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Full text of "Ryan Reporter"

AERONAUTICAL 






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Volume 31, Number 1 



Winter 1970 

^I^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Managing Editor 

Robert A. Weissinger / Staff Ptiotographer 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 




i. 

V 



Departments: 

Robert P. Battenfield / Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie / Aerospace Systems 






Firebee II: A Natural Evolution. ..Page 2 

Tomorrow's design in advanced, 

supersonic aerial target systems is 

here today, offering Navy-Air Force 

fighter pilots a new breed of challenge. 

Strength to Deter. .. Page 12-The 

nearest thing to actual, combat for 

General Agan's fighter-interceptor 

pilots is Firebee. It's still the best 

yardstick available in measuring 

combat readiness. 

We Build Better. . . Page 1 6 - Across the 

spectrum of manufacturing, Teledyne 

Ryan Aeronautical is maintaining its 

position of leadership, following a 

theme that underscores reliability. 

Down the Middle. . . Page 22 - Five 

landing radar systems have been 

placed on the moon. Two of them 

helped write a new page in history 

with visits to the moon by Apollo 1 1 

and 12 astronauts. 

A Reporter Interview. . . Page 26 - 

What is the position held today by 

Firebee, how did it get there and where 

do we go from here? Robert R. 

Schwanhausser is the authority. 

He tells it in interview style. 



National Defense By Bucket Brigade? 

...Inside Back Cover— Frank Guard 

Jameson warns of outdated 

philosophies related to military 

preparedness in the Decade 

of Challenge that lies ahead. 



COVER PHOTO — Now in production under Navy contract. 

Supersonic Firebee II is helping usher in a new decade of 

target technology at the U.S. Naval Missile Center, 

Pt. Mugu. Test version was suspended in action amid 

belching smoke as it left launch rail for flight 

over Pacific Missile Range. 



Symbolic of advanced technologies developed by Teledyne 

Ryan Aeronautical in manufacturing is flow solder 

operation, at right, in which circuit boards are immersed 

in solder bath by operator Sanford McNamara. 

Flow solder technique adds reliability, precision to 

product while reducing production time. 

Staff photo by Robert A. Weissinger 





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Pioneering KDA Firebee darts away 
from wing station of early-day Navy launch aircraft, 
an event that triggered 
continuing growth pattern for Firebee 
aerial target systems. 




By Charles H.Ogilvie 



'You can discuss theory and concept for a 
lifetime and never quite understand the 
requirements for action or behavior which 
they attempt to describe. But, just one 
rehearsal, or one encounter with reality can 
bring ideas to life and give them meaning." 
Rear Admiral James H. Smith, U.S. Navy 



To design engineers, it was a natural evolution; to 
operational target experts, its presence would add a 
totally new spectrum of capability in target require- 
ments; to young fighter pilots, it would offer a new, 
tougher challenge in the science of aviation warfare. 
To Rear Admiral James H. Smith, whose career 
paralleled the growth and development of naval aviation 
since 1939, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's Supersonic 
Firebee II is all these things and more. 

The tall, lanky flag officer, representing the Naval Air 
Systems Command at formal rollout ceremonies in 
March 1968, told his audience: 

"We have developed elaborate training programs to 
give our fighter pilots the advantage of knowing what 



suprises he might expect on the line of action. We have 
gone to great lengths to simulate reality in this training 
effort. 

"The development of a system like Firebee II is part 
and parcel of this training program," he noted. 

In the two years to follow, prototype, flight test and 
development versions of the Firebee II would endure the 
most gruelling torture test ever imposed on a jet-powered, 
remote-controlled, supersonic aerial target system. 

Out of each phase and into the next, Firebee II vindi- 
cated itself and the design engineering team that four 
years ago created the growth-version system. 

Today, in the wake of a "highly successful" test and 
evaluation program, Teledyne Ryan's production team is 
gearing up for delivery of operational Firebee II systems 
under a Naval Air System Command contract. Initial 
delivery of units is to begin in early 1971. 

Mission requirements for the operational Firebee II 
include a performance of Mach 1.1 at 50 feet alti- 
tude; Mach 1.8 at 40,000 feet; and Mach 1.5 
through 60,000 feet. It is to perform 5g maneuvers up to 
20,000 feet and 2 to 3g maneuvers at higher altitudes. It 
not only satisfies the supersonic requirements, but 
retains performance and equipment carrying capabilities 
of the subsonic, standard Firebee. 

The highly streamlined, sweptwing aircraft measures 
28.25 feet in length and has a 8.9 foot wingspan. Its 




B 



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Navy sideboys, bosun's call and brass band greeted rollout of 
Supersonic Firebee II in March 1968 in NMC Pt. Mugu. Developmental 
flight test and evaluation programs now concluded, Firebee II is 
in production at Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical in San Diego. 



fuselage measures 25 inches in diameter. Flight en- 
durance was designed into Firebee II for subsonic and 
supersonic missions through the incorporation of an 
external fuel tank. This jettisonable cell contains 400 
pounds of fuel, which powers the system through its 
subsonic mission. Its internal fuel cell, containing 263 
pounds, powers it on through its supersonic mission. 
In the course of two years, Firebee II has achieved 
32 developmental flight tests, with its first powered 
flight on January 2, 1968 and first supersonic flight on 
June 10, 1969. 

Designed for ground or air-launch, flight test versions 
have achieved ten consecutive successful ground 
launches and scores of air launches from Navy DP2E 
aircraft over the Pacific Missile Range. 

The system incorporates a two-stage, automatic para- 
chute recovery system in addition to a major share of 
equipment and ground handling support systems used 
by standard Firebees. 

Simply stated, Robert R. Schwanhausser, Teledyne 
Ryan Vice President, Aerospace Systems, calls Fire- 
bee II, "A true, supersonic configuration in every 
respect." He noted that his team of concept design and 
engineering experts had begun work on Firebee II in 
1965. The growth-version Firebee II followed 21 years 
of achievement in producing jet-powered, remote- 
controlled aerial target systems at Teledyne Ryan. 
Subsequent, record-shattering developments pro- 
duced a family of Firebees for the Army, Navy and Air 
Force which have matched and paralleled each succes- 
sive advance of military weapons. Used as a primary 
vehicle in weapons development, test and evaluation, 
Firebees also fill the role of simulated "enemy" aircraft 
in weapons training programs. 





NMC Pt. Mugu target experts Twain Lockhard (left) and Commander 
Leslie 0. Fortner head one of Navy's most uniquely qualified units. 
Target Department has been closely associated with Firebee II since 
its initial developmental flight test program. 



Flight test and evaluation phases of Firebee ll's devel- 
opment were conducted exclusively at the Naval 
Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, California, the center of all 
Navy efforts to develop and evaluate new missile 
weapons and target systems. 

At NMC, test and evaluation of the target system is 
considered just as important to the Navy as that of a 
weapons system. For this reason, research and develop- 
ment and test and evaluation is performed on target 
systems-from inception by the manufacturer and the 
Navy— until it isacceptedasanoperationaltargetsystem. 

Even then, Pt. Mugu's target team is solely responsible 
for production monitoring of such systems as long as 
they remain in the Navy inventory. The Target Programs 
Division manages this function under the Weapons 
Program Management Department. 

Head of the Target Department at NMC today is Com- 
mander Leslie 0. Fortner, a fighter pilot recently as- 
signed to target operations. His assistant, Twain Lock- 
hart, Associate Target Officer, has been associated with 
the NMC unit since 1958. 

This team of Navy target experts has made major con- 
tributions to the performance of Teledyne Ryan Fire- 
bee's family of systems, beginning with the early KDA 
series. It was the Target Department which helped 
develop the first wing pylon method of air launching 
Firebees into flight. Flotation, recovery and retrieval 
techniques were developed there and refined through 
the years. Air, ground and remotely-controlled launches 
from remotely-controlled surface craft at sea were 
essential steps forward in Firebee performance improve- 
ment accomplished at Pt. Mugu. 



Robert R. Schwanhausser, Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical Vice President, Aerospace 
Systems, terms Firebee II, "A true 
supersonic configuration in every respect." 



Air Force version of Supersonic 
Firebee II will incorporate Mid-Air 
Retrieval System as illustrated at left. 
Technique will reduce turn-around 
time and satisfy operational 
requirements more effectively. 



Increased Maneuverability Kits which give Firebee high 
"g" maneuvering performance, Radar Altitude Low 
Altitude Control Systems (RALACS) and a new forma- 
tion flight control system are but three of a broad range 
of performance improvements developed at NMC and 
other military installations. 

Against this background of military-contractor co- 
operation, Firebee II is recognized by an expert in both 
of these fields as, "The most significant achievement in 
Firebee target history!" 

William E. Grago, Director, Targets and Drones for 
Teledyne Ryan, recalls that standard, subsonic Firebees 
have provided military customers more than two decades 
of expanding applications. 

"Firebee II is a quantum improvement in the develop- 
ment of aerial targets. Unlike targets that can only be 
towed in a known direction at known speeds, or ballis- 
tic rockets launched and flown over a highly limited and 
short-lived trajectory, Firebee II is a realistic aircraft. 

"It matches aircraft against aircraft in the most 
realistic simulation of aerial combat short of an actual 
encounter with the enemy." 

Current development of the Navy's "air superiority 
fighter," the F-14, equipped with the new Phoenix weap- 
on system will demand a target that provides the maxi- 
mum challenge. 

Grago is satisfied that Firebee II can fill this role. 
Moreover, he believes Firebee II will be a mainstay in 
weapons development and associated technology well 
into the future. 

Air Force versions of the Navy Firebee II (BQM-34E) 
will be augmented for Mid-Air Retrieval, a technique in 
which helicopters literally snatch the target in mid-air 
for return to base. A flight test demonstration of the 
BQM-34F Air Force version will be conducted to evaluate 



the new target and establish mission profiles. These 
findings will be programmed intothecontinuingweapons 
systems evaluation programs of Air Defense and Tactical 
Air Command's world-wide operations. 

Even now, with initial production of Firebee II under- 
way at San Diego, Teledyne Ryan is peering into the 
future of potential application refinements. Using 
"building block" concepts in which performance im- 
provement is the desired objective, a growth version 
concept of the Firebee 1 1 has been established. 

At the outset, this growth-version system could 
achieve an improved performance envelope that enables 
the target system to reach Mach 2.5 at 75,000 feet. 

"Given the opportunity, we can fly a Firebee II target 
as high and as fast as any jet-powered fighter," states 
Schwanhausser, whose management of the performance 
improvement team at Teledyne Ryan is responsible for 
Firebee's growing legacy. 

It was two years ago that Admiral Smith commented 
in his acceptance talk, that Firebee II was a "part and 
parcel" of the Navy's training programs. He added to 
that statement a philosophy of a man made wise to 
combat tactics through personal experience: 

"Histories of combat in the world tell us infinitely 
varied accounts of men, learning under fire, the me- 
chanics of fighting and solving desperate problems on 
the spot. Some of our men are doing it today because 
there are always new things happening. 

"We have to our credit, a brilliant record of our Navy 
man in improvising solutions to problems, on the spot. 

"But, we should like to equip our men for every kind 
of encounter, not send him into battle with any lack of 
experience." 

It is in this stated desire and objective that Super- 
sonic Firebee II fits today as a natural evolution, -^s^ 



Air or ground launched, Firebee II 
incorporates major features of 
standard subsonic target system. In 
operation at left, supersonic 
Firebee II is launched into flight 
from wing station of Navy 
DP2E aircraft. 



To understand the complexities and 

relentless nature ot air-to-surface 

anti-submarine warfare, you ride on a 

mission in a vintage "Stooey"; then 

you talk with a man who helped develop 

the Navy's new S-3A. The author 

did both, then called his story 

The Hunter and the Hunted 



Wisps of fog cling to the edges of the runway at North 
Island Naval Air Station, Coronado, California. Stub- 
by "Stooey" — S-2E Tracker anti-submarine warfare 
(ASW) aircraft— sit waiting like short-bodied grass- 
hoppers, wings folded back, waiting to fly, to track, 
and to kill. 

Feeling slightly out of place, you match strides with 
Commander Ron Kennedy, skipper of VS-37, and 
Aviation ASW Operator Chief Bill Hickerson. At plane- 
side, you are greeted by Lieutenant Art Wittig, co-pilot. 
Kennedy has the slim good looks of a tennis pro. 
Hickerson could be a lightweight boxer. Wittig is more 
chunky, with a young brush of a red mustache. 

"The Russians deploy their spy ships, you know, for 
electronic intercept and to evaluate the U.S. radar de- 
fenses," Cdr. Kennedy is saying. "And they send their 
merchant freighters, their oceanographic ships, and 
their fishing fleets all over the world. 

"Russian bombers come out beyond their borders, 
but not too far, really. 

"The one thing they deploy that has an offensive 
capability as a weapon of war is their submarine fleet. 
It only makes common sense to know where your 
enemy is, where all potential dangers might be. 

"It's the most obvious reason for ASW. If there are 
missile-firing subs off your coastline, you locate and 
track them. If need be, you have the capability to 
destroy them." 




S-2E Tracker ASW aircraft are readied for launching from flight deck of 
carrier USS Yorktown in Tonkin Gulf. 



When you ask him what is the role of Doppler radar in 
Navy's new S-3A ASW aircraft, Bob Calvin takes a 
deep breath and thinks for a moment. 

He's a former Navy pilot, an engineer, and now a sales 
representative for Lockheed California Company, the 
division of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation that is build- 
ing the S-3A for the Naval Air Systems Command. 

Finally, he says, "An overriding problem in carrier- 
based ASW, from the operational standpoint, is the 
navigation problem. You have to know where you are 
in relationship to your sonobuoys and to your target. 
People get wrapped up in this business and lose sight of 
the primary mission of ASW, which is to get that torpedo 
in the water and to kill that enemy sub." 

Stick of chalk in hand, Calvin letters on his green- 
board as he continues. "The ASW mission is broken 
down into these elements: search, detect, classify, local- 
ize, and attack. Now, one of the most vital links in this 
has been navigation. We need an accurate, reliable, 
maintainable Doppler, especially in the tactical portion 
of the localization problem. 

'The reason we need Doppler is that Doppler GVS 
velocity relates to ocean surface motion, to which the 
sonobuoy is most closely correlated. Drift is random and 
is difficult to compute during an ASW mission. And 
Omega gives an accuracy of one nautical mile by day, 
two nautical miles by night. That can tell you in what part 
of the ocean you are. But you have to accurately know 
where your aircraft is in relation to the sensors you 
are using. 

"If I'm making a radar run at the target (target at 
snorkel depth, acquired by search radar), my Doppler- 
measured velocity determines when I'm going to get 
there. 

"If I'm utilizing acoustic sensors with a sonobuoy field 
in the water (target at submerged cruise depths, ac- 
quired by acoustic "pings"), the stabilizing influence 
during low-level tactical flight maneuvers will be my 
Doppler. The release of the torpedo is computer- 
controlled at the time the aircraft is over the sub. Input 
from the Teledyne Ryan Doppler will be essential to 
solve the equation." 



As you duck and crouch and pivot into the Number 4 
lOperator's seat in the aging "Stoof," you wonder 
what you were doing back in 1953 or 4 when this aircraft 
was built. Even in this S-2E version, built in 1965, you 
still have to crouch. 

"This is the Acoustic Monitor's seat," Chief Hicker- 
son says. "This is the four-channel gram, and this is 
the Julie explosive echo ranging equipment." He plugs 
your headset into the intercom system. "How do you 
read me?" You know you're supposed to say some- 
thing like "Loud and clear," or "Five-by," but you smile 
past the microphone clip that touches you lips and say, 
"Good." 

Cdr. Kennedy rolls the veteran Grumman plane 
down runway 18 and puts it in the sky. Point Loma light- 
house falls away to the right. Red channel buoys, a 
three-masted schooner, and a patch of kelp with stow- 
away seagulls — then you are 60 feet above the fog 
bank, cruising at 135 knots. 

"First we'll find a ship by radar," Kennedy's voice 
says. "What do you see. Chief?" Hickerson tunes in a 
Navy LSD that is a bright spot on the sweeping scope. 

Next it's a computerized game of cat-and-mouse. 
The skipper requests an "Exercise India" from "Star- 
buck 2," a facility of the Fleet Airborne Electronics 
Unit on San Clemente Island, 60 miles west of San 
Diego. He names his buoy frequencies, "drops" a 
pattern of three "Maypoles" as sonobuoys are called, 
and proceeds to "bomb" the Maypoles. In an actual 
ASW operation, small charges would be dropped next 
to each Maypole and the acoustic echo from the sub 
detected and recorded. 

Hickerson leans over to monitor the Julie display. 
"Double echo, " he reports. "Maypole Four, 2,000 
yards. Maypole Niner, 2,300 yards. Also a little inter- 
ference on that channel from a Tijuana taxi, Skipper." 




ASW training exercise employs submarine {lower left) and S-2E Tracker, 

which is making run on simulated enemy. Aircraft was flown fron USS Philippine 

Sea, a Pacific Fleet ASW carrier. 



Kill run is madeagainst "enemy" sub by Tracker launching dummy HVAR 
rockets in top photo, while pattern of smoke bombs are laid out by S-2E from 
USS Bennington below. 



Bob Calvin leans back in his chair. "I know it probably 
sounds trite, but the S-3 is truly an integrated weapons 
system. In the S-2 Tracker, the navigation worked to 
itself. In the S-3, navigation will be completely integrated 
through the computer. 

"Man's mind is not fast enough to absorb all the data 
necessary to solve ASW problems: gather, assimilate, in- 
terpret, and act. It's just too much data. So we have new 
sensor processing, and we have the Univac computer. 

"Without the Doppler radar, though, we could not 
do the problem." 

Apollo astronauts speeding on a collision course with 
the moon are similarly dependent upon Doppler and 
computer. Is that stretching the point? 

'The ocean is an awfully big body of water," Calvin re- 
plies. "The ocean is a different environment. You can't 
estimate distance very well, can't really judge altitude 
over water. You might judge wind velocity at the surface 
by watching for white-caps, but that doesn't tell you 
wind velocity at your flight altitude. You need the Dop- 
pler ground speed data, which gives you drift and air- 
plane velocities and is independent of wind or true air 
speed inputs. 

"So I'd guess the Doppler radar is more important in 
this application than others, except the moon landings." 



N; 



low, sitting in tlie co-pilot's right seat, you catch 

I sight of Maypole 20, a standard SSQ-41 Sonobuoy, 
bobbing red-orange and silver against the blue slate 
sea. White marking smoke curls away in the wind as 
Kennedy points the S-2E Tracker for a low pass. In 
your headset you can hear the whirring sound of the 
buoy's hydrophone uncoiling beneath the water. 

A few minutes later, a U.S. Navy LSD is sighted, 
underway, heading out across the Pacific. 

"Watch the MAD indicator," Ron Kennedy says, 
puffing on his Optimo Admiral cigar. "As we pass over 
the ship It'll be deflected. " 

MAD stands for "Magnetic Anomaly Detection." 
Shaped like a cotton-wrapped swab, a 16-foot-long 
MAD boom sticks out of the tail of the Stooey. The sys- 
tem is capable of detecting the presence of magnetic 
fields — metal ships-on and beneath the water. 

The needle swings. "Madman! Madman! Madman!" 



LINDENHURST, NEWYGRK 



CHART NO. 2310868897 




Detection graph displays magnetic attraction created by electronic device in S-2E 
as it passes over sub. Note broad strokes of stylus on graph, indicating detection. 




Smoke marker notes position of sonobuoy dropped by S-2E which now starts its run 
to detect location of "enemy", using Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system. 



10 



Lockheed's Bob Calvin is philosophizing. "The sub 
■ can't see us, and we can't see him. He's in a water en- 
vironment; we're in the air. He's doing 20 knots; we're 
doing 250 knots. The submarine, with its nuclear power 
plant and crew of about 100 men, costs about 20 times 
as much as the airplane and its four man crew. 

"There's probably a full commander in the sub, and 
a lieutenant junior grade in the aircraft. 

"Right now, the sub has the advantage. He has time 
on his side. He can hide for as long as a month. You 
have a matter of hours in the aircraft. 

"Our mission in design and development of the S-3A 
is to shift the advantage from the hunted to the hunter." 




Teledyne Ryan Engineer H. J. Malan checks out breadboard version of new Doppler 
radar navigation system developed for use by Navy's new S-3A anti-subnnarine 
warfare plane, scheduled to enter fleet in early 1970s. 



Lockheed's S-3A Is the Navy's first all-jet Anti-Submarine War- 
fare aircraft. Formerly designated the VSX, it is designed to re- 
place the Grumman S-2E Tracker in its carrier-based ASW role, 
and will enter the fleet in the early 1970's. 

Under a recently awarded contract, Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical will produce the S-3A Doppler Radar Ground Velocity 
Sensor System. 

Univac's 1832A General Purpose Digital Computer will be the 
heart of the weapons system. Teledyne Ryan's Doppler will 
make input to this equipment. 

Other navigation information will be furnished by inertia!, 
Omega, the sonobouy reference system, and TACAN among 
others. 

Teledyne Ryan's radar is a modification of the AN/APN-193 
Doppler Navigation Set. Improvements include automatic land- 
sea bias, a microwave stripline receiver, microelectronic pack- 
aging, and a 1,000-hour reliability. 

"The automatic land-sea bias acts to eliminate the difference 
in radar reflectivity when the sensor passes from land to water, 
or water to land," Carl Pozarowski, advanced Doppler project 
engineer, said. 

He added that the stripline receiver uses techniques similar 
to the manufacture of printed circuit boards; the receiver micro- 
wave network is made of copper plate etched on a teflon- 
impregnated board. Conventional radars use wave guide, the 
so-called "plumbing" made of tooled aluminum. 

The S-3A GVS Radar will also feature a solid state transmitter 
and a planar array antenna that will mount flush with the con- 
tour of the aircraft fuselage. 

S-3A Doppler Program Director is Philip Parker, who reports 
to Ray D. Fredsti, director. Navigation Systems, Electronic and 
Space Systems. 




11 



U. S. Air Force Photo 



Triple flight record was achieved by Firebees launched last year from Tyndall AF Base on their 38th flight 



1 




rm^. ^..^?T^ 





"Firing at Firebees 
is the most realistic 
testing environment 
possible for defense 
against potential enemy 
bombers or other 

aircraft," states 

General Agan. 




How good are this country's aerospace 
defense forces? Could they deter a 
hostile air attack against the United 
States or its allies? 

The man best qualified to answer 
these questions today is Lieutenant 
General Arthur C. Agan, charged with 
managing and maintaining such a force. 
Commander of the Aerospace De- 
fense Command (ADC), General Agan's 
awesome responsibility includes the 
detection, identification, interception 
and if necessary, destruction of any 
aerospace threat to the North American 
continent and worldwide deployment in 
support of allied forces. 
In supporting this mission, he is responsible to the Air Force for organiz- 
ing, training and management of aerospace defense forces which consti- 
tute more than 70 percent of the North American Air Defense Command 
(NORAD). 

"There are positive ways and means of testing and proving this country's 
aerospace defense capabilities," according to Agan. ADC units and Air 
National Guard fighter-interceptor crews go to the Air Defense Weapons 
Center at Tyndall AFB, near Panama City, Fla., once a year for weapons 
evaluation. 

The Air Defense Weapons Center was activated at Tyndall AFB January 
1, 1968, to provide a single area within the Department of Defense for the 
centralization of operational and technical expertise on air defense matters. 
From all corners of the United States, pilots converge at the Center 
"...to test the effectiveness and capability of our nation's aerospace de- 
fense weapons," says General Agan. 

Weapons systems testing, evaluation, and integrated testing tactics, 
development, training, and operational activities are conducted here. The 
Center also furnishes the expertise in weapons instruction for interceptor 
and ground environment systems. 

ADC and Air National Guard weapons systems are evaluated when fired 
at simulated enemy aircraft launched from the Weapons Center. The simu- 

13 



lated planes, named Firebees, are built by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 

"The radio controlled Firebees effectively simulate 'invader' aircraft 
and serve as tools for evaluating the effectiveness of ADC v/eapons re- 
sources," comments General Agan. 

ADC weapon resources to meet the air-breathing threat include the 
McDonnell F-IOIB VOODOO, Convair F-102 DELTA DAGGER, and Con- 
vair F-106 DELTA DART interceptors, plus BOMARC B unmanned surface- 
to-air interceptor missiles. The supersonic jet fighters are armed from an 
arsenal of air-to-air missiles and rockets ranging from the large, nuclear 
capable GENIE to the SIDEWINDER with its heat seeking guidance system 
and conventional explosive. 



F-102 Delta Dagger, flown by 

pilot of the 57th Fighter 

Interceptor Squadron, maintains 

vigil over coast of North 

America from its base at 

Keflavik, Iceland. 




"Firing at the Ryan Firebee is the most realistic testing environment 
possible for defense against potential enemy bombers and other aircraft," 
remarks General Agan. 

These fast, elusive, high-flying "bulls-eyes," fired from a ground launch, 
are used at Tyndall to evaluate the efficiency of air-to-air missiles and a 
pilot's firing skill. The targets fly at more than 600 miles per hour at 
50,000 feet for more than one hour. 

A huge overwater firing range embraces hundreds of square miles of 
open water, extending into the Gulf of Mexico. This makes it ideal for inter- 
ceptor weapons firing because the supersonic speeds of these jet aircraft 
and the range of their missiles require an ample safety margin to protect 
public property and shipping. 

A new flight record for remote controlled targets — and a savings for 
taxpayers — was achieved recently when three drones shot into the air 
from the Weapons Center. Each of the three Firebee jet-powered drones 
completed its 38th flight; the old record was 37. The average Firebee 
lasts 15 missions. 

Unusual survival rate of the three is attributed to a combination of 
expert maintenance, rapid recovery procedures, and flawless functioning 
of the drone destruction avoidance devices. 

The first record-breaking drone airborne from the launch site was nick- 
named "The Red Phantom" by pilots. This elusive little machine had been 
fired at 181 times while flying in the Air Force test range high over the 
Gulf of Mexico. The 2,100-pound drone had more than 31 hours of flight 
time when it began its 38th mission. 

From rocket-boosted launch to self-contained parachute recovery, a 
typical Firebee flight lasts about 50 minutes and includes six to eight 
firing attacks by ADC aircraft. 

As the Firebee enters the firing range, ground intercept control issues 
commands to the waiting pilots. Screaming through the air, the speeding 
jets move in for the search, intercept, and kill of the "invader." 

14 




ADC's F-101B Voodoo launches 
nuclear-capable Genie missile 
in practice intercept operation. 
Twin-place aircraft is capable 
of 1200 mph speed at altitudes 
of over 50,000 ft. 



Vectored into position, tiie fighter's pilot scans tlie radar and locks on 
the target. The pilot presses buttons and waits for the automatic firing as 
he closes range. 

In a stream of fire and smoke, a deadly missile is unleashed at the drone 
which is out of sight and pushing the speed of sound. 

As the package of destruction homes in, the target records the missile's 
range and transmits the data to a ground scoring station. 

The target's electronic scoring system permits the important weapons 
system evaluation. It accurately records the "hit or miss distance" of the 
fired missile and indicates the weapons system effectiveness in "killing" 
the target. 

Regardless of the final outcome of the mission — kill or miss— the pilot 
has benefited. The training received is stored with his wealth of experience, 
ready to go into action instantly upon the sound of the Klaxon that warns 
of an air attack. 

Once ADC and Guard pilots and the fighter-interceptors they fly com- 
plete their weapons evaluation at the Air Defense Weapons Center and 
return to their home base, they're better trained for the job of guarding 
America against an aerospace attack. They have been tested and have 
proven their aerospace defense capabilities. ^a^- 




Water recovery of Firebee 
target at Tyndall AFB is achieved 
through use of recovery boom 
situated on aft end of boat 
maintained by Air Force crew. 



^T\\ 



-TT- 







15 



"WE 

BUILD 



BEnER': . 



No idle boast, this three-word 
theme; it is a tradition at Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical, reinforced down 
through the years by demonstrated 
proof. Now, in this "Decade of 
Challenge", it offers response to 
product needs of the future. 




Production of today's advanced sys- 
tems often requires the use of new 
materials and techniques. This 
makes a flexible, creative approach to 
problems essential; standard or con- 
ventional methods can't always be 
counted on to yield practical solutions. 
As a company with many "firsts" to its 
credit, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical has 



developed a si<ill pool of engineering, 
laboratory and manufacturing special- 
ists who have accepted this philosophy 
as a way of life. 

Their sensitivity and response-their 
inventive approach to the customers' 
changing requirements-are as im- 
portant as their technical skills. 

This creative spirit has enabled Tele- 
dyne Ryan to produce some of the most 
advanced, high performance systems 
used by military and space agencies or 
projected fortheir use during the 1970s. 

Products include aircraft, Firebee jet 
engine components, parts for space- 
craft rocket engines, and electronic 
navigation and positioning equipment. 

Their manufacture calls for advanced 
machines, materials, techniques and 
processes, plus the exceptional skills 
of engineers, technicians and craftsmen. 

In metalworking, Teledyne Ryan uses 
major five-axis and four-spindle numeri- 
cal control contour mills and other NC 
machines. These are necessary to meet 
the exacting requirements in production 
of tooling and intricate, precision com- 
ponents for today's sophisticated aero- 
space systems. 

Machining equipment also includes a 
light-beam line tracer and other tracer 
machines; electrical discharge ma- 
chines; high accuracy, temperature- 
controlled jig borers; and numerous 
machines of the more conventional 
type. All these add up to establish an 
across-the-board capability to fill al- 
most any type of order in the industry. 

Teledyne Ryan-developed techniques 
have contributed to advancing the arts 
of metal joining and metal finishing. 
These include welding foil-gauge, exotic 
metals for missiles and space projects; 
magnesium dip-brazing delicate, pre- 

16 




^»— ..^^.^ j. 1.^ i . r 

II II 1 — I 



Broad diversity and flexibility in production 
capability is represented by soptiisticated 
landing radar system (above) used for 
Apollo lunar module landings on moon and 
(below) benchwelding operation. 





Intricate parts for Firebee are contoured on computer-oriented, 
five-axis numerical control machine. 



Ryan expertise includes machining titanium rocket engine 
cases for advanced space application. 



17 



"WE 

BUILD 



BETTER! 




Tfl 



ipp 



m 




From tiny, microelectronic assemblies (above) to large wing structures (below) the 
diversity of manufacturing capabilities has been established as a theme 
at Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 




cision parts to fashion computer-design- 
ed antenna arrays for the Apollo lunar 
landing radars; and surface finishing for 
thermal control of space system equip- 
ment. 

In building aerospace systems. Tele- 
dyne Ryan has wide experience in using 
reinforced plastic materials and ad- 
hesive bonding methods for aircraft 
and spacecraft components. These 
range from satellite solar panel sub- 
strates to wing and tail assemblies for 
the new supersonic Firebee jet target 
aircraft. 

Typical new techniques in electronics 
production include semi-automatic pro- 
grammed assembly of circuit board 
components and a Teledyne Ryan-de- 
veloped automatic inspection device 
(AID). 

Production Versatility 

Manufacturing versatility, long a hall- 
mark of Teledyne Ryan shops and pro- 
duction lines, is emphasized even more 
strongly today. It reflects the advanced, 
highly specialized and diverse require- 
ments of the Air Force, Army, Navy, 
National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration (NASA), and other custo- 
mers in the aeronautical, space and 
electronics industries. 

Versatility is evident in the wide range 
of production capabilities-from micro- 
electronics to high-bay aircraft and mis- 
sile facilities; from custom job shop 
work to large production runs; from 
manufacture of systems for space ex- 
ploration to aeronautical, earth and 
marine applications. 

Teledyne Ryan's multi-capability 
plants, facilities and operations-add up 
to approximately 1,400,000 square feet 
of floor space. 



Scope of Manufacturing 



Diversified production capabilities are 
conveniently grouped into three func- 
tional areas. 

• Airframe Structures and Metal Com- 
ponents. Capabilities include sheet- 
metal forming, machining, chemical 
milling, electrical discharge machin- 
ing, welding, dip brazing, furnace braz- 
ing, heat treating, and tooling. 

• Bonded and Reinforced Structures. 
In addition to non-metallics and ad- 
hesive bonding shops, these include 
primary aircraft structures, advanced 
composite structures, and the use of 
non-metallics in tooling. 

• Electronic and Space Systems. Facili- 
ties and skills in this functional area 
include volume manufacturing and 
specialty shops, printed circuit boards, 
microelectronics, and magnetics 
manufacturing. 



Quick Response Capability 

Versatility and flexibility are reflected in 
Teledyne Ryan's reputation as a quick 
response company- in the ability to 
react rapidly to urgent production or 
service needs of the customer. Fast 
reaction is also necessary to meet re- 
quirements for new processes or ma- 
terials for manufacturing advanced 
systems and equipments. 

Management techniques have been 
developed to organize selected engi- 
neering and production personnel into 
highly effective teams. Their task is to 
handle urgent problems and special 
customer requirements in the least 
possible time. 

The quick response capability applies 




Firebee customers get quick response to field generated requirements for 
ground support equipment. 

19 



"WE 

BUIID 



mw:.. 




Manufacturing precision, as illustrated above, has become a byword at Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 

20 



not only to basic products, but also to 
support equipment. Teledyne Ryan is 
geared for immediate response to field- 
generated requirements for GSE 
(ground support equipment) construc- 
tion and modification. A quick reaction 
manufacturing group fills the military 
customers' needs rapidly and efficiently. 

Support Functions 

Supporting production are up-to-date 
materials and process laboratories. 
They establish newly developed manu- 
facturing processes and lend technical 
assistance in resolving pilot-production 
stage problems. 

Engineering support includes value 
engineering; its principles are well 
understood and practiced in all ap- 
plicable areas- product design, design 
review, development of new materials 
and processes procurement, tooling, 
manufacturing engineering, and in- 
dustrial engineering. 

Production visibility is made possible 
by a computer-oriented, automated data 
collection system. This enables produc- 
tion and quality assurance personnel to 
know constantly the location and status 
of in-work parts. The system is currently 
being expanded to encompass the col- 
lection of manufacturing cost data. 

Test Equipment, Calibration and Control 

Quick response is one of the most valu- 
able attributes of the test equipment en- 
gineering department, which works in 
close conjunction with test equipment 
calibration and control. Both depart- 
ments are well staffed and equipped, in 
keeping with the importance of their 
operations. 

Test Equipment Engineering: The 
versatile test equipment engineering de- 
partment consists of engineering devel- 




In-house product test equipment is used 
for tests that assure manufacturing 
acceptance levels of system performance. 




21 



opment, product design, planning, and 
test laboratory groups. The department 
supplies in-the-house test equipment to 
accomplish manufacturing acceptance 
tests on the many and varied electronic 
and aerospace products produced by 
Teledyne Ryan. 

The department is highly proficient in 
developing compact, simplified equip- 
ments for testing complex electronic 
modules, units and systems, in addition 
to various other equipment complexes. 
These include engine test cells, hy- 
draulic/pneumatic test stations, and 
integrated systems test stations for 
special-purpose aircraft. 

Quick response and/or turn-around 
capabilities for installing and modifying 
test stations are primarily due to the de- 
partment's unique charter. The organiz- 
ation functions as an entity within itself 
in terms of planning, purchasing, and 
manufacturing equipments of its own 
design. 

Calibration and Control: Test equip- 
ment calibration and control is a highly 
functional department consisting of 
calibration/repair and reference stand- 
ards laboratories. Prescribed accuracy 
and measurement capability of test 
equipment used for engineering de- 
velopment, process control, and manu- 
facturing acceptance tests are main- 
tained by a scheduled calibration and 
maintenance program. Calibration is 
based against measurement standards 
whose accuracy is traceable to the 
National Bureau of Standards. 

The department's control center 
serves all facilities in inventory control 
for both Teledyne Ryan and customer- 
owned test equipment. Service includes 
inter-facility loans of equipment to fill 
engineering and manufacturing re- 
quirements. ^^ 




To the magnificence of Apollo 11 and man's first visit 
to the moon was added yet another measure of manned 
achievement in the "Soaring Sixties ". Apollo 12's lunar 
visit, assisted byTeledyne Ryan Aeronautical's landing 
radar system, brought astronauts Conrad and Bean... 

\)OW/V 

THE 

MIDDLE 



rj#i^ 



--!*... 





ley, there it is. 
There it is! Son of a gun, right down the middle of the 
road... It's targeted for the center of the crater! 

"I can't believe it! Amazing! Fantastic!" 

Bubbling over with enthusiasm, Apollo 12 Commander 
Charles "Pete" Conrad thrilled his Earth-bound listeners 
with his description of the pin-point accuracy of the 
targeting of his Intrepid LM, which soft-landed on the 
moon November 19, 1969, within 600 feet of the brown- 
baked Surveyor 3 spacecraft. It was the second manned 
landing on the moon. 

Furnishing Conrad and his LM Pilot Alan Bean with 
precise readings of their spacecraft's speed and altitude 
during the final minutes of their descent was the Tele- 
dyne Ryan landing radar. 

Successfully landing near Surveyor 3 was a particular 
delight to the men and women of the Electronic and 




Remarkable similarity between artist's concept of Apollo 12 landing 
site and what actually happened can be seen in this comparison. Tele- 
dyne Ryan Illustrator Robert Watts created the painting (above) two 
months before the mission from study of Surveyor 3 photos. Apollo 12 
Commander Conrad guided his LM over Surveyor crater to set down. 



23 




Pad A, Launch Complex 39 at Kennedy Space Center: the Apollo 12 
Saturn rocket waits (bathed in floodlights) for launch Nov. 14, 1969. 



Space Systems Group who have worked on the design, 
manufacture and test of radar landing systems for both 
the Surveyor and Apollo Lunar Module programs. It was 
a symbolic linking of a technology unique in the U.S. 
space program, since no other manufacturer had equip- 
ment on both spacecraft. 

Landing radar performance was superior even to that 
of Apollo 1 1, the first manned moon landing. 

For reasons still under study, all four radar beams 
locked-on at 41,300 feet true altitude. The most forward- 
looking velocity sensor beam (Beam 3) acquired a good 
return signal from the moon at a slant range distance 
of more than 100,000 feet. System performance speci- 
fication is 40,000 feet. High radar reflectivity of the sur- 
face appears to be the main cause for early lock-on. 

Greatest previous range measurement was 82,600 
feet-acquired as Apollo lO's Snoopy Lunar Module 
approached the moon last May. 

Early lock-on of Beam 3 provided the astronauts and 
their guidance computers with moon-referenced data on 
both altitude and velocity from 41,300 feet to the touch- 
down. Velocity acquisition was scheduled for 28,300 feet, 
while altitude acquisition was marked at 41,500 feet. 

LM Pilot Bean, on his first flight in space, read off alti- 
tude and descent rate numbers to Conrad during the 
descent. Following is a portion of the dialogue. 

CAPCOM (Capsule Communicator): Intrepid, Houston. 
Go for landing. 

Bean: Okay, Roger, go. 

Conrad: Fantastic! I can't believe it. 



Bean: You are at 2,000 feet. 

Conrad: How far? 

Bean: You boys on the ground do okay! 1800 feet up. 
39 degrees (pitch angle). You got 94 seconds of LPD 
(landing point designator) time left. 

Conrad: Okay, I'll move forward a little bit. 

Bean: Thirty-eight degrees. ..36 degrees. You're 1200 
feet, Pete... 1000 feet, coming down at 30 (feet per 
second). You're looking good. 

Conrad: Got 14 percent fuel. Looks good out there, 
babe, looks good! 

Sean; Thirty-two degrees. ..800 feet. ..33 degrees. You're 
at 680 feet, 33 degrees. Six hundred feet. Antenna's 
okay. 

Conrad: Okay. 

Bean: Thirty-five degrees. ..530 feet, Pete. ..471. ..all 
right, 426. 

Conrad: I got it. 

Bean: Four hundred. ..You're at 366, Pete. 

Conrad: Right. 

Sean; 366. ..okay. 

Conrad: I got to get over 300 (feet) to the right. 

Bean: You're at 330 feet, coming down at 4, 1 1 percent 
...Got loads of gas. Three hundred feet, coming down at 5. 

Conrad: Oh, look at that crater, right where it is sup- 
posed to be! You're beautiful! 

Bean: Ten percent. ..257 feet, coming down at 5. ..240, 
coming down at 5. Hey, you are really maneuvering 
around! 

Conrad; Yeah! 

Bean: Come on down, Pete. 

Conrad: Okay. 

Bean: Ten percent fuel. ..200 feet, coming down at 3. 
You can come on down. 

Conrad: Okay. 

Bean: 190 feet. Come on down... 180 feet, 9 percent. 
You're looking good! Gonna get some dust before long 
... 130 feet, 124 feet, Pete. One hundred twenty feet com- 
ing down in 6. Got 9 percent, 8 percent. You're looking 
okay. ..96 feet, coming down in 6. Slow down your de- 
scent rate! Eighty feet coming down in 4. You're looking 
good. Seventy feet, looking real good. Sixty-three feet. 




On the surface of the moon, Conrad and Bean snapped photos of each 
other while collecting surface soil samples. They spent more than 32 
hours on the surface, nearly seven hours in extra-vehicular activity. 



24 




Toothsome threesome, the crew of Apollo 12 pose on the stairs to a 
mission simulator prior to the mission. Charles "Pete" Conrad, com- 
mander. Is at front, followed by Command Module Pilot Dick Gordon 
and Lunar Module Pilot Alan Bean. After the landing, Conrad praised 
his simulator experience and his navigation instruments, saying "that 
was an IFR landing" because of dust kicked up by the LM engine. 

60 feet, coming down in 3. Fifty feet, coming down. Watch 
for the dust! About 46, low level. Forty-two feet. Coming 
down in 3. Coming down in 2. Okay, start the clock. Forty- 
two feet, coming down in 2. Forty, coming down in 2. 
Looking good, watch the dust. ..31, 32, 30 feet. Coming 
down in 2. Pete, you got plenty of gas, plenty of gas, babe! 
Stay in there! 

CAPCOM: Thirty seconds. 

Bean: Eighteen feet, coming down in 2. He's got it 
made! Come on in there. Twenty-four feet. ..Contact light! 

CAPCOM: Roger, copy contact. 

Bean: Got probe? 

Conrad: Yes, probe. 

Bean: Okay, ignition on, off. I cycled these valves. You 
got yours finished? 



Conrad: Yep. 

Sean; Okeydokey... 

Conrad: Man, oh, man, Houston! I'll tell you, I think 
we're in a place a lot dustier than Neil's (Tranquility 
Base). Good thing we had a simulator, because that was 
an IFR landing. 

CAPCOM: Roger, Pete. 

Conrad: Hey, we flew right by the (Surveyor) crater, 
Houston! Boy, this ground looks neat out here! We're not 
going to have any trouble going back there. 

CAPCOM: Where did you put it down, Pete? Over on 
Site 4? 

Conrad: No, sir. About half way between Site 4 and Site 
3. I flew by the right side of the crater and then had to 
fly over to the left and land. We're in good shape! 

CAPCOM: Roger. 

Conrad: You guys did an outstanding job (of targeting). 
I'll tell you, that thing was right down the middle! 

CAPCOM: We're glad to hear that, Pete. 



Apollo 13 Ahead 

Lunar highland formations in an area known as 
Fra Mauro may yield information about the moon's 
core. 

West of the moon's center as seen from Earth, the 
hilly formation is blanketed with ejecta from two 
large moon features, the massive Imbrium basin to 
the north and the huge Crater Copernicus-big 
enough for four Grand Canyons — to the northwest. 
Much of this ejecta is thought to contain subsurface 
material blasted up from beneath the moon's crust 
by the enormous meteor that created Copernicus. 

At the controls of the Apollo 13 moon lander will 
be Commander James A. Lovell, veteran of two 
Gemini flights and of Apollo 8, and LM Pilot Fred 
W. Haise, a former NASA test pilot who served in 
the Marines, the Air Force, and the Air National 
Guard. They will fly Grumman Lunar Module 7. 

Apollo 13's crew spent an extra day in orbitaround 
the moon photographing Fra Mauro and other po- 
tential sites for future landings. 





Conrad prepares "atomic battery" unit, SNAP-27, for deployment 
on lunar surface. Teledyne Ryan landing radar antenna assembly 
can be seen on the underside of the descent stage, behind the 
striped ribbons that extend from the stage to the SNAP-27. 



Chief of Astronauts Col. Thomas P. Stafford visited Teledyne Ryan's Electronic 
and Space Systems facility, praising the engineering and manufacturing team 
for their work leading to the "flawless performance" of the LM landing radar 
and to Apollo mission success. Stafford was commander of Apollo 10. 

25 



rapirtBP 

^INTERVIEW. 




Robert R. Schwanhausser, 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 
Vice President, 
Aerospace Systems, 
glimpses the past and 
projects into the future 
of the family of Firebee 
aerial target systems. 

by Jack G. Broward 



Q. Remote control flight capabilities have advanced 
over the past tw/o decades into a highly sophisticated 
state-of-the-art, accompanied by equally sophisti- 
cated flight hardware. Where is this technological 
advance leading? 

A. Obviously, as state-of-the-art in remote control flight 
advances, more realistic simulation over a broader 
sprectrum of flight maneuvers is fDOssible. As tech- 
nological advances continue, Firebees v/ill also con- 
tinue to advance as the most realistic target available 
for our next generation aircraft and weapons systems. 

Q. Teledyne Ryan engineers have developed flight 
reliability in Firebee systems to the point that there is 
a hazard of inventories outlasting expenditures. If 
this should happen, do you anticipate a slowdown in 
production requirements? 

A. Not necessarily, l^ission reliability certainly influ- 
ences the life cycle of our Firebees and inventories to 
some extent. On the other hand, flight reliability is 
also the base on which we are able to develop and 
produce broader refinements into the systems. For 
instance, our low-level and Improved t\/laneuverabiHty 
Kits can now be studied as platforms for extensions 
and even more refined developments. Remember, we 
started this business 24 years ago with a very primi- 
tive guided missile. Using building block techniques, 
we progressed on through an entire spectrum of tech- 
nical advance. Frankly, it is our belief that the surface 
of target technology has only been scratched. 

Q. With production models of Firebee II ordered up by 
the Navy what utilization will standard subsonic 
Firebees get? 

A. First of all, understand that the Supersonic Firebee II 
was designed and developed as a simulation of the 
supersonic enemy threat. It has a specific mission 
capability. And even though Firebee II does possess 
dual mission capabilities, either in subsonic or super- 
sonic modes, its primary mission is in the supersonic 
profile. Standard BQI\/I-34A systems will continue to 
serve in their design mission, primarily as a subsonic 
enemy stand-in. Increasingly, we have been able to 
modify and broaden the standard Firebee mission 
profile. 

Q. How will Air Force versions of the Firebee II differ 
from those ordered by the Navy? 

A. Insofar as basic aerodynamics and flight systems are 
concerned, not very much. The Air Force has its own 
mission specifics apart from Navy versions, however. 
The avionic packages, telemetry, scoring systems 
and recovery techniques will be represented in Air 
Force versions of the Firebee II according to as- 
signed mission profiles, of course. I'm proud of the 
design-engineering effort represented in Firebee II, 
in that it possesses a great deal of flexibility for multi- 
mission configurations. Beyond this, there's still 
room to grow. 

Q. The Navy has given broader definition to the Soviet 
Styx missile threat in terms of exercise programs. 
Can Firebee simulate this threat? 

A. Yes, as a matter of fact. The Navy people at Pt. I^ugu 
and Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range have both used 
water-launched Firebees to simulate anti-ship missile 
attacks. Firebee, like the Styx missile system, is 



26 



Field mobility in Firebee op- 
erations was demonstrated 
in USARSO Annual Service 
Practice firings of Hawk 
units based at Panama 
Canal Zone. Firebee teams 
are now supporting ASP 
operations for Army in 
Southeast Asia. 





Firebee-Towbee systems 
like one above and at right 
helped Army establish new 
records at Dona Ana range 
facilities last year, perform- 
ing new levels of flight reli- 
ability and customer service. 




27 



Supersonic Firebee II In air-launch mode is in early stages of 

production under Navy contract. Growth-version target system 

will also be made available to the Air Force. 

guided to a destination. Both are subsonic. Like 
Styx, Firebees can be water launctied from a boat 
platform not unlike the Komar torpedo boat. I look 
to increased use of Firebees profiled to simulate the 
Styx threat in the year to come. 

I. Your Firebee field service support teams at Tyndall 
Air Force Base and Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 
facilities have both enjoyed long term assignments. 
What do you envision in the immediate years ahead 
that would enhance this service support? 

,. As in all instances of first-line support teams, it is my 
belief that the greatest service can be provided by 
those who truly understand problems, react efficiently 
and move ahead with the times. This is probably why 
our teams have enjoyed long term relationships with 
the activities and commands you mention. I expect 
any changes at all will be reflected in continued, but 
reinforced, services that have been performed in the 
past. 

!. Firebees using Towbee target systems established 
all-time flight and reliability records on the Army's 
Dona Ana-McGregor ranges in the final months of 
last year. How/ do you evaluate this support effort? 

. This is the source of our greatest satisfaction. And, 
we've been able to not only do it for the Army at the 
Dona Ana-McGregor facility but we're also providing 
field mobility services for USARPAC (gf^f Okin^^ 
in support of annual service practice firings. But, let 
me say that records are made to be broken and, as 
new weapons systems come into use, we'll be faced 
with new challenges in our support role. It helps a 
great deal to know that we've set records in the past 
and that we have the capability for giving all-out, 
record service in the future. 

'. While Firebees are used almost exclusively by U.S. 
armed services, it seems logical that other allied 
nations could employ Firebees as well. What are the 
prospects for this in the immediate future? 

. We've already sold Japan a number of Firebee sys- 
tems for initial use in ship-launch operations. As you 
know, Japan has a ship in operation today that was 
designed and built exclusively for target support 
operations. We're also very hopeful of supporting 
target operations on the Crete range. We're very 
favorably impressed with this facility and view it as a 
tailor-made environment for Firebee uses. 

!. Your Firebee field support teams have been operat- 
ing as a prime support team at Wallace Air Station in 
the Philippines for more than a year. Have you been 
able to measure the effectiveness of this operation? 

. If one used pure support services as a yardstick, we'd 
have to measure the effectiveness in miles. lA'eVe not 
only provided the basic support objectives, but our 
customer regularly includes Navy services on the 
Wallace range. We're delighted with the performance 
of our team there and its resulting effectiveness to the 
total mission. ^S^ 

Tactical Air Force units based in Southeast Asia conduct weapons 
firings against Firebees launched from Wallace Air Station in the 

Philippine Islands. 






^^^^'''^^^^^^rJfm 



28 



NATIONAL DEFENSE BY BUCKET BRIGADE? 

.Or, should we introduce a realistic, long range program of national defense 
that incorporates total environment capabilities. 



National momentum toward an era of resolution 
and transformation seems to already have been 
generated in this dawn of a new decade. Time 
tables and strategy are being drawn up for resolv- 
ing the spectrum of social-economic, political and 
industrial troubles that accompanied the "Soar- 
ing Sixties." 

Overshadowing the ambitious goals ahead, how- 
ever, is the attainment of an honorable, enduring 
peace in Vietnam, one that will free our U.S. fight- 
ing men and return them home. 

As this goal is realized, the nation must establish 
and maintain realistic military strengths and cap- 
abilities to deter or counter aggression. Our recent 
history proves that we too often responded to these 
needs instead of planning for them before the 
needs occurred. 

This "bucket brigade" action was clearly indi- 
cated in South Korea. Ground troops were under 
strength for combat, logistic supply and transporta- 
tion capabilities were inadequate, our fighter pilots 
went up against superior, Russian built MIG jets, 
with post-World War II aircraft. 

Resourcefulness, productivity and ingenuity, 
qualities that best characterize America, finally 
turned the tide. Commercial airliners plugged the 
gap in our transporation needs, merchant shipping 
formed the links in our supply chain. And, in time, 
the superiority of enemy fighter aircraft was met 
and surpassed. 

Passing buckets of water, hand-to-hand, to quell 
this military fire, was a costly, tragic loss in terms 
of life and material. 

As we begin shaping our national policies which 
will guide us through the decade ahead, we must 
end this "bucket brigade" philosophy. 

Replacing quantity with quality, the U.S. Navy 
today is already shaping its posture for the future. 

The aircraft carrier Nimitz will be nuclear- 
powered and increased use of nuclear propulsion 
in the 1970s is anticipated. Its reduction in numbers 
of ships will lead to a "qualitative Navy," matching 
capabilities with all known threats in the future. 

Included in this preparation is design-develop- 
ment of the Navy F-14 fighter and S-3A anti- 
submarine warfare aircraft, the first all-jet powered, 
hunter-killer in the U.S. Navy. 

The Air Force, meanwhile, has announced award 
of F-15 aircraft development-production, as an 
"air superiority fighter." 

The leaders of our national defense forces are, 
indeed, aware of past history and are busily en- 
gaged in correcting deficiencies. They are well ad- 
vised in doing so, of course. 

Russia has outstripped the United States in 
development of advanced fighter aircraft, produc- 
ing nine individual models while we have produced 
one. In terms of maritime strength, the USSR has 
propelled itself into world leadership and its naval 
seapower is constantly reaching out into bodies of 
water that until five years ago were devoid of Rus- 
sian naval vessels. 

Make no mistakes about the evidence. Russia's 
intent in developing its navy, expanding its mari- 
time and shipping operations and refining its air 
force is abundantly clear. 



The decade ahead will witness the resolution to 
many domestic problems. President Nixon has al- 
ready defined the course we must seek in areas of 
environmental pollution. Social, economic, polit- 
ical, industrial — the myriad assembly of troubles to 
be resolved lie ahead as challenges in the 1970s. 

National defense is also there. And without a 
strong posture of national defense with which to 
deal with foreign policy, the rewards of solving our 
domestic ills are anticlimatic. 

Congressman John J. Rhodes assessed the 1970s 
and the needs for a strong national defense by 
stating: 

"Our defense programs in the 1970s will be 
heavily influenced by what people believe in two 
important areas. First, by what people believe as to 
the principal threats and needs of our country. 
And second, by what people believe as to the per- 
formance of the Defense Industrial team. 

"By people — I mean just that — people every- 
where, including of course, the 535 people who 
must cast their votes on Capitol Hill. 

"How anyone can feel that the long-run benefit 
of the rich or poor American can be served by na- 
tional weakness in the face of aggression is utterly 
beyond me." 

The assessment by Cong. Rhodes is based on his 
study of the defense posture of the United States 
today, compared with that of Soviet Russia. 

Amplification of his concern is expressed in a 
statement made by former Secretary of State Dean 
Acheson in a recent address: 

"This nation has repeatedly neglected to provide 
a military basis to match its (foreign) policy or to 
cope with aggressive forces. 

"We tried unilateral arms reduction in the period 
between World Wars I and II. We got Pearl Harbor. 
We reverted to habit after World War II. We got the 
Korean War. 

"I doubt emphatically that some great transfor- 
mation of relations with the Soviet Union is going 
to take place." 

These reflections serve as a backdrop as we 
enter into this new decade of challenge. If the peri- 
od ahead is to be truly an era of resolution, we must 
firmly resolve to initiate programs of long term and 
realistic goals related to national defense. One of 
the first such goals must be to end our "bucket 
brigade" philosophy. 



FRANK GARD JAMESON 
President, 
Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical 




Please send address changes to: 


US. ROBERT B. JOIIIJSTOH 


TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 


333 LOaBARD 


P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 


PACIFIC PALISADES, CAL 



Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



90272 



BULK RATE 
U. S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No. 437 




is the target for tomorrow — Fir:4fe,ie;0 II — a superior breed of aerial target. Not a one- 
shot rocket, it's a supersonic^ pil'otless jet aircraft which maneuvers and performs to 
challenge even the new F-14 and F-15 fighter interceptors. Now in production, Firebee II 
hurls its supersonic threat from tree-top level to 60,000 feet and keeps coming back for 
more. Other examples of Ryan's Reach — an advance Doppler radar for the Lockheed/ 
Navy S-3A subhunter and moon-landing radar for both the Surveyor and Apollo space- 
craft. And the reach continues at Teledyne Ryan —for even more advanced pilotless 
aircraft and- Doppler systems for both earth and deep space applications. For more infor- 
'fhation, write Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, 2701 Harbor Drive, San Diego, Calif 92 11 2. 



^ 



*>4mRi 





Unmanned Fleet Puts to Sea . . . 

Modified with remote-control systems, three converted Navy aviation rescue boats put to sea from 
Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range, Puerto Rico to support fleet exercise. Lead and rear boats carry 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebees on launch rails for surface water launch operations. Realism of 
this simulated "enemy" threat adds a new dimension of capability at AFWR. See page 8 
for "Threat/Counter-Threat." 




Volume 31, Number 2 
Summer 1970 



7^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 




Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Managing Editor 

Robert P. Battenfield / Associate Editor 

Robert A. Weissinger, David A. Gossett 

Staff Pliotographers 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 



Detect, Intercept, Destroy. ..Page 2 

Fighter-interceptor pilots of 

ADC annually converge on the Air 

Defense Weapons Center at Tyndall 

AFB, Florida to hone their sJcills 

in the art of air combat. 

Threat/Counter-Threat.. .Page 8 

The Navy's Atlantic Fleet Weapons 
Range provides U. S. and its 
allied sea forces a realistic environ- 
ment for readiness exercises. 

Heroes Are Made of This. ..Page 12 

In the face of a crisis that could 

have wrought tragedy, NASA's 

Apollo-13 crew, supported by ground 

forces here on earth, wrote a new 

chapter in the book of courage 

for all mankind. 

New Wave: Radiometers... Page 16 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 

radiometery is pointing the way into 

new and more refined applications 

of a space age technology. 

Sub & Anti-Sub Page 18 

The three mediums of anti-submarine 

warfare unfold from the ASW carrier 

deck of the USS Hornet. 

A REPORTER Interview... Page 22 

With more than 1500 U. S. fighting 

men imprisoned by or missing in 

action in North Vietnam, The 

REPORTER draws a bead on some 

of the more salient facts. 

The REPORTER News. Page 26 
A compilation of world-wide develop- 
ments in which Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical technology and products 

are contributing to achievement. 









COVER PHOTO-Blazing away in full color, "enemy " 
Firebee taunts ADC observer aircraft in chase 
across weapons firing range. In actual firing, remote- 
controlled target would be either flying head-on 
for missile intercept or performing evasive maneuvers 

for going-away launch. 



DETECT, INTERC 

The mission is clean Deter the attack. Air Defense 
Weapons Center exists to fulfill this /7?/ss/on. 



By Hank Basham 

Director of Information 

Air Defense Weapons Center 

Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida 




ADC's top fighter-interceptors come to Tyndall AFB, Florida, for annual training that helps maintain their figbtu 



A 



potential enemy can be deterred from aggressive acts against 
the United States— and its allies— only if he is convinced that our 
military power and national resolve are such as to do him un- 
acceptable damage if he starts an armed conflict. Aerospace de- 
fense—with the capability to provide warning and active pro- 
tection against attack — is an essential ingredient for convincing 
any would-be aggressor that this country does possess such power 
and resolve. 

The Aerospace Defense Command is the deterrent to direct 
attack. The command tells the enemy he cannot count on surpris- 
us— and that an indeterminate portion of his attacking forces 
would never reach their targets in this country. 

Where does today's aerospace defense team acquire these 
essential skills necessary to detect. ..intercept. ..identify and de- 



stroy any hostile fighter and bomber aircraft and thus provide the 
vital deterrent? 

Charged with this awesome responsibility is the Air Defense 
Weapons Center at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. This is 
where expertise in air defense is expected as part of everyday 
living. 

The Weapons Centen-tmder the command of Brig. Gen. James 
L. Price, is charged with the responsibility of a variety of missions, 
all tied directly with combat readiness training for the Aerospace 
Defense Command. It provides a single area within the Depart- . 
ment of Defense for the centralization of operational and technical 
expertise on air defense. 

It's at Tyndall where ADC fighter-interceptor pilots undergo 
an annual weapons firing program... where pilots get advanced 



tFl UtSlKUY... 




training in the F-IOI and F- 106 jets... where pilots learn the latest 
tactics... where they learn survival... and where tests are conducted 
for the Aerospace Defense Command to make sure new equip- 
ment and tactics fit the defense mission. Weapons Center person- 
nel also direct the Bomarc missile firings and evaluation con- 
ducted by the 4751st Air Defense Missile Squadron at nearby 
Hurlburt Field. It's command headquarters for the 4780th Air 
Defense Wing at Perrin AFB, Tex. 

In addition, it's the home for the 73rd Aerospace Surveillance 
Wing, a part of the vast Aerospace Defense Command space 
tracking system. The Weapons Controller School is located here 
where the important weapons controller is trained to fill the needs 
of ADC's far flung defense system. 

Two other big and important tenant units are the 678th Air 



Defense Group and the 3250th Flying Training Squad 
678th radar unit is part of the defense network for Southern United 
States and the Flying Training Squadron is an Air Training Com- 
mand unit for instructor pilot training. 

At least once a year, every Aerospace Defense Command jet 
interceptor pilot comes to Tyndall to pit his skills against the 
BQM-34A Firebee drone, a radio-controlled target that effective- 
ly simulates an "invader" aircraft. 

The Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebee drone is employed in 
the weapons training. The drone, operated by remote control, 
simulates an enemy aircraft invading American airspace. 

Pilots of the ADC fighter aircraft test their skill and weapons 
against the Firebee in a test program conducted by the 4750th 
Test Squadron. Purpose of the program is to determine how well 



. . . "expertise for the man who flies and defends this nation 
against any air attack.'' 




the weapons perform and to test any recent modifications. The 
weapons center will hand down directives on which tactics the 
pilots will employ and what particular weapons will be fired. 

Fighter squadrons participate in the program once each year. 
Objectives of this program are designed to determine overall ADC 
interceptor systems capabilities and effectiveness. Each deploying 
unit at the weapons center is assigned different test conditions to 
satisfy the overall command objectives. 

Although the weapons testing involves the entire squadron, only 
10 aircraft deploy to the Weapons Center at any one time. As each 
pilot completes his training, he returns to his home base and 
another pilot takes his place. The rotation continues until each 
aircraft and aircrew in the squadron has fired and qualified its 
weapons systems. 

Air National Guard units undergo the same rigid training pro- 
gram at Tyndall. 

The 4750th Test Squadron also carries out virtually all ADC 
research and development projects as well as maintaining the 
Command's firing programs. 

Since its establishment. Test Squadron has fostered many 
changes in ADC operations. With the concentrated engineering 
knowledge and experience that it has, the unit frequently initiates 
projects as well as carries out those directed by higher head- 
quarters. 

In its testing, the squadron might be called the consumers re- 
search branch of ADC as personnel work closely with civilian 
industries, testing their products and adapting them for ADC use. 

Every project completed increases the operational efficiency of 
the Aerospace Defense Command. 

Another important role in the air defense mission is performed 
by the 4756th Combat Crew Training Squadron. This squadron 
conducts three separate programs for two different aircraft. Pilots 
and radar observers are trained in the two-seater McDonnell 
F-IOl Voodoo, and other pilots in the single-place Convair F-106 
Delta Dart. 

A class of student pilots spends its first two weeks studying 
academics before they even get into a cockpit. After a solo flight 
and training in a flight simulator, students are introduced to the 
sophisticated techniques of modem aerial combat. They practice 
every conceivable type of intercept; the tactics of high, medium 
and low altitude intercepts during day and night, infrared and 
radar attacks, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) 
intercepts and manually controlled intercepts. All must be master- 
ed before graduation. 

CCTS students realize they are operating in a simulated combat 
environment. Fighting their way through electronic countermea- 
sures, confusing chaff, and other evasive moves thrown at them, 
the students lock-on their objective and fire the scoring missiles. 
This concentration on a realistic training environment aims the 
student toward his combat-ready goal. 

Besides actual flying missions, each student spends many hours 
in the flight simulator. Here, he learns to cope instantly with any 
emergency or tactical decision facing him. 

Fighter pilot -also Commander of Air Defense Weapons 

Center -Brig. Gen. James L. Price takes an active role in training 

programs under fiis command. 




^>5 



^ 



J^^ 




Air control technician monitors visual traffic at one of Air Force's busiest centers. 



An instructor pilot is at the student's side throughout the course, 
guiding and advising him. The professional quality of these in- 
structors largely accounts for the great success of the school. 

Along with the training missions for pilots and weapons control- 
lers, the Air Defense Weapons Center at Tyndall AFB has the 
task to train experienced officers and instructors. 

This is accomplished at the 4757th Air Defense Squadron's 
Interceptor Weapons School. 

After extensive field experience, selected officers return to 
Tyndall to attend the school in one of several categories... the F- 
101 aircrew, F-102 aircrew, F-106 aircrew, intercept controller 
and technician for manual, SAGE and BUIC environment. 

Upon completion of their respective courses, students return 
to their own organizations as weapons instructors to teach the 
sophisticated refinements of intercept operations to fellow crews, 
thereby reinforcing peak combat readiness for air defense forces. 

IWS also serves the overall mission of the United States Air 
Force in many other ways. IWS participates in weapons and 
tactics development for both current and future air-to-air weapons 
systems. IWS developed and conducts a formal aerial combat 
tactics training program for ADC F-106 pilots. This program pre- 
pares the pilot to operate his weapon system at maximum effect- 
iveness in the tactical air defense role, where the threat is a high 
speed, highly maneuverable, enemy aircraft. The tactical air de- 



fense role may be defined as the composition of tactics and weap- 
ons employment procedures for the purpose of protecting or at- 
tacking a tactical strike force in a radar-controlled environment. 

The school participates with other major commands and ser- 
vices in studies of weapons, tactics and operating procedures to 
be employed wherever the role of air defense exists. These joint 
developments are an example of the way the various commands 
utilize their knowledge and specialized capability to provide 
USAF fighter aircrews with the most current information and 
techniques in air-to-air weapons delivery. These programs are 
essential to keep aircrews trained to a keen edge, and provide a 
basis for new USAF missions and training requirements. 

A program that goes hand-in-hand with the flying training pro- 
gram conducted by the Air Defense Weapons Center, is the prob- 
lem of survival should a pilot ever be forced to eject from his air- 
craft. 

Ail" Force surveys in the past have shown that many aircraft 
ejections had ended in death or serious injury to aircrew members 
bailing out. 

Aerospace Defense Command's answer to reducing these 
statistics is the Life Support Training School. The school has one 
unit located at Tyndall and the other at Perrin AFB, Tex., both 
under direction of the Weapons Center. 

The main purpose of the school is to get the ejecting pilot out of 




Aimed for "kill", ADC pilot releases missile in realistic test of weapons system effectiveness against Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebee. 
From launch pad (at rigfit), remote-control will take jet-powered target out over Gulf of Mexico firing range for intercept-firing test. 




his aircraft and safely onto land or water: this training is backed 
up by a basic course in land survival. All ADC aircrew members 
must attend. 

Students spend time going over pre- and post-ejection proced- 
ures, reviewing all safety and survival equipment available to them 
in helmets, rafts, survival kits, parachute, clothing, etc. 

Next comes practice jumps from a tower, followed by an over- 
night stay in an isolated section of the Tyndall reservation. At this 
time, they learn to build shelters from 'chute canopies, apply first 
aid when alone, the use and care of all signal devices (radios, flares, 
etc), build campfires and set traps and snares for area game. They 
also learn the basics of land navigation. 

The big day consists of parasailing. Each student goes through 
the procedure. The jumper stands near the edge of the water 
tethered to a tow line dragged by a powerful boat. 

Instructors hold the canopy so that it billows slightly. On signal, 
the boat speeds ahead, pulling the jumper into the air as through 
suspended on a kite. 

At 500 feet the parasailer frees himself and descends into the 
water. He drops the survival gear, including a raft, just before 
hitting the water. 

The training received at the ADC Life Support Training School 
adequately prepares the aircrew member to avoid most injuries. 

While each of the training phases in the Weapons Center pro- 
gram are important in themselves, blended together, the mission 
becomes one that adds greater power to the air defense network 
and to the fighting force of the United States Air Force — it pro- 
vides that extra expertise for the man who flies and defends this 
nation against any air attack. 

Firebee maintenance is the key in year-around operations that 
demand optimum performance during firing tests and exercises. 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical technicians established world flight 
record at Tyndall with 46 flights from a single Firebee. 



'^mm^m^:^ 





Simulate the enemy's best punch. Then develop your 

defense against it. It's a process of military survival. 

One in which Firebees serve as a key element. 

By Jack G. Broward 




It 



Lt is nearly the size of Texas, sprawling over 240,000 square- 
miles of Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, a watery, make- 
believe battlefield where the U. S. Navy wages mock-war against 
a simulated enemy in the hope that real war may never come. 

Their defense exercise concepts range through the spectrum of 
known and anticipated enemy threats: undersea, on the surface 
and in the air. Underscoring it all is the grim axiom that a real 
enemy would never knowingly give you a second chance. 

This is the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range, instrumented with 
highly sophisticated equipment for monitoring in three-dimensional 
magnitudes either total Range activities or isolated areas on a 
real-time basis. To its warm, tropical waters annualh come major 
units of the Atlantic Fleet and those of U. S. allies to complete 
operational readiness exercises. 

Commissioned in 1963, the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range is 
headquartered at the Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico 
and incorporates a pattern of ten tiny islands dotting the Range 
facilities. 



Aging Navy DP2E with Firebees under each wing is the Navy's 
workhorse for launch operations on Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. 
Aircraft is flown by Fleet Composite Squadron-Eight. 




First ground launched Firebee in 

history of Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 

is hurled into flight from facility at 

Roosevelt Roads early this year 

during fleet exercise. 



Under Captain Ruben L. Johns, Commander, Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range and Commander, Fleet Air Caribbean, it is divided 
into ALFA and BRAVO areas in which simultaneous operations 
can be conducted in varying media free of conflict from overlap- 
ping interferences or support facilities. 

Now in its ninth year as a prime support element, a Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical contractor support team based at Roosevelt 
Roads is responsible to Captain Thomas R. McCants, Command- 
ing Officer of the Atlantic Fleet Range Support Facility, for Fire- 
bee target maintenance, scheduling, launch, flight control, re- 
covery, and operational plans which involve Firebee aerial targets. 

It is the jet-powered Firebee, a remote-controlled aerial target 
system, that fills the "enemy" role in its most realistic personal- 
ity. Its blazing speed and maneuvering capabilities are designed 
to provide shipboard missile crews and fighter pilots with the most 
challenging "enemy" threat characteristics known. 

Until recently, all operational Firebee flights were launched 
from Navy DP2E, multi-engine patrol planes. Still the mainstay 
in aerial target operations, these modified Neptune patrol bombers 
can carry two Firebees aloft for aerial launch over the Range areas. 
They are flown by Fleet Composite Squadron EIGHT, also 
based at Roosevelt Roads, which shares responsibilities to the 



Range Support Facility with the Teledyne Ryan contractor sup- 
port team. 

Within the past twelve months, Firebee water-launch and 
ground-launch capabilities have been added to give the Range a 
total spectrum of operational services. 

The first ground launch of a Firebee was achieved in February 
this year from a mobile platform at Cabras Is., supporting an 
exercise requirement that taxed air-launch facilities. 

Noting this in his commendation, Vice Admiral Bernard J. 
Semmes, Commander of the U. S. Second Fleet, whose ships 
were operating on the Range at the time, stated: 

"Particularly noteworthy is the ingenuity and forehandedness 
of the Atlantic Fleet Range Support Facility in the fabrication and 
initial employment of a BQM-34A ground launch platform that 
filled the gap created by a critical shortage of drone launch air- 
craft." 

Offering his "Well Done," his message noted that the ground 
launch was a "first" for the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. 

It was in this first fleet exercise of 1 970 that operational water- 
launches of Firebee targets were also achieved. Water launched 
from 63-foot Aviation Rescue Boats, modified with remote-con- 
trol guidance systems in addition to launch rails mounted on the 




Air-launch Firebee operation begins at Roosevelt 
Roads with target loading under wing of Navy DP2E. 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical technicians work in 
partnership with Fleet Composite Squadron-Eight 
in support of Range. 



Firebee's jet engine is dis-assembled, decontaminated 
and assembled following operation by Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical target operations technician based 
at Roosevelt Roads. 




aft end of the main deck, the Firebees can be used to simulate anti- 
ship missiles as well as attacking enemy aircraft. 

Through its combinations of launch capabilities, the Range can 
now provide units a variety of target presentations, either in single 
or multiple "formation" type attacks. 

A "showcase" for aerial target operations, the Teledyne Ryan 
team, under Richard F. Manceau, Base Manager, has a current 
Firebee flight reliability record of well above 90 percent and a 
flight log of more than 1 ,600 Firebee launches. 

Typically, Firebee target support requirements for a fleet exer- 
cise are identified at advance planning sessions, with target avail- 
abilities checked against inventories, configuration requirements 
matched to range time, and support, logistics and operational 
schedules formulated. 

Within time frames established on the basis of advance planning 
sessions, Teledyne Ryan's team commences its buildups and 
systems checks and sets up its maintenance schedules. Drone 
launch and target control personnel are selected to crew the DP2E, 
refurbishment personnel are designated and special requirements 
in support of the mission outlined. 

Ground control operators at Atlantic Fleet Weapons 
Range headquarters track Firebee mission as it unfolds 
over firing ranges. Flight maneuvers are commanded 
by remote control. 




10 




Remote-controlled modified aviation rescue boat is 
used as launch platform for Firebee in simulation 
of missile threats faced by U. S. Navy and allies. 



In meeting ground, air and water launch requirements, Manceau 
develops expanded schedules, matched to the diversity of re- 
sponsibilities. His airframe, propulsion and avionics specialists 
can call on a collective background of seasoned experience in a 
wide variety of operational skills, in coordinating requirements 
with support. 

Retrieved by on-board automatic parachute systems, Firebees 
are picked up by helicopter and flown to Roosevelt Roads for re- 
furbishment. Wings and tail surfaces are detached, and fuselage 
section stripped of all access hatches and the turbine jet engine 
removed along with all avionics equipment. Components are de- 
contaminated, then reassembled. 

From start to finish, Firebees can be returned to flight status 
within one day of recovery. 

Looking to the future, Manceau is already studying ground 
support requirements for the Navy Supersonic Firebee II, Tele- 
dyne Ryan's growth-version aerial target system. Now in pro- 
duction and scheduled for delivery to the fleet starting in 1971, 
the Firebee II is designed to utilize standard ground support 
equipment, air-ground and water surface launch platforms and 
present dual missions in subsonic and supersonic modes. 

Paced to existing as well as anticipated threat characteristics, 
this growth-version target system is projected against a backdrop 
of experience that began more than two decades ago, using early- 
day Firebee targets to simulate the enemy threat. 

The threat has changed, the environment has broadened and 
technologies are more refined. The process remains unchanged: 
Identify the threat — develop the counter-threat. It is a process in 
which Firebee has underscored its role with dramatic impact. 



Firebee returns home at Roosevelt Roads following flight 
over firing range area. Retrieved by chopper, target will be 
decontaminated, refurbished and returned to flight status. 




New profile introduced early this year at AFWR is Firebee 
readied for launch from ground platform, a growth-capability 
never offered before at Atlantic-Caribbean range. 



7f 



11 




Crippled Service Module drifts away as astronauts race home. Moon is in background. 



12 



"Lifeboat" Lunar Module, nicknamed 

Aquarius for ill-fated Apollo 13 mission, 

was jettisoned one hour before re-entry. 

"You did very well, Aquarius," said one 

crewman. "Ttiank you." 




Heroes Are Made Of This 



rApollo 13 was both disaster and triumph for the American 
space program. It was the worst in-space emergency. It was also 
a triumph of American expertise. 

Technicians conferred, computers whirred, communications 
lines crackled. Decisions were made, right decisions. And the 
Apollo 13 crewmen were brought safely back to Earth from the 
lifeless void of space. 

Heroes are made of this. 

Astronauts Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise were 
blasted into space aboard the Saturn 5 on April 1 1 . Monday night, 
April 13 — newscasters had ended their 10 o'clock reports and 
nightwatch had settled over mission control. Then came the word 
from the Apollo 1 3 Command Module: "Hey, we've got a problem 
here." 




13 



NASA PHOTOS 




California coastline and Mexico's Baja peninsula 

are visible in photo (above) taken by Apollo 13 

astronauts. Commander Jim Lovell (right) led 

unsuccessful attempt at third manned landing. In 

training, Lovell rehearsed in LLTV, equipped 

with Teledyne Ryan radars. 



A wild four days later, the tired and cold astronauts bid farewell 
to their Lunar Module "lifeboat" Aquarius and splashed down 
within TV camera range of the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima. 

Investigators have stated an electrical short circuit inside an 
oxygen tank of the Apollo 13 Service Module was the "most 
probable cause" of the mishap, which delayed the third attempt to 
land American astronauts on the moon. A pre-launch accident 
damaged two automatic heater switches inside the tank. 

NASA has announced Apollo 14, with Astronauts Alan Shep- 
ard, Edgar Mitchell and Stuart Roosa, will target for the site slated 
for the heroes of Apollo 13— the hilly highland formation of Fra 
Mauro. 

Teledyne Ryan has designed and built the LM landing radar 
system used to accomplish the descent, hover and vertical touch- 
down on the moon. 





- I iipiiB« iu m m ^^m ' i m r 



14 




NASA has picked Fra Mauro highlands for December's Apollo 14. Ancient subsurface stones blanket area. 




Staff Artist Robert Watts' painting of translunar flight became chilling reality for crippled Apollo 13. 



15 



New Wave: 
Radiometers 



Wintering the rapidly expanding arena of earth resources data 
collection is a "new wave" in microwave technology: radiometers. 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical is actively participating in radi- 
ometer development. The Model 703 Radiometer has been pur- 
chased by Remote Sensing, Inc., of Houston, Texas, and installed 
on that company's Dassault Fan Jet Falcon, the first remote sensor- 
equipped aircraft available for commercial earth resources surveys. 

Other radiometer opportunities are being pursued with NASA 
and government agencies. "Skylab," the manned orbital workshop 
of the Apollo Applications Program (AAP), will require a com- 
bination radiometer-scatterometer system called "RADSCAT." 

Teledyne Ryan's Model 720 Radar Scatterometer has been 
installed on the Fan Jet Falcon also. Other sensors on the air- 
craft include a multi-spectral camera and an infrared line scanner 
camera. Collectively, the sensors offer commercial customers the 
first opportunity to purchase aerial surveys of this type. To now, 
only government agencies have been involved in large-scale earth 
resources data gathering from aircraft. 

Microwave sensors supplement the imaging sensors. All weath- 
er, they penetrate cloud cover and operate both day and night. 
Radiometers passively sense the natural thermal radiation, or 
"brightness temperature," of gases, objects and surfaces. Scatter- 
ometers actively measure the reflectivity and degree of roughness 
of surfaces. 






^ 



Model 703 Radiometer is installed in tail 
section of Remote Sensing's Fan Jet Falcon. 



16 




Bobby D. Hile, left, President of Remote Sensing, Inc., discusses uses of radiometer, foreground, and othier sensors with 
Teledyne Ryan Project Engineer D. G. Killion. Open nose section reveals multi-spectral camera. 



17 



. . . Thermal maps 
and moving targets 



Together, the radiometer-scatterometer combination offers 
users data on land and water types, ocean wave heights, atmo- 
spheric and surface temperatures, and similar measurements. 
Value of this data has been shown for agriculture, forestry, flood 
control, pollution control, meteorology, oceanography, geology, 
and to the search for new sources of oil and petroleum. 

Although originally designed as a thermal mapper, the Model 
703 Radiometer has also demonstrated the all-weather capability 
to detect moving targets radiometrically. Teledyne Ryan special- 
ists believe they can claim a "first." In the test, the passive radi- 
ometer was directed at flying jet aircraft, moving trucks and cars, 
walking personnel, and hot plasma. 

What is a radiometer? Basically, it is a passive microwave "eye" 
that distinguishes the difference in relative temperatures between 
an object or a surface and its background. It does not transmit 
energy like an active radar, but instead senses radiated heat. 

Microwave specialists call this radiated heat "noise tempera- 



ture." Measured over a broad band of microwave frequencies, 
it reveals how hot an object or surface is, and how much heat is 
being radiated from it. 

Radiometric temperatures are expressed in "Degrees Kelvin," 
which is an absolute scale that starts with absolute zero. Tempera- 
tures can then be converted to Centigrade or Fahrenheit. 

As for applications, the Model 703 is apparently a good metal 
detector. This capability could find application to military re- 
connaissance, target acquisition, etc., with either the earth or the 
air as a background. 

Another capability demonstrated during the moving target 
detection tests was the ability of the Model 703 to sense the pres- 
ence of other microwave systems operating within the target zone 
at a frequency near 13.7 GHz. Most military communications and 
radar systems are near this level in X-Band. Since the radiometer 
is passive, the enemy RF source would be unaware it had been 
detected. 




Teledyne Ryan engineers have created 
radiometric mapper, target detector. 



A 








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Remote Sensing's Hile, second from righit, details interface between microwave and photographic sen- 
sors to Teledyne Ryan President Frank Card Jameson, left, Leon W. Parma, vice president administra- 
tive services, and D. G. Killion, right, project engineer. Fan Jet was chosen for both speed and altitude. 



18 




Forerunner to Teledyne Ryan's microwave radiometers was Doppler 
radar scatterometer, designed and built for NASA lunar analog site 
study to confirm LM landing radar reflectivity design. 



In detecting the thermal temperature of moving people, the 
Model 703 showed the capability for detecting the temperature of 
any living body. It is suggested that an application might be found 
in veterinary medicine or in the meat-packing industry, where the 
presence of disease in the animal's body could be detected radio- 
metrically. 

Dangerous animals, such as lions in a zoo or wild animals on a 
game preserve, could also be checked for the presence of abnormal 
body temperatures with a radiometer. Ideally, the animals could 
be directed through a narrow chute to pass one at a time in front 
of the sensor. 

Demonstration of plasma detection also offers interesting appli- 
cations. 

Spacecraft re-entering the Earth's atmosphere create a super- 
hot "plasma shield" around them. Ground tracking radars are 
presently unable to measure the temperature of this plasma. But 
a radiometer antenna mounted in the skin of the spacecraft could 
measure and record this critical temperature. 

Tactical aircraft and missiles could use a radiometer to assist 
in detection of aircraft through cloud banks. Teledyne Ryan 
specialists believe the Model 703 Radiometer should be able to 
differentiate between a real target and IR decoy flares better than 
current "heat-seeking" missiles, because the IR flares are optical 
devices while the main target— the enemy aircraft's jet exhaust- 
is still a plasma. 

Further, Teledyne Ryan microwave engineers see application of 
radiometers to all-weather passive navigation. 

Known landmarks — such as a river or highway, metal buildings, 
bridges — are easily identifiable with a radiometer. A forward air 
controller (FAC) operating over familiar aerial territory, as in 
South Vietnam, could "home up" a river in any weather, sensing 
his course radiometrically. 

In all, passive microwave radiometers appear to offer a variety 
of practical applications. Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical intends to 
continue to pursue these opportunities. 

Radiometric temperatures can be taken of wild 
animals remotely with Teledyne Ryan sensors. 






Hardy SH-3D helicopters swarm around the 
USS Hornet, rehearsing lift-off and landing 
procedures from big floating heliport. Equipped 
with Teledyne Ryan ANIAPN-130 Doppler 
Radar Navigation Sets, SH-3D Sea Kings can 
range far from carrier to conduct sonar- 
dipping ASW hover transitions. Newer 
Teledyne Ryan ANIAPN-182 Dopplers are 
being installed on Atlantic Fleet Sea Kings. 

Below: Hornet crewmen guide S-2F Tracker 
to landing on carrier deck. 15-year-old Tracker 
will be replaced by Navy's new S-3A. for which 
Teledyne Ryan will supply Doppler. 

Opposite: USS Sabalo underway from Ballast 
Point participated in "Schoolhouse" ASW 
Exercise, playing hide-and-seek with sonars 
and radars of air-sea ASW force. 




SUB 





ANTI 
SUB 




U.S. NAVY 




Deadly game to control the world's oceans is practiced 
aboard the USS Hornet in "Schoolhouse" ASW EX-70 



1 > othing is covert about the aggressive buildup in Soviet sea power. 

"In the past," the Chief of the Soviet Navy has been quoted as saying, "our Soviet ships and 
naval aviation units have operated primarily near the coast of the Soviet Union, concerned main- 
ly with operations and tactical coordination with Soviet ground troops. 

"Today we must be prepared for broad offensive operations against sea and ground troops of 
the Imperialists on any point of the world's oceans and adjacent territories." 

Armed Russian warships in the Mediterranean, in the British-abdicated Indian Ocean, in the 
Philippine Sea give punch to this policy declaration. Within the past year, a complete Soviet 
Naval Squadron cruised placidly through the Gulf of Mexico, replenishing in Cuban ports. Crew 
of an Atlantic Fleet ASW plane photographed a Russian N-Class nuclear submarine, running 
easy on the surface 400 miles west of Key West, Florida, well into the Gulf 

Even a recent missile target exercise at Point Mugu was postponed because of the presence 
of a Soviet submarine lying watch offshore in international waters. 

In fact, a key part in the growing threat of Soviet sea power is the submarine — often nuclear- 
powered and nuclear-tipped, always a potential threat to Free World security — silent, elusive, 
hidden. 

A triple threat to the United States is presented by the Soviet submarine force: a threat to the 



Photographs and text by Robert P. Battenfield 

21 




military, industrial and population centers 
within range of their nuclear-warhead 
ballistic missiles; a threat to the U.S. 
naval task forces at sea, and also a threat 
to the unrestricted use of the world's sea 
lanes by Free World merchant ships. 

According to Navy estimates, the Rus- 
sians have 65 nuclear-powered sub- 
marines in fleet service, and they are 
building at the rate of one new submarine 
per month. America's nuclear submarine 
force stands at 81, and production does 
not match the Russian rate. 

Prime counter to this threat is America's 
anti-submarine warfare force. This force 
includes broad-decked aircraft carriers 
converted from attack fighter support and 
specially fitted as floating home for a 

Rear Admiral Norman C. Gillette, Jr., 
seated, commanding officer of ASWGp 3, 
confers witfi Captain W. H. IVIcLaugfilin, 
skipper of tfie USS Ticonderoga, whiicti 
will replace ttie USS Hornet in ASW fleet. 



mobile force of ASW hunter-killer heli- 
copters and fixed-wing patrol planes. 
Destroyers equipped with ASW sonar 
and weapons cruise in the carrier's com- 
pany, and far-ranging patrol aircraft reach 
out from coastal air bases to fly long, 
lonely vigils — watching, listening. 

This game goes on in the real world, 
night and day. This is the deadly game of 
supremacy of the world's oceans. 

"Schoolhouse" was a game of readi- 
ness, a flexing of ASW sinew to maintain 
this supremacy, and the rolling Pacific 
off the coast of Southern California was 
the gameboard. 

Players were members of Anti-Sub- 
marine Warfare Group 3, based in Long 
Beach and San Diego and commanded 
by Rear Admiral Norman C. Gillette, Jr. 

Vessel participants in ASWEX-70"s 
"Schoolhouse" were led by the mighty 
USS Hornet (CVS- 1 2), veteran of three 
deployments to Southeast Asia since 




Life aboard a sub-tiunter is revealed in 
the faces of the men at duty: for the 
helmsman, tedious hours with eyes on the 
dials: for the "catman" at the hydraulic 
catapult, timing, tension and screaming 
engines: for the Tracker pilot, briefings 
in tactics and safety procedures followed 
by long hours in the cockpit; and for the 
communications technician, constant 
readiness and a head full of acronyms. 



In the Gulf of Tonkin during her last 
Vietnam duty cruise, the USS Hornet came 
on Soviet naval vessels such as the Apatir, 
an oiler or cargo ship. 




1965 and prime recovery ship for the 
historic moon flights of Apollo 1 1 and 
Apollo 12. Commanded by Captain Carl 
J. Seiberlich, the Hornet served as Ad- 
miral Gillette's flagship. 

It was the Hornet's "swan song": the 
proud ship^s final dash across the seas in 
pursuit of an elusive foe. Retired in June, 
the Hornet has joined the Navy's mothball 
fleet at Bremerton, Washington. 

Eight other Hornets are recorded in 
American naval history, from a ten-gun 
sloop in 1775 to the present 44,000-ton 
ASW carrier. Seventh in the proud Hornet 
heritage was the carrier that launched 
General Jimmy Doolittle's famous B-25 
bomber raid against Tokyo in April, 1942. 

Replacing the Hornet will be the USS 
Ticonderoga, a carrier with an equally 
impressive record of service which is be- 
ing outfitted for ASW flagship duty. Home 
port will be San Diego. The Tico's com- 
manding officer. Captain W. H. Mc- 
Laughlin, was on board the Hornet dur- 
ing "Schoolhouse" to observe command 
and control operations of the ASW Group. 

Units aboard the Hornet for the exer- 
cise were from Carrier Anti-Submarine 
Air Group 59. 

Included were ASW Helicopter Squad- 
rons 4 and 8 from Imperial Beach Naval 
Air Station, with a complement of 16 
Sikorsky SH-3D sonar-dipping sub- 
hunters; fixed wing ASW squadrons VS- 
33, VS-37 and VS-39 from North Island 
NAS, with 21 Grumman S-2E aircraft; 
and Airborne Early Warning unit VAW- 
1 1 Det 20, also from North Island, with 
five radar-domed Grumman E-IB air- 
craft. 

Supporting the Hornet were five de- 
stroyers from DESRON-23 based at 
Long Beach and one from DESRON-3 1 
based at San Diego. 

And lurking beneath the night-black 
waters in the ASWEX area was the sub- 
marine USS Sabalo of Submarine Flotilla 
One, based at San Diego's Ballast Point 
Submarine Facility. 

Each SH-3D Sea King participating in 
Hornet's "Schoolhouse" was guided in its 
navigation and hover maneuvers by Dop- 
pler radar equipment designed and built 
by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. These 
Imperial Beach helos were equipped with 
Teledyne Ryan AN/APN-130 Doppler 
Radar Navigation Sets. Other helicopter 
squadrons in the Atlantic Fleet are now 
receiving new SH-3D helos equipped with 
the new Teledyne Ryan AN/APN-182, 
an improved velocity sensor set that uses 



Deck crew ties down Hornet's whirly-birds 
at mission's end, including famed "No. 66" 
witii four Apollo recovery decals. 



the same airframe antenna aperature but 
updates electronics. 

And the Air Group's rugged but aging 
S-2E Trackers are slated to be replaced 
in the mid-1970s by the new Navy Lock- 
heed S-3A ASW patrol plane. This com- 
puterized sub-killer will use Teledyne 
Ryan's AN/APN-200 Doppler Velocity 
Sensor, an advanced design navigator 
based on the Teledyne Ryan AN/APN- 
193 which earned nomenclature under 
Air Force contract. 

In an exclusive Reporter interview. 
Admiral Gillette observed that the Navy's 
S-3A represents a "great improvement 
in ASW group capability." 

In the Admiral's quarters aboard the 
USS Hornet, Admiral Gillette said, "The 



S-3A off'ers greater speed, range, en- 
durance and payload. It greatly expands 
our area of effectiveness and attack. 

"And of equal importance is the in- 
creased capability of the sensors and the 
rapid assimilation of data onboard the 
airplane, which should result in more 
rapid detection, location and classifi- 
cation of the enemy sub." 

Admiral Gillette continued, "Recent 
thinking in the ASW Group has been to 
inhibit enemy sub operations by restric- 
ting their free movement — a form of 
harrassment — or to evade the enemy sub 
through various deceptions. 

"With the S-3A," the Admiral smiled, 
"once more we will be able to return to 
directly offensive ASW operations." -4fik 




Captain Carl J. Seiberlich, USS Hornet skipper, accepts framed photo 
autographed by Teledyne President Frank Card Jameson to recognize 
ship's vital Apollo support role. Bob Battenfield makes presentation. 




reporbisr 



Mrs. Sybil Stockdale, Chairman of the Board, National League of 
Families of American Prisoners and Missing in Southeast Asia. 



What is being done today to resolve 

this country's prisoner of war problem in 

Southeast Asia? Better yet, what CAN be done? 

After five years as the wife of an 

American POW, Mrs. Sybil Stockdale believes 

she has some answers on the subject. 



Your husband, Navy Captain James 
B. Stockdale, was shot down over 
North Vietnam September 9, 1965. 
Since this time, nearly five years 
ago, you have led what must have 
seemed to you like a futile campaign 
to identify the prisoner of war prob- 
lem here at home. How successful 
have you been? 

This is extremely difficult to mea- 
sure. Our primary objective fias been 
to create an awareness, then to 
stimulate initiatives which would 
influence the attitude of the Hanoi 
government toward fulfillment of the 
Geneva Convention agreements 
signed by North Vietnam in 1957. 
One yardstick we've used to mea- 
sure our effectiveness is through 
mail received by families of prison- 
ers of war. Less than 100 men have 
been allowed to write letters until 
six months ago. In this six-month 
period, 285 men were allowed to 
write home. Obviously, the begin- 
ning of an attitude change is indi- 
cated. We believe this change is 
attributable to letters being gen- 
erated here at home and directed 
to the Hanoi government. It is a pain- 
fully slow process, trying to evaluate 
by degrees the success we are able 
to achieve. And any bright spot is 
a hopeful sign. 



Navy Captain James B. Stockdale's photo 
was published in North Vietnamese 
press for propaganda purposes. He has 
been in solitary confinement since 
capture in 1965. 





Sybil Stockdale (second from left) reflects 
strain and anxiety imposed on group 
of American POW wives during futile trip 
to Paris in search of information on POW 
husbands. Empty promises were all that was 
offered by N. Vietnam peace delegates. 



What do you attribute to the lack of 
active interest displayed by this 
country toward its prisoners of war 
and men missing in action in South- 
east Asia? 

A variety of attitude influences. 
First, I believe we were ill-advised to 
play the POW issue down in ttie early 
years of our involvement in the Viet- 
nam war. Had this country taken a 
stronger stand, then backed up its 
expressions, the situation may not 
have been allowed to develop. More 
important, however, and this relates 
to the first thought, America has 
been strongly divided— not only on 
the question of the Vietnam war- 
but on domestic and political issues. 
We're still divided, of course, but it 
is my observation that some rather 
basic values are gradually being re- 
stored. On this subject, however, I 
want to say that those prominent 
legislators who have so vocally sup- 
ported anti-war policies and peace 
movements, have completely ig- 
nored all opportunities to address 
themselves to the prisoner of war 
issues and the lack of humanitarian 
treatment. This has contributed 
meaningfully as a detriment to any 
real progress. 



The National League of Families of 
American Prisoners and Missing in 
Southeast Asia has opened a na- 
tional office in Washington, D. C. 
How will this affect your coordina- 
tion of activities? 

First of all, the establishment of a 
national office gives us immediate 
access to the world's major news 
services. What makes news in Gal- 
lup, N. !\/!. or San Diego, Cal., may 
not have news appeal in Calcutta, 
India. If it is generated in Washing- 
ton, D. C, however, our chances for 
reaching Calcutta are increased. 
Equally important, we'll be constantly 
in contact with major branches of 
our government and its legislators. 
Finally, the national office provides 
a focal point for coordinating activi- 
ties throughout the country. Further, 
it will help centralize interests in 
supporting our organization. 



Mr. Ross Perot organized "United 
We Stand" as an instrument which 
might help resolve the POW treat- 
ment problem in Southeast Asia. 
How do you regard his efforts as 
they relate to your own? 

With enduring gratitude and hope- 
ful anticipation. It has proved to me 
that we (National League of Families 
of American Prisoners and l\/1issing 
in Southeast Asia) could not do the 
job alone. !\/lr. Perot's dedication and 
concern have given us renewed 
strength and dedication. 

You received several pieces of mail 
from your husband through the 
National Mobilization Committee 
to End the War in Vietnam, a liberal 
"front" organization supporting the 
position of North Vietnam. Has this 
organization, to your knowledge, 
been successful in duping families 
of U. S. POWs? 

Understand first that the concern 
one feels in knowing that a relative 
is alive takes precedence over poli- 
tics. I was grateful, of course, to 
learn anything, as I am certain other 
wives would be. But, I was also aware 
of the intent in transmitting this mail 
on the part of this organization. Gen- 
erally, I believe this is the reaction 
most others of us have registered. 
We recognize the motives behind 
what might otherwise be termed as 
a humanitarian gesture. 



25 



To your best knowledge, is there any 
definition to the policy pursued by 
the United States government re- 
lated to the proper treatment of U. S. 
prisoners of war and men missing 
in action in Southeast Asia? Does 
the United States have any instru- 
ments available to it by which hu- 
mane treatment-that described in 
the Geneva Convention agreements 
-can be enforced? 

None, and that Is the problem. Short 
of world public opinion which may 
or may not influence the attitude 
of Hanoi on the subject, it is my 
understanding that this country is 
powerless to enforce humane treat- 
ment. It is our belief, however, that 
Hanoi cannot remain insensitive 
to world opinion. That is why we are 
working so diligently to generate 
that opinion, first in the United 
States, then abroad. We believe 
Hanoi under-estimated the con- 
sequences it now faces for viola- 
tions it has committed. Our hope is 
that we can successfully generate 
maximum world opinion which will 
influence a change in Hanoi's atti- 
tude and actions. 




Navy Lientenant Commander R. A. Stratton, as photographed by North Vietnamese. 



Like many other POW wives, you 
have travelled to Paris to urge North 
Vietnam's delegates there to re- 
lease names of that government's 
U. S. prisoners. What satisfaction 
has it gained you? 

None. We were promised if we went 
back home that the information we 
wanted would be provided to us. 
The only response to this promise 
to date is the information coming 
from communist front groups here. 
And their only motive in supplying 
information at all is based on the 
propaganda values it represents. 




Prisoner of war treatment described 
by those men who have been re- 
leased clearly indicates that North 
Vietnam is using the POW issue as a 
form of unprecedented propaganda 
value. The torture, solitary confine- 
ment, political "brainwashing" ses- 
sions to which POWs are exposed 
and all the barbaric techniques 
would indicate that North Vietnam 
is indeed, without any concern for 
humanitarian values. If this is true 
what will the efforts projected by 
your organization have gained in the 
long run? 

As indicated earlier, we believe our 
actions are influencing the attitude 
of Hanoi toward treatment of POWs. 
If this barbarism is a precedent in 
modern war, then our actions may 
also be precedent-setting. Out of our 
organized unity, the objectives we 
have established for ourselves and 
the achievements we are able to 
realize, may come a new set of POW 
standards which can be written into 
any future agreements between 
nations. Ideally, they would be un- 
necessary. Realistically, I'm afraid 
it would be completely naive for us 
to assume that there will never be a 
need for POW rules. If we are able to 
contribute meaningfully to the 
future in this way. I believe the ef- 
forts will have been worthwhile. 



U. S. POW is marched through streets 

in North Vietnam, wounds apparent, for 
political propaganda purposes. Mistreatment 
is in violation of Geneva Convention 
agreements signed by North Vietnam 
in 1957. 



66 



Any bright spot is a hopeful sign. 



99 



Q. What has been the hardest thing to 
bear for you personally during your 
husband's captivity? 

A. First, receiving his personal effects 
from his ship. Second, to learn that 
he has been in solitary confinement 
all these years. Knowing that he has 
not received my letters. But, let me 
say that I am one of the truly fortu- 
nate ones. At least I know that Jim 
is alive. A good share of relatives of 
our 1529 POWs or men missing in 
action do not have even this small 
comfort. I think it is for them that I 
experience my greatest anguish. 

Q. What milestone objectives has your 
organization established for itself, 
now that it is incorporated and has a 
national office in Washington? 

A. To intensify our letter to Hanoi cam- 
paign first. This means that we will 
conduct a massive public aware- 
ness program between now and the 
next three months. We are striving 
to have included in ever major news 
show which relates to war news from 
North Vietnam and Southeast Asia, 
a "spot" announcement keyed to our 
objectives. In addition, we will utilize 
every opportunity in the mass media 
to project these objectives. We will 
continue our efforts to gain support 
from our legislators and government 
agencies. By the end of this year, 
our objective will be to stimulate an 
unprecedented volume of letters to 
Hanoi and other government leaders 
who will be influenced by this ex- 
pression of concern. If we achieve 
this objective, it is possible that all 
others will be fulfilled as a conse- 
quence. -^S^ 



^ An. 




Does anyone at home care? Unidentified 
U. S. POW stares at blank walls of 
imprisonment somewhere in North Vietnam. 



27 



First Firebee II "Kill" Scored at Mugu 



Pt. Mugu, Calif.: -A Marine Corps Lt. 
Colonel helped Naval Aviation add a 
new start to its chapter on Firebee M by 
scoring the first weapons "kill" against 
the sleek, newly-developed supersonic 
target June 11 over the Pacific Missile 
Range. 

Flying an F-4 from the Naval Missile 
Center, Lt. Col. Charles L. Zangus, Exec- 
utive Officer of the Marine Air Detach- 



ment at the Center, earned his historic 
"kill", using a Sparrow missile in a 
head-on shot. 

His Radar Intercept Officer during 
the mission was Lieutenant Commander 
Ralph S. Magnus, also attached to the 
Center. 

The Firebee II, flying at 44,500 feet 
at Mach 1.65 (1090 mph), was inter- 
cepted during its "hot run". The target's 



mvlBr 




Volume 31 No. 2 



San Diego, California Sumnner 1970 



S-3A Doppler Radar Wins Navy 
Designation as AN/APN-200 

Washington, D.C.:- Doppler ground velocity sensor radars being developed for the 
Navy's S-3A ASW patrol aircraft will carry the Federal nomenclature of AN/APN-200, 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical has been advised. A c% 1 ft 2 



The designation brings to four the 
number of radar systems designed and 
developed during the past two years by 
Teledyne Ryan which are now opera- 
tional: The AN/APN-182; AN/APN-192; 
AN/APN-193; and now the AN/APN-200. 

The newly-designated system features 
a solid state transmitter and was form- 
erly the Model 790 Velocity Sensor. 

Teledyne Ryan is a pioneer in the use 
of continuous wave Doppler systems in 
which microwave energy is transmitted 
at land or water surfaces beneath an 
aircraft and energy is reflected back to 
the radar receiver. A shift in frequency- 
called the Doppler effect- is detected. 
This shift is proportional to the aircraft's 
velocity. 



Brazil Navy Gets 
New Radar Sets 

Rio De Janiero:-The Brazil Navy now 
has the latest equipment available for 
use in ASW ovenwater and night opera- 
tions following delivery of four Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical Doppler Radar Navi- 
gation systems designated the AP/APN- 
182. 

The system provides accurate meas- 
urement of forward, drift and vertical 
velocities. Coupled with a stabilization 
system, it controls automatic descent 
and hover maneuvers during sonar dip- 
ping operations. 

The U. S. Navy introduced the system 
originally in its SH3D ASW helicopters. 



Japanese Firm to Produce Firebees 

Utsunomiya, Japan:- Fuji Heavy Industries of Japan will assemble and market sub- 
sonic Firebees for use by the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force under terms of a 
recent license agreement with Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 

This marks the first time in more than two decades that the pilotless, jet-powered 
aircraft will be produced outside the continental United States. 

In Phase I, Fuji will purchase airframe and systems components built in San Diego. 
Teledyne Ryan will also supply engineering data, technical aids, portions of factory 
test equipment, manuals and reports. During Phase II, production of these items will 
shift to the Fuji factory at Utsonomiya. 

Already programmed for use by the Japanese target ship AZUMA, are a number 
of Firebees delivered by Teledyne Ryan. The AZUMA, the only vessel of its kind, is 
scheduled for operational service in August as an auxiliary training ship. 

28 



external fuel cell had been jettisoned 
following a subsonic target presentation. 
Col. Zangus and Cdr. Magnus jointly 
received the first Supersonic Firebee II 
"kill" plaque issued by Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical, the company that de- 
signed, developed and is producing op- 
erational versions for the fleet in 1971. It 
is also producing Firebee II for the Air 
Force. 



Tells Techniques 
Of Phased Array 
Antenna System 

Farmingdale, N.Y.:- First detailed dis- 
closure of techniques used by Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical to electronically steer 
the microwave beam of advanced 
phased array antennas was made dur- 
ing the recently concluded Phased Ar- 
ray Antenna Symposium, Polytechnic 
Institute of Brooklyn Graduate Center 
here. 

Dr. Ray Kent, project engineer for 
Teledyne Ryan, gave a technical presen- 
tation co-authored by James P. Weir, Jr., 
entitled, "The Step Recovery Diode: An 
Analog Phase Shifter". 

The patented design has been applied 
to developmental work for the U. S. Army 
MissileCommand and the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration. 

A single step recovery diode (SRD) 
is built into each solid state module of 
the array. Depending on desired fre- 
quency or function, modules are com- 
bined to make a complete array. The 
tiny SRD serves three functions: 

It is the analog phase shifter; the fre- 
quency multiplier; and the local oscil- 
lator. 



Air Force Sets New 
Firebee Flight Mark 

Panama City, Fla.:-An Air Force Firebee 
has established an all-time flight record 
following its 46th flight from Tyndall Air 
Force Base, Florida in support of train- 
ing operations conducted by the Air 
Defense Weapons Center. 

Two more Firebees in the Tyndall in- 
ventory each held 38 flights, surpassing 
flight records held by the Navy at the 
Pacific Missile Range at 33 flights until 
this year. 




"It Was A Head-On Shot" 



PHOTO BY ROBERT A. WEISSINGER 



...gestures Marine Corps Lt. Col. Charles L. Zangas (second from left) describing how he and his 
Radar Intercept Officer, Navy Lt. Cmdr. Ralph S. Magnus (holding scale model) shot down first of the 
Navy's newly-developed supersonic Firebee II aerial targets in June over Pacific Missile Range. 
Witnessing presentation of Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebee II "kill" plaque to Zangas and Magnus 
by Frank X. Marshall, Director, Test and Engineering Support, is Capt. L J. Hopkins, Commanding Officer, 
U. S. Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, Calif., where both officers are attached. 



Please send address changes to: 

TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
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Permit No. 437 




Rvaci's 



reach 




Ryan radars reached . . . and landed on the 
moon. First, five unmanned Surveyors . . . now 
Apollo. And Ryan's Reach is translating the 
advanced technology of those lunar landing 
radars into a new CW, solid state Doppler 
radar for the Lockheed/U. S. Navy S-3A. In 
total darkness and in all weather, the magic 
fingers of Teledyne Ryan's Doppler will add 
precise position measurements to the sub- 
hunting effectiveness of this new ASW air- 
craft. Simple in design and function, the S-3A 
Doppler incorporates 15 years' experience in 
ASW aircraft and helicopter avionics. Micro- 



wave stripline receiver, IMPATT diode trans- 
mitter, automatic land-sea bias and 0.1% 
accuracy mean greater reliability, lighter 
weight, less volume and longer life. Teledyne 
Ryan is also the world leader in pilotless jet 
aircraft, both subsonic and supersonic. In fact, 
Teledyne Ryan Firebee aerial targets have 
challenged America's fighter pilots and ground 
gunners for 20 years. To learn more about 
Ryan's Reach in Doppler, in Firebees, in space 
electronics write Teledyne Ryan Aeronauti- 
cal, 2701 Harbor Dr., San Diego, Cahf. 921 12. 

^W^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONALJnCAL 



4i 122 





ADC controller team of 24th Air Division directs fighter-interceptor to 
target area. In foreground is Intercept Director and Director 
Technician seated at console, while Canadian and U. S. Air Force 
technicians plot action on locater boards. Action symbolizes team 
concept to be used in William Tell-1970 at Tyndall AFB, Florida. 




Volume 31, Numbers 
Fall 1970 



7I^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Managing Editor 

Robert P. Battenfield / Associate Editor 

Robert A. Weissinger, David A. Gossett 

Staff Ptiotograpliers 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 



William Tell-1970 Page 2 

Not since 1965 has the Air Force created an arena of competition 

the likes of this aerial shoot-out. Now, the contestants have been 

selected, the rules drawn. As before, the "Big Apple" is 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's Firebee. 

ECM Is Here Page 10 

Spawned in World War II, concepts for applications of Electronic 

Counter Measures are today being refined as defensive systems for 

all aircraft exposed to hostile ground fire. Calling themselves 

"Old Crows," the nation's experts in the field will soon be holding 

their annual national convention. Their leader, Teledyne Ryan 

Aeronautical's Willie Crawford, gives readers an advance preview 

of what's to come. 

FORT BLISS-An Artist's Sketchbook. Page 17 

Staff artist Bob Watts visited historic Fort Bliss, a living legend of 

America's Frontier days, to render his interpretations of changes 

that have been made over the ensuing years. The REPORTER 

condensed his work into a special, four-page insert and presents 

it in tribute to the U. S. Army Air Defense Center. 

Letter to Hanoi Page 22 

While U. S. POWs and MIA languish in captivity, the mood at home 

grows impatient. Here is an action that individuals can take to 

hopefully bring about a resolution to the problem. The REPORTER 

gratefully acknowledges the courtesy of this reprint from the 

San Diego UNION. 

Divine Arrow Page 24 

Three years ago, when a Firebee field mobility team proved itself 
by supporting Hawk annual service practice firings on the jungle- 
fringed beaches of Panama, a new dimension of capability was 
added. Now, field mobility is a common practice for Firebee teams 
in Southeast Asia. Divine Arrow is a case in point. 

A Case f or Continu ity Pag e 3 1 

A distinguished American and successful industrialist, 

Frank Gard Jameson, bylines his views on the subject of growing 

concern in this nation's aerospace defense complex. His theories 

offer alternatives to procurement policies now in force and 

point to downstream objectives which would result. 

Reprinted with permission of the Armed Forces Journal. 

REPORTER News Page 36 

A standing feature, REPORTER News skims the top off of late- 
breaking stories from around the world in which Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical is involved through products or service capabilities. 






1? $1f 







COVER PHOTO- Dusk is settling in the "Big Sky" 

country of Montana as Malmstrom AFB F-101 

Voodoo "scrambles" to intercept unidentified 

target detected in air spaces assigned to 24th 

Air Division. Fighter-interceptor will be directed 

to target area by ground controllers. 



^ 



"Scramble" horn sends aircrews racing 
from line ready shack at Tyndall AFB for 
their aircraft during William Tell-1 965. 
"Intruder" Firebee (at right) has been 
detected by radar and now becomes the 
target for fighter-interceptor crews. 




wtu 



How ready are this Nation's 
air defenses? Short of actual 
enemy air attacks, the surest 
way of finding out is to create 
an environment of reaHsm, 
then pit ADC's "team" skills 
against all the known odds 
they'd face in actual combat. 
Five years in coming, the 
stage is now set at Tyndall 
AFB, Florida. 



1 




USAF PHOTOS 



\n nil 




It is an aerial combat "tournament of 
champions." Its gladiators have honed 
their skills to a fighting peak. Combat 
techniques are drilled into the subcon- 
scious. Team concepts are established. 
And now there is a cohesive, smooth flow 
of singular purpose behind each move. 

Thus is the stage set in Northwest 
Florida's Gulf of Mexico weapons firing 
range areas for one of the world's most 
unique events of its kind as William Tell 
1970 unfolds at Tyndall Air Force Base, 
October 26 for seven days. The "Aerial 
Weapons World Series" is being hosted by 
the U.S. Air Force Aerospace Defense 
Command's (ADC) Air Defense Weapons 
Center at Tyndall. 

Fighter-interceptors wait in tal<eoff line 

as mission unfolds. Aircraft will be vectored 

by ground control team to target area 

over Gulf of Mexico firing ranges. 





Lieutenant General Thomas K. McGehee, 
Commander Aerospace Defense Command, 
regards William Tell as "the most realistic" 
test possible for North America's air defense. 



From the broad range of scheduled 
competition — which includes day and 
night fighter-interceptor missions — will 
merge North America's championship 
fighter-interceptor teams, teams that in- 
clude all levels of support personnel as 
well as ground controllers. 

More important, from William Tell 1 970 
will come a variety of answers to the ago- 
nizing question: How ready are North 
America's air defenses against an enemy 
air attack? 



At the outset is a backdrop of nagging 
doubts hinged primarily to sufficiency of 
ADC's aging "front-line" hardware, 
namely the F-106 Delta Dart fighter- 
interceptor. Now 12 years old, its stable- 
mates include the F-101 Voodoo and 
F-102 Delta Dagger. 

Into the aerial arena will go nine fighter- 
interceptor units from the United States 
and Canada. They are: ADC's 60th 
Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (FISq) 
equipped with the McDonnell F-101; 
318th FISq equipped with the Convair 
F-106 Delta Dart, and the 71st FISq and 
84th FISq also equipped with the F-106. 
U.S. Air National Guard (ANG) units 
equipped with the Convair F-102 Delta 
Dagger are: the 124th Fighter Group 
(FG), Gowen ANG Base, Boise, Idaho; 
148th FG, Duluth International Airport, 
Minn., and the 142nd FG, Portland, Ore. 
The 1 19th FG, an F-101 equipped ANG 
unit from Hector Field, N.D., represents 
the ANG in the F-101 category. The 
Canadian 409 All Weather Squadron, 
equipped with the F-101, Comax Canadian 
Forces Base, British Columbia, was 
selected by the Canadian Forces as their 
representative in the aerial weapons 
competition. 

Each unit was selected through special 
intercept missions through the year. Un- 
like some previous worldwide meets, 
1970's version of the WilliamTell shoot-out 
will not produce an overall meet winner. 

Just as a "team concept" is character- 
ized in actual combat, William Tell 1970 




Hustle of a William Tell Weapons Meet is characterized by weapons loading unit, working against time during 1965 event. 




will crown North America's top air de- 
fense teams, comprised of ground con- 
trollers, weapons handlers and technicians, 
ground crewmen and aircrewmen. 

The 1 970 version of William Tell will 
be conducted on a strictly enforced "aus- 
terity" basis. Teams will deploy to Tyn- 
dall with no spares. Logistic support costs 
have been sharply reduced. Participating 
teams will be billeted on the base. Closed- 
circuit television coverage of the com- 
petition—a feature that enabled fighter- 
interceptor pilots, aircrews, observers and 
judges to orient themselves to the action 
as it occurred — has been eliminated. 

"It'll be a bare-bones operation," as- 
serted Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Phin- 
ney, ADC project officer for William Tell 
1970. Interviewed at ADC headquarters 
in Colorado Springs, where advance plan- 
ning has been progressing over the past 



Deadly air-to-air missiles being loaded 
(at left) will be fired at "enemy" Firebees in 
test of figfiter-interceptor readiness. 
Team concept of project incorporates pre- 
cisioned efforts of plane crew support 
personnel, such as those (at right) 
preparing for mission. 



year, Phinney said the meet provides "only 
the absolute essentials." 

While hardware sufficiency is one of the 
prime test objectives, under close evalua- 
tion will be individual team ingenuity, re- 
sourcefulness and will to win, Phinney 
stated. 

While glamour and associated elements 
of the spectacular were the key elements 
of previous ADC weapons meets, spirit 
of competition will prevail as the domi- 
nant theme in October, according to 
Phinney. 

Primary objectives for this year's meet 
are to demonstrate team capabilities and 
collect data on weapons systems per- 
formance and effectiveness. 

Discontinued following the 1965 World- 
wide Weapons Meet for reasons associated 
with the Vietnam conflict, William Tell 
biannual meets were formerly held in open 
competition between fighter-interceptor 
squadrons on a worldwide basis. Those 
free-world nations whose air defense mis- 
sions were shared by ADC and its joint 
command gave valid representation to the 
term "worldwide." 

The competition was begun in 1954 as 
an air-to-air rocketry phase of the Third 



Southern Hospitality in 'Abundance' 

TYNDALL AFB, Florida:-The word here in this northwestern corner of the Florida peninsula is 
"Go!" Base action is picking up daily as the calendar moves toward October 26. Not in five years 
has the heavy summer air been so charged with the spirit of gunnery and weapons competition, 
a characteristic common to William Tell meets. 

Brigadier General James F. Price, Commander, Aerospace Weapons Defense Center, host of 
the weel<-long event and himself a fighter pilot, said his command is "going all out" to support 
this 1970 version of the world's most unique event of its kind. 

Unlike William Tell meets of the past, all competing team personnel, numbering in excess of 
350 ground support, weapons loading and aircraft maintenance technicians will be billeted on this 
installation. This logistics factor has been anticipated and "the warm hospitality for which the 
south is noted is ready in abundance," promised Price. 

Aircraft maintenance-handling and support areas are being designated; Base security, supply 
and logistic forces are gearing up to peak levels; targets personnel, perhaps the prime support 
element in a William Tell meet, are matching strides with the rest of the command. 

Arrival of competing teams will begin during the week of October 21, with units converging 
from points throughout the North American continent. From the Canadian Forces Air Defense 
Command will come the 409th All-Weather Squadron, based at Comox, British Columbia. Flying 
the F-101 Voodoo, the 409th is charged with guarding its area of the continent against air attack. 
All units participating contribute mutually to the mission assigned them by the joint U. S.- 
Canadian North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). 

In all, nine teams of four aircraft each will be in contention during the aerial shoot-out. Points 
will not be awarded for aircraft maintenance, since no spares are being allowed in support of 
competing aircraft. This means that aircraft going into the meet must be in peak flying and 
operational condition. Teams will be required to fly each of its aircraft once daily. 

Scores will be compiled from team points gained in live firings at airborne targets, weapons 
loading and the speed and accuracy with which intercept directors guide their pilots. 

Selected by ADC were the 60th, 318th, 71st and 84th Fighter-Interceptor Squadrons. The 60th, 
of Otis AFB, Massachusetts, flies the McDonnell F-101 Voodoo; the 318th, McChord AFB, Wash- 
ington, flies the F-106 Delta Dart as do the 71st and 84th. The 318th, also flying the Convair 
F-106, is the winner of William Tell-1963. It was the first squadron dispatched to the Republic of 
Korea after the seizure of the USS Pueblo in 1968. 

The 71st was in Korea at the time a Navy reconaissance aircraft was shot down by the North 
Koreans. Its Darts flew air defense cover for other reconaissance flights thereafter. 

The 84th has repeatedly deployed to Alaska to stand alert against USSR bombers which con- 
stantly probe frontier installations there. 

Air National Guard units include the 119th Fighter Group in the F-101; 124 FighterGroup, 142 
Fighter Group and 148 Fighter Group, all flying F-102 fighter-interceptors. 




". . . Country safer because we conducted this event. 



99 



Annual U.S. Air Force Fighter Gunnery 
and Weapons Meet held in Arizona. The 
event moved to Tyndall in 1958 and estab- 
lished itself as the USAF Worldwide 
Fighter-Interceptor Weapons Meet. Sub- 
sequent events each two years thereafter 
until 1965 were conducted at Tyndall. 

And, like each event since that time, 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's jet-powered 
Firebee aerial target served as the "Big 
Apple" of the William Tell lore. 

To bag the "Big Apple" was, at the out- 
set, the criterion of success for competing 
fighter-interceptor pilots and aircrews. In 
the 1965 event, a 33-year-old fighter pilot 
nicknamed "Dunn the Gun" by his team- 
mates of the 319th Fighter-Interceptor 
Squadron flew his way into the laurelled 
circle via an F-104 Starfighter. Out of 
1,100 points available in shooting at Fire- 
bee targets. Captain James D. Dunn cap- 
tured 990. 

Dunn's score was assessed via electronic 
scoring systems which will also be em- 
ployed in this year's meet. Measuring 
miss-distances, the system telemeters the 
distance between the target and the weap- 
on fired. This distance is correlated into 
a pre-established plot that reveals the 
effectiveness of weapons fired under actual 




Lieutenant Colonel Joe Phlnney, Project Of- 
ficer for tfiis year's William Tell meet at Tyn- 
dall AFB.termseventa "bare bones" program. 



circumstances. 

A near-miss against the Firebee, which 
is substantially smaller than an actual air- 
craft, would destroy an enemy attacker. 
Scores are compiled on the basis of this 
miss-distance. 




Electronic augmentation systems in- 
stalled in the Firebee also "paint" a radar 
scope image — as desired — of enemy bomb- 
ers or a variety of aircraft personalities. 

Designed for treetop to 60,000-foot 
altitudes inflight operation, Firebees simu- 
late a realistic pattern of evasive maneu- 
vers by remote-control from a ground sta- 
tion. The high-performance target offers 
speed ranges up to high-subsonic regimes 
while twisting and turning through a flight 
profile that exceeds, in some instances, 
the turn and bank capabilities of the 
world's most sophisticated fighter- 
interceptor aircraft. 

Cost effectiveness is a design feature of 
the Firebee, based to a large extent on 
its self-contained parachute recovery 
system. Mission complete, the system 
automatically deploys its canopy and 
descends to either a land or water recovery 
area for retrieval. 

Under Teledyne Ryan contract during 
the 1965 William Tell Weapons Meet, 
Firebee maintenance and support person- 
nel achieved complete turnaround, from 
retrieval to flight-ready status, of targets 
in mere hours. Forty-seven Firebees were 
flown during that seven-day contest. 

William Tell 1965 closed after a week- 
long shoot as the most successful ever, 
having flown more missions, by more air- 
craft for longer periods of time, than ever 
before in a previous meet. In all. 16 
squadrons sent teams to Tyndall after 
winning regional shoot-offs; 685 person- 
nel were involved: 89 pilots flew sorties 
in 61 aircraft: 116 men worked on the 
ground control intercept, guiding pilots 
toward targets, and 480 personnel were 
engaged in the ground support operations. 

Competition was divided into four cate- 
gories, one for each of the four types of 
competing aircraft. Parallel competition 
was held in weapons loading personnel, 
the men charged with arming the jets with 
missiles, rockets and shells. 

The extent of 1965's success was 
heralded throughout the world by news 
services, magazines and other print media: 
a major television network covered the 
events and played it back before world 
audiences, some of whom may have never 
seen a jet aircraft. Recipients of the great- 
est award stemming from the weapons 



Team leader (at left) gets rapt attention 
from unit in pre-mission briefing during 
William Tell 1965. Weapons loading 
personnel (at right) compete against rival 
teams for final standings. 



Jimmy Jumper A Vet of WT Meets in '58"'63 



One of the Aerospace Defense Command's (ADC) senior staff officers, IVIajor 
General Jimmy J. Jumper, Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, was a pilot in the 
William Tell competition during the 1958 and 1963 events. General Jumper 
was a lieutenant colonel in 1953 and Commander of the 48th Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Squadron, a winner of the William Tell weapons loading competition. 
He was the team captain for his squadron, which amassed 6,216 points. 

"It was a great honor and stimulus for our squadron to participate in the 
competition," General Jumper said. "These meets reflect many months of 
intensive training by air and ground crews." 

General Jumper believes the dividends far exceed the cost of William Tell 
competition. "Whether or not air defense squadrons are entered in the com- 
petition, they are still flying and in many caseson temporary duty to locations 
other than their home base. 

"There's nothing magic about winning the competition," says General 
Jumper. "The training is laid out in the manual. The only requirement is 
discipline and a lot of hard work and dedication." 

Implications of William Tell on air defense are outstanding according to 
General Jumper. "This project is a means of quickly assembling a lot of 
statistics and data on how our weapons systems are firing. Air defense officials 
can get a real feel of the quality of performance by air and ground crews. 

"William Tell demonstrates U.S. air defense supremacy as a deterrent 
force," says General Jumper. "And it lets the general public know how ADC 
goes about providing air defense. 








Descending to recovery area in Gulf 
of Mexico under on-board canopy, Firebee 
will be retrieved by boats and returned 
to Tyndall for refurbishment and return to 
flight status. Record for re-use is 47 flights 
achieved by a Firebee at Tyndall this year. 

meet were the men themselves, each a 
champion in his own right, competing in 
an arena of international magnitude. The 
consequences of what unfolded at Tyndall 
in late 1965 could not be measured in 
tangibility, other than through scores 
which had been posted. In practical terms, 
these scores registered pilot and weapons 
systems effectiveness. 

Then came the need to defer make- 
believe combat. And weapons meets of 
William Tell dimensions were placed on 
the shelf, to recall at a later day. 

Now, that day has come. Modest as it 
might be, 1970's William Tell is destined 
to provide those charged with maintaining 
America's air defense, information that 
might someday be vital to the nation's 
very survival. 

Faced with the reality that, while its 
assigned mission has not changed in re- 
cent years, the fighter-interceptor aircraft 
used as front-line hardware are reaching 
the fatigue curve fringes. ADC fighter- 
interceptor pilots, aircrewmen, ground 
support personnel and the balance of the 
fighter-interceptor team, despite annual 
readiness training programs on the local 
levels, spend much of their time in isolated 
deployment, standing their vigil month in- 
month out. 

The spirit of competition, an element 
vital to the mental attitude of men who 
may be the first called upon to respond to 
an enemy air attack against the United 
States, needs periodic reinforcement. 

The Aerospace Defense Command, 
host of William Tell 1970, is the major 
component of the joint U.S.-Canadian 
North American Air Defense Command. 
The man who leads ADC today. Lieu- 
tenant General Thomas K. McGehee, 
regards the weapons meet at Tyndall as 
"the most realistic testing environment 
possible for North America's air defense. 
It is a positive way for gaining an accurate 
evaluation of our air defense capabilities. 

"Regardless of its outcome, in terms of 
point standings and awards made, our 
personnel have benefited. We firmly be- 
lieve the biggest beneficiary of all will be 
the American people," noted General 
McGehee. 

"If the outcome of William Tell 1970 
is what we anticipate it will be, the countr>' 
will be a much safer place to live because 
we conducted this event." -^fi^ 

Firebee "kill" teams from 1965 Weapons 
Meet posed for picture with plaques awarded 
by Frank Gard Jameson. Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical President (at left). Flight 
of fighter-interceptors swoop down out of 
sun (at right) for pass at target. 



v. 





/ 



v^ 



ECM 

IS HERE 



Electronic countermeasures proved 
their worth in the missile-punctuated 
skies over North Vietnam... 



L.CM is here. That's the message. 

Electronic countermeasures is an art. It's the art of staying alive 
— the art of defending a fully-armed, valuable aircraft and its well- 
trained aircrew by means of electronic jamming or deception, 
while flying strategic or tactical missions through hostile airspace. 

First learned in World War II and reinforced by Korea, the 
value of ECM was soon forgotten — until 1965, when aircraft and 
aircrew losses became intolerable over the heavy-flaked, SAM- 
punctuated skies of North Vietnam. 

Then the lesson was learned again. "Wild Weasel 3," a highly 
effective airborne ECM weapons system, is credited for turning 
the tide of the air war over North Vietnam between U.S. fighter 
bombers and the deadly Russian-built surface-to-air missiles. 
With Wild Weasel, for the first time an aircrew was empowered to 
deceive, jam, evade and destroy upcoming enemy missiles and the 
enemy radar stations on the ground. 

Primary platform for the Wild Weasel was the Republic Aviation 
F-105F Thunderchief, a two-place version that accompanied other 
fighter-bomber aircraft on strike missions. The planes carried a 
pilot and an electronic warfare officer (EWO). A number of 
McDonnell-Douglas RB-66 tactical bombers were employed also. 

Air Force Lt. Col. William P. "Robbie" Robinson piloted an 
F-105F Wild Weasel mission on July 5, 1966, with EWO Lt. Col. 
Peter Tsouprake. They destroyed four North Vietnamese SAM 
sites in a period of 25 minutes. Colonel Robinson has commented: 

"In escorting the strike flights on the 5th of July, two SAM 
sites came up (activated their radar tracking sensors) on our way 
in. We had to attack these boys and turn them off the air to get 
into the target area, which was about 1 5 or 20 miles north of Hanoi. 

"While in the target area, another SAM site came up threaten- 
ing the strike force, and, of course, we attacked and got him. 

"And on the way back out another SAM site came up to block 
our exit out of the target area. At that point we had only one pod 
of rockets and 20mm cannon ammunition remaining. 

"He fired two SAMs at us. We managed to acquire (the site) 
visually, put the rockets on him, and machine gunned him out of 
commission." 



By Robert P. Battenfield 



11 



""^ 



Experience gained in Southeast Asia 
has proven the value of an effective ECM 
system. Lt. Gen. Jack J. Catton, USAF, 
beheves the lesson will not be forgotten 
this time, because at last electronic war- 
fare has received widespread recognition. 

"Successful application of aerospace 
power is absolutely dependent upon a 
comprehensive and viable EW program," 
he said recently. 

Another active voice is that of Claud C. 
Pinson, of Pinson Associates, Inc., a 
retired USAF Lieutenant Colonel and a 
national director of the Association of Old 
Crows, the national organization of elec- 
tronic warfare. 

Writing a guest editorial in Microwaves, 
Pinson observed, "I see the SEA conflict 
as a major catalyst in bringing about re- 
forms in the development trends which 
should result in more operational use being 
made of EW in the future. 

"...I see an increase in the overall use 
of EW devices, which will be incorporated 



ECM Protects Israeli Phantoms 

ECM broke into the headlines 
dramatically this summer. This time 
it was the Israeli-Arab conflict. As 
the season began, Israel Defense 
Minister Moshe Dayan remarked, 
"This summer is going to be an 
electrifying one, an electronic one." 
TIME Magazine reported: "By an 
electronic summer, Dayan meant 
clashes between Soviet-built, radar 
controlled Egyptian surface-to-air 
missiles and Israeli jets equipped 
with electronic countermeasure 
(ECM) devices." 

Syndicated Columnist Paul Scott 
also wrote: "The United States has 
begun furnishing Israel highly so- 
phisticated missile-jamming equip- 
ment to combat the recent replace- 
ment of Soviet-built SA-3 and SA-2 
missiles near the Suez Canal. Sale 
of these electronic countermeasure 
(ECM) devices... were authorized 
by President Nixon several weeks 
ago but never publicly announced." 

"By letting Israel use the new 
ECM devices," Scott continued, "it 
is the hope of President Nixon that 
this equipment is effective enough 
to cut down on the losses of Amer- 
ican-built aircraft, particularly." 



niiPtBP 

■^^NTERVIEW. 



Teledyne Ryan's Willie Crawford, National 
President of the Association of Old Crows, 
discusses the future of Electronic Warfare . . 



That William S. Crawford is a respected 
spokesman for the Electronic Warfare 
industry is a fact attested to by his election 
— and re-election for a second term — to 
the post of National President of the 
Association of Old Crows. Under his 
leadership, the Crows have come out of 
their "black boxes" to take the wraps off 
some of the mystery of their art. Mem- 
bership in the AOC has increased 33 per- 
cent in the past two years. National 
publications have begun to acknowledge 
the existence — and the value — of electronic 
warfare and electronic countermeasures. 
National leaders in military and govern- 
ment are beginning to join forces to main- 
tain and improve the nation's capabilities 
in electromagnetic defense. 

This October marks the Seventh Annual 
Convention of the Association of Old 
Crows. For the second year, the con- 
vention will be held in conjunction with a 
joint Department of DefenselAOC Elec- 
tronic Warfare Symposium. Classified 
sessions will be held in California at El 
Toro Marine Air Station, with housing 
based at the nearby Disneyland Hotel and 
the banquet at the Anaheim Convention 
Center. Dates are October 5-8. 

The Crows take their name from the 
historical symbol of EW — the black bird. 
During WWII, the British used the code 
word "Raven" to refer to their chaff-dis- 
pensing and radar jamming aircraft, which 
carried a coat oj' black paint. Since Amer- 
ican ravens are called crows, and since 
the Association was founded in 1963 by 
professional EW men who had served in 
the field since the 1940s, the term "Old 
Crows" came easily. 

Crawford is known by senators, admirals 
and scientists as "Willie", a nickname he 
carried down from his birthplace in rural 
Tennessee. He served 16 years active 
duty in the U.S. Air Force, and was affili- 
ated with Raytheon, Loral, and American 
Electronic Laboratories before joining 
Teledyne Ryan in 1966. 
12 



Q. What is the status of Electronic Warfare 
today? 

A. There are a lot of people who say we've 
never had it so good. EW systems are fi- 
nally being included in basic aircraft de- 
sign while the plane is still on the drawing 
board, rather than squeezing the ECM or 
EW device into a pod and hanging it on the 
plane externally, as was usually done in 
the past. 

But I see the problem as a continuing 
one. Every aircraft in the U.S. inventory, 
every ship, every ground vehicle that is 
liable to come in contact with an enemy 
who is equipped with any kind of elec- 
tronic sensors or electronically controlled 
weapons — any of these expensive U.S. 
weapons systems ought to be able to de- 
fend itself through ECM. 

Q. What about "Wild Weasel," the airborne 
ECM used so successfully in the bombing 
missions over North Vietnam? 

A. Wild Weasel and these other programs 
have been fine. They have shown the 
"Doubting Thomases" in the Congress 
and in the Pentagon that you need ECM 
to stay alive in a hostile environment where 
the enemy is following your every move 




ECM systems are currently being applied to 

strike fighter escorts aircraft, such as the 

F-4 Phantom at right, according to Crawford. 




i •■■*g. 




on radar, and just waiting to pop you with 
a missile. 

But these ECM systems in current use 
have been placed primarily on strike es- 
cort aircraft. Not every plane in the strike 
force has been equipped with a fully 
defensive ECM system. That's what needs 
to be done. 

Q. You use the term "defense" in discussing 
electronic warfare or electronic counter- 
measures. Are EW systems considered de- 
fensive or offensive? 

A. ECM is defensive. The aircraft or ship 
using the ECM may be on what could be 
called an offensive mission — they could be 
hunting or attacking— but the ECM gear 
itself is on there for defense. 




"The Crows have given EW a national platform, a national voice." 



Q. What sort of future do you see for elec- 
tromagnetic defense systems? 

A. Potentially, there is a tremendous mar- 
ket in the next decade for EMD systems. 
There is talk about an "electronic battle- 
field" with remotely controlled weapons 
doing all the searching and shooting. That 
sort of thing will need countermeasures 
and counter-countermeasures. And if you 
believe Senator Proxmire, the "electronic 
battlefield" could run out to $20 billion. 
Also, you see the Soviets doing more 
things with Missiles. They have SA-3 
SAM's operating in Egypt. And they have 
the Styx shipborne missile. Electromag- 
netic defensive systems are being worked 
out to counter these threats. 

But on the dollars, I maintain that there 
is a hardcore dollar potential that should 
be spent on the actual funding of ECM 
system R&D, and on the actual procure- 
ment of ECM hardware in the next five 
years. But it needs to be sold to Congress 
and to top management in the Pentagon. 



Q. What is your definition of EW? What 
disciplines does the term encompass? 



A. Electronic Warfare encompasses such 
things as active ECM, which is jamming 
the enemy radar with noise or by deceiv- 
ing him with false echoes, and passive 
ECM, which is detecting and analyzing 
enemy radar signatures. Then there's 
SIGINT, signal intelligence, which is mon- 
itoring, recording and analyzing enemy 
radar or radio signals. And there's 
COMINT, or communications intelligence, 
which is eavesdropping, more or less, to 
enemy voice communications. Finally, I 
should include ECCM, electronic counter- 
countermeasures, which is designed to 
eliminate the affects of the enemy's ECM. 
The term for our brand of witchcraft 
started out as Radar Countermeasures, 
then Electronic Countermeasures, then 
Electronic Warfare, which has been con- 
sidered a broader term. Now, in our dic- 
tionary, "warfare" has always been 
construed as a defensive action. 

Q. What is the Association of Old Crows 
doing to further the selling of these 
programs? 

13 



A. Our October Convention is evidence of 
what we are doing. This is ajoint, Depart- 
ment of Defense-Old Crow meeting. 
We're endorsed. That means a lot. Our 
convention serves as a way for industry 
and military to exchange ideas. The mili- 
tary can outline its requirements, and the 
industry can offer up its capabilities and 
new techniques. 

The Crows have given EW a national 
platform, a national voice. We are trying 
to demonstrate that EW is necessary for 
our national security. What we need are 
more senior military people who can ex- 
press the need for continuing EW R&D. 
We have many friends in Congress and 
are working to win more friends on the 
Hill. I believe if senior military men would 
go to Congress to ask for funding of new 
EW programs, that they would get it. 

You see, fighter aircraft are costing 
more and more as we use exotic metals 
and fancy fire control systems. We need to 
put EW systems aboard to protect our in- 
vestment. Our country's decision-makers 
need to realize this. 



/^^^ where Risk is High: Firebee 




more and more into the conceptual and 
developmental phases of all weapons." 

Pilotless aircraft have obvious applica- 
tion to missions in which the risk of losing 
a pilot is high. 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's un- 
manned Firebee aerial jet target system 
has demonstrated the capability to carry 
more than 1000 pounds additional pay load 
over a range of more than 600 nautical 
miles. 

In a series of test flights at Naval Mis- 
sile Center, Pt. Mugu, and at Holloman 
AFB, N.M., the Firebee BQM-34 dem- 
onstrated it could carry a variety of elec- 
tronic countermeasures equipments. 

Included were the AN/ALE-33 chaflF 
dispenser, the AN/ALE-9 chaff rocket, 
the AN/DLQ active deception ECM sys- 
tem, and a series of active jammer ECM 
systems designated AN/ALT-6, -13, 
and -2 1 . 

Since these 1968 demonstrations, the 
BQM-34A has become operational as a 
chaff dispenser drone for Air Force and 
Navy target programs, and the Navy uses 
the chaff rocket technique as well. Es- 
sentially, the Firebee is capable of deploy- 
ing a reward-streaming chaff cloud in de- 
fense against a tail attack, or a forward- 
streaming chaff cloud in defense against 
head-on intercept. 

In either case, the tiny metallic strips of 
chaff obscure the radar return signature 
of the target, thus creating greater target 
realism to sharpen the skills of Navy and 
Air Force pilot crews. 

Firebee has demonstrated the capability 



Roaring from its ground launch pad, 
BQM-34 A Firebee carries pair of 100-gallon 
auxiliary fuel tanks, extending range. 



I 



^ 




Firebee in flight carries radar Towbees 
on each wingtip, providing radar-homing 
missiles with expendable tow target. 



to carry a variety of wing-mounted pods. 
These pods have contained formation 
control equipment, passive radar reflec- 
tors, infrared flares, or propane/electrical 
burners. Firebee can carry multiple infra- 
red or radar Towbee targets that can be 
released and towed as far as 5000 feet 
behind the remotely controlled target. 
Another tow system is the visual or radar 
banner target, and a third is a combination 
or active and passive radar augmenta- 
tion systems. Finally, under its wings 
Firebee can carry two lOO-gallon auxiliary 
fuel tanks, or two 500-pound bombs, or 
two SUU-7 bomb dispensers. 

Teledyne Ryan's unmanned Firebee 
target systems are uniquely suited to a 
variety of tactical missions — missions 
where the risk is high. -^S^ 

Twenty-five pound Towbee is mounted 
on Firebee wingtip as tectinician installs 
flare burning detector to tail structure. 






\-. . -\ V 



Flame trails BQM-34A equipped with increased JATO power to lift added weight 
of two SUU-7 bomblet dispensers. 




FORT BLISS 

an artistes 
sketchbook 



Headquarters for the U. S. Army Air Defense Center, historic 
Fort Bliss incorporates a complex of desert firing ranges in near- 
by New Mexico. It is here that thousands of Army and Free World 
forces deploy annually for training. It is here also, that Reporter 
staff artist Bob Watts visited last month. His assignment was to 
render in sketchbook form those scenes which he found most 
impressive. The results of that assignment are reproduced in 
this special, four-page supplement to the Reporter. 







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Sighed 



To the President of North Vietnam 



An English translation of the Vietnamese 
letter to the left follows: 

To the Honorable Ton Due Thang: 

We take this means of appealing to you 
on a situation which is close to the hearts 
of all Americans. This issue is not whether 
Americans should be in Vietnam or 
whether we should pull all our troops out 
immediately. The issue is not whether 
you are right and we are wrong or that we 
are right and you are wrong. 

The issue is the 450 American service- 
men who are held in your prison camps. 
Another 1150 are listed as missing and 
possibly some are your prisoners. 

Their situation is our united concern. 

Both the "doves and the hawks" of 
America feel deeply about them and their 
welfare. We ask you to consider their im- 
mediate release. They have no military 
value to you. They can't hurt or hamper 
your war effort and no longer would help 
ours. 

These men, like your soldiers, do not 
institute policy but merely serve as soldiers 
have done since time began. Like your 
men, they performed their duty and were 
willing to sacrifice for their country. Like 
your soldiers, they left their homes and 
families not because they wanted to but 
because their country called on them. 



(Reprinted from the San Diego Union) 

Patriotism is not limited to the men of 
Vietnam or to the men of America but is 
the privilege of all men. They fight under 
their flag whether it be red, white and blue 
or red, yellow and blue. 

Your supporters in this country could 
take satisfaction from the release of the 
prisoners. This, more than anything else, 
would demonstrate that you, too, do not 
seek revenge against men who did their 
duty. This, too, would show the world that 
compassion, not punishment, can lead to 
peace. 

The arguments of your critics that 
human life means nothing to you would be 
baseless if you allowed just peace by act- 
ing quickly to the appeal. 

If your heart contains mercy and your 
soul compassion and if you truly seek to 
help the cause of peace, you have an op- 
portunity to achieve these images in the 
eyes of the world. 

The feeling here is that you don't care 
about the individual; that his needs and 
wants and desires don't matter; that life 
is not sacred to you. 

Your actions can give lie to these beliefs. 
An act of amnesty toward American 
prisoners would show the world that you 
are concerned with life and that all life is 
sacred. 



Family ties in America are strong and 
all Americans want these men reunited 
with their families. Some fathers have 
never seen their children. Some are miss- 
ing the joy of watching them grow. 

And, the children, they live with a con- 
stant dream and hope that they may again 
be a whole family. 

Few men in the history of the world 
have been given the opportunity that 
you now have. 

History can record you as a man of 
compassion; a man who respected human 
life and held it in high value; a man who 
held that family life is paramount provid- 
ing a measure of peace to many families. 

Return these men to their families and 
the world would hail you. Retain them and 
your supporters can't help but wonder 
about your sincerity and motives. 

We address you not as one enemy to 
another but as one human to another. 

As citizens of the United States we have 
no power to offer anything as individuals 
but goodwill in exchange for the men you 
hold. We have no power to make threats 
if you don't. 

We only have hope; hope that you will 
heed the pleas and restore these men to 
their families. 



'We take this means of appealing to you...' 



Could the pressure of world opinion change the ideas and con- 
cepts of men who believe America would abandon its servicemen 
held as prisoners of war? 

One problem in the complicated relationship between the North 
Vietnam government and U.S. thinking, most experts agree, is the 
inability of the Vietnamese Communists to understand American 
public opinion. 

The result is that the protests of a few in a 
huge country have been accepted as the voice of 
the entire nation. 

One way to get the word through to North 
Vietnam is through letters to Ton Due Thang, 
President of the Democratic Republic of 
Vietnam. 

Another method of informingthe Hanoi leaders 
is through a form letter, a favorite method of 
those seeking to change public opinion in other 
world governmental centers. The formal letter 
(at left) written in the Vietnamese language, 
contains information which many believe should 
be relayed to Hanoi. (A translation in English, 
in somewhat less formal language, is above. The 
translation into Vietnamese and the actual 
writing of the letter was done by a Vietnamese 
citizen now living in San Diego whose family is 
still in Saigon.) 

"The North Vietnamese want the respect of 
world opinion," is the way Mrs. James B. Stock- 
dale of Coronado has put it. "We believe that the 



HOW AND WHERE TO 
SEND YOUR LETTER... 

Copies of the adjoining letter to 
Fon Due Thang, President of the 
Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 
may be mailed for 25 cents to Hanoi. 

The letter, written in Vietnamese, 
should be torn out on the perforated 
line, folded into an airmail enve- 
lope, and mailed to: 

Ton Due Thang, President 
Democratic Republic of Vietnam 
Hanoi, North Vietnam 

A test pre-copy of the letter which 
was addressed, sealed and weighed 
indicated that 25 cents in U.S. 
postage would cover the mailing 
costs. 



cumulative voices of indignation from people all over the world will 
have a profound influence on the North Vietnamese if they want to 
be recognized as a respectable government in the world community." 
Mrs. Stockdale has firm reasons for her firm feelings. Her husband, 
Capt. James Bond Stockdale, USN, is the senior ranking naval of- 
ficer held prisoner in the Vietnam War. She is national coordinator 
for the non-political National League of Families of American Pris- 
oners in Southeast Asia. She has traveled ex- 
tensively during the past two years attempting 
to gather information on POWs. 

"We hope the North Vietnamese find it in 
their hearts to reconsider their reluctance to 
accord our men the basic standards of decency," 
Mrs. Stockdale explains. "Surely they can see 
that it would be a short sighted victory to earn 
the contempt of the world community for the 
sake of holding our men as political pawns in 
the Vietnam conflict." 

Many U.S. civic groups and several news- 
papers recently have joined in the campaign to 
provide a flow of letters to North Vietnam. 

A similar letter was published recently in the 
Pottstown, Pa., Mercury. 

"One copy of this edition sent to the leaders in 
North Vietnam will mean little," the newspaper 
explained in an editorial. 

"If thousands of readers send the letter to the 
President of North Vietnam, release of the 
prisoners just might happen." 



23 



Less than 100 miles across 
the Strait of Taiwan looms 
the ominous threat. Air 
attack could come against 
this island stronghold of 
Nationalist China at any 
time. Should this happen, a 
first line of defense would 
be Taiwan's... 



SOUTH KOREA 




RED CHINA 



OKINAWA 



TAIWAN 








Hawk missile belclies towering billow of flame and smoke as it is launched from Divine Arrow firing site on northern 
tip of Taiwan during annual Service Practice Firings by Chinese National Army's 605th Air Defense Missile Group. 
"Enemy" stand-in is Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical' s Firebee, towing Towbee targets. 



OT^rnr ai?i?ow 



By Jack G. Broward 
Photos by Dave Gossett 



TAMSHUI BEACH, Taiwan: -It is here tliat the military strength of Na- 
tionalist China could be put to its stiffest test. Facing the land mass of 
Red China across the Strait of Taiwan, this island stronghold lives under 
the constant threat of enemy air attack. 

Located some 15 minutes from the teeming capital of Taipei, Divine 
Arrow is the nickname for the National Chinese Army's 605th Aerial 
Defense Missile Group commanded by Major General Mao-Tao-Chioh. 

The beach compound area bristles with a network of Hawk missile 
batteries and associated support equipment. A mood of modest, self- 
confidence characterizes the installation, which juts out from the north- 
ernmost point of Taiwan. 

Behind the chain-link fence which sets it apart from surrounding 
farmlands. Divine Arrow is posed as a picture of startling contrasts 
against a quiltwork backdrop of rice paddies, coolies tilling the fields 
behind their water buffalo beasts of burden. From its sentry-guarded 





Sentry (at left) stationed at gates to Divine Arrow eyes photographer 
guardedly as farmer whose land runs to edge of air defense installation 
tries to shoo his water buffalo back to fields after grazing through the night. 









gates seaward exists a complex of ultra- 
modern sophistication, advanced weapons 
systems with support equipment demand- 
ing skills of precision-trained technicians. 

It is this community, under the leader- 
ship of men such as General Mao, which 
bears major responsibilities today for safe- 
guarding this island home of millions of 
Nationalist Chinese against attack. 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical is filling 
a role of key support in this air defense 
effort through the use of its Okinawa- 
based Firebee Field Mobility Support 
Team. Deployed to Taiwan for its third 
year in support of Hawk Annual Service 
Practice (ASP) firings this Spring, the 
22-man support team was credited for 
"significant contributions" to the success 
ofthe ASP firings. 

Responsible to the U.S. Army Missile 
Command for contractor support missions, 
the team was established three years ago 
to support field mobility weapons firing 
programs. While it is based at Okinawa 
where ASP firings for the U.S. Army's 
30th Artillery Brigade are held, the team 
also deploys to South Korean firing ranges 
in support of U. S. as well as South Korea 
Army air defense units. 

Leading the Teledyne Ryan team is 
Michael T. Savino, who heads up a staff 
of airframe, propulsion and avionics 
technicians, "the most outstanding group 
of men I've ever worked with," notes 
Savino. 

Deployed to Taipei several weeks in 
advance ofthe ASP firings, Savino's team 
establishes residence in the city near Sung- 
Shan Air Base. Hangar facilities are desig- 
nated by liaison authorities and it is here 
that MQM-34D Firebee-Towbee sys- 
tems, spare and ground support equipment 
are air-lifted from Okinawa for the ad- 
vance build-up. An on-site hangar facility 
is also established at Divine Arrow where 
the Mobile Tracking and Control van is 
also flown in from the Okinawa base and 
placed into position. 

Firebee-Towbee units are trucked from 
Sung-Shan Air Base to the launch site at 



Ominous fog rolls in over launch site (left) 
where Firebee with nose pointed toward Red 
China mainland awaits remote-controlled 
command for launch. Note Towbee targets on 
wingtip which will be streamed behind 
Firebee in firing of Hawks. Chinese markings 
on sign at right spell out Divine Arrow, Site 7. 

27 




Like youngsters anywhere, pair of toddlers from nearby 
farm have selected a ringside seat for the action that 
accompanies annual Hawk practice firings. 








Propulsion technician assembles Firebee's 
jet turbine engine at Sung-Shan Airbase 
outside Taipei (upper left) as another of 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical team technicians 
installs Towbee target wiring as launch 
operations approach at Divine Arrow site. 



Divine Arrow, assembled and pre-flight 
checked for operational readiness. Mean- 
while, missile crews of Gen. Mao's 605th 
Air Defense command undergo readiness 
defense preparations. 

An air of peaceful tranquility is sudden- 
ly charged with anticipation as the firing 
dates near. The pure military personality 
of this firing exercise creates mounting 
curiosity and excitement. Divine Arrow 
becomes a focal point of national interest 
in nearby Taipei as the hour approaches 
for firing operations of the Hawk missiles 
out over the Strait of Taiwan. 

An observer can detect a source of 
special national pride and achievement 
in the comments that herald the upcoming 
firings. One Nationalist Chinese Army 
officer reasoned that the Hawk firing prac- 
tice is a major morale factor to citizens 
of this island government. "Our confidence 
in being able to repel an enemy is rein- 
forced by these events," he explained. 

If it is a source of confidence to Na- 
tionalist Chinese citizens here. Hawk ASP 
firings are also a source of great satisfac- 
tion to U. S. and allied military organiza- 
tions who look to Taiwan as a bastion in 
the bulwark of defenses guarding against 



Bustling downtown Taipei streets (above left) 
are mixture of Eastern and Western cultures 
with mixture of English-Chinese billboards 
and signs advertising goods and services. 
Hotels are modern, offering special rates to 
U.S. military personnel on leave from combat 
in South Vietnam areas. Teledyne Ryan 
technicians fuel Firebee for engine run-up 
tests at Sung-Shan Airbase (at left). 




Firebee being lifted from transport dolly is silfiouetted against bright sun at Sung-Shan Airbase, which 

serves as staging facility for Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical team deployed from Okinawa. Technicians 

below restore wing surfaces (at left) following damages sustained in flight operations and check out 

avionics package (at right) on test equipment which simulates flight condition. 




29 





Red China's expansion beyond its existing 
borders. 

Just as it fills a icey role of support for 
National Chinese Army Hawk ASP fir- 
ings, Savino's Firebee mobile team is 
duplicating this effort in South Korea. 
Currently on-site some fifty miles south 
of Osan, So. Korea, operational launches 
are to be conducted from early September 
through late October. The Teledyne Ryan 
team shifts back to its Okinawa base to 
support U. S. Hawk practice firings from 
November through December. 

Unlike any other Firebee operations, 
conducted routinely from Puerto Rico's 
Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range and, in the 
desert areas of New Mexico, Teledyne 
Ryan's USARPAC (U. S. Army Pacific) 
team is an integral part of the front-line 
effort that goes into this defense network. 

"We're aware that our position is not 
far removed from the action, if and when it 
should come," Savino commented. "It is 
this knowledge that unites our effort with 
those of our military customers." 

There was more than a casual note of 
gratitude expressed in the words of Gen- 
eral Mao to Savino's crew following the 
Taiwan operations this year. 

"You have contributed in a great mea- 
sure to the success of our exercise. Your 
preparations and flight plans were well 
conducted. This outstanding service and 
the capacity it represents are the priceless 
properties and tradition of your company. 

"I look forward to your cooperation in 
the future." "^^ 



Nationalist Chinese Army General Mao 
J ao-Chioh, Commander of 605th Air Defense 
Missile Group at Divine Arrow, exchanges 
a broad grin for scale-model Firebee pre- 
sented by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical' s 
Mike Savino, team leader for the Firebee 
support unit. 



"Enemy" Fire bee-Tow bee will soon be out over waters of Strait of Taiwan on a course that simulates air attack. 




I 




"If present trends continue, the United States, a very few years 

fience, will find itself clearly in second position -with the Soviet 

Union undisputably the greatest military power on earth." 

President Richard M. Nixon 



peiirtar 

■^Commentary 



A Case for Continuity in the Weapons War 




By Frank Gard Jameson 
President, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 



Editor's note: "A Case for Continuity in the Weapons War" 
was a guest article written at the invitation of the Armed 
Forces Journal editors. It appeared in the July 25, 1970 
edition and is reprinted with permission of the Journal. It 
has also been published in the Congressional Record. 



America is losing tine weapons war to Russia. 

Winy? Why are tine Russians surpassing us in weapons 
teclnnology? Wliat is paralyzing the American military in- 
dustry complex while the Soviets continue to build their 
military might? 

We are losing the weapons war with Russia because of 
our methods of procurement of military hardware. Time, 
money, talent and technological advance are wasted 
because of the spasmodic, inefficient, feast-or-famine 
way we do business in the buying and selling of military 
goods. 

Immediate remedial action is required. U. S. defense 
procurement practices must be restructured to more 
adequately respond to this direct Communist threat to 
our national security. 

Some will term my solution radical. But I believe it is a 
direct and simple idea that merits serious consideration. 
I have discussed the basic outline of my proposal with 
our nation's leading thinkers in defense systems in the 
active military, in the Congress, in the Department of 
Defense, and in the aerospace industry. They agree in 
principle. 

The labor of weapons manufacture should be organized 
something like this: 

The Air Force, for example, wanted a new bomber air- 
craft. From among several bidders, three companies 
were selected and eventually the contract was awarded 
to North American Rockwell. I propose that a short 
competition should be held within the next year in which 
another company-one which is fully qualified to design 
and build a new bomber- should be awarded a new con- 
tract to design a follow-on, a second prototype Air Force 
bomber. This new bomber should be looking ahead at 
least four years in design, in technology, in threat analy- 
sis, and so forth. It should anticipate and incorporate 
technological advances that will be achieved in the next 
four years. 



31 





"Similar long-term manufacturing programs could be established for military VTOL and 
VISTOL aircraft," the author points out. The Ryan XV-5B, now is NASA Ames' flight tests, 
pioneered in the development of fan-in-wing technology. 



Likewise, anotlner aircraft manu- 
facturer sliould be selected now to 
build a follow-on to the Grumman/ 
Navy F-14 fighter, while still another 
company should begin now to de- 
sign a successor to the McDonnell- 
Douglas Air Force F-15 fighter. 

In other words, Company A, which 
won the first production contract, 
would be going operational with its 
system about the time that the fol- 
low-on designs would be ready for a 
prototype competition. Meanwhile, 
Company A would be building im- 
provements into its system. Thus, a 
ifollow-on design would always be 
ready to go into production while 
current production models would 
receive incremental improvements 
as long as they were cost effective. 

In every case, the lion's share of 
the market would go to the best 
designer. And most importantly, we 
would have continuity of produc- 
tion. We would not be faced with a 
long period when our aircraft be- 
came obsolescent without suitable 
replacements available. And, if 
by chance, a production model 
turned out to be a lemon, we 
wouldn't have to continue produc- 
tion because there was nothing else 
on the horizon. 

What we need, I believe, is a new 
program of military procurement 
that has continuity built into it. 



Technological advances should not 
be allowed to become a "horse race" 
with competing firms experiencing 
the costly inefficiencies of begin- 
ning from a dead start. Instead, 
technological advances should be 
allowed to come in the manner of a 
"leap frog," with each company com- 
peting to overtake the other with a 
better weapons system. 

Individual firms would settle into 
a price-output position fairly satis- 
factory to all from the viewpoint of 
profit or "new capital." DoD would 
administer and adjudicate to ensure 
that the best national interest con- 
tinued to be served. Production 
would continue as long as demand 
continues to exist, which in the 
Nuclear Age means as long as the 
United States and its allies are 
faced with the threat of Communist 
aggression. 

Each firm would make improve- 
ments in each model as weapons 
systems technologies advance. We 
would not wait until our inventory 
aircraft were completely outdated 
to start mission requirements. 
Operational forces would be ser- 
viced continuously with updated, 
reliable weapons systems. 

Similar long-term manufacturing 
programs could be established for 
military VTOL and V/STOL aircraft; 
Army vehicles and tanks; missiles, 

32 



rockets and bombs of all types; even 
major ship systems. I believe this 
approach can find application toany 
major military supplier, to any 
prime military contractor. 

What Would Be Gained? 
Achieved through this approach 
will be the following benefits: 

(1) America's national security will 
be better defended and protected. 

(2) Weapons technology will be 
continuously updated and improved. 

(3) The defense industry will be- 
come stablized, with steadier prod- 
uction flows and levels of employ- 
ment. Continuity of production and 
employment is one of the principal 
goals of my proposal. 

(4) The value of independent re- 
search and development— the "life- 
line" of growth and productivity- 
will be recognized and rewarded. 
R&D can be pursued with the knowl- 
edge that goals are firmly estab- 
lished and future markets fairly well 
assured. 

(5) Although not "pure compe- 
tition" in a sense, this system retains 
a strong element of free competi- 
tion among companies for new busi- 
ness and follow-on business. 

(6) Most importantly, the balance 
of weapons strength among the 
world's nuclear powers will be more 
likely to shift to America's favor 
once again. The Russians and the 
Red Chinese will be less likely to 
take that final step that risks world 
annihilation. 

How does this procurement sys- 
tem differ from outright nationaliza- 
tion of the defense industry? Na- 
tionalization means the surrender 
of ownership of industrial firms to 
the national government. It also can 
mean the investment of control of 
industry in the national government. 

In regard to the latter definition, 
we already have a form of national- 
ization of the defense industry. The 
national government already tells 
the defense contractor what he can 
build, how much he can build, what 
cost accounting formula he can use, 
how much profit he will be allowed, 
and so forth. In effect, the national 
government already controls the 
defense industry. The government 



''...Americans are suddenly faced with the hard fact that this 
Nation's technological edge in weapons superiority has been lost. 



controls both the demand for the 
product, as sole customer, and the 
supply of the product, as creator of 
the requirement. In fact, it is pre- 
cisely because of the depth of this 
control that so many defense firms 
are being pushed toward diversifica- 
tion, toward the formation of con- 
glomerates, and even toward step- 
ping out of the defense business al- 
together. 

My proposal offers a means to 
codify the limits of existing govern- 
mental control, and places this con- 
trol within a manageable, mutually 



responsible, mutually beneficial re- 
lationship between government and 
industry. In no way does my proposal 
indicate nationalization of the own- 
ership of industry. Ownership of 
industry would remain in the hands 
of company stockholders. 

Under my proposal, the defense 
industry would have to be restruc- 
tured. I see the new structure along 
lines similar to the automobile in- 
dustry. Production should be estab- 
lished on a continuing assembly line 
basis, on-going, year after year. 
Right now the defense industry 



should be manufacturing the 1970 
models of defense equipment and 
hardware. In the back shop we 
should be tooling up and scheduling 
for the 1971 and 1972 models. We 
should be ready so that on Friday 
when the 1970 production run is 
completed, we can start the 1971 
model production on Monday, with- 
out missing a day and without ex- 
periencing a costly layoff. 

At the same time, we should have 
designs in work of the 1975 models. 
We should be talking to our custom- 
ers about improvements of the 1973 



Production should be established "on a continuing assembly line basis, on-going, year after year," Jameson asserts. 





"VJhai we need is a new program of military procurement that lias continuity built into it." Teledyne Ryan's 
Firebee has offered to the Army, Navy and Air Force a continuity in target systems for more than two decades. 



''If we are weak and have inferior weapons, we will have war. 
If we are strong, there will be no war."— Cong. L. Mendel Rivers 



models. And in our "think tanks," 
our advanced systems specialists 
should be using their computers 
and creative talents to dream up the 
weapons systems of 1980 and 
1990. At the least, we ought to be 
working and planning five years 
ahead. Many auto manufacturers 
are drawing designs and building 
mockups of automobiles that will 
roll off the Detroit production lines 
ten years from now, in 1980. 
Contractors, Not Manufacturers 
People think of the U. S. defense 
business as a manufacturing busi- 
ness. And it was for a brief time dur- 
ing World War II. Several contrac- 
tors built the same weapons sys- 
tems to the same design that time 
of national mobilization. But dur- 
ing peacetime, the development and 
procurement of weapons systems 
bears no similarity whatsoever to 
the manufacturing business. 

In truth, we are not in the "manu- 
facturing business." We do not 
manufacture products in the sense 



of an organized, systematic pro- 
gram of planning designing, tooling, 
producing and marketing a specific 
weapons system for a long-term 
business cycle. 

Instead, we are in the "contract- 
ing business." We are in a business 
full of costly, wasteful stops and 
starts, a business based more on 
short-term expediency than on long- 
term productivity. Dependent on an- 
nual budget renewals, we face a 
yearly battle for continued survival. 

Being in the contracting business, 
the defense industry is really more 
similar to the housing industry 
than it is to the automobile industry. 

The housing contractor hires his 
architect and before the first board 
is cut, unless he has another devel- 
opment down the road, the contrac- 
tor has to let the architect go. The 
same thing follows with the carpen- 
ters, electricians, plumbers and 
roofers. 

In the aerospace contracting busi- 
ness, a hard drive is made for a de- 

34 



fense program. Some preliminary 
design is accomplished, some com- 
puter modeling, some independent 
R&D. Usually a large engineering 
team is amassed to demonstrate to 
the military buyers that the com- 
pany has the capability "in being" 
to do the job. If contract award is 
delayed, as is too often the case, 
this high-cost team stands virtually 
idle for months. Costs to the com- 
pany and to the government are 
astronomical. 

The winner negotiates his sched- 
ule and costs, tools up and starts 
prototype assembly and produc- 
tion. Payments may be made incre- 
mentally, however, and rate of return 
on investment risk capital may be 
slow. Because of this, as milestones 
are passed, contractors cannot 
afford to maintain their engineering 
talent pools. The old program hangs 
fire while the new programs keep 
getting pushed further out of reach. 
Even the "winners" can lose be- 
cause valuable skill strengths often 



'Some will term my resolution radical. But I believe it is a 
direct and simple idea that merits serious consideration." 



must be sacrificed. 

As for the losers, unless they have 
the resources to pursue another 
program, they suffer heavy layoffs. 
Thousands of men go home to tell 
their wives, "Darling, I just lost my 
job. We've got two weeks to relocate." 
Who wants to be in this kind of in- 
dustry? At least in the military ser- 
vices, if a man pulls a less-than- 
desirable duty assignment, he knows 
he will move on in two years to 
another assignment that is likely to 
be better. Aerospace engineers 
shuttle around the country every 
few years, victims of short-sighted 
procurement policies. Time and dol- 
lars are wasted in retraining, travel 
reimbursement, dislocation al- 
lowances, recruitment and other 
costs associated with the hire and 
layoff of this so-called contract labor. 

Actually, it is my estimation that 
with implementation of my proposal 
defense contractors will find they 
are able to conduct the same prod- 
uction jobs with thirty percent fewer 
peoplethan they employ now. Again, 
continuity of production and em- 
ployment is the key. 

In recent years, the element of 
risk in military programs has in- 
creased tremendously. Traditionally, 
the net profit of the aersopace in- 
dustry has averaged 3Va to 4 per- 
cent on sales before taxes. This was 
adequate when prime interest rates 
were low. In the past fifteen years, 
however, the prime rate has spiraled 
from 3 percent to 8V4 percent. That 
doesn't leave the contractor much 
to grow on. The risks are becoming 
too great. Take the case of C-5A. 
Lockheed Aircraft, with a total net 
worth of about $350-million, was 
asked to assume an effective risk 
exposure of around $800-million, 
according to Lockheed Senior Vice 
President Dudley E. Browne. 

Aerospace firms are being forced 
to seekfinancial backingfrom banks 
and large financial institutions. This 
backing is needed even to make a 
bid on a new program. Even the larg- 
est companies among DoD contrac- 



tors are forced by this system to 
hold tight during periods of drought, 
and then risk the entire corporation 
on winning a single new program. 
Many a giant has been backed to 
the wall; some have fallen. 
Two-Headed Paragon 

With restriction on the Defense 
dollar, we see the four services com- 
pete for funding. The two-headed 
paragon of cost and effectiveness is 
applied to each weapons system 
desired by a service branch; con- 
tractors, in turn, are forced to offer 
the most optimistic estimates to 
propose a "responsive" bid. Coupled 
with the virtual elimination of proto- 
type hardware, this approach has 
resulted in program stretchouts, 
skyrocketing costs and overruns 
averaging more than 200 percent in 
the past fifteen years. The practice 
of annual contract renegotiation 
also mitigates against the con- 
tractor, leveling off profit peaks, but 
ignoring profit downcycles. 

Much has also been said about 
the need to distinguish between de- 
velopment contracts and production 
contracts— the so-called "known un- 
knowns" and the "unknown un- 
knowns." Assistant Secretary of the 
Navy for Research and Development 
Dr. Robert Frosch has acknowledged 
that at best we can only estimate the 
costs of what we know and never 
the costs of what we do not know. 
Our present procurement system, 
however, demands that contractors 
put a dollar figure on development 
program unknowns in advance. This 
kind of procurement system must 
be changed. 

My proposal will serve to rectify 
these imbalances. Risk will be more 
commensurate with return on sales. 
Development programs will be 
clearly identified. Prototype hard- 
ware will be tested and proven in an 
orderly fashion before production 
hardware is introduced into opera- 
tional use. Engineering talent will be 
retained. Employment will be better 
stabilized. Continuity in production 
will be realized. 

35 



In conclusion, Americans are sug- 
denly faced with the hard fact that 
this nation's technological edge in 
weapons superiority has been lost. 

Corrective action is required 
urgently. Our recent thrust into Cam- 
bodia notwithstanding, the present 
trend toward unilateral disarma- 
ment by the United States is com- 
pounding the problem. The Soviet 
Union and Red China are continu- 
ing to increase their military capa- 
bilities. The Russians and the Red 
Chinese may be name-calling and 
bickering over national boundaries, 
but they are united in the goal of 
eventually destroying capitalism 
and the free democratic system. 
Make no mistake about it. They differ 
only in the method tocutusto pieces. 

Representative L. Mendel Rivers, 
Chairman of the House Armed Ser- 
vices Committee, recently made a 
statement in which I am in complete 
agreement. "Ifweareweakand have 
inferior weapons, we will have war," 
Mr. Rivers said. "If we are strong, 
there will be no war." "I am for 
peace" he added, "and strength." 

Our military strength must be 
maintained. Our weapons procure- 
ment practices must be restruc- 
tured, or we shall surely fall into 
second position behind the military 
mightof the Soviet Union. ■^^ 



DC-130 Bows In As Navy Target Launch Plane 



To Replace DP2E NEPTUNES 

Pt. MUGU, Calif.:-Test flights of its newly-modified DC-130 
"Hercules" are being conducted here by Composite Squadron- 
Three and the Naval Missile Center's Threat Simulation depart- 
ment in advance of the former Air Force cargo carrier's introduc- 
tion in the Navy as a launch platform for sub and supersonic 
Firebee aerial target systems. 

Two of the DC-130 aircraft were transferred from the Air Force 
to the Navy this year for modifications that will allow them to take 
four targets aloft simultaneously. 

Until now, the Navy DP2E Neptune has been used as a standard, 
operational launch aircraft for Firebee targets. Two targets, one 
under each wing, could be carried aloft in a single flight. 

The modifications include use of the DC-130s for either 
BQM-34A subsonic or BQM-34E supersonic launch operations. 
The aircraft are also to be equipped with dual launch and flight 
control systems for simultaneous operations of up to two targets. 




Air Force version of DC-130 offers preview of Navy's launcti aircraft. 



remrbiir 




Volume 31 No. 3 



San Diego, California 



Winter 1970 



Second Increment Added to 
Firebee II Contract Order ^^ o 



WASHINGTON:- The Navy awarded an 
$8,980,000 contract to Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical of San Diego for production of 
supersonic Firebee II drones. Representa- 
tive Bob Wilson, announced in July. 

This was the second increment on a con- 
tract expected to total $30.7 million for 1 18 
drones to be delivered by September 1972 
to the Navy and the Air Force, Wilson said. 



7 

The first increment was a $12 million 
letter contract last September. The third 
increment is expected within the next few 
months, Wilson said. 

He said 74 drones will be built for the 
Navy and 44 for the Air Force. 

Start of work on the Air Force version of 
the Firebee II was announced by Wilson in 
January. 




% 



P 



if': 




RETURN OF A FIREBEE-Crisp against a Texas sky, thie Teledyne Ryan Firebee aerial jet target 
settles to earth to parachute after completing a target presentation mission at the U. S. Army's 
McGregor/Dona Ana Range near El Paso, Texas. 

36 



Simultaneous Flight 
Of Four Firebees 
Marks Navy 'First' 

ROOSEVELT ROADS, Puerto Rico:-The U. S. 

Navy has successfully flown four jet targets 
simultaneously for the first time in oper- 
ations simulating mass enemy air attacks 
against units of the Atlantic Fleet. 

The operational training exercise in 
which four Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 
Firebee targets were used was conducted 
in waters of the Atlantic Fleet Weapons 
Range headquartered here early this year. 

Vice Admiral B. J. Semmes, Jr., then Com- 
mander of the U. S. Second Fleet, said the 
jet-powered Firebees were remote con- 
trolled through individual flight profiles 
and each performed "flawlessly." 



Doppler Added to 
Navy Seasprites 

PENSACOLA, Fla.:-Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical's AN/APN-182 Doppler radar navi- 
gation set is being installed in six U. S. 
Navy UH-2A/B helicopters for use in the 
first day/night carrier plane guard opera- 
tions of the Kaman-built helicopter at 
Pensacola Naval Air Station, Fla. 

The installation marks the first use of 
the APN-182 equipment in the Kaman 
UH-2 Seasprite series. A radar specifically 
designed for use in navigation and hover 
control of helicopters, the APN-182 is 
being produced for the Navy SH-3D anti- 
submarine warfare helicopters. 

LCdr. Henry T. Buckley, officer-in-charge 
of CVT-16 Plane Guard Detachment, said 
use of the APN-182 Dopplers will permit 
night operations in support of night carrier 
landing training program being conducted 
at NAS Pensacola aboard the USS Lexington. 




:»« 





. ' ...isFirebeell, 

^;^^^^ Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's growth- 

version standard Firebee. In production and sched- 
uled for delivery in mid-1971, Firebee II is matched 
against the decade ahead, spanning the gap between 
today's current threat profiles and pacing the era of 
the F-14 and F-15. Ground or air-launched, recover- 
able by MARS (Mid-Air Recovery System), supported 
with standard Firebee equipment, Firebee IPs 
THREAT SIMULATION is no mere act. It is reality. 






1MliE/A\irSIIMyL/AirllOINI...is the U. S. Army's MQM-34D 
/\^Firebee, offering a selective mixture of variable speeds, 
f multiple tow capabilities, all backed by experience IN 
THE FIELD. No downstream target system of tomorrow, 
Army Firebees are doing the job today. From firing ranges 
in South Korea, Taiwan, Okinawa on through to the U.S. 
Army Air Defense Center's firing ranges in New Mexico, Fire- 
bee is the word, Threat Simulation the product. 



ll©INI...is putting it altogether in a Firebee. One that's 
uprated with MASTACS*. It's a new dimension in high-performance flight 
maneuverability. Up to Six G's in turns and banks. MASTACS* is another 
Firebee growth product. Another in Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's world- 
famous bag of tricks. All designed to make us look like the enemy. It's 
called THREAT SIMULATION. Nobody gets it altogether better than 
Firebee. 
♦Maneuverability Augmentation System for Tactical Air Combat Simulation. 



Please send address changes to: 

TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

/Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 




iTHiE/ATSIIMyL/ATIIOINI ...is a Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical Firebee target operations team... in a 
steaming jungle of Panama. . . on a remote island in 
the western Pacific ... or, a freezing winter firing 
range in South Korea. No matter the geography or 
A climate. We've been there before. It's a proven 
capability. One that's in use today from Puerto 
Rico in the Caribbean to the South China Sea. 
Adding new measures of perfection to the task of 
THREAT SIMULATION. 




i\ ■ ■■''' 



f^vvi 




■*«■•. ^,. 



■■^w^J-^f"? 



"**»^; 











■>..v...^A^ 






About this Issue 




Robert Watts 



Only twice over the past six years have paintings re- 
placed cover photos on the REPORTER magazine, 
now in its 31st year of publication. When Apollo 1 1's 
astronauts set out on their now-famous landing on the 
moon, a wood cut of the Jules Verne ficticious Colum- 
bia was selected for the cover. Partly in tribute to the 
astronauts and their accomplishment. And partly to 
prove that man's imagination can be a bridge to reality. 

The second occasion for 
a cover painting is less in- 
spiring. Photographers 
simply couldn't capture the 
magnitude of activity go- 
ing on as four Firebees — 
all under simultaneous re- 
mote control — attacked the 
guided missile frigate 
USS Yarnell. 

Like the occasion for the 
Apollo 1 1 cover, the multi- 
Firebee flight on the At- 
lantic Fleet Weapons 
Range also contributed to 
history. It was the first time 
this number of Firebees 
had been flown in this manner. 

Only the creativeness of an artist such as staffer 
Bob Watts could effectively tell the story in a picture. 
Watts' drawings during his Caribbean assignment in- 
cluded the portfolio of sketches of the Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range facilities and its people, supplement- 
ing this issue. 

Meanwhile, photographers Dave Gossett and Ed 
Wojciechowski were helping pull stories together 
from the high seas of the Pacific to the freezing cold of 
the Arctic. Gossett's coverage of the U.S. First Fleet 
sea exercise was obtained from the flagship USS 
Providence. Wojciechowski packed into Fort Greely, 
Alaska to obtain coverage of the U. S. Army's cold 
weather tests involving Firebees. 

Together, photographs and paintings have helped 
strengthen one of the REPORTER'S most dominent 
characteristics down through its 3 1 years. Graphic 
projection, in an age when audiences want to see what 
the action is — as well as read about it — is exemplified 
in this first issue of 1 97 1 . 



Amid swirls of Alaskan snow, recovery helicopter returns 
Firebee to Fort Greely late last year during Arctic Firebee 
operations. Ten-man Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical target 
support team was deployed to Army's Cold Weather Test 
Station to conduct flight operations. Staff photographer 
Ed Wojciechowski returned with this and accompanying 
pictures that are included in this issue. 





Lithography by Frye & Smith, Ltd., San Diego, California 



Volume 32, Number 1 



Winter 1971 

^^^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Managing Editor 

Robert P. Battenfield / Associate Editor 

Ed Wojciechowski, David A. Gossett 

Staff Photographers 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 



Battle Readiness Page 2 

Tlie process of developing combat 

readiness begins as a ship returns from 

the Western Pacific to the U. S. First Fleet. 

Fleet Heavyweight Page 9 

The Navy's vintage Neptune patrol 
planes — long used for air-launching 
Firebees into flight — begin their phase- 
out with the introduction of 
modified Hercules DC-130A transports. 

Arctic Snowbirds Page 1 1 

Come along with Teledyne Ryan 

Aeronautical 's 10-man target support 

team on a trip into the desolate 

wilderness of the Arctic Circle, where a 

month-long, cold-weather program 

was just concluded. 

Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. ..Page 15 

An artist gives his impressions of one of 
the world's most unique ocean facilities. 

Slopes of Fra Mauro Page 23 

Man once again readies himself to 

continue lunar explorations. Meet the 

astronauts and the missions they're 

assigned as Apollo 14 unfolds. 

Mars Beckons Page 26 

Post-Apollo plans include Mars 

explorations by vehicles to be soft-landed 

by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical landing 

radars, a consistency that began with 

Surveyor's lunar landings. 

AZUMA Page 29 

Introduced in the Reporter last year while 

it was under construction, Japan's 

auxiliary target ship goes into operational 

status this year as the world's only ship 

of its kind. 

Hawk Rides the Range Page 32 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's mobile 

Firebee target support team based at 

Okinawa gives Hawk batteries something 

to shoot at on South Korea's Sea Range. 

Flight of AX-10 Page 34 

A newly developed lightweight material 
that could offer meaningful advan- 
tages to aerospace applications 
completes its first flight test as part 
of the supersonic Firebee II. 

Reporter News Inside Back Cover 

A compilation of fast-breaking 
information from throughout the world. 










Simulate the condition, expose 
sliips and men to combat rigors, 
evaluate their performance. The 
results produce... 



]>atl:le K(ni 




liiiess 



II 



By Jack G. Broward 
Photos by Dave Gossett 



'SS PROVIDENCE At Sea: -A task group of 20 U.S. 
First Fleet ships and planes is operating within a 25-mile radius of 
this guided missile cruiser off southern California, simulating 
combat conditions they may someday face in reality. It is the mis- 
sion of Vice Admiral Ray Peet to insure that they are ready. 

The five-day exercise in which this composite task group is en- 
gaged characterizes the role filled today by the First Fleet which 
Admiral Peet commands. 

Guided missile and anti-submarine destroyers, submarines, 
shore-based squadrons and fleet auxiliaries will exercise the full 
extent of their capabilities in this evaluation. Undersea, surface 
and air attack threats will be simulated against the destroyers. 
Shore bombardment and missile firings will test the weapons sys- 
tems and their effectiveness. 

Most important, crewmen of these units will have the oppor- 
tunity to conduct self-evaluations. In the final analysis, it is the 
man in the system that insures its successful use, according to a 
First Fleet staff officer observing the exercise. 

Shore-side observers who witness the homecoming of ships 
from the Western Pacific with the U. S. Seventh Fleet are too 
often unaware of combat readiness training required of crewmen 
before ships deploy for combat. 

Typically, a ship returning from Southeast Asia duties may lose 
up to two-thirds of its officers and enlisted personnel through 
normal rotation, expiration of enlistments, service school quota 
assignments and other administrative transfers. 

Meanwhile, the ship generally assumes inoperative status while 



First Fleet Commander, Vice Admiral Ray Peet, confers with 
staff readiness officer. Captain William Meyers (left) and Captain John 
Hulihan (right) during sea exercise. Man in background is plotting 
position of ships engaged in mock war off coast of southern California. 





Damage control room is nerve center of ship during battle as "talkers" maintain communications with teams stationed throughout ship. 



USS Providence technician feeds perforated tapes into trans- IVIarine detachment assigned to First Fleet flagship is responsible for ship's anti- 
mltter unit which will send messages to fleet units. aircraft battery in addition to traditional security role. 




First Fleet Motto: ''Where Fleet Readiness Begins" 




Quartermaster plots position ofsliip during general quarters. 



undergoing shipyard overhaul, installation of updated 
weapons systems and shipboard equipment. 

Building the ship back up to peak fighting strength is 
the objective of Admiral Peet and his staff of 34 officers 
and 120 enlisted men quartered in the Providence. 

In addition, the First Fleet is also responsible for 
guarding the western sea approaches to the United 
States, a geographic area stretching from the Arctic to 
the Antarctic and from the mid- Pacific Ocean to the 
California coast. 

In this dual capacity, Admiral Peet shares responsi- 
bilities with the U. S. Seventh Fleet, reporting to 
Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet. Combined, 
the two Fleets are responsible for an area encompass- 
ing nearly 85-million square miles. 

The First Fleet is divided into five task forces, each 
a vital element in the overall teamwork that supports 
its assigned mission. An attack carrier strike force in- 
cludes aircraft carriers with air wings embarked, 
capable of striking targets ashore and at sea. An am- 
phibious assault force supports the mission with a 
squadron of ships capable of landing Marines and their 
equipment on enemy held beaches. Destroyers and 
cruisers armed with missiles, guns or both, comprise 
the surface action force. An anti-submarine warfare 
force combines elements of surface and air power 
which can seek out and destroy the undersea threat. 
A logistic support force of fleet auxiliaries supports the 
mobility of the other four task forces. 

While these task forces are permanently structured 
under First Fleet organization, units comprising the 
forces are in transient status most of the time. As units 
return from the Western Pacific, they are assigned to 
the First Fleet by type commanders. 

Normally due for rotation back to the Seventh 

5 




Engineer aboard Providence stands watch deep in hull of ship, 
responding to orders passed from bridge. Maze of dials, wheels 
and gauges monitor ship's propulsion system. 



Silhouette of lookcast is cast against setting sun off southern 
California as another day in sea exercise closes. 




Fleet within a period of four to six months, it is with 
the shift to First Fleet identification that readiness 
training begins. 

During this exercise in which the Providence is 
engaged, surface and aerial targets are to be used in 
simulating enemy threat sources. Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical Firebees, launched from ground facilities 
at the Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu or DP2E Nep- 
tune aircraft based at San Diego, will test the missile 
and anti-aircraft effectiveness of the task group. 

Offering characteristics common to enemy aircraft, 
the jet-powered Firebee targets can provide threat 
simulations at varying altitudes and speeds. Scoring 
systems contained in the Firebee register near-miss 
distances of missiles fired during the exercise, pro- 
viding data for post-exercise critique periods. 

In a recent interview. Admiral Peet noted the im- 
portance attached to his training mission, emphasizing 
the requirement for assigning ships to the Seventh 
Fleet and combat status, "only after they have proved 
that they are at top combat capability." 

The largest sea exercise conducted by the First 
Fleet since the Korean War was concluded late in 
1970 with 44 ships and 30,000 Navymen involved. 

"It was tougher, we think, than what our ships and 
crews might experience in real war situations," Ad- 
miral Peet observed. 

"Despite the expense — and they are expensive — 
these training exercises are absolutely necessary to 
develop new combat techniques. With our limited 
funds, we need to cram as much as possible into them 
in order to get the most for our money," asserted the 
three-star Admiral. 

Against a backdrop of budget cuts, ship reductions, 
personnel attrition and increasing threat sources, the 
U. S. First Fleet — while it is characterized by its mis- 
sion as a "training" command — represents perhaps 
one of the Navy's strongest sources of continuity today. 

For, it is not only the philosophy that guides its 
contribution; Admiral Peet underscores the four- 
word motto supported by his command, "Where Fleet 
Readiness Begins." -^fi^ 




First Fleet staff officers, viewing transparent plotting 
board on which ship positions are maintained, monitor 
overall maneuver during exercise program. 






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Chopper makes landing approach aboard Providence at sea, delivering mail 
and passengers from San Diego. In underway replenishment maneuver, (below) 
destroyer moves into position to transfer cargo or fuel from flagship. Flagship 
Providence (right) accompanied by 20 ships engaged in sea exercise, leaves 
lacework of foam in her wake. 





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41 



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Artist depicts DC-130A launciiing BQM-34E at left, a mission that is performed by aircraft and crew above. 

Fleet Heavyweight 



Introduced last August as a successor to the 
ancient DP2E Neptune, the Hercules DC-130A 
finds marriage to Firehee most compatible. 



Story and Photos by the MISSILE 

U. S. Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, California 




L 



'ong a squadron of distinction, it suited the personality of 
Fleet Composite Squadron-Three last year when it was selected 
to "prove out" the Navy's DC-130A Hercules aircraft as a suc- 
cessor to ancient DP2E Neptunes used for air-launching Firebee 
aerial target systems into flight. 

Two Hercules transports were turned over to the Navy last 
August to begin test and compatibility evaluations at the U. S. 
Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, California. 

To support the program, a special detachment from San Diego- 
based VC-3 was assigned to the initial Hercules, conducting a 
broad range of "marriage" tests. Capable of carrying combinations 
of up to four BQM-34A or BQM-34E (Firebee II) aerial targets, 
the DC-130A can operate with this capacity load at altitudes in 
excess of 20,000 feet. 

After a fully-loaded takeoff, the aircraft can remain airborne 
more than five hours. 

Typically, a DC-I30A target operation begins with uploading 
four Firebees of subsonic or supersonic design. With its crew of 
10, the aircraft takes off, following pre-flight checks, destined for 
target range areas. At T-5 (five minutes before launch), the air- 
craft has reached its launch altitude and station and the engine of 
the first target to be launched is started. A check-list of all target 
systems is completed as the aircraft nears its time of launch. 

At 200 knots, the Firebee is launched into flight by on-board 



Flight engineer Ernest Ruse, ADJC, places generator on line while 
LCDR James P. Peabody, VC-3 chief test pilot, monitors instruments. 
Co-pilot in the flight test detachment was LT Gary Bailey. Aircraft is 
now operated by VC-3, North Island Naval Air Station. 




Pre-flight check of Firebee II avionics by Jolin R. Conley, AE2 (left) 
and William H. Perry, ATN3, is performed before Hercules aircraft 
takes off from Pt. Mugu Naval Missile Center. 



Range Control Operators. Flight control following launch can be 
maintained by the aircraft or shifted to ground control stations. 

Placing the DC- 130 into service will eventually permit phase- 
out of the DP2E Neptune. In addition to its ability to carry twice 
the number of targets as the Neptune, Hercules aircraft are ex- 
pected to expand the target air-launch and operational envelope to 
include a variety of improved support services. 

Not the least of these will be the introduction for operational use 
early this year of Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's supersonic 
Firebee II. 





Contractor personnel assigned to test and evaluation ptiase of 
DC-130A flight tests make interface check in connections between 
outboard launch pylon on which BQM'34E is mounted and 
target's release mechanism. 



Launch control operator George E. Umstead, ADJ3, pre-f lights target in 
flight after engine has been started as a final check before air-launch 
is made from Hercules. 




Radar navigator's position is filled during flight test of DC-130A by 
William H. Perry, AE3, member of 10-man flight test crew from VC-3 
assigned to program. 



10 




[r©fe 





Matched to any environment, Firebee's 

rugged mobility has proved itself in 

the jungle tropics of Panama to the 

far reaches of the Pacific. Now, a new 

dimension is added. 



» 



! 



Photos by 
Ed Wojciechowski 



T. GREELY, Alaska: -A new magnitude of Firebee 
mobility has been demonstrated in this wintry Arctic area under 
conditions of diminishing daylight, sub-zero temperatures and 
frozen desolation. It marked the first time in more than a decade 
that Firebee flight operations were conducted under such extreme 
environmental conditions. 

Supporting a U. S. Army Missile Command cold \feather test, 
a Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical target support team was airlifted 
here from White Sands, New Mexico in mid-November 1970. 

Army Firebee aerial targets, maintenance and ground support 
equipment plus spare parts were also a part of the air-lift operation. 



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Northern frontier outpost lies two degrees soutli of Arctic Circle, 
100 miles from Fairbanks. Temperatures ranged to 15-degrees below 
zero during month-long operation. Pet labrador retriever, nicknamed 
"Firebee" by target support team, strikes "Snoopy" pose for photographer. 







Clad in Army cold-weather clothing, Firebee team unpacks targets 
following airlift of all logistic materials from White Sands, N.M. 
Pre-flight checks and final assembly was conductedin temporary 
hangar near launch pad. 



Included in the cargo were newly-developed, zero-length ground 
launch rails, custom-designed to minimize exposure to the extreme 
cold of the support team as well as the aerial targets. 

Weighing two-thirds as much as conventional stationary launch 
rails, the Arctic launcher was equipped with wheels. Firehees were 
pre-flight checked on the launcher in a field hangar then rolled 
some 300 feet to the launch area. The new launching device pro- 
vided a stable launch platform for temporary operational use 
in the Arctic. 

Preparations for the month-long cold weather tests were made 
at White Sands, where Teledyne Ryan maintains a target support 
team under Paul M. Bunner. A 10-man detachment was deployed 
to the Arctic under Jimmy C. Rhea to conduct all phases of Fire- 
bee maintenance, launch and flight control. 

Concluded in late December, the tests met all objectives and 
expanded Firebee mobile operational capabilities to include the 
Arctic as well as jungle tropics of Panama and the far outposts 
of the Western Pacific. _ _. 





p 



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Combined thrust of jet turbine engine and JATO sends Firebee 
streaking from iaunch rail into Arctic flight. Helicopter (above at left) 
returns target, which parachuted to earth on completion of flight, 
back to launch-maintenance facility at Tank Range. 



Camera lens compresses Firebee targets flight-ready 
and waiting in quonset hut used for pre-f light hangar. Targets 
rest on portable launch rails custom designed for Arctic 
operation. Photographer Ed Wojciechowski (at right) documented 
operation in still and motion pictures. 



13 





prawled over an ocean area in the 

south Atlantic and Caribbean Sea, 

with headquarters at Roosevelt 

Roads, Puerto Rico, is the w^orld's 

argest, most uniquefacility of its 

kind. Named the Atlantic Fleet 

Weapons Range, the complex 

incorporates ten island land areas 

and its waters spread over an 

expanse of sea the size of Texas. 

It is to the Atlantic Fleet Weapons 

Range that units of the U.S. Navy and 

ts allies come annually to hone their 

fighting skills. Joined by the Marine 

Corps, Army and Air Force, 

the Range facilities offer military 

commanders an ideal physical 

environment for testing the readiness 

capabilities of their units. 

REPORTER staff artist Bob Watts 

visited the Atlantic Fleet Weapons 

Range late in 1970, returning 

with this portfolio of sketches. It is 

presented in tribute to the 

U. S. Navy and the officers and men 

of the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. 




15 





16 



Range activity is monitored from Control Center 
by commanders (upper left) wtio view wall-sized 
screens wtiicti provide readouts in grapfiic form. 
Navy fighter plane giving chase to Firebee launches 
air-to-air missile which is scored electronically 
by technicians (above) and reflected in real-time 
on viewing screens. 



Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical flight 

controllers command maneuvers of 
Firebee, launcfied from Navy DP2E, higt) over 
waters of Range. Target support team 

hias been assigned by Teledyne Ryan at 
Roosevelt Roads since 1962, working 
in partnersfiip witf) Fleet Composite 
Squadron-8 based at NAS, Roosevelt Roads. 




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17 



A/avy Neptune patrol plane, modified for Firebee launch operations, leaves NAS, 

Roosevelt Roads with jet-powered targets nestled under each wing. From top 

to bottom (at right) sketches depict the tranquility of island atmosphere as seen 

from a hilltop view, a farmer and his oxen-drawn cart for transporting sugar cane 

from the fields, hurricane hunter based at Ofstie Field at rest between flights 

that search out and monitor position of killer winds, crewmen and technicians at 

work, technician from Teledyne Ryan team checks Firebee on cradle. 




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18 




Mr.-. 




Crewman adjusts dish antennas aboard USS Sellers 
operating on sea range (top) while Tartar missilemen 
ready ship for firing exercise, with S2F Tracker 
providing radar check for ship (above). 




20 




With wings folded, S2F Tracl<er undergoes 
maintenance at Ofstie Field, Roosevelt Roads. 
Naval Air Station supports visiting squadrons 
during exercise periods v/hich engage Marine 
Corps close air support units as well as 
Navy fighter and ASW-Patrol aircraft. 



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Lethal Tartar is launched against "enemy" 

Firebee in exercise which enables units of U. S. Navy 

to maintain readiness. Atlantic Fleet units assigned 

to Sixth Fleet in Mediterannean undergo readiness 

evaluations on Range prior to deployment. 



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21 






0^ 09^ 




Captain Ruben L. Johns, U. S. Navy 

Commander, Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 

Commander, Fleet Air Caribbean 



Captain R. H. St. Clair, U. S. Navy 

Deputy Commander, Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 

Deputy Commander, Fleet Air Caribbean 



Captain Thomas R. McCants, U. S. Navy 

Commanding Officer, Atlantic Fleet Range 

Support Facility 



Nc 



I owhere else on earth can the U. S. 
Navy and its allies flex its muscles in a 
more controlled and yet effective 
manner-short of actual combat itself- 
than on the two-ocean complex known 
as the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. 
One of the most unique facilities of its 
kind, the Range offers sea-air-land units 
operational environments to match any 
requirement. 

Under Captain Ruben L. Johns, who 
holds dual titles as Commander of the 



Range and Commander, Fleet Air 
Caribbean, the Range complex supports 
year-long refreshment, operational 
readiness, development, test and 
evaluation programs for the U. S. 
Atlantic Fleet and allies. 

Captain Robert H. St. Clair serves as 
Deputy to Captain Johns. Formerly 
Deputy Commander, Pacific Missile 
Range, Captain St. Clair is able to con- 
tribute to the Range operations a back- 
ground of experience gained in both the 



Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean. 

The man responsible for overall 
Range support, Captain Thomas R. 
McCants, has served continuously since 
1942 in undersea environments as a 
submarine officer. Matched against the 
Naval Aviation backgrounds possessed 
by the Range Commander and his 
Deputy, the intimate knowledge and 
skills contributed by Captain McCants 
are significantly important to the ASW 
operations on the Range. 



22 



Apollo 14 astronauts race over rolling lunar tiigrflands'; 
assisted by speed and altitude measurements 
of Teledyne Ryan's LM Landing Radar... 



SLOPES OF 
FRA MAURD 






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NASA Photo 



Ls Apollo 14 astronauts Alan Shep- 
ard and Edgar Mitchell pass over rolling 
lunar highlands in their Lunar Module 
toward their targeted Fra Mauro landing 
site, they will be guided by readings of 
speed and true altitude from Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical's Lunar Module Land- 
ing Radar System. 

Most sophisticated sensor of its kind 
ever manufactured, the LM landing radar 
will be sending four narrow beams of 
microwave energy bouncing off the rugged 
moonscape. The radar will be measuring 
how high the LM is above the moon, how 
fast it is moving forward, and how fast it 




Apollo 14 crewmen and official nnission seal. From left: CM Pilot 
Stuart Roosa, Commander Alan Shepard, LM Pilot Edgar MItctiell. 



23 



"We see this mission as a 
good test of the interface 
between the landing radar and 
the LIVI Guidance Computer..." 



NASA Photo 




■*--4Sis 



Shepard and Mitchell simulate deployment 

of experiments package during training 

session at Kennedy Space Center. 



is descending. Without these moon- 
referenced measurements, the LM will 
not be able to land. 

On final approach to their targeted site 
in the Fra Mauro formation. Astronauts 
Shepard and Mitchell will be descending 
over a downward sloping lurain. Radar 
altitude data will be especially important. 




Apollo 14 Commander Alan 
Shepard pullsModular Equip- 
ment Transporter (MET) 
under weightless conditions 
aboard Air Force KC-135, fol- 
lowed by LM Pilot Mitchell. 



Below, in artist's concept by 
RobertWatts, Shepard moves 
away from LM after safe land- 
ing in Fra Mauro formation. 
Teledyne Ryan radar will 
assist in descent. 



Opposite, Shepard and Mit- 
chell are caught by fish-eye 
camera during training in LM 
Simulator. 




At "low gate," a mission event planned 
to occur at an altitude of 659 feet, the 
astronauts probably will select the semi- 
automatic descent control program. Be- 
cause of the downward slope, they will 
actually be about 683 feet above their 
targeted site, which at that point will be 
some 1900 feet ahead. 

Starting the vertical phase of their 
descent, in which vertical descent rate is 
held at 3 feet per second (2 mph) while 
horizontal velocity is gradually nulled 
from about 4 mph to zero, the Apollo 14 
astronauts will be reading true radar alti- 
tude of 100 feet. Actual altitude above the 
targeted site will be 1 25 feet, however. 

"We see this mission as a good test of 
the interface between the radar and the 
LM Guidance Computer, which mixes 
radar and inertial measurement data to 
come up with the most accurate match to 
the pre-programmed descent trajectory," 
Ned L. Olthoff, director of programs, at 
24 



Teledyne Ryan Electronic and Space 
Systems, explained. 

A similar sensor is required to soft- 
land instrumented unmanned spacecraft 
on the planets. 

"Right now we are developing a terminal 
descent landing radar system under con- 
tract to Martin Marietta for NASA's 
Project Viking, in which two Surveyor- 
like spacecraft will land on Mars to search 
for life on the planets," Olthoff added. 
"Mission directors will study the Martian 
surface from pictures and measurements 
made from the mother ship in orbit around 
Mars to select the most optimum landing 
sites, but the actual descent to the planet's 
surface will be over unknown land forms 
and against largely unpredictable, high- 
velocity surface winds." Olthoff said. 

Apollo 14 mission planners have 
changed the descent trajectory from that 
originally planned for landing at Fra 
Mauro on Apollo 13. which did not land 



NASA Photo 




but looped behind the moon and returned 
to Earth following an explosion in the 
Command Service Module. 

The LM's flight path (approach azi- 
muth) has been changed from 91 to 76 
degrees, which will cause the LM to pass 
south of the 400-foot high Cone Crater, 
rather than directly over it. Because of the 
crater, the Apollo 13 astronauts had 
planned to redesignate their landing site 
from a targeted point 2000 feet down- 
range to the desired site near the base of 
the crater. By changing the approach azi- 
muth, mission planners have reshaped the 
trajectory, flattened it out and eliminated 
the need for redesignation. 

Teledyne Ryan has produced the LM 
landing radar under contract to RCA, 
which is responsible for radar subsystems 
to Grumman Aerospace Corporation, 
prime contractor to NASA for the Lunar 
Module. -^fi^ 



Apollo 14 Trajectory Events— Teledyne Ryan Landing Radar 



3 



4 



Landing radar activation and checkout — 2 hrs, 1 1 inin prior to powered 

descent initiation; again approximately 15 niin prior to PDI. remcnning on 

through landing for total "on time" of approximately 26 min. 

Powered Descent Initiation {engine on) — 50.000 ft, 3800 mph horizontal 

velocity, 11 min 32 sec (1 1:32) to touchdown. 

Altimeter acquisition — nominally 38,120 ft, 2495 mph horizontal velocity, 

61 mph descent rate, 75 deg pitch angle. 

First altimeter update of LM Guidance Computer — 37,780 ft, 2465 mph 

horizontal velocity, 61 mph descent rate, 75 deg pitch angle, approximately 

112 mi from landing site, 7:56 to touchdown. 

5. Velocity acquisition, forward-looking third beam locks on moon's surface, 
nominally coincident with first altimeter update. 

6. "High Gate," start of visibility phase, landing radar antenna position switch 
from descent to hover position — 7600 ft, 299 mph horizontal velocity, 104 mph 
descent rate, 57 deg pitch angle, approximately 5 mi from landing site. 

7. "Low Gate," start of astronaut semi-automatic control with new program 
option to use full manual or return to full automatic — 659 ft {approximately 
638 ft above actual desired landing site due to surface slope). 56 mph hori- 
zontal velocity, 13.9 mph descent rate, 22 deg pitch angle, 1921 ft from landing 
site, 1:34 to landing. Hover time remaining — 2:38, which is 0:56 sec more 
time than remained for Apollo 11, 0:19 sec more than Apollo 12. 

8. 3-ft-per-sec descent rate, vertical phase of descent— 100 ft {approximately 
125 ft above desired site), horizontal velocity slows from about 4 mph to zero, 
pitch angle from 7 deg to zero, nominal descent rate 3fps (2 mph) to touchdown. 



25 



Mars Beckons 




and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical prepares 
for the challenge of designing and producing 
a new landing radar system to soft-land two 
instrumented Viking landers on the Red Planet. 




By Robert P. Battenfield 



/Vlars beckons, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical is ready. 

Witin a history of seven successful lunar landings with 
its radar systems, Teledyne Ryan has been awarded the 
subcontract for the Viking terminal descent landing 
radar (TDLR), by Martin Marietta Corporation, Denver 
Division, which is prime to NASA Langley for the Mars 
landing program. 

Soft landing the two instrumented Viking spacecraft 
on Mars will be much like soft-landing the Surveyors and 
Lunar Modules on the moon. The trajectory calls for de- 
scent from an orbiting "mother ship" like the LM, but 
with final descent nearly vertical, like Surveyor. 

Nine TDLR systems will be designed and manufac- 
tured for Martin-Denver. This number will include test 
models, spares, and actual flight hardware, according to 
J. R. Iverson, Vice President, Electronic and Space 
Systems. 

Teledyne Ryan brings its ten years of experience in 
space radar electronics to the Viking task. 

Five unmanned Surveyors soft-landed on the moon to 
scout potential landing sites for the Apollo astronauts. 
Two manned Apollo LM spacecraft have successfully 
touched down on the lunar surface with assists from 
Teledyne Ryan landing radars. Like Surveyor and LM, 
the Viking radar will be the pure CW (continuous wave) 
Doppler type, in which the company has pioneered since 
the early '50s. 

Iverson pointed out improvements being made in the 
third-generation Viking TDLR over the Surveyor and 
Apollo radars. 

"Apollo and Surveyor were three-beam velocity sen- 
sors," he said, "while for Viking we are designing a four- 
beam sensor that will allow an equally valid three-beam 
solution. Because of the many unknowns involved with 
the Martian atmosphere- high winds, blowing dust, and 



Project Viking, set for 1975 launch, will carry two unmanned instru- 
mented spacecraft to Mars in America's first attempt to soft-land on the 
planets in its search for extra-terrestrial life. Mars photo is from Mariner 7. 
Viking mockup is at Martin Marietta's Denver Division facilities. 



26 




Director of Programs Ned L. Olthoff, left, meets witti key engineers on Electronic and 
Space Systems' Viking landing radar program: from left, John Heising, program office; 
Thomas J. Lund, director of advanced systems; and Lee S. Reel, project engineer. 



cratered terrain, for instance-there is tlie possibility 
that we might lose lock on one beam. 

"Four beams offers a redundant solution for each ve- 
locity component, vertical, lateral drift, and forward. 
We will get solutions off each beam because we will have 
separate transmitter and receiver frequency channels 
on each beam. 

"This total redundancy offers more reliability than sys- 
tems that require time-sharing between transmitter and 
receiver functions. With our approach, one beam could 
drop out and the system would still operate properly," 
Iverson said. 

Other design features include: 

• A newly designed solid state transmitter that is com- 
posed of only nine parts, as compared with 256 parts 
in the Lunar Module radar transmitter. This design is 
built around the unique power capabilities of the IMPATT 
Diode, Iverson said. 

• A microwave stripline receiver that eliminates the 
wave guide "plumbing" common to conventional micro- 
wave systems. This technique is similar to that used in 
the manufacture of printed circuit boards in that the 
receiver microwave network is made of copper plate 
etched on a teflon-impregnated board. 

• An accurate go/no-go check of the entire TDLR sys- 
tem through built-in test equipment (BITE). 

Iverson said the system created through the use of the 
IMPATT transmitter and the stripline receiver is essenti- 
ally immune to the effects of high-level vibration or 
acoustic noise. 

Viking's principal goal will be to send two unmanned 
instrumented spacecraft — each consisting of a lander 
and an orbiter— to make the first soft landings on the 
planet Mars. 

On arrival at Mars in early 1976, after a 12-month, 




First steps toward soft landing on landing on IVIars have 
humble beginning in building of functional breadboards of 
Viking landing radar components. Representatives of NASA's 
Langley Research Center, Martin Marietta Corporation, and 
Teledyne Ryan review design, monitor test performance. 



27 



V^'^^.'^'i 





Teledyne Ryan's J. R. Iverson, 
left, reviews radar package 
with Albert J. Kullas, Martin 
vice president and Viking 
Project Director, and James S. 
Martin, NASA Project Manager. 

Electronic Engineer Francis 
Rowe performs bench test of 
Viking radar frequency tracker 





Slotted planar array 
antenna for Viking radar 
is inspected by Microwave 
Engineer Bill Brown. 



280-million mile journey, the Viking Landers will de- 
scend from orbit to the Martian surface. The Teledyne 
Ryan TDLR will be operational from about 17,000 feet 
to the touchdown, measuring forward, lateral and ver- 
tical velocities and furnishing these measurements to 
the on-board flight control systems. 

Velocity capability of the radar is specified at from one 
to 710 feet per second (.68 to 483 mph). 

Project management for Viking is assigned to NASA's 
Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., under the over- 
all direction of the Office of Space Science and Applica- 
tions in NASA Headquarters. The NASA Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is responsible for the 
orbiter portion of the Viking Spacecraft System and for 
tracking and data acquisition during the missions. Mar- 
tin Marietta Corporation is the prime contractor for the 
Viking lander and for accomplishing project integration. 

The door is open, the window is in sight, and Viking is 



preparing to set sail for man's first landfall on Mars. 



Vl" 



Integrated circuits, each performing the function of 

many components of the past "transistor age," are used 

extensively in Viking radar. Teledyne Ryan Engineer 

Edwin Schaefer assembles signal converter. 

28 





Historic "first" for Azuma was launcfi of Firebee from rail facility on sfiip's 
fantail section late last year. Designed exclusively for Firebee operations, 
Azuma goes into operational status this year as world's only vessel of her kind. 



Japan's 

Maritime Self-Defense Force's Azuma 

introduces a new concept 

for target operations, using 

Firebees as the vehicle. 



s< 




'ometime during the early months of 1971, Captain Y. Miyazaki, 
skipper of the 300-foot-long Azuma, will order all lines cast off from her 
berth in Kure, Japan. Heading his new ship out to sea, he will issue in- 
structions for transmitting the following dispatch: 
"Auxiliary training ship Azuma has assumed full operational status." 
And thus will be introduced the start of a new chapter in the history of 
Japan as a naval seapower. It will also mark the first time in the history 
of Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's Firebee operations that a ship has 
been conceived, designed and built to support such operations. 



29 







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Firebee recovery is achieved by siiip's crane and wet-suited crewman as recovery boat stands by to assist. 



Attached to the 11th Fleet Training 
Group, Japan Maritime Self-Defense 
Force, the Azuma carries a crew of 180 
officers and men. Her spacious hull is 
equipped with a variety of avionics, 
propulsion and airframe maintenance 
shops to support jet-powered Firebee 
operations. 

While normal refurbishment and Fire- 
bee turn-around procedures will be con- 
ducted ashore, the Azuma is equipped for 



all phases of target support, including 
launch, flight control and recovery of her 
remote-controlled targets. 

Her standard compliment of BQ1V1-34A 
targets is six, enabling the ship to remain 
at sea for prolonged periods in support of 
sea exercises, according to Lieutenant 
Commander Shunro Motoyoshi, the ship's 
navigator and Firebee flight control officer. 

Accompanied to San Diego by Lieu- 
tenant Yoshihiko in late 1970 for in-plant 

30 



familiarization and Firebee flight control 
orientation, the ,'\zuma officers noted that 
the ship successfully completed its initial 
sea trials and shipboard systems evalua- 
tions late last year. A total of four Firebee 
flights was included in the sea trials. 

Aboard during these trials were six 
members of a Teledyne Ryan team under 
CD. "Bud" Miller which provided tech- 
nical assistance during inaugural Firebee 
flight operations. In a report filed later. 




^^**^, 









Azuma targets personnel and ship's officers posed witli Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical team aboard 
ship during systems evaluations late last year. Captain Miyazal<i is seated, second row, center. 








Miller said the Azuma crew displayed 
"superior skill in conducting the entire 
operation." 

Launched in early 1 969, the Azuma was 
commissioned during phase Three of a 
Japan Defense Build-up Program that 
began in 1958. Phases One and Two of the 
Program incorporated organization and 
implementation of basic national defense 
policies. Currently, the Japan Maritime 
Self-Defense Force has some 250 ships 



in destroyers, submarines and coastal 
patrol categories. Manning these vessels 
are 47,000 personnel authorized under the 
National Defense Policy. 

In addition to the Maritime Force, 
Japan also maintains Ground and Air Self- 
Defense Forces. 

To these Self-Defense Forces has been 
assigned the responsibility for maintaining 
defense efforts and contributing to the 
establishment of world peace through the 
United Nations, according to policies of 



the Japanese Defense Agency. 

Azuma, and its unique qualities, char- 
acterizes this mission perhaps better than 
any other unit in the Maritime Self- 
Defense Force. Her role as a support ves- 
sel will contribute to the defensive capa- 
bilities of combatant units. 

Her use of Firebee aerial target systems 
marks the first time in the history of Tele- 
dyne Ryan Aeronautical that BQM-34A 
targets have been introduced into the 
inventory of anon-U.S. sea service, -^g^ 



Azuma officers LCDR MotoyoshI and LTShimada received Firebee flight control familiarization 
from Teledyne Ryan instructor during visit to San Diego in December 1970. 
Motoyoshi is ship's navigator and flight control officer. 




31 




Firebee launched from portable rail was air-shipped in with all ground support 
equipment from Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's USARPAC base at Okinawa. Members of 
contract support team align Firebee on launch rail (below). 




Hawk 



s; 



By 
M. Sgt. Jim Freeland 

Photos by 

SP5 Richard B. Nesbitt 

Stars & Stripes Korea Bureau 



'EA RANGE, Korea — A needle in a 
haystack would seem to be a cinch for the 
firing crews here at Sea Range. 

Every week, the hills around this pretty 
western bay reverberate with manmade 
thunder as their small, fast Hawk missiles 
streak off the launcher and hit about 1 ,500- 
miles-an-hour on their way to find a four- 
and-a-half-foot-long needle passing 
through the skies over the Yellow Sea. 

The target, a Towbee, eight inches in 
diameter, is pulled at just under the speed 
of sound by a jet-powered drone, the Fire- 
bee. 

The supersonic searches are part of the 
annual service practice for air defense 
units in the Republic of Korea. Each unit 
moves to the Sea Range once a year to be 
graded on their ability to set up equipment, 
pick up targets, look in and "kill" the pass- 
ing drone. 

This small tent city 100 miles south of 
Seoul and near the town of Taechon has 
140 men stationed here, that figure is dou- 
bled each week when two batteries come 
in to fire. 

The batteries come from the U.S. 
Army's air defense battalions stationed 
throughout Korea. 

The units arrive at the Sea Range on 
Sunday and spend the week preparing 
missiles and equipment. 

By Friday morning they have completed 
their preparations and are up bright and 
early, ready for the high point of their 
week. It is the only time in Korea when 
the missile men face the acid test — can 
their birds really do the job? 

Safety on the range, which runs far 
out into the \eilow Sea. involves clear- 
ances from U.S. Air Force radar, ROK 
Navy sweeps at sea, Korean police, who 
control ground entr> into the beachside 
area, and police launches to keep fishing 




the Range 



...chasing Firebee targets in Annual 
Service Practice firing on South 
Korea's Sea Range. 



boats out of the area. 

U.S. Army landing craft are on hand for 
all "shoots," to help Korean police and to 
assist in recoveries. 

Civilian technicians set up the Firebees, 
and when the range opens, a drone is 
launched. As the Firebee nears the range 
limits on its first pass, aTowbee is dropped 
5,000 feet to the rear. 

A special optical mirror on the head of 
the Towbee allows the firing crews to spot 
the Towbee and the test is under way. 
Special radar locates the target, the infor- 
mation is fed to a high-power illuminator 
radar which locks on the target and starts 
to feed information to the Hawk missile. 

After a brief moment the Hawk is on 
its way. 



As the Hawk clears the launcher, inter- 
nal guidance takes over and within a mat- 
ter of seconds a Towbee is knocked out 
of the sky. 

The Firebee moves out of the range 
and comes back in for another pass, hav- 
ing dropped its second target. Radar takes 
over again and another Hawk is fired. 

At the end of the "shooting," the Firebee 
is guided back in and parachuted into 
the sea, where a Chinook helicopter hovers 
in and picks it up, to be returned and 
launched again. "^fi^ 

Launch observers (top to bottom, right) 
Joe Burton, Shirley Wittford and Ralph 
Sargent are members of "Gypsy" Firebee 
team under Mike Savino. 




Firebee with Towbees attached to wings is launched in inset, followed minutes later by Hawk firing from So. Korea Sea Range. 






Prototype flight test version of Firebee II is launcfied into fliglit witfi horizontal tail sections made of graphite epoxy (circle area). 



Flight of the AX -10 



P 

A roj 



roject officials witnessing the fliglit test of AX- 10 at the U. S. 
Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, California on December 7, 1970 
were interested primarily in exploring the qualities of a newly de- 
veloped composite material that could reduce weight while adding 
strength to aircraft control surfaces. 

Before this day was out, a great deal more would be implied 
concerning the utilization of aerial test beds such as Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical's supersonic Firebee II. 

Pilotless, remote-controlled, jet-powered and high-performance 
rated for a selective flight envelope, the Firebee II, designated 
AX- 10, was one of 14 prototype versions produced by Teledyne 
Ryan for the Navy. It was designed as an advanced, growth- 
version of subsonic Firebee aerial target systems used by the mili- 
tary services of the United States and its allies for more than two 
decades. 

Selection of AX- 10 by the Navy, whose Naval Air Develop- 
ment Center and Naval Missile Centers worked jointly with Tele- 
dyne Ryan and Celanese Research Corporation in developing and 
producing the new composite material, was based on numerous 
considerations. 

A pilotless aircraft eliminates immediately all of the hazards 
a test pilot would face under these circumstances. The remote 
control qualities of the Firebee II gave project officials a flight 
envelope of selective values under which the new structures would 
be exposed to load bearing factors. Through strain gauges at- 
tached to the left elevon, stress data would be telemetered back to 



the flight control center during peak load periods of the flight. 

Finally, an on-board, automatic parachute recovery system — 
standard equipment for the Firebee aerial target systems — deploys 
either on command or in the event of systems failure. Thus, valu- 
able systems or, as in this case, structures, are assured a safe return. 

Ray T. Williams, Teledyne Ryan project engineer for the fab- 
rication of the graphite epoxy structures, was accompanied by 
Dr. William C. Hunt, Vice President of Celanese Research Corp. 
in witnessing the launch and flight of AX- 1 at Pt. Mugu. 

From ground launch on through an envelope that ranged from 
200 to 40,000 feet in altitude and 150 MPH to Mach .92, the flight 
test was successful in all respects. Returned by helicopter to Pt. 
Mugu's Threat Simulation Department upon termination of the 
test flight, the tail structures were examined and found to be in 
completely normal condition. 

Weighing half that of conventional stainless steel elevons. the 
graphite epoxy versions offered twice the load bearing strength. 

Addressing a news conference on Dec. 10, Williams and Hunt 
termed the flight test, "a significant development of new, light- 
weight materials." 

Williams said the graphite composite materials, if used for all 
flight surfaces of the Firebee II, would reduce the aircraft's weight 
by approximately 100 pounds. Extending such a result into the 
addition of either fuel or equipments, this development could offer 
dramatic expansion of flight missions and capabilities, he reasoned. 

Williams headed the team under Roger Long at Teledyne Ryan 



34 




It proved the air-worthiness of 
graphite epoxy composites. But, 
in selecting a remote controlled, 
supersonic Firebee II, officials 
may have proved much more. 




UJir'"'"'""*****'*'""'"' ■'•.'.***•• 



Multi-purpose composite from which Firebee II elevons were made has been 
used for variety of sporting goods, including golf clubs and tennis rackets displayed 
by Dr. William C. Hunt (left) of Celanese Research Corp., with which Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical' s project engineer Ray T. Williams worked jointly in fabricating 
flight structures. 




Weighing half that of stainless 
steel stabilizers, graphite epoxy 
versions offer twice the load- 
bearing strength and, if used for 
all control surfaces of Firebee II, 
could reduce weight of aerial 
target system by 100 pounds, 
according to project engineer 
Ray T. Williams. Called Celium 
(TM) by producer, new, light- 
weight composite represents 
major advance in technical de- 
velopment of lightweight ma- 
terials for aerospace uses. 




35 




Pattern of varying orientation can be noted as 22 consecutive fibres are "laid up." 

48 122 



that fabricated the elevens following six years of research by 
Celanese Research Corp in producing Celium (TM). 

The Teledyne Ryan team, using conventional honeycomb cores, 
used 22 plies of Celium, each arranged in varying orientations to 
add strength to the structure. Williams noted that the graphite 
epoxy material introduces "significant fabrication advances" 
which could reduce time, money and tool requirements now in- 
volved in conventional fabrication of flight structures. 

As in all new areas of development, the cost factor of graphite 
epoxy materials will inhibit its use until volume utilization is 
achieved. Officials note, however, that the higher costs in even the 
early stages of its use can be offset through realization of increased 
payload factors stemming from weight reduction of aircraft. 

The flight of AX- 10 was the sixth flight compiled by this air- 



36 



craft since its delivery. Each of the ten prototype flight test 
versions of the supersonic Firebee II were programmed to expand 
the flight capabilities, develop and evaluate new tactics, support 
the test and development of new weapons systems and serve in 
the role of a simulated enemy in sea and air exercises. 

Firebee II, designated BQM-34E for the Navy and BQM-34F 
for the Air Force, will become a part of the operational military 
inventories of the nation this year. 

The missions that lie ahead for Firebee II will likely continue 
to expand. The values served by these pilotless, remote-controlled 
aircraft will gain reinforcement as the services they perform mount. 

The flight of AX- 10 on Dec. 7, 1970. however, may prove to 
have been a turning point in the use of pilotless vehicles for flight 
test evaluations of aircraft systems and structures. '^8^ 



Teledyne Ryan Delivers First S-3A Avionics 




A/ai/y S-3A is depicted in flight, using Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Doppler 
navigation radar system. First system was delivered for test by Lockfieed. 



BURBANK, Calif- First major avionics subsystem for the Navy's 
S-3A, a new carrier-based anti-submarine warfare patrol aircraft, 
has been delivered to Lockheed California Company, the prime 
contractor, by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 

J. R. Iverson, Vice President, Electronic and Space Systems, 
described the system, the AN/APN-200 Doppler Velocity Sensor, 
as "the most advanced Doppler radar known in the Free World." 

He said it is an advanced navigation aid that incorporates elec- 
tronic techniques used by Teledyne Ryan in its high performance 
Air Force AN/APN-193 DVS, its NASA Apollo moon landing radars, 
and its NASA Viking Mars landing radars now in development. 

Crewmen of the Navy sub-killer plane will use the APN-200 in 
accurate point-to-point navigation and in the critical localization 
procedures to pinpoint enemy submarines hidden beneath the 
ocean's surface. 

Tests of the radar are now undenway at Lockheed's Rye Canyon 
Integration Test Lab. Iverson indicated the next two deliverable 
units will be used for avionics flight tests in a Lockheed P-3 Orion. 

The present contract, which began in October 1969, calls for ten 
pre-production radar systems. With complete Navy funding of the 
S-3A program, nearly 200 radar sets will be ordered. 



Teledyne Ryan Office 
Opened in Europe 

A new International Marketing office 
opened in Europe, January 1, for Teledyne 
Ryan. 

Raymond A. Ballweg, Jr., recently named 
Vice President, International Marketing, 
represents the company in Europe from 
the new office. 

Frank Card Jameson, Teledyne Ryan 
President, said the office headed by Ball- 
weg will "further expand our business lia- 
son with Free World countries. 

"Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical has been 
in the international market for years, pro- 
viding aircraft or electronic equipment to 
Japan, Australia, Canada, Brazil, Denmark, 
Italy, Spain, Iran and others. Mr. Ballweg 
will offer personal, on-the-scene represen- 
tation for our Company's capabilities to 
provide Firebee aerial target systems and 
electronic equipments for use by our Euro- 
pean allies," Jameson said. 

Ballweg previously served as Vice Presi- 
dent-Washington (D.C.) office. 

Iverson Elected to WEMA Post 

J. R. Iverson, vice president. Electronic 
and Space Systems, of Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical, has been elected chairman 
of the San Diego Council of the Western 
Electronic Manufacturers Association. 

Iverson has served for the past year as 
vice chairman. With the chairmanship, he 
becomes a vice president of WEMA. 

WEMA is a trade association represent- 
ing over 500 companies in the eleven west- 
ern states. 



repoFlep 




VOLUME 32 No. 1 



San Diego, California 



Winter 1971 



Doppler Goes to Sea on Forrestal 



NORFOLK, Va.- First Navy helicopter 
squadron equipped completely with Tele- 
dyne Ryan Aeronautical's AN/APN-182 
Doppler Navigation Set has deployed to the 
Mediterranean Sea aboard the USS For- 
restal. 

The helicopters, Sikorsky SH-3D Sea 
Kings will use the Teledyne Ryan radars 
for navigation and hover control in per- 
formance of anti-submarine exercises and 
in search and rescue missions. 

Teledyne Ryan Engineer Edward Van 
Horn is accompanying the equipment, 
which was installed at the Naval Air Re- 




work Center, Quonset Point, Rhode Island, 
in replacement of the earlier Ryan AN/APN- 
130 Doppler. Van Horn will return to the 
United States in February. 

The helicopter squadron, HS-3, based at 
Quonset Point, is the first in the Navy to be 
completely outfitted with the new radars, 
which bring more accuracy and greater 
reliability to system performance. Other 
squadrons scheduled to receive the APN- 
182 will be HS-7, which is slated to deploy 
in March, and HS-5, which plans to begin 
installation in March. 



SH'3D Sea King squadron fiad deployed witfi 
new Teledyne Ryan Doppler radar systems. 



Teledyne Ryan to Produce 
Phoenix Missile Test Sets 

EL SEGUNDO, Calif.-Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical has begun production of ground 
support equipment for the Navy's Phoenix 
missile system under a $1.1 million con- 
tract to Hughes Aircraft Company, El Se- 
gundo, prime contractor. 

Included are eleven items of rack-mount- 
ed test equipment in each set. Function of 
the equipment is to test parts of the Phoe- 
nix Airborne Weapons Control System used 
on the Navy's new F-14 fighter aircraft. 
Phoenix is the primary air-to-air weapon. 



Please send address changes to: 

TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



533163 

J. E. BLACK 
5'-j72 LrtHA:.:l£ A'AY 
SAi'J L'lcliJJ, CALIF. 



92120 



BULK RATE 
U. S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No. 437 













l:f-^' 



/f"' 



r' 



WELL DONE, William Tell 1970! With professionalism your mark, you've added 
another milestone to the legacy of Aerospace Defense Command's William Tell 
Weapons Meets. And Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical is proud to have been a member 
of the team. Proud to serve-with our Firebee targets-as your "Big Apple." We'll 
be looking to future William Tell meets. ..to the day when air superiority F-15s will 
be in the inventory. That's why our supersonic Firebee II is in production now. 
Tailor-made for the Air Force and Navy, Firebee II will be tomorrow's "Big Apple." 

^^^^TELEDYNE 

2701 HARBOR DR. /SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



.«i 



H 



A6E OF THE Hi^ 





Remotely Piloted Vehicle produced by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 
releases inert, 500-pound bombs in tests. Sequence is taken 
from 16mm film. Unmanned, jet-powered vehicles are posed 
in newly-defined missions ranging over the broad spectrum of 
defensive-offensive capabilities. 




Volume 32, Number 2 
Summer 1971 



REPORTER Notes 

Little doubt exists over the presence today of an 
"Age of the RPV." Acknowledging its presence is 
a series of articles published over the past year by 
AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY, 
ARMED FORCES JOURNAL, AIR FORCE 
AND SPACE DIGEST, POPULAR SCIENCE, 
INTERNATIONAL DEFENSE REVIEW as 
well as newspapers and news syndicates in this 
country and abroad. 

General George S. Brown, Commander of the 
Air Force Systems Command, recently added his 
authority to the subject of Remotely Piloted Ve- 
hicles. Addressing the National Security Forum at 
Maxwell Air Force Base, Gen. Brown noted that 
"no credible strategy is possible except in the con- 
text of what science and technology have made or 
will make possible." 

Turning to the subject of Remotely Piloted Ve- 
hicles, he said "through the use of drones or 
Remotely Piloted Vehicles, we avoid exposure of 
our aircrews to heavily defended areas. 

"These RPVs can be designed to be light, 
relatively inexpensive and far more maneuverable 
than human tolerance would permit if a pilot were 
aboard. Remotely 'flown' from ground or by a pilot 
in a 'mother ship' 20 or more miles away, they can 
serve as air superiority fighters; as command and 
control and surveillance platforms; for reconnais- 
sance; or as decoys, target markers and covert 
jammers. 

"They could mount guns, rockets and missiles, 
or since they are expendable, could be flown direct- 
ly into the target." 

"Age of the RPV", our lead article in this issue, 
amplifies Gen Brown's comments. "A Reporter 
Interview" with Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's 
Robert R. Schwanhausser and RCA's David Shore 
adds perspective to the subject of RPVs. Finally, 
"RPV: The Background," illuminates the history 
of Remotely Piloted Vehicles. 

All three presentations are offered as a Special 
Report. 

Conveniently, REPORTER is published by 
pioneers in the RPV field. Much of the scientific- 
technological threshhold upon which this new age 
is poised today was created by Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical's family of Firebees. Its fourth- 
generation, growth-version Supersonic Firebee II 
will go into operational service this summer with 
the Navy and the Air Force this fall. 

Conceived, designed, developed and produced 
as a supersonic aerial target system, Firebee II 
offers promise of being the world's most sophisti- 
cated and versatile system of its kind ever produced. 

Against the backdrop of what is now posed as an 
"Age of the RPV," Firebee II may also help pave 
the way for a whole, new age of RPVs to follow. 






'-=>>^'^. 



7I^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Editor 

Robert R. Springer / Associate Editor 

Ed Wojciechowski, David A. Gossett 

Bob Wilson / Staff Photographers 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 



Age of the RPV Page 2 

Part of a special report on Remotely Piloted Vehicles 
contained in this issue, the author explores his topic g 
through the eyes of a pilot and talents of an engineer. 



A Reporter Interview Page 10 

Study, plan and develop future Remotely Piloted 

Vehicles is a task cut out for Teledyne Ryan and RCA as 

a team. Vice Presidents of both companies share 

their views on approaches to the task. 



RPV-The Background Page 14 

Remotely Piloted Vehicles have been with us in a 

variety of shapes and sizes since 1928. Only in the 

past quarter-century have jet-powered, unmanned vehicles 

been used operationally and in widening magnitudes. 



Eyes of the Falcon Page 22 

'Endeavor" is scheduled to depart planet earth for the moon 

July 26. In the final phase of Apollo 15's lunar mission, 

"Falcon"— the lunar module-will settle to a soft-landing, 

guided by Teledyne Ryan's landing radar system. 



FIREBEE II Page 26 

Operational versions of Teledyne Ryan's Supersonic 

Firebee II are scheduled for delivery to the Navy and Air 

Force this year. Staff photographers Wojciechowski and 

Wilson probe the assembly line for previews of what's to come. 



Magic Fingers Page 30 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's third generation Doppler 

radar navigation-sensing system is in operational use by 

the Navy for ASW helicopter and LAMPS applications. 



Reporter News Inside Back Cover 



ABOUT THE COVER: Obscure-yet definitive, this 

new age of the Remotely Piloted Vehicle. 

Symbolizing the closed loop system that commands 

and controls RPVs is first, the man. His 

command-control console and plot board offer 

definitive values to RPV projections. Staff 

photographer Ed Wojciechowski captured the essence 

of what is implied in a Special Report on RPVs 

contained in this issue. 






Lithography by Frye & Smith, Ltd., San Diego, California 






By William A. Anderson 

Project Engineer, Remotely Piloted Vehicles 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 



The concept is as bold and broad, as 
exciting and promising as any dream man 
ever fulfilled. Yet it has definite limitations. 
The time is here in this new age of Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles. Fact must be sorted from 
fiction. That's what this article is all about. 



A 



great deal has been written and spoken lately 
about Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the dawn of this 
new and revolutionary concept in aerial warfare, the 
push-button weapon system of the future and their resulting 
impacts upon the military force structure. Like so many 
new and promising concepts, the truth lies somewhere in 
between the fanciful predictions of the enthusiasts 
and the gloomy forecasts of the doubters. 

It is time to sort out wishful thinking from rational 
speculation, fact from fiction and the real from the unreal. 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical has been in the RPV 
"business" for over 20 years. Make no mistakes, the original 
Firebee was as much an RPV in 1951 as it is in 1971 and 
as the future RPVs will be in 1981. The difference is that now 
advanced technology has made possible a much higher 
degree of "pilot" participation in areas where he functions 
best. 

The Firebee operator in 1951 was limited to rudimentary 
control and information with most of the control loops being 
closed on the vehicle. Today he can extend his eyes and hands 
and brain to the RPV without the presence of his body. 






DRAWINGS AND DESIGN BY BOB WATTS 





^N\ 




A good example of an RPV where the pilot closes all 
guidance and control loops, where the remote pilot has 
complete control authority over the attitude and 
flight path of the vehicle is the modern radio control model 
airplane. The controller has direct real-time control over 
all aspects of the flight, including power settings, attitude, 
configuration and flight safety. If the controller wants to 
turn the aircraft upside down, he does so by visual reference 
to the vehicle and operation of the appropriate controls. 

In the case of a BQM-34A Firebee, however, the "remote 
pilot," or "RCO," has no existing direct visual contact 
with the vehicle. He must therefore rely upon telemetered 
flight data for general flight information, upon radar 
plotting for navigation information and upon the autopilot 
control logic for attitude and safety of the flight. 

By commanding various flight modes such as turn, climb, 
dive, straight and level, the controller can "manage" 
the flight of the vehicle in the same sense that a drill instructor 
manages the maneuvers of a squad of men-the men 
themselves controlling their individual motions in response 
to the manager's commands. 

One can now start to see emerging the relationships 
between man and machine, the delicate balance between 
real-time closed loop authority and open loop control 
of a vehicle capable of autonomous or automatic modes of 



flight. The distinctions are subtle, but important to an 
understanding of the potential of RPVs as weapons systems 
of the future. In the past, the use of unmanned aircraft 
has been confined to those applications where the presence 
of a man was not acceptable for one reason or another, 
such as target operations, weapon test and evaluation, or 
highly sensitive surveillance operations. 

The unmanned aircraft was used not because it was 
better or cheaper or more effective, but because it was the 
only acceptable way to conduct the mission. 

Now, due to the technology explosion in sensors and 
avionics, the RPV concept is being considered for other 
missions, such as air superiority and weapons delivery. 



conducted in severely hostile environments. In these applica- 
tions, the goal is to maintain the advantages of manned 
flight — through nev*^ sensors, data links, computers and 
display systems — without the disadvantages such as life 
support systems, physical limitations, flight safety considera- 
tions and loss of life. 

The magnitude of tasks and complexity of problems to be 
solved in the fields of sensors, command and control, 
data links, ground checkout equipment and navigation are 
fully recognized. Recognition has also been given to 
low cost and high effectiveness as being crucially important 
to the acceptance of such systems. 

Few individual companies have the expertise, experience 
and overall capabilities for solving these problems and 
meet the required goals unaided. For this reason, Teledyne 
Ryan is encouraging the cooperation and partnership 
of avionics and sensor communities. These contributions, 
blended with Teledyne Ryan RPV vehicles, can lead 
to problem solutions. 






The recent advances in microelectronics, sensor systems, 
navigation systems, data links and command and control con- 
cepts have made possible the applications of a variety of 
sub-system capabilities in packages small and cheap enough 
to serve as attractive alternatives to current manned systems. 

The U. S. Air Force has been and is sponsoring studies 
and demonstration programs designed to illuminate the prob- 
lems and illustrate capabilities of RPVs for such missions. 

The first, most demanding and probably hardest to 
achieve, is the air-superiority fighter mission. This is the 
classic role of air-to-air combat in the best traditions of 
fighter aces of the past, the purpose of which is to secure an 



©OOQOO0 



air space for the conduct of other combat operations 
within that air space; to protect ground forces from air attack 
and to permit friendly air forces to attack enemy ground 
positions. This is not the bomber defense interceptor mis- 
sion, but the fighter vs. fighter in the classic sense. 

By virtue of being unmanned, the RPV can be designed to 
very high maneuvering criteria. It would not be limited, 
for example, by human tolerance to load factors and could be 
designed to pull 10, 12, or 15 Gs. It also could be 
designed to withstand and use effectively, negative G forces 
unacceptable to human pilots. 

The RPV could be equipped with guns or missiles, optical 
tracking sensors and data links to permit control from a 
mother ship or ground station. Range could be extended by 
airborne or satellite relay. Alternatively, a degree 
of autonomy could be provided which would permit a 
computer controlled combat engagement to be performed 
independent of line of sight. 

Command and control of multiple RPVs in a complex 
combat environment may well dictate that a high degree of 



developed to permit coordinated multiple interdiction and 
defense suppression attacks to be made in cooperation 
with manned operations. 

Again, the degree of RPV autonomy, in the form of 
automatic "on-board" guidance for navigation and store 
delivery is a useful tradeoff item against data linl< and 
control requirements. In addition to delivery of v^^eapons, this 
type of RPV can be used for the delivery of a variety 
of special purpose stores for electronic surveillance and 
detection in highly defended or politically sensitive areas. 

Teledyne Ryan and RCA have teamed for an in-depth 
study effort to examine the effective application of RPV 
weapon systems to a variety of military missions. 
This team brings together the unique blend of expertise 
necessary for definition of low cost, high performance 
RPV systems of the future. 

Missions to be studied: 

PRE-MISSION SURVIVABILITY 

The RPV lends itself to concealment, dispersal and 

quick reaction and surprise. RPVs can be ferried from a safe 

base to a launch point by transport aircraft; Launched 

zero length from a place of concealment; Efficiently stowed 

in reinforced enclosure for long periods of time; It is 

uniquely qualified to survive the initial destruction 

of a surprise attack. 

EN-ROUTE SURVIVABILITY 

The RPV is inherently survivable enroute by high speed, 

low altitude penetration or at high latitude. Low altitude flight 

is not restricted by the buffet limits of human crew. 

An altitude can be flown which provides favorable ratio of 

vehicles saved by avoiding defenses to losses due to 

colliding with ground structures and natural prominences; 

At high altitude, low radar cross-section and maneuverability 

minimizes detection and engagement by SAM's 

and interceptors. 



©ooooos 



computer control be used to reduce the data link band width 
requirements and increase the number of RPVs under control 
by a single control station. 

Weapons delivery systems such as those presently under 
investigation by Teledyne Ryan, the Air Force and the 
Navy, are divided into two main types: The one-way system 
using expendable, low-cost air vehicles which are 
remotely guided to the target impact area. For example, 
this would be a ship-to-ship application currently under 
Investigation to meet the Russian STYX threat. The second is 
a two-way RPV which carries deliverable ordnance of 
either guided or unguided weapons. This RPV would return 
for parachute recovery on completion of the mission. 

These RPVs are ideally suited to situations where the 
defensive environment is too severe for practical manned 
operations and where high value, hard targets must be 
destroyed. A high degree of navigational, low altitude control, 
and terminal weapons delivery accuracy must be achieved 
for these systems to be effective. 

Multiple RPV tracking and control systems must be 




TARGET AREA SURVIVABILITY 

The RPV can employ saturation tactics in addition to 
conventional ECM modes for survivability in target areas. 
Variants of the A/G mode permits use of a part of an 
RPV "swarm" to act in an anti-radar, defense supression 
mode. High mission success ratios can be expected because 
men involved in RPV mission are safe on the ground; 
Few/er repeat missions due to this kill potential means less 
vehicle loss overall; "Every RPV is a potential Medal 
of Honor' winner"; RPVs can perform high "g" maneuvers 
to counter defenses. 

MISSION EFFECTIVENESS 

In the air-to-ground mode, RPVs can press attacks to 
the point where target kills can be assured despite defense 
lethality. Indeed, the mission may be performed so 
effectively that manned aircraft may be used with relative 
safety to "mop-up" after RPV attacks. 

In the Recce/EW mode, RPVs have the effectiveness 
of very large airplanes carrying unlimited numbers of 
specialists in Recce and EW. RPVs permit these specialists 
to remain on the ground where they can use the most 
sophisticated Signal Processing techniques to aid their work. 

In the air-to-air mode, RPVs can exploit high 
maneuverability to enhance their favorable attack positions 
against an enemy. Missiles, guns, rockets and direct 
collision modes can be employed. 

In all modes the low cost of RPVs, because of small 
size, use of non-man rated components and limited planned 
useful life, means that the United States can apply 
mass tactics against an enemy. The RPV lends itself to high 
utilization rates. Properly designed, its turn-around 




time can be minimal. Its human crew can service a large 
number of missions a day in the comfort and safety of their 
command center. 

In summary, the future of Remotely Piloted Vehicles 
is as bright as it has ever been. The lower costs, political 
acceptability, low risk to life and versatile mission capa- 
bilities of RPVs make them very attractive candidates in a 
world of shrinking budgets and unpopular military operations. 

This much is assured in the dawn of this era of the 
RPV: The increasing demands of a threat environment will 
continue to grow in the immediate years ahead. The 
price for military aircraft weapons delivery systems of the 
manned variety will continue to mount. The hazards 
faced by manned military aircraft in combat environments 
will not diminish. 

Against this backdrop, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical is 
pledged to the pursuit of what now appears as the 
most feasible approach to maintenance of a strong military 
posture for the United States. 

It will be many years before this feasibility is developed 
into operational applications. 

The era of the Remotely Piloted Vehicle is here, 
however, after more than two decades of pioneering 
development and exploration by Teledyne Ryan. -^fi^ 




"Bill" Anderson came to Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical in 1966 
as engineering test pilot assigned to the XV-5A flight test and de- 
velopment program. He had been associated with this program at 
Edwards Air Force Base as an Army civilian test pilot and was one 
of the first to fly the Vertifan-powered V/STOL research aircraft. 

Educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, a graduate of Williams 
College, Anderson served in the Royal Air Force in a variety of 
assignments, including three years as engineering test pilot. He 
was also associated as a civilian in that capacity in this country, 
fiying the F-5 and T-38. 

He brings to the Remotely Piloted Vehicle program a broad 
range of aeronautical engineering expertise and flying skills, blend- 
ing these qualities into a lead team effort that is helping create 
the "Age of the RPV." 



REPORTER: Why does this country need Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles? 



SCHWANHAUSSER: 



raporder 



SHORE: 




By Jack Broward 

Two of the country's pioneering and most 
prestigious companies are teamed in the in- 
vestigation, study and development of Re- 
motely Piloted Vehicles. Robert R. Schwan- 
hausser is Vice President, Aerospace Systems, 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. David Shore is 
Division Vice President, Government Plans 
and Systems Development, RCA Government 
and Commercial Systems. They recently par- 
ticipated in this discussion of Remotely Piloted 
Vehicles. 



SCHWANHAUSSER: 



REPORTER: 



SCHWANHAUSSER: 



For a number of reasons. First, because 
of the extreme high risks faced by air- 
crews in hostile environments. It is no 
longer acceptable to expose human life 
to situations where unmanned vehicles 
could do the job. We have evidence that 
supports this belief, both in the form of 
U.S. aircrews now in POW camps and a 
compilation of successes in instances 
when unmanned vehicles were used. 
The feasibility for using RPVs has been 
proven. What we're studying now is the 
formalization of their use for long range 
planning and development. 

We believe that together we have all the 
necessary ingredients for providing 
RPVs today. We know darned well that 
surface-to-air defense systems (SAI\/IS) 
are pretty formidable obstacles to 
manned aircraft. In addition, sensor 
technology has fortunately moved to the 
point where it is already doing a massive 
part of the mission even when you have 
a man aboard. 

I doubt if a simple answer can be given 
to this question. The short of it is that we 
possess the technical as well as prac- 
tical capabilities and that it is a cheaper, 
more effective way to go. 

What major considerations influenced 
the teaming of Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical with RCA? 

One primary consideration is the right 
balance between reliability of per- 
formance and costs of the system. Over 
the years, we've proven our reliability, 
in both space and drone operations. But 
the future RPV is something else again. 




SHORE: 



H 





The concept of the RPV is low cost, low 
cost, low cost. Although Ryan and RCA 
have built space hardware and have 
worked together on the very successful 
Apollo Lunar Module program, the costs 
of such systems would be prohibitive, 
not even feasible for RPVs. And we 
know, because of our prior association 
with RCA, they understand the right 
balance between high reliability and 
cost. I think we do, too. What needs to 
be determined is how much reliability 
can be bought for how much money. 
This is the kind of team effort that I 
believe will produce acceptable answers 
to those questions. I can tell you that 
we're delighted with this partnership. 



REPORTER: 



SCHWANHAUSSER: 




We've been using as an example, the 
spectrum of choices of television that is 
now available or that could be available 
for RPV use. We took television as a 
typical benchmark example. At one ex- 
treme you have the TV which is on the 
Lunar Rover in Apollo 15. It is mounted 
on the front of the vehicle. It is remotely 
controlled all the way from Houston. 
Now, that's really remote! Astronauts 
will not even touch this system. It will be 
operated by way of Houston through a 
remote link. This represents the very 
high cost, very reliable end of the spec- 
trum. On the other end of the spectrum, 
RCA is now in the development of com- 
mercial cameras that will cost only 
hundreds of dollars. Somewhere in this 
spectrum -between the extreme high 
cost of the Lunar Rover camera for ex- 
ample, and the lower cost television 
camera -somewhere in this spectrum 
is the right tradeoff for the RPV. We plan 
to make full use of what is available 
between our military, commercial and 
our consumer product lines to get good, 
hard benchmarks for evaluating what 
we ought to do on our RPV. Our David 
Sarnoff Research facility is engaged in 
massive research and development in 
the field of high resolution cameras. 
We're also working on dynamic range — 
from very low light levels to conditions 
such as those experienced on the moon 
-going from darkness to brilliant sun 
rays. Significantly, what we're also en- 
gaged in is solid-state mosaic cameras 
— cameras without tubes. This tells us 
that in the future, we're going to be see- 
ing a whole new choice of small, good 
resolution TV pickups with reliability 
just right for RPV use. 

It has been established that RPVs will 
complement manned aircraft applica- 
tions. Can you expand on this? 

The RPV is not meant to compete with 
pilots. It can provide a role under very 
hazardous conditions, it can provide a 
lead role where followup would be pro- 
vided by manned aircraft. It Is comple- 
mentary to manned aircraft as well as to 
the ballistic missile field. 



11 




REPORTER: 



SHORE: A point to emphasize here is that the 
subject of RPV is not something new. 
Its been around for many, many years. 
What we're talking about today is the 
application of newly developed tech- 
nology. Let me give you an example. You 
have a Recce RPV flying and taking good 
high resolution pictures and relaying 
them back via data link and then the 
pictures being shown to a whole host of 
observers sequentially on the ground. In 
a real time link such as this, the pic- 
tures could reveal transient targets and 
the RPV could then be commanded to 
bore in for broader and more finite data. 
The target could then be attacked by 
any number of techniques available. 
This is a capability we do not have today. 




SCHWANHAUSSER: 



REPORTER: 



SCHWANHAUSSER: 



REPORTER: 



SCHWANHAUSSER: 



Audiences which have experienced 
"buzz-bomb" type weapons of the less 
discriminate nature might well oppose 
the RPV concept. What resistance do 
you anticipate? 

The first thing that's important to re- 
member is that there is a man in the 
loop. Aside from this, our technical 
capabilities are already in use to a point 
where much greater precision and ef- 
fectiveness is gained from technology. 
And I want to make this unmistakably 
clear: The RPVs we envision will be 
mission-oriented. The most valuable 
asset represented in their use will be 
that which enables discrimination. The 
audience that might resist development 
of RPVs may also be in opposition to any 
weapons development program. It is 
something that we, in our business of 
helping strengthen the defense posture 
of this country, must learn to live with. If 
we do our job successfully, then we can 
go on to the next task. If we fail, then we 
all fail as a country. 

According to published reports, sixty 
percent of Teledyne Ryan's work in the 
targetand drone field-what we now call 
Remotely Piloted Vehicles— has been 
performed under classified or sensitive 
conditions. What foundation does this 
representto what we now discuss openly 
as a future for RPV applications? 

The foundation is one of technology. It 
is here and now. The question is how to 
best integrate this knowledge and ex- 
perience. There are lots of others that 
have been and are in this business. The 
trick is going to be developing a total 
system within limits of the budgets that 
support the system. 

This leads to what has been posed as a 
reversal of spiralling costs applied to 
manned aircraft through introduction of 
RPVs. 

/ think the customer is now beginning to 
see that RPVs are very cost-effective. 
Our high loss rate of aircraft in Vietnam 




12 




SHORE: 



REPORTER: 




SCHWANHAUSSER: 



SHORE: 




SCHWANHAUSSER: 




and replacement costs encourage clos- 
er examination of RPVs as alternatives. 

We've seen that men of vision, like 
General Ferguson, felt ttiat there is this 
complementary role for RPVs, sufficient- 
ly strong to personally stimulate think- 
ing along RPV lines. If I were a fighter 
pilot, I think I'd like to know that the 
RPVs were there to dilute the enemy's 
defenses so I could do a better job and 
survive. 

There is an increasing volume of pub- 
licity being given by military trade- 
oriented publications to the subject of 
RPVs today. Much of it is speculation. 
What are some of the realistic values, 
time frames, costs and associated facts 
concerning RPVs? 

Without question, no major identifica- 
tion will be given to RPVs in terms of 
new hardware within the next five years. 
Within that time frame, many small 
projects will evolve. Out of this effort will 
come the major new programs which 
could be equal to the major programs 
we are engaged in today. 

Several major things are going for us 
who are engaged in this study-develop- 
mental effort. Technical advance in sen- 
sors, computers, new metals and 
plastics, fabrication techniques, com- 
mand and control concepts for remote 
operations are being pulled together. 
This integration is going to help bring 
costs down as the process of developing 
vehicle volume production develops. We 
envision RPVs as one of the break- 
through systems that will drastically 
alter military concepts and operations. 

The approach to the RPV program is 
sound. We've experienced our meetings 
with military audiences to identify con- 
cepts. Funded concept studies will 
eventually lead to designs which could 
then lead to production. Within this 
framework is included a lot of room for 
creativity and imagination. Out of it all 
will come what I believe is a healthy 
marriage of technology to requirements. 



13 




That aviation is in the dawn of a new age cannot 
be denied. Only circumstances of its evolution 
are left to interpretation. A rare aviation talent 
and authority on the subject reviews the history 
of Remotely Piloted Vehicles as he knows it to be. 





14 





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High-speed test rails were used In early-day Investigation of FIrebee ground launch. 



A. ourcenturies before the birth of Christ, 
a small boy stood on a lonely windswept 
hill in China and flew recorded history's 
first remotely controlled aircraft. True, the 
aerodynamics of that kite's shape left 
something to be desired, and his down-link 
was a piece of string, but history was in 
the making. And today, several centuries 
later, men sit in dimly lighted rooms on 
lonely hills and silently guide unmanned 
aircraft to a pinpoint on a map hundreds of 
miles away. 

Little progress was made from the flight 
of string-held kites to a free-flight robot 
until shortly after the dawn of the 20th 
century. A young gentleman by the name 
of Ben Franklin did some R&D electronic 
work with an unmanned vehicle in the mid 
I700's, but its application to remote con- 
trol was not noteworthy. Tethered balloons 
were used as photo platforms during the 
Civil War, but it wasn't until still a larger 
war in 1915 that the first attempts were 

BACKGROUND 




Flight of four Navy 6-26 aircraft, (left) 
modified for Firebee air launch operations, 
symbolized the Navy's early-day Interests In 
the use of unmanned vehicles. Firebee 
(above) proved parachute recovery system 
effectiveness. 




Delta-winged F-101 fighter-interceptor posed 
with KDA Firebee characterized need for 
realistic "enemy" stand-in for readiness 
exercises. 



By William P. "Doc" Sloan 
Manager, International Marketing 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 



15 




1 928 version of Kettering RPV (above) was forerunner to today's tiighi-performance vetiicles. 
Germany introduced V-1 "Buzz Bombs" in WW II as a re-vitalizing influence in unmanned aircraft. 




1928 

made to launch an unmanned powered 
aircraft. After three years of research by 
C. F. Kettering, (later of General Motors 
fame) the first reciprocating-engine bi- 
plane, mounted on a jury-rigged cart on 
rails, roared into the air. Granted, this 
initial program was not a howling success, 
but recommendations springing from the 
Kettering plan led to the first successful 
droning of a commercial Curtis Robin in 
1928. This radio-controlled, bomb-carry- 
ing airplane floundered through the skies 
on and off for four years before expiring 
from lack-of-funditis in 1932. 

It wasn't until 1938 that serious interest 
was shown by the armed forces in develop- 
ing remotely controlled offensive weapons. 
Again Kettering came into the picture, 
teaming with Hap Arnold to spearhead a 
new breed of "special weapons." Among 
the several projects which were started 
were the development of radio-controlled 
target planes of the PQ series, a glide 
bomb (GB-l), a controllable high angle 
bomb known as AZON, a surface-to-sur- 
face "buzz" bomb, later called the General 
Motors "Bug," a glide bomb known as the 
"Bat" and several other projects which 
were subsequently discontinued. 

1938 

Of all of these wartime experiments, 
perhaps the GB-I proved to be the most 
effective. Utilizing a 2000 lb. demolition 
bomb as a fuselage, the airframe consisted 
of twelve-foot plywood wings and twin 
plywood rudders. Actually, the GB-l was 
the first of our modern "stand-off wea- 
pons. Radio-controlled, they could be 
dropped by B-17s well out of reach of 
highly protected areas, and visually guided 
to the target. In 1943, a group of 54 bomb- 
ers from the 8th Air Force performed a 
mission against the city of Cologne, carry- 
ing 108 of the GB-ls. Typically, the Ger- 
man propaganda machine reported the 
strike in this manner: 

"A high altitude attack by .-Xmerican 



16 



bombers against Cologne has been turned 
back by the fierce anti-aircraft fire defend- 
ing the city, and no bombs were dropped. 
The accompanying fighter cover, however, 
composed of small, exceedingly fast twin- 
tailed aircraft, came over the city at low 




Firebee posing as "enemy" 

altitude in a strafing attack. So good were 
the defenses that every single fighter was 
shot down; much damage was done by 
these falling aircraft, all of which ex- 
ploded violently." 

1944 

In 1944, a "war weary" program for 
droning tired B-I7s and B-24s was initi- 
ated, but abandoned because to be flyable, 
the war-wearies had to be overhauled and 
updated almost to a new configuration. 
Several of these were flown out of England 
against German targets, but the cost was 
prohibitive. 

The Air Force also attempted (and suc- 
cessfully) to duplicate the German V-1 
"Buzz-Bomb" and released it for produc- 
tion in the winter of 1944-45. Original 
plans were to employ it in the Asiatic 
theater, since the war in Europe was draw- 
ing to a close, but the A-bomb negated 
its use. 

With the conclusion of World War II, 
the guided missile program was greatly 
accelerated. To provide for this and also 
to provide for the fact that there are basic 
differences between the aircraft program 
and the guided missile program, the 
Guided Missiles Section of the Air Force 
Section became the first Pilotless Aircraft 
Branch, the grandaddy project office to all 
of the current target/drone configurations 



of today. 

In late 1946, the Pilotless Aircraft 
Branch was assigned the task of coming up 
with the requirements and performance 
characteristics for three separate un- 
manned aircraft to be utilized by the Army 
and the Air Force as targets for various 
applications. As a result of their studies, a 
small, reciprocating-engined target capable 
of speeds up to 210 knots and an altitude 
of 25,000 feet was specified for the low- 
performance regime. For the intermediate 
requirements, a pulse-jet powered aircraft 
with performance set at 300 knots at 
15,000 feet was released for bidding. For 
the high performance target, a specifica- 
tion was released for a jet-powered air- 
craft capable of 521 knots at 15,000 feet, 
but with a service ceiling of 40,000 feet. 

The low and intermediate targets were 
designated as the OQ- 1 9 and the Q- 1 , and 
both contracts for their manufacture were 
won by the Radioplane Company of Van 
Nuys. The old OQ-19, later known as the 
KD2-R5, filled the bill so well for the low- 
performance requirements that it is still in 
limited production. 

Industry attention, however, was cen- 
tered on the high-performance jet target 
designated as the Q-2. Sensing the poten- 
tial magnitude of this project, 3 1 com- 
panies responded to the first request for 
quotation, but after analysis by the Air 
Force, none was accepted and the project 



was re-opened for bid with a due-date of 
January, 1948. Eighteen of the nation's 
top aircraft manufacturers responded, and 
over 14 actual designs were submitted. In 
August, 1948, the Ryan Aeronautical 
Company was awarded the first contract 
for a sub-sonic, jet-propelled unmanned 
aircraft. Thus began a segment of aero- 
nautical history that is today still in the 
formative stages, foreshadowing eventual 
offensive and defensive tactics of air com- 
bat by remote control. 

The U. S. Navy, cognizant of the pre- 
liminary design studies conducted by the 
Air Force, took more than a passing inter- 
est in the development of the Q-2, and 
prior to procurement, agreed to pick up 
the tab for half of the initial research costs. 
In effect, the program became a tri-serv- 
ice effort with the Air Force as the con- 
tracting agency for themselves, the Army 
Ground Forces and the Navy. 

Pioneering a new aeronautical concept 
can be an inspiring and rewarding achieve- 
ment. It can also be frustrating, disap- 
pointing and sometimes hopeless. The 
problems facing the services and the con- 
tractor in the development of the first 
designed-from-scratch pilotless jet airplane 
took months of designing, testing, discard- 
ing and redesigning. The major areas of ex- 
perimental development were propulsion, 
track and control, launch and recovery. 

In keeping with the procurement policy 



Air-to-air duel between Navy Q-2 Firebee and fighter ends with blinding flash as missile hits. 





. ^, 




17 



of negotiating separately for airframe and 
engines, the Air Force selected the Flader 
XJ-55 turbojet proposed by the Fredrick 
Flader Company of North Tonawanda, 
N. Y. A radical departure from the stan- 
dard four-stage compressor turbo jet, the 
XJ-55 was single stage, weighed 300 
pounds and was theoretically capable of 
developing 700 lbs. thrust. Whether Flader 
was ahead of his time in design or incap- 
able of making his stated performance dur- 
ing the four years from 1947 to 51 is prob- 
lematical. But after numerous tests and 
ground runs in the XQ-2, the contract was 
terminated and the replacement engine 
designated as the Fairchild J-44. Fortu- 
nately, the Ryan design of the engine 

1948 




nacelle for the new bird was a modular 
unit, and the changeover was made with- 
out a time-consuming major redesign. As 
the developmental program progressed, 
more and more stress was placed on an 
altitude capability, and eventually the 
Continental Aviation Marbore II with a 
static thrust of 880 pounds was introduced 
into the system. The production version 
of the Q-2 and the Navy configuration 
utilized both Fairchild and Continental 
engines. 

In the early stages of design, the limited 
endurance capability of the Flader engine 
led to a unique method of flight control to 
minimize the time necessary to complete 




Historic ground launch of early-day Firebee at Holloman AFB advanced technical capabilities. 
RCAF used firebees (left) in cold weather operations and became one of first non-U. S. nations to 
use system. 

the standard 1 80 degree turns in the oval 
patterns to be flown. Instead of making 
standard race-track type turns, a method 
was proposed to program the bird into an 
Immelman turn (half loop and half snap 
roll on top of the loop), dive back to pat- 
tern altitude and make the presentation. 
The design headaches associated with this 
maneuver were finally dissipated when the 
Flader faded and the J-44 was installed. 

Finally, after many innovations, a con- 
trol system known as RAPS-4 (Ryan auto- 
matic pilot system) was integrated into the 
design and the XQ-2s were retrofitted 
with it. 

The original specification for the Q-2 
called for both an air and ground launch 
capability. Early launching aircraft for the 
Q-2, as well as the launching vehicle for 
the parachute tests, were many and var- 
ied. The first launching (unpowered) of the 
Q-2 took place from the wing of a B- 1 7 
bomber, and a B-29 was also used for a 
short period for chute tests. Eventually, 
the B-26C light bomber was adopted as 
the standard launch vehicle. Actually, the 
Navy was the pioneer in this phase, using 
their JD-I with a single target on one wing 




with water ballast on the other. The final 
configuration with a target under either 
wing was tested at Holloman ,AFB with 
the Air Force. 

Ground launch experiments started with 
a 4,000-foot set of rails to determine the 
effect of acceleration on the target during 
and after launching. All of these tests were 
captive, with the trolly-held bird scream- 
ing down the rails under jato and engine 
power. Deceleration was accomplished 



18 




Mobile launch bunker at Holloman AFB was used for ground launch tests of Firebee mounted on 
launch rail in background. 




Launched from belly of B-26, air launch operations progressed through a variety of configurations. 



with a scoop attached to the trolley which 
was dragged through a series of reservoirs 
containing water. From the 4,000-foot 
rails, the tests proceeded to the KC-9 cata- 
pult launcher with 99-foot rails. The cata- 
pulting force was obtained from a power 
charge fired from the breech mechanism of 
a standard 6-inch naval gun. Fortunately, 
powder with the desired burning charac- 
teristics became unavailable, and use of a 
standard A- 1 guided takeoff launcher with 
an 1 1 ,000-lb. jato bottle was adopted. 



One of the first attempts to zero-length 
launch the bird from a standard road vehi- 
cle produced a truly spectacular flight. 
Shortly after takeoff, the target commenced 
a slow roll. The Jato continued to burn 
until the Q-2 was in an inverted position, 
at which time the Jato separated, the bird 
completed its slow roll and reassumed 
level flight. Had not complete confusion 
reigned at the control station, the flight 
might have been a success, but the target 
impacted almost immediately. 



It was the Army who was responsible 
for tests from an 80-foot rail (still in exist- 
ence at White Sands) and later conducted 
the successful tests from the standard 
eight-foot rails now in use all over the 
world. 

19S1 

It was in the spring of 1951 when the 
first successful powered free flight of the 
XQ-2 was accomplished, following launch 
from a B-17 at Holloman. In 1952, the 
Research and Development Panel for Tar- 
get Drones, including representatives for 
the U. S. Air Force, Navy and Depart- 
ment of the Army convened at Holloman 
Air Development Center in New Mexico 
to witness the formal demonstrations of 
the Radioplane's XQ-1 and Ryan's XQ-2. 
After sweating out a flight a day for two 
weeks, both contractors were overjoyed 
with the results. In December of that year 
Ryan received a letter contract for the 
production of 35 XM-21 targets (Army 
designation), and the lengthy, exhausting 
period of initial development became a 
thing of the past. 

Parallel with their interest in the XQ-2, 
the Navy also sponsored a program with 
Martin for their KDM target, powered by 
a ram jet. However, after witnessing the 
demonstrations at Holloman, the KDM 
project was cancelled in favor of the Ryan 
drone. Officially designated by the Navy 
as the KDA-1, forty of the targets were 
ordered by the Navy with deliveries be- 
ginning in September of 1954. The Air 
Force followed suit with an order for 89 
Q-2 As, and jet powered targets were in all 
three inventories to stay. Canada joined 
the bandwagon in 1957 with an order for 
thirty KDA-4s in 1957 for cold weather 
testing at Fort Churchill, Canada. By 
1958 nearly thirteen hundred variants of 
the old XQ-2 had been ordered by the 
three services, and pilots, gunners and 
missilemen were finding the small jet 



1957 



19 



1959 

plane-without-a-man-in-it to be a realistic 
threat simulation. 

To remain static in the aircraft industry 
is to stagnate and perish. Mindful of this 
axiom, developmental studies on a bigger, 
faster and higher Q-2 were begun. In 1957, 
the Air Force assumed procurement re- 
sponsibility for all jet drones, and funded 
the improvement program for what was to 
become known as the Q2-C. Longer, 
sleeker and powered with Continental's 
J69-T29 engine developing 1700 lbs. 
thrust, the C-bird exceeded the design 
specifications in nearly every category. It 
has attained a speed of Mach 0.97 in level 
flight, has climbed higher than 60,000 feet 
and flown as low as 50 feet. With a vari- 




f^rmy MQM-34D Firebee streaks into near 
vertical flight. 

able speed range from 200 to more than 
600 knots, it has remained aloft for more 
than 1 15 minutes. It has flown more than 
200 nautical miles from its remote control 
site and has the capability of an hour and 
seventeen minutes above 50,000 feet. So 
advanced was the Q2-C in its early flights 
that chase pilots of the 1959 era had diflS- 
culty staying with it. 

And with the new bird came other de- 
velopments and improvements. Scoring 
systems were developed to give the mis- 
silemen an accurate appraisal of their firing 
accuracy. Augmentation devices were in- 
vented which gave a radar return to simu- 
late a small fighter or large bomber. Flight 




Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's family of RPVs is represented by above configurations. 




Navy fighter closes range on Firebee- below during air-to-air engagement. 



control systems improved to the point 
where the Firebee could make climbing 
and diving turns as well as the fighter on 
its tail. ECM devices were flown to further 
simulate the combat environment. Various 
infrared augmentation sources were tested 
and adapted to meet the specific demands 
of those weapons, both air-to-air and sur- 
face-to-air. Jato power was increased to 



allow a one thousand pound payload to be 
ground launched with the target. The de- 
velopment of towed targets produced a 
major cost-saving device wherein the mis- 
siles sought and killed the tow, leaving the 
Firebee untouched for flight after flight. 
Reliability of the system and skill of the 
ground crews grew to a point where less 
than three out of every hundred flights 



20 




1971 

Already the Firebee has proven it has the 
eyes of a man through television. Digital 
programmers give it a capability of think- 
ing and responding at precise intervals to 
complicated commands. With a photo- 
graphic memory, it is capable of returning 
intelligence from an environment too 
hostile for man to survive in. 

The knowledge and experience gained 
by Teledyne Ryan in the field of unmanned 
jet aircraft for the past quarter-century has 
placed the veteran aerospace company in 
the role of pioneer, manufacturer, oper- 
ator and research experts unexcelled in 
the industry. "^fi^ 




Army Firebee-Towbee system was developed 
for surface to air weapons exercises. 

had problems, and the fiights-per-target 
number has grown to more than fifty in 
automatic weapons firings. 

The far shores of the Pacific are no 
stranger to the Firebee, where it has been 
flown by the Air Force in the Philippines 
and the Army at Okinawa, Korea and Tai- 
wan. It has become the standard work- 
horse for the Navy in Hawaii and Okinawa 
as well as the Atlantic Fleet Weapons 
Range in the Caribbean. It has performed 
for the Army's HAWK missiles in the sub- 
zero weather of Alaska, and flown from 
the deck of a Japanese target ship. It has 
participated in every weapons develop- 
ment in the United States dealing with 
anti-aircraft from the Missile Center at 
Point Mugu to the Florida waters ofi" 
Eglin AFB. It has been the elusive enemy 
of the Air Force at every Tyndall William 



Tell meet since their inception back in '57. 
Over 4,000 of this versatile jet have been 
ordered by the services, and they have 
racked up an impressive 17,500 flights in 
every conceivable climatic and combat 
environment. There is justification for the 
pride Teledyne Ryan takes in the achieve- 
ments of the BQM-34 A and the MQM-34D. 

Despite this impressive record, the po- 
tential use of unmanned aircraft is in its 
infancy. A third major step in the develop- 
ment and advancement of the state-of-the- 
art was undertaken with the supersonic 
version of the Firebee. Funded by the 
Navy in 1966, the newest member of the 
family completed an unusually successful 
flight test program at the Pt. Mugu Naval 
Missile Center in 1970. Capable of Mach 
1.8 speeds at 45,000 feet, the BQM-34E 
has flown at Mach 1.5 above sixty thou- 
sand feet. With a combined sub-super- 
sonic endurance of 74 minutes, this sleek 
threat simulator can be controlled out to 
200 miles from home base. Continued in- 
terservice interest was evidenced with the 
placement of orders by the Air Force in 
1970, and production quantities are now 
taking shape in the factory for delivery 
in early summer. 

And where to from here? The applica- 
tions of a plane that thinks and responds 
as though it were piloted are unlimited. 




A self-styled author who helped cre- 
ate a good deal of the aviation he 
writes about, "Doc" Sloan is a product 
of aviation's "Golden Age". A graduate 
of Ryan School of Aeronautics in 1938 
who remained as a flighit instructor, 
"Doc" commanded two of the Air 
Force's largest primary flight training 
schools during WW II, in addition to 
serving operational duties in the 
CBI theater. 

There are few programs developed 
by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical since 
post WW II days in which "Doc" has 
not been associated, either in a man- 
agement or marketing role. 

His greatest authority — because he 
has enjoyed a continuity of association 
with them since the introduction of 
Firebee Remotely Piloted Vehicles- 
centers on targets and drones. 



21 



"Falcon" astronauts aboard Rover I are depicted by staff 
artist Bob Watts as tfiey explore Hadley North, landing site 
for Apollo 15. 




Apollo 15's lunar 
module, like those before it, will 

be guided to its soft-landing 
by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's... 

EYES 

Of the 

FALCON 

By 

A Robert R. Springer 

merica s tenth Apollo mission, its eighth to carry men into 
space since the program's inauguration nearly four years ago and 
the first in a final series of three remaining will also be "probably 
the greatest scientific exploration ever carried out by man," ac- 
cording to veteran astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 space- 
craft commander. 

Scheduled for launch from Cape Kennedy Wednesday, July 26, 
the new "J" series spacecraft — nicknamed "Endeavor" — will 
pack the heaviest payload yet, including a 500-pound Lunar Rover 
Vehicle stowed in the lunar module. Folded into three sections, 
"Rover 1" will be used by astronauts Scott and James B. Irwin, 
lunar module pilot, in making three extravehicular excursions 
while on the moon. 

As in the three Apollo lunar landings — Apollo 11,12 and 14 — 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's lunar module landing radar system 
will provide velocity and altitude measurements as "Falcon," 
Apollo 15's lunar module, is guided to its gentle touchdown in 
the Hadley- Apennine area of the moon. 

Described by Teledyne Ryan's J. R. Iverson, Vice President of 
Electronic and Space Systems, as "the most sophisticated sensor 
of its kind," the system will measure Falcon's altitude above the 
lunar surface, its forward velocity, lateral velocity and rate of 
descent relative to the surface of the moon. Without this critical, 
real-time information, the lunar module and its two-man crew of 
Scott and James B. Irwin will not be permitted to make a lunar 
landing. 

Although the approach to the landing site in a basin about one 



23 




mile short of Hadley Rille requires crossing 13,000 foot-high 
Apennine Mountains, trajectory events are similar to those for 
Apollo 14. 

"Low Gate" — where the astronauts have the option of selecting 
the semi-automatic descent control program — is planned to occur 
at an altitude of 694 feet, only 35 feet higher than was planned 
for Apollo 14. 

An all-Air Force crew led by Colonel Scott, 37, will man Apollo 
15. The command module will be piloted by Major Alfred M. Wor- 
den, 37, with Scott and Lieutenant Colonel James B. Irwin, 40, 
pilot of Falcon, comprising the lunar module crew. 

Touchdown in Hadley-Apennine is scheduled to occur July 30 
at 6:15 p.m. (EDT) with three exploration periods planned, two 
of seven hours duration and one of six hours. The excursions in- 
clude trips via "Rover 1" to the base of the Apennine Mountains, 
to the edge of Hadley Rille, a mile-wide, 1 200-foot-deep chasm 
and to the north of the landing site which has fresh-looking mare 
and volcanic-like surface features. 

"With your help, we'll bring back enough data to keep the sci- 
entific community busy for 30 years," exhuded Scott in a mission 
briefing for his Apollo 15 team. 

Mounted on the front of their Rover 1 vehicle is an RCA tele- 
vision camera that will beam its coverage of astronaut excursions 
back to earth for home television viewers. Remotely controlled 
from Houston, the newly developed camera is programmed to 
provide coverage of the liftoff as Scott and Irwin return into lunar 
orbit to rejoin Endeavor. 

While astronauts Scott and Irwin are on the lunar surface — a 
scheduled period of 67 hours — command module pilot Worden 
will be busy carrying out a detailed, precise orbital science mission. 
A new scientific bay in the module will carry three spectrometers, 
two cameras, a laser altimeter, a solar monitor and particles and 
fields subsatellite to be deployed and remain in lunar orbit for 
approximately two years. 

The heaviest payload of life support consummables and scien- 
tific equipment to ever be transported by an Apollo mission. 
Endeavor and Falcon will have food for twice the length of time 
spent by Apollo 14 astronauts. In addition to the Lunar Rover 



Astronauts James B. Irwin and David R. Scott enact soil-gathering duties they'll perform on moon during training program in Mojave desert. 







iJJ 



>^U 




t-f - 



- •^~'. 



:^ 




Apollo 14's lunar module rests on moon as astronauts probed area using "Rickshaw" to carry samples. 



vehicle. Falcon will carry an electric drill to be used for the first 
time. Extremely sensitive electric thermometers are to be inserted 
into two 10-foot holes drilled into the surface of the moon by Scott 
and Irwin. Temperature measurements, radioed to earth, will pro- 
vide information on both the outward flow of heat from the moon's 
interior and thermal conductivity on lunar material. 

The drill will also be used to bore a third hole about seven feet 
deep from which cores of lunar materials — the deepest ever ob- 
tained from the moon — will be extracted for return to earth. 

In addition to the heat flow experiment, the lunar surface experi- 
ments for Apollo 15 include a passive seismometer to measure 
meteoroid impacts and moonquakes; a tri-axis magnetometer to 
measure the magnetic fields; a solar wind spectrometer to deter- 
mine the nature of the solar wind's interactions with the moon; a 
suprathermal ion detector to provide information on the energy 
and mass of positive ions close to the lunar surface; a cold cathode 
ionization gauge to measure the density of neutral particles in the 
lunar atmosphere; a lunar dust detector; and a laser reflector larger 
than those left by Apollo 1 1 and 14 for precise measurements of 
the distance between moon and earth. 

Terminating their lunar odyssey, Scott and Irwin are scheduled 
to rejoin Endeavor Aug. 2 for return to earth. Enroute to their 
Pacific "splashdown" at 4:46 pm (EDT) on Aug. 7, Worden will 
conduct the fifth extravehicular excursion, leaving the command 
module to move along the outside of the spacecraft to retrieve film 
magazines from the scientific module for return to earth. 

Compared to previous Apollo missions, astronauts Scott, Irwin 
and Worden will have completed the broadest magnitude of scien- 
tific experiments ever conducted during a U. S. manned mission 
to the moon. If all goes as scheduled, they will have transported a 
two-man vehicle to the lunar surface, driven it on excursions more 
than 20 miles during its three traverses and gathered the greatest 
variety of data yet obtained by man from the lunar environment. 

Having achieved this, there is yet another dissimilarity between 
Apollo 15 and its predecessors: Quarrantine requirements follow- 
ing return to earth have been discontinued. The astronaut team of 
Apollo 15 can look forward to a speedy — if not immediate — re- 
union with their colleagues and families here on earth. -^fi^ 



TELEDYNE RYAN LM LANDING RADAR 
APOLLO 15 TRAJECTORY EVENTS 

1. Landing radar activation and checkout- 2 tirs, 10 min prior to powered 
descent initiation; again approximately 10 min prior to PDI, remaining on 
through landing for total "on time" ot approximately 26 min- 

2. Powered Descent Initiation (engine on)-50,000 ft, 3800 mph horizontal 
velocity, 12 min 02 sec (12:02) to touchdown. 

3. Altimeter acquisition -nominally 39,980 ft, 2386 mph horizontal velocity, 
46 mph descent rate, 74 deg pitch angle. 

4. First altimeter update of LIVl Guidance Computer-39,850 ft, 2357 mph 
horizontal velocity, 46 mph descent rate, 74 deg pitch angle, approximately 
107 mi from landing site, 7;56 to touchdown. 

5. Velocity acquisition, forward-looking third beam locks on moon's surface, 
nominally coincident with first altimeter update, although velocity data is 
not used until later— (Same as #4). 

6. "High Gate, "start of visibility phase, landing radar antenna position switches 
from descent to hover position — 7000 ft, 196 mph horizontal velocity, 
110 mph descent rate, 57 deg pitch angle, approximately 3 mi from landing 
site, 2:38 to touchdown. 

7. "Low Gate," start of astronaut semi-automatic control with new program 
option to use full manual or return to full automatic — 694 ft (approximately 
71 5 ft above actual desired landing site due to surface slope), 52 mph hori- 
zontal velocity, 15.7 mph descent rate, 20 deg pitch angle, 1600 ft from 
landing site, 1 :20 to landing. Hover time remaining — 2:33, which is 0:05 sec 
less time than remained for Apollo 14. 

8. 5-ft-per-sec descent rate, vertical phase of descent — 200 ft, horizontal 
velocity slows from about 7 mph to zero, pitch angle from 11 deg to zero, 
nominal descent rate 5 fps (3 mph) to touchdown. 



Apollo 15 astronauts (from left) James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, 
Spacecraft Commander David R. Scott, and Alfred /W. Worden, command 
module pilot, pose in Rover I. 



25 





Tooling inspector Jerry Newark "slioots" alignment 
of Firebee II production model 001 (at left) while fully 
assembled model at rigfit awaits final inspection. 



D 



s 



'upersonic Firebee II, the most sophisticated and versatile mem- 
ber of Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's family of Firebees, will join the U. S. 
Navy this summer for operational use. With production versions also sched- 
uled to join Air Force inventories this fall, a new era in more than 22 years 
of Firebee operations will have begun. 

The U. S. Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, Fleet Composite Squadron- 
Three, San Diego, and Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range, Puerto Rico, are initial 
delivery points now scheduled for production versions. 

Under contracts issued by Naval Air Systems Command, 14 prototype 
flight test and one static test Firebee lis have been delivered to Pt. Mugu for 
developmental flight test and evaluation that started in early 1968. 

Since then, Firebee II has logged 51 flights that accrued nearly 22 hours, 
more than half of which were in supersonic modes with an average of 25 min- 
utes per flight. It was at Pt. Mugu on June 1 1 this year that Firebee II racked 
up its 25th consecutive successful ground launch. 

Already in use as a "test bed" for a variety of weapons systems and evalu- 
ations, the first Firebee II to be downed in an air-to-air engagement occurred 
in June 1970. Marine Corps Lt. Col. Charles L. Zangus, piloting an F4 Phan- 
tom, teamed up with his Radar Intercept Officer, Lt. Cmdr. Ralph S. Magnus, 
to achieve this precedent. 

Conceived, designed, developed and produced under a single "team" con- 
cept. Supersonic Firebee II combines the best features of subsonic Firebees 
with a performance profile that includes 1,000 mph speed, low and high al- 
titude capabilities, high "g" performance in addition to its ground or air-launch 
flight operations. Unlike Navy versions, designated BQM-34E, Air Force 
Firebee lis (BQM-34F) will incorporate Mid- Air Retrieval Systems (MARS) 
for helicopter "snatch" recovery. 



Jwenty-fifif) successful consecutive ground launcf} of pre-production Firebee II 
was achieved at Pt. Mugu's Naval Missile Center June 1 1 . 








Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Photos by Ed Wojciechowski, Bob Wilson 



A brutal, tortuous period 
of development, flight test 
and evaluations is complete. 
Now operational duties await. 



FIREBEE II 



27 





Production fuselages on assembly line (above) are fitted withi 
components while technician at right conducts integration system 
checks. Belly view below displays exhaust and tail arrangement on 
which will be assembled parachute recovery cone section. 





Assemblers "skin" airframe on one of production Firebee II models 
above wfiile integration checks between all systems of another model 
is conducted below with turbojet engine in foreground. 




29 




Teledyne Ryan's contributions in 
Doppler radar navigation and sensing 
supplies the Navy with a new set of... 



kyrRp 


Fineei 




,n advanced, highly refined Teledyne Ryan navigation 
system will soon be in use by the U. S. Navy's antisubmarine 
patrol (ASW)and Light Airborne Multipurpose System 
(LAMPS) helicopters. Already operational in carrier plane 
guard helicopters at Pensacola, Fla., and by Navy Helicopter 
Squadron-Three {HS-3) deployed in the Mediterranean, the 
new AN/APN-1 82 Doppler Radar Navigation system is a 
replacement for an earlier Ryan model which has served the 
Navy's ASW and combat support helicopters for more than 
a decade. 

Completely interchangeable with its predecessor— 
the Ryan AN/APN-1 30— the new radar features advanced 



New Doppler radar system Is employed for night, over-water hover operations 
by Navy ASW helicopters. 




w 



'^•;- X 



^n- 




HI audi 



4pir- 




USS Fox receives Kaman helicopter equipped with new AN/APN 182 system during LAMPS tests at San Diego. 



packaging of electronic components, extensive use of integrated 
circuits, and provision for analog or digital outputs. A much im- 
proved velocity sensor, the APN- 1 82 uses the same airframe an- 
tenna aperature as the APN- 1 30 but updates electronics. 

Used in point-to-point navigation and zero-zero velocity hover 
control, the APN- 1 82 accurately measures forward, drift, and 
vertical velocities. Capable of interface with other avionic equip- 
ment, the system will perform with various navigation readout 
devices, including an electro-luminescent plotting board which 
holds in memory the previous track flown. 

Coupled with a helicopter's stabilization system, the new light- 
weight radar controls the automatic descent and maneuver that 
brings the helicopter to a stationary hover 40 feet over the water 
for the sonar dip — a critical procedure for pinpointing the location 
of submerged submarines. 

Last summer six Navy UH-2A/B helicopters were outfitted 
with the APN- 1 82, marking the first time Doppler equipment has 
been used in the Kaman-built Seasprites. Assigned to the Carrier 
Plane Guard Detachment at the Pensacola, Fla., Naval Air Sta- 
tion, the Seasprites with APN- 182s installed, are able to support 
night carrier landing training operations. 

Aircraft launch and landing training is conducted oflF aircraft 
carriers while underway in the Gulf of Mexico, with a plane guard 
helicopter flying parallel to the ship's course, ready to rescue the 






pilot in case of a mishap. Night plane guard duty requires the heli- 
copter be equipped with a Doppler radar. 

HS-3's assignment early this year to the USS Forrestal stationed 
in the Mediterranean Sea marked the first operational deployment 
of a Navy helicopter squadron equipped completely with the 
APN- 182. Home based at Quonset Point, R.I., the squadron uses 
Sikorsky SH-3D Sea King helicopters in its ASW role. 

Other SH-3D-equipped Navy squadrons in the Atlantic Fleet 
previously scheduled to receive the improved velocity sensor are 
HS-5 and HS-7. 

APN- 182s also were delivered to the Naval Air Development 
Center at Johnsville, Pa., for evaluation in the Navy's "LAMPS 
at Sea" program. 

Installed in Kaman UH-2D helicopters based at the Imperial 
Beach, Calif, and Lakehurst, N.J., Naval Air Stations, 
APN- 182s are used in conducting evaluations at sea with 
Pacific and Atlantic fleet destroyers. 

The high reliability and broad performance envelope of the 
APN- 182 has generated considerable interest by a number of 
foreign countries. Currently it is being used on Sikorsky SH-3D 
and S-61 helicoptersof the air forces or navies of Denmark, Italy 
and Brazil. 

Introduction of the APN- 1 82 marks the third growth- version 
Doppler Radar Navigator produced by Teledyne Ryan for the 
Navy's ASW helicopters. 

During the mid- 1950s, the Navy equipped its HSS- 1 N helicop- 
ters with the AN/APN-97A, which was followed by the APN- 1 30 
in 1960. 

Even now, with APN- 182 production in full upswing. Teledyne 
Ryan is looking to future improvements which will provide even 
greater maintainability and reliability, with significant reductions 
in weight and space requirements. Currently in design is an ail- 
solid-state microelectronic, single-unit APN-182 system featuring 
a planar array antenna assembly measuring only 16x16 inches. 

Advancements in successive generations of Teledyne Ryan 
velocity sensor and navigation systems have improved their sensi- 
tivity, accuracy, and reliability — attributes required in meeting 
the technological challenges of the 1970s. '^8^ 



With ASW carrier in background. Navy I-IS3D conducts sonobouy 
dip operations in search for "enemy" submarine. 



32 




PRECISION SOLID STATE FILM TRANSPORT developed by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical for U.S. Air 
Force utilizes piezoelectricity to advance film instead of rotary mechanisms. According to Dr. Cfiarles 
M. Davis, Teledyne Ryan project engineer shiov^n positioning film in transport, the company-patented 
principle involving piezoceramic materials provides precise film advance accuracies of one micro- 
meter, essential in high quality image recorders which build up imagery from a succession of evenly 
spaced scan lines. The precision film transport is capable of moving film continuously or in discrete 
steps over wide speed ranges, yet is compact and relatively simple in design and construction. Feasi- 
bility testing is being accomplished at the Air Force Avionics Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. 

Remotely Piloted Vehicle Flown 
In Navy 'Dogfight' Engagement 



An aerial "dogfight" between Navy Phan- 
tom fighter aircraft and a Remotely Piloted 
Vehicle (RPV) conducted over the Pacific 
Missile Range last month has added a new 
dimension to what military aviation authori- 
ties call the "Age of the RPVr' 

"Flown" from a ground control station at 
the Pt. Mugu headquarters of the Naval 
Missile Center, the "enemy" aircraft exer- 
cised defensive as well as offensive tactics, 
escaping two types of air-to-air weapons 
fired during the engagement. 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical officials ob- 
serving the test flight of their newly pro- 
duced flight control system for the RPV 
said the system introduces a new dimen- 
sion of high-performance maneuvers for 
simulated "enemy" aircraft. 

Called MASTACS (Maneuverability Aug- 
mentation System for Tactical Air Combat 
Simulation), the system enables the high- 
subsonic RPV to execute up to 6g turns 
and banks with minimum loss of altitude 
while being remotely controlled. Teledyne 
Ryan's standard BQM-34A unmanned Fire- 
bee aircraft-normally used for weapons 
development, evaluation tests and defense 



readiness program -was used as a testbed 
for the new flight control system. 

In a mission de-brief following the test 
flight. Commander J. C. Smith, one of the 
pilots flying against the "enemy," said the 
new system could provide beneficial re- 
sults in overcoming training problems 
combat fighter pilots now experience while 
attending the Navy's Fighter Weapons 
School at the Miramar (Calif.) Naval Air 
Station. 

Smith, a former commanding officer of 
the school, explained, "What we're lool<ing 
at today is a situation where our fighter 
pilots must be ready to go up against an 
enemy which possesses aircraft and mis- 
siles that execute these kind of tactics. 

"We must have this kind of simulated 
realism to be ready for him," Smith said. 

Commander John Pitzen, a fighter pilot, 
directed the aerial tactics of the RPV by 
remote control from the ground station at 
Pt. Mugu. Future projections of operational 
RPVs encompass attack fighter pilots liter- 
ally flying their aircraft from control con- 
soles situated in rear areas, as the aircraft 
conduct their missions in forward areas. 



TRA Doppler Sensor 
Accepted For S-3A 
Integration Testing 

The AN/APN-200 Doppler Velocity Sen- 
sor built by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 
for the Navy's new S-3A antisubmarine 
warfare patrol aircraft has been accepted 
by Lockheed California Co., prime con- 
tractor for the S-3A, for further develop- 
ment test evaluation and integration into 
the S-3A weapon system. 

Delivered to Lockheed's Rye Canyon 
Integration Test Lab in December, the all- 
solid-state APN-200 is also the first major 
avionics sub-system to work with the S-3A's 
onboard central computer. 

An advanced navigation aid incorporat- 
ing electronic techniques perfected by 
Teledyne Ryan in earlier Dopplers and its 
NASA Apollo moon landing radars, the 
APN-200, in combination with the carrier- 
based S-3A's inertial system and on-board 
computer, will be used in accurate point- 
to-point navigation and in the critical 
localization procedures to pinpoint enemy 
submarines hidden beneath the ocean's 
surface. 

The APN-200 features hybrid micromini- 
aturized RYMEP (Ryan Microelectronic 
Package), solid state transmitter, one-box 
construction, and new techniques for auto- 
matic terrain bias compensation for trans- 
iting from land to sea and for cross- 
correlating frequency trackers-beam 
switching-to increase reliability. 

Solid state devices in the new radar in- 
clude an Impatt Diode transmitter, an 
etched stripline microwave receiver, and 
microelectronic integrated circuits. 

Two Navy Units Log 
2000th Firebee Flights 

West Coast-based Navy Composite Squa- 
dron-Three (VC-3) and the Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range, headquartered in Puerto 
Rico, each recently recorded their 2000th 
remotely piloted Firebee jet aircraft flights. 

VC-3, one of the Navy's first squadrons to 
air-launch unmanned Firebees nearly two 
decades ago, recorded its 2000th air- 
launch of a Firebee March 19 over the 
Pacific Missile Range. 

The 2000th flight at the Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range occurred May 20 with the 
launch from a remotely controlled boat of a 
Firebee posing as an anti-ship missile. 
Missilemen aboard the Atlantic Fleet 
guided missile destroyer USS CONYNG- 
HAM downed the latter Firebee within one 
minute after launch, chalking up their 
fourth Firebee "kill" in two days. Their first 
three kills were scored againstair-launched 
Firebees. 



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ATTN.: JACK BROWARD 
EDITOR 




lilt I ()()ii( ifu| 

*^UPERSONI 
FIREBEE n 




Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Photo 



Production Model 0001 rolled into view through target backdrop 
July 21 , 1 97 1 to signal start of operational status for Navy BQM-34E 
Supersonic Firebee II program. Formal rollout accompanied 
delivery of first production version ("Fleet Ready" page 30). 




REPORTER Notes 



There is a sideview element missing from the pre- 
sentation "Power for Peace" in this issue that merits 
special mention here. Preparing earlier this year for 
deployment to the Mediterranean, units of the U. S. 
Sixth Fleet now on station conducted one of the most 
successful Operational Readiness Inspections (ORI) 
ever held on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. 

The yardstick for measuring this success in areas of 
surface and air defense capabilities, for the largest 
part, was Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebees 
(BQM-34A). Assuming the role of "enemy" aircraft 
and cruise missiles, Firebees were the victims of the 
most formidable defense presented by the Navy in a 
peacetime environment. In single, dual and multiple 
attack situations, ships and aircraft deploying to the 
Sixth Fleet accounted for the highest "kill" rate 
against Firebees yet achieved on the Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range. 

That's comforting to know if you're skipper of a 
guided missile destroyer such as the USS Josephus 
Daniels. A record-holding Firebee "killer," Com- 
mander Paul D. Bucher's missilemen claim 1 1 Fire- 
bees since the ship was commissioned, the last three 
during pre-deployment firings at AFWR. 

To know that the Sixth Fleet can face up to contin- 
gencies in the Mediterranean is a source of comfort 
to all Americans. To know that its Firebee systems 
contribute in significant measures to this state of 
readiness is not only comforting to Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical, it is what makes the effort of designing 
and producing Firebee systems all worth while. 

Described as one of the U. S. Navy's "hottest pro- 
jects". Light Airborne Multi-Purpose Systems 
(LAMPS) is on schedule and moving ahead at flank 
speed, according to a project official. And once again, 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical finds itself as a part of a 
Navy team effort. New, advanced design Doppler radar 
navigation sensing systems, designated AN/APN-182, 
are being installed in the LAMPS helicopters. 

Staff photographers Ed Wojciechowski and Dave 
Gossett, whose globe-trotting assignments in the past 
year included the jungle environments of Southeast 
Asia and the frozen wastes of the Arctic, now add the 
intrigue of ocean elements to REPORTER'S expand- 
ing fields of coverage. 

The dauntless duo rode the guided missile destroyer 
USS Fox during LAMPS sea trials, shooting from the 
ship's rolling decks and from a chase helicopter to 
produce the series of photos appearing in "Seapower 
for the Seventies." 



Volume 32, Number 3 



Fall 1971 

7^^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Editor 

Robert R. Springer / Associate Editor 

Ed Wojciechowski, David A. Gossett 

Bob Wilson 

Staff Photographers 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 

Art Design by 

Ron Evans, Linda Slacum 



Seapower for the Seventies Page 2 

Few subjects in the category of developmental 

programs within the U.S. Navy today command a 

broader range of interest than Light Airborne 

Multi-Purpose Systems (LAMPS). Teledyne Ryan 

Aeronautical's Electronic and Space Systems is a part 

of this subject. 



Firebee Record-Busters Page 8 

An integral part of the U.S. Army Air Defense Center 

team, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's Firebee field 

support operations are helping write the record 

books on the firing ranges at McGregor and Dona Ana. 



Flight of the Falcon Page 12 

Once again, the compelling intrigue of man's adventures 

on the moon— via Apollo 15— creates the drama in 

our own time that man has only dreamed about for ages. 



Power for Peace Page 16 

Few sources of influence available to the United 

States offer a more mobile, forceful or militarily 

powerful personality than the U.S. Sixth Fleet. 

Yet, Its greatest contribution historically has 

been helping keep peace. 



A REPORTER Interview Page 26 

From Fleet Admiral to destroyer skipper, the message 

all Americans should get is that maintenance of a 

strong, technically superior Navy is mandatory. 



Fleet Ready Page 30 

Supersonic Firebee II — production model 0001— is 

in the U.S. Navy's operational inventory and 

thus is introduced a new chapter in Teledyne Ryan 

Aeronautical's Firebee history. 



ABOUT THE COVER-LAMPS helicopter 

comes to roost aboard guided missile destroyer 

USS Fox off coast of Southern California 

during evaluations of Navy's Light Airborne 

Multi-Purpose System program. 








Lithography by Frye & Smith, Ltd., San Diego, California 



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PHOTOS BY ED WOJCIECHOWSKI. DAVE GOSSETT 



A whole, new future for combatant flexibility 
is unfolding as the U. S. Navy marries 
helicopters to destroyers in quest of 

SI-APOWIilt 

'F<M* tll«S 

SliVliNTIliS 




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A 



new dimension of com- 
batant strength for U. S. Navy 
destroyer-type ships is forthcoming, 
one that offers standoff capabilities 
against the threat of Soviet anti- 
ship cruise missiles as well as long 
range detection of undersea threat 
sources. 

Augmenting ship weapons sys- 
tems, Light Airborne Multi-Purpose 
Systems (LAMPS) combines the 
combatant agility of helicopters 
with the rugged staying power of 
destroyer-type surface ships. The 
introduction of LAMPS for fleet op- 



erations by the end of 1971 could 
help reverse the edge in offensive 
capabilities now held by the Soviets. 

The System evolves from prior 
use of manned helicopters in ship- 
based, hostile environments as well 
as unmanned rotary-winged air- 
craft-called "Dash"-designed ex- 
clusively for "destroy" missions in 
antisubmarine warfare. 

During the 1960s, the Navy 
equipped 130 destroyers and de- 
stroyer escorts with the "Dash" sys- 
tem. While it served successfully as 
an interim ASW capability, the drone 



USS Fox at left and above was one of ships 
used in sea trials for LAMPS evaluations 
conducted in Atlantic and Pacific. Teledyne 
Ryan Doppler radar navigation systems are 
being used by LAMPS Seasprite helicopters 
for day-night, all-weather over-water hover 
and ASW operations with fleet units at sea. 



helicopter's specialty in ASW appli- 
cations was too limited to accom- 
modate the range of missions to 
which LAMPS will be assigned. 

At the outset, LAMPS will have 
two basic missions: Antisubmarine 
warfare and Anti-Ship Missile De- 
fense, two areas in which the Soviet 
Navy has made dramatic and potent 
advance. The most conclusive evi- 
dence supporting this advance was 
illustrated by the Israeli destroyer 
Elath sinking by a Styx anti-ship 
missile in 1967. Since that time, the 



refinement of surface-to-air and 
subsurface-to-air by the Soviets has 
continued uninterrupted. 

In 1971, for instance, the Soviets 
have deployed "Charley" class sub- 
marines that can launch surface 
cruise missiles while submerged, 
beyond existing detection ranges. 
Newly deployed destroyers armed 
with surface-to-surface, surface- 
to-air in addition to ASW weapons 
are now included in the Soviet Black 
Sea and Mediterranean fleets. 

The strongest existing deterrent 



through its long range detection 
capabilities within the U. S. Navy 
has been until now the combined 
use of land-based ASW aircraft and 
aircraft carriers with their ASW heli- 
copters and fixed-wing aircraft. The 
adjunct to this aircraft capability is 
destroyer-type surface ships of the 
ASW categories. 

LAMPS draws on the most effec- 
tive capabilities of these combined 
elements for application in a hostile 
environment. An obvious bonus- 
the extension of utility and Search 






and Rescue (SAR) capabilities- is 
a major spin-off included by the 
presence of ship-based helicopters. 
For more than two years the Naval 
Air Development Center at War- 
minster, Pennsylvania, has fitted 
and mounted various sensors, nor- 
mally employed by fixed-wing air- 
craft, onto test bed helicopters. This 
effort in de-bugging "off-the-shelf" 
avionics for newapplications moved 
the program into environmental 
tests of interim-type helicopters 
aboard ships. 



These "at sea" evaluations, using 
fleet HH-2D Seasprite helicopters, 
helped identify the best equipment, 
tactics, support requirements and 
training parameters for ultimate 
LAMPS use. 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's 
long years of experience in the 
Doppler radar navigation and sen- 
sor fields, characterized by such 
systems as the AN/APN-130 and its 
follow-on AN/APN-182 Doppler ra- 
dar navigation systems, was inte- 
grated into the evaluation program 



In photo sequence from left to righit, HH-2D 
Seasprite begins approach to USS Fox land- 
ing pad during tests off San Diego. Radome 
on nose of helicopter is one of external modi- 
fications required in configurating existing 
helicopters for operational LAMPS missions. 




from the beginning. 

Designed for all-weather, day- 
night ASW helicopter use, Teledyne 
Ryan's initial contributions began 
nearly 20 years ago with the AN/ 
APN 97 Doppler radar navigation 
system. Growth developments since 
that time in this field of applica- 
tions contributed steadily to state 
of the art advances in design pack- 
aging, weight-reduction, solid-state 
circuitry and multi-purpose sys- 
tems applications. 

Operational fleet helicopters in 



the ASW categories, primarily the 
SH-3D, currently use Teledyne 
Ryan's AN/APN-130 Doppler radar 
navigation systems and are being 
retrofitted or newly constructed 
with the advanced design, AN/APN- 
182 growth system. 

Teledyne Ryan's Electronic and 
Space Systems is also providing the 
AN/APN-200 Doppler radar flight 
sensor for the Navy's long-range 
S-3A ASW fixed-wing aircraft. 

Against this backdrop of develop- 
ment and evaluation for LAMPS, 



the Navy has committed 115SH-2D 
helicopters to the new program. It is 
anticipated that eventually all de- 
stroyers, frigates and destroyer es- 
corts will operate LAMPS as part of 
their weapons systems. 

The first of ten LAMPS was sche- 
duled to join the fleet by October 
1971, having completed board of 
inspection surveys by that time. 
Following this, the next nine SH-2D 
Seasprites would be operated from 
DLG-26 class guided missile frig- 
ates and from the USS Truxton, the 



KAMAN AEROSPACE CORPORATION 




I 



nuclear-powered frigate. These 
selections were made on a basis of 
minimum modifications required 
for the integration of LAMPS with 
existing systems. 

External modifications necessary 
for the conversion of Seasprites to 
its LAMPS role included a radome 
housing antenna under the nose for 
search radar and a pylon on the 
starboard side containing a winch 
used to deploy and retrieve a mag- 
netic anomoly detector (MAD). 

Launchers for two Mk. 46 ASW 
torpedoes will be included in the 
newly configured Seasprite's arma- 
ment in support of a "kill" capa- 
bility. 

Manned by a crew of three, the 
LAMPS helicopter would react to 
initial contact by the ship or other 
detecting sources in localizing, 
classifying and attacking the tar- 
get. In the realm of Anti-Ship Mis- 
sile Defense, LAMPS helicopters 
would deploy along the axis of prob- 
able attack, providing nearly double 
the early warning time currently 
available and, under certain cir- 
cumstances, an attack capability 
against hostile forces. 

In addition to these primary mis- 
sions, LAMPS helicopters will also 
provide reconnaissance, vertical 
replenishment, personnel transfer, 
SAR, tactical gunfire support, plus 
a spectrum of utility functions. 

Navy officials predict at least 
4,000 trained and experienced avia- 
tion personnel — in addition to those 
already involved in the program — 
will be required as LAMPS assumes 
fleet operational status. At least 
1,000 experienced helicopter pilots 
will be necessary, a requirement 
that will increase flight training 
and, as a by-product, offer career 
incentives for Naval aviators. 

Faced with vintage ships and di- 
minishing numbers, the evolution of 
LAMPS and its imminent introduc- 
tion for fleet use marks a turning 
point in the U. S. Navy's trend of 
declining strength. The precedent 
established by the British and Can- 
adian naval forces of implementing 
old destroyers with helicopter units 
has proved the merit of the LAMPS 
concept. 



Evidence is available that also 
identifies the use of ship-based hel- 
icopters by the Soviets for amphib- 
ious, logistic supply as well as 
tactical purposes. 

LAMPS may well prove itself to 
be one of the U. S. Navy's most sig- 
nificant advances made in this 
modern age of seapower. In support 
of an era of the Nixon Doctrine that 
lies ahead, it assumes a role of 
major importance for Seapower in 
the Seventies. 

KAMAN AEROSPACE CORPORATION 



At sea evaluations conducted this year, using 
Seasprite helicopter, helped identify best 
equipment, tactics, support requirements 
and training parameters for ultimate LAMPS 
use. Note in photo at left and below, addition of 
torpedos and antenna configuration changes. 







T 



i wenty-six operational flights 
were conducted in a single day on 
October 20, 1970. In one eight- 
month span, Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical's Firebee support team at 
the U. S. Army Air Defense Center 
ranges logged 265 Firebee flights 
without a single loss. Ten Firebee 
target missiles systems in the active 
inventory have accumulated more 
than 35 flights each! 

And the records go on and on. 

But operational flight records 
serve only as a "spin-off'" benefit in 
Jack O. Rathgeber's mind. Base 
Manager for Teledyne Ryan's sup- 
port teams on the McGregor-Dona 
Ana ranges, Rathgeber credits Fire- 
bee's utilization records to engineer- 
ing design. 

"While a good share of Firebee's 
reputation is based on high-perform- 
ance, jet-powered maneuverability, 
we've proved the MQM-34D (Army 



8 



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Firebee version) as an ideal tractor 
vehicle. Our support operations and 
reliability as well as utility rates are 
testimonials to the basic engineer- 
ing-design work that went into Fire- 
bees many years ago." 

Presently, Rathgeber's specialists 
on the McGregor range are using 
Firebee-Towbee systems in quad- 
tow configurations. While Towbee 
targets have been in standard use in 
support of Hawk Annual Service 
Practice (ASP) firings for a number 
of years, MQM-34D systems were 
modified to offer up to four Towbees 
within the past year. Constructed of 
fibreglass, six-foot long Towbees 
are mounted on Firebee wingtips 
and at inboard stations. Augmenta- 
tion systems boost the size and tar- 
get characteristics of the Towbee as 
it trails astern the Firebee in flight. 
These towed targets can be trailed 
singly or as required by the mission. 



While the Firebee-Towbee sys- 
tem is used primarily for Hawk, Red- 
eye and Chaparral weapons firings 
operations, banners are trailed by 
Firebees for Vulcan and Duster 
type weapons. Offering an overall 
size of 12 X 2 feet in standard use, a 
variety of sizes, configurations and 
characteristics have been used in 
support of automatic weapons de- 
fense programs. 

Launched from one of five rail 
facilities on the range complexes, 
Firebee tracking and flight control 
is maintained by one of four mobile 
units maintained under Rathgeber's 
supervision. 

Typically, Firebee-Towbee sys- 
tems supporting a Hawk or Chapar- 
ral firing practice will follow a race- 
track pattern over the McGregor 
range, deploying the 47-pound Tow- 
bee targets on call from the firing 
commander's station. Towbees are 











reeled out from wire cable drums 
contained in the Firebee. These 
towed targets can be instrumented 
with radar reflective lenses or Infra- 
red heat sources to attract guided or 
heat-seeker weapons. 

Banner tows for automatic wea- 
pons firing practice are snatch-towed 
by Firebees as they are launched 
into flight. The Firebee-banner tow 
operations currently offers approxi- 
mately 13 to 20 target presenta- 
tions per flight. 

In both cases, on-board, auto- 
matic parachute recovery systems 
are used in Firebee recovery-re- 
trieval operations upon completion 
of flight presentations. Descending 
to the desert floor, Firebees are re- 
turned to hangar maintenance areas 
for refurbishment and return to the 
flight inventories. 

Introduced in December 1964 as 



a primary support vehicle for Hawk 
firings at the range complex, Fire- 
bee-Towbee systems have been de- 
ployed from the McGregor-Dona 
Ana ranges periodically for Annual 
Service Practices in Southeast Asia 
as well as the Panama Canal Zone. 
Currently, these systems are sup- 
ported on-site at Okinawa for Hawk 
ASPs by Teledyne Ryan support 
personnel operating under USAR- 
PAC authority. 

In all, Rathgeber's McGregor- 
Dona Ana range complex team sup- 
ports the Army Air Defense Center 
training and practice programs for 
Nike Hercules, Hawk, Chaparral, 
Redeye and automatic weapons 
systems. 

In the course of this effort, 2806 
operational flights have been con- 
ducted as of September 1971 offer- 
ing a mission reliability rate of 96.26 





10 








percent. Average flight-per-Firebee 
currently stands at 23. Four Fire- 
bees, still in the active inventory, 
began their service in 1 965 ! 

While records of flight operation 
performance are important in vali- 
dating Firebee values, even more 
important, according to Rathgeber, 
are the missions supported by his 
range complex team. Members of 
the overall Army Air Defense Cen- 
ter team, Rathgeber's specialists 



provide the crucially important ele- 
ment in helping the Army maintain 
defense readiness throughout the 
world today. 




11 




By ROBERT R. SPRINGER 



JOINT INDUSTRY PRESS CENTER, 
Houston, Texas- Despite the earlier 
thundershowers, it's a typically hot 
and humid late Friday afternoon this 
July 30. But, it isn't the air-condi- 
tioned room that attracts the slow, 
but steady flow of people inside. 
Within the next half-hour, a new 
chapter may be added to America's 
growing volumes of space explora- 
tions. Some 240,000 space miles 
away, Apollo 15 Astronauts David R. 
Scott and James B. Irwin are man- 
euvering their "Falcon" lunar module 
into its descent profile. Their des- 
tination: Hadley Rille. 

If all goes well, it could prove to be 
the greatest scientific exploration 
ever undertaken by man. 

Falcon's landing site lies on a rela- 
tively flat patch of lunar-scape near 
the foot of the Apennine Mountain 
peaks, which rise 13,000 feet above 
the moon's surface, adjacent to the 
half-mile-wide, 1,200-foot-deep, me- 
andering Hadley Rille. 

"It's a landing in which everything 
just has to go right," explains a vet- 
eran spacewriter who has shared this 
beat through all of the Apollo mis- 
sions. "Every shot is a new one," he 
muses, noting for anyone interested 
that technical advances between 
these missions "changes the profile 
on a continuing basis." His voice 
fluctuates in volume, tinged with 
hesitation as a loudspeaker in the 
Press Center slices through the air 
of mounting tension with a new up- 
date: 

FALCON: Altitude transmitter. Altitude 
transmitter is 3.7, velocity is 3.8. 
(Landing radar power readings.) 

FALCON: Try for four minutes we're 

from - - 

FALCON: Reading me any better, now. 

FALCON: Yes. 

PAG: Flight Director Glynn Lunney, 
at ttiis moment getting a final status 
for power descent. 

FALCON: Okay, go for tfie final trim. 

CAPCOM: And, Falcon, you are go for 
PDI. 



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A quick glance around reveals that 
the room, only minutes before partly 
filled, is now wall-to-wall with people. 
As they move in closer to the audio 
monitor, the scene is reminiscent of 
the earlier Apollo 11, 12 and 14 mis- 
sions. With few exceptions, the faces 
are the same; however, the less-than- 
relaxed atmosphere generated by 
these "old hands" belies the notion 
that manned lunar landings are get- 
ting to be "old hat." 

Emotions are also running high in 
another pair of Apollo mission vet- 
erans, Electronic and Space Sys- 
tems' engineers Sy Schwartz and 
Vern Poehls. They are again in their 
usual positions in the "back room" at 
Mission Control, where they'll moni- 
tor the performance of Teledyne 
Ryan's lunar module landing radar 
during the actual descent. 

Although the radar performed well 
within its predicted values during the 
self test some two hours earlier, both 
admit to being just a bit "charged 
up." "You never really get used to 
this sort of thing," Poehls declares, 
to which Schwartz quickly agrees. 
"It's still kind of hard to believe that 
man is actually setting foot on the 
moon." 



12 



As the minutes tick off until Fal- 
con's PDI, communications between 
CapCom and the Lunar Module crew 
begin to spew from the squawk box 
in a torrent: 



PAO: We show a LM altitude now of 
56,000 feet and thie Falcon is in the 
proper attitude for a powered de- 
scent. Coming up on one minute 
till ignition. 

CAPCOM: l\/lark one minute. 

FALCON: We have guidance. Go for 
ullage. Standby. 

FALCON: For ullage. 

PAO: 10 seconds. 

FALCON: Ullage go for the (garble) 
auto ignition. Eleven percent, the 
override is on. 

PAO: L/W engine is currently at mini- 
mum thrust, they'll be throttling up 
shortly. 

fM-COH: Throttle up.... 

PAO: Altitude now about 42,000 feet, 
velocity down to about 3900 feet per 
second. 

FALCON: 3400 Delta H. Velocity light 
is out. Delta H looks good up here, 
Houston, what do you think? 

CAPCOM: Falcon, Houston, we agree 
with Delta H, accept. 

PAO: That's the landing radar data 
coming in, and I think Scott just re- 
ported they're accepting that data. 

Several seconds later: 

PAO: The primary guidance system 
thinks it's about 3,000 feet lower than 
it is. The (landing) radar should cor- 
rect that. 



Schwartz and Poehls turn from 
their consoles to exchange wide, and 
knowing grins, their minutes-before 
tensions now turning into feelings of 
elation. Not only will the landing 
radar take care of correcting the alti- 
tude differential, but will provide this 
necessary update much sooner than 
anticipated. Their confident expres- 
sions come not only from their inti- 
mate knowledge of the radar's capa- 







Astronaut David R.Scott, using 70mm camera in photo at upper left, stands on slope of 
Hadley Delta while James B. Irwin stands alongside Rover vehicle with Mount Hadley as a 
backdrop in top photo. In photo above, "Falcon" lunar module awaits return of astronauts 
Scott and Irwin whose footprints and Rover I tracks are left on moon's surface. 



13 



bilities, but from the performance 
data they've been reading. Mission 
planning called for initial landing ra- 
dar acquisition at 39,980 feet, but 
the sensitive "fingers" of the sophis- 
ticated sensor actually caressed the 
moon's surface within seconds of 
one another, recording a maximum 
slant range of 50,325 feet, and maxi- 
mum velocity of 3,372 feet per sec- 
ond at a range of 49,677 feet. "Wow," 
Poehls exclaims, "that's better than 
10,000 feet above mission specs!" 

To those in the Press Center, the 
seemingly endless wait since Monday 
morning's launch is practically over, 
and time now appears speeded up. 
The usual friendly banter among 
these representatives from aero- 
space firms throughout the country 
is completely stilled as Scott and 
Irwin begin the running countdown of 
Falcon's altitude and descent rate. 

FALCON: Minus 5 100 feet at 5, 9 per- 
cent fuel, minus 5, 80 at 5, minus 3, 
60 at 3, 50 at 3, cross pointers look- 
ing good, 40 at 3, 30 3, 25 2, 7 percent 
fuel, 20 at 1, 15 at 1 , minus 1 , minus 1 
6 percent fuel, 10 feet minus 1 , 8 feet 
minus 1. Contact. 

FALCON: Bam. 

FALCON: Okay, Houston. The Falcon 
is on the Plain at Hadley. 



An outsider might have attributed 
the Press Center gathering's respect- 
ful attention during the past several 
minutes to proprietary interest, but 
the non-partisan and spontaneous 
applause which greeted the crew's 
report they were safely on the lunar 
surface would have quieted all de- 
tractors. 

It hasn't really cooled off that 
much, but the outside air seems a 
little more bearable now. At least for 
the time being, "the sweats off," as 
everything is reported "O.K." with 
the lunar module Falcon and its two- 
man crew. 

Schwartz and Poehls leave Mission 
Control following a debrief session 
with NASA officials. "Boy, the early 
lock-on of the radar certainly eased 
the knot in my stomach," Schwartz 
says to no one in particular, "and 



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Command and Service modules in lunar orbit (top photo) display excellent view of Scientific 
Instrument Module. Photo was taken from Lunar Module "Falcon" by astronauts Scott and 
Irwin. Irwin salutes flag in photo above while standing in front of "Falcon". Rover vehicle 
is at right in photo. 



14 




when velocity data came in 12 sec- 
onds later, the tension really dis- 
solved." A grinning Poehls declares, 
"There were no problems with the 
radar at all, not even when the space- 
craft passed over the 13,000-foot- 
high Apennine Mountains. As a mat- 
ter of fact, terrain features were 
apparent in the radar data." 

Information now available indi- 
cates that the early lock-on of the 
landing radar allowed update of the 
guidance system at 41,811 feet, an 
event nominally scheduled to occur 
at 39,850 feet. 

Shortly after landing, Scott noted 
there was some dust at 150 feet, 
"...and completely obscured at 50 
feet; it was IFR (instrument flight 
rules) from then on down," indicating 
he relied on guidance system data 
updated earlier by the landing radar. 



The previous highest slant range 
acquisition by the landing radar was 
44,000 feet, recorded when Apollo 
11 Astronauts Neil Armstrong and 
Edwin Aldrin descended to the Sea 
of Tranquility in their "Eagle" lunar 
module to become the first men on 
the moon. 

Upon leaving the viewer's booth at 
Mission Control where he observed 
activities during the landing, J. R. 
Iverson, Vice President of Teledyne 
Ryan's Electronic and Space Sys- 
tems, noted that the rougher terrain 
in the landing area probably aug- 
mented return of the sensor's signals. 
"But," he emphasized, "each suc- 
cessive lunar landing really is a trib- 
ute to the skills and dedication of all 
Teledyne Ryan employees who par- 
ticipated in the design, development 
and production of the landing radar." 



Astronaut Al Worden retrieves film cas- 
settes during a deep space EVA. Apollo 1 5 
was termed "man's most significant 
exploration." (NASA Photos) 

Many of those Iverson referred to 
also gathered around television sets 
this afternoon in San Diego, Califor- 
nia, to sweat out the final, crucial 
minutes. And then, undoubtedly, it 
was back to work on development of 
the Terminal Descent Landing Radar 
for the Viking Mars Lander. For those 
involved in the Apollo, and earlier 
Surveyor, landing radar programs are 
already looking ahead to the soft 
landing of two unmanned spacecraft 
on Mars in mid-1976, following nearly 
a one-year, 460-million-mile voyage. 
Their efforts now will help insure the 
continuing success of America's 
space explorations in the future. ^.^ 



15 



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BY JACK G. BROWARD 
DRAWINGS BY BOB WATTS 



WITH THE U. S. SIXTH FLEET AT SEA:-Two days out of 
Naples and now slicing through the troubled waters of the 
Mediterranean Sea southwest of Sardinia, the USS America 
turns gently into the hot, summer winds as the word is 
passed, "Flight deck open." In the half-hour to follow, her 
warplanes come slamming home from missions that ranged 
hundreds of miles from this mobile, sea-going base. 




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fhis is the backbone of the U. S. Sixth Fleet. Indeed, the USS 
America in the western and USS Saratoga in the eastern 
areas of the Mediterranean may well represent the critical 
balance of superiority held by the U. S. Navy today in this crisis- 
laden sphere. 

Against the backdrop of diminishing budgets, aging ships and 
shifting attitudes of world political opinion, has been added the 
growing presence of Soviet seapower, its intensity amplified by 
new-found boldness in its display of sophisticated new ships and 
three-dimensional weapons systems. 

As this hot August day draws to a close, America's airborne 
surveillance aircraft have made their reports: "tattletale" Soviet 



units submerged and on the surface are within radar detection 
ranges, reporting America's position and activities to Soviet intel- 
ligence centers in the Eastern Mediterranean. 

Twenty miles from the America, the guided missile destroyer 
USS Josephus Daniels and anti-submarine destroyer USS Dupont 
are performing "sentinel" duties. 

Their radar and sonar receiver scopes "paint" contacts that 
confirm the presence of the Soviet surveillance units. Before dusk 
settles over this sea of contention, the Soviet surface ship, a 
Kashin guided missile destroyer, will pass within 1200 yards 
astern the Dupont. 

The skippers of each ship will turn their binoculars toward one 



17 



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another, make mental notes on armament arrangement, antenna 
configurations, or characteristics that would help adversaries in 
time of confrontation. 

Meanwhile, in the eastern areas of the Mediterranean, an Amer- 
ican destroyer, the USS Cone, assigned to "gumshoe" duties, is 
tracking movements of Soviet warships proceeding through the 
Dardanelles Straits into the Mediterranean from the Black Sea. 
Like her Soviet counterparts, the Cone issues her intelligence 
reports on USSR ship movements, operational activities or in- 
dications of telltale strategy shifts. 

One such report recently centered on the presence of a Soviet 
tanker, the Boris Chilikin, which was engaged in refueling a Krivak 
500 guided missile destroyer underway. Soviet underway refuel- 
ing techniques until the recent past have been conducted with the 
recipient ship following astern the tanker with hoses trailing off the 
stern. In this underway refueling operation the Krivak fueled 
alongside the tanker ship. 

Intelligence information such as that provided by the Cone indi- 
cates that the Soviets are engaged in an aggressive shipbuilding 
program of modern, new and sophisticated dimensions: indeed, 
they are pursuing with equal acceleration the implementation of 
these new ships into seaborne, independently operating forces. 



'^^. 



using U. S. Navy concepts for logistic replenishment at sea. 

Clearly, they are applying alongside, underway refueling tech- 
niques as an indication of this advance. 

This point is emphasized by Vice Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, Jr., 
Commander of the U. S. Sixth Fleet until October of this year. 

Interviewed aboard his flagship USS Springfield at Gaeta. Italy, 
he pointed to the growth of Soviet naval presence through the use 
of comparison strengths. The average daily strength of Soviet 
warships in the Mediterranean in 1963 was composed of 1 1 naval 
vessels. Its point of rapid expansion came in June, 1967, in the 
period immediately after the Israeli- Arab war. 

Since that time, it has deployed in increasing numbers a fleet of 



18 



"With the weapons systems that the Soviets have selected 
in their stampeding race for preeminence at sea, in this case 
their cruise missile systems, it is damned important that 
you know when he trains those big, cigar-shaped tubes, opens 
the doors and gets ready to fire." 

...VADMKIDD, JR. 




19 




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21 



"Our surveillance operations are conducted not from idle 
curiosity. The United States historically, by record, has not 
been a country given to pre-emption in any area within the 
spectrum of military action. On the other hand, our potential 
opponent has been the fellow doing the preempting." 

...VADM KIDD, JR. 




anti-submarine warfare siiips of the Moskva class armed with 
surface-to-air missiles, torpedoes, ASW rockets, guns and ASW 
helicopters; nuclear-powered attack submarines capable of launch- 
ing cruise missiles from beneath the seas and Kresta class guided 
missile light cruisers equipped with surface-to-surface and surface- 
to-air missiles; Krivak guided missile destroyers and an array of 
submarine and surface vessels which by September 1969 reached 
75 units during a training exercise. 

Composed basically of units from the Black Sea, these forces 
deploy to the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles Straits. 

"It is like having their locker room next door," notes Admiral 
Kidd, comparing the proximity of Soviet resources with the U. S. 
Sixth Fleet's, which lie several thousand miles and 10 days to 
two weeks away across the Atlantic. 

Current estimates disclose the presence of Soviet units ranging 
from 40 to 55 in the Mediterranean on any given day. Depending 
on political situations in which Russia steps up its ambitions or 
naval exercise periods, numerical strength varies. 

One news report, published in July, identified the presence of 
64 Soviet vessels in the Mediterranean, compared with 40 ships 
maintained by the U. S. Navy. Two attack class aircraft carriers, 
with their 175 aircraft, help offset the Soviet's numerical advantage. 

"As Soviet numbers go up and ours remain constant, we are be- 
coming increasingly at a disadvantage," Admiral Kidd emphasized. 

"Our surveillance operations are conducted not from idle curi- 
osity. The United States historically, by record, has not been a 
country given to pre-emption in any area within the spectrum of 
military action. On the other hand, our potential opponent has 
been the fellow doing the preempting. 

"With the weapons systems that the Soviets have selected in 
their stampeding race for preeminence at sea, in this case their 



cruise missile systems, it is damned important that you know when 
he trains those big, cigar-shaped tubes, opens the doors and 
gets ready to fire. 

"Between the time this happens and he launches his missiles is 
about the time we are allowed for reaction." 

How effective U. S. surveillance is in its "tattletale" role is 
directly related to how much reaction time would be permitted 
in the event of precipitative actions by the Soviets. 

Admiral Kidd exercises his full resources in pursuit of this vital 
information, including the use of PG gunboats USS Defiance and 
Surprise. Deployed to the Mediterranean to join the Sixth Fleet 
last December, these two turbine powered "speedboats" have 
been evaluated through a series of assigned missions since arrival. 

Constructed largely of aluminum and composite materials which 
serve inherently as anti-detection systems, these high-performance 
surface craft were products of a specialized, interdiction require- 
ment in Vietnam hostilities. 

Lieutenant Commander Paul D. Fraser, Commander Patrol 
Squadron 21 and a former PG gunboat skipper, declares that the 
two PGs now in the Mediterranean are helping "write the book 
for extensions of our capabilities in this environment. 

"We've pulled carrier plane guard duties, amphibious beach- 
head and surveillance assignments and just about everything that 
can be accomplished by a ship our size. One of the things we've 
done best is surface surveillance of Soviet warships." he adds. 

In order of priorities recognized in the Mediterranean today, it 
is evident that surveillance of Naval presence assumes importance 
of the first magnitude, both by the U. S. and the Soviets. 

U. S. anti-submarine patrol planes contribute through their 
regular over-flights of the Mediterranean to the intelligence "pic- 
ture" that is constantly updated; carrier aircraft, like those from 



22 




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the America, report their findings around the clock; submarines 
attached to the Sixth Fleet add their data collections to the intel- 
ligence sources; surveillance assigned destroyers and other surface 
vessels report their findings through the information pipelines 
leading to Admiral Kidd's flagship and other U. S. commands or 
NATO allies bordering the Mediterranean. 

From it all is drawn the composite picture of day-to-day and 
hour-to-hour status of Soviet activities in numerical, political, 
strategic and military values. 

While surveillance occupies a top priority status within the spec- 
trum of operational assignments for the Sixth Fleet, its basic 
mission is divided into four categories: 

• To protect U. S. citizens, shipping and interests in the Medi- 
terranean area. 

• To deter aggression against Western Europe by maintaining 
striking forces capable of utilizing conventional and nuclear 
weapons, and to be prepared to conduct such offensive opera- 
tions as either a national or a NATO force, should deterrence 
fail. 

• To promote peace and stability by its readiness and availabil- 
ity for deployment to trouble spots. 

• To create goodwill for the U.S. and enhance its prestige within 
the countries bordering the Mediterranean. 

While its presence has been felt in the Mediterranean since the 
early 19th century, the U.S. Navy's major military impact in this 
sphereofinfluencecameduringWorld War II in the North African, 
Sicilian, Italian and Southern France landings and subsequent 
support operations for allied ground troops in Europe. 

In its peacetime role, the U.S. Sixth Fleet has repeatedly served 
the interests of NATO allies bordering the Mediterranean Sea, 
offering its military force as a stabilizing influence or its humani- 



tarian resources in times of national disaster. 

Reacting to the first of its assigned missions, units of the Sixth 
Fleet successfully evacuated U.S. citizens and foreign nationals 
from Israel and Egypt during the Suez crisis of October 1956 and 
again, in 1958, at the request of Lebanon, landed its Fleet Marines 
to help stabilize that nation's political sovereignty. The presence 
of Sixth Fleet units during the Jordanian crisis in October 1970 
once again exemplified the values served by its show of naval 
force. 

This responsiveness to "contingency" requirements is charac- 
terized by the presence today of a 20-knot amphibious capability 
within the Sixth Fleet. Developed around the USS Guam, a 
helicopter assault carrier that carries a reinforced Marine battalion, 
the assault landing group includes Landing Ship Docks, newly 
produced Landing Ship Tanks, plus attack cargo and transport 
type ships. 

This year marks the first time that the Sixth Fleet has pos- 
sessed a 20-knot capability in its amphibious force. 

If attack aircraft carriers such as the America and Saratoga 
constitute the backbone of the Fleet today, the undersea and sur- 
face vessels represents the limbs of its anatomy. It is in its destroy- 
er class ships where the broadest investment of assigned respon- 
sibility is placed. 

For the greatest part — and this is the source of continuing 
agitation to commanders — age has begun to take its toll. Longevity 
of Sixth Fleet destroyer type vessels average in excess of 20 years. 
Still, with the implementation of augmentive devices, replacement 
of weapons systems, reconfiguration of equipments, a positive 
attitude toward assigned missions prevails in abundance. 

Commander Grant Sharp, skipper of the ASW destroyer 
USS Dupont, exemplifies this attitude. 



23 



Asserting his readiness to fulfill a broad range of contingency 
assignments, Dupont's skipper speaks with enthusiastic pride on 
the subject of his ship and its crew. 

Involved in a "Mod Squad" concept in which officers are as- 
signed to key billets one rank higher than that which they hold 
(Sharp was awarded command of the Dupont as a Lieutenant 
Commander), the Dupont, according to its commanding officer, "is 
surprisingly ready for any mission assigned." 

In a pre-deployment readiness exercise earlier this year, ships 
of the destroyer groups now on station with the Sixth Fleet 
underwent exhaustive anti-submarine warfare, surface-to-surface 
and surface-to-air tests under realistic combat conditions. 

Using the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range as the test area, 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebees served as "enemy" stand- 
ins. One of the guided missile destroyers, operating with this task 
force, the USS Josephus Daniels, claimed six Firebee "kills" 
during her Readiness Missile Exercise. 

Capable of simulating surface-to-surface cruise missiles or air- 
to-air threat sources, Firebees from the Atlantic Fleet Range are 
launched into flight from ground platforms or aircraft. Controlled 
in flight from ground stations at the Range headquarters, these 
high-subsonic, unmanned jets create the most realistic combat 
environment available for such tests of readiness. 

The attitude of justifiable pride in their readiness by destroyer- 
men of the Sixth Fleet is off"set by their acute awareness of the 
potential enemy's capabilities. No one interviewed among ships 
of the Sixth Fleet expressed complacency with the present power 
balance. 

From senior-most admirals to between-deck missilemen, a 
degree of healthy respect for Russian naval strength is evident. 

Addressing a San Diego, California, audience two years ago, 
while commanding the U.S. First Fleet, Admiral Kidd posed as a 
counterpart in the Soviet Navy, projecting into a timetable of 
objectives which lay ahead for Russia as a world seapower. 

Confronted with a copy of his address during an interview in 
August of this year, he agreed that his prognostications — offered 
in the form of a warning to U.S. citizens — were not only accurate; 
indeed, the Soviets were ahead of the Admiral's projected time- 
tables! The authoritative Jane's Fighting Ships in July assigned 
Soviet Russia a position of numerical superiority, with the 
U.S. Navy ranked second. 

Against this numerical advantage must be measured U.S. 
expertise, technical advance and dedicated idealism. Then, too, 
the long history of U.S. naval presence in the Mediterranean Sea 
and subsequent familiarity with terrain, marine anomalies, 
peculiarities and characteristics of nations bordering that ancient 
body of water must all be plotted into the true evaluations of naval 
superiority. 

It may be analogous to recall that on December 8, 1941, the 
United States was left with a pitifully small force of ships follow- 
ing the disastrous Pearl Harbor attack. Against overwhelming 
odds, the spirit to survive and win turned the tide of numerical 
superiority into defeat for the enemy. 

In that case study, as it might be applied to the Mediterranean 
Sea crisis today, U.S. Navy carrier air power, its inherent mobility, 
versatility and infinitely broad spectrum of offensive-defensive 
capabilities proved the difference. 

To these qualities is added yet another and most significant 
resource aboard USS America. Twice deployed to Tonkin Gulf 
for combat assignments with the U.S. Seventh Fleet, America 
embodies a formidability that has been tested under actual combat 
conditions. 

While its awesome power in times of war has helped shape the 
personality of U.S. Naval seapower strategies to a large extent, 
carrier air power in the Mediterranean may also be the strongest 
influence provided by the U.S. Navy in helping keep the peace. 
President Nixon, commenting on this quality in a statement 
made September 29, 1970, said, "I have often described our 
forces, our Navy, Army and Air Force, as the peace forces of the 
world. The Sixth Fleet was certainly in that great tradition during 








rrff.' inf iTini- 



24 



this period of tension (Jordanian crisis, September-October 1970). 

"The power and the mobility, the readiness of the Sixth Fleet 
in this period was absolutely indispensable in keeping the peace in 
the Mediterranean... the most important indispensable reason was 
the fact that we were ready with the power exemplified by this 
mighty fleet." 

Summarizing the Mediterranean Sea and Middle East crisis and 
the role assigned to his Sixth Fleet, Admiral Kidd noted that "re- 
cent events have aroused great public interest and speculation 
concerning the presence of the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. 

"The Sixth Fleet is in the Mediterranean to wage peace, not 
war. This is our operational goal. Of course, as a military force, 
we must train and maintain a peak of readiness in the event of 
confrontation. Our intention is to have that power ready, but re- 
strained, until the moment it is needed to serve the cause of peace. 

"The Sixth Fleet has responsibilities to NATO in addition to 
our national commitment. In this regard, much has been written 
and many profound words spoken by gentlemen far more ex- 
perienced than I on the importance of the NATO alliance, and on 
the far-reaching implications relative thereto, of a new naval 
presence in the Mediterranean — a presence of very considerable 
and increasing size and one of indeed acknow ledged capability. 

"Some pundits have further speculated on the proximate proba- 
bility that this Fleet of ours will gradually be forced out of this 
historic sea. Let me here and now. in temperate but unmistakable 
terms, disabuse anyone of associating himself with any such in- 
dulgence in wishful thinking. 

"We are here to stay." ^as^ 




2^ 






reporber 




n 




In its visit with the U. S. Sixth Fleet last August 
in the Mediterranean Sea, REPORTER Magazine 
explored a broad range of topics keyed to U. S. 
Naval presence in that area with officials ranging 
from the Fleet Commander through his com- 
mand structure. The questions asked and 
responses given are presented in this special 
REPORTER Interview. 



Vice Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, Jr., 
aboard USS Springfield at anchor at Gaeta, Italy. 

REPORTER: Admiral Kidd, how do you appraise the 
balance of seapower in the Mediter- 
ranean today, using U. S. and Soviet 
strengths as the basis for comparisons? 

VADM KIDD: "Everybody asks the same question. 
Would we win or lose? And you know, I 
give the same answer every time. There's 
only one way to find out. Mr. Gates de- 
scribed that in a speech in Philadelphia 
just about the time he stepped down as 
Secretary of Defense. ..and that's to go 
to war. And that is a totally unacceptable 
alternative. No reasoning individual is 
going to propose that or volunteer for it." 

REPORTER: How do you assess the numerical super- 
iority of the Soviet Navy over this U. S. 
Sixth Fleet? Is this a valid measure of 
superior capabilities? 

VADM KIDD: "It never has been. In numbers of ships, 
the Soviets have been up as high as the 
middle 70s, while during the time I've 
been here, ours have stayed within one 
or two either way, around 38. 
"The numbers, however, must be ana- 
lyzed carefully and conclusions drawn 




from the facts that are elicited from that 
sort of an analysis. For instance, the 
Soviets are pre-positioning their logistic 
capability. They are declaring their tran- 
sients from the Black Sea southbound 
well in advance and within the pre- 
scribed notification of timetables under 
the Montreux Convention. 
"Now that means that they have found a 
convenient way to frustrate the inten- 
tions of the Montreux Convention. By 
declaring in advance and having a bank 
account on which to draw, they are able 
to reinforce from the Black Sea within 
36 hours deep into the eastern Mediter- 
ranean. It takes us ten days to two weeks. 
"We've found it necessary to evaluate a 
potential threat from this source as a 
package proposition, including not only 
that which is in the Mediterranean, but 
that which is in the Black Sea. During 
the Middle East flareup last fall the So- 
viets trebled the offensive punch of their 
surface navy in about 36 to 40 hours. 
"They now have between 9 and 1 1 aggre- 
gate surface-to-surface missile firing 
ships as differentiated from units of the 
Komar or Osa class, cruise-missile 
launching boats. I'm talking about ships 
...cruisers, Kyndas, Krestas, Kresta I, 
Kresta II, Kildins . . . those are things that 
bother me as much as anything. They 
are the type of delivery platforms that 
are to us a continuing source of concern 
of a higher order of magnitude than the 
cruise missile type boats. 
"The Soviets have down here in and im- 
mediately available to the Mediterran- 
ean some 1 1 men of war with that long 
range missile. ..far exceeding the range 
of any gun or any surface-to-air missile 
that we have in the NATO capability. 
"For the moment, the only thing we have 
to redress this range disparity between 
the Soviet standoff range capability and 
the NATO standoff range capability is 
the airplane (carrier aircraft)." 



New Commander, U. S. Sixth Fleet 
Vice Admiral Gerald E. Miller 



One-time enlisted man, a Naval 
Aviator and commander of a 
jet-fighter squadron during the 
Korean war, Vice Admiral Miller 
follow/s Vice Admiral Isaac C. 
Kidd, Jr., as Commander, U. S. 
Sixth Fleet. 

Commander, U. S. Second 
Fleet and NATO Striking Force 
Atlantic from September 1970 
until his present assignment. 
Admiral Miller has twice before 
sailed the Mediterranean as 
skipper of Sixth Fleet ships; the 
ammunition ship USS Wrangell 
and USS Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Blending fleet operational with staff administrative experiences. 
Admiral Miller commanded Carrier Division Three with the Seventh 
Fleet and, in addition to earning a Masters degree in personnel ad- 
ministration from Stanford, served as Director for Aviation and Plans 
and Assistant Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air. 



Rear Admiral R. R. Crutchfield, Commander Cruiser-Destroyer 

Flotilla Six, aboard his flagship, USS America (CVA-66). 

Admiral Crutchfield will shortly report to Newport, R.I. for new 

duties as Commander of the Naval Base. 




REPORTER: 



RADM CRUTCHFIELD: 



Admiral Crutchfield, you will shortly con- 
clude the second of two deployments in 
the Mediterranean with the U. S. Sixth 
Fleet. How do you assess the condition 
of forces you command? 

"/ think their readiness has gone up very 
markedly. One of the chief reasons is 
that we've had the opportunity to train 
together as a unit since early this year. 
We conducted a large scale fleet exer- 
cise just before our deployment (on the 
Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range), then 
trained on the way over here. By the time 
we arrived on station, we were ready." 



In plioto at left, Admiral Kidd views first-hand, 
tine problem confronting his U. S. Sixth Fleet: 
the growing presence of Soviet warships 
like those anchored near the USS Springfield. 



27 



REPORTER: 



RADM CRUTCHFIELD: 



REPORTER: 



RADM CRUTCHFIELD: 



REPORTER: 
RADM CRUTCHFIELD: 



REPORTER: 



RADM CRUTCHFIELD 



RADM Crutchfield 



What do you consider to be the major 
military threat source faced by your 
force of cruisers and destroyers? 

"The Charley Class submarine. It has the 
capability for firing cruise missiles at 
long range while completely submerged. 
This is the most difficult to deal with 
because it is the hardest to detect." 

Concluding your current assignment, 
what are some of the impressions you 
will take with you to your new command? 

"That it is more of an operating fleet, 
addressing itself to threat potentials in- 
stead of its own problems. More efforts 
are now going into countering the So- 
viets." 

What requirement by your forces has 
the highest priority? 

"A surface-to-surface and subsurface- 
to-surface missile capability that is com- 
parable to that of the Soviets. And this 
should be a capability that complements 
our existing air capability." 

Do you have any apprehensions about 
the U. S. Sixth Fleet's ability to meet the 
Soviet threat, should a confrontation 
develop? 

"/ don't think anybody could possibly be 
aware of what the Soviets have, not only 
in the Mediterranean, but what they can 
bring in from the Black Sea, without hav- 
ing some apprehensions about our abil- 
ity to meet the threat. Their strength and 
ability to use this strength is growing. 
Ours is not growing and, in a good many 
respects, may be declining due to the 
age of our ships. Yes, I do have appre- 
hensions. The air of confidence which 
the Soviets are exhibiting indicates that 
they believe they are dealing from a 
position of superior strength." 




28 




Captain Thomas B. Russell, Jr., 
Commanding Officer, USS America (CVA-66) 

REPORTER: Captain Russell, it has been stated that 
the edge now held by the U. S. over the 
Soviets in the Mediterranean lies in our 
carrier presence and the standoff capa- 
bilities represented by your aircraft. How 
do you appraise this delicate balance? 

CAPT RUSSELL: "The Soviet Navy has its striking power 
in the form of surface-to-surface mis- 
siles. Ours is in the form of aircraft based 
aboard America and the Saratoga at 
the present time. The whole purpose of 
our carrier strike power is based on the 
mobility we represent. We can go wher- 
ever there is deep water, then launch 
our aircraft from that point for strikes 
against targets hundreds of miles away." 

REPORTER: The vulnerability of aircraft carriers has 
been cited by critics as one of their ma- 
jor drawbacks. Is this a valid source of 
criticism? 

CAPT RUSSELL: "/ don't think so. In the first place, our 
mobility serves us extremely well as a 
countering force to attack. We're under 
continuing surveillance here in the Med. 
But, the guy tailing us hasn't any notion 
of which direction we'll go next. One of 
the points some people don't realize is 
that we seldom have tried to hide our- 
selves out here. Our present purpose is 
to be seen. But, we've exercised at this 
(hiding), and we've been impressively 
successful at it. We have a pretty formid- 
able defense system in our F-4 fighters 
and in our Terrier missiles. 
"And we have several thousand men 
well trained and getting better all the 
time in damage control measures." 



Commander Grant Sharp, Commanding Officer, USS Dupont (DD-841J 




REPORTER: 



CDR SHARP: 



REPORTER: 



CDR SHARP: 



REPORTER: 




CDR SHARP: 



CDR Paul D. Bucher, skipper of USS Josephus 
Daniels, gestures in top photo, effectiveness 
of fiis guided missile destroyer in countering 
Soviet cruise missile tfireat. Daniels v/as en- 
gaged in exercise in wtiich USS America con- 
ducted underway replenishment with USS 
San Diego and British ASW destroyer escort 
Puma. CDR Sharp at right. 



Does it bother you to know that the So- 
viets are numerically superior to U.S. na- 
val strength in the Mediterranean today? 

"No, it really doesn't. I don't believe for a 
minute thiat we can't handle ourselves 
right here in this ocean. I think we're 
perfectly capable of standing up against 
what the Soviets have in the Mediter- 
ranean." 

If carrier air power is our strong suit in 
the Mediterranean today and ships such 
as yours have been assigned to protect 
our carriers, how effectively do you feel 
you are equipped to carry out this as- 
signment? 

"We can do it very effectively in anti- 
submarine warfare areas, which is our 
specialty in the Dupont. We have a sig- 
nificant capability in ASW and working 
with other support units, we can also be 
very effective in surface-to-air warfare. 
If the balloon ever goes up, we're ready 
to pump them out fast. This isn't to say 
that the Soviets do not also have a very 
significant capability. They do. 

You indicate that under current circum- 
stances, you are ready for contingencies 
which might include a confrontation 
with Soviet warships. How about the 
period that lies ahead one or two years? 
If one of the major weaknesses we have 
in the U. S. Sixth Fleet is rapidly aging 
ships, how can this condition of readi- 
ness be maintained? 

"/ think we need to build ships which 
have capabilities for long range detec- 
tion plus weapons systems to match. A 
destroyer with good, long range surface- 
to-air and surface-to-surface missile sys- 
tems and guns for amphibious warfare 
is vital. This is something the Soviets 
already have. I recently had a Kashin 
destroyer nearby, and he had these sys- 
tems on it. There's no reason why we 
shouldn't have the same capability. I 
think we're probably headed that way 
with our current shipbuilding effort." 



?^ 



29 



Eight years of engineering design, 
development and flight testing paved 
the way July 21, 1971 for Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronauticai's production 
model 0001. Firebee II is now 



D: 



. eiivery of the first pro- 
Iduction model of Tele- 
dyne Ryan's Supersonic 
Firebee II took place July 21 
following conclusion of Final 
Assembly Inspection at San 
Diego by a team of represen- 
tatives from nine military 
agencies. 

The rigid, week-long inspec- 
tion was the final phase re- 
quired after an eight-year 

period in which the growth-version Firebee II has 
been in conceptual design, development, fabrication, 
flight test and evaluation programs. 

Production model 0001, delivered to the Pt. Mugu 
Naval Missile Center, signals the start of an opera- 
tional era for Firebee II. 

Under an initial production contract, Teledyne Ryan 
will produce 118 Firebee II versions for operational 
use by the Navy and Air Force. A follow-on produc- 
tion contract has also been awarded for additional 
systems. 

Production of the Firebee II is now scheduled 
through 1972 under Naval Air Systems Command 
work orders for Navy and Air Force Firebee lis. 

Included in the Final Assembly Inspection (FAI), 
which began July 13, was total disassembly, systems 
tests and reassembly of Model 0001. 




READY 



Agencies represented by the 
inspection team were: Naval 
Air Systems Command: Aero- 
nautical Systems Division; 
Naval Air Engineering Cen- 
ter; Naval Air Force, U.S. 
Pacific Fleet; Naval Missile 
Center; Naval Weapons Lab- 
oratory; Warner Robbins Air 
Material Area; and Defense 
Contracts Admin. Services. 
The Firebee II production 
program, under Howard Engler, Executive Assistant 
to the Vice President, Plant Operations, currently in- 
volves 225 personnel. Based on existing contracts, he 
said this number would remain essentially the same 
through 1972. 

Firebee II is the fourth growth-version developed 
by Teledyne Ryan since the 1948 introduction of orig- 
inal Firebee aerial target systems. Firebees have since 
been used by the Army, Navy and Air Force in the 
development and evaluation of all major weapons 
systems now in the U.S. arsenal. 



VADM T. J. Walker. Commander, Naval Air Force. U. S. Pacific 
Fleet: Bill Dowell. 34E program manager for Naval Air Systems 
Command: CDR Jim Brady, Navy program officer and Frank 
Card Jameson, President. Teledyne Ryan, share officials 
platform in photo at right, below. 




30 














Introducing 

SUPERSONIC 
FIREBEE n 




31 




27 1 



Teledyne Ryan President Frank Card Jameson and VADM 
T. J. Walker pose in photo at upper left under nose of Navy's 
first Supersonic Firebee II production model. In photos 
top right and above, program officials conduct Final 
Assembly Inspection of first production version. 

While it is creating an operational era for sophisti- 
cated systems of its kind, Firebee II is also helping 
usher in the era of the Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV). 

Posed for use in weapons delivery, superiority air 
fighter, close air support and surveillance applications 
by the military, the RPV is projected into situations 
where manned aircraft may face risks considered ex- 
cessive for human safety. RPV also offers advantages 
associated with spiraling costs of manned, military 
aircraft development and production. 



Much of the ground support and associated equip- 
ment for ground or air launch Firebee II operations 
is also used for standard Firebees. 

While Navy versions, designated BQM-34E, will 
be retrieved from land or water surfaces after para- 
chute recovery. Air Force Firebee lis (BQM-34F) 
will be retrieved in mid-air by helicopters while the 
targets are descending by parachute. 

Development of this Mid-Air Recovery System 
(MARS) will be conducted within the next 90 days 
with initial tests already programmed at El Centro and 
Edwards air facilities. 

Initial deliveries of operational Firebee lis for the 
balance of 1971 include Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 
in Puerto Rico and Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. ^g*, 



32 



THi Sf'^^'T (Sf SI touts I'ii 



s \ 








Fred Annette, Grumman Presentation Services 



...and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical was there. Ryan "Spirit of 
St. Louis" flown by America's "Lone Eagle" across the Atlantic 
in 1 927, is joined by Apollo 1 1 backup Lunar Module "Eagle" at 
Smithsonian Institution. Landing radar system for lunar modules 
were designed and produced by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 



Please send address changes to: 

TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



MR. VERNE ALBERT 

3636 51 rl AVl, 

SA.\ DISJ., CALIF. 92103 



6-11 



ibsanv 'A *3 



i;^ 



-^ 



BULK RATE 
U. S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No. 437 



ri. BQM-34E, target for new fighters bf tJie Supersonic 
Seventies, is now operational with the U.S. Navy. And the U.S. 
Air Force version (BQM-34F) is on the way^ hew generation 
of Firebees with wider dimensions of flight. ..iWach 1.5 
above 60,000 fieet, or fiV it subsonic. A femot^ly-pifoted 
vehi^tlf buijlt'by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, ' 





'1i^-^l?^V''"^;^\'i;i 






TELEDYNE RYAN H AERONAUTICAL 




n 



Oometimes there are qualities about 
a particular man that are not necessa- 
rily reflected in his outward personal- 
ity, yet these qualities effectively reach 
and influence others — even some who 
are not personally acquainted with this 
man. These special qualities add up to 
charisma. 

The term defies short, simple defi- 
nition. But, I can give you the name of 
a man who exemplifies this description. 
He is T. Claude Ryan. He is one of a 
small band of Americans who have con- 
tributed so significantly to the advance- 
ment and success of aviation and 
aerospace. He and other members of 
this distinguished breed of Americans 
possess a common quality, that of be- 
ing able to develop a dream or an am- 
bition so consuming that it forces all 
else aside. 



T. Claude Ryan had such a dream a 
half century— 50 years— ago! He wanted 
to fly. He wanted to design and build 
flying machines. As a by-product, he 
wanted to share his experiences and 
his expertise with others. 

His pursuit of his ambitions made 
the name Ryan synonymous with 
pioneering aviation— and beyond. 

The Ryan "Spirit of St. Louis" helped 
open the skies for trans-Atlantic flight 
45 years ago. Forty years later, Ryan 
landing radar systems helped man 
leave his footprints on the surface of 
the moon. T. Claude Ryan's name is 
linked with the design and manufacture 
of 28 aircraft between those years. 

For the past quarter-century, Tele- 
dyne Ryan unmanned aircraft have 
been making direct contributions to the 
defense readiness of the United States 
and its allies. And now, the age of the 
Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) — 
stemming in great measure from dec- 
ades of Teledyne Ryan developments. 

The technologies needed to support 
this age of RPVs exist; we are now en- 



gaged In helping our government de- 
termine the very best approaches to 
implementing this exciting era. 

At the same time, Teledyne Ryan's 
radar navigation and sensing systems 
are today an integral part of the Navy's 
most advanced anti-submarine warfare 
vehicles, both in helicopter and fixed 
wing aircraft. 

The demanding and dedicated qual- 
ity inspired by T. Claude Ryan is a 
proud heritage at Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical. We continue to pursue the 
kind of restless ambition that charac- 
terizes T. Claude Ryan's career in 
aviation. 



X^/?. /u^/haU--^ 



L. M. LIMBACH 
PRESIDENT 





REPORTER Notes 

It has become increasingly difficult in our age 
of technical explosion to find occasions when the 
term "milestone" offers true meaning. No doubt 
exists when the term is applied to "Tactical Air 
Warfare by RPV," our lead article. A "milestone" 
of worldwide magnitude, Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical's evolution into the age of Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles has been heralded by global 
coverage. 

Out of scores of presentations attesting to its 
presence and the values it will serve, REPORTER 
compiled portions of each article dealing with 
RPVs, offering a comprehensive view of a new 
milestone in aviation. 

Viking 75 has been described as man's most 
ambitious and challenging effort in space. An 
exclusive REPORTER Interview with two of the 
nation's foremost experts on the subject offers 
qualifications in support of this view. Helping 
understand more about the Red Planet, man's 
latest investigations and data already acquired 
by Mariner 9, is Dr. William Pickering, Director 
of the famed Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It was 
this same J PL team — of which Teledyne Ryan 
was a part — that soft-landed a series of Surveyor 
vehicles on the Moon's surface, paving the way 
for the Apollo program. 

This marks the U. S. Air Force's 25th anni- 
versary. REPORTER is indeed privileged to offer 
the views of Air Force Secretary Robert C. Sea- 
mans, Jr., in this anniversary testimonial. 

Measured against the U.S. Navy's advance 
in the F-14 "Tomcat" and S-3A "Viking," what 
goes on in the surface and ASW fields is some- 
times subdued. Not so in the case of LAMPS 
(Light Airborne Multi-Purpose Systems). As 
"LAMPS On Station" testifies, a whole new spec- 
trum of capability is in the making. 

As it has in the past in fields of Navy ASW ad- 
vance, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical is making sig- 
nificant contributions to this LAMPS capability. 

Finally, Apollo 16— America's next to last 
scheduled manned visit to the moon — is set to 
blast into space for its half-million-mile journey 
to and from the lunar surface. It just doesn't 
seem that long ago that Surveyor I left its pad 
prints on the moon's Ocean of Storms in June 
1966. 

As indicated in the opening paragraph, the 
abundant useage of "milestone" as a term of 
description seems increasingly difficult to apply. 
REPORTER may have used up its quota for the 
year in this first edition. 



Volume 33, Number 1 



Spring 1972 

^^riELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Editor 

Robert R. Springer / Associate Editor 

Ed Wojciechowsl<i, David A. Gossett 

Bob Wilson / Staff Photographers 

Art Design by 

Linda Slacum 



Selective Air Warfare by RPV Page 2 

Interest is mounting worldwide in the subject 
of Remotely Piloted Vehicles, as this compilation 

of articles testifies. 



Space Technology: A Key National Resource. Page 10 

Air Force Secretary Robert C. Seamans, Jr., offers 

his thoughts about the Air Force on its 25th anniversary 

and the innerface between NASA and the Air 

Force downstream. 



Flying Automated Laboratories to the 

Planets Page 12 

Dr. William Pickering, Director of Jet Propulsion 

Laboratories, and one of the world's most 

highly qualified authorities on the subject, explores 

the mission of Mariner 9, its background and what 

lies ahead. 



A Reporter Interview Page 18 

An exclusive feature, REPORTER interviews 

Martin Marietta's Albert J. Kullas and Teledyne 

Ryan's J. R. "Dick" Iverson for an insight 

into Viking '75. 



Lamps On Station Page 24 

The USS Holt puts to sea as the Navy's first of some 

100 "Knox" class destroyer escorts to be assigned 

LAMPS duties. Integrated with its ships 

company is Detachment Two of Helicopter 

Antisubmarine Squadron Light-31. 



Destination Cayley Plains Page 30 

Apollo 16's scheduled launch from Cape Kennedy 

April 16 unfolds as man's next to last flight to 

the moon. Guiding Astronauts John W. Young and 

Charles M. Duke, Jr. to the lunar surface 

in their "Orion" lunar module will be a Teledyne 

Ryan landing radar system. 






.J*^:: 





Cover photo by Ed Wojciechowski dramatizes 

coming age of Remotely Piloted Vehicles 

with view ol DC-130 launch aircralt nestling 

operational RPV under its wing. 



This issue printed on recycled paper. 



DROn^S HMDiriG MG^A 
JSGS in T^CTICI^L WI^Rfl^RG 

Teledyne Ryan, RCA Study Drone-Type Combat Plane 

^ robot air force f Jytters its wings 
PLANES WITHOUT PILOTS- 
COMING DEFENSE WEAPON 



era: 



Weapon Systems of the Future 



K^ou may be a "pilot" In the 

Wild NewWorIc 

of Drones 



Air defenses are tightening, pilot and air- 
crew risks are mounting while manned 
aircraft costs are soaring. The most 
likely solution: 

Sa€CTIM€ 



BVRPM 



BY JACK G. BROWARD 




«etuming from bombing strikes over 
North Vietnam in the closing days of 
1971, Navy Commander R. G. "Mink" 
Ehrman was quoted by the Associated 
Press aboard the USS Coral Sea as 
saying: "Frankly, I don't know what ef- 
fect our bombing had, the cloud cover 
was so thick." 

A five-tour combat veteran in the 
North Vietnam air war, squadron com- 
mander Ehrman disclosed in the inter- 
view that air defenses had been "built 
up" significantly since his last tour. 

While his remarks were casual and of- 
fered informally, they trace a pattern in 
air warfare today that has been rein- 
forced by the statements of countless 
other combat pilots engaged in strikes 
over North Vietnam. 

In essence, the pattern imposes severe 
risks to manned combat aircraft flying 
certain missions where weather, sophis- 
ticated air defenses and mission ranges 
are helping stack the odds against a safe 
return. 

Fortunately, there is an alternative. It 
lies within a concept now under intense 
study by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical 




1 




for the Air Force Systems Command's 
Aeronautical Systems Division. 

The study calls for assessment of tech- 
nologies for RPVs (Remotely Piloted 
Vehicles) in areas such as materials, 
avionics, manufacturing techniques and 
propulsion. Based upon this assessment 
and missions defined by the Air Force, 
systems concepts, preliminary designs of 
vehicles to perform air-to-air, air-to- 
ground and reconnaissance-electronic 
warfare missions will be developed. 

Definition of necessary efforts re- 
quired to develop RPVs as systems will 
be the next step, taking into account 
such factors as costs, capabihties, sched- 
ules and the technical risks involved. 

A major objective is the formulation 
of a quantitative data basis from which to 
assess RPVs in a truly operational sit- 
uation. 

Addressing the National Security Fo- 
rum at Maxwell Air Force Base in May 
1971, General George S. Brown, Com- 
mander of the Air Force Systems Com- 
mand, stated, "Through the use of drones 
or Remotely Piloted Vehicles, we avoid 
exposing aircrews to heavily defended 
areas. These RPVs can be designed to be 
light, relatively inexpensive, and far 
more maneuverable than human toler- 
ances would permit if a pilot were 
aboard. Remotely 'flown' from the 
ground or by a pilot in a 'mother' ship 20 
or more miles away, they can serve as air- 
superiority fighters, as command and 
control and surveillance platforms, for 
reconnaissance or as decoys, target mark- 
ers and covert jammers. 

"They could mount guns, rockets and 



missiles, or, since they are expendable, 
could be flown directly into the target." 

Lieutenant Colonel William H. Star- 
nes, Jr., Chief of Tactical Air Command's 
Electronic Warfare Requirements Divi- 
sion, supports this view in an article pub- 
lished by ELECTRONIC WARFARE 
magazine in late 1971. 

"Tactical Air Command's newest ca- 
pabihty (tactical drone operations) may 
be the catalyst for an entirely new and 
different way to conduct future air war- 
fare." He concluded his article by stating, 
"Indications are that unmanned aircraft 
have a definite place in tactical oper- 
ations." 

If additional testimony to the values 
served by RPV air warfare were needed, 
there were abundant sources available by 
January 1972. 

Writing for POPULAR SCIENCE 
magazine's million-plus readers, Ben 
Kocivar directed attention to what was 
termed by his article as, the "Wild New 
World of Drones." His graphically-sup- 
ported presentation echoed what a grow- 
ing number of military, aerospace and 
scientific-technical authorities have been 
repeating in print since mid- 1970: "The 
newest age of aviation is here. Its catalyst 
is most likely the Remotely Piloted Ve- 
hicle." 

One of the nation's most highly re- 
garded aerospace writers, Barry Miller, 
wrote for AVIATION WEEK & SPACE 
TECHNOLOGY magazine in June 
1970, "A system project office was re- 
cently set up at Wright-Patterson (Air 
Force Base) to coordinate and plan 
USAF drone activities over the next dec- 



ade. It is investigating a family of drones, 
including a silent, jet-powered aircraft 
for directly monitoring acoustical noise 
generated by trucks, tanks, etc." 

His article reported investigations of 
possible combat applications of remotely 
piloted vehicles by the Air Force's Air 
Systems Command and Rand Corpo- 
ration in the areas of Air Superiority, In- 
terdiction and Close Air Support, Recon- 
naissance and Surveillance, Command, 
Control and Communications and other 
areas. 

There followed in the succeeding 18 
months a deluge of more than 39 major 
articles, presentations and speeches on 
the subject of RPVs, offered through ma- 
jor trade-industrial and military pub- 
lications in the U.S. and abroad as well as 
network television and news syndicates. 

AIR FORCE magazine's Associate 
Editor, Edgar Ulsamer, in October 1970, 
led off an article by stating: "For certain 
Air Force pilots, tomorrow's combat 
cockpit may be a swivel chair in a bomb- 
proof underground control center. From 
there, a USAF pilot may 'fly' by remote 
control his air-superiority fighter or inter- 
diction bomber against targets hundreds 
of miles away. 

"His system will be deadlier and 
cheaper than any manned system. Most 
important of all, these pilots will not be 
exposed to death, injury or capture." 

Barry Miller turned to the subject 
again for AVWEEK in November 1970, 
supporting his article with drawings and 
photographs of vehicles (produced by 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical) that are in 
use today. I 



Miller reported in this article, "The 
Cuban missile crisis proved to be the fi- 
nal catalyst for an all-out drone recon- 
naissance effort. Shortly after an Air 
Force U-2 was shot down on a mission 
over the Caribbean island, killing its pi- 
lot. Major Rudolph Anderson, Jr., the 
government was stunned to learn that 
while an unmanned aircraft might have 
done the same job, only two drone air- 
craft were available in the U. S. military 
inventory. 

"At that point, drone reconnaissance 
aircraft development won presidential 
backing and needed funding." His ar- 
ticle reports that two years later, the 
Chinese Communists succeeded in 
shooting down their first American re- 
connaissance drone after many fruitless 
tries, in what had by then come to be 
known facetiously as a "Chinese Wil- 
liam Tell" shooting match. 

In a succeeding article. Miller re- 
ported, "The main motivation for resort- 
ing to RPVs is the growing cost of mod- 
ern aircraft and increasing reluctance to 
risk men's lives in conventional warfare. 
During World War II, the United States 
lost about 40,000 aircraft and about 
80,000 crewmen. 

"The cost of these aircraft was about 
$100,000. The cost of these losses in 
today's prices of about $4 million per 
aircraft would be a staggering $160 bil- 
lion." 

Continued Miller, "In World War II, 
it cost about $100,000 to kill a target. 
Today, at the lower attrition rate ac- 
cepted in North Vietnam, it costs about 
the same. But at an attrition rate ap- 



proaching that of World War II, it 
would cost about $10 million per target, 
a measure of better defenses and limited 
weapon delivery accuracy. 

"Thus, to conduct modern warfare 
with manned aircraft without reducing 
Circular Error of Probability (CEP) of 
weapon delivery will require dimin- 
ishingly low attrition rates, especially as 
the enemy continues to improve the 
quantity and accuracy of his defense. 
The RPV offers possibility of degrading 
enemy defenses, improving CEPs, re- 
ducing losses of trained pilots and sav- 
ing manned aircraft." 

A CHICAGO SUN-TIMES article, 
syndicated in December 1970. contrasts 
the costs of a modern fighter "which 
costs millions of dollars apiece with an 
RPV estimate of about $175,000 that 
could offer a 250-mile range and a 2,200 
pound payload." 

The article reports that Milt Thomp- 
son, a top space agency test pilot, has ac- 
tually 'flown' an RPV-type aircraft at al- 
titudes of 50 to 75 feet and at speeds 
above 500 mph. He is quoted as saying 
that operating an RPV makes him as 
emotionally and physically tired as 
actual cockpit flying. 

Physiological aspects of the manned 
fighter versus RPVs is off"ered by BUSI- 
NESS WEEK magazine, reporting Jan- 
uary 2, 1971, that "In many respects, a 
robot plane may perform even more ef- 
fectively than a manned aircraft. It 
could be designed, for instance, for 12g 
sustained acceleration, nearly double 
the gravity pull an experienced pilot can 
briefly tolerate. 



"The plane's turn rate could be set up 
to exceed that of a manned aircraft by 
nearly 100%. It could thus outmaneuver 
even the most advanced manned fight- 
ers over a broad range of speeds and al- 
titudes. 

"RPVs could be built of inexpensive 
materials, such as fiberglass, and molded 
plastics." Upgraded cost estimates over 
that off"ered b}^ the CHICAGO SUN- 
TIMES article are projected, noting 
that, "One preliminary design of a robot 
fighter aircraft— one that would be 
launched from a mother plane and be 
recoverable— bears an estimated price 
tag of $250,000. It. would weigh 3,500 
pounds gross, have an 1 8-foot wingspan 
and be able to maintain Mach 2.5 pur- 
suit capability for two minutes." 

As in any uniquely new concept, de- 
sign configurations, costs, performance 
capabilities and specifics vary according 
to points of reference and authority. 

Writing for AIR CLUES magazine in 
January 1972, Royal Air Force FHght 
Lieutenant R. W. Heath- Whvte explores 
a broad spectrum of values related to 
RPVs, arriving at the conclusion that. 
"The Firebee I is a subsonic fixed-wing 
jet target aircraft and an obvious choice 
for development of RPVs. 

"Similarly, the supersonic Firebee II 
is ideal for development as a supersonic 
weapons carrier or reconnaissance RPV. 

"The cost of procurement of new air- 
craft and equipment for the RAF in- 
ventory has now reached the stage 
where even with multi-national collabo- 
ration we cannot afford to build as many 
equipments as we need to meet even our 



reduced commitments. To maintain a 
credible conventional deterrent in Eu- 
rope we must build up the strength of 
our air forces. In short, we need more, 
not less, airborne weapon systems." 

U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT 
magazine, in its Feb. 28, 1972 edition, 
emphasized the view that, "RPVs are re- 
garded by Air Force sources as a com- 
plement to the manned aircraft and not 
a substitute." 

A key logistics factor is described by 
the magazine's report, related to 
enormous costs currently associated with 
manned fighter aircraft. "Since planes 
are boosted from their launch railings 
by rockets or mother aircraft in flight, 
there would be no need for airfields. 
They return and land (or are recovered) 
by parachute," according to the maga- 
zine. 

Its presentation continued, "In a 
guarded discussion of the RPV, an Air 
Force officer— a pilot— said, 'The day of 
automated warfare is closer than we 
think, with machines fighting machines. 

"But there is more to this business 
than just military applications. It is per- 
fectly possible that children alive today 
will fly in robot planes. The Apollo lu- 
nar-landing craft is essentially that. So is 
the Mariner satellite circling Mars. The 
potential is unlimited.' " 

Reporting for the San Diego UNION 
March 21, 1972, Military Affairs Editor 
Kip Cooper quoted Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical President Laurence M. 
Limbach's prediction that, "Air missions 
of the next 10 or 15 years may be flown 
by pilots seated in consoles on the 
ground. 



"Tactical Air Command is going to be 
the next big user of the present gener- 
ation of drones, plus improvements," 
the article quoted Limbach as saying. 

Limbach said his company, which is a 
leading manufacturer of drones and re- 
motely piloted vehicles, has also had 
specific discussions with the Navy about 
using RPVs on the new 'sea control 
ships' of the future. 

Cooper's article also noted that the 
Air Force is reportedly flying armed 
Teledyne Ryan 147 reconnaissance ve- 
hicles using air to surface missiles and 
guided bombs. 

Of a certainty is this knowledge. Fea- 
sibihty for RPV applications supporting 
manned military aircraft has been 
proved. One article published in 1971 
reveals use of a photo reconnaissance 
vehicle bringing back strike damage as- 
sessments in North Vietnam that had 
previously been attempted by two 
manned aircraft without success. 

Robert R. Schwanhausser, Vice Presi- 
dent, Aerospace Systems for Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical, claims there is no 
simple answer to the question of why 
this country needs Remotely Piloted Ve- 
hicles. 

"The short of it is that we possess the 
technical as well as practical capabilities 
and that it is a cheaper, more effective 
way to go." He adds that RPVs are not 
meant to compete with pilots. "It can 
provide a role under very hazardous 
conditions. It can provide a lead role 
where follow-up would be provided by 
manned aircraft. It is complementary to 
manned aircraft as well as to the ballistic 
missile field." 



The man guiding the Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical RPV study for the Air Sys- 
tems Command, Schwanhausser notes, 
"A point to emphasize is that the subject 
of RPV is not something new. It has 
been around for many, many years. 

"What we're talking about today is 
the application of newly developed tech- 
nologies. Without question, no major 
identification will be given to RPVs in 
terms of new hardware within the next 
five years. Within that time frame, many 
small projects will evolve. Out of this ef- 
fort will come the major new programs 
which could be equal to the major pro- 
grams we are engaged in today." 

One of two prime contractors assigned 
to the RPV study, Teledyne Ryan's ef- 
forts include joint work by RCA in areas 
of avionics. 

Just as the coming age of Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles has been heralded 
throughout the world during the past 18 
months, there is certain knowledge that 
current studies will point the way for 
this new era. 

And men like Navy Commander 
"Mink" Ehrman may someday "fly" 
their missions hundreds of miles from 
the combat environment in the relative 
safety of a "cockpit" swivel chair, ^fi^ 



SPACE TECHNOLOGY: 



I he Air Force is now in its 25tli 
Anniversary year. We tal<e great 
pride in tine highly professional 
force that has contributed so ef- 
fectively to our nation's security. 
In looking to the future of the Air 
Force, it is apparent that our abil- 
ity to maintain the peace will de- 
pend more and more on the use 
of space technology. It is essen- 
tial that we continue to cooperate 
with NASA and other agencies in 
further space efforts. 

During the past decade ad- 
vances in space systems have led 
to spectacular achievements. The 
success of our Apollo missions- 
permitting the safe moon landing 
and return of our astronauts- 
marks one of the great accom- 
plishments of man's history. 

But these achievements are 
more than feats to be recorded in 
history. As a result of our un- 
manned and manned space flights 
we are gaining valuable scien- 
tific data about the earth and our 
sister celestial bodies, the moon 
and the planets. And Apollo 16, 
our most ambitious effort to date, 
should advance even further our 
scientific knowledge of the origins 
of the universe. 

Progress in space technology 
has produced many benefits of 
direct service to both our nation's 
progress and our national de- 
fense. 






■ 


IttPm^ 


■ 


■l^p. ^^ ■^^^^B^'^llfc*-'.^ 


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^^^^■P^ \ \ 




B^^^KSSMii'-Cyii'^ii -^ 


^H 



By 

Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr. 

Secretary of the U. S. 

Air Force 



We have developed a better 
understanding of meteorology, 
and are using satellites for com- 
munications and navigation. 
There have been a multitude of 
direct applications of space tech- 
nology to everyday problems. 
NASA work in the field of bio- 
instrumentation has been especi- 
ally helpful in assisting with ear- 
lier and more precise diagnosis 
of heart disease. Also, an elec- 
tronic switch developed for space 
systems has made possible the 
development of a self-guided 
wheel chair for paralyzed pa- 
tients. And for household use, 
silicone sealant, a super glue de- 
veloped for use on spacecraft, is 
now available commercially. Divi- 
dends are also being realized in 
such areas as transportation, en- 
vironmental pollution and other 
urban-related problems, as well 
as in mine safety, and education. 



With respect to national secu- 
rity, the Air Force and other De- 
partment of Defense agencies 
operate a variety of space sys- 
tems. These systems in no way 
pose a threat to other nations but 
have the purpose of enhancing 
the national security of the United 
States. For example, we have 
made progress this year on early 
warning satellites for detecting 
ICBf^ and SLBM launches and to 
report atmospheric nuclear ex- 
plosions. In other areas, there are 
complementary programs spon- 
sored by Defense Agencies and 
NASA. These cooperative efforts 
include space-based supporting 
systems for navigation, communi- 
cations, mapping, charting, and 
geodesy. And new tools for 
weather forecasting and data ex- 
change, developed since the early 
1960s, have dramatically im- 
proved civilian and military capa- 
bilities in meteorology. 

In pursuing our nation's peace- 
ful objectives in space— both do- 
mestic progress and the preserva- 
tion of national security— the Air 
Force and NASA have established 
an effective working relationship. 
We have always worked closely 
since there are so many signif- 
icant areas of common interest in 
space and aeronautics— and this 
is particularly true in the case of 
the Shuttle program which was 
recently approved by the Presi- 
dent. In this effort, we have estab- 
lished a joint Space Transporta- 
tion System Committee to help 
insure that the Shuttle will provide 
maximum benefit to our nation. 
Also, to further this cooperation, 
the Air Force has assigned liaison 
engineers to work in NASA cen- 
ters and we have personnel from 
our Air Force laboratories work- 
ing with NASA on various working 



Air Superiority fighter of the future, the F-15, is portrayed in formation flight 
displaying external weapons. F-15 is currently designed to carry, in 
addition to missiles, M-61A1 Vulcan 20-mm cannon. 



10 



A Key Notionol 
Resource 



group panels. 

NASA and the Air Force have 
also done important work jointly 
on engine development. The Air 
Force work on the hydrogen/ 
oxygen reusable rocket engine, 
known as the XLR-129, provided 
the basis for selection of the re- 
usable high pressure rocket en- 
gine concept for the Shuttle orbi- 
ter vehicle. The high-altitude test- 
ing of this engine is planned to be 
conducted at the Air Force Arnold 
Engineering Development Center. 

The Air Force and NASA are 
also undertaking a program to 
develop experimental flight data 
in hypersonic, supersonic and 
subsonic flight ranges. We should 
obtain technical information on 
high performance aircraft design 
that can be applied to the Shuttle 
development program. This test 
program, which uses the X-24B 
vehicle, is being conducted by the 
Air Force Flight Dynamics Labor- 
atory and the NASA Flight Re- 
search Center. Flight tests will be 
conducted at the Air Force Flight 
Test Center at Edwards Air Force 
Base. 

These and other efforts by 
NASA and the Air Force have ad- 
vanced technology and opened 
new horizons in space. Our nation 
is now finding increasing numbers 
of ways to use this medium for 
making the world a better and 




Observing its 25tti anniversary this year, Air Force planners look downstream 
to the next quarter century which will bring aircraft such as B-1 into operational 
use. Under design-development by North American, B-1 is programmed to 
succeed B-52. 



safer place to live. But if we are 
to make use of this potential, we 
will have to find a way to operate 
more effectively in space. 

The Space Shuttle should prove 
to be an important step toward 
greater effectiveness and could 
result in an eventual reduction in 
the cost of space operations. The 
ability to examine, repair, and re- 
plenish our satellites, and to re- 
cover equipment from orbit could 
open avenues for new applica- 
tions of space technology. 

We must recognize that the 
knowledge we have gained in the 
space program constitutes a vital 
source of technological leader- 
ship for our nation. The Apollo 
missions constitute the crowning 




achievement of our space pro- 
grams, the success of which are 
dependent upon important ad- 
vances made in many technical 
disciplines— in government agen- 
cies, industry, and the university. 
I am convinced that we must 
maintain adequate support for our 
space efforts if we are to stay 
ahead in the field of technology. 
We must continue to benefit from 
the highly trained and motivated 
people in NASA, DOD and other 
organizations, who constitute our 
nation's space community. In a 
broader sense, the United States' 
space programs have presented 
an unparalleled opportunity for 
international cooperation. Indeed 
such cooperation is essential if 
we are to provide the greatest 
benefits to mankind. We must use 
our skills and momentum in space 
exploration to make the world a 
healthier, more hopeful and safer 
place. -^B^ 



Newly configured E3A is mission- 
oriented for Airborne Early Warning 
operations in long range surveillance, 
radar command and control areas. 



11 



flying sufomsted labc 



BY DR. WILLIAM H. PICKERING 

DIRECTOR, JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



Instrumented spacecraft are probing the secrets of Mars, will 
search for life on the Red Planet's surface in 1976, ricochet off 
Venus' gravitational field to Mercury in 1973, and takeoff on 
journeys to selected outer planets before the end of the decade . . . 

the dual cameras and the spectral instruments of Mariner 9 
have shown us a planet Mars with most of the credentials 
of a dynamic, evolving world, orbiting on the threshold of 
the Jovian zone of the solar system. 

An exciting new chapter is being written by the data returned 
from the automated spacecraft, which is stripping away much of 
the mythology and misconceptions that have surrounded the Red 
Planet since ancient times. 

Despite the prolific returns from the mission, however. Mars 
does not now become an open book. Although some of the past 
mysteries are apparently answered, new and tantalizing scientific 
riddles are created by the wealth of data— approximately twelve 
times that received from all other planetary missions combined. 
Yet, the classic questions remain and probably cannot be fully 
resolved without landing instrumented capsules on the surface. 

We are familiar with the long-popular idea that Mars might be 
inhabited by intelligent beings— a notion nurtured by many fiction 
writers during the last century. In 1877, Schiaparelli and his fa- 
mous canali fortified the suggestion that artifacts of living crea- 
tures existed on Mars. 

Although the Italian astronomer did not openly claim human 
origin for his "canals," Percival Lowell and his followers did, soon 
after the turn of the century. They peopled the planet with an 
advanced race capable of constructing elaborate works to trans- 
port water from the melting polar caps, even of mounting warlike 



expeditions against the inhabitants of Earth. They described a 
legendary city of Sun Lake as the Martian capital. 

The exploration of the terrestrial planets by other than optical 
and spectroscopic means did not really begin until the decade of 
the 1960s. Mariner 2 led the way, flying an historic mission to the 
vicinity of Venus in 1962— the first man-made, instrumented probe 
to return scientific data from the near-vicinity of another planet 
in our solar system. 

Although Mariner 2 approached no closer than 21.000 miles, 
its instruments detected lead-melting surface temperatures of 
800°F on the continuously shrouded planet. The spacecraft saw 
no breaks in the thick, opaque cloud deck, and a so-called "limb- 
darkening" phenomenon was interpreted as indicating cool tem- 
peratures in the cloud structure and a hot surface. 

Atmospheric pressures at Venus' surface were estimated at 10 
to 20 times those found on Earth at sea level. The high carbon 
dioxide content of the clouds was thought to create a "greenhouse 
effect," trapping solar energy and probably accounting for the 
torrid surface temperatures. Mariner found no evidence of a 
magnetic field nor any belt of trapped radiation. 

In 1967, another Mariner spacecraft was flown to Venus to 
look further at the temperature distribution and gas content of 
the atmosphere and to conduct an occultation experiment (in 
which the spacecraft passes behind and emerges from the planet 
in relation to Earth) in order to construct a better density and 
pressure profile of the atmosphere. 

Data from this Mariner 5 mission showed an interaction be- 
tween the planet and the solar wind and indicated a corona of 
hydrogen around Venus. The atmospheric carbon dioxide content 
was estimated at up to 87% and the densit>' at the surface was 
again put at about 20 times that on Earth. The combination of 



12 



Mariner 9 spacecraft, weighing 2200 pounds, faces circular fiigli gain 
antenna to camera witli wtiite sliroud at top and rocl<el nozzle protrud- 
ing. Four panels are covered with solar cells that convert sunlight to 
electricity to power spacecraft's systems. 

a week magnetic field that could not deflect lethal solar radiation, 
the elevated surface temperature, and the carbon dioxide in the 
atmosphere suggested a planet extremely hostile to Earth life 
forms. 

The story of man's investigation of Mars with instrumented 
spacecraft begins with Mariner 4 in 1964-1965, which obtained 
the first closeup pictures ever made of another planet. About 1% 
of the surface was photographed from altitudes ranging between 
10,500 and 6,400 miles. 

For the first time, we saw a rugged, uneroded terrain that 
strongly resembled the lunar uplands. Ancient craters in the pho- 
tographs looked much like the impact structures found on the 
Moon. The occulted radio signals showed an extremely tenuous 
atmosphere with a pressure of about 1-2% of ours at sea level 
and a density of 10-20 millibars, compared with Earth's 1,000. 

The remarkably durable Mariner 4 traveled IVi billion miles 
around the Sun for a total of three years and 23 days, operating 
for the equivalent of 26,800 hours before exhausting its attitude 
control gas: a demonstration of long-life reliability in deep space 
without precedent in the history of technology. 

The automated exploration of Mars continued when Mariners 
6 and 7 flew within about 2,100 miles of the surface in 1969, 
providing more extensive photographic coverage and gathering 
other data from which to build a more definitive base for a Mar- 
tian model. 

The 205 photographs of 1969 showed three general types of 
surface areas— heavily cratered, lunar-like terrain; a strangely fea- 



within 860 miles. With resolution of approximately 100 meters, 
objects the size of a football field would be visible. Most impor- 
tant, the orbits were designed so that variable, dynamic changes 
on the planet could be monitored for the first time on a closeup, 
repetitive basis. Specific seasonal surface variations and the wave 
of darkening could be photographed at 17-day intervals at the 
same sites and under comparable lighting conditions. 

The spacecraft were also to carry radiometer and spectrometer 
instruments sensitive in the infrared and ultraviolet spectra. They 
would probe the composition, density, pressure, and temperature 
of the atmosphere, and the composition and structure of the sur- 
face. Occultative distortion of radio signals would yield accurate 
data on the density, pressure, and scale height of the atmosphere. 
Measurement of the spacecraft's motion would provide precise 
information on the size, shape, distance, and celestial geometry 
of Mars. 

Mariner 9 incorporates essentially the 1969 spacecraft design, 
with certain modifications required by the orbital mission. A 300- 
pound-thrust rocket engine uses nitrogen tetroxide and mono- 
methylhydrazine as propellants to brake the vehicle into Martian 
orbit and to perform other flight corrections. The subsystem is 
capable of five trajectory maneuvers, including orbit insertion 
and trim. Mariner's telecommunications subsystem operates at 
S-band, with selectable power of either 10 or 20 watts transmitted 
through a two-position, high-gain antenna. Three-axis attitude 
stabilization provides high-accuracy control for power generation, 
trajectory maneuvers, and radio communication. 

Weighing about 2,270 pounds at launch and 1,370 in Mars 
orbit, Mariner 9 stands 9'/2 feet tall and measures over 22 feet 
across the extended solar panels. The octagonal magnesium 
framework houses the electronic, power, and control equipment. 



^atopies to the planets 



tureless surface in the desert Hellas; and a wildly chaotic zone of 
"slumped" topography unlike anything ever seen on Earth. 

The pictorial evidence was particularly damaging to Lowell's 
canals, which seemed to resolve into chains of dark-floored cra- 
ters and surface cracks. The mysterious "wave of darkening" 
could not be isolated. The atmosphere was described as primarily 
carbon dioxide with scant traces of water vapor and no nitrogen. 
There was, of course, no identifiable evidence of organic life 
forms in the data. The south polar cap displayed spectral char- 
acteristics of frozen carbon dioxide that lay in very thin layers. 

As the decade of the 1960s ended, the picture of Mars had 
been altered considerably from that of Schiaparelli-Lowell and 
other more scientific observations. There was increasing indica- 
tion that Mars was a world of varying topographical structure, 
some of which must have been created by the same processes that 
sculptured the Moon, and some thus far unique in the solar sys- 
tem. The atmophere was too thin to shield the surface from lethal 
solar radiation and there were no traces of liquid water. 

The first three spacecraft flown to Mars had shown us nothing 
whatever to indicate the possible existence of life on the planet. 
At the same time, there was also no reason to doubt that highly 
mutated microorganic life forms might have successfully adapted 
to the harsh Martian environment. 

This model of Mars from the flyby spacecraft missions would 
be extensively modified in the light of data and pictures returned 
from the 1971-72 mission. For the first time, spacecraft were to 
be orbited around the planet for at least 90 days, and 70% of the 
surface was to be photographed from trajectories approaching 

Mariner 9's Jet Propulsion Lab team await telemetered confirmation on 
engine tiring during 15 minute insertion burn that placed spacecraft in 
Mars orbit Nov. 13, 1971. 



Photos by NASA 




13 




Mariner 9 Project Manager Dan Schneiderman (center) analyzes S-band 
occullation data obtained on atmospheric pressures and shape ot Mars. 
Experiment utilizes distortion ot radio waves as they pass through Martian 
atmosphere to provide data. 



1 Sinuous valley on Martian surface photographed by 
Mariner 9 from 1033 miles above surface came on 
spacecraft's 133rd revolution of Red Planet. Valley is 
250 miles long, 3 to SVz miles wide. Resembling giant version 
of earth "arroyo," scientists do not believe enough water 
exists in Martian atmosphere to form rivers. 



2 Hidden from view during dust storm encountered by 
Mariner 9 in early stages of orbital flight around Mars 
is plateau area taken from altitude of 4,000 miles above 
surface. As dust settled, photo revealed craters indicating 
relatively young surface and possibility of volcanic deposits. 
Fault valleys are about IV2 miles across. 



flV Rasena region of Mars contains 435-mile long valley 
^ resembling rilles on Moon, origins of which still remain 
^^ mystery. Martian valleys raise possibility of erosional 
episodes or more abundant water in ancient Martian history. 
Mariner 9 data indicates very little presence of water at 
present time. 



4 Martian crater (top) measures 43 miles across and is 
possibly a volcanic collapse caldera similar to those on 
Earth. Ridges visible in bottom photo are similar to lunar 
ridges. Both photos were enhanced by computer processing 
at J PL. 



'^>J^ 







SWide angle TV view from 1225 miles above i\/lartian 
surface covers 235-mlle area, depicting vast chasm with 
branching canyons eroding adjacent plateau-lands. Fea- 
tures represent type of landform unique to Mars. 



M Like a giant chandelier hanging from Martian equator, 
JM intricate network of canyons appear in photo covering 
C3 area 336 by 264 miles. Photo provides dramatic evi- 
dence of erosional processes at work. 



/Extraordinary pits and hollows never seen before on 
Mars were photographed by Mariner 9's high-resolu- 
tion TV camera from a range of 2027 miles. Features 
pose provocative questions about geologic processes which 
shaped polar region landforms. 



X Martian canyonlands covering area 66 to 84 miles de- 
picts canyon widths of 6 to 12 miles with smooth floors 
and separated by flat surfaced plateaus or mesas. Area 
can be likened to those of Grand Canyon in western U.S. 




Dr. Charles Barth (left) University of Colorado and principle investigator tor 
ultraviolet spectrometer experiment, examines initial atmospheric pressure 
data returned by Mariner 9. 



Sv. 



.^: 





ami 



The scientific instruments are mounted on a movable, two-degree- 
of-freedom scan platform capable of pointing at the surface of 
the planet with an accuracy of one-half degree. 

Mariner is equipped with one wide-angle and one narrow-angle 
camera. A picture requires 41 seconds of exposure, generating a 
series of numbers that vary with light and are converted to ap- 
proximately 5'/2 million bits of digital data for each picture. Over 
5,000 pictures will be transmitted during the mission. The imag- 
ing and other data are formatted and stored in a tape recorder at 
132.2 kilobits per second (kbps) for later transmission when in 
view of the 210-foot Goldstone antenna. Playback is at any one 
of five rates, ranging from 16.2 to 1.015 kbps. Selection is made 
either by the onboard special-purpose computer, or from the 
ground through the flight command subsystem. 

The Mariner Mars 1971 mission was designed around two 
spacecraft launched at about one-month intervals. The dual ve- 
hicles would provide mission redundancy and also permit wider 
latitude in mapping and observing both fixed and variable fea- 
tures. Mariner 8, the first spacecraft, was launched on May 8, 
1971, at Cape Kennedy, but it was lost when the second booster 
stage malfunctioned. 

Mariner 9 lifted-oflf without incident on May 30, 1971. A 
trajectory correction maneuver on June 5 removed the launch 
bias that was designed to ensure that the spacecraft would not 
accidentally impact the planet. The maneuver was so accurate 
that a second correction was cancelled. Mariner arrived in the 
vicinity of Mars on November 13, 1971, having traveled 168 
days and approximately 247 million miles to reach a spot only 
38 miles from the aiming point and within two minutes of the 
desired time. The rocket engine was fired for about 15 minutes 
to place the spacecraft in orbit with a 12.5-hour period of revo- 
lution, an 868-mile periapsis or closest approach, and a 64-degree 



mUes to the east, three other dark craters show, near Ascraeus 
Lacus, Pavonic Lacus, and Nodus Gordii, respectively, from 
north to south. 

These structures seemed to have been formed from caldera- 
like collapse of volcanic craters, a relatively common process on 
Earth. The terraces, ridges, and troughs of these depressions were 
unlike the impact craters found on the Moon and elsewhere on 
Mars. Although there was no indication of current activity, the 
formations apparently are geologically young— perhaps one to 
two billion years old. 

Nix Olympica or the Snows of Olympus is usually mantled 
by a white cloud in telescopic views from Earth. The Mariner 9 
pictures show the peak to have a multiple crater structure about 
40 miles across, with scalloped rims of the type often found in 
terrestrial calderas. In one narrow-angle photograph the slopes 
of the mountain appear to exhibit definite down-flowage of ma- 
terials that must have coalesced and fractured under tension. 

Nodus Gordii (the Gordian Knot) appears as an 80-mile-diame- 
ter concentric caldera with many rimless craters in the vicinity. 
Other evidence of plutonic events are seen in other pictures. A 
region in Phoenicis Lacus shows presumably volcanic deposits 
later broken by fracture processes. This area seems to be relatively 
young since few craters appear. 

The pictures also show canyon areas more spectacular than 
our Grand Canyon, appearing to measure 6 to 12 miles wide 
and as much as IV2 miles deep. Although the canyon floors are 
relatively smooth, heavy erosional sculpturing is apparent. 

For the first time, the pictures have also revealed rilles running 
far across the Martian surface. Although they are rather com- 
mon on the Moon, there is nothing there to compare with the 
1,100-mile-long formation seen in Mars' Mare Sirenum. Another 
mile-wide rille has a shallower crack in its floor. These features 



inclination to the Martian equator. For the first time, an object 
built on Earth had been put into orbit around another planetary 
body. It was expected to remain there for 17 years before decay 
and destruction. 

A 6-second rocket engine burn on November 15, 1971, 
trimmed the orbit to adjust the periapsis and orbital period for 
optimum recording and playback of data. A second trim maneu- 
ver was performed on December 30 to compensate for unantici- 
pated roughness in the Martian gravity, and to raise the periapsis 
from 862 to 1 ,025 miles to allow wider picture coverage because 
of the dust storm. 

As Mariner 9 homed-in on Mars and took a series of far- 
encounter pictures, it had become apparent that the planet was 
obliterated by a dust storm of enormous magnitude. The storm 
had been observed telescopically from Earth. It began during the 
third week of September, covered the entire planet in two weeks, 
and reached a peak about October 20, 1971. It did not subside 
until the second week of January, 1972, although residual fallout 
may last for months. Such storms had long been seen from Earth, 
but nothing of such proportions and duration had ever been 
known. Estimates were that winds of 250 mph velocity would 
be required to cause such a phenomenon in the thin Martian 
atmosphere. 

Despite the dust, intriguing results were obtained almost from 
the start. Spectral data were good and showed unexplained hot 
spots on the surface. A rather extensive water vapor content was 
noted over essentially all of the planet's atmosphere. The south 
polar region— the area least obscured by the dust— showed dramatic 
changes in the cap compared with the 1969 pictures. Strange, 
new moraine-like features were seen in the region of the pole, 
which appeared to be remarkably smooth beneath the cap. 

Just before insertion into orbit on November 13, Mariner 9 
took a group of mosaic frames that, for the first time, revealed 
definite indication of probable volcanic activity on Mars in recent 
geologic times. Four high peaks were seen thrusting their sum- 
mits above the dust. Nix Olympica, the most prominent and one 
of the highest features on Mars, appears at the left. About 65 



are thought to have developed from tensional fracturing of sub- 
surface rocks. 

Another extraordinary picture shows a series of pits and hol- 
lows about 500 miles above the south pole. Two large, closed 
basins measure about 10 miles across and there are numerous 
small pits of one or two mUes diameter. The origin of these 
structures is uncertain: either the deflation action of erosional 
winds operating on loose consolidated materials, or even the 
thawing of large bodies of ground ice or permafrost, with the 
subsequent collapse of the areas. 

Thus, even relatively early in the photographic mission, the 
Mariner 9 pictures have posed an entirely new battery of scien- 
tific questions. The cameras report definite and rather widespread 
erosional and tectonic activity. Mars, therefore, loses its status 
as a dead, fossilized planet, like our moribund Moon. Only the 
absence of a benign atmosphere and surface water might have 
prevented it from developing terrestrial life forms. Indeed, al- 
though no evidence is seen to indicate the presence of life, there 
is also nothing that would absolutely preclude its development in 
some exotic manifestation. 

Mariner 9 also took the first closeup pictures of the satellites 
of another planet: Phobos and Deimos. named for the grooms 
of the war god Mars. Both satellites show the battering of heavy 
impact events, with markedly higher density of cratering than 
on the planet's surface. Their albedo or light reflectivity is among 
the lowest found in the solar system. 

The extremely small gravity of Phobos and Deimos— orbiting 
Mars at 4,000 and 12,000 miles, respectively— prevented their 
development in a spherical shape. Phobos measures 13 by 16 
miles, and Deimos only IVi by 8' '2. Discovered in 1877. they 
are now thought to have either formed from the parental Martian 
mass, or to have been captured from among the thousands of 
rocky objects inhabiting the nearby asteroid belt. 

Although the unparalleled dust storm prevented the immediate 
mapping of the planet, three such cycles were scheduled after 
the subsidence of the storm and the lifting of the orbital periapsis. 
The first mapping cycle was completed on January 21, 1972, and 



16 



covered all longitudes from the south pole to 25° S latitude. The 
second cycle was scheduled from January 22 to February 10, 
covering all longitudes between latitudes 25° S and 25° N. The 
third and final cycle, planned from February 1 1 to April 1, would 
map from 25° N to about 40 to 50° N, also across all longitudes. 

The spacecraft was expected to enter Mars' shadow in rela- 
tion to the Sun for at least 1 Vi hours each day during the period 
April 2 until the end of May. While in the dark, the spacecraft 
systems will operate from battery power, which must then be 
recharged upon emergence into solar light. The principal con- 
cern is over the ability of the panels to withstand the temperature 
excursions. Upon emergence in June, only one to two pounds 
of attitude control gas will be left, necessitating careful planning 
for future operations. Both the spacecraft and the planet will pass 
behind the Sun, in relation to Earth, in September 1972. 

We know that automated spacecraft cannot conclusively dem- 
onstrate the existence of life forms on Mars without making a 
survivable landing with suitable detection instruments. Such a 
mission is planned for 1975-1976, when two Viking spacecraft 
will make the first U.S. attempt to soft-land on the surface. Each 
spacecraft will orbit Mars, measuring the composition of the 
atmosphere, topographically mapping the surface, and surveying 
candidate sites for landing its companion vehicle. The landed 
instruments will seek evidence of bacterial or other organic life 
forms; measure the atmospheric temperature, pressure, density, 
and humidity; monitor surface properties; and search for traces 
of water. 

Since there are no current U.S. plans to land men on Mars 
during the 1970s or 1980s, Viking is likely to be our best means 
for seeking extraterrestrial life on the near planets in this century. 
Its discovery on another body in our solar system, even in micro- 
organic form, would be one of the most profoundly significant 



events in all of human history. 

An instrumented spacecraft is scheduled to fly the first gravity- 
assist mission in 1973, when it utilizes a velocity increment from 
the field of Venus to accelerate it on, to Mercury. This mission 
will photograph the clouds of Venus and give us the first flyby 
reconnaissance of the Sun's closest planet. 

Plans are also now underway to launch gravity-accelerated 
missions to the outer planets later in this decade. Whatever we 
find on Mars, we can never fully understand the origin and de- 
velopment of the solar system and of life until we investigate the 
low-density, fast-rotating, highly radiant giants that orbit the 
Sun out at the edge of intra-galactic space. -^S^ 



Viking Orbiter and encapsulated Lander are designed to launch into 
Mars journey in 1975. Teledyne Ryan is designing and will produce 
landing radar and altimeter sensing systems for Lander. 



iV*S$*5S«:''»- 



M'^K 
















■A.'^:= 




reporler 




wm 



n 



In this exclusive interview with 
J. R. "Dick" Iverson, Vice 
President, Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical, Electronic and 
Space Systems, and A. J. 
Kullas, Vice President, Martin 
Marietta, Denver Division, 
REPORTER magazine explores 
philosophy, policy and 
technological approaches to 
Viking 75. 



J. R. Iverson 



18 




How would you assess the current level 
of interest In the exploration of Mars, par- 
ticularly in the light of the findings of 
Mariner 9 and the Soviet's Mars 2 and 3 
missions? 



KULLAS: Our history of thought about 
Mars seems to be a long sequence of 
setting aside old theories and expecta- 
tions and replacing them with new ones. 
First were the theories of the so-called 
canals discovered by Schiaparelli in 1877 
and given vivid explanation by Lowell as 
possibly constructions of a super-race 
desperately trying to conserve its water 
supply. The returns from the early Mar- 
iner spacecraft dispelled these hypoth- 
eses and pointed more toward the idea 
of Mars as a young evolving planet. Now, 
with the pictures from the Mariner 9 Or- 
biter suggesting volcanism, chemical dif- 
ferentiation and perhaps even remains of 
ancient river systems, we may be in the 
midst of another turnaround. These latest 
Earth-like characteristics have height- 
ened interest in Mars as a place to learn 
more aoout the processes that shaped 
and are at work on the Earth. As the data 
from the current Mariner 9 and Soviet 
missions are analyzed and interpreted, I 
expect to see the emergence of more ex- 
citing and challenging questions about 
Mars that will turn up the gain on the 
popular and scientific interest in the 
planet. 

IVERSON: I certainly agree with Mr. 
Kullas that the Mariner 9 photographs, 
once the dust cleared, have opened up a 
whole new vista in our appraisal of Mars. 
If you compare the photograph of San 
Diego from Apollo 8 at 80 miles with the 
pictures from the Mars orbiter, except for 
the ocean and San Diego Bay, the gross 
features are very similar. From the San 
Diego photograph one could not conclude 
whether there had been or was life in San 
Diego. 



The principal aim of the Viking '75 mis- 
sion has been identififed as the search 
for life. With what we've learned from 
spacecraft missions to date, do you think 
there is a reasonable chance of finding 
life forms? 



KULLAS: The hopes of the life scientists 
for finding life on Mars were in fact 
dimmed by the data from Mariners 6 and 
7 in 1969. Those data showed the planet 
as extremely dry, barren, and lacking in 
many of the atmospheric chemical forms 
that we associate with the support of life. 
But Mariner 9 has begun to unfold an- 
other story. And maybe we should remind 
ourselves at this point that our Viking ob- 
jective is to search for evidence of life 




both present and past. Now, with that in 
mind, wouldn't some of the Mariner 9 
suggestions of Earth-like volcanic and 
maybe water erosion processes make one 
wonder if perhaps life might have flour- 
ished on Mars in the past and left fossil 
forms or even hearty species of life that 
have adapted to the deteriorating condi- 
tions? To me, even the slightest possibil- 
ity of examining the "end-game" of an 
ecological system stimulates compelling 
interest. 

Would you explain a bit about the Viking 
'75 mission and how it will fit into the 
larger picture of Mars exploration? 



KULLAS: The Viking '75 mission is being 
designed as a logical step beyond the 
orbiting mission of Mariner9 and will take 
advantage of the information about the 
Mars surface and atmosphere obtained 
by that spacecraft. Two Viking space- 
craft, each consisting of a Lander and an 
Orbiter will be launched in August to Sep- 
tember of 1975 and will arrive in Mars 
orbit some 11 months later. Tentative 
landing sites will have been selected be- 
fore the mission starts but instruments 
on board the orbiters will be able to look 
for better ones. In fact, the spacecraft 
arrival can be separated such that the 
first Orbiter and Lander can feed back 
information on Mars that will help select 
the landing strategy for the second space- 
craft. The entry into the atmosphere and 
the descent to the surface is one of the 
major engineering challenges of the Vi- 
king mission. After almost a year in the 
cold of space the Lander capsule must 
endure the searing heat of entry and then 
descend through an unknown atmosphere 
to a soft landing on an unknown surface. 



A. J. Kullas 



While NASA has not yet firmed up 
plans for Mars exploration missions be- 
yond Viking '75, a number of follow-on 
concepts are being studied. They include 
geological exploration missions using 
Landers and Rovers, companion missions 
to explore the moons of Mars, Phobos and 
Deimos, and eventually missions to re- 
turn samples of Mars and its moons back 
to Earth for detailed analysis. All of these 
missions would use hardware designs and 
technical experience developed in the 
Viking '75 Project. Beyond this Viking 
family of unmanned missions to Mars lies 
manned exploration of the planet. While 
manned missions to Mars have been stud- 
ied and even suggested as the next large 
national commitment in space after 
Apollo, they have now apparently been 
postponed to the late 1980s or after. 

IVERSON: From the viewpoint of Teledyne 
Ryan, we provide the major guidance in- 
formation during the landing phase. The 
Terminal Descent Landing Radar and the 
Radar Altimeter generate signals that are 
used to guide the spacecraft through re- 
entry, parachute descent and retro-rocket 
soft landing. These systems are crucial 
to mission success and both equipments 
have redundancy features. If exploration 
of the Moon by the U.S. and Russia serves 
as a guide, we would expect to see semi- 
hard landings, soft landings of unmanned 
spacecraft like Viking, soft landings of 
unmanned spacecraft including a roving 
vehicle, and eventually manned landings 
on Mars. The exploration of Mars will take 
a significantly longer time than was re- 
quired for the Moon because of the prob- 
lems of greater distance and the un- 
knowns. 

The radar altimeter and the terminal de- 
scent and landing radar being developed 
here at Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical will 
play critically important roles in this part 
of the mission. After landing, a 90-day 
science mission will commence during 
which photographic, life detection, or- 
ganic analysis, meteorologic, and seis- 
mologic investigations will be carried out. 



19 



Mr. Iverson, you led the team for Teledyne 
Ryan that designed and produced the 
Surveyor soft-landing system. What new 
approaches will be involved in Viking's 
system, in contrast with Surveyor? 



IVERSON: The Viking Terminal Descent 
Landing Radar has evolved from the 
Apollo Landing Radar and the Surveyor 
soft landing system. The contrast be- 
tween Surveyor and Viking radars is dra- 
matic. The Surveyor antennas were split 
parabolic reflectors constructed of very 
fine honeycomb. The Viking antenna is 
a flat plate, multi-beam array constructed 
of machined aluminum and dip brazed. 
The Surveyor transmitter was a two-cavity 
klystron requiring a 2800 volt power sup- 
ply. The Viking employs four frequency 
independent transmitters (one for each 
beam), using an impatt diode; the impatt 
diode generates 13.3 GHz with only an 
85 volt DC input. Most significantly, the 
MTBF of the impatt is much, much 
greater than the klystron. 

Perhaps one of the most significant dif- 
ferences in the Surveyor and the Viking 
is that each beam of the Viking operates 
as an independent radar. Four beams, any 
three of which provide an adequate solu- 
tion, gives us redundancy. 

An interesting point, the Surveyor 
radar had to operate for only five minutes 
after the three-day trip of Surveyor to the 
Moon. Likewise, Viking must operate for 
five minutes, but after a year's trip to 
Mars. The reliability requirements on 
Viking are much more stringent. The 
Viking radar must be subjected to heat 
sterilization so that we do not put micro- 
organisms on Mars. This stresses mate- 
rials and electronic parts which was not 
the case on Surveyor. 




20 



- ^c^ 





You gentlemen represent the technical 
and management resources that will be 
applied to the Viking project. What are 
your feelings at this time about your 
chances for success? 



KULLAS: I see our Viking challenge as the 
most difficult ever attempted in this na- 
tion's space program history. Three 
things combine to make this so: one, Vi- 
king is the most sophisticated unmanned 
mission conceived to date; two, our 
schedule is inflexible, we must launch 
within a single 30-day period in 1975; 
and, three, today's economic situation 
dictates that no space program can be 
expected to survive that does not remain 
within its cost budgets. In spite of the 
magnitude of this challenge, I am con- 
vinced that we can and will succeed. This 
conviction is based on my confidence in 
the people who make up the Viking team. 
They are the cream of the Aerospace in- 
dustry. And the Aerospace industry, in 
spite of the criticism and abuse it has 
received from some quarters, is made up 
of proud and dedicated people who have 
demonstrated over and over again that 
they can accept and meet the stiffest 
challenges. 

IVERSON: I agree that the Viking is the 
most difficult space program faced by 
this country. To me the most difficult part 
is the inflexible launch date. The previous 
lunar programs, Surveyor and Apollo, 
were both delayed several times since 
there were no fixed launch date. 



What common philosophies are shared 
by Teledyne Ryan and Martin Marietta as 
a team assigned to the Viking program? 



KULLAS: Of course we have the common 
obligation to our respective stock holders 
to return reasonable profits and build rep 
utations for good performance that wil 
enhance the chances for future business 
Above and beyond that we share a com 
mon eagerness, as organizations and in 
dividuals, to grasp this opportunity to 
contribute to man's scientific progress 
and to do our parts well. That may sound 
high flown to some but men and women 
who have seen their work contribute di- 
rectly to a successful and historic first 



will be able to feel the real reward that 
it brings. 

In approaching our every day tasks, I 
hope we share common philosophies that 
emphasize what are, in my mind, the 
three imperatives for success in develop- 
ment programs of this type. I'm referring 
to the discipline and vigilance that en- 
sures that we will: 1) anticipate; 2) exe- 
cute; and 3) verify. 

We must anticipate requirements and 
problems; we must execute our assigned 
tasks to meet those requirements, and 
avoid the problems with the minimum ex- 
penditure of resources; and then we must 
verify, through checking, test, and in- 
spection, right up through the last pos- 
sible opportunity, that we have done all 
we can to assure mission success. 

IVERSON: Teledyne Ryan and Martin 
Marietta have worked very well as a team 
since the initial contract award in April, 
1970. This good relationship established 
between Teledyne Ryan as a sub and Mar- 
tin Marietta as a prime, is recognized by 
both parties as essential to the success 
of this program. The fixed launch date 
of Viking does not permit the program 
schedule delays that were encountered on 
Surveyor and Apollo; we know our equip- 
ment will be there. One important com- 
mon philosophy essential for success of 
the Viking program is the testing ap- 
proach. Early testing of the Preliminary 
Development Unit and then the Design 
Verification Unit, and, finally the Qualifi- 
cation Unit, will eliminate defects early 
in the developmental cycle. 

The key to successful space programs 
at Teledyne Ryan is a highly dedicated 
team of engineers, manufacturing, qual- 
ity assurance and management person- 
nel. We have an excellent team of people 
on this project, headed by Vic Andreone, 
Bruce Clapp and John Heising. 



21 



How many people between your two com- 
panies will be directly associated with the 
Viking Project as it moves toward the 
1975 launch? 



KULLAS: At our Denver Division, Martin 
Marietta now has 1300 people directly 
associated witli Viking. Thiis number will 
peal<at 1600 in August 1972. 

IVERSON: At Teledyne Ryan Electronic 
and Space Systems we are currently in 
the design phase and have approximately 
105 people directly associated with the 
program. As we move into qualification 
and manufacturing we should peak at 
around 130. 

Critics of the space program have argued 
that the money spent for space could be 
more beneficially allocated instead to the 
support of public and social works. What 
are your views on this Issue? 



KULLAS: The cost of the space program 
is often not seen in proper perspective. 
NASA's budget request for the coming 
year is something over $3 billion, $3.38 
billion to be more exact. Of that amount, 
$321 million is allocated to unmanned 
planetary exploration including Viking. 
These sound like, and are, large sums. 
But taken in a larger view, in context with 
a total federal budget of $246 billion, of 
which welfare and related social support 
expenditures will approach $100 billion, 
the amounts don't loom so large. One iso- 
lated example of planned federal expendi- 
tures, support for agricultural and rural 
assistance, are $6.9 billion. The question 
then might be asked if sustaining our 
capability to grow cattle feed is worth 
$2.4 billion, is sustaining our capabili- 
ties in the science and technology that 
are advancing's man's frontier of knowl- 
edge worth $3.4 billion? I think our na- 
tion can and should afford the kind of 
work on the frontiers that the NASA 
budget represents. Nations, like men, 
don't live by bread alone. 



IVERSON: I believe that money should be 
spent on social and public works; how- 
ever, I believe that the money should be 
spent on projects rather than direct wel- 
fare. Spending on a project causes the 
dollars to be used over and over again, 
whereas a welfare check is spent for 
food only. In addition to space projects, 
I support large social and public pro- 
grams such as waste management, urban 
renewal, etc. However, in addition to 
these social and public projects, it is 
essential that we have a strong space ef- 
fort. Without maintaining our lead in 
space one day we may find ourselves 
in a less than secondary position in 
science and technology. The technology 
derived from the NASA expenditures to 
date has helped this country maintain 
its leadership position. Direct fallout into 
military and civil programs are sometimes 
difficult to measure. However, the com- 
munication satellites are an excellent ex- 
ample of fallout. I believe we will see a 
renewal in public support for space pro- 
jects in the next several years. 

Supporters of the space program have 
also pointed to the fall out or spin off of 
space technology that have enriched life 
here on Earth. Can we anticipate divi- 
dends of this sort from the Viking Project? 

KULLAS: It's difficult to anticipate these 
things in advance. But I'm certain that 
the solutions to the design problem we 
are working out on Viking will have appli- 
cation to other design problems and that 
the approaches we are taking to assuring 
a failure-free mission will contribute to 
the reliability and useable life times of 
many products. Some specific contribu- 
tions that I might predict we could make 
are: electronic circuits and precise 
mechanisms capable of surviving and 
operating in high temperature environ- 
ments; light-weight ablative heat protec- 
tion materials for hypersonic vehicles; 
improved parachutes; improved batteries; 
improved high reliability, light-weight 
computers; advanced scientific instru- 
ments (mass spectrometers, gas chro- 




22 




matographs, facsimile cameras) and, of 
course, improved radar altimetry and 
multibeam Doppier radar systems. 

IVERSON: Teledyne Ryan lias a unique 
product line wherein the space programs 
have benefited from military programs 
and military programs, likewise, benefited 
from the space activity. For example, the 
Surveyor radar was a direct derivation of 
the APN-130 Doppier radar used in the 
Navy anti-submarine helicopter. The Sur- 
veyor radar advanced circuitry design to 
the point that a new military Doppier 
radar, the APN-182, was possible. Like- 
wise, the APN-193 contributed to the de- 
sign of the Apollo Landing Radar. This 
then led to the most modern Doppier 
radar, the APN-200, which is used on the 
Navy S-3A aircraft. Advances made on 
the APN-200 made the Viking multi-beam 
Doppier radar practical, and, incidentally, 
a new Navy helicopter radar modeled 
after the Viking Terminal Descent Land- 
ing Radar has already been delivered to 
the Navy. The Viking Altimeter should 
have fallout in other space programs 
where orbital altimeters are required, as 
well as in high altitude military aircraft. 



23 




A new course hos been chorted for Novy ASW ond Missile Detection 



BY JACK BROWARD AND BOB SPRINGER 
PHOTOS BY BOB WILSON AND ED WOJCIECHOWSKI 



24 



ABOARD THE USS HAROLD E. HOLT: Twenty ships each 
year of this destroyer-escort class will be phased into Light 
Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) operational sta- 
tus through 1977 under a program designed to help offset 
the threat of growing Soviet naval presence throughout the 
world. 

The subject for broad criticism when placed in commis- 
sion a year ago, the Holt and her Knox-class sister ships are 
single-shaft powered and were designed for mission- 
oriented applications that narrowly limited their operational 
capabilities. 

The qualities that served as a source for criticism are 
viewed today as those which make these DEs an "ideal 
LAMPS platform," according to program officials. 

Two of its assets— an ability to steam well over 4,000 miles 
without refueling and a fin-stabilized system which adds sig- 
nificant degrees of stability for helicopter operations— were 
pointed out by Commander Charles W. Cullen. 

Skipper of the Holt since early 1972, he termed his year- 
old command, "a national treasure" and called her 'long 
legs' an ideal quality matched to LAMPS missions. 

During certification ceremonies March 2, 1972 at the U. S. 
Naval Station, San Diego, Rear Admiral S. H. Kinney, Com- 
mander of Pacific Fleet cruisers and destroyers, called the 
event a "nautical milestone in naval history." 

Much of the feasibility and developmental testing leading 
to the Holt's certification had been provided by the USS 
Fox and USS Sterrett, guided missile destroyers modified 
for LAMPS operations. Parallel developmental ships in the 
Atlantic Fleet have also been engaged over the past year 
in LAMPS configurations. 

Meanwhile, antisubmarine helicopter units based at Im- 
perial Beach Naval Air Station introduced LAMPS training 
programs based around the Kaman SH-2D Seasprite, desig- 
nated last year as the LAMPS helicopter. 

Under Commander George T. Crowell, current skipper of 
newly redesignated Helicopter Antisubmarine Squadron 
Light-Thirty One, LAMPS detachments have been embarked 
for developmental roles aboard non-aviation type ships 
since April 1970. 



USS Harold E. Holt, at left, is first of "Knox" class destroyer escorts to be 
certified for LAMPS operations, and will be followed by nearly 100 otiiers 
designated for Atlantic and Pacific Fleet operations. Modified guided mis- 
sile destroyer USS Sterrett (above right) is in operational deployment with 
U.S. Seventh Fleet as a LAMPS surface unit. Detachment One of Helicopter 
Antisubmarine Squadron Light 31 is embarked in USS Sterrett. Presiding 
at certification ceremony for USS Holt in San Diego in February, Navy's 
LAMPS project officer. Captain Spencer E. Robbins, addresses crew with 
Commander Charles W. Cullen, skipper of Holt in background. 



(U. S. NAVY PHOTO) 





forces. Feasibility testing is completed. Now the word is possed. 

LAMPS On Station 



25 




The USS Holt's certification as a LAMPS ship was accom- 
panied by the embarl<ation of a permanently assigned de- 
tachment. 

Noting that the LAMPS program is an "evolutionary con- 
cept," Commander Crowell said that continuing evaluations 
within the squadron will be made, directed both at the follow- 
on LAMPS helicopter and its weapons and sensor systems. 

Modified and equipped with sophisticated electronic 
sensors, navigation and communications systems, the Sea- 
sprites possess a "kill" capability in addition to their "over- 
the-horizon" detection qualities. Rated for day-night, all- 
weather operations, the aircraft is equipped with Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical Doppler Radar Navigation Systems, des- 
ignated the AN/APN-182. 

These systems provide precise navigational data plus au- 
tomatic transition and hands-off hover capabilities, opera- 
tional features which are essential in LAMPS' dual mission 
of antisubmarine warfare and anti-ship missile detection and 
defense. 

Teledyne Ryan's association with Navy ASW helicopter 
units began nearly two decades ago with the manufacture 
of AN/APN-97 and 130 Doppler Radar Navigation Systems. 
These were replaced by the AN/APN-182 system which is 
currently used by all Navy ASW helicopters. 

The squadron's LAMPS officer, Lieutenant Commander 
LaRon Stoi<er, said pilot preparation for LAMPS missions 
includes 22 weeks of intense training that includes systems 
orientation as well as tactical flight training. 




26 



HSL-31's LAMPS Detachments Three and Four are cur- 
rently engaged in these training programs, conducting op- 
erations with the destroyers USS Shields and Truxton at sea. 

LAMPS Helicopter Detachment Two, under Lieutenant 
Dennis Christian, is assigned to the Holt with its four officer, 
14 man crew. Discussing his transition to ship-board life, 
LT Christian noted that his unit was in the process of de- 
veloping modifications to the helicopter maintenance 
operations areas. 

"We're quite excited with this new assignment and like 
the rest of the Holt crew, we're also into a refresher training 
cycle that can help weld us into the ship's capabilities. The 
knowledge that we're first on the DE-1052 class, and that 
much of what we do and how we do it is helping develop 
a LAMPS 'bible' for others is adding another measure of 
importance to the assignment," he said. 

Within the weeks to come, LT Christian's team must de- 
velop a capability to be "flight-ready" within minutes of an 
alert. All systems and sub-systems must be pre-flight 
checked and flight performance of the helicopter assured. 



Undergoing refresher training at San Diego prior to deployment to Western 
Pacific, USS Holt integrates LAMPS into operational capabilities. From 
upper left, crewman mans ship's fire control mount. RADI\/l S. H. Kinney, 
Commander of Pacific Fleet cruisers-destroyers, explains role of LAlVtPS 
in support of fleet operations to San Diego newsmen. Helicopter Detach- 
ment Two aboard Holt takes a breather between refresher operations and 
crewmen debrief following flight. In photo below right, crewman hoses 
engine with fresh water following flight operations to wash away salt water. 




27 



In a combat environment, the Holt will serve as the plat- 
form from which the Seasprite must launch its ASW and 
missile detection operations. 

Ideally, LAMPS ships such as the Holt, would operate in 
multiples. Depending on the mission, however, the ship and 
its aviation detachment must be prepared to exercise its 
capabilities independently. 

Already posed as a major threat are Soviet "Charley" 
class submarines which can launch anti-ship missiles while 
submerged. Detection, identification and reaction to this 
threat commands the highest order of priorities for ships 
and aviation units of the Holt class. 

Commander Cullen believes his ship can perform this mis- 
sion. His views of the USS Holt as a "national treasure" are 
directed more to the nation's investment of more than $18,- 
000,000 than the military values she may someday serve. 

In terms that describe both of these objectives, the USS 
Holt and her sister ships to follow represent "crown jewels" 
for the Navy. ^^ 



Pilots of LAMPS Detachment Two aboard USS Holt (at right) are helping 
integrate new system into Navy's capabilities. From left to right below, the 
scene of LAMPS shipboard operations is depicted as crew are given pre- 
flight briefing, final pre-flight checks are conducted on Seasprite LAMPS 
helicopter and Lieutenant (jg) Michael Skahan controls recovery of heli- 
copter on fantail pad ol Holt following mission. 




28 




29 



mmm 



iiilJHHHHHHilHIiaH^ 



DESTINATION: 








"Orion" will be guided to its lunar soft 
landing by Teledyne Ryan's landing 
radar system. 



M 



ankind's first attempt to set foot in 
the true lunar highlands is scheduled to 
begin April 16 with the launching of 
Apollo 16 froin Cape Kennedy. Four 
days and more than a quarter-million 
miles later, Astronauts John W. Young 
and Charles M. Duke Jr., will be pilot- 
ing their lunar module "Orion" to a 
landing site in what scientists believe is 
the oldest region on the moon. 

Described as a more "forgiving" 
landing site than that of Apollo 15, Na- 
tional Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration (NASA) officials nevertheless 
feel there will be no less challenge in 
touching down at the planned point: an 
upland plain in the Descartes region of 
the southern highlands. 

About nine degrees south and 16 
degrees east of the center of the moon 
as viewed from earth, the relative lack 
of surface features is expected to pose 
some problems for the astronauts in vis- 
ually identifying the selected landing 
site. At the same time, landing on the 
relatively smooth Cayley Plains— the 
targeted landing site about midway be- 
tween two bright rayed craters (North 
Ray and South Ray)— doesn't have to be 
right on target. Captain Chester M. Lee, 
Apollo mission director, has said, "Any- 
place is good. They don't have to land 
right on the dot." 

Despite the degree of latitude con- 
cerning the actual point of touchdown, 
the landing sequence and trajectory 
events remain critical: all systems must 
be "on the mark." 

As on each of the four earlier 
manned Apollo moon missions, Tele- 
dyne Ryan Aeronautical's lunar mod- 
ule landing radar will provide velocity 
and altitude measurements which make 
a soft touchdown possible. During the 
powered descent from lunar orbit, the 



Prime crewmen for the Apollo 16 mission 
are astronauts (Irom lett) Ttiomas K. Mat- 
tingly II, command module pilot; l\/tission 
Commander John W. Young; and Charles M. 
Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot. As tirst used 
during the Apollo 15 mission (upper right). 
Young and Duke also will use a lunar roving 
vehicle to extend their geological explora- 
tions in the southern highlands of the moon. 




b«# , .. fc V. * ma ill* I' ^«»v»^^- 'v-A. 



landing radar will measure Orion's alti- 
tude, forward velocity, lateral velocity, 
and rate of descent relative to the 
moon's surface. 

Nominally planned to begin updating 
Orion's guidance computer at an alti- 
tude of 42,220 feet, during the Apollo 
1 5 mission lunar module Falcon's land- 



ing radar actually "locked-on" the 
moon's surface at a maximum slant 
range of 50,325 feet. 

While mission commander Young 
and lunar module pilot Duke are ex- 
ploring the lunar surface, command 
module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II 
will be performing scientific experi- 



31 




ments while orbiting the moon in the 
command ship "Casper." 

During their stay on the lunar surface 
—planned for 73 hours— Young and 
Duke will make three traverses in the 
Lunar Rover to nearby geological fea- 
tures, where they will collect and docu- 
ment samples of rocks and soil to 
complement data gathered from earlier 
Apollo missions. 

Young has indicated the mission may 
uncover knowledge mankind some day 
may need to survive on the earth. The 
known mineral resources of earth even- 
tually are going to run out, he noted, and 
man must develop new methods of find- 
ing resources. 

Additionally, Young and Duke will 
set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experi- 
ments Package (ALSEP) which in- 
cludes two new scientific experiments. 
These include a cosmic ray detector, 
which will be returned to earth after 
the third extravehicular activity, and a 
far ultraviolet experiment designed to 
measure, among other things, the earth's 
magnetosphere. 

In this— the next to last scheduled 
lunar landing mission, and second in the 
series of three science-oriented Apollo 
flights— Duke will photographically re- 
cord Young driving the lunar rover at 
high speed. Planned to gather data for 
the design of future lunar rovers, Young 
will drive the vehicle as fast as possible 
in the scheduled eight-minute test. 



48 12^ 



Scientific experiments in the com- 
mand-service modules will be con- 
ducted by Mattingly during much of 
the lunar orbital flight, and include two 
new experiments: microbial response in 
space environment; and "biostack."The 
first will help to determine the safety of 
storing Skylab space suits for long 
periods of time in orbit between visits 
by astronauts. NASA expects living 
microscopic particles to cling to the 
suits even after extravehicular activity, 
and wants to know whether or not they 
will be harmful to humans after storage. 
The experiment involves exposing 
fungi, viruses and bacteria to space en- 
vironment for 10 minutes, returning 
them to earth and studying them for any 
changes. 

The "biostack" experiment will ex- 
pose a "stack" of living things — bac- 
teria, seeds and shrimp eggs — during 
the trip to and from the moon to de- 
termine the biologic effects of cosmic 
radiation. 

Apollo 16 crewmembers also will 
conduct experiments to study the origin 
of the flashes of light astronauts have 
seen in the darkened command module. 
This "Alfmed" test requires one crew- 
member to wear a hood-like arrange- 
ment fitted with sensitized plates, which 
is designed to record the tracks of the 
high-speed particles. The other two 
crewmembers, although not wearing the 
gear, also will attempt to observe the 



flashes at the same time. 

During the return trip from the 
moon, Mattingly will maneuver outside 
the Apollo spacecraft to retrieve films 
from the service module experiment 
bay. 

Young, a Navy captain, will be mak- 
ing his fourth space flight. He has flown 
on Geminis 3 and 10 and Apollo 10. 

Apollo 16 will mark Navy Lieuten- 
ant Commander Mattingly's first space 
flight. He was replaced as the prime 
command module pilot on Apollo 13 a 
few days before launch after being e.x- 
posed to the German measles. 

Duke, an Air Force lieutenant colo- 
nel, also will be making his first space 
flight. He was backup lunar module 
pilot for ApoHo 13. 

The rocks and soil specimens sched- 
uled to be brought back to earth April 
28 by the Apollo 1 6 astronauts will be 
the first ever collected in the ancient, 
lunar highlands. Along with those al- 
ready collected in the mare areas and 
near-highlands, they may increase 
man's knowledge of the early history 
of the moon, and provide new facts 
concerning the history of earth and its 
solar system. '^fi^ 



32 



rieet Composite Squadron-Three is 
the familiar site these days for opera- 
tional activity surrounding Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical's Supersonic Fire- 
bee II. 
The first to receive operational ver- 



sions, following Naval Missile Center 
at Pt. Mugu, VC-3 ground crewmen 
completed intense course of squadron 
level training March 16, conducted by 
Teledyne Ryan instructors. 

Crewmen are installing flight sys- 
tem boxes in fuselage while another 
group in background complete sys- 



tems checks on console. Squadron is 
Navy's only unit to air-launch BQM- 

34E Supersonic Firebee II from DC- 
130 aircraft. First operational flight by 
Firebee II in Atlantic Fleet was con- 
ducted March 29, on Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range. Flight was termed 
"perfect" by Range Commander. 




Please send address changes to: 

TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



53316S 

J,, E. BLACK 

5672 LARAMIE A'AY 

SAN DIEGOi,, CilLLF. 92120 



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PAID 

San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No. 437 




Supersonic MIQ-23 




Supersonic BQM-34E/F-Newest U.S. jet target 



There are 2 ways to prove you're as good 

as you think you are. 

FBEBEn 



"^^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92112 



''''>/'\i'>mW'jx 




25TH ANNIVERSARY^UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 




Navy DC-1 30 "Hercules" modified for air-launc>i operations is a Icey 

eiement in capabiiities offered by Fleet Composite Squadron-Three. 

With brace of two standard Firebees and two Supersonic Firebees at 

its wing pylons, DC-1 30 has more than doubled air-launch capabilities 

of San Diego based target squadron. 




Volume 33, Number 2 
Summer 1972 



•?^"^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



REPORTER Notes 

Evidence is mounting in this 25th anniversary 
year of the U.S. Air Force that the nation's 
junior service is in hot pursuit of a "new look," 
one that is tuned to the 1980s and beyond. 

The vehicle for this transition is the same 
qualities of human endeavorthat characterizes 
the Air Force's first quarter-century of service; 
the kind of qualities to be exemplified in this 
year's upcoming William Tell Weapons Meet 
at Tyndall AFB (Sept. 18-29). 

Aerospace Defense Command's top-rated 
fighter-interceptor teams — each selected from 
preliminary competitions — will help raise the 
curtain for public inspection of the "new look." 
The aerial arena in which an air combat envi- 
ronment is to be created will be charged with 
demands for selective decisions, flexible 
responses and instant evaluations. 

No less will be the demands for these qual- 
ities as the Air Force F-15 "Eagle" sets the 
age of air-superiority in motion. Momentum 
has already been generated through early 
flight test results at Edwards Air Force Flight 
Test Center, site of the "Eagle's" developmen- 
tal flight test program. 

The 1980-age Air Force may call up its cadre 
of Remotely Piloted Vehicles when odds are 
stacked against success of a manned mission. 
First strike sorties and "hot" recce missions 
have already been identified as areas of 
immediate application for RPV's. 

From the infancy days of the Air Force, when 
fledgling flyers earned their wings in Ryan 
trainers on through to the new threshhold of 
Remotely Piloted Vehicles, Teledyne Ryan has 
been at the Air Force's side. 

Today, our family of Firebee aerial target sys- 
tems is matching strides with Air Force 
advances, providing vehicles that train, test 
and help maintain air combat skills. 

Supersonic Firebee II (BQM-34F) is cast in 
a primary support role for weapons systems 
development of the "Eagle." 

When the final Apollo mission is concluded 
this year, Teledyne Ryan can look back with 
justifiable pride on having designed and built 
landing radar systems used by the moon- 
landing teams which included Air Force mem- 
bers. 

That's pretty much what this special an- 
niversary tribute to the Air Force is all about. 
For Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, it's like being 
one of the family. 



Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward / Editor 

Robert R. Springer / Associate Editor 

Ed Wojciechowski, David A. Gossett 

Staff Pfiotographers 

Linda Slacum / Art Design 




.^ 



Blow Out the Candles Page 2 

ADC's crack fighter-Interceptor teams are combining 

their shouting with shooting as William Tell Weapons 

Meet 1972 gets underway at Tyndall AFB. 



An Outline of Air Force Views on RPV Potentials. . . Page 8 

Under Secretary John L. McLucas of the Air Force 

offers his Intrepretatlons of how Remotely 

Piloted Vehicles fit Into the future of the Air Force. 



"Fifty-Thousand Feet and Descending" Page 14 

The "magic fingers" of Teledyne Ryan's landing 

radar system helped guide Apollo 16 to a gentle landing 

on the moon, a performance that matched all 

requirements and then some. 



Nitty-Gritty of Targeteering Page 16 

More than just another tour of targets duty. 

Fleet Composite Squadron-Three offers a compelling 

attraction for Navymen who specialize In 

remotely-controlled flying. 



Air Superiority Page 22 

REPORTER takes a look at the F-15 "Eagle", the 

Air Force's first "Air Superiority" fighter designed and 

built In more than 20 years. 



MARS* Page 28 

Air Force versions of Supersonic Firebee II "graduate" 

Into final phases of testing by successfully 

demonstrating the Mid-Air Retrieval System. 



Electronic Support Page 30 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautlcal's Electronic and Space 

Systems Impact Is felt around the globe and 

deep into space through the service-support talents 

of a specialized team. 



Happiness is Bagging a Firebee II Page 32 

Two of the Navy's happiest Navy flyers explain why. 



About the cover: BGM-34A Remotely Piloted Vehicle 

with Maverick missile on wing pylon of Air Force DC-130E 

launch aircraft. The RPV is one of a family of RPVs 

produced by Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, 





On the occasion of the U. S. Air Force's 25th anniversary, Aerospace Defense Command's hotte 

UtJGW OUT THE 




By Jack G. Broward 



Anxieties have been mounting now 
for nearly a year. Aerospace Defense 
Command's fighter-interceptor 
teams, faced with qualifying for com- 
petition in this year's William Tell 
Weapons Meet, have supplied that 
extra measure of quality to each 
effort. 

Now, the time has come. Seven of 
ADC's top-rated squadrons plus four 
Air National Guard and Canadian 
Forces Air Defence Command units 
will "pull the chocks" on this year's 
"big shoot" starting September 18 at 
Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida. 

In the ensuing ten days no task 
associated with air defense warfare, 
from enemy detection to intercept, 
will go unchecked. Aircraft mainte- 
nance, weapons loading, ground 
intercept controllers on through to 
aircrew skills, all the vital elements 
of ADC's "team concept" come 
together. 

Teams competing in a William Tell 
Weapons Meet are the elite of Aeros- 
pace Defense Command. And they 
know it. Their arrival at Tyndall 
charges the hot, humid air in the sum- 
mer months with excitement. There 
isthesmooth click of professionalism 
displayed by William Tell teams. They 
wear colorful uniforms boasting 
squadron insignias. Every action in 
which they engage during the 
Weapons Meet is a "team action." 

There is a spirit all its own that pre- 
vails as William Tell unfolds, a feeling 
that broadcasts the day's events in 
bulletin style. 

For these ten days, Tyndall Air 
Force Base is the world's stage; com- 
peting teams its players. 

While the events are much like play- 
acting, the game itself is deadly seri- 
ous. Inthewordsof ADC'sCommand- 
ing General, Thomas K. McGehee, 
William Tell is the "acid test" for 
those engaged in the critical profes- 
sion of maintaining the Nation's air 
defenses. 

"This is the most realistic testing 
environment possible for North 
America's air defenses against poten- 




tial enemy attacks," he asserts, add- 
ing that William Tell is a "positive 
method for testing as well as proving 
capabilities." 

Selected from preliminary competi- 
tion for berths in 1972's William Tell 
are F-106 "Delta Dart" teams from the 
460th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 
Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota; 
318th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 
McChord AFB, Washington; 87th 
Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, K.I. 
Sawyer AFB, Michigan, 2nd Fighter- 
Interceptor Squadron, Wurtsmith 
AFB Michigan; 95th Fighter- 
Interceptor Squadron, Dover AFB, 
Delaware; and 5th Fighter- 
Interceptor Squadron, Minot AFB, 
North Dakota. 

The 57th Fighter-Interceptor 
Squadron, Keflanik, Iceland, flying F- 
102 "Delta Daggers," has also been 
named to a competing slot. 

From Air National Guard ranks will 
come the 132nd Fighter-Interceptor 
Squadron, Bangor, Maine; 178th 
Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, Fargo, 
North Dakota; 176th Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Squadron, Traux Field, Wis- 
consin; and the 134th Fighter- 
Interceptor Squadron, Burlington, 



[-jocks and their support teams are set to . . . 



ADC's "team concept " places emphasis equally on all 

elements of competing units. Weapons loaders, at left, 

prepare aircraft for mission ttiat comes as a "scramble" 

for aircrews who race from ready rooms housed by 

trailers adjacent to flight line. 









Weapons Meet realism is presented with maximum authenticity as weapons loaders (above) 
ready aircraft for thwarting a potential enemy, such as Soviet bomber being escorted from U. S. air 
spaces over North America. Teledyne Ryan Firebees-simulating enemy threats-wait in line 
for ground-launched missions and aircrews evaluate mission just concluded in a de-brief session. 




LT. GEN. THOMAS K. McGEHEE 

Commander 

Aerospace Defense Command 

"The Aerospace Defense Command, as a component of the North American Air Defense 
Command, continues to defend the North American continent against any aerospace threat. 
This is being accompiished in spite of a diminishing force, aging equipment inventory, and 
the rising cost of defensive systems. 

"Our defenses are constantly being tested. How well we respond reflects directly on the 
credibility of our deterrent posture; for an adequate deterrence to aggression consists of 
the well l<nown TRIAD plus ONE — or strategic offensive and aerospace defensive forces. 

"With fewer people to perform the mission of aerospace defense, it Is essential that their 
talents be honed to keep them the professionals they are. 'William Tell '72' provides the 
necessary opportunity for realistic training for pilots, maintenance crews, weapons controllers, 
and munitions loading teams. It Is the proving ground for our aerospace defense network, 
and I can think of no better way to commemorate the Air Force's 25th anniversary than 
this live fire competition between defenders of the North American continent." 



Vermont. These teams fly F-101s and 
F-102 aircraft. Canada's Air Defence 
Command has selected the 425th 
Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, Bagot- 
ville, Alovett, Canada, flying CF-IOIs. 

These are the organizations of 
ADC, ANG and CDF that jointly form 
the U.S. -Canadian North American 
Air Defense Command. With their 
counterparts in the network of units 
forming the NORAD command, they 
carry the burden of defending North 
America from enemy air attack. 

Each competing team comprises 
about 35 men, including four pilots 
and a standby, weapons load crews, 
aircraft maintenance crews to fine- 
tune participating aircraft and two- 
man intercept control crews who use 
ADC's computerized radar intercept 
direction systems to guide aircraft to 
targets. 

Matched against the combined 
capabilities of these NORAD ele- 
ments is the "enemy." The scenario 
of this modern-day William Tell fable 
is based upon surprise, sneak air 
attack against U. S. defenses. 

The "heavyweight" in the cast is 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's Fire- 
bee aerial target system, employing 
as many personality characteristics of 
known enemy threats as man can 
devise. Electronic and passive 
augmentation systems create radar 




personalities that range from sophis- 
ticated MIGs to attacl< bonnbers. 

Remote controllers command their 
Firebee targets through a spectrum 
of tactics — both offensive and defen- 
sive — in the skies over the Gulf of 
Mexico firing ranges adjacent to Tyn- 
dall AFB. 

Night and day, around-the-clock 



operations based on surprise alerts 
are standing conditions confronted 
by the competing teams. Each man 
on the team becomes an integral part 
of the team as William Tell gets under- 
way. 

If competing teams represent the 
sinews of strength, the kind that can 
punch an enemy from the skies, the 



body and legs of the William Tell 
Weapons Meet anatomy is the sup- 
port effort provided by Tyndall AFB 
and the Air Defense Weapons Center. 

Under Brigadier General Lawrence 
J. Fleming, Commanderof the ADWC, 
and official host for the 1972 Weap- 
ons Meet, Tyndall will supply all the 
physical needs of the gladiators dur- 
ing the 10-day "shoot." 

Firebee targets, as well as other 
vehicles upon which a bead will be 
drawn during the contest, are respon- 
sibilities of the 4756th Drone Mainte- 
nance Squadron. 

A Firebee hangar, maintained by a 
contractor team, houses Tyndall's 
inventory of jet-powered aerial tar- 
gets where maintenance and refur- 
bishment are conducted. The con- 
tract team is also responsible for 
launch operations from the base's 
launch complex. 

Designed for re-use, Firebees that 





"Scramble" line at Tyndall is starting point for teams that compete in ADC's bi-annual William Tell 
meets. Supersonic Firebee II, scheduled for formal rollout Sept. 23, will complete balance 
of developmental program at Tyndall during remainder of 1972. System can be ground or 
air-launched into flight that offers sub or supersonic performance. 




Brig. General Lawrence J. Fleming 
U.S. Air Force, Commander, 
Air Defense Weapons Center 

"There are several positive ways and means of testing and proving air defense capabilities. 
Project William Tell is a very realistic testing environment for evaluation of our capability 
against the enemy bomber potential or maintenance of our air space sovereignty. 

"I am proud that the Air Defense Weapons Center was selected to host this year's William 
Tell Weapons Meet!" 



escape direct hits during the aerial 
shoots are parachuted to a land or 
water recovery area and restored to 
the operational inventory. This design 
feature has added as many as 75 con- 
secutive flights to a single Firebee at 
Tyndall. 

Its most prominent feature by far, 
however, is the realistic qualities of 
its simulation, according to fighter 
pilots returning from actual combat 
in Southeast Asia. 

A major share of Firebee Ms ground 
support, launch and control and 
maintenance equipments are the 
same used in subsonic operations. 
This economy-plus factor, coupled 
with target reuse and inherent simula- 
tion qualities, adds a new dimension 
to Firebee's importance as an Air 
Force aerial target system. 

Known as the "Big Apple" of Wil- 
liam Tell Weapons Meets since its ini- 
tial use in 1958, Firebee — like the per- 
former who has been perennially cast 
in the "heavyweight" role — has 
grown in stature with each presenta- 
tion. Design and performance growth 
of the original concept has been faith- 
fully pursued by Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical. 

In Supersonic Firebee II is repro- 
duced all of the major qualities of its 
predecessor plus the versatility, 
advanced speed and performance 



characteristics and finest qualities of 
the age of air superiority. 

In this profile, it is the perfect match 
for Aerospace Command's fighter- 
interceptor teams in the era of the 
70s. 

For the present and in the 25th 
anniversary year of the Air Force, Wil- 
liam Tell 1972 will draw upon stand- 
ard Firebees to test the skills, courage 
and professionalism of its "first 
team" competitors. 

"There is no other target vehicle in 
existence that matches as closely the 
characteristics we look for in known 
enemy aircraft," notes a recently 
returned Air Force pilot. 

With the advent this year of Super- 
sonic Firebee II, this acclaim is ex- 
pected to grow in the Air Force audi- 
ence it will serve. 

Designed for subsonic or super- 
sonic performance in a single flight. 



Firebee II, designated BQM-34F, car- 
ries an external fuel cell under its 
belly for subsonic presentations. This 
mission completed, the external cell 
is jettisoned and the aircraft transi- 
tions into supersonic configuration. 

In this latter mode, it offers a true 
personality of the most advanced 
"enemy" aircraft, including the Mig- 
23. 

It is Supersonic Firebee II that is 
matched to weapons systems devel- 
opment, test and evaluation for the 
Air Force F-1 5 "Eagle" in a prime sup- 
port role. As integration of weapons 
systems and aircraft develops, the 
supersonic aerial target systems will 
be called upon to fill the role of prime 
target, it is expected. 

Unlike its subsonic relative, Firebee 
II will be Mid-Air Retrieved by helicop- 
ters during terminal phases of flight. 
This MARS development program 



was one of the final phases com- 
pleted prior to delivery of production 
versions of the system to Tyndall 
inventories this year. 

More than 650 years have passed, 
according to the legend of William 
Tell, since the Swiss patriot defied his 
ruthless dictator and was forced to 
shoot an apple from the head of his 
son. Having achieved this, he went 
on to rescue his homeland from its 
oppression. 

The bow and arrow of William Tell 
lore are the supersonic jets and mis- 
sile systems of today. The deadly 
skills and determination of William 
Tell are characterized by ADC fighter- 
interceptors. 

The "Big Apple ': Firebee. -^^ 




J M i 



m ■*«■ 













Photo Courtesy of GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVE 
Magazine 



An Outline of 
Air Force Views on RPV Potentials 

BY THE HONORABLE JOHN L. McLUCAS, UNDER SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE 



th 

AmiVEKSARY 




UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 

PRIDE IN THE PAST- FAITH IN THE FUTURE 

Editor's note: The following is a pre- 
sentation offered by tVlr. McLucas 
before the Electronic Industries 
Association May 31, 1972. 



It is a pleasure to join you this evening. I want to thank the Electronic 
Industries Association for providing the Department of Defense and rep- 
resentatives of industry an opportunity to exchange ideas in a most signiifi- 
cant area of technology. I believe the subject of this symposium is especially 
timely. We are very interested in the operational uses of drones or Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) and are pleased at the current interest shov\/n 
by industry. 

Our interest in this field is based on a number of driving factors which 
dictate more innovation in achieving improved effectiveness in our military 
hardware. We are in an era of tight funding, when defense outlays are 
hardly keeping pace with each previous year. At the same time, people 
costs are soaring — to the point that we are now paying about 7 billion 
more for one million fewer people than we had three years ago. And the 
unit cost for new weapons has increased three to four fold in the last 
decade, meaning that a very few major development programs are eating 
up most of the available funds. As a result we will have very few resources 
for new programs unless we find less expensive and more effective ways 
to get the job done. 

We have taken several measures to help solve the dilemma we face. 
I know that most of you are familiar with our new management approaches, 
which include milestone development and flexibility in contracting. Also, 
we are expanding our use of the prototyping technique as a means of 
acquiring knowledge on costs and the operational and technical feasibility 
of potential systems. Finding new and practical applications for Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles may provide one means of even further reducing the 
costs of fielding hardware for selected military missions, without loss of 
effectiveness. 

Tonight I would like to outline Air Force views on the potential of RPVs 
for certain missions, some special problems we have identified, and then 
briefly review related Air Force research and development activities. 

Going back a few years, during World War II, both the Air Corps and 
the Navy experimented with developing remotely controlled aircraft to con- 
duct missions against highly-defended areas. B-29s and B-24s were mod- 
ified for this role, but the results were generally unsatisfactory because 
of the state of technology. 

For twenty years after World War II, we used drones for target practice 
and, more recently for certain reconnaissance functions. During the last 
decade the program has grown significantly and the associated technology 
has developed at a rapid pace. 

Today we are on the brink of realizing some operational breakthroughs 
from our past research in this field. I am not suggesting that our manned 
systems will become obsolete. However, we are much closer to being 
able to use RPVs to increase the capability of our forces and to perform 




Extreme low angle photo (above) of DC-130 launch aircraft with a Teledyne Ryan 
version RPV f\Aodel 147 suspended from v/ing pod, displays broad sweep of wings. 
"Hashmark" display on cowl of Model 147 (upper right) displays 13 flights it has 
completed. Air Force technicians (below, right) shift RPV from handling cradle to 
hydraulic lift from which it will be uploaded to wing pylons of launch aircraft. 



certain missions at considerably reduced costs. We expect Remotely Pil- 
oted Vehicles to be a significant force in our future inventory. 

There are other important reasons for our interest in RPVs. 

One is because we place very high value on the lives of our aircrew 
members. We have only to look at the national concern for our POWs 
and missing in action to realize this fact. Therefore, systems which can 
help preserve human life must receive a high priority. 

A second reason is economic. The United States lost about 40,000 aircraft 
and 80,000 crew members during World War II. The average cost of these 
aircraft was about $100,000, no small amount. But with today's fighter 
costing about $3 to $4 million, the same losses soar to an estimated $150 
billion. RPVs offer real promise in avoiding this type of loss in combat 
operations. For example, if a manned aircraft costs $3 million and an 
attrition rate of one percent is sustained, we would lose $30 million for 
every 1,000 sorties. On the other hand, even if an RPV, to do the same 
job, costs $500 thousand, we could withstand an attrition rate of six percent 
and still break even on a purely economic basis. 

To keep loss rates down, it is necessary for our aircraft to travel at 




J««r:% ^--roSKTWrSK-***!**!*-*-- T*»^«fl 





v^icr-r ;.<f^<^3f?? 



high speeds in today's heavily-defended battlefield environment. This 
speed makes it more difficult to locate and destroy targets, without the 
use of highly sophisticated equipment to help the aircrew perform its mis- 
sion. Since many avionics systems today cost around $1,000 per pound, 
it is even more important that the aircraft return. 

With RPVs on the other hand, survival is not the driving factor. The 
RPV can be designed for maximum cost effectiveness. Where appropriate, 
we can minimize costs by designing and building an expendable airframe, 
engine and electronics package, using low-cost materials such as fiber 
glass, plastic foam and even reinforced paper or inflated fabric wherever 
possible. 

In other cases we may have more sophisticated RPVs which would require 
recovery; but even if losses ran 10%, 20% or even higher for a given type 
mission, we could withstand such losses provided the effectiveness justifies 
it. The human loss factor has, of course, been eliminated. At the same 
time, the human "touch" is still in the system, but removed from danger. 

Let me now turn to some mission areas where we feel RPVs have con- 
siderable potential. 

A few years ago the Air Force made a fundamental change in its approach 
to the development of operational drones. Most of our attention was 
directed toward satisfying immediate requirements in Southeast Asia. We 
initially met these needs by making necessary modifications to existing 
drones. But as the requirements in Southeast Asia increased and we accum- 
mulated more experience in high and low altitude drones, we began more 
basic design work and increased efforts to study broader operational appli- 
cations for RPVs. 

We now believe that we are on the threshhold of utilizing them for 
selected strike missions; however, their use in the air superiority role may 
be a longer term adaptation. To reach maximum benefit from their potential 
in tactical missions, we are increasing our efforts in devising system con- 
cepts and operational mission profiles. 

The successful development of drones for aerial photography has added 
significantly to our reconnaissance and surveillance capability. But systems 
for reconnaissance can be considerably improved by introducing man 
into the decision loop in a real-time basis. This not only improves target 
coverage, but undoubtedly reduces losses. 

Our experience has also shown the potential for RPVs in the role of 
communications relay. An airborne vehicle could be placed outside the 
area of potential enemy action and perform this role for long durations. 
This potential is possible because we are finding that RPVs can be 
developed with greatly extended system life. This is a very important factor 
because if an RPV is used to carry an expensive communication or radio 
relay package, it is essential that it be able to stay airborne for extended 
periods and be reliable enough to bring the package back home. 

Our target drones were designed to survive 20 or 30 flights of perhaps 
one hour each. For missions such as radio relay, ELINT and navigation, 
we need to achieve a capability for missions that are very long in duration, 
and we also need an RPV that can operate for a thousand hours before 
systemfailure. Thiswould enable vehiclestofly longer missions and require 
less support than manned systems. The payloads, however, would be com- 
plex and relatively expensive so we could not afford losses due to vehicle 
failures. Therefore, the RPVs we build for these missions could require 
the reliability of aircraft. And in designing and engineering reliability 



11 



Carried aloft and transported to mission area, RPVs are suspended from wing pylons 
of DC-130 and will be flown by remote control during missions. Ptioto (below, right) 
depicts aerodynamic harmony created in uploaded, flight mode of RPV under wing of 
DC-130"Hercules." Helicopter retrieves vehicle in terminal phase of its mission for return 
to flight status. Aircrew safety, cost-effectiveness and mission attainment are key factors 
related to values served by Remotely Piloted Vehicles. 



requirements, we must remember that RPVs do not enjoy the failure com- 
pensation provided by an on board human. 

In addition to using our present drones for communications relay and 
ELINT, we have been conducting studies and tests to determine the techni- 
cal feasibility of using RPVs to navigate to a pre-determined location, 
identify and precisely strike a target. Their use in this role would comple- 
ment manned aircraft operations by striking the most heavily defended 
targets and suppressing enemy defenses prior to manned attacks. 

We are very encouraged with the results of demonstrations we have 
conducted to date. Launching a missile, an RPV was able to hit the target 
"dead center" and was returned by the flight director to a pre-determined 
recovery area. We believe this experience will provide confidence to move 
further along toward an operational strike capability. 

The technologies involved in achieving such capabilities include terminal 
guided bombs such as the Laser Paveway, Walleye, and electro-optical 
Paveway bombs. Navigation problems may be solved with LORAN retrans- 
mission or inexpensive LORAN receivers. In addition, LORAN can provide 
the information to a cueing system for aiming a TV camera or other sensor. 

We are also interested in studying the possible use of RPVs for the 
mission of air superiority. However, we do not visualize application of 
RPVs in this field until much further along in the future. Our first step 
is to determine whether it is possible to actually conduct an air-to-air 
battle from a remote control position. 

Interest in such an RPV is based primarily on the potential of designing 
increased performance into a vehicle since the physical constraints 
imposed by the presence of a pilot would be removed. Revolutionary design 
features and construction techniques might be used to significantly 
increase performance. For instance, preliminary analyses have shown that 
an RPV might be built to turn inside and get on the tail of a manned 
fighter within 15 to 20 seconds after a head-on encounter. 

One concept which has evolved calls for a mother vehicle to carry two 
RPVs armed with rockets. The mother vehicle would use radar to detect 
targets at long range and, at an appropriate distance, launch the RPVs 
for engagement. The RPV would be designed to sustain a high G maneuver 
and could carry two rockets. It would also be feasible to use guns for 
a multiple-pass attack capability. 

We anticipate testing this concept through an austere experimental hard- 
ware and flight program for the purpose of development work on such 
key subsystems as electro-optical sensors, flight control and communica- 
tions link. 

Now let me briefly review several important RPV studies being conducted 
by industry for the Air Force, plus some related projects underway at our 
laboratories. 

The Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) is sponsoring studies to 





12 






examine RPV designs for various tactical missions. In my opinion, we 
desire a single modular system capable of handling the missions that 
we can envision today. We are interested in a multi-purpose RPV which 
can be adapted to reconnaissance, ECM or strike missions. 

Therefore, a basic airframe and engine with modular avionics will most 
likely be our RPV workhorse of the future, much like the drone model 
147 has been in the past. 

ASD is also directing a study on data link/man-machine interface, which 
is the critical element in retaining the man in the system for real-time 
decision making. We need broad band secure links as well as provisions 
for controlling and receiving the data of many RPVs simultaneously in 
a given area. Add to this the required displays for the pilot-controller and 
the necessary interfaces with other control systems and you can begin 
to see the complexity of the problems. I believe, however, that fielding 
this hardware is within the state of the art. 

Recent advances in solid state devices have resulted in significant 
reduced weights and yielded excellent reliability, but there remains much 
work to be done in developing secure data links. 

In another effort, the Electronic Systems Division is studying command 
and control problems with emphasis on how to best integrate near real 
time information from RPVs into the tactical organization. 

Several of our Laboratories are also working on RPV development pro- 
jects. The Flight Dynamics Lab is exploring the use of RPVs for testing 
radical aerodynamic designs. The Avionics Lab is working on TV cameras 
mounted on model aircraft to explore problems associated with controls 
and sensors. The Materials Lab is exploring new manufacturing techniques 
and the Rome Air Development Center is exploring new antenna designs 
and wave forms. 

In addition to these efforts which I have described, we need to do much 
work in the field of RPV launch and recovery techniques. Although our 
success rate is quite high today, recovery losses are a significant factor 
in the cost of drone operations. We will need several alternatives to accom- 
modate the various missions. We are looking for systems that are versatile 
and will provide flexibility as well as reliability and low cost. 

In conclusion, we can see many promising operational applications for 
RPVs and share industry's enthusiasm for their increased potential. They 
can help us keep our pilots out of heavily defended areas and they have 
the potential to serve as command and control and reconnaissance and 
surveillance vehicles as well as perform various strike missions. And in 
the distant future they may prove to be feasible for air-to-air combat. 

However, we must jointly conduct careful analyses of our needs and 
then be selective in the technology that is used. We need to make thorough 
assessments of technologies in areas such as materials, avionics, propul- 
sion and manufacturing techniques before we take major steps toward 
an operational capability. 

We must also develop full concepts for operational missions, so that 
as we develop system concepts and preliminary designs we can match 
requirements with the various missions envisioned. 

I am confident that by continuing to work together, we can move toward 
improved RPV operational capabilities for the Air Force and the other 
Services, thereby strengthening our national security. ^^ 



13 



BE □ rL 




Astronaut Charles Duke's words 
flowed back to earth with an 
"amazing" observation. Apollo 
16's "Orion" — equipped with 
Teledyne Ryan's landing radar 
system — had erased all doubts of 
success. 

By Bob Springer 



"Orion is finally here, Houston," Apollo 16 astronaut Charlie Duke 
told Mission Control as the lunar module settled safely on the boulder- 
strewn and dusty Descartes region of the moon's southern highlands. 

His use of the term "finally" was easily understood. Just three 
hours earlier there was doubt mission commander John Young and 
LM pilot Duke would even get a chance to become the ninth and 
tenth men to walk on the moon; and, for about four hours that after- 
noon of April 20 the entire Apollo 16 mission appeared to be in 
jeopardy. 

Cause of the delay and concern about the mission — which resulted 
in the first wave off in the history of space exploration — involved 
a problem with the thrust vector control system for the service propul- 
sion engine of the command and service module Casper, piloted 
by Tom Mattingly. 

Although nearly six hours behind the original schedule, when Chris 
Kraft — Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center and a veteran flight 
director — personally passed the word, "It's a go for PDI (powered 
descent initiation)," the jubilant Young and Duke made a story book 
landing within 600 feet of the intended target. 

During the descent from lunar orbit, described by the moon ex- 
plorers as "just like flying the LTV (landing training vehicle), a piece 
of cake," Orion's landing radar — built by Teledyne Ryan — continued 
the precedent established on previous lunar landings of exceeding 
mission requirements. 

Programmed to acquire the lunar surface at a nominal altitude 
of 42,580 feet, the advanced-technology Doppler sensor "locked on" 
the moon's surface well above the prescribed altitude, prompting 
Duke to exclaim, "We're 50,000. Look at that! Altitude and velocity 
lights are out at 50 K. Isn't that amazing!" 

Amazing too was the Descartes landing area, which Young 
described as "one of the most dazzling, beautiful sights on the 
moon," calling special attention to the view from Stone Mountain, 
which he and Duke ascended in the Lunar Rover to a height of 
700 feet. 

Despite a cutback of nearly 24 hours in the overall flight plan — a 
change made in deference to the potentially faulty thrust vector con- 
trol system — the three Apollo 16 astronauts accomplished almost 
all the tasks assigned on this next-to-last scheduled, manned lunar 
exploration. 

During their abbreviated stay on the lunar surface. Young and 
Duke completed the three EVAs (extravehicular activity) scheduled, 
totaling 20 hours and 14 minutes in the atmosphere-less, hostile 
environment of the moon. They covered a total of 16.8 miles in the 
lunar rover on their explorations, collecting 215 pounds of rocks 




'*'^>.-'^, 




14 








?y ;':*>■. ■2^."' '.»;:. 






:«*'^' 



j^„ 






Is 












"/A b/g Navy salute" is given by a leaping John Young in 
this photograpti by Ctiarlie Duke. When it was Duke's turn to salute, 
Navy Capt. Young kidded him about not knovi/ing how to salute in 
the Air Force. Duke's repartee: "Sure we do. And we fly high and 
straight and land soft." 



and soil samples, including specimens not found at previous lunar 
landing sites. 

While Young and Duke went about their explorations on the moon's 
surface, Mattingly conducted a series of orbital experiments from 
the command and service module, amassing the most comprehen- 
sive and detailed photographic record of lunar features to date. Still 
photographs acquired with panoramic, mapping, and hand-held 
cameras aboard Casper totaled 1 4,000 — 1 ,000 more than were taken 
during the Apollo 15 mission. Additionally, a much greater variety 
of special filters and film. Including color, was exposed on the Apollo 
16 mission, and more use was made of long-focal-length lenses. 

On the return trip to earth, Mattingly got his chance at an EVA, 
making a deep-space walk of slightly more than an hour to retrieve 
film cannisters from the SIM (Scientific Instrument Module) Bay of 
the service module, which is jettisoned before reentering the earth's 
atmosphere. 

The highly successful and uneventful splashdown in the Pacific 
Ocean, about 175 miles southeast of Christmas Island, brought to 
a close the next-to-last chapter in the United States' schedule of 
manned lunar explorations. 

The one remaining flight, Apollo 17, is scheduled for launch from 
Cape Kennedy Dec. 6, 1972. Announced landing site for crewmem- 
bers Navy Captain Eugene A. Cernan and civilian scientist-astronaut 
Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt is a combination mountainous highlands 
and lowlands valley region of the moon designated Taurus-Littrow. 

Third member of the final lunar mission will be Navy Commander 
Ronald E. Evans, who also is scheduled to conduct lunar orbit experi- 
ments from the command module while Cernan and Schmitt land 
and explore the Taurus-Littrow area. 

Cernan, mission commander, has accumulated 264y2 hours in 
space aboard Gemini 9 and Apollo 10. On his Gemini 9 extravehicular 
activity he became the first man to stay outside a spacecraft for 
a full revolution of the earth. During Apollo 10 he and Colonel Thomas 
P. Stafford descended to within eight miles of the lunar surface 
for the final checkout of the Apollo spacecraft before the first manned 
lunar landing. 

Command module pilot Evans has not yet flown in space, however, 
he was backup CM pilot for Apollo 14 and served on support crews 
for Apollos 7 and 11. 

Schmitt, LM pilot, will be making his first space flight also. The 
holder of a Ph.D. in geology, he was backup LM pilot for Apollo 
15 and has been involved in geology training for all lunar landing 
crews. ■'■Sfi^ 



15 



■■'■• 






e make-believe world or 
target technology — where 
simulation is matched to 
realism — is a science all 
its own. Fleet Composite 
Squadron-Three calls it 
the . . . 



NITTY-GRITTY OF TARGETEERING 



No one knows for sure when the five- "1^ 
foot high block letters spelling out 
"Skeet for the Fleet" were 
emblazoned on the fence that shields 
passerby traffic at the North Island 
Naval Air Station from Fleet Com- 
posite Squadron-Three's hangar and 
shop complex. It's even hard to find 
anyone at Halsey Field who really 
cares. 

It's what goes on behind that fence 
that matters to Commander Pete Hal- 
le's "Targeteer " squadron and most 
of the Pacific Fleet. 

One of the Navy's oldest, largest 




#■ 




and most versatile units of its l<inds, 
Halle's squadron spends most of its 
time and resources providing 
"enemy" look-alikes for Pacific Fleet 
surface and air units destined for 
Western Pacific deployment. 

VC-3 adds the finishing touches to 
combat readiness training cycles 
imposed on units scheduled for com- 
bat duty. In addition, it provides target 
systems used in weapons develop- 
ment, test and evaluation. 

The key to this dual mission, 
according to VC-3 personnel, is 
called the "Nitty-Gritty of Targeteer- 
ing." 

Commissioned in 1939 originally, a 
"plank owner" would be hard pres- 
sed today in recognizing any similar- 
ity between the founding unit and that 
which serves the U.S. Navy in its cur- 
rent age of super-sophistication. In 
this year of 1972, VC-3 capabilities are 
projected across a spectrum of target 
applications that stretch from com- 
mon, tow-type target sleeves to 
advanced-design, supersonic jet air- 
craft matched to the era of air 
superiority. Between these extremes 
is an array of systems and devices 
designed to characterize all known 
enemy threat sources. 

Some of these systems are self- 
styled at squadron levels; makeshift 
systems that stem from personal 



ingenuity and improvisation. 

"That's the real source of intrigue 
associated with target support 
technology," notes three-striper 
Halle. "It's the imagination . . . creativ- 
ity .. . ingenuity . . . qualities of 
individual appeal . . elements that 
can't be punched into a computer 
card . . . that offer fulfillment in the 
targets field." 

While recommendations have been 
forwarded suggesting that specific 
job code specialties in target 
technologies be matched to duty 
assignments, the bulk of Halle's VC-3 
team are from general aviation fields. 

For most newly assigned person- 
nel, it's a whole new world. The big- 
gest plus factor is the ability to give 
a newcomer to the squadron the "big 
picture" from the start. 

"For the first time, in many 
instances, a man working on a jet- 
turbine engine can see the whole sys- 
tem come together in final assembly. 
He can watch the vehicle as it is 
uploaded aboard our launch aircraft. 
And, chances are he'll help in the 
refurbishment cycle after it has been 
used," explains VC-3's Executive 
Officer, Commander Jack Kennedy. 

One of VC-3's most distinctive 
capabilities is represented by the two 
DC-130 "Hercules" launch aircraft. 
The only Navy target squadron to use 



"Target away" signal is 

passed as Firebee under 

own power drops from pylon 

to begin mission. 



VC-3 technicians (bottom) 

upload BOM-34A aboard 

DC-1 30 "Here," one of two 

operated by Navy 

target squadron. 



"Hercs" operationally, they replaced 
vintage DP-2E "Neptune" aircraft still 
in operational use as primary launch 
platforms in other Navy target units. 

The acquisition of "Here" aircraft 
in 1971 doubled VC-3's air-launch 
capabilities. Four pylons — two under 
each wing — enables VC-3 to upload 
four BQM-34A Firebees or any combi- 
nation of four Firebees or its growth- 
version Supersonic Firebee II aerial 
target systems. The "Here's" cargo 
capacity can include additional target 
systems, ground support equipments 
plus spare parts. 

Flight range, endurances and these 
payload capabilities plus mobility 
aspects add up to major advances 
that have recently been introduced 
for operational use by the North 
Island Naval Air Station-based squad- 
ron. 

Typically, a VC-3 targets mission 
unfolds over the Pacific Missile 
Range, situated some three-quarters 
of an hour flight time from North 
Island. Uploaded with four target veh- 
icles, the DC-130 is programmed for 
two air-to-air and two surface-to-air 
missions. 

Two VC-3 "Targeteers," formally 
known as "Launch Control 
Operators," air-launch their targets 
into flight over a racetrack pattern in 
support of the fighter squadron air- 
craft for missile firing exercises. 

The two remaining target systems 
are then launched into flight for sur- 
face missile ship firings. 

Equipped with automatic para- 
chute recovery systems, the Firebees 
descend under their recovery 
canopies to pre-designated areas for 
either helicopter or boat retrieval and 



18 




Expertise of VC-3 

"Targeteers" includes 

broad range of sl<ills in 

avionics, propulsion and 

airframe (below left). 



VC-3 Skipper, CDR S. P. Halle 

(bottom left) pilots "Here" 

launch aircraft on Firebee 

target mission. Use of 

DC-130 aircraft tias more 

than doubled unit's 

capabilities. 



Teledyne Ryan support 
technicians conducted 
orientation -training 
courses for VC-3 per- 
sonnel charged with 
maintaining Supersonic 
Firebee II (below). 





return to the Naval Missile Center, Pt. 
Mugu. 

Missions completed, the "Here" 
stops by the Naval Missile Center to 
upload the expended target systems 
and return home where they are refur- 
bished and restored to operational 
status. 

Any damages inflicted on the tar- 
gets are repaired, its propulsion and 
avionics systems cycled and the veh- 
ilce reassembled. 

"This example represents a 'best- 
case' situation," notes Kennedy. "It 



19 



Technicians (below) re- 
cycle Firebee in VC-3 
hangar at North Island 
Naval Air Station following 
retrieval from mission. 



Instrument checkout of 

flight systems is conducted 

(bottom) using Teledyne 

Ryan test equipment built 

exclusively for BOM-34E 

Firebee II support. 



illustrates the capability. The more 
frequent requirement involves nerve- 
grinding delays in the holding 
pattern, a bottomless reservoir of 
patience and endless powers of 
clairvoyance!" 

A key element in the flight test- 
developmental phases of Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronatucal's Firebee II aerial 
target system, VC-3 is scheduling 
operational introduction of the 
advanced-design system this year. 
Already delivered are a number of 
production versions of the BQM-34E 
Firebee II. Assisting in the implemen- 
tation of this system into operational 
inventories is aTeledyne Ryan techni- 
cal support team. 

While the Supersonic Firebee II is 
a highly-sophisticated aerial target 
system, featuring advanced-design 
aerodynamics and dual-mission 
capabilities, it can be ground or air- 
launched like standard Firebees. 
Similarities betw/een the tv\/o include 
use of common ground support 
equipment. 

From launch through its mission 
personality, however, Firebee 11 is 
rated as an "air superiority" vehicle. 
From subsonic missions fueled by an 
externally-mounted fuel cell, the 
needle-nose vehicle translates to 
supersonic configuration by ejecting 
its fuel pod. Profiled for speed ranges 
that can peak in Mach-plus modes, 
its "dash" capabilities match or 
exceed all known enemy or potential 
enemy threats. 

Used in weapons systems develop- 
mental test and evaluation programs 
already, the Firebee II is characterized 
by seasoned, combat pilots as "the 
nearest to enemy threats we've ever 



20 




Mission completed, Firebee 

is decontaminated as 

part of recycling process 

following recovery from sea 

and return to flight status. 




seen." Fighter squadron skippers 
whose fledgling combat pilots have 
deployed to Southeast Asia termed 
Firebee II, "a critically-needed vehicle 
for offering true representation of 
what we experienced in air-to-air 
engagements." 

From this far end of the target vehi- 
cle spectrum, VC-3 crewmen provide 
small-scale, prop-driven and jet- 
powered vehicles in addition to tow- 
type targets and banners. 

At San Clemente Island, some 50 



miles seaward from San Diego, a VC-3 
detachment maintains on-site sup- 
port for small-scale, jet-powered 
MQM-74 vehicles. Hangar stowage, 
maintenance, support facilities and a 
launch complex have been perma- 
nently established on the Island. 

San Clemente Island's VC-3 
detachment reflects the depth of flex- 
ibility of which the squadron is cap- 
able. Periodic deployment of other 
detachments to shipboard assign- 
ments or to the desert range area of 
nearby Arizona rounds out the per- 
sonality of modern-day "Targe- 
teering." 

In a recently concluded assign- 
ment, VC-3 dispatched its "Here" to 
the Naval Missile Center to upload 
two flight test versions of the BQM- 
34E, Supersonic Firebee II. The mis- 
sion: transport the target systems to 
Holloman, N.M., stage there for ope- 
rations the following day at White 
Sands Missile Range in support of 
HAWK missile firings. 

In this instance, even the U.S. Army 
benefitted from Commander Halle's 
resources at the North Island Naval 
Air Station. 

The operation itself represented 
the firt time Teledyne Ryan's Firebee 
II systems were used to support 
HAWK firings; it is the longest cross- 
country hop yet achieved in target up- 
loaded condition for the "Hercs" of 
VC-3; it was the first joint Army-Navy 
project in which Firebee II served in 
a key support role. 

All of which spells out some of the 
"Nitty-gritty" about Navy "Targe- 
teering" in Fleet Composite 
Squadron-Three's expanding role of 
importance. '^^ 



21 



From rollout under its own power 
through early stages of its developmental 
flight test program, F-15 characterizes 
all the best qualities of the coming age of 



AIR SUPERIORITY 








Photos by McDonald Douglas 



22 




Air Force "Eagle," the 
first combat aircraft designed 
by the U.S. specifically for an 
air superiority role since F-86 
Sabre, was more than living up 
to its builder's expectations at 
Edwards Air Force Base. 
Rolled out under its own power 
at McDonald Douglas St. Louis 
plant a month earlier, its initial 
flight was described as, "the 
most successful first flight in 
the history" of that company. 

ChiefTest Pilot Irving L. Bur- 
rows, in flight debrief July 27, 
reported the 50-minute hop as 
"fairly uneventful. All systems 
worked perfectly." 

In the week following, five 
additional test flights would be 
added to the F-15 log, the fifth 
flown to a speed of Mach 1.5 
and at altitudes reaching 
45,000 feet. 

The F-15 is the first Air Force 
aircraft developed in over 20 
years designed primarily to 
excel in the close-in, high-G 
environment of air-to-air com- 
bat. Its two F-100 turbofan 
engines give the F-15 more 
thrust than weight, a first for 
any U.S. fighter. This thrust- 
to-weight ratio gives the 
40,000-pound aircraft an ability 
to climb vertically at super- 
sonic speed and to accelerate 
from subsonic to mid-sonic 
combat speed in seconds. 

The primary combat envel- 



ope for the "Eagle" will be in 
the transonic regime at medi- 
um altitudes, but it will have 
a sustained Mach 2-3 capabil- 
ity and dash potential to 
Mach 2-5. 

Armament consists of four 
AIM-7F Sparrows for long 
range interception, modified 
AIM-9L Sidewinders for closer- 
range encounters and a single 
M61 20mm Gatling gun wing- 
mounted for "eyeball-to-eye- 
ball" combat. 

It is in this area of develop- 
ment that Teledyne Ryan's 
Supersonic Firebee II is to 
assume a role of major sup- 
port. Like its predecessors in 
the aerial target Firebee fam- 
ily — used in development of all 
major weapons systems in the 
U.S. arsenal — Air Force ver- 
sions of the Firebee II will 
assume "enemy" profiles. 

Classified as an "air-supe- 
riority" aerial target system, 




UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 






ME FUTURE 




23 



Posed as a primary adversary for the F-15 "Eagle" is the Soviet Mig-23 
in the air-superiority age of 1980s. An operational environment in which 
this as well as other known threat sources exist can be simulated by the 
use of Supersonic Firebee II (BOM-34F), augmented electronically in 
size to duplicate the Mig-23. 






24 



I i 




the dual-mission target offers 
high-performance "dash" 
capabilities to match known 
threat sources. Growth ver- 
sions of the BQM-34F are 
already projected into the 
hyper-sonic ranges. 

While speed ranges, boosted 
by the development of propul- 
sion technology, played a 
major role in design-devel- 
opment of the F-15, real-life 
situations and air combat 
experiences in Vietnam con- 
tinue to identify "dog fight" 
capabilities as a vital element. 

"Eagle's" design offers in- 
herent balances in the speed 
and maneuverability envelope 
and breaks with aerodynamic 
tradition. It is more nearly akin 
to its potential adversary, the 
Foxbat, than any previous U.S. 
fighter, according to reports. 

The history of the "Eagle" 
reverts to 1965 when both the 




Navy and Air Force were 
beginning to plan for replace- 
ments for the "Phantom". 
Fighter development for some 
years previously had been 
mainly concerned with the 
increases in speed made possi- 
ble by advancing propulsion 
technologies and a better 
understanding of aerody- 
namics. 

More than 500 designs were 
investigated over a three-year 
period leading to the F-15 pro- 
gram with a major share of U.S. 
aerospace primes engaged in 
the design studies. Since the 
acceptance of the F-15 design 
and contract award to 
McDonald Douglas in 1969, 
4,000-odd subcontractors have 
become associated with the 
program. 

Indeed, the new Air Force 
"Eagle" is a product of Ameri- 
can ingenuity, resourcefulness 
and response to challenge. 
More than this, "Eagle" has 
shed its pin feathers and is 
swooping into the era of air- 
superiority. ^S^ 



25 



MARS 




/.. 




It's the newest wrinkle 
in the many faces of 
Supersonic Firebee II 



he whining blades of Supersonic 
Firebee lis jet engine slow to a 
whisper, then fall silent as the 
vehicle descends in a graceful arc, 
its forward speed slowed by the 
tug of a drag chute that blossoms from 
the tail cannister. 

Seconds tick by as the automatic 
recovery system activates the deploy- 
ment of a main, 79-foot canopy topped 
by an 18.75-foot engagement chute. 

Loitering in the recovery area, a 
CH-3 helicopter equipped with a 
Mid-Air Retrieval System, swoops 



down and over the main canopy, its 
engagement boom extended from the 
open cargo hatch. 

Descending at a rate of speed 
corresponding to that of the target 
system and with forward motion at 
about 60 knots, the recovery chopper 
maneuvers skillfully over the nylon 
cloud, snagging the engagement 
chute with its boom hooks. Engage- 
ment successfully confirmed, the 
aircraft's main chute falls away to 
be recovered on the ground. 

Supersonic Firebee II is now safely 
in tow configuration by the recovery 
chopper, which heads for the target- 
drone maintenance area with its 
cargo suspended at the end of a cable. 

From Mid-Air Retrieval to return has 
taken 13 minutes and now. the aerial 
target system is lowered gently onto 



26 



* 



MID AIR RETRIEVAL SYSTEM 










^ 



the concrete apron for return to the 
flight inventory. 

This Mid-Air Retrieval System 
technique, designed into Air Force 
versions of Supersonic Firebee II 
(BQM-34F), offers a range of reduc- 
tions in time, money and manpower 
for target operations and support. 

Decontamination procedures 
associated w/ith water-recovered 
target systems are eliminated; turn- 
around time in restoring targets to 
flight status is dramatically reduced; 
and subsequent support-maintenance 
requirements minimized. 

MARS "graduation" tests— in which 
a Firebee II airframe was weighted to 
simulate a fully-equipped vehicle- 
were successfully conducted in early 
August by the Air Force's 651 4th 
Test Squadron based at Edwards Air 



Force Base, California. 

Uploaded on the port wing pylon of 
a DC-130 Hercules, the MARS test 
vehicle and its resulting success 
paved the way for concluding phases 
of the BQM-34F's development 
program. 

Supporting the MARS development 
has been a Teledyne Ryan contract 
team based at Edwards under Base 
Manager Billy J. Sved, following initial 
tests at El Centre Naval Air Facility. 
Lieutenant Colonel John S. Burklund, 
Commanding Officer of the Test 
Squadron, narrows the subject of his 
contract support team into one term, 
"Professionalism. 

"Our relationship has a very strong 
value as its foundation. We work 
together to get our jobs done. And 
we're perfectly candid with each 



other," he observes. 

An F-4 fighter pilot in Vietnam before 
his current assignment, Burklund's 
Test Squadron is "integrated" to 
support developmental-test phases of 
Air Force drone-RPV programs. 

"We see the MARS development as 
significantly important in cost 
reductions that apply to all phases of 
operations in which the BQM-34F will 
be engaged," says Burklund. 

A fourth generation in Teledyne 
Ryan's Firebee "family" of aerial 
target systems, Supersonic Firebee II 



27 









-■fg-'-itt.i 



is posed as a primary support velnicie 
in weapons development, test and 
evaluations associated with the Air 
Force F-15 "Eagle. " 

In more than two decades of use, 
Firebee vehicles have filled such 
primary support roles for the develop- 
ment of every major weapons system 
now in the U.S. military arsenals. 

Harry A. Moffett, Program Manager 
for Firebee II at Teledyne Ryan, notes 
that the aerial target system was con- 
ceived, designed and produced as an 
"air-superiority" vehicle. 



"We studied the existing charac- 
teristics of known threat sources, 
designing these qualities into the 
basic program. Then we looked as 
far downstream as possible, creating 
the advanced design for air- 
superiority' application. In fact, 
the Firebee II is two systems in one," 
notes Moffett. 

In its dual-mission configuration, 
the sophisticated target carries a 
jettisonable fuel pod beneath its 
fuselage. In this high, subsonic 
mode, Firebee II matches known 
performance characteristics of 
existing threat sources. Upon com- 
pletion of its subsonic mission, the 
fuel pod is jettisoned as the system 
translates into high-performance, 
supersonic profiles. 

"This is where the air superiority' 



28 




personality fits in," explains Moffett. 

Produced initially under a Naval Air 
Systems Command order, Navy 
versions of the Firebee II (BQM-34E) 
were delivered to the Naval Missile 
Center, Pt. Mugu, in 1968. Since that 
time, more than SOflights have been 
compiled, and the aerial target system 
was declared "fully operational" in 
June by Navy Officials. 

Options of ground or air-launched 
operations are included in Firebee ll's 
design as well as common use of 
standard Firebee (BQM-34A) ground 
support and test equipment. 

MARS development in the Air Force 
versions of Firebee II quickens the 
pace for remaining portions of the 
overall program. Scheduled for addi- 
tional testing at Tyndall Air Force Base 
this year, the vehicle will undergo 



augmentation systems tests including 
passive and electronic scoring sys- 
tems as well as X-band augmentation. 

Aerospace Defense Command's 
fighter-interceptor teams competing 
in 1972's William Tell Weapons Meet 
will see Supersonic Firebee II for the 
first time during formal rollout cere- 
monies planned for September 23. 

Between then and early next year, 
when the system is scheduled for 
operational use by the Air Force, 
Firebee II will be in the concluding 
phase of its developmental program. 

Those at the northwest Florida 
home of the Air Defense Weapons 
Center might sneak a preview 
of the growth-version target vehicle 
as it streaks across the sky. 

But, they'll have to watch at 
supersonic speeds. ''SS^ 




6514th Test Squadron technicians upload 
and pre-flight BQM-34F Firebee II at 
Edwards Flight Test Center where pro- 
gram is in final stages of MARS 
development. CO. of Test Squadron, Col. 
John S.Burklund, and Teledyne Ryan 
Base Manager Billy Sved (above) consult 
on growth-version aerial target system 
that successfully completed maiden 
flight Aug. 25, performing a mission that 
began with air-launch at 30,000 feet, climb to 
50,000feet and cruise that ended 75-minutes 
later by MARS. Flight was completed 
in subsonic mode as ground controllers 
verified performance specifications. 



29 



ELECTRONIC SUPPORT- 



From California to Italy stretches 
a thin, but vital, network of elec- 
tronic field engineers who are the 
driving force behind the com- 
pany's determined effort to 
"service everything we build, any- 
where in the world, within hours." 

This band of experts lead a 
somewhat nomadic life, but they 
wouldn't have it any other way. As 
Bill Peacock, assigned to the 
Manned Spacecraft Center in 
Houston, Texas, puts it: "Traveling 
with NASA Earth Resources air- 
craft has put me in four foreign 
countries and made it possible for 
me to have visited all 50 states. 
And," Peacock adds, "it can be 
kind of interesting trying to explain 
on an expense report how you 
stayed in two motels 200 miles 
apart on the same night . . . twice 
in the same week!" 

But San Diego-based Bob 
Marek, to whom the offsite 
engineers report, is rarely ruffled 
by what seems to be glaring incon- 
sistencies — and the task of keep- 
ing track of who's where and 
when. A veteran of more than five 
years in the field, Marek applies 
the term "bookkeeper" in defining 
his current role of product support 
supervisor, although he serves as 
a primary link in the closed-loop 
chain designed to provide quick 
response to customer require- 
ments. 

Marek's reticence in defining his 
personal role is not evident, how- 
ever, when it comes to describing 
the section's mission. "Our field 
force actually functions as the 
'Arm of Engineering' and, in fact, 
is supplemented by in-house 




Electronic and Space Sys- 
tems' "Arm of Engineering" 
spans nearly half-way around 
the globe . . . providing a direct 
link between user and the 
quick-reaction capability of 
Teledyne Ryan's in-house 
engineering staff. 



engineers who travel to the field 
as required." Marek adds, "This 
type of depth in engineering sup- 
port greatly facilitates our quick- 
reaction capability for repair of 
existing equipment, and modifica- 
tion to prototype equipment under 
test and evaluation. " 

Organization of the product sup- 
port section — a functional report- 
ing activity to the director of 
engineering — facilitates a two-way 



exchange of data between in- 
house and field engineers. Weekly 
reports detailing test, evaluation 
and operational applications of 
Teledyne Ryan-built electronic 
equipment are submitted from the 
field for review by program 
engineers. 

Most of the Electronic and 
Space Systems field engineers 
began their product support role 
in-house, while the program was 
still in the design stage. Gerry 
Cooley, director of engineering, 
describes the company's 
approach to product support in 
this way: "Typically, the product 
support engineer works directly 
with the in-house engineering staff 
during initial stages of develop- 
ment, and then works on location 
with the customer until such time 
as proper maintenance proce- 
dures are established, and max- 
imum utilization of the system is 
obtained. " 

For example, Cooley mentions 
Bob Clough, a senior field engi- 




In prized photograph Bill Peacock (extreme left, above) stands in front of Lunar 
Landing Training Vehicle with group which includes former astronaut Neil 
Armstrong (center), first man to set foot on the moon. Wynn Rowell (lower left) is 
AN/APN-1 82 Doppler Radar Navigation-system support engineer at Naval Air 
Station, Lakehurst, N.J. 



30 



WHERE SERVICE IS THE PRODUCT 



I • - \v\ _ 




LEM 



RADARi SUPPORT CENTER 




neer assigned to the AN/APN-200 
Doppler Velocity Sensor support 
program. "Almost immediately 
after we were selected by Lock- 
heed to develop an advanced, 
Doppler radar navigation system 
for the Navy's new S-3A "Viking" 
aircraft, Clough was assigned to 
the program. He's been with it 
from design phase: hasgivenafor- 
mal training course to Lockheed 
engineers; and supervised the 
writing of an operation and 
maintenance manual." 

Obviously, being a top-notch 
engineer is a prime prerequisite 
for selection to a field assignment 
. . . but there's much more. 

The multifaceted duties of a field 
engineer involve shoulder-to- 
shoulder contact with the ultimate 
product user in assuring proper 
equipment operation, training of 
support technicians, advising on 
equipment modifications, and 
lending technical expertise in 
resolving interface problems. 

In this respect, the product sup- 
port engineer goes to the cus- 
tomer, whether it be in Naples, 
Italy, where the Group Engineer Ed 
Van Horn currently is establishing 
support for various applications of 
the AN/APN-182 Doppler Radar 
Navigation System, or the Ken- 
nedy Space Center in Florida 
where Don Campbell is support 
engineer for the Apollo Lunar 
Module Landing Radar, which has 
assisted in guiding 10 United 
States' astronauts to safe landings 
on the moon. 

Then there's the other extreme, 
like Mel Morris, who's assigned to 
the Imperial Beach Naval Air Sta- 
tion, approximately 25 miles from 
the Electronic and Space Systems 
plant in San Diego. 

Some, like Bruce Baker at the 
Naval Air Development Center in 
Warminster, Pa., are on 24-hour 
call for immediate assistance at 
neighboring activities. Baker's 
responsibilities include a number 




of east coast activities in Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island, Maryland 
and Pennsylvania. 

Wherever there's a requirement, 
that's where you'll find them; even 
in such unlikely places as Brazil, 
Denmark, Argentina, aboard a U.S. 
Navy aircraft carrier in the Mediter- 
ranean, or high over the Arctic 
wastelands in an Earth Resources 
aircraft. 

"There are times I really envy 
them," observes Galen Mitchell, 
manager of engineering support, 
expressing a view shared by Dick 
Morgan, Marek's staff assistant 
and a former field man. "But," 
Morgan quickly adds, "in our 
philosophy of product support 
every link is essential, and there's 
a great deal of satisfaction in being 
any part of the chain." 

Marek perhaps summed it all up 
best when he said, "I know it's an 
old line, but in this department, 
service is the product." -^fi^ 



Don Campbell (above) has been Lunar Landing Radar support engineer for all of the Apollo missions. 
Field support engineer for AN/APN-200 Doppler Velocity Sensor to be used on Navy s new Lockheed S-3A 
"Viking" ASW aircraft Is Bob Clough (top left), who joined program during development phase. 
Research and development projects at Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, Pa., are supported 
by Bruce Baker (top right), who also provides technical support at four other east coast activities. 



31 



Photo by Ed Wojctechowski 



HAPPINESS IS .... 



In the words of Navy fighter pilot Jeff Holhstein and 
his radar officer Dave Lefavour, there's just nothing 
like letting go at a Supersonic Firebee II. Particularly 
when you can see the Sparrow missile slam home. 

More particularly, when the Firebee II you've 
knocked out of the skies over the Pacific Missile 
Range isthe first operational "kill" achieved against 
one of the sleek, slender jets. 

Attached to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron- 
Four at NMC, Lieutenant Commanders Hohlstein 
and Lefavour described their successful shoot for 
REPORTER magazine. 

"I was surprised at the radar image it offered," 
noted Lefavour, a combat-seasoned radar officer 
whose carrier duties include Gulf of Tonkin patrols 
and missions over Vietnam. "It was much bigger 
than I had expected." 

Pilot of the F-4J "Phantom," Hohlstein noted the 
"realistic" values offered by Firebee II, calling it the 
"best simulation of an enemy threat" he's flown 
against. Both have previously fired on standard, 
subsonic Firebee targets. 

"From launch through de-brief, it was a perfect 
mission," recalls officials at NMC who monitored 
the air-to-air engagement on Aug. 15. 



The BQM-34E was ground launched into flight, 
vectored out over Pacific Missile Range weapons 
firing areas and climbed to 30,000 feet, offering a 
head-on attack presentation at Mach 1. 23. 

Radar Officer Lefavou r picked up the scope signa- 
ture of the incoming target, "much better" than had 
been anticipated. A single Sparrow missile was 
launched from the "Phantom" fighter, striking the 
Firebee II in its belly. 

"It (Firebee II) is the hottest, high-performance 
system in the target inventory, " concluded the VX-4 
pilot-radar officer team. 

Responsible for air test and evaluation of 
weapons systems as well as tactics for fleet opera- 
tional use, VX-4 is staffed by 85-90 percent combat- 
seasoned aircrews, according to Captain Thomas 
J. Cawley. 

"Supersonic Firebee II is something we've 
needed," offers the skipper, a fighter pilot who com- 
manded a squadron in Vietnam combat. He 
indicated perameters of the performance envelope 
now in test and evaluation phases for the F-14 "Tom 
Cat " are being established by his Pt. Mugu unit. 

The perameters are made to order for Supersonic 
Firebee II. 



BAGGING A FIREBEE U! 



32 



Radar Officer Lefavour simulates scope througfj which he sighted 
"enemy" Firebee II. Pilot Jeff Hohlstein "flies" model of supersonic 
vghicle in reenactment of first operational "kill" August 15. 




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ADC's 1972 
WiUiam Tell Weapons Meet: 

teamwork, stiff competition 
and Firebee., 




Good luck and good hunting to the 

Aerospace Defense Command Team 
from the team that builds the "Big Apple." 

^^ TELEDYNb RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

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Air Force Supersonic Firebee II 

performs its first air launch from 

win^ station ofNavyDC-130 "Here" 

orer Pacific Missile Raniie. 

Operational test and development 

program for BQM-3-IF now shifts to 

Tyndall Air Force Bases Air Defense 

Center for completion of program 

leading to operational status next 

year in Air Force inventctries. 



Photos by Edward R. Precourt 



About this Issue 

Standing before a throng of well-wishers last September, on 
the occasion of his 50th anniversary observance as a pioneering 
aviation-aerospace leader, T. Claude Ryan, a fiercely humble 
man, commented, "This is your tribute, too." 

His audience included some 800 Teledyne Ryan employees, 
a sprinkling of side-kicks from the "Golden Days" of aviation 
and a handful of men and women who'd worked by his side, 
designing and building some of his earliest airplanes. 

"Without you, mycareerand what it represents wouldn't have 
been possible," pointed out the man credited with helping 
launch America into an age of space exploration and lunar 
landings. 

Ryan's "bailing-wire and barnstorming" age of flight, accord- 
ing to Apollo astronauts, inspired a good deal of successes 
achieved in the space. Landing radar systems contributed di- 
rectly to those successes, they are quick to acknowledge. 

Staff artist Bob Watts punctuated his cover painting of T. 
Claude Ryan with symbolistic values associated with that half- 
century of aviation-aerospace. Then, he created the back cover 
focused on the mission of Apollo 17. 

There is an inseparable link between the two. 

One of the REPORTER magazine's major sources of success 
down through the years has been its graphic content. Over the 
past six years, readers could travel to the far reaches of the 
globe through photographer Ed Wojciechowski's photo-jour- 
nalistic essays. 

It was routine to which he had long grown accustomed when 
several years ago, he was whisked out of the desert heat of New 
Mexico and Texas and into the frozen wastes of the Arctic to 
cover an urgent Army project. Ed produced his usual quality 
coverage. And, as an added measure of professionalism, found 
a black and white, spotted mutt. Garbed in what served as an 
aviator's cap and perched on a 
Firebee wing, a human interest 
photo that carried the world's 
wire services was the result. 

No sooner than he returned 
from that ordeal than another 
assignment awaited; join a Pa- 
cific Fleet task force exercising 
at sea! 

Inanyenvironmentand under 
the most severe conditions, Ed 
Wojciechowski blended a 
smooth and near-flawless mix- 
ture of photographic proficien- 
cy with the sensitivities of art. A 
career Marine Corps combat 
news photographer, Ed was 
also a gentle man. He grew 
orchids as a hobby. 

Ed contributed more before 
his untimely death Nov. 11, at 
age 48, than most men ever 
have the opportunity to realize. 

REPORTER magazine con- 
siders itself fortunate to have 
been able to share some of 
these contributions with read- 
ers. His last photo appears on 
page 14. 






Volume 33, No. 3 
Winter 1972 

7rTELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

Robert B. Morrisey / Manager, 

Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Brow/ard / Editor 

Robert R. Springer I Associate Editor 

David A. Gossett / Staff Ptiotographer 

Robert Watts / Staff Artist 

Art Design by Linda Slacum 



2 Apollo 17-The End of the Beginning 

Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evansand 
Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt are scheduled to begin 
the concluding chapter in the Apollo program Dec. 6, 

as "America" and its lunar module, "Challenger" 
leave earth for a 13-day mission to the moon. 

6 Blast a Bandit Firebee 

Aerospace Defense Command's fighter-interceptor 

teams engaged in 1972's William Tell weapons meet 

proved a degree of air defense readiness that's 

demanded for the era of uncertainty that lies ahead. 

10 Countering the Undersea Threat 

Soon to take its place in tfie fleet is the all-new S-3A 

"Viking," the Navy's long-range ASW aircraft 

now undergoing operational development and tests 

with a Teledyne Ryan sensing system. 

12 Five Decades of T.Claude Ryan 

On the occasion of the 50th anniversary observance 

as a pioneering aviation-aerospace leader, REPORTER 

magazine presents a collection of hitherto 

unpublished photos in tribute to T. Claude Ryan. 

14 A REPORTER Interview 

A Project 'Viking" team concept has been employed 

at Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's Electronic and 

Space Systems where Terminal Descent Landing 

Radar system are being designed for use by Viking 

spacecraft in their landings on Mars. 

16 Tomcat Aboard 

To his remarks offered in formally unveiling the 

Navy's new F-14 Tomcat" on Navy Day 1972 

were added some personal observations by 

Navy Secretary Warner. 

20 Shake, Rattle n Roll 

Out of Teledyne Ryan's long history in spacecraft 

landing radar design and development has been 

developed an environmental test laboratory 

capability now offered for uses here on earth. 

24 He Does It With Bullets 

Project "Six Shooter" test pilot is the first man in the 

history of Firebee to successfully achieve a "kill" 

against the jet-powered target using guns in an 

air-to-air environment. He did it twice to prove his point. 




Impressive earthrise over moon's 
horizon with Command and 
Service Module "Casper" in lunar 
orbit was captured on film by 
Lunar Module "Orion" crew during 
Apollo 16 mission. 



The Apollo 1 7 lunar exploration 
mission will cap more than a 
decade of achievements in hitherto 
unknown technologies which have 
made possible man's venture into 
space and conquest of the moon 



This country's final Apollo-program scientific lunar expedition 
is planned to be the longest induration, and the first-ever night- 
time launch of a manned space vehicle. 

Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison 
H. "Jack" Schmitt, are scheduled to begin the concluding chap- 
ter in the Apollo program at 9:53 p.m. (EST), Dec. 6, as the 
Apollo 17 spacecraft blasts off the launch pad at NASA's Ken- 
nedy Space Center in Florida and starts the quarter- 
of-a-million-mile journey to the moon. 

During the nearly 13-day mission— scheduled to terminate 
in the Pacific Ocean at 2:24 p.m. (EST), Dec. 19 — Cernan and 
Schmitt will descend to the lunar surface where they will deploy 
scientific experiments and explore the Taurus-Littrow area, 
while Evans conducts experiments from lunar orbit. 

In a major departure from procedures carried out on all pre- 
vious Apollo missions, two rocket firings have been pro- 
grammed for the descent orbit insertion maneuver. 

Previously, powered descent initiation of the lunar module 
has begun at or near the perilune (low point) of the spacecraft's 
moon orbit, about five degrees east of the landing site. Taurus- 
Littrow, however, is located too far to the east to allow this 
with safety. A critical danger in the DOI maneuver is the possibil- 
ity of an "overburn "; too much change in velocity will send 
the spacecraft crashing into the lunar surface. Since the ma- 
neuver is carried out behind the moon, the further east the 
perilune, the less time mission controllers have in which to 
analyze the new orbit. 

For this reason, the perilune for the Apollo 17 lunar module 
has beensetat 10 degrees west of the landing site, and lowered 
to seven nautical miles (Apollo 16's was 11), allowing a PDI 
altitude of 56,500 feet, which is within the capabilities of the 
lunar module's propulsion system. To accomplish this, two 
rocket firings have been programmed for Apollo 17 instead 
of the single burn used on all previous missions. Each of the 
firings will take place behind the moon; the first while the com- 
mand ship and lunar module are docked, resulting in an orbit 
of 15 by 59 nautical miles; the second after undocking, using 
the lunar module's reaction control thrusters to obtain a 7- 
by 60-mile orbit. The new profile will give mission controllers 
about 10 minutes to analyze six minutes of telemetry and make 
the go-no go decision for landing. 



For the sixth time, Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's lunar mod- 
ule landing radar will provide the velocity and altitude measure- 
ments essential in accomplishing a soft lunar touchdown. Dur- 
ing the descent from lunar orbit the landing radar will furnish 
continuous measurements of the lunar module's altitude, for- 
ward velocity, lateral velocity, and rate of descent relative to 
the moon's surface. 

Scheduled to begin updating the Apollo 17 lunar module's 
on-board guidance computer at an altitude of 39,500 feet, in 
earlier missions the landing radar consistently "locked-on" the 
moon's surface at slant ranges of 50,000 feet and greater. 

Scientists believe the targeted landing site — in a valley bor- 
dered by 5,000 to 7,000-foot mountains on the edge of Mare 
Serenitatis — will yield the secret to what happened on the moon 
between 3.7 and 4.5 billion years ago, and whether or not the 
moon has been thermally inactive for the past 3.2 billion years. 

The combination mountainous highlands and lowlands valley 
region, located about 20 degrees north and 30 degrees east 
of the center of the moon as viewed from earth, promises to 
provide samples older in age and different in composition from 
those returned on earlier missions. Included among the sample 
sites is a rock slide containing debris believed to have fallen 
from high upon a 7,000-foot mountain, and a major fault scien- 
tists and geologists feel may be related to the Serenitatis mas- 
con (mass concentration) formation. 

During their scheduled stay of 75 hours at Taurus-Littrow, 
Cernan and Schmitt will spend three, 7-hour periods outside 
the lunar module setting up the Apollo Lunar Surface Experi- 
ments Package and exploring and collecting samples in the 
surrounding area. 

The Lunar Rover Vehicle again will provide mobility to the 
astronauts, however, geologists believe theirtraverse distances 
may be severely restricted. Hemmed in by high, steeply-sloped 
mountains, the valley floor is littered with a large population 
of blocks and, west of the touchdown point, is crossed by 
a major fault. The block-litter in the landslide sampling area 
is expected to be so severe that a direct LRV traverse into 
the slide will be extremely difficult, if not impossible. In this 
contingency, Cernan and Schmitt will work their way parallel 
to the slide. 

Evans, in the orbiting command and service module, will 



cne end of cne DeQinninq 



By Robert Springer 




Another "first" for the Apollo 17 
mission is the inclusion of civilian- 
astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" 
Schmitt, who has a Ph.D. in geology. 
The first non-military member 
of a lunar exploration team, his 
expertise as a geologist should enhance 
the selection of lunar samples. 
He and Navy Captain Eugene A. 
Cernan, depicted during lunar 
surface extra-vehicular activity 
training, hope to return samples which 
will help scientists close the gap 
in lunar data derived from samples 
brought back by previous missions. 





direct the lunar orbit scientific experiments. As flown success- 
fully on Apollo 15 and 16, the Scientific Instrument 
Module — containing a 24-inch panoramic camera, three-inch 
mapping camera, and a laser altimeter — also will be carried 
on Apollo 17. The ground track of this last planned lunar mission 
will permit some new areas of the moon to be investigated 
and photographed. Where Apollo 17 overflies areas covered 
by previous missions, the difference in sun angle will provide 
the photo-geologists with photographs of lunar features at new 
illuminations, facilitating their scientific investigations. 

Cernan and Schmitt's liftoff from the moon's surface is 
scheduled for 5:56 p.m. (EST), Dec. 14. After rendezvous and 
docking they will rejoin Evans in the command module, com- 
plete the lunar orbit experiments, and begin the almost three- 
day trip back to earth. 

Their return will bring to a close the "Apollo" chapter in 
the annals of man's lunar exploration; but, according to NASA 
lunar exploration chief. Dr. Noel Hinners, scientific study of 
Apollo program data is expected to continue for another 10 
years. 

In the meantime, NASA's manned spacecraft activities will 
move into a new phase with the spring 1973 launch of the 
Skylab orbital workshop. An experimental space station placed 
in earth orbit to conduct scientific, technological, and biomedi- 
cal investigations, Skylab will be visited by three separate three- 
man crews during an eight-month period. The first of the three 
manned missions — scheduled to occur about 90 days apart — is 
planned to last up to 28 days, while the remaining two missions 
have been programmed for periods of 56 days each. 

Still later, in 1975, two unmanned Viking spacecraft will be 
launched towards Mars where highly instrumented landers 
— equipped with Teledyne Ryan landing radars — will settle on 
the surface in a search for signs of life on the mysterious Red 
Planet. The success, and findings, of the unmanned Vikings 
— like Surveyor — could signal the next step in manned space 
travel and exploration. -^fi^ 




There icere the "Green Mountain 
Boys" and the "Green Dragons", the 
"Black Knights" and "Mr. Bones", the 
"Spittin' Kittins", "Maine Bangers" 
and a plucky Canadian team, the 
"Les Allouetfes"~all determined to . . . 




By Jack G. Broward 



TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE, Florida —Twice now on this hot, humid afternoon of 
September 28, competing teams of fighter-interceptors had been scrambled from 
Tyndall's hot line in vain attempts to score a missile "kill" against the "Bandit" Firebee 
simulating an enemy intruder on the far reaches of Air Defense Weapons Center's 
firing range. 

Knotted in a three-way tie for 1972's William Tell Weapons Meet honors were the 
119th "Happy Hooligans" Fighter Group, the 406th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron and 
Canada's 425th All-Weather Fighter Squadron, the "Les Allouettes ". 

Only a direct hit against the high-performance Firebee could break the tie score 
and produce an overall winner in Aerospace Defense Command's biennial test of 
its premiere fighter-interceptor team capabilities. Twelve teams of aircrews, radar 
controllers, weapons loaders and maintenance personnel had endured the stiffest 
competition in the history of these live firing tests. 

It remained for Captain Lowell Butters, pilot of the 425th Fighter Squadron's F-101 
now airborne with his radar intercept officer. Captain Douglas Danko, to slam their 
missile home and close the gruelling, 12-day mock air war. 

Judges monitoring the closing phase of the meet listened intently as ground control- 
lers vectored Butters to his intercept point. "Bandit two miles to starboard . . . Now, 
he's a mile to port . . . " The elusive Firebee under remote control from Tyndall 
was dancing through the cloud-swept skies, offering an evasive pattern of maneuvers 
at 40,000 feet. 

"We got em ... a direct hit! " came the report from Danko, who had finally locked 
on and fired his missile that broke the tie. 

In 12 days time, more than 40 Teledyne Ryan Firebee "Bandits" had been launched 
into flight to simulate sneak attacks against the U.S. Ten of the jet-powered "enemy " 
aircraft had been knocked down, seven of which would be refurbished to fly again. 

One of the seemingly indestructable vehicles had massed 75 flights into this year's 
William Tell meet and would add two more to its flight log before September 29! 

Amid the jubilance of victory that awaited the "Les Allouettes " champions at Tyndall 
as they returned from the closing shoot, ground personnel and team mates began 
preparations that would hail their conquering heroes. Barely had the "Voodoo" been 
waved into its chocks than Butters and Danko were hauled from their cockpits, lifted 
to the shoulders of squadron mates and paraded before cheering throngs of well- 
wishers. 

The tensions of William Tell, an event that draws to Tyndall only the finest of 
ADC's fighter-interceptor teams for tests of air defense readiness, was now relaxed 
for the first time since Sept. 18. The following morning would bring awards to winning 
teams followed by an evening banquet that would include for the first time since 
the beginning of William Tell in 1954, a "Top Gun " award. 

From its opening day, 1 972's William Tell meet had been characterized by Lt. General 
Thomas K. McGehee, Commander of the Aerospace Defense Command, as the most 
realistic test for measuring air defense skills available. 

"Our defenses are constantly being tested. How well we respond reflects directly 



Pictorial highlights of William Tell 
'72, reading clockwise at right, show 
It25th Fighter Squadron's winyiing 
pilot, Capt. Lotvetl Butters, is "cooled 
o_ff^' following u'inning flight. His radar 
officer, Capt. Douglas Danko, tells 
team-mates in "Les Allouettes" about 
Firebee shoot-off and Butters give re- 
porters intervieu'. First and last Fire- 
bees "killed" during competition were 
scored by Maj. Frank P. Walters and 
Capt. David. J. McCloud. both of the 
-'nd FIS (bottoyn right). Aerospace 
Defense Commander Lt. General 
Thomas K. McGehee (center, right) is 
flanked by Cong. Bob Sikes and Tele- 
dyne Ryan's Bob Schivanhausser in 
audience that witnessed presentation 
of Supersonic Firebee IL 



on the credibility of our deterrent posture. With fewer people to perform the mission 
of aerospace defense, it is essential that their talents be honed to keep them the 
professionals they are. 

"William Tell provides the necessary opportunity for realistic training for pilots, 
maintenance crews, weapons controllers and munitions loading teams. It is the proving 
ground for our aerospace defense network," he concluded. 

An integral part of the Tyndall team that supports William Tell meets, Teledyne 
Ryan Firebees have served in each consecutive event since 1958 as the primary 
target vehicle. Through the years, the day-glow red "Bandit" has acquired the nick- 
name, "Big Apple". 

Launched into flight from facilities at Tyndall, Firebees equipped with various elec- 
tronic devices which score near-miss distances and augmentation systems to project 
a variety of radar images, are remotely flown through a racetrack pattern over the 
Gulf of Mexico firing range. Against this target is exercised developmental weapons 
systems, pilots and aircrews undergoing air defense training tactics as well as routine 
training programs conducted by the Air Defense Weapons Center at Tyndall under 
Brig. General Lawrence J. Fleming. 

Against the backdrop of its support role through the years at Tyndall, Teledyne 
Ryan had yet another contribution to offer as this year's William tell meet got underway. 
Robert R. Schwanhausser, executive vice president-programs, presented formally 
to Tyndall audiences that included Lt. General McGehee, Brig. General Fleming, 
Florida Congressman Bob Sikes in addition to Maj. General "Chappie" James, himself 
an early-day William Tell Project Officer, the new, advanced design Supersonic Firebee 
II. 

Scheduled for operational use at Tyndall, the sleek, dual-mission aircraft rated 
for "air superiority" use in the era ahead, represents the "'bridge" that will span 
the years in which ADC's "Century Series " fighter-interceptors have served as first-line 
equipment and those in which the new F-15 "Eagle" would come of age. 

In the immediate time frame, however, fighter-interceptor aircrews competing in 
William Tell this year voiced unanimous praise for standard Firebee systems. 

"It was there one minute and gone the next, " recalls one pilot recalling the evasive 
maneuvers executed by the Firebee under remote control. 

Major Frank P. Walters and Captain David J. McCloud, members of the 2nd Fighter- 
Interceptor Squadron, were the first and last pilots to score "kills " against Firebees 
in this year's scheduled William Tell competition. The "Les Allouettes" missile hit 
came as a tie-breaker. 

"My Firebee was as realistic as any enemy aircraft I hope to ever go up against," 
noted Walters, praise that was echoed by his team-mate McCloud in de-brief sessions. 
In addition to the "Top Gun" award, presented to Captains Butters and Danko 
as the overall William Tell winners, the Richard I. Bong trophy went to teams in 
three categories: The F-101's ""Happy Hooligans" a perennial winner at William Tell; 
F-102's 115th Fighter Group from Traux, Wisconsin; and the F-106's 460th Fighter 
Squadron whose team leader, Lt. Colonel "Oley " Ohiinger bagged a Firebee during 
competition. 

Teledyne Ryan's "Apple Splitter " trophy, a new addition to the array of awards, 
was presented to the "Les Allouttes" skipper, Lt. Colonel Ron Hayman, with "Apple 
Splitter" plaques going to Butters and Danko for their highest scoring position against 
the Firebee. 

Aerospace Defense Command's fighter-interceptors are now back on station, 
assigned to a network of installations that ring the North American continent. Only 
the finest of these units could compete in this year's "tournament of Champions ". 
To compete in a William Tell event is, in itself, a distinction of superiority. Because 
of this competition, all of Aerospace Defense Command and its fighter-interceptor 
teams, can share in this superior quality. "^fi^ 

8 



Superso)iic Firebee II (BQM-SItF) 
presented formally to Tyndall 
audiences during William Tell '<"-', 
(/oes into operational use at Air Defense 
Weapons Center ne.rt year. Teledyne 
Ryan's Erich Oemcke, vice president. 
Aerospace Systems, presents "Apple 
Splitter" trophy (far right) to "Les 
Allouettes" shipper, Lt. Colonel Ron 
Hayman and to Firebee "killers" 
(group photo). One Firebee, delivered 
to Tyndall in 1966. hadflou-n 75 times 
l>riorto start of William Tell '72. It 
added two more.tlights to log during 
u'eapons meet and is note aimed at 
hitting the 100 mark before retirement, 
according to ADWC officials. 



When deployed operationally with 
the fleet in 1974, the S -3 A "Viking" 
willofferan entirely neiv concept in 
carrier-based antisubmarine 
warfare . . .a totally integrated 
iveapon system that will give U. S. 
Navy airborne crews the edge iti 





Now more than halfway through its 
scheduled 20-month flight test program, 
the Lockheed-built S-3A "Viking" anti- 
submarine warfare aircraft promises to 
be this country's most effective deter- 
rent against the undersea threat posed 
by the quieter, faster, nuclear powered 
ballistic missile submarines of the 
1970's and 1980's. 

Slated to begin operational missions 
inearly 1974, Viking's four-man crew will 



"Viking" combat range of more than 
2000 nautical miles adds "long legs" to 
Navy ASW team which includes DLG in 
photo at left. Critical requirement in 
navigatiotiforS-SAs like those below was 
provided by Teledyne Ryan in itsdesigy^- 
development of new ANIAPN-200 
Doppler Ground Velocity Sensor. 




10 



be operating the first carrier-based ASW 
aircraft equipped witti a general- 
purpose digital computer, thie Univac 
1832. Twice as fast as other operational 
systems, the multiprocessor computer 
provides a complete integration of 
individual avionic systems, making pos- 
sible the rapid utilization of data — the 
l<ey to success in the ASW mission. 

The computer will not only facilitate 
tactical calculations, but also route 
instructions to capture, store and recall 
data from all of the available ASW sen- 
sors. Additionally, the computer will be 
used to monitor the plane's avionic 
equipment for malfunctions, and 
increase the accuracy of tactical man- 
euvers. 

Vil<ing's navigation subsystem is com- 
posed of a varied group of navigational 
sensors, computers and displays under 
the control of the general-purpose com- 
puter. One of the primary systems is 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical's AN/APN- 
200 Doppler Ground Velocity Sensor. 
Designed and developed specifically for 
S-3A application, velocity measure- 
ments from the space-age system are 
used for long range, point-to-point and 
tactical navigation: critical elements in 
locating enemy submarines hidden 
beneath the ocean's surface. 

Reflecting techniques perfected 
earlier in the Apollo and Surveyor lunar 
landing radars built by Teledyne Ryan, 
the highly sophisticated and accurate 
single-unit Doppler radar was the first 
avionics subsystem to be delivered to 
Lockheed's Rye Canyon Integration Test 
Lab; the first to complete integration 
tests with the general-purpose com- 
puter; and one of the first major subsys- 
tems to be installed on the Lockheed 
P-3A avionics flying test bed. Now in- 
stalled on the avionics integration test 
Viking, the AN/APN-200 has almost 
tripled specified minimum time between 
failure rates during its more than 6,000 
hours of operation, including over 60 
flights in the P-3A and S-3A. 

All solid state, the modular-con- 
structed, flush-mounted system is light- 
weight, offering an adaptability to other 
fixed-wing and rotary-wing applications 
where precision navigation is an essen- 



tial mission requirement. 

Four of the eight test Vikings Lock- 
heed is building for the Navy are flying, 
and all eight will be flying in the first 
quarter of 1973. Instrumented to per- 
form specific tasks in the flight test pro- 
gram, the four S-3A's now flying have 
accumulated 520 flight hours and made 
more than 220 flights since the first Vik- 
ing took to the air on Jan. 21, 1972. By 
the time it goes into fleet service. Viking 
will have accumulated more than 2,600 
hours of flying in almost 1,200 flights. 

Powered by two high-bypass-ratio 
General Electric turbofan engines, the 
S-3A can operate above 35,000 feet at 
a speed of more than 300 knots during 
search: is capable of speeds in excess 
of 400 knots; and has a combat range 
of more than 2,000 nautical miles. Its rate 
of climb from sea level is more than 
4,200 feet a minute and it has a ferry 
range in excess of 3,000 nautical miles. 

Equipped with a vast array of acoustic 
and non-acoustic sensors — including 
sonobuoys, high-resolution radar, 
infrared, magnetic anomaly detection, 
and electronic counter-measures equip- 
ment — the S-3A also accommodates a 
wide variety of attack stores. Torpedoes, 
mines and special weapons can be car- 
ried in two independently operated 
weapons bays, and additional attack 
stores can be carried by installing bomb 
racks on the two wing pylons. Installa- 
tion of triple ejector racks make it possi- 
ble to carry three rocket pods, flare 
pods, or cluster bombs on each wing. 

Upon being assigned operational 
status, the Navy predicts Viking will be 
significantly more effective than any cur- 
rent carrier-based ASW aircraft; a pre- 
diction based largely upon the greatly 
improved effectiveness of the avionics, 
new advanced equipment and refine- 
ments to previous systems, all totally 
integrated by use of the general-purpose 
computer. 

In sum, the S-3A promises a giant 
state-of-the-art advancement for the 
antisubmarine warfare effort. With its 
highly trained crew. Viking will be able 
to effectively counter any undersea 
threat. "^fi^ 



^ 



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. 29 FT. 6 IN. 
(FOLDED) 

-68 FT. 8 IN.- 






11 



FIVE DECADES c 




w^^i^' 



Landed uphill. Ryan Broufsham was lowed back 
lip by horses for takeoff 



'->"*£' 

^'^d 



¥$2.50 you could get a ride with "Rpserre 
Military Aviator ' T. Claude Ryan 




fe^^ 




COLO POINT "If 



Ryan M-l pioneered air mail service as nation's 
first volume production monoplane 



Ryan s Dutch Flats field was hub oj early day San 
Diego flying activity —— 




"Ryan, the Aviator" documents as best it can in 246 
pages, the contributions to aviation-aerospace made by 
T. Claude Ryan over the past half-century. Even then, its 
authors could barely skim the surface of all that is known 
about the founder of the The Ryan Aeronautical Co., which 
became Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical in 1969. 

Doubtlessly, the full impact of T. Claude Ryan's 
dedicated contributions to aviation will be felt for at least 
another half-century to come. And other volumes will help 
record his greatness, the inspirations he pursued and the 
yet-to-be-achieved chapters of his life. 

Meanwhile, with the assistance of William Wagner, 
author of "Ryan, the Aviator" and a close associate for 
many years of T. Claude Ryan's life, REPORTER magazine 
presents a collection of hitherto unpublished photos. At 
most, they add touches of human interest to chronicles 
already published. 

On the occasion of his 50th anniversary observance in 
1972 as a pioneering aviation-aerospace leader, 
REPORTER offers its footnote to that which has already 
been presented in honor of T. Claude Ryan. 



A Ryan Standard went into service in Hawaii as 
a sightseeing airplane 



Resting on its launch pad at the Kennedy 
Space Center is the Apollo 17 space- 
craft, awaiting the start of the United 
States' final manned lunar flight under 
the Apollo Program. REPORTER maga- 
zine turned to Hudson B. Drake, vice 
president-general manager of Teledyne 
Ryan's Electronic and Space Systems, 
and Vice President Charles J. Badewitz, 
who heads up the team developing the 
terminal descent landing radar and 
radar altimeter for the Viking Mars 
Lander, to explore the subject of Where 
do we go from here? " 
Reporter. With Apollo drawing to a 
close, mass audience support appears 
to be waning for national commitments 
in space. How do you assess this prob- 
lem for industries like your own, which 
has dedicated itself to national objec- 
tives over the past 15 years? 
Drake. The electronic and space sys- 
tems community must now look realis- 
tically at a period that demands respon- 
siveness to problems here on earth. 
We've proved our capability in areas 
where state-of-the-art simply did not 
exist a decade ago. Much of our sophis- 
tication — the areas of mass communi- 
cations, medicine, metallurgy, human 
physiology, meteorology, earth re- 
sources — are beneficiaries of space age 
spin-offs. Rememberthis, ours is a "free 
enterprise system," one that has en- 
dured a good number of years on a basis 
of ingenuity, resourcefulness and the 
spirit of competition. 
Badewitz. Obviously, the tempo of our 
times will slow down somewhat. But, we 
have a number of dramatic, compelling 
objectives that still await us in space. 
One of these is Project Viking, our land- 
ing on Mars in 1976. 
Reporter. Your Electronic and Space 
Systems has established a "team" ap- 
proach to design and development of 
the terminal descent landing radar and 
radar altimeter for Viking. What is the 
over-riding philosophy that character- 
izes this approach? 

Badewitz. Well, it is as simple as this. 
Viking must come off on schedule be- 
cause of the window that opens only 



reporber 




Key figures i'w Teledyne Ryayi's Viking 

Program effort, Electroyiic and 
Space Systems Vice President-General 

Manager Hudsoii B. Drake (right) 

and Vice President Charles J. Badewitz, 

reflect importance of "teaming" 

concept in program management. 




Photo by Ed Wo)Ciecho* 



14 



every two years. The program itself can- 
not tolerate schedule slips. Another 
equally inflexible restraint is related to 
economics. There's no room for money 
"goofs." Finally, there's the 11-month 
journey in which hardware must sustain 
its precise functioning condition. All of 
these things demand a "team" effort 
dedicated to the central task. We've 
used this approach in conjunction with 
ourSurveyorlandingradarprogram.and 
again with the Apollo Lunar Module 
landing radar program. We know that 
it works. 

Reporter. What is Electronic and Space 
Systems strongest capability today? 
Drake. I'd say it is our broad technology 
base, coupled with solid, proven expe- 
rience. Our history is one of working in 
the high technology fields, responding 
in positive measures to requirements 
than cannot accept any less than abso- 
lute results. 

Reporter. Early test results show that 
your AN/APN-200 Doppler Velocity Sen- 
sor system for the Navy's new S-3A 
"Viking" ASW aircraft is exceeding con- 
tract specifications in areas. Does this 
point toward a stronger position for 
Electronic and Space Systems in fixed- 
wing aircraft programs? 
Drake. As you know, we've enjoyed a 
long history in the fixed-wing aircraft 
field with our Doppler radar navigation 
and sensor systems. Our systems were 
in the Navy P-5M "Marlin" ASW sea- 
planes and the P-3 "Orion" for a number 
of years. We're hopeful of opportunities 
for applications in the B-1 and AWACS 
programs, plus several others. We're 
delighted with the performance of our 
AN/APN-200 system, and this encour- 
ages us to examine an even broader 
scope of potentials. 

Reporter. Navy SH-3D ASW helicopters 
have been upgraded with your advanced 
Doppler navigation radar system, the 
AN/APN-182. What have been the results 
of this advance? 

Drake. Generally, we've been able to 
exceed our required specifications as 
far as performance is concerned. More 
specific, however, is the reduction in 



size and weight we've achieved with this 
particular system; and we're still work- 
ing hard on bringing down the size and 
weight even further. Eventually, I see us 
in the position of being able to offer any 
size package, based on dollar values 
and matched to requirements. I truly be- 
lieve we've reached that plateau of 
diversity. 

Badewitz. Militarily, let me add that our 
new AN/APN-182 system installed in the 
SH-2D LAMPS helicopters has been suc- 
cessfully employed in the combat envi- 
ronment, with tremendous success. 
When the USS Sterrett got her MIGs 
and gunboats early this year, she had de- 
ployed her LAMPS helicopter. This was 
a night engagement, therefore, naviga- 
tion was critically important. Before the 
action subsided, the ship had bagged 
two MIGs and three enemy gunboats. 
We are proud to be part of such a team. 
Reporter. What other areas of expan- 
sion for Electronic and Space Systems 
lie over the horizon? 
Drake. For a number of years now 
we've been conducting exploratory and 
development work in electronically 
steered, phased array antennas, missile 
seekers, and missile detection radars. 
All of these areas offer a great potential 
in the application of our Doppler tech- 
nology. Add to that our vertical in-house 
capabilities in the design and manufac- 
ture of microminiaturized components, 
stripline assemblies and various sub- 
assemblies, and it's easy to see that we 
are moving into the era of becoming a 
complete radar house. 
Badewitz. It's interesting to note that 
our first venture into electronics in- 
volved the seeker for the U.S. Air Force's 
first air-to-air research missile, which 
led to the development of aircraft navi- 
gation and positioning equipment, heli- 
copter hovering devices, altimeters, and 
remote sensors. When this country com- 
mitted itself to putting man on the moon, 
we were in the fortunate position of 
being able to contribute by applying our 
technology, techniques and experience, 
in development of manned spacecraft 
hardware. Now, we've come full circle. 



The new technologies and state-of-the- 
art advancements realized from our 
achievements in space hardware are 
being applied to aeronautical products. 
Reporter. Earlier, you described the 
conditions behind the philosophy of the 
team approach to product development. 
Would you briefly describe the Viking 
Team structure and its relationship with- 
in the company? 

Drake. From our earlier experiences 
in the program management team con- 
cept, we quickly realized that outstand- 
ing leadership qualities are essential at 
every program level, and that represen- 
tation at the corporate table is an abso- 
lute requirement. Charlie Badewitz, 
with his first-hand knowledge of pro- 
gram teaming and technology base 
developed through participation in the 
Surveyor and Apollo programs, was the 
natural choice for heading up our 
Viking Team. 

Badewitz. We feel our Viking Team as- 
signments represent the strongest pos- 
sible chain of product development- 
management centralization. With highly 
qualified and experienced personnel 
holding down all key positions within 
the team's composition — each assigned 
to full-time and specific program re- 
sponsibilities — we are insuring the con- 
tinuation of a long-standing company 
philosophy of not only building a better 
product, but producing one that meets 
or exceeds all specifications within the 
economic constraints. -^fi^ 




VIKING 
TEAM 



15 



A Marine Corps Honor Guard, two bands 
and a cheering throng of well-wishers 
helped welcome its arrival at NAS Miramar 
as the word went out . . . 



Tomcat Aboard! 




16 



Lieutenant James E. Coleman nudged his throttles forward, 
felt the tug of response from his twin-jet engines and gingerly 
pulled up into a climb from the Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu 
out over the Pacific Missile Range. Within two hours, his mis- 
sion on this 13th day of October 1972 would help write the 
beginning of a new chapter in the history of Naval Aviation. 

Assigned by the Naval Air Systems Command to Pt. Mugu 
supporting operational development of the Navy's F-14 
"Tomcat," Coleman's passenger — riding in the radar operator's 
seat — was Secretary of the Navy John W. Warner. 

"Orientation" was the flight mission personality called out 
on his assignment sheet. But, no sooner had Coleman assumed 
a straight and level attitude than the order came from the rear 
seat, "let's see what it'll do." 

"But, Sir," protested Coleman, "my orders are to take you 
to Miramar Naval Air Station." 

"The Secretary of the Navy has just changed your orders, 
lieutenant," came the stern reply. 

Relating this incident for several hundred military, industrial 
and civic leaders at Miramar's Master Jet Air Station later that 
morning. Secretary Warner termed his "Tomcat" flight, "the 
thrill of my life!" He said Coleman, complying with his orders, 
had "wrung it out" while passing through the sound barrier 
to attain Mach 1.8. 

Using the occasion of the Navy's 197th anniversary as his 
platform, Warner placed in commission Fighter Squadrons One 
and Two at Miramar as the Navy's first F-14 operational units. 

With deployment aboard the USS Enterprise scheduled for 
July 1973, 19 production versions of the "Tomcat" had been 
delivered by Grumman in October of this year. In its initial 
production buy, the Navy is scheduled to receive 313 F-14s 
through 1975, 

Placed in command of the two squadrons were Commander 
Sam Leeds, VF-1, and Commander Richard Lee Martin, VF-2, 
both physics majors and Vietnam air combat veterans. 

Early-day exploration for an aircraft such as the F-14 was 
begun four years ago by the Navy as it identified a threat spec- 
trum in the era downstream. The aircraft selected would be 
required to meet and defeat existing sophisticated, missile- 
equipped Soviet fighter aircraft under electronic command and 
control, subsurface and surface-launched missiles, heavily 
defended bomber aircraft equipped with long range, air- 
to-surface missiles and these missiles themselves. The choice 
of aircraft systems to develop was dictated by the capability 
of the defined threat. 

All analyses to date, according to Navy officials, show conclu- 




Premiere showing of F-H "Tomcat" aircraft 
occured on Navy Day 1972 at Miramar 
Naval Air Station(left) during program 
that was led by Navy Secretary Warner 
(right, top to bottom) arriving from Pt. Mugu 
in "Tomcat" ; receiving honors by Marine 
Guard and pinning Navy Crosses on Navy 
aces, LT Randy Cunningham and LT B ob 
Driscoll, both attached to Navy's Fighter 
Weapons School at Miramar. Program 
includedplacing in commissioned service, 
F-H squadrons VF-1 and VF-2. 

Photos by Dave Gossett 




17 



sively that the F-14A is su perior to both the known and projected 
threat in the 1770-1980 time frame. 

The "Tomcat" is a balanced weapon system utilizing the 
AWG-9 radar in conjunction with the long range Phoenix mis- 
sile; the medium short range Sparrow missile; and the short 
range Sidewinder missile plus the M-61 20mm gun. 

It's combination of weapons systems enables the F-14 to 
"mix" its capabilities and mission personalities, all within the 
context of "air superiority" categories. Through micro- 
miniaturization of avionics, weight reductions balanced with 
airframe and engine design have eliminated performance 
penalties formerly associated with multi-mission fighters. 

One percent of the aircraft's weight makes it possible to 
use Phoenix, Sparrow, Sidewinder, Agile, its 20mm gun plus 
air-to-surface weapons. A large part of that weight is in remov- 
able pallets, according to program officials. 

The long range Phoenix missile has a real and required air 
intercept capability designed for low altitude at subsonic and 
supersonic regimes to high altitudes at Mach 3. Verification 
of actual performance has been attained in successful firings 
conducted against Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Firebee (BQM- 
34A) aerial targets. Already fleet operational is Teledyne Ryan's 
Supersonic Firebee II (BQM-34E), itself an air superiority rated 
vehicle that will be used in support of weapons firing evalua- 
tions and training programs. 

Compared with today's standard of fighter measurement, the 
F-4 Phantom, the 'Tomcat " has demonstrated: 

1. 40 percent improvement in turn radius 

2. 27 percent increase in excess power 

3. 21 percent better sustained G 

4. 21 percent better acceleration 

5. 20 percent better rate of climb 

6. 21 percent better roll performance 




Long range Phoenix missile (above) has 
"killed" Teledyne RyanFirebee at distance 
of 76 miles in early test of accuracy. 
Shipboard trials have been completed by 
"Tomcat" which is scheduled for operational 
deployment in July 1973 aboard San Diego 
based ca rrier USS Enterprise. Ultimately 
scheduled to receive SIS F-Hs under initial 
buy, air superiority fighter is projected 
into 1970-1980 time frame for operational 
deployment schedules. 




18 



In terms of combat radius of action for escorting attack air- 
craft which would include loiter time on station to protect the 
fleet from incoming threats, the F-14A possesses the following 
advantages over the F-4J (capable of carrying Sparrow mis- 
siles): 

1. 80 percent more combat radius on internal fuel 

2. 50 percent more loiter time with six Phoenix missiles 

3. 100 percent more loiter time with four Sparrow missiles 

4. More than twice the radar range 

5. More than twice the missile range 

To date, 16 "Tomcat" aircraft have been flown at three differ- 
ent test sites accumulating 800 flights and 1500 flight hours 
logged, for the largest share, in weapons system testing. 

These are the characteristics Secretary Warner referred to 
in telling his audience at Miramar on Navy Day 1972, "the 
F-14 is badly needed in the fleet." 

"Tomcat" is the Navy's first new fighter aircraft in 14 years, 
following a period in which the F-4 Phantom became the stan- 
dard vehicle for Navy as well as Air Force use. "^fi^ 




Commande)- Sam Leeds 
Commandiny Officer 
Fighter Squadron — One 



Commander Richard Lee Martin 
Commandiny Officer 
Fiyhter Squadron — Two 



Phoenix to face multiple target attack 



Pt. Mugu, Calif.- Four Phoenix air-to-air missiles will be fired in rapid succession from a 
Grumman F-14 air-superiority fighter here soon in the most ambitious test to date of the 
multiple track and target capability of the Hughes Aircraft radar-guided missile system, 
main armament of the Navy fighter. 

Targets for the Navy test will be a formation of six pilotless aircraft- three Lockheed 
QT-33 and three Teledyne Ryan BQM-34A drones- operated by the Naval Missile Center's 
Threat Simulation Dept. Each of the long-range defense missiles fired in "near-simultan- 
eous" sequence is expected to be aimed at and guided to separate target drone aircraft 
by the F-14's AWG-9 fire control radar system. Operational Phoenix missiles will contain 
onboard active radars for final closure on a target in the terminal area. 

The upcoming test is the latest in a continuing series of the F-14 missile system intended 
to exercise gradually the weapon system's full potential. The F-14 is capable of carrying 
as many as six Phoenix missiles or a smaller number in combination with the Raytheon 
Sparrow. Its fire control system is designed to track 20 targets simultaneously and launch 
and guide all six Phoenix missiles to separate targets. Two Phoenix missiles were fired 
simultaneously and successfully directed against targets separated by 10 mi. several years 
ago (AW&ST May 25, 1970, p. 51). 

(Reproduced from Aviation Week & Space Technology Magazine) 



19 



«SHJIKe, RATTLE H* RQLU 



Teledyne Ryan's Environmental 
Laboratory and Product Test facility 
simulates conditions for systems 
application, either in this world 
or out of it. 




20 



In any given day's time, a system component or the system itself, can be flown to 
the moon and back, endure the most hostile environment known, heated, cooled, 
virbrated or crushed — all without leaving the premises of Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 

A transmitting system can radiate its pattern over a test range that simulates millions 
of miles, its performance defined in infinite precision, without invading nearby radio 
receiver systems. 

In fact, there is no known system designed to perform electronically either here 
on earth, Mars or the vacuum of space in between that cannot be performance verified 
in the facility that today boasts 20 different environmental test units. 

TheevolutionofTeledyne Ryan's Environmental Laboratory and Product Test facility 
began some 15 years ago as a permanent installation. Long before the bits and 
pieces of Surveyor spacecraft terminal descent landing radar systems came together, 
components were exposed to space and lunar environments. 

The assembled breadboard was "cooked" under simulated rays of the sun; 'frozen" 
in a make-believe lunar night; dropped, crushed, vibrated and tested beyond all antici- 
pated tolerance levels. 

The results of this brutal exposure are now a matter of record; never a system 
malfunction, either by the trail-blazing Surveyor spacecraft program or the manned 
Apollo moon landings. 

Sixteen environmental test methods are available, including high altitude, tempera- 
ture, temperature altitude, and combinations of humidity, rain, salt fog and salt spray. 






21 



Explosive atmosphere, leakage, acceleration, vibration, shock, space simulation and 
immersion testing are also included. 

Altogether, the environmental test unit includes ten definitive devices for measuring 
and acquiring data related to systems performance in simulated environments. 

Having acquired this space age capability, the facility today is engaged in a spectrum 
of applications in aerospace, airframe, sensing, and related functions in support of 
landing radars for Mars' "Viking" vehicle, Supersonic Firebee II, and a family of 
Doppler radar navigation systems incorporating advanced design techniques. 

Frequent requirements by firms other than Teledyne Ryan for use of the facility 
are accommodated through a procedure that starts with a simple telephone call 
to the Manager of Test Engineering in San Diego. 

Some of these companies are the California Instrument Co.; Conic Corporation; 
Cubic Corporation; Digital Development Corp.; Elgar Corporation; Gulf Energy and 
Environmental Systems; Humphrey, Inc.; Plessey Environmental Systems; Systems 
Science and Software; Teledyne Kinetics; Teledyne Micronetics; Wavetek; and Solar. 

Included in the Environmental Laboratories facility, which covers an area of approx- 
imately 7,000 square feet of floor space, is a staff of 13 engineers with six technicians 
whose responsibilities are directed toward use of five electrodynamic vibration exci- 
ters, 10 environmental chambers, two thermal vacuum space chambers, two shock 
test machines, a centrifuge, a large shielded enclosure and a test support shop for 
fabricating functional test sets, holding jigs and vibration-shock fixtures. 




22 



The Mechanical Systems Laboratory of Product Test performs hydraulic, pneumatic, 
fuel systems, structural and thermal tests oriented to engineering requirements. 

Examples of its capabilities are reflected in the static stress and structural loads, 
thermodynamics and fluids, propulsion and dynamics and pyrotechnic test areas. 

In addition to these specific areas, the test support shops provide major portions 
of mechanical parts fabrication required for field test operations and flight test 
instrumentation. 

Physical facilities house shops and equipment for complete sheet metal and test 
fixture fabrication, machining, welding and heat treat functions. A 16 x 20 x 32-foot 
structural steel fixture, two 10-gpm hydraulic pumps, a 10-channel hydraulic load 
maintainer with hydraulic cylinders, load cells, pressure guages, hoses and fittings 
and 600 channel data acquisition system are provided for structural tests. 

The hydraulics laboratory includes two flow benches, each with a MIL-H-5606A 
fluid flow to 20gpm at 4900 psig with temperature control to ±275°F. Also included 
is an ultrasonic parts cleaner which uses trichloroethene III at±140°F and three-micron 
(absolute) filtration. 

A computer-processor to the Laboratory facility will be added in 1973, offering 
on-line capabilities, reduction, stowage and retrieval. Growth projections using this 
capability include automatic operation of environmental chambers and control of 
vibration test equipment. "^fi^ 




23 



M 





n 



am 



Never in Firebee history had one of the high-performance aerial 
target systems been l<nocl<ed down during an air-to-air en- 
counter with bullets until Project "Six-Shooter" test pilot, 
Major John Mantei, squeezed off the burst of 20mm Gatling 
gun fire documented in this photo chase sequence. 

With a gun pod housed in its belly, Mantei flew his F-106 
"Delta Dart" through a pattern of offensive maneuvers, chasing 
the elusive "bandit" through a series of4-G turns and banks 
at speeds up to nearly 500 knots, finally catching the target in 
a tight turn with a salvo of hot lead. 

Assigned to Tyndall Air Force Base's 4750th Test Squadron, 
Mantei and his Project "Six-Shooter" team have successfully 
proved feasibility for implementing the sturdy F-106 with Gat- 
ling gun pods. 

Mantei is the only pilot to ever achieve an air-to-air "kill" 
against Firebees with guns. He did it twice, on August 24 and 
again on August 28. '^'^ 



^.- 




24 



Please send address changes to: 

TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

P. O. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



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GERMAN • EVANS • SCHMITT 

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TELEDYNE RYAN fl AERONAUTICAL 




lU 



N/IAE 



D 
01 



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Pinpoint accuracy of weapons delivery 
technique Is documented in photo 
sequence that shows air-launch of 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical Strike 
Support Weapon System from DC-130 
"Hercules" launch-control aircraft. 
Armed with Maverick air-to-surface 




missile, BGM 34A streaks toward 
radar van target to unleash Its lethal 
weapon on command from rear area 
control operator. First deliveries of 
strike support vehicle have been made 
to Tactical Air Command for opera- 
tional test and evaluations. 




Spring 1973 



^^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



Robert C. Jackson, Chairman 

Barry J. Shillito, President 

Robert R. Schwanhausser, Executive Vice President 

—Programs 

Erich C. Oemcke, Vice President — Aerospace Systems 

Hudson B. Drake, Vice President & General IVIanager 

—Electronic and Space Systems 

Roy D. Fields, Wee President — Finance and Controller 

Don L. Arney, Vice President — Industrial Relations 

William J. Wiley, Vice President — Plant Operations 

Thomas E. Flannigan, Vice President — Washington Office 



Robert B. Morrisey/Manager, Public Relations 

— Communications 

Jack G. Broward/£d/tor 

Al GunkelMssoc/a;e Editor 

Al BergrenMrt Director 

Robert D. WaUs/Staff Artist 

Bud Wolford, Tom Howell/Steff Photographers 



Future of Target Operations 2 

Apollo— What It Means To Me 8 

FIrebees Do It Better 14 

Tomorrow's Structures Today 16 

Air Superiority 20 

Strike Support Weapon System 24 



Reporter notes . . . 

All things considered, it may be that executive leadership is Tele- 
dyne Ryan Aeronautical 's most prominent quality. From T. 
Claude Ryan on, each of those at the company helm possessed rare 
leadership talents. 

Barry J. Shillito 's appointment as new President (Feb. 1, 1973) 
offers no exception to this legacy. In private industry as in govern- 
ment service, his contributions are best measured in terms of 
leadership. 

Defense Secretary Melvin R. Laird took note of this quality in 
presenting to Shillito last December the highest recognition the 
Department of Defense can extend to civilians. The occasion came 
with the announcement of Shillito's resignation as Assistant Sec- 
retary of Defense (Installations and Logistics). 

The DOD Distinguished Public Service Medal cited him as 
"one for the architects of revised policies and procedures for the 
acquisition of major defense weapons systems." Moreover, it iden- 
tified Shillito as "the single 
individual most responsible 
for success of the Pres- 
ident's Vietnamization pro- 
gram in the logistics area." 

Shillito returned from 
World War II, in which he 
served as a fighter pilot (un- 
til captured by the Germans 
and held prisoner-of-war), to 
his native Dayton, Ohio, to 
earn a Bachelor of Science 
Degree from the University 
of Dayton. Industry-trained 
from that point forward, he 
invested his next four years 
in a local, Dayton firm. 
Then, five more with the Air 
Force Air Material Com- 
mand as a contracting of- 
ficer specializing in procure- 
ment. 

He next joined Hughes Aircraft Company, rising in four years' 
time to Director of Sales. Houston-Fearless Company followed, 
where Shillito served as President before joining the prestigious 
Logistics Management Institute, a non-profit organization, as 
President. 

Six years later, in 1968, he was appointed Assistant Secretary of 
the Navy (Installations and Logistics), and a year later, assumed 
his most recent DOD post. 

An impressive array of credentials, studded with executive man- 
agement expertise and experience, are now offered to Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical and its world-wide customers. 

It is a talented resource from which both stand to gain. 

RPV Missions Disclosed 
AEROSPACE DAILY Feb. 28 issue attributes disclosures of 
drone photo reconnaissance missions during last December's 
bombing of North Vietnam to Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
Admiral Thomas H. Moorer. In a report to House Appropriations 
defense subcommittee, according to AEROSPACE DAILY, Adm. 
Moorer's testimony indicated that, "each B-52 mission was fol- 
lowed by a drone photo reconnaissance mission and that drones 
flew below heavy clouds with bases at 2000 to 3000 feet." 

Drones used in the effort, according to the article, have been 
Teledyne Ryan AQM-34L/Ms flying under the Air Force's Com- 
pass Bin effort. 





Robert R. Schwanhausser, Executive Vice President - 
Programs at Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, presented 
his views before the 9th Annual Meeting of the AIAA 
on January 10, 197,3. His remarks are reproduced here. 



By 

Robert R. Schwanhausser 



liaRD LOOK 

at RPifs 



Gentlemen, my talk today is going to be a 
bit less nuts-and-bolts than many of you 
may expect from me. That's because I 
feel that all of us here share common 
responsibilities of a more philosophical 
nature. We stand on the threshhold of 
not just a New Year, but, I feel, a new era. 
We have just come through the sear- 
ing experience of our longest war ... on 
a battlefield not of our choosing, ... a 
war that couldn't be won . . . yet could 
not be lost. The tragic events of South- 
east Asia unfolded at the same time that 
dramatic changes were occurring in our 
own backyard. Words like "alienation" 
and "national priorities" became part of 
the fabric of our speech. And there 
developed a burgeoning reverence for 



life forms . . . particularly human life. 

So here we sit, a room full of men 
committed to concerns that are not fully 
understood or shared by many of our fel- 
low Americans. 

However, it is not for us to feel supe- 
rior, or wiser . . . because it's our very 
technological expertise that has painted 
us into a corner. Year after year we did 
more and better, sometimes forgetting 
that the millions we spent were really 
many individual dollars, painfully ex- 
tracted from a lot of family budgets. 

When I fly over Dallas, it is hard for me 
to realize that I am looking at a cost 
equivalent to what we have lost in South- 
east Asia. The seemingly endless carpet 
of homes and apartments, shopping. 



centers and skyscrapers; the total ap- 
praised value of our nation's eighth larg- 
est city, represents the cost of just our 
aircraft losses. If every structure in 
Dallas were to vanish today, the econom- 
ic impact would shake the world, but be- 
cause the aircraft were nibbled away 
from us one or two at a time, often we 
forget how quickly the dollars tend to ac- 
cumulate. 

Clearly, those of us involved in 
developing the arsenal of weapons our 
country must have, need to take a hard 
look at the path we've been following. We 
all know in the future that more must be 
done with less . . . but I'm not sure that 
the direction we have been going indi- 
cates much promise of success. 



Here's a cost curve on fighter aircraft. 
Sure, we're all aware tfiat costs rise each 
year. But we usually plot on log paper, so 
we don't fully appreciate the steepness 
of the curve. Here it is, in real bucks, for 
the past fifty years. It makes one won- 
der what will the costs be in 1980 or 
1990? It's a chilling thought to realize that 
by 1 980 the aircraft losses which we sus- 
tained in World War II, will project to 
1,000 billion dollars. 

We aren't the only problem area, the 
armor curve looks almost as steep, and 
just as straight. And if the tank builders 
had to work with titanium, and zircon- 
ium as we do, they'd be on the same 
curve. 

As I see it, we have three essential 
parameters that define the new ball field 
in which we all must play. Obviously 
stringent financial limitations . . . The 
potential of having to fight in much more 
lethal environments . . . and the neces- 
sity of making our whole defense pos- 
ture compatible with a genuine ground 
swell of humanism that is becoming part 
of our national conscience. 

I honestly believe that if we fail to re- 
late to any of these three factors in a very 
positive way, we are out of touch with the 
real-world. I am not a prophet, and I have 
no magic panacea to offer. I'm not even 
sure we will be able to play ball in the 
rather constrained new field that has 
been defined for us. 

But, my entire adult life has been 
spent in an area I believe represents one 
of the many new paths that must be 
found, and found fast, if we are to protect 
our nation not only from potential 
aggressors but also from ourselves. 

My background, of course, is in 
Remotely Piloted Vehicles . . . RPVs. 
Today's acronym doesn't really give the 
historical sweep of the discipline. RPVs 
have been around for a long time, actual- 
ly almost paralleling the history of 
manned flight. 

When most people think of RPVs they 
think of targets, and understandably so. I 
would guess there have been more than 
fifty thousand target flights in the past 
twenty odd years. I know of a single 
maneuverable drone that has been 
flown, recovered and reflown, as many 
as seventy-seven times, and is still flying! 
Targets have provided us with an un- 
glamorous, but very cost effective period 



of learning. 

Urgent Southeast Asia operational 
needs demanded an upgrading of these 
target vehicles into reconnaissance 
drones. The first units were fielded in 
less than 90 days. Obviously, off-the- 
shelf, quick-fix modifications. But, birds 
which in spite of these limitations, per- 
formed surprisingly well. 

The RPV horizon broadened a little 
more with electronic intelligence ver- 
sions . . . leaflet droppers . . . and some 
tentative weapons delivery systems. But, 
they all had a common limitation: they 
were basically modified versions of 
existing target drones. They used what 
sub-systems were readily available . . . 
and functioned with only a limited de- 
gree of pilot participation. 

These efforts, although responsive to 
urgent national needs, have been some- 
what detrimental to the ultimate growth 
of RPVs. Because they froze operational 
experience at the level of those 
expediently created vehicles. The 
military user in the field felt that what he 
got represented the ultimate potential of 
RPVs. 

Actually, the RPV technological poten- 
tial was being demonstrated a quarter of 
a million miles distant. While we were 
transmitting video and control data from 
a bird 200 miles away, the Soviets were 
maneuvering their Rover on the moon. 
Or NASA was transmitting pictures from 
their moon vehicle. 

So, let's take this technology that real- 
ly represents what RPVs can do today, 
and apply it to this decade's tactical mili- 
tary needs. In addition to speed and alti- 
tude, survivability has always been a 
function of size . . . radar cross-section, 
IR signature, or the physical presented 
area of vulnerable components. RPVs 
are harder to acquire ... to track . . . and 
to hit. Overall, they are roughly one tenth 
the target of a current fighter bomber. 

They could always go where man 
could not. They could pull higher "G"s, 
and out-maneuver a good fighter. They 
have always had this control potential, 
but, until recent years, they were blind 
and dumb. Now, with the improvements 
in sensor and computer technology we 
can really put the pilot in the loop by 
providing him with the visual cues he 
needs for his unique decision-making 
process. 



And you get his human judgement at 
its un-degraded best. Immune to the en- 
vironment ... to fatigue ... or injury. 

The pilot of the next generation of 
RPVs will enjoy super-sensory partici- 
pation . . . without the limitations of nor- 
mal apprehension and risk-factor 
evaluation that have been an instinctive 
part of the human animal since we 
swung down from the trees. 

Strike accuracy has always been a 
function of range to the target . . . but so 
has survivability. The Nazi oil fields at 
Ploesti were a classic, grim example. 
The low-level bombing attrition was a 
staggering 34 percent. The high level at- 
trition 4.2 percent. 

And that's the bitter trade-off that still 
exists thirty years later. What level of at- 
trition can you endure to get a 
reasonable probability of kill? It takes a 
Solomon to decide when a target is 
worth a million bucks . . . only to find out 
it might have to cost ten million to 
destroy. 

RPVs offer an alternative. Since they 
are inexpensive and unmanned vehi- 
cles, they can be flown to these tough 
targets, achieving CEPs of 20 feet, even 
while providing their own bomb-dam- 
age assessment. 

This new breed of RPVs would not be 
built to man-rated, MilSpec standards, 
but birds designed with cost as the chief 
yardstick. Electronic components from 
your kid's transistor radio . . . non- 
conventional fuselage fabrication 
techniques. 

Bear in mind, I am talking about the 
potential of a whole family of RPVs, con- 
figured for specific missions. They could 
be photographic, electronic recon- 
naissance, electronic warfare support, or 
weapons system delivery. Today, indus- 
try could produce recoverable strike 
drones for as little as half a million dol- 
lars. Or even expendable, electronic 
suppression, single-use drones, for a 
tenth that amount. And, of equal import- 
ance in these days of rapidly changing 
requirements, an RPV family would be 
adaptable through its life cycle to mis- 
sions which might not have been con- 
ceived when the birds were on the 
drawing boards. 

In addition to low acquisition cost . . . 

operating and maintenance costs for 

Continued on back inside cover. 



No mere set of buzz-words; "Threat 
Simulation" offers new meaning, new 
philosophy, new concepts for the . . . 



Future of 
Target Operations 




Supersonic Firebee II ( left} 
characterizes most advanced aerial target 
system in Navy's operational inventory and 
one of vehicles designed and produced to sup- 
port age of air superiority. Threat Simulation 
department technicians at Pt. Mugu's Naval 
Missile Center are equipped to maintain, 
operate and support weapons systems 
development, test and evaluation programs, 
using vehicles such as Teledyne Ryan's stan- 
dard subsonic and supersonic Firebees. 



By Jack G. Broward 



U. S. NAVAL MISSILE CENTER, Pt. Mugu, Calif. — They are the masters of deception. 
They live and work in a make-believe world of reality. They create "enemy" illusions so 
real that the most advanced weapons systems never know the difference. 

These are the target systems specialists here who are charged with primary roles of 
support for new weapons systems development, test, and evaluation. 

Their stock in trade is "Threat Simulation" — at its refined best and in its most chal- 
lenging form. 

Under Navy Commander Charles J. Jorgensen, Threat Simulation department's nine 
officers and 190 civilian specialists are helping introduce a philosophical concept 
geared for the future of target systems operation. 

Headquartered in a $4-million complex designed and constructed for Threat Simula- 
tion support, the department's responsibilities include water surface as well as aerial 
targets and missiles. The headquarters building, opened last year, includes hangar 
facilities, maintenance shops for avionics, propulsion and airframe requirements; ad- 
ministrative and support offices; range control monitoring facilities and operational 
planning, scheduling and briefing rooms. 

A detachment is assigned at Pt. Arguello's Vandenberg Air Force Base in support of 
Bomarc missile operations; Port Hueneme for water surface target operations; and at 
San Nicholas Island for drone aircraft operations. 

Brooklyn-born and a Navy attack pilot who commanded a squadron in Vietnam be- 
fore his current assignment began two years ago, "Charlie" Jorgensen's Threat Simu- 
lation department characterizes the term, "Dedicated." 

From Jorgensen and his associate, Frank A. Cavanaugh, on down, each member of 
the department brings "dedicated" specializations to the focus of mission require- 
ments. This philosophy, according to Jorgensen, "is helping create attitude changes 
toward what was formerly known as target operations. 

"Gradually, over the past two years, we've been factored in at the program manage- 
ment levels. Target systems users are starting to come to us with data requirements. We 
determine the type system, the operational environment and concept approaches as an 
integrated function of Threat Simulation," explains Jorgensen. 

This broadened philosophy has resulted in a "refreshing change," according to 
Cavanaugh, who sees a "great future" being stimulated in the targets community. He 
cites diminishing budgets, advancing technology and challenge to individual and collec- 
tive resources as elements responsible for the change. 

"Threat simulation is the spectrum of aerodynamics, structures, avionics — all of the 
classical problems, blended with the known and unknown qualities and quantities. It is 
the total response effort required in gaining specific data that will advance a system to 
its next phase," he generalizes. 

The F-14 "Tomcat" air superiority fighter and its marriage to the Phoenix weapons 
system is a representative example of "Threat Simulation" at its best. 

To test the capabilities of the Phoenix AWG-9 weapon control system last December 
in a simultaneous launch of four missiles, four target vehicles were flown simultaneously 
over the Pacific Missile Range. Each of the vehicles, two BQM-34A Firebees and three 
QT-33 droned aircraft, were stationed at varying altitudes and ranges, simulating 
"enemy" fighters and missiles. 

Chief Controller Frank Gatchell, Jorgensen's most senior drone control specialist, 
worked out the multiple control program with his team, sharing plot boards and coor- 
dinating airborne control requirements with pilots who would be "flying" the QT-33 
drones from San Nicholas Island into pre-determined firing range positions. 

"No question, this was the most challenging — and consequently the most rewarding 
— task presented to our department," notes Cavanaugh. All personnel associated with 
this project had to be in the 'loop' all the way, from planning and scheduling on down to 
the wire. After the live missile firings, all but one of the vehicles had to be recovered and 



controlled through this final cycle. 

The live firing test proved the capability of the weapons control system; one of the QT- 
33 drones suffered a direct hit and the remaining three missiles scored "l<ills" via lethal 
radius calculations. The "Tomcat'VPhoenix weapon system can now advance to its next 
phase. 

On the other, less sophisticated end of the "Threat Simulation" spectrum is the com- 
mon tow-target, a relatively primitive and vintage technique of testing the accuracy of 
air-to-air and surface-to-air gunnery and missile effectiveness. 

"It frequently is the most effective, least expensive technique for data acquisition. In a 
sense, the tow-target represents a starting point. The approach to our concept is first, 
determine what data needs exist. Then, configure target system for extraction of the 
data," Jorgensen explains. 

It is in this area of resourcefulness and ingenuity coupled with technology specializa- 
tions where his department distinguishes itself. 

"Make objects 'look' and 'act' in a manner that will most realistically simulate what a 
weapon thinks they should be. That's the objective," he notes. 

This objective introduces a broad range of systems augmentation capabilities. 
Through electronic devices in passive or active categories, a common system may be 
made to "look" altogether different. A slight change in location of an antenna, re- 
location of primary heat source, variation in radar cross-section or any arrangement of a 
number of configuration characteristics can result in the final conclusion that, "what you 
see is not necessarily what you get." 

It is this innovative quality that distinguishes NMC's Threat Simulation capabilities 
from all other target organizations. While it is Navy-oriented under the Pt. Mugu com- 
mand of Captain E. E. Irish, Jorgensen's unit responds to all military services require- 
ments as part of a government in-house laboratory. 

Its conventional target systems inventory is broader and more diverse than an aver- 
age target squadron's, ranging from small, prop-driven target aircraft through a spec- 
trum of advanced high-performance, jet targets and aircraft. At the far end of this selec- 
tion is the Navy's only "de-manned" QF-4 "Phantom. " In the inventory of man-rated air- 
craft which have been converted for drone use are QF-9 "Panther" and QT-33 trainer 
jets. 

All but one of the nine Navy officers on Jorgensen's staff are pilots assigned to fly 
either tow target or air control aircraft. This active Navy officer roster includes, in addi- 
tion to Jorgensen and Shand, Commander Hal B. Daniels, Operations Coordination Of- 
ficer; Lieutenants Glen R. Jacob, Aircraft Target Officer; Gene H. McKenna, Missile 
Engineering Officer; Howard T. Nygard, Schedules Officer; Charles L. Robinson, Quality 
Assurance Officer; Peter A. Shranz, Aircraft Target Project Officer; and Jon R. Modlin, 
Aircraft Target Project Officer. 

Unique to all other Navy organizations in the targets field is Jorgensen's military- 
civilian counterpart relationship. His civilian specialist managers occupy equal stature 
with military officer counterparts. 

"We're able to maintain a fine-tuned balance of technical expertise and fleet 
operational experience with this organization format, " notes Jorgensen, who regards 
Cavanaugh as associate director rather than a subordinate or deputy. 

"Our military representatives, coming from operational billets, are up to speed on 
what is needed. They contribute this data on project or program participating 
relationships with civilian counterparts to the missions we support," he explains. 

When the Navy procured Teledyne Ryan's growth-version Supersonic Firebee II, it 
was Pt. Mugu's Threat Simulation Department that assumed the primary support role in 
the air superiority-rated system's developmental flight test and evaluation program. 
When Fleet Composite Squadron-Three was assigned two DC-130 "Hercules" 
transports to replace aging DP-2E "Neptune" aircraft for target air launch operations, 




Boat-launched Firebee technique was 
developed by Threat Simulation department 
three years ago. then became operational 
throughout Navy. Detachment of personnel is 
maintained at Pt. Arguello to support water 
surface targets and Bomarc missile operations. 
Senior controller, Frank Gatchel (at right) 
briefs firing test support team engaged in F- 
I4's Phoenix missile program. 



'- f * 




■j^ 





Photos by Ed Precourt 




NMC's Threat Simulation Officer, Com- 
mander Charles J. Jorgensen, is helping Navy 
lead transition of target operations into ad- 
vanced age of "threat simulation" at Ft. Mugu. 




Operations Coordination Center is 
manned by Milt Heitman during firing 
test on Pacific Missile Range (top) 
and Lieutenant Gene McKenna pre- 
pares for operation flying Threat 
Simulation's T-28 (at far left). Depart- 
ment's 1500th operational flight of Fire- 
bee last year was commemorated by 
Teledyne Ryan presentation of plaque 
held by employee Cheri Slaughter. 
Cii'ilian associate department head, 
Frank A. Cauanaugh, sees a "great 
future" for threat simulation operations. 



Jorgensen's unit assumed a lead role In modification flight test and evaluations. 

It Is in this pivotal point of prominence that the Pt. Mugu organization has assumed a 
role of Increasing and broadening importance In the research, development, test and 
evaluation of major weapons systems support. 

"We're where the action Is," exhudes Jorgensen, who observes that target tech- 
nologies and associated remote control advances linked with data acquisition re- 
quirements adds a personality of urgency to a major share of his on-going support pro- 
jects. 

His pilot officers and civilian specialists share this positive attitude toward their Threat 
Simulation assignments. 

Mass media over the past several years have created a new wave of excitement re- 
lated to remotely-controlled vehicles, their projected applications and their expanding 
potentials. A technical community that isolated itself for many years from mass audi- 
ence awareness, target specialists today find themselves the subject of dally newspaper 
and magazine articles. 

The motives underlying "Chuck" Jorgensen's Introduction of "Threat Simulation" 
concepts are also stimulating target vehicle builders, such as Teledyne Ryan Aeronau- 
tical. Standard, subsonic FIrebees, produced In Navy, Air Force and Army versions, 
have for more than 25 years served as the basic, jet-powered target system. 

Through the Introduction of electronic systems and passive and active devices, the 
standard BQI\/1-34A FIrebee has been able to assume a broad range of configuration 
personalities. 

FIrebee specialists are engaged now In a long range Target Augmentation Systems 
program, upgrading and uprating standard BQM-34A/MQM-34D systems to meet re- 
quirements In the future. 

Objectives of the program are to provide augmentation systems that will achieve 
practicable utmost In threat simulation, representing the genuine combat environment. 
And to realistically simulate the combat time frame from "detection to destruction." 

To achieve these objectives, program specialists have determined that FIrebees must 
"look" like the threat, simulating fighters, bombers or missiles. This "look" must offer 
360 degree coverage. Glint and scintillation characteristics must be present. 

Augmentations of the basic system must support high-g, evasive maneuvers In a 
variation of flight profiles. 

Frank X. t\/larshall. Director of Teledyne Ryan's Target Programs and Services, notes 
that a data bank supporting the program ranges across the spectrum of unaugmented 
(bare) target reflectivity and Infrared characteristics; missile systems search, acqui- 
sition, guidance and fusing requirements; threat vehicle reflectivity and Infrared 
characteristics; and threat vehicle maneuvering characteristics (attack and evasive 
geometry). 

"FIrebee was created as a growth system and It has been just that," notes Marshall. 
"Now, we've come to a challenging turn in the road, one that demands broader augmen- 
tations of this growth system. 

"We believe our approach to this era of 'threat simulation' Is In harmony with require- 
ments of the future," he asserts, noting that growth potentials for standard and ad- 
vanced supersonic vehicles are unlimited. 

One of Teledyne Ryan's largest users of FIrebee systems In subsonic as well as super- 
sonic categories, Jorgensen's Threat Simulation team at Pt. Mugu Is a prime benefi- 
ciary of Marshall's Augmentation Program results. 

As Identified by Jorgensen during an Interview at Pt. Mugu In December, "One of the 
major sources of appeal stimulated by our 'Threat Simulation' philosophy is that 
everybody stands to gain from its application." 

It Is a belief that is not only helping guide the targets community into the future. It is 
helping create that future. "^^^ 



"Never before has a technical or 
scientific achievement attracted such 
world-wide interest. Yet, the signifi- 
cance and extent of it (The Apollo 
Program) is even now widely un- 
recognized and misunderstood. " 

Dr Werhner von Braun October 10. 1972 



>lpollo...what it means to me 



By Chris Bolte 




Director of Programs for Teledyne Ryan 's Elec- 
tronic and Space Systems, Ned Olthoff calls 
years of Apollo. "Ten years I will always 
remember as the most rewarding of my 
life . . . It convinced me that man can accomp- 
lish any goal he sets, if he has the spirit of mu- 
tual endeavor going with him. " 



The paradox of Apollo Is that Its techni- 
cal triumph may be too sophisticated for 
man's comprehension. And, that it will be 
left for ages to come to reap the true 
benefits created in this final quarter of 
the 20th century through manned land- 
ings on the moon. 

In the span of 11 years, 400,000 
worked on the Apollo program; 20,000 
prime and subcontractors were en- 
gaged in its support; 700 million people 
throughout the world were able to moni- 
tor each of the six lunar landings and 
recoveries through radio and television. 

Yet, In this warm afterglow of suc- 
cess, relatively few of this number grasp 
the significant contribution made by the 
Apollo program, termed "the greatest 
scientific achievement by man." Indeed, 
It may be that Apollo's significance Is one 
of Interpretive value; that the technical 
benefit generated by Its success is not 
the most highly prized reward. 

Associated with the Apollo program 
throughout the 11 -year period, Tele- 
dyne Ryan Aeronautical's Lunar Module 
Landing Radar team characterizes the 
spirit of collective effort associated most 
widely with the manned moon-landings. 
This spirit was reinforced by personal 
challenge, the demand for sacrifice and 
dedication beyond all that had gone be- 
fore. Never In history had human re- 
sources been drawn upon so consis- 
tently for precision. 



Each plateau of technical advance 
created new challenge; and with 
challenge came reciprocal response. 

Addressing the 23rd Congress of the 
International Astronautical Federation in 
Vienna on October 10, 1972, the distin- 
guished scientist. Dr. Wernher von 
Braun, noted, "I cannot think of one 
single field of science or technology in 
which the knowledge and conditions 
available In 1961 would have sufficed to 
achieve the Apollo program objectives. 
In every case, we were standing on the 
threshhold of unexplored territory." 

So It was In the case of human re- 
sources, too. 

In the years to follow, man would learn 
to cope with the impossible; he would 
develop management techniques and 
procedures for advancement; he would 
find that human tolerances possessed an 
elastic quality far beyond any levels 
previously established. Just as the 
demands Imposed by the Apollo 
program tested human capabilities, it 
also stimulated self-pride in those 
engaged in support of the objectives. 

"When I first heard the voice of Neil 
Armstrong — 'Houston, Tranquility base 
here . . . the Eagle has landed' — I was 
proud — proud of my country, proud of 
myself through my association with Tele- 
dyne Ryan." These are the recollections 
of Mary Jane Hyde, a project quality 
engineer who regards her selection In 




Apollo 11 's Neil Armstrong examined 
Teledyne Ryan landing radar system 
he'd later use in softlanding on the moon 
during early-day visit to Electronic and 
Space System 's San Diego plant. 
Another pioneering flyer, T. Claude 
Ryan, was his host during visit. When 
Chief Astronaut Tom Stafford paid call, 
Lunar Module Landing Radar team in- 
itialed backdrop and presented plaque 
in name of Company. Helping make 
presentation were (from left) Bruce 
Clapp, Stafford, T. Claude Ryan. Ned 
Olthoff and J. R. (Dick) Iverson. 




"End of Beginning" flight of Apollo 17 was 
followed by visit to San Diego by astro- 
nauts Eugene Cernan (at podium), Ron 
Evans and Dr. Harrison Schmitt (far right). 
TRA Electronic and Space Systems Vice 
President-General Manager Hudson B. 
Drake (far left) served as host for visit. 



joining the Lunar Module Team in 1967 
as a "true honor. " It was an opportunity 
that would be extended to relatively few. 

"The assignment wasn't a job; it was a 
'happening' in my life. And I committed 
myself to this effort for four years to 
follow. Professionally, I grew as I learned 
and gained experience. I'm grateful to 
the program for that. But, the most 
striking thing I learned was something 
about myself — and my capacity to en- 
dure." 

Transferred from Teledyne Ryan's 
Lunar Landing Training Vehicle landing 
radar project to the Apollo team, Mary 
Jane called this capacity to endure 
"essential." The success of the program 
demanded that each individual meet his 
responsibilities and l<eep plugging away, 
no matter how rough the going. 

"The problems to be resolved, the 
long hours, tensions, pressures, anxi- 
eties, frustrations — they all became a 
way of life, month after month and year 
after year. 

"What Apollo meant to me? It was a 
positive achievement at a time when the 
'put-down' was fashionable. The astro- 
nauts are true heroes in a generation of 
anti-heroes. We are descendents of 
pioneers who braved hardships to know 
new frontiers. That is our heritage. The 
Apollo program was a rich expression of 
that heritage. " 

There were thousands of the Mary 



Jane Hydes throughout America. 

And there were thousands more, like 
Ntd Olthoff, who joined Teledyne Ryan 
as a project engineer on a Doppler ra- 
dar system designed for helicopter use. 
Shifted to the Surveyor and Saturn alti- 
meter programs and, subsequently, to 
the Lunar Module landing radar system 
program, Olthoff recalls the sophisti- 
cation of technical disciplines asso- 
ciated with the manned, lunar landing 
objectives. 

"Reliability and quality became the 
watchwords. Meeting the forever too 
tight schedules and resolving the never 
ending problems literally created new 
work schedules. There were none. We 
simply oriented ourselves to task 
achievement. Hours meant nothing. 

"This mode of operation was to con- 
tinue for ten years ... ten years that I will 
always remember among the most 
rewarding of my life. The enthusiasm of 
the project team . . . the feeling of work- 
ing toward a goal . . . then realizing it! 
The Surveyor flights were thrilling to me. 
I remember sitting in Von Karman audi- 
torium, watching the monitor as Sur- 
veyor approached the moon. Then, the 
telemetered data indicated a range mark 
and a cheer went up from the Ryan team! 

"Everyone else wondered why the 
cheer before landing. But, we knew the 
radar was performing as scheduled. 
From Surveyor to Apollo was a giant 




step. Disciplines and challenge were 
tremendous. We'd had a taste of this in 
Surveyor though. And, we were ready. 

"Now, my fondest recollection of 
Apollo was the spirit of those on the Lun- 
ar Module Landing Radar Team . . . the 
motivations they had for doing a good 
job. It convinced me that man can ac- 
complish any goal he sets, if he has the 
spirit of mutual endeavor going with him. 

"In a sense, this is the challenge 
Apollo gave us ... to achieve even 
greater things and, as a reward, enjoy a 
happier, more fulfilling life. " 

Harry G. Frankland was a part of the 
U.S. "brain-drain " on England's talent 
resources when he came to America 16 
years ago, "never imagining I'd have the 



10 





1 



Harry G. Frankland called opportunity to 
work on Apollo program, the "highlight of 
my 35-year career as a design engineer. " 



opportunity to work on a sophisticated 
landing radar system like that of Apollo's 
Lunar Module." 

Today, Frankland regards his Apollo 
association as, "the highlight of my 35- 
year career as a design engineer. I was 
honored to be a small part of a dedicated 
team of design and manufacturing 
specialists on this project." 

A widely published author of technical 
papers in fields of design engineering — 
linked with his work at Teledyne Ryan — 
Frankland earned global recognition for 
his research and subsequent develop- 
ments in solder-joint performance in 
space hardware. 

"Our Apollo effort was concentrated, 
in part, in the selection of just the right 



materials for space use and precisely 
correct electronic application . . . insur- 
ing that adequate structural per- 
formance was balanced against keeping 
weight at absolute minimums ... in in- 
suring against overdesign thermally," he 
recalls, noting with obvious satisfaction 
that the selections made were the right 
ones. 

Now assigned to design of the Termi- 
nal Descent and Landing Radar system 
for Viking and its projected soft-landing 
on Mars, Frankland assesses his new 
task as "more challenging in areas of 
material selection and performance. For- 
tunately, Apollo placed us in a good 
position for this new advance. 

"It was a Team experience involving 



11 



•s 




mutual dedication to the objectives we 
faced. I'm convinced, now tliat Apollo is 
behind us, that we can achieve any goals 
to which we're assigned." 

William A. Farrish served as manu- 
facturing foreman from the days of Sur- 
veyor through the concluding phase of 
Apollo. His was the link between design- 
development and delivery of landing ra- 
dar systems to be integrated into the 
Lunar Module. 

The Apollo program, according to Far- 
rish, offered personal and professional 
qualities that "upgraded my life." But, 
more than this, "it was knowing that I was 
a part of the Team effort. There were 
times when I wanted to chuck the whole 
thing. Everybody experienced this 
frustration . . . when problems just 
seemed impossible. And then, we'd 
somehow turn the corner and find a 
solution." 

A seasoned professional in the manu- 
facture of space hardware, Farrish — 
like specialists in ail fields of the Team 
effort at Teledyne Ryan — grew profes- 
sionally as technical advances occurred. 
The great burden of final test of product 
performance and assurance, measured 
against tolerances so fine that there was 
no precedent, was a "living nightmare." It 
was constant and unyielding. We had to 
assure ourselves first that everything that 
went out the door would perform in ex- 
cess of its specifications. 



"And, that's the spirit of teamwork and 
devotion we realized . . . the quality of 
compelling influence that each of us felt 
in our association over the years. To me, 
it was totally fulfilling and rewarding be- 
yond all of our wildest dreams." 

Expressions of self-pride mount as 
those on Teledyne Ryan's LM Team re- 
late their feelings on what Apollo meant 
to their lives. But, there is also a quality 
of added humility. 

Ralph A. Longfellow characterizes a 
good deal of this reaction. He phil- 
osophizes, "I was in the right place at the 
right time. Apollo matured me as an in- 
dividual and a professional. 

"I might still be a drawing board 
engineer in microwave antenna design, 
had it not been for Apollo. I truly believe 
that my credentials for my current 
assignment with the Viking program is a 
direct spin-off from my Apollo 
association." 

Selected initially to trouble-shoot a 
test program for the Landing Radar 
microwave antenna assembly, Long- 
fellow earned a berth on the LM team 
and, before the program was con- 
cluded, rose to project engineer for the 
system. More than the personal benefits 
he derived, Apollo offered Longfellow an 
interface with other Apollo company 
engineers, shared mutual problem-solv- 
ing approaches and broadened his field 
of engineering views across the spec- 



trum of the engineering community. 

"It was a reciprocal quality we shared. 
It was a time when company names took 
a rear seat to program objectives. Prime 
or subcontractor status meant little. Get- 
ting the job done meant everything. 

"No question about it, this program 
imposed severe sacrifices on all of those 
associated with it; more importantly, 
their families. But, our families accepted 
this. And we found we could share the 
sacrifices imposed because we con- 
sidered ourselves — wives and children 
included — as members of the Apollo 
LM Team." As engineering demands 
slackened, Longfellow was called upon 
to give community presentations in San 
Diego on Teledyne Ryan's role in the 
Apollo program. 

"This was a totally new facet for me. I 
detected from my audiences the keen, 
genuine interest in what we were doing. 
And, this added a new measure of per- 
sonal and professional pride in the effort. 

"Now, in retrospect, I feel that the 
Apollo program was a turning point in 
my career. The mass-audience spin-off 
values, the technology transfer has 
created a dramatic impact on our social, 
economic, industrial as well as medical 
and educational standards. And. we've 
only begun to experience these values, I 
believe. Beyond all of these, it enriched 
my life, my association with others and 
my professional capabilities. These con- 



12 



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ATTN.: JACK BROWARD 
EDITOR 




tributions, I believe, have made me more 
useful to society as a result." 

There is an old and somewhat tired 
space-age jol<e that recalls — just as the 
manned capsules of Apollo landed softly 
on the lunar surface — that the achieve- 
ment was realized on a low-bid contract! 
The humor of this tongue-in-cheel< wit 
may express in some measure in more 
serious and realistic terms, the spirit of 
Apollo that infected all with whom it 
came in contact. 

That Apollo gained stature as a na- 
tional commitment and this prominence 
influenced the allegiance of those asso- 
ciated with its success, there is little 



doubt. More than this, perhaps, Apollo 
was a classic, 20th century example of 
free enterprise competition in which a 
major share of U.S. aerospace indus- 
tries were involved. 

It was a startling goal when an- 
nounced; a sometimes baffling chal- 
lenge when confronted. 

Now, in this "end of the beginning" 
era, with the nation poised on a new 
threshhold of peaceful exploration both 
on earth and in the void of space, per- 
haps the greatest contribution made by 
Apollo is the l<nowledge that man can in- 
deed achieve any goal compelling 
enough for team effort. '^fi^ 



Ralph Longfellow (left) said Apollo program 
matured him as an individual and a profes- 
sional, calling it a "turning point in my 
career. " Production foreman William A. 
Farrish (below) called program "a night- 
mare . . . but totally rewarding beyond our 
wildest dreams. " Mary Jane Hyde found her 
capacity to endure tested by program and call- 
ed Apollo 17 astronauts "True heroes in a 
generation of anti-heroes. " 




13 



Engaging two Firebees plus two QT-33 
drones in a simultaneous firing test 
proved the capabilities of Phoenix. It 
also proved that, when it comes to 
weapons development . . . 



rvm^ DO IT 




It came as scant surprise to no one late 
last year when the Navy announced that 
an F-14 "Tomcat" fighter, armed with six 
Phoenix missiles, had launched four of 
the lethal weapons against an equal 
number of "enemy" aircraft and missiles, 
bagging all four in a simultaneous salvo. 

After all, it was what the Navy had 
been saying all along. Indeed, from its 
earliest design phase, the air-superiority 
rated "Tomcat" had vindicated itself at 
each phase along the way. 

In a single Phoenix missile test firing, a 
Teledyne Ryan Firebee fell prey to the 
long range missile at a range in excess of 
70 miles. The firing test had been con- 
ducted over a year ago. 

The December 20, 1972 test firing 
offered beyond any shadow of doubt, 
that the Navy's swing-wing "Tomcat" was 
every bit the newest front-line fighter 
possessed by the United States that the Navy claimed. 

Launched in quick sequence from the Naval Missile Center, 
the two subsonic Firebees (BQM-34A) under remote control by 
NMC, were flown to a test firing area over the Pacific Missile 
Range. Meanwhile, three QT-33 drones aircraft (one serving as 
backup) were launched into flight from San Nicholas Island to 
join up with the Firebees. 

The four primary target systems were "stationed" at varying 
altitudes and ranges. 

Carrying a full load of six missiles, the shooter F-14 piloted by 
a Hughes Aircraft Company test pilot whose aircrew included a 
missile control operator, located and established a track on all 
four targets with the AWG-9 radar. The system was then ordered 
to assess the threat and display launch priority for each of the 
"enemy." 

Given the option of using the computer's selection or making 
his own choice of targets, the control operator followed his own 
judgement in this case. At his time of missile release, the targets 




were at about 30 miles range at altitudes 
of 20,000 feet — considered "moderate" 
for the long range Phoenix system. 

One missile scored a direct hit against 
a QT-33 and the balance of the targets 
were assessed as "kills," resulting from 
lethal missile radius or near-miss dis- 
tances. 

As in previous weapons system de- 
velopment, test and evaluation pro- 
grams, the Firebees proved themselves 
stable, reliable and perfectly suited for 
the role assigned. The jet-powered 
speed range of up to 450 knots, maneu- 
vering capabilities, high as well as low al- 
titude performance gives Firebee a mis- 
sion-match capability. 

For more than two decades now. stur- 
dy Firebees have been serving the Navy, 
Army and Air Force as primary target 
vehicles in weapons system develop- 
ment, test and evaluation. Augmented with devices that can 
boost their "look " characteristics, equipped with an array of 
selections that can vary configurations, the subsonic Firebee 
has experienced a continuing growth pattern. 

This building-block concept influenced the design-develop- 
ment of Supersonic Firebee II for the Navy. Placed in operational 
service last year, the BQM-34E couples the best features of stan- 
dard vehicles and projects its own air superiority-rated qualities 
into a time frame that matches the F-14 and Air Force F-15. 

Reviewing the multiple Phoenix missile firing test last year, the 
capabilities for simultaneous launch of up to six missiles and air- 
defense qualities this characterizes, Hughes Aircraft Company's 
D. Kenneth Richardson, Manager of the Phoenix system, boast- 
ed, "No other aircraft weapon system in the world has this capa- 
bility." 

In the early part of 1973, it could also be observed that Tele- 
dyne Ryan's Firebee was keeping company with the best — and 
doing it better than most. ^O^ 



14 




>\*yy 



<^ s<» 



^ 



"Enemy" Firebee launches into flight from Pt. 
Mugu (left) and shortly after that, F-14 "Tom- 
cat" unleashes first of four Phoenix missiles at 
multiple targets in historic, simultaneous test 
firing. Four of F-14's Phoenix weapons are dis- 
played in uploaded condition in bottom photo. 






A quantum leap in materials 

technology has been achieved by 

Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, 

one that is helping pave the way for . . . 



1bnnonDv\^ 



Malerb 




16 



■:^ 



The time is not in the too distant future 
when "glamour plastics" — lighter in 
weight, stronger, more durable, easier to 
handle and less costly than metal 
equivalents — will occupy a lead role in 
the fields of industrial manufacturing. So 
rapid has been the advance of materials 
technology that, in some instances, ma- 
jor use of metals has been either elimi- 
nated or subordinated to the superior 
qualities of composite substitutes. 

This trend will gain momentum as vol- 
ume use and applications of composite 
materials increases, bringing costs down 
to economic levels, according to auth- 
orities. 

The drama of this transition is charac- 
terized today at Teledyne Ryan Aeronau- 
tical, a pioneering leader in the field. 

Its Materials and Processing Depart- 
ment, one of the nation's most ad- 
vanced facilities of its kind, is deeply en- 
gaged in the transition. Less than 20 
years ago, non-metallics were virtually 
unknown to the aerospace industry. 
Welding and metallurgical engineers 
plus a process chemist or two consti- 
tuted the Department's staff. Their activi- 
ties focused on selecting, cleaning, 
plating, and metals joining. 

Emphasis today in materials tech- 
nology has shifted until metal proces- 
sing occupies less than one-half of the 
Department's attention while the applica- 
tion of organic materials merits and re- 
ceives the balance. 

This shift can be readily traced in the 
evolution of plastics and composite 
structures used In sandwich construc- 
tions of early day Doppler radar naviga- 
tion systems produced by Teledyne 
Ryan. These sandwiches used a rigid 
polyurethane foam core between com- 
posite laminates which were formed by 
impregnating a reinforcing glass cloth 
with polyester resin. 

Later, epoxy and other high-perform- 
ance resin systems were introduced, ad- 
ditional reinforcements were developed 
and broader selections of available 
materials became available. Today, 
materials engineers can offer designers a 
selection as broad and diverse in ma- 
terial composites as specifications might 
demand. Thermosetting and thermo- 
plastic resins now available offer individ- 
ual or combination uses with each other 
or with other materials for unique 



processing characteristics and tailored 
end properties. Reinforcements are 
available in a variety of organic fibers, 
filaments and woven fabric. Preimpreg- 
nated fabrics that combine reinforcing 
material with a "B-staged" (partially poly- 
merized) resin matrix to greatly simply 
fabrication are widely used. 

Through contracts with various 
government agencies since 1966, TRA 
has been directly involved with a new 
family of materials that use high per- 
formance fibers to reinforce a resin or 
metal matrix. 

Typical high-strength advanced com- 
posite reinforcements are three to six 
times stronger and stiffer than alumi- 
num, yet weigh up to 50 percent less. 
Epoxy-resin matrices reinforced with 
boron, graphite and PRD-49 (a Dupont 
development) have been and continue to 
be used to fabricate a variety of primary 
aircraft structures under contract 
development and test programs. 

Under contract to Celanese Corp., for 
instance, TRA used graphite epoxy 
materials to fabricate elevens for Super- 
sonic Firebee ll (Model 166) flight tests. A 
graphite-epoxy outer wing panel 
measuring about 4 by 14 feet is being 
fabricated for tests on another aircraft 
produced at Teledyne Ryan. 

A PRD-49 fiber-reinforced epoxy out- 
er wing panel for another member of 



Engineer (at left) places thermoplastic sheets 
to be joined by radio frequency sealing 
machine. Fundamental material properties are 
determined in the lab (below). 




17 



Photos by Tom Howell and Bud Wolford 




The laboratories' tasks include chemical 

process development (top); data acquisition 

and retrieval (above), and mechanical testing 

of materials (right). Engineer at far right 

checks setting of 2-foot-square platen press 

used to cure composite structures. 




TRA's family of Remotely Piloted 
Vehicles was produced as well as the 
landing gear doors and other structural 
parts for yet another RPV. Parts used in 
this latter vehicle use woven PRD-49 in 
an epoxy resin matrix; the resulting lami- 
nate is one-halt the weight of a struc- 
turally equivalent aluminum part. In 
other examples noted, weight savings 
ranged from 25 to 40 percent. 

As demonstrated to date, only the 
beginning of this new era in composite 
applications has been explored. A com- 
panion to the component and primary 
structures fabricated from composites 
are the expanding techniques and 
weight-saving materials used in ad- 
hesive bondings. 

Teledyne Ryan's first widespread use 
of adhesive bonding came in fabricating 
ultralight solar panels for Ranger. 
Mariner and Surveyor spacecraft during 
the mid 1960s. The advent of RPVs and 
demanding mission requirements, ori- 
ented to light-weight fabrication mater- 
ials, continued to expand the applica- 
tion field. 

Suffice to say, adhesives are currently 
applied to a broadening spectrum of 
TRA products in bonding electronic 
components as well as primary aircraft 
flight structures. 

Materials and Processing Depart- 
ment currently occupies a 10,500- 
square-foot complex housing labora- 
tory-oriented work areas which incor- 
porate temperature-humidity controlled 
environments stipulated in most cus- 
tomer specifications and test pro- 
cedures. Seven such laboratory seg- 
ments equipped with more than 80 de- 
vices and instruments represent the van- 
guard of TRA's steady and measured 
progress into the field of material proces- 
sing and application. 

These laboratory facilities include: 

•Materials Application — Evaluates 
state of the art materials in advanced 
composite fields. 

'Organic Processes — Selects new 
developments based upon specific re- 
quirements for both new and existing 
contracted Teledyne Ryan designs. 

'Chemical Test and Processes Dev- 
elopment — Evaluation and refinement 
of new processes for cleaning, plating 
and other chemical techniques for appli- 



18 



cation by TRA and a variety of analytical 
techniques used to control chemical 
process solutions in use. 

*Spectrophotometry — Detection of 
contaminants and identification of 
materials by their "fingerprints" through 
use of highly sensitive and precisioned 
instruments. 

'Physical Testing — Verification that 
organic materials used by TRA in its 
products meet specified requirements as 
well as compliance with similar stan- 
dards. 

•Mechanical Test — Massive ma- 
chines which twist, tear, bend and pull 
materials and parts under closely moni- 
tored circumstances to test strength and 
temperatures from -100°F to -|-800°F 
and up to 120,000 pounds. 

*Metal Processes — Metallurgical an- 
alysis and applications of new proces- 
ses for metals joining, casting, forming 
and machining. Facilities include furn- 
aces and ovens associated with an- 
nealing and heat-treating processes. 

Specialized support in areas of printed 
circuit board fabrication, potting, encap- 
sulating, conformal coating and other 
processes applicable to the manufac- 
ture of electronic components is provid- 
ed through a separate laboratory facility 
at TRA Electronic and Space Systems. 



This facility has been directly involved in 
applications of micro-integrated circuit- 
ry, stripline printed wiring boards and 
other recently introduced techniques 
associated with TRA-built electronic 
systems. 

Housing the Department's administra- 
tive staff, including its management per- 
sonnel is a separate complex of spaces. 
As in most modern, progressive labora- 
tory facilities, it is in these areas that vital 
documentation materials are compiled 
and maintained. Currently, documenta- 
tion materials, technical reports and 
process studies include 68 "how-to" 
specifications together with engineering 
drawings; the basic "building blocks" for 
most TRA products. 

These "building blocks," coupled with 
a management philosophy that has 
successfully guided Teledyne Ryan into 
its position of leadership in the field of 
composite structures, has as yet an- 
other integral asset, the technical exper- 
tise of its staff. Through extensive exper- 
ience in all phases of materials and 
processing technology, the Materials and 
Processing Department is busily 
matching its broad spectrum of capabili- 
ties demonstrated in the past with future 
challenges of this burgeoning, diver- 
sified discipline. -^fi^ 




19 



Supersonic Firebee II — offering new, 
advanced-design capabilities for aerial 
target applications — is helping set the 
stage at the Air Defense Weapons Center 
for the coming age of . . . 



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Launch controller Ed Conley pressed launch button 
that sent first Supersonic Firebee II into flight from 
Tyndall AFB. In Mid-Air Recovery sequence at right, 
helicopter maneuvers into "snatch" position to return 
to base with newly-developed BQM-34F. 







TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE, Fla. — Teledyne Ryan's Supersonic Firebee II has com- 
pleted initial flights here in a concluding program of developmental evaluations that will 
lead this year to its introduction into operational Air Force inventories for "look-alike" 
simulations of the enemy. 

Uprated and advanced-designed to support the coming age of air superiority, the 
growth-version aerial target system adds a new dimension to subsonic Firebee opera- 
tions conducted here since 1956. 

Dual mission rated, the BQM-34F Firebee II offers subsonic presentations followed by 
supersonic dash missions. In flights here last December, it demonstrated speeds of 
nearly 1,000 miles-per-hour. 

Teledyne Ryan officials responsible for its design-development say Firebee II offers a 
"match of all existing threat sources. Its high-altitude or low-altitude performance capa- 
bilities make it the most realistic threat simulation in existence." 

Launched into flight here from ground facilities, Firebee II uses much of the support 
equipments associated with its subsonic relatives. 

The concluding phases of Firebee Ms developmental evaluations have been con- 



20 




^ 




21 



U.S. Air Force Photos 





ducted by the 6514th Test Squadron at Edwards AFB, U. S. Naval Missile Center, Pt. 
Mugu, California, and at Tyndall. It was at Edwards and Pt. Mugu that Mid-Air Recovery 
of the Firebee II was perfected through Colonel John Burland's Test Squadron. The 
technique employs use of a helicopter which literally snatches the aerial target from its 
descent parachute during terminal phases of its flight mission. 

This recovery technique Is optional since Firebee lis — like subsonic versions which 
can be either water or land recovered — are designed for water recovery. The use of 
Mid-Air Recovery, however, reduces turn-around times as well as minimizing structural 
damages which may be sustained in standard recovery procedures. 

Here to support final test flights of Firebee II before it gains operational status were a 
detachment of Teledyne Ryan technicians assigned to the 6514th Test Squadron at 
Edwards during earlier phases of the evaluation program. 

Firebee M's arrival at Tyndall, headquarters for the Air Defense Weapons Center, was 
hailed by officials as, "the start of a new era In target operations." Responsible to Aero- 
space Defense Command for weapons and fighter-interceptor tadtical training, it is to 
Tyndall each year that ADC's fighter-interceptor personnel deploy for operational readi- 
ness weapons firing exercises and training. 

This on-going demand for simulated realism and growing threat sources faced by 
those who guard the nation's air defenses, gives the introduction of Supersonic Firebee 
II a position of priority importance. 

On the same threshhold it now occupies here at Tyndall will be the Air Force's F-15 
"Eagle " on whose wings will be ushered in the age of air superiority. ^^ 



22 



w^ 





BQM-34F Test team at Tyndall included 
(above left) Teledyne Ryan's Walt Hamilton 
and Ed Conley with Captain Vince Roske, 
6514th Test Squadron and Tyndall's Captain 
George Elliott. First launch of Supersonic Fire- 
bee II from Tyndall has been followed by 
succession of test flights using launch facilities 
(above) on base. Contract personnel upload 
BQM-34F on launch rail in preparation for first 
mission. 



23 



Officials called it, "A milestone of major 
significance, " — one that marks the 
beginning of a new era in RPV capabilities 
— at the formal presentation of the . . . 



STRIKE SUPPORT 
WEAPON SYSTEM 




Tactical Air Command has taken deliv- 
ery of its Strike Support Weapon Sys- 
tem (BGM-34B) in brief ceremonies con- 
ducted Friday, February 9, this year at 
Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 

Introduced by Robert R. Schwanhaus- 
ser, Vice President-Programs for Tele- 
dyne Ryan, the new system is designed 
for delivery of strike weapons against 
heavily defended targets. It supple- 
ments human aircrew missions where 
extreme high risk potentials are present. 

Presented by Colonel Ward Hemen- 



way and accepted by Colonel Gustav B. 
Klatt, Director of Reconnaissance, EW 
and Drone Requirements for TAC, the 
BGM-34B is currently in operational and 
evaluation tests. 

Witnessing the presentation were 
Teledyne Ryan officials as well as Air 
Force representatives, including Col- 
onel Hemenway, Director of Special 
Programs Office for Aeronautical 
Systems Division which managed the de- 
sign-development of the new system. 



yy 



24 



Continued from front inside cover 

RPVs would be fractional compared to 
today's aircraft. 

In difficult combat situations, a typical 
squadron of 12 manned fighter-bombers 
requires the support of twenty other air- 
craft of various types. A similar RPV 
force should require from 2 to 5 aircraft, 
this figure including an air-launch capa- 
bility for the RPVs. 

Training costs are another substantial 
area of savings. Simulation exercises 
can give RPV pilots almost 100 percent 
training fidelity. Actual RPV flights can 
be limited to those required to maintain 
launch and recovery crew proficiency. 
It's a far different story with manned 
squadron proficiency training today. The 
pilot training is expensive . . . time con- 
suming . . . and often with its own high 
attrition rate. 

Tomorrow's RPVs would look sig- 
nificantly different from those in use 
today. They would be designed with an 
emphasis on modularity ... so they 
could be flexibly tailored for specific mis- 
sions. 

They would probably run in the three 
to six thousand pound category. Have 
ranges of 600 to one thousand nautical 
miles and a maneuver capability of ten 
Gs. They would have a fifty percent dis- 
posable load capability, with modular 
payloads. They would probably best be 
designed for the high subsonic speed re- 
gime. With a very low, about 200 foot, 
altitude capability. They would also have 
very low radar cross sections, small IR 
signatures, and be difficult to detect 
visually. 

In short: they would be tough, cheap 
birds that would extend the skills of a 
pilot into presently inaccessible regimes. 

No one assumes that RPVs could ever 
replace manned aircraft. But they would 



enhance man's capability by providing 
operations into areas that are now too 
hostile or too perilous. 

A family of cheap RPVs would let a 
tactical commander decide "yes" on 
those marginal missions that currently 
get a "no" decision. When the weather is 
on the ragged edge; the flack a real 
thicket; the target too hardened; the ap- 
proach too limited; then you are in RPV 
country. 

The type of RPV I'm talking about 
could not have been built ten years ago, 
or even five. Propulsion and airframes 
were there . . . but not the Avionics. 

With current computer based, minia- 
turized avionics . . . RPVs could navigate; 
have a guidance memory capability; 
automatic flight control; communi- 
cations links with their operators; employ 
ECM; perform self-diagnosis. And most 
important of all: they could have the sen- 
sor technology to enable man to make 
the critical value judgements that only he 
can make. As good as the "black-boxes" 
are, only a human computer can rapidly 
"see" something, discriminate and make 
a decision. 

So, we find that RPVs are really here 
today, not years downstream. And, they 
represent the ideal technology transfer 
medium, since their growth can effectiv- 
ely exploit most of the advances that 
have taken place in the other science 
disciplines. 

And not surprisingly, a lot of people, in 
and out of government and our industry, 
realize these facts. There is a great deal 
of media activity about the RPV poten- 
tial. And, although there are a lot of 
small, low-key efforts by a variety of 
agencies, there is no identifiable national 
policy or overall direction for this flurry of 
RPV activity. 

A good deal of dedication exists at the 
service agency level, yet the welter of 
RFQs, PMDs, and PMPs seem to in- 
dicate a lack of coordinated leadership 
that prudent management demands. The 
fiscal '73 and '74 RDT&E budgets for 
missiles and aircraft offers less than 1 
percent to RPV programs. Everyone 
seems excited about the dawn of the 
RPV era . . . yet with a one percent com- 
mitment, the sun can never rise! Even a 
modest realignment in RDT&E funding 
offers the potential of dramatically 
breaking that insidiously straight-line 



slope of tactical weapons system costs. 

We're at the start of a new era in our 
defense posture ... an era of paradox. 
We face a spectrum of future threats that 
promise to be substantially more 
demanding than any we have en- 
countered in Southeast Asia. Yet, we 
must be more effective against these 
tougher targets ... at less cost. 

Concurrently, we must maintain a 
capability of providing our allies with 
tangible immediate assistance in any 
conflict . . . one that could break out any- 
where in the world ... as soon as tom- 
orrow. 

And, most important of all: we must be 
able to do these things without ever 
again having our most precious national 
resource languish for years in some 
other foul Hanoi Hilton! 

In summary: I strongly believe that any 
one of these factors justifies the serious 
consideration of RPVs for a role in our 
mixed-force arsenal. When all of these 
considerations are combined ... it 
makes the evolution of a national policy 
on RPVs a compelling need. 

It would be a low-technological-risk 
building-block venture. And, surpris- 
ingly, one of very modest cost. The first 
step that is needed is just an acknow- 
ledgement that times have changed. 

Ail of nature teaches us that Form Fol- 
lows Function. 

In that same adaptive way, the form of 
our national defense force must inex- 
orably be dictated by its changing func- 
tions. Many of us are convinced that 
RPVs can make a pivotal contribution to 
that new evolving form during the com- 
ing decade. "^fi^ 




Fearless 



The U.S. Air Force calls this recoverable RPV the BGM-34A, 
toughest member of our family of Remotely Piloted Vehicles. The guys 

who fly it call it a strike drone. 

A Maverick missile tucked under its wing makes it tough. 

Teledyne Ryan makes it fearless. 





^^^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 

the first family 



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TELEDYNE RYANqAERONAUTICAL 




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MOCKUP OF ARMY Advanced Attack Helicopter to be developed by 
team of Hughes Hellcopters-Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical poses for 
picture at Culver City, Calif. Under contract awarded June 22 by Army, 
team will develop flight versions for fly-off competition leading to 
production orders late in this decade. 






Volume 34, No. 2 
Summer 1973 



"?^^TELEDYNE RYAN AERONAUTICAL 



Robert C. Jackson, Chairman 

Barry J. Shillito, President 

Robert R. Sctiwanhausser, Executive Vice President 

— Programs 

Ericti C. Oemcke, Vice President — Aerospace Systems 

Hudson B. Drake, Vice President & General Manager 

— Electronic and Space Systems 

Roy D. Fields, Vice President — Finance and Controller 

Don L. Arney, Vice President — industrial Relations 

William J. Wiley, Vice President — Plant Operations 

Thomas E. Flannigan, Vice President — Washington Office 



Robert B. Morrisey/ZWanager, Public Relations 

— Communications 

JackG. Broward/Ed/tor 

Al Gunkel/,4ssoc/afe Editor 

Ron Evans /Art Director 

Robert D. Watts/ Staff Artist 

Bud Wolford, Tom HovjeW/ Staff Photographers 

WSMR— A Frontier For Testing 2 

'Fly Firebees, Fly!' 10 

Reporter Interview 16 

Sea-Based Firebee Operations 18 

Mod II Firebee 20 

Design-To-Cost 24 

Hanoi Hilton Fly-By 26 




ABOUT OUR COVER: Photographer Tom 

Howell snapped the photos at White Sands; Art 

Director Ron Evans assembled the symbolic 

elements; Staff Artist Bob Watts created the 

composite; and Photographer Bud Wolford 

made it all come together in his studio. The 

result of this teamed effort is a mosaic that 

relates ancient Indian arrowheads found in the 

Tularosa Basin to modern day missilry 

characterizing the White Sands Missile Range 

today, in its 28th year. TRA's Firebee has been 

a part of that complex for 24 of those years. 




There is a quiet mood of restlessness today in the 
Tularosa Basin region of south-central New Mexico 
as one of America's major national ranges turns the 
corner on its 28th year. Against its pioneering past 
is now posed an exciting, new chapter called . . . 




BY 
JACK G.BROWARD 

Photos by Tom Howell 



WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, N.M.- 
Thls story is 28 years old and still grow- 
ing strong. It covers a span of time in 
which America introduced the age of 
atomic power, fought three wars, sent six 
teams of Apollo astronauts to the moon 
and back and assumed a position of 
global leadership in fields of technology. 

In each of these events and more, 
this sprawling 4,000-square-mile com- 
plex filled a position of pioneering promi- 
nence. 

It is here on July 16, 1945 at Trinity 
Site— some 90 miles north of Range 
headquarters— that the world's first atom 
bomb was detonated. And, it is here on 
April 16, 1946 that the first German V-2 
rocket was launched from American soil, 
creating the technological momentum 
that carried man into space, opening the 
universe as a new frontier. 

Through that 28-year span, a major 
share of America's missiles, rocket and 
weapons systems were developed and 
tested here, creating the cradle for 
weapons testing technologies. Drawing 
on all of these milestone achievements, 
the White Sands Missile Range has only 
recently implemented a new state of the 
art for testing. 

To its distinctions as the Nation's 
largest and only totally land-based test 
facility of its kind has been added an "on 
line" computer automated system for 
data acquisition. This advance offers a 
new threshold for testing. 

Some $75 million and seven years 
are invested in this newly won status. It is 
a "breakthrough" of major significance, 
according to Range officials. 

It falls to the U.S. Army and Major 
General Arthur H. Sweeney, Jr., today to 
administer the functions of the White 
Sands Missile Range. On any given day, 
more than 100 projects of the Army, 
Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps or NASA 





Maj. General Arthur H. Sweeney, Jr., 
bears responsibility today for 
administering WSMR under Army 
Test and Evaluation Command. His 
mission serves interests of Army, 
Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and 
NASA. 

Vintage Firebee (at left) was 
developed at WSMR shortly after 
German V-2 rocket program was 
introduced in U.S. Abandoned gantry 
used for V-2 rocket launches stands 
silent today, a testimony to pioneering 
age that led to man's travels to the 
moon and back. 











h^r^ 


?>«^^-!_ .*^-^ 









can be identified in the schedule of 
range operations. Typically, as a govern- 
ment-run national range, its population 
is predominantly civilian, either govern- 
ment civil service— and this represents 
the largest work force— or contractor 
representatives. The active military con- 
tingents seldom exceed 2500 personnel. 
A graduate of Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology vi^ho added a Mas- 
ter's Degree in economics at Harvard 
School of Business, General Sweeney 
has successfully blended his military 



"■.'•.y- 






management authority with the keen in- 
sight of an executive who must adminis- 
ter millions of dollars in annual budgets 
and millions more in resources. 

It is under the Army's Test and Eval- 
uation Command, Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Maryland, that Sweeney exe- 
cutes his operational mission in support 
of missile development and test pro- 
grams for the U.S. military forces and 
NASA. 

The youthful, two-star general is 
"landlord" over an area that stretches 40 
miles wide and 100 miles long in the Tula- 
rosa Basin of south-central New Mexico. 
The range reaches more than half the 
distance from El Paso, Texas to Albu- 
querque, New Mexico and includes a 40- 
mile-square area to the north that, since 



r^'^iii^* 



1960, has been in periodic use for "firing 
in extension" operations. This northern 
FIX area has been and is used in support 
of long range missile firings such as Nike 
Zues and Talos (in the very early stages 
of development and test). Air Force 
Athena, Army Sergeant and the Houn- 
dog and Army Pershing and in recent 
years the Air Force short range attack 
missile, Shrike. 

Launch facilities are maintained for 
these longer ranged tests at Green River, 
Utah, some 400 miles north of WSMR. 

Three inherent qualities distinguish 
General Sweeney's mountain-peaked 
and sage-covered range from all others: 
Totally land based, it permits retrieval of 
test items without the use of costly sys- 
tems employed by water test facilities; It 
is geologically stable, offering precise 
and accurate measurements of test ar- 
ticle performance; Optical contact can 
range as high as 100 miles, providing 
maximum monitoring values of tests as 
conducted. 

Isolated some 45 miles from metro- 
politan life, it is here— and perhaps only 
here in this rugged wilderness— that 

Project radar antennas at WSMR's RAM 
Site are part of instrumentation complex 
that has added "real time" acquisition to 
installation's capabilities. 






- -' i: 






today's age of missiles and rocketry 
could have been developed. The acre- 
age back in the mid-1940s w/as in- 
expensive, a prerequisite for military ac- 
quisitions of this magnitude. Much of the 
40 by 100-mile area was already govern- 
ment-owned. It was sparsely populated; 
even today, it is estimated that only some 
175 people, primarily ranch families, live 
in the northern FIX area. During long 
range missile firing operations in which 
this extension area may be used, these 
families are evacuated for periods of up 
to 12 hours. 

These economic and social factors, 
linked with geographic isolation, offered 
missile and rocket scientists in the early- 
day period of this installation a quality of 
freedom so vital to experimentation and 
technical advance. 

One of those "old timers," a Brook- 
lyn-born engineer who came here in 
1947 as a missile flight safety engineer 
and officer and has since witnessed ev- 
ery major advance during the tech- 
nology explosion, is Nathan Wagner. 

He serves today as Technical Direc- 
tor of WSMR's Instrumentation Directo- 
rate and can be credited as much as any 
man here with concept, evolution and 
development of the facility's "on-line" 
computer automated system. 

Wagner and his military colleague. 
Army Colonel J. P. Pepe, Director of the 
Instrumentation group, head a small 
staff of specialists known as the "think 
tank." To this group falls the responsi- 
bility for creating measurement con- 
cepts and capabilities long before hard- 
ware items to be tested are even 
developed. 

Thus, it is an environment, in- 
strumented and coordinated for max- 
imum test use— in worst-case as well as 
ideal circumstances— for which this 
uniquely-distinguished group is respon- 
sible. 

"The problem is always that we must 
anticipate as far ahead in advance as 



U.S. arsenal of missiles and rockets have 
been spawned in desert areas of WSMR 
like (at top of page) Athena, Pershing and 
Nike. Striking contrast between 
advanced sophistications characterized 
at WSMR is provided by Range security 
patrols on horseback as they roam 4,000 
square mile facihty. 





-^. 



Q2A Firebee enjoys prominence in 
Missile Park display of weapons 
developed at WSMR over 28 years. 
Technician below is adjusting laser device 
used in Atmospheric Laboratory. 
National Range Operations is 
responsibility of Col. J. H. Meyer (below 
right). 




u 




d 




possible the broad range of testing in- 
struments, systems and concepts for an 
item of hardware yet to be conceived. 
Economic constraints represent per- 
haps the major consideration. Some- 
times it is more expensive to test an item 
and provide performance data than the 
cost of that item once it goes into pro- 
duction. 

"Obviously then," notes Wagner, 
"the trick is to create a test environment 
of maximum flexibility, one that offers 
coverage over the known as well as the 
unknown requirements." 

It is a spectrum of activity in the tech- 
nologies of testing that today has only a 
defined beginning. The end stretches 
into infinity. 

As a result of its "on-line" system, 
and the resulting values this serves for 
testing, Wagner believes the White 
Sands Missile Range has introduced a 
totally new state of the art, one that costs 
less and is more effective than all that 
have gone before. 

The nerve center of this Range-wide 
system, which employs nearly 1,000 data 



acquisition sites and hundreds of elec- 
tronic and optical instruments, is the 
Range Control Center under B. A. 
Goode. 

Telemetry sources in fixed and mo- 
bile categories scattered strategically 
throughout this 4,000-square-mile area 
feed "real time" data into the Control 
Center. Five 1108 computers, represent- 
ing the U.S. Army's largest and most so- 
phisticated computer complex of its 
kind, collect and present this data as a 
test operation is conducted for aid in 
processing collected data. 

The "real time" system is particularly 
unique in that it has minimized verbal 
transmissions of information with max- 
imum emphasis on data by electronic 
transmission and presentation. 

Frank J. McKenna, deputy to Goode 
in Range Control, (a division of the Na- 
tional Range Operations Directorate) 
notes that the digital-analog data re- 
trieval system, linked with the coming 
marriage of optics with electronics will 
represent a clear "breakthrough" tech- 
nologically. 

Testing at White Sands includes the 
physical performance of a hardware item 
according to its designed concept. But, 
there are many layers of investigation 
keyed to that performance unrelated to 
the final application: packaging for dis- 
tribution, environmental effects, radi- 
ation hazards, thermal responses, physi- 
cal handling in addition to a broad range 
of known and unknown quantities asso- 
ciated with performance. 

Supporting these needs for data are 
laboratory testing facilities that range 
from nuclear radiation, weapons sys- 
tems simulation, guidance and control, 
propulsion and climatic on through mi- 
crobiological and metallographic areas 
of investigation and experimentation. 

White Sands Missile Range is struc- 
tured as a government range with organ- 
izational divisions identified by various 



directorates, administrative and support 
offices. Among tine major directorates 
are the National Range Operations, un- 
der Colonel J. H. Meyer; Army Missile 
Test and Evaluation, under Colonel B. B. 
Safar; Instrumentation, under Colonel 
Pepe; Army Air Operations under Lt. 
Colonel C. L. Motes; and Logistics Di- 
rectorate under Colonel L. E. Mullen. 

Subdivision organizations function 
under each directorate with responsi- 
bilities for test scheduling on through 
myriad tasks associated writh all facets of 
WSMR's operation. 

Sharing facilities are a number of ten- 
ant organizations, among which is the 
Naval Ordnance Missile Test Facility. Un- 
der Captain A. E. Davies, Jr., the U.S. 
Navy's "USS Desert Ship," was origi- 
nally a member of the 1946-era V-2 mis- 
sile program. In the ensuing years, the 
Navy established its own organization to 
support such first-line weapons systems 
as Tales, Tartar, Terrier and Standard. 

Today, "Desert Ship" is engaged in 
support testing of a broad array of weap- 
ons systems as well as radar and track- 
ing instruments. 

Another of these tenant organiza- 
tions, the U.S. Army Electronic Com- 




mand's Atmospheric Sciences Labora- 
tory, is engaged in extension of research 
into environmental sciences with par- 
ticular emphasis on the earth's lower 
and upper atmosphere, atmospheric 
modifications and remote sensing tech- 
niques as well as meteorological equip- 
ment designed for field use. A major role 
of ASL is to provide meteorological sup- 
port for range operations and missile fir- 
ings. 

The interface between all of these or- 
ganizations and other sectors in the 
White Sands community, in the opinion 
of General Sweeney, "is the key element 
involved in and on which is based our 
greatest value. It is one of those rare, 
smooth-functioning systems in which 
human elements are blended with ma- 
chine capabilities to produce desired 
results." 

A major role filled in this "system" is 
the contractor presence. Representing 
the industrial-manufacturing source for 
most of the operational hardware needs 
and support systems associated with 



Nathan Wagner, Technical Director of 
Instrumentation Directorate, (upper 
left) heads WSMR "think tank." Frank 
J. McKenna, deputy Range Control 
officer, explains function of WSMR's 
Control Center (lower photo), one of the 
country's most advanced computer- 
automated facilities of its kind. 



weapons performance, this contractor 
community has included for more than 
two decades Teledyne Ryan Aero- 
nautical. 

Under Base Manager Paul M. Bunner 
for the past eight years, TRA's 30-man 
team of avionic, propulsion and airframe 
specialists are today engaged in support 
roles for the Army, Navy and Air Force. 
(See "Mod II Firebee" p. 20) 

it was at White Sands in 1949— four 
years after the atom bomb experi- 
mentation here— that the forerunner of 
TRA's Firebee family of aerial target sys- 
tems underwent initial tests. The Firebird 
guided missile would stimulate in years 
to follow the development of a series of 
unmanned, high-performance, jet-pow- 
ered aircraft, known today as Remotely 




^1^... 



Piloted Vehicles. 

William F. Berry, Chief of Target Op- 
erations for TRA today and a 24-year vet- 
eran of Firebee target operations world- 
wide, served as the Company's technical 
representative during that early-day pe- 
riod and also recalls his association at 
Holloman AFB during initial ground- 
launch tests of the Q2A Firebee in 1957. 

"That was our point of departure for 
the family of Firebees that have evolved 
since that time. It opened a totally new 
spectrum of operational capabilities. 
And our Firebees have served since that 
time as primary targets for weapons de- 
velopment, test, evaluation and oper- 
ational exercises. 

"Even then, those of us associated 
with our primitive Firebee knew we had a 
winner," recalls Berry. 

There was no reason to speculate 
that aerial target systems— so nearly rea- 
listic to enemy threats that they became 
primary standard, simulation vehicles for 



all branches of the military— would some- 
day trigger an era in aviation that is 
now called the Age of Remotely Piloted 
Vehicles. 

From those pioneering days at White 
Sands, Firebees would be launched and 
operated in the frigid zones of the arctic, 
the steaming jungles around the globe, 
in the sun-baked deserts, far out to sea 
and under all environmental conditions 
associated with combat requirements. 

In more recent years. White Sands 
would become the primary support base 
for simulations of multiple threat sources 
and TRA would help develop the techni- 
cal sophistications required for forma- 
tion flight operations of Firebees. And, 
as this effort moved forward, TRA's Su- 
personic Firebee II, the latest growth- 
version aerial target, would be in- 
troduced and used at White Sands to 
support development of the U.S. Army 
Improved Hawk missile. 

In nearly a quarter-century of 
WSMR's existence, the Firebee family 
has been linked inseparably with the mis- 
sions served by this installation. 





:iX' 










r^v:?;' 









:v->: 




"We're deeply proud of this associ- 
ation," remarks Barry J. Shillito. "It char- 
acterizes the close relationships enjoyed 
by Teledyne Ryan with the military de- 
fense team of the Nation." 

President of TRA today and the man 
who shouldered responsibilities for the 
Department of Defense for procurement 
of major weapons systems as Assistant 
Secretary of Defense (Installations and 
Logistics) until January 1973, Shillito has 
been a witness to the contributions made 
by White Sands Missile Range to the 
country's national defense posture. 

In his position as Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Navy (Installations and Logis- 
tics) prior to appointment to his DOD 
post, he watched with managing inter- 
ests the Navy's "Desert Ship" program. 

This continuity of managing lead- 
ership with the Navy as well as DOD, ac- 
cording to Shillito, "created for me a 
particular appreciation for the vitally im- 
portant work that has been and is being 



conducted by our joint services at White 
Sands." 

At a time when defense budgets are 
on a sharply declining slope, when the 
military itself is shifting from war to a 
peacetime posture as the Nation imple- 
ments new foreign policies, it is ever- 
more important, according to govern- 
ment leaders, that America maintain its 
military capabilities. 

in this context, the White Sands Mis- 
sile Range is as much a national re- 
source as it is a national range. It may 
well be the "ace card" America needs as 
it transitions into a new era of peace- 
backed by a position of superior military 
strength. "^^ 



V' 



\ 



y 



y. 




■■'■; /I '■'/■. ■ 




'^S 



^^•: 









^ ..-''-^ 



-^^S^' 



^-t* ^>. 



One of the Atlantic Fleet's most intense aerial 
target operations in recent years unfolded in 
June on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range. 
There to record the story on film were two 
REPORTER photographers. They slugged this 
report: 



i 



FLY 
HREWm 

FLY!' 



'9 



I 
I 



Photographs by 

Edward R. Precourt and David A. Gossett 

NAS, ROOSEVELT ROADS, Puerto Rico-ln a span of 34 hours 
last June, the waters of this Caribbean Sea-South Atlantic 
Ocean area became the aerial target operations capital of the 
world as units of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet engaged "enemy" Fire- 
bees In a pitched day and night battle that tested fleet combat 
readiness. 

Conducted on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range— an area 
larger than the state of Texas— It was the first operational exer- 
cise in which Anagada Island, which lies some 78 miles North- 
east of Puerto Rico, was used for Firebee ground launch oper- 
ations. 

It was also the first operational exercise in which as many as 
seven Supersonic Firebee Ms were flown to simulate advanced 
threat sources. 

In all, 25 Teledyne Ryan Firebees, subsonic as well as super- 
sonic, were launched into flight over the June 5-6 period, with 
launches from water surface platforms, Anagada Island and 



11 




USS Franklin D. Roosevelt missile battery stands at ready in 
launch exercise (above) while TRA's Mike Savino briefs Range 
Commander, Captain William A. Mackey on target location 
(below). Supersonic Firebee II ready-line (bottom) at NAS, 
Roosevelt Roads supported one of Navy's largest operational 
exercises in which growth-version system has been used. 







DP2E "Neptune" launch aircraft operated by Fleet Composite 
Squadron-Eight based at Roosevelt Roads. 

Commanded by Commander Fred Sellman, VC-8 filled a key 
support role in providing air-launched targets and recovery air- 
craft, as well as the routine range safety monitoring functions. 

Termed "completely successful," Captain William A. Mackey, 
Commander of the Range, said the exercise was completed 
"ahead of schedule," noting that the availability of targets and 
their presentation enabled the fleet units to expend their missiles 
earlier than anticipated. 

Participating in the defense readiness test were 7 surface 
units including the cruisers USS Newport News and Columbus 
and guided missile ships of Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla-Eight, as 
well as the carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt and British carrier 
HMS Ark Royal. Included in the force was the West German 
guided missile ship Rommel. 

Under overall command of Vice Admiral John G. Finneran, 
Commander of the U.S. Second Fleet, who was embarked in the 
Newport News, the Officer in Tactical Command of the exercise 
was Rear Admiral Dennis Downey, Commander, Destroyer- 
Cruiser Flotilla-Eight. Riding in the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt as 




''**^*i!fc^* 






exercise safety observer was Rear Admiral Fred Bouwman, 
Commander, Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla-Twelve. 

Missile readiness firings included surface as well as air de- 
fense capabilities, using the Navy's Standard missile system in 
addition to Terrier, Tartar, Talos and Sea Sparrows in surface-to- 
air defense tests. In air-to-air encounters. Sidewinders, Spar- 
rows and other weapons systems were employed. 

Of particular significance was the use of Anagada Island as a 
launch point for the subsonic Firebees, according to Mackey. 
He said the feasibility was operationally proved and that use of 
the small island for launch operations placed the Firebee targets 
In an immediate weapons firing zone without previously required 
flights from launch points adjacent to Puerto Rico itself. 

In another demonstration of advanced capabilities, AFWR 
used a Septar boat for Firebee night launch operations, guiding 
the boat by remote control to a launch position in the firing area. 

Four confirmed "l<ills" of Firebees were made as the oper- 
ation drew to its close, credited to surface units participating in 
the two-day shoot. 

Captain Mackey, who was scheduled to turn his Weapons 
Range command over to Captain R. B. Robinson in late June, 



USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (above) was joined by British carrier 
HMS Ark Royal in exercise. Firing exercise was observed from 
bridge of cruiser USS Columbus (below). 




13 




— ^ -^ -■ -sr 



g^^-^ 



Anagada Island launch site (above) was used for first time in 
history of AFWR operations, proving itself 
a key to success of exercise in June. 



praised the support role filled during the exercise by an 20-man 
Teledyne Ryan team based at Roosevelt Roads under Michael T. 
Savino. 

It fell to Savino's team of avionic, propulsion and airframe 
specialists to "build-up" BQM-34A and BQM-34E Firebees in 
preparation for the readiness test, assist in the planning and ex- 
ecution of target requirements, launch and control them in oper- 
ation and refurbish them as they were returned to a maintenance 
complex at the Naval Air Station. 

Two ground launch platforms were erected at Anagada Is- 
land in advance of the operation, from which eight subsonic 
Firebees were launched into flight by TRA contractor personnel. 
Use of the Island launch complex augmented VC-8 aircraft used 
to launch the Firebees into flight, according to Savino. He noted 
that this was a major factor contributing to the early completion 
time. 

Now in its 1 1 th year of continuous support service on the At- 
lantic Fleet Weapons Range, Savino credited the "profes- 
sionalism" of his target operations personnel for the exercise's 
successful outcome. 

The TRA unit based here works in close harmony with Com- 



14 







mander Jim Wessel, Range Operations Officer, in developing 
target schedules and responding to fleet requirements. 

Savino's unit tias supported the flight of 15 BQM-34E Firebee 
lis since January 1973, the highest number flown by any Navy 
activity since the supersonic, growth-version target system 
became operational. 

Posed as an air superiority threat simulator, one Firebee II 
was reported "killed" in an extra long range test of the F-14 
Phoenix missile at a distance of 126 statute miles from its point of 
launch in June. 

The report noted that the Firebee II was intercepted by the 
Phoenix (within lethal range) at an altitude of 52,000 feet and a 
speed of Mach 1.55. 

The Phoenix test was conducted on the Pacific Missile 
Range. Downstream, however, and looking to the projected in- 
troduction of the F-14 and its Phoenix missile system into oper- 
ational status, the demonstration on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons 
Range draws new perspective on its values to the Atlantic Fleet. 

The defense readiness exercise conducted here June 5-6 
was no mere "routine" operation. Clearly, it paved the way for 
advances into the future. -75^ 



Underway activity aboard USS Columbus (at left, top to 
bottom): radarman scans screen in ship's CIC room; bridge 
personnel at stations; and underway fueling operation. 
Helicopter retrieves Firebee II from open sea for return to NAS, 
Roosevelt Roads. 



15 



peporber 





President of Teledyne Ryan 
Aeronautical since February 1, 
1973, Barry J. Shillito served the 
Nation as Assistant Secretary of 
Defense from 1969 to 1973, 
responsible for installations and 
logistics of the U.S. military 
establishment. He had served for 
a year previous as Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy (Installa- 
tions and Logistics). For 12 years 
prior to government service, he 
held management positions with a 
number of major firms associated 
with defense contracting. Few 
men possess the insight and 
perspective of Barry J. Shillito in 
addressing himself to REPORTER 
magazine's interview. 




repOPbBP How do you assess the 
future of Remotely Piloted Vefilcles 
against a backdrop of rapidly changing 
philosophies concerning a peacetime 
defense posture for the U. S.? 
ShillibO First of all. you have to 

appreciate the fact that all of the RPV 
technologies exist today. There are no 
major technical breakthroughs re- 
quired In the development of RPV ap- 
plications. Admittedly, there is a lot of 
development required in some phases. 
In a shrinking defense budget environ- 
ment, an environment in which we're 
most concerned about maintaining our 
national security capabilities, the RPV 
offers the opportunity to do more in 
conjunction with piloted aircraft than 
almost anything I can think of." 

repOrbOP you were credited with 
authoring the term, "Synergism," as it 
applies to the business of managing 
the installations and logistics of the 
Defense Department. Can you re- 
define this term as it may apply to a 
defense contractor? 

ShillibO We re going to see the 

application of this term here at TRA in 




many ways. The most important is that 
the numerical sum of two plus two will 
produce a much larger quantity than 
four, as our technical, manufacturing 
and other Company sectors start 
blending their resources into a total 
unit. I believe that any successful com- 
pany must possess a synergistic qual- 
ity. And TRA is that kind of a company. 
I used the term initially as it related to 
the amalgamation of Defense Depart- 
ment's broad resources, the relation- 
ships between so many segments of 
that community and the installations 
and logistics areas for which I was re- 
sponsible. I can tell you that it does 
pay off." 

PepOPbBP The contractor defense 
industry is historically one of peaks and 
valleys. Do you anticipate any major 
shifts or stabilizing influences which 
might help create a new, more positive 
personality for the industry? 
ShillibO "The starting point, it 

seems to me, providing any new direc- 
tion would result from organizing and 
managing the problems associated 
with peaks and valleys. Attempts to fill 
the valleys with government or com- 
mercial business must be made or the 
company must develop the capability 
for contraction or expansion equal to 
the peaks and valleys profile it follows. 
In many ways, the traditional personal- 
ity you refer to can be regarded as a 
plus factor for the defense industry that 
can achieve this flexibility. You can't 
survive without it. I don't see any 
change in this area of peaks and val- 
leys, as it regards defense business. I 
do see a significant trend, however, as 
far as companies engaged in defense 
industries, of broadening into non- 
defense product areas tied more closely 
to commercial environments. It so hap- 
pens that defense contractor industries 
are best equipped, in some instances. 



16 




to resolve problems faced by our so- 
ciety today where technical capabilities 
are needed. Mass transit, ecology, the 
energy crisis— these are some of the 
kinds of problems I feel some portions 
of our industry can adapt themselves 
to handle." 

rGP0rb6r Looking back now on 
your years in government, with the 
Navy as well as DoD, what is the source 
of your greatest personal pride? 

ShillibO "Many things gave me 

personal pride. Playing a role in bring- 
ing about the significant change in 
DoD's acquisition of major weapons 
systems is indeed one. The evolution 
of a shift in type contracting and the 
role I was able to fill is another. The 
overall changes we were able to effect 
in contracting, decreasing the numbers 
of items in the defense supply inven- 
tory, improving the operations of the 
Defense Supply Agency, establishment 
of the President's legacy of parks pro- 
grams in the Defense Department, 
transformation to container cargo ship- 
ment techniques in which we were able 
to realize vast savings, increases in 
family housing (from less than 1,000 
units per year to more than 12,000), 
consolidation of the DoD industrial 
base and improvement in our 200 DoD 
industrial operations. . .all of these 
things I feel very strongly about in 
terms of personal pride. The single 
thing that gave me the most pride, how- 
ever, was our entire Vietnamization 
effort. Practically all aspects of this 
program, which was really begun in 
1969, were logistics in nature. We sup- 
plied, trained and organized the Viet- 
namese to do the job. We also reduced 
our force level by more than a half- 
million men and returned billions of 
dollars in equipment from Vietnam in 
carrying out this plan. This effort was 
executed according to a plan which I 
was able to be a part of and participate 



in to its conclusion. The initial plan 
called for completion of the Vietna- 
mization effort in 1 975. We were able to 
achieve it by the beginning of 1 973. We 
would not have been able to move our 
people out of Vietnam and turn the war 
over to the Vietnamese had not this 
logistic plan and effort been a success." 

PBPOrbGr What is your own per- 
sonal philosophy guiding your success 
in life as it relates to business? 
ShillibO "Primarily, a few funda- 

mental things. One, to be honest and 
concerned about the welfare of others. 
To be open and candid and responsive 
with others. To be successful in any 
enterprise, to work very, very hard. 
Success never comes easy. To force 
things to happen, the clock must be 
ignored. Those willing to do these 
things, I believe, are going to create 
their own success in most instances." 

RBPOrbBP Some critics of the De- 
sign to Cost philosophy claim that im- 
plementation of this concept will inhibit 
technical advance. What is your opinion? 

ShillibO "I disagree. In fact, I feel 

quite strongly that advance in the broad 
sense, and technical advance in the 
narrow sense, as related to our country 
is such that our technical talents can 
and must be directed more toward 
costs in the total interest of our country 
and total interest of our society. In or- 
der for Design to Cost to work, we're 
going to have to have some latitudes. 
In the past, there have been tendencies 
to pinpoint time and performance and 
ignore cost. Under a Design to Cost 
approach, the cost factor must assume 
a more inflexible position with broader 
latitudes extended to performance and 
time. As we move toward Design to 
Cost, we're going to have to direct 
our technical talents toward meeting 
cost parameters more effectively. 
America can be competitive interna- 
tionally. But our competition is pro- 
gressing. The International market 
places are growing more rigidly ori- 
ented toward costs. By the way, as we 
think in terms of Design to Cost, we're 
just not talking about the cost of turn- 
ing a product out the door. We're talk- 
ing about the entire life cycle cost of 
that particular product over its useful 
life." 



repOPbGr what do you consider 
to be the major strengths of Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical today? 

ShillibO "Be assured that we have 
many major strengths. The single 
greatest strength is our people. Our 
people are outstanding, as thinkers, as 
doers and the foundation community 
that gave birth to aviation. Since com- 
ing here, I've awarded seven 30-year 
pins and one 25-year pin to outstand- 
ing people who have made major con- 
tributions to this Company over many 
years. They typify our employees. 
There's a quality of dedication to our 
entire community, one that is inspira- 
tional to my way of thinking. But, in 
addition to all this, our people repre- 
sent a competency in skills and arts 
that are far beyond the levels of com- 
monality. They are flexible, profession- 
ally flexible and capable beyond any 
measure associated with commonly ac- 
cepted aerospace disciplines. You 




talked about peaks and valleys earlier. 
Teledyne Ryan has endured and per- 
severed through the very worst peak 
and valley conditions. Remember this, 
we've been through the worst storms 
of economic seas over more than fifty 
years. Fortunately, we've demonstrated 
this strength. This factor, coupled with 
our past performance in product capa- 
bilities and those we envision in the 
future; these are our strengths. And, 
we are damned proud of them. Our 
strengths truly lie in areas of disciplined 
dedication." •^if- 



17 



Proponents of a "Designated Ship" concept point to 
economic savings, mobility and versatility as prime 
objectives for . . . 



Sea -Based Firebee 



New dimensions of operational capabilities for Firebee support 
services are being explored today under a "Designated Ship" 
concept that could totally eliminate land-based requirements 
currently employed in operational Firebee programs. 

All functions supporting the aerial target system, from launch 
through recovery and maintenance, could be deployed aboard 
designated ships of the operating forces. 

These target operations vessels, with recovery helicopters 
embarked, could accompany and support readiness training 
programs whenever required without "range time" restrictions. 

Already demonstrated on the Pacific Missile Range are feasi- 
bility operations of the USNS Wheeling, an instrumentation ship 



based at the Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu. 

In demonstrating extension capabilities of the Sea Test 
Range into "broad ocean areas," the Wheeling assumed flight 
control of a standard BQM-34A Firebee launched from ground 
facilities at Pt. Mugu. Shipboard controllers performed a series 
of low-altitude threat profile simulations in support of missile fir- 
ings by the USS England, John Paul Jones and Somers. 

At the conclusion of the exercise, the Firebee was parachute 
recovered in the open sea and returned to the ship by a helicop- 
ter, normally based at the Naval Air Station, Pt. Mugu, which was 
embarked in the Wheeling. 

The ship's controllers then "flew" a Supersonic Firebee II 




Operations 



(BQM-34E) which was air-launched from a DC-130 "Hercules" 
operated by Fleet Composite Squadron-Three at San Diego. 
Again, the open-sea target operation was demonstrated in a 
seriesof simulated attacks against other U.S. Third Fleet surface 
units. 

Commander Robert C. Bolerjack, PMR Fleet Support Branch 
Officer, said the successful demonstrations were conducted to 
provide a display of "economical and feasible ways in which the 
Sea Test Range can be extended further into the broad ocean 
area." 

Until this operation, Sea Test Range activities involving aerial 
targets were limited by the range of shore-based control units, 
the duration of airborne units and the range of recovery helicop- 
ters and surface recovery craft. 

Pioneering this concept over a span of 10 or more years have 
been limited open sea Firebee and other aerial target system op- 
erations. The San Diego based USS Targeteer was regularly em- 
ployed in support of fleet training exercises. 

Embarked in the small, ocean-going Targeteer were prop- 
driven aerial targets which were launched and flight-controlled 
in support of surface unit gunnery exercises. 

The U.S. Naval Missile Center was responsible several years 
ago for the development of Firebee surface-launched oper- 
ations at sea. Aviation Rescue boats (AVRs), modified with 
launch rails mounted on the aft section of the 63-foot AVRs and 
remote-control guidance instrumentation, were used success- 
fully to demonstrate open-sea launch operations. Once air- 
borne, the Firebees were controlled from land-based facilities at 
Pt. Mugu. 

Posed under the broader concept of "Designated Ship" op- 
erations would be one facility each on Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts manned by aerial target specialists and technicians. 
These facilities would serve as supply, checkout and heavy 
maintenance sources. 

Designated for target support services would be ships in cat- 
egories of the LSD or LPD varieties, offering deck spaces ade- 
quate for helicopter operations as well as Firebee launch rails. 
All targets, support equipments and maintenance requirements 
would be embarked aboard these designated vessels without 
any modification requirements to the ships involved. 



Japanese target ship AZUMA (at left) has been in operational 
service nearly three years, using standard BQM-34A Firebees in 
support of Maritime Defense Force units. Practical applications 
of projected "Designated Ship" concept have been demonstrated 
through this and other examples. 



Proponents of the concept point out that the "designated" 
ship duty could be rotated among fleets without degredation of 
the vessel's primary functions. Each of the ships designated for 
target support operations would be capable of independent sea 
operations for periods of up to thirty days, offering up to twenty 
flights during that period. Meanwhile, a second, support team 
based at the primary center ashore would be continuously refur- 
bishing targets and associated equipment in preparations for 
the next deployment cycle. 

The "bonus" feature incorporated in the "Designated Ship" 
concept is the mobility and economies represented, according 
to planning officials. In addition, such "designated" vessels 
could readily support U.S. Army, Navy or allied requirements 
on a global basis, minimizing more costly fixed land-based sup- 
port functions now in use. 

Examples of concept application values are offered in an ex- 
amination of U.S. Sixth Fleet requirements. Where severely lim- 
ited fleet missile and gunnery exercises in both surface-to-air 
and air-to-air environments are prevalent, the "mobile sea 
range" would be present at all times. These "designated" ships 
could serve not only the requirements of U.S. Navy forces but 
the Air Force, Army and NATO forces alike. 

The Japanese Maritime Defense Force, pursuing a mobile 
target capability 5 years ago, designed and built a target support 
ship, the Azuma. Operating within the home islands, the Azuma 
is a flexible, mobile target ship that incorporates use of Firebees 
as the primary target, flight control and guidance facilities, 
launch and recovery equipment as well as maintenance shops. 

Unlike the Azuma concept, however, the "Designated Ship" 
program would not restrict a vessel to this singular function; it 
would utilize those ships whose physical characteristics enable 
all associated target operations, material and equipment to be 
embarked for secondary mission requirements. 

Without modification requirements in its dual role as a fleet 
support unit, the vessels designated for target support services 
would rotate back to primary status on completion of duty 
periods. 

Advancing today into the era of Sea Control, a period dic- 
tated by increased needs for global mobility, prudent economics 
and mission effectiveness, the U.S. Navy could profit hand- 
somely from applications of the "Designated Ship" concept, ac- 
cording to authorities. 

At the very least, applications of the concept would add sea- 
legs to typically land-based target support requirements. 

At best, it would add a measure of mobility and versatility in 
an age when these qualities are in growing demand for the U.S. 
defense posture. ^^ 



19 



To its many faces has been added yet 
another mask of simulation as standard 
Army l\/IQIVI-34Ds uprated with J-85 
engines undergo feasibility flight testing 
as the . . . 

MODE 
FIREBEE 



iVit'■^•^'-T:<■i■^' '^?afl5EJ5i*!6v'.' 



^^^^ 




20 





Firebee's latest wrinkle is a smooth, 
new profile offering untapped agility in 
high-g, near-supersonic, simulations of 
enemy threat sources. Its saucy new 
look is in final stages of feasibility testing 
at the White Sands Missile Range under 
program management of the U.S. Army 
Missile Command, Huntsville, Alabama. 

Dubbed Firebee MOD II, standard 
MQM-34D Firebees are being fitted out 
with J-85 jet turbine engines that boost 
installed thrust by as much as 75 percent 
over standard versions. 

Purpose of the modification, accord- 
ing to Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical, is to 
expand the vehicle's operational per- 
formance in an envelope of high air- 
speed during high-g turns and serpen- 
tine maneuvering with minimum loss of 
altitudes. 

In seven feasibility flights to date, the 
MOD II Firebee has clearly demonstrated 
its projected capabilities, according to C. 
D. "Bud" Miller, TRA Program Manager. 
Army Lt. Colonel Albert A. Busck, repre- 
senting MICOM in the program, adds his 
endorsement to Miller's. 

"Based on the performance data pro- 
duced during our feasibility program and 
the seventh flight, in particular, it has 
been demonstrated that it is feasible to 
fly the MOD II in sustained 7g turns at 
speeds of approximately 600 knots," 
Busck confirmed. 

The MOD II flight test program was 
begun March 13, 1973 in a captive flight 
with the vehicle suspended from the 
wing pole of a Navy DP2E, followed by 



Photos by Tom Howell 








fl 


SHU. 


^ 




■ m 


1 


m 


^ 


Li* " ■'^■Bfifci^ \^ ^^ ' '3di 


y 


i 




jHH M 


^ 


1 


91 


BH 


1 


1 


1 



MOD II Firebee program officials 
witnessing feasibility flight test at White 
Sands, N.M., represent MICOM, 
Teledyne Ryan and WSMR. Test vehicle 
in background has completed 7 flights. 



21 




U.S. Army Missile Command's Lt. 
Colonel Albert A. Busck heads MOD II 
program effort. Project test officials 
(below) check telemetry data following 
feasibiUty flight at WSMR. 




a free-flight the next day in an air-launch 
mode of operation. 

Sub-assemblies for a newly-designed 
nacelle were manufactured by TRA at its 
San Diego complex and shipped to 
White Sands for final assembly by the 
Company's target support team based 
there under Paul M. Bunner. 

TRA Base Manager at WSMR, Bun- 
ner said the MOD II conversion program 
is the largest off-site activity of its kind 
ever conducted by TRA. 

Equipped with an Advanced Serpen- 
tine Maneuvering Kit (ASMK), the proto- 
type flight test MOD II completed its first 
ground-launched flight operation, using 
standard equipment and associated 
ground support items, April 9. Succeed- 
ing flights were conducted April 17, May 
10, May 16, May 23 and again on June 11, 
each operation gradually expanding the 
operational envelop. 

In the June 11 flight test, the MOD II 
performed five 7g tight turns, maintain- 
ing speeds in excess of 600 knots. 

Posed for a support role in Chaparral 
and Stinger weapons programs, the 
feasibility flight test operations have 
been conducted under the management 
of Lt. Colonel Busck, assisted by his 
deputy at MICOM, Warren Sockwell, and 
associates Marshall Cherry and Serge 
Tonetti. 

Representing MICOM program inter- 
ests at WSMR has been Pat Crisp. 

Carroll A. Berner, a program man- 
agement engineer at TRA, has been re- 
sponsible for coordination of all phases 
of the feasibility program under Miller 
and Frank X. Marshall, TRA Director of 
Target Programs and Services. 

"The successes of this MOD II pro- 
gram demonstrates clearly the values 
pursued in jointly-sponsored activities 
such as this," Marshall points out. He 
noted that the Army's requirements were 
presented as an objective of mutual in- 
terests from the start. 

"Many of the initial problems associ- 



22 



ated with this conversion effort in the en- 
gineering-design phase and projected 
into the operational testing failed to de- 
velop. Others that did surface as the pro- 
gram progressed were resolved through 
joint work efforts of MICOM and TRA 
personnel. 

"The Firebee MOD II program proves 
once again the effectiveness of our com- 
bined strengths," Marshall noted. 

Introduction of the MOD II Firebees 
into operational status could come as 
early as the third quarter of this year, ac- 
cording to Warren Sockwell, who said 
that prototypes may be given operational 
status prior to that time. 

"There Is a definite need for the MOD 
II in our tri-service target inventory," 
Sockwell stated, adding that cost factors 
measured against standard target air- 
craft procurement could influence re- 
sponses to the need. 

Significantly, MOD II Firebees offer 
an untapped potential beyond existing 
Army applications, for air-to-air uses by 
the Navy and Air Force, according to 
Marshall. He said the newly-modified ve- 
hicle offers major appeal for fighter-in- 
terceptor weapons training as well as de- 
velopment, test and evaluations. The 
elimination of air speed "bleed-off" in 
high-g maneuvers, coupled with acceler- 
ated speed ranges and expanded per- 
formance capabilities, poses the MOD II 
as a particularly agile simulator. 

To this simulation potential Is added 
variable speeds and the ASMK flight sys- 
tem. A potential for plume augmentation 
and radar cross-section Increase Is also 
being explored. 

"In effect, what's been created in the 
MOD II Firebee is another growth-ver- 
sion advance In the TRA family of aerial 
targets and Remotely Piloted Vehicles. 
We believe It is as significant an advance 
as any achieved In the subsonic pro- 
grams throughout Firebee history," Mar- 
shall declared. -^^ 



Teledyne Ryan technicians make final 
preparations prior to launch of vehicle 
that has been modified with J-85 engine. 




23 



DESJEI^-TQ-CnST. 



Dr. Charles B. "Bish" Spangler, Program 
Director of Advanced Systems for Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical, draws on his 15-years' 
experience in aerospace in his approaches to the 
subject, "Design-to-Cost." 

A member of the management team from 
1962 to 1969 at Litton Industries and prior to 
that with General Dynamics Western Corporate 
offices, his views have gained national 
recognition through presentation of technical 
papers. 

Dr. Spangler earned his A.B. in physics from 
Berea College; M.S. math/physics and Ph.D. in 
physics from the University of Pittsburgh. 

He currently heads TRA's task force 
approach to design-to-cost. 




Early this spring a group of Teledyne Ryan people participated in 
an inhouse seminar treating one of the most challenging and far- 
reaching new policies to emerge from the Department of De- 
fense in recent years. The group, by deliberate selection, was 
comprised of participants from a broad spectrum of company 
departments including Program Management Engineering, Ad- 
vanced Systems, Manufacturing, Finance, and Contracts. The 
subject of the seminar: Design-to-Cost. 

The concept of designing to a cost is simply described. It 
means that system performance goals, rather than being estab- 
lished as firm requirements that must be met at any price, are 
traded off against the various measures of system cost during 
the design/development process until the right balance of sys- 
tem performance and cost is achieved. Implicit in this concept is 
the early establishment of cost goals to be designed along with 
performance goals. 

The design-to-cost policy is but another attempt on the part 
of the Department of Defense to control the costs of weapons 
systems, acquisition, and operation. A fixed DOD budget com- 
bined with increased levels of spending in other budgetary ele- 
ments such as manpower has resulted in less money available 
for weapons systems procurement. This, combined with the es- 
calating costs and sophistication of modern weapons systems, 
has forced defense planners to face a basic issue: is it better to 
have a few of the very best weapons or many very good ones? 
There has been increasing skepticism as to whether the very 
best systems are worth the additional cost over the very good 
ones. Indeed, the very best system is of no use if it is unafford- 
able and thus unavailable. 

Past weapons system development efforts have been char- 
acterized by a process in which system "requirements," in- 
cluding required performance levels, were established very 
early. These requirements have generally been held inviolate or, 
more often, increased through change proposals during the 
system development cycle. The unfortunate result has often 
been the development of high performance, highly sophis- 
ticated and costly systems. Operating under a fixed budget has 
meant buying fewer units than was originally planned. 

The design-to-cost policy seeks to solve this dilemma by 
forcing cost considerations into the establishment of system 
performance levels. The stated objective is to "make cost a prin- 
cipal design parameter." 

As simple as the design-to-cost policy is to describe, its suc- 
cessful implementation will require many significant and difficult 
changes to past system development methods. DOD policy- 
makers, planners and managers are aware of many of these 
challenges and are working diligently to meet them. A central is- 
sue is the system requirements development process which now 
must include the early establishment of system cost goals. This 
effort requires the development and parametric cost-versus-per- 
formance analyses at a time in the program life cycle when sys- 
tem concepts are loosely defined and cost information is difficult 
to obtain. It is expected that the defense industry will become 
much more intimately involved in these early stages than has 



24 



B ChflLLEI^GE PUD fll>< aPPQHTlJWJTV 



been the case in the past in order to provide the basic data and 
perform much of the parametric analyses. 

This represents a significant opportunity for industrial con- 
tractors such as TRA to gain early insights into emerging mis- 
sion requirements; information which can be incorporated into 
their own long-range plans. 

TRA's seminar treats the motivation for the design-to-cost 
policy both from the standpoint of resource allocation on a na- 
tional scale, as well as within the scope of an individual program. 

On a national defense resources scale, Department of De- 
fense decisions which allocate defense dollars among systems 
and subsystems are based, in part, upon the projected costs of 
developing, acquiring, operating, and maintaining the candi- 
date systems and subsystems. If these resource allocation deci- 
sions are to remain valid over an extended period of time, the as- 
sumptions and projections upon which those decisions are 
made must have a reasonably high expectation of coming true. 
Much effort in the past has been expended toward the objective 
of obtaining better cost projections and, indeed, toward con- 
trolling costs during the development and operational cycles. 
Many attempts to control costs have failed when mission per- 
formance has been allowed to become an overriding objective. 
Utilization of a design-to-cost philosophy will enable the imple- 
mentation of mission responses which strike an appropriate 
balance among cost, performance, and schedule. 

On a contracted program scale, the seminar makes a brief 
examination of the pitfalls which singly or in combination have 
characterized programs exhibiting cost overruns in the past. 
Among these are: (1) the "design for performance/hang-the- 
cost" syndrome which has resulted in high cost/high qual- 
ity/limited quantity procurements; (2) the uncertainty associ- 
ated with application of new technology which in the past has 
caused programs to suffer from unpredictable problems or "un- 
known unknowns"; and (3) program estimates based on as- 
sumptions of "all success" which have plagued programs when 
problems, even those predictable with some confidence but ig- 
nored, have ultimately occurred. 

Techniques are introduced for establishing cost bogies, allo- 
cating these bogies to design elements, measuring and pro- 
jecting costs, schedule, and performance characteristics of de- 
veloping programs, and utilizing this information in program 
management decisions. 

Four major elements of the iterative system design processes 
are examined in detail in the seminar: 

1 . The requirements development process. Many cost 
overruns in the past have been attributed to the escala- 
tion of system requirements. Managing these require- 
ments within cost constraints is an essential element in a 
design-to-cost program. Baseline system requirements 
must include the three essential elements: cost bogie, 
performance bogie, and schedule bogie. 

2. Development of cost-responsive design alternatives. 
Cost bogies must be allocated to system, subsystem, 
and design elements in a logical, rational manner as has 



performance bogies in successful system design efforts 
in the past. Methodologies for performing these alloca- 
tions and communicating them effectively to the de- 
signer are discussed. 

3. Evaluation and projection of cost and performance of 
emerging designs. Key to the success of the iterative de- 
sign process is the information generated by the system 
evaluation tasks. This information provides the essential 
feedback signals for refinement of the output of all other 
tasks. A competent evaluation effort must include the de- 
velopment of criteria which are responsive to program 
objectives, (i.e., the various dimensions of Cost, Per- 
formance and Risk) it must include the means of measur- 
ing candidate approaches against these criteria, usually 
by modeling, simulation, and/or test, and a means of re- 
porting the findings in a timely and effective manner. 

4. Program design and cost control management action. 
Information generated by the projection process must be 
compared with cost bogies by program and technical 
management personnel in deciding necessary actions, 
should projected costs start to exceed bogies. 

The seminar will be refined and conducted repeatedly in the 
near- and longer-range future, always with a broad mix of par- 
ticipants from company departments and from a variety of gov- 
ernment agencies as well. By this means, a broad learning expe- 
rience can be achieved in sharing unique and mutual problems 
as well as enhancing the information flow in future design teams. 

The seminar is but one facet of TRA's efforts to meet the 
challenges and opportunities of the far-reaching design-to-cost 
policy. Our information base and modeling capability is being 
reinforced in order to enhance our capability to perform credible 
parametric cost-performance analyses as an integral part of the 
critical design trade studies of the future. The recent effort on 
the TEDS (Tactical Expendable Decoy) proposal represented a 
significant accomplishment in assembling a team effort for the 
purpose of selecting and designing an approach to performing 
an assigned mission within preassigned cost goals. The analy- 
ses performed as well as the information flow among team mem- 
bers from Preliminary Design, Cost Analysis, Manufacturing, Lo- 
gistics Support and other groups was most encouraging. 

The recently-won Drone Control and Data Retrieval System 
conceptual design contract for which we are teamed with the 
Hughes Aircraft Company is to be conducted under the design- 
to-cost policy. 

The Army's Attack Helicopter program for which we are 
teamed with Hughes Helicopters will represent a progressive 
step in design-to-cost implementation in that the cost of govern- 
ment-furnished material as well as contractor-furnished material 
is to be included in unit cost projections. 

We must build on this experience as well as our rich back- 
ground in the design, development, test, and operation of ca- 
pable low-cost aircraft, electronics, and space systems to meet 
the challenges of the future and continue to make significant 
contributions to national defense objectives. "^^ 



25 



Injured, beaten, starved and harrassed by 
his North Vietnam captors, Navy 
Commander Ed l\/lartin peeiied through slits 
in his jail-cell door to watch the . . . 




Shot down and taken captive by the 
North Vietnamese July 9, 1967, U. S. 
Navy Commander Edward H. Martin lay 
on the floor of the New Guy Village inter- 
rogation cell, a fresh victim of the 
"ropes." He'd been "worked over" by 
the "goon squad," tied in ropes from 
head to toe, his right arm cracked and 
left arm paralyzed. 

"I was a poor specimen of humanity, 
lying there on the floor. They wanted me 
to make a statement against my country, 
a statement condemning my President 
and all we were fighting for— something 
which is morally repulsive to me to start 
with. 

"I refused to make the statement, and 
the interrogator got very angry. 

"I was in no condition to recall any 
alert prior to that, and I think the date was 
some days after I arrived. And there was 
a raid. You could hear the bombs going 
off— a tremendous amount of anti-air- 
craft activity. The raid lasted about 15 
minutes, then the all clear sounded. 

"I heard a single, high-speed aircraft 
... as best I recall, a smaller engine than 
would be heard from something like an 
F-4, A-4 or (fighter-attack aircraft) . . . 
and it seemed at fairly low altitude." 

This recollection, offered by the one- 
time resident of North Vietnam's in- 
famous "Hanoi Hilton," would be re- 
membered in a talk before a Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical audience as, "both 
the gloomiest and proudest" experience 
in his near-six year period of captivity. 

"We were absolutely elated!" The 
sound of the "high-speed" aircraft— he 
would later determine by visual contact- 
was a drone reconnaissance aircraft of 



26 



the kind credited with taking some of the 
aerial photos displayed with this article. 

Again, the recollection of other 
bombing raids later the same year: "Ev- 
ery single day that we had raids— and this 
was nearly every day— (between July and 
the end of September 1967), they were 
preceded or followed by reconnaissance 
flights. In many cases, I was to learn 
later, they were pilotless airplanes . . . 
because I eventually saw them." 

Moved to the "Zoo," located about 
1000 meters from the Bac Mai airfield, 
near the Bac Mai hospital— the Navy offi- 
cer recalled his first sighting of an un- 
manned reconnaissance vehicle. 

"We were able to see— from several 
vantage points that we had made our- 
selves . . . cracks in doors that we en- 
larged . . . sometimes the windows 
would blow open— on numerous occa- 
sions F-105S, F-4s, A-4s, various and 
sundry reconnaissance aircraft— the 
RA5C, F-4C. And then I was out in the 
yard one beautiful April morning. 

"Without warning, we heard a very 
high-speed aircraft— in my estimation, 
somewhere around Mach .9 and about 
45 to 60 degrees elevation angle. 

Martin recalls that the aircraft ap- 
peared to be "jinking" and had sus- 
tained hits from anti-aircraft fire. He re- 
calls seeing part of the wing come off, 
"but the airplane continued on." 

Humorously, a wide grin splitting his 
now-tanned face, he told how a prison 
guard was "absolutely horrified" at the 
sight. 

"I remember that we were elated, 
elated to the point that they (the guards) 
dragged me out to scold me for my 'bad 




Ex-POW Navy Commander Ed Martin points to North 
Vietnam prison complex where he was held captive in photo 
taken by unmanned drone reconnaissance plane. Teledyne 
Ryan Aeronautical Board Chairman Robert C. Jackson was 
in audience that heard Martin's eye-witness account. 



27 



"The faith in our country, in our government 
and in our military leadership never waived." 



NOI THERMAL POWER PUNT 

JEFORE 




Drone reconnaissance photos before 
bombing raid on Hanoi thermal power 
plant (above) and after (below) offer 
assessment of damage wrought. 



01 THERMAL POWER PUNT 

TER 




attitude.' This was the first time I had a 
good view of (these) aircraft. Certainly, it 
was not the last. From that period— about 
April— through November 1968, recon- 
naissance aircraft were evident after all 
bombing raids." 

Martin told how the bombing halt on 
November 1, 1968, and the desolation 
that followed, were used by the captors 
to intensify their propaganda efforts, 
claiming the North Vietnamese had 
forced the U. S. to suspend its military 
activities. 

"The faith in our country, in our gov- 
ernment and in our military leadership 
never waived. In fact, if anything. It in- 
creased during the time I was in Hanoi." 
He attributes the constant overflights of 
Hanoi by U. S. unmanned reconnais- 
sance vehicles during the bombing halt 
period as "morale lifting." 

"Perhaps not daily, but several times 
a week, we had aircraft overhead— high- 
speed, low profile unmanned reconnais- 
sance aircraft. We talked about these air- 
craft constantly. Some of us had a little 
knowledge about them. Others had 
none. We wondered many things . . . 
were they being inertially guided? . . . 
program guided? ... or directed from 
other ships off the coast? 

"The mere fact that they were there— 
that anytime anyone was outside and 
one would come over— that was impor- 
tant. 

"We were absolutely elated on the 
16th of April (1972) when the bombing 
was resumed. We showed it to the point 
that a young LT(jg) who worked for me 
was taken out of the room and brutally 
beaten right outside of our door, then 
hauled over to old Heartbreak Hotel for 



about a week. He had several cracked 
ribs and multiple contusions. 

"The beatings were primarily for our 
benefit in hopes that we'd not display an 
incorrect attitude. But, in my opinion, he 
was beaten for several reasons." 

One of these reasons, according to 
Martin, was a handmade American flag 
sewn on the inside of the man's black 
skivvy shirt. Each night the U. S. captives 
in his cell would pledge allegiance to a 
flag that was now turned right-side out. 
And the captors discovered this clandes- 
tine patriotism. 

A low-level unmanned reconnais- 
sance vehicle that passed over Wallo 
Prison in May 1972 introduced a hint of 
humor that perhaps traced a new atti- 
tude of optimism in Martin's POW contin- 
gent. 

"It was an unmanned vehicle and 
couldn't have been more than 50 feet off 
dead center as it swept in overhead. 

"We gave our usual cheer— by now, 
we'd come to know our guards pretty 
well and know what we could get away 
with. One in particular, whom we called 
'Boris,' watched the overflight in total 
fascination. We told him he'd better smile 
so we'd know what he looked like later 
on." 

Concluding his presentation— of- 
fered from unprepared remarks and rec- 
ollections—Martin noted that in six years 
as an internee he developed renewed 
"pride in being American, in our military 
organizations and background. And, we 
have pride in the American industrial 
community— all of those loyal Americans 
who allowed us to come home with our 
heads high and with honor, not on our 
knees as some would have had us." '7^ 



28 



J Department ol Delense Photographs 












tn,- 



i 






III 








Released by U. S. Department of Defense, photos above were 
taken by unmanned reconnaissance drones that flew missions 
before and after U. S. bombing strikes aimed at strategic 
targets. Photos disprove "saturation" bombing charges. 



Please send address changes to: 

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P. O. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



«R. VER."iE ALBERT 
CEr^ERAL ELECrRiC CO. 
363b 5TH AVE. 
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But your countrymen say thanks, anyway. 



68 



113