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Aryan word-building 



BY 



GEORGE O. HOLBROOKE 



NEW YORK 
Zbc imiclterboclter ptcsB 

1910 



Copyright by 

GEORGE O. HOLBROOKB 

1910 



Introduction. 

Dr. Georg Curtius, when discussing the Sanskrit roots taksh and 
tokas with their kindred in other languages, observes that we have 
to deal with a group of ancient forms tak, taksh, tik, iuk, tukh with 
kindred but varying meanings. These meanings are not attached to 
the individual forms, but play from one to another in the difEerent 
speeches. The same phenomenon is observable in many cases, and 
I have attempted to group Sanskrit roots, extract the primitive idea 
of each group, with its developments, and study the laws by which 
sound and thought have crystallized. The same sequences of thought 
recur in repeated cases. For instance, the many roots expressing 
speech usually signify to burst out, dash out, flash out, shine. The 
word was a winged arrow of ejaculation, effort, triumph, passion. 

The original Indo-European vowel sound was an indefinite short 
a, such as is found in the Sanskrit letter ri, which becomes either 
r\ ri, ra or at, but the prevailing restiltant was d or <S, and this was 
liable to great modification. Thus the Sanskrit pa (to drink) has 
the forms pivdnti, pibdmi, pUvd, piye, pUas; and that these forms 
were primitive is shown by the Latin bibo and the Irish [p]iihim. 
Ma (to [grasp, encircle], measure) has the forms mami, mime, mitas, 
and develops mav, mu, mavy (to encircle* bind) ; miv, me^ mutas (to 
move round) ; mtv (to be round, fat) ; mi to [whirl], shoot, destroy. The 
roots pri, parv, [purv], pur (to fill) develop in pul (to roimd out, heap 
up); plav, plu, [parv], parb to float, roam, move around; pal to en- 
compass, guard; paldy (to [eddy], turn, flee); palyul (to [turn, twist, 
wrench], rub, wash off, lop off). Mri (to [grind, destroy], perish) 
develops mdrayami (to kill), mrin (to slay), mldi (to pine away); 
smri (to revolve in mind, remember) ; marv (to go round, fill); maryd 
boundary; miras [circling] sea; marus [circling] desert; murv to bind; 
mur to robe ; mul to swell. These changes were effected in many cases 
by the influence of liquids (n, r\ ra, ar), but chiefly by the influence 
of the early and wide-spread root vd (to breathe, blow, [effect, exist]), 
which could be added to any other root. Thus, in the group taksh^ 

• • • 

ui 



^ % .» .- - 



— IV — 

idkas which formed the text of Curtius, we find the forms taksh, 
ivaksh, ivak, tvish, tush (pp 302, 303). Another case is tri, tar, tvar, tur, 
[tarv], tarb, p. 334. The roots bhan^, bha^, bhu^ bhiksh (pp. 46, 47) 
are intertwined in the same way, and we cannot be surprised to find 
Lat. nubes as the representative of Sanskrit nabhas^ or Greek vug by the 
side of naktam. The v is especially liable to metathesis and springs 
up in some langtiages where not found in others (liveo, R. liven p. 
118; d6q>0(; p. 284; R. davat p. 285. 

Another most influential root was yd (to go), becoming t, t, and 
constantly changing a roots to ay and i. It is the source of the causa- 
tive forms in the Sanskrit and the cognate languages. An instance of 
its efiEect is fotmd in the group vddh, vyadh, vidh, vedh (p 272). Sad 
(to go, rush, attack, find) becomes syand (to run, flow), Shtdhus the 
Indus; and its cognate form sad (to [plunge into lair, throw one's self 
down], sit; cf. jacio, jaceo) has the present form siddmi, while the 
Greek retains n^oyiat by the side of SI^oyLat. 

Ri (to spring up, stir, rise, act, shoot, attack, meet, adapt, fasten) 
produces the terminations of active agency (mdtri, iJLi^Ttjp, mater; Greek 
terminations -ijp, -mQp; Latin -or, -tor); it develops its parts rinonti, 
ardmi, dram and the forms aras, aram, arv, urv, ardtis, drtavas, arthas, 
al, alam by the side of ritaSt ritus (pp. 113-119). Prefixing yd it 
becomes its intensive iyarmi contracting to Ir (to hurl, whirl, speed, 
utter); U to go, hurl, lie down (cf. jaceo)\ and of terminations in r 
and /; (the liquids r and / interchange in Sanskrit with perfect free- 
dom). Prefixing vd, ri becomes the branching root vri (189-196), and 
develops svri to hurl, svri to utter, by the side of sri, sru (to advance, 
speed, flow; pp. 153-154, 164). A list of roots with the initial r 
and their development by a prefixed v is given on p. 122. Pd (to 
[grasp, hold safe], protect) and its correlative dp, with desiderative 
form ips (to grasp, touch), furnish the Sanskrit causal forms, and pass 
into the other languages. Thus dd (to divide) through its causal 
ddpaydmi produces Sdxrci) (to rend, tear, devour) ; daps (a sacrificial 
feast of flesh) ; while ddpaydmi the causative of dd (to give) appears in 
Soncovdcti) (to lavish, expend) . The termination p, thus formed, is most 
variable, being probably influenced by terminations produced by 
hardened v. Thus in the development of ri (to start, rise, move) 
we have the causative arpaydmi (to send, deliver, attack, hurl), 
resulting in arpanas (ofiEering, delivery) ; arb, raph, ramph (to go, shoot, 
slay) ; ramb (to go) ; ram (to [roam, hunt], attain, enjoy) ; rambh (to 
[flash out, utter], sound) ; rap, lap (to utter, praise) ; ribhus (whirling 
spirit, nature force) ; rabh, labh (to [pounce], grasp, begin, efiEect, con- 
ceive). 



— V — 

The primitive roots ans, ang, aksh to roll, heap, whirl, scatter, 
glance, twist off, divide prey (wrenching preceded flint-knife in many 
roots) ; anh, anM, ang, an^, angh, a^, to speed, go; [aiih to coil, press]; 
ah to speak eagerly (pp. 1-9) produce the guttural terminations. 
The termination anh turns into ans, ang and may become an, as, of 
ak, an^, aksh, ash; here the 2^nd preserves -anh when Sanskrit has 
-anh, -an, -as (pp. 265, 266). 

The roots given by Sanskrit grammarians, even when not fotmd in 
literature, deserve the same attention which is given to the Greek 
forms preserved by Hesychius. The grammarians were familiar 
with writings and dialects which have been lost. In some cases they 
may have invented a link in the development of a chain of roots, as 
I have employed hypothetical roots in brackets. 

S was a favorite prefix not only of the liquid but of the mute con- 
sonants, binding them in groups which may be dissolved by the loss 
of the prefix. They are best studied by the root sthd (to stand, be 
firm, exist), which is developed on pp. 278-283; (observe the Greek 
derivatives pp. 311, 312). Losing the sibilant, sthd becomes [thd], 
which the Sanskrit replaces, according to its regular nile, by dhd 
(to set» place, put, make firm, do). Dhd hardens into dd (to bestow, 
give), the roots dhd and dd melting into each other in a remarkable 
way in the Teutonic languages (p. 285). Again, sthd drops its aspira- 
tion, giving stanas ([firm, tense] breast) ; stan (to [heave breast, burst 
forth], groan, thunder) ; tan (to make tense, stretch) ; tanus (tense, thin) 
by the side of sthdnus firm, immovable. Sthund (stump, trunk, pillar) 
produces tun (to curve, rotmd, fill); tunas (quiver). Sthaviras firm, 
strong, sthuras (strong, large, firm, bull) develop 0Taup6<; [firm-set] 
stake, cross and taupo^ btdl; Goth, stiuryan (to establish firmly); 
stiuf btdl, steer; Old Norse thorr (ox); see also stabh, p. 311; strih, p. 
329; tfinam, p. 331. 

In the same way we see on pp. 35, 48, 44, 45 how pd, pdye (to 
[grasp], guard, [compress]) develops through pydi, pydy and sphdy 
(to rotmd out, [swell against pressure, burst with fatness, flash out]), 
sphUas (swollen), sphut (to burst out, crack, open), into \phi\, bhi, 
bhdyay (to quiver [with tension]) ; bhd, bhas (to [quiver, burst forth], 
flash, shine). This connection of p and ph through sph explains the 
Zend /f I corresponding to the Sanskrit pri (p. 66) ; fra corresponding to 
Sanskrit pro- (p. 68). Pp. 46-53 develop these roots with guttural and 
dental terminations. Those with dental endings are given on pp. 48- 
53, showing how an original form [sphand] develops in spand, sphund, 
sphunt sphuf, [phunf, bhunt], pust, bust, bud, bhant, bhand, bhadras. 
Sanskrit uses M f or pA as it does dh for th, though not so imiversally. 



— VI — 

The termination nih very frequently becomes si. Studying the root in 
Greek, we find of cv86vi) by the side of axiv$<i>, oreuSca, axa8<&v and 
oxdBi), while the last loses its sibilant in xotdcaaci). In Latin we have 
[s]funda, fundo, -fendo by the side of spendo, [slpuluis^ pendo, petideo. 
Gothic spedists carries the initial p over with its sibilant. On the other 
hand» spkund, budhmis (pp. 49, 50) become xu6(i.i^y, xuvOdbfopiaR, ^uvog, 
xiv6o^, i:6^o<;, fundus, fans, while Old Saxon has bodom corresponding 
to fundus; but the initial p is regularly developed in Anglo-Saxon 
fy^f gefondian; Old Norse fodha. The Anglo-Saxon initial p has 
alwa3r8 been carried over by a sp form whose sibilant has been lost, 
as there was no 6 in the original Indo-European. See Anglo-Saxon 
pyndan, pUnd, p. 51; English put, pat, pet, p. 54. The process is 
developed on p. 41, by Old Norse spengya, spenya, peningr, Anglo- 
SvLon penig, German ^(ur&en; and by the ioxmsfunk, spunk, punk, p. 42. 
In the same way an initial k may be carried over by a lost s, as in 
O. N. kortr, A. S. scort short, corresponding to Latin curtus, scortum, 
Sanskrit krit, pp. 161, 163. Sanskrit b is either a hardened 6fc or a 
hardened v. The latter case is very frequent, and the hardened v 
as 6 is carried over without change to the Teutonic forms; see Gothic 
bauths, Anglo-Saxon baedan, beadu, bedtan, p. 273; Old Norse b^ha, 
bndha,bidhya, p. 275. 

The Sanskrit f was equivalent to the soft German ch, the Greek 
X> and the Russian kh. The ripple of breath over the roof of the mouth 
produces in succession h, g, sh, 5. Q interchanges freely with the other 
three sibilants; cf . the words mufalas, mushalas, musalas (pestle) ; fdlas, 
fdla, sdlas, p. 159, which become in Teutonic skdli, hoU, sal. At 
the same time f readily hardens into k, as in fuM, kuM; fin^, kinkini; 
gat, katth; gnaih, knath; gri, kri; grath, krath. In Zend it may take the 
place of 5; Zd. gtavra, QiUna, glare representing Sanskrit sthaviras, 
sthuna stri] and this sequence explains the use of h for s in Zend, 
Greek, and Welsh. Zend also replaces g by q (Sk. svar heaven, Zd. 
hvare sun, [garetha], qaretha glory), and by kh (gruvas, kruras, Zd. 
khfUra, p. 165). Russian represents g and its derivative k by s, while 
Russian kh stands for either gov s. In some cases an initial g becomes 
either ^ or 5 in other languages; thus the root subh, sumbh, gubh, gumbh 
(fair, bright, beautiful; p. 228) becomes in Greek ae(jLv6^ and xo(i.ici>; in 
Latin senumes and comis; in Irish sdim and cdem. The same develop- 
ment is found on pp. 153, 157 in the sequence sur, gur, Greek Se£peo? 
xiipio?; on pp. 174-175 in the sequence sri, gri, kri, gridh, hrid, kra- 
dint, hradas,hldd, grath, granth, grath, granih. Hrid (heart; p. 175) 
exhibitsthe possibilities of the sounds. Sanskrit hrid\ grad-dhd (setting 
heart, believing) ; Zd. [haredh, gharedh], taredhaya\ Am:ienian [jgirt], sirt ; 



— vu — 

Greek xapSCa; Latin cord[is], credo] Gothic hairto; Lith. shirdis; Lettish 
sirds; Old Russian sruditze; Irish cride. Sanskrit fv passes through 
Ifb] to Iranian sp\ thus fvan dog becomes Median spaka, Russian 
sobaka (rka diminutive) ; Sanskrit a^vas horse is Zd. ofpd, Persian asp. 

Sanskrit h passes into gh, g and |» as in han (desiderative form 
iigkdns) and its kindred verb |a|, ian^\ see p. 2^1, with sequence hu, 
kve, havas, kham, ghu, ghush, khu, kshu, ku, kun^, gu, gun^. Akin is p. 
237 with hnu, kshnu, ghin, gkun, gnaih, knath. 

The Greek may add or prefix; c to x and x, and prefixes it to t, 
producing the initial forms ox, ^, ox, ^, or. Initial ^ is almost 
invariably developed from x; see pp. 17, 37, 4X1 56, 61. Initial x 
adds X, producing xTa(p<i>, xripva corresponding to spiro, sperno; 
XT6Xqu><; corresponding to tpdeXXd), xdeXX<i>, pello. Initial x also adds t; 
see pp. 235-237, where gi (to lie down), kayos (house), kshi (to dwell, 
possess) become xe((i.ai, xtA^, xxCot^, xTdo^iat, xr^yia; and ki (to 
collect stones, heap, cotmt) becomes xbov, xxn^o). KtA^g) loses its x; 
becoming t£(i), xfvci), T(ai?; in the same way [kas], kim, -^sis, Latin 
quis become the Greek [xtc<;], t((. 

The V or digamma of early Greek was lost except in dialectical use ; 
in the hiatus of Homeric words (iiX8<i>p, iXeio)) ; in a rough breathing; 
and in the Laconian and i£olic initial ^ and y. The combination sv is 
represented by 09 in o^el?, oflffi^, 6096 <; and other words. Sanskrit 
y becomes tor I^. Latin loses initial v in tdus, ituinis, idoneus. 

Both Greek and Latin form b from hardened v and so do the (Celtic 
languages. In Slavonic this occurs less frequently. The Teutonic has 
many such forms inherited from a former period (pp. 271-275). 

The rough breathing in Greek usually represented a lost a or 
digamma, but its usage became confused; it is lost in many cases, 
while in others it has been erroneously inserted, as in iyiapTdEvci), p. 95. 

Sanskrit employs / for d in certain cases {vadabhis, valabhtSt p. 276), 
and this peculiarity reappears in Greek and Latin, where we have 
Xioto^, XtfYti^, lacruma, levir representing an initial d. 

Both Greek and Latin occasionally lose initial p before /, after the 
Celtic fashion. Instances are Xtov, Xt)v6^, X^po^, Xatipa, X(6o<;, 
Xexdw), Xi^, Xa^euco, lautus, larix, later, hUum^ lanx, lien, renes, -re, 

Greek euphony prefixed a vowel before sibilant combinations 
(don^p, dofiporfo^, 699pa(vo(i.Get) and before the strongly rolled initial 
^ (ipi^, i^o(f^i) ; initial ^, on this account, bears a rough breathing. 
Initial X also prefixes vowel (deXom}^, deXoxdet^ci), iXox^O* 

H frequently becomes / and g in Latin, and as initial it is used 
with the same irregularityas in Greek; thus it is lost in arundo,arista, er, 
area, arena; wrongly added in honor. Primitive x becomes s in astutus 



• • • 

VUl 



and asper. Latin shortens a long vowel to differentiate meanings, 
as in deer, acer. This habit of differentiation in similar words is 
found in all languages. Latin and Celtic develop u from a before 
liquids; almus, ulmus (p. 117); [anya-quam], unquam; [alna], ulna; 
Ir. ule; ulind (p. 115). Russian avoids initial a. 

Latin and Celtic confuse the sounds k and g; the same letter C 
represented both in the primitive Roman alphabet, the diacritical 
dash of G being a later addition. In Welsh cenethl corresponds to 
yevftXT) (p. 240). 

The Old Norse omits v in many instances. With Anglo-Saxon and 
German it sometimes develops g from v and y {pigge, p. 35; Anglo- 
Saxon gist, p. 107, gehan p. 109), and often prefixes \y\, i to vowels. 
With Anglo-Saxon and Latin it constantly changes s to r. In San- 
skrit we observe dus^dur\ in Greek mish becomes (jLua6<;, (i.uaap6(, 
[(i.taap6(;], (J.tap6(;; Lat. miser, moereo, moestus. Old Norse and Gothic 
have been affected in some cases by their contact with Slavonic 
languages. 

Russian often prefixes y to an initial vowel. The same phenomenon 
appears in Scandinavian and is perhaps due to the Finnish influence 
which makes Scandinavian smoother in pronunciation than German. 

The Gothic alphabet was derived from the Greek; therefore Gothic 
agga^'^anga; Goth, siggqan or sigqan=^sinkan, 

Irish almost invariably loses the letter p, both as initial and medial. 
The same phenomenon appears less frequently in the Welsh, Cornish, 
and Breton, which are widely differentiated from the Gaelic by the use 
of p for k and h for 5 as the Latin is from Greek and the Sanskrit, 
from Zend, forming three couples with the same peculiar variations. 
The development of h from 5 was commencing in Gallic at the time 
of the Roman conquest. At that time v was a regular Celtic letter, 
though it appeared as / in certain cases (pp 261, 271). In Irish v 
regularly becomes/; in Welsh, Cornish, and Breton it becomes gu and 
g, but the Breton retains /in some instances. Sv becomes Welsh chw. 

Irish often hardens mr to br (see pp. 101-102). Celtic was 
differentiated at an early time, not only through the division of its 
two chief branches, which must have made Irish tmintelligible to a 
Gaul in the Roman period, but by the diverging dialects of the Gallic 
tongue, which spread from Hungary and Dalmatia to Gibraltar, and 
by the influence of Iberian and Thradan languages. It was early in 
Italy, closely akin to the Italian speeches, and is the best key to their 
geographical and personal names. 

The interlacing of the original root-groups often brings a definite 
root in a single language tmder more than one head. In some cases 



ix 



doubtful roots are suggested under different headings; they can be 
compared by means of the index. Occasionally two roots melt in a 
partictilar word, especially in words having a distant relationship. 
In other cases two derivations seem plausible. A few omitted words 
are referred by the index to their evident roots. 

The general system of transliteration has been transferred to 
Slavonic words for the sake of convenience. Kk^ch of Curtius; te= 
his c\ S^c; sh^S; zh^z; [v]i=y; the last letter was originally rt, and 
passed into il and y. It is represented by y in terminations. In 
Lithuanian sh=sz. Zend is transliterated like Sanskrit. Y is used 
for y in the Teutonic languages. 



REGULAR CORRESPONDENCE OF SOUNDS 



Indo- 
European 


Sanskrit 


Zend 


Greek 


ItaHc 


a 


a 


a (e o) 


a e 


a e o 
i u 


a 


Si 


k 


a T] (a> 


ae6 


• 

1 


• 

1 


• 


i 


• 

1 
e 


1 


i 


i 


I 


• 

1 


u 


u 


u 




u 
o 


u 


u 


^ 


u 


u 


ai 


e 


a6 


at ec o( 


ai e oi 
ae oe i u 


ai 


Si 


ki 


? Tl V 




SiM 


6 


ao ^u 


au Eu ou 


au o 
u 


k 


k k 


k k 


X 


c q 


9 


5 


5 


X a 


c q s 


g 


g^ 


g gh ^ zh z 
g gh ^ zh z 


T 


g 


gh 


gh h 


X T 


initial h medial g 


t 


t th 


t th 


T 


t 


d 


d 


d dh 


d 


d 


dh 


dh 


d dh 


6 


Osc, Umbr. f 
initial f medial d b 


P 


P ph 


Pf 


X 


P 




b 


b 


P 


b 


bh 


bh 


b (w) 


9 


Osc., Umbr. f 
initial f medial b 


• 

n 


n a 


fi n 


Y before 
gutturals 


n 


m 


m 


m 


I* 


m 


r 


r 


r 


P 


r 


1 


1 


r 


X 


1 


y 


y 


y 


rough 
breathing X, 


y 


s 


s sh 


s 9 sh h 


a rough 
breathing 


s (r) 


V 

1 


v(b) 


V 


/ (P. Y) 


V 



XI 



IN THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES 



Gothic 


Old High 
German 


Old Russian 
Russian 


Lithuanian 


Old Irish 


a i u 
ai au 


a i u 
e o 


a e o 
Hi 


a e i o u 


a e i o u 


: 6 6 


k (6) uo 


a o ei 


a o e 


d f 6 


i ai 


ie 


i t 


• 

1 


i (e) 


ei 


! 


• 

1 


y 




u au 


u o 


u o y ii 


u 


u (o) 


u 


^ 


u y 


u 




ai 


ei 


ei oy 


g ei 


6i di 6 
<5e de f a 






ay 


ai 




au iu 


ou 6 iu io 


u ov 


5a 


au tia 6 


•: h (g) hv 


h (g) hw 


k k ts 


k 


c ch (g) 


h (g) 


h.(g) 


skh 


sh 


c ch (g) 


k 


k ch h 


g zh z 


g zh 


g 


g 


gk 


g zh z 


g zh 


g 


th (d) 


d 


t 


t 


t th (d) 


t 


z sh 


d 


d 


d 


d 


t 


d 


d 


d 


f 


f V (b) 


P 


P 














b 


bp 


b 


b 


b 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m (v) 


r 


r 


r 


r 


r 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


y 


y 


y 


y 




s (z) (r) 


s (r) 


s sh kh 


s 


s 


v(b) 


w 


V 


V 


initial f b after cons. 
W. Bret, gw 



xu 



TABLE OP SANSKRIT ALPHABET. 



a 

HT s 








I 








?Rk 


^ K 


• 


1ft 


X|P 


9kh 


iKkh 


3th 

• 


^ th 


^ph 


Tg 


^g 


54 


^d 


^b 


^gb 


l^gh 


94h 


Vdh 


Hbh 


^ S 


^n 


^ 


5Tn 


^ m 




^y 


^sh 


«B 


^v 




^9 









^1 

3E1 



5h 



^ ai 

Til* 5 
^ I I ^ Su 

^ a 

^« 

The anusvara h is equivalent to the French nasal n or m and 
may become m in other languages; thus Sk. ahsas (shoulder) becomes 
Umbrian onse; Latin [umesus], umerus; German Atnsd. 

The letters n, ri are equivalent to r * rt ; ^ is sounded as in ink-horn ; 
gh as in staghound ; k is the English ch in watch \kh SLsin watch-house ; 
^ is English j ; ^A as in carriage-house ; the guttural n's have the sound of 
n in wink, wing, winch, hinge, and nmy always be inferred when n is 
followed by a guttural; the Unguals t, pi, d, dh, n are sounded as in 
mat, ant-hill, card, card-house, name; the dentals t, th, d, dh, n are 
sounded with the tip of the tongue on the edge of the teeth; />A as in 
loop-hole ; M as in cob-house ; f is the German ch in ich, like the Greek x* 

The same transcription is employed for the Slavonic languages, 
except that kh is equivalent to the German ch; zh is the z in azure. 
Y has been used to represent its own sound in the Teutonic languages, 
but the familiar form j has been retained in Latin. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

Sk. Sanskrit Zd. Zend Ok. Greek Lat Latin 

Goth. Gothic A. S. Anglo-Saxon O. N. Old Norse O. H. G. Old High German 

O. R. Old Russian Lith. Lithuanian Lett Lettish O. P. Old Prussian 

Boh. Bohemian Ir. Irish W. Wdah Bret Breton 

O. C. Old Celtic 
Irish is the Old and Middle Irish. 



Aryan Word-Building. 



Words in brackets represent hypothetical lost roots, inferred from 
the chain of development, or hypothetical lost meanings, inferred in 
the same way. The Aryan languages repeat the same sequences of 
thoughts in widely distant roots with almost the same regularity as in 
the sequences of sound. 

Parentheses contain explanatory matter. 

Sk. awf, ans to [roll, roll together], heap, [twist off], divide, [whirl], 
swindle; aksh to roll up, heap up, fill, [whirl], scatter; ag, ak, ank to 
curve, go crooked ; agh to [twist], sin ; anhas pain; agha sin; an^as, ansas 
[revolution, pivot], shoulder; angolas, anscUas strong; an^us spoke of 
wheel, ray of light; [form ans], as to whirl, flash out, [pounce], seize, 
[pant], exist; asi [whirling, flashing] sword (Lat. ensis); akshas axle; 
(^nfumant sim; ahan, ahas day; aksham, akshan, akshi eye (rolling, 
bright); anfos portion (rolled together, divided); angam limb, body; 
o*ika hip, flank (rolled, pressed) ; an^ to anoint (squeeze limb with fat) ; 
^ to oil, paint, mark; an£ to glitter, flash; agnis fire; ang&ras coal; 
09i6 to [flash words], speak clearly; ah to cry out, speak; ah oh!; aham I 
[who speak]; anS to [flash toward], go eagerly, desire, worship; angh to 
begin, hasten, [outrtm], scorn; an^asd quickly; an/t, anM, ang, an^, a^ 
to go; anhri, anghri foot; anKh to be long, (journey); a£ to go, hunt, 
hurl; aganis dart, thunderbolt; oqus swiftly, [Kfetnly]; ag to heap up, 
fill [belly]; [to be eager, keen]; to attain; to eat; ang to roll, twist; 
fl^iitw grip, pressure; ahis snake. By prefixing the root yd to go, 
^ an intensive, these roots become ikh inkh, inkh to go; f^, in^ to 
speed, outrun, scorn; ing to revolve, whirl, qtiiver; iMh to long for, 
desire; iksh to glance, see. 

Sic angas, ansas, ansam [revolving] shoulder; angus spoke; akshas 

axle; akshant, akshan, akshi [rolling] eye; iksh to glance; (of. spag); 

^Kas to flash; ashis eye; asthi, asthan bone [turning on joints], (of. 

l' 



— 2 — 

Sk. ^^^ sharp, Lat. [axtutial, astmia, R. asiriy sharp) ; as [form ons] 

to hurl, speed, flash; dsa, astra bow. Z<L aJAsh to see; ash to shine; 

Ofti, ofia bone. Gk. u(io^ shoulder [forms Ofisos, omsos, c^msos] ; dbix^^ 

shoulder; drpu^v elbow-j<nnt; i^fyrj [whirling] axe {ct. parofus) ; Irx^ 
spear (cf. an^us); i^ axle; S^-2^ [double-axle], wagon; OTifov bone; 
SoTf eov oyster; Ssrsxo^, Ittsiio^ crab; S^rpu^ [bone-wood], horn-beam; 
iaz^P^jk^ to cast dice; iTTfi^, Sjrpcxo^. iTrpzysAo^ die, vertebra, ankle- 
bone. Umbrian anse^in umero; Lat. [umesus\, umerus shoulder; 

ds (pssis) bone; [atisus^ ansinus, axinus}, asinus [strong-shouldered, 
enduring] ass; ag-dso ass-driver; ancilla maidservant (strong-armed; 
cf. Mackt, Magd); Anxur shoulder, ridge, promontory; asser prop, 
lever, pole; ansa handle; ensis (Sk. osO, [whirling] sword; [asta], hasta 
spear ; axis axle ; axilla, dla arm-socket, arm-pit, wing ; dlea [whirling] die. 

(^th. a9nsa shoulder; ans joint, beam; asts branch; osf/i [whirling, 

ready], ease; O. H. G. amisala, Ger. Amsel, A. S. osle ousel, black- 
bird (strong- wing) ; Goth, asilus ass; O. H. G. ahsala shoulder; A. S. 
ancleov ankle ; dsc lance ; aex axle ; O. N. askr ash- tree (lancewood) ; askr 
tub (rounded, trimmed); dss axle, oar, beam; (jer. Ast bough; O. N. 
axla to take on the shoulder; aska (Goth, azgo) ashes (whiiiing 

cf. cinis, xiviu); As god of light {anfus). Lith. ashis axle; eishmas 

spear; O. R. osi axle; osilu ass. Ir. ocha, ochsal arm-pit; asclang 

shoulder-load; as5^ [whirling], quick, easy; ais readiness, free will; ais 
Hs [shoulder], back-bone, back; asna rib; W., Com. asen bone, rib, 
rafter; W., &)r., Bret, ascarn, eskom bone ; Bret, esked phantom (whirl- 
ing); askUden pole; izili limbs, bones; askel wing; ahil axle, rivet; 
osk, uesk joint, knot of stalk; Ir. enech, W. enep face (tiobtij, AnUitz; 
turning to speaker); Ir. enech [presence], "your honor," honor (cf. 
aiged); Bret. ^nep. opposite, adversary; O.C. Carc-asso rock-ridge 
(Ir. carric -\-ais). 

Sk. anf [anh] to roll together, [twist apart], divide ; of iksh to roll 
up, heap up, fill, occupy; an^as, ansas, portion, share, booty; an^uka 

wrapping, band, tunic; ankala border. Persian dexdhnr) corn-measure, 

bushel. Gk. S^toq of equal weight, value; valuable, worthy; dcx^u? 

enveloping darkness; 'A^i-y^oq [flooding, rushing] stream. Lat. 

[anfuas, afvas], aequus equal, just, fair, kind ; as (assis) money of account ; 
aestimo to value; [aftnan, dexpiav], exdtnen, agina tongue of balance; 
[of'Curvus], acervus rounded heap; ocreae leg-bands, leggings; Aequi 
mountaineers; Aquinum, Aequana; Equtis Tuticus (mountain-town). 

A. S. dhian to value, estimate ; a^A< possession; ehtian, (joth. aistan 

to esteem, honor; AesUi. Ir. ockrad leggings; isca [waxing] moon; 

assil share, portion; Bret, esked ttmior. 



— 3 — 

Sk. ang, aksh to heap, accumulate, fill; ashidu, ashtan [heap, 

number], eight; asktamas eighth. Zd. astan; astetna. Gk. 6xt(o; 

8y8oo(;. Lat. octo, octdvus. Goth, aktau, A. S. eahta. Lith. 

ashtuni, O. R. osmi, Ir. ocht, W. [ocith, oith], wyth; Bret, eiz^ eih^ 

O. C. OctO'Cannae (eight fair ones; nymphs); Octo-gesa, Octonius. 

Sk. aiif, aksh to heap; of to heap, fill, [sttiff]; angas, ansas portion 
[of food]; [of] to be keen, eager; of {agndmi) to eat, enjoy; dgas eating, 

food; dgd, dgis hope, desire, prayer; dgi fang; akhu rat. Gk. dbioarij 

barley, food ; SxuXo(; acorn (mast) ; SxoXo(; morsel ; dbcpCq locust (devourer) ; 
5x(ii]yo(; hungry; dbcTi^ com, meal; dbcio(iiat to relieve thirst, appease, 
calm, cure; dbcaXtf<;, calm; dxi^ healing, calm, silence; "ijxa calmly, gently. 

Lat. acinus berry (cf . bacca, bhaksh) ; esca bait; esculentus; aesculus 

oak (mast-bearer). A. S. dhsyan to seek, desire; dgg, O. H. G. 

agi, ei ^%^%, (g for 9 as in edge) ; O. N. egg ^%g\ egna to fish with bait; 

agn, (pgn) bait. R. yaktnen barley; yasli manger; yaitzo egg, Ir. 

euros, accorus, ocras hunger. 

Sk. anfos revolving shoulder; angus spoke of wheel, ray of sun; 
anfumant sun; ahan, ahas day; [anksh], dshtram vault of heaven, atmo- 
sphere. Zd. anhu [round] world, [glorious] lord. Gk. [angti, of tin], 

6a(.':i<; {-hoq) spoke; ray; ix'z-fi [heaped, curving] shore; 'AxTafwv pole- 
circler (fwv); Sva^ lord, Apollo; 4Yav[av]axT£a) to be very masterful, 
indignant; [angu^ ahu + eYXtj] 'Ax(XXeu(;, flash from storm-cloud 
(son of sea, hidden among cloud-nymphs, revealed by grasping 
thunderbolt, lord of ocean-shield) ; dcxXu(; [thunder-cloud], enveloping 

darkness, death (melts with ahis darkness-serpent). Lat. Ancus; 

aquila (q = x=f cf. Tpox(5(; torques), circling eagle; aquilo north-wind; 

aquilus dark, flashing. A. S. [anh, ah], ig, egstredm, ocean; 

edigyet life on ocean; edland island; Aegil sun-archer; O. N. ey island. 
Bret. aHhoi, ahoi nooning, siesta. 

Sk. angatn rounded limb, body; ankas hip, flank; an^ to anoint 

(squeeze down with fat). Gk. 5yyo(; round vessel, pail, basket; 

aYYoiiptov melon (pari water); 87x0? rounded mass;' i-^^oziq hollow of 

hand; {yvua thigh (intensive). Lat. unguo to anoint (melts with unh 

to twist, wring); inguen, Goth, agga neck; O. H. G. ancha back 

of head. Ir. aige limb, joint. 

Sk. anh to go round; (prefixing v, unh to twist, vex) ; ag, ak to bend, 
curve, go crooked; agha, anhas pain, sin; agh to sin ; ahis snake; anhus^ 
anhaiis grip, pressure; angdras coal (smoldering, choking, cf. R.); 
aghas tormenting, evil; dgas anger, sin; an^alis, clasped hands; anguris 



— 4 — 

angulis finger (&nger) ; ankri, anghri foot (pressing earth) ; agru, (2U. 

aghru) [smoldering, eager], unmarried. ^M. aghana pressure, noose; 

dzanh distress, trouble, sin; Akriman evil spirit. Gk. SltI^ ^ press, 

choke; ixti trT^? [pressed] close, near; 4wov [cms, akshi nearer; 
4xpt unto; drfxf-aXo^ (JX^) sea-girt; redup. [iTT*T*l] ivdrpnj necessity; 
Sjo^ grief; Sx^o^ hate; i^aptxiv (aitgdros) tinder-fungus; ixAui to 
shrink, recoil, dislike; ^yxdEO^un to [choke out], bray; Sr^j^^ burden; 
dcxifjV needy; fryo^; crime, curse; [aiih to choke, pinch, narrow] melts 
with unk^ vi^, viM, vish to twist, wrench away, squeeze, forming the 
diminutive termination -loxo^, and terminations -cy;, -«if$ express- 
ing shrillness in Xdpuv^, '&ipyT5» WSt ^"Tt'j ; l*-i{vf)r $ ; Xuliw, Xyy$, XCyifft). 

Lat. ango to choke; a«g<7r distress, anguish; angina stricture; 

angustus narrow; egeo to need; prodigus spendthrift (poverty ahead); 
exigo to squeeze out, exact; incus anvil (crushing place; yd intens.); 
aeger hard-pressed, sick; aeg;re [a squeeze], with diflBculty; ingens 
[crushing, terrible], gigantic, weighty; ungulus [gripping] claw; ungula 
hoof {anghri) ; term, -^igo^-ugo^-igo = crushing, forcible ; lumbago, virago, 

vertigo. Imago. (joth. ga-aggvyan to press, narrow; aggvus narrow; 

afagyan to choke; ag}s terror; ogyan to terrify; aglitha trouble; 
A. S. ange vexation; egesa horror; egla, hateful, ugly; egl claw; (joth. 
auhns, Swed. ugn oven (angdras; unh); (ioth. aigan to [grip], possess; 
O. N. eiginn one's own; ekki sorrow; eingi [lack], none; ekkya widow; 
aegya yggya to dread; jokull monster, giant, mountain {ingens) ; A. S. 
ing, Ger. Anger [narrow] beach, river-meadow (drfx£aXo(;) ; O. G. Angri- 

varii, Ingaevones shore-dwellers. O. R. anza bond; anzuku narrow; 

Lith. ankshias narrow; R. (cf . unh) ugarat to be choked; uzkiy narrow; 

ugar stove-ftmie; Lith. ugpis stove; anglis coals. Ir. angim to 

[embrace], protect; cum-ung narrow; eng footstep, track; ong tribula- 
tion; ochie want, distress (Z? 452); liacht [pinching] cold; ac, oc near, 
close; ocus and; dgur to fear; ing danger; ing scarcely; ingor misery; 
^cen necessity; ^c death; ical terrified; Bret, enk narrow, oppressive; 
ankin anguish, grief; ankeu (Com. ancou) death, ghost, monster, 
werewolf; O. C. Octo-durus, gate of the narrows; AnC'lcjoiletes direfuUy 
hard; Tncu-Usma strong fort. 

Sk. ak, ag, to go crooked; ak {anMdmi) to bend; ankas hook, fold, 

bosom. ^Zd. oka clamp. Gk. iyxciv elbow; iyxuXoq bent; Syxiorpov 

hook ; ay xo(; curve, hollow, dell ; fiyxupa anchor. Lat. uncus hook {unh 

to twist) ; uncus, ungulus claw; angulus angle. O. H. G. angul, A.S. 

angel fish-hook; Angli fishermen (cf. Chauci, Hdkingas, Mulchings, 

hookers). R. ugol comer, angle. Ir. oecath, icad hook; inga 

claw. 



— 5 — 

Sk. ahis snake (coiling, choking). Zd. azhi, snake. Gk. !xt? 

snake; Sxt^va (snake-like, eI8o<;), monster, adder; 'Ex-fwv (snake-going, 
stealthy); ixvKtDx-fiq bitter as venom; lxivo<; (hideous coil; alv(5(;) 
hedge-hog, sea-urchin, husk, jug, gizzard, vertebra; 2ifxeXu(; eel; (slimy; 

of. xiXw<;)- Lat. anguis snake; anguilla eel. O. H. G. unc, O. N. 

oglir adder; O. H.G. d\g]l eel; igil hedge-hog. Lith. angis snake; 

ungurys eel ; ezhys, O. R. yezhi hedge-hog ; R. ezh hedge-hog ; sea-urch i ; 
igla quill, needle; ugor eel; O. R. angorishti eel. 

Sk. anhus pressure; anhri.angri, earth-presser, foot; ankura [push- 
ing] sprout, point, spear; ankuga goad; ank to stamp, mark; angh to 
press forward, begin, speed, [outrun], despise; agra point; agra, agratas 
in front, before; an^ to speed, flash out; an^as speed; anh to go; ank 
to go eagerly, seek, worship, desire, speak out; ah to speak; dfus 
swiftly; oftnan [sling]-stone, [arrow], thunderbolt; (with intens. prefix 
yd) ya^ to worship q. v. ; yaksh to pray, adore ; ikh, inkh, inkh, i^, in^ to 
speed, precede, scorn; ikh to desire, flash out, be eager; a^, to go, hurl. 

Sk. an^ to press forward, speed; a^ to go, drive, hurl; a^as driver; 
a^iras quick; a^man, a^mas march, road; d^is [swift march], level 

ground, plain, contest, battle; a^ras plain. Zd. az to lead, drive; Old 

Persian fiY')fapO(; messenger, dcYyapeuo) to speed tidings. Gk. fiyo) 

dyivico to lead, bring, carry, 4rive, gather together, celebrate feast; iyiq, 
''AYtq, dcxT(i)p, i^Ysywiv, 0TpaT-t)Y(5<; leader, commander; (i^YeiMov= intens. 
ya^) ; difwv race, contest ; dtYpeuo) to hunt (agra spear-point) ; fiy pa 
game; fifptoq wild; i-^ikri flock, herd; SyiJioc; march, furrow, 
orbit (attracted by va^ to go round); Syuii street; iyopi market- 
place (driving, gathering, assembly); if^ekoq messenger; Syov [be- 
yond, in front], excessive, very; fi-fotv is compounded in SYavaxTfw 
to be [verv masterful], indignant; iya-Tita to [feed bountifully], love; 
^T*'P**X®? noble {vrih to grow); 'Ay-iijvwp very manly; iyaOdc; good; 
(606^ active); difXarf? shining, glorious (Xdtw to desire; X^v bright- 
eyed lion) ; 'AyaiiiiJivwv (very mindful of his moment of rising) the 
sun; leads the forces of Ught across the night-river by the sacrifice 
of his daughter Iphigeneia, the day-star. She is rescued by Artemis, 
the moon in the east, and becomes evening-star. Orestes (watchman) 
and Pylades (gate of Hades) are also morning and evening stars, as 
are KiorcDp (brilliant), noXuSeuxiQq (leader of many [stars]), and Ml(iiv(i)v 
the son of 'Hu^ who was confused with the statue of Amenophis which 
watched for the sunrise. Lat. ago to lead, drive, celebrate festi- 
val; agmen [march], host; exdmen swarm; agito to drive to and fro, 
shake, stir; d[g]fnefUufn javelin-thong; ind-dgo to hunt, investigate; 



— 6 — 

agUis swift, nimble; per-agro to [hunt], roam. O. N. aka, pret. 6k 

to drive, go, speed, set out ; oArt, 6nver\ykya to overdrive {ya^ intens.) ; 

akafi eagerness; eykr beast of burden, horse, ship. R. yetzdit to ride, 

go, drive. Ir. agaim to drive, effect, celebrate festival, sport; agen- 

tndr, aignech eager, merry; aige race, chase, venison; dg battle; d[g]m 
band of foes; (intens.) ing force; Bret, tn^^^ eagerness; O. C. Agin^ 
num, Aguntum busy market (vetUa); Agunna.-agno active; ag-as- 
saios, agasseus hunting-hound (Ir. ess track) ; Egnatius (aig9tech). 

Sk. a^as buck, goat (eager, nimble); demin. a^akd, a^ikd kid; 

a^inatn hide (buckskin, hunter's spoil). Gk. aTg goat (intens. ya^\ 

cf. e^ to quwer, flash); aTy-oYpoq wild-goat, chamois; afyCq goat-skin. 

O. N. eik pugnacious; eikim butting bull. Lith. ozhys buck, 

goat; O. R. azno^ yazno leather; R. azyam skin-coat. Ir. ag 

bull-calf, stag. 

Sk. an^ to speed, flash out; agnis fire; e^ to quiver, flash. 

Gk. aTyXt) flash; aTYetpo(; poplar (glittering); afyov^ javelin; afyfe 

Ughtning-shield. Lat. ignwfire; Egnatia (miraculous fire). O.N. 

ey[g]mr glow, heat; Eng. to inkle [flash at], guess; A. S. incge flashing 

(sword) ; icge gold. Lith. ugnis, R. ogon fire. Gael, aingeal. Cor. 

engil fixe. 

Sk. a^ras plain (swift-driving), lowland, meadow. Gk. ifp6(; 

field. Lat. ager. (Joth. akrs, O. N. akr field; Goth, akran fruit, 

com. 

Sk. anhus pressure; anh, atiM, an^ to press forward, speed; ag 

{o/gndmi) to reach, attain ; as to speed, grasp ; asas bow. Gk. ijxo) 

to reach, attain (Sk. Ih to seek ; atiKh to be long, extended) ; tJveYxa I 
carried [unto]; ^oup-tjvexi^q a spear-cast away; iQvexi^(;, Bitjvexi^^ reaching 

the end, consecutive; xoB-Yjvexi^g reaching the foot. Lat. accipiter 

falcon (far-pouncing; cf. (oxutcItt]?). Goth, ahaks [far-flying] dove. 

Sk. anh, [ah] to speed ; agan sling-stone ; aganis dart, thunderbolt ; 
agiis swiftly; as to hurl; as to [be eager, pant, breathe], exist. — ^- 
Gk. (ixu(;, i5u<; swift, keen; ^iwxo) to pursue (5t-intens.) ; fix"P<>^ chaff 

(flashing, flying; x = 5)- ^^t. deer keen, impetuous; acupedius 

swift-footed; odor swifter; ociter swiftly; acus chaff. Goth, athva- 

fundi hawthorn (swift-spark, first flash of spring); ahana chaff; aha 

mind (flashing); ahyan to think; ahma spirit. Ir. dc, dac swift, 

eager, impetuous; ocal violent; ockUu wrath; ei[c]fn swift; W., (}or. 



— 7 — 

di-auc^ di'OC lazy, {di negative); O. C. Acco^ Accavus; Occo^ Occus; 
Oeco, Ecco; Ocelus (Mars). 

Sk. a^as horse (swift); agvataras mule; agvyas equine; Agvinau 

twin-horsemen, morning and evening stars. Zd. agpd, Pers. asp 

horse (ft; becomes sp\ cf. gvan^spaka). Gk. Ytctco? horse, Yxxio<; 

equine. Lat. equns horse; eques horseman. O. Sax. ^Au horse. 

Lith. aslwdi mare; ashutai horse-hairs. Ir. ech horse, echaire 

muleteer; W., ep, eb horse; Bret, ebil foal; O.C. Epo-redia horse-race; 
Epona goddess of horses; [Olisepona], Olisipo[n] Epona's fort (0- as 
in O'porio) ; Ep{v]idii wild horses (Ir. fiad) ; Eb'[b]ud(B victorious steeds ; 
Epo-mandui horse racers, Eppo, Eponina. 

• 

Sk. ag to speed; Ofuas swift horse. Lat. aqua [flowing], water 

(distinct from ap). Goth, ahva, O.H.G. aha, awa, O.N. d river. 

0. C. Aquila river; Aquincum] Aqui-tania (reaching the sea; cf. 
Are-marica). 

Sk. Of ants dart, thunderbolt; agris edge of sword; afram, agru 
tear; asram tear, blood; asri^ blood (sharp, bitter) ; -agas with comers; 

astra [agtra, ashira] dart. Pers. (ix(y*(ixT)(; sword. Gk. dbc-(zx*iJiivo<; 

sharpened; (xlx\i'fi spear-point; i^lvri axe; 6^6(; keen, bitter (forms ans, 
aksh); i%di%-fi point; dbcivr) whetstone; 5xa>y dart; Sxptg, Sxp((; peak, 
ridge; dbcpo-^orrlo) to climb cUff; to tip-toe; dbcpc-^ii^q [balancing], 
exact; ^xpC^a^ goat; platform, scaffold; dexouo), (ixpodeo(iiat to [be keen], 
listen intently, hear. Lat. deer sharp, keen, eager; acer maple (sharp- 
leaf) ; acuo to sharpen; aceo to be sour; acies edge, keenness, eyesight; 
ascia 3,dze;ocreae mountaineer's leggings? occare to scratch in, harrow; 
astutus [axttitus] keen, clever; asper sharp (cf.agvas, agpS, asp horse); 

asilus wasp. Goth, aks spike, ear of com; asans harvest; aqizi axe; 

0. N. ax ear of com; ox axe; A.S. ecgan, eggyan to sharpen, incite 

{tilxV''f\)'* ^^^» O- H. G. ekka edge, comer; O. N. egg edge, sword. 

Lith. ashtrus sharp ; asmu edge ; eiskmas spit ; O. R. ostru sharp ; R. oselok 

whetstone ; ospa dent, pock, small-pox {asper) . Ir. [aicth\ dith sharp ; 

dithe edge; del flesh-fork; W. awch point; ochyr edge, brim; ocet rake 
{occa); egin sharpness; O. C. Ocra hill-fort; Ocrion promontory; 
Acaunum, Acunum cliff; Acutus, Aqutus, Acco keen, wise. 

Sk. agru, asru tear (biting, bitter, compotmded in 5dcxpu with 

Sdtxvu); asram tear, blood; asan, asri^ blood. Cypriot [iwap], 

elop, lop blood; Phryg. 'Affffdepacxo(; red dawn (cf. ATyiiov dawn who 



— 8 — 

dies for love of 'Avrtfivr) day-star). O. Lat. assir blood. Lett. 

assins blood. 

Sk. aganis dart, thtmderbolt; agman thtmderbolt, sling-stone, 
stone; agmafiiam forge, furnace (originally chipping-block for flints); 
aftna-sdras iron (stone-marrow); [a}pfnagdnas pyre, burning-place; 

ftnan face (flashing). Zd. agman stone; [flashing] aether, sky (cf. 

angumant p. 3) . Gk. dhcyiiov anvil ; thunder-bolt ; [flint] pestle, heaven, 

sun. O. N. hamarr sledge-hammer, boulder, Thor's thunderbolt; 

O. H. G. hamar hammer. Lith. akmu (akfnen), O. R. kameni stone. 

Sk. [anh, ah, ag] to speed, be keen; as to shine; ahan, ahas day, 

sun; akshan whirling eye (p. i). Zd. aksh to see, ashi eye. Gk. 

l/^ =^ag to see (Ji^o^ai, Sxdiica) ; i\L^(x, Sxica glance, eye ; of^iq, &f^ face ; 6in^ 
round hole, window; smoke vent; 8xxo(; (Boeot. oxTaXXog) eye; 8aae 
the two eyes (aksh); Saao^xai to foresee, forebode (fine frenzy); 
6i:tC,o\Lai to look up, revere; 8x1? divine knowledge, vengeance; 
6f OaX(iitf^ [bounding, rolling] eye (SXXopiat) ; fivOp-oxo^ glowing-eye, man 
(aT6a>; contrasted with animal eye); (lip-o^^ thoughtful eye ((iiep(iiaCpa>). 

Lat. ocellus f oculus eye. Goth, augd eye {vanh to shine). 

O. R. oka eye; okno window. Ir. aiih glowing; 6[c\n flashing. 

Sk. [anh, ah, ag] to speed, be eager; an^ to flash, shine; ank to be 
eager, passionate, speak clearly; ah to speak; aha he spoke; ahah, ahd 

alas! Arm. [aghal], azel, asel to say, ask. Gk t^^lJ to speak; ijxovcv 

he spoke; i^x*^ ^^ ™S o^^» sound, echo; xomQxfo) to call from above, 

instruct. Lat. dio to speak ; adagium saying, proverb ; n-egare to say 

no; O. Lat. axare to name; axamenta formulae, prayers [anM]; Umbr. 

aitu^dicito. Goth, afaikan to deny (an^, ank)', aihtron to pray, 

beg; A. S. dhsyan to ask. R. akhat, okhat to sigh; okh alas! O. R. 

ankhati to [pant, inhale], scent. Ir. aged [mouth] face; inagid 

opposite; Ir. itch alas; Bret, nahein to deny. 

Sk. dh interjection; [aha], hd, gha, ghd encUtic particle. Gk. yi 

enclitic particle, Doric fi; Sye this one; lYw-ife I myself; Dor. iywYa, 

iyc^vya, Aeol. [afyci-Ya], fw-ya. Lat. mihi, (Umbr. mehe); [hoge], hoc; 

[hugyas], hujus, O. R. zhe^^fi; Lith. iasgi^^ift; R. ego him, his. 

Sk. ah to speak; aham I [who speak]; [ahmat, agmat], asmat ({ahnas, 

asnas], nas in oblique cases) we. Gk. [aham, aghan], iyw, iycjv I; 

[ahmas], -f^^itU we; [ahvamas, ahumas], ^[ktU ye. Lat. ego I; 

[ahnos], ends, nos we. Goth, ik, A. S. ic, O. N. ek, eg, I; Goth. 



— 9 — 

ikei I who; [akanas] unsis us; iggqar your. Lith. azh, O. R. azu 

[agh] I ; R. fuis we. Ir. ni we. 

Sk. [anh, ans, ah, of] to he eager; ds to shoot, as to go, flash, shine, 
[pant], breathe, exist; asus breath, desire, spirit, thought; asuy to 
[pant out], curse; asmi I am, asH he is; p.p. sat existent, essential, 
important, good; satyas real, true; saituam existence, soul; sakUas 

eternal. Zd. ahmi I am, afti he is. Gk. [iapii], i[f.\Li, tl\kl I am; 

i<rc£ he is; lo6Xi(; excellent; [arueoc;], hB6(;, [very] true, real; hu^oq 
real; true sense; Itvo? [existence, Ufe, victual], porridge; Itt)(;, ?Tapo(;, 

hacpog [real] friend; clansman, cf. Sk. idtas; hoi\Loq prompt, ready. 

Lat. esse to be; [esutn], sum I am; est he is; [e]'Sunt they are; ab-sens, 
prae-sens; sai-ago to be diligent; sons, sonticus really guilty; [santne, 
sanne], sane really, truly; sentio to recognize the reaUty, perceive, 
understand; redup. [sent-sentia], senteniia my real opinion, true sen- 
tence, vote. Goth [asiyum], siyum to be; *m I am; ist he is; sunya 

truth; sunyon to prove truth, defend at law; suns at once, soon 
(hoc(io^); saun legal value, atonement; O. N. sannr true; convicted; 

Dan. sand, Eng. sooth true. Lith. esmi I am, esti he is; ^so&a being; 

esnis perpetual; O. R. yesmi I am; yesti he is; R. estestvo nattire. 

Ir. am I am ; i5 he is ; it they are ; [asm], dm in truth. 

Sk. as to flash, be eager; asus breath; as to exist; ds, dsan, dsyam 

mouth, face (cf. dnand face). Lat. ds ([dsis], oris) mouth, face; 

osciio to yawn; osculum kiss; oscillum swinging mask; oscillo to swing; 
oraculum utterance, oracle; oro to pray? 

The following demonstrative roots unite with developments of 
sthd, [tha, tas], tat [here stands] this one, that one. Sk. sa, sas he 
(existent [asas, sas])', sd she; sas, sd, tat he, she, it. Gk. 6, i), xi, (he, 
she, it), the (definite article) ; a-i^pLspov this day, to-day; o^ts? this year; 
!(iK until; Tia>^ as long as. O. Lat. sum, sam^ipsum, ipsam {hie- sum, 
kic'sam; ixum being popular prontmciation of ipsum under Augustus). 
Goth, sa he ; sd she ; si they ; sums some one. Ir. so, sin this ; sund here ; 
slit that, there; W. he-diw to-day; hon this; Bret., Com. hen this. 

Sk. [anh, af] to speed; as to go, flash, hurl, [shoot], seize, pant after; 
dsa, astram bow (cf. p. 2); as, ni-as to hurl down, put, place, leave; 
ds to [pounce into, take possession], sit, settle, dwell, ambush, endure, 
be assiduous, serve. (The same sequence of thought occurs with 
langh to pounce, 'k6xo(; lair, ambush, 'kixo<; bed, liegen to lie; sad to go 
eagerly, sddh to reach, attain ; sad to occupy, settle, set) . Sk. dsanam 
seat, session, bench, delay. Zd. dh to sit, stay. Gk. [i)aii.ac] i^jjiai, 



— 10 — 

(^ioTai) to sit, rest, be idle, lie in wait, be sittiated, lie low ; K^'^puxfl, 1J9uxo<; 

firm-minded, quiet (cf. aiti^puxov, sweet-breath, marjoram). O. Lat., 

Umbr. dsa, Osc. aasa, Lat. dra altar; Lat primdrius, decum-dnus 
in the first, tenth position; anus; [dvi-dnua, didnua], jdnua gate (on 
two sockets) ; Janus revolving year (two solstices) ; anus old woman 
(sitting at home). A. S. aes^ Ger. Aas carcass (cast away, aban- 
doned, xTwiJia). R. yasen mountain-ash (well-rooted); Lith. asla 

floor. Ir. asaii child-birth (in the lair; Xe^w). 

Sk. [anh, ans, anf] to whirl; as to hurl away; hurl down. Gk. i5» 

fct, (Locr. i) out.— -:Lat. ex, ec-, e out; exterus^ exterior outside; ex- 

tremus farthest, last; exiremitas; exta [rejected] entrails. Goth, us, 

ur out. O. R. izu, Lith. ish. Ir. ass, a, ess, e'=^ex; echtar*^ extra; 

imm-echtar circtimference, extremity. 

Sk. [l/oZ to be eager, nimble; to pant, breathe, gape, devotir, blow, 
kindle, be glorious, blooming; to dazzle, bum, blind, blacken, curse]. 

Sk. ist, at to go nimbly, roam, hunt, explore; at to go forward, 
journey; aianam roaming, journey; atom forest (hunting); atithis= 
advena, guest; atasas wind (roaming) ; att to go faster, surpass, scorn, 
[defeat], kill; attdlas [proud]; lofty building, palace {falas floor); 
attd [brisk], mother, sister (familiar name) ; ath, anth to go ; ad, add 
to make an effort, [potmce], seize, take possession; ad to eat; andhas 
food, fodder, verdure, sap; andas egg, testicle; annas food; an to pant 
after, breathe, sound ; an to breathe, blow; anilas wind. 2d, with yd 
intensive, ycU to make an effort, desire, effect, prepare, attack, vex, of- 
fend ; yatna effort, work ; yantra machine ; yantri driver; it to go ; ind to 
[be impetuous], rule ; indh to flash out, blaze, bum, kindle ; Indras god of 
day ; lord ; inas sun, lord ; indus moon, spark, drop ; id to praise, glorify; 
[y]andhas [dazzled], blind; eth to confuse, vex, sadden; edas deaf; 
etas brindled (branded); ena, enas [bright-eye], moon, antelope; 
edh to grow; edhas timber, prosperity. From the idea of going, 
setting out, attaining, reaching, entering, following, distancing, 
surpassing, arise various prepositions, adverbs, and particles: ati 
beyond, exceedingly, in front, in addition; atas thence, hence, there- 
fore; at'lvas exceedingly; atha then, thence, after; athavd^attanten 
nevertheless, or; adas this [ad-dya], adya to-day; adhi unto, over; 
adhikas higher; adharas, adhamas (even to the foot) lower, lowest; 
antas limit, end; antatas finally; antar into, under (limit of motion); 
antaras into, within; also [following], difference, interval, another; 
anu after, following; (with ya) yatas whence; yatra where, because; 



— 11 — 

yathd as, anyway; yadd when; itaras (compar.) [following, second], 
another; itds hence; iti thus; ittham (superl.) exactly thus; idam t\^s, 

Sk. ai, ait, ad, anth to gS eagerly, be brisk; add to work briskly; atid 
mother, elder sister ; [anstam], astam home (eageriy sought) , sunset (sun's 

goal) . Gk. 5rra grandpa ; drrcrdeXXa) to rear children ; Sttw to skip, leap, 

dart; Sr^o^ai to set the warp; derTlXa^o?, drcdbtt)? grasshopper; 'Attcx^? 
[chipper, cheerful], Athenian (no connection with Athene; the golden 
grasshopper was a national badge. Cf . Ital. quaglia quail, merry-lad) ; 
4ti:aYa<;, drrTayi^v grouse, partridge; Stttiyo? he-goat; firrovov [sputterer], 
frying-pan; drcipaYog crumb {micare^ mica); firxa, fiaaa, Saaa any 

trifles, et cetera. Lat, atta grandpa; Atilius. Goth, atta father; 

aiihei mother. O. R. otitzi, R. otetz father. Jr. aite foster-father; 

aithech yeoman, man-at-arms, householder; O. C. Atta, Atto, Attalos, 
AttiUus; Ati'Smerius quick-witted. Mercury; Attae nymphs, fairies. 

Sic aU, anth to go eagerly, make an effort, [dive]; an to pant, 

sound, [quack]; diis water-fowl. Lat. anas {-aits) duck. O. H. G. 

antU. Lith. antis duck. 

Sk. ad {qdtni) to eat; andhas fodder; adanam adman, annam food; 

-adaSf-adakas eater ; ddyas eatable. Gk. 2^, loOw, 4o6((i) [andh] to eat ; 

I3^i{, el8ap, Keoyia food. Lat. edo (3d sing. ^^0 to eat; edax de- 
vouring ; esurio to desire to eat, hunger ; ador spelt ? Goth itan to eat ; 

atisk harvest; fra-cUyan to feed; O. H. G. izu, ezzan to eat; A. S. ata 

oats. Lith. edmi I eat; edis a meal; O. R. ei [d] mi, yami I eat, yasti 

to eat; yadi food; R. eist to eat; eidun glutton; yazik tongue (greedy). 
Jr. estar he eats. 

Sk. edh to be [eager, well fed], turgid; to swell, grow; edhas timber, 

wood; andhas verdure, sap, fodder, food; andas egg, testicle. Gk. 

5v6o? flower, plant, bloom, sprout, point; T av6o<; violet bloom; Sx-ocvOa 
thorn-leaf, thistle ; i-dtx-ivOoq hyacinth ; sprouting point after spring rain ; 
tlptiivOo^, Tepi^-(v6o^ cone-producer, terebinth; civOio) to bloom; IBetpa 
luxuriant hair; iOi^p head of com; dOdepiQ groats, porridge; 5v$T)pov bank 

of stream; I8iq timber, forest. Lat. ador spelt; adoriosus luxuriant, 

proud; querc-etum oak wood [t^nth]; idoneiis [good timber], suitable 

(-van, -vonus). A. S. eddig prosperous (forms and, andh, [anf^\ 

eddhe, ^dhe comfortable, rich ; eddh easy ; idhel, ddhele noble ; ides noble 
woman, nymph; O. (jer. Idisia-viso nymph's-meadow; O. N. ddhal, 
edUi nature, generation, tribe; idhyar meadow grass; Idhunn Nature, 
spring, immortality.— Jr. ander young woman (blooming); ad-bul 



— 12 — 

swollen, vast ( + voluo) ; idan virginal, pure; O. C. Andecdvi blooming 
banks (quai) ; Anderida forest; Andes fertile; Andium, Andros, Antros 
islands; Ando- bales, Indibilis, /tirfws = prosperous ; Idanea (blooming); 
Idenna, Edera rivers; Ituna (the Eden). 

Sk. idh, indh to kindle, bum, shine ; p.p. iddhas [burnt prairie], clear, 
clean; indhanam, idhmas, edhas firewood; ind to [be glorious], rule; 
id to glorify, praise; Indras sun-god, lord; Aindri his wife. Night, 
Tartarus; inas sun, lord; eth to dazzle, confuse, vex; edas [dizzy, con- 
fused], deaf; andhas [bewildered], blind; etas brindled. Gk. aT0ci) to 

bum ; aT6a>v burning, glorious ; aWi^p bright air ; aTOpa clear weather ; a(6p (a 
clear night; 'A0if^vT) goddess of the clear sky, represented by her steely 
helmet and shield ; with the latter Perseus (spring, prush) destroys the 
winter Gorgon. As IlaXXdeq {Pales) she guards cloud-sheep in her 
circular fold, and is patroness of wool-work (cf. add to toil). She 
sprang from the aching head of Zetis (clouded sky), cleft by the light- 
ning axe of Hephaestus, and bears the flashing lightning in her aegis ; 
fivOpaS coal; dvOpi^vt) hornet (cf. OpTrjviw to drone); dOpaYlvr) torch-wood; 
fivOpcjTco^ fiashing-eye, man; aTBaXoq smoke, soot; al%6^ black, burnt; 

{Oaptf q lovely, merry; (OaCvo(Jiat to be warm ; fi^ig hearth. Lat. aestuo to 

bum, boil, rage; aestus heat, tide; aestas simimer; [andso\ asso to broil; 
aedes [hearth], house (opposed to capanna a smoky straw hut without 
smoke- vent); [aedntidus], aemidus inflamed, purulent; atrium [t^nth] 

room with smoke- vent; ater sooty, black. O. H. G. eit piled wood, 

blaze ; eitar pus (melting drops) ; esza furnace ; A. S, dd f imeral pile ; 
dttor venom; aetter adder; aedre torrent, artery (boiling); ddl disease; 
ydhan to ravage, destroy; O. Sax. idal, O. H. G. ital flashing, flickering, 
bright, pure, vain ; O. N. eydha to ravage ; aedh artery. R. eidkiy burn- 
ing, caustic, corrosive, virulent. Ir. andud kindling; ded fire; aidche. 

oidche night {Aindri, aWpfa) ; indo-cbdl glory {gabail seizing) ; ath, oast 
(W. odyn) malt-kiln; ind-e&in anvil (hot iron bender; s6im) ; for-ondar 
to be blackened ; dn evil, shame ; andhas blind ; Aedhan glorious ; Adam- 
nam [aedh-damnan] glory of the world {domun, Damnanii); aithk. 
Cor. itheu, Bret, etia fire-brand {t^nth as in Lat.) ; O. C. Aedui, Aidui; 
Athesis, Atesis {Adige) sparkling; andobatta blind-fighter (blinded 
gladiator). 

Sk. att, anih to go eagerly; indh to glow; an, an {animi) to pant, 
breathe; anas breath; anilas wind; dnanam mouth, face; anikas (Zd. 
ainikas) face ; (cf . as to breathe, dsyam mouth ; Lat. ds mouth, face) ; 

anikas army (eager, forward) ; [antman], dtman breath, soul, self. 

Gk. Svejio? wind; fivTat^five^jLot, Hesych.; ir:\L6(; steam, vapor; [dt/rorpLt)], 



— 13 — 

i-aTjii^, (iuT(i.i^v [av to blow] breath, blast of bellows, of furnace, [inhala- 
tion], scent ; ux-i^vt) moustache (under nose, breath) ; xpofft)v-i^? [turning 
face toward speaker], bland, gracious; dvijo) to [pant after], hasten, 
attain, succeed; devCa, 6vla [panting, exhaustion], distress; Svo^ ass 

(wide-mouthed, braying; cf. 6f%io\k(Xi). Lat. animus, anima soul, 

life; an-helo to pant after (halare) ; onus [effort], burden; onustus laden; 
honos duty, office, honor; honestus dutiful (h is added to differentiate). 

Goth, uz-anan to breathe out; qnsts A. S. ^5/ favor, grace; O. H. G. 

unst storm; ando wrath; O. N. anda to breathe; andi, ond, ddhr soul; 
anna to care for, toil; 6nn labor; ddhr wrath (melts with /ra)6l(i>); 

A. S. aedhnt, O. H. G. dtum breath {Sx\ko<;). O. R. v-onya stench (vd 

to blow). Ir. anim, Cor. enef soul; Ir. andl, W. anadyl, Bret, hanal 

breath; Ir. dn [blown flame] brilliant, swift; W. anau [breath, inspira- 
tion], harmony, poetry; O. C. Anavius, Anavo[n], Anauni; Anava 
river; Anandale; Animorix. 

Sk. an to pant after [pursue, follow] ; [anava], anu after, following, 

along. Gk. &vakofl(x according to reason; dtvi in succession, one by 

one, apiece; fivw [effort] uphill, up; dtvfio) to hurry up, haste; 4v-8eXexi^g 
enduring to the end. 

Sk. anyas (Zd. anya) [following, one by one], another; anyataras 

the other (alter); anyatrd elsewhere; anyathd otherwise. Gk. Iviot 

some; hiaxoij in some places; ivCoTe sometimes; Svo(; year, ann^e; 
4vMWT<? period, year ; Tp(evo(; triennial ; fiv particle of possibility, like Lat. 

anne. Lat. Anio (gen. Anienis)= the other Tiber (the Sabine name 

was Tiber, cf. Tibur; Teverone—Tiburanyo) ; ant annef is it so or not? 

an-nont an-numf enim. A. S. dn after dnum one after the other; 

Goth, anthar another; O. N. inn, enn that one; enn otherwise, again. 

O. R. inH, R. inoi another, a certain one; R. inaki otherwise. 

Ir. inf anf interrogative ; in, an this that, the ; [i\na as, like ; [i]nach 
anyone; ni something. 

Sk. an, an to pant, [exhaust, empty] ; anus (f em anvl) small, worn out ; 
antyas smaller; anakas very small, miserable; an-, a- negative prefixes; 

[d)inis without, out. Zd. ana-, an-, a-, negative prefixes. Gk. dtva-, 

4v-, i- negative prefixes; fiveu, fivt(; [destitute, alone], far from, without 

{sans), excepting. Lat. in-, i- neg. pref.; Osc, Umb. an-, Goth. 

inuh, O. H. G. dnu, dne without {phne) ; A. S. in^, Eng. in-, un-, Ger. 

un- neg. pref. R. inei hoar-frost (fleeting, vanishing) ? Ir. anaim 

to [be blown, exhausted], cease, rest, wait; an- neg. pref. 

Sk. an-, [a]nis- negative prefix; [a]na (Ved. nd) not; [nau], no and 
not; [na-id] nid that not. Zd. na not. 



— 14 — 

Sk. an to pant. Zd. ana uphill, up. Gk. ivi up, upon; Sv» 

above. Osc., Umbr. an, Lat. in up, upon. Goth, ana up; A. Sax. 

an, upp'On, R., O. R. [a]na over, on; R. na look up I see! O. Pr. 

na, no on. Ir. an, in, on. 

Sk. [an to pant, to pounce into from above, to leap down, upon, 
into the midst]; at, ath, anth to go; comp. degree antor inside, within; 
superl. antamas household friend, intimus; antard in the midst; 
antram bowels; [ajni under (potmdng); redup. [ajninyas within, 

mjrstic. Gk. iv'Si^io? toward the right (cf. In); hi, h (Arcad., 

Cypr. fv) in, within; ivz6<;, ?v8ov, {oti) within; ivztci furniture, domestic 
goods; ?v6a, ivrauOa there, where; ?v6ev thence, whence; lvepoi = inferi, 
the dead, the gods of Hades; SvepOe, vipOe apud inferos; lv^pTepo(;, 

v<pTepo(; deeper; Svrepov bowels. Lat. endo, indo in, to, into, upon, 

within; ind-uperaior (opera) overseer of works, commander, issuing 
orders from above (cf . xorc-Y)x4ci)) ; ind-igeo to need [at home] ; res angusta 
domi ; interest it is laid upon him, is his duty, interest ; inter into the 
midst, between; inier-dico to set intervening space, repel, forbid; intas, 
intra within; comparative forms interior, intimus more, most within; 
domestic, private; [forms intherior, inthimus; cf. Sk. at, anth], inferior, 
infimus, [invimus], imus into the lowest depth; inferi the gods of 
Hades; [intestenus], intestinus prolonged into the interior; antrum 
cave, bowels of earth, Ivrepov; inter- fido to send to Hades, slay, (cf. 
Danish ihaelslaan) ; inter-necinus murderous; intereo to perish; Umbr. 

en-, ander, Oscan anter between, into the midst. Goth, in, inna 

within; innuma inmost; innathro within, from within; undar under; 
O. H. G. innddiri bowels; A. S. inn, O. N. inni apartment, house, inn; 

Ger. unter among, imder. Lith. in, O. R. van in; R. [a}na into, 

toward, under; nad down, upon; v-on from within, out. Ir. i, in in; 

inathar bowels; eter, etir, etar-, (Bret, itrf^ between; etir [nothing] at all 
[between us] ; andes [entering] from the south ; W. «[ff ], Bret, en in ; Com. 
enederen bowel, [channel]; Bfet. ant, anden furrow, gully, brook; O. C. 
Antona river; en, in; enter, inter between; Int-arabus mediator, arbiter 
of inheritance. 

Sk. at, aU, ath, anth to go, speed; ati beyond, exceedingly, in front, 
in addition; adhi to, in addition, above; antas limit, end; antatas 
finally, at last; antimcLs farthest; antaras another. Zd. aiti exceed- 
ingly, beyond. Gk. Iri in addition, further, moreover. Lat. et 

and, also, more and more; etiam also; at furthermore, but; at-avus 

great-grandfather's grandfather; ad to, \mto. Goth, cmdeis, A. S. 

ende end; A. S. odh imtil; and (O. N. enda, O. H. G. anti) and. Ir. 



— 15 — 

[ati\, --cOh, —aith anew, again; ind end, point; and there, yonder; O. C. 
andi- intensive particle; melts with attdh to glow, be luxuriant; ate- 
intensive prefix. 

Sk. ati in front; anti- [in front of the enemy], opposite, facing; 
antikas in the presence, near; antikam before (in procession), sooner; 

an/i(iei;a5 opposite dancer (reciprocity, exchange). Gk. dvrf opposite, 

instead of; Svra, Svttjv, Svrixpu (xpouw to knock against) face to face; 

ivTO(taty ivTidwtoencoimter; ivovrfoc; opposite, adversary. Lat. ante 

before (time and place) ; antiquus ancient (yofas glorious) ; antia fore- 
lock; antes [procession], row; t-antum, quantum so far [ahead], so much 
as; [ca-ant'Ordl contra against; Antonius leader; Antium (end, harbor). 

Goth, and hy the side, opposite, towards; anda-vaurd answer; unte 

until; O. H. G. andi forehead. Lith. ant imto. Ir. itan forehead 

(cf. eter between =antord) ; and, there, yonder; O. C. Ande-brox facing 
the frontier. 

Sk. at, att, anth to go, set out, proceed; [ata], atha, [antha] then, 

thereupon, also; yatas whence, where, whither; itas hence. Gk. ?v6a 

here, there, where, then; !v6ev thence; ivrauOa there; Mev whence, 
wherefore. Lat. inde thence; unde whence; t-ot, quot so many [at- 
tempts] as. Goth, and^bindan, Ger. entbinden to tmbind. Ir. and 

there. 

Sk. a«, add, ath, anth, yat, it to go, seek, speed, follow; atha after- 
wards, then, but; athavd however, or; antaras [in front, ahead, beyond], 
another; yatra [therefore, in consequence], because; itaras [following, 
second], the other, another; savyas left-hand; savy-etaras [other, better 
than the left], right ; [kasYrho ?] k-ataras whether of the two ? y-athd thus, 
as, in any way; yadcL [again, anew], when; yadi, yadivd whether of the 
two, if, or; yadvat just as [the preceding] ; idam the same, (in sequence) ; 
iti thus; ittham (superl.) exactly thus. Gk. elxa [following], after- 
wards, then; elOap (comparat. of last) immediately after, at once; 
lTepo<; another [yataras]; \y] firep [otherwise], except, without; fipt(jTO(; 
best; [dcptoT-tTepo^] deptoreptf^ [other than the best], left hand; ({(JL^-Jxepo^ 

each of the two; o9-<Tepo<; their [own share]. Lat. idem the same 

(melts with yas, is) ; ita thus; itaque and so, in consequence, therefore; 
at but (atha) ; iterum another time, again; itero to repeat; sinister left 
hand; dexter right hand; mag- wter, minister master, servant (recipro- 
cal) ; c-aeteri all the rest (pref . xa( or kas) ; c-aeterum however, but. 

Goth, anthar another; id- again, against; ith but; A. S. odher the other, 
another; eithan therefore; ^'/Aaii otherwise ; eithan to [annex another]. 



— 16 — 

join; hvddher whether (kas) ; Goth. ycUhthe or yuthan already. R. 

tak, itak thus; Uog total. Ir. aithrech [repetition, thinking it over], 

repentent. 

Sk. anth to go eagerly; ad, odd to make an effort, [leap, pounce]; 
adhi [from] above, down [to], at, by; adis first (to set out); dditas 

from the beginning. Lat. ad to, at, by; adimo to take away; [d)fie 

from. Goth., O. N. a/, O. H. G. az, A. S. aet at, by. R. edin, 

odin one. Ir., W. di from, of. 



l/op to circle; dp [to meet, as the ends of a hoop], to reach, arrive, 
obtain, possess; vi*dp to encircle, embrace, take possession; sam-dp 
to complete; dptas (p.p.) obtained, accepted, fitted to end, suitable, 
intimate ; apa [separated, as hoop-ends], from, away; [apa-dpas], pdpas 
sin (imfit, improper) ; aparas [following, as ends], another, (separate) ; 
ap, dpas water (stirabout, brimming); dpyas watery, moist, [fertile]; 
apnas, ambu, ambhas water; ammayas watery; dbhi to, towards, over 
[the other — as hoop-ends]; abhy-antaras (opposite end, embracing) 
interval, interior, middle; abhyadhikas upper; abhyds nearness [of 
ends], neighborhood, practice, custom (circling, repeating) ; abhr, am 
to go [round]; am to [embrace], love; to [be bent], sick; amatis [circling, 
recurring] time ; amb to circle ; ambakam [rolling] eye ; ambaram [rolling] 
heaven, [enveloping] robe; ambd [embracing] mother; abhram [globing] 
cloud; amb, am to [rumble, thtmder], soimd; (prefix va) ubh, umbh to 
fill [to brim] ; ubhdu, ubhayas Jx)th [hoop-ends] ; imv to embrace, fill, 
satiate, delight. 

Sk. apa away from, out from, down from, back to (completed 

circle); aparas another (following in circle). Zd. apa away, from; 

apana afar. Gk. dhci from; i^ backward, again. Lat. ab, 065, 

[av], au-, a from. Goth, af off, from, out of; afar after; O. H. G. aba^ 

[a]fona from, away, (von) ; afar, Ger. after but, again, anew [following]; 
Ger. abermal another time; A. S. dfter after; of of, off; O. N. a/, off, 

from. R. [apo]^ po following, according to ; Lith. apatzia, apatinnis 

lower. 

Same root (following ends, opposite ends, one end over other, 
completed circle). Sk. prefixed prep, api-, pi- to, on, after; (as adv.) 

also, therefore. Zd. aipi (prep, with ace.) after, on, with; (instni.) 

to; (loc.) unto, on; (prefbc) hence; (adv.) also, even. Gk. ixl upon, 

up, to. O. Lat. apor, Lat. apud (abl. form) at, by (nearing ends) ; 



— 17 — 

at the house of (completed circle). Lith. ape aroimd, over; (suffix) 

-^' after, near; (pref.) api-^ a^—Ger. be-. 

Same root (circling, meeting, attaining, enclosing, returning, fol- 
lowing, whirling). Sk. dp to attain, reach, p.p. dptas; causat. dps; 
dead, ips to seek, desire; abhi-dp to desire; vidp to embrace, brim, 
fill; apnas possession; dptas acceptable, fitted, suitable. The Greek 
prefixes sa conjimctive, producing rough breathing; it melts with the 
kindred [abh, if] to encircle; it may add the causative 5, and the 
resultant ica may become ^, ex or 09; in X^o<; it follows the Sk. 

dead.; in 'i^io\k(Xi it prefixes d intens. like the Sk. Sxrw to grasp, 

bind, touch, [whirl fire-drill], kindle; fi(p6at [kindlings], carbimcles, boils; 
t|«? touch; 4i|;(? circle, fold, felloe, bow, arch, apse, cycle; \>,i'^ [v-fi'i'^f 
not reaching], in vain; ia%lq shield (circular); asp (coiling); i'^Mioy, 
ioxMiov (coiling-stalk), worm-wood; Soxpiov pulse (tendril) ; 891? snake; 
bracelet; 6^i evening, end of day's circle; jx(9(i> backward; &^ back, 
again, immediately; i^axCvr)^ sudden, poimcing; 'Ap»ffupT6? morning- 
star (drawn back into night); al(|;a, fi^vo), fi^ocp immediate; S^^ov [pre- 
pared, cooked] food; JxTdco to broil, bake; £4^^ ^^ ^^^ (kindling, 
turning, stirring); ifdup, dfdaaci) to feel, touch, handle, rub; &x(i9(i>, 
fibrfiBffoxw (redup.) to stroke, tickle, cheat; dhcdrn) deceit; [t^ = 5] i5xio(; 
gentle, kindly (stroking); i^xepoxeuo) to cajole; [vTQ-dxro)], vi^^o) [not to 
touch], be temperate; &^eyo<;, fi^vo? wealth (attained); i^veti? rich; 
ifeXo<; gain, help, advantage (cf. Sabine, Gall. Ofella prosperous); 
^iXXo) to prosper, help, heap up, [lend]; j^etXIo) to owe; fxdo) [yd 
intens.] to press, crush; Ixo? mouse-trap; fxv6? vault, oven, heap ((i(|/fg 
arch); Xt^o<; ivy (coiling); l^ worm; l^6<; cork-tree (swelling); ^io<;, 
!<p6tito<; stout, comely, strong; i^xdo|jLat to couple, cobble; icrfyrq team, 

couple, twins; ijxetpo? main-land (firm-bound, eTpo)). LaX.apereto 

bind; apto to fit; aptus (dptas) fitted, suitable; [co-apulo], copulo to 
bind; a[p]nus, annus, anulus circle, ring, year; soll-empnis, sollemnis 
every year, solemn festival, customary; [ompnis], omnis [the whole 
circle], all; [amnvona], annona [good year], crop, grain; [imnfula], 
infula fillet, head-band? opinor to form opinion (ap to grasp, compre- 
hend -^-van.vin to choose, reflect) ; apor, apud [within circle], at home; 
aper curved- tusk, boar; ebur tusk, ivory, cf. i%6 — ab\ (the twin tusks of 
the Erymanthian and Aetolian boars typified the [summer and] 
winter solstice with the Greeks as with the Scandinavians; the horns 
of Amathaea and Thor's goats represented the summer cycle) ; apis 
bee (homing, neatly fitting); apex [sharp-touch], peak; oppidum 
ring-wall, town; oppido neatly, exactly meeting [ends]; ob, obs [meet- 
mg ends], opposite, seeking to meet, for the sake of; obses, [h^spes (cf. 



— 18 — 

dh|f(vOtoVy deoxCvOiov) [corresponding, mutual] hostage, guest-friend; sospes 
safe, guarded (prefix su- well); opto to desire; opes [attained] wealth; 
C'Opia abundance; opus, opera toil [laying hold, getting]; ind-upero to 
oversee, command; luc-ubro to work by lamplight; Appius, Appianus, 
Oppianicus rich; optimus, opimus richest, best; epulum feast; Ofella; 

offa lump of dough, food. Goth, crfar after; aftra backward; A.S. 

dfnan to complete, fulfill, bring to pass; aefen evening (completion of 
cycle 6^i); efne exact, correct (aptus); efn even (rounded, complete 
circle, disk); O.N. i<rfn, iafna plain; iafnan, iamnan forever; efna to 
fulfil, realize; afla to grasp, be strong; Goth, ibns level, plain; O.N. 
ifi doubt; efa to doubt; ef'\l\ A.S. efstan to speed {cA^ql) ; eafodh force; 
eofor, O.H.G. eber ho3X (aper) ; O.N. oefr, (O.H.G. eifer) eagerness; oefa 
to [revolve], be wont, (iiben) ; A.S. ofen, O.N. ofn oven (fxv6<;) ; Goth. 
ubizva, O.H.G. opasa high-hall (jointed, timbered); A.S. efese eaves; 

A.S. efete eft, reptile (14*) ; efel, yfel (O.H.G. ubit) evil (crooked). Lith. 

apstas crowd (meeting); apstus abtmdant; R. optom wholesale; ob- 

against. Ir. a[p]staim to bind, hold fast; a[pJs-/Mf [returning back], 

journey (i^) ; [apne], dine, dinius, dibnius [plenty], joy, beauty; dibind, 
dibind beautiful; obbaim to oppose, refuse (ob) ; aini[b}ser (Bret, atnzir) 
time; O.C. Ofiliacus, Oppianicnos (rich), Appius, Apilus, Opsilus; oppe 
hops (T4'0(;). 

Sk. abhi (hoop, hoop ends, circling, opposite) to, toward, around 

about, over; abhitas to, near, roimd about. Zd. aibi, aiwi up, over, 

[\mto], in addition; O. Pers. abish close by. Gk. ia^i aroimd; 

ia^i(i on both sides; 8iaii4>(8iO(; separate, entirely different. Lat. 

prefix amly-, am-, an-, Umbr. am-, an-, ampr-, Osc, amfr- around, on 
both sides ; Lat. anfr-actus curve (anfus spoke, akshas axle) ; abies spruce- 
tree (roimding evenly, cf. dhanvan, Tanne). O. Sax. umbi, O.H.G. 

umpi arotmd; Ger. um aroimd; emp-fangen to receive [from another]; 
Goth., O.H.G., A.S. [ambi\, bi by, at, near; O.N. omb- aroimd; ombun 

requital, pay. O.R. obu across, through [from point to point]; o 

aroimd; R. ob-, o-, u- around; (qbvivat to wrap, o-mivat to wash, 

U'Stremlyat to turn). O.C. ambi-, W. am, Ir. imb-, imm around; 

O.C. amb-acti henchmen (led about). 

Sk. ubhduhoth] ubhayatas on both sides. Zd. tiba both. Gk. 

S|iyci) both; dyiyiTepo? each of two. Lat. ambo. Goth. [af}ai, 

[a]f)aiSths both; O.H.G. [a]beidS. O.R. oba both; Lith. abu both; 

abeyoyu to doubt. 

Sk. Td'dp to embrace, encircle, brim, fill; afnb to move roimd; ap. 



— 19 — 

afmas, cmbu, atnbhas water; ab-das [water-giver], cloud; dpagd river; 
ammayas watery. Zd. ap water. Gk. 6t:6<; jviice, sap ? 8xtov poppy- 
juice, opium; jic(opa [juice-time, vintage, olive-pressing], autumn; 
dcxaeX6^ juicy, tender, soft; ivap^la (white-sap, cf. lactuca) chicory; 
*Axla Peloponnesus (water-land); Meaaixtot (between-waters) heel 

of Italy. Lat. apium parsley (brookside) ; Apulia (/rlXo(; lowland) ; 

[anibnis\ amnis river. Goth, aba husband (generator) ; aban to be 

vigorous; A.S. £66a= strong; ebbian, O.H.G. eppan to flow away, ebb. 

O.Prus. ape, Lith. upe river. Ir. abann river; abaid mellow, 

ripe; ambur, ammor water-trough; O.C. >lmWam = river-men, rafters; 
Men-apii, Mon-apii, Mc>na/>ia= narrow-water; (cf. La Manche, the 
Minch^min-uisce narrow- water) ; Gamapia winter- water, flooding; 
ambe river; Abus, [Ambus] the Humber; Abnoba [abn-owis rich in 
water]; Abona the Avon. 

The following roots imder this head melt into each other: amb 
to go, move roimd, [eddy]; amb, ambh to sound [like water], rumble, 
thunder; am to go [aroimd, encircle, embrace], love; to [flow, melt 
away, pine], be sick; dmas watery, imripe, raw; amlas sour; amras 
mango; dmds roaming, roving; dmas, dmanam illness; yam [yd intens.] 
to wheel, circle; ibhas elephant (swamp-lover, water-spouter) ; ibhyas 
affluent, rich; imv to [embrace, grasp], fill, possess, exhilarate; ubh, 
umbh to 611, 

Sk. ambu, ambhas eddying water; ambaram heaven, robe; abhram 
thunder-cloud (cf. nam to curve, nabhas cloud; Ir. nem heaven; Gk. 
xpa$a(vcd to whirl; Eng. cloth, cloud)] ambakam rolling eye; ambhrinas 
[surging, rolling, brandishing], mighty, terrible. Gk. 8|jLppo(; thun- 
derstorm, water; J^put^ov (Lat. obrussa), [smelting], refined gold; 
S^pt(to^ mighty, terrible; [j]Bpc(i.(o Hecate; ^p^ixt] threat; ^p6\ko<; 
thtmder, surge; i\L^\6<; roimded, bltmt; 6^tk6(; [revolving] spit; 
(Dor. iSeX6^ with 8tio?) ; 6^ak6(; [centre of revolution], boss of shield, 
navel; 6\t/fco(.l(; acorn-cup; 49p6(; [rolling] foam; 'A^poSfTt) cloud-queen, 
rain-begett«r, fertilizer (Mediterranean sea-mist, gathering under 
the sun, creaming up on shore, wafting up in clouds) ; rainbow-girdled 
wife of Hephaestus the lightning; borne away by Ares the storm- 
wind; bound by the fiery net of Hephaestus; d^pic; delicate; d^puvoi 
to be wanton; S^pta whelps, (i.oX*6^pta yotmg pigs (cuddled, nursed); 
8fpa [circling time], while, imtil; 8|jlxvt) food, honey-cakes, favor; Sjjixvtog 

botmtiftd, flourishing, swollen [of a doud]. Lat. imber, [ibhyas] 

storm-cloud, rain; umbra shadow; umbo boss; umbilicus navel; Umbri 
storm-clouds (terrible, drifting, migrating; cf. Fir Bolg, Belgae^ 



— 20 — 

cloud-men; Volsci, Volcae mountain-torrents; Afnbrones); Africus 
dewy, cloud-bearing wind, south-west; Africa (s.w. of Sicily); Ven-ct- 
frum "sweet-south-west" [slope]; apneas [ofcrictts, cf. abrico{\^ basking 
after shower; Aprilis; Vel-abrum swamp-water; ambulo to [circle], wan- 
der, stroll (wfoo) ; ebrius [dizzy, raging], drunk. Goth, abrs strong; 

bi-abryan to rage; aibr gift (dainty, luxury); O.N. embergeas, M.H.G. 

imber ember-goose, water-fowl; amber amber (sea-drift, foam). 

R. oblako cloud. Ir. abra dark (ufnbra); itnbliu, navel; ubaU, aboil 

apple (naveled) ; itnbel, dibela brim; «m6, imm butter (stirred, churned) ; 
dibell spark, fire, passion (whirling, impetuous) ; diblech flashing; ibar 
iubhar yew tree (intoxicating, poisonous; ebrius; cf. taxus, intoxicor), 

Bret, ibr, ivr cloud, sky; amonen butter; O.C. Amber; Ambrones; 

Aballaba (apple) ; Aballo, Avalon, Obilava, ObeUius; Obilonna, Ebiloniae 
(nymphs); ebur yew; Eburones, Eburovices, Eburdcon; Ebumicae 
(nymphs) ; (ou[ji^apou(i. deadly night-shade. 

Sk. [abhru], bhru, -bhruvas brow (darkening, shading; umbra); 

ambhrinas, (Gk. S^pt^Loc;, Ppt[JL4<;) glowering, terrible. Zd. brvat brow. 

Gk. (59pu<; (Maced. a^pou'zeq) brow, ridge, bank, cliff; (59pu66t<; bee: ling; 

Cretic 66pudet<; jagged, precipitous; o0puv mountain (Hesych.); ''06pu(;; 
[0ic46pa], uic65pa [glaring], imder brows. Lat. [a]frons (Jrondis) foli- 
age ;franS'tishrow, A.S. brdv, brUva brow ; O.N. brU mound, platform, 

step. O.R. obuvi, bruvi brow. Ir. abra dark; abra eyelash; abracht 

eyelid ; bra, brUad eyebrow, brows ; bru rim, border, bank, brae ; bra- fad 
a twinkle; O.C. Brivas, Brivates brow, brae, bank, quay (Zd. brval)\ 
[Brivaci], Breuci shore-men. 

Sk. ambh, amb, am to sound (thimder, surge) ; ambhrinas mighty, 

terrible; um exclamation; dm mystic syllable, adjuration. Gk. 6^^^ 

divine voice, oracle; 5pLvupLt to swear. Lat. calumnia [terrible voice], 

accusation; Vertumnus [sacred revolution], god of harvest. Ir. 

6man fear; omna oak (oracular, reverend); O.C. omun fear; Exobnus 
fearless; Bergomon holy town. 

Sk, dmas^ amas, watery, unripe, raw; dmas [wasting, melting], 

illness ; amlas, amblas, amli sour, acid ; sorrel ; amras mango. Gk. ci|jL6(; 

imripe, raw, cruel; I^ol^ sour grape {bhaksh, bacca, sour -bite). Lat. 

[amdsus], amdrus sour, bitter; omasum tripe {am-mdnsam raw, sour 

flesh). O.H.G. ampher, samphire (salt-lichen, pickle); A.S. dmig 

sharp, passionate; O.N. awmr wretched. Ir. atw^r misery, bitterness; 

amnas cruel; amsa war; amos mercenary soldier. 

Sk. amb, am to circle, embrace, love; ambd mother (embracing. 



— 21 — 

swaddling); amas, amatis [circling] time; amatram cask; amd [in the 
circle]; at home; ama this one; [a]ma I myself (i\Li)1 imu to take 

possession, be ftdl. Gk. da^iui^ to gather, reap, fill [armfnl, pailful]; 

1(1.1) pail; £(i.Y)Toc harvest; 5(i.aXXa sheaf; de^ioEpa channel; dyiyCov bowl; 
caul enclosing foetus; 5yLvayio<; grandson; £(i.yo<; lamb; (i(i.(<; vessel; 
i(jLipa ditch, canal (water-collector); odS-aiJiTj, (i.y)Soc|jl^ in no mea- 
sure, no wise; i\^i me; ijiig my. Lat. amo to love; amiia aunt; 

«mo to take, gain, buy; redimio to wrap, wreathe; om\m]mtuin mem- 
brane enclosing intestine ; [amb-tdmen], abdomen (tumeo, tomaculum) . 

A.S. edm uncle (embracing, guarding) ; dmtig, enUig, easy, idle, empty 
(pail, sack); O.H.G. amma nurse; O.N. aumm grandmother; M.H.G. 

dme, dme cask. R. yama ditch (SiJiapa) ; Lith. amzhis [circling] time; 

omzkinas eternal {amatis) \ (redup.) [amba\, bamba navel; R. babka 

grand-mother, mia-wife; Lith.fmw, O.R. iman to take. Ir. foemaim 

to receive; ammM5 temptation (ensnaring); amm, aimser, Bret, amzir 
time; Gael, am, Ir., W., mam mother; O.C. Amma, Mamma mother; 
Ammaia, Ammava, Ammilla\Ammius,Ammoniiis,Mammius, Mummius 
foster-father (Eng. to mum, mumming = swaddling, disguise; It. bam- 
bino cf. babka); Momonia^^tdevetpa. 

Sk. dmas, amas watery, raw; am to [melt away, languish], be sick; 
yam to whirl, curvet; imv, [iv, ibh] to fill, exhilarate; ibhyas rich; ibhas 

elephant (water-loving) ; ubh, unibh to fill. Gk. fi|JL|JLO(;, £(i.aOo(; sand 

(water-soaked); 4'de(jLiJL0(;, (|;diiJL(i.a6o^ sand; (prefix ((/dci) to pulverize); 
cT^ to drip, distil; C^dEvr] bucket; (^ocvlo) to draw water; {^(axo<; mal- 
low; ipt)p(<; cress; T^k; ibis (water-bird); b^i:l(; {imv) mosquito 

(blood-sucker). Lat. uber abimdance, udder; ubertas luxuriance; 

ob-esus fat; imbuo to dip, soak, water. A.S. impan, O.H.G. imphdn 

to graft {imv) ; A.S. imp demon {i^%[<i), R. iva willow. Ir. imbed, 

immad abimdance; eblim to nurse, nourish; inver, inber estuary; 
O.C. Ibliomarus great-foster-father; Iblia, 



Sk. [na] root of circling; [nd] to twist, spin; nay to go [roimd], guard, 
watch; nas to be curved; nam to ctirve, bend; nal, nah to bind. 

Sk. [nd to twist, spin]; sndyus, sndvan sinew, bow-string; ndnd 

[versatile], varied, much. Zd. fna sinew, gut. Gk. vlw, vffit^ to 

spin; v^yta thread; vfjTpov spindle. Lat. neo to spin; nemen yam; 

neius thread. O. H. G. ndan to spin; nddala needle; Goth, nithla 

needle; A. S. netele nettle; O. N. snUa to turn, twist, bind, meet, hurl 

(pret. sniri); sndt [spinner], girl; snytrir molder, adomer. R. nit 

thread; nitka cord; snyat to snatch away. Ir. sndth thread; 



— 22 — 

sndthcU needle; snithe fillet; W. niddu cord; notuid needle; Com. snod 
fillet; noden thread; Bret, niein, nezaff to spin; ned thread; nadoi 
needle; n^ twisting, turning; verse, rhyme; pretence. 

Sk. sndyus sinew; nay to go [roimd, encircle], gtiard; nayanas eye 
(glancing, watchful) ; nlm wrapping, loin-cloth ; nlv to be swollen (hips) ; 

fat. Gk. v4o|jLai to roam, wander, return; va£ci), yaterdo) to dwell, 

inhabit (versari, verkehren); via), vtqIo) to roll together, heap up; 
vaf(i) to be full; vtqvIci) (redup.) to heap a fimeral pile; vwo?, va<? temple, 

shrine, inner shrine (watched, enclosed). Goth, snivan, sniumyan to 

turn around, turn quickly, speed; binauan to rub roimd, grind; 
O. N. snottung roaming; snotr (Goth, snutrs) wily, quick-witted, [tra- 
velled], experienced. 

Sk. [nav to curve, rotmd, heap]; nlv to be swollen, large. Sk., 

Zd. navan nine; Sk. navamas ninth, navati ninety. Gk. iwia; 2vGrro<;; 

ivevi^xovTa (iwi^xovra Homer). Lat. novem, nonus, nondginta 

(ipand, fcUam to heap, hundred). Goth, niun; niunda; A.S. [nipan], 

nigan; Fries, nigun. Lith. [nevyni],deuyni {ct.nebesis,debesis cloud) ; 

O.R. deventi, R. devyat; O.Pr. nevints ninth. Ir. n6i{n] nine; ndmad 

ninth; W., Cor., Bret, note;, nau, 

Sk. nay to go roimd [curve, bend]; nayanas glancing eye; nw, nil 

(ndumif navimi) to [bow, gesticulate], praise. Gk. veuci> to nod, beckon, 

bend, turn toward; veuoritici), vu(jT(4tici> to brandish, threaten, nod, 

sleep; vii(rraXo<; sleepy (influenced by vu?). Lat. nuo^ ntUo^ innuo 

to nod, beckon, hint ; numen deity (nu). 

Sk. nu, nu now (this wink) ; nutanas, nutnas (tan to stretch, twang) 

now, new, yotmg; nunam now, surely (instant action, cf. nu-men), 

2ki. nu just now. Gk. vu, vuv(, vuv now. Lat. nunc [nunnic] now; 

nU'diustertiusiXisnoyNtYie. third day; nw^/w recently {pars). Goth. 

nu; O. H. G., A. S., O. N. nH; Ger. nun now. O. R., R. n[v]inei 

now; R. nu come now! Ir. nu-, no- prefix of present tense. 

Sk. nu particle of [beckoning], interrogation, negative interrogation 
and opposition (this? or that) ; nunam perchance; nor- demonst. prefix 

as, so. Lat. numr^ne, anne, an? Goth, net, niu^nonnei R. 

no but. Ir. nd, no or, if; ni-na neither-nor; nd as; na, nach anyone, 

anything; ni something; ni a thing, nechi things; nechtar one or the 
other; W., Cor., Bret, nep, neb, nebtra anything. 

Sk. na, Ved. n& not (shake of head, dissent ; or Zd. ana-, [na] neg.) : 



— 23 — 

[nav], no and not; ned that not. Zd. na not. Gk. vtq- negative 

prefix; vT]*ve(jL(a calm ^&v^Loq) ; vt)*X(ti{(; sinless (deXtTidi) ; vYjXei^^ merciless 
(iXeib>) ; yi)*X8Yi^<; reckless (dXlyo)) ; vy)-ot8ij(i> to fast (ioflb)) ; vi^-^di to be 
temperate (Sicto) to touch) ; vde-^Oa naphtha (Sicroi to kindle) ? \n^xto(; «= 
infans (Iico<;); yi^-Ypetoc unwaking (iyeCpcj); vci)86^ toothless (j$ou(;); 

vc&Suvo^ painless (Wijvy)). Lat. ne that not;[n^-oeniim], ndn not one, 

no; nonii^ no? ne-fas evil; nemo (nehomo); nisi if not; neque nor; 

[nanne], annet is it not? Goth, we no, nor, not; ni no, not, not? ni-ba 

if not; nih^neque; niu^nonnef O.H.G. we, [neein], nein no, not, none. 

O.R. neno, not; nezhe or, than; R. neit=non est; ne neg. prefix; ni 

noi; Lith. we not; wei though not. Ir. ni, ni not, nothing, nobody; 

ni tho, na iho=non est, no; wanot; mawt if not; na, nach, naicc no; W. 
ni, ny, nyt. Com. ny, Bret, ne not ; Bret, nahein to deny. 

Sk. nu now, at once, (possibly melting with snu to [bathe, refresh, 
be verdant]) ; nutanas now, new, yoimg; novas, navyas navinas new, 

fresh, yoimg. Zd. nova new. Gk. v<o? new, yoimg; vei6g fallow 

(resting, refreshed); veap6(; yoimg, fresh, new; [ve/rp6c;], vepp<(; fawn; 
veavfaq, v4a5 lad, youth ; veoaad? chick (Saae two-eyes) ; vetpdv [latest], 
last (Hesych.); volo) to originate, devise, think; vou^ mind; [aaveo^, 
^eo<;], aveci), hvt6<;, he6<; [like a child], dimib (melts with devaSa)) ; 
vcdXepii^, y(i>Xe(jii(i>^ (8X(i.o^) grinding disposition, incessant; y(i>*xeXi{c 

(x4Xu(;) tortoise-mind, slow. Lat. novus new ; novissimus most recent, 

last; novellus news (Noil!) ; [nov-ventius], nuntius new-comer, messenger 
[nov-arceo], noverca "keep the lads in order," step-mother; novalis 

this year's harvest [deXio)]; de-nuo anew. Goth, niuyis, A. S. nive, 

niove new. Lith. nauyes, O.R. novu new. Ir. niie, nUide new; 

ndi'diu child (Sk. div to play, Ir. diuit simple) ; n^all shout (nouvellesl) ; 
W. newydd young; O.C. Novia, Noviomagus, [Nom-ventum], Noviantum 
or Novigentum (the p becoming g) New market (Nogent, 27 in Piaiice) ; 
Navellidcus, Noilidcus (NeuilU, 20) ; Nemus, Nevirnum, Nebis. 

Sk. nu now, at once; ndu (dual number) we two; nas (ace. plu.) 

we [here, the present speakers]. Zd. nd, Gk. vwt (vwtv) dual. 

Lat. nos, nobis; nosier our (a^t:zpo<;, p. 15). O. R. na (stem of 

dual and plu.). Ir. ni we {naihar gen) ; W. ni, ny; Bret, ni, nini we. 

Sk. ni- down (nodding, winking) ; ni (nayishydmi) to (beckon on)^ 
lead; nitHas leader; nins, niksh to [bend forward, flash eye], kiss; 
nishkas weight (bowing scale) ; nishk to weigh, measure ; nif to ponder, 

reflect; ntHas low; nigd [nodding-time], night; nis [falling] out. Gk. 

v«( yes (nod); rf^ [yes] by [2^us]; veEoetpa lower belly; viorog lowest; 



— 24 — 

Vf(iQx6<; lowest, hindmost; vetxio) to qtiarrel (flash out, gesticulate); 

v(x7) victory; velxXov, v(xXoy winnowing-shovel. Lat. conniveo to 

wink; nido^ nictito to wink, twinkle, flash; ni[c]tor (nisus, nixus) 
to make an effort towards, dash forward; ni[c]teo, ni[g]ieo to glance, 

smile, sparkle; nidor, niior sparkle, brightness. Ger. neigen to bend; 

Nu a wink. R. voz-nikcU to start up; po^niknut to glance down; 

pO'tiizhat to lower, descend; sniskivcU to win, gain; niva plain; tdzhniy 
lower. Ir. nia hero, chieftain ; n{[c^h nobleman ; conflict ; nois flash- 
ing, noble; O.C. Netos, Netta god of war; Nitiobriges; Nida (six rivers; 
Nith^ Nidda, sparkling) ; Nicer, Nicres, Nictrenses. 

Sk. nay to go roimd; [wa- to twist, spin ; O. N. sniHa to twist, hurl; 
snotr quick]; Sk. snu (sndumi) to [eddy, speed], flow; snd to bathe, 
spHlen, wash off; snavas current; snutas flowing; nud to whirl, hurl, 

[plunge]. Zd. ftidd to wet. Gk. v4ci> to swim; veuon^p diver; vdai» 

(Hom. vafo)) to flow; iivaoq ever-flowing; Ndtog rain-wind, south- 
west; vitio? moist; votfiia) to wet; va^jLa liquid, spring; Naii?, Naiad; 
Vf^iq sea-monster, ichthyosaurus; vJao(;, voD90(; [melting, wasting] sick- 
ness,plague ; vfy/j^ to swim (cf . qi.dG>, aiJLi^x**) » [^XX"*^®^]* vi^x^'^^? full-flow- 
ing (x«5ci>); v^ffffa duck. O. H. G. snuzan to blow the nose; snUze 

snout; Goth, natyan to wet (cf. gnad)\ nas wet; veinnas drunk. 

R, snovat to well up. Ir. sndim to swim; sndmach buoyant; snikid 

stream; snim [dripping, pining] distress, grief; [s]neim poison (cf. v6ao<;) ; 
Snam-luthir swift-current; W. nawf, Bret, man, niii swimming; Bret. 
nouiein to anoint; O.C. Novios, Novia, Noviscma rivers; Naccara 
marsh; Nassania fotmtain 

Sk. nas, ndsd nose (bent; beak). Gk. v^ffO(; (beak, prow, promon- 
tory), island. Lat. ndsus nose; Naso, Naslca. O. H. G. ndsa\ 

O. N. nds nose, nes promontory; Eng. snout, snooze, sneeze^ nese. 

R. nos nose, beak, prow, promontory; nozdrya nostril. 

Sk. ndtts ship, hoat ;ndukd skiff. O. Pers. ndvi ship. Gk. vau(; 

ship; ya6vq<; sailor; vauafa, vautfa nausea. Lat. ndvis ship; ndvita, 

natUa sailor; navigare. O. H. G. nacho, A. S. naca, Bav. naue ship; 

O. N. Ndo'tUn ship-town; naust boat-house. Gall. Novantes sailors 

(Mull of Cant3n'e to Ireland) ; Tri-novantes, Trinobantes sailing across the 
Chaimel (W. ira across); Nabalia, [Navalia] mouth of Rhine; [Nov- 
elcus], Nabelcus Mars (protector of boatmen, arx, ale) ; nausum a barge; 
Navia, Nabia, Navissos, Nab-aros rivers; Navi-cella landing* 

Sk. nay to go round; [na to twist] (developing in vt^Oo) to spin, 
and Celtic snath, snaidm, niddu, noden) ; Sk. nat to whirl, brandish, 



— 25 — 

gesticulate; nadas reed (twisting, binding cf. oxolvo^ rush, rope); 
nddi stem, pipe, vein, gut; nadam, nadl channel, river; ntd, nldas^ 
[nyandlui$\ nest (woven, twisted cf . nay) ; nid to be [wrapped roimd] close, 

near. Armen. nist nest. Gk. vwtov (form not) back-bone, chine 

of men and beasts, [curve, coil]; vGirn^a) to turn away; v(i>6i^(;, vcoOptfg 
[coiled, hibernating], sluggish, torpid; vi^5u|jlo(; [coiled], profoimd [sleep]; 

vi|8(i<;, vi^Suta gut, entrails. Lat. natrix adder; ntdus nest. O. N. 

nadhr snake ; naudh, fetter, force, need ; neydha to compell ; naut bark of 
tree (wrapping); nautr [close] companion; A. S. nidh [entrails; lower 
body]; depth; niy/ier below; nidh mortal man; ntdhing contemptible; 
Goth, ga-niutan to enclose, grasp, catch; nuta fisher; nati net; nithyis 
comrade, kinsman; nauths need; naudibandi fetter; nota stem (v(otov) ; 

O.H.G. tu5/need; O.H.G. nest, A.S. nist nest. Lith. nendre reed; R. 

nado it is necessary ; neidro fold, bosom ; nad- down. Ir. nathir snake ; 

nou<Ut wattled hut; Ir. nett or nead, W. nyth, Com. neid, nyth, Bret. 
nez, nest; W., Cor., Bret, nant [gut], gully, glen, ravine, valley; O.C. 
Nedienses^ Nedinaies, Nidenses (nesters, homers) ; Nida river; Nid-alfa 
river-god (ribhus); Nantoialus sweet vale {vri, volo; Nanteuil, 
NantiUy, 26 in France); Nantuates='Vallenses, Vaudois. 

Sk. not to [whirl, brandish], gesticulate, dance, flash out, fall, 
act, [strike], harm; naias actor; nud to whirl, speed, drive; nad to fall; 
nad to call to, shout, flash; ninddas din; nand to rejoice, salute, ex- 
hilarate; nandis joy, sport; nanandar sister-in-law (play-mate, cf. 
divaras brother-in-law, div to play, implying child-marriage) ; ndndi 
prologue of play; nddh to desire; ndth to desire, request; to be mighty; 
reign; to be [cast down], weak, sick; ndthas guardian; [nand, nan 
to benefit, delight]; nand mother (Vedic). Gk. 8vet8o(; fame, reputa- 
tion (6=51* good); dv(vT)[jLi, 8vY)iJtc to benefit, delight, enjoy (melts with 
van); vdwa aimt; viwo?, vdwo? imcle; vavo? dwarf, buffoon; Ndcvviov 
cotirtesan; vowdptov spendthrift; vav(a^, yavtx6(;, veav(a<; youth (melt 
with verf?); vevft)Xo(;, vev4^ childish, foolish; vT)v(a poem, eulogy, dirge. 

Lat. nundinae festivals, holidays; nanus dwarf; Ital. nanna 

grandmother; ninnumanna lullaby. Goth, nithan to benefit; nithyis 

kinsman; ana-nauthyan to drive, force; ana-nanthyan to venture; 
ga-nanihyan to [fall, fail], cease; A. S. nedd welcome, courtesy; ge^ 
nyttian, nedtan to accept, enjoy, use; nyt useful; O. N. niota, A. S. 
genydan to drive, force; Ger. geniessen to enjoy; Ger. nUtzlich 
useful; O. N. snaedha to eat; snddh food; nidh new moon (luck) ; nadh 

grace, favor (Ger. Gnade [ge-nade]). Lith. nauda gain, wealth. 

Ir. noudh mirth, triimiph, glory, increase; snadim to protect, defend 
(brandish spear) ; snad to swim (waving arms) ; snuad beauty, color. 



— 26 — 

complexion hair; snass elegance, ornament; ndth a poem; [nind\, 
ninach delightf td ; nena an inch (thumbkin, dwarf); proper names 
Noda, Nuada, W. NikUt, Nud, Bret. Nuz glorious, rich; O.C. Nodans 
Nudons god of wealth; Nodos, Nudus=' rich; Nantos god of martial 
glory; Nennius, Nannius, Nonnius; (tkwna^ dear sister). 

Sk. (intens. of last) nind, nid, ned to [brandish, gesticulate, shake fist] ; 

to insult, revile, scorn; nud, nad, to cast down, fall. Zd. nad to scorn. 

Gk. 8vei5o(; rebuke, reproach, shame; v<6og bastard (outcast, ex- 
posed to die). Lat. nudus wretched, destitute, naked. Goth. 

naiteins reviling, blasphemy; ga'naityan to shame; O. N., A. S. nidk 
malice, hatred, scorn; A. S. nidh zeal, envy, effort, war; gB'ttidhla foe; 

Ger. neiden to envy. R. nad- [hurled] down. Ir. nith, niit, nedit 

deadly woimd, battle ; N^t, NHt god of war (defiance) ; Bret, nodein to 
litter, give birth (of wild animals ; cf . vdOo?) . 

Sk. snu to eddy, flow, spUlen; snd to bathe; ninv to irrigate; niv to 
be fat ; [ninh], ni^, nin^ to clean, wash, care for child, feed (cf . pinu 
to pour out, piv to be fat; melting with nins, niksh, [nif] to sparkle, 

kiss) ; snuh to [pour out], vomit. Gk. [vi^co)], vfi^ci), v(xTa> to wet, 

wash; vficrpov washing water; vwcri^p wash-basin; [aviwt], afvoxi, vohcu, 
mustard (sneezer); vdhn) glen, ravine (moimtain's nose, running 

in winter) ; vffXapo? boatswain's whistle (cf . snicker). Lat. Neptunus 

the head of the sun {placidum caput) rising, fresh-washed, from ocean 

like KI(pocXo(; and the head of Bran. Eng. to sniff, snuff (aEvdxt) ; 

Ger. schnauben to snort; Eng. to snicker, sniggle; A. S. nicar nixie, 
water-god; Eng. to sneak, snake, snatch, a snack; snuggle, snug; Ger. 

Schnecke snail. R. snokhat to sniff, take snuff. Ir. nigim to wash 

Necht sea-god; O.C. Niskai nymphs; [Nixincii] Nisincii hot springs; 
Nissona; Vindo-nissa; Niger, Nicer, [Nigveris]^ Niveris rivers; 
[Nigixilis], Nivalis potter (smoother; Fr. niveau, niveller), 

Sk. same roots ; to distil, anoint, be dainty, care for child ; snik to be 
fat, oily; to love; snigdhas beloved; snehas oil, love; snuM to favor, be 

propitious; snus to eat; nins, niksh to kiss (p. 23). Gk. vixtap wine 

of gods, ointment, perfume, honey; v^yaXa sweets, dainties. Lat. 

niger [anointed, glittering], black (cf. bhrd^, black, blanc, blank). 

O.N. [Nigalsl, Nidls, NHs, R. neizhniy delicate, dainty ; neiga dainti- 
ness; neizhit to pet. Gael, noigean ale-pot, noggin; O.C. Necteriust, 

Nequres, Negalo, Nigellius, Niellus (O'Niel). 

Sk. snik to anoint, melt; nins, niksh to [sparkle]; nthdras frost, 
mist. Zd. fnizh to snow. Gk. v(ya snow; vl9ei, ve(yei it snows; 



— 27 — 

v!^ snow ; a spring (cf . xiyo? frost, xt) yi^ spring) . Lat. ningit, ninguit 

it snows; [nigids], ninguis, nix (nivis) snow. Goth, snaivs, O.H.G. 

snio snow; O.H.G. sniwit it snows; O.N. [snaevs, snaer/r], snaer snow 

(gen. snaevar, snaefar). Lith. snigti, sningti to snow; sneigas, O.R. 

sneigu snow; Lith. snaigala snowflake. Ir. snigid it drops, rains; 

snechta snow; O.C. Niger, Nicer river? 

Sk. snuk to favor; [snukshd], snushd daughter-in-kiw; snus to eat 

[dainties]. Gk. [avuao(;], vu6? daughter-in-law. Lat. [snusus], 

nurus daughter-in-law; [snustrio], nutrio to feed, nurse, nourish; 

nutrix nurse. O.H.G. snur, A.S. snor daughter-in-law. O.R. 

snukha. 

Sk. [nd to twist, spin]; nay to encircle, guard; sndyus sinew; 
nayanas [glancing] eye ; nas to be curved, wind ; nds to [whirl, rattle], 
sound; [nd-ri, nor to encircle, revolve]; [narv], narb to move, revolve, 
circle ; narman sport ; ndras [eddying] water ; nrit to dance round (spiilen, 
sfnelen); d-nrit to whirl, shake, brandish; nri hero, man (cf. grl to 
whirl, stir; fUlas spear; furas hero); nal to encircle, bind; nalas reed 
[binder, oxolvo^, nddt], 

Sk. nas to be curved, wind, [to encircle, bring ends together, 
meet, complete]; fidsatydu the two returners, morning and evening 

stars, Afvins, Gk. vio(i.at [nay] to come, go, return ; vfaaoixat to fly, 

sail, go; voorio) to return home, return safely, complete, accomplish, 
renew, become fresh [of water]; v6oto? coming home, return, [revolu- 
tion], grist of mill, out-turn, success; yoQXi\L6<; restoring, refreshing, 
wholesome; Nlorwp roimded-life; N<affO(; returning dawn; bears Deton- 
eira (bum-her-husband), the crescent moon, wife and death of her 
husband, the stm, over night-river; his cloud-garments are reddened 
by the shafts of the pursuing sun, and become the death of the sim 
himself at his setting; vtf(79t (ablative termination-6/it5) turned away, 
apart; vooyflioywrt to set apart; sweep away, steal. Lat. nassa drag- 
net (encompassing). A.S. nedsan to seek out; ganesan to reach the 

end, escape happily, succeed, remain at last; Goth, ga-nisan to recover; 
ga-nasyan, nasyan to heal, deliver, save; O.N. niosna to roam, explore; 
veg-nest provisions for the way; O.H.G. nest to recover; [nasa], nara 
food; A.S. nest [return home], nest; Ger. Schneuss a noose (nassa). 

R. nosit to run rotmd, fly roimd, float, bring home, carry, lay eggs 

[in nest]; Lith. neshu to bring, carry; nashta burden. Ir. nassad 

gathering, assembly, festival ; nds [track, cotirse], custom, habit, fashion ; 
O.C. Noso, Nosoniiis, Nasso, Nasta, 



— 28 — 

Sk. nay to go round; sndyus, sndvan sinew, bow-string; Zd. gna, 
ffidvare- (by metathesis gnarvi, cf. Sk. sihdvaras firm, sthairyam firm- 
ness), sinew, gut; Sk. [narv], narb to revolve. Gk. veupov sinew, cord; 

veupdt bow-string. Lat. neruus sinew; nerviae lute-strings; Nerva 

strong, tense, firm ; Mefi[n]erva firm mind, character, wisdom. O.H.G. 

snara, snuor noose, snare; narwa seam, scar; Goth. at'Snarpyan to 
grip, touch; snoryo basket; O.N. snoeri cord; snara to twist; snar, sndr 
brave (nri); snerra battle; snort quick; sniaUar skilful, wise, brave; 
nyorva to draw tight, narrow; A.S. nearo narrow, near, mean; Eng. 

sneer, snarl to twist, pucker. Lith. ndras limb; narinu to make a 

noose; R. snaryazhat to gird, equip; iz-nwryai to relax, weaken. Ir. 

ndr [repressed], bashful; Bret, neirf dough; O.C. Nervii (strong); 
Neruinae (goddesses) ; Nirvanius, Nirbanium, Norvius, Norbus, Narbo, 
Noreia, Norici, Norisius, 

Same root, Gk. yeupo(i'^Tpa(, [yefpo(i.'^Tpa(], ye9po(ii]Tpa( mothers-of- 
sinew, tension, the muscles of the loins, associated with back-ache; 
hence ve^pu, ve^poC kidneys, testicles; (9 for f as in ^(xom, ^ioi^epo^, 09(i>i, 

09(77(1)). ^^- [nemundines], nebrundines, nefrundines kidneys, 

testicles with / for v as in [vlaccus], flaccus; -undo for undo as in 
[h]arundo, O.H.G. niero kidney. 

Sk. [narv] to go round; nal to bind; nalas reed, rush (binder); 
ndlas, nail, nalinam, nalini lotus stem ; ndllkas, ndrdkas stalk, shaft, dart ; 
nalakam [hollow] bone ; [nayli], ntll, nllinl indigo ; ntlds blue ; nil to be 

a jungle, tangled. Gk. vdtpOtj^ [reed-box, hollow-joint], narthex stalk; 

NetXo? from papyrus? O.C. N alios river. 

Sk. [narv to circle, eddy]; ndras, [nayras], nlram water. 



Gk. vapd<;, vT)p<<; flowing, liquid; Nt]peu<; sea-god; [vop-oxi^], 
vdtpxt) [water-sting], electric eel; palsy; {ndraUasl)\ vipxiaaoc; [thirst- 
ing for water; (x(aaa)] narcissus; vipTaXo<; vase (TXiw); vt)p(tt)^ sea- 
snail; Ni^piTo<; island; vi^piov oleander. Lat. A/^ar river. Lith. naras 

diver; nardau to plunge; R. nor burrow, hole [whirling, boring]. 

Bret, nerein to spawn, multiply, people; O.C. Nerios god of hot 

springs; Neriomagus; Aquae Neri {N^is les Bains); Nerion, prom.; 
Nerusii (uisce), Ner-issa; Nersihenae (nymphs). 

Sk. [narv to revolve]; nrit to dance round; d-nrit to stir, sway 
round; nri, naras hero, man; ndrl [noble] woman; nrimnam valor; 

naryasva2in\y\ nritamas most manly. Zd. nar, nara man; nairya 

manly. Gk. dhn^p man; [dvpeio?], 4v8peto<; manly; dvBpefa, iQvop^ 



— 29 — 

manliness; drf-ifv^p cotirageous (p. 5.); Sabine Nero[n] brave; nerio 

courage; Nerio Mars; Nortia valor. A.S. snyrian to make an 

effort (melts with narv, cf. marv, niri)\ nerian to rescue, free, 
[make a man]; O.H.G. Norinc, Nuvrinc; O.Ger. Nertha goddess; 
O.N. Nam goddess; Nydrdr god; norroena north-wind, Norse; nordhr 

north (invigorating). R. nrav character; nravi morals. Ir. 

nert strength, valor; su-nert brave; W. nerthauc strong; Bret, [nerth], 
nerh force (melts with nervus); O.C. Nertus, Nertinus^ Neridcus, 
Nerio-briga, 

Sk. [na\ to twist; nay to encircle, guard; nas to wind, curve; 
[inceptive forms nans^ nanh], naksh to grip, seize, win; nakhas, nakha- 
ras claw; nakk to [grip], destroy, kill; nag to die, perish; nakh, nankh 
to [seek to attain], go ; nakt-, nig night (encircling camp-fire ; gripping, 
baneful; coiling dragon) ; nak to bind. 

Sk. nakhas, nakham, nakharas, [forms nang, nan^, navang, nug\ 

nail, claw (gripping, piercing, cf. pag, pdngus, pango, pungb). Gk. 

8vo5 (8vuxo?) nail, claw, hook, hoof, flesh-colored onyx; vuaaci) (vu^w) 
to prick, claw, wound; )fiaa(M^ (vd^ci)) to press, crush, pack; vaord^ 
packed tight, dense ; vdbco^ fleece (clawed, picked, plucked, cf . xlxw, xdxo<; ; 

vello, velliis); i-vdrfxt) necessity (i intensive). Lat. unguis, ungula 

nail, claw, hoof (cf . Celtic) ; necessiias [gripping, clamping] necessity 
("clavos trabales"); nugari to [scratch like whelp], play, trifle; nuga, 

naucus trifle; nux nut (hard to crush; tough-bite) ; nucleus kernel. 

O.N. naga to gnaw; Goth, ga-naglyan to fasten with spikes; bi^nauhan 
to be obliged, have a right (necesse) ; ga-nohs enough (fist-full) ; binau- 
[h]an to crush; nauh [seizing] more, further, yet; O.N. nogl nail, claw; 
nogr enough; A.S. ge-naegan to attack, crush, oppress; Eng. to nudge 

(press, poke) ; nugget (nucleus) ; nick. Lith. nagas, O.R. noguti nail, 

claw; R. nogot nail; nozhka paw; noga foot; nozh knife (cf. knife, 
YvdhcTCi)); ponukat to daw, goad, push; pronikcU, pro-nzit to pierce; 

nuzhda necessity; nazhat, nazhimai to press, squeeze, gall. Ir. inga 

(plu. ingneo), W. eguin nail, claw; Ir. ness wound; [pike], pole; Bret. 
negein to tickle; nai^]ein to scratch, scrape, pare. 

Same root. Sk. nai to be [plucked, stripped], ashamed ; naganas 

nilied. Goth. naqcUhs; O. N. naktr. Lith. nogas, R. nag-naked. 

Ir. nocht naked. 

Sk. nakk to [grip, pounce], destroy, kill; nakras crocodile; nag 
(nagydnU p.p. ncuhtas) to perish; caus. (nagaydmi) to destroy; ndngas 



— 30 — 

destruction, death; nangukas destructive; ndshtrd ruin, danger. Zd. 

nofu corpse; nagisia most destructive. Gk. v4xu? corpse; vixuta 

funeral sacrifice; vexp6^ dead; v6ao<;, voQaot; destruction (by whirlwind, 

trident); bane, plague, sickness (melts with snu). Lat. nex death; 

neco to kill; noceo to injure; noxa mischief, evil. Goth, nous (gen. 

nauis) dead; M. H. G. neisen to plague, destroy; O. N. ndr (gen. nds, 

ndss) corpse. O. R. [nofus, nahvus], navi dead. Ir. ness wotmd; 

furnace ; weasel ; Bret. fUkig maggot (vexpo^drf o^) ; neh, fUhans grief ; nech 
pining; fUs injtiry; O. C. Neco, Nexius. 

Sk. nak, naktis, [nof, nyag\ nig^ nigd night; naktam by night. 



Zd. nakthuru, nakhtru of night. Gk. v65 night; vuxTcjp (£>pa)» 

vuxTepo<; by night, nightly; vuxio? (wo^r) nightly, gloomy. Lat- 

nox night; noctu by night; noctumus; noctua owl. Goth, nahts, 

A. S. neaht, nihi night. Lith. naktis^ O. R. nostUi^ R. no^. Ir. 

in- nod, in-nocht to-night; Bret, noz night. 

Sk. nakh to [pounce, grip], go, move; naksh to go, approach, attain, 
win; nag (nagdmi) to attain, win; nakulas ichneumon (tracker); 

nangukas destructive. Gk. xXeo-vexTio) to grasp at more, be 

avaricious, win advantage, privilege; Nd5o<; harbor.-: — Lat. nanciscor 

(p.p. nanctu5,nactus) to attain, win; Osc. nesimois=^proximis. Goth. 

binauhan to win a privilege, have a right, be allowed; ga-nohs enough; 

nehvyan sik to approach; nehva near; A. S. nedh nigh, nihst next. 

R. nazhivai to acquire. Ir. [do^anac], tanac I [reached the end], 

arrived; adnacul tomb (long home); a-ngim, inf. a-nacul to shelter 
(welcome home) ; iindnachim [do-ind-nag] to [cause to attain], be 
generous, give; tindnacul bounty; co'im*nactar they were able; nessa, 
W., Bret. n^55aj^ nearest; Bret, neij soaring, flight. 

Sk. nak (nahydmi, natsydmi; the latter form connecting with vi^Oo)) 

to [grip], bind, buckle on, fasten. Gk. vdaoci) to grip, pack. Lat. 

necio to bind, fasten. Ir. nascim to bind, chain; nasc ring, bond. 

Sk. nay to move round; nu to nod, beckon on; ni to lead, carry 
(p. 23) ; caus. ndpaye to cause to bear; [ndp to cause to bear; to gener- 
ate; cf. bhri to bear in womb, cause to bear, beget, give birth]; napdi, 

naptri descendant, grandson; naptl daughter, granddaughter. 

Zd. napat, naptar descendant; napti kinship; naptya family. Gk. 

vIxoSe? [8Co<; sprout, scion, descendant], brood, posterity; 4veiJ;t4^ [4 

sjmth.] sister's son. Lat. nepds (-0/15) grandson, heir, spendthrift; 

neptis, leptis granddaughter. O. N. nefi brother, nephew; nift sister; 



— 31 — 

O.H.G. nefo grandson, relative; nty/tfa granddaughter; Goth. ni[f^hyis 

1rin?mrian (influenced by Slav.) ; A. S. nefa nephew. O. R. n€[p]tiy 

nephew; Boh. fu{p]ti (stem neter) niece. Ir. necht, Corn. no[p]it 

granddaughter; Ir. ni[p]ae (gen. niath), W. ney (plu. neyeint) nephew; 
Bret, ni (plu. nied) nephew, descendant; O. C. Nappi-setu grandson of 
Setu; Nap-sinius {Sennius); NapO'leone {llawen joyful) ? 

Sk. nabh to [whirl, hurl, bore], wound, kill; namb to go [round], 
move; tidbh bore, orifice; nabhanus spring, fountain; nabhyam hub; 
nabhis navel, hub of wheel, calf, posterity (generated); ndbhilam 
orifice of navel, private parts.— Gk. yuj^loq bridegroom (generator) ; 
(on change of vowel cf. Sk. nabhas cloud; Lat. nubis, implying forms 
[nabh, nabhabh, navabh, nubh]; cf. nay, nu p. 22); v(3(i^ bride; vu(X9c!>y 

bridal chamber; v(}(i^ water-orifice, spring, water-goddess. Lat. nubo, 

to marry; nubilis marriageable; nebulo licentious, spendthrift. O. N. 

nafar auger; O. S. nafa nave; O. H. G. naba nave; nabulo navel. 

O. Pruss. nobis nave, navel; R. nabivai to tire a wheel, hoop a cask, 

round out, heap, stuff. Bret, nifl well-jointed, polished? O. C. 

Nabaros river (or Nav-arat) 

Sk. namb to circle, globe, move round; nam to ctuve, bow down, 
adore; nabhas cloud, mist, atmosphere (globing cf. Sifo), X,6^o<;; 

clothe, clod, cloud); nabhasyas, cloudy, misty. Gk. viyo?, y&^i'kri 

cloud; vef6(i> to become cloudy; [N^oo^t]], Nico^t] mountain-haunting 
mother of clouds; her children are slain by the sun's shafts and she 

melts in rainy tears. Lat. nubes doud; nubilus cloudy; nebula 

mist. O. N. nifl-, O. H. G. nibal, nibel mist, doud; A. S. ge-nip 

cloud, mist, darkness. O. R. nebo (stem nebes), R. nebo, nebesa 

heaven; R. nebo palate of mouth (vault, ceiling); Lith. debesis 

doud (cf. devyni for nexryni nine; p. 22). Ir. [nebl], n^l cloud; nell, 

niall holy trance; ndeb, ndem holy; Bret, nivlen fog. 



Aryan l/nom to curve, arch, bend, bow, honor, worship; to endrcle, 
endose, consecrate; to grasp, gain, snatch back, revenge, hate; to 
band round the drde, distribute, count, name, feed, feed and count 
sheep, glance round, act as shepherd, govern, repeat an action, be usual, 
lawful. 

Sk. nam to bend, curve, bow, salute, adore; nemis wheel, circum- 
ference; nemas drde, boundary, portion. 2ki. nimata [pasture], 

grass; nemanh bowing down; honor, [gratitude], debt. Gk. v(i>(i.dci> 

to whirl, brandish, steer, reflect, pass round, distribute food ; (hence 
ndman name; camp-fire roll-call, apportioning food and prey); yi\JM 



— 32 — 

to distribute, give, feed sheep, pasttire, possess, rule; vo(u(i(ii to pasture; 
vo(&e(S<; divider, portioner, shepherd; yo\kiq grazing, roving; vo(jl6^ 
pasture, possession; v6(&o^ government, law, holy music, hymn; ^\kic\La 
circulation, lawful coinage; yt\Loq cattle-range, glade; Nqtia; vi(i.e9t^ 
award of the gods, destiny; paying back, revenge; ve^iixcdp avenger; 
vi(i.T](7((; award of lands; ve(i.eaad(i), veixead^oyiat to brood revenge, hate. 

Lat. Numitor, Numa shepherd-king, portioner, ruler; numenis, 

(Osc. Niumsieis) [coxmting mouths or sheep], number (cf. ScvdCXXci) to 
glance [from sheep to sheep], to tell, zdhlen) ; Numerius; nemus sacred 
grove, sheep-range; Nemi; numen apportioner, deity (vci>(&dci> nofnen); 

[noni'dinae], nundinae holy days. Goth., A. S. niman to receive 

one's portion, accept, seize, snatch, rob; Eng. ««m6= gripped; Goth. 
anda-nems acceptable, angenehm; O. H. G. ndma booty, prey; O. N. 

snemma dawn (revolving, recurring); Goth, sniumyan to speed. 

Lith. namas [possession], house; nuntas gain; Lettish nomr tax; 

R. ob-nimat to embrace; s^nimat to take away. Ir. nem heaven 

[arching, adored]; nemed sanctuary; nemid magistrate; ndem, ndeb 
holy; [nyatn], niam glory, hue; ndtna enemy (marauder); an-nam 
unoccupied land, wilderness? Bret, namein to deprive, rob; O. C. 
Noebia; Netn-ausus, Nam-ausus, Nem-ossus Nimes {Bains de Diane, 
holy water; uisce); Namantius, Numantia, Namiarix, Nanilvyynius, 
Nemetes; nemeton sanctuary; Nemetona Bellona (viixeoK;). 

Sk. ndman name (roll-call for game and prey; an intensive prefix 
is foimd in Arm., Gk., O. R., Ir., W.; m becomes digamma in Arm., 
O. N., W., and in Lat. nuncupo; n is lost after prefix in R. by assimi- 
lation to imeit to possess) ; ndma by name, namely. Zd. ndman. 

Arm. anwan. Gk. Svoji-a name (Aeol. Svu^jia, Ion. oBvojJLa); dcv-G>vu(i.o<;, 

v-G)vu|jL0? nameless; 6vo\kalyoi to name. Lat. ndmen; Umbr. nume{n\ 

name (dat. nomne); Lat. nomindre; nuncupdre (nothn-capio). Goth. 

namo gen. namins name; namnyan (A. S. nemnan) to name; O. N. 

[namn, navn] nafn name; ftefna to name. O. R. [inmen\,imen name; 

imenovaii to name; R. imya name; n.eimoi dumb; [inmeit], imeit to 
possess (yo\k6<;). Ir. ainm, W. enw, Bret. [h]anu name. 



Sk. dp, [ap, apd, pa] to grasp (cf. dhcd, oft, R. po p. i6); Sk. pd to 
[encircle, grip], guard, shepherd, feed; pd {pivdmi, pibdmi) to drink; 
pdyaydmi to cause to drink, water flock ; pydi, pydy to roimd out, grow 
fat, strengthen; pi to go [roimd], roimd out, cause to swell, make 
pregnant, fertilize; sphdy to round out, swell; sphitas swollen, turgid; 



— 33 — 

^ to be fat, large; pinv to fill, irrigate, water; [piv, pav], pu to purify 
[flow rotind, eddy, of water, wind, fire]. 

Sk. pa {pdye, caus. pdlaydmi; developed by ft, li to move, act) 
to [encircle, grip], guard [sheep], watch, feed, rule; pdyus herdsman; 

go- pas cowherd, king; pdtram [food] vessel; panas protection. Zd. 

pdyu protector; paya pasture. Gk. xaxdco to handle; xdo(jLa( to get, 

acquire; oxdco to grip, tear; to suck, inhale; xdeOvr), ydrrvt] manger; xwii 
flock; x6a, xoh) grass; xo((Jii^y shepherd; [xaxxafvo)], xaxrafvo) (redup.) 
to [watch one's flock], watch earnestly; xdxxo? grandfather (coddler); 
xdexxa^ daddy; xotio) to effect, produce, make, do; xo(T]at(;, xo(T](i.a deed, 
work, production, fiction, poem; dtya-xio) to [feed, nurse diligently], love; 
xaiq blood-relation; xd(iTt)<; [shepherd], kinsman ; Tliv (gen. Ilavd^;) shep- 
herd-god (melts with pdvana purifying air, breeze) ; xovCa [pasturage], 
food, abtmdance;xivo(Jia( to seek one's bread, toil, be exhausted, suffer, 
be poor (cf . oxdeo) to grasp, pant for) ; xev-4aTTj<; (home of toil, ioxia) 
peasant; x£vt)? laborer; xevfa poverty; ax(Svt(; dearth ; xetviw (yd intens.) 
to be hungry; i^xcevdo) to need (a intens.); xdvo<; toil, exhaustion, 
suffering; xovio) to toil, suffer, inflict suffering; xvlw to pant after, long 
for (cf. oxdci) to suck, xfvo to quaff) ; to inhale, breathe, blow; xotxvua) 
to puff, bustle, be eager; xvoi^ breath, blast, vapor, odor; xvsu(jl(i>v lung; 
xveOjia wind, spirit; xoyT)p6(; wretched, worn out, worthless, bad, cruel; 
xotvi^ wage, pay; damages for injury, blood-fine, punishment; x-^jxa 
(oxdoi)) woe, ruin; XY](jia(v(i> to ruin, harm; xorrio(JLac to eat; fixaoro^ 

without food; ({;(i>(jlR^(i> to feed a child; ^oi\k6<; food, bit. Lat. pascor 

to feed, graze; pabulum food, fodder; pastor shepherd; pomutn [pdiju 
mum] fruit ; [pasnis], ^anw bread ; panicum millet ; Messapian xav<(; bread ; 
penus food, larder, [inner store-room, 6t)aaupd<;]; sub- petit there is 
food [in the cellar; Tcnto^i]; suppedito to supply; penes at the house; 
Penates household gods; peneiro to go in, penetrate; penuria thrift, 
hard-living, need {qvaras, -iirio, desid. form); poena fine; poenitet to 

regret loss, yearn (cf. Goth, infeinan), Goth, fodyan to feed; 

fodeins food ; [fein thin, poor] ; infeinan to pity ; O. H. G. fnehan to pant ; 
fnast breath; O.N. foedha to feed, nurture, give birth; fSstra to foster. 

Lith. pimu herdsman; penas food; penu nourishment; petus 

mid-day meal; O. R. pitaii to feed; R. past mouth; pastva flock; 
pas1[v]ir shepherd; pitaniy, pishka food; pishkukha hare (browser). 

Ir. [p}ith com, food, porridge; ithim to eat; ithir corn-land; 

pit a meal; patu hare; Bret. [p]iot4d porridge; pitaud rich; W. pitu, 
Fr. petit [nursling], little; O. C. Patavium, Petavion, Poetoxjion, 
(fruitful) ; Poetius, Pitius, Poemana, Paemani; Panidcum {Pagny lo in 
France) ; Panno, Pannonii; Povisi {Powys in Wales). 
3 



— 34 — 

Sk. pa (pdmi, pivdmi, pibdmi, pishdmi) to [swallow eagerly], 
drink; pdyaydmi to water flock, plants; pdtram drinking vessel; 

pdnam drink; [s]phan to skim milk; phenas foam; pitas drunk. Gk. 

x(yci> (xix(i>xa) to drink (Aeol. xc&vg)) ; x6to^, x6(&a, xtfat^, x(d(jLa drink ; 
[xtfaXo^], xueXo^ drinking-trough ; xuoevo^ porridge; oxdKi> tosuck; iaxiXjia 
to [smack], kiss, salute (i euphon.); ^(f»^ to eat pap; xtvov beer; x(vo< 
sctmi, filth? x(x(axci> to cause to drink, water; xtao^ meadow; Iltaa low- 
lands. Lat. poto to drink; poculum cup; [pivo^ pibo], bibo to drink 

(cf. 4x6, ab); patera bowl {pdtram) \ [pavitris], /n</fw [well-watered], 

fertile. O. H. G. spanian to milk (oxdcii>) ; spunni udder; A. S. spann 

teat; spdn [milk] spoon; Eng. spawn (scum); A. S. fdm, O. H. G. 

feim foam (spuma), O. R. pitito drink ; pivo drink ; na-poiti to cause 

to drink; R. poilo drink for animals (xi3eXo<;); pyaneii to get drunk; 
pitukh drunkard; piyavka leech; peinit to foam (of new milk, Sk. 
phenas) ; peinka scum on boiled milk; Lith. poia revelry; penas milk. 

Ir. [pYbitn to drink; [pivan] Han foam; uan sucking lamb, fresh 

grass, verdure (xda); ian mug; oal, dibela open mouth (x6eXo(;); W. 
[piveneu], ieneu lips ; Bret, ivet, ivein to drink ; ivaj drink ; evrein to 
swallow, eat, drink; (French ivre)\ paut abundance; iein (Cor. yen) 
[foam], hoarfrost, cool, cold? O. C. Pitius; Pisavae, Pisaurum. 

Sk. pivdmi I drink; [pav to nurse a child, give suck]; [pavatra\ 
potra snout; [pavitras], putras son; puirl daughter; pdutras grandson; 

potas whelp; [bowl], skiff. Gk. [xafK;], xau(; (inscriptions), x4i(;, xat? 

(xaiBd<;) son, daughter. Lat. [pamtus], putus child; puiidus 

prattling, childish, lisping; [pavis, puvis] puer boy; paveo to tremble 
as a child, be afraid. Bret, pautr son. 

Sk. same roots [to nurse, fill full, swell, mewl, puke, gurgle, prattle, 
sputter, whistle] ; sphdy to swell out ; sphltas swollen ; sphut to burst with 
fullness, pop, sparkle, speed, fly ; pydy to swell, grow fat ; pyush to [burst 
with fullness], split, divide, sparkle, bum, [spit out], reject; sphii to[s^\t 
out], despise; pittas bile (spued) ; pattis shrill, clear; path to pronounce 

clearly. Gk. xtucd, xuxd^ci), ({;uttci>, IxtyOuCci) to spit ; xTuaXov spittle ; x6xoi 

fie! xoxai alas! x(vo<;,iJ;d6o(; filth; x(TU<;pine (resin-dreuler) ;x(tuXo(; splash; 
(j;{9io<; sour wine; xfTupov chaff, spit behind [avaras) by wind; tczIqq^ to 
winnow; xfaaa pitch (dripping) ; xtordbct) pistachio; 4>td<; drop; ^^fvoixat to 
shed grapes (of vine); ^r\y6<; bald-head (dripped, bare); iJ;t^v gall- 
insect (dropper); ax4o(; limestone cave, water-trickier; xut(I^(i> to 
spit, spurt; xutCvt) thin flask (flying in splinters); <j;Wupo<; whisper, 
Usp; ({;iS6o<; whisper, calumny, deceit; <peu$(i> to lie; 4;td$§etv, <|;tdl^ety to 
mock, sport, drizzle; oxft^ci), xixxfl^o) (redup.) to pipe, chirp; 4>iTTaxi<; 



— 35 — 

parrot (chatter) ; ij/frra ! gee ! xoxx6I^(i> to chirp, whistle, smack ; ^6^o<; buzz, 
clatter; 4^490^ pebble (rattler)? xrda [open-mouthed, screaming] terror. 

Lat. spuo to spit; sputum spittle; pituita phlegm; [pitumen], 

bUutnen earth-slime (cf. piv, bibo; term, from Umor); pix pitch; 
puieus well (oozing); [poetus], paetus dripping, blear-eyed; sputna 
foam; pumex volcanic ttifa (ftill of black cinders); pumilio dwarf 
(scum) ; pipio to chirp, pipe as a bird ; Late Lat. pipa flageolet, whistle. 

Goth, speivan (O. H. G. sptwan, spthan) to spit, spue; fiyan to 

[foam, spit at], defy, hate; fiyands foe, fiend; O. H. G. spuSn, spuatSn 
to pant, hurry, arrive too late; O. N. fysa to pant, blow, fizzle; to 
pant after, desire, enjoy; foss waterfall; A. S. fysan to haste, sputter, 
fuss; spidan to speed; Germ, spucken to spit, puke; A. S. fynig musty 

(x(voc dripping filth) ; fen, Goth, fani mire, fen. R. p[v]ikhteit to 

pant; p[v}ishcU to flash; pishkal culverin; pushka cannon; pikhta fir; 
pett to sing; peivetz singer; peisn hymn; peitukh cock; [s]pot sweat. 

Bret, pousein to cough, spit, dreul; piset^pisser; Ir. [p}(5a gall, 

[bile], liver. 

Sk. pydy, pydi to swell; puy [to suppurate], rot, stink; puyas, puti 

'stench, pus; putis, putikas foul, stinking. Zd. pH to stink; pHiti 

rottenness. Gk. xu6ci>, xU9o|Jiai to rot; xu9e8<iv rottenness; xuov pus; 

xu6^ first milk after birth (swelling udder) ; ij;(ia decay, stench. 

Lat. pus; purulentus; puteo to rot; puter, putridus rotten; {sphud to 
wrap, [be tense]; sphut, sphund, [phud] to burst with fulness) ; foedus 

foul; foeteo to stink; paedor filth; pudet to shame. Goth, fuls 

foul, rotten; O. N. funa to rot; fUti rottenness; fUlki stench; Engl. 

fie! Lith. puvu (inf. puti) to rot; pudau to ret flax; pulei pus. 

Bret, pouset rotten. 

Sk. pa (pdye) to feed, guard; sphdy to swell; sphltas swollen; 
pdyaydmi to water; pydi, pydy, pHv to swell, be fat; pinv to swell, 
be luxuriant, full; to pour out, sprinkle; pinds, pivds, pivards fat 

(adj.); ptuas fat (noun); pev to [sacrifice boimtifuUy], worship. 

25d. pivaAh fat. Gk. [xtfcjv], xCcdv, xtapd(;, x(aXio(; fat, rich, kind, fer- 
tile; xativ» grace! sacrificial hymn; Ilacfi^v, IlaKjv, IlaKiv (anointer), 
physician of the gods (cf. A. S. laece); nup(a fertile land; ntepf$e<; 
bounteous; xtop, xi^ti]^, x((jieXi^ fatness, fertiUty; xtaCvo) to fatten; 

xtil^to squeeze [the turgid]; xtdCcd to grasp. Lat. [pinvis, pinhvis\ 

pinguis fat, fertile; pius liberal, filial, rich in sacrifice; [pivitas], pietas 
devotion; pro-pitius gracious, pitiful; [pives, puves], pubes youth, 

vigor; pubertas puberty. A. S. spdvan to prosper, help, be gracious; 

A. S. and Norse [s\pigge girl (gracious) ; Eng. pig (fat) ; Ger. Speck 



— 36 — 

bacon (pinhvis). R. p[v]ishniy rich, sumptuous. Ir. [piftv], imb 

butter? Bret, piuein to possess; pinvidic, pinuic, pinard rich; Pictish 
[Pinva, Pivi, Pivona\ Hinva, Hinba, Hit, lona (fertile Isle) ; [Piveria, 
Pinveria], Iveriu, Iveria, Iverne, Hibernia Ireland (W. Iwerdun, Bret. 
Yuverdon); [Pinv-vemia], Htfremia — fruitful water, well-watered 
(Sk. Varunas, Lat. urna) ; O.C. Pinv-ernum, Pivones, Paeonii, Pimenius^ 
Piarus, Pinpaialum, Spinoialum {^pineuil, lo); Spenella; Spennia, 
Hispaniaf Pingus, Pincus, Pifi[c]tones, 

Sk. pa (pdye to feed, guard; pa (p.p. pitas) to drink, [nurse]; 

pitardu parents; piiri father. Zd. patare, Gk. xomfp. Lat. 

pater, Goth, fadar, A. S. fdder, O. H. G. fatar father. Lith. 

pats husband. Ir. [p]athir (gen. athar) father; Sk. pitryas 

paternal; pitrivyas father's brother. Gk. icdrrpcix;; Lat. patruus, 
O. H. G. fataro father's brother; A. S. fadhu father's sister; O. N. 
fedhr ancestors. 

Sk. pa to feed, guard; patis, pdtis lord, husband; ^ds-patis father 
of family (Hans], ^ds^ Lat. gens) ; patnt lady, wife; patye to rule, own. 

Gk.x4at<; husband ; xdTvta lady ; Beax4TY)(; lord (8a(ci> to divide, 5aqjL6c 

portion — distributor of food, loaf-ward); PeaxoTVia], 5£axotva lady; 
5e9x^t^ci> to nde; IloaetS^y, IloaetSdediv, Houhitt^y ruler of the tmseen world, 
det$T)(;, Hades; raising his head from Hades at dawn above the sea; causer 
of earthquakes; worshipped at Rome with a subterranean altar as 
equestrian Neptime; associated with the Afvins (horsemen), the 
morning and evening stars. At Athens he creates the horse. His 
trident, like the threefold form of Hecate the moon (his counter- 
part), expresses his dominion in heaven, earth, and hell — zenith, 
nadir, and horizon; xoTVidBe<; violent Maenads; brood-mares; xoTvtdeo(i.ai 
to rage, shriek, (cf. iT-avoxTio)). Lat. com-pos (compotis) control- 
ling; int'pos powerless; [poiis sum], possum to be able; pos-sideo to 
[settle upon], possess; postulo [potis*vol6\ to desire control, demand; 
potior to win; potestas power; Poia Vica Lady Victory; patro to pro- 
duce, effect {pater) ; Osc. putiad^possU, Goth, faiks lord ; bruihfaths 

bridegroom ;/a/Aa cattle-enclosure. Lith. pats husband, fellow, self; 

pati wife; vesh-pais house-lord (fi(r:la); R. gos-pod lord (£dspatis), 

Ir. [p]athech, aithech householder, yeoman; O. C. Pottus, Pottius, 

Pottinus, Pottalus, Potaissa, Potentum. 

Sk. [pd, pdv to grasp, control, restrain, grip, pinch, crush]; pans, 
pang to crush, destroy; pdnsanas wretched; pdnsus, pankas dust, 
mud. Gk. ox4w to grip, rend; oxdcqwc rending, dragging, sprain; 



— 37 — 

[ora/ru], ^dni> to [grasp], rub, touch, crumble; 4>au(i> to press, reach, 
touch, seize; [^0Lfag6q], ^(Xfap6(; friable, powdery; ^(»>\l6<; scrap; ^6a 
the muscles of the loins; [6'4>fU(;], 6<j^6<; loins; <ptd, i^la playing mar- 
bles (pinching, squirting) ; ^aba, 4>itx^« ^^> ^d^xdn to pinch, grind, rub, 
stroke, powder ;4»axde<;, tpixtov crumb ;t|;ux<»> to pinch, parch, chap, chill, 
[touch softly], breathe upon; ^uxP^^J cold; ^lix^i breath, soul; [^afago<;], 
4»(xf ap6^ friable; ^ax9<o, Sonc^co (sensitive, nervous) ; 4>v)90(; [worn] pebble ; 
4»aOup6c» ^a5ap6^ friable; <pa(Sp6<; rubbed smooth, bald; f^l'^ii^ to carp, 
blame; ^dv4to<;, <pd(iia6o^ sand; i};((i.u6(ov white-lead (triturated) ; ^Xoapita 
to touch, grasp, grope (Sxro)); 4;a(p(i> to rub, scrape (A. S. spartan, 
O. H. G. spardn to grasp tight, treasure, spare); ^<!>pa itch; xocuo) to 
[grasp, check], cease, come to an end ; xaOXa rest, pause ; xaOpo<; [pinched, 

torn oflE], short, little, few. Lat. [pavrus, pavlus], parvus, paullus 

little; paucus little, plu. few. Goth, faus (gen. favis, comp. faviza), 

A.S. fed Uttle, few; O.N. feyk blast, cold, snow-squall. R. peishiy 

[pressing forward, seeking]; foot-going; peikhota infantry; pesok sand 

{pdnsus) ; poyas girdle (^da). Ir. paii leather bottle (tight, pinched) ; 

peist, beist [gripping] dragon? [p]aitire pledge. 

Sk. pa, [pav] to grasp, [brandish, hurl]; pavis tire of wheel (grip- 
ping); thunderbolt (hurled); paviram weapon; pavirus thunderbolt 

(Ir to speed). Gk. icafci) to [hurl], dash, strike; [xatfiaao)]; xai^dtaao) to 

dash, dart, brandish (influenced by bhds to gleam); xraCo) to hurl 
down, fall, dash against, stumble; xorrdeaao) to smite, dash, palpitate. 

Lat. pavio to pound; pammentum pavement; depuvio to strike; 

paveo, pavito to shiver, dread; pa- paver [rattle-head], poppy. Lith. 

friauti to mow. 

Sk. [pav to whirl, hurl, eddy ; of water, wind, fire] ; pu (pave, pundmi) 
to purify by water, fire, air (burning prairie-grass) ; pavanam purifi- 
cation, wind; pavamdnas wind; pavitras pure; water; pdvakas [clear, 
bright] fire; pdvanas purification, fire; pun to be pure, good; punyas 
pure, beautiful, fragrant; punar [whirling], repeated, backward, 

again (pavana), Arm. hur fire. Gk. Il6iy, (Ilavoi;) wind-god, piper, 

shepherd-god; (pd, panas); [xu/yap], xiiTp, xup fire (ir, yar to speed); 
xupi watch-fire, pyre; [xafapaq], xapoua(;, xapeCa^ tawny; the ruddy ser- 
pent of Aesculapius, i.e. the returning dawn, conquering the black 
night-serpent; cf. the serpents on the caduceus of Hermes the dawn- 
god; xopetde [ruddy] cheek? x(i>p6(i> to sear, harden, blind; xc;>po<; tufa, 

stone in bladder; tpc&pa [burning] itch, mange. Umbr. pir fire; Lat. 

purus pure; [puruna], pruna hot coal; prulna [ash, hot ash, frost- 
bum], hoarfrost; prunus [frost-bloom cf. Goth, aihva- fundi p. 6] 



— 38 — 

plum-tree; pyrus pear (bloom in February). O. U.fAr.funi fire; 

Goth. /una, O. H. G. fuir fire; A. S. feormion to cleanse, adorn; feorm 
refreshment, hospitality ; />'5an to give good wind; to supply with fire. 

Boh. pyr embers; R. p[v}ilcU to whirl, flame; f[v}il flame, dust. 

Ir. [pldardn spring-well ; iiar cold. 

Sk. pu to [whirl, eddy, veer], purify; pavanam wind; pydi, sphdy 
to swell; sphitas swollen; sphut to burst with fulness; phut to blow; 
pupphusas lung; [phu], bhu (bhavdmi, bubhuve, bubhushmi) to [inflate, 
breathe], exist, Uve, grow, generate; bhavas origin; bhavas existence, 
condition; bhUyas more; bhuyishtas [most real]; most, very (cf. satyas) ; 
Mtt^ existence, prosperity; fr^Mvanam world ; Bhuvdni survival of the 

fittest, death-goddess; bhumis earth. Zd. bH to be, become. 

Gk. 9uci> to bring forth, beget; 960(1.01 to grow, exist, be natural; ^ui^ 
growth; 9uat<; nature; 9(&<; man; 9uaa bellows, inflation; fuadKi) to snort, 
puff up; fuoxcov paunch; 9UTeuci> to plant; 9U(Jia growth; ^txua) to beget; 
9(xu(jia scion; 91x96 (; tnmk of tree; 9uXov, 9uXilj kindred, tribe; ^6oxca to 
nourish, feed (bubhushmi); ^oxdhnQ pasture, grass, herb ;^<i>Ti*dye(pa mother 
of heroes; ^au^dci) to [breathe deep], fall asleep; Bacu^c5 nurse of Ceres, 
Nature; ^aii^v generator, inguen; ^ouvtf^ swelling mound {BUhne, 
speaker's mound); ^(i>(i6<; high-place, altar; ^u(i> to [puff up], stuff; 
[9U(&6ci>], 9((i^ci> to gag, silence, muzzle; 9((Ui>at<; stopping a hole; ^uvi) 
sprouting seed, malt; the yeasty sea; ^ua^ hooter, owl; ^u*xdbnQ 
trumpet {cano); PuCtqv choke-full; BuC-dvrtov rich promontory, golden 

horn. Lat. fui (futurus, fosse, fore) I have been; fio to become 

{bubhuve; melts with dha, dhi to found, create) ; Fufius\futuo to beget ; 
fitus embryo, offspring; /#-cttndtt5 fruitful ;/o^nwm grass, hay (spring- 
ing from old root without labor) ; foenus usury, interest ; foeniculum 
fennel; funis [hay]-rope (for thatching, etc., cf. oxolvo?); fuscus hay- 
colored; foenile, fusclna pitchfork; femen, femur thigh [generator]; 
femina woman? bubo owl; bufo toad (puffed); [com-busd], com-buro to 

bum; &tt5/um burning place (90aa blast). A.S. beom I am; BeO'Wulf 

vital force, survival of fittest (Bhuvdni becomes Grendel, grind-all); 
bedm tree (90|Jia); byme trumpet; byvan to [cause to grow], equip, 
adorn; 6/law to dwell, make a home; ge^bUr farmer; Wr dwelling, home; 
O. N. by- skip air, sky; bH farm, dwelling; bHi neighbor; bHandi, bdndi 
head of family, husband, farmer; baun bean (victual, 9dbco<;) ; byggya 
to build, dwell, swell; Dan. by village; O. N. byli dwelling; (9UX1Q, 
buhlen) ; bylr storm ; byr fair wind ; btstr tempest ; Goth, bauan, O. H. G. 
bHan, pHan to dwell, cultivate, build ; Ger. bausen to puff up, boast ; 

Goth, beist leaven. O. R. b[v}iti to be; R. b[v]it to be; b[v]ilo the past; 

b{v]ivat to become, exist, werden ; beisit to storm, rage ; bushevat to swell, 



— 39 — 

boil, rage; Lith. buti to be; butas dwelling. Ir. bin I am, become; 

beiih to be; bdi he was; biian, bdid endixring; bed, bin living; beos, bens 
ever, furthermore; b^s [manner of living], custom, habit, morals; 
MA existence, world; biaihaim to nourish; biad (W. bwyd) victuals; bus 
[breath], pursed lip, kiss; bossdn purse; W. bwyster stormy, boisterous; 
Bret, bout to be; bout, bouton sprout, bud, button; bit^, biii living; 
bouid food; buh6 life; bet until; [bith'CO'OivcUh], bizqueth forever; buyiUl 
leaven; boH habit; bousel puffed cheek; boesel [sack], bushel? bossu 
humped; boufad puff; butum, butun smoke; bat^ open-mouthed, talka- 
tive; bei fool {baver, ^bahi); O. C. Bituriges kings of world; Bitunus, 
BUu9HuSt BituUus eternal; Btatu-marus. 

Sk. fm to whirl, cleanse ; pydi, sphdy to swell ; bhu to [breathe] ; phut 

to blow; pupphulas inflation; pupphusas lung. Gk.9uad(i>, xoi9U(jaci) to 

blow, inflate; ^uaocXXC^ bubble; 9uaaXo^ puff-toad; xi^tft^ breath, bubble, 
wind-cloud; xo(A96^ blister; xo(X9tfXu^, ^o(ji^uX(<; bubble; ^tf(ji^u^ silkworm 
(chrysalis) ; a flute; ^o(Ji^^(i> to boom, buzz, htun; f^e^ap6(; cloudy, dark; 
xi(Lxcd to send solemnly (messenger inflated with chief's breath and 
thought, cf . O. H. G. hari'Walto force-of-army, herald) ; xo(jlxi^ mission, 

escort, procession, pomp. Lat. pupa, pupillus [womb, embryo], 

child, pup, maggot; papilio [unfolded chrysalis], butterfly; rounded 
tent, floating banner; papilla rounded breast; puppis roimded stem; 
pampinus vine (beautiful bud; ven), O. N. fifl [wind-cloud], mon- 
ster, demon ; a fool (wind-bag) ; fimbul-tyr mighty god ; A. S. fifel giant. 
Lith. pusti to blow; pusH bubble; R. pustoi empty, hollow, vain. 

Sk. [pd to grasp]; intensive pans, pang to crush in the hand; (the 
succeeding roots follow the idea of an animal's claw, gripping, crush- 
ing, tearing, piercing; in Latin pango, pingo, pungo); paksh to grip, 
embrace, receive; pakshas [embrace, arm], wing, friend, crush, 
crowd; pdnsus, pdngus dust (crushed); pankas mud; pak to mellow, 
soften, cook, (grind in mortar, stir in pot) ; pak, pank to grasp at; to 
spread [hand]; panMan [fingers], five; pag to grip, bind, join, tether; 
pafus tame animal ; spof to knit, join, make ; spof to [shade eyes with 
spread hand], watch, observe; pakshman hair, fibre (gripped, plucked) ; 
pikk pikh to pluck, vex, pinch; pi&kham pukkhas peacock's tail; 
pish, pinsh to bray in a mortar, hurt, kill ; puns to grind ; puns, pumdns 
[borer, begetter], man; push, [punsh], push to attain, enjoy, feed child- 
ren; [sphush, phush], bhush to adorn; pushanam ornament; sun 
(vivifier); pig to [scratch with claw, prick, tattoo], decorate; pigitam 
raw meat; pin^ to wound; pin^ to [draw blood], paint, honor [with 
caste-mark] (cf. langh to pounce; ragh to grip, taste; ran^ to redden. 



— 40 — 

dye); ^ngos [daubed with clay], tawny; pin^ to [grip], harm, slay; 
to [gather], unite, join; pui to [grip, bend], bow down, salute, honor; 
pugas, heap, crowd; punkas clump; pins to [greet], speak eagerly, 
glitter; pang to crush; [sphaksh, phaksh], bhaksh to chew, eat; bhan^ 
to break; [bhva^], bhu^ to eat; bha^ to prepare for eating, cook; bha^, 
bhd^ to feed, cook, distribute food; to be kind, devoted; to feed the 
gods, sacrifice, worship; [bhva^], bhu^ to [grip], bend, curve, [seize], 
devour, enjoy; [bhyaksh], bhiksh to [desire food], beg; bhdikshas alms; 
bha^ meant originally to tear and distribute prey. 

Sk. pa to grasp; pdnsus dust (crushed) ; pof to bind; pdfos noose, 
rope; pofus [tethered] animal; spof to join, bind, twine, put together, 
twist, vex; Ved. to bring ends together, bring about, effect (cf. 
vaf to wrap, bind; Lat. vitis, utor, tU; Eng. withe, with); [patifrds, 
pankras], pa^ras firm, tough; punkas clump; pugas crowd; pin^ to 

join; pu^ to bend, bow, honor. Zd. pag to bind. Gk. m^yvuiit to 

make fast, fix, frame, solidify, freeze; xdyo<; mountain (firm) ; frost 
(hardening, gripping, shaking); in)yd<;, xdtxvr) frost, ice; in)Y<? white; 
mjyi^ snow-water, cold spring; ni^yaao<; fotmtain-speeder, vernal 
cloud ; steed of Perseus in contest with freezing winter (Medusa who 
turns to stone); xi^yovov rue (puckering mouth, astringent; cf. puTi^); 
xdeyT), xayU noose, snare; [xd^aXo(;], xd(7aaXo<; stake, landmark, [tent- 
pin], peg; xaxu(; [clumped], thick, fat; TirzicQUi to crumple, bend, fold; 
xTi^aao) to crouch, shiver, dread; xTwaao) to cower, cringe; xrox^? 
beggar ; xicjXCi) to hold in, endure, suffer ; xru 5, xruyixa fold, wrap, hollow, 
glen; <fruxP^^ cold, pinching; xwywv beard (clump) ; xuyi^ rump; [xoyyo), 
xoyviyo)], xvfyo) to choke; Hvu? gen. xuxvdi; assembly; xuxvdc;, xuxivdi; 
compact, crowded, frequent ; xu?, xuy|Jii^ fist; xi)xu<; fore-arm ; xu$o? box- 
tree (clump) ; 5xa5 [one handful], once. Lat. pango to fasten, fit, 

fix; prO'pdgo [pegged-down] sprout; pagina tablet; pactio bargain; pax 
peaLce;paxillus, pdlus, pessulus stake, bar; pectushresist (firm-rib) ; pecus 
tame animal ; peculium property ; pecunia money ; pignus pledge ; pagus 
clan, village; piger pinched, cold, lazy; piget it causes regret; [pegyor], 
pejor worse (xri^aao)); pugnus fist; pugna fight; [spixus], spissus 

thronged, close, compact, frequent. Goth, fahan to grasp; fuUa- 

fahyan to [fill the hand], satisfy, give joy; fagrs satisfactory, fair; 
faihu [pagus, cattle, Vieh], money; faheths joy; faginon to rejoice; 
fastan to hold firm, pinch, fast; O. H. G. fah compartment; feig 
cowardly (xn^aaco) ; Ger. fassen to grasp ; [fingster], finster dark (O. R. 
pensti fist); O. H. G. fuoga well-fitted; O. N. fengi gain; F^jn-riss 
greedy-jaw, destruction; feigdh approach of death; A. S. faege fated; 
f^st fist ; facyan to acquire ; feccan to draw, lead [with rope], fetch ; 



— 41 — 

O. N. spengya, spenya, spenna to grip, nail, fasten, gain; O. H. G. 
spanga dasp, brooch; A. S. [spenig\, penig, pening; Dan. penge money, 
penny; O. N. fengi gain; peningr cattle, goods, money; pungr purse; 
O. N. [spakka], pakka, Dan. pakke. Germ, packen to grasp, fit, tighten, 
pack; O. E. pighten to fasten, place; O. N. [sptikki]^ pukki\ Eng. spooky 

puck night-demon (ci.finster). R. pakovcU to bundle; pakka bundle; 

peMakU to press, print, seal; paKkat to [grip], soil; pesok sand (pdnsus) ; 
puk bundle, tuft; pu^t, pukhnui to swell up (xuxytf<;; stuffed); pakh- 
avina abdomen; pugat to terrify; pig;ua, pyast fist (O. R. pensti); 
pushSa dense forest (spissus) ; spekaisya to coagulate; pikkat to stuff. 

Ir. [p\aice bargain, security, bond; Bret, pahum fetters; peisel 

hitching-ring; poug stifling; poukr soft (pankas); pegadur tenacity; 
peg glue; O.C. Pacidcum, Paxidcum, Passidcum (possession, estate, 
Passy^ 22 in France). 

Sk. [sphof], spag to bind, twist, knit together; phakk to writhe, 
crawl, be snake-like, mean, slow; [bhanksh\ bhan^ to twist off, break. 
Gk. o^oxeXR^d) to be [snake-bitten], frost-bitten, have convulsions, 
gangrene; 9dbceXo<; fagot, bundle; ^o^6(; distorted, pinched; 9o^fx^^^o<! 
narrow-brimmed ;9deaxci>Xo<; wallet, cloak-bag. Lat, fascinor to hypno- 
tize, bewitch (melts with ^aoxatvci)); fascia sash; fascis fagot, bundle 
of rods; fasciculus bundle; [fasctigium], fastigium peak of thatched 

hut (tego) ; fiscus rush; basket. O. N. bUskr, M. H. G. bosche thicket, 

bush ; Eng. to busk; buskin. R. bokka barrel (hooped) ; bashmak, 

bakhila shoe; bashnya tower (fastigium); bakhroma fringe.^ Ir. bass 

fist (gripping); bds death; Bret, besk&in to twist off, shorten; beskel 
twist, comer; biz finger; tendril; N. E. wind (nipping); bizeuring, 

Sk. pikk to tear off (beast's claw); pikh to pinch, vex, twist; 

spa^ to twist; pakshman hair, fibre. Gk. xixcD, xefxci), xexxicd to 

pluck, scratch, comb, shear; xixo(;, x6xo<;, xioxo^ fleece; 4>iy(i> to carp, 

detract; 4^exdi^, (j;axdt<; crumb; drop (wrung out). Lat pecto to comb, 

card; pecten comb, lute-twitcher; pecco to [tear hair, quarrel], do 

wrong, sin; [paxer], passer sparrow (pecking, picking). A. S. 

feax hair, mane; [spiccan], pyccan, O. N. pikka to pick; O. H. G. 

fahs hair; fc^o thread; Ger. fasen to comb, tease, feaze. Lith. 

peskti to tear the hair, quarrel; R. pushit to carp, scold; pukh down, 

fur. It. [p]^cnaigim to shame, calumniate; Bret, pahlat to card 

flax; pih a Uttle bit (piccolo); pes^ prey, wreck, piece; spahein to 
spay; O.C. Peccio, Piccio, Piccienus (little). 

Sk. pif to [scratch, scrape, carve, tattoo, draw blood, paint]; 
to peel, scrape, carve, adorn, mold; pif [dappled] deer; pigangcLS 



— 42 — 

fallow, tawny; pifitam raw meat; pifunas treacherous [tiger]; pifdSas 
demon; pegas form, shape; pigalas beautiful; pegaS'kdrl embroideress; 
pin^ to smear with ochre, paint, honor (with caste-mark); pikkhd 
slime, gum ; pingas tawny (ochre) ; pins to [use fire-drill], glitter, flash 
out, speak; pyush to sparkle, bum; pis, pish to stab, kill; pikas wood- 
pecker (sharp-bill, bloody-head). Gk. xixp6<; sharp, bitter, cruel; 

ixexeuxi^<; keen, bitter; xeuxdeXt(jio^ shrewd; xtxipiov butter; x»jxi) 
pine (resinous); xo(x(Xo<; [tattooed], dappled, many-colored, various, 

versatile; xuxvd<;, xuxtv6? shrewd, clever. Lat. pungo to prick; pugio 

dagger; pingo to paint, embroider; pix pitch; picvs wood-pecker; 
piscis fish (glittering, slimy); specus cave (bore) ; spica ear of com; 

spiculum dart. Goth, fisks fish ; fauho fox (keen) ; O. H. G. feh, A. S. 

fdh, fdg many-colored, glittering; A. S. fdger fair, beautiful (melts 
with /agf5 fit, useful, desirable); faiga to p^int ; fugol bird (xo(x(Xo<;); 
fine finch (bright, gay); feoht fight; fdhdh feud; fecvord curse; fdcen 
treachery; O. H. G. fihyan to hate; fiuchte fir (xefixtj); O. N. spikari 
spike, pike; Sw. pigg peg; Eng. spigot; Eng. spunk, punk, funk tinder; 
Ger. Funke spark (fire-drill, pins); Eng. to [spink], pink^ to stab, 

slash, tattoo. O. R. pistru variegated; piscUi to [scratch, ritzen], 

write; R. pkela bee; peshker cave (specus) ; pekal sorrow; pikhta white 
spruce; pishka wood-bird; peskanka sparrow; piskar fish, loach; 
pestrit to variegate; pakhat to [scratch], plow; Lith. pushis fir; piktas 

bad; /^yfe/i to be angry; peikti to revile. Ir. [p](5ech, enemy; [p]echt 

murder; ^c death; icla terror (goading); ecna bright, keen, wise; ^cne 
salmon (pins) ; iasc fish; Bret, pes^ wreck; puns pit, well; peus thrust; 
pig dappled, pied ; peseun mischievous ; pigos beak ; O. C. piccUus beaked 
ship ; salpuga (heel-stinger) venomous insect ; Pictones, Picti (tattooed) ; 
Pescennius, 

Sk. [pd to grip]; pans to crush; pdngus dust; pish (pinshe) to crush, 
bray in mortar; puns to grind; pish to revolve, smite, kill; pis to 

dwell {;uersari)\ to smite, be strong. Gk. xrCaoci) to bray in mortar; 

rub off bran; xrtadviQ groats, gruel; xCao? pea (pease-porridge). Lat. 

pinso to grind; pistor miller, baker; pisiillum, pilum pestle; Piso; 
pestis crushing, destruction, pestilence; pessum do, [pess-do], perdo 

to destroy. O. N. fis, O. H. G. fesa chaff. O. R. pisheno groats. 

Ir. [p\ssse, Hs, ais footstep ? Bret. pes6 wreck, ruin ; O. C. Pistillus, 

Sk. puns to use pestle, [generate]; puns, [punsman], pumdns, 
puntdn; (pumdnsam in oblique cases, adding mdnsam flesh) male; 
pas groin; pas-as penis; push to nurse, grow; pushtis growth, increase. 
Gk. x4o6y], x£o<; penis. Lat. [pensis], penis; prae'pu[s'^ium; mas, 



— 43 — 

{mdnsam) male. M. H. G. visellin penis; O. N. fist pleasure ; Dan. fise 

to fizzle. Lith. pisti to generate ; pisa groin. Ir. [p]oss boar, stag. 

Sk. puns to generate; push, push to enjoy, attain, grow, nurse; 

pushiis prosperity, growth; pushpam flower, lotus; pushan sun. 

Gk. xixxa^ bravo! %zaai<; [manikin, pebble], draught, checker. 

Lat. pusus, pusillus child, baby; Osc. puklo child. Germ, foppen, 

Eng. to fob to baby, trifle, mock; Eng. fob, fop. R. pupovina um- 
bilical cord; pupovnik water-plantain. Bret, pousin young bird; 

spuns germ, seed; O.C. Pusa, Pusinius, Poppius, Poppua, Poppausus^ 
Peppo. 

Sk. pins to be eager, glitter, speak; A. S. spaecan to speak; spaec 
speech; R. speishU to speed; peikhoia infantry. 

Sk. pans, pang to crush; pish, pinsh to bray; puns to grind; paM 
(pakdmi) to [grind, stir, boil, knead], cook (cf. pistor = miller and 
baker, both operations being united; boule; boulanger lump-maker); 
paktis cooking, digestion (stirring, boiling); pakas cooking, ripening; 

pakvds mellow, good. Zd. pak to cook. Gk. xlcroci), Attic xlicrca 

to cook, digest, ferment, mellow, come to a boil, head, crisis; xoeronciicTCi) 
to boil down, digest; x6xavov, Tk^^cL round altar-cake, fritter, pastry; 
Tk^\^ digestion; ipT6-xoxo^, ipT6*xoxo^ bread-baker (cf. coquo; the root 
may have been influenced by Sk. ku£ to curve, mold, touch, knead; 
kup to circle; but cf. panMan five; Lat. quinque, originating in spag 
to twist, stir ; the forms could vary as in spag, pag; Gk. axixroitat) ; x£x(i>v 
mellow, mild; xixov! my dear! xovSpo-xoxelov groat-mill; x6xt(i> to 

bray. Lat. coquo (Plautus quoquo) to cook; concoquere to digest, 

brood, plot; coquus, cocus cook; coqulna (Osc. popina) kitchen, cook- 
shop; culina kitchen [cuclina or xuX((i> to stir]. Ger. Speise food; 

mixed metal (stirred) ; Eng. speiss amalgam. O. R. pekan to cook; 

peshti furnace; R. pek stove; Lith. kepu to bake; kepeye bakeress. 

Ir. cucan bakery; cuile kitchen (Latin?); Com. peber baker; popei 
bakery; W. popuryes bakeress; poeth hot; Bret, pobein, po^hein to 
cook. 

Sk. spag to twist; pak to [stir, roll]; pd^, panM to unroll; panM to 
spread out; panMan [outspread hand, five fingers], five; pankathas, pan- 

kamas fifth. Zd. pankan ; pukhdha fifth. Aeol. Gk. x^jjixe five ; Gk. 

[xqixre], xivre five; xi^xxro^ fifth; x6(4.xd;I^G) to [count the fingers], reckon; 
(possibly xi(Jix<i> to send implies to send with outstretched hand, wave 
forth, send with gestiure, blessing). Lat. quinque; quintus; Quinctilis 



— 44 — 

fifth month; Samnite Pompties, Pomptitis, Pontius, Pompeius^ 

qutntus; Paludes Pam^i«a^« outspread, far-extending. Goth. fifnf\ 

O. H. G. finf, fimf; O. N. fimm; A. S. fif. Lith. penki, penktas; O. R. 

penti; R. pycU five; pyast hand, fist. Ir. cdic, c6iced\ W. pimp^ 

pimphet; Bret, pemp, pempet; O. C. xeji.x4-8ouXa= five-leaved. 

Sk. spof to twist; pak to roll, unroll, spread hand; spof, pof {pag- 
ydmi) to glance round, shade eyes with hand, watch keenly; spagas 

watchman. Zd. gpag watchman, spy; gpag to watch; Median 

spax fem. spaka shepherd-dog, watcher? cf. xiicav. Gk. (metath.) 

oxixTO(jLac to look round, watch, consider (cf. metathesis of ipT6xoxo<;) ; 
axoicici), oxoxeiio) to watch, spy; axox6^ watchman, scout, target; oxoxcde, 
ax6xeXo<; watchman's post, crag; oxco^p owl, feathered brow ("like a 
man with hand shading eyes"; Athen, 14, 629 F); oxcoxro) to hoot, 

mock, gesticulate. Lat. specto, con-spicio to watch, gaze; specular 

to scout; specula watch-post; speculum mirror; species appearance, 

characteristic, kind; [spehs], spes foresight, expectation, hope. 

O. H. G. spehdtn to spy; spdhi keen, prudent; O. N. spd second-sight, 

prophecy; spakr wise. R. spes high-look, pride; peseiz fox; pes 

watch-dog; spasat to [watch, guard], save; speishit to speed [arrow]? 

speikh eagerness, speed. Ir. [ad-padu, ad-pciu], adciu to see; 

\p]rem-c-\p\aissiu foresight; fris'[p]aiccim to hope; f^ccim to see. 

Bret, sp^s, spis clear, bright, distinct. 

Sk. sphdy, pydi to [stuflE, fill], round out, swell; [phydi, bhydi to 
quiver with tension ; cf . sphund to swell, spand to quiver] ; bhi (bhayati, 
bibheti) to [tremble], dread, fear; caus. bhdyay, bhdpay to terrify; 
bhesh to fear; bis to [brandish], whirl, hurl; bhayas, bhis, bhayam fear, 

danger; bhimas terrible. Zd. W to terrify. Gk. 9o^£(i> to terrify^ 

put to flight; ^i^oiJLat to be terrified, flee; 96^1) curl, mane (flapping, 
trembling); 96po<; terror, flight; 9oPep6<; terrible; ^attiv baby; Pat6<; 
small (cf . beben, baby) ; ^aix^aCvo) to chatter the teeth, stammer (Ital. 

bambino), Lat. fiba bean (rattling in dry pod, cf. papaver) ; Fabius 

(90^16 <; terrible?); febris [shivering], fever; Februarius shiver-month; 
februare to rout demons, purify (thongs of Salii); fibra fibre; fiber 

beaver (flapper); Fibrenus, O. H. G. bibin, bibinon to tremble; 

bibar, pipar; O. N. bifr beaver; O. N. bifaz to tremble; bif motion, 

water, gleam. O.K.boyatisen; lAth.biyau^biyoti to ieQX\ Lith. bayus, 

baime fear; R. boyat-sya to fear; buben tambourine; bob bean (faba); 
bobr beaver; bieiniy palpitation; O.R., Lith., O.Pr. bebrus, Boh. bobr 

beaver. Bret. baU timid ; Gael, beabhr beaver ; O. C. Bebrisa, Bibracte. 

Bibroci, Bebronna. 



— 46 — 

Sk. sphay to be distended, [quiver, burst out, sparkle]; bhi, (bhayate) 
to [quiver]; bhd (bhdmi) to shine, flash, appear; bhdmas, bhdnus light, 
sun, glory, wrath; bhds to shine, flash, appear, circle; bhdsh, bhan to 
flash out, ring out, speak; bhan^ to shine, speak; [bhavash], bhush^ 
to beautify, adorn; bhdlam brightness, forehead; bdlas young, new, 

child. Zd. b&nu beam; b&ma glory. Arm. ban a word. Gk. 

9V)^.( I say; fdeoxci) to affirm; ^iczK;^ 9(icri<;, fif^xT) oracle, speech, saying; 
9UV1) voice; 9a(vci> to show; ^ovi^ torch; 9aev6< bright; fiaixoe, fivTaqia 
apparition, prodigy; ^ItT^^ splendor (bhan^)\ 6xo9auax(i> to gleam, 
dawn Q)hush)\ xcfatjaxca to manifest, declare; fcziOb), foeeCvo) to be 
radiant; fdeog, Aeol. 9aOo<;, 9(ii)<; light; xatfdeajb) to dart, quiver; 9aX(o^ 
white; fiXxpog gleaming, white crested; ^iXapa forehead-trappings; 
9dcXo^ vizor {bhdlam) ; 9aXaxp6<; bald ; ^afftXsug king (glory of the people, 
Xa6q, Ion. Xe(o<;); ^dtcrovog [flash-stone], touch-stone for gold {bhds); 
Tl9aioTO<; [af eEca +6Aa5, hurl-fire], flashing, crooked, quivering Ughtning; 
when he quivers the nectar-soma falls to earth in quickening rain, 
and heaven peals with immortal laughter; husband of Aphrodite 
the rain-cloud (p. 19); ^auog, fcifog, 9oI^o<; radiant, bright, pure (melts 

with 94pojJuxi to quiver, glitter, banish evil); <E>o(^o<; 'AxrfXXwv. 

Lat. fdri to speak; fdtum [decree], fate; fdtna fame; [favola], fdbula 
legend, saying; Fabtus (renowned) ? fateor to declare; facetus.facundus 
eloquent {bhan^) ; fastus, festus holy-day, festival ; mani-festus evident 
(on palm of hand, palam) ; festuca fire-wood, fagot {uMh) ; [favestus], 
faustus lucky (^aiiw); fen-estra window; beo to [shine upon], make 

happy. O.N. bann road (pointed out, clear); buna surname; A. S. 

bedcen {<^iyyo<;) token, banner; bedcnian to point; bedm beam of light; 

Eng. to beam. O. R. bayati to talk; o*baviti to point out; o-bavaH 

to [give tokens], enchant; basni story; beilu white; R. bayan poet; 

Lith. baUas white. Ir. bdn white; for-bannach, for-bann Druidical 

formulae, rites; Bret. baHein to talk, bauer. O.C. Ver*bantis very 

white (Lago Maggiore, reflecting Alpine snow); Banana; Banolucus; 
Baebius, Bavins; Bi-atisco, Bi-ausius Mercury (flashing dawn; Sk. ush 
to shine). 

Sk. bhi to quiver; bhd, [bhai\ to flash round, [take aim, shoot, slay]. 
-Gk. fdeoac, xoe^oiv, xlforcae [forms assigned to 9£v(i> to slay]; xpoa-^oertf^ 



newly slain, fresh, new. O. N. by arrow, dart, bee; O. H. G. spudwan 

[sphdy, spay, spdv] to [hit mark], attain, succeed. R. 6ai war; boyar 

warrior. Ir. fof'be perfection [hitting mark]; for-benim to perfect, 

complete, attain; benaim to strike; bHm wound, stroke, injury; /w- 6a 
hewing; band deed; benn, bend point, horn, mountain-peak; O. C. 
Bendcus motmtainous. 



— 46 — 

Sk. spag to twist; [sphakk], phakk to twist, writhe, [wrench off], 
melting with pa to grasp, pang to crush; [bhanksh], bhan^ (bhana^mi, 
bhankshydmi, bhaganas) to wrench, bend, burst, break; bhangas^ 
chasm; breaking; bhangis, curve, break, wave; bhanguras fragile. 

Gk. [^Tjxcra], ^ijcrcra breach, gully, glen. Lat. fungar to [wrench, 

pluck, gather], harvest, fulfil duty; to [wrench one's self away, burst 
from shell], complete life, duty, o&ce; fungus mushroom [bursting from 

earth, fragile]. A.S. banc, O.N. bekkr [breach, earth-break], bank 

of stream; A. S. becc, O. N. bekkr, Ger. Bach brook [bursting from 
earth]; Eng. beach [wave-break]; Dutch bonzen to strike, hturl, 
bounce; O. N. bunga outburst, protuberance, bunch; bUnki round heap; 

bagi breaking off, loss. Lith. fcanga wave; Bang- putts wave-lord; a 

sea-god. Ir. bongaim (compounded with ath-, con-, do-) to wrench, 

gather, harvest, burst, break, tear; O. C. Bonxus, Bonexsis; Buxenos^ 
Mars. 

Same roots (a and u, g and k forms alternate in the root) bhc^, 
[bhva^], bhu^ (bhuna^mi, bhun^e, bhuktas) to [grip prey, harvest], 
acquire, eat, enjoy, possess; caus. bho^aye to help to food, give posses- 
sion; desid. bubhukshi to be hungry, enjoy, seek; bhu^as [food-helper], 
arm, hand, elephant's trunk; bho^an, bhoga food, pleasure; bhoga-paiis 
steward; bhiksh to seek food, beg; bhikshd, bhdikshas alms; bha^ 
(bha^dmi) to seize, acquire, settle land, effect, possess, love, adore, 
divide prey, distribute food; bhaktis generosity, love, duty; bhaktam 
food; bhag (bhd^aydmi) to distribute, give, prepare food, cook; bhagas 
portion, good fortune, bread-lord; bhagavat fortunate, noble; bhagini 
sister; bhd^anam dish, cup ; bhaksh {bhakshydmi desid. bibhakshyishdmi) 
to devour; bhakshyas eatable, food. Zd. baz to divide; baghas por- 
tion, piece; baksh to attain; Old Pers. baga god; Bay6<i<; oflScer; 
Pers. bakshidan to give; bakshish gift; Phrygian BaYaIo<; Zeus; ^ixxoq 

bread. Gk. 9aYetv to eat, devour; ^it'ri\ka food; fdeycav glutton, jaw; 

itapo'^iyo<; [distributer of gifts], king; 9aY6ve<; teeth; aapxo^iYo^ coflBn 
(flesh-pot, bhd^anam) ;9ax6<; coffin; ^ax^ lentil soup; 90x6 <; lentil; 8(ji*9a^ 
(raw-bite), green grape; [9aSt)Xo<;], 9(4aTQXo<; kidney-bean; ^coyci), fcot^ca, 
9Ci)Yvu<i> to prepare food, parch, pop, roast, broil ; ofit^ci) (ofde^G)) to cut the 
throat, butcher, sacrifice, slay with sword (metaphor from devouring 
animal; cf. Heb. "mouth of sword"; (Jidexaipa; Magen) ; c^oL^li^ sacrificial 

knife; [a9aYavov, a9a§avov], ^iorYovov sword. Lat, fungar to perform 

duty (v. supra) ; fdcus hearth (raised stand for simmering, making 
porridge, cf. 90x6 <;) ;ficio to makfe (bhai, bhaktis) ; [fac-ber], faber artisan 
(bhri to produce) ; bacca berry; bucca mouth, cheek {v,banh) ; [bextia], 
bestia wild beast (devourer). Goth, and'bahts servant; O. H. G. 



— 47 — 

am-pahti ministry, service; Goth, [buhyan], bugyan to acquire; buy; 
anda-bauhts redemption; [bacms], bagms [fruit] tree; bast berry; Ger. 
Backe jaw, cheek; O. N. baka to bake; bagi foe, cutting off, loss (g 

for nf , ng). O. Pruss, baga, O. R. bogu god ; R. bog god ; bogatiy rich ; 

huka were-wolf ; 6agr(7W>^ bloody, purple Ir. bdigim to fight (o^itia)) ; 

bdg battle; bdegtd danger; do'begim to desire, demand; bee [bite], bit, 
small; bocc tender; bdc mouth, kiss; Bret, bagad a troop; bihan small; 
beg mouth; boc^ bouc kiss; bousel jaw; bougen jaw, cheek, tender; 
boudi mouthful, kiss; O.C. BagattAi^=wild fighters (Jiad); Bogii, 
Boii, Baio'Casses, Ad-bogios, Bagacon. 

Sk. bhu^ (p.p. bhuktas) to devour. Zd. biiza he-goat, buck.- 



Arm. buc, butz yoimg ram. O. N. bukkr, A. S. bucca, O. H. G. poch 

he-goat, buck, stag. Ir. bocc; W. bivch; Bret, bouch; O. C. Bucco. 

Sk. pa, pang to grip, crush; spag to twist; phakk to twist, writhe; 
bhi^as arm, elephant's trunk; bhu^, to curve, bend; bhugnas bent; 

bhogas coil, snake. Gk. ^euyw to turn away, avoid, flee, be banished ; 

fUTh flight; [9UY3^a], 9i5lia rout; 9i}5t<; refuge. hdX.fugio to avoid, fly; 

ftigo to rout; /wga flight. Goth, biugan, O. H. G. piokan, A. S. 

hAgan to bend, bow down, flee; A. S. be-bUgan to surround; boga bow, 
coil, arch; bedg ring; 6a^c, 6ac [curved] back, sloping hill; Eng. 
buxom, Ger. biegsam lithe; Goth, bugyan to [turn, exchange], buy? 
O. N. baegya to rout, force back; baga to whirl, confuse, delay; baugr 

ring. Lith. bugti to fear; baugus timid; dreadful; R. bagor hook. 

Ir. bacc sickle, crook; bacach cripple; bockt poor (bowed down); 

boccoit buckle. Bret, boug crushing, stifling; bochad crowd, troop. 

Sk. bhogas coil, serpent; bhagas womb; bhog [rounding, bellying] 

birch- tree (pUant bark used for writing). Gk. ^c&xt) seal (bellying cf. 

SeX^k, -(5<; dolphin, womb) ; ^wxfg Phods (Delphic abyss) ; (pcoxEg bellying 
pear; 91]t6<; beech tree (a and u interchange cf. R. bagor hook) ; fuxo^ 
sea-weed (air-bladders). Lat./dg«5 beech-tree; /«cm5 drone-bee (big- 
bellied); fictis fig (rotmded, sweUing; u, <n, *; cf. punio, poena) ; faux 
gullet (hollow, swelling) ; Lake Fucinus (deep gulf) ; suf-foco to throttle, 

choke; faex dregs, residuum in belly of amphora. A. S. bice, bdce, 

O. H. G. puoha beech- tree; Goth, boka [beech-bark], epistle, writing, 
book; (jer. Bauch belly; Bucht bay; Eng [bttogyant], buoyant inflated, 

floating. K.buk beech; bok side, flank. W,bwg, [ravenous belly], 

goblin; Bret, biu, bhieg birch; Ir. bocaim to swell; bocail pride; W. 
bogeiliaw to be prominent; O.C. Boccus, Bocco; ToutO'bocios= pride of 
the tribe; [p] Ro-bogdian promontory, Fairhead; Ro-bogdii very pTond; 
MeU-bocus mount. 



— 48 — 

pa {pdyfj to [grasp, encircle], guard, feed, [stuflE with food]; pd, 
(pivdmi), pi to drink, imbibe, [distend water-skin]; ptv to be swollen, 
fat; pydi, sphdy to swell, be tense; sphUas swollen, tense; sphit to 
[be tense, make tense], wrap, jerk, [throb], love, strike, scorn ; sphud to 
wrap; sphut, sphund, sphat, sphant, pat to burst [with tension], split, 
open, escape, fly; a- sphut to slap, clap the hands; sphutt, sphuni to 
[slap], scorn; spand to struggle against tension, quiver, make effort; 
(These roots melt with those already considered ; ttug) to spit, (scorn) ; 
phenas froth ; \phyu\ bhu to blow, breathe ; bhi to quiver, fear) . 

I. sphit to make tense, wrap, jerk, slap, strike, scorn; d-sphut to 
slap, clap the hands; sphutt, sphunt to scorn; sphud to [jerk, tighten], 
wrap; spand to jerk, quiver, make an effort. 

II. pat, put to wrap, robe, bind; put to embrace; bind; pust, bandh 
to bind; patas cloth, robe; patalam, patali crowd, heap, roof, cover 
(rolled together) ; pattas sash ; pand, pit, pind, pUn to draw together, 
collect, heap; pindas [dough], cake, body; padmas, pundarikam lotus 
[circling, orbed]; pdndus white, yellow; put, pund, puth to [revolve], 
bray, grind; pid to hug, wring, bray, potmd, press; punth to wring, 
kill; pathos, pdtham [circling, orbing] water, stm, fire; pdihis sea; 
pitas basket; pen to embrace, grind; 6Aa/ to [rotmd out], feed. 

III. sphut, sphunt, sphund, sphat, sphant to [be too tight], to split 
with tension, burst, open, escape, fly, speed, [flash out; make an effort, 
speak, praise]; sphutt, sphunt, bust, pust to dash out, spurn; spand to 
jerk, make an effort; pat to burst; pat to flash, speak; patus shrill, 
clever, keen, skilful; path to read aloud; pan to praise; pattigas dart; 
pat to speed, snatch; pand to move; pan to sport, toss, play dice; 
pat to hurl, fly, fall; path, panth, pad to go; phan to whirl, quiver, 
skim; phanin snake; phenas foam; bhat, bhan, bhant, bhand, bhand to 
[flash out], speak, be merry, mock, be happy, excellent ; bhadras happy, 
best. 

IV. sphut, sphunt, sphund to burst open; pat to split, tear; bhid, 
bind, to split. 

Sk. spand to struggle against tension, quiver; sphutt, sphit to make 
tense, dash, strike, hit, slap; pat to split, tear; sphund to burst open; 

bud to pour out; bust to spurn; bust to [pour Ubation], adore. 

Gk. oxiv$(i> to jerk out, dash out, make a libation; crxovSij Ubation; 
oyevMvY] , sling ; oxtvOijp spark ; crxo86<; ashes, dust (whirling) ; <jxo84ci) to pelt, 
smite, crush, smother, grind with teeth; crxouW^o), TKiilta to speed; 



— 49 — 

oioSiiy convulsion^ rent, tear; oxidcjv eunuch; axilt^ stripped branch, 
bark; oxdOt) (smiting, slapping, tightening); sword-blade, weaver's 
spaddle; Trfi6q blade of oar; rrrfiiLkioy rudder ; icnQdio) to leap forth, throb; 
n:i99u to strike, slap, palpitate ; xdcTTO), xiacro) to sprinkle ; xaor^^ sprink- 
led; xQWTdt<; (sprinkled with rain), portico; xaoT6<; bridal bed; xoeraYici) to 
dash, chatter, beat drum; crxoeraXdui) to bedashing, wasteful, lewd; 
9fQMJ^ to Struggle, be convulsed; a^slay6q, a^olp6^ violent, impetu- 
ous; o^uddco to be vigorous; o^ul^b) to throb; {a^uy\L6q throbbing is 
attracted by (npfYyci)); [jjxeil^ca to squeeze; [cr]xt8u<i) to gush forth; 

xl8a5 spring; 4a9o8eX6<; asphodel (bursting spathe; i euphon.). 

Lat. /«nda sling \f undo to dash out, pour out; offendo to dash against; 
f^nd\5tinus swift (v. Tefvo)); infeftsus, infestus hostile; sponte eagerly, 
freely; [spontifex], pontifex Ubation-pourer; priest; [pudvis], pulvis 
dust (oxo56<;) ; re-pudio to dash back, reject; [spendo\ pendo, pendeo to 
jerk rope taut, hang, suspend; pondus [hanging] weight; spanda bed- 
stead (cross-cords); post [hurled] after (cf. himt, hetzen, be- hind; R. 

stidu goading; behind). Goth, spedists last (hanging after, peip- 

dens); O.H.G. spdti late; A.S. spid good fortune, attainment, speed; 
0. N. fei a step ; [s]padda hop-toad ; Ger. Fetze rag (torn oflE) ; A. S. spitu, 

0. H. G. spiz dart (jerked). R. pycUnat to dash, splash; pyata 

heel; f[v]itcU to attempt, wrench, torture; spustii, pustii to dash down, 
drop, lower, launch, let fly; spustya afterward (post); pustoi [potired 

out], empty, hollow, vain, desert. Jr. 6and [dashing] feat; bann drop, 

ball; bude yellow (opening flower, pandas) ; buadraim to rout (a9oBp6<;) ; 
Hadach victorious; W. yspaddu to pour out; Bret, bannein to dash 
down; baneh drop; spontein to quiver, dread {ipouvanter); spuns 
germ, seed (bursting, developing) ; O. C. Padus Po (rushing, mighty) ; 
Padusa mouth of Po, rushing water; Bannaventa enterprising market; 
BraiU'Spantium terrible judgment; Boud'icca (victorious deliverance); 
Boadicea, Bodiocasses. 

Sk. sphund to burst open; budh to [open eyes], wake, perceive, 
know, think; caus. bodhaydmi to waken, annotmce, teach; buddhis 
insight, observation, intention; Buddhas all-seeing Buddha; bud, bund, 

bundh to hear; budhas learned. Zd. bud to waken, perceive; budh 

to see. Gk. [ff]xuv6dcvoiiLat to hear, learn, enquire. Goth, botyan 

to help, profit, benefit. O. R. budeiti to watch ; budtti to waken ; Lith. 

bkdeti (bundu) to watch; budinu awake; budrus watchful; R. budit to 
Watch; bodriy vigilant, brave; buden working-day (daylight hours); 
svo-boda freedom (guarding one's self, watchftil). 

Sk. sphund to burst open; spand to jerk, quiver, make an eflEort; 

4 



— 50 — 

ui'paf to wrench out; putt to be empty; budhnas bottom, root of tree. 

Zd. buna bottom. Gk. xuOjn^v bottom, abyss, root of tree, 

stock; riuOcii Delphi (bottomless pit, volcanic fissure); xiivSag bottom; 
sword-hilt (jerked, drawn) ; xuvOdvoiiiat to go to the bottom, explore, 
enquire diligently; ^£vOog, ^ucra6<; bottom of sea; &^\)aao<; tmfathomed 
gulf; ^aO(i<; deep, ^60uyo<;, ^60po<; pit; [ox60o<;], x60o<; yearning from bot- 
tom of breast, longing, regret; x4v6o<;, X(i0o<; grief, sorrow, suffering; 

x6vTo<; sea; xovtR^o) to sink in the sea. Lat. [s]fundufn bottom; 

fundus soil, estate C*cujus est solum ejus est usque ad inferos"); 
profundus deep; fundamenium root, foundation, buttocks, antis; 
faedus foul; foeieo to stink; fons (-/w)[bursting] fountain; Bantia^ 
Band'Usia {use water) ; [pentho], peto to desire, seek, explore, question 
(cf . XovOdhKi), IcUeo; cf . d-pat to go, make effort, wrench out) ; potior 
to [yearn], suffer; pateo to be wide open; pando to open; pandus 
gaping; Pandateria firm in deep sea ((rcepe6<;)j puteus well; puteo to 

[burst with rottenness], stink; pudeo to be ashamed; podex; pedo. 

Goth, finthan, A. S. findan to explore, find, know (xuvOccyo^iaO ; O. N. 
feta to desire, attain ; A. S. fynde deep, capacious ; gefondian to explore; 
fetian to pull up, drag out; feteUhiU sword-hilt (xiiv8a5) \ bytne bottom 
of ship; botm^ O. Sax. bodom bottom; Eng. fonn fond, yearning, 
regretting; Goth. fUan^ O.N. fodha, to give birth; (xiSua>, x66o<;) ; O. N. 

/<55<ra to foster (fondsterci. p. 33) ; Goth. /odr sheath. R. pod- bottom, 

under. Ir. bun tap-root, stock, bottom; bunad origin, family; buinne 

pipe, tap; bonn^ bond [foundation], sole of foot; bdidim to sink; bude 
[swelling emotion], thanks; W. bon bottom, base, root; Bret, int-bou- 
dein to graft; badailhein to yawn (JbatUer); Fr. pondre to lay eggs? 
O. C. Bodencus deep-water, Po (fundo carens Plin. N. H. 3, 122); 
Bodungo on the Bodensee; Bodotria (outer deep, Frith of Forth; 
uUaras). 

Sk. sphai, sphani, sphut, sphunt, sphund to burst open ; pat to wrench, 
tear; bhid {bhinadmi, bhinde, p. p. bhinncLs) to split, break, destroy, 
bore, divide, be different, conquer; bhedas fissure; decision; diversity; 
sphit to strike, slay; phan to whirl, whirl away, skim, quiver; phanin 
snake (quivering, striking). Gk. 98Boiiai to discriminate, be cau- 
tious, spare, be careful; 07Y)v6(i> to split, cleave with wedge, stop with 
wedge; (Kpijv wedge, [plug]; oxtvOi^p (Lat. spinier chip) a bursting 
spark ; x(va5 a shingle, clapboard, tablet (spUt) ; <^i\vt\ [cleaver, wedge- 
bill], ossifrage; ^km to slay; ^oveig slayer; 9o(vto<; bloody, red; 
^otvfaoci) to redden; ^otvtg date-fruit (crimson juice); purple; purple- 
seller, Phoenician, (cf. Semitic adam red-blood, man); 9evotxR;ci>, 
inQytxa;«» to [shave, skin], cheat, gull; 9<va5 cheat; 9ev(fxT), xrjvfxT] 



— 61 — 

[fraud], wig. Lat. findo {fisstis) to split; fodio {fossus; sphund) to 

ddve; f[d\ni5^ finis [cleavage], division, limit, end; fistula whistle, 
pipe (chestnut-bark slipped from rod in spring; reed with knots bored 
(mi); fistuca wedge-mallet, rammer (o^Tjvici)); spina thorn; [s]paene 

[close-shave], almost ; funus death, burial ; funestus direful. Goth. 

beiUm to bite; banya wound; A. S. Mtan, bit, biter to bite, bit, bitter; 
ben wotmd; bana, bona murderer; destruction; bdn bone (jointed, 
severed from flesh, spHt for marrow); O. N. bani death, murderer; 

kn a deadly wound. R. beida pang, suffering, woe; beidniy poor; 

po-beida victory (bhid), Ir. bend, benn horn; bennach peaked, motm- 

tainous; benim, bennaim to thrust, wotmd; O.C. Ben-dcus mountain- 
ous, Lago di Garda (p. 45). 

Sk. spand to be tense, jerk ; sphit to make tense, wrap, jerk, slap ; 
ifkud to tighten, wrap ; put, pid, pind to bind, draw together, press, 
heap; pat to wrap, robe, bind; bandh, badh to bind; pad, bad to be 
finn; {badh also belongs to vad, vand to wrap, robe, and in this con- 
nection recurs unchanged in Goth, bindan), Zd. pathana [made 

tense, spread as tent], broad. Gk. xev0ep6<; father-, brother-, son-in- 
law, connection ; xeEOca to [draw on, lead with rope, constrain], influence, 
persuade; xe(Oo(i.ac to be [bound in duty], obey, trust, be loyal; IIsiOc^ 
Persuasion; xfori^ loyalty, obedience, fidehty, belief; xetaa obedience, 
calmness; xeiaiLa,xe(OTi)p cable, rope; Tfziyri band, cohort; x(Oog, xiOdrnvr], 
fUoLVfi [wine-skin], wine- jar; x(0t)xo<; [bare-ribs, prehensile] monkey; 
o^Btj, oipBeg gut, chord, string; oxd^o) to stretch out; ffxi86et<; broad, 
vast; axt8v6? [bound, bunched], compact; oxiSt^ high-strung lyre; 
09(vrt<; charioteer (tight-rein, lashing, sphit); o?6v$uXo<;, (jx6vSuXo<; 
whirling spindle, vertebra (pund, puth to [whirl], grind); xerdcwuixt, 
rinnf)(jLc to [make taut, spread tent], spread wide, extend arms, open 
wide; axcOoeyi.i) outspread hand, span; xiTaao<; broad hat, lotus-pad; 

tfeaXov leaf; gold-leaf. Lat. fido to trust; fidus faithful; fides duty, 

toyalty (religio); foedus treaty, compact; offendix knot; fides (-turn) 
lyre; fidiculae [tension], rack; pateo, panda to spread wide (50); patera 
broad bowl; spatium space; passus stretched legs or arms; fathom; 

spatior to roam rotmd. A. S. fdst bound, firm (melts with pango) ; 

/(tt[hooped] tub, vat; gold-leaf; O. N./orf cask, clothes; festr,fidtr bond, 
chain; fetill girdle; fidtt fate; Goth, fitan to [be tense], give birth; 
fastan to hold tight; fetyan to dress, adorn; Eng. to fii, fettle; A. S. 
[s}pAd^ Goth, paida ttmic, shirt; Eng. pad broad leaf; A. S. pyndan, 
on-pinnan to confine, enclose, pen; pUnd fold, pound; O. N. pantr, 
0. H. G. pfant pledge, pawn; A. S. fddhm spread arms, embrace, 
bosom, fathom; O. H. G. fadam thread; O. N. fit flat of hand; rim; 



— 62 — 

woof. Lith. pinti to twist; pantis a hobble; O. R. panto fetter; 

R. f[v}itat to stretch, twist, torture, try; putat to twist, tangle, confuse; 

ptU[v]f^ fetter; Boh. pnotUi to stretch. Ir. baid yearning, fond; 

bdid long, continued; badh faith, friendship; bad btinch; pait leather- 
bottle; buden, W. byddin [united] band, troop; [p}etem thread, cord; 
Bret, padein to control one's self, hold out, endure, last; pedost until, 
nearly; pod, poz palm of hand; bod a bunch; O. C. padi fir tree (rotind, 
wide-spread cf . abies) ; Padus broad (49). 

Same roots of binding, twisting, tightening; Sk. pat to wrap, 
robe, bind; patas cloth, robe; pat to whirl, speed; pat to go [rotmd], 
wrench; pan to be nimble, dextrous, ^play dice, toss from side to 
side; pen to encompass, whirl, grind; phan to whirl, quiver; phanin 

snake. Gk. xi^vyj weaver's yam, woof; xi^vyj, mjvfov spool, bobbin; 

icQvo<; web ; in]vtTt<; weaver ; xiQvR^oixae to reel, weave ; nT)veX*6x6ia revolving 
face, the old moon in the east, daughter of fleams (partus, day- 
star) and mother of Telemachtis (far-darting cf. Eupu-8(xT)) day-star. 
The Sim, Odysseus (wanderer) returns to her from Circe (drcler, 
the new moon in the west), through Hades, and slays the suitor stars 
with his crescent bow, arriving drenched with ocean and in dark robes 
of night. He bears the mark of his fight with the boar of winter. 
Penelope was thin-faced, associated with the spent bobbin from which 
the thread of time ran out to be woven in her fatal loom. Circe had 
a loom in the west; -oiviXo^p was a duck streaked with black and 

purple (dawning night). Lat. pdnus, pannus, pannU'Velliunt {volvo) 

weaver's yam; pannus cloth, piece of cloth, rag; spina [twisting] 

back-bone; pane behind (tossed round). Goth, fana cloth, napkin, 

rag; O. H. G. fano sheet, banner; A. S., O. H. G. spannan to stretch 
out, spsLTi; spinnan to spin; O. N. [s]pina to stretch, twist, torture, pine; 

spdnn span; spun keg; Ger. spdt protracted, late. O. R. ponyava 

sheet; o-pona awning, sail; R. ponyava apron; spina, spinka backbone. 

W. penion flag; Bret, punein to reel, wind, twist, spin, whirl; Ir. 

[p\mn a stone (hurled, cf. lapis, ickpo<;). 

Sk. sphat, sphant, sphutt, sphit to split with tension, burst, open, 
escape, flash out, shoot ; pan to sport, toss ; pat to flash out ; pai (patdmi) 
to shoot, fly, fall, drop; patrin arrow, bird; patatram bird, wing; pai- 

man flight; patas flight, fall; patrantwing, leaf. Gk,i:kxo\k(Xi (Ixt6|jlt)v, 

fxnjv; Ixza^oLi is attracted by yap) to fly (of bird, stone, arrow); 
icoTio(4.ac to soar; xoT0fv6<; soaring; %ixpo<; stone [hurled, cf. lapis]; 
xirpa clifE; xaicrafvci) to glance round; xTep6v wing, feather; xrSpu^ wing, 
flipper, flap; icrfXov feather; xiraXov leaf; xtxrw, x(tv<i) to fall; x6tiio<; lot, 



— 63 — 

fate; xjtocvlo^ river (descending) ; xx&at,^, icTb>(xa f all ; icTb>(jia carcass {cad- 

auer). Lat. peto to throw, poiince at, seek; im-peius rush; [petna], 

pesna, penna feather; pinna wing; prae'pes(-tis) impetuous; accipiter 

falcon ((dxu*xfnQ<;, swift-fljring). A. S. fedher; O. H. G. fidara, 

fita feather, wing; Eng. fit of tLaxae;fits and starts; A. S. fitt song, lay. 
— 0. R. puta bird; putitza sparrow; [ptero]^ pero feather; R. ptenetz 

young bird. Ir. [p]^ passion, jealousy; [petn], in bird; ite, ette wing; 

daim to fly; [do-fo-et^ tuit he falls; W. etn, et, atar birds; ad-anet 
wings; O. C. Petius, Pettius, Petionius eager, jealous. 

Sk. spand to quiver, make an effort; sphut, sphund to swell, orb, 
flash out, fly; pat to [burst, speed], flash; path, panth, pand to go, 
move, [orb, circle]; pdthas, pdtham sun, water; pdthis ocean; pathas, 

pathin, panthan way, path; pad to go, approach, Zd. pathan way. 

— Gk. XQCT&o to tread, trample, wear out ; x(4to<; path, mire ; xa<; (xovrrfg) 

[orbing, all-embracing], all; xivroq sea. Lat. peto to seek, desire 

(cf. p. 52) re-petere to circle, come back, return; [patsus], passus step, 

stride; pans -ntis bridge (cf. Ia^\k6q gangplank), O. N. feta (fat) to 

go, seek, desire; Goth, finthan, A. S. findan to explore, discover, find; 

A.S. [s]pddh, O. H. G. phat, phad path; A. S. pddhian to lead. 

O.K,panti way; R. pyatka heel (xotIg)); pyatit to return {repetere). 
— Ir. [p](ith ford; ethaim to go; ethar ferry-boat; itaim to attain, 
find; Ido-eiil, text he comes, goes; O.C. ponto barge, river-boat (rowed, 
punted, Caes.B. C. 3, 29, 3); Pontio, Ponto (boatman's joy; Poinson, 
Ponton) ; Pontfillidcus (s) ; Pontidcus (9) ; Pontivus\ Pantinobriga, 

Sk. spand to quiver, [flash]; sphunt to mock; pat to flash out, 
speak; [sphand], bhand to be merry, mock, speak gaily; bhant to trick; 
bkai, bhan to talk; bhand to rejoice; bhadras happy, lucky, noble. 

Gk. 9Gtt8p6? bright, brilHant, merry; ^czCSpa bright moon, wife of 

ftQao}<; the law-giving stm; as old moon she loves Hippolytus the day- 
star (son of Theseus by his first wife, the breastless Amazon, the 
crescent-targed new moon), and the Agvin is torn to pieces by his 
own horses, terrified by the darkness-dragon of Poseidon; the YxxoupK; 
or equi'Setum (mare's tail) was called ^aRpa; 9aR((jLo<; radiant, glorious. 

Lat. badius chestnut-colored, bay, glossy. Goth, batan to 

be happy, strong, well; batists, O. H. G. pezisto, A. S. besta noblest, 
best. 

Sk. pat to shoot, fly; pan to play dice; pad (p. p. pannas, inf. 
anu'pattum) to play dice; [same verb, melting with path to go] to [light 
upon], step upon, be firm, stride, go; padam step, foot-print, spot. 



— 54 — 

place, verse, region ; paddtis, pattis foot-man ; pad, pddas foot, root of 

tree; pddukd shoe. Zd. pad to go; padha foot. Gk. xofi? (xoM<;) 

foot; X8W<; on foot; x45ov ground; xe8(ov plain; xe^dui) to hobble, con- 
strain; xftt) control, horsebreaking, hobble, shackle; dcv8pa-xo8Ria) to 
[hobble, break], enslave a man; oxod&o to stamp, crush; axoS6<; dust, 

ashes (melt with p. 48). Lat. pes jj>edis) foot; pedum shepherd's 

crook (hooking in sheep's foot); pedica hobble, fetter; tri[p]'pudium 
leap, dance (Tipxo)); [pediolus], petiolus stalk; pedes foot-soldier; 
pediculus louse (invader; Gk. 96e(p, Ir. mil); petigo itch; Pedum plain 
(foot of Apennines); [podno], pono (cf. pannas) to put, place; [pudvis], 
pulvis dust; [pud-mnar; veneror, fdeivlo)], pulvinar place of honor, 

couch of gods (cf. lac'unar, beautiful-trough, recess, panel). Goth. 

fStus; O. H. G. fuoz foot; O. N. fit sole of foot; palm of hand; A. S. 
fidhe, fidha infantry (pattis) ; fetian to bring; Ger. [s]Pfote paw; Eng. 
pat, Ger. pasz at the right spot; Eng. to pat, pet; Ger. patschen 
to tap, stroke, fondle (animal's play); Ger. pHtzen to smooth, sleek, 
adorn; Eng. puss cat (cf. Sk. mdr^dras sleeker, caX; felo, felis); Eng. 
to /n<^ = place; to putter; putty; a />o//^ (clay-smoother); O. N. />o«r 

pot. Lith. padas sole; />eda footprint; O. R. padan to drop; R. 

/>ada/ to fall; po-padat to arrive, carry, overtake; pod- tmder? Ir. 

[p]ed place, space; [p]ad'art [high-place], pillow (cf. pulvinar); ad-ba^ 
aide, dit dwelling-place; ada possession, belonging; Bret, pod, poz 
palm of hand; poz couplet (cf. padam) ; O. C. Pedulus, Podiolum, 

Sk, pd ipdye, cslus., pdlaydmi, developed by ri, yar, al,yal intensive 
and causal termination) to grasp, guard, [encompass, circle]; pal, pal 
to guard; pdlas keeper, shepherd, king; pal, pall, [pah], plav, pit, 
pru to circle, go round, move; paldy to turn, flee (9euY<i)); palvalas 
[circling], prairie-sink, pond; palalas mire; palitas [orbing sky, dawn], 
whitish, gray; palas [rounded] flesh; palas [whirled], chaflE, straw; 
palyul to twist, tear off, tear out; spHlen, purify; pU to hurl, whirl; 
pil to [set a stake], be firm, strong, ward off; pel to circle, revolve; 
pelavas [twisted, fine-spun], thin; [palv], plu, pru to whirl (wind and 
water), blow, eddy; spHlen, float, swim; plush, prush to whirl in flame, 
blaze; to toss rotmd, distribute, sprinkle; plev to [hand round], serve; 
[palv, pval\, pul, pal, pur, pri to round out, swell out, be full, great; 
to heap, be high; sphal, sphar, sphur to [be full to bursting], whirl, 
quiver, burst out, sparkle, flash, speed; phel, pel to whirl, quiver; phal, 
phuU to burst forth, bud, blossom, round fruit, spread wide, open; 
phala f niit ; paUavas bud, sprout ; paldgam leaf ; pulas, pulakas bristling, 
eager, rounded out; [bhal], bal to [roimd out], feed, nourish; bdlas, 
bdlakas [foetus], pigmy, baby, child; phalam [sparkling, flashing] 



— 55 — 

arrow; phdlas plowshare (burster); bhallas arrow; bhal, bhall, bal^ 
bharu, bharbh to shoot, slay, hunt, roam, explore; barb, barbh to revolve; 
babhrus flashing, ruddy, restless, ichneumon; bhram to circle, roam, 
whirl, spin, rattle, buzz; bhratnaras bee (these roots melt with wi, 
voho to embrace, circle); bal to twist, whirl, confuse, wrench oflE; 
boLjs horse-hair, tail; bdlifos wild, stupid; barbaras stupid, mad; 
bakmt force; balukd sand, gravel (whirled, eddying); sphar, sphur 
to [be full to btirsting], whirl, spark, flash, speed ; pri to [flash out], 
shoot beyond, go beyond, go across, [pierce]; pri to fly round, be busy, 
¥rork; paras beyond, across; param beyond, through; pra, prati oppo- 
site, in front; pari arotmd (encircling, recurring, returning ring); 
pond former; para backward; pri, pri, parv, purv, pur to fill, satiate, 
feed, [shepherd], protect, be liberal; par to complete; [sphri, phri], 
bhri to [be full, great with child], give birth, bring forth, carry, nourish, 
support, pay; pri, spri to feed, make happy, protect, [be happy], 
live; pri to exhilarate, rejoice, love; plih to revolve, round; plihan 
spleen; sprih to desire, be eager, envy; sprig to grasp, touch, bathe, 
splash; spargas touch, breeze; prik to stir, mix, make ends meet, 
join; prisk to sprinkle; priish to sprinkle, hurl away, pour out, fill, 
love, whirl, blaze; plush, plus to bum, toss rotmd, distribute; parushas 
fierce; purushas wind, life, man, servant (active); prakh to be eager, 
entreat, question; pras to beget; plaksh to devour; sphurkh to be 
[whirled, dizzy], forgetful; sphur^ to [whirl], roar (of wind), rage, 
thunder; [sphring, phring], bhringas [buzzer], bee; bhrigaid vehemence; 
bhrigas exceedingly, much; bhrang, bhrans, bhrag to [be hiurled down], 
fall; bkrangas ruin; bhra^^, bhri^ to [turn on spit, scorch], roast; 
bhresh, bhlesh to [whirl, be dizzy], fear; bhrd^, bhreg, bhrdg, bhldg, to flash 
round, shine; spardh [to flash rotmd the race-track], rival, overtake, 
be equal; [sphran], bhran to [rattle, rumble], sound; prid to enjoy, be 
glad; prin to satiate, fill; prith to hurl round, spread round; prithus 
wide, large; prithivi world; prath to spread out, widen, become famous. 

(The following roots and their meanings melt into each other.) 

Sk. pal, pal (palaydmi, pdlaydmi) to [grasp], guard, encompass; pri 
to fill, encompass, guard; pur, puram town; pdlas keeper, guardian, 

lord, king; pdlanas wardership, care; pdlavi rotmd bowl. Gk. 

iyi/fi-xokiti^ to keep, guard, minister, serve, act as priest; i^l''Ko'ko<; 
attendant, minister, priest; iii^J-xoXtg warding, guarding a city; 
a{*x6Xo^ goat-herd; IloXcdei;, noX(eij<; guarder of the city (Athene, Zeus) ; 
xoXfl^ to build, colonize; dbcp6-icoXc<; citadel; x6X«;, xrdXK;, xroXCedpov 
city (walled); oxoXd^ buff- jerkin [protector]; oicaX(a>v pent-hotise. 



— 66 — 

vinea, shelter for besieging troops; ^(xkl<; vault, crypt; oicdtXaS, i-oxdcXa^, 
i'O^iXa^ mole (subterranean; i euphon.); oxaXoxEa blindness; oxiXtov, 
4^iXiov ring, chain, curb; ^iXioy bracelet; <|;6Xi6<i> to wreathe; ^^aXf^ 
shears (bent rod with sharpened ends) ; icxaXieuo^Juxt to use a [curved] 
hook, to angle; xiXXa, xeXXU, xeXExw] milk-tub, basin, bowl; xiXaq 
[within the circle], neighboring, hard by; xXtjcrfo^ near, neighbor; 
xeXdcTT]^ neighbor, tenant; xeXil^ci), [xe>aO(i>], xXdeOo) to approach; xXi^v 
[beyond the circle], except, imless; xXt]v-65to<; out of the road, unjust; 
4^T)X-a9d;G) to handle, grip, grope (Sxtg)). Lat. palus [ring- wall], palis- 
ade, stake (cf. vallum, vallus) ; [ovi-palyo] o-pilio shepherd; pehns bowl, 
basin {pdlavi); palla, palHum, paludametUum cloak.^— O. N. fdlatr 
self-controlled, silent; Fdla fatal, grim;/eto to [grip hard], hide, entrust 

for safety, empfeMen; [s]pallr stockade, stage. R. pole brim, margin, 

field; pol floor (circular hut) ; polosa zone, region, band; polyana field, 

clearing; pelenat to swaddle. Ir. \P\olU rein (control)? Bret. 

palon, paelon earthen dish, frjring-pan; pilig basin; palen dyke. 

Sk. pal, pall, [palv], plav, pit, plu, pru to circle, revolve, eddy, 

move round; pari around; para backward. Gk. xoXio), xoXeuo) to 

roam roimd, wander, turn [earth with plow]; i;jL9t*xoX£(i> to go about, 
be busy, serve; x(i>Xla> to wander as merchant, exchange, barter, 
deal, sell; xXovdui) to roam, straggle; xXivT)<; vagabond, rover; exfxXoov 
[enfolding] omentum; 8i-xX6o<; twofold; xeXcopioe [recurring] harvest- 
feast (f wpa period) ; xiXcop, xeXoipiov prodigy, portent, monster (recur- 
ring cycle; miracle of old times) ; xaXac6<; ancient; xdeXat long ago; xdeXiv 
backward, anew, again; naX-a((ici>v home-bringer, port-god {yam to 
wheel, speed) ; IlaXCy-oupo^ good-wind-home (aCpa); xXt^^xvyj hub, socket. 

Lat. palari to roam rotmd, stray; po-pulari to maraud, ravage; 

[palanus], planus vagabond, tramp; planari to roam, [soar]; sem-per 

[sen-per] long-time, always; paulis-per a, little while. Goth, spillan 

to [roam far], bring tidings, news; spill [ancient], legend, myth; O. N. 

fdl, fair, O. H. G. fali [peddled], for sale. R. parit to soar; 

parus sail (wrapped) ; polin worm-wood (coiling) ; polu- half [way 
round, other side of circle]; pol sex; polotno cloth (wrapped); platit 

to [return], pay. Ir. [p]ilur eagle (circling); ilar crowd; W. llan 

field, clearing, lawn; Bret. pH long ago, afar; polinat to scull; O. C. 
Medic[p]lanum mid-plain. 

Sk. pari adv. around; prep, with ace. arotmd, opposite; intensive 

prefix, "twofold, double"; cf. dvi, 8ta-. Zd. pairi adv. aroimd; 

prep, (ace.) aroimd; abl. in front, over (upper of two hoop-ends; 
melts with xapdt) ; prefix intens. ; param her^ufter. Gk. xep( prep. 



— 57 — 

(dat.) around; (gen.) about, concerning, opposite, beyond; x4pi5 round 

about; Tctgiaoiq exceedingly; sufiix -xep however much. Lat. per- 

prefix intens. ; per-magnus very great (twofold) ; [p]re prefix of revolu- 
tion, repetition ; re-peto, Goth, fair- pref . intens. ; Eng. far- give. 

R. pere- prefix, arotmd ; pere- pref. intens. ; pri close, near. lT.[p]er 

prefix intens. ; er-co-smil^ per'similis; W. er-drym very compact; Bret. 
per» arein to plow thoroughly, (melts with Sk. paras excellent, chief) ; 
O. C. ari" intensive prefix. 

Sk. para [rolling] back (cf. xiXai), away, hence; pardk turned away; 

purd formerly, of o\A\purdnas ancient. Zd. para before. Gk. xp6 

adv., prep, with gen., before (of time) ; xap- neg. pref. ; xap-aiT^G) to 

deprecate; xap*atp£(i> to deprive. Lat. per neg. pref.; per-peram very 

badly; pro before (time). Goth, faimis ancient; faur-biudan to 

foT'hid, R. pro- pref. neg. ; pro-igrivat to lose at play ; Lith. par back. 

Ir. [p'^r defeat, ruin ; ar therefore ; Bret, per-hen ancient stock, race 

{sen). 

Sk. par-ui last year; par-uttnas last year's {vat to circle, fhoq year). 
-Gk. xip.uon. Dor. xip'UTi last year; xep-ucrtv6<; last year's; nepae^ivrj 



last year's death; Ilepcri-^aacra last year's glory (seed hidden in earth). 

M. H. G. vert, viment, vim last year, adv. Ir. [p]iiraid last 

year {riad circle); [p]Uratgid the spring begins; tir, liir cold ground, 
church-yard mold, evil; ilrde earthen, hiunan, fresh; icar cold; Hardn 
spring-well {panna). 

Sk. pal, \palv] to circle [stir, knead] (cf . plav, parv, purv) ; palvalas 

pool, pond; palalas mire. Gk. nT)Xeu^ circling sea (cf. Tpfcwv, 

'AitytTptnj) ; X7)X6^ earth, clay, mire, mortar; [pavl, pul], ^6'ko<; soot; 

4M>X6et^ unwashed clothes, mourning; oxIXeOo^, xlXeOo<; mire, dung. 

Lat. palus {-iidis) swamp (unda); paltistris swampy; puls^-tis) por- 
ridge (stirred); pullus soiled, dark, mourning. A. S. fullian to 

bleach; [s]p6l, pHl; M. H. G. pfuol pool, puddle. R. [poleso], pleso 

lake; Pelso ancient name of Lake Balaton. Ir. [p]elnim to splash, 

defile; W. pwl, Bret, potd pool, belly; O. C. Poliacus, 

Sk. [palv to rotmd, shape]; pdlavl round bowl; pul to roll up, heap, 

form; palas, fiesh. Gk. xg)Xo<; colt; xwXfov caul, [embryo], young 

animal, foal; ixfxXoov = c?men/wm; xXeiiiicov lung (filling, swelling). 

Lat. puUus cub, foal. Goth, fula, O. N./oK, fyl colt, filly. R. plot 

flesh, skin; O. R. plusti cheese; R. plotina dyke; plotnik carpenter 
(shaper); polotno cloth; pol sex; pleva membrane; polost cavity.- 



— 58 — 

Ir. [p]ul embryo; ulad [womb], tomb; ol [around], about, concerning, 
because. 

Sk. [palv], pill to roll up, [orb, dawn]; palitas gray, white-haired. 
•Gk. %6\o^ rolling sky; xeX(5<;, xeXitf<;, xeXt8v<(; (eBo(;) gray, leaden. 



livid, niXo^ dark-face, dawn; neX^aoY^t dark-skins; xeX-apftfi; [black- 
and-white] stork; xiXeta pigeon (gray); %o\i6^ gray, grizzled, foam- 
crested [sea]. Lat. pcUleo to be livid, pale; polio to polish; [p]lividus 

[bruised], black and blue, Uvid. A. S. fealav, O. H. G. falawu, 

O. N. folr fallow, tawny. O. R. plavu white; Lith. palvas fallow; 

pilkas ash-colored. Ir. [p]liath gray; luath ashes; luaidhe lead. 

Sk. pa, {palaydmi) to grasp, encompass; \pdlv to circle]; pil to 
twist, whirl, hurl; /n/ to [set stake], be firm, [fortify], obstruct, ward oflE. 

Gk. xtXo? felt, felt hat, shoes, mat; twist, ball; xiX&i> to make felt, 

compress, pack hard; xiXvoEo) to draw close, approach; xi^Xt)^ helmet 

(originally felt cap) ? Lat. pilleus, pileus felt cap. O. H. G. filz 

felt; 0. N. fiall mountain (enclosure, defence; cf. Goth, bairgakei). 

K.pulyah3]l. Ir. [pjiaU a thong; [p]aill high?; iall flock (guarded). 

Sk. pal to go round ; palas chaff, straw ; palyul to bathe, cleanse ; paldy 

to turn, flee; pil to hurl, whirl; ptltis arrow; pel to circle, revolve. 

Gk. x<X(i> to revolve, recur, exist; x<Xo(; pivot, hinge; xuXt) door, gate; 
xdXXa ball ; oxiXtfo) to splash ; ox(Xo(; stain ; ^eXX(S(; trembling, stammering. 

Lat. pila ball, mortar, stake, pillar; pilutn javelin ; palea chaff; pala 

winnowing shovel. O. H. G. spilla, Eng. spill, spile, pile rounded 

stake, peg; Ger. spHlen to eddy, wash, bathe; spielen to dance round, 

play; [s]Pfeil arrow; O. N. spilla to dash out, ruin, spoil. R. pyalit 

to glance round; p[v\il, flame, ardor, dust; pepel ashes; palit to blaze, 

flash, fire. Ir. [p]ilaU [whirling up] pride, burden; Hallann high; 

O. C. pilentum swift carriage; PiUo] Pili-gnus (son of roamer) ; Pilagus 
(Pelagius) merchant; PiUidcus; Billike trader's post (Billig near Trier; 
Germ, billig cheap) . 

Sk. palyul to twist, tear off, tear out; strip off, wash off; pel to 

whirl;/>^fcK;a5[twisted],fine-spim, thin, delicate. Gk. ^Xk6<; stripped 

bare, naked; ^iXtfo) to strip, rob; oxCXov cat-gut. Lat. pilus hair; 

pilo, spolio to strip, rob, pillage. A. S. fedlian, O. H. G. fildn to 

scrape, rasp, file; Ger. spvden to wash off. R. pilit to [pluck], tease, 

scratch, scrape, file, saw, twang; pila saw; Lith. piela, Pol. pilnik 

file. Ir. \p\l6, hair, flock of wool ; liim to revile, accuse; Bret, pilh 

naked ; pilhon rag. 



— 59 — 

Same roots. Gk. xiXXa [stripped] skin, leather; iciXat; skin; 

ipuaC-xeXag red-skin. Lat. pellis skin. Goth, ihruis-fill leprosy 

(scraped skin) ; yiZfeitw, O.H.G. /?//ln leathern. Ir. [p]aUan skinning- 

knife, sharp knife; altnide sharp; [p]loathar skin. 

Sk. [pabj], plav, [parv], parb to go round; plu (plavdmi, pupluve, 
causat. p.p. plavitas; intens. popluydmi) to [eddy], float, swim, sail, 
spAlen, wa^, dive, blow, soar, leap across, invade; plavas ship, swim- 
ming, leap ; plavagas frog (swinmier, leaper) ; plavin bird ; pravanas [flow- 
ing] down-hill, inclined, eager. Gk. xXfad (xXeuaojJLat, Ion. tcXoki)) to 

sail, swim, float, travel; %k6o<; voyage, journey, motion of snake; 
TXii>ce(; soaring, floating (birds, clouds) ; xXcdti^p sailor, swimmer; xXuvo) to 
wash ;xXuvn5p trough, tub ; BaxpuxXcoo) to blubber ; [xXa/rpa], Xaiipa channel, 
gutter, rione, alley ; nX6iGe8s(; rain-stars (like * Y(iSe(;) , appearing at evening 
in Sept. after summer drought (not the heliacal rising ; cf . Orion = winter- 
giant) ; S-xXoo(; unseaworthy ; xXi^jjlvy) hub (revolving) ; %kiloq abimdance 
of liquid (cf . TciXa^, xeXdt^o), xXdOo)) ; xXa8apd<; wet, watery, insipid ; xpTjvijg 

[easy course], down-hill. Lat. per-plovere to (flow through), leak; 

pluvia rain; pluit it rains; [plovesd], ploro to weep; [plavistrufn], plaus- 
irutn wagon; [p]linier canoe; po-ples [leaper], ham-string; pluma [wing], 
feather; redup. \po^pluo\ polluo to defile; prdvus [circling, turning, 
shying], inclined to evil ; [pravanus], prdnus down-hill, forward, falling 
forward; [pravas, protms], probus [steering, driving, guiding wtU], 
just, honest (cf. R.) ; [provus-per], prosper good time, lucky (cf. p. 56) ; 
[prav'brutn], probrum gee! driver's shout; abuse, imprecation; [prav*- 
verbium], proverbium directing, guiding word, proverb; [pravasa], prosa 
direct discourse, prose; [prav'vincia], provincia [wise grip, good driv- 
ing; cf. vincio; uncia handful], government, province. (Joth. flSdus 

river ; O. H. G. flewiu to float, wash ; fiiuzu to flow ; O. N. fiey swift boat ; 
fiiotr swift, ready ; fliodh girl; fldtti flight (flit, flutter, fluster); A. S. 

fledn to flee; fledtn flight. O. R. plovan, pluyan (inf. pluti) to sail; 

plavi ship; R. plot raft; pltUai to rove; plut vagabond; plevat to [foam], 
spit; plotua fish; pl[v]it to sail; pravit to [drive horse], rule, be just; 
pravda truth; pravleniy government; pleinyat to sweep into captivity, 
charm; plyasat to dance; [plavaM], plc£ tears; Lith. pVusti to fiood; 

plaukti to swim; plauyu to eddy, wash; plautis snuffling. Ir. [p]ld 

water; Z»fiJ [xXuvn^p, Itnter], water, pool, lake ;Z/(>cA-Knd Norway (fiord- 
water) ; loimm wave, draught, milk; liiatnatn flying; Ham boat, helms- 
man; lHaim to move the body; lHamnach roaming, leaping, volatile, 
fickle; lothor channel; loth mire; Bret, leuiat to steer; O.C. Pleveus 
(potter's name) ; Plavis river; plovum, ploutn Rhaetian plow on wheels 
^yrolese plof, Ger. Pflug) ; Provilidcus; Pravius, Pruvius, Probiacus. 



— 60 — 

Sk. plu, plav to eddy, flow, [pour]; [paru], parb to move round; 
purv, pur, pri to fill, be full; pul, pill to heap up, roimd up, be great; 
pur (p.p. pilritas, purnas) to bend bow, stuflE, stretch, round out, fill, 
satisfy; pri {prindmi, pipamti) to fill, satiate, be bountiful, encompass, 
guard; purus (Ved. pulus) much; pulas large; prdnas, purnas, full; 

pur, puris, puri, puratn town. Zd. par to fill; perena full. 

Gk. xoXu(; (xXe((i>v, xXetoroO much; x6Xtg town (melts with p. 55); 
[x]X(av exceedingly; [xpt)xpt)(;], xXi^pT)(; full, satiated; xXeupi, xXeupdv 
side, rib (bowed, tense) ; x((jlxXt)(jl( to fill; xXtjOug, xX^Go? crowd; xXIfbx; 
full ; xXouato? rich; xXoOto? [abimdance]. Wealth; nXouro? god of wealth; 
nXotiTwv king of Hades (mines); fi'xXerog boundless; [x]XTQvd(; trough, 
wine -vat; xXiQ|JL-|jLup((; full sea, high tide (tnarv, muria); [x]X^pog 
[superfluity], nonsense, chatter; xXi^v [overflow; all else]; except; 

more than; beyond; xXiQii-jxeXi^^ out of ttme, faulty, erring. Lat. 

im-pleo to fill; (O. Lat. ex-plenunt); plenus full; [pleves], plebes, plebs 
crowd (cf. plav) ; plUs ([plOsis], plUris) more; po-pulus people (renewing 
generations); poplar (roimding out after trimming); pulmo lung 
(filling out) ; polenta porridge (filling) ; [p]lautus, Plautus (rich) ; polleo 
to be [roimded, muscular], strong; Pollio; [P]Liris full stream (ri 
to speed) ; larix [overflow, resin], larch ; lorica chain-mail [resembling 

larch bark]. Goth, fulls full; fuUd fullness; filus much, many; 

flautan to be puffed up, boast; O. H. G. fol full; folk people; O. N. 
fidl much ; fidr lifetime, tree, wood (Eng. fir rotmding, filling, abies) ; 
fylki province; heap; fylking battle-array; fldr [xXeupa] moimd to 

keep hut dry; round, smooth surface, floor, F/«r. O. R. plunu full; 

pluku crowd, people; piemen tribe; R. polk regiment. Ir. [p]ldn 

full; ldn'd[n\mnas full-soul, wedlock; I6r plenty, abundance; coldr, 
galore in plenty; Idr {Flur) soil, centre; linaim to fill; lin [full] share, 
ntunber; I6n food, fat; com-alnaim to fill;/c?r-di7 abundance; 61 drink; 
il much; ilar crowd; oil great, almighty; ollam high-druid; ellam per- 
fection ; tor^n^ brood-mare; W. lloer, Cor. luur, Bret, loir moon (fulling, 
rounding; Lat. luridus—vaoonAit)', Bret. 0/ all; loir tub; puilh3bun6r 
ance; Ian full; landed fulness (plenitas); plou, ploeu clan, village 
(plebs); O. C. Ver-ulamium druid's glory; (Maidulf^maitA-oKaw?); 
Paulidcus, PoUdcus (fertile, PoilU, Pouilly; 75) ; Plaridcum, Plerindcus; 
Larius lake; Plinius (rich); Olana (full) mouth of Po; Olaura, OUius, 
Olillus (Ir. AililJ). 

Sk. [plav, parv], purv, pur to round, fill, stuff, make tense; sphar, 
sphal, sphur [to be full to bursting, tense, tightly bound, swell, round 
out], quiver, throb, burst, sparkle, flash out, twang, whirl, whirl up, 
rise, seek, be eager; sphdras swollen, large, loud; sphuras, sphuranam 



— 61 — 

quivering, jerking; vi-sphdritam speeding; bharv to shoot, kill; bhram 
to whirl, quiver, shake, roam, dash out; bhuris [swollen], much; 
bhrunas foetus [swelling in womb]; bhrun to [whirl, tremble], hope, 
fear; bhran to sotmd; bhri to tremble, fear, [swell out], feed; babhr to 

rove, roam; bharv, bharbh to [brandish], hurl. Gk. aica(p(i> to quiver, 

jerk, gasp; axapdaod^ to burst, rend, tear; aice(p(i> to [spark out], cast, 
scatter, sow, beget; oxipiia, oxopoE seed, sowing; oicelpa [jerked tight], 
coil of snake, cable, bond, twist, company; oxipTov reed, [binder, 
cxoivoq]; cable; oxupfg basket; xefpivg wicker chariot-body; oyaipa 
ball [jerked]; o^uptfv ankle [tense, sinew,]; o^Qpa hammer (stamping); 
[oxepva], xripva heel, footstep, ham-string, ham; xlpvr) ham; 9puvT) 
toad (hopper, spemo); 9upi(i), 9up<i) to [swell, roimd out, jerk], roll, 
knead, stir, mix; ^Xoeo) to press, crush, eat; ^Xti doorpost; xop^upo) 
to roll in waves; 9tapd<; nimble, gleaming (as wave); xop^upa purple 
(much stirred; the dye was spoiled if it came to a boil) ; fopuvo), fopuaao) 
to defile; ^cip rambler, vagabond, thief; 9(i)poE(i> to nm^nage, detect; 
9poup&i> to [make the rotmds], guard; 9pu(£<j<jo|jLat to snort, whinny, 
curvet, be in a heat; 9apo<; [whirled, wrapped], sheet, shroud, 
web, mantle; 9pi^v [jerking] midriflf, heart, solar plexus, passion, 
thought; [9plve(7i(;] passion, madness; fpovio) to [revolve], think, 
plan (bhrun) ; ^ip starling [nimble]; [<j]%6piq, xiprK; heifer, girl (frisky) ; 
x6pvT); ^a(p<i> to ripple, rustle, whisper, tickle; xraCpo) to [jerk], sneeze; 
[a]xT)ptf<i> to twist off, mutilate; xi^pa pouch (jogging; cf. quiver); 
[oxeXIa], xreXIa elm [rustling]; xriXag boar [rushing]; ofiXXo) to 
jerk, trip, hurl, cheat; o^iXkoq quoit; ic^oLk-f^q immovable, secure; 
09aXep6g [tripping], dangerous; 9(iXapa rattling ornaments; xeXe^iH^o) 
to quiver, strive, draw bow; ic6\e\L0<;, iQz6'ke\Loq war; xiXXa^ youth; 
xdcXXo(jLac to quiver, quake, leap; xiXXo) to aim, brandish, hurl; xaXjxi^ 
palpitation, vibration; xdcXo^ lot; xdXt), xatxaXt) dust, flour; xaX<z(a> to 
jerk, wrestle; xaXeuo) to trap, catch; (|;iQXa9de(i> to grip, grope (Stxro)); 
TaLkd\L-ri palm of hand, sleight, art ; xaXuvo), xaXdaao) to sprinkle ; xiX(jLa sole 
of foot ; <|;uXXa flea [nimble] ; ^eXXH^o) to [quiver], stammer ; ^|;aX(<; nippers, 
shears; (pdXXo) to cause to quiver, play lyre; 6(j^p(xho\t.(xi to snuff, scent 

(i euphonic). Lat. spiro to gasp, pant, breathe; adspiro to pant 

after, long for; sperno to kick; [sptemuto], stemuio to sneeze; spurius 
[kicked away ; not taken up by father], contemptible, false, illegitimate; 
Spurius light-foot; pario (peperi) to quiver, be in labor-pangs; a- />-/>ar^^ 
to flash out, to appear; aperio to fling open (cf. shut = shoot, slam); 
porro quickly, at once? parra pie (^^ip); perna ham-string, thigh; 
pem-ix swift; Calpumius (xiXXcd-xipvY) swift-shank); pero shoe, boot; 
{s]faUo to trip up, cheat; [s]ferio to slap, svciit%\ ferula reed; fur vaga- 
bond, thief; for-mica crumb-stealer, ant; furfur chaff; fullo to stamp, 



— 62 — 

trample; pello to [brandish, aim], hurl; palma pahn of hand; pcUam 
[on the palm, tnani-fesius], openly; pulmo Itmg; palpito to throb; 
pulpitum stage (trampled, stamped) ; palpo to grope, feel, grip ; pulpa 

[crushed], pulp; sporta basket (axipTov). A. S. spura heel; spora 

spur; spurnan, O. H. G. spordn to kick; O. H. G. spar footstep; 
spriu spray, chaflf; Goth, ferya tracker, ioe; fairinon to assail, accuse; 
sparva sparrow (^dp); [s]plinsyan to dance (cf.R.); O.N. spior spear; 
spira tiara; spilla to dash out, ruin; Mra wave (bharu); A. S. fellan 
to fell (o^oEXXo), xdXXo), pello); fell treachery; anger; declivity, hill 
(Fels cf. xirpa) ; /ear bull; heah-fore heifer (fcy to bound) ; O. N. /ob 
trick, cheat; fair grip, handle; fdlma to grope, tremble; flaumr over 
haste ; A. S. folm (O. H. G. volma) palm of hand ; O. Sax. fdlma to shake ; 
A. S. felan to touch [with palm], feel (cf. palpo); fldn arrow; fltt 
zeal; far sudden action, attack, start, danger, fear; O. H. G. ana-falz 

anvil {incudem), Lith. spirit, spardyti to strike out, thrust; spartas 

bond (oxiprov); R. spor quarrel; [fpev] branit to quarrel; pareniy 
soaring; paren lad, brisk; par [bubbling] steam; spertiy compressed; 
spletai to twist, bind; sprut cuttle-fish; portit to burst, spoil; por[v]iv 
a start, dash; pryast to spin; pryalka spindle; pryatat to roll up, hide; 

plyasat to dance. Ir. [sptrennim], srennim to snore; [spron], sr&n 

nose; [p]ldfn hand; Idtnain to try, venture; bdire hurling match (oyalpa, 
spidr); bara wrath; borr proud, mad; bronnaim to dash out, lavish, 
vanish; brden drops, rain, [tears]; brdn sorrow; bulle a blow; bullech 
pugilist, bully; Gael, spaim gasp; W. brennyn king; param to make 
an effort; Com. spar to box; Bret, parrot to dodge, parry, escape; 
spem thorn; spirein to reach, attain; barnein (9pov&i)) to estimate, 
judge; barren legal bar; baron, judge; lammein to snatch; lam start, 
fall {palma, pello) ; O.C. sparos dart; Porios, Poros, Sporus (charioteer) ; 
Parr a, Paronnus, Pariditis, Spams; Spira (Speier) = post-station; 
Barc{n], Baroniusf 

Sk. sphar, sphal, sphur to quiver, flash, glitter, twang (bowstring) ; 
bharVf barh to injure; bal to cut off, strike; to dash out, explore; 

phdlas plowshare. Gk. ^aklq shears ? 9<f po(; plow ; 9apoE(i) to plow ; 9<5pxe(; 

ftirrows; 9apx(<; wrinkle; ^ipoq, ^ipuyS cleft, gulf, maw; ^dpaf^ cleft, 
ravine (cf. R.); ^iXay^ log; ^6p%\j<; abyss. Hades, depth of sea (marine, 
infernal and dawn god like Poseidon ; his daughters were the Gorgons) ; 

90px<g [foaming, dawning], gray; 9<fp<Jog slice; ^opfvr) hide (skinned). 

Lat. ferio to strike, cut; for-fex [slit-maker]; for-pex [fleece-slitter], 

shears; furca [cleft], mountain gorge (Furculae Caudinae). A. S. 

[s]furh, O. H. G. furuh ftirrow? Goth, biari wild beast (tearing) ; A. S. 
berian to strip, empty, make room (entbehren) ; 0. N. berya to strike. 



— 63 — 

assail; berr stripped, bare; bidm bear, warrior; bdlkr beam, section. 

R. [barit], brit to shave; bars panther; birka cut, shape; biriok wolf; 

burka short cloak; balka ravine; hewed-timber (foEpay^, ^dikaf^), 

Jr. berraim to chop, cut short ; berran pain ; berna chasm ; bir spit, goad ; 
broi sting; Bret. 6^ short; 6^, bir spit, arrow, pang; O. C. Beranes 
pike-men; birros short cloak; Birro, Birrtus, 

Sk. sphur to jerk, whirl, swell ; bhrunas foetus [coiled in womb] ; bhrun 
to [whirl, tremble], hope, fear; bhri to fear;6Aan; to [hurl, whirl] shoot; 
bcarb to rove, roam; babhrus [stirred clay, wallowing], tawny; barbaras 

[dizzy], stupid. Gk. ^updw, 9up(i> to mix, stir, knead; fupajia dough; 

fttp vagrant; 9optivci), 9opi5<ja<i) to whirl, defile; 9plap (-aTO<;) well (pipe, 
bore, welling water) ; ^^peoTTO) court of exiles (interdiction of water) ; 
9ttXig coiling, hibernating; 9(i)Xetf^ den; 9aOXo(; lazy, wretched, worth- 
less; flp^ to [roam], pasture, feed, guard; 9opM pasture, ^op^iq, 
brood-mare; 9X1^ (9X6^(S(;) pulsating vein; ^dp^iTot; lyre; ^tfp^opo(; mire 

(xop9upw); pdpPapo?, stammering, foreign. Lat. foro to bore; 

forum market place (circUng, crowded, or 6upa) ; ferveo to boil up ; 
IfervimetUutn], fermentum yeast; furvus, fulvus, flavus tawny [wallow- 
ing]; balbus stammering; bullio to boil up; bulla bubble; [9upa(i.a], 
fomus hot iron (malleable, doughy, welding) ; foT'Ceps tongs {capio) ; 
\jm>'5e\, fruor to [wrap one's self in, coil up, rest], enjoy (melts with 

JTug to grasp, gather). A. S. borian, O. H. G. pordn to bore; Goth. 

brunna, A. S. burna spring, well (boiling up, cf. O. H. G. sSt from 
siodan) ; Goth, brinnan, A. S. brinnan, beomian to [whirl], blaze, bum ; 
Goth, brinno fever; brunyo armor; A. S. brUn sun-burned, brown; 

Mr sleeping room (coiling place); Eng. blob; blubber (9X4<|;). R. 

bwomi to bore; borov boar (wallowing, wheeling, cf. Ir. torc)\ buran 
whirlwind; burlit to whirl; bur den; bur[v\iy tawny; brevno tree-trunk 

(rounded). Ir. bril brim; brd mill-stone; brad roar of sea; bred, 

bruih flame; brUim to grind, crush; berbaim to boil, borb mire; burbe 
folly (dizziness); barrfad rage; barr[v] [round] head; bruinne breast 
(cf. brunna) ; W. brynn, Bret, brenn round hill; W. beryn turban, head 
(Bret. barr)\ Bret, birein to swirl, flow; boar [dizzy], deaf; berUein 
to boil ; burben a boil ; O. C. briva brae, bank ; Isaro- briva wharf of Isfere ; 
^orvo, Borbo, Bonno god of hot springs; Aquae Borbonis; BorbeiO" 
»wgKs; Cuno-barrus high-head; Barro*vindus white-head; Barranius. 

Sk. sphur to quiver with fullness; bhri to quiver, fear, [roimd out], 
feed; bhrunas foetus; bhri (bhardmi, bibharmi) to bear (originally of 
gestation, child-birth [rotmding out, quivering], then of child in arms) ; 
to carry, support, notuish, keep household, hire; bhritis wages; bhrityas 



— 64 — 

servant; bharas, bhdras load; bharanam food, support, bru {bravimi) 

to [flash out], speak? Zd. bar to cany, bear. Gk. ^Ipo) to give 

birth, produce, effect, bear, help, pay; ^fproro? most profitable, best; 
^iperpov bier; 9dcpeTpa quiver; ^opi pay, crop, sweep, motion of ship; 

9<5pog tribute; ^fpvr) dower; 9op<? fruitful; l|jL-^puov foetus. Lat. fero 

to bear; fertilis, ferdx fertile; far barley; fert it is profitable; farina 
meal ; farrago hodge-podge, minestra ; referre to report ; ferre sententiam 

to speak judgment; efferre to utter. Goth, bairan to give birth, 

produce, carry, bear; bam child; berusyos parents; barizeins barley 
(adj.); ga-baur payment, collection; ga-baurs feast; A. S. bere barley; 

beria berry. Lith. bemas child; O. R. brati to take, bear; breimen 

burden; R. bor millet; barin head of family, master Q)haranain). 

Ir. 6mm to bear; coim-bert conception; do-berim to give; as-berim to 
utter; [co-berim], cobraim to help; fd-bairim to attack; arbar army; 
com; ad'bur material, cause; bratach [borne] standard; brat cloak; 
Bret, bara bread; O. C. BratU'SpafUiufn = the spreading of the banner? 

Sk. bhri to bear; bhrdtri brother (carrying baby, cf. dhdtri bearer, 

mother; svasri [svrisvrt] lullaby, sister; i^0elo(;). Zd. brdtar. 

Gk. 9pdrcpa, 9paTp(a sept, clan; 9patTTQp clansman; 9pT5Tt)p brother 

(Hesych). Lat. frdter; frdtemtis; frdtria brother's wife. Goth. 

brdthar; plu. brdthrahans brethren (see ekas) ; O. H. G. pruodar. 

O. R. bratru, bratu; Lith. broterelis (dim.), brolis brother; brottishis 

cousin; 0. Pr. bratis. Ir. brathir; Bret, bredir brother, brediah 

fraternity. 

« 

Sk. sphal [to be full to bursting], to quiver, burst, flash out; phal, 
phul, phull to burst forth, bud, blossom, fruit, open, spread; phullas 
blooming; pal, pall to [whirl]; pallavas bud, sprout; paldgam leaf; 
pulakas bristling, eager, ardent; phakun fruit; [bhal], bal to round out, 
nourish; to [burst out], shoot; balam force; bdlas, bdldkas [nursling] 
pigmy, child; bhil, bit to burst, split; phaUxm, bhallas [bursting, flash- 
ing] arrow ; bhal, bhall to shoot. Gk. 9Xdci) to compress, crush ; ^eXXeu^ 

rent rocks; cliffs, Cleveland; [cJ9t)Xu5], axTJXuy?, omjXatov fissure, cave; 
oxtXcig cave, rent rock, slab; 9t5Xiq5 [rock-splitter], wild-fig; 9tjXi^ty)(; 
sharper, cheat; xqXu? rent, cleft; xlXexu^ axe; xeXexfi? woodpecker; 
iceXexdv pelican; 'icafxaXov crag, chasm; <^{k'k6q cork-oak [burst bark]; 
9tXupa linden, linden-bast; adj. 9tXuptvo(; (fp^vo(; skin; cf. tilia, tillo); 
9aXX<5^; lx9Xua), lx9Xa(va> to burst forth, gush, spirt; [9u4Xt)], 9cdtXT) 
libation bowl; 9dXXatva (balaena) whale; 9dXatva moth [spark from 
bursting brand]; ^aXovelov (balneum) hot and shower bath; 9X0(1), 
9Xuapl(i> to boil over, babble; 9Xaupo(; petty, wretched; 9Xot(5(; [split] 



— 65 — 

bark, bast, membrane; 9Xot9^0(; bursting, crash; ^tiXXov [budding] 
foliage, leaf, petal; 9(X&i> to kiss [with pouted lips]; to love (cf. fUTcdo), 
ftrutt, exchange of u and t); fXlox; water-plant; fXio) to teem, babble; 
fXu2dtt>, 9Xi5deii> to overflow; ^\6uii to [repress swelling], crush; fXdl^o) to 
burst out, crash; 9p(it^(i> to [brood], think; to [burst out] utter; 9paBi4 
understanding; 9poE(7C(; utterance; ^poEt^o) to boil; ^pul^o) to brew; ^Xuo), 

^XiXji^ to gush; 9Xu54a> to be wet; pXaoroiva) to bud, grow (vridhl). 

Lat. flo to blow; afflatus, afflamen inspiration; fldmen priest (voice of 
the god); flemina blister; fldbrum fan; blandtis soothing, flattering; 
flo'S flower; flo-reo to bloom; Flora (Osc. Fluusa); fluo to gush out, 
flow; fieo to weep; flutnen river; fltictus wsLve; frtior (fructus) to [teem, 
abotmd], enjoy ; fructus rounded fruit ; frumentutn com ; frutex, frutice- 
turn, fruietum [luxuriance], jungle, brushwood; blatta bug (teeming); 

blatero to chatter; boZoena whale. A. S. bldvan to bloom; bldvan 

to blow; bled blue (wind-blown sky) ; blaest blast; O. N. bldna to turn 
blue; bldsa to blow; Goth, uf-baulyan, uf-blesan to puff up; balthyan 
to be bold ; blauthyan to smear, blot ; bleiths [welling up], compassionate, 
mild (blithe, bliss, bless) ; blotan to [be bountiful], sacrifice; bloth blood; 
brusts breast (swelling with milk) ; bloma flower ; O. N. blossi flame ; A. S. 
a-blisian to blush; O. H. G. bldtara bubble, leaf; A.S. bredvan to brew; 
bill, O. H. G. biUi, bial cleaver, sword, axe (bhil, bil to split); O. H. G. 

billdn to split; A.S. bealu deadly. O.R. blendan to chatter; blehdi 

cheat, trifle; R. blud fornication; balovat to dote, indulge. Ir. 

bktih, bldn flower; blad fame; bled whale (blowing); bUn^inguen\ 
bolad scent; bias taste; bliadain [fruitful] year; blonac [melting] suet; 
belly; bel, biail axe; at-bail he perishes (criver); inf. epeUu death; 
bil, bilri [parting] lips (9iXI<i>); W. blain fountain; Bret, bleuein to 
bloom; blkuen [growth], foliage, hair; blein summit, crest; blaid (W. 
blawd) active, brave; bleid wolf; blod soft, sweet, ripe; blaz odor; taste; 
bUn warm; blinder luxurious; bliad harvest, com, year (bled, bU); 
0. C. Bladus, Blandina, Blaesius, Blaius, Blannia, Blesus, Blestus, 
Blussus (blooming); Bledo, Bledinus (wolf); Belatucadros'^MsLTS 
(at'baU). 

Sk. sphar, sphur to be tense, quiver, flash out; spri to protect, be 
eager, live; pri to fill, satisfy; pri (priye, d-pritas) to haste round, 
[hand round], be busy; caus. to receive portion, take possession.^^ 
Gk. Ixopov gave, offered; xixpoirac it has been given, appointed, 
allotted; xopaiivo) to offer, prepare, provide, effect, care for, adore; 
Tcpdtt, xipvT)(i.t to sell, deal; xpori^p de-aler; xopd^o) to furnish, supply, 

effect; xtxpdcoxo) to sell; xpiaao) to be busy. Lat. pars (partis), 

portio [allotted] portion; op-portunus [on hand for share of work], 
5 



— 66 — 

opportune ; o^portet it is meet, right ; pretium [appointed] price ; inter' pres 
(-etis) go-between, agent; paro to prepare; [sen-per], semper a long time, 
forever (^enold); [sen-per-aev-termnus], sempitemus eternal; [parvum" 
per], parumpersL little while; Umbr. [Pars-venna], Por senna kind allot- 

ter. O. N. faera to offer; faerr ready, prepared; )Mr ransom, money. 

Lith. pelnas desert, reward; pelnau to earn; R. pora [allotted] 

time; platit to sell. Ir. [p]renim to sell; [arrenim], 6mim to give, 

spend; rH possession, thing; Com. parys ready, prompt; pret (W. pryt) 
time; Bret, ^amn to proportion; parereh pay-day; [p]ret needful; O.C. 
Parisii busy, merchants. 

Sk. pri to fill; /^i to help to food, be busy, caus. to take possession ; 
spri to cheer, be gracious, protect (cf . R.) ; pri {pdraydmi) to nourish ; 
pri iprindmi) to exhilarate; pri (prindmi) to enjoy, love; priyas 
delightful, enjoyable, beloved; pritis joy, pleasure, love; prentan love. 

Zd. [sphri]f frt to love, esteem; frya beloved, friend. Gk. 

%pl<x\}.(xi to [love, redeem, desire, acquire], to buy (wife, slave, animal) ; 
[acpT)/:u(;], xpiQU(;, Tcpadq, xpdo<; kind, gentle, mild, tame; xpauvb> to 
soothe, calm, tame; np(a(jLO^ gentle, twiUght, redeems his sister 'Hot-tfw} 
(sweet repose, evening star), from Hercules the sim, with whom 
she had vanished as morning star; his wife is the moon *E%i-^r^ (roam- 
ing afar, cf . 'Exdrn)) . His son Ilipc^, like other morning-stars is exposed 
and lost in infancy, and bears 'EXIvtq (aeXi^vr)) the new moon to become 
the old moon in the east; like Telemachus, Paris is far-darting with 
his bow (sphar to quiver) ; xpfo) to [enjoy, devour], gnash, clash teeth, 

saw. Lat. privus portion of favored guest (Hor. Ep. i, i, 92); 

private possession; privo to [desire], snatch for one's self, deprive; 

praemium {fireman) favor, reward. Goth, friyon to love; frauya 

[portion-bestowing] lord; friyei freedom; fraiv seed, posterity; O. N. 
Freya spring; fridhr love, peace ;/rvnn joyful, beguiling; /ria to make 

love. 0. R. priyati to provide, care for; priycUeli friend; R. priyotit 

to protect; priyazn affection; priyatniy charming. Ir. [p]rath 

chieftain's bounty, grace; Bret, pried husband, wife; Cor. gur-priat 
bridegroom ; W. [p]rwydd free. 

Sk. sphar to quiver, flash out; spri to live, be eager; pri to give 
portions, be active, busy; pri (piparmi) to [shoot beyond], lead across, 
outgo, go beyond (cf. tri); pur to go before, lead; paras excellent, 
noble, farther; another; paramas beyond; farthest; noblest, best 

(superl. form) ; par to reach the end, fulfil, accomplish. Zd. par to 

carry over; hu'peretu (su) easily crossed. Gk. xepdeo) to sail, carry 

over; xipag, lleipau6<; end, botmdary, goal, home-harbor; xepden). 



— 67 — 

xepacoq the farther shore; i-xeipi(7C0(; endless; x6po^, xop6(i.6(; pas- 
sage, ferry, ford, strait; xepdeo) to push through, endeavor, try a chance; 
xe(po to bore through; xeptfvr) bodkin, brooch; xptf(i.o<; first man, 
chief, leader; Ilipiieva^, IlaptJLevki); xpi(JLyoy root [pushing into the 
earth], bole, trunk, depth ;xpu(&v6(; the lower part, farthest end, bottom; 

xp6\Lva base of mountain, stem of ship. Lat. per through; porto to 

carry [across, home]; partus harbor; porta [city] gate; Osc. perum 
beyond, outside; Lat. experior to seek the end, push on, try; expertus, 
peritus experienced; periculum peril, experiment; primus first; promus 
headman, steward; prento to push forward; parma shield; [per-rego], 
per go to go straight toward; [P]Romulus looking forward, leading; 
[P\Remus returning, looking backward (Lat. re- p. 57; Ir. reti^- 
infra); Prometheus and Epimetheus, Antevorta and Postvorta, 
morning and evening stars. Like other morning stars (Hippolytus, 
Orpheus, Absjrrtus), Romulus is torn in pieces, i.e, gradually vanishes. 
Roman mythology was moral and allegorical after the Hesiodic type, 
and delighted in philosophical dualisms, while retaining traces of the 

primitive nature myths; twin horsemen; p. 7. Goth, from forward; 

faran to go; faryan to sail across; fairra afar; fruma, frumists first; 
O. H. G. ar-faru to experience; O. N. fdr danger; fior life; fir man; 
fim marvel (wander, wonder); fiordhr fiord (highway); forma to 
[press], form; aim [at goal]; frum in the first place; fram forward; 
from from (thrust forward) ; A. S.fremman to press forward, be diligent 

(fromm); to frame, effect; O. Ger. /raw^a lance. Lith. pirm before; 

pirmasGrst; pro- through, completed ; R. pryamo straight forward. 

Ir. [pyem before, former; old time; remes period; [p]ar to the end that, 
in order that; Bret, pariti completed; O. French prim, prin piercing, 
shrill, eager; Eng. prim exacting, precise; Ger. Pfriem awl; O. C. 
Primiacus^ Praemiacus, Primniacum, Princus; Remi (primores), 
RemmiuSf Remulius; Romilidcus (22); Re-gulbium projecting beak. 

Sk. pri to [shoot beyond]; paras opposite bank; pdram goal, end; 

paras [opposite bank], another, farther; paras opponent, foe. 

Gk. xopde prep, [opposite bank, parallel]; by the side, compared with, in 
alternation, contrary to, along, to the side, past, beyond; dat. by 
the side, in front; gen. from the side, from the presence; xapeii 

cheek (a pair, parallel)? Lat. par parallel, even, equal, a pair; 

paries wall of room (parallel); pareo to align one's self, obey officer; 
op-perior to wait for another; per-mtU'O to exchange; [par] equal 

portion of time (sem'per, parum'per), Goth, fera region, side; 

A. S. sporran, O. H. G. sperran, sparian to bar against, bolt; O. N. 
spar bar; fiar shore; /rd in regard to, from the side of. Ir. [p]ar over 



— 68 — 

against, opposite; [p]ara charioteer (by the side of combatant); 
ar-aile the other; Bret, or on, upon; O. C. para-veredus trace-horse; 
Are-late on the bank; Are-morici by the sea; Are- genua at the mouth. 

Sk. same roots; prl to shoot beyond, reach opposite shore; paras 
opposite, farther, excellent ; paramas farthest, best ; pur to go before, 
lead; pra-- before; prathatnas first; prdtar early dawn; [pravas, parvas], 

purvas before, former, first, eastern. Zd. fra, frd. before, forward; 

\parmra], padirya first. Gk. xp6 before; icp6Tepo<;= prkTr; xpCnoq 

^primus; [pravas]^ icp<i)t dawn; xpcJliQv, xpiv lately, day before yes- 
terday; xpCv before, formerly; xptfaoco, xp(S(7(i), xtfpaco, xtfpp<i> forward, 
on, afar; xp6Taevc<; prince; 'xp(ov headland; [xpo*6p(i(i>, xp(Supa], xp^pa 
prow, [look-out]; [tpa/:a9u<;, xpaa/:eu(;], xplv^ug (also xpiafu^, Cretan 

xpetyui;) foreman, elder; xpea^eug representative, ambassador. 

Lat. pro before; prae in front; priar^ primus former, first. O.H. G. 

furiro former; furisto prince; fruo early. O.R. pra-, pro-, prei- 

before; pruvyi (R. perviy) first; Lith. pror- before. Ir. \p\ro-, ru- 

verbal prefix of past time; ro- intens. pref.; ro-char very dear; ro-rig^ 
supreme king; rom early; \pyoss promontory {6s high) ; O.C. Ru-ricius^ 
Re'rig'onius. 

Sk. paras another, opposite, farther; praii toward, to, by, after; 

pros to extend. Gk. xpofC, xopxC, xp<g with ace. towards, unto, to; 

dat. by; gen. in the presence of [the god], from [the presence]; Hom., 

Dor. xot( attracted by x^Te. Lat. prod-eo to go before. Goth. 

fraisan to venture, dare {Frisii) ; O. N. freista to push forward, venture; 

frestr until, period of delay, Frist. 0. R. proti, prqtivan, Lett. 

preiti unto, to ; R. proti, protiv against. Ir. [p]niss face, coimtenance, 

cheek ; frith towards. 

Sk. prefix prar- before, forward, extremely, melting with dp to 

touch; prd-dp, prdp to attain, [make ends meet]. Gk. x6pxi] ring, 

fastening, buckle; xtfpxa^ ring, handle of shield; horse-buckle; xopxdiii 
to buckle, fasten tight; xpax(8e<; [stretched-tight], the midriff, solar 
plexus; xplx(i> to [fit close], be seemly, decent; to be [grasped], perceived; 

to be a fit, a match, to resemble. Lat. proprius [fitting closely, 

exactly], one's own ; prope dpropsimus], proximus) [meeting hoop-ends], 
near, nearly, nearest (cf . Ir. nasc ring ; next) . Ger. [s]Pfropf [tight- 
fitting] plug; Eng. prop (wedge, wedged in); O. N. plumpr pltmip, 
rounded out, snug-fitting. 

Sk. sphur to jerk, [twist, whirl]. Gk. xptJXtq ring-dance, sword- 



— 69 — 

dance ;xpuX<eg combatants, footmen, throng. Lat. proelium press of 

battle; prelum wine-press. Eng. to [s\purl, (Sw. pur la) to flow 

round, [wash, produce pebble, pearled barley], pearl, (0. N. perla); 
to prowl ? f tirl ? frill ? sprawl ? 

Sk. sphar to [twist, whirl]; bhram to wander rotmd, whirl, revolve, 

shake, be excited; bhratnaras bee, (roving, buzzing). Gk. ^op\t.iXjui 

to play the lyre; 9ip|AiT§ lyre; 90pii.<5(;, 9opii.(ov round basket, mat, 
mantle, fagot; P<piAa§, Piip|i.a5 ant (rambler, prowler cf. |Jlup|jliq5, marv 
to go round); ^piyui) to surge, sound, ring out; Pp^og roar, blast; 
Ppt(ido(jLat to snort, rage; 5^po(i.o<; noiseless; 9pc(i.(iaao(jLai to snort, be in 

a heat; ^dcpiwexov philtre, charm, drug. Lat. fremo to rage; fremitus 

roar, blast, yell; bruma winter solstice, winter ("interior gyrus"; 

OT brevissima) . Goth, barms [fold, lap], bosom (erbarmen); O.N. 

barmr brim, bosom; A. S. breme far-famed; Oer. brummen to roar, 

mutter. Ir. breman [circling] time; Cor., Bret, bram rumbling, 

peditus; O. C. Bremenion, Bremetenacum, 

Sphar, sphur to swell, roimd, burst, flash out; spardh, [sphardh, 
phardh, bhardh] to [whirl round race-track], rival, contend, overtake, 
be eqtial to (cf. mish); bharts to threaten, terrify, mock; bhran to 
sound; [s}prid to rejoice; prith to hurl, toss round, spread about; 
prithak scattered, separate; prithivi earth [circling, wide-spread]; 
prithus broad, wide; prithu- front having broad flanks, sides; prath 

to be spread, wide-known, celebrated; caus. to spread, celebrate. 

Gk. fpou5og [hurled afar], banished, fled, vanished; ^pev06o(JLac to 

strut, be arrogant. Lat. frendo to rage, roar, gnash; fordus swelled, 

rotmd, pregnant; fors, fortuna luck (dashing, sprinkling favors; van 

to be agreeable); fortis [dashing], brave; baUeum [circling] belt. 

(joth. spaurds (O. H. G. spurt) race-track; blandan to whirl round, 
circle, stir, mix; blinds [dizzy, confused], blind ; O. N. blunda to coil up, 
deep ; Dan. y-bland in the midst ; Goth, braidyan to spread out, broaden ; 
[to twist, coil, braid]; O. N. Baldr triumphant spring; bardh brim, 
circle, boundary, border, shield, beard (face-shield) ; bradha (of ravens) 
to circle, rob, tear; broddr [whirling], dart; brudhr bride (seized, borne 
away, Goth, bruths); braudh bread (roimd cake); brandr firebrand; 
sword; A. S. blaed force, fame; byldan to shape; to embolden; bold 
hall; hrytnian to hand rotmd, be liberal, pay; bredtan to rush, burst, 
break; bryd bride; brid bird (in nest); O. H. G. bild form, image. 

R. balda [whirling] club ; bludyashkiy wandering ; bliodo rotmd dish ; 

hronitto shout, revile (6/tran); 6ran war; brodit to circle, roam; bredit 
to be delirious, mad; brod ford (broad water). Ir. bruden court of 



— 70 — 

palace (ring-wall); bUredack roaring; brand knuckle (striking out); 
bran raven (bhran) ; Bret, brudein to shout, proclaim, preach, make 
famous (melts with bretai); brundellat to bellow, rumble; broud 
javelin; burhud miracle, [famous]; burtellcU to whirl; W. brennyn 
king (war-lord); O. C. bardus bard (Ir. bard, W. bardd. Cor. barth, 
Bret, barz); Burdigala famous harbor, [burd-\-cale; cf. Cale, Partus 
Cole, Partumgale (Portugal)]; Burdo (orator); burda ass (braying); 
French baurdon great bell; baurdonner; O. C. Brennus warrior, king; 
chiefs wore stuffed ravens on their helmets; Corvinus brought down 
his adversary's over his eyes. 

Same roots. Sk. prith to hurl, toss round, spread out (tent etc.) ; 
prithtis circUng, wide, broad; prithim the earth; prath (prcUhdmi, 
prathaydmi) to spread, make famous; prithus, (comp. praihiyas) broad; 

praihiman breadth. Zd. frathanh breadth. Gk. xXIOpov, oclXeOpov, 

xXIGptov a circular running track; the distance round it; the enclosed 
surface as land meastire ; xXeBpH^o) to nm, to brag ; ixiXe6po<; unbounded ; 
xaXdOr) drum of figs; xXani^ broad, flat; xXdrn) blade of oar, winnowing 
shovel; xXdcTovog plane tree (rounding bole); xXdlOavov dish; xIXtt] 
circular shield; naXX(i(; (-<48o(;) goddess of circular heaven, typified 
by her shield; v. 'AGt^vy) and TptTwvfi; (round horizon); xopOlo) to 
ravage round (spardh); xpijOo) to blaze, blow, inflate; xptjOTi^p whirl- 
wind, lightning. Lat. pratum [enclosed] meadow; palatum circular 

chimney-cover, palate of mouth ; Pales{-^tis) goddess of folds ; Palatium 
ring- wall, sheep-fold ; planta {braad\ sole of foot ; sprout at foot of tree, 
sucker; plaudo to clap the hands, applaud; \p]ldtus hro^iA (melts with 
sthalam); [p]latus flank, side {prithu-frani); later flat tile, thin brick; 

plantdga plantain (broad leaf). Goth, falthan to curve, fold; O. N. 

falda to wrap, encircle, Sidom ; feldr tunic; flatr flat; fladra to stroke, 
soothe, flatter; fald round earth (prithtvi); fald sheep-fold; fardha to 

protect; A. S. feld enclosed field. R. plodit to round out, form fniit; 

plad fruit; prud ^ond\ platok neckerchief; palaika tent. Ir. [p]lethan 

broad, wide; lethaim to extend, widen, halve [between two sides]; 
leth side, half; lethet breadth, likeness (one side to other) ; lethe shoulder- 
blade; s[p]reith meadow; Bret, led breadth; O. C. Litavis goddess = 
Prithtvi; Litavia [continent], Brittany; Litavicus (Gael. Ludovick); 
Can-victa- litavis = conqueror of the earth. 

Same roots; Sk. spardh to race, rival, triiunph; prid to rejoice; 
prith to shoot, toss round, scatter; prithukas young; pard to [be 

noisy, burst out], pedere, Gk. x6pTi(;, x6pTa5 heifer, young girl 

(p. 6i); xap04vo<; maiden; xlpSt^ partridge (merry, noisy); xlp8o|xat 



— 71 — 

pedere; xXfvOog tile, brick [shivering; cf. brick, break]; [x]X(6oc 

[hurled] stone (cf. lapis). Lat. splendeo to flash, splinter, fly in 

sparks; explddo to burst in sparks; planta a sprout; pertica sprout, 

sapling, vineyard pole. Goth, frathyan to be quick-witted, wise; 

froths wise; frodei wisdom; fratvyan to adorn, equip; A. S. frdtue 
ornament, weapon ; spryttan to sprit, spirt, sprout, bud ; Ger. spriessen, 
spritzen; Sprossbaum spruce-tree; (cf. pertica) \ to sport; sprat; O.N. 
spretta to leap; spordhr fish-tail; [s]prydha to deck; prudhr proud, 
polite; A. S. pryta pride, dashing, display; prdttig pretty; Ger. Pret 
game; A. S. fretan to gnash, nibble, fret; flint flint (xX(v6og, 
X(BtK> spark-stone) ; Eng. to split, splinter, splutter, flit, flutter, floun- 
der, flinders; Goth, spilda tablet (split). R. spletnikat to dance, 

sport, trifle; plita flat stone. Ir. s[p]lind a tile (xX(v6o<;); sridim to 

hurl; spr^d spark; [sp\lond impetuous, fierce; land decoration, crown; 
Bret, splann flashing, brilliant, evident; lonnein to rage; spleit to be 
profitable; O. C. parada decoration, awning, court-galley; Plandida, 
Pladia, Plendus, Pelendones, Pritto; [Land-dinium], Londiniutn daring, 
sea-faring town. 

Sk. plu, pru to eddy, go round; pri to pass round, help to food, 
be busy, eager; to feed, make happy ; spri to watch, guard, make happy, 
encircle, protect; plih to go round, circle; plihan spleen [oval]; sparg 
to embrace, grasp, form ; prik, prink, pri^, pfi^^ to bring ends together, 
twist together, join, mingle; sprif to touch, touch with water, splash, 
wash face, bathe; caus. to cause to touch, cause to take, give; sparga 
touch, [spray, refreshment], breeze; sprih to seek to touch, desire, 
seek after; prish to splash, sprinkle, water, refresh; prush to sprinkle, 
pour, fill, satisfy, love, [sparkle], blaze; pros to spread, swell, beget; 
plush, plus to distribute food; to bum; plaksh to desire, to eat; 
[sphranh, phranh], bhrans, bhrang, bhrag to [splash, whirl away, round, 
down], to fall, slip; caus. to dash down, cast away, deprive; bhra^^, 
bhri^ to whirl before the fire, broil, parch; bhringas bee (whirling, 
stinging, burning); bhrdg, bhrd^, bhre^, bhldg to sparkle, flash, shine; 
hkresh, bhlish to whirl, tremble, fear; bhlaksh to [bum, consiune], eat; 
sphurMh [to be whirled as spark, be dizzy], forget; sphur^ to whirl [of 
wind], rage, thunder; [to twist, be tense, turgid]. 

Sk. plif plih to go round ; plu, to eddy, float round ; plihan, plihd, 

plihan spleen (ovoid, swelling) ; sprih to desire. Zd. gpereza spleen. 

Gk. oxXi^v spleen; aicXt)vfov bandage, compress; aicXT)v6o(i.at to be 

swollen, distended (by blood) ; ctcX^yx^^^ intestines (liver, kidney, 
lungs, bowels); oxXayxvOioiiat to yearn, be compassionate. Lat. 



— 72 — 

[sp]Uen spleen; [sp}renes kidneys. O. N. lungu, O. H. G. lungA, hm- 

gina lung. O. R. slezena spleen; R. sUza tear (swelling, welling, 

pitiful); Lith. [sphlus^nis], blwshnis spleen. Ir. s[p]glg spleen; Bret. 

felh spleen; [felhan], felon, swelling, inflammation. 

Same roots; Sk. sphur^ to [round out, swell against pressure, be 
compressed; to burst out], flash, thunder; sphur^aycU roaring, rattling, 
raging; vi-sphur^ to storm; bhura^ to [burst with steam], boil; bhur^as 
birch tree (swelling, bursting its bark; with white bark; used for writ- 
ing) ; bhuri^au shears [slitting, peeling fleece from sheep as bark from 

tree]. Gk. OTcapydea) to swell, be distended with milk, sap, passion; 

Ofpifdeci) to swell with milk, passion; i-oxipoYog, ia^ipafog asparagus, 
shoot [swelling, bursting]; ofpafd^a) to compress, press, seal; ofpayC^ 
seal; axapfaev^o) to compress, swaddle; axipfoevov swaddling-band; 
afapayld) to burst, hiss, roar, groan; oyiapoeYiG) to rumble, burst, thimder, 
crash; fpuiaoco to neigh; fpCaao) to bristle up, bristle against, swell with 
passion, shiver with passion, cold; (Sk. hrish)\ $p(^oq morning sun 
(btirsting, bristling with rays) ; borne across the river of night by the 
golden ram (morning cloud) ; loses Helle (new moon, aeXi^vr)) on the 
way; ^Xi-^^ci phlegm [bursting forth, ejected]; 9aX(iYYtov [binding, 
tearing] spider; 9(iXaY5 peeled log, roller; [rounded crowd]; mass of 
troops; 9iXxiQg ship-rib (belljring); {(i^aXxtfo) to curve, bind; 9oXx6q 
bow-legged; PpuxioiAai to roar; Pp^TX^i; wind-pipe, choking gulp; Pp<xo? 
noose, halter; ^p^x^ to gulp down; ^pux^> Ppfixo), ^t^pcooxo) to devour; 
PpoOxo? locust; ^pix^ \P^ clouds] to [burst out, vomit], rain (cf. ^itt!^ 

Regen), Lat. spargo to [spark out], sprinkle ; /rango to burst, break 

\bhrd^ to flash om\]\ fruges, friictus fruits, com [swelling, developing]; 
fragor cvQsh\frlgeo to [bristle], shiver, freeze ; /rico to [cause to bristle], 
rub ; fraxinus ash-tree (swelling, round bark ; It. frasso) ; farcio, 

fulcio to stuff, prop (cf. Pfropf)\ forctus pregnant. Goth, brikan 

(p.p. brukans) to break, ravage, destroy; brusts, breast (turgid with 
milk, emotion); birekei danger; brukyan to [eat], enjoy, use (pp^TX^?; 
melts with bhlaksh) ; A. S. beorc, birce birch ; beorcan to bark (of dogs, 
9pu(i<joii)) ; O. N. borkr bark of trees; A. S. brastlian to burst, crackle 
(prasseln); O. H. G. brestan to burst; brusta, borsta bristle (9p(aa«i)); 
O. N. bulga to swell; bringr [swelling] hill; bringa breast; brisinga 
i^pl^oq) the rainbow (necklace of Freya, cf. Aphrodite's girdle; ^plg■» 
ffetpdt, Ipiwt); brdk (plu. broekr) leg-bands (brigand-fashion, oxdcpyovov), 
breech-clout, breeches (cf. Strumpfe strips); barki throat, wind-pipe; 
Eng. to spark; bulge, A. S. bdlg bellows, ale-sack, belly; bulgian, bellan 

to bellow, bawl; belcan to inflate; bealcyan to belch. R. bereza 

birch; berista birch-bark; bolshii [stuffed out], great; bloshnik heather 



— 73 — 

(bristling); br[v]izgat to gush, spout, [vomit]; brezgat to be disgusted; 

irioakat to growl; briokho belly; briokva turnip. Ir. brtsstm to 

break ;bbg a fragment ; bolg leather-bottle ; Fir-Bolg cloud-folk, drifters, 
wanderers (wagon-tops, sails; of. Utnbri); bolgadan wagon-driver; 
iros [swollen], great (Cor., Bret. bras)\ brdge throat; brucktaim to 
vomit; Bret, bolch flax-boll; bolzein to curve, swell, burst; beragn heap; 
hmjon bud of tree; boiilh crack, burst; brog jug; bronsein to sprout, 
bod; broustal sprout, brush- wood, Brussels-sprouts; broust to browse; 
hrasat to swell; bragein to boast; bras large; bruch, brusk breast; bresk 
fragile; W. bragiaw to swell, boast; Provengal brusca brushwood; 
O.C. Belgae; Bcdgidcus, Balcidcus; S/ato-&tt/g«?n»= meal-sack-town; in 
Galloway on the strait opposite Ireland; the N. E. wind brought 
douds with their snow-meal, and invaders; Jack the Giant Killer, as 
spring, slits the swollen cloud-giant, and lets out the snow; Brixia^ 
Brixellum forest town; Brassidcus. 

Sk. [sphur^ to round out, swell against pressure, compress, bind]; 
Ispharf], sparg to embrace, bind, frame; sprig, prik, prin^ to bring ends 

together, touch, mix, unite. Gk. ^piaoo) to btiild a ring wall, 

stockade; to join shields, stop the way; ^pctYi^a, 9paTi*^<; ring- wall, 
breast-work; ^piY(^ forehead, temple, fort of brain; xupyo? [stockade], 
tower; xupY^^ to wall, defend; fuXdEaoci) to defend, guard; fupxo^, 

foiipxo^ ring-wall. Lat. furca stake, gallows, prop; fulcio to stuff 

out, prop up; frequens crowded together; [forctis], fortis strong; 

fortificare to fortify. Goth, baurgs stockade, tower, fortified town; 

boirgan to guard; bairgahei defensive motmtain range; Burgundii 
[4fr^-twnd«« water-rampart; from their island Bomholm]; O. N. 
Mjifer stockade, stake; berg, biorg defence, cliff; A. S. beorh protection, 
diff, moimtain; brycg [palisade; piles], bridge; brok, breeches; bregdan 

to twist, knot. R. bereM to guard; bereg [defensive] bank, shore; 

brak [tmion], wedding; brazdi control, government; brus beam; bertze 

shin-bone (prop); blizhe nearer (frequens); bliosti to guard. Ir. bale 

strong; 6<?rg walled town; Bret berzein, berhein to protect, to collect, 
hold festival (frequentes); O. C. Burgo-ialum^ Bergusia, Berg-amum^ 
Burgonnum towns. 

Sk. [sphranh], bkrang, bhrag, bhrans to [flash out, whirl down, 
around, away; to] fall, slip; caus. to hurl down, hurl away, deprive; 
hhrish, bhlesh to whirl, tremble, fear; bhlaksh to [gnash, grind], eat; 

hkrangas fall, ruin; bhringas bee [whirling] Gk. pXoaup6<; terrible; 

§pdx^ to rattle, crash, shriek; ^pdEaoci) to shake, whirl, heave, boil; 
fplooui to shiver; 9p(^ a squall. Lat. ad-fligo, con-fligo to dash against. 



— 74 — 

together; profligo to rout, ruin; flagrum, flageUum lash; frango to [hurl 
down], break (p. 72); spar go to scatter, hurl away; flaccus [twisted, 

wrung out], limp (or with vrinh), Goth. bltgg;uan to scourge; 

brahv stroke, flash, glance; brikan to break, ravage, destroy; brakya 
wrestling; briggan to fetch a blow, round up herd, bring back, effect; 
O. H. G. pratU crash; A. S. bregdan to whirl, swing; brugdh swift 
motion ; brego chieftain ; brSga terror, horror ; brosnian to [dash], destroy, 
crumble; O. N. bragdh change, gesture; bragr poetry; brak clash, 

battle; bersi bear, boar (vrishf), R. brankit, briozzhat to quarrel; 

brosat to hurl, rush, bf[v]izgat to sprinkle; bryakat, brenkai to strike, 
shake, tinkle; burkalo sling; O. R. blukha, Lith. blusa flea (long leap). 

iT.bdrcaim to break out ; bdrc storm ; brisc fragile ; brissim to break ; 

[berctnaigtm], bertnaigim to swing, shako; brass nimble; bressa fight; 
Bret. brez6l war; brusk brusque; blesein to wound; blosein to crush, 
harm; brehonein to crush, bray; bouljein to quiver, stir, budge; O. C. 
brisa grape-pomace; Brixellum warlike? 

Sk. bhrang to whirl; sphur^ to biu*st, crackle; bhri^, bhrag^ to 

[turn on spit, crackle], parch, roast. Gk. 9puY(i) to roast, parch, fry; 

9puxT<? firebrand, torch, parched bean; lot (hopping); ^puyavov fire- 
wood. Lat. frigo to parch, roast. Ger. prasseln to crackle. 

Ir. bairgen bread (oat-cake on hot stone). 

Sk. bhrd^y bhrdg bhre^, bhldg to flash rotmd, gleam, shine; bhrd^, 
bhargas light, glory; mariHs ray of light, fairy (cf. o^apaYlco, oyLapaYica); 

bhresh, to flicker. Gk. ^Xlyw, 9X8716(1) to bum, shine; ^Xv^^alm 

to heat, fester, boil; ^Xi-^^a blaze, heat, phlegm; 9X65 flame. Lat. 

flagro to hl3ize \fulgeo to shine ;/M/gMr lightning ;/w/[g]fnen thtmderbolt; 
^mma flame; suffragor to [glorify, shout for chief], vote (cf. votum); 

felix lucky; Osc. luei Flagiui^ Jovi Fulguratori. Goth, bairhts clear 

evident; brahv flash, glance; O. H. G. peraht bright; praht glory; A. S. 
blaesc blas^, flame; blaecan to whiten; bide pale, wan, bleak; blaec 

glittering, black, [raven]; fe/l^an to shine ; O.N.fe/anfo' shining, white. 

Lith. blizgu to gleam; O. R. breizgu dawn; R. blagoi [beautiful], good; 

blazhenniy blest, happy, holy; blesteit to glitter; blesk lustre. Ir. 

brigim to manifest, make conspicuous; brig glory, power; W. bri 
renown; bra{g\int privilege; Cor. brentyn noble, free; Bret. brt[g] honor; 
berzein to keep holiday, make merry; berh prosperity, success; bra- 
gotten lightning; O. C. Brigantes; Brigindo goddess of bright sky, 
Athene {Bridget^ Brian^ Briand); Segobriga victorious glory; Brigia, 
Brigenna] Brastis, 

Sk. sparg to embrace, encircle, grasp, seize; prik, prink, pri^, 



— 75 — 

ffin^, to stir, mix, twist, braid, bind ; sam-prik to unite ; sprig to grasp, 
touch, whirl, splash, [lash, smite]; pragas, parofus axe; pragnas basket 

(twisted, plaited]; pdrgvas [twisting] side; plih to go roimd, revolve. 

Gk.«<pxtjq ring, hoop; xipxo^ drag-net; x4pxo?,xepxv<^ hawk, eagle [grip- 
ping]; xcpxv6q snake; xipxova woven stuff; xXixo) to twist, coil, braid; 
xXextdw) coil, wreath, spiral; xXiyita basket-work, tendril, wreath; 
tUxocyio^ curl, braid; xXtaoci) to cross the legs, trot; xX(Y(i^ wrestler's 
twist; xXix(4<;, xXiyii; groin; xX(5 a step; the pelvis; xXoEyo? the side; 
TXiY(o<; on the flank, aslant, athwart, sideway, crooked; xXatai^, ^Xatatf^ 
bandy-legged; [xXdEt^tov], xXafotov rectangle, square; xXi^aoci) to lash, 
scourge, strike, whirl, drive mad, dizzy; to strike from the side, beat 
the breast; 5a-xXtj5 (Sk. ud, ut up, out) [out-start]; the starter's rope 
which held back the horses; rope, cable; [up-start] snare, trigger; also 
u«xXt|5 swine-lash; xlXcxui; axe (attracted by x^Xu? p. 64); xXi^o) 
(fxXoqfJa) to circle, roam, be dizzy, confused; to dash, strike [of a wave]; 

^^fo? [pathless, rolling] sea. Lat. plico, plecto to fold, coil, tangle; 

mplectar to embrace; du-plex two-fold; parcus grasping, miserly, 
thrifty; plecto to smite, ptmish, behead; supplicium ptmishment; 
flaga blow; plaga side, region; net, snare; plango, plangor to beat the 
breast, mourn; pollingo to be professional mourner, undertaker 
(added c? as in parofus, TciXsxuq, iciXayoq,) ; [sepelhid], sepelio to [wrap, 

hide], bury (plih); sepulcrum grave. Goth, fiahta braid; O. H. G. 

jlihtan to braid; flahs flax; Goth, filhan to hide, bury ipriR); 
fiUffi hiding-place, den; fulgins hidden; ana'[s]praggan to [grip], 
compress, [seal, prdgen]; fairhvus [circle of] world; fairguni [encircling] 
mountain range; flokan to beat the breast, mourn; A. S. felgan to 
hide; dt- felgan to grasp, hold on to, follow closely, [make ends meet]; 
fdge felloe of wheel; folgian to follow chief; f elating] fellow, comrade 
(socius, sequor) ; fledgan to [beat the air], fly; fiyht flight; O. N. fleygia 

to hurl, fling; 'Exig. flank (xXotYoq). R. pryazhka ring; pryazha yam; 

ffyosi to [twist], spin; plesti to twist, braid; za-pryagat to harness; 
polka a stick; parka a beating; plashk cloak [wrapped]; pleko shoulder 

[revolving]; plokhoi [twisted], bad; plak lamentation. Ir. \p]ro5S 

tangled forest, heather; [p^usc [encircling] bark; bark vessel; O. C. 
Ploxenum basket-work body of chariot. 

Sk. sprig to grasp, touch, [dash round, fetch a blow]; paragus axe; 

Pfii to stir; pros to spread round. Gk. xXi^aaci) to strike; xXaaao) to 

niold, shape, form, devise; xXctajjia image, counterfeit; xXa? flattened 
out; plain; flat stone, tomb-stone; [x]Xa5euci> to hew stone; Xot? sole 
of foot, heel; XoexTn^o) to stamp, kick, spurn; xXoexou^ flat cake; 
l«]Xlxi6o? pease-pudding; yolk (fried egg) ; [x]Xlxo?, Xexavt) dish. Lat. 



— 76 — 

planca flat; plancus flat-fcx)t; pla[c]nu5 flat; placo to smooth, stroke 
down, appease; placeo to please; placenta flat cake; [p]Umx flat dish. 

O. H. G. flah flat; A. S. fealh harrow. Lith. plashtaka pahn of 

hand; plokshMas flat; R. plashmya flat; ploshkad market-place. Ir. 

\p]lec flag-stone; lia (gen. licce) stone; lecdn pebble; liacdn pillar 
(Xa5euT<<;) ; cram-lech arched stones; Bret, lakat to lay flat, put, place; 
O. C. PlacetUia (flat land); Plancidcus, Placius, Plassus. 

Sk. sprif to touch, splash; sprih to [seek to touch], be eager, 
desire; sprihd desire; [slpurushas [active] man, servant, spirit; spargas 

touch, splash, breeze; parshnis sole of foot. Zd. gparez to make an 

effort. Gk. oicipxb) to speed, drive, be passionate, hasty; oxepxvi<;, 

hasty, violent; xpceaoci) to be busy, active, successful; xpct5t<; business, 
dexterity, fortune; xponcTi^p trader; xpoExxcDp tax-gatherer, avenger; 

(j^uXXa^, ^iXka flea. Lat. procax impetuous; procus suitor; Porcius 

= industrious; pulex flea (brisk); pollex thumb (touching forefinger). 

O. H. G. frihtdn to earn, do business {frachten, freight) ; O. N. 

sprtnga to spring; frekr eager; frakr free; friskr fresh, impetuous, 
gay, frisky, frech;freki wolf; Frigg goddess of rain and love, wife of 
Odin the wind; A.S. ferh ho3Lr; ferh, feorh life, soui; ferhdh-frec daring, 
bold; fredgan to love; filhan to filch, pluck; [s]pli4ccian, [sp]luccan to 
pluck; fleds fleece (O. N. flisia to flay) ; [s]priccian to [touch with claw], 
goad, prick (cf. pango, pungo); Ger. froh jo)rful; Floh flea; Fleiss in- 
dustry; O. H. G. sprahkdn to tear off; fersna heel; A. S. [s]pliht 

danger, risk, bet, pledge, duty; plega play. R. sprignut to leap down; 

[palek], paletz finger, thumb; perst finger; perkhot skin; parshit to 

tickle; par khat to flit; prakh dust; prok profit; Lith, perku to buy. 

Gael, sprech, sprecherei foray, cattle-stealing (spree); Ir. spr^ cattle; 
[pyeccaim to sell; recne hasty act; prechan hawk; W., Com. parys 
ready, prompt, active; O. C. Parisii (freighters, boatmen) ; Paresidcus^ 
Paricus, Parencia; Prassonis Officina; Pruso, Prasu-tagos. 

Sk. sprig to touch, splash water; spargas [spray, coolness], breeze; 
sparsh to be moist; pri^, pri^ to mix; prish, prush to sprinkle; prush, 
parsh to sparkle, pour, bum, love; plush to bum; be generous; 
prignis sprinkled, dappled; prishatas gazelle ; />ras to [sprinkle], gender, 

spread roimd. Gk. xepxvi? grape with purpling spot, dusky, dappled; 

xp<55, dappled deer; xpw^ dewdrop; np6xvT) swallow; xp<i)XT<5<; splashed; 
Ilepaeu^ spring-sun, winter-killer; rides spring-cloud Il-t^ya(so<; (fountain 
feeder); favored by Athena (the clear sky) he slays the petrifjring 
Gorgon and frees nature (Andromeda) assailed by darkness dragon; 
xpoati garden-bed (pras); xpcEaov leek; xpdaivo^ bright green; xpctatov 



— 77 — 

horehound; water-plant; xupatf^ torch; xupatfc;, icupp^c flame-colored. 
— Lat. spargo to sprinkle; Parcae fates [lot-casters]; puker dashing, 
beautiful; spurcus splashed, dirty; porcus pig; [porsum], parrum 

leek; priscus, pristinus [dewy], early, of old. A. S. fersc fresh; 

0. N. fHskr gay, frisking; Eng. fleck (Sw. fidcka) to spot, dapple; 
to freak, freckle (cf. prik,pri^ to stir, dash) ;frog (Ger. Frosch) [dappled]; 
to splash, plash; A. S. spreagan to dash, pour, spray; flaesc flesh; 

fredsan to [bum], frost-bite, freeze; Goth, faurhtyan to shiver, fear. 

R. prashMa sling; />raA;A dust; pr[v]iskcU to splash; pleskat to spout up. 
— Ir.[/>]arc^/ paddle [splasher]; (ttc salmon; orcdn pig; [/?]/a95a»m to 
flame, flash; [pyichess live-coal [sparkling]; ricA^d heaven [stars]; O. C. 
Parcidcus; Proxutnae fates (Parcae). 

Sk. sprif to touch, seek, be eager, splash out; sprih to desire; 

prifh^prakh to ask, question; prikkhd a question. Or. xpdbcTCDp de- 

mander, exacter. Lat. precox to entreat; prex entreaty, prayer; 

[«<^«c],5M/>pfeic suppliant ;/>r(7Cttj suitor. Goth. /raiAnan, O. H. G. 

ft^iH to ask, enquire; Ger. fl^hen to entreat; A. S. fricgean to ask, 
seek, experience; /rignan, fringnan to ask, seek; O.N. fregna to learn 
by enquiry; fraegya to celebrate; fraegdh fame; A. S. sprecan, O.H.G. 

sprehhan to speak, declare. R. prosit to demand, entreat; 5^05 

question, permission; sprashivat to ask, demand. Ir. [pyosc a 

demand, challenge, incitement to battle, poem, eye [eloquent, flash- 
ed; rwcad a great word, famous saying; O. C. Ruscino, 



Roots in md follow the analogy of those in pa, 

Sk. md to [grasp, contain, poise, whirl], measure, [measure out], 
give, [press, mold], shape, create, [whirl, nimble], sound (cf. pa to 
grasp, surround, guard, [feed, distribute]; pydi to round out, xotici>; 
pav, pu to whirl, blow; both pa and md develop with the intensive ter- 
minations -fiA, -Its, -nf, -n^, -fe, -k, -g) ; mav, mu, mavy to encircle, 
bind; msv to be round, fat; minv to [anoint], please, serve, sprinkle (cf. 
Pw, pinv) ; mev to serve, honor, adore; miv, me to [rub round], move 
round, turn, shove; mwaras mischievous; mi (mindmi) to rub, scrape, 
Wear away, diminish; mi (caus. mdpaydmi) to perish; mep to move 
[round]; mi to go round, [revolve in mind, reflect], imderstand; mi, 
Mt to whirl, whirl round, shoot, wound; mi to [bore, set stake], make 
firm; md, [mans\ mas to [grasp, contain, distribute], measure; intens. 
"laii/i to [swell against pressure], grow; mah to magnify, honor; mahat 
great, honored; manhishias greatest; magham happiness; maksh to 
[puS up], heap up, roll together, accumulate ((xiaao) to knead) ; manh 



— 78 — 

to [swell, btirst, flash out], shine (cf . sphur^, bhrdi) ; maksh to [burst 
out], be angry; mafiM to grasp, [hold in, swell up], be high; to [burst 
out], flash, be glorious; maK to boast; mash to shoot, kill; mdnksh to be 
impetuous, desire; mans, mdnsam flesh, fat (plush, flaesc); mashi, 
mashi, mast [oil], ink; mdkshas bee, (bursting, swarming, angry, sting- 
ing) ; mdkshikas wax ; makshas fly ; ma^, mig to [burst out, flash, rattle], 
be angry, sound, buzz; magakas gnat; manh to swell, grow; to [burst], 
flash, shine; makk, makh, mankh, mang, mangh, mank, munM to go 
roimd, crawl, creep, wind {^sarpane); mangh to [robe, wreathe], 
adorn; to [dance round], play, jest; to [whirl round], hasten; maM to 
[encompass, snare], cheat; to [whirl, brandish, swell up], boast; maH, 
mank to [coil, grip], crush, knead; ma^^ to be [caught in whirl- 
pool], sink; man^, mun^, mu^ to rub round, wipe off, clean; to [whirl, 
rumble, rattle], soimd; ma^^an, ma^^d [rubbed on, anointed], marrow; 
man^an [anointed, pure, radiant],bud, sprout, pearl; (ci.mri^ to anoint, 
purify; {i.apYap('nr)(;) ; man^us beautiful; mang to go round; man^ushd 
round basket; [manh], man to [grasp, poise, hold fast], reflect, think, 
honor; man to think; honor; mdnam, manas [allotted portion of food, 
handful], honor; mandk small portion; manas mind, opinion, confi- 
dence [firm hold]; mdnin proud; mdnavas, mdnushas man; [mansas], 
mdsas, [handful, measure], month; mas moon; maM, munk to tangle, 
cheat, crush; { -k- yd intens.) mikh to twist, vex; migr to whirl, stir, 
mix; mish to whirl, sprinkle; mishtas sprinkled, sweet; mish to [race 
round], rival, flash the eyes (cf . sphardh) ; mih, muk, munk to go round, 
[whirl, spulen, spill], pour out, send out, set free; meghas [out-pouring], 
cloud; moghas [out-poured, empty], vain; moksh to set free; muh, 
mukh to be [whirled], dizzy, confused; muJi^as [confused, stupid], dumb; 
mukharas rattling; mukutam [encircling] diadem; mukham [turning, 
gazing] face {volvo, voUus, SxTo^xai) ; mukham [whirling, boring, facing], 
spear-point (mucro); mukulas [piercing, bursting], bud, shoot; muktd, 
pearl {gemma) ; mush, mush to [whirl], strip off, steal ; to [hurl], wotmd ; 
mushas [thief], mouse; mushalas [brandished], war-club; mushii fist. 



Sk. md (mdmi, mime p.p. [mdtas], mitas; caus. mdpaydmi) to 
[grasp], give handful, give, measure, assign, mold, form, make; 
mdtri (Ved.) apportioner; mdtri [distributer of food], mother; mdird, 
mdiram, mdnam measure, allotted time, material, element, thing; 
[mdtas hand]; md^angam hand-limb, elephant; MdicUis swift dispenser 
of time, charioteer of sim; matsas, matsyas, [catchable], fish; mitas 
(p.p.) a moderate portion, a little; md (mayate) to exchange (hand- 
fuls). Zd. md to measure, make; md a measure. Gk. (jidid, (iat(&dci» 



— 79 — 

to grasp after, desire, seek; yii t^v A (a would to Zeus! (Urpov measure, 
proportion, metre; (UTpto<; moderate; (jieTp&i) to measure, count; 

(ihfiKia rations, pay; (U$i(i.vo^ measure is attracted by manih. 

Lat. mitdre, metdri, metiri to measure; mensura measure (final, avara 
q.v.); mat'Urus final period, fully ripe; matU'tinus morning [at last, 
Unus]; mensa carving-board, table (O. R. menso flesh); mela limit 
of space, goal; tnateries [moulding stuff, mdtram], material; tneto to 
[grasp], reap; messis harvest; ni-mis not moderate, too much; tnodus, 

modiusmeaswre, with moderor^ are attracted by manth, Goth, mi-tan 

to measure; miUm to reflect; mats portion, food, meat; maitan to carve, 
cat (venison); mitaths measure, portion; (cf. p.p. mitas); maithms 
gift, present; mota tax; O. H. G. mds measure; Ger. Messer divider, 
knife; A. S. mdte food; mdst fodder (manth); mund hand, protection; 

0. N. m^i measure, maimer; matr food; maetr precious. Lith. 

matuti to measure; metas time, year; mera (R. meira) measure; R. 

maieroi large, round, (mdtram). Ir. mess, [do-mus], to-mus measure; 

mitkich in season; mdt hand; mathim to grant, allow, release; mathe, 
maihius generosity, goodness; matth generous; matte timber; Bret. 
mat, mad good, blessing, joy; O. C. Matta, Mattaia, Mattidci, Matonius, 
Uakhmaros^ Massonius. 

Sk. mdtri [food-apportioner], mother; mdtulas mother's brother. 

— Zd.mdtd {stem mdtdr), Gk. jjii^tt)p (Dor.jjidrtjp); {xi^Tpci)^ mother's 

brother. Lat. mater, mdtemus, mdtri'monium; matr ana {vonus 

dear, fair) ; mcUertera mother's sister. O. N. mddhir, O.H. G. muotar. 

— 0. R. matt; R. mat, mater mother; materka female hemp; maika 

female. Ir. mdthir (gen. maithrech); W. modr, Bret, motr; W. 

niotrep mother's sister; O. C. mdtrd, matriola, matrona, madrono water- 
mother, nymph; Matrona (Marne)\ Matridcum {Merry 14); Matrini- 
kum {Mamay, Martigny 8) ; Matriolae {Marolles 14). 

Sk. md to [grasp] measure, assign portion; mdnam [large portion], 
honor; mdnas [molding], construction, form, house, dwelling; size; 
[hand], agent, self-confidence; mandk [small portion], little; mdn, man 
to honor; man {manye, manve, fut. mansye, p.p. [mantas\ matas) to 
[grasp firmly, apportion carefully; cf. jji4po?, jjiept-^xvov]; to reflect, be 
deliberate,[delay], estimate, think, [be generous, swift withhand, eager]; 
mun to promise; manas mind, will; matis mind, thought, plan, prayer; 
^nMnyus brooding, grief, anger; manishd reason; manus, mantishyas, 
niStMistuis,mdnav(MsmaLa ; [manavi, mavani\,munis reflector, philosopher, 
hermit; mnd {mandmi) to honor, praise, declare; (by the addition of 
ft to be energetic, act, be agent, man becomes) [manr], mantr to de- 



— 80 — 

liberate, take counsel, give sentence, speak solemnly, bless; tnantras 

counsel, hymn. Zd. man to think ; manafih mind ; upa-man, &ico(iivEty 

to [be deliberate], endure; fra'tnan to be persistent. Gk. jiivo^ 

mind; Mivrcop counsellor (tnantr) ; (xdevrt^ prophet; (xvio(iat to remember; 
(jLyi^(i.T] remembrance; (jl^^mov mindful; (jLi(i.\n^(JX(i> to remind; (jLY)vt}(i> to 
bring to mind, inform; (jly)v((i> to hold in mind, brood, nurse vengeance; 
jjLijviYS mind-holder, pia tnater {vincio); 'AYa-i^iiAvcDV sun, ever mindful 
of his rising. Greek myths mingle with prehistoric facts and wars as 
Etzel and Dietrich in the Niebelimgenlied contend with solar heroes; 
Hellenic mythology was developed by gradual selection and evolution 
of the legends of many tribes until the totem-maker became a Phidias; 
grotesque ideals like Briare6s and Salmoneus were stranded by the 
clarif)ring current of thought; MI^jlvcov day-star^ (ia(vo(xat to be pas- 
sionate, mad; (jLvio^xat, (jLyiQariuG) to woo (think of one thing); (ji^xova 
to wish; (JL^vt^ passion, wrath; (jLlvb> to be deliberate, to wait; 
6xo-(iiv(i> to endure, be left to the last; \k6yo<; alone; (jlov^^ sparse, 
thin-set; (xovi^ station; d*(jLe(y(i>v more enduring, better (i intens.); 
(jLuyo(i.a(, d*(jLuyo(jLat ([mavani, munavi], i intens.) to brood, delay, be 
mindful of duty, defend coimtry, ward oflf attack; to brood vengeance; 
[(jLouvaat], MoDaat deep-minded, prophetic Muses, guides of thought; 

\Uyf [granted, as a share], indeed; jjii^v in truth, [I allow]. Lat. 

mens (mentis) mind; mentio mention; [Men'nerva], Menerva strong 
mind; memini to remember; moneo to remind, advise; monstrum 
warning, prodigy; maneo to remain; Cerus Mdnus the fashioning 
creator {md to grasp, mold, make); deci-mdnus of the tenth division; 
Manes the departed (generous, gracious; euphemism) ; Manius;manu5 
hand (fashioning, distributing); a-moenus [boimtiful], luxuriant, de- 
lightful (a intens. ; form manye, [mayne] cf . A. S. myne) ; munus gift 
{manve, [mavne, mune]) ; munus, caeri-mdnium, matri-manium allotted 
duty; com-munico to share portions; mane early morning, allotted time; 

Men-enius [vennius] thoughtful. Goth.munan to think,intend, plan ; 

ga-munan to think over, remember; ga-minthi, ga-munds memory ; muns 
mind ; ga-mainyan to share together, have portion in common ; ga-man 
comrade; manvyan to prepare; manvus ready; manna man; O. H. G. 
mandn to warn; minna love; A. S. maenan to remind, announce, call 
to mind, lament; myne thought, desire, love; myntan to intend, 
reflect; mddhum gift, treasure; O. N. munu to desire, become ;mtind 
hand; mundr gift, dower; minna to remember; meina to delay, hinder. 

Lith. miniu to think; atmenu, at-mintis thought; O. R. mineiti 

to think; po»mennanti to remember; R. mnimiy imaginary; manit 

to wave the hand, beckon, wave, rock. Ir. menma (gen. menman) 

mind; muiniur (deponent) to think; mUnim to teach; menmnach 



— 81 — 

cheerful; tnin [thoughtful], gentle, kind; minn nobleman, scholar; 
man, mdi hand; dech-mad [tenth part], tenth; mann ounce (handful, 
SpoXC^ilj) ; mdin possession, wealth {munus) ; mathe free-hand, kindness; 
wdfUer family {matri-ffumium) ; 9nuinterda[g] familiar, kind, courteous; 
mennat residence; W. mwyn gracious, merciful; Bret, mennein to 
desire; man this (showed in hand, manifestus) ; O. C. Manas, Mannus, 
Uaro-manus treasure; mannus [pet], pony; Minnius, Minnodunum. 

Sk. md, man to [grasp, encircle], measure, distribute, pass round, 
revolve; manh, [mans] [to swell against pressiu-e, burst out], flash, 

shine; mas, mdsas moon, month. Zd. mdonh moon, month; mdonha 

moon. Gk. jjii^vt) (Aeol. [{xtjvoo?], ijl^woO moon; (XT]y(axo^ crescent; 

^•fy (stem |jLi^v<;, Ion. jjief?, Dor. \L-fiq) a month; {xirivtatoc; monthly. 

Lsitmensis month; m^tw^niw^ monthly; Mena^menstruationis dea, 

Grce. Cxoth. mina moon; mindihs month (O. N. mdni, mdnadhr); 

O.H. G. mdndt month. Lith. menu (gen. meinesio) moon; menesis 

month; O. R. meisenizi moon (fem.); month (masc). Ir. mi (gen. 

mis, stem mens) month; W. mis, Bret, miz month. 

Sk. ma to [grasp], assign, measure; man to measure thoughtfully, 
think; mantr to reflect, take counsel, give sentence, bless, speak 
solenmly; mantras sentence, hymn; manth to deliberate, think long, 
regret, grieve; math to delay, dwell, wear away; mddh to imderstand; 

mdhas mind. Zd. mad, madh to [reflect, act wisely, take coimsel], 

heal; madha wisdom, heaUng; vohumad very wise. Gk. (jidOo^ 

tradition, custom, education (medical term); (xav6dev(i> to acquire a 
habit, understand, observe, learn; jji48ci> to [be wise], control, rule; 
lU2o(iat to brood, consider, devise; (AeSicDv guardian; (jLi{8o(i.at to 
devise, invent, protect; M48ouaa the brooding, obstinate, petrifying 
winter; Mi^^eta the crescent moon, won in the east by lason the healing 
sun; she gives him the golden-fleeced cloud of morning torn from the 
darkness-dragon; evades her father Ai-aites, Aietes (eternal night) 
by scattering the limbs of her brother the moming-star ('Ap(jupT6(;, 
&|»oupa> drawn-back; cf. Romulus and Orpheus); like Circe she is a 
sorceress of change and new birth; she hangs her silver crescent- 
caldron in the west and turns sunset clouds to morning clouds (rams 
to lambs), but destroys her husband's uncle Aison (fatal night, 
flJwf); becoming old moon again she is deserted by the sun, and slays 
their star-children in revenge; ijlu6o(; deep thought, wise word, tra- 
dition (manth to meditate, mut to grind, revolve). Lat. mediior to 

^flect; medear to heal; medicus physician; modus, modius [careful, 
^laditionalj measure; moderatus] modestus {vastu nature). Goth. 



— 82 — 

tnaudyan to advise, remember, suggest; tnods brooding mind, wrath, 
rancor, scorn; mundon to watch, guard; O. N. media pride; mSd 
thought, mood; madhr man; mddhr anger; A. S. madhelian to discxiss, 

address, argue; tnedhel argument, combat. Lith. mandrus brave, 

cheerful; O.R. mandru wise; R. tnudrost wisdom. Ir. midim, midiur 

tu think, judge; nted scale; medar prophecy; tndidim to praise, boast; 
miad, mod respect, honor; miiad good; [co-im'mediu], coimmdiu 
lord; maithe sorrow {tnanth) ; O. C. Medhdhu judge, lord, MedhdhiUus, 
Medhdhicus. 

Sk. md, man to [grasp], measure, think ; ma I, ego (thinker, handler) ; 

ace. mam, md (but cf. p. 21). Zd. ma. Gk. ace. jxe, i^k\ k^<; 

my. Lat. ace. me\ meus my; Umbr. dat. me-he, Goth. mis=^ 

mihi\mik=^me {-qtie, ka). O.R. ace. men\ Lith. dat. man. Ir. mi 

I; dat, ace. -m-, e.g. ni-m-charat^non me amant; do'm to me; mo 
my; W. mi I; Bret, me I; me, men my. 

Sk. md (mdmi, mime; p. p. mitas; caus. mdpaydmi) to [grasp], 
measure, mold, fashion, form; mitas small portion, little; mav, mavy, 
mil (p.p. mUtas) to [grasp, pinch], bind; md {mimdmi) to sound, low 
[through contracted throat]; [mavyam], mtm, to sound; mUkas [throt- 
tled], dumb; md negative particle (withholding). Gk. ixuxri?, 

(xu$o^, (Jiuv^tf^, (JLux6<; dtmib; (jLuora^ upper Up, moustache; (Aua^ clam, 
mussel (tight-lip); jjLuarpov, ixuarfXt) spoon (cf. xixXoq, shell, spoon); 
jxuTTCJxi?, \i.\)\La [lip-smacker], dainty; \i,o':6q lint (mitas); jxuai? closing 
lip, eyes; ^jluotyj? [tight-lip], initiated; jjiuan^ptov mystery, divine secret, 
profound emblem, myth; (jluIg) to initiate; (Jiudeci), (i.ot(JLu^, (i.ot(tuXX(i> 
to purse the lip in displeasure; {xotiq, a\Loi6q frowning; d*(iu(Mi>v 
blameless; (id>(io<; scorn, shame, blame; Md>(iLo<;, \ui)%0(; mockery; 
(jL£(i4)0(jLai [mdpaydmi] to blame, find fault; jjiIju^k; reproof; Mi^^oc 
oracle, flute-player [pursed-lips]; (jliSco to close mouth or eyes; (jiiiciKp 
blinking, peering, short-sighted; jiuw^}; [sucking-mouth], gad-fly; ^iXfii 
to mutter, grumble, suck, sip; xoeTa(tu(i>, xa(i(i.u(i> to wink; (jlI(U(i> to 
copy the face, imitate, pretend; jjiIjio? actor; jii^ negative particle. 

Lat. mUtus dumb; muttio, musso, mussito to mutter; [memfitis], 

mefitis [choker], carbonic acid gas; [mompa], mappa [mouth-stopper], 
napkin; mamma [mumbled, milk-sack], breast; Mummius, Mumolus 

foster-father. Goth, mampyan to miunble; bi*mampyan to mock; 

mammo flesh (miunbled, dainty); Dutch, moppen to pout; M. H. G. 
mdwen; N. H. G. miawen; O. N. midma to mew (mithdmi); Eng. 
mops and mows wry faces; to mump, mumble; O. N. mumpa to fill 
the mouth; miimpr moustache; Ger. mummen to mumble, feign. 



— 83 — 

pretend, wrap tight; mummery, mummy. R. myamlit to mumble. 

— It. mebol [mockery], shame; mumme nurse, god-mother; Old Ir. 
Momania Munster= foster-mother, BcdTidevetpa; Mod. Ir. moth voice 
[mfUUre]] (Fr., It. mot, motto); Ir., W., Bret, mam mother; Bret. muSr 
enclosure, coop; Ir. menu, minde dumb ((iuv5tf<;). 

Same root with nh, hg, k intens. Sk. md to low, sound (contracted 

throat); mukas mute. Gk. ituxiq mute; jiuxdeoyiai to bellow, roar, 

Mow, hiss; (xii>xao(xai to mock; ixux6(; crack, crevice, creek, interior 
(tight-lip); ax6^'<scx,o<; [mouth-gulf], maw; [>-o'^y6<; choked voice; \L6axo(; 

[sucker], calf, sprout; \L-r\%io\Lai to bleat. Lat. mugio to bellow; 

nmcosus mewling, puking; muscus moss (rock-sucker, Xeixi^v); 

musca fly (blood-sucker). Eng. smug with pursed lips; Bret. 

mouhein, mohein to pout; mo6h voice; muser to scent (museau 
muzzle); mouch faucet, snuffers, blindman's buff; head of pear 
(gag). 

Same roots+yar, ir, il to speed; vri, [vli], -fillus to love; beloved. 

Sk. maVt mavy, [myav, miv] to bind, contract, pinch [lips and eyes] ; 
smi {smayi) to smile; smayam pleasure, surprise (preparing lips for 
food like a baby) ; smitam a smile; mil to wink, close the eyes; utmil 
to open the eyes; smil, gmil, kshmll to wink, cast the eyes uuwn. 
— Gk. (jieipa^ girl, effeminate boy; (jiefXta love-gift, charm; (jieiXetv 
to please, soothe; jJLefXtxo? (Aeol. iiiXXt^oO mild, gentle; jjLetXCaaci) 
to propitiate; ixfXxo? rouge; {xOupat loss of eyelashes (casting eyes 
down); MCXXdrco?, MfXir)To<;, M(Xtci>, M(Xtci>v, MtXTtdeStj? {svad)\ jilXoc;, 
^tXo(&i^XGe sweet-lay; (i^Xtcco (causative) to be charming, sing, play, 
dance; ^i\i honey; jJilXtaaa bee {ish to desire); [jiXfeTO)], pXfTTco to 

gather honey. Lat. mirdri, ad-mirdri to ogle, glance, admire; 

«ie/ honey; mellitus honeyed; melior better; merum pure wine. 

0. H. G. smieren, smielen to smile; Low Ger. smellan to [snuff], smell, 
be savory; Goth, miliih honey; milds affectionate, mild; O. N. maer 
giri; maela to make excuse, plead; maelindi eloquence; mdli dower; 
fmldr generous; mylen sun; A. S. maere delightful, glorious, good news. 
— 0. R. smiyati to laugh; smeikhu laughter; milu merciful; milo 
dower; R. mleit to faint, languish; mir peace? smirenie humility? 
smirfi3{v)^y gentle; khmelnoi drunk (fmll); khmel hops; smeilost [good- 
cheer], boldness; Lett, smeet to laugh; Lith. tneilus lovely. Ir. 

iifl honey; milis sweet; smeidim, smitim to nod, beckon. 

Sk. mau, ma, mavy to encircle, bind, compress; mtv to swell o -t, 
be round, fat; minv to [anoint], please, serve, sprinkle, [pour oi ': 



— 84 — 

tndyus bile; mw, me to [stir, whirl], alternate, change. Gk. (itatvu 

to splash, stain, defile with blood; \kiap6(; polluted, accursed; \Ll(xa\uL 
defilement, blood-guilt; qjiCvOo^ [pollution], mouse (Semitic idea 
from Crete and Lycia); S^jitvOeuc; Apollo [atoner for pollution]; yitvOio 
to smear, defile, abhor; qjiiu, ^i^xci> to wipe, wash, cleanse, anoint; 

qji-nvo? hive (dripping honey). Lat. [Minvenius], Menenius liberal. 

— — O. N. mein, A. S. mdn crime, sin; Ger. Meineid perjury. R. 

ni[v\it to wash {minv). Ir. muine lard; mdin swamp; miin urine; 

min well watered, luxuriant, verdant; Bret, tnin cheerful look, bonne 
mine; min*hoarh smile (cf. (jieiSidui), mid to be fat); O. C. Mevania^ 
Manavia^ Mona the Isle of Man (W. Minau, Manaw; Ir. Manciv]an^ 
Mananan); Moenus, Minius^ [Minicius], Mincius rivers (watering, 
verdant). 

Sk. mav^ mavy to encircle, bind; miv to move round, [alternate, 
pass to and fro]; kdma-mutas moved by love; [mavy], me to cross over, 
barter, exchange; may to move; apa-maye to change; ni-mayas ex- 
change; mayHkas [spoke of wheel], ray; mayHras peacock; mdyd sleight 

of hand, magic. Gk. [(la/rta], iJLata[swaddler, dandier], ntirse ; (jLaieuo^xat, 

(iatJo(JLat to be nurse, midwife (cf. minv to anoint, wash) ; Ma(-ay$po^» 
^(i)Ttdeveipa nurse of men; i(i.eu(i>, [i(i.eif(i>], i[kel^ to change, ex- 
change, leave aside, go beyond, conquer; icapa(i.e(^ to leave aside, 
pass by, divert, alter; i(i.ot^i^ exchange; iixeuafxopo? with varying 

paths; [jxifa], {xfa [one turn], one (fem.). Lat. moveo to move 

about; [movimentum], mdmentum movement, [circling] period; [movi^ 
mem-brum], membrum [revolving on socket], limb; membr*dna (p. lo), 
limb-seat, socket-lining, membrane; muto to exchange, change; 
mutuiis mutual, reciprocal; meo, com-meo to circle, roam, pass to 
and fro; com-meatus exchange, produce, provisions; [miv^agro], migro 
to [change fields], move, roam ; [movetuo], mettio to vacillate, be anxious, 
fear. A. S. mae-v, O. N. mdvr sea-mew [circling]; Eng. smew migrat- 
ing duck; A. S. mdven, O. H. G. mdyan to [whirl sickle], mow. 

Lith. mauyu (inf. mauti) to shove ; mainyti to exchange ; mainas change; 
R. meinyat, smeinyat to change; minovat to turn aside, avoid, pass 
by; m[v]itar [circler], tax-gatherer, juggler; u-meit to revolve in mind, 
reflect; smeis mixture (cf. p. 43); smeishivat to mix; smeishkat to 
take another's place; swW/a reflection ; m[v]islit to reflect; pere-meinyat 

to change; myat to [mix], knead. Ir. mo, mu, mos soon [returning]; 

Bret, mau, mao whirling, merry, gay; moui floating hair, mane; 
meiat, m^ai, meiein to knead ; m^ dough ; moier hub ; mheuiz [giddiness], 
drunkenness; mhiel servant [passing roimd, brisk]; mu^durun hinge 
{dor - door) ; O. C. Mevennus, Maufennos, Mivila, 



— 86 — 

Sk. mil; to go round, revolve, shove; mi to go round; mi (mindmi) 
to whirl, hurl, smite, wotmd; mi to hurl down; mi (mindmi) to [bore, 

set stake], found, make firm. Gk. Mtvo)^ founder of Crete; sun, 

revolving and creating; his wife, Pasi-phae (shining on all) is the 
moon; like Eur5pa (broad-face, fuU-moon) she represents the Semitic 
moon-goddess Astarte, and loves the bull-headed Baal (stm); her 
child is the destro3ring Minotaur (winter solstice) confined in the 
spiral Labyrinth (converging circles of winter sun) ; Daedalus (much 
circling, shaping, another sun-god) is confined in it but makes wings 
and flies away; his warmth melts the wings of his son Icarus {vicarius, 
twin, morning star), who perishes Uke Eurydice, Abs)rrtus and the 

dawn-goddess Semele ; Mtvuat Arcadian heroes. Lat. mindri to hurl, 

brandish, threaten; e-mineo to tower above [as a pole]; e'minus at a 
distance (dart); co-minus hand to hand (spear); ad-mini-culum prop; 

Moenia palisades, stockade, walls; munire to fortify. O. N. moenir 

crown of head, temples ; mein injury, crime. Ir. menad an awl ; mian^ 

mianach shaft, mine, ore ; menn [whirling, dizzy], dumb ; minna weapon ; 
Bret, minaouid awl; min shaft, mine; minein to mine; meineg stony; 
men, mein hewn stone; taoul-men, dolmen stone table; O. C. Meinus, 
Mina. 

Sk. mi (mindmi) to hurl, whirl, woimd; mi (mindmi, mindmi) to 
[rub], scrape, diminish; mi to hurl down, destroy; minminas [whirling], 

stammering. Gk. (Jitvub), (jlcvuBg) to wear out (trans, and intrans.), 

diminish, perish; (jlivuI^iqo^ short-lived; (jlivu^ small; (jLe((i>v less; (jLei^cj 
to lessen, diminish, moderate, degrade; \kly{)vQa very little, brief; 
yjwptCja (aup(I^(i>) to whimper, pipe, hum a tune; jJifvOa mint [sweet- 
pinch; or mind to anoint]. Lat. minuo to diminish; minutus 

ground small; minor, minimus; minis-ter correl. of magister; (p. 15); 
Osc. mins-treis'=minoris; Lat. minirio to whimper; mentha mint. 

Goth, mins smaller; minznan to diminish; minnists smallest; 

A. S. ge-maenan to break, injure; O. H. G. mema mint. O. R. 

minan (inf. menti) to crush; miniy smaller; R. menshiy smallest; 

Lith. menkas little; minu to crush; menta mint (O. R. id.). Ir. 

min, W. mtvyn. Com. muin, Bret, moht thin, small; Bret., meni- 
dimin. prefix; m&n, mSneu, m&ned cub; [mentvenna], mentenn mint. 

Sk. m&, mdn, man, to [grasp, encircle, distribute, go roimd], honor, 
revolve in mind; mt (maiydm) to go round, understand; mand to 

[wreathe], adorn; manis pearl, gem. Gk. (Jiiwo^, jidevo? a necklace. 

Lat. mantle necklace (eTXci)) ; moenia ring-wall ; munire to fortify. 

O. N. w^n necklace, fillet; A. S. men^ necklace ; O. N. mdn, O. H. G. 



— 86 — 

mana mane. Ir. muin, muinil neck (man or horse) ; tnuince necklace 

{ang pressing, fitting); muin-torc collar; numg mane, long hair; muine 
[round] bush ; W. myn mane Z. 891 ; Bret, tninel ring; monet to go about; 
O. C. Monnius, Monninus, Munnitis^Torquatus. 

Sk. mi (mindmi) to set, make firm, [melting with] tnan to [grasp, go 
roimd]; mand to encircle, adorn; tnund to rub round, shave; mundas 

round poll. Lat. mons mountain. O. N. tnoenir crown of 

head, forehead. W. mynydd, Corn, menith, Bret, menez moimtain; 

Bret, moten mound, hill; moteu lumps, clods, peat; O. C. Monetio, 
Monedo-rix, Montione, Montobriga, 

Sk. md, man to grasp, measure, reflect, delay; manth to reflect 
deeply, turn in mind, [remember], mourn ; medh, meth to reflect, [grasp], 
understand; mand to [embrace, encircle], wreathe, adorn; tnadhyas 
middle, midmost, waist, centre; ma^ to delay, move round, 
dwell [ver5art\\ to rub round, wear out, grind; mut, muni to grind, 
whirl down, [strip], shame; mund to grind, scrape round, shave, rub 
round, be cleansed, whirl, be sunk; mundas bald head, round poU; 
mud to mix ; mudrd clasped hands ; ring ; seal ; mid, mind to [rub round], 
anoint, be anointed, love; meduras anointed; medas marrow; meth 
to be sticky, adhere; meth, medh to [complete circle], meet (as hoop 
ends) ; math, manth to whirl, stir, shake, confuse, destroy; mantharas 
[round and round], slow; mith, mid, meth, medh to whirl, hurl, shoot, 
wound, kill; mad to whirl, [dance], be dizzy, drimk, mad, joyful; 
madas madness, joy; madhus strong-drink, mead, honey; mand, mand, 
mad, mud to be glad, praise. 

Sk. mand to [embrace, circle, wreathe], adorn; madhyas waist, 

centre, middle; madhyamas midmost, between. Zd. maidhya 

middle; madhema the middle one. Gk. [{i.e6>/0(;], (Jilaaoc;, (ii(7o<; by the 

waist, by the middle, in the middle, mid, midway, between, middling; 
lx4aaaT0(; midmost; jjieoT<5(; [to the very brim, brinuning], full (wreath, 
circle) ; (Aeadco to be in the middle ; iiioipa, (lio^t even to [the brim, circle, 
time, limit]; (lia-xtXov [mid-ball, large kernel], medlar; (jieaa-YjYu [Syxi] 
between (of space and time); [(JLeaT](i.ep(a], (teaT](jL^p(a midday; (jLea-i^pi)^ 

exactly middle (fipo)); lUaaot in the middle «=madA>/#, loc. Lat. 

medius, mid, middle; di-midius half; [medidies], meridies midday; 
Osc. [methiai], mefiai in the middle (madhye); Lat. medi-astinus [axtu^ 
astu] half-witted, dull drudge; medi-ocHs [acer] half -sharp; rather dull. 

(xoth, midis (gen. midyis) =^ medius; midumstheTQiddleimidyun^^ 

gards world [stirrounded by ocean]; midu-monds mediator; O. N. 
medltal middle; [midli], milli between; A. S. ntess{y}gre mid-year. 



— 87 — 

midsummer; mdst [centre-socket], mast. O. R. ntezhda between; 

mezdku in the midst; R. mezh, mezhdu between; mezhevcU to limit, 
survey land; meisto [centre, position], place; Lith. (with v for m as in 

Celtic) vidurys the nwddle ; vidui within ; vidus interior. Ir. nteddn 

mid-, middle; mid-lai midday; mide neck; mess [brim], edge; muad 
middle; mtnd crown. 

Sk. maih to go round and round, be slow, dwell, rub round, wear 
out, grind; mut, muni, mund to grind, scrape round, rub, shave, 
wash; mundas bald head, round poll; mastam head; mud to mix; 
math, manth to whirl, stir, shake, confuse, destroy; manthas, mathanam 
stirring, rubbing, churning; manthdnas chuming-stick ; pramanthas 
fire-drill; medhras^mentula, goat; mandala globe, disk, orbit; mand 

to [coil up], sleep; mandurd stable. O. Pers. Mandane [orb of] 

Nature. Gk. npo(xir)6EU(; fire-drill, lightning, chained with fiery 

links to thunder cloud (attracted into a myth of fore- thought, pro- 
phecy; and provided with a brother *E%i\Lti^B6q) ; {xiOo? whirl of battle; 
(l60(i>v toiler, low-caste; licentious dance, shamelessness; (xiv^aXo^ 
lasciviousness; (livSiQ^ goat, satyr; ji-iOa? slave, drudge; (xavSdbcT) hide 
(tousled, curried); jjiavSdbcT)? wisp, withe [twisted]; jjKivBpa circle, hoop, 
bevel of ring, enclosure, fold, [coiling, hibernating]; ixavSpa-y^pa? 
(&op4, ^ardmi), sleeping-food, mandragora; {i.ev6i^pY) grinding care; 
^v6uXe(i<i> to stir, stuff, round, sprinkle; (Jiarreua), (ia[v]aT8U(i) to circle, 
roam, explore; (iorrib) to roam, be vagrant, idle; jidrratoq [vain repeti- 
tion], idle, vain; ixdrnjv in vain; ^jlCto? thread, string; {xfTpa girdle, 

diadem (mii/). Lat. mando, manduco to grind with the teeth, chew, 

eat {mand +duh, to tousle) ; [mendum], m^w/wm jaw-bone, chin; mundus 
clean; mundus round globe; mons ([mondis], montis) [round-top], 
mountain; mendum splash, stain (manth); mendior, mendico to [go 
round, grind out], beg; [mendior], mentior to [go round, dodge, evade], 

lie (cf. Goth, maidyan); mendax lying; mentula; matula, Goth. 

maidyan to cheat, corrupt (xaictjXeuetv; be charlatan, vagrant, liar); 
in-maidyan to traflSc, exchange, buy, transform, disgtiise; ga-maids 
crushed, maimed; afmainds fainting, exhausted; munths mouth 
(grinder) ; O. H. G. mtdan to turn aside, avoid; O. N. mdndull stirring 
stick; moedha to [grind, bore], weary; mynd form, shape, [globed]; 

mundu to become. O. R. mentan whirlwind; meniezhi confusion; 

R. metla broom; Lith. menturis chum. Ir. mandraim to grind, 

destroy; mant, menann giun of mouth [mill]; maidim to overthrow, 
defeat, burst upon; mudu, mudugud destruction; maide handle, [stir- 
ring] stick; maistred churning; mdethal cheese; medg whey; mathem 
weariness, exhaustion; mathgaman [winter-sloth], bear; menadach 



— 88 — 

stirabout, porridge; mod toil, work; molhaigim to grope after, fed; 
moihar ring-wall, clump of trees; mcUhem weariness, slackness; in-made 
in vain; [mend\^ menn (W. mynn^ Bret, menu) goat; Bret, metui ram; 
mend full-size, full-grown; mendem autumn; meudet exhausted, sleepy; 
[moned], monet to roam about; go; W. mantol [circular] scale of balance; 
O. C. Mutina, Modena [ring- wall, fort]; PetrO'mantalon four-circles 
(ci.PetrO'Corii) ; Mantala.Manialomagos (race-track? cf. Epo-mandui; or 
Druidical circle) ; Mand'Onius, Mandi'bUis, Mand'ubii; Mandn-essedum 
wheeling-chariot. 

Sk. maOt^ mut, mund to grind, rub, wear out, shave, wash ; mid^ 
mind to [rub round], anoint, be anointed, love (cf. fcrueo, faveo); 
mittras, mitras friend; sun (anointed face, cf. dih, Qiyyiyiji, ddgen; ni^^ 
Neptunus); meduras anointed: medas marrow, fat; meth to adhere, 

stick. Old Pers. Mfflpag sim-god. Gk. (jLaBdb) to ooze, be sore, 

wet, to lose the hair, be flaccid; (jiaBapjg wet, soft, sore; yidSov, (jLaBo>v(a 
water-lily; (ial^db) to knead; (Jial^a barley-cake; ^(xax6q. Ion. Ep. 
\LaX^6q, Dor. \iMal6<; woman's breast (globing, worried by child, cf. 
Otfvdvii), dug); 'A(ial^(&v breastless old moon, after loss of swelling orb; 
armed with crescent bow and targe she leads her stars against the 
forces of day; she outlasts the Agvin day-star and is Hippo* dameia; 
again she marries Theseus the sun and is mother of the Agvin Hippoly- 
tus; the Amazon name was given to the beardless Tartars with their 
bows; (iil^ea, \Lrfiti genitals, bladder (trickling); (xecBcdKi), (xecBici) to 
smile (anointed-face, cf. mittras); ^tt6ii\ia smile; [qjLcBaXe(;], ae(i(SaXc^ 
fine-flour, pastry-flour (kneaded with oil) ; (xiiBaci), (xuBaCvo) to be wet, 
clammy, deca)ring, ulcerous; yiuBpo? white hot metal (cf. afKT)po<; = 
sweat-iron; Sk. agmasdras stone-marrow, iron); [iJia8vo(;], yLav6<; soft, 
spongy; thin, sparse [of hair, vegetation; cf. (xoSici)]; (i(Tu<; wax molded 

by bees {mut) . Lat. madeo to be wet, dripping ; madidus wet ; mdnare 

to trickle; medulla marrow (cf. oUa)\ [smidldgo], simildgo pastry-flour 

{ango^ squeeze, knead); mitis gentle, mellow (cf. mittras), -Goth. 

bi'Smeitan to smear ; ga-smithon to work hot iron ; smitha smith ; O. H.G. 

smizan to grease; smuz smut; O. N. mddh mud, swamp. O. R. 

mando testicle ((iT)Bede) ; R. maz grease; mazat to anoint; meid copper, 

bronze (melted, worked). W. em-medu brass; Ir. u*mae copper, 

brass; U'maide brazen; mdeth tender, soft; maithe sorrow; mid-loch 
effeminate; smeidim^ smMim to [smile], beckon, nod; meth fat, decay; 
maitk, mad generous, kind (melt with mathe p. 8i) ; Bret, mad good- 
ness; mitaur copper-smith; O. C. Madonius, Madocus, Madusius. 

Sk. mut to grind, [bore], wear away; math, muni, mund to grind. 



— 89 — 

potindy bray« strip, scrape, shave; mi//r, mu/, tnedh to hurl, whirl, 

wound, kill. Gk. (&<St(Xo(, (xCtuXo^ [stripped], dehorned; liuxCXog 

mussel (tcnm from rocks); (xioruXXci) to hash; aM'^ce:o<; self-moving, 

[mdtos, p. 78]. Lat. mitto to hurl, despatch, send; missile missile 

(dXtt to whirl) ; muUlus torn [by animal], mutilated; meto to [pluck], 

reap; messis harvest; in^//«5 [harvester], hired-man. A. S. stnUan, 

0. H. G. smtzan to smite (mid) ; Goth, maitan to hew; O. N. meidha 
to harm, wound; meidhr sword, staff; A. S. modhdhe moth (O. H. G. 

moUe), R. meitit to take aim; metat to hurl; pred-met aim; smotreii 

to glance rotmd; motal to whirl, strew rotmd; motok a bobbin, spool; 

mot a spendthrift. Ir. mdtan club; smit he grotond, plucked; 

methledir reaper; W. meietic pruned; Com. midil reaper; Bret, m^dein 
to reap; midour reaper; Ir. math h4ax (tearing) ? Bret, mastin mastiff; 
0. C. mataris javelin; MaUiarii lancers; Matto-barbtUus slinger; Medio-- 
nuUrici [rushing] among the spears. 

Sk. math to revolve; meth, medh to meet (hoop-ends); to cling 
together; to whirl, wotmd; mith to whirl, wound; mithds opposite 
[ends], with one another, reciprocal; mithunas mated, paired, tmited; 

mUhyd [twisted], falsely, in vain. Zd. mat with. Gk. jjifTpa belt, 

head-band; yifTo? warp (to and fro); seed (scattered); 1X6x4= recipro- 
cal action ((i.eT*aXiaaci> to exchange); (xexde with, together, opposite, 
across; after (cf. felloe^ follow); inverted action ((xexa-^deXXa) to turn 

back). Lat. mutuus mutual, reciprocal. Goth, mith with, 

between, in the midst; miththan meanwhile; ga-motyan to meet; 
mathl market-place; matha worm [coiling]; A. S. ge-mSt assembly, 

meeting; mitan to meet (Sk. mud to mix); mid with. R. mutit to 

twist, trouble; m>«<^/ whirlwind. Ir. mithich [just-meeting], at the 

right moment; Bret, med thumb (meeting finger, cf. poUex) ; drag-net; 
mH beyond, outside. 

Sk. [mith, minth, misth], reciprocal. Zd. mizdha wage, pay. 

Gk. ji.t<j66? wage, pay. Goth, mizdd, A. S. [meosd\t meord pay. 

O. R. mizda pay; R. mzda profit; mest revenge. 

Sk. month to whirl; mad to dance, be dizzy, drunk, mad, jojrful; 
mit, mid to be mad; madas madness, intoxication; madhus sweetness, 
honey, mead; madhuras sweet; mand, mand, mtid to be glad, praise, 
exhilarate; madas drunkenness; madanas strong drink, god of love. 

Zd. madhu honey. Gk. yiMu strong drink; (xeOuo) to be drunk; 

(Li6uoxia to intoxicate. Lat. madidus dnmk; [mudsum], mulsum 

mead; mustum must. A. S. medu, O. H. G. metu, mead; A. S. 



— 90 — 

mdse whirlpool; ge-maed mad; M. H. G. gemeit merry, gemiiMich, 

munter; O. H. G. mendi joy. O. R. medu honey, mead, wine; Lith. 

tnidus ho.iey. Ir. mid mead; medar drinking cup; medrach merry; 

medar mirth; [Medv], Medb; O. C. [Medvus], Mebdus, Medu-briga, 
Medu-[v]anta (mead-market) ; Epo-medvos (curvetting steed) ; Medoa* 
cus, Modoactis eddying stream. 



Sk. tnd to [grasp]; manh to [swell against pressure, be turgid], 
grow; to [burst out, sparkle], shine; to be [dashing, generous, over- 
flowing], to give; magham happiness; tnank to grasp, grow tall, 
shine, be honored; tnah, mdh (mahdmi) to [inflate, swell, glorify], 
magnify, honor; tnahas glory, power; mahan greatness, wealth; 
mahant great; fnanhtshias=fnaximus; tnahi earth; [tnanh], tnakh, 
makk, mank, mang to move rotmd, [rotmd out, be great]; mank, 
mangh to [wreathe], adorn; mangh to dance round, speed, mock; 

[myah], mikh to [twist], vex, hurt; [spin out], Zd. maganh, maga 

size; tnagita, tnaz, mazani great. Gk. jxiya?, [ixey^^v] (isR^cov, 

\i.iy iOTO^ great, greater, greatest; (isYaXuvb) to magnify (van); (le-jfaCpo) 
to [look up at something tall], to suspect (sub-spicio) , be envious, 
grudge, bewitch; (liyapov lofty (timbered or vaulted) hall, second 
story, palace, sacred cavern; MIyacpa grudging fate; \i,7XEly6<; [sprout- 
ing], tall, slender; Monc6B(5ve(; glorious; (idtxap, \t.7xipioq rich, fortimate, 

glorious, blest; (Ji^xo(; length; (jit)xuv(i> to lengthen. Lat. tnagnus^ 

[fnagyor] major, maximus great, greater, greatest; majestas majesty; 
magis the more, rather; mag-isier; Magius, Maccius, Osc. Mahius; 
max glorious (only in abl. made virtute, of glorious excellence; cf. 

jidbcap) ; macer [tall], slender. Goth . ma[g}iza greater ; maisis greatest ; 

mikils great; mikilnan to grow; mikilyan to magnify; O. H. G. mihhil, 

A. S. micel, O. N. mikill great (cf. ixe-jfiXt)). Lith. moku to be able 

{mank) ; R. mok to be strong; to know; mok force, vigor. Ir. mag, 

mog great; [do-for-magim], iof'magim to increase; [maha] mda, mda 
greater; [maham], moam greatest; mag, macha, field (place of growth) ; 
machdad admiration ; mass stately, beautiful ; mdss thigh ; W. mwy great ; 
mwyaf greatest; Bret, magein to make fat, feed; magus nourishing; 
m^hu&n June; mats field; mihur (deponent) to nourish; O. C. Magius, 
Ma[g]iorix] magus field, town; magtdus chief; Magl-agnosljoyful chief]; 
Magli^avus chief's grandson {Maclou, St. Mal6) ; Magalo-rix [mighty 
king], MailoriXf Mallory). 

Sk. manh to swell, grow, [burst out], flash, [be strong]; mah to 
honor ; mahas bull, joy, feast ; mahan wealth ; makhas sacrifice ; magham 



— 91 — 

gift, felicity; mangalam luck; mangh to make an effort, begin, hasten, 

adorn. Gk. (i.oxXe6ci> to prise up, heave, wrench with lever; (ioxX6<; 

crow-bar; (x^xOoq effort, toil, exhaustion, distress; (iux^R^g) to groan, 
pant; (i.uxdeo(i^e to bellow; (xoyici) to toil; ii<')fO(; labor, childbirth; yt^iftq 
with an effort, hardly; jiixpt [reaching with an effort], unto, almost 

to, as long as. Lat. [mans], mas male; masculus virile; md[s]ritus 

lawful husband {rite duly); mos honored custom. Goth, magan 

to be able; mahts might; magus, magula boy; magaths maid; A. S. 
maeg [helper], relation, blood-friend; maegdh tribe, kin; Ger. mUhen, 

hemUhen to make an effort (yL^yt?). O. R. mogan (inf. moshti) 

to be able; po- moshti to help; R. mozkno it is possible; mogukiy vig- 
orous; mok vigor; muzh husband [mo5]; muzhik laborer; Lith. macnus 

strong; macis power. Ir. [maham], mdam, mdm [power, dominion], 

property, slavery; [mognar], monar labor; mog, mug slave (toil); 
maigre salmon (impetuous effort); macraille testicle; [mah, mag], 
magg, mac (W. Bret, map, mab) son, lad, child, descendant; O. C. 
MagatUia, Mogontidcum; Macco, Maccius, Macc-avus; Mogo, Mog-iU 
lius (freedman, slave). 

Sk. manh to swell, roimd out, grow; maksh to heap up; makh, 
mang^ mukh to go roxmd, revolve; mank to go round, [wreathe], 
adorn; miiJbitom crown, crest; mukulashvL6,\ muktdipea.T\', mukhamisice 

{vultus, turning); front; spear-point. Gk. (jic(jia(xuXov arbute berry 

(perfect globe); iJiouxt)pO(;, yLuxt)po(;, iytuySaXov almond (bud, knop); 
(iuxi]^ knob; (xi^xcov (Dor. (jloxcov) poppy; (xuxXae, stripes, brindles; 

'A(i6xXat ring- wall; (xdexeXov ring- wall, enclosure. Lat. macellum 

circtilar market (so Varro) ; mdceria garden wall ; macula roimd spot. 

Goth, smakka fig (rounding, knobbing) ; [mahil], mdil (cf . [mahis], 

mais) a roxmd spot, mole (O. H. G. meild, A. S. mdl, mael); O. N. 

mAl decoration of sword; mdl pebble; Ger. Mohn poppy. R. mak 

poppy; makovka poppy-head, crown of head, top; smokva fig. Ir. 

tnocol globe, vault, fruit, shell; [macel\, mdel round-head, bald, blunt; 
mael'land diadem; maelassa roimd-toed shoes; mucor cornel berry; 
mecon knob, lump, root; Bret, mango&r wall. 

Sk. makh to revolve; mukham face (turning, vultus) ; mukhatas face 
to face; mukham point of sword, acies, line of battle; mukharas leader, 

chief. Gk. de^iuxdXT) point of dart (i intens.); ijjLuaaci) to woimd, 

mangle, tear; i\kux'fi wound. Lat. mucro sword-point. Ir. mucna 

fierce, defiant, assailing ; O. C. Mucro, 

Sk. I* makh, mankh, mank, mang, to go rotmd, revolve ; mangh to 



— 92 — 

whirl about, speed, sport, adorn, mock; maM to brag; to [race round, 
perplex]; snatch away, cheat; muMh to be confused; munk to confuse, 
cheat; to whirl, sling, let fly, set free; muk (munkdmi) to sling, hurl, 
shoot, set free; to dash out, pour, shed, rain; ava-muk to cast off 
clothes, undress, unhamess, separate; ^o/i-mM^ to [whirl round, wrap], 
bind; mish to sprinkle; mu^ to rub round, wipe off; 2^ maksh to heap 
up, roll together, knead; {fnakh,mank,fnang to revolve, take the sense 
of grinding, chewing, biting, kneading, tousling, cf. Yvd6o<;=fen^arf); 
ffio^, mank to grind, chew, crush; tndnksh to desire (prey, food); 
mdnsam flesh, fat; d-misham flesh, pleasure; man^r^/wj [anointed], bay, 
chestnut; mashi ink (oily) ; 3** makh, mank, tnang to revolve, take the 
sense of whirling sword, scourge (which also bite) ; of whirling, sling- 
ing, trapping machines; ma^^ to sink [in whirlpool]; tnan^ to wash, 

wipe, rtunble, sound. Gk. (xdeaoci) ((fcdiSco) to knead, wipe, [chew]; 

(xdeora^ jaw, mouth; (ideo6XT)<;, (i.deo6XT)(Jia leather (wash-leather, rubbed 
with fat, tousled, curried); ixiort^ scourge (whirling, biting; yvdWoq, 
knout) ; (xaoTCx^ to gnash the teeth ; jiaorfxt) gum-mastic (tough, tena- 
cious, axtvo(;, lentiscus; cf. Bdbcvci), zdh)\ }^a'{l(; kneading-trough, dough; 
[LayB6<; kneader, wiper; (idfeepoq cook; (xoxapca paste, macaroni; 
oyii^X^' ovLdo) to wipe, soap, anoint, wash; qjLi)5t<; wiping, cleansing; 
(MCYYoveuci) to trick, cheat, bewitch {mak, munk to trick ; muh to dizzy, 
bewilder) ; \iiyali<; [quick-finger, octave], lyre, or flute producing octave; 
yLiyyovov [whirling] spell, philtre; axis of pulley; catapult; hunting-net; 
(i.axxodKi> to be [dizzy], stupid ; (i.Y]xavdeo(Jiae to devise, plot ; lifjxo? device, 
remedy; iJit)X«^ device, wile, machine; yLaoxiXt), iJufXt) (cf. axilla, did) 
[revolving] arm-pit, shoulder-joint; (xdex^tpa [sharp-tooth], hunting- 
knife, dirk (used by Mox^^ ^^^ surgeon to extract arrow); (iixo(iai 
to fight (Heb. Idkham to eat, mi'lkhdmahwsLT) ; (laxIXXa [biter], mattock? 

[(iu^eXjt;, yLUffffeX6(;], iJLueX<<; marrow, brain (kneaded in leather). 

Lat. massa dough ; macero to soak, soften ; Massicus rich-soil (It. massa 
garden); maxilla, mala jaw; mado to slay; mancus bitten-off, maimed; 
Maccus greedy buffoon; c{m\mdsum sour-meat, tripe (p. 20); mango 

slave-dealer, cheat; e-mungere to cheat. A. S. maga, O. H. G. 

mago jaw, gullet, belly; A. S. mengan to [stir, knead], mingle; menigeo 
crowd; Goth, mekeis, A. S. mice sword; O. N. maekir sword, blood 
(biting, mang) ; O. E. mayhem to [bite off], maim; A. S. be-mankian to 
maim, behead; O. H. G. mangaldn to lack; Goth, managei [whirling] 
crowd \manags many (Menge, mancher) ; [mihms], mims flesh ; mukamodei 
soft-mood, meek; O. N. miukr soft; smiuga to crawl into, smuggle; 
O. E. mich to skulk; Ger. schmeicheln to flatter; schmUcken to adorn 
(mangh); Schmauch feast {mdnsam) \ A. S. smocca tunic; smeccan to 
taste, smack, kiss. Lith. masgoti to wash; minkau, mankshtau to 



— 93 — 

l[neaA;minksht€u soft ; O. R. menknatUi to soften ; manka flour (kneaded) ; 

mmdra parchment ((idEoOXijg) ; menso flesh ; R. myaso flesh ; maslo butter, 

oil ; mas grease ; myakot pulp ; meisit to knead ; myagkiy soft ; muka flour ; 

mozg marrow, brain; mezdrit to curry; meikh hide, fur, leather-bottle, 
bellows; makhat to whirl, brandish, beckon; makJt motion, stroke, 

wing; meM sword. Ir. mescan, tnesgan lump of butter, dough; medg 

whey; maisse food, victuals; tness [ripe] fruit; weapon, point, edge; 
meng deceit; numg [tnangh] hair, mane; meng fawn; mUchaim to wrap, 
hide (prcUi-mu^; Bret, mahein to heap, press, crowd; maheignein to 
mutilate; meginiein to curry; megin hide, bellows; michod soft, mellow; 
M^A confusion, shame (dizzy); O. C. Mango, Mangonius, Massanius; 
Mosa^ Mosella [watering, softening, fertilizing]. 

Sk. manh to [burst out], flash; mangh to whirl, speed; tnaksh to be 
[eager], angry; mdnksh to desire; tnak to whirl away, cheat; muh to 
whirl, be dizzy; mash^ mush to whirl, hurl, brandish, slay; mag, mig 
to be angry, buzz, sound; muk to dash out; mish to splash, sprinkle, 
rival, flash the eyes; makshas gad-fly; mdkshas bee; mushalas, mugalas^ 

musalas club, pestle; mushti fist. Zd. makshi fly. Gk. iJita&o to 

hate; (xlaog hatred; [(xuaaea], (Jiula fly (cf. (jtueX^O; (J^^(^0(; [gad-fly, 

sucker], calf, sucker of tree. Lat. musca fly; muscus moss (sucker, 

Xetxi^v); ffi^iP quickly, soon; wiVo to flash, brandish, shoot, sparkle; 
mica [spark], crumb; miser [mish\ tearful], wretched; misereor to pity. 

O. H. G. mticcd, A. S. mygge, O. N. my midge (m«A) ; Goth, missa- 

evil, harmful; O. N. miskr buzz, whisper, purr. Lith. muse fly; O. R. 

mushiUsa gnat; mukha fly; R. m^at to dash, flash; mshkenie vengeance; 
mekta vision; mishen target; m[v]isl thought; mshis^v]iy mossy; mokh 

moss. Ir. miscuis hatred; miscsech hated; miscaid curse; messa 

worse; mi-, mis- evil, mischievous; mo, mu, mos, moch quick, soon» 
early; Bret, musein to [suck], scent; mous lad [quick, alert]; mist 
anger, indignation, surprise; Fr. mousser to sparkle; O. C. Moccus 
Mercury (early, prompt) ; Mocconius, Modus', mocu [lad], descendant; 
Mosconnum, Muscio, Mussa, Musa, Moxsius; Muscidcus, Mustidcus 
(busy, industrious; Moissac, Moussy 34). 

Sk. mush, mush to [whirl, maraud, strip], steal; mush, mushas, 

mushikas mouse (thief); mushkas testicle. Gk. [l\j(;, qjiu?, a\i.l(;, 

opitvOog mouse; muscle (playing aroimd surface of limb; cf. lacerta 
lizard, muscle) ; [(luaacov], jjluwv thigh muscle (cf . jjiuta) ; (xuoxov genitals. 

Lat. m.us mouse; musculus little mouse, muscle; mus-cipula 

mouse-trap. A. S., O. N., O. H. G. mils mouse; O. H. G. mils 

biceps. O. R. ni{v]^hi mouse; R. ni[v}fl^5hka muscle, shoulder-joint. 



— 94 — 
Sk. makk to go round ; maM to twitch, cheat ; mikh to twist, vex. 



Gk. (Jicxp6<;, qjLtxp<<;, Dor. (Jicxx6g small, mean, trifling (squeezed, 

pinched ofiO- Lat. tnicidus petty, mean; tnacer lean. O. H. G. 

smdhi meanness, pain ; {schmdhen, Sckmach) ; A. S. [stnahil], smdl, small ; 

O. N. smdr small; smalt small cattle, sheep; tntnka to diminish. R. 

mu^t to [twist], torment; muka torment, grinding; mokalit to un- 
twist, strip; m[v}ikat to pull, twist; mizinets little finger. Ir. 

[tnekr], mir finger; mir bit, fragment; O. C. Miccus, Miccio, Miccius, 
Micra, 

Sk. mish to whirl, dash, rival; tnih, muk to pour out; muh to be 
dizzy; mikh to twist, vex; miksh, mifr to stir, mix; mish to sprinkle; 
ma^^ to sink [in whirlpool], be drawn down, drown; mifras mixed; 

dmikshd mixed milk. Gk^ ixfayco, \t,lfw\Li, qifyci) to mix; {xfya, 

(iCyBa, iiJyBiQv mixed, promiscuous; jxl^t? a mingling. Lat. misceo 

{mixttis) to mix; miscellaneus. A. S. mtscan, O. H. G. miskiu 

to mix; Goth, misso mutual. Lith. mishti to mingle; maishyti to 

mix, meet, gather; mishinis cross-breed; O. R. meisiti to mix; R. 

meisit to knead; weisto [meeting] place ? meishat to mix, confuse, vex. 

Ir. mescaim to mix, mingle, stir round, move ; mesce [dizziness], drunken- 
ness; Com. cym*mysc mixture; Bret, meskein to mix; mesk crowd; 
meij, mih mixture, confusion. 

Sk. muh to be whirled \mih, muk, munM, to dash out, pour out, send 
out, set free; n^ife^A to set free; moghas emptied, vain. 

Sk. m«^, (munkdmi) to dash out, pour out, weep, rain, mingere, cacare, 
[be slimy, disagreeable]; [muhtr], mutr = mingere] mutras urine; mw^, 

mwn^ to wipe off. Gk. dcxoixuaaci) to blow the nose; (luxTujp snout, nose; 

(iuxTt]p(l^(i> to bleed at the nose ; [hold the nose for bad smell], mock ; (lu^a 
mucus, lamp-nose; (jiuxt)(; lamp-snuff, ftmgus, slimy excrescence; [liaoq 
abomination, crime; qjiijxci) to smolder, smoke (bring tears, stop nose). 
Lat. mungo to blow the nose; mucus \ mucSre to drivel; mixa [drip- 
ping] lamp- wick ; moesius tearful ; mustum must. A. S. mixen, O. N. 

myki dung; A. S. smocian to smoke; Eng. smudge. R. moknut to be 

wet; mokrota moisture; phlegm; mo^it to wet; moka urine; mokhorka 

tobacco. Ir. much smoke; mUchaim to stifle, smother; to htirl 

down, dash down, destroy ;/ar-mt<cAaim to dash water upon, extinguish; 
mucc, mug hog (W. moch, Bret, moh) ; Bret, moged smoke; moj snout; 
mehien mucus; moug suffocation; mouch spiggot; lamp- wick; mouhein 
to pout, scorn, be angry; mouih stench; O. C. Mocidcus, Mucidcus, 
Mugilis. 



— 96 — 

Sk. mih (mihdmi, mekshyami) ^^mingere, semen effundere; tnehas, 
[mighra], midhras tirine, goat; mehanam=membrum virile \ mih mist; 

wighas cloud, bad weather. Zd. miz^mingere, humectare, Gk. 

i|uxfa» mingo; SyLcxv^a urine; iiotx^i; adulterer; i^lx^ri mist. Lat. 

mingo; [megyo], meio; micturio. A. S. mige, Goth, maihsitis dung; 

Goth, [migan] to beget; megs son-in-law; O. N. mistr, mugga mist; 
mokvi, mOkr darkness, low cloud; myki muck; Eng. muggy, musty, 

mist. Lith. myzhu=mingo; Lith., O. R. migla mist. Ir. ati'mich 

rainy weather ; W. mwg smoke ; mwci fog. 



Sk. md to [grasp, encircle]; mav, mavy to encircle, bind; miv to 
move round; mi to [grasp], crush; diminish, destroy ; with the addition 
of ri to stir, fly up, be active (termination of active agency, developing 
myar, yal, ar, arv, al) the roots become: mri to [be whirled, ground, 
perish], die ; mdryami to cause to die, kill ; mrin to [twist], sling, kill ; 
mldi (mldydmi) to [be groimd down], wither, faint, perish ; smri {smard- 
«i) to revolve in mind, remember; mal, mall to grasp, [surround, en- 
circle]; maZd.md/yo^ wreath, vine; Malayas encircling motmtain range; 
wH to [complete circle], meet, join, unite ; marv to go round, fill to brim ; 
murv to [encircle], bind, tie; mur to wrap, clothe; mul to [roimd out, 
be turgid], grow, become tnmk, be firm; mUlam stock, tnmk, root; 
^uli roimd head, garland. 

Sk. mri {mardmi, mriye, caus. mdryami, p. p. mritas) to [be ground], 
die, kill; mardyus, mrityas mortal; amritas immortal; a-mritam drink 
of immortality; maras, mritis, maranam death; mrin to kill; mdris 

plague; mlai to pine, wither, be exhausted. Zd. mar to die; mareta 

mortal; maretan man. Gk. SixopTsv he died (Hesych.); [ii.po'co(;], 

^ot6g mortal; ^ptfTo<; death-blood, gore; 5-(i^poTO(; immortal; de(Ji^poa(a 
[immortal life], food of the gods; (xdepvoqiai to fight in a crowd, ring 
(grinding, cf. (i6)Xo(;); (Jiapafvd) to [grind, crush], wear out, destroy 
slowly, extinguish; to waste away, decay, wither, fade {mldi)\ (jiap((i>, 
(URptdnd to pine with fever; (xapCXiQ charcoal ashes; Mop(ia> ghoul, 
goblin; i-iidpovrog imfading; (xdepoEOov fennel (dying and reviving 
from root; cf. 9UC1), foenus, foeniculus); \t,ip(xvai<;, \i.(xp(xa\i.6(; decay, 
pining; [d'pLapTivia], i(iapT(iva> (2. aor. {Jii^pOTOV, Aeol. inf. de(i^pOT^v) to 
[fail to kill], miss one's mark, err, sin; (mrin to hurl), PpovriJ thimder- 
bolt, thimder; de(i^Xtjvci> (mldi, i euphon.) to grind down, bltmt; 
Cretan BpiT6(iapTe<; ((jipeT6(iapT((;, death upon death, survival of fittest, 
course of nature), Artemis; cf. Diana of Nemi, of Scythia; Bhuvdni 
existence; Moloch. Lat. morior to die; mors (mortis) death; [mor- 



— 96 — 

vus]^ morbus disease; mortalis. Groth. maurthr murder; stnarna 

refuse; O. N. mordh death; moma to wilt, molder. O. R. mreiii to 

die; moru death, plague; su-mruti [good] death; mrutvu corpse; R. 
ntorit to kill, starve, quench; martishka [little creature], marmot, 
swallow; Lith. mirti to die; moras plague; morai bier; smertis death. 

Ir. [marv], marbaim to kill ; marb dead ; marbnad elegy ; [mronnaim]^ 

bronnaim to waste, destroy, disappear; br6n sorrow; brdnach motimful; 
brd (brand) mill-stone; briiim to grind, crush, destroy (cf. p. 63); 
brut oblivion; brinaim to [be dead], rot, stink; W. marw death, dead; 
Bret. marU dead; mariiein to die; brein. rotten. 

Sk. marv to go [round], fill [to brim]; murv to [whirl, encircle], 
bind; mdurvi cord, bow-string; mur to wrap, clothe; mri to [grind]; 
mritas destroyed; marut [whirl]-wind ; wind-demon; marutas wind, 
air; [redup.] mar^maras whisper, murmur (cf. eddying wind) ; marman 
a secret; a [revolving] limb of the body (cf. [movembrum], mem- 
brum) ; murmuras [whirling] fire of chaff; god of love; horse of the sim; 
marikis ray of Ught; marikas [spark], pepper; mdrishas chief actor on 

stage (busy, circling). Gk. (i,ap(ia(p(i> to fiash; (jLap(jidepeoq flashing; 

(i.dep(jiapo( marble; (jiop6ee(; sparkling; (liopov, (ji6pov mulberry (glittering 
facets); qjiaXepjq, (jLaXep6(; flashing, blazing; (xoppb, (xoppCviQ agate, 
jade; (xop^jiupci) to ripple, plash; (jiup(jio(;, (lup^jiT)^ ant (running to and 
fro, restless, busy; repeated in Zd. maoiri ant; O. N. mauirr\ Low Ger. 
miere; O. R. mravii; W. morion; Bret, merien); |iT)p6<; thigh (turn- 
ing in socket [marv, mar]); (jip(Ji«;, tJLTi5ptv6o<; cord, Une; ynQpuG) to furl, 
coil, wind, weave; }^ep\t.v6(; hawk (circling); {jL8p{jLY)ptxi<; rover, pirate; 
(i6)p6(; [dizzy, puzzled], fool (marv); (jiaup^G) to darken, make helpless; 
(i.aupo<;, i[Laiip6<; glimmering, dim; dull, weak; (i6)Xu<; feeble, dull; 
\uop6(; apparently takes the sense of wheeling, mad, wild, in Homeric 
{6(jLa>po(;, lyx6a((Ui>po^, atvd(Jiopo<;, uXax6(jLa>po(;, wild with arrows, spears, 
destruction, howls. Lat. Mars{-'tis) wind-god; Martius wind- 
month ; merula black-bird (nimble) ; murmuro to grumble ; ntorus, 
morio fool; mordri to be [dull, puzzled], slow; morosus gloomy, ill- 
tempered. A. S. merh brisk, merry; myrdh mirth; O. H. G. mor- 

murSn, mormuldn to murmur; Goth, marzyan to confuse, hinder; O. N. 

mdlmr glittering metal, steel. Lith. murmu to mutter; murmlenti 

to murmur. Ir. sm^ fire; sm&roit coals; mer quick, sudden, merry, 

mad; nUr finger (nimble); merle theft; meraige fool; [merval], merbal, 
merba random-shot, blunder, lie; [meirv], meirb, mall slow, tedious, 
weak ; maraim to delay, remain, continue, dwell. W. marwyd hot coals. 

Sk. marv to go rotmd, fill to the brim; maryd boimdary; [myaras]. 



— 97 — 

mras sea (horizon-bounded); Malayas encircling mountain range; 

[manms], tnarus desert (plain). Gk. *A^l\Lapo<; son of Poseidon 

(round horizon, sea); (jiupCog boundless, infinite; [icXT)V(iupe<;], icXT)(i.(iup(g 

full-sea, high tide (p. 60). Lat. mare sea; niarinus\ muria brine, 

pickle; mur-ex sea-shell [marv, murv, mur]; Marius'=' great, Goth. 

marei sea ; mari'Saivs lake ; A. S. mere sea ; mdr moor ; mdra larger, more ; 
0. N. marr sea; O. Dutch maere sea, swamp; O. H. G. muor swamp, 

waste, moor. O.R. marye sea; R. [mur, mvir\ mir world, tmiverse; 

Lith. mares sound, bay. Ir. muir sea; muir-mdru syren; mdr great; 

m&toim to magnify; molaim to praise; Bret, mor sea; mariz plain; 

fMfi tide; mar more. O. C. Mori-dunum sea-town, now Seaton; 

Morifd; Are-morici by the sea; Mori-mar-usa great-sea-water; ocean; 
Mori-rex, Mori'tasgus great chief; Mor-vennum great deUght. 

Sk. marv to brim; mri to [revolve, grind]; smri (smardmi) to 

revolve in mind, recall, remember, think, desire ; smritas remembered, 

loved; smriiis, smaranam reflection, memory; smaras love, thought. 

— Zd. mar to remember, know, recall, mention; mareii instruction. 

— Gk. (i,ep(xa(pa>, (iep(jiiQpR^ci> to be anxious, reflect, debate, devise; 

(iip|ii]pa, (iipt*(iva ( +(Jivdeo(JiaO anxiety, thought; (Up(ji6po<; memorable, 

famous; plotting, crafty, mischievous; brooding; jxiprui; (-upo<;) 

rememberer, witness; (jiapTupi(i> to give evidence; (lapriipo^Jiae to call 

to witness; (xeCpu (l(ji(jiopa) to think earnestly, judge, distribute; 

[otiepoTOR, aeiipoerat], et^jLaprai to receive, attain one's share; to be 

allotted by fate; (i6pac(jL0(; fated; (lolpa Fate, lot, share of booty, 

land; (&^pa division of army; (i.6poq lot, doom, death (melting with 

M^"); (L^piov portion, member, limb; (iipo<; portion; (jiip*o^ with 

modulated, distinct voice, human; (iiXo<; lay, music, a Umb; caus. 

(liXxu to sing, dance, make merry; (iIXg) to reflect, plan, prepare for 

the future; (xiXXo) to intend to do; to be destined, Ukely, hesitate, be 

about to do; (uXcrdb) to care for, study, practice art; (i.eXi$(i)vo(; guard; 

(leXfru anxiety, regret, sorrow; care, attention. Lat. memoria 

memory; memor mindful, affectionate, attentive; moereo to [recall 
the lost], regret, mourn; mereo to [be attentive], earn one's share; 

merenda portion, Itmch. A. S. moere memorable, glorious; maerdhu 

fame; Goth, meryan to proclaim; vaila-mers praiseworthy; maHrnan 
to be anxious; A. S. muman to be anxious, lament; O. N. mdl appointed 
portion, fate, decree, bargain; [appointed] feast; meal; Goth, mel, 

A. S. mael appointed time, birthday. O. Pruss. er-mirit to reflect; 

Uth., O. R. meira portion, share; R. mir allotment, holding, peas- 
ants* village; mir [bargain, treaty], peace; smirenie submission to 

destiny, peace, calmness, htmiility; Lith. uz-mirshtu to forget. Ir. 

7 



— 98 — 

maimim to give evidence, reveal, betray; mir a [share], portion, piece; 
mar [of the same size] as; like; Mod. Ir. muim affection, lcpre\ smuirean 
grief; Bret, mirein, tn^en [allotted portion], lunch; mellein to be 
occupied, interested; O. C. Merium, Meronnum; [P]Ro'Smeria ^he- 
loved; a goddess, companion of Mercury; Smerius, Stnerto-rix, Stner- 
tuUus. 

Sk. md to [grasp], measure; marv to [contain], fill, brim, go [round, 
enclose]; wa/, maU to grasp, hold; [maro, tnaur], tnur to surround, 

wrap, robe. Gk. (xdepT) hand; (fcdpi^ measure; ei\Lip€i(x handiness, 

dexterity, opportunity, ease, comfort; ti\kapii(; easy, roomy, com- 
fortable; jidXavery [full], exceedingly. Lat. murus wall. A. S. 

tnerran, d-tnerran; O. H. G. marryan to confine, obstruct, moor; 
O. H. G. miHra wall. Lith. muras wall. 

Same root + />d causative. Gk. (jidepxrci) to grasp, grip; (iop96u 
to [grip], mold, shape; ^xop^i^ shape; ^6p^vo<; gripping (an eagle); 
[ixXoncTG)], ^Xdhrrci) to catch, trap, hinder, delay, harm; Ppi^uXo? wild- 
plum (free-pick); ^ip^tkoq wild-peach; ^dep^iTo<; lute (picked, 
plucked). 

Sk. tnarv, [malv, malb, tnulv] to be full, [juicy, tender, sappy, gummy, 

melting]. Gk. (UdXu<;, i'\t.a'k6<; soft, tender (4 intens.); [dqjiXug], 

i\k^\6(; dull (melts with p. 95) ; }^oko^p6q full, lazy, greedy (of beggar; 
of flower with head just out of earth); iJioXoup((; [greedy] locust; 
(jioXuvG) to wallow, defile; (xoX^^pcov yotmg pig; (i.6Xu^Bog lead (lumpish, 

heavy, tug; cf. pig of lead and R. svinya pig; svinetz lead). Lat. 

marruvium, marrubium horehotmd (sappy, marrowy) ; malva mallow 
(full of sap) ; melior [richer], better; mollis mellow, soft, weak; tnulier 

woman; mubms, mullus mullet; murus mellow, ripe. O. H. G. 

marawi, maro, murwi, N. H. G. mUrbe mellow, soft; Fries, mydl 

mellow; O. H. G. smelzan, A. S. smeltan, meltan to melt. R. 

smola resin, gum, pitch; maUa bitumen; mors fruit-juice; n^v]ilo 
foam, suds, soap; milovat to be gracious; molit to pray; Lith. 

malone grace. Ir. mell, meld gracious, lovely; Mag Mell Elysitmi; 

mellach delightful; mol[v]aim to praise; molbihach praiseworthy; Bret. 
mSl sap, marrow, brain; milein to praise; O. C. Mallus (O'Malley); 
MaUonus (Maloney); Malorix {Mallory); Mellonius^ MoUonius; 
Malava, Malvanus rivers. 

Sk. same roots; marv to be full, [overflow, be oozing, sweet]. 

Gk. (iiXe honey; (ieX((pp<i)v honeyed, delicious; (xlXeaaa bee (ish to 



— »9 — 

desire). Lat. tnel {tneUis) honey. Goth, miliih honey. Ir. 

wH honey ; milis sweet. 

Sk. maru to brim [circle, overflow], be full, go round, [stir]; malam 

mire, sin; malinas black, defiled; mal^ambu ink. Gk. ^X(&ax(i> 

(|MXou(Mct; cf. mlu^ to go round, wend, come and go; (loXuvcd, (xopuaao) 
to roll in mire, defile; \^'ka(; black, maUgnant; (xlXov ink; (jieXa(vci> 

to blacken. Lat. malus black-hearted, bad; tnalitia, male-volus, 

mU-gnus (genus, nattire). Goth, melyan to write; mel writing; 

0. H. G. meil a blot; m&lon to paint; O. N. mdl decoration. Lith, 

moUs clay; milynas [smeared with] blue [clay]; Lett, tnels black; 
R. marat to splash, defile, blacken; tnalina raspberry; malinoviy 

crimson; meil chalk (daub, white-wash). Ir. [mevut\, mebul [stain], 

shame; m^la shame, sorrow; tnele bad; W. tnelyn; Cor. tnilin; Bret. 
milen [smeared with] yellow [ochre]; O. C. malinas high-tide (brim- 
ming); miles badger (*'Nec spemendus adeps dederit quem bestia 
mdes"); Melinus. 

Sk. marv to brim; mur to wrap, [rub round]. Gk. (xupo to flow, 

trickle, weep, bleed; ixtipov ointment; yn5pT0(; myrtle (anointed, gUsten- 
iag, fragrant leaf; associated with Aphrodite on account of smri, 
mritas); (i.i}ppa, qxupva myrrh; qjLupC(; polisher, emery; (xOpot;, qiupoq 
[slimy] eel; jiuipatva, qjnipatva [slimy horror], lamprey (cf. Satva, 

hog-horror, hyaena, alveSO. Lat. moereo to weep, mourn; moretum 

salad. Goth, smairthr (O. H. G. smero, O. N. smior) fat, butter, 

marrow. Lith. smarsas fat; R. marat to defile; muravii to glaze 

pottery. Ir. smir marrow; Bret, m^at to knead; m^l sap, marrow, 

brain. O. C. Murranus (apothecary); Murrius; Murra, Mura (5 

rivers). 

Same roots [to revolve, rub]. Gk. iji(5Xt), ijujXo? mill, mill-stone, 
molar-teeth; (xuXcov mill-house; (iuXci>6p6<; miller; (jiuXXg) to grind; 
a(i(Xi] [ground] knife, razor, lancet. Lat. molo to grind; mola mill- 
stone; miles soldier [devourer, cf. Ir.]; mola meal; e-molu-mentum 

hard-earned pay; miUus [moiler], mule. Goth, malan to grind; 

malvyan to cnxsh; faur-mulyan to stop the mouth (Maul, mill); malo 
moth-miller? malma sand; O. H. G. melo meal; mulyan to crush; 

0. N. mil jaw; meldr meal; melr pebbles. Lith. malu (inf. malti) 

to grind; O. R. melyan (inf. mleiti) to grind. Ir. melim to grind; 

do-melim^ taimlim to chew, eat; millim to crush, destroy, ruin; milliud 
destruction; mil soldier; mil devouring monster; sea-monster; louse 



— 100 — 

(cf. pedictUus p. 54) ; mdel [worn], bald; Bret, tnoel hub, bald; moUein 
to print (wheel-ruts]. 

Sk. same roots; [marv^ malv^ mulv\ to whirl; maUas pugilist (whirl- 
ing, brandishing, crushing). Gk. (UdXo(; press of battle, fighting in 

circle; (ix!>X*aK|^ [black-eye, broken-face], bruise; (jlouXC^ knife; (xauXtag 
sword; &(ji(XXio(jiae to race round, contend; (xaXtf^ [flashing], white. 

Lat. molior to make an effort; malleus hammer, maul [crusher; 

brandished]. O. N. midlnir thunderbolt, Thor's hammer; fndltnr 

sword, metal; tndl [whirling, circling] conversation; mdlrUm place for 

conversation. R. molnia lightning, thtmderbolt; molot hammer; 

molot to grind metal ; molotit to thrash ; molva circling report, rumor. 

Ir. mol-mar talkative, boastful; mol conversation; Bret, melein to 

boast; O. C. [mulmillo], murmillo full-armed gladiator; Mullo Mars. 

Sk. tnal to grasp, [enclose]; tnallis, malll, mdlcUi jasmine (ringing, 
clasping); maid, mdlyas wreath, wreathed; [myaJ], mil to [complete 

circle], meet, collect; melas, melakas assembly, festival. Gk. jtuXXd? 

curved, twisted; (xuXXaCvG) to contort the face; yLuXXov lip; [i'\LopfO(;] 
4yLopP6? follower, attendant; (ieXX6<; [going rotmd and round], slow; 
(jiiXeo^ idle, useless; \Ltkla ash tree; (ilXcvog ashen [flexible]; (nlXog, 

(xlXa^, ajjilXa^ yew [flexible]; qjLtXa^ bind-weed, convolvulus. Lat. 

mille SL thousand (assembly, crowd); milvus kite (circling). — ^R. mala 

[handful], little. Ir. iw-mo/fe, mo/te [meeting ends], at the same time; 

mall [circling], slow; mala eyebrow (curved) ; mal-artaim to exchange, 
traffic {fi to aim; dryas true, exact); mile a thousand; Bret, mailh 
ring, mail ; mel a vertebra (turning) ; eyelid ; mailhurein to swaddle, 
emmailloter; O. C. mili-mindrum [dizzy-mind], hen-bane; Isid. 17, 9, 41. 

Sk. marv to fill, brim; mOl to [swell, round, form tnmk], be firm, 
grow; mUlam stock, root; mdulas of good stock, well bom; mdulis 
rotmd head, curly, bushy; turban, tiara; mulyas full price, pay; 

mUriis roimd body, trunk, solid. Gk. [[taf'koq] (laXX^^ [bushy] fleece; 

(&i)Xov, (jiaXov [fleecy] sheep; [round] apple; (JidXXov more; (&dEXa ex- 
ceedingly; (uXCviQ millet (bushy head, mw/, mill, (JieX); (lioXu, (ju&Xul^a 

bulb, garlic. Lat. malum apple; mdlus mast; moles rotmd mass, 

motmd, mole; muUus [bushy, leafy], abtmdant, much; mUlus mule 

(strong, stocky) ? emolumentum ftdl pay. 0. N. smali sheep? R. 

smeiliv^y bold, [firm]? Ir. mol beam; mell globe, ball; 9ft^U, muUach 

motmd, rotmded head; moli wether; W. molU, Cor. mols, Bret. mott[/]^ 
sheep, mouton; Bret, mellad foot-ball; O. C. MoUinus, MoUelius, 
MuUelius sheep-owner. 



-'..": 



— 101 — 

Sk. tnarv to go round, move round, [rub round], fill, brim, [overflow] ; 
rniifv to [grasp], bind ; mur to wrap, robe ; mill to be turgid. Intensified 
by terminations [anh, ankh, ang, anksh, ash, as] they develop the 
roots mn^, mdr^, mark to wipe off, strip, dry, purify, stroke, soothe; 
mriksh, mraksh to anoint; mrish to sprinkle, wet; mrif to [grasp], 
touch, handle, examine, consider; mrish to grasp, hold up, bear, en- 
dure; mrig, mdrg to wander, seek; mrigas himting, game, antelope; 
mrunMf mruk, mluk to roam, wander; mlekh to [whirl, tremble], 
stammer (cf. balbus)\ mlekkhas barbarian; murkh to be whirled, con- 
fused; murkh to pour into, enter, occupy, fill; to be turgid, grow. 

The following meanings arise; to move roimd, rub rotmd, soothe, 
stroke, bewitch, milk, anoint, sprinkle, glitter, be greasy, rotten. 

Sk. mri^ {mdrimi, mamdr^, mrishtas)] mdr^, mark to wipe off, 
purify, stroke, soothe; mriksh, mraksh to anoint; marakatam [glitter- 
ing], en:ierald; mrish to sprinkle, bedew, be gracious, forgive. Zd. 

marez, to stroke, wipe. Gk. iiilX-jfoito milk (4 intens.) ; dixoXf eu(; milk- 
pail; d^LoX-jftSg the dead of night [soothing, sleep-bearing]; i[L6pfri(; 
squeezings, olive lees; i\Lopy6<; squeezer, strainer; 6\L6pyv\j\t,itovnpe off, 
dry; (&aXdaaci> to squeeze, touzle, curry, soften; ^^'kay^^a poultice; 
(La[Xoex6^ soft; (i^Xcmfa calm; (JiaXixT) mallow; ^Xt)xp^^, ^Xi^, languid, 
weak, dull; ijiapfiaao) to glitter, twinkle (mraksh); i^apuf-f^ glitter, 
0eBjn; a^ipa')fBo<; emerald; [\t'<xp(iyaglTri(;], (jiapyap(Tt](; pearl; i^agaxoq 

marjoram (anointed, perfumed). Lat. mulgeo to milk; mulctrum 

milk-pail; tnulcto to fine (milk the cow); mulceo to soothe, stroke; 
wiulco to quiet with a club, give a licking; amurca olive lees; marceo, 
marcesco to be wilted, rotten; marcidus wilted; margus clay (soft, 

ductile); Marcttj™ horse (anointed, glossy); MarceUas ^colt, A. S. 

mekan, O. H. G. melchan to milk; (joth. miluks milk; mi2/rma cloud 
(Indra's cow); maHrgins morning, dawn, to-morrow (anointed sky, 
cf. dih to anoint, dagan dawn) ; A. S. mearg, mearh marrow (cf . milhma) ; 
mearcian to smear, mark; smearcian to smirk; mearh, mear horse; 

0. N. marh, mar horse. O. R. mluzan to milk; Lith. melzhu (inf. 

milskti) to stroke, milk; R. moloko milk; morzh walrus (mammal); 
smolkat to be soothed, calmed; molkat to be silent; morgat to twinkle, 

wink; mertzat to glitter; [mleknut], bleknut to wither. Ir. melg, mlicht, 

bUcki milk; bligim to milk; ar'tta-mharach, iarnabharach to-morrow; 
[mricht], bricht [stroking], mesmerism, enchantment; mrechi, brecht 
stxeaked, striped, plaided; bracht fat; meirg rust; melg-theme death- 
darkness (dqjtoXif 60 ; Ir., O. C. marc\ W., Cor., Bret, march horse; 
Bret, mergl rust; merh girl, daughter in-law (milkmaid, cf. duhitri); 



— 102 — 

O. C. marga day; Morgia, Murgia, Morgona, MuUha 9 rivers; 
Mtdce-dunum, Mulciacutn; Braccios. 

Sk. [mrinh, fnrig[, mrig to grasp, touch, handle, examine ; mriilr 

to grasp, hold up, support, endure ; mrish to [touch], splash. Gk. 

d(AipY(i> to pluck off; cljiopY|i(J<; gathering, collection; dcjtopiffg flax; 
4|i6pyY) flax-plant; yL(ip(jfjco<; [grip], pouch; (JiaXxbi) to be gripped, 

numbed with cold; (xiXxt) numbness (cf. numb from niman), Lat. 

merx gain, profit; [Merc-curius]^ Mercurius lord of gain (xupioO; 
merges sheaf; merga rake; w^gc? to plimge (touch, splash, bathe); 

mergus gull. A. S. mercels goal (to be touched) ; O. N. mdrk 8 otmces 

of silver (cf. Bpax(ii^ handful). R. molokanka flax-fibre; morozit to 

[grip], harden, freeze; morozhenniy frozen; moroshka berries (plucked) ; 

morshkit to wrinkle (twist, wring); morosU to mist, rain {mrish). 

Ir. merge banner (grasped, upheld) ; merg wrinkle (crumpled) ; O. C. 
Merco, Mercius, Mercasius. 

Sk. mrig, mdrg to circle, wander, hunt; mngos searching, htmting; 
game, antelope; mriga4rishnd [wanderer's thirst], mirage; mar gas 
hunting, track, road; mruk, mrunk, mluk, mlunk to go rotmd, roam, 
wend; murkh to fill to brim, [pass botmdary], invade, occupy, swell out, 

be strong. Gk. [ixXciaxG)], ^Xcooxg) ((xl^jL^Xoixa p. 99) to go to and fro, 

go, come, return (of hour, season) ; jx^pytov a land measure (boimdary). 

Lat. margo brim, border, seam, margin, Goth, marka, A. S. 

mearc, O. H. G. maracha boundary, limit; Frank, marcher to march 

rotmd, protect frontier, guard. R. blizhniy neighbor; blizhe nearer; 

bluzhdat to wander, go astray. Ir. mrogaim to press on, go rotmd, go 

on one side (964v<i)), extend botmdary, enlarge; brocc shoe (tramper); 
mruig, bruig botmdary; briugu landlord; bro[g] champion, defender; 
brogda great, excessive; Bret, brog brim; bro region, land; brois com- 
patriot; O. C. Allo'broges invaders (fiXXo(;, aife another's) ; Cum*brogi, 
[can'brog, Cymbraegth], Cymraeth, Cymri allied tribes; brogilo enclostue, 
district (breuil. It. broglio garden); Brogi'tar[v]os champion-bull; 
warder of frontier. 

Sk. murkh to brim, whirl, be dizzy, bewildered, mad; mUrUha 

stupor ; murkhas stupid (forms melt with mrig as above) . Gk. (tapy db, 

(xapyaCvd) to rage, be furious; (Jiip')fO(; wild, mad; jiapifoauviQ passion, 

desire; (jiapdeaaG), qiapoYlci), to rattle, crash. Lat. mar cor [dizziness, 

exhaustion], lethargy. O. N. mdrk wild-wood, tree (cf. skSgx wood; 

shaggy, cingo); myrkr (A. S. myrc) [bewildering] darkness; myrkvidhr 
murkwood, night-terror, darkness dragon; Goth, marzyan to tangle, 



— 103 — 

trap, lead astray. R. merkmU to darken; mraKniy dark; merzkiv 

abominable. Ir. mairg bad luck; mrechtrad, brechirad mixture i^stir- 

ring round); [mrachih], mrath, broth treason, deceit (snare); brec a lie; 
Bret, brug heather. 

Sk. murkh to [round out], fUl, be turgid, grow. Gk. (i^pyo^, lioXyrf? 

skin-bag, wine-skin, \k6pfo<; round pannier, wagon-body. O. N. 

margr^ morg much; A. S. malsc puffed up, proud; Goth. utUUa^malsks 
headstrong. Ir. mraich, braich (W. bragu) malt; O. C. Bragodunum. 

Sk. tnleMh to stammer, babble. Lat. blaesus stanmiering. 



Sk. maru to brim, [eddy]; mri to [grind], kill; mrid (mriditas, mam- 
arda, caus. nuirdaydmi); to [grind], rub, wear, scratch; mrit, mrid, 
mUi, mled to [whirl], repeat; be fierce, mad; mridh to slay, [draw 
blood], be wet ; mridham battle ; mrid-angam war-drum ; mrin to wound, 

slay; mrad to grind, rub, bite. Zd. mared, to [grind, chew], bite. 

— — Gk. (iipdcj, iyiipSci) to [bite off], deprive, rob, pluck off, rub, wear 
out, dtdl, blind; i(&aXSijv(i> to crush, niin, waste (d intens.); [(JiXoeSap^^], 
pXoSaptfg worn, dull, weak; ^poeBu^ [exhausted], slow, dull; a(jL6p6vtf(; 
gnashing, horrible; oviepSaXio^ like wild beast, horrible, glaring, yelling; 

[^Xo8oupO(;], pXoauprf? grim, awful. Lat. mordeo to bite; morsus a 

bite; mol^d\siiiS hostile, threatening, dangerous; bardus stupid. A. 

S. sfneartan, O. H. G. smerzan to [bite], cause keen pain, smart; Eng. 

blunt, Ger. bludde worn down, dull. R. tnorda animal's mouth, bit; 

[fkredit], vredit to injure (cf. I^ith. vidus^mediiis) ; mordovnik aconite; 

smorodina goos^h^rry (bite cf. bacca). Ir. bled sword-fish; bled-maU 

whale (great jaw). 

Sk. mrid, mril, mril {mriditd, mrildmi) to [rub, stroke, smooth], 
flatter, favor, pardon, shape, [soften, mold day]; mrid, mridd clay, 
earth; mrinmayas made of clay; mridh to be moist, moistened; mridus 
soft, gentle, smooth, slow; mdrdavas mercy; mardanas rubbing, 

rubber. Gk. d(JiaXd6vci> to soften, weaken, wrap, hide ; ' AiJiiXOeta divine 

mercy, the botmty of nature (the goat which nursed Zeus; her horns 
typified summer solstice as the boar-tusks did the winter; cf. Thor's 
goats, Hymiskv, 37); (iaXOiaaco to soften; (tiXOt) wax, pitch; (taXOox^g 
soft; (AiX8ci> to melt; [(ipoeSiS^], ^paBt}^ slow; ^Xa8oep6(; soft, fiaccid; 

^pdSoiv, §Xa8Jv [tough], impossible. Lat. merda dung; blandior 

to stroke, flatter (p. 65). A. S. milts love; mild mild; molde dust, 

mold; [moldan] to mold; meldan to bring good news; Goth, milditha 



— 104 — 

mercy; O. H. G. smelzan to smelt, melt. R. molodoi young, fresh, 

blooming; stnerdeit to stink (merda). Ir. tnldith, bldith, soft, smooth, 

shining; molad, blad praise (melt with molaim); meld gradotis; O. C. 
Meldi, MelddcuSf Melidhdhius, Melissus. 



Sk. i to go [eagerly], hurl, desire, seize, eat, beget; by addition of 
a becomes yd (ydydm) to go, set out; [forms yaya, yay, ay, ^, ij; ♦ (^m*, 
pret. iydya) to go (with pref. aii- to go faster, pass, reach end, 
die; with pref. adhi- to attain, understand, read). 

Sk. l/>!a= active agent, relative pronotm, "he who does"; yas who, 
yai which, yai how; (5 and / are determinative sounds which coalesce 

in sihd, sta to exist, stand, be firm). Zd. ya who. Gk. 8?, Ij, 5 

\yas, ya, yd] who; 6, ij, t< [5a, tat determinative] the. Lat. is, ea, 

\yts, yea] he, she [who]; ibi there (abl. term.). Goth, [yis], is he; 

izei he who; yabai if [it be]; ibat tbait =numf numquidt; [ya-va], yauf 
whether?; ya^sane, yes; [yaya], yai=taique, surely; [ya»ains], yains 

the one who, he who. Lith. yis, yi he, she; O. R. ♦, ya, ye he, she, 

it. 

In Sk. the relative also develops: yat^quod, because, as; yavat^ 
quantus; i^i «=ita; i-dam idem; yatas whence, since, where, nam\ yaira 
(-tri) where, because; yaihd sicut, utcimque; yadd when; yadi«=si, 
an, num; yadvd, yadivd or, if, whether; yadvat sicut; ydvat quum, 

quot, quatenus, quamdiu; yddrig qualis. Gk. olo? \yayas] of such 

a nature; dx; as. Roots in ya repeat intensely those in a with ter- 
minations — anh, aih. 

Sk. \yd to go, act eagerly; intensive forms yang, yank, yans, yan^, 
yaksh, yash, yah]; ikh to seek, desire; yak to ask; yaksh, ya^, i^ to 
pray, worship, honor, sacrifice; ish to go eagerly, seek, desire; ish 
to go ; dshd desire ; ih, yesh, yas to desire, make an effort ; yas to bubble 
up, boil ; yashiis poking-pole ; yasktri worshipper ; isA to go, seek, strike, 
be impetuous, [grasp], reap; if to be glorious, govern; yagas glory; 
yakan, yakrit liver [glittering, passionate]; inkh to go swifter, pass by; 
ii to go, scorn; e^ to quiver, flash; [yang, yaH], yarn (special tenses 
yaMh) to drive chariot, to handle, curb, wheel horses. With determina- 
tive endings yd produces ; yai to long for, make an effort ; yai to prepare, 
attack; yut to shine, flash; ytidh to make war; indh to bum; it to go; 
id, U to glorify, praise il'^d)- With liquid endings it produces: ir 
to go, quiver, whirl; ir to hurl, shoot, utter; irkshy, irshy to [look 



— 105 — 

fiercely], envy; i/ to go, hurl, hurl down, lie down (cf. jacto, jaceo). 
With V it produces: [yav to spring up, bloom]; yavas barley; yavasam 
grass; ymxm young (comp., superl. yaviyas, yavishtas) ; [yav to speed, 
equip horse]; yu to join, yoke, control, [tether], keep at a distance, 
deprive; \yunh, yung], yug to jroke, join, prepare, [bend bow], shoot, 
aim, observe; yugas paired, equal; yukh to be whirled; \yug\y yup 
to whirl, confuse ; yiUhas flock (rounded up) ; yiUhikd jasmine (coiling) ; 
yush to [whirl, hurl], wound, kill; yushas porridge (stirred, cf. yas 
to boil). 



Sk. f to go ([yaydmi], hni I go; imas we go; iydya I went); 
yd to go, set out (ydsydmi, ydtum); ydnas going, speed, chariot; 

ydtus traveller; ttis going; imas, itnan going, road. Zd. i to go. 

Gk. \yaya] elyii I go; Kvai to go; [i] t|iev we go; Xt^c;, k(x\k6<i 

ready to go, prompt, bold; 1tu(;, 1tuXo<; first bird, child of winter and 
summer; (ydna), ijvfa driving reins; dbc-i^^ wagon; [yaydmi] Xri^i 
to cause to go, htu-l; iQ(&a dart; 1j(Ui>v darter, slinger; [yayamas], 
oI(&o^ road, land; [hurled, uttered] song; oI(ia rush, swoop; al(ia 
[rushing] blood; o((ii(i> to poimce; oT(jly) chant, lay; ol^Xjto to wail, 
shriek; olxog fate (destined way); [yayi, oTca], fut. oIog) to cause to 
oome, bear; TO(&a step; M\k6<; (cf. £*aO(ia) [gang-plank, narrow-road, 
mountain ridge], isthmus, neck of land (dorsum moniis); ha\t.6^ 
impetuous; '!<& (gen. [yavas], 'louO the roaming moon with crescent 
horns, watched by "Apyo?, the many-eyed, starry sky; [Yavanes], 

*Idbvc^ 1iave(; roamers, lonians (cf. 'AtoXet^. Lat. eo I go; imuswe 

go; itio going; iter ([itinesis], itineris) journey, road; sub'itus [spring- 
ing up], sudden. (joth. i-ddya I went. Lith. eimi, eisi, eili^ 

§o, is^ it; einf^-'go; ei-smi, way; O. R. i-dan — go; iii to go. 

Sk. yd to go, cans. ydpi-{ydpaydmi] to cause to go, [hurl, cf. 
hjKfx]; ydpanam rejection, wasting time ; [yavap], yup to [whirl], confuse, 

disturb; yupas sacrificial column (rotmded). Gk. (ixrci) to send, 

drive, hurl, begin, rush; 'Idhcetog storm-wind, father of Prometheus 
the lightning; 'loxu^ northwest wind, bringing the lapyges from 
Italy (cf. Africus, Africa); [yowp], l^d^ a storm; Xai^^oq driving, pelting 
metre; lyapyas] a(x6g plunging, precipitous, headlong, up-hill, 
arduous; TicTO(Lat to pounce; Ixo(; [snapping] mouse-trap; Tx^ca 
to press, crush ; XxxayLai to fly (attracted from xiTO(Lat) ; i^xuo) to call, 
invoke, chant (oI(iO(;); (^i3cj to shout, chant, strike up war-song; 
X^k* ^('^ screaming bird; l^uxo^; oT^cd to [make an effort], generate; 
Ifc mightily; TfOtiiOc; glorious, comely, mighty. Lat. jubeo to 



— 106 — 

[impel, drive], command (the liquid prefix encourages b for p); 
juba long hair, mane (whirling, flapping); jubar dawn (revolving, 

speeding, flashing). Goth, tup, iupa, iupana upwards; iumyo a 

whirling crowd (cf. yam to wheel chariot); A. S. uppe up; [edpen]t 
open open; Low (Jer. yumpan, gumpan to jtunp; O. N. yfa to rouse, 
excite, be angry; oefaz to be angry (eifem); Eng. jump, jab, jib, 

gibe, job; (Jer. \yipfel\, Gipfel peak. R. iobka petticoat? O. C. 

Cou(jL^oepo6(i. (Dioscorides 4, 16) black-hellebore (causing-dizziness, cf. 
iXXi-^opo^ giddy food) ; (ouxcxiXXouoov (Dioscor. i, 103), Lat. [iumperus^ 
iunperus], juniperus', Ir. iubar,ibar yew (poisonous; p. 20). 

Sk. ish to go eagerly, desire, seek; ishus arrow. Zd. ishu arrow. 

Gk. [ho<;], I6q arrow. 



Sk. yaksh to pray; ish, ikh, Ih, yas, yish to seek, desire, make an 
effort; yakskam good genius; Ishmas god of love; ishikd pupil of eye; 
ish to glance; ish refreshment, force; ishiras strong, fresh, blooming. 

Zd. ish to desire. Gk. [Wtt)^;], Wtt)<; will, desire; Xa\Lepa, 

TlJiepa sacrificial garland (devotion, love; termination from smri); 
*c(i.e(p(i> to desire; l\Ltpo<; yearning, love; Iqjiapoc;, *I(Upcc, *I(i.ipag, 
1(jL^po^ (cf. (ieai](i.^p(a) ; ieptf^ (ishiras, [isirasj) strong, glorious, divine; 
l8pei5<; priest; (oxavdtw to long for; to hold (yaMh to drive, handle 
reins) ; AToxuXo?, Alaxlvri<; (yaksh, yish; Desiderius, answer to prayer) ; 
A(axXi^xco(; (klip to be able) divine power, grace? Joxuc;, effort, force; 
Txvo<; track; Ix^iq fish (darter) ; aha desired portion, lot, decree of gods; 
a(au*(jLvde(i> to [distribute portions; if], rule; aTaco(; lucky; aTouXog [self- 
willed, rebellious]; sinful; [yayish] itaati to dart, glance, potmce, be 
eager; a{adeXa>v, !lpoe^ hawk; [yasmas] io^6<; gush, torrent, swarm 
of bees; 4aai5|i.evo<; impetuous, eager; alaxo<i, al<;x'^Yti [tmbridled 

passion, lewdness], shame. Lat. aesculus live-oak (nature's vigor; 

holy; cf. O. N. eik) ; Sabine aisu sacrifice; Umbr. isunu divine, sacrifice; 

Osc. aisusis. O. H. G. eiscdn to demand; eisca a demand; Ger. 

heischen; A. S. ascian, acsian to ask, experience, endure; O. N. Aesir 

gods ? oesa to rage ; Goth aistan to revere ; Aesiii. Lith. yeishkoti, 0. 

R. iskati to seek, seek justice, plead in coiut. Ir. ascid a request, 

a boon; [do'isc], toisc wish; [co-aisc], cesc question; asca rival; ais free- 
will; ess torrent; esse himter's track; W. gO'Uessiau= palpatio (grop- 
ing after) Z. 573; hwysc^quaesitum Z. 590; O. C. Aesus, Esus, Hdsus 
(adored) Gallic god of war and wealth; Car-esus (friend of Esus); 
Esunertos (strength of Esus) ; Esuvii, Essius, Aesu-bilinus; Aesis river 
(swift); is'sedum chaiiot; Ssox, isicius salmon (cf. fx®'^?). 

Sk. yas, yish to make an effort, [thrust], be zealous ; yashiis thrust- 



— 107 — 

ing-pole; yaslUri sacrificer; [yav to be springing, young, energetic; 
boiling]; d-y^vanam stirring-stick; [yavash], yush to thrust, harm, kill; 
yas {yasami, yasydmi) to spring up, boil, bubble; pra-yastas boiling 

over; yiis, yushas, yusham broth, soup, yoshand woman. Gk. XJki^ 

Xjdm^ I^u^ (pf. QSKeqjLac) to boil, be passionate, pant; t^eortf^ 
boiled, boiling; XJk^^, XJk^ boiled must; (in the following roots 5 has 
been lost, as in XJh^\ U(;; livi\<i\ Vepa); t^ijXo^ zeal; t^dXi) surge, spray; 
I^T](i(a [passion, vengeance], blood-fine, damage; t^T)(jL(6(i> to fine, punish, 
harm; l^u(i6ci> to ferment; Xjj^ti leaven; Xjt»^i(; soup; l^uOo^ beer; [>^a/:ci>], 
Xjiob^ to live, be vigorous; l^caif a living, property, life; t^a>ov animal; 
I^tl^dcvtov, live-forever, darnel; Kafapoc; comp. degree], topi? un- 
mixed wine (more lively); l^*icupov fire-seed, ember; \yasklis goad], 
iioxi^ arrow; o(oTpdii> to goad» sting, drive mad; olorpo^ gad-fiy, 

madness, passion. Lat. jUs broth; jUs [vengeance, blood-fine], 

law; ju'dex ]\xAg(^\ jurametUum vow, oath; [Jurios ardent], J 1411081 

Goth, [iusan to spring up, be eager]; iusila [being avenged], peace; 
iusiMa better, nobler; O. H. G. yesan, [gyesyan\, geryan to ferment; 

A. S. gist yeast; gdst breath, spirit; O. N. geisa to rage. Lith. 

yushi^ O. R. yukha soup; Lett, yaut to stir meal and water. ^W. ids 

boiling; O. C. Iestinus» 

Sk. \yans, yash, yog to flash]; yogas splendor; yas to make an effort, 
boil over; d^yas to toil; dydsas labor, weariness, sorrow; dyasas, 

ayaS'tnayas [iron-work], made of iron; ayas iron. Gk. Alo-xkf^Tioq 

flashing power (klip) ; the rettim of the healing sun (Apollo is physi- 
cian); the ruddy serpent of Aesculapius conquers the black night- 
snake ; the serpent's cast skin t3rpifies new life ; the termination of the 
word is attracted by ijxto^; dtaaca to make an effort, flash; [yayisas], 

tU^i^ hardship, misery. Lat. aes ([aesis], aeris) bronze ; \yasamand\^ 

aerumna woe. Goth, [eisan to glitter]; ais (gen. aizis) bronze; eisam 

iron; O. N. is, tsinn ice; A. S. isen, tsem, iren; O. N. iam, yarn, O. H. 
G. isen, isam iron; O. N. eysa embers; eyr bronze; eyrir wealth; Eyr 
goddess of wealth; A. S. 6r ore; O. N. Mimis (M<^JlV(^v) is the serpent 
of day; his head, the rising stm, is the counsellor of Odin; Fafnir 
(Sk. papas grip, sin, redup. of dp) is night-dragon, concealing the 
gold of day. His head (like Draco Major) is at the north pole. Cf. 
the twin serpents of day and night on the caducetis of Hermes the 

dawn. Ir. tarn, heam; W. hearn; Bret, hoiarn iron; O. C. Isamo'* 

rf«r«m=« iron-gate; Isarninus, Ixaminus, Iserninus {x=sh)\ W. iesin 
radiant; Tal-iestn; Ir. aislinge vision; O. C. lasso, laxtia, lesso. 

Sk. yas to make an effort ; ydM to ask ; ya^, i^, yaksh to pray, worship. 



— 108 — 

sacrifice, glorify; ya^ awe, consecration ; ya^as, ya^nam, i^ya sacrifice ; 
inkh, ing, g^ to whiri, speed, quiver, flash; ingitam gesture; inkh, ig, 

in^ to go faster, surpass, scorn; yu^ to scorn, shoot. Zd. yas 

to honor, sacrifice; yassu noble, great. Gk. iXfi^m to be in awe, 

dread; if(x\k(Xi to wonder, admire; envy; dydt^oiioet (redup.) to honor, 
adore ; iyy6<; holy, undefiled, innocent ; aCxdeXXci) (yak to beg) to wheedle ; 
Syto? holy; devoted to sacrifice, accursed (cf. Heb. khdram); iyoq or 
Syoc; awe, atonement, curse ; fi-pj awe, horror; envy; i^yio^^ai (^a^ melting 
with fiyci)) to [be noble]; to conmiand, lead; iy-tifia to command, direct, 
advise (as superior) ; dp'coyi^ succor, defence (of gods and superiors) ; 
ipi^yci) to protect in war; aTyXij radiance, gleam (e^); alfl(; lightning- 
breastplate; AfytoOcu*; starry night, slayer of sun; aTyctpoc; flickering 
poplar; afyt^aXd? wave-washed shore; A{Yato<; (sea); Atytva; Afyatog 
flickering dawn, father of Theseus the stm; when the sun returns from 
winter solstice he is still wrapped in night (black sail) and the dawn 
dies in despair ; mornings shorten after solstice ; AEyatiDV the dawn, son of 
heaven and earth ; with a hundred hands to raise sun at various points ; 

primitive, grotesque deity, discarded by later judgment. Lat. 

agnus lamb (victim) ; agania sacrifice; aganium festival; ecce see! look 

here I O. N. eife, A. S. dc oak [holy, cf . Ir. omun awe, omna oak]; A. S. 

^c^ eternal [God]. R. tog [blessed land], south. Ir. im-igde prayer; 

do'igde blessing; fo-igde begging; [igde], itge request, prayer; 6egi, 
[sacred] guest; digedachi hospitality; aiged, aged [honored presence], 
face (cf. enech p. 2); in-agid facing, towards; O. C. Alais-iagae holy 
defenders (nymphs) ? Rigo-ver-iugus very hospitable king. 

Sk. ya^us awe; dgas wrath, offence (p. 3). Gk. iyoc; curse; 

i-p), awe, horror. O. N. iaki ice (terrible) ; iokul^ Low. Ger. yokele^ 

A. S. is'gicel icicle; Norse iokidl glacier, snow motmtain, awful phe- 
nomenon. Lith. izhas broken ice; yzhia drift ice; R. yassva plague, 

contagion, ulcer? yazvitel gall? Ir. atg, aigred, digred; W., Cor., Bret. 

tey ice; W., Cor., Bret. y€[g]n, iein cold, icy? 

Sk. ish to desire, be impetuous; tk, yish to make an effort; if 
to be glorious, govern; if as lord; yofos glory, prosperity; anikas face, 
line of battle, army; yakh to drive, speed, [send far], prolong (assigned 
to yam); iha [limit of motion], here, there; yakrit (stem yakan) liver 

(glittering, health-giving, luck of sacrifice). Gk. ijxap (IjxocroO 

liver; seat of passions; fruitful land (dear to the gods); [txrepo?], 
txTepoc; biliousness, jaimdice; fxxtvoc; a kite (potmcing); txTt? 
marten, weasel; 4xaTt)P<Xo<; (yaMh) far-darting [simj; 'Exdfrnj far-glandng 
[moon]; 4xdl<; afar (procul, pro-cello); ijxw, eYxw, Wm to go straight to 



— 109 — 

one's goal, arrive, be present (melt with vif, fixviojiac); Xfyq straight 
toward, in the direction of; 'Iglwv the afternoon sun, whirling swift 
on his wheel to his setting, is opposed to the much-panting Jliau^o^ of 
the morning, rolling his orb to the zenith; €lx% Elxaio<; [htu-led] at 

random, in vain. Lat. jacio to htu-l; jacto to glory, boast; jaceo to 

[cast one's self down], to lie; am-icto to whirl, wrap; ico to strike 
[originally with javelin]; ictus stroke; Icilius; jocus [toss], sport, jest; 

jucundus merry. O. H. G. ydgdn to chase; O. Dutch yagkte yacht, 

swift boat. R. eikhcU to go, drive ; yasniy bright, simshine ; yastreb 

hawk; Boh. yikaii to be eager. Ir. icim to come, arrive, speed; 

ickt dan (glorious, governing; if); ichtar (comp. deg.) imder, lower, 
issel below, tmdemeath (hurled, pouncing down); icaim to prosper, 
deliver, heal; ic healing (cf. yaksham p. io6); Com. iaghys healed. Z. 
546; Bret, yechet health Z. 569; W. idch. Com. iach, Bret, iac, iah 
well, healthy; O. C. laccus, lactus, lacetani; lea (n)miph of healing); 
Iccius, Icconius, Iconium, Iceni; Icudisma (fort of safety) ; Ven'ic(mtes\ 
Eculisma; Eccaios. 

Sk. [yaMh] to whirl, be impetuous; [ya(:] to flash out, be glorious. 
■Gk. loxxog Bacchus (melts with vakh) ; Uc/jui to shout. Lat. 



jacto to boast. O. H. G. yicht, M.H.G. gicht declaration, revelation, 

confession; M.H. G. yehen, gehen, A.S. gehan to speak. Boh. yikaii 

to make an effort, stammer; Little Russian zaika stammerer; Serv. 
ikavka belch. Ir. iacktaim to yell, howl; W. iai\c]th language. 

Sk. >^ to go, {ydpaydmi to cause to go, whirl]; \yanh, yog to make 
an effort, be glorious]; yam (fut. yansydmi, praet. ayansam, special 
tenses yakh, p.p. yatas) to drive chariot, wheel, curve, curb; to toss 
round, be generous; to snatch, grasp, take, [hold reins]; d-yam to 
stretch out, prolong, bend the bow; ut-yam to whirl up, lift; upa-yam 
to seize, marry; ni-yam to curb, tame, attain, effect; Yamas (oI(jlo(;) 
orbit, god of night and Hades, judge of the dead (cf . Rhada-matUhos, 
easy-wheel, setting sim); yamas [mated horse], equal; yamdu twins; 
ya$nas a watch of the night; [yanhtri], yantri charioteer; yatUram 
control, force, bow, loom, machine, construction; [yanhtri], ydtri 

husband's brother's wife (borne away? mated?). Gk. ^jixop 

(fi(fcaeToO» 4l^*P«» l^ipa day, period, day of judgment, judgment; 
ijg/utgeii^ to travel all day, spend one's life; ^(Jiepot; [curbed], tamed, 
domesticated; i)(iep6(i> to tame, civilize; [yanh], i^v(a reins; i)J(jlo^ when 
[circling period, completion of time]; 'c•T)^Jlo<; to-day, then; ijiJLwv sUnger, 
darter (hurling rotmd) ; 1i\Ka dart; •fi\k6(t> [to be curbed, conquered], to 
bow down, fall; [>^]e{v4T8p8? sisters-in-law; aT(jL(i)v skilful [driver]; 



— no— 

naXa((Ui>v[home-steerer], port-god (p. 56) ; ai(iuXo(; [rival in love], wheed- 
ling, flattering; al(i.a [rushing] blood, courage, slaughter, kinship 
(bloih, 65); AY(Mi>v the red, recurring, wheeling dawn; loves Antigone 
the morning star (" striving-against " the coming sun, devoted to her 
twin brother), and dies after her death; i(i.cXXio(jLat to rival, contend, 

struggle. Lat. aemulor to [race horses], rival; aemulus rival; 

Aemulius, Aemilius (cf . sphardh, mish to whirl, circle, rival) ; imitar 
to [rival in race ; to whirl on potter's wheel], to imitate ; im-dgo wax- 
likeness, mask (angOf p. 4); jam now, this instant; [quick curb]; 
janiiflces brother's wives. Goth, iumyo whirling crowd, multi- 
tude, throng; [iumyan to whirl]; [ga-iutnyan], gaumyan to flash the 
eyes, glance, observe; O. N. eymi fire; eymr flame, smoke; tmun 
battle; tma fight; revolving in mind, reflection; ymya to rush, rage, 

flow; Ger. jammem. R. yam posting-station; yama ejre-socket 

(rolling, flashing); circular cavity; O. R. yentry, Pol. yantrew, 

Lith. ifUe brother's wife; O. R. yentro liver (eager, passionate). 

Ir. emuin twins; emnaim to double; O.C. Aeminius, Aimus, lemmus, 
lamnia, lam-mams, lamilius. 

Sk. yatUri, [yatri] charioteer (wheeling, circling, chasing, eager); 
yat, (yatishye, yatamdnd) to make an effort, seek, be eager; yal (ydtya 
to prepare, attack, torment, be watchful, punish; yatnas effort; 
yatand [pursuit], vengeance, torment; ydtus demon; d-yatas afar; 
dyatanam [longed for] home, shrine; d-yatis distance, power, the 

future; [yavat], yut to [whirl out], flash out, shine. Gk. akiui to 

demand, demand satisfaction, impeach at law; ahla opportunity, 
chance, [impelling agent], cause, accusation; ahido\Lai to accuse; 
altto? guilty; ATtvy) [cause of woe, accursed], Aetna; t^T^Tio) to acquire, 
demand, investigate at law; t^i^aK; investigation; Zi^<;, Zi^a? 

wind-god, son of Boreas; oIto<; calamity. Lat. jetUo to snatch a 

bit, breakfast (uncooked meal, FrUhstuck) ; jentaculum breakfast. 

Goth, aiths oath (vengeance) ; O. N. eidhr oath ; idh battle ; ydhya effort, 
toil ; yta to hurl out ; A. S. ^dhedice easily ; ydhan to rage ; O. Eng. yend 
to hurl. R. iotitsya to fly for refuge. Ir. deth oath; Hthech per- 
jury; ettged crime, crin:iinal law; ^cattle (foray) ; eitchim to drive back, 
refuse; 4t (gen. eoit), aet ijtdX, rivalry; ^-mar, Gael, eud-mor great ambi- 
tion; W. [eid-yuned], eidd-uned vow; add-iant longing; Bret, go-yunez 
vow; Bret, iiiein, iiHin strange, dreadful (oIto<;) ; O. C. lantu-marus great 
ambition; lanlO'vesus, lantinus, lantuUus, lun-atUus, lun-et-ia, lun- 
car-dcus, 

Sk. \yafU] to wheel, race; yat to make an effort, attack; yut to 



— Ill — 

flash round, shine; yuthas flock (hustled in, rounded up); yiUhikd 
jasoiine (circling); yudh, (yudhydmi, yotsyi, desid. yuytOsi) to fight, 

attack; yudhmas battle. Zd. yud to fight. — -Gk. [yuTovitv], 

ia\^)f (dat. 6avitvt), io^lvri fight, battle; BoxXyj? [yudh-sprif, eager 
touch], starter's rope holding in race-horses from contest; cable of 

ship (%kb(M), O. N. idtunn giant; lotar Jutes, warriors; A. S. 

iotan monster, terror. R. ^/arfr^nt^' strong; yadro cannon-ball? 

Ir. iodkna, idnae weapon; iodhnach armed; O. W. iW battle; O. Bret. 
lud'caU forest fighter; Iud*nert strong in battle ; lud-vcd good in battle ; 
0. C. ludaius, Idmus. 

Sk. yd to go, be impetuous; av to pant, be eager; [yav to spring 
up, bloom, abotmd]; [yav to boil, v. p. 107]; dyavanatn stirring-stick; 
y(was com, barley; yavasam grass; [yavyavan], yuvan (comp. yamyas 
superl. yavishUis) yotmg; contracted forms yun, yuni; yuvati young; 

yuva-fd^an king of the young; ydnisvfovDh, origin. Zd. yavan young; 

yava com; yevin fields. Gk. \yavya, yava] l^etaf, X^&k, spelt; [ydmyas 

ijfotog yotmger]; ij^dca to be yoimg, vigorous, marriageable; iJ^Yj youth, 
puberty; ijpaii? [childish], Httle; [yafatvco], (afvco to cheer, warm, refresh, 
delight, heal; ladh^ to be refreshed with sleep, repose, enjoy a night's 

rest. Lat. juvo to refresh, relieve, feed, aid; jugis ever-flowing; 

spring-well (g developed from digamma); juvenis (comparative 
junior) t young; junix youth; Junius com month, June; ju-glans 
noble nut, walnut; juvencus bullock (yuvanh); juncus rush (well- 
watered, luxuriant); sal-iunca [fresh with moisture, sdras] Celtic 

valerian. Goth, yuggs (comp. yuhiza) young; yunda youth ; O. H. G. 

yu$Us, O. N. Ungr yotmg; O. N. [oeva], oefa to enjoy doing, be ac- 
customed (uben cf. (aiici), juuo; or yup, p. 106); oefaz to be impetuous; 
A. S. yvan to bring [help, aid]; to present (juvo); edvan to show; 

Goth, [yavya], gauya field, land (yevin). Lith. yaunas, O. R. 

yunu young; Lith. yavas com; yavai growing com; yavena stubble; 
R. yavlyatsya to show one's self boldly, appear; yavniy frank, open, 

declared, manifest. Ir. dg, Hag yoimg, virginal, youth, maid; 

disc, 6c (comp. 6a, sup. 6s5er) young; ik^n a lamb, freshness; iiane 
verdure; Bret, ohi^ W. wyn lamb; Bret, iouank yotmg; ieUein to be 
[comfortable], easy, lazy; ivin, ivin nail (qtiick, growing); ivinnen 
yew (yavana'vanna lovely [eternal] youth, long life; Fr. if. Span, 
wo, O. H. G. Iwa, A. S. eow) ; O. C. lova, lovalium, luvavan, Ivavus, 
Ivanus, Euvenus, luvencus, loincius, Ivenna; lova, Ipo, I pi, lonaf; 
melts with *Ici)4vvt)<; to produce Owen, Ivins, Evan, Yvein, 
Yves, Eouann; O. C. [Uvavi, Uvii], Ubii, Ess*uvii, Mand-ubii, 
Seg^uvii. 



— 112 — 

Sk. d-yavanam stirring-stick; yHUhikd entwining jasmine; \yav 
to stir, circle, bind]; yu (yundmi) to harness, yoke; yu (yavaydmi) 

to [tether, hobble a horse], keep at a distance, deprive. Zd. ydonk 

to clothe one's self; ydftd girded. Gk. l^(^vvu(JLt to gird; t^a>yia girded 

tunic, cuirass; Wvtj, l^a>0Ti^p girdle, belt, stripe, zone. Lat. jumen- 

turn girt, loaded, saddled, harnessed animal ; je-junium [being tethered, 

hobbled, tight-belted], a fast. O. R. po-yasu a girdle; po^yasati 

to gird; Lith. yt4sta girdle. 

Sk. yu [bond, union]; sam with, ^amo; altogether; [ytisanie],yushmi 

ye (all together). Zd, yHslam]. Gk. [>^aiJiet<;], i^tlq, Aeol. C(i(jie(; ye; 

i^hegoq your (cf. a^-htpo^ p. 15); Dor., Ep. i\k6q your. Goth, yus 

ye. Lith. yus ye. 

Sk. yu to harness, 3^ke; intensive form [yunh, Zd. yaanh]; Sk. 
yu^ (yuna^i, ydkshyi, p.p. yuktas) to yoke, harness, join, marry, 
bind, equip, prepare, put in command, enjoin, [bend bow], shoot, 
aim, observe, reflect; yoktram bond, marriage; ydgas joining, medita- 
tion, remedy, business; ydgyas suitable, fit; yu^am yoke, team; 

yufyam wagon, yoked animal; -yuk^ -yu^ united. Zd. yu^ to 

harness; yaonh to dress; ydftd girt. Gk. Wyvuixi to yoke, harness, 

bind; ^euyo? chariot, pair, team; t^cuyyia bond, band; ^uyi?, t^uyiv 3roke, 

cross-beam, rank of men; cu-^ug yoked, wedded. Lat. jungo to join; 

jugum yoke; jugerum [enclosure], land measure; conjux wife; juxta 

hard by; jugum neck, ridge; jugulum throat. Goth, yiukan to 

yoke, subdue, conquer, fight; yuk, yukuzi yoke; gayuk a team, pair; 

gayuka companion; O. H. G. yoh, yoch, O. N. ok yoke. Lith. 

yungas yoke; yungiu to yoke; O. R. igo yoke; R. so-ioz bond, league. 

Ir. fiagim to sew together; [cO'iung], cuing yoke; ad^t'iug alligo; 

con-r*iug colligo; W. iou, Bret, iaii' 3roke; O. C. Veriugus conqueror. 



Sk. ri [rinomi, Aor. dram) to go towards, move towards, rise 
towards, seek; [attain, hurl, direct]; ri, [riHh],riksh to fly upon, attack; 
ri, ray, lay, ri to go; ri to go, cause to flow; ri to go; ri to flow; sri 
to go, flow; srip (causative) to [flow], creep; [srinh], sri^ to pour out, 
hurl; [ri to go +ai; to pant=] ru to sotmd like water; [sriv], sru to go, 
flow, be drained; svar to [eddy], revolve like heaven, shine; svri to 
sound; ri, ru, svrl to htu-l, kill; rup to [wear pebbles], round, shape; 
rep to sound, go; [sriv], rSv to go [round], swim; rdi to bark; li to run 
away, flow away, melt; li to be greasy, sticky, to adhere; Zip to anoint; 
\lav\, lu to [eddy, whirl], strip. 



— 113 — 

The following roots express rapid revolution, hurling, Aying; 
they may begin with aor r (ri'^r^ r, ar) ; the meanings play from one 
root to another. 

Sk. n, ri (rindmi, Aor. dram 3 sing, aor. aria) to go towards, 
rise towards, [whirl, hurl, shoot, fly]; \yd-\'ri « yar, yayar, ayar, 
ayary, ary\ tr (iyarmi) to hurl, whirl, speed; \ri +i;a], arv, [avarav], 
uru to [shoot], harm; n, [rinh], riksh, risk, rig to seek, potmce, kill; 
fidi to [hunt], roam; rWi to [stalk, attack], approach; fit to go round, 
whirl, rival, contend (cf. spardh, yam); arth to seek, desire, pray; 
arihas [game, food], advantage, wealth, cause, material; riph, rimph, 
raph, ramph to hurl, whirl, vex, kiU; ri to whirl; aras spoke of wheel, 
swift ; arainis elbow (turning on joint) ; [arymas, ayrmas], irmas fore- 
arm; cram [shooting], swiftly; [hitting mark], exactly, successfully, 
sufficiently; ram [to shoot], hunt, have forest joy, [hit mark, reach 
goal], rest; dramas joy, garden; aranyas forest; am, drdtis [shooting, 
wotmding], enemy; arus, [arymas] irmas wound; arv, arb, [avarav, 
Qurv]^ urv to wotmd, kill ; dryas [hitting mark, exact], true, noble ; [ar to 
aim, direct furrow, plow, steer]; ri to revolve; [ar]; al to [round out, 
encircle], suffice, adorn; alam ornament; enough; alis [circling, rov- 
ing] bee; alus round jug; rit to go, [ctirvet, circle], rival, contend, 
command; ritas [good shot], true; ritis going straight, right way, 
luck (Lat. ritus, rite); ritus [circle], time, month, joint; ritu- priest, 
[observing times, rites]; rathas wheel; ratnam [globe], gem, pearl. 

Sk. n, ri (rindmi, Aor. dram) to go toward, rise toward, reach, 
fly, hit, woimd; caus. arpaydmi to send, shoot, hit mark, to bring to 
an end, efiEect; arth to [aim at, fly], seek, desire, ask; aratis helper; 
iryas [hitting-mark], right, true, noble; aryaman the sim; the 
honored dead; -ri termination of active agent (mdtri, pitri; Gk. 

-ijp, -*)p; Lat. -or). Zd. [ri], ar to go; [yar], ir to rise, up; rise [of 

stars]; oirya true; areta perfect; erettU [accurate shot], right, justice; 

Pers. 'Apioi the Medes (noble). Gk. 8pvu|i.t (8paa)), jpcvo>, jpoOtSvo) 

to stir, rise, rouse, rush, let fly, impel, drive, make effort; 6p6rf<; 
straight, accurate, right-minded, erect; 8p6to<; upward, high voice; 
jpo^ to rush, speed, rise, tower; [Sp?], ipy6<; young ram, [butting]; 
dpvio^ai to rebut, refuse, deny; ipveuTi^p diver, [butting, head 
first]; £pyu(iat to [pounce], win, gain; 8pveov, 8pvt<; (-t6o?) bird; 
ipdEoyLOK to [shoot arrow upward], pray, curse; igi prayer, curse; 
ipiajuA to offer, atone, propitiate, please; Spa, dp, ^a straightway, 
immediately, consequently, then; dpeCcuv (Sptoro?) nobler, better 
(best, [first]) ; iptorov breakfast ; iptorepii; [other than the best, p. 

8 



— 114 — 

is], left hand; prefix 4pt-, 4pt- excellent; ipv6o(&ac to shoot up; 
Ipvo^ sprout, child; Spov arum; iplvt6<; wild-fig; ipcai^ rush, impulse, 
desire (influenced by sru to flow) ; Ipo?, 8p<iK direct impulse, passion, 
love, (blend with vri, to choose); IptOo^ harvester, day-laborer, 
(influenced by yat to make an effort) ; eplOeCa canvassing for office; 

lpt<; ambition, strife; IpeOR^o) to rouse to action. Lat. orior to rise, 

soar, sprout, grow; [ortor], horior to rouse, inspirit, exhort; ad-orior 
to potmce, attack; artus sunrise; origo origin; amus mountain ash; 
ordo straight-line; ordior to begin, set straight, direct; oro to pray, 
adore, entreat; ama lamb; aries (-etis) ram, butter, battering-ram; 

[aror], olor bird, swan; -or termination of agency. Goth, dirus 

messenger; dir [quick], early, (ere, erst); ara (gen. arinSy O. H. G. 
aro) eagle; O. N. dr beginning; at labor; dma to entreat; ari, dm 
eagle; drr generous, (lpavo<;); err, em active, earnest; dr arrow, 
sling-stone, wound; 6ra to rage; erendi, drendi errand, duty; A. S. 

dr messenger; glory, grace; earnian to earn; eomost earnest. R. 

ernik bush (lpvo<;) ; orel eagle; orcU to shout, call, toil; Lith. erytis 

young ram (aries). Ir. ar, ol=inquit; ar in order that (aim)? ara 

charioteer; co-n-om-iair, imtil I arrive; aire leadership, prince 
(attracted by yar) ; ir lofty, noble ; ^r- intens. ; aire [aim], intention, 
observation; so-er noble; do-er slave; ra*la he came; W. erydd, eryr. 
Com. er eagle ; Bret, alarch. Com. alarh swan (cf . olor) ; Bret, -ereh, -erel 
termination of nouns of action and instruments; O. C. Arro, Arrius 
(active); Aulerci [av-alarch] children of the swan; ara swift current; 
Sav-ara, Av-ara, Is-ara; Ar-ar (ar navigable). 

Sk. \ri to speed, rise, soar, circle, pref. yd intens.]; ir (iyarmi) 
to speed, hurl, shake, [dart], utter; il to go, hurl, [hurl one's self down], 
lie (jacio, jaceo); ild [seized, occupied] land; speech; [prey], food; ird 
[eagerness]; land, water; speech; irinatn [thirsty] desert; irtnas [shot], 

wound. Zd. ydre yesLt (revolving). Gk. (iXXca to run, fly, 

speed, send, shoot, attack, shout, utter; alpa hanmier (whirling); 
darnel (dizzying); latpa roamer (Nereid); 'Ipo<; vagabond; \yayar], 
Upa^ hawk (circling); ix'tipdiXfi^ to assail, revile; tXaiyiii to drive, 
speed, drive through, wound; iXorifp driver; fkirq shoot of tree; 
spruce-tree (Sprotzbaum) ; [driving] oar; tpty^ artery (speeding, 
spouting); Ipoet^e, IpaaBe [hurled] to the earth; ipeuviii> to [hunt], 
search, (cf. EOiivco); ipio) eEpicA to speak (melt with vri); eTpY] place 
of speech; etptjv, tptjv of age, ripe for speech (mtlndig); elpi^vi] agree- 
ment, peace. Lat. ira anger. Goth, yer year (cf. Zd.) ; O. H. G. 

ilan to speed; O. N. ialmr shaking, rattling; U (plu. Uyar) sole of 
foot; iSL idlin yule, [circling] winter-solstice; el tempest; iara battle; 



— 115 — 

iarl chief; elUa to drive, htint; A. S. ellen vigor, valor; Ella; yrre rage; 

tofte angry. R. iola pirouette, teetotum; ioliX to speed; yarovoi 

[returning, annual], spring-grain, green; yams circle, row in theatre; 

yar strong current; yaf[v)^y raging. Ir. iarraim to seek, desire; 

if anger; ire [shooting] beyond, farther; \ir'fess\, tress [knowledge 
of the beyond], faith; ire land {ird)\ ilur eagle; W., Cor., Bret, yar, 
iar cock (eager, fighter) ; Bret, aer adder; O. C. larus, laronius, larilla, 
laUius; Alaunus, Elaver, Elna rivers; {AUen, Alan)\ Elvii [H]elvetii 
(mountain torrents, cf. Volcae). 

Sk. ir, U, [ya[\ to speed. Gk. [ylXXo<;], iW6<;, 4XX(5? fawn (y= 

rough breathing); IXa^o? roe; ipufoq kid (-^oq^bhas to flash, cf. 

rishibhas bull). Lat. elnis deer. Lith. elnis, O. R. yeleni roe; 

R. olen deer, reindeer. Ir. iarrde fawn; elit doe; W. elain doe; 

(Blaine* Ellen, [H]elena) ; O. C. Elenius, Eleni, Elno. 

Sk. aras whirling, swift, spoke of wheel ; aram swiftly, [hitting mark, 
fitting exactly], suitably; [intens. arymas, ayrtnas], irmas arm (revolv- 
ing on socket); arainis elbow; ardlas (redup.) curved arm, curved. 

Pers., Slav. 'Ap((i-aaxo( (wheeling steeds). Gk. fipOpov joint, 

socket, eye-socket; dpOptfcj to be jointed; &p\k6(; joint; 8pTa(jL0(; butcher; 
ip(Mv(ae good joining, harmony; Sp(i.a chariot (well-framed, spoked, 
whirling); <5Xivi) (c&XXtfv, fiXa^ Hesych.) elbow forearm, armful. 

Lat. artnus forearm; anna arms; artus limb; articulus joint; 

arcus elbow, bow, ctxrve, arch (cf. Lith. alkune), Goth, arms, 

aleina; O. H. G. aram, elina arm, elbow; O. N. alin elbow. Lith. 

alkuni elbow; olektis forearm; O. R. lakidi forearm; ramen shoulder; 

O. Pr. irmo arm. Ir. oft joint ; aUan [jointer], htmting-knife, razor ; uUe 

elbow; idind comer; ule all [encircling]; W. olin wheel; Cor., Bret. 
eUn elbow; W. eUyn, Bret. aUin razor; O. C. artavus knife. 

Sk. aram swift, hitting mark, exact, successful, sufficient; ritas 
true, exact; ritis right way, luck; rilus joint, time, month; ritva- 
priest; artavas at the right season; arpaydmi (caus. of ri) to fit exactly, 

employ; arih to attain; airthas [game], wealth, advantage, cause. 

Zd. areta perfect; erethi justice, honesty. Gk. dpap(ax(i> to fit; 

iifl^ gouge, [fitter]; dpTio(iat to fit, prepare; SpT(0(; perfect; dprR^o), dpruo) 
to equip, prepare, season; fiptoevio^ cook; £pTO(; wheat bread; Spxt just 
now, recently; ipenf excellence, virtue; (redup.) ip(*T)po(; fitting well, 
cleaving closely, faithful; 6(i-api^^ fitting together (S(JLa) ; ^'Oyi-iQpot; fitter- 
together [of poems]; 8(i-Y)p&a to meet, agree, accord; 8(jlt)po(; pledge of 
peace, hostage, ipr^g, ip0(ijg union, league; dpcO(jL<(; [exact] number; 
rf-pCTOC countless; Spa then, therefore, consequently. Lat. artire^ 



— 116 — 

artare to fit together; artus close ; ars [-tis] exact make, skill, art; omo 
to fit, equip, adorn; rite duly, exactly; ritus rite; rima [dose joint], 
crack; aet-ernus, infernus, ext-ernus (O. H. G. arnSn to measure [cf. 

lpvo<;l). Goth, arni'ba surely; airtha earth (world, well-framed, 

apportioned) ; A. S. eardian to occupy one's own land; O. S. ard, Ger. 
Ort [proper] place; O. H. G. amdn to measure; Hm number, series, 
rhyme; O. N. drtal calendar; drtali moon; A. S. Hm order, ntunber. 

Lith. arti near (adv.); artymas (adj.); artinii to bring nearer; 

R. yarmo yoke. Ir dtam number; dirmim, rimim to ntmiber; 

rim (W. fhyf, Bret, ri) number; remes time, space; co-ir well-fitted, 
exact; co-r covenant; cd-ra peace; cu-irim to place, appoint, send; 
sd-er [fitter]; workman {sam together) ; airm [proper] place ; airel time; 
aiU house; aihire joiner, carpenter; art flag-stone (well-fitted); O. C. 
Artaios, Artobrannos (true, exact) ; artua ftmeral stones; Artos sun-god 
(cf. 'AYa(i.i(jivci>v, prompt, on time); Artaios Mercury (the dawn); 
Artoboduus solar glory. 

Sk. aras whirling spoke; al to [encircle], adorn, protect; aJakas 
curi; alts bee (circling); dlus [roimd] jug; alam [brinmiing], enough. 

Arm. ail [circling, recurring], another. Gk. iXkiaai^ to [turn, 

invert], exchange; &Xko<; another; £XXy)Xo(; one another; iXki but; 
iXX-oco(; of another kind (svayam one's own [existence, self]; cf. 

l^'Oioc; =sam'svayam). Lat. a/iu^ another; o/i- W elsewhere; ali-enus 

foreign (anyas another) ali-quis anyone [else]; alter the other (p. is) ; 

alea die (whirled, cast). Goth, alyanon to rival, [race rotmd, cf. 

aemulor]; alyan (O.H.G. ellan) rivalry, ambition; alts another; alya^ 
iXXd; but, else, except; alya-kuns foreign (kin); alyar elsewhere; allis 
else, except, in general; alls all [else], the whole, everyone; ala^mans 
human race; al-landyo everywhere; O.H.G. aUi'lanti abroad; oZtes, 
elles else, except ; O. N. elya rival ; elligar otherwise ; A. S. el-lendi exile ; 

Ger. Elend woe. R. elenetz beetle, Jime-bug {alis)\ ele almost; el 

fir (round, circling, abies). Ir. aile other; al-aile, ar-aile (redup.) an- 
other; ailigim to change; aiWihre {tir land) going abroad; ail-Hiil once- 
again; alia without, outside, afar; W. ar'dll another; Bret, arhafini 
last year; O. C. Allo-brox (other boimdary ; invader). 

Sk. ri, [ar] to be eager, seek, attain al [to attain, enjoy, feed], 
suflSce, adorn; alam plenty, enough; [roimd] ornament; alus, dltis jug 
[round, fat]; a bulb; [alv to be rotmd, cf. ri to whirl, arv to shoot, 

wound]; dla-vdlas irrigation channel. Gk. fiv-aXTo? insatiable; 4X£a 

warmth, comfort (cf. ad-oleo; O. N. eldr); lxaXi^<; basking; fiXcig 
growth ; fiXao? meadow, grove ; "AXtic; grove ; IXatov oil [fattening, warm- 



— 117 — 

ing]. Lat. alo to nourish; alifnetUum food; elementum [pap, first 

food], alphabet, first principle^; co-alesco to grow together; ad-olesco 
to grow up; ad-oleo to kindle, warm; ad-uUus grown up; alius tall; 
[pro-oles], proles, sub-oles sprouts, offspring; olus herb, vegetable; oleo, 
red'Oieo to be savory, fragrant; oUa pot; aUium garlic; alvear bee-cell, 
bee-hive (brooder); al-trix nurse; almus fostering, benignant; [olmus], 
ulmus elm, (foster-mother of vine) ; alvus [well-fed] gut, belly; alvinus 
pertaining to belly; alveus [gut], gutter, channel; arvina kidney-fat, 
suet; oRva, oleum [fat], oil ; alutarius currier (tan-tub, tousler) ; alumen 
alum (tanning, astringent) ; alnus alder [well-watered, luxuriant]; tdva 

fledge- Goth, cdan, alyan to nourish, feed, bring up ; aldrs, aldoma 

age; <Uths generation; alev oil; aleva-bagms olive tree; O. N. ala (praet. 
St) to beget, feed; eldr [food], fuel, fire; elna to grow, gain strength; 
elU age ; ell, elni alder tree ; eldir foster-children, family; ver-old genera- 
tion of men, world; ol, oldr, A. S. ealu ale, beer; O. H. G. elira, erila 

alder. Lith. aleyus, O. R. yeley, oleiy [fat], oil; O. R. olovo lead 

(melting like fat) ; R. olkha alder. Ir. alaim to nourish, bring up ; 

abram food, bringing-up; [do-alta], daUa foster-child, disciple; dlaind 
beautiful; dU^ beauty; a/ma fiock; a/* ac/t/ pregnant; dil, dilgen gentle, 
kind, pleasant; ail [parental] duty; alt race, species; height; Bret. 
alouein^ alvein radish {plus) ; O.C. OUis, river; elvicus, elvennocus fertile 
vine. 

Sk. ft to impel, hurl slay; aris, ardtis enemy; arus, [arymas], irmas 
wound; frnios [revolving] joint; ru to speed, be angry, kill; arv, urv 
to wound, kill; arb to speed, wound, kill; arvan [battle] horse; Aurvas 
sulnnarine fire; day-star springing from ocean; with mare's head (cf. 
Afvins) ; hidden in the thigh of the broad sky, Urvas, he is bom again 

like Dionysus. Gk. "Apij? war-god, tempest; ipi curse; 4pato<; 

cursing; ip^^Xi) tramper, heavy shoe {arvan) \ 8p^T)Xo^ knife; ipa^io) 
to gnash, dash, rattle; 8po^O(;, ipi^cvOo(; [rattle-pod], chick-pea 

(of. papaver, faba), Lat. arma arms; ervum chick-pea. Goth. 

arvyo [cast away], in vain; O. H. G. arawigSn to frustrate; araweiz 

chick-pea. Ir. dr slaughter; errad armor, equipment; erud terror; 

O. C. [Aravo], Arabo current, river; Av-ara, Isc-ara, Is-ara, Samara, 
Sim^ara, Tev-ara, Vind-ara, [Aravara], Arar rivers, boating, commer- 
cial, rowing, poling; Ar-auris (downward current); Ar-ausio swift 
water; Ara^visci, 

Sk. n to impel; ray, ri {rindmi) to go; ri {riydmt) to go, lead out, 
draw out, cause rain; ri {rindmi) to attack [as wild animal]; ri {riyate) 
to flow; Ijw], rinv, ran, ranv to go, [be impetuous]; arunas [rising] 



— 118 — 

Sim; red, [wounded]; ru (ravinti) to roar; ravas sound; ran to whoop, 
shout; ranas battle; sru to flow (q.v.) ; risk to go, roam; risk to shoot. 

Gk. p&i) to flow; pa(vfi) to sprinkle; fafo) to shiver, break, crush; 

p"tv<5(; [stripped] hide; ptvij rasp (claw, scraper); pU, (ptv6<;) [flowing] 
nose; p(oy fore-land, peak; p(oo(i.ae to rush; pu|&iQ, p(o(i.t] swing, force; 
pa>vvu(jLi to be strong [raTjanavatni]; Ipeuvio) to roam, explore, seek 

out (p. 114). Lat. renes kidneys (trickling); rana frog (splasher; 

noisy?) ; ruo to rush, fall headlong; rumor noise; rufnen udder [tugged, 

milked]. Goth, rinnan to run, flow; rinno torrent; [us-tinnan], 

ur- finnan to go forth, rise, spring up (of sun; seeds); flow out, ring out, 
fall (of lots); ur-ranyan to cause to rise; ur^reisan to arise, [set out, 
reisen, rish]\ [riusyan], riuryan to ruin, destroy; riurs corruptible, 
temporal (flowing away) ; O. N. renna to drive, cause to flow, to flow 
away, diminish; rein earth- work (cast-up); reyna to explore; raena 
to whirl away, rob; raesa to start, hurl, shoot, [rear up]; reyr reed, 
man; Goth, raus reed; reiran to tremble; A. S. rdsian, raeran to 
raise, rear. R. rinutsya to rush; ranit to woimd; rano dawn (day- 
spring; crimson). Ir. rian ocean (tidal); O. W, rhin channel; rhid 

seed; O.Fr. rin channel; O. C. reno skin coat; reno reindeer; Rennius 
Rinnius, Rinnus (swift) ; Renos, Rhenus Rhine ; Ravius, Ravina rivers. 

Sk. ri (riydmi) to go; ri (rindnti) to rush, attack; ri (riyate) to 
flow; rinv to be impetuous; H (liyaie, layanie), to melt, dissolve; 
vanish; finos melted, lost, extinct; It (lindnti) to be sticky, cling to, 
remain; It [lindnti\ to [speed, leap forward], fall forward, seize a lair, 

sit, rest upon, dwell. Gk. 'kidX,o\Lai to [melt], be weary, flag, fall 

back, sink; Xfvov flax (oil-seed). Lat. lino to anoint, smear; tUus 

smeared; litura smearing; litter a character; linum flax; linea line; 
lenio, delinio to soothe, appease; lenis gentle; lenio to soften; letUus 
sticky, pliant, tough, slov; liveo to be glistening; livor, Ivuidns dark, 

gUstening. A. S. laene wasted, thin; (Joth. aflinnan to give way, 

retreat; lein linen; O. H. G. lin flax; O. N. lita to smear, color; lind 
linden (pUable bark) ; lindi girdle ; linni snake (Lindwurm) ; Unna to 

cease; lin a thaw; line soft. Lith. leyu to pour; lyti to rain; Uncu 

flax-stalk; linai flax; O. R. linu linen; liyati to potu-; R. linyat to 
waste, fade; liniy glutinous; liven heavy rain; liver siphon; leinivy 

idle; pro-livat to pour; lit to found, cast. Ir., Cor., Bret, lin flax; 

W. llin; Ir., Cor., Bret., W., lenn sheet, wrap, veil; Ir. lia [wasting] 
hunger; Un woe; /i. Hi, liith color, splendor; lenim to stick to, ding to, 
follow; lenamain attachment; lenndn isivonte; lenu meadow; lind 
water, drink, beer; Him to accuse (K to potmce) ; W. llyn liquid, fluid, 
lake; Bret, lin pus; lin marsh; lenn pond; liiiein to smear, paint; liH 



— 119 — 

color; liHen back-bone (flexible); leu louse (squashy, compared fx> 
crackling flea) ; latis filthy; loued decay; O. C. Livicus Apollo (glitter- 
ing) ; lAmti5\ Undo- lake. 

Sk, ri to impel; if to speed; arUras driving, speeding; oar; aritram 

rudder; Ofitri rower. Gk. iw'h^^ double-oared; 4p4nQ(;, ux-TQpirtjg 

rower; efpeafa rowing, boat-crew, boat-song; iplaoci) to row; ipeT(jLiv 
oar; dpn)p(a [forcer, pump], wind-pipe, artery; pi)(i.og baker's shovel. 

•Lat. ratis raft, boat; remus oar; triremis; remigium oarage, crew. 

-O. N., A. S. dr oar; A. S. rodher, O. H. G. ruodar rudder, oar; 

M. H. G. rieme oar. Lith. iriu (inf. irti) to row; irklas oar. Ir. 

rdim^ imm-rdifn to row, sail; rdm oar; rama shovel, (p^|&og, shover); 
fir fin; O. C. Ramus , Ramius. 

Sk. ri to impel, [shoot, aim straight]; ar to [drive straight furrow]; 
plow; arth to seek, [reach end]; arv, urv to aim, wound; urv-ard plow- 
land (redup.). Gk. 4p6ci) to plow; ipoxi^p plow-man; fipoTpov plow; 

Spoupa plow-land; "Apt^jiot plow-men, Campanians. Lat. aro to 

plow; orator plow-man; ardtrum plow; anms arable; arvum plow-land. 

Goth, aryan to plow; O. H. G. erran to plow; art plowing; O. N. 

ma to plow; ar plowing; ardhr plow. Lith. arti, O. R. oraii to plow; 

lath, arimas field; arklas plow; O. R. oralo.ralo plow. Ir. aire [aim], 

attention; airer farmer [ayar, Ir impel]; ire land, field (p. 115) ; arcUhar 
plow; W. aradyr plow; Com. eru field; Bret, arein, arat to plow; arir, 
aUr plow; erU (plu. irid) furrow; O. C. Aratrius. 

Sk. aram swift, [hitting mark, successful], sufficient, suitable; 
ranu, rinu, ramb to go [eagerly]; ran to shout, be joyful (Wanderlust, 
hunter's joy) ; ram (reme, fut. ransye) to [shoot, hit], be happy, sport, 
play; [to attain], rest (cf. sad to speed, attain; sad to rest); a- ram, 
upa^ram to rest, repose ; dratis, ratis, rati rest, pleasure ; ramas, ramanas 
lover; dramas pleasure, pleasure-garden; Ved. [redup. ran-ram], rdram 
to delight, give pleasure; ranvas delightful; [rans] aranyas forest; 

aranyakas hermit, forest-dweller, solitary. Zd. ram to rest, be 

happy* ^oma rest; airima loneliness. Gk. ip^jtog lonely, destitute; 

ipi](i(a wilderness; i(pi(&a quietly; i(pe(jL(a rest; i(pe(jL&i> to rest; ipd(ievac 
(Hesych.) to be quiet; [rans, ra] IpiQTuo) to calm, control; [aransyas], 
igaBL6q scattered, thin, few, scanty, (forest roamers, scattered, needy 

cf. R. strannik); fafvo) to scatter; pcxKo) to rest, be relieved. 

Lat. [H}erminius forester; [ranras], rdrus scattered, thin, few; [ranvas], 
rUs coimtry; ros (roris) dew [sprinkled]; rorarii slingers {ransye to 
shoot). O. Ger. [H]erminones woods-men (men of the interior 



— 120 — 

contrasted with coast-tribes); [Hjermufi'duri (OoOpo^); Arminius; 
Irmin (forest-joy); Goth, rimis quiet, rest; rums space, spacious; 
uf'Tumnan to spread out, [roam]; arms destitute, needy; arman to pity; 
O. N. rUm space, room; ryma to widen; A. S. earmeft'grund wide world; 

ge-^ryman to make room. Lith. ramas rest ; ramus gentle ; rimti to be 

quiet; R. rumyanit to beautify, paint the face; rumyan[v]iy complex- 
ion, pink {ramanas) ; ranit to [himt], wound ; ranniy [bloody, red], dawn; 

rai [happy himting-groimds], paradise (cf. 4pat<<;); rosa dew {ros). 

Ir. jo-ram himting, fowling; rdmhad, rdmut {sH road, suide abode) 
[peaceful] way, king's highway; chief's court; rHam [rest], cemetery; 
rii^amna crimson, beautiful, (bloody, purple, glorious); rHamack, 
rHamdae glorious; rHaim alder-tree (dye-wood); rAanaid red; Bret. 
[ramei], ravend, ranvet path; O. C. ramedon road; Ramiaca Cortis Remi- 
court ; JRama post-station, rest; Ramius, Raminia, Ramilus, Ramelacus, 
Remiliacus, Remulla, Remmius, Remi; Aramis, Aramo, Armis, Arimi- 
num, Erminius, Hermidius; Rumo (Pliny), Ruoihm (Nennius) isle of 
Thanet; RombeUa (red-lip). 

Sk. ft, ranv, rinv to go, be eager; ran. intens. rdran to shout, be 
joyful; ranas war; ranitas sound (of forest); ru (rdumi, ravimi) to 
cry, plash, roar; sing [of birds]; howl, wail, murmur, whisper, sound, 
buzz; d-ru to shout, yell; rud to weep; rdi, rd to bark; rurus [bleating], 

goat, deer; ravas sotmd, roar; [rav open-mouthed, red]; ravis sun. 

Gk. cipuo) (d-ru) to howl, roar, wail, yell; 6^\)^a'{l6^ din, rush of water 
(mangh to whirl, speed); [^olpyoq], fot^Bog rush, whirl, sound of 
wind; ^oH^o? whir, whistle, ripple, hiss; poc^S&i> to rush, rustle, 
plash, gulp (melts with po^lo)); putio) to snarl; Xiipa (cf. ruru) [twang- 
ing], Ijrre; ^6pa pomegranate (open mouth, red lip, white teeth). 

Lat. rumor [rushing wind], rumor (cf. clamor) ; rUmito to spread, report; 
rdvis open-mouthed, ravening; rabies rage; [ravacus], raucus hoarse, 

growling. O. H. G. giriundn to whisper; Goth, runa secret; O. N. 

rdma war-shout, battle {Ruhm\ cf. ranas) \ A. S. rUn secrecy, council, 
nmic letter; ryan, ryn to sotmd, roar; redv wild, fierce; Goth, laian 

to mock. O. R. revan (inf. ryiUi) to roar, bellow ; R. reveit to low, 

bray, roar; roitsya to swarm (of bees); rayat to bark; reimovai to be 
[open mouthed], fierce, jealous; rvanut to potmce, rush; rvat to tear, 

vomit; rveniy eagerness. Ir. rA, rUn secret, mystery; [ravrav] rer 

black bird; rowan mountain-ash (red berry); O. C. Raura [plashing] 
2 rivers; Raurici chanters, shouters; Rauracius, Rauricia; Ravis, 
Ravonia, Rovius, Rubius; rufius lynx [ruvius open-mouthed cf. Xuy5]i 
Rabana ; R^va]n- agnus = joyful-shouter ; [Runa*vanna] Ronan ; Ravenna ; 
Runius. 



— 121 — 

Sk. ri to impel [ar, ra, la] forms desideratives and intensives with 
terminations anh, ang, anksh, ang, a^, an^, akh, ah, aksh, ash, as, ex- 
pressing animal action, speeding, desiring, pouncing, gripping, hugging, 
clawing, scratching, gaping, howling, drawing blood; also derived 
ideas; outstretching, desiring, aspiring, growing, valuing, honoring, 
encompassing, guarding, watching, [brandishing], flashing, shining. 
In this series a root with guttural or sibilant termination may be 
equivalent to one without termination, e. g. /d to take, las to embrace, 
be joyful, lash to desire, correspond to Gk. Xoto) to gaze eagerly, desire ; 
iicoXa6ci> to enjoy, gkin; lunk^ lu; lig^ levis; Idkh^laeuus; laghus'= levis. 
Sk. ri may add causative p (riph, ribh, riph) or determinative t, d, t, d\ 
and the whole series may prefix v or sv (vri, svri, svar, vrish, vri^, 
vfit, vridh) ; vri^ becomes ur^, ar^, argh; vridh becomes drd{^, 

Sk. ri, rank, rakh, rankh, rang, rangh, rikh, rinkh, ring, lakh, linkh, 
^^f [%]. ^P to go, go eagerly, speed, run; ri to pounce, hurt, kill; 
riksh to desire to kill; rikshas a bear; rif, ruf, rish, rush to hurt, kill; 
argh to strike, kill ; argalas pestle ; rush to be angry ; ruksh to be horrible, 
cruel; rak, rag, ragh, ras to attain, taste; ra, Id to [cause to taste], 
give, be generous (with the prey) ; lash, las, luh to desire, be merry, 
busy, to seek; lih to lick; langh to pounce, leap, leap across; lang to 
[hop], hobble, be lame; la^ to [prepare to pounce], threaten, mock; 
Id^ to scare; ran^ to prowl, [grip], bind, oblige, cling to, stick, adhere; 
lag to adhere, follow close; Id^ to [be sticky, melt], roast; ra^^us rope; 
riS to [grip], join ; rik to [wrap], cover; rdkh, lakh to [wreathe], adorn ; to 
be [wrung out], dry; lash, las, lag to embrace, sport, flash rotmd; 
Ung to embrace; likh to [grip], tear, scratch, draw, write, scrape off, 
[graze, draw blood], paint; ling to paint; lingam mark; lig, to be 
[scraped] small; legas small; laghus light; lunk, lun^ to pluck, tear off; 
te, [lUs] to strip, split, cut; ru^ to break off; lush to rob, steal; losht 
to scrape together, heap up ; rik to tear off, snatch away, separate, free, 
leave behind [the part untom]; rah to separate, leave; [lug], lup to 
tear, break, cleave, destroy; lup to [wrench], kill, steal; lup, rup to be 
twisted, confused; ran^ to draw blood, color, dye, redden; raktas red; 
la^, la^ to redden, blush; [runksh], ruksh to be horrible, [gnash, howl, 
belch, vomit, wet]; ras, rds, rdg to howl, yell, shout (cf. ru to howl, 
rdi to bark); rikh to go, approach, [attain, reach]; ri^ to go, acquire, 
stretch out [hand or claw], be strong; ri^us, ri^rus straight; rdgh, 
lagh to be strong; ruh to approach, attain, stretch upward, aspire, 
ascend, grow tail; rih, rik to aspire, praise, worship, give; rish to htmt, 
roam, be pilgrim; raksh to [roam aroimd], guard, watch [sheep], 
preserve, govern; rakshaka, guardian; rakshas watchful demon; 



— 122 — 

rdi to govern, be glorious; laksk to watch, observe; lakskyas target; 
laksham mark; laMh to mark; lakskmi [good shot], luck, beauty, 
glory; rang to go round; tangos circus, theatre; ra^as [whirling] dust, 
passion; ragani [rolling stars], night; ra^abdld darkness; ra^atas 
[flashing like moon], white; ra^atam silver; reg, rangh, riik, rug to 
flash, shine; lok, lok to flash out, glance, speak; [lag], lap to speak; 
ark to flash, bum, praise; arM to honor, worship; arkas sim; arMis 
glory, flame; n^, ar^ to acquire, gain, heap up, make, perform; rak to 
make, perform; argh to be desirable, valuable, glorious; arghas sacri- 
fice, honor, ransom, price; arghyas venerable; arh to honor, worship, 
be worthy, fit, equal; to be a duty. 

In the following instances v is prefixed ; rank, ran^ to go, correspond 
to vra^ to go;* ri^ to stretch out, be strong, rise; ruh to press upward, 
grow; correspond to vrinh to grow; vrikshas tree;* vi-riK (vi-rin^ to 
poiu" out; vi-ruh to pour out; ur^, ur^d sap, vigor;* r*S to tear off, 
separate, leave behind the part untom; rah to separate, leave, corre- 
spond to m^, vrin^ to leave,* ran^ to [seize, grip], encircle, bind, 
oblige; ta^^us rope; riK to wrap, bind, correspond to vrik to take; 
vrik, vriksh to cover; vra^ to [wrap, robe], adorn* rdkh, lakh to [wrap], 
adorn, [wring out], be dry; lunK, lun^, riM to wring off, tear off, [twist], 
correspond to vragk to wring off, tear off; vri^ to [strip, rub off], 
purify, [twist, wring, distort];* risk to injure, kill, corresponds to vris 
to kill ;* ran to sotmd corresponds to t/ran to sotmd ;* rak to go about, 
do, corresponds to t/ra^ to go about, do ;* atk to bum corresponds to 
vark to shine;* rudh to enclose, hem in, stop; lud to embrace, cover; 
losht to roll up, heap; lud to whirl, stir; lod to be confused, dizzy, mad, 
correspond to vrud to cover, roll together, heap ; vrid to be [confused] 
ashamed ;* ridh to grow corresponds to vridk to grow,* ri to fly, soar, 
circle, watch, seek, corresponds to vri to desire; vri to watch, encom- 
pass, guard. 



Sk. fife* to desire to kill; rifaAosbear; argh to strike, kill; rak, 

rag to grip, taste. Gk. fipxo?, fipxxo? bear; fipxir]Xo(; yoimg panther; 

dpYij wrath, passion, temper, disposition. Lat. [urxus], ursus bear. 

Goth, arhvazna dart; bi-rekei danger (rag). R. reizat to slay, 

murder; reishik cutter, engraver; reishetina lath. Ir. orgim to slay, 

wound; O. C. orca sea-monster, sword-fish; Orcades; Orcia goddess; 
Ofceto-rix (coins), Orgeto-rix, 

Sk. risk to roam, wander; rishis pilgrim; the stars of the Great 



— 123 — 

Bear, encircling the pole. Gk. [ipaw], {ppo) to roam, be lost, slow, 

ruined. Lat. erro to roam, err, be lost; erro vagabond, fugitive. 

Goth, airzyan to lead astray; airzei error; airzis astray. 

Sk. rank^ rangh to [be eager]; rag, ragh, rak, ras to attain, taste; 
lash, luh to desire, seek; lag, lash, las to embrace, sport, flash round; 
Id'lascLs eager; [lag], lap, rap, lok, loU to flash out eagerly, speak; 

lap to wail, lament; ras, ras, rag, to shout, sound. Gk. Xioxtj 

merry chat, gossip, conversation; cotmcil; 48o«X4axijg talkative; logical 
(55ir]y); Xdoxo) (XeXdexa) to crash, shriek, cry, utter; Xanceptfg talking, 
chirping; XaXayfai) to babble, chirp; XaXi(i> to talk; XcxXdl^a) to plash; 
A(nui>y [pithy, sharp speaker, commander], Laconian; XiaOt) mockery; 

XoxQ^ca to whistle, boast. Lat. loqtwr to talk; loquax talkative; 

Aius LoctUius; lacusta grasshopper (chirping); lobster (grasshopper 
legs); Locusia withered hag; la[c]fnentum lament; lascivvs sportive; 
luxtishmyxry (luh', melts with luxor to twist) ; Lases, Lar^^ kitchen-gods, 

gods of hearth, tasters; [ravacus]raticiis hoarse (development of rw). 

(joth. luston to desire; leikan to please, like {lag)\ leik flesh, body 
(cf. lieben, Leib); leikeins carnal; leikinon to heal; A. S. Udc leek 

(savory); leahan to scold; O.Eng. to lease he, Lith.r^Aif* to scream; 

lepyu to command; O. R. rekan to speak; laskati to flatter; R. laskat to 

flatter; lisa fox; lepekU to babble. Ir. at'luchur to offer thanks, 

praise; rose eye (bright, merry, eloquent; but v. p. 77); rose a war- 
song; rosead a famous saying; roseadaeh glossary; loss share; behalf; 
Bret, lusk desire, aspiration; lisaour lover; O. C. Ruseino, Roseius, 
Rascanius, Rasinius, Lasso, Lassonius, Laseius. 

Sk. ras to attain, taste; lash, las to desire, sport; Id (lalus) to take 

[food], [cause to take] give ; rd (rdsaie) to give food and drink. Gk. 

}Jm to gaze eagerly, wish, desire; X^|Aa will, resolution; XeXft^JLat, caus. 
X(xTO(iiae to strive eagerly; \1\l6(; htmger; XcXa(o(jLat to long for; 
ixo-Xa6ci> to enjoy; have advantage; XcoEcov, X^oro? better, best; Xoycdg 
[eagerly-plucked] clover, flower, berry; (melts with Phoen. lot opium, 
resin, juice, later XdSovov); Acoog [harvest], September; Xalov sickle; 
Xi^iov crop, standing com; X^at? desire; Xyjorij? robber; Xe(a, \'qU booty, 
cattle; Xlg, X&ov, Xefwv lion; Xsfox;, Xlw? desperately, utterly [de- 
stroyed]; Xa6g, XTf)6g king's henchmen, war-band, people; ^aai-Xlug 
king (bhdsh to flash command; p. 45); Xi^Ito? public; XetT-oupYlcj to 
serve the people; Xdkpt? hired servant; Aafipetov, rich, silver-giving; 
Atqjii^P *Papti? Ceres the botmtiful (rd redup. cf . lalus) ; pipoq womb, 
foetus (fruitful); Tapo? father of Triptolemus; ^p<<; strong; pa6uji.og 
wanton, careless. Lat. luerutn gain; lav-emio thief (cf. ru to yell. 



— 124 — 

open mouthed; rdvis, rabidus) ; Lavema goddess of thieves (v. Celtic) ; 

lautus sumptuous. Goth, laun pay, wages; lun pa3rment; yugga-- 

lauths youth (melts with Sk. rddh to serve; lad to sport, serve) ; M.H.G. 

[lusen]y Mren to waXch for game (kUus) ; Ger. latUer siunptuous. O. R. 

loviti to chase, catch; lovu game. Ir. luctU troop, party, people, folk; 

a share [of spoil, food], portion, batch, load; lucht'lach crew, cargo; 
lilach. Hag, I6g reward, price, ransom; Idigthech munificent; logaim 
to remit, forgive; Ideck warrior, hero; Idech-rad band of warriors; 
W. lau'ffroen eager-nose, greyhotmd; Uauwen eager, joyful; lowem 
fox (thief, Cor. louuem, Bret, louarn; lavernio) ; Cor. louennan weasel; 
loven louse; lewen-ki gad-fly; Bret, leti&niis joyful; letienan wren; O. C. 
Latinos, Launomdrus; Lovemus; Lavessus; Lon-dinium jo3rful town? 

Sk. Id (Idltis) to take food, feed; las to be merry; laldtnas ornament; 

lild sport, caress. Gk. XeXfT)(&ae to strive eagerly; Xaiig [merry] 

thrush; XaX&i> to talk, converse; XeEptov lily; [Xa/:po<;], XaOpo^, 
Xdppo? greedy, violent, blustering [of wind and men]; hasty in speech; 
Xa^peuo(i.ae to be fierce in speech, brag; XipO(; sea-gull; Xapig sweet, 
dainty; Xipuy^ [food-pinch], gullet; word-pipe, wind-pipe (p. 4); 
Xaupa [gut], sewer, gutter, riane, lane; 8Xupa spelt (hungry-food, 

cf. avena). Lat. lilium lily; Laelius; lolium darnel (useless chatter); 

[XdcpuY^ stuffed gullet, belly] largus botmtiful; [lavarico], lurco glutton; 
laridum, lardum bacon, lard; Lars, Lartius boimtiftd, lord; larva 
[greedy vampire], demon; [lavarus], laurus laurel (anointed leaf. cf. 

li.upTo<;). A. S. Idv-erke lark (eager-desire; raeccan to reach 

after, attain); (Joth. razda (O. H. G. rarta) speech, dialect; ga-razna 

[friend], neighbor; laian to mock; (Jer. lallen to stammer. R. 

lavka, lavkonka food-shop, grog-shop; leleiat to caress, cajole; liolka 

cradle; lar, laretz round box (belly). Ir. [lavraim], labraim to speak; 

Ion blackbird (merry) ; [lavrac], Idrac, laarg flesh-fork (picker, hungry) ; 
lorg [htmting], track, chase, speed; behind, back; lerg back, buttock, 
hillock; /wrga [marrow-bone], shin-bone; lorg club; lulgach milch-cow 
(la-ldeg feed-calf) ; O. C. laurix young rabbit; Massiliot Xe^igpU, leveret 
(devourer); Lauraco, Laurco, Laurcus (himter); [lavarunt], labarum 
[glory], standard. 

Sk. risk to prowl ; riksh to desire to kill ; rikshas bear; argh to injure ; 
[ravakshas], rikshas terrible, cruel ; ruf, rig^ rush to woimd, be [bloody], 
red; rush to rage; lunk, lu^, lun^ to tear; ru^ to break, kill; lu to strip 

off; lush to rob. Gk. Xuaaisjn to rage; Xuaaa fury; dpiaaci) to 

[scratch up], burrow, dig, bury; 8pu5 pickaxe; Spuy^xa ditch, tunnel; 
XuYpi? cruel, baneful; Xoiy<5^ havoc, death, plague; puxdhnQ gouge. 



— 125 — 

plane; ^ucii, p6a%o\^ to wrench; drag; Spxo^, SpxTog bear; ^(&^ cleft, 
fragment (melts with fpi^aoG)); ^(Syxog beak; Ipuxo) to grip, hold in; 
Xixoc wolf (melts with vrikas); 'Po^oXdvot, Tiaaot Russians (red; con- 
trasted withTartars) . Lat. [urxus], «f ^lisbear; riiga wrinkle (scratch) ; 

runcare to dig, pick, hoe; Cor[vi-r]uncanii4s crow's beak; Aurunca 
(bird's beak, mattock-tilled) ; [roxtrum], rostrum beak; rancura cruelty, 
revenge; rancidus [torn carrion], decayed, sour; recens fresh [plucked]; 

ringo to snarl; rixa [dog] fight. A. S. luccan to wrench out; rinc 

warrior; raesan to rage; O. H. G. rukyan to push, pull, whirl, rock; 
O. N. rokkr distaflE; Eng. to rack (of a horse); O. N. rdg fight (ruf^ 

[ruh]) ; Goth, rikan; A. S. racian to rake (/w^, runcare). Lith. raUka 

wrinkle; Boh. ry^ graves; R. reizai to cut, engrave, cut throat; reizets 
burin, chisel; reizak plowshare; rusiy red, ruddy; Russkiy Russian. 

Ir. rungcin plane; riisc bark (stripped) ; rAss crimson, complexion, 

cheek; rucce [blush], shame (xug)\ Bret, roh rock, cliff [cleft]; rok 
harsh, proud; ruzHn to scrape, drag, scratch; rigas quarrel; rogn itch; 
rogein, rougein to tear; rous red (rausse, rouge melting with rubigo); 
[regnu], refill spade; rahein to rake, scrape, level; rakir esplanade; 
rack itch [rikslt^; luchennat to rock (wild animal shaking prey); Ir. 
reck, W. rhych, Bret, rec furrow; Fr. ronce bramble; ronger to gnaw; 
0. C. Rancios; Runcones, Ruccones, Roccones (moimtaineers) ; Rocco^ 
Roccus; Roscius, Rosso- magus, Rossidcum (19). 

Sk. ruksh to be horrible, fierce, [howl, yell, open jaw, belch, vomit, 
wet]; rik (rinakmi, rinke) to tear away, separate, free, let fly; vi-rik to 
dash out, empty; ruh to make an effort upward, grow; vi-ruh to pour 

out. Gk. Ipeuyo) to spit, vomit, belch, surge, roar, pour out lava, 

bellow; ipuY^dvo) to belch; pc^xci) to wheeze, vomit; dpuy^JLi?, (opuYi), 
fipuYiMc roaring, howling; BtwXuYio? sounding terribly; pdltio), put^w 
to snarl, growl, scream (of hawk) ; puTX^^J snout, jaw, trunk, beak; 
^xOi<>> to roar (waves); Xutio) to hiccup, sob, gulp; XuyS retching; 
lynx (wide mouth, scream); XiYaEvo) to scream, cry; XfYycj to twang; 
Xtyug, Xtyupig whistling, clear, shrill; XiYt) twilight (twittering time); 

XouxovfiQ gullet; Jiyxa) to snort, snore; foYxaXfiici) to bark. Lat. 

Irugo to vomit; eruca devouring caterpillar; eruca rocket, larkspur 
(dragon's mouth); rv{g\mino to [belch up], chew cud; rumen [out- 
pouring] udder; rigo, irrigo to water (m-ruh, m-rik); ructo to belch; 

fugio to roar; rictus open jaw; lugeo to howl, mourn. Goth. i»— 

raufUyan to shiver, shudder; O. H. G. it-ruchan to chew the cud; A. S. 
roccetan lb spue, ruke up ; rican, O. N. reykia, O. H. G. rouchan to steam 
(mouth in cold weather) ; to smoke ; A. S. racu broken clouds, cloud-rack, 
rain; O.N. rak moisture; Goth, rignyan, A.S. rignan, O.H.G. regandn 



— 126 — 

to rain (ruh) ; O.H.G. sluccan to gulp, swallow; luhs lynx; Ger. locken 

to call with shrill voice, mimic bird, lure. O. R, f[v}iknanti to roar; 

R. f[v]ikat to roar; rzhcU to whinny; rugat to revile; i[v}is a lynx; 

lakomka glutton; Lith. lushis wild cat. Ir. slocim, sluccim to gulp 

down, swallow; Ideg calf (sucker, c£. ludgach milch cow); W. llo (plu. 
lot). Com. loch, Bret, lieuaj, lu/i calf; Ir. [lug[, Inch mouse (gen. lochad; 
devourer) ; W. Uygod, Com., Bret, logod mouse; W. Uyngou to swallow; 
Gael, roic to bellow (cow, deer); W. tinge to hiss, roar; Bret, lonkein 
to devour; lonkad mouthful, luncheon; lofi[k]t€g glutton; rohken, 
ronken gasp, death-rattle; O. C. Rinctius (roaring stream); Rancios, 
Rancum, Lunganes, Loncium, 

Sk. rik {rinc£mi, HnM) to tear away, let fly; vi-riK to pour out; 
vi-ruh to pour out; sri^ (ci'sri^at, sa-sar^a, srashtum) to hiu-l, shoot, 
dash out, pour out, generate, make, lay down, leave, hand over, 
give; sar^ to [seize], win, earn; sargas, creation, nature; sar^as 
resinous tree; srigas arrow; (melt with vri^ to pour, vrof^ to tear); 

saru^ [melting], sick. Gk. iazky-fiq passionate; SXxog a woimd, a 

flowing sore ; a loss (torn away) ; aip^ flesh (generated, generating, 

bleeding). Lat. sulcus furrow; Sergius botmtiful; surculus shoot, 

sprout (sar^as); sarculum [scratcher], hoe; sarcio to [use claw, awl], 

Imit together, cobble; sarcina [plunder; booty], haversack, load. 

A. S. slagan to shoot, strike, beat, slay; slingan to hurl with a sling; 
slincan to [flow like resin], crawl; [slag\, slaw slow; Eng. slag overflow, 
dross; O. N. sldngya to sling; slokva to [dash water], extinguish; 
sdrga [bleeding], wounded; sarh, sarg [melting] sorrow, pain; sylgr 
draught, swallow; solginn greedy; serkr [luxurious] garment; slongpir 
[melting, draggling, slinking] snake; slagr [shot], blow, neat stroke, 
harp; sleggya hammer; sleg [dragged] sledge; slaekinn [running sore], 

rotten; (Jer. schlechi wretched? R. [sleigd], sleid track, footsteps; 

sleidovat to hunt, pursue (cf. Irish). Ir. sere love; suirge courtship; 

sercoll [new-slain], fresh meat; sif\g[e food; sergaim to [flow away, 
melt], decay, be sick, weary, vanish; sleigaim to crawl, slink; slichi 
track, trace; sleg javelin (sltmg with thong); selg hunting; seiche 
hunter; sl6g army; slechiaim to strike, slay; O. C. Selgovae (hunters); 
Salginus, Selgidcus; Sargia, Sulga rivers; Sulcia mineral springs; 
CatU'Slogi. \ 

Sk. likh to scrape, scratch, draw, * graze,* {draw blood], paint, 

touch; lig to be [scraped down],^mall; Og, Ung to paint. Gk. Xfiio) 

to graze; X(Y8tjv grazing, scrajing (cf. iXfyoO. R« lishat to strip. 






.» 



— 127 — 

— Ir. lig, li, (Bret, liil) color, complexion, beauty; ligach gentle, 
beautiful; O. C. Liger, Ligno (beautiful, gracious, fair-flowing). 

Sk. lih (lehmi, lelihye), rih (rihdmi) to lick; ling to smear, paint. 
— Gk. Xcfxd), Xex(JLdeti>, Xixiiit^Q to lick; XixoveJg forefinger; Xfxvog 

dainty, greedy; Xctxijv lichen (sucking life from rock). Lat. 

Ungo to lick; ligurio to be eager, dainty; lingua tongue; lixa sutler. 

— Goth. bi'laigSn, O. H. G. licchSn to Hck. O. R. lizcUi to lick; 

Lith. leizhiu to Uck; lizhus forefinger, R. slizivat to lick; slizkiy sticky; 

/mAoI lichen; lozhka spoon. Ir. ligim to lick; ligur tongue; Bret. 

lich^ gluttonous. 

Sk. langh to potmce ; lag, lak, [rag], rak to [grip], attain, taste ; lag 
to grip, stick to, be sticky; rdgh, Idgh to [grip hard], be strong; ran^, 
^^&f l(^ii to [claw, draw blood], dye, redden, blush, be ashamed; 
la^ to threaten, mock; Idgh to be strong, [lift easily]; laghtis light; 
lan^ to [potmce], kill, [take possession], dwell; be strong, flash out, 
be generous, speak; ri^ to flash, glitter, leap. 

Sk. langh to leap, leap across, pass over, pass the time, transgress; 
langhanam leaping over, contempt (insulio) ; ragh, lag to reach, taste; 
rangh to speed, run, flash out, shine; ran^ to [draw blood], be red; 

lan^ to flash, hurt, kill; Id^ to scare; la^ to threaten, mock. Gk. 

Xi-fx^ lance, javelin; Xayx^vo) to [hurl, cause to leap], cast lots; to 
attack at law; to attain possession; Xdexo<;, X6yx^ 1o^» Xdexe(n(;, 'kifyq 
allotment, fate; Xaycl)^ [leaper], hare; Xoel^o(iai to reach, grip, seize, 
bite ; "kiXju^, XancTd^o) to [leap], kick out with the heels, kick, struggle, 
strike; Xd^, XdySigy adv. [kicked, trampled] with heel, sole of foot; 
iXiyx^ ^ [potmce upon, mock], detect, put to shame, conquer; 
IXrfxo^ shame, disgrace, conviction, refutation, test; iXat^tjv (i 
intens.) [mocking], bragging, pretending (lai); fitio) to dye (red); 

^Yoig dyer; ^T®? purple rug. Lat. lancea lance; lancino to spear 

fish, assail, mock; lacesso to assail, mock; langus [leap, shot], long (of 
space and time), Ugo to speed with commission, send a legate; lac 

milk (lak to desire, taste). (Joth. laikan to leap, dance, exult; laggs 

long; If^^ length; Ger. erlangen to [leap to], attain; gelingen to suc- 
ceed; O. H. G. lane long; O. N. Idnga to [aim at], long for; lax [leaper], 
salmon; leggr [leaper], thigh, muscle; biceps (hurler); laukr [spear], 
point, sprout, leek; leikr [dance], sport; lukka [leaping lot], luck; 
lasta to reproach, shame {ldstern)\ loga to flash, blaze (lang); Idga 
to utter; A. S. lun-gre quick, strong, very; Eng. to lunge, launch; 
Scotch ling salmon; Pries. Idkia to blame; O. H. G. lahan to reproach 



— 128 — 

(to^). R. kufit to make an effort, climb; leigt to climb, enter, dive; 

teisa stair, scaffold ; l[v]izha racket, heel ; lyagcU to kick back; lyagushka 
frog; lyazhka thigh, haunch; loza sprout; losos, lokh salmon; razhdat 
to [make an effort], bear a child; razhiy strong, stout; raz [pounce], 
chance, opporttmity, time ; r[v]izhiy tawny, red; Lith. ragauyu to taste. 

Ir. lingim to leap; l^£]flin a leap; lue a kick; longaim to [potmce], 

eat; long ship (crossing over, langh; lego); longes voysige, banishment; 
Bret, lijar length of leap, width, space; lenjen IsLsh, reins; lagad 
flashing e3re, glance, sunbeam, gleam on water (lani); lagad-blei 
rainbow (bleuein to bloom) ; mab»lagai [child of the eye], pupil ; O. C. 
Ligures (lijor, roamers); Lingones (charioteers); LangO'briga; Lon[^].- 
dinium (ship-town)? langa wild-cat (Plin. N. H., 37, 34); Langum; 
Lugus the Celtic sun-god (cf. form lue) is connected with O. N. Loki 
the qtiivering, treacherous aurora borealis (cf. lukka). 

Sk. langh to leap, leap across, leap into; lag, rag to attain, taste, 

enjoy. Gk. "kixWl animal's lair, jtmgle; Xox&«> to lurk, lie in wait; 

X^xo? ambush, troop of soldiers; [den, brooding-place], child-bed; 
Xox(^ci> to lie in wait, set ambush, distribute men in companies; 
Xoxeu(i> to [be in the straw], bear children; X<xo<; bed; 4-Xoxog wife 
(4 synthetic) ; Xaypig sleeping-mat; Xijyq to reach the end, cease, rest, 

desist; Xiyo) to lay; lay in bed; put to sleep. Lat. [legtus], lectus bed; 

lectica litter; legio troop of soldiers (X^x©?) ?; lex (legis) [established] law 

(Osc. ligud abl.). Goth, ligan to lie down; lagyan to lay; lageins 

laying; ligrs bed; liugan to marry; gadiugan to [set an ambush], 
deceive, lie; O. H. G. Idga ambush; Ger. Lager couch, store-house, 

camp; O. N. Mgr [laid] low; lag position, establishment, law. O. R. 

lezhati to lie down; leigati to go to bed; lozhe bed; R. logovishRe lair; 

lozh a lie; slagat to lay down. Ir. laigim to lie down; lige bed; lechi 

grave; luckt, lucktlach a company of men, crew, cargo (p. 124); Bret. 
lakat, lekel to put, place, make an effort, work; lakiz, lackey; Uh 
place; Uhein to set a bone; leign nooning, dinner; O. C. liuga [resting 
place, post-station], league. 

Sk. lag to [grip], stick to, be sticky; la^^, ran^ to [daw, draw blood], 
redden, blush, [weaken, make faint, slack, chill]; langh to leap, potmce; 
lagh to be strong (action and passion) ; lag to desire ; lan^d prostitute ; 

algas )delding, suffering. Zd. eregant weak, wretched, bad. 

Gk. XaYYdlici), XayYapIo), XaYYefio) to be slack, loose, weary; to delay; 
Xayapi^ lax, slack, hollow, stmken, lean, loose, pliant, thin; Xayciv 
hollow of flank, flank, glen, cup; XwY^vtov dew-lap; X4yy(i>v loiterer; 
XdYoevov oil-cake (thin, kneaded); Xdyuvog (term, olvo^, Lat. lagena) 



— 129 — 

[\rine-dripper], slender-necked wine-flask; Xi^xu6o(; oil-flask, [bubble], 
bombast, fiasco; XoYveio) to beget; Xdyvo? passionate; Xiyog lewd; 
^fotvu, XexaCvcd to be lewd; Xi^xijiia; XtJYiXiog; iXyio) to [be clawed, 
lose blood], suflEer pain, smart; 4X^0? pain, woe, grief; 8ua-Tf)-XeYijg 
cruel, ruthless, bitter cold; IXeyo^ lament, dirge; 4pT<5? [bloodless, 
cold], torpid, lazy; fitio) to dye (ran^); ^TQifefig dyer; Xiyvov dyed 

border. Lat. langueo to be weary, languish; languidus; languor; 

laxus loose, slack; prodixas hanging over, too long; laxare to loosen; 
lasstis weary; lades mesentery, entrails; algeo to be cold, torpid; 

aliidus frozen, cold; alga sea-weed (slack, clanfmiy); argilla clay. 

Goth. [laxiiAs'], lasivs weak, faint; Scotch to irk; O. N. leka to drip, 
drop, leak; O. Dutch, laecken, Dan. lakke to decline, fail, wear away, 
be lacking; A. S. laece, Goth, leikeis surgeon, anointer, physician; 

Wfebody (cf. salbdn to anoint, heal; O.N. lifya; cf. p. 123). R. sleza 

a tear; sliz stickiness; alkat to be hungry, thirsty; Lith. alkstu (praet, 

alkau) to starve; alpstu to faint; leikoras, R. leikori, physician. 

Ir.fegofm to melt; lag, lac feeble, faint; ailges passionate desire; dilgen 
Undly; liaig physician; W. lag slack, weak; Bret, lagen mire. 

Sk. langh, rangh to be quick, run, leap; Idgh, rdgh to be strong, 
pift easily]; laghus, raghus light, nimble (comp., sup. laghiyans, 

lagkishias). Gk. iXax"? Uttle (comp., sup. iXdaacov, i\ixi<r:o(;) ; 

[iX«xpo«], iXaeOp6(;, iXo^pig Ught, nimble, (attracted by ribhus), 

Lat. U[g]uis light (shortened to differentiate from levis) ; levare to 

lift, help. A. S. lihtan to raise, Ughten, lift; Idssa, last less, least; 

0. H. G. lunga limg? O. R. liguku light; R. legkii, Ught, nimble; 

l^ikoe lung; slegka lightly, softly; Lith. lengvas easy, gentle. 

Ir. lug little (comp., sup. laigiu, lugem) ; lugu, laiget littleness; fudangim 
to lift, support, endure (Idgk); Bret, lohein to lift with lever; lok 
lever. 

Sk. rank, rakh to speed; rcLg, rak, ras, lag, lak, lash to seek, desire, 
taste; las to [grasp], embrace, rejoice, be nimble, handy; Idgh to 

pift], be strong. Gk. Xiya) to pick out, choose, choose a number, 

count, reckon, esteem, recount, relate, tell, speak; 4-X4yci) (4 S5nithetic) 
to cxmnt among; dt-Xiya) (4 intens.), dXeYR^o), iXeyuvcd to consider care- 
Mly, esteem, be anxious, careftd; i-Xiya) (de negative) to disregard; 
%o? reckoning, account, tale, myth, history, speech, word, calcula- 
tion, reflection, reason; 'koyia^6q reckoning, calculation, bill; xorca-XlYW 
to choose, enroll soldiers, make a list; iv(iXoYO(; according to ratio 

(P- 13). Lat. lego to choose, pick out, pick out letters, read; 

to pick out the tracks, landmarks, find one's way, coast the shore; 

8 



— 130 — 

de^lectus chosen; di»lectus favored, loved; deflector to delight; intel" 
lego to [cx)mpare reckonings], understand; legio chosen men, levy; 
legumen bean, pulse (gathered); lignum [gathered branches], fire- 
wood, wood cf. R. Goth, lisan (O. H. G. lesan) to gather, collect, 

know; lists science, art, stratagem; Icdsyan, (O. H. G. liran) to cause 
to know, teach ; laistyan to pick out the footsteps, follow ; laists footstep; 
A. S. laeran to teach; I6r lore; Goth, raknyan (rak) to reckon; rc^n 

reason, cotmsel; A. S. recnan (rag) to reckon. Lett, laskit to gather; 

Lith. lesti to pick up; rinkti to gather; R. likhoi quick to seize (cf. 
rakh, rikh to go [eagerly]), impetuous, marauding, stealing, adroit; 

likho evil; leis wood; list leaf. Ir. loss [desire], for the sake; less 

advantage, profit; luss herb, plant, taste; lui[g] branch; Bret, lezeu 
plant, herb, drug; lezeuein to gather herbs; O. C. Lossius, Losunius, 
Lousanna, Lausus. 

Sk. rank, rakh, [ryanh], rinkh to be eager, go; cUi^rik to go ahead, 
excel, be glorious, rule; pra'fiK to stretch beyond; ri^ (fif^i'^) to 
stretch out [claw or hand], reach, acquire, attain; ri^us outstretched, 
straight, right; ri^as leader; rdgh, Idgk to be strong; raksk to [hold 
fast], guard, govern; rd^ to rule; be glorious; rd^an king; ruk to ap- 
proach, attain, stretch upward, aspire, grow; ar^ to rake together, 
acquire, accumulate, heap, attain, accomplish; argk to grip, htirt; 
to be [attained], precious. — r— Zd. erezu straight, just, true; a finger. 

Gk. 6p4Y(i>, iplYvuji.1 to reach, stretch out, grasp at, lunge, strike; 

Spe^t? desire, taste, yearning; ipefyavov marjoram, sage [exciting 
appetite]; ^pyuti, ^pcSyuta outstretched arms, fathom; dpiYvio(iGa to 
stretch one's self; pll^o) (ar^) to effect, do, [stretch out hand to gods], 
offer sacrifice; 6pex6&i> to yearn, throb; expire; ^tYfai), ^iy^o) to be 
stiff, shivering, with cold (melt with krisk) ; poyig granary (ar^) ; dpxdevi] 

weaver*s-beam (ri^ to stretch) ; ^(oxog coffer [gripping]. Lrat. rego to 

straighten, direct, rule ; erigo to raise up ; [per»rego]f pergo to go straight 
toward (xepi(i>) ; por-rigo to [pass food round], offer, hold out (iccpO ; 
ex-per-[re]giscor to thoroughly rouse; rectus straight; rogus heap [of 
logs]; rogo to [yearn, hold out hand, seek], ask; regie straight line; 
direction, surveyed area; rex king; rigio to be stiff; rigidus stiff. 

(Joth. uf-rakyan to stretch out; raikts straight, just; [reikan to be 

strong]; reiks chief, king; urreisan to arise; [set out]; raisyan to rouse 
(raksk); rikan to heap up, pile; rakton to pass to, hold out; A. S. 
raecan to reach; rixian to be mighty; risan to rise; rdsian, raeran to 
raise, rear; [rag], rdv, (O. H. G. rtka, rtga) row; rdk, rd (O. H. G. rdck 

[homed] deer, roe ; O. N. rd, roe spar. R. rog horn (e-rigo) ; rozga twig; 

Lith. ragifUi to demand, compel; ranka [outstretched] hand; O. R. 



— 131 — 

ranka^ R. ruka hand, forearm; rok iate. Ir., rigim, to stretch 

out; reach; Mgim, Hrgim to rise; riag gallows, cross; rig forearm; rig 
king; [pVo'i^g head-chief; rigna queen; rige, kingdom; rickt stature; 
tech furrow (straight); rega, raga to arrive; Bret, rinkein, rikein to 
need, demand; rekis necessity; rohann span, measure; O. C. Rigo king; 
Rigo»fHagtis=' Kingston (19) ; Rignia, Ricina; Ase'recinehae (goddesses) ; 
Regenus; RigO'[v]ialus (king's delight, Reilly); Regium (Lepidi); 
[Regii]f Rett; Re*rig'[v]anius; Ru'ricius; Rectina, Rectwgenos, 

Sk. rank, rakh to speed ; rikh to attain, arrive ; pra»rik, rii to stretch 
out, acquire, attain; argh to be worth attaining, precious; argham 
prize, honor; arghyas venerable ; arh, ark to honor, worship, be worthy, 
fit, equal (overtaking; in same row) ; to be a duty; arhas worthy; riA, 

rX to praise, worship. Zd. atey to deserve, be worth; areyanh price 

(airya). Gk. Ipx^l^at to arrive, come, seek, fetch, intend; fipxo) to 

[come in first], be first, honorable, leader, ruler; 6i:'dpx*»* to begin, 
come into being, exist; to come tmder control, belong; ipx^« leader; 
ipX^ beginning; dominion; ipxaiot; original, ancient; [tjc fipxeoc], Tipxea 
funeral honors; xapx'Scd to bury solemnly; SpxajJio? first of a row, file- 
leader; 8pxo<; row, line; ^pxiopiat; to move in line, dance. Lat. erga 

[striving] toward; ergo for the sake [of attaining; form abl. of cause; 

governs obj. gen.]; [in consequence of desire], therefore. Goth. 

raginon to rule; ragin deliberate decision, counsel, decree, reason 
(v. Uyca; p. 130); O.N. regin the gods; r^gi»«cWmr divine doom; ragna 
fdkr end of reason, chaos ; Ger. ragen to rise high ; rege pressing forward, 

active. R. reizviy eager; argamak race-horse? Ir. rega I shall 

come, arrive; arg famous, hero; W. erch, erchan [old], awful grizzled, 
gray; Bret, raug forward; in front; rak because; O. C. Ercilivus, 
Arquit^s, Arcisas, Arco-briga, 

Sk. fish to wander round, roam, be pilgrim; raksh to make the 
rounds, watch, guard; rakshakas watchman; rakshas prowling demon; 
laksh to glance round, observe ; rang to go round ; rangas race-track, 
circus, theatre; ra^ani revolving night; ra^as gloom, [whirling] dust; 
rakh, lakh, to [wreathe, robe], adorn; to be [wrung out], dry; rik to 
[wrap], cover; ra^^tis [twisted, coiling] rope; rinkh, ring, linkh to go 

[race, circle]; ling to go, embrace; lunk to wrench off. Gk. Xo^^g 

oblique ; Ao^fag [ecliptic], sim ; Xixpt^f?, Xfy?, Xf^, Xlxpto? slanting, oblique ; 
iXfYxiog similar (i synth., same curve, cf . Icxtjv, eTxo)) ? 1^X1^ similar, 
of the same age (so many circles, years) ; i)X(xo(; as large, as tall, as 
old as (demonst. sa p. 9) ; Xdexxo(; [circular] pond, pool, pit, cistern, 
reservoir (cf. palus p. 57) ; Xuxoc-^a? [circling] year, season; Xuytq, igXiyt) 



— 132 — 

encircling darkness, perplexity (enveloping, hiding; i^ is a intens.) ; 

XiSyog withe, screw; Xu^f^o) to twist; Xtyupd^ flexible. Lat. licinus 

twisted; Licinius; ob4iquus; [licmus], lintus cross-eyed, ascant; sub^ 
limis, [glancing] aloft; luscus one-eyed; lifnes [encircling] boundary; 
limen [guarding] threshold; ligo to bind; redup. lollgo cuttle-fish (grip- 
per); sub4igare to gird up loins, strip legs; Sublicius pons on bare, 
wading legs, piles; luxate to twist, wrench; luxtis bad morals (melts 
with lash and luh)\ luctor to [writhe, wrench], wrestle; lacinia, 
lacerna cloak; laqueus noose, snare; lacto to cheat; pellicio to lure; 
licium string, warp; (Sabine; lixula bracelet); locus pool, reservoir 

lake ; Zociina, pool, mire. Goth, lukan, (O. H. GAUhhan) to enclose, 

lock; riqis darkness {ra^as)\ A. S. reced [enclosure], house; lUcan to 
bind, twist, be close, be like ; Idcan to dance [in circle], whirl (but cf . 
Goth, laikan) ; for-ldcan to betray; ISc bolt, lock; curl; Idea (O. H. G. 
Idcha) round pool, puddle; lagu, lagu-siredm encircling ocean; O. N. 
loka, lUka to close, end, pay; lykia to close, circle, embrace; Ids lock; 
lykkya coil, fastening; lykill key; ling [pliant] heather; Loki, Lopir 
Loki (airy-arch) arch of northern-light; flickering, freezing, faithless; 
allied with gods in appearance but with giants (night, ice, destruction) 
in nature ; son of Laufey (sword-blade ;but cf . p. 1 2 8) ; roky rdkkr darkness, 

twilight; (jer. links to the left; lenken to turn; Ge-lenklimh, Lith. 

lenkii to bend; linkti to bow; linkens hent 'rlink towards; lygus like; 
lugnas pliant; lanka meadow (river-bend, campus); O. R. lenkan to 
bend; lanku ho^; lanka swamp; R. luk bow; lokot elbow; lokon curl; 
luka saddle-bow, river-bend; lug meadow; luzha pond; lukavit to be- 
wilder, cheat ; slukat to yoke ; slukit to turn out, come to pass, end. 

Ir. slecktaim to bend the knee ; sliassit, less thigh, loin ; lossat kneading- 
trough; lesc [curled-up], lazy; lose cripple; losean frog; less left hand; 
less^ainm (Bret, les^hanii) nickname; less ring-wall; lias sheep-fold; 
lock pool, lake, water; Lochdind [fiord water], Norway; loeh full to 
brim, all, quite; locht sin (distorted); Liig [melting with tog fire; lani 
to flash] = Ao^fag, revolving sun-god; luge oath (by all-seeing sun); 
[Lug'foT'obann], luchrupdn gleam on water, dancing sprite; Com. 
[Lis^ard], Lizard (high-fort); Bret. Us circular enclosure, lists, lisiire; 
liz, liz court-yard, court; lestr (Ir. lesiar) [circular] vessel, coracle, 
boat; lost (Ir. loss) tail (twisted); lez, lagen (Cor. lagan) pool, puddle; 
leihein meadow; leih moist; lei pond; O. C. Logana, Logetius; Lug-aid 
(aT6ci)); Lugu-dununt; Lissos, 'Axp^Xtaaog; 04iS'ipc{n] tort of Bpona 
(cf . Oporto) ; Lister; O. W. [liql lip like; O. C. Ande-lipa, Lippo. 

Sk. riksh to seek to kill; rif, risk to wound, kill; rak to [grip], taste; 
ran^ [to draw blood], redden, injure, kill; rakshas demon. Gk. 



— 133 — 

^ioow, ipdaocd (ipify^t i intens.) to strike, dash in pieces, curse ; ^i^aou, 
^i^Tvu^u (melt with vragk) to rend, tear; Xoexf^ rent; ^dbco^ rag; ^i^ 
(^6^; torn off) grape; venomous spider [pouncer]; ^ax^? [tearing] 
thorn-bush; p4x*? back-bone [of animal, gripped by wild beast; cf. 
Upo, 8etpif, dorsum]; pox^^ci) to cut in two at a stroke; pcex(« breakers, 
beach; dpoxv^^, ip^vi) spider (beast of prey); Xoxafvo) to dig, mine; 

X^x^o^ tilled by hand ; XdExvi) wool (plucked) ; [XoEgtOi;], Xdato<; woolly. 

Lat. lacero to daw, tear; la[c]nio to butcher; la[c]mia goblin (rakshas) ; 
lacesso to assail, harm, revile; la[c]na wool; ld[c]fnentari to tear the 
hair, lament? ld[c]mina splinter, thin scale; lacerta lizard (torn-throat; 
breathing-holes) ; a muscle (playing round arm; cf. muscidus) ; racemus 
duster (plucked); ramus branch; rdmentum shaving; ramex varicose 

vein. (Soth. slahan to strike, day (v. p. 126) ; O. N. liosta to strike, 

thrust; lesta to injure. R. rak crab (ip4xv»)). Bret, lahein to kill; 

lahereh carnage; rahein to scrape, peel, gnaw; O. C. Lacavos Mars; 
Laka (goddess) ; Loco; LaC'Omon {pmun awftil). 

Sk. bifik to pluck; [forms luns, lun\\ lu (lundmi, caus. lavayami) 
to cut off, cut to pieces; lavas fragment; lavitram sickle; ru to be 

angry, kill. Gk. dbco-Xourfyievat to mutilate (Hesych.) ; Xfio) to tear,. 

rip off, undo, ruin, destroy, [snatch from foe], loose, free, deliver, 
ransom; xaeTa*X6<i> to destroy, break up, dissolve, annul; xapa*X6(i> to 
strip one side, paralyze; Aualo^ Bacchus, freer; [XcD/rdoyiac], XcD^ioyiac to 
mutilate, pillage, outrage, insult; Xu(i.aEvo(i.ac to outrage, injure; strip, 
wash off; XfiyiT] maiming, ruin; pfioyiat to snatch away, deliver, set free 

(melts with fipii^). Lat. reduo to release; [svaduo, seluo\ solvo to set 

by one's self, free, relax, melt, dissolve; luo to atone, redeem, release, 
pay; lues plague, destruction; duruo to tear down; ruo to be hurled 

down; ruina destruction. Goth, lausyan to loosen, undo, destroy, 

deliver, demand [ransom]; laus empty, void, annulled; fra-liusan to 
destroy, annihilate ;/ra-/M5t5 ruin; lun ransom; us'lauseins redemption; 
[riusyan], riuryan to destroy; riurs perishable; O. N. losa, lota to 
loosen. R. lomai, lomit to break, crush, exhaust; lomovik pack- 
horse, hack; lomota rheumatism; Umiot a slice; lom fragments; 

runo wool. Ir. 16 flock of wool; lomm stripped of bark, naked; 

Bret, lauskein to loosen; lasius weak. 

Sk. lu to tear to pieces, cut to pieces; ru to day; lavas fragment. 

Gk. [Xofo^], Xaa?, Xe(5<; hurling stone, stone; Xeio) to hurl stones; 

XeucTi^ stone-slinger; Xat5p6<; bold; [Xefto<;], Xeto<; [chipped, chiselled], 
smooth, [flint tool]; XetaCvo), Xetdci) to smooth, erase, grind; [Xe/rcpo^], 
Xwptf^ leveled (of earth); polished. Lat. levis smooth; levare^ 



— 134 — 

levigate to smooth; [fewVa], lira furrow. R. roamyat to level, even; 

ravneniy alignment (of furrows); ravnina plain; raufi[v]iy level, 

even; rov [furrow], ditch. Ir. roe, roi level field, plain; lia stone, 

whet-stone, polished flint; cush'la jewel. 

Sk. lu to [wrench, twist, twist oflE], cut off. Gk. Xat/:6( [twisted 

to] left; Hesych. [kaffihoq], Xa(dco(, Xac$p6( left; XaE^a shield (left- 
hand). Lat. laevtis. O. R. leivu, R. leii^^iy left-hand. 

Sk. lu to [wrench, strip off, wash off (cf. kshur to scratch; kshat, 

kshal to wash)]. Arm. loganam to bathe. Gk. [Xofew], Xofio) to 

wash the body, bathe; [Xoferpov], Xouxp^v bath; XiOpov defilement; Xuiw: 

wash- water. Lat. al-luo to wash along; di-luo to add double water, 

dilute {dvi) ; pol-luo (xepO to smear, pollute; po/'/ii-6nim wash-tub; [xepf, 
lev-is], pelvis basin; lutum day; lutetis ochre, yellow; lu-strum puri- 
fication, atonement; lavere, lavare to wash. O. N. ISa to wash 

away; laudhr soap; Eng. Low Sunday (purified). Ir. 16 water; 

loth mire; laihach swamp; lothor (Bret, louazr) channel; Bret, huein 
to suppurate, ooze; louedraold; lous filthy; O.C. Lavairae; Lautra(4 
rivers); Lovo-lautrum; Lutra (river). 

Sk. likh to scrape, scratch (v. p. 126); [forms link, lig]; rig, ruf 
to wound, hurt; lif to be [scraped down] small; legas small, a bit; 

ling to [graze, draw blood], paint. Gk. Xfl^w to scrape, graze; 

6\ifO(; small, little, scanty, few (6 euphon.; comp., superl. iXfl^cDv, 
6\ifO(r:6q) ; XEySo? mortar (pulverizer) ; lye (reducing to rags) ; crucible 
(reducing); Xtxyi^^, X£xvov winno wing-fan; [Xt^o?], Xtaa<? [chipped, 
worn] smooth; X^orpov [smoother], shovel; Xt[x]T<? smooth, little; 

^t[x]vT) file, rasp; ptvi? [stripped] hide (cf. 8<pci), 8<po<;). Lat. 

sol'liciiare to thoroughly [pluck], vex, worry; elixus boiled to rags; 

lixivium lye; ligo [clod-chopper], mattock. A. S. laeg, leak, O. H. G. 

huga lye; O. N. lauga to bathe; Ger. schlicht smooth. R. likhoi 

thievish, nimble, avaricious, exhausting; O. Pruss. laygnan jaw 

[grinding]. Ir. lecco jaw; lecdn pebble; fee [chipped, smoothed] stone, 

flint, precious stone; liacdn pillar [liac-vanna]; crom-lech arched stones; 
Bret, lech grave-stone; rak^, rep^r levelled place, esplanade. 

Sk. likh, rig, lig to scrape, be scraped, pluck, hurt; rik (rinoMmi, 
rinke) to pluck away, separate, tear from foe, set free, tear away, leave 
[part] behind; (passive) to be free, go beyond, excel; vi-rik to strip out, 
dash out, empty, pour, cacare', rah to leave, desert; rahitas, rekiias 

abandoned, alone. Zd. rik to abandon; to pour out. Gk. Xe(x(i>, 

Xi(ixdv(i), [Xtvfdvci)] to leave, desert, fail, be missing; Xei[i4J.a, Xefipovov 



— 135 — 

remnant; Xoixiv the remnant, the future; [Xot(:6o<;], XotoOo? last; 

DdfyiayLSn], X(aab>(iev let us permit (Hesych.). Lat. linquo, relinquo 

to leave; reliquum the remainder; licet it is free, a freeman's right, 
lawful; (cf. IgeoTt it is left, left free, permitted); liquet it [remains] 
evident, dear; liceri to [go beyond, excel], bid at auction; polliceor 
(^intens.) to promise; liquidus liquid; liquor fluid; Licinius dashing, 

eloquent. Goth, leihvan to leave with another, lend (licet); A. S. 

laefan, O. N. leifa, O. H. G. lipan, bi-liban, Dan. feime, Sw. lemna 
(Xcvixdevd)) to leave; A. S. lifan, lyfan, O. N. fej/a, O. H. G. laubyan, 
QT'laubyan to give leave, permit (licet) ; Goth, af-lifnan to be left over, 
remain; bi-laibyan to leave over, be left over, remain; laubyan, 
ga-laubyan to promise i^BXty {polliceor) , he loyal, believe; Ger.Gelubde 

vow; O. N. logr liquid, water, sea (cf. vi'riH; liquor). Lith. leiku 

(inf. likti) to leave; be left, remain; leikcLs left over; R. lishcU to strip; 
razdikat to separate, distinguish; reika river (dashing; liquidus); reik 
decisive word, sentence (dashing out, polliceor); reishat to decide, 

pronounce sentence; reishimost audacity; reishetina lath (strip). Ir. 

Ucim to leave, let loose, set free, abandon; rO'leiced it is allowed; {fo- 
licitn to let fly, throw; passive to be left over, left to another's choice, 
be set free; recne a dashing, hasty act, a poem; Bret, lehennour charla- 
tan, vender (liceri, poUiceti); Uhenen kidney (pouring); leihein to 
wet; rehin pouring rain, torrent; O. C. Licca, Licas the Lech (mountain 
river) ; Vindedici brilliant dashers; LiccUes (Vindelican tribe) ; Liccdvus, 
Liccus; Licos (Norican river) ; Lico*rix, Licnos. 

Sk. rank, rang, rangh to go, speed, race round; rangas circus, 
dancing-ring; raksh to make the rounds, guard, protect; rakshakas 
watchman, guard; rakshanas protection; laksh to watch, observe, aim; 
riksh to pounce, [seize]; riK to [grip], unite; rik, rik to [envelop], 
cover; rdkh, lakh, to [wreathe], adorn; [wring out], dry; (melting with 

vrish^ vriksh to wring, encircle) ; argalas bolt, bar. Gk. ipxio to 

ward off , be strong; to [encircle, contain], suffice, content ; deXi^o) to ward 
off, content, protect, reward; iXaXxstv to ward off; SXxap, Ifixog safe- 
guard, defence ; iXxi^ might, defence, aid; Spxto^ reliable, sure.'mifficient; 
4pxu? hunter's net, toils; fiXxt) elk (butting off, strong); SpxTo<; [en- 
circling watchman of] pole; 'Apx(iBs<; watchmen of mountain wall. 

Lat. arceo to ward off; arx ring- wall, citadel; arcera wagon-top; 
arcus arch, bow; ex^erceo to bend bow, use all one's force, aim well, 
train; exerciius army; area chest, safe-box; arcanus secret, mystic 
(within temple enclosure) ; alces elk (wary) ; alacer watchful, nimble? 
ak4do kingfisher (eager-flash, aTOo); &X*xu(i)v= nesting on the water). 
• — Goth, alhs temple, enclosure; rohsns court-3rard; A. S. ealh-stede 



— 136 — 

fortified house, grange; ealgian to protect; O. H. G. elahoy O. N. elgr 

elk. Lith rakinti to enclose, shut in; R. raka coflEer, reUquary; rok 

fate; arkan lasso. Ir. [do-imm-arcim], timmarcim to crowd together, 

imprison ; i't'imni'aircnib in the prisons ; do^m-ess-urC'Sa I defend myself ; 
tessarcon deliverance; ail[c] (gen. ailech) clifE, defence (cf. oxtfxeXog); 
Bret, aihui key? O. C. Alixia, Alesia, Aliso (forts); Elico; Alco port; 
Olicios mountain; oka enclosed, arable land; cUce reindeer (on guard) ; 
Elceso, Elesius, Alicius; Arco-briga, 

Sk. rangh to race round, flash round; lan^ to shine; rd^, reg to 
shine; rangas tin; arenas gleaming; arMis brightness, fiame; ark to 

bum; ra^aias white; ra^aiam silver. Gk. ipy6<;, 4pYi^<;, ipyewi^ 

shining, bright, gUstening, white; fipyopo? silver; "Apyoi; starry-sky, 

thousand-eyed. Lat. arguo to make clear, explain; arguttis dear, 

keen (melts with ran^ to claw); argutnentum clear logic; argentum 

(Osc. aragetam) silver. Goth, airkns (O. H. G. irchan) gentiine, 

pure, holy; A. S. Earconbrecht; Ug, lyg flame; O. H. G. loug flame. 

R. yarkiy brilliant {ya euphonic). O. C. Argento-coxus silver- 
foot; ArgentO'TcUe silver- wheel (s3nnbol of day and night) ; Argantonius; 
Ir. Airget'lamh silver-hand; Ta/.arg white-brow; W. artant silver; Bret. 
rajereh glancing, ogling; lagad flashing eye, glance, gleam (v. p. 128). 

Sk. laksh to watch, glance round, aim; lakshyas target; Lakshmi 
luck; /of, las to sport, flash; raftnis ray of light; [forms laksh, lavaksh], 
Idk, (Idkaif) to shine, glance, see, speak out; lok to shine, see, speak, 
think [quickly]; lokanam eye;ruk (rdke) to shine, flash, rejoice, please; 
caus. rokayami to desire, seek, acquire; rugant red, splendid; rukmas 

gold; rukis desire; rik to praise. Zd. ruM to shine; raokshna shining. 

Arm. lusin moon. Gk. Xeiaoro) to look, gaze, behold; Xeuxi^ 

white, brilliant, clear; Xux^-^co^, i(Ji9C*X6xi) twilight, gloaming, aHie; 
Xuxd-^a^ sun's march, year (p. 131); Auxa*^T]TTJg (standing east of 
Athens it marked the sun's daily point of rising) ; Xfixvo? lamp, light; 

Xuxvl<; ruby, red flower; Xouvig brilliant (Hesych.). Lat. UUeo 

to shine; lux light; lu[clfnen light-giver; Lucina, luna moon; lucidus 
bright; di'luculum twilight {dvi)\ lucrum, lucellum gain; Juppiter 
Lucesius sender of lightning; lucus sacred spot where lightning has 
fallen and no trees are felled ; grove ; [illuxiris\ illustris brilliant ; lucema 

lantern; loquor to speak; liquet it is clear. Goth, liuhtyan to shine; 

liuhath (O. H. G. lioht) Ught; /afiAm<5n* lightning; A. S. led[h]fna glory; 
leomian to gleam, loom up; lioxan, lixan to shine; Idcian to glance, 
look; O. N. lyds Ught, torch; lysa to lighten, shine; (jer. lohen to glow. 
O. R. luka moon, ray; luRi light; luna moon; R. luMshiy better? 



— 137 — 

loshBit to polish; losk lustre; Lith. laukas white, pale. Ir. loscim 

to bum; less, leos Ught; Idcharn lantern (varn, fern shield); luach-U 
white hot (U hot); ldche[t] (Cor., Bret, luhet) lightning; rickess flame, 
hot coal (raftnis); W. llug light; Bret, luchein, luihein to shine; 
loskadur blaze; ligem, lugern splendor; lukan window (lucarne); 
regein to lighten; O. C. Leuci; Leuci-mara (very fair); Leuc-opibia; 
LeucuU-osos Mars (flashing, high) ; Lucio; Luco4ecia, Lutetia (flashing- 
beauty, W. tec, dec beautiful; cf. Lucwdeca and luach-ti), 

Sk. rik to praise; ar& to blaze; ark to worship; arkas sun, ray; 

ar^ glory. Gk. 'HXixTwp sun; 'HXexTpuciv sun-sender, dawn, 

putative father of Heracles; ijXexTpov [solid sun-beams], amber; 
'HXixTpa evening-star; sister of Iphigenia the morning-star whom 
their father Agamemnon sacrifices to secture the march of the solar 
forces; she delivers her brother 'OplanQ<; (watchman of horizon) a 
moming-star who has slain his mother Clytemnestra the night; 
he is also twinned with nuX(i8T]<; (gate of Hades) another evening star. 
R. yarkiy brilUant. O. C. Alco-vindos shining white? 

Sk. raksh to guard, be vigilant ; laksh to glance ; rigas, rigyas, risk- 
yas watchful antelope; riksh to desire to kill, be eager; irksh to glance; 
irkshy, irshy (pref. yd intens.) to [flash the eyes, look askance], envy; 

trshd, irshyd envy. Gk. Topxo<; gazelle (bright-eyed, cf. Bipxcjiai^ 

SopxiO- Lat. {jurkium], jurgium a quarrel; (hircus goat, and Sab. 

fircus^ are attracted by hrish to bristle). O. N. iarki heel, kick, 

sole of foot, edge of hoof, (Eng. jerk); ilska fierceness; illr ill, evil; 

Idlkr Odin (storm- wind) ; elker tempest; elska to desire, love. R. 

iorkii nimble; iorknut to plunge. Ir. iur[c]tadh to gore, hurt; 

elscoth desire; W. iurch (Bret, iorh) roe-buck; CJom. yorch goat; O. C. 
lurca, Ircavium, Elusconius, 

Sk. ri to go eagerly, fly up; caus. arpayitutn to send, hurl, whirl, 
employ; to [drive spear home], pierce, fasten, put, send free, deliver; 
Qvrip to hurl, whirl]; srip to coil, crawl, move); arpanas [hurling to 
place], offering, delivery, giving, returning; ribhus [aiming, roimding, 
shaping well], skilful, designing, artist; ribhus [swift, revolving, 
creative], god; primitive nature and night gods, slain by Indra the 
sun; part'tabh to encircle, embrace; sam'rabh to whirl, confuse; d*rabh, 
rabh to grasp, receive, undertake, begin; labh to grasp, attain, conceive 
child; to desire; d'labh to grasp, attack, slay; upa-labh to comprehend; 
lamb to hurl down, fall, set [of sun]; d-lamb to grasp, stay, delay. 



— 138 — 

hold up, prop, lift; riph, rimph, riph, rimph to hurl, whirl, boast, 
vex, kill; tup to be whirled, confused; rup to whirl, gesticulate* round, 
mold, shape; lup to whirl, confuse, ruin, wrench, tear, burst; lup 
to kill, rob; lubh, lumb to whirl, confuse, vex; lubh [to be eager for 
prey], to desire, long for; caus. to lure, entice, rouse anger; lobhas 
eagerness, desire; Idbh to [hurl], send; orb to go, hurl, hurt, kill; 
raph, ramph to [whirl, shoot], speed, kill; rambh, rebh to hurtle, sound. 

Sk. rabh, d-rabh, (rabhe, arambh; p. p. drabdhas) to grasp, under- 
take, receive, begin; sam^rabh to whirl, confuse; pari'Vabh to embrace; 

ribhus skilful. Gk. iXfdvo) to earn, bring in, gain; Sk^^ wages; 

SX^tTov ground com, meal; 4X^6? [mealy, snowy], white. Lat. 

labos (laboris) toil; laboro to work; robur hardened muscle, strength, 
oak; fobustus strong; arbor tree (force); arbustum wild growth, bush, 
whorl; dlbus (Umbr. alfu, Sabine alpus) white; orbis wheel; orbila 
rut; ufbs ring- wall, town; arbutus globe-fruit (cf. x6(i.apO(;, 8a); Or- 

bilius laborious. Goth, arbaiths (O. H. G.arabeit) labor; arbaidyan 

to work. Boh. raboti, R. raboicU to work; O. R. rabota work; rabu 

servant. Ir. airbe hedge, enclosure; Bret. arboH thrift, economy? 

O. C. arepennis plowland, a jugerum (ar^atuw delivery of possession); 
Arepo possessor, farmer; Orbis, Orbicus [circling] rivers; Orbio* talus 
whirling axe; Arborius, Arbonius laborer; Albion white-land (Dover 
cliffs); Albis (the Aube)\ Albiorix; Alpes white [snow] mountains; 
cf. Sabine alpus white; Sk. alpas [ground] small. 

Sk. rabh to undertake, begin, embrace; labh to conceive a child; 

arbhas, arbhakas [foetus], offspring, child, cub. Arm. orb orphan. 

Gk. 6p(pa;v6q [a posthumous child], an orphan, fatherless; 6p^avla 

desolation. Lat. orbus desolate, without kin; orbare to leave 

desolate; orbitas; Orbona\ arbiter [divider of inheritance], umpire, 

daysman. Goth., O. H. G. arbya heir; arbi inheritance; O. N. arfi^ 

A. S. yrfe heir; Goth, lamb, O. H. G. lamp [new-bom] lamb. R 

rebenok baby, child. Ir. orbe heir, inheritance, inherited farm; 

com'Orbe fellow-heir; ro*erbad it was entrusted. 

Sk. rabh to grasp, undertake; labh (labhate, lapsye) to grasp, attain, 
conceive; caus. lambhayami to cause to take, give, [feed]; desid. lipse 
to desire to attain; alabh to touch, [grip, choke], kill; up'd'labh to 
attain, [pluck], revile; sam^a^labh to touch, stroke, rub; pra^labh to 
cheat, injure; upa^labh to conceive, understand; abhi'labh to lift up; 
Idbhas attainment, gain, wealth; ava*lamb to prop, lift up; lambas 
pregnant, swollen, large. Gk. Xayi^dvo) to grasp, take, seize, carry 



— 139 — 

off, catch, overtake, detect, perceive, understand, reckon; e6Xa^lo(Aat 
to take a chance, watch for it; be cautious; Xa^i^, Xa^(<; handle, forceps; 
h^^ lobe, pod (cf . legumen) ; Xi^po? greedy (melts with Xaf ) ; Xdicro) 
to gulp (lapsyi, lipsf); Xoo^uaoci) to devour; Xde^upa spoils, booty; XdE(ica, 
Ui(ivaE ghoul; Xac(i6( gullet; Xoyiup^g greedy, bottomless; Xdeyi^ac chasms; 
X(xTO(xaec (lipsi) to desire, be eager; Xfj(i(i.a acquisition, income, assump- 
tion; Xjfo^, Xofcd scruff of animal's neck (gripped by wild beast, cf. 
pix«?. 8api^), ridge, crest, mane; X(i>^(io(i.oKc to [grip, worry], maltreat, 
injure; Taa^iut^ to [take yoke from neck], lighten, ease, rest; pi(ii90( beak 
(tearing) ; ^drrro) to [grip, claw, use awl, couple, cobble], lace, stitch, sew 
(originally leather-work); poe9E( needle; pi(i.(ta, poe9i^ seam; ^0(i9eug 
thread; ^(ivo^ thorn-bush (catcher, whorl); OuXu(i.xo<; lofty (ova-lamb, 

lambas). Lat. lambo to lick eagerly, bum, consume; labium lip; 

labrum lip, brim, bowl; lab'Umus water-drinker {urna) ; lab'tusca [grip- 
bark], wild- vine (p. 125) ;/«m6riai5 devouring worm; /«m6ii5loin {lambas 

rounded) ; rabies open-mouth, rage [melts with raf) ; rabidus, O. N. 

lipya to devour; A. S. lappian to lap; Uppa lip; laeppa a wrap, fold, 
cirde; I6ma possession, tool, loom; O. H. G. laffan to lap; leffil (O. N. 
kpit) spoon ; lefsa lip ; Eng." lump handful ; O. N. lypta to lift (ava-ktmb) ; 
lypUng deck; leiptr heaven; lopt upper-story, loft; air; Loptr ==Lold^ 
northern-light; O. H. G. luftan to lift; Goth, luftus, A. S. lyft slit; 
A. S., O. N. lif, (3oth. libains hie (lips, held fast, dear) ; O. H. G. lip 
life, body; O. N. Itf shield; Ufa, A. S. lifian, libban to live; Goth.-lif 

[folded hands], ten; iva-lif twelve. Lith. lupa lip; ramiis prop; lobis 

possession; labas good; O. Pruss, labbas possession; labs good; pal' 
laipsitwei to desire; R.lobzat to kiss; lob [rounded] forehead; r[v]iba fish 

(caught) ; lopatka saucer, spoon. Ir. lebend propped scaffold, deck, 

surface of sea (O.N. lypting) ; [co-lab\ colb pillar; leb-laing he leaped up ; 
Ubor long [reach]; Bret, lipad, limpad to lick, taste. 

Sk. labh (laps) to grasp; lips to desire to attain; sam-d-labh to grasp 
touch, rub; lip (limpami Ved. rip), to rub with fat, anoint with oil, 

grease, pollute; ava4iptas proud; Upas, lepanam ointment. Gk. 

Xfea, X(xo<; fat, lard, ointment, oil; Xtxap<<; oily, sleek, prosperous, 
brilliant; Xtxapi^? [sticky, sticking to], importunate, persistent; iXe((pci> 
to rub down, anoint, oil (4 intens.); iXe(xnj<; trainer; Xfij; desire; 
[melting, flowing] stream; libation; Xiipepvlb) to make love (Hesych.); 
W^ south-west wind (rain-bearer); [iXtij;04v(i)], ^XcoOdevcd to sUp (cf. 
tXtff^^); Xot^i^ libation; Xi^d^ trickling stream; Aet^*-Qvo<; Bacchus 
(olvo<;); Xf^o? tears, oil-cake; X4Pt]<; bronze bowl (melted, cast); 
Xt^ptfq wet, gloomy; Xe(^T]6pov marsh, Xst^icjv meadow; X((i.vi) salt-marsh, 
lagoon, pool; Xtyii^v creek, harbor; 'kl[k6<; [pining], desire, hunger; 



— 140 — 

Xi^li.T] rheum, tear; XT](Jii(i> to have sore eyes. Lat. libare to offer 

libation; de-libiltus moistened; lubricus slippery; lipptis trickling; 
weeping, blear-eyed; Libitina [wasting, pining] goddess of death; 
limpidus [dropping], transparent, clear; libum oil-cake; limus day, 

slime; iJber Bacchus (influenced by liber, free, AoatoO- O. N. lifya 

to heal, (anoint); O. H. G. gediberdt clotted, congealed; libara liver 
(glistening); Eng. b-lob a congealed drop, gout; blabber, blubber, 

blabber; to rub, Get. rieben; A. S., O. N. slim slime. Ldth. limpu (inf. 

lipti) to stick; lipus sticky; O. R. leipiti to glue; leipu bird-lime. 

Ir. lobaim to melt, vanish; Libann rain-goddess, associated with Fand 
[vand\ water; lemnai mallow (swamp); lent elm; lemnackt milk, pap; 
Bret, libourein to smear; limouz mire; O. C. Liboius, Ldbnius, Lupia 
rivers; Lemanae (X((it]v) harbor; Lemannos lake; Lem^ausum; Lemavi, 
Lemonii, Lemo-vices (lake-dwellers?) ; Lintonum; limeum arrow-poison; 
Limaids ^flumen oblivionis. 

Sk. labh to grasp; lips to desire; lup, lup, lubh, lutnb to himt, whirl, 
confuse, vex; lubh (lubhdmi, caus. lobhye) to [seek prey, to hunger], 
be eager, desire ; w*/ii6A caus. to rouse to anger; to lure, entice; lubhdas 

himter, greedy, avaricious, desirous; lobhas desire. Gk. Xci>^dtci> 

to tear, injure; Xu^euo to shame, scorn. Lat. lubei, libet it pleases; 

lUndo desire, passion; pro'lubiumvnsh; O.Lat. loebesus, Lat. liber free; 
Osc. Iwufreis free (gen.) ; Lat. libertas [dear] freedom, power to do one's 
will ; (cf . pri, freuen, freien, fret) ; liberi one's children ; Libiiina goddess 

of destruction, death? (3oth. Hubs, O. H. G. Hup dear; A. S. lidf 

dear; lufian to love. O. R. lyubiii to love; lyubu dear; lyuby love; 

R. lobzat to kiss. Ir. co-lba love, friendship ; colbthach [wanton] heifer. 

Sk. riph, rimph to hurl; lamb to grip, [shake], hurl down, fall, rush 

down, set [of sim]; labh to hurl, send; rambh, ribh to hurtle, sound. 

Gk. pl^^io to whirl, roam; p6[i,^o<;, p6^^o<; whorl, top, wheel; ^i^So? 
staff, rod, brindle; ^at^^o to crook, bend; poi^$o<; hurtUng, whizzing, 
din; ipa^io) to clatter, clash (i intens.; p. 117) ; 'OXu(i.xo<; thunder peak; 

sunset crown. Lat. Idbo to totter; labasco to totter, fail; Idbdri to 

slip, fall; lapsus fall; Idbes splsish. O. N. rif, A. S. rib [curved] rib 

(of animal, ship]; O. N. Idmi destruction. R. rubit to fell, cut down, 

hack, sabre; rebro rim, brim; robeit to [whirl, tremble], fear. Ir. 

lobaim to fall, be ruined, perish; rtibha hewing, cutting, felling; ruibne 
[whirling] crowd; lance; reb-rad sport (ring-dance); ribar [whirled] 
sieve; Bret, riblein to ramble; ribl brim; ribotai to chum. 

Sk. riph, rimph to hurl, whirl ; ribhus good shot, accurate, workman; 



— 141 — 

riUttis creative gods, shaping, speeding; prowling spirits of darkness, 

slain by Indrathe sun; [albas], alpas [whirling, dwarfish], little. Gk. 

iXe^po(tat to bewitch, begtule by dreams; (Od. 19, 565 gives play 
of words on iTJ^a^ ivory; Phoenician aleph'Punt elephant, ox of 
Phut, Libjra) ; iXo^pi? [whirling], easy, nimble, light ; ^Epe^oq [circling, 
dazing] darkness. Hades; ipe^evv^^, ipettv^c, ^P9vj<;, dp^vaio^ dark, 
black, gloomy; Bp^vr) darkness, night; 'Op9«5?, twilight, calms all 
nature by his enchantment (evening stillness; notes of birds; cf. 
ioxipa); his wife E6pu8(xi) the evening star (far-aiming, darting, 
cf. Ti)Xi(ioexo<;) is bitten by darkness-serpent; Orpheus leads her up 
from Hades, but ttims to look, and she fades (cf . Sk. ra^ani'tnukham 
mouth of night, twilight, i. e. evening song of birds; Lat. crepusculum 
dawn, twitter); dpo^i^ (whorl) conical roof of primitive hut; wagon- 
cover; iplfo) to thatch, roof, crown; SX^tog blessed by the ribhus, 
fortunate, prosperous; 'AX^eti? river-spirit, visits Hades in purstiit of 

Arethusa. Lat. Albula, Albunea water-spirits. O. Ger. Albis 

Elbe; A. S. y// demon (alpas) ; dlfeU; O. H. G. alp (gen. albes) elf; elbis 

swan, swan-maiden; O. N. elfr river. R. lebed swan. O. C. Arabo 

river; Albia'henae n3nnphs (sen ancient, holy) ; Nid'dlfa river-god. 

Sk. riph, rimph, riph, rimph, raph, ramph to whirl, hurl, boast 
{jactare); to vex, kill; ripus enemy; rup to be whirled, confused; rup 
to whirl, gesticvdate, roimd, make, shape; lup (lumpdmi, caus. lopayi 
to whirl, confuse, ruin, wrench, tear, burst; lup to kill, rob; loptram 
rapine; lopdgas, lopdkas jackal, fox; lubh, lumbh to whirl, confuse, vex. 
-^-Gk. JficTa) to hurl, cast discus, ball; hurl down; ftxij flight of 
javelin, blast, storm; ^cxU fire-fan; ESpixo^ tide-way; ^oxfl^o) to strike 
with stick or palm; ^ixto to be ready to fall, incline, sink, fall out, 
chance (melts with Vf»/>) ; ^o(ji^a(a broad-sword; fixaXov club; fixrpov 
trigger; 'oxdwa to [wallow], be filthy; ^(oxog [tossed round], small wares; 
^ [twisted] brush-wood; ^l^ htirdle, mat; XoE(ax(i> to flash roimd, 
shine; Xaxiaow to dash out, empty, pour; iXoexit^o) to plunder, empty, 
drain, exhaust (i intens.); AaxEOai clouds driven by Centaur winds; 
drained of rain; XalXonp squall, doud-burst; Xexfi^o), Xoxfl^o) to strip, 
peel; Xe^TjpU snake-skin; Xi(x^o<;, pod; Xexr^^ peeled, slender, light, 
fine; Xuxl<i> to [whirl, wring], distress, pain; iX(ix7)5 fox (lopdfas; 
t intens.) ; X(i)xfl^(i) to [whirl], wrap, cloak; X(o(ia edge, hem; Xu(iia(vo(i.at to 

mjure, outrage; Xoxi? [rounded] dish, plate. Lat. rumpo to rend, 

break, burst ; rupes [jagged] diff ; ripa bank ; rapio to snatch, whirl away ; 
tubus bramble (fti^*) ; lupus wolf (robber) ; lupinus lupine (blossom- 
jaw; cf. R. voKan); alapa slap; lapis stone (hurled, cf. Ir.); lapidare 
to hurl stones; lepidus [whirling], lively, merry, qtiick; lappa burdock 



— 142 — 

[pelterwith burrs]; lepus joke; hare; limbus border; Rber [peeled] bark; 

book; libro to [brandish], poise dart, weigh; libra scale, pound. Goth. 

laufs (A. S. lauf, ledf, O. H. G. hub) leaf, fohage; (plucked, waving); 
O. N. laufi sword-blade; Laufey (quivering), mother of Loki the north- 
em-light; raufa to stab, bore; H/a, riufa to rend, tear; rof breach; rifr 
quick, generous {rapidus)\ rifta to hurl down; rift, ript wrap, sheet; 
lim branch; limr limb; A. S. redj garment; rAp rope; redfian to rob, 
reeve ; rypan to rip ; ripan to reap ; limpan to fall out, happen ; lemmian 
to beat, injure, lame; lef weak, infirm; left hand; (joth. lofa palm of 
hand; raupyan to pluck; bi-raubon to strip, rob, O. H. G. rifilSn to 

pluck, scratch, groove (ripple, to rifle) ; Eng. to lop, slap. Lith. lape 

fox; lapukas young fox; R. lapa paw; lapta tennis; lopast blade of oar; 
khlopat to clap the hands (kh = f = 5) ; khlopok flock of wool ; lupit to peel ; 
rlv]iba fish (flapping) ; roptai to [pluck], grumble; hmai to break; Lith. 

lipsna flame (flickering). Ir. ribaim to tear; rebrad sportiveness; 

lc{p]mfn stripped, peeled ; loman rope ; la[p]aim to hurl, throw ; Icipyid^p] 
this time, that time; now, then; ld[p]thar disposition, inclination (^iicci)) ; 
ki[p]ihus fervor, heroism; Bret, lam leap, bound; O. W. rump claw; 
W. rhwmp pick-axe, auger; O. C. Lappius, Lappanius, Lepontii; 
rumpotinus vine trained Uke spread fingers (claw) . 

Sk. ri to go, whirl up ; riph to hurl ; srip, sarb to move ; [revolve, coil, 
writhe, whirl away]; vi-srip to depart, be scattered, wander, fly, flow; 

sarpas serpent. Gk. !pxo) (impf. eTpxov), ipxut^o) to creep, crawl, 

trickle, spread; ipxer^v reptile; ipxit^o to whirl away, tear away, 
pounce; ipxayi^ pillage, booty; ipxAyr] rake, well-hook (grip); $pxij 
sickle, hawk (falx, fako); ipxeMvr) rope, noose (coiling); "Apxutat** 
whirlwinds; ?pxuXXo<; creeping-thyme; pixw to steal softly (of sleep); 

2apx*i^8(i>v; [apt90<;], a<p 190 <; [coiling] worm- wood (i^J^^vOtov). Lat. serpo 

to crawl, writhe; 5^/>^nj serpent; re/w to crawl, steal; reptilis; repente 
[potmdng], suddenly; 5ar[p]mentum btmdle, fagot; sarpo to cut with 

hook. (joth. sliupan, A. S. sltpan, O, H. G. sliofan to crawl, creep, 

slip (sarb); Goth, slips sleep (stealing upon one); O. H. G. sleffar 

slippery; sltfan to whet. 0. R. srupu sickle. Ir. slipre wattles 

(pliant). 

Sk. [vrip, vriph, to whirl, hurl, strike]. Gk. [fpa^eo?], ^pa^dq 

[dashing, decisive], umpire; ^pa^eiSo) to umpire, direct; ^Xixo to glance 

round; ^Xi^opov eyelid. Lat. verfcer stroke, blow. Goth, vairpan^ 

O. H. G. werfan to hurl, throw; A. S. veorpan to hurl, twist, varp; 
vearp warp in loom; a rope. 



— 143 — 

Sk. Hph to [whirl, aim; attain]; sribh, sribh, srimbh, to [pottnoe, 

devour], tear, kill. Gk. ^o^&o to swallow greedily; gulp, drain; 

pjfi)(U, ^6(i(jiae gruel; ^dEfovo^ cabbage (tid-bit); poc^ovEi; radish; 
^$ turnip; oupfeu^? sweepings, litter, crowd (rtph to whirl); aiSppi] 
mob; oipfo^, a(ip90<; mosquito (blood-sucker); aepdexiov syrup; 9epanctdc<;, 

rfX^ov savory herbs; aaXiyL^T) smoke-draught, chimney. Lat. 

sorbeo, ab^sorbeo to swallow, drain; sorbus aromatic berry; sulfur keen- 
scented, choking. Eng. to slabber, slobber (eat like an animal), Ger. 

scUabbem. Lith. srebiu, surbiu to swallow greedily; sriuba broth; 

mhelis leech; R. [slebcU, glebat], khlebat to eat; khleib bread; khrabriy 
eager, rapacious, valiant; O. R. srebro, R. serebro silver (object of 
desire, cf. aveo, avarus, aurum) ; Goth, silubr, O. N. silfr are borrowed? 

Lith. sidabras influenced by ]/svid to melt, glow. Ir. srub snout; 

smban sl lunch; sllab moimtain (cf. vijoro?, MuxdXi), Fore*ness); cerb 
silver (fribh) . 

Sk. sribh, srimbh to [pounce, devour]; srambh, grambh to [pounce, 
gape with open mouth], be bold, confident; sranh to be confident; 
srans to plunge, fall, be broken, hang down; grambh, gram to [pant], 

be exhausted, rest. Gk. xpd(i.^ir] cabbage (cf. fdt9avo<;, above) ; xpajjiPoi; 

open-mouthed laughter. A. S. sluma slimiber; O. N. slyma to be 

at ease, confident; Aormr harm. R. khrabriy brave; sverbeit to gnaw. 

Sk. sribh to [pounce, devour], tear, kill; ri, sri to go; sarb, garb, 
karb, kharb, garb, gharb, to go, [seek, attain, devour]; sribh, sribh, 
srifnbh, garu, garb to hurt, kill; garabhas [devourer], locust, monster; 

griffon; kalabhas young elephant. Gk. xippepo? monster; xdpa^oq, 

spiny lobster, beetle; oxoX^xev^pa milliped; iaxaXa^ckY)^, aaXoyi^Spa 
lizards; ax6Xo<|» [claw], point, sharp stake; iaxdcXoe90(; owl; oxopx(o( 

scorpion, prickly fish; xaXeic6<; grievous, painful (kharb), Lat. crabro 

hornet; scribo to [tear, scratch], write; scalpo to scratch; sculpo to 
carve; culpa [stroke, injury], wrong (cf. pecco to grip, tear); scrofa 

sow (scratching) ; scrupus fragment; scrobs pit, saw-pit, saw-dust 

A. S. scedfran to bite ; cedrfan to carve; Eng. scruff \ O. N. skarpr sharp, 

hard ; skrUfa screw ; Sw. skrubba to scratch, scrub. R. skarb bitterness, 

sorrow; khrebei scruff of neck, gripping-place; karbish hamster; 

karabkatsya to scramble; tsarapai to scratch. Ir. crob fist; cerbaim 

to cut; scrib sl scratch, furrow, rut; scri[p]s to scrape, sweep, destroy; 
Bret, krabisat to scratch; kraf point; kravel hoe; O. C. Scarbantia, 
Scarponna. 

Sk. svrl to wound; [svarv], garv, garb to hurt, kill. Lat. acervus 



— 144 — 

heap [of dirt; animals' scratchings, entrance of burrow]; acerbus bitter; 

[sverius], severus, serius stem, harsh, masterful. A. S. sHrian to turn 

sour. R. suro7iv]ii stem, cruel. Ir. serb bitter; W. ckwerw, Com. 

whero, Bret, huerii^ sour, bitter, severe, stem; O. C. Suvriacus, Surus, 



Sk. ri to impel, hurl, fly; ritas [perfect circle], true, right; ritus 
[revolving exactly], joint; time; month; rcUnam [perfectly-globed] 
pearl; ro/Zto^ wheel; chariot; hero; lata coiling vine; [ritus, rvitas, rut]^ 
lut to revolve. A large family of roots in radk, rudh, rat, rut, ruth, 
runth, lat lad lunth arise from this stock. They are closely intercon- 
nected. 

Sk. ri to impel, hurl; rit to [race horses, whirl in curve], speed, rival, 
command, shout in derision; ritas [right course], true, right; ritis road, 
good luck; ritus returning season and month; time; revolving joint; 
ratnam [perfectly globed] pearl; rathas wheel, chariot, hero; lata 
coiling vine; [randh], rddh to rotmd, shape, eflEect, bring to pass; d-radh, 
abhi-rddh to [hand round, distribute portions], serve, honor, propitiate 
deity; rad, rd to give; rdtris, rdtram circling night; [ritus, rvitus], 

lut, luth, lud to whirl. Gk. Aoct(i, Atjtq circling seasons, nature; 

mother of stm and moon; worshipped at f'O^uyla or Delos (cycling; 
typified by return of quails in spring) ; Aifia mother of the moon, and of 

the morning and evening stars. Lat. [ri, re-se], reor to revolve in 

mind, think; ratus thought out; ratio reason, reckoning, counting; 
ritus duly [recurring ceremony]; irritus [idly], in vain; res thing (sub- 
ject and object of action); ratis raft, boat (poled, impelled); irrito 
to goad, provoke; rota wheel; roto to revolve; rotundus roxmd; radius 

spoke. Goth, raidyan to make ready, prepare, arrange, distribute, 

appoint; ga-raidyan to direct, command; ga-raids ready; ratyan to 
appoint; rathyan to reckon, calcvdate; rathyo number, account, ratio; 
rasta mile-stone, rest; ga-redan to counsel; leiihan (prefixes bi-, ga-, 
hindar, ufar, us) , to go ; lithus [revolving] limb ; Glied ; ful- liths full moon ; 
liudan, (O. H. G. liotan) to round out, broaden, swell; laudya form, 
shape; O. H. G. lenzo, lemin [returning] spring; rad wheel; O. N. 
reidha to prepare, move, swing, develop, come to pass; ridha to whirl, 
swing, twist, ride (rit) ; reidh wagon; radha to counsel, rule; rand, rdnd 
[round] rim, shield; rddh rim, boat, [arranged] row; rata to travel 
[by sledge], slip, glide; lidha to travel, sail, set [of sim]; leidh a journey; 
leidha to lead, guide; leita to seek; lidhr limb; lundr [swelling, round- 
ing] tree, grove; lund [returning, recurring] custom, manner; lend 
[roimding] loin; Iddh, land land (renewing harvests); lenda estate; 



— 145 — 

A. S. Udhan^ sltdhan to go swiftly, sail, slide, g-lide; raedan to guide 
[hone], rule, direct; rtdan to ride; rdd counsel; rdd, ladh road; rodor 

vatdtof heaven. R. ladit to [curve accurately], adapt, adjust; ladnii 

reasonable; s-leidU to follow; radi in consequence, by reason of; UUo 
[recurring] year, (Ai)T(&), age; season; ladya, lodka boat (traveller); 
fodiit to take care of; rai, rota troop; ryad row; ryadUsya to arrange, 

agree; Lith. raias wheel. Ir. Idid rudder (curving, directing; the 

root originates from the racing and dancing ring) ; Ididir strong [driver]; 
}ind boundary; period; pool; Ida, Idtke [circling] day; lod I went; 
Tonde rim, zone, circle; randf roind, rann allotted portion, share 
(handed round); raih grace, favor, wage, stock of tenant; ring-wall, 
fort; quarter of year; sam*rad summer; raith (W.rawd) [allotted home], 
grave-yard, winter-quarters; r^de round plain; level; rethim to run; 
roth wheel; riadaim to ride, drive, sail; rdt road; rH-la {Ida day) re- 
volving star; W. rwydd swift; O. W. RU-ychen Ox- ford; Bret, rid 
revolution, course, current; stiren'rid planet; ridein to nm, flow; rod 
wheel; rouden road; rotein to roll; r^ad spoke; redel wagon; rannein to 
distribute; land round plain; ladur tidal pool; O. C. ledo tides; ledana 
recurring period; RatU'tnagus, Roto-magus field of the fort; Roto* 
vjibum ring-wall; Rut'Upiae (svop) swinging tides; cf. ESpixo(;); 
Epo-rSdia horse-race; Epo-redo'tix; Redones; reda wagon; Evi'randa 
eternal portion (inheritance); Rando'saiis sated with booty (Mars); 
Rantt'fanuSy Rannius; Ratis-vona, Ratisbona fair-home; Ratiaria, 
Ratiaton; Ritius (racer), Ritona; Rhodanus swift current (nvydd); 
Rodan^usia, Rod'oza swift water; Latonius (lucky day); Rotona 
Diana (revolving). 

Sk. rit to race round, exult, shout; ritis right way; ritus re- 
curring time, festival, rite; lut, luih to roll, whirl, toss; lat to sport, 
be childish; lad to sport, toss, cast down, prostrate, [pass round], 
attend to superior, serve, worship; rddk to honor, propitiate, worship, 
effect; ret to ask; land to lift up; rut, lut to be eager, flash out, speak; 

lad to long for. Zd. rata sacrifice, offering. Gk. Xocrpsub) to serve, 

worship; XtTojiat, Xfaaoyioft to pray; XtTi^ prayer. Lat. ludo to sport; 

laudo to praise; laetari to rejoice; laetus joyful; lito to worship. 

Goth, lileins entresLty, prayer; avi-liud thanksgiving; O. N. lUta to bow 

down, honor. R. ladosha applause with hand; ladon palm. Ir. 

liih festival; ir^ladigur to obey superior; Bret, lid solemnity, holiday; 
0. C. Liiorius, Litwgenos. 

Sk. same roots; lat to sport round, be boyish; latvd game; sparrow; 
lad to sport, toss; lat lad to prattle, mock, put out the tongue; lad 

10 



-146 — 

to desire; land, luf to speak; lut to whirl; lunt to mock, scorn; rat 
rath to speak; rat to howl (wild dogs round the camp) ; rit to speak, to 

ask; rud to weep ; ran to shout, rejoice. Gk. Xai8p<? bold, impudent; 

Xio6iQ mockery; Xoc$opl(i> to revile; 'kila<; yoimg stag (wanton); 
Xa$pi(i> to rush; Ai^ov rushing, roaring stream; ^iXjm, ^6Xfi^ to snarl 
(melts with rUksh); ^aSco^ easy, nimble; ^<f$i*oupY^g mischievous, 
wanton; 'PaW-yiavOo? [easy turn, swift descent, sunset]; the sunken sun 

as lord of Hades (cf. Yama, p. 109; Ixion, p. 109). Lat. latro robber 

(prowling about camp) ; lud-ibrium jest {vibro) ; ludo to sport; laudo to 
praise; latro to bark; laetus merry; rldeo to laugh; rudis careless, igno- 
rant; rudo to hum, whistle, bray. Goth, lathon to shout, hail, sum- 
mon (einladen); [liutan to mock, imitate, feign]; liutei, lita hypocrisy; 
liuihon to sing; yugga-lauths yoimg folks, chief's train, merry-men 
(melts with p. 124); razda speech; rassn [familiar] house, home; ga* 
razna neighbor (cf. god-sib gossip, good friend) ; rathiza easier; rodyan 
to speak; bi-rodyan to grumble, revile; O. H. G. lizitdn to pretend; 
M. H. G. litz whim; O. N. ladka to invite; laeti sounds, din, gestures; 
lasta to revile; lostr reproach, fault; lyti shame; Idta to speak, howl, 
gesticvdate ; liodh tune, song; Ij^dhr people, retinue ; liudh maiden ; rausn 
generosity [of chief] ; roust, rodd voice ; roedhi speech ; r^ta to grunt ; A. S. 
leddh song; Z^^ people ; chief ; ledd, ^(^J5lad,lass (joyful) ; Za^i;e(j popu- 
lar, lay; reotno\se\ reoton to lament; rd^ joyful; O.H.G. Km/ people; litUi 

men, followers. O. R. lyudu people; lyudiye men; R. liod people, 

race; radost joy; rad easy; radenie eagerness; retivost zeal; rot mouth; 

r[v\idat to sob; Lett, laudis folk, men; Lith. raudoyu to lament. Ir. 

Ided song; Idth passion, hero; Idthar disposition, temptation; lath py 
longing ; liud accusation, plea in court (Bret, liud) ; likid mention, speech, 
song of bird; liiaddil motion of hands and feet; rddim to speak, talk, 
name; cless-rad feats in ring, games; r^id easy, roithinche mirth; Bret. 
toereA reproach ;ranA?n pride ; O. C./ii/>^iterI/KiicMs (adored, chanted); 
Laudo, Laudonius; Lotto, Lattius (hero); AndO'latis (fiery hero); 
Lodusa, Ledus [dashing] rivers; odauda lark [ad intens.]. 



Same roots ; Sk. radh {radkyamt) to htul, strike, wound, kill ; apa^rddh 
to harm; rondhram cavem, chasm; roJ to cleave, split; radanas tooth; 

lad to hurl; ruth luth, lunth, to smite, hurt, kill.ward off. Gk. ipetSii 

(i euphon.) to stab with spear, thrust, fix stake, rest, lean upon, press 
against; Ipecopia prop, support; IpeOfl^b) to [stab with goad], stir, goad, 
stir up, enrage; lpt(; (lpt8o(;) strife, rivalry; ipl<; (dptSoO anger; drilL 

Lat. rado to [split], peel, shave; rodo to gnaw; rudis sword, foil; 

rudis (ruderis) hacked remnants, rubbish; ridico vine-prop. Goth. 



— 147 — 

leitits [chopped] little, short, small; O. N. laut chasm; Idir creek; 
sKia to slit; rtsta to scratch, engrave; risting nme-carving; riia to 
write ; rindill auger; rodha to hew out ; leidhr hated, hostile (thrust out) ; 
reidki wrath ; ridha, reidha to swing, sling, hurl ; A. S. Iddh loathed, evil ; 
foeU, O. H. G. rato rat {rodo) ; Eng. to rot\ ret; Ger. Rettig trimmings, 

brushwood. R. lio^v\i fierce, cruel; ruda shaft, mine; f[v]it to dig; 

f[v]fto»na gorge. Ir. todar prong, fork; Z^roJ hacking; rindaim to stab, 

wound, engrave; rind, rend, point, scar, mark, star; keen; rinniaid 
satirical; Bret, nisi bitter, severe; O. C. Reddho'marus; Redsatus, 
Ressatus spear-man; Adress-icnos delivering by spear; Rind'ocos 
scarred, bakrfr^. 

Sk. same roots, lad to hurl, hurl down, throw away; rod, rdud, 

rout to spurn; rudras thundering. Lat. laedo to injure ; U-lido to dash 

against. Goth, letan, to cast out, cast away (d^tfvoi) ; to leave be- 
hind, be careless; to allow, permit; and-letnan to let go, set sail ;/ra*^an 
to permit, ioT^ve; fra-lets freedman; O. N. Idta-z to be lost, perish; 
Idt loss, death; Idta to yield, abandon, lose; Uita to [throw away], 
lighten; littr light; O. H. G. Idzan to neglect, permit, suffer. 

Sk. same roots; rudh to encircle, enclose, shut in besiege; rodhas 
brim [of prairie pool], shore; rodas orbing heaven and earth; lud 
to embrace, wrap, cover; luth, lut, to whirl, roll; rathas wheel; lai 

to whiri, be merry; lad to toss [around]. Gk. XaiBo<;, Xfi5o(; wrap, 

Kght garment; Xcit^o(iat to [wrap one's self up], shrink, recoil. Lat. 

kdix wrap, blanket; lentus pliant, tough; rite net?; lituus curved 

staff; lUus curving shore. Goth, un-leds stripped, destitute of cover, 

wretched, poor (A. S. un-laed; O. H. G. un*ldt); O. N. leidha to [hide, 
cover], bury? lind linden (string-bark, binder; cf. Bast, bass, binden); 
Undi girdle ; linni snake ; linn-ormr Lindwurm, coiUng darkness-dragon ; 
tinr pliant, gentle {lind, lindern); ridha to twist; reidhr nest; A. S. 

lattu lath, rod, wand; rSd (O. H. G. ruota) wand, rod. R. led ice 

(covering, binding) ; lod[v]izhka instep ; lat[v]i cuirass. Ir. rond chain ; 

ritan net; slat rod, withe; Bret, ridein to bend, fold, wrinkle; roued 
net, bed-curtain, veil; lestr bowl; leton withe, ring; louiadour confusion, 
difficulty; O. C. ratis (Ir. raiih, W. rhad, Bret, raien, raden) fern 
(curled, spiral in spring) ; Ridatus, 

Sk. same roots; lud to wrap up, hide; lunih, runth to [coil one's 
sdf up], be lazy, slow, lame; losht to roll together, heap; losktas clod; 
hnt, bind, runt, runth, rund to [wrap, unwrap, strip], steal ; to snatch, 
pillage, mock; luni to strip, peel, pltmder; ro^/tos wheel. Gk. XovOdEvca 



— 148 — 

to lie hid; XayOivo(ia( to be hidden from one's self* forget; XoSpoco^ 

secret, furtive; X'fftri oblivion. Lat. lateo, IcAito to lie hid, lurk; 

lairo robber; laniema [light-hider], lantern; letiius slow, tough, pliable. 

Qoth.lais slow, lazy, useless; latyan to delay, hinder; lutdn to cheat; 

[ratUh], Tosia a mile-stone, rest; O. N. bi/r lazy; liotr twisted, disfigured; 
lodhinn tangled; ld(Ui lead (pliable, sluggish); A. S. rdsi rest, bed; 

lead, M. H. G. ISt lead. R. lastokka [thief], weasel; [rover], swallow 

(IcUro). Ir. lotie lump; slad, slat robbery; Bret, landreant lazy; 

landren indolence. 

Sk. same roots; luth, lui to roll, wallow, writhe, suffer; lud to 
whirl, stir, mix; lat to spin roimd, be merry; lud, luth, lunth, lutUh, 
ruth to whirl, hurl, shoot, kill; lot, lod to be dizzy, mad; loskt to roll 

together, heap. Gk. Xdrca? a dashing, splashing; a beaver; palm, 

^ovtR^ci), paOdeaoii), piXjui (igpiicnai), to sprinkle, scatter; (melt with 
ipac6<; p. 119); pa^i^iy^ drop, grain; ^qlStog easy; ^60og a whirling, 
rushing, dashing, tumult, confusion; ^uO(i6g revolution, repeated 
motion; time, rhythm, proportion; poSoevR^o) to spin; JoSivi) thread; 
XdtOupog chick-pea (tendril); X(eo(; quoit, hurl-stone, stone (cf. lapis). 

Lat. latex plashing water, fountain, Uquid; [lunstro], lustro to 

sprinkle with holy water, purify; to roam round, circle; lustrum 
a purification; period; lustra roaming grounds, haunts of game; lutra 
otter (splasher) ; linter a trough, rounded canoe, dug-out (cf . Celtic) ; 
lituus wand with spiral head; lens (lentis) lentil (stirred, squashed in 
porridge) ; lens (lendis) louse (squashy; contrasted with crackling flea) ; 
vino'lentus, somnclentus dazed with wine, sleep; virwlentus dazing 
poison ; sanguino^lentus sprinkled with blood ; e^CM-ten/u^ refreshing food ; 
lentus gummy, adhesive; lentiscus mastic (viscus); rudens, restis rope 

[poJivTQ]. Goth, leithus, O. N. Itdhr intoxicant; Goth, af-slauthyan 

to daze; ga'sleithyan to injure; O. N. ludhr horn, ship; lund impulse, 
character; lundr wild- wood, tree; raeddr terrified; rudda club; rydhya 
to wrench out, empty; rid] A. S. ledhrian to tousle, rub with fat, 
curry, lather; ledher (O. N. ledhr^ O. H. G. ledar) buckskin, leather; 

O. N. ledhyo, O. H. G. letto mud. R. rtut quicksilver (splashing, 

Xdhra^) ; letat to fly; last barrel (hooped) ; rotozei rambler; rot [roaming] 

band; reidkiy scattered, sparse; lodka boat. Ir. laith, lind beer 

(intoxicating) ; lathach, loth mire (splashing) ; Math Bret, ludu ashes 
(whirling, cf. xtv&i), cinis; (jx65o<;); Ir. liath, W. llwyd, Cor. hit, Bret. 
loet [ash] gray; Ir. liiath swift, whirling; Itid speed; lod, luid I went; 
liita little finger (nimble); luth force, joy; lud motion; luathaim to 
whirl, drive, chant praise; lot [shot], wound; loitim to harm; loiihe 
[dizziness], dumbness, stammering; lossat kneading-trough; loathar. 



— 149 — 

btkr hide, leather; rout shot, cast, distance ; niad force ; niathar rush, on- 
set; ruadan rye (bristling, whorl); riastraim to twist, distort; W. 
rkwydd quick, fortunate; rhydd free; Bret, lost tail (whirling, sweep- 
ing); lestr (Ir. lestar) tub, vessel, coracle, boat; letrein, ItUrin, whirling 
q>rite, goblin; rotein to roll, wrap, deceive; ronten ripple; rust fierce, 
terrible; roustiU restive, passionate; radein to smear, plaster; rod lime; 
0. C. LuUius^ Lutto; [Lut'tecia], Lutecia, Lutetia joyful, sweeping 
current); (or Lucotecia, p. 137); Listerios, Ldndo*ialus generous of 
beer; Rudianus Mars (rkwydd) ; Rhodanus, Rod^usia, Rudscus, 

Sk. same roots; hit, rut to whirl, flash, be angry; luUt, ruth to hurl, 

wound; rudhiras bloody, red; rohitas (fern, rodhitas) red. Gk. 

ipeuOfd to stain with blood; IpuOptfg red; IpuOpaCvo) to be red, dye red, 
blush; ipu9(*xeXa^ erysipelas; Ipuac^t) mildew, rust (eT^); poSoevtfg 

wavering, flickering. Lat. raudus copper; [ruthus], rufus, (Umbr. 

mfru) red; ruber red (ni/rti=ipu6pi<;); rubeo to be red; ruingo rust; 

nibeta toad (russet) ? rubus, rubetum bramble (tangle, wounding) ? 

Goth, rauds red; ga^riuds blushing, chaste; O. N. riodha to ravage; 
to stain with blood (O. Ger. Reudigni, Riidfger); riodhr ruddy; lUa 
to glance round; litr glance, countenance, hue; {Antditz)\ O. H. G. 

fit red; rost rust. O. R. rudeiti to redden; rudru red; ruzhda rust; 

R. r[v]izhii ruddy, red-haired; Lith. rauda red; rudcLs russet (dried 

blood). Ir. riiad, W. rkwdd. Cor. rud, Bret, rud, ruz red; O. C. 

[Campi\ Raudii bloody fields; Roudios, Ande'roudos. 



Sk. ff to go eagerly, rise towards, attain ; svri (svrindmi) to hurl, 
wound, kill; frl to burst through; sri (sardmi, sisarmi) to haste, 
approach, run, flow; upa'Sri to attack; caus. sdryami to follow, 
pursue; ut'Sdryami to send forth; Saratnd and his son Sdratneyas 

[going forth, proceeding] scouts of the army of day. Gk. *Epixe(a<;, 

'Ep^^^ dawn-god, herald (4p|XT)vei5<; [herald], interpreter), the god of 
advance, effort, gain. The Aryans were impressed by the speed of 
the sun, compassing heaven and earth in a day; hence the day-star 
is a horse or horseman, Afmn; Sdratneyas is sometimes the swift scout, 
sometimes the hound of the Afvins; Hermes bears on his wand the 
twined serpents of day and night (cf. p. 37), and holds his infant 
brother Dionysus, the day star, in his arms. Sk. sri, gri to go, 
enter, visit; sri to approach, rise; [sdryami to cause to approach, rise; 

to draw, lift]; sarat cord. Gk. [aaaecpo)], deeCpo) to draw up, 

suspend; actpd rope; otipo) to drag, trail, sweep along, flow; Ip(ia sand- 



— 150 — 

bank, foundation, prop; oii>p6<; sand-bank, heap; tp(ia^ cairn; aaCptt 
to sweep; Sp(ia chariot [dragged]. 

Sk. [sdryami to cause to rise, roll upward]; svar heaven; sUras, 
[svaryas], suryas sun; sur, fur to be heroic, tower aloft, be firm [as 
cairn], brandish spear aloft (cf. Gk. xijpcog lord; xupico to hit mark); 
Sk. fron to heap up; fran to be botmtiful, generous; Gk. xopiwuju 
to be full; Kpivog rounder, orber, creator; xXivt? thigh; Sk. sri to go; 
sru to flow; sdras water; sdr, far to [melt away], be weak; faros water; 
Gk. dp(JLd(i> to speed, drive; SXXoixoec to leap, bound, pulse; SX(ii] sea, 
sea- water, spray; Sk. sdryami to cause to move, rise, roll; frd to boil, 
cook; fal to whirl, eddy, scatter, run; fval to speed; Mai, Mull to re- 
volve; Mul to whirl together, eddy; sel, fil, sal to move round; sil, 
fil to collect, gather; kel, khel to whirl, tremble; sarvas all-encircling, 
all; kshal to whirl round, sweep together; kijel, kshvil, kshal to sweep 
roimd, eddy, gather; kshar to flow away, perish; kshal to wash away, 
wash oflE; kshur, khur to peel, rub oflE, scrape oflf ; fulv to cause to flow, 
found metal, purify, create; Gk. xepdwu|xi to stir; xuXEo> to revolve; 
SXo(; all; 3Xi] swelling timber, forest; 6X(l^(i> to drain off; x^^^^ to 
extract juice; 5"?^ to scrape; R. svarit, [kh]varit to boil up; 
khvorat to be drained, faint, ill; Sk. sri to roll up; svri to roll voice, 
raise tune, make music; fri, fru to hear. 



Sk. sri, fri (sardmi, sisarmi) to haste, approach, run, flow; sarmas 
flow, motion; saranis path; sarayus wind, river; Saranyils the swift 

deity (pursuing tempest); saras brook; sarit river. Zd. har to go. 

Gk. dp(ideii> to start, speed; Sp(iT) beginning, assault, onset; Kp^ta sand- 
bank, drift, [hut-mound], foimdation; [o'Epyovaj;], 'Eptv6<; pursuing Fury; 

[a]'Ap(4vTtaiv='Eptvi}at (Hesych.) Lat. de-sero to flow away, leave 

barren, abandon, desert, Goth, salyan to visit, enter, reach home; 

us'Salyan to stay at inn; saliihvos shelter, abode; A. S. sele, O. H. G. 
s&l dwelling, hall; (cf. fri to seek; far anas shelter, home; faranyas 
host) ; Goth, salyan to [cause to approach], bring near, offer, sacrifice; 
O. N. s&r flowing wound, hurt, sore; A. S. s&re very, exceedingly; 
sellan, syllan (O. N. selya, Goth. O. H. G. salyan) to offer for sale, sell 

(cf. 'EpiJL^<;). R. sorii to [sweep along], fill with rubbish, obstruct; 

khoronii to bury. Ir. sdr- exceedingly [good, strong, eager]; semim 

to drive, sweep along, rout; serr violent, haughty; serrach young horse; 
Bret, herrus, hims swift, active, diligent; hh^ speed; hervi, [hyevi 
following, according to; O. C. Serrus, Herrus; Herius [alluvial] island 
at mouth of Loire; O. Bret. Herv^ spring-time, dawn. 



— 151 — 

Sk. sri^ [svri] to approach; [sdryami to cause to approach, draw]; 

sarat oord. Gk. ctlgi rope, string, tail; aep(<; belt; ip\LaA6<; chain, 

string, cluster; Sp(JLo<; cord, chain, necklace; ring-dance; dp(ii(i> to 
moor, anchor; IpixorR^ci) to support in sling; elpco (lep(iivo<;) to string 
together; €lp\k6(; series; eTpepog bondage; eCpi^vt) [bond of union], 
peace? Ip(ia band, noose, coil; e(p<i>ve(a entangling; drawing out in 
argument; leading question; ^Ipct; [aecpK;] the rainbow; necklace and 
girdle of Aphrodite the cloud (cf. the Brisingr necklace of Freya; 
Mre^, bhresh to flash, quiver); redup. aCaupa shepherd's wrap; long 

doak. Lat. sero to twine, weave, link, wreathe; [srete], rete net (cf. 

serpOf repo); sertum wreath; series string, linked succession, line; 
sors (sortis) the thread of fate [interwoven succession of Uves and 
events], fate, luck; prae-seriim [with the first lot], especially; sartdgo 
[all sorts, pot-luck, fritto misto], frying-pan; [sero-acu], sarcio to stitch 
together, cobble, mend (v. p. 126) ; sar-mentum faggot; sera [fastening], 

bolt, bar. A.S. searo equipment, girded arms; well-jointed, skilfully 

wrought; [encircling net], ambush, treachery; saelan to bind, weave, 
fetter; O. H. G. seil rope, noose; Goth, sarva full armor; sveran to lie 

in wait; O.N. sorvi necklace. Lith. seris thread; O. R. silo noose; 

R. sUok snare. Ir. sreth (W., Bret, frit impljring svri) series, order; 

com-sreth construction; imm'sreth circle; do-lsydn to make; dron firm; 
semim to join, unite; [sret], r^ thing; r^tan net; Bret, sertnoul succes- 
sion, occurrence ; ret necessary ; [sarnez], harniz harness ; harz bond, delay, 
support, connection; O. C. Sermius; Serot'ennum. 

Sk. same roots; [s7;ri], sri (sisamii) to approach ; [svdrydmi], sdryami 

to [cause to approach, draw near, fasten, draw up, suspend]. Gk. 

[oaaetpu], ieCpo) to lift up, raise, hoist; (ieT*&i>po<; lifted, swinging, in sus- 
pense, in mid-air, vacillating; aicopa swing, hammock, noose, oscilla- 
tion; oeEcDpid) to hang, float, hover; aTpo) to lift, mount, bear; alpa darnel 
(causing vertigo); smith's hammer (whirUng); i^epiOo(JL(zi to float, 
quiver; [ffadfTjp], dh^p haze, air; diptog hazy, dewy, early; i^epo-ecSi^g cloud- 
streaked, murky; Sop swinging sword; iopri^p sword-belt; iopri^ [lifter, 
well-bucket], aorta; Xpua-dKop with golden sword; Spring (child of 
winter. Medusa) ; xap«i^opo<; trace-horse ; perverse (pulling sidewajrs) ; 
ouv*ijopog yoked, wedded; dpixaCvo) to balance in mind, ponder; be 
eager, long for; dhfoupog light as air (reduplication, sm^syri) ; dh^9uXo<;, 
alouXoc fickle, treacherous, wicked; 6pp(<;, suspended basket for 

gathering fruit. Lat. [sveritis], serius [suspended, weighing ^ell], 

considerate, serious; redup. [sesverus], severus stem; senno conversa- 
tion (balanced thought); exero to drag forth; serra saw (oscillating). 
Groth. svers weighty, precious; sveran to exalt, honor; svare [oscil- 



— 152 — 

lating, trifling], in vain; O. N. svArr weighty; violent (schwer); svara 
to answer, answer for, be responsible (reciprocal cf. sermo); svdrr 
a bird (hovering, soaring) ; M. H. G. [swerven], swerben to roam, swerve; 

A. S. svearmian to swarm; sveord sword. R. strata orphan (roving, 

homeless). Ir. sernitn to converse; serr scythe, reaping hook, saw; 

serda scythed chariot; serr [quivering], timid. 

Sk. same roots; sdrya to cause to approach, draw, sweep together; 

sur, fur to be firm. Gk. Ipjia, (aap\L6(; Hesych.) sand-bank, shoal, 

reef; barrow, mound, foundation, prop, [hut built on mound]; [o^fiQptov], 
il^p(ov mound, tomb; aa(p(i> to draw, sweep away; to draw lips, grin, 
smile, gape, snarl, pull faces; oip\ka yawning chasm; adpov broom, 
sweepings; aog6(; cinerary urn [originally barrow, tomb]; oiipo) to draw, 
drag, trail, sweep away, flow; otiprtg sand-bank, shoal; aipniq a rein; 
pulley; atip(ia trailing robe, long hair; aioptfg a heap, mound; deva*^up(8e^ 
breeches (drawn up); aaupa lizard (drag-tail); ['A«|;*aupTtf<;], ''A«|;upTO( 
the morning star, [drawn back from the day]; brother of Medea the old 
moon; in her flight with the sim she cuts him in fragments to delay 

the pursuit of her father the dawn (cf. Orpheus, Romulus, p. 67). 

Lat. sarrio to scrape, hoe, hill; serrdcum heavy wagon; dray; sura 
calf of leg (support of body, Sp(Jia) ; solum heaped earth, hut-mound, 
floor, soil; solidus; solium [chief's mound, suggestus], throne; prae^sul 
[exalted] magistrate (praeses); con^sul fellow-magistrate, seat-sharer; 
cofi'sulo; soleo to be firmly established, a custom; solea [foundation], 

sole of shoe; Osc. Samus sweeping, alluvial. Goth, sulya sandal; 

ga-sulyan to foimd; souls column; O. N. sUl pillar; silla beam, sill; 

O.H. G. ^/ pillar; suelli threshold; Ger. Sdller loft, upper story. R. 

surok marmot (digger, heaper). Ir. seir heel; (cf. sura)\ siar, iar 

behind, [dragged after], following, behind, western (East implies face; 
south is right-hand ; v. dess) ; iarrde fawn (following, drawn after doe) ; 
sirim to follow, seek, long for; sirecfU yearning (melts with svri to 
sing); sirechXaide sigh; sir protracted; long (of space and time); sdil, 
sailge beam, prop; sdilim to [drag], linger, delay, ponder; Bret, kir 
long; hirein to lengthen; hireah delay, longing, desire; hernein to drag 
out, exhaust; O. C. sarria the itch (scraping, scratching); Siarus 
(himter, follower); Siro, Sironius (longing, desire); Sirmio; Samia, 
Sarmia western? 

Sk. same roots; sri to speed, approach, draw near, seek; gri (frayi, 
p.p. grUas) to approach; d-gri to turn to eagerly, bend toward, be 
intent; ui-gri to lift to, rear up; pragri to bow to, be modest; sam-gri to 
bend, lean on; vi-nis-gri to turn away, go out. Gk. xX(vci> to lean 



— 153 — 

against, rest upon, slope, bend down, lay down, turn aside; (middle) 
to lean towards, bow, lie down, slope; xX(9C(;, xX((jia inclination, slope; 
xkiala sleeping-place, hut, tent, grave, couch; xXixig slope, hill-side; 

xXc(ia( ladder. Lat. in»clino to bend toward; de^clino to bend away; 

ctSvus slope, hill; clUellae panniers, pack-saddle (piled, laded); clUeU 

larius beast of burden. O. H. G. hlinin to lean; Goth, hlains 

dope, hill; AZait;,moimd, sepulchre; hlcAhan to lay upon, lade (clitellae); 
af\K)f,innan to turn aside, avoid; hleiduma left-hand; hliya, hleUhra 
tent, hut (xXcab) ; O. N. hladha to [make mound], set up, pile up, lade; 
hladka bam; hlidh slope, side; [turning] door; hlidha to turn aside, 
avoid; hlydha to [turn to], belong to, obey; to [turn], go away; A. S. 
Ueonian to overhang; Med shelter, protection, the lee side; hyldan 

to lie down, bend toward; hyldo grace; hUidher ladder. Lith. 

shliyu to press dose, lean; O. R. klontii to lean; R. pri'Slonyat to lean 

upon. Ir. clden bent, crooked, wrong; cUHm to bend down, conquer; 

cleith, clithar shelter; cUthe, cU rafter; cliath shelter, fold, hurdle; 
cluain (W. clyn) foot of hill, lowland, swamp, thicket; glend valley; 
cU, claon (W. cledd) left-hand; gHn knee; Bret, klin, glin bend, fold, 
elbow, knee; kliniHed declining, pining; klouiein to crouch; klud 
hurdle, fence; Gaelic a glei to the left; O. C. Clennus, Cleno; Clunidcus 
(foot of hill). 

Same roots; gri to approach, be eager; kri (krinamt) to buy; 

kraya purchase. Gk. xpaCvo) to effect, accompUsh, fulfil. Ir. 

crenim, Bret, prenein to buy. 

Sk. same roots; ri to mount upward, speed; svri to impel, hurl, 
shoot; sur, qut to shoot, be heroic, glorious; suras, suryas sun; svar, 
stxirgas heaven ; svarnas [bright] gold ; sur to shine ; suras god ; sura-kdr- 

mukas rainbow. Zd. kvare sun; qaretha, qarenank glory, splendor. 

Gk. SeCpiog, 2e(p sun, dog-star; aetpido) to bum, scorch; aeipfdaK; 

sunstroke; ae(ptvo(; stunmer warmth; ciXag glory, light, lightning; 
wXijvTQ, *EX4vtj moon (sister of morning and evening stars; shifting 
from west to east; brought back by the solar host) ; [Qfaofekioq], i^lXco<;, 
IjXcog sun (Cretan fde^iXiot;, Pamphyl. ^a^iXiO(;; Latin Aus^elius, Aur- 
eliusvnth prefijc ush\ Etrusc.«=Umbrian Usi1)\ p4Xa sun, dawn; eYXtq, 
IXt), [<sp\k\ia solar heat; iXettfg dormouse (basker) ; e{Xi-xpcvi^(; [discerned 
by sim]; pure, sincere ; 2e(Xv]vtf(; the gray dawn, foster-father of Dionysus 
(day and night), the morning-star; [a^Hpa], 'Tlpa sunset, afterwards 
star-glory (cf. Indras, Aindri, Ir. aidche; p. 12); Hera is patroness 
of Argos [thousand-eyed stellar sky], jealous of lo the moon [goer, 
wanderer] and Semele the dawn [satnal, evener of day and night]; 



— 154 — 

she is wife of Zexxs the day, but, like Deianeira (bum her husband, 
another sunset goddess), dangerous to Hera-cles the sun, who is 
nevertheless Hera's "glory**; the galaxy is her breast-milk; ijpi 

dawn. Lat. Aus-elius, Aur-elius; serenus clear-sky; sol sun {sur, 

sill); Sulla; Apollo Sor-anus; Sor-acte. Goth, sauil sim; O. N. 

sdl sun; svol blaze; Svolnir Odin; A. S. svilan to bum; Eng. to swelter, 

sultry, Lith. sauld sim; smlti to bum; O. R. slunitze, R. solntse 

sun; svarivat to melt, braze. Ir. [svair], sair, fdir stmrise, east; 

O. C. Sol'icius healing sun; Sol-osma meridian sun; Aquae Sulis; 
Solirigus; SoUius ApoUinaris; Solinus; Solventum southern-market; 
Bret, suilhein to stmbum; lUaul (W. heul) sun; Ir. siiil, sel eye; 
[svolus], folus, soUus bright; [svellaim], seUaitn (W. g^fel) to see; sillim 
to glance; soiUse glory; siar, fiar, iar stmset, west; Bret, sellein to 
watch, view; sellad glance. 

Sk. same roots ; sur to be firm, solid ; svri to hurl, whirl ; svar [radiant, 
revolving], heaven; [sarv], sarb to go [round]; sarvas all, everyone; 

sarvatas everywhere; sarvathd in any case; sarvadd always. Zd. 

haurva all. Gk. 8Xo<; (Ion. oBXo?) whole, entire, perfect, well, 

universal, all; oOXog whole, actual, real, incessant; dXoecxat he is well 
(Hesych.); oDXw to be whole, sotmd, well; 06X1^ healed wound, scar; 

6Xo6<; sane, wise, good; ODXto? Apollo the healer; oBXe! hail! salve! 

Lat. sahus safe,, whole; salveo to save; salus health; salubris whole- 
some; con-solor to console; saltern in any case (sarvathd) ; soUus (super- 
lative sollistitnus) all, every; soU-ennis every year, annual; sol-licito to 
[to pluck], annoy on every side; soU-ers with all art, skilful; solus alone 
(all one) ; soldri to [heal], console ; soleo to be wont, [always do, repeat 
action]; servo to keep whole, watch, preserve from harm; serous 

[all my own, my possession], slave (Ir. selbaim). Goth, sils [healing, 

consoling], kind, good, gentle; A. S. saelig, O. H. G. sdlig happy, 
good; Goth, [salvdn], salbdn, Fries, salva to [heal], anoint (cf. leikeis 

anointer, physician p. 129). R. svernui to twist, roll (svri); sverlit 

to bore (svri). Ir. [solvan, solann\, sldn well, safe; sldinte health, 

salvation; W. hall. Cor. hoi, Bret, holl all, entire; O. C. Solano, SoUus. 

Sk. same roots; r*, svri to hurl, shoot, strike upward; sur to be 
glorious; svri (sasvar) to lift up the voice, praise; svaryas praiseworthy; 

svarnas famous; svaras soimd. Gk. aupRici) to pipe, whistle, hiss; 

aOptfS pipe, flute; 8pov swarm of bees? Bpa? field-mouse (squeaker); 
<xauaap6<; whisper; [caus. svarp], [a/:a]^axdTY] shepherd's pipe; [svalp], 
ciXictYS trtunpet; [sveir] Seipi^v piper, enchantress; a bee; a bird; 
fiXiii) to bay moon, bark. Lat. sorex field-mouse; susurrus murmur. 



— 155 — 

whisper (sasvar) ; Surrentum (with temple of Syrens; beautiful region, 

dangerous coast); Sulpicius trumpeter. Goth, sveran to honor 

(svaryas); svaran to swear (lifted voice, vow; cf. O. N. kvedha, kvidhr 
to cry out, oath) ; A. S. syrvan, be-syrvan to enchant, beguile; M. H. G. 
swabve lute; swalewe [twittering] swallow; Germ, sckwirren to buzz. 

Lith. skvilpiu to pipe; O. R. smraii to pipe, whistle; R. smreil 

pipe; svireipiy [shrieking], fierce. Ir. sirechta magic music; sirech- 

iach melodious, yearning; Bret, sorv, sorb, sorven, sorhen dream, fancy, 
magic (somette) ; Pr. sureau pipe; O.C. Seseroneus, Suranius, Suminus. 

Sk. same roots; svri (sasvar) to chant; [svasvrt], svasri sister 
(singer of lullabies, cf. bhrdtri bearer, brother); svasriyas sister's 

son. ZA. [svasvar, gvansvar, fvankvar], qanhar, Arm. khoyr. 

Gk. [a/eaop], lop daughter, niece; lope<; kinswomen; euplotpt = Yuvat^fv 

(Hesych.) ; 8ap wife; 8apo<; song, love-song, fond talk, babying. Lat. 

[svosros, sosros], soror sister. Goth, st/istar. Lith. sesu (gen. 

sesers); O. R. sestra. Ir. \svisur\, siHr, fiur (gen. sethur, setkar) 

sister, cousin, kinswoman; W. [ckweichur], ckwaer; Com. huir; Bret. 
ho^, choar; O. C. Susema. 

Sk. svri to hurl, wound; [fvar], gval, gvall to [whirl], speed, run, 
(xuXbi)); gal to run, whirl, scatter round; garv, garb to shoot, woimd; 
fiif to be heroic; karv, kharv, garv to be proud ; karb, kharb, garb, gharb, 
Sorb to go round; kal, khal, kal, kar to revolve, go roimd; karv to 
grind, chew; gur, ghur to whirl aloft, shoot, kill; kal, skhal to whirl, 
shake, be dizzy; kul to whirl, sweep together; kvel, kskvel, kel to revolve. 

Sk. svri to sound, chant, praise; R. [gvald\, khvala praise; Sk. gal 
to praise; kal, \kvar'\, kur to roll the voice, repeat, count, sound; kdl to 
reckon time; kaU to mumble, mutter; kalas sweet- voiced; kalakalas 

cuckoo; kala^rauas dove (ravas voice). Gk. xaXico (xlxXtjxa, xXt)t6<;) 

to call, summon, invite, name; xaXi^wp, xXi^Tcop, xXtjTi^p summoner; 
xX^otg summons, invocation; xoXoc6<; daw, babbler; xlXoixac, xsXeuo) 

to xirge, command. Lat. calo to proclaim; Calendae; nomen<ldU)r; 

cal'umniari to accuse (O. C. obtt'OS, omnos terrible) ; con-cilium [sum- 
moned] council. O. H. G. haldn to hail, stunmon, salute; hillan 

to sotmd; Ger. holen to summon; hallen, schallen to echo; hell clear, 
ringing; Schelle bell; O. N. skall hail; skald bard; A. S. healstan to 

entreat. R. klyast to curse, swear; klyatva oath; kolokol bell. 

Ir. cailech, W. ceiliaug, Cor. chelioc, Bret, kiliog cock; Bret, kelennein 
to instruct, reprove; Ogam Maqqi Caliaci^McCulloch\ O.C. calicarca 
hen-bane ; calox, calocatanos cockscomb. 



— 166 — 

Sk. svri, [fvri\ to chant, celebrate, cause to hear; [cvar], fal to praise; 
faWh to boast; [fvcUanh], gvalk to speak; [gvalanl%\, fldgh to boast, 
flatter; cans. gldghayi to praise ; kmg to shout, exclaim ; krosfUri jackal ; 

kraunkas heron. Gk.xpdet^o) (xpd^) to yell, shout; xpoEuyij cry; x^Xjta 

(xpcj^co) to caw; xXiXju^ (xkiyfyia) to yell, shriek, chant, thunder. 

Lfat. clangor crash, din, yell; [clagmor], clamor; clamo to call, cry; 

inculcare to instruct (fvcUk). Goth, hlahyan to laugh; O. N. hlakka 

to scream, as eagle; Hlauka Valkyr; hark a shout; A. S. hlynsian, 
hlynnan to ring out; hearcnian to Usten for commands (cf. fru) ; Eng. 

screech, shriek, crack, creak, clank, carried by lost 5. R. klik a cry; 

klokoiat to boil; klyast to curse. 

Sk. svri, [fi^il to chant, cause to hear; fru {grindmi, praet. agraush) 
to hear, obey, hearken; caus. Qrauayami to cause to hear, speak; 
desid. fufrushi to desire to hear, hearken, obey; frutas famous; grauas 
fame; ear; frush, grushti eagerness, obedience; Qram to summon, call. 

2ki.(Tutohear. Gk.xXiJo) to hear, hearken, listen, obey; xXoxi? 

famous; xXiog fame; xXeEo> to celebrate; xXio(jLai to be famous; xXcctj^ 
famed; dbcpodo(JLa( to hearken, obey; {ordvaydmi) dbcptfa(JLa music, lecture; 
xpoO(ia music, distinct note; xpouo) to strike, knock, clash, play in- 
strument; xXa((i> (xXauoio) to wail, lament; dhco-xp(y(i>, 6xo*xp(vG> to answer 

[what one hears, (rinomt]. Lat. duo, clueo to hear, obey; cliens 

[obedient], vassal; in^clutus famous; Clausus, Claudius {frushtas; cf. 
clavis, claudo); cluvior, more famous; [chsia, cloria], gloria glory (cf. 
Ir. gldrach, glun) ; clarus illustrious; classis summons, militia; classicum 

trumpet. Goth, hliuma hearing; ear; hlauts lot (fame, honor, booty; 

Horn. Y<pa<;); hliuth [listening intently], silence; slavan to be silent; 
O. H. G. hlUti sound, fame (loud, lute, Hlod-wig) ; hlosin to hear; A. S. 
hlystan to Usten; hlynsian, hlynnan to sound; O. N. hrynya to dash, 

soimd; hliamr shout; hrddhr fame. O. R. sluti to be femous; slavo 

word; slava fame; Lith. shlovi honor; klausau to hear; R. slushcU to 

hear {frush) ; [flevit], slit to be reputed. Ir. clii (W., Bret, cbt) fame; 

cloth famous; cluinim to hear; clilass ear; clius, cless famous feat; 
[clor], gldrnoise, speech ; gldrach noisy ; glond, glonn famous deed, notable 
crime (facinus)\ slondim to name (cf. Claudius); slond meaning; 
W. clusteu ears; Bret, kleu to hear; O. C. Clevius, Clutiius, Clutamus 
(superl.), Cloutius, Clovatius, Clondicus, Clonus. 

Sk. svri, [fvri] to chant, praise, cause to hear; ^u to hearken, con- 
sent, be gracious; [gvargvaras, gvagvaras], gvaguras father-in-law; 

fuagrus mother-in-law. Zd. qagura (q=fv) father-in-law. Gk. 

Ixup6<;; Sxupi. Lat. socer (gen. soceri); socrus. (joth. svaikra 



— 157 — 

(stem svaihran) ; svaihrd; O. H. G. suehur; suigar; O. N. svaera^socrvLs. 
— 0. R. svekru "socer; svekruvy or svekry socrus; Lith. sheshuras 
socer. Cor. hvigeren socer; hveger socrus. 

Sk. ri to speed ; sri, sru to speed, flow, make sand-bank, foundation ; 
to be firm; ft, svri to speed, whirl up, shoot, [shoot up, tower high, 
fift spear]; suras, suryas stm; sur, pur to be firm; to strike, wound, 
handle spear; to be valiant; fill to wotmd; fulas spear; S7;ri to shoot; 
ffi (frinami, giryi) to wound, destroy, scatter; farv, garb to wound, 
injure; karv to devour; kri {krindmi) to hurl, shoot, strike, wound; kri 
(kirdmi) to hurl, whirl, cast, dash, sprinkle, pour, fill, overwhelm; 
kri (karami, kurve) to drive through, effect, accomplish, do, make ; kri 
{krindmi) to buy. 

Sk. sur, fur to be firm, strike, wounds handle spear, be brave; 
fiiras hero; furatd valor; (Ti, ful to woimd, break, stab, impale; 

fUlas spear; fill arrow; firis sword. Zd. gUtra strong, noble. 

6k. xupog power, authority; xupjco to ratify, establish; xupico to hit 
the mark [with spear], attain, win, light upon, find, chance; xupiog 
lord, master; authoritative, ordained; xo(poevo<; lord, leader; xop^vi) 
pike, mace; xupfrxd) to thrust; butt; xoiSprjTe? young warriors (melts with 

xouptdu> to need trimming; ^upto to trim; xoOpog shaveling, lad), 

Lat^Curius; curia senate-house; Curiatii; [curiacus], quercus, [sacred] 
oak; curulis lordly, noble; cornus cornel (spear- wood) ; Cornelius \ 
Cures; Quirinus, Quirites; quiris spear; Quiriti'alia'^Carn'aval (merri- 
ment with flour-throwing in February; ended by the Feralia) ; euro to 
(be master], rule, care for, guard, be anxious; quaero, inquiro to thrust 
mto, investigate, speer (cf . per-cotUari, contus, xevrid)) ; queror, quirito 
to [lament for heroes, raise dirge], lament, be indignant (cf . coronach, 

cronan)\ Caurus, Corns north-west wind (It. maestro), O. N. Hdrr 

Odin ("Old Harry"); harri lord; herr army, foe; O. H. G. herydn to 
ravage; hari-walto might-of-army, herald; A. S. heoru sword; here 
army; hyrian to engage for service, master by money, hire; he&re 
free, agreeable; hear noble; d^hedran to set free; CJer. herrlich glorious; 
ge'hdren to belong to a master; ge-heuer lawful, natural ; Schaar a host; 
Goth, skulan to be bound in honor, duty (fwr, fUlt curare) ; skulds duty, 

debt. R. [furoviy], suroviy stem, severe; kur imperative command; 

[fila], Sila force, strength; siln[v\iy, mighty (cf. gili arrow); O. R. 

sHUza spear; suUui to send; sulu ambassador. Ir. caur, cur (gen. 

CQurad, curad) hero; {rad portion, grace) ; c&raigim to ordain (cf . p. 1 16) ; 
cuirim to establish, settle, summon; c<7r [spear's] cast; Gael.c^nr a spear; 
cTondn to lament the slain; W. cawr. Cor. caur giant; O. C. Caurus^ 



— 158 — 

Cavares, Cavrinus, Cora; Cori-ondae lords of wave {unda)\ Corto-^ 
solitae lords of forest; Coriono-totae lords of people; CortO'Sopites 
lordly-plumes; Corto-vallum lordly fort; Coriniwn (Quirinium); 
Cornoviu 

Sk. sri to sweep along; 8p(JLa sand-bank, foundation; sur, fur to be 
firm, solid, lofty; fron, glon to roll up, heap up; crdnas curved; gronis 

buttock; gran to [eddy, whirl, toss round], be bountiful. 2ki. 

gradni back, hip. Gk. xXovIg) to surge, rush, beat with waves, 

agitate, confuse; xXivo(; press of war; xXivt? back; xX6vtov hip; 

xXovtoTi^p hip-knife. Lat. clunis hip; clunaculum hip-knife. O. N. 

hlaun loin. Lith. shlaunis hip; R. pri-slon back of chair (melts with 

xX(v<i)); slon elephant. W., Cor. dun hip. 

Sk. same roots; n, sri, svri to [rise, whirl up, shoot up]; gri to wound, 
stab; kri, to shoot; garv, garb to shoot, wound; garas, galyam arrow, 
arrow-head; gir, giras, girsham head; [gyal], gil to attain to, reach, visit; 
cilam [stature], nature, disposition; gilas head of grain; gil, sil to glean; 
gilt arrow; gild peak, cliif ; gdilas moimtain; gdlis rice (tassel-head; 
above water); galas gilt-head fish; gala thatched hut. 

Sk. same roots; sri, gri to shoot up, burst through; garv, garb to 
thrust, woimd; gili arrow; gild flint, arrow-head, stone; gilas, gir, giras, 

girshant head; [gir-anga], gringam horn, mountain peak. Zd. gara, 

cdranh head; grva horn, point, nail; grvara homed. Gk. xdEp, xipa, 

xipijvov head, peak; Kap-viotov, 'AXt-xap- vaaa6<;, [C^ipvriq], Hi^Yf^q, 
Tlap'Yqa6q, napvoeaatf^ peaks (vvjao^ beak) ; xapovoc; chief; xdepuov nut 
(hard skull); xpavfov skull; [pupt)v], xupi^v stone of fruit; xupi<; wheat 
(hard-kernel); xupvi? wheaten; xapoev6ci> to complete; xpavai<; jagged, 
rocky (bony); turtle-shell, xp4vo<; helmet; xpdvetov cornel (sprout: 
spear-wood; horn-beam); xpalpa head, top (grvara); oxXTjpig hard, 
stiff, obstinate; xX^po^ fate, lot (merging in idea of hard, smooth 
pebble); oxlpog hard skin, indturation, stucco; oxcp-ocfeCa dicing (the 
bones; Sxro)); xpCvov, lily (jtimp-up, high-head); xpt6<; ram (hard-head, 
butting); xpeEo>v lord (high-head); xipag, xepaCa horn; xepaR^o) to 
[butt], ravage, slay; xepaaig cherry (hard-pit); xepaa-^dXog hard-pit, 
hard-head, obstinate (sling-stone) ; xupboii), xopiJicTCi>, xupTj^det^o) to butt 

(garb); xfippei? [peaked] pyramids. Lat. pro-cerus high-head, tall; 

^ocer^5 chiefs; cernuus large-headed; cennis stag (grva); cere-brum 
brain; carina nut-shell, shell, boat, keel; cornu horn; [clarea], glarea 

pebble ; silex flint (fild) ; sili-cernium reader of grave-stones, dotard. 

Goth, haum horn; hvairni skull; O. H. G. hirni brain; Goth, hallus 
rock; O. N. hialli peak, cliff; hallr stone; Mil smooth; O. H. G. hiruz, 



— 159 — 

LS.heorat, hart; (Hirsch; girsham). Lith. karve ox; O.R. krava cow 

(homed) ; R. kirenok end, point, handle ; kerep skull ; kerepakha tortoise ; 

sema chamois; taar king (xcipa, xdpovog); skala rock (peak). Ir. 

fomhom; cornaire. Com. cherniat hom-blower; W. katw, Bret, karii 
stag; Bret. fecTrn hom; karn hoof, com on foot; karnel ridge of wall; 
(crineller) O. C. Canms, Cervidcus; corna poppy (round-head). 

Sk. same roots: firas head; gilas head of grain; fil, sil to reap, 

glean. Gk. xtppig corn-color, yellow; aipi? grain-pit, granary; 

rfXoupo? [splash-tail], fish; afXXog [sowing, scattering], twinkling, 

glancing. Lat. siligo millet; [silinhva], siliqua seed-pod; sil yellow; 

ochre; Silius farmer. Lith. paselys crop, harvest. Ir. sil seed; 

ifo/ offspring; silaitn to sow, scatter; silitn to drop; sillim to glance, 
flash; W. hU offspring; Bret, sil edge of sword (flashing); silai to 
[drop], filter; Pr. sib grain-pit; silo; O. C. SiUius, Silius, Silliboris. 

Sk. same roots; filas head of grain, stalk of grain; cdlis rice; faros, 
(oras, galas reed, dart; galakd dart, stake, bamboo rod; gil, sil to 

reap, glean. Gk. xdXa|xo<; reed, cane, pipe, flute, arrow, thatch, 

mat; stalk, straw, stubble (after plucking ears) ; fishing-rod ; xaXa(i.do(iai 

to glean; xoX(l«}(i> to parch barley-ears; Lat. calamus reed, straw; 

incolumis safe (head preserved) ; calamitas calamity (striking off head, 
drowning reed in flood); culmus sedge; columna [calant'omnus], [sacred 

staff], prop, pillar; culmen peak of thatched hut. O. H. G. halam 

stalk, reed; O. N. hialtnr crest, helmet; hSltnr wooded island (rising 
Kke reeds above water) ; A. S. hveltnan, hvelfan to whelm, overflow 
(m takes anusvara as in Celtic) ; heltna helm, rudder [rising from water]; 

holm tide. O. R. slama straw, thatch ; R. kholm hill (peak, roof). 

W. [kcUath], kalaf sedge, straw, wattle; Bret, colavenn, kalavr straw; 
Vf.kulym, Bret, koultn [wattler's, thatcher's] knot; Ir. cultnaire joiner, 
carpenter ; ccJma high-headed , courageous ; Coltnan ; Columba (influenced 
by Latin) ; Fr. cabne; O. C. Calmes, Calminius. 

Sk. same roots; garas reed, thatch; f alas, solas sprout, pole, rafter, 

hall, house; fold house. Gk. xaX(a thatched hut, store-house, [reed] 

coop; xaXCd hut, granary; xaXldg rustic shrine. Lat. ceUa store- 
house, shelter; cilium [pent-house], eyelid. O. N. skdli shedf 

shelter, room; hdU (gen. hollar), A. S. heal Uving-room, hall; O. H. G. 
sdl, A. S. sdl, sele house, hall. Bret, k^i, kili bam, stall. 

Sk. same roots; sri, svri to hurl, wound; gur, sur to tower aloft; 
fr% to burst through ; kri to hurl, woimd ; kil to hurl, shoot ; kilos lance, 
stake, whirling flamie, pillar (cf. columna) ; sil, gel to move, whirl; kvil. 



— 160 — 

kshvel to brandish, sport; sal, gal to shake, strew; gitt arrow; gild sling- 
stone; kal to whirl, shake, drive, reflect; Mai to revolve, quiver, go. 

Gk. xiXXci) to drive, speed, impel; x^Xov javelin; xiXo(i.ac to urge; 

xepoEuvtfg thunder-bolt; oxa(p(i>, oxipTdo) to bound, frisk; xoXci>vi(;, round 

hill (cf. Lith.) ; oxiXog leg [swift]. Lat. celer swift; excello to outrun; 

procella blast; celsus towering high (kilos); collis hill; celox cutter, 
yacht; [cal-ax], calx heel; curro to run; scurra btiffoon; currus chariot; 

Pro'Cilius; Cal-purnius (p. 6i). Goth, skura squall, shower; O. N. 

hurra to speed a sledge ; skella to hurl, dash to pieces, ring out. 

Eng. hurry-scurry. R. kolot to goad; kolotii to strike; koleino knee; 

skoriy quick; Melo forehead, front; kelo-veik face-the-world, man; Lith. 
keUi to rear up, lift; pra-kilnus exalted; kalnas hill. Ir. scdl a hero. 

Sk. same roots; sel, gel, sal, gal, kel, kvel, kshvel, khel, kel, kal, kuU 
to move, swing, whirl; gal, gval, kar to speed, hunt, roam, seek, 
effect; kal, kal to reflect, coimt, turn in mind; karyd driving of chariot, 
performance of duty; kri (karomi, kurve) to do, effect, work; kdrakas 
worker, agent; kalyas [revolving] dawn; ready, healthy; kalydnas 

good, lucky. Gk. xlXeuOo^ path; dexoXouOlo) to follow; §ouxrfXo<; 

cattle-driver; Bua-xoXo<; hard to drive, hard to effect; %ak6<; prompt, 

dutiful, admirable, skilful, graceful, beautiful. Lat. callis a path; 

colo to till, perfect, adorn, love; colonus farmer; in-cola, inquilinus 
dweller; Exquiliae, Esquiliae outer- ward; colonia colony; calo driver, 
baggage-man; calleo to be skillful; color [health, beauty], hue, color; 

cle-mens kindly minded. Goth, skulan to be boimd in duty (melts 

with gur)\ O. N. skilya to be accurate, skilful; hial food, support; 
hiala to caress; Germ, er-holen to restore; Goth, hailyan to do good, 
heal; hails well, prosperous; O. H. G. haldn to bring; A. S. h&lig holy; 

R. koleino tribe; selo, selenie village; selitsya to settle, colonize; 

tzeiliy whole, well; ovkar shepherd. Ir. bua-chaill cattle-driver; 

die comrade, husband; [do-cel], tochell journey; scdl strong man; 
[scalach], scoloc farm-servant; ciall, ceiU good sense, understanding; 
Bret, bu'gelion herdsman; kaiUt apprentice, lad; kelennein to train, 
admonish; O. C. Buculius; Cal\v]onna Pleasantville ; Calania, Colania; 
Scalus, Scellanus. 

Sk. sri, svri, kri to shoot, woimd; gri to stab; khur, kshur to cut; 
kur to [sting], bum: kharas hot, fierce; sel, gel, kel, kil, gal, kcU to re- 
volve, quiver, shoot; kilos dart, stake, peg, flame, [fire-drill, lightning]; 
name of ^^ivas; khol, kshal to sweep together [clouds]; khalu^ darkness, 
cloud; kdras death-stroke; Kdlos god, Kdli goddess of darkness and 
death; kdlos black; kdlos fated period; kdlakas black spot; fatal liver; 



— 161 — 

karaoas crow (black; fatal voice, ravas) ; kdrd dungeon, black-hole. 

Gk. xeXactvtfg black, murky ; KeXacvcj storm- wind, harpy (aM^) ; xeXatve^ijg 
black with clouds (of Zeus, the sky) ; [applied to] black gore ; xy)X((; 
blood-stain, shame ; xtiki^ cloudy day ; xi^Xeog burning ; xy)X&i> to bewitch, 
meltdown; x-^Xov arrow; xi^Xaorpov holly (winter-solstice) ; xdcXa fire-logs; 
Kijp goddess of violent death; XT)pa(vci) to harm, to bode evil; xt)pfa, 
xap(a grave-clothes; xirlpea fimeral gifts, shrouds; x^p-u5 [voice of doom], 
herald (vo^ ; xTjpfiaoii) to proclaim ; xatp6<; fated time, opportunity ; xaCptog 
vital point, deadly shot, exact hit, due time (adj.); xaipog row 

of thrums? xepouvic; thunderbolt; xdpo(; deadly sleep, torpor. Lat. 

caligo thick darkness; caleo to be warm, melt; caUeo to be [burnt], 
hardened, calloused ; Calendae? [car-van], carfcd [warming] coal ; sift'cerus 
without blackness,malice icaeri-fnoniumexpiaXion ; [redup. car-car],carcer 

black-hole, dungeon (Career Mamertinus; Gk. xipxapov) . Goth. haUri 

coal, ember; halya, O. H. G. hella hell; O. N. Hel death goddess; 
hyr fire; hdr ashes, hoar-frost; hdll glittering (Ger. hell); A. S. holen 

holly. R. kara punishment; kern[v]iy black; kara-koviy dark-bay; 

tabny grsLy (cloudy); seir[v]iy ashen, gray; seira sulphur; ras-kalivai 
to heat red-hot, destroy; kalina bush with red berries; Uar[v\i en- 
chantment. Ir. ciar black, brown; ciarsech blackbird; Ciaran; Bret. 

W red-hot, quick, passionate; kelen, kelennen holly; pirofinen viscera, 
(sacrificial); kurun thunder; O. C. Ciaro, Cerdnus, Cerones, Ceraecius 
Puscus, Kieranus, Qtieranus ; Piro ; St . Piranus ; Perrin, Perry ( = Brown) . 

Sk. sri (srindmi) to shoot; svri (svrindmi) to wound, kill; fri 

(fftiiami, p. p. firnas) to stab, thrust; grindnas injurious; girnas 

withered; giris sword; grinis goad; kri, kri (krindnti) to strike, wound, 

kill; karn to cleave; kiri {kirinomi) to wound, kill; klrnas rent, 

deft; IHras bark; kurn to grind, crush; kharvas, kharbas mutilated; 

fi«r to cleave; khuras claw, razor; kharas hot, fierce (cf. carbo); khur 

to cleave, cut oflF; Mhuri knife; kshur to cleave, scrape, dig; kshuras 

daw, razor (R. nozh, p. 29); kshuri knife; Mur to strip, steal; karman 

kide;fcftt (krinidmi) to cleave, cut, cut short; krittis cutting, skinning; 

hide, bark; kartanam cutting; kartarikd himting-knife; kartarl, kartri 

shears; krath to kill; Mrit to harm; kartt to strip, loose. Zd. qara 

^und; Jfeor to cut; kareta knife. Gk. xe(pci) to cut, shear, hew, reap, 

^ound; oxtpov scar; xop(jl6<; log; xep(iaT(I^ci> to chop, mince; xip(iLoe small 

^ange; xatpog thrums of warp (cut-off); xoupd shearing, lopping; 

xoupci^ barber; xoOpo(;, xtfpog shaveling, lad; x6pT] lass; ^upio) to shave; 

(up<y razor; ox(}po<; stone-chippings; 2xGpo(; cragged; oxuXXco to 

'^d, tear, strip ; oxOXov spoils; ^w^ov timber (lopped, barked) ; [^uXdeo)] 

ouXiu to spoil, strip; 0x6X0^, ox6Xo«|; pike, sharp stake; oxdeXXci), oxaXsuci) 
II 



— 162 — 

to prod, scratch; oxdXo^p mole; oxaX((; hoe; 9x<iX(ii] knife, sword; 
crxdpc^og stylus; sketch; xpoxcov a tick; xpCvo to [carve game neatly; 
assign portions of flesh; be fair]; to separate, discern, judge, choose; 
xp(at(; discernment, judgment; xpcTifg judge; xgH\ka sentence; xp(|ivoi 
[discerned, sifted] bran, coarse meal (melts with kri to whirl, scatter, 

sprinkle). Lat. cortex bark; scortum, corium hide; curtus lopped, 

short; culter knife; [caero], caelo to carve, engrave; carex sedge 
(knife-edge) ; cerno to fight; to aim, distinguish, see; carmino to comt 
"wool; discrimen peril; separation, parting; se»cerno to set aside, secrete 
scrinium private box, desk; crimen accusation (keen, bitter; testing) 
crines parted hair; scaurus parting the legs, straddling, bow-legged 

scrutinor to poke into, examine; cri-brum sieve. O. H. G. scroti 

to ihear, cut; Goth, hairus sword; ga^skeiryan to discriminate, make 
dMT* interpret; skeireins explanation; dis-skreitan to tear asunder 
[skreitan] to straddle, take long steps; (schreiien; shred; Schroeder) 
skilya butcher; skilligs thin coin (xip(iLoe); O. N. hidr, skarr sword 
skilya to carve, separate, distinguish, observe, be skilful; skil a gap, 
distinction, right; skira to scour, cleanse, baptize; skaera battle 
skaer glittering; skara to poke fire; skdlm a spit; Ger. schielen to take 
aim; A. S. scort (O. N. kortr) [cut] short (skirt, shirt); scdr plowshare 
(oxdXXci)) ; scHrian to scour; Ger. schdlen to scale, shell ; scKHren to poke, 

prod; Eng. to screen = to sift. Lith. kertu to hew; skiriu to separate, 

set apart, choose; R. kroit to cut; kratkiy short; kroikiy [giving por- 
tions], good, kind; ^^a scratch, mark, line; skalit to show one's teeth; 
skalivat to chop off; ts[v]iriolnik barber; Merta [scratch], line; kert the 

devil; sherst wool; ssora quarrel. Ir. cdera sl sheep (shorn); cdet 

a berry (bitten); cairigitn, sdraigitn to reproach, pain (kshur); co-. 
scraim to destroy; cir a comb; cermna cutting; scaraim to separate: 
scoritn to unharness; scoUaim to cleave (cuUrutn, It. scioUo); crih 
withered, dry (frindnas); crinaim to vanish; Bret. preUt^ [destruc- 
tive], worm; Ir. criaihar sieve; etar*ceirt interpretation; cert law, 
justice; tuas'cert northern region; scairt (W. perth) bramble, thicket' 
W. cruitr bran; Bret, kari reproach; skarhein, karhein to dig, 
clear out, purify; skirkien splinter; di-skarein to destroy; to [perish], 
wane; krin withered, dry; krenaur gnawing parasite. 

Sk. sfi (sardmi, sdryami) to speed, flow; sri, svri, fri, garu^ garb 
to [speed, hurl], shoot, wotmd; [sarv\y sarb, sal to go; sdr, gar to [flow 
out, be drained], be feeble; kshar to drip, pour out, faint, vanish, 
perish; kshal to eddy, roll up, gather (cf. Ipjia sand-rift); kshal to 
wash away, bathe; gal, gval, kshvel, Ual to eddy, run, revolve; gub) 
to n:ielt, pour out, fotmd metal, create; kul to plunge; saras lake; 



— 163 — 

saras water, marrow, force; garas water; gariram [pulsing] body; 

salilas billowing. Gk. SX? sea; aaXeijo) to roll (of waves) shal^, 

waver, toss; oaXoeaaci> to stagger, be drunk; aoeXa^ sieve; aaXdbuav 
swaggering; adeXo^ movement of wave, boat, earthquake; SXXo(iac to 
leap, bound, throb; &XTex6^ good leaper; ZaX^uoveu^ leaping lightning 

(a local god; afterwards degraded like Sisyphus, Ixion, Woden). 

Lat. salio to leap; salto to dance; Salii dancing priests; salmo, salmon; 
sdebrae [earthquake] chasms; salax passionate; [calax], calx [nimble] 
heel; insula island (in water, cf. Ir. in-isc, innis)\ caro (carnis) flesh; 

wn«5 desired, dear; Sulmohighl, O.N. svella to swell. R. svarit 

to boil ;57;a/fea quarrel; Lith. selum (inf. 5^&i), to [flow], glide, creep. 

Ir. sobna speed ; solam quick, ready ; sdU sea ; sdl, sal-tlae heel ; [dofo-ess" 
salim], dofuislim, tuislim to [to-down-out-leap], fall ; [sjlamnad effort, 
parturition; colaind, colinn flesh, body; colach carnal, sinful; col sin; 
colinn darling (melts with cuilen whelp) ; caraim to love ; carcUrad love; 
caiihach lover (Caratacus, Caradoc, McCarthy) ; W. calon, Bret, kahn 
heart; Bret. sH heel; karein to love; karanti love; friends, relations; 
t«r dear, precious; O. C. Sara, Saravus, Sariiis, Sarta, Salas, Sale, 
Solera, Salia rivers; salar trout ; Salassi (impetuous, mountain- torrents) ; 
Cams, CaranUmus rivers; Carantus, Caradh'dhounus, Carassounus, 
Car-ausius. 

Sk. same roots; sdr, gar to [melt], be feeble; sdras water, marrow; 
w/ifam water; [sydl], sel to [flow], speed; atisel to [melt, weary], tire 
out. Gk. 9(aXo^ grease, a fattened hog; a(aXov saliva; aaXic; drivel- 
ling; [ot/aXoee^], atyaXdet? oily, glossy, glittering; vrjaXY)? bright, 

young; XT)p6<; wax (melting); arjp-ayg a cave hollowed by water. 

Lat. saliva; cera wax; caries [melting], rottenness; careo to lack. 

Goth. bi'Saulyan to soil, sully; saldra smut, scurrility; O. N., A. S., 

0. H. G. sltm saliva, slime; Eng. slim wasted. O. R. slina, Lith. 

SiHi saliva; Lith. korit wax; R. salo fat; sorii[v\ii filthy; seira sulphur. 

Wax; khvorcU to pine, be sick. Ir. saile saliva; saill fat, grease; 

sailach filthy; suit fat; W. halawg, Cor. halou, Bret, haloc filthy, filth; 
Bret, hat saliva; hili sauce; huilein to soil, blacken; huil^ soot; Fr. 
WiU^ coal. 

Sk. same root; saras salty (making mouth water, producing saliva). 

" — ^Armen. cU (gen. ali) salt. Gk. SX<; fem. sea; masc. salt; SXe<; 

wit; i\\ui brine; SXw? marine; dcXR^o) to salt. Lat. sal salt; salsus, 

salinus salt, hnny;salsugo brine; salsamentum sauce. Goth, salt 

salt; scUtan to salt; O. H. G. sulza brine. O. R. soli salt ; slanu salted ; 

statina bxine; Lith. (gen.) salnes, Lett. sals. Ir. sdl sea; salann salt; 



— 164 — 

saillim to salt; W. halan. Cor. haloin; Bret, halen salt; O. C. Sal-uxsia 
(salt-water, Selzbach) ; Salsulae Fans {Salses). 

Sk. same root; sri to flow away; saras brook; sdr to [melt]; sdras 

water, marrow, sour cream, curds. Gk. a€p6q yesterday (melted, 

fled); 6p6q, 6pg6<;, oiipi? whey, drippings. Lat. serum whey; sero 

too late (aepiq); serus late; sero-tinus evening. A. S. sHr sour. 

Lith. suris, O. R. s[v]iru cheese; R. ^v]ir cheese; s[v]irai moist, raw, 
rainy. Bret, sur sour; huren bad- weather, gloomy. 

Sk. fur, sur to be solid, [round, turgid]; svar to flash rotmd, orb; 
fval, gal, kvel, kshvel, hval to whirl about, tremble; hvri to curve, coil; 
fulv to pour out, cast metal, create, measure out; Qulvam copper; 
Qulvarl stdphur. Gk. [a/uXY)], 8X7) wild- wood, turgid nature; grow- 
ing and prepared lumber; material, matter, fire-wood; OXi^eK; wooded; 
SXTji^a jungle; "TXa? wild-wood; favorite of sun; draws water from 
river which draws it down to jungle and swamp; [a/aXao^], SXcro? 
[luxuriant] meadow, grove, sacred grove (untrimmed p. 116) ; [afsXita], 
aiXjia, oeX(q logs, lumber, ship-timber, planks; S/sXXoE barefoot 
priests, living savage life at Dodona; IXXde the shrine of Dodona; 
ooX*o(xca(ioq forest-home; primitive language; aauXo? wanton; oiXtvov, 
xerpoaiXtvov parsley (rock-spray); [a/]8X-uv6o?, [swelled-end], green 

fig; aiXoq iron casting. Lat. [svaltus], saUus wild land, forest, 

pasture; [sulva], silva forest; [sulvur\ sulfur stdphur; salix willow 

(water-nursed, eager-sprout) . Goth, uf-svalleins inflation ; O. N. svell 

ice (enlarged water; burster); svella to swell; sval wave, cool wind; 

O. H. G. salaha willow. R. solod malt; kkvalit to boast; sulit to 

promise; sila force, energy; svarit to bubble up, boil. Ir. [svolt], 

folt foliage, hair; suit luxuriance, fatness; [sveoil], fedil flesh; fola, fuU 
blood; sail (Cor. heligen) willow; W. gwallawiad profusion; Cor. 
valtovcu fertility Z. 1073; W. hail, Bret, hael profuse, bountiful; 
Bret, hoalein to swell, overflow; houl billow; Fr. saoul, soul one's fill; 
svelte well-formed, rounded; sylphe force of nature; O. C. NafUo^sveUa 
fruitful vale (goddess); Curiosolitae lords of the forest; Svelieri; 
Haelanus ; Saelini ; Sulvanectes ; Suallia. 

Sk. n, n to speed (p. 149) ; sri (saranti) to speed, flow; sru (sravdmi) 
to flow, flow away, melt, perish, pour out; 5rw to flow, be drained, dry; 
sravas flow, drip, liquid; sravanti, srotas stream; srans to fall; sranh to 
[rush, plimge], be confident; srank to move; sri^ to pour out, beget, 

create (v. p. 126). Gk. fio) (^euaw) to flow; ^€f6q, ^6oq, peO(ue 

stream; ^o^ ^daiq, ^euat<; flow; ^ieOpov channel, stream; pua( stream. 



— 165 — 

lava; ^iyiT) force, rush, current, gutter, lane; ^oi^ai to rush; ^(&;at) force; 
^wutie to strengthen; lp(i)i(i> to rush, force; p<&0(i)v nose; Eup(&Ta<;. 
— Lat. rumen udder; Rumindlis river-side; Roma river-town; 
[rovur], rebut strength, oak? ruina [flood], ruin; rvims stream; rivdlis 

racer, rival ; Re fate well- watered {rosea rura Velini) . Goth, rinnan to 

run, flow; runs a race ; rinno torrent ; ufar'ranneins sprinkling. Lith. 

Sffxoiu to flow, bleed; srove flow; O. R. struya flowing; o-strov island 

(< euphonic) ; R. rov ditch? ronyat to let fall; u-ron loss. Ir. srHaim 

stream; snUk flow; srath riverside, valley; srdn (W.ffroen, Bret. /ren = 
svron) nose; rdn seal (blowing) ; srennim to snore; W. ffrwd. Cor. froi, 
Bret. /ni<, froud stream; W. ffreu torrent; O. C. Frudis (river); 
Fritus, Frodesium. 

Sk. sru, ^ru to flow, [bleed], perish; sruk, gruvas an altar-ladle (for 

blood); kravyam, kravis raw flesh; kruras bloody, cruel, horrible. 

Zd. kkrHra horrible. Gk. xplac; (-oro?) raw flesh, carcase; xpuo?, 

*po|4i? deadly cold (blood-curdling draining, drying, destroying; cf. 
Medusa as winter-goddess with devouring teeth) ; xpuepi^ death-cold, 
lK)nible; xpaupoq [frozen], dry, brittle; xpu6et<; deathly cold; xpuorafvid 

to freeze; xpiioraXXo? ice, cr3rstal. Lat. cruor gore; cruentus bloody; 

crddelis cruel; crudus raw; crusta hard biscuit, galetta, O. H. G. 

Mo corpse; hrdo raw; O. N. hraer corpse; [hlys], hlyr [mantling with 
blood], cheek; hlyri [blood] brother; A. S. hle&u blood-heat, luke-warm; 
^e6h fierce; hre6v woe; hre&uan to rue; Goth, hraiva-dubo [mourning], 

turtle-dove. O. R. kruvi blood; Lith. krauyas blood; kruvinas 

bloody. Ir. crUu, crU, cr6 blood; cr6 death; crU-fechta battle-crow; 

cm raw; crdn [blood], red, copper; Bret, krevein to die (crever) ; kri raw, 
hard, cruel (Lat.?); krii^ strong; krisein to harden, freeze; O. C. 
Cravius; Mare Cronium frozen ocean; Cravum plain of stones near 
Aries. 

Sk. sri, svri, fri, kri (krindmi) to [whirl], shoot, wound; kri (kirdmi) 
to whirl, dash round, pour, fill; vikhur to sprinkle round, dash, pour; 
turn to [whirl], mash, grind ; fran to [dash round], be bountiful ; kur 
to [whirl]; bum; rob; fri {grinami) to stir, mix, cook; grd (p.p. gritas 
and (rdftos; caus. grapayami) to cook; dgir sacrificial drink of soma 

juice and milk; karus mixture of milk and butter; an earthen pot. 

Gk. xepiwu(i.(, xepdd), xcpvdo), to [stir], mix [wine and water], temper, 
flavor; d-xipa(o<; unmixed, pure, strong; Kepiov kitchen god; xipvoc; 
sacrificial bowl; xpori^p mixing bowl; xptOi^ barley (porridge); xpi^vt), 
upova spring, fountain; xpouvtfq spring, stream, channel, pipe; Kp6voc; 
revolving time, evolution; xopijVY) club, mace; x6po^, broom; xopio) 



— 166 — 

to [whirl], sweep; xopio), xopivvuiii to fill to brim, satiate; xjpo^ 
satiety; grown lad (cf. cUo, altus; melts with xoupo<; shaveling); %6piq, 
bed-bug; xpaixdeXv) intoxication (caus. grapaydmi to stir, whirl) ; xpotxvj^ 

swift, active. Lat. curro to speed, run; cordna garland; cremo to 

wrap in flames, bum; cerevisia beer. Goth, {kuairvan], hvairban to 

revolve; ga'hvairbs versatile, easy; hrainyan to wash off, rinse; krains 
clean, Tein\ O. N. kver kettle, geyser; kroera to whirl, stir, move, 
ruhren; hreinsa to rinse; hyr whirling fire; hryn-siar raging sea; hronn 

billow. R. koretz bucket; koren root (pipe) ; kran fountain; korndt to 

fill, feed; kurit to distil, smoke. Ir. coire (W. pair\ Cor., Bret, per) 

kettle, pot; cairm (W. cwrw. Cor. corum, coruf, O. C. xoiSpi^O beer; cem 
cooked food; curach [roimd bowl], boat, coracle; cure whirling crowd; 
currech whirlpool (Corry-vrechan) ; confluence of water, swamp, 
rushes; Gael, corrie round glen; Bret. korri*veUat to whirl, gambol; 
korri-gan (Ir. corri-gan) whirling sprite (Ir. genUi^getdns); O. C. 
Aquae Querquemae hot-springs; Perpema. 

Sk. same roots; vi-Mhur to sprinkle, dash round, pour, fill; kshar 
(kshardmi) to drop, pour, leak away, perish; caus. to [splash, defile], 
accuse; kshar as fleeting, vanishing (a cloud, water; cf. sdr, gar to melt, 
faint) ; kshdra [molten] glass; apa-skaras excrement; kshal (kshdlayami) 
to wash away (p. 162); vi-khur to pour out; kharas [bilious, fevered], 
hot, exhausting, parching, hoarse, severe; khalas wretched, bad; khor, 
khol [bloodless, faint], lame ; kal, kull to be wanton ; Mill to be melted, 
softened; khalvdtas bald ; hird [gushing] artery; hira gut; hil to be wan- 
ton; khar^ to wash, wring out, vex; kar^ to vex; karkagas hard, rough; 
karkatas crab; garkard a pebble (water-washed, hard); gulv to melt, 

found, create; gulvam copper; gulvdris sulphur. Gk. x^Xt^ gut; 

%oXlpa vomiting, flux; xoXdeSec; bowels; x6Xoq bile, gall (drainings of 
body); fierceness, anger; xoX6o;Aac to be angry; xo^^^^'^^^y^J vnth 
foaming tusks; xlXto? [sea-sand], a thousand (cf. jiup(oq); ^uXiq 
sap, juice (melts with x^l^^?) » X<**^^^ lame ; x^Xdcw to be faint, to droop; 
to slacken, loose; x«Xap6q languid, faint; o^oXi^ indolence, leisure, ease; 
XiXaXyfx pouring rain, hail (melts with Sk. hrdduni) ; xeXoijetv, xeX6aao(Lat 
to hawk, spit; xetXo(; lip (moistened; slavering); x^Xu? tortoise (slimy, 
cf. ly-xeXu(; eel); the tortoise-shell represents heaven arching over 
earth, and he is sacred to Hermes and Aphrodite; therefore xeX«f«5vi), 
* * dear tortoise ' * ; the dawn shoots his golden rays across heaven's vault 
and strings nature's lyre; [^uXfliw, auXRiw], OXn^o to drain dregs, 
strain (cf. ouXo); x'^^^V'^^ drunken, wanton; x^^'^ unmixed wine; 
(i*axaX(Z(i), d*ax(^XX(i> to be grieved, troubled (i intens.) ; xaXlv6(; bit, bridle, 
(vexing, foaming; Sk. khalinas bit); oxXT)p6(; hard, severe; xX^po^ 



— 167 — 

pebble, lot; xdiki^ pebble (garkard); xapx(yo<; crab; oxci>p(a slag, dross; 
oxttp (a%ax6q) excrement; oxiXXo) to drain, parch, dry; oxeX8TJ(; with- 
ered; xiggo^, x4pw^ dry, parched, arid; ^tp6<;, ^g6<; dry, hungry, 

pale, exhausted; [SwXtjv], oidXi^v gutter, pipe. Lat. ccdx lime-stone, 

lime (melting; burning); calculus pebble; fel gall; fellitus, felieus 
bitter, angry; fuligo soot; screo to eject, spit; €x[s]crefnentufn; scoria 
dag; scelus defilement, crime, villain; scelercUus, scelestus; squaleo to be 
filthy; sulfur sulphur? [hareo], areo to be dry; artdus dry; hira gut (Sk. 
Ittra) ; hUla sausage ; haru'Spex insoector of entrails, diviner; hari'olor to 
divine; A^Hiw? greedy-gut, glutton; hernia rupture (protruding entrail). 

O. N. skarn excrement; hrdki spittle; hregg heavy rain; harna to 

urinate; Goth, horinon to commit adultery (cf. (io(x6(;, tningo); Dan., 
Sw. gdlle, gdl the gill of a fish (x^iXoO ; O. N. gil a mountain brook, 

glen; gelda to [drain], castrate; O. H. G. gallA gall. O. R. zhluki, R. 

diolk bile, gall; O. R. zheluvi, zhelvi tortoise, snail; R. zhila vein, nerve 
ijiUd) ; khiliy feeble, sick; kPiolostit to castrate; khvorat to be ill ; shMelok 
lye, soft soap; skvernit to defile; Uemiy foul, black. Ir. cldr [water- 
washed stone; smooth surface], table; W. ysgarth excrement; Bret. 
jkUr limpid, bright; skUren new ice, white of egg\ O. C. Clarenna. 

Sk. fri, grd to stir, cook; kri to stir, pour, fill ; kri {karami, kurve, p.p. 
kritas) to shape, round, make, do, reflect; kri (kdraye) to know; 
karman^ kriyd deed, ceremony, sacrifice; kritis, deed, poem; krU to 
make known, glorify; kartri maker, creator; karanas deed, business; 
karanam cause; kdras labor, effort; kratus power, sacrifice; karas 
hand, payment; Mar to go about, accomplish (p. i6o) ; froth to make an 

effort, twist, untwist, bind, loose. Zd. kaqeredha crafty. Armen. 

katard magician; Osset. Mard smith. Gk. Kp6vo(; developer, creator; 

xpefwv, xpiii>y planner, master; xpa(v(i) to effect, accomplish, rule ; xpe(aa(i>v 
stronger, better; xpdko? might; xporepic;, xdpTepoc; strong; xpovri^p, 
effecter; wisdom-tooth; xIpJoc; gain, profit; x(4p8o«0(; kneading-trough 
(dp) ; %egaB\/Lei<; potter (p. 165) ; %iX(x^o<; round basket, press, mold ; (froth) 

xXiiOoi to spin. Lsit.CerusMonus good creator; Ceres; creo to create; 

cresco to develop, grow; con-cretus compact; comien hymn, poem 
(xo(i)(fca); Carmenta (creatress, paired with Egeria developer); cerdo 
workman, shoemaker; crates wicker-work, hurdle; termination -crum, 

-^htm (simulacrum; gubernaculum) . Goth, hrotheigs glorious, victor; 

haldan to keep csLttle; haldis better; skildus shield (hard-grip; cf. O. N. 
hlif) ; O. N. hardhr strong, bold, hard; hirdha to take pains, keep sheep, 
guard; hirdhir herdsman; horskr reasonable; hor linen; hold flesh 
(kneaded); hdldr man. A. S. heord winter-stock, store; heordh hearth; 
hSd battle; huld (Groth. hulths) noble, gracious (xpdeTO(;; Held melts 



— 168 — 

with hyldo p. 153); O. N. Bryn-hildr (victorious glory) the virgin 
snow, wooed by Siegfried the siin during the eight days of yule, on the 
moimtain-peak crimsoned by his southern rays. The keen sword of 
winter air lies between them. Their daughter is As-laugr (bath of 
the gods), the clear motmtain-stream. Bryn-hildr crowns the summer 
valley, but her heart is in the north. She effects the ruin of Siegfried, 
and returns to the icy sleep which Odin had inflicted upon her for 

preferring the new year to the old. Lith. kuriu to build; R. Marodei 

magician (koMard) . Ir. c^dhandiwork, craft, smith, poet ; cerda forge; 

cr^d tin; cermna fashion, sculpture; an invention, plot; cem victory 
(xpa(vci>) ; cam stone-heap, monument of victory ; cruth shape, form ; cortke 
pillar; cruithnecht crop, com; croda, crodacht courage (Jtardhr); crUaid 
hard, solid ; crand tree ; eland offspring ; cliaih hurdle ; cret wagon- frame ; 
human body; creth knowledge; calad, caUUh (W. calet) hard, (xpixoq); 
W. priein to mold, knead; pri potter's clay; cerdd art; cerddeu poems; 
Bret, korriein to knead, curry; kM shoemaker; O. C. Cermanus^ 
Gertnanus smith {pfficina Cermani); Cerdu-belus; Ceretius; Cacurda 
(cf. Zd.) ; Caledonii (hard, Held) ; Caletes, CeUae; Camutes. 

Sk. kri to dash round, pour, fill; kri to shape, form, make, reflect; 
karas hand; karabhas palm of hand; causal forms in / and p; klip 
(kalpdmi) to be rounded, formed, become, be; causative (kalpayami) 
to make, create, [dash roimd], be liberal, give; upa-klip to prepare; 
pra-klip to [dash roimd], give, [deal blows], punish; kalpas [rounded, 
formed], similar; a revolving period of creation; klap to roll in mouth, 
mumble; krip to be [twisted], plucked, wretched, weak; karpdsas 
cotton (plucked, carded) ; karparas skull (rounded, stripped, scraped) ; 
kalpanam shaving, cutting; kalpakas barber; kripdnas sword; hence 
roots of gripping, shaping, whirling, wrapping, stripping, stealing, 
hiding; kram — car pereviam, to imdertake, set out, travel; kramas step, 
succession; klatn, gram to be fatigued; grambh to [grip fast], be con- 
fident. Gk. xapx6(; wrist; (grip, cf. xfjxu?) ; fruit, com, harvest, profit 

(plucked); xapxO^o) to pluck, enjoy; xp<i[>xcov sickle; xapxdX((io<;, xpa(xvj(; 
nimble, quick; xapxa(a scuffle with cattle-thief; xX4xtci> to seize, snatch, 
steal; xpT)«£? high-boot (leg-gripper) ; xdpqnQ hay, straw; xap9ela fruit, 
chips; X(4p90(; chips, dry wood; xap^^co to shrivel, dry; xpdyL^oi; shrivel- 
ing; x(ip(ia [plucked] wool, [skimmed] cream. Lat. carpo, de^cerpo to 

pluck, twitch, find fault ; decrepitus worn out, old ; carpiim by snatches; 
clepo to steal; crepo to rattle, twitter, chirp; crepusculum twitter- 
time, dawn; crepundiae rattles, castanets, (bones); clupeus shield 

(gripped). Goth, hit fan to steal; hit ftusthiei; GtT,[hram] Rahm, A.S. 

ream cream (xdpiia) ; O. N. hlif shield (clupeus) ; harpa harp (twitched) ; 



— 169 — 

harma to pluck, vex, harm; hrammr claw, outstretched hand; hripa to 
saatch (of. form xpd^^oq) ; hrapa to rush; hreifr eager, cheerful; hraufa 
to tear; krafn raven; hrifa to grip, hold, rub; hrdpa (Goth, hropyan) 
[increpare] to revile, defy, whoop, shout; skelfa to shake; A.S. hearfest 

harvest. Lith. kerpu to cut, shear; R. kreipit to strengthen; Merpat 

to draw water (xdEXxt<; pitcher); kropit to sprinkle; kropat to claw. 

Ir. crob hand, fist; crabud religion (held fast); crdeb twig (plucked); 
crip, crib swift; W. craf claw; crefydd fist; Bret, krabon claw; krabisat 
to scratch; krapein to climb; skrapein to steal; irib comb; O. C. 

Sk. feKp to lay hold, make, do, give, [snatch from foe]. Gk. 

xoEfxCl^o(xat to set free. Goth, hlif an to steal; hliftus thief; hleibyan to 

help (ivteXa(i^ivea6at) ; hlaibs, hlaifs, bread (staff of life when game fails) ; 
ga-hlaiba comrade; hilpan to help; A. S. hlaf-veard, hldford bread- 
ward, lord ; hlaef'dige, bread-kneader, lady. 

Sk. pra-klip to dash round, strike, ptmish; kalpanam cutting; 

garv, garb to [pounce], wound, kill (p. 143). Gk. xoXdncro) to 

strike, peck, chisel; xoXa^O^o) to slap; xoXa^ppCl^o) to dance round wildly; 
xaXxdl^ to gallop; xopu^ac; dancing dervish; xop(jXT(i> to butt; xpi^x^aXa 
rattles, castanets; xoXu(i.^(i(i> to dive; x(SXu(i^o<; diver; xoXu(jl^(^ the 

grebe. Lat. coluber snake (coiling, writhing, pouncing); columba, 

paluniba pigeon (whirling, diving; cf. dive, dove) ; plumbum lead (diver, 

dove-color) . O. N. hldupa, O. H. G. hloufan to leap, run. R. klubit 

to whirl; klubok ball; klub whirling smoke; kolebat to shake. Ir. 

colba rod; colbthach young heifer (prancing). 

Sk. klip (kalpayanti) to form, shape, create, [wreathe, encircle]; 

kharparas, kar paras, [rounded] skull; karpdsas [boiled] cotton. 

Gk. x^XXo(|i lyre-peg (twisting, winding) ; x(SXxo(; womb, fold, hollow^ 
bay; xaXuxro), xpuxrcd, to wrap, veil, hide; %i\\j\t,^a veil; xXe(i.(i.(j^ 
tortoise; KaXutj^co veiling darkness, evening; xgcXxk; rounded jug; 
xaXu§i) thatched hut ; xp(i>^uXo(; roll of hair, top-knot (volvo) ; xopufi) 
crown of head; xJpu(jL^o<; peak, crest, cluster; xp(^avo^, xXC^avoq 

covered baking-pan. Lat. corpus body (formed in womb); corbis 

basket; scirpus rush; creber twisted together, many-ply; celeber 

thronged, crowded. Goth, hvarbon to revolve, go round; hvilftri 

covered chest, coffin; A. S. hvealf vsluH, arch; hvelp whelp (roimded in 
womb) ; hvyrft revolution, regular motion ; hveorfan to roam, fly, shift 
(of wind) ; hrdf roof; O. H. G. sciluf rush. R. korobit to bend, con- 
tract, round; krovlya roof; korob basket, round box; korabl canoe, boat, 



— 170 — 

ship; skrivit to bend, twist. Ir. scolb wattle, thatch; cliab basket; 

colba hut-pole; carbad wagon (framed, cf. charpentier) ; W. cerbyd, 
Bret, [kalbez], kalvez carpenter; O. C. carpetUum wagon; Carbanlorix; 
Carpeiani (roving). 

Sk. klip to round, [wreathe]; kram to go [round], reach [end]; 

kramas step, way, order; krimis worm (writhing, coiling). Gk. 

xpe(i.dcvvu;A( to hang up (worm hanging from tree by web); xpi4(iyi](U 
to be suspended, oscillate, hover; xpe(i.dOpa hanging basket; xpi)(&v6^ 
beetling crag; xp<;iuov onion (concentric layers, cf. unto); xXTjitorrC^ 

coiling vine; bound fagot. Lat. crumena pouch, purse; Crefnera 

winding channel ; cremare to [wreathe in flame], bum, cf . Sk. tap, dip. 

Goth, hramyan to hang up, crucify; O. H. G. [kram], ram hanging 

rack; O. N. Arlw hovering soot, hoar-frost, rime, frimas] skrdmr moon; 
A. S. [hrim], rim brim, rim; O, N. skritnsl dragon; Ger. krumm\0. H. G. 

skirm [hanging curtain], screen; [hyams garlic; Eng. to squirm. R. 

skromniy [veiling], modest; kromka border, rim; kromei except [those 

outside]; Lith. kirtkinis, R. Merv worm. Ir. crommaim to bend; 

cromm curved, rounded, crooked; craman (W. creman, cryman) sickle; 
Cromanus harvester; creamh garlic; cruim, W. pryv worm; Bret« 
krommein to bend; krom curved, aquiline; krommeten rainbow; O. C. 
Crumerum; Cremona river bend. 



Sk. sri to flow; saras stream; garas water; gal gval, gvall to run, 
whirl, shake, wrap; hul to hurl, wrap, cover; kshal to wash; spiUen\ 
kshal, khal to sweep together; khalas threshing-floor; kil, kvel, kskvilt 
kel, khel to move, vacillate, swing roimd ; kal to move, swing, go [roimd]; 
ui'kal to rise ; Ual, kull to sport round, dandle, nourish ; khalas [hunter's 
toils, net], trsLud; khallis [enveloping] skin, bark; kul to sink [in vortex]; 
kil to wrap, clothe; kal to whirl, circle, revolve in mind, reflect, repeat, 
count; kdl to calculate time; kdlas time, appointed time, fate, god 
of night and death (v. p. i6o); kail to [repeat], mumble; kal, kur 
to sotmd; kalas sweet-voiced; kallolas rolling wave; kalyas retmning 
dawn; well, healthy; kalyam to-morrow; kalydnas lucky; kilas fire- 
drill, flame; kil to wrap, bind; kul to whirl, roll together; d-kul to 
whirl, disturb; kulam herd, clan; kul to wrap, cover, protect; kulam 
curve, slope, curved shore; kolas haunch, ham, hog; kri to dash roimd, 
pour, fill; kri to round, make, fulfil, do; kar to go about, roam, 
effect, learn; skhal to whirl, tremble, totter; khdr, khol to be lame 
(p. i66); karv, kharv, to [brandish], be proud; karv to grind, chew; 
kharuas, kharbas torn, mutilated; kark redup. to go round, repeat 



— 171 — 

read; to [brandish], threaten; ^il to veil; [Makara], Makram wheel, 

quoit, army, province; karUa, karana action. Gk. xdiXo)^ [twisted] 

rope; xuXCgi to roll, circle, loiter; xuXfvJo) to roll, toss, whirl; %ak6<; 
t)eautiful, good (kcUyas); yiXXo) to drive; ^ouxiXo? cattle-driver; 
niXtji; runner; x4Xeu6oq way; 4-x6Xou6oq companion; xiXXt^ roll of 
bread; xoXXdo) to [knead], weld, glue, frame; xoXXdptov poultice, 
salve; xoXoi5ii> to twist off, dock, maim; (karv, karVy karb to whirl, 
^rind, chew off); xoXopi(; maimed, torn by wild beasts; x<Xaat<; 
cutting short, pruning, punishment; xoXeiq, xouXeiv envelope, scab- 
1>ard; xotX^a belly, bowels; xoiXoc; hollow; xocxuXXg) to glance round; 
TbuXucii to [bind], hinder; axuXXw to tear, strip, mangle; xuXXdc; cripple; 
cxOXov spoils; ax(jXo(; hide, husk; oxuXdo) to wrap, veil; (tx6Xu;ao^ 
artichoke; oxuXa^ whelp (rounded in womb); (JxoXti(; crooked; oxcjXtj^ 
worm, twisted thread; xwXov limb (turning on joint); 0x6X04^ sharp 
stake, thorn (boring); xop./<i>v{(; a wreath (rounded, twisted); xop-/a)vt) 
crooked, crook-beaked; crow (cf. falx, falco)\ xopiXXtov coral (twist). 

Lat. colus distaff; qualus, quc{J]sillus roimd basket; colo to wring 

out, strain; colostra cheese; cucullus, culullus hood, round cup; coUum 
neck (turning); collis ridge, hill? culina kitchen (stirring, cooking); 
cahms bald {karv)\ coelebs unmarried (xoXo^iq half a man, cf. Ir. 
Idnamnas ftdl-sotd, wedlock); curvus, curved; quisquiliae peelings, 
trimmings; cello to drive, speed; ex^cello to outrun; celer swift; callis 
path; calo mule-driver, baggage-man; -culum termination of instru- 
ment (karana) ; -^ulus fond diminutive termination (kalyas) ; cucurbita 

gourd ; corvus raven ; corona wreath ; corylus hazel-nut (enveloped) . 

(}oth. kalba portion; halbs half; hulyan to wrap, veil; hulundi cavern; 
kals SL neck; hveila [revolving] time; hveilan to delay, rest; haib (A. S. 
hdl) soimd, well (kalyas); O. N. hcUla to bend; hellir cavern; holr 
hollow; hvila to [coil, wrap up], rest, sleep; hvel circle, disk, wheel; 
kuella to ring out; holl (A. S. hil) [rounded] heel, back, rear, stem; 
0. H. G. skiulla, O. N. kollr skull; Scotch scul bowl; Swed. skrdUa 
to waver voice, be shrill (xopdfXXtov) ; O. N. skrellig Indian (whooper) ; 
Dan. kravle, O. N. krafla to writhe, crawl; Norman? escroll scroll; 
0. N.krulla to curl ; Ger. Kralle [curved], claw, fist ; Karl^ Karel, Karolus; 
A. S. ceorl hard-fist, workman; Dan. skiule to wrap up, hide; redup. 
skulke to coil up, be lazy, skulk; Goth, skalks slave; klikan to brood 

on eggs; kalkinassus licentiousness; kelikn vault, upper story. R. 

kol round stake; koUzo ring; [kolevat], kolebcU to whirl, stir, hesitate, 
float; koleino knee-joint; kerv worm; klen limb; krevo belly; krivoi 
twisted; krai circumference, limit; Lith. kreivas twisted, spiral; 

kuUys boar. Ir. cor, cuairt circle, turn; cr6 hoop; crU raven; caiUe 

veil (coille, xuXtw); caill [enveloping] forest; bua-chail herdsman; die 



— 172 — 

companion; coU (W., Bret, coll, kalvf) hazelnut; cdel fine-spun, thin; 
cuil [lair] bed, comer; cuile kitchen; ciU [rounded] back; ciUad back 
of head; cuiaid raiment; cularo cucumber; ctdlach boar (at bay); 
caar crooked, worm, screw; cHaille stake {}nlas)\ cruind, cruinn^ W., 
CJor. crwnn, Bret, cren roimd; Ir. cr6, W. craw. Com. crcfw^ Bret. 
krdou (plu. krevier) fold, stall (crav for curv); W. cor^wytU, Bret. 
koruetU whirlwind; Ir. cuUen, W. cobvyn. Cor. coloen, Bret. ioKn 
[embryo], whelp, fawn, [babe], darling (Colin); Ir. ciall (W. fwyll, 
Bret. poelcU) reflection, understanding; cedl song (verse, refrain); 
cuicel distaff; coUlim to grind, destroy; Bret, koulin rabbit; skoul hawk 
(circling); W. [coire], caer, Bret, ker ring- wall, town; O. C. caelia beer 
(culina); Caelis, Caelius, Coeliobriga; Colinidcus (Coligny); Coitus, 
Culleium; [Corveius], Corbeius; Coera; Caerellicus; celicnan tower (from 
Gothic). 

Sk. Mar, karv, karb, kharb, garb, gharb to go round; karv, garu to 
[curvet], be proud; karv to [rub round, grind], chew; kshur, khur to 
scrape off; kshcU to wash off; kharvas mutilated; khalUtas, khalvdtas 

bald. Gk. yaXifQ weasel (gri, garv to devour) ; y(xke6(; shark; fapfaCpcii 

to swarm (whirl); ydpyapa abundance; fapyaXRiw to [rub], tickle; 

fdpoq caviare; faupo? curvetting, proud. Lat. calvus bald; calvor to 

[pluck], detract. — — Ger. kohl bald. Ir. carbad jaw. 

Sk. Mar, Mai, Mull to move round, effect, whirl, sport; kal to count; 
kdl to compute time; Mar anas action, foot ; redup. MarM to repeat, reflect, 
read; MarMd reflection, rubbing round, anointing; garkard pebble 
(water- washed, glittering); kharg, kar^ to rub off, clean; karkaras 
knuckle- bone, pea; karankas skull, cocoa-nut; karkatas crab (clawing, 
stripping) ; karkagas hard ; Malagas urn; kalikd bud ; [MarMaram], Makram 

wheel; krunM to be curved, [twisted], small. Gk. x^^^5» *^Xt)5, 

xpox(iXT] pebble; xixXo? snail-shell, spiral; xiX%T) limpet, murex, purple; 
xaXxa(vci> to roll in mind; K(4Xxa<; brooding night; slays Iphigenia, 
the evening star; xdXu^ cup of flower; forming fruit; xoXoxuvOtj gourd; 
[xoXo^6(;], xoXoaai(; [totem-pole], colossus; x(jxXo<; ring, circle; xlpxo<; 
circle; drcler, hawk; xp(xo<; ring; x4pxo<; [ring], tail, handle, worm; 
xpoxJ-$6tXo(; awful -tail, crocodile; xiprM^ monkey; Kfpxtj circling 
moon; new moon in west; repeats nature's life in her loom; maddens 
creation by monthly courses; guides Odysseus, the sun, to Hades; 
mother of Telegonus the evening-star; Kipxox]), KuxXgx]); Suidas says 
the Kipxci>xe^ (circles of heaven and earth) were twin brothers, respect- 
ively hammer and anvil (cf. fix^uov, p. 8), and children of Memnon 
(morning-star) ; the Kt5xXci>xe(; are thus associated with the forge of 



— 173 — 

Hephaestus; the horizon keeps the sun in his night-cave and destroys 
his men (shortening days) ; at winter solstice sun bums out eye of 
xiight (day star) and escapes under ram (golden morning cloud, as at 
Colchis) ; Kixpo^ (father-night) is a coiling serpent, and is associated 

•with *Epeff£xO<«>v, dew-on-the-ground (8pcnj x6(iv). Lat. circus circle; 

circum round about; circa, circiter about; circuo to circle; dingo to 

£ird. Goih. hrugga wamd, rod; O.N. hringr (O.K.G. hrinc) circle^ 

ring; hryggi (O. H. G. hrukki) back-bone (bending, twisting cf. 
rickets) \ hryggua to bow down, grieve; hraukr roimded heap, rick; 
Mekkr chain; A. S. [s]cr6c jug; scrincan to writhe, twist, shrivel, shrink, 
shrug (Bng. scrag the neck); hulc den, cabin; hulce ship of burden; 

ls]clingan to cling, cluster; Ger. schrdg oblique. R. krug circle, 

globe; krugom round about; kriok circuit, hinge, hook; krinka jug; 

fkolefo], koleso wheel; sorok forty (two-score); srok period. Ir. 

crick [circuit], boundary, region; criss girdle; crocen hide, skin (Com. 
crogen shell) ; crocan jug; cruach, criku:hdn heap, rick; curach coracle; 
clocan skull; cloch flint, stone; cuicel (Bret, k^gil) distaff; colg [whirling] 
sword; Colgan; Bret, kerhat to wander round (chercher); kerhen 
turn of neck; legend, story; kergaden, krogen shell; krohen hide; krog, 
kriger twist, hook; krougein to hang; koailhein to roll together, curdle, 
cailler; O. C. caracutium large- wheeled cart; corroco turbot; Cricconia; 
Criciro (crocker, potter). 

Sk. kal, Mai to whirl; Mhallis hide, bark; khalas [encircling net], de- 
ceit, fraud; Mil to wrap, clothe; kilos dart, fire-drill, flame; khilas 
stripped, emptied; khel to whirl; kelas robe. Gk. xfXXt? crook- 
homed; oxfXXa squill, bulb (concentric layers); (txIXo<; shank (twist- 
ing; xori (nciXo(; is ambling); x(XXo( donkey; xcXX(^a<; three-legged; 
easel; KdXa/K veering wind-god; [wind-blown sky; blue]; turquoise. 

Lat. celo to wrap, hide ; [celatn], clam, secretly. Goth, hulyan to 

wrap; Ger. schdlen to peel. R. shalit to sport round, trick, cheat; 

shalash round hut. Ir. celim to hide; O. C. Cala protecting harbor; 

Partus Cale^i. Oporto, 2. Portu-gal; Burdi-gala (p. 70); Call'Sva*^ 
ancient ring-wall; Calava potter; Calaus. 

Sk. sri to flow; srans to plunge down, fall; sranh to [pounce], 
be bold; srank, frank, frang, flank, (tang to go [round]; gldgh to [brand- 
ish], boast; sra^ garland; sra^d cord; fldkh to seize, embrace, fill to 

brim; flok to join, fashion, create; flish to embrace, join. Ir. sreng 

cord; srengim to drag; sraigell whip. 

Sk. sru, QTu to flow, [bleed] ; {gruvis], kravis raw flesh ; sruM, fravas, 



— 174 — 

[fkwas] [claw, clutch], blood-ladle. Gk. xXtj/tq, xXeC? (xXet8<0 tie- 
beam, rower's bench, collar-bone, bar, bolt, key; xXsCcd to close; xXotJ^ 
neck-fetter, collar; xXi^tOpov, xXeWpov door-bar; Dor. xXi5 key (influenced 

by glakh). Lat. clavis bar, key; clavtis bar, stripe, club; clava club; 

claudo to close (affected by froth to bind); claustrutn bar; claudus 

[hobbled], lame. O. H. G. sliuzSn to close; slSz bar, lock; Eng. 

slat, shot cross-bar, tie, wagon-bar; slot hook of bar; M. H. G. sliuze 
sluice, water-gate (cf. klid to be wet) ; A. S. [sclavn], clavn, eld claw 

(gripping). O. R. klyuMi key, hook; klyutzati sen to gather; R. 

klioM key, fotmtain (sluice); kliov beak; kl[v]ik hook, boar's tusk; 

kleitka cage, stake. Ir. c/ii, eld nail, bar; eldaim to nail; W. eloeu 

nail ; Bret, klou goad, nail ; klaiHein to bolt, bind ; O. C. Clavenna fortress. 

Sk. sri, sru to flow; 5dr, gar to be [drained], weak; kshar to flow 
away; Afi to dash round, pour, fill; gri to thrust, make effort; gridh 
to break wind, be wet, [splash], mock; klid to be wet; klind, klad, 
kland to weep ; krad, krand to mourn ; khrid, khard to vomit, dash out, 
flash out, sport roimd; kard to rattle (of intestines); kart to loosen, 
relax; grath, glath, granth to be weak, lax, loosen; to make an effort, 
exhilarate; to bind, loose [with gut, cord]; kartt to loosen; gran to be 
bountiful (dash round); kurd, kurd to dance roimd, sport; hradas 
vortex, deep pool; [dashing] lightning; hradini torrent, stream; hrad 
to rumble, thtmder; hlad to be merry; granth to bind; grath to be 

bent. Gk. xXul^o) (xfecXuajiat) to flow round, wash over, away, 

out; to wash, rinse, cleanse; xXu$(i)v billow, flood; xXuqi.a swash, 
flow, beach; xeXa$&i> to roar (of water) ; to shout; xXciBwve^ bacchantes 
(drenched, whirling, wild); KXuiiivr] a nereid; xXa((i) (xXa6aci>) to 
weep; xXa8daao(iat to surge; xXaBapj^ languishing, faint, wanton; 
6xXil^(i> to be faint, weak, sink, squat; x^^^®? slime; x^^^^^ eunuch; 
xXc$d(i> to be wanton, weak; y\ili^ to exult (hlad); xe^'^tiv swallow 
(circling, merry); x^XiSe? bowels; x®P^^ S^^» X^^«^« dashing rain, 
hail; axop8cvdeo(iat to retch, gape; oxJpoSov garlic; aap$(il^(i> to mock, 

sneer, grin (sridh for gridh); aapSivto? bitter laughter. Lat. 

eluo to purge; (kri; [krvt]) ; eloaca sewer (influenced by fte/^A to embrace, 
fill to brim); Venus Cloaeina; Sardi (dark, dumb); sordes filth {sridiii\ 
sordidus filthy; surdus [whirling, confused], deaf; horda, forda preg- 
nant (great womb.x^p^i^). (ioth. /t/ii<r5 washed, pure, bright; svarts 

black; sviltan to waste away, perish; saldra scurrility, smut; O. N. 
svelta to starve, die; hldut sacrificial blood; hluta to take omens; 
hland urine; gelda to geld; sordhinn defiled, shamed; A. S. gldd glit- 
tering, bright, gracious; Low Ger. swyriyan to squirt; Ger. [syseltern 
to wring out. R. kholod cold (xiXal^a); kholostit to geld; solodit 



— 175 — 

to [soak], malt; kolodetz well; koldun sorcerer (rattling, dancing); 
0. R. sladiti to be [gushing, refreshing], sweet; sladuku sweet; Lith. 

saldus sweet (cf. xXcj^coveq) . Ir. clad a ditch; claidim to ditch, dig; 

cUtine dart (dashed); W. clawdd. Cor. cledh, Bret, klez ditch, sluice; 
Bret, kliden testicle; klaHnein to be sick; skladen cream-skimmer; W. 
chwerih, Cor. wherih, Bret, hoarh laughter; O. C. Clouta, Clota (Cluath, 
Cluad) ; ScuUanna, Scaldis rivers. 

Sk. same roots; sri to flow; fri to stir; kri to dash round; fri to 
dash spear; fridh to pour out; hrtd, hridayam heart; hrddini thunder- 
bolt; krdduni hail; hrdd to rumble, thimder; hradini torrent, stream; 
kradas vortex, deep pool, roar of water; hldd to triumph, rejoice, 
delight; Qrath, QratUh, glath, klath to exhilarate, make an effort, whirl, 
encircle, wreathe; whirl, shoot, kill (thunderbolt); graih, granth to 

bend, bind, curve. Zd. zrdd to rattle. Gk. xocXalia hail, pouring 

rain, hard lump; x«P<^^P« torrent, gully, gorge; xox^i^w to dash, 
splash, foam; xXiSco to triumph, exult; xeXCSov [circling] swallow; 

XipoSog silt, shingle, gravel. Lat. grando hail, [rain]; suggrunda 

eaves (under-pour) ; glans (glandis) [hail-stone, sling-stone], btdlet, 
acorn, testicle, gland; gradior to step proudly (war-dance); Mars 

Graditms; grandi- proud; hirundo swallow. A. S. great, (O. H. G. 

griaz) grit, pebble, sand; grUt meal; grindan to grind; Grendel (grind- 
all) miasma, pestilence; Goth, grinda-frathis weak-minded; us-grudya 
hzy, languid; gredon to [pine], himger; O. N. granda to dash out, 
lavish, injure; grund bottom (dried torrent); foundation, earth; gladhr 
joyful. — — O.R. gradu hail; zhelandi, Lith. giZe acorn; R. zheleza gland; 

zheludak belly (pouring). Ir. glend, glenn ravine, glen; grUad jaw 

(grinder); O. C. Glando'tniron, Grandi'tniro; Gordantcum. 

Sk. same roots; sri to flow; gri to boil; kri to sprinkle, fill; Mhrid 
to whirl round, flash out, vomit; kard to gurgle; hrid, hridayam, hdrdi 
heart; hdrdas love; Qrad^dhd [putting-heart], trust, faith; grad-dhdvat 

believing. Zd. zaredhaya, Bactrian zaredhaem heart (form ghardh). 

^Arm. [Qin\ sirt (gen. srti\ cf. R.). Gk. x^p, xfatp, xap$(a, xpaMt) 

heart (cf. x^p with xtjp fatal, p. i6i). Lat. cor {cordis); demin. 

carculum heart; cordatus wise; ve-cors mad; Cardea goddess of viscera; 

[cred'do\ credo to believe. Goth, hairto heart; hairthra viscera; 

0. H. G. h^zA heart. Lith. shirdis, Lett, sirds, O. Pr. sir heart; 

0. R. sruditze, R. serdtze heart; R. serdit to be angry; sreda the middle. 

• Ir. cride heart; cretitn to believe; cretem faith; W. credu, [credatn], 

credaf, O. Bret, cridiff to believe; W. craidd, 0)r. cred, cres, Bret. 
kreiz the middle; W. creirwy jewel, O. Bret. Creirvia woman's name 



— 176 — 

(cf. Ir. cush'lda ma cride jewel of my heart); O. C. Credius, Credo, 
Credulium, 

Sk. frothy franth to make an effort, [whirl rotmd], shoot, be merry, 
twist, imtwist, bind, loose; (v. kartt p. i6i); khrid to whirl round, 
sport, flash round, [spirt round], vomit; kurd to sport round; krunth 

to embrace, twist. Gk. xpa$a(vci>, xpaSdki), xXaBdo) to swing, wave, 

brandish, toss, tremble; xpdeBi) sprig, twig, stage-lift; xX45o<; twig, 
branch; x6p$a^ whirling dance; xopSuXv) club; xjpu(; (xJpuOoO crested 
helmet; xopuaoio to crest, swell; KiptvOo^; xopuori? heaped up, full 
measure; xopuMq, xopuSc&v crested lark; xpJTaXov rattle; xpoxio) to 

rattle, hammer. Lat. cardo hinge; carduus thistle (crest); crista 

crest; clades swinging blow, disaster; [cladius], gladius sword. 

O. N. hrinda, hrata to hurl, strike; hraustr brave; hladha to [toss to- 
gether], heap up stones, load ; hraeddr trembling ; hradhr swift ; [sy^laedhi 
[wrapped], cloth, garment; A. S. hrSdh triumph; hradhe quick, nimble, 
soon (rathe, rather); heorde twisted hair; hurds flax; hyrdil hurdle; 
hredher [ribbed] breast; hyrst equipment; hurst [tangled] forest; kreddhr 
yan, [s]cladhyan to wrap, clothe; clad clod, cloud; scrHd shroud, robe, 

tree-top. R. klast to toss together, put in place; klad gathered 

treasure, load; skladivat to put together; sklad adjustment, proportion; 

kereda turn, order; koloda club. Ir. fo'Cerdaitn to hurl, whirl, sling, 

set in place, strip off, roam round; ceird a step; cruth shape; cruind, 
W. crwnn rotmd; W. kerdded, Com. cerd journey; Bret, querzet, kerzet 
to go; a trip; Ir. claideb sword; crothim to shake; croihla knocker; 
cro/ harp ; cri/A shiver, fever; cri//tfrspark;O.C.C/aA?,C/ad«5;Kep<6pco?; 
Cerotus; CrUo-somis beautiful spark; Crotus, 



Sk. sri to flow; fri to stir; hri (hari, hriydmi, harishydmi, desid. 
^ihirshami) to sweep away, tear away, be violent, seize, attack, bring, 
offer, sacrifice; haranam sweeping away, seizing, grasping; an arm; 
ghrinn to grasp; ghurn to be swept roimd, whirled; to veer, blow; 
kvri to be bent; hil to pluck, dally; hri (haryami) to embrace, enjoy, 
love, pray, [curse], threaten; haryatas dear; [hlish], glish to embrace, 
bind; glish, grish to [wrap in flames], bum; krish to tear away, sweep 
off, scratch (as wild beast), plow; krig to scrape down, make lean; 
kri to [seek eagerly], buy; hrish {hrishyami) to bristle with passion 
(wild beast), lust, horror; to enjoy; hrishtas happy, delighted; hrish 
to [be in a heat], whinny; hras, hlas to make a sound; hri (hripite) to 
growl; hri, hrikh t6 blush, be ashamed; ghrish to rub, excite, overflow, 
beget, rival ; ghrishtis rubbing, rivalry, wild-boar ; ghri, ghrin to sprinkle 



— 177 — 

pour, moisten, glitter, sparkle; hird artery; gkritas melted butter; 
ihrinas melting pity; ghrinis ray of light; hiranyam gold, wealth; 
harts, harinas yellow, green, blooming; harit green; gkrd to snuff; 
gras^glas to devour; grah, glah to grasp; gAarmos heat; gn to moisten; 
ffi to devour, roar; gridh to desire; gldi to [melt away], wear out; 
ttif tr^K ififnbh to gape at, bite off (wild beast) to shorten; iri to 
conquer; ^i to [melt], boil, waste away; ^ar to pine with fever; i;val to 
blaze ; ^ficUd sunlight, splendor, beautiful girl. 

Sk. hri to grasp, tear away; haras "the destroyer," fwos; hit to 

pluck, dally; hal to [scratch], plow; halas plow. Zd. zar to snatch 

away. Gk. xe£p hand; x^M claw, talon; [porcupine's quill], netting- 
needle, cleft, cleft-hoof, hoof; xi^p hedge-hog; x'^9^\^^^ cleft, hollow; 
Xi)p6ai to tear away, bereave; x^P^ widow (bereft, half torn away, cf. 

coelebs). Lat. her, er hedge-hog, sea-urchin; hilum, filum shred; 

fUix fern, bracken (spiked leaf) ; [hlar-undo [water-spike], reed. A. S. 

gdr, O. N. geir spear, dart, spit; O. N. grein cleft, division, distinction, 
groin; gil chasm; A. S. garu, O. H. G. giro point of land, gore; Goth. 
gairu goad, sting; gairuni desire; Germani spear-men (cf. Tac. Germ.). 

^R. zhalo point, spike, dart, sting. Ir. gir sharp, sour; gil-cach 

a reed; the broom; gilech spear; Bret garheu goad ; garh bristling hedge. 

Sk. hri (hari, hriydmi, harishydmi, hartum) to grasp, embrace; 
haranam hand, arm, [armful], bearing, bringing, taking; haras snatch- 
ing away; harmyam palace (guarded enclosure); harmutas tortoise 
(shielded) ; hil to pluck, dally; Am to [grasp, press], be curved (bow) ; 

[hras], gras to devour; glah to grasp; gridh to desire. Zd. zar to 

snatch away; zarazdd [enclosed, set apart], devoted, consecrated; 

taranh devotion; zrvan, zrvdna [assigned] time. Gk. xe£p hand, 

ami, action; eu-xepT^? handy, easy, reckless, grasping; 6xO'Xe£ptO(;, 
X^pTj? (comp. x*ps(ci>v, xefp<»>v) subject, vassal, inferior; X^P^^? poor; 
Xep(xde^ [handful], hurling stone; xpfl^'"^w» to grasp, touch lightly, 
press, draw near; XP^ to lay hands upon, be eager, attack, hand over, 
deliver, supply, handle, use, stretch out hand, desire, consult oracle, 
treat as friend; XP^'* profit, intimacy; necessity (grip); XP*^? ^^bt 
(usury); XP^ desire, need; XP^^ it is [usual], right; XP^l'-^* property; 
XP^ot? use; xpTQ^^P'o^ oracle {zarazdd) \ x^P*^®? enclosure, meadow, 
forage (melts with hvri to round; ghurn to whirl); x^P^^ circular 
dancing-ground; ring-dance (hvri); ypdort?, xpiotK; forage (gras); 
XtX6«, X"^^^ fodder (hil); x^Ckoq, lip (eager, cf. p. 139); x^atva, x^ovf?, 

XW^^ cloaks (enveloping, embracing); xp6'voq time (Zd. zrvan). 

Lat. haereo to cling to, adhere, stick, delay (perf. [haersi], haesi; cf. 
12 



— 178 — 

kras, hrish); hires, (heredis) heir (grtdh); hir-udo leech, (greedy); 
hif'undo swallow (open-mouthed, eager)? hit, it palm of hand; halo, 
in 'halo to pant for air, breathe ; hal-lticinor to grope for light, be dazed; 
co'hors enclosure, farmyard, [household, clan], troop; hortus, garden; 

hara pen, sty. (Joth. gairnyan to need, desire; gards (O. H. G. 

karto) enclosure, Hof, house, family, clan; fnidyun- gards circle of earth 
within globe of heaven; garda paddock, stable; gredon to himger; 
O. N. gora to effect, act, cause to act; gerdh action, equipment; gardhr 
court-yard, hedge, farm; gerdhi fence; A. S. gyrdan to gird; geard 
wand; yard; gearve provision, furniture, xp^^\».ana; gryn a net, trap; 
gildan to yield, produce, pay, sacrifice; M. H. G. gerwen to prepare, 
ctirry leather (xpiw); A. S. gedhl jaw (xelXoO; Swed. gdl gill of fish; 
O. N. gil moimtain brook; Eng. ^iU mouthful, small measure; A. S. 
gillan to yell with open mouth (gull); gUav neat-handed, skilful; 
gled-man harper; Goth. (gg = f) glaggvo, O. H. G. kldwer accurate, 
skilful (cf. glah to grasp) ; O. N. gloggr grasping, avaricious, clever; 

Goth, galga [throttUng] gallows. Lith. gardas fold, hurdle; zhardis 

paddock; O. R. gradu wall, garden, town; R. khranit to contain; khram 
temple (harmyam); khoram[v]imaLnoT; gran limit, boimdary; kholit to 

dally, caress (hil). Ir. gil hand; gell pledge; giall hostage; gilla 

young man, servant (hand) ; giall jaw ; gel (Cbr. ghel) leech ; glinne firm, 
secure; glass bar, lock; grinne bundle, band; grtUh curds (pressed); 
griiad jaw, cheek; gort garden, harvest; gorta hunger; griss handiness, 
art, trick, attack; Bret, groein to do, act; grofinein to wrap, roll up; 
grouiz garment, shroud; O. C. Eucarpos qui et GiUus (ei-xepi^O »' Gihius, 
Gillius; gronna circle, hoop. 

Sk. hri (harydmi) to be eager, enjoy, love, pray; haryatas dear; 

ghrinas melting pity; ghrinis ray of light. Gk. x^'P^ ^^ be glad; 

Xapi, xipi^a joy; x^9\^'^ j^y of battle; xapox6<; bright-eyed, eager-e3red 
(lion); x«P*»>v lion, eagle, death, Charon, Pauguk; x«F^^ delightful; 
X<ipnj<; fresh papyrus; xdpt<; grace, favor; Xdpv:e<; the Graces (beauty, 
joy, bloom) ; x^P^^K charming; x^^^^ mirth; x^wfvca to melt, be warm, 

affectionate. LslI, grains dear; gratia grace, favor; hires heir (eager) ; 

Osc. herest, Umbr. heriest= volet; Osc. Harentati^Veneri\ Samnite 

Herennius gracious. (Joth. gairnyan to desire, yearn; gairuni desire, 

passion ; gailyan to delight ; golyan to salute ; O. H. G. giri, gif leagemess; 
girdn to desire; O. N. gior desire; gorr better; goela to cheer; gala to 
sing, enchant; graeii compassion, sorrow; grey a favorite dog; grtdh 
peace; A. S. grHan to greet, grasp, play harp; gredtan to weep; grtnan 

to smile, grin. Lith. geretis to enjoy; O. R. zhekUi to wish; R. «fari- 

avai to be gracious; zhaleit to pity, regret; zhelat to desire. Ir. 



— 179 — 

grdd love ; O* Grady ; grind lovely ; grinne nectar ; g^at, gdrait ( W. Geraint) 
hero (x^pfsw); a saint, virgin; gUs timing the harp; Bret, grad favor, 
good will; grizein to be tipsy; glo^h dew; globu sprinkled, scattered; 
gloiz [tears], sorrow; O. C. Gerontona (Gironde); Gerunda; Gerudaiiae 
(nymphs); Garunna. 

Sk. same roots; hri (harishydmi, desid. ^hirshami) to seize, sweep 
away, tear away; hrish {hrishy&mi, cans, harshaydmi) to bristle as 
wild beast with passion, lust, hatred, horror; to desire, enjoy, delight; 
hrishtas happy; hresh to [be in a heat], whinny; hrikh, hri to be ashamed ; 
kr<is to Eoar, soimd; to be [torn], shortened, compressed; krish to tear 
away, scratch, plow; krif to scrape away, thin; krakakas saw; krikkhas 

misery. Gk. xtfpoiQ [bristling], temple of head; xptwi*;, xpt^i?, xtpaii; 

[scratchings, clawings], varicose veins; xpowof fringes, tassels; xpic-xeBov 
[floor-brush], hem of garment; xpiacat [palisades], battlements; xprfxpoa- 
coi bristling^ eager, impetuous; projecting in regular order; xpox(5(; the 
nap of cloth; xptfxY] woof (brushing across warp in regular order); 
xp^xo^ crocus, (shivering up in February, cf . prunus) ; xapxaXlo(; rough, 
fierce; xoepxapo(; with jagged teeth; xapxT^fftov mast-peak; xa>puxo(; 
skin-sack (hairy); x^paS pointed stake, palisade, bristling fence, 
shrub; x^P^^^^ *o sharpen, whet, notch, scratch, goad, exasperate, 

engrave ; xipay\La, xapcfxxi^p scratch, sting, mark, letter. Lat. [horseo]^ 

horreo to bristle, shiver, with dread; horror dread, shiver, rufHed sea; 
horridus bristling, shaggy; hordeum barley (long awns) ; hirsutus hairy; 
[hrista], arista ear of com; crista mane; cockscomb, crest; Crustufner- 
turn palisade- wall ; career [palisade, pen], prison; starter's rope in 
race; [hrusco], corrusco to wave, flicker, rustle, flash (cf. hrid, cordis) \ 
[crisgus], crispus bristling, rippling, curling; crux sharp stake, cross; 

crucio to torture; ac-cerso to sunmion eagerly; accuse. Goth. 

and'hruskan to be eager, explore ; O. N. hross horse (maned) ; hrista 
to brandish; hrts brush- wood; hrokkinn bristling, curly; hrokva to 
be horrified, start, burst; hraekya to pursue, avenge, wreak (bristling 
wolf); A. S. hriscian to shake; hrysca bursting, rushing; [h^isce rush. 
leed; [h}rdscian to shiver, [pounce], be quick, rash; hredh rough, fierce; 
0. Dutch haersch hoarse, harsh; O. H. G. harka rake; A. S. {harge\\ 

hanve harrow. R. krast to sweep away, rob ; krasniy [torn, bloody], 

red; kraska color (cf. Sk. ran^)\ kroshit to tear to pieces; khoroshii 

[toothsome], delightftd, beautiful; kr[v]isha [ridge], roof. Ir. gr^ 

hair, fur; grisaim to excite, rouse; gressacht excitement; do-gress 
to the [point], end; gr(\s\nnach bristling; crech foray; cr^chi wound; 
cairche horse-tail; carric crag; Bret, gres, gers, gerh eager, impetuous; 
kirris shudder; hirrisein to bristle, hMsser; hersein to scratch, drag. 



— 180 — 

harrow; O. C. Gerso; Carc-aso rock-ridge (ais, ^ back) ; Caricus rock; 
CaracO'tinum beacon-cliff. 

Sk. krig to scrape away, thin; krifos lean. Gk. xoXcxivo^ lean; 

xepxCg the shin-bone; weaver's comb; xpt? water-bird. O. Lat. 

cracentes lean; Lat. [cracilis], gracilis slender; career death-pit, starva- 
tion. A. S. kracian to scratch, tear; hracod ragged. R. krokha 

scraps; kroshii to tear, hash. Ir. creek ravaging, plunder; crickt 

a wound. 

Sk. same roots; kresk to neigh; kras, klas to sound; kri (krintte) 
to growl; gark, gar^, kark to revile, threaten; krug (kukroga) to yell, 
revile; krogas cry; krosktus jackall; krdunkas heron; krikas throat; 

krikanas partridge; gkrisktis [rutting] wild-boar; gharmas hot. ZA. 

grants [root gram] enraged. Armen. krunk a crane. Gk. xp^^t^<<^ 

to neigh; xpi(&xTO(jLat to cough; Xpl(iY]g and 2((Ui>"Hawk and SnufiOe; 
XP^lAaSo^ gnashing; xip^vo^ hoarse; xpcot^o) (xpco^o)) to caw; %^t(jii^ 

(xp(S(i>) to creak, screech, gnash. Lat. [kremd], fremo to roar, 

[shudder] (melts with bkram) ; crocio, crocito to caw. -Goth, krukyan 

to crow; [s]kriustan to gnash, hiss, bark; O. N. krdki phlegm; krdsa 
to boast; skrdk war-song; [s]krdka crow; skroekya to howl, sing; 
kldkkva to wail; klukka bell; A. S. cearcian to creak; Eng. to screech, 
shriek; A. S. grimman to snort, be fierce (xpqierRici)) ; grimmetan to 
gnash, rage; grim cruel; O. H. G. gagrim gnashing; Dan. gremt [im- 
petuous] horseman, lover (groom, bridegroom). R. [krom], gram 

thunder; gromkiy pealing, loud voice, famous; kryakat to quack; 

grokhot noise; golos, glas voice; golosit to sing. Ir. gromma satire; 

gldnt outcry, satire; granna horrid; screckim, grechaim to shriek; O. C. 
Grama. 

Sk. same roots; kri, krisk to grasp, rub, excite ; ghrisk to rub, excite, 
rival, rut; ghriskins, ghrishtis boar; ghrin, ghri, gri to grasp, melt, 
drop, glitter, flow; gharmas hot; karmyan fire-pit, hearth, hell; grah, 

glah to grasp; gldi to be [melted], languishing, weary. Gk. X9^]^'^ia 

to touch softly, graze, press near; xpa^o), xpcol^o), xpaiwuiii to 
touch softly, rub with fat, smear, color; xpa)(; skin, complexion, tinge; 
Xpwiia color, embellishment; X9^^'^ surface, complexion; XP^ ^ 
anoint; x^^^» X^'*^^^ ^^ ^ warm, luxurious; XP^^^ to scrape, graze; 
Xolpog pig; YXCxo^xai to cling to, desire (ghrisk); YXfoxpo? sticky, 
viscid, importunate; YXauaao) to glitter; y'ka\jyi.6<; glittering (of sea, 
sky, eye); yXaug owl; y'kot6<;, ypO oil, grease; yXofa glue; fXocic 
wanton; '{\o\j':6<; rump; x^^'^^^ rutting [wild-boar]. Lat. [krio], 



— 181 — 

frio, frico to touch softly, rub, crumble; fritillus dice-box; [here], 
fere, ferme [grazing], almost (xpa(v<i), xpfiixrci)) ; [hlocciis], floccus pinch 
of wool ; [hersum], ferrum iron (smelted) ; formus hot iron (gharmas) ; 
farmidus hot; formtdo sweating terror; for-ceps smith's tongs; fornax 
furnace (ghrin) ; fortius oven; fornix [oven top], arch; gltUen glue; glis 
igliris) dormouse (basking); glis (glitis) clay; glitius smooth; glisco 
to be smooth, luxurious; to grow; gliscerae rich food; \gx<^siis], crassas 

fat. O. N. glya to be merry; glaestr glittering; glaer sea; glda to 

glow; Glasir golden-grove; gler glass; Grani horse of the sim; grannr 
[melted away], lean; grts pig; gdltr wild-boar; A. S. [claev], claeg clay 
(Klei; gri); [graev], graeg gray (dawn-color, glittering; ghri); O. Ger. 

glesum amber. Lith. glitus miry, smooth; R. zhir fat, grease; greit 

to heat; glina clay; gryaz mire; greishit to sin; glukhoi [exhausted], 

deaf; glup[v]i dull; grokhoi dripper, strainer. Ir. gris hot coals, fire; 

grisaim to kindle, excite, blush; grian sim; g^V tallow, fat; gU glit- 
tering; glenim to stick, adhere; gtonn [dripping] wound, sin; grHmm 
force, health, vigor; gorm blue (xp^jia) ; W. gtvrm dusky (gray sky) ; 
gloyw, Bret, gloahein to [polish], sharpen; Bret, gloih dew; groizhlsize, 
heat; O. C. Glevum clear-water; Granno Apollo, sim. 

Sk. hrish to shiver with passion, grip, embrace; ghrish to rub, 
[melt]; ghri to melt, drop, glitter; grah, glah to grasp ; flish to embrace ; 
unite; flok to unite, form; create; flish, frish to bum, [melt]; hrtkus^ 
hlikus tin (melting, glittering, shaping); fulv to cast; gulvam copper; 

gvalk^ fulk to pour out, [flash out], utter. Gk. xahL6<; bronze. 

K R. zheleizo, Lith. gelezhis iron. 

Sk. fc;rt to curve ; ghri to drop ; Wr a, hlra artery, gut, [string, sinew]. 

:. %i^Xeu(ia cord; x^^^'^^ to plait, net. Lat. hira, hilla gut, 

sausage; hernia; haru-spex, Aart-o/tw diviner by viscera; helluo greedy- 
gut. O. N. garnir guts; gam string, net, yam. Lith. zharna 

gut; R. zhila vein, [gut], sinew. Ir. grind, grinne band, withe. 

Sk. same roots; ghri, gri, ghrin to warm, melt, drip, glitter; ghrinas, 
gkrinis heat, sunshine ; grishmashot, summer; gharmashesit ; gldi to[melt 
away], exhaust; gldnis languor; ^ar to melt with fever, pine; ^al 
to bum; fftald simlight, girl; ^rl to [boil], digest, [melt away], grow 
old; gal to [melt], flow away; vi-gal to rush, be torrential, impetuous; 
go/ to be [drained], exhausted, old ; galas- (in compounds) water, spring- 
water, melting snow; hence (cf. 'Ki'{0<; frost, ictjytJ spring) cold, frozen, 
dull. 



— 182 — 

Sk. same roots; ghri, ghrin to melt, glitter; ghrinis sun-beam; 
fuar, gual to melt, bum; iJtald stmlight, girl; fftilis grasshopper 

(summer-lover). Gk. yaXi^vi) [stmlight on the water], calm sea; 

glittering lead-ore; yeXdci) to be cheerful, smile, laugh; faX&x;, Phryg. 
YdEXepo? sister-in-law; Gk. yXtJvi) girl, eye, one's ipiage in another's 
eye, pupilla; yXt)vo(; star, beauty, wonder; f'kapl<; smoothing-chisel. 

Lat. glos sister-in-law; gUxrea glittering pebble; {glariis}, clams 

clear, bright, limpid; [Glanis], Clanis clear-water. A. S. claene 

bright, clean ; O. H. G. chleini, Ger. klein delicate, small {pupilla) ; O. N. 

Grant Siegfried's horse; klidr smooth pebble, loom-weight. R. 

gran facet of gem; glyaneiz polish, lustre; zreit to ripen; zreiliy ripe; 

ssreit to glance, see; zreinie sight; greit to warm; glaz eye. Ir., W. 

glan clear, bright, pure; Ir. gUint to make clear; glinn clear, manifest; 
poetry; glain crystal; gledtr, gluair bright, transparent, pure; gU glit- 
tering; Mod. Ir. gallad girl; Bret, gleu charcoal; O. C. Glanna4ina 
clear flame; G^/anna 6 rivers; Ambo'glanae, Glann-ibanta clear stream 
(abann). 

Sk. ghri, ghrin to melt, drip, water, glitter; ghrinis sun-beam; 
harinas, hariias, harit, haris blooming, verdant, green, yellow, tawny; 

haris horse of Indra (cf. Grani); gduras yellow; gduri girl. Zd. 

zairi yellow, gold-color (cf. Heb. yraqraq golden, verdant). Gk. 

xX6/t] fresh verdure, grass, leaves; xku^^6<; fresh, blooming, verdant, 
green, sallow, pale, yellow; xXejiupa verdant (Hesych.); Phryg. I^iXxta 

herbs. Lat. helvus greenish yellow; [herva], herba grass; gilvus 

honey-yellow; helvola, helfus, holus, olus herb, salad, vegetable; 

[xXofii;], flauus yellow; [falvas], fulvus tawny. O. N. guUr^ A. S. 

geolo, O. Eng. yelwe yellow; CJer. \gelwe\ gelb; O. H. G. grdyu, gruoyu, 
O. N. grda (p. p. grdinn) to be verdant, grow; O. N. gras grass; groen 

green; gron moustache (growth). Lith. zheliu to bloom; zholi 

grass; zhalies green; gelias yellow; O. R. zhlutu yellow; R. zeleneit to be 

verdant; zelen verdure, vegetables; zheld holly; zheltit to be yellow. 

Ir. gel white, gleaming; gU glittering; glass yellow, green, blue (grass, 
sunny sky ; form ghrish) ; grend hair, beard ; Com . glas'tannen green-oak, 
live-oak; glestum woad; Bret, gel orange, russet, bay; geUein to [grow], 
be vigorous, able ; g/a«adfir verdure ; du\b\glas dark blue; O.C. Gellius, 
GelUma; Gel-dtiba (white and black; gray); Glassi'cu, Cuno'glassos 
greyhound of the dawn; (cf. main'cu, Mancunium, Mungo). 

Sk. ghri, ghrin to melt, drip, glitter; haris, harinas gleaming, yellow; 

hiranam, hiranyam gold. Zd. zaranu, zaranya gold. Gk. xpua<(;, 

Xpudfov gold, golden; xXouv6(; gold (Hesych.); Phryg. YXoupi<; gold. 



— 183 — 

Lat. gloria (melts with gru, p. 156). Goth, gulth gold; O. N. 

gull gold; guUinn golden. R. zreit to glance; zarya the dawn; O. R. 

slato gold; Lith. zhereti to glitter. 

Sk. hrish to bristle with passion, horror, to desire; ghrd to snuS, 
scent; ghrdnas scent, nose; ghurn to breathe, blow, qiiiver, whirl; 

ghur to shriek; ghoras horrible ; ghrishiis boar. Gk. fpiacioi; war-cry; 

Tfpdooi; stench; filth; TP'i^^. ypuXflici) to grumble, grunt. Lat. 

yragro [ghraghra] to be fragrant; fragum strawberry. O. H. G. 

gjrunni a groan; A. S.grunan to grunt. R. zhurit to grumble, scold; 

gjrokhoi noise. Bret, groahennein to sparkle, crackle. 

Sk. gfeff, gAfifi to drip, melt; ^ar to [melt], pine with fever; ^al 
"to bum; ^pcUd flame; gal to flow away, be exhausted, old [torrent in 
summer]; m-gal to gush forth, be impetuous [mountain torrent]; 
^argaras whirlpool; ^alam water, torrent, snow-water; ^alas cold; 
fwhirling, dizzy], mad; galas, [channel], throat; gallas jaw; [gvald], 
£dld round jug; golas ball; guli pill; gldi to trickle, exhaust; giants 

exhaustion; gldsnus weary. Gk. T^PT^po? throat (Hesych.); 

7ap')fapecov the tonsil; Yapyapflici) to gargle; iydXkfa to rejoice, exult 
(diintens.); y4XXo(; eimuch (drained); yauXig bowl, ship; faXkri weasel 
pong-throat]; yuAXtj cup (gva/); yuaXov round vessel, hollow, roimd 

sky; YXajtupig with nmning eyes. Lat.gelu cold, frost; gelidus cold; 

guto throat ; gurgulio glutton ; gwrg^^ whirlpool ; gallus cock (impetuous) ; 
galenius crested ; galerus, galea pltuned helmet ; gramia, glamae ophthal- 
mia ; Gal-aesus (gushing fountain) . O. N. kala, kdlna to be cold ; kaldr 

cold, perishing; kelda fountain, swamp (flowing, draining); kioll keel, 
ship (trough, dug-out canoe) ; A. S. cvelan, Dutch kwelen to languish, 
die; Dan. qualm steam, smoke, suffocation, heat, nausea; A. S. cvellan, 
0. N. kvelya, O. H. G. quelian to kill by inches, torture, quell ; O. N. 
kveld evening (dying away) ; O. H. G. quillu to well up ; qu^llA fountain ; 

kila throat; kdl bald; chol, A. S. col burning ember, coal. R. 

[ug'gol\^ ugol coal (v. p. 4) ; goreit to bum; zharit to roast; gar burnt, 
gorshok pot; goryakka fever; golodat to starve ; gorej gol misery; gol{v]ish 
cobble-stone (water-washed) ; kholod cold ; chill ; Lith. shaltas cold ; shala 
it freezes; galu to [dash, gush], be able; galybe power; per-gale victory. 

Ir. giial coal; gUiala shoulder (roimd socket) ; guirim to heat, bum; 

gur pus; giire anguish; guilim to weep; gol weeping; galar [wasting] 
fever; goll blind (lippus); gal [dashing] valor; gall cock, swan; geiU, 
W. givylU, Com. guil wild, mad, impetuous; Gildas (Bret. GueUas); 
Gael, gal smoke, heat, a gale; Bret, gouilein, ouilein, to weep; gouliein 
to pour out, empty; goallein to lack; goal woe, harm; gouli [bleeding] 



— 184 — 

wound; garein to heat, hatch eggs, be inflamed; gor fire-wood, absoess, 
brood; gellein to be able; O. C. Galli, valiant; Galatae (gal^kUae; Ir. Idih 
hero) ; Gaulanus. 

Sk. hri to grasp, desire ; hvri to [grasp, embrace, encircle], be curved ; 
ghrd to scent, [pant after]; ghilrn to pant, blow, whirl about; gur, 
guru, gut to seize, sweep away, assault, devour, kill; to sweep aloft, 
lift high ; \gurv\, garv to [curvet], be proud ; gurus (fern, gurvi^ comp. 
gariyas) heavy; exalted, honored; fyi to [be swept together], meet; 
gramas throng, village; grdmyos civilized, tame; hri to grasp, be eager; 
to sweep away, [roar], shout, praise; grl to devotir, chew; fyi to 
digest; to be [chewed], worn out, old; fftri to grow old; iaras, ^ard old 
age; ^irnas old; ^r to kill, be old, worn out; to regret; ^rv to kill; 
^ri to conquer; to grow old; ^ri to [bite] off, shorten; ^ar^aras torn, 
lacerated, worn out; ^ribh, ^rimbh to [yawn upon prey], open mouth; 
galbh to be [ravening], audacious; [to roar]; ^alp, klap to speak; gar^ 
to roar, shout, blame; garh, Mark, ^ark, ^ar^ to revile; grah, glah to 
grip, seize, bear off; gruM, gluk to steal. 

Sk. gri (girdnti gildmi, perf. iagdra) to devour, swallow, drink; 
garas-^in compounds) de votuer, drink ; gur, gras, glas to eat ; giris, girikd 
mouse (nibbler); girnis devouring; gridh to desire; redup. grin^anas 

[tid-bit], garlic. Gk. ypio) to gnaw,eat; Ypd)vo(;[eaten-out], cavernous; 

[f/tY/pcjoxo)], ^(^pa>ox(i>, ^6^pa>6(i> to devour; ^opi fodder; ^op6<; devour- 
ing; ^pa>(&a food ; ^p<i>Ti^peater;^XXI*^opo^ dizzy-food, hellebore; (AovSpa- 
y6pa<; sleeping-food, mandragora; ^dpoOpov, t^lpeOpov [devourer], death- 
pit; redup. yiy^paiya horrid-gnawing, gangrene; yi'kfK: garlic. Lat. 

[guorus], carni'Vorus flesh-eater; vorax devouring; vorare to swallow; 
vordgo, gurges devouring whirlpool, gulf, maw; glutire to swallow (guru, 
gulv, gluv); in-gluvies gullet; gurgulio glutton. O. N. kraken sea- 
monster (tearing, devouring; karkar); krds dainties; Eng. crack, 

crunch. Lith. gerti to drink; gerkle throat; O. R. zhreiti to devotir; 

grulo throat; R. zhrat to devour; zhrane voracity; zhertva sacrifice; 

glotat to devour; gorlo, gortan gullet; gr[v]izt to gnaw, torment. Ir. 

gelim to swallow, devour, graze; gelt^boih fodder; gorta, hunger; gert 
milk; [groes], crdes gluttony, maw, gulf ; garg fierce ; gerraim to [bite off], 
shorten; gerr short; gairr, W. garr, Cor. gar (plu. garrow), Bret, garr 
shin-bone, shank, calf, (gnawed; jarret); Bret, gargusen maw; garH 
voracious, fierce; O. C. Garrius, Garricus, Gargo-rix. 

Sk. hri to grasp; ghrd to pant after; gri to devour; gras, glas to 
grasp, eat; glah, grah {grahdmi, grihndmi desid. iighrikshi) to grasp. 



— 185 — 

take, perceive, hear; caus. grahaydmi to cause to take, [hear]; ni-grah 
to stop; glahas playing dice; griham [possession], home, wife; gruM^ 

|/«J to steal; gilagrdhas crocodile. Gk. yXcox^^J ears of com; fpaanq 

fodder, grass; fXfxoiiat to cling to, strive after, desire (melts with hrish) ; 
fXiixiq sweet; YXeOxo? must; yX4xo<;, y\i'xo<;, ydXa {^iXooK.xoq) milk 
{glah to grasp, [milk], cf . nirig, mulgeo) ; YXwcjcia tongue (hungry) ; 

tXwx^? tongue of strap, point of arrow. Lat. glacies ice (gripping, cf . 

xiy^? ice, xijfvuiii) ; [g\lac milk; glocio to cluck; [g]racemus bimch of 

grapes? grassar to assail; gra[s\men grass. Goth, klikan to [keep, 

guard], brood on eggs; kalkinassus snugness, lewdness; A. S. clyster 
clenched fist ; cluster ; Dan . klase bunch of grapes ; klissen to be entangled ; 

Eng. to clutch, clinch, cluck. R. grozd cluster, tuft, bunch of grapes. 

Ir. glacaim to take, receive; glac palm of hand; glac-saiged arrow- 
holder, quiver; glicce, [gelg\,celg dexterity, skill, cleverness, craft, deceit; 
^h short-sword (gripped); gleic [dexterity], wrestling, boxing; gUs 
tuning of the harp; griss art, skill; attack (p. 178); [holding on], 
^'gress to the end; cless feat, trick, exhibition of skill; Bret, [glaskein], 
*fa^A^n to seek eagerly; krogein to grip; Ar(7g wrestler's trick; krougein 
^ throttle, hang; gloestr pledge, possession, vessel; glahar [gripping] 
sorrow; O. C. Galgacus, Calgacus (celgach skilful, wary) ; Glagus. 

Si. gri (grindmi) to [roar], cry with opened mouth, chant, praise; 

^r, £ird call, speech. Zd. gar to sing, praise. Gk. YiQpuci) to 

^^'U.t;, chant, utter, sing, celebrate; T^pu^; voice; r-rip\j6vt\<; thunder-god 
^ho shuts up the cloud-cows during summer drought; tltt'^cipo<; fife. 

I^t. garrio to be talkative; garrulus. O. H. G. kurra, quiru to 

^'^^'Xi, chatter; kirru to rattle; challdn to chatter; kaldn to call; O. N. 

'^^^lt<^ to call; kurra to [growl], mutter; A. S. cursian to curse. Lith. 

i^'^€zs voice; garsus loud; gyra fame. R. zhurit to speak sternly; 

i^^ol speech, words; glasit to proclaim. Ir. gdir speech, call; 

J^'<^cm'gur to command; [frith garini], fre'craim to answer; [do-], to- 

^^*»"»»i invocation; gdire laughter; Bret, gervel, galiiein to call; garmein 

^ ^^x^ ; g4r word ; garii stem. 

Sk. gri to roar, sound; redup. gri^, gari, garh, galk, Mark, iark, ^harB 

b^^^ , ihar^h, ^ar^, iar^h to revile . Arm. krunk a crane . Gk. '{opy6 q 

"C^Xie, wild; FopYci winter-demon, storm-wind; fXi'C.tt) to chant; yp^^^^ 

^ ^^tiutter, grumble. Lat. Garganus, Gargilius fierce, wild, stem. — ^- 

0- ^. krdka crow; kiarkr force, courage, defiance; A. S. cracetan to 

^^'^^^k; cearcian to creak, crash, gnash, thimder (melt with p. 180). 

^- garkcU to shout, quarrel; grozit to threaten; groza storm, terror, 



— 186 — 

threat; zhurkcU to grumble. Ir. garg fierce; Bret, jalgaud scolder; 

O. C. Gergesus, Gergovia, Gorgonius. 

Sk. gri to cry (cf. garrio, quiru), Gk. Yipovo^ crane; fepotviov 

crane-neck, geranitim. Lat. grus crane; gruo, ingruo to yell, be 

dreadftd; grunnio to [growl], grunt (wild-boar); graUae [crane's legs], 

stilts (cf. Lith. gerveli). O.H.G. ckranuk, A. S. cran crane. Lith. 

gervi (dim. gerveli) crane; garnys stork; O. R. zheravi crane. Ir. 

(redup) . giw-^an wild-goose ; Cor. garan crane ; Bret, garz gander; O. C. 
gar anus crane. 



Sk. sri to speed ; svri, fti to hurl, dash, kill ; kri to grasp, be impetu- 
ous; hvri to [embrace], curve; gur (gurami, gorami), guru (gurvami, 
^ugurva) to whirl away, carry off'; ava^gur to pounce, attack; gur, 
guru to kill, devour, whirl away, whirl on high, lift up ; garv to be proud ; 
garuas pride ; garuaras proud ; gurus (fem. gurui, comp. gariyas) exalted, 
honored, heavy; [^rud], grwd neck, head; girts [ridge], mountain (cf. 

dorsum). Zd. gar honor; garanh reverence. Gk. fi^at; honor, 

privilege, dignity; [to^plyo^], ifepafpci) to honor, celebrate; [Tap/]i 
yauptoEd) to prance, arch the neck, be proud; faupo^ proud, skittish; 
YwpuTi? quiver; [fap/ug, ffapix;], ^a^iq stem, severe, strong, heavy, 
weary, grievous; ^ap&i>, ixi^ap&i>, Arcad. Ixtt^apici) to weigh down; 
^p(dti> to be mighty; Bptapia)^ gravitation, natural force, helper of 
Zeus against Titans; he was an Atlas, supporting the disk of the earth 
with his htmdred hands; ^p(6(i> to weigh down, preponderate; ^pEt^o) 
to be heavy, dull, sleepy; ^paSug (comp., sup. ^pdaaG>v, ^ipScoroO 

[weighted down], dull, tardy, slow {dt, gravidus) . Lat. gravis heavy; 

gravitas weight; gravidus weighted; ingruo to assail, crush; gravida 
torpor; grassus, crassus heavy, stout, fat; brOtus dull, heavy; grandis 

tall, old; grandiloquentia arrogance. Goth. kaHryan to weigh 

down ; kaiirs heavy; kaHreins, kaiiritha weight ; karon to be anxious, care 

for; Eng. coarse, R. gtrya weight (of scales) ; gora mountain (giris) ; 

gruzit to weigh down; gruz cargo; [geru], gerb [dignity], coat-of-arms; 

glava, golova head (gurvi); Lith. galva head (but cf. garbhas). Ir. 

goire reverence, religion; [garv], garb fierce [wind]; grHmm might, 
force ; in-grennim to press upon, pursue {ingruo) ; [guor], borr haughty, 
proud; Ir., Cot., Bret, bras large, stout (grassus); Ir. barr, gart head; 
W. garth headland; 0. C. Goreus; Boresti. 

Sk. hvri to [grasp], to be bent, curved; gur, gur, guru (iugurva) 
to lift up, whirl away, attack; garut wing; gri (^dgarmi) to rouse, wake 



— 187 — 

^P» i^orti wakefulness; iagrivis awake. Zd. gar to watch. Gk. 

Ifclpo) to rouse, wake; to raise, lift up; lypi^Yopa to awaken, be awake, 
watchftd; Yptiyopfci) to watch; lyepm<; a waking, raising; iyepxC 

busily. Lat. grassor (inceptive) to assail, pillage, carryoflE? O. N. 

keyra to hurl; Ger. Keil shaft, javelin, thunderbolt. 

Sk. same roots; hvri to be curved; gur, gur, guru (^ugurva) to whirl 
away, sweep away, lift high ; ^ri (^ardmi) to sweep together, draw near, 
approach ; ^ardyus womb (globing, shaping) ; ^arathas [collected], con- 
crete, hard; gravan cobble-stone, soma-crusher (revolving, grinding 
cf- &T^\ gramas crowd, village; grdmyas [folded], tame; gargaras 

whirlpool. Gk. yuprfci) to round, bend, circle; Yupo(; circle, ring; 

1f6pYopa [vortex, sinking river], conduit, sewer, subterranean dtmgeon; 
Y upi? well-ground, fine meal ; Yapyafpci) to swarm, be crowded ; df eCpo) 
to gather, assemble (4 synthetic) ; dyopi assembly, market-place ; fiyupig 
crowd; fiyupK; collected water, pool; T^TTPo? conger-eel (circling, 
coiling) ; 70776X0? globing; yo77(5XX(i) to round ; Yi^yXtov tumor, knot of 
nerves; YfTTXuiio<; hinge; yIXyi? head of garlic; FpaCot, FpaCxot 
Greeks (roaming, assembling); YpOvi(; fagot, bundle; [hvri\ xop6(; a 
rotind dance; a drctilar dancing place; xopeijo) to dance rotmd; 
X«po?, X*ip«iX^'®^[circtunference, border, limit], definite place, estate; 
region; x^P'^ separate, apart; x^P^^ ^^ distinguish; x^P^^ to circle 
round, come about, come to pass; to turn aside, make room, depart; 
to encompass, contain; XP^^®<5 [circling] time {gkurn to whirl, p. 176); 

X^pTO? enclosure (p. 177). Lat. groma sim-dial, theodolite; grumus 

grits; can'gruo to fit together (fold in fold); granum grain; (redup.) 
grex (gregis) flock; e-gregius out of the common, excellent; gregaiint 

crowded; Qwri, [/tari^a]), area, circular threshing-floor. O,'^, keyra to 

whirl, htirl, thrust; ker roimd tub; (redup.) krdkr hook, crook, comer; 
kyrkya to throttle ; kringa to round ; kringr circle ; kringla disk; krdngr, 
krdng twisted, crippled; A. S. cringan to be hurled down; Ger. kriegen 
to grasp, win; if rieg war; Krug round jug; Kragen collar; Goth, qairrus 

[in the fold], tranquil, quiet, easy; O. N. krdken sea-serpent. 

R. gulyat to roam round, idle; gurt flock, herd; guriit to circle ; gurtom 

en masse; \gtirud\, gurba crowd, band. Ir. graig a troop; Bret. 

gaurvein to coil up, lie down (of animals) ; be lazy. 

Sk. gri to devour; ^i (^ardmi fyindmi, ^rydmi, p. p. ^rnas, caus. 
^araydmi) to [chew, grind up], digest; to be ground, worn out, ex- 
haustedy old; ^i to conquer; to be old; ^rv, ^iri to kill; fftri to grow 
old; ^arant old; ^aranas old, feeble; iaras, ^ard old age; ^ar^aras torn, 
worn out; iardyus cast snake-skin; iii/ris fragile; ghur (ghurye) to slay; 



— 188 — 

grow old. Zd. zaurva old age. Gk. ylpcjv old man; Yfpovre? elders 

[^ardyas] YpiQw^;, ypoda, Ypau<; [wrinkled] old woman; milk-skin; raisin 
crab (casting shell); yputt),y<Xyt] worn-out trash; ypD^iia rag-bag; Y^pa< 
old age ; snake-skin . The snake is the s3mibol of Aesculapius ; casting oi 

the infirmity. Lat. granum a grain. Goth, kaiimo a grain; kaHn 

com; qaimus, (A. S. cveorn, O. N. kvdm) hand-mill; O. N. kerlin 
carline, old woman; klArr work-horse; A. S. cearu care; cearcian U 

wear, worry, cark; ceaman to chum. Lith. gima. Boh. zerna, R 

zhemov mill, mill-stone; Lith. zirnis, R. zerno a grain. Ir. gerrdi 

work-horse; \glar\ cldr [worn], smooth, flat; Bret, groah old woman 
groahen wrinkle ; groan gravel. 

Sk. sri, Qfi to hurl, smite, harm; sribk, sribh to harm; gri to devour 
^i to be [chewed], digested; [causative form ^rip]] ifibh, ^rimbh t< 
yawn (wild-beast for prey); sam^ut'^rimbh to [snap at], make ai 

effort; vi-^rimbh to yawn, open, spread out; ^rimbhanas blooming. 

Gk. fpofii) [to yawn, potmce, grip], scratch, draw, write; Ypa9((; chisel 
needle, point, [claw]; fp6a^o<; dart; yXd^xi) to scratch earth (of animal) 
dig hole, hollow; yXd^u den, cavern; YXa9upi(; hollow, smooth; fXu^c 
to carve, scrape, polish; yXuxnji; sculptor; ypu^p griffin; Ypu^* eagle 
beaked, curved; YpIxo<; haul of fish (grip, prey); TP^9o? creel, tangle 

catch, enigma; Ypfecqjia gain; Yprf^iov torch (firmly held). Lat 

glilbo to peel; glutna pod; glaber smooth, bald; gleba clod (plowed) 

O. H. G. kliobhan, O. N. kliufa, A. S. cleofan to cleave, spli 

[form ^rip]] O. H. G. chliban, A. S. clifan to [grip], adhere, cleave to 
A. S. cleofcliS (rupes) ; O. N. kraptr, A. S. crdft strength, skill, cunninj 
(of claw, hand); O. N. kriupa to creep (cf. kindred serpo); krefyn 
to grasp, crave; kremya to press, weaken; Ger. krumm bent; Eng 
to crumble; A.S. clyppan to embrace., grip, [tear], clip; A.S. ceorfan t< 

carve. Lith. grabe digging; R. po^grebat to bury; grobnitza grave 

zhelobit to hollow, groove ; greben comb (scratcher) ; greblo rake ; grabit t( 

rob; g/u6 depth. It, grip, grib swift [clutch]; 5^i6 scratch; [grib], crii 

a comb; ^Wm a mouthful; gu/ba beak; O. W. gilb beak, auger; Bret 
golvinoc beaked; grafri^o/ to scratch; [golban], golvan sparrow (pecking) 
krib comb, crest. 

Sk. hvri to encircle, bend; hri to grasp; ^n6fe to yawn for, spreac 
wide, open, pour out; garbhas opening bud; interior of house; womb 

fetus; gridh to [yawn], be himgry. Zd. garewa fetus. Gk. [f/ep^ 

Y/eX9], BeXfoC, AeX^of womb of earth, umbilicus terrarum, mephiti 
cavern, gulf of Hades (cf. $o)x(<;, (pwxt) p. 47); ihzkiif6<: (i s)mthet. 
of the same womb, legitimate brother (Sk. sa-garbhyas brother) 



— 189 — 

iiXfo^ young pig (fettis, litter) ; SeX^fi;, Aeol. ^%k^l<: dolphin (belly- 
ing, rounded, cf. 9<&xy]); ^p^og fetus, baby, cub; ypoiiyi? a sow. 

Lat. [gerbmanus], gemtanus of the same womb, brother; gennen germ; 
grmium bosom, lap, fold ; glomero, con^globo to roll up ; glomus ball 
of yam; globus rotmded mass; Galba fat-belly, patmch; delubrum 

shrine (cf. Ir). Goth, kalbd, O. N. kalfr calf; O. N. kalfi calf of leg 

(rounded) ; A. S. crop crop of bird, belly (Eng. crop-sick) ; crybb bin, 
manger, round hut, cradle; crympan to roll up, crimp; cramp; O. N. 
klumpr clump, turf; kroppr rotmded body, rump, crupper; krappr 
twisted, tight; Goth. kiUhei womb (gridh); in-kiUho pregnant; A. S. 

ciWchild. O. R. zhreibi, zhreibitzi foal, cub ; R. zhrebii lot, fate (poured 

out, cast); glava, golova [rotmd] head; chief, (cf. Zd. garewa) ; goluboi 

[arch of heaven], sky-blue ; golub [plump] pigeon ; gorb htmch-back. 

Ir. \golbthcu:h], colbthach heifer; cilfin belly; [delvaim], delbaim to rotmd, 
shape, form; delb (W. delu) form, image {delubrum); derb brother- 
gennan, of the same womb; certain, stire. 



Sk. ri to speed, whirl up; sri to speed, eddy; svri to lift up voice, 
chant; svrl to htirl, shoot ; kuri to whirl, ctu^e ; vri (vrinomi) to [revolve, 
encircle], stirrotmd, cover, wrap, [embrace], choose ; vri (vdraydmi) to 
[sunound, enclose], guard (as shepherd), ward off, prevent; vri 
{vrifidmi)^ var (yaraydmi) to choose, wish, seek in marriage; vri, vri, 
if* to choose; vli to grasp, choose; vir to [whirl aloft, tower aloft, 
brandish], be heroic; mras hero; reed; viranam fragrant grass; vel, veil 
^ whirl, swing about; vel to count [revolving] time. 

Sk. vri {vrinomi, p. p. vritas) to surrotmd, cover, wrap; pra'vri to 
''^p, clothe; vi-vri to tmwrap, open; vya^vri to enclose, guard; vri 
{^raydmi, p. p. vdritas) to enclose, guard, be shepherd; vdrc^ circle, 
defense, fold, breadth, space, [revolving] time, [recurring, passing] 
^portunity; [globing] crowd; vdr, vdri water (cf. ambhas); Varunas 
^^cean, Nepttme, [circling flood]; [varmis], urmis rolling wave; arnu to 
^^p, cover; urnam wool; blanket, ram; uramis ram; urus [rotmded] 
thigh; urus (comp. variyas) broad [horizon, circle], great, very; vol 
^ encircle, wrap, cling to; valayas ring-wall, bracelet; [valam], bcUam 
strength, protection, army; vydlas [coiling, darting] snake; vel, veil 
to whirl, swing about; veld circimiference, limit, border, time ; varutram 
^rap, outer garment; variUham defence, coat-of-mail ; d-varanam cover, 
shield; vol, bal, vail to stirrotmd, wrap, embrace, cling to, stick, love, 
nurttire; voitovos shepherd; valyul to twist off, wrench away; vran^ 
^on to htu-1, wotmd; to hurl the voice, utter (cf. svri) ; vranas wotmd; 



— 190 — 

yarn to stain, color (cf . ran^) ; [var'Var, varv], urv to hiirl, shoot, kill; 
ullolas rolling wave; ulvam [wrapped] cavern, womb, vidva; tUvanas 
unfolded, mar if est; bal to whirl, disturb, impede; to wrench off; to 
roam, htmt, explore; bul to be whelmed, stmk; balam force; balukd 

gravel. Zd. -var to keep out; vara garden; varcUha defence. Gk. 

[varv, valv] efXuG) to wind, bend, wrap, cover; eTXtjiJWt vail; eTXw, ttkba, 
eTXXd), TX>^ to wind, roll, twist, whirl, revolve, wander; roll the eye; 
TXXo(; eye; TXt) gathering, crowd, troop; cfXa-xfvi) drinking-party, feast; 
[XXi(; rope, bond; oiXig twisted, wrinkled; oBXo? corn-sheaf, mazy 
[dance] ;twining[vine]; woolly ; /I/ouXco Ceres; TouXo(;sheaf;down; youth; 
{*Ayxiari<; the lightning [attfu whirling spoke, ray, sun-beam], husband 
of Aphrodite like Hephaestus, and like him hurled, blasted, crippled, 
is father of Aiyia<; the spring rain (oIvo(;) and grand&ither of louXo^ 
(fleecy cloud, grass) on whose head the fire of heaven [lightning, sun] 
rests) ; Iptov, elpo(; wool (urnam) ; /lXii(;, !Xog swamp, low-land (water- 
gathering, prairie-sink, palus); iXivT) twisted torch; etkt6<; vine, 
den, cramp in bowels; ECXeCOuta (speed the pang; {6u(i>) goddess of 
child-birth ;'nXXT]v roamer (cf.^Cl)v) ; /Al/oXet(; wanderers; AToXo? veerer; 
altfXXci) to whirl, shift, glitter, variegate; iXXi-^opo? giddy-food, 
hellebore; iX(aa(i> to wheel, whirl, eddy, dance; /IXXepo(; [twisted], evil; 
BeXXepo96vTT)(; slayer of evil; the spring, destroyer of Xfixatpa (hiems), 
winter, winter-dragon, cramp-day; the Chimaera is goat-homed like 
Capricorn to express the solstice; Amalthaea and Thor*s goats are 
summer-solstice; !Xt5 twist, whorl, coil, flash, tendril, curl; IXtvtSu 
to [coil up], rest; iXeXEt^o) to whirl, shake, brandish; IXeXeu war-shout; 
IXauvca (IXi^Xoxa) to whirl, hurl, dart, strike, speed, drive; IXcrri^p driver; 
rotmd cake [discus] ; i^Xoexdrt) distaff, windlass, arrow, mast-head; 
i^Xdeoxd), i'kio\iat to circle, roam, wander, be perplexed, lost; dcXa6g 
blind; &Xu(i> to be mad; iXcTaCvca to err, sin; i^Xe6(;, i^X(0(og distracted, 
crazed, silly; (&eT*aXXd(i> to htmt, search; (ieT*aXXe(j(i> to bore, sink shaft, 
explore ; (UraXXov mine ; dXlo) to grind, bray ; fiXeupov flour ; o6Xa( groats; 
8X(iO(; mortar; oBXov gums (grinders); [foXofO(;], 6\o6<;, ouXo^c, 
oi\6\Levo<; grinding, annihilating, destructive (cf. mri, p. 95); 6XXu|U 
to destroy, make an end; vidXqjig incessant, tmending (prefix vl(i> to 
revolve) ; ouXo? incessant, real; curling, woollen; cjXIvy] elbow (revolving 
socket-joint); [faXXci)], ^iXXo) to hurl, throw; xept-^oEXXci), i^i-^dXkia to 
wrap, robe, encircle, coil, perplex; (Sk. balam force) ^oXi^ throw, cast, 
wotmd, glance; ^IXog dart, bolt, lightning, death; ^iXGcvog acorn 
(hurled down, cf. glans); [fifo\o<;], ^l^Xoq [wrapping], bark, scroll, 
book; ^ouXog bowel; ^ok^6<; bulb (concentric); ^Xog clod, Itimp; 
^ak^lq circle, battlements, lap in race-course, goal, starting-line; 
Phryg. ^aXXi^v king (balam) ; elX&i) to contain, cramp, pack tight, col- 



— 191 — 

lect; dXop shelter, break-water; ffiiko<; [palisade, tent-pin], nail 
(yaXXo? JIesych,\^vallus, vallum) ; xpdxTjXo? [ttirning-pin, pivot], neck; 
ixecXiiii to [hurl, shoot], drive out, ward off, threaten; &X(oxo(i(zt 
(UXttv) to be caught [in hunting-net], won, destroyed; dv*aX(oxo(JLat 
[4v-neg.) to [allow to escape], neglect, squander; dX(i>i), fiXax; enclosure, 
garden, orchard; round ocean; circular threshing-floor; coiled snake, 
nest, disk; tipu^(urus), [circling], wide-spread, broad; 6&p(jv(i> to dilate, 
spread abroad, widen; eup(ox(i> (Y]8pT)(iat) to [roam, htint], discover, 
find; 8po^, [ipfoq], Sp^o^ circumference, limit, border; oSpov range, 
space, cast of quoit; Maced.? ^api(; fort; SpO(; motmtain (motmtain- 
wall, protection cf . Berg, Burg, Feld, fjeld) ; [fopEa<;], Bopia<; north- 
TOid (from Thracian motmtains); 'Yxep-^4peoi beyond the north-wind, 
people of paradise; o5po(;, fiipavo(; watchman, guardian; o5po(; wild 
bull (glaring; on guard, cf. fiXxt)); 'OploTT)(; day-star, watchman of 
8^-gate; Ifopo^ overseer; dpoEo) (ia>poexa) to watch, see; (opeijo) to guard, 
protect; (upelov guard-house, fort, granary (horreum); ^dtpK; tower, 
palace; f^ly6<; shield, hide (YpIvo(; Hesych.); TaXi/:ptvo(; shield- 
bearing; &pa care, concern, regard; 6X(Y-G>pl(i> to esteem lightly; &pa 
quarter of heaven, [revolving period], season, period of life, harvest, 
manhood, hotu*; £)paiO(; seasonable, blooming, beautiful (melts with 
fr p. 114) ; 'Qp((i>v Orion, circling winter constellation, slain by Artemis 
(return of nature in spring) , and sent tmder grotmd when the asphodel 

blooms in May (tmder the daisies). Lat. redup. volvo to roll; 

vcimen roll, coil; voliUo to revolve, whirl, wallow; ad^ulor to cringe, 

fawn; adulter [crawling, snaky], adulterer; the root produces the ter- 

ininations -/f/is, -bilis of revolution, ease, possibiUty ; versai-ilis^volu- 

to, missile] -bulum, -brum are terminations of instruments (^aXXo); 

melt with 9ip(i>, 9upici>) ; voliur [wheeling] vulture ; voUus face (ttuning 

On neck); volo to fly, speed, potmce; [vivolo], viola to poimce, injure; 

veUtes slingers (^tXoO; velox [hurled], swift; volucer fleet; vulnus 

[shot], wotmd {vran) ; voldtus fall ; vola palm of hand (nimble) ; folim 

of yore (rolling time); vulva womb (ulvam); ulva sedge (twisted, 

oXocvoO; valva swinging door; vela to wrap, fold, clothe, reef; velum 

veil, sail; ov-Ue fold; equ-ile paddock, stable (eCXio) to crowd together) ; 

Villa to twist off, pluck; veUus fleece; tjer^vex wether (fleece-bearer, 

Ipcov); [varva], barba beard; bullio to [roll up, bubble], boil; bulla 

bubble, globe, medal; balbus stammering; [balvo], bdla to bleat; [ver— 

tunia], verbena sacred plant (wreathed); viriae bracelets; veru spit 

(revolving); [vi'Vro], vibro to whirl, shake; varius whirling, shifting, 

particolored, striped (aitfXXo)) ; varix striped with ptirple veins; varicose; 

vermis worm (IX(i.(y(;); vallum ring-wall; uls, ultra beyond limits; 

vallus palisade, stake, peg; [valteus], balteus ^Tdle^ belt; varus [roimd- 



— 190 — 

varn to stain, color (cf. ran^); [var*var, varv], urv to hiirl, shoot, kill; 
uUolas rolling wave; ulvam [wrapped] cavern, womb, vulva; tUvanas 
unfolded, marifest; bal to whirl, disturb, impede; to wrench ofiE; to 
roam, htmt, explore; bul to be whelmed, stmk; balam force; balukd 

gravel. Zd. -var to keep out; vara garden; varcUha defence. Gk. 

[varv, vcUv] efXiio) to wind, bend, wrap, cover; cTXtj^ia vail; eTXb>, eCX&o, 
eTXX(i>, TXX(i> to wind, roll, twist, whirl, revolve, wander; roll the eye; 
Tk'koq eye; TXtj gathering, crowd, troop; cfXa*x(v»j drinking-party, feast; 
fXXi(; rope, bond; oi\i<; twisted, wrinkled; o3Xo(; corn-sheaf, mazy 
[dance] ;twining[vine]; woolly ; /I/ouX(& Ceres; TouXo(;sheaf;down; youth; 
(*Ayx^^<; the lightning [attfu whirling spoke, ray, stm-beam]» husband 
of Aphrodite like Hephaestus, and like him hurled, blasted, crippled, 
is father of Aivlag the spring rain (oIvo(;) and grand&ither of louXo^ 
(fleecy cloud, grass) on whose head the fire of heaven [lightning, stm] 
rests) ; Iptov, elpo(; wool (urnam) ; /lXi5(;, !Xog swamp, low-land (water- 
gathering, prairie-sink, pcdus); iXdhrQ twisted torch; elkz6<; vine, 
den, cramp in bowels; E{Xe(6uta (speed the pang; (Oug)) goddess of 
child-birth ;'nXXT]v roamer (cf.^Cl)v) ; fAlfokzU wanderers; AToXo(; veerer; 
aUXXci) to whirl, shift, glitter, variegate; iXX<-popo(; giddy-food, 
hellebore; iX(aaG> to wheel, whirl, eddy, dance; /IXXepo(; [twisted], evil; 
BeXX6po96vTT)(; slayer of evil; the spring, destroyer of Xfiiatpa (hiems), 
winter, winter-dragon, cramp-day; the Chimaera is goat-homed like 
Capricorn to express the solstice; Amalthaea and Thor*s goats are 
summer-solstice; !Xt5 twist, whorl, coil, flash, tendril, curl; IXtvfiu 
to [coil up], rest; iXeXEt^o) to whirl, shake, brandish; iXeXeu war-shout; 
IXauvci) (IXi^Xoxa) to whirl, hurl, dart, strike, speed, drive; iXomfp driver; 
rotmd cake [discus]; i^Xoxdrt) distaff, windlass, arrow, mast-head; 
i^Xioxd), i\io\Lai to circle, roam, wander, be perplexed, lost; i\a6q 
blind; (iXuo) to be mad; iXixalv^ to err, sin; •fike6<;, iljXCOtog distracted, 
crazed, silly; (ter-aXXdo) to htmt, search; (jLer-aXXeiia) to bore, sink shaft, 
explore ; (UraXXov mine ; iX£(i> to grind, bray ; fiXeupov flour ; o5Xa( groats ; 
i\\LO<; mortar; o5Xov gums (grinders); [/oXo/0(;], 6\o6<;, oOXoig, 
oiiX6ii.evo(; grinding, annihilating, destructive (cf. mri, p. 95); BXXujii 
to destroy, make an end; v(i>X8(ji(; incessant, tmending (prefix vi(i> to 
revolve) ; oi'ko<; incessant, real ; curling, woollen; ciXivi) elbow (revolving 
socket-joint); [faXXtt>], ^iXXcD to hurl, throw; xept-^dXXci), i^i-^dXha to 
wrap, robe, encircle, coil, perplex; (Sk. balam force) ^oXtJ throw, cast, 
wotmd, glance; ^IXo^ dart, bolt, lightning, death; ^iXovog acorn 
(hurled down, cf. glans); [/t/oXo(;], ^(pXo(; [wrapping], bark, scroll, 
book; ^ouXo(; bowel; ^o\^6<; bulb (concentric); ^Xog clod, Itimp; 
^ak^lq circle, battlements, lap in race-course, goal, starting-line; 
Phryg. ^aXXi^v king (balam) ; ttkki to contain, cramp, pack tight, col- 



— 191 — 

lect; dlXoep shelter, break- water; /i^Xo(; [palisade, tent-pin], nail 
(yaXXo^ Hesych,]=^vallus, vallum) ; Tp(4xT)Xo<; [turning-pin, pivot], neck; 
hc-oTMii to [htirl, shoot], drive out, ward off, threaten; &X(axo(tat 
(idX&>v) to be caught [in hunting-net], won, destroyed; dv*aX(axo(iiat 
[iv-neg.) to [allow to escape], neglect, squander; dXcoi^, SXox; enclosure, 
garden, orchard; round ocean; circular threshing-floor; coiled snake, 
nest, disk; €6p6<;(urus), [circling], wide-spread, broad; eipuvca to dilate, 
spread abroad, widen; 6&p(ox(i> (TjSpTjjjiai) to [roam, hunt], discover, 
find; Spo^, [^p/o^], ip^oq circumference, limit, border; oSpov range, 
space, cast of quoit; Maced.? ^ap«; fort; 8po<; mountain (mountain- 
wall, protection cf . Berg, Burg, Feld, fjeld) ; [/opea<;], Bopiaq north- 
wind (from Thracian mountains); 'Ticep-^dpeoi beyond the north-wind, 
people of paradise; o5po<;, fijpavo^ watchman, guardian; o5po<; wild 
bull (glaring; on guard, cf. fiXxt)); 'OploTt)<; day-star, watchman of 
sun-gate; ftpopo^ overseer; 6pdE(i> (Icjponca) to watch, see; (ipeuco to guard, 
protect; ipelov guard-house, fort, granary (horreum); ^iptq tower, 
palace; /fiv<? shield, hide (yptvoc; Hesych.); TaXdE/plvoc; shield- 
bearing; &pa care, concern, regard; tfXiY-copIo) to esteem lightly; &pa 
quarter of heaven, [revolving period], season, period of life, harvest, 
manhood, hour; £>pato^ seasonable, blooming, beautiful (melts with 
If p. 114); 'Qpbov Orion, circling winter constellation, slain by Artemis 
(return of nature in spring) , and sent under ground when the asphodel 

blooms in May (under the daisies). Lat. redup. volvo to roll; 

volumen roll, coil; voluto to revolve, whirl, wallow; ad'ulor to cringe, 
fawn; aduUer [crawling, snaky], adulterer; the root produces the ter- 
minations -filis, -4)ilis of revolution, ease, possibility; versai'ilis^volu'- 
bilds, missile; -bulum, -brum are terminations of instruments (^dXX(i>; 
melt with 9^, fupdui)) ; voUur [wheeling] vulture ; voUus face (turning 
on neck); volo to fly, speed, pounce; [vivolo\ viola to pounce, injure; 
velites slingers (§iXoO; velox [hurled], swift; volucer fleet; vulnus 
[shot], wound (vran); voldtus fall; vola palm of hand (nimble) ; folim 
of yore (rolling time); vulva womb (ulvam); ulva sedge (twisted, 
flXoivoO; valva swinging door; vilo to wrap, fold, clothe, reef; velum 
veil, sail; ov-Ue fold; eqU'Ue paddock, stable (e(Xi(i> to crowd together) ; 
vello to twist off, pluck; vellus fleece; ver-vex wether (fleece-bearer, 
Ipcov); \varva\ barba beard; buUio to [roll up, bubble], boil; bulla 
bubble, globe, medal; balbus stanmiering; [balvo], bdlo to bleat; [ver-- 
oma], verbena sacred plant (wreathed); viriae bracelets; veru spit 
(revolving); [vi'vro], vibro to whirl, shake; varius whirling, shifting, 
particolored, striped (aUXXo)) ; varix striped with purple veins; varicose; 
vermis worm (IX(iiivg); vallum ring-wall; uls, ultra beyond limits; 
vallus palisade, stake, peg; [valteus], balteus g^rdLe, belt; varus [round- 



— 192 — 

ing, curving], bow-legged; cetU'uria [guard of] a hundred (o3po<;); 
vcUeo to [guard], be strong; vereor to [guard], watch carefully, be 
anxious, fear; re-vereor to regard, watch for orders, reverence; ver^cf«n- 

dia respect, modesty {gundh) ; verus faithful [watchman], true. Ooth. 

-valvyan to roll ; balvyan to torture ; bals-agga [twisting] neck (xf ix^'^o^) > 
vtdva spoil; vilvan to whirl away, rob; vulla wool; vaUyan to 
whirl, rush, ptish; vtUan to boil up; vdUiS wand; O. H. G. wellan to 
roll, whirl; wella wave; wuUuh wrapping; wtdsta crown, lip; A. S. 
vlite, vlits countenance (vultus); vlUan, vlettan to glance, flash round; 
vuldor glory ; Goth, varan to be wary, cautiotis ; varyan to guard, defend, 
drive off; vars cautiotis, sober; varei attention, keenness; tug-veryan 
to doubt [the truth]; vardya watchman, protector; varmyan to [wrap 
up, be snug], warm; vaUrms dragon, snake, worm {vermis) \ O. H. G. 
wdr intent, wary, faithful, true (guard); wteren to twist; M. H. G. 
tt/iera garland; wire wire; O. Ger. Ampsi'Varii warders of Ems; Angri'^ 
varii meadow- wards; O. N. vila to ensnare, deceive; velia to roll; 
vella to boil; vo/r [circling], falcon; round; an arch; villaz to go astray; 
viUr (Goth, viltheis) wild; vara to keep, reserve, last, endure; vara 
wares; vardha to ward, keep; varna to be cautious, warn; vdr, vorr 
faithfulness, truth; bolr nmip (volvo); bolstr bolster; bSl ring-wall, 
camp ; bila to wrench, break, exhaust (velb) ; bol evil ; bil period, delay; 
(HyUki and Bil, Jack and Jill, grass-hook and sickle, new moon and 
old, carry a pail up the sky with the moon; tides); 6>;Zr whirlwind; 
A. S. varian to guard, possess; varu protection, territory, inhabitants; 
veard possession, warder; vearn hurling back, refusal; veal ring-wall, 
fort ; veallian to roam ; vealh, vdlsc foreigner ; vild wild ; -veald [tangled, 
dazing] forest; vdlm surge; vael, bael [whirling] flame; bael'vudu 
f imeral-pile ; vdl, bealu death, destruction (SXXujjtt) ; byldan to [round], 
shape, frame, build; Scotch bield ring-wall, fold; O. H. G. bild [totem- 
pole], image. Lith. velii to wrap; volioti to roll; vilnis wave; viltui 

wool; O. R. valiti to roll; vluna wave; wool; R. valyat to roll, twist, 
knead; vilyat to twist, avoid; valik cylinder; velikiy gT^QX\volosi circle, 
canton ; vladeit to rule ; bol throe ; bolvan totem-pole, idol ; valun pebble, 
cobblestone ; va/^^o/ to hurl down, pile up; vorovat to strip, rob ;vorolkU 
to turn; vernut to turn back; sverntU to roll; sverlit to bore; vorona 
crow (roaming); voroniy black, polished; volnovat to stir; volos hair 
(vellus); veirniy careful, faithful, true; vremya [circling] time (cf. 

vermis). Ir. fillim to twist, wrap, turn, circle, delay (cf. cunctor, 

moror) ; fial veil, sail; fil it is (versatur) ; [do-foUaim], tollaim to bore; 
fiil, f^lire [recurring] festival; fell treachery (ensnaring) ; /t7/Wi*r to fly 
{volo) ; fail vicinity (within circle) ; fdmae hedge, fence (fal-mag) ; fdl 
ring-wall, hedge, protector, king ; flaith dominion (valeo, validus) ; [valad]. 



— 193 — 

fikul montiment; Ulster; bally [fortified] town; ballan bowl; ball limb 
(ttiming on joint); bil brim, hoop; bulle, buille [sweeping] blow; 
buUech hard-hitter (bully); at-bail to perish, die (8XXu(iii but v. p. 
65); faire watch, gtaard; fairend [changing watch], band, party; 
far -rod company; fir (verus) true, right; fir&n just; fir aim to make 
true; ferenn girdle; fern shield (d-varanam) ; Lindis-fern water-shield, 
coast defence ; fo-feritn, fdirim to bring about, effect ; feraitn to pour 
out; fiar curved; fiHar I have found (e6p(ax<i)); frith-iiiraim^adficio; 
iHr ad ^factum est (to round, form, effect; or sero p. 151); or brim; 
berbaim to boil; borb [dizzy], mad, foolish (cf. p. 63); 6r, Har time, 
season (&pa) ; W. gwareu to sport round, play; givaroiou [circles, rings], 
theatres; guelet to see (/TXXo)); Bret, hoari sport, game; hoar, goar 
time, leisure; goarek lazy; gou^l veil, sail; goareg arch; goarem cave; 
rain-bow; golpi light (rather p. 1 54) ; fouliar ivy (volvo) ; foulad, fourrad 
whirlwind; fouligein to hurl down; fouiltrein to destroy ;/o«rm5 wide, 
vast (e6p(50; guialen withe, rod; guir, guirion faithful, true; guirieu 
justice; guers a period; urisin astrologer {tiar); barein to round, fill; 
bernein to heap; bolad bowl; barriel town-wall (^aptq); barrein to 
stripe {varius); gloan wool; O. C. Lugu-balUum (bally); Ver-ulamiutn 
true dignity (oUatn) ; bollux nugget {bulla) ; bulluca wild-fruit, sloes; 
Barrum (a fort); Con- f alius ring- wall, protector, guardian, Connell; 
DumnfoU protector of the world, DonneU ; Ar-verni noble-shields. 

Sk. vdr, vdri water (horizon-circle) ; Varunas Neptune, ocean. 



Zd. vdra rain; vdrefiti it rains. Gk. oipav6? [circling, raining] 

heaven (Heb. "the waters yonder " = heaven); o5pov urine; oiplco; 
t^-X^^i^wi [water-jug], water-melon ; [dyif-oupoq], Sy^'^P®? [water- 
squeeze], oil of unripe olives; immature; {^T)pE<; mallow (el^); 
[form w/l, vail, valas], /IXo? swamp; low-land; TEXo<;, 'EXia; ^HXt<;; 

/'AXijioi—Eleans, low-landers; (Xu<; slime, dregs. Lat. urina, urindre; 

urindri to dive; urinaior diver; urna water-jug; pincerna cup-bearer; 
cist-ema; cav-erna; lab-urnus; Volt-urnus; vallis [low-land], valley; 

Velia drained land; Velabrum; Velitrae; vilis base, wretched. O. N. 

«f drizzle, mist; yrya to drizzle; aur moisture, clay; feyri sea-coast; 
ver sea; A. S. vdrsea, R. varit to boil, digest. Ir. fern-og [fresh- 
vigor], alder; fiiar, Oiar fresh, cool, moist; Hardn spring-well; feraitn 
to pour? fuil blood; fiial urine (vilis); W. cilwrn water vessel; W., 
Cor., Bret., gwemen alder; Bret. gouU drained; gouli [bleeding] wound; 

goal vile, bad; goulion filth; ouiled crucible; guern marsh. O. C. 

ptel wine-vat; goer brook (melt with p. 183); O. C. Umia nymph of 
Nfmes; Orna river; Duro-vernum alder-town; Perc-ernes n3anphs 
(water-sprinklers) ; Vernodubrum alder-water. 
13 



— 194 — 

Sk. vri (vrindmt) to [encircle, grasp, embrace], choose, desire, 
wish; tU'Tjri (udvar) to demand; var (varaydmi) to choose, seek in 
marriage; yards wooer; vdras wish, choice, favor; vdras (comp. 
variyas) good, excellent, distingtiished; varinyas excellent; vratam 
will, duty, vow; ijrit, vrig to choose, love; vrin to eat; vri, vri, 
bri (vrinami) to choose; vridh to be happy, blooming, strong; 
vol, vail, bal to embrace, cleave to, love; feed; vallabhas be- 
loved; vallavas shepherd; balam [determination], force; vli to grasp, 

go [rotmd], choose. Zd. var to choose, wish. Gk. ^oiXogsn^ 

Aeol. ^dXXoyiai (balam) to wish, will; ^ouX6uo(jLat to make one's 
decision, take counsel; ^ouXi^ counsel; ^ouXeuai<;, §oijXeu(jia will; 
^dXe would that! /aipio) (elXov) to take, choose; SX(i>p prey; IXou 
choose! iXlu-Oepoq [choose your harvest; reap where you will], free 
[laborer]; /iXe/Ico, /iXe/aEpo) (alpio)) to [shelter], be grac^us, merciful; 
IXei^(jKi>y compassionate; YXt](jl( to be propitious; TXeug, Tkaoq pro- 
pitious, merciful; iXaaxo(JLa( to propitiate, reconcile, atone; IXaptf^ 
cheerful, merry; /liipa acceptable gifts; Ipovo? kindness, favor, love- 
feast; Ipoixat, Ipdfa) to love, desire; Ipox; love (v. p. 114); /lpe/e(vu, 
lp&i>, lp(i>ToE(i> to seek, ask, enquire; IpeuvJcD to seek diligently, himt, 
investigate (adds van to desire) ; /i/IXBojtat, /IXBotJtai to desire, 
long for (vridh); IIX$(i>p wish, longing; ^eXThov better, more desirable. 

Lat. volo to desire, wish, resolve ; voluntas wish (adds van) ; valio 

to be [determined], strong; [desirable], worth, well, determined; vo/idiis 
strong (cf. IIXBotJtctt); valor value; valetudo health; vel [as you 
please], or; ullus any you please, quilibet; -mollis (fri'Volus),-ulus, -0/1*5, 
-illus, -{vivoliis], -^Itis diminutive terminations (little, dear, pet); 
lulus, Julius beloved; ultra (comp. deg.) voluntarily; bellus beautiful, 

attractive, desirable; bellaria sweet-meats. Goth, valyan to choose; 

valis chosen, beloved; ga^valeins choice, election; vaila well, agreeably; 
vilya will, desire; vilyan to wish, be determined, prosper; valdan to 
command, govern; valdufni authority; vairilo lip; un-veryan to be 
angry; un-vereins indignation; O. N. vera bounty, home; ver lip; 
feyra to be gracious, contented; eira content, rest; eyraruna bride; 
eyrir (plu. aurar) satisfaction, payment; orr generous, cheerful; 
vilya to will; vili will, pleasure; veldi government; vald force; valda 
to effect, cause; vil yearning, sorrow; vild pleasure; vildr delightful; 
vil (A. S. vile) engaging trick, wile; vala choice, election; vala, vdhni 
[god-chosen], prophetess; Vahholl hall of the chosen; A. S. vel good; 
vela possession; velig rich; vaila well; vraene wanton; vrenna wren. 

Lith. velyiu to wish, counsel; velyius he prefers; O. R. voliti to 

wish; volya will, desire; R. vekit to command. Ir. follnaim to 

rule; (Voluniii, O'Falbn); flaith master, lord, dominion; fdelte joy. 



— 195 — 

welcome; [f]dilifn to long for, pray; fHl feast? fili, filidh poet; f^le 
honor; fial generous, gracious; bail, bil luck, happiness, eloquence; 
bile lucky tree or well; beltaine May-day fire; bH lip; bil-re speech 
(f^; but cf. p. 65); [do'fol], tol will; toltanach voluntary; folmas 
intention; ferr better; feraim to be generous, give, pour out; feraim 
fdelte to oflEer welcome; fdelte joy, welcome; W. gwell well; Bret. 
guell better; guellat to improve, cure; goulen request; gotltl festival; 
barnein to select, estimate, judge; barn&r referee, judge; barren [legal] 
bar; baron judge, baron (cf. p. 62); O. C. Beltis, Belinus, Belenus 
sun-god; Belerion Land's-End, simset; Bilinus, Bilbilis; Belatwcadros 
war-god (Bret, cadr beautiful) ; Beli'Sama sky-goddess {sam summer) ; 
Bela-donnis Mars (dark lord ; but v. aibail) ; Bellovaci (war-shouters) ; 
Voluniii rulers; Cassi-vellaunus glonons lord; Catu-veUauni war-lords. 

Sk. svri, vri to roll the voice, repeat cry; ululis howling; ulukas 

owl. Gk. 6XoXu!^a> to shout for joy, for sorrow; 6XoXuY<iv croaking; 

iXoXuyafa owl; &Xdui>, &XaxTl(i> to bark; dXaXi^, IXeXeO war-shout. 

Lat. tdulo to howl; ulula owl; ejub to lament. O. H. G. Ula owl. 

Sk. ri to whirl up; svrl to shoot [up]; vir to [tower aloft, carry 
head high, brandish], be heroic (cf. sur, gur with same sequence of 
thought; Quras hero; giras [high] head; giras, gilas head of com; gili 
arrow; gariram body); viras hero; reed; wranam sweet-grass (high 

spike); viryatn valor; 'veras [statiue], body. Gk. ijpox; hero; i^pfov 

mound, barrow, montmient? i^pcpov hero's shrine. Lat. vir man, 

husband; virtus valor; virago troublesome wife (husband-vexer) ; 
vireo to sprout, bloom, be strong; viridis verdant ; [v^-venna, ver-vena], 

verbena gracious herb (van) ; ver'atrum [black herb], hellebore. Goth. 

vair (O. H. G. wer) hero; O. N. ver (plu. veryar) hero, man; [ferper] 
viorr defender, Thor; perr, errinn vigorous; virdhir men at arms (melts 
with v6rdhr warder); virdha to honor, value; virdhing honor, worth; 
ver[g]eldi blood-fine, ransom; ver-bergi hospitality, shelter, house; 
A. S. ver man, hero; ver4he6d, ver^od men at arms; ver'old gen- 
eration of men, world. Lith. vyras hero, man. Ir. fer man; 

fir grass; ferand [meadow] land; tir fresh, new; ilr, uir earth; iirde 
fresh, green, earthen, htraian; frem root, stock, origin; W. gtiered 
(Cor. guerei) earth; gur man; gwreic (Bret, grouig) woman; Com. 
guirt green; O. C. Ver-dngetO'rix hero- warrior-king; Virido^marus 
much-landed. 

Sk. ri, sri, svri to speed, be impetuous; svri to utter, praise; 
Vfi, vri to desire, be eager; [vru], brU (bravimi, bruve) to speak. 



— 196 — 

Zd. var to teach; O. Pers. var to announoe. Gk. /Ipc^, etpfai 

(/^T)Oi^ao(JLat, ^Oe(^, ^tjt^O to speak, promise; e(pT)yiyov promised, 
agreed; eCpi^w) peace (p. 151); ^(ia word; ^i^(i>p (AeoL ^pi^up) 

orator; /pdrrpa, ^i^xpa saying. Lat. [vervum], verbum word; Umbr. 

verfale formula; Lat. barrio to roar, trumpet. Goth. vaUrd word; 

anda-vaurdi answer; O. N. fordh word, speech, distich.- — O. Pruss. 
wirde word; Litb. vardas name; R. vrat to talk idly, lie; vredit to be 

malicious; bredit to talk wildly, prophesy, rave. Ir. briaihar word; 

breth sentence; brdih judgment; bruden palace-court; W. brawd judg- 
ment; brud prophecy, chronicle; brudein to proclaim, celebrate; Mod. 
Ir. co^brath, go-bragh until the judgment-day, forever; Bret. bretcU, 
brentein to plead at law; breiour pleader; O. C. vergO'bretus stem- 
sentence, judge; Brettones, Brittones law-making, speaking intelligibly 
(contrasted with barbarous Iberians) ; Com-breUmium court-assembly; 
BratU'Spantium terrible judgment (p. 49); brcUude ^hy decree. 

Sk. ri develops vri; a list of their parallel formations is given on 
p. 122. 

Sk. vri to be eager; vrinh to swell, roar; brU to utter. Gk. 

pXiQx^ovLai to bleat; pXi^xcov, yXi^xcdv pennyroyal (sweet-breath). 

O. H. G. bldsu to bleat; Ger. bldken. O.R. bleiycUi, blekcUi to bleat. 

Sk. vri to desire, [caus. vrip], Gk. IXxw (/l/oXxa, /i/iXico|iai) 

to [long for], hope; i\xl<; hope; fiXxvioro? loveliest, sweetest; IraXicvoc 

cheerful; iXicaXato^ beloved. Lat. volup, voluptas pleasure; 

verpiis [passionate]; vtdpes fox [greedy]; [v^upus wolf (melts with 

vrikas)] Sabine firpus, hirpus [ravening] wolf. (joth. xndfs wolf; 

6. N. ulfr wolf; ^Ifa she-wolf; A. S. vulf, vylf. 

Sk. sri, svri to hurl, shoot; m to whirl, wrap; causal fonns riph, 
rimph, riph, ritnph to hurl, shoot (p. 138; here developed with initial 

v). Gk. f^lxci) to sink (of scales, shifting, wavering, balancing); 

to incline, drop, fall, become one's duty (p. 142); /^(xro) to hurl; 
/ipe(x(i> to hurl down, fall, sink; ^6xaXov staff, club; [xaXa/potf^], 
xaXaupo^) shepherd's crook (xiXXo)); §Xix(i> to glance round; ^Xifopov 
eyelid; Ppa^eti? [quick-eye] umpire; pipPtTov [rattling, qiaick-struck] 

lyre; fdfp8o<; staff. Lat. verber stroke, lash; verbero to strike. 

Goth, vairpan to hurl; O. N. verpa, varpa to hurl; varp warp of loom. 

O. R. vrvba willow (swaying); R. verba willow; verbniy Palm 

[Sim day]; verevka cord. Ir. ferb cow [driven about, reeved]; O. C. 

Verbi'genus cattle-clan, reevers. 



— 197 — 

Sk. ft to impel; rin, rinu to go; [forms vri, vris to whirl, whirl away, 
sweep away].— — Gk. puo), Ipuo), efpuw (Hom. 4xo-/4pae; frequentatives 
jpuordt^Ci), ^uori^ci)) to drag; [/epaolo)], lp(i>l(i> to sweep to and fro, 
flow, rush; lppii> to [be swept about], wander, come to harm, be lost, 
[dizzy], tottering; dnc*oeupd(i> to sweep away, reeve, rob; fuatov booty; 
l(epia> to sweep out, dash out, empty; i^lpayia vomit; puo) to pluck 
away, deliver; fu^iiig chariot- pole (whirled along, cf. p. 133); fuTijp, 
^urijp trace, rein; ^uord^o) to drag about; ^ua6<; wrinkled; ^ut(<; fur- 
row, wrinkle; futi^ rue (puckering mouth) . Lat. verro to whirl away, 

sweep; verriculum drag-net; (redup.) viverra [robber], weasel; versus 
furrow; [vorseum], horreum grain-pit, granary ("quidquid de Lybids 

verritur areis.") O. N. voir ftirrow; foerr raging; forr eager, swift; 

{vri melts with ri p. 114); vdrr girl (swept away by suitor); verra^ 
versta worse, worst; A. S. vraestan to twist, wrest away, wrestle; 

O.H.G. werran to tear, rend. R. vrivai to burst in; O'brivat to strip. 

Ir. /(Tiran wrath, sweeping destruction, defeat; err chariot-fighter, 

spear-point; ara chariot-driver; O. C. Arro^ Arrus, Arsius, Ersea. 

Sk. vri to encircle, wrap, embrace, love; intensive vrinh to be 
excited with passion, be turgid, swell, be full, grow, roar, growl, speak 
eagerly (cf. ruksh p. 125, ri^ p. 130); vrinh, varM, valk to flash out, 
shine, speak (cf . ruM p. 1 36) ; valg to prance ; vrish to be strong, generate, 
sprinkle, pour, rain; vriksh, vriU to wrap, cover, [wring] (v. rang, rdkh, 
P* 131) ; «T*^ to seize; vrikas wolf (cf. riksh p. 122) ; m^, vrin^ to [tear 
away, leave the wreck], leave, abstain, renounce (v. riM p. 134); 
d'vri^ to bend, turn, turn out, pour, give (vi-riM p. 134); ni'Vri^ to 
plunge; vri^ to wash oflE, cleanse; vra^ to go [round], [circle], follow 
[round, mold], make, [twine], adorn, turn from, leave (rakh p. 135); 
vrofM, varh, barh to wring oflE, tear away, destroy (lunM p. 133) ; vris, 
vrAs to hurt, kill; vrinh, vliksh to glance round, see (IdM, 136) ; [Vrah- 
man]f Brahman generator, origin of life and light. 

Sk. vrinh (p.p. vrinhitas, caus. vrinhayishydmi) to be turgid, swell, 
grow; vrikshas tree ; vrih to grow ; vrihatas tall ; [v]ruh to grow, start up, 
rise; vrihis rice (Afghan urishi, Armen. brim) ; vrish to be physically 
excited, [bristle]; to be strong; varshman height; body; varshlyas the 

top. Gk. Popaiv stake, cross; ^upaa hide (bristling); ppuaaog 

sea-urchin; /8pu^a rice (bristling) ; ppexiJii<; crown of head; ^^iy^oL fore- 
head (p. 73); ipXT^ sow; [/opao<;], 8ppo? end of back-bone; ppJ^a (now 

vrisa) rye (bristling awns) ; Ipefxt) heather (bristling; R. veresk). Lat. 

Volsci cragsmen? verruca height, wart. Goth. ga*vrisqan to ripen 

[com], bear fruit; O. Sax. wriselik, gigantic; O. N. risi, giant; A. S. 



— 198 — 

berstan, O. H. G. brestan [vrestan] to [swell], burst with ftdness; A. S. 

breost breast (turgid with milk) ; bristl O. N. burst bristle. O. R. 

vrukhu height, peak; R. verkhniy above; verkh, vershina peak; vorokh 

pile; velikiy great; vorsa knap; vorsit to card. Ir. forrach pole; 

flesc SL sprout, rod; aursa, ursa, irsa, urra door-post; err tail, fin, spike; 
eross stem-post; borr haughty, proud; barr head, peak, crest; Bret. 
aros stem; frost [rough], untilled land; bars bass (sharp fin) ; W. brysg 
lively, quick; Cor., Bret, [vloh], floh lad, page; Bret, brog stump of 
branch; broch spit; bruch breast; O. C. Burrus rough, shaggy, donkey; 
reburrus bristling, against the grain, au rebours; Rebricus, Reburrus 
(bushy hair) ; Borsus, Boresti, Borrus, Barsa; Barro-viwdus white-head; 
farinca spelt; Brixia forest (or with p. 73). 

Sk. vrinh, [vri^ to be turgid, swell ; ilr^ to be strong, vigorous; caus. 
ur^ayami to strengthen, nourish; ur^a, ur^as sap, energy, genital force; 

ur^asvant swelling. Gk. 6gydid to swell, teem, be well-watered, 

luxuriant, wanton; 6g'{d<; fertile, marriageable; Bpyovov organ of 
sense, motion; ipY^ impulse, disposition, wrath; Spyta orgies, bacchana- 
lian sacrifices; ^piyo) to yearn (melts with ri^), Lat. urgeo to press, 

force, be vigorous ; virga sprout ; mrgo yoimg woman. R. [traga], braga 

malt? vrag enemy (ipt^ji)- Ir. ferg wrath; orgim to ravage, destroy; 

uirge genitals; W. gwerg forcible, efficacious; O. C. vergO'bretus mighty- 
judge; Verg'[g]ustus mighty force, Fergus; Verg-filius delightful 
vigor; Vergilius Maro Farelly O'More. 

Sk. virik, to pour out (p. 134); vrinh to be turgid, overflow; 
d'Vri^ to pour out; ni-vri^ to plimge; m^ to wash; pra-vrin^ to purify. 

Gk. ^p^o) to rain; Ppux^^?» Pp'^S the depth of the sea; uico^puxioc; 

under water, deep; 6Xxetov washing-bowl, tub; rudder [swashing, cf. 
whelm, helm]; IXxo<; [flowing] woimd; [rimning] sore {ci,varnas, vtdnus). 

Lat. Vokanus smelter ; volucer swift (torrent) ; ukus ulcer ; [vku:cus], 

flaccus drained, limp? A.S. volcen, O.H.G. wokhan cloud, sky; A.S. 

veakan to roll, toss (of waves); veakere bleacher, fuller; vUiec weak, 

useless; Ger. welk drained, limp. O. R. vUiga Uquid, moist; vkushnost 

moistiu^. Ir. fokaim to wash; fliuch wet; flechud rain; W. [gulig], 

gulip moist; Bret, golh washing, wash-water; [vkkad], flokad cascade; 
[guUp],flip hot drink; gluv, glub wet; gk^h dew; gk^ sprinkled, rare; 
O. C. Vokae moimtain torrents ; CcUU'Vokus swift in war ; FUicidcus (6) . 

Sk. vrifih to be full, turgid; vrish to be strong, generate, sprinkle, 
pour, rain ; vrw/toy, vrishabhas, rishabhashvll (cf. ridh^vridh) ; vrishnis 
ram; vrishnas testicle; varah boar; vrishtis, varshas rain; Vrishu 



— 199 — 

[spring rain], Indra (cf. vi-riM p. 134). Zd. parshan male, man. 

Gk. Ipot), IpoT] (Horn. /l/lpoTj, Cretan fiepaa) dew; lpcn^e«; dewy; 
•Epex6eu<;, 'Epea('x6(«)v all-father, dew-on-grotmd, worshipped in the 
Erechthetim with his daughters 'TlpaT), ndcv$poao<;, 'AypauXt) (dew, all- 
dew, night-watch) ; his serpent-form personified night ; confused with 
Poseidon Erechiheus the breaker (vrofk) who brought the salt spring 
from the imder-world with his trident; BptaT)t<; dewy; [lpaao<;], Ippao? 
ram, wild-boar; 8pxt<; testicle; SpoiQv, Ion. IpoYjv, Att. fippiQv male; 

igQenx6q masculine. Lat. verres boar; VerreSf Varro manly; [v]ros 

dew; roscidus dewy; (v. p. 119); [rasrus], rarus scattered, few? 

O. N. [vers], err vigorous? R. rosa dew (cf. rishabhas). Ir. frass 

xain-shower; Bret, fringein (vrinh) to be wanton; frigein to scatter, 
squander; tningere. 

Sk. vrinh to be vigorous; vrish to be strong, [grip], bind; vrig 
to desire; varh, barh to kill; ut-vrih to tear out; vrik to seize, take; 
vrikas wolf; vragk to rend, tear, break, destroy (cf. riksh, rig, risk 

p. 132); vcUkas bark. Gk. pTJTvujjLt, (pT^5<*>) to rend, tear; pixoq 

(Aeol. PpixoO rag; ipe(x(i> to rend, crush, shatter; paydw to cut; 
Ppa^ai to grasp, Ppax^? [wrenched off], short; [short pole], shallow; 
£plxO<>> to shatter, wreck; Xuxo(; wolf; Xuxoq, dXxdq, dpdx^ spider; 6Xx6g 

greedy. Lat. hi'ulcus yawning, ravening (hio) ; ulciscor to [hound, 

pursue as wolf], avenge; bub-ulctts ox-driver; sub'ulcus swine-herd; 

brevis short, shallow. A. S. vearh wolf, vyrgen a she-wolf; O. N. 

vaargx wolf, outlaw; ;P/g3/a she-wolf; Goth, launa^vargs gift-wolf, un- 
thankful (cf. O. H. G. wolfdanch unthankful); ga-vargyan to pro- 
claim as a wolf; outlaw, condenm. Lith. vilkas, O. R. vluku wolf; 

R. volfe wolf; vol^n thistle; volkan lupine; volkhv were-wolf, wizard. 

Ir. brissim to break? forcha thimderbolt (Sp^x^w); O. C. CcUu- 

vokus war-wolf? 



Sk. vrinh to be eager; vrofk to rend, tear, snatch. Gk. SXxa>, 

iXx&i), to drag [prey, corpse, etc.], tear hair, wrench; drag [in general] 
(melt with srig, p. 126); 6Xxt) draught, weight; 6Xxa<; merchant-ship; 
6Xxt)ti5p harrow-tooth; ai5Xa$, (iX$, icjXxa, (5Xx6<; furrow, gash, channel; 

ciXdxa plowshare. Lat. bab-ulcus [ox-furrow], plowman. Lith. 

velku to drag; valksmas haul of fish; O. R. vleikan to drag. Bret. 

forhein to strip, tear. 

Sk. vrinh to [be eager, impetuous], roar, [glare], glance round, 
[flash out], speak; vark to flash roimd; ulkd firebrand, meteor; [varh]. 



— 200 — 

barh to flash out, speak, excel, give [food], kill; vliksh to see; vris 

VTUs to kill (cf. ruksh p. 124; ruk 136). Gk. ^pdexo) to roar, crash; 

PpuxdoiJLai to roar; ^p^TX^^^ throat; ^p^X^^ hoarseness; §p^x^* ^9^^"^ to 

devour; ^pouxo? locust. Goth, vrohyan, O. H. G. ruogan to accuse; 

A. S. verhdko [gnashing], misery in hell; vlanc fierce, proud; bedrcan 

to bark; O. N. barki throat. ^R. brekhat to talk wildly; briokho 

belly, maw; briozzhat to growl, grumble; vraki talk, nonsense. Ir. 

forcha lightning, thunderbolt; Bret. bruhelkU to roar; bruch throat, 
breast; grik word? 

Sk. vrinh to be eager; vrik to grasp; vriksh, vriM to [grip, twist], 
wrap, cover; Tjrish to bind; d'vri^ to bend, bend down, poiu*; vri^ to 
[wrench off], deprive, leave alone; vra^ to go rotmd, wander, [circle], 
follow after (cf, felloe, follow) ; to [shape, mold, wreathe], make, adorn, 
turn away, leave; caus. to drive away, banish; vargas gathered crowd; 

multitude; [varh], barh to [grip], cover, kill. Gk. /eTpyvuiti, elpyo 

to shut in, guard; [caus. to drive out]; AuxoOpyog wolf-ward (lup^ercat) ; 
elpYjjtdq, eipxTi^ prison, inner cotut; Ipxo? ring-wall, fort, fence, net; 
ipxavi^, 6pxdevT) fence, net; 8pxo^ [bond], oath; /^ixv6o(JLat to twist, 
contort, shrivel; IpeCxt] heather (pliant; p. 197); ipxdvij weaver's 
beam (knotted thrums) (melted with rik, p. 130); jfppixo^, ipvxfiq, 
Bpioxoc; wicker basket, beehive (orOpixo^ an error); ^(axo<; coflEer, 
chest; Bpxt) wine-jar (narrowing brim); Pp^x®? noose, snare; ^pax*hi>v 
fore-arm (turning on socket-joint); Ipydt^ojiiai (/l/opya) to [mold, 
twine], work, do; Ipyov work; Spyovov tool, material; tfpyd^ci) to knead, 

fashion; /p^^o) (Ippe^a) to do, perform, sacrifice; ipywiv priest. Lat. 

vergo to turn toward, bend; convergo, divergo; urgeo to compress, 
narrow; urceus wine-jar; uragus, orcus [prison-house]. Hades; vergUiae, 
Pleiades [compressed, clump]; vo/giw crowd, people (vargas multitude); 
valgtis twisted, bow-legged; fruga wrinkle (ptxvioitat) ; virga wand. 

Goth, vraigs twisted, crooked; vruggo snare; vrikan, vrakyan to 

pursue, avenge, wreak; ur-rugks expelled, rejected; aurkeis jug; 
vaurkyan to effect; vaurstv work; aurahyo sepulchre (orcus); A. S. 
vrigian to bend, follow; vringan to twist, wring; vrecan to force, expel, 
banish, avenge; vrecca banished, outlaw, wretch; vrixlan to [twist], 
exchange; vrincle wrinkle; vrencan to snare, cheat, wrench; w&sn 
crown; vyrhta wright, workman; vealcan to turn, revolve, roll; to 
roam, walk; O. N. virki ring-wall, earth-work; virgill rope, halter, 

ring; froekya to guard, [encircle, limit]. Lith. verzhiu to snare, 

choke; O. R. vruzan to bind; vragu foe (cf. vrecca) ; R. vrashkatsya to 
revolve; vrak physician (bone-setter, masseur), Ir. fraig wattle- 
work, inner wall (cf. Wand); frdech heather; brdge neck (Tpdxt)XoO; 



— 201 — 

Bret, guelch twisted; gourgam crooked; forgenel curl, ring; O. C Ver- 
gknus encircling ocean. 

Sk. vra^ to wreathe, adorn; vriksK vriM to wrap, cover. O. N. 

broekr leg strips (cf. Ger. Strumpfe), hose, loin-cloth, breeches; A. S. 

broc breeches; O. H. G. pruoh. O. R. bratzina silken robes. Ir. 

brace, brogg shoes; W. gwregys, Com. gn^is, Bret, grauiz girdle; O. C., 
Lat. braccae breeches, gaiters, hose. 

Sk. vri (p. p. vritas) to wrap; vrit {varte, p. p. vriUas) to go [rotind], 
turn, versarif exist, dwell, happen, turn out, live, act; catis. (vartydmi) 
to move, stir, cause, create, pass the time, relate; vfittam event, fact; 
varttd messenger, story; vrittas, vartulas round; vdrttas [rettuning in 
safety], well; vratam ceremony, sacrifice; Vritras [returning] dawn, 
slain by Indra the sun; variakas the quail (returning in migration); 
vartanas spindle; exchange, barter, merchandise; a living; vrindas 
crowd; vrud to wrap, cover, heap, gather, plimge; vrid to [veil], be 

modest; [vard\, ard to twist, squeeze (cf. ridh^vridh). Gk. /'Apxe^iq 

circling nature, moon, armed with crescent bow; huntress, sister of 
sun; unwed but loves 'Ev-BuiJL(a>v (going down in the west), the evening 
star; /dpreiJii^^ safe and sound (vdrttas); /dpti(jLa)v pulley, foresail; 
ipn^t f^f^P'^'fi recurring festival; 8pTu5 quail (migrating, whirring); 
ipxaXR^ii) to flutter round; 'OpTuyCa Delos, birthplace of sun and moon, 
centre of pilgrimage; 8p0po<; dusk, dawn; /*OpOpo^ hound of dawn, 
child of Echidna the darkness dragon ; like Argos he guards the star- 
flocks until slain by Heracles the sun in the island of Erytheia (red- 
dening dawn); /^arrdvY), Aeol. ^pordva stirrer, ladle; poSdw) thread 
{vfindas); ^Sov^g flickering (p. 149); ^phaq round log, totem-pole, 
primitive idol; ^pevOiio(jLai to [brandish, wave plume], be arrogant; 
PpivOo^ [stalkingj, a long-legged water-bird; Xa*^up(v6o<; (Xa intensive 
or Xa/ devouring) spiral of sim, contracting to winter-solstice; cf. 

Aa(8aXo^; also, spiral of snail-shell; contracting noose. Lat. verto 

to turn; versor to exist, dwell, roam; versutus twisting, tricky, 
skilled; vortex; vertigo; vertebra; Vertumnus (p. 20) returning nature, 
fruitful year. A. S. vridhan to wreathe, writhe, bind; vrdt decora- 
tion; vraedh [choking] wrath; veordh exchanged, valued, precious; 
veordhian to honor (cf. vir, viridis, and vratam ceremony); vordhig 
dwelling place, estate; veordhan to become; Goth, vairthan to become, 
vairthon to value ; vraton to wander (vrindas) ; vulihr splendor ? ( Vritras) ; 

vritkus [rounded up] herd, flock. R. vorotit to turn; verteit to turn, 

bore; vorot capstan; vorotilo sail of windmill; vertliog axle; vorota 
arch, gate; vertlo auger, den; vertel spit; %}ersta mile-post, kilometer; 



— 202 — 

[urtro], utro dawn (Vritras); utroba belly, bosom. Ir. fertas axle 

distaff; fert round mound, grave; /ritA, fri towards; brot sting, spit, 
point; brat mantle; bruth flame; urtach festival; urtlach fold, bosom, 
lap-full; Com. gurthit distaff; brat mantle; Bret, broud point, goad; 
burtellat to twist, tease; [guerthedl, guerhed distaff. 

Sk. vrit to become, develop; vridh (vavridhe, vardhatdm), to grow, 
swell with sap (akin to Tjrinh), bloom, be happy; caus. (vardhaydmi) 
to feed, nurse, ntuture, bring up; vriddhas grown up, old, rich; vrintas 
[ntirse], nipple, stalk; vrddhant great; vardh to fill, btu^ with fulness, 
split; ridh (digamma lost, cf. vrish^rish) to grow, swell; riddhas rich, 
happy ; sam'riddhas grown up, great, rich, the whole ; riddhis abundance, 
happiness; urd to [fill], measure, [be luxuriant, yotmg], taste, sport; 
urdkvas tall, well-grown; ridh to thrive, prosper, succeed, help; 
ardhukas healthy; riddhis healing herb; arth to desire, seek; arihas 
wealth, advantage, taste, sense, fruit, [timber], material, cause (p. 113) ; 
ardhas, arddhas [split; cf. vardh], half; drdras moist, fresh, full of sap; 

drdraydmi to wet; rtui to [distil gum], weep. Zd. rud to grow; 

vared to grow, help, foster, prosper; vareda growing, growth; vared to 

benefit. Gk. f^CC^a (Aeol. Pp(aBa) [sap-giver], root; ipuX^a [wild] 

rice (afterwards the imported) ; Ppfiia rye? ^psvOuoyiai to be luxurious, 
proud; to strut? pXaordvG) to bud, grow, propagate; ^Xaorrf? sprout, 
germ, child; pX(o6p6<; tall, stately [pine-tree]; pc£BaiJtvo<;, f6p6la\iyo(;, ^dBi? 
sprout, twig; paBtv<<; (Aeol. ^paBtv^c;) slender, delicate, luxtuiant; 
p68ov (Aeol. pp68ov, Armen. vard) rose; SXOojjiai to grow, be cured, 
be well ; dXOa(v(i> to heal ; dXOa(a mallow; 'AXOafa natural force, survival 
of fittest; destroyer of her own child, the sunmier, MeXlaypot; (love- 
the-wild); he conquers one winter (the Calydonian boar) and dies 
with the quenched yule-brand of the next solstice; dX$i^ax(i> to grow; 
caus. deX$a(v(i> to nourish, increase, multiply; fipBtjv [tall], lifted on 
high; [bursting], utter ruin; fipBi<; [reed, shaft, point], arrow-head (cf. 
filas head of grain, fill arrow, (aras reed, arrow) ; fip8a> to wet, water, 
drink, irrigate; ipl\k6(; watering-place, pool; dpIOo) to water; 'AplOouaa 
sacred foimtain-nymph; &pha mire; dp$aX6(i) to defile; /p€i)$(6^, lp(i>$(6^ 
heron (swamp-bird; rud) ; /*0p6(a, Bo)Op((z Artemis as natura naturans, 
survival of fittest; /ip6rf<; [well-grown], upright, straight, prosperous; 

(melts with p. 113). Lat. radix root; arduus high, steep; ardeo 

to flash up, be eager, passionate, bum (vardh, to burst out) ; ardea heron; 

Ardea heron's nest in marshes; ordo row [of vines, plants]. Goth. 

vaurts root; O. H. G. wurzd, wurzala root; wurz, wirz herb, seasoning; 
A. S. vyrt herb, wort; vridian to sprout, grow; forudh [liveliness], snort- 
ing; vord word (bursting forth) ; ford end, point; v^^dbeer; (sprouting 



— 203 — 

malt); Vyrd = /0p6(a, survival of fittest, fate, death; vyrdan to slay; 
O. N. rdt root; urdh [lofty] cliff; Urdhr^Vyrd; svordhr sprouting grass, 
greensward, hair; sverd sword (of. blade; ford) O. Ger. Suardoft^s 

swordsmen; cf. SaiC(7n^5 = short-swords. O. R. ^odu birth; rasti to 

grow, thrive; R. rost height, stature, interest on money (foenus, p. 38) ; 

radovai to rejoice (riddhis) ; reidka radish. Ir. fled feast, abundance, 

satiety ; flaith beer, milk ; fland blood (sap, life) ; red ; [fredtn], frevn root ? 
aifd arrow-point; drd high; W. ard high; O. W. gwallawiad profusion* 
Com. valtcvat fertility (Z. 1073); Bret, [grouiend], grouien root; Ir. 
ford'lach thumb (sprout) ; Ir. fdrd, W. gord. Com. ord, Bret, hird, orz 
sledge-hammer, (mighty; bursting; cf. ardeo; sword; vardh); W. 
orddwy, gorddwy violence, oppression; W. hwrdd, Com horth ram; 
0. C. Arda, Ard'Venna (high-himting-ground, Ardennes) ; Ordovices. 



Sk. vd (vdmi) to breathe, blow, veer, pant after, desire; vdyus 
vdtas wind; sva- [breath, source of emotion], inner self; svas one's own; 
vayas [wind, force], bird, youth; vayasyas [eager] friend; m (vemi) to 
[pant after] seek, attain, approach, desire, love, [protect, robe]; vay 
to go [toward]; vevi to seek, desire, beget, eat, [feed], fill, [desire prey], 
shoot; vyay[svyay, aefw, aeuw] to shoot, hurl, dash out, pour, toss roimd, 
be generous, spend ; vi- [emptied], destitute, without ; vdi to be [emptied], 
dried; [svay, aeua>], su to whirl, move, go; su (sunomi) to pour out; 
su (suve, suye),sush,gush to beget, give birth; su{savdmi) to give birth; 
stUaSt sunns son; su- beneficent, good; fvi {gugava, p. p. gunas), to [be 
pregnant], to fill out, swell, roimd; gunyas [parturition, poured out], 
empty (xev6<<;) ; gon to [pour out blood], be red; gush to be dry; gish- 
tas left over; siH to pour, wet; hu to pour libation, sacrifice; hd to 
[pour out], drain, exhaust, loose, deprive, forsake (x^w) '» khav to be 
bathed, ptirified, happy; sev to beget, enjoy, suffer, effect, do, sacrifice, 
worship; seek festival, crowd; vyay to hurl, whirl; vyath to whirl, be 
whirled; vyadh to shoot, kill; vye (vitas) to whirl round, wrap, cover, 
clothe; uy to spin, weave, sew; ve to weave, sew; siv (p. p. [sTjyutas], 
syutas) to sew; si {sinomi) to bind; ves to go roimd; veshi to robe; 
vytis^ byus, bus to [turn, turn aside, turn away], leave ; savyas left hand; 
sdyas evening (revolution, sun*s departiu^); vyay to hurl; vyap to 
[shoot], destroy; vep to [hurl, brandish], quiver; vap to [whirl], hurl, 
sprinkle, sow, cast dice, [toss to and fro], weave; svap to [coil up], lie 
down, sleep, die, kill; kship, [kshvap], kshap to throw roimd, hurl down; 
kshubh to be whirled, confused; [kvapis]^ kapis incense (cf. xaxvig, 
vapor) ; kamp to whirl roimd, tremble ; kshamp to flash out, be strong; 
kamp, khamp, khamb, gam, ghamb, hamm to move round, move, go; 



— 204 — 

gaphas horse-hoof; \Qvabhr\ vabhr, babhr to roam about, wander; 
babhrus [whirling], flashing, radiant, ruddy {rutilans, vibrans) ; gvabhr to 
[whirl], bore ; gvabhram pit, cave ; Qubhras radiant, brilliant ; fubh.fumbh 
to shine, adorn; gibh to boast; sibh, stmbh, subh, sumbh to shoot, flash, 
wound, kill; kambalas wrap, blanket; [puyambas], vimbas disk, globe; 
[svamb]^ samb, gamb to move round, wrap, bind; sam to revolve, 
whirl, be troubled; sam, [gam, ksham, cf. S'iv] (meeting ends of hoop) 
united, with; samxis (opposite ends of hoop) [opposite, parallel], like; 
soma circling year; sdmyam time, reciprocity, equahty, bargain; 
sami [reciprocity], half; soman [embrace], caress, kindness, propitia- 
tion, hymn; gam (caus.) to soothe, control, [give quietus], kill, destroy; 
glance round, observe; sdm, sdntv, gdntv to comfort, soothe, caress, 
flatter; ksham to [embrace], hold fast, endure, be patient, gentle; to 
pardon ; kshamas patient, strong, fit, suitable ; ksham, kshamd the earth; 
patience, endurance; \pjdm^, vdmas beautiful; vdmas left-hand 
(patient; helper) ; \£iHxm\ vam to [hurl], eject, vomit. 

Sk. vd to breathe, blow; caus. and intens. forms vanh,banh,vaksh to 
[puff up, swell], round out, grow; vakshas inflated breast; vangas 
[rising, vocal] reed; [swelling, spreading] clan; vakras rounded, curved; 
f;an&aj river bend ; vankrisnh ; vank,iKinkh,vang,vakk,vashk,vask, svang^ 
svag, gvang to go roimd, roam, wobble, totter (vagor, vacillo, schwingen, 
schwanken, wanken) ; vash, vast to [roam], ravage, kill (pastari) ; svang to 
embrace, bind, [choke, throttle], (09(7^0), schweigen); vah to blow, 
breathe, [pant, make an effort], speed, carry, carry off, marry, sail, 
flow; vdg, vak to [pant], utter, shout, speak; vag, vas to [pant after], 
desire, love, choose, dwell, kindle hearth, make home, be fat, rich; 
\pans], van to love, choose; vdnksh to desire; uksh to beget, sprinkle; 
ush to [blow, kindle], biun. 

Sk. vd to blow; vyay, [svyay, sdivl to veer, eddy, hurl {saevus)\ 
[vydi, svydi, gvydi], go (gydmi) to [whirl], whet, sharpen, perfect; gi 
to sharpen, goad, incite, speed (xbo) ; kshi to stab, shoot, kill (xteCvia, 
(a(v(i>) ; kshi to [be eager, poimce], take possession, settle (xt(I^(i>, xr^ixa; 
cf. sad) ; gi (p. p. gayetas) to lie down, sleep (xe((iat; cf. jaceo) ; giksh to 
[be keen], learn ; gingh to be keen, scent ; sinhas lion ; vd, gvas to breathe ; 
gvas, gans to pant after, desire, pray, praise, speak (censeo); gas to 
command; ganst to breathe deep, sleep; gans, gak to utter, speak; 
gank to [pant], quiver, fear, dread; gag to [pant for, poimce for], leap; 
gas, gash, kag, kash, kash, ^ash, khash to kill; to devour; gdkh to grip, 
embrace, seize, take possession, fill; gak to be strong; gans to pant 
after; hansas goose (wide-mouth); hanus open jaw (xoeCvo)); kve to 



— 205 — 

cry; hnu to snap; han to pounce, kill; kshan to bite, wound, kill; 
Man to daw; khand, kand, khad, khid to tear, destroy, devour, cleave; 
diand to pounce, leap; kand to rage; kand to flash out, shine; khad 
to devour ; khid to harm ; khit to terrify. 

Sk. vye (p. p. vitas) to wrap, cover; vat to surrotmd, bind, twine; 
vand to wrap, clothe ; vyay to toss round, be lavish; t;*^/ to be generous; 
vand.vaniXo pass round, distribute; vad to issue orders [to stirrounders], 
command, cheer on, shout, speak; vand to [chant, sing in circle], 
praise, adore; to bow down; vid to shout; vit to soimd; vyay to hurl 
round; vyath, vddh to whirl, drive roimd, confuse, torment; vyadh to 
shoot, wound; vadh to strike, kill; tnd to [glance round, take aim], see, 
discover, find, [find fields], settle, dwell; vidhus [revolving] moon; 
vidhas [recurring] nature, race, kind, character; [vand, vad to eddy, 
whirl]; ud, und to be wet; vad, bad to bathe; [gvadh], fudh, gundh to be 
purified; gutit, funth, gvath, gvanth, gath, fvat,svath to melt away, dry, be 
sick, lazy, helpless, lame, languishing; gkut, gkyui, kyut, ktU to dash 
out, pour, flow; gat, gath, gad to [pour forth] praise; svad to be melting, 
sweet, persuasive; svid to sweat; gvind, gvit to be [melting], white-hot, 
white, glittering; vat, [vath], svapt,gath to entangle, cheat, deceive; to be 
[wreathed], adorned; vat, vand, bandh, badh, to enclose, hedge, bind; 
Ifuand], gand to roll together, heap up; hund, hud to roll up, gather, be 
whelmed; gatam hundred; kund to [encircle], guard, keep; kundas 
round pot; kundalas ring; kundas [coiling] jasmine; kut to be curved; 
gSut kui to dash out; khod to hurl; kuis to spurn, cast away; kud to 
htu-1, drive, speed ; skund to leap, heave. 

Sk. vd [vava, ava, av, a] to blow, eddy, circle, pant after, desire, be 
keen, watchf td, intense ; to own ; ]/~m) to [circle, enclose, fold], to guard 
sheep, be shepherd, watchful, intent, eager, just; to call, listen, protect, 
favor; to circle, roam, fly about; to envelop, robe; [to ctirve, 
turn] away, down, behind; to [circle], repeat, renew; time, life, 
eternity. 

Sk. av to guard, watch, [be eager, desirous]; avas favor, satisfaction; 
anis favorable, devoted; avasaras opportunity (watching the current, 

sni)\ ava-sdnam [desired] resting-place, death (sd). Zd. av to pay 

attention, protect. Gk. d/to) to perceive, hear, listen; a(aOdyo(iiat, 

aToOoyiae to observe, learn (cf . £(i> to breathe, d/taOa> to expire) ; licatcd 
to tmderstand; ittaq favorite; ahitt^ to enquire, seek after, demand; 
QEhb demand, impeachment, accusation, cause, opportunity (watched 
for); li-aaxim [to feed a flock diligently], to observe a regimen. 



— 206 — 

diet; dc/dtii> to be eager, impetuous, mad, reckless; to violate divine right; 
to be mighty; [causative] to infatuate, drive mad, curse (used of gods, 
dreams, wine; includes the idea of whirling, confusing); [i/drn)], 
OTi], Aeol. audrra bewilderment, infatuation, judicial blindness; firdo^iat 
to be wretched; drrda6aXo<; presumptuous, wicked (ioOXig = really, 
very) ; ''Atu<; frenzied; So) to [be eager, devour], take one's fill, satiate; 
[ilj/], 1^? pray? please say! ix-T)e-Tav^<; extending to all desire, abimdant. 

Lat. (xueo to desire; avidus eager; avarus miserly; aurum gold; 

[ausis], auris ear (intent) ; audio to hear (denom. from avidus) ; ob-oedio 

to hearken, obey; avena [lively-fodder], oats (cf. hafri). A.S. edvan^ 

edvan, ^an to [cause to see], show, reveal, appear, prove; Goth. 
us-aivyan to [pant], toil; avi-liud thanksgiving; aiths, O.H.G. eiJ curse, 

oath; (5ty)). R. yavit, yavlycU to show clearly, prove; yavnii evident, 

visible, proven. Ir. Htsim to listen, learn; conn-oi he who keeps; 

ar-n-eut so I expect (Z. 428); did heed, care; deth oath; ditiu [esLger] 
youth; da [passionate] liver; W. ewyUis, Bret, eouel desire, wiU (vri, 
volo, xvill); Ir. [dfil], dil agreeable; aille praise, reward, favor; dilim 
to entreat; W. eivi to listen; Com. oim to hear; oitset, oittis youth 
(eager, listening) ; O.C. Avilius. 

Same root. Gk. o5(; ear, Hom. plu. [dt/orra, auorra], oSora. Lat. 

[ausis], auris; aus-cuUo to listen. Goth au^o, O.H.G. drd\ A.S. eare. 

Lith. ausis^ O.R. ukho (gen. ushese), Ir. au, d ear. 

Sk. avis, avikas sheep (folded, guarded) ; avyas ovine. Gk. [<5/ig], 

8t<;, oI(; sheep; [ifuXt)] auXi^, aijXi<;, aiiXtov sheep-fold, farm-yard, 
court-yard, farmhouse (cf. Hof); auXR^oixat to watch sheep, camp 
out; auX<(; shepherd's pipe, pipe, water-pipe; ai!iXa§ nmnel, furrow, 
aqueduct? afiXcov glen, brook, aqueduct, channel, strait; alT6\o<; 
shepherd (also goat-herd, aT^); al-Yuxt^(; Ldmmergeier, bird of prey; 

OTttj sheep-mountain. Lat. OTns sheep ; avilius lamb, omle sheep-fold ; 

aula fold, farm-yard, hall; avena shepherd's pipe; [sheep-food], oats 
(ven to yearn) ; Aventinus fold, enclosure, ring-wall (cf . Pales, Palo 

tinus)\ O'pilio shepherd (aTicoXo<;). Goth, avistr fold; avethi Sock; 

O.H.G. atttcAf ewe-lamb ; Low Germ. Aulamm. Lith, avis sheep ; avinas 

wether; O.R. otntza sheep; R. oven ram; avis oats; ovkar shepherd. 

Ir. di sheep; O.C. [at;en/ watchful, guardian]; Avenlia justice; Aventi- 
cum seat of law; W. eunt just; O.C. Avenio, Aventicum, Ovidcus, 
Ovio-rix, Ovius, 

Sk. av to guard, protect. Lat. avus grandfather. Goth, avd 

grandmother. Lith. avynas uncle. Ir. due, ua, it, O* grandson 



— 207 — 

[guarded, lamb]; W. ewythr. Corn, euitor, Bret, eontr uncle (cf. eunt 
just); Bret. eUehet watchful; tadieu grandfather; O. C. Obavus] 
Obana guardian goddess; -ava, -avum, [Ova], Oba walled town (cf. 
oSXeov fold). 

Sk. vd [vava, ava, av to be eager, pant after], blow, breathe; to 
guard, be anxious, love, call, [warn]; avis [with warning], plainly, 

openly. Gk. [(ifuo)], aSo) to call, shout; duti^ war-cry; (SutIo) to 

shout, pray, vow; lt^ff\ shout, blast, clang; {(&, efiol shout of Bacchanals; 
{4, Vf\ voice; 'Ii^tO(; Apollo; fiveo) in silence (dev- negative); ive^(;, lwe<(; 

dumb (attr. by ve<(; child). Lat. ave\ hail! ovate to shout for joy, 

triumph ; ovdtus cry of joy ; voveo to vow. Goth, av-iliud thanksgiving ; 

O.H.G. uwila owl. R. yavit to publish, declare; [av-arat], orat to 

shout, roar. Ir. oal mouth; oar voice, cry, Druidical incantation. 

Sk. vd to blow, go, enjoy; av to be watchful, [eager, intent]; vdytss 
wind; vdyasas raven; vayas strength, youth, bird; [vd, ava, av to veer, 
revolve, roam, soar]; evas (yd intens.) roving, course, road, way, 
custom; [a]vis [eager, soaring], bird; vayas birds; [yavyatis], viyatis 

bird; viyat slit; vay, vi to go, seek, attain, desire, love. Zd. [a]ui 

bird. Gk. [(S/to(i.ae],oTo(xa( to revolve in mind, reflect, bode, think; 

o!(i>v6^ vulture, eagle, bird of augury; [yoLfye:o<;], ai^s::6(; (Hesych.), 
de:6<; eagle; fTov violet, snow-drop, iris; fla flowers (Hesych.; lovely, 

yearning). Lat. avis bird; [avi-runcum], urruncum "bird's pick,** 

last grains in ear; Aurunca (augural name) ; vitreus glassy, blue (viyat); 
vis (plu. [vises], vires) force, strength; [vionla], viola violet, spring 

flower (Ital. violella cyclamen). Goth, aiviskon to [turn back, fly, 

flee], act shamefully; O.H.G. awa river, (winding, eddying). Bret, 

[ouv], ouf bay, creek; oufein to plimge, dive; of, of en trough, tub; O.C. 
Avo river; Aiisava (pref. uisce); Aus-oba, Osson-oba, Ob-oca, Av-oca, 
Av-ara, [Auv-ona], Auf-ona, Tuer-obius, Tues-obius rivers and estu- 
aries; Obi' f one "happy harbor," goddess of ports with votive 
inscriptions. 

Sk. av to circle, globe. Gk. ^•5ua(j(i> to be angry (dvish) ; (S-Xixro) to 

peel; ij)<v egg (w^eov Hesych.); q)ov, 6icep(i)ov above the vault or dome; 
second story; $«» 8a hem, border, sheep-skin wrap; 8ov sorb (globe cf. 

arbutus, orbis) ; [ci/a], a>^d tribe (circle, Kreis) . Lat. dvum egg ; omentum 

membrane of intestines. O.H.G. ei plu. eygir, developing guttural 

from digamma (but cf. p. 3). Ir. og, Com. uy egg. 

Sk. ava [curving] down, away; [a]ui away, from, without, separate; 



— 208 — 

vd [separate], or. Gk. H/4], ij or; a3, aike, aSBtg back, again, anew» 

behind, in turn, indeed; afi*T6g himself (distinct, separate) ; auTdp then» 

again; ou [away, without], not, no; o6x not; iljuTe just as. Lat. 

[avat], aut or; autem however; [a^ue.-ve or. — -Ir. 6^ iUi [away] from; 
/d, bd or ]fo imder (ava). 

Sk. avaras (comparative degree of last) [circling, following, cf, 
felloe f follow], below, behind, last; avdras the farther bank; [avran], 

arvan low, lowly. Gk. o6p4 tail; odpCoexog end, oar-handle (Ixw); 

o&po<;, aupa, following, favoring wind, secundus; oSptov to-morrow; 
Eijpo? fair wind home, (east), from the Archipelago; IlaXCv-oupoc 
"happy return"; [KaXa/pta], KaX-aup(a port-island of Troezen; 
KaXd^pia [with fair wind] from Illjrria; K4vT-aupog "goad-behind," 
wind chasing clouds (Lapithae); Otja-oupi^ "store-behind," store- 
room behind hut (Sk. ni-dhis) ; cf . penus, penes, penetralia. Lat. 

termination fini5«= following, future, object of pursuit, desire ; venturus; 
esurio; [avara], ora [farther] shore; cad-dver [fallen on its back], carcase. 

Lith. oras wind, storm, air. Ir. ar, or, 6ir, Hair in consequence, 

therefore; ur negative prefix (backward); lir-garim to forbid; Com. 
auorou to-morrow (aSpcov). 

Sk. [av to circle, cycle; yav intensive]; ivas roaming, course, custom; 
iva hitherto, thus, surely, now, only (recurring one by one) ; iva [in 

the same track], as, like ; [avyas], dyus age, time of life. Zd. aiva thus, 

hitherto, indeed, [this] one; dyu life-time. Gk. al(iv life-time, age; 

altq, aUv, dceC, ever, always; ithioc; eternal (vidhas); *Hto^ Apollo 
(circling, eternal); iljtwv (Dor. al(iv) [curving] shore (cf. Itius, lituus^ 

lut to whirl). Lat. aevum time; aevitas, aetas age; aetemus eternal 

(p. 1 1 6). Goth, aivs time, age; aiv ever; aiveins eternal; O. H. G. 

eiva law, contract, marriage (eiMis) ; A. S. dfer ever; O. N. aefi life; aefar 

greatly, ever so much. Ir. dis, des, 6is time, age; des, 6es generation, 

• people; W. 6et life-time; ois, oes, Corn, huis age; Bret, ded age, time, 
life; ouz inhabitants (Z. 738); euez also; W. yw, ywen, Bret, ivinnen, 
Fr. if, yew-tree (long-lived); O. C. Aevillius, Aeveius, EvocatuSt 
Evoiorix, Evolengus, Evi-randus (eternal portion, Enguenand); 
Ivitius, Imnus; (Ives, Ivins, Evans; melt with Joannes); Ivicatttis. 

Sk. eua only, thus, hitherto ; [evna], iva, this ; i-kas one, only. Zd. 

aiva one. Gk. [o(/og], olog alone; olov only; olo^ like, such as; 

oM?, ttg, Iv, one; ofvi^ unit, ace. O. Lat. oenos, Lat. anus 

one; unitas imity, unio onion, pearl (concentric layers); [co-oindl, 
coena supper; common meal. Goth, ains one; ainaha^ unions^ 



— 209 — 

cnly-begotten; A. S. dn, dinn, O. N. einn one. O. Pruss. ains, 

lith. ven€Ls one. Ir. den, d^n one; dentu unity; W., Cor., Bret, un, 

^tman^ anyn one; Ir. denan anyone; in-on the same one; dende only; 
^etuich union, assembly; O. C. Oenianus, 

Sk. ikas one {eva only + ka and, q. v.] ; -kcLS diminutive term ; kanakas 
(little] father; [^anoA^d little mother]. — — Gk. yuvi^ woman, yuv-alxe^ in- 
dividual women. Lat. [un-aicus], untcus ovly. Goth, ain-aha only, 

unique; brdthr-ahans brethren; un-bam-ahs without a single child; 

bcdrg-ahei region enclosed by moimtains. R. maika little mother; 

female. 

Sk. vd (vami) to breathe, pant after, desire, enjoy, love; (vava, ava, 
ov, d to be eager, watchful, intent; to utter); vdtas, vdyus wind, air; 
vdtis air, wind, sun, moon; vat to blow upon; vayas strength, impetus, 

bird; vdyasas raven; viyai air. Gk. [if**)], Sco, ddl^ci) to blow, breathe; 

Jog wind; 5eXXa whirlwind {vel to whirl); firjiit to blow; Hfr\<; blast; 
Si^Tog stormy; aSpa cool breeze; dctoOo) to give up the ghost; atoOdevopiac 
to be eager, perceive; 4-a6^a panting, blast; S/erpia blast of flame; 
drqjLivwind; dut^xi^ fiery breath, heat, blast, scent, fragrance; [/S/w], 

dbticD, delaat, /{/au(i> to [breathe deep], sleep. Lat. venitis wind; vene- 

ius blue [sky] (clearing wind, cf . A. S. bldvan, bled) ; Ventidius impetu- 
ous; vO'Veo to utter vow; [va-vannus], vannus winnowing-shovel. 

Goth, vaian to blow; vinds wind; znn/r«5 winter; vinihyan to winnow; 
voihis sweet odor; O. N. vedkr air, wind, tempest, weather; vedhr 

(Goth, viihrus) a winterling ram; a wether (lamb-like). Lith. 

viyas wind; oras air, storm; O. R. veiati to blow; R. veiter wind; 
veiireniy whirling, capricious; veyat to blow, winnow; vedro clear sky, 

fair weather; von odor. Ir.feih air, calm (viyat) ; [dO'infeth], tin-feth 

breath; foihach blast, storm; fathach [tempest, winter], giant; fed 
a chirp, whistle; feddn fife; fedil [long-winded], enduring; foaim to 
sleep ((a6(i>); feiss sleep; W. gwynt wind; awel, Com. awA^/, Bret, 
aiii/ wind, air (fieXXa); Bret, guentein to winnow; oevr, hrr, kbr at- 
mosphere, heaven; vaiein, fatein to [pant], be exhausted, feint; O. C. 
Veniius god of storm and war; [Av'venio], Avenio ''veniosa,'* 

Sk. vd to blow, veer; vyay to dash round, hurl, shoot, spend; vyusk, 
byus to [dash away], leave; [svayas], 5dya5 [returning] evening; savyas 
left hand; savyetaras right hand (p. 15); [savalas], (ovalas varying, 
changeable; sev to [whirl], crowd together, be eager, perceive, effect. 

2ki. havya left hand. Gk. cjxat^<; left hand (implies forms 

Ifovyas, kshavyas], cf. favalas); [a/At/a<;], ATa? (ATovro?) the whirl- 

14 



— 210 — 

wind, destructive, mad, scathed by lightning; son of TeXd^v (endur- 
ance, sultry calm), or a/0/iXeu<; (whirl, vortex); redup. a/Tja/atoTo<; 
(or api -{-bhas), Tl9at(JT0<; lightning, hurled from heaven, crooked, 
limping, spilling nectar {soma, rain), greeted by the laughter of the 
gods (pealing thimder) ; lord of fire; husband of rain-cloud; 6(i.*oto^ of 

the same turn, fashion; olo(; such as, like. Lat. scaeuus left hand; 

Scaevola ; saevus fierce, [wild-wind] ; Ve-jovis averted, sinister god ; ve-cors, 

ve-sanus mad; Veseims Vesuvius; sevum [seething] tallow. Goth. 

saivala, A. S. sdvel soul (panting, boiling, bubbling) ; A. S. sefol seal 
[panting, blowing]; Goth, saivs, A. S. sae, sio (gen. sive) circling ocean, 
sea; Goth; vai-dedya malefactor; O. N. d-dddh misdeed; Low (Jer. 
scheef. High Ger. scheib oblique ; Ger. Scheibe revolving disk, pulley, 

sheave; scheivern to whirl, destroy, tremble, shiver. R. seiver north 

(left-hand, opposed to dakshinas right-hand, south; or fierce); O. R. 
shuy left-hand; Slov. shevi oblique, twisted; R. shevelit to shake, stir; 

sheya [twisting] neck; sheika neck, tail; shibkii swift. Ir. [siavrae\ 

siabrae demon; siabrad demoniac fierceness; siabur storm-cloud, 
chariot of Cucullin(cf. Qvabhr to whirl, bore) ; Bret, biizein to twist, 
turn aside, bias {byus) ; beziti [whirled], dizzy, stupid ; beskel turn, corner; 
O. C. SaevateSy Saevonius, Seivola;Semra river. 

Sk. vd, [svd] to blow, breathe, eddy; sva- self, centre of exist- 
ence; svayam self; svas one's own [s]vas ye. Zd. kva, [pa], qa his; 0. 

Pers. huwa self. Gk. [a/]o5 = Lat. sui, of him; ol to him, sibi; [a/]?, 

Q^t him, se (9 = / as in a?fTT<^)j ^i<i* ^fi<iy 8<;, i6<; his, hers; o^et? 
they; o^e them; q^6<;, a^i':zpo<; their own (term, itaras other, another 
as in savyetaras right-hand, p. 15); [ff/]T8tO(; (/i5tO(; in inscriptions) 
one's own, personal (attracted by vidhas nature, character, q, v.); 

[ff/]?5ffiO(; the god's own; nature's right; holy, licit, right. Lat. sui, 

sibi, se, sese (all singular and plural) ; suus his, theirs; [s]uds ye (your- 
selves); vester your own; Suessa possession, settlement; sed (abl. of 
separation) [by itself, alone, without], but; se'Cerno to set by itself, 
separate; s^v]prsum turned away, by itself, apart; sed*itio going apart, 

sedition; [sva], sO'Cors senseless. Goth, svh one's own; sik self; 

sva-sve [one's own way], so as; sva so; sve as; svikns [self-reserved, 

8atO(;], pure; [sviyum], siyum to exist? izvisye. Lith. sava$is=suus; 

saven=^se\ O. R. sen=^se', sebei=sibi; svo, svoy=suus', R. [stm\, i^v]i 

apart, alone, without. Ir. siii (plu. siiide) sage, druid; ipse dixit 

(cf. T5tO(;) ; [sveisne], feisne, f&in, self; feb { = sibi, for one's self) honor, 
rank, distinction ; /efe/w idiosyncrasy, qnality ; fessin, fadessin, fadUn 
self (Rto?; a/od) ;fa'ni'Sin we ourselves ; sfib ye ; W. [svi], chwi, chwichwi; 
Com. why, Bret, hui, chut ye. 



— 211 — 

Sk. [sixi], sa, sas he; sd she. Gk. article 6, i^ he, she, the. O. 

Lat. ace. sum, sam he, she. Goth, sa he; sd she; si they; sah this; 

saei whosoever. R. on he? ona she; eya hers; ee her. Ir. so, 

sin^hic, haec, hoc; sund here; siif that, yonder. 

Sk. !;>«>', [5r>«>'] to hurl, whirl, dash, be lavish, toss round; su 
to move, go; su (suvami) to incite; sev to whirl, be eager, crowd; so 

(sydmi) to dash, destroy. Gk.[a/e/(i)], aeutti (laaeua, laau^evo(;) to shoot, 

gush, dart, speed, desire; [ofofeu], ao^io) to whirl, drive, push about, 
be eager, brag, brandish, scare birds; ao^i?, ao/t(; capricious; a dance; 
o6^Y) horse's tail, crest; a(au^o<; tassel; oou! shoo! 9oQ<;, oouok; whirling, 
upward motion; [a]ip<^t) lock of hair, mane, foliage (9 for /) ; [aoa/ioro?], 
dlorig arrow; ad>Tpov [whirling] felloe; icoi^v queen-bee; [a/]4ayL<g 
swarm, stream; [ffe]-ayL^vo<; swarm, hive; a/e£(i) to whirl, stir, brandish, 
shake, sift; adtid, oi^Og) to shake roimd, sift, sow; aivtdcl^a) to sift, winnow; 
[af\ifiibi to strain, sift; o^orpov, 'ffi^6<; sieve, colander; [a/<wu^t], 
o(liwu(iC to [dash water], quench, drain, dry up, exhaust; oi^^ (plu. 
al/eO moth (circling, fluttering); orjaoviU sesame (sprinkled like 
caraway; sam to whirl); [<J/]oTa§ helm, rudder (dashing); AXotxoq 
steersman, Wil«helm; [afYHri^aiazoi; lightning (p. 210) ; dhjoupog light as 
air (p. 151); 4i^auXo<;, aTauXo(; fickle, wicked; oTao) (future) to swing 
up, lift, poise on head, bear; oTo^at to revolve in mind, reflect; a/auvtov 
javelin; aahto to wag the tail, fawn; aT]^a(vG> to bexJcon, wave the 
hand, give the signal, signify; o^^a meteor, warning, token, sign; 

feC, ftX xev, Pafxotv if. Lat. [ex-suo], exuo to sftip off; ex-uviae 

spoils, hide; [sfeso], sero (p. p. satus, cf. cdo)) to scatter, sow; 
[Sveius], Seius, Sejanus lithe, active, lucky; [svessus], esus, erus, herus 
Reader of migration]; master (icoi^v); era (esa inscriptions) mistress; 
Suessa, Sfinuessa colony, migration; sannio to [wag], wheedle, flatter; 
[sfino, sinfo], sinuo to whirl, coil, curve, fold; sin-ister curved, twisted 
the other way; the wrong turn; left hand; sine [turned away from], 
separated, without; sino (perf. sivi) to [turn aside, leave room], )rield, 

suffer, permit (cf . vyush ; idwo) ; si.sin if, or if (conceding) . Goth, saian, 

A. S. sdvan, O. H. G. sdan, sdwan, sdhan (h from digamma) to sow; 
A. S. sedn, O.ti. sid; Goth, [saiwan], saihvan to [glance roimd], see 
(A from / as in sdhati) ; Goth, saivs [tossing] sea; O. N. sio to sift ; sidn 
face, eyes (turning, vuUus); s6a to sweep away; sveit roving troop; 
sveima to rove; Svtar Swedes; 5t;«/' [roving] troop; region; sveinn 
(A. S. svdn) lad, boy, shepherd, steersman, swain (agile, lithe, turning) ; 

svanr swan (lithe-neck) ; O. G. Suevi; Suiones. R. voiti to go round, 

wander, be busy; voit collector, steward; voisko army; [sfeind\, voina 
war; voinenii warrior; svivai to whirl arotmd, wrap, twist; viiai to 



— 212 — 

circle, soar; vitycu warrior. Ir. sdim (inf. so pod) to twist, turn, 

whirl, change; sfeol, sedl sail, bed; fHan veil, wrap; fencanain osier, 
wattle ; f&n [wattled] cart ; basket-wagon ; fHaimm echo, returning sound ; 
fuin, fuined sunset (revolution); fuineta western; sam-fuin summer- 
end. All Saints; fuinnema swiftly whirling ;/Mmfm to bake (twists, 
rolls; boul'anger); [s fin], sin storm-wind; chain, collar; sinnach fox 
(doubling); siianem rope; sennim to whirl, drive; to twist, stretch; 
fiann army (roving) ; finnaim to discover; fian hero; yine [roving] clan; 
F^ne the ancient Irish (Ven'icnii, Ven»icontes, melting with van to 
choose, love) ;fennaim to strip, tisLy\fuinS'eog (W. fonen. Com. onenn, 
Bret, ounnen) ash-tree (pliant, tough wood) ; saUhe a crowd, swarm of 
bees; Bret. g«^ flexible; saiiein, seUel to whirl up, lift; to turn, revolt; 
setd straw, thatch; hoiU, huan whirling dust; sai^ stm-rise; starting up, 
lifting up, making; O. C. Soic[n], goddess; Soiana, Sainius, Sinnius; 
Saina, Sena, Senona rivers (whirling, driving, winding?); Sveius 
nimble, lucky (cognomina Repentinus, Fortunaius, Jucundus) \cO'Vinnus 
basket- wagon (f^). 

Sk.vyay, [si^yay], to dash, hurl ; vyusXsvyus] to dash out, be bountiful, 
fruit; su (sundmi) to pour out, make libation of rain-medidne, [irrigate, 
feed, be boimtiful]; su (sautni, p. p. stUas) to pour out, make libation, 
squeeze out, generate ; sUnas, gunyas empty; sU (suvamt), go {gydmi), gi 
(gigite) to excite, incite, sharpen; fit;ds hitting mark, direct, fortunate; 
i^ivas Siva the sun, creating and scorching; sH (suve, sHyep.p. sUtas, 
sUnas), sush, gush to beget, gender; suh to be glad, strong ;[5vaA], sah to 
be strong, enduring, gracious; gish to leave [after pouring], to reserve, 
prefer; gush to drain, dry; gushmas clearing weather, stm, fire, wind, 
splendor, force of nature (%6(j^o<i) ; guk to shine, be splendid ; gushkas 
drained, dry; guKis pure, white, planet Venus; sUk to reveal; kuf to 
shine; guk to [pour out], weep; gtk, sik to moisten, wet, touch; siM 
to water; sekas sprinkling, begetting; sukhas joyfvl; pleasure, volup- 
tuousness; [gu], hu to pour libation, sacrifice, offer; hd to pour, drain, 
exhaust, leave over, desert; khav to be purified, strong, happy; kham 
air, sky; khev to worship ; gavas, gdvas water, body, whelp ; gi-gus whelp; 
(^ivas generator, creator; gvi to [be pregnant], swell; At;# to [dash out], 
utter voice, call, be eager (hinnio); su- abimdant, pleasant, good; 
5warfu5 well-being (eieorco). 

Sk. su, sU to pour out, generate; somas rain and generation medi- 
cine,m3rstic force, juice of the root of the asclepiades acida; sUmam milk, 
water, atmosphere; soman moon (Circe); sutas, sunus offspring, son; 
savitri sun (generator) ; [sutri\, stri female. Zd. hu to make soma; 



— 213 — 

kuftu son. Gk. 8(i> to rain; Oettfg rain; 6'GEx*cy6o^ hyacinth, iris (lift- 
ing spike after spring rain) ; SaXo^ [hardened water, ice], crystal, glass 
(cf . xpAoraXXoO ; *Td8e^ rain-stars, bringing rain after summer drought; 
ffOxov [swelling, juicy], fig, [oofu^co], iicufc) to beget; ocoxog strong 
(of Hermes, light-giver); a(I>^a the animal body (creation); Mq son; 
ui(i>vi^ grandson (van affection); 6(i.i^v caul of womb, maiden-head; 
5wo?, /Two?, y(vvo? foal, pony, mule; [oOvk;], Ivt? son, daughter; 
W6i^ to make strong, to nerve; Ivfov tendon; T^ (Mq) force, nerve; 
[a/]a(oyd(i> to moisten, bedew, foment ; ^vaxo^ (flooding, creating) a river; 
son of Ocean and founder of Argos; [o/jalpia blood; (a(v(i> to melt heart, 
cheer, comfort, warm; [aa/o?], a4o<;, awo<;, acog well, wholesome, safe, com- 
fortable ; [a/a/(i>TO(;],S(i>TO(; fairest, best ; Sdcd nereid ; acoorpa doctor's fee ; 
[aa/ofi)], ijpdka to reach puberty, be vigorous, bloom; ij^t) puberty, youth; 
[aa/ug], iiSg, iljOg well -bom, noble, good; W, ei5, efi- (as prefix), good, bene- 
ficial; [savai], tial, euoi, aa^al bacchanalian shout; aa^dct^o), ffu^ptdct^ci) 
to be wanton, mischievous, demoniacal; ca^axi? lewd, dripping, wet; 
ad^ovov towel; Jli^oq, Sa^dl^iog Phrygian deity; Bacchus; aa^dxTtjg 
goblin (cf. witches' Sabbath); ou^pog wild boar; o[a/](£wa<; zany; 

[aa/aXog], aauXog wanton. Lat. [^oudnu^], sdnus well, sound; 

sanies blood; sumen groin; suesco to [live, enjoy], be wont; sudum 
fair weather (cf . Ir.) ; [savulum], sabulum, saburra, suburra river-drift, 
gravel, sand; savo, sapo [svap caus.] soft-soap; sapor taste (watering 

mouth) ; savium kiss; subo to be in a heat ; hinnus (TvvoO foal, Goth. 

sunus son; sauihs sacrifice; saun atonement; sautha origin, cause; 
svinthei force; sunna (masc.),sunno (fem.) sun; O. N. sunna sun; sunnr, 

sudhr south; sonr son; A. S. sund, O. H. G. gi-sunt soimd, healthy. 

Lith. sunus, O. R. ^v]inu son; R. ^v]in son; sushkestvo existence; 
sut existence; sutki solar day, 24 hours; svatat to seek in marriage; 
svyatoi holy; sveitlo clear weather; sveit light, creation, the world, 

day; tzveit {ffuit) flower; Lith. shveitztu to shine; sveitas world. Ir. 

suth birth, offspring, weather; suthach, fruitful; sin weather; sine 
teat (milk giver); sain exceedingly, stupassing, excellent, peculiar; 
somme abundance, wealth, prosperity {soma) ; so-, su-gooA, excellent; 
sonend, soinean fair weather; sonas prosperity, bliss; [savaU\, saball, 

saul [abundance], granary. Bret, seim sap, force, strength of wine 

(seifk, skve) ; sein oil (dripping, quickening) ; O. C. sabaium beer; Savos, 
Saue, Sabis, Sabatus, Sabrina, Saunium, Subaris, Siberis rivers (melt 
with a/efo)); Sabatinus locus; Saviacus, Savellus, Savinidcus, Sauma, 
Saunus; [Suvara], SHra; Sutta, Suttonius (well-bom) ; Sosius. 

Sk. su (sutas) to pour out, generate; [pw], filsh to generate; fush 
to be emptied, drained, dry; [sut], svath, gvath, fvanth, gath, gat to be 



— 214 — 

[bathed, clothed, unclothed], adorned, unadorned, languishing, coaxing 
flattering, lazy, ill isutt, sit, (it to [dash away], scorn; (and to languish; 
gandhas eunuch; ganas [swamp-grewn], hemp; gddas mire, grass; 
guih, gunih to be lazy, lame, dry; gudh (gudhydmi [forms gvadh, gddhj) 
to be bathed, cleansed; gundh to cleanse; guddhas clean; gundas dis- 
tilled liquor; gad to praise. Gk. xaOap^g pure; xoeOaCpoi to purify; 

xexa^iiivo?, xexaqxivo? well supplied, excellent; KaoraXCa purifier; xioro^ 
aromatic plant, perfimie; Zd-xuv6o(; very pure, beautiful; xu8o? glory 
(cf. latUus); xu$p6(; illustrious, noble; K6lpo<;; 60X&i> to prate, idle; 
aa6p^<; watery, weak, rotten; xtj^euo) to care for, tend, marry, lament; 

%ffio<; care, sorrow. Lat. castas pure, chaste; castigo to correct; 

castro to castrate (gandhas),. vere-cundia self-respect (p. 192); Cassius 

(cf . Ir) ; sentina bilge-water. O. N. haddr women's hair; haudhr the 

earth (in poetry; xiqxoO; heidh clear sky; heidhr cheerftd, bright, 

heiter; synd sin; A. S. hddor glory, beauty. R. kistit to purify; kudri 

curled hair; tzeidit to drain ; 5(7*5iiJ water-vessel (cf . situla) ; sueta vanity; 
seitovat to grieve ; Lith. kystas, O. Pruss. skystan pure ; Lith. shudas mire 

{gddas), Mod. Ir. cuidhe pure; caidhe mire; O. Ir. cdid holy; caidche 

fair weather; [do'Cad], tocad luck; cendsa propitiation, grace; cendais 
gracious; casta, cass with curled, beautiful hair; cas-lechta soft, smooth, 
shining; W. cudon dove; W. cadr, Com. cazr, Bret, cadr, cassr, kaer 
beautiful ; O. C. BelatU'cadros, Cadridcus, Cad'ilidcus, Cassius. 

Sk. same roots; su to pour; gudh to bathe, be luxurious; svad 
(svaddmi) to [boil], season, make savory, taste; (svade) to be savory, 
sweet; svddus, svadaniyas savory, sweet; svddas taste; sudas cook; 
gddas fresh grass; gdd to praise; kshvid to love, [pour out], set free; 

kshvid to be oily; exude [saliva]; sigh for; snap at; gnash teeth. 

Gk. [of]ifi6(;, fi^\j\LO(; sweet, fragrant, pleasant; i^^uvg) to season, 
give relish, coax; i^^o?, ifiovf^ relish, pleasure; ij^opiat to enjoy; SSvov, 
leSvov wedding gift; Wav<<; sweet, fresh; dv^devci) to please; i^at^ 
delight; 'HafoSo^ sweet song; 'Hativtj sweet love; 55vov truffle; 68v<ci> 

to notirish. Lat. [suadvis], sudvis sweet; suddeo to coax, persuade, 

advise ; Suddila eloquence ; [sv]odor savor, fragrance ; odorari to scent 

(attracted from edo, q. v.). Goth. sHiis mild, agreeable; suthyan 

to soothe ; O. N. soetr, A. S. svite, O. H. G. suozi sweet ; O. N. siSdha to 

seethe ; A. S.svadhrian to be appeased, calmed. R. shutit to be merry 

(cf. svath to be adorned, lazy); kui[v]e scent; Muvstvo perception; sot 

honeycomb; khoteit to desire. Ir. sua[d]bais mild; suaibsech 

gentle; [svant], sant desire; sHaihaim to stir, season, knead, mold; W. 
chwaethu to taste; chwant desire; Bret, chwaesa to smell; huidir lark; 
O. C. Suadwrix, Suadulla. 



— 215 — 

Sk. kshvid to exude; snap at; fvind, Qvit to be [melting], white-hot, 
white; svid to [melt], sweat; svidas sweat; svedani iron pan; fvath, gaih^ 
svath, scUh to melt, pine, be sick; fddas mire ; gUdras [sweater], low-caste. 

Gk. I8pci? sweat, gtim; Ro^ sweat, heat; iSpio), (^bo to sweat; 

tl8o5 heat (Hesych.); a/teT)po(; iron (stone-sweat); T8t) sheen. Lat. 

sudo to sweat; sudor sweat; de'Stderium eager desire. O. N. sveita 

sweat; svidhna to bum; A. S. sveodhol smoke, steam; svdt sweat, 
blood; svidh burning woe, effort, strength; svedhrian to melt away, 
diminish; A. S., O. N. hvit, O. H. G. htviz white; A. S. hvaeti [white 
flour], wheat; Goth, svinthet strength; O. H. G. sweiz sweat; sweizyan 

to parch, fry. Lith. svidas polished metal; kaitziu to heat at fire; 

kvetys wheat; R. sveit light. Ir. {s]feidm intense effort (cf. A. S.); 

feidle endurance; [svith\ sith- intensive prefix; [s]idan purified, 
pure, sincere; sith-fuiang temper of steel; sdeth labor, toil, suffering; 
W. chwys, Bret, kuiz sweat; O. C. Suedius. 

Sk. fonas [bathed, water-washed] hemp; kanapas [reed] javelin 

(cf. garas.galakd p. 159). Mod. Pers. kunnap hemp. Gk. xdvva, 

xovc&y reed ; xdnKiMcov elder (hollow stalk) ; xivva^t^ hemp. Lat. cannabis 

hemp; canna reed; canistrum basket; cancellum lattice, grating. 

O. H. G. hanf, O. N. hanpr, O. R. konoplya. ^W. canabauc; 

Bret, kanabek hemp; O. C. Cannabiaca. 

Sk. same roots; su to pour out, gender, multiply; su-karas litter- 
maker, swine. Zd. hu swine. Gk. Owo^ foal; au?, 5< (w<<;) 

wild-swine, swine; Bvtg, uvvyj plowshare (rooting, digging); 5-atva horrid 

swine, hyena (pp. 5, 161). Lat. sus (gen. suis) swine; adj. suintis, 

suiUiis; [suvtdcus], 'subulcus swine-herd (p. 199). Goth, svein 

swine; O. H. G. sH sow. O. R. sviniya swine. Ir. socc snout, 

plow-share, [hog]; socc*sail sea-hog, cuttle-fish (blackening water); 
W. huch, kwch. Com. hack, Bret, hoiich hog; W. swch, Bret, sauch 
beak, snout, plowshare (cf . Sk. potra snout, plowshare) ; O. C. soccus 
plowshare; Socconius plowman. 

Sk. su (savdmi, sdumi p. p. suias) to water, fertilize, beget; sev to 

beget, enjoy, help, serve. Gk. id^ev we are filled, have enough of; 

[a/a/aTO<;], icnoq insatiate; m (dptevac, iaac) to take one's fill, satiate; 
SdcTupog generative force of nature; aotuptov aphrodisiac; alTo^ (sev) 
food, com, provisions; otTeuG) to feed, fatten; SBtjv one*s fill; iSlo) to 
be sated; ilp6<; well fed, well grown, large (cf. svad to boil, season). 

Lat. redup. [sesfo], sera (sevi, satus) to sow (melts with aefo) p. 

211) ; saium harvest; semen seed, offspring; satio to sate, satisfy; saiis 



— 216 — 

enough; saiur sated; saturo to soak; scUura hodge-podge (hedge-poach- 
ing, all-herbs) ; Sat-urnus winter-rain, reviving nature, winter-solstice 
(Capncom with unrolling boms of plenty, p. 103); sitis thirst; situla 
water-bucket (always dipping); situs over-moisture, mold; sae-culum 

[sowing, crop], generation of mankind (cf. Goth.; -c/iii» p. 167). 

Goth. sStk repletion, abimdance; ga-sStkyan to sate; saihs sated; 
fnana-seths human race, the world; O. N. sdtt sickness (draining life); 
synda to float, swim; sund water, a sound; synda to [roll in mire] sin 

(cf. Celtic). Lith. soias replete; sotis repletion; O. R. ^v}Uu sated; 

s[v]Ui satiety. Ir. sdith repletion; sathech sated; sdsaim to satisfy; 

sdith vile; Bret. savcUein, satUrein to roll in mire, defile; O. C. SaUo^ 
SaUonius (abundant, rich). 

Sk. same roots; su to pour out, generate; siLsh, fush to beget; 
sik, sik, (ik to wet, water, pour; gikaras fine rain, spray; sinhdnas 
mucus; sikatd gravel; sekas irrigation; fuM to weep; fish to leave 
[after poiuing]; gush to be drained, dried; fushkas dry; fushmas 
clearing weather, sun, air, wind, splendor, force; fushtnan fire; fuH 
to shine; gukis pure, white, planet; giksh to [suck, be eager], learn; 

kuf to sinne; kugas cast-iron; water; sacred grass. Zd. hiM (hin^iti) 

to wet; hush to dry. Gk. a/axtij(i> to strain, filter; adtxxo? [colander, 

reed-mat], coarse cloth; oaux6<; dry; aaux(t6g, aoexv6g [drained], 
feeble; l(rxyi<i dry, withered, weak; l(rxfi<; [sap], bodily strength, 
force; alXju> (alfyi) to boil, bubble, hiss; a(xtwc(; wanton dance; 
oixua melon, gourd (water-pot); ocxxaCvo) to [cast off, vomit], loathe; 
(jDXv6<; abundant, much, crowded, populous, frequent; [a1ix(A(£< mois- 
ture, blood, juices of body; lx\Kabm to wet, anoint; *lx\udo<; Juppiter 
Pluvius; Txpta [wave-washed] decks of Homeric ship; TxTepo? [soaked, 
stained], jaimdice (p. 108); l^tip ichor, blood, animal juices; Txvo? 
track, sole of foot; sole of shoe; footstep (on clay; scent; sinhdnas; 
fingh to snuff; sinh lion) ; (xvetj<i> to track; %6a\L0<; beauty, order, world, 
ornament (fushmas); xJoxivov sieve; [dnco-ouaoci)], d^uaoo) to pour 
out abundantly; Bcftvov [blood] red; Boxa fire-wood (dry) ; Bcaoxo? fire- 
drill; aOxov [juicy] fig. Lat. sucus juice; saucius bleeding, wounded 

(cf. Goth, vunds); succinum [resinous] amber; sugo to suck, drain; 
signum mark on clay, foot-step; sigillum seal ; soccus clog, wooden sole, 

keeping foot dry; siccus dry. Goth, siggqan (O. H. G. sinhan) to 

[sink in mire], sink, perish; saggqs sinking, simset; siuks (O. H. G. 
sioh) sick (saucius; aoxvi?); ga-suqon to season; suqns belly (drain); 
saiihts disease; sokyan to [follow tracks], seek, long for; M. H. G. sihe 
sieve; sihte wet; sUgan, O.N. siuga to suck; O.N. sysliga quick, busy 
(fiksh) ; Eng. to sizzle {afXjui) ; A. S. secg sedge. Lith. sunkiu to strain; 



— 217 — 

sekti to grow wet; sausas drained, dry; O. R. seknati to flow; siizaii 
to urinate; R. sukhoi dry; sushit to dry; sok sap; suk pine-knot; sosna 

pine; suslo froth (cOia)). Ir. socc snout; plowshare; sescenn bog, 

swamp; seise sedge; seise dry, barren; seceaim to dry, parch, freeze; 
sUgim to suck; W. hysp, Com. seigh dry, barren; W. hesgen sedge; 
chweeh. Com. whee, Bret, kuek sweet (^ucm^) ; Bret, hesk sedge; heskein 
hespein to dry, exhaust; kousk exhaustion, torpor, calm; eheigein 
to sink; ehugon sap, marrow; chtUh, sktUh exhausted, weary; O. C. 
Suecconius; Seccius, Secco (force); Sescidcus (swamp); Sicera river; 
Seccanehae nymphs; Sinquatis god; Sincius, Sinquetus; Siqtmna, 
Siquanna, Sequana river (irrigating, life-giving); Singidunum (on 
Danube) . 

Sk. vd to blow, veer; vd or (the other turn, alternative); vd -^d 
either, or; vyay to whirl, dash roimd, whirl roimd, [wrap]; vycUh to 
whirl, be whirled; vye (p. p. vitas) to wrap, cover, clothe; vd (vaydmi) 
to twist, weave ; ve (p. p. utas) to twine, sew, weave, (use withes, make 
rush ropes; stitch skins with sinews; make hurdles, wattles, mats; 
use loom); uy to weave, spin, sew; siv (p. p. [suytas], syiitaSy svitas) 
to sew; si (sinomi, p. p. y^tas) to bind; veias reed; vetasas, rattan; 
vetras rush (of. oxolvo?); vayd twig; vUikd withe, band, ball of twine; 
vinus bamboo; vytis, bytish to hurl away, revolve, dawn, globe fruit. 

Zd. vaSti willow-twig. Gk. /tT<a, olaua, olcog willow, osier; Xxix; 

(Aeol. pkug) felloe, hoop, rim; iJTptov warp of loom; ^Jrpov pith of 
reed, intestines, abdomen (vetras); il^op solar plexus, animal soul, 
heart; TTpta twisted cakes, crullers; ii-f^ vine; [/i/d(i>], ld<i>, zld to 
turn aside, concede, yield, permit; el, idv [granting, conceding], if; 
fij or [vd]; 4ic-e( conceding, since; Cretan ^a(xofv = eT xev if indeed. 

Lat. [viveo], vieo to twine, twist, braid; viettis shrivelled, withered; 

vimen osier; vUis vine; Tntex centtuion's vine-rod; vit'Upero to [lash 
the worker], revile (opus); vitus felloe; vitta fillet, band; vito to turn 
aside, shwi;in'vitus turning away, unwilling; vi/iwm pliancy, weakness, 
uselessness, vice (cereus in vitium flecti) ; vitrus woad {vetras) ; vitrutn 
[blue] glass (Egyptian beads; transparency was later); Osc. svai, 
Lat. si if (melt with sin, p. 211) ; -ve or; tUor to [bind with withe], 
employ, use (cf. A.S. vid with [instnnnent]) ; uti [of the same bend] as. 

Goth, vithon to whirl, shake; vidan to bind; vindan to twist 

(cf. vyaih); vandyan to return, wend; vandus wand, rod; O. H. G. 
wid cord; vAda willow; A. S. vidhdhe willow, withe; vedd tangle, weeds; 
vAd woad; vidh, vid with (instrtunent, connection, bond, restraint, 

opposition). Lith. vyti to twist; vytis wand, hoop; Lett, vitols 

willow; O. R. vinti twisted; R. veitv branch; u-vyanui to wither; 



— 218 — 

tUok woof. Ir. fSitk fibre, sinew, woodbine; fithan wattle; fiikis 

curve, bend; fithnaise fascination, sorcery; \f\id wreath, collar, chain; 
Bret, guiadennein to weave; guiad web; gouiH withered; guin flexible. 

Sk. same roots; Sk. siv {sivydmi p. p. syiUas) to sew; sytUis sewing; 

syuman seam, band; [svytUram\ sutram fibre, cord. Gk. [xoeza-aii^], 

xaaaud), xottuci) to stitch leather, make shoes, cobble, patch, plot; 

xdaaO^ia sole of shoe; xottu^ piece of leather. Lat. sua to sew; siitor 

cobbler; sutura seam; [suvula], subtila awl. A. S. sivian, seovian, 

Goth, siuyan, O. H. G. simian to sew; O. H. G. stud sewing; soum 

seam; suila awl; A. S, sedm lacing, suture, seam. O. R. shiyan 

to sew; shilo awl; R. shveya seamstress; shav seam. Ir. [s]fethal 

embroidery, garment, ornament ;/r^gatm, Hagim to sew. (Primitive 
sewing is stitching buckskin with awl and sinew; sineve '^sinomi -{-siv.) 

Sk. same roots; si {sindmi, p.p. sitas) to bind, fetter, make firm; 
so (sydmi p.p. sitas) to shoot, aim, plan, end, complete, kill (p. 233); 
vi'SO to decide, seek the end, long for; siman boundary; limit; neck- 
sinew, nape of neck; simantam landmark, parting of hair. Zd. kita 

boimd, limited. Gk. [a/]t(; (Ive?) neck-sinew, strength (p. 213); ivtev 

tendon of neck, back of head; l\Li<; (-dEvro?) trace, thong, girdle, rope, 
foundation-stone (cf. bonding); i(&deaa(i> to lash; ((tovid well-rope; 
i^drriov wrap, garment; [ff/tiiTJ], fftitij [topknot, crest], end, hilltop, 
liver-lobe, cornice; ac(i6g snub-nosed; (Lat. simia ape); ac(t6ii> to 
tend upward; al^\La bow of ship; S((jl(i>v [ensnaring, bewitching], 

sorcerer. Lat. sin-ciput back of head (fvfov); situs [limited], 

position, fotmdation; semita [boundary], field-path. O. Sax. simo, 

O. N. simi bond; A. S. sedmian to be bound, hobbled, slow (saumen); 
O. H. G. seid cord, harp-string (Saite); senewa, A. S. sineve^ O. N. 

sin sinew; Grer. sehnen to [stretch], yearn for. O. R.^etrf string; 

siiiye rush, reed; R. sett net; seitovat to [yearn], grieve, lament. Ir. 

sHanem rope, eflEort; sinim to stretch forward, long for; 5^n, senite net, 
nets (for birds) ; sennad stretching; sennim to play the harp; ^^naim to 
lay a spell, ban; 5emmann rivets; sHm [drawn out], thin, little, modest; 
simigim to attenuate; [s&int'frdeck], sem^rdc modest herb, shamrock; 
Bret, senesein to draw out, card flax; semel [botmd] sandal, sole of shoe. 



Sk. vd to [eddy] ; vyay to whirl ; causal forms, varying in termination 
as usual, vyap to hurl, destroy; vip to hurl; vep to quiver; vap (p.p. 
uptas) to whirl, sprinkle, sow, cast dice, [whirl to and fro], weave ; 
vapus [roimded, shaped] body, beauty; vapd marrow; upalas pebble, 
bead, gem, opal; vabh to weave; urna^vdhkis wool-weaver, spider; 



* k 



* 

» » » * ^« 



— 219 — 

[vyambas], vimbas disk, globe; upa [whirled] above, below; svap to 
[whirl about, coil up], lie down, rest, sleep, die; vdpas sowing; vdpitas 
polled, shorn; vdpi [round] lake; vabhr, babhr to circle, roam, wander; 
borb to move roimd; babhrus radiant, ruddy; [svabhr], gvabhr to 
revolve, bore; gvabhram pit, cavern; skambh, skumbh to set stake, fix; 
Qubhras radiant, ruddy; fiifcA, fumbk to shine, adorn; kshap to hurl 
rotmd, hurl down, destroy; kshapas night (coiling, destructive; neco, 
nox) ; kship to hurl, hurl down,scom; kshepas scorn; Map to [embrace], 
console, flatter; to whiffle, vacillate, grind; kapalas, kshipras whirling, 
swift, quivering, inconstant; kamp to whirl, quiver; kamp, kamp 
kamb, khatnby ghamb, gam, gd to move round, go; khamp to move 
rotmd (sarpe) ; kiip to circle roimd, move slowly; kumb to kiss (rotmd 
lips); kumb to wrap; strew; kambalas wrap, blanket; kambus conch- 
shell; kshubh to be whirled, confused; [kvapis], kapis incense [drifting, 

whirling]. Gk. (oxXi^ blow of the hand; uicap swaying phantom, 

waking vision; [ff/]8«j;(«) to boil, stir; 05ict(; Artemis (circling nature); 
fSxXov [brandished] weapon; staff , instnunent, sickle, sledge-hammer; 
tackle of ship; a/<^t) horse's tail, crest (p. 211; sweeping, whirling); 
[/6Ptq], 9ipt) lock of hair, mane; ^i^'kmq early fig (globing vimba; 
of. svang, a^fyifw); u^og hump; 94^1; {(f(x^6<;) dove (plimip); ao^icA to 
whirl, be excited; ao^ap6g violent, proud; S^ptg insolence; ao96(; 
handy, qtiick, clever, nimble, crafty, versute, wise; a/ncut) a rotmd jar, 
meal jar; at^uvtj [whirling] javelin; atxaXi?, ai^\6(; blinking, twisted, 
crippled; afyapog top-sail; O^do), O^aCvo) to weave, twine, plot, form 

(cf . uptas) ; 890^, Ji^aa\La web, spider's web, net. Lat. vapulo to be 

shaken, knocked about, beaten; dis-sipo to cast rotmd, scatter; [pro- 
svapia], prosapia [seed], descendants; supeUex household stuff, mobilia, 
furniture (gen. supellectilis, veho; vectus); [vitium, svap], vitupero to 
hurl reproach, revile; vafer whiffing, tmsteady, inconstant, tricky; 
supparus topsail; vibro to whirl, brandish; viper a [coiling, darting] 
viper; vepres tangled briars; saepe oft [rectarring]; saepio to encircle, 
encompass, hedge; saepes, septum hedge, enclosure; prae'sepe [fold, 
stable], crib, manger; [svapor], 5a/>(7r [stirring], seasoning, ta.ste;[svapto], 

sapio to [revolve in mind], be wise. Goth, bi-vaibyan to wrap, robe; 

veipan (O. H. G. wtfan) to crown; vepna weapon (^xXov, form vabhr, 
vab) ; vopyan to [htirl the voice], whoop, shout; supon (O. H. G. sofSn) 
to [stir], season; sifan to [whirl], be merry; A. S. vaeftan to whiffle, 
quiver, hover; svifan to whirl swiftly; siftan to sift; vefan to weave; 
vif woman; hvedpian to whip (fvabhr); O. N. vippa, veifla to whirl, 
shake ; hvim quick motion; vipi woof; svipul battle ; siofna to [revolve], 
reflect; svipa tail; svipta to swing, htu-1; Ger. schweifen, sckweben to 
roam, circle, hover. R. raz'S[v]ipat to hurl about, sprinkle; ^v]ip 



— 220 — 

ebullition, eruption (I«Tii>). Ir. sdtb'Core whirlpool; sdeb inconstant, 

false; sdebaim to coax; seabkack [circling] falcon (W. hebauc, A. S. 
heafoc) ; sfop a wisp ; foph ball, rump ; fdebur sword-edge (vibro) ; uptha 
sorceries (vafer); dibell [whirling] spark, heat; sibal drop, spangle, 
pin (fvabhr); Bret, sap sap (boiling up), sprout; sapei,t to sprout; 
O. C. sapos (sappinus Vitruvius) [sprouting] spruce, fir; [sap^vid fir- 
tree]; Sapaudia, Savoy; Vop-isctis, Vap'incum swift water. 

Sk. vap to whirl, drcieivep to quiver. Lat. [vepsa], vespa wasp. 

A. S. vdps, vdsp; O. H. G. wafsa. Lith. vapsa. 



Sk. same roots; vd to blow; vep to quiver, [blow, pant]; svap, 

[svabh] to [breathe deep], sleep. Gk. aC^v suddng-straw, siphon, 

pipe; S(*au90(; the much-panting sun, rolling his orb to the zenith; 
(attracted by a<-ao9<g very crafty); aiyvi?, oi^X^g drained, empty, 
hungry; oi^a^ grape-juice (sucked from wine-press); aO^ap empty, 

wrinkled, decrepit. O. Dutch, soeffen, Ger. saufen to blow; A. S. 

sedfian, O. H. G. sUftdn to sob, groan. 

Sk. blending roots; vap, vabhr, babhr to whirl, dash, sprinkle, sow; 
su to pour out; sutnam water, milk; [s]uam to mewl, vomit; vamaihus 

vomit; vatnras ant (earth-spawn). Gk. ^dhcrci), ^anntCjbi to sweep, dip, 

sink, drown, dye, draw water; oo\ijf6^ [sponge], spongy (Itmg, pumice- 
stone); ariTcla cuttle-fish (ejecting ink); affyxtti to rot, soften, spoil; 

/l(xl(i> to vomit; l^ectg nausea. Lat. vonto to vomit; vomitus vomit; 

vomer plowshare (cf . Sk. vatnras ant ; burrowing, providing food, brisk) . 

Goth, svamms sponge ; svutnsl swimming-pool ; A. S. svatnm, O. N. 

svantpr swamp; O. H. G. swam, O. N. svoppr pond; O. H. G. swimman 
to swim; O. N. voma nausea; O. H. G. wemmiu to pollute ; wamba, Goth. 
vamba belly, womb (revolving, stirring, shaping; vitnbas) ; Ger. wimmeln 

to whirl, swarm (cf. vamras), R.vapit to dye (pdhcrw); Lith, vemti 

to vomit; vetnalai vomit. Ir. obbaim to reject, refuse; umae 

(W. emedou) brass (founded, cast) ; Ham hollow, cave (belly). 

Sk. svap {svapinii, supyate, p. p. suptas, caus. svdpaydmi) to 
[breathe deep, coil up], lie down, sleep, die; caus. to lull, put to sleep, 

put to death; svapnas sleep, dream. Zd. [Qvap\ qap to sleep; 

^a/na sleep. Arm. (run. Gk. Sxvo? sleep; Sxvrfo) to sleep, put to 

sleep ; Ivuxviov dream ; aui>7dtii> to be silent ; [aio/GMn^], aui>icif silence (en- 
forced quiet; lie down and be still!); Messap. cfxra silence (p. p.). 

Lat. sdpio to put to sleep; 50/><9r, [svopnus], somnus sleep; somnium 

insomnium dream; sepelio to lay to rest, bury; septd-crum. O. N. 

sofa, pret. svaf to sleep ; sofna to fallh^leep ; svefn sleep, dream ; syfyadhr 



— 221 — 

sleepy; A. S. svefan to sleep; sefan to calm, pacify; svebban to put to 
deep (cf. Zd.) ; O. H. G. gi-swiftdn to be silent; swiften to calm; Ger. 

sanft, soft. O. R. [supnu], sunu sleep; supati to deep; Lith. sapnas 

dream. Ir. [svopaim, voaim], foaitn to sleep, lull ; siian (W., Bret. 

k»n) sleep ; W. hunfre (Bret, hunvre) dream ; Ir. {sopt], socfu silence ; 
0. C. Onofrius Humphrey. 

Sk. [svap to coil up, heap up, complete]; sapian seven; saptamas 

seventh. Zd.haptan. GkAxxi',i^lo^o<;, LaLt.septemiseptumus. 

A. S. sedfon; sedfodha; Goth, sibun, O. H. G. sipun. Lith. 

septyni; ordinal septintas and sekmas; O. R. sedmi, Ir. secht; 

sechttnad (cf. socht^sopt) ; W. seith, Bret, seiz seven; Bret, suhun week. 

Sk. vap, [svap] to whirl [here, there, up, down]; upa [to my feet], 

here, hither, to, near; compar. form uparas the lower one. Zd. upa 

(prep, with ace.) to. Gk. ix6, uxa( tmder; [whirled] by means of; 

Brcio? [whirled over], supine, belly up. Lat. sub, subter tmder, 

beneath; supinus belly up; {subversum], sursum [turning] upward; 

5%Hb\S'Cipio to undertake. Goth, uf tmder, below. Lith. [u]po, 

pa tmder, near, after; O. R. pO'du [to my feet], tmder (dM=to). 

Ir. [sDop, vop, vd\, fOf W.guo tmder; Bret, gou-pen-er tmder-head; pillow. 

Sk. same root, compar. form [vapari, svapar], upari, adv. above, on; 

prep, over; superl. form upamas highest. Zd. upa prep. loc. over; 

up, upairi above. Gk. Oxip, [ixept], Oxefp over, above; iicipa [ttiming- 

rope], brace of yard; 5xepo(; [whirling] pestle, club, lever; uxepOev aloft, 
upward; 8xorco<; highest; lowest; farthest; supreme; 64;t)X6<; lofty; S^ptoro? 

highest; 8xap [on one's feet], wide awake, real, a true vision. Lat. 

super above; supremus; [supatnas], summus highest; superbus proud; 
{vervunt, verbum, p. 196) ; [op-pario], operio to cover over, close (p. 61) ; 
[op'tnitio], omitto to toss over, pass by, omit; to [toss up], relinquish, 
— — Goth, ufar over, upon ; ufar thereupon ; upon ; ufyo superfluity ; ufta 

often (n:iany whirls); ufto perchance; O. Sax. ofer over. R. po, pa 

after, in addition, according to. Ir. [vapar, var], for over; W. guor; 

Cor. war, Bret, gour; O. C. Vor4igern over-lord. 

Sk. vabhr to whirl ; gvabhr to bore ; gvabhram pit, burrow ; {svap, Qvap], 
kshap to whirl, whirl rotmd, wash, strew, cast down, destroy; kshapd 
[circling] darkness; kship to whirl, hurl, throw away, cast down; 
ud'kship to lift up; d^kship to cast down, scorn; kupyas [rejected], 
base metal; kshipras swift; kshubh (kshubhydmi, p.p. kshubdhas, caus. 
kshobhaydmi) to be whirled, confused, to whirl; skambh to [bore hole, 
dig pit, set stake], prop up. Gk. oxixzo^at to glance rotmd, watch. 



— 222 — 

be on gtiard, be careful, observe, take aim (attracted from p. 44); 
0X0x6 <; watchman, look-out, scout, target, aim, object; oxi^xrw to 
hurl, dart; to hurl down, poimce, fall; to lift up, prop, steady, make 
firm, lean on staflE, depend upon; to [whirl arotmd one], shield one's 
self, pretend; axT]XT<<; thimderbolt; ox^xrpov staflE, baton, sceptre; 
ax'^^t<; [veil, crutch], pretence, excuse; ci%i^^6(; [on crutches], tottering, 
lame; oxf^jixouc; bedstead; xxuxio) to hurtle, crash; xoD^oc; [whirling], 
Ught, airy, nimble, easy; xu^eXXa flying cloud; mii^6<; [dizzy, conftised], 
senseless, dumb; ox(&xt(i>, ax((JiaXR^(i> to [toss rotmd, cast away], joke, 
scorn; axa(ji(Ui>v(a [whirling, purging] convolvulus; axayLp6<; curved, bent; 
axu(po(; roimd tub, milk-pail, double-handled cup for passing round; 
oxu^aXov sweepings, refuse, dtmg; x^^aXo^ knave, goblin; x(^5o^ dross; 
xu^iqXk; axe; oxixapvov [whirling], axe, surgical bandage (cf. i^ivti, p. 2) ; 
oxc£xT(i> to [make dirt fly, biurow like an animal], dig; oxiofoq, oxoo^Cc;, 
oxdfiov dug-out log, canoe, trough, bowl; oxixerot;, xixero^, axdyL|ia 
trench; x^xro) to strike whirling blow, hew, fell, bore, hammer, 
knock about, shake, beat the breast; xox((;axe; xoxeu^ chisel; x^xovov 

axe, pestle. Lat. scapula shoulder (hurler); scdpus shaft; scopae 

broom; scabo to scratch; scobs pit, shavings, saw-dust (axdhcTO)); 
scamnum, scabellum footstool (prop); sclpio staff; scdpus, scopus^ 

scopio stalk, handle; cuprum copper (kupyas). Goth, ga^skapyan, 

skaftyan to rotmd, shape, form, create, accomplish; skaban to scrape, 
shave, shear; skip ship, boat; skufts the hair (twisted, rolled up, 
Schopf) ; af'skiuban to [reject, shove away], repel ; A. S. scdp [maker], 
poet; scHfan to shove; O. N. skapa to form, arrange, command; skap 
temperament, nature; skapt shaft, spear; skopa to nm, skip; skUm 
foam, scum (tossed); skomm shame; skuppa to scoff; skipta to [toss], 

distribute, divide, shift. Lith. kapoti to hew; kapCLs grave-motmd; 

O. Pruss. enkopts to bury; O. R. kopaii to dig; skopiti to castrate; 
R. kopit, skoplyat to toss together, heap up; shkeben rubbish; skupets 
miser; kope lance, (hurled) ; kumikka skimmer; skopa sea-eagle (circling, 
watchful) ; shum noise of waves; kobuz fish-eagle; kobel dog; skat^v\ivat 

to dig out; kop mine. Ir. scdipim to scatter; sciiap horse-tail; 

scoim, seaman Itmgs (xoG^oi;, skUm); scibiud start, quivering; Bret. 
skopein to spit; O. C. Scopilius (spearman); Scubuli light-horse; 
5£:ii6ti/iim nightshade (dizzy). 

Sk. [svap, gvap\ to whirl, dash round; gaphas horse's hoof; guptis 
shoulder; mukha-gaphas reckless-mouthed, scurrilotis; gap [spargere 
voces] to [utter voice, vow], swear, curse; gabd to shout, call, stmimon; 
gabdas din; hve to call; [caus. hvdpaydmi to utter]; [kvap], kup to 
flash out, speak, be eager, angry; {kvapis\ kapis, kapilas incense; 



— 223 — 

kupyas [overflow], base metal; Mibh to boast, praise; kshamp to shine, 
be strong; kamp to eddy, whirl, quiver, yearn, pity; kap to whirl, 

tremble; kapalas veering. Gk. %fa%^i(; smoke (cf. vapor) \ Koncave(5<; 

stonn-cloud, thunder-bolt; xdrrco) to be passionate, eager, voracious; 
xixT] manger (Hdfer); xoncuo) to pant, breathe; xaxup(5(; wind-blown, 
dry, open-mouthed, clear-voiced; xlx(po(; sea-bird (cf. gull, gellen)\ 
xixxapK; caper-berry (sprinkled, aromatic) ; xuxetpo(;, x6xpo<; aromatic 
herbs; xdbco?, xdyoi; breath; xoncpdKi) to be in a heat; x4xpo<; boar; 
xdxpo<; dung (reeking, fumus, fimus) ; xaxupflio) to revel ; lyxixTa) to 
snap at; x8xa9T]b>(; giving up the ghost; xoxioto) to pant, toil, grow 
weary; x6(Jixo<; gnashing of boar's tusks, din, noise, bragging; xo(jix&i> 
to brag, be noisy, ring; xe(ji(jide<;, xe^i^ yoimg stag; xtq^i^v drone; 
Kt)9-ta6? noisy water (vwA); KT)9^ve(; Persians; xdxT]Xo<; [cryer], pedlar, 

huckster. Lat. capio, capio to snatch at; [cvapio\ cupio to be eager, 

desire; cup-^dia gluttony; [cupsis], cuspis spear- point (thirsty) ? Cup-ido 
(oTOci)) ; caupo, copa wine-seller (boasting, caUing) ; caper goat (greedy) ; 
capanna hut without smoke-vent, smoky; vapor heat, smoke, steam 
(It. vampa flame); vapidus exhaled, exhausted, scentless; [svapor], 

sapor taste, savor; sapio to have taste, be wise. Goth, afhvapnan 

to choke, throttle, to extinguish fire; hvopan to boast, shout, whoop; 
Uufan to cry out, wail, lament; haifsiyan to snap, quarrel; hvoftuU 
boasting, pride; O. N. hafr goat; hafri oats (hungry-food, lively) ; hafna 
to be exhausted, give up, lose; hefna to [pant after], avenge; hofgi 
exhatistion, load; hopaz to hope; hveifa to utter, sotmd; svefya 
to st^am; Goth, svibls sulphur; A. S. hdf hoof {gapha)\ hoppan to 
frisk, hop; O. H. G. hopfo hops; Get. hUften to cough; Eng. huff in- 
science; toga^ (fabd^ [habdj). Lith. kvapas breath,fragrance ; evapo- 
ration; kv9pti to pant> snuff; kvepalai perftune; kvepoyu to cough; 
kepu to bake (stifle); Bohem. kopet smoke; R. koptit to smoke meat; 
kapishke heathen-temple, medicine-lodge ; [k]vepr wild-boar Ocf . vapor) ; 

kof{v]ito hoof, sabot (faphas); kob[v]ila mare; kobel, kobuz, p. 222. 

Ir. aC'Cobor desire; cobur foam; [cabor], gabor, gabur horse (foaming, 
prancing = cabaUus) ; [cabor],gaborgoat ; gablach homed, peaked, pointed i 
gabtd fork (fiwj, hva become g in these cases); W. gabr, gafr, Com. 
gavr, Bret, gabr, gavr goat; W. ceffyll, Bret, ceffyll, caual horse; W. 
chweffr violence, rage; chwapp, chawff quick, instantly {svap)\ Bret. 
kuibanein to whistle; O. C GabrO'tnagus, GabriUus, Cabrillus; Gabali, 
CabaUius, Caballodunum, Cabillonufn;caballtis horse ; Caburus. 

Sk. vap, [svap, gvap\ gvabhr, to whirl; kamp to whirl, tremble; 
^to^p, ghamb, gam, hamm to move rotmd; samb, ganib to move roimd, 
bind; kam> to [embrace], love; kapis ape (prehensile); [ifoa/>], kup 



— 224 — 

to circle, move slowly; kapalam skull, bowl; kapilas tawny (ruiilus); 
kapolas [puffed] cheek; kapotas [plump] pigeon; kambalas wrap; 
^ambus^ kambus spiral shell; kub^as humped; kumb to wrap, strew, 
cover; kumbhas jug; kumbhUas stripper, thief; kup to be [bowed 
down], weak; kupas hole, cave, well; gup to whirl, disturb; to encircle; 
guard, confine; guph, gumph to put together, hoop, bind; Uap to 
whirl, tremble, grind; kdpas [quivering] bow; kup to make turns, 
delay; kib to wrap, cover, grasp; khup to touch; kap, Uam, ^am, fftam 
to [grind], eat; ^am wife (feeder); ^ambhas food, jaw; gabhiras, gam- 
bhiras [open jaw], gulf; iabh, ^ambh to yawn, bridle. 

Sk. katn to [embrace], love; ktnar to be curved, bent; kumdr^ 
kumal to sport round; kutndras boy, heir, noble child; kutnari girl; 
htncU to whirl, shake; kshmilf ftnil, smU to glance round, fiash the eyes; 

kamp to whirl, tremble ; kamp to go roimd. Zd. kamara [bent poles, 

interior of hut], vault; girdle; kameredha skull, head. Gk. xdeiixrcd 

to bend; [x«l^+o<;l» t^V'^^^^ curved, bent; xa(xipa covered wagon, boat; 
arch, vault; xde(ji(jiapo^ [armored] lobster; x6(i.apo^ arbute (globed 
fruit and tree; v. pp. 91, 138) ; xdeyia^ [hut-pole], vine-prop, handle, tiller, 
ring; xa(idEaaci> to brandish; x(jiXeOpov beam; (liXoOpov interior of roof, 
timbers, roof-tree; xoeyLin) river-bend, lap in race, turning-post, joint; 
xd(jixt] measuring-worm; xd^A^a rotmd basket, case; %t\^6^ eel-basket, 

muzzle. Lat. camurus bent, crooked; camera yavlt ; camillus acolyte, 

noble child; Camilla (circling breeze); cumulus round heap; campus 

[river-bend where floods prevent forest growth], plain, field. O. N. 

himinn roof -tree, heaven; /tama to swell with anger, assimie magic body; 
hamr body, form (asstimed); Goth, himins heaven; hamfs twisted, 
crippled; O. H. G. ham crooked, bent; hamm river-bend; hamma 

knee-joint, ham; A. S. hemm brim, hem. Lith. kampas comer; 

R. komel end of beam; kumir idol (Ppka?, log); komar mosquito 
(hovering rotmd); khmeleit to be merry, dnmk {gmil)\ khmel hops 
(Finn, humala, O. N. humall, Himg. komld; Mod. Gk. xoujiiXij); 

khmurit to contract the brows, frown. Ir. cumal girl, favorite yoimg 

slave; ctTmii/ circling crowd, assembly; ur-chomal horse-hobble; camm 

crooked, curved, oblique. Bret, kam crooked; kammein to bend, be 

crippled; O. C. Camulos god of heaven; Camardcus; Camulodunum; 
cambus river-bend; Cambo-dunum, Camboritum; cambd, gambd knee- 
joint, leg, jambe; gabata dish. 

Sk. svap to coil up; Qvabhr to revolve, bore; kup to revolve, be 
dilatory; kumb to wrap, cover, strew round; kumbhas rotmd earthen 
vessel ; kupas pit, well ; kup to be [bowed down], weak; kumpas crooked* 



— 225 — 

lame. Gk, xtiicTO) to bow down; xuxrdl^fa) to potter about, be slow; 

xuxT) den, hut; xuxapo(; earthen tub; xu^iw to curve; xu9o<; hump; 
xu^cov yoke, pillory; xu^tj, xu^jl^iq vessel, cup, head (testa); pigeon 
(plump, R. golova head; golub pigeon); xu^epvdKi> to steer (x^^^ 
skiff; Spvu(jit to impel, scull); xutplXij bee-hive, roimd box; KupiXt), 
Ku^l^Tj Nature (orbing, gendering; Phrygian goddess) ;xuPo<;die (*Mm6to 

strew about). Lat. cumbo to [coil up], lie down; cubitus elbow-joint, 

fore-arm; cupa tub, cask; cumulus heap. Goth, [hiupan to swell]; 

kups thigh; hafyan (O. N. hefya) to Lft, heave; O. N. hilfr ship, cabin; 
hdfi high (erhaben) ; A.S. Ad^^ hoop; A^d/> heap, crowd; Eng. hump, hob, 

hub. R. kub roimd vessel ; kubok cup ; kupat to tub, bathe ; kopotliviy 

pottering, slow; kopit to pile up; Lith. kumpas crooked. Ir. cii[p]ar 

curved, crooked, worm, screw; ci4[p]ach cup, curl; cumman currier 
(tan-pit); W. cwm round valley, combe; cumiman tub; Bret, komm 
tub; koumein to tan; kommein to full; koban rotmd hut, tent; O. C. 
Cumba, Cumbae dale; Cubi dalesmen. 

Sk. same roots; kamp to whirl, turn, tremble, nod; kapalas whirl- 
ing; kapalaSj kapdlam skull, bowl; kambus, gambus shell. Gk. 

xe^aXif, xe^dXt), xe^Xi^ head, round head, leek, poppy; xixia onions. 

Lat. caput head; capitdlis; Capitolium; caepe onion; cippus round 

post. Goth, haubith, O. N. hdfudh, A. S. hedfod, O. H. G. houbit 

head- Bret, kibel tub. 

Sk. Map to whirl, grind; kapolas jaw, knee-pan; kapafas [trap], 
fraud; kap to whirl, [stroke, embrace], console; kapisape (prehensile); 
Shup to [grip], touch; Kib to grasp, take, [wrap], cover; kumb to wrap; 
fawfr to encircle, bind; kamp, khamp,khamb,ghamb, hamm to go rotmd; 
pip to whirl, disturb; to revile, scorn; to [encompass], guard, confine, 

conceal; guph, gumph to twine, bind, put together. Gk. xa(jLXTCi> 

to bend; ^aa^'^iq curved, crooked; x6in), Yuxtjden, nest; '»M%i(;, xuxaaafg 
girded tunic; x69ivo(; basket; xo(i.^6(i> to gird, round, fashion, ensnare, 
deceive; xf^toK; [grip], pouch, wallet; x(po<;, tX^-ttyziq {vat), coffer, 
box; xc^'C&ptov seed-vessel {varas); xf)Po(;, xtjxo(; long-tailed monkey; 
xijxo? enclosure, yard, orchard, garden; X(x.^i<; ctirved (ghamb); x^Po<S 
muzzle; X^a^6^ curved; l^d^iQ coat of mail; xoc^atao^ greedy; xa>^c6^ 
(Lat. gobius) gudgeon; yu^ (r^i<;) vulture (gripping); yfi^poi; plaster 

of Paris, chalk (tenacious, concrete). Lat. capio to grip, seize, 

take; capulum hilt; capero to contract, wrinkle; capistrum muzzle; 
capUlus hair; capys hawk; cibus food; Osc. Capua ring-wall; Lat. 
habeo to have, hold (ghambh, x^^^^)» ^^^ [bent], weak, blunted; 
hamus hook (hamm). O. N. hafa to grasp, hold, have; hoefa to 

15 



— 226 — 

grasp, attain, win; hdfn possession, property; haven; fetus; hof 
[enclosure, Ti(Ji€yo<;], temple, palace, court; hof due measure, duty, 
honor; Goth, haban to grasp, have; ga-haban to hold fast, control, 
contain; haftyan to cling close, cleave to; A. S. hdf enclosure, 
court, farm; Goth, [kaup palm of hand, Ya(ji4^6<;]; kaupatyan to 
slap; kaupon; O. H G. koufon to [shake handsj, do business, buy 
(cf. tango, dingen); A. S. cedp business, purchase; cepan to grip, 

keep; O. N. kippa to drag, haul; keypr to exchange. R. kupii 

to buy; kupetz merchant (from Goth.); kuporit to hoop, bottle; 
kobura case; kibitka covered wagon; tzapatsya to grip, climb; tzeip 
chain; shkupai to grasp, feel (khup); shkipai to pluck, pinch, prick 
(claws; pangOf pungo) ; shkiptzi pincers; Lith. gabenii to bring home, 

fetch (ghatfib). Ir. gabaim to seize, hold (habeo); gaimbin usurers; 

cimb, cimm tribute, silver; cimbid prisoner (for ransom) ; Bret, kampi 
payment; kemm exchange; O. C. cambium, con'cambium exchange, 
business. 

Sk. hve [caus. hvapaydmi] to shout, cry with open mouth; fap 
to swear; [kvap], kup to be eager, angry, passionate; ^ap to mumble; 
^abh, ^ambh to [pant after], jrawn, [put bit in mouth], bridle, restrain; 
^am to eat; ^amanam food; ^ambhas food, chin, jaw; ^ambhyas tooth; 
Rambus the rose-apple ; ^ambukas jackal (voracious) ; ^ambdlas clay, 
(chewed, soft); gabhas yawning chasm; gambhan depth; gambhiras 

deep; gabhastis [gripping] arm. Gk. X^a^o'z6<; grasping, greedy; 

yajjupi^, yaii^TjXi^ jaw, beak (ii'koq nail) ; y6^o<; spike, nail, stilus, peg, 
[stake]; fo\^lo<; molar-tooth; r6\»j^oi [palisade]; y^pupa [piles], dam, 

bridge (jaw of river). Lat. Gabii [palisade]. A. S. comb, O. N. 

kambr comb (toothed); O. N. kiaptr jaw; kampr moustache; kapp 
fight; Dan. kappe, Sw. kappa to chop; M. H. G. kippe sickle, chopper 
((jidex«(p(z; teeth); A. S. cempa soldier; Eng. to champ, chap, chip; 
O. Ger. Cimbri; A. S. cimbing [mouth], crack, joint; d'cumba oakum. 

Lith. gemben spike, hook; zhopsnu to yawn; zhoplys open mouth; 

O. R. zanbu tooth; R. zub tooth; zubetz fork; zabota [gnawing] anxiety; 
zhaba toad (great mouth); guba lip; gulf; gubka sponge (thirsty); 

gubit to [devour], destroy. Ir. gabaim to grip, seize (melts with 

habeo) ; gabaim to sing (open mouth) ; gob mouth, snout, beak, grip 
of tongs; gdba, gdbud danger (of wild beast) ; gabul flesh-fork, fork of 
tree, prong, horn, bough, gallows; tongs; W. gafl forked bough; 
gebel tongs; Bret, gavl fork; gavelod harpoon (javelin)', Ir. goba[n] 
smith (gripper, welder, riveter); W., Cor., Bret. gojf, g<5/ smith, Bret. 
gov4l forge; Ir. [gembel], gemel, W. gethyn, gefyn fetter, gyve; Bret. 
gaved jaw, cheek, joue; gabelle tax; jiber game, gibier; jabl quarrel 



— 227 — 

(gibber, gibe, jab, jib; It. gob) ; O. C Gohannio (Aber'gavenny) ; gobed'bi^ 
"he has taken, [received, accepted].*' 

Sk. kap, Mamp to revolve; Map to grind; Mam, ^am, ^hatn, ^im 
to eat; ^emanam^ gamanam food (melting with ^ambhas jaw, food); 
^am, ^am-pati wife (food-mate, cf. tndtri food-divider); ^dmis sister; 
^dmis of kin; vi*^dman kindred, related; ^dmdtri, ydmatri son-in-law; 

ildmd daughter-in-law. Gk. Ya(i.i(i> to marry; ydtiOi; wedding! 

YotjiiTT)? husband; YoyLeri^ wife; [yaiApo^;], YaiJipp<(; brother-in-law; 
yo^ifXtog nuptial; Yl(Ui>to be [pregnant], full of food, full; y(5ijio<; cargo; 
[Y6(L(jLt], x6(ji(jit Lat. gummi gum (exuding, overflowing) ; '^\}\^y6<i [just 

bom], naked (mtUtemackt). Lat. gemo to [be full of wind, woe], to 

groan, sigh, roar; gemma bud of tree (exuding) ; gemini twins (wombful, 

fp^O- A. S. cveman, ge»ajeman to please, satisfy; Ger. bequem 

comfortable (melts with Goth. qifnan=gam to come) ; Germ, keimen to 
[swell], sprout; kaum with difficulty {ti^^<i)\ O. H. G. chUmo, Goth- 
land, kaum howling (gemo). R. gam noise, roar; gumno threshing- 
floor (full-food). Ir. g^m roar, shout. 

Sk. vap to whirl ; svap to [coil up], rest, sleep, die ; gvabhr to revolve, 
bore; gaphas hoof; samb, gamb to go roimd, bind; gam {gdntas) to be 
[sleeping, stroked rotmd], calmed, appeased; gamas tranquillity; sdm, 
sdfUv, gdntv to calm, console, flatter; ksham to [be firmly bound, to 
coil up, to stroke], to be patient, suffer, endure, indulge, pardon; 
kshamas enduring, useful; kshamd endurance; kshamd, ksham earth; 
khamb etc. to revolve; kshamp to be mighty, flash round, shine; gam 
to see; kam to [embrace, be impetuous], desire, love (cf. p. p. kdntas 
with gdntv) ; sam to be whirled, confused, troubled; sam with (samb to 
bind); [samsam], samam together with; samd [revolving] year; samas 
all [together], like, equal (the same lot); sibh, simbh, subh, sumbh, 
gubh, gumbh to [whirl, flash out], be bright, beautiful; gubhas beautiful, 
lucky; gubhras splendid, white; sibh, simbh to whirl, hurl, shoot, kill 
(cf . kship) . 

Sk. sam to be whirled; samb, gamb to encircle, bind; sam with 
(cf. withe, with) ; samas like, equal, level, all (rotmd plain) ; samam al- 
together, with, at the same time; samantas on all sides; 5dmf half (my 

side of the circle). Zd. hama the like, the same. Gk. S(jLa at the 

same time; 6\l6(; together, united; 6\lo\) together (adv.); djjLoto<; like, 
similar; djJLaX6(; equal, level ; Ss^jlIXtj evener of day and night (cf . Abend) ; 
the dawn, slain by her lover the sim, leaving their child At6vuao<; [day 
and night], the morning-star. Lat. similis alike ; simul at once ; semel 



— 228 — 

for once ; simulate to [copy], pretend ; sifnuUas[opposmg lines, interests! 
encounter, hostility ; posi-quamafter; un^quameweT {umbh) ; us-quamanj' 

where (tU up, out; [famas], samas all; or feim what). Goth., O. H. G. 

soma the same; Goth, samaih, O. H. G. samet together, at once; Goth. 
samana, O. H. G. saman together with, zusammen; Goth, sufnan once 
upon a time; sums some one ; Eng. seem to be like ; A. S. symle, symble 

always, continually; symbel gathering, banquet. O. R. sctmu 

himself, alone; R. sam the same. Ir. -som himself; samail likeness, 

image; samlaim to compare; amo/ like, as; ^atm a couple; samud con- 
gregation; amin even so; dm in sooth; amser, amm [circling] time; 
W. [samal], amal as; hafal like; Bret. haHval, hevel, evel like; hum 
himself; O. C. Sama/f««= image of his father (Tu5-fet8T)<;). 

Sk. sdmi half; a-sdmis not-halved, perfect. Gk. i^ii.i-, ij(uouc 

half (Tao<;). Lat. semi, semis half; sem-issis half assis; [semis'tertius\ 

sestertius two and a half. O. H. G. sdmi half. W. (comparat.) 

haniher. Cor., Bret, hanter half (cf. sdniv for samt). 

Sk. sam [forms sdntv, gdntv, kskuan, gam\ with. Gk. afiv, ^iy with; 

^uv6(;, xotv^^ shared; in conmion; of kin; ^Ivo^ guest-friend, sharer, par- 
taker; [sacred wanderer], arriver, stranger, foreigner; xp(S-^evo(; public 

guest {pari intens.) Lat. cum with; con-, co- together; quam as 

(comparison, together; cf. similis) ; coefux [meeting of ^milyj evening 

meal. R. son-mish^e assembly; semya, semeistvo family; semeiniy 

of the family. Ir. con- com with; comul assembly; Bret, ko-; O. C. 

con- ; con-daie assembly, court of justice (W. datl) . 

Sk. samb, famb to go rotmd, [bathe, stroke]; to bind; [make firm, 
lay spell]; sdm, sdntv, gdntv to calm, console, flatter; gam (gdmydmi, 
p. p. gdntas, caus. gamaydmi) to be calmed, to calm, quiet, appease; 
kam (p.p. kdnias) to love; gamas, gdntis peace; gdntvam sdntvant con- 
solation, flattery; ksham to be patient, indulge, pardon; to endure, 
be strong; sibh, simbh, subh, sumbh, gubh, gumbh to whirl, shoot; 

to flash roimd, be radiant; gubhras splendid, white. Gk. adiJi-iJiuxov 

[sweet-breath], marjoram; ot[iy6<; revered, holy, solemn, august; 
ai^o\L(xi to be filled with awe, calmed; to revere, honor; ae^ori? 
august; 8iJivo<; hymn (placating, propitiating); a(iJLpXo(; bee-hive, 
bee-cave ; treasure (jsimbh to flash roimd among flowers) ; Sf^uAXa sibyl 
(buzzing, muttering, storing wisdom, revered); ao^i^? clear, bright, 
distinct; ^096? wise (melts with p. 219); 2d{jio(; (beautiful, peaceful); 
xo;jlI(i), xo(jin^(i> to [stroke], curry horse, care for animal or man ; x^jjitj hair, 
foliage; xoijl4^<(; well-groomed, dainty, delicate; x6>(jlo(; mirth, merriment. 



— 229 — 

carousal, village festival; x(i>(i.u<; sheaf (harvest-home), sacred laurel 
bough; XG>(i.a tranquil sleep; xco^jliq village (peaceful, joyful cf. R. mir 
peace, village); xd(ji(vo^ [sweat-hut, shaman's tent, medidne-lodge]; 
furnace, forge, oven ((a(vo> to melt, comfort, warm); xot(i.v(i) to toil, 

sweat, be sick, suffer (ksham). Lat. Sabini, Samnites (holy bands, 

ver sacrum) \ Simbruina (holy; calm current; rovina, plw); sobritis 
self -controlled, prudent (ebrius p. 20); sememes reverend gods; Semo 
Sanctis deity; comis {gam) kind, considerate, gentle; comes comrade; 

com-modus kindly, serviceable; ne^quam malicious, vile. Goth. 

samyan to please, act rightly, in seemly fashion; O. N. sdma to beseem; 
semya to make peace, moderate; skemma women's rooms; skemia to 
enjoy (ksham) ; Sw. sdmya to reconcile; A. S.siman to appease, judge; 
O. N. seimr honey, gold; sumar summer; Ger. summen to sing lullaby, 
murmur, A. S.scimian to shimmer; sib peace ; Goth.sibya peace, kinship, 
adoption, friendship; ufi'Sibis godless; siponeis disciple; O. H. G. 
sippea clan, sept; O. N. sift friend, kinsman; heimr, A. S. Mm village, 

home; A. S. hama, homa garment (comfort; gam). R. [sum-mrak^ 

sumrak clear-dark, twilight; kuma, godmother; komnata bedchamber; 
kumis fermented milk ; lAth.keimas village ; kaimynas neighbor (xe^^jiai ?) . 

Ir. sdm sdme rest, ease, comfort; sam summer; sdim pleasure, 

ease; gentle, mild; soimm, somme rich; soinmech happy; cdem, cdem, 
dim beautiful, gentle, mild; cwma yearning, sorrow; cumnech reflective, 
mindful; Comyn, Cummins; cob beautiful; victory; cendsa gentleness, 
calm (jgdntvam) ; cissad stiff ering ; [svant], sant (Bret, hoant, koant) longing, 
desire {sdntvam) ; Bret, chomein to be quiet, to rest, dwell; [cum], cuff, 
dear; Pr. chomer to pet; Eng. chum; O. C. cama straw, bed, Test;camisia 
night-gown ; camum sweet-beer (hops are Slavonic) ; Caemani,[Qaemani] 
Paemani; Quameros favorite slave; Commius; Como; Comagenae {agen 
nimble) ; Quemea; Soemus; Saemus; Sammius; Sam-ara (summer-flow, 
Somme) ; Sambis; Sambra; In-sombres; In'Siibres (the revered, august; 
Ir. in-, ind-, the) ; Com. hebren-chiat [holy chief], priest (cH chief) ; 
O. C. [s]Abrin»catui holy warriors. 

Sk. ksham to be patient, firm, strong; to endure, be gracious, par- 
don (form kham; cf. kshur, khur to split); kshamp, sumbh, gumbh to 
flash roimd, be radiant, beautiful, mighty; kshamas pSLtient, enduring, 
capable, powerful, fit, useful; ksham, kshamd, [kham], gam (gen. 
gamas) the earth (cf. khamb, ghamb, gam) ; the form kham has been 

lost in the kham of the next paragraph. Zd. zem (nom. zdo) the 

earth. Gk. xa^l, (loc. case) on the groimd; x^(^^^^> X*l^^^'<5 to the 

groimd; xoyLoOev from the ground; xa[L'r{k6(;, xOa;jLaX(S<; on the ground, 
low; Xaixiivt] epithet of Demeter {van beloved); x^wv earth, ground. 



— 230 — 

surface, land, world (cf. exchange of m and n in the cognate gam, 

ganivam)\ lxtx6(5vto<; [earthly] man; aOri-xOwv aboriginal. Lat. 

humus earth, soil; humum to the ground; humi on the groimd; humo 
to inter, bury; humilis low; homo {-4nis; O. Lat. plu. hemones, homones, 

cf. Xa^jLuvYj) man, mortal. O. N. gumi (plu. gumnar), O. H. G. gcwfo, 

komo man; Goth, gwrna man, gumeins male; O. N. gamaw merriment, 
game, love, sport (cf. kindred gam, kam to be happy, love) ; gammr 
desire; gaman-ferdh love-lane; gaumr attention, care; gdmr palate, 
gums, finger-tips; A. S. gSma, O. H. G. giumo palate, gtuns; Goth. 

gaumyan (A. S. gyman) to care for, watch, observe, provide for. 

O. R. zemlya earth (x6dEiJiaXo(;, humilis) ; Bohem. zemei^ Lith. zhemi 
earth, grotmd; Lith. zhemai on the grotmd (humi); zhemas low; 
Zhemyna earth-goddess (XaiiuvY)); zhmu (plu. zhmdnes) man; R. 
zhimo'lost [earth's joy] honeysuckle; zemnoi earthly; zmeii snake 
(crawler). 



Sk. su, [gu, Zd. Aw] to pour out, make libation (p. 203) ; hu (^uhdmi, 
p. p. hutas, caus. havaydmi) to [pour out], sacrifice, offer, worship; 
hud, hund to [pour], pile, heap, be overwhelmed with water; hd 
(^ahdmi, hdsydmi, hitvd, p.p. htnas, caus. hdpaydmi) to [pour out], 
throw away, exhaust, leave a portion, desert, deprive, be lost , wanting; 
hd i^ihe) to [flow], depart, go; hdyanas a year; hay to go, [flow], be 
weary; hi (hinvdmi ^ighye) to [pour], flow, go, speed, send, fill, swell; 
hins, hikk to [speed, hurl, shoot, poimce], harm; hinsras wild, fierce; 
hve to utter, call, lure; hdvas murmur, lure; d'kve to shout, challenge 
(animal calls of affection, defiance) ;/ki«ti5 jaw, mouth ;/ian (hanishydmi, 
hatvas, ^aghdna, caus. ghdtaydmi; desid. ^tghdns = 'xit(x<;) to kill, destroy; 
hatts slaughter; hat to flash out; hath to be violent; hansas [wide- 
mouth], goose; hikk to sob; ghaggh to laugh. 

Sk. hu (hutas) to [pour out] ; d-havas libation, sacrifice ; d-hdvas 
trough; kham [pouring], wound, mouth, sky; hud, hund to pour, heap, 
be overwhelmed; hd (^ahdmi, hinas) to pour, exhaust, drain; hi, hins to 
go, flow, speed, shoot; hve to utter; ghan to flash; ghanas full, swollen, 
dense; a cloud; ghu, ghush to utter; ^u to speed; ^ush to shoot; ^ish 
to sprinkle ; ^u^h to seek, delight, desire ; gu, gu cacare ; gkut to dash 
out; ^ui, ^yut to flash out; Uyus to leave [after pouring]; kut to pour; 

kyutas rain. Zd. zaothra holy water. Gk. x^ (x^^*^» x^^^^^P^O 

to pour, shed, stream, utter, gush, heap, crowd, cloud ; xtu\ka stream, 
bowl, molten tin ; x'lyLa liquid, flood, casting ; x^^^^ flood, heap ; x\)\L6<;]mce, 
taste; x^'z^apot; x^*^^^* X'^?^>X^^^^ heap, mound, embankment; x^^^ 



— 231 — 

soil ; a liquid measure ; xo'm^ measure; x^ to heap ; lo-xifaipa shooter of 
arrows, darter of light; x(iio\La% to Sash out, be angry; xdeo<; chaos; xa(>vo<; 

moist, spongy, doud-like, vain (melts with xafvci)). Lat. [hutis], ftUis 

water-pot; ftUilis poured out, wasted, in vain; effidio to be gushing, 
babble (cf. hvi, hdvas); re-ftUo, con-futo to dash back, hurl back 
[argument] ; iti'choo to begin ; humor moisture ; [hvomer], vomer plow- 
share (x^(Ji<x; cf. vapor) ; fundo to pour (Awnd; melting with p. 49) ; gutta 
drop ; gesso, [gesro], gero to [dart, speed], be active, effect, heap earth 
{congeries, suggestus) ; gerro to talk, idly, fool ; gesiio to be eager, ardent ; 
(ghas to be eager, devour) ; gestus, gesticulor ; [hausio], haurio to drain, 

empty iqucUio, con-cutio to shake, hurl (g^ut) ; scaturio to dash. Goth. 

giutan, O. H. G. giozan to pour; Goth, guns pus; gansyan to cause, ful- 
fill, (ganz) ; O. N. gustr cold blast ; geysa to be violent, gush out, boil up ; 
A. S. gifan to give (hdpaydmi to pour out, lavish) ; geofon, gyfen, gifen 
flood, sea; O. N. gifr violent, gigantic monster; A. S. gdst breath, spirit; 
geian to produce, beget; Goth, us-geisnan to be [driven by wind], 
maddened, made wild; A. S. gaesian to frighten, afflict, torment; 
Eng. squid cuttle-fish (squirter,f^O ; Goth, gavi land, region, settlement 

(alluvial soil, xou<;). ^R.gow^ to quench; gusha sediment, dregs, allvL- 

yiuTn;zhestokii violent, cruel; zhest tin (melted, cast) ; Lith. zhuvis fish 
(dashing). Ir. gdith-lach swamp; gaethe-mail swampy; got blear- 
eyed, lippus; gai, goth javelin {hi, ghi to dash, speed, send) ; gdeth wind, 
storm; gus force, momentum, strength; gOas peril; gHasim to dash, 
risk; gestul exploit; gessim to entreat (utterance); guth voice, word 
(g/rii); got, guite stanmiering {effutio); geis prophecy, ban; Oen^gus 
(Angus); Fer-gus; gdes, gdeth dashing, quick-witted; Bret, goed blood; 
O. C. Clu'gasis, Su'gasis; gaison spear; Cuno-gussi. 

Sk. hd {hitvd) to dash out, empty, leave behind; had cacare; 

khand to leave, relinquish, desert. Zd. zad cacare. Gk. axiXjti^ 

to let go, drop, cease, give up, betray; o%4tXio(; wretched, forsaken; 
Xi^o[Lai to give up, yield, fail; a%zhiyy{j\ki to dash about, scatter 
around; ax^lidXju^ to be careless; xiX,(i> cacare; a%(xx6(; (gen. of oxd)p) 

dung; x68avo(; groin. Lat. cedo (cessi) to yield, concede; cedo {cette) 

I wotdd fain; suffer me to ask. ^A. S. sceddan to shed; scUe, O. H. G. 

scizu dung. R. khudo [empty], poor, weak; skudniy wretched; 

Hudniy strange, outlandish, queer. Ir. scith exhausted; scis 

exhaustion. 



Sk. hu to pour out, dash out ; hd {hinas) to dash out, empty, exhaust ; 
vi'hd to exhaust, dash out, set free; vi-hdyas air, bird; hi to dash, 
speed; ghi to spurn, exhilarate; fydi to [speed], go, blow upon, parch; 



— 228 — 

for once ; simulate to [copy], pretend ; siinuUas[opposing lines,interests], 
encotmter, hostility ; posi-quafnatter; un^quamewer (umbh) ; us-quamany' 

where (tU up, out; [fomas], somas all; or Wm what). Goth., O. H. G. 

sama the same; Goth, samaih, O. H. G. samet together, at once; Goth. 
samana, O. H. G. saman together with, zusammen; Goth, suman once 
upon a time; sums some one; Eng. seem to be like; A. S. symle, symble 

always, continually; symbel gathering, banquet. O. R. samu 

himself, alone; R. sam the same. Ir. -som himself; samaU likeness, 

image; samlaim to compare; amo/ like, as; 5aim a couple; samud con- 
gregation; amin even so; dm in sooth; amser, amm [circling] time; 
W. [samal], amal as; hafal like; Bret, hanval, hevel, evel like; hum 
himself; O. C. 5ama/u^« image of his father (Tu3-/e(St)(;). 

Sk. sdmi half; a-sdmis not-halved, perfect. Gk. i^^jli-, ij^uauc 

half (TaoO. Lat. semiy semis half; sem-issis half assis; [semis-tertius], 

sestertius two and a half. O. H. G. sdmi half. W. (comparat.) 

hanther. Cor., Bret, hanter half (cf. sdtUv for samt). 

Sk. sam [forms sdntv, gdntv, kshvan, gam] with. Gk. ouv, 5tiv with; 

(uv6(;, xotv6^ shared; in common ; of kin; ^ivo^ guest-friend, sharer, par- 
taker; [sacred wanderer], arriver, stranger, foreigner; xpcS-^evo^ public 

guest {pari intens.) Lat. cum with; con-, co- together; quam as 

(comparison, together; cf. similis) ; coena [meeting of isnmly,] evening 

meal. R. son^mishke assembly; semya, semeistvo family; semetniy 

of the family. Ir. con- com with; comul assembly; Bret. ko-\ O. C 

con- ; con'daie assembly, court of justice (W. dall) . 

Sk. samb, gamb to go rotmd, [bathe, stroke]; to bind; [make firm, 
lay spell]; sdm, sdntv, gdntv to calm, console, flatter; gam {gdmyami, 
p. p. gdntas, caus. gamaydmi) to be calmed, to calm, quiet, appease; 
kam (p.p. kdnias) to love; gamas, gdntis peace; gdntvam sdntvam con- 
solation, flattery; ksham to be patient, indulge, pardon; to endure, 
be strong; sibh^ simbh, subh, sumbh, gubh, gumbh to whirl, shoot; 

to flash rotmd, be radiant; gubhras splendid, white. Gk. aic^-^irxo^ 

[sweet-breath], marjoram; ae^.v6(; revered, holy, solemn, august; 
al^o(iat to be filled with awe, calmed; to revere, honor; ae^ortf^ 
august; B(Jivo(; hymn (placating, propitiating); a((i.^Xo^ bee-hive, 
bee-cave; treasure (simbh to flash round among flowers) ; Sf^uAXa sibyl 
(buzzing, muttering, storing wisdom, revered); aa^q clear, bright, 
distinct; aoftfg wise (melts with p. 219); Jld\i,o<; (beautiful, peaceful); 
xo(ji(i), xo^jiR^fa) to [stroke], curry horse, care for animal or man ; x6|jiiq hair, 
foliage ; v.o[l^6(; well-groomed, dainty, delicate ; x6>(jlo^ mirth, merriment. 



— 229 — 

carousal, village festival; x(i>(jl(3(; sheaf (harvest-home), sacred laurel 
bough; %j(b\iLa tranquil sleep; xco^jliq village (peaceful, joyful cf. R. mir 
peace, village); x(i(i.(vo<; [sweat-hut, shaman's tent, medidne-lodge]; 
furnace, forge, oven ((a(vo> to melt, comfort, warm); xa^jLva) to toil, 

sweat, be sick, suffer (ksham). Lat. Sabini, Samnites (holy bands, 

ver sacrum) \ Simbruina (holy; calm current; rovtna, pfai)); sobrius 
self -controlled, prudent (ebrius p. 20); sememes reverend gods; Semo 
Sancus deity; comis {gam) kind, considerate, gentle; comes comrade; 

cam-modus kindly, serviceable; ne»quam malicious, vile. Goth. 

samyan to please, act rightly, in seemly fashion; O. N. sdma to beseem; 
semya to make peace, moderate; skemma women's rooms; skemta to 
enjoy (ksham) ; Sw. sdmya to reconcile; A. S.seman to appease, judge; 
0. N. seimr honey, gold; sumar summer; Ger. summen to sing lullaby, 
murmur, A.S, scimian to shimmer; sib peace ; Goth,sibya peace, kinship, 
adoption, friendship; uti'Sibts godless; siponeis disciple; O. H. G. 
sippea clan, sept; O. N. sifi friend, kinsman; heimr, A. S. hdm village, 

home; A. S. hama, homa garment (comfort; gam). R. [sum-mrak], 

sumrak clear-dark, twiUght; *Mma, godmother; feTmno/a bedchamber; 
kumis fermented milk ; Li th . keimas village ; kaimynas neighbor (xs((jiat ?) . 

Ir. s6m sdme rest, ease, comfort; sam summer; sdim pleasure, 

ease; gentle, mild; soimm, somme rich; soinmech happy; cdem, cdem, 
cHm beautiful, gentle, mild; cwwa yearning, sorrow; cwmn^cA reflective, 
mindful; Comyn, Cummins; cob beautiful; victory; cendsa gentleness, 
calm (fdfUvam) ; cissad suffering ; {svafU\,sant (Bret.Aoaw/, koani) longing, 
desire {sdnivam)\ Bret, chomein to be quiet, to rest, dwell; [cum\ cuf, 
dear; Fr. ckomer to pet; Eng. chum ; O. C. cama straw, bed, rest ; camisia 
night-gown ; camum sweet-beer (hops are Slavonic) ; CaemaniXQaemani] 
Paemani) Quameros favorite slave; Commius; Como; Comagenae {agen 
nimble) ; Quemea; Soemus; Saemus; Sammius] Sam-ara (summer-flow, 
Somme) iSambis; Sambra; In-sombres; Ift'Siibres (the revered, august; 
Ir. i»-, ind-, the); Com. hebren-chiai [holy chief], priest (cit chief); 
0. C. {slAbrift'Catui holy warriors. 

Sk. ksham to be patient, firm, strong; to endure, be gracious, par- 
don (form kham; cf. kshur, khur to split); kshamp, sumbh, gumbh to 
flash rotmd, be radiant, beautiful, mighty ; kshamas patient, enduring, 
capable, powerful, fit, useful; ksham, kshamd, [kham], gam (gen. 
gamers) the earth (cf. khamb, ghamb, gam) ; the form kham has been 

lost in the kham of the next paragraph. Zd. zem (nom. zdo) the 

earth. Gk. x^^^^ Ooc. case) on the ground; xa^aX^t, x^V-^^^^ to the 

ground; xoe(ia6ev from the ground; yaL^r{k6<i, x^^V-^^^^ on the ground, 
low; Xoc(JiiivY] epithet of Demeter {van beloved); x^^^ earth, ground, 



— 230 — 

surface, land, world (cf. exchange of m and n in the cognate Qom, 

gdnivatn); Ixtx66vt0(; [earthly] man; aOri-xOwv aboriginal. Lat. 

humus earth, soil; humum to the ground; humi on the grotmd; hutno 
to inter, bury; humilis low; homo (-i«is; O. Lat. plu. hemanes, homones, 

cf. Xa^jLuvT)) man, mortal. O. N. gumi (plu. gumnar), O. H. G. g(7m^, 

kamo man; Goth, guma man, gumeins male; O. N. gaman merriment, 
game, love, sport (cf. kindred gam, kam to be happy, love) ; gammr 
desire; gaman-ferdh love-lane; gaumr attention, care; gdmr palate, 
gums, finger-tips; A. S. gdma, O. H. G. giumo palate, gtmis; Goth. 

gaumyan (A. S. gyman) to care for, watch, observe, provide for. 

O. R. zemlya earth (x6d(xaXo(;, humilis) ; Bohem. zemei, Lith. zhemi 
earth, grotmd; Lith. zhemai on the grotmd {humi)\ sshemas low; 
Zhemyna earth-goddess (Xa(ji6vY]); zhmu (plu. zhmdnes) man; R. 
zhimo-lost [earth's joy] honeysuckle; zemnoi earthly; smeii snake 
(crawler). 



Sk. su, [fu, Zd. hu] to pour out, make libation (p. 203) ; hu (£uhami, 
p. p. hutas, caus. havaydmi) to [pour out], sacrifice, oflFer, worship; 
hud, hund to [pour], pile, heap, be overwhelmed with water; ha 
(^ahdmi, hdsydmi, hitvd, p.p. htnas, caus. hdpaydmt) to [pour out], 
throw away, exhaust, leave a portion, desert, deprive, be lost , wanting; 
hd i^ihe) to [flow], depart, go; hdyanas a year; hay to go, [flow], be 
weary; hi Qiinvdmi ^ighye) to [pour], flow, go, speed, send, fill, swell; 
hins, hikk to [speed, hurl, shoot, pounce], harm; hihsras wild, fierce; 
hve to utter, call, lure; hdvas murmur, lure; d^hve to shout, challenge 
(animal callsof affection, defiance) ; hanus jaw,mouth; Aa« (hanishydmi, 
hatvas, ^aghdna, cslvls. ghdtaydmi; desid. ^ighdns^flfa(;) to kill, destroy; 
hatis slaughter; hat to flash out; hath to be violent; hansas [wide- 
mouth], goose; ZtifeA to sob; ghaggh to laugh. 

Sk. hu (hutas) to [pour out]; d-/rat;a5 libation, sacrifice; d-havas 
trough; kham [pouring], wound, mouth, sky; hud, hund to pour, heap, 
be overwhelmed; hd {^ahdmi, hinas) to pour, exhaust, drain; Ai, hins to 
go, flow, speed, shoot; hve to utter; ghan to flash; ghanas full, swollen, 
dense; a cloud; ghu, ghush to utter; ^u to speed; ^ush to shoot; ^ish 
to sprinkle ; ^ush to seek, delight, desire ; gu, gu cacare ; gkut to dash 
out; ^ut, ^yut to flash out; kyus to leave [after pouring]; kut to pour; 

kyutas rain. Zd. zaothra holy water. Gk. x^ (x^^*^» X^^^^^\^^) 

to pour, shed, stream, utter, gush, heap, crowd, cloud; x^^iia stream, 
bowl, molten tin ; xu^Jia liquid, flood, casting ; x^^^ flood, heap ; x{)\L6q juice, 
taste; xu'zpapot; x^'^^^S, x^l*^>X*^^'^ heap, motmd, embankment; xou? 



— 231 — 

soil; a liquid measure ; xolvi? measure; x^ to l^eap ; (o*x^/«pa shooter of 
arrows, darter of light; xwo^jiai to flash out, be angry; x^o? chaos; xauvo<; 

moist, spongy, cloud-like, vain (melts with xafvci)). Lat. [htUis], futis 

water-pot; futilis poured out, wasted, in vain; efftUio to be gushing, 
babble (cf. hve, havas); re-futo, con-futo to dash back, hurl back 
[argument]; ifi'choo to begin; humor moisture; [hvotner], vomer plow- 
share (x(i>\i-a; cf . vapor) ; fundo to pour (Awnd; melting with p. 49) ; gutta 
drop; gesso, [gesro], gero to [dart, speed], be active, effect, heap earth 
(congeries, suggestus) ; gerro to talk, idly, fool ; gestio to be eager, ardent ; 
(ghas to be eager, devour) ; gestus, gesiiculor ; [hausio], haurio to drain, 

empty ; ^pmo/m?, con-cutio to shake, hurl (gkut) ; scaturio to dash. Goth. 

giutan^ O. H. G. giozan to pour; Goth, guns pus; gansyan to cause, ful- 
fill, (ganz) ; O. N. gustr cold blast ; geysa to be violent, gush out, boil up ; 
A. S. gifan to give {hdpaydmi to pour out, lavish) ; geofon, gyfen, gifen 
flood, sea; O. N. gifr violent, gigantic monster; A. S. gdst breath, spirit; 
getan to produce, beget; Goth, us^geisnan to be [driven by wind], 
maddened, made wild; A. S. gaestan to frighten, afflict, torment; 
Eng.5gu«i cuttle-fish (squirter,f^fi/) ; Goth, gat/iland, region, settlement 
(alluvial soil, xo[)<;) . R. gasit to quench ; gusha sediment, dregs, allu- 
vium; zhestokii violent, cruel; zhest tin (melted, cast) ; Lith. zhuvis fish 
(dashing). Ir. gdith-lach swamp; gaethe-mail swampy; got blear- 
eyed, lippus; gai, gotk javelin (hi, ghi to dash, speed, send) ; gdeth wind, 
storm; gus force, momentum, strength; giias peril; gHasim to dash, 
risk; gestul exploit; gessim to entreat (utterance); guih voice, word 
{ghu)\ got, guile stammering (effutio); geis prophecy, ban; Oen-gus 
(Angus) ; Fer'gus; gdes, gdeth dashing, quick-witted; Bret, goed blood; 
0. C. Clu'gasis, Su'gasis; gaison spear; Cuno'gussi. 

Sk. hd (hitvd) to dash out, empty, leave behind; had cacare; 

khand to leave, relinquish, desert. Zd. zad cacare. Gk. ox"^^"^ 

to let go, drop, cease, give up, betray; o%4TXtO(; wretched, forsaken; 
Xi^o(t(zt to give up, yield, fail; crxeSdtvvuiJii to dash about, scatter 
around; ax^hidXju^ to be careless; x^^^ cacare; oxorci^ (gen. of oxcop) 

dtmg; x(58avo? groin. Lat. cedo (cessi) to yield, concede; cedo (cette) 

I would fain; suffer me to ask. A. S. sceddan to shed; scUe, O. H. G. 

scizu dung. R. khudo [empty], poor, weak; skudniy wretched; 

htdniy strange, outlandish, queer. Ir. scUh exhausted; scis 

exhaustion. 

Sk. hu to pour out, dash out; hd (hinas) to dash out,empty, exhaust; 
vi'hd to exhaust, dash out, set free; vi-hdyas air, bird; hi to dash, 
speed; ghi to spurn, exhilarate; gydi to [speed], go, blow upon, parch; 



— 232 — 

fifiras shivering, cold; fitas cold; fyetas white; ftncts frozen; oydmas 
dark blue, (wind blown-sky); gyavas livid; himas cold, frost; himam 
snow; himd cold, winter; himdni deep snow; heman wintry; hematUas 

winter; Him-d-laya snow-home; hemam gold (winter sunset). Zd. 

idao winter frost; zima winter. Arm. yiun snow. Gk. xm^v snow; 

Xe((ta storm, winter rain; xetytdt^o), xecytaCvci) to storm; xf^ierXov chil- 
blain; xe((iijy winter; x((iapo(;, x((tatpa winterling kid, one season old; 
winter demon, winter thunder-storm, slain by Bellerophon (v. p. 190); 

Alban. dimen winter? Lat. hiems^ [himn'vema], hibema w'mter (wm, 

uma rains of Italian winter; pp. 193, 216; Aquarius; Capri<omus 
like x(yiacp« implies unfolding horn of winter, and pour of Saturn's 

rain); [bi'himus\ bimus two winters old. Norse g%6 fresh snow; 

O. N. gi tempest; gymbr winterling lamb; gamall [snowy, hoary], 
old; A. S. gamol'feax white-haired; gamal old; Ger. Gems-bock snow- 
buck, chamois. — — O. R. zima winter, storm, cold; Lith. zheima winter; 

zheiminis wintry. Ir. gam, gem-red winter {rod wheel, cycle); 

gamuin winterling calf; gam-lias winter stable; gemen [winter-coat], 
fur, hide; W. gaem, gayaf; Com. goyf\ Bret, goativ, gouaff winter; 
Bret. [g}iein, Cor. yen cold (cf . givin^ivin) ; Bret, gamdid Holy Thurs- 
day, winter's end ; O. C. Gamatus, Giamatus, Gamianus (yotmg steer); 
Gemmelaus, Gemblacus winter-stables; Gemme-ticum winter-house 
(cf . bou'tig, bothie) . 

Sk. hve to utter; fvi to [blow, inflate], swell; gydi to blow, freeze; 
finas frozen; gyetas white; oydmas [wind-blown sky], dark blue, black 

(cf. blow, blue); oyavas [frozen], livid. Gk. xuiveoc deep blue; 

steely blue {gltuis, fydmas; cf . hemam gold) ; xuavo(; steel, lacquer, lapis 
lazuli; xoua^xce black (Laconian); xacv6(; [cleared sky], fresh, new; 

xa{vu;jLat to be glorious, excel. ^Lat. [cydnus], cdneo to be white (cf. 

%u(tiv=canis). Goth, skeinan to shine; 5&aiin5 beautiful; O.N.skiu 

brightness; sky cloud, sky. R. sinii blue; siyanie radiance; seitto 

[wind-blown] hay. Ir. cdin beautiful, [severe], a law; O. C. Cainos, 

Cain{7[n] »Chinon; Cananius, Caenonius, Caenecaene, 

Sk. hu, hd, hi to dash out, empty, exhaust; fydi to go, [pass like 
the wind]; hyas yesterday, adj. hyastanas. Gk. x64<;, txfilq yester- 
day; adj. x^Baivi^, xOtW?. Lat. [hesi], heri; adj. hesternus. — —O. N. 

ges, gdr, A. S. gistran; O. H. G. gesteron, kestre yesterday. 

Sk. hi to send, speed, hurl; hetis arrow, lightning; fydi to speed, 
blow, freeze; May, kyu, khyu, ^, ^li, ffiu to speed, go; gkut, gkyut, 
Hut, kyut to dash out, pour out (quaiio, scateo); kyus to leave over; 



— 233 — 

kshu to sneeze; Myu to slip, fall, excite, laugh; fynU, ^ut to flash out» 
shine; (rt, po to excite, incite, goad, sharpen; [fo], sd (sydmi) to huil, aim, 
let fly, hunt down, destroy; kshi, kshi, khdi, sdi to destroy, to perish; 
kski to destroy, cast down, lay low, [lay foundation, pounce into], 
occupy, dwell; kshiv, kshiv to dash out, drive out [foe]; to dwell; gi to lie 
down, sleep; Mi to [lay foundation, toss together], make cairn, heap 
up, cover over; kitis cairn, heap ; khdi to be firm; kit, kit, kint to [gather 
pebbles], calculate, count, think, reflect; kitavas dice-player; kitras 
quick fingered (for picking, tossing), nimble, active; kly to pick, 
gather, cover; kit to glance, perceive, know; ki to know. 

Sk. hi, ghi to dash, speed, send; kay, kyu to speed, go, slip; fkut 
to dash out, pour, flow; gydi to speed, blow; finas, gydtnas cold, 
[drifting, whirling, speeding]; so (sydmi, sitas) to shoot, aim, plan, 
complete, appoint, limit; gyenas falcon (pouncing) ; gydlas men whose 
wives are sisters (fellow-raiders); [form sydlas Gk. diXtoc brothers 
in-law]; gi (f if tie) to speed, excite, goad, sharpen; kit to be keen, 
perceive; khyd, kit to [speed], summon; kit, kint to think quick; kitras 

nimble, handy, clever. Gk. xa(vu(i.at to [shoot beyond], surpass, 

excel; xaiv6<; [discovered, invented, well-aimed], new? x((i> to move, 
go; xtvjci) to move, stir, start, assail, summon, rouse; x(vT)ai<; move- 
ment, revolution, stir, dance; xtvT)Ti^<; agitator; xivdOtqia rustling; 
x(ya$o<;, x^Soopo?, ax(v5(»po<; fox, rogue; oxfva^, x(v5a5 nimble, 
hare; oxivap foetus (Sk. figtis) ; x(v5uvo<; [starting], risk, chance, danger; 
x(xci> to send away, shake off; xixu<; vigor; xWapa lyre (kitras); 
Qyjv6ct^6q lute; xovlco to speed; 5ta-xov&i> to be nimble, serve; x6vt<; 

dust. ^Lat. cieo to rouse, excite, speed, summon; ciere nomen to 

call by name; civis [summoned, member of folk-moot], citizen (cf. 
koi to call); Osc. kevs citizen (cf. kshiv to attain, occupy, dwell); 
coft'Cio assembly; citus swift; excito; cifi'Cinnus [shaking] curl; quatio, 
quasso, can-cuiio to shake, dash (fkut) ; cutio to dart, strike; queo to be 
vigorous; ne-quitia worthlessness, vileness; ci^ra [swift start, starting 
point], this side ; scaturio to well up ; scateo to swarm; situs site, position 

(sd, sitas, to aim, end ; p. 2 18) . Goth, skevyan to journey ; A. S. scio I 

go; Ger. ge-schehen to bring to an end, come to pass; O. N. heita to be 

named, called. ^R. s[v]inat to pour out, shed; siyanie radiance, 

ray; se[n]fnennit to speed. Ir. cinnim to rush, sweep; scinnim to 

leap; sceinm sl start, leap; cUmtn a stride; ciim to shed tears (hu to 
shed; kshu to sneeze) ; cit- first, beginning; citamus in the first place; 
centar on this side (Lat. citra)\ cian [long-shot], far, long; cennach 
business (alacrity, thinking quick); W. kennat sending; kenadyl 
ambassador; [kyntam], kyntaf ^rst; Bret, skoein to rush against, dash, 



— 234 — 

strike; W. cam, Bret, kam stride, step; Cor. cammen road, chemin; 
kynsa first; Bret, ketan, first; kent ahead; kenUh immediately; kentr, 
spur; O.C. Centrones (drivers; associated with the graig<ile, Graioceli, 
herders) ; Can^iiim>» nearest point to Ga,ul;Cimia'cinus speed-the-step, 
(god of travellers, with votive inscriptions); Cemenelon; Cimenus; 
CifUU'tigemus; Kentigem (cf. ro^rig). 

Sk. same roots (:t (fifite, fiias) to sharpen, excite; fo (jpydmi, ftias 
cdtas) to sharpen; fdn (ficdnsdmi) , kshnu to sharpen; fdnas whetstone; 

gonitas blood; gonas red; kan to shine. Gk. xcovoq point, cone, ttim- 

ing-post, helmet, top, pine-cone; x6vvapo<; thorn-tree; xow&d to be 

keen, to know. Lat conor to [thrust], make effort, attempt; cos (edits) 

whetstone; catUes sharp rock, crag; catus keen-witted (gdtas); cdnus 
glittering, white ; ci'Cdnia stork (sharp-bill) ; cuneus wedge ; thimderbolt 
(the whetstone of Naevius was a celt buried under a fulgurate; Thor's 

hammer; p. 8). A. S. hanan to stone; hunig (O. N. hunang) honey 

(eagerness, desire) ; hynan to assail, injure ; kv^ne a little (worn, chip) ; 
O. N. hein hone; hvetya, hvessa to sharpen, incite; hUn point of mast; 
Hoenir; Goth, hunyan to seek eagerly; hunsl [devotion], sacrifice; 
[hvaian to whet] ; hvotyan to [spur on], rebuke ; hvassei sternness ; O. H. G. 

hUn [fierce] giant. R. konetz point, end; konek peak of roof; kon 

[swift] horse {agvas). Ir. cotud whetstone; cottud motmtain-peak; 

cdith point, needle; cat, caith keen, wise; conar way, track (canari); 
Bret, kounar rage. 

Sk. go (gydmi), gi to sharpen, [use fire-drill]. Gk. xa(ci>, xdu 

(fut. xauaci)) to kindle, bum; xau;jLa burning heat, fever; xaOai? burning, 

cautery. Goth.&ais torch. K.kovat to forge iron (cf. hein, hvetya 

horn go). 

Sk. gi to sharpen; khdi to cleave, hurt; kshi, kshin to cut, hurt, 
destroy; khit, khet to hurt, scare; kitis boar (sharp tusk); kinas 
scar; kho (khydmi) to cleave, cut off; kivaras ragged; Gipsy chivo 

knife. Zd. vi-ska to decide. Gk. xe(<i), xedl^b) to cleave, split; 

xjapvov axe; xacertf^, xat^5a<; fissure in earth; xtjtcosc^ full of chasms 
(Cleve-land) ; xtjTo<; [maw], sea-monster; axe6p6<; [carved], exact, 
accurate; [a]xe-ax(ov [carded] tow; [xtteco], Terftjiiai to grieve (cf. tJw). 

• Lat. scio to saw; descisco to cleave open; squatus, squatina 

shark; caementum hewn stone; cavillor to vex, }eQV\ squama shaving, 

scale. A. S,heavan, O. H. G. houwan to hew; Goth, havi, O. N. 

hey cut grass, hay; O. N. hd hide; Get, Hai shark. R. kit whale; 

seino hay; kinit to cut. Ir. scian knife; Gael, sgath to lop, prune; 



— 236 — 

W. ysgiein knife; Bret, kizellat to chisel; O. C. Scianea (mountain 
stream). 

Sk. gi to sharpen, incite; intens. giksh to learn eagerly; gydi to be 
keen, cold, clear; khyd to declare, teach, inculcate ; ki (Mikemi) to know; 
f to sharpen ; d'ku to desire, purpose ; kav, kab to [cause to see], describe, 
celebrate, paint, color; kavis poet, seer; khavis beauty, splendor; 

idy to see, hear, honor; kev to adore, look up to. Gk. xo/l(i>, xovv&d 

to observe; 0uoax6o<; watcher of sacrifices, omen taker; Aao-x6/(i>v 
watchman of people; d*xou(i> to [be intent], hear (v. p. 7) ; xi^iio? omen 

taker, purifier; xd/ag, xaiiag, xi^iig sea-bird (keen eye, good-omen). 

Lat. scio to know; scisco, sciscitor to enquire (fiksh); scitus neat, exact, 
well-framed decree; caveo to be vigilant; catUus cautious; causa cause. 

^A.S. scedvian to watch, shy; scava watchman; scedvu show; Goth. 

uS'Skavs watchful; him (A. S. hiVt hio) hue, appearance, color; [skuwa], 

dkuggvamiTTor; O. N.^feyn cause (afxfa, p. 205). R. tzveit color, flower? 

Sayat to watch for, hope; Mayanie hope; kuyat to perceive, smell; 

Buvstvo perception. Ir. ad-ciu to see; rem-caissiu foresight; fres'csiu 

hope; de'i'csiu vision; ceas, ces, aware; cH-baid sense; sciam beauty, 
bloom; sci hawthorn; 5Co/A blossom; Bret, kined beauty; kun beautiful ; 
skoarn ear (p. 243) ; Ir. [scetl], scH story, news (scisciio ; scitus) , W. chwedl. 
Com. whethl, Bret. [ch*whethel], que-hezl; story; W. hoedel life [story]; 
0. C. Scitli-vissos (scisciiel-fiss, news-knowing). 

Sk. hi to speed, hurl; fi to goad, drive; so (sydmi)] sdi, ksh&i, kshly 
kshi to cast down, destroy, perish; kshan, kan to wound, kill; khan to 
stab, dig, melting with han to kill, hanus jaw, i. e. the whirl of the 
tempest and spear unites with the teeth and claws of the wild beast. 

Zd. kaina avenger, vengeance. Gk. [^^opiat], a^vojiat to harm, 

ravage, plunder; ahoq hurt, mischief, plague; alyz-qq tearing, ravenous; 
xa(vo>, xtefvo) (xTdytevac) to kill; xacv^g knife; xxefg (xt6v6<;) comb, 
rake, teeth; gaCvo) to scratch, comb wool; ^ovdco) to be [scraped down], 
worn out ; 5*ci), ^uw to scrape, plane, polish ; ^oMq [color of planed wood], 

brown, glistening; thin, delicate. O. N. skeyna scratched, wounded; 

[skinna to skin]; skinn skin. R. kescU to card, comb; kinit to cut, 

mend. Ir. scian knife. 

Sk. hu to pour out, dash; hi to speed, hurl; hins to pounce, harm; 
ghvans to fall, fell ; kshi, kshi to hurl down, destroy; kshiv, kshiv to dash 
out, cast down; kshiv, kshib to be be dashing, drunk, proud ; Myu to fall ; 
fi (fayet, gifye, geshydmi) to [cast one's self, pounce into den], lie down, 
sleep (cf. jacio, jaceo); cslus. gdyaydmi to place; gayanam, gayyd bed; 
gavas, gdvas dead body (cf . cadaver) ; whelp (in den) ; gevas generation. 



— 236 — 

joy ; gevadhis treasure ; kshiv, kshiv to dwell ; khdi to be firm, established ; 
kshayas fall, destruction ; abode, home ; kayos house ; body {gavcLs) ; ketas 
home; kshemas habitable, comfortable, lucky; kshi (kshiydtni) to 
dwell; [kshydtni] to possess; kshitis dwelling; kyu to fall; kytU to 

dash; Uyiis to leave (after pouring). Zd. gaHi he rests, lies. 

Gk. xelpiac to lie, rest, have a fall, lay up, deposit; X6((i> to go to bed; 
xo(tiq bed, lair, box, marriage; xetyii^Xcov heir-loom, treasure; oxeuo? 
possession, tool, goods {gevadhis) \ xoc(iidc(i> to lie down, sleep, die; 
ijjL^txTfove? neighbors; xtflici) to colonize, people, found, build, create; 
xt^jk; settlement, creature; xtdoyiat to acquire; xT^(ia possession; 

xr^vo^ tame animal. Lat. quies, rest; civis (Osc. kevs) citizen; 

cimex bedbug; Caius husband; Caia wife; "ubi tu Caius ibi ego Caia"; 

Caia Cae-cilia goddess of home; cf. (ra;y/as«= quietus. Goth, heiva" 

frauya head of family; haims village (or gam p. 229) ; hauith quiet, rest; 
[hains], hus house; huzd property, treasure; hauns [lying] low; O. N. 

hiH (plu. hidn) family, married people ; O. H. G. hiwo husband. R. 

pO'koi rest; po-kit to rest, repose (gi-gU); seini door-way, home; scot 

cattle, possession; Lith. keitnas village (p. 229). Ir. cdin law? scot 

cattle; cdi house, home; cerd^chae workshop; W. cae, Bret, coe, kai 
enclosure, place of safety, quay; O. C. Ande'Cavi; Sir Kay; Scotti; Ir. 
ciniud, W. cenethl, Ir. cenel family, clan (household). 

Sk. same roots; Mi (kindmi, kinve) to hurl, toss together, make 
cairn (the Celts before battle let each man cast a stone into a cairn, 
and thus counted living and dead afterward); to cover, bury; nis-Hi 
to collect, count, calculate, decide; vi'ki to coimt loss, investigate, 
examine; pra^ki to remake, recover; apa-kitas esteemed, honored; 
kayas heap, crowd; Mdityam monument, altar; Mdy to honor, observe; 
Miy, kiv, kib to pick up, take; to [toss upon], cover; khdi to be solid, 
firm; kit to [hurl], send;£i/, kint to calculate, reason, reflect; k^as 

mind; kutas heap; kit, kut to take counsel. Zd. ki to gather, seek; 

to [count out, pay], atone; kitha atonement. Gk. xfwv monument, 

support, pillar (khdi); xtH^ci) to found, build; 'Aji^t-xTuove^ warders 
of landmark; [xt(<i)], t(<i) to coimt, value, honor, pay (cf. [xt((;], t(?«= 
quis); t(v<i) to requite, atone, punish; xfat? weregild, vengeance; Ti\L-ri\M 
estimation, census; xtyii^ value, honor; Tt^xici) to honor; orfa, ortov 

pebble. Lat. ciere to summon, name (p. 233); caemetUum [building 

material], cement; concinno to construct. O. H. G. scdz treasure 

(accumulated, counted) ; Ger. schdtzen to estimate ; A. S. scot assigned 

portion, tax; Goth, skatts coin. Lith. skaityti to gather, pick, count; 

skaitlitis number; O. R. tzeina price; tzeinity to estimate; kinu rank, 
honor; kislo niunber; R. kestit to honor; kitat to read (cf. lesen); ktit 



— 237 — 

to esteem; kin rank. Ir. cinnim to appoint; cin, cinta guilt, crime 

(TfaiO; cHe market; c^-baid reason (kitas); scoth precious, treasure, 
flower; cit-am May; cH permission; chief; O. C. Cinna, 

Sk. Mi to toss; kd [there goes another], and. Gk. xa( and. 

Lat. -que, at-que and; [xal ^epoi] caeteri all the rest; caeterum except, 
but. 

Sk. hi (hinvdmt) to hurl ; hins (hinsmi) to strike, kill ; han (^aghdna) 
to [hurl one's self, pounce], injure, kill; ghnas (fem. ghni) slaying; 
hantis jaw; hnu, kshnu to tear away, drag off; kshnu to sharpen 
[teeth, claws]; gnaih, knath to strike, kill; [hnup caus. form of 
hnu]; ghin, ghun to grip, seize; to prowl about, rove; knu, knu 
to roar, sound; knuy to roar, sound; to be [torn by beast, bloody], 
wet, rotten; knans to flash out, shine; kanakas golden; kan to kill; 
to roar; gncL to [poimce, grip], apprehend, know; ^an to [grip, beget, 

conceive], be bom. Gk. %vauci) to nibble, [pick], gnaw; xvauyia slice, 

tidbit; xvio? [pickings], down, bloom; yv46o<; jaw; greedy; narrow 
pass, pinch, point, edge; xvwBaXov wild beast, monster; xvcoBcdv [tooth], 
sword-edge, barb; Yvdhrca), xvdicra) to tear, mangle, card wool; xvo^eu?, 
Yvo^euc carder, fuller; xvdo), xvR^g), xvug), xvaSdXXa), xvul^6(i> to scratch, 
scrape, tickle; xvO minute particle; xvBt), xvf^oij nettle; xvulidto) 
to snarl, growl, whine {knu)\ xviaa melting fat, smell of [blood], 
roasting meat, sacrifice, smoke, steam (knuy); xvulia, x^vulia penny- 
royal, flea-bane; xviic^q, yv{9(i)v pinching, miserly; %vh^a<;, yv^9o<;, 
Jvrf^oc (attracted by ^90?) [coiling, gripping] darkness; xv(<|> devour- 
ing insect. Lat. [g]nodus [gripping] knot; genista broom (tight knot, 

tough root); [c]nux nut (hard-bite); [g]novacula razor (scraper). 

0. N. knot (O. H. G. hnuz) nut; hnoss jewel (gripped fast) ; [h]nista to 
fight; hnefi fist; hnita to strike, wound; hneypta to nip, pluck; hnifr, 
knifr (nipper xvixro), Yvixro)) knife; hnakki neck (gripped, broken, 
pax'<j)5 knoggr niggard; knddha, hnddha to [chew], knead (YvdEOo?; 
cf. (tdeaoii)); fenj/a to lash, knot, knit; knappr nob, ball, [lad with 
Suevian topknot; Knapp, Knabe]; snidha to cut (ptath, schneiden); 
snapa to nibble, eat; sneypa to shame; sndpa to snap, snuff; gnata 
to dash, crash; gnesta to rage; gnya rushing, raging; gneisti spark 
(gneiss); Goth, hnutho whip; hniupan to nip, pluck; O. H. G. hnotdn 
to strike, shake; A. S. hnoppa nap of cloth; cnd/> a knob; [hndp] 
nape of neck; cni2c/ bone; hnitu nit; /tn^^c (Goth, hnasqus; ndschen) 
picked, choice, nice; cniht lad, youth; gnagan to gnaw; [gnista] to 

gnash; gnd/ gnat. R. knut whip (tearer, (i^aao), jjidortS); knyaz 

[topknot], peak, top, prince; zhnetz [plucker], harvester; pO'Zhnut to 



— 238 — 

reap; zhnivo straw, stubble; sneidai to gnaw; gntda, nigoa louse, tick; 
snop sheaf; gnoi pus {knuy)\ gnoit, gnit to suppurate, rot; gnusniy 
disgusting, horrible; gnat to drip, evaporate, distil; to htmt down; 

gneiv hatred, anger; znot melting heat (knily; xvouii)). Ir. cnoc 

[gnawing] ulcer; [gnawed] rock, cliflE (Bret, knech high Z. 578); Ir. 
cned wound; cness skin (scratched); snaisse torn; snaidim to cut; 
sndidm [gripping] knot; sued louse; nenaid nettles; nedit pinching, 
niggardly; «^, nedit [clawing], fight, battle (p. 26); cnH (W. cneuen, 
Bret, knouen, kanouen) nut; W. nedden louse; O. C. Cnod'ovus, Cnid" 
aus. 

Sk. same roots (action of wild beast) ; hnu to potmce, tear, [crouch 
for spring, lie in wait], hide one's self; kncis to be [bowed down], 
bent; knas to flash out; knu to roar; ghan to flash roimd; ghin, ghun 
to grip, prowl, whirl round; ghan, ghant to flash out, speak; gan to 
[whirl], revolve in mind, [gather], count; ganas flock, crowd; gunas 
[twisted] cord, rope, wreath; [revolution, recurrence, number of] 
times; characteristic; ^dnu [crouching] knee; abhi'^nu on the knees; 

pra'^us bow-legged. Zd. zhnu (plu. zanva) knee. Gk. yivu 

knee; Youvioiiat to kneel; yvuS, xp6-xvu on the knees; (-fvya ham- 
string, thigh; YCi)v(a comer, angle, joiner's square, buttress; yvojmctj^ 
bent, curved, supple (of legs); YvdEjiicTCi), xvdqiXTO) to bend; xvjtj, xvoO^ 
ankle, hub, squeak of wheel; xvi^piif) lower leg, shank, spoke of wheel; 
xvri\Llq greave, legging, spoke; xvciSag pivot, [ankle, joint]; xvt^aw to 

coil up, sleep. Lat. genu knee; geniculatus knotty, muscular; 

[g]nates thighs, buttocks. Goth, kniu knee; kuna-veda knee-fetter; 

knuss>yan to kneel; hneivan to bow down, sink (xvouO; hnaivyan 
to press down, humiliate; O. N. knya to throng, press together; kni 

knee. ^R. gntU to twist, bend; gneizdo bunch, twist, nest (melts 

with nidas, p. 25) . Ir. cndim [shin-bone], bone ; cn«m worm (coiling) ; 

gnoe beautiful (ghan) . 

Sk. hnu to lurk in ambush, pounce, seize, carry off; kshnu to 
sharpen [claws], carry off; ghin, ghun to grip, seize; ghnas slaying; 
^nd {^anami desid. ii^ndse, caus. ^ndpaydmi, p. p. ^naptas) to [grip, 
handle, feel, test, try], perceive, apprehend, know, learn (cf . Yvdhcrci) to 
claw =^na/>to5); desid. to hunt, track, investigate, learn; caus. to 
announce, conmiand; anU'^na to [grasp after, fail to catch], let go, 
permit; ^ndman knowledge, intellect; ^nds, ^ndiis acquaintance; 

^ndnin wise; -^nas knowing, minded; ^nap to instruct, direct. Zd. 

zan to recognize. Gk. (desid. form) Ytyvaxixci) (lyvov) to loam. 

discern, observe, judge, know, understand; yvaxxti; knowledge ; Y^l*^ 



— 239 — 

thought, will, opinion; yvw^jnov judge, rule, tariff; y^mptCfii to make 
known; YV(ipt;jLO<; known; [Yjvdpo) to understand (Hesych.) ; v6o<;niind? 

Lat. gnosco, nosco to perceive, recognize ; nom to know; notio idea, 

perception; ndbilis well known, noble; gndrus aware; [g]narrare 
(0. Lat. gndrigare) to make known, relate; i'gnoro to be ignorant; 
[g]narma rule; gnavus [laying hold], energetic; navare to be diligent; 

\5egniis\ segnis lazy (cf. Ir.) ; bent-gnus well-minded. Goth, kunnan 

(kann) to recognize, know ; kunthi knowledge ; kannyan to make known ; 
0. N. kenna to feel, taste; to perceive, know; kanna to explore, try; 
kn&r skilful, brave ; A. S. cunnian to track, explore ; cunnan to know ; be 

able. O. R. jsma/itoknow; znameniye token, ensign; Lith. zhinomas 

known (R. zhnetz [grasper], harvester). Ir. gniim to make, do; gnia 

laborer; as^aith-gniim to know, understand; gndth known, accustomed; 
pt^ appearance, likeness; gnuis countenance; nois illustrious, noble; 
gnds, nds custom; O. C. Su-gntUia good-work (village of armorers); 
GnaUmis officina ; Gnoia ; -gnatos, 

Sk. same roots; gdn (gdndmi, gd^anmi p.p. ^anitas, ^dtas [kith]) to 
[grip, carry off, be eager], teget, conceive ; ^an (^dye) to be bom, become, 
exist, be; ^ands (diminutive kanakas) man; ^anus clan; ganitri father; 
^anl woman, mother; ^anani mother; ganyas groomsman (assistant in 
carrying off) ; ^anyas battle ; ^diis birth, race ; Vedic. ^«d, later ^dni, 

^i woman. Zd. zan to heget; gA^wa woman. Gk. Yewdui), YsCvoyiat 

to beget, be bom ; flyvoj^t to be bom ; come into existence, become, be ; 
fhoq race; Yeveri^p genitor; Yeviretpa genetrix; yiveat? birth, origin; 
Yewatoq well-bom; yuvt^ (Yuvatx6<; dimin. gen.; Boeot. ^ovdc, ^aviQxiO 

woman; Yekwv clansman, neighbor, of kith and kin (^dtis). Lat. 

gigno (genui) to beget, create, effect; genus, gens clan; genuinus legiti- 
mate {vinus dear); genius attendant spirit {ianyas)\ genialis nuptial; 
gener son-in-law; [g\n(iscor to be bom; natus bom; ncUura nature; 
ingenuus [bom in the house ; of legitimate wife], free-bom (xaa(-YVT)T0<;) ; 
indi'ges (-^is) native-bom (^diis); Gnaeus, Cnaeus (Yevvaio(;); [g^nae* 

vus birth-mark, mole; Naevius= noble. Goth, keinan to sprout; 

kuni, knods race, kin ; qino woman ; A. S. cennan to beget, bear ; cydhdhu 
family, home, kith (Yefcwv); O. H. G. chind offspring; chnuat nature; 

0. N. kvdn, kvaenwomajn. O. Pruss. ganna, O.R. ^A^na woman, wife; 

R. zkenit to marry; zhenikh husband, betrothed; Lith. gentts kinsman; 

geniri husband's brother's wife (cf. ydtri), Ir. g&nar to be bom; 

genemain birth; geneti genius, fairy; genmna [marriageable], chaste; 
gein birth; in-gen [legitimate] daughter; [guan], &^n woman; W. [banv], 
banw swine (prolific); Bret, gannein to give birth; O. C. [Genavanni], 
Genauni noble ; Gent'[v]onius; Matu-gentos] At-gennos; Seno-cenna; 



— 240 — 

CifUO'gennus', Cennius; Ir. cen^l (W. cenethi) family, race; ciniud 
descent; cimm to be descended; O, C. Banvos. 

Sk. han (^aghdna) to [pant, pounce], attack, kill ; ghun to prowl, seize ; 
hath to be violent, impetuous; ghat to make an effort; attain, efiect; 
ghatas active ; ghait to reach, touch, play lute ; hd (iihd) to go, depart ; 
hi (iighye) to go, send ; hamm to go ; ghut to return ; gd (agdm, ^igdmi) to 
go; gayas [attainment], home; ^a^, ian^ to attack, fight; gam (gamdmi^ 
gakhdmi) to go; gaias gone; gatis journey, refuge; ^aghanam thigh, 
loin; intens. gdh to enter, plunge, dive; gahanam depth, chasm; gah to 
be dense (forest). Gk. ^a(v(i> to go (form gav, gva)\ S-§aToq inac- 
cessible; ^Yjixastep; ^(ii<S< step, altar; §t2X<S(; threshold, height; ^i^iQXoq 

trampled, profane; ^ioi? foot, pedestal; §i6povstep; pi^to? firm. 

Lat. beto (adbito, rebito) to go; [ghun, g;venio], venio to come; Umbr. 

venust^venertt; Osc. kitn'bened — convenit. Goth, qintan to come; 

(cf. qithrs ^venter) ; qutns, qumths arrival; O. H. G. quitndn, koman to 
come; W-gudmi comfortable (arrival home; p. 227); Goth.redup.gaggan 

to go; O. Sax. gdn, gangan (cf. han, ghun, ^thd). Lith. zhengiu to 

stride; zhuvu to come. 

Sk. hi (iighye) to dash, hurl, shoot, protect, [stretch one's self up], 
grow greater; kshiv, kshtv to drive out, take possession; hvi to call; 
gfcii, gdi to roar, shout, sing; geyas chant; gev to worship; ^u, ffsk^ 
^eh, ^yu to speed; ^yut to flash; ^yd bow-string; ^yd to [tremble], be 
old; ^ (iaydnti, iigdya) to triumph, conquer, win; ^yd force, con- 
fidence; ^ydyas better, best; ^ayas victory; ^inv to exhilarate; ^itri 
victor; ^t, ^ishnus victorious; [gavas], gdus ray of light, eye, heaven, 

earth. Zd. iya bow-string; ^ to control, master. Gk. yafci), yiQOitt 

(ytttfia) to rejoice, exult; d-Yau6<; illustrious, glorious; yocvdu, Ydvu(&OEc; 
[fa/tOlo)], YY)0&i) to rejoice, smile, be glad, glitter; [Ya/po^], yaupoc 
skittish, exultant, proud; Yfya? giant (iighye); Yetaov high ornament, 
cornice, vizor; yaia earth (fruitful, rejoicing); xaio? shepherd's staflE 
(hi) ; x4io(; valiant, good; xao( the good men of old; [yf^oq], §t<c bow 
(flashing, twanging); ^(a force; ^tdeo) to force, control; ^c^(i> to stride 
proudly; ^t^dt^o) to whirl up, exalt, beget; ^ai6q [sprouting], infant, 

little. Lat. Gaius ardent, joyful; gavia sea-mew; [gavidheo], gaudeo 

{gavisus) to rejoice ; gesso to effect ; gesturio to be eager (^ish) ; gesticulor 

(^ishnus; v. p. 231). Goth, us-kiyan to sprout, grow; O. N. kdi, 

kdtr joyful; kynsl marvel enchantment; kvidha trembling, fear; A. S. 

cine eager, bold; chidhu boldness. Lith giye [bow]-string, snare; 

zhuvu to speed ; zhuvis fish ; R. zhezl sprout, rod, sceptre (£ighye) ; zhuiko 
with an effort; gik! war shout. Ir. gessim to be eager, beg, entreat. 



— 241 — 

utter oracle (p. 931); gas, gasne sprout; gasta prancing, brisk; gasced 
weapon, valor; gat spear; W. get foam; geian ardor, zeal; Bret. 
goein to ferment; O. C. gaison javelin; Gaiso'tix', Gains motintain; 
Gavitis, Gavinius; Gawain (swift, impetuous); Gei-dumni; Goidheli 
Irish (-pQOica cf. gu infra). 

Sk. same roots; ^, ^yu to speed, be eager; ^avas, gavcmas, ^uvas 
speed; ^ {^dmi\ caus. ffvaydmi, desid. ^i^vishdmi), to live, revive, 
seek life ; ^Ivas living ; givaihas life ; giudiu life, victuals ; ^inv to be lively, 

refresh. Zd. ^1, gtv to live; ^ivya living. Gk. pfo?, §(oto?, ^toTij 

life, livelihood, way of life, victuals; ^t6(i> (Epic fut. Pe(o|wct) to live. 

Lat. v^vo (vixi) to live; vlvidus lively; vivisco to quicken, revive; 

vwus living; vUa\ victas manner of life, food; victima (emo) [ransom of 
life], atonement, sacrifice; vitrictts [conceding life, supporting], step- 
father (cf. spurius). Goth, qius living; ga^qiuyan, ga^qiunan to 

quicken, give life; O. H. G. quek living; O.H.kveikya to enliven, kindle; 

kmka to move; fe;w/f sprout; Eng.^icfe, quiver, quake, quaver. O.R. 

thivan to live; zhivu alive; zhivotu life; R. so'zhigat to bum; Lith. 

gyuenu I live; gyvas living, gyvata life, support. Ir. bin, b^o alive; 

beothu, bethu (gen, bOhad =bivaiai) life ; biad (gen. bifith) living, victuals ; 
geli'both provender; bith world, generation, age; ever, forever; beos 
until; W. byw living; 6^vif^y< life; bwyd victuals; Bret. guiH lively, gay; 
givin^ imn [quick], nail ; ivin [long-lived] yew ; [vivinelld\,guigfUl^7rQX[ow ; 
buhez life ; bet, bita tmtil ; bith-quez [biih'CO'des] eternal ; O. C. bitu world; 
BitU'tiges, Bituitus, Bitullus; Bieius, Bienna, Bivonia; Vivenna, 
Vienna (lovely life, spring; Vivian enchantress of Merdhyn, Merlin 
the dying winter). 

Sk. hu to pour out; hd to dash out; pour, empty; hveto utter, call; 
hdvas murmur, lure; khant [breath], mouth, nose, air; [pouring] wound ; 
ghu to utter; ghush to proclaim; khu to sound; kshu to sneeze; ku, ku, 
kdi to sound, groan; knu, kun to sound; konas plectrum; kuns to flash 
out, speak; ku^ to scream; kun^ to sound; ku^ to pipe, sing; gu (iogu) 
to utter, praise; gii^ to pipe; gun^ to murmur; Gdus speech, goddess of 

eloquence. Gk. ^odc(i> to shout; ^otJ shout; Yoici) to groan, lament; 

Tf6if)q ventriloquist, wizard; YotjTTJq waller; foyy6Xju> to murmur; xcoxucd 

to wail; xoR^g) to squeak, grunt; xoi? croaking of frogs. Lat. boere^ 

bavare, reboare, to shout; bovlndri to hoot; [kava, kva] in^quam say; 

coaxo to croak. Goth, qithan to speak; qithlo speech, saying; O.N. 

kvidha to shout, ring out; kvaedhi poem; kvedhya to greet; kvidha song; 

kuidhr oath (cf. svdran p. 155) ; Eng. to squeak, quack. O. R. govoru 

shout; R. govorit to speak; goveit to worship. Ir. guth voice; g^ false; 

16 



— 242 — 

gdach mendacious (cf. i|;(Oupo<;, f^euloq); O. C. Goidheli Irishmen 
(kvedha, kvicUta; p. 241) ; Gutruatros mighty voice (riiaihar). 

Sk. gu, ngu to utter, [bellow]; gdus, go bull, cow; voice, speech 

(cf. vacca, vox); gavyas bovine; gavalas buffalo. Gk. [ffaoiq], §ou<; 

(^0/60 bull, cow; Yaio<;, yati? ox (Hesych.); ^o6^aXo<; buffalo (/IXo? 

swamp). ^Lat. bos (bovis); bovinus, boforius, ^A. S. cH, O. N. kH, 

O.H. G. chuo cow. O.R. govendo ^bos; R. govyadina beef. ^Ir. bd 

(plu. W), W. btich (plu. few), Bret, buoch cow; O. C. Bu-vinda white cow. 

Sk. ^u to speed; ^ush to seek out, be eager, exhilarate, desire, 
love; ^htis favor; ^oshas content, enough; Resht to seek for, strive; 

kush to suck; [ghans], ghas, ^aksh to eat. Zd. zusta agreable, chosen; 

zaosha desire; ssush dear. Gk. ydiw to give a taste; 76005101 to taste, 

enjoy, experience; Yeuai<; sense, taste; YeOiia flavor, food. ^Lat. 

degunere, gustare to taste ; gustus taste. Goth, kiusan to try, choose ; 

kustiis trial, approval; O. N. kostr choice, lot, excellence; koss kiss; 

O. H. G. kost food; A. S. cedsan to choose, cedvan to chew. R. 

zhevcU to chew; zhvakka cud. Ir. [do-gu], to-gu to choose. 

Sk. hu to pour out; hud to heap; ^t (forms kit, Mint, kitr) to toss 
together, heap up, [cover with earth, leaves, boughs, straw, to thatch], 
to cover (in general); kiy, klv to cover; kUtas heap; kutis hut; sku 
to cover; khatt, khud to cover; Mhut to heap; Mhad to cover, shelter, 
shade, protect, bring up children, hide; Mhadas leaf, wing; khadis 
roof; Uhadman hiding, metamorphosis; khatras tmibrella; kutis hut; 
kutas jug; kut, kuU to [turn spit], broil, btim; kut to be bent; kund to 
guard, keep; kundas pot; kundcUam ring; ^un/, ^nc( to be whirled, 
wrenched; kshvid to let fly, twang, sound; kit to wrap, bind; Jntas 
worm; kat to cover; katakas ring-wall, camp, town; kathinas round 
vessel, basket; concrete, packed down; kathini chalk; kat to go [round, 
down]; katas twist, wisp, side, loin, temple of head (xord); kaf*dkshas 
looking sideways; kudd coiled hair, crest; gath to [whirl, twist], vex, 
hurt, cheat; ^and to roll up, heap; to be sick; (melt with p. 213); 

hud, hund to heap. Gk. axcde shadow; oxcdci) to shade; oxtic arbor, 

canopy, rotunda; axtjvTJ tent; oxixo? darkness, shade; oxuto?, %(no<; 
hide, skin; ixtaxuvcov brow, forehead; axuOp<i>xtf< gloomy, brooding; 
xaxi down, parallel (katas) ; x6Ttvo<; wild-olive (shade-tree) ? xeuOcd to 
hide; x^6opvo(; high-shoe; x60-oupo< drone (hide-sting, p. 208); xovOi^Xca 

paniers; xdev6(i>v donkey; xdv6apo<; bowl; %e<r:6<; girdle; xdcSo? jar. 

Lat. ob'ScHrus shaded, dark; scutum shield; cutis skin; castra camp 
(kund, katakcLs); custos guard; costa rib; cista chest; castanea chest- 



— 243 — 

nut; caetra rotind shield; cantus felloe; cassis hunting-net; helmet. 

A. S. sciia, scuva, scadu shadow, darkness; scHa ghost; scyttan to shut, 
lock; heodhu hood, interior of hall; hydan to hide; hydh harbor; hyd, 
had hide, skin; O. N. sky cloud, heaven, sky (melts with p. 232) ; skiUi 
projection, brim; skyti shelter; hoddar treasure; hottr roof, hat; Goth. 
skauts bosom, border; Eng. to squint, askance to glance obliquely; 

Ger. Schanz comer (katdkshcLs, xorci). R. shkit shield; shaier tent; 

kutai to wrap; Uasi [enclosure], portion, possession; kastokol palisade; 

iastiy crowded, dense, tufted; ktidri curl; kandali chains. Ir. sciath 

shield, wing; scdih shsidow; scathdn mirror (shadowing) ; ced mist, cloud ; 
codcU hide; cathir (gen. cathrach) walled town; W. scuit shield; cawcU 
dark tempest; canted brim, circumference; coed forest; Com. couat 
doud; Bret, kudennek gloomy; sked shadow, ghost; sko-farn [shield], 
outer ear (fern, p. 193); koed forest; O. C. Caturactanium; Codonius. 

Sk. same roots [to wrap, round, twist] xdevOapo^ rotmd cup, tumble- 
bug; xdEvOoi; felloe ; x(oO(i>v bowl ; harbor; xwBtov sheep-skin ; xwBeta poppy- 
head; xa)3(i>v bell; xu5(i>vcd(i> to globe, swell; xuBcaveov quince; xott(<; 

rotmd head; xoxiXYj hollow, cup, socket; xuto^ hollow, hold, jar. 

Lat. cadiis jar; codex log, roll, scroll; cauda tail; catinus, caiillus bowl, 

plate; catena chain. Goth, heihyo inner room, closet; O. N. haedh 

[rotmd] hill. R. kotel pot ; kotelniy vault ; katat to roll ; katok cylinder. 

Ir. cuihe pit, den; cud, cend head (xu8(5vtov; melts with \fun, quen], 

cenn; W. penn head) ; Cond-la-cend head of day (sun. Bran) ; O. C. 
CoUios; cond poll, citizen; Condo, Condo^magus. 

Sk. fath to wreathe, adorn; (and to heap, round up, pile; gaiam 

[a heap of pebbles], a hundred. Zd. gaiem, Gk. ixorciv hundred 

(4«!v); 8ta-x<5atot, Dor. Scaxorubc two-hundred; Tptaxovra thirty 

(three heaps of ten). Lat. centum; dU'Centi; cento [heap], rag-bag, 

patch-work; [tri*cinta], tri-ginta thirty. Goth, hunda; 0. N. hund- 

radk^dL round [pile of a] hundred. O.R. [gento, sento^ suto himdred; 

Lith* shinttas (m irregularly for anusvara). Ir. c^; W., Bret, cant^ 

kani a himdred; O. C. candetum land-measure a himdred ells square. 

Sk. hu to pour out; hud to pile up, heap; ghat to [roll, wrap], 
bring ends together, join, unite, form, gather; ghata amphora; gddh 
to frame, join; ghanas round, fat, dense; khait, khud to cover; khut 
to heap; fftat, ^at to heap, twist; gatd twisted hair; ^atrus collar-bone; 
^aUtaras intestines, belly; gadas [coiled up, hibernating], cold, dull; 
gunOt, gund, gudh to cover; gud to protect; gudas, gutikd globe; ^ud 
to bind; kud to be solid. Gk. x^^'^ ^^ coil up, draw in, shrink, retire; 



— 244 — 

XovSivd) to contain, restrain, control; axiXjb^ to stop, stay; oxgeSuv 
larva (coiled); axthioq near; oxe56v almost; y6h(x (Maced.) entrails; 
d'foeOC^ ball of yam; x<v8poc lump, grit, gristle; Y/aon^p belly, hollow, 

womb, jar; x*^ ^^^S ^^» foliage; x^xciv tunic, cuirass, shoe. 

Lat. gesto to be pregnant, wear, carry; [g]venter belly. A. S. go- 

dherian to gather; to^gddere together; M.H.G. gatieren to summon, en- 
close; Goth, gaivo public place; street (ghat); qithus, O. U.kindhr 
belly, womb; Eng. gut; to cuddle (ghata, gud) ; A. S. coie, O. N. ^o/ cot, 

cote; A. S. geatve equipment. R. zhidkiy flexible; [wrung out], 

liquid; gad reptile; god circling year; gusM tufted, dense; godniy 
fitting, convenient. Ir. goiste snare, trap; W. gwistel [bond], host- 
age; Bret, gadoen withe; godein to wrap, fold, tuck; guentel womb; 
O. C. Can-geistlos. 

Sk. hd to dash out, empty ; vi-hd to exhaust, 3rawn ; kham mouth, air» 
sky; gandas jaw, cheek; han (^aghan) to potmce, kill; hanus jaws 
ghin, ghun to seize. Gk. xa(v(i>, xdoxco to gape, yawn; xav8<5? yawn- 
ing, roomy; xdo^jia open mouth, chasm; x^o<: %}^U void, chaos (melts 
with %&i); kham) ; xh^'^ yawning; cockle-shell ; xivvt) wide-mouthed fish; 
Xauvo? gaping, empty, frivolous, foolish, porous; x<&o(iiat to [pant after], 
be angry; x<rzkt^ to desire; x*^^^ ^o need, lack; xtxio), %\r]fjkw^ to 

[pant after], catch, overtake, hit. Lat. hio to yawn; inhio to long 

for; hiatus yawning; hisco to gape; fiscus [hollow] rush; fistula pipe; 
/crf«w5[gaping]fool ;/a/i5£rt?rto[yawn], crack ;/?55W^ [yawning], weary; q/"- 
/a/im [full-mouth], in abundance ;fastidium (taedium) weariness, vanity, 
satiety (xovS^g) ; fastus vanity, pride; fames [gaping] hunger; famelicus 
hungry; hinnio to whinny (eagerness); hinnuleus fawn (bleating). 

O. H. G. gtem, ginhn to yawn; 0. N. gina to yawn; ginnunga-gap 

chaos; gd to be eager [for prey], watch closely; (redup., cf. xcxdcvcj) 
gagn booty, gain, victory; gegna to aim at anything, intend; gegn 
opposite, mouth to mouth (coram) ;giska to guess (snap at, catch) ; Goth, 
ga- prefix of eagerness, action, seizing, accomplishment; du-ginnan, 

A. S. biginnan to begin. O. R. ziyati, zeyati, zinanti, R. zeivat 

to yawn; R. khoteit to desire (xa^*<»>) ; Lith. zhioyu to open the mouth; 

zhiotis chasm. Ir. gin open mouth; gann, gand [empty], scarce; 

gawemsand (xauvoO- 

Sk. hanus, gandas mouth, jaw. Gk. ylyuq jaw, cheek, [biting] axe- 
edge; Y^vetov jaw, cheek, chin, beard; YvdOoq jaw, wedge; x^vSpoq groat. 

Lat. gena jaw, cheek; ganeo devourer, glutton. Goth. Hnn«5 jaw, 

chin. R. gon-kii himting-dog; gonka chase; reprimand (biting, nag- 
ging) ; gonenie persecution. Ir. gin, giun mouth; gen smile (showing 



— 245 — 

teeth); genum [edge of] sword; geinn wedge; gonim to wound; guin 
wound; W. genou. Com. genau, Bret, gineu mouth; O. C. Con^gonius, 
Con'gonnus sword-mate; Genava, Genavum, Genabutn, Cenabutn jaw, 
[bridge] of river at Geneva, Orleans, cf. yi^upa^jaw, bridge (the piles 
are teeth); Ceno'tnani (also Fovo^iidevot), good-swords. 

Sk. hanust gandas jaw; ghin, ghun to [bite, grip], grasp, seize (of 
wild animal) ; hastas hand, elephant's trunk; hath to be violent; ghait 
to grasp, touch, shake, strike; ghat to grasp, mold; ghatas jar; gddh to 

grasp, shape; to reach after, desire; khad to eat. Gk. xocvSdh^ to 

grasp, hold, be strong; o^eJfa frame-work, raft, scaffold; oxe56v at 

hand, hard by, near, almost. Lat. pre-hendo to grasp; [prehendium], 

prandium early-bit, handful, breakfast without table; hedera ivy 
(encircling); hoedus kid (browsing, devouring); hasta spear (firmly 
grasped) ; hostia sacrifice, victim (acceptable, received by divine hand, 
pledge of atonement) ; hostis public enemy, dedicated to gods of hell ; 

[od], af'fatim in plenty (handful). 0. N. geta to grasp, comprehend, 

think, be strong, [sieze, hold], beget; geit goat; goti husband; geta 
prey, food; gdta [hard-knot], riddle; gdtt gate; gedh courage, spirit; 
gestr guest (received, protected); goedhi [grasped, desired] goods, 
possessions, advantages; gSdhr, gdtt good; godhi [controller], officer; 
godh god, idol; Gudh God; Goth, gods good; gudya priest; O. H. G. 

gunst favor. R. zhadniy eager, htmgry; redup. zhazhdat to thirst; 

gotovit to arrange, prepare; gadit to soil [with hand]; gadat to guess^ 
divine. Ir. g^ (W. gwydd) [open-mouthed] goose; gdeth compre- 
hending, wise; gataim to snatch, steal; Bret, god rabbit (begetting); 
0. C. gaddl wanton; Gedus, Gedhdhius. 

Sk. han to [pounce], harm; hanus, gandas jaw; hastas hand; hat to 
flash; hath to be violent; ghun, ghin, to grasp, seize; ghan, ghant to 
flash out, be eager, speak; gddh to desire; gddhas violent; gandhas 
[breath], scent; gddh to desire; ghas to eat; kshudh to hunger; gandh 
to [bite], vex, hate; khand, kand to cleave, crush; khdd to devour; 
kutt, khut, Mhid, to tear, split; hind to speed, revile; hit to himt, assail; 
heth to [shoot], be lucky, strong ; heiis arrow ; hetus motive ; khdd to hurl ; 
skand to pounce, leap, be exhausted, beget; skund to leap, heave; skhad 
to tear, taste; Mand to flash out, shine; gad to [leap down], fall, perish; 
to fell; gath to vex, kill; fat to [pounce into], sit down; satt to [hurl], 
shoot, be strong, dash out, give, [pounce into], dwell; sad to speed, 
go; sad to [plimge into], occupy, sit down; ni-sad to strive toward, 
make an effort; pra-sad to be desirous, propitious; sadman home; san 
to seek, desire, attain, love ; sand [attainment, old age], always; ^dcift to 



— 246 — 

attain, conquer, accomplish, acquire; syand to run, speed, flow; 
sidh to attain, succeed, be lucky, go; Sindhus the Indus; sM to excite, 
incite, [hurl], kill. 

Sk. hanus, gandas jaw; gandh to [bite], vex, hate; khad khdd to 
devour; khit to scare; kanthas maw; fath. Mat to potmce, hurt; kand to 
[bite], cleave; ^a«rf to be angry; hod, hand, khud to [pounce], dive, 

butt, vex, revile ; Aodfi robber. Gk. oxdtv8aXov [jaw], trap, trigger; 

oxul^o(iat to be angry; axut^dcb) to be in a heat, to bark. Lat. ccUulus 

whelp (tearing). O. N. gandr wolf, dragon; gUdhr war; kotr wild- 
cat; Goth, qistyan to destroy. Lith. gandinu to terrify; kandu to 

bite; R. kot cat. Ir. crdttf fierce, wild; cat, caitin cat, kitten. 

Sk. gandas mouth; gandhas [panting], scent, odor; gandharva sylph. 

Muse; gad to speak out, thimder; gadas speech. O. N. kidt savory 

food, meat; kdtr eager, merry. ^Lith. gyedmi to sing; zhadas speech, 

nod. Ir. gudim (perf. rO'gad) to pray. 

Sk. 5A;an(2 to potmce , fall ; fad to fall ; khand to bite ; kanih to be hurt ; 
Mand to be angry; kund to sharpen [claws]; Mtid to drive, goad; kutfio 
claw, tear, scorn, scorch, bum ; Mat, Mut, kun, kunt to bite, break, grind; 
Man, Man to harm; kut, kund to bum; kunlh to be torn, mutilated; 
khut to cleave; kshtid to crush, grind; kshtuiras small; kshudh to be 
hungry; khund, khdd to be lame ; kantakas thorn; kunth to strike, hurt, 
injure, kill ; [hetis arrow] ; khit, khit to scare ; kad to be scared ; khid to be 
hurt, vexed; khdd to shoot; Mat to kill; gaih to hurt, kill; gairus 

enemy; kshdtras warrior; Thracian K<5tu<; destroyer. Gk. oxil^cd 

to be lame; xivrpov goad, spur, sting, quill, spike; xevrio) to goad, 
stab, sting; KivT-aupO(; sharp wind goading clouds; xocvOap((; stinging, 
blistering fly; xot&») to hate, be angry; xirco? [wild-force]; ox6liotMa 
to be angry; xittvo? wild-olive (grudging fruit) ; xi^$(i>to hurt, distress; 
x^$oc trouble, care; xe$v<S<; careful; xiorpa pick; xiorpoq dart; 
xdoTcap beaver (tree-gnawer) ; fyMq thin, delicate, polished, planed, 

yellow. ^Lat. cado to fall; caedo to fell, cut; castigo to scourge; 

ca/en;ti (arv, p. 117) squadron; ctm/uj pike, pole; ci'cairix scar, weal; 
ctUio to strike, hurl ; in-cudem anvil (kshud) . — -Goth . skathyan to injure ; 
hatan, hatyan to hate; O. N. [5]&asto to hurl, cast; [s^dtr wild-cat 
(pouncer) ; hiti heat {kund) ; At«a to hit with arrow, strike mark; 
A. S. hettan, hetian, hentan, hendan, huntian to shoot, goad, chase, 
hunt; O. H. G. hezan to chase, drive, hetzen; Goth, us-hinthan to seize, 
(claw), take prisoner; hunths capture; handus hand; hansa band^ 
company; A. S. hind^ hindan, Goth, hindana, O. H. G. hiniana 



— 247 — 

[to chase, force; drive from] behind (cf. post, spedisis, spustya p. 49); 
Goth, heito heat, fever; haithi; [btimed, blasted], waste land; haithns 
desblate, ravaging, wild, heathen; O. N. haedhinn mocking; hddhr 
slain ; haettr threatening ; hodh battle ; Hodhr blind force ; heidhir hawk ; 
skodha to aim, scout; A. S. scedhdhan to scathe, harm; scedtan to 

shoot. ^R. kidat, skidat to poimce, snatch, hurl, rush; kist daw; 

shkiika [scratcher], brush; kisten slung-shot; khvaiai to seize; kkuat 

thief. Ir. cath battle ; scath, scoth, hero, shoot, sprout, bloom; scothaim 

to cut; W. cat, cad, Bret, kad- battle; Bret, kentr spur; kaz hate; 
0. C. Cad'Catis wild-cat; Cathu'bodua battle-fury; Cai'tnaglos, CatU'^ 
mar OS \ Scotti, 

Sk. khad to tear, split; kuU, khut, khid, kat to split; skhad to tear; 

kshud to crush. Zd. gUid to split, break. Gk. o^iSjb^ to sUt; 

oxR/i» to split, divide; axcvSdXa(JLO<; splinter, shingle; oxR^a lath, splinter, 
spear; ox^Siq tablet; xivSuXa adze; x£SGeyvu(i.(, axe8devvu(jLC, to burst, 
shiver, shed, scatter, disperse (transitive and intransitive); x*^P* 

groats; oxuro^hide; oxut^Xyj club (crushing). Lat. scindo to split, 

tear; scandula shingle; scintilla spark. Goth, skaidan to rend, 

divide; O. N. skaii shedding blood; A. S. scateran to split, burst, rattle, 
scatter; scite thin slice, sheet; Ger. scheitern to spUt, wreck; Scheit 

split wood; schinden to flay. Lith. skeidzhu to divide; skeidra 

clapboard; R. skitatsya to prowl, rove. Ir. caithim to devour 

{co'ithimi) ; cdithigud depreciation; cdith chafE; scaithim, scothaim to 
hew, lop off. 

Sk. skand to pounce, leap, make an effort, generate, pour out, leave 
behind, be exhausted; skund to leap, heave; fath to pounce, vex; lie in 

wait, cheat; gad, gat to fall, perish. Gk. axe84wu|« to rout, scatter; 

axiXjta to drop; ax(vO(S^ diving; x<^^^(^^^ (xexdSovro) to fall back, be 

exhausted. Lat. scando to [make an effort], climb; incedo to march 

proudly; cado to fall. O. N. histr race-horse; hastr haste; skynda 

to speed; A. S. sceadd shad (migrating); O. Ger. Scandia fish-land, 

Norway. Lith. skendu to sink. Ir. scendim to leap, start, burst 

out; sceinm a start; Scandlan; scannrad terror, coiiusion; O. C. 
Scandia [rushing] river. 

Sk. skand to leap forth; kand to flash out, shine, delight; kandras 
moon; kund to bum; kad to ask eagerly; katth to glorify, praise, boast ; 
kath to speak; kand to call, cry; kan to shine; khandas desire; gat, 

gath, gad to praise, wheedle. Gk. x(i)t(XXci> to wheedle, chatter; 

xiSapo^ hot coal (Hesych.) ; 5av6<5^ yellow, golden, blonde ; Kdeorcap flash- 



— 248 — 

ing; the moming-star; Median 9ctfv8u<;, xon^dxi], Lydian odevSu^ splendid 
robe; oMd^, aoevSapdbciQ vermilion, pink; xdvioxov [white-face], elder- 
blossom. Lat. candeo to shine; Candidas shining, white; candela 

candle; incendo to kindle; pet'Conior to question eagerly. Goth. 

[hcusyan], hasyanto praise ; O.N.skati dashing, generous. ^R. shaUUsya 

to flicker, whirl, waver, roam; shMedrii [dashing gifts around], liberal; 

skcutat to say, report; skazanie legend, story. ^Ir. cennach [eager] 

business, purchase; ceide, cite market; candud, W. cynnyd, Bret. 
queuneudenn fire-wood; W. cynneu to kindle, light; cant, cann shining; 
Bret, kann full-moon; O. C. Canto-rix; Cantara bright current; canta- 
brum standard {berim to bear); Cantabri; Canio^bennon white peak; 
Cantion (cf. Albion). 

Sk. kshudh to be hungry; kud, kUd to eat eagerly, be childish. 



Eng. squid bait; to [s'\quid eat as animal, drop food; quid mouthful; 

cud\ to coddle feed child; to cuddle, Lith. kudikas baby; kudek 

boy; R. kado child; shkadit to coddle. 

Sk. kad, kat to ask eagerly; kcUuras eager, brisk, pretty (adding 
vri to desire) ; kaiur, kcUvaras [outstretched hand, fingers], four; Katut' 
thas fourth; Matus, kcUur four times; Uatvaras [outstretched] canopy, 

awning. Zd. Mathware four. Gk. tfaoape?; Tirapro?; Terpdsuc; 

Boeot. xtxxapaq; Aeol. x4aorupe<; fotu*; Gk. [Te]TpGE-xe^a [four-foot] table. 

Lat. qtuUuor; quartus; quater. Goth, fidvor; A.S. fydher; O. N. 

fydrer four. O. Bulgar. ketveru\ O. R. ketyriye) ordinal ^etvnUiy; 

Lith. keturi] ord. ketvirtas. Ir. cethir; W. petguar, pedeir; Bret. 

peder, pevar; O. C. petor-ritum four-wheel [wagon]; Peiru-corii four 
hosts. 

Sk. gad to [leap], fall, fell; sad (saddmi, sadaydmi) to go; d'Sad to 
approach, attack, seize; sadyas immediately; sadas convention; sadd 

[forward motion], always. Gk. 68<?, oil6<; way; 68euci) to wander; 

616(;, oi^6<; [attainment], threshold, limit, death; o53ac, ISo^o^ earth, 

floor, pavement. Lat. super ^sedeo to pass by, omit; sc{d\lea sandal, 

slipper; sc{d\lum ground; sedulus (sadaydmi) diligent, brisk; sedum 

[thrifty], live-forever. O. N. sedhr at once, immediately. O. R. 

khoditi to go; khodu advance; R. khod march, procession, road. 

Ir. sd[d]l, saltlae heel; O. W. sodleu heels. 

Sk. sddh to reach, succeed, effect, win, conquer; sddhanas wealth; 
sddhus profitable, good; a merchant, sage; sddhyas perfection; syand 
to run, flow; syandanas chariot; Sindhus swift, the Indus; sidh, sait 



— 249 — 

to go, succeed, shoot straight, hit the mark; to [make an eflfort. seize 
for one's self], drive out, repel; siddhas perfect, holy, lucky, happy; 
guiding genius; stdhus, ftdhus rum; [svad], sud to goad, drive, huri, 
destroy; sudanas slayer; sunas slaughter; [svan], san to seek, attain, 

love, pray. Gk. aovBiXiov [quick-step], sandal; otBiQ pomegranate 

(fortunate, emblem of fertility); [a]t6u<;, 866i}<; straight, direct, well- 
aimed; {66(i> to dash right forward, be impetuous; {ODvo), eOOdvo) to 
aim straight, steer, direct, rule ; !6vo<; (sddh, [sadh]) bevy, flight of birds, 
swarm, drove, band of men, tribe, people; !6(i> to follow duty, habit; 
i6(i>, 1fio<; natural bent, drift, disposition, habit; i^6e(o<; honored 

[leader]; iil^toq youth (direct, resolute, migrating). ^Lat. stdus 

[lucky] star, [lode star], constellation; as-siduus pushing forward; 
can-sidero to take aim, watch; de-sidero to look at goal, long for; [hetis, 
Qitis, setis\, seta, sentis [arrow], thorn; sentus bristling, shaggy; sodes 
rouse up! try! (siid)] sudes [pike], sharp stake; sentina fetid pool, 
bilge water (expelled) ; setUio to be keen, eager in ptirsuit, scent out, 

perceive (see p. 9 ; cf . sagio, sagitta ; or Ir. sant yearning, p. 2 29) . Goth. 

sandyan, O. H. G. sendan to send; Goth. [sitUhan, sinnan to go, travel, 
wander]; thrim'sintham three [trips], thrice; ga»sinthya companion, 
chief's company (Gesinde); sinteins daily [march]; seithus [end of 
march], late ; thana-seiths further, more ; [seidan to stretch out, reach 
after, extend], (side, Seite, Saite) ; anda-sets [bristling against], horrible, 
etUsetzlich; sidus [wonted way], custom; sundro [his own course], 
apart; suns [quick step], at once; O. N. sinna to go, be eager, active; 
sinn auspicious moment ; sinni comrades ; course , way of thinking ; seidhr 
enchantment ; seidh'kona enchantress ; syna to point the way, forebode ; 
synaz to appear; synn, syndhr manifest ; synda to swim; sund pool, nar- 
row water (water-way; cf. fidrdhr) ; synd sin (one's own way, obstinacy, 
defiance); sidhir at last; sidhr long; sidhr custom (ilJOoO; sidh'venya 

habit; A. S. svadhu track, way. R. sudno boat (syand, sud) ; sudak 

a &sh;sudba fortune, destiny; sudit to plan, direct, judge; sudar [direc- 
tor], sir (i^0eto<;) ; sant sledge. Ir. side fairy; sith-brug fairy mansion; 

sUh [safe-road], peace; sidh, W. hydd stag, Bret, heizez doe (pursued; 
good luck) ; Ir. 5^, W. hint, Bret, hent track, road ; Ir. s4tig [companion], 
wife; sonn, Bret, sonn stake (sudes) ; Bret, sind prop; Ir. den-sist once; 
sinim to stretch out, reach; seta long, taH; s^im to pant after, breathe ; 
sennim to hunt, drive; sain desirable, one's own; s^ treasure; sethr, 
W. hydr, Bret, hedr, hezr audacious, bold; Bret, sidan wren; sidre 
cider (sidhus) ; Ir. sith a thrust ; sithfe a pole ; a leader (pushing on) ; 
Bret, het desire; hentad throng; hantein to haunt; hentein to lengthen; 
hed length; O. C. StJ^wiw^ fortunate ; Sido-loucos; Sedulius, Sedanus; 
Sentana\ Santones (yearning, world's end) ; Setrius, Sentrius, Sentro. 



— 260 — 

Sk. sddh to attain, reach end, win; pra»sannas propitious (p.p. of 
sad); san to attain, seek, love; worship, sanus mountain top; ^oJd, 
saftd always; sand-tanas eternal (Lat. tenus) ; santdnas posterity; sanas 

old; sanakas of old, old. Zd. hana old man. Arm. hin old. 

Gk. ifvexa for the sake of [attainment]; !vo^ old, last year's; Iw] last day 

of month. Lat. senium^ senectus old age; senex old man; senior 

older; sendtas; sdnus perfect, whole, sound (melts with p. 213); 
sdnitas health; [sen-per], semper always (paruni'Per p. 66); [semper^' 
vanius], Sempronius^ ever-beloved; [sen'Sen], sensim gradually {sensim 

-Hietas senescit); sannio to flatter (san). Goth, sineigs old; sinista 

elder; sinteino perpetually, always; sainyan to be late; Burgimd. 
sinistus high-priest; Frank, sinis'skalkus eldest vassal; Goth, seiihus 

late; Dutch sints, A. S. siththan, Scotch syne since. ^Lith. senas 

old; senis old man; senyste old age; senei of old; R. seino [last year's 

grass], hay (cf. Ivt)) ; san dignity, high rank. Ir. sen old; siniu older; 

sinser eldest; sinii old age; sen-chas old law; W., Cor., Bret, hen old; 
W., Cor. hinham, hynaf, Bret, henaff [oldest], noble; W. hen^cassou 
traditions, monuments; O. C. Seno-rix; Sena holy island; Senamos, 
Senacos, Henacos, Seneca, Senones; Sena, Senana^ Shannon (v. p. 212); 
Sinsatus; Senicco Senixsonis filius. 

Sk. sd{Ut to reach, attain, acquire, effect; syand to run; sad {Mdmi, 
p.p. sannas) [to seek one's place, pounce into lair, sink down, cf. langh 
p. 128], to sit down, sink down, be exhausted; caus. sddaydmi to set, 
place, hurl down, strike; pra*sad to yearn toward, be propitious; 
pra'Sannas propitious (cf. san, sehnen, sUhnen); caus. to seek favor, 
pray; ni-sad, vi'sad to sink down, perish; ^cuias seat; sadman, sddanam, 

sadyam abode, house, home; sodas fall, ruin, death. Zd. had to sit; 

hadhis seat, dwelling. Gk. V^o^m, Xt^o^an to sit down (cf. sad, 

[syad], siddmi); TCjui, llpitji to set, settle, place; !3o<;, !8pa seat, saddle, 
abode, fotmdation, shrine; i^paUa^ fotmdation; IX^ivta to sink, 
settle (of soil); oi8a<;seat; [iSXa], iXXde chair, shrine (Hesych.); e35u, 
xoeOeuSci) to lie down, rest, sleep (influenced by svddus sweet, p. 214). 

Lat. sedeo to sit; side to sink down; sedo to calm, quiet; sides, 

sedile, sella chair {d melts in / cf. lacruma) ; sessio sitting; de*ses, reuses 
(ridis) lazy; sedulus diligent (pra-sad); solium magistrate's chair 
(cf. solea, solum) ; prae^sul oflScial magistrate; con'Sul twin-magistrate; 

con-sulere to debate in session; melt with p. 152). Goth. siUin^ A. S. 

sittan, O. H. G. sizzu to sit; Goth, satyan to set; sitls; O. H. G. sizal 

chair, settle; A. S. sadol saddle. Lith. sedmi, sedzhu to sit; sodinu 

to set, plant; O. R. [sedti], seisti to sit; sedh saddle; sendan to sit down; 
saditi to plant; R. [sadyat], sazhai to set, put, plant; seidok rider; sad 



— 251 — 

garden. Ir. sudim, suidim to sit; saidim, sudigitn to set; sude seat; 

^41'Suide court of justice ; iug-suide judges' seat; [5vas'Sad\, sossad dwel- 
ing, abode; sad-aile sloth (dil pleasant); sista repose; sostan rest; 
essom standing in place; sess rower's bench, support, beam, prop; 
jif'Sess], iress [noble support, pillar], faith; [sadu, sadv], scdb, W. 
laddaf dwelling; W. seddu to sit; hedd peace; heddu to calm; Bret. 
ezaffto rest ; hadto nest-egg ; O. C. caneco-sedlon golden throne ; SedcUus ; 
]dello^sedum, Sedof talus, Sedulius (sweet home); Seduni; Co-sedius; 
ss'[s]edum [swift-seat], chariot ; Bret, hadein to plant, sow. 

Sk. han (desid. ^ighans) to pounce, slay; hanus jaw; ^aghanas back 
gripped by tiger, cf. f<4xt(;, p. 133)? ^a^, ^an^ to fight; ^aksh to 
levour; ^ash, gds to harm. Gk. Yd^ypatva [horrid gnawing], gan- 
grene, cancer; Yd^yXtovatumor; yiYYXtff|JL<<; [clawing], tickling; ^tYyt^ept^ 

toothsome] ginger; T^YYpo? conger eel (dainty); tlya<; giant. 

-At. gingiva [jaw], gum. A. S. ceac jaw, cheek; Eng. to chuck the 

:hin (gnash teeth); a chuck grip; chunk mouthful; check-rein; Ger. 

leck, kuck bold. Lith. zhinshkiu to contend, threaten; R. zhek to 

>um, roast, stab; zhzhenie burning; zhestokii cruel; zhazhda thirst. 

Sk. hve (hvaydmi) to call; hanus mouth; [(van], svan to sound, 
praise, honor], adorn; svanas sound; gvan [howler], dog; kvan to sound, 
aurmur; kvanas sound; kun to sound, salute, hail, help (^oiq6&i>); 
an to sound, groan ; kanth, kand to mourn ; kand to call ; kan to sound ; 
ankanas bell; ghant to ring out, speak, flash out; ghantd bell; gun to 

tail, salute. Gk. xovdaao) to gurgle, rattle; xovox^ ^o rii^g* clash; 

.ava%ij clank, clash, sound of pipe, lute; xivva, xovcov reed (murmuring, 

ustling, piping, p. 21 5) . Lat. sono to sound ; cano to sotmd trumpet, 

ing; catfoftts resonant; ca«/(7torepeatnotes, chant. Goth. /uzna cock; 

). N. hvina roar (of wind), [h]veina, kveina to lament, weinen; A. S. 
dnian, cvdnian to mourn, howl; Goth, qainon to groan, lament 
gun); Eng. to whine, whinny; O. H. G. huon cock; svan to sound, 

Ir. sfennim to play the harp; senim, seinm, sian tone, music; 

on sound; [svonn], fonn time; sanas whisper; canim, canaim (inf. 
antain pret. ro-chdchain) to sing; for-chanim to teach; [do'ar] tair- 
hanitn to prophesy; c^n]tol song; Com. cheniat singer; Bret, kanvein 
o sigh; kanvus mournful; kentil chant, preaching, lesson; saHnein to 
otmd; satin palate of mouth; huaHnein to sigh; O. C. Qaninio; 
luenta-inc ; canialon hjmm? dedicated to Brigindo; Canet-onnum; 
iuanus ; Sonans ; Sona river. 

Sk. gvd (stem gvan) [howler], dog; Vedic guan, gun, Old Pers- 

Tvaga, sbakd\, axixa ; Zd. gpd, Gk. xucov (xuv<<;) ; xevi-^peio? dog's meat 



— 252 — 

(Popi) ; xuvio to kiss. LsLt.[cfanis, canvis], cants, dog. Goth, hunds. 

Lith. sha (stem shun) ; R. [savaka], sobaka, dog; suka bitch. Ir. 

cii (gen. C(m, dat. coin) ; W., Com, ki, ci, chi dog; Ir. cana (gen. canon), 
W. canofc;, cenan, Bret. jken«i young dog, hound (metathesis of v; 
canv for cvan as Lat.); O. C. Canavus, Canavtlus, [Canvaricus], 
Canbaricus; Bret, couann, chavann [hooter], owl; O. C. Cavannus; 
CunO'glassos, Glassi'CU greyhound (greyhoimd of dawn; Glasgow); 
Mancunium (hound of wealth, Ir. mdin, p. 8i); Hermes; Manchester; 
Mungo. 

Sk. hanus jaw, mouth; hansas [open-mouth, hissing] gander; 

hansi goose; gans to utter. Gk. xdyvti wide-mouthed fish; x^^ 

Xav8<? open-mouthed; xh^^ (XTQvi^ goose. Lat. [hianser goose (cf. 

arista, arundo). O. H. G. gans, O. N. gds goose; A. S. [gansra], 

gandra, Ger. Ganser gander. Lith. zhansis, O. R. gansi. Boh. hus 

goose. Ir. gUs swan; gid, W. gwydd, Bret, guaz goose (xotvSiO; O. 

C. Gessius; Gesa-henae swan-maidens, nymphs (sen, hen venerable); 
GesO'Cribate swift-swan, flying sun (near Finisteme; Ir. grib swift); 
Gessoridcus spring-swan (Boulogne; spring flight of white wings to 
Britain; Ir. errocA spring) . 

Sk. hve to utter, [breathe]; hanus open mouth; gvd, Qvi {gvayami, 
guye, gugava, p.p. gunas) to [inflate], swell, enlarge, grow, [gender, be 
hollow]; gunas swollen, roimd; guguvc^ great; gunyas hollow; gunam 
void; sUnas empty; the mumps; gigus [pregnancy, fetus], cub, child; 
gdvas, gavas whelp, body; ghu, gu, khu, ku, ku to [breathe out], utter, 

groan. Gk. xulco, xyo), xutoxoiiai to be with child; xuiQiia fetus; 

oxujJLVOi; whelp; xtxu(; [natal] force, vigor; xT]x(a> to well up, gush; xGyia 
rounded wave ; x6t5 hulb ; xuajio? testicle, swelling breast, bean (pod- 
ded); xuoTt<; bladder; xuvit] cap, helmet; xuxo?, xioOo? hollow; 
xua6o?, xuXtS cup ; xuaXov eye-socket ; xolXo? hollow (p. 171); xotXCa belly; 
xauX(S(; hollow stalk, quill, shaft; x6Xov intestine, food; x6Xa^ parasite, 
keen-belly; xoXei^, xouXeiv envelope, scabbard, jug; xevi?, xevrf? 

hollow; xeveciv hole, hollow; xawvo^ porous. Lat. in-ciens pregnant; 

cicur [taken as cub], tame (cf. wether = lamb-like) ; cic'onia stork (kind 
to its young; Heb. khasidah the pious bird); cavus hollow; causa 
[pregnant] cause; cav-erna water-cave (limestone; urna; cf. cist-ema); 
caulae hollows; caulis stalk; broccoli; cul-ex gnat (xSXaQ; cunabulum 
cradle; cunnus, cuniculus hollow, shaft, mine, burrow, rabbit; coenum 
[hollow, puddle], mire; inquinamentum filth; obs-coenus filthy; cicuta 
hemlock (hollow-stalk); [sune], sine without (empty cf. sunas); 
coelum heaven. Goth, us-huldn to hollow; hulundi cave; Germ. Hoi- 



— 253 — 

lufider alder {hulundi; caulis); A. S. hedn swamp. ^Lett. kauls 

hollow stalk, bone; Lith kaulas bone; R. kul sack; [fueta], sueta empti- 
ness, vanity. W.cwn roimded top, head, stmunit; cynutorise up; er- 

chyniad height; Bret, kiu hollow; keiuii to dig; keved swelling, roll; 
kov belly, womb; fewod litter; kuh hiding-place; kochon cub, whelp, 
young pig; W., Bret, penn head; O. C. Ari-conium; Cunotamos, 
Cuno'barrus, Conan, Kynan; Queti'vindos, Penno'-vindos white-head; 
Penno'Crucion (x(pxo^, cruaich rotmd heap +penno head); Penninus; 
Ap-pennini (rainy moimtains, contrasted with snowy Alps); W. 
ysgawen, Cor. scauan^ Bret, squauenn, skaii, O. C. [scavie], axo^ci) 
elder-bush (cai;M5;orwith sc^, scoth, p. 235). 

Sk. cvi {fHfuvcU) to swell; ku to utter; fuk to groan, lament; 
fuM [to burst with fulness]; to flash out, shine; suM to declare; kuns 
to flash out, speak; kug to shine; kun^ to sound; ku^ to pipe, shriek; 

0ikas parrot; kukkuras dog; kukkutas cock; kokilas cuckoo. 

Gk. xii>x(j(i> to wail, lament; xoxxul^o) to crow, cry; xtfxxu^ cuckoo; 

xo45 croak of frogs. ^Lat. ciiculus cuckoo; ciconia stork? Swed. 

squdka to croak, squeak, quack; hvdsa to hiss; O. N. hvisla to whistle. 

^Lith. kaukti to howl; kuktUi to cry cuckoo; O. R. kukavitza 

cuckoo; R. kvakat to croak; Boh. kviMeti to gnmt. Ir. cHach 

(W. cSg) cuckoo; cusle bag-pipe (kuns); cuslennach piper; Ir. cucht 
color; W. coch red; Fr. couche de couleur {kug)\ Bret, kohan owl; 
O. C. Cosla, Cuslanus, Coslumnus (Mc. Auslan) ; Cucillus; Cocco (red) ; 
cocco'lobis red grape (Jiub) . 

Sk. gvi (fufuvat) to swell, roimd out, [gender, coil in womb and 
nest]; fifus cub, baby; kukshis womb, belly; kufos [swelling, bursting, 
growing], sacred grass ;kushtas fragrant herb, costus; kogas bud, sheath; 
kufulas storehouse ; kush to draw out, tear out ; kuf, kus to envelop, 
embrace; kusumas flower; kuk to coil, twist, wrap, hoop, curve; kunS 
to be curved, curled; kun^as wrapped in vines; a bower; kuk to grasp; 
kuf to embrace; kufalas right-handed, skilful, lucky; kuh to ensnare, 
cheat; gvank, gvank, svang, svakk to go round, crawl, entwine; sva^, 
svani to embrace; fdkh to embrace, fill; fank to move [round]; gank 
to [whirl, oscillate, tremble], doubt, fear, suspect; gankhas conch-shell 
(spiral); Qtkhd trembling flame, curl, crest, peacock; gin^ to tinkle; 
kingarus ears of grain; kinkini, rattling ornament; gankus javelin 
(quivering); kikuras hair; khak to bind, twine, form; kha^ to stir; 
kha^akas stiriing-stick, chum ; khan^ to limp ; hink to oscillate, tremble ; 
kak to terrify; kankalas whirling, flickering; kdg, kds to flash; kakshas 
fire-wood; Rakshus eye; kakshas arm-socket; kakshd hedge, enclosure, 



— 254 — 

house; kak, kaK to whirl, glance, desire; kak, kank, to bind. Pers. 

ciicah [curved neck], swan. Gk. %6fX% ^^tX'^^ shell, eye-socket, 

top of skull, boss; xoxcivrj groin, hip-joint; xua<5^, xuo6o? groin; 
xuxdo) to stir, mix; xuxvo(; swan (curving); xuxXoi; circle, orb, eyeball, 
(p. 172); x<Sxxo(; round grain, pill (kofas); xfyxXo? wag tail; x(xxo^ 
cock; xfaaa blue-jay; xdYxajiOi;, xiaai? ivy; xiyxpo? millet (kinforus); 
x4xT0(; [hedge], cactus; xdYxavo<; [fire-drill], fuel; [fffiTT**]* o^^YT^ 
(cf. a9et<;) to bind, twist, grip, squeeze; S9CY5 winter; gripping, freezing; 
diminishing spiral of winter-sun (cf . Lab)rrinth) ; the narrowing of life 
in old age, physical failure, death; destroyed by OBfxou^ the sun; 
0{$(xou(; is exposed and re-bom like dawn gods; the swollen foot is the 
distortion of the sun's disk at dawn ; slays his father, the orbing, forsaken 
dawn, Aifio<;; marries his mother the old moon, Io*kaste {kandra 
moon; lo wanderer); puts out his own light and sinks in woe like 
Herakles; protected by his daughters Antigone and Ismene, morn- 
ing and evening stars; Antigone (dtvrf, dyciv) strives against the 
coming day and is lost; 076^^0^, aic(SYYo^ [squeezed] sponge; o^ni^ 
to bind tightly, pinch the waist; o^i^g wasp; a/tYiw to [choke 
down], be silent; olyij silence; aidyov jaw-bone; [a/uY>^l» ^i>lj^ to 
swell against pressure; o^\i'^^6<; pulsation, throbbing; [os^o^Oi;], 90^6^ 

pinched, contracted. Lat. cancer crab; cingo to bind; cingulum 

girdle; congius round measure; coxa thigh [socket]; cunctor to vacil- 
late, delay (^ank) ; [svigleo\ sileo to be silent ; cincinnus curl ; codes 
[empty socket], one-eyed; caecus blind; [cosylus], corylus hazel {kogas). 

Goth, hahan (O. N. hanga) to hang; ga-hahyo [hanging on], con- 

tinously; hakuls cloak; haths with one eye; hugyan to revolve in mind, 
reflect slowly, think; hugs mind; hugs enclosed field (hedge, hug); 
huggryan to hunger (pinched belly); huhrus himger; hduhs [roimded, 
swollen, grown] high (kufas) ; [sviggvan to swing, brandish]; svtgnyan 
to exult; [sveigan to twist, choke]; sviglyon to pipe; O. N. hdnki cord; 
hiis house (kugulas, kakshd) ; hosa leg-bands, hose, boots (kus) ; haugr 
rounded hill {kogas) ; hoegr [fashioning], skilful, right hand, comfortable 
(melts with hugyan) ; hugna to [embrace], please; skSgx tufted foliage, 
shag; svig bend, curve ; svikya to ensnare ; cheat ; svangr hunger, empti- 
ness; A. S. hegyan to emclose; hedge; hdges [binding, hypnotizing] 
hag, Hexe] hSk hook; hvaeg whey (pressed out) ; svingan to swing, beat 
(svang)] svencan to press hard, make eflEort; st4gan to pinch, choke 
down; be silent (sileo) ; Eng. 5i£nn^ing= choking; swig; A. S. hdsl hazel; 
[scdg], cdg binder, bar, key; O. N. [s]kaggi keg; Ger. Kugel hah; Kunkel 

spindle. R. kokan cabbage, lettuce (kdgas)\ kosoi twisted, oblique; 

kosa twist of hair; kosar sickle (kuk, kug)\ kushak girdle; kogot claw, 
bolt {clavis)\ kosnuisya, kasaisya to grasp, touch; kokevat to wander; 



— 255 — 

kuMa heap; skukivat to roll, heap up; kozha hide; kozni snares; 
suk sprout, knot in wood {gokas for kdgas)\ sukno cloth (rolled); 
suzhivat to tighten; sveizhevat to wrench off, peel; svetzhii fresh; 

vyazkiy binding, glutinous. Ir. cHach cup; curl; cuicel spindle; 

cackt bonds; a slave; cenglaim to bind; cengal frame; coss foot (turning 
on ankle); W. coes thigh; Bret, kuign twist, tart, loaf; chauch^r dyke 
(heaped; chaussSe; chausser with coss) ; kouesin [groin], saddle, cushion 
(xuff^O> O- C. cucullus hood, cloak; Cucalus; Cosadotos swift-foot; 
Cusonius, Quossa. 

Sk. hansas [wide-mouthed] goose ; gans to utter ; has to laugh ; hesh to 
whinny; ghaggh, gaggh, khakkh, kakh, kakkh, kakk to laugh; ka^, hikk 
to sob; ga^ to hiccough; be drunk; hins to [gape upon], pounce, slay; 
Qingh to snuff; sinhas Uon; kdkas crow; kdkus stammering; kakudas 

palate of mouth; gaktus [sputtered, popped], parched com. Gk. 

xa%dEt/i>, xayxotlici), xayxaXdca) to laugh; xox^^^^ *o plash, ripple; x^x^tq? 
gravel; xoncxa^R^o) to cackle, bubble; xoexxoe^Y] pot; partridge; flyy^aq 

fife; YiYYXtff|jL<5? tickling. Lat. cachinnor to laugh. A. S. cincung 

violent laughter; Eng. hiccough, cackle; hank the note of the wild-goose; 
to cough; Ger. keuchen to cough; kichern to laugh {gaggh); A. S. 

hysian to hiss (fatts). R. khokhotat, khikhikat to laugh; ^Aifeo/ to 

whistle ; shkekotcU to tickle ; shkeka [jaw], cheek; kakhotka consumption. 
Bret, hakein to stammer; hak death-rattle ; hinsein to hiss. 

Sk. hanus jaw; /kittsas [open-mouthed] goose; (:an5 to speak, praise, 
[pant after], desire, hope, pray, invoke blessing, announce; sdntv, gdntv 
to [pant, long for] console, cherish ; gds to command, teach, bless ; gvas to 
pant, breathe, refresh; gvas to-morrow (hope); gd^ to speak plainly; 
[fof], gap to curse, swear; gabd to call? ganst, sanst, gas, sas to [breathe 
deeply], to sleep; sah to [be long winded], endure, be patient; kag to 

utter. Gk. Kdaa'OvSpa, Kaaat-lxeta prophetess (blessing, banning); 

xiaaa passionate; xdfac^, xaafYYjvro^ bom with nuptial blessing, legiti- 
mate brother or sister; Hom. [seg, aex] to say (cf. gap) ; ?aic-eTe declare, 

relate (O Muses Lat. casa [sleep], house, home; It. casare to 

marry; Lat. cassus [breath], in vain, only words; empty; censeo to 
bless, ratify, judge, decide ; Casmenae, Camenae goddesses of prophecy, 
poetry; sancio to bless, sanction (form satih, sah to pant, utter); 
prae-sagium prophecy ; sacer sacred, blessed, cursed ; sacerdos priest {dhd 
to establish) ; sanguis, sanies blood (bubbling, impetuous, cf . kvas and 
aljia); O. Lat. in-sece tell! in-sectiones narratives; quaeso, quaero to 

desire, seek (gvas to pant after) . Goth, hazyan to praise ; hunsL A. S. 

hUsl sacrifice (gvans; but v. p. 234); Goth, siggvan to sing; saggus 



— 256 — 

song; O. N. saga, sdgn narrative, poem; segya to say; seggyandi com- 
mander; Ger. segnen to bless. R. kkvastat to speak loudly, boast; 

kvasit to [breathe, bubble], ferment; kvas beer; kvasha yeast; Lith. 
sakyti to say {gaR\ form sak has been lost in sagk to pant after, follow) ; 

pa-saka narrative ; O.R. soku accuser; sokUi to bear witness. Ir. sen^- 

chass old law (censeo); ces, ceas wonted, well-known; sant yearning 
(sdntv, p. 229) ; cissaim to [pant, be weary], suffer; cessackt [eagerness], 
avarice; sechim to say; cO'Scaim to speak severely, reprove; sagim to 
speak; insce speech; aith'esc reply; W. hep he says; at-ep reply; co'Sp to 
reprove; Bret, kouskein to breathe deeply, sleep; hoant desire ;koanten 
lovely; O. C. Sancius, Sacro-maina, Sacro-viros; Netta-sagru, 

Sk. same roots. Sk. sinhanas mucus; fingh to scent; sinhas lion; 

fiksh to be eager, learn; fvank to go; kdnksh to long for. Gk. 

[c]fxveu<«) to hunt by scent, track out, follow (v. p. 216); Txviov, Txvo<; 

track, foot-step. Lat. signum foot-step, mark, seal, image, ensign, 

glory; singulusone by one (foot-steps) ; singuUio to [pant] sob. Goth. 

sokyan, A. S. sScan, O. H. G. suohhan to hunt after, seek; Goth. 

siggqan to [be sucked down, swallowed], to sink. Ir. sigemnach 

puffing of bellows; s^g vulture; s^g milk (sucked) ; Sige wind; sigach 
wolf (eager) ; O. C. Sigina, Singi-dunum, 

Sk. sah (sahdmi, sahydmi, sake) to [keep one's wind], control one's 
self, be patient, wait, forgive, be favorable; to endure, be strong, 
chase down, seize; pra'Sah to assault; sahasam perseverance, speed; 
sahanas patient, strong; sahas force, victory; sahasd quickly; sahuris 
mighty; sa^^, san^ to hold fast, cleave to, be devoted to, adhere, be 
sticky; sa^, san^ to go; sagh to attack, kill; suh to be strong, glad; 

sag to [grip, pack, wrap], cover. Zd. hazanh force, robbery. 

Gk. [aex], ?x(i> (foxov, oxi^«i)) to control one's self, be unmoved, take 
one's part, exist, hold in, stay, suffer; to [overtake], seize, have, hold, 
possess, have power, control, guard; ax4at(;, axw^ one's bearing, 
posture, figure, appearance; ixup<5<;, 6xup<? firm, well fortified, secure, 
strong; ix\i.a, ixw^ ^ hold, stay, band, defence; <juxv<<; crowded, many, 
much; [long-enduring], long (form suh); ox^rXio? unflinching, daring, 
wicked; [exhausted], wretched; axoly6<; [tough, gripping] rush, rush- 
rope ; Toxci) to check, restrain, possess; Coxupi? strong; {oxoevdki) to cling to, 
hold in, hold back; to long for; lax^<; strength ; aayi^vt) hunting-net, drag- 
net (strong-grip) ; oorf^l load, pack ; oiy\La pack-saddle, cloak ; odmi^(adfyS) 

to pack, load; aY]x6^ pen, fold. Lat. sagio to [chase down], scent, be 

keen; sagax keen scented, of good judgment; sagitta arrow (keen pur- 
suer, diminutive termination) ; sagina [prey], food, plenty ;seges harvest 



— 257 — 

(won by toil) . O. N. sigla mast (holding firm) ; segl sail; Goth, sigis 

victory; sakan to fight, contend (sagh, [sag]); sokyan to seek {sai£); 

A. S. sacan to fight ; sdcu feud, contention, demand (for the sake) . R. 

khozyanowner, proprietor \sazhen fathom (embrace, spread arms) . Ir. 

sigda, sigunda stately {o^^a) ; sig stag; saiget SLTTOw;satgnht lightning, 
tempest; sagimXo seek, strive toward; Bret, seah thunderbolt, prodigy; 
seahein to fulminate, curse; O.C. sagos mantle; Saguntum strong-town 
{vefUutn market); Sag f anna stronghold; segusius himting hound; 
SegofUius (stately); Sego-maros; Seg-omo '^^Maxs (ontum terror). 

Sk. sah to [be long winded, chase down, catch]; sank, sek to go; 
safk, [saf], sap (sapdmi), sak (sakate, sishakti) to follow, obey, favor, 

choose; ^o^woy comrade, fellow; sakhis friend. Zd. haka [straggling 

behind], alone, without (Lat. secus). Gk. Sxco, Soxojtai, (ioicdjjLTjv) 

to follow, attend, obey, pursue, draw near; ivivriq follower; 6xa(i>v 
comrade; 6%iXfii to send with, pursue; ixaB(5<; following; i^(; one 
after another, in line, in consequence; 'TIxTwp faithful comrade 
(soMivas), protector (adxoq); the sun; following his brother Ildpi<; 
the day star, who shoots his swift rays and flies. Hector's son 
Astyanax is the evening star, shrinking from his fathers helmet 
(bright sky, cf. 'AOi^vrj). Achilles is thimderbolt, thundercloud, 
darkening day. Hector has been forced by chance among the 
hosts of night; adbto? [close comrade, hard-grip], shield; 8xXov weapon 

(cf. sagitta), Lat. sequor to follow; secundus following, favoring, 

succeeding, second; sector ^ ad-secla, pedi-sequa attendant, favorer, 
client; socius fellow; comrade; secus [following at an interval]; apart; 
sequestra to seize derelict goods; sequester hanger on, agent, commis- 
sioner; sexus sex (companion; distinct). O. N. sogn followers; a 

band; 5a^na hroeri leader of the bands; Goth, fri-sahts [following, emu- 
lation], pattern, example, likeness. Lith. seku to follow. Ir. 

sechur to follow ; sochaide company, troop ; sechem pursuit ; sechie [imita- 
tion of leader], hypocrisy; sechaigim to imitate, pretend; sechrn'oLlaim 
to leave behind; omit; sechma'dachte (iiagaim to go) past; sech apart, 
alone, without; W., Com., Bret, hep without; O. C. Saqua; Sequanii 
Saccius, Sacco[n], Sacconius; Sappius; Secco. 

Sk. hanus jaw; fans to [pant for (wild beast)]; sa^ to pursue, over- 
take; sagh to slay; fof to leap; kaf, [sag] to flash out, strike, kill. 

Gk. aiyapi? short, one-edged sword of Persians and Scythians. 

Lat. seco to cut; segmentum slice; securis axe; (kshur, p. i6i) saxum 
rock, diflf (cleft; rent; rupes), O. H. G. sahs, A. S. seax short- 
sword, bill-hook; Saxones contrasted with broad-sworded Suardones; 

17 



— 258 — 

A. S. sage saw; O. N. sigdhr, A. S. sicol sickle. O. R. seka, R. 

to hack, lash, cut ; R. seikira axe ; sei^a carnage ; kekanit to chisel- Ir. 

seche hide ; Bret, hichen, hesken a saw ; hosk notch, cleft ; O. C. Saeconius, 
SaxiOy Saxsamus, Sassius, 

Sk. sagh to [grip], kill; fog to pounce; fdkh to grip, embrace, fill; 

gakrit, gakan dimg (squeezed out). Gk. aoxefici) to squeeze out, 

strain; adbcxo? strainer, coarse cloth (melts with Phoenician saq hair- 
cloth, sack) ; xdxxY] dung; xaxxdco; xoextf^ evil, mean, bad; xoxta malice. 
Lat. cacare, Lith. shiku cacare. Ir. cacc, Bret, kaoh dung. 

Sk. gvas to breathe, [pant after]; cans, [gas] to desire; kdnksh to 
long for; kds to flash out, [utter]; kaksh to utter; Lat. quaeso I would 
fain know; Sk. kas who? kva, kuka where? kathd how? kataras (p. 15) 
which ? intensified forms kim what? na-kis, no one; md-kis that no one; 
kig-kin any one. Zd. ^d who? kaidra which? gvafU how large? (pre- 
serves original root) ; kinem any one (accus.) ; ^is^a »= quisquis; md'lHs 

that no one. Gk. x(50t? xoO? xou? where? x<6ev? whence? icw?? how? 

xcSxe when? xixepo?? which? [x]t((;? who? (cf. [xxfo)], Tfwp. 236). Lat. 

gwo? whither; [q]ubii (ablat.) where? [q]uieri whether; quamf how? as 
(answering question) ; qui the one who; quoti how many? quantus how 
large (Latin preserves the gv form); quis? who? quidquid anything; 

Umbr. />«/(? ? = ubi? Osc pis'^ quis? pitpit quidquid. Goth, hvasl 

who? hvan} when? hvart where? whither? hvathar'i whether? Lith. 

kasl who? kurl whither? kail how? katras whether; O. R. kutol who? 

kiyl qualis? kotoryi who. Ir. ca-tel what is it? canl whence? each 

each, quisquis; cechtar whether; cia} who? W. pa} who? pop each; 
pui? who? Bret, pel who, />^p each. 

Sk. same roots; [gshvash], shash [desire for one more than five; 

out-flashing finger], six; shashtas sixth. Zd. kshvas, Gk. [fi^l 

inscriptions] ; 25 six ; ?xto<; sixth. Lat. sex ; sextus ; sexus natural desire, 

sex. Goth, saihs ; saihsta, O. R. shesti ; shestyi (ord.) ; Lith. sheshi; 

shishtas (ord.); O. Pr. ushts six; R. shestok hearth, stove (ardent, 
desired). Ir. s4; sessed; W. ckivech; chwechet; Bret, huech, 

Sk. same roots; han, hins to kill, injure; sagh to [pounce], kill; 
ga^h, gas, kag, kash, kishk, khash, kash, khash, ^ash, fftash to hurt, kill; 
gag to pounce, leap; gagas hare; gak, khak to be strong; kans, kang to 
rush, destroy; kak, kanU, kug to flash out; kdnsyam brass; kdnHanas 
golden; kas to go; ksha^, kshan^ to go, [flash out], give; kha^ to stir; 
khan^ to hop, limp ; khagasgoBX ; gankus javelin ; kakshto flash out, speak; 
[gashgas], gashpas fresh cut grass. Gk. oxdEt^o) to halt, limp ; oxfyYOg 



— 259 — 

lizard (flashing) ; XYti%6<; yellow. ^Lat. caespes fresh turf; cuspis, spear- 
point (cf . Ir.) ; caesius with flashing eyes; Caesar \Casca, Goth, hoha 

plow (tearing); hauhs high [leap] (p. 254); A. S. haccan to hack; 
bash; scacan to shake; O. S. scacan to flee; O. N. skenkya to dash out, 
pour; skeha to come to pass; haka beak, hook; Goth, skohs shoe (tram- 
per) ; skohsl demon (pouncer) ; O. H. G. haso hare {gagas) ; Germ, schichten 
to cleave; schicken to hurl, send; Hecht pike (leaper); A. S. hSh heel, 
ham-string, hough; scanc shank; O. H. G. heigir heron (axe-biil); 

kehera woodpecker (hacker). Lith. kenkti to injure; kankinti to 

torment; R. shagat to stride; shestvie march; shkegolyai to strut; 

skakat to leap. Ir. ciiach spear (cuspis) ; cingimto stride ; ctwg warrior ; 

[cig clawed flesh]; cichurda ravenous; etch nipple; Bret. scJd shaking; 
skignan [jumping] frog; skejein to cut; ktg raw meat, gum of mouth; 
kignein to claw, tear, skin; kigen muscle; O. C. Cinges, CingetO'tix, 
Vercingeiorix; Quigo, Quigonius; Cicinus, Cicolluis Mars delighting in 
carnage; caneco'sedlon golden throne (Sk. kdnkanas, kanakas); Ir. 
coscraim to destroy. 



Sk. vdto blow (p. 204); vd to pant after, love, seek, enjoy; vdnksh, 
vdnkh to desire, wish (cf. development of wd, p. 77) ; vag to desire, wish; 
vagas will, power, rule; ugi desire; [vans], van to desire, seek; van to 
love, adore; van to trust, believe; svan to adorn; vdh, bah, [vydh\ veh 
to [seek eagerly], make an eflEort, strive for, seize; bdhus fore-arm; 
vdhas horse, chariot (impetuous); vah to drive a horse, ride, carry; 
vangh to speed, begin; vdk to [be impetuous], utter, speak; vdg to 
cry, shout, howl; vakas crane (cf. gn, Ylpavo(;); vangh to scold; 
vdkyatd scolding, abuse; vdng-mayas vocal; vdk voice; vikh to speak; 
vangas [vocal, piping, hollow, luxuriant] reed; vatih, bank to be puffed 
up, swell, grow (cf. gvd) ; bahus great, much; vaksh to swell, round out, 
grow; vakshas breast; uMkas high; ugras swelling, awful; [vans to blow 
fire]; vanh to shine; ush to bum; ush to be fevered; [vang, vans], vash, 
vas, vast, van to dart, hurl, kill; vask, vashk, vakh, vankh, vikh, ves, 
ukh, unkh, svakk, svang to go, move; vish to visit; vig to approach, 
enter, seek eagerly, [seek refuge, do homage], occupy, settle, marry; 
vig, vdigyas inhabitant; vigas mankind; vigvas all; vegas home, house; 
vas to dwell, marry, love, settle, make firm, [eternal]; ukh to dwell; 
okas house; vasatis lodging, nest, home; vdsas home, cage; vasantas 
nesting-time, spring; vasus home-goods, possession, wealth; vastu 
existence, property; vastas goat; vasnas price; vasnam pay, hire; 
vasd marrow, fatness; vdsay to anoint, perfume; vat^ [of wind] to 
veer, dash rotmd, wheel, move round, vacillate (cf . vyay, vyap p. 218); 



— 260 — 

vankas river-bend; vankris rib; vakras curved; vangh to [whirl, hurl], 
hasten ; vegas speed ; va^as thtinderbolt ; d^as strength, force, splendor; 
vanh to shine; vatifas [force, growth], bamboo, generation, dan; oghas 
throng, crowd, river; va^ to move round, [wreathe], adorn, go (vagor) ; 
vi^ to whirl, tremble, quiver, fear; vehl, vel to vacillate, move, count 
[circling] time; fe^ to quiver, flash; viMh to whirl, flash, shine; vang, 
vank to totter, hobble, limp; van£ to go, approach, [encircle, snare], 
cheat; sva^, svan^ to encircle, embrace; vesht to wrap, clothe; veshas 
robe, ornament; vos to wrap, clothe {vas to live) ; viM, vi^, vish to wring, 
[twist off], separate, [turn aside], avoid, leave, desert (jcf.fugio, bhug; 
vi, ve, vito); vig to bring ends together, compare, match, be equal, 
resemble, meet, encounter {vicis, vicissim; occasion, opportunity, hoc 
vice, fecht); tik to meet, gather, agree; ukiias fitting, suitable; nKh to 
bind, limit, dwell, turn aside, pass by, desert; unkh to bind sheaves; 
unfft to desert; idkhd round jug; uh to gather, conclude, reflect; unh to 
vex, twist; ukh to [wreathe], adorn, [wring out], dry (adxy^O; uksh, 
vish to [wring out], drip, drop, sprinkle, water; dsha-dhis medicinal herb ; 
vish, vishtas dung; vdshpas, vdspas tear, dew, vapor, medicinal herb; 
vfifcam poison; tniam water-lily ; Vishnus the monsoon; oshtas [drainer], 
lip. 

Sk. vd, [vanh, vans], vdnksh, vdnKh to pant after, long for, desire, 
seek, enjoy; vangh to seek, speed, begin, blame; vdghant praying. 

Gk. eCxoiJWK to long for, wish, pray, vow; redup- eiS(i)xi(i> to fare 

sumptuously, feast; /ix0l(i> to be indignant, passionate, angry. 



Lat. vagio to cry passionately, wail. Goth, vaggs paradise; O. N. 

vaegdh mercy; O. H. G. wunscan, A. S. vyscan, O. N. dska to wish; 
Ger. [vang], bang yearning (cf . vdh, bah) ; A. S. svincan to toil hard, 

be eager; vicg race horse; It. (Lombard) vago lovely. Bret. [svanH], 

huihein to blow, puff, kindle; vaganHein to languish, faint. 

Sk. same roots; vag to wish; vagas will, power, rule; aAHicds un- 
willing; ugl desire; ugant willing; vagyas subject; vagd [desired] bride, 

woman. Zd. an'Ugant tmwilling. Gk. fixcDv willing; d/ixuv, Sxoiv 

unwilling; dexdt^o) to struggle against; YexoeOdE«lxouaa (Hesych.); 
[/e/exiQXo<;], eSxir]Xo<; at ease; ifxT)T( for the sake of; fljxa gently; ioLokiq 

peaceful. Lat. [voxor], uxor wife; uxorius devoted, indulgent to 

wife. ^A. S. vyscan, O. H. G. wunscan, O. N. dska to wish. Ir. 

ficen necessity, fate; ic death; form [ivof]; W. chweg, Cor. whek, 
Bret, huec sweet; O. C. Suecconius. 

Sk. vd to breathe, desire; [vans, van to pant, yearn, sob, sigh]; 
van (vanomi, vanvan) to desire, seek, worship; van (vane, vanitas) 



— 261 — 

to love, be devoted, worship, [be gracious], bestow, accept; van 
{vandmi, vdnaydmi) to help, trust; to [pant after, himt], vex, kill; to 
[sigh, utter], sound; s-van to sound; vin to yearn, dream, reflect, 
listen intently, play lute; vents [mourning], widow's hair; vind lute; 

vanitd wife, woman; vanam [hunting-ground], forest. Gk. ei5vt<; 

(-180O wife; e5vic (-i<;) widowed, bereft; eivrjTi^p husband; euvij 
marriage bed; [fCviw], ^tvfaj to beget; /f/afvo) to take delight, 
warm, cheer, heal (v. p. iii); oIvo<; wine; oTvt) vine; Tva [yearning]; 
in order that; afvfao to be gracious, accept, be content, praise [gift]; 
alvo^ praise; [accepted, wonted, favorite], myth, sa3dng, proverb; 
a{y(aao(JLa( to speak in proverbs; aXy-if^a hard saying, riddle (svang 
to choke, be silent) ; afv<? [eagerly Ustened for, taking away breath], 
dire, terrible (vandmi); a7vu(iac to accept, take, enjoy; /ivfa [yearn- 
ing], grief, sorrow; dvtdo) to grieve; /Svijjjli, 6v(yiQ(jL( to delight, benefit 
(p- 25); 8vT)cn? delight, luck, advantage; i^aijio? beneficial, profitable; 
(&y|o(jM[( to [desire, acquire], buy (cf. pri, icpfavLat); (as termination) 
6t-a>v6^ [dear child], grandson; ifi-fOY^ pleasure; 'Hat»<5vT) (p. 214); 
Lat. VenuSf venustas charm, beauty; venia grace, indulgence, par- 
don; venar to chase after, hunt; veneror to adore, honor; veneo to [be 
desirable, salable], be sold ; venum for sale ; ven^do to sell ; (with redupli- 
cation) venfinum poison (afvi<;) ; termination Fav-fonius sweet-south- 
west; [dvi'fonus], duonus, bonus [tvno^ desirable, very desirable], good; 
ann'dna; Ant'onius; [ver-venna], verbena sacred herb (p. 195) ; Samnite 
Vene'Ventum, Beneventum good-market (the Samnite pronunciation 

resembled vaniim eventum), Goth, vinnan to yearn, grieve; vinno 

passion, desire; vens hope; venyan to hope; vainei woiild that! A. S. 
vinnan to toil, win; vyn rapture; vunian to be wont, to dwell (aTvoc;; 
sweet home); venian to accustom, train, wean; vine friend, [chosen] 
commander; vaenan to hope, ween, expect; O. N. fonn desire, care; 

vandi custom, care, kinship ; vtnnc: to toil, fight. O. R. veino dowry; 

veiniii to sell; R. vina [blood-ransom], guilt, wrong. Ir. fine kinship, 

clan ;/ia« [chosen], leader, hero, Fenian; )Ia«n army; F&ne the ancient 
people of Ireland (cf. Ven-icnii, Ven-icontes; icaim to heal, ransom, 
v. p. 109) ; finnaim to [hunt, seek], find; [ven-vellus], fanall [dear little 
friend], swallow; fonn anxious, desirous; oin, uain [kindness, grace], 
loan; iiain chance, opportunity, luck; W. [veni-venna], guianuin spring; 
Bret, gu&nel swallow; [verivenna, vennivenna], guir^nen, guininen 
bee; O. C. [Vonvonia], Bononia, Vifenna, Benevenna; [Vanna], Bonna; 
Augiistobona; Ep'Ona; Div-ona; Aro-enis very dear (aroon); Venta 
market; Veneti merchants; Co-ventus merchant; Venelli swallows, 
birds of passage; with / for v Fannonius, Fonnius, Fanio, Fanula; 
Ft. faon\ Lat. Fannius, 



— 262 — 

Sk. svan, [fvan], kvan to sotind (p. 251); van to pant, breathe 
out, [empty], sound; twznam forest, water; vin to yearn, [be lonely]; 
vents [widowhood]; vind lute; vind without; vind-kritas desolate; 

Unas small, weak. Gk. /{v&i>, (vdw to empty, evacuate; (reduplic.) 

OfvcivTj waning moon, fading nature, destroying her own works; her 
son, reviving summer (Mtkicrfpo<; the htmter), conquers the winter 
solstice typified by the boar of Calydon, but is doomed to perish with 
the quenched Yule brand of the next year; he prefers Atalanta, the 
full-moon to his tmcles, the morning and evening stars. Another 
old-moon Oenone pines for the day-star Paris, when he deserts her for 
Helen, the new-moon in the west ; /'Iv<i crescent moon (wasted, flebilis) 
clasps her son, the evening star, to her bosom, and pltmges over the 
western steep; like Daphne she fiees her husband, the sim; through 
Phoenician influence her child becomes MeXcxIpnQg, Melkarth; 8vap, 

Bvetpo^ [fleeting] dream. Lat. vanus, {vinvantisl, inanis empty; 

vaniias emptiness; C'Vanesco to vamsh; vena vein, pipe; finula 
elecampane (purgative); Goth, van lack, want; vans empty, needy; 
vanains defect ; vainags wretched, needy ; vinya pasture groimd (cf . wide^ 
weiden) ; Ger. wenig scanty, little; A. S. svdnian to faint, swoon; O. N. 
vanr, von, vant needy; vanta to want; vana to diminish, wane; van 
lack, fault; van4r^ error. Ir. fden, faon void, empty, feeble. 

Sk. vdh, veh, bah to [pant for], seek eagerly, make an effort, strive, 
[grasp, brandish, thrust]; viha- [breath], air; vahis, bahis in the air, 
out-doors ; bahus much ; bdhus, bahas fore-arm (outstretched, grasping) ; 
vangh to speed, grasp, rebuke; vakh, vask, vakk to speed, go; vang, 
vank to eddy, circle, totter; va^ to speed, trim an arrow, be strong; 
va^ras thunderbolt ; ugras mighty, vehement, fierce ; vi^, viMh to veer, 

eddy, quiver, be radiant; vehl to whirl, tell time. Zd. bdzu fore-arm. 

Gk. /I/axxog, ^axxo^, Bdncxo^ natural force, excitement, wine; 

rushing, trampling, reeling, brandishing (melts with (dxw to shout; 
p. 109); ^oxxeuci) to rave, dance; ^aoxaCvG) to revile, use ill-words or 
spells, drive mad, bewitch (melts with Lat. fascinor to bind by hyp- 
notism); pdaxe speed! faordtia) to grasp, whirl up, brandish, whirl 
away, rob, bear on head; faaacipa trampling shoe; wanton, bacchante, 
vixen; fiaxipa, raw-hide shoe; f^aaa, ^aaaa [torrent], motmtain-pass, 
glen; ^T^aaw to [pant], cough; /dt/taaci) (dt$(i>) to be eager, dart, shoot; 

ixkeiq lever (thrusting, lifting; bdhus). Lat. vehe-mens vehement; 

vexo to harass, vex; vexillutn standard (borne proudly, waved); vasto 
to ravage (vast to vex); vastus waste, open; basium [passionate] kiss; 
hestia wild beast (p. 46); bacultis staff (Jbdhus); vehes, vectis lever, 
crowbar; (veh); ob-ex bar; 7"f% vith effort, difficulty; [bagulo], baiuh 



— 263 — 

to bear burden; vigeo to be eager, active; vegeo to be lively, wide- 
awake, watchful, full of life ; vigilo to watch ; vagor to roam round (vang) ; 

vaciUo to oscillate {vank) . A. S. vecg, O.N. veggr wedge (vehes) ; Goth. 

vaihsta edge, comer {veciis); svegnyan to exult, rejoice; vagyan to 
sway, impel; vakan to wake, watch; viko week (watch, quarter, of 
moon) ; ga*vigan to brandish, shake ; vigans war (veh) ; A. S. vtg warrior; 
vyscan to wish for; vaestna heroic force; vegan to brandish, wag; 
vaege scale (oscillating); O. N. vagga scales; vaegir sword; vtg death- 
blow, battle; O. H. G. wehsal [whirl], exchange. R. bashmak, 

bakhila shoe (^aatfpa) ; bashmak crow-bar; bakhvalit to boast; veisMiy 
prophetic (shaman); bez, without, lacking [bahisl], betsit to enrage; 
beis devil ; veisit to [brandish, poise], weigh, be heavy ; vakhlycU to speed ; 

veslo oar (vacillo); veselit to rejoice; veikha crowbar, stake. ^Ir. 

bach madness; bdes lust, folly; bass, boss claw, fist (bdhus) (cf. p. 41); 
bds death [stroke]; bossdn [grip], pouch; 6«j [pursed] lip ; bacc.bachal 
shepherd's crook (long-arm); bacc sickle; ftiasnaim to r3.ge ; fuasmad 
stroke; fnacktain injury; [f]lachtaim to yell; figitn to [move to and 
fro], weave ; f^g sharp (vehes) ; f^ge edge ; fee tooth ; spade ; figaini, 
ficcim to see {veget%is)\ feochair (Eochair, Fiacre) fierce; augra 
battle (ugras); W. guichr fierce; bys. Cor. bis, Bret, biz [gripping] 
finger; Cor. bos, bax fist (to box) ; Bret, bahellat to pant Si{teT;[vi€hein], 
fichein to whirl, brandish, defy ificher) ; O. C. Bassos, Bascus; bacuceus 
demon; Bacausus, Bussumarus great fist ; Viagrius, 

Sk. same roots; vanh to shine, grow; vangh, va^ to eddy, speed, whirl 
(dashing water, flashing light); vi^, vikh to veer, eddy, quiver, be 
radiant ; viMh to flash out ;utter ; vi^ toblow ; vi^am semen ; ugras mighty ; 
d^ to be strong, to shine; o^as strength, splendor, genital force; 

dghcLS river, crowd. Gk. iyp6(; water-washed, wet, moist ground, 

lush, luxuriant, tender, pliant, liquid (of eyes), languishing; itvf^(;, 
uynipig hearty, sound, healthy, wholesome; iyUia health; 'QyuYt)^ 
(d^ redup.) the deluge, the beginning of things, ancient king; aiyij 
splendor, radiance, sun; auydt^G) to illumine, see; iyxo(; (vangh) [bran- 
dished], spear, weapon, sword; Ixkoq crowd; <Sxeu<i> to beget; <SxX&i> to 

whirl, disturb, sweep along; 1%^ river-bank, mound. Lat. augus- 

tus glorious; augeo to grow. Goth, augo eye (vanh to flash, vakh 

to whirl, quiver); augyan to show; O. N. egg egg, (quickening, vital); 

A. S. svancor beautiful; svegel clear sky. R. vazhniy august, 

dignified; Lith. augu to grow. Ir. dg. Hag healthy, sound, 

youth, maid; dac, 6c, deal young, impetuous (affected by dQus)\ 
dge virginity; og egg; faga spear; Bret, oujen marriage-agent; 
nUg] (Com. uy) egg; O. C. Ogius, Ogiomus; Ogmios Hercules, god 



— 264 — 

of eloquence; Aucius (doc); Vago-ritum; It. ogum ogam, rune, 
Druidic letter; O. C. Ogroniu November (rain). 

Sk. same roots; vah, bah, veh to make an effort, strive for; caus. 
to use, employ; vah (vahdtni, caus. vdhaydmi) to pull chariot, ride, 
drive, carry, bear, carry off, marry, sail, flow, blow, make road, fetch; 
vahinl march, army; vdhas, vdhanam horse, chariot; vdhakas driver; 

vahas wave ; vahnis fire ; vehl, veil, vel to whirl, quiver. Gk. f ©xog 

chariot, wagon; 5xT);jia vehicle, ship; iyjx6<; channel, canal; ix^o) to 

carry, bear, support; (Sx^o(xac to ride, drive, sail; oTxo(i.at to be gone. 

Lat. veho to carry; vehor to ride, drive; vehiculum; [veha], O. Lat. vea, 
Osc.tnti, Lat. ina road ; Osc.t^^ wagon ; Lat. velum sail ? [vectum^aequale], 

vectigal tax, proportionate offering. Goth, vagyan to move; vegs 

motion, wave; vigs road; A. S. vegan to carry, bear; vdgen O. H. G. 
wagan wagon; O. N. vdgr, vdgr sea (cf. fiordhr); svegn, sveinn cattle- 
driver, boatman, swain. O. R. vezan to carry; vozu chariot; R. 

vesti to ride, drive, carry, use, effect; vozhak guide, leader; vozhzha 
rein; voz cart-load; voz [borne] up; voiii to go, enter (cf. via)\ Lith. 

vezhu to drive; vezhitnas wagon. Ir. fecht course, journey; f^ 

wagon? (p. 212); Bret, bik load, effort, difficulty. 

Sk. veh to make an effort toward; viMh to spring forward, speak, 
flash; vi^ (vi^dtni caus. vegaydmi) to enter, approach [eagerly, in hope, 
as suppliant; for homage, refuge, safety; to meet, cause to meet; to 
match, coincide, be opportune, take turn; to hoop, bind, tmite; to 
face, cncotmter, battle — ^these are the meanings implied in the different 
languages]; ni^vig to seek, strive for, make effort, seek wife, settle, 
place, unite, bind ; vif as laborer, settler, low-caste ; men, the htmian race; 
vifvas all [one meets], the world; (cf. A. S. viht any one) ; visk to visit, 
eat together, meet in battle; 1^ to come together, meet; uMitas con- 
gruous, meet, suitable. Zd. vie to come, do homage, adore. 

Gk. ftx(i>, ixdevci), ixvlo^jiac to come, approach, reach, enter house; 
to come upon, visit, fall upon (of suffering; melt with yof, if p. 108); 
ixvio(xat to approach as suppliant, implore; to fit, meet, be suitable; 
i9cxv£o(xat to reach, aim at, hit mark, succeed; ixitT)^ refugee; ixlatoc 
suppliant; ixav6^ attaining, sufficient, becoming, competent; TxeXo^, 
eTxeXo<; [face to face], similar, like; d%6<; likely, probable, reasonable; 
eExcjv reflection in water, mirror; likeness, image, similitude; eTxco (ioixa) 
to resemble ; lxapo<; (vicarius) ; morning star, exchanging places with 
evening star; his wings are melted by the ra)^ of his father, the sim, 
and he is lost; xpo-(^ a gift beforehand (to appease, propitiate); a 
free-will offering, dowry; xpotaaoyiat to seek a gift, beg. Lat. 



— 265 — 

vicis meeting, ocurrence, opportunity, turn; Tncarius replacing, acting 
for another; vicissim by turns; victima propitiation, oflfering, atone- 
ment; vinco to [face, encounter], conquer (melts with vik to wrench); 

visito, to visit; per-vicax intrusive, importunate, persistent. Goth. 

veihan to encounter, fight; vaihyo fight; vaihts (elxiiy) likeness, appear- 
ance; anything; [for the] sake; veihan, veihnan to offer to the gods, 
consecrate; veihs holy; A. S. vikt anything, any one (wight; vi^as); 
demon (adversary) ; Goth, uhteigo at fit time, opportune ; uhtvo dawn 
(recurring; Ikaros); aihtron to entreat; A. S. uhte twilight; uhia 

dawn. R. veike popular assembly, meeting; keloveik [keh^voltus; 

any face you meet], man; veiko eyelid (vicis); veik [circling] age; 

veiUniy eternal; ws, vsya, vse all (xnfvas) ; Lith. [visvas], tnssas all. 

Ir.fecht (W. weith, Com. wyih, Bret, guez )tum, time, occasion, oppor- 
tunity; dett'fecht once; fecht journey; [do'fecht], techt messenger; Techt- 
mar opportune, welcome; fechtnach lucky; fecht encounter, battle; 
fich war, feud (simultas) ; fesia immediately ;/iacA debt (favor, Ixiaioq)], 
[do'fechie], tickle suitable, just, lawful possession; techtaim to possess; 
iechiaire embassador; [do'icaid], dechad I have arrived; [ar'On'icini], 
aimigimtopT2Ly]fo'igdebeg^ng;iar'f'aigim I ask ;ficatm to recompense, 
pay, count; icint to arrive; W. gwyih, Bret, guith hostility; O. C. Vectis, 
Victis Isle of Wight, harbor of refuge; Coti'victo-litavis sheltering, 
protecting afar; Ir. air-igim to feel some one approaching. 

Sk. same roots; vingaii twenty (attainment, completion, full com- 
plement of fingers and toes; cf. Ir. ficaim to count) ; vingas twentieth. 

Zd. vigaiti. Gk. /eTxoat (Hom. fi/efxoffi, Boeot. fTxorct, Lacon. 

PeCxoctt, Hesych. Txavrtv) twenty; efxoori^ twentieth; e{x4<; score, twenti- 
eth day of month. Lat. viginii; vicesimus; vicies, Iv.fiche (gen. 

[wcetUas], fichet) ; W. uceint, ygeint; Bret, uigent, 

Sk. vanh to flash out; vask, vashk, vis to speed; veh to make an 
effort; vikh to flash, speak, speed; vig to seek eagerly, [pounce into], 
sit down, take possession, settle, marry, dwell; vigas, vdigyas [house- 
holder], man of third caste; vigpatis lord, head of clan; vegas, vegyam 
house; okas house, home; akh to dwell; vas (uvdsa, ushitas, caus. 

vdsaydmi) to dwell; vas to make firm. Zd. vanh to dwell, tarry; 

vtg house, village, clan; vtgpaiti head of clan, chief. Gk. olxo^, 

o(x(a house, home, family; oTxTjixa dwelling; olx4ci) to colonize, inhabit, 
dwell; olxelo? domestic; of the family; fit, proper; o(x4tt)<; domestic 
slave; o(xov6;jio<; majordomo; Lacon. alxvov, alxXov [home-coming], sup- 
per; i)^a calmly, gently. Lat.vtcus village; street; vlcintis neighbor, 

neighboring; [viciUa], villa farm-house. Goth, veihs village, posses- 



— 266 — 

sion, estate; O. H. G. wich dwelling-place, hamlet. O. R. xnsi 

farm, estate; R. Tjes village; Pol. vies village; O. Pruss. vaiS'paUin 
house-mother; Lith. veish-pcUs, Hkininkas father of family, master 

(okas) ; tikis farm-house. Ir. ficht clan (2kl. vtf) ; os, oc, ocus at the 

house of, at, near, chez; os-car [house-friend], guest; Bret, ok present, 
face to face; oheh master of house; O. C. Oc^ccuus, Oc^usius. 

Sk. same roots; vanh to flash, speed; vanh to grow; vanfos family, 
clan; vas (vdsaydmi, ushya) to dwell, love, marry; vasaiis, vdstu 
dwelling, lodging, nest, home; i;d5a5 dwelling, cage; vasus home goods, 
possessions; household gods; vastu possession; vastas goat; ixisnam 
pay, hire, evening-bread; vasu<dhd (wealth-giver), vasu'tncUi (wealth- 
meter) earth, land, soil; vasd marrow, fat, (life-giving, warming); 
vdsay to anoint; vastis belly; vas (vase) to [warm one's self], dress; 
vasman wrap, covering; vasdnas clothing; vasanam, vastram, vdsas gar- 
ment ; vesht to wrap, clothe ]vegas, veshas robe, ornament. Zd. vanh to 

shine; vatiA to dwell; vanh to clothe; vanhana, vafira garment. Gk. 

fSoTu [village], town, city, capital; i<rz6<; citizen; iorwcig, doreloq urban, 
agreeable, beautiful; iorCa hearth, home, household, altar, sanctuary; 
'Eorta, ^lortt) goddess of home and state ; ioTcdii) to welcome, entertain, 
feast ; [foioT)], oTiq village (cf. vas, ushya) ; (Jct^tt)^ villager; [/iovu|ii], |yvu(Lt 
(leoTo, ei(jiivo<;) to clothe, wrap; 6l(jLa, \\ta, lyidtTcov, e{av6^ wrap, garment, 
cloak (Dor. yiaxpa, Aeol. Y^(X(ia, Lacon. §£otov, Cypr. Zeaq) ; /ioOoq, lo6i^( 
attire; ioevig, eioevi^ beautiful [raiment]; /Sat? river-drift, fertile 

soil (vasi4r-, vasd) ; fiffio<; fertile ; 'Aa(a; e{a(iieyij meadow, riverland. 

Lat. vesiis, garment; vestio to robe; Vesta; f ostium house-door, vesti- 
bulum; vasa household goods; [vesnd], vema domestic slave; vescor to 
live, eat; 5u*^^^a good soil,settlement;5in-M^55a old home ][con-vessatio]t 

commissatio feasting ; tMimm river-drift, mire. Goth, visan (O. H. G. 

wisan) to dwell, tarry, exist, be ; vis calm, peace ; vists existence, nature; 
vasyan to clothe; vasii garment; A. S. vist forttme, abundance, food; 
svaes homelike, dear; vase mire ; vise habit, custom; visa leader (of clan) ; 

O . H . G . wist dwelling ; O . Ger . Ario-vistus noble fortune . R . ves village ; 

veshki household goods; veshk thing; vishnya cherry-tree; ne-veista 

bride (noviy new)? veseliy joyful. Ir. feiss night's lodging, sleep; 

feiss, feiste entertainment, hospitality, supper; fess, feiss gathering 
of clan, feast of Tara; foss, fos'sad rest, abiding, tanying; fostad 
securing, pacifying; foss (W. gwas, Bret, gwiz) servant, vassal; 6^ 
(Bret, boiz) manner, custom; firm, sure; W.gwistel hostage (taken as 
member of clan); Bret, guskein to clothe; goskor servant; guiz vassal; 
O. C. Su-essiones (Ou<aaove<; in Ptolemy, cf. /(P55) ; Novio'VCLston^'HeW' 
town; Vasates; Basilea. 



— 267 — 

Sk. vanh, [vans], vas to shine, grow; van, vas to love, nest, warm; 

vasanUis spring; vd^aros morning, day; vasus a genius. Zd. vanh to 

shine; vanhra spring. Gk. [feaap], lap, ^Jp spring; elaptvig, Iapiv6^ 

vernal; il)pdeyOe(jiov, piQpdcv6e;ji6v narcissus; tia^t^ spring (Hesych.). 

•Lat. [vesar], ver spring; Tjemus, vemalis vemal. O. N. var spring. 

O. R. vesna spring; Lith. vdsara stmmier; vasarinis summer (adj.). 

•Ir. errach spring; eruchor spring-pipe (bark peels in spring); 
0. C. basium kiss (p. 262). 

Sk.vd to blow; vanh to flash; vanAr to veer, dash rotmd, wheel, move 
round; vankas river-bend; vankris rib; z/a^, vank to go round; vank 
to ensnare, cheat ; vi^ to whirl, tremble ; vish, vi^, xnk {vinakmi, viviktas) 
to twist, wrench away, abandon, desert; t;wA, vik to whirl, scatter; u^h 
to abandon ; unh to twist, vex; ukh, okh to go rotmd, to wring dry, adorn ; 
ukhd round pot ; vig to make ends meet ; uk to meet ; likh, unKh to bind, 

gather. Gk. fi'^yxij^x (fifciytiv) to wrench away, break; (iY(JL4<;, fi^o? 

breach, fracture; iorcfy; unbreakable; fi*{fivzi^ palm of hand, elbow 
(curved) ; i*i}^6^ orbit; ^xvIg) to draw back, shrink, hesitate; irXiX^i^ to 
crouch; /eTxcD (/i/et^a) to curve, yield, give way, retreat, permit; 
fct«xi4? gentle; elx^ at random {v%k)\ yiyxakoy gentle (Hesych.); "JJxa 
gently, softly; a(xaXX(i> to manage, coax, flatter (p. 108); oCxxeCpo) to 
pity (but cf. p. 271); ^Ixo<;, ^Cxfov round bowl; 87x0^ coiled hair, roll, 
mass; termination -tyS, -uy^ of choking, pressure; [Jniiv.tY^f ^<^9\^'{^* 

9^Pwt5 (P- 4 )I &t*^« (Lat. vicia) beans (plucked; legumina), Lat. 

wgcT to roam; vexo\ uncus bent, hook; incus anvil; red. [mvex], vibex 
[whirl], stripe, weal; uncia [handful], otmce; cdd-ucus bent to fall; vincio 

to bind; vinco to force to yield, conquer. O. H. G. wtchu to yield, 

give way, be weak; O. N. vik bay; viking roving, piracy; A. S. vecce 
wick; vince, winch; vicce witch (binding, hypnotizing; cf. spulen, spell) ; 

Ger. wickeln to twist; Winkel comer. R. vyazat to bind; veizhliviy 

obliging, courteous; svikhnut to twist; sveizhevat to strip; sveizhii 
fresh-plucked; vyazhusMii astringent; vyazkii [binding], sticky, miry; 
vtyat to seize; visnut to hold fast; viiza osier; uzh adder; uzhas horror; 
Hznik prisoner; uzel knot; uzkii narrow, choking; ugar stove-fume; 

ugol coals (p.p. 4, 183); Lith. vingis river bend; ugrus stove. Ir. 

figim to [wattle], weave; fastaim, astaim to grasp; fuach a verse; 
fuachimm to vex;fuascur horror; iUicht [gripping] cold; W. g;tvascaru^ 
to be separated, Z. 322; Bret, goaskein to press, twist, choke, crush; 
[vangKj], fangus miry; O. C. Bingium river-bend. 

Sk. unh to twist, vex; ukh, okh to [wreathe], adorn, [wring out], 
dry; uksh to [wring out, milkj, drip, sprinkle, wet, beget; ukshan bull* 



— 268 — 

stallion; vish to wrench off, wring out, sprinkle; vish, visktd dung 
(squeezed out); [vashfos], vcLshpas tear; visham poison (wrung out, 
dripping sap); visha'pushpam blue lotus; visam lotus stalk, water-lily 
(coiling); vishus much, abundant, brimming, on both sides, equal; 
vishuvant keeping in the middle; vishuvam equinox; Vishnus the 
monsoon; dripping, life-giving rain; contrasted with ^ivas the gender- 
ing, impetuous, tropic sun, creator and destroyer. Zd. visha, vis 

poison. Gk. (SxeuG) to beget; [ftao<;], W^ rust, venom; [/fa], tia 

flowers (Hesych.); Tov violet, snow-drop, iris; TovOo^ pimple; down; 
tadtTC^ woad; [{aatac(i>vT)], {atata>yT) bind-weed (twisting); (do(jLac to 
[use herbs], heal; Taac^ healing; 'Iaaa> goddess of healing; 'loeacDv the 
healing sim (p. 107 ; connected with Medea and her herbs p. 81) ; (orpi^ 
physician; [fe/iao^] fiot) (fem. Hom.), [/tafo<;], lao<;, Iao<;, {yiTfii; 
Hesych.) level, even, equal, fair, even-balanced (vishus); Tow^ per- 
chance; ij(i.-tau<;, equal half; half; fl^6^t Aeol. ^i(j%6q mistletoe, mistletoe 
juice, bird-lime (squeezed-out, sticky, tenacious; cf. Mist; mistletoe'^ 
sticky toe, catch-claw); l^-l(j%o(; mallow (sT^); {^u<; loins (squeezing, 
belted); lox'^v hip-joint, haunch; loxvi<; slender; loxu<; strength; (Hesych. 
Tffoxuq, pfoxu<; strength; yl<; thong); 4ic-e(atov groin; lx^i<; fish 

(slimy, wriggling). Lat. viscus bird-lime; viscera entrails; vision 

peditus; [visus], virus venom; cere^visia beer (p. 166); vis (plu. [vises], 
vires) force, strength; [unhva, ugpa], uva grapes (squeezed, pressed); 
ungo to squeeze down, anoint; uvor, umor moisture; uvtdus, umidus 
moist; umecto to moisten; bit'Umen (p. 35); alumen (p. 117); lact-uca 
milk-juice, lettuce; legumen pulse (wrapped, podded); sub^Ocula tight 
under-garment, tunic; aer-ugo verdigris; ferrugo iron-rust; \yixidus\ 
hispidus dense, tangled, shaggy; biso [splasher, marsh-ox], bison; 

focco to crush clods, harrow {okh)} ocreae leg-bands? Goth, auhsa, 

O. H. G. ohso bull, ox; O. Sax. vahs, A. S. veax wax (tenacious, sticky) ; 
O. H. G. wiskian to squeeze, rub, brush off; waskan, A. S. vascan t€ 
scrub, wash; A. S. vos juice, broth; O. N. vds, v6s moisture; ausa tc 
draw water, sprinkle; a bucket; austr bilge-water; veisa ditch; O. Ger. 
Idisia»viso nymph-meadow (p. 11); O. H. G. weisunt aorta, arteries 
(pipes, lily-stem, visam) ; M. H. G. veisen, A. S. vaesend wind-pipe; A.S. 

vesle weasel; M. H. G. visellin, R. vosk, Lith. vashkas wax; Lith, 

ukana rain-storm (ukh) ; R. vyazkii glutinous. Ir. [vis], fi poison, 

evil; [visu\ fiu equal, worthy; ochradh leg-bands, leggings; [fo^fisciml 
faiscim to squeeze; Bret, [vis], gui mistletoe; Ir. dsaic washing; esco 
water; ess waterfall; ess ox; usee, O. W. uisc water (uksh); W. wysi 
stream; O. C. Isca (Exe, Usk, Axe); Esca (Isch); Escia (Isse); Isc-aro 
water-current (Ischer) ; Isci-ona (Essonnes) ; Isis, Isontio; Is-ara (Is^e, 
Isar) ; Esio (Oise) ; Sal-uxsia (Selzbach) ; Tam^esis, Ath-esiSy Pad*usa 



— 269 — 

Aus-ava (Oose) ; Aus-oba; AuX'Onna, Axona; Sal-assi (leaping torrents, 
mountaineers); Mori»mar*usa big-sea- water; Axs-ingift'ehae nymphs 
(ingen daughter) ; Osca fountain; Nem^ausus (p. 32). 

Sk. vd to blow; [vanh, vans to puff, inflate, swell]; vangas reed; 
vakshas [swollen] breast; vanh, bank to swell, grow; vahus, bahus, 
bahtigas, bahulas much; banhishtas most; bahulas [wind-cloud], black, 
gloomy; Hh to [roll up], argue, produce, exceed; d^as strength (p. 263) ; 
vaksh {ukshami, vavaksha, ukshiias) to grow, gain strength; caus. 

vakshaydmi to increase. Zd. vohu'tnad very wise; ucs to grow. 

Gk. aCgw (Hom. /i/45ci)), ai^dvci) (iiu^aa) to grow up, increase, 

bring up, exalt, honor; aS^acq growth, amplification, augment; 
Soxoq young branch; opening of womb; scrotum; /Saxog [puffed] 
wine-skin, bladder; neX-aayoC^ black-skins; ia%i(»> to build up muscle, 
increase strength; to twine, shape, work, fashion (ukh; ukhd pot); 
a^x^G) to [be puffed up], boast ; auxnjv neck (vangas reed ; unh) ; 6y%6(^ to 
distend, swell, puff up, heap up, rear, honor; 8x00? height, hill, 

bank; 87x0? swelling, bulk, pride; iyx^ pear. Lat. augeo to grow 

(p. 263), increase; auxilium help [to growth, power]; [vahstus], vastus 
swollen, immense; con^vexus swollen, turgid; [ob-vexus], obesus fat 
(cf. axtu, astu); [vangas swollen, empty, cf. funyas], vacuus empty; 
vaco to have leisure; vastus desolate, vast; bucca [distended] cheek, 

mouth (p. 46) ;6«c{rtna trumpet. Goth.z/o/w^yantowax, grow; valistus 

stature, size ; us'vahsans adult ; aiihuma higher ; aHhumists highest ; aukan 
to increase; auk also (^^); auhns oven (ukhd; Hcb. tannUr); O. N. 
auka to increase; auksla increase; auki heaping; ausa to cast up earth; 
vdxtr growth; O. H. G. wango cheek (puffed); Goth, vaggart pillow 

{guanciale) . Lith.au&^A/os high, tall ;aiigiitogrow;R.t;c?2f,i;c?5, upward. 

Ir. fdsaitn, dsaim to grow; asait parturition; ds growth, size; 

isca moon (waxing); fds further, also; fds [puffed], empty; fdsach, 
wilderness (wild growth) ; fesog beard ; tickt breast (vakshas) ; ucht-ard 
swollen; Hachtof the upper part (comp.); Hassal high; 6s, Has above; 
OSS stag; oS'Sad high-peace, treaty; os-car guest; W. uck over, higher; 
Bret, ihu^l high;iohein to heap; O. C. Uxello'dunutn; Uxantis (Wissant, 
Ushatu); Vesontio; UxelUus, Oxello, Oxso; Oxubii motmtaineers; 
Oxi'Carus'^os'car (honored friend); Oxo-garus; Osso»rigion; Uxama, 
Ossismii, Auximum; Vosegus (fesog, shaggy, forest) ; Vascoftes (fdsach) . 

Sk. unh to twist, vex; okh to wreathe, adorn, wring out; uh to [roll 
up, roll together], begin; 5^ay force, generation; oghas multitude, flood. 

Gk. 'Qxeaevtfg, ''QYevo<; encircling ocean ('QtiJv Hesych.) ; (Sylvto^ 

ancient (p. 239); 'QyuT^^ island of Calypso; ancient name of Eg3rpt; 



— 270 — 

of Athens; c&fuYtog primeval (*QxEoy6q is attracted by &%6^; the whirl 
of space); 'Qyufiiq (p. 263); Aeux-aXfcav is Phoenician Duk-elyon the 
stroke of God; cf. nuY(i.-aX((i)v —Pangam-^/ydn stroke of God; Ilippa 
«red blood, human (p. 50). 

Sk. vd to blow; vangas reed; vanh, vas, vWt to [be blown, bum], 
flash, shine; vdsaras day, [summer]; vasantas spring; ush {oshdmi, 
dusdmi) to shine, bum; ushas dawn; ushnas hot, summer; ushana 
pepper; iishas salt-desert; ush to be fevered; oshas burning; oshias 
upper lip (thirsty); ushtras camel; usar dawn; usras, usriyd ray of 

light, [morning milking], cow. Zd. vank, ush to shine, bum. 

Gk. [aSa(i>], aCo), au(i> to kindle; eC(i>, eSoi to singe; eSorpa cauldron; 

parched barley; Ivauovia embers, spark of life; ^aOvo^ forge, furnace 
{vanh)\ ^v-auao^ smith, mechanic; pdaovo^ [vans] [crucible], test- 
stone (v. p. 46); auxiiio) to be dry, parched, withered, sunburned, 
harsh; auaXfoq, aux(iT]pd;, auoraXiot;, a5aTT]p6^ sunburned, rough, harsh; 
aS(i>^, i^o)^ [kindling] dawn; aux(i^<; drought; Saaa^, uaacexo^ fire-drill; 
6aa6^ dart; SaacDxoq [thirsty-mouth], hyssop; e5po< east wind 

(dhnjXuiTT)<;) ; eupCoxo) to [see clearly], find. Lat. uro (ussi, ustus) 

to bum; usiio burning, singeing; Ustica sunny- valley; urtica nettle; 
(Etrusc. ( = Umbr.) Usil, Sabine Ausel SMn-gcA)', Aurelius\[auso5d\, 
aurora; Osci [sunburned] lowlanders; ostium mouth of river (eager for 

sea) ; door of home (os p. 9) ; [ausrum], aurum gold. O. H. G. usilvar 

yellow; M. H. G. Usel embers; O. H. G. ostan east; Ostara goddess of 

light; O. N. austr east; usli fire. Lith. aushra dawn; aushla it 

dawns; R. usta mouth; Us moustache (oshtas); ustavai to [pant], be 

weary ; ustav word of mouth, command. Ir. fichim to boil, spring up, 

{vWi) ; \Jasn\ dn flashing, brilliant, dnius splendor. 

Sk.vd to blow ; vanhy bank to inflate ; vaf to desire ; vdf to[utter],shout, 
howl; vi^h to cry, flash out, speak (cf. vas, vesht) ; vaM {vaMmi^ vakUis, 
uvdka) to speak, call; caus. vdUaydmi to employ priest, invoke, read; 
desid. vivaksh; vaKas speech, word, song; vakanam command; vakiram 
mouth, face; vdk voice; vdkyatd imprecation, abuse; vangh to scold; 
vdgmin eloquent (melt with vdnksh p. 260); vakas crane; uktam 

sentence. Zd. vak, vakanh word. — — Gk. [/t/oxw], f^xw to shout 

(p. 109); pd^ci) (^df5(i>) to speak, prophesy, rebuke; ^d'{\i(x, §i5i<; saying, 
rumor, oracle; 4^axT^<; speechless; fifa^ [private secretary, clerk], 
counting-board, draught-board, square tablet, side-board; §aaxa(v«» 
to revile (p. 262); PautiG) (fau^w) to snarl, yell, shriek; ijx^ to ring 
out, peal, echo; xaczxixiu^ to repeat, call to those below, instruct; 
f6'{xio}^aa, to bray; [vagya] 8aaa voice, rumor, oracle; fh:oq {vdf) word. 



— 271 — 

oracle, poetry; [/e/erov], letxov, elxov I said; iv'oxij bird-cry, war- 
shout; 64^ voice; redup. !xo(|^ hoopoe ; oIxtoc wailing (vikh; affected by 
oT alas ?);oIxTo<; pity; o(xTp4<; pitiful; oixTsCpcotopity; x'H'fuSgull; x^p-u^ 

[fatal voice], herald (p. 161). Lat. voco to call; z/o^ voice; con-mcium 

imprecation; [praevicae], praeficae wailers (viMh)] prae[vi]co crier, 
herald; per'tjicax importunate; in'vi[ci\to to invite; vacca cow (cf. 

if%ta^ai\ gdiis)\ Vacuna (oracle); buccina (^aCXjui), Goth, auhyon 

to shout, be ttmiultuous; svegnyan to shout; uf-svogyan to sigh, groan; 
A. S. svogan to roar, rustle, buzz (vangh) ; O. H. G. wahan (^awuog), 

ga^wahanyan to mention; gi*waht rumor; Ger. wiehem to whinny. 

O. Pruss. eU'Wakimai we invoke; Serv. vikati to shout; O. R. vykaniye 
clamor; R. vizzhat to yell, yelp; (vikh, vangh); veisMii prophetic 

(p. 265). Ir. do'faC'thar], duacthar he speaks; fo'\J]egim to shout, 

warn; faech-dg [voice-force], conch-shell? ochsad, ochnad a, groa,n; O. C. 
Vocantii, Vacontii; Voccio; FocuncUes; BeUo'Vaci; CcU<KConos (poi^^ 
iyoO^q, Cadogan). 

Sk. vof to long for; vdf to cry, weep; [vdffos], vdshpas tear; vapor; 
[vdfaras, vaskaras, vasparas calling cattle home; farewell to-day; last 
sad note; nightingale; the evening; cf. p. 141]. Gk. ioxlpa even- 
ing; adj. forms Joxepo^, ecrxiptoq, ioxepiviq. Lat. vesper, vespera; 

adj. vespertin%is\ vespertilio bat. Lith. vakaras evening; O. R. vekeru 

evening, adj. vekerini. Iv.fescor evening; W. %icher\ Com. gurth-uher 

{gurih'=' frith, towards). The thought blends with tear ^ dew, and 
vashk, vask to go [rotmd]; to [gleam], see. 



Dental formations from vd follow the lines of the labials (pp. 
220-223) ; in many of the series the initial v becomes b and remains 
unchanged in the cognate languages. 

Sk. vd to blow [eddy, circle]; vddh, bddh to whirl round, beat back; 
vex, confuse; vddhd torture; badhiras [dizzy, confused], deaf, dumb, 
vyath to be whirled, agitated, confused; odanas [stirred], boiled rice; 
dudanikas cook; vyadh, vidh to whirl, hurl, wound [with dart]; to 
shoot; vidhus [circling, orbing] moon; vidhas [recurring, constant] 
nature, disposition; vedhas creator; Brahma and Qivas; vadh, badh, 
tfon, ban to [brandish, hurl], strike, beat, potmd, kill, ruin; vadhar 
thunderbolt, dart; vedhas, vedhanam wounding, wound; vedand pain; 
vint to perish; vdnas, bdnas arrow; vadhas slaughter; uth to wound, 
strike; dtus [pouncer], cat; 6«/ to hurt, kill; bud to hurl, send; vat, vant, 
bant, vand to [toss round], distribute, be generous; vaddnyas generous, 
liberal, noble, eloquent (winged words) ; vai, vad, bat to speak, call. 



— 272 — 

shout, revile, flatter; vand to praise, celebrate; badh to revile; van, 
van, ban, vit, bit to sound; vid to shout; [vyod], vid to glance round, 
perceive (cf . akshan, spag, 8^;) ; to find, discover, think, reflect {volvere 
animo); to dwell (versari); budh to know, perceive; bundh, bund, 
bud to [be attentive, listen], hear; uddudakam [eddying] water (cf. 
ambhas) ; tidan wave; tid, und (p.p. uUas) to wet; udras water-creature; 
adhas udder; vdd, bad to bathe ; vaih, bath to be round, fat, large ; vatas 
circle, banyan-tree; vadaras, badaras jujube, cotton-boll; forest ;t;afiaifi 
water, forest; vadavd [pregnant, swelling] mare ; vadhu female animal, 
woman, daughter-in-law; vidhavd widow (cf. posiumus^post -k-tumeo); 
vatsas [embryo], cub, calf, child, darling (cf. 7i(JL0>, gemini, keimen); 
vatsakas little calf; vatsas , vatsaras year (circling, generating, reviving) ; 
vatsataras yearling bull; vat to surround, hedge, enclose, bind, tie, join, 
wrap, robe; vitas reed, axoIvo<;; vand to surround, robe; vesht to robe 
(attracted by vas) ; bud to cover; badh, bandh to bind, tie, fasten, make 
firm, grasp, cling to, adhere; vandis, vandi captive, slave; bandhus 
kinsman, relation (roots melt with sphand, p. 51); vadabis hut-poles, 
tie-beams, rafters; [vat], ut [swelling] out, up (cf. sub, super, p. 221). 

Sk. vddh, badh to whirl round, confuse, twist, vex; v6dh& torture; 
badhiras [dizzy], confused, dumb; vyath to be whirled, agitated, con- 
fused, hunted; odanas [stirred], boiled rice (cf. ud to wet); dudanikas 
[stirrer], cook; vyadh, vidh to whirl, hurl, hunt, drive, shoot, wound; 
vidhas wound ; vedand pain ; vadh (vadhishydmi) , badh to brandish, whirl, 
pound, wound, kill; apa-vadh to thrust back; vadhas slaughter; vadhar, 
vadhairam thunderbolt, dart; vand to [wrench oS], cut oflE, divide; 
bud to leave behind; badh to vex, spurn; van to vex, strike; vast 
to vex, kill; uih to strike, wound; but to hurt, kill; bud to hurl, send; 
vunt, vint to kill, perish ; vindus drop (whirled, scattered) ; Vindhyas 

mountains of rain. Zd. vad to strike; vddhay to beat back, thrust 

away, ward off; vadare missile. Gk. (&Oici> (/i/woa) to thrust, 

drive, hurl back; (&0(I^<i>, (ootR^g) to rush, thrust, jostle; vcoOifq, vti>Op<( 
sluggish (vT)- negative); ^o(ott)<;, Boi(tn6q ox-goader, plowman; c&Scvu 
to be [twisted], in labor-pangs; <i8i<; throe, birth, rope; SOo|iat to 
[shove back], dread, be on one's guard; ^Suvt) pain; (D0tqt6q effort, 
rush, battle; <S8eX6^ spit; (SOvelog [driven, banished], afar, foreign; 
*08uaae(5<; (vadh -^-vish) the sun, striding through bloody clouds, wading 
the ocean-stream, destroyer of night and winter, slayer of suitor stars, 
conqueror of Hades, husband of old moon (Penelope), love of new- 
moon (Circe), father of morning and evening stars (Telemachus, 
Telegonus) ; ^aSCt^G) to stride, go; ^iloq a walk; 8t^o<; sprout (thrusting, 
shooting); "OOpu^ wild-wood? olorpo^ goad, gad-fly, madness (vast); 



— 273 — 

[fOftl^uq], ii(ji<; woe, hardship, misery {vyadh, vidh); (8v6<i> to writhe, 
double with pain, twist a ball; ^Oio), Pot)OI(i) (bddh, [byddh]) to come 
to the rescue, help; iaorjTi^p, d/oaorjTijp (4 s)mth.) [thrusting back foe], 
helper; e{v*oa(*9uXXog leaf-shaking; Iv-oa(*x0<i>v earth-shaking; ofirdtii 
to wound; 'Qto<; brother of Ephi-altes, pouncing storm (otus cat); 
MXsuo), /i/eOXeuo) to wrestle, strive in games, race; feOXo^, iOXo^ 

contest. Lat. vado to stride, push forward, rush, advance, march, 

wade; di-vido to cut in two (vidh, vidhas) ; odi (osus) to [thrust away], 
hate (odi- et arceo); vind-emia vintage (vindus drop; emo p. 21); 
vindicor to [hunt], avenge ; avdeo (ausus cf . <5aoY)Ti^p) to push forward, 
venture, dare; vasto to ravage (vast); bestia wild beast; veto (uth, but) 

to [beat back], forbid; O. Lat. buttu fool (badhiras, but). O. N. 

audhn [pushing on, venturing], wilderness; audhr wide-world, far, 
empty; audhna luck; f audhr wealth; fodhr, 6it violent, capricious; 
oddr spear-point; oedha to rage, rush; Odhinn storm- wind, W6dan; 
otull, atali cruel, terrible; odhlaz to attain, win; ddhal hereditary 
possession; veidha to hunt; vddhi, vddhi peril; Vifodhr defender, Thor; 
vidha [shooting], far, wide; vidhr wild-wood, tree; vidhra to rage, 
storm (Sk. vadhar) ; vestr [empty land], west; vdndr angry, bad; vandi 
danger; bddlia to venture, roam; bodh battle (badh, bu{\ hardened v 
remains unchanged); bedhr [pounced into; lair], bed (XS^o^, p. 128); 
Mdha to settle in chosen home, abide, remain; btdh delay; bauta 
to strike, beat; bauia'Steinn monument of the dead; beita to make an 
effort; beina to stretch out, strengthen; beinn able, vigorous; bein 
leg, bone; A. S. vadan to trample, push forward, wade; v6d wild, 
furious; vudu wood; baedan to impel, cheer; beadu battle; bedtan to 
thrust, strike; Goth, voths mad; viihon to hurl; auths desert (O. H. G. 

ddi\ ode) ; beidan to -wbaX; bauihs dumb, mad (badhiras). K.vodit, vesti 

to lead (caus. of vado) ; bodat to gore, butt; bodetz cock's spur; bodrost 
courage; bit to break, fight, carry off; beidoviy hot-headed, turbulent; 

pO'beida victory; beida (Lith. id.) woe, misery (p. 51). Ir. feidm 

an effort; feidhlimin enduring, resisting (Phelim); fedaim to drive, 
leid ; fdidim to send ; ude journey ; [vodu, vodv], fodb weapons \fod-brond, 
adbrond fist, knuckle; fat, fata, fada long [shot]; fdth, fdd [impulse], 
cause; fuath hate (W. gwyih, Bret, guith anger); fiiasnaim to whirl, 
rage; fuat death-bier; 'Hath terror, terrible; [do'iiath], ttkUh north, left- 
hand; fuaiaigim to plunder; fidnae weapon (vidh) ; idu pain (vedand) ; 
fiadach hunting; fiad wild, wild-deer; fid (W. gwidenn, Bret, guezen 
cf. O. N. vidhr) tree; othar labor, effort, exhaustion, sickness; Haithne 
childbirth (<i8i'<;); liatne hinge; [badu, badv], 6ad6 battle-fury; crow; 
bOadraitn to whirl, vex, disturb; buadartha edd)ring, impetuous; buden 
war-band; bHadach victorious; baithes whirlpool; bdidim to whelm, 
18 



— 274 — 

drown; bddud shipwreck; bdeth rough, turbulent, fierce; foT'bdeth 
confused, stupid; bodar deaf; [banu, banv], banb, (W. banw, Bret, banc) 
swine; W. baedd wild-boar; Bret. batUein to thrust; O. C. Vidu-casses 
forest-warriors; Vodgoriacum; Auius {Oaih) ; Auta-ritos whirling 
charioteer; Aut-rig-ones terrible chiefs; AtU[s\essiO'durum abode of 
terror; Audasius (fodb); Oiho {dius)\ Odarus, Odiates; Baedarus wild 
boar; Baeiis eddying? Boud^icca victorious helper; Budicius; Boduo- 
gfiatus son of war (badb); Baudio; ando-balta blindfold fencer (Ir. 
andhas blind); Badu^henna {senna) Bellona's shrine (or beadu-\-Hain), 

Sk. vyadk, vadh to hunt, shoot; vyaik to be hunted. Gk. ITjtA 

(8$(i>$at) to [be hunted, leave scent], smell (intrans.); Wiiij, iaynj scent; 

8uaa)8T)^ ill-smelling. Lat. odorari to snuff, scent; odor scent. 

Lith. udzhu (inf. iisti) to track, detect, scent; udimas snuffing, scent. 

Sk. vant, bant, vand to [toss round], distribute, be generous; vadan- 
yas, vaddnyas [dashing, impetuous], generous, liberal, noble, eloquent; 

vat, bat to talk freely. Gk. Porciviov libation-bowl; ^drcaXo?, 

BacOuXXo^ wanton; ^cmoXoyitti, u6X&i> to be talkative; ^gctuXiq [child], 
dwarf; /Sto^o? din, tumult; ixTeuoiiai to divine by chance sounds; 
P(4to<; berry-bush (whorl); fM(; random, in vain; /SorXifS. §ioTpuxo<; 
[whirling], curl, tendril, flash of lightning; p6Tpu<; cluster (bath) ; ^drrpoxoi; 

[speckle-back], frog. Lat. ventus veering wind (cf . p. 209) ; batiUunt 

shovel of coals, censer; veiillum trifle. Goth, vandyan, vindan to 

turn arotmd, revolve, wend, wind; us^vandi leading astray; bandvyan 
to wave hand, beckon, give signal; bansis granary (bounty); O. N. 
vanda to be active, zealous; vdndr [thrown away], lacking {ver- 
schwenden; schwinden) ; veita to turn to, be gracious, hospitable, pass 
round, wait upon; venda to turn; vinda to wind; vandi [recurring] 
custom; kinship; fandra to wander; biodha to hand roimd, offer; biodh 
dish, round table, circuit, earth, sky; A. S. vandrian to wander; 

vundrian to wonder; Ger. wandeln; Vandali. Ir. fonn, and (gen. 

uinde) [hurling] stone; faindel wandering, roving; faindelach rover, 
simpleton; fotha handful of com for quern; a portion; [f]ada portion, 
share; bann, band a ball; banna a drop (dashed); band, bann an 
exploit, feat; Bret, baneh drop; bann somersault; [turning] shutter; 
ball of thread; bannein to totter, upset; banHez banquet (Jecht); 
bannein to curse, ban; bandein to [shoot], prime gun; guintal to whiri 
down, wind up (quintal) ; O. C. Vindel'ici wanderers; Bandus, Bond-- 
ritum\ Band'Usia dashing water? 

Sk. same roots; vaddnyas dashing, eloquent; t;ad (vaddmi) to speak, 
shout, call, chant, revile, flatter; caus. vddaydmi to make music; 



— 275 — 

vad to speak, command; abhi-vad to greet, salute; vand to praise 
bow down; vdditras musician; musical instrument; vddas speech, 
music; vandanam, vadanam speech, mouth, face; vaty bat to speak; 
van, ban to sound; vit, bit, vid to sound, call, yell; viddlas cat; badh 

to revile (melts with bhand to mock, p. 53). Gk. uBio) to praise, 

celebrate, name; 38t)<; poet; auSdeo) to cry out, utter, speak, address, 
chant, utter oracle; aOBi^ voice, note, sound, oracle, song; [/(i/eSci)], 
ie(SG> to utter, sing, praise, sound; ioil6q singer, bard, enchanter; 
iotSij song; dnqBciv, i^rfidiy nightingale, flute; 'Ha(-o5o<; sweet song 

(p. 214); iuTld) to shout; d(iupia-^Y]T&i> to argue; discuss (bat). Lat. 

vaies poet, prophet (vat) ; vaticinium prophecy {cano, p. 251) ; Vaiicanus", 

fac'undus eloquent (p. 45); veto to forbid (vat). O. H. G. far-wazu 

to curse, contradict; Goth, veit'vodyan to [utter] testimony, testify 
(form [vadh], badh); O. N. bidha, beidha (bit) to challenge, demand, 
request (bitten); bidhya to issue orders, command, be impetuous, 
desire, summon, invite, offer {bid, gebieten); bidhill wooer; bodha 
to annotmce, bear tidings, bode ; A. S. beddan to proclaim; bedt promise ; 

for-beddan to forbid; Goth, bidyan to ask. Lith. vadinu to call, 

summon, lure; O. R. vaditi to accuse. Ir. fded, fdeth cry, warning; 

fed a whistle ; feddn pipe ; Finn-Faidhech clear- voiced ; fdiih prophet, 
poet ; bindius melody ; W. gwaedd a cry ; gwawd poem ; Gwydion prophet ; 
Bret, udein to roar, howl; French /acte prophetess, fairy; O. C. oiorref^ 
prophets; Fadius, Faedius, Fadiliacus, Fatiliacus, Fato; Fata Morgana 
(Mori'gena sea-bom). 

Sk. vddh, vyadh to whirl; [vid to glance round; cf. akshan, p. i]; 
vid (vedmi, viditas) to perceive, know, reflect, judge; to find, attain, 
obtain settlement, dwell; caus. vedaydmi to proclaim; vid (uinddmi) 
to discover; (uidye) to discover one's self, be conscious, exist; vedas 
scripture; viditas discovered, gained; vdidyas philosopher, physician, 

Veda scholar; vidyd knowledge, learning. -Gk. /eBov (aorist) to 

see, become acquainted, observe, investigate; /olSa (perfect) to 
know; eT$o(i.ai to appear, resemble; elBo^, l^ta appearance, face, 
beauty; etBwXov image; IlTjXe-tST)*;, nT)Xe(BT)<; [image], own son of Peleus; 
4t8«5? grandson; lv8G?XXo;jiai to resemble, seem; 'A-f8T)<; unseen world, 
Hades; 58vt)<;, B5t)<; knowing, experienced; !8pt<; experienced, pru- 
dent; ToTwp skilled, prud'homme, judge; ioTopl(i>to investigate, learn, 

write history; ^Beo^ overseer. Spartan magistrate. Lat. video 

to see;tndeor to appear; visio sight; viso to observe, take aim; vide-licet 
one can see; to wit; fideo with this aim, therefore; fidoneus [skilled], 

suitable, fit. Goth, veit'vods witness; fair-veitl theatre; viian to 

watch, guard, learn, know; to be wary, shtm; vissa I knew; vitoth 



— 276 — 

law; A. S. vit reason; vita counsellor; vts wise; x^sian to show, guide; 

vise way, manner; vUan to take cognisance. O. R. videiti to see; 

veideiti to know; R. vid appearance; veid to wit, therefore; Lith. 
veidas face; vyzdis apple of eye; veissdmi I see; O. Pruss. waidimai 

we know. It. fetor I know;/ftam I can (know how) ; fiss knowledge; 

fis sight, vision; finnaim to discover, find, bring to light; finn, find 
(W. gtvynn, Bret, guen) white; O. W. Guend-elin white doe; Ir. 
Bu-btnda, Bo-finde white cow; Ir. fiad evident, present, watcher; 
fiad honor, rank (presence) ; Fiadu God; did care, heed, watchfulness; 
iddif^ videlicet, to wit; Cor. guidthial guardian; Bret, gufezen^ givythen 
to watch, guard; O. C. Vindo-h(ma\ Vindo*nissa (p. 26); Vindara. 

Sk. vadh, vyadh to [whirl, eddy]; vadh to [twist, wring out]; uda-, 
udakam water (cf . ambhas p. 19 ; usee p. 268) ; und (p.p. unnas) to be wet; 
ud (unadtni, unddmi, p.p. uttas) to gush, wet ; udan wave ; udyas, uddhyas 
river; an'udras waterless; ud-anyd thirst; Odhar, Odhas udder (wrung, 
squeezed); udaram belly; tUsas fountain; udras water-animal, otter; 

vdd, bad to bathe ; odmas flooding, wetting. Zd. udra water-creature. 

Gk. 58<i>p (Boeot. oMcDp) water; 6Bp(a water-pot; &3pa(v<i> to water; 

£v*u3pog waterless; O^apifg watery; 5Sp-(i)(|^ dropsy; u8pa water-snake; 
oiSOap udder; fertile land; 68v&) to nourish; 8v0o^ dung; [^aSavelov], 
^aXovelov bath (cf. vadabhis valabhis rafters; infra); Phryg. ^il\) 

water, atmosphere. Lat. Odus wet; unda wave; pahudem marsh; 

har^undo reed; vadum water, water-surface; [Hdher, ufer], uber udder 

(cf. mdh, rufus, rubefy p. 149) ; iibertas plenty. Goth, vatd, O. H. G. 

wazar, O. N. vain, Swed. vand water; O. H. G. unda wave; A. S. vdd 
sea; ydh wave; vdt wet; Mer udder; oter otter; baeth (O. N. bad) bath 
{bdd)\ Goth, vunds, O. N. undr bleeding, wounded; O. N. vedhr air, 

weather (^I8u). O. R. t«>da (Lith. vandu) water; vydra otter; R. 

v^iro clear air, fair weather; bedro thigh (generating); bedreneiz pim- 
pernel. It, f and tear; Fand water-goddess; fiihnaise poison, sorcery 

(wrung out); bdidim to dive, sink; bddud wreck; fond bottom; Bret. 
goed blood; b^del water-pot; b6aden drowning; O. C. Cori-ondi lords 
of the wave; Vedra river; Tar^vedum cross-water, promontory, Tarbet; 
hadiiis water-lily. 

Sk. vyaih to whirl about; vant, vand to toss round, surroimd, wrap; 
vathy bath to be round, fat; vat to wrap, hedge, clothe, make ends meet, 
join, unite; tad-vat [this circle], as great as; vadabhis, valabhis hut- 
poles, rafters; ut, ud [tossing] up; [dashing] out [of the circle]; utiaras, 
uttamas farther, farthest [from ring- wall]; uias as (hoop ends) ; utavd or 
(bending aside); badh, bandh (badhndmi) to bind, make firm, [pull 



— 277 — 

tight], prolong; vand to cover; vaniharas rope, sheath of bamboo; 
viskt to wrap, clothe (p. 266); vand to [wrench oflF], cut off, halve, 
divide; vatas circle, equality, banyan; vadaras, badaras [entangling] 
forest, pod, jujube; vadavd mare (swelling, pregnant); vadhu, badhu 
female animal, woman, daughter-in-law (cf . Fr. bru daughter-in-law, 
Ir. brU womb) ; «daram belly ; [vyadhavd], vidhavdwidow (Lsit.post'tumeo, 
postumus) ; vidhus [waxing, orbing] moon ; vidhas, vidhd [gendering] 
nature, kind, species, disposition (cf. p. 271); vidh, vindh to be [swol- 
len], empty (cf. xufai)); vai'sas, vatsaras [circling, orbing] year; sam^vai 
of the same year; vatsas [foetus], calf, cub, child, darling, friend (p. 
272). Zd. band to bind. Gk. Oorlpa womb; iorepo-yevi^? late- 
bom; 6oTepi(i> to be late, too late; to lack, need, fail; Sorepo^, Sototo^ 
latest, last (form vats but developed from tid, ut farther, farthest); 
/Ito? year; h^(Jio<; yearly; T-f)Te<;, a*f)Te? this year; vi-oyca next year 
[veo'/orc]; fhak6<; calf; ^TuXo<; fledgeling bird, spring's return; ijrpov 
(veshi), abdomen; tangled guts; round jug; ijrop solar plexus, animal 
soul; frrTO(Jia(, lt'iX^o\Lai to set the warp {vat)\ ■JJTptov warp; /T5to? one's 
own, personal character, private {vidhas; cf. p. 210) ; iiotpf8to<; personal 
destiny; dct5to<; eternal (id+vidhas)\ ollkito swell; OfBficou? swollen 
disk of rising sun (v. 29(^5 P- 254); ^outo^jlo? rush (binder); /d66v»j 
wrap, sheet, sail; ^euOoc;, ^60So(; robe {vath, badh); ^orrld) to gender; 
66o(Jiat [to hedge], heed; u5v&i) to feed (stuff; p. 214); dvGuXeuci) to stuff. 

Lat. uterus womb, belly; uter bladder, wine-skin; venter belly; 

vetus [last year's], old (cf. A. S. gamal p. 232); vitellus white of 
egg (genital); vitulus calf; Oscan Viteliu cattle-land, Italy; Viiellius 
Italian; fidus the full-moon; the ides, fourteen days after Calends; 
(with term. /<i)VT)) idoneus suitable, adapted (vidhas)'^ consuet'Udo \ 
sol fidus round, solid; vidua widow; viduus [swollen], empty, void; [uds], 
uls (ultra, uUimus) far; usque; usquam; fotium [coiling up], indolence, 
ease ; aut, autem or, however (utavd) ; fiterum [recurring], again (p. 1 5) ; 
t'Oi so often (tad-vat); Vaditno [rounding, bellying] lake (vadavd cf. 
Fucinus, Bauch); betula birch (bellying, cf. boka p. 47); beta beet; 
WIS (vadis) bondsman, bail; vadimoniutn bail (p. 80); praes (plu. 
praedes, prae'vides) bondsman; praedium legal estate; ger-fettdus, cf. 
vidhas, vindh; tUor to [use withe, tool], employ, use (cf. withe; with«= 
union, instrument; implicare; employer); ut, uti as, in like manner; 

pal'Udamentum cloak; rot'Undus round. Goth, vadi pledge, bail; 

ga'Vadyon to give security, wed; vaddyus ring-wall; bansts granary; 
ga-vidan, bindan to bind; vithra [walled] against; vithrus yearling ram; 
0. H. G. widar again, anew (completed circle, iterum) ; widatno pa5rment 
for wife; bast string; Ger. weiden to pasture (uBv&i), vidh) ; O. N. vitya 
to meet; vUa to [bind], control; vidh with, against, again; vidha wide 



— 278 — 

[circuit; but cf. p. 273]; vaedha to clothe; vddh cloth, sail, net; vedkya 
to pledge, bet; thri'Vetr three years; budh hut. tent (vadabis); badhmr 
tree (vatas); biodk circuit (p. 274); A. S. vaed garment, armor; vid 
far-circling, wide; viduve widow; vedher wether (lamblike); vaihol 
full moon; bydin tub; bodig [hooped, ribbed] body; vidhdhe withe. 

O. R. vetukhu [last year's], old; vidava widow (O. Pruss. widdewu) ; 

R. boteii to grow fat (vath) ; btUuz fat; budka hut; budra ivy (ringing); 
utroba belly; vot yonder! lo! fot from, after, upon; Lith. vadoyu to 

redeem a pledge; buda hut, hut-heap, circular foundation. Ir. 

fid wreath, collar, chain, hobble; fothnoe [round] hut; both hut, tent; 
fotha foundation; f(H clod; fodb, odb knob; udnacht hut-poles, rafters, 
palisade; udmad enclosure; tulim bolt, socket; Had hole, cave; W. 
bedw, Bret, bezo birch; Bret, botel bundle, wine-skin; bot boot; O. C. 
fAd-vaiuca ring- wall (vat) ; BetuUus, Betona (birch) ; Bod-otria outer 
gulf (p. 50); Bottus, Bottio (stout). 

Sk. vat, vath, vand to toss, round, robe, heap up, swell; ud up, out; 
uttaras upper, further, at the end, up side down; tUtamas highest, 

uttermost; tUup. Gk. iJoTepo<;, 5oTfltTo<; later, last; Ooripawomb (vath). 

Goth, und tmto; unte tmtil; undar [up side down], under (cf. sub, 

super) ; tU, usO. H. G. uz out [of the end; of the circle]. R. ot, from, 

since ; vot yonder. Ir. d[d]-, uad out ; iU yonder ; fotha, fond, fonn end, 

bottom (cf. iaziga) ; W. odyma hence; odyna thence. 



Dental roots seem to centre around a form stha', losing the initial s 
they become dha, da, da, ta, ta, melting constantly into each other. 
Hence the two sets of dentals in Sanskrit and frequent anomalies in 
Greek. For instance Sk. dvdram = Gk. 66pa; Sk. duAt/ri =Gk. OuyirYip; 
Sk. diA^Gk. OtyyAvci); Sk. dhe develops in orijOo?, Tt)6(5?, ti^Oi), TcOao6^, 
T^rca, TfrrrtS by the side of Odw, 6e(a, OrjXtJ; dhinv, dinv to cheer; 
dev, tev to sport; dhurv, durv, thurv, turv to strike, harm; dhri melts 

with dri, dhd with da, drus with tarus. In. Gk. Tpi^o), produces 

OplicT<i>; 6p£5, Tptx<?; otiy^jl^ Oi^yw imply a root sthi^ beside ti^. In 
Sk. the correspondences affect most roots; dh becomes initial for th, 
which in Sanskrit is usually a later form for t. 

Sk. sthd (tishtdmi, sihiias) to stand, be still, firm, to remain, exist; 
caus. sthdpaydmi to place, found; sthal to stand; sthalam place, region; 
dhd, dhi to place, put, carry, bear, hold, support, bestow, give; da, 
day, das, dad to bestow, give, put, cause, effect, permit; [stat], tat this 
(standing here); [sthavana], sthiind [firm] tree-trunk, stake; [hence] 



— 279 — 

tun^ fund to be swollen, curved; tundam belly; tunas quiver; tun to 
curve, fill; /w to round out, swell, grow; sthdnus firm, immovable, solid; 
stanas [firm, solid, tense] woman's breast; stan [tense breast, chest], 
to sigh, groan, thimder (from swollen cloud, ** bottle of heaven"); 
ton to [bind tight], stretch out [tent-cord], make firm, create, make, 
twist, vex; tanus body (cf. bodig p. 278); tanutras armor (cf. 0<&pa^); 
tantus thread; tantras thread, weaver; dhanus, dhanvan [tense] bow; 
dand to brandish, shake, strike with stick; dandas stick; tund to whirl, 
brandish, make an effort; tat, tad, tand, tud to strike, brandish, quiver 
[with tension, desire, stan]\ tudd to kick, scorn; tundam beak; dat^ 
dantas tooth; tut to quarrel; tund to make an effort, speed; sthud, thud 
to [make tense], wrap, cover; stdi, stdiny to wrap tight, robe; tay, tdy, 
day, day to [pitch camp], encircle, guard, make the roimds, move, 
[be shepherd], love, give, [protect], slay [wolf]; sten to rove, rob. 

Sk. sthd to be firm; tu to roimd out, swell, grow; stu, stom to 
[heave breast, magnify, breathe out], chant, praise; dham, dhmd to 
[pant]; inflate, blow, blow fire, Zd. tav to be strong, able; Sk. tumras 
swollen, strong; tutumas abundantly; tuvi-, [tivi\ mighty, strong; tiv 
to be swollen; tlvras great, violent, fierce; dhi, dhe {dhaydmi, dadha) to 
[pant for, sigh, be eager] suck, drink; dhi to seek eagerly, delight, 
worship, adore ; dhinv, dinv to speed, delight, love ; day to [be gracious], 
give. 

Sk. stdi to stretch tight, wrap; stydi to heap, [swell, burst], sound; 
tay, tdy, day,de to encircle, guard sheep, love, defend, shoot; ddy,dd 
to give, compel, cause; dd (dydmi) to encircle, bind; dhi, dhinv, dinv 
to be eager, speed, delight ; div, dev, dyu, dyut, dyo, didhi to flash round, 
shine, be bright; div to hurl round, shoot, wound; dhi to hurl away, 
spurn; di to [be hurled away], vanish; div to flash round; div, dev, tev 
to dance rotmd, sport, play; div to [flash, bum], torment, be wretched; 
di, di to whirl round, eddy; dinas flight; dinas [hunted], wretched; 
dhydi to revolve in mind, meditate; ava'dhydi to hurl away, spurn; 
apa-dhydi to execrate, curse; dhu {dodhuye) to whirl, be confused, 
dizzy, to tremble, eddy, smoke; caus. dhup to smoke; du to dizzy, 
confuse, vex, grieve; to [whirl, blaze, bum]; davas fire, conflagration, 
fuel; dvish to hate; dhiksh to blaze; do, dd, dal to [wrench, twist], 
cut off; du to go [round]; ddi to [eddy], purify; dhdv to run round, 
flow roimd, wash; danv to go round; dhan to [curve, be ttunid; to be 
taut, twisted], to gender, bring forth; dhanvan bow. 

Sk. dhanus, dhanvan [bent, tense] bow; dhanyas [hitting mark]. 



— 280 — 

lucky; dhanam [attainment], wealth; dhvdnksh to twang, be strident, 
screech; dhvdnga crow; dhvan, dhvan, dhan, dhan to sound; dhvans 
to be [shot away], hurled, fall down, perish; dhva^ to whirl, brandish, 
swing. 

Sk. du, danv to go round; duh to [squeeze, wrench, twist, draw, 
lead out], to milk; duhitri [milkmaid], daughter; dugdhas milk; dih to 
[handle, rub, knead], smear; dos forearm (turning on elbow) ; dvi [twist, 
fold], two; dvish, dush to [wring, wrong], hate, sin; -dus evil. 

Sk. guttural derivatives; tay, day to encircle, guard, enfold; stdi 
to wrap tight, robe; tans, ivish to [wreathe], adorn; tvaK, sthag to wrap, 
cover, roof; tvaM skin, bark; tvaksh, taksh to wrench off, split off, bark, 
smooth, round, shape, [hew into shape, carpenter; mold into shape, 
potter]; to [thatch, cover]; takshan, tashtri, ivashtri carpenter; tvashtri 
artist, creator; tokas [molded, embryo], offspring; tankas [flint fla)rer], 
scraper, knife; stokas [scraped down], small; tun^ to wrap, clothe. 

Sk. sthag to wrap ; tvaM bark ; tushas pod ; tu to swell ; tungas swollen, 
[tumid, luxuriant], tall; tuh to [bind, choke], vex; tushntkas [choked], 
silent; tukkhas [squeezed out], empty; tushdras snow, frost (binding, 
silencing, icdyo?); tank to be [coiled round, oppressed], in misery; 
tank to bind; tank to curve, bend; tak to [pant, choke], endure; tak to 
[burst out], laugh ; [tya^], ii^ to [pant], endure,[pursue, scent],be fragrant, 
[be keen, eager, gnash], sharpen; tikshas, tigmas sharp, bitter, burning; 
stuk to [pant, love], be propitious; stigh to make an effort, climb; 
tik, tig, tik, tik to advance, speed, assail, kill; tu^, tun^ to stab, kill. 

Sk. tank to bind; tank, tan^ to curve, bend; tvank, tank, tang, tank 
to go round, wheel, whirl, fly round, tremble, speed; tya^ to [hurl away, 
turn away], desert, abandon, leave; /as, das to hurl, toss away, lighten, 
lose, lack; tvish to flash round; shine; tush, tush to rejoice; tustas 
[whirling] dust; tus to rattle, sound. 

Sk. tank, tvank to [speed round]; tvish to flash round; [form sthush, 
sthuns]] dhug dhush, dhus to make splendid, beautiful; dhusharas 
white ; dhvans to be hurled, fall ; dang, danh, dans to flash round, shine, 
flash out words, speak, [to be brilliant, clever, wise]; das to [whirl 
round, dash round], be bountiful ; Jos, tas to whirl round, toss, be nim- 
ble; das to hurl, woimd, kill; dasyu foe, robber; danh, dak, daggh, 
dhiksh, dhuksh to flash, blaze, bum; dakshinas noonday, southern; 
dhish to ring round, sound; daksh to whirl, move, swell, grow; daksh. 



— 281 — 

ddQ, das, dhakk to whirl, brandish, smite, kill; dhakkd great drum; 
dukh to hurt ; dhva^, dhvan^ to whirl, wave ; danf to flash out ; daksh, dag 
to [potmce], hurl, shoot, wound; dakshinos [claw], right-hand, [handy, 
neat, exact]; dakshas snug-fitting, fitting, seemly, decent, honest; 
dagan [clasped hands], ten; dangas [snug-fit, clasped links], armor; 
dagd [seemly, fitting] condition, state, age; ddgas [catcher], fisherman; 
dang, dans to [pounce, grip], bite; dangas bite, wasp; danshtrd tusk; 
danshtrin wild-boar; daganas tooth; [dyag\ dig (deshicismi, dekshyi) 
to [pounce, hurl, aim], point, show, teach, conmiand, name, [fiash 
round, be generous], give; d-dtg to aim, drive back; digas, dhishnya 
direction, point of compass; dishtam [directing power], fate; dishfis 
luck; diksh to [question fate], take auguries, sacrifice. 

Sk. causative roots; sthd to stand; sthdpaydmi to cause to stand, 
make firm, [set stake, heap motmd]; tu to swell; stu, stdm, stubh to 
magnify, praise; stoma hymn; stabh, stambh, stumbh to [set stake], fix, 
make motionless, obstruct, stop, prop, thrust against; stambhas 
stake, prop, pillar, [pestle]; stubh to be motionless; stiip to pile up; 
stupd, stambas heap; [sthamb, dhamb to heap, knead, roll, whirl]; 
dap, damp, dambh, dip, dimp, dimbh, dumbh to heap, [knead, whirl]; 
dimbhas whelp [molded in womb, cuddled]; tip, dip, dimb to [roll, 
use pestle], whirl, shoot, strike; stam to revolve, be whirled, vexed, 
dizzy; tumb to whirl, vex; tup, tump, tumph, tuph, tubh to [use pestle, 
sharpened stake], to hurl, thrust, strike, wound; tumulas whirled, 
confused; tdmaras javelin; tamb to revolve; tamas [coiling, encircling] 
darkness (wolves and evil around the camp-fire circle); dambh to 
encircle, ensnare, deceive, harm, kill; tdmaram [eddying] water (ri 
to move); tdmarasam lotus; tdmbulam betel (enfolding vine); tap, dip 
to [whirl, blaze], bum, torment (cf . cremo p. 1 70) ; tdpas heat, suffering, 
summer; lam to melt away, suffer; tip, slip to drop, drip; tim, slim, 
stlm to wet, be wet; temas moisture, vapor; [dhU, da to whirl]; dhup 
to smoke, sparkle, flash out, speak; dhdv to [whirl], nm rotmd, eddy, 
wash ; dhvdntas [encircling] darkness. 

Sk. sthd, sthal, to stand; dhd to put [the hammer, stone], send to its 
place; sthalam place, region, direction; tal to place, found; talas soil, 
surface, foundation, sole of foot, palm of hand, surface of roof; tdlas 
clapping hands; fan-palm; tdlu [curved cover for smoke-vent, cf. 
palatum p. 70], palate of mouth; [tval to lift on palm]; tul to whirl up, 
bear up, lift, support ; tal, tval to be [tossed], whirled, vexed ; tulay to lift 
on hand, poise, weigh, be even, similar; tuld pound; likeness; dwZtolift, 
throw, toss, play dice; dolas swing, hammock; dholas great drum; 



— 282 — 

dal to be [twisted off], rent, split; sthiU to round, swell; sthulas round, 
swelling, turgid; tulafn cotton [swelling boll]; mulberry tree; sthulal" 
akshas [botmtiful-eyed], generous; til, till to [be quick with the hand, 
strip, touch], move round, rub round, stroke, [anoint], be oily; ioila 
oil. 

Sk. sthd to stand, set ( +n, ar^ yor, Ir to whirl, speed, be active agent) ; 
sihiras, sthaviras firm, immovable, hard; start strength, hardness; 
dhiras firm, deep-set; dhri {dhriye, caus. dhdrye) to hold up, bear, 
endure, make firm, preserve; dhritis constancy; dhras to lift, bind 
sheSLves; dhrish to endure, resist, shove back, thrust, dare, be violent, in- 
jure, conquer; dhri to grow [steady], old ; dhru to be fixed, firm, to push 
forward, go; dhruvas fixed, firm, solid, sure ; dhri^, dhrin^, dhra^, dhran^ 
to push forward, dringen; dhrdgh to be strong; drdgh, drek to thrust, 
make an effort, be strong, long (of spear); to extend, lengthen, in- 
crease; dirghas long; drink to be solid, firm, make firm; drih, [drink], 
trink to [thrust, sprout, lengthen], grow; dras, druntas, torus [firm] 
tree, wood; ddrus spruce, fir tree (Sprotzbaum; sprouting, widening, 
rounding) ; ddrunas gigantic; dar-duru [rounding, swelling] cloud, frog; 
drih, trink, to grow; tarus [sprouting] tree; tdrunyas, Uxlunas youth; 
taluni girl; tarnas calf; trinam grass; trin to browse; trut to [bud], 
split; trand, tard to thrust, make an effort, wound; dmd to be thrust 
down, sink; dru to press forward, run, flow; drd to flee; dram, to go; 
drl to [pounce], tear; causat. drip, dripk, drimpk to tear, worry, harm; 
drl to [watch for pounce], fear; dri to be in awe, respect; dru to repent; 
drig to watch keenly, see; drUto [gather one's self for pounce, potmce], 
kill; drun to coil, be curved, kill; drdi, drd to [coil up], sleep; dhvri to 
[crouch], curve, [draw blood], color (fOeCpco, R. zveir, Oi^p; Zd. dvar 
to pounce) ; dhUr to rush, kill ; dhor to speed, be active, skilful ; dkrdnksk, 
drdnksk, drek to yell like wild beast; dvdr, dvdram door [of den]; 
durv, thurv, turv to [pounce], hurt, kill (metathesis of t;) ; duras [long 
leap], afar (cf. langus p. 127). 

Sk. sthiras firm; stri, stri to lay foundation, make bed, strew rushes, 
spread out, whirl around, [whirl to circumference]; tri to [hurl beyond 
circumference], leap beyond, cross over, pass, carry beyond; tlr to 
reach the end; tiram [farther] bank; tri (gen. trayas [further; a couple 
and one more], three; trd, trdi to [whirl, wrap, shield], guard, protect; 
trdna protection, armor, helmet; tvar, tur, tOr to [whirl, circle, round, 
shape], speed; tvard speed; toranas arch, gateway; (developments of 
tri melt with last paragraph — connected by root [sthrinh, strangh to 
twist, tighten, choke], unused in Sk. but common to the other families 



— 283 — 

of speech); tras to whirl, tremble; striksh, triksh, trakh, trank, trankh, 
trang, trduk, dhra^, dhran^ to go [round], speed; trish to [wring out, 
dry], thirst; drdkshd grapes; drdkh to be dry; strih, strih, trih, irinh to 
[leap across, pounce], hurt, kill; tar^ to brandish, threaten; trip, irimp, 
iriph, irimph to [dance round], be merry, [wanton, well-fed], to satiate, 
delight [Tipx(i>, Tpi^ca); dripy dritnph to glance rbimd, shine, be merry; 
trup, truph, trump, trumph; drip, driph to twist, tear, kill (Opuxco)); 
trap to shame. 



Sk. sthd (tishtdmi, p. p. sthitas, caus. sthdpaydmi; observe similar 
reduplication in the derivatives [thd], dhd, dd) to stand, be firm, still; 
to endure, exist, remain, be; caus. to set, establish, found, create; 
sthdnam place, condition; sthitis firmness, residence; sthavis weaver 
(warp setter, woof fixer in perpendicular loom) ; [s]tithis a lunar day 
(complete orb); tdtas [firm, true] friend; tatvam, tattvam the truth; 
tathyas true (cf. satyas, sattvam p. 9) ; tathd in truth; tat [he who stands 

here], this one. Zd. hiftdmi I stand; Pers. hestent I am. Gk. 

ToTTHJLt (oTtJati), 4oT(iO to stand, set, set up, rouse, appoint, weigh, 
settle, restrain; ordoi? standing, station, condition, uprising, sedition; 
0Ta(ji(y rib of ship; lord? upright, beam, mast, beam of loom; oti^(jki>v 
warp; orom^p weight (deciding, establishing payment); oTdeO(jiT] rule, 
line, plummet; OTaO(ji6^ upright, beam, station, limit, lodging, day's 

march; ordBtov race-course, furlong. Lat. sto {steti) to stand; 

sisto to set; ex-sisto to be established, exist; statuo to place, appoint; 
stdmen warp ; Stdtor establisher, appointer of boundaries ; [stivla], tela 
weaver's beam; stiva bar, handle; stalvYmlufn [standing place], stable; 

stabilis firm; [s\tabula plank, sign-board. O. H. G. stdn to stand; 

Stat place; Goth, standan to stand; staua judge, judgment; stomas 
uxjoraot^, substance; stiviti endurance; A. S. stov place; bi-stovan 

to place, bestow; O. N. stedhya to set, steady; Sw. st& to stand. 

O. R. stati to stand; R. stat to stop, suffice, set about, begin; stanovit, 
stavit to put, place; stantziya post-station; stan stature, camp; Lith. 

stoti to stand; status steep (laT6<;); statyti to place; sta-kles loom. 

Ir. [sistav, stav], a-tdu, tditn to exist, be; [s]tafnon tnmkof tree; tdmaim 
to rest, repose (oTaO(ji60 ; tOaimm position, place, village {stov) ; Bret. 
sted row; steHi^n, st&Uein to set the warp. 

Sk. dhd (dadhdmif dhdtum, p.p. hitas) to set, put, place, carry, 
bear, effect, do (cf. stal); to hold, support; to bestow, give; frad-^ 
dhd [setting one's heart], belief; dhi (dhiydmi) to carry, bear; dhdman 
[established] dwelling, body, law, manner, condition; dhdtri creator; 



— 284 — 

dhdtus material, metal, root of word; dhavas [supporting] husband; 

(than to produce, bear fruit; to bear child; dhdnyas com. Zd. dd 

to set, make, do ; ddtam decree, law ; ddman creature ; ddmi creation. 

Gk. t(*Oi)-(jii to put, place, establish, grant, offer, make; Oi(&a deposit, 
postulate, axiom, root of word; 0e6^ god (creating, supporting; 
dhavas); Oeaiciotog, Oioici^ inspired (laxeTc, p. 255; cf. praesag^um)\ 
Oi(ji(^ law, right; 06(i(ji6(;, TeO(ji6^ law, custom; Oiot^ arrangement, 
adoption, position; Oe(jilXtov, Ol^xeOXov foundation; %i\r.t\ [deposit], box, 
tomb; Odnco^ seat; Oaxl<i>, 0(i)x&i> to sit; Ot)<; (fem. Oijaaa) [settler], colonus, 
laborer, peasant; OrjaadXta, ©dao?; Oiaaco to sit idle, be wretched; 
6i^v [firm], assuredly, surely; Owi^ [imposed] fine (Ow^jv lxcOt)ao(tev) ; d*09O(; 
unpunished, implies form Oa/; OT)(ui>v, 6<i>(ji6(; heap; 0(i>(jieu(i) to heap; 0(I>(i.tYS 

cord; 6T](iaEup6^. ^Lat. credo to trust, believe (early subj. creduam)\ 

ad'do, ifi'do, i'do to add to, put upon, forth; ab-do to set away, hide; 
condo to stow; condus steward ; in^ to become dhd, dhi melt with bhu 
p. 38 ; Osc. fa fama [foimded] house ; faamat he dwells ; fatnel [possession], 
slave ; LaX. famulus slave \familia household ; fdnum shrine (Oi^v) ; fetialis 
[devoted] priest; fas established custom, law (6eqjL6<;); facio to make 
(Oiddd), 6ax&i>; *^ facio fidem*' ; melts with p. 46) ; femur, femen thigh (sup- 
port, foimdation, force); vin-demia vintage (6l|i^). Goth, af^doyan 

to strip, tear off; ga-deds making, confirming; adoption; [ga'davan], 
ga'daban to come to pass; daiihts feast [at table; Ooxo^]; ga-dauka 
household; domyan to decree, doom, judge; O. H. G. tudn to do; tdi 
deed; O. N. doemi [set] pattern, example, instruction; dys mound; 
A. S. ddn to do; dom condition, intention, custom, choice, force, honor; 

vfc'dom wisdom. O. R. deiyan, [dedya],dezhdan to do ; deilo deed, work; 

R. deUat to make, cause; reflex, to become; na-deiyatsya to rest upon, 
trust, hope; deivat to put, place; o-deivat to clothe; o-dezhda clothes; 

Lith. deimi, dedu to put, place, do. O. C. Con-date meeting of clan, 

assembly, place of judgment; confluence; Con-dat-isco confluence of 
rivers {uisce) ; Con-datis Mars (joiner of battle) ; W. datl, Bret, dadl, 
Ir. [da//], ddl assembly, court of justice ; Ir. ddlaim to assemble, make 
appointment; dal appointed time, respite; dais a heap (Oiot^, dys); 
damna material, substance (dhdman); damin to grant, concede; 
deimne firmness; demin sure; d^m\nim to make, do, cause; [dofnn\ 
donn judge, king; W. [demnyd], deffnyd, Bret, daffnez, danvez, daHrU 
material, accumulation, wealth; Ir. ddn art, trade, gift; ddna firm, 
bold; din consequently, therefore; O. C. Damnonii (wealthy, melts 
with dubnos, deep, sun-set, world's end) ; Demetae, Dementia, Demc{n]; 
Dannius, Ddnius, Danno-rix; Dan-uvius strong-water, trading stream. 

Sk. same roots; dhd, dd, day, day, das, dad to [set, put], cause, give; 



— 285 — 

(dhd melts with da in Greek and Teutonic) ; da (daddmi, datum; desid. 
dits) ; to bestow, give, cause, command, grant, permit; caus. ddpayami 

to cause to give; ddtri giver; ddnam gift. Zd. dd to give; ddlar^ 

ddta giver; ddna giving; ddthra gift. Gk. S(S(i>(jic (Kwv, 86|jLevat), to 

give; 8w?, !6ai?, ^oycCvr) gift; Sb>pov present, offering; $(i>Tt)p giver; 8ivog, 
Sdh^ctov gift, loan; H[, JijOev [firmly, surely], of a truth, indeed 
(hardened forms of 6t^v); 8i^v, St)V(zi6(; [firm set], long enduring, 
ancient (Dor. 8o/gcv corresponds with dhava); l-fy^ta counsels, plans, 

arts (cf. Celtic forms of dhd), Lat. do (dare, dedi) to give; (Old Lat. 

duifU corresponds to dhava) ; daior giver; dds dower; donutn gift; Umbr, 

pur-dovitu to bestow. O. N. ^^, tid to help; Goth, tauyan to do, 

act (dhd); taut fulfilment, deed; leva order, arrangement; ga-tevyan 

to ordain, appoint; A. S. te6n to do; tedh material. O. R. dami I give; 

daru present; dani donation, tribute; R. dat, davai to give; Lith. 

[davamt], dumi I give ; dudu give ; dutis, dunis gift. Ir. ddn gift ; Bret. 

dofi'bon^ {band dashing) liberal, d^bannaire; O. C. (i^»he gave, 
dedicated, set (inscriptions). 

Sk. sthd to stand, set, place ; dhd to set, carry, bear, bestow, support ; 
dhi to carry, bear; dhan to bear fruit; a child; dhanyas rich, fortunate; 
dhdnyas com, wealth; dhdtri creator; dhdtri nurse, mother (cf. bhri 
to bear; bhrdiri [bearer], brother); dhe, [dlid], (dhaydmi, dhydtva) to 
[cause to suck, drink]; to suck, drink (cf. trans, and intrans. use of 
to nurse) ; dhenus milch-cow; dadhi curds; dhitis thirst; dhinv to exhila- 
rate. Zd. dainu little woman. Gk. [Odw] (O^oOat), to nurse, 

suckle, suck; Ot)Xi^ teat, nipple; Oi^Xdcl^o) to suckle, suck; OrjXia), OaXicD, 
OdXXci) to be full, abound; OaXlOb) to be exuberant, bloom; O^Xug 
female; 6t)X(i nurse; Oi^vtov milk (Hesych.); ti^Gt), tcOi^vt), tCtOy) nurse; 
TtT66? teat, breast; Tt6aa6? [taken as cub], tamed (cf. fifus whelp; Lat. 
cicur tame); T(Ou(jiaXo^ spurge (milk-juice); S6Bpa pap, gruel; T(6*<i>v6{ 
(dear nursling) the morning-star, fading in the arms of Aurora; he is 
changed into a grasshopper (tIttc^ grandpa) ; he is brother of Priam the 
twilight (p. 66) ; father of Memnon (p. 80) ; oti^ttq woman; orfjOo? swell- 
ing breast (of man or woman) ; x-ffiri grandmother; tt)6(<; aunt; tutG6? a 
sip, a little, baby, cub; Ty)66<; mother ocean; 0lTt<;sea, mother of storm- 
cloud (Achilles, p. 3) ; 6eto<; uncle (bearing, petting) ; i^6eto? (a intens.) 
elder brother (p. 249) ; xlrTa grandpa ; TirctS grasshopper; STtJvta [gender- 
ing, fruitful]; festival of the return of Demeter from Hades; TiOai-^axiaa) 

to store honey, to feed children, larvae (^ioxw). Lat. felo to suck; 

fUius (UmhT.feliu) child, son; /i/ia daughter; /^mtna woman; felisc3Lt 
(licking itself, cf. mdr^ to smooth; mdr^dras cat; Eng. puss^putz 
dichl); Tettiu5,Tatius\ {?65-/^/ri%[putting to breast], midwife. Goth. 



— 286 — 

daddyan, O. H.G.toit to suckle; O. H.G.<»/a breast; Eng. dad, daddy; 
to dandle] to daddle (walk as child); to diddle, coax a child, cheat; 
Ger. tdndeln to use baby talk, reprove child; O. Eng. day, dey milk; 
Late Lat. dayeria dairy; A. S. [s]tttt, Ger. Zitze teat; Ger. Stute brood- 
mare. O. R. doyan to suckle; doilitza nurse; deiten child; deidu 

grandfather; R. doit to milk; doiniy milch-cow; doinik milk-pail; 
dyadya uncle; tetka aunt; tyaiya (Pol. talis , Lith. ietis) father; Lith. 
deidas uncle, old man; deide uncle, grandma; deidenas cousin; deile 

nursling; deile leech; Lettish dels son. Ir. dinim (3* s. dith) to suck, 

drink; dinu lamb; didnad consolation, refreshment; delech milch-cow; 
del teat; datan foster-father; Com. tat father (see next paragraph). 

Sk. sthd to stand ; [s]tdULs, [firm] friend, father ; tat this one [who stands 
here, who exists]; sas, sd, tat he, she, it (um'ting with asa, sa, sat p. 9); 
tat [from his standpoint, allowing for this fact], therefore; tatas thence, 
thus; tathd so, so much (influenced by tan to stretch, create, p.p. taias) ; 
tathd indeed, really, truly, thus; tathyas true; tattvam truth; tolas 
friend, relation (cf. 2tt)^ p. 9); tad he, she, it; tadd at that time; 
tadiyas that one's; tatra there; tattvam the reality, the truth, nattue; 
tattvatas according to the fact, accurately; Uzsmdt (abl. of tat) there- 
fore; tadvat, td-vat (vot^Lat. ut p. 277) as great as, so great, so long, 

now; td-dric [such-sight], like, such. Gk. i, i^, xb article (sas, sd, 

tat); T-^xe? this year (p. 277); t-t)X£xo? so old, so tall (p. 131); T-^jios 
to-day, then (p. 109) ; [ova -k-tas] aM<; this very one, himself; [ta -l-afrcfl, 

TouTo this thing (p. 208). Lat. is-te that person; tarn so much; 

tantus so large; talis such; tot so often (compounded with sam, vant, 

X£5, vai), Goth, this (gen.) of the, of this; thai (plural) the, they; 

th-adei [there], where [adhi, ad) ; thammei that, so; thanuh then; thana- 
seiths that side, beyond; that-ain that one; thou as (lavas); the the 

more; thei in order that. R. tot this, that; to est that is [to say]; 

to'gda then; to-zhe the same; tak thus, so. Ir. [si-te], side, so'din, 

G'de this. 

Sk. [s^a, tvam, Zd. tUnt'^ thou, [standing there; ta»ava]; Sk. tavas; 

ZA. ihwa thy. Gk. [x/e, tI]; Dor. t(5; Boeot. to(5, tojJv; Attic oii 

thou; Dor. Te/6?; Att. a6<; thy. Lat. tu, lute thou; tuus thy. 

Goth, thu thou; theins thy. O. R. /[v]* thou; ivoy thy; Lith. tu 

thou; tavas'is that of thine. Ir. ta thou; do thy; du-l'menmain to 

thy mind; W. ti, tili, titheu thou; dy thy; Bret, te thou; da thy (ikwa). 

Sk. 5<Ad to stand, be firm, [bind]; sldi to wrap, robe, [roll together]; 
stydi to heap up, [heave breast, sigh], sound; stu, sttibh, stdm to [heave 



— 287 — 

chest» utter voice; to magnify, exalt]; to praise, chant; stonuis h3min; 
stam to be whirled round ; tu (tavimi, tdutni) to swell, grow ; tuvi- mighty, 
great; [tavyam], tdyam water; tlv to be swollen, large, stout; tivras 
[swelling thunder-cloud], dark, flashing, great, strong, violent, fierce; 
tumras swollen, stuffed, solid; iumalas crowded, tumultuous, noisy; 
tulumas abundant; tun to curve, fill; tunas a quiver; sthiind a tree- 
trunk, colunm. 2ki. tu to be able; tuvan strong; ftHi swollen, large; 

0i!ina pillar; gtaman mouth; Pers. tavus peacock (swelling, dilating 
tail). Gk. tSO? great, abundant; xauw to magnify; Tau-yerov moun- 
tain {twui'^aiaSy mighty heap); TtTu6<; (intens. redup.) swollen storm- 
cloud, torn by vulture winds (cf. Prometheus); [TtTtfpa<;], T(Tupo<; 
[pufl&ng, piping, breeze], satjnr; TQuatOi; [inflated], empty, idle; Taf(b<; 
peacock; [tuvras], T0p6<; cheese (rounded, swollen); ^ou-Tupov [cow- 
cheese], butter of kine (goat-milk has little cream); tuXt), t6Xo<; 
swelling, lump, bolster; TuXfodco to roll up, curve; cruXo? [trunk], 
pillar; ivruvci) to swell, raise; to deck, prepare, equip; cruco to swell 
up; oTod [high] warehouse, portico; oreu^jtat to boast, undertake; 
0T6(Jka mouth; Teu(ideo(jia( to construct, effect, bring to pass (xu&i>, 

causa) ; TimoXo?, T(i.Gepo(; round top. ^Lat. [tuver], /iifer swelling; tuba; 

[tivras impetuous] Tiber, Tiberius, Tibur, Teverone (p. 13); tunteo to 
swell; tumor; tumidus; tumulus; tomentum stufi&ng, tow; tomex rush 
rope ; toma-culumssLUSSLge ; [amb-tomen], abdomen (swelling round, p. 19) ; 
ti^tulus (intens. red.) [boast, praise], inscription; tun'ica tunic (tun); 

tibia pipe. A. S. thedn to grow, thrive; thedtv grip, force, custom 

(compressing the tumid); thecvan to restrain, control. O. R. 

I^'liii (redup.) to be fat; tulu quiver (cf. tunas); R. t[v]il back, rump; 
tulovishMe trunk of body ; tulya turban ; tovar [energy, zeal], merchandise ; 

tovarishk [helper], comrade. Ir. [tdev], tdeb [swollen], side; [touur], 

tibur, topur fountain, spring; W. twf force, vigor; Bret. Ufi, teili^ fat; 
teuen embankment ; tu side, place; O. C river names (swelling, mighty) 
Tavus, Tavia, Tavio, Tovios, Tobius, Tufer^obius, Tu-esis (swelling 
water); [Tiv'iscus], Tibiscus; Teverius, Teveristus, Te^urnia, Tib'Urnia, 
Tummo, Tumelius, Tomianus; Tov-issacus, W. tywysog, Ir. tossach chief. 

Sk. sthd to stand, be firm; sthdnus firm, immovable, solid; stanas 

woman's breast; [s]tan to be [firm], tense; to create, effect, trust. 

Gk. o6lvo^ force, strength; a6evap6^, SOiveXo^, StcCvo) strong; 
[a]6i5v, 8ijGev certainly, surely (p. 285); 8t)6uv(i> to hold back, delay; 
cTi^viov breast; cTev6<; [packed, crushed together], narrow, close, 
pinched, small; [a]0£vap sole of foot, palm of hand, surface; 0Tev6(i> 
to be in straits, diflSculty; orefvco to straighten, pack, crowd; orivu? 
claw, point (8vo5). Lat. [s]teneo to hold firm. O. N. stedhya to 



— 288 — 

set, make firm, steady; stedhi, stedhyastein anvil. A. S. stede a place; 

stdn stone; 5toena hardened clay, pottery. R. stanovit to set, place; 

5<an encampment, [back-bone], stature; 5tofK7ik establishment; lathe; 
press; si[v]inut to be [rigid], cold. Ir. tend firm, stiff, strong. 

Sk. stanas [firm, swollen] breast; stan to sigh, groan, thunder 
[from tense breast, cloud]; tan to stretch out, expand (tent, water- 
skin), to round, shape, create; tanyatus roar, thtmder; tanyiis roaring. 

Gk. 0Tev6<; tense, narrow; orivci), to groan, sigh, lament; ot6voc, 

oTovox^ groan; [a]T6vo? sound. Lat. Umo to thunder; Umiiru 

thimder. O. N. ihunyan to thtmder; thundr bow; dunr roar, rattle; 

dyne thunder, din; stUnian to [strike with sling-stone], stun; O. H. 

G. donor thunder. R. stenat, stonat to groan; ston a groan. 

Ir. tennad singing; tonn surge ; tond-gar thtmder of surge ; O. C. Tanaros 
Juppiter Tonans. 

Sk. same roots; tan (tanomi, tanve, tanye, tdye; p.p. taias) to stretch 
out, expand (tent, water-skin); to round, create, vex, twist; tan to 
trust firmly; tanus [rib-bound] body; tanuiras coat of mail (6i5pa$); 
tanir to [fill skin-bottle], feed, nourish; dandh to [belly-out], feed; 
tanayas son; tantram bringing up children; tdnas string, chord, tone; 
tantis [stretched], thin, tender; tantis, tantras thread, weaver; tandrd 

tension, weariness. Zd. tan to stretch, to lead [by tense rope]; 

tanya outspread. Gk. Tovua) to stretch, string, strain; tcCvw, Tcra^vd) 

to stretch [bow], stretch out, make an effort, flash round, aim; Ttviaou 
to [aim, dart], brandish, shake; TtTave<; creators, natural forces; 
TtT(iv flashing sun; 'tkayoq white chalk; [TeveTO<;], TlveBo? beacon; 
TeTav(5(; rigid; T4Tavo<; lock-jaw; 4-Tevi^<; (4 intens.) intent, keen 
glancing, unyielding; tIvwv tendon; Tatvfa fillet, spit of land; TaCvapo^ 
(end of promontory); & tov! good friend (tried, trusted; tan to trust); 
Tovu-, Tava6<; outstretched, thin; t4v5<i), Tev6e6(i> to gnaw, stuff, 

devour (of animals). Lat. teneo to hold, [pull]; tendo to stretch; 

tentorium tent; tento to try; caus. tempto to try; temfms [extended] 
time (cf. Ir. and Lith.); tenuis thin; tener tender; tenus [stretched to], 
as far as; tenus, tendicula string; os-tendo to [aim at], point out; tenor 
continuity; Titinius, Titus, Tatius flashing, eager (Sk. tatas); tinnio 
to vibrate, twang, tinkle ; [6e(;-Tefv(i)], desiino to [set arrow on string], aim; 
festino to speed; tinea [spark], moth ; titio fire-brand; taeda [greasewood, 

resin], torch (xevOeua)) ; taedium repletion, weariness. Goth, thanyan 

to stretch out, thin; at-thinsan to pull, draw; [s]tains withe, osier; 
tainyo basket; O. N. thunnr thin; thundr bow; thinull withe, rope; 
A. S. thedn to swell, inflate, grow; to bind, control; thystru flickering 



— 289 — 

(cf. TtTaCvw; 8efeXo<;); Ger. duster twilight, dark; O. H. G. dona string; 

dienen to be eager, serve. O. R. tentiva bow-string; teneto snare; 

tiniku thin; R. steisnyai to tighten; tyanut to stretch, draw, weigh; 
Lith. (caus.) tempyu to stretch; timpa sinew; temptyva bow-string. 

Ir. tennaim to strain, press, urge; tenne tension; tend stretched, 

firm; tennim to sparkle, bum; ten, tene fire; ten-ddl fire-brand; tan 
time; tana (W. teneu, Bret. tenai£), thin; tH (W. tant) harp-string; 
W. tan until; Bret, tennein to draw, snatch; tennad extended, wide; 
tan fire; tanHein to scorch, stmbum, tan (skin; leather; melting with 
tan oak [bark]); ten [6cw]-shot; taHouiz [tight, thin], sieve; tan [long- 
lived, trusty] oak; Cor., Bret, glas-tanen [green], live oak; O. C. Tenedo; 
Tinos, Tina, Tisa [flashing river, tison]; Tisanius, Titthi, Tettonius; 
Tann-etus oak-forest (Lat. querc-etum p. ii); Tanetos; Tano-talus 
brow of oak. 

Sk. same roots; [sthan to make tense, quiver, stuff tense, round out, 
bend]; tandram [tension], weariness, languor; tantr, dandh to [stuff 
skin-bag, belly], to feed; dhan to [be swollen, pregnant], bring forth, 
bear fruit; dhdnyas harvest; com; dhanam wealth; dhanin, dhanyas 
rich, prosperous; dhanvan, dhanvam, dhanus bow (curving, tense); 
[curving] plain, shore (brim, dipping bank) ; dhvans to hurl down ; dhanv 
to go [aroimd, eddy], flow; danv to go [round], wander ( =vra^e) ; dhinv, 
dinv to exhilarate, love (stuff with food); tundas [stuffed] belly; 

iun to fill; tUnas quiver; tun to curve; tun, tund to be curved. Ok. 

SIvSpov fruit-tree, tree (dandh) ; OoivdecA to feast (dhan, dhdnyas) ; Sov&i> 
to whirl (danv) ; ^tjv, 8av, Jo/iv wide circumference, far around, far away, 
long ago; 8T)vat6? long-lived, ancient; 8a, 8av the earth (wide, fruitful); 
Aoevdhj gendering nature, confined under earth by winter; quickened by 
golden light of sun; giving birth to spring; speeding over sea in sacred 
vessel; AovaoCcirclers, roamers (cf. AfoXel?, ^ov80 ; Advao? (circling year) 
is father of the Danaids (lengthening nights) who slay their southern 
htisbands (shortening days) ; Hyper-mnestra (cf. 'Aya-jii^jLvcov) is win- 
ter's turn, yide; SxeCpuv (kshur, day-shortener) is a similar myth; 
6k, 6tv, (6tvo?[form dhinv]) [rounding] heap, pile, sand-bank; [dhvanv, 
O/Gcv, fOov], 90gEv(i> (96 2) vat) to [run around predecessor and] come in 
first; to anticipate; [6f£v<i)], 96(vci) to [be bent down, sunk, crushed; 
to], waste away, perish; ^^Ick;, 9O6T] decay; 96((tevoi the dead; 9661^ 
(cf. 6t<;) round [mass of dough], cake; 4>0(a (dhinv); [6/ov&>], 90ovi<i> 
to [bend the bow, aim, watch with ill eye], envy, grudge; 966vo^ malice; 
[8fev], 8ewit^(i) to [shoot at], revile; Bovlco to shake, whirl, drive, 

sound; 86va5 arrow, reed. Lat. Daunt men of the shore; Daunia; 

[davnum], damnum shipwreck, total loss, ruin; [dhanv, metath. dhvan, 

19 



— 290 — 

dhan to feed, be bountiftil]; duanus, bonus good; bene well; [davan, 
davam\ dum until; demum at last; dudum long ago; dumus thicket 
(davas, p. 296; cf. con « cum) ; done^c until (£a) ; deni^que at last; damma 

roaming chamois. O. H. G. ianne fir-tree (cf. abies)\ A. S. dUn a 

dune; a-dUn sloping downward, down; denn^ dene valley, den; A. S. 
dvinan, O. N. dvtna to perish, dwindle; O. N. dUn coiling place, den, 

bed; duni [whirling] fire; Danir [roving] Danes. R. sveno ring, 

chain; dontze bottom of vessel; Dvina deep current; d^v^inya [round, 
hollow], melon; davno long ago (80/iv). Ir. dana, dan [circum- 
ference, beyond it], far, furthermore; tuatha d^ dona pan the tribes 
of the gods of [the horizon, sunset]. Hades; duine (Bret, d^) 
[mortal, perishing] man; dind, din, dUn [swelling] hill, mound, fort; 
din, dind delightful {dhinv); O. C. Dinius, Dindius; Dinia (Digne, 
Dinant) ; Uxellodunum high fort; Bonus the Don (winding). 

Sk. dhanvan bow; dhvdnksh, dhvaksh to twang, snarl, yell, buzz; 
dhvan, dhvan, dhan, dhan to sound; dhva^, dhvan^, Ved. dhan to 
whirl, speed, wave; dhvans to hurl down, destroy (^OCatO; dhanv, 

danv to speed, go. Gk. [O/iYyci), O^lyyti)], ^i'f'fo\kai to sound 

(lyre, thunder, shout); ^^iy^a voice of bird, bull, man; 966770? 
clear sound, utterance, vowel; Sovio) to sotmd; SolSu^ pestle {dkva£i, 

Lat. donee imtil? denique at last [target, goal, Zweck]? [dingua], 

lingua tongue, language (cf. 8dcxpu, lacryma). A. S. tunge tongue; 

Eng. twang [sound of bow; form dvdnksh]; tang [sotmd of metal]; 
twitch, twinge; to tuck; Ger. zucken to quiver; ewingen to bend, force, 
control (as bow) ; Zweck target, goal, aim, intention; zanken to quarrel. 

R. zvonit to sound; zvonkii sonorous; zuuk sotmd; zuukat to sound, 

resound; zveizda [twinkling] star; duga, duzhka bow; dvigat to whirl, 

revolve. Ir. dingim to [bend], force, suppress, subdue; daingen 

[bound], firm; diian lay, song; Bret, dinsein to rattle, ring; dinseu dice. 

Sk. dhanvan bow; dhanv, danv to go, speed (arrow); to run, flow; 
dand to brandish, strike; dhinv to go, speed, cheer; dhydi, dhi to 
[aim], purpose, meditate, be eager; dhi intellect; dhi to seek eagerly; 

love; to [hurl], spurn; didhi to flash out; dinas terrified. Gk. 6e(vw 

to strike, dash, wreck; Ovi^^^ {dhvans) to fall, perish, die; 6vi]t6c 

mortal; Odtvoro? death. haX. fendo, offendo to dash, strike against, 

stumble; in-fensus, in-festus hostile ; /ana/tVi*5 reeling, rushing, raving. 

O. N. dynta to shake; dynt stroke, blow; Eng. dent, dint; A. S. 

dyttan to close, shut. Ir. diith, dith [bow-shot], death, limit, end. 

Sk. [sthan], tan to make tense, quiver, shoot (p. 288) ; dhanvan bow; 



— 291 — 

[<van], tun, fund to be circular, curved; tund to make an effort, revolve ; 
tud, tud, tad, tand, tat, dand to [whirl, brandish], strike, pound, [bray 
in mortar], bore, pierce, woimd, [use fire-drill]; dandas club, staff, rod 
of punishment; dundubhis, dindimas drum; tundam beak; totram 
goad; todas sting; dat, dantas tooth; tudd to kick, scorn; tut to quarrel 
(strike, peck, stab); tittibhas daw; tutth to whirl about, strew around, 

cover; Tudas proper name. Gk. TuBeu^ smiter, thunderbolt; 

T68a^; TuvSipeog revolution; husband of Leda (p. 144); Atv$u(jiivv] 
Cybele, force of nature; worshipped with cymbals; TlveSo<; beacon; 

T(i)6dC(i> to mock. Lat. tundo {tutudi) to strike, bray, chop; per- 

tundo to drill, bore; studeo to be zealous, eager, push forward, clap 

hands, applaud; tondeo {totondi) to [chop off, peck off], shear. 

Goth, statuan to strike, push, hew, stossen; us-daadyan to make an 
effort, be zealous; tundnan to [use fire-drill], be kindled; aihva'tundi 
[swift-spark, first-bloom], hawthorn; O. N. stunda to make an effort; 
stunda [revolving] hour; A. S. thoden thud, noise; tyndre tinder; stdd 
stallion; studu in-set beam, stud; tid [revolving] time, [swelling] tide 
(dindimas) ; styntan to [hanmier down], stunt, blunt; O. N. theyta, thiota 

to hurl, rage, howl; tindr point, [fire-drill], peak, tine, Zinne. R. 

tuzit to strike with fist, beat; st[v]idu [goaded] from behind, behind 

(xevrifi), hindana, p. 246); si[v\id shame. Ir. /i«rf wounded, painful; 

tind, tend cutting, slaughter; tene, tine (gen. tened) fire ; teidm pestilence; 

tethna, teadnas passion, lust; tonnad poison, death. O. C. Tenedo; 

Tedhdhius, Tessius fiery, impetuous; Tenes4ina spark; Ted-usia 
sparkling- water; Caraco-tinum, p. 180. 

Sk. dantas, dot tooth. Zd. dafUan tooth, point. Gk. 6lo6z 

{6l6vTO(;, d=5a, tooth meeting tooth). Lat. dens (dentis). Goth. 

tunthus; O. H. G. zand, Lith. dantis. Ir. d^\ W., Bret. dant\ 

0. C. Tfi'denium (cf . Trvgaboli fork of Po) . 

Sk. tun, tund to be circular; tund to go rotmd, whirl; tutth to whirl 
about, strew, wrap, cover; sthud, thud to wrap, cover ; dand to brandish ; 

dandh to [rotmd out], feed. Gk. xuvrXil^d) to splash with mud, 

wallow, grub, [sputter], prattle; tutO^?, Tuwi^ babyish, little, [scarce 
a drop], scarcely; TeuTd^w to [spin rotmd], be brisk, busy; Teu6(g 

cuttlefish (whirling tentacles); xeuxXov [whorl], beet. ^Umbr., 

Osc. tauta, touta, tota [ring- wall], town; Osc. tuvtiks urban; Samn. 
Equus Tuticus hill town (ag peak; Aequi p. 2) ; Lat. totus all-embracing, 

all, the whole. Goth, thiuda, O. H. G. diot people; Norse thvait 

village; Goth, thiuiheigs [public spirited], generous, good, poptilar; 
thiuthyan to bless; thut-haurn trumpet [for gathering troops) ; O. H. G. 



— 292 — 

diozan to eddy; O. N. thdttr twist, thread; ihveiti small change. •* 

Lith. tatUa land; R. tutoviy medlar (round pip). Ir. tiiaih people; 

tuiihlae hump, swelling; idud to [swell], gender, bear; ionn, land billow, 
surface, skin; tdn buttocks; W., Cor., Bret, tynell, tonnel, tonel [rounded 
bark], skin, surface, barrel; Bret, ^crnn^n turf; tud people; O. C. Teuto- 
people; ToutO'bodiaci victorious people; Toutio'tix; W. Tut'gualf Ir. 
Tuath-fcU rampart of people {Tuthill, Tuttle, Toodle, 0*Toole); Tuda, 
Tueda [swelling] rivers; Tonneius, TotUius potters; Tunn-ocelum 
high mound. 

Sk. sthd to stand, be firm ; stydi to heap up, round out, pack together, 
bind, encircle, crush, btu*st, flash, ring out, spread round; siai to 
wrap, clothe; lay, tdy, day, de to encircle, guard [sheep, camp], watch, 
glance round, make roimds, love, shoot [wolf]; tdyus prowler, roamer, 
thief; sten to [wander round, prowl], steal; steyam theft; tev, dev, div 
to sport rotmd, shoot; dyu to assail; dyiU to prowl round, flash rotmd, 

shine; ddi to rub, scour; caus. form dip to flash. Gk. TdEw, Titiw 

to grasp, seize; oral^, oraC^ (oracT^O dough [heaped, handled, rolled]; 
oriap (orioToO dough; tallow, fat (tousled, rubbed into buckskin; 
[TTjTdEd) to snatch, steal]; Tt)-(jieX&i> to guard, care for (|i.iX(i> p. 97); 
Tt)Tdo(jiac to be stripped, deprived; ti^ want; ttquoio? empty, vain; 
8fJ(i) to [prowl], discover, seek; 8n^T)(i.at (red.) to seek; Atjco [wanderer, 

protector] = AT)-iJiiJTY)p. Lat. tueor to watch, guard, glance rotmd; 

con-tueor, in-tueor, circum-tueor; Ta'tius reever; tenebrae darkness 

(sten), Goth, thitis, thivi, thevis (O. H. G. dio, diu) household 

servant (brisk) ; thiubs (A. S. thedf) thief (prowler; causal, or developed 
/); ga-thivan to enslave; O. N. thy maid-servant; A. S. ge-tvaeman, 

ge-tvaefan to rob, snatch, drive off (day, div, dip), R. tail to [whirl 

away], conceal, hide; taikom stealthily, mysteriously; taina mystery, 
secret; iein shadow, darkness, ghost; steina [encircling, protecting] 
wall; t[v]in palisade; dyatel woodpecker (dyut) ; staya marauding band. 

Ir. tdin cattle-reeving, foray; tdid thief; taiscim to hide away; 

taisse the dead, relics, ghosts; di^iM protection; O. C. Taius, Taietio, 
Taetania; Tasinemetum. 

Sk. day (daye) to toss round, be lavish, give; middle voice to 
claim one's share, enjoy, eat; dayd grace, mercy; ddy to give; ddyas 
share, inheritance; dd to give; do, da (ddmi, dydmi) to cut, carve 

game, share; ddtis division; ddiram portion. Gk. Satt^cj to cleave, 

divide; Ba((i> (8d(aao(Jia() to divide, distribute, feast; SatTpeuci) to carve; 
8atTpi^ carver; 8aU food, feast; 8atTu^, Saf-n) portion, a meal; [Syatxa], 
liavzoL [appointed, destined] manner of life, diet, dwelling; legal arbitra- 



— 293 — 

tion ; 8«(yu(i.i to feast ; 8a(TU(jL(&v guest ; lanio\kai to divide, cut in two, share ; 
8aavL6^ division, share, tribute; 8ea-ic6TT)<; portion-master, head of house- 
hold; 8^-(i.0(; assignment of land, commune, folk-moot, people (da to 
carve; mas to measure?) ; 8a(*(JKi)v good luck, genius; de*8T)(jioyi(i> to have 
bad luck, be wretched; AtqcJ, Ari^-fivrip [portion giver], Demeter; 8y)ijl(5^ 

portion of fat, added to meat-portion. Lat. con-dio to add fixed 

proportion, season, fry; con^dimentum seasoning, seasoned dish;di- 

V'ido (8a/ftici)); di-, de [divided] from, [a part] of (p. i6). R. davat 

to grant. Ir., W. di, Com. dhe, Bret, di- from, of. 

Sk. same root day to distribute; da to divide; da to give; caus. 
ddpaydmi to cause to give, distribute; desid. [dips], dits to desire 

portion. Gk. Sdicro) to cut, tear to pieces, devour (melts with 

dang, dag to bite) ; SaicavdEo) to spend, use up, exhaust; SoxdevY] expense, 
extravagance; 84ica(; banquet-bowl, beaker; 8a(|;tXti(; bountiful; Sc^pdo) 

to thirst; 8etxvov banquet, dinner, food. Lat. daps meal of flesh, 

sacrificial banquet; dapinare to serve a meal; [ad-deps], adeps fat, 

drippings (added to the portion of meat). A. S. lifer, liber, O. H. G. 

zSbar, O. N. tafn sacrifice; distributing horse-flesh for meal; O. N. iafn 
the prey of wild animals; M. H. G. un-ge-zibele unhallowed; Ger. 
Ungeziefer; Zauber. 

Sk. stdi to wrap, robe; day, de to encircle, guard; da (dydmi) to 

bind; daman, ddmd bond, cord, fillet. Gk. 8&i), 8(8t)(i.( to bind, tie, 

shoe; 8et it is obligatory, duty, right; 84ai<; knot, plot; lt<j^i<; bond 
{das to whirl roimd); Bea^jLeuo) to chain, confine; Beri^ fagot; 8u(i), Suvw 
[form dyu, dyut to move round] to put on clothes; li&l'ri\L(x, xpT^-8eiJi.vov 

head-fillet, tiara. Lat. in-duo to put on, dress; dUmus, duni'elum 

thicket; [davrum, dorum], Idrum thong; lorica mail; dum while, until 

(during revolution); demum at last. Goth, ga-timan, O. H. G. 

zitnan to [encircle, clothe], fit, beseem; O. N. taumr bond, fetter, rein 
(Zaum); A. S. ttma [limited] time; team a team, pair; ge-tvaeman to 

hinder; Ger. zdumen to delay. R. davit to hang, strangle, press. 

Ir. dUiu wrap, blanket, protection; ddm a crowd, band, company. 

Sk. same roots ; ddman bond, withe ; dam, damas [boimd poles ; hut], 

house; dam-paiis house-master, husband. Zd. dema dwelling. 

Gk. 8<iMi), Bo(i.i(i> to [twist, wattle]; build, make; li\kai; framework, 
structure, body, person; 8<ii.vtov [coiling place], bed; Sojjnj, Z6\lo(; 
building, room, temple, tier of bricks; 8d), iCi\k(t house, hall, temple, 

family; MBuiJi.O(; [double body (H^aq); or 8Bt)ii.i supra], a twin. 

Lat. domus house, family; domi at home; domeslicus; domicilium {colo 



— 294 — 

to inhabit p. i6o). Dan. tammer, O. Sax. titnbar, O. H. G. zitnbar 

building, building-wood, timber; Goth, timryan to build. O. R. damu 

house; R. dom house, family; doma at home. ^Ir. [ar-, air-], er'dam 

front hall, %^-io\Lo<;\ damna material (cf. p. 284); O. C. DamnUus. 

Same roots; Sk. dam {ddmydmi, damaydmi, damanydmi p.p. ddntas) 
to [bind, lasso, yoke, hobble, tether], tame, be tamed; -dafnas taming; 
damanas tamer; damyas young steer; damas self-command; a fine; 

punishment. Gk. 8dqjLVY)(Ji(, 8a(ideci>, ioc^Xjiii to control, tame, defeat, 

kill; 8a(jid(XT)^ steer; SoyiaXC^ heifer; li^p (-aproO wife; ~8a(ioc 

controlling; 8(t(&^ slave; fi-8ii.T)T0? unbroken; il\k-/^<; unwedded. ^Lat. 

domo to tame; domitus tamed; dominus master; damnum fine; con- 

demno to ptmish (cf. p. 289). Goth. ga*tamyan, O. H. G. samdn to 

tame; O. H. G. zam tame. Ir. damim to yield, sufiEer, concede; dam 

a steer, ox; an-dam uncultivated, wilderness; W. dometic tame; 
[doth], dof tame ; dofi to tame ; dauf son-in-law (young steer) ; Bret. 
damen slave, prisoner; O. C. Demetae, Devetae tamers, shepherds; 
Davidius, David, Davies wild steer {datn-fiad) ; Damus, Damihtus. 

Sk. day to circle, defend, glance, aim, flash out; di {didi, didyati)^ 
div, dev, dyu, dyut, dyo, didhi to flash round, shine roimd, be bright; 
dhinv, dhl, dinv to delight, exhilarate; dinas day; a-dya to-day; div to 
glitter, sport; div brightness, sky; dyo, dydtis heaven; god of heaven; 

day; divyas heavenly; divam, divasas day; devas god. Zd. div to 

shine; daiva spirit. Gk. [forms 8t-, 81/]; SyJo) to [be bright eyed], 

search, find; llcczo, Soiaaero it [appeared], seemed to me; 8(/aXoc, 
SieXo^, BfjXo^ [shining], clear, manifest; eOBeteXo^ distinct, far seen, 
sunny; euBCa clear sky; IvBco^ at noon; SiXerpov lantern, torch; 
8e(eXo(; [glimmer, see-your-way], dusk; [div, dyaiis, din], Zwi^, Zij? 
Z(4<;, Ztjv, At<;; gen. Ai6(;, Zyjv(5(;; Boeot. Aeu(;, Ai^v (C^'^ly) god of heaven, 
light, evolution, order; destroyer of chaotic force; father of the exist- 
ent world and its forces; Ac/cow) (van to love) fair light, dear sky, 
mother of Aphrodite the summer cloud; AuaXoc; [divalis] the Pannonian 
Apollo; At(5-vuao? day-star (dies +vu5) son of Zeu? by Se^jtiXt) (6(taX<^, 
evening of light and dark, morning-dusk); she is consumed by the 
glory of her husband when he appears; he hides the day-star in his 
thigh, and it is bom again as evening-star (cf. AUrvas p. 117); 
Dionysus is nursed by the Hyades or nymphs of N3rssa (vu© in their 
cave, and wrapped in a dappled fawn-skin, said by Diodorus Sicultis 
to typify the starry heaven; he reappears in the far east to begin con- 
quest of earth; as representative of gladness he is confused with 
Bdbtxoc;; marries Ariadne the pole-star, who has drawn Theseus the 



— 295 — 

sun from the winter labyrinth and has been deserted when he turns 
southward again; S(a day (Cretan); 6'{l6'liov watch of moon, week, 

festival of Theseus (p. 53). Lat. dies (gen. difei) day; [dTn-divum]^ 

bi'duum two days; inter -diu by day; diu [all day] long (working-day) ; 
{Diunitis], Junius long-days; [nunc-divis\ nu-dius the present day; 
[notn'dinae], nundinae holy-days (p. 32); sub dio tmder the sky, d la 
belle ^knle; dtvus divine; deus god; [Dyus-pcUer], Juppiter (Jovis); 
Diana bright moon, crescent-bow, huntress, cold-beam; cycle of nature, 
survival of fittest, Diana of Nemi; melts with Janus, J ana (p. 10); 

c/fv^5 [brilliant, flashing roimd, generous; cf.da^]rich. ^A.S. Tives^dag 

Tuesday; O. H. G. Zio day god; O. N. [tivos], tivor, ttr god (dat. tifi, 
plu. thjar); Tyr god of war; his right hand (dakshinas, noon) is 
devoured by wolf of winter; tyr [flashing, whirling] sword; fir-tree 
(Sprotzbaum, shooting out, round); decoration, glory; tida to succeed, 
proceed; A. S. tyr splendor, brightness; tir glory; ti&r decoration (at4ire^ 
Zier) ; round heap, foundation, row, tier; tire of wheel ; O. N. tid, [tia'se], 
tidir it [revolves], turns out, succeeds; with demonst. term, tid, tiddhi 
(cf. divitis) it is manifest, appears; cans, to show, prove, convince, 
announce; to chance; tidhendi tidings; tidhr (A. S. tid) [glance], chance, 

opportunity, tide; time, hour of day, festival; Norse Tyin divine. 

Lith. deivas god; deina day; O. R. dini day (dinv) ; dini-si to-day; R. 

dennitza dawn, day-star. Ir. dia day; [sin-diu], in-diu to-day; 

denus space of time; tri-denus three days; dia god; diada divine; 
W. dyWy diw, dydd day (cf. tidh, dtdhi); [se-diw], he-diw to-day; duw 
god; duiutit divinity; Cor. det day; Bret, [didez], deiz, dez, deiieh day; 
dHadt diad circle of day, journie; dou^, doi god; Ir. d4ad, d^od sunset, 
end; Fer-d^ad hero of sunset, slain by Cuchullin the sun; O. C. 
Divius; Divio[n], Divona divinely fair; Diva, Devius.Deius, Devognata; 
Dev'fillius, Dev-ona; Dii-ona (nymph); Divico, Divixta divine help 
(icaim) ; Divitia, Divitiacos rich; In'duiio'fnarus great in wealth. 

Same roots; div, dev, to flash out, shoot, wound; dyu to assail. 

Gk. 8(4to^, 8i^to<; hostile, destructive, terrible, woful; &y)(Jci> to claw, 

tear, hew, slaughter (melts with 8a(o) p. 292). Ir. dith injury, end, 

death; O. C. [Deio-tarvus], Deio-tdrus destroying bull. 

Sk. same roots ; dinv to delight ; div, dev, tev to sport round, play ; dyut 
to flash; dyutas sport; devanas sport, game, dice; devaras, devri [play- 
mate], husband's younger brother (cf . na-nandri sister-in-law ; nand to be 

merry; implies early marriage) . Arm. [tour], tagr brother-in-law. 

Gk. Soi^p husband's brother. Lat. levir husband's brother; (cf. 

Sdbipu, lacryma) . A . S . tdcor, O . H . G . zeihhur brother-in-law (cf . Arm.) . 



— 296 — 

^Lith. deiveris husband's brother; O. R. deiveri brother-in-law; R. 

deiva, deivka unmarried girl; [dvyat\ zyai brother-in-law? deiviknik 
wedding evening. Bret, deouiein to be swift, eager. 

Sk. same roots; day, div to circle, shoot, flash; dl {diydmi) to whirl, 
eddy, speed, fly round; caus. vi-dip to flash; pari-di to flow round, 
fly round; di {diye, daye) to soar; dinas flight; dina5 confused, wretched; 
di to [fly away], vanish; didhi to flash round; dhanv, danv to revolve 
(p. 289); du {dunami) to be dizzy, confused; du to roam round; davas 
[pathless] forest; du to be whirled, tormented, grieved; dhu, do-dhu to 

eddy, whirl, blow, be confused, tremble. Gk. Bfco, B(eo6at to run, 

drive, flee, be afraid, routed; BIvt), 8tvo? whirl, whirlpool, creative 
force, waltz, lathe, goblet; Bcveuo) to whirl, eddy, dance, bore; h&yi<; 
vehement, terrible, splendid, keen, clever; 8elva a certain person 
[aimed at]; Suvaqioet to be [impetuous], strong; 8uya(jit<; force; Staivci) to 
sprinkle, wet, weep; 84ci) to be [poured out, empty], in need; 8io(i.a( to 
tell one's need, beg, entreat; ivWco to [be empty within, hungry], 
needy, poor; 8u<i), 86vii> to whirl down, roll down, plunge into, set [of 
sun]; 8eu(i) to [cast away], miss, lack; to sprinkle, wet; to roll, knead; 
8uT) woe; Sueptf^ tmlucky; Suoo) to plunge in woe; [8i}(JLa sunset]; 
>Ey*B(i(ji((i)y evening-star; his sleep (setting) is watched by the new- 
moon (AdeT(Jio^, p. 144) ; caus. 8uxt(i> to dive ; 8o(ix&i> to fall with a [splash], 
crash; [ciovos] 8io(; [confusion], fear; SeCBco to fear [didhi\\ [du, dav, 
davri circler]; Ao)ptei5^ rover, Dorian; AcopU sea-nymph (drcling 
horizon, cf. Tptxcov); 'Eic(8aupo(; on the seashore; Beupo, BeuTe [turn] 
hither! [with / for n*] BelXr) [rolling down], descent of sun, afternoon; 
8etXi(; [turning, flying, cf. ^euYw] cowardly; 8ouXo<; slave (confused, 
captured); 8itO(; [roaming], wretched; [8a/aX6(;], 8auX6(; dense [forest]; 
AauXl? forest; nightingale; 8k4 [boring] through; [aiming at], for the 
sake of; [shooting] beyond? Botij confusion, perplexity, doubt; 
So(iI^(i), 8oc(iI^(i) to hesitate. Lat. [duvius], dubius [confused], doubt- 
ful (cf. sandigdhas), O.N. titra to tremble; Eng. to titter; Germ. 

sittern (8e(8o)); O. N. ttna to [revolve], count, tell, report; tjma to 
hurl away, lose; [tyna-se], tjhtaz to perish; A. S. stUnian to whirl, 

confuse, stun. Ir. dian svnit\d&ne speed; diiiu [ring-wall], protection 

(melts with day to guard, p. 279); diih circle, boundary, end; doe 
ring-wall; doe [confused], slow; [duva\ duba confusion, perplexity, 
sorrow, [darkness; cf. davas forest]; dub dark, black; dobur evil, foul 
[stagnant]; dobur [eddying, deep], water (cf. 861CTO)); doboT'chu [water- 
dog], otter, beaver; dobrdn beaver; W. dauu [roaming, landless], 
subject, serf; W. dwbr, dwfr, Com. dowr, dour, Bret, dubr, dour water; 
Bret, dovein, doikein to [roll down, plump down], lay eggs; Bret. 



— 297 — 

davein to [turn round], delay; daufeu idle tales; W. davcU, Bret, davad 
[wandering] sheep; Ir. diuit scatterbrained, simple; O. C. Dubra, 
Dubris [deep bank], water, Dover (5 in France); Davus serf; Davius 
Daverius; Davilus; Dolus; Bret. Dedeu the Wandering Jew. 

Sk. div, [du] to wheel, revolve, [bend double]; dvi-, dvdu, dva two; 
dvis twice; dvi-tlyas second {lay to circle); dva-yas twofold; [d)pi in 

two, apart, asunder, around, outside [circle]; dvi-dhas in two. Zd. 

dva two; [dvi, dW], bi- two (in composition) ; [dvitiyas], bitya the second. 

Gk. 8uci), 8uo, 8otot two; 81- in compos.; 8ft<; twice; [dvit-aras]^ 

Beuxepo? second; [dvityos], 8taa6? double; BJ^a, 8tx6d asunder, apart 
(wS, insh to separate, p. 267); 8txo-oTaa(a variance; Bta- apart; 8ta-, 
^GB- doubly, exceedingly (ZdXeuxo<; very white; X^dfyikri curved double). 

^Lat. duo, W- two ; bis twice ; dis- apart ; bini in pairs ; Umbr. [dus]^ 

dur two. Goth, ivat; fern. ^(5s; neut. tva (gen. tvaddye^dvidhas); 

tvis-stass ^liXO'^aola; Ger. sswischen betwixt. Lith. du; fem. dz;i; 

0. R. dva, duva; R. dvukh- in compos. Ir. [dva], dd; fem. di; d^- in 

compos.; W., Cor., Bret, dou; fem. dui, diu. 

Sk. div, [du] to turn, wheel; dvi [repetition, doubling, direction 

toward]. Zd. da toward; vaegmen-da homeward. Gk. olxivBe, 

oTxa-8e, oTxa^K; homeward; Oupal^e to the door, out of the door, 
out of doors; 8< (repetition), and, however, but; 8(4-ice5ov, W-xeBov 
[to the] ground, floor, plain; ^o-, 8ta- [doubly], intensive prefix; Bcde 

[whirling, boring] through, [turning toward], for the sake of. Lat. 

[do'dico] dedico, to dedicate. A. S. td, O. H. G. zuo, za, ze, zi to, 

unto. O. R. do, do- unto, until near. Ir. do, du to, imto. 

Sk. dt, du to whirl; du to be dizzy; davas [bewildering] forest, 
[whirling] fire; du (dunomi); to be whirled, vexed; causal dip to 
whirl, blaze, kindle, bum; davas^ davas, davathus blaze, conflagration, 

heat. Gk. 8a((i) (W5T)a, 8e5au^J^.4vo(;) to kindle, bum, devastate; 

lat<i (8at8oO> 8a8{ov, [8a/aX6<;], 8apeX6^, 8aXi? fire-brand, torch. 

R. davka [whirling] crowd. Ir. ten*ddl, ddil'teinid fire-brand; 

[davathus], dddha, ddd conflagration; ddim, ddthim to bum, singe; Bret. 
devi to bum. 

Sk. same roots; du, dhu, dhu to whirl; [davas circling]; [davalas 
tangling, twisting, rolling, brandishing, flashing]; dval to stir, mix; 

dul to toss roimd, play dice (v. p. 281); dhulis [whirling] dust. Gk. 

8iXXco, l^iXXci) to throw (Hesych.); 8eXXt5 [whirling] wasp; ^iXr) surge, 
spray; 8T}Xio(jiaet to [whirl, shoot; to bewilder, bewitch]; to harm, do 
mischief; BtjXi^iiLwv baneful ; 8t}Xt}ti^pco<; noxious, poisonous; [86X*8(XXa>], 



— 298 — 

8ev*8(XXa> to glance around, flash the eyes (dkanushaw, aim) ; 8i{Xeo6at, 
8e(Xea6at to [aim at], desire; l6iXa> to desire (d-cUival); SiXeap, SelXop 
(-oToO bait, attraction; SatBdXXd) to [wreathe, embroider, turn, 
shape, mold, variegate], work gold, ivory, shape statues; SotSdXeoc 
beautifully made, variegated; Aa(3aXo^ the circling, creative, flashing 
sun; he constructs a xop6(;, dancing place (cycling sky) for Ariadne 
the pole-star, and the Lab3rrinth for Minos (p. 85) ; he is imprisoned 
in it and escapes with his son Icarus the day-star (p. 264) who is lost 

in his father's ra3rs; 8ev8aX(^ cake; 86X0? trick; 86Xa>y top-sail. ^Lat. 

[delu image]; delu-brum shrine; dole to shape, rotmd, hew; dola-bra 
axe; dolium earthen jar (molded); doleo to [be whirled, troubled], 

suffer; dolus [confusing] snare, deceit. Goth. tU [glance, aim], 

chance, opportunity; ga-tilon to attain; icUsyan to [relate], teach; 
A. S. tilian (O. H. G. zildn) to aim at, strive toward goal, direct plow, 
boat (to till; tiller); telian, iellan (O. H. G. zellan) to [glance from one 
object to another], count, tell; teltian to whirl, shake, dash roxmd, 
tilt; O. N. tiaJd tent, tapestry; ial computation, narrative; ial fraud; 

O. H. G. zdla ambuscade. R. deilat to shape, round, make, do; 

reflex, deilai-sya to ttun out, become; [dolvit], dolbit to hew, carve, 

hollow; O. R. deluva jar; Lith. dailus beautiful, dailitUi to adorn. 

Ir. deddl [returning, gleaming], twilight; dell*rad glory, light, dawn; 
dula roaming; dollod I went; [delu, delv], delb figure, form, in[]age 
(W. delu; cf. delu-brum); delbaim, dolbim to shape, form, fashion; 
dolbud a Action; dolbthach enchanter; diUeman, dtUetn [rounder, shaper], 
creator; duil creature, creation; dualaige painter; ddel, ddel cockchafer 
(BeXX(<;); deilm uproar, confused din; dillat [wrapped] garment (W. 
id); Bret, delin [fire-drill], flint and steel; dilhad garments; duU germ, 
navel; delu form; dolien envelope, husk. 

Sk. day to [toss round, hand to guests], give, distribute, be generous, 
merciful; da (p.p. ddtas) to give; do (dydmi) to [twist off, tear prey], 
cut up, distribute (p. 292); dal (dalami, daddla) to burst; caus. dalor 

ydmi to divide. Gk. 8ac8(iXX(i> to carve, engrave; 8Y)Xio(JLat to slay, 

harm (melting with p. 297). ^Lat. dolo to hew. A. S. taele torn; 

be-daelan to tear away, expose, reveal ; daelan to divide, share (implies 
Sk. form dhal as dd melts with dhd p. 285; v. p. 278); Goth, dailyan 
(O. H. G. iailyan) to distribute, share; dails a share, portion; ga-daila 

sharer, companion. ^Lith. daliyu to divide; dalis part, share; R- 

deilit to divide, distribute, share; dolya share, portion; doloto chisel. 

Ir. ddlim to divide, distribute; ddil share, portion; dailem butler; 

dU one's own; lawful share; diles property, possession ; (^ilmain lawful 
(p. 81); de-dail parting, severance, cutting; ddl farther shore; Dal 



— 299 — 

Riada Ulster coast; O. Bret. Dal-itoc generous; O. Ir. Dal-agnos cheer- 
fully generous. 

Sk. day, de to move round, [glance, aim round, observe], to protect, 
[consider, be gracious], (p. 279); di, div, dinv, dhi, dhinv to whirl, 
flash, glance, exhilarate, delight; dhydi to observe, reflect, think; 

du, dhu, dhu, dhanv to go round, revolve, whirl. Gk. [8ae£a), Baico], 

So^vot to observe, learn, know; 8ai^(jKi)y experienced, wise; &a(, 81^, 8i 
how now? for sure; SdEojiat, 6e(io(jLac, 6T)io(i.ac, Dor. 6a£o(jiai to gaze, 
view, reconnoitre, reflect; 6<a view; [6eaTU(;], 6aTU(; = 66G>p(a (Hesych.); 
Oiorpov theatre; 6ia|ia, OaO(JLa marvellous sight, wonder; 6ea>p(a (dpda>) 
view, point of view, Weltanschauung, theory; 6o6(; swift, active; 
6e6? god (swift, all-seeing; cf. p. 284); SeoeCxeXoc;, 6<[o]oxeXo^ godlike 

(p. 160); 6eaxiato^ divinely uttered. Goth. {ga*davan\, ga^daban 

to [hit mark], chance, happen, be suitable; dius (plu. diuzis) wild 

beast (watchful, lurking). O. R. diviti sen to wonder; divesa 

marvel; R. divniy wonderful; divo prodigy; Bohem. divadlo theatre. 
Ir. daih color (Oorfii;); data agreeable, O. C. Daiio-vir, 

Sk. day, div, dev to glance, aim, dart, wound; to utter cry. lament; 
dhl to hurl out, spurn; ava-dhydi to spurn; apa-dhydi to curse; shiiv, 

shtiv to spit. Gk. 6etov brimstone? 6e(vii> to strike; Bewotl^ca 

to curse. Lat. finis [mark, target], goal, end, boundary, (melts 

with p. 51; the same circle of roots implies shepherding, folding, 
loving, walling, defending, watching, aiming, shooting, ejecting foe). 

Sk. di to whirl, eddy; di to fly (cf. volvo, void) ; du, du to be whirled, 
confused, vexed ; du to blaze ; davas Are ; dhu (dhunvdn) ; dhu (dhundmi, 
dhunve, p. p. dhiUas, dhunas [melt with dhanvan p. 289]; cans, dhd- 
vaydmi; intens. dodhuye) to whirl, hurl, shake, dash out, cast away; 
dhdv (dhdvdmi, p. p. dhdutas) to nm [round], run to, eddy, sptUen, 
wash, bathe; dudh to be impatient, fierce, wild; dhumas smoke; 
dhulis [eddying] dust; dul to toss round, cast dice; dolay to whirl; 
caus. dhup (dhupdydmi) to smoke, cause to smoke, ofEer incense; to 
sparkle, flash out, speak eagerly; dhmd {dhamyamdnas, p. p. dhmdtas) 
to blow, inflate, use bellows, kindle fire; dhamas panting, [throbbing]; 
dhamanis vein; intens. dhmdnksh to pant for, long for, scream, crow; 
dhuksh to blaze ; dhiif, dhus to irradiate ; dhush to be inflamed with 

passion. Zd. dun'man [whirling] vapor, mist. Gk. 6<ci), 6e(tt 

(06U9O(&at) to run [round the track], speed, fly round (rolling stone, 
potter's wheel, quoit) ; to encircle (rim of shield) ; 6o6<; swift; Ouico to be 
wild, in a heat; Oudl^ca to celebrate orgy; Oodl^ca to whirl, speed, be brisk. 



— 300 — 

[plunge into one's place], sit down (cf. sad) ; Ootfca to [rub round, grind], 
bring to a point, sharpen, exasperate; Ou(a [pointed] savin, African 
cypress; 6ue(a, 8oBu5 a mortar (grinding); Ouca to whirl, rage (of 
wind and water), steam, rush, desire; 6u<i> to sacrifice, Ou(jLa, 6uff(a, Ouo^ 
smoking sacrifice, incense; Ou(jiiXY) altar; Qai^q storm-cloud, father 
of Iris the rainbow; 6ujxov [earth's incense], thyme; Oin^eC^ fragrant; 
0(}(x^pa savory; [dhva, vdha], ^Bio) to break wind, stink (cf. ^&dXXii>); 
Oeiov brimstone; 66yci> to rush, speed, rage; Oiiwo^ tunny fish; OueXXa 
whirlwind, tempest (dul); OiaaaoOoi to [pant for, be ardent], pray 
(dhus) ; Ou|i.tf^ passion, spirit, mind; OoMjaao) to [pant with open mouth], 
bark, bay, yell; 0(&^ wolf, jackal; caus. Oci>xeu(i> to wheedle, fawn, 

flatter (encenser?) ; 6d)^ flatterer. hat, fumus smoke] fumo to smoke; 

suffio to offer incense; suf-fitnen incense; fimus [reeking] dung; foeteo 
to stink; foedus rotten, carrion (dodhuye to cast away; but see p. 50); 
faveo, foveo to bathe (dhav), [care for baby], cherish, fsLvor; f omentum 
warm bath, caress; Favonius, Faunus southwest wind (warm and 
dewy cf. Africus, p. ao); Zephyrus, Pan; favus honeycomb (dewy, 
fragrant; OiSoO ; fovea animal's lair (cuddling cubs; ^odXjui) ; fomes hot 
coals, banked Are, kindling wood (dhmd) ; fometUo to kindle ; fauilla 

embers, ashes (dhulis; cf. oxoS^O* Goth, divan to [pant out, expire], 

die; [davathns], dauthus death; us'daudyan to [pant after], be eager, 
zealous; dauns odor (steaming pot) ; A. S. dust dust; Dutch doest, doenst 
flour; Ger. Dunst vapor; O. H. G. tunst storm; toum vapor, smoke; 
Goth, daubs, O. N. daufr [whirled, confused], deaf (dhup) ; O. N. doeU 
[whirling], light (dhulis) ; A. S. dol, O. H. G. tol mad, desperate ; Goth, 
dumbs, O. N. dumbi [confused], dumb (form dhup) ; A. S. dedv^ O. H. G. 
tau dew; (O. N. dogg with hardened digamma); A. S. duva, Goth. 
dubo, O. H. G. duba, tuba dove (circling, diving, cf. Heb. tHr; xepcorepi; 

columba), ^Lith. dumai smoke; O. R. dunanti to breathe; d[v}imu 

smoke; dukhu spirit; dusha soul; R. dukhota choking heat; dushit to 

perfume, choke; dut to blow, swell, round out; dulo gtm-barrel. 

Ir. dofin smoke-colored, brown, dun; dub dark, black; dobur dark, 
evil (p. 296) ; W., Cor., Bret, dub, duv, du dark; Bret, dumed [light as air], 
down, duvet; O. C. Dubis [dark river; Doubs, Dove]; Donnius; Donno'- 
taurus (the dun cow of Warwick; doud, tempest). 

Same roots; du, dhu to whirl; dhulis dust; dholas drum; dul to toss 

round; dhdv to eddy, wash; dhavalas pure, white. Gk. Sot&iXXAi 

to [wreathe, mold]; OiieXXa whirlwind; 6dXXa> to be fresh, happy; 
to [swell, round out, wave in breeze, be bathed with dew], be vigorous, 
luxuriant, abundant (v. dhe p. 285; trinh); 6aXX6(; sprout, bough; 
0(iXo^ scion, child; OaXiOco to bloom, be fat, wanton; OaXta, abundance. 



— 301 — 

good cheer, mirth; OdXaaaa the sea (fresh, joyous; affected by TapdEaoo), 
wind'tossed) ; [Oi/aXa], OuXXa leaves, garlands, feast of Aphrodite; 
OuXY)(jLa wave-offering; OuXX(^, OuXoxo^ [bud], seed-capsule, swelling 
bag; OtfXo<; [sweat-hut, smoke-house], vaulted kitchen, rotunda; 
OoX(a round hat, umbrella, tnmk; 0oX6^, 6oXep6^ whirling, turbid, 
foul ; sepia {dhulis) . Lat. follis, folliculus skin-bottle, bladder, wind- 
bag, fool; fuhigo soot (OoXeSO^ /m/^ washerman (dhavalas); fultca 

heron (lone washerman in swamp). A. S. dU, O. H. G. tille [fresh, 

luxuriant] dill; Eng. deal fir-wood, Sprot2baum\ Goth, dulthan 
(O. H. G. tuldan) to celebrate a festival; duUhs festival, feast; dvalmon 
to be [dizzy], mad ; O. N. doelskr foolish ; dylya to confuse, darken, hide ; 

Eng. to daUy; a doll. R. d[v]ilda sprout, pole, tall, gawky. Bret. 

delez to sprout, be green; Bret., Cor. d^U, diU [sprout], flagstaff, spar; 
Ir. deil, deland staff; cor -deled the hurling of Cuchullin's spear (ra3rs of 
stm; Cuchullin is the sun but melts with Achilles the lightning, p. 
3); duill&n [sprout], javelin; duille leaf; Inis Dowyll isle of shade; 
Bret, del, delyen, W. delen [del-venna] leaf; Bret, deliati ivy; duU navel; 
dulad mushroom; Ir. diial wreath, twisted hair; O. C. xe(jixi*&ouXa five- 
leaf, Dioscor. 4:4a; Dulloviiis forest-god. 

Sk. stdi to encircle, wrap; lay, day to fold, encircle, enclose; intens. 
forms tans to [wreathe], adorn; tank to bind; tanS to squeeze, curdle; 
tank to be [bound], crushed; ivak to wrap, cover; ivak, skin, bark; 
tushas pod; tukkhas empty; ttishdras [binding] frost (icdcYo^ p. 40); 
tvank, tank, tank, tang to go round; tungas round, swollen, high; tun^ 
to wrap, Tohe;tun^, tu^ to whirl, hurl, shoot; tuh to [twist], vex [wring, 
mold, shape]; tokos embryo, child; stokas small; stuk to protect; be 
propitious; sthag to wrap, cover, conceal; sthaganam envelope, con- 
cealment; siak to [guard ring-wall], repel, drive out, thrust. Zd. 

tuk to beget. Gk. ot4yci> to cover closely, shelter, hide, keep out 

water, repel, endure, support; ot<yo<, otIyt), t<yo<; roof; oriya^, orfytj, 
orrjfvi? dwelling, shelter, room, deck; orcYdl^d) to cover, wrap, embrace; 
Teyda walled town; Tetxo<;, toIxo? ring-wall, fortification, palisade, 
side of ship; Teuxco to round, shape, wattle, mold, stir, cook, produce, 
prepare, bring to pass; TeDxo^ tool, instrument, round vessel, barrel, 
jar, household furniture, armor (fencing body), arms (repelling vio- 
lence); t4xvov child (wrought, fashioned in womb); tCxtc* (t<5«, 
Tiroxa) to beget, generate, bear child, lay egg; t6xo<; childbirth, child, 
interest on money; t<xviq trade, craft, art, system; xexvalici) to devise, 

contrive, be subtle. Lat. tego to cover, clothe, shelter; tectum roof; 

tegimen covering; tignum beam (affected by ti^ to sharpen, thrust; 
hut-pole); prae'textus pretence, [shield]; tug-urium hut {avara under); 



— 302 — 

teges wrap, blanket; toga robe; stega shed. Goth, theihan (tjxo^) to 

grow, thrive, swell, be strong; A. S. thedh thigh; thyhtig strong, firm; 
thiggyu, O. H. G. digyu to attain (v. p. 304) ; A. S. thicce, O. N. ihykkr 
well-rounded, thick, dose (fungas) ; A. S. theccan, decan O. N. thekya, 
thakti, O. H. G. dekyan, decchen, to cover, thatch, deck (A. S. decan^ 

stkag, [dfcag]). Lith. stegiu to cover; stogas roof; tinku to be strong, 

capable; tikras firm, suitable; iinkas it comes to pass; tenku to belong; 
iekys [begetter], ram; O. Pruss, tikitU to make; teikusna creation; 
Lith. tukai, O. R. iuku fat; O. R. tuknanti to make firm; R. tugoi 

firm, strong. Ir. teg, tech house; [teg-fern], tigerna [house-shield, 

head of family], lord; tuga cover, roof; tugim to cover; cu-m-taigim to 
build, construct; ttickl form, shape; tugen robe; imm4huge clothing; 
tuig, tiget, tige thickness; stiiag [rounding] arch; W., Bret, bowtig cattle- 
house; Bret, ti house; tieg householder; to, tou roof; touein to thatch; 
tok hat; tiii stout, thick; O. C. Tig-ernus, Tigurini, Tigemo»f9iaglus; 
Tog'onius, Tog'Orix, Tugia; Tocco (stout). 

Sk. same roots; tvak skin, bark; tvdk, taksh to bark, peel, wrench, 
hew, cover, form; takshan, tashtri carpenter, builder; tans, [tank] to 
[wreathe], adorn, [wattle, weave, thatch, round clay, potter]; tukkhas 
[stripped bark], empty, hollow, [bamboo]; (the hut was covered with 
skin or bark) ; takshanam construction, axe ; tankas [flint skinning-tool], 

scraper, knife. Zd. task to hew, build, cut; tasha axe; tasta cup, 

bowl. Gk. Tdaao) (Tigo), ToexOi^aojiat) to [thatch, wattle, set reeds, 

osiers, straws in order]; to arrange, set in order, appoint, station; 
xifyq, 'zif\k(x row, order, system; Tayi^ army, province; TfotTwv car- 
penter; T(}xo<; chisel (tva^; tuxR^cj to chisel, scrape, polish; oraK 

[clay], dough (p. 292). Lat. taxo to set in order, assign equal tasks, 

estimate dues, tax; texo to wattle, weave; [tecla] tela web; weaver's 

beam; te-mo wagon-pole ; testa cup, earthen bowl. Goth, ga^thvastyan 

to establish, lay foundation, set in order, appoint, establish; O. H. G. 
dehsa hatchet, chopper, stirring-ladle; M. H. G. dehsen to hackle 

flax; dihsel^ole. O.R.^ttAo/f to weave; *s-/iiinan/itohewout; iesati 

to hew; tesla axe; Bohem. tesarzh carpenter; R. stukai, stukat to hew, 
strike; i[v]i^ok stroke; tokar wood-turner; toMU to turn, sharpen; 
toknost precision, accuracy; toska keenness, anguish; teisto dough 
{testa) ; ishketa emptiness, vanity (tukkhas) ; Lith. tashyti to car- 
penter, hew; taisyti to prepare; tinku to fit neatly; stokoyu to lack 

{tukkhas); tushtzias empty. Ir. tescaim to lop, hew; tdcht a piece, 

fragment; tdes, tdes dough, mixed potter's clay; taiss soft; tdisstenn 
material, kneaded clay; tiis, tossach origin, beginning (good clay); 
tncht form, shape; tuchtach beautiful; taog chum (<mA); W. iwca knife; 



— 303 — 

twc slice; Bret, iakanein to fit, adapt, patch; to^z dough; tak bar- 
gain; O. C. tasconium potter's clay, Plin. N. H. 33: 69: Con-tex^us; 
Tucca. 

Sk. same roots; /aits, tvish to whirl, shake, flash, [wreathe], adorn; 
tvaksh, ivak, iun^ to wrap, cover; ian^, tvank to go round, compress; 
tuh to [twist, sling], vex (cf . duh to twist, wrench, vex) ; iu^, tun^ to 
[twist, sling], speed, quiver, live, speak, strike, kill, be strong; tduk^ 
dhduk to speed, attain, approach, bestow, perform; tya^ to hurl 
away, leave behind, desert (cf. ri^ p. 134); tinsh to [shoot], flash out, 
glance, shine; tush to be merry, glad; tus to [twang, whistle], sound; 
tustas [whirling] dust; tushdra snow, frost; tas, [sthas, dhas\ das to toss, 
whirl, sweep away, lighten, scorn; tas'karas thief; dasyus robber, 

demon; dasras scout, day-star. Gk. Tyy^ivo, {':t6^o\kn, Ituxov) to 

hit the mark, be lucky, to chance, happen, meet; t6xy) (Boeot. Tou^a) 
chance, luck; tsu^k; attainment, acquisition; ivzeofyq entreaty 
{tun^ to speak); t65ov bow, archery, bow and arrows; to^cuci) to 
shoot; oToxiI^o(jiat to aim, shoot, endeavor; ordxu? [whorl, bristling, 
nodding], ear of grain; oraxdbnQ (circular, vibrating) pan of balance; 
Toxu^ (comp. 6(4aaci)v) swift, nimble, fleeting; Ocoaaco to gird armor 
(tvak); TtTijoxo(xac to take aim, glance; to equip, harness (tsu^co^ 

twist in, bind). Lat. tesqua, tesca tangled thicket; Tusculum (now 

Frascaii^frasche brush-wood); Vicus Tuscus (cf. Viminalis)', taxo 
badger (taskaras) ; taxas yew (p. 20) ; ifi'toxicor to [whirl, make giddy], 
intoxicate; [textis], testis [quick glance], eye-witness; testiculus (against 

excess); tussio to wheeze, cough (tus). Goth, thus-undi, O. H. G. 

dUs'unta [bunch of hundreds], thousand; A. S. thistel, O. H. G. distil 
[bristling] thistle; A. S. thedstor [dizz)ring, bewildering], twilight, 
duster; O. N. thoka to rush at; thoka gloom; thysya to rush; thys a din; 
Thiassi scout of dawn, eloquence, Hermes (Biarkatndl, 20); with gold 
in mouth (Mercury); steals Idhunn (dawn), her apples (stars) ; is skin 

by sun. R. t[v]isyaMa (Lith. tukstantis) a thousand; teishit to amuse, 

delight; tasovai to shuffle cards; tusknui to be whirled, troubled; 

taskat to rob, prowl. Ir. ticsaim to snatch away, strip, whirl, let 

loose; ticscU whirling up, lifting up; tasc [whirling] rumor, report; 
taiscim to whirl together, heap up; taiscid heap, wealth; taisse treas- 
ures, relics (p. 292); con-tdisim to listen {tus)\ taissech, tdissech, tUssech 
[brilliant, dashing], chieftain; W. tywysog chieftain; Bret, tesein to 
heap; teskad sheaf; teskannein to glean; t^z [full arms, spread arms], 
taise, fathom; tuizen head of grain; stuhen ray of light; btmch, coil of 
hair; O. C. Taixali, Taizali marauders; Tas'ili^dcus, Taxitnagulus 
rich; tossia raantle; Tovissacos (/iw+iaai^v, p. 287?). 



— 304 — 

Sk. same roots; tan^, ian^ to bend, curve, squeeze, curdle, press 
out; ianH, tang, tank, tvank, tik, tik to go [round, whirl, eddy, speed, 
go eagerly, rush, flow]; tak to start, burst out, laugh; iakus, takvas 

swift. Zd. tak to nm, flow; vi-takhti melting, thawing; Pers. takhtan 

to gallop. Gk. Ti^xci) to melt ; Ti^yavov frying-pan ; Tt)xe5(iv thaw, pining ; 

Toxy <; swift. Goth, thvahan, O. H. G. duahan to wash {tvank='Spiilen) . 

O. R. tekan to nm, flow ; teku running, course ; toku stream ; R. tekenie 

current, course; tekukii flowing, fluid; stekd to flow, melt; steklo glass. 

Ir. techim to speed, flee; Bret, tehein to flee, arrive; tignol swift 

boat; techet [current], inclination, disposition; O. C. Tecus, Ticinus 
rivers; Tincius, Tacanitis, Teccunius, TacUius, Tacinus swift. 

Sk. same roots; tik, tik to go; tauk to approach; tik, tik, tig to go 
eagerly, rush, attack; stigh to [make an effort], assail, ascend, dimb. 

Gk. orefxci), oTcxdeo(x.at, orotxica to stride, tramp; march in platoon, 

line, order; keep step; (cf. tans to [set in order]); ot(xo<;, ot(5 row, 
rank of soldiers; line of [ordered, advancing] verse; orotxeiov sun- 
dial with degrees; child's first steps; alphabet; elements of nature 

(cf. elementutn, L. M. N.—A. B. C.) Lat. [vetus'Stigium], vestigium 

[old step], footstep, track. Goth, steigan to mount, climb; staiga 

ascent; stiggqan to march, thrust; theihan to advance, grow; theiks 
[quick] chance, opportunity, time {tik) ; O. H. G. stiga ascent, motm- 
tain-path; M. H. G. steigel steep, steil\ A. S. staeger stair; stigel stile, 

ladder; O. Dutch staggeren to stagger (lift foot high). O. R. 

stignanti to come; stiza track, path; Lith. staigus hasty; staiginis 

steep. Ir. tiagaim to go, stride, approach; imm-thicim, imm-thigim 

to wander round; Bret, tihein to attain, succeed, suffice; O. C. Tecto- 
^ag^5» seeking achievement, or teg'tossach noble house. 

Sk. same roots ; stak to repel, thrust out ; tya^ to hurl away, abandon, 
desert; tik, tik, tig to rush against, assault, wotmd, kill; [tva(\, tu^ 
to speed, quiver, wound; tun^ to wound, kill, [qtiiver], live; to [flash 
out], speak; ti^ {te^dmi) to sharpen, goad, suffer, endure; tiktas bitter, 
pungent, fragrant (smoke; incense); tigmas keen, burning; heat; 

te^as sunlight, splendor, force, semen; tVishnas keen, clever. Pfers. 

iigris an arrow; the Tigris, swift; Tfypiq tiger (fierce, impetuous). 

Gk. orR^ca to prick, tattoo; orlYiJia tattooing, brand (ti^ to be 

sharp; to bum); ortyjATJ point, moment; [a]6iJYCi> to sharpen, goad, 

incite; Ot)Y(4vT) whetstone. ^Lat. distingue to distinguish [sheep, 

slaves] by marks; sti[g]mulus goad, incitement; in-stigare; in-stinctus 

natural impulse; prae-stigiae magic arts (goading, maddening). 

Goth, stikls [drinking] horn; stiggan to sting, goad; stiggqan to en- 



— 305 — 

counter, thrust; [s]fuggl star, constellation (te^as); O. N. steik [spit], 
steak; steikari cook; 5/ia&f stake; stinga to wound; stokkva to leap, 
speed, drive out; tingl wood-carving; tUngl moon; A. S. tungel con- 
stellation; Eng. stickle, tingle, tickle; O.H.G. stihhil goad; stahal, A.S. 

staehel, stH steel; A.S. stincan to stink (^ifekw); Ger. ersticken. R. 

tokit to sharpen; tokilo whetstone; 1[v]ikai to thrust, strike, fix, plant; 

stizhka sewing; Lith. tekinu to whet. Ir. ti[g]bre dimple; tiachair 

keen, clever; W. tigom marks, moles; Bret, stok thrust; W. tig clear 
weather, beautiful (te^as); Tec*med fair neck; Ir. su-thig pleasant. 

Sk. same roots; sthag to envelop, cover; tank, tan^ to bend, curve; 
tans to [wreathe], adorn; tank to bind, cover, load, compress; tank 
to be [crushed, choked], wretched; tak to endure [pressure]; tank, tan^ 
to squeeze, curdle; to [grip], shake; tvank to contract; tun^ to wrap, 
robe; tuh to [wring, twist], vex, [to knead, soften, mash, wring out, 
dye] (cf. duh to wring, vex, milk) ; [tohyam], tdyamwa,teT; tuhinas mist, 
dew, snow (cf. xdyo?, p. 40); tushdras mist, rain, hoar-frost, snow; 

tush to be repressed, silent, calm; tushnikas silent. Gk. xini, Td^ca 

to grasp; TcraY^v grasping; Tayy^ dripping abscess; TaYyeS? foul, rancid; 
t4yt)vov, ti^yovov frying-pan; t^yyci) to wet, rain, soak, soften, dye; 
ordt^ci) (ord^w) to drip, trickle; oTaywv drop; ot4yci) to endure pressure, 
contain, use self-control; oreyofvi? water-proof, self-controlled; oruyica 
to be [crushed, wretched], loathe, abhor; oryyvi^ci) to be gloomy, lower; 
Stu5 (Geog.) snow-water, cold; (Mythol.) ocean-stream of Hades, bonds 
of death; strong as death ; oath, curse; in Hesiod silver pillar supporting 

earth (ocean); constricting monster; deadly cold (tuhinas). Lat. 

tango to grasp, touch ; tagax eager ; tingo to dye (cf . dye = dough) ; exstinguo 
to extinguish; stagnum dammed water, pond, tank (ot4y<i)); molten 
metal [wnmg out, dripping]; dross, slack; tin; [iag;ueo, taveo], tabeo 
to melt, thaw; tab-erna drip-water, shed (urna, p. 193); Taburnus 

limestone ridge; taceo to endure, be self-controlled, silent (tak). 

Goth, thagkyan (O. H. G. deitchan) to grasp, examine, think silently; 
ihugkyan to seem [on examination]; thuhtus thought; thagks [hand- 
clasp], thanks; //w/w [molded] clay; thahan to be silent; O. N, thiggya 
to grasp, receive; thtnga to bargain, counsel (hand-clasp); thdkk 
acceptance, pleasure, thanks; thUngi pressure, weight; ihvengr thong; 
thagna to be silent; A. S. thing a thing (grasped) ; thingan to be heavy; 
thegu acceptance ; thegn mercenary officer, thane ; sticcian to be adhesive, 
sticky; stinkan to stink; thavan to melt, thaw (guttural lost as in 
tabeo) \ O. H. G. dauyan to melt, digest; thuncdn, duncdn to dip, dye; 

Ger. ersticken to choke, smother. R. tugoi pressed, compact; 

tyagotit to press down, load, burden; styagivat to squeeze; tuzhii 
20 



— 306 — 

to be vexed, grieved; teisnU, steisnit to press, oppress, choke; tushit 
to extinguish {tush); tukhnut to spoil, rot; toshniy nauseating; toshkii 
lean; tikhii repressed, calm, silent, peaceful, dull; tishina calm, silence; 
tayai^ stayai to thaw, melt; taiga swsLmp\tonkii slender, fine-spun; Lith. 

tylu silence. Ir. tachtaim to choke; tachtae narrow; tacha scarcity; 

tiachair sick, weary; tongim to swear, bind by oath (2tu5); tocad fate 
(TPYxivw, p. 303) ; tdaim to be silent (cf. tabeo) ; tiia, td silent; W. tang- 
netted [oath], peace ; Tangwystel pledge of peace ; tynghed fate ; tau to be 
silent, calm; Bret, stank compressed, crowded, thick; stankein to bar, 
dam, staunch; stang palate of mouth; tafioad sense of taste; stag bond, 
harness; iagein to choke ; tagus choking, bitter; tagn running sore, itch 
(teigne); tonkadur fate; touiein to swear; taiHein to be silent, calm; to 
appease; O. C. Tunccetace (fortimate); Tangonae (njrmphs); Tongius; 
Tancofix. 

Sk. [du to whirl, blaze, bum]; davas conflagration; dans, dang, 
dank, dah (dhakshydmi, dahishydmi, dagghum) to bum, flash, speak; 
dhu, dhu to whirl, eddy, smoke ; [dhuns], dhus, dhUg to irradiate (p. 280) ; 
dhush to be in a heat; dhusharas white; dhuksh, dhiksh to flash, blaze, 
live, [bum out], pine; dhish to ring out; diksh to sacrifice; dakshinas 

noonday, southern. Gk. [Aoxvt]], Ad^vt), (laix^) blushing dawn (pink 

laurel) ; chased by sun and caught at sunset, she appeals to new moon 
and is saved; 66o6Xa torches waved by bacchanals; OuaoEvo^ whirling 
tassels (of aegis, golden fleece); 6utoxo^, Ouxo^ censer; Adoto^ June; 
[MyBo<;], X(y8o(; fire; Xtyvui; smoke, soot; iay6<; wax-doll, melted in 

magic rites. Lat. focus [altar-shaped] hearth; fuscus sunburned; 

fuscina pitch-fork (hay-maker); [dtgnum], lignum fire-wood; fax 
torch (dhakshydmi) ; fusus [whirling] spindle; fustis [brandished] club. 

Goth, [dagan to shine, dawn] (danh, [dhanh]) cf. forms assigned to 

dah); dags day; A.S. dagian to dawn, gleam; d<i[g] [bright-eyed] doe, 
[glossy] daw; dvaes, dysig dazed, dazzled by excess of light; Eng. 

dusk; O. N. Dtsir the fates; dys grave-mound (pyre). R. dukhota 

heat; dukhi incense, perfume; dushit to perfume, choke; dukh, dusha, 

Lith. dvaese spirit (v. p. 300). Ir. daig fire; daigerde fiery, 

furious; doss poet; dust hero; dess, tess southern; des-red, des'lem sun- 
beam (wheel, hand of sun) ; descad leaven; discir sudden, fierce, m'mble 
(of demon) ; Bret.dosein to pulsate, throb ; O. C Deuso, Deusus (glorious) ; 
Deusoniensis Heracles; Dusios genius of love; incubus; the deuce 
{dhush); Dessobriga (southern); Oi^c(i.ov southernwood (Dioscor. 3, 4; 
lucky, promoting birth, dcptoro-Xix^a) I Com. dehowles (Ir. luss herb). 

Sk. dans, dang, danh to flash round, [brandish]; daksh to be quick, 
clever; to strike; dhakk to brandish, strike; dkvans, to fall, perish; 



— 307 — 

dkva^, dhvani to brandish, wave; dhvagds banner; das to [whirl away, 

toss away]. Gk. AaduXXtoc; Bacchus (frenzied). Lat. f acinus 

violent crime; inter 'ficio to slay (p. 14) ; facto to make an effort, accom- 
plish, do (pp. 46, 284). O. N. diUsr, O. H. G. tuoh cloth, sail-cloth 

(furled, flapping; dhva^as); O. N. diskr round board, trencher? 
Eng.to toss; Ger. tosen to rage, roar; Dutch duiken; O.H.G. tUhhan to 

dip, duck (dhvans). R. dvigai to v/hirl, stir, move rotind; Lith. 

dathyii to dip. Ir. ddsacht madness; O. C. Dassus, Dassuvius, 

Sk. danVf du to go round ; dhanus [bent, snapping] bow ; dang to bite, 
[grip]; dangitas protected, crowded, close; du, duh, dukh to wring, 

twist out, tease, vex; dush to [twist], sin. Gk. iox^^t iix\^^^^ 

slanting, oblique (rush of wild-boar); iox^6o^i to twist one's self, 
whirl rotmd; 8aa6g [twisted], tangled, dense, shaggy; Baauvo) to make 
hair grow; to cloud; Sdaog thicket; ScEoxcoc;, [$aato(;], Xde9to<; shaggy, bushy, 
thicketed; XcfX'^6^ hairiness, wool; Xixvtj fur, down, leafiness; Aeol. 

8ai5xvt) laurel. Lat. densus tangled, thicketed, compressed; con^ 

den5(7 to wind tight, pack, condense; dusmus, dUmus thicket. Goth. 

tagl [tangled] hair; A. S. taegl tail; tigean to tie; Eng. to tangle, tag; 

A. S. taesan, O. H. G. zeisan to wring, twist, tease, touzle, tussle. R. 

duga bow {duh), Ir. descad dregs; doss bush; dias spike of grain; 

duis tall; O. C. Dossonius, Disinius, 

Sk. du, [duns, dunh], duh to twist, vex, distort; dush, dOsh to sin, 
corrupt, harm; dvish {dveshmi) to hate; dvii (oblique cases dvish) 
hatred, foe; dveshas hate; dus-, dur- perverse, evil, bad, difficult; dur- 

mands of hostile mind; dUras [hurled] afar. Zd. dush- evil; dus- 

mananh hostile. Gk. 6-5u(j(JOixat (68«(i8uoTaO to hate, be hostile 

{i mutual, p. 307) ; $6po(xat, (S$upo(i.ac to lament? (cf . (icc&i), misereor; but 
see dhvri); 8u<;- hard, bad, unlucky; l\)(;-^erf^q hostile; '08uaaeu<; the 

sun, following the oblique ecliptic; cf. Ao^laq, p. 131. Lat. dis'cors 

hostile; dis-crimen fight (melts with dis- apart, p. 297). O. N. tor'- 

boen hard to entreat; tor-tima to destroy life; O. H. G. ssur; M. H. G. 

ger; Goth, tus-, tuz-; tuz-veryan to doubt. Ir. du-, do- evil; do'chor 

harm; do'chruth ugly, shameftd; Bret, [dormant, di-tkat], di'vat hostile. 

Sk. dhu, dhu to whirl ; du to twist, hurt; du to be whirled, confused, 
troubled, pained ; dukh to hurt ; duh to vex ; duh (duhdmi) to [wring out], 
milk; dohas milk; dohanam a milking, milk-pail; dohadas [pressure of 
milk in breast], pregnancy, longing; dogdhri milch-cow; duhitri 
[milk-maid], daughter; dduhitras grandson, descendant ; dhva^ to wave, 
whirl. Zd. dugl^dhar daughter. Gk. OuYdrnjp daughter; Beuxi^g 



— SOS- 
sweet; Seuxog sweetness [squeezed out; fresh must; cf. dulcis]; i-8cuxi{c 
[twisting, torturing], cruel, violent [death] (i intens.); SaOxog fierce, 
bold; Sauxog carrot (wrenched from soil); 8a-86aaea6at, 8at*8699eo6at 
to be wrenched, convtdsed, dragged (Hesych.) ; 8ot8u5 pestle (whirl- 
ing, crushing cf. manduco) ; noXu-8e6xT]g the evening-star ([dragger], 

leader of the host of stars). Lat. edUco (O. Lat. douco) to [wring 

out], extract, derive, draw forth; duco to draw, lead; dUx leader; 

[mand-duco], manduco to [grind], chew (p. 87). Goth. daHhUxr 

daughter; Huhan, O. H. G. ziohan to draw, tug; A. S. iyhtan to draw; 
tyht tight; an'iyhian to lead on, cheer, incite; teoh band, company; 
toga leader; O. N. toga to draw; taug rope; teygya to draw, allure; CJer. 
er'zeugen to [wring-out], beget; Ziege goat, O. H. G. zeh&m to wet, dye. 

O. R. dtishter (nom. dushti); Lith. dukter (nom. dukti) daughter; 

R. do^ daughter ; dozhd [milk of clouds], rain (cf . sumam, somas^ p. ai 2) ; 

Lith. dazhau to dye (press juice of berries). Ir. du'dichim to induce, 

deduce, spend life (ducere vitam) ; deoch draught, drink; Bret, dougein 
to induce, incite; doug inclination, disposition; O.C. Duccius^ Ducc*- 
onius, Doci-rix; ducone, herb. 

Sk. Jm, di to be whirled, confused; ddi to [rub round], wash; dtih 
to wring out, milk; dhu to whirl; dih {dehmi, p. p. dighdhas) to rub 
rotmd, smear, pollute; san-dighdhas polluted, choked; dizzy, doubtful 
(p. 296); dehas body (molded, fashioned); dehi earth-work, dyke, 

wall. Zd. diz to make an earth-work, heap, moimd. Gk. OtYydtvw 

(OtYelv) to grasp, touch, seize, handle, fondle, [knead]; to touch, reach, 
attack, hit, attain; 6(Y(xa, 0(^t(; touching, touch, stain; Selaa moisture, 

filth; STjYio) to fill (Hesych.). Lat. fingo to mold, knead, fashion, 

twist; figulus potter; figura shape; figmentum fancy; figo to set stake; 
[per intens. + Otyy], [pol-ding], pollingo to pollute ; poHinctor grave- 
digger {deht) ; [infigio], inficio to dye. Goth, deigan to mold; digans 

pottery; daigs potter's clay, dough; ga^dikis shape; Goth., A. S. dugan 
to be [well-knit], strong, capable, effective; A. S. dohtig, dyhtyg strong, 
valiant, capable ; O. N. dygdh virtue (good clay; good stuff ; dehas body) 
Goth. datdUs [batch, bread -baking], meal, feast; ga-dauka household; 
Ger. Dochi [twisted] wick; 0. N. deigr wet, soft; A. S. dah, dag 
dough; hlaef-dige Poaf-kneader], lady; dedgan to dye; digan, dican 
to dig, ditch, dyke ; dedgan to [bury], hide ; Eng. dug teat (touzled) ; 

dog (worrying, touzling). R. degot birch-gum; Lith. dazhau to dye. 

Ir. dingim (dedaig) to grip, force, control. 

Sk. dhanus bow; dhanv to speed; daiif to [shoot, pounce], speed, 
flash, [grip], bite; daksh to [shoot, shoot up], grow, speed, aim, be 



— 309 — 

accurate, be right, kill (p. 95); dakshas accurate, right-handed, seemly, 
fit, right; dofos honor, esteem, reputation; dacd condition in life, rank, 

age; ddfos [grasper, taker], fisherman; tuh, duh to wring, twist. 

Gk. 8ox(x^o> to twist, bend (p. 307) ; 5oxi? [embracing], holding, contain- 
ing; 8ox(ii>^ palm, hand-breadth; S^x^^xat, 2lxo(i.at (8i$eY(jiaO to take 
in the hand, accept, receive, greet, contain; (the same hand grips 
firmly and hurls accurately; the roots blend) loxfi reception, entertain- 
ment; 8oxet6v receptacle; iayiq ice (gripping; Hesych.); lox6q 
spear-handle, beam, girder, truss; SoxdvYj holder, prop; 84xtuXo<; 
finger, claw, toe; SfxTuov net (gripper); l6%i^o^ fitting, seemly, 
well-tried; 2oxc(jideI^(i> to try, test, examine; Soxeuo to [aim], watch 
closely, observe, spy; 8oxia> to estimate, calculate, approve, think; 

I6^a good-repute, glory. Lat. decet it is becoming, seemly; decus 

honor; [dicnus], dignus worthy; digitus (O. Lat. decetos) finger, toe; 
Deciiis; [ind'dago], inddgo to grope after, seek; a search; hunting net; 

wall. A.S. /aeon (O.N. /ofea) to grasp,receive,take ((ian(:,[dag],8aYu<;) ; 

O. H. G. zuchdn to snatch at, be eager, quiver, tuck; Ger. zechen to 
carouse; Goth, tikan to touch; O. N. taeki tool; to^^ acceptable, fair; 

tign dignity; iiggi king; t&ngr tongs; A. S. idh, O. H. G ziha toe. R. 

doka a man of good judgment, connoisseur; [dakon], zakon law; (cf. 

zorkiy, drig). Ir. dag, deg good, esteemed; deck best; [dog%t\ ddit 

hand; ddig, d&ig [grasping at], for the sake of; daingen firm, strong; 
Bret, dougein to carry, gain, win; to respect, seek for; Fr. donjon 
stronghold, dungeon; O. C. Dugiava active, industrious; dugiontiio 
work; Dugius; Daganus, Degontium, Decantae, Decetia, Daccius, 
Daci. 

Sk. dans, dank, dang to flash out, aim, [shoot]; dang to [potmce 
grip], bite ; dangh, dagh, daksh, dag, das to shoot, kill ; daksh to be quick, 
handy, strong; dakshas [a good shot], skilful, dextrous, right-handed, 
right, good, [successful, lucky]; dakshinas right-handed, dextrous, 
kind, gracious ; Dasras day-star (gracious) ; dag, das to hand, give ; ddsas 

servant; dakshinas the south (p. 305). 2ki. dashina right-hand. 

Gk. 8e5i4, Bl^tTspd right-hand (cf. sinister, p. 15); 8e5i<<; on the 
right, right-handed, lucky, dextrous, gracious; BeStiXa^og javelin- 
man (cf. 8oxi(;). Lat. dexter right-handed, dextrous, lucky; 

dextra right-hand. Goth, taihsva, taihsvd^ dexter] O. H. G.zesawd 

dextra; zeso (gen. zeswes) on the right. O. R. desinu dexter; Lith. 

deshine dextra; R. desnitza right-hand, right-arm; desheviy cheap, a 

bargain, [lucky]. Ir. dess to the right; south; [dess-fillim], dessel 

turned to the right; W., Bret, deheu to the right, south; O. C. Dessios, 
Dessica, Dexiva, Dexonius; 6l^c(xov lucky, southernwood (p. 306). 



— 310 — 

Sk. day^ dhydi to glance round, observe, aim, reflect; ava-dkydi to 
hurl away; dyu to flash, shoot; danh, dang, dag, das, daksh, to flash out, 
speak, aim; to shoot, kill, be skilful; das to [be cast away], diminished; 
ias to throw; to wane; dasyus marauder, thief; [dyag], dig (digdmi, 
deshtdsmi) to aim, point, show, direct, command, teach, name, 
[toss round, be generous], give (cf . day p. 292) ; d-dig to aim, teach, 
give in marriage, shoot beyond, surpass, [send voice after], recall, 
hurl back; digas, aim, direction, point of compass; dishtis luck; 

dishtam fate ; diksh to [take auguries], sacrifice. 2ki. dahksh to teach 

[to shoot]; dtdanhe I am instructed; dankista wisest. Gk. Sixelv to 

throw, cast, strike; 8((jxo<; quoit; 8(xtuov [casting] net; 5(xTjat? 
[pursuing dart], vengeance; 8(xtj vengeance, justice; 5lxato<; [avenger 
of blood], just, lawftd, right (cf. jits)\ 8e(xvu(i.i to point out, show; 
$et^t(; evidence, proof; SetY^xa example, sample; Si-Sdoxci) to teach. 

Lat. in-dico to point out; indictwm information ; yu-(ie^ [teaching 

law], judge; dico to name, speak; [do'dico], de-dico to dedicate; prO'- 
digium [pointing beforehand], omen, miracle; pro'digus [hurling away], 
wasting; con-dicta agreement, bargain (word meeting word; melts 
with can-ditio establishing together) ; daceo to teach {dang, dag) ; disco 
(di'dici) to [aim, practice], learn; discipulus, pupil (capio, taking 

instruction, cf. mus-cipula) , Goth, ieihan, ga-teihan to annotmce, 

tell, speak; taiknyan to point out, show; taikns token, proof, prodigy; 
A. S. iaecan, teohian to show, teach; tihan to accuse; O. H. G seigdn 
to point out, show; Ger. zeichnen to make evident, delineate, draw; 

ver-zeihen to [accept atonement], pardon (BIxtj). R. diH, dikina 

[shot-meat], game, venison; dikat to be wild. Ir. do'decha to de- 
clare; descaid token; desim-recht example; dixnigur to be conspicuous, 
appear; dixa lofty, noble; Dechtire {digas, dishtis) mother of Cuchullin 
the sun by L<ig (p. 132); a Celtic Alcmena; Cuchullin is first named 
S^/[5]an/a (path seeker); then Cm Culad hound of Kl^aXoi;, Hermes, light. 

Sk. dangas [tight grip], coat of mail; daksh to grasp, [clasp hands], 
be dextrous; dagan [clasped hands, ten fingers], ten; dagamas tenth. 

Zd. dagan. Gk. 8lxa; Blxorcog; 8ex4<; (-dBoO a decad. ^Lat. 

decern; decimus; dec-Uria (cf. centuria p. 192); deci-mdnus (p. 80). 

Goth, taihun ten; taihunda tenth; tigus decad (ng^^^nh); i7Kii[n]'^ 

tigyus twenty; taihun'tehund a hundred; O. H. G. zehan ten. O. R. 

desenti; Lith. deshinUis ten; R. desyatina tithe. Ir. dic\ dech-mad 

tenth (p. 81); W. deg] [deg-med], degfed; Bret, dek; dekved; O. C. 
Decomo] Dectunines', Decu-mates the tithed lands (mat hand, measure). 

Sk. same roots; [dag-sru squeezed flow]. Gk. Sdtxpo, Sdbcpuov 

tear; $axp6a> to weep; Sdxap gum. O. Lat. dacruma, Lat. lacruma 



— 311 — 

tear; lacrumo to weep. A. S. taeher, O. H. G. zahar; Goth, tagr tear. 

Ir. [deer], dir, O. W. doer tear; Bret, dakr, dazrou, dazlou, dareu^ 

dor tear; darein to weep. 

Sk. dans, dang to flash at, shoot, [pounce]; daksh, dag, das to harm, 
kill; dans, dang (dagdmi) to bite; sani'dang to gnash, compress lips, 
press together, grip, crush, bind; dangman bite; dangas bite; wasp; 

cobX of msiil; danshtras tusk; danshtrinhosLT; daganas tooth. Gk. 

Sdcxvo) (Si[)^o(xat) to bite, bite one's Ups, sting, be pungent; $oexvdel^o(i.at 
to be sad; Si^xttj^ biter; if^f\Ka bite, sting; Sdxog wild beast; i$d^o(toet» 
ttify\iM'. to feel stinging pain, be flea-bitten, mangy, itchy (sva); 

i'layiiji to scratch; 8a§aqi.<g itching. Goth, tahyan to tear, rend; 

O. H. G. zdhi, A. S. tdh tough; A. S. [tuhs], tux, tusc boar's tusk; Eng. tang 
prong. O. R. desna gum of mouth. 



Sk. sthd to stand ; caus. sthdpaydmi to set, cause to stand, make firm ; 
[to set stake, thrust, use pestle, whirl; to make solid mound, to round 
out]; stabh, stambh, stubh, stumbh to fix, make motionless, hem in, 
stop, harden, bind, stupefy, prop, thrust against, resist; sant'Stabh to 
hurl; stam to whirl, confuse; iamb to go [round], revolve; tumulas 
whirling, tumultuous; stambhas stake, prop, pillar, [pestle], stifEness, 
lameness; stabdhas stiff, motionless; stubh to be motionless, firm; 
stup to pile up; stupas, stambas heap, clump, bush, stake, stupidity; 
stu, stom, stubh, to [round up, swell, inflate], magnify, praise; stam to 
[use pestle], be whirled, confused; stibhis cluster of grapes (crushable) ; 

stip to drip; stim to be wet; stibhis ocean. Gk. oreC^o) to stamp, 

trample, tread, walk; OTl(x^a>, i-Tl(i^ to [use pestle], whirl, shake, 
batter, abuse; oro^io) to abuse, revile (cf. 0T6(iap. 287) ; orot^del^o) to pile, 
heap, pack; orot^ij pack, heap, padding, dense bush; orl^ifuXov olive 
or grape pomace; orotic;, d-oro^tg (4 euphon.) raisins (juiceless» 
pressed); orafuXij bunch of grapes (squashable, cf. uva); [pendent] 
plummet, plumb-line; ordixvo? wine-jar (brimming); [a]Ta|i.tag storer, 
cellarer of wine and oil, steward (cf. condus from condo, p. 284); 
cTiPapi<; firm on legs, sturdy, stout; axi^iq [trampled] litter for ani- 
mals; lair; bed; ore^del^ci) to make bed, tramp, follow track; ort^og 
footstep, path; [a]TtpT5v tripod (firm-foot); orfptj [hardening] frost; 
OTt^oc; compact array; column, mass of men; axim6q tough, enduring; 
oTuxxelov packing, tow: 0x090) to harden, contract, be astringent; 
oTu^eXtfc; hard, rough, puckering; orcfp^g dense, solid, stubborn; 
OTuxog stump, block; oTUfeXtl^ci) to smite with [pestle], spear; to thrust, 
dispel, scatter; [a]':\)^\6<; [whirled, confused], blind; orifci), ore^av^o) to 



— 312 — 

whirl round, encircle, garland, brim (stam); orifOEvog, wreath; Qxl\f^ 
garland, wreathed staff, fillet; ore^dhnQ brim, edge; [9]6dt(jL^0(; dizziness, 
confusion, amazement; OdqjLvog [whorl], bush, shrub (cf. rubus); [q]9cc^ 
[oft recurring], often ; 6avtie<; crowded,dense, frequent ; Oa(i.(I^(i> to frequent; 
Oi(jiva [trodden] pomace, wine-dregs; [a]Tdc90(; [strewing rushes, making 
bed], laying to rest, burial; resting place, grave, tomb; Odcxro (irifTQv) 
to bury (influenced by ni*dhdpaye caus. of dhd, to lay down, bury) ; 
Tdftot people of the dead; stmset land; xd^pog ditch, pit; T6(i.^og 

mound, tomb {stawbas heap; stumbh to honor). ^Lat. siipo to 

hammer down, pack, harden, [encircle]; siipa, stupa tow; stipdtor 
guardsman (propping, encircling); stips [bargain-binder], earnest, 
coin; stipulari to bargain; stapia stirrup; stipula chaff, broken straw 
(trampled; whirling) ; stupeo to be dull, heavy; confused; stipes stump; 

tumulus mound. O. H. G. stamph pestle ; stamphdn to pound, stamp, 

trample; staph step; stiupan to pulverize, whirl; stam tree-trunk; 
stiff prop; stifuUn to prop; A. S. staep step; stedp steep (cf. steigel, 
steil); stybb, stapol tree-trunk; stif stiff; stefn bow of ship; stdf staff; 
O. N. steypa to wrap rotmd; hurl down; stefna to advance; A. S. 
stUpian to stoop forward; Goth, stamms [whirling, confused], stam- 
mering; stabs [mound], foundation, element, stuff; stoma substance, 
origin, cause ; O. H. G. un*gi'Stuomi restless; CSer. Buchstab ^elementum, 
letter; Goth, faur-dammyan, A. S. demman to fence, [enclose], dam 

(6avtie(;). ^Lith. stibas pillar; stebius to be amazed; R. stebel stalk; 

stopa sole of foot, pestle; stupa mortar; stupat to step, walk; toptai 
to trample; topat to kick; tabun drove of horses (tamb); tupoi blunt, 

dull, stupid. Ir. tamon tree-trunk; tdmaim to rest, repose; tdm 

repose; stab chained cup at a spring; Bret, torn stout, sturdy; iti'tanv 
[stump], widower; stefein to plug, calk; O.C. RatO'Stabios road-station; 
Stabatio; Stampae; Stambon. 

Sk. tu to swell (p. 387) ; stu, stubh, stom to [heap up, inflate breast, 
utter], magnify, praise, [be puffed out, hollow]; pra*stu to relate, 

announce; stdmas hynm. Zd. ftaman mouth. Gk. or^iJiflt mouth, 

voice, face; c^6\LCfxo(; maw, gullet; OTa>(jiuXX(i> to talk, chatter; qx6\ij^o<;, 
Qx6^oq bombast, bragging, violent talk; oTO(i.tfo> to gag; oTtf(i.cov cave. 

Lat. [s]tuba trumpet; tibia pipe. Goth, stibna, O. H. G. stimna, 

A. S. stefn voice, outcry; Ger. stumm gagged, dumb; A. S. thUma 
thumb (gag; child's thumb in mouth); Cheruscan Thumelicus, 

Daumelchen, Hop-o'-my-thumb. Ir. tibim to laugh; [co^aith-- 

tibiud], cuitbiud mockery; W. tauaut, tafod tongue {stu)\ Bret, teaut, 
tead, O. C. tebaio tongue; Tubantes, Tebavii shouters; Towgeni {gen 
mouth) . 



— 313 — 

Sk. same roots; stu, stam, stubh to puS up, magnify, inflate, praise; 
dhmd to blow the fire; dhamas blowing; stup to pile, set up; [sihanib, 
dhamb], dap, damp, damb, dambh, dip, dimp, dinibh, dumbh to heap, 
roll together, [knead, touzle, curry]; dimbas ball, egg, embryo; dimbhas 
whelp (cuddled; rounded in womb); [stanibh to use pestle]; stam 
{stamami, stamayami to whirl, revolve; vi'danib to [knead, roimd, 
fingere], imitate ; datnbh to [whirl, swindle], deceive ; dambhas deception; 
pride (rounded, swelled up); datnbh, damb, dimb, dip, tip to whirl, 
hurl, hurt, scorn; tamb to revolve; tumb to hurl; tumbas gourd; tap to 

[whirl], blaze; tam, tim, tip to melt, be wet. Gk. SI^g), li^ta to knead, 

shape, soften, curry; 54<pa curried hide; Bdyvt) laurel [anointed leaf, 
cf. liupro?, p. 99; melts with [A^xviq] 321; with Sauxvt) 322]; Ko^og 
(pref. sa) hut-mound, floor, [hardened earth, cement]; Scfdco to [roam, 
hunt], seek; [So^oc;], V^oq; [Bov<po<;], Mfo<; [circling, bewildering] 
darkness; Zi^upo^ west wind (whirling, cloud-heaping); 'zi^ga [whirl- 
ing] ashes (cf . dhUlis, oxtfSoc;, cinis) ; 6t^ptf(; roasted in ashes, delicate 
{dhup to smoke, steam); 6u|i.ppa; [(j]TU9ia) to puff up, wrap in cloud; 
Tufoc; vapor, vanity; Tufo) to smoke, smolder, brood; Tu9a>e(}<; giant 
under Aetna; Tu9cbv whirlwind, conflagration; TU9ci8T)<; smoldering 
fever; tI9o<;, 2T6jji9aXo<; brooding, miasmatic swamp; Tt9ug choking 
nightmare; [xaTa-'nQ9T[5<;], xorn)9i^<; gloomy, dark, brooding, sad (cf. 
xaadiicj); itif^ sulphur; zii^ spelt (whorl of awns; tip)', t^juov spike- 
lavender; Tt9ug pilot of Argo (pole-star, centre of revolving heaven); 

edc|jLpo? [whirling], amazement. ^Lat. depso to knead; damnum 

[hurling down], ruin; stuprum [tousling, stewing], licentiousness. 

Goth, daupyan to whirl down, dip [sihub, dh%ib\, diups deep (OdcTcco, 
T(f9o<;); Low Ger. dobbe, dobel lowland, swamp; O. N. ddpr, daufr 
[whirling, dizzy], fierce, confused, gloomy, deaf; deyfr to deafen, 
stupefy, lame; Dofri a giant; dimmr dim; tdfr an enchanted ball 
(dip); steypa to whirl, wrap, hurl down; steypir precipice; styfia to 
[wrap], stifle, stive; Ger. Stiefel leg-wrap, boot; O. N. [5\t6ft, tSmt 
enclosure, house-yard; tdm delay, indolence (coiled up; dumbh); 
A. S. stofe, O. N. stofa, O. H. G. stuba, stupa sweat-hut; warm bath, 
warmed room, stove; Lomb. stufare to stew; A. S. topp, Ger. Zopf 
topknot, twisted hair (Ib^tS) ; A. S. tumbian, O. H. G. tUmildn to fall 
headlong; Ger. toben to whirl; Staub dust; O. H. G. tobel [bewildering] 
forest.^— O.R. dibri gulf, chasm; Lith. dubus hollow, deep; dube pit; 
dumblas sediment, river mud; Lett, dibli mud; dibens, dubens bottom, 
ground; R. d[v]ibi prancing round; d[v]ibom with touzled hair; dubit 
to curry, tan; debr forest (bewildering) ; pO'dobie likeness, resemblance 

(damb to imitate) . O. C dubno [deep, circling, sunset], west, world's 

end, world; Dubncrix, Dumnotix king of the world; Dumnonii, Dam- 



— 314 — 

nonii westerners (Devon and Cornwall); Dumno-tonus even to tbe 
sunset; point at mouth of Gironde; Dumna isle of Lewis; Dubno^ 
vellaunus lord of the world (p. 193); W. Dyfnwal, Ir. Damnall, 
Donnell, Donald; Ir. Eirros-Domno sunset-point, p. igS \[Aedh'damnan], 
Adamnan (p. 12); Ir. domain, fwdomain deep; fu-domnu deeper; 
domun world; W. dwfn. Com., Bret, doun deep; Bret. doHnein to 
deepen, dig, sink. 

Sk. stam to revolve, whirl; tamb to move [round]; tumb to [twist], 
torment, [whirl], vanish; tamdlas [whirling] sword; tumulas whirling, 
riotous, tumultuous; tomaras war-club; idmaram [eddying] water; 
idmarasam [rounding] lotus; tdmras copper (ductile); tdmb-ulas betel 
[vine]; tamos [circling, bewildering], dark; tamasas swarthy; iamisram 

darkness (cf . dhdv to whirl ; dhvanta darkness) . Zd. temanh darkness; 

temanha dark. Gk. xi^iaoq rennet (curdling, lumping); T^i&apog, 

T(jidepo(;, Tu(Ui>Xo<;, T(uoXog [swelling, rounded] mountains. Lat. 

tumulius tumult; temp-estas gathering storm (aestuo); temulenius 
giddy, dnmk; tmetum strong drink (cf. T\tApo<;)\ temere whirling, 
dashing, at random; temeritas; temero to assault, profane; con'tamino 
to splash, defile; con-temno to scorn; [temnebrae], tenebrae darkness; 
timeo to fear [the dark] (cf. Ir); [temelum], templum [circle], augur's 
meridian line; enclosure; temple (cf. R.); tempus (temporis ^tamsaras) 
circling time; extemplo immediately; tempora temples of head; con*- 

templor to roll the eyes, glance round. O. Sax. thim gloomy, dim; 

O. H. G. demar twilight, D&mmerung. ^Lith. tamsa d^kness; 

tamsus dark; O. R. tima darkness; R. iemneit, stemneii to grow dark; 
tuman fog; tumba limit, boundary ([tomva], templum) \ temya crown 

of head. Ir. teim, deim dark; temel darkness, eclipse; teme death; 

temen dark gray; tiamda dark, timid; [temara], temair rotmd hill, 
watch-post (full horizon); Cor. [iifkul'gou], tivuhgou darkness; Bret, 
tihoil, tioH dark; temallein to blame, scold, grumble (tumulas); O. C. 
Tamaros (tdmaram; Tamar in Devon); Tamaris (Tambre in Spain); 
Themera (Demer in Belgium); Tamaros (Tamaro in Saxnnium); 
Tam-esis circling, tidal water (uisce); Tamina dark gorge of upper 
Rhine. 

Sk. stombh, stam, tomb to [bray in mortar], revolve, whirl; tumb 
to whirl, vex; tap to whirl, blaze, bum; to vex, torment, grieve; 
tapas, tdpas heat, summer, self-torture, asceticism; tdpasas ascetic, 
devotee; tam (tdmydmi) to melt away; be vexed, grieved; tdmaram 
water; stibhis bunch of grapes (squeezed out, p. 381); stibhis ocean; 
tip, stip to drip, drop; tim, tim, stim, stlm to be wet; timiUis wet; 



— 315 — 

timis fabulous fish, [cloud]; tetnas moisture, steam. Old Pers. 

tafedhra melting; tafnu heat. Gk. xacKUv6q humble, sad-minded, 

ascetic; TiicY)(;, Tdhctg, Sdhctg rug, wrap, sweater; 0T((i(jie, orC^tov eye- 
paint (melting, languishing); t19o<; swamp (p. 313). ^Lat. tepeo 

to be warm, moist; iepidus; tabeo to melt, thaw (p. 305); tabes con- 
sumption, pestilence; tempero to add hot water, temper draught; 
to sweat hot iron, temper; temperate sibi to control one's self, be 

ascetic; abs'temius ascetic, temperate. A. S. stofe sweat-hut, hot 

bath (p. 313) ; thefyan to boil; thafyan to submit, endure (sweat-bath, 
medicine-lodge); stedm steam; [s]tedmian to brood, teem; O. N. stofna 
to stew, cook; O. H. G. dam/ steam; M. H. G. dimpfen to smoke, steam; 

O. N. dampi vapor, fog, smoke. O. R. toplu warm; R. tepliy 

warm, moist; teplitza hot-house; step southern prairie, steppe (vernal, 
warm) ; topit to warm, dip, drown; tomitsya to languish, suffer; tomlenie 

languor, anguish. Ir. topor, tipra spring, fotmtain, well (Tipper«ary) ; 

teprennim to flow; tepresiu dripping; tiprum beer-jug; te[/>]^, t^^ss 
boiling, hot, passionate, luxurious; tdm wasting pestilence; taimne 
torpor; tainUhiu pining, death-bed; Bret, tapen a drop; ti[p]ein to 
melt; t^adur melting; toupek cloudy, gloomy; tuemmeim to be hot, 
to heat; [tumek], tufek sultry; O. C. Tipurinius] Teponia; Tem^usio 
nymph (bubbling spring); Tim-avus (hot springs; Plin. N. H. 2, 151). 

Sk. stambhf stumbh to set stake, thrust, drive out; [statnbh to use 
mortar, stamp, grind, whirl]; stam to revolve; tutftb to whirl, vex; 
tip, dip, ditnb to whirl, shoot, wound; tup, tump {tupdmi, topdmi), 
tuph, tumph, tubh to thrust, strike, hurl, wound; tomaras war-club; 

tumb to vex, twist [off]. Gk. tijicto) to strike, pound; tuxi^, Tumia 

stroke, wotmd; T6xog stroke, dent, mark, sign, image; Tiixavov, 
TU(ixavov club, kettle-drum; Tuxdg hammer; oruxil^ci) to strike, beat, 
thtmder; i-Tiyt^ (tumb) to maltreat, bereave, cheat, blame (dcintens.); 
Tl(ivci> to chop, cleave, cut; xep*TO(iia> to cut the heart, revile; Ti|ixcoe, 
TIjxxY) cleft in mountains, gorge, valley; xoixetig knife; to^6q sharp, 
keen; to(i.)), T(i.^(xa section, portion; T(i.ifY(i> to cut; T<(xaexog slice; TiT(i.ey 

he hit upon, found; Tixo(; place. Lat. temno, contemno to scorn; 

contumelia; tab-dnus [goad-behind], gad-fly; temo chariot-pole (thrust- 
ing)? O.H.G. stumbaldn to pound; s/iim/^/" maimed, stubbed; Eng. 

to stab, stub, stumble, thump. O. R. tanpu blimt; tepan I strike; 

tuputu sound, din; R. tupoi bltmt, stupid; topor axe; tumak tap, stroke, 

knock. Ir. tepor vengeance; Bret, tapein to strike; toupen flock, 

fleece (tumb); tam slice, piece, bit; O. C. Tapponius, Tappius, 

Sk. sthd, sthal to stand; [forms sthal, dkal, dhval, dal, dul, tal. 



— 316 — 

tval, tul in the senses: cause to stand, set, put, place, put hammer, 
toss to place, send, hurl, shoot far, hurl round, strew, make bed, spread 
round, whirl up, roll up, rise, lift, poise, weigh, support weight, endure, 
suffer]; sthalam, sthali place, grotmd, hut-motmd, site, tent, earth; 
tal to place, found, put, [lay in another's hand]; tolas fotmdation, 
ground, sole of foot, palm of hand, surface of earth; nabhas'talam 
cloud-space, atmosphere, Luftraum; tdlu palate of mouth (curved, 
vaulted; cf. palatum p. 70); tal, pal to be tossed, whirled, dizzied, 
terrified; dual to stir, mix; caus. talpas [strewed rushes], bed; tiilam 
cotton (rounding boll); mtdberry tree; ttd (tulaydmi, tolaydmi) to 
whirl up, lift, poise, weigh; tula scale of balance; likeness; potmd; 
tulyas equal; tolanam lifting, weighing; dul to lift, swing, toss, play 
dice; dold swing, hantmiock, fluctuation; dhulis whirling dust (p. 399); 
tilf till to move [round, whirl]; sthul to round, swell; sthulas roxmd, 

swollen, turgid. Gk. 0Tt)X(<; [set] stake; oruXfg mast; ctt^Xtj, ordeXXa 

pedestal, block of stone, buttress, pillar; oruXog stake, pale, column; 
oriXt? stake, prop; crlXexo? stock, root, tnmk; creXeiv, oretXecJv 
axe-handle (whirler); orlXXo) to set, place, send, undertake; to wrap; 
fold, contract, furl, shrink; oriXoc;, oroXi^ expedition, march, army, 
fleet; croXf? sail; oroXi^ [wrapped] robe, equipment; crceX^Lovta belt; 
oTiXo<; lump, prow; tuXo? boss, hump; t6Xt) hump, bolster; tuXCttc* 
to wrap, twist, bend; Tr{kla a round board, table, sieve; TiXoepo^ round 
basket; TaXdaeto<; (adj.) spinning-work; TeXXCg [round], whole, 
complete (Hesych.); TIXXo? complete, perfect; tsX^o) to [bring to its 
place, to round], complete, perfect, effect; to [toss round], put in 
circulation, spend; tIXXg) to bring to pass, create, effect, become; 
ivrlXXci) to assign work, duty; t4Xo<; completion, fulfilment, end, 
death; duty, quota, tax; TeXeri^ perfection, accomplishment (vat 
to circle); TeXeuTdo) to complete, die; T<Xaov circumference, frontier; 
TtjXe [long-shot], afar (cf . duras) ; TTjXe-faaaa far-shining moon; [TtjX<- 
9ao(;], Ti^Xeyog evening-star, child of Hercules (nursed by doe as 
Dionysus is wrapped in fawn-skin [p. 294]; he is bom again in the 
east); TtjXI-yovo? far-bom; evening-star (p. 172); TT)X4-jiaxo<; far- 
darting day-star; TtjXI-^oat far-cattle of setting sun; clouds brought 
back by Indra and Hercules after suntmier drought (somas, sumam 
p. 212 ; dozhd p. 308) ; dva-T^XXo) to shoot up, spring up (of com, water, 
sun, moon); dvorcoXT^ day-spring, east; [TaXdw], xXdci), TXfjtit to [whirl 
up], lift up, bear, endure, [poise, weigh, hurl], venture; (StXIo) to suffer, 
endure (sa-); [acvi] dv-TXeo) to draw water; TdeXovrov scale, weight, 
a man's load (60 pounds); 4TdcXavTo<; of equal weight; in counter- 
poise (aa synth.); 'ATaXdyn; full-orbed moon in east, cotmterpoising 
setting stm; she races with the sun, but stops to pick up golden-apple 



— 317 — 

(day-star) and he wins her; a huntress, like Artemis, she joins Meleager 
in his contest with winter; as sun he prefers her to his uncles (day and 
evening stars) and loses his life; "AxXag ("AtXccvtoc;) sun, counterpoise 
of full moon, setting in crimson like Hercules; he is crushed between 
heaven and earth, but controls the star-fruit of the Hesperides (Cu- 
chullin, sun-god of Ireland, rolls golden apple across sky) ; the dragon 
of the Hesperides is the circling ocean; the abyss of darkness; [TaX- 
TaXo(;], Tdb^aXog setting sun; consumed by heat; cannot reach ocean- 
stream beneath him nor star-fruit above him; TdeXac;, TaXaJ<;, tXt](uov 
heavy-laden, distressed, wretched; TeXa(u&v supporter, shield-strap; 
colossal male figure employed for colunm like caryatides; [TaXa»fptvo<;], 
TaXauptvog shield-bearing, tough-hided (p. 191); ToXjidci) to [poise, 

shoot], dare. ^Lat. tollo to whirl up, lift (ttdi, sus'tuli, [tlatus]^ 

lotus, sub'latus); tolleno well-sweep; stkUaria ship of burden, canal- 
boat; tolero to support, endure; Tullus, Tullius swelling, mighty 
(tdlanam, tulam) ; stolo stump (sthulas) ; stolidus, stuUus heavy, stupid; 
telum javelin (hurled afar); stellio [nimble] lizard [popping round 
stump], spy, informer; [sa'Stelles], satelles henchman; ialpa mole 
(hibernating; talpas); stlis, lis {stellen, bestellen) [appointment, ren- 
dezvous], court-day, law-case; [st]ldtus spread out, broad (sthalam); 
St'latie, Latium the plain; stlocus, locus place; talus heel, sole {talas); 
tellus earth (circular disk); tali jackstones, dice {tual, duJ)\ Dellius. 

Goth, thulan, O. N. thola, O. H. G. ddlem, dultu to thole, support, 

endure; O. N. thel frost (hardening, fixing); thylya to [toss, flash 
round], speak, be eloquent, poetical (ft/a/) ; thollr, tholl, thellr fir (Sprotz- 
baum, even-growth, rotmding; tUlam); thella tree; thil, thilya rotmd 
board, platter, board (-nQXta); A. S. thele, Dutch deele board; Ger. 
Teller round trencher; A. S. ihile [sprout], pole, thill; O. H. G. stellan^ 
A. S. staelan to send to a place, appoint, give warning; O. H. G. stU 
handle (oreXetfv); stal place, stall; stuol chair, stool; A. S. staelc high, 
steep, a stalk (crlXexoc;) ; staelcan to walk proudly, softly, stalk; O. N. 

Thule, rA>'te«= circumference, world's end. R. stlat to spread out, 

round out, cover, place, make bed, lay floor; po-stilat to put, place, 
spread; po*stel bed; stalkivat, tolkai to [send], speed, hurl (tark to aim) ; 
tolkovat to [be messenger], explain, interpret, argue (borrowed by 
O. N. tulka to interpret; Low Ger. talken to speak like a foreigner, 
talk); R. ieleiga [driven] chariot, car; stelka insole of shoe (talas); 
stol [round] table; stol, stolko like, as, as much {tulyas); tulya crown 
of hat, cheese-mold; t[v]il buttock, back; teilo, tulovishke trunk of 
body; tolstii round, fat; stolb pillar; tolok to bray, grind; O. R. tulu 
[round, full] quiver; Lith. stelluti, stellvyu to place, appoint; 
telyHa heel. ^Ir. tailce strength; stale obstinacy; tall in that place, 



— 318 — 

yonder; taUaim to take one's place, find room, be fitting, suitable; 
iallaim to [swing axe, scjrthe], cut oflf, lop, sweep away, rob; tellaim 
to steal; iedl thief; tdl axe (oreXe^v); tailm a sling; talmaide suddenly 
[swinging]; tul quick, sudden; tollaim to [whirl], bore, hollow; tul 
round, boss, knob, forehead (tuXo<;); tul-chube pail; tul naked (t[v}il)] 
stiall girdle; tlacht apparel; talam [round] world (tellus); Bret, tal 
forehead, front; ioulein to bore, hollow, explore; taladur auger; taulein 
to whirl, hurl, dash out, be radiant; taul blow of fist, shoot of tree 
ifhdll), swarm, whirlwind; talm sling; tailhein to cut; tell slice; tatd 
table; talpein to [coil up], die (of animal); tolpein to heap, collect; 
tolp SL troop; O. C. Tullus round hill, mound; Tol-osa high mound (oss 
high); [Tul'lingi], Tulingi hill-hoppers, motmtaineers; Tal-assus high- 
browed; Tal'iesin flashing brow; Tal'org wrathful brow; Talavus; 
Tala-bara (barr head, peak) ; [Tolpidcum\, Tolbidcum. 

Sk. same roots tal, tual to be whirled, confused; /il, tiU to move 
rotmd; tul to whirl up; til (tildmi, telaydmi) to be [bespuU, wet], oily; 
tilas sesame (round seed, drop, oily); tdUam sesame oil; tUas, iilakas 

oil-spot, stain, paint, caste-mark. Gk. oreXCg [bird-lime], mistletoe ; 

TeX(x((;, TiX(i^ slime, mud, mortar, swamp; tIXo<; diarrhoea; [oriX/u], 
gt(X^o> to glitter; crtXxvrfc; glittering; ot(Xtj a drop, moment, little; 

TtXi^ a flock, mote ; tCXXg) to pluck, shred, twitch; T(X(ia shreds, lint. 

Lat. stillo to drop; stilla a drop; titillo to pluck, scratch; tilia linden 

(pluck-bark, bast). Goth. stUan to [pluck], steal; O. N. [sllaela to 

cheat; A. S. stillan to smooth, calm. Ir. tellaim to steal? Bret. 

teil manure; t^len harp (plucked); tilh hemp, bast, linden; O.C. iHlum 
poison; Tillius glittering? Tilia, Tilurius rivers. 

Sk. sthd to stand; stu {stdumi, stuve) to swell, magnify, praise ; stydi 
to swell, heap, sound; stdi to wrap, robe; sthavaras, sthaviras stable, 
firm; old; a mountain; sthdiryam firmness, stability; sthiras hard, firm; 
sthuras, sthulas round, turgid, firm; sthulam heap; tree-trunk; stkuras 
bull (strong, draft-animal); start strength; barren dow (draft, not 
milch); [s\tdrd star (fixed; sure guide); tw to swell, grow (p. 287); 
tifuras [thunder-cloud] flashing, dark, violent, fierce; turv, thurv to be 

violent, kill. 2ki. ftama strong; ftaora draft-animal; 0are [fixed] 

star. Gk. cTaup<<; stake, pillar, cross; crupa? spiked butt of spear; 

cTopfivT) lancet; ortjpRio) to set firmly, establish; 0Ti^p(Y(i^ prop, founda- 
tion; orepe^c;, orepp^c; firm, hard, solid, frozen; deoD^p sealing clay; a star 
(deuphon.); oript^oi; hard, barren; orelpo^ sterile, childless; crcepio to 
bereave, deprive, rob; crlpvov chest (contrasted with soft abdomen); 
oretpa keel of ship; [9]'n]pici> to guard firmly; TeIpo<;, xigaq constella- 



— 319 — 

tion, sure omen; Taupoq bull; crpiQvi^c; hard, rough, harsh; [oTtfpt<;], 
Tiipatc;, Tuppt<; tower; Ti5pawo<; absolute sovereign; Tupi<; cheese 

(hardened milk; melts with p. 287). Lat. stiva stake, handle; 

in'stauro to found; re-stauro to prop up, restore; ob'turo to stop up, 
cork, gag; [iursis], iurris tower; Turseni, Turreni Etruscans (mighty; 
Tarshish) ; [iersa], terra the earth (terra firma) ; ex^traneus outlandish, 
or extra; stirta icicle (a.epetfc;); solvtarius (oreplo)); taurus bull; torvus 
fierce (Sk. turv); pro-tervns impetuous; sterula, stella star; strenuus 
violent, eager; sternuo to [burst out], sneeze; [frequentative] sterto to 

snore. Goth, stiuryan to establish, make firm ; us'Stiurs unrestrained ; 

stiur bull, steer; stairo sterile; stairno star; O. H. G. stirro star; stdr 
stiff, firm; A. S. stedran to control, guide, steer, press against water; 
styrian to stir; to establish, ordain; steam stem of ship; stedr^bord 
[steering], starboard side {leer'bord empty side, larboard) ; steme firm, 
stem; steorra star; starian to stare; [s]tur tower; torr cliff, peak; O. N. 
stdrr large, abundant; thior draft-animal, ox; thorri force, mass; 
Thdrr force of nature [against negations, darkness, cold], the god Thor; 
stordh the earth; stormr storm; straumr stream; styr battle; Ger. 

Steuer government tax. O. R. turu bull; R. tur wild ox, wild sheep; 

taran ram; staranie an effort; starost old age (obstinate, slow); 
tverdii firm, hard, solid; stradanie endurance, suffering; storona side, 

side of ship, coast (cripvov). Ir. tiiir, turid pillar, upholder, chief; 

tuirend whesLt (high-head); tir land; tor, tromm heavy; tr&n (compar. 
tressa, cf . T6pai<;) active, strenuous, valiant* ; [tarv], tarb (W., Bret, taru) 
btdl; Ir. torand (lowering, bellowing, p. 185) thtmder; W., Cor., Bret. 
toran thunder; lT.s[tyuUhold;W.strutiusxicient{starost); tir Isind; It. 
[sty Ma, ritglu, Gael, [styeul star (cf . [styoe, s^tyath plain) ; Ir. rHl bright; 
Bret, stem frame, harness, loom; sterd firm, solid, fixed, contracted; 
st&r current; shore; ster (plu. steret) star; taran noisy, eager; t&rein to 
grow angry; ter&nein to be obstinate, slow; to delay; O. C. tarvos btdl; 
Donno'tarvos brown bull; Deio'tarfus divine bull; Tarbelli; Sturia, 
Stura rivers; Turus god; Turonesi Tuficus firm deliverance; Tara, 
Taros stronghold; Taranus thunder-god; Taraniicnos god (W. ychen 
oxen); Trena-catus valiant warrior. 

Sk. tu to swell; tiv to be swollen; stu to magnify; stdi to whirl, 
wrap; sthdvaras firm, solid; tivras swollen, mighty, fierce; sthdiryam 
fimmess, [foundation]; strl, stri (strindmi, strinve, genmd. siirya, 
p. p. stimas) to [lay foundation, make lair, bed, tent]; to strew round, 
spread out, lay down, cast down, cover; upa-stri to set, arrange, 
prepare ; pari'Stri to spread round ; vi'Stimas spread out, wide ; stari-man 
bed; sva'Staras one's own place; [s]trd to cover, shield, protect; irdnam 



— 320 — 

armor, protection; girasirdnam helmet. ZA. ftarto strew; ftairished. 

— — Gk. 0T<pvu|«, aTopivvu(u to make bed, spread, smoo'^'' out, 
calm, soothe; orpcjat^ spreading, covering; aTp(j(ia mattress, blanket, 
horse-cloth, pavement; orporc^c [spread out, ordered, tented] army 

(cf. R.); orpari-xeBov camp (cf. Lager). ^Lat. siemo (stratus) to 

strew; sir amen, str amentum straw; storea mat, rug; [s)forus couch, 
tufted mattress, swelling muscles; struo to build in layers, arrange, 
plan, lay ambuscade; strues heap; in-star [on the plane, level], as high, 
great; like; indu-stria acctmiulation, toil; struma wen, hump; strages 
scattering, strewing, rout, slaughter; con-siemo to rout, confuse; stragu- 

lum blanket, rug {volvo\ g for /). Goth, strauyan to strew; O. H. G. 

strdo straw. O. R. sireiti to strew; R. stroii to build, construct; 

set in order; stroi line of battle ; str ana [circle], region, point of compass; 

stranniy [scattered beyond], foreign, strange. W. sPrat, ystrat a plain ; 

ystam saddle; strau, O. W. strouis I strewed; Ir. [si^roet [stys circum- 
ference, area, space; Gael, strath, Ir. srath, riada shore, plain; Ir. 
{stroenifn\, sroenim to scatter, disperse, hiurl down; [st]rdenaim to 
[scatter], rout, defeat; (redupl.) [st]ria'Siraim to [whirl], twist, contort; 
s[t]ernim to spread out, scatter, declare; s[tyuith wise (melts with 
sruith old); rM even; O. C. Straviana, Streuintia; Strata, Stratona. 

Sk. sthaviras, sthiras firm, hard; [syihiras firm, deep-set, solid, pro- 
found, wise; dhri (dhardmi, dadhdra, dharishydmi, dkriye, dhritas) 
to hold up, bear, make firm, endure, live long, hold in, restrain; caus. 
to support, preserve, think profotmdly, reflect; dri (dritas) to hold 
fast, esteem, honor; (the double form in dh and d is found in all 
cognate tongues); d-dri to respect, adore; d-daras esteem, adoration; 
d'driiydvnXh open (protecting) hand; ddra wife; ddrakas child; dru to 
think deeply, regret, repent; -dharas bearing, upholding; dhras to 
[bear grain], lift, rear, harvest; dhard, dharitrl the earth; dhartri 
bearer, carrier; dhritis, dhdiryam constancy; dharmas duty, right; dhri 
(dhrindmt) to be [firm], old (cf . sthaviras) ; dhru (dhruvdmi, dhravdmi) 
to be fixed, firm; to push forward, go; dhruvam [fixed, firm], certainly, 
surely, truly; drus, drumas [deep-set] tree, wood; drd, drdi (drdmi, 
drdydmi) to [think profoundly, dream], be sunk in sleep; drd, dru 
to [push forward], nm, flow; to [be driven], flee, be wretched; dhar 
to run, be dextrous; dhUr to thrust, kill, go; dhurd burden; dhur yoke; 
pole of chariot (pushing forward); front; dhuryas beast of burden; 
dharunam foundation ; dhariman form (pressed into shape ; cheese) ; dhvri 
to [crouch, pounce, woimd], curve, redden; drun to speed, be curved, 
wound; -dhrik bearing, enduring, old; [dhrins], drink (p. p. dridhas) 
to make firm, be firm; fasten, [grip]; drih to grow, swell; p. p. drihitas. 



— 321 — 

dridhas violent, large, solid, firm; [s]trinh to grow; strth, sirih, trih^ 
trinh to [pounce, grip, strangle], strike, kill; triksh to go; (hence the 
root strangh to press, strangle, twist, make an effort, be strong; com- 
mon to all the western languages). Zd. dar to hold; darez to hold 

fast, make firm; derezra firm. Gk. Opdeco, 6pT4aao6ai to set, seat one's 

self; Opi^TTovov body and seat of chariot; Opovog bench; end of beam; 
Op^vog seat, throne; 6pf)vu(; footstool; d*6p^og pressed, crowded (i 
synthet.); dOpoR^o) to gather; 6Xdo> to grip, crush; Oc&pa^ coat of mail, 
breast-work (tight-fit, firm) ; Opi^oxo) to think deeply (Hesych.) ; Opioxo) 
to reflect, remember; 6pT)oxo<; [meditative], devout, religious; lv-6pelv 
to guard, keep (cf . d-dri) ; de*6p&i> to watch diligently, observe, consider 
(dc intens.) ; de*6epR^a> to disregard, neglect (i priv.) ; d*6i^p ear of com 
(dhri borne high; i intens.); d-OcEpT) groats, meal; lOetpa bushy hair, 
mane, feathers; Oipog harvest, summer {dhras); [IXeu], IXeij*6epog 
[choose your harvest], free (p. 194); Oeptori^g harvester; OepR^o) to 
harvest, spend the summer; 6ipo>, 6ep(ia(yG> to heat; 6ep(x6(; hot 
(cf. form dhannas); 6IXu(i.va foundations, roots, layers; 8pd(i> to 
[grasp, handle], do, act, serve; $pdE(i^ deed, office, action, drama; 
8p<xo> (causal form) to pluck (cf . drip, driph to [twist, pluck], vex) ; 
dplxovov grass-hook, sickle; SpuTrca to snatch, tear; Setpi^, S<pT], Aeol. 
8<ppa neck (supporting; dhur yoke); Setpdec; [back of animal], ridge 
of hills (cf . jugum, dorsum) ; 6<Xu(i.va foundations (dharunam) ; 6 JXo>, 
iOiXci) to [grasp at, hold firm, push forward], desire, will; OptYxig, 
6ptYY<?, TptYx<<; support of rafters, cornice, hedge, enclosure {drinh; 

cf. string-board, string-course). Lat. dorsus, dorsum back, ridge of 

mountain; [ihretus], fretus resting upon, relying; fretum strait, deep 
water, depth; frenor to hold in, restrain; frenum rein, bridle; firmus 
firm; forma [pressed into] shape (cf. formella, fromage; dhariman); 
fornix arch (self-supporting, firm; dharunam; but cf. p. 181); frons 
(-<iy) forehead (dhur); O. Lat. horctus, forctus, Lat. fortis (Op^cxog) 
enduring, self-denying, frugal, brave; furca vine-prop, stake, gallows; 
fulcio to prop, support (but see p. 73) \ferveo to glow (Oipog; melts with 
ferveo to boil, p. 63) ; [ferviae], feriae summer holidays; funms, fulvus 
tanned, swarthy; Formiae summer-slope; formido shivering terror 

(gripped, shaken, cf . Russian) ; frigeo to shiver, be cold. ^A. S. deore, 

O. N. dyr^ O. H. G. tiuri well guarded, precious, dear {d-dri) ; O. N. 
dyrka [dhrinh, Opi^axco] to serve, honor; Goth, draiihtinon, driugan 
to serve in war; dulgs duty, debt; dragan (O. H. G. trakan) to [grip], 
drag, heap; Ger. iragen to bear, carry; A.S. dryhten commander, lord; 
irum (form 8pio)) firm, a troop; trymmian to solidify, adjust; dredm 

triumph, joy (harvest-home; OepjxiO. R. derzhai to hold fast, grip 

(Zd. darez) ; druzhitsya to make alliance; drug [firm] friend; druzhina 
21 



— 322 — 

a troop ; drozhat to [be gripped, shaken], to shiver (Jormido) ; dolg duty, 

debt; dolzhno it is right; dergat to drag; Lith. drtUas firm, strong. 

Ir. dir proper, fit, right; dire blood-fine, due, wage; direch just; 
derna palm of hand (upholding, gripping); dorn clenched hand, fist; 
dernaim to make ; dron firm, fast ; drong a, troop (druzhina) ; dliged duty, 
law; dligim to have a right; be creditor; dU legal satisfaction; ro-dleckt, 
diles one's own; drochet bridge ; druimm back; ridge of hills; dlamaim to 
confirm, assert; dluim a solid mass; dlHiih compact, firm; Bret, dorn 
hand, handful; O. C. pro-dilus hereditary right; Druna strong, firm; 
Dumacos. 

Sk.5//ttVas firm, hard; [s^nistTee; dhrutohe6na,stTong;dhruvafn 
sure; drus tree, wood (deep-set, firm) ; drumas tree; drutndy to be tall, 
tree-like, conspicuous; drih (p.p. drihitas, dridhas) to grow, swell out; 
darduras cloud, frog; ddrus wood, fir; ddrunas hard, severe, dreadful. 

Zd. dm, dduru wood, shaft, spear (influenced by Sk. dhar to 

rush, hurl; duras far [shot]). Gk. SpO? tree, oak; lp\j\i6<; oak-wood, 

forest; SIvSpeov, SIvSpov tree (redup., cf. 8ev*8(XXfta); 8p(a thicket; 
ipiiiq tree-nymph; Stfpu (plu. SoOpa, loipaxa) wood, beam, spear-shaft, 
spear; $oup*T)vexi^^ the distance of a spear-shot; Sdcp-uXXo^ oak (Maced.; 

BXy)). Lat. durus hard, cruel. Goth, triu tree; triveins wooden; 

trauan to [rest securely on support], trow, trust; trausti covenant; A. 

S. tredv tree; faithfulness, truth; iriknan to trust, believe. O. R. 

dreivo tree ; R. derevo tree, wood ; derevtzo bush ; derevnya [forest] village ; 
deren cornel-tree (shafts); drova (Bohem. dram) fire-wood; dremuSii 

dense forest; Lith. drtUas firm, solid; derva pine wood. Ir. dair, 

daur (gen. darach) oak; dairde, daurde oaken; dair-bre oak-grove; 
[derevac], derucc acorn; drui (gen. druad) druid (cf. drmh p. p. dridhas); 
druidecht sorcery ; diir hard ; diire hardness ; derb firm, certain (dhruvam) ; 
W. derwen oak (darU'Venna) ; Bret, deriien (plu. cferi*) ; O. C. Dario" 
ritum; Darini (Deny); Dru-nemeton (oak-grove); Dervus; Dervones 
(fates) ; Derventio (Derwent) ; Druentia; Darantasia, Tarantasia (torus), 

Sk. dhiras firm, deep-set, profound, wise; dhri to think deeply, 
meditate, be lost in thought; drd, drdi (drdmi, drdydmi) to [dream, be 

sunk in sleep], sleep; ni-dra to be buried in sleep (ni- under). Gk. 

8ap0(ivo>, xotaSapOdh^ (28pa6ov, KapOov) to sleep, fall asleep. 

Lat. dormio to sleep; dormiio to nap. Goth, driusan to fall into 

(dhri to fall ; dhrish to pounce, plunge) ; A. S. dredsan to fall, droop, nod, 
drowse; O. N. draumr, O. H. G. traum dream (influenced by Slav.?). 

O. R. dreimcUi to sleep; R. dr[v]ikhnut to sleep, drowse. ^Ir. 

dermatint to forget; cfertno/; oblivion DiarfnaU, Dermot deep thought. 



— 323 — 

Sk. dhri to grasp, press, rest upon; dhri to [be set, obstinate], old; 
dhru (dkravdmi, dhruvdmi) to be fixed, firm; to [thrust], press forward, 
go (cf. an^ pp. 5 and 6) ; dhur chariot-pole; dhdr to [handle spear], be 
dextrous ; to go, rush ; dhur to whirl, rush, kill ; dhdrd gallop, wheel, edge 
of sword; drd (drdmi) to run, hasten; dari-drd (intens. redup.) to be a 
fugitive, exile, miserable; dram to run to and fro (cf. kindred forms 
drus, drumas; drdi, dormio) ; dru {dravdmi, dudruva) to run, flee, fliow, 
eddy, rush; dru to speed, hurt, kill; drl {drindmi, dardmi) to fear; drl 
{drindmi, p.p. dirnas to [pounce as a wild animal], to tear, rend, burst, 
split; dhvri, dhurv to [crouch, bend down, pounce], curve, bend 
[stain with blood], color (cf. ran^ p. 127) ; dhri to [plunge], fall; dhurv, 
durv, ihurv, turv to conquer, strike, hurt, kill; tur to speed; dvdram, 
dvar door (pouncing-place, entrance of cave); [form dhvrin]; drun to 
[crouch, pounce], be curved, rush, kill; druh to hurt, wound, be hostile; 
druh demon; dhri^, dhrin^, dhri^, dhra^, dhran^ to [pounce, swoop], go; 
[sthriksh], striksh to go; strih strih, trih to pounce, kill ; dhrdnksh, drdnksh 
to scream fiercely (of birds); to [be greedy for prey], long for; dhran 
to sound; dhrdgh, drdgh to make an effort, exhaust one's self, [reach 
after, pounce for], be long, strong; dlrghas\ong\ trih, trinh to harm; 
dhrek, drek to be strong, able; to scream [like hungry beast]; drdk 
swiftly; drdh to hurl down; to [glare as wild animal], watch, be watch- 
ful; drig (drakshydmi, dadarga) to watch keenly, see, observe, hear; 
drdkshd grape (crushable ; cf . ora^uX^ uva, grape) ; dhrdk, drdkh to be 
[crushed, squeezed out], dry (dora^f^; dhrish to endure, be strong 
(dhri) ; to pounce, grip, be bold, fierce; drinh to be firm, [well rooted]; 
drih to grow; p.p. dridhas firm, strong, exceeding; dhrdd, drdd to be 

crushed, destroyed; to decay; to split. Zd. dvar to run, pounce; 

dharshi violent, strong; daresh to venture. Gk. Opcooxii) (6opouii.a0 to 

leap, pounce; dOupo> to bound, leap, sport; OoOpo^, Ooupto^ rushing, 
impetuous; Ooptfc;, Oopi^ act of generation; Oplo>, Opolo> to be tumultuous, 
eager, noisy; Oprftjat? terror; 6p4oii.at to wail; Tov6op6Iio) to murmur, 
mutter; Optfo<;, [Oopu/o<;], Otfpu^o^ din; Op(ai lots (tossed, cast); OpCov 
omelet (whipped, beaten) ; fig-leaf (waving) ; Opiiov rush ; TepOpeii^ mounte- 
bank; TepOpeuo) to amuse crowd; OpatSo) to dash, shiver, destroy; BXcEo) 
to crush; Oapalo>, Oapplo> to be bold; Opaoii^ bold; Oepa(TT)(;; Oupao^ bac- 
chanal's wand; ©pa5 Thracian {dhrdnksh; war-whoop) ; Opdtaao), Tapiaow 

to vex; OfltXaaaasea. Lat. Drusus impetuous ;/«ru>5tt5«=6oupto?;/iir^; 

Furiae; [fruo-se], fruor to enjoy, seize, take possession (but cf. p. 65); 
frio to [grip], crush, rub, wear; frivolus a [shaving], trifle; frustum a 
[clawful], scrap, bit; frustro to [tear away], frustrate; frustra vain 
[effort, pounce] ;/rati5 {-dis) [lurking, pouncing], deceit ;/rt/t7/tt5 [caster], 
dice-box (6pfat) ; frigeo to be [gripped, shaken], to shiver (cf . R. droahat). 



— 324 — 



-Goth, ga-daiirsan to dare ; driusan to fall ; dras niin ; ga'drausyan to 

hurl down; drausna crumb; A. S. ge-dreosan to fall, perish; drusian to 
be ruined, foul, stagnant; dredr gore (dreary, traurig) ; drysmian to be 
rainy, dark (drizzle); on-drysne fierce, terrible; durran to dare; dyrstig 
bold (dreist); Scotch dour fierce; O. N. ddrr spear; drosuU [rushing] 
horse; Ygg-drasill terrible destruction, survival of fittest; basis of 

creation; A. S. daradh dart (dhrdd); draed dread. O. R. druzu 

bold; druzhati to be bold; R. o-derzhivcU to conquer; drozhat to whirl, 
tremble; drozh shivering; drozkki rattler, swift cart; dryazgi trifles; 
dryakhliy decrepit; drozd black-bird; dura, durak fool; Lith. fni*- 
durmu impatiently, fiercely; dransus brave; dransa courage; Lett. 

druska crumb. ^Ir. dorar battle; driiih mad, passionate, lewd; dric 

wrathful; dricht share (Jrustum); drech mad, wanton; drong a crowd; 
drenga a fight; driss briars; Bret, drascal to crackle; O. C. Drusus, 
Con-drusi; drungus a troop; Durot (impetuous, driUh; Dart, Dart- 
mouth); Durat'riges; Duro-casses; Dumdcos. 

Sk. dkru, dru, drd (drdnti) to run, push forward, hasten; dari'drd 
to be a fugitive, exile, miserable; drdpaydmi to cause to flee; drip to 
chase; dram to run to and fro; dru (dravdmi, dudruva) to run, flee, 

flow, eddy, rush; drl (dardmi, drindmi) to fear. Gk. 8t8p4o7iw to 

run; dnco-Spovoet to run away; 8paayii<; flight; £*8paaT0<; inevitable; 
Spoxin)^, 8pdexci>v fugitive slave; AdcpSovo^ wanderer, adventurer; 
ESpa(iov I ran; 8pi(io^ race; $po(ieu^ runner; 8ptf(ixi>v [scuttling] crab. 

O. N. trampa to tramp; Goth, trimpan to trample. Ir. dremm 

a crowd; dremun impatient; Bret, darondel swallow; dramsel a hurried 
glance (sel glance); O. C. Draxms, Droma rivers; An^drasta Bellona; 
Drappes. 

Sk. dhri to grasp, press; [causal form dhrip to crush, wring out]; 
dri to [hold fast], guard, consider; drip, driph to [squeeze, wring], vex; 

dribh to string, bind. Gk. Opiixro) (iOpupYjv, IrptJ^Oriv) to crush, 

crumble, break, ruin, be weak, enervated; to [squeeze, fondle], corrupt, 
weaken, be coquettish, skittish; 6puirrtx6<; crushing, fondling, ef- 
feminate; Tpfifo^ crushed fragment; Tpu9i{ daintiness, wantonness 
(melts with Tpifo) to feed) ; 0X(^ to press, squeeze, wring, afflict, vex; 
Vkl^i<; affliction; Opi(i^o<; a handful, bit; a drop [wnmg out]; Tpi^ 
(Opl<{;o>; melts with trip to exhilarate) to [squeeze out], curdle, congeal, 
shape, beget, [stuff with food], feed child, hold in, control; Tpa^eptf^ 
well-fed, fat; [fertile] land; Opl(i.(i.a nursling, cub; creature; Oepoxeic^ 
to care for, attend upon, serve, worship, give massage, treat medically, 
cure; OiXxo) to [crush], tousle, knead, soften, melt, warm; to cuddle, 



— 325 — 

foster, love; to [twist], vex; 8pixo> to pluck, gather, enjoy; to scratch, 
shed blood; Spixavov sickle ; SpuxTb) to tear, scratch; Spu^dEaocj to hem 
in, enclose, rail; 8ptii.u? [wringing], bringing tears, puckering mouth, 

smoky, bitter; 86pxvov supper (booty, prey). Lat. drupa [plucked] 

olive (contrasted with parched windfalls). Goth. gO'draban to 

[scratch], hew, polish stone; drobyan to [wring, twist], confuse, disturb; 
drobna tumult; dreiban (O. H. G. tripan) to press, thrust, force, drivQ 
[through, out]; O. N. drepa to [strike with claw], thrust, stab; drdp 
death-blow, fall (treffen); drtfa to drive; dreifa to rout, scatter; dropi 
drops; drUpa to drop, fall; drima battle; torfa turf (8p4xci)); A. S. 
ireppe trap (gripping) ; Eng. drab, Fr. drap [buckskin, tousled, wrung, 

curried] ; buckskin color ; [scortuin\ ; (Jer . verderben to injure, destroy. 

R. dryablii crushed, withering, fading. Ir. drobel hardness, difficulty; 

drib, drip trap; Bret, dram sheaf; O. C. Drappes. 

Sk. dri {drindmi, p. p. dirnas) to [pounce as a wild animal]; to tear, 
rend, burst, split; dritis [rawhide], leather-bottle; ddras rent, fissure, 

plowed field ; daras cave ; ddras, ddrunas rending, cruel (v. p. 3 2 2) . 

Zd. dar to cut. Gk. 84pci), 8efp<i) (8api^ao|xat) to skin; 84po<;, 8opi, 

8ip(i^ skin, hide; 8ep*(i.6XXo> to crush, swallow greedily ((luXo^; champ 
the hide) ; [8ipe0pov], t^lpeOpov gorge, gully, channel ; SIppK; rawhide ; sheep- 
skin coat; SIpTpov membrane enclosing intestines (cf. dritis; OuXX(<;); 
a vtdture's beak; 8pl;x6^ keen, cruel, acrid; 8piXo<; passionate, eager. 

^Albanian Drinus, Drilus (the same) mountain stream. Goth. 

ga^tairan, dis-tairan O. H. G. ziru, far^ziru to destroy, tear (verzehren; 
zerren)\ Goth. dis'taHrnan to be rent; A. S. tarn wrath, hatred, 

Zorn; irem a fragment (8ptii.(5<;) ; Eng. to trim = to lop. O. R. drati 

to flay; R. raz-dirat to tear asunder; dryan oflfal, scraps; dira a hole, 

bore. Ir. drant a row of teeth; snarling; drenn fierce; a quarrel 

(cf. ringo, rixa); Com., Bret, darn a piece, fragment; Bret, dartein to 
cut, slice; dren a thorn; pugnacious; O. C. Drinnacius. 

Sk. dkri to hold, grip ; dhur, dhurv, durv, tkurv, turv to [pounce], rush, 
kill; dri to rend, tear; dhvri to [crouch for pounce, lie low; to pounce, 
tear, stain with blood]; to curve, bend, color; dhurv to bend, injure; 

[dkrun], drun to be curved; to speed; to kill. Gk. [0/eip(i>, /Oetp(i>], 

fOetpci), Aeol. fOlppo> (S^Oapev; cf. forms fOdevo), ^Otvo) p. 289) to kill game, 
destroy, madden, corrupt, defile, mix colors; [^Oc^Oepa], Sc^Olpa [curried, 
tousled] hide, leather, parchment; ^Oopdc destruction, corruption, mixing 
of colors; 90dcp(ia corruption, an outcast; ^OeCpiov wild grape (crushed, 
drakshdy p. 283); ^Oefp a louse (squashy; ravager; lens, p. 148; pedi- 
cuius, p. 54); [6/Y)p, fOtjp, 96TJP], Oi^p, Aeol. ^i^p a wild-beast; Ot)p(ov wild 



— 326 — 

creature, beast, snake; Oi^pa hunting; prey, game, venison; [0/appii>, 
6faXX(i>, /OaXXo>], ^dcXXca to squeeze out, milk, suck; ^iXXc leech, lam- 
prey; ^SeXuptf^ [blood-sucking], beastly (affected by ^hbo p. 300); OiXii>, 
iOIXo) (pref. sva) to [pounce], be eager, wish (cf. lubh, p. 140); OaXi(ii] 
lurking-place, den; 6dXaii.o? inner room, chamber (cf. Xd^o?, X4%o<;); 
hold of ship; grave; OuXXC^, OuXoexo^ leather-bottle, bag (cf. ^8dXX(i>); 
6oXj^ cuttle-fish (ink-bag); OoXeptf^ [trampled], defiled, muddy; 0<SXo( 
smoke-hut, conical kitchen; rotunda (p. 301); 86po(iat, d5(}po(JLai to 

lament the lost, cf. miser, misereor] Ootpi^ hinge (bend). Lat. fera 

wild beast; feruSy ferox wild, ferocious; ferina venison; feralis direful; 
dirus direful, baleful; dtrae hounding furies, curses; durus wild, cruel, 
[compressed], hard; ferio to strike, cut, sLsLy; forn-ix arch ([dhurn] to 
bend, viM to twist) ; fornax iuTTvaLce;fornicor to corrupt; stew; [dvellum], 
duellutn, bellum war; Dutllius; bellua a wild beast; foUis wine-skin, 

bladder (6uXaxo<;). ^A. S. de6r wild, cruel, fierce; a wild beast; a 

deer {ferina) \ O. N. dyr wild beast; A. S. dyme [lurking], crafty, 
hidden, treacherous (of monsters, fiends) ; Goth, dvalmon to [pounce], 
be mad; dvals [crouching], sluggish, dull; dalatk [bending] downward; 
dal lowland, dale; O. H. G. twilan to [hibernate], be lazy, brutish; 
O. N. dvelan to be foolish; dvelya to be lazy, delay, dwell; Dvalinn 
a [lurking, mischievous] dwarf; dvergr a dwarf; dylya to hide, deny. 

Lith. zhveris, O. R. zveiri, R. 2njeir wild beast, deer (cf. zvuk'^ 

9 06yyo<; p. 290) ; R. eveirskiy fierce ; zlo evil ; dol, dolina dale ; doloi down; 

Lith. durru to [claw], prick. Ir. dera vengeance; dtire cruelty; derc a 

den, cave ; W. dur, Bret, dir steel (durus) ; O. C. Dhirona fate (dirae). 

Sk. dhri, drink to grip, be firm; drihto [be rooted], grow; p.p. dridhas 
large, firm, solid; trih, trinh to grow; to [pounce, grip claw]; to wound, 
kill; /rtJ (trinadmi, tatarda) to tear, wound, destroy; tard to strike, hurt, 
kill ; [drih to pounce, kill] ; drdk to hurl down ; drdd to be broken, crushed, 
destroyed; drud to be sunk; irand, trad to start forward, make an 

effort, move; trut to be split. Gk. ordpOt), oTdpOuyf point, spike, 

antler, tusk; orpouOJ? sparrow; ostrich (thrusting, pecking, lecherous) ; 

oTpou6fli(i) to twitter; TdpovSo^ the elk. Lat. trudo to push, shove, 

force, drive; tarda to [shove back], retard; tardus slow; turdus thrush 
(pecking) ; strideo to be noisy; sterto; turunda macaroni (forced through 

sieve). Goth. [s]trudan to push forward, tread; thriutan to annoy, 

vex, injure; us4hriutan to vex, hinder, revile; thruts-fils [clawed-skin], 
leprosy; throthyan to make an effort, exercise; O. N. thrudhugr strong, 
violent; throttr strength, courage; throt exhaustion; stridh battle 
(Streit) ; thrista to drive, thrust; A.S. thrydh force, pushing, leadership; 
thryst bold; stridan, tredan, treddian to push forward, stride, tread; 



— 327 — 

strddan [defended] frontier; siraei [military road], highroad; ihredt 
troop; thredtian to attack; on-draedan to dread [form dhridh]; Eng. to 
straddle; strut; sturdy; [s]lurd (turunda); dirt; O. H. G. stelza stilt; 

Ger. stolz; strotzen; Strauss; trdtzen, R. trud effort, labor; stradat 

to toil, suffer; trost [walking-stick], cane, reed. Ir. fris-tarddaim to 

push against; oppose; trost beam, prop, truss; trostdn staff, crutch; 
Bret, stertai to press, solidify; sterd pressed, fixed, firm, solid; trutein 
to [poke], mock; trest beam; O. C. Stardius, Tordilo, Trutobriga. 

Sk. dhri to grasp, hold, make firm; dhvri to [lurk, hide, pounce]; 
[dhvar], dvar, dvdram, dur, gate, door [of cave, lair; cf. 6aXde(i.T] p. 326]; 
duryas [within pounce], at the door, door-yard; duryds [lair], dwelling; 

dvdrakam gate; Hindi dvara- mountain pass. Zd. dvarem gate, 

[court], palace. Arm. durn door. Gk. 6upa, Ouperpov door, gate, 

entrance to cave; Oiipal^e [pouncing] out, out of the door; Oupalo^ out- 
side, abroad, foreign; OupauXlo>to camp out; Oupc&v hall, antechamber; 
Oup(^ opening, window; Oaip6<; hinge, axle (^OeCpci)); Oupei^ large shield. 

Lat. fores doors; foras, forts without, abroad; forum [court-yard], 

market-place, square (p. 63) ; Umbr., Osc. [d]v€ro gate (cf. dvellum, 

bellum), Goth, daiir, daHro door; faiira-daiiri^Tkjxtla^ forum, 

public place ; auga-daHro window; O. H. G. tor, turi gate, door. Lith. 

durys door; O. R. dmri door; dvoru court; R. dvor court-yard, palace; 
dvorei out-doors. Ir. dorus door, threshold; W. doreu folding- 
doors; drws hurdle, gate; Com. darat, daras, Bret, dor door; O. C 
Isarno'duros iron gate (so Greg. Tur.); Ebo-durum horse-town; Divo- 
durum; Iccio^dorum; Duro-brivcB wharf town; (melt with duros hard, 
strong); **Vicus ctii vetusta paganitas, ob celebritatem clausuramque 
fortissimam . . . templi, Gallic^ lingu^ Ysamodori, id est ferret ostiu 
indidit nomen.*' 

Sk. dhri to grasp, endure; dhru to be firm, press forward, go; 
dhor to handle spear, rush ; druh to hurt, wound, be hostile ; dhrdgh, 
drdgh to make an effort, stretch after, be strong; dhrek, drek to be 
strong, able; to yell [as animal]; drdh to [pounce], throw down, [glare], 
be watchful; drdkh [to grip, wring out], be dry; durgas difficulty, toil; 
citadel, castle (strong-grip) ; Durgd destruction, survival of fittest, 
Kali; druh to harm; drdghas crafty, mischievous; druh demon; drohas 

injury. Zd. drukh darkness; (dragon); evil; druzh demon. Gk. 

OpuyavdKD to scratch, scrape, tap at the door; 0apY-Y)X-tojv [advancing, 
victorious sun], first-fruits; June; OlXyo) to stroke, trap, bind by magic, 
hypnotize; TeX^fv enchanter; SpdaacD {Ipify^) to grasp, pluck, throttle; 
Spdyixa, 8pax(^^ handful; $paY(i.euo> to bind sheaves; [8ptf^o<;], 8p^oo<; 



— 328 — 

dew (wrung out,cf. ir.). Lat. [frux],fruges first-fruits, parched com, 

provisions, grain; dative of end frugi "worth his rations," decent, 
laborious; frugalis; fructus fruit (melts withfruor p. 65); falx grass- 
hook, sickle; flaccus wilted? flecto to twist; falco [hook-bill], falcon; 
fraxinus ash (spear-wood; dhrdgh; askr, ornus, comus); iti'dulgeo to 

soothe (OiXyci)); dulcis [pressed out], sweet [must]; deliciae. Goth., 

A. S. dragon to [make an effort], drag; A. S. drehnigean to squeeze out, 
wring, drain; (xoth. drigkan to [drain cup], drink; A. S. drygan to 
[wring out], dry; O. N. dregg [squeezings], dregs; draugr ghost (drush); 
drdg [presser], treadle, burden; driugr enduring, strong; drengr hero; 
A. S. dedrc gloomy, dark (drukh) ; drohtod handicraft ($pdao(i>) ; dredgan 

to make an effort, live, endure; tdlg tallow (OiXyci), indulgeo). ^R. 

dershat to grip, hold fast (p. 321); draMlivii quarrelsome; drak gouge; 

drok broom-plant (hard-knot). Ir. droch hoop; droch evil; dorche 

dark; drucht dew (8p6ao<;); draigen blackthorn; delg thorn, spit, pin; 
dlugim to tear; derg [torn, bloody], red; in^dle ambush; Com. dele 
necklace; Bret, drehel, dalhein to catch, endure, continue, attain; 
dalh grip, hold, delay; drechil [twisted] backward; drenjen thorn; 
droug pain, ev'l; drouk bad; O. C. draucus evil, unnatural; 
Drucca. (The root implies the forms dkrdkh, dhruh.) 

Sk. dhrdnksh, drdnksh to scream as eagle (p. 3 33) ; dhrek, drek to yell; 
drdgh to pant for, be exhausted; dhran, dhvran (intens. dandkranmi) 

to sound. Gk. 6p^vo^ shrieking, lamentation; OpT)v&i) to lament; 

Opcova^ a drone; T8v6pi^vr), Tev6pT)[v]8<4v wasp; 4v6pi^vT), dv0pY]8(Sv hornet 
{indh to bum); xs(&9[0]pT)$(ov wasp (blistering); Toy6opul^a> to mutter, 

murmur. Low. Lat. drenso to scream like a swan. Goth, drunyus 

a noise, tone ; O. N. drynr a roar; O. H. G. droenen to drone ; A. S. draen 

drone-bee; Hessian drensen to groan. Ir. derdr^n^har it sounds; 

dordaim to roar, cry as deer ; dord a bass voice ; drS[n\sackt a screech ; the 
name Derdriu perhaps belongs to Sk. daridras exile, wretched. 

Sk. dhrdgh, drdgh to make an effort, [thrust, leap]; to be strong, 
protracted, long; dirghas (comp. draghiyas) long; drdghman, drdghiman 

length; drih to shoot up, grow; drinh tohe rooted, firm. Zd. dareghS 

long. Gk. 8oXtx6<; long; WXtxo<; long race; ivSeXex^ to endure, last, 

to the end, continue; iv8eXexi^<; continuous, perpetual. (joth. tulgus 

enduring, firm; A. S. telg, M. H. G. zilge sprout. O. R. dlugu, Lith. 

[d]ilgas long; R. dolgota length; dalekii distant; doroga, journey, road; 

dorogoi [far-brought], precious. Ir. dolig difficult [to obtain]; dolge 

difficulty, danger; dringim to press forward; Bret, dalhein to delay, 
prolong. 



— 329 — 

Sk. drdgh to make an effort, [pounce]; druh to hurt, wound; drdk 
to [crouch, glare], be watchful, [plunge], hurl down; [aim at]; drif, 
{dadarga, drashium) to watch, gaze, listen, see; caus. to show; drig eye; 

dfishtis sight; darganas sight, aim, intention, mirror. Zd. dddarsa 

I saw. Arm. i^r\sanein I see. Gk. 8ipxo(iai (SISopxa) to see, be 

sharp-sighted, perceive; 8lpY(ia glance; ii^fy^ sight; SpoxTdtl^a) to 
glance round; Spdxcdv snake (fascinating; glittering eye) ; Sopxd^ [bright- 
eye], doe, gazelle; Atpxt] bright-glance, the old moon; perishes before 
the rush of the sun-bull (Baal, of. Europa, p. 85; Boeotian legends 
like Cretan have Semitic tinge) ; her rival is 'Avxtdicr) (opposite-face) the 
full-moon, with her two sons the morning and evening stars ('A(Jif (cav 
revolving; Zi^Oo^ vivid; 'Aii^fcov learns the music of the dawn from 
Hermes, and like Orpheus is able to control nature ; he builds the fla- 
ming walls of the world). Goth. ga4arhyan to point out, show ; O. Sax. 

iarkt, O. H. G.zorakt flashing, bright; A. Sax. gi4raktian to gaze, watch, 

befrachten, R. zorkii vigilant, bright-eyed; pri'Zrak vision; zrei[k\t 

to see; zerkalo mirror. Ir. dercaim to see; derc eye; air*dirc con- 
spicuous; dercaid watchman; drech appearance, face; dreckt observa- 
tion, knowledge; W. drych glance, sight, mirror; drech sight; Bret. 
er-derch, derch evident; drich glance, view, gleam of water; O. C. Derco, 
Dercetius, Coti'dorcense, CoU'dercus. 

The preceding roots centre in a sibilated form, not found in Sk., 
[sdhrdgh, stkrdgh, sihrang Strang to grip, choke, twist, wring], the de- 
velopment of which is given on p. 321; dissolving, this root produces 
strih, trih, trinh to [speed, pounce, dart, choke], strike, kill ; trinh to shoot 
up, grow; (parallel with drih to grow, drinh to strengthen); striksh 
tftksh, trinkh, trakh, trank, trankh, trang to speed, go (parallel with drdgA 
effort; drdk swiftly); trans to flash out, utter, speak; tark to glance 
round, observe, reflect (parallel with drig to glance) ; tar^ to threaten 
(parallel with drdnksh to yell) ; tras to whirl, quiver, tremble; trish to 
be [wnmg out], thirsty (drdkh to be dry). 

l/strangh. Sk. strih, trinhto [twist,choke], kill. Gk. orpoYYaXd- 

©iiat to be twisted, knotted, strangled; a[T]apYflEvT), Tapyavt) (cf. Ir.) plaited 
work; orpaYyaXfc; a knot; orpaYYeuoitat to twist, turn, loiter; d'OrpdyaXo? 
vertebra (d euphon.) ; arpayyRici) to wring, squeeze out; arpiy? a drop; 
orpeuyojiai (Homeric) to be wrung out, drained, exhausted, distressed; 
[oTapaY(i.6<;] araXoYitd? dripping, exhaustion, sweat; orepYf^, G^Xeyylq, 
^xtkflq a sweat-scraper; a circular diadem; S-orXtY? a curl, tendril; 
flash (trinh to shoot; cf. pia-Tpuxo^ ; Qxp(xyy6(; twisted; OTpoYYuXo<; 
spherical, well-rounded; oripYovo? dung [squeezed out]; oripyci) to 



— 330 — 

[ding to, cuddle, stroke], love, show affection, be content, like; orop-p} 
love (parental, filial); oTpt}xvo<; [astringent, choking] nightshade; 
OTpu^vi^ astringent, harsh (attracted by orpi^); [ajTpuydEii) to strip, 
wrench off, gather; Tpuytj fruit, crop, grapes, com; Tpfi? [wrung out, 
racked off] must; lees; Tpuyci) to [squeeze out], dry; Tipexo^ dried, 
[smoked], fish; Tpdcyo? goat (stripper, devourer); a sponge (squeezed); 

TpcjYO) to devour; Tpci? weevil; TpciyXi) [mouse] hole (gnawed). 

Lat. stringo to squeeze, bind, wring, [wrench out], draw sword, strip, 
scrape, graze; ad- stringo to be choking, astringent; strigilis flbsh- 
scraper; [s]tergeo {tersus) to wipe, rub off, clean; turgeo to round, swell 
(oTpoyyuXoO; [s]t€rgus hide (stripped off); tergum back (bending, 

vertebral); siercus dung (oT4pyavo<;) . A. S. string, O. N. strengr, 

O. H. G. stric bow-string, cord; A. S. Strang, O. N. strangr, O. H. G. 
strangi [well-knit, sinewy], strong; A. S. stearc, O. N. sterkr, O. H. G. 
starach sinewy, stripped, hard, strict; A. S. streccan, O. H. G. strecchan 
to stretch; A. S. strdcian; O. N. striuga to stroke (oripYca) ; A. S. strtcan, 
O. N. strikia to strike {strih) ; Goth, ^/rifes a stroke ; [^J/riggva bond, cove- 
nant; triggvs faithftd; [s]trigo sorrow (orpeuYojiai) ; ga^staiirknan to be 
[wrung out], dried, withered; O. H. G. traki [exhausted], lazy (trdge); 
A. S. drygan, O. H. G. trukandn to dry (forms [sthragh, dkragh] drdkh); 

O. N. thurka to dry; thyarka to scold (/ar|). O. R. strugati to strip, 

shave (j/ring^?) ; R. sirogat to scrape, plane ; strik to shave ; strogii strict, 
severe ; [s]trezuiy sober, temperate ; terzat to wrench, tear ; O. Pruss. tarkue 

thong. Ir. s[t}rengim to string, stretch, drag, tear; sreng a cord, 

rope; (cf. Lat. co'[st]rrigia shoe-lace); sraiglim to lash (stringo); trdgud 
exhaustion; terc scanty; Bret, trenk astringent, add; serensat to card. 

Sk. [sthranksh], dhrdnkshy drdnksh, dhrik, drek, to screech, yell 

(p. 328); trans to utter, sound. Gk. orpf? (oTptyi^) [screecher], 

owl; Tpitw (Ttrptya) to scream, squeak, gibber, pipe; Tetpdel/d to 
cackle; Ttrpa?, T<Tpt5 pheasant, bird; TptyXR^o) to giggle; Tputio) to mur- 
mur, coo; Tpuyciv dove. Lat. striga owl, witch; strtigileo to 

screech. R. treshMat to crackle, crash, sound; strissh [twittering] 

swallow, Bret, tarhein to rattle, crack, thunder, burst; trechonein 

to gnash the teeth; trouz a noise. 

Sk. same roots, with loss of sibilant; strih, strih, trih, trinh to 
[twist, hurl], strike, kill; trinh, drih to shoot up, grow; tark to glance, 
aim, reflect, explore; tar^ to brandish; trikvan [tramp], thief; trikas 
backbone, hip- joint; tarkus a spindle; striksh, triksh, trinkh, trakh^ 

irank, trankh, trang to go [round, move]. Gk. Tpox<5? wheel; xpt^jui to 

speed, run (curvus, currus, curro) ; TpoxaX(S<; round, bent, swift; xpoxtXIa 



— 331 — 

pulley, windlass; Tpoxdtato revolve; Tp^x^Q^o^; neck (•ij}^oq nail, pivot); 
xparxfiq [wrenching, wrenched], fierce, harsh, rough, rugged, rocky; 
xapde^oci) to stir up, disturb, trouble; TapaJo;xai to be knotted, matted; 
Tapa6<; hurdle; fi-TpaxTO<; spindle, arrow (4 intens.); 4-Tpe)ti^<; [aiming 

well], exact, precise, sure, certain (tark) . Lat. torqueo to twist, writhe, 

wring, torture, turn, glance around; torques twisted collar; a^trox 
[wrenching, tearing], cruel (oJ intens.); trux, iructdentus [brandishing], 
defiant; truncus wrenched off, mutilated; tranquiUus [stroked, pressed], 
still, peaceful; tricae tangles; intrico to tangle; ex4raho to twist out; 

traho to pull, drag (cf. educo, duco, p. 308). Goth, thragyan 

to run; threihan to [wring], crush, throng, press {torques) \ threihsl, 
tUeihsl crushing, narrowness; thriskan to grind, thresh (Tapdaao)); 
ga*thrask threshing-floor; thlaihan to press, stroke, quiet, comfort 
(tranquiUus); thlaqus [kneaded], soft, tender; thliuhan to be [whirled, 
routed], to flee; thlahsyan to terrify (Tap4aaci>); ga4hlasknan to be 
terrified; ga4klaihan to console {tranquiUus); A. S. thrag cycle, 
period, time; thracu effort, strength; ge-thring whirl, fray; thringan 
to press through, rush, throng; thragvian to hurl, throw; O. N. thrasa 

to rage; thrSa-z to swell out, grow {trinh). R. strei[g]lyai to shoot; 

streila arrow, dart, thunderbolt (strih) ; Lith. /r»n^ block, stub {truncus) . 

Ir. traig foot (Tp4x*«>); trie quick, nimble (4-Tpexi^0; tricim to 

[hurl away], abandon; tlacht garments (wrapped); tla[c]thaigim to 
soothe, soften {thlaihan); tracht strength; tressa stronger; tress battle; 
troich wretch {torqueo) ; trdge misery; tr(^]-caire pity {miser, misereor) ; 
tore a torques, collar; trus a girdle; truastad a whirling blow; tore a 
boar (side-rush; trux); W., Cor., Bret, iwrch, torch, tourch wild-boar; 
Ir. tri[g]aUaim to aim at, purpose, intend {streilyai); trelam weapons; 
W., Bret, trwchy trouch wound; Bret, torh twist, roll, boss, hump; 
iarh whirlwind, tempest; tarhereh grinding, gnashing; truag lean, 
piteous; trugari mercy {trdcaire) ; troh boring, hole; trousel fagot, truss, 
trousers; O. C. ver -tragus swift-foot, hound {traig-luath, swift-foot. 
Tray); Troccius, Truccius =trux; Tragus; tragula dart; Torcerus; 
Turcius Apronianus; Tardus, Tarconius; Tricco, Tricio {trie). 

Sk. strih, trih, trinh to shoot, kill; trans to flash out, speak eagerly; 
[sthrinh, dhrinh], trih, trinh, drUi to shoot up, grow; drink to make 
firm, be firm; trinam grass, rushes, reeds; trin to [graze], eat; tarunas, 
talufujs adolescent, young, luxuriant; taluni maiden; tarns tree; 

tarasam flesh; tarnas calf. Gk. Opl? (Tptx6?) hair; Optva? [grass- 

tosser, pitch-fork], trident; OpKa^ lettuce; Optfva, Tp6va flowers, herbs; 
Opuov rush; Optov fig-leaf; Tpl%vo<;, T<pxvo? a twig; TipYjv tender, delicate; 
Tcpd^juov cooked, delicate; Tipaeyivov chamber; OdXaeyLo^ inner room, bridal 



— 332 — 

chamber (p. 326); tocXk maiden; TT]XeOdKi> to bloom; r^Xt^ femiel; 
6dXX(i> to bloom, be luxuriant (p. 300) ; d*TaX^^ tender, young (deintens.) ; 
i-TiXXb) to be merry ; to foster a child ; to grow up ; TTjXi^tov live-forever; 
TTjXuYeTo<; darling, favorite child (^cUis) ; arp-^vo^ passion, pride ; OTpYjvtccG) 
to be wanton; arpt^vijl^ci) to trumpet (of elephants) ; i'Qxpak6<; a starling; 

d-TpTjp6<; nimble, brisk. Sabine ierenus soft; [aws, nuces] terentinae 

(delicate); Terentius; Tarentum; Ital. tarantella love-ballet; Lat. 
tiro lad, page; sirenuus eager, impetuous; sturnus starling; strenae 
new-year delicacies {(Hrennes)\ palustris, silvestris (trinh to grow); 
pedestris, equestris (trinh to fight); in^irinsecus in-grown, innate, in- 
trinsic. Goth, in'trisgan to graft; A. S. steam starling; ge-strynan 

to win; ge-stredn force, jewel, treasure; telg sprout; tallow; Goth, tulgus 

firm (drinh), O. N. therna, O. H. G. dioma maiden. O. R. telen 

calf ; R. telinok, teletz calf ; teilo body, flesh ; teilnoi carnal ; terem pavilion ; 

trava grass. Ir. tr^ (comp. [trensa], tressa) eager, strenuous; W. 

iren impetuous; trech superior; tlesseu jewels; Bret, trech victor; tirein 
to be susceptible, excitable; ter&nein to be idle; t^en honeycomb; 
sun-beam {trans) ; O. C. Tranto, Trenna, Trenanus, Tarnis. 

Sk. trinh, trih to shoot; trans to flash out; tras (trasdmi, trasydmi) 
to be [whirled, shaken]; to quiver, tremble, fear; apa-tras to flee; 
trasas stirring, living; a-trastas unterrified; trdsas terror; strl to 
strew; (p. 319); tvar, tur, tUr to whirl, speed; turv, thurv, duru, 

dhurv to hurl, shoot; [tarv], tarb to go [round, whirl]. Zd. tareg 

to tremble; tarsti terror. Gk. Tpiw (aor. Irpeae, Epic Tpiaae) to 

tremble, fly; Tpo-9(ivto<; [terrible voice], oracle; Tpicrnj^ coward; Tpi^pQV 
timorous, fluttering; pigeon; S-Tpearot; fearless; Tapdaoci) to whirl, 
trouble; Tapai<; sole of foot, wing, blade of oar, hurdle; Tapaxii 
tumult; T4p/Tapo<; [terrible] hell; Tapped) to be terrified; TcEp^o^ terror; 

Tp^iMi), Tpoiifai) to tremble; Tp^ito? trembling. haX.terreo to terrify; 

terror; tremo, irepido to tremble; tremor; tester [causing shiver], fright- 
ful, disgusting. ^A. S. thracian to fear (Tapax^)J Goth, ihlahsyan 

to terrify; A. S. thrdvan to whirl, hurl; Eng. throb, thrum, strum, 
drum; O. N. thrasa to rage; thrymr bow, din, battle; stormr storm; 

siraumr stream. 0. R. trensan to shake; trensO'Se to tremble; R. 

tryasii, tryakhnut to shake; tryaska a start; trusit to fear; strashit to 
scare; strakh terror; trepetat to tremble (caus. of Tpico); stremitsya to 

rush, make an effort; Lith. trimu to tremble. Ir. [tarsach], tarrock 

timid; Bret, trepikal to tremble; trousial to roar, be tempestuous; 
O. C. A'iressus, A-trextus; Trasius, Trausius, Tarasonius (terrible); 
Tarusco monster, dragon; Tarsias; Trasimenus ruffled brightness 
(menn). 



— 333 — 

Sk. trih, trink to hurl, whirl; triksh to go [round]; tarkus spindle; 

trisk to be [wrung out, dry], thirsty; to thirst; trisk, tarskas thirst. 

Zd. tarskna thirst. Gk. Tepaa(vo> to dry up, wipe up; xipaoitai 

to be dry, dried up, staunched; Tpaoid kiln for com, cheese, bricks, 
dried figs; Tpaati, Tapad?, Tapp6<; flat basket for drying figs (p. 331); 
'ciplxoq dried fish; Taptxeuo) to dry, salt, mummy; TopxiSci) to bury 

solemnly. Lat. [torseo], torreo ([torstus], tostus) to dry, parch ; torridus', 

torris brand, torch; torrens mountain-stream dry in summer; tristis 

[withered], grieved. Goth. ga4kaiirsyan (O. H. G. [dorsen], dorrM) 

to be dry; tkaHrsus dry; tkaHrsyan to thirst; tkaHrstei thirst; O. N. 
ikerra to dry; tkurr dry; tkerrir statmching; tkerra towel; ikurka to 

dry thoroughly. R. treskat-sya to parch, split with drought; treska 

[salt] cod. Ir. troscim to fast, be hungry, faint, afflicted; torseck 

grieved; tirim dry, parched; Hrtna drought; tirad kiln for com; tair, 
tar dry; tart thirst; O. C. Tartarum drain, canal; Tartius, Tartonius 
(wine-lover) . 

Sk. stri (p.p. stirnas) to strew (p. 319); tri {tar ami, tatdra, terima 
p.p. tirnas) to [hurl beyond], surpass, excel, go beyond, go across, 
go through [intervening space]; reach goal, effect, fulfil; caus. tdraydmi 
to send beyond, send away, set free; taranas, tarts ferry, boat; tarantas 
sea; su'tarman easJy-transporting; tarman [boundary-post], altar- 
post; tirant [opposite] bank; tir to reach end, finish; taras pressing 
forward, speed; tiras beyond, across, through; [encircling, winding], 

twisting, [boring]; anya-ird elsewhere. Zd. tar 6 beyond, across. 

Gk. Tipjwe end, goal, aim, turning post, limit, object, prize, supremacy, 
death; [from its cones] Tepl(i.tvOo<;, Tcpl^tvOo^ terebinth (p. 11); TlpOpov 

end, peak; Tip(ixi>v boundary; Tdpa<;, Tpotagoal, haven. Lat. tertno^ 

terminus, Osc. teremenniu, Umbr. termnu land-mark, boundary, end; 
Lat. termes point of branch, sprout; trans across, beyond, excelling; 
trdmes cross-road, path across; [trams], /roi^ cross-beam; trabea stripe 

(cf. clavus)', Umbr. traf across. Goth, tkairk (O. H. G. durk) 

through; tkairko (O. H. G. derkd) a boring [through]; tkarks bored; 
O. Sax. tkrimman to leap [across]; Goth, tkramstei locust; O. N. tkverr 
opposite, across, athwart; tkyrya to rush {taras) \ tkyr slave (brisk); 
tkyrma to spare {tdraydmi)', tkrdm boundary, brim; ihrd longing 
[for the other side]; defiance [on boundary]; O. H. G. drum goal, end. 

R. tarantas travelling wagon; tratit to use up, expend, waste. 

Ir. tar, tairm^, dar, W. tra across, beyond, exceedingly; Ir. taimge a nail, 
spike ; tri, tri, trem~, W. troi, trwy; Cor. dre, Bret, dre, troi through ; Bret. 
tri across; Ir. trdetkaim to surpass, conquer; trackt, trdg, W. traetk, 
Bret, treitk, traez [opposite] shore; Ir. tretkan sea; foot (leaper); Bret. 



— 334 — 

tremein to cross, leap over, surpass; tr^tnen passage, crossing over; 
tr^ crossing, cross-road; tr^h ferry, ferry-boat; O. C. /re-, /r*- beyond, 
exceedingly (trh); Tre-viri very heroic; Tri'tiovanies, Trinobanies 
sailing across (the channel); Tri-santon much desired; Tri'casses very 
glorious; Terntes, Termentia\ Termunes (deities); TramuSy Tramiliacus; 
Tranto; tarinca spike, nail (Ir. inga, p. 29). 

Sk. tri, irayas [beyond two], three; tritiyas third; iris thrice. Zd. 

thri; thritya; thris. Gk. Tpet?; TpfTo<;; Tpf<;. Lat. ires; teriius; ier. 

Goth, threis; thridya, O. R. tri\ tretii three, third; Lith. irys; 

trekas, Ir. tri three; W. trydydd third. 

Sk. stfl to scatter round; irl to hurl across, bore through; tittiris 
[whirling] partridge (cf. 5pTu5 p. 201); taras, [tarvas] speed; tvar to 
[hurl, whirl], speed; caus. to incite, goad; fur, tur to speed, dart; 
tUrnas swift; [tarv\ iarb to go [round]; turv, thurv to be violent; taralas 

veering. Gk. Tep&i) to bore, pierce, turn on lathe; TerpaCvci) to bore; 

TtTp(oax(i> to wound; Te(p(i>, Tpuo), Tpii^ca, [Tpt/o)], Tp(^ to rub round 
(flint-working), rub through, grind, wear out; Tpf^o? pathway; Tpi}xo<;, 
Tp(^v worn garment; versute, skilled; Tpujia hole, bore; Top&o, 
Topeuo) to bore, hollow, work in repouss^; Top6<; piercing, shrill; 
•cdpvo<; compasses, turner's chisel, circle; 'c6p\L0<; nave of wheel, socket; 
Tiperpov auger; TpauXd^ lisping (balbus, p. 191); Tpu^Xtov cup, bowl 
(tarb); [tup/tq], Tup^tj whirling dance, confusion, disorder; Tup^dlici), 
OTuppdiio) to stir up, be turbid, revel; Topuvr) stirrer, masher; d-Tpuvu 
to stir up, goad; TpuTdvr) scale, balance; Tphcdv god of sea (circular 
horizon) ; TplToyiveta Athene (sprung from vault of heaven) ; [causat. 
form] Tpuxdo) to bore ; Tpuicavov fire-drill; auger; Tpd^^ stake, pike, beam; 
•cp6ico<; turn, shape, fashion, manner; xept-a-Tepd dove (circling). 

Lat. iero to rub, wear out; teres (~etis) rubbed smooth, rotmded, 

polished; irtUa trout; tur -tur dove; triticum wheat; trua wooden-bowl; 
stirrer; trulla bowl, drill; terebra auger; ter«fo wood-worm; tomo to 

turn on lathe ; [turvo], turbo whirlwind; /urfco crowd ; irabs beam. A. S. 

ihravan to twist, hurl, whirl; thre&uan to be twisted, in throes; thveran 
to whirl, thresh, smite; thvaere submissive; thvtrill/tlsLii, chum; thrdU 
slave (grinding, drudging); thrillan to bore; throte throat, throttle; 
O. N. thverra to wear out, diminish, come to an end; thvara stir- 
ring-stick; [redup.]; thi-dhur grouse (tittiris)] throa-z to round out, 
swell, grow; Goth, thalamus thorn; thairan to wear, rub; O. H. G. 

drayan to turn; dweran to stir, whirl. O. R. treiti, tr[v]iti to rub, 

wear; trunu thorn; tetreivi, Lith. teterva grouse; R. teret to rub; iravU 
to roam, himt ; treba [assembly], ceremony {tribus) ; tvorit to form, create; 



— 335 — 

stirat to wring, wash, bray; tarelka round dish; Lith. trinti to rub, 

file. Ir. tairim to roam; tut journey; tor crowd; tarr [rounded] 

belly; torrach (Bret, torek) fat, pregnant; toras [grinding] exhaustion; 
tarathar auger; torathor sprite, phantom; triliss waving hair; triiaill 
sword-edge; Bret, tor^ein to roll; tarererehhormg\ tarbr burrow (taribre^ 
terrier); troein to turn, change, become, curdle; tro circle, occasion, 
time; curds; tra property, thing, utensil; iruand rover, truant; (caus.) 
stropein to twist oflf, mutilate; irempein to dip; 5/r^6/k7m7/t^/ eddying ; 
W. trebou squadrons; O. C. Turones roamers (cf. p. 319); Tarronius. 

Sk. sirl to strew, whirl round, toss about; causative forms trup, 
trump, iruph, trumph to [hurl, shoot], wound, kill, [to flash out, glitter, 
be eager] ; ist trip (tripydmi) , trimp, trimph to exhilarate, rejoice ; [forms 
sthrip, dhrip], drip, drimp, drimph to flash, glitter, be joyful, proud, 
wild; drip, driph, drimph to twist, injure (p. 283); trip, drip to [use 
fire-drill], kindle; dribh to tremble, fear; to gird, hinA\ drimp to collect; 
2d, trip, trimp, triph, trimph to [round out], fill, satiate, feed, make 
happy (melts with last form in idea of exhilaration) ; trapusam cucum- 
ber (well-watered) ; 3d, trap (apa'trapaie, m-apa-trapate) to be [turned 
away, put to flight, confused], ashamed; trapas shame; irapus tin 

(flexible). Zd. trdfanh nourishment. Gk. ist, gtsooxk^, orlpo^j; flash* 

flashing; 2Tep6icT)<; lightning; dorpaxij lightning, flash (a euphon.); 
doTpdxTCi), oTpdxTCi) to lighten, glitter, be radiant; otCX^g) to glitter; 
orfX^Tj lamp, mirror; Tipxo) to rejoice, delight, exhilarate; eO-TpdtxeXo^ 
quick, merry, jocose, sarcastic; Op(a(i.^o<; (dArtm/>/t influenced by Ta;xPo<;) 
hymn to Bacchus (Optov) ; the simple idea of revolution is carried out 
in 0Tp£9Ci) to twist, turn, revolve; orpexTd^ twisted; orpd^cXo^ top, 
vortex; oTpafd^ squinting. 2d, xpi^ (fut. Opl<p<i> melts with dhrip 
p. 324) to feed, feed child, bring up; Tpo^i^ food; Tptic-T(5Xeito? [joyful 
* earth; compounded with tellus, talam p. 318]; budding earth, concealed 
and quickened by Demeter under winter's ashes; xpu^ij luxury; 
Tpu9dci) to be full fed, wanton; Tpu^dXeta [wanton, horse's tail], plumed 
helmet; Tpa9ep6<; well-fed; solid, hard (attracted by dhrip); Tdp^o^ 
[luxuriant] thicket; xap^ij? dense; Mpxvov supper (p. 325); OdXxo> to 
bloom, be warm; to cherish, comfort, warm; OaXxo<; heat, summer, pas- 
sion; a wound (trup), 3d, Tp^ca, dico-Tp4xw to turn, turn away, put 
to flight; Iv-Tplxci) to turn, put to shame; middle voice, to vacillate, 
hesitate, feel shame, awe; Tpaxlo) to [wring out, press], tread grapes; 

Tp6xo? turn, way, habit; Tpoxi^ turning-point; defeat. Lat. strepo to 

[whirl], rattle, be noisy; tripudium dance (xepx-xouO ; triumpel dance! 
siirps root, tnmk (nourisher); tribuo to [feed], be generous, bestow 
{triv p. 334) tribus stock, tribe (cf. dan^vCkihoq', torpeo to coil up, 



— 336 — 

hibernate, be lazy; turfns sluggish, indolent; torpedo [lurking-spark], 

cramp-fish (aT6o), p. 1 2) ;/iif to whirlwind (turba p, ^^4) ; turtna troop. 

O. H. G. streban to make an effort, be ambitious, strive; strifan to 
wander, roam; O. N. tkrifla to snatch, seize; tkrtfa to care for, nurture; 
reflex, [thrtfa-se], thrtfaz to thrive; thdrf need (turpis; winter-want); 
strup throat; A. S. stedrfan to starve, freeze; strypan, M. H. G. streifen 
to strip (turbo) ; Goth, thraftsyan to be of good cheer; to cheer, exhort, 
comfort (trosten); ihaHrban to [coil up, hibernate], be needy; tharbs 
needy; tharba, thaHrfts need; thaUrp cultivated land (bountiful; tribus) ; 

A. S. thorp, O. H. G. dorf village; Swiss dorf assembly (turba). R. 

ioropit to be eager, hasten; trebovat to demand; terpeit to suffer; trup 
deadbody ; /rti&a trumpet (assembler; cf . thut'haum p. 391) ; tolpa crowd; 

Lith. tirpti to be stiff; tarpti to thrive. Ir. triam effort; trianuxin 

tired ; tromm ( W. trwm. Cor. trom) , heavy (R. stremitsya ; p. 332) ; trebaim 
to till, dwell [tribus]; trebaire farmer; Bret, strimpein to sprinkle, 
sparkle ; tolp crowd; treb, Cor. tr^ a village ; W. trebou squadrons (roam- 
ing; turba; p. 334); O. C. Trumplta, Trumplini; Trippo; Stirpidcus 
(12 in France); A-trebates; Trebonius; Treba^runa (mystic house- 
mother) ; Cofi'trebia. 



ADDENDA. 

Sk. kaihinas round vessel, basket; compressed; p. 242; Lat. cassis 
helmet, hunting net; caseus cheese; krif, krish to gnaw, p. 180; Lat 
crus shinbone. 

Sk. ksharas flowing; vi-khur to dash, pour; garkard pebble; kharg to 
wash, wring out, vex, p. 166; Lat. cloaca sewer; Cloacina Venus (vexing, 
pining) ; Goth, skalks slave ; kalkinassus lust ; Ger . verscklingen, schlucken, 

Sk. kshubh to brandish, thrust, p. 221 ; Gk. ^(/^oq (Aeol. oxJ^oO sword. 

Sk. kshur to scrape, p. 161; Gk. oxtpo<; stump, cheese-paring, rind, 
callus, gypsum; redup. xdpxapo<; sharp-toothed. 

Sk. ghamb to circle, return, p. 225; Lith. gabenti to bring home 
[game]; Goth, giban to be generous, give. 

Sk. ghamb, hamm to go round, whirl round; A. S. gamen, O. N. 
gantan sport, joke, game; cf. spiUen, spielen. 

Sk. danv to circle; dhanvan bow, p. 289; Lat. [danva], dcrnnna, 
danta [roving, startled] chamois. 

Sk. nadas reed, rush, p. 25; nadi stem, gut; Ir. sndidmim to knot. 

Sk. nand to be gracious, p. 25; Ir. snddim to patronize, protect. 

Sk. nag (nashtas) to seize, p. 30; Lat. nassa net. 



— 337 — 

Sk. mish to sprinkle, p. 94; Gk. \fJoo6q, (&u9ap6^, (uap6^ defiled, 
abominable; Lat. moesius tearftd; moereo to mourn. 

Sk. vishus brimming, circling, equal; vishuvam equinox, p. a68; 
Eup'fuoOcu^ wide circle, autumnal equinox; Heracles (like CuchuUin, 
p. 310) is begotten at midwinter when nights are doubly long, and 
his birth is delayed tmtil after the equinox, which forces him through 
his winter woes; at yule he conquers Cerberus (Midgard serpent with 
three heads for heaven, earth, and hell; cf. Thor's fishing, H^iskv. 
22, when he brings up the Midgard serpent, and wins the kettle — 
ocean, world-rim — of Hymir, V'mir, or Yamas] p. 109); Eurystheus 
hides tmder kettle; CuchuUin lifts the round palace of Bricriu to let in 
the moon and stars; he loses his right hand Uke T^ (p. 295). 

Sk. garb, gharb to [pounce], p. 143; Xipu^liq; Goth, graban to 
scratch, dig; greipan to grip. 

Sk. gdn to whet, make keen, bright, p. 234; O.N. hannar skilful; 
Hoenir clearing sky, hostage of Nydrdhr the north-wind and friend of 
Loki the northern-light; Ir. con bright, pure; conn keenness, sense; 
O. C. Conanus, Concani, Connachtae. 

Sk. giras head, p. 158; Lat. eras — Ki^aXoc, rising sun, Morgen, 
morrow. 

Sk. si to bind, p. 218; Ir. simin rush; seimin reed, pipe (v. nadas^ 
p. 136). 

Sk. sri to cause to approach, p. 152; Lat. exero to bring forward, 
draw forth; O. R. sulu ambassador; sulati to send. 

Sk. sel to melt, flow, p. 163 ; Ir. silim to drip, pour; silaim to gener- 
ate ; sil, siol offspring, seed. 

Sk. svan^ to embrace, wrap; gikhd quivering crest; kogas bud, 
sheath, p. 253; Bret, keijein to stir, mix; koachein to wrap up, cacher; 
koakein to press, diminish; keh shivering, poor; Fr. coque, coche. 

Gk. "A-^iJitiToc invincible end of day and summer (p. 294; cf. 
Ferdiad, p. 295; Yamas, p. 109); he wins hours from the shortening 
days of autumn; Apollo has to feed his starry sheep in the under- 
world (cf. Argos, p. 136); his wife, Alcestis (nature, cf. Pluto and 
Persephone) descends to Hades and is restored by Heracles. 

Gk. [aaaefpd)], defpcj to hang high, whirl, revolve, p. 151; Ir. serf 
restive, curvetting, shy, proud; serrach colt; [serta, ser-dag], serda 
scythed chariot; Bret, herrus impatient, eager; O.C. Serotinus, Sero- 
tennum; serrdcum large- wheeled wagon. 

Gk. d*T£(Ji^a>, t6xt<i) to injure, strike, pp. 311, 315; A. S. siedpan to 
harm, deprive; step-father. 

Sk. sak to follow, drag after, p. 257; Gk. loxotto? last; ixirepo^, 
IxaoTo? one by one, either, each. 



— 338 — 

Sk. viM, vii, vish to twist, whirl, scatter, p. 267; Gk. elxft> to yield; 
ijxtoTo? worst; TX-cyyo? vertigo; Lat. vert-igo; cer'vix. 

Gk. KdaaovSpa; Sk. ikds to shine, p. 253; kandras moon; the waning 
moon, forsaking the advancing sun and foretelling the day. 

Gk. KXuTai(Jivi^oTpa great remembrancer; night, mindful of her 
hour; counterpart of Agamemnon (p. 80); she slays him in revenge 
for their daughter, the day star (p. 5), and loves Aegistheus (p. 108); 
is slain by the day star Orestes (p. 137). 

Gk. xu&i) to swell, p. 252; Lat. redup. cacumen summit. 

Gk. xuX(ci> to roll, p. 171; Lat. caelum sky; [caehdeus], caeruleus 
blue. 

Gk. Xii)t6c [eagerly snatched, devoured] clover, lotus; Sk. lut to 
whirl; luth, lunt to snatch, steal; lot to be mad (p. 148). 

Gk. X6foc motmd, ridge, p. 139; Ir. sliab mountain. 

Gk. 6xuC(i> to [sweep away], marry; with p. 219; cf. O. N. brudhr, 
p. 69. 

Gk. x((JixXt](i.i to fill, p. 60; x((JixpT)(Jii to fill with wind, distend, burst, 
flash, lighten; xpT)OTi^p bellows, lighting; xpi^Oa> to blow, swell, blaze. 

Gk. netp(Oooc swift attempt, tempt the gods; early spring, frozen 
buds, p. 67; ©tjaeu? lawful spring, saved by the sim's advance; Orjaeu^, 
as solar deity and establishing hero, originates in dhus to shine, [dkvish], 
dvesh to [move obliquely], attracted by T(6t)(jii to create, found. 

Gk. ^09£a> to snatch, lick, swallow; oupfer^^ dregs, crowd, p. 143; 
Goth, af'svairban to wipe off; O. N. sverfa to file off; M. H. G. swerben 
to roam, pillage, swerve; A. S. svearmian to swarm. 

Gk. !pxa> to glide, steal, p. 142; [o]^Dxdia to slip, slop, be slimy, 
filthy. 

Gk. aeuGi to whirl; aoG^ whirling up, p. 211; Ir. siku. Has, 6s up, 
over; uissi lark; fuasnaim to whirl; sHist flail; sis down; iss, 4ssel 
below; uisse humble (cf. super, subter, p. 221). 

Gk. a(paiov [sun-dried], evaporated, boiled-down must, p. 153. 

Gk. <jo|ji^<? spongy, floating, p. 220; Lat. suber cork (net-float). 

Lat. [harea], area enclosure, threshing-floor; with hara, p. 178. 

Lat. avus grandfather, p. 206; redup. [avavus], abavus grandfather's 
grandfather. 

Lat. vilis swampy, low, p. 193; filia river-bed; ilia groin; ilex 
swamp-oak; bilis bile. 

Lat. pango to grip (p. 40); [paxae], passae [pomace], raisins; cf. 
oToapU, p. 311. 

Lat. [pavrus], parvus little, p. 37; parum but little, too little. 

Lat. paveo to tremble, cower, p. 37; papdver; pauper [shivering], 
poor (cf. TZ(ti%6q). 



— 339 — 

Lat. ravis open mouthed, p. 120; [revis], reus bloody-mouthed, 
red-handed, guilty. 

hsit. solus alone; serous possession, slave, p. 154; Goth.5f/&a, Pries. 
selva, Dan. selv self; W. helu (Z. 1053), ^^* ^^^ possession (cf. delb^ 
p. 298). 

Ir. inga nail, claw, p. 29; totr-ng^ spike; tngar anchor; tng^Tf [clutch], 
oppression, woe; O. C. tar-inca spike; Bod-encus deep anchorage, p. 
50; Aged'incum opposite the anchorage; Aqwincum. 



Index. 



341 



SANSKRIT. 

Figures in heavy type express the chief reference or preferable 

derivation. 



a-, an- 13. 

ang i, 2, 3. 

angas, ansas i, 2, 3, 

angalas i. 

angus i, 3, 190. 

anguka 2. 

angumant i, 3. 

ansas, ansam i. 

ahsalas i. 

anhas i, 3. 

anhus i, 3, 5, 6. 

anhri i, 4, 5. 

aksh I, a, 3. 

akshan i, 8. 

akshas i. 

ag, ak I, 3, 4. 

agnis I, 6. 

agras- 

agru4. 
agh I, 3. 

agha I, 3. 

ankas 3, 4. 

ankura 5. 

ang I. 

angam i, 3. 

angaras i, 3. 

anguUs 4. 

angh I, 5. 

anghri i, 4, 5. 

a^ I, 5. 

a^as (driver) 5. 

a|as (goat) 6. 
aiiras 5. 

a^an 5. 
a|ras 5, 6. 
anki. 5,8. 
ankh i. 



ang I. 3, s. 6, 8. 

angalis 3. 

at 10, II, 14. 

atavi 10. 

att 10, II, 14. 

attalas 10. 

ath 10, 14. 

ad 10, zi. 

add 10, 16. 

an 10, II, 12, 13. 

anth 10, ZI, 14, 16. 

andas 10, zi. 

at 10. 

atasas 10. 

ati 10, 14, 15. 

attS 10, II. 

ad 10, II. 

adanam 11. 

adas 10. 

adman ii« 

adya 10. 

adharas lo. 

adhi 10, 14, z6. 

an- 13. 

an 10, Z2, 13, 14. 

anilas 10, Z2. 

anikas la, 108. 

anu 10, 13. 

antar 10, 14. 

antaras 14, 15. 

antara 14. 

antas 10, 14. 

anti 15. 

antikas 15. 

antram 14. 

andhas (blind) 10, Z2. 

andhas (food) 10, zi. 

343 



anyas 13. 

anyatra 13, 333. 

ap 16. 

apa 16. 

aparas i6. 

api- 16. 

apnas (possession) 17. 

apnas (water) 16, 19. 

abhi 16, z8. 

abhitas 18. 

abhr 16. 

abhram 16, 19. 

am 16, 19, 20, ai. 

ama 21. 

amas (time) ai. 

amas (raw) ao. 

amatis 16, 2Z. 

amatram ai. 

amritas 95. 

ami) (to move) 16, 19, 

20. 
amb (to sound) 16, 

20. 
ambakam 16, 19. 
ambaram 16, 19. 
amba 16, 20. 
ambu 16, 19. 
ambh 20. 
ambhas 16, 19. 
ambhrinas 19, ao bis. 
ammayas 16, 19. 
amras ao. 
amlas 20. 
ayas 107. 
ayasmayas Z07. 
ar 119. 
aras 113, 115. 



— 344 — 



aranyas 113. 
aratis 113. 
aratnis 115. 
aram 113, zisbis. 
arS^las 115. 
aris 113, 1x7. 
aritras 119. 
arunas 117. 
arus 113, 117. 
ark 122. 136, 137. 
arkas 122, 137. 
argalas 135. 
argh 122, 130, 131. 
argham 131. 
arghyas 131. 
ark 122, 13Z. 
arkis 122, 136, 137. 
ar^ 122, 130. 
ar^^imas 136. 
arth 113 bis, 115. 
arthas 113, 115, 202. 
ard 201. 
ardhas 202. 
arpa)ritum 137. 
arpanas 137. 
art) 113, 117. 
arbhas 138. 
aryaman 113. 
arv 113, 117, 119. 
arvan 117, 208. 
arh 122, 131. 
arhas 131. 
al 113, 116. 
alakas 116. 
alam 113. 
alus 113, zz6 bis. 
algas 128. 
alpas 141. 
av (to pant, be eager) 

i3» 205 bis, 207. 
av (to gtiard) 205, 

206. 
ava 207. 
avaras 208. 
ava^as 260. 
avaras 208. 
avis (favorable) 205. 
avis (sheep) 206. 
avyas 206. 
ag (to attain) 3, 6. 
aj (to eat) i, 3. 



agan 6. 

asanis i, 6, 7, 8. 

agman 5> 8* 

agmantaxn 8. 

asmas^ras 8, 88. 

agram 7. 

ajris 7. 

agru 7. 

agvas 7. 

Agvin 7, 36, 53, 117, 

149. 
ash I. 
ashis I. 
ashtSu 3. 
as (to hurl) i, 2, 6, 9, 

10. 
as (to shine) i, 2, 8, 9. 
as (to exist) 1,9. 
asi I, 2. 
asus 9. 
asuy 9. 

asri^, asram 7. 
asthi, asthan i. 
astam 11. 
asmat 8. 
astram 2, 9. 
ah I, 5, 8. 
ahan, ahas i, 3, 8. 
aham i, 8. 
ahis I. 3. 5. 

& 17. 
aku 235. 
akhu 3. 
^ga>s 3, 108. 
a^is 5. 
Stis II. 
^tman 12. 
^daras 320. 
Sdis 16. 
aditas 16. 
§dyas II. 
ananam 9, 13. 
ap 16, 17, 32. 
^pas 16, 19. 
Sptas 16, 17. 
§mas 19, 20, 21. 
ami sham 92. 
ayatas no. 
ayavanam in. 
S^yasas 107. 



ftyus 308. 
firanyakas 119. 
&ratis 119. 
&r&tis 113. 
&r&mas 119. 
&rdras 202. 
ftryas 113 bis. 
ftvaranam 189* 
fivis 207. 
&9as 3. 

asa3- 

fi9us I, s, 6. 
&shtram 3. 
&s (to sit) 9. 
£s (mouth) 9. 
&sas 2, 6, 9. 
&san 9. 
ftsanam 9. 
&syam 9. 
ah I, 8. 



i 104, Z05. 

ikh I, 5, 104. 

inkh I, 5, 108. 

ingitam 108. 

ikh I, 5, Z06. 

it 10, IS, 104. 

itaras 11, 15. 

itas II, 15. 

iti II, 15. 

ittham 11, 15. 

idam 11, 15. 

idh, indh 10, Z2, 104. 

idhmas 12. 

inas 10, 12. 

ind 10, 12. 

Indras 10, Z2. 

indhanam 12. 

ibhas 19, 21. 

ibhyas 19, 21. 

imv 16, 21. 

ira 114. 

il 104, 114, 115. 

iva 208. 

ish 104, 106, 108. 

ishika 106. 

ishus 106. 



! 104. 

iksh I bis. 

inkh I, 5, 104, Z08. 



SANSKKIT 



— 345 — 



ig,in^i, S, 104, io8. 
Id 10, 13, 104. 

ir 37, 104, 113, "4, 

119. 
irkshy, irshy 104, 137. 
irmas 113 bis. 
19 104, 106, 108. 
Ish 104, 106. 
Ih 104, 106, 108. 

unh 3, 260, 267. 

uksh 204, 260, 267. 

ukshan 267. 

ukh (to go) 259, 267. 

ukh (to dry) 260, 267. 

ukha 267, 269 bis. 

ugras 259, 263. 

uk 260, 264, 267. 

ukkas 259. 

tikh (to bind) 45, 260, 

267. 
ukh (to dwell) 259, 

265. 
unkh 260, 267. 
uth 271. 
ut, ud 75. 272, 276, 

278. 
utava 276. 
uttamas 276, 278. 
utsas 276. 

ud, und 205, 272, 276. 
udaram 276, 277. 
-udras 276. 
upa 219, 221. 
upari 221. 
upalas 218. 
ubh, umbh 16, 19, 21. 
ubhSu 16, 18. 
um 20. 
urus 189. 
urd 202. 

urvii3,ii7, 119, 190. 
ulukas 195. 
ulka 199. 
ulldlas 190. 
ulvam 190. 
uQant 260. 

ush 45, 204, 259. 270. 
ushas 270. 
usras 270. 



adhas 272, 276. 
Unas 262. 
Ciy 203, 217. 
urus 117, 189. 
urg Z98. 
ar|a 122, 198. 
urnam 189. 
urmis 189. 
€ish 259, 270. 
iih 260, 269 bis. 

ri 27, 54, 95, 112, 113 
bis, 117, 153. 197. 

riksh 113, 121, 122, 
124, 132, 137, 199. 

rikshas 121, 122. 

rik 121, 130, 135, 136. 

rig 121, 122,130. 

ri^s 121, 130. 

rin 197. 

ritii3, 144. 

ritas 113, 115, 144. 

ritisii3,ii5, 144. 

ritu- 113, 115, 144, 

MS- 
ridh 202. 

fiph, rimph 113, 138, 

140 bis, 196. 
ribhus 25, 137, 138, 

140, 141. 
rish 113, 118, 121, 

122, 131. 
rishabhas 198. 
rishis 122. 

ekas 64, 208, 209. 
eg 6, 104, 108. 
Sth 10, 12. 
edas 10, 12. 
§dh 10, II. 
edhas 10, 11, 12. 
gtas 10, 12. 
6dh 10. 
eva 208 bis. 
gvas 207, 208. 

dkas 259, 265. 

Skh 267, 269. 

og 263. 

5gas 260, 263, 269 bis. 

5ghas 263, 269. 



5tus 27Z, 973. 

5m ao. 

Gshtas a6o, 270. 

Aurvas 117. 

Vang, kans 258. 

kak 254. 

kakkh 255. 

kak, kank 254, 258. 

ka^ 255. 

kat 242. 

katas 242. 

katakas 242. 

kathinas 242, 336. 

kan 251. 

kantakas 246. 

kanth 246. 

kand 205, 246. 

kataras 15, 258. 

katth 247. 

kath 247. 

kad 246. 

kan 234, 247. 

kand 247, 251. 

kapalam 225. 

kapis (incense) 203, 

219, 222. 
kapis (ape) 223. 
kapotas 224. 
kam 223, 224, 227. 
kamp 203, 223 bis, 

225 bis. 
kambalas 204, 219, 

224. 
kambus 219, 224, 225. 
karankas 172. 
karanas 167. 
karabhas 168. 
karkagas 166, 172. 
karg 172. 
kam 161. 
kartt 161, 174. 
kard 174. 
karparas 168, 169. 
karb 143. 
karman 167. 
karv 155. 

kal 155, 160 bis, 170. 
kalakalas 155. 
kalabhas 143. 



— 346 — 



SANSKRIT 



kalagas 172. 

kalpas 168. 

kalyas 160, 170. 

kalyam 170. 

kav 235. 

ka$, kash 204, 257, 

258. 
kas 258. 
kahsyam 258. 
kakus 255. 
k&nksh 256. 
kankanas 258. 
kantas 227. 
kayas 236. 
kara 161. 
kal 155. 
kdJas 160. 
kilakas 160. 
kag, kas 253, 338. 
ki 233, 235. 
kinganis 253. 
kinkini 253. 
kit 233 bis. 
kil 159. 
kit 242. 
Idias 159, 170. 
ku, ku, kai 241, 252, 

253. 
kuns 241, 253. 
kuk 43, 241. 253. 
kutis 242. 
kut, kutt 242. 
kun 251. 
kunth 246. 
kund (to bum) 246, 

247- 
kund (to guard) 205, 

242. 

kunth 246. 
kup 222. 
kupyas 221, 223. 
kumaras 224. 
kumb 224 bis. 
kumbhas 224. 
kumbhilas 224. 
kur 155. 
kurd 174. 
kul 15s, 170. 
kulam 170. 
kug (to embrace) 253. 
kus(tofiash) 216, 253. 



kuQulas 253. 

kuh 253. 

kud 248. 

kup 224 bis. 

kul 170. 

kri (to make) 160, 

167, 168. 
kri (to wound) 161. 
krikanas 180. 
krit 161. 

« 

kritis 167. 

kiittis 161. 

krip 168. 

krip§nas 168. 

krig 176, 179, i8o, 

336. 
krishi76, 17Q, 33^. 
kii (to potir) 165, 167, 

168. 
kri (to wound) 159, 

160, 161. 
kri (to know) 167. 
krit 167. 
kjip 168, 169 ter. 
k6t 233. 

k6l 150, 160 bis. 
k6v 235. 
k5kilas 253. 
k5las 170. 
kogas 253, 337. 
knahs 237. 
knath 237. 
knas 238. 
knu 237, 238, 241. 
knuy 237. 
kmar 224. 
krakakas 179. 
krath, klath 161. 
krand, kland 174. 
kram 168, 170. 
kravyam 165. 
kri 153. 
knmk 172. 
krunth 176. 
"krug 156, 180. 
kraimkas 180. 
klap 168. 
klam 168. 
klid 174. 
kvan 251. 
kvel 150, 160. 



kshan^ 258. 
kshan 205, 235. 
kshap 203, 219, 221. 
ksham 204, 227, 229. 
kshamas 204, 227, 

229. 
kshamS 204, 227, 229. 
kshamp 203, 223, 227. 
kshayas 236. 
kshar 134, 162, z66. 
kshal i34» 150, 162, 

166, 170, 233, 234, 

235, bis. 
ksh§tras 246. 
kshi, kshi, kshai (to 

destroy) 204. 
kshi, kshiv (to dwell) 

204, 233, 235. 
kship 203, 219, 221. 
kshiv, kshiv 233, 235. 
kshu 233, 241. 
kshud 246, 247. 
kshudh 245, 246, 248 
kshubh 203, 219, 221. 
kshur 160, i6z, 17a. 
kshepas 219. 
kshnu 234, 237. 
kshmil 83, 224. 
kshvid 214 bis. 
kshv^l 150, z6o bis, 

164. 

khakkh 255. 

khak (to be strong) 

258. 
khak (to bind) 253. 
kha^ 253, 258. 
khang 253, 258. 
khatt 242, 243. 
khad 205, 246, 247. 
khand 205, 231, 245, 

246. 
khan 205, 235. 
kham 212, 230, 244. 
khamb 219, 225, 227. 
kharas 160, z66. 
kharg 172, 336. 
kharv 155, 170. 
kharvas z6i, 172. 
khal 155, 170. 
khalas 166. 



SANSKRIT 



— 347 — 



khalu^ 1 60. 
khav 203, 212. 
khad 205, 245. 
khit, khgt 205, 234, 

246 bis. 
khid 205, 246. 
khilas 173. 
khu 241. 
khud 242. 
khund, kh5d 246. 
khur 150, 160, xoi, 

172. 
khel 150, 160, 173. 
kh^v 212. 
khai (to destroy) 233, 

234. 
khai (to be solid) 236 

bis. 

khdd 246. 

khya 233, 235. 

gan 238. 

gandas 244 bis, 246 

bis. 
gatis 240. 
gad 246. 
gandhas 246. 
gabhas 226. 
gam (to go) 203, 219, 

223. 
gam (earth) 229. 
gambhlras 224, 226. 
gargaras 187. 
gar|i8o, 184, 185. 
garbhas 188. 
garv 184, 186. 
garh 180, 184, 185. 
gal i8t, 183. 
galas 183. 
galbh 184. 
gallas 183. 
gah 240. 
ga 219, 240. 
gadh 243, 245. 
gah 240. 
giris 184. 

gu 230, 241, 242, 252. 
gu^. gun^ 241. 
gudas 243. 
gunas 238. 
gunth 243. 



gudh 243. 

gup 224, 225. 

gur, gurv 15s, 184, 

z86 bis, 187. 
gurus 184, 186. 
guh 240. 
gri (to sprinkle) 177, 

180. 
gri (to wake) 186. 
gridhi77bis, 188. 
griham 185. 
gri (to devour) 177, 

'i84ter, 187, 188. 
gri (to cry) 177, 185 

bis, 186. 
gev 240. 
g^i 240. 

g6, gaus (cow) 242. 
gaus (light) 240. 
gauras 182. 
granth 174. 
gras 177 bis. 
grah. glah 177, 180, 

184 bis. 
gramas 184, 187. 
gravan 187. 
griva 186. 
gruK. gluK 184, 185. 
glai 177, 180, 181, 

183. 

gha, gha 8. 
ghansh, ghans 230. 
ghaggh 255. 
ghat, ghatt 240, 243, 

245- 
ghan 230, 238. 

ghamb 203, 219, 223, 

225, 336 bis. 
gharb 143, 337. 
gharmas 177, 180 bis. 
ghas 242. 
ghin 237, 238, 245. 
ghu 230, 240, 241, 

252. 
ghush 230, 241. 
ghurn 176, 183, 184, 

187. 
ghri 176, 180, 181 ter, 

182. 
ghrin 176, 180, 182. 



ghrinas 178. 
ghrish 176, 180. 
ghrishtis 176, x8o bis, 

183.' 
ghoras 183. 
ghra 177, 183. 

ka 237. 

kakram 171, 172. 

kaksh 258. 

kakshus 253. 

kank 253. 

kan^ 253. 

kat, kut, kunt 246, 

247. 
kan (to sound) 251. 
kan, kan, kand (to 

kill) 205, 235,* 246. 
kat,kad 247, 248. 
katuras 248. 
katvaras 248. 
kan 235, 246. 
kand 205, 245, 247. 
kap, kamp 203, 219, 

223, 224 bis, 225. 

227. 
kay 232, 233, 235. 
kayas 236. 

kari55, 160, 167, 172. 
kark (to repeat) 170, 

172. 
kark (to revile) 180, 

184, 185. 
karman 161. 
karya 160. 
kal,kull 155, 160, 166, 

170, 172, 173. 
kay 236. 

Ki 233, 236, 237, 242. 
kit, kint 233 bis, 236. 
kitras 233. 
kil 171, 173. 
kib 224, 225, 236. 
kibh 223. 

kiy,kiv233, 236, 242. 
kut, kunt, kun 246. 
kut.kyut 230, 232. 
kud 205, 246. 
kund 246. 

kup 219, 223, 224 bis. 
kumb 219. 



— 348- 



SANSKRIT 



ttur i6o. 

kuU 1 60. 

ttum 161, 165. 

kush 342. 

ttSsht 242. 

kyu232, 233bis, 235. 

kyus 232. 

khagas 258. 
khad 242. 
khandas 247. 
khard 174. 
khalas 170, 173. 
khallis 173. 
khavis 235. 
khid 205, 245, 247. 
khut 242, 24s, 246. 

247. 
khup 225. 
khur 161, 165, 166, 

336. 
khd 234. 

gaksh 242, 251. 
^aghanas 251. 
iai, gang 251. 
gat 243. 
gatharas 243. 
gadas 243. 
gan 237, 239. 
ganas 239. 
gani, gani 239. 
ganyas 239. 
gap 222. 

gabh,gambh 224, 226. 
gam, gham 224, 226, 

227. 
gam (wife) 227. 
gambhas 226. 
garant 187. 
garayus 187. 
gark, ghark 184, 185. 
gargaras 184, 187. 
galam 183. 
galas 183. 
galp 184. 

gash, ghash 251, 258. 
gagarmi 186. 
gatis 239. 
ganu 238. 
gamatri 227. 



gi 240. 

ginv 240, 24X. 
gim 227. 
pish 230. 
[Irnis 184. 
giv 241. 
gud 243. 

gut. gyut 230, 240. 
gush 230, 242. 
gu 230, 242. 
gur 184. 
gush 230. 
gri 186. 
gribh, grimbh 177, 

184, 188 bis. 
gri.g^rii77» 181,184, 

187, 188. 
gna 237, 238. 
gya 240. 

gyu 232, 240, 241. 
gyut 233, 240. 
gii 187. 

gvar 177, 181, 183. 
gval 177, 181, 183. 

ghala 177, 181, 182. 

tank 280, 305. 
tankas 280, 302. 
tal, tval 281, 316. 
tik, tik, tauk 303, 304. 
tittibhas 291. 

tip 313- 
tauk 304. 

dap, dimbh, dumbh 

28i,*3i3. 
damb, dip, dimb 281, 

313. 
di 279, 296. 

dval 297. 

dholas 300. 

dhauk 303. 

tans 280, 301, 302. 
tak (to be swift) 304. 
tak, tank (to suffer) 

280, 305. 
takus 304. 
takman 301. 
taksh 280, 302. 



takshan 280, 302. 
tank, tank (to go 
round) 280, 301, 

303- 
tank (to squeeze) 280, 

301. 303. 305- 
tang 303, 305. 

tat, tad, tand 379, 

291. 
tat 9, 283, 286. 
tatas 286. 
tattvam 283, 286. 
tatra 286. 
tathyas 283, 286. 
tada 286. 
tan 279, 287, 288. 
tanayas 288. 
tanus 279, 288. 
tantus, tantras 279, 

288. 
tantr 288, 289. 
tap 281, 313, 314. 
tam 314. 
tamas 281. 
tamisram 314. 
tamb 281, 311, 3x4 

bis. 
tay, tay 279, 292, 301. 
taranas 333. 
taras 333, 334. 
tarasam 331. 
tarus 282, 322, 331. 
tarunas, tsdunas 282, 

331- 
tark 329, 330. 

tarkus 330. 

targ283, 329, 330. 
tard 282, 326. 
tarb 332, 334. 
tarman 333. 
tal 281, 315. 
talas 10, 281, 3x6. 
talunas 282, 331. 
talpas 316. 
tavas 286. 
tashtri 302. 
tas 280, 303. 
taskaras 303. 
tatas 286. 
tapas 281. 
tamaram 281, 3x4. 



SANSKRIT 



— 349 — 



tSmras 314. 

tSrS 318. 

tSlu 281. 

tik, tig, trk 380, 304 

bis. 
tikshas 280. 
tigmas 304. 
tii, tu^ 280, 304. 
tittiris 334. 
tithis 283. 
tip 281, 314. 
tim, tun 281, 314, 
tiras 333. 
til, till 282, 318. 
tilas 318. 
tir 282. 
tiram 282. 
tiv 279, 287. 
tlvras 287. 
tu 279, 280, 287. 
tukkhas 301, 302. 
tug, tung 280, 301, 

304. 

tut 291. 

tudd 291. 

tund, tun 289, 291 bis. 

tutth 291 bis. 

tud, tund 279,291 bis. 

tup, tump 281. 

tumulas287, 311,314. 

tumb3i3,3i4bis. 

tur,tvar323,332,334. 

turv 278, 323, 332, 

334- 

tul, tulay 281, 316. 

tula 316. 

tush, tush 280, 303. 
tushas 280, 301. 
tusharas 280, 301,305. 
tustas 280, 303. 
tuh 301, 303, 305. 
tuhinas 305. 
tun 279, 287, 289. 
tutumas 287. 
tur, tvar332,334. 
tulam 282. 
tushnikas 280. 
trihh, trih (to wound) 

283,330,331,332. 
trinh (to grow) 330, 

331. 



triksh 283, 329, 330, 

333- 
trin 282, 331. 

trinam 282, 331. 

trid 326. 

trip, trimph 283, 335. 

trish283,329,333. 

trt 282, 333, 334. 

tSgas 304. 

tev 278, 292. 

tailam 282, 318. 

t5kas 280, 301. 

totram 291. 

tSyam 287. 

tyag 280, 304. 

trans 329, ^31, 332. 

trakh, trankh 329. 

trad, trand 326. 

trap 283, 335. 

tras 329, 332. 

tra 319. 

tri 282, 334. 

trikas 330. 

trut 282, 326. 

trup 283, 335. 

tr^i 282. 

tvaksh 280. 

tvak 280, 301, 302. 

tvam 286. 

tvar 332. 

tvish 280, 303. 

thud 279, 291. 
thurv 278, 323. 

dang, dans (to bite) 

281, 307, 311. 
dang dans (to flash) 

280, 306. 
dangas 281. 
danh, dah 280, 306. 
daksh (to grow) 308. 
daksh (to shoot) 280, 

306, 308, 310. 
dakshas 281, 309 bis. 
dakshinas (south) 280, 

306.* 
dakshinas(righthand) 

281, 309. 
dand 279, 291. 
dadhi 285. 



dantas 291. 

danv 289, 290 bis, 

^9^3 336. 
dam 294. 

damas 293. 

dambh 281. 

damyas 294. 

dandh 288, 289. 

day, de 279, 292, 293, 

299, 301, 310. 

daras 325. 

daridrS 324. 

darganas 329. 

dal 282, 298. 

davas (fire) 297, 306. 

davas (forest) 296. 

dagan 281, 310. 

daga 281, 309. 

das, das, d§g 280, 307, 

309. 
dasyus 280, 303. 

dasras 303. 

dah 306. 

da (to give) 278, 285, 

292. 293. 
d§, d6 (to cut) 279, 

292, 293, 298. 
da (to bind) 293. 
d^rus 282, 322. 
d^g, das (to harm) 

280, 309. 
dag, das (to give) 309. 
dinas 294. 
dinv 279, 389, 394, 

295- 
dimbh 313. 

div (to flash) 279, 393, 

294» 295. 
div, dev (to play) 

279, 292, 295. 
dig 281, 310. 
digas, degas 310. 
dih loi, 278, 308. 
df, dr (to fly) 279, 

296. 
di (to vanish) