rich men 
whose secretaries emptied huge bundles of 
crisp, new bills on the money changers' 
counters. Hundreds of women joined the 
throng, and had it not been for the vigilance 
of the Wall Street detectives and the known 
terrors of the financial district to thieves of 
all classes, many of the hoarders would have 
been relieved of their savings before they had 
a chance to sell them. It was a common 
thing to see frail women take from insecure 
wrist bags great rolls of gold certificates and 
bills of small denomination to be sold. Some 
of the women hoarders drove hard-headed 
bargains and forced the money changers to 
pay them 2^/2 per cent, and even higher for 
their currency. In one instance two wealthy 
women were seen emerging from a Harlem 
bank carrying huge packages, each contain- 
ing $50,000 in currency, which they imme- 
diately hid away in a safe-deposit vault lo- 
cated in the basement of the bank's own 
building. 

The money brokers paid for the currency 
with certified checks drawn upon national 
Clearing House banks. The curious feature 
of this arrangement was that the hoarders 
who were apparently afraid to leave their 
money on deposit with the banks were will- 
ing to accept checks drawn upon these same 
institutions. These checks they deposited in 
the regular way and the credits were placed 
to their personal account in the banks. This 
furnished rather conclusive evidence that the 
hoarders, in withdrawing their money from 
the banks, were governed more by a sense of 
greed than a sense of prudence. It must be 
remembered, however, that the 2 or 3 per 
cent, premium which the hoarders received 
for the currency that they sold represented 
as much as they would have obtained from 
the trust companies for a year's interest. 
Then, too, after collecting their premium, — 
$200 or $300 on each $10,000 of currency 
sold, — they could take the certified checks 
covering the sum of their original withdraw- 
als from the banks, plus the premium paid 
by the money brokers, and deposit It with 
the trust companies on the regular interest 
basis. It will be seen, therefore, that the in- 
centive for such an operation from a cold 



business point of view, was really very great. 
As high as 4 per cent, premium was paid 
for currency in the New York market by 
interior banks. The record transaction in 
this way was the purchase of a $500,000 
block by a Western bank that had to have in 
its possession that amount of actual cash. It 
had considerable difficulty in securing the 
money, even at a premium of 4 per cent., 
which meant that the bank had to pay $20,- 
000 in order to obtain the cash it needed. 
This was as high as was paid by the money 
changers during the panic of 1893, when the 
business of buying and selling currency dur- 
ing the period of financial disturbance was 
first developed in a large way. 

THE BANKS AS HOARDERS. 

Between $40,000,000 and $50,000,000 in 
currency was traded in by the money chang- 
ers of Wall Street during this season's dis- 
turbance. That was three-fold the volume 
of sales reported during the panic of fourteen 
years ago, and this season's totals might be 
greatly enhanced were it possible to trace the 
private sales that were effected between indi- 
viduals and banks. Although the country 
banks have been severely criticised for 
hoarding currency, it must be remembered 
that their position was peculiarly trying in 
that many of them were without Clearing 
House protection. Some of these banks saw 
the storm coming months before it broke, 
and prepared accordingly. In certain cases 
interior institutions having cash reserves 
averaging 40 or 50 per cent., — 15 per cent, 
being the legal requirement for national 
banks outside the reserve centers, — made 
urgent appeals to the New York banks for 
cash shipments, stating that they could not 
get along without the money. But they did 
get along without it, as soon as they found 
out that they had to, so the New York 
banks, except in instances where legitimate 
need was clearly apparent, refused to send 
interior correspondents all the cash that they 
called for. Many of the banks that were 
so anxious to secure currency did not need it 
at all, but carried it as an emergency fund 
for use in case of panic. 

Let me say here that I believe that the 
New York banks handled a very difficult 
situation admirably and that they were not 
guilty of withholding currency from their 
Western correspondents at all. There have 
been such charges made, but without, I be- 
lieve, just warrant. Comptroller RIdgely, 
in his annual report speaks thus of the 



84 THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REyiElVS. 

lioarding by banks: "The banks have been ever carried, and the combined drain w^i? 

fearful as to what might develop, and finding naturally sufficient to continue the currency 

their usual reserve deposits only partially premium in force. In addition to these with- 

available, if available at all, they have been drawals, large manufacturing concerns, with 

compelled in self-protection to gather from, other great employers of labor, were obliged 

every source all the money they could possi- to keep constantly on hand enough currency 

bly reach and to hold on to it by refusing to provide their pay-roll requirements a 

payment whenever it is possible and satisfy- week or tw^o ahead. In the case of one in- 

ing their customers with the smallest possible dustry, located near New York, to which 

amount of cash." the Wall Street banks were accustomed to 

ship $500,000 monthly in pay-roll money, it 

NEW YORK BANKS NOT GUILTY. ^ V j .u . u " j-j .a 

w^as round that the currency did not now 

This does not apply to the New York back as formerly, and that it was being 

banks, since they gave up $52,000,000 in the hoarded. Investigation show^ed that the 

four weeks following the adoption of loan banks of the district were retaining all the 

certificates by the Clearing House. The currency they could get to meet a possible 

comptroller's own figures show that betw^een emergency. 

August 22 and December 3, — covering not After the Comptroller of the Currency 

only the entire panic period but the pre- called on the national banks to report their 

liminary stages of disturbance, — that the condition, as of December 3, much of the 

New York banks lost $43,000,000 in reserve hoarded money was released. The banks 

money, as against the normal drain of only had long been expecting the call and the day 

$12,400,000 in the corresponding period of before it was issued the Wall Street money 

1906. This difference of $30,000,000 is ex- brokers did a thriving business in supplying 

plained by the withdrawals of currency by currency to interior banks that desired to 

interior banks and by the payments to the fortify their reserve position in anticipation 

''assisted trust companies" as well. In this of the demand. One Western bank came 

period, too, deposits in New York banks be- hurriedly into the market, bidding $10,000 

longing to out of town institutions ran off for a quick shipment of $500,000. Other 

$27,412,000. These changes show rather banks did the same thing, although in a quiet 

conclusively that New York has not with- w^ay. As soon as this demand was satisfied 

held money belonging to the interior, and the premium declined from 2 per cent, to 

that the great banks of Wall Street, what- i^ per cent., which was rather significant 

ever their sins in other directions, cannot evidence that the sudden rise had to do with 

properly be charged with hoarding money in the '' window-dressing " operations of the 

this crisis. The very fact that they have banks. Since then the premium has dropped 

been for weeks unable to meet the pay-roll to i per cent, and under, 

requirements of their own customers, and What was called a currency premium, 

that they have been forced, on many occa- however, was not that at all. The premium 

sions, to go into the market and buy cur- on currency really meant that the checks of 

rency to provide the legitimate needs of their solvent banks were selling at a discount, 

own clients, indicates that they have had no since the banks themselves were not paying 

private hoard to resort to in this great out cash for their customers' checks. The 

twentieth century emergency. premium has become the most important 

The New York trust companies were quotation of the market and its daily fluctua- 

for a time rather conspicuous hoarders of tions have been followed with the keenest 

money, too, and in the nature of things interest by intelligent students of financial 

they had to be. Having just survived affairs everywhere. When the premium is 

a series of runs, during which two of abandoned altogether there will be genuine 

the companies were forced to pay out rejoicing among those critics who believe 

virtually all their deposits in cash, the other that there can be no permanent improvement 

companies were naturally desirous of ** keep- until currency becomes sufficiently plentiful 

ing strong." That meant accumulating the again to give the banks of the country what 

heaviest cash reserves that these companies they need without bidding a premium for it. 



THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS MAN IN RETIREMENT 



BY ANDRE TRIDON. 



' I ^HE excellent article on retiring from 
business in the United States, by Mr. 
Marcus M. Marks, which appeared in the 
Review of Reviews for November, dealt 
with conditions which, in the main, are pe- 
culiar to American life, although, of course, 
Mr. Marks' general contention holds good 
the world over. 

In Europe the case is somewhat different. 
The fondest dream of every European 
mother is to marry off her daughters and to 
see her sons provided with government posi- 
tions. When the first of those wishes is left 
unfulfilled, a convent may conveniently open 
its doors to the forsaken wallflower. But 
when the heir either decides to be a free lance 
or fails to come up to the requirements of a 
civil-service examination, lamentations are 
the response of the entire family. As a 
makeshift, and if the father happens to be a 
prominent merchant, his son may succeed 
him in the management of his affairs. To 
the average European mind, however, noth- 
ing Is sweeter to think of than a desk and a 
stool for life in the offices of some public or 
semi-public organization. 

Why should such '' dry drudgery at the 
desk's dead wood," as Lamb puts it, appeal 
so strongly to Europeans, or, to be more ex- 
act, to Continentals, for the British have re- 
mained comparatively immune against the 
civil-service microbe? The answer is: Be- 
cause of the old-age pension. Almost every 
one on the Continent who is able, physically 
and mentally, to pass an examination, may in 
time become a pensioner, for not only the 
governments, in most of the European coun- 
tries, but banks, railroads, large business 
houses as well, pension off their employees 
after twenty-five or thirty years of continu- 
ous services. 

When an American realizes the exact 
amount of these old-age pensions he may 
express some surprise. Few are above $800 
a year, and the majority are below $200. 
That paltry $200, however, is a thing per- 
fectly assured, a pittance which cannot pos- 
sibly fail to be doled out to whomsoever has 
held a steady position for a quarter of a cen-. 
tury or so. This pittance does away with all 
the worries concerning the future, and the 
humblest office holder may sleep peacefully, 



satisfied that after years of toil he will be 
able to rest and enjoy life, if life then be 
granted him. 

It is at this point that Anglo-Saxons and 
Continentals have disagreed radically since 
the days of the Reformation. Puritanism 
taught that profitable suffering and work 
were the foremost accessories of a Christian 
life, work being not only a necessity but a 
duty as well. Catholicism, with its Greco- 
Roman tinge of paganism, has steadfastly re- 
fused to forget the carnal deities, and while 
countenancing suffering of a rather unnat- 
ural sort, such as asceticism, has permitted 
contemplative anchorites to set an example 
of indifference to strenuosity, an example of 
blessed idleness. Of course, it will be un- 
derstood that I do not oppose Catholicism 
to Protestantism, but to Puritanism, for, al- 
though England and North Germany are 
both Protestant countries, they differ as much 
on the subject as pre-Shakespearean England 
differs from the England of, say, George 
Bernard Shaw. 

The result of such widely different teach- 
ings Is that to Anglo-Saxons work Is an end 
In itself, praiseworthy and even enjoyable. 
To the Continental it is only a means to an 
end, the end being an Independent life of 
idleness, or, as we might prefer to put It, 
elegant leisure. According to Continental 
views, whoever can secure for himself a daily 
pittance without toiling for it, ought not to 
toil, and no credit is given to the wealthy 
young man Intent on increasing his capital 
by engaging in some trade, nor to the man of 
fifty or fifty-five who remains at work after 
amassing a small competence. 

Therefore, we meet In every Continental 
city a large class of idle men, who, having 
dismissed for the balance of their life the 
care of money-making, have no ambition be- 
yond that of living and enjoying life. That 
their enjoyment Includes but a meagre dole 
of life's material comfort is evident, but this 
gives them a peculiar charm. 

There Is, however, a real value to the state 
In their view of life. Many devote them- 
selves to intellectual pursuits which routine 
work made an impossibility In the preceding 
years. A large number of Interesting works 
on military matters, science, history, blogra- 



86 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

phv, and memoirs, are due to the pen of generally the exhausted ploughhorse, which 

" retraites " from the army or navy, who, pity alone keeps housed and fed in a back 

owing to the importance the army plays in stable. He is not and cannot be "up to 

European life, form a large contingent of the date." He is rarely exhibited to strangers 

retired class. and his opinions are usually held in scorn. 

Some of the retired Continentals engage The Continental grandfather, leisurely and 

in minor political activities. Town council- serene, is the educator of the young and 

lors are in the majority of cases retired offi- often the arbiter of the family's destinies, 

cers or former civil-service men, who, with This makes for conservatism. Not infre- 

their indifference to money questions, make quently, it must be confessed, it blights 

perhaps rather poor administrators, but pub- useful initiative in the younger generation, 

lie-spirited and of an unimpeachable char- But those men who take their time before 

acter. deciding and acting give the family life a 

The influence of this great leisure class in wonderful balance and repose, 
the shaping of the nation's tastes and ideals is The man who, in order to earn the pen- 

a thing an untraveled Anglo-Saxon can sion granted to employees of twenty-five or 

hardly realize. Thanks to this '* idle " class, thirty years' standing, has been compelled to 

literary and artistic salons after the fashion stick to one line of work, and put up silently 

of the eighteenth century are still a possibil- with all the little worries of his position, is 

ity on the Continent of Europe. In the late not likely to yield very often to temporary 

afternoon the " retraites " gather either excitement. The " retraites " are, indeed, to 

around the marble tables of some cafe and the active business workers of Continental 

play cards, or preferably meet at the fireside Europe what the Senate is to the Chamber 

of some hospitable hostess. These men of a of Representatives. 

mature age, who have ample leisure for Much of the quietness, mellowness and 

thoughts of the past and can observe the unconventionality of European life can be 

present without haste, make the most, de- traced to the influence of the care-free, inde- 

lightful conversationalists. pendent, slightly cynical "' retraites." And 

The retired army man, to whom a wan-' the artistic life of the country cannot but 

dering garrison life or cruises on the seven thrive under that influence. What a bless- 

seas have revealed every part of his father- ing it is for the actor to play before men who 

land and its distant colonies; the clerk, who have not come in quest of relaxation, but 

has scribbled many sonnets on official note simply with a desire to give their minds some 

paper and is busy publishing them; the finan- literary exercise. Painters and novelists have 

cier, who, from the battlefield of the money some one to cater to besides prudish old 

market, has brought perhaps only his knowl- maids, and their art fears not to become 

edge of human psychology ; the college pro- a thrall to women's effete taste. Poets 

fessor, who, forsaking the teaching of one find patient listeners to whom no pressing 

specialty, may look at life from a broader business affords an excuse for hurrying 

angle, and apply to actual events his critical away. 

faculty ; the diplomat who has bid an eternal If the European mother's dream of a 

good-bye to lands afar off, — all those men, thirty-year desk servitude for her son ex- 

from whose minds and from whose lives plains many of the Continent's shortcomings 

hurry and bustle are definitely exiled, make in the business field, it is also responsible to a 

the European drawing-room an intellectual large extent for the development of civic 

paradise. cleanliness and of art, refined and manly. 

What peerless advisers they become for among the Latin, Germanic, and Slav 

the young! The Anglo-Saxon grandfather is nations. 




LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE FIGHT FOR THE FORESTS. 



'RATIONAL forestry began with Cleve- 
land's administration, when that exec- 
utive, under authority from Congress, set 
aside certain forests from the national lands. 
National forests are farms of wood, of water 
power, of grazing, all for the public benefit. 
Waste and permanent injury to the forest 
cover are the only restrictions. Any man 
living near a national forest can obtain free 
all the timber he requires in one year up to 
the value of $20. If he requires more than 
that amount he makes application in due 
form. Last year 14,000 of these free-use 
permits were issued. All the timber in a 
national forest is for sale and at a reasonable 
price, but only ripe trees are cut, and in such 
a manner as to protect the young trees from 
destruction. The work must be undertaken 
within six months and completed within a 
specified time, and, wherever necessary, 
brush and tops must be piled and burned. 
These provisions prevent '' skinning " and 
the fires that succeed that piratical process, 
also holding for future speculation. 

Lumber companies in California are heavy 
purchasers of Government timber. One of 
these tried to grab, then to steal, and finally 
decided to buy. Another w^as caught tres- 
passing in the Hell Gate Forest and was 
mulcted in $20,000 damages. It paid and 
immediately bought $200,00Q worth more of 
the timber it had been stealing, says Mr. Ed- 
ward Stewart White, in the American Mag- 
azine for January.. Still the country's timber 
to the extent of four-fifths is in private 
hands. Receipts from sales rose from $60,- 
000 in 1905 to $750,000 in 1906. 

Homes may be located, mines exploited, 
and the grazing industry promoted in the 
national forests, but " mushroom " settle- 
ments to further the land thieves in '' skin- 
ning " the forests are prohibited. Last year 
7,QOO,ooo animals were pastured therein, and 
the small and local cattleman is given pref- 
erence to the big raiser who lives farther 
away. All our irrigation and water projects 
are dependent on the forest cover, which ab- 
sorbs the rain and moisture like a sponge, 
and prevents floods and erosion. Reservoirs, 
residences, pipe lines, ditches, stores, ware- 



houses, wood yards, hotels, electric railroads, 
livery stables, summer resorts, mining camps, 
windmills, and even two cemeteries are to be 
found in these forests. 

Not only must they be protected against 
misuse and trespass, but against their great- 
est enemy, fire. Last year only one-eighth of 
I per cent, w^as burned over and only three 
one-hundredths of i per cent, actually de- 
stroyed. In all 1 100 fires were extinguished 
by the forest rangers, at a total cost of only 
$9000. This alone justifies the existence of 
the Poorest Service. The protective force last 
summer numbered 1200, giving each man on 
an average 206 square miles of mountainous 
wilderness, — that is to say, an area greater 
than nine Manhattan Islands. He patrols 
and polices this district, issues permits, builds 
trails, attends to the business interests and 
fights fires, in addition to cooking for him- 
self and caring for his animals. For the 
same area that we have one guardian, — 
206 square miles, — Prussia employs 120 
men, and finds it pays. 

Moreover, the Forest Service adds to the 
nation's wealth in other ways. It has in- 
creased the yield of turpentine 30 per cent, 
with far less injury to the trees than former- 
ly. It has demonstrated that the " lodge- 
pole pine," considered worse than useless, 
after a certain treatment makes excellent 
railroad ties. Western hemlock and South- 
ern gum timber have also been made service- 
able by this body. It is now working on 
other materials than forest woods for paper 
pulp, and is nurturing a young plantation of 
willows, to prevent importation of materials 
for basket-making. The Service has discov- 
ered that tannin may be procured from wil- 
low bark, which must be of value to the shoe 
industry. By-products are being utilized 
that formerly w^re discarded. 

It freely imparts information to the public, 
and maintains an educational department to 
inform the people by lectures and publica- 
tions on forestry matters. Against this ex- 
cellent service a war has been waged in Con- 
gress by the timber interests, who have com- 
plained that the forests are " vast and un- 
productive solitudes," withdrawn from set- 



88 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



tlement and progress, and that the Forest better or more deserving, the writer urges 

Service is a resort for " invalids and every reader to communicate by letter with 

dudes." Their fight failed last year, but its his Senator and Representative and inform 

renewal is expected at the present session. In them of his approval of the national forests 

the interest of the republic and of a branch and request these public servants to stand up 

of the public service than which there is no and fight for them. 



THE TRUE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PACIFIC CRUISE. 



\/rOST interesting and exhaustive, because 
dignified and logical, is the discussion 
of Capt.^ A. T. Mahan, U. S. N., on the 
projected movement of our battleships to the 
Pacific, in the Scientific American for De- 
cember. Its effect, however, upon the imagi- 
nation of several journals, despite its impor- 
tance and grandeur from a national view- 
point, has been such as to suggest the bor- 
der line of insanity. 

A measure designed to reach a practical 
solution of one of our most urgent naval 
problems has been persistently represented 
as a menace to Japan, and to such an extent 
that certain of the press of Japan have 
echoed the cry. This, in a sense, is true of 
European journals, notably those of Great 
Britain. The latter, he points out, is singu- 
larly inconsistent, in view of the fact that by 
May, 1908, 86 per cent, of the British bat- 
tleships will be concentrated in or near home 
waters, probably in the North Sea, and rela- 
tively near to Germany. '' We Americans," 
says he, " are attributing to other peoples a 
thinness of skin suggestive of an over-sensi- 
tiveness in ourselves which it was hoped we 
had outgrown." 

Japan and America both know, says he, 
that international law or comity has no bar- 
rier to a nation's moving its navy from one 
coast to another; yet, certain of the press in 
this country would have one think otherwise, 
and would impute to our own Government 
motives and purposes w^hich cannot be 
known, and prima facie are less probable 
than the object officially avowed. 



The experience to be gained on this ex- 
pedition is, in the writer's opinion, a per- 
fectly sufficient reason for its undertaking. 
It presents huge administrative difficulties, 
particularly that of self-dependence, — with 
no navy yard at hand. The renewal of stores 
and coal on the voyage is a big problem. It 
is one of combination and of subsistence ; a 
distinctly military problem. To grapple 
with such a question is as necessary as fleet 
tactics or target practice. Indeed, in his esti- 
mation, the voyage should have been begun 
earlier. For practice and proficiency it is 
imperative. The manoeuvering of a body of 
several ships in rapid movement, changing 
from one position to another, must progress 
gradually, in order that commanding officers 
and their understudies may gain, not only 
ability, but confidence, based upon habit; 
upon knowledge of what their own ships can 
do, and what they may expect from the other 
vessels about them. 

Fleet life can only be gained at sea, and 
the transfer of our ships from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific is wise and timely, for it is 
what they would be compelled to do if war 
were 'declared against us. They will be en- 
abled to judge of coaling and victualling fa- 
cilities, more vital than tactics or gunnery to 
a navy in wartime. The great strategist is 
ever a great administrator, as, for instance, 
Lord Nelson. Our captains will be given 
an opportunity to test their administrative 
ability. They will learn when to clear a 
storeship, where to fill with coal, where to 
take on water, etc. What anchorages are 




Copyrigbt, V)07, by W. 11. J(;Miiiii;.'s, I'liiladclpliia. 



THE FLEET OF AMERICAN I'.ATTLESIIII'S ASSEMBLED AT 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



89 



available outside neutral limits? If driven 
to coal at sea, where will conditions be most 
propitious? Is the quietness of the Pacific 
between the equator and Valparaiso, suitable 
for colliers to lie alongside while the ships 
hold their course? If so, at what speed can 
they move? 

Our fleet, says the wTlter, cannot make 
this voyage once without being better fitted 
to repeat the operation in war. It will re- 
sult in that mobility which loses no time be- 
cause it never misses opportunity. '' Such 
mobility can be acquired only by a familiarity 
with the ground, and with the methods to 



be followed, such as Nelson by personal ex- 
perience had of the Mediterranean and of 
the West Indies ; of the facilities they of- 
fered, and the obstacles they presented. Such 
knowledge is experimental, gained only by 
practice. It is demonstrable, therefore, that 
the proposed voyage is in the highest degree 
practical ; not only advisable, but imperative. 
Nor should it be a single spasm of action, but 
a recurrent procedure; for admirals and cap- 
tains go and come, and their individual ex- 
perience with them. Why not annual? The 
Pacific Is as good a drill ground as the 
Atlantic." 



THE POLITICAL CRISIS IN PORTUGAL. 



npHE cause of Portugal's crises has always 
been the same. It has always been the 
result of parliamentary impotence, the con- 
sequences of the errors of the two great par- 
ties so long in power. From a political point 
of view, — and at the present time no other 
point of view would be practical, — according 
to an article in the Revue Generale (Brus- 
sels), Portugal's institutions are similar to 
the institutions of the other constitutional 
monarchies of the old continent, but the gov- 
ernmental methods are very different, and 
the executive and legislative powers of Por- 
tugal clash more frequently than the corre- 
sponding powers of other countries. 

Often forced to act without the support of the 
legislative bodies, the government is accused of 
making attacks upon the national constitution. 
To say that the so-called " dictator," Prime Min- 
ister Joao Franco, is more to be blamed than his 
predecessors, is to ignore contingencies and to 
deny the present needs of the country. The 
same men have stood at the head of the gov- 
ernment, fighting against the same difficulties 
with the same weapons more than a quarter of a 
century. Looking at nothing but the dates of 
the reinstallations of the prime ministers, it 
would seem that the rotary system of govern- 
ment, the system of ministerial alterations, might 
have the advantage of giving a man a long 



term of office cut by vacations ; but if we count 
the costs of the sacrifices made to prolong the 
existence of the cabinets, we see the error of 
such an opinion. At Lisbon the strongest gov- 
ernmental party suffers as much from the im^ 
portunities of its friends as from the dissen- 
tions provoked by its opponents in Parliament. 
For example : to satisfy the ambitions of his 
friends, and to answer to the spite of his ene- 
mies, the Progressist Prime Minister changed 
his officials four times within eight months. 

Senhor Franco accepted the King's charge 
to form a ministry, and within twenty-four 
hours formed a cabinet of his own associates, 
a ministry composed of homines novi in every 
sense of the term. *' Whatever errors they 
may develop, they will have no skeletons to 
confront them when their enemies open the 
political closets of the past." The press had 
lauded the old parties too long to give favor- 
able notice to their successor, but the people 
welcomed the men who ask for nothing but 
time to show what they can do. The gen- 
eral opinion is that the reformers did not 
come too soon. 

When the deputies and peers came to the 
King and told him that Franco had cast off 
his Parliament to satisfy his taste for dic- 
tating the King might have said a good deal. 








'='"-" -fiSttaii. 



•>^.f- 



HAMPTON ROADS FOR THE LONG CRUISE TO THE PACIFIC. 



90 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl/lEW^. 




KING CARLOS, OF PORTUGAL, ON THE BALCONY 
OF THE ROYAL PALACE AT LISBON. 



Being a man of calm mind he contented him- 
self with the answer: " I note your motion 
and representations and I shall lay the mat- 
ter before my ministers." He laid the mat- 
ter before one minister at least. That was 
proved a day or two later, when Joao Franco 
made a long speech before the Centre 
Regenerador Liberals, reminding them what 
his reasons for dissolving the chamber had 
been: 



My dictatorship is administrative, not political. 
To govern by decree is an afifair of transition, a 
passing thing. Whenever the parties are con- 
.scious of their duty and ready to do it Parlia- 
ment will he open to them. In the meantime I 
must do the work of reform. I must do my 
duty. I shall govern over the parties, and, if 
necessary, against the parties. 

The Prime Minister is " solid " with the 
King, and, as a whole, the nation approves 
of him. The taxpayers attribute their un- 
precedented surplus to his excellent financial 
policy. The working people like him. The 
old ministries ignored the lower class. Un- 
der the new system the workingman is the 



object of high governmental attention. The 
people uphold the government because the 
government shows solicitude for them. Men 
who have few party interests stand for the 
Frankists government and against the con- 
servatism of the ancient parties. The nation 
also loves the royal family.- 

" Portugal is in Africa," said a politician, 
recently, '* probably because the wealth of 
the colonies of Angola, Zambesi, and Mozam- 
bique is so great that the main country might 
. well live on what she draws from them." 

One thing is sure : If Portugal is an eccentric 
country from a geographical viewpoint, she is 
far more like the ultra-Mediterranean countries 
than like Africa, and if we consider her political 
events of the last few months she is not" far 
from a footing with the democracies of the 
world. To quote Lord Salisbury, while condi- 
tions are such *' no one can class Portugal among 
the dying nations." 

The Economic Future of Portugal. 

With the Azores and Madeira, Portugal 
measures approximately 35,500 square miles. 
Her possessions in Africa arid Asia cover 
803,000 square miles more. Her land is rich 
in agricultural resources and in mines, and 
her geographical situation is such that from 
the point of view of foreign relations she 
seems to have been predestined for action as 
an intermediary between the neighboring and 
surrounding countries and the new countries 
of western Africa and South America. " We 
know that Portugal was for a long time first 
among the nations, we know what abuses 
and disorders led to her fall," says a writer 
in the Revue pour les Francais. She is now 
the least of the powers. " She may not have 
deserved her fate, but however abnormal the 
consequences of her actions, they have been 
logical." This writer continues: 

As the Portuguese of the past found com- 
merce their easiest and most efficient means of 
wealth, they ignored the rich possibilities of the 
land and neglected agriculture as they neglected 
industry. When, by the double action of their 
excessive ambitions and the efforts of their 
rivals, they were so reduced that they had to 
turn to the native soil for support, they knew so 
little of work and they had so little agricultural 
strength, perserverance, and the patience requi- 
site to the farmer's life, that the land gave out 
poor returns. Generally speaking, when agri- 
culture has been profitable, success has been due 
to the fact that the farmer has been a foreigner, 
and the profits have fallen into the foreign ' 
pocket. . 



The population of Portugal increases rap- 
idly, but the people prefer emigration to^, 
colonization of their country. The result is ' 
that more than half of the arable land lies 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



91 



waste. The land under cultivation yields 
little, because all the methods and imple- 
ments are superannuated. In all that con- 
cerns industry, says this writer, further, Por- 
tugal's inferiority is unquestionable. Statis- 
tics list the working population as i ,000,000, 
but that enormous figure includes every one 
who can be classed as a worker, no matter 
what he does or where he works. The sim- 
ple day laborer and the man bent over his 
needle and thread in his own bedroom help 
to enlarge the list. 

Generally speaking, the manufactories and 
workshops are the private establishments of for- 
eigners. None of the profits fall into the na- 



tional treasury. Portugal is rich in minerals, 
but the land produces no combustibles. There 
are no coal mines, but all that sort of working 
material could be easily procured at a low price 
in Spain or in England. The earth abounds in 
copper, tin, zinc, antimony, etc. The country 
has not much money, but it has the equivalents. 
It could give collateral for any amount of for- 
eign capital. The merchant navy is the least 
important of the navies of the world : seventy- 
seven steamboats and 497 sailing vessels, with a 
total tonnage of 114,000 tons, or a third less than 
Belgium. 

Portugal must make a serious effort. Her 
condition is not desperate. A little deter- 
mined application and her land would aston- 
ish the world. 



THE FIRST TWO RUSSIAN DUMAS AND THE PROSPECTS 

OF THE THIRD. 



r^N the results of the first two years of 
the Russian Parliament there were 
many comments in the Russian press. Ac- 
cording to an article in the Tovarishch the 
two first Dumas have not brought about any 
actual results along the lines laid down in 
the manifesto of October, 1905. There were 
no positive gains in the radical reconstruc- 
tion of Russia on new principles. Still, Rus- 
sia has made some headway. *' Arrayed 
against us," says the writer of the article, 
A. P. Tolstoi, '* was the old rusty and rot- 
ten, but deep-rooted mechanism of bureau- 
cratic autocracy ; with us we had our inco- 
hesive forces before and behind us in a ' vul- 
canized ' country." 

We wanted too much and gained nothing. 
But we have learned very valuable lessons and 
laid the foundations of a new order. To weave 
it into the texture of Russian life will take many 
years, but the foundation is there. 

Among the several points scored the writer 
names constitutionalism, which, though not 
an inseparable part of the Russian Govern- 
ment, has completely captured public opinion 
down to the bottom. Those who only yes- 
terday would have none of the idea of popu- 
lar representation, especially of that with 
legislative power, had to give us the " Statute 
of the State Duma," and new organic laws. 

They had even to submit their law bills to the 
Duma and answer its interpolations. Again, the 
representative regime is on the aggressive while 
its opponents are now on the defense, being com- 
pelled to justify their unconstitutional and res- 
torative measures. A number of semi-official 
organs, headed by the Rossia, are a proof that 



public opinion has indirectly secured some offi- 
cial recognition of its relative weight. Along- 
side of the political issues, 'the social and espe- 
cially the agrarian problem loomed up in full 
size, and forced the attention of those who had 
heretofore lulled themselves with the prospects 
of the notorious migrations and would not hear 
of a land famine. 

In short, concludes the writer, it is enough 
to recall our very modest hopes and expecta- 
tions not only during the dark days of 
Plehve, but even during the " vernal " days 
of Svyatopolk-Mirski, in order to realize 
how much headway we have made during 
these two years. We are, it is true, in the 
ebb tide of the social and political movement, 
but this is a natural reaction against the one- 
sided high tide after centuries of torpidity. 

The symptoms of the healthy trend are 
seen in the increased demand for culture and 
all forms of cultural social effort. The 
growth of trade-unions and co-operative ex- 
periments among the toiling masses is an- 
other sign. This, in connection with the 
awakened political consciousness of the peo- 
ple, with a clearer conception of the political 
questions, — all this together is the desirable 
form of strengthening the foundation of the 
new order of things. A deeper conscious at- 
titude toward the conditions confronting the 
people, and the habit of persistently day by 
dav battling in united effort for achieving 
their ends, will prevent the former danger of 
the movement's dwindling to one-sided puny 
attempts without political perspective. 

Altogether, development of the situation 
during these two years is the natural and 
characteristic appearance of the " Black 



92 



THE AMERICAN RE^tElV OF REl^lElVS, 



Hundred " forces, recruited from the bottom 
and upper strata. 

This was, of course, a natural effect of the 
progressive onslaught, and this reaction is quite 
handy for the reigning dynasty, which means to 
yield as little as possible to the new regime. But 
the " Black Hundreds," on closer inspection, can 
hardly be regarded as a safe mainstay of the 
government, as they come from the moribund 
layers of the people, doomed by history. In this 
respect the new election law of June 3 is too 
flagrantly contradictory to real conditions, and 
we need not, therefore, fear that such parlia- 
mentary representation will last a long time. 
Besides, these reactionary forces, once awakened, 
will not be content with simply upholding some- 
body, but will assume the role of power that can 
dictate its will, and this must precipitate a con- 
flict between them and the ruling bureaucracy. 

This is beginning to show itself in the re- 
lations between the " League of the Russian 
People " and the government, — relations 
that bear the character of authoritative 
claims. The bureaucracy, in so far as it will 
give a setback to these reactionary appetites, 
will subject these reactionary elements to a 
searching examination as to whether they 
have strength of their own, or whether it is 
confined to mere impudent fire-work and 
governmental favor. In so far, then, as these 
elements will fail to pass their examination, 
" they will have their weakness exposed and 
will, of course, prove a very poor mainstay 
for a reactionary regime." 

What of the Third Duma? 

In an editorial review in a recent issue of 
the monthly magazine Vyestnik Yevropy 
(St. Petersburg), edited by M. Stasyulevich, 
the following comments on the situation in 
Russia are noteworthy: 

Only two years have passed since the historic 
day when the Manifesto of October, 1905, was 
issued. What has become of the sentiment 
which had taken hold of the whole Russian so- 
ciety? What has become of all the hopes of a 
regeneration of the economic strength of the 
peasantry which- had reached the state of des- 
peration? Where are the dreams of a condition 
of life under legal rights, of a participation in 
the legislation of the best representatives of the 
people freely elected by the people, of new 
laws and of an emancipation from the arbitrari- 
ness of a corrupt bureaucracy? All this is far, 
far behind us. All this has already become the 
subject matter of memoirs and reminiscences. 

On October 17, 1907, two years later, 
this editor points out, St. Petersburg and 
Moscow elected representatives to the third 
Duma on the basis of the election law of 
June 3, and here is the situation: 

This law has prevented the mass of the people 




NICHOLAS KOMIAKOV. 
(I'rcsident of the Third Duma.) 

from effectively expressing their will. The priv- 
ileged minority, with the help of the reactionary 
administration, have elected the majority of the 
members of the Duma. "Freedom of speech, of 
assembly, of association, and of personal inviola- 
bility exist only for the " yellow shirt " hood- 
lums, for the " Archbishop's fusion " of Minsk, 
for the conventions of the nobility and of the 
new type of Zemstvoists, for the anti-Semitic 
press, for the demonstrations of " the league of 
the Russian people," and for the propaganda of 
the absurd assertion that the defense of the prin- 
ciples of the manifesto is a criminal act incur- 
ring the death penalty. 

The cause of this new departure, we are 
told, lies not only in the unstable policy of 
the government, but also in the excesses of 
the extremists of the radicals which have 
called forth excesses on the part of the gov- 
ernment to such an extent that it seems to 
have given up entirely the idea of popular 
representation in the Duma. 

The question of the real character of the 
present form of government In Russia was 
recently discussed among representatives of 
the administration. In one of the confer- 
ences of the St. Petersburg municipality, un- 
der the chairmanship of the city governor, 
the majority of the members of the adminis- 
tration came to the formal conclusion that a 
constitution really exists In Russia. 

The governor, however, protested and de- 
clared categorically that there is no constitution 
whatever, and that the Czar remains what he 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MOSfTH. 



93 



has been, — an autocratic monarch. The Prime 
Minister, Stolypin, found the protest of the gov- 
ernor justified, and presented the case to the de- 
cision of the first department of the Senate. 
From this moment a cond'tion is created, for 
the Senate, which has no equal since the time of 



Peter the Great, is to decide the question who is 
right, — whether the government ofiicials, who ac- 
knowledge the Russian monarch who calls him- 
self an autocrat to be a constitutional monarch, 
or the governor, who categorically does not ac- 
knowledge the constitution. 



TWO CENTERS OF REAL MUNICIPALIZATION. 



T TP in the Province of Ontario, with Lake acres of valuable land fringing Thunder 
Superior on one hand and an unbroken Bay, which means about one-half acre for 
wilderness oil the other, lie two obscure and every taxpayer in the city. Fort William, 
relatively insignificant cities on the shores in the Kakabeka Falls, has a source of 
of Thunder Bay, named, respectively, Fort water-power that could suffice for a city as 
William and Port Arthur. Thirty thousand large as Chicago. 

souls are their joint boast, but honesty and The '* Twin Cities," as these small but 
morality in municipal administration are progressive communities are styled, aim for 
more noticeable than in the teeming marts perfection. They have killed municipal pol- 
of men that count their inhabitants by the itics and its graft and dishonesty. There 
millions. Street-cars are run and conducted are no party lines therein, and a candidate 
by police officers, — because all motormen who would seek office along party lines 
and conductors are policemen ; and these, in would destroy the last vestige of hope for 
addition, act as parcel-carriers occasionally, success. To be elected to office is an honor 
for along their route, — so honest is every and a demonstration of civic confidence in 
one, — residents leave packages on the road- one's honesty and integrity. Mayors and 
side for these officials to take down town, aldermen serve without compensation, and 
Three years ago each city had a popula- any taxpayer may run for office if he appears 
tion of 6000. Their joint increase to 30,000 on a certain day, announces his candidacy, 
gives them the distinction of being the most and is " supported " by one other city voter, 
rapidly growing communities in the world. On election day all the names appear on a 
There is not a franchise in either city that single slip of paper. From the aldermanic 
is not owned by 

the people, except | | 

the Bell telephone, 
and as only one of 
these instruments 
is installed in every 
eight telephones in 
use the cessation 
of the company is 
only a matter of 
time. The people 
of Fort William 
own their electric 
light and tele- 
phone systems, 
their water-works, 
a municipal thea- 
ter, and a city 
dance hall. Port 
Arthur owns the 
electric railway in 
both towns, i t s 
own electric light 

and telephone sys- ^^^ hospital conducted by the city of fort william, Canada. 

tems. Its water- ,^ . , , .,, ^ ^^ , , . ^r,- • ..^ .. . , , , . 

' J (Doctors bills and attendance charges at this institution are included in 

works, and 1500 the patients' city taxes.) 




94 THE AMERICAN REFlElV OP kEj/IEWS. 

candidates the voter may select eight names, railway during the last four years equals 

There is no division by wards, or the like; one-fifth of the total cost of the road. From 

the whole town elects each representative, its beginning it has netted the city a total 

To serve the city well is an advertisement; profit of $90,898.38, and its franchise is es- 
to have served it unwisely is *' misjudgment," timated at $1,000,000, — for a nine-mile rail- 
perhaps excusable; to have served it wrongly way! All that the '' Twin Cities " have ac- 
is a perpetual discredit. Thus is the moral complished was not won without molestation 
tone uplifted. The newspapers of both cities from corporation " pirates," w^ho foresaw 
are owned by the municipalities and are the wisely the possibilities of the future. Tele- 
preachers of integrity and honest ambition, phone tolls are $12 a year for residence 
They are neither lurid nor purchasable, 'phones and $24 a year for commercial ser- 
But the citizens have carried matters too far, vice. These charges earn money for the 
says Mr. J. O. Curwood, in the November city. Fort William's profits for four years be- 
Reader. They have chosen splendid citizens ing $3,525, and Port Arthur's $5,239. The 
to superintend works of which they have writer attributes the remarkable success of 
absolutely no technical knowledge. The these towns to the direct and personal inter- 
man, rather than his particular ability, has est of their citizens, who feel that in every 
been magnified. This difficulty they will public undertaking they are working for 
overcome, doubtless. Their street-car service tliemselves. Fort William is now expending 
is respectable, their buildings substantial, $350,000 on a gravity system of water sup- 
their streets serviceable, and their theater ply, which will be one of the finest and 
modern in every way, seating 800 people, cheapest in America when completed, 
and paying 6 per cent, on the investment. In these remote little centers of popula- 
All plays are under the censorship of the tion, destined, as the writer believes, to be 
city, and some expect that the day will soon the doorways of Greater Canada, municipal 
dawn when the towns will be taxless, while ownership has reached its greatest develop- 
others go further and declare their belief in ment on the American continent, and has 
a future which will see the citizens receiv- wrestled with the problem of ** city-owned 
ing dividends! cities" in a manner unparalleled in Amer- 

The net profit of Port Arthur's street ican history. 



THE QUESTION OF FUEL WASTE. 

/^ERTAIN portions of Mr. Cochrane's This writer believes that not more than 
paper in the September Review en- 25 per cent, of the coal searns are now left 
titled " How Long Will Our Coal Supply underground as a permanent loss. How- 
Last?" have apparently stimulated interest ever, in estimates of unmined coal allowance 
in the fuel problem, especially among engi- is always made for this loss. 
neers. Mr. F. R. Wadleigh, a coal expert As to the waste of energy in the ordinary 
of Norfolk, Va., writing to the Black Dia- steam boiler, Mr. Wadleigh believes that it 
mond, of Chicago, saj^s: will average not more than 40 per cent. 

T ,1 ; ^ £f, , , . . , Under favorable conditions, boiler efficien- 

In the last fifty years the best engineering tal- ^- ^ jj^^u ujo^ 

ent of the world has devoted its time and ^'^^^ on recorded tests, have reached 86 per 

thought to reducing the waste of fuel in gen- cent. The main loss is not in the burning 

erating steam and to developing the more eco- of the coal, but in the transmission of the 

"'''?l!''^^u•'' "^ the steam in the engine. steam from the boiler to the point where it 

that this work has been in a large measure r^^^t^^^^ :^^ „,^..l 

successful is shown by the fact that about five "^^'t '^^T?""^' ... 

times as much work is done now with a like -^I^* Wadleigh maintains, in conclusion, 

amount of coal as was done fifty years ago. that a great waste of coal might be saved by 

The pounds of steam used per indicated horse- improved methods of firing and stoking. 

down' fr'om ZL thr?. n 'T ''"'''^^\ ^^^ '"^ 1 ' Firemen should have instruction, 
aown irom thirty-three and over in the simple 

non-condensing engine to as low as twelve in Improved furnaces will not show results un- 
the compound-condensing engine. The New- less properly handled. You must train your 
comen engine took twenty-six and six-tenths men to use them intelligently. The average fire- 
pounds per horsepower, while a modern, up-to- man knows nothing about combustion and is 
date plant will not take over one and five-tenths told very little. He is very poorly paid, consid- 
pounds, or, on tests, even less. cring the importance of his work. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



95 



DEATH AND DISABILITY ROLL OF OUR RAILWAY 

EiMPLOYEES. 



nr^ERRIBLE is the indictment against the 
inhumanity of our railroad service fur- 
nished in the death and disability roll of its 
employees. Railroad officials admit that 
many of these casualties are unnecessary, but 
the indifference of the press and public to 
the prevalence of this slaughter for many 
years, has developed an almost general belief 
that it is their vested right to maim and kill 
those who care for the transportation ser- 
vice of the country. Forceful legislation is 
needed to give them an enlarged perspective, 
and to impress on them the enormity, the 
brutality, of such a state of affairs. 

Owing to the isolated nature of these 
casualties they pass unnoticed by the general 
reader, but in the aggregate they are simply 
appalling. For the year ending June 30, 
1906, 3807 railroad employees were killed 
and 55,254 injured, while in the perform- 
ance of their duties. Compared with the 
fatalities of any great battle, our industrial 
slaughter completely overshadow^s it. These 
injuries and deaths arise from many causes, 
of which practical railway employees are 
fully cognizant. 

The track is the first important feature 
that is neglected. The 100-pound rail has 
been in use for many years, and ties of an 
ancient standard. Engines, cars and train 
tons have increased almost double since the 
rails and ties aforementioned were adopted, 
and the speed of our " limiteds " has been 
greatly accelerated, with few additional 
precautions for safety. On one of the Pa- 
cific Coast roads there have been twenty- 
five serious wrecks since January i, 1907, 
and these have been attributed to over- 
worked crews and defective equipment in 
rolling stock or track. 

*' The open statement was made," says 
Mr. D. L. Cease, editor of The Railroad 
Trainmen's Journal, in Charities and The 
Commons for December, " that the heaviest 
tourist business in the United States is being 
done over a track that is absolutely rotten, 
that spikes may be pulled out by the fingers, 
and that ties are so far gone that tie plates 
are buried in them to the depth of an inch 
Or more." 

:■ Track maintenance appears to be a lost 
^rt. Inspectors who do not inspect are 
many, and the section foreman on some 
roads has no longer the right to condemn 



defective ties. Miles of track are patrolled 
by a foreman and one man, and many more 
miles are left without supervision of any 
kind, at a period when the heaviest freight 
and passenger business the country has ever 
known is being recorded. The tracks are 
the same to-day as they were when equip- 
ment was lighter and speed less. In addi- 
tion, steel rails, it has been asserted, are fre- 
quently defective when laid. What are we 
going to do about this calamitous situation? 

As long as the death and disability list was 
more closely confined to the railway employees, 
the pjublic did not give much heed to the dangers 
of the service. But contempt for danger as it 
applied to the employees has been lost by the 
gradual creeping in of greater danger to the pas- 
senger. He is commencing to sit up and take 
notice of it. 

"Government interference promises to be 
the only solution. Moreover, rules and 
practices in train operation are faulty and 
confusing, and there are not sufficient em- 
ployees to properly inspect engines, cars, and 
track. Railroad economy has been reduced 
to a dangerous science. Freight trains are 
notoriously short-handed. Sometimes there 
are but two men to a freight train almost a 
mile in length, one to do the work, and the 
other to hold the flag. How can efficient 
service be rendered under these circum- 
stances? Again, men. are started out on 
long trips that will consume twenty-four 
hours or more. Neurologists declare that 
such practices tend* to brain strain, epilepsy, 
and nervous prostration. 

European railroads employ three times as 
many mien as our own roads, and they are 
reasonably safe. In this country, increased 
cost of operation invariably leads to a re- 
duction in the operating force. It is the 
fault of the financial system, that looks for 
dividends first, that has led to these results, 
and som.e of the money that has come to the 
railroads, as the reward of their greed and 
the price»of human life and suffering, thev 
should be compelled to expend in the ins'-al- 
lation of a block-signal system, the employ- 
ment of more men for engine and train ser- 
vice, for track and equipment inspection, 
and in the retention of practical men. If 
this were done, much good would be ac- 
complished and sacrifice averted. To such 
ends the people should address themselves. 



96 THE AMERICAN REf^/ElV OF RE^IEIVS. 

WHEN MISSOURI OWNED THE RAILWAYS. 

A BOUT forty years ago the State of Mis- In 1861, the results of ten years' policy of 

^^ souri tried its hand at railroad owner- State aid to the roads showed as follows: 

ship and found the experiment costly. The Pacific Railroad. ^T'2?,!!'5!Sa 

^, 1 ^ rr^i. r^ Southwest lirancli 4,500.000 

net loss was about $15,000,000. 1 he (jOV- iron Mountain 3,501,000 

ernor was the manager, establishing rates, ^fX^'nt^: i : .' ! i .' i i i i ! : i : ! •' •' : i i : : : mooo 

running trains, maintaining tracks, and even North Missouri 4,350,000 

adding betterments to the property. He ^otai $20,701,000 

kept the balance on the right side of the led- ^^^ ^^e of these roads was complete. Fol- 
ger. Nevertheless, he reported to the Legis- lowing the war, in response to popular sen- 
lature that **the paramount want" was com- timent for a railroad across the State, these 
pleted railroads. Hence the State disposed railroads were taken over by the latter. 
of its railroads, retaining its power to regu- Qnly the Southwest Branch, now a part of 
late. An account of the undertaking is given ^^g ^^^^ gtem of the Trisco system, was 
by Mr. Walter B. Stevens in Appletons operated by the State, under Gen. Clinton 
Magazine for January. B. Fisk, for about six months, with an en- 
Owing to the presence of 2000 steamboats tirely creditable showing. It was then 
at the St. Louis docks, Missouri was slow turned over to a company which guaranteed 
to build railroads, and not until 1 85 1 was extension. Although all the other roads vir- 
the first railroad out of St. Louis con- tually belonged to the State by virtue of long 
structed. Prior to the Civil War railroad existing default on the bonds which the State 
charters enabled the carriers to fix their own h^^j issued to aid construction, not even a 
freight and passenger tolls, but this was minority sentiment favored the suggestion 
changed by legislation after 1865. State aid that they should be operated by the State, 
began in 1851. Bills were passed authoriz- Eventually the roads were foreclosed and 
ing State bond issues to guarantee railroad sold to companies who undertook to guaran- 
construction, the condition being that each tee their completion, subject to the right of 
railroad had to put up $50,000 of its own the State to regulate freight and passenger 
bonds for each grant of $50,000 bonds by charges. To the wisdom of Governor 
the State. In 1855 the free trial of this pol- Fletcher must this reservation be attributed, 
icy led to the discovery that the State had ^nd he also endeavored to make the State a 
authorized the issue of $9,000,000 of bonds, sharer in the profits of the roads, but the 
that the building of the roads was progress- Legislature ignored his suggestion. In 1865, 
ing slowly, that the cost was twice or thrice ^hen the Fletcher administration entered 
the original estimates, and that the bonds upon the solution of Missouri's railroad 
were below par and selling at a discount. ^ problem, there were 826 miles of road in the 
Strange as it may seem, even after this State. In 1868, when the last foreclosure 
unfavorable showing, the railroad companies and sale were completed, there were 1394 
obtained from the Legislature an additional miles. These roads are to-day the main 
$10,000,000 in bonds, this time putting up stems of 7000 miles of railroad, valued at 
$1 of their own money to $2 of the State's. $350,000,000, within the limits of the State. 



THE FUTURE OF OUR NAVIGABLE WATERS. 



t^ IVER and harbor improvement is reach- 
ing a critical stage in the United 
States. In many sections public agitation has 
been started in aid of the internal waterway 
movement, and last month the National 
Rivers and Harbors Congress met at Wash- 
ington to impress on our Washington Legis- 
lators the urgent necessity for more liberal 
appropriations for waterway improvement. 
Commercial and non-commercial advocates 
alike are interested in this project. Water 



routes at one time were the only commercial 
highways of the nation. The railway's ad- 
vent altered this, however, and the Civil 
War had much to do with the abandonment 
of canals in the North, through forcing it to 
extend its railroads to move the crops to the 
Eastern seaboard instead of by the usual 
route down the Mississippi Valley. 

Before the war our Western rivers had 
been snag-infested and bar-obstructed, and 
after the struggle they were in worse condi- 



LEADING ARTICLFS OF THE MONTH. 



97 



tion. Railway rates were lower than steam- 
boat rates had been. Extravagance had de- 
parted, and there was no longer any induce- 
ment to keep steamboats in operation. The 
mouth of the Mississippi was blocked by 
bars, while New York was open to deep and 
cheap-carrying steamships. Hence, river 
trade fell away and lagging Government im- 
provement was never sufficient to produce a 
channel to offset these handicaps. So, writes 
Mr. John L. Mathews, in the Atlantic 
Monthly for December. 

In a region extending from the Alleghen- 
ies to the Rockies, in which there are 20,000 
miles of river navigable, or susceptible of 
navigation, there is but one profitable and 
significant movement of cargo, — that of coal 
from the Ohio to New Orleans. With the 
railroads unable to do the work imposed on 
them, in consequence of the tremendous in- 
dustrial activity and commercial expansion of 
the country, the river problem is given a new 
stimulus. The section particularly affected 
by this transportation shortcoming is the 
Mississippi Valley. Under existing condi- 
tions it can neither get its products to sea- 
board at reasonable rates, consistent with 
speedy carriage, nor obtain from seaboard 
imports which are necessary. 

Pittsburg, notable for its coal, iron, and 
steel tonnage ; Chicago, the principal depot 
of the lakes, a manufacturing city of high 
rank, and the greatest railway aggregating 
center in the world ; Minneapolis and St. 
Paul, the chief flouring cities of the nation 
and the collecting and distributing foci for 
the North and for the newer Canada; Kan- 
sas City, St. Joseph, Omaha, and Sioux City, 
the hoppers for the grain harvest of the West 
and Northwest ; and St. Louis, a progressive 
city of large and growing manufacturing 
interests and a jobbing center of national 
importance, are the chief cities into which 
pours the golden flood from our harvest 
fields ; coal from our mines ; iron and steel 
from our foundries, endless loads of manu- 
factured and natural food products, — to stag- 
nate in congested freight yards; for so over- 
burdened are the railroads a loaded car 
moves now but an average of twenty-five 
miles a day. 

Each of these cities lies at the head of one 
of the main divisions of the Mississippi sys- 
tem. It is reasonable, therefore, for the peo- 
ple, in view of the circumstances aforemen- 
tioned, to demand the transformation of 
these great arteries into proper traffic high- 
ways. There has never been a department 



provided to supervise river or harbor con- 
struction work, and this has been responsible 
in large measure for the non-utilization of 
our navigable waters. Military engineers 
have been requested to supervise the con- 
struction along these lines in recent years; 
but this practice of employing civic appro- 
priations for commercial purposes under the 
control of military direction, says the writer, 
" is really the fundamental fault." By 
training and inclination West Pointers have 
no leaning toward trade and no experience 
in business, and are unfitted for work of this 
kind. The result has been to establish a 
mode rather than a system of procedure, 
through the co-operation between the War 
Department and Congress. Reports from 
military engineers on trade conditions never 
consider the real problems of the river val- 
ley, and are " rough guesses." Consequently, 
Congressional appropriations are ever inad- 
equate. 

From this mode of procedure we had ( i ) 
no large outlook oh rivers and harbors, and 
consequently no connection between any two 
projects; and (2) no one whose business it 
IS to enter into and carry out projects for 
waterway development, or who is certain of 
rnoney to do so. The Roosevelt Waterways 
Commission is a remedy for the first, and, 
for the second, the slackwatering plan for 
the Ohio, adopted by Congress in 1875 on 
the reports of Majors Merrill and Weitzel. 
Although their recommendations were ap- 
proved, and four years were estimated for 
the completion of the work outlined, it has 
not been completed to date, nor probably 
will be in the next twenty years if the meth- 
ods herein are not changed. '' At present," 
says this writer, " the Ohio has been sur- 
veyed for a nine-foot slackwater channel and 
it is estimated that $63,000 will be needed 
to complete it to Cairo ; but at the present 
rate of operations it will require about 150 
years to attain that end." 

The Chicago trunk line, which formerly 
earned $300,000 a year in tolls, now lies 
idle, a shallow canal, outgrown by trade, 
connecting the Illinois with Lake Michigan. 
The Illinois has seven feet of water, the Mis- 
sissippi above St. Louis five or six. Chicago 
is advancing its drainage canal toward Lake 
Joliet, having spent $50,000,000 to carry and 
deepen this waterway twenty-two feet to 
the Illinois, and leaving but $28,000,000 for 
Congress to spend to carry it to St. Louis 
with a fourteen-foot depth, which the latter 
abstains from doing. An expert commission 



98 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REl/JElVS. 



m 1884 took hold of the lower Missouri 
problem and established that it could be 
made to carry a six-foot channel from 
Omaha and, probably, from Sioux City to 
its mouth, even at low water. After doing 
this and opening the river to six-foot boats 
for 275 miles from its mouth it was abol- 
ished. 

Similarly did Congress fail to back up the 
report of the Mississippi River Commission, 
which demonstrated that by means of revet- 
ment and contraction a ten-foot channel 
from Cairo to the sea, permanent and safe, 
could be kept open all the year around. Not 
until St. Louis is made the head of the river 
trunk will the river below or above Cairo 
attain the trade it should carry, or the Chi- 
cago route, the Upper Mississippi or the 
Missouri begin to carry the trade to which 
each is entitled. Our river system is con- 
fusion and — chaos. This condition implies 
an enormous economic waste. 



Slackwatering a river produces a large 
electric power. By selling this power money 
can be procured for river improvements. 
Congress faces this discovery to-day, but is 
too overworked to deal with it. What we 
need, therefore, says this writer, is a trained 
body to consider our waterway problem and 
plan for its systematic development, a body 
like that suggested by the Cullom-Brecken- 
ridge bill of tw^enty years ago. Add to this 
a department of utilization to acquaint river- 
men and merchants, says he, in the use of 
shallow and deep draft streams, and, in time, 
we shall have deep w^ater in all our seaboard 
harbors and rivers, fourteen feet from the 
Lakes to the Gulf, nine feet to Pittsburg, 
six to Minneapolis, and six to Sioux City, 
and a swiftly evolving, comprehensive, natu- 
ral system of routes, alive from year's end to 
}^ear's end ; with fleets of barges driven 
cheaply, and without undue risk, by econom- 
ically designed power-boats. 



A GERMAN ECONOMIST ON OUR FINANCIAL CRISIS. 



pROFESSOR LEXIS, one of the most em- 
inent of German economists, makes the 
American banking and currency crisis the oc- 
casion of an article in the Woche (Berlin,) 
in which he deals with it as part of a world- 
wide phenomenon which w^as manifested in 
its greatest intensity in this country. It Is 
noteworthy that, like other authorities of 
corresponding rank in France and England, 
Professor Lexis discusses the developments 
that have taken place as a result of strictly 
economic causes, apparently ascribing no Im- 
portance to the political factors, — such as the 
course of President Roosevelt, whose name Is 
not even mentioned in the article, — to which 
some of our journalists are fond of ascribing 
the catastrophe. Coming to the analysis of 
the New York crisis. Professor Lexis says: 

The fact must always be borne in mind that 
the money stringency of the past twelvemonth, 
in America as well as in Europe, is based, in the 
last analysis, upon a relative scarcity, not of 
ready rnoney, but of money-capital, which is, in 
the main, represented otherwise than by ready 
money. A draft, for example, that a manufac- 
turer or merchant has drawn, 1)ased upon a sale 
of j^oods, truly represents money-capital, even 
if its amount has not been transformed, through 
the process of discounting and endorsements, 
into a bank deposit. The stringency arose 
simply from the circumstance that the demand 
for money-capital increased more rapidly than 
the creation of such capital, which can really be 
created only by a surplus of income. That in- 



creased demand was occasioned partly by the 
swift expansion of production, but partly also 
by the gigantic speculations in stocks and com- 
modities. Momentarily the exigency was met 
by drawing upon the future, without a real foun- 
dation. If, for instance, uncovered bank notes 
are loaned an hypothecated securities, no new 
capital is formed thereby, but the price of ma- 
terials and means of production and the rate of 
wages are raised by this artificial increase of 
purchasing power. Through this and the simul- 
taneous increase of the rate of interest, the ex- 
aggerated expectations of profit from the newly 
invested capital are disappointed, the economic 
advance comes to a standstill, and, generally, 
the crisis then first assumes the shape on 'change 
of a sudden fall of speculative stocks. 

Tracing the cause of the scarcity of 
money from the time of the San Francisco 
catastrophe, this writer says: 

The railroads made increasing demands which 
were not satisfied ; they turned toward Europe. 
The consequent outflow of money from there 
was stemmed in 1906 by the action of the Bank 
of England and the German Reichsbank in rais- 
ing the rate of discount ; the railroads continued, 
however, to solicit gold upon hard conditions, 
and it appears, furthermore, that they placed 
great quantities of their notes with the Ameri- 
can trust companies. Tn the meantime a daring 
game with railway stocks held sway on the New 
York 'Change, culminating in a crash in the mid- 
dle of March, T907. This crisis reacted severely 
upon the Berlin bourse also. In Germany the 
industrial development had likewise been ex- 
traordinarily auspicious during the last few 
years, but here, too, with the close of the year 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



99 



1905, a disparity became apparent between the 
demand for and the creation of capital, evi- 
denced by the 6 per cent, rate of discount of the 
Reichsbank. Industrial conditions continued, it 
is true, entirely satisfactory throughout 1906; 
yet a vague feeling grew more and more wide- 
spread that the meridian had been passed. Un- 
der the pressure of the high rate of interest 
prices of securities began to decline very mark- 
edly from the opening of the year 1907. Owing 
to the New York crisis this retrograde move- 
ment was changed into a sudden fall on the 
14th of March, and since then a depression, 
with a greater or less money stringency, has 
continued in which the prices of all securities 
have come within dangerous proximity to the 
critical situation of 1901. The condition of the 



banks has deteriorated through the depreciation 
of their assets ; industrial activity has, on the 
whole, not been impaired, but fears are enter- 
tained of a future decline of orders. The check 
upon .speculation by the withdrawal of credit on 
the part of the banks cannot fail to have a salu- 
tory effect through promoting a restoration of 
normal conditions in regard to capital ; and they 
likewise appear, fortunately, to have kept aloof 
from co-operating to satisfy the American money 
exigency. 

It Is a gratifying fact, concludes Professor 
Lexis, that the latest American crisis, which 
occurred on the 19th of October, exerted no 
material influence upon the Berlin bourse. 



HAVE WE BEEN UNFAIR TO GERMAN COMMERCE? 



/^ERMAN opinion, as expressed In the 
^"^ newspaper press and the more delib- 
erate monthly and weekly periodicals of the 
Kaiser's empire, on the commercial relations 
between Germany and the United States, 
Indicates a growing dissatisfaction with what 
Is frequently referred to as American " un- 
fairness." The Germans are Insisting that 
"In making a bargain the fault of (the 
Americans as well as) the Dutch, Is giving 
too little and asking too much." 

A representative article expressing this opin- 
ion Is contributed to the Deutsche Vorkamp- 
fer, the monthly published In New York 
City " devoted to the mutual Interests of the 
United States and Germany," by Dr. Lud- 
wlg Max Goldberger, Privy Councilor and 
m.ember of the Imperial Commission for 
Commercial Treaties, and author of the now 
celebrated work, " The Land of Unlimited 
Possibilities." Dr. Goldberger reviews in de- 
tail the history of the various agreements and 
compromises between Germany and this 
country which have marked the trade rela- 
tions of the two peoples during the past year. 
This history has been recounted and com- 
mented upon a number of times in this 
Review. 

" Through it all," sa^^s Dr. Goldberger, 
" a cheerful and persistent determination to 
maintain the friendly character of the Ger- 
man-American relations was exhibited by the 
German Government and people." This at- 
titude, the German writer asserts, has not 
been maintained by the other side to the 
bargain. * He boldly asserts : " It is high time 
to abolish the one-sidedness in German- 
American relations that has heretofore pre- 
vailed." 



There is little fairness in the present condi- 
tion of things. The new compact on which both 
parties agreed, does no more than lessen the 
tension. This was the view held by the mem- 
bers of the North Commission who had the 
courage to announce their conversion to it in 
their own country. Their example should spur 
on the leading persons and corporations through- 
out the whole wide realm of the United States 
to enter upon the path of fairness. It can only 
be to the credit and the honor of the American 
nation, if it pursues a course upon which the 
confidence of the friendly German nation can 
follow it. The advantages, in regard to tariff, 
which the German-American agreement secures 
to us, are trifling. The sum which is thus saved 
by Germany on her exports to America each 
year, according to American statistics, is $208,- 
168. The advantages which our lower tariff on 
imports from America insures to that country 
result in the saving of $6,664,000 annually. Of 
American imports into Germany 96.7 per cent, 
by the provisions of the new agreement are free 
of duty or are favored by the imposition of the 
very lowest tariff. Only 1.4 per cent, of the 
German exports to America are allowed to par- 
take of the concessions granted by the agree- 
ment of 1906. 

It Is only by considering the number of 
German concessions to America, this writer 
continues, that the disproportion between the 
mutual concessions of the two countries can 
be comprehended. 

It is quite conceivable that those in America 
who are averse to the agreement and oppose any 
commercial compact with Germany can, even on 
the ground of the present one-sided arrange- 
ment, find occasion to arouse the suspicions of 
the American people, as if under the latest agree- 
ment advantages had been secured by Germany 
which the members of the North Commission 
had failed to detect, and would have been un- 
willing to concede. Even under the influence of 
these prejudiced representatives and falsifica- 
tions, however, it was impossible to secure fair- 
ness for Germany. The benefit of the new 
agreement to Germany does not lie in the de- 



100 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OE REVIEWS. 



partment of tariff concessions, but in the obtain- 
ing of a long desired change in the principles 
upon which the United States consuls were in- 
structed in matters pertaining to differences 
arising from technical questions regarding the 
applying of custom laws, in the concession that 
agents sent from the United States to Germany 
must be " personae gratse " ; in that the certifi- 
cates from the German chambers of commerce 
must be accepted as sufficient proofs, and finally, 
in the new rules for the practical working of 
the customs administration. 

This certificate supplied by the German 
chambers of commerce Dr. Goldberger re- 
gards as of great weight. He does not be- 
lieve that American business men or officials 
understand the value of it, since they per- 
haps do not appreciate the conservative offi- 
cial character of chambers of commerce in 
the Fatherland, and their fairness and integ- 
rity. Dr. Goldberger further admits the 
value of the concessions made to Germany. 
He says complimentary things about the 
North Commission, which, it will be remem- 
bered, went to Germany some months ago 
to look Into the whole, matter of mutual 
commercial relations, and some uncompli- 
mentary things about the selfishness of some 
protected American business interests. He 
then refers approvingly to the appointment 
of the later commission, headed by Mr. 
James E. Reynolds. This Export Commis- 
sion, however, he says. Is only a *' pacifying 
concession to the movement against the 



treaty." Referring to Mr. Reynold's assur- 
ance that " to the honest exporter, no matter 
whether he sends us his wares from Germany 
or from any other lands, we extend a helping 
hand and strive to remove every technical ob- 
stacle from his path," Dr. Goldberger says: 

These are good and fitting words. We have 
nothing to conceal, and we throw wide our 
doors to welcome the American commission. 
We ourselves desire to reach the object for 
which Mr. Reynolds declares that he and all 
other Americans are striving. We have no sym- 
pathy with fraudulent practises, on whichever 
side they manifest themselves, and we are as 
unwilling to be cheated bv a fellow countryman 
as by the member of another nation. We are 
also fully convinced that the honest merchant 
should be protected against the fraudulent. 
But this protection does not consist in the set- 
ting of snares or digging of pitfalls. We have 
already met with many disappointing surprises 
after concluding commercial treaties with Rus- 
sia and other countries in our efforts to give our 
resolutions full effect. These disappointm.ents 
were generally atoned for by a friendly recon- 
ciliation. But this has not always been the case 
in our commercial dealings with America. 

The reasons for this, the German writer 
contends, is the fact that " for twenty years 
past our trade arrangements with America 
have been merely of a provisional character." 
He insists that some permanent, reasonable, 
and just arrangement must be made Immedi- 
ately If the friendly commercial relations be- 
tween the two peoples are to be maintained. 



INDUSTRIAL PEACE LEGISLATION IN CANADA. 



r^ ANADA'S legislative measure known 
as " The Industrial Disputes Inves- 
tigation Act,' 1907," is one of the most Im- 
portant ever enacted in the Dominion. It 
became effective on March 23, 1907, and 
was largely the outcome of the serious 
dispute in connection with the coal mines at 
Lethbrldge In Western Canada. This dis- 
pute kept the mines closed for nine months, 
with all the attendant Ills of Industrial war, 
and contributed to bring about a fuel famine 
In Saskatchewan and Alberta during the most 
inclement season of the year. This painful 
experience Impressed the government with 
the necessity for legislation which would pro- 
vide machinery for the adjustment of Indus- 
trial disputes, and prevent. If possible, a 
recurrence of strikes and lockouts In connec- 
tion with mines and public utility Industries 
until at least such an adjustment had been 
attempted. 



Investigation led to the belief that If the 
parties to a dispute could be brought together 
and given an opportunity to frankly discuss 
their troubles, an agreement would be arrived 
at. To secure this conference and result the 
act aforementioned was passed. Under this 
law, It Is Illegal to resort to a strike or lock- 
out until the dispute has been made the 
subject of Inquiry before a board of concilia- 
tion and Investigation to be established by 
the Minister of Labor. This Is binding alike 
on employer and employee, and the procedure 
that either must follow Is definitely set forth. 

When a dispute arises in an Industry 
identified with a public utility, either party 
thereto may send to the registrar of boards of 
conciliation and Investigation an application 
for the appointment of such a board. That 
official at once brings this request to the atten- 
tion of the Minister of Labor. The appli- 
cation must contain ( i ) the parties to the 



LEADING ARTICLES OE THE MONTH. 101 

dispute; (2) Its nature and cause, and the ''If a settlement Is effected, a memor- 
claims and demands to which exception is andum of the terms is drawn up," says Mr. 
taken by either party; (3) an approximate John King, K. C, in the Green Bag for 
estimate of the number of persons affected December, " by the board and signed by the 
(because ten employees must be affected in parties, and shall, if so agreed, be binding as 
order to give the board jurisdiction); and if made a recommendation of the board under 
(4) th^ efforts made toward adjustment, the act." A copy of the memorandum with 
The application must be accompanied by a the report is then forwarded to the Minister, 
statutory declaration that failing an adjust- If a settlement is not reached, the board re- 
ment, or reference, a lockout or strike will ports fully to the Minister the whole pro- 
be declared, and that the necessary authority ceedings, findings, recommendations, etc. 
for that purpose has been obtained. A copy Although the board's findings are not per se 
of the application must be sent to the other binding, by mutual agreement the award may 
party coincident with its transmission to the be made a rule of court and binding as if 
registrar, and the other party must prepare made pursuant to a reference to arbitration 
a reply and serve a copy on the applicant in on the order of a court of record, 
like manner. The first board established was in connec- 
Withln fifteen days of receipt of applica- tlon with the Western Coal Operators' 
tion the Minister appoints the board, con- Association in British Columbia, and affected 
sisting of three members, to which are added between 3000 and 4000 employees. An 
two others, chosen, respectively, by the em- effective settlement for two years was 
ployer and employees. These two select a reached. Another was between the Grand 
third, v/ho acts as chairman, and failing to Trunk Railway and its machinists, when all 
do so \vithin five days the Minister appoints disputed points w^ere adjusted. Others in- 
him. The board is sworn, equipped with all voking this law were the Cumberland Rail- 
necessary assistance, and when constituted is way, Canadian Pacific Railway, Halifax 
invested with all the powers of a court of Longshoremen, Intercolonial Railway of 
justice. The proceedings may be public or Halifax, and the Montreal Cotton Com- 
private, as may be deemed expedient, and pany. Several important mining companies 
competent experts or assessors may be en- also had recourse to this law. 
gaged by the board. The parties to the Although In force only seven months, 
dispute may be represented each by three, or twenty-one applications have been received 
less, persons, or by counsel with the consent for boards of conciliation and investigation, 
of the board. During the conference the Eleven have been satisfactorily ended, three 
board may do whatever It deems proper to others were settled without a board, and In 
induce a settlement, and may dismiss any the others the proceedings had not been ter- 
matter which it considers frivolous or trivial, minated at the time of writlne. 



EUROPE'S GUARANTEE OF NORWAY'S NEUTRALITY. 

\X7HEN Norway separated from Sweden, contents appeared. Nevertheless, it is certain 

two 5^ears ago, certain International that the four powers mentioned have agreed 

agreements affecting not only Norway her- to respect the Integrity of Norway. There 

self, but also vitally concerning the balance seems to be no question of any " guarantee " 

of power in Europe, were rendered inef- on the part of these powers, and when this 

fective. The existence of one of these agree- point is brought out, authoritatively, the un- 

ments first became public knowledge when pleasant sentiment which has manifested It- 

a treaty to take its place was signed. self In Sweden on account of the agreement 

With regard to this treaty, concluded be- will gradually give room to a calmer judg- 

between the four great powers, England, ment. 

France, Germany, and Russia, with a view On November 2 last (October 20, Rus- 

of safeguarding the integrity of Norway, sian style), two treaties were signed, accord- 

whlch came Into existence only two years ing to the Frankfurter Zeitung, In the For- 

ago, there prevails as yet some confusion, for eign Department at Christiana. One of 

the text of the treaty has, thus for, not been these, which is termed a " declaration," and 

published, nor has any reliable account of its concerns the abrogation of a treaty of No- 



102 



THE AMERICAN RE^lElV OF REVIEWS, 



vember 21, 1855, is made between Norway, 
Great Britain and France, while the other, — 
a treaty in regard to the integrity of Nor- 
way, — has the signatures of the Norwegian 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and of the repre- 
sentatives of Great Britain, France, Russia 
and Germany. 

The treaty of November 21, 1855, was prin- 
cipally directed against Russia, inasmuch as the 
King of Sweden and Norway agreed not to per- 
mit the cession to Russia of any territory be- 
longing to either of the two countries aforesaid, 
nor to suffer the occupation by Russia thereof. 
Furthermore, this treaty provided, that if Russia 
insisted on securing any of the several priv- 
ileges mentioned in the document, the King of 
Sweden should notify the Queen of England and 
the Emperor of France thereof, in order to 
procure from the latter " sufficient naval and 
military forces " for co-operation with the King's 
own forces in resisting the advances or claims 
of Russia. 

This treaty, of course, became Invalid 
through the separation between Sweden and 
Norway, and it could have been annulled 
two years ago, had it not been for a desire in 
Norway, and also in England, to reaffirm, in 
some other manner, the main purpose of the 
agreement. 

The prospect of Russia acquiring a naval 
basis on the coast in the Far North has always 
given the English a great deal of anxiety, and 
particularly during the last few decades. Al- 
though the British apprehension in this regard 
has been declared without foundation in Russian 
quarters, yet an impartial observer will readily 
infer that the Russian statesmen, who have 
brought their country's domain as far as Port 
Arthur, and who would not balk at the idea of 
seizing Korea, might also get a notion of ob- 
taining a Russian naval station on the Norwe- 
gian coast. Such plans, ought, however, now to 
have been abolished, once for all, through the 
recognition, even by Russia, of the integrity of 
Norway. On. the other hand, if Russia could 
persuade Norway to cede a harbor " in pact " for 
ninety-nine years, this would certainly be con- 
sidered as a violation of Norway's integrity, but 
England would not have to take up arms, as it 
would have been obliged to do under the treaty 
of 1855. 

Some time ago, the present Norwegian 
Premier, Mr. Lovland, at that time Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs, declared that there 
would be no question of " guaranteeing " 
Norway's neutrality. Such a " guarantee " 
through four powers, with Sweden excluded, 
would undoubtedly give the Swedes a good 
reason to feel hurt, since the *' guarantee " 
must be looked upon as a safety measure 
against eventual attack from Sweden's side. 

The insult would be the greater, in consider- 
ation of the dignified and peaceable stand taken 
by Sweden in the face of Norway's insolent at- 



titude at the time of the dissolution of the union 
between the two countries. How is it, anyway, 
that the two powers concerned have not signed 
a declaration with Sweden, in regard to the ab- 
rogation of the former treaty, at the same time 
they did so with Norway? 

The Paris Temps contends that such a 
proceeding was contemplated, but later aban- 
doned, on account of unreasonable opposition 
in Christiania. The Paris paper adds that 
Norway, in Its Inveterate haughtiness, in- 
sisted upon some security which w^ould look 
like an affrontery of Sweden. Instead of 
bringing the stubborn Norwegians to terms, 
however, and teaching them not to abuse the 
patience of Europe any too much, the powers 
gave in to the Norwegian Government, pre- 
sumably in order to get through with the 
affair In short order. 

A Representative Swedish View. 

The Daghladet, of Stockholm, gives in a 
recent issue what It claims to be a summary 
of the text of the integrity treaty. The 
declaration made in the latter, according to 
the Swedish journal, contains four para- 
graphs. 

In the first, Norway agrees not to cede any 
territory ; in the second, the powers agree to 
assist Norway in maintaining. its integrity, when 
threatened, by such means as may be considered 
most suitable; paragraph 3 gives Norway the 
right to make special agreements with Sweden 
and 'Denmark, in regard to the preservation of 
its integrity ; in paragraph 4 is stated that the 
treaty is valid during twenty years, and shall 
be considered renewed at the expiration of that 
period, unless any party to the treaty has de- 
clared, five years previously, its intention of 
receding from the agreement. Renewal may, 
however, still be made between the remaining 
parties. 

In its commentaries on the text, the»Stock- 
holm journal points out the fact that- the 
treaty contains no insinuation against 
Sweden, nor does Its text, in any way what- 
ever, justify the suspicions which have caused 
the prevailing anti-Norwegian sentiment in 
the former brother-country. In conclusion, 
it suggests that the text of the treaty might 
have been modulated somewhat just on ac- 
count of the strong outburst of that same 
sentiment. 

When one considers that any plans or desires 
on the part of Germany and I'Vancc, the carry- 
ing out of which would violate the integrity of 
Norway, are out of the question, but that Eng- 
land has an interest in having the most impor- 
tant stipulation in the treaty of 1855 renewed 
through another measure against Russia, the 
conclusion must be that, apart from Norway, 
the London government has been eager to close 
the new treatv. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



103 



A "MODERNIST" CRISIS IN THE JEWISH CHURCH. 



npHAT Modernism has not only assailed 
the Church of Rome, but that it has 
also tainted the ancient faith of Judaism, is 
the opinion advanced by M. Paul Bernard, 
who writes in Etudes (Paris). At the 
actual moment, the two great historic re- 
ligions of the world are in the throes of 
combat with the forces of scientific unbelief, 
and not less than its eldest and most prolific 
combat with the forces of scientific unbelief. 

Mr. Schwabj in his work, " The Spirit 
and the Letter," proceeds the same authority, 
declares that the Jew, however much he 
may cling to the spirit of his tradition, no 
longer practices the teaching of his faith. 
He still teaches his children that religion 
forbids them to work on the Sabbath, and 
yet we find himself and his children work- 
ing on the most solemn of the feast-days in 
their calendar. What Jew now obeys the 
injunction of the Mosaic Law against the 
eating of oysters? Which of them does not 
smile when, in praying for the restoration of 
the Temple at Jerusalem, he thinks of the 
strange figure a modern Jew must make on 
the steps of that edifice? If we are not in 
the presence of the death of a race, at least 
we are facing the close of an historic faith. 

In the opinion of M. Bernard, all mod- 
ern research into the history of the Jew 
goes to show that, down the long course of 
the ages, he has really ever been the con- 
cealed champion of unbelief and atheism, and 
that to-day, in the fullness of his power, he is 
imposing his intellectual individuality upon 
the beliefs of mank*\id. Says M. Bernard: 

The Jew has been tf*ie high-priest of unbelief; 
he has fostered mental revolt to further his own 
ends, and he has ever sought to struggle out of 
his Judaism, even as he strove to leave his Ghet- 
to, knowing well that once received among the 
Christians, he would soon obtain the mastery 
over them. His faith, its apparent intensity, and 
its elaborate rites, were only instruments used 
by him in finding the way out of slavery and 
oppression. Once the hour of civil emancipa- 
tion sounded for him, the Jew was heard of no 
longer as a man of learning or piety, but as a 
practical ruler of men. He had experienced so 
many reverses, had seen so many modes of life 
in his peregrinations throughout the world, and 
had tried so many shifts in order to subsist, that 
nothing was so new to him that he could not 
adapt himself to its exigencies. In proportion 
as he became modernized, he lost the distinctive 
characteristics of his race, threw off his pious 
traditions, laughed at his sacred books, and 
foreswore not only his teachings, but also his 
exalted code of morality. In some of those 
capitals in which the real spirit of Christianity 
still survives, the Jew is, nevertheless, to be 



found in small groups, attached to his faith and 
its traditions. The London Jew, for example, 
is at the present moment the strongest in point 
of orthodoxy that remains in the world, the 
French Jew being on all counts the least tena- 
cious of his faith or its observances. 

It is in his treatment of the Bible, that 
the modern Jew is to be judged. Formerly 
it was the light of his life, and his never- 
failing hope. To-day he, more than any 
other, says, in effect, M. Bernard, applies to 
it the criteria of modern scientific discovery; 
he, more than any other, is disposed to mock 
at its mysteries. Not only are parents and 
children indifferent to its teachings, but 
even the abomination has penetrated into the 
holy of holies, and the priests of the ancient 
faith of Moses are w^avering in their beliefs. 
Last year a conference of rabbis convened in 
Paris, with the object of suggesting remedies 
for the situation, only succeeded in demon- 
strating to the world to what an extent 
atheism and scientific dogma had under- 
mined the faith of the majority of its 
members. 

Like the Modernist who assails the de- 
posit of Catholic faith, the modern rabbi in- 
clines to belief in the Symbolical, leaving 
the ritual practices and doctrines to take 
care of themselves. Thej^, too, have pre- 
sented their manifesto to their high-priests 
in which they allege their conviction* that 
religion, like everything else, must follow 
its course of evolution. In every respect 
their Modernism coincides with that of the 
pseudo-Catholic Modernists, and may be 
termed a mixture of Pantheism and Ra- 
tionalism. Nevertheless, reformers of the 
Jewish faith have sprung up. 

While the Modernist Jews proscribe both Tal- 
mud and Bible, and die orthodox Jews are heart 
and soul for their retention, the reform party 
agree with the former to sacrifice the Talmud, 
and with the latter to preserve the Bible, but 
with such restrictions, attenuations and compro- 
mises that the principle of religion is almost 
wholly threatened. What they ask is a mini- 
mum of worship, a minimum of morality, a 
minimum of dogma. Everything, it is clear, is 
to be surrendered to the exigencies of the ma- 
terial world, — thus, the sacrifice of the day of 
rest, the suppression of fasts, liberty of choice 
as to foods and the abolition of the practice of 
circumcision. As for dogma, they retain, it is 
true, their belief in the unity of God, but the 
Messianic prophecies are to be understood only 
from the emancipation of the Jews. As to the 
moral prescriptions, they are to be reduced to 
their simplest expression, to wit: "Do unto 
others as thou wouldst be done by." That con- 
stitutes the religion of the Jewish Modernist. 



104 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

HOW ANIMALS ACT DURING EARTHQUAKES. 



^ npHE news dispatches, it will be remem- 
bered, announced that on the eve of 
the great earthquake at Karatagh, in Cen- 
tral Asia, on October 20, all the dogs of the 
region set up a howling, horses stampeded, 
and cattle bellowed with fright. This re- 
port is in singular confirmation of some gen- 
eral principles as to the conduct of animals 
during earthquakes laid down in an article 
in a recent number of the Dutch review, 
Vragen van den Dag. 

The writer of this article reminds us of 
the frequent contention that some animals 
are able to feel in advance certain conditions 
of the weather or other natural phenomena, 
and that they are thus, in this respect, better 
endowed than man. 

Whether this power has been lost to man in 
the process of civilization, or that it was never 
possessed by him at all, we would not undertake 
to affirm. Although animals are not to be whol- 
ly regarded as weather prophets, still by a close 
observation of their behavior under particular 
circumstances of the kind, something may be 
gained in this line of human knowledge. 

In connection with the fearful catastro- 
phies of recent date in Italy, California, and 
elsewhere, which, like so many others of like 
nature, will long retain a hold on human 
memory, attention has again been called to 
the fact that many animals give intimations 
of such great disturbances in advance by 
certain particular and often unusual con- 
duct. It is particularly such animals as have 
their abode under ground that often indicate, 
days before the event, that something un- 
usual in nature is about to occur, by coming 
out of their hiding places under ground into 
the open. 

Aelian mentions that, in the year 373 .before 
Christ, five days before the destruction of 
Helike, all the mice, weasels, snakes, and many 
other like creatures, were observed going in 
great masses along the roads leading from that 
place. Something similar was noticed also, later, 
though not to so marked an extent as in the 
case mentioned by Aelian. This leaving of their 
subterranean abodes by underground creatures 
on such occasions might possibly be explained 
by the emission of various malodorous and nox- 
ious gases during these disturbances of the 
earth. 

But not only do animals living under 
ground furnish indications that something 
out of the ordinary is about to happen. The 
larger animals on the surface, such as cows, 
horses, asses, sheep, and many birds, even, 



seem to get premonitions of particular nat- 
ural phenomena and events. 

Thus it is related that in 1805, during an 
earthquake, the cattle at Naples and its neigh- 
borhood set up a continuous bellowing some 
time before the event, at the same time trying to 
support themselves more firmly by planting the 
forefeet widely apart ; the sheep kept up a con- 
tinuous bleating, and hens and other fowl ex- 
pressed their restlessness by making a terrible 
racket. Even the dogs gave many indications 
of uneasiness at the time. The actions of ani- 
mals observed during the great earthquake of 
1783 seem to have been most remarkable. Thus 
the howling of the dogs at Messina became so 
unendurable that men were sent out with cud- 
gels to kill them. Their noise was most marked 
during the progress of the earthquake, while it 
was difficult to pacify the animals in the vicinity 
for some time even after the cessation of the 
shocks. Dogs and horses ran about meanwhile 
with hanging heads, or stood with outstretched 
legs, as if aware of the need of planting them- 
selves firmly. Horses that were ridden at the 
time stopped and stood still without orders, 
trembling so at the same time that no rider 
could remain in the saddle, Scophus tells the 
story of a cat during an earthquake at Locris 
which set up a most dismal caterwauling at 
the approach of each new shock, meanwhile 
constantly jumping from one point to another. 
The roosters kept up a continual crowing, both 
before and during the earthquake. In the fields 
Scophus observed hares so under the influence 
of the terrestrial disturbance that they made no 
attempt to escape and seemed in no way dis- 
turbed by his presence. A flock of sheep could 
not be kept on the right road, notwithstanding 
the efforts of shepherd and dogs, but fled in af- 
frightened haste to the mountains. During the 
same year of 1783, fear had taken such posses- 
sion of the peasants of Calabria that they were 
seen to flee from their huts the moment dogs 
began to howl, asses to bray, or cows to bellow. 
Birds, also, seem to have premonitions of the 
coming of such catastrophies. During the earth- 
quake at Quintero, in Chile, in November, 1822, 
the gulls uttered all sorts of unusual cries dur- 
ing the whole of the preceding night, and were 
in constant restless motion during the quake. 
On February 20, 1835, the day before the earth- 
quake at Concepcion, in Chile, at ten in the 
morning, great flocks of sea-birds, mostly 
gulls, were seen to pass over the city landward, 
a phenomenon not to be explained by any 
stormy condition of the weather. It was fully 
an hour and a half after their passage, at 11.40 
of the forenoon, before the earthquake came, 
one so disastrous that nearly the entire city was 
reduced to ruins. Even the fish in the sea seem 
to be disturbed at the approach of an earth- 
quake. I'hus during the one of 1783, quantities 
of fish were caught at Messina, of a kind that 
usually keeps hidden in its secret abodes at the 
ocean's bottom. And Alexander von Humboldt, 
the famous traveler and naturalist, tells of hav- 
ing observed the crocodiles of the Orinoco leav- 
ing the water and fleeing to the forest during an 
earthquake. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 105 

RECENT PROGRESS IN CURING TUBERCULOSIS. 



A REPORT of the sessions of three 
scientific associations, published in 
the last number of the Centralblatt fiir 
Bakteriologie (Jena), includes accounts of 
two series of investigations of tuberculosis 
that are of especial interest. 

The first is a report of the Royal 
Commission on Tuberculosis, under the 
direction of which Dr. Eastwood made a 
histological and comparative study of the 
course of the disease, which was generated 
experimentally by tuberculosis, both of hu- 
man beings and of cattle, with also a fur- 
ther investigation and comparison of the twO 
kinds of bacilli, as seen in artificial cultures, 
in order to get an understanding of the re- 
lationship between them. 

Experiments were made upon a great 
variety of animals, such as calves, guinea 
pigs, cattle, anthropoid and other species of 
apes, goats, rats, dogs, cats, etc., both by 
feeding and by injecting the tuberculosis 
bacilli. 

In some cases, as a result of this treatment, 
the animals developed typical tuberculosis, while 
in other animals there was no symptom of the 
disease, although the tissues were full of the 
bacilli. Rats proved to be highly resistant to 
human tuberculosis, for although the bacilli 
might swarm in the body, yet its tissues would 
be only slightly affected, and usually the animal 
would show no evidence of having the disease. 

The general results of the investigation 
forced the waiter to recognize the identity of 
the processes of the disease although induced 
experimentally by means of the most differ- 
ent tuberculosis bacilli of human or of ani- 
mal origin. 

The violence of the attack which the animal 
experienced varied with the amount of bacilli 
injected, and with the resistance of the animal, 
but when very resistant animals, such as calves, 
were inoculated with bacilli of relatively slight 
virulence, typical masses of bacilli developed at 
a distance from the point of inoculation that 
resembled the masses generated in cattle by 
highly virulent bacilli, while in especially sus- 
ceptible animals, such as anthropoid and other 
species of apes, more' or less chronic or acute 
disease was induced by means of the less viru- 
lent bacilli. 

It has been found that the bacilli of 
tuberculosis are variable, and that after 



growing for a long time in the human body, 
bacilli of bovine tuberculosis may undergo 
such changes In the characteristics that dis- 
tinguish those directly isolated from cat- 
tle that they can no longer be distinguished 
from human bacilli. 

After careful study and' comparison of the 
effects of the disease induced experimentally by 
tuberculosis from both sources, it was found 
that either kind of bacilli produces symptoms 
that are typical for the disease in all animals 
susceptible to mammalian tuberculosis, although 
germs derived from cultures of human bacilli 
have relatively slight effect upon cattle. In ex- 
periments made upon anthropoid apes, the ani- 
mals most closely related to man, typical tuber- 
culosis symptoms were produced by bacilli from 
cattle, and also by treatment with the same cul- 
tures of human origin that had proved relatively 
harmless for cattle. 

There does not seem to be the least evidence 
of any characteristic of bovine tuberculosis that 
renders it harmless to the human body, and fur- 
ther comparison of various cultures, made on 
artificial media, shows that all tuberculosis ba- 
cilli of mammals have common characteristics 
and the nature of the disease is the same, 
whether produced by one or the other kind of 
bacilli. 

The action of sunlight upon bacteria, and 
especially upon the bacilli of tuberculosis, 
was discussed in a paper presented at an- 
other scientific association by Dr. John 
Weinzlrl, who believes that in view of the 
devastation wrought by tuberculosis, the 
question deserves much more consideration 
than it has received. He tested the direct 
action of sunlight upon the bacilli by smear- 
ing a solution containing them upon a strip 
of glazed paper, exposing it to sunlight and 
afterward inoculating an albuminous cul- 
ture medium with the dried residue. 

If the bacilli were not killed by the sunlight 
there would be a luxuriant growth of them on 
the culture medium in proof of their active con- 
dition, but, as a matter of fact, the results 
showed that the bacilli were killed in about ten 
minutes, while species such as Coli communis, 
which serves as a test for the presence of 
typhoid, and other spore-free micro-organisms, 
were destroyed in even less time. 

He believes that sunlight possesses a much 
stronger bactericidal action than has pre- 
viously been realized, and that consequently, 
as a hygienic factor, it is far more powerful 
than has before been known. 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



(The great public interest aroused by recent events in the conduct of financial and indus- 
trial institutions, in security values, and in trade conditions, is bringing direct, simple, and 
well-written articles, meant for the aid and education of investors, into the periodicals. By 
grouping the most helpful of these in a new department, the Review of Reviews hopes to be 
of service to the many readers who should keep in touch with financial movements.) 



INVESTMENT SECURITIES. 



W 



HILE accumulating money Is a task of valuation and the character of the borrower, 
difficulty, its subsequent Investment because foreclosure suits are costly and tedl- 
Is by no means an easy matter. Inquiry for ous. Moreover, such loans are not market- 
Information thereon is daily increasing, and able or divisible, and cannot be rendered 
this can be accepted more readily when It Is liquid. If needed before maturity, very read- 
understood that the wealth of the United Ily. Again, a mortgage loan Is not converti- 
States Increases about $4,000,000,000 each ble or available as collateral, and it is dlffi- 
year, or more than $10,000,000 each day. cult to obtain a mortgage for just the amount 

The simplest form of Investment is a loan, one may wish to Invest for the period de- 

on which " Interest " Is paid by the borrower, sired and secured by property sufficiently 

representing the value of the use of the bor- valuable. To overcome this objection, com- 

rowed money for the time agreed upon, panles have been organized to make large 

Nearly every form of Investment Is a loan, mortgage loans and to sell small particlpa- 

Money deposited In a bank, invested In a tlons of $100, $500, or $1000 to Investors 

mortgage, or In a corporation bond, makes of limited means. Sometimes the companies 

the owner of the money so applied In each guarantee these loans. 

case a creditor. Contrariwise, a purchase of Investment bonds form another available 

real estate, stocks, or an Interest in a busi- outlet for surplus funds. These are Issued in 

ness enterprise. Is an indicia of ownership, convenient denominations, are readily con- 

and Is not characterized by an expectancy to vertlble Into cash, and as safe as anything In 

recover back the principal, plus Interest for the future well can be. Interest and prlnci- 

Its use, but anticipates more particularly a pal are easily collected. If registered, the 

profit from the venture. owner receives his check by mail ; If a coupon 

In the North American Review for No- bond. Interest coupons may be collected 

vember " Financier " discusses the more through a bank, and the principal may be 

common forms of pure Investment. *' For collected In the same manner, or by presenta- 

the man v/ho has a small sum of Idle money," tlon of the bond to the Issuing corporation's 

sa5'^s he, " which he wishes to use in such a agency. The usual denomination of a bond 

way that it will bring him In some return. Is $1000. Some are issued in $500 pieces, 

there is probably no better place for his funds and a few of $100 each are obtainable, 

than a savings-bank." These are, as a class. Small issues are likely to increase In the 

conservative and the risk attaching to a de- future in this country, as prevailing In 

posit Is not great. In New York, Massa- France to-day. 

chusetts, Connecticut and elsewhere the First-mortgage bonds of an established 

character of their investments is carefully railroad are perhaps the safest bond invest- 

presented. Not so In other States. In the ments. As a rule, railroad bonds are better 

latter case, savings-banks, in order to pay than those of an Industrial corporation, be- 

dlvldends and an attractive rate of Interest, cause railroad earnings are more stable, both 

occasionally make hazardous investments. In good and bad times, than those of any 

which sometimes end in disaster. other industry. This Is due to the economic 

There arc other suitable forms of Invest- necessity of transportation at all times, 

ment which offer equal or superior security In the December Issue of the North Amer- 

and yield better returns than the Interest ican Review this writer refers to the business 

paid by a savings-bank. For instance, loans reaction of 1904 and reviews the earnings of 

secured by mortgages against real estate, a great Industrial corporation, and likewise, 

The difficulty herein Is this: The lender has of a prominent railroad. In 1903 the net 

to acquaint himself with the property, Its earnings of the United States Steel Corpora- 



. LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES, 107 

tlon were $109,171,153, and in 1904 only the former devolves the duty of seeing that 

$73,176,522, a decrease in a j^ear of only the deed of trust is properly drawn and 

moderate trade reaction of 33 per cent. On bondholders' rights thereunder adequately 

the other hand, the net earnings of the Lake secured. The investor, however, in addition, 

Shore & Michigan Southern Railway in should himself look into the mortgage se- 

1903 were $8,017,086, and in 1904, $7,- curing the bonds. These may be divisional 

976,773, a decline of only one-half of i per first-mortgage bonds, branch-mortgage bonds, 

cent. The railroads, generally speaking, dur- or terminal-mortgage bonds, secured, re- 

ing 1904 maintained their records of 1903, spectively, by a lien on a division, a branch 

and the aggregate railroad net earnings of line or a terminal. The earning power of 

the country in 1904 were $639,240,000 the particular part of the system is the cri- 

against $592,508,500 in 1903. In this ten- terion for their security. Terminal bonds 

dency of railroad earnings to remain constant are generally safe, because terminals are most 

or to increase is found the basis of the secur- essential to a road's operations. Neverthe- 

ity and safety of railroad obligations. less, first-mortgage bonds are safe only when 

Bankers usually secure railroad bond is- all interest charges are well within net 

sues and then sell them to investors, and on earnings. 



IF YOU CAN AFFORD TO TAKE A CHANCE. 

4<V Y Z is bound to rise in price, isn't and ultimate profit, you note that the Chicago, 

-^ it? It's selling now at 30 per cent. P^^i^ Island & Pacific collateral trust 4 per cent. 

, , . ^ T ' -ui bonds are selhng at 64. You thmk they are, per- 

less than it was a year ago. 1 can t possibly ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ Before you make a purchase of 

go wrong in buying it at present prices, can them, you should ask many questions. Some of 

I ? " Thousands are asking such questions, the questions and the answers in this case are 

now that security values have shrunk within ^^ J-^^^^^,^ '' , , , „• , ^ 

^1 1 ^ " & ^ r^r^r^ r^r^r^ r^r^r^ U. Why arc thcsc bouds seUing so low: 

the year by some ^3,000,000,000. a t^ • 1 .. ^1 1 ^\ a-,- 

T^-^ 1 • • J J rA\ r.^ ^4. ««,r A. It IS due to the general market conditions. 

But there is, indeed, no^y as well as at any ^j^^^^ -^ ^^ ^^p^^.^j weakness about the Rock 

other time, a possibility of going wrong island to-day. 

with any investment that promises^ an un- q. What is the market record of these bonds ? 

usual interest return or appreciation in value. A. They were listed in November, 1902, and 

No such purchase can be recommended " to sold at that time at about 86; they declined to 

, 1 UUJ1U.- I ^^^o^T.o^ 06 in the bad market of 1903-04; they rallied to 

the man who, by hard labor and persever- ^^ .^^ ^^^^. ^^^ ^^^^ sold at 77 early in the cur- 

ance, has amassed a small fortune in the sav- rent year. 

ings banks and seeks an absolutely safe in- Q. Is the interest well secured? 

vestment for that fortune; nor yet to the ^ A- The report for 1907 shows a surplus of 

, . • ^ i. X ^ 4.1^^ ^ ^r, $4,450,000 after paying all the fixed charges of 

woman seeking an investment for the money \^^Y, R. I. & P Railroad, which amount is 

left, perhaps, from a life-insurance policy; about $3,700,000. The report seems to indicate 

nor yet to the ^ average investor,' a timid that the road was well kept up. 

man, unversed in financial matters." ^ ^' ^^ ^^^ company should default what would 

o 1 1 • • I- I ""et '' 

So runs some very sound advice in the ^ / ^he bonds are secured on $1,000 of the 

Worlds Work. It is intended, says the stock of the old Rock Island for each $1,000 of 

author, '' rather for that larger class which bonds. That is the ultimate security. 

seeks investment for its surplus, for unneces- Q- What kind of a market is there for them? 

c J ^u ^ 1- • .^u k 1 'TX.^ 1^ „x.^»- A. I hey can be bought and sold at any time 

sary funds that lie in the bank. The lawyer, ^^ ^^^ ^^^ York Stock Exchange. 

the young doctor of large practice, the mer- i 1 j. 

chant, the editor, the salaried business ex- Here are the leading questions answered, 
pert, all these and a thousand other classes For assurance, ask your broker to go over 
of men have revenues for investment in a ^ith you the last annual report of the corn- 
business way. None of them is compelled P^^y' ^"^ ^ copy of the mortgage on this 
to live upon the proceeds of the investment. Particular bond. He will probably support 
Most of them want the investment to grow." f^e summing up in the M^orld's Work that 

the bond is fairly safe for its interest ; it 

Let us take one bond and consider It, not j^ secured on stock that has for thirty years 

because it is by any means the best m the class, 1 i 1 • 1 1 i 1 , 

but merely as an example. Suppose, being had a high value and that represents a good 

anxious to make a purchase for large interest road in the Middle West, and one that seems 



108 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 



to have fair prospects for a prosperous 
future. The price to-day is lower than it has 
ever been prior to this year. The last time 
it had a twenty-point decline, in 1903, it 
rose twenty-four points when conditions 
righted themselves. The probabilities are 
that it will do so again." And every day the 
permanent trade improvement seems nearer. 
Even greater precautions should precede 
a purchase of the bonds of any industrial 
company. *' A month before the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company 
went into the hands of receivers, even the 



best informed Wall Street bankers, closely 
in touch with the affairs of that company, 
were recommending the bonds and notes of 
this company as perfectly safe. In the long 
run they probably are, but even the busi- 
ness investor does not care for ' temporary 
receiverships ' along w^ith his bonds." 

" In closing this article, the financial editor 
desires to reiterate the statement that invest- 
ment along the line here outlined is not rec- 
ommended to any but men and women that 
are fit and prepared to take the usual risks 
of business." 



GILT-EDGED BONDS SELLING CHEAP. 



T^ONDS are cheap this winter. And the 
right kind of a bond is the right kind 
of an investment for a woman, a trustee, or 
any one who cannot give the purchase con- 
stant and expert attention, and who has no 
right to risk either principal or fixed rate of 
income. 

Stocks cannot be advised in such cases, — 
not even the standard railroad securities, 
w'hich appear so attractive at present rates. 
The management of any railroad, no matter 
how established, may deem it best to cut, 
defer, or pass the dividend on its common 
stock, if poor crops or manufacturing shut- 
downs cause a loss of traffic and thus of earn- 
ings. 

But the holders of a properly secured 
mortgage bond are as independent of busi- 
ness disasters as any investor can be. Their 
income is fixed ; their principal is secured up 
to its full face value by real and tangible 
property, through a mortgage held in their 
behalf by a responsible trustee. This prop- 
erty belongs to them and to them only in case 
of the company's failure. Some bonds, 
equally desirable, are protected by other se- 
curities of ample value which they have re- 
placed. 

As to choosing the bond ; an article in the 
Saturday Rvenini^ Post, under the heading: 
" Your Savings, — The Time to Buy Bonds," 
contains some good hints: 

If you want to buy bonds cheap now is the 
time to do so. Gilt-edged railroad bonds which 
are legal investments for savings-banks in such 
States as New York and Massachusetts, where 
the savings-1)anks' laws are the strictest, and 
whicli, under normal market conditions, would 
yield about 3.80 per cent., may be bought now at 
a price to make them yield as high as 4.75 per 
cent., or even 5 per cent. 

This cheapness in the price of bonds is due to 



practically the same causes which brought about 
the decline in stocks. 

Since railroad bonds are the most stable, the 
following list, which comprises some of the best 
known, is given for the benefit of small in- 
vestors : 

Louisville & Nashville Railroad (Atlanta, 
Knoxville & Cincinnati Division) Mortgage 4s, 
due in 1955. The interest is payable May and 
November. This bond may be bought at 82, and 
the yield would be about 4.90 per cent. 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Gold Deb- 
enture 4s, due in 193 1. The interest is payable 
May and November. This may be bought for 
85 and interest, and the yield to the investor 
would be about 5 per cent. 

Baltimore & Ohio General Mortgage 4s, due 
in 1948. The interest is payable April and Oc- 
tober. The present price is 90 and interest, and 
the yield would be about 4.55 per cent. 

St. Louis & San Francisco Mortgage Refund- 
ing 4s, due in 1951. Interest is payable Janu- 
ary and July. The price is 69, and the yield is 
about 6 per cent. 

Northern Pacific-Great Northern Joint Col- 
lateral Trust 4s, due in 1921. The interest is 
payable January and July. The present price 
is 84^, which would make the yield about 5]^ 
per cent. 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific General Mort- 
gage 4s, due in 1988. Interest is payable Janu- 
ary and July. The price is 89 and interest, 
which would make the yield about 4Y2 per cent. 

Chicago & Northwestern (Sioux City & Pa- 
cific Division) First Mortgage 3^s, due in 1936. 
Interest is payable February and August. At 
the present price of 84 and interest, the yield 
would be about 4.40 per cent. 

Central Pacific First Refunding 4s, due in 
1949. Interest is payable February and August. 
The present price is 90 and interest, which would 
make the yield about 4^ per cent. 

Louisville & Nashville Unified 4s, due in 1940. 
Interest is payable January and July. At the 
present price of 92)/^, the yield would be about 
4.40 per cent. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (Illinois Di- 
vision) Mortgage 4s, due 1940. Interest is pay- 
able b'ebruary and August. The present price 
of 96 would make the yield about 4.20 per cent. 



LEADING FINANCIAL AkTICLES. 109 

HOLDING ON TO STOCK BARGAINS. 

* ^ A FTER buying stocks do not watch It is good to remember that the great raih-oads 
^^ the newspapers with eager interest ^f the United States whose stocks are sug- 
... , , r^, , gesteci as an investment are domg a big busi- 
to see if they have gone down. 1 he chances ^^^ss ; . . . that the country is really pros- 
are that they will go down after you buy, but pcrous, and that people and busmess must use 
do not let that excite you and make you sell the transportation lines. The country has al- 
out at a loss." This is the counsel of a re- ways emerged safely from these periods of fin- 

,,. , . -ijuw c ancial disorder and unrest. 

cent article inthe series entitled Your ^av- j^ ^as invariably happened that when inves- 

ings," appearing in the Saturday Evening tors have bought high-class stocks in the very 

Post. darkest hours of panic, and held on to those 

The advice must, of course, be qualified, ^ '^^^^/'^^' ^1^^^ have made a great deal of money, 

in the case of *' widows and orphans," or any Below is the Saturday Evening Post's list 

others upon whose investments depends a of important railroads worthy the investor's 

total or necessary income. Such investors consideration. The prices and yield have 

should stick to approved bonds. These are been corrected up to the date of going to 

cheap enough at present. And even to those press of the Review of Reviews: 

who draw on a surplus, independent of nee- Railroad. Price. Yield. 

essary income sources, to pick up stock bar- n^ , p o ^ t^ -r^ ^*^'o-r 

. •' . 1-11 1 J • Atchison, Topoka & Santa Fe 70 8.;)5 

gains at times like these, no general advice Atlantic Coast Lino go o.oo 

to ''hold on" can be given unless each pur- aoveS"". anSaK Chicago & St." Louis ^^ ^'^^ 

chase has been thoroughly considered and ^ f^^'s ^?"Vt--, .^o J-oi 

,, . , -r^'' -^ , , , Delaware Ac Fludson 1.38 7.24 

well recommended. ror a real stock bar- Great Northern, preferred 115 6.08 

gain, even the active business man must stick Loi"isvni?&* NasiiVh'ie! !;!!!;!!.*!!!;!! ^oo I'll 

to railroads whose conduct and situation Chicago & Nortiiwestern.* 134 5.22 

c , , r . J r Northern Pacific 114 6.14 

-lorm reasonable assurance 01 increased luture New York Central 94 6.37 

forrtlnfTc Pennsylvania Ill 6.30 

Cell uiiigS). ^ ^ ^ Southern Pacific 72 8.33 

The quotation above interrupted continues Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 100 7.00 

,. Union Pacific 115 6.08 

in this manner : Norfolk & Western 64 7.81 



THE LINE BETWEEN SPECULATION AND GAMBLING. 

**TS there such a thing as honorable or price of their own on their work, as if they had 

^ useful speculation? " asks a Unitarian Performed an act of original creation. We can 

/-.ii-n'T^i-u/f? • applaud Mr. Carnegie s and J\ir. Rockefellers 

clergyman, Charles .b. Uole, in the Atlantic enterprise, but we denounce their system of 

Monthly. He replies with an emphatic yes, tariff, their manipulation of railways, and their 

but immediately, points out the qualitv that, appropriation of mineral lands, through which 

with most people, reduces speculation to pure ^^'^\' speculation has passed over from useful 

, ,. ^. ^ ' -TT r • social service into the form of colossal extor- 

gambling,— ignorance. He hrst cites some ^ion. We cannot even see the social use of any 

instances of worthy speculation: sort which has attended the building of the 

_ - ... , J Astor and other similar fortunes. The scout in 

Does not a farmer like to have a grand crop,— ^his case has merely seized and fortified a height 

a hundredfold oyer what he put into the ground.;^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^ ^^^ become a robber-baron. 

Does not every fisherman like to strike a school 

of mackerel or bluefish? All inventions and the Then there are the professional appraisers 

labor-saving application of natural powers are of values, — the expert dealers or manufactur- 
simply means to bring about the most rapid pro- ^^^^ u ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ harvests and 

duction of wealth. r m i 1 1 '-r'l 1 

The telephone was thus at first a great specu- movements of traffic and labor. They have 

lative venture. But this element of hazard did a certain normal relation to the values in 

not make it wrong to buy its stock at a few dol- which they are dealing. It is evidently these 

lars a'share In fact, if some people had not ^^^ alone,— onlv a limited number,— who 
believed in it and risked their money, the world 1 l '^ ■ r • 1 

would have had to wait indefinitely for the use ^^ the bestcan claim to confer a social ser- 

of this wonderful new instrument of civilization, vicfe by their speculations." 
We suspect that even Mr. Emerson would have In sharp contrast is the very large group 

been pleased with the results, if he had trusted familiarly called speculators, "who are only 

the proceeds of one of his lectures in the infant . •' ^ , -vt 1 1 1 

enterprise. ignorant guessers or bettors. No doubt they 

The injustice begins when men set an excessive often act under advice of their brokers, but 



no 



WE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REy/ElVS, 



they contribute no particle of intelligent 
study in the appraisement of values. This 
class surely arc of no sound economic use in 
crowding upon the market. So far from 
helping to fix or maintain values, they prob- 
ably add an element of exaggeration, excite- 
ment, and peril to the conduct of business. 
Their presence and the stakes which they 
wager tempt the bona fide or expert class of 
speculators to play upon their hopes and 
their fears, and to create artificial ' booms ' 
or panics, and actually to unsettle values. 
In short, the people who ' take flyers ' are 
mostly gamblers pure and simple. They pay 
their money to support a considerable and 
expensive group of bankers and brokers. To 
the honest question: What actual social ser- 
vice do you render through your speculative 
transactions, such as might justify you in 
pocketing your expected w^innings, abstracted 
doubtless from the common w^ealth? they 
can give no rational answer. They are not 
merely trying to get something for nothing, 
— a harmless amusement, — but they are try- 
ing to get what does not belong to them." 



The pathos of speculation lies in this direc- 
tion. It is not wrong that the village school- 
master, or the country minister, or the dress- 
maker with her scanty earnings, wishes to have 
a share in the fabulous wealth which modern 
society is accumulating. They rightly think " it 
would be fine " if their bit of investment in the 
wonderful mine described in their denomina- 
tional journal turns out as successfully as they 
hope. What they do not see is that they have 
no business to hope for this success ; they do 
not know enough. No one has taught them that 
every useful or promising kind of speculation 
depends upon effort, skill, experience, the play 
of intelligence upon the conditions of each new 
problem. Honorable speculation is a form of 
science. It is never mere cheap guesswork. 
But these innocent people, — a great host of 
them, — are daily matching their ignorance 
against the loaded dice of those whom their 
ciedulity tempts to make a business of floating 
all kinds of plausible and worthless enter- 
prises. 

When will the world learn the supreme law 
of life? We have no right to expect to receive 
when we give no equivalent return. We have 
no right to expect ordinary gains, unless we give 
at least ordinary service. Much less have we 
right to extra gains from our investments, 
where we put in no extra skill, foresight, or 
other form of service. 



WATCHING TRADE BAROMETERS. 



A RE " times " good, or are they bad? and 
how good or bad are they? The busy 
investor can easily find out for himself by 
keeping in touch with the three sensitive 
trade barometers : The state of steel and iron 
manufacture, of combined railroad earnings, 
and of bank clearings in the different prin- 
cipal cities. These figures appear in any 
newspaper w^ith a proper financial depart- 
ment, and they are placed opposite corre- 
sponding figures for the past year, so that an 
exact comparison of increase oc. decrease is 
apparent. J. H. Gannon, Jr., in Pearson s 
Magazine, comments on these three '' ba- 
rometers " as follows : 

The United States Steel Corporation has as- 
sumed such a leading position in the steel and 
iron trade, through its attraction to itself of 
many of the biggest plants in the United States, 
that a knowledge of its business fortunes is 
really accurate information of the situation with 
all other steel and iron-making concerns. Iron 
and steel are in this age the basis for so many 
different kinds of activity, finding extended use 
in the construction of skyscrapers and buildings 
of many kinds, as well as in railroad work, such 
as bridges, rails, and equipment, that when the 
Steel Corporation reports a falling-off in orders 
it means declining trade in real estate and in 



railroading, along with a multitude of allied 
businesses. 

When it is remembered that the railroads are 
really the trade arteries of the country, it will 
be seen how well the heart action of business 
may be determined by scrutiny of these earn- 
ings month by month. 

Bank clearings represent, of course, the ebb 
and flow of business as this passes through 
money institutions. The volume of checks 
drawn upon banks in any one City in any given 
week shows accurately, of course, the amount 
of money required to handle the business of that 
city in the course of that week, and, therefore, 
the amount of business actually transacted. If 
it is compared with the business transacted in the 
previous week, or in the same week of the pre- 
ceding year, the picture of the business situation 
so far as that particular city is concerned is com- 
plete. 

Below the editors of the Review of Re- 
views furnish the latest " readings " of the 
three " barometers." To follow such re- 
ports as they appear, and to form deductions 
constantly improving in accuracy, adds inter- 
est to daily affairs, and Is a habit that every 
investor should cultivate. 

First, the latest quarterly report of the 
Steel Corporation is quoted. The Item of 
" unfilled orders" is always significant: 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



in 



UNFILLED ORDERS ON HAND. 

Tons. Tons. 

Sept. 30, 1907.. 6,42.^, 008 June 30, 1904. .3,192,277 

June 30, 1907. .7,603,878 Mar. 31, 1904. .4,136,961 

June 30, 1906. .6,809.589 Dec. 31, 1903.. .3,215,123 

Mar. 31, 1906. .7,018,712 Sept. 30, 1903.. 3,278,742 

Dec. 31, 1905.. .7,605,086 June 30, 1903. .4,666,578 

Sept. 30, 1905.. 5,865,377 Mar. 31, 1903. .5,410,719 

June 30, 1905 . .4.829,655 Dec. 31, 1902.. .5,-347,253 

Mar. 31, 1905 . .5,597,560 Sept. ,30, 1902.. 4,843,007 

Dec. 31. 1904.. .4,696,203 June 30, 1902. .4,791,993 
Sept. 30, 1904.. 3,027,436 

Commenting on this table, Chairman E. 
H. Gary said, on October 29: 

In view of the fact that there has been some 
recession in business during the last three 
months, which has resulted in numerous in- 
quiries from stockholders, I feel justified in 
making to you a frank statement. 

On June 30, 1907, our companies had on hand 
unfilled orders aggregating 7,603,878 tons. On 
September 30 this tonnage had been decreased to 
6,425,008 tons. This has since been decreased by 
about 400,000 tons. The bookings in August 
were about 18,000 tons per day. In September 
they were about 20,000 tons per day. There 
were further increases during the first half of 
October, but since that time the bookings have 
decreased, and are now at the rate of 18,000 
tons per day for the month. 

Since November i, the corporation has 
cut down its output more than 50 per cent. 
But it was run at top capacity for the first 
ten months of the year, so that the total pro- 
duction for 1907 will be the greatest of any 
year in its history. 

In the table of net earnings which fol- 
lows, notice especially the last line, which 
shows the heavy increase for the first three 
^quarters over the similar 1906 period. This 
means that the net earnings for the fourth 
quarter of 1907 could decrease more than 
$13,500,000, and still leave the corporation 
with net earnings equal to those of the pros- 
perous year of 1906. 

NET EARNINGS FOR NINE MONTHS ENDING SEPTEM- 
BER 30. 

1907. 1906. 

January $12,838,703 $11,856,375 

February 12,145,815 10,958.275 

March 14,137,974 13,819,840 

First Quarter $39,122,492 $36,634,490 

April $14,600,838 $12,581,902 

May 16,056,832 14,041,601 

June 14,846,035 13,501,530 

Second quarter $45,503,705 $40,125,033 

July $13,804,167 $12,242,098 

August 15,279,173 13,158,860 

Sep,tember 14,720,945 12,713,666 

Third quarter $43,804,285 $38,114,624 

Total nine months $128,430,482 $114,874,147 

Next is shown the latest monthly report 
of bank clearings, exhibiting a decrease for 
the whole country of 29.3 per cent, as com- 
pared with 1906. Least falling off appeared 
in the South Atlantic and Western sections. 



November. 1907. 1906. Per ct. 

New England. . $665,1.59,589 $852,522,128 —22.0 

Middle 836,210,609 1,003,506,127 —16.7 

South Atlantic. 247,779,142 271,638,428 — 8.8 

Southern 518,549,437 631,814,752 —17.9 

Central West. .1,203,402,734 1,431,162,354 — 3 6.0 

Western 407,206,872 419,446,046 — 2.9 

Pacific 273,051,371 428,490,531 —36.3 

Totals $4. 151, .359,7.54 $5,0.38.580,362 — 17.6 

N. Y. City 5,500,742.162 8,607,987,812 —36.1 

United States.$9,652,101, 916 $13,646,568,174 —29.3 

The New York City figures are larger 
than all the rest of the country's put together, 
but are less significant of trade conditions 
than the others, because of their connection 
w^ith the transactions on the tw^o great stock 
exchanges. Stock " purchases " and '' sales " 
have fallen off radically during the autumn 
depression ; but only a minor proportion of 
these transactions represents actual business, 
as distinguished from speculation. In spite 
of the heavy decrease in New York City, it 
is reassuring that no banking institution of 
established conservative reputation was 
forced to close its doors. 

The third table, that of the latest re- 
ported gross earnings of railroads, looks a 
little pessimistic at first glance, but some 
allowances must be made for special condi- 
tions. The figures given are those of rail- 
roads reporting to the Commercial and 
Financial Chronicle, of New York City. 

55 RAILROADS, JANUARY 1-NOVEMBER 30. 

Year. Gross earnings. Mileage. 

1906 $540,238,902 72,766 

1907 590,965,575 74,037 

Increase, 9.S9 j)er cent. 

56 RAILROADS, MONTH OF NOVEMBER. 

Year. Gross earnings. Mileage. 

1906 $53,425,317 73,168 

1907 54,770,493 74,439 

Increase only 2.52 per cent. 

In Other words, the November, 1907, in- 
crease of 2.52 per cent, was little more than 
one-fourth the average increase for the 
eleven months of 1907, — 9.39 per cent. But 
the situation is not as bad as it looks. 
Although business depression undoubtedly 
played some part in the lessening of the 
increase, two great agricultural conditions 
were largely responsible, — the delayed move- 
ment of Northw^est grain and of Southern 
cotton. The farmers are holding this traffic 
back for higher prices. 

However, it is still too soon to prophesy 
accurately the extent of the threatened trade 
reaction merely from railroad earnings. 
There were sufficient unfilled orders on hand 
October i to keep most factories and mines 
at work for several weeks. The December 
figures for railroad gross earnings, available 
about the middle of January, 1908, may be 
expected to make even a lighter showing. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 



ILLUSTRATED EDITIONS. 

Among the holiday books with classical or 
semi-classical subjects which have come to us 
for notice are : " The Story of Sir Launcelot and 
His Companions" (Scribners), written and il- 
lustrated by Howard Pyle ; " The Story of 
Joseph" (Baker, Taylor), retold from the Old 
Testament, with pictures in color, by George Al- 
fred Williams; "Gallantry" (Harpers), an eigh- 
teenth century " dizain in ten comedies with an 
afterpiece " by James Branch Cabell, illustrated 
in color by Howard Pyle ; " God's Calendar," il- 
lustrated in color from photographs (Jennings 
& Graham), by Wilham A. Quayle; "Favorite 
Fairy Tales" (Harpers), the childhood joys of 
representative men and women, illustrated and 
with colored marginal designs by Peter Newell ; 
" The Holly-Tree Inn and a Christmas Tree," 
of Dickens, arranged (Baker & Taylor) with il- 
lustrations in color and line by George Alfred 
Williams ; Longfellow's " Hanging of the Crane " 
(Houghton, Mifflin), illustrated in color by Ar- 
thur Keller, with designs by Florence Swain ; 
" The Rivals," Sheridan's famous comedy, 
brought out by Crowell with an introduction by 
Prof. Brander Matthews and illustrations by M. 
Power O'Malley ; " Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland " (by Lewis Carroll), brought out by 
Doubleday, Page & Co., with twelve drawings in 
color and pen sketches by Arthur Rackham and 
a poem by Austin Dobson ; and " The First Nan- 
tucket Tea Party" (Doubleday, Page), illus- 
trated, decorated, and illuminated by Walter 
Tittle. 

Other holiday books depending almost exclu- 
sively for their attraction upon their illustrations 
are: "The Harrison Fisher Book" (Scribners), 
a collection of drawings in colors and black and 
white, with an introduction by James B. Car- 
rington ; " The Astonishing Tale of a Pen and 
Ink Puppet" (Scribners), "being some gentle 
sarcasm on the genteel art of illustrating," by 
Oliver Herford; and "The Teddyssey " (Life 
Publishing Company), a scries of good-natured 
thrusts at the President by Otho Gushing. 

A beautiful edition of " Hymns of the 
Marshes," by Sidney Lanier (Scribners), is il- 
lustrated from nature by Henry Troth, whose 
drawings are aptly fitted to the verse which they 
accompany. 

NATURE AND OUT-OF-DOOR BOOKS. 

So marked has been the recent increase of the 
output of American " nature books " that a 
change has taken place in the customs and 
methods of publishing houses. The publication 
of this^ class of books is no longer confined to 
the spring or summer months, but is distributed 
throughout the year. It happens that during 
the past autumn an unusually large number of 
books having to do with out-of-door life, both 
vegetable and animal, have been issued from the 
press. 

Two volumes in tlie Garden Library (Double- 



day, Page & Co.), entitled "Daffodils, Narcissus 
and How to Grow Them " and " Water- Lilies 
and How to Grow Them," give an abundance of 
helpful suggestions to the rapidly increasing 
number of men and women who take a personal 
interest in the growing of hardy plants. The 
writer of the daffodils book, A. M. Kirby, gives 
a chapter on flowering daffodils in winter and 
also on " water culture " in the house, containing 
practical sugestions for people who are inter- 
ested in the indoor cultivation of those bulbs. 
The authors of the book on water-lilies. Prof. 
Henry S. Conard and Mr. Henri Hus, have 
made a special study of aquatic plants, giving 
special attention to practical methods for build- 
ing effective water gardens. 

A popular guide to American mosses and 
lichens has been compiled by Nina L. Marshall, 
the author of "The Mushroom. Book " (Double- 
day, Page). Numerous cuts, interspersed 
throughout the text, together with the full-page 
plates, several of which are in color, afford a 
ready means of identfying many of our com- 
moner mosses and lichens, and the author adds 
useful information concerning the uses and 
methods of preserving these plants. 

A little book by James Buckham,- entitled 
"Afield with the Seasons" (Crowell), gives a 
series of interpretations of nature in its varying 
moods as related to the recurring changes in the 
seasons. 

All American bird-lovers will welcome a new 
book by that brilliant young naturalist, Mr. Wil- 
liam L. Finley, of Portland, Ore., whose photo- 
graphs of bird life as they have appeared in 
some of our leading illustrated magazines dur- • 
ing the past few years have commanded general 
interest. The studies forming the basis of the 
present volume, — " American Birds Photo- 
graphed and Studied from Life" (Scribners), — 
were largely made in the West, but representa- 
tive birds from other parts of the country are 
included in the survey, so that the work as a 
whole is national in its scope. Many of the 
photographs employed were made by Mr. Her- 
man T. Bohlman, with whom Mr. Finley has 
been closely associated in studying bird life for 
many years. To secure such photographs as 
these involves in itself a study of the subjects 
which goes far to insure the general accuracy 
of the observations recorded in the text. 

About ninety American birds are described in 
a volume entitled " Feathered Game of the 
Northeast," ^ by William H. Rich (Crowell). 
The author is a practical sportsman and has him- 
self hunted nearly every bird in New England 
which he describes in this book. 

The first volume in the " Animal Behavior 
Series" (Macmillan) is "The Dancing Mouse, 
A Study in Animal Behavior," by Dr. Robert 
M. Yerkes, instructor in comparative psychology 
in Harvard University. This book is as useful, 
perhaps, as a disclosure of the methods by which 
the behavior and intelligence may be studied as 
for what it contributes concerning the particular 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



113 



animal under investigation. To people who have 
not followed the recent developments in this 
field of science the book is a revelation. 

In a little book entitled " The Natural His- 
tory of the Ten Commandments" (Scribners) 
Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton develops his theory 
that the Commandments are not arbitrary laws 
given to man, but are fundamental laws of all 
highly developed animals. In an interesting way 
Mr. Thompson-Seton traces through the animal 
world the consequences following upon a breach 
of the ten great principles on which human so- 
ciety is founded. 

In a volume entitled " Great Golfers in the 
Making," edited by Henry Leach (Philadelphia: 
George W. Jacobs & Co.), a number of the most 
celebrated players of this ancient Scottish game 
give autobiographical accounts of their early 
progress, " with reflections on the morals of 
their experience." These men answer, each in 
his own way, the question : " How did you come 
to take up this game?" The several autobio- 
graphical chapters not only answer this ques- 
tion, but they indicate in large measure what are 
the secrets of the success of these great players. 

BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS. 

" Memorials of Thomas Davidson, the Wan- 
dering Scholar," collected and edited by William 
Knight (Boston: Ginn & Co.), will appeal to a 
great number of students in America and Eng- 
land, many of whom may never have had an op- 
portunity to know Professor Davidson person- 
ally, but had grown familiar with his writings 
as they appeared at frequent intervals in the 
magazines and reviews for many years. David- 
son, a Scotchman by birth, had been drawn to 
America by his desire to found a sort of fellow- 
ship of ethical propaganda and social reform. 
Before coming to this country, however, he had 
wandered over Europe, coming into contact with 
leading minds in the chief universities. All 
these experiences fitted him for the lectureship 
on the East Side of New York to which the 
later years of his life were devoted. The bib- 
liography printed in the appendix to this volume 
of memorials gives an amazing exhibit of the 
range of Davidson's work in the fields of specu- 
lative philosophy, ethics, and sociology. Profes- 
sor Davidson died in 1900, at the age of sixty. 

Owen Wister's " Seven Ages of Washington " 
(Macmillan) is a biography of a new and at- 
tractive type. Such a departure from the con- 
ventional lines might be hazardous in the case 
of most of the great men of American history, 
but in this instance we believe it to be fully justi- 
fied, since the great number of biographies al- 
ready in existence may be counted on to supply 
the^ average reader with the necessary ground- 
work of data. What Mr. Wister attempts to do 
is to paint a picture of Washington at successive 
stages in his career, beginning with his boyhood 
and ending with his retirement from the Presi- 
dency. It is safe to say that from Mr. Wister's 
250 pages the American boy or girl will come 
away with a clearer image of the Father of His 
Country than could possibly be formed by read- 
ing the ponderous volumes that made up the 
earlier " lives " of Washington. 

Two additional volumes in Col. Theodore A. 
Dodge's "Napoleon," in the_ Great Captains 
Series (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co.), are 
confined to the second half of Napoleon's mili- 




THOMAS DAVIDSON. 

tary life from the beginning of the Peninsular 
War to the end of the Russian campaign. It 
will be remembered that this history of Napo- 
leon, complete in four volumes, is only a por- 
tion of the author's " History of the Art of 
War," which was begun in 1890 with the life of 
Alexander. In this work political events are 
barely touched on, and personal matters are al- 
luded to only for the purpose of throwing light 
on Napoleon's career as a soldier. Although a 
part of the larger history, this military life of 
Napoleon is still of itself a complete work. 
Colonel Dodge's ability as a military writer is so 
well known as to require no extended comment 
in this place. 

Concerning the Hon. William Pitt Fessenden 
of Maine little is remembered to-day save that 
he was one of the seven Republican Senators 
who voted against the impeachment of President 
Johnson. His brief period of service as Secre- 
tary of the Treasury in the last year of the 
Civil War is almost forgotten. Yet the two vol- 
umes which make up tlie authorized " Life and 
Public Services of William Pitt Fessenden," by 
his son. General Francis Fessenden (Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co.), show that he was an 
important if not a conspicuous figure in the stir- 
ring legislative annals of the Civil War and Re-' 
construction epochs > in our political history. 
Senator Fessenden belonged to that group of 
committee workers, the members of which made 
up by assiduous attention to public duties what 
they lacked by wav of newspaper fame. It is 
said that even durinof his lifetime his personality 
was comparatively little known, and it is hardly 



114 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



strange that his memoirs remained unpublished 
until one of his sons, after much delving in 
public and private records, vi^as able to prepare 
this full and very satisfactory account. 

in view of the bicentennial anniversary of the 
discovery of the Hudson River it is eminently 
appropriate that a good popular account 'of the 
episode should be given wide circulation. To 
this end Mr. Edgar JMayhew Bacon, who has 
written acceptably before on the Hudson River, 
has prepared an interesting sketch of " Henry 
Hudson, His Times and His Voyages" (Put- 
nams). As the title indicates, this work in- 
cludes nruch more than an account of Hudson's 
exploration of the Rhine of America, although a 
large proportion of the space is naturally de- 
voted to that exploit. Mr. Bacon has njade care- 
ful studies of all of Hudson's voyages, and em- 




HON. WILLIAM I'lTT FESSENDEN. 

l)odies in this work a great deal of information 
that will be new to most American readers. 

"Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen " (Long- 
mans, Green & C(x) is the title given to a vol- 
ume of reminiscences by the late Gen. John 
b'aton. United States Commissioner of Educa- 
tion. These reminiscences have to do chiefly 
with the Civil War, having special reference to 
the work for the contrabands and freedmen of 
the Mississi])i)i Valley. An interesting biograph- 
ical sketch of Cieneral Eaton, prepared by Miss 
luhel Osgood Mason, serves as an introduction 
to the volume. 

The name of Franz Grillparzer is so little 
known to American lovers of the drama and 
literature that a real welcome will be accorded 
Mr. Gustav Pollak's study of this dramatist, 
which Dodd, Mead & Co. have just brought out 
under the title " Vv.vw/. (jrillpar/.er and the Aus- 
trian Drama." 'Ibis, if we mistake not, is the 
first biography and critical estimate of the fa- 
mous Viennese dramatist which has been pub- 




LAST VOYAGE OF HENRY HUDSON. 

(From painting in tlie Tate Gallery, London.) 
Frontispiece (reduced) from " Henry Hudson." 

lished in the English language. Mr, Pollak 
gives us the setting of the life and times which 
produced the plays covering almost all the Met- 
ternich regime. The volume is an outgrowth of 
a series of lectures on Austrian dramatists de- 
livered by the author at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. 

An intimate personal story of the life and 




FKANZ GklLLl'ARZEK. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



115 



career of " The Real Sir Richard Burton," by 
Walter Phelps Dodge, comes from the press of 
T. Fisher Unwin, of London, imported by the 
A. Wessels Company. This record of the life 
and achievements of the great explorer, whose 
name ranks with those of Livingstone and Stan- 
ley, is intended to supersede all other lives and 
biographies of the cultured Englishman whose 
translation of "The Arabian Nights" has given 
him also an imperishable fame in the literature 
of our English tongue. 

The autobiography and life-work of the " king 
of conjurers," Robert Houdin, recently brought 
out in a volume in French, entitled " Confi- 
dences d'un Prestidigiteur," has been trans- 
lated into English by Coates & Co., of Phila- 
delphia. This work, which has had a great run 
in Europe, is now presented for the first time 
to the Am.erican reading public. 

HISTORY. 

A noteworthy human document of the Russo- 
Japanese War is Tadayoshi Sakurai's " Human 
Bullets" (Houghton, Mifflin). It is the story 
of the experiences of a Japanese lieutenant, 
written with the spirit and verve of a man of 
twenty-five who sees the world with the glow 
and courage of his years. The book refers par- 
ticularly to the siege of Port Arthur, and has the 
fascination of a novel as well as the intimate ap- 
peal of a personal diary. There is an introduc- 
tion by Count Okuma. It is interesting to note 
that the translation from the Japanese into Eng- 
lish is by a Japanese, Masujiro Honda, the Eng- 





TADAYOSHI SAKURAI 



SIR RICHARD BURTON, RECITING HIS VERSION OF 
" THE ARABIAN NIGHTS," 

Frontispiece (reduced) from " The Real Sir Richard 
Burton." 

lish text, however, being edited by Alice Mabel 
Bacon. 

" Old Paths and Legends of the New England 
Border," by Katharine M. Abbott (Putnams), is 
a richly illustrated volume of local history and 
description which supplements the author's " Old 
Paths and Legends of New England." The 
present volume deals in the main with portions 
of Connecticut and old Deerfield, and the Berk- 
shire country of western Massachusetts. Some 
of the negatives made by well-known amateur 
photographers of the localities treated have been 
drawn upon for the half-tone illustrations, while 
a number of clever drawings supplement these 
photographs. 

In this field of local history no American In 
recent times has worked more diligently or to 
better purpose than President Lyon G. Tyler, of 
the ancient College of William and Mary, In Vir- 
ginia. President Tyler's *' Cradle of the Re- 
public " (Jamestown and James River) was the 
first serious attempt to tell of the topographical 
history of Jamestown and the James River. The 
discovery of new materials led the author to 
bring out a second edition last year, and this 
valuable work now has a companion volume in 
"Williamsburg, the Old Colonial Capital" 
(Richmond, Va. : Whittet & Shepperson). Wil- 
liamsburg succeeded Jamestown as the capital of 
Virginia, and it was here that the spirit of the 



116 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS 




"the THOMAS LEETE HOUSE OF 1/30." 

At Sachem's Head, Guilford, in 1907. Illustration 
(reduced) from " Old Paths and Legends of the 
Xew England Border." 

Old Dominion found expression in the resolu- 
tions against the Stamp Act, the resolution for 
the Committees of Correspondence, and other 
legislative decrees which preceded the Declara- 
tion of American independence. As the seat of 
William and Mary College it is associated with 
the lives of Jefferson, Marshall; Monroe, the 
Randolphs, and many other great Virginians. 
Old Williamsburg's fame extended far beyond 
State boundaries and became a national heritage. 
The Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic His- 
tory at the Johns Hopkins University in 1906 
were delivered by Dr. Jesse S. Reeves, assistant 
professor in political science in Dartmouth Col- 
lege. They are now brought out in book form 
under the title " American Diplomacy Under 
Tyler and Polk" (Baltimore: The Johns Hop- 
kins Press). The lecturer has discovered a 
thread of continuity in the foreign relations of 
the United States during the terms of these 
two so-called " accidental " Presidents. The 
dominating questions were those relating to 
boundary. These two administrations accom- 
plished the settlement of three boundary ques- 
tions : the . northeastern and northwestern 
through negotiation, and the southwestern by 
conquest. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 

Among the recently issued noteworthy books 
on those portions of the Old World which are 
always receiving pilgrims of art lovers, are : 
" Venice : The Golden Ages," a translation 
(McClurg) by Horatio F. Brown from the 
original Italian of Pompeo Molmenti ; "Greece 
and the ^gean Islands" (Houghton, Mifflin), 
by Philip ' vSanford Marden ; " 'IMie Cathedrals 
and Cloisters of Midland France" (Putnams), 
in two volumes, by lUise Whitlock Rose, with 
many illustrations from original i)hotographs by 
Vida Hunt Francis; "Italy, the Magic Land" 
(Little, Brown), by Lilian Whiting, copiously 
illustrated; "The Art of the Prado " (L. C. 
Page & Co.), an illustrated study of the con- 
tents of this famous gallery, by C. S. Rickctts ; 
"Browning's Italy" (Baker, Taylor & Co.), a 
study of Italian life and art in l>rowning, I)y 
Helen Archibald Clarke, and "Holland Sketches" 



(Scribners), very attractively illustrated in color 
by Edward Penfield. 

Mr. J. N. Leger, the Haitian minister to the 
United States, has completed his descriptive 
work, " Haiti, Her History and Her Detractors," 
which is published simultaneously in English and 
French by the Neale Publishing Company. Mr. 
Leger treats his country from every standpoint, 
— historical, social, and political. His expe- 
riences and reach of view entitle him to re- 
spectful attention. He makes no particular 
claim for his country, — simply asks a hearing. 
The first part of the books deals with the his- 
tory of the island from its discovery to the 
election of Gen. Nord Alexis as President. The 
second treats of the natural conditions of the 




Illustration (reduced) from " Holland Sketches." 

country, the customs and manners of the people, 
and. the political administration. 

A work of more than 300 large pages, in large 
type, with many illustrations, devoted to " Fiji 
and Its Possibilities," is a new contribution to 
the descriptive literature of the season. The 
book is written with sympathy and evidently 
from a background of extensive knowledge by 
Beatrice Grimshaw, and published by Doubleday, 
Page & Co. 

A thoroughly up-to-date description of Mex- 
ico, territorially, politically, racially, and econom- 
ically, is Mr. Ncvin O. Winter's " Mexico and 
Her People of To-day" (L. C. Page & Co.), il- 
lustrated from original pliotographs, Mr. Win- 
ter has endeavored to be expository rather than 
controversial, to make a complete and accurate 
presentation of his subject "rather than to ad- 
vance radical views concerning and harsh criti- 
cism of our next-door neighbors." The illustra- 
tions are particularly interesting and helpful in 
supporting and amplifying the text. 

It is no new claim that the liistory of mankind 
through all time has been largely governed by 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



117 



climatic conditions. A striking and new con- 
firmation of this theory, however, is to be found 
in Mr. Ellsworth Huntington's recently issued 
book, "The Pulse of Asia" (Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co.), which gives a very readable account of 
a year spent in daring scientific exploration in 
the deserts of Chinese Turkestan. Mr. Hun- 
tington's study of the primitive home of the 
Chantos convinces him that these are probably 
the nearest of all existing races to the primitive 
Aryan stock. 

In Dr. Charles A. Eastman's '' Old Indian 
Days" (McClure) we meet the traditional red- 








! :^ "^t 


W\\liKF 






















,'ii 










•4:. 






1 






f 


•** . -J^, 


A 


ipf 





J. N. LEGER. 

(Haitian Minister to ttie United States, author of 
"Haiti, Her History and Her Detractors.") 



DR. CHARLES A. EASTMAN. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISCUSSION,. 

In a little volume entitled " Some Neglected 
Aspects of War" (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.) 
are included essays by Capt. A. T. Mahan, Dr. 
Henry S. Pritchett, and Julian S. Corbett. Cap- 
tain Mahan treats of the moral and practical as- 
pects of war, war from the Christian standpoint, 
and the Hague Conference of 1907 and the ques- 
tion of immunity for belligerent merchant ship- 
ping; while ex-Presidont Pritchett writes of 
" The Power that Makes for Peace," and Julian 
S. Corbett, lecturer in history to the Naval War 



skin, all strong and superb, his career all grandly 
heroic and breathlessly adventurous ; but, on the 
other hand, we read authentic accounts of some 
curious national customs of the Sioux, rendered 
the more interesting through the author's com- 
paring these with latter-day Indian usages. The 
color plates, done by Groesbeck, adorning the 
volume, are brilliantly executed. 

Mr. Richard Harding Davis has made a very 
readable travel book out of his experiences in 
equatorial Africa, and the Scribners have 
brought the book out with the title " The Congo 
and Coasts of Africa." Mr. Davis saw a great 
many interesting things in the Congo region, 
some of them despite the assiduous efforts of 
the Belgian officials to prevent. The- volume is 
illustrated from photographs taken by the author. 

A series of first-hand views of London life on 
its pathetic side, with much of sociological in- 
terest, is brought out (McClure) under the title 
of " The Soul Market." The authoress is Olive 
Christian Malvcry (Mrs. Archibald Mackirdy). 




THE THREE-THOUSAND-YEAR-OLD HINDU TEMPLE 
IN THE VALE OF KASHMIR. 

Illustration (reduced) from " Tlie Pulse of Asia." 



118 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REyiBlVS. 




A PEON AND HIS WIFE. ' 

Illustration (rocUicecJ) from "Mexico and Her People 
To-day." 

Course, contributes a paper on " The Capture of 
Private Property at Sea." 

The lectures on sociahsm delivered in various 
parts of this country last year by W. H. Mal- 
lock, at the invitation and under the auspices of 
the National Civic Federation, have been slightly 
recast and published l)y ]\lr. Mallock in a book 
entitled " A Critical Exaifiination of Socialism " 
(Harpers). _ Mr. Mallock's attitude, while emi- 
nently fair, is in general that of a non-Socialist. 
Mis analytic and literary powers, as shown so 
l)rilliantly in his former well-known work, " The 
Reconstruction of Religious P)clicf," characterize 
also this little volume. In his preface he admits 
tlie justice and value of some of the criticisms 
made upon his lectures by American Socialists. 
These criticisms, however, he maintains, indicate 
how far " modern Socialists thus are unable, so 
far as fundamental principles are concerned, to 
controvert tlie main arguments brought forward 
in this volume." 

A new l)ook by the editor of the Review of 
Reviews is entitled " The Outlook for the Aver- 
age Man" (Macmillan). The appeal of this 
work is chiefly to those young men of our day 
who feel that in the changing social and eco- 
nomic conditions wliich must now be faced the 
uld landmarks .'ire lost or obscured, while even 
a moderate degree of success in life's battle 
accms to require a wholly new kind of equip- 



ment. Dr. Shaw has a message of encourage- 
ment for the " average man " of our time. Never 
before, in his view, was the young man's op- 
portunity greater than it is to-day ; but the best 
investment that any young man can make is in 
his own training for useful and effective work 
in the world. " If trained capacity has been a 
valuable asset in the past, it becomes the one 
indispensable asset under the new conditions." 
The five college addresses which make up this 
volume are all rich in suggestions derived from 
many years' observation and experience. 

ESSAYS AND GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Prof. George E. Woodberry's " Appreciation 
of Literature/' which comes to us from Baker 
& Taylor, consists of a series of- studies includ- 
ing Keats, Byron, Milton, Goldsmith, and Lamb, 
written in the author's happy, optimistic spirit. 
Professor Woodberry's other recent volume, 
"Great Writers" (McClure) considers Cer- 
vantes, Scott, Montaigne, Milton, and Shake- 
speare. Mr. Robert A. Willmott's " Pleasures 
of Literature" (Putnams), on the other hand, 
is less of a study of literary masters than a 
pleasantly written compendium of sound advice 
to those who would make writing a profession. 

Among other studies of literary masters re- 
cently 'issued we have received Pr. William 
Wharton Payne's " Greater English Poets of 
the Nineteenth Century" (Holt); Dr. Elmer 
James Bailey's study of " The Novels of George 
Meredith" (Scribners) ; and of course the in- 
evitable Shakespeare studies, including " Shake- 
speare as a Dramatic Thinker" (Macmillan), 
by Prof. Richard G. Moulton, and a recast old 
edition of the immortal bard's sonnets under 
the title " Shakespeare, England's Ulysses," be- 
ing the masque of " Love's Labor Won " drama- 
tized from the sonnets of 1609 by Latham Davis 
(press of M. N. Willey, Seaford, Del.) 

The mystical, seductive charm which charac- 
terizes all the writings of the late William 
Sharpe ("Fiona Macleod") fairly saturates 
the two little volumes just brought out by Duf- 
field : " Pharais, The Romance of the Isles " and 
" The Sin-Eater, and Other Tales." 

" Culture by Conversation" (Dodd, Mead), by 
Robert Waters, is a plea for the resurrection of 
the old lost art of conversing, which, says the 
author of this volume, is as superior to books 
as living men and women are to the post mor- 
tem stories of their lives. Another phase of the 
same subject, — treated, however, more technical- 
ly,— is Prof. M. V. O' Shea's " Linguistic De- 
velopment and Education" (Macmillan). 

In "Inquiries and Opinions" .(Scribners), 
Prof. Brander Matthews, who is one of the few 
living masters of the essay, discusses literary 
craftsmanship and the technique of the drama. 

Maurice Maeterlinck's " Intelligence of the 
Flowers " is ostensibly a nature book, but the 
delicate imagination and exquisite literary style 
of the author are so pervasive and charming 
throughout the book that it is really a work of 
literature. The English translation is by Alex- 
ander Teixeira de Mattos, and the publishers 
are Dodd, Mead. 

"Days Off" (Scribners), by Dr. Henry van 
Dyke, is a series of " digressions," as the genial 
Doctor puts it, meaning lioliday outings and par- 
ticularly fishing trips. These digressions are 



THE NEJV BOOKS. 



119 



written in the Doctor's own inimitable style, and 
the book, which is well illustrated, is dedicated 
to ex-President Cleveland, " whose years of 
great work as a statesman have been cheered by 
days of good play as a fisherman." 

The latest addition to the Little Journeys 
series of Elbert Hubbard is " Little Journeys to 
the Homes of Eminent Orators," including 
studies of Pericles, Mark Antony, Savonarola, 
Martin Luther, Burke, Pitt, Marat, Beecher, 
Ingersoll, Henry, King, and Phillips. 

RELIGIOUS AND THEOLOGICAL WORKS. 

The approach of Christmas is always heralded 
by the appearance of a number of books on 
religious or semi-religious topics, some of them 
exclusively ecclesiastical in subject, others of a 
more general philosophical or popular tone. 
Dr. William Trumbull's " Evolution and Re- 
ligion " (Grafton Press) is a study of the great 
religions of the world, ostensibly by a confirmed 
evolutionist in talks with his children ; Dr. 
James Orr's "Virgin Birth of Christ" (Scrib- 
ners) is a collection of lectures delivered during 
the past year to Bible teachers, aiming to re- 
establish faith in the miracle of Christ's incarna- 
tion ; "Christ and Buddha" (American Baptist 
Publication Society), by Dr. Josiah Nelson 
Cushing, is a reverend, comparative study of 
the sublime figures in the title. 

Among strictly ecclesiastical studies we have 
received Dr. Caspar Rene Gregory's " Canon 
and Text of the New Testament," in the Inter- 
national Theological Library now being issued 
by the Scribners, and Dr. John Scott Lidgett's 
" Spiritual Principle of the Atonement," being 
the fourth edition of this work, now brought 
out by Jennings & Graham. 

Of volumes of sermons and religio-philosophic 
studies there are many, including among the 
most noteworthy : " The Sinner and His 
Friends" (Funk & Wagnalls), by Louis Albert 
Banks; "A Ministry of Reconciliation" (Re- 
vell), by Dr. Charles F. Aked ; "The Empire 
of Love" (Revell), by W. J. Dawson; "Signs 
of God in the World" (Jennings & Graham), 
by John P. D. John ; " The Infinite AflFection " 
(Pilgrim Press), by Charles S. Macfarland ; 
"This Mystical Life of Ours" (Crowell), by 
Ralph Waldo Trine; and "The Temple of Vir- 
tue" (Houghton, Miffiin), by Paul Revere 
Frothingham. 

Two very welcome English versions of im- 
portant philosophical and religious works of 
European masters are : Nietzsche's " Beyond 
Good and Evil," a prelude to a philosophy of 
the future (Macmillan), the authorized trans- 
lation by Helen Zimmern, and the " Religion 
and Historic Faiths " of Dr. Otto Pfleiderer 
(University of Berlin), translated from the 
German by Dr. Daniel A. Huebsch and pub- 
lished by B. W. Huebsch. 

" The Representative Women of the Bible " 
(Jennings & Graham), by Dr. George Matheson, 
and " The Story of the Covenant and the Mys- 
tery of the Jew" (Broadway Publishing Com- 
pany), by J. L. ^ Woodbridge, are historical 
studies with religious subjects. 

We are glad to note, also, a new edition of 
Prof. Richard G. Moulton's " Modern Reader's 



Bible" (Macmillan). This excellent work has 
already been noticed in these pages. 

A few years ago the term " Christocentric 
theology " was much in use. Perhaps one rea- 
son why the phrase is less familiar now is that 
what was once a designation of a particular 
school is now used to characterize the whole 
trend of modern theological thinking. Prac- 
tically all theology nowadays is Christocentric. 
The word is no longer needed to distinguish a 
special phase of thought. The very titles of 
theological treatises indicate this tendency. 
" The Creed of Jesus," by Henry Sloane Coffin 
(Scribners); "The Christ That Is to Be," by 
the author of " Pro Christo et Ecclesia " (Mac- 
millan) ; " Epochs in the Life of Jesus," by 
Dr. A. T. Robertson (Scribners) are among 
the books of the past autumn. The Rev. R. J. 
Campbell's "New Theology Sermons" (Mac- 
millan) is another volume devoted very largely 
to an exposition of the power of Christ in the 
world as interpreted by modern scholarship. 

Turning from the doctrinal to the purely his- 
torical aspects of Christ's career on earth, an 
exceedingly interesting contribution has been 
made by Rabbi Aaron P. Drucker, of Austin, 
Texas, in a brochure entitled " The Trial of 
Jesus, from Jewish Sources" (New York: 
Bloch Publishing Company). Jewish traditions, 
as indicated by Rabbi Drucker, while they differ 
from the New Testament narratives, do not 
really oppose or contradict those narratives, but 
rather confirm and corroborate them. The 
learned Rabbi stoutly maintains that Jesus was 
not tried by a Jewish court, that the charges 
brought against him were un-Jewish, and that 
the Jewish people were betrayed by the Romans. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE. 

" The Conquest of Cancer " is the somewhat 
ambitious title of a work by Dr. C. W. Saleeby 
(New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company). 
This book is chiefly an account of the treat- 
ment of malignant growths by specific or can- 
crotoxic ferments. The author, of course, would 
not go so far as to maintain that the disease has 
been actually conquered, but holds that there is 
warrant for belief that the new mode of attack 
indicated and initiated by Dr. Beard "gives us 
the key to the enemy's position, and that so soon 
as this advantage is pressed home the conquest 
of cancer will be an accomplished fact." 

Prof. William Herbert Hobbs, of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, has written a book on the sub- 
ject of earthquakes (Appletons), which ought 
to suggest answers to many of the questions 
which have arisen since the California disaster 
of April, 1906. Professor Hobbs represents the 
field geologists, whose interests in the subject of 
earthquakes has only recently been aroused. In- 
deed, the study pi the subject, as Professor 
Hobbs points out in his preface, has been .largely 
left to mathematicians at the observatories, who 
compute the direction of earthquakes and fi.x the 
location of disturbed districts. But the geolo- 
gists are nowr awake to the fact that earthquakes 
are but manifestations of the forces which are 
active within the earth's crust, and so constitute 
a most important province within their fieJd of 
study. 



THE NOVELS OF THE SEASON. 



UNDOUBTEDLY the most important con- 
tribution to the season's romantic litera- 
ture, — literature, not books, — is offered by the lit- 
tle group of four ladies, two American and two 
English, with the discussion of whose latest pub- 
lications we may therefore appropriately begin : 

"The Fruit of the Tree," (Scribner), by Edith 
Wharton. 

"A Fountain Sealed" (Century), by Anne 
Douglas Sedgwick. 

"The Shuttle" (Stokes), by Frances Hodg- 
son Burnett. 

"The Helpmate" (Holt), by May Sinclair. 

Our arrangement is not intended as a classifi- 
cation by merit, but is merely to indicate the 
titles and authors, the first pair being the Ameri- 
cans. In general, it seems to us, the most ar- 
tistic ps3^chological analysis stands to the credit 
'^f the American couple, while as to the building 
of effective narration the English writers have 
reached the higher standard. But, altogether, 
these novels represent the best literary work 
that is being done by the women of the two 
countries to-day. 

FOUR LADY SATIRISTS. 

Some readers might possibly not assent to our 
view of considering Mrs. Burnett as a satirist, 
because she is also much of a melodramatist. 
Shakespeare, however, was both, one should re- 
member ; and so was Byron. " The Shuttle," 
indeed, shows the least acute sensibility in char- 
acter-drawing of the whole quartette. The vil- 
lainous villain of a British aristocrat who mar- 
ries an American girl for her money is villain- 
ously vile beyond all plausibility. An English- 
rnan of his class and bringing up might strike 
his wife in a moment of ungoverned fury, but 
would not systematically waylay and open her 
letters. He would no more do this than a young 
American lady of Rosalie Vanderpoel's education 
and refinement would use /bad grammar. Such 
and otlicr defects, however, by no means pre- 
clude the total impression of " The Shuttle " 
from remaining a powerful one, — emotionally, 
decidedly so. And Mrs. Burnett's inclusive. 





rUA.NCKS IIOU(;SON BURNETT. 



ANNE DOUGLAS SEDGWICK. 

sweeping aspect of both English and American 
life is wonderfully broad. Such an enlightened 
paragraph as this, in "The Shuttle," well de- 
serves remembrance : 

" In the United States of America, which have 
not yet acquired the serene sense of conserva- 
tive self-satisfaction and repose which centuries 
of age may bestow, the spirit of life itself is the 
aspiration for change. Ambition itself only 
means the insistence on change. Each day is to 
be better than yesterday, fuller of plans, of 
briskness, of initiative. Each to-day demands of 
to-morrow new men, new minds, new work. A 
to-day wliich has not launched new ships, ex- 
plored new countries, constructed new buildings, 
added stories to old ones, may consider itself a 
failure, unworthy even of being consigned to 
the limbo of respectable yesterdays. Such a 
country lives by leaps and bounds ! " 
• Mrs. P)urnett long lived in America, and Miss 
Sedgwick spends nnich time in England, so that 
" A Fountain Scaled " likewise partakes of dual 
nationality, as it were. Leaving aside Miss 
.Sedgwick's Britons, we find her representation 
of Imogen Upton the subtlest piece of satiric 
portraiture recently achieved on either side of 
the Atlantic. So fine is Miss Sedgwick's method 
that she begins by gaining one's sympathy and 
admiration for a girl su1)scquently revealed as a 
self-centered, phrase-making, pharasaical egoist. 



THE NO y ELS OF THE SEASON. 



121 



SrOISI'TREASORE; 



Eminently successful, too, must be declared her 
picture of that rhetorically and vapidly bom- 
bastic pseudo-philanthropist, Mr. Potts. If Mr. 
Potts lacks the succulence of Dickensonian char- 
acters, he is also free from their incredible gro- 
tesquery. Miss Sinclair's Anne Majendie, — see 
" The Helpmate," — shows less thoughtful con- 
ception and minute elaboration than Imogen Up- 
ton, but exhibits a satiric pungency sometimes 
bordering on farce. Mr. Majendie's helpmate, 
a devout woman, endued with all the intoler- 
ance of inexperience, appears as relentless as 
she is religious ; she typifies the sort of good, 
sincere, pious Christian dame so enormously 
good that she can't forgive her fellow-Chris- 
tians their sins. Miss Sinclair has few illusions 
left about life, and skins its hypocrisies to the 
bone. " The Help- 
mate " is a bril- 
liant book, full of 
verve and wit. 

"The Fruit of 
the Tree," again, 
embodies that 
sharp perception 
of human charac- 
ter which first 
brought Mrs. 
Wharton deserved 
recognition. But 
here, too, as with 
the other novels, 
the quality of sa- 
tire does not take 
monopolistic place, 
for satire is not 
an object in itself, 
and all these lady 
authors have writ- 
ten their books 
with a more or 
less strong concur- 
rent vein of pa- 
thos. Among the 

ladies Mrs. Burnett speaks with the most directly 
appealing pathos, while Mrs. Wharton's keener 
cleverness leaves you with your feelings funda- 
mentally unshaken. 

BYGONE DAYS. 

Marion Crawford, whose " Mr. Isaacs " and 
" Saracinesca " are still bought and talked of, — 
as his publishers, the Macmillans, will testify, — 
though without weight as a psychologist or 
philosopher, still maintains his standard as a 
very gifted story-teller. His latest book, in 
fact, is considerably richer as to incident, and 
more dramatic as to suspense, than his recent 
novels have been. The scene of "Arethusa" is 
laid in fourteenth-century Constantinople, and 
the plot turns upon an attempt to dethrone the 
usurper Andronicus, with the object of restor- 
ing his father Johannes. Arethusa, the beauti- 
ful heroine, is given out to be a slave, but there 
are surprises in store for those who have actually 
regarded her as such. 

Another historical novel, just published by the 
Harpers, takes one a hundred years further 
down the current of time and over a thousand 
miles westward on the map, to the charming 
region of old Poitou. Here readers of " Quen- 
tin Durward " will meet with their old friends 
King Louis XL and his quaint familiar, Olivier 




Cover design (reduced). 




" THE ARCH OF AUGUSTUS." 

Illustration (reduced) from " The Angels of Messer 
Ercole." 



le Daim ; and here does Master Frangois Villon 
disport himself not only as wit but as swords- 
man, not only as lyrist but as lover, so that he 
meets and defeats his most formidable foe in 
single combat, and at the last wins the lady of 
his heart's desire. Mr. J. H. McCarthy lends 
the amenities of his fluent, agreeable style to 
this narration, which has come out as " Needles 
and Pins." The Renaissance period, too, has 
furnished Mr. Dufiield with a romantic theme, 
though we are bound to say that "The Angels 
of Messer Ercole" (Stokes) interests chiefly 
through the admirable photogravures of Peru- 
gian scenes and of classic masterpieces by Ra- 
fael, Perugino, and others ; from the pictorial 
point of view, this little volume merits positive 
praise, while the author's part as undoubtedly 
deserves the reproach of lacking distinction. 
"Stolen Treasure" (Harper) suggests, without 
exposition, Howard Pyle's lively buccaneering 
episodes, occurring in the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, and illustrated by himself. 

Beyond these tales of various date and clime 
English history provides three others. Agnes 
and Egerton Castle in " My Merry Rockhurst " 
(Macmillan) depict Charles II.'s corrupt court 
by means of afi^airs of gallantry and intrigue. 
But the Egerton couple must share with Mau- 
rice Hewlett, who issues " The Stooping Lady " 
(Dodd, Mead), the imputation of "preciosity," 
that is to say a style artificially elaborate, con- 
sciously elegant, and affectedly recondite, — the 
manner of the bluestocking. Otherwise, Mr. 



122 



THE AMERICAN REFIEIV OF REFIEIVS. 




A. E. W. MASON. 
(Author of "The Broken Road.") 

Hewlett's capacities serve to make his novel 
about a certain lady who stooped to one be- 
neath her, — in the days of Cobbett's glory, — an 
entertaining one. Closer to our own day comes 
A. E. W. Mason, with " The Broken Road |'^ 
(Scribner), slightl> reminiscent of "Mr, Isaacs," 
in that Britain's political complication's with 
Afghanistan are brought into play, the ruler 
of that wild country, Shere AH, dominating in 
Mr. Mason's well-knit narrative. 

OLD AND NEW SPAIN. 

One of the steps in Spain's fore fated descent 
from influence and power in the western hem- 
isphere has just now been given graphic exhi- 
bition by a promising young scribe, Mr. Eugene 
Lyle, Jr., and it seems to us that our fittest com- 
ment upon his "Lone Star" (Doubleday, Page) 
would be to quote some lines at the end of the 
book, describing the horribly decisive battle of 
.San Jacinto, in the Texan war of 1836: 

" They were coming by leaps and bounds 
through the high grass, gripping their rifles, 
their ranks breaking, the whole long line be- 
coming irregular as* some outdistanced others, 
and over the center waved the flag of the Lone 
Star. The sun shone on the eager Texan faces, 
and reddened bare chests and arms. They sang 
and shouted as they came. Houston was gal- 
loping up and down in advance of the line. The 
line ducked to a volley of musketry from tlie 
barricade, and men flung rifles to their shoulders. 
Houston swung his arms wrath fully. I could 
hear his deep voice bellowing over the tumult, 
'Damn you, hold your fire!' Whips were crack- 
ing, horses plunging, and there was the swift 
rumbling of wheels. Tlicn, within eighty yards, 
our two cannon opened up, and bags of canister 
crashed through the barricade. . . . The af- 
fair was henceforth more a l)rawl than a battle, 



a free hand-to-hand fight, the most glorious 
brawl in all the warfare of all the world. All 
semblance of alignment was lost at the first con- 
tact. Officers, orders, tactics, were useless. 
Each Texan was a captain, as Houston had 
promised. Better than that, he was a man in a 
personal fray. When his rifle and pistols were 
emptied, he used them as clubs until they broke. 
Then he unsheathed his bowie knife, and sprayed 
the brains of the nearest fleeing Mexican ; then 
on to the next, with sweep after sweep of his 
l)ared arm. Over all the field every man of the 
700 was working in the same way, until the high 
grass was wet as after a shower. They wrenched 
cscopetas from Mexicans who still opposed them. 
They caught up loaded rifles stacked about the 
camp. Then they used their bowie knives again. 
Altogether it required just about fifteen minutes 
for the winning of Texas." 

The capture of Peru, Mr. C. B. Hudson, an- 
other young author, more of a scholar and less 
of a partisan than Mr, Lyle, sets forth with con- 
siderable eloquence in his appropriately named 
" Crimson Conquest " (McClurg). Pizarro's per- 
sonal rapacity, and the general spirit of wanton 
lust for riches, pervading the Spanish host, come 
out in fierce* colors in relation to the topic of 
Atahualpa's ransom; as to his half-brother's, 
Huasca's, manner of death, the author opines 
that the fact of his being drowned in the river 
Andamarca seems proof to support the theory 
that he perished while attempting to escape from 
captivity. 

Contemporaneous with the beginning of 
Spanish martial ascendency in the New World 
was the height of the Inquisitorial authority at 
home, and in so far as romantic writings can 
offer any sure ground for comparison. Rider 
Haggard's "Margaret" (Longmans) reveals the 




GENERAL SAM HOUSTON. 
(See "The Lone Star," by Eugene Lyle, Jr.) 



THE NOVELS OF THE SEASON. 



123 



same sort of blind ferocity employed in the name 
of religion as the " Cr'mson Conquest " and 
" The Lone Star " show it the agent of patriot- 
ism. Mr. Haggard, chiefly successful at thril- 
ling by speed and action, to the prejudice of the 
finer literary arts, again demonstrates his ex- 
pertness as a chronicler of exciting events. 
Movement also, in the most literal sense, char- 
acterizes the Williamsons' new automobile story, 
whose hero is a Spanish nobleman. Though 
under sentence of exile, he yet follows an Eng- 
lish girl all through the land of his birth, dis- 
guised as a chauffeur, eventually receiving King 
Alfonso XIII. 's spoken permission, — at a bull 
fight, — to wed the pleading, palpitating, pretty 
young person. Quite " up-to-date," this novel, 
"The Car of Destiny" (McClure) ! A still 




PIZARRO, CONQUEROR OF PERU. 
(See Mr. C. B. Hudson's " Crimson Conquest.") 

faster pace is set by "The Scarlet Car" (Scrib- 
ner), whose flashing ceurse Mr. Richard Hard- 
ing Davis however confines to the neighborhood 
of New" York. 

THE WILD WEST. 

Much more American than Spanish in signifi- 
cance is Mr. Janvier's symposium of New-Mexi- 
can episodes, the hero-villain of which, half 
parson, half cardsharper, fleeces unwily strang- 
ers with the aid of a disreputable wench nick- 
named the Sage Brush Hen. And we select this 
book by Mr. Janvier, " Santa Fe's Partner " 
(Harper) for first notice under our very in- 
clusive heading. The Wild West, because of 
the first sentence in that same book : 

" I've been around considerable in the West- 
ern country, — mostly some years back, — and I've 
seen quite a little, one way and another, of the 
folks livmg there, but I can't say I've often 




MARGARET APPEARED DESCENDING THE BROAD OAK 

stairs/' 
Frontispiece (reduced) from " Margaret." 



come up with them nature's noblemen, — all the 
time at it doing stunts in natural nobility,— the 
story-books make out is the chief population of 
them parts." 

For the chief fault of those who write on 
Western life' is not only to invent characters 
supernaturally noble, but to represent that life 
as far more romantic, exciting, picturesque, and 
lawless than it actually is or ever was. Bret 
Harte no doubt is largely responsible for the dis- 
semination of such false ideas as may be met 
with in p. Henry's "Heart of the West," pub- 
lished with fine taste as to external dress by the 
McClure Company. The same publishing house 
must be congratulated upon Wyeth's splendid 
pictures accompanying the text of the book by 
Stewart^ Edward White, namely "Arizona 
Nights " ; nor would it be fair to omit commen- 
dation of Russell's excellent marginal pen-and- 
mk drawings which bring so vividly before the 
mind's eye the intended impressions of B. M. 
Bower, whose "Lure of the Dim Trails" the 
Dillingham Company publishes in most attrac- 
tive form. 

One should by all means read 'the " Arizona 
Nights '[ and the " Lure of the Dim Trails " if 
one desires information about ranch life so far 
as concerns its workaday activities, like roping, 
branding, and rounding up cattle, or even some 
of its recreative sporting phases, like coyote 
hunting or card playing. Such matters in them- 



124 



THB AMERICAN RByiElV OF REylElVS. 



selves, one finds treated upon not merely instruc- other atmospheric tales. 

tively but entertainingly by both authors; only _ . . , „r , -r^ 

one must set aside the deeds of violence —all of Passmg from the Western to the Eastern 
a conventional type,— artificially interspersed States, from (supposed) turbulence to quietude, 
with the object of producing high temperature a typical New England village talc, entitled 
and rapid pulse-beat in the library. Mr. Jack "The Old Peabody Pew" (Houghton, Mifflin), 
London, again, forces too much criminality upon 
those denizens of the Arctic regions who people 
his "Love of Life" (Macmillan) ; he cannot 
learn, it seems, to dissociate power from brutal- 
ity, and, by the way, describes a certain execu- 
tion in " Love of Life " with a good deal less 
verisimilitude than Mr. Janvier gives to a lynch- 
ing scene in " Santa Fe's Partner," The mildly 
humorous tone of the book just named no doubt 
goes far nearer to the truth than the rollicking 
burlesque of that irresistible funmaker, O. 
Henry ; no book of the season will make you 
laugh more than " Heart of the West," and none 
contains characters more improbable. Perhaps 
the truest stories written are the dullest, — who 
knows ? 

The Harper Brothers issue two Western 
novels in addition to- Mr. Janvier's volume, 
" The Settler," by Herman Whitaker, and ■ 
" Money Magic," by Hamlin Garland. Mr. Gar- 
land lacks both the intellectual and artistic 
equipment to write impressively ; he does not, to 
begin with, appear to possess the vocabular re- 
sources to create illusion of the scenic mountain 
world, which he therefore ought to have es- 
chewed altogether. 




-^^^'^^i**^ 




^^^fe 



CALLED HIM OUT AND SHOT HIM IN THE 
.STOMACH." 

Frontispioce (reduced) from "Arizona Nights." 



Illustration (reduced) from "The Lure of the Dim 
Trails." 

comes from the pen of Mrs. Wiggin, Anne War- 
ner adding another success to her reputation as 
the biographer of Susan Clegg and her circle. 
In this new story, " Susan Clegg and a Man in 
the House" (Little, Brown), Susan takes a 
boarder, one Mr. Doxey, — not my doxy, nor 
your doxy; neither orthodoxy, nor heterodoxy, 
— but Elijah Doxey. Elijah, appearing on the 
scene with an old printing press, proceeds to the 
enlightenment of the village community by 
original departures in newspaper publication. A 
celebration of Independence Day forms one of 
the most diverting chapters of this hurnorous 
volume. A Southern romance is told, in his 
usual vein, — rather tepid, — by Mr. Eggleston ; 
"Love is the Sum of it AH" (Lothrop, Lee) 
concerns, as the name indicates, the tender pas- 
sion, or, more specifically, three distinct cases of 
that agreeable ailment. The locality is Virginia, 
and the period Reconstruction. 

Miss Myra Kelly's new East Side school 
stories, "Wards of Liberty" (McQure), have 
received tlie following epistolary encomium from 
the President of the United States, one of the 
greediest of readers : 

" Mrs. Roosevelt and I and most of the chil- 
dren know your very amusing and very pathetic 
accounts of East Side school-children almost by 
heart, and I really think you must let me write 
and thank you for them. While I was Police 



THE NOVELS OF THE SEASON. 



125 



Commissioner I quite often went to the Houston 
Street public school and was immensely inter- 
ested and impressed by what I saw there. I 
thought there were a good many Miss Baileys 
there, and the work they were doing among 
their scholars (who were so largely of Russian- 
Jewish parentage, like the children you write 
of) was very much like what your Miss Bailey 
has done." 

Among this season's novels exhaling local 
European atmospheres we note Miss Dorothy 
Canfield's refreshing story descriptive of the 
fjords, " Gunhild," issuing from Henry Holt & 
Co.'s Twenty-third Street establishment, while 
from the Harper Brothers, downtown in Frank- 
lin Square, comes " Emerald and Ermine." This 
is a tale of Brittany, by the anonymous author 
of " The Martyrdom of an Empress," who also 
contributes a few pretty water-colors with her 
present offering. Gustav Frcnssen takes us to 
the North Sea coast once more ; " The Three 
Comrades" (Dana, Estcs) again exhibits Pastor 
Frenssen's peculiarly spasmodic, throbbing style/ 
expressive of highly intense feeling. 

But as examples of notably successful atmo- 
spheric authorship, we would point to two novels 
quite recently published, one by Doubleday, Page 
& Co., the second by Charles Scribner's Sons, 
and the only way we hope to secure just appre- 
ciation of the merits of these richly atmospheric 
writings is by quoting from eacli. The follow- 
ing we take from Miss Una Silberrad's Dutch 
tale " The Good Comrade " : 

" At last they got clear of the taller trees, and 
struggling in thickets of young poplars, and 
other sinewy things. The sand was firmer, but 
honeycombed with rabbit holes, and tangled with 
brambles, and the direction was still upwards, 
though the growth was so thick, and the ground 
so bad, that it was often necessary to go a long 
way round. But in time they were through this, 
too, and really out on the top. Here there was 
nothing but the Dunes, wide, curving land, that 
stretched away and away, a tableland of little 
hollows and hills, like some sea whose waves 
have been consolidated ; near at hand its colors 
were warm, if not vivid, but in the far distance 
it grew paler as the vegetation grew less and 
less, till, far away, almost beyond sight, it failed 
to grey helm grass, and then altogether ceased, 
leaving the sand bare. Behind lay the trees 
through which they had come, sloping down- 
wards in banks of cool shadows to the map-like 
land and the distant town below; away on right 




and left were other groups of trees, on sides of 
hills and in rounded hollows, looking small 
enough from here, but in reality woods of some 
size. Here there was nothing; but, above, a 
great blue sky, which seemed very close ; and, 
under foot, low-growing Dune roses and wild 
thyme which filled the warm, still air with its 




Cover design (reduced) from " The Old Peabody 
Pew." 



DOROTHY CANFIELD. 

matchless scent; nothing but these, and space, 
and sunshine, and silence." 

From " The Weavers," — in the second place, — 
Sir Gilbert Parker's engrossing romance about 
present day Egypt under British administration, 
we select this eloquently pictorial passage : 

"The bright, unclouded sun looked down on 
a smiling land, and in Cairo streets the din of 
the hammers, the voices of the boys driving 
heavily laden donkeys, the call of the camel- 
drivers leading their caravans into the great 
squares, the clang of the brasses of the sherbet- 
sellers, the song of the vender of sweetmeats, 
the drone of the merchant praising his wares, 
went on amid scenes of wealth and luxury, and 
the city glowed with color and streamed with 
light. Dark faces grinned over the steaming pot 
at the door of the cafes, idlers on the benches 
smolced hasheesh ; female street dancers bared 
their faces shamelessly to the men, and indolent 
musicians beat on their tiny drums, and sang 
national airs ; and the reciter gave his singsong 
tale from a bench above his fellows. Here, a 
devout Muslim, indifferent to the presence of 
strangers, turned his face to the East, touched his 
forehead to the ground, and said his prayers. 
There, hung to a tree by a deserted mosque near 
by the body of one who was with them all an 



126 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IElVS. 




Cover design (reduced) from '' Domestic Adventurers." 

hour before, and who had paid the penalty for 
some real or imaginary crime, while his fellows 
blessed Allah that the storm had passed them by." 
Oceania supplies a collection, by Louis Becke, 
of Australian bush life stories, which the Lip- 
pincotts bring out, — "The Settlers of Karossa 
Creek " ; and G. B. Lancaster revisits his special 
place, the New Zealand sheep country, in " The 
Tracks We Tread" (Doubleday, Page). 

DOMESTIC PROBLEMS. 

" I find it more difficult every day to keep a 
girl," laments a poor lady "in Miss Mary Cut- 
ting's new story book, " on account of Mr. 
Stryker [the lady's husband] ; there's always so 
much trouble about his meals. He has to have 
his breakfast at half past six, and some nights 
he doesn't get home for his dinner until nearly 
nine o'clock, and then, after it's kept hot in the 
oven for him for a couple of hours, he often 
hardly eats a thing. I tell him men have so 
little consideration, — they never think of how 
much care they make for you." 

It will probably surprise no one to learn that 
the title of Miss Cutting's volume is " The Su- 
burban Whirl" (McClure), nor that the servant 
question animates, — that's the word, — sundry 
pagen of the three books to which we call atten- 
tion as novelistic treatises on Domestic Prob- 
lems. The other two are Mrs. Daskam Ba- 
con's " Domestic Adventures " and Mr. Bigelow 
Paine's " From Van-Dweller to Commuter," re- 
f.pectively brought out by the Scribner and the 
Harper house. Mr. Paine describes the vicissi- 
tudes of a family who wrestled long and hard 
with boarding-house ma'ams (and hash), trucu- 
lent janitors of freezing flats, and other tyrants 
of metropolitan existence, — again, that's the 
word, — and who at last found peace and happi- 
ness in the suburbs, where tliey grew their own 
vegetal)les and the children had a jolly, healthy 
time tumbling about in the grass. In the course 
of Mrs. Daskam Bacon's tale a fire occurs, which 
leads to a declaration of love and the unexpected 
bliss of an unhoping spinster. A vein of phicid 
hunifjr and gentle sentiment runs through these 
three volumes, which discourse on highly prac- 
tical issues. 

MYSTERY AND ADVENTURE. 

Mr. William Dean Howells, the Dean of 
American Letters, as he is sometimes jocularly 
(and justly) called, has written a few stories 
dealing with abnormal psychic phenomena, sucii 



as temporary loss of memory, thought transfer- 
ence, and spiritualistic visions. These, collected 
in a volume by the Harper Brothers, and issued 
under the title of " Between the Dark and the 
Daylight," are too unimportant to affect Mr. 
Howells' reputation, but, like everything he 
writes, they please through the author's mature 
serenity and his delightful literary style. Un- 
luckily for Mr. G. S. Viereck, this very young 
author's first work of fiction, " The House of 
the Vampire" (Moffat, Yard) must be men- 
tioned under the same heading as Mr. Howells' 
book. It is immature, sketchy, and hysterical ; 
and it smacks slightly of Oscar Wilde's " Pic- 
ture of Dorian Gray." But the central char- 
acter is cleverly imagined, — a writer who has 
the power to abstract men's unspoken ideas from 
their brains, taking credit for them as his own. 
Another romance. Miss Rives' " Satan San- 
derson," conspicuous for very poor qualities, 
has to do with the marriage of a blind girl to a 
criminal. One of the chief episodes of the story 
is a game of cards for money, played on the 
communion table of a church, whose rector him- 
.self suggests the game and participates in it! 
The arrival of the rector's bishop upon this 
monstrously incredible scene ogives Miss Rives 
occasion for a ridiculous linguistic display well 
fitting such an invention. 

, Mr. A. B. Wenzell, the well-known illustrator, 
contributes several color plates to Miss Rives' 
text, printed by the Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
who likewise give out Octave Thanet's new 
novel, " The Lion's Share," dealing with the 
strange kidnapping of a boy to prevent his di- 
vulgence of a secret. Adventure and mystery 
combined agitate the pages of Mr. J. B. Ames' 
" Treasure of the Canyon " (Holt) and Maurice 
Leblanc's French detective stories, " The Ex- 
ploits of Arsene Lupin" (Harpers). The Scrib- 
ners issue two tomes about naval doings, — " The 
Crested Seas," by J. B. Connolly, and " Major 
Vigoureux," by Quiller Couch ; Joseph Conrad 
has to his credit " The Secret Agent " (Harpers). 





I'rontispiece (reduced) from " From Vau-Dvveller to 
Commuter." 



THE NOVELS OF THE SEASON. 



127 



Mr. Conrad's story of anarchist machinations 
in London must compel renewed applause of 
this admirable writer's large knowledge of life 
and character, philosophic intellectuality, elo- 
quent, trenchant verbal expression, active dra-. 
matic visualization. We say nothing of his faults, 
which, though sufficiently notable in the new 
book, cannot mar its pleasurable perusal for 
those who want excitement without having to 




that they were a tribe of smug, sleek, self- 
seeking Pharisees ; furthermore, he has never 
concerned himself particularly about the wel- 
fare of the most lowly and humble among his 
Christian brethren. But when he does come to 
this realization, John Gaunt speaks out, conse- 
quently incurring the wrath of his fat flock, and 
hnally going out into the highways and b3'ways, 
— according to his Master's bidding, — and estab- 
lishing a great, unselfish League of Universal 
Service, a new social force, that " League of 
Universal Service, whose emblem is the cross, 
whose motto is the union of all who love in the 
service of all who suffer." 

Now, we do not assert Dr. Dawson's novel 
to shine forth as a literary masterpiece ; far 
from this, we could point out bad flaws in treat- 
ment, technique, taste. But we do affirm that 
here before us lies a book inspiring and uplift- 
ing through its clean, direct sincerity, integrity, 
virility. Whether the reader be Christian, ag- 
nostic, or pagan, matters little. It is sufficient 
to be aware that there once lived on earth a 
Jew of sublimely noble character, called Christ, 
and that this man died for his convictions ; 
every one who has the soul to venerate such a 
man cannot but admire John Gaunt, who tried 
to follow that immortal exemplar. 

STORIES OF VARIED MOTIVE, 

Of literature essentially mirth-provoking, the 
present season offers less than the usual half- 



A. B. WENZELL. 

get it at the cost of surrendering high literary 
and artistic demands. 

A CONVINCING RELIGIOUS NOVEL. 

The Fleming H. Revell Company, of New 
York, having for many years made the pub- 
lication of religious novels somewhat of a spe- 
cial effort, to-day produces one which must be re- 
garded as somewhat of a general hit. For the ap- 
peal of Dr. W. J. Dawson's " Prophet in Baby- 
lon " is by no means limited to the religious 
sentiment alone ; his book will awaken a re- 
sponse in every heart open to humanitarian im- 
pulses, .and the burning fervor of John Gaunt, — 
the central character, — to live and spread the 
truth as it stands supremely revealed to him, 
will inflame every spirit susceptible to admira- 
tion of manly honesty. 

John Gaunt, the rector of a prosperous New 
York congregation, awakens to the fact that he 
has involuntarily retained their favor through 
never preaching to them such things. as might 
discomfort their unctuous repose. He has never Illustration (reduced) from " The Treasure of the 
told them what Christ would have told them, — Canyon." 




128 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OE RE^IElVS. 



year. We have the satisfaction, however, of re- 
cording a new little story by the world's greatest 
comic genius, in which humor and pathos are 
effectively commingled: Mark Twain's account 
of an equine career, related autobiographically 
by the " noble steed " himself, and called simply 
" A Horse's Tale," comes from the Harper 
Brothers. Some true pathos and some arti- 




ZONA GALE. 

ficial may be found in " Fraulein Schmidt and 
Mr. Anstruther," a volume of imaginary corre- 
spondence by the anonymous author of " Eliza- 
beth and Her German Garden," bearing the 
Scribner imprint. No such complex person as 
the said Fraulein ever dwelt upon this earth ; 
but, fortunately, besides her complexity (and 
her prolixity), she possessed a saving sense of 
humor, which renders the perusal of her nu- 
merous letters a fairly remunerative occupation. 
And since Fraulein Schmidt inhabited a small 
German provincial town, the seat of a univer- 
sity, she saw much to laugh at in the Philistines 
and pedants and pettifoggers there residing. 
Much to wonder at will be found in the Baron- 
ess Orczy's highly fanciful narration of events 
happening within "The Gates of Kamt " (Dodd, 
Mead), a city of ancient Egypt; and the Baron- 
ess seems to have quaffed at the inexhaustible 
fount of the "Arabian Nights," — taking a sip, 
now and then, at Rider Haggard. 

Professor Edward Steiner's novel, " The 
Mediator" CRevell), if without literary or art- 
istic importance, owns certain features which 
lend it sociological value. For it cannot but 
arouse thought on the great national problem of 
assimilating aliens into the American body 



politic. The hero is an earnest, aspiring young 
Polish Jew, who emigrates to New York, there 
encountering all manner of vicissitudes in his 
attempts to upraise his people. A vein of sin- 
cere religious feeling runs through this interest- 
ing book. 

That very much abused situation, the love and 
marriage of a man and woman ideally mated in 
every way save that of age, is made the text of 
a strong, well knit novel by E. F. Benson, which 
Doubleday, Page & Co. bring out under the title, 
" Sheaves." 

Agreeable love stories by Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps and Mary Wilkins Freeman come from 
the Harper press under the titles of " Walled 
In," — by a serious accident, namely, — and " The 
Fair Lavinia and Others," Anthony Hope, Gelett 
Burgess, and Bettina von Hutten also discoursing, 
in varied moods, on amatory topics ; their stories 
appearing under the imprints of the McClure 
Company, the Bobbs-Merrill Company, and 
Dodd, Mead & Co., with the appellations of 
" Helena's Path," " The Heart Line," and " The 
Halo." Miss Zona Gale invents an old match- 
making couple, — see " The Loves of Pelleas 
and Etarre " (Macmillan), — and Justus Miles 
Forman, in "A Stumbling Block" (Harpers), 
describes the career of a young author who 
marries the wrong woman, with consequences 
injurious to his work. For "Three Weeks" 
(Duffield), Elinor Glyn chooses a most unusual 
theme, treated with extreme frankness of opin- 

i o n and in a 
vigorous, virile 
style of writing. 
She attempts to 
show how a 
young man's soul 
was developed 
and ennobled 
through an illicit 
passion indulged 
with a very re- 
markable wom- 
an. Miss Ather- 
ton's " Ances- 
tors " (Harpers) 
tells ■ chiefly ^ of 
English social 
and political life, 
and Mrs. Wil- 
son Woodrow's 
" New Mission- 
er" (McClure) 
of Western 
America. "The 
Message "(Dana, 
Estes), by A. J. 
Dawson, treats 
of an imaginary 
invasion of holy 
England by the wicked Germans. Robert 
Llichcns lowers one's respect for his talents 
through his story of the Algerian desert, 
" Barbary Sheep" (Harpers); the standing 
of Eden Phil! potts and Thomas Nelson Page 
remaining unchanged by the publication of two 
volumes containing short stories, — " The Folk 
Afield" (Putnam) and "Under the Crust" 
(Scribner). 




Cover design (reduced), 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 
CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1908. 



Edmund Clarence Stedman Frontispiece 

The Progress of the W^orld — 

End of the Panic , 

How Panics Come and Go 

The Question of Remedies 

The Aldrich and Fowler Bills 

The Central Bank Idea 

Guaranteeing Deposits in Oklahoma 

Kansas to Follow Her Neighbor 

The Business Outlook v • • 

Railroad Finances 

A Proposed Tariff Commission 

Naval Questions 

The Seeking for Delegates. 

New York's Electric Tunnels. 

New York's Charter 

Unofficial Civic Work 

Governor Hughes and the Race Tracks 

Coal Mine Disasters 

Progress at Panama ; 

Cuba to Be Her Own Mistress Next Febru r 

The United States of Central America 

The Fleet in South American Waters 

Crisis in the Japanese Ministry 

Railroad Progress in China 

Paul Milyukov, a Constructive Statesman. .. 
The Genesis of the Russian Revolution. .... 

The Finances of Prussia 

The Prussian Suffrage Right 

How France Is Holding Her Own.. .... . . 

France's Financial Dominance 

British Politics ... 

The Condition of British Trade 

Liquor Legislation All Over the World. . . . 

Morocco, Abyssinia, and the Congo 

German, British, and Portuguese Africa. . . . 

Mme. Tetrazzini's Triumph 

Do Americans Reallv Love Good Music ?.. 



With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 



Record of Current Events 

With portraits. 



131 

131 
132 
133 
133 
134 
134 
135 
135 
137 
137 
138 
140 
140 
141 
142 
142 
143 
144 
146 
147 
148 
149 
149 
150 
151 
151 
152 
152 
153 
153 
153 
154 
154 
155 
155 

156 



Political Cartoons of the Month 161 

The Tobacco War in Kentucky 168 

By Martha McCulloch-Williams. 

America's Interest in Lord Kelvin. . . 171 

By J. F. Springer. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

The Awakening of the Alaskan 177 

By William Atherton Du Puy. 
With map and other illustrations. 

George Meredith at Eighty 183 

By G. W. Harris. 

With portrait. 



New^ Business Standards at W^ash- 
ington 190 

By C. H. Forbes-Lindsay. 

With portraits. 

Better Business Methods for Cities. 195 

By William H. Allen. 
With portraits and diagrams. 

Why Not a " Red Cross " for the 
Army of Industry ? 201 

By Arthur B. Reeve. 
With Illustrations. 

The New Anti- Vagrancy Campaign. 206 

By Frances Maule Bjorkman. 

How . Poughkeepsie Deals with 
Tramps .., 211 

China and the Language Question. . . 213 

By How^ard Swan. 

The Need of Law Reform in China. . 218 

By Charles Sumner Lobingier. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

The Mechanical Handling of the World's 

Stock of Gold 220 

In the Service of Uncle Sam 221 

The Bagdad Railway 222 

The Fighting Value of the French Army. . . . 223 
The Japanese, Canada, and South America. . 224 

Our Greatest Coal-Mine Disaster 225 

The Detroit River Tunnel 227 

The Russian Budge for 1908 229 

Curacao a Really Successful Tropical Colony. 230 
Swedish Experiments in Communal Ov/ner- 

ship and Co-operation 232 

The Temper of the American 234 

Servia's Economic Prosperity 236 

The Weakness of Germany's Colonial System. 237 
The Work of the "Polish Mother of Schools." 238 

Japan's First World's Fair 239 

Color Photography 240 

Is Our World to Be Destroyed by Comets ?.. 241 

What Mars Is Really Like : 242 

The Problem of the Roomer 243 

Curious Life Cycles 245 

Witb portraits and other illustrations. 

Leading Financial Articles — 

Experts Declare Their Confidence 246 

Making Money Work 247 

The Value of a Banker 249 

Signs of the Times 250 

The New Books 252 

With portraits. 



TERMS : $3.00 a year in advance ; 25 cents a number. Foreign postage $1.00 a year additional. Subscribers may 
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cents for single copies.) THE REVIEWOF REVIEWS CO., 13 Astor Place, New York City. 




t'^opy right. IWi, by I'irie MacUotiald, I'tur. of Men, New York. 

HDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN, THE BANKER-POET. 

(A unique figure in American commerce and letters was removed by the death, on Janu- 
ary 18, of Edmund Clarence Stedman, in his seventy-fifth year. Although a Ne\v Englander 
by birth and education, Mr. Stedman passed almost all of his life in New York City. Among 
his many single poems which have brought him fame, " The Diamond Wedding," " How Old 
John Brown Took Harper's Ferry," and " Pan in Wall Street " will be particularly remembered. 
His Victorian and American anthologies are too well and popularly known to need char- 
acterization here. Mr. Stedman did some noteworthy daily newspaper work during the Civil 
War, but at its close became interested in the financing of the first Pacific railroad. For more 
than thirty years he was a successful, respected member of the New York Stock Exchange.) 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 



Vol. XXXVII. 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY, 1908. 



No. 2 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



End 
of the 
Panic. 



The business conditions of the 
country have continued to hold 
first place as a topic of public dis- 
cussion. Panics are usually short-lived ; and 
the panic of November, 1907, was at an end 
by about the middle of January, 1908. Nat- 
urally, however, the panic produced a paraly- 
sis of industry; and paralysis is a disease from 
which recovery is only gradual and seldom 
rapid. A panic is due to psychological causes. 
The state of mind that produces it is one of 
extreme and all-prevailing fear. Speculative 
activities are also due to psychological causes, 
and the state of mind that attends buoyant 
r-peculation is one of great hope and con- 
fidence. Speculative conditions bring about a 
great number of unwarranted activities. They 
produce credulity. Almost every one is some- 
what infected by the notion of large and quick 
gains, and the promoters of all kinds of ven- 
tures flourish mightily. Speculative condi- 
tions also cause men to apply themselves with 
great energy to legitimate enterprises, and the 
development of the country goes forward at 
a splendid rate. Thus the resources of pro- 
ductive capital are overtaxed and exhausted, 
the fabric of credit is unduly extended, and a 
vast number of people suddenly discover, sim- 
ultaneously, that they cannot continue to 
borrow in unlimited sums. And then some 
of the enterprises which have depended solely 
for their success upon the continuance of 
speculative conditions are exposed as in a pre- 
carious plight, whereupon prudent men be- 
come a little anxious and begin to throw out 
hints of warning. 

„ o . The reaction finds a bank or trust 

How Panics . . 

Come company, here and there, that 

has been too freely financing the 

wrong sort of undertakings. Some of the 

insiders learn the truth and whisper to their 

friends. The withdrawal of deposits be- 



gins, and the rumors of adversity spread. 
Then comes the fright that brings about the 
" run " that the 'soundest of banks must al- 
ways dread and that few can withstand. 
Thus speculation, which means excessive con- 
fidence and activity, runs its course and brings 
about panic, which means excessive fear and 
inaction. The effect of panic, in the first in- 
stance, is to create antagonism between banks 
and their customers. The normal course of 
business requires confidence and co-operation 
between the whole business community and 
the banks. At the outset of a panic, how- 
ever, the banks seek to hoard currency to 
protect themselves against a run, and indi- 
viduals and business houses seek to recover 
and keep currency to guard themselves against 
the insecurity of the banks. This situation 
brought about the so-called money famine 
that swept across the United States in the 
last months of 1907. All sorts of expedients 
were resorted to ; and at last the money 




;S^^t4>y^_ 



MR. CARNEGIE IS VERY OPTIMISTIC. 

From the Inquirer (Philadelphia). 



Copyright, 1908, by The Review of Reviews Company. 



132 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 




SENATOR ALDRICH, OF RHODE ISLAND. 

(Whose bill for pmergoncy banknotes seems likely 
to become a law.) 

famine is at an end. Currency Is circulating 
freely again, and the New York banks, after 
January 15, reported that instead of a short- 
age of cash they were receiving more than 
they could make use of. The trouble was 
not due to the lack of a sufficient quantity of 
the paper and metallic means of exchange, but 
simply to the fact that there was a tempo- 
rary checking of the usual freedom of cir- 
culation. The consequence was that about 
100 cities in the United States found them- 
selves using clearing-house certificates issued 
by their associated local banks; and through- 
out the country a great variety of temporary 
expedients and devices were employed as a 
substitute for legal money. The banks of 
New York imported a great deal of gold 
from abroad, while the Government at Wash- 
ington did everything in its power to increase 
the supply of money and to help to restore 
confidence. One step taken by the Govern- 
ment was to deposit its treasury surplus in 
the banks In so far as possible. Another was 
to sell a new Issue of Panama Canal bonds 
with a view to using the proceeds to help the 
money market. Still another, and a more 
decisive and unusual expedient, was to an- 



nounce the issue of a short-time loan under 
powers conferred upon the Executive at the 
outbreak of the Spanish War. The maxi- 
mum amount of this loan was not Issued, 
and subsequent events Indicated that the step 
need not have been taken. But the effect of 
the announcement was very valuable at the 
moment, because It gave the country the feel- 
ing that In one way or another the Govern- 
ment was strong enough to support success- 
fully the effort of the banks and the business 
community to tide over the emergency and 
get money Into circulation again. 

ji^^ Now that the crisis Is passed, and 

Question of that the banks are paying deposl- 
tors ireely and are loanmg their 
assets In a normal way to their commercial 
patrons, the question of remedies has no fur- 
ther application to the Immediate exigency, 
but has reference rather to the prevention of 
future trouble. Several kinds of remedies 
are proposed, and these differ a good deal In 
principle. For many years past the bankers 
of the country have demanded a law which 
would give an automatic elasticity to the 
volume of currency. Many practical men 
are of opinion that a measure of this kind is 
all that we can secure In the near future. 
Their Ideas do not contemplate any funda- 
mental change in our present banking sys- 
tem. The present arrangement for Issuing 
banknotes on the basis of Government bonds 
deposited as security would remain unchanged 
unless in some matters of detail. In addition 
to this they ask for a plan under which the 









C0N6Rt5S 







THE DELUGE. 

From the World (New York). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD, 



133 



banks could quickly Issue temporary notes 
In times of emergency, under a heavy enough 
tax to compel their retirement as soon as 
the emergency should be at an end. There 
are others who believe that the great trouble 
lies In the Independence and virtual Isolation 
of thousands of banks, and that we need In 
this country a central bank of Issue. There 
are still others who believe that the greatest 
need lies In the direction of measures that 
win protect the solvency of banks by Increas- 
ing the security of depositors. They hold 
that If there were a Government guaranty 
of deposits the chief cause of currency panics 
would be forthwith removed. In times of 
panic, they remind us, depositors do not 
withdraw their money because they need It, 
but because they desire protection against 
ultimate loss. If deposits were guaranteed 
by the Government there would be no dan- 
ger of ultimate loss, and the motive which 
gives severity to most bank runs would cease 
to exist. 




The 



Of these three different lines of 
Aidnch remedial action, the only one that 

has been thoroughly discussed In 
this country Is that of a provision for elastic 
currency. A measure of this kind Is likely 
to be enacted at Washington by the present 
Congress either this year or next year. A 
bin Introduced by Senator Aldrlch has been 
undergoing modification In the Finance Com- 
mittee of the Senate. Chairman Fowler and 
his associates of the Banking Committee of 
the other house are also at work upon a cur- 
rency measure. The Fowler proposals are 
more comprehensive and scientific. The 
Aldrlch proposals, on the other hand, are 
along the line of analogies more familiar to 
the people of this country and therefore are 
more likely to be adopted. The Aldrlch bill 
permits the Issue of currency by the banks 
upon the deposit of State, county, munici- 
pal, and railroad bonds. The bill provides, 
of course, for the selection of safe bond Is- 
sues as distinguished from the less desirable 
securities. A tax at the rate of 6 per cent, 
per annum would operate to retire the emer- 
gency notes when the business of the country 
no longer needed them. The principle of the 
bill Is criticised, on the ground that it pro- 
vides an artificial market for bonds. Banks 
throughout the country are not accustomed 
to carry considerable investments of this sort. 
Many leading bankers of the country do not 
like the plan of banknotes based upon a de- 
posit of securities. 



Copyright. 1907, by Harris A Ewing;, VVasbiiigton. 

SENATOR HANSBROUGH, OF NORTH DAKOTA. 

(Who is the foremost champion in Congress in the 
plan of a central national bank of issue.) 



The 

Foniler 

Bill. 



The Fowder bill Is a sweeping 
and comprehensive measure for 
the creation of a banknote cur- 
rency secured by the guaranty of the Gov- 
ernment. Under this plan the Government 
Itself Is secured by a fund to be contributed 
by the banks, equal to '5 per cent, of the 
volume of circulation. Mr. Fowler's meas- 
ure would do away with the present bank- 
note currency based upon the deposit of 
Government bonds, and would also retire 
the outstanding greenbacks. There Is much 
else in this Fowler bill, which undertakes 
to provide a complete reform of the cur- 
rency system of the country. The trouble 
is that the country does not seem willing 
to have Its currency system reformed in a 
scientific way. 

jf^^ Senator Hansbrough, of North 
Central Bank Dakota, was prepared, when 
Congress assembled in Decem- 
ber, with a bill providing for a great central 
bank of issue. He, too, had a system for a 
thoroughgoing reform of the national cur- 
rency. But Mr. Hansbrough .now admits 
that there is no possible chance at present to 
make headway with his project. He is will- 
ing to accept the Aldrlch bill with certain 



134 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




HON. CHARLES N.- HASKELL. 
(Governor of Oklahoma.) 

modifications. If the Fowler bill had been 
much more simple and had merely proposed 
to supply an emergency currency resting 
upon the general business and assets of the 
banks and protected by a Government guar- 
anty and the deposit of an insurance fund at 
Washington, it would have stood a better 
chance of consideration at the present ses- 
sion. It is announced that President Roose- 
velt and the finance officers of the Adminis- 
tration will favor the Aldrich bill in a gen- 
eral way and that Speaker Cannon regards 
it as the only practical measure for the pres- 
ent session. 



Guaranteeing ^r.^ Bryan's support of the sug- 
Deposits in gestion to guarantee the deposits 

Ohlahon)a. • • 11111 • j 

m national banks has been wide- 
ly advertised, but the plan is not meeting 
with much favor at Washington. It has, 
however, been adopted by the new State of 
Oklahoma, as respects the deposits in banks 
organized \indcr the State laws. Depositors 
in national banks are also to be protected by 



the State in case of their compliance with the 
provisions of the law. Governor Haskell 
signed the bill on December 17, and the new 
law becomes operative on February 15. A 
depositors' guaranty fund is to be created by 
a levy against each bank of I per cent, of 
its average deposits. The operation of the 
law is placed in the hands of a State banking 
board. A State bank commissioner and his 
assistants are to make an examination twice 
a year of the condition of each bank. It is 
worth while to note the fact that a section 
of this new law forbids any active managing 
officer of any State bank to borrow money, 
either directly or indirectly, from the insti- 
tution with which he is connected. The law 
seems to have been carefully and ably 
drawn, and its working will be observed 
with much interest throughout the country. 



Kansas to 
Follow Her 
Neighbor, 



One of the effects of this action 
in Oklahoma was to produce an 
insistent demand for similar legis- 
lation in the adjoining State of Kansas. 
Governor*^ Hoch and other State oflficials 
warmly favored the innovation, and the Leg- 
islature was called in special session, meeting 
on Januarj^ 16. The general opinion pre- 
vailed that Kansas would not only undertake 
to guarantee bank deposits, but would legis- 




GOV. EDWARD W. HOCH, OF KANSAS. 
(Who has called the Legislature in special session 
to guarantee bank deposits, pass a two-cent rate 
bill, and provide for primary elections. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD. 



135 



late so promptly that it could also give effect 
to its law in February, with Oklahoma. 
Conservative hankers are naturally afraid 
that the guarantee of deposits by the State 
will lead the more reckless or inexperienced 
managers of banks to exceed the bounds of 
prudence in their efforts to get deposits. It 
is quite possible that Texas and some other 
of the Southwestern States may follow the 
example of Oklahoma and Kansas in the near 
future. Abstractly, strong arguments can be 
presented on both sides of the question. 
Practical experience will show^ which side of 
the case is the better and stronger. Besides 
the bank-deposit question Governor Hoch 
has asked the Legislature to pass a 2-cent 
fare bill and to do several other things. Kan- 
sas evidently is not willing to be outdone in 
radical measures of any kind by neighboring 
States. 



The 



The restoration of confidence in 
Business the banks, and the free circula- 
tion once more of the country's 
currency, have given a wholly different as- 
pect to the economic conditions from that 
which was prevalent in November and De- 
cember. The money stringency stopped the 
movement of wheat and corn and cotton from 
the farmers to the markets. It stopped the 
wheels of factories everywhere. It closed 
many mines, brought building operations to 
a standstill, and threw hundreds of thousands 
of men out of work. It crowded the steer- 
ages of east-bound steamers with scores of 
thousands of workmen who chose to return 
with their savings to their native lands until 
the demand for labor should call them back 
here again. But the country is fundamentally 
prosperous, and in most sections there is evi- 
dent a gradual resumption of activity and a 
great deal of confidence as respects the future. 
Quite apart from the transient currency panic, 
there has set in a widespread process of what 
is called liquidation. Loans have been called 
in and credits are undergoing readjustment 
upon a hard-times basis. There will be a 
good many business failures yet to come ; and 
for a year, perhaps two years, there will in 
many lines of business be a comparatively dull 
showing. It will be a period for the prac- 
tice of thrift and the homely economic vir- 
tues, in order that resources, both private 
and public, may be used for the best possible 
results. There will be a very sharp reduction 
in luxurious expenditure and a corresponding 
increase in the amount of new capital that 
can be devoted to business undertakings. 




Photograph by Davis A- Sanfonl. N Y. 

MR. THOMAS F. RYAN. 

(Whose recent reorganization of the Seaboard Air 
Line has resulted in a receivership for another so- 
called "Ryan" corporation.) 



Rail- 
road 
Finances. 



The most serious difficulty that 
looms up in the near future con- 
cerns the railroads. It is impos- 
sible to see where they are going to obtain 
money enough to go on with their necessary 
improvements. The era of combination- 
forming in railroads has been accompanied by 
reckless financiering and over-capitalization. 
Where the traffic demands of the country 
have increased lOO per cent, the railroad 
facilities have not increased more than 25 
per cent. In some mysterious way the pri- 
vate fortunes of the men who have managed 
to get themselves at the head of great rail- 
road enterprises have become enormous, while 
the railroad companies are not in a fortunate 
plight. When the investing public would 
no longer buy fresh bond issues, the railroads 
sold short-time notes at high rates of inter- 
est in order to provide themselves with equip- 
ment or to make necessary improvements. As 
those obligations begin to mature, the roads 
are in much perplexity as to the way to tide 
along. A difficulty of this kind has thrown 



136 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 



the Chicago Great Western system into a 
temporary receivership, and the Seaboard Air 
Line system has also gone into the hands of 
the courts. 'There were rumors last month 
that the Southern Railroad system might have 
to seek a receivership and undergo reorgan- 
ization, although this was denied in well- 
jiiflformed quarters. Several other roads are 
undoubtedly shaky in their financial posi- 
tion, and if the present shrinkage in earn- 
ings should be long protracted they would 
not be able to meet their maturing obliga- 
tions. It is not at all creditable to American 
railroad management that after a long period 
of unexampled prosperity the companies 
should disclose themselves as so near the 
bankruptcy line at the first approach of a 
business recession. 

Need for ^^ Capitalization had been kept 
Public small from the beginning, and 

Oversight. • v i u i 

earnmgs had been properly ap- 
plied to the maintenance and development of 
the lines, wt should have seen no such piling 
up of obligations as now hampers almost every 
mile of railway in the United States. The 
situation calls imperatively for governmental 
regulation of issues of stocks and bonds. The 
new legislation that the President called for 
in his message is greatly to be desired from 
all standpoints. Railroads now especially 
need supervision for the protection of the 
holders of their stocks and bonds. The In- 
terstate Commerce Commission makes a very 
favorable report upon the working of the 
amended rate law for the period of fifteen 
months during which it has been in opera- 
tion. The point of view of the Administra- 
tion and of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
missioners is by no means hostile to railroad 
prosperity. Amendments to existing laws as 
asked for by the Administration would en- 
hance the value of railroad investments. The 
railroads should be allowed, for example, to 
make reasonable agreements, particularly as 
regards the fixing and maintaining of rates. 
On the other hand, they should be prevented 
from speculative investment in the stocks of 
other companies, and should be held strictly 
to their duties as common carriers. 



The 



The report of the Interstate Com- 
Anthracite mcrce Commission deals at length 

Coal Roads. -^i i i • r i i • 

With the subject or the relation 
of railroads to the traflfic In coal and other 
commodities. The group of allied anthracite 
coal roads of Pennsylvania is facing a per- 
plexing problem. Under the recent Hepburn 



act, common carriers, after May I , must not 
transport from one State to another any com- 
modities in which they have a commercial 
interest. The anthracite roads are engaged 
in the business of mining, transporting, and 
selling coal, and their associated monopoly 
of the anthracite business is the chief factor 




HON. WILLIAM P. HEPBURN^ OF IOWA. 

(Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Committee 
of the House, whose name is connected with the law 
that baffles the coal roads of Pennsylvania.) 

in their prosperity. No one as yet has ex- 
plained how the Hepburn act is to be obeyed 
or enforced. It is hoped on behalf of the 
railroads that the act may be found uncon- 
stitutional. If the roads had not gone Into 
the coal business, but had acted strictly as 
common carriers, the consumers of coal would 
have received their supplies at much less than 
the present prices. By close combination the 
roads fix the total amount to be mined, ap- 
portion the quantities among themselves, and 
absolutely control wholesale and retail prices. 
The market values of the stocks and bonds 
of these roads rest upon the basis of artificial 
profits in the coal business, due to monopoly. 
So strongly Intrenched, however,' are the an- 
thracite roads In this position that It would 
probably take something more than the new 
Hepburn act to dislodge them. Too sudden 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



137 



a restoration of normal conditions, indeed, 
would deal a heavy blow at many innocent 
investors in the inflated issues of stocks and 
bonds of railroads and coal companies. It is 
a question of these innocent investors as 
against the people w^ho use coal in Philadel- 
phia, New York, and the region of anthracite 
consumption. 

. - . The tariff question has come be- 

A Proposed r r^ • c 

Tariff fore Congress m a new rorm. 

Commission, o ^ t> 'i u '^j i 

benator iJevendge has mtroduced 
a bill for the establishment of a tariff com- 
mission as a bureau in the Department of 
Commerce and Labor. Mr. Beveridge rec- 
ognizes the fact that Congress will revise the 
tariff in its own way when it takes the matter 
up, and that it W\\\ not relegate the subject 
to the kind of commission that has usually 
been proposed. 1 he commission suggested in 
this bill is of an entirely different sort. The 
Government already has in its employ a great 
many highly trained men capable of thorough 
statistical inquiry. The tariff revision that 
the country is beginning clearly to demand 
must be based upon economic and commercial 
facts. It must not be worked out by party 
politicians in conformity with traditional 
theories about free trade or protection. A 
commission of experts can supply Congress 
with statistical and informational data that 
ought now to be in process of collection as 
preliminary to the revision work that must be 
taken up within two years. 



The movement of the fleet along 
the coast of Latin-America has 
been followed with friendly in- 
terest bv the entire world. It has been at- 



Naval 
Ques- 
tions. 









so PAR SO GOOD. 

From the Inquirer (Philadelphia). 



Copyright, 1908. by Waldon Fawcett, Was/nnglon. 
ADMIRAL BROWNSON. 
(Who recently resigned from the Bureau of 
Navigation.) 

tended, moreover, by a great deal of discus- 
sion at home of naval questions and prob- 
lems. The chief question has to do with the 
further policy of naval enlargement, and, as 
our readers well know, we are of opinion 
that the President's view on this issue can be 
safely adopted. All elements of American 
public opinion are of peaceful inclination, 
and there is no country against which we 
have any grudge or grievance. At the pres- 
ent stage in the world's history a strong and 
efficient American navy will be an instru- 
ment for the maintenance of world peace. 
There are technical details concerning the 
navy that the ordinary citizen does not ex- 
pect to understand all about; Ti'orfexample, 
there has of late been drastic criticism of the 
architecture of our battleships. All that the 
average man knows is that our ships have 
sailed well and fought well when subjected 
to tests. If there have been mistakes they 
must of course be rectified. There has also 
been much criticism concerning the technical 
organization of the naval bureaus at Wash- 
ington. If a better organization can be 
brought about the attempt will doubtless be 
made. A great controversy within naval 
circles has turned upon the question whether 
a hospital ship should be commanded by a 
medical officer or bv a naval officer of the 



138 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^/EIVS. 




Copyright, 190(S,.Ij> WaUlcji law ecu, VV aslmii^tuii. 

CAPTAIN JOHN E. PILLSBURY. 

(Who succeeded Admiral Brownson as chief of the 
Bureau of Navigation.) 

line. The President became convinced that 
tor many reasons, — among them being the 
international rules of war regulating hospital 
ships, — it was best to have such a vessel con- 
sidered as a hospital and put in command of 
its chief surgeon, navigation being in charge 
of the sailing master. Admiral Brownson, 
who was acting as chief of the Bureau of 
Navigation, took the other view and resigned 
from his post rather than execute the Presi- 
dent's orders. The press of the country al- 
most unanimously supported the President in 
his contention. '^Ihere was, on the other 
hand, a good deal of fault found with the 
President for the severity of his strictures 



upon Admiral Brownson's resignation. 
There is some feeling at Washington and 
throughout the country that the bureaus 
manned by naval officers at Washington have 
been unduly powerful and arbitrary, and that 
a different organization more directly under 
the control of the Secretary of the Navy 
would have better results. 

,-. o , . The question of Presidential can- 

The Seeking , . , ^ , , , . , • . 

for didates has not declmed m mter- 
e ega es. ^^^^ q^ ^^^ contrary, it has be- 
come very concrete throughout the country, 
because in almost every State preliminary 
work has been going on for the holding of 
conventions and the choosing of delegates. 
The Taft movement, after the Secretary's 
return from his trip to the Philippines, began 
to show fresh and decided evidences of 
strength. The Secretary made several im- 
portant speeches, one of them in Boston and 
another in New York, which defined frankly, 
seriously, and with marked ability his views 
upon many public questions. The most in- 
teresting centers of political activity have 
been in Ohio and New York. In Ohio the 
State Republican Committee decided to 
choose delegates by primary elections. The 
method decided upon was opposed by the 
friends of Mr. Foraker, with the conse- 
quence of bringing about a very complicated 
situation. The friends of Mr. Taft were 
confident that they would sweep the State. 




SECRETARY TAFT'S FIRST I'l.ANK. 

From the Public Ledger (Philadelphia). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



139 




Copyright, 1908. by N. Lazarnick, N. Y. 

SECRETARY TAFT MAKING HIS GREAT SPEECH ON THE RELATIONS OF LABOR AND CAPITAL IN COOPER 

UNION^ NEW YORK^ JANUARY 10. 
(Mr. Charles Sprague Smith, who presided, is standing at the left of Secretary Taft.) 

In New York the Hughes movement has 
been steadily growing, but it was not able 
last month to secure the adoption of Hughes 
resolutions in the county committees at the 
metropolitan end of the State. The mem- 
bers of the old Odell machine and the anti- 
Roosevelt elements in general were working 
for Hughes, not so much for any enthusiasm 
they feel toward the Governor as for their 
own reinstatement. The real Hughes senti- 
ment in the State of New York, however, is 
a worthy and creditable one and does not owe 
much to the work of politicians. Mr. 
Hughes Is making an extremely good Gov- 
ernor, and is a man who would rise to the 
height of any responsibilities that might be 
placed upon him. He has done nothing as 
yet to project himself into the limelight as a 
Presidential candidate, and whether or not the 
New York delegation carries his banner to 
Chicago he will have done nothing to regret. 
Meanwhile a definite clearing up of the Ohio 
situation will mean a great deal to Mr. 
Taft's candidacy. Mr. Arthur I. Vorys, of 
that State, Is devoting all his attention to the 
Ohio situation, and It Is understood that Mr. 




TAFT VERSUS BRYAN. 

" 'Twixt optimist and pessimist 
The difference is- droll ; 

The optimist sees the doughnut, 
The pessimist the hole." 
From the Ledger (Tacoma.) 



140 



THE AMERICAN REl^IE]V OF REVIEWS. 




candidate In his own State; a brilliant and 
powerful Governor In the State of New 
York; a much-respected Pennsylvania candi- 
date in the person of Senator Knox ; a revived 
movement for Vice-President Fairbanks; 
vitality in the candidacy of Speaker Cannon, 
and serious intentions behind the efforts of 
Senator La FoUette's supporters. In the 
Democratic field, however, there Is no one 
really in sight except Mr. Bryan. 



New York' s 
Electric 
Tunnels. 



Copyright. 1908. by Waldoa Fawcett, Washington. 

MR. ARTHUR I. VORYS^ OF OHIO. 

(Who is in charge of Mr. Taft's political interests in 

his own State.) 

Frank H. Hitchcock, now First Assistant 
Postmaster-General, will retire from his pres- 
ent office In order to take charge of the Taft 
canvass In the East and South. President 
Roosevelt Is reported to have said that Mr. 
Taft would be nominated on the first ballot. 
By the first of April It will be possible to 
form a pretty accurate opinion as to the rela- 
tive strength of candidates. On the Demo- 
cratic side there continue to be sporadic 
efforts to find a way to break the Bryan 
ranks. The friends of Judge Gray, of Dela- 
ware, are steadily at work, and a boom has 
been started for Mr. Harmon, of Ohio, for- 
merly a member of President Cleveland's 
cabinet. Governor Johnson, of Minnesota, 
has his hopeful friends, and Gov. Hoke 
Smith, of Georgia, has been of late quite 
frequently mentioned. But up to the present 
time there are no Indications that Mr. Bryan 
will not have the unanimous support of the 
Denver convention. Certain conservative 
Democrats In New York have been trying 
to organize an anti-Bryan movement, but the 
weakness of all such efforts lies in their fail- 
ure to present a strong candidate of their 
own. Mr. Taft finds against him another 



The 5^ear 1908 will be notable 
among other things for the com- 
pletion of the first tunnel connect- 
ing New York City and Brooklyn, and even 
more notable for the opening of the first tun- 
nel connecting New York City with New 
Jersey. The first tunnel to Brooklyn goes by 
way of the Battery, which Is the extreme 
southern tip of Manhattan Island. Two 
other tunnels to Brooklyn will be opened in 
the near future, and a third Brooklyn bridge 
is progressing rapidly. Meanwhile, great Im- 
provements are at the point of completion for 
vastly Increasing the number of surface cars 
and elevated trains that can cross the bridges. 
Improved transit facilities will relieve the 
congestion of Manhattan Island, and add 
many hundreds of thousands to the already 
populous borough of Brooklyn. The comple- 
tion of the McAdoo tunnels under the Hud- 
son River Is to be signalized by opening them 
to the public this month. The terminal on the 
New York side Is surmounted by an enormous 
office building belonging to the company. A 
subway under Sixth Avenue is also in process 
of construction as a part of the same system. 
At present the only means of coming to New 
York from the West and South is by ferry- 
boats from Jersey City and Hoboken. 



New 
York's 
Charter. 



The preliminary report of the 
Charter Revision Commission for 
New York City has attracted less 
attention, either within or without the me- 
tropolis, than was to have been expected, con- 
sidering the magnitude of the Interests in- 
volved and the importance of the commis- 
sion's recommendations. The report Is first 
of all a plea for a greater measure of munici- 
pal home rule. The State Legislature, meet- 
ing every winter at Albany, has always made 
a practice of saddling on the city government 
huge expenditures, concerning which the tax- 
payers, who foot the bills, have not one word 
to say. The commission holds that the city's 
financial affairs should be Intrusted exclusive- 
ly to local officials, elected at regular Inter- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



141 



.=- \% 







New York to Brooklyn : " Here's to our better acquaintance." 
From the TIrrahl (New York.) 



vals. If the voters do not select trustworthy 
men for these offices they will have only 
themselves to blame. It is further recom- 
mended that the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment, composed of the Mayor, 
Comptroller, president of the Board of Al- 
dermen, and four members elected for the 
purpose, should be assisted by salaried ex- 
perts. A new central department of street 
control is proposed, and there are other rec- 
ommendations regarding the distribution of 
powers between city and borough officials. 

y^g The separate borough govern- 
Ahearn ments of the greater city have 

Case. ^- 1 • ^ ^U 

more practical importance than 
has commonly been supposed. The removal 
by Governor Hughes of Borough President 
John F. Ahearn of Manhattan Borough 
brought to public notice some of the powers 
intrusted to that official, whose area of ad- 
ministration has a population about equal to 
that of the whole city of Chicago. Formal 
charges of incompetence and inefficiency in 
the care of the streets had been preferred 
against President Ahearn in July last. Gov- 
ernor Hughes had conducted a full and care- 
ful investigation and had given Mr. Ahearn 
a hearing. On December 9 he ordered his 
removal. Despite the protest of Mayor Mc- 
Clellan, who took the ground that the re- 
moval was for the remainder of the term for 



which Mr. Ahearn had been elected and that 
he could not be reinstated during that term, 
the New York Board of Aldermen proceeded 
to elect Mr. Ahearn himself to the office 
made vacant by the Governor's action. The 
effrontery of this transaction, — which would 
be startling anywhere but in Tammany-rid- 
den New York, — may at least serve to reveal 
the need of charter provisions to safeguard 
the city against its own elected officials 
who prove unworthy of the trust reposed in 
them 



Unofficial 
Civic 
Work. 



After all the most encouraging 
thing in the New York municipal 
situation at present is the health- 
ful activity of unofficial civic organizations 
and individuals. The Ahearn charges were 
presented before the Governor by the City 
Club, the material on which they were based 
having been laboriously gathered by the 
Bureau of Municipal Research, an organiza- 
tion which co-operated helpfully with the 
Commissioners of Accounts in their investi- 
gations of borough finances. This same 
bureau has made for the use of the Charter 
Revision Commission a complete analj^sis of 
New York's municipal government. Charts 
were prepared showing the organization of 
each department as it actually exists, — not on 
paper merely, but in practice. The valuable 
aid rendered by the bureau to various city 



142 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 



departments in suggesting more effective sta- 
tistical methods cdnnot fall to bear fruit In 
greater administrative efficiency and economy. 
Best of all, the very fact that such an organ- 
ization Is known 4:0 be actually at work will 
act as a powerful moral deterrent with Tam- 
many place-holders of the Ahearn type. In 
this number of the Review of Reviews 
(page 195) we present an article by Secretary 
Allen defining the scope of the New York 
bureau and outlining by suggestion and illus- 
tration the possibilities of similar organiza- 
tions in other cities. The bureau's work is 
along similar lines to those so successfully fol- 
lowed by the Keep Commission in the im- 
provement of the federal service, which is de- 
scribed by Mr. Forbes-Lindsay in the article 
immediately preceding Mr. Allen's. 

While Governor Hughes, of New 
Hughes and MeYork, Is being talked about all 

Race Tracks. ^u ^ „ "kl^ 

over the country as a possible 
Presidential candidate, there is nothing in the 
conduct of his office to suggest any thought 
on his part of aspiring to any office beyond 
the Governorship of the Empire State. His 
annual message to the Legislature declared 
anew for the enactment of certain measures, 
notably ballot and primary reform, which had 
failed last year to win the favor of the poli- 
ticians, and urged reforms in State policy 
which are likely to encounter the opposition 
of many powerful Interests. The reform 
upon which Governor Hughes lays greatest 
stress is the abolition of race-track gambling, 
which has heretofore been tolerated In the 
State, notwithstanding the prohibition of bet- 
ting In poolrooms. ^Lhe county fairs have 
participated m the profits from this exemption 
and they have common interests with the out- 
and-out gamblers in securing Its continuance. 
Nevertheless, the Governor's argument for a 
consistent and indlscrimlnating enforcement 
of the State's constitutional provision against 
gambling Is based on the highest ethical con- 
siderations, and this fact must be recognized 
at Albany. The business community Is Inter- 
ested In the Governor's recommendations that 
the trust companies be brought under the re- 
strictions applied to other banking Institu- 
tions and that the powers of the State Super- 
intendent of Banks be Increased. 



velt's message for the creation of a national 
bureau of mines and to the preliminary re- 
port of the United States Geological Survey 
on the causes and prevention of such acci- 
dents. The greatest of these disasters, that 
at.Monongah, W. Va., has been graphically 
described by Mr. Paul Kellogg In a magazine 
article which is reviewed In our department 
of ** Leading Articles of the Month," on page 
225 of this number. These explosions, 
whether of fire-damp or coal-dust, or both, 




Nearly 800 deaths from coal-mine 
explosions In this country during 
the single month of December 
last gave a startling and unexpected empha- 
sis to the recommendation in President Roose- 



Coal- 

Mine 
Disa.it ;rs. 



GOVERNOrt HL'GHES DEVELOPS AMCIDEXTERITY. 

From tbe Evening Telegram (New York). 

were formerly of frequent occurrence in 
European coal mines, but protective legisla- 
tion in Belgium, Great Britain, Prussia, and 
France has resulted In a marked decrease in 
the number of deaths per 1000 miners, while 
in the United States the number of killed for 
each 1000 employed has increased from 2.67 
In 1895 to 3.40 in 1906. In the report of the 
Geological Survey it is stated that in no coun- 
try are the natural conditions so favorable for 
the safe extraction of coal as in the United 
States. It Is also shown that In those coun- 
tries where the dangers of mining have been 
greatly minimized during the past few years 
the governments have been active in main- 
taining testing bureaus for the study of ex- 
plosives, as well as in securing the strict en- 
forcement of restrictive measures. There Is 
encouragement for Americans in the fact that 
no European country has the services of abler 
experts on the subject of explosives than those 
who are now conducting investigations for 
our own Government, with a view to lessen- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD, 



143 



ing the penis to which our miners are ex- 
posed. The work of Dr. Charles E. Mun- 
roe and 'Mr. Clarence Hall points to the 
establishment of a government bureau on the 
lines suggested by President Roosevelt. 
Meanwhile, the intelligent co-operation of 
mine owners like President Jones, of the 
Pittsburg-Buffalo Coal Company, who is do- 
ing much to arouse both operators and min- 
ers to the dangers of disastrous explosions, 
will surely bring about improyed conditions. 
The possibilities of organized- " first-aid-to- 
the-injured " w^ork among miners are illus- 
trated in an article by Mr. Arthur Reeve on 
page 20 1 of this Review. 



Progress 

at 
Panama. 



Col. George W. Goethals, chief 
engineer and chairman of the 
Panama Canal Commission, 
stated last month to the Senate Committee 
on Interoceanic Canals that there were no 
insurmountable obstacles in the way of con- 
structing the canal from the engineering view- 





Copyright. 1907, by Clineilinst, Washington. 



COL. GEORGE W. GOETHALS, CHAIRMAN OF THE 
PANAMA COMMISSION. 



point, and that it would certainly be com- 
pleted by July I, 19 1 4. Colonel Goethals 
further stated that the cost would not ex- 
ceed $250,000,000. It will be remembered 
that the consulting board made an estimate 
far below this figure, but as Colonel Goethals 
pointed out to the Senate committee, that es- 
timate did not allow for the cost of sanita- 
tion or for the government of the Canal 
Zone. Sanitation alone is costing our Gov- 
ernment $2,000,000 a year, — a charge that 
will continue until the work is completed. It 
has been found that the consulting board 
made too low an estimate on the cost of the 
locks and on the amount of excavation re- 
quired. The Canal Commission made a rec- 
ommendation, which was indorsed by Sec- 
retary Taft and finally approved by President 
Roosevelt, that the width of the cnnal locks 
be increased from 100 to no feet iri order to 
meet requirements of the navy. Excavation 
in the Culebra Cut Is now going forward at 
the rate of i ,000,000 cubic yards a month. In 
the last two months of 1907 all records were 
3 broken for excavation. Secretary Taft has 
Copyright. 1908. by waidon Fawcett. N. y. expressed the Opinion that the canal laborer 

PROF. CHARLES E. MQNROE TESTING DYNAMITE IN js about 8o per Cent, better paid than the la- 
His INVESTIGATION OF MINE EXPLOSIONS. borer In like occupation m the United States. 



144 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEWS. 




Stereograph. Copyrighted, 1906, by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 

HON. CHARLES E. MAGOON, AMERICAN PROVISIONAL GOVERNOR OF CUBA. 
(Who has just .submitted a report indicating solid progress made in political and economic affairs In the 

Island during the year 1907.) 

Cubato Be Her^^^^^^ ^. ^^^ months an entire tropical island to our own country and people. 
Ne'^xt Februai'' ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ passed since the During that time we have twice withdrawn 
armed forces of the United States .our influence and control. For virtually all 
first landed in Cuba to express the will of the the ten years' period, however, it has been the 
American Government and the American peo- American people, seeking through their Gov- 
pie wfth regard to the future relations of this ernment at Washington, to whom the rest of 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



146 



the world, as well as the Cubans themselves, 
have looked as responsible for the actual se- 
curity of life and property and the future 
prosperity, political and economic, of the is- 
land. President Roosevelt has just an- 
nounced, in a letter replying to Secretary of 
War Taft's communication transmitting the 
report of Provisional Governor Magoon for 
1907, that, '' by or before February i, 1909, 
we shall have turned over the island to the 
President and Congress to be elected next De- 
cember by the people of Cuba." After that 
date the fate of Cuba will be in her own 
hands. Governor Magoon's report sets forth 
the generally prosperous condition of the is- 
land, and recounts the history of " interven- 
tion " with particular reference to the devel- 
opments of the past year. During this dec- 
ade that has passed since 1898 what have been 
the real fruits of American influence and di- 
rection in Cuba? A rapid summary of some 
of the more important of these will demon- 
strate the sincerity, disinterestedness, and effi- 
ciency of American '* intervention." 

o ■. .- ^ Cuba is moving forward politi- 

Sanitation and • ^^ i • i 

Good Roads cally, economically, and mdus- 
trially. There is no doubt of 
that. Under American direction and the 
stimulus of American assistance the work of 
improvement has progressed solidly. The 
idea of a $5,000,000 wagon road, conceived 
by General Wood, has been already applied, 
and the great road is steadily progressing 
toward completion. This thoroughfare will 
open up a great artery of wagon communica- 
tion by macadamized road, good in any 
weather, from one end of the island to the 
other. While from a military point of view 
this is a most highly important work, assur- 
ing the Havana government a military base 
of operations within forty miles of any point* 
of the island and always accessible by wagon 
train, its chief value will be to open up access 
to market for many thousands of square miles 
of fertile land at present of no agricultural 
value, because their products cannot be profit- 
ably carried to market. Of prime importance 
has been the nationalization of sanitation in 
Cuba. This has already resulted in actually 
stamping out the yellow-fever pest and in 
greatly reducing all the other '' mosquito dis- 
eases," a condition once before achieved dur- 
ing American intervention, but allowed to 
lapse. Making sanitation a national matter 
has also provided the machinery, funds, and 
supervision necessary to render this improved 
condition permanent. Hereafter the health 



of the Cuban people will be a matter of con- 
stant care on the part of the central govern- 
ment of the island. 



Revising the 



A very important result of our 
Hectorat stay in Cuba has been the revision 
" ""'' of the electoral law. In Cuba the 
electoral problem is a very grave one. Il- 
literacy and ignorance are very high, and the 
danger of a corrupt or vicious electorate cor- 
respondingly great. The educated Cuban is 
the equal of any enlightened individual on 
earth, but, unfortunately, he is in the small 
majority. Furthermore, of the educated 
classes of the island many persons are for- 
eigners, either Spaniards who have not yet 
renounced their allegiance to Spain, or for- 
eigners interested in the conduct of large busi- 
ness enterprises owned and controlled by for- 
eign capital. It is a great problem to deter- 
mine what function these people shall exercise 
in the government of Cuba. It is even a more 
serious one just how to limit the franchise to 
those really capable, of understanding the re- 
sponsibility of an elector. The poorer classes 
are just emerging from the conditions of the 
Middle Ages. Without books or newspapers 
in their homes, many of them unable to read 
at all, it is not difficult to see how large a 
proportion of this class is incapable of ful- 
filling or even understanding the duties and 
responsibilities that go with the ballot. These 
same people, however, fought for their free- 
dom, enduring untold hardships, in years of 
struggle with Spain, and they must be reck- 
oned with in any electoral law that may be 
adopted. A mixed commission, made up of 
Cubans and Americans, has been studying this 
problem for some time and has at last pro- 
duced what is believed to be an acceptable 
solution of it. Some future changes may be 
necessary, but this plan will no doubt offer 
the best s^^stem that can at present be devised, 
and one which is a vast improvement on the 
former system. 

o . ^. During her entire history Cuba 

Safeguarding % a c i r 

Personal has sunered rrom the cruel exac- 
'^ *' tions of an unjust criminal code, 
in most respects a survival of the most des- 
potic of monarchical systems and utterly un- 
suited to republican forms of government. 
To counterfeit the great seal of Spain is still 
treason in Cuba, and the old laws restricting 
the rights of person are still so illiberal that 
a man may be adjudged guilty of a grave 
crime if he kills another in the defense of his 
house, family, or person. The present Cuban 



146 



THBWif^Rf&AN RE^ElV OF REVIEWS 



law, — or the present-day Cuban Interpreta- 
tion of it, — was probably necessary in Span- 
ish times to protect the '* peninsular " against 
the '* insular." The common-law idea of self- 
defense, of personal rights, however, is more 
in keeping with our ow^n ideals and with our 
own system, to w^hich Cuba must necessarily 
approximate more and more as time goes on. 
Under American influence the Cuban crim- 
inal code is In process of revision, and It also, 
as well as the electoral system, will soon be 
brought Into harmony with American demo- 
cratic Ideas. This code revision, both In its 
Immediate effects and In Its educational value, 
may be classed as one of the greatest works 
being effected by the present provisional gov- 
ernment In Cuba. 

n -^ g Governor Magoon and his Amer- 
and lean and Cuban advisers have be- 

tant work of drainage and reclamation, com- 
parable with the reclamation of the arid lands 
In our own West, or with the drainage of the 
Pontine marshes in Italy. This enterprise Is 
still in the stage of engineering study. The 
engineer who is studying It, however, is Gen- 
eral Mario Menocal, an able engineer, and 
one of the most eminent and trusted of Cuba's 
public men. The administration moreover 
has allotted ample funds for the purpose. The 
direct object is to prevent the periodical In- 
undation of a large area of potentially fer- 
tile land lying partly in Matanzas and partly 




THK CMTKI) STATKS OF CKVTRAT< AMKUICA,— A GKRMAN 
VIICW. 

rui;siDKXT RoosKVKLT : " Yos, yos, in union there 
Is strength." 

From Kladtleradatsch (Berlin). 



In Santa Clara province. Many thousands of 
acres of good land can be thus reclaimed and 
made highly productive, and the health of two 
entire provinces very greatly Improved as a 
result of this work. Other reclamation work 
Is being done at different points on the island, 
and a good deal of money spent in relieving 
flood-sufferers of the inundated section in 
Matanzas province. 

Noteworthy Considerable noteworthy work of 
Municipal municipal health Improvement has 

/mprouements. i ^• \ ^ i t- 

been accomplished as a result of 
the appropriation of a fund of $80,000 made 
some years ago by the Palma government, and 
originally intended to relieve these Matanzas 
flood-sufferers. When the American provi- 
sional government came into control Gover- 
nor Lecuona, who had charge of the money, 
asked that a United States army officer be de- 
tailed to inspect the accounts, make recom- 
mendations for further allotments of this 
money, and supervise the execution of such 
works as might be authorized. As a direct 
result of this there has been inaugurated, in 
various cities of Matanzas province, many 
highly Important municipal Improvements. 
Streets have been macadamized, drainage pro- 
vided, water systems Installed, whole cities 
cleaned, and the health conditions of some ten 
or twelve towns very greatly improved. From 
time to time, as the reports indicated further 
allotments of money, it was given, and neces- 
sary improvements authorized. Recently the 
results of this work have been Inspected, and 
an allotment of $3,000,000 set aside for simi- 
lar works In all the larger towns In the Island. 
The small work of the past year In one prov- 
ince has not only served to improve the con- 
ditions of life In the towns of that province, 
but the attention of the general government 
has been so drav/n to the problems Involved 
that work Is now to be undertaken on a large 
scale, which will speedily result in extension 
of these benefits all over Cuba. 

The Agreement ^^^ recently Concluded agree- 
in ment between the Central Ameri- 

Central America ^ ^ ^u ^ ^* r 

can states upon the treaties or 
friendship and Intercourse, which, It Is gen- 
erally believed, will prevent future revolu- 
tions and dictatorships in those countries, has 
been commented upon very favorably by the 
press of the civilized world, — not, however, 
without some side remarks In the continental 
European press upon the alleged Interested 
motives of our own Government and people 
In assisting at the conference. The German 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



147 




DR. AFFONSO PENNA^ PRESIDENT OF BRAZIL. 

(Who in the name of his government has extended a 
warm welcome to the American fleet.) 

cartoon reproduced here illustrates this feel- 
ing in Europe. Noteworthy items of news 
in the dispatches from Central America and 
the Caribbean countries during the past few 
weeks have been the floating of the new 
$5,000,000 loan in England by the Salva- 
dorean Government, the virtual settlement 
of the serious cigarmakers' strike in Cuba, 
and the reported revolutionary outbreak 
against the Haitian Government by a force 
under Gen. Jean Juneau. 

The Fleet in ^^^ American naval force, un- 
South Amen- der command of Rear-Admiral 

can Waters. -17 1 • u -i 1 r tt 

Evans, which sailed irom Hamp- 
ton Roads on December i6, completed the 
first stage of its long journey on schedule 
time, w^ith safety and credit to our Govern- 
ment and our sailor-men. After halting at 
Trinidad on December 24, the fleet proceeded 
to Rio de Janiero, arriving at the Brazilian 
capital on January 12. Unusual honors were 
paid to our ships and their officers by the 
Brazilian Government and the Brazilian peo- 
ple, and the day of their arrival was made 
an occasion of national festivity. President 
Penna took the occasion to gracefully an- 
nounce a reduction of import duties on cer- 



tain American products, in accordance with 
the Brazilian tariff law passed in June, 1906. 
Soon after this issue of The Review of 
Reviews reaches its readers our fleet will be 
sailing northward on the west coast of South 
America, receiving and transmitting expres- 
sions of good will at the ports of Chile, Peru, 
Equador, and Colombia. It has been par- 
ticularly gratifying to Americans to receive 
the evidence of friendly feeling on the part of 
the great sister Republic of Brazil, a friendly 
feeling which is heartily reciprocated. The 
w^arships of America on this cruise, to quote 
the words of President Roosevelt in his re- 
ply to the Brazilian President's friendly greet- 
ing, *' exist for no other purpose than to pro- 
tect peace against possible aggression, justice 
against possible oppression. As between the 
United States and Brazil these ships are not 
men-of-war, but messengers of friendship and 
good will." 



Foolish 



To Americans who are unused to 
War Talk the delicate play of rumor, sus- 

Subsiding. • • j • ^i ^ i 

picion, and suggestion that char- 
acterize the diplomacy o^ the Old World, it 
has been surprising to read the reports in 
European journals of standing and influence 
concerning the possibility of war between 
these United States and Japan. Even the 
most sensational articles in our own yellow 
press have not begun to compare with the 
startling announcements appearing in the 
journals of the Continent, — of France, of 
Germany, and of Russia particularly, — not 
merely speculating upon the possibility, or 
even 'probability, of a war, but assuming its 
certainty and arguing as to its outcome. The 
gratifying change in the tenor of these ar- 
ticles, particularly in the French press dur- 
ing early January, while Rear-Admiral 
Evans' fleet was receiving the friendly greet- 
ings of the Brazilian capital, was largely due 
to the personal influence of the French Am- 
bassador, M. Jusserand, who vigorously and 
emphatically informed the Paris Foreign 
Office that such comments were creating false 
impressions in the United States. A milder 
tone has been noticeable in the Japanese press 
also, and our own daily newspapers have ap- 
parently come to a realizing sense of the fool- 
ishness and danger of publishing such articles 
as constantly appeared in their columns be- 
fore the sailing of our fleet. The possibility 
that the ships may even visit Japanese ports 
and return by way of Suez is a perfectly 
natural one and should not be Indicative of 
anything but friendliness to all the world. 



148 



THE AMERICAN REJ/IEW OE REVIEWS. 




BARON SHIBUSAWA_, THE J. PIERPONT MORGAN 
OF JAPAN." 

(One of Mio influential financiers of the empire, 
who is leading tlie opposition to the financial policies 
of the Saionji Ministry.) 

* 

Crisis in '^^^ problems confronting Japan 
</je Japanese in these first years of her actual 
'"IS ry entrance into the family of the 
great powers are as much industrial and 
commercial as those of all the western na- 
tions. With the opening of the Diet (on 
December 28 last) the Tokio government 
faced a campaign of difficult and delicate 
character to carry through its general eco- 
nomic and financial policies, and present 
some sort of justification to the country for 
its attitude on the emigration and Man- 
churian questions.. The drain put upon the 
h'mited resources of the Island Empire by 
the war with Russia, and the subsequent em- 
ployment of capital on a vast scale for the 
development of Japanese schemes of com- 
mercial expansion on the Asiatic mainland 
and \n her Pacific merchant marine, have 
taxed heavily the productive resources of the 
country. It was the presentation of the 
budget synopsis (on January 16) for the cur- 
rent and the next year that forced the resig- 
nation of two members of the cabinet and 
revealed the intensity of political feeling in 
the empire on the question of industrial and 
financial expansion. According to the budget, 
all available annual receipts for the next 
two years will fall below the Imperative 
expenditures by 40,000,000 yen (approxi- 
mately $20,000,000). The deficiency, it was 
proposed by the Minister of Finance, should 



be met by an increase in taxation, provision 
for which was to be submitted in a supple- 
mentary budget. The estimated cost of the 
war with Russia, — $940,000,000, — about 
half of which is held abroad, makes up a 
large proportion of the entire national debt 
at present. In addition, there is the eco- 
nomic and commercial ambition of the 
Japanese people in developing Korea and 
Manchuria and administering Formosa. 

^^ The reception accorded to these 

Unsatisfactory budget proposals forced the resig- 

" ^^ ' nation of Yoshiro Sakatani, Min- 
ister of Finance, and Isaburo Yamagata, 
Minister of Communications. Marquis 
Saionji, the Prime Minister, also tendered 
his resignation to the Emperor, who, how- 
ever, refused to accept it. The portfolios of 
the other ministers were turned over provi- 
sionally to the Ministers of Home Affairs 
and Justice. The audience granted by the 
Elmperor to ex-Premier Katsura immediately 
upon the resignation of the cabinet minis- 
ters is indicative of the trend of popular and 
governmental opinion in favor of a more 
moderate financial policy. Count Katsura, 
who was Premier during the war with Rus- 
sia, has never been in favor of the large and 
ambitious economic projects of the present 
ministry. Many of the most eminent finan- 
ciers and leading merchants of the country, 
including Viscount Shibusawa, have pointed 
out to the present ministry the dangerous 
magnitude of some of its financial enterprises, 
and it would appear that the solid strength 
of the Japanese masses is with them in their 
contention, particularly since these projects 
involve increased taxation and heavy ex- 
penditures for the army and navy. The per 
capita taxation in Japan ($31.50) is already 
very high for the productive capacity of the 
Japanese people. Some of the friends of 
the government are apparently determined 
to force the party in power to appeal to the 
country. All well-informed students of 
Japanese politics agree that the present situa- 
tion is due entirely to the financial problem. 
The immigration question is entirely apart. 
All the political groups in the empire believe 
that the question as it now exists with the 
United States and Canada can and will be 
settled amicably. There can be no doubt of 
the honest intention of the Tokio govern- 
ment to limit Japanese emigration to Ameri- 
can and Canadian ports. The path of ex- 
pansion for the empire lies eastward to Asia, 
not westward to America, 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



149 



... Although administrative and po- 
Progress litical reform throughout China 
in China. proceeds very slowly and with 
many interruptions, the consciousness of the 
Chinese commercial classes as to their eco- 
nomic rights and privileges is already full 
grown. This was made evident by the terms 
of the railway concession granted last month 
to an English and German company for the 
construction of a line, 700 miles long, from 
Tien Tsin to Ching Kiang. A line already 
runs from the latter point to Shanghai. By 
the terms of the agreement the loan advanced 
by the British and German capitalists is to be 
secured by imperial promise to pay, with a 
lien on the revenues of the provinces through 
which the line passes. The railroad itself is 
to be absolutely and forever free from any 
foreign influence or claim. Chinese admin- 
istration is to have full control and operation 
of the service, examination of the books of the 
company being the only concession made to 
the creditors. There are now nearly 4000 
miles of railway in operation in the Chinese 
Empire and more than 1600 miles under con- 
struction. It would seem that the deep- 
seated Chinese prejudice against the railway 
is in fair way to be removed. When this 
shall have happened and the important cities 
of the great Middle Kingdom shall be con- 
nected by railway lines the already existing 
system in Siberia will bring Chinese com- 
mercial products direct to Europe in scarcely 
a tenth of the time it formerly took. We 
recommend to our readers the articles on 
Chinese educational and legal reform which 
appear in this issue of the Review (pages 
213-218). 

The Chinese ^^^ progress of Japan's commer- 
and the mercial absorption of Manchuria 

Foreigner. , • u ^ j 

serves, as time goes by, to deepen 
the already deep-seated suspicion and animos- 
ity of the Chinese, who are bitter against the 
Japanese Government for the degree of Jap- 
anese ascendancy they perceive and for the 
further encroachments they suspect upon not 
only their sovereignty in the northern prov- 
inces, but their commercial prosperity in the 
heart of the empire itself. This anti-Japan- 
ese feeling in China is coming to be regarded 
as one of the most serious significant political 
signs of the times. Meanwhile, it is inter- 
esting to note that last month the Senate at 
Washington passed the joint resolution in- 
troduced by Senator Lodge embodying 
President Roosevelt's suggestion providing 
for the remission of more than half of the 



Chinese debt to the United States growing 
out of the Boxer uprising. The Chinese 
bond, now fixed at $24,000,000, is to be re- 
duced to $11,000,000. It is also of signifi- 
cance and more than passing interest to note 
that, at a recent government examination at 
Peking to test the ability of forty-two students 
who had been sent abroad for education, out 
of the only seven securing the doctor's degree 
five had been educated in America. 

, ^., , For Americans by far the most 

Paul MilyuHOV. . . •' . , 

a Constructive mterestmg development m the 

statesman, -i^ • -^ ^' j ' j.u ^ 

Russian situation during the past 
month was the visit to New York and Wash- 
ington of Prof. Paul Milyukov, who, it will 
be remembered, was the leader of the Con- 
stitutional Democrats in the first and third 
Dumas. Professor Milyukov came to this 
country for the express purpose of addressing 
a meeting of the Civic Forum of New York. 
He afterward took a short trip to Washing- 
ton, where he was informally received by 
prominent men of the Administration. He 
did not meet President Roosevelt, owing to 
the protest of the Russian Ambassador, 
Baron Rosen. Professor Milyukov is emi- 
nent as one of the few constructive Russian 
statesmen of the present period. His achieve- 
ments as leader of the moderate group in the 
first and third Dumas, his broadminded, 
statesmanlike editing (with the famous Dr. 
Hessen) of the Liberal newspaper, the Retell^ 
as well as the scholarly charm of his person- 
ality, and his excellent command of the spoken 
word in English, made his address (in New 
York on January 14) of peculiar interest and 
instructive value to all Americans who are 




PERPETUAL MOTION. 

The Americans kick the Japanese out of California, 
and the Japanese retaliate by kicking the Chinese 
out of Manchuria. 

From Shinkoron (Tokio). 



150 



THE AMERICAN REFIEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 




*-''i'.' r ..lit, ]'>U8. by Underwood & Underwood. N. Y. 
PROF. PAUL MILYUKOV. 

rrho omincnt Russian statesman and member of the 
Duma, who hag been visiting the United States.) 

interested In the progress of the modern- 
ization of Russia. The professor's address 
was a review of the entire history of the Rus- 
sian revolutionary movement durinj2; the past 
twenty-six months, the period following the 
issue of the famous manifesto of October, 
1905. The present situation, not only in the 
Duma, but in the country at large, he de- 



scribed as one of " unstable equilibrium." 
On the whole, he was pessimistic as to the 
immediate future of his fatherland. The 
campaign for constitutional government in 
Russia, he declared, has resolved itself into- 
a battle between classes, the end of which is 
not in sight. At present, in his opinion, " the 
court, and the nobility in particular, have 
become the leading forces in an openly avowed 
movement which is setting in for the restora- 
tion of autocracy." 

The Genesis '^^^ radical success, which was 
of the Russian put down with the bloody armed 

Revolution • ^- • iv /r 

msurrection m Moscow more 
than a year ago, and the agrarian insurrec- 
tion that followed, were the first stages in the 
revolution. Professor Milyukov asserts; the 
triumph of reaction is the third. The atti- 
tudes of the different political parties since 
the establishment of the first Duma he set 
forth in these words: 

The revolutionary movement aimed at a com- 
monwealth, while the reactionaries wanted to re- 
establish autocracy. The Constitutional Demo- 
cratic party decided to fight for a parliamentary 
rule under a constitutional monarch. The revo- 
lutionists wished to have a charter worked out 
by a constitutional convention and sanctioned 
by a victorious revolution. The reactionaries 
did not want any charter at all, or at the worst 
a consultative representation granted by the 
Czar. Our party proposed a charter worked out 
by the first representative assembly, subject to 
the approval of the Czar. 

y.. c * The Russian leader declared that 

The Future m 1 1 

of Russia his government has failed to keep 

,at Statie. • • j u • ^ J 

Its promises and has inaugurated 
and carried on a merciless warfare of repres- 
sion. *' The government did not grant any 
liberties," said he. 

Only those liberties were and are permitted 
which the government was and is powerless to 
forbid ; and such liberties are often used with- 
out any legal restraint, while a regular and law 
abiding practice of civil liberties is nearly always 
refused legal permission. Thus, under the new 
regime of national representation the executive 
power tried to remain what it had always been 
before, and it never thought of changing its for- 
mer methods of administration. And as long as; 
the present misrule lasts it is almost impossible 
for the legislative power to do its proper work. 

The entire social condition of the future 
Russia is now at stake, he continued. " What 
are the forces that try to hold It in check? " 
he asked, and here Is his answer: 

The alliance of the two decaying political 
powers [the court and the nobility] for their 
own self-defence cannot obstruct the royal his- 
torical road the nation is following. The child- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U^ORLD. 



151 



Ish explanation of the movement, as initiated 
and fostered by a foreign or anti-Russian in- 
trigue, cannot do away with its deeper causes. 
And the fooHsh idea that the peasants of our 
communes can be changed at once into private 
proprietors can cnly cause new ferment in our 
villages, honeycombed with poverty and famine 
as they are. In short, wherever we turn or look 
we only meet with new trouble to come, no- 
where with any hope for social conciliation or 
peace. 

The party of which Professor Milyukov 
Is the leader stands for Ideas more nearly 
those of Americans as to popular govern- 
ment than any other In the Russian Empire. 
Should peaceful means fall, he believes that a 
bloody revolution Is probable within two 
years. If full constitutionalism should be 
actually achieved In his time, he will un- 
doubtedly come Into his own as one of the 
most trusted leaders of the new era. 

^^ „ The German Imperial Chancel- 

The Finances ^ V* •• i • i 

of lor, Count von Bulow, is also 

Prussia. Minister-President of the Prus- 
sian Diet, — that Is, Prime Minister of the 
kingdom. In this latter capacity he has lately 
been confronted by problems of even greater 
difficulty than those which face him as Chan- 
cellor of the empire. Not only Is Prussia In 
need of funds to carry on the administration 
of her government ; she has also before her a 
serious political problem growing out of the 
long-delayed, sadly needed reform In her 
franchise laws. In the discussion of the royal 
budget (on January 14) Baron von Rheln- 
baben, the Minister of State and Finance, 
announced that, In view of a deficit In the 
budget of more than $100,000,000 a loan of 
at least $75,000,000 would be necessary. 
Railroad development, large Increases In the 
salaries of state officials, and the compulsory 
purchase of lands In Poland for settlement 
by German peasants are the chief needs for 
these new funds. 

The Prussian T^^ Qiiestion of reform in Prus- 
Suifrage sla's Suffrage system has been agl- 
'^ ' tated for more than a decade. As 
has been noted more than once in these pages, 
the Prussian voting right Is based almost ex- 
clusively upon a property qualification. There 
are three classes of electors, apportioned ac- 
cording to taxation valties In such a manner 
that, up to the present time, the laboring 
classes have not been able to elect a single 
representative to the Diet, although they have 
a number in the Imperial Parliament. The 
demonstrations In Berlin, early last month, to 
obtain direct manhood suffrage were engi- 



neered by the Socialists. After the rioters had 
been suppressed by the police. Prime Minister 
von Billow announced In the Diet that while 
the government recognizes the need for elec- 
toral reform these popular demonstrations 
would not hasten such reform In the slightest 




BARON VON RHEINBABEN,, PRUSSIAN MINISTER OF 
STATE AND FINANCE. 

(Whose budget has caused much heated discussion 
in the Diet.) 

degree. He declared It as the opinion of the 
government that manhood suffrage would not 
be for the good of the Prussian state. Many 
progressive Germans, however, Including the 
eminent political and economic writer, Dr. 
Theodor Barth, who has recently returned to 
Germany after studying our own political 
and economic methods, have publicly an- 
nounced that they will push to the end the 
campaign for direct manhood suffrage In 
Prussia. It Is Interesting to note In passing 
that the final outcome of the Moltke-Harden 
scandal trials, the signlfrcance of which was 
pointed out In this magazine last month, has 
been the conviction of Harden to four 
months' Imprisonment for having criminally 
libeled von Moltke. The latter, however, 
and the rest of the so-called " camarilla " 
appear to have been completely and perma- 
nently discredited. 



152 



WE AMERICAN R£l/IEW OF REJ/IEIVS. 



How France Military glory is no longer the 
Is Holding ambition and life object of the 
er wn. ^Ytnch people, as it was for nearly 
two centuries. It is becoming increasingly 
evadent that the progressive decrease in the 
army and navy establishments of the repub- 
lic, both in money spent and term of serv- 
ice for soldier and sailor, as well as the many 
evidences of administrative corruption and 
apparent inefficiency in both branches of the 
service, are not indications of biological de- 
cay in the French people. The French sol- 
dier and sailor are to-day capable of render- 
ing splendid accounts of themselves in war- 
fare. This is the deliberate judgment of keen 
German and British critics who have seen 
the French forces fighting in Morocco. A 
rather sensational editorial appeared some 
weeks ago in that usually sedate Parisian 
journal, the Temps, entitled '* The World 
Arms, France Disarms," in which was 
pointed out that for the year 1908 the re- 
public devotes a smaller per cent, of her 
budget by half to maintaining and develop- 
ing her fighting equipment than any other 
naval and military nation of the world. 



France's "^^ ^^ evident that in the interna- 
Financiai tional Competition as a fighting 



Dominance. 

This • 



nation France is losing her rank. 
is in all probability due to the 




THK HIIiI> (»K SCANDAL IN TIIIO MOLTKK-IIAUDEN CASR. 

ZRALors I'RiNCK BuLOW : " Don't you worry about 
It, my doar ; woMl soon cloan it up again." 
From Nehelspalter (Zurich). 



Frenchman's growing dislike for war, — 
perhaps the result of Socialistic propa- 
ganda, — and his increasing wealth. That it 
is not a loss of actual position is believed not 
only by French economists, but by those of 
other P^uropean nations, who point in support 
of their view to the increasing wealth and 
economic prosperity of the French people and 
their gradual assumption of the banking su- 
premacy of the world. The French are in- 
dividually the richest of peoples. Statistics 
recently compiled by the ministry of finance 
of the republic show that more than one-half 
the Frenchmen who die leave property be- 
hind, and at least a quarter of all the popu- 
lation of France over seventy years of age 
have enough to live upon without appeal to 
charity. Cases of family poverty are ex- 
tremely rare in France and instances of abso- 
lute want almost unknown. The famous sta- 
tistician, Bertillon, recently demonstrated by 
figures that of every four Frenchmen of fifty 
years of age three own something of a char- 
acter and sufficient value to be taxable by the 
government. If the tri-color no longer sym- 
bolizes a conquering military people, the 
franc has indeed become the symbol of the 
Frenchman's industry and the world-wide 
influence of his thrift. 

More State Aid 9^^^^ ^" Hne-wlth the strengthen- 
to Commerce ing of the industrial and financial 
position of the French Republic 
by the evolution of economic forces is the de- 
termination of the Paris government, at the 
suggestion of M. Pichon, Minister of For- 
eign Affairs, to reorganize in the direction 
of greater practical efficiency the political and 
commercial machinery of the republic's for- 
eign relations. According to a change an- 
nounced to go into effect the first of the pres- 
ent month (a special decree authorizing this 
was issued by the Parliament April 29 last), 
all the diplomatic and commercial affairs of 
the Foreign Office will be concentrated in 
one department. A Bureau of Communica- 
tions will be established to act as the distrib- 
uting office for information and news, with 
particular reference to the home and foreign 
press. This department, it is announced, will 
be under the management of M. Herbette, 
son of a former French Ambassador at Ber- 
lin, a man well fitted by native gifts and ex- 
perience to conduct a dignified, vigorous, and 
effective journalistic campaign of world scope. 
The French diplomatic and consular serv- 
ices are also to be slightly reorganized, and 
it is hoped that the new director, M. Georges 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



153 



Louis, will infuse new life ^nd vigor into the 
already well organized but somewhat per- 
functory commercial service of France resi- 
dent abroad. 



British 



The British Liberals are realiz- 
PoiMcs. ^"S the distance between promise 

and fulfilment. The difficulty of 
carrying out to a successful issue the impor- 
tant projects discussed in the campaign be- 
fore the last general election, and in the face 
of the opposition of the House of Lords and 
the general convervatism of the British peo- 
ple, has made the progress of the present ad- 
ministration much slower than its friends had 
hoped, or even its enemies expected. Each 
successive *' by " election goes against them, 
and it seems doubtful whether an appeal to 
the country would sustain the party. In do- 
mestic politics the questions of the tariff, labor 
legislation, and the ever-present Irish Home 
Rule, have been engrossing the attention of 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and his cab- 
inet. The serious illness of the Premier, 
at his advanced age (he will be seventy-two 
this year) has drawn sharp the issue of the 
future leadership of the Liberals, Specula- 
tion as to who is to succeed Sir Henry cen- 
ters around John Morley, author and Sec- 
retary of the Indian Office, who himself has 
lived the three score and ten years; Mr. Her- 
bert Asquith, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and Mr. Lloyd-George, president of the 
Board of Trade. Mr. George is one of the 
youngest men in the cabinet, and his chances 
for future leadership have been greatly in- 
creased by his consummate diplomatic skill 
in bringing to a successful issue the negotia- 
tions with the labor leaders during the recent 
threatened railroad strike. Mr. Winston 
Churchill, Under-Secretary for the Colonies, 
is also openly ambitious for the premiership. 

The Condition British business and finance, in 
of common with the commercial in- 

British Trade. . ^ ^ • r ^i 

terests and operations or the rest 
of the civilized world, have been affected to 
an unusual degree by the period of financial 
depression which has been experienced 
throughout the entire world. Some months 
ago the Bank of England raised its rate 
of discount to 7 per cent., the highest rate 
in many years. Even this attempt to check 
the outward flow of gold, however, was ap- 
parently unsuccessful. As financial condi- 
tions have gradually bettered during the 
past few weeks the bank has gradually re- 
duced its discount rate, until on January 




GENERAL D AMADE^ THE NEW FRENCH COMMANDER 
IN MOROCCO. 

(He is an example of the younger French fighting 
men who are opposed to the anti-militarist campaign 
of the Socialists.) 

16 it was only 5 per cent., the discount in 
the open market falling to 4^ per cent. The 
year just passed did not show an encourag- 
ing commercial record to Englishmen, al- 
though the foreign trade of the empire ac- 
tually exceeded record figures. American 
and German business conditions affect the 
British steel and textile trades, and the clos- 
ing of a number of factories has thrown out 
of emploj^ment many thousands of workmen. 

,. , , , Questions of domestic economic 

Liquor Legisla~ . r • ^ 

tion All Ouer mterest that are of particular 

the World. ^ 17 t u ^u 

concern to Englishmen are the 
old-age pension proposals of the Liberal gov- 
ernment and the liquor legislation which the 
administration has promised to bring aboi^t. 
The provisions of the licensing bill, under 
consideration by the Liberal government, 
have not been made public, but are said to 
mark an advance in legislation of this kind. 
It is worth while noting the progress made 
during the year just passed throughout the 
entire world in the matter of legal restric- 
tions upon the traffic in intoxicants. First, 
there was the imperial Chinese edict against 
opium: then the French Parliament made 
some thorough investigations into the effect 
of alcoholism upon the citizens of the re- 
public, and is now considering radical legis- 



154 



THE AMERICAN REl/lElV OF RE^tEiVS. 



lation on this subject. The Government of 
Roumania has just passed a stringent regula-. 
tion law, and severe legislation on the same 
subject has progressed through the Spanish 
Cortes. The advance made in prohibition 
legislation in the United States during the 
past two years has already been treated in 
a special article in these pages. 

From the four corners of the 

Morocco, . . , 

Abyssinia, and compass ou the contment or 
the Congo, ^fj-j^,^ comes the news of racial 

antagonism that is fast making the dark con- 
tinent the probable seat of the world strug- 
gle of the future. In Morocco the tribesmen 
have resumed their attacks on Europeans, and 
France finds her task in quieting the coun- 
try made very much more difficult by what 
now seems the certainty of a " Holy War " 
and the proclamation by the religious lead- 
ers of the deposition of the Sultan Abd-el- 
Aziz and the accession of his rival, Mulai 
Hafid, who announces that he will appeal to 
Turkey for aid against further European ag- 
gression. General Drude, who has been com- 
manding the French forces, has been replaced 
by a younger and more aggressive man, Gen- 
eral d'Amade, and it is reported that France 
and Spain have agreed perfectly upon a for- 
ward movement, with no dissent by Ger- 
many. The republic has now 7000 or 8000 
European troops in Morocco. The Italians 
have had another disastrous encounter with 
the Abyssinians. Late in December, it is re- 
ported, a raid by a large force of Abyssinians 
upon Italian military posts in Somaliland re- 
sulted in the capture of the town of Lugh 
and some Italian officers. King Menelik, 
however, has disavowed the attack and apolo- 
gized for it. The center of the continent is 
still the point of interest for the thousands of 
Americans and Europeans who believe that 
the Belgian King has abused his trust in the 
Congo. A formal statement issued by the 
Brussels government on January 10, upon the 
accession of the nevv Premier, M. Schollaert, 
denies that King Leopold has made any per- 
sonal profit from the exploitation of the 
Congo, and replies to other charges made 
against the Belgian monarch. 

German, British^'' German East Africa, Herr 
and Portuguese Y^trnhnr^^ the Colonial Minis- 
ter, reports much progress has 
been made in the way of economic develop- 
ment. A good many optimistic and cheerful 
observations have also been made by British 
Colonial Under-Secretary Mr. Churchill 




Photograph by Mishkin, N. Y. 



MADAM LUIS A TETRAZZINI. 

(The Italian soprano opera singer with the phenom- 
enal voice.) 

upon his return from his tour through the 
British colonies in South Africa. Britain, 
however, still has her troubles in the south of 
the continent. A revolt in Natal, under the 
leadership of the Zulu chief Dinizulu, has 
been brought to an end by the capture and 
trial of that chieftain, while an unsettled con- 
dition amounting to open revolt still exists in 
Swaziland. The Transvaal government, in 
the face of much excitement and opposition, 
is enforcing the provisions of the immigration 
restriction act requiring all Asiatics in that 
colony to register or be deported. This bears 
hard on the Hindus, who are themselves 
British subjects, as well as on the Chinese 
m the Transvaal. Between the German and 
the British possessions, in the Portuguese do- 
main of Angola on the west coast of the con- 
tinent also, there is a ferment over alleged 
atrocities against the natives by rapacious 
colonial officials. It should be noted also 
that a formal agreement between France and _ 
Liberia fixes the eastern boundary of the 
African republic, which had been in dispute 
for more than a quarter of a century. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE JVORLD. 



155 



^^ Not since the days of Nllsson, 

tetrazzini's Gerster, and Patti has there been, 
I'luf^p • -j^ ^i^g operatic annals of New 
York, such a reception accorded to a dra- 
matic singer as that given Madame Luisa 
Tetrazzini, the Italian soprano, upon her ap- 
pearance at the Manhattan Opera House on 
January 15 as Violetta in the opera " Tra- 
viata." It was not the first time that Madame 
Tetrazzini had appeared on an American 
musical stage. She has sung in San Fran- 
cisco and has been a favorite in Mexico and 
South America for a decade. The question 
was, would an audience in the American 
metropolis receive her as enthusiastically as 
she had been received by continental and Eng- 
lish houses? There is no doubt of the great- 
ness of Madame Tetrazzini's voice and the 
perfection of her acting. Indeed, the critics 
declare that it is in the combination of beau- 
tiful singing and the depth of dramatic feel- 
ing that the Italian singer's genius lies. Her 
voice Is not the most perfect that has been 
heard In New York, but the color of her 
high notes and the Intimate blending and 
mutual support of her musical and dramatic 
gifts have seldom If ever been equaled on any 
musical stage. 

Do Americans Apropos of the New York debut 

Really Loue of thls Italian Singer and the first 

production in New York of Char- 

pentler's " Louise," a musical masterpiece 



which has been receiving the homage of con- 
tinental and English audiences for nearly a 
decade, quite a host of self-deprecating Amer- 
ican critics have been repeating, In our daily 
and weekly press, the old, reiterated charge 
that Americans are not a music-understand- 
ing or a music-loving people. One of the 
most successful opera singers of the present 
season. Miss Mary Garden, herself an Amer- 
ican girl, who received her education and 
achieved her first triumphs abroad, and Is 
now charming New York audiences, con- 
tributes to a recent number of Everybody's 
Magazine a passionate wail on the " debase- 
ment " of music In America. She says: " Of 
the great modern school of music the Ameri- 
can public knows as yet scarcely anything, and 
it is to-day quite content and happy with the 
operas of Its grandmothers." Replying to 
this charge, Mr. W. J. Henderson, the emi- 
nent critic and author of books on music, de- 
clares that while we have as yet produced but 
little, we have the fresh and omnivorous appe- 
tite of youth and " a catholicity of judgment 
unparalleled in the world. . . . We 
have no national prejudices, no racial affec- 
tions." We have, however, " that ppenness 
of mind which Is one of the most striking and 
Invaluable characteristics of any attitude 
toward musical art." American music lovers 
who have heard what European vocal art has 
to offer will agree with Mr. Henderson's 
analysis. 




Photographs Copyrighted, 1908, by Waldo n Fawcett, Washington, 

Mehmed Ali Bey, Turkey. L. A. Coronulas, Greece. 



Luis Toledo, Guatemala. 
THREE NEW MINISTERS TO THE UNITED STATES. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS, 

{From Decemhcr 21, 1907, to January 20, 1908.) 



PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS. 

■ January 6. — Both branches reassemble after 
the holiday recess, but immediately adjourn on 
account of the death of Senator Mallory, of 
Florida. 

January 7. — In the Senate, Mr. Aldrich (Rep., 
R. I.) introduces an emergency currency bill 

In the House, Mr. Bennet (Rep., N. Y.) 

introduces a bill appropriating $550,000 for im- 
prov-ements at the Ellis Island immigrant re- 
ceiving station; Mr. Gill (Dem., Md.) intro- 
duces a resolution asking for all official papers 
bearing on the recent naval controversy. 

January 8. — The House considers a bill for 
revision and codification of the laws. 

January 9. — The Senate passes a bill to pro- 
tect harbor defenses and fortifications from ma- 
licious injury; Mr. Hale (Rep., Maine) intro- 
duces a naval personnel bill, the chief provision 
of which is that naval vessels shall be com- 
manded only by officers of the line.... The 
House devotes the session to the drawing of 
rooms for members in the new House office 
building. 

January 10. — The House resumes considera- 
tion of the bill for codification of the laws. 

January ii. — The House passes the resolution 
offered by Mr. Gill (Dem., Md.) calling for 
correspondence in connection with the naval 
controversy; Mr. Bennet (Rep., N. Y.) intro- 
duces a bill making ex-Presidents members at 
large of the House. 

January 15. — The Senate passes the joint reso- 
lution remitting to China about $13,000,000 of 
the Boxer indemnity; the resolution of Mr. Cul- 
berson (Dem., Tex.) calling on Secretary Cor- 
telyou for information as to Panama bond 
awards is adopted. . . .The House continues con- 
sideration of the bill for revision and codifica- 
tion of the criminal laws. 

January 16. — The Senate passes a bill ap- 
propriating $3,500,000 for a New York post- 
office building, and confirms the nomination of 
Regis L. Post as Governor of Porto Rico.... 
The House votes down all Democratic amend- 
ments to the Civil Code bill. 

January 20. — The House passes the bill pro- 
viding for a new immigrant station at Phila- 
delphia. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— AMERICAN. 

December 24. — Rcar-Admiral Brownson, U. 
S. N., resigns as chief of the Bureau of Navi- 
gation. 

December 25. — Governor Broward, of Flori- 
da, appoints William James Bryan (Dem.) 
United States Senator to succeed S. R. Mallory, 
deceased. . . .The Commissioners of Accounts of 
New York City charge the members of the 
Board of Water Supply with misconduct and 
incompetency. 

December 28. — President Roosevelt counter- 



mands the order for federal troops to leave 
Goldfield on condition that Governor Sparks 
within five days issues a call for an extra ses- 
sion of the Nevada Legislature. .. .The Repub- 
lican State Central Committee of Kansas in- 
dorses Secretary Taft for President, and calls 
a State convention for March 4 at Topeka. 

December 30. — Secretary Taft speaks at Bos- 
ton, upholding the position of the national Ad- 
ministration in relation to the recent financial 
stringency. .. .Governor Sparks, of Nevada, 
calls a special session of the State Legislature 
to meet on January 14. 

January i. — Judge Pritchard of the United 
States Court issues an injunction restraining the 
South Carolina Dispensary Board from dis- 
posing of funds.... The New York Legislature 
meets and organizes. 

January 2. — President Roosevelt appoints 
Capt. John E. Pillsbury chief of the Bureau of 
Navigation to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Rear-Admiral Brownson. .. .The 
supporters of Secretary Taft carry their point 
in the meeting of the Ohio Republican State 
Committee, which votes to call primaries on 
February 11 and the State convention on 
March 3. 

January 3. — Senator Foraker, of Ohio, refuses 
to be bound by the terms of the call issued by 
the Republican State Committee. 

January 4. — Secretary of the Navy Metcalf 
issues orders formally assigning Surgeon 
Charles F. Stokes to command of the hospital 
ship Relief. 

January 5. — Superintendent of Schools Chan- 
cellor, of the District of Columbia, is dismissed 
by the Board of Education for making alleged 
statements derogatory to officials. 

January 6. — United States Supreme Court de- 
clares the Employers' Liability law unconstitu- 
tional. . . .Admiral Brownson's letter of resigna- 
tion as chief of the Bureau of Navigation is 
made public b}'- President Roosevelt. 

January 7. — James H. Higgins (Dem.) is in- 
augurated Governor of Rhode Island for the 
second time. 

January 8. — The Republican State Committee 
of Oklahoma indorses Secretary Taft for Pres- 
ident. .. .Attorney-General Bonaparte orders 
suits to be brought against a num.ber of rail- 
roads charged with violating the Safety Ap- 
pliance law. 

January 9. — A decision of the District Court 
of Appeals at San Francisco wipes out the con- 
victions of Schmitz and Ruef....A letter is 
made public from Secretary Taft to the secre- 
tary of the Ohio Federation of Labor, giving 
Mr. Taft's views on the use and abuse of in- 
junctions. .. .The progressive faction of the Re- 
publican party in Iowa gains control of the 
State Central Committee. 

January 10. — Secretary Taft addresses the 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



157 




HON. WILLIAM JAMES BRYAN. 

(Appointed to fill the unexpired term of the late 
Senator Mallory, of Florida.) 



People's Institute of New York City in Cooper 
Union on the relations of labor and capital. 

January 15. — The Maryland Legislature elects 
John Walter Smith (Dem.) United States Sen- 
ator for the full term of six years, beginning 
March 4, 1909, and Senator William Pinkney 
Whyte (Dem.) to fill the unexpired term of 
the late Senator Gorman. 

January 16. — President Roosevelt approves 
the recommendation of the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission that the width of the Panama Canal 
locks be increased to no feet. ., .Senator For- 
aker, of Ohio, issues a reply to the same set of 
questions relating to the use and abuse of in- 
junctions that was recently answered by Secre- 
tary Taft. 

January 20. — The Pennsylvania Supreme 
Court declares the 2-cent railroad fare law un- 
constitutional. .. .Corporation Counsel Pendle- 
ton, of New York City, advises Mayor McClel- 
lan that the Ashokan Dam charges should be 
dropped. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT— FOREIGN. 

December 21. — The French Chamber of Dep- 
uties, by a vote of 354 to 177, passes the bill 
providing for the devolution of church property 
to the state. 

December 23. — The Shah of Persia accepts all 
the stipulations submitted by his cabinet and 
Parliament. 

December 24,— An edict is issued in Peking, 



China, warning the people to make no further 
demands, and authorizing the framing of a law 
for the regulation of political societies. 

December 25. — A decree is issued by the Por- 
tuguese Government fixing the elections for the 
Chamber of Deputies for April 5, 1908.... The 
Dutch cabinet resigns, owing to its defeat on the 
army estimates in the second chamber. .. .The 
trial begins in St. Petersburg of the 169 signa- 
tories of the Viborg manifesto, members of the 
Liberal and Labor parties in the first Russian 
Duma. 

December 26. — The Indian National Congress 
opens at Surat, but owing to the action of ex- 
tremists is suspended. 

December 28. — It is announced that Lord Cur- 
zon is a candidate for the vacancy created 
among the Irish representative peers by the 
death of Lord Kilmaine. . . .The Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment proclaims Panitza and Sandansky and 
their confederates to be brigands. .. .The Shah 
of Persia takes oath before Parliament to sup- 
port the Persian constitution. .. .The Emperor 
of Japan opens the Parliament. .. .The Russian 
Duma passes an appropriation of $7,500,000 for 
the relief of twelve provinces suffering from 
famine. .. .Bureaus of information regarding 
constitutional government in China are closed 
in Peking. 

December 30. — Signor Severino Casana is ap- 
pointed Italian Minister of War in place of Gen- 
eral Vigano, resigned. 

December 31. — One hundred and sixty-seven 
members of the first Russian Duma who signed 
the Viborg manifesto are sentenced to three 
months' imprisonment ; two of the accused per- 
sons are acquitted. 

January i. — The government of Manitoba 
purchases the Bell telephone system in the prov- 
ince for $3,300,000, payment to be made in 
forty-year 4 per cent, bonds.... An uprising of 
the Mosquito Indians against President Zelaya 
is reported from Nicaragua. 





1 


■1^» ^ 




1 

1^ 




*^ wHUH 










1 


1 




1 





Hon. Thomas F. Gore. Hon. Robert L. Owen. 
UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM OKLAHOMA. 



158 



THE AMERICAN REt/IElV OF RE^lEU^^. 




THE I.ATE CHARLES EMORY SMITH. 
(Postmaster-Genoral in the McKinley Cabinet.) 

January 2. — Nineteen Russians are arrested on 
a charge of conspiring to murder the Dowager 
Empress. .. .All the members of the Executive 
Committee of the Popular Socialist party in 
Russia are indicted on the charge of conspiracy 
to overthrow the government. 

January 3. — It is announced that M. Briand 
will take the post of Minister of Justice in the 
French cabinet, retaining the portfolio of Public 
Worship. 

January 4. — M. Doumergue, Minister of Com- 
merce in the French cabinet, is transferred to 
the ministr}'- of public instruction, and M. 
Cruppi becomes Minister of Commerce. .. .The 
Prussian Minister of Finance announces that 
bids will be asked for a loan of $75,000,000. .. . 
King Gustav of Sweden orders the abolishment 
of the pompous ceremonies with which the Par- 
liament has been opened. 

January 9. — M. Schollaert, recently appointed 
Minister of the Interior of Belgium, accepts in 
addition the post of Premier. 

January 11. — Mulai Hafid is proclaimed Sul- 
tan of Morocco, and a holy war is declared. 

January 14. — Marquis Saionji, the Japanese 
Premier, tenders his resignation, which the Em- 
peror refuses : the cabinet division over finances 
is settled by the elimination of the Minister of 
Finance and the Minister of Communication, 
their posts being taken by the ministers of Jus- 
tice and of the Interior, respectively. . . .The Ger- 
man Minister of the Interior says that a bill 
will be intrcKluced increasing the coinage of 
silver. 

January 16. — The formal opening of the first 
Swedish Parliament under the reign of King 



Gustav takes place at Stockholm. ., .A revolu- 
tionary movement against the Haitian Govern- 
ment is begun under the leadership of Jean 
Juneau, a former insurgent. 

January 17.— William O'Brien and Timothy 
Healy decide to rejoin the Irish Nationalist 
party under the leadership of John Redmond. 

January 18. — The British Liberals lose a seat 
in Parliament by the election of Capt. Morri- 
son-Bell, Unionist, for the Asburton division of 
Devon. .. .President Castro of Venezuela an- 
nuls the contract between the government and 
the Venezuelan salt monopoly, an English cor- 
poration. 

January 19. — The Progressive party of Japan 
adopts a platform attacking the cabinet for bad 
finance and weak diplomacy. 

, January 20. — The Haitian Government forces 
attack and recapture the town of St. Marc, the 
insurgents offering slight resistance. .. .Lord 
Curzon is elected a representative peer for 
Ireland. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

December 26. — The Governor of Trinidad en- 
tertains the officers of the American fleet of bat- 
tleships at Port of Spain. 

December 28. — The Emperor of Japan, in a 
speech opening Parliament, lays stress on the 
increasingly cordial relations with foreign pow- 
ers. .. .Natives of India refusing to register 
themselves are ordered to leave the Transvaal 
within forty-eight hours ; 5000 leave. 

December 31. — The Japanese Government re- 
plies to the suggestions offered by the United 
States relative to the future restriction of emi- 
gration. 

January 6. — The French Government author- 
izes the statement that it expects a peaceful set- 
tlement of the questions at issue between Japan 
and America and is the sincere friend of both 
countries. 

January 8. — It is announced that Japan has 
made proposals to China for the settlement of 
the dispute over telegraph lines. 

January 10. — The Belgian Government issues 
its reply to the Congo State commission. 

January 11. — Baron Takahira is informed by 
the Japanese Government of his appointment as 
Ambassador to the United States. .. .Represen- 
tatives-of nationalities suffering from oppression 
by the Sultan decide at a secret congress in 
Paris to unite to establish a constitutional re- 
gime in Turkey. 

January 12. — The American battleship fleet is 
warmly welcomed at Rio de Janeiro by the 
Brazilian Government and the municipal au- 
thorities. 

January 13. — President Penna of Brazil re- 
duces the tariff duties on a number of produc- 
tions of the United States in view of the favor 
extended to Brazilian coffee by this Government 
and to mark the visit of the American Heet. 

January 14. — The United States receives from 
Spain $570,000 in full payment of the principal 
of indemnity claims resulting from depredations 
of Spanish privateers upon. American commerce 
between the years 1819 and 1834. . . .The officers 
of the American fleet at Rio de Janeiro pay a 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



159 



visit to President Penna....A mission from 
Mulai Hafid arrives at Paris to inform the 
French Government that the so-called holy war 
in Morocco is not directed against foreigners 
and that the treaties made with Abd-el-Aziz will 
be respected. 

January i6. — The French troops under Gen. 
d'Amade defeat a large force of Moors near 
Settal, Morocco. 

January 17. — The diplomatic corps at Port au 
Prince, Haiti, protest against the expressed in- 
tention of the Haitian Government to shell the 
towns of Gonaives and St. Marc. .. .Japan's oc- 
cupation and annexation to Corea of the Chen- 
Tao district cause alarm in St. Petersburg. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. 

December 21. — Emperor Francis Joseph of 

Austria receives a popular welcome in Vienna 

on his first public appearance since his severe 
illness. 

December 23. — The funeral of Lord Kelvin 
takes place in Westminster Abbey (see page 
171). .. .Seven hundred survivors of the Indian 
mutiny are reviewed by Lord Roberts in Lon- 
don. .. .Thousands of strikers in the Chilean 
nitrate fields return to work.... The United 
States Supreme Court denies a petition of 
Messrs. Greene and Gaynor for a review of 
their conviction and sentence. .. .The Executive 
Committee of the Carnegie Hero Fund Com- 
mission votes $35,000 for the sufferers from the 
Mononga'^, W. Va., mine disaster. 

December 24. — It is officially announced in 
England that action against the Zulu chief Sil- 
wane is abandoned. .. .Business again ceases in 
Teheran and armed bands assemble in the pub- 
lic squares. 

December 25. — Christmas was observed in the 
American battleship fleet at Port of Spain....' 
The New England cotton spinners decide to 
reduce their production by 25 per cent. ; they 
control 80 per cent, of the spindles in New 
England. 

December 26. — Kurdish raiders surround Ur- 
umiah in Persian Armenia and complete anar- 
chy prevails there.... The Bureau of Insular 
Affairs at Washington buys for $3000 one- 
thousandth of a dram of radium to be used for 
experiments in the Philippines. .. .Admiral 
Dewey celebrates his seventieth birthday. 

December 27. — Dr. Sven Hedin announces 
that he has discovered in Tibet the true sources 
of the rivers Brahma Putra and Indus. 

December 30. — The coffin of T. C. Druce is 
opened in Highgate Cemetery, London, and is 
found to contain the remains of an elderly man 
... .A new pass into Alexandria harbor, thirty- 
five feet deep and 600 feet wide, is opened by 
Prince Aziz Hassan. .. .The Canadian Pacific 
Railroad directors decide to issue $23,336,000 
of new stock, to be offered to stockholders on a 
basis of 20 per cent, of their holdings. . . .School 
boards of the cities of Porto Rico adopt resolu- 
tions looking to a large extension of the system 
of instruction. 

January i. — The new law prohibiting the sale 
of alcoholic beverages goes into effect in 
Georgia. 

January 2. — Because of improved financial 



conditions in the United States and Germany 
the Bank of England lowers its rate of discount 

from 7 to 6 per cent Judge Pritchard, of the 

United States Circuit Court, appoints S. D. 
Warfield and R. L. Williaifis receivers for the 
Seaboard Air Line Railway. 

January 3.— Night riders make raids in the 
tobacco districts of Kentucky (see page 168) 
....The cotton-mill owners of Manchester, 
England, threaten a lockout of 200,000 em- 
ployees unless_ the strikers yield by January 
18. . . .Maximilien Harden is convicted in Ger- 
many of libeling Count Kuno von Moltke, and 
is sentenced to four months' imprisonment and 
to pay the costs of the present and former trials. 

January 4. — George A. Pettibone is acquitted 
at Boise, Idaho, of complicity in the murder of 
ex-Gov. Steunenburg. .. .The jury in the fourth 
trial of Caleb Powers, accused of murdering 
Governor Goebel of Kentucky, disagrees^ ten 
voting for acquittal. 

January 8. — Prominent coal operators meet in 
Washington to devise means for preventing dis- 
asters in mines (see page 225).... A. B. Stick- 
ney and Charles H. F. Smith are appointed 
receivers for the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
road by Federal Judge Sanborn of St. Paul. 

January 9. — The East River tunnel, extend- 
ing the New York subway from Manhattan to 
Brooklyn borough, is opened for traffic. 

January 10. — The North German Lloyd and 
the Hamburg American Steamship companies, it 
is announced at Bremen, have entered into a 
four-year agreement which will result in a unity 
of action against the British lines in the ocean 
rate war. 

January 12. — Seventy thousand persons at- 
tempting demonstrations for general suffrage in 
Berlin are dispersed by large forces of police; 
many are sabered. 

January 13. — Nearly 200 persons are killed in 
a theater fire at Boyertown, Pa.... Henry Far- 
man makes a successful flight in an airship 
heavier than air at Paris, and wins the Deutsch- 
Archdeacon prize of $10,000. ... Coal-carrying 
railroads petition Attorney-General Bonaparte to 
postpone beyond May i the operation of the new 
law compelling them to dispose of their coal 
properties. .. .The New York Clearing-House 
Association decides to admit to membership 
trust companies on condition that they keep a 
25 per cent, cash reserve. 

January 14. — Prof. Paul Milyukov discusses 
constitutional government for Russia at Carnegie 
Hall, New York City. 

Januar}^ 15. — An earthquake, followed by a 
tidal wave, causes much damage at Gonaives, 
Haiti. 

January 16. — The rate of discount of the Bank 
of England is reduced from 6 to 5 per cent. 

January 17. — The American torpedo-boat' 
squadron arrives at Rio de Janeiro from Per- 
nambuco. .. .The Sovereign Bank of Canada de- 
cides to go into liquidation. 

January 18. — John R. Walsh is found guilty 
on nearly fifty counts of misapplying the funds 
of the Chicago National Bank. 

January 19. — An anarchist plot to destroy a 
part of the American battleship fleet is discov- 



i6d 



I'HE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 




THE LATE BISHOP E. G. ANDREWS, OF THE METHO- 
DIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

ered at Rio de Janeiro. .. .The Guatemalan 
Northern Railway, extending from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, is formally opened at Guatemala 
City. 

OBITUARY 

December 2i, — Musurus Pasha, Turkish am- 
bassador in London^ 66. 

December 22. — Dr. Henry Patterson Loomis, 
professor of therapeutics and clinical medicine 
at Cornell University, 49. 

December 23. — United States Senator Stephen 
R. Mallory, of Florida, 59. .. .Pierre Jules Cesar 
Janssen, the French astronomer and physicist, 
84.... Prof. Oskar Lassar, the well-known Ger- 
man dermatologist, 59.... Prof. Adalbert von 
Tobold, known as the father of German laryn- 
gology, 80.... Herman N. Hyneman, a portrait 
painter of New York City, 49. 

December 26. — Rear-Admiral Charles W. Ab- 
bot, U. S. N., retired, 78.... Joseph Szmyt, edi- 
tor of the Wielkopolanin of Posen, Prussian 
Poland, 72.... Jean Joseph Cornely, the French 
journalist and author, 62. 

December 2y. — John Chandler Bancroft Davis, 
formerly Minister to Germany and for many 
years official reporter of the United States Su- 
preme Court, 85. . . .Ex-Gov. Elihu Emory Jack- 
son, of Maryland, 71.... Carl Meisel, a distin- 
guished Boston violinist, 79. 



December 28.— Dr. Coleman Sellers, engineer 

and scientist, 81 William Marcus Thompson, 

editor of Reynolds' Nczvspaper, London, 51....' 
Mrs. Letitia Tyler Semple, a former mistress of 
the White House, 86. 

December 29.— Dr. Julian Dunajewski, one of 
the most eminent of Polish statesmen, 85. 

December 30.— Chief Justice John D. Casso- 

day, of the Wisconsin Supreme Court, 77 

Enos Houghton Tucker, one of the pioneer rail- 
road men of New England, 93. 

December 31.— Bishop Edward G. Andrews, of 

the Methodist Episcopal Church, 82 Jean 

Francois Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne, French 

Minister of Justice, 75 M. de Troos, Premier 

of Belgium Charles Hermann-Leon, ani- 

nial and genre painter, of Paris, 70.... Prof. 

• Thomas Day Seymour, of Yale University, 

60. . . Judge John Watson Barr, a distinguished 

Kentucky jurist, 82 Brig.-Gen. Alfred Lind- 

ley Lee, a veteran of the Civil War, "74. 

January 2. — Dr. Nicholas Senn, one of the 
most widely known surgeons in the United 
States, 63. 

January 3. — Rev. Dr. Denis J. Stafford, rec- 
tor of St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, of 
V.^ashington, D. C, 47. 

January 4. — Prof. Charles Augustus Young, 
one of the leading astronomers of the United 

States, 73. . 

January 6. — Ex-Congressman A. S. Berry, of 
. Kentucky, 73. 

January 7. — Bishop George Wor^hington, of 
the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Nebraska, 
67.,.. Prince Stanislaus Poniatowski, head of 
the historic Polish house of that name.... 
George L. Chase^ president of the Hartford Fire 
Insurance Company, 80.... Former State Sena- 
tor Samuel Fessenden, of Connecticut, 60. 

January 9. — Wilhelm Busch, the German cari- 
caturist, 76. .. .Abraham Goldfaden, the Yiddish 
poet and dramatist, 68. 

January 10. — George F. Evans, vice-president 
and general manager of the Maine Central Rail- 
road, 61. 

January 11. — Dr. Frank Herbert Eaton, a 
well-known Canadian educationist, 57. 

January 12. — Rabbi Bernhard Felsenphal, a 
distinguished Hebrew scholar and leader of 
" reformed Judaism," 86. 

January 13. — Holger H. H. Drachmann, the 
Danish poet and author, 61. 

January 14. — James Ryder Randall, writer of 
" Maryland, My Maryland," 69. .. .William Liv- 
ingston Aldcn, an American journalist, 70..,. 
Julius T. Melchers, the sculptor, 78. 

January 15; — Dr. William Rollins Shipman, 
dean of Tufts College, 72.... Edward Henry 
Strobel, adviser to the King of Siam, 52. 

January 16. — Mrs. Lydia K. Bradley, of 
Peoria, 111., well known for her philanthropy, 92. 

January 18. — Edmund Clarence Stedman, the 
banker-poet, 74. .. .E::-Gov. Charles H. Sawyer, 
of New Hampshire, 68. 

January 19. — Charles Emory Smith, editor of 
the Philadelphia Press, formerly Postmaster- 
General and former Minister to Russia, 66. 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH, CHIEFLY 

POLITICAL. 




SKCttKTARY Taft (to the President) : " What's that blamed racket ahead, Theodore?" 
Secretary Taft does not find the trip to the White House devoid of adventure and opposition. 

From the Saturday Olohe (Utica). 




— ^ " WHOA^ BILL ! " 

THEY MUST GO UNDER THE YOKE OF THE ROOSEVELT There are times when these riding tests amount to 

positive cruelty ! 



POLICIKS. 



From the Yiorld (New York), 



From the Press (New York). 



162 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^IEWS. 





THE LITTLE FELLOW KNOWS. 

From the Spokesman-Review (Spokane), 



hl'll get it back soon. 
From the Glohe (New York), 





HE^S HEFTYj BUT HE'S FAST. 

They thought he was a draft horse, but he seems to the Minnesota aioses — finding a new moses in 

be winning in a canter ! the bulrushes. 

From the News (Baltimore). ArrMrv ■\-\^i,i, r^r^r^ , r^^r . .« a i ^r , ^r ,^ 

. aunty Democracy : A real new Moses ! Won t 

It be a relief if I can only lose the old one! " 
From the Journal (Minneapolis). 




I^ESOLved: 

that i'll stop painting 
the map blaca(. ^ 



who's got the baggage check? 
From the Commercial Tribune (Cincinnati). 




WHY not swear off, MR. BRYAN? 

From the World (New York). 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH, CHIEFLY POLITICAL. 



163 




THE FAVORITE SONS' GLEE CLUB. 

From the Inquirer (Philadelpniaj, 




COUNTING ^EM BEFORE THEY'RE HATCHED ! 

From the Press (New York). 



" WELL, SAKES ALIVE, LESLIE, WHERE DID YOU COME 
FROM? " 

From the Register and Leader (Des Moines). 



164 



THE AMERICAN REFlElV OF REVIEWS. 







PREPAKING FOR THE THIN MOUNTAIN AIR. 

From the Post (Denver). 




" And around the dear ruins each wish of my heart 
Shall twine itself verdantly still." 

— Moore. 
From the World (New York). 



1896^1900 



I90r 



BRYANj THEN AND NOW, 

From the Public Ledger (Philadelphia). 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH, CHIEFLY POLITICAL 



165 




THE BELTED KNIGHT/' AND HIS SANCHO PANZA. 

From the .Herald (New York). 





AT LAST THE GATES SWING OUTWARD. 

From the Spokesman-Revieic (Spokane). 



THE STEPMOTHER. 

From tlie NortJi American (Philadelphia), 



166 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiElV^. * 




MR. TILLMAN SHOWING THE NEW ARKANSAS SENATOR A FEW TRICKS. 

From the Inter-Ocean (Chicago). 




y^.'-'-'J 



.1. J. \\\\.\., I'lIOSl'EIUTY AirnsT. 

A year a.yo thf; Great Northern magnate gave 
rrosperUy a black eye. Now he is painting it white. 
From the fipokesman- Review (Spokane). 




GEORGIA'S NEW IRRIGATION SYSTEM. 

From the Constitution (Atlanta). 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH, CHIEFLY POLITICAL 



167 




" PLKASE BUY MY FLOWERS/' 

From the Pioneer-Press (St. Paul). 



TO KEEP THE CROPS MOVING. 

Congress proposes to put a new policeman on the 
corner of Trade Avenue and Commercial Street. 

From the Journal (Minneapolis). 




FOLLOWING THE FLAG. 

From the Herald (New York). 



THE TOBACCO WAR IN KENTUCKY. 

BY MARTHA McCULLOCH- WILLIAMS. 



A N ordinary screen-door, set In the wall 
of a white frame Kentucky farm-house, 
is the last thing from which one would ex- 
pect a curdly thrill in this year of peace. Save 
in one particular this door was nowise unlike 
a million others, in other homesteads, — it 
swung true on its hinges and had wire of a 
fine mesh. But amid the meshes, and on the 
frame, there were the marks of forty-seven 
bullets. The bullets had been fired upon an 
August night of 1907, when only the screen 
door protected the family sleeping inside. 
The bullets came quartering, — five hundred 
of them it may be, maybe even a thousand. 
Some bored round holes through window- 
panes, others penetrated weatherboarding, 
laths, and plaster, and sped on to bury them- 
selves in the opposite wall. Still others zipped 
along the roof, chipping shingles in their 
flight. They w^ere revolver bullets, or those 
from Winchester rifles. So many were there, 
and fired at such close range, it is almost a 
miracle that any soul within reach of them 
escaped alive. 

Five people were within reach of them, — 
Stephen Moseley, a farmer of Trigg County, 
Ky., his wife, and his three sons. Mr. Mose- 
ley was wounded in three places; his wife 
came near losing an eye through having frag- 
ments of screen-wire driven into it. The lads 
saved themselves by dropping from their beds 
to the floor, at their mother's order, and roll- 
ing as far out of range as was possible. The 
telephone wire had been cut before the at- 
tack. There were possibly lOO men in the 
attacking party. After the shooting they 
called Moseley out, whipped him hard, 
warned him not to seek legal redress, then 
rode away, whooping and yelling. 

Moseley's case is set forth thus particularly 
because it is a typical one, and because I saw 
it. There are possibly a dozen parallels to it 
in the length and breadth of the Black Patch, 
the export tobacco district of western Ken- 
tucky and northwestern Tennessee. Nature 
and civilization have alike been kind to the 
l^atch. The soil is, for the most part, a rich 
reddish clay-loam, with limestone underlay, 
level in some parts, in other parts rolling, In 
still other parts approaching to hilly. Fair 
water is plenty, the climate equable, and the 
Inhabitants mainly Americans of old Revolu- 



tionary Virginia and Carolina stock. The 
first settlers brought in three things that re- 
main to this day, — namely, tobacco seed, to- 
bacco knowledge, and a stiff-necked love of 
liberty so far-reaching that it includes liberty 
to make other folk see things its own way. 

Among such a people Moseley's case could 
not happen without a cause and an occasion. 
The cause was the tobacco fight, the occasion 
a suspicion of disloyalty on his part toward 
the Planters' Protective Association, the or- 
ganization of tobacco growers that is waging 
the fight. That is to say, upon the surface ; 
personal grudges may have lain deeper down. 
Moseley had been laggard in joining the em- 
battled farmers. The association was formed 
in 1904, yet he did not go Into it until 1907. 

The association was born of imperious ne- 
cessity. Tobacco prices had fallen, fallen 
until they were much below the cost of pro- 
duction. The growers cried out *' IVIonop- 
oly," alleging collusion betwixt the Tobacco 
Trust and the Regie, their main customers. 
The Regie, — pronounced ree-jee, — is the ma- 
chinery through which tobacco is supplied to 
the several foreign governments which make 
of its importation and sale highly profitable 
monopolies. Collusion was unnecessary, — 
the trust and the Regie had simply to agree 
on rates and territory, to fix beyond peradven- 
ture the price of the Patch's main money crop. 

Tobacco requires throughout hard hand 
labor, and plenty of it. It is ready for mar- 
ket the fall and winter after growth. Cur- 
rent rates for tobacco in January, 1904, 
meant, according to Kentucky calculations, 
less than 30 cents a day for an able-bodied 
man's work in raising it. Out of the 30 cents 
he must feed, clothe, and lodge himself and 
his family. Not an alluring prospect, — for- 
bidding, indeed, rather, in view of the fact 
that tobacco is essentially a poor man's crop. 
Seed may be had for the asking; there is no 
need of costly machinery; moreover, a fair 
crop requires no great breadth of land. Half 
the growers live on the crop while raising it, 
— that is to say, they get advances of food, 
clothing, and a very little money, commonly 
from the land-owner, whose sole security is 
the crop, and who is financed by a warehouse- 
man or factor, who in turn borrows from the 
banks. 



W£ TOBACCO IV A R IN KENTUCKY. 



169 



There Is thus the pressure of debt to sell 
the crop. With half of it thus forced to mar- 
ket it seemed hopeless to undertake pooling 
and holding any considerable part of it. But 
some way the thing was done, — mainly 
through the efforts of a rich yet public-spirited 
planter, F. G. Ewing, of Glen Raven, Rob- 
ertson County, Tenn. He managed to get 
through village banks enough money to tide 
the association over its experimental first sea- 
son. But he could not get the mass, hardly 
even the majority, of tobacco growers in line. 
That remained for the night rider. 

Beyond question the night rider has been 
the most efficient association missionary, — 
a virulent one, it is true, yet he has brought 
the people in. To make him real and cred- 
ible there must be something more of detail. 
While the tobacco planters were getting to- 
gether, their adversaries were not supine ; on 
the contrary, very wide awake, affecting to 
laugh the association to scorn, yet all the 
while watching it narrowly, and countering 
its moves, — often indeed with a checkmate. 
Tobacco prices went up, — 'way up for the 
hill billys. Hill billy is the cant name for 
those who stay out of the association, selling 
their crops as they please. The more hill 
billys there were, the less the association could 
bother those it was fighting. The association 
is in essence a selling trust, opposed to the 
buying monopolies. It takes in hand the 
tobacco pledged to it, fixes the price, and holds 
until something gives way, somewhere. Its 
trump card is the fact that the trust and the 
Regie must have tobacco, — tobacco suiting 
foreign requirements, which they cannot get 
outside the Patch. 

Absolute control of this tobacco supply 
spells victory for the organization. The hill 
billy is what stands in the way of this abso- 
lute control. Both combatants understand 
that. The trust and the Regie encourage 
him to stand fast with high and higher prices 
for crops in hand and to come. The night 
rider discourages him in ways better befit- 
ting Russia than free America. Scraping 
plant-beds, thus destroying all chance of a 
crop, is one of them, almost the mildest ; burn- 
ing sacked wheat, newly threshed, or hay- 
stacks, or barns, another. Blowing up thresh- 
ing machines whose owners dare thresh for 
hill billys is still another. Add whippings, 
threats, scrawled coffins and cross-bones, the 
pulling up of young tobacco, the killing of 
pasturing stock, 3^et still the tale of outrages 
is incomplete. These things, no less than the 
shooting up of farmsteads, are directed at 



individuals. The night-riding mass, when 
fairly and fully in stride, goes out to shoot 
up and burn out a town. 

Nearly all towns in the Patch are reck- 
oned trust strongholds, by reason of holding 
warehouses and handling houses, operated by 
the trust and the Regie. Therefore the towns 
have slept under guard, now for three years 
past. Notwithstanding, in five of them the 
night riders have done their will. The be- 
ginning was at Trenton, a village of Todd 
County, Ky. In December, 1905, a big 
tobacco factory was burned there by masked 
and mounted men heavily armed. Less than 
a month after a tobacco house was dynamited 
at Elkton, the capital of Todd County. 
Those who did the blowing up held up a 
train and searched it for tobacco buyers, but 
found none. Rewards were offered, and 
there was perfunctory looking into things, but 
to this day nobody has been punished or even 
openly accused. 

More burnings, scattered, sporadic, of 
barns and isolated tobacco-houses came to pass 
within that season. It was not, however, un- 
til Thanksgiving night, 1906, that the night 
riders did anything really spectacular. 
Around midnight, 300 strong, they swooped 
upon Princeton, the capital of Caldwell 
County, Ky., set guards over the police, fire 
department, telegraph, and telephone offices, 
stationed men at street-crossings to turn back 
inquisitive citizens, then set fire to two fac- 
tories, watched them burn to coals, and only 
then rode away, yelling and shooting at the 
stars as they went. One of the burned estab- 
lishments, belonging to the Imperial Tobacco 
Company, the British arm of the trust, had 
six acres of floor space, thick walls of brick, a 
full complement of steam machinery for " or- 
dering " tobacco, and was accounted the big- 
gest and best equipped stemmery in the world. 
The loss from this night's work was in the 
neighborhood of $100,000. Those Inflicting 
it had, however, in their own phrase, and to 
their own minds, " toted fair." They had 
warned the Insurance companies three months 
back to cancel policies, hoping, it must be said 
for them, thus to frighten the men in charge 
into joining the association. Men of parts, 
family, and standing, persons of weight and 
substance In the community, within sight of 
the gaping ruins, justified the lawless action 
upon plea of necessity. 

The same force of night riders aimed to 
burn Hopkinsville, the county seat of Chris- 
tian County, a very little later, but were 
foiled by a vigilant mayor, who fears not 



170 



THE AMERICAN REFIEIV OF REVIEWS, 



man nor night rider, and were forced to wait 
a full year. In between, the night riders 
amused themselves with such things as were 
done to Moseley, also many others in that 
line. But on Friday, December 7, 1907, 
they burned out and shot up Hopkinsville, 
firing three factories, shooting out windows 
by streetfuls, wounded one man, whipped 
another dangerously, and got out of town 
scot-free, though in the hastily organized pur- 
suit two of them were so badly wounded it 
is said they have since died. The night was 
absolutely still ; otherwise the town would 
have gone up in fire and smoke. The fire- 
house was heavily guarded, and no effort to 
save property permitted. The actual loss 
was over $100,000, — potentially, it is beyond 
estimate. Yet even after the State troops 
came, with the Governor offering huge re- 
wards, nobody felt safe. The citizens en- 
rolled to protect the town, and watched side 
by side with the soldiers. Both the town 
papers, as well as the press at large, spoke up 
manfully for law and order ; the civil machin- 
ery was set actively in motion ; but still peo- 
ple speak with bated breath of the outrage. 
Russellville, in Logan County, was burned 
out three weeks later. There the fire spread 
from tobacco-houses to several of the busi- 
ness blocks. The resulting loss was heavy. 
Altogether the damage from night riding 
must run well above $1,000,000. This with- 
out counting in the White Burley regions, 
which have an organization and troubles of 
their own. 

Paducah, on the edge of the Patch, lives 
in fear of attack. So does Clarksville, Tenn., 
upon the Cumberland River, the oldest and 
best known among tobacco-market towns west 
of the Alleghanies. Tennessee's tobacco coun- 
ties, which adjoin Kentucky, have indeed had 
their full share of night riding. Governor 
Patterson has standing rewards out, aggregat- 
ing $4000, for the arrest and conviction of 
night-rider criminals, but it is unlikely they 
will be claimed. Men arrested for the crimes 
which caused the issuance of his proclama- 
tion, — the burning of a cross-roads store and 
the pulling up of young tobacco, — have been 
triumphantly acquitted. In various courts 
there are a few other indictments, most of 
them hanging fire. So far, the net result of 
prosecutions is two men, one white, one black, 
serving sentences of a year for scraping plant- 
beds. Both, it is said, have confessed that 
they were set on by agents of the trust. 

Things here set forth cannot have come to 
pass without affecting profoundly the life of 



the whole people. It is a most piteous effect. 
The bitterness of Civil War times, when the 
Patch was debatable land, and sharply divided 
in sentiment, is as nothing to the present 
strife. Witness the case of churches rent 
in twain, — association members refusing to 
commune with those outside the pale. There 
is discord even in the schools, — children of 
each sort reviling the faith of the other. 
There is also a practical business boycott. 
Stockmen, especially cattle dealers, must join 
the association if they hope to do business. 
Merchants are warned to be friendly to the 
cause, — so are doctors, lawyers, even minis- 
ters. There has been wild talk of requiring 
all these to refuse their ministrations to hill 
billys. It has come to no more than talk, — 
a fact creditable to human nature. 

Against all this let it be clearly set forth 
that the association has accomplished certain 
results. By raising the price of tobacco 
from less than $4 per 100 pounds to a frac- 
tion more than $9 it has brought the plain 
people up out of the miry pit, the slough of 
debt and despond, and set their feet in the 
way of prosperity. The towns show it faint- 
ly, — in the country he who runs may read. 
New-painted houses, fields in good heart and 
tilth, miles on miles of new wire fences, rub- 
ber-tired traps drawn by spanking teams, most 
of all the good roads pushing out fanwise 
to reach the remotest regions, and the netted 
telephone wires, over which if they choose 
the back-country folk can hear the big world 
breathe, all tell the same story. Bank de- 
posits have quadrupled, the money circulation 
well-nigh doubled. Mortgages have shrunk 
beyond the convenience of investors, and land- 
values so increased that the countryside is in 
danger of growing purse-proud. 

These things the association pleads in ex- 
cuse of the black deeds alleged against it. 
Whether or no they are worth their cost is 
easily debatable. But there can be no ques- 
tion that the night rider does not hold himself 
either a ruffian or a felon, however much he 
may act their parts, — the rather a crusader, 
fighting against long odds a battle in which 
victory spells the common good. Unpleasant 
as a fact, it is as a symptom that he is dan- 
gerous. He could not endure for a week if 
he had not so great a moiety of his people 
behind him. He lacks wholly official coun- 
tenance, — again and again the association has 
disclaimed him. He is not in himself the 
root of trouble, — only the sign-radical of 
something much deeper, whose ultimate re- 
sult is alike beyond foresight or prophecy. 



AMERICANS INTEREST IN THE WORK OF 

LORD KELVIN. 

BY J. F. SPRINGER. 



/^F all periods of the world's history the 
^^ nineteenth century stands out as mark- 
ing the most stupendous advance in science. 
It is probable, indeed, that the sum total of 
this progress for the single century is greater 
than that for all preceding time. During 
this epoch of tremendous scientific activity 
many remarkable figures have arisen. But 
of these none has been more notable than 
that of the Scotch-Irishman known first as 
Professor Thomson, then as Sir William 
Thomson, and lastly as Lord Kelvin. Pos- 
sessed of a mental mechanism of the first 
order, which was run at high speed for over 
a half-century, it is not to be wondered at 
that he has linked his name with some of 
the most important scientific advances of all 
history. 

Science has recorded the establishment of 
no greater principles than those relative to 
the correlation of energy and the conserva- 
tion of energy. These fundamental proposi- 
tions are not to be regarded as inferior to 
the law of universal gravitation and the 
principle of the indestructibility of matter. 
Intimately associated with these two primary 
principles is the conception of heat as a form 
of energy, lo these may be added a law 
which may be regarded as somewhat of a 
corollary of these, — the law of the dissipa- 
tion of energj^ All these reach into the very 
fiber of science. Nor is it yet evident what 
will be the ultimate extent of their influence. 
And with every one of them is closely bound 
up the name of Lord Kelvin. 

All of this is of course a matter of inter- 
est to serious Americans. At the same time 
their interest should find accentuation in the 
genial and generous personality which was 
not slow to recognize and commend the 
struggles and efforts of American genius. 
Thus, upon his return home after visiting 
the United States, in 1876, Lord Kelvin 
voiced in a presidential address to the Math- 
ematical and Physical Section of the British 
Association the following sentiments: 

I came home, indeed, vividly impressed with 
much that I had seen both in the great exhibi- 
tion of Philadelphia and out of it, showing the 
truest scientific spirit and devotion, the original- 
ity, the inventiveness, the patient, persevering 
thoroughness of work, the appreciativeness, the 



generous open-mindedness and sympathy, from 
which the great things of science come. . . . 
I wish I could speak to you of the veteran 
Henry, generous rival of Faraday in electromag- 
netic discovery; of Peirce, the -founder of high 
mathematics in America ; of Bache, and the 
splendid heritage he has left to America and to 
the world in the United States Coast Survey; 
of the great school of astronomers which fol- 
lowed, — Gould, Newton, Newcomb, Watson, 
Young, Alvan Clark, Rutherford, Draper, 
(father and son), . . . 

These are warm and enthusiastic words, 
and deserve on the part of Americans a 
hearty appreciation of the spirit which gave 
them utterance. 

HIS PART IN LAYING THE ATLANTIC CABLE. 

Of especial American interest is the inti- 
mate connection sustained by Lord Kelvin to 
one of the greatest efforts of the national 
spirit of enterprise. The energy and uncon- 
querable perseverance of Cyrus W. Field 
were of course indispensable factors in the 
success of the Atlantic telegraph cable. But 
these would probably have been of no avail 
if it had not been for the genius of the young 
professor from Glasgow. As Lord Kelvin 
was associated with the practical side of this 
project from the beginning to the completion, 
a brief resume will perhaps be of interest. 

The cable was to connect Ireland and 
Newfoundland. Assistance was asked and 
received both from the British Government 
and from that of the United States. The 
fact, however, that the cable was to termi- 
nate on this side of the Atlantic in British 
territory increased the difficulty in securing 
assistance from Congress. However, both 
governments participated in the undertaking, 
and on August 5, 1857, all financial and 
other preliminaries had been settled, and the 
actual operation of laying the cable begun. 
Each government assigned a warship to the 
duty, — the British ship being the Agamem- 
non, and the American the Niagara. Pro- 
fessor Thomson was on board the Agamem- 
non 2iS electric expert. What was known at 
that time of the behavior and management 
of electric currents was small indeed. In 
fact, scientific advance in electricity had not 
really proceeded far enough to justify an en- 
gineering project of this magnitude. How- 



172 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^IEWS. 



ever, the difficulties were unrealized as well 
as the solutions of the problems they would 
create immediately upon their emergence 
from the unknown. With the blissfulness 
of ignorance, then, everybody went ahead. 
And we justify them because they succeeded. 
But this 1857 effort did not succeed. In the 
following year two other attempts were made. 
The latter was successful. The cable was 
actually laid and a few messages exchanged. 
Everybody went wild with enthusiasm, which 
was destined, however, to be short-lived. 

All the messages had been transmitted by 
means of Professor Thomson's new mirror 
galvanometer, an instrument of the most re- 
fined delicacy. This invention, however, 
was not the first step taken by Professor 
Thomson in endeavoring to solve the prob- 
lem of transmission. The difficulty lay in 
the fact that the current received enormous 
resistance, — due, in part, to an induced coun- 
ter-current, — increasing, as Thomson showed, 
with the square of the length. This could 
not be met by simply increasing the power of 
the current, as that would result in the ruin 
of the insulation. At first Thomson sought 
to improve the quality of the copper. The 
delicate mirror galvanometer was, however, 
found to be the way out. It consists essen- 
tially of a very small magnet attached to a 
very small mirror and suspended by means 
of a silk thread or fiber within a coil of fine 




LORD Kelvin's house, in Glasgow. 



copper wire. A beam of light thrown upon 
this mirror will upon its reflection upon a 
screen exhibit the slightest oscillations of the 
magnet. By means of a code arrangement, 
messages could be signaled by the movement 
of the spot of light on the screen. But even 
this excessively sensitive means of communi- 
cation now failed, and the 1858 cable be- 
came a piece of junk at the bottom of the 
Atlantic. 

For just what reason failure came is un- 
known. A tremendous revulsion in popular 
feeling resulted. It was suggested that the 
whole proceeding was a " fake," and that no 
messages had really been transmitted. But 
real messages had indeed been sent, — as, for 
instance, an order from London that a cer- 
tain regiment in Canada should not depart 
for India, the mutiny being ended. Cyrus 
Field and William Thomson had faith, — as 
well as others. So, in 1865, another, but 
fruitless, attempt was made, followed, how- 
ever, by a complete success in 1866. In 
recognition of his splendid services Professor 
Thomson was knighted in 1866 upon his 
return to the other side of the Atlantic. In 
succeeding years Sir William Thomson was 
connected with other cable enterprises as 
electrical engineer. In 1867 the obvious de- 
fect of the mirror galvanometer, in that it 
preserved no record of the messages, was 
overcome by him in his celebrated siphon 
recorder. The essential features of this are 
a light coil of wire which is suspended be- 
tween the poles of a strong magnet, and a 
fine glass siphon connected with the magnet 
and discharging a thread of ink on a moving 
strip of paper. This is an exceedingly deli- 
cate instrument, pretty much all friction 
being eliminated. 

INVENTIONS OF SOUNDING APPARATUS. 

It can be readily seen from his work in 
connection with submarine cables that Lord 
Kelvin was not merely a scientist dealing 
with the abstract, but a man of great prac- 
ticality. If further proof of this were 
needed. It could be furnished by his inven- 
tion of an improved mariner's compass, 
which was so practical as to supersede the 
others In the market, and by his devices 
for deep-sea sounding. In making deep- 
water soundings It was a great nuisance to be 
under the necessity of bringing the ship to a 
full stop In order to ascertain the depth. By 
his method soundings may be taken of very 
considerable depths without causing the ves- 
sel to come to a stop. He used piano-wire 



AMERICA'S INTEREST IN THE WORK OF LORD KELVIN. 173 




LORD KELVIN, FROM A LATE PHOTOGRAPH. 



instead of the ordinary sounding-line. This with the ship under way, whereas with the 

weighed less and presented very little re- piano-wire arrangement a cabin-boy could 

sistance to the water. By the ordinary bring up a thirty-four pound sinker from a 

method it was the work of six men to bring depth of 150 fathoms. This wire weighed 

the lead from merely fifty or sixty fathoms in water about twelve pounds per lOOO 



174 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEIVS. 




LORD KELVINS SOUNDING MACHINE. 

fathoms. By using a brake with the paying- 
out mechanism and compensating at regular 
intervals for the increased weight of wire in 
the sea, the whole could be so managed that 
the brake exerted constantly about ten 
pounds more friction than the pull due to 
the wire in the water, but exclusive of the 
thirty-four pound sinker. This ten pounds 
would therefore be exerted against the 
thirty-four. At the instant that the sinker 
touched bottom this thirty-four-pound pull 
would suddenly be discontinued. The ef- 
fect of the sudden manifestation of the ten- 
pound unbalanced friction of the brake 
would give instant notice that the bottom 
was reached. Thomson also invented an 
automatic depth recorder. In this device 
advantage was taken of the fact that the 
pressure exerted by water varies with the 
depth, so that a means of recording the pres- 
sure at the bottom is in effect a means -of 
recording the depth. 

LORD KELVIN AND NIAGARA. 

Lord Kelvin's connection with the project 
for the utilization of Niagara Falls under- 
taken by the Cataract Construction Com- 
pany, about 1890, may be mentioned at this 
point as an instance of his relation to the 
practical side of American life. This com- 
pany, finding that the books were not keep- 
ing pace with the rapid advances in knowl- 



edge concerning the development and trans- 
mission of power, deemed it expedient to 
establish in London an International Niaga- 
ra Commission, with Lord Kelvin at its 
head, to pass upon, and award prizes for, 
power-utilization plans submitted in compe- 
tition. 

With regard to the general proposition 
which contemplates the utilization of the 
Falls, Lord Kelvin took up a very advanced 
position. He was willing to exchange the 
magnificent spectacle of an immense body of 
water making a tremendous drop to the 
gorge below for the picture of the rocks cov- 
ered with verdure and the 4,000,000 horse- 
power utilized in promoting the material 
welfare of mankind. The present power 
plants use but a small fraction of the entire 
power, and affect the Falls to an almost, if 
not quite, inappreciable extent from an 
aesthetic point of view. But Lord Kelvin 
did not hesitate to look on to the time when 
the whole should be swallowed up in the 
utilitarian purpose. He saw in this some- 
thing greater and grander than the sight of 
a beautiful and mighty sheet of water mak- 
ing its wonderful plunge. And in this the 
future may justify him as one standing on 




THE ORIGINAL SIPHON RECORDER, AS INVENTED BY 
LORD KELVIN, IN 18C7. 

(This device records as well as receives cable mes- 
sages.) 



AMERICA'S INTEREST IN THE WORK OF LORD KELVIN 175 




Prof. W. C. Unwin. Dr. Coleman Sellers. 

Prof. E. Mascart. Lord Kelvin. Col. Th. I'urrettini. 

THE INTERNATIONAL NIAGARA FALLS COMMISSION (1895). 



a higher point and enjoying a wider hori- 
zon. 

AN ACTIVE ACADEMIC CAREER. 

The life of 'Lord Kelvin was full of 
activity from beginning to end. Born in 
1824 and dying in 1907, he spent practically 
the whole of this long life from his youth 
onward in serious scientific pursuits. Ire- 
land was the land of his birth, but Scotland 
early became his home, when his father, in 
1832, removed to Glasgow to become pro- 
fessor of mathematics at the university. In 
1834 young William was a regular matricu- 
lated student. During the four years, 1841- 
1845, he studied at St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge, becoming second wrangler and Smith 
prizem.an upon graduation. It is not quite 
clear why he did not obtain the first wrang- 
lership, as one of the examiners is under- 
stood to have thought that no comparison 
existed between the two successful contest- 
ants, and this judgment would seem to have 
been justified by time. While at Cambridge 
he became the first editor of the Cambridge 



and Dublin Mathematical Journal. In 1846 
he took the chair of natural philosophy at 
his alma mater in Glasgow. In this posi- 
tion he continued for fifty-three years, never 
having occupied any other professorial chair. 
In the case of a man of his attainments and 
celebrity this may be regarded as indicative 
of his devotion to his own university. The 
professor of natural philosophy in those days 
did not have available the splendid equip- 
ments that are so common to-day. In fact, 
there existed, apparently, nowhere in the 
world a physical laboratory for students. 
But Thomson established one in an old wine- 
cellar. Enthusiasm, intelligence, industry, 
— all were his in marked degrees. 

He was twice married, — first to Miss 
Crum, in 1852, who died eighteen years 
later. In 1874 he married Miss Blandy, 
who survives him. 

In 1866, as already noted, he was 
knighted. In 1892 he was m.ade the first 
Baron Kelvin of Netherhall, Largs. His 
coat-of-arms indicates descent from a Scot- 
tish family. He was elected president of the 



176 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEWS. 

Royal Society of London in 1891, and con- reform their conceptions of the length of 
tinued in this office until 1896. In this time the earth has been adapted to support 
latter year occurred the jubilee of his pro- life. This demand aifected the biologists as 
fessorship. Honors were showered upon well, — especially those who held the Dar- 
him from every direction. That he was not winian hypothesis of the origin of species by 
exalted in his own self-esteem may be gath- natural selection. Professor Huxley at- 
ered from the following words uttered by tempted a reply, but the arguments of Thom- 
him upon this occasion: "One word, one son that, within a not unlimited time, the 
word characterizes the most strenuous of the earth has been too hot to support life, and the 
efforts for the advancement of science that sun has not afforded it illumination, were 
I have made perseveringly during fifty-five apparently unanswerable, 
years, — that word is failure! I know no The organization of the Johns Hopkins 
more of electric and magnetic force, or of University in the '70's attracted much atten- 
the relation between ether, electricity, and tion in Europe among men of educational 
ponderable matter, or of chemical affinity, prominence. This was no doubt due to the 
than I knew and tried to teach my students fact that it was the first great effort in this 
of natural philosophy fifty years ago, in my country to make adequate provision for post- 
first session as professor. Something of sad- graduate instruction. In fact, Professor 
ness must come of failure ; but in the pursuit Sylvester, one of the greatest of the mathe- 
of science, inborn necessity to make the ef- maticians of the last century, came over to 
fort brings with it much of the certaminis Baltimore to accept the chair of mathematics. 
gaudia, and saves the naturalist from being Professor Cayley, another of the world's 
wholly miserable, perhaps even allows him great mathematicians, cam,e over to lecture, 
to be fairly happy in his daily work." So also did Lord Kelvin. This was in 1884, 

His name is associated with Professor Tait when he was still Sir William Thomson, 

m dynamics ; with Mayer and Helmholtz in These lectures, twenty in number, constitute 

the dynamical theory of gases ; with Joule, an application of molecular dynamics to 

Clausius, and Rankine in the development of the wave theory of light. They were de- 

the theory of heat ; and with Faraday, Max- livered, not to an ordinary post-graduate 

well, and Hertz in the theory of electricity, class, but to a body of physicists, many being 

It is perhaps not wise to attempt to state his themselves teachers. 

rank with the last degree of precision. It Lord Kelvin affirmed in most unequivo- 

seems pretty clear, however, that no name in cal terms at University College in 1903, not 

the science of the nineteenth century will merely a personal religious belief in creative 

stand higher in point of high achievement. intelligence, but his conviction that science 

His writings include books, papers and itself compels the admission of a creative and 

addresses before learned societies, and con- directive power in addition to physical, dy- 

tributions to scientific periodicals. Thus, he namical, and electrical forces. 

was joint author with Professor Tait in Lord Kelvin's life affords an almost un- 

two volumes of mathematical physics, — a paralleled example of the possibility of the 

'' Treatise on Natural Philosophy." There combination of abstract ability of the highest 

are three volumes of his '* Popular Lectures order with severe practicality. This should 

and Addresses." A number of articles found commend itself to the American spirit which 

republication in collected form (1872) un- certainly has but little patience with the 

der the title '* Papers on Electrostatics and theorizing attitude that is unable or unwill- 

Magnetism." ing to put itself to the test of the concrete. 

He was scarcely a controversialist. Yet Americans will do well, then, to take to heart 

in the '6o's he became engaged in a great the American practicalness of one who could 

controversy over certain doctrines held by be at once a theoretical mathematical physicist 

many geologists and biologists. He de- and a field engineer. 

manded of the uniformitarian school of Lord Kelvin died on December 17 last, 

geologists in an address before the Geologi- and was buried on December 23 in West- 

cal Society of Glasgow (1868) that they minster Abbey. 




ALASKA S SYSTEM OF REINDEER STATIONS. 
(Circles indicate the stations, and broken lines routes of travel.) 



THE AWAKENING OF THE ALASKAN. 

BY WILLIAM ATHERTON DU PUY. 



I HREE thousand native children of 
Alaska, shut in by eternal snows, sad- 
dened by the darkness of nights months long, 
narrowed by the isolation of centuries, but 
withal abounding in sturdy, tenacious re- 
sourcefulness developed by the hardships the 
race has faced, are this winter being given 
the benefit of modern public schools such as 
are maintained in other portions of the 
United States. 

Seventy American teachers are scattered 
here and there through Alaska's vast ex- 
panses, dotting the sweep of the Arctic be- 
yond Bering Straits, weeks' journeys up 
the Yukon and its tributaries even in the 
brief open season, or looo miles from the 
mainland where the Aleutian Islands lead 
out toward Asia. Each of these teachers is 
the center of a new civilization ; for the 
Eskimo or his kindred native seizes hungrily 
upon the germ of learning and receives its 
dispenser with open arms. 

These schools are maintained under the 
Alaskan division of the United States Bureau 
of Education, with headquarters in Wash- 
ington, D. C. They are distinctly separate 
from the public schools in Alaska that are 



maintained for white children, these latter 
being in direct charge of the local authorities,, 
v\hile the burden of the former is borne 
exclusively by the national Government and 
controlled from the capital. The education 
of the native began twenty years ago, but 
the segregation of the schools and their plac- 
ing on a basis by themselves took place but 
two years ago. 

Since that segregation the tendency of 
Congress has been to show the greatest lib- 
erality toward the native Alaskans. The 
appropriation last year was $200,000, or 
double that of the previous year. This ad- 
ditional money has placed the service on aa 
operating basis that has made it possible toi 
establish schools in all the principal villages; 
and carry civilization to the mass of the 
people. 

The position occupied by this handful of 
white teachers in this great waste country 
and the influence upon the simple people is 
one without a parallel in the history of the 
world. At the same time, the sacrifices that 
they voluntarily make and the dangers they 
go through are such as can only be explained 
by attributing them to missionary zeal or pos- 



178 



THE AMERICAN REJ^IEW OF REVIEWS, 




THE 



THETIS OFTEN RUNS HER NOSE INTO AN 
ICE FLOE IN THE ARCTIC. 



sibly to the first love of the Anglo-Saxon 
which is here realized In the battle against 
the elements. 

The maintenance of the native schools 
that lie along the North Pacific Ocean can 
hardh^ be styled a part of the real battle that 
is being waged to uplift the Alaskan, for here 
there are Americans In practically all the 
settlements, and the climate offers few of the 
monstrous discouragements It does in the 
interior or on the Arctic! The schools on 
the Aleutian Islands, which separate the 
Bering Sea from the North Pacific, are far out 
in the frozen waters, upon bare rocks removed 
from the line of communication with the out- 
side world, inhabited only by the Aleuts, a 
hybrid Mongolian race. The most fertile 
field is that which extends north and south 
from Cape Prince of Wales, which point 
approaches most nearly to Asia. These peo- 
ple are Eskimos and are settled in villages 
of considerable size to the south as far as 
Bristol Bay and to the north 50^ miles to 
Point Barrow, the northernmost tip of land 
owned by the United States. Leaving the 
coast, the great interior is populated, an'd 
can be reached in midsummer by following 
the rivers, and at other times only by toil- 
some trips with dog-sleds. 

In the region bordering the Bering Sea 
and the Arctic Ocean the temperature aver- 
ages some forty degrees below zero in the 
winter time, while in the valley of the Yu- 
kon and its tributaries It falls as low as 



seventy-eight degrees below. To these tem- 
peratures is added the darkness of the Arctic 
winter and the endless expanse of ice and 
snow. The isolation is absolute. Each sum- 
mer the Government revenue cutter Thetis 
makes its Arctic cruise as far as Point Bar- 
row, carries the Government mail, and ex- 
tends courtesies to the school service when- 
ever occasion allows. The trip Is In no re- 
spect certain, as may be shown by the ex- 
perience of last summer when the Thetis 
broke her rudder In the ice 100 miles short 
of her destination, and was forced to turn 
back. 

A teacher for the Point Barrow school 
was on board bound for his post. He had 
been but recently married, and his bride ac- 
companied him on this unusual honeymoon. 
With her broken rudder the revenue cutter 
prepared to put into a remote landing at Icy 
Point and there disembark the teacher and 
his effects, leaving him the chance of getting 
to his post by dog team. By a mere chance, 
however, a supply schooner was encountered 
going north and the teacher and his bride 
were transferred to this craft for the re- 
mainder of the trip. When the mails come 
out next spring it will be known whether 
or not they reached their destination In 
safety. 

In addition to the uncertain annual visit 
of the Thetis, two mails annually are 
started to the settlements along the Arctic 
Coast north of Kotzebue Sound. These 
carry only letters, and the time of reaching 
their destination is uncertain. To the in- 
terior points there Is the dog-team communi- 
cation and the boat up the river In the sum- 
mer. The island schools are entirely iso- 
lated except during the summer season. 

Yet the teachers of many of these Alaskan 
schools are young women who have been 
carefully reared among refining influences. 
An additional goodly number are graduates 
of the best colleges In the country and men 
who could demonstrate their ability in any 
surroundings. All are carefully selected 
from hundreds of applicants, and none are 
chosen, except in cases of unusual emer- 
gencies, who have not had previous experi- 
ence in teaching. There are always large 
numbers of applications on file at the Bureau 
of Education for these difficult posts, and 
the highest grade of material Is selected. 
The result is a body of teachers of most 
unusual abilities and character ; for the work 
would not appeal to a person of common- 
place temperament and ambition. 



THE AWAKENING OF THE ALASKAN. 



179 




WITH A FEW MONTHS TRAINING THE PUPILS AT WORK DO NOT SEEM UNSOPHISTICATED. 



It is upon these seventy individuals that 
the mental, moral, and social future of a 
race of people inhabiting a vi^hole corner of 
the world is to be patterned. The reward of 
the teachers for all the sacrifices made and 
dangers encountered, particularly in the re- 
mote districts, rests in the fact that the in- 
fluence over the given following is absolute 
and unlimited. In them is vested an un- 
disputed power for good. 

When a public school is founded in a 
native village it immediately becomes the 
center of the life of that village. Not only 
are the children taught the rudiments of an 
education, but their elders are taught the 
principles of civilized living. The whole 
population is given examples as to its rela- 
tions to society through the daily life of the 
teacher and through entertainments and so- 
cial gatherings especially arranged to carry 
home the desired lesson. In no civilization 
and under no condition of life were there 
ever more favorable conditions for the dis- 
semination of learning than among these 
northern natives; for they are forced into 
inaction for the greater part of the year by 
the long, dark winter, have abundant time 
upon their hands, and any breaking of the 
monotony is welcomed as a godsend. 



When the first school was opened at Cape 
Prince of Wales the seating room was lim- 
ited. The Eskimos crowded in until the 
building was packed to suffocation. The 
teacher was enthusiastic over making the 
most of his opportunity, and so arranged to 
work extra time and to have a morning and 
afternoon session for different pupils. Both 
sessions were so enthusiastically attended 
that careful watch had to be maintained 
while the lines filed in through the snow 
trenches to prevent the pupils who had at- 
tended in the morning from getting in for 
the afternoon period. It was thought that 
this enthusiasm would die out w^hen the nov- 
elty wore off, but such has not been found 
to be the case, and the attendance is con- 
tinuously good throughout the schools. 

In the native villages it is but natural that 
the teacher of the school should organize 
Sunday-schools, to which the whole commun- 
ity comes. In this way he reaches the older 
people and readily becomes the wise man of 
the community, replacing the medicine man 
as the general counselor. There is nothing 
of antagonism shown toward the introduc- 
tion of the new education, and strong affec- 
tions are quickly developed for the teachers 
by the natives. 



180 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




IN THE HEIGHT OF FASHION 10,000 MILES FROM BROADWAY. 



An example of this affection was shown 
one summer when the revenue cutter touched 
at Wainright in the Arctic. There had 
been a plan on foot to transfer the teacher 
at that place to another school, but with the 
coming of the revenue cutter the informa- 
tion was brought that he was to remain. 
The scene of joy that the announcement 
called forth was so hearty that the teacher 
escaped exhausted from the hugging admin- 
istered by the whole population. 

A stronger demonstration of affection for 
the white teacher even when brought in con- 
flict with the native was given in connection 



with the single tragedy 
in the history oi the 
school service, it result- 
ing in the death of H. 
R. Thornton, teacher 
at Cape Prince of 
Wales in 1893. An 
undesirable young Es- 
kimo had been expelled 
from the school, and, 
enlisting a friend in his 
cause, returned to the 
residence of the teacher 
at midnight, called him 
to the door, and shot 
him through with a 
whaling gun, the 
weapon used in the 
whaling boats for 
shooting the harpoon 
into the monster fish. 
Immediately upon 
learning of the tragedy 
the whole village turned out, ran the mur- 
derers down, and publicly executed them, 
calling upon the teacher's widow to witness 
the vengeance. 

Officials of the Bureau of Education at 
Washington who have been most among the 
Alaskans and know them best are most en- 
thusiastic over the possibilities in these north- 
ern races. They hold them to be far superior 
to the American Indian in intellect and char- 
acter, and capable of a higher and more 
ready civilization. 

There are a number of distinct races in 
Alaska, — contrary to the current acceptance 




THE UNITED STATES I'Ulil.lC SCHOOL BUILDING, i'LANTED IN A REMOTE NATJVK VILLAGE OF ALASKA. 



THE AlVAKENING OF THE ALASKAN. 



181 




UPPER CLASSMEN IN THE MORE ADVANCED SCHOOLS OF ST. MICHAELS, 



of the Eskimo as the sole representative of 
the peninsula. The Eskimos are, however, 
the strongest in number and give indications 
of superior traits to any of the others. They 
are self-reliant and hardy because of their 
long battle for existence in an unfavorable 
land. They are sharp and intelligent trad- 
ers, as is shown by the bargains that they 
push in trading with the whalers who fre- 
quent the villages. They are showing 
themselves capable of readily taking an edu- 
cation, and their artistic natures are - evi- 
denced by the native carving of ivories. 

The Aleuts, living on the Aleutian Islands 
over toward Asia, are of an entirely different 
class, and are the most unpromising of the 
Alaskan natives. At the time that the Col- 
onies were fighting for independence from 
England the Russians were seizing these 
islands. For two centuries they kept con- 
trol, and the history of this period is that of 
one repetition after another of horrible 
atrocities upon the natives. The result is a 
cringing, broken race that will need time to 
revive. The Athabascans are the residents 
of the valle3^s of the Yukon and its tribu- 
taries. They are more nearly related to the 
North American Indian than are any of the 
others, but have a touch of the Mongolian. 



These are fewer in number than are any of 
the other tribes. The Tlingets, in south- 
eastern Alaska, have been longer in contact 
with the whites, dress as they do, and are 
packers, miners, and rough workmen. In all 
there are about 35,000 natives, children and 
adults, most of whom have felt to a greater 
or less extent the influence of the United 
States public schools. 

With the additional funds in the hands of 
the Commissioner of Education during the 
past year the work of establishing schools 
has gone forward with greater strides than 
ever before. Of the sum appropriated, $100,- 
000 was to be used in the establishment of 
new schools. Ten new school buildings are 
being completed this winter, and the field is 
being more thoroughly investigated to find 
where others are most needed. 

The building of these schools is often 
fraught with much difficulty, as may be 
shown by the example of Diamedes Island, 
upon which a lone teacher is this winter iso- 
lated in his attempt to put up a building. 
These islands are in the middle of Bering 
Straits, the larger on the Russian side of the 
boundary line and the smaller on the Ameri- 
can side. This smaller island is a barren 
and precipitous rock, rising like a fortress 



182 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF RE^/EIVS, 




DR. SHELDON JACKSON. 

(United States General Agent of Education in 
Alaska.) 

from the Icy waters and accessible at but 
one point of its shoreline. In the fall of 
1907 a schooner was dispatched to this point 
with R. W. Thompson, who was to be the 
teacher, with lumber from Seattle from 
w^hich to build a schoolhouse, and with sup- 



plies for the winter. Upon arrival a por- 
tion of the supplies and cargo was un- 
loaded and a small amount of lumber, when 
heavy gales forced the boat to put to sea. 
At last report she had not yet succeeded In 
returning to unload the balance of her cargo, 
but the ambitious teacher succeeded In get- 
ting out a letter saying that he had built a 
shack of the lumber In hand, was at home 
for the winter, and Intended starting his 
school In the face of the adverse circum- 
stances. This case Is typical of many such 
attempts. It being the rule rather than the 
exception for the teacher to be placed alone 
in some village to work out his own problems. 
Franklin Moses, representing the Bureau 
of Education^ In the summer of 1906 pene- 
trated 1000 miles Inland, where he super- 
vised the erection of school buildings at 
Stevens Camp, Rampart, and Kokrimes on 
the Yukon, and at Nenana on the Tanana 
River. These schools and many more in 
various sections are being pushed to com- 
pletion as rapidly as the climate and difficulty 
of getting the material to the points of build- 
ing will allow. All materials were selected 
In Seattle and shipped 3000 or 4000 miles 
to the points of use. Here are erected com- 
fortable buildings such as form the centers of 
communities In '' God's country," and here 
Is planted the strong seed of civilization in 
the virgin soil with the Intention and hope of 
a fruition as broad as the snow-stretches of 
the land's wildernesses. 




THE WINTER MAILS GO DY DOG TRAIN, AND MAY OR MAY NOT ARRIVE TWICE IN A SEASON. 



GEORGE MEREDITH AT EIGHTY. 



BY G. W. HARRIS. 



*'npHE master of us all, George Mere- 
dith," said Mrs. Humphry Ward 
a year or two ago in a public address. Yet 
this was only one more tribute of the kind 
his fellow-writers have long delighted to be- 
stow upon the man who to-day more than 
any other living author dominates the world 
of English letters. For more than forty years 
they have vied with one another, and against 
obstreperous decrying criticism, in singing his 
praises; Robert Browning, A. C. Swinburne, 
John Morley, Justin McCarthy, Robert 
Louis Stevenson, William Ernest Henley, 
J. M, Barrie, Henry James, Richard Le 
Gallienne, — a page of this magazine might 
be filled with the names of the poets, novel- 
ists, essayists of the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century who have recognized and 
heralded Mr. George Meredith as a master 
craftsman in literature. So universal among 
his contemporaries was the high regard in 
which he was held that when Lord Tennyson 
died in 1892 Mr. Meredith was chosen with- 
out a dissenting voice to succeed him as presi- 
dent of the Society of English Authors. 

Popular appreciation of this writer has been 
a thing of much slower growth. Although 
his first novel, " The Ordeal of Richard 
Feveral," published in 1859, evoked enthu- 
siasm in some quarters, — the London Times 
praising it at once, — and French and Italian 
translations of it were soon published, nearly 
twenty years passed before it reached its sec- 
ond English edition. And for many years 
his other books fared no better. Justin 
McCarthy, in his " History of Our Own 
Times," said: "Distinguished, peculiar, and 
lonely is the place in fiction held by Mr. 
George Meredith." In America his earlier 
writings were hardly known at all ; not until 
his tenth novel, " Diana of the Crossways," 
in 1885 had opened the door to a larger audi- 
ence, were they much read. But since that 
time, in this country as well as in England, 
Mr. Meredith's work has been steadily gain- 
ing in popular favor. Two years ago his 
American publishers found it profitable to 
put out a '' pocket edition " of his complete 
writings, — the third American issue of his 
works. Several pirated editions of some of 
his novels, notably '' Diana of the Cross- 
ways," have sold thousands of copies. That 



the American public is reading him in ever- 
increasing numbers is attested by the librar- 
ians of the big public libraries, who tell one 
of having to replenish their stock of Mr. 
Meredith's books, or to add more copies, 
every five or six years. 

I. 

George Meredith has published about 
twenty-five books, prose and verse, and has 
taken such a grip on the life of his time as 
few authors of any age have been able to do. 
Not to know this man's work is to confess 
one's self deaf to one of the most eloquent 
voices of modern literature, — and more, to 
deprive one's self of a great store of mental 
pleasure of a rare kind. 

Available facts for a biography of the man 
are meager. He has never sought, or been 
willing to permit, personal publicity. " The 
best of me is in my books," he said to one 
inquirer. Though of Welsh and Irish blood, 
he was born in Hampshire, England, on Feb- 
ruary 12, 1 8^8. Both his parents died when 
he was a sm^ll child, leaving him to be edu- 
cated as a ward in chancery. Little has been 
told about those parents. Mrs. M. R. F. 
Oilman, who in 1888 prepared a volume of 
selections from Mr. Meredith called " The 
Pilgrim's Scrip," and who therein collected 
more data about his life than any other, says 
that " the blood of working ancestors flows 
in Meredith's veins, and perhaps this accounts 
for the sympathetic insight with which many 
of his homely characters are drawn." He re- 
ceived his early education in Germany, where 
he remained until he was fifteen years old. 
Then his guardian recalled him to England 
and set him to studying the law. This never 
appealed to his tastes, however, and as soon 
as he became his own master he abandoned it 
for journalism and literature. He soon 
found that he had chosen a difficult course. 
His life in London for many years, says Mrs. 
Oilman, was a hand-to-hand struggle with 
poverty in its harshest forms. He was ham^ 
pered with a load of debts of others' making. 
For a whole year he lived on a diet of oat- 
meal. In 1 866 he went to the Austro-Italian 
war as a correspondent for the London Morn- 
ing Post. That experience gave him mate- 
rial for his novel " Vittorla." Most of his 



184 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




From the Faintiiij.' I)y (;eor};e Frederick Watts. 



GEORGE MEREDITH. 



life since then has been passed In his cottage was a daughter of Thomas Love Peacock, 

home at Box-Hill in Surrey, where he has author of " Headlong Hall," " Melincourt," 

lived and worked in "contented poverty." "Maid Marian," and other novels. They 

He has been twice married. His first wife had one son. Mr. Meredith's second wife 



GEORGE MEREDITH AT EIGHTY, 



185 



died In 1886, leaving a son and a daughter. 

Mr. Meredith's first book was a volume 
of poems, published in 1851 and dedicated to 
Thomas Love Peacock. It did not cause any 
great stir In the literary w^orld, and he seems 
to have abandoned verse for a time thereafter, 
for It w^as eleven years before his second 
poetical offering to the w^orld appeared. But 
he had been busy Indeed In the field of fic- 
tion. In 1856 he published " The Shaving 
of Shagpat: An Arabian Entertainment," a 
strange Oriental extravaganza filled with an 
exuberant fancy, and the most successful of 
modern attempts at simulating the Eastern 
Imagination. In 1857 appeared " Farina," a 
graceful little love tale of mediaeval Cologne. 
The real beginning of Mr. Meredith's ca- 
reer as a novelist, however, was the publi- 
cation of " The Ordeal of Richard Feveral : 
A History of a Father and Son," In 1859. 
Here was a book which showed that a new 
master had entered the field of English fic- 
tion. It disclosed a mature mind and a 
practiced hand. Its author had arrived. It 
was the most powerful and at the same time 
the most artistic English novel of Its gener- 
ation, — and there were some great novels 
written In that generation. To-day It is as 
fresh and as fascinating as when It first ap- 
peared. The reader who comes upon It for 
the first time now can hardly believe that 
" Richard Feveral " was published In the 
same year that brought from the presses 
Thackeray's " Virginians," and Dickens' 
" Tale of Two Cities," and George Eliot's 
" Adam Bede." 

In 1 86 1 Mr. Meredith published " Evan 
Harrington," his second novel, which Is in 
every phase of It a remarkable contrast to 
" The Ordeal of Richard Feveral." The 
printing of '' Modern Love and Other 
Poems " In 1862 signaled an author as orig- 
inal and remarkable as a poet as he had al- 
ready shown himself to be as a novelist, and 
called forth encomiums from Browning and 
Swinburne, though the critics of that day 
abused him unconscionably. His third novel, 
" Emilia In England," appeared In 1864. He 
afterward changed Its title to " Sandra Bel- 
loni " (from the name of Its heroine: Emilia 
Alessarfdra BellonI). This was followed by 
*' Rhoda Fleming " in 1865 ; " Vlttoria " (a 
sequel to " Sandra BellonI ") In 1867 ; "The 
Adventures of Harry Richmond" In 1871 ; 
" Beauchamp's Career" in 1876; "The 
Egoist " in 1879 ; " The Tragic Comedians " 
In 1880. A third volume of verse, " Poems 
and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth," came In 



1883 ; the novel " Diana of the Crossways " 
in 1885; ''Ballads and Poems of Tragic 
Life " in 1887; " A Reading of Earth," more 
poems, in 1888; " One of Our Conquerors " 
In 1890; " Lord Ormont and His Aminta " 
In 1894, ^"d " The Amazing Marriage," last 
of the novels, in 1895. 

In 1895 ^Iso were gathered into one vol- 
ume three novelettes: " The Tale of Chloe," 
*' The House on the Beach," and " The Case 
of General Ople and Lady Camper," which 
originally had appeared In the New Quar- 
terly Magazine In 1 877 and 1879, and had 
been published serially by the New York Sun 
In 1890. In 1897 was published in a thin 
little duodecimo '' An Essay on Comedy and 
the Uses of the Comic Spirit," a lecture de- 
livered at the London Institution twenty 
years before and first printed In the New 
Quarterly Magazine for April, 1877. "Odes 
in Contribution to the Song of French 
History" appeared In 1898, and ''A 
Reading of Life, with Other Poems," in 
1901. 

IL 

In all this mass of work, prose and verse, 
George Meredith has always subordinated 
mere story-telling, for the story's or the tell- 
ing's sake, to the study and depiction of the 
development of character. The soul-life is 
for him the only life. The task he set him- 
self, and which he has wonderfully accom- 
plished, was " to write with a sense of re- 
sponsibility, to aim at presentation of char- 
acter rather than at story-telling, to regard 
an accurate psychology as morally obligatory, 
to satirize folly, and to present exemplars of 
Intelligent culture to appeal for approval to 
the Intellect." Intellect he has regarded as 
the chief endowment of man ; and he has 
worked and wrought steadily toward the de- 
velopment of man's understanding. 

Yet he has had good stories and strong 
stories to tell. His novels, with few excep- 
tions, are not only interesting, but fascinat- 
ing. They compel the reader's attention and 
they hold It as in a giant's grasp. He can 
pen you the most delightfully, dellciously 
charming Idyl of first love, and follow It with 
a tragedy as poignant as any of Shakespeare's 
own. He will take you on the wildest flight 
of fancy into undiscovered regions made alive 
by his teeming Imagination and filled with 
tropically luxuriant growths of men and man- 
ners, of things animate and Inanimate. He 
will paint you the life of his England In a 
bygone age or In the present year of grace. 



186 



THE AMERICA}^ RE^IElP' OF REVIEWS. 



He will spin you the most amazing and amus- 
ing yarn of adventure by land and sea, and 
through it all make 5'ou acquainted with 
characters that are true and real and con- 
vincing. His versatility is that of a master 
of life as well as of art. 

Of Death, of Life, those inwound notes are 
mine, 

he sings. He has the great gift of tragedy; 
and as a creator of comedy he is worthy to 
rank with his own belauded masters of the 
Comic Spirit: Aristophanes, Shakespeare, 
Cervantes, Moliere. One novel, " The Ad- 
ventures of Harry Richmond," alone is suffi- 
cient to prove him dowered above his con- 
temporaries with the art of narrative. 

He has given to the world of readers more 
characters than any other novelist of his gen- 
eration, — characters grave and gay, witty 
and stupid, learned and unlettered, wise and 
foolish, high and low, rich and poor, aris- 
tocratic and democratic, good and evil, beau- 
tiful and ugly, charming and disgusting, 
heroic and cowardly, noble and ignoble. 
Whether his story is tragic or comic or melo- 
dramatic, whether his plot is good, bad or 
indifferent, his people (that is the best of 
them, for he has had his failures of course) 



live and move and have a being as real for 
the reader as any personages in history. " In 
the world of man's creation," said the late 
William Ernest Henley, *' his people are citi- 
zens to match the noblest; they are of the 
aristocracy of the imagination, the peers in 
their own right of the society of romance." 
And because these characters are so real, be- 
cause they are living, breathing, thinking 
human beings like ourselves, their conduct 
becomes of absorbing interest. The Mere- 
dith novels are pre-eminent for their dra- 
matic qualities. One marvels that none of 
them has ever been adapted for the stage. 
What a delicious comedy " Evan Harring- 
ton " would make on the boards ! What a 
fine moving play could be fashioned from 
" Diana of the Crossways! " There is not 
one in the long list of the novels that has not 
an abundance of stirring scenes and effective 
situations and scores of brilliant dialogues 
and Avitty conversations ready made to the 
adapter's hand. In this day of the drama- 
tized novel it is curious indeed that such 
a mine of golden riches has remained so long 
unworked, if not undiscovered. 

Mr. J. M. Barrie has called Mr. Meredith 
the greatest wit England has produced. Cer- 
tainly he is the wittiest Englishman since 




MR. MEREDITH S SWISS CHALET^ AT BOX HILL, WHERE HE DOES HIS WORK. 



GEORGE MEREDITH AT EIGHTY, 



187 



Shakespeare. And he is the greatest satirist 
of his time. He has humor, and his humor 
can be playful, or shrewd, or rollicking, or 
tender, or fantastic, or subtle, at will. But 
wit is the meat of him ; satire is his daily 
bread. He is a demolisher of shams, a sworn 
foe to false pride, false creeds, false senti- 
ment. The egoist, the dogmatist, the dilet- 
tante, he lashes mercilessly, not once, but time 
and time again. 

He does this in a style that is a constant 
marvel of successful adaptation to the pur- 
pose in view. It is a wonderful thing that 
prose style of his, and a fearful. It has made 
his bitterest enemies and some of his stanch- 
est friends. It is a pitfall and a despair to 
his imitators, a source of unbounded glee to 
his critics, a stumbling block to all lazy, lan- 
guid, or lackwit readers. It has been not in- 
aptly characterized by his own description 
of Carlyle's style: 

A wind in the orchard style, that tumbled 
down here and there an appreciable fruit with 
uncouth bluster ; sentences without commence- 
ment running to abrupt endings and smoke, like 
waves against a sea-wall, learned dictionary 
words giving a hand to street slang. All the 
pages in a breeze, the whole book producing a 
kind of electrical agitation in the mind and 
the joints. 

It is all that and more. It is an aristo- 
cratic style with democratic sympathies. This 
style is above all things picturesque, vivid, 
imaginative. Mr. Meredith tears old phrases 
to tatters and casts his thought in new molds. 
His hatred of the commonplace is equaled 
only by his intolerance of shams. He thinks 
over his words, and he puts new life into Eng- 
lish prose. He must have the largest vocabu- 
lary possessed by any living Englishmen; yet 
he does not hesitate to coin new words when 
he needs them for a new use or some subtle 
shade of meaning. He is an inveterate phrase 
hunter, but an eminently successful one. He 
is the foremost epigrammatist who ever wrote 
in English, — the only one, really, who has 
constantly cut and polished his gems with 
that lapidarian care emulated of the great 
literary craftsmen of France. And he has 
been singularly happy, for the most part, in 
escaping the snare that lurks for the maker 
of maxims, — the uttering of half-truths for 
whole ones. It is a true humility that saves 
him. His knowledge of the world's litera- 
ture is as vast and as intimate as his under- 
standing of human nature. Of Sir Austin 
Feveral, the great aphorist of his own crea- 
tion, he said : 



'■' Our new thoughts have thrilled dead bos- 
oms," he wrote ; by which avowal it may be 
seen that youth had manifestly gone from him, 
since he had ceased to be jealous of the an- 
cients. 

And again he makes Sir Austin say: 

"A maker of Proverbs, — what is he but a 
narrow mind with the mouthpiece of a nar- 
rower? . . . Consider the sort of minds in- 
fluenced by set sayings. A Proverb is the half- 
way house to an Idea, I conceive, and the ma- 
jority rest there content: can the keeper of such 
a house be flattered by his company?" 

Some of Mr. Meredith's epigrams are 
merely clever, brilliantly clever always, oth- 
ers are packed with the wisdom of the ages. 
As a small sample, however inadequate, of 
his quality, take these few gleaned at random 
from a half dozen of the novels :_ 

Who rises from prayer a better man, his 
prayer is answered. 

Which is the coward among us? He who. 
sneers at the failings of humanity. 

A mercurial temperament makes quicksilver 
of any amount of cash. 

When love is hurt it is self-love that requires 
the opiate. 

It is the soul which does things in life, — the 
rest is vapor. 

An opinion formed by a woman is inflexible ; 
the fact is not half so stubborn. 

Cynicism is intellectual dandyism without the 
coxcomb's feathers. 

To have the sense of the eternal in life is a 
short flight for the soul. To have had it is the 
soul's vitality. 

Brains will beat Grim Death, if we have 
enough of them. 

Otherwise than merely on his aphorisms 
Mr. Meredith has ever been a fastidious 
worker, filing and revising time and again, 
going over his volumes with emendatory pen- 
cil even after years of publication. His 
severest critics admit that, whatever his 
faults, he is a great artist, possessed of both 
power and charm, whose work is always 
artistic. 

III. 

While his novels, partly because of the 
author's peculiarities of style, equally be- 
cause he demands that the reader shall bring 
an open and an active mind to his reading 
("Ideas," he says, "new-born and naked 
original ideas, are acceptable at no time to the 
humanity they visit to help to uplift it from 
the state of the beast ") long remained as 
" caviare to the general," Mr. Meredith's 
poems have been for a still smaller audience. 
This fact is easily explained. In a material- 
istic age the lovers of poetry form an almost 
infinitesimal minority in the great republic 



188 



THE AMERICAN REJ/IEW OF REyiEWS, 



of readers. And more than this: while Mr. 
Meredith's verse has the rugged strength of 
his prose, and even oftentimes the wit, one 
is tempted to say that the bulk of it lacks 
something of the grace of that w^onderful 
prose. For the most part he is the seer rather 
than the sensuous poet. He is a dramatic 
prophet. He has admitted the charge of a 
" pitch " in his comedies " considerably above 
our common human," justifying it by his 
tenet that " all right use of life and the one 
secret of life is to pave the ways for the firmer 
footing of those who succeed us." This is 
exemplified in his poems also. He is a philo- 
sophical poet: philosopher first, poet after- 
ward. But, having said this, one must has- 
ten to add that he is a poet, — he has inspira- 
tion and his inspiration is genuine. The 
Divine Fire is in his keeping. 

From what has already been said it may 
be gathered that according to Mr. Meredith's 
idea the chief function of poetry is to teach, 
rather than to give pleasure. The poet's 
business is to see and reveal. Whether the 
revelation is pleasing or displeasing to his 
contemporaries need not much concern the 
poet. According as the revelation is true 
(faithful to the vision) and complete, will 
it be beautiful, — yea, though its fierce new 
beauty blind alien eyes. That much of Mr. 
Meredith's poetry does blind alien eyes there 
is no denying. Yet we must take his earnest 
for it that the revealment of his vision is as 
nearly complete as his powers could make it. 
Concerning his style in prose he once said: 
*' Thought is tough, and dealing with thought 
produces toughness. Or when strong emo- 
tion is in tide against the active mind, there 
is perforce confusion." That remarkable 
sonnet, " The Promise in Disturbance," 
which stands as the pfoem to the volume of 
his collected poetry, contains a subtle charac- 
terization of his work in verse. He bids us, 
bewildered by the jangled music of the 
words, 

But listen in the thought; so may there come 
Conception of a newly-added chord, 

Commanding space beyond where ear has home. 
In labor of the trouble at its fount, 

Leads Life to an intelligible Lord 
The rebel discords up the sacred mount. 

Yet he can be as musical as the most melo- 
dious, and as simple, when so minded. Many 
of his lyrics are compacted of pure melody, 
hauntingly sweet; and among longer poems 
" Love in the Valley," " Melampus," " Seed- 
Time," and the masterly " Hymn to Color," 
to name no more, are filled with a music that 



is not. too new to be intelligible to any lover 
of good verse. Simply and delightfully mu- 
sical are also those three little masterpieces 
of genre-painting, " Juggling Jerry," " The 
Old Chartist," and " Martin's Puzzle," in 
which Mr. Meredith has dealt with the hum- 
blest rural life as feelingly as any English 
poet. 

This poet's best-loved themes, as he has 
indicated repeatedly by the titles of his poetry- 
books, are Tragic Life and the Joy of 
Earth — he delves into the primal emotions 
of the human heart; and he knows nature 
intimately and loves her deeply. " Modern 
Love," that splendid half-century of sixteen- 
lined sonnets, is the heart-breaking tragedy of 
a mismated husband and wife, 

"... two rapid falcons in a snare, 
Condemned to do the flitting of the bat," 

for whom, though each is solaced by another, 
there is no comfort. 

The wrong is mixed. In tragic life, God wot, 
No villain need be. Passions spin the plot: 
We are betrayed by what is false within. 

Like his own good physician Melampus, 

With love exceeding the simple love of the 
things 
That glide in grasses and rubble of woody 
wreck, 

Mr. Meredith, loving them all, walks among 
nature's creatures " as a scholar who reads 
a book." He loves the open meadow, the 
enchanted woods, the glow of dawn, the 
** dark eye-lashed twilight," the sunlight, the 
moonlight, the winter stars, the '' day of the 
cloud in fleets," and the rain, — '' the glad 
refresher of the grain." Nature's every mood 
is known to him. His '' Lark Ascending " 
is as living (and as tuneful) a bird as any 
in English lyric, which *' all little birds that 
are " fill " with their sweet jargoning ": 

He rises and begins to round, 
He drops the silver chain of sound. 
Of many links without a break, 
In chirrup, whistle, slur and shake, 
All intervolved and spreading wide, 
Like water-dimples down a tide 
Where ripple ripple overcurls, 
And eddy into eddy whirls. 

The starting point of Mr. Meredith's na- 
ture creed is found in that incisive sonnet of 
independence, '' My Theme ": 

I say but that this love of Earth reveals 
A soul beside our own to (quicken, quell, ^ 
Irradiate, and through ruinous floods uplift. 

It culminates in the teaching of " Earth's 
Secret": 



GEORGE MEREDITH AT EIGHTY. 



189 



Not solitarily in fields we find 

Earth's secret open, though one page is there; 

Her plainest, such as children spell, and share 

With bird and beast ; raised letters for the blind. 

Not where the troubled passions toss the mind, 

In turbid cities, can the key be bare. 

It hangs for those who hither thither fare, 

Close interthreading nature with our kind. 

They, hearing History speak, of what men were. 

And have become, are wise. The gain is great 

In vision and solidity ; it lives. 

Yet at a thought of life apart from her, 

Solidity and vision lose their state. 

For Earth, that gives the milk, the spirit gives. 

This is the teaching that recurs again and 
again throughout his later poems, as a fun- 
damental theme returns in a great musical 
composition. Thus, in the " Ode to the 
Spirit of Earth in Autumn " : 

She can lead us, only she, 

Unto God's footstool, whither she reaches. 

Behold in yon stripped Autumn, shivering gray. 

Earth knows no desolation. 

She smells regeneration 

In the moist breath of decay. 

Autumn is the seed-time. " Death is the 
word of a bovine day." In " Outer and 
Inner " he sings : 

I neighbor the invisible 

So close that my consent 
Is only asked for spirits masked 

To leap from trees and flowers. 
And this because with them I dwell 

In thought, while calmly bent 
To read the lines dear Earth designs 

Shall speak her life on ours. 

Accept, she says ; it is not hard 

In woods ; but she in towns 
Repeats, accept ; and have we wept, 

And have we quailed with fears, 
Or shrunk with horrors, sure reward 

We have whom knowledge crowns ; 
Who see in mould the rose unfold. 

The soul through blood and tears. 

IV. 

Mr. Meredith's greatest achievement as a 
literary artist is his successful handling of the 
problems of sex, the treatment of love. There 
is the mark of the master. Your ordinary 
novelist vi^hen he comes to the presentment of 
his lovers, their actions, bearing, w^ords, 
flounders about inextricably in a slough of 
despond ; he fails at the crucial test. Mr. 
Meredith's marvelous insight enables him to 
meet that test triumphantly. He know^s the 
hearts of his women as "well as those of his 
men. His love scenes are among the best 
things he has given us; indeed, they are 
among the best things in all literature. 

To create characters that live, said Al- 



phonse Daudet, that is the business of the 
novelist, rather than to write fine prose. It 
is Mr. Meredith's distinction to have done 
both. The teaching of his novels is the same 
as that of his poems: The life of the spirit 
is the only life. Disregard death. " Train- 
ing ourselves to live in the Universal, we 
rise above the individual." And '* the way 
to spiritual life lies in the complete unfold- 
ing of the creature, not in the nipping of his 
passions. An outrage to nature helps to ex- 
tinguish his light." His own life has been 
the proof of the efficacy of his teaching. He 
has been a great lover, not alone of nature 
and of nature's God, but of his fellow men. 
Contemptuous of traditional creeds and their 
belittling tendencies, he has worked out his 
own salvation; and he has shown that '' it is 
possible to rise above the temporal and per- 
sonal, however dark and painful it may be, 
and to live wholly, and even joyfully, in the 
Universal and Eternal." 

This philosophical novelist and poet has 
been as great a preacher as Thomas Carlyle 
or Matthew Arnold, but a saner mind than 
either, with a wider sympathy and a greater 
liberality. While the English language lasts 
the best of his work will live. And it will 
continue to be a powerful influence toward 
directing the world's advance, — a force that 
makes for righteousness. His work is not 
without flaws; there are faults of construc- 
tion, some mistakes that are apparent to any 
critical tyro. In the bulk of his writing the 
chief fault is excess, — an excess of persons, 
things, scenes, emotions, thoughts hardly ger- 
mane to the matter in hand, digressions, 
words; "the superflux that proceeds from 
intensely passionate feeling" in conception." 
And, to quote Mr. William Winter again, 
" an afl^uence of fancy is more grateful than 
the frigid sense of want." 

Standing to-day with the snows of eighty 
years upon him, yet with " head erect and 
heart still young," and reaflRrming his con- 
viction gained from long and deep experi- 
ence that " there is nothing which the body 
suffers which the soul may not profit by," 
George Meredith, the Nestor of English 
writers, may not unfittingly be characterized 
by these lines from the poet of his intellectual 
kinship : 

He there with the brand flamboyant, broad o'er 

night's forlorn abyss. 
Crowned by prose and verse ; and wielding, with 

Wit's bauble. Learning's rod . . . 
Well? Why, he at least believed in Soul, was 

very sure of God. 



NEW BUSINESS STANDARDS AT WASHINGTON- 
WORK OF THE KEEP COMMISSION. 

BY C. H. FORBES-LINDSAY. 



V\/^HAT would be thought of a railroad employed copying letters in longhand into 

company, a bank, or a publishing- huge tomes that were never referred to. In 

house which should permit one of its depart- one of the offices where the system of book- 

ments to purchase ink, jTar after year, at the keeping recommended by the commission has 



rate of $3 per dozen 
quarts, while an- 
other department 
was supplied with 
precisely the same 
brand of writing- 
fluid at the uniform 
price of $1.70 per 
dozen quarts, or of 
a large corporation 
in which the morn- 
ing's mail regularly 
reached the desks of 
the persons for 
whom it w^as des- 
tined not earlier 
than noon of the 
following day? Yet 
these are but illus- 
trations of practices 
and methods that 
until quite recently 
prevailed in gov- 
ernment offices at 
Washington. 

It was the " Keep 
Commission," offi- 
cially known as the 
Committee on De- 
partmental Meth- 
ods, that brought to 
light not only a 
number of startling 
facts, such as the 
above mentioned, 
but revealed at the 




HON. JAMES R. GARFIELD. 

(Secretary of the Interior, and an active member 
of tlie Keep Commission from tlio beginning of its 
worls in the departments at Washington.) 



been installed a sin- 
gle ledger is now 
made to serve the 
purpose for which 
400 were formerly 
employed, and the 
one is no larger than 
any of those which 
it has replaced. In 
another bureau, to 
which some 700 
offices report, the 
monthly record of 
each has been re- 
duced from about 
50,000 words to 
eight or ten lines, 
and this with im- 
provement, rather 
than impairment, of 
the service. In 
many instances the 
committees found 
two, — and in some 
cases three and 
four, — clerks doing 
precisely the same 
work. And in not 
a few cases it was 
work that it has 
been advisable to 
dispense with alto- 
gether. 

The needless 
duplication 
of " places " was 



same time errors and irregularities in method not the only evil uncovered by the commis- 
which demanded immediate correction in the sion. It was fotmd that the Government had 
interest of efficient and economical govern- been clinging to absurdly antiquated business 
ment. Many of the indicated reforms have practices out of mere bureaucratic regard for 
already been made,, but others must await precedent. In offices that have an immense 
the sanction of Congress. quantity of accounts to make out billing ma- 
Abuses that grew out of the spoils sys- chines had never been employed, — merely be- 
tem were found to be still in existence, — cause such labor-saving devices lacked the 
as in one division where sixty-five men were sanction of precedent. Such anomalous prac- 



NEIV BUSINESS STANDARDS AT WASHINGTON. 



191 



tices as that followed by the Government 
Printing Office in paying the representatives 
of dead employees for vacation leave w^hich 
the deceased did not happen to take rest upon 
defective or ill-judged statutes which only 
Congress itself can repair. 

The investigation which has uncovered 
these conditions, thereby effecting a saving of 
millions of dollars annually to the taxpayers, 
has actually cost the Government about 
$2000. All those f mployed in the work ren- 
dered their services without compensation and 
without taking time from their regular duties. 
This fact, in itself, is a striking illustration 
of the new spirit of devotedness that has 
entered our civil service and is fast pervading 
its ranks. 

In constituting the Committee on Depart- 
mental Methods, somewhat more than two 
years ago, President Roosevelt chose five of 
the younger officials of the civil service, each 
one of w^hom already had a reputation for 
administrative ability and breadth of view. 
These men were named: Hon. Charles A. 
Keep, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury; 
Hon. Frank H. Hitchcock, First Assistant 
Postmaster-General ; Hon. Lawrence O. 
Murray, Assistant Secretary of Commerce 
and Labor; Hon. James R. Garfield, at that 
time chief of the Bureau of Corporations, but 
since appointed Secretary of the Interior, and 
Hon. Gifford Pinchot, Chief of the Forest 
Service. Early last year Mr. Keep, who as 
chairman of the commission had given the 
body Its name, resigned his Treasury posi- 
tion to accept a New York Public Service 
Commlssionership. 

The commission was directed by the Presi- 
dent to ascertain where and in what respects 
our present Government methods fall short 
of the best business standards of to-day and 
to recommend measures of reform. 

The commission carefully selected seventy 
employees of the Government, with varied ex- 
perience, and formed them into sub-commit- 
tees, which were used as probes to search the 
innermost recesses of the administrative ma- 
chinery and discover the actual existing con- 
ditions. The committees made close Inquiry 
into every condition and every phase of work 
connected with the service, and the resultant 
reports and recommendations exhaustively 
cover the ground, from sanitation of offices 
to making of Government contracts. 

The remedial recommendations of the com- 
mission have almost all met with the approval 
of the President, and, where the authority of 
legislation is not necessary, they have been put 




HON. CHARLES A. KEEP. 

(From whom the " Committee on Departmental 
Methods " derived its popular designation.) 

Into effect with as little delay as possible, so 
that this reform movement has been in ^active 
operation for two years and has advanced a 
long way toward the contemplated consum- 
mation. When the desired action of Congress 
has been secured the executive branches of 
our Government will be by far the most effi- 
cient and economical of any in existence. 

A brief review of a few of the subjects 
treated by the commission will aiiford an idea 
of the scope and direction of the inquiry and 
of the measure of improvement likely to result 
from It. 

PERSONNEL AND SALARIES OF THE SERVICE. 

The salaries now paid In the departmental 
service in Washington are based upon a classi- 
fication of the clerks made by acts of Con- 
gress of 1853 and 1854, which graded the 
entire clerical force (except the departments 
of State and Justice) Into four classes. To- 
day there are individual bureaus that have 
more employees than the entire departmental 
service had In 1853, and the responsibilities 
of their chiefs are Incalculably greater than 
w^ere those of the men who held similar posi- 



192 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 



tlons fifty 3'ears ago. Nevertheless, there has 
never been any attempt to reclassify the posi- 
tions, or to adjust the salaries with reference 
to these changed conditions, so that, at the 
present time, the most startling ianomalies and 
inequities exist. Not only is there a great 
diversity of compensation for the same kind 
of work, but persons receiving the higher 
salaries are in many cases rendering the sim- 
plest routine service, while others in the low- 
est grades are performing duties of the most 
exacting character. Throughout the entire 
service the relation of the easier position, the 
more difficult position, and the responsible 
supervisory position has not for many years 
been adequately distinguished by the salary 
grades. 

The lower grades of clerical employees in 
the Government service are better paid than 
the same class in private employment. Never- 
theless, these positions have been the hardest 
of ail to fill w^ith competent persons. In the 
last fiscal 3^ear, 1462 eligibles were offered 
positions at less than $900 a year in the de- 
partments at Washington. More than 30 
per cent, declined, with the serious conse- 
quence that it was necessary to appoint in 
their stead individuals of distinctly inferior 
qualifications. The effect of this condition is 
far-reaching, since it is from the lower grades 
that the service is built up. It may be in- 





HON. FRANK H. TITTCHCOCK. 
(First Asslstnnt Postraastor-Oonoral.) 



HON. LAWRENCE 0. MURRAY. 

(Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Labor.) 

ferred that the young man of parts, who is 
confident of his ability to rise in the world, 
cannot be tempted by the higher salary at the 
outset of his career, when it is accompanied 
by prospects of promotion decidedly limited 
as compared with those offered by commercial 
corporations. 

On the other hand, the difficulty experi- 
enced in securing properly qualified clerks for 
positions paying from $iooo to $1500, and 
the great number of resignations from these 
grades, clearly indicate that the same charac- 
ter of service commands higher compensation 
in the business market. As to the super- 
visory, professional, and technical positions, 
they have long been recognized as very much 
underpaid in our departments. 

These conditions have the effect of attract- 
ing to the Government service two distinct 
classes of men: First, those who have little 
ambition and no stomach for the struggle of 
the strong, and who find in a Washington 
clerkship a peaceful haven and a modest com- 
petence for life. Second, men actuated by 
public spirit, hope of political preferment, or 
desire to do big things, who are willing to 
sink monetary considerations for the sake of 
exceptional opportunities. Illustrations of 
this class are: Assistant Secretary of State 
Robert Bacon; Mr. Gifford Pinchot, of the 
Poorest Service; Dr. Charles D. Walcott, of 
the Smithsonian Institution; Mr. Frederick 
Newell, of the Reclamation Service. In such 



NEIV BUSINESS STANDARDS AT WASHINGTON. 



193 



instances we find men of the highest adminis- 
trative ability directing interests equivalent to 
the management of a great railroad, on sala- 
ries of $4000 or $5000 a year. 

The recommendations of the commission, 
which will require Congressional approval, 
contemplate a complete reclassification of the 
service and a corresponding readjustment of 
salaries. The proposed system aims to at- 
tract a higher grade of recruits, by doing away 
with the $50 and $60 a month clerks and 
making the salary for the lowest grade $900 
a year. Frequent promotion is provided for, 
favoritism is guarded against, and the ulti- 
mate prospect is improved by a suggested 
long-service pension and life insurance. In 
the upper grades the salaries are placed 
sufficiently high to develop and retain the 
best executive and expert service. 

The commission estimates that these in- 
creases in remuneration will entail no more 
than 10 per cent, addition to the appropria- 
tions for salaries, which w^ould represent an 
amount trivial in comparison with the sum 
that will be saved as a result of the economies 
already effected by the investigation, and 
would be further justified by the higher class 
of entrants to the Government service and 
the enhanced standard of eflficiency that will 
be maintained in tvtxy grade. 

INTRODUCING UP-TO-DATE COMMERCIAL 
METHODS. 

One of the most important features of lat- 
ter-day commercial accounting is the analyt- 
ical form of bookkeeping, which is styled 
" cost-keeping." Manufacturing establish- 
ments employ it to ascertain in -detail the cost 
of articles produced ; railroads use it in the 
analyses of their operating expenses, and in- 
surance companies depend upon it for statis- 
tics of the general costs of management and 
agency operation. States and municipalities 
are adopting the system with marked effect, 
and it has proved to be of no less assistance 
in government work than in commercial busi- 
ness. It will make comparison possible be- 
tween the operations of establishments do- 
ing the same class of manufacturing, such as 
mints, arsenals, and navy yards. It will en- 
able the head of a department or bureau to 
determine where economies may be effected 
by introducing new arrangements in organ- 
ization, or new methods In practice, to esti- 
mate more Intelligently on the probable cost 
of future operations, to make contracts with 
closer calculation, to fix selling prices on 
products transferred to other branches of the 




HON. GIFFORD PINCHOT. 
(Chief of the Forest Service.) 

Government, or sold to foreign governments, 
or to private concerns. 

Cost-keeping, heretofore practiced in only 
two or three recently-organized government 
bureaus, will in future be employed wherever 
benefit can be derived from it, and the re- 
sultant advantages in mere dollars and cents 
must amount to millions every year. 

In the matter of accounting, the commis- 
sion found even the Treasury deplorably be- 
hind the times. This was one of the first sub- 
jects Investigated, and reforms have been in 
force long enough to show the most markedly 
beneficial effects. As examples: The Treas- 
ury, which formerly only balanced Its books 
once a year, at the expenditure of a great deal 
of time and trouble, now has a double-entry 
system of bookkeeping In force which enables 
It to strike a true balance at the close of each 
day's work. The account of the disbursing 
officer at New York, which used to take six 
months to make out. Is now completed In two 
weeks. In a certain branch of the Govern- 
ment, where large and numerous financial 
transactions are carried on, the oflficlals, who 
were accustomed to take ninety days to ren- 
der an account, are now ready to do so daily. 
If a disbursing oilRcer makes his last payment, 
for Instance, at ten o'clock in the morning, he 



194 



THE AMERICAN RBJ/IEW OF REy/ElVS. 



can give a complete account of his affairs at 
noon of the same day. The Auditor of the 
Treasury, who has been in the habit, — and 
necessarily so under the old system, — of set- 
tling disbursing officers' accounts largely on 
faith, now has all the checks and vouchers 
before him with which to verify them. 

These improvements, be it understood, 
have not been achieved by any increase of the 
machinery. They are simply the results of 
better system, attained with less labor than 
was expended on the antiquated and cumber- 
some methods which have been abolished. 

NEEDED REFORMS IN THE PURCHASE OF 
SUPPLIES. 

It would naturally be supposed that in an 
institution purchasing supplies in such enor- 
mous quantities as does our Government the 
patent opportunities for economy and stand- 
ardization would be embraced. Such has 
not, however, been the case. Each depart- 
ment, — and, in cases, a separate bureau or di- 
vision, — advertises independently for what it 
needs, and contracts at a price without knowl- 
edge or regard for what the same goods are 
costing other branches of the Government or 
private corporations. A certain mucilage 
costs one department $1.84 per dozen quarts 
and another $3 per dozen quarts. The prices 
of the same make of pencils range from $2.27 
per gross to $3.36 per gross. The cost of ice 
varies from 13 to 30 cents per 100 pounds, 
and no two departments contract for coal at 
the same figures. It should be borne in* mind 
that articles of small unit value are consumed 
in quantities that represent hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, and the aggregate bills of 
the Government for such ordinary supplies 
run into the millions yearly. 

No attempt whatever has been made to 
standardize supplies, so that 133 varieties of 
pencils, 28 kinds of ink, 263 different styles 
of pen-points, and all sorts of typewriter 
ribbon, are used in the various government 
offices. Hardly any check is placed upon 
waste or peculation. It would seem that 
every employee of the Government in Wash- 
ington, from cabinet minister to colored mes- 
senger, uses twenty-three pencils each month, 
or, say, a total of 7,000,000 pencils a year, at 
a cost of $150,000. 

A bill to provide for the betterment of 
these conditions was introduced at the last 
session of Congress, but it was blocked in the 
Senate. However, in case the opposition to 
the measure continues in the present Con- 
gress, the Keep Commission has devised a 




MR. OVERTON PRICE. 
(Secretary of the Keep Commission.) 

plan which will make for a great improve- 
ment in the purchase of supplies. An inter- 
department committee is suggested which 
shall insure uniformity in prices and, with the 
co-operation of the Bureau of Standards, 
shall establish standards of quality and test 
goods furnished under contract. 

RESULTS IN EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY. 

There are many phases of the commission's 
work, and highly important ones, which it 
is impossible to notice in the limits of this ar- 
ticle. The changes effected and suggested 
seem to be in almost every case adequate and 
practicable. They must result in vast im- 
provement of service and enormous economy 
of administration. These are more than ever 
important considerations in this day, when 
modern civilization demands of Government 
an ever increasing service and the exercise of 
entirely new functions. 

Of course, it is impossible to make a pre- 
cise statement of the amount of saving in 
money, or of the degree of improvement in 
service that may be expected to result from 
the labors of the Keep Commission, but a 
few concrete illustrations will afford the 
basis for a general idea' on both points. Care- 
ful inquiry among chiefs of bureaus and divi- 
sions elicited the assurance that in a great 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 195 

majority of cases they anticipate at least jest is almost a literal truth. The reports 

doubled efficiency, and economies averaging have been cumbersome and repellent. They 

30 per cent, of former expenditures. contained repetitions of the same matter, 

The Interior Department has almost com- scientiiic treatises, general discussions, philo- 
pleted a thorough reorganization. There sophical reflections, biographies and eulogies, 
were formerly a number of divisions through and, in short, irrelevant and redundant mat- 
w^hich all correspondence and matters for the ter of all kinds, and illustrations that had no 
consideration of the Secretary passed and v^ere excuse for their presence. In compliance 
prepared for his action. The system involved with an executive order, the current reports 
serious delays and a great amount of unnec- have been restricted to pertinent subjects and 
essary labor. There w^ere other divisions, — are free from the objectionable features, 
one to furnish documents, another stationery. They are, in consequence, much more useful, 
a third furniture, and so on, — w^hich have all and have cost $200,000 less than usual. 
been consolidated, with important saving in An enormous quantity of utterly useless 
work and expense. In the Land Office the printed material for which no demand ex- 
increase in efficiency is incalculable, — certain- isted has been issued by the Government 
ly several hundred per cent., — and the saving yearly. In the past ten years 800,000 dupli- 
in administration will be $500,000 a year, cate volumes have been returned to the Super- 
The estimate for the Secretary's office proper intendent of Documents, and he has, for lack 
is $40,000 less than last year, despite the fact of storage facilities, declined the return of 
that the business to be done is greater. The several hundred thousand more. And these 
work of the department is performed in less figures relate solely to duplication in distri- 
than half the time it used to consume, and bution to libraries and take no account of 
the task of improvement is still in progress. similar waste in the distribution to individ- 

Public printing offers a good illustration uals. How great that has been may be in- 

of -decrease in expenditures accompanied by ferred from the experience gained in the issue 

improved service. A member of the cabinet of two recent publications where the usual 

once said to the writer: " If an official wants method was departed from. By taking care 

to effectually hide something from the pub- to prevent more than one copy going to the 

lie he cannot do better than put it in his an- same individual a saving of 85,000 volumes 

nual report. No one will ever see it." This was effected in these cases alone. 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 

BY WILLIAM H. ALLEN. 

(Secretary of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York City.) 

' I ^HE importance of diagnosing the diseases unpropertied, enfranchisement of women, in- 
with which American municipalities are itiative, referendum, primary-election law, 
sore afflicted is illustrated by the variety of lectures to the foreign-born on American his- 
remedies encountered in one day while visit- tory, — each in turn is offered as a panacea 
ing Boston. A college professor wanted each for misgovernment in American cities, 
city divided into small districts for compul- The prevailing view among Boston edi- 
sory public discussion of city affairs. A unl- tors, and one that has been reiterated by edi- 
versity president urged government by a com- tors in New York, Philadelphia, Louisville, 
mission of " best, intelligent men," In num- Chicago, Buffalo, San Francisco, etc., was 
bers small enough that the blame for mis- effectively stated by Mayor Hibbard, of Bos- 
government could be definitely located. The ton, who took office on January i : 
private secretary of an eminent man wanted ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ conducting a bureau of 
mtelligent men to follow the example of his municipal research. Previous to the time of 
chief, who had been " talking every two leaving my former position and becoming 
weeks on the need for better men." An ac- mayor, I joined an organization where it was 

rnnnf-rinl- nf nntmnnl reniitp demanrlpd rlassl- necessary that I should state my occupation. 

countant ot national repute demanaea ciassi j ^^j^ . . g^^ween hay and grass." Now it's 

tied accounts. Restriction ot immigration, gj-ass. for the on^ thing I have found out after 

disfranchisement of the Ignorant and of the ten days of study is that I know less now about 



196 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 




Photo£raph by Davis & Sanford, N. Y, 

MR. HENRY BRUERE. 
(Director of the Bureau of Municipal Research.) 

municipal administration in Boston than when 
I began. As to the problem of municipal ad- 
ministration, there is one sentence in the state- 
ment recently made by Comptroller Metz of 
New York that appeals to me strongly. It is 
that in which he says : " The problem of this 
office to-day is not one of discovering an irregu- 
larity here and there, but rather of reorganizing 
from start to finish this city's business methods 
so that irregularities that are invited to-day 
cannot occur next year." Now that is what we 
are trying to do in the city of Boston, and it is 
in that spirit that I welcome the officers of the 
Bureau of Municipal Research of New York. 

THINGS IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT A CITY 
GOVERNMENT, 

By " business methods," Comptroller Metz 
and Mayor Hibbard refer to methods that 
make it easy to exercise intelligent judg- 
ment. Intelligent judgment about business 
is rarely exercised except where it is easy to 
obtain the facts as to business results. In- 
telligent judgment with regard to municipal 
officials and municipal government will never 
be possible until it is made easy for all who 
may be benefited or injured by government 
to learn the essential facts as to government 
acts and community needs. In business the 
essential thing is not the name, the pedigree, 
the complexion or respectability of the man- 
ager, but the specific things that the manager 



does. So in government the indispensable 
facts are not the political relation, the erudi- 
tion, or personal characteristics of the official, 
but the specific things that he gets done, the 
specific things that he leaves undone or does 
wrong, the specific defects of government that 
injure the governed, causing unnecessary sick- 
ness, wretchedness, waste, arrested develop- 
ment of child life and of community life. 

THE APPLICATION. 

For business, methods have been devised 
that make it easy to record acts as they occur, 
to classify them where they belong and to re- 
port them regularly to managers and stock- 
holders. The application of business meth- 
ods to government means ( i ) the preparation 
of documents which may be used as evidence 
for locating the responsibility for each trans- 
action, (2) the current filing and recording 
of this evidence in such manner that it may 
not be lost, (3) the calling each act by its 
right name, (4) the placing facts of a kind 
together in records of account that they may 
be interpreted, and (5) the reporting side 
by side what work is done and the cost of that 
work promptly and regularly to responsible 
officials, to electors, and to other parties in 
interest. 

It is easier for the same methods to suc- 
ceed in business than in government, because 




MR. FREDERICK A. CLEVELAND. 

(Technical Director of the Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search.) 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 



197 



the parties In Interest are relatively few In 
most business enterprises. Where interested 
parties are numerous business enterprise has 
shown the same defects as government enter- 
prise; Inside Information has brought inside 
Influence and Inside profits. Witness specific 
Insurance and transportation evils familiar to 
the public mind. The protection of Inter- 
ested parties at a distance from the acting 
representative has developed In business the 
compulsory outside audit and the supervision 
now more or less efficiently exercised by State 
governments. The protection of the taxpayer 
at a distance from the acting municipal offi- 
cials requires efficient outside supervision and 
special knowledge such as can be exercised 
by volunteer bodies which, like the Bureau of 
Municipal Research, can co-operate with city 
officials to Insure the recording, reporting, 
publishing, and Interpreting of official acts 
and community needs so that the average tax- 
payer can easily exercise Intelligent judgment 
as to government. 

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN NEW YORK. 

Organized In 1906, Incorporated In May, 
1907, as an independent scientific body, this 
organization has published unsensatlonal, un- 
prejudiced statements of fact showing the re- 
sults of the following studies : ( i ) The city 
of New York, the street-railway companies 
and $1,500,000 of unpaid bills; (2) some 
phases of the work of the department of street 
cleaning that make Inefficiency and dirty 
streets inevitable; (3) improved property 
leased by the city of New York contrary to 
public health and morals; (4) how Manhat- 
tan Is governed; (5) making a municipal 
budget; (6) a department of municipal audit 
and examination; (7) follow-up studies In 
all fields after first examination and report; 
(8) for the report of the Charter Revision 
Commission to Governor Hughes, the bureau 
charted the functions of the present govern- 
ment of New York City, showing what each 
department is expected to do and through 
what machinery and employees it now at- 
tempts to do It, the organization of twenty 
departments being shown In diagrams; (9) 
Incidental to the study of Manhattan Bor- 
ough and the Commissioners of Accounts' 
office, the Borough President of Manhattan 
was removed by Governor Hughes on charges 
of gross Incompetence, and the senior Com- 
missioner of Accounts resigned before the 
hearing of charges that he had employed 
men on the city payroll on private work dur- 
ing business hours. In an attempt to save 




MR. WILLIAM H. ALLEN. 
(Secretary of the Bureau of Municipal Researcli.) 

his own prestige, the Borough President of 
Manhattan removed the Commissioner of 
Public Works, Superintendent of Public 
Buildings and Offices, and the chief engineer 
of the Bureau of Highways, and appointed 
efficient men In their stead, and permitted 
them to substitute In many departments effi- 
cient for Inefficient methods and economy for 
waste. 

REORGANIZING A CITy's FISCAL SYSTEM. 

As results of this citizen co-operation on the 
basis of facts the government of New York 
City Is committed by resolution : ( i ) To uni- 
form accounts that will tell for what acts 
money Is spent, — Installed In five major de- 
partments January i, 1908; (2) to service 
records that will tell what acts are actually 
committed by employees and the results of 
those acts, the departments of health and 
street cleaning furnishing examples; (3) to 
annual budgets that will tell for what acts 
departments request funds, estimates being 
based upon actual cost of these same acts the 
preceding year, — eight departments having 
adopted the standard for 1908; (4) to a re- 
organization of its Inspection and' audit serv- 
ice, so that the veracity of statements from 
departments about acts, costs, and results can 
be proved, — notable results having already 



198 

I — 



THE AMERICAN kEyiElV OE REt/lBlVS. 



Department of Finance 

Organization CnArtT 



[mayor! ] 



; CORPORATION 
1 C0UN5EL_j 




I COMPTROLLER 



I Secretary 



IV DEPUTY COKPTROUXR 



ASSISTARI BEPUn CONPTROLUR 



lAW AND ADJUSTMENT DIVISION 



6EHERALACC0UWTING DWISlOW 



I Qrfice Staff | 



r 



I Expert Accquntawts[ 
I Gemeb*i Bookkeepiho Staff | | RECORD ROOM | 



BOOK eiNDEJ<S ROOM) 



DEPARTMENTAC ACCOUNTING 
Control Authorized but not ExERCistD 




Clerk to Comptroller 



ZVOEPUPf COMPTHOLUR 



CHIEF CLERK | 

— I BUREAU Of WUmCIPAl mVESTIGATION AND STATISTICS \ 



BUREAU OF AUDIT OF CLAIMS 
Office of Chiet Auoitob 

T 



CITY TREAS 

OFFICE OF CITY CHAM 



URr I 

MBERLAIW P ' 



I DisauRaiHG Brahch] 



AuoiTiMi; Corps BrancwI 
I EAAniwiNO Corps Branch | 



I Inspection Branch I • 

I T , 

I GoienAi. CL«im i I TtCHmOL Claihs | 



I AccouNTiNa Branch | 



I RtGiSTiiATioiiorCmiws Bbawcm | | ReeaTiwiow or Paykohs Branch \ 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS DIVISION] 



BUREAU FOR THE COUICTION OF TAXES 
Office in eaco 8oi»ou6m 



City Marshal^ 



Bureau of 
Personal Taxes 




CONTRACT ROOM 



CITY PAYMASTER 1 
\ REAL ESTATE DIVISION~| 



STOCK AND BOND DIVISION 



BUREAU FOR THE COLLECTION OF 
OTY REVENUE AND OF MARKETS 



BUREAU 0FASSt55MEWTS AND ARREARS 
Office tN each Borough 




I Clly MarKeta | 



CHART NO. I. 

(The inco-ordinated collection of functions of which Comptroller Metz has said, " There can be no per- 
manent improvement in controlling this city's finances M'ithout reorganizing this department.") 



been achieved by the Commissioners of Ac- 
counts' office, now in process of reorganiza- 
tion ; (5) to quarterly or annual reports to 
the public that will make intelligence easy 
and ignorance impossible except to those who 
refuse to read, — the best illustration being 
found in the department of health; (6) final- 
ly, which is perhaps most important of all, 
to the reorganization of the department of 
finance, which shall, to quote Comptroller 
Metz, " simplify the present cumbersome 
methods of transacting the business of this 
department; provide a system of revenue ac- 
counting for every branch of the city gov- 
ernment where collections are made, so that 
all revenues accrued may be collected; work 
out a plan whereby this office may exercise 
constant supervision over the accounts of the 
city departments as required by law, and for 
which work it has at present no organization 
whatsoever; insure the city against the un- 
necessary disbursement of funds by installing 
a modern and careful system of audit of all 
claims." 

According to the Comptroller, the aim of 
this program is not to gather statistics, not 
to make up beautiful balance sheets that lay- 



men cannot understand, but '' to insure such 
current records that not only the Comptroller 
can secure information without weeks of in- 
vestigation, but that citizens asking intelli- 
gent questions may be readily answered." 

The method by which the Bureau of 
Municipal Research and the staff of the 
Comptroller's office have been co-operating 
for the past year is illustrated by the two ac- 
companying charts, one showing how the de- 
partment of finance is now organized to ex- 
ercise its present charter powers over admin- 
istrative departments, the second embodying 
the bureau's suggestions for the reorganiza- 
tion of the department of finance necessary 
to the efficient exercise of its present charter 
powers. The second chart was not devised 
until experience showed that the department 
of finance as at present organized has neither 
mechanism nor men for installing and super- 
vising the recently adopted uniform system 
of accounts for all city departments. It was 
obvious to the Comptroller that a system 
could not be Installed and efficiently oper- 
ated In hospitals and police and water depart- 
ments simply by sending pieces of paper and 
accounting forms to the chief clerks. For the 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 



199 



SUOGESTIONS AS TO THE ORGANIZATION 
OF THE 

Department or Finance 

fop THE Exercise of its Present Charter Powers 

OnOANtZATlON Cma»t 



I CowtractPoomI 




; ! I BUREAU OF AUDIT I I oivision OF cnnmnint msTmrnoiis I 

■ ! T^ I ' I I 

I AuoiT.mi Sryr I I BoonmoiNO ST«f f I I Auoiriit Stait I I Boonmtnw ST«f» I 



osfe 



I AuoiToas I llh^flcTtll^l 



IE^"'«"I 



CHART NO. 2. 

(A plan for locating responsibility within the department and for showing currently whether 
disbursements and receipts are controlled in the public interest.) 



Comptroller to give a new system of accounts 
to the water department without instructing 
the* latter's bookkeepers how to use it, and 
without seeing to it that the bookkeepers fol- 
low instructions, would be just as ineffective 
as the prescription of the school physician 
who found a child brushing its teeth with the 
new tooth-brush soaked in rhubarb, both of 
which he had told the mother to buy. There- 
fore, the Comptroller asked the bureau to 
make a study of the finance department, with 
a view to suggesting a mechanism and method 
suitable for installing and supervising depart- 
mental accounts. 

WHERE THE OLD ORGANIZATION FAILED. 

The detailed study made by the bureau 
confirms the statement of the Comptroller, 
that " the present department of finance, with 
all due respect to my predecessors, has always 
been disorganized." From the first chart it 
will be seen that all lines lead directly to the 
Comptroller. In the second chart no line 
leads directly to the Comptroller except that 
from his first deputy, who in turn exercises 
supervision through bureau heads responsible 
to him for sifting the significant from the in- 
significant among the multitude of facts re- 
corded in the Comptroller's office. The first 
chart holds the Comptroller responsible for a 
multitude of office details. The second chart 
relieves him of all details, thus conserving his 



time and energies for the exercise of discre- 
tion on subjects that have already received the 
best attention of which his subordinates are 
capable. The first chart shows fifteen or more 
subordinates each supreme within his own 
square, because he alone understands how to 
read the meaning of the records in his charge. 
The second chart shows clearly the duties and 
responsibilities of division heads, and indi- 
cates, furthermore, that each one is to render 
an account to his superior officer, who shall 
receive currently the story told by his sub- 
ordinates' records. Please to note that under 
the plan now being worked out things of a 
kind are to be carefully kept together, and 
things that are unlike are to be carefully 
Separated from each other. For example, the 
contracting and rate-making powers, the col- 
lecting and disbursing powers, are separately 
grouped. 

PRINCIPLE APPLICABLE TO OTHER CITIES. 

The confusion represented by chart num- 
ber I is not peculiar to New York City. On 
the other hand, the principle underlying the 
reorganization chart is generally applicable. 
Whether the city is large or small, and what- 
ever the department to be managed, there 
should be documentary evidence of work done 
and of money spent, so that every city official 
is protected against misrepresentation by in- 
siders or outsiders, by subordinates or supe- 



200 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

riors, and that the public can definitely locate ported as received by the auditor of receipts, 

responsibility for waste, inefficiency or cor- the general auditor, the finance deputy, 

ruption. For illustration, let us choose what Comptroller, and general public can learn 

is probably the most interesting feature of this where money due has not been paid, and 

chart, viz.: (the lower right hand division) what amounts of money are being withheld 

** Auditor of Receipts," which it is noticed from the city that should be in hand to pre- 

does not appear in the present organization, vent the need for borrowing money at high 

The city of New York issues permits and interest rates, 
licenses, rents markets, buys and sells prop- 

1 ^ J n 4. r J : EXPENDITURES MUST SHOW RESULTS. 

erty, sells water and collects nnes and taxes. 

Receipts from these and other sources aggre- The reade*r interested in the methods em- 
gate over $100,000,000 annually. John ployed in his own city may be helped by ask- 
Smith may pay $50 for a license. This fact ing his city Comptroller or mayor which of 
is clearly written on his receipt. If by acci- these two charts most nearly represents the 
dent or by design the stub reads $5 for that business methods employed in the office of the 
license, the discrepancy can now be discov- Comptroller or auditor. A very important 
ered only by having a man stand over the question is whether or not this central clear- 
writer of the receipt. Thousands and thou- ing house for information as to cost, has a de- 
sands of dollars are spent in making sure that partment such as "Chief Statistician" in chart 
the $5 marked on the receipt stub is copied 2 for obtaining facts as to work done, or 
as $5 in the cash book, in register and whether there are expert accountants with 
ledger. authority to insist upon records and accounts 
^,,^ ,,^^ ^„ ^«.x.x. .r,,^^ ^^^^.^r^c, ^r^r. ^^- ^^^ various dcpartmettts that will make 

THE USE OF GRADUATED RECEIPTS, ETC. ^u ^ ^1 1 -i 1 1 . j . u r i 

the truth legible when reported to the nscal 
The reorganization is intended to provide center. The Bureau of Municipal Research 
that a stub cannot differ from a receipt with- is interested in methods only because proper 
out detection. For fixed fees and licenses, methods are indispensable to learning results. 
the accuracy of records and the fidelity of em- Whether within a city, a board of educa- 
ployees will be tested by charging a clerk or tion or a fire department, the place to Jook 
bureau for the number of receipt blanks at for intelligence is the place where money is 
their recorded value; where the amount due spent. If those who disburse public funds 
cannot be determined in advance, graduated acquire the habit of measuring costs by re- 
receipts will be used as in post-offices; for suits before claims are authorized and before 
water rates, taxes, etc., duplicate bills will money is paid, efficiency and honesty will be 
be sent to the auditor of receipts by the water made easier than inefficiency and dishonesty, 
department; for leases, bills will be sent out If private citizens desiring to promote self- 
by the auditor of receipts. In other words, government for the benefit of the governed 
to check up the amounts received by various will begin municipal reform by working for 
city departments, the auditor of receipts will organization and methods that disclose ineffi- 
have documentary evidence of amounts due ciency and efficiency alike, they will be sur- 
in his own office, in the form of graduated prised to find how ready city officials are to 
receipt, serially numbered stubs having a fixed co-operate. If private philanthropy will 
value, duplicate tax list, water register list, spend upon municipal research a small frac- 
or record of lease values, etc. tion of the amounts now generously given 
By setting side by side the amount of taxes to alleviate the physical and social evils of 
assessed and the amount in arrears reported misgovernment, " America's conspicuous fail- 
by the deputy exercising fiscal functions (at ure, — municipal government," — will become 
the left of the chart) with the amount re- America's conspicuous success. 




COAL MINERS TRANSPORTING A PATIENT ON THE BACK OF A MULE. 



WHY NOT A ''RED CROSS" FOR THE ARMY 



OF INDUSTRY ? 

BY ARTHUR B. REEVE. 



^ ' W/ HAT are you doing for him? " asked 
the hoisting engineer of a neigh- 
boring colliery, asjie peeped in through the 
door of the dimly lighted shed at an ap- 
parently lifeless form with a blanket careless- 
ly pulled over it. 

" Sending for the undertaker," was the 
nonchalant response of the group of men out- 
side. 

" What was the matter, — gas? " 
oure. 

" Couldn't you revive him? " 

" Didn't try. What's the use? He's done 
for." 

" Well, 3^ou are a fine bunch. Don't you 
know anything about it at all? No? It's 
none of my business, I suppose, but a few 
weeks ago our company had a lecture on first 
aid to the injured. I've pretty nearly for- 
gotten just what you do for a man knocked 
out by gas, but, — oh, yes, it's just the same 
as you do in case of drowning. Now, here, 
a couple of you men look alive and work his 
arms, — so. Don't stop till I tell you. The 
doctor said never to stop if you kept at it for 
two or three hours. Gently now and steady. 
That's it." 

This little incident happened several 



months ago in a mining town of the soft- 
coal region. To-day one miner is at work 
in Pennsylvania instead of having been added 
as another unit to the already large figure 
of asphyxiations in the State Department of 
Mines report. One couldn't ask for a better 
example of what first aid to injured miners 
is doing. 

Of course the State law requires that at 
the bottom of each shaft there shall be an 
emergency hospital, and indeed there is, but 
it has usually been found to be af compara- 
tively little use. At least that is what Mr. 
W. J. Richards, general manager of the 
Philadelphia Coal & Iron Company, found, 
and he has known the coal regions most of 
his life. There must first of all be some- 
body who knows how to use it. An idea came 
to him that in each one of the fifty or more 
collieries of the company there ought to be a 
" first-aid " corps. So he had the company 
doctor go to each one of them in turn and 
call for volunteers. At each colliery a dirty, 
grimy crowd of willing men stepped forth, 
eager to enlist in the service, and out of the 
men themselves, — or, rather, out of the boys 
who work at driving the mules or opening 
doors, — the doctor organized 350 into squads. 



202 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFJEIVS. 



•$f^ 



f!fjfi> : ■ — •«<• 



'^.sfc-'^ 




CARRYING A PATIENT DOWN A FLIGHT OF STEPS ON A LITTER. 



Did it work? Listen to this story by the 
doctor who carried out the scheme : " One 
night I was on my way to the hall where we 
were going to have our regular lecture and 
practical demonstration, when a telegram 
was handed to me saying that a man with a 
crushed ankle was coming by the next train 
to the hospital. I thought I'd stop on the 
way and see how he was getting on, and just 
as I reached the hospital the ambulance drove 
up with the patient. 

" ' How is he getting on ? ' I asked the 
surgeon. 

*' ' Fine, sir,' was the reply. * His ankle 
has been dressed by a doctor and I wouldn't 
disturb it.' 

" On the way to the hall I determined to 
make that particular injury the subject of 
one of the demonstrations before the boys, 
who had come from the scattered collieries. 
I told the story and had one squad after an- 
other dress the ankle of an imaginary victim. 
Finally, as a new squad came forward, I 
asked one quiet young fellow in it if he 
thought he could handle such a case. 

" ' Oh, yes, doctor,' he replied. ' I dressed 



that case you spoke 
of. The accident hap- 
pened just as we were 
starting to come here, 
and so the squad came 
on the train with him.' 

" The ambulance sur- 
geon had said the ankle 
was dressed by a doc- 
tor! " 

They are now begin- 
ning to measure the 
value of first aid in dol- 
lars and cents, also. It 
was recently announced 
that as a result of it 
there would in the fu- 
ture be a 15-per cent, 
increase in the benefits 
which injured miners 
would receive from the 
miners' benefit fund. 
In other words, prompt 
treatment has made re- 
covery so much more 
rapid and certain that 
during the last year the 
men lost less time 
through disability than, 
ever before, although 
more coal was mined 
and the number of ac- 
cidents remained about normal. First aid 
has, therefore, both enabled a man to return 
to regular wages more quickly and has in- 
creased his weekly allowance while he is laid 
up. 

I was once talking to a coal operator about 
accidents, and before long he became angry 
and blurted out : " Well, what would you 
have us do? Stop mining coal?" No, we 
cannot stop mining coal nor can we deny the 
truth of the assertion that even under the 
best of conditions coal mining is what the 
Anthracite Strike Commission said It was, — 
one of the few most dangerous occupations 
which any great number of men follow. But 
we can at least have more regard for the 
care of miners when they are injured, and, 
therefore, a system such as this deserves rec- 
ognition as an object lesson, not only to coal 
mining, but to all industry. 

The fifty-odd squads for first aid meet 
regularly for practice and instruction, and at 
the meetings each squad Is provided with a 
man who Is willing to be bandaged and 
dressed as if he were really Injured. Some 
particular form of injury is selected for the 



- IVHY NOT A "RED CROSS" FOR THE ARMY OF INDUSTRY? 203 



lesson, and, after in- 
structions have been 
given, the boys prac- 
tice on their willing 
patient until they suc- 
ceed in handling him 
satisfactorily. 

Among other things, 
first-aid instruction is 
carefully limited to get- 
ting the victim ready to 
be carried to a hospital, 
or to reviving him from 
asphyxiation prepara- 
tory to the arrival of 
a doctor. " What 
would you do if the 
patient should call you 
in the next day to re- 
dress the wound ? " 
asked a visiting surgeon 
once. *' Well, if I did 
it, I should expect 

to be prosecuted for practicing medicine with- 
out a license," replied the boy, repeating the 
instructions carefully drummed into his head 




DRESSING FOR COMPOUND FRACTURE OF THE LEG. 



A hasty examination reveals, perhaps, a 
broken leg, and at once a tightly wrapped 
package is taken from the kit, with all the 



The emergency hospital at the bottom of bandages necessary for this particular case. 



the shaft in each mine is provided with beds, 
stretchers, splints, bandages, and other neces- 
sities, to which is added a portable case, very 
ingeniously devised by the company doctor 
himself, containing bandages and dressings, 
which may be carried to the scene of the acci- 
dent at once by one of the boys. The rest of 
the squad, if the accident were an explosion 
of dynamite, for instance, would hurry with 
stretchers and splints from the hospital. 




IMPROVISED LITTER,— A BLANKET AND TWO SAPLINGS. 



The boys carefully bandage the leg and se- 
cure it between two splints, one five feet long, 
extending from the armpit to below the foot, 
and another three feet long, on the inside of 
the leg. Then the patient is lifted on the 
stretcher and carried to the foot of the shaft 
and up in the elevator to an ambulance that 
is by this time waiting. It's all in the day's 
work of mining our coal, this matter of acci- 
dents, and at best the journey is likely to be 

a long and painful one. 
In the many transfers 
from stretcher to ele- 
vator and from ele- 
vator to ambulance, 
and possibly then to 
railroad train, many a 
simple fracture has, be- 
fore the advent of the 
first-aid squad, been 
changed into a com- 
pound fracture by in- 
experienced handling. 
The time .of recovery 
from a simple fracture' 
is measured in weeks, 
from a compound frac- 
ture in months. The 
grimy men down there 
in the coal-pits know 
all this; that is why 



204 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^fElVS. 



when the squad was introduced there were so 
many volunteers. 

Take the case of severe burns from gas or 
explosives. Something must be done imme- 
diately, and 3^et the burn cannot be dressed 
again very soon, for too frequent dressing is 
almost as bad as none at all. Oil and cotton 
are the usual materials used, but the cotton 
becomes dirty, and perspiration and coal dust 
render it foul. What would you do for a 
man like that? A doctor who knows all 
about it has devised packets of large square 
pieces of cotton gauze soaked and dried in a 
2-per cent, solution of picric acid. Applied 
in several layers by the boys, and securely 
covered by cotton, the heat of the body quick- 
ly liberates enough of the picric-acid dress- 
ing to make an effective treatment for at least 
forty-eight hours. That is an example of 
what scientific medical common-sense can do 
for industry, and should be duplicated in 
every dangerous trade. 

In many cases accidents in mines bring 
serious losses of blood. The first-aid squad 
has been taught the location of the principal 
arteries, and the " tourniquet," a strap with 
a knob that presses on the artery, is provided, 
and they are taught how to use it. Then 
there is the treatment for asphyxiation, that 
is carefully taught them. 

Ingenuity must be used with the miner, if 
nothing else. Take, for example, the '* dirty- 
hand " problem. Of course all these dress- 
ings, carefully sterilized and sealed as they 
are, must be applied by boys at once, and any 
one who has ever been in a coal mine knows 
that clean water is an alien conception to such 
a place. To overcome the dirty-hand prob- 
lem the gauze and other materials are 
wrapped and folded in strips of paper, or the 
paper is interposed between the layers in such 
a way that no finger need touch any part of 
the dressing. Another queer problem pre- 
sented is that of whiskey. Starting in with 
it as a stimulant, it is sometimes so freely 
administered that a patient has frequently 
been known to arrive at the hospital com- 
pletely under its influence, in addition to his 
other troubles. The first-aid squad confines 
its stimulants to hot coffee and aromatic spir- 
its of ammonia. 

It is, of course, too soon to see yet the im- 
mense educational effect of this new spirit in 
this company's mines. When the present 
boys in the first-aid squads are miners, and 
others have taken their places, a great many 
of the rough, and, to those who do not think, 
uncouth miners will know more about such 



things as the care of the human body in emer- 
gencies than most of the educated public for 
whom they are making their vicarious sacri- 
fices " a mile or so from daylight." Besides, 
the scheme has taken so well that the many 
first-aid squads have a keen sense of rivalry, 
and now they are having contests every year 
for medals offered by the company. 

Such success for first aid is not the experi- 
ence of the coal-mining industry alone. Every 
other company that has tried it, in other in- 
dustries, has found the same result. Its value 
has been proved over and over again in dol- 
lars and cents. In the cotton mills of Rhode 
Island it has lately been installed. In one 
of the largest electrical plants in the coun- 
try, as you pass through, you frequently notice 
the first-aid kits on the walls, with cards of 
instructions for all sorts of emergencies ; while 
the company has issued a neat little booklet, 
bound strongly in cloth and fully illustrated, 
telling briefly and clearly just what first aid in 
case of electric shock is. Among the many 
sociological works of the Colorado Fuel & 
Iron Company are its first-aid instruction and 
splendid service. In all these cases such care 
has been found to pay in measurable money 
amount. The German and French manufac- 
turers have found this out, also. 

In Massachusetts a law has been passed 
requiring manufacturers to keep on hand a 
first-aid or emergency kit in the event of 
accident to any of their employees. Yet even 
so slight a move as the announcement of the 
board of health in one city, not long ago, 
that it would enforce this simple law raised 
a storm of abuse from some employers, who 
charged that there was graft back of it. 
When actually pinned down to facts they 
were forced to admit that the basis was a 
mere conjecture that '' perhaps somebody has 
got options on a lot of first-aid kits." On 
the other hand, the most considerate employ- 
ers of the city with one accord hastened to 
comply with the requirements of the law, and 
indeed many of them had already done so 
voluntarily. 

Large corporations have so far proved the 
only ones to see the value of first aid. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad, for instance, has re- 
cently begun an aggressive campaign of edu- 
cation in first aid among its 198,000 employ- 
ees scattered over an aggregate of 11,000 
miles of line. This is being accomplished by 
a series of lectures delivered at different 
points on its lines under the direction of the 
company's medical examiner. This work will 
be of the most comprehensive character, and 



IVHY NOT A ''RED CROSS'' FOR THE ARMY OF INDUSTRY? 205 



those employees directly connected with train 
operation will at the end of the course be 
closely questioned on the subject when tak- 
ing examinations in the future for promotion. 
Stretchers, together with first-aid packets 
containing bandages and dressings, have been 
placed upon the trains and at convenient 
points along the line, so that the men can 
have prompt equipment for carrying on the 
work, both for employees and passengers who 
are injured. The " first-aid room " in New 
York is a matter of great pride to the com- 
pany. 

The railroad Y. M. C. A. at Camden, 
New Jersey, some time ago took the courses 
offered by the New York Society for Instruc- 
tion in First Aid to the Injured. The sec- 
retary of the association has said : " The Cam- 
den corps is doing splendid work, and its 
services are much appreciated by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. During the 
year they have been called upon to take charge 
of 227 cases, 55 of which w^ere taken by their 
men to the hospital and 172 treated by them 
at the shops without the aid of physicians. 
All of these cases have fully recovered except 
two, one of these men having been severely 
shocked by electricity and the other having 
had a foot crushed. But both of them are 
doing well and w^ill, I hope, soon return to 
work." 

Manufacturers who are interested can do 
no better than make a beginning with the 
course of five lectures prepared by the Society 
for the Instruction in First Aid to the In- 
jured, which was organized as long ago as 





SLING IMPROVISED FROM THE SKIRT OF THE PA- 
TIENT'S COAT. 



HEAD DRESSING DONE BY THE FIRST-AID SQUAD, 
WADESVILLE COLLIERY^ PA. 

1882, under the chairmanship of Gen. George 

B. McClellan, as a committee of the State 
Charities Aid Association in New York. It 
is now a separate society, aiming to give in- 
struction by means of lectures in first aid, — 
free to those unable to pay; for others from 
$1 to $3 for the course. There is one lecture 
each week, occupying an hour and a half, a 
review of work previously gone over, and a 
half-hour of practical work such as the ap- 
plication of bandages and splints, restoration 
of the apparently drowned, lifting the in- 
jured, carrying on stretchers, etc. Diplomas 
are awarded at the end of the course to those 
who pass a satisfactory examination. Last 
year 2223 persons were instructed and 1854 
diplomas issued, while in the past twenty-five 
years 24,193 persons have been instructed 
and 18,164 have passed the examination and 
received diplomas. So far the work has been' 
mainly in the police and fire departments of 
the city, with an occasional class in the Y. M. 

C. A.'s or the public schools. But the idea 
ought to be taken up by manufacturers. 

A single illustration will prove the need: 
The m.anager of the insurance department of 
a large corporation has said : 

Many personal-injury accidents cost less 
money than heretofore, by reason of the fact 
that, in addition to protective measures, we in- 
stalled a system of "first aid." This was a 
means of shortening disabilities. Prior to April, 
1905, the average disability of shop men on ac- 
count of personal injury was sixteen days. By 
prompt application of " first aid " in an anti- 
septic form, this has been reduced to eleven 
days. 



THE NEW ANTI- VAGRANCY CAMPAIGN. 



BY FRANCES MAULE BJORKMAN. 



PP OR the first time a concerted effort is 
"*■ being made in the United States to 
attack the vagrancy problem. Most of the 
countries of Europe, — notably England, 
Germany, Belgium, and Switzerland, — have 
had both legislative and administrative 
means of dealing with it for many years, but 
America, instead of instituting measures 
against the tramp, has raised him to the 
heights of a national joke. Our national 
attitude toward him is tolerant and indul- 
gent.-- The nicknames by which we refer to 
him are, at worst, of a mildly bantering 
character, although they betray a thorough 
understanding of his real nature. The ex- 
tensive literature which he has evoked is 
based on the popular recognition of his aver- 
sion to work, his contempt of veracity, his 
predilection for beer, and his horror of water 
both for interior and exterior use, — but it is 
not the sort of thing that leads to authori- 
tative anti-vagrancy action. The stage 
tramp is the most irresistibly funny of comic 
characters. On the whole, our mental 
image of the vagabond is a humorous one, 
and we hardly think of him except in a hu- 
morous light. 

And yet the " Weary Walker " of the 
American comic press represents a much 
more serious problem than his European 
brother. In the Old World the vagrant 
exists largely as a survival of the " journey- 
man " of the ancient trade guilds, the young 
workman, who, on completing his appren- 
ticeship, was sent on the road to practice his 
trade before being inve.sted with the degree 
of '' master " and the right to set up in busi- 
ness for himself. Therefore, except in ex- 
ceptional cases, the purpose of the European 
wayfarer is to get work. As a rule he makes 
no attempt to steal rides on the railroads, 
and he is usually both able and willing to 
pay for his meals and lodgings. Whatever 
begging he does is of a casual nature. The 
fact that his numbers are greatly multiplied 
in times of financial depression, when many 
men are thrawn out of employment in the 
cities, is fairly conclusive evidence that, in 
intention at least, he is a workingman. 

This is far from being the case with the 
American tramp. He is not looking for 



work. He is traveling for pleasure. He 
does not tramp. He rides the railroads. He 
is a chronic and incorrigible beggar. His 
deliberate purpose is to get a living out of 
society without giving anything in return. 
Hard times or good times do not affect his 
numbers. There is apparently absolutely 
no connection between him and the prob- 
lem of the unemployed. He persists in 
times of prosperity and in times of financial 
stress. 

MAGNITUDE OF OUR TRAMP PROBLEM. 

What the size of ,the tramp army is no 
one can tell, but a vague idea of its magni- 
tude can be guessed from the fact that the 
number of trespassers killed and injured on 
American railroads from the year 1901 to 
the year 1905, inclusive, — of which it is es- 
timated that at least two-thirds were tramps, 
— amounted to 49,200: just thirteen times 
more than the number of passengers and 
more than the combined total of passengers 
and trainmen killed and injured during the 
same period. Some one has estimated that 
if the number of vagrants on the road is in 
the same proportion to the number of va- 
grants killed as the number of trainmen on 
t'^e road is in proportion to the number of 
tiuinmen killed, there must be more than 
half a million tramps beating their way on 
American railroads every year. The annual 
loss to railroads through the destruction of 
property by tramps has been loosely esti- 
mated by Major J. G. Pangborn, of the Bal- 
timore & Ohio, as something like $2,500,-- 
000. 

All this represents a tremendous cost to 
society. The tramp who is injured on the 
railroad usually becomes a public charge for 
the rest of his life, and the tramp who is 
considerate enough to permit himself to be 
killed outright has to be buried, either by 
the railroad or by the county, town, or State 
in which he loses his life. 

And these things are only a part of what 
it costs us to maintain our national joke. Su- 
pervisor S. K. Estabrook, of the Wayfarers' 
Lodges in Philadelphia, estimates that 
tramps, when they are not on the road being 
fed and lodged by farmers and railroacfs, 



THE NEW ANTI-yAGRANCY CAMPAIGN. 207 

spend one-third of their time in almshouses, viction and commitment of tramps arrested 

one-third in houses of correction, and one- by their own special policemen. 

third in missions and lodging-houses whose In places where tramps are arrested and 

rates are so low that the price of a bed can convicted, Mr. Lewis said that sentence is 

readily be begged on the street. At the ap- frequently suspended on condition that the 

proach of winter the jails which impose no offender leave town without delay. In many 

labor on their prisoners are taxed to their municipalities it is the custom to release all 

capacity to accommodate the sudden flood of prisoners convicted of vagrancy a few days 

petty malefactors who seem to be hurling after commitment. In others they are left 

themselves into the arms of the law. In the practically unguarded, that they may escape 

summer such members of the constitution- if they feel disposed to do so. 

ally fatigued brotherhood as are not in the ^^^ railroad the key to the tramp 

country beggmg their way, and mcidentally situation. 

rendering the highways unsafe for women 

and children, are in the city occupying the ' Thus the railroads are infested with 

parks as lodgings and incidentally unfitting tramps because of the parsimony of munici- 

the park benches for use by any one but palities, and, by a sort of poetic justice, they 

themselves. become in turn the great purveyors in tramps 

to municipalities. " Naturallv," says Presi- 

AUTHORITIES encourage the evil. j . t T U-11 '< u \ 

dent James J. xiill, when every town is 

These facts in regard to the American pursuing the * passing-along policy,' each one 

vagrant were laid before the thirty-fourth receives exactly as much refuse as it gets rid 

annual Conference of Charities and Correc- of." 

tions at Minneapolis last June by Mr. Or- However, * according to Mr. Lewis, the 
lando F. Lewis, who as superintendent of railroads themselves are not doing all in 
the Joint Application Bureau of the Charity their power to suppress the tramp evil. 
Organization Society and the Society for None of them is adequately policed. Few 
Improving the Condition of the Poor in maintain any police except at stations and in 
New York has made a special study of the city yards. The ejection of tramps from the 
vagrancy problem. In his paper Mr. Lewis trains is left almost wholly to the train 
showed that town and city authorities all crews, and these men are often unequal to 
over the country, instead of doing anything the task. Furthermore, many trainmen are 
to abate the evil, with only a few exceptions not unwilling to let a *' bo " ride in return 
are adding materially to it by refusing to in- for a " fare " that goes no further than his 
cur the expense of arresting and prosecuting own pocket. Dr. George L. Reitman, the 
men who are caught stealing rides on the Chicago physician who has tramped with 
railroads. In support of his statements he tramps all over the world and whose rela- 
read extracts from letters of numerous rail- tions with the wandering fraternity are so 
road officials stating that their troubles with intimate that he once gave a " hobo ban- 
vagrants were almos't wholly due to lack of quet " at a leading Chicago hotel, says that 
co-operation in repressive measures on the the railroad is the key to the situation and 
part of authorities of the towns and cities that if it would make the tramps tramp there 
through which their roads pass. President would soon be no tramps. 

Tames J. Hill of the Great Northern wrote , 

lu ^ '^ 1 ^ • • ui 4.U 4. r.(. the publics misplaced sympathy. 

that It was almost invariably the custom or 

magistrates in the towns along his route to But the ill-considered economy of munici- 

let off all the vagrants brought before them palities and the laxity of railroads are not 

for trial with a peremptory order to leave the only causes that contribute to the perpet- 

town within twenty-four hours. Other ofii- uation and spread of vagrancy. Mr. Lewis 

cials were quoted by Mr. Lewis as saying lays much of the responsibility to the misdi- 

that policemen, instead of arresting tramps, rected sympathy of the general public. He 

frequently order them not to get off the condemns unsparingly the sentiment that 

trains, and, in some instances, actually help prompts the kitchen " poke-out," that main- 

them to climb aboard in order to facilitate tains bread-lines and coffee-wagons, that per- 

their exit from the community. Still other mits the use of police stations and parks as 

officials wrote that they had found it neces- lodgings, that defends the free " bed-ticket," 

sary to subsidize municipal authorities with and that prevents systematic attack on the 

money or passes in order to secure the con- '* hobo joint " on the ground that the poor 



208 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

man should not be deprived of the only shel- without money, as fast as they get hold of 

ter which his means can buy. them, Mr. Lewis made a searching investi- 

Since Jacob Riis, notwithstanding the pro- gation into all the lo, 15, and 25-cent hotels 
tests of the sentimental, caused the practice in Manhattan and Brooklyn, 
of giving lodging to vagrants in the police He found that there are loi of these 
stations of New York to be abandoned, pub- places in Manhattan alone. Although a few 
lie sentiment has changed in this one partic- charge 25 cents for their best accommoda- 
ular. Most of the large cities are now fol- tions, the average tariff is 10 cents. Some 
lowing the example of the metropolis and idea of the manner in which the lodgers are 
providing more suitable accommodations for crowded together may be gained from the 
their penniless wayfarers. In all other re- estimate that from 12,000 to 15,000 beds are 
spects, however, there is still a strong disin- let out every night. It is probably needless 
clination on the part of civil authorities to to say that in every house there reigned con- 
institute any measures that may be construed ditions of indescribable filth and corruption, 
by the public as a discrimination against the Mr. Lewis laid his findings before Com- 
poor. Last summer the Women's Health missioner Darlington of the New York De- 
Protective League, at the suggestion of Mr. partment of Health, and Dr. Darlington, 
Lewis, tried to get Police Commissioner after having confirmed Mr. Lewis' report 
Bingham, of New York, to clear the parks with an investigation of his own, drew up 
and squares of the all-day and all-night and had adopted a set of regulations making 
" squatters " by issuing a peremptory order it compulsory upon every lodging-house to 
to his men to enforce the " moving-on " ordi- maintain a high standard of cleanliness and 
nance, but their attempt was not successful, decency, whether its patrons liked it or not. 
although Mr. Lewis stated publicly that it The lodging-house keepers, however, joined 
would be cheaper for the city to buy its va- in bringing a suit to test the constitutional- 
grants opera seats than to permit them to ity of the measure. The suit is still pending, 
make lodgings of its park benches. and, on the strength of the fact, all the lodg- 

On the same general grounds the missions ing-houses have succeeded in getting their 

have refused to discontinue their practice of licenses renewed without having been put to 

giving " bed-tickets " to professed penitents, the expense of making any improvements be- 

although the administrators of practical phil- yond a coat of whitewash here and there, 

anthropy have pointed out repeatedly that ^.^^^.^^^^ ..^,,. ,r«^T, .^...x. t »„r 

, . -If c -i '^ ^ CHICAGO S NEW VAGRANCY LAW. 

this particular lorm or charity operates 

chiefly to encourage hypocrisy as well as In the absence of concerted action of any 
pauperism. It always insures a good attend- kind most of the other sporadic attempts to 
ance at meetings and a fine showing at the grapple with the problem have been about as 
mourners' bench, but, as a rule, only the men effective. Last summer Chicago made an 
who have lost even the " hobo " standards effort to get at her gigantic floating popula- 
of pride and decency will take advantage of tion that makes its headquarters in the polit- 
it. A certain young and vigorous member ical district controlled by the renowned 
of the profession once assured the writer Hinkey Dink and Bathhouse John, by giv- 
with tears in his eyes that *' one thing he ing to municipal courts the power to fine or 
had never done in all his life was to get con- imprison persons held as vagrants, permit- 
verted for a bed-ticket." ting policemen to arrest persons accused of 

vagrancy without warrant, and permitting 

THE CHEAP LODGING-HOUSES. • ^- x UU U Tl ^.^^ 

conviction lor vagrancy, although the person 
Recently, however, in the face of the arrested might be in possession of means, if 
opinion of the public that the poor man is he could not show that he had a regular way 
entitlecl to any sort of shelter that he can of earning a living. The newspapers ex- 
pay for, radical measures have been taken to pressed editorially great hopes of the new 
reform and therefore to raise the prices of law, but, although it has now been in opera- 
the " tramp joints " that line the New York tion for several months, it does not seem to 
Bowery from City Hall to Chatham Square, have had much effect. The population of 
Convinced by his conversations with men South Clark street has not been diminished 
applying to his society for aid that the cheap in size nor altered in character, nor have the 
lodging-houses are making confirmed vagrancy cases in the courts been materially 
" bums " and " hoboes " out of the potential- increased. The measure operated beauti- 
ly honest citizens who arrive in New York fully to enable the machine to lay hand$ 



THE NBV/ ANTI-yAGkANCY CAMPAIGN. 



209 



upon certain unoffending citizens against 
whom it had a grudge, — notably a number 
of strike pickets, — but it left useful members 
of the Bathhouse and Hinkey Dink constit- 
uency untouched. 

RIGID EXCLUSION FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Such communities as have good vagrancy 
laws and as have been successful In getting 
them enforced, are able to keep their own 
precincts clear of the tramp nuisance only at 
the expense of their neighbors. The knights 
of the road merely brand each one of these 
places as *' a hostile burg," and pass on to 
more hospitable localities. New England, 
which has the most rigid vagrancy laws In 
the country, Is very little troubled by tramps, 
but It Is surrounded on all sides by territory 
that is Infested with them. The New 
Hampshire laV, which empowers any resi- 
dent to bring a tramp before a magistrate 
and which stimulates the citizens to take ad- 
vantage of the privilege by offering a reward 
of $io for each such arrest, operates chiefly 
to keep New Hampshire's just share of vaga- 
bonds distributed among other States. 

A NATIONAL ANTI-TRAMP CRUSADE. 

Mr. Lewis' paper made a profound im- 
pression upon the reformers and philanthro- 
pists in the Minneapolis conference, but It 
did more than that. It made a profound im- 
pression upon the public. From one end of 
the country to the other the newspapers pub- 
lished extensive extracts from It, with edi- 
torials calling attention to the significant 
facts and figures which It contained and urg- 
ing their municipalities to act upon them. 
The editorials called forth a flood of replies 
from private citizens, social workers, and 
public officials indorsing these sentiments 
and giving additional reasons why definite 
steps should be taken without delay. All at 
once It seemed to become clear to every- 
body that the tramp Is not a harmless joke, 
but a serious problem, and both the public 
and press seemed to make up their minds 
suddenly that something ought to be done. 

The members of the conference were of 
this opinion also. On the day after Mr. 
Lewis presented his paper, a meeting was 
called for the purpose of considering the 
feasibility of inaugurating an anti-tramp 
movement throughout the United States. 
The result was the appointment of a com- 
mittee to organize a permanent body to be 
known as the National Vagrancy Committee 
to carry on a consistent and persistent war- 



fare against vagrancy all over the country. 

This committee was made up of some of 
the foremost social workers in America. 
William Rhinelander Stewart, president of 
the New York State Board of Charities, was 
made chairman, and Mr. Lewis secretary. 
The other appointees were Miss Alice L. 
Higgins, general secretary of the Boston As- 
sociated Charities; David B. Tilley, a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Charities; H. K. Estabrook, a member of 
the Philadelphia Society for Organizing 
Charity and supervisor of the Philadelphia 
Wayfarers' Lodges; Amos W. Butler, pres- 
ident of this year's conference and secretary 
of the Indiana State Board of Charities, and 
Raymond Robbins, formerly superintendent 
of the Municipal Lodging House in Chi- 
cago. Representatives of some of the most 
important lines In the country were present 
at the conference and promised the commit- 
tee the hearty support of the railroads. 

The committee has been quietly at work, 
ever since and has now not only sketched out 
the general plan of organization but has out- 
lined a definite policy for the work. In the 
first respect it will be analagous to the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee. Sub-com- 
mittees will be established In every State and 
headquarters opened In all the large cities. 
Affiliation w^Ill be sought with the leading 
charitable and reform associations, and the 
support of public officials and prominent and 
influential private individuals will be solicited. 

MAKING THE TRAMP PAY AS HE GOES. 

In policy, however, the National Va- 
grancy Committee will be the direct anti- 
thesis of its prototype. The older body 
exists for the purpose of protecting the weak 
from work, the new one has been organized 
for the purpose of impelling the strong to- 
ward work. All Its activities will be di- 
rected to the end of making it harder and 
more uncomfortable to be a loafer than to be 
a worker. 

In pursuance of this ideal the society will 
attempt to close up every avenue through 
which a man can get a living out of society 
without giving to society anything in return. 
It will send out literature revealing the in- 
judlclousness of the '' poke-out " and the 
" touch," urging housewives to resist all ap- 
peals for kitchen-door aid, and requesting 
men to adopt an invincible policy of deaf- 
ness to the hard-luck stories of street beg- 
gars. It will attempt to dissipate the senti- 
mental esteem of the public for bread-lines, 



210 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiEWS. 



coffee-wagons, and free bed and meal tick- 
ets by demonstrating that these things, in- 
stead of helping the honest poor, only min- 
ister to the vices of the dead-beat. 

It will seek to secure the enactment and 
enforcement of legislation forbidding the 
use of police stations as lodgings and of the 
parks and city squares as lounging places for 
habitual vagrants. It will wage an unre- 
lenting warfare against cheap lodging-houses 
that do not conform to a high standard of 
cleanliness and decency, and which, there- 
fore, do not charge a relatively high price 
for their accommodations. Missions and 
other charitable organizations will be urged 
to exact a certain amount of work for all 
the aid that they give. Civil authorities 
will be asked to provide heavy labor in jails 
for all prisoners convicted of vagrancy, and 
to maintain mendicancy officers in plain 
clothes to arrest street beggars. Most im- 
portant of all, every effort will be brought 
to bear upon railroad officials to secure the 
adequate policing of their rights of way, and 
upon municipal, county, and State authori- 
ties to inaugurate a policy of active and 
hearty co-operation with the railroad police 
in arresting and convicting trespassers. In 
short, the program provides that there shall 
be left no place where the homeless wan- 
derer can lay his head, no avenue through 
which he can get a meal and no way in 
which he can travel, without paying for the 
privilege. 

WHAT MASSACHUSETTS HAS DONE. 

Many of the measures proposed have al- 
ready been shown to be both practical and 
effective by the commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. The Massachusetts law now pro- 
vides that vagrants confined in jails shall be 
kept at hard labor; that vagrants lodged in 
almshouses shall be segregated from pau- 
pers; that municipal lodging-houses shall re- 
quire a certain amount of labor in exchange 
for meals and lodgings, and that common 
lodging-houses shall be beyond the control 
of their guests and shall be required to meet 
the approval of the board of health. 

The regulations for lodging-houses that 
were adopted recently by the Massachusetts 
State Board of Health go a step beyond the 
set drawn up by Dr. Darlington for the con- 
trol of the " Bowery joints " in New York. 
Dr. Darlington's lodging-house rules pro- 
vided that bathtubs should be merely pro- 
vided, but the Massachusetts law requires 
that they shall be used. Also to Dr. Darl- 



ington's comparatively modest exaction that 
clean linen shall be placed on each bed every 
night, the Massachusetts fathers have added 
the demand that each guest shall be fur- 
nished with a clean night-shirt, — and re- 
quired to wear it. 

STIFFENING LIMBER BACKBONE. 

To those persons who object to this policy 
on the ground that it will infringe upon the 
precious right of the individual to be idle, 
the leaders of the movement merely reply 
that no man has a right to be idle at the ex- 
pense of honest men who work, — particu- 
larly when by his idling he spreads mental 
and physical disease among the industrious. 
To those who cry out that the scheme is 
cruel and heartless and will work hardship 
to the worthy poor, they reply that it will 
never touch the worthy poor. To the men 
w^hom it will reach, however, they declare 
that it will act as a truer kindness than all 
the bread-lines and bed-tickets in the world. 
In support of this contention they point out 
the fact that the chief cause that makes a 
man a vagrant is a certain lack of backbone 
that renders him practically incapable of 
managing his own life unless he is forced to 
do so. If a man of this character finds that 
he can get through life without making an 
exertion to support himself he will permit 
every one of his faculties to atrophy for v^ant 
of use. If, however, he is met at every hand 
by an inexorable edict that he must work if 
he would eat, he will put forth just enough 
effort to encompass his desire and, in doing 
so, he will begin to develop into an efficient 
man. 

MUNICIPAL LODGING-HOUSES. 

But the policy of the movement does not 
stop with throwing the vagrant upon his 
own resources. In addition to the repressive 
measures which it recommends it . suggests 
definite lines of constructive work. While 
laboring to close up every avenue by which 
a man can drift down hill, the leaders of 
the movement will try to open every road 
by which he can climb upward. They will 
urge every city, before beginning its attack 
upon the bread-line and the bed-ticket, to es- 
tablish a clean and comfortable municipal 
lodging-house where any man, finding him- 
self without food or shelter or the means of 
procuring them, can go and get both in ex- 
change for an amount of work proportioned 
not so much to his drains upon the institu- 
tion as to his physical ability. 



MdJV POUGHKEEPSIE DEALS WITH TRAMPS. 



211 



In connection with these lodging-houses 
they would have free employment bureaus, 
where the employable men could be provided 
with jobs; hospitals for defectives and ine- 
briates, where the unemployable who have 
not yet become incurable could be restored 
to working efficiency; compulsory labor col- 
onies, where incorrigible drones could be 
given a wholesome stimulus toward useful 
activity and an incentive to learn a trade, and 
decent refuges where the hopeless wrecks of 
humanity could be humanely housed and 
could, at the same time, be prevented from 
spreading moral or physical disease. 

In its entirety the design of the organi- 
zation is not only to protect society from the 
vagrant class, but to restore the individual 
vagrant to the ranks of the self-supporting. 



The leaders of the movement believe that 
this can be done if proper means are pro- 
vided for getting hold of the novice. Of the 
total number of men who have come to the 
Joint Application Bureau for aid within the 
last five years, — who are nearly all actual 
or potential vagrants, — Mr. Lewis estimates 
that about 80 per cent, are between the ages 
of twenty and fifty, — the best working years 
of a man's life, — and that no less than 54 
per cent, are of American birth. 

The leaders of the movement think that 
these men are worth saving for their own 
sakes, and it is to this end, as well as for 
the purpose of protecting society from a 
serious and growing evil, that the Na- 
tional Vagrancy Committee has come into 
being. 



HOW POUGHKEEPSIE DEALS WITH TRAMPS. 



'^XT'HAT may be accomplished by follow- 
ing the recommendations of the Na- 
tional Vagrancy Committee, as outlined in 
the preceding article, has been shown by the 
little city of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Logically, Poughkeepsie ought to be in- 
fested with tramps. It is the only coaling 
station between New York and Albany, and 
therefore all the trains have to draw up there 
to take on fuel. Furthermore, it is the only 
stop made by the express trains between those 
two points. As train crews invariably take 
advantage of such stops to search their cars 
for tramps, Poughkeepsie is an ideal place 
for a hobo traveling out of New York to 
drop off and " throw his feet " for his night's 
lodging or his next day's supplies. 

Up to seven years ago the members of the 
wandering fraternity gave incessant demon- 
stration of their keen appreciation of this 
chance. Begging and petty thievery were 
rampant, and burglaries and safe-blowings 
were of common occurrence. In the year 
1900, however, the municipal authorities ap- 
pointed as chief of police Charles J. Mc- 
Cabe, who had risen from patrolman to the 
rank of sergeant, but who had been a brake- 
man on the New York Central before he 
joined the police force. 

Having, as a trainman, spent a great part 
of his time for several years of his life in 
matching his wits against those of the men 
on the road, the new chief had no illusions 
whatever about the vagrant class. Therefore 



almost his first official act was to take- meas- 
ures to prevent tramps from continuing to 
use Poughkeepsie as a camp and forage 
ground. 

At this time from twenty to thirty men 
were being accommodated with lodgings in 
the Poughkeepsie police station every night, 
— and no questions asked. Chief McCabe 
started in to ask questions. Every man who 
presented himself at the station-house for a 
lodging was received hospitably, — and re- 
quired to give an account of himself. If 
the man refused to do so the chief inti- 
mated that Poughkeepsie would continue to 
extend its hospitality to him until he did. 
If he responded, the chief listened sym- 
pathetically and then proceeded to lock 
him up until his story Could be verified or 
disproved. 

Once having got into the station no would- 
be lodger got out until Chief McCabe was 
In possession of full details as to his identity 
and past history. If the chief found himself 
unable to extract the Information he wanted 
by questioning, he photographed his guest 
and sent the picture to other police chiefs 
throughout the country. In this way he not 
only found out what he wanted to know as 
a rule, but he was enabled to restore many 
badly " wanted " persons to the anxious au- 
thorities of other communities. He also In- 
stituted the custom of searching applicants 
for lodgings, — a practice which brought to 
light a great deal of incriminating evidence 



2V2 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REFIEIVS, 



in the way of burglars' tools, concealed weap- 
ons, and stolen goods, thus revealing the fact 
that many of the self-invited guests of the 
city were dangerous criminals. 

The result was that the popularity of the 
Poughkeepsie police station as a lodging- 
house fell off amazingly. However, as the 
crimes attributable to vagrants did not show a 
corresponding decrease, Chief McCabe drew 
the inference that the " hoboes " had merely 
transferred their patronage to the low 5 and 
lO-cent lodging-houses along the tracks. He 
began then to make frequent raids on these 
places and to carry off transient lodgers to 
the police station, where he required them to 
make known their exact business in the city. 

At the same time he instructed all rounds- 
men and patrolmen to keep a -close watch on 
the streets for beggars, peddlers without 
licenses, and strangers without visible means 
of support, as well as to arrest on sight every 
illegal car-rider caught getting on or off the 
trains or hanging about the tracks. 

News of these high-handed ways were evi- 
dently passed quickly " down the line " to all 
members of the profession. At any rate, 
Poughkeepsie was given *' the double cross." 
Burglaries and safe-blowing fell off aston- 
ishingly, and begging and petty thievery prac- 
tically ceased. 

The change is strikingly illustrated by the 
police records. Previous to 1900 the number 
of vagrants lodged at the police station aver- 
aged 4100 a year. Since 1900 they have 
averaged 860 a year. Previous to 1900 the 
number of burglaries committed in the city 
averaged from fifty to sixty a year. Since 
1900 they have averaged from two to three 
a year. The average annual property loss 
since 1900 has been less than $500. 

But this is not all that has been accom- 
plished by Chief McCabe's anti-vagrancy 
campaign. It has not only saved thousands 
of dollars to the city of Poughkeepsie, but 
it has saved an incalculable sum to society in 
general. In the seven years that he has 
been the head of the police force the chief 
has caught and sent home more than 1000 
boys, most of whom would otherwise, in all 
likelihood, have become parasites upon society, 
and many of whom might have developed into 
criminals. 

It is common knowledge to police officers 
that a " kid " is a valuable asset to all classes 
of vagabonds. The traveling safe-blowers 
and station-robbers, known as " yeggmen," 
can use small boys to advantage in locating 
means of entrance and in gathering up other 



useful information, while to the " panhan- 
dlers " they are invaluable for working the 
*' sympathy racket " upon people who would 
meet the appeal of a grown man with con- 
tempt or abuse. 

During his life as brakeman Chief Mc- 
Cabe had seen hundreds of little boys, — many 
of them not more than eight years old, — 
kicked off trains to fall into the hands of 
these vampires or not, just as chance might 
dictate. To the average trainman a boy car- 
rider is merely a " tough kid " for whom the 
method of treatment is prescribed. But 
young McCabe saw that a large number of 
these boys were just normally active young- 
sters who had " jumped " a train as they 
would '' hitch onto " a milk wagon, and had 
been carried beyond the point where they had 
intended to drop off; or else over-imaginative 
readers of dime novels who had started West 
to find some place where interesting things 
still happen. He realized how important it 
was that these boys should be kept from be- 
coming the tools of criminals and constitu- 
tional loafers, but until he became chief of 
police he saw no way of doing anything. 
Then, however, he announced that if he 
could help it no runaway boy should take 
the downward path for want of a restrain- 
ing hand at Poughkeepsie, — the point at 
which so many youngsters had formerly 
started on a hobo's career. 

To this end he ordered his men never to 
let a strange boy in town go unapprehended, 
but to arrest every youngster getting on or 
off the trains or wandering about the city, 
and to bring him to the police station. There 
the chief talked kindly to the lad, won his 
confidence, got his name and address, and 
made him comfortable in the matron's quar- 
ters while efforts were made to get in touch 
with his parents or guardians. Once in the 
chief's clutches no boy leaves the police sta- 
tion at Poughkeepsie except in convoy of a 
big policeman to take boat or train for home. 

So far Chief McCabe's work has neces- 
sarily been repressive rather than construc- 
tive, owing to the fact that the city has no 
adequate means of taking care of and giving 
to the well-meaning wayfarer the lift that 
would very probably put him on his feet. 
In the meantime, he is carrying out a policy 
which keeps at least one town free of social 
parasites. Even though, at the present time, 
this may imply an additional burden upon 
other towns, it sets an example, which, if fol- 
lowed, would mean the elimination of the 
vagrant class. 



CHINA AND THE LANGUAGE QUESTION. 



BY HOWARD SWAN. 

(Sometime professor in the Imperial College, Peking, China.) 

[The transliteration of one language into another radically different in alphabet and syllabifi- 
cation is always difficult. The transliteration of Chinese into words formed with the European 
alphabet is especially so. Several American scholars of Chinese have highly approved Professor 
Swan's ideas and explanation of the necessity and possible methods of Chinese phonetization as 
set forth in the following article. Their accuracy and finality are, of course, a matter of opinion 
with native as well as western scholars of the Chinese language. — The Editor.] 



'T^HP2 Far Eastern problem is and always 
has been, What is the future of 
China? To the Chinese themselves the 
problem is more complicated than it appears 
to other nations; but it is one principally of 
government, of education, and of language. 
Of government first; because, without a 
good government there cannot be state-sup- 
ported schools and colleges. But if the ques- 
tion of schools and colleges is thus of grave 
importance, that of language is of still greater 
importance, as language is at the base of all 
education, and without a generally under- 
stood language no subject can be taught well. 

" THERE IS NO CHINESE LANGUAGE." 

It may surprise some to hear that there is 
no Chinese language! There are Chinese 
dialects; there is a series of Chinese ideo- 
graphic characters corresponding in some 
degree to an alphabet ; but there is, up to the 
present, no general Chinese language that all 
Chinamen can speak and understand. The 
nearest approach to it is the Peking Manda- 
rin or Giuaan-hwa (Kuan-hwa), — "official 
talk," — which has spread widely because the 
mandarins or government officials have first 
to reside in Peking, and carry that dialect 
from thence to every district. It is spoken 
generally, however, only in Peking, and in 
the hinterland of Shansi and other provinces 
directly behind, and hy officials of other parts 
of China in their Yamens or courthouses. 

There exists, further, a universal book 
language, which all the better educated 
Chinamen are taught; and in this the Wen- 
li, as it is called (pronounced Won-li, or 
won lee, meaning ''literature language"), 
the imperial edicts and higher class books are 
written. All educated Chinese throughout 
the empire can read these, and it is this lit- 
erature language, together with the Chinese 
ideographs, the gown, the periwig tail, and 



certain habits and customs, that make the 
Chinese in a sense a united nation or empire. 
But there is as yet no general spoken lan- 
guage. Put twenty Chinamen in a room to- 
gether to discuss any important govern- 
mental or commercial proposition, and, un- 
less they all come from the one district, such 
as Shanghai, or Canton, or Peking, or unless 
they all know Pekinese, they cannot under- 
stand one another's speech. The idioms are 
different, pronunciation is different, intona- 
tion is different. Even simple greetings, 
such as "How do you do?" are entirely 
different as pronounced in Shanghai from 
the way they are said in Peking. In Soo- 
chow, for example, which is only eighty miles 
from Shanghai, it is different again. There 
it is sounded " Az'on che Vae? '* (Have you 
eaten rice?) In Peking it is pronounced 
"Chela Faan mo yuwuf " (Eaten rice, or 
not?), — in which Che (eat) and Vae or 
Faan (rice) are the same or similar, but 
the rest of the phrase is different. In Soo- 
chow the phrase " there is not " is " 'm p'," 
just two dumb consonants; in Peking it is 
" mo yuwu" (like " more you "). 

In the writer's class of graduate students 
in the Imperial College, Peking, out of 
twenty-one students from various districts in 
the first class there were were only five who 
could speak correct Pekinese. Others could 
make themselves imperfectly understood, but 
each spoke his own dialect, and two were 
absolutely incomprehensible to the rest. 
These two had therefore to wait until they 
had learned English to speak with the class, 
or at least until they had learned Pekinese, 
which is, without organized teaching, an 
almost equally difficult task. Another re- 
source, peculiarly Chinese, is to take to writ- 
ing, not only on pieces of paper and corners 
of desks, but on the palms of the hands, in 
the dust, or by gesture in the air; and by 



214 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

long practice the Chinese are very quick at Norse languages; while Greece and Russia 
this written gesture language. This palm- still use the original Greek letters that Cad- 
writing is cumbrous, but fortunately nearly mus is supposed to have given the Phoenician 
alwajs successful when educated men come merchants to facilitate their commerce. If 
together. there were no general knowledge of Eng- 

WRITTEN CHINESE SPEECH A NOTATION OF ^'f"' ^'^""f"' °J German in Europe and 

America, but educated omcials only had a 
speaking knowledge of Latin and a writing 

Chinese as written is not a language; it is knowledge of Greek, this would fairly repre- 

a notation of ideas. Just as our mathemati- sent the state of China, which has some 400 

cal, algebraical, musical, and chemical sym- dialects, with Peking mandarin as the gen- 

bols are known all over our continents, eral tongue corresponding to Latin, and the 

though pronounced differently, so with the Wen-ll corresponding somewhat with our 

Chinese Ideographs. These Ideographs, or pic- use of Greek in learned works, 
ture words, are recognized by all educated 

^, . 'j , , r \fT 1 , PRESSING NEED OF ONE LANGUAGE FOR THE 

Chmese, and by the Japanese, Mancnus, and 
Tibetans, the Inhabitants of the Malay pe- 
ninsula and other Chinese colonies. In all. What Is clearly needed In China Is a gen- 
some 600,000,000 (six hundred millions) of eral spoken tongue, understood from one end 
people, or very nearly half the entire popula- of the empire to the other, and taught in 
tion of the world, read some Chinese, though schools and colleges as we teach English, 
probably only 10 per cent, read and write it This should be in graded lessons, with clear 
fluently. The Chinese written language Is explanations, exact phonetics to represent 
therefore a universal notation to a greater pronunciation, and plenty of lively narrative 
extent than any other language except Eng- and conversation, journalistic, classical, and 
lish. Its construction Is not unlike English, poetic examples to be studied In the class- 
and its grammar Is even more simple, being rooms, along with historical and scientific 
quite different In both these respects from works written in the spoken tongue, as in 
the Japanese, which Is one of the most diffi- the West. By this teaching, and the con- 
cult languages in the world to learn. tinued Influence of the railroads, there would 

As can easily be seen, this lack of a gen- soon spread over China a true Chinese 
eral Chinese " tongue," or spoken language, tongue. It may be pointed out that within 
precludes the possibility of public speech- recent years modern Greek was consciously 
making, and, Indeed, leads to so many mis- developed somewhat In this way, through 
takes or possible misunderstandings, laying the efforts of three enthusiastic and patriotic 
the speakers open to suspicion of sedition, Greeks, who formulated a grammar on the 
that In Cliina public meetings are usually French model, published millions of copies 
altogether banned, or in such disfavor with of ancient Greek classics, and allowed the 
the central government that private persons people themselves to develop the modern 
do not often care to run the risk. Capital Greek language as It Is to-day. 
punishment, with or without torture, and So with the Pekinese pronunciation and 
often without a trial. Is still In force in parts Idiom. Books could be written in the actual 
of China, and the suggestive drawing of the speech of the people, either in Chinese char- 
edge of the hand across the throat several acters or In romanlzed letters, or both, In- 
tlmes successively, even in Peking, Is a com- stead of as now In a sort of abbreviated 
mon gesture to Indicate the fate of suspected shorthand made up of abstract picture words, 
and denounced persons and their whole reading, as to sense, something like our own 
families. cablegrams, but written In Ideographs. 

There are eighteen provinces In the Chl- To write Chinese It is necessary to learn 

nese Empire, each with Its one or several at least 2000 signs. At least 4000 are neces- 

dialects, so that the empire is really much sary to read books with facility. To learn 

like Europe was at the time of the Middle 300 of these is easy, 1000 Is a task, 2000 Is 

Ages, with the Chinese Emperor as Pope, a terrible drudgery, and the second 2000 Is 

and the land divided up In principalities, almost an Impossibility to any except life- 

In Europe we have Italy, Roumania, Switz- long students. The most that are In use is 

erland, France, Spain, Portugal, each with a 7000, though of obsolete words there are 

variety of Latin, to say nothing of Britain, 20,000 or 30,000 more of which Chinese 

with its Gaelic, Welsh, and English, and the encyclopedists have made collections. 



CHINA AND THE LANGUAGE QUESTION. 



215 



CONSTRUCTION OF CHINESE IDEOGRAPHS. 

A word or two as to the constitution of 
Chinese writing will make plainer the diffi- 
culties of this language to its own country- 
men, as compared with the simple alpha- 
betical nature of western tongues. In Chi- 
nese the written signs do not usually repre- 
sent the sounds, but each represents a rough 
drawing of the actual thing or idea spoken 
about. For instance, we say tree, and write 
the sound, t, r, ee; but with the Chinaman 
the sound for tree is, say, Shu (shoo), but 
he does not write any sounds to show it is 
pronounced Sh, or u. He draws a picture 
of a tree with root, stem, and branches, 
^ f ^ , which is pronounced Shu in some 
thus ^iC parts, though it may be quite 
• different in another district. A 
man is indicated by drawing his two legs, 

A, and the word is pronounced 
variously, jin or djin, zhin, 
zhon, rzhon, ron, or renn, aod 
in some parts nyin or nyen. If a Chinaman 
wishes to write " sun," this he calls usually 
Taa-yaang, or great male-principle, but 
sometimes he uses another word which may 
be represented Rzhi, for sun ; he writes 
this |-r» , which was originally the 
well- rj known symbol, /^"^ • So for 
moon he writes tzt v_-X which 

was, of course, a FA crescent, V 

The Chinese nu- merals run Jf 

- •, much like ours, but horizon- 

" ^ *""^^ tal. They are called yi (yee), 

oerh (er), saan (sun), and 
so forth. The abstract or compound ideas 
are made up of a set of 214 root words or 
radicals and 800 phonetics, or guides to 
sound. The 214 radicals form the Chinese 
alphabet, and range from a single stroke to 
a complicated drawing of a bamboo with 
holes in it, written in seventeen strokes, 
meaning a "flute." The 214 are classifi- 
cations rather than letters of an alphabet, 
and some signs, — such as man, mouth, hand, 
woman, heart, — are very useful in composi- 
tion, standing for whole classes of objects 
or ideas. 

Abstract words are made up of several of 
these. To illustrate: woman is, 
and child is — -^ ; the combi- '-fw^ 
nation *' I * means " good, ^vS 

well, TQ^r loving, kind." A 



endlessly. The most abstract word in Chi- 
nese is the word " virtue," or uprightness 
of character, — the basic virtue of the Con- 
fucian system. The following analysis will 
explain the composition of this interesting 
Chinese character, and give an insight into 
the construction of many others. First, the 
word '' upright," as of a wall or house, is 
made up of the signs for ten, eyes, and 
straight, — meaning that what is seen by ten 
workmen and no fault found is upright. 
The signs for these are : 1. /-frt i 
If we add the sign for *J ^U*-^ f 
footsteps of a man ^ we show that it is 
zualkins upright A that is meant; and 
the further sign *- placed underneath 
of a heart, thus /\% % (with its drops 
of blood or ar- ^-^ teries), shows 
is spiritual or hej 

get ^ -f- ^P\ 

re ^ 



under a roof means 
a pig and a roof indicates 
the " family " ; a mouth inside a door 
means " to ask a question," and so on, 



woman 
" peace " 



that it is spiritual or heart-quality that 

is expressed. - * ^ | ^ 

Thus we get ^ -f U>\ I 1 /Vl^^ 

which a . _ 
written in one square sign, and become the 
classic symbol : /^fcj and this combination 
for virtue or T^g uprightness is pro- 
nounced as a whole Doa (almost 
like der or door without the r) , though each 
of the smaller signs has a different pronunci- 
ation of its own. 

EFFECT ON CHINESE LITERATURE. 

With such a system as this it can be easily 
seen how slow any intellectual progress or 
means of literary communication must be; 
and the. Chinese education, while it fosters 
concentration, memory, and application to 
study in a manner unknown to western peo- 
ples, is narrow and circumscribed, and apt to 
give rise to a feeling of intellectual superior- 
ity without sufficient cause, by the fact of a 
conquest over such a difficult means of com- 
munication, while a knowledge of reading 
and writing in western nations is the com- 
mon property of every little child. 

To be sure, from a philological point of 
view, when one gets used to the signs Chi- 
nese becomes a fascinating study, and is easy 
to read by ej^e, as each sign, when once 
learned, usually carries within it its true 
meaning and original idea. In such cases, 
one sees at a glance that the meaning of a 
sign has to do, for example, with trees, or 
stars, or metals, and so forth. On the other 
hand, some signs have now little connection 
with their original meaning, and many are 
extremely complicated. Chinese abounds in 
synonyms and hazy, ill-defined words, but 
sometimes this similarity has a useful result. 



216 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



At the time of the Boxer troubles, when the 
imperial edict was sent out that on a certain 
date '* all foreigners are to be exterminated," 
some friendly officials substituted a Chinese 
sign similar in looks but with the meaning 
** protected " instead of '* exterminated " 
or " slaughtered," and this saved hundreds 
of lives in the friendly provinces. 

A Chinaman reading aloud a public notice 
or edict can hardly be understood by his 
hearers if they do not see the writing. It 
must be read by the eye to be certain of the 
contents. Further, a man from a different 
province would read it aloud quite differ- 
ently, and even then none could be sure of 
the meaning by hearing alone, unless it were 
couched in the idiom of the district, which 
is usually not done, as the common tongue 
of the people is despised for literary pur- 
poses, much as Italian was at the time of 
Dante, or ordinary Greek at the time of the 
writing of the Christian books. Consequent- 
ly, books are written to be read by the eye. 
Ordinary language is not employed, but a 
highly artificial and stilted style has been 
developed. China wants a Cadmus, a St. 
John, and a Shakespeare, — the one to put its 
best and clearest dialect into phonetic writ- 
ing; the second to teach the highest philo- 
sophical and moral truths in the simple 
words of common life ; and the third to open 
the imagination and bring all into harmony 
in one grand plan of the ideal man and 
woman ; while a fourth, — a Chinese Huxley, 
— is required to explain scientific truths in a 
simple and easily understood manner. 

FORMS OF LITERARY EXPRESSION IN CHINA. 

The Chinese have no lack of poetry of 
their own, much of it of a high degree of 
excellence, a§ can be seen by reading Pro- 
fessor Giles' volume on *' Chinese Litera- 
ture," in the World's Literature series. The 
drama is held in low esteem in China, and 
actors are regarded, with barbers, as being 
too low to admit into the colleges. The 
spread of the love for imaginative dramatic 
poetry may come about, as in other coun- 
tries, by a translation into Chinese of Shake- 
speare's plays, or by the springing forth of 
a new Chinese poet writing in the common 
tongue. The common tongue bears on its 
waves the great vessels. In Japan the west- 
ern styles have been taken up, and novels 
and poems written in ordinary language 
about everyday themes are now becoming 
common. The second desideratum can be 
satisfied by the translation of biographical, 



historical, philosophical, and scientific works 
in the Peking educated speech, or Gwaan- 
hwa ('* Kuan-hua "). But neither of these 
two can come at all usefully for the com- 
mon people before one of the Chinese dia- 
lects is taken and acknowledged by the gov- 
ernment as the standard and its pronuncia- 
tion carefully put into phonetic spelling in 
a way to commend itself alike to the ear and 
to the eye. A great deal of work has been 
already done in putting western scientific 
books into Chinese characters, using either 
the official or literary language. But there 
still remains the difficulty of educating the 
common people, who cannot afford to give 
ten years of their life to learning the neces- 
sary characters. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that 
much remains to be done before government 
and commerce can be carried on with the 
same facility with which western nations 
manage their affairs. In the western na- 
tions every boy can read and write easily at 
eight or ten years of age, and the whole of 
literature and science is thus thrown open to 
him by degrees with this key. But in China 
only a small proportion can " read charac- 
ters," and a still smaller proportion read and 
write easily and correctly. 

There are several ways in which the Chi- 
nese could remedy this: one by learning an- 
other language, as English or Esperanto. In 
Japan, English forms the second language, 
and the million of students who can now 
read English must have added very largely 
to the power of intercommunication of the 
Japanese nation, to say nothing of their 
knowledge of French and German, which is 
considerable, though far less than of Eng- 
lish. But in China a better means would be 
to put their own simple language into pho- 
netics. This can be done in several ways, — 
by a syllabary, with signs for separate syl- 
lables, as ba, be, bo, bu, and so on, as is 
done with the Japanese Kana. A more use- 
ful way, however, would be to use a care- 
fully adjusted s)^stem of romanized spelling, 
using phonetic signs of the roman alphabet 
which all the other nations could easily read. 

At present the Chinese themselves have no 
phonetic spelling, and no study of exact pho- 
netics, or so little of it that it practically 
counts for naught. The Chinese idea of 
phonetics is to take one of their best-known 
characters, — let us say, for example, a char- 
acter called in Pekinese chu, — and another 
pronounced ping; and by putting the two 
together (chu-ping) the first sound of the 



CHINA AND THE LANGUAGE QUESTION. 



217 



first character is added to the last sound of 
the second character, so obtaining the re- 
sult, " ching." This is found useful among 
the Chinese in cases of disputed pronuncia- 
tion, or for indicating that of foreign words. 
Unfortunately, useful as it may appear at 
first trial, the Chinese pronounce their words 
so differently in different provinces that it is 
not possible to rely on this device. It is no 
exaggeration to say that in different parts of 
China what is in one province called chu 
in others may well be either chu or ju, cho, 
jo, chowu, jowu, juwu, or possibly ngo, nga, 
or even waa! Chinese phonetics are par- 
ticularly fluidic. To the average Chinaman, 
even when educated, it makes little differ- 
ence if )^ou pronounce " International Law," 
or " International Gnaw," or ** Internation- 
al Raw," — all will be understood, and he 
will use these interchangeably. 

PHONETIC SYSTEMS NOW IN USE. 

Among the foreign educators, missionaries, 
and diplomatists in China there are several 
phonetic systems now used or being tried. 
Among these are the following: The early 
French romanized, now nearly obsolete ; one 
or two German systems of greater or less 
complexity and weirdness; the English dip- 
lomatic romanized, known as Wade's sys- 
tem, which for want of something better has 
become almost universal, and the American 
missionary system, known as Mateer's; the 
Standard Romanized Pronunciation system 
(a compound and improvement of these lat- 
ter two) ; M. Murray's numerical system, 
used chiefly for Braille printing for the 
blind, in which the 408 root Chinese sounds 
are given numbers and are indicated by a 
raised system of dots punched on paper in 
tiny squares; a Chinese syllabary based on 
the Japanese Kana; several new and wonder- 
ful Chinese systems, based on Chinese sign 
writing, and looking like Chinese (the 
schools and colleges are full of inventors of 
these wonderful systems) ; a method of Chi- 
nese shorthand, which is said to have great 
vogue, especially among women ; and finally 
the International Phonetic System, worked 
out by the present writer, and taught by 
him in the Peking Imperial College. This 
is somewhat similar to, but more complete 
than, the international romanizing suggested 
by a Japanese missionary, and now used for 
their own language by the Japanese. The 
only three systems worthy of consideration, 
however, for the purpose of transcribing Chi- 
nese into some kind of a written language 



comparable to English, French, or German, 
are Wade's (Mateer's is nearly the same) , the 
Standard, and the International Phonetic. 

It is not necessary to consider these sys- 
tems in detail. We must constantly keep 
in mind, however, that for China to have the 
benefits of western science and for other na- 
tions to treat her as on a par with themselves 
she must have a constitution, an organized 
educational system, and for this, a national 
spoken language. To haVe the language 
become truly national she must somehow 
or other have phonetics properly studied 
and carefully taught in her schools, as a 
means to indicate the correct standard pro- 
nunciation. 

A method of teaching Chinese either to 
Chinese themselves or to foreigners should 
include a course in Peking mandarin, as 
the official language. The pronunciation 
should be indicated phonetically either with 
Chinese signs or the Roman alphabet, or 
both. Preferably, the tones should be indi- 
cated if possible by additional letters or 
doubled signs within the body of the word, 
rather than be entirely omitted, or indicated 
by figures above the line, as in the Wade 
system. The recognized international pho- 
netics as used in Japan should be used, but 
somewhat modified to give room to indicate 
the tones. The principle of this interna- 
tional system is : " English consonants and 
continental vowels." The Chinese language 
should not be regarded as monosyllabic, but 
those syllables which naturally run together 
in speaking should be run together in writ- 
ing. The ideal should be to take the most 
distinct and important dialect, say Pekinese, 
and form a language which could be easily 
read by all who knew the Roman alphabet, 
so that whether American, British, Norse, 
French, German, Italian, or Japanese, all 
would be able to use and understand it. 

Chinese is a language that now requires 
studying from five to ten years to learn at 
all usefully. One becomes skilful in it only 
after twenty years of hard work. With a 
phonetic system and a good method of ar- 
ranging the common idioms of daily life, we 
should be able to speak Chinese fairly well 
in six months or a year. 

With such a good phonetic system fully 
worked out for all the ordinary phrases and 
idioms of common life, some simple grammar 
and a dictionary of words on the same plan, 
it would be quite possible to put China on a 
level with other nations in the possession of 
an easily read and easily acquired means of 



218 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



verbal intercommunication. This would be 
not only of great service to commercial and 
diplomatic circles throughout the world, but 
would prove of the very greatest advantage 
to philology and linguistics. China has 
something to teach, but its chest of treasures 
is as good as locked up, owing to the heavi- 
ness of the key, which only a giant in intel- 
lect or patience can turn. The Chinese have 
advanced in the past by their unique posses- 
sion of a complete philosophy without su- 
perstition, and a universal notation of ideas, 
— two great desiderata which the German 



philosopher Leibniz longed for, but in vain. 
The Chinese have kept their unity amid the 
clashings of empires, by the sole means of this 
notation ; but they have also remained in 
semi-darkness while other nations advanced, 
by the continued use of a language which in- 
dicates ideas instead of pronunciation. To 
change is to progress. Progress is based on 
education. Education is based on language. 
The Chinese problem is a language problem, 
and if China herself and the other nations 
recognize this the " Eastern Window " will 
soon open for light. 



THE NEED OF LAW REFORM IN CHINA. 

BY CHARLES SUMNER LOBINGIER. 



A N interesting phase of the many-sided 
progressive movement in the Chinese 
Empire is the undertaking to reform its 
judicial system. A commission charged with 
this duty is now at work, and during a recent 
visit to China the writer had the opportunity 
of meeting a member of this body, Mr. Y. L. 
Kuan, — whose official title is Secretary of 
the Ministry of Law, — and of learning from 
him some of its program. 

THE EXAMPLE OF JAPAN. 

In taking this step, as in many other re- 
spects, China is now following in the foot- 
steps of Japan. One of the first innovations 
of the Mikado's government after its over- 
throw of the Shogunate was the establish- 
ment of a judiciary upon weste,rn lines. This 
was inaugurated as early as 1872, and its 
existence afforded one of the principal argu- 
ments whereby seventeen years later, but pre- 
maturely, many now believe, foreign powers 
were induced to relinquish their claims of 
extra-territorial jurisdiction in Japan. 

The Sunrise Empire followed up this first 
reform with a series of sweeping changes in 
the laws themselves, resulting finally in the 
creation of an entirely new legal system se- 
lected from the best foreign sources. In 
1 88 1 a new criminal code (now about to be 
superseded) was put into force abolishing the 
severe and barbarous penalties which had been 
borrowed from the Chinese many centuries 
before. Codes of procedure, both criminal 
and civil, were promulgated in 1890, and 
about three years later a commercial and a 
civil code, both based upon German models. 

The program of the Chinese law reform- 



ers appears less extensive, though the results 
may be quite as effectual. The system of 
punishments has, indeed, already been consid- 
erably mitigated, largely through the efforts 
of Wu Ting-Fang, well known in America 
by reason of his long and efficient service as 
the Chinese representative at Washington. 
But it does not seem to be the purpose to 
change materially the system of private sub- 
stantive law, and for this there appear to be 
excellent reasons. 

THE CHINESE CODE. 

It may not be generally known that China 
has an ancient and elaborate, not to say 
voluminous, code of written laws. In point 
of antiquity it is by far the oldest of all codes 
now in force. Only such instruments as the 
Decalogue or the Code of Hammurabi seem 
ancient beside it. If the Code of Justinian 
had been continuously operative since its 
promulgation it would still be youthful as 
compared with this Chinese product. In- 
trinsically it consists of some twenty-four 
volumes, in the literary language of the em- 
pire, and it not only covers the general field 
of substantive civil and criminal jurispru- 
dence, but it also touches upon nearly every 
phase of human interest and duty; for the 
Chinese conception of law is broader than 
the Occidental and includes many subjects 
which western jurists would regard as be- 
longing to the domain of ethics or etiquette.* 

Independently of its contents the external 
character of this code affords a guaranty of 

* Such, e.g., are the numorous injunctions of filial 
duty enforced by severe penalties, and the minute 
regulations concerning marriage and even engage- 
ments. 



THE NEED OF LAW REFORM IN CHINA. 219 



REFORM IN ADMINISTRATION NEEDED. 



its permanence. It is saidt to consist of the 
accumulated decrees of the emperors, dating 
back twenty centuries, collected, revised, and Nevertheless, the Chinese code is one of 
arranged in logical order, and is thus an ap- substantive law^ only, — i. e., it prescribes 
plication, upon an elaborate scale, of the sys- rights and duties, but does not, it is said, 
tern of adjudicated precedents which forms contain any provisions governing procedure 
the foundation of our Anglo-Saxon juris- or the methods of enforcing rights. More- 
prudence. But in China the respect for prec- over, there seem to be no distinctively judicial 
edent and written authority is much greater officers in China ; the governmental system 
than with us. •' A quotation from Confucius has come down unchanged from a time when 
has settled many a quarrel, arbitrated many a the various classes of functions had not been 
dispute.''^ The only class at all correspond- differentiated, and one set of officials might 
ing to our lawyers is that known as " search- perform any sort of duty. To-day the court 
ers," whose business it is to find a precedent of lowest grade is the Yamen of the district 
according to which a litigated question may magistrate, who, besides being the all-around 
be decided. With such notions thus deeply administrative officer of his locality, hears 
rooted, a code containing the precedents of causes of any character. From his decision an 
ages and embodying the sum of Chinese jurid- appeal may be taken to the prefect, the pro- 
ical philosophy is not apt to be seriously dis- vincial magistrate, the viceroy, and formerly 
turbed even by the mighty upheaval now tak- to the censorate in Peking, though a court 
ing place in the Celestial Empire. of cassation has now been established there. 

Nor is it clear that such a result would be As the rules require the decision of every 
desirable. The displacement of an in- inferior tribunal to be reviewed by a higher 
digenous, time-honored system of laws, even one, it will be seen that the simplest piece of 
though defective, by one of alien origin, per- litigation is subject to long and vexatious de- 
haps abstractly better, is a serious undertak- lays, while in no case can it receive the at- 
ing, and the results are likely to be disap- tention of a class of skilled men specially 
pointing. It is doubtful if the Japanese have trained for the task of administering justice 
succeeded in adapting their exotic, though according to law. It is to the removal of 
smoothly phrased, codes to the spirit and un- such patent and inherent defects that the 
derstanding of the people. While in Japan reformatory commission is now devoting its 
recently the writer was informed, upon good labors. The plan is to establish a real judi- 
authority, that the judges themselves are often ciary, whose functions are to be separate and 
at a loss to understand these codes and that it distinct from those of any other branch ; its 
is not uncommon for them, confidentially, to members to be selected only from those espe- 
seek the assistance of foreign lawyers in cases cially equipped for its duties, and its pro- 
of doubtful interpretation. cedure to be regulated by uniform and recog- 

In China, however, if we may believe im- nized rules, instead of being left to the discre- 
partial critics, not even theoretical superiority tion of each individual magistrate. Recog- 
of foreign systems can be urged in favor of nizing, no doubt, the hugeness as well as the 
displacing the ancient national code. The importance of the task and the undesirability 
author last quoted says that the Chinese laws of hasty action, the government in its imperial 
" as a whole are mild and humane, far supe- edict providing for the change allows fifteen 
rior to those found in any other Asiatic coun- years for the establishment of the new sys- 
try." And the translator of the code. Sir tem. With this period at their disposal and 
George Stanton, declared : *' When we turn with the experience of Japan to guide them, 
from the ravings of the Zend-Avesta or the the Chinese commissioners ought to be able 
Puranas to the tone of sense and business in to avoid the errors which have caused such 
this Chinese collection, it is like passing from dissatisfaction on the part of aliens residing 
darkness to light, from the dwellings of in the former country. For the good of 
dotage to the exercise of an improved under- China, not less than of the stranger within 
standing ; and redundant and minute as these her gates, it is to be hoped that her reform- 
laws are, in many particulars, we scarcely ers in achieving their task may realize that 
know a European code that is at once so the due and speedy dispensing of justice to 
copious and so consistent, or is nearly so freed foreigners as well as to the subject is the first 
from intricacy, bigotry, and fiction." concern of the state, a requisite to lasting 

— -— — — - — - — — — ;; ^TTTq^ commercial prosperity, and the surest pass- 

t Holcombe, "The Real Chinaman," pp. 30, 195. , r\ r ^ 'i .• 

f jj^ 4- port to the conndence or outside nations. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE MECHANICAL HANDLING OF THE WORLD'S STOCK 

OF GOLD. 



IV/TORE than $1,000,000 per diem is the 
value of the supply of gold to the 
world, yet it is so mechanically managed that 
it fails to subserve fully the tremendous in- 
terests which depend on it. In the various 
treasuries, banks, and other depositories of 
the commercial world there is to-day a stock 
of gold coin and bullion equal in value to 
about $3,300,000,000. Late in 1907 the 
United States Treasury held of this aggre- 
gate $916,000,000, Bank of France $541,- 
000,000, State Bank of Russia 508,000,000, 
Bank of Austro-Hungary $229,000,000, 
Bank of Italy $167,000,000, Bank of Eng- 
land $159,000,000, Imperial Bank of Ger- 
many $146,000,000, Bank of Spain, $78,- 
000,000, Bank of the Netherlands $38,000,- 
000, Bank of Naples $35,000,000, Bank of 
Scotland $26,000,000, National Bank of 
Denmark $24,000,000, National Bank of 
Belgium $21,000,000, Royal Bank of Swe- 
den $21,000,000, National Bank of Rou- 
mania $20,000,000, Bank of Ireland $16,- 
000,000, Switzerland banks of issue, $13,- 
000,000, National Bank of Switzerland 
$12,000,000, German local banks $ii,000,- 
000, Bank of Sicily $9,500,000, Bank of 
Norway $9,000,000, Bank of Bulgaria $6,- 
000,000, Bank of Portugal $5,500,000, Bank 
of Finland $5,500,000, National Bank of 
Servia $3,000,000, National Bank of Greece 
$500,000, and in other depositories in this 
country, Canada, Mexico, Central and South 
America, the Colonies, Turkey, Egypt, In- 
dia, Japan, and China there was, approxi- 
mately, $280,000,000 additional. 

This immense stock of gold is popularly 
supposed to flow whither exchange demands; 
but this is a delusion, and it is attached by 
numerous and invisible ligatures to the coun- 
tries which secure possession of it. Indeed, 
it is so tied up that a demand from one 
county to another, even in exchange for 
securities or commodities offered at a depre- 
ciation of from 25 to 30 per cent., is re- 
sponded to with the greatest reluctance, diffi- 
culty, and delay. The events of our recent 
crisis demonstrated the difficulty of with- 
drawing from Europe to this country an 



amount of gold equivalent to less than a sin- 
gle year's production of our mines alone. 
This is, in part, because gold enters into the 
arts and the coinages of the commercial world 
as soon as it is produced. 

As the case stands to-day every state re- 
quires, and must have, command of the means 
to liquidate its paper issues in gold, but there 
is no necessity herein for selfish accumula- 
tion, rendering it difficult for neighboring 
states to obtain it when required by the 
exigencies of legitimate commerce, without 
being obliged to sell securities and products 
at bankruptcy prices, says Mr. Alex. Del 
Mar in the Engineering Magazine for Jan- 
uary. Accordingly, he suggests a project to 
remedy this embarrassing condition, which he 
describes as " purely mechanical " : 

It is to mobilize the entire stock of gold held 
by the contracting states, by means of issuing, 
against such stock, certificates of deposit, which 
shall be made legal tenders in all of the con- 
tracting states, except at the treasury of the 
state of issue. Each state shall substitute such 
certificates in place of the gold for all pur- 
poses for which the gold is now employed, and 
shall undertake to pay them on demand. The 
security afforded by such certificates would be 
just as good as, — nay, even better than, — that of 
the gold Itself. The expense entailed and time 
lost in conveying the metal to and fro across 
the ocean and of recoining it would be avoided; 
and in case of urgent demand from either side, 
or as between the first-class powers, the certifi- 
cates would respond to the demands of com- 
merce and of exchange with a celerity and cer- 
tainty that cannot be imparted to the metal 
itself. 

That this could be accomplished he points 
out that states have frequently admitted into 
their monetary circulation, with full, legal- 
tender power, the coins of other states. For 
instance: Spanish coins were accepted in this 
country, Portuguese in England, and English 
in Portugal. The Latin Monetary Union 
in 1866, between France, Belgium, Switzer- 
land, and Italy, later including the Papal 
States, Greece, and Roumania, and the Scan- 
dinavian Union, — Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden, — are illustrations of inter-state 
agreements for uniform coinage recognition. 
The international postal union and money 



Leading articles of the month. 



221 



order system deals in credits amounting to 
hundreds of millions per annum. " Why 
not," says he, " a system of international 
legal-tender certificates backed by deposits of 
gold coin, to the full amount of their issue, 
but, unlike the coin, full legal-tenders in each 
and all of the contracting states? When 
wanted at home, as a basis for other issues, 
they could be locked up in the treasury; 
when wanted abroad they could be used at 
once, without expense of carriage or recoin- 
age. 

Three objections, he concedes, may be 
urged : Where shall the stock be deposited ? 
Shall the contract be observed in case of hos- 
tilities? How may different coinage de- 
nominations be regulated ? He replies, in 
order, thus : Let each state keep its own stock 



and let the commissioners of all the contract- 
ing states countersign and register the certifi- 
cates of each state. Since the legal-tender 
quality depends on more than two belligerent 
states, and would be regulated by the conven- 
tion obligatory in all, no danger need be ap- 
prehended from the second query; and a scale 
which enables large sums in pounds-sterling, 
francs, marks, florins, rubles, and dollars to 
be expressed in national integers of equiva- 
lent gold weights exists to solve the denomi- 
national apprehension. Hence, " the plan 
herein outlined would virtually provide a 
Bank of the World ; and its promise of influ- 
ence in securing the peace of that world 
should be great enough to sweep away any ob- 
jections to its adoption that may be raised by 
either class interest or diplomatic intrigue." 



IN THE SERVICE OF UNCLE SAM. 



A TTRACTIVE as is the civil service and 
alluring as is an official position at 
Washington to most young men, the delights 
of serving the Government at its principal 
seat are not unalloyed with drawbacks and 
disappointments. A former ten-doUar-a-week 
clerk in a country lawyer's office, who suc- 
ceeded to a clerkship at $900 a year in Wash- 
ington under civil-service regulations, found 
his position by no means a bed of roses. 

Describing his experiences in the National 
Magazine for December, Mr. H. C. Gauss 
says that nine o'clock each morning saw the 
commencement of this public servant's labors. 
With the exception of half-an-hour lunch in- 
terval he worked until 4 : 30 p. m. daily, prin- 
cipally taking dictation from an older clerk. 
His salary was paid in two instalments, half 
on the 15th and the remainder on the 30th. 
Thirty dollars was the minimum for board 
and room; $5 for luncheon; $3 for car-fare, 
and laundry and sundries consumed so much 
of the balance that he was eagerly awaiting 
the second month's pay-day. After six months 
he congratulated himself if pay-day found 
him with cash on hand. 

His grade was the lowest. Next to it was 
the thousand-dollar division; above that the 
twelve-hundred-dollar class; then the six- 
teen-hundred and eighteen-hundred dollar 
variety, next to the chief clerk of division. 
Over that functionary was the chief clerk of 
the bureau, subordinate only to the chief 
clerk of the department. Efficiency in work 
is a lever for promotion assisted by forcible 



** kicking." This the incumbent quickly dis- 
covered. The thousand-dollar grade was a 
gathering of all sorts: those who could get 
no higher and those who had been reduced 
from higher grades. The lawyer's clerk 
emerged from that environment, however, 
and in the process discovered that " effi- 
ciency " workings are taken in a Pickwickian 
sense and are construed in an esoteric sense 
by that patient personage, the appointment 
clerk, who reads them through a pair of spec- 
tacles entirely his own, and who is, in the 
main, correct in his translation of the sym- 
bols. He also discovered that the man who 
hides his light under a bushel runs no dan- 
ger of being unearthed. 

At the twelve-hundred-dollar stage he con- 
cluded that his limit was reached and that he 
was idle a good deal of the time. Hence, he 
studied law, and, on admission to the bar, 
made a good connection with the lawyer who 
had first employed him. On his retirement 
he summed up his experience of civil service 
as follows : 

There are not many good positions in gov- 
ernment employment accessible from the clas- 
sified service. 

There are also many bright young men 
constantly striving for these places, and the 
large side of the ratio is on that of the striv- 
ers. 

The best positions in life attainable through 
the classified service are those in outside em- 
ployment, preparation for which is made pos- 
sible by the conditions of government work. 



222 



THE AMERICAN REl^lElV OF REl^IElVS. 



Securing employment in the classified serv- 
ice is largely a matter of chance as between 
a given number of persons of probably simi- 
lar qualifications; but the chance offers the 
opportunity of hitting upon individuals well 
adapted for the work. Any rigid system 
would fill the departments with clerks who 
would conform to the pattern of the system, 
which in turn would reflect its creator, so that 
the clerks would be very much of one kind. 

Very much of the new material is impres- 
sionable, and is quickly modified and molded. 

In promotion, the personal equation has its 
influence. The academic system of marking 
for efficiency is absurd. Modified by those 
who have to deal with its results, it works 
with a reasonable amount of justice, though 
with inevitable cases of individual hardship. 

The pathos of the service is the absence of 



expectation of a satisfactory outcome. While 
there is continuous employment at good pay 
during the productive years, the intangible 
surplus of friends and associations does not 
accumulate as in outside life. 

The problem of disposing of old and dis- 
abled clerks cannot be settled by opposing a 
civil-pension list. It is settled now and could 
be administered at less expense if given its 
proper name. 

Comparative efficiency cannot be ascer- 
tained until a standard of efficiency has been 
established. No one knows whether the Gov- 
ernment work is being efficiently done. The 
most one can say is that it is being done. 

Readers of this article by Mr. Gauss will 
be able the better to appreciate the work 
of the Keep Commission, described on page 
190 of this number of the Review. 



THE AXIS OF EUROPEAN POLICY,— THE BAGDAD 

RAILWAY. 



npHE culminating point of German policy 
^ in the Near East is, says M. Rene 
Pinon in the Revue des Deux Mondes, the 
construction of the Bagdad railway. The 
French reviews have recently been devoting 
considerable attention to this question, and 
M. Pinon discusses in great detail the rela- 
tions of Germany and Turkey. He analyzes 
German methods very carefully. . He points 
out that the most important element in Ger- 
man preponderance in the Near East is the 
cordial relations existing between the Kaiser 
and the Sultan. Therein lies both its great- 
est strength and its weakness. 

The German banks are the real inspirers of 
German economic and colonial expansion. The 
maxim of the German financier is that the bank 
ought to precede commerce in order to facilitate 
business transactions and organize credit. 
While German banks have been multiplying in 
the East, Berlin and Constantinople have been 
linked together by telegraph, and the German 
hope to extend telegraphic communications by 
the Bagdad railway to Bagdad and the Persian 
Gulf and thence to the Dutch Indies. But Ger- 
many places even more reliance upon her mari- 
time organization, and, in addition to the con- 
quest of the Mediterranean, her object is to 
found agencies in the Turkish ports, the Persian 
Gulf and the Indian Ocean. All these means, 
however, are but the avenues leading up to the 
construction of the Bagdad railway. Hitherto 
the great international routes have surrounded 
the Ottoman Empire without penetrating into 
its interior. The creation of a network of rail- 
ways in Anatolia and the Bagdad railway con- 



cession has marked a veritable epoch in the 
economic history of the East. 

The resurrection of Asiatic Turkey is so 
gigantic an enterprise that it cannot be the 
achievement of one nation alone. M. Pinon 
strongly advocates an entente between Ger- 
many and France in the Levant. The greater 
the task, he says, the more dangerous the pos- 
sibility of disputes, the more need there is 
for ententes. 

THE RAILROAD A DANGER POINT. 

M. Francis Delaisi's article on the Bag- 
dad railway in La Revue may be read in con- 
nection with the above article. He recapitu- 
lates the history of the Bagdad railway 
scheme, and the difficulties Germany has had 
to contend with down to the summer of the 
present year, when the 3 per cent, increase of 
the Turkish Customs dues was instituted to 
assure the Turkish guarantee for the railway. 

The railway is to make Bagdad five hours in- 
stead of fifty-five days distant from Constanti- 
nople, and it will enable the Turks to convey 
troops rapidly to their most distant frontiers. 
In short, it will consolidate the Ottoman Em- 
pire. It will accelerate the present route to In- 
dia, and the Suez Canal will lose much of its 
commercial importance. Naturally the Germans 
wished to retain for themselves all the glory of 
the scheme, — and the profits ; but England, 
France and Russia being opposer to such a 
monopoly, the railway for the last four years 
has been the axis of European policy. Times 
have changed since the railway was first pro- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



223 



jected. France is no longer ready to offer her 
capital unconditionally, and the powers insist on 
the railway being an international affair. 

Why the Kaiser Must Have His Bagdad. 

Writing on the Kaiser's visit to England, 
the editor of the Revue de Paris (M. Victor 
Berard) assumes that the question of the 
Bagdad railway must have been one of the 
chief topics discussed at Windsor. For sev- 
enteen years this question has dominated the 
relations between London and Berlin, and 
the construction of the railway has always 
been one of the cherished objects of the 
Kaiser's ambition. Now that the marshal- 
ship of the world is no longer in his hands he 
is more than ever in need of a victory, and 



M. Berard suggests that neither England 
nor Europe will gain by not recognizing this 
fact. He points out a method by which he 
believes the conflicting interests of England 
and Germany might be reconciled. He 
would allow the Germans to build the rail- 
way as far as Bassorah, an arrangement 
which would not hinder English boats as- 
cending, the Tigris as far as Bagdad. As 
compensation for the German railway on 
the Euphrates, the English should ask for an 
extension of the privileges of the Lynch 
Company on the Tigris, and they vv^ould find 
that neither their political influence at Bag- 
dad nor their commercial advantages would 
be reduced in any way. 



THE FIGHTING VALUE OF THE FRENCH ARMY. 



QENERAL LANGLOIS, of the staff of 
the French army, contributes to the 
Revue des Deux Mondes (Paris), a paper 
in which he contrasts the French army of 
to-day with that of Germany, a study the 
conclusions of which go to show that if 
France were to meet her traditional foe in 
the field at the present time, her fate could 
hardly be different from that which befell 
her in 1870. The eventuality of a war, he 
declares, is not less present now than in the 
past, and a consideration of our situation as 
against that of the German army is not 
without its own sinister interest. Says the 
general : 

Since the law of March, 1905, France has been 
in a position very inferior to that of Germany, 
from the point of view of the number of com- 
batants. Exactly, therefore, what would happen 
in the case of war may be here shown. It is 
highly probable that hostilities would begin 
without any formal declaration whatever, per- 
haps unexpectedly, and in the course of a period 
of political tension. Germany alone is capable 
of assuming the offensive in so brutal a manner, 
since her Emperor has decided that he alone 
shall be the arbiter of war and peace. In 
France, war can only be declared by a decree 
of the Constitutional Parliament, even in re- 
sponse to an act of aggression. Consequently 
an initial delay must arise in the matter of 
mobilizing the French army, — at least a delay of 
twenty-four hours^ if the Chambers be in ses- 
sion ; if not a more protracted one. This would 
undoubtedly allow Germany to harass in a very 
serious way our early operations, and to give 
battle under conditions peculiarly advantageous 
to herself. Her first movement would be di- 
rected upon French soil, and a series of ag- 
gressive actions must take place, against which 
the present defensive forces maintained on the 
frontiers, far below their normal figures, it is 



clear, would be of little avail. In the more im- 
portant operations which must succeed, the po- 
sition of the French army, according to the 
schedule, is the following : to the fifty-six 
squadrons, sixty-five sabres strong, the German 
army could oppose, in the first pitched battle, 
114 squadrons, 130 sabres strong, or 14,820 Ger- 
man horsemen* against 3640 of the French army. 
There is, moreover, our admitted inferiority in 
artillery to be calculated. Such being the case, 
the dangers of assuming a sudden offensive, dis- 
appear entirely in the case of the Germans. The 
French, in the initial stages, at least (and re- 
verses in the beginning have an incalculable 
effect on the morale of French troops, particu- 
larly), would be practically at the mercy of the 
invading army. 

Nevertheless, the General maintains that 
in respect of individual worth, the French 
army is incontestably superior to the Ger- 
man. The French soldier, he says, is nat- 
urally disciplined when properly led. By 
the very force of his self-respect the French 
trooper is capable of superhuman efforts. 
His genius for w^ar, moreover, a quality 
lacking in the Teuton, renders him, in cam- 
paign, adaptable to all manner of contin- 
gencies, particularly in modern warfare, in 
which personal initiative is ever growing, 
and which was unknown almost altogether 
in the days of " close order " operations. 

Contrary to w^hat is generally thought, 
says General Langlois, there is now more 
than ever an opportunity for the private 
soldier to show his mettle, to prove his ca- 
pacity for initiative, and thus to bring him- 
self to the notice of his superiors. This is 
Avhat is known as the fighting value of the 
soldier. The collective moral value of an 
army is an entirely different thing, and, un- 



224 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



fortunately, according to General Langlols, 

the policy has for some time past prevailed 

In France of lowering the prestige of the 

army and exalting officialism. 

The morale of the French army and its for- 
mer spirit and verve can only be restored by a 
complete overhauling of the whole military sys- 
tem. Justice in the promotion of officers is 
almost a farce. Military or soldierly merit is 
recognized only according to backstair princi- 



ples and interest. The consequence is that the 
officers of regiments are for the greater part 
divided against each other ; that this lack of 
esprit de corps has its effect upon the troops 
who perfunctorily, if not with perfect disgust, 
approach and perform their military duties ; 
and, finally, that there is, as the logic of the 
whole situation, a general fear prevalent in the 
army that a meeting with the Germans on the 
field of arms would mean but a repetition of 
the tragic episodes of 1870. 



THE JAPANESE, CANADA, AND SOUTH AMERICA. 



A FTER characterizing Canada as " one 
of those neighboring lands of vast but 
only partly peopled spaces where the subjects 
of the Mikado may take lessons in western 
civilization, earn large incomes, and estab- 
lish profitable industries pending their return 
to a life of ease in their native land," M. 
Louis Aubert, writing in the Revue de Paris, 
says : 

The measures taken by the Dominion of Can- 
ada in regard to Chinese have guaranteed the 
Japanese against the only competition they could 
not have mastered. Since January i, 1904, the 
per capita tax on Chinese immigration has been 
$500. Since then the Canadians appear to be 
increasing their precautions. A recent law for- 
bids the employment of Chinese labor in work- 
shops and factories. They may be employed as 
domestic servants, they are permitted to work 
in canning factories, but are not given licenses 
to fish. 

The activities of the Japanese in Canada 
are quite different. Those who are in a 
servant's capacity are either stewards or hotel 
employees. They work chiefly, however, in 
the fields, in the forests as wood-cutters, in 
sawmills, and on the roads. They are per- 
mitted to take out naturalization papers, and 
after the legal term of residence may obtain 
licenses to fish and act as sailors. Indeed, 
almost a third of the fishermen to-day in 
Canada are Japanese. 

The Chinese being barred, the Japanese profit 
by the demand for cheap labor on the sparsely 
peopled plains, where the syndicate white men 
demand too high prices for their work. Since 
California halted the Japanese these people have 
poured into Canada in increasing numbers. 
Until ten years ago the Chinese monopolized all 
the fishing in the Fraser River; now the Japan- 
ese have it all. A Japanese economist, Kozaki 
Hirokichi, who visited Canada some years ago, 
recently wrote in a journal of Tokio (in Feb- 
ruary, 1906) : " The Japanese fishermen who 
earn the least make $300 per season ; some earn 
as high as $3000." 

After the demonstrations in British Colum- 
bia, some months ago, the provincial Legis- 



lature passed a bill increasing the entrance 
tax on Japanese immigrants to $500. Three 
times this measure was insisted upon by the 
province, but each time the Dominion Gov- 
ernment opposed the bill. Commenting on 
this, one of the Vancouver newspapers re- 
cently remarked : *' We must resort to other 
tactics; we must convert the rest of Canada 
to the opinion of Columbia." 

After reviewing the anti- Japanese senti- 
ment on the Pacific Coast of the United 
States, the writer in the French review draws 
a novel inference from the departure of our 
fleet for the Pacific Ocean. He says: 

The United States is maintaining, renewing, 
and developing her Atlantic fleet to keep pace 
with _ European ambitions covering Central 
America and South America. She is also, how- 
ever, gradually turning her back on Europe, so 
that she may see with her eyes what Japan is 
doing across the Pacific. By the good will of 
Europe the Monroe Doctrine is to be respected 
on the Atlantic front while the American fleet 
is in the Pacific. In this enterprise the United 
States wisely trusts to the wisdom and good 
feeling of the Latin republics. The wisdom of 
this confidence is evident when it is remem- 
bered that with the fleet in the Pacific there is 
no club to bring Cuba, San Domingo, and Vene- 
zuela to terms. 

The question of the Far East, says M. 
Aubert, will develop the Monroe Doctrine. 

The immigration of the Japanese, their col- 
onization all the way down the coast of the 
Pacific Ocean from Canada to Chile, and their 
attempts to form on the Western Hemisphere 
many Shin-Nippons (New Japans) are now 
menacing the United States, not only in Cali- 
fornia, but in every country of the Western 
Hemisphere. If it. can be imagined that for 
ulterior motives of their own some of the South 
American republics might count on Japanese 
assistance, it is quite evident that when Japanese 
patriotism and Japanese energy have made 
themselves felt in the South American repub- 
lics, as they have already made themselves felt 
in California and in British Columbia, the anti- 
Japanese spirit may awaken a real sentiment of 
pan-American solidarity. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



225 



THE GREATEST COAL-MINE DISASTER IN OUR 

HISTORY. 



npO the long list of mining disasters in 
-*■ this country that in the mines of the 
Fairmount Coal Company, at Monongah, 
W. Va., on December 6, 1907, must be 
added, with the observation that its death 
tally is the most appalling in American coal- 
mining history. Death made a clean sweep 
that day, and his harvest was 344 souls, — 
miners, bosses, and engineers, — every man 
below ground when his signal came, save 
four, who escaped somewhat miraculously 
through a " toad hole." That desolation's 
hand is heavy on the bereaved in Monongah, 
and that it is still resounding with a ritual of 
sobbing, is inferable from the statistics of this 
awful visitation. Approximately 250 wid- 
ows, 1000 children, and many aged persons 
have been left without means of support, and 
this does not include unborn children, — the 
greatest hardship of all. The population of 
the town was about 3000, so the disaster has 
destro3^ed about one-half of its breadwinners. 
Most of the families live in the company's 
houses, and as many of them desire to return 
to their relatives in Europe, the little town 
may be materially depopulated within a short 
time. 

In Charities and The Comrnons for Jan- 
uarj^ 4, Mr. Paul U. Kellogg contributes a 
graphic and comprehensive article on the ex- 
plosion, its apparent causes, its effects on the 
people, the economic and social questions in- 



volved, the rescue work, and the measures 
for precaution in mine-working, as well from 
the viewpoint of the employer and employee 
as from the State itself. ** West Virginia 
mines," says he, " have a bad name. We 
know that they kill a great number of men 
in the course of a year." Number 6 and 8 
(in which the men lost their lives) of the 
Monongah mines are splendidly equipped 
from a production standpoint. No. 8 is a 
new mine; its tipple is the biggest in West 
Virginia. A giant fan whirred at the mouth 
of a separate air-way. Machines did the 
cutting and electricity ran the cars that car- 
ried the coal. 

When the mine w^as running the great fan 
referred to sucked the wind up the air-way 
at the rate of fifty miles an hour, — against 
which a man could not stand in so small a 
passage. Thus, to falling masses, and dark- 
ness and gas, new hybrid forces, half safe- 
guards, half dangers of the air, — explosives 
and wind and lightning are added. Despite 
the electrical apparatus the West Vir- 
ginia statutes prescribe no standards to 
safeguard the lives of miners. No appren- 
ticeship is necessary, and no examination, for 
such positions as mine foreman or fire boss. 
The machine has led to an influx of for- 
eigners, — instructions in seven languages are 
hung at the mouth of the Monongah mines, 
— who know practically nothing about the 




THE MOUTH OF NO. 8 MINE, AT MONONGAH. 
(Showing holes scooped out in the hill by the force of the explosion on December 6, 1907.) 



226 



THE AMERICAN HEFIElV OF REVIEWS, 



dangers within a mine, and, consequently, 
are unable to exercise the care essential to 
their own safety. 

In the light of the recent explosions the vital 
question is whether mere willingness to sell your 
labor is to remain the badge that admits to a 
mine, or whether some positive standard of effi- 
ciency shall not be required by law, even if it 
raises the labor cost, before a man is turned 
loose in the offings. 

DUST VERSUS GAS AS THE CAUSE. 

Various rumors were current as to the 
cause at Monongah. Some laid it to gas. 
A mining engineer held that a runaway trip 
of cars had smashed the electric wiring deep 
in the mines, and that the presence of coked 
dust throughout the headings after the ex- 
plosion proved that coal dust rather than 
gas was to blame. The officials claimed that 
a " windy shot " had caused the trouble, for 
under the West Virginia code there is no 
provision for clearing away the dust from a 
chain saw after a machine operation before 
shooting the blast, as there is in France. The 
general manager stoutly maintains that there 
never has been any gas in the mines, and 
that economy in operation and equipment 
has never been attained at the expense of the 
miners' safety. These, however, are ques- 
tions for the consideration of the State and 
federal authorities. 

MAGNIFICENT RESCUE WORK. 

Of the rescue work the writer speaks in 
tones of commendation. An Italian laborer, 
outside the Catholic church, where services 
were being conducted for the dead, offered to 
carry the coffins to the churchyard, remark- 
ing, in broken English: "Every one is the 
brother of the other, no matter what na- 
tionality he belongs to." It was that spirit 
that brought the president, vice-president, 
and directors by special train to the mines 
and kept them there day and night. Like- 
wise, other miners from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Ohio, — all volunteers, ex- 
pert in feeling their way in '' after air," In 
building brattices, and clearing entries, and 
willing to work seventy-two hours at a 
stretch, if necessary. '' This mustering of 
the minute men of the coal pits," says he, '' Is 
one of the finest things In Industrial life In 
America to-day." Nos. 6 and 8 were on the 
same bank, a mile and a half apart, and con- 
nected underground. The roof caved In 
only In a few places, and It was mainly 
" after-damp " that the rescuers had to fight. 
Their principal weapons were boards, can- 



vas, and cement, and a spinning fan at the 
mine mouth. 

He describes the work as follows: 

The entries of a mine are parallel tunnels con- 
nected every so often with cut-offs, like rungs on 
a ladder. Butt entries, similar to the main en- 
tries, branch off at right angles to the latter, and 
from these butt entries open out the chambers, 
or rooms, from which the coal is cleared. The 
fans forced the air down one entry until it came 
to a cut-off, around which the current set, com- 
ing back up the other entry. The men followed 
the air, until they reached the cut-off, where they 
set up a brattice, or temporary partition, blocking 
the connecting passage. Then the air current 
had to push on to the next cut-off before it could 
find an outlet to the other entry. The men fol- 
lowed, a gang of from fifteen to thirty-five, the 
explorers leading, lifting their safety lamps to 
the roof and watching the flame. If it length- 
ened there was fire-damp there and they would 
know they were treading on the heels of another 
explosion and must wait; or else they lowered 
their lamps and watched the flame. If it died 
down, there was back-damp there, heavy-settling, 
but ready to reel over the man that breathed it. 
Again, they must wait, must go ten feet ahead 
and try ; must hold canvas barricades against the 
after-damp till their arms ached, while the brat- 
tices slowly went up ; and all the time must 
forage for death in that breathless sweater, find- 
ing it in a disemboweled mule, or the charred, 
crushed thing that had been a miner, or a head- 
less trapper boy, or an empty shoe. 

The rescuers were mostly English-speak- 
ing. The son of a Michigan judge, a young 
volunteer in a grey sweater, and former mine 
superintendent, was placed In charge of the 
explorers. Some of these had no rest for 
three days and nights. The company's 
policy has been considered liberal In case of 
accidents. It never dispossesses widows, and 
gives them a chance to make a living at 
washing or keeping boarders, and requires 
others to patronize them. It also gives the 
children employment, and Its record for 
safety precautions was above the State's 
standards. Still, It was not what It might 
be. The managers of mines in West Vir- 
ginia have resisted and blocked, says the 
writer, preventive legislation In that State 
for many years. " They had kept down 
unions through which the work sense of the 
men might have found expression; and they 
had resisted State supervision. And 344 
men were dead." 

Reverting to the families of the suffocated 
miners, the writer claims that their destitu- 
tion to-day Is owing to the failure of the 
social mechanism to keep pace with Indus- 
trial development by devising ways In which 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



227 



these mobile family groups shall have lodged 
in them some measure of economic integrity, 
which shall survive the death of the bread- 
w^inner in the mines. The fact that the very 
homes of the miners were part of the produc- 
ing plant emphasizes the break where an in- 
dustry turns back to society the families it 



has used and crippled. A relief fund of 
$200,000 is being raised for the widows and 
other sufferers, to which the Fairmount 
Company contributed $20,000, and the Car- 
negie Hero Fund Commission $35,000. It 
is intended to give to each widow $300, and, 
also, $100 for each child under sixteen years. 



THE DETROIT RIVER TUNNEL. 



"XX^HERE the Detroit River defines the 
boundary line between this country 
and Canada five important railroads cross: 
Michigan Central, Wabash, Grand Trunk 
system, Pere Marquette, and Canadian Pa- 
cific. Powerful transfer steamers up to the 
present, capable of taking on their- broad 
decks entire " limited " trains, have served 
as the conduit for passengers and traffic 
from Detroit to Windsor. Fifteen minutes 
is the usual time in crossing the river, but 
the switching and coupling on the other side 
occupy thirty or forty minutes, — a serious 
delay in fast service between the East and 
West; but in winter, when the ice floes ob- 
struct the river, the delay is longer. Freight 
traffic has grown to enormous proportions in 
recent years, and this renders the ferry more 
than ever inadequate. 

Hence the project of a tunnel between 
Detroit and Windsor, below the bed of the 



river, to reduce the time of a train's crossing 
to seven or eight minutes, and avoid delays 
and expense incident to the maintenance of 
expensive ferries, which are slow and cum- 
bersome. This tunnel will come as the cul- 
mination of Mr. Henry B. Ledyard's suc- 
cessful administration of the Michigan Cen- 
tral system. He is the originator of this 
stupendous undertaking, which is now in 
charge of an .advisory board of engineers, 
consisting of Mr. William J. Wilgus, chair- 
man, vice-president of the N. Y. C. & H. 
R. R. ; Mr. H. A. Carson, chief engineer of 
the Boston Transit Commission, and Mr. 
W. S. Kinnear, chief engineer of the Detroit 
River Tunnel Company, in direct charge of 
construction, says Mr. James C. Mills in 
Cassie/s Magazine for January. 

Months and months have been spent in 
planning this tunnel, until the final method 
of construction was adopted in the summer 




PAIR OF TUNNEL TUBES, READY FOR FLOATING. 



228 THE AMERICAN RE^IElV OF REyiEiVS. 

of 1906. This provides for a '' double- squeezed together between the ends of the 

barreled " tunnel of steel and concrete, tubes, forming a tight joint. A space of 

through which trains will be operated by three by eighteen inches is thus formed 

electricity. The Butler Bros.-Hoff Com- around the tubes at the end of the joint, and 

pany, of New York, is the contractor, and this is filled with a grout of cement, 

in the early summer of 1909 the tunnel is Concrete is the next factor. Gravel is 

to be opened. Its method of construction first deposited over the bottom of the trench 

is novel and unlike all other plans for simi- to a depth of two feet, to make a proper bed 

lar undertakings. The section of this tunnel for the concrete, which, upon hardening, en- 

under the stream will be 2622 feet long, and compasses the foundation, piling, the tubes, 

the river's depth varies from twenty to forty- diaphragms, and sleeves in a solid mass of 

eight feet. A wide and deep trench is being stone. A trough of oak planking is built 

excavated, into which great steel tubes will without the tubes, and into this trough the 

be lowered into place and, when adjusted, concrete is chuted and spread over the bot- 

covered with concrete. Briefly speaking, this torn of the trench, and is carried up over the 

is the tunnel. It is the idea of Mr. Wilgus. tops of the tubes to a thickness of about five 

The trench will be excavated to the depth of feet. Within these tubes will be built twen- 

forty-five feet below the^bed of the river, and ty-inch thick rings of concrete, and these are 

will be forty feet wide at the bottom. Piles the tunnels proper. When completed, there 

are then driven down to the bottom of this will be a clear head of eighteen feet from the 

trench to serve as a support for the huge top of rails to center of arch, and sixteen and 

tubes while they are being bolted in place, one-half feet wide across the center line. 

Building these tubes is a colossal work. Ten 260-feet sections will be required to 

Made from plates of steel three-eighths of connect the American and Canadian dock 

an inch thick, the sections are twenty-three lines. Including the approaches, the total 

feet in diameter and 260 feet long. At in- length is 7960 feet from portal to portal, 

tervals of eleven and one-half feet on the and the open cuts are 4840 feet additional, 

outside there are transverse diaphragms or, in all, nearly two and one-half miles, 

which strengthen the tunnel and divide into Concrete is the main factor in the construc- 

sections the space to be filled with concrete, tion of this tunnel, and it is estimated that 

When ready for lowering^ the tubes, with 300,000 barrels of Portland cement, 250,000 

ends " plugged " to render them watertight, tons of screened gravel, and nearly 1,000,000 

are floated and brought exactly over their barrels of sand will be required. The tunnel 

intended resting place. Then water is ad- will be of the light concrete finish, brilliantly 

mitted, and they settle by gravitation on lighted, clean and well ventilated. Its cost 

the submerged supports. This operation will be at least $8,000,000, which will be 

calls for the highest engineering skill. To defrayed by the Michigan Central Railway, 

aid in this undertaking each tube is provided In constructing the approach tunnels, two 

with a detachable upright at each end to in- shafts were sunk on each side of the river, 

dicate its position when sinking. As these one on each shore, and others about half way 

extend about ten feet above the water, they between the first shafts and the portals. In 

serve to adjust the lateral position of the this way a number of excavating gangs may 

tubes. be worked at the same time by digging in 

When laterally adjusted, divers descend both directions. The operations are going on 

and examine the tubes carefully, to see if steadily, and beside the excavating, concrete 

the bearings of the diaphragms on the beams gangs are mixing and building up the walls 

of the pilings are in place and, also, to bolt of the bores with concrete. These walls are 

the huge sections together. On each tube is four feet thick, arched overhead, and covered 

a ** sleeve " at one end, which can be slipped with a water-proofing of layers of tar, pitch 

over the end of the tube previously sunk, and felt, which, in turn, is protected from 

This has a flange that is bolted to a corre- injury by four inches of cement and brick, 

spending flange on the other tube, a rubber The shafts near the river banks are to be per- 

gasket being placed between them. A simi- manent, and are lined with strong double 

lar gasket is fitted in the inner end of the walls of concrete. They will serve to venti- 

sleeve bearing up against the edge of the late the tunnel and as outlets for the drainage 

other tube. With the sleeves and gaskets pipes, as well as an exit in case of accident In 

In place, bolting follows, the gaskets being the tunnel. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



229 



THE RUSSIAN BUDGET FOR 1908. 



I HE Riisskiya Vyedomosti, in comment- 
ing on the speech of the Russian jVlin- 
ister of Finance, Kokovtzov, in the third 
Duma, on the budget for 1908, brings out 
some interesting data, throwing light on the 
present economic condition of Russia. This 
journal agrees with the minister's optimistic 
view that " as soon as the inner life of the 
country again becomes normal the prosperity 
of the working masses and the financial con- 
dition of the country will be on the way to a 
steady improvement." Neither does it dispute 
his thesis that '' the marked signs of the pa- 
cification of the country serve as favorable 
symptoms in the estimation of the nearest 
future, when compared with the recent past." 
But this evasive bureaucratic phraseology, 
says the writer of the article quoted, leaves 
out of consideration the more serious ques- 
tions connected with the subject. According 
to the minister, the abnormal phenomena in 
the inner life of Russia ends with the un- 
fortunate " war," the failures of crop, and 
the internal disorders. But much that the 
minister considers to be normal must in real- 
ity be called abnormal. In 1905 Russia 
raised 3,784,000,000 poods of grain (a pood 
equals forty pounds) ; in 1906, 3,257,000,- 
000 poods, — i. e., 527,000,000 poods less. In 

1905 697,000,000 poods were exported; in 

1906 590,000,000, — /. e., 107,000,000 poods 
less. For the domestic consumption there 
remained 420,000,000 poods less, and for 
the aid of the peasants suffering from failures 
of crops 40,600,000 rubles was expended in 
1905, against 110,800,000 rubles in 1906, — 
i. e., 70,000,000 rubles more. The export of 
grain is apparently the main trump in the 
official estimation of the economic condition 
of the country. The Vyedomosti con- 
tinues : 

We do not intend to stand up in defense of 
the widely spread thesis that it is wrong to ex- 
port grain while the population is starving. On 
the contrary, reduce the export of the Russian 
grain, and the population will probably starve. 
But take off the yoke from the oppressed pro- 
ductive power of the people, and our father- 
land will begin to catch up rapidly with the 
transatlantic republic, which exports agricul- 
tural products for nearly two millions of rubles 
per annum. Of this pressure, which is now 
keeping down the productive power of the peo- 
ple for ages, the Minister of Finances does not 
speak at all. It is certainly not his fault, but 
the fault of the system of which his office is a 
part. The agricultural development of Russia 
is also limited to a certain class only, and the 
government has never done much in the way of 




M. KOKOVTZOV. 
(Russian Minister of Finance.) 

the elevation of the peasant masses. With its 
oligarchical tendencies it is certainly not able 
to do so. 

In a second article the writer points out 
that a government organization, in collecting 
taxes from the population, is obliged to create 
conditions for the cultural development of 
the country, in order to enable the citizens to 
pay these taxes. In comparing the Russian 
budget in its general features with the bud- 
gets of the ordinary income of Germany and 
Great Britain for the past ten years, the 
writer finds this statistical comparison : 

Increase 

in ttie ordi- Increase 

nary income Income of taxes on 

of the Gov- from each each inhab- 

ernment for inhabitant itant from 

189(5-1906. in 1906. 1896-1906. 

Per cent. Rubles. Per cent. 

Prussia 50 36.1 30 

Great Britain 43 30.5 27 

Russia 42 11.5 24 

The Russian budget grows more slowly 
than the German and the English in absolute 
figures as w^ell as in the calculation accord- 
ing to population, and there is a greater '\n- 
tensiveness in the taxing power of the Rus- 
sian masses than in those of the western 
countries. 

But the cultural demands of the Russian pop- 
ulation are satisfied by the government much 
less than in the western coutries. It is there- 
fore much harder to increase the Russian budget 



280 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

than the English or Prussian. And who knows ing class, but to the middle class of merchants 

how long this economic, political, and moral and officials. 

pressure will continue in Russia As a sign of ^s to the optimistic view of the minister 
the mcrease m Russia s wealth Mr. Kokovtzov • r) • > jv *.u •... ^u- i 

points out the increase of deposits in the Rus- concerning Russia s credit, the writer thinks 

sian savings banks. But statistics show that in that only a decisive, earnest, and sincere 

Prussia the per capita bank deposits were, in change in domestic policy and an elevation of 

1906, 224 marks, in the United States $42, and ^i^^ productive power of the country can 

in Russia 8.3 rubles. Besides, the greatest num- r u u • u 1 ^ t) • u x r •/ j 

her of depositors and the largest amounts of tinally bring back to Russia her forfeited po- 

deposits do not belong to the farmers or labor- sition in the world s money market. 



CURACAO A REALLY SUCCESSFUL TROPICAL COLONY. 



T 



HERE has been so much talk of late As early as 1752 there was a great insurrec- 

years about the lamentable results ob- J^^n among them, showing that they must have 

j" , IV ^ ^ ^ • been unusually spirited, since slavery was a gen- 

tamed when white men try to govern tropi- ^.^Hy accepted institution at that time. This 

cal colonies, that it is refreshing and sur- rebellion was put down with the inhuman fero- 

prising to hear of one colony which is a con- city to the lower classes thought necessary at 

stant proof that it is really possible for a ^hat date as the only means of preserving so- 

T- . J • • ^ r 11 ciety, but mutinies and rebellions continued till 

European nation to administer successfully ^he King of Holland finally emancipated all 

and very profitably a region not far from the slaves by an admirable royal decree, allowing 

eouator. To most people the name of $80 to owners for loss of each slave, and 70 

Curacao is a combination of letters difficult centimes a day for each of the sick and aged 

c • . .... .. , ^ slaves, thus thrown on their own resources after 

of pronunciation, signifying nothing but a ^ lifetime of dependence. Since that time so 
delectable and fiery drink with an indefinable profound a peace and quiet has reigned that the 
aroma about it, which after meditation sug- annals of the colony seem scarcely like those of 
gests that orange skins may enter into its ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^bis wicked world, 
composition. An excellently illustrated arti- The population numbers about 50,000, ai- 
de in Hojas Selectas (Barcelona) presents though, since no census has ever been taken, 
the name with entirely different associations, the same uncertainty floats over these figures 
as belonging to a little island of the Antilles, as over the age of some old negroes. It Is 
just north of Venezuela, whose characteristics guessed at and estimated. At any rate most 
are as pleasant as they are unexpected and of what population there Is Is concentrated 
unique. In the one city of the place, Willemstad, 
The Island Is one of the Inconsiderable which Is a very urban little metropolis, with 
colonial possessions of the Dutch, whose all the conditions of life of one of our smal- 
complete success in governing and cultivating ler cities, but It has a record that puts to 
this tiny corner of the tropical world Is little shame any city of our own. In an absolute- 
known to the general public, although the ly indefinite number of years not a single 
Island has been occupied by Europeans since capital crime has been heard of either In the 
1523, a hundred years before the landing of city or among the rural population, 
our own Pilgrim Fathers. The date of Its The author of the article In the Spanish 
discovery Is not certain, but the leading magazine attributes this remarkably credlta- 
events In its mildly checkered career are well- ble history partly to the pacific nature of the 
known. It has changed hands two or three inhabitants, and largely to the wise, tem- 
times, but the Dutch have generally been In perate and eminently just administration of 
possession, and have had no dispute to their this colony by the Dutch Government. 

claim for 200 years. In 1694 a large num- _, , • . r 1 . 1 .i • . •. r 

, c 1 1 1 u a • i. I he colonists feel so strongly the integrity of 

herof Jews settled there, fleeing from perse- ^j^^jj. ^^^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^j^^^^gj^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^p^^^y t^ 

cutlons In Europe, and still form a considera- the Dutch Parliament, nor have in any other 

ble element In the character of the place, way a share in the home government, they are 

Another factor of population Is the large col- l^'^fcctly satisfied with the arrangement, and 

J , none of the clamors for self-government so 

^^^,^ ,^" . . . . . usual among far-away colonies are ever heard 

That the successful administration of the among them. The island, and several others 

Dutch has not been due to absence of the even smaller, are governed by a chief official ap- 

usual perplexing problems of tropical coun- pointed directly by the Queen of Holland He 

J 1 . , 1 ^1 I • ^ r J^ aided by a cabinet and by a sort of colonial 

tries and peoples is shown by the history of ^^^^^^^jj ^j^j^j^ ^^^^^^ ^^ a legislature for the 

the liberation of the slave element. colony. The present incumbent rejoices in the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



231 



/^jgSmSBmlfwjA. 






.J 







II i# 



-i^rik" ■■ » 'w 



f'Wm.'mmni 




THE GOVERNMENT HOUSE OF CURASAO. 



name of O. de Yong van Beek-en-Donk, and 
rules with perfect equity over a motley popula- 
tion, one-third of which is composed of emanci- 
pated slaves and their descendanto. The Jews 
are very numerous, prosperous, and influential, 
having virtually all the business of the place in 
their hands. They live in a special quarter of 
the city set aside for them and have two syna- 
gogues. The rest of the population is almost 
solidly Roman Catholic, which is another curious 
element in a colony which has for so long been 
a dependency of Protestant Holland. 

The city of Willemstad Itself is a very 
attractive modern metropolis, through which 
the Dutch, true to their home Ideals have run 
several large canals. These not only facili- 
tate Immensely the transportation of mer- 
chandise, but give the town a charming half- 
Dutch, half-Venetian aspect on which the 
Spanish author of the article dwells with 
delight. He Is also struck with the singular 
cleanliness of the town, a trait which Is again 
pre-eminently Dutch. 

The city has two synagogues, two Roman 
Catholic churches, two Masonic lodges, two 
banks, — one a savings bank, the other a trust- 
company, — two casinos, two hospitals, an ice 
factory (a great luxury in so small a tropical 
city), electric lights ... all those modern 
conveniences which make it seem oddly like a 
piece of Europe floated away from its moorings. 
It is singular to think of this busy little center 
of life, hopeful, prosperous, pursuing its way in 
perfect accord with the spirit of the modern 
world and beating it at its own game of ma- 
terial success, although almost wholly unknown 
to it. 

The great prosperity of the Island depends 
by no means upon extraordinary natural re- 



sources, for It Is of volcanic formation, hilly, 
and entirely without water except what 
comes from rainfall. It Is, moreover, very, 
very tiny, being only forty miles long and 
about ten miles wide; but from this little 
scrap of land the Industry and Ingenuity of 
the Dutch planters have obtained large re- 
turns. In spite of the concentration of the 
population In the city, the rest of the Island 
is dotted with farms and farmhouses where 
some of the usual tropical crops are raised, 
tobacco, Indigo, sugar, etc., but especially 
medlars, which are the best In the world. 
The physical aspect of the Island Is described 
by the Spanish author as extremely pleasing. 
In the city are a number of flourishing in- 
dustries, such as the making of straw hats, 
fine cabinet-making, etc. A large quantity 
of salt Is exported yearly and a very valuable 
mine of calcium phosphate Is worked with 
great profit. But the real Industry Is the 
manufacture of the celebrated liqueur which 
takes Its name from the Island. This Is pre- 
pared from the expressed juice of the skins 
of a peculiar variety of orange which grows 
freely In Curagao. The fact that this sort of 
orange apparently grows only on that Island 
means virtually an eternal monopoly of the 
Industry by Curagao, which In turn virtually 
assures prosperity for all the future. 

The Spanish author, evidently with the 
memory of Spanish failures In colonial ad- 
ministration fresh in his mind, speaks espe- 
cially of. the exceptional uprightness and 
honesty of all public oflRcIals, who secure the 



232 



THE AMERICAN kEFlElV OF REHElVS. 



administration of justice without delay and are trying to accomplish the same thing in 

without favor^ and saj^s that Holland owes tropical regions. The loyalty of the Inhabi- 

to this policy, steadily carried out, her tants of Curagao to the crown of Holland 

remarkable freedom from the rebellions and is a fitting reward for the justice which they 

discords which disturb other countries who have always received. 



SWEDISH EXPERIMENTS IN COMMUNAL OWNERSHIP 

AND CO-OPERATION. 



THE parish of Orsa in the province of 
Dalarne (The Vales) has long been 
known as " the richest community in 
Sweden," and not without good cause. 
Thanks to the vast forest lands owned and 
worked by the parish as a commune, its in- 
habitants have been wholly free from taxes 
of every kind for the last twenty-five years.* 
During the same period a number of impor- 
tant and far-reaching Improvement schemes 
have been carried out, resulting In making 
the roads and the schools of the parish rank 
among the finest in the country. But this 
prosperity has not failed to arouse envy, and 
recently Insinuations have been heard to the 
effect that the people of Orsa were being 
" pauperized," and that the great funds 
raised by the selling of timber were being 
squandered in a way that would justify In- 
terference by the national and provincial 
authorities. 

These accusations and the officially made sug- 
gestion that a special auditor be appointed by 
the government to go over the accounts of the 
parish have caused the more bitterness in the 
hearts of the Orsa people because the automony 
granted the communes in Sweden is remarkably 
great, jealously guarded, and invariably merited. 
And the sturdy peasants of Orsa have hinted in 
retort that much of the hostile criticism might 
be traced to the known desire of its population 
that a great portion, if not all, of the land 
within the parish be held collectively as com- 
munal property and leased to the tillers. 

The whole matter Is rr.ade the subject of 
an interesting article In a recent issue of the 
Social T ids k rift (Stockholm). 

Up to 1879 Orsa was known as one of the 
most poverty-stricken communes in Sweden. 
Its soil was at once meagre and swampy, and 
for those reasons particularly exposed to the 
ravages of the heavy fall frosts. Agriculture 
was declining steadily, and the emigration 
from the parish was appalling. There were 
no railroads and next to no roads. 

At that time a royal commission was at work 
distributing and disposing of certain forest 
lands which had before been reserved as crown 
property. Some one persuaded the representa- 
tives of Orsa, rather against their own inclina- 



tion, to set aside one-third of the lands alloted 
to the landowners of that parish as communal 
property, instead of having it all parcelled out 
among the landholders, as was done elsewhere. 
The arrangement was confirmed by royal patent 
and some 160,000 acres of timber land was re- 
served in the poorest and least accessible dis- 
trict of the parish. Up to the present time the 
sale of timber from those forests has brought 
the commune in all nearly 10,000,000 kronor, or 
about $2,600,000. According to the rules laid 
down by the government for the use of the 
means accruing to the Orsa Forest Fund, the 
proceeds were to be applied as follows: (i) Ex- 
penses for the protection, renewal, and working 
of the forest; (2) 10 per cent., until a total of 
300,000 kroner ($78,000) be reached, as an emer- 
gency fund for '"famine" years; (3) for pur- 
poses regarded as generally useful to the com- 
mune, such as medical attendance, care of the 
poor, popular education, improvement of agri- 
culture through irrigation or otherwise, develop- 
ment of stock raising, improvement of police, 
and the construction of new as well as improve- 
ment of old roads. The regulations established 
provided expressly that if any part of the funds 
be used to meet taxes, whether national or com- 
munal, this must be done in such a way that no 
special favor was shown to the landholders of 
the parish, to whom, as a body, the communal 
forest is regarded as belonging. 

The result has been that all the taxes have 
come out of the fund, and that the citizens, 
whether owning land or no, have been ex- 
empted from taxation of any kind. It was 
also provided that not more than 1,000,000 
kronor should be Invested in railroad build- 
ing. The handling of the fund was en- 
trusted to a commission of three, one of 
whom Is appointed by the provincial govern- 
ment, while the other two are elected by the 
landholders of the parish. Three auditors 
chosen In the same way go over the accounts 
of the commission annually. This is how the 
proceeds of the fund have been applied so 
far: 

The payment of all taxes during the last 
twenty-five years has already been mentioned. 
About 200 miles of excellent roads have been 
built, at a cost of $235,000. Irrigation ditches 
totalling in length 550,000 feet have been dug 
at a cost of about $80,000. Where not long ago 
could be found only two poorly equipped schools 
with a couple of teachers, there are now thirteen 
model schools with a staff of forty-five teachers. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



^S3 



not to mention two 
" school kitchens " for 
the instruction of girls 
in domestic duties. The 
teachers are all paid 
about 10 per cent, more 
than the law requires. 
And a system has been 
established enabling the 
children after finishing 
their schooling to return 
for brief periods each 
year to freshen up their 
knowledge. A parish 
hospital has also been 
built, but comparatively 
little has been done so 
far for the care of the 
poor, and the proposition 
to establish old age pen- 
sions has not been car- 
ried out. 




The general result 
of these improvements 
has been to raise the standard of intelligence 
and education among the people, as well as 
to better their economical condition by mak- 
ing the parish practically immune to frosts 
until after harvest time. On the other hand 
the commission has managed to evade the 
provisions of the letters-patent by investing 
not less than 2,500,000 kroner in three dif- 
ferent railroad lines, none of which has 
proved an interest bearing investment so far. 
To do this, the parish has borrowed the 
money thus employed above the sum which 
the law permitted to be taken for such pur- 
pose from the fund itself. And at present 
the anomalous condition exists that the rich- 
est commune in the country is hard up for 
cash at times with which to pay the interest 
on the railroad loans. It is admitted by 
every one, however, that the roads encour- 
aged by the parish have been free from all 
speculative features, and that their building 
has been of great importance in opening up 
districts which previously were practically 
shut off from all communication with the 
outside world. 

If anybody should ask an Orsa peasant to- 
day whether the fund has been of use to the 
parish or not, the man would laugh outright and 
reply : " Where would we be without that fund ?" 
And if you ask persons in different walks of 
life whether the riches coming from the forests 
have had a demoralizing influence on the people, 
the answers, given in various forms, with all ii 
substance say this : " To begin with, when the 
purpose of the fund was not yet known to a 
majority, those were found who imagined that 
it would be useless to strive and struggle in the 
future, as the fund would take care of them 
anyhow." But by degrees the people learned 
that the only direct advantage coming to them 



THE VILLAGE OF ORSA. 

(Known as the richest community In Sweden.) 



from the fund was the freedom from taxation. 
With his private economical condition everyone 
had to deal as he could best. Therefore it is 
not possible at the present time to observe any 
decrease of private enterprise among the Orsa 
people, while, on the other hand, a large in- 
crease in the interest for all public matters 
makes itself felt. 

Inter-Connmunual Co-operation in 
Sweden. 

The first Swedish Communal Congress 
was held at Stockholm on October 10, 11, 
and 12, when about 400 delegates from some 
seventy cities, boroughs and towns met and 
organized the Swedish Cities' Union. The 
call for the congress was issued by the Cen- 
tral Association for Social Work and was 
signed, among others, by four members of 
the City Council of the Swedish capital, two 
of w^hom are also members of the Upper 
House of the Riksdag. The programme for 
the congress is printed in a recent number of 
the Social Tidskrift and contains the follow- 
ing subjects of discussion: 

Modern development of urban communities. 
The problem of city suburbs. Cities as em- 
ployers. The land policy of the cities. The na- 
tional building law and the city ordinances re- 
lating to buildings. The cities and the housing 
problem of the laboring classes. City budget. 
Communalization of public utilities. The food 
question in the cities. 

In connection with the convening of the 
congress the same periodical publishes an in- 
teresting review of the progress of inter- 
communal co-operation both in Sweden and 
in other countries. Attention is first given 
to the development of municipal enterprises 
for the improvement of individual cities, 



234 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 



which brings out some interesting and little 
known facts. Urban communities in Sweden 
were rather slow in following the splendid 
example set by the cities of England above 
all, but also by those of America, Germany, 
and France. Thus the author of the article 
relates that in 1874 only four Swedish cities 
had constructed sewerage systems, while ten 
years later not a single city possessed a de- 
partment of street cleaning that could be 
called properly organized. Since then im- 
mense progress has been made, as evidenced 
by the fact that during the last five years the 
death rate in the cities has been lower than 
in the rural communities. 

The case of the little city of Oskarshamn, 
now having about 7000 inhabitants, is cited 
as peculiarly characteristic. 

The first two street lamps, burning oil, were 
provided in 1859, Up till then citizens out at 
night had carried lanterns. The next forward 
step was the exchange of old-fashioned vegetable 
oil for kerosene in 1865. Two years later it was 
discovered that more than two lamps were 
needed. Theft offers to build gas works began 
to pour in from foreign capitalists who had 
been deprived of their home markets by the 
spreading of the municipal ownership idea in 
their own countries. Those officers were re- 
jected so long that gas works ceased to be the 
proper thing and their place was taken by power 
houses for the generating of electricity. Still 



the foreign capitalists were tendering their 
services, with as little result. At last, in 1898, 
the city built its own power house, and then in 
such a manner that electricity was provided not 
only for the streets and public buildings but for 
every private home in the city, while there was 
still enough left over to sell to factories in need 
of power for their machinery. 

And along the line just Indicated the first 
definite forms of intercommunal co-operation 
in Sweden made their appearance. Coal is 
expensive over there. Few countries are 
richer in water power, on the other hand. 
Thus one city after the other among the 
larger ones proceeded to make itself inde- 
pendent of the coal market and its towering 
prices by purchasing a waterfall within easy 
reach. Such action has already been taken 
by the cities of Stockholm, Orebro, Gafle, 
Nora, Hedemora, Koping, and Hudiksvall. 
Others that were poorer or less fortunately 
situated pooled their interests for similar pur- 
poses. The small communities of the prov- 
ince of Blekinge- on the southern coast have 
joined hands in this way with the large 
Scanian municipalities of Malmo and Lund, 
while the cities of Landskrona, Helsingborg 
and Halmstad on the west coast have become 
large stockholders and directing factors in 
the great Southern Swedish Power Coiri- 
pany, a semi-public corporation. 



THE TEMPER OF THE AMERICAN. 



PROVINCIALISM is worthy of the 
keenest study, and few realize that its 
relation to the national welfare makes a 
comprehensive knowledge of its essential 
character of the greatest importance. This 
is true of all peoples, but especially of our 
own, for here the national state is in Its 
beginning, and the impress of the locality Is 
still the rnost significant phase of our na- 
tional political experience. To understand 
the American temper, we must go back to 
the indigenous American, who is predomi- 
nantly rural, — a resident of an agricultural 
community. 

This American Is pre-eminently opti- 
mistic. However dangerous or threatening 
present conditions may be, he Is never dis- 
tressed, for he believes that finally every- 
thing will be adjusted. This is because he 
is right at heart, and this is universally rec- 
ognized. He Is attached to the soil and 
believes In rural economy. Success and 
labor are convertible terms, — and he is no 



believer In a privileged class. The self- 
made man Is his ideal, and birth has no pre- 
rogative. He believes a heritage of toil Is 
the most valuable legacy for son or daugh- 
ter, and a failure to accumulate a com- 
petence is ascribed to shiftlessness. He is a 
thorough believer in the Canonist doctrine 
that there is sufficient labor in every com- 
munity to support every inhabitant, and that 
a failure to be employed is a personal fault. 
A tramp Is, In his estimation, a reprehensible 
being. 

SUCCESS AND TOIL SYNONYMOUS. 

Thus does Mr. Joseph B. Ross outline the 
Indigenous American in the American Jour- 
nal of Sociology for November. Caste dis- 
tinctions are not recognized by this Ameri- 
can philosopher, says the writer, and per- 
sonal worth is the only thing which receives 
his commendation. Hence, with him, suc- 
cess and toil are synonymous, and each* Is 
deemed the equivalent of the ethically right. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



2S5 



He measures ethics by an economic stand- 
ard, and expects the toller to accumulate 
wealth. Because such a man is worthy, 
goodness is identified with success. By 
parity of reason evil is identified with fail- 
ure. When evil befalls a good man, says 
the writer, the matter is incomprehensible 
to our indigenous one. Likewise is the suc- 
cess of an evil person an anomaly to 
him. 

He is a firm believer in himself and in 
the solidarity of his communit)^ The suc- 
cessful man was always born on a farm, 
and was acquainted with the hardships of 
rural life. His early straits developed the 
sterling qualities which afterward led to 
success. This tends to make him narrow. 
The dependence of the community is upon 
its substantial citizens, who must be upheld 
and sustained ; hence the strange face is not 
welcomed. The transient is bidden to leave 
the neighborhood with speed, and the strange 
family is not welcomed until time has 
proved its worth and ability to. accumulate 
fortune. 

A THOROUGH-GOING PARTISAN. 

His temper is dominantly political. The 
chief citizens of the community are chosen 
to the local offices. There is keen interest in 
the elections, and every man is a partisan. 
He will oppose his best friend and support 
Instead an unworthy member of his political 
faith through partisanship. His party plat- 
form Is an ex cathedra utterance, and that of 
the opposition anathema. Charges of cor- 
ruption In office do not affect him deeply. 
If the derelict Is of an opposing political 
affiliation he ascribes the happening to that 
fact. If a member of his own party Is In- 
volved, he Is not Inclined to condemn him. 
His mind Is not keenly alive to the sacred- 
ness of public office. " The Incumbent Is 
expected to exploit the public If It can be 
done without detection, and the American 
admires the astuteness of the one who can 
thus Improve his private fortune with the 
greatest skill." 

He believes firmly In favoritism and priv- 
ilege, — the rule of the partisan tempers 
every conception. He suggests to the mer- 
chant a reduction In the price of his pur- 
chases, is not above using personal Influence 
with a judge or jury to favor himself, and 
when drawn for jury duty Is susceptible to 
the same approaches. He cannot under- 
stand how a personal friend should permit a 
judgment Injurious to his Interests, for he 



favors his friend at the expense of jus- 
tice. 

Religiously, he is passively orthodox, and 
rarely a zealot. While his interest is Inane 
he defends the church firmly whenever it is 
attacked. Religion is to him an essential 
safeguard to the community, and he does 
not tolerate independents. He Is not pre- 
disposed to pleasure. A few books, — the Bi- 
ble, sectarian literature and the pamphlet 
laws of the State, — may be observed In his 
home. A visit to the county seat or market 
town, where he gossips about political con- 
ditions, or crops. Is his recreation. The chief 
evils, he believes, are the theatre, the dance, 
and card games. Novel-reading is trifling 
and sometimes dangerous to the moral tone, 
he holds; but on visits to nearby towns he 
sometimes succumbs to his bibulous pro- 
pensities. 

With no faith in specialized powers he Is 
a great believer in versatility. He admires 
the man w^ho is equally skilful In all under- 
takings. Ability cannot but win a prominent 
place in the public regard ; hence, the college 
professor can teach any branch of learning, 
and the lawyer or physician direct agricul- 
tural or commercial ventures, successfully. 
Public speakers are seers and sages. Their 
utterances are accepted with little investiga- 
tion and little regard for original authority. 
Platitudes are commended and verbosity is 
apotheosized. In thought he Is not capable 
of abstraction. The concrete Is his guiding 
star. Beliefs and practices are embodied In 
persons, and words of favored statesmen are 
read and pondered, and quoted as conclusive 
In any argument. 

These characteristics bear the Imprint of 
the frontier and were formed in an earlier 
age. With changed conditions interest In 
the larger world has succeeded the vista of 
the hamlet. But while environment has 
been outgrown, the American type has per- 
sisted. The tendency of American develop- 
ment Is, however, the antithesis of this tem- 
per, which is agricultural and rural, while 
the bent, to-day, is decidedly commercial 
and urban. This conflict of urban tend- 
encies with rural thought must affect our 
entire life, and so long as the thought of 
the people remains provincial the larger na- 
tional life cannot be lived. That philosophic 
mould is too small for present needs, and 
the creation of an enlarged view Is one of 
the needs of the Immediate future. Whether 
this Is possible or not depends on the form 
it mav assume. 



236 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS, 
SERVIA'S ECONOMIC PROSPERITY. 



XTOTWITHSTANDING all its domes- 
"^^ tic troubles, the Russian Government 
has never ceased to stimulate the panslavistic 
movement at home as well as abroad. Many 
special agents and newspaper correspondents 
are frequently touring Germany, Austria- 
Hungary, Roumania, Macedonia, Servia, and 
Bulgaria, and even the United States, for the 
cause of the future panslavic state, which they 
expect will be established some day under the 
protection of the great White Czar. The 
well-known newspaper correspondent, Vasili 
Nemirovich-Danchenko, has lately visited 
Croatia and Servia, and in a series of letters 
to the Moscow daily, Russkoye Slovo (the 
Russian Word) , presents a very optimistic 
picture of the progress of the Slavs in those 
countries. With all the efforts of the Aus- 
trian Government to put prohibitory tariffs 
on Servian imports, the Servian cities are 
growing rapidly, and with them Servia's 
prosperity. 

Instead of exporting their cattle, as hereto- 
fore, to Austria-Hungary, the Servians are ship- 
ping their oxen, via Salonica, to England and 
Alexandria, while Austria-Hungary is still com- 
pelled to import geese and ducks. Instead of 
paying high custom duties, a great part of the 
poultry is now smuggled in by expert contra- 
bandists. As to the main product of the Serv- 
ian farmers, — the hog, — Austria-Hungary will 
be compelled to import it, as the Hungarian 
hog never furnishes such lard as the Servian. 

Turning to Servia's financial prosperity, 
the correspondent points out that while the 
banks of Vienna and Budapest have been 
compelled to raise their discount rates to 8 
and 9 per cent., the banks of Belgrade charge 
the old-established rate of 6 per cent. 

While there are no great capitalists in Servia, 
the masses are prosperous, and there is no pov- 
erty in any part of the country. The farmers 
are well fed and well clad. Only the old Serv- 
ian politicians are still looking for favors from 
Vienna; the new radical party is not afraid of 
the Austria-Hungarian minataur. In spite of 
the tariff war with Austria, Belgrade has grown 
wonderfully in the last five years. Splendid 
new buildings, improved pavements, fine hotels, 
schools, and public institutions show the re- 
markable development of the Servian capital. 

Nemirovich-Danchenko was especially 
pleased to find that at the Grand Hotel, 
where formerly the German language pre- 
dominated, Russian is now spoken. Eleva- 
tors, electric lights and all other modern im- 
provements, — he thinks that even St. Peters- 
burg could learn a lesson from the capital of 
this lilliputian country. 




KING PETER OF SERVIA. 
(Whoso realm now enjoys great prosperity.) 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



237 



The Russian writer believes that the Aus- And while the Croatians and Slovaks from 

trian diplomatists have made a great mistake Austria-Hungary are emigrating in great 

with their prohibitory tariff on Servian prod- numbers to America, the Servians remain 

ucts. Instead of buying sugar and glass from on their farms, raising the hog, pasturing 

Austria, the Servians have now established their oxen, and cultivating their vineyards 

their own sugar refineries and glass factories. and fruit gardens. 



THE WEAKNESS OF GERMANY'S COLONIAL SYSTEM. 



npHE visit of the German Colonial Minis- 
ter, Herr Dernburg, to inspect German 
possessions in Africa, signifies, according to 
semi-official rumor, that the Emperor Wil- 
liam is about to make a final effort to con- 
solidate the imperial possessions oversea into 
something of a businesslike organization 
which shall justify, from an economic stand- 
point at least, the persistency which charac- 
terized him in founding his colonial power. 
It is well known that Bismarck was opposed 
to colonial expansion, on the ground that to a 
country that was without a great navy a 
colonial empire could only be a source of 
weakness. 

Nevertheless, says Maurice Lair, writing 
in Revue Bleue (Paris), Germany could not 
for any length of time escape from what has 
been known as *' Colonial fever." Nor was 
she without her own especial reasons. 

Her population has increased at such a rate as 
to frighten economists. In 1834 it was 24,000,- 
000 souls ; to-day it exceeds 60,000,000. Between 
the Germanic and the Anglo-Saxon races the 
propo" Lions have been reversed since the eight- 
eenth century ; then there were 20,000,000 Ger- 
mans to 9,000,000 Anglo-Saxons; to-day the 
latter number 135,000,000, as against 75,000,000 
of the former. For want of colonies, then, the 
prolific power of Germany has produced but a 
loss of living forces, which, in the labor world, 
even threatens to entail serious civil conflicts. 

Other countries, furthermore, rejoice in splen- 
did colonial possessions which are the creation 
of men of their own race : Great ^ Britain, in 
every quarter of the globe; France, in the west- 
ern Mediterranean ; Russia, progressively in 
Asia; the United States, ever expanding in its 
own wonderful territory. Germany alone lags 
behind, and is growing to fear that her prestige 
may fail if she does not organize a domain 
beyond the sea. 

It must be remembered that hitherto the 
imperial government has counted for almost 
nothing in the acquisition of colonial terri- 
tory. Most of the German colonies owe their 
existence to private enterprise. The advent 
of the present Emperor, with his ideas of 
colonial expansion, happened for all prac- 
tical purposes too late, since almost all the 



planet had been already parceled out. To- 
day German colonial possessions amount in 
extent to 2,600,000 square miles, with 13,- 
000,000 souls, as against 29,000,000 square 
miles owned by Great Britain, with 350,000,- 
000 subjects. 

The German colonies are not represented 
in the Reichstag, and are somewhat arbitrar- 
ily governed, since the Colonial Department 
at Berlin, recruited at will by the Chancel- 
lor, as yet exercises no serious action. Since 
his success at the last elections the Kaiser 
has availed himself of the good-will of the 
majority to exploit more freely, and with 
less reference to the imperial tax-exchequer, 
the value of the imperial colonial posses- 
sions. 

The results hitherto provided by these pos- 
sessions would discourage any other man but 
William II. The German population, for 
example, is of little account and less prom- 
ise. In 1906 the census of the German colo- 
nies showed that there were only 5276 Ger- 
mans in the imperial possessions in Africa, 
and 675 in the Pacific islands,^this, too, as 
the result of twenty years of effort, and in 
a territory five times greater than that of 
Germany. The colonial army, amounting to 
18,000 men, is, of course, not included in 
these returns; but, on the other hand, the 
missionaries, the officials, the police, the ex- 
cise, and all the families of these individuals 
are included, so that the proportion of Ger- 
man colonials resident is almost ridiculously 
small. Germans are accustomed to ridicule 
French colonies and their regiments of police 
and officials. Yet France has 20,000 of her 
sons exploiting the resources of Tunis. It 
might be thought that German commercial 
enterprise had at least shown something in 
the way of hopeful signs of a future. It 
would appear to be far from so, since the 
Fatherland sent, in 1904, 35,000,000 of 
marks of merchandise to her dependencies, 
and received in return only 1 1 ,000,000 marks 
of importations. It is true, as pointed out by 
Herr Dernburg, that railway communica- 



238 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



tlons have not as yet been really established. 
There are at the present moment' over looo 
fliiles In the course of construction, and much 
will depend for the future of the colonies on 
the willingness of German financiers to lend 
money for further development, a v^Illing- 
ness which always provides a barometer of 
hopefulness, but which in this case is not con- 
spicuous. 

In Germany the notion prevails that the colo- 
nies cost more than they can possibly ever be 
worth. The colonial budget for 1907 amounts 
to 156,000,000 marks, or nearly $39,000,000; in 
the past decade they have cost $171,000,000 
without counting- special credits, and of this 



sum over $100,000,000 has been spent on mili- 
tary enterprises. 

Nevertheless, Germany has become so rich 
within the past twenty years, says M. Lair, 
that she can afford the initial expenditure, if, 
— and this is the crucial point, — her colonies 
are susceptible of being finally organized to 
yield a profit. It is a hopeful sign that the 
working classes, which the Socialists are stir- 
ring up against an imperialistic policy, profit 
by the existence of these dependencies. They, 
with the saving middle-classes of the Father- 
land, consider the world-policy of the Em- 
peror as the logical outcome of Germany's 
prodigious economic prosperity. 



THE WORK OF THE " POLISH MOTHER OF SCHOOLS." 



npHE first report of its work has just been 
Issued by the greatest educational in- 
stitution in Poland^ the Polish Mother of 
Schools (Polska Macierz Szkolna) of Rus- 
sian Poland. This report, which covers the 
period from July i, 1906, to July i, 1907, 
shows the work of the Macierz to have been 
surprisingly rich in results. It must be 
borne In mind that the Macierz commenced 
its work In the period of the greatest con- 
fusion in Russian Poland, the period of 
frightful turbulence, of disorganization, of 
unprecedented partisan strife, and of a uni- 
versal epidemic of violent politics. Such con- 
ditions generally do not conduce to the de- 
velopment of cultural work. And yet the 
Polish Mother of Schools persevered and 
survived the storm. Nay, It had already 
begun to reap an abundant harvest when 
Governor-General Skallon (in December 
last) ordered the closing of the 1600 schools 
In the kingdom. 

Russian reaction soon showed its teeth, and 
commenced to attack the Macierz, But this 
strong institution, standing on a legal basis, 
resolved to conquer all difficulties. At the 
outset the governors of six provinces of the 
kingdom questioned the legal right of the 
Macierz to extend Its activity over the whole 
kingdom; later, the organization met with 
the systematic restricting by the curator of 
the Warsaw educational district of the right 
of founding town and village schools. 

Up to July I, 1907, the chief directory of 
the Macierz applied to the educational au- 
thorities for permission for the opening of 
1247 schools, but obtained, the report com- 
plains, licenses for the opening of only 681 



schools. Of 316 names of teachers sub- 
mitted" by the chief directory in the year for 
which the report Is Issued, to the authorities 
for approval, only 159 received approval. 

Some of the administrative regulations with 
regard to the Macierz are, as the law depart- 
ment of the Macierz points out, directly con- 
trary to the law; as, for instance, the pro- 
hibition of the opening of Macierz schools 
In places In which there are communal 
schools. 

The statistics of the Macierz speak for 
themselves. The total number of " circles " 
Is 781, with a membership of 116,341. At 
the Institutions of the Macierz that sent in 
their statements for the period In question 
63,000 persons attended studies, 14,401 chil- 
dren were cared for in the asylums, and 400,- 
544 persons used the reading-rooms and 
libraries. The contributions of the public 
during this period for the purposes of the 
circles and of the chief directory reached the 
sum of 810,673 rubles ($405,000) without 
reckoning the value of fixtures and real es- 
tate donated to various *' circles." 

This first report of the Polish Mother of 
Schools is an answer, observes the Warsaw 
Gazata Codzienna (the Daily Gazette), to 
those pessimists who constantly assert that 
the Polish community shows no energy in 
practical work. 

With the funds of the 308 circles whose treas- 
ury accounts have not been included in this re- 
port of the Macierz the budget of the Polish 
Mother of Schools will be found to reach 1,000,- 
000 rubles. If we add to this that, according to 
the calculations of K. Kujawski, we possess m 
" the kingdom " thirly-one intermediate private 
schools (without reckoning the girls' boarding- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



239 



schools), the maintenance of which costs at 
least 1,000,000 rubles a year, we shall have the 
sum of 2,000,000 rubles that our community at 
present expends for the maintenance of its pri- 
vate schools. In view of our educational needs, 
this is an insufficient sum. But in view of the 
state of our community, which has been en- 
feebled in latter times by economic misfortunes, 
it is quite a considerable sum, testifying that the 
capability for work and benevolence in our com- 
munity has by no means disappeared. 

" St. Gr." in the Warsaw Tygodnik Illus- 
trowany ( the Illustrated Weekly ) closes a 
synopsis of the report of the Macierz with 
the following observation : 



We cannot in this place enumerate all the 
cultural arrangements in " the kingdom " to the 
founding of which the Macierz has contributed. 
On its initiative there have arisen hundreds of 
institutions, — lower schools and intermediate 
schools, people's universities, courses for illiter- 
ates, people's homes, legal advice sections, peda- 
gogical museums, teachers' seminaries, etc. De- 
spite the short period of its activity, the Macierz 
has accomplished a great work. To-day nobody 
will take away from the wide masses of Poland 
either the knowledge of reading and writing 
which they have acquired, thanks to the Macierz, 
or the popularizing information which they 
have gained, be it in the reading-rooms or at 
the lectures. This has already become the prop- 
erty of the people. 



JAPAN'S FIRST WORLD'S FAIR. 



TN spite of the alleged warlike ambitions of 
Japan, there is reason to believe that the 
intention of the Tokio administration is to 
bend all its energies to the encouragement of 
the arts of peace, and especially the promo- 
tion of its economic interests in the Far East. 
The invitation lately issued by Japan, re- 
questing the nations of Europe and America 
to participate in the international exposition 
to be held at Tokio in 19 12, is, undoubtedly, 
indicative of her peaceful intentions. Inas- 
much as this new undertaking of Japan has 
already awakened so rnuch interest in this 
country as to find encouragement in Presi- 
dent Roosevelt's recent message to Congress, 
it seems opportune to give the nature and 
scope of the exposition society as described by 
its president, Viscount Kaneko, in an article 
in a recent issue of the Taiyo (Tokio). 

The official title of the coming exposition 
of Japan will be " The Grand Exposition of 
Japan." This name was intentionally pre- 
ferred to the more pretentious name of 
" world's fair " or " international exposi- 
tion," for Japan does not wish to appear too 
ambitious or too sanguine of success in her 
first undertaking of this nature. According 
to Viscount Kaneko, this exposition, like those 
preceding it, will be held ( i ) to promote the 
common economic interests of the nations par- 
ticipating in it, (2) to further the education 
of the world, (3) to foster amicable relation- 
ship among nations, and (4) to furnish Japan 
with an opportunity for a national festival. 

Not only have world's fairs proved to be 
of common economic benefit to all nations, 
but they have, as the Japanese writer points 
out, become a powerful means of education. 
An Important feature of modern expositions 



Is the Inauguration as their adjuncts of numer- 
ous conventions and conferences. Savants 
and scientists, philosophers and religious 
workers, educators and preachers, authors 
and journalists, come to world's fairs from 
all parts of the globe to discuss vital prob- 
lems pertaining to their respective fields of 
study. To such conferences and congresses 
the world is indebted not a little for the dis- 
sipation of religious and racial prejudices ex- 
isting among nations. As an instance, Vis- 
count Kaneko points out that, since the 
world's parliament of religions held at the 
Chicago fair, the west has not only ceased 
to cherish absurd prejudices against Bud- 
dhism, but has begun to make an earnest effort 
to study that great religious system. 

The third advantage of world's fairs the 
writer finds In the fact that they improve dip- 
lomatic relationships among nations. 

The time has passed when international 
friendships are maintained or destroyed at the 
pleasure oi rulers or governments alone. To- 
day it is people as well as governments that are 
responsible for war and peace. Should the peo- 
ple of one country assume a hosJ:ile attitude 
toward those of another country, the amicable 
relationship between the two states must neces- 
sarily be endangered, however desirous to 
maintain peace their rulers may be. It is, there- 
fore, extremely necessary for the promotion of 
the world's permanent peace that the peoples of 
all countries be made to understand one an- 
other. No international exposition which does 
not take this important fact into consideration 
can be regarded as faithful to its true mission. 

As to the fourth aim of the International 
exposition, the Viscount says that a nation, 
as well as an Individual, needs to be afforded 
opportunities of amusement. An interna- 
tional exposition Is, In a measure, an occa- 
sion of grand national fete. 



240 THE AMERICAN REyiEiV OF REFIEWS. 

COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

TT is known that the Lumiere system of be suited to the optical arrangement of any 
■■■ color-photography depends for its sue- modern camera. 

cess upon the fact that the innumerable hues The Lyumiere plate is introduced into the 
of nature may in reality be looked on as camera with the glass side toward the object- 
combinations of the three fundamental glass. We are now ready for color-photog- 
colors, — red, blue, and green. In addition, raphy. In practice it is found necessary to 
dependence is put upon the circumstance that make longer exposures than with the ordi- 
in order to get a composite effect, say pur- nary photographic process. There are two 
pie, it is not necessary that the two colors, reasons for this : First, we have given up the 
red and blue, be each made to cover the ultra-violet rays for the rays which express 
entire surface of the object. It is sufficient nature more truly, but which are chemically 
if the objects be thoroughly well sprinkled weaker; second, as the object is to affect the 
with innumerable fine red and blue dots, bromide of silver, the rays of light must now 
each color being evenly distributed. To se- pass through the starch coating, and so are 
cure the precise shade of purple desired ex- weakened. 

actly the right proportion of red and blue We will now suppose that a many-colored 

dots must be combined. The decision as to landscape has been properly focused on our 

such combination is not left to the photogra- plate. The red rays from a red object fall 

pher, but is automatically effected by nature upon the plate, pass through the glass, and 

herself. This becomes clear in the explana- fall upon the grains of starch. If the object 

tion of the process given by Dr. M. W. is a chimney, this chimney will be imaged on 

Meyer in a recent number of Ueber Land the side of the starch coating next the glass. 

und Meer. This image will contain within its limits 

To form the sensitive plate the glass is grains of all three fundamental colors. The 
first covered with a layer of very fine grains grains of any one color, or of any combina- 
of starch (potato flour). These grains are tion, would yield an image of the chimney, 
of excessive minuteness, — about 80,000,000 However, the red rays, imaging the chimney, 
being required to cover the surface of three fall some of them upon red grains of starch, 
and one-half by four and five-eighth inches, others upon grains of starch which are not 
These grains have first been saturated in a red. The former pass through and affect 
color dye, the colors being the three funda- the coating of bromide of silver; the latter 
mental ones. The glass plate is then cov- are arrested and lost. In the case of a pur- 
ered with a mixture of equal quantities of pie object, both red and blue rays succeed in 
the three colors. Such a plate will then ap- passing through the starch layer and work- 
pear colorless, — or should do so. We have ing upon the bromide of silver. And so on, 
now an approximately even mixture of those with the various colors and color combina- 
colors necessary to produce any natural hue. tions. 

Bromide of silver, so prepared as to be equal- It must still be confessed that we do not 

ly sensitive to all three colors, is nt)w poured have any vestige of colored images on our 

over the layer of starch grains, and the sen- plate. However, the plate is now taken into 

sitive plate is done. a dark-room. This must be a genuine dark- 

The ordinary camera may be used. One room, as light of any color would have dis- 
attachment, and but one, is required. This astrous results. Any one of the usual de- 
is a ** yellow plate," the object of whose use velopers can be used. Metallic silver is now 
is to correct the arrangement of the modern deposited wherever the bromide of silver has 
camera whereby the object-glass focuses the been afifected by the light. The result of this 
ultra-violet rays upon the sensitive plate, is to produce a negative having the general 
The reason for this in ordinary photography appearance of that produced in the ordinary 
is that such rays affect more decidedly the way. No colors yet. Now there is a par- 
photographic plate than those which repro- ticular chemical which is a solvent of metal- 
duce to the eye the colors of nature. But, lie silver but not of the bromide of silver, 
for the purposes of color-photography, the Our negative is now introduced into a bath 
spectral colors themselves are desired. The of this preparation. The metallic silver, 
'* yellow plate " it is necessary shall be spe- covering precisely those places affected by 
cially adapted to the peculiar Lumiere sensi- the light transmitted through the starch coat- 
tive plate. It is said, on the other hand, to ing, is now dissolved away, and the bromide 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH, 



241 



of silver where the light did not succeed in 
getting through is left unaffected. The ef- 
fect of this removal of the silver Is to dis- 
play the colors of the starch. Red grains 
appear picturing the form of the chimney. 
Red grains now also come to light showing 
the image of the purple object. But, asso- 
ciated with these red grains, are blue ones 
also appearing and displaying the form of 
the purple object. The eye will receive both 
a red and a blue image, the separate elements 
of which are so mingled and so minute that 
the two are blended Into one purple object, 
precisely as in nature. And so, with various 
objects of all colors and combinations "of 
colors. 



In bright daylight the plate Is put Into 
another bath where black silver is now de- 
posited upon precisely those points where the 
bromide of silver has so far remained intact. 
But such points are those which in nature 
were dark, and so sent no light of any color 
through the glass plate and starch coating to 
affect the layer of bromide of silver. The 
effect of this deposition of black silver Is to 
darken the parts of our plate corresponding 
to the dark spots of the landscape. We have 
now, — not a negative, — but a diapositive 
whose colors and shadings correspond to 
those of nature. This ends the essential 
process, although the plate is passed through 
several other baths to perfect results. 



IS OUR WORLD TO BE DESTROYED BY COMETS? 



A CAREP'UL study of the habits of comets 
^^ and their actual and possible relations 
to our own globe is contributed to a recent 
number of the Hollandsche Revue. After 
recalling the most famous historical prophe- 
cies as to the end of the world coming from 
a collision with a comet, — and reminding us 
naively that none of them has come true, — 
the writer points out that at one time there 
actually was danger that one of these erratic 
heavenly bodies would come into violent con- 
tact w^ith our earth. On this point he says : 

Such a dangerous tramp of the heavens did 
indeed at one time exist, one which seemed to 
have for its veritable aim the destruction of our 
globe, the comet of Biela. This moved in a very 
small ellipse about the sun, returning every six 
and one-half years to a spot very close to a 
point in the earth's path which this reaches in 
the latter part of November. At its arrival in 
our field of observation, however, it was not 
always in such position as to be visible to us ; 
so that it had been observed only in 1772 and 
1805 before becoming recognized as a comet. 
In 1826 it was discovered again by the Austrian 
Captain von Biela, whose name was then given 
to it. Von Biela proved at the time that it was 
the same comet as was seen in 1805, and fore- 
told its reappearance in 1832. This prediction 
soon aroused much anxiety, for the position of 
the path of this comet, — a position apparently so 
fraught with peril to our earth, — had become 
generally known even among the uninitiated. 
The fear became universal that the destruction 
of the world might be now at our very doors, 
and that the last day was at hand. This fear 
gained such hold upon the common mind that 
von Littrow, the able director of the Observa- 
tory at Vienna, was moved to publish a pam- 
phlet proving this fear to be utterly baseless, 
since on November 30, 1832, the day when, as 
seen from our earth, the comet was expected to 



reach its crossing point with the earth's orbit, it 
would in reality be still many millions of miles 
removed from this. By this all minds were set 
at rest, and the comet appeared at its post with- 
out causing any harm. Von Littrow, however, 
at the same time predicted that on November 
30 of the years 1933 and 21 15 this comet would 
really approach very close to the earth's path, 
and what then might happen no one could fore- 
tell. 

According to von Littrow's calculation, we 
would once more, and that in comparatively 
few years, be standing on the very brink of 
destruction. But this peril was also very 
soon averted, for, since Its appearance In 1832, 
this same comet of Biela has been the cause 
of new surprises, both as to Itself and as to 
what may happen to its fellow-wanderers. 

Far from attacking our globe, it has laid 
violent hands on itself, has committed hari-kari 
in fact; for when, in 1846, it became visible 
again, it had torn itself into two parts, and, in- 




BIELA S COMET. 

As it appeared the last time (February 19, 1846). 
From the drawing by O. Struve. 



242 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^/ElVS. 



stead of the original comet, there appeared two 
new and smaller ones, which followed each 
other at a distance of 40,000 miles. In 1852 
these broken parts of this twin comet were al- 
ready 350,000 miles removed from each other, 
and since then, notwithstanding the most dili- 
gent search, nothing has ever again been seen 
of the comet of Biela. It was supposed at the 
time that the two parts into which the original 
comet had split itself no longer possessed suffi- 
cient luminosity to enable us to observe them by 
means of our present instruments. But in 1872, 
the year when the broken parts of Biela should 
have come again into view, there appeared in- 
stead, exactly at the same place and period, the 
end of November, an extraordinarily strong 
shower of stars. The comet of Biela had dis- 
appeared from the stage of the universe and 
had gone the way of all comets, — a splendid 
conlirmation of the theory of Schiaparelli, pro- 
pounded long before, that comets ultimately re- 
solve themselves into showers of falling stars, 
so called. 

Although, now, so far as we know, no 
comets have ever come into collision with the 
earth, such collision has occurred on the part 
of comets with other planets. Moreover, it 
is supposed that comets very frequently 
plunge into the sun without our being able 
to perceive anything of the fact. The pos- 
sibility of their collision with the earth is 
therefore not excluded, since (an additional 
cause for apprehension) the orbits of comets 



are often so small that some can return after 
a comparatively short time, and their short- 
ness may increase the probability of such col- 
lision. The shortest of these comet paths has 
only a period of three and a half years, while 
the comet of Halley requires nearly seventy- 
six years to complete its course. This is the 
only one of the periodical comets visible with 
the naked eye, and this will reach its shortest 
distance from the sun again on May 7, 19 10, 
thus in about two and a half years. The 
main question now is this : Is there any chance 
whatever of a collision with the earth on 
the part of comets? The probability of this, 
says the writer in the Dutch review, seems to 
be exceedingly small. 

The degree of such probability has been 
represented in the following manner: The 
chance of such collision is as small as if some 
one in a balloon should fire at a globe two 
feet in diameter (the sun), but should by 
mistake, instead of that globe, hit a pepper- 
corn (the earth) which was sixty-five meters 
distant from that globe, thus on the edge of a 
circle having a surface of 13,000 square me- 
ters. According to the law of probabilities, 
this writer maintains, the chance of the col- 
lision of a comet with the earth is only as 
I to 400,000,000. 



WHAT MARS IS REALLY LIKE. 



A N analytical study by the eminent Aus- 
^^^ trian astronomer, Johann Palisa, which 
appears in the Deutsche Revue (Berlin) 
treats of the conditions which prevail upon 
the planet Mars, giving special attention to 
the probable explanation of the so-called 
canals of Schiaparelli. He winds up his argu- 
ment with a summary which begins thus : 

If we sum up briefly what the telescope re- 
veals to us on the surface of Mars we find that 
that planet is a heavenly body similar to the 
earth. It has a solid crust, seasons like our 
globe, is surrounded by an atmosphere, which, 
though its exact composition is unknown to us, 
surely contains aqueous vapor. We find that 
the region about the poles is covered with snow 
in the winter season ; that precipitation, there- 
fore, is not lacking; the melting of the snow- 
masses furnishes us evidence of climatic condi- 
tions not dissimilar to those upon the earth. 
Upon our sphere we know by experience that 
wherever on any stretch of land precipitation 
occurs, even though in sparing quantities ; where 
the temperature rises, if but occasionally, above 
the freezing point of water, vegetation springs 
up, accompanied by fauna before long. We 
may, therefore, assume with great certainty,— 



and this is the view of all observers of Mars, — 
that that planet is capable of sustaining plants 
and animals. That its surface does actually 
hear vegetation is attested to us by the changes 
in the coloring of numerous dark spots coinci- 
dent with the change of seasons, and by the ap- 
pearance of previously invisible dark regions 
and lines. 

And now comes the significant and highly 
interesting question: If planets and animals 
subsist upon Mars, is the planet also inhabited 
by intelligent beings. Mars people? 

It has been remarked by some astronomers 
that astronomy has other real problems to 
deal with and should leave alone such con- 
ceits as these. In truth, the astronomer 
must abandon the field of tangible reality 
and allow his fancy free play if he wishes 
to enter into a study of this question. 

In the question under consideration it may, 
in the first place, be said that the existence of 
Mars-people is very well possible, all the requi- 
site farniliar conditions being given. But a fur- 
ther point has been reached, — in the Mars canals 
the work of man has been positively descried. 
In fact, the uniformly regular, often perfectly 
straight, course of these structures, some of 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 243 

them pursuing a north to south direction, forms come to us and tell us that one of these two 
a conspicuous moment for that assertion, planets is inhabited by intelligent beings, and 
Whether these canals be in reality of the same ask us to guess which, we should certainly guess 
breadth throughout, or merely a chain of puncti- Mars and not the earth, since the earth offers, 
form structures, the general supposition is that so far as we can form a picture of it, nothing 
this regularity is not to be wholly ascribed to similar to the changes that take place upon 
blind nature. Opinion is almost unanimous that Mars, and does not by any sign betray our pres- 
the origin of these canals, as they appear to us, ence. But if we admit that Mars is inhabited, 
i?. connected with the flowing down of the polar the circumstance that it probably could accom- 
waters ; and what has seemed a particularly modate organic life much earlier than the earth, 
striking phenomenon is, that were the canals would lead to the further conclusion that these 
formations of nature, acting alone, they could people have progressed beyond us in culture and 
not pass beyond the equator, but would have to in the sciences. Their greatest concern, how- 
halt before it. That they extend far beyond ever, must always be the wisest exploitation of 
the equator furnishes the most important argu- the existing water supply. 

ment for the view that not nature alone but Qur earth may once share the same fate 
man's agency also, has been at work here ; n^t ^^ Mars— that the water will steadily di- 
even the existence of the canals is as indicative • • i a ' r -i- i 
of the presence of man as this very circum- "iin^sh As may De familiar, the tempera- 
stance. ^"^^ ^^ ^"^ ground is subject to fluctuations 
If Mars possesses water, the area covered by of the seasons: In summer it is higher, in 
it, in our estimation, is so small that one may winter lower, but the amount of fluctuation 
reasonably conclude that there is a great dearth decreases at once upon descending any dis- 
of it upon that planet. And the rare appear- ^^^^^ -^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^ j^ ^^ ^^j 
ance of cloud formations strengthens this view, r ^ _ ^ • ^. , j ^ •/ 
Now in order to utilize this important element ^^^ ^^^ers it ceases entirely, and we strike 
of life to the best advantage, it must be con- ^here the average yearly temperature of the 
ducted wherever there is fertile soil. The in- locality. But from that point there is a 
habitants of Mars have, therefore, directed the continuous increase of one degree Centigrade 
water's course along stretches in which, as soon for every thirty meters as we proceed into 
as the fructifying moisture appears, vegetation ^j^^ interior. The earth has still, therefore, 
is developed. The agency of the inhabitants of ^-^ temperatures in its depths; but 
Mars has essentially contributed toward the • i i 11 , , , . 
regularity of construction which the canals unceasingly, even though slowly, the cooling 
present. The formations which look to us like goes on, and a period will some day be 
canals are not, of course, in their full extent reached when the temperature of the outer 
aqueducts; it may, indeed, be that but a very crust will sink below zero, and only the 
narrow strip of them irrigates the adjacent land, fi^e meters before referred to will, owing to 
In order to have the water now beyond the .1 ^ > u u- u ... ^ 
equator the inhabitants of Mars may have con- ^^e sun s rays, show higher temperatures. 

structed peculiar elevating devices, since, as be- While now the water that percolates into the 

fore observed, this phenomenon is hard to ex- earth is transformed into vapor by the heat of 

plain in any other way. ^ ^ ^ the interior and returns to the surface, the 

Let us, in conclusion, repair to a point in the water which in descending Will strike strata 

universe which is just as distant from Mars as with temperatures below zero, will freeze and 

the earth and as the earth from Mars ; I assume never again reach the surface. What, there- 

here that we know nothing of humanity upon fore, is perhaps in store for the earth in millions 

our sphere, and would observe both heavenly of years, that has already partially taken place 

bodies only through telescopes ; should an angel upon Mars, a planet solidified before our own. 



I 



THE PROBLEM OF THE ROOMER. 

N every city of any considerable size the what the rooming-house resembles is an in- 

roomer is every seventh or eighth man teresting topic for discussion, 

or woman you meet. He may be a day Professor Albert B. Wolfe, of Oberlin 

laborer or a city editor, but he represents College, accordingly outlines the roomer's 

the ambition, hopefulness, individualism, en- problem in Charities and the Commons for 

ergy, and persistence of the younger pro- November 2. The growth of cities and the 

dtictlve ranks of mercantile and mechanic movements of population within the same 

employees. With go,ooo roomers In Boston, city explain the rooming-house districts In 

one for every 723 In Chicago, one for every our cities. The roomers have come to the 

463 In St. Louis, and before the earthquake city for employment, and the " landladies," 

one for every 233 persons In San Francisco, for the most part, widows thrown on their 



244 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^/EIVS. 

own resources, who turn to the roomer as a Landladies cannot afford a parlor, and 
last resort. Old four-story family residences this is the basis of this drawback. The moral 
are rented, — in New York ** brownstone results of such a situation, the writer be- 
fronts," in Boston *' swell fronts," in St. lieves, are a peculiar attitude of mind toward 
Louis old style Southern mansions, which marriage and family; temporary unions and 
have been vacated through business changes prostitution as substitutes; poignant loneli- 
or the fickleness of residential fashion. At ness; a blind, self-seeking individualism 
one time nearly all roomers were boarders, striking at altruistic impulses, and moulding 
To-day the boarding-house has largely dis- existence too closely on lines of the competi- 
appeared. The effects of this transition are tive business world. They have no sub- 
deplorable, stitute for home life, no opportunity for real 

^, , . ., , , , recreation or cultural association, and are 

The reader must not fail to understand the j i. ^ j-*.- u- u u *. 4.u 

,.rc u 4. 4.U -1 ^ 4.1 exposed to conditions which would try the 

difference between the roommg-house and the i i i • 

boarding-house. The boarder sleeps and eats i^o^t stable moral consciousness, 
in the same house; the roomer takes his meals The whole situation should be much 
at a restaurant. Twenty years ago two-fifths of more thoroughly studied than it has been 
the "boarders and lodgers" enumerated in the as yet. Public statistical bureaus should 
census of Boston were boarders. In 1895 less gather details of the rooming-house districts, 
than one-fifth (17.4 per cent.) were boarders, p^^jj^ -^-^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ aroused. The 
I he percentage of lodgers increased irom 00.4 ^ , . • 1 1 
in 1885 to 82.6 in 1895. The further increase roor^^i" must be given a social anchorage; 
which has undoubtedly taken place since 1895 the furniture sharks that prey upon the land- 
has virtually wiped out the boarding-house, lady should receive attention. The connec- 
This is true not only of Boston but of several tion between lodging and prostitution should 
other Massachusetts towns. Statistics are lack- ^g studied more carefully. A public parlor 
ing for cities outside Massachusetts, but the ^^^^^^ ^^ demanded, even if it be made a 
probabilities are that the rooming house is • v x • u r 

^ 1 r 1 • ..1 1^ ^.:^^ u^^^a: - prerequisite tor a rooming-house license. 

everywhere displacing the old-time boarding- ^, , i- -i 1 1111 i 1 1 

house. The causes of this lie in the competition ^ he boarding-house should be brought back, 

of the cafes and "dining rooms," the fact that and the cafe life resisted in every possible 

it takes less business ability to manage a room- way. Fundamentally, at the bottom of 

ing-house than a boarding-house, and most of these things are, of course, better education 

all, that the rooming and cafe habit of life offers ^^^ better wages 

much more freedom than did the boarding- j^ ^^^ ^^^^ magazine Eleanor H. 

house. In the latter one must be on time lor ,._ , r o i t- i t t -n 

meals and must pay whether he eats or not. Woods, of South End House, Boston writes 

Moreover, lax as were boarding-house conven- interestingly of the humanitarian efforts of 

tionalities, they afforded far more restraints certain movements in Boston for the social 

than can be found in the rooming-house. A betterment in its lodging districts. A room 

boarding-house without a public parlor would registry organized at South End House 

be an anomaly, while a roommg-house with one ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ assistance of patrons 

is a rarity. , . -^ *^ , ^ .• i . u • 

seeking rooms and to stimulate business 

With the passing of the boarding-house methods among the housekeepers has at- 
went the last vestige of " home " life, for tained a reasonable degree of success. A 
a boarding-house withotit a public parlor card catalogue of 150 houses is on file, con- 
would be an anomaly, while a rooming-house taining information as to location, price, 
with one is a rarity. The common table quality, etc. A charge of 10 cents is im- 
with its friendly, if aimless, prattle being posed for a list of available lodging-houses 
removed, the isolation of the roomer fol- and a postal to be used if a room is secured 
lowed, which is a real social problem. He by the applicant. Housekeepers are charged 
knows few people, and these not intimately, one-half a week's rent for a tenancy of three 
He rarely enters a family circle, and becomes weeks; otherwise, 10 per cent. The neigh- 
a more or less nomadic character, — essential- borhoods are scrutinized carefully and dis- 
ly a floater. The absence of the public par- reputable people ejected. This registry 
lor is responsible for damming the well- serves as a source of information to patrons 
springs of healthy, social intercourse and for of the South End district, and labors for 
throwing the lodger upon his own resources, cleanliness and morality. 
A girl receives her visitors, — men and wom- This writer advances hopefully a sugges- 
en, — either in her room or in the street, — tion for "J:ioarding club houses" for busi- 
the moral effect of which can easily be ness women, something on the plan of a prl- 
deduced. vate house accommodating twelve or fifteen, 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



245 



with two or three for household work. An 
experiment on this line worked successfully 
in Boston, and for women no longer in the 
youngest ranks the writer believes such a 
household would prove a strong attraction, 
and she advocates a series of houses so or- 
ganized, under one general management. 
Free from domestic restrictions, and with 
relative home surroundings, such houses 



would prove superior to the general run of 
lodging-houses, and would obviate the loss 
which women feel when " housed in cara- 
vansaries where social responsibilities are 
discouraged by the constant experience of 
being thrown with so many whom it is im- 
possible to know, and yet in whose company 
all the significant .home functions are daily 
practiced." 



CURIOUS LIFE CYCLES. 



A S a study of possibilities in the way of 
manifestations of vital phenomena, 
the course of events that takes place in a 
series of generations of aphids is highly sur- 
prising to any one not familiar with the 
vagaries of nature in the byways of life. 

A contribution to the study of life his- 
tories of these organisms is published by Dr. 
A. Mordwilko in a recent number of the 
Biologisches Ceniralblatt (Leipzig). 

Among some of the more common forms 
of aphids the adults die in autumn and only 
their eggs are left, hidden in the ground, or 
under the bark of trees, to maintain the life 
of the species over winter. Next summer 
an aphid hatching from one of these eggs be- 
comes the starting point for a series of gen- 
erations that develop without wings and are 
unable to move far. All these live on the 
same plant and feed upon it until the plant 
begins to wither, as a result of their depreda- 
tions, and there is a consequent scarcity of 
food. 

Then the aphid shows its powers of ris- 
ing to the emergency. A new set of eggs is 
produced that hatches into aphids with wings, 
and these insects fly away to a new, thrifty 
plant, where they settle down, and resume 
the old order of things just as their ancestors 
of some generations ago did a month or two 
before. 

As the economic result of this, the crops 
are seriously affected and the farmer suffers 
such an appreciable loss that it becomes a 
matter of economy for him to employ the 
best measures at his command to combat the 
apparently insignificant enemy. 

But the achievement of wings is especially 
interesting as an instance of a provision of 
nature for meeting adverse conditions. 
Wings do not appear at any definite time in 
the history of the species, but are called forth 
as a response to external conditions, usually 



because the food supply is diminished for 
some reason, making it necessary for the ap- 
hids either to migrate or to die. Literally 
a case where the spur of adversity brings 
out latent powers. 

The writer goes on to describe still more 
curious phases of development observed in 
the more complicated life histories of migrat- 
ing species of aphids that change their loca- 
tion at different seasons of the year, certain 
generations spending the autumn and winter 
on a tree, perhaps, while succeeding genera- 
tions become emigrants and travel to some 
herbaceous plant to spend the summer. 

Among these there is a wingless form of 
aphid that takes up its abode underground 
on the roots o-f vines, where a continuous 
succession of generations develops until the 
approach of winter. Then, when the tem- 
perature sinks to about lO degrees C, the in- 
sects become torpid in response to the cold. 
But during the summer, or in autumn, a new 
type of descendants appears, winged individ- 
uals, that leave their underground retreat for 
the parts of the vine growing above ground, 
where they deposit two kinds of eggs, large 
ones to develop into females, and small ones 
that will produce males. These insects die, 
and only the eggs retain their life over win- 
ter. 

The following spring, a new order of 
events is inaugurated. From the newly 
hatched insects there descends a race of ap- 
hids that attack the leaves of the vines and 
cause the curious gall formations found on 
them. This continues until the last of sum- 
mer, when the leaves begin to die, and then 
the aphids wander back to the roots, where 
they may change directly into the character- 
istic type that preys on the root, although it 
is impossible for the converse order of change, 
of root type directly into gall type of aphid, 
to take place. 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



EXPERTS DECLARE THEIR CONFIDENCE. 



P ERHAPS the first journalistic authority 
on financial matters is the Economist 
of London. It is reassuring to have the opin- 
ion of its editor, Francis W. Hirst, that our 
panic signified no general rottenness of con- 
duct, — nothing more than a defect in method. 

How is it that in the United States alone a 
collapse of paper values (which in other coun- 
tries would be regarded with comparative indif- 
ference or possibly even welcomed as a sign of 
returning sanity) should end in a general stop- 
page of work, a paralysis of distributing agen- 
cies, a cash famine, and a general withdrawal 
from men of ample wealth and credit of the 
ordinary banking facilities? 

After reviewing the few sensational dis- 
closures which brought on the general crash, 
Mr. Hirst sa5^s: "A more deplorable con- 
dition of things could hardly exist, or one 
more injurious to the great majority of 
American banks, which are clean and sound." 

If in every State there had been an official or 
semi-official bank with the State behind it, — with 
the kind of relation to other banks in that State 
which the Bank of England has to other Eng- 
lish banks, or the Bank of Germany has to those 
of Germany, or the Bank of Amsterdam to those 
of Holland, — the panic-stricken depositors, in- 
stead of carrying their currency to safe deposits 
or hiding it under their beds, would have re- 
deposited it in the State bank, which would then 
have been able to afford ample and immediate 
succor to all sound institutions. The rest, which 
were not sound or solvent, would have gone very 
properly into the receivers' hands. 

AN OVER-EXPECTED PANIC. 

" When Bismarck declared that * the 
enemy who fixes a day for his attack is never 
dangerous,' he uttered a truth which is espe- 
cially applicable to financial disturbances," 
says James W. Van Cleave, president of the 
National Association of Manufacturers, in 
The Circle. Mr. Van Cleave can find no 
signs that the depression of 1908 *' will even 
remotely resemble those which came in 1818, 
1837, 1857, 1873, or 1893." 

Everybody who knows the causes of each of 
our panics, and who takes an intelligent survey 
of the present situation, will see that almost all 
those causes are missing now. To-day there is : 

No recent great war (as the war of 1812-15 
with England, which helped to bring the panic 
of t8i8, or the civil conflict of 1861-65, which 



was responsible for several of the factors which 
aided in precipitating the cataclysm of 1873) 
with its consequent destruction of property and 
derangement of industries. 

No crop failure (as in 1837). 

No railroad-building beyond the country's im- 
mediate needs (as in 1857 and in 1873). 

No wildcat banking (as in 1818, 1837, and 
1857). 

No greenback endless chain or silver dilution 
of the currency (as in 1893) to draw gold out 
of the Treasury. 

No adverse balance of trade (as in 1818, 1837, 
1857, 1873, and 1893). 

No gold drain to Europe (like we had in all 
those years) to meet debts of any kind. 

No shortage in revenues (as in 1893 and some 
other panic times). 

No menace of any sort or from any quarter 
(as there was in every one of those five panic 
years) to our country's monetary system. 

FROM AN ENGLISH BANKER. 

Some solid comfort is extended to every- 
body interested in American stocks and bonds 
by an article in the Nineteenth Century of 
London. It is a personal opinion of peculiar 
interest, because it comes from J. W. Cross, 
an English banker of ten years' experience 
in New York City, during the tumultuous 
years of 1 861 -'71. Mr. Cross says': 

It is just fifty years since I first became in- 
terested in American securities. I have known 
no other class of investments which have given 
more satisfactory results during these fifty years, 
taking the average prices they cost, the interest 
they have returned, and the average prices at 
which they can be sold, even at the panic quota- 
tions of to-day. 

I can say of Wall Street, after ten years' ex- 
perience there, that it is the most satisfactory 
place that I know to do business in, notwith- 
standing all its harassing ups and downs and 
its hustling. . . . The chief reason why 
lapses are more marked in New York is that 
New York is by far the biggest market in the 
world for stock transactions. 

Let us never forget that while there has been 
a great deal of " simulated prosperity " in the 
United States, owing to overborrowing, there 
has at the same time been an increase in the 
productive power, and a development of real, 
efficient industrial activity, during the last ten 
years especially, such as the world has never 
seen before. 

THE COURAGE OF CORPORATIONS. 

Give the corporations their due. They 
have been among America's most courageous, 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES, 



247 



most useful pioneers. Their cause is well 
defended by Major Henry L. Higginson in 
the Atlantic Monthly. 

Who have built all the mills, the dams, the 
railroads, the tramways, the gas and electric 
works, and who have dug the mines ? The cor- 
porations, made and managed by enterprising, 
able, thoughtful, patient men. Have they failed 
or succeeded? They have done both in many, 
many cases. 

If, in the struggle for existence, bargains and 
railroad rates were made which seemed a hard- 
ship to the farmers, is it not fair to ask whence 
came these iron roadways and how the farmers 
would have marketed their crops without them? 
And, moreover, is there a railroad in our broad 
land that has not been forced to wade through 
dire distress, if not bankruptcy, — bankruptcy 
often repeated several times? 

The wrecks of cattle companies in our West- 
ern States are laughing-stocks because a laugh 
is the sole return which the owners have ever 
had ; yet the cowboys were paid their wages and 
the country ate the beef. If the truth were 
known, very many successful corporations have 
been built on the ruins of others, and, because 
the successors have reaped the harvest sown by 
the original men, they have prospered, but the 
return on the first and second capital taken to- 
gether is not large. 

After recounting the struggles of the Bell 
Telephone Company and the Steel Corpora- 
tion, Major Higginson declares that *' most 
of our great railroads and industrial enter- 
prises have had the same history ; and now to 
us older men who have seen money and hope 
and life sunk in these colossal tasks arises 



strongly the wish that justice should be done 
to these men and to their numerous sup- 
porters, who have bought their bonds and 
shares, and have waited for returns, — too 
often in vain." 

THE USE OF WALL STREET. 

To set, on every important bond and share 
of stock, a price more accurate than the wisest 
man in the world could estimate by himself, 
and to set this price in advance, giving stock- 
and bond-holders ample warning of coming 
industrial changes, — that is the work of the 
nation's money barometer known as Wall 
Street. An editorial in the New York Even- 
ing Post has this to say on its value: 

Wall Street has demonstrated again that it 
is the financial barometer of the nation. . . . 
When, during a long period, Wall Street is set 
foul, foul weather is certain to come. 

It is of no avail to call Wall Street " hard 
names." Whether we like the individuals con- 
nected with it or not, the thing they do, in 
their united capacity, is both useful and indis- 
pensable. They bring to bear upon trade and 
finance a collective judgment which is more 
valuable than that of any one banker, mer- 
chant, manufacturer, or any one group of busi- 
ness men. . . . Hundreds of men, with 
thousands of millions at stake, give their 
nights and days to the closest scrutiny of the 
widest facts obtainable, and their inference, 
after comparing notes and checking off data, 
must be nearer the truth than that of observers 
less skilled. 



MAKING MONEY WORK. 



p EOPLE who have worked hard for their 
money, and who now want to work 
the money itself for all it will bring, are pay- 
ing serious attention to such articles as Mun- 
sey^s Magazine prints this month, under the 
title : " A Rare Opportunity for Making In- 
vestments." 

For the small investor, with a few thousand 
or even a few hundred dollars, — so few that they 
must be made to earn every cent that can be 
squeezed out of them without undue risk, — the 
1907 panic has created a rare opportunity. 

Of course, it is useless to dodge the fact that 
the purchaser of any common railroad stock, or 
of most preferred industrials, is taking a risk. 
This article is helpful only tc those who realize 
thfs fact, and who are looking for the least risk 
and the utmost possible extra gain. 

It is utter folly for a small investor to think 
of buying stocks on margin. His only safe and 
prudent course is to purchase outright, paying in 
full for his securities, getting a certificate for 
them, and putting it carefully away. He can 
take as few or as many shares as he can pay for, 



— a single share, if he so desires, and any broker 
will be glad to receive his order. 

Nor must what is said here be interpreted as a 
recommendation to purchase any particular se- 
curity or as a guaranty of profit to the investor. 
The advice must be accepted exactly as it is 
given, — in general terms. Securities are now 
selling at bargain prices and offer a rare oppor- 
tunity to both large and small capitalists. This 
stock or that stock may go down still lower, and 
this investment or that investment may result in 
loss. No man can tell whether the bottom prices 
have been reached, or when they will be reached. 
Dividends, too, may be temporarily or even per- 
manently reduced. Nevertheless, the chances are 
many to one that any standard American stock 
or bond purchased now, and held as an invest- 
ment, will prove a satisfactory and remunera- 
tive acquisition. 

The lists of railroad and industrial stocks 
which Munsey's suggests as " standard " are 
given on the next page, with the price and 
yield to the purchaser, corrected up to the 
going to press of the Review of Reviews. 



248 



THE AMERICAN REiyJElV OF REl^lElVS. 



RAILROAD STOCKS. 

Price Yield 

about. about. 

$ % 

Atchison 73 8.2 

Baltimore & Ohio 89 6.7 

Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul 115 6 

Chicago & Northwestern 150 4.6 

Delaware & Fludson 166 5.3 

Great Northern 123 5.6 

Illinois Central 131 5.3 

Louisville & Nashville 101 5.9 

New York Central 102 5.8 

New York, New Haven, & Hartford. .140 5.7 

Norfolk & Western 68 7.3 

Northern Pacific 124 5.6 

Pennsylvania 116 6 

Reading : 109 3.6 

Southern Pacific 76 7.8 

Union Pacific 126 7.9 

INDUSTRIAL STOCKS. 

American Car & Foundry (preferred) 90 7.7 

American Locomotive (preferred) ... 91 7.6 

American Smelting (preferred) 95 7.3 

American Sugar (common) 113 6.1 

General Electric 124 6.4 

National Biscuit (preferred) 106 6.6 

National Lead (preferred) 90 7.7 

United States Steel (common) 30 6.6 

United States Steel (preferred) 94 7.4 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical (pref. ).. 93 8.6 

Western Union Telegraph 59 8.4 

BONDS VS. STOCK. 

The surest possible way, after all, if you 
want an income that is absolutely sure, is to 
buy the right kind of bonds, — not stocks. 
An experience in proof is told by George 
Carey in The Outlook: 

A few years ago the stock of a great corpora- 
tion was offered to the pubHc at a price remark- 
ably low, considering the fact that dividends 
were then being paid and rumors of their per- 
manency were being circulated. Here is the 
actual experience of one investor in that stock. 
She, — for this particular person was a dress- 
maker in a small town, who had saved a few 
hundred dollars, — did not know what the word 
stock signified. But she did see, thanks to the 
" tips " of well-meaning friends, that the pur- 
chase of this particular stock meant an income 
of about 9 per cent. 

Therefore, this woman, attracted by an _ ex- 
traordinary income, invested her savings in a 
mere possibility. The earning capacity of the 
stock was practically untested. Still, she bought 
in small amounts as it advanced in market price. 
Suddenly it began to decline, for, as the wise 
ones knew, its rise had been due to skillful 
manipulation. The woman, inspired still by 
well-meaning friends with " tips," continued to 
buy as the stock went down. When it had 
reached a point at which the income was about 
20 per cent, on the investment the directors de- 
creed a suspension of dividends for an indefinite 
period. Immediately the stock fell to something 
less than lo per cent, of its par value. The poor 
dressmaker's savings were wiped out. She 
could not even borrow money, offering her com- 
paratively worthless shares as collateral. No 
one wanted them. 

Had this woman bought the bonds of the same 
company she would have had an assured income 
of about 5 per cent, per annum, and principal 
unimpaired. She could not watch the rnarkets 
and buy and sell as speculators do, risking all 
for great profit or utter ruin. What she needed 
was safety of principal and peace of mind. 



PAY FOR STOCKS AND KEEP THEM. 

I'he folly of trying for quick ** turns " in 
the stock market, — selling out for the first 
small profit possible, — is strongly emphasized 
by no less a person than a stock broker him- 
self in The World To-Day. Of course, no- 
body should buy stocks anyhow who cannot 
take risks, but depends on the income. And 
here comes *' A member of the Chicago Stock 
Exchange," who, against his own interest, 
advises the small purchaser of stocks to pay 
cash for them, take them away, and keep them 
a year or two: 

Is the present a favorable time for speculation 
in securities? For what is termed a "long pull," 
yes. Manipulation, which has been so marked a 
feature of the speculative market for the past 
three years, still continues, and the financial 
strength of these operators is so great that the 
market may be moved up or down a considerable 
number of points, even at times directly contrary 
to the general situation. I therefore believe that 
in the uncertainty which exists as to financial 
matters attempts at so-called " quick turns " in 
the market are not advisable. 

One can, however, easily discover high-grade 
railroad and industrial stocks which, even 
should these companies be forced by a reaction 
in mercantile business to reduce their dividends, 
would still bring a good return on the prices at 
which to-day they may be bought. With a 
Presidential year ahead of us we can not expect 
much expansion, but it is generally conceded 
that the fundamental conditions of the country 
are such that we are not apt to have a protracted 
period of depression. 

With fair crops in 1908, and the election out 
of the way, the country should rouse again to 
activity in commercial and manufacturing lines, 
under which condition, coupled with a normal 
money situation, much higher prices for securi- 
ties will doubtless be seen. 

THE FIRST TO RISE IN PRICE. 

It is the high grade bonds and the preferred 
railroad stocks that will be the first to rise 
from panic prices, according to the scientific 
argument of Byron W. Holt, editor of 
Moody's Magazine. The boom in railroad 
common stocks and industrials will follow. 
Mr. Holt's opinion is based on the likelihood 
of a plentiful money supply during the first 
half of 1908. Also, this is " what ordinarily 
happens after a panic. First, the most secure 
securities rise ; then the less secure securities 
rise; and finally, when earnings are best, the 
insecure securities rise." 

Now the '' most secure " are evidently ( i ) 
Railroad bonds directly secured; (2) other 
bonds of sound railroad companies; (3) pre- 
ferred railroad stocks, whose dividend must 
be paid before any dividends on the common 
stock. 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES, 



24d 



Not only will hoarded money be invested 
in good securities, but large amounts of money 
will be withdrawn from savings banks and 
put into these securities. By next June the 
rise in this class of securities may be pretty 
well over and the tide of investment will then 
turn to the less secure grades of securities, — 



the common stocks of railroads and the pre- 
ferred and, in some instances, the common 
stocks of the industrials. 

The following tables of prices and yields 
of bonds and preferred stocks will give in- 
vestors an idea of the great bargains now to 
be had in the " most secure " securities: 



HIGH GKADE RAILROAD BONDS. 

High price 

Name of bonds. in 1906. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Pe guaranteed 4s, 1905 104^^ 

Atlantic Coast Line 1st 4s, 1952 102^^ 

Baltimore & Ohio preferred 3y2S, 1925 97^ 

Chesapeake & Ohio consolidated 5s, 1939 119V2 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Illinois Division, SMjs, 1949 95V4 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas 1st 4s, 1990 103 

Norfolk & Western Consolidated 4s, 1996 102% 

Reading general 4s, 1997 102% 

Southern Pacific refunding 4s, 1955 97% 

Union Pacific consolidated 4s, 1946 102 

Wabash 1st 5s, 1939 119 



GOOD RAILROAD BONDS. 

High price 
Name of bonds. in 1906. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe adjustable 4s, 1995 97% 

Baltimore & Ohio general 4s, 1948 105y2 

Central Railroad of Georgia consolidated 5s, 1945 114i/j 

Colorado & Southern 1st 4s, 1929 96M5 

Delaware & Hudson consolidated 4s, 1916 112% 

Lake Shore debenture 4s, 1928 101% 

Northern Pacific general 3s, 2047 78»4 

Pennsylvania convertible 3%s, 1912 105% 

Pennsylvania convertible 3i/^s, 1915 101 

Union Pacific convertible 4s, 1927 



PREFERRED RAILROAD STOCKS. 

Dividend 



Name of stock. 



rate. 
Per cent. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 5 

Chicago, Milwaukee. & St. Paul 7 

Chicago & North Western 8 

Colorado & Southern 1st 4 

Great Northern 7 

Missouri, Kansas, & Texas 4 

Reading 1st 4 

Southern Pacific 7 

Union Pacific 4 



High nrice 

in 1906. 

106 

218 

240 

73% 
348 

76 

96 
1201/2 

991/4 



Lov/ price 
in 1907. 

781/2 
130 
126 

41 
107% 

53 

73 
100 



Low price 
in 1907. 

89% 
82 
85% 
101 

82% 

89% 

86 

86% 

82 

78% 

09% 



Low price 
in 1907. 

77 

88 

85 

75 

88 

83 

62% 

86% 

83% 

78% 



Late 
prices. 

84% 
125% 
137% 

41% 
117% 

56% 



106% 

78 



Late 
prices. 

96 

88 

91 
107% 

86 

94 

92% 

93 

88 

84% 
IO51/4 



Late 
prices. 
83 
96% 
98 
82% 
95 
88% 
68% 
91% 
88% 
85 



Yield 
per cent. 
5.93 
5.56 
5.81 
7.73 
5.94 
7.05 
5.13 
6.58 
5.00 



Yield 
per cent. 
4.21 
4.80 
4.38 
4.41 
4.41 
4.33 
4.41 
4.38 
4.78 
5.11 
4.61 



Yield 
per cent. 
5.01 
4.22 
5.12 
5.64 
4.83 
5.04 
5.18 
5.77 
5.53 
5.70 



Margin 

of safety.* 

per cent. 

13.10 

21.78 

63.52 

18.50 

7.55 

24.33 

25.60 

27.49 

31.02 



* Ihis means the ratio of the surplus earnings (after paying the preferred dividend) to the amount of 
the preferred stock. Thus the Missouri, Kansas &. Texas has sufficient earnings to pay its preferred divi- 
dend six times more ; the Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul three times more, etc. 



THE VALUE OF A BANKER. 



^^O to your banker as you go to your doc- 
tor or your lawyer, — before things 
happen. If you wait till after you invest, it 
may be too late. It is nothing to be ashamed 
of, that the average busy man or woman may 
lack the professional training to distinguish 
a legitimate opportunity from an unscru- 
pulously offered fraud. 

An anecdote to this effect is told by George 
Carey in The Outlook under the title " In- 
vesting Money ": 

In a small Western town there lives to-day a 
young widow whose husband, a physician, died 
a few years ago, leaving her a home and some 
$40,000 in life insurance. It so chanced that this 
young woman was wholly unfamiliar with fin- 
ancial matters. A friend of her husband, a man 



destined to become later a great financier and 
world-builder, called upon her. To him she 
confided her perplexities. Then this man, 
simply, as great men speak, made clear to her 
the essential principles of investment. Doubt- 
less he was all unconscious of laying down rules. 
Yet this is what he said : " Mrs. Blank, you must 
place your money where the safety of your prin^ 
cipal is assured. That is the first consideration. 
You should also be able to exercise control over 
your principal, — that is, to convert it, or at least 
a part of it, into cash with readiness should oc- 
casion arise. Finally, we must find for you se- 
curities that will return the largest possible in- 
come consistent with the first two requirements, 
and that promise to increase in market value, 
under normal conditions." 

These principles are fundamental. They 
should be applied to the selection of any form 
of investment whatsoever. 



260 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IElVS. 



BANKER AND INVESTOR INTRODUCED. 

It is even more important for the small 
investor than for the capitalist to get into 
touch with the right kind of a banking-house. 
An introduction of some sort was helpful to 
the average stranger who came into Wall 
Street last winter, to choose among the many 
stock and bond bargains. 

" In a good many cases," says an article 
in the World's Work, " he made the mistake 
of sending his money by mail to some widely 
advertised, clever, alluring brokerage house 
with no reputation except the one it gave it- 
self by advertising in untrustworthy news- 
papers and equally untrustworthy periodicals. 
But in the large majority of cases he made 
no mistakes. He knew what he wanted : he 
knew what he would pay: he found out the 
right place to go. In a very large proportion 
of cases he came himself, bringing his money 
on his person." 

If he had been in the Street before, he came 
with a letter of introduction from his banker. 
Without it he found the best and most satisfac- 
tory houses in Wall Street closed to him. For, 
strange as it may seem, many houses demand 
such an introduction even from the man who 
carries specie or bills with him to pay for what 
he buys. In times of panic, such as the first 
week or so in November, checks on out-of-town 
banks were not accepted in payment unless cer- 
tified. Dozens of men came into town to make 
purchases and went back without them, merely 
because they had failed to realize the necessities 
of the case. 

Every small investor intending to buy stocks 
or bonds should see to it that these little pre- 
liminaries are observed. If he has a connection 
with a good banker, then he is all right. His 
checks need not be certified except in actual 
panic, when banks are under suspicion. But if 



he has to make a connection, he should first 
select his banker with the most minute care; 
then bring or send a good introduction; then 
clinch the argument of good standing by paying 
for his purchases in certified checks or in cash. 
Under such circumstances he will be a welcome 
and honored customer in any good banking- 
house. 

THE BANKER OR THE TIPSTER? 

Sharp and bitter is apt to be the correction 
of those who spend their capital at the bid- 
ding of any but a responsible banker. An 
amazing case in proof is the actual record of 
the most brilliant and powerful of all adver- 
tising tipsters, Thomas W. Lawson, of Bos- 
ton. In Success, Frank Fayant writes: 

Lawson has traded in copper shares for thirty 
years ; he has bought and sold more copper 
shares than any other man in the world. He 
has bought and sold copper mines; he has in- 
vestigated 2000 copper-mining propositions ; he 
has sold many millions of dollars of copper 
shares to the public ; and he has put the bulk of 
his own fortune into these shares. He is a 
recognized copper authority in Boston, the home 
of the copper industry. '* H there is one thing 
I know," says he, " it is copper." 

The actual price per share of Amalga- 
mated, a stock largely dealt in by the outside 
public on Mr. Lawson's say-so, rose from 
$43 a share in 1904 to $121 in January, 
1907, — and dropped to $41 by October. But 
'* Mr. Lawson cried ' Sell! ' all the way up, 
and, turning at the very top of the copper 
boom, cried * Buy! ' all the way down. It is 
probably the worst record any prophet has 
ever made." 

In justice Mr. Fayant explains that Mr. 
Lawson was himself deceived, through expect- 
ing a new invention to lower the price of 
copper. The invention didn't work. 



SIGNS OF THE TIMES. 



pT XACTLY what is happening to Ameri- 
can business, now that the panic has 
passed, is plainly pointed out by those national 
news items which financiers always watch 
keenly as signs of the times. Just now, busi- 
ness men, and investors generally, find them 
of peculiar importance. Below the latest of 
them are summarized and compared with for- 
mer periods, — pig iron output from The Iron 
Age; bank clearings and railroad gross earn- 
ing from the Financial Chronicle and the 
Wall Street Journal, and business failures 
from Duns Review. Taken together, they 
look as if the worst was over. 



PIG IRON. 

Pig iron production is at its lowest for 

seven years past, excepting only one period at 

the beginning of 1904. In December it sank 

nearly one-third below November, and nearly 

one-half below December, 1907. 

Dec, 1907. Nov., 1007. Dec, 1906. 
Total tons for United 

States 1,234,279 1,828,1215 2,236,153 

BANK CLEARINGS. 

As far as may be judged from the falling 
off in bank clearings compared with last year, 
the nation is cutting down its trade by about 



LEADING FINANCIAL ART/CLES, 



251 



one-fifth. New York City clearings, in the 
table below, appear to have shrunk much 
more than a fifth, but part or all of this 
shrinkage is accounted for by the slackness 
in speculation on the New York stock ex- 
changes, — not by any contraction in real 

industry. 

New York All other 

City. cities. 

Decrease from 1907 figures. Per cent. Per cent. 

Week ending January 4, 1908 37.2 19.9 

Week ending .January 11, 1908 .37.2 16.6 

Week ending January 18, 1908 19.7 18.4 

The situation becomes plainer if one 
glances at the latest detailed figures obtain- 
able, which follow. They show that so far 
from falling off one-fifth, or 20 per cent., 
Chicago and St. Louis show losses of less 
than 6 per cent, and g per cent., respectively. 
Only Boston and New Orleans lost as much 

as New York. 

Week ending January 18. Decrease. 

1908. 1907. Per cent. 

New York $1,468,736,052 $1,828,621,307 19.7 

Boston 149,463,388 199,656,201 25.1 

Philadelphia.... 107,249,313 124,457,769 13.8 

Baltimore 22,069,619 25,10.3,766 12.1 

Chicago 189,93.3,377 201.210,340 5.9 

St. Louis 54,137,823 59,410,667 8.9 

New Orleans 17,560,669 22,040,714 20.3 

Seven cities, 5 

days $2,008,610,241 $2,560,500,764 21.6 

Other cities, 5 
days 352,076,298 426,748,294 17.5 

Total all cities, 

5 days $2,360,686,539 $2,987,249,058 21.0 

All cities, 1 day 450,118,926 455,820,669 1.3 

(estimated.) 

Total all cities 

for week $2,810,805,465 $3,443,069,727 18.4 

RAILROAD EARNINGS. 

Railroad earnings are falling off very bad- 
ly. Although the " gross " figures below for 
December are only 4.37 per cent, behind 
those of a year before, the actual loss to the 
railroads in net income will be more than 
10 per cent, during December, since operat- 
ing expenses are eating up about 10 per cent, 
more of the gross earnings this year. 

Month of Per 

December, 1907. 1906. Decrease, cent. 

Gr's earn'gs, 

(50 roads). $67,856,800 $70,953,201 $3,096,401 4.37 

Even more depressing is the record for the 
first week of January. The first thirteen 
roads reporting earned 14 per cent, less than 
they did in the same period of 1907. The 
wise railroad management meets this slack- 
ening by cutting down expenses, laying off 
crews, and postponing improvements, until 
passengers and freight stir more actively. 



COMMERCIAL FAILURES. 

Commercial failures made 1907 a bad year, 
but there have been worse. Many more firms 
went under than during 1906, but not as 
many as in 1904, 1903, or in any one of the 
six years ending with 1898. The total 
amount of money lost, however, was less 
than in 1893 or 1906. Another cheerful fact 
is that the final sources of our wealth, — farm 
products, — are valued for 1907 at 10 per 
cent, more than in 1906. Most of the 1907 
trouble seems to have come from too much 
manufacturing; $106,000,000 was lost this 
way, as against only $45,000,000 during 
1906. 

COMMERCIAL FAILURES FOR FIFTEEN YEARS. 

Year. No. Liabilities. Average. 

1907 11,725 $197,385,225 $16,134 

1906 10,682 119,201,515 11,159 

1905 11,520 102,676,172 8,912 

1904 12,199 144,202,311 11,820 

1903 12,069 155,444,185 12,879 

1902 11,615 117,476,769 10,114 

1901 11,002 113,092,376 10,279 

1900 .•.,.10,774 138,495,673 12,854 

1899 9,.337 90,879,889 9,7.33 

1898 12,186 130,662,899 10,722 

1897 13,351 154,332,071 11,559 

1896 15,088 226,036,134 14,992 

1895 13,197 173,196,060 13,124 

1894 13,885 172,992,856 12,458 

1893 15,242 346,779,889 22,751 

STARTING THE WHEELS SLOWLY. 

Although at last business men are able to 
borrow the money they need to run their 
wheels of manufacturing and trade, they are 
not starting up with a rush. Bradstreet's of 
January 1 1 says that " Industry is, as a 
whole, on short time." 

On January 18, the reports to this jour- 
nal show *' improvement in collections. A 
survey of the entire situation, financial, com- 
mercial and industrial, indicates improvement 
along conservative lines, although it is prob- 
able that a relatively smaller volume of spring 
trade will be done." 

Many important cases are reported of re- 
sumption : the American Tin Plate Company 
mills at Newcastle, the Pittsburg Steel Com- 
pany plant at Glassport, a number of factories 
in Cincinnati, and some mills in Buffalo. In 
Chicago, the steel, wire, brass, wood, and 
leather working concerns generally have re- 
opened. 

These instances are significant. Collec- 
tions are better than in December. But, on 
the whole, '' jobbers report trade quiet, and 
merchants disposed to reduce stocks rather 
than anticipate requirements." 



THE NEW BOOKS. 

NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 



NEW VOLUMES OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

A new history of the United States and its 
people is projected by the Harpers. Five vol- 
umes of the twenty-six which will complete 
the enterprise have already been issued. The 
series is entitled " The American Nation : A 
History, from Original Materials by Associated 
Scholars." The editor of the series, Prof. Al- 
bert Bushnell Hart, declares in the introduction 
to the first volume that the work is to treat 
" the people combined into a political organiza- 
tion, with a national tradition, a national pur- 
pose, and a national character." Each volume 
is to be written by an expert for laymen, and 
to contain a portrait of some man especially 
eminent within the field covered. The titles of 
the volumes already issued will indicate the 
general viewpoint of the entire series. The 
first is " European Background of American 
History," and is written by Dr. Edward Potts 
Cheyney, of the chair of history in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. Professor Cheyney, as- 
suming that American civilization is a trans- 
planted growth, believes it necessary to a true 
understanding of our national history to con- 
sider Europeai;! conditions. " The Basis of 
American History" is the title of the second 
volume, by Dr. Livingston Farrand, professor 
of anthropology at Columbia. It consists of a 
review of the physical features of North Amer- 
ica as influencing the history of our people. 
Volume ni. is entitled " Spain in America," 
and is by Dr. Edward Gaylord Bourne (history, 
Yale). It includes not only an account of the 
discovery and exploration of our continent by 
the Spaniards, but a full consideration of the 
entire Spanish colonial system. Volume IV., 
" England in America," is by President Lyon 
Gardiner Tyler, of William and Mary College. 
It treats of the. early, formative period in our 
national history. Volume V. is by Dr. Charles 
McLean Andrews (history, Johns Hopkins), and 
is entitled " Colonial Self-Government." 

" The New Harmony Movement " is the some- 
what ambiguous title given to a volume by 
George B. Lockwood (Appletons). In the in- 
terest of clearness we can assure the reader that 
the work has no reference to any new move- 
ment in the direction of sociological harmony, 
but is entirely concerned with the history of 
two important communities which had their 
seat at the village of New Harmony, Ind. The 
first of these was the settlement of the Rap- 
pites, early in the nineteenth century, which 
after ten years gave place to the society founded 
by Robert Owen. Both of these were exceed- 
ingly interesting social and industrial experi- 
ments. In connection with the Owen commu- 
nity especially there were educational features 
of unusual interest. It is claimed for the New 
Harmony community that it was a pioneer in 
the establishment of infant schools, kinder- 



gartens, trade schools, and industrial schools as 
a part of the free public-school system. 

A noteworthy contribution to American 
scholarship has just appeared in the posthumous 
history of "The Mongols" (Little, Brown & 
Co.), by Jeremiah Curtin, with a sympathetic 
introduction by President Roosevelt. The late 
Jeremiah Curtain, one of the most remarkable 
of modern linguists and a deep student of 
Asiatic as well as eastern European history, de- 




THE LATE JEREMIAH CURTIN. 

voted a great portion of the last years of his 
life to a study of the origin, development, his- 
tory, and disappearance of the Mongols as a 
world power. He had just completed his work 
when death terminated his career. In the work 
just issued, which is one of two in which the sum 
of his studies on this subject will be published, he 
considers the campaigns and conquests of Jenghis 
Khan and his successors in China, Russia, Arabia, 
and Persia, bringing the narrative down to the 
first part of the fifteenth century. A second 
book, to be entitled " Russia Under the Mon- 
gols," will appear later. Besides his transla- 
tions of the great novels of Henrik Sienkiewicz, 
it will be remembered that Mr. Curtin was au- 
thor of a number of works with early historical, 
mythological, and folk-lore subjects, including: 
"The Myths and Folk-Lorc of Ireland," "Hero 
Talcs of Ireland," "Myths and Folk-Tales of 
the Russians, Western Slavs, and Magyars," 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



253 



" Creation Myths of Primitive America," and 
others. 

A new edition of Dr. Lewis H. Morgan's 
" Ancient Society " has been brought out in 
clear, readable type by Holt. _ ■ 

Apropos of the centennial anniversary of Ful- 
ton's successful application of steam to naviga- 
tion and also of the coming celebration of the 
tercentenary of Henry Hudson's discovery of 
the great river which bears his name, a little 
volume entitled " Old Steamboat Days on the 
Hudson River," by David Lear Buckman, has 




ROBERT FULTON. 
(First of the Hudson River steamboat men.) 

been issued by the Grafton Press, of New York. 
This volume is full of entertaining reminiscences 
and anecdotes relating to the development of 
steam navigation, with full descriptions of the 
various mechanical improvements that have been 
introduced in recent years. Although these im- 
provements have been noteworthy, it is some- 
what surprising to the reader who has never be- 
fore investigated the matter that boats of fifty 
years ago had records for speed that are only 
slightly surpassed by their successors of to-day. 
Steamboating in those days was a far more 
exciting calling than it is to-day, and the 150 
miles of river between New York and Albany 
had its full share of romance. 

A scholarly history of " The Navy of the 
American Revolution " has been prepared by 
Dr. Charles O. Paullin (Cleveland: The Bur- 
rows Brothers Company). In all other histories 
of our Revolutionary navy the narrative is prac- 
tically confined to the movements of the ships 
at sea and the details of the naval battles. In 
the present work the point of view adopted is 




GEN. 0. O. HOWARD. 

that of administration. It was truly a task 
worthy of modern historical scholarship to bring 
into our view the actual administrative machin- 
ery of the Revolutionary navy. To do this it 
was necessary to review and analyze the work 
of naval committees, secretaries of marine, navy 
boards, and naval agents. In this volume Dr. 
Paullin has narrated not only the history of the 
continental navy, but has included in the scope 
of his history the separate navies of the indi- 
vidual States. 

The autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, in 
two volumes (New York: The Baker & Taylor 
Company), contains, besides the personal expe- 
riences of Major-General Howard, a full ac- 
count of many of the most important military 
movements of the Civil War, together with nar- 
ratives of a number of Indian campaigns in the 
West. General Howard's personality has for 
many years been a familiar one in this country 
outside of military circles because of his wide 
and active interest in religious and philan- 
thropic movements. His autobiography em- 
braces much material bearing on these various 
lines of "endeavor. 

" The Life and Correspondence of James Me- 
Henry," by Dr. Bernard C. Steiner (Cleveland: 
The Burrows Brothers Company), gives the life 
record of a surgeon upon Washington's staff 
who in later years served as Secretary of War 
under both Washington and Adams. Dr. Mc- 
Henry was never characterized either by his con- 
temporaries or by more recent historians as one 
of the great men of the Revolutionary period, 
but he enjoyed an intimate personal acquaintance 
with Washington, Hamilton, Lafayette, and 



254 



WB AMEklCAN REyiEW OF RByiElVS, 



many other leading spirits of that era. His cor- 
respondence, most of which now sees the light 
for the first time, contains many important refer- 
ences to persons and events that have long since 
become historic. A striking feature of the book 
is its frontispiece, which is a reproduction ' in 
color of a miniature painting of George Wash- 
ington now owned by the heirs of Dr. McHenry. 
A biography of the second Napoleon, which 
has been properly entitled " The King of Rome," 
comes to us from the Knickerbocker Press. It 
is by Victor von Kubinyi, and is a historical 
study of the brief career and historic back- 
ground of the unfortunate child of the great 
Napoleon. The volume is made additionally in- 
teresting by a number of supplements, which in- 
clude a geneology of the house of Bonaparte, 
tracing the descent to the Hon. Charles J. Bona- 
parte, at present Attorney-General of the United 
States. A number of other portraits are added. 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. 

Principal Booker T. Washington, of Tuske- 
gee, has written an informing book on " The 
Negro in Business" (Chicago: Hertel, Jenkins 
& Co.). In his travels through the country Mr. 
Washington has become acquainted with many 
colored men and women engaged in various 
lines of business and illustrating in their careers 
the opportunities and possibilities open to that 
people in their various lines of endeavor. In 
this book he enumerates many of these instances 
for the purpose of encouraging other men and 
women of the race to win success in similar 
business channels. Some of the industrial com- 
munities organized by negroes in the South are 
described at length, and there is a helpful dis- 
cussion of the general subject of industrial edu- 
cation and of the negro's commercial and social 
relations with the South bearing directly on his 
business activity. 

Chancellor James Roscoe Day, of Syracuse 
University, in a volume entitled " The Raid on 
Prosperity" (Appletons), attempts a defense of 
the Standard Oil Company and other corpora- 
tions charged at the present time with unethical 
practices in their methods of conducting busi- 
ness. Chancellor Day believes that the Govern- 
ment at Washington has been guilty pf acts 
"unwarranted by. our Constitution and in their 
tendency destructive to our liberties and the 
progress of our commerce." " A lawmaking, 
court-controlling executive department, a gov- 
ernment by commissions, a personal construc- 
tion of the Constitution," he declares, " is not a 
republic." 

In the series of prize essays in economics 
which owes its existence to the generosity of 
Messrs. Hart, Schaffner, and Marx, of Chicago, 
one of the most timely monographs is that con- 
tributed by Dr. Albert N. Merritt on the subject 
of " Federal Regulation of Railway Rates " 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). Dr. Merritt be- 
lieves that federal control of rates is necessary 
in this country and presents a rational plan for 
such control. Another topic treated in this 
series is " Ship Subsidies." Mr. Walter T. Dun- 
more, instructor in the Western Reserve Law 
School, has investigated the policy of subsidiz- 
ing merchant marines. A good bibliography ac- 
companies Mr. Dunmorc's essay. 

In the "Citizen's Library" (Macmillan) a 



very useful handbook on " International Com- 
mercial Policies" has been compiled by Prof. 
George M. Fisk, of the University of Illinois. 
This volume covers the whole range of tariffs, 
customs, reciprocity, trade promotion, and navi- 
gation. The material is arranged upon a wholly 
new plan, which has special reference to the 
needs of the student and the general reader. 

MUSIC. 

Two recently issued histories of music ap- 
proach the subject from different view-points. 
The notes for a philosophical music left by the 
late John K. Paine (Harvard), bringing the sub- 
ject down to Schubert, have been collected and 
edited by Albert A. Howard and brought out in 
a volume (Ginn) entitled "The History of 
Music to the Death of Schubert." It is much to 
be regretted that Professor Paine did not live 
to carry out his scholarly idea of what a history 
of music should be. ^ Dr. Waldo Selden Pratt, 
who occupies the chair of music and hymnology 
in the Hartford Theological Seminary, on the 
other hand, has made his " History of Music " 
(C^. Schirmer, New York) a handbook and 
guide for students. It contains helpful illustra- 
tions, and is so arranged typographically as to 
make the information it contains very accessible. 

Three new numbers in the Musician's Library, 
being issued by Oliver Ditson, are " Twenty 
Piano Compositions by Franz Joseph Haydn, 
edited by Xaver Scharwenka ; " Wagner Lyrics 
for Baritone and Bass," edited by Carl Arm- 
bruster, and " The Piano Compositions of Jo- 
hann Sebastian Bach," in two volumes, edited 
by Ebenezer Prout. 

Two little descriptive and interpretive volumes 
on music of recent issue are " The Appreciation 
of Music," being a course of study for schools, 
colleges, and the general reader, edited (Novello) 
by Thomas Whitney Surette and Daniel Gregory 
Mason, and "Half-Hour Lessons in Music" (in 
the Music Student's Library, issued by Ditson), 
by Mrs. Hermann Kotzschmar. 

Volume III. of the " Music-Lover*s Calendar," 
edited by Henri J. van den Berg, comes to us 
from Breitkopf and Hartel. This number is 
pleasantly illustrated with portraits and other il- 
lustrations. 

A useful handbook for the opera and concert 
goer is Lawrence Oilman's " Stories of Sym- 
phonic Music" (Harper), offering in book form 
information which will conduce to the intelli- 
gent hearing of orchestral and other music. Mr. 
Filson Young, also, has prepared a suggestive 
volume of "The Wagner Stories" (McClure, 
Phillips), while Mr. S. H. Hamer has treated 
the same subject from a more strictly musical 
viewpoint in his little volume with colored illus- 
trations, "The Story of 'the Ring'" (Dodd, 
Mead). 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

The development of the work of reference to 
its highest form of usefulness is one of the char- 
acteristics of modern publishing. Many valu- 
able text-books of reference are appearing con- 
stantly from presses of this country and Europe. 
Among the less pretentious works of this kind, 
but eminently useful in their character, are two 
works of historical tabulation and a fine mono- 
graph on the commercial plants of the world. 
From Holt we have the "Atlas of European 



THE NEW BOOKS. 



^55 



History," compiled by Earle W. Dow, junior 
professor of history in the University of Michi- 
gan. This excellent work gives a history, — for 
the first time in English, we believe, — almost ex- 
clusively by maps and charts, of the different 
peoples of Europe. The most authoritative of 
the larger special atlases, Dr. Dow tells us, were 
consulted in the preparation cf this volume. A 
new edition of Mr. George Palmer Putnam's 
"Tabular Views of Universal History" (Put- 
nams) consists of a series of chronological tables 
presenting in parallel columns a record of the 
noteworthy events in the world's history from 
the earliest times down to 1907. The new edi- 
tion contains a number of important features, 
" The World's Commercial Products " is the 
title given to a handsome illustrated, descriptive 
account (391 pages in quarto) of the economic 
plants of the world and their commercial uses. 
The work is compiled by Mr. W. G. Freeman 
and Mr. S. E. Chandler, of the Imperial In- 
stitute, London, and brought out by Ginn & Co. 
The title would indicate that the world's com- 
mercial products of a mineral and animal na- 
ture will be treated in later volumes. 

The second volume of the Catholic Encyclo- 
pedia (New York: Robert Appleton & Co.), in- 
cluding articles in the first two letters of the 
alphabet, tends to confirm the impression as to 
the scholarship and conservatism of its editors 
made by the first volume. It is a valuable work 
of reference for all matters of Catholic doc- 
trine, discipline, and history, and although Pro- 
testants will be inclined to take issue with some 
of its statements of fact, there is slight ground 
for fault-finding with regard to the spirit in 
which matters of controversy are treated. The 
use of this work should tend to dissipate er- 
roneous opinions held by non-Catholics and to 
break down unwarranted prejudice. The work 
has a value not only for Catholics, but for the 
general reader of whatever religious belief. 

A useful work which is in some danger of 
being mistaken by the layman for a technical 
law treatise because of its sheep binding and 
legal title, "Commercial Precedents" (Hart- 
ford: American Publishing Company), is made 
up of the replies and decisions printed from 
time to time in the New York Journal of Com- 
merce and Commercial Bulletin under the editor- 
ship of Mr. Charles Putzel, of the New York 
bar, who is one of the tax commissioners for 
Greater New York. Mr. Putzel has accom- 
plished the difficult task of compiling a work on 
this subject which is applicable to conditions in 
all the States of the Union. It is an indispen- 
sable work of reference for every business man. 
Every-day law questions, such as could not from 
the nature of the case be conveniently submitted 
to an attorney, are here answered clearly, fully, 
and authoritatively. 

A new legal work of more than ordinary im- 
portance is " A Treatise on the Law of Natural- 
ization of the United States," by Frederick Van 
Dyne, American consul in Jamaica (Washing- 
ton: published by the author). Recent sweep- 
ing changes in our laws, which practically revo- 
lutionize the methods of naturalization and place 
the matter under the control of the central bu- 



reau in the Department of Commerce and Labor 
at Washington, have rendered necessary a work 
of this character. Mr. Van Dyne's treatise is 
strongly commended by Prof. John Bassett 
Moore, of Columbia University, and by other 
eminent law authorities. Mr. Van Dyne is the 
author of a work on " Citizenship of the United 
States " and an accepted authority on the sub- 
ject. 

BOOKS OF VARIED INTEREST. 

Two volumes of particular interest to students 
of biology are : " The Nature and Origin of 
Life" (A. S. Barnes & Co.), being a translation 
by Stoddard Dewey from the French of Prof. 
Felix le Dantec, who is a member of the faculty 
of the Sorbonne; and "Plant Breeding" (Open 
Court Publishing Company), being comments on 
the experiments of Nilsson and Burbank, by Dr. 
Hugo de Vries, professor of botany in the Uni- 
versity of Amsterdam. 

The result of the investigations in psychologi- 
cal research made by Europeon savants during 
the past decade has been summarized and 
graphically set forth by that poetic French as- 
tronomer, Camille Flammarion, in a large vol- 
ume entitled " Mysterious Psychic Forces " 
(Small, Maynard & Co.). A number of dia- 
grams and other illustrations supplement the 
text. 

A pleasantly told "literary journey" by Kath- 
arine Lee Bates (professor of English at Wel- 
lesley College) appears from the press of T. Y. 
Crowell & Co., under the title from " Gretna 
Green to Lands End." 

Three brochures recently issued by Susanna 
Cocroft are : " Ideals and Privileges of Woman," 
" Growth in Silence," and " Character as Ex- 
pressed in the Body." The last title gives the 
keynote to the three, which are styled the 
" Know Thyself " series. These brochures are 
published by the Physical Culture Extension So- 
ciety (Chicago). 

The really remarkable dramatic work of Ga- 
briel d'Annuhzio which created, a year or so 
ago, such a commotion in Italy, — " The Daughter 
of Jorio," — has been translated from the Italian 
by Charlotte Porter and brought out by Little, 
Brown & Co. It is a tragedy of the country of 
Abruzzi, that corner of Italy to which " ever 
clings an elemental savor of the savage blood of 
the ancient race." 

The poems of Robert Bruce, complete in three 
volumes, — under the titles " Leaves of Gold," 
" Wanderers," and " Scottish Poems," — ^have been 
brought out by the Bryant Union Company in 
New York. 

A collection of touching and impressive 
" Stories of Jewish Home Life," translated from 
the German by S. H. Mosenthal, has been 
brought out by the Jewish Publication Society. 

Mr. John L. Given's " Making a Newspaper " 
(Holt) is a detailed account of the business, 
editorial, reportorial, and manufacturing organi- 
zation of a large city daily. Mr. Given was re-, 
cently a member of the staff of the New York 
Evening Sun, and has run the gamut of all he 
tells us. Some anecdotes and actual experiences 
add to the interest of the volume. 



256 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiEWS, 
OTHER BOOKS RECEIVED. 



Abnormal Christians. By Charles Roads. Jennings 
& Graham. 

Alarcon's El Sombrero de Tres Pieos. Edited by 
Benjamin F. Bourland. Holt. 

American Jewish Year Book, 1907-1908. Jewish 
Publication Society. 

American Liberal Education. By Andrew F. West. 
Scribners. 

American Scene, The. By Henry James. Harpers. 

Andrew Jackson. By William G. Brown. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

Aristocracy of Health, The. By Mary F. Henderson. 
Harpers. 

Automobilist Abroad, The. By Francis Miltoun. L. 
C. Page & Co. 

Bible for Young People, The. Century. 

Black Trail of Anthracite, Ihe. By S. R. Smith, 
Kingston Pa. 

British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. By G. L. Beer. 
Macmillan. 

British State Telegraphs. By Hugo R. Meyer. Mac- 
millan. 

By- Ways of Virginia History. By R. H. Early. Ever- 
ett Waddey Company, Richmond, Va. 

Campaigning with Grant. By Gen. Horace Porter. 
Century. 

Captain Lettarblair. By Marguerite Merington. 
Bobbs-Merrill. 

Carrier Crisis, The. By Augustine Gallagher. F. J. 
Heer, Columbus, Ohio. 

Cathedral Cities of France. By Herbert Marshall. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Causes of the Panic of 1893. By W. Jett Lauck. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Chemistry of Commerce, The. By Robert K. Duncan. 
Harpers. 

Christianity and Modem Culture. By Charles G. 
Shaw. Jennings & Graham. 

Chronological and Alphabetical Record of the En- 
gagements of the Civil War. By Charles R. Coop- 
er. Caxton Press, Milwaukee. 

Confessions of a Monopolist, The. By Frederic C. 
Howe. Public Publishing Company, Chicago. 

Conflict and Victory. By William S. Cochrane. Jen- 
nings & Graham. 

Currency and Coin. By Richard B. Pullan, New 
York. 

Darwinism To-day. By Vernon L. Kellogg. Holt. 

Declaration of Independence, Its History. By John 
H. Hazelton. Dodd, Mead & Co. ~ 

Documentary History of Reconstruction. (2 vol- 
umes.) By Walter L. Fleming. Arthur H. Clark 
Company, Cleveland. 

English Patents of Monopoly. By William H. Price. 
Houghton, Mifflin. 

Englishwoman in the Philippines, An. By Mrs. 
Campbell Dauncey. Dutton. 

Enterprise and the Productive Process. By Freder- 
ick B. Hawley. Putnam. 

Factory Legislation in Pennsylvania. By J. Lynn 
Barnard. John C. Winston Co., Philadelphia. 

Familiar Letters of James Lowell. (2 volumes.) 
Houghton, Mifflin. 

Fitz Randolph Traditions. By L. V. F. Randolph. 
New Jersey Historical Society. 

Florence and Northern Tuscany. By Edward Hut- 
ton. Macmillan. 

Franklin Year Book, The. By Wallace Rice. A. C. 
McClurg & Co. 

French Syntax and Composition. By W. U. Vree- 
land and William Koren. Holt. 

Friendly Chat About Mind Reading, A. By Page A. 
Cochran, Essex Junction, Vt. 

From Poverty to Power. By James Allen. Science 
I'ress, Chicago. 

Gaining Health in the West. By George B. Price. 
Iluobsch. 

Gettysburg and Lincoln. By Henry S. Burrage. Put- 
nam. 

Handy Book of Card Games. By Belle M. Walker. 
Crowoll. 

Handy Book of Synonyms. Crowell. 

Ilerbart and Froobel : An Attempt at Synthesis. By 
Percival Richard Cole. Teachers' College, Colum- 
bia University. 

Heritage of Life, The. By James Buckham. Jen- 
nings & (Jraham. 

History of Ancient Civilization. By Charles Seigno- 
bos. Scribner, ^ 



History of Modern England. (Vol. V.) By Herbert 
Paul, Macmillan. 

Houses for Town or Country. By William Herbert. 
Duffield. 

Industrial Conflict, The. By Samuel G. Smith. Rev- 
ell. 

Industrial Education. By Harlow S. Person. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 

Introduction to the English Historians. By Charles 

A. Beard. Macmillan. 

Labor and Capital. By Goldwin Smith. Macmillan. 

Law : Its Origin, Growth and Function. By J. C. 
Carter. Putnam. 

Life of Chief Justice Ellis Lewis. By Burton A. 
Konkle. Campion & Co., Philadelphia. 

Limit of Wealth. By Alfred L. Hutchinson. Mac- 
millan. 

Lord Randolph Churchill. By Lord Rosebery, Har- 
pers. 

Maine's Ancient Law. (Fourth edition.) Holt. 

Many-Sided Roosevelt, The. By George W. Douglas. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Nature's Own Ga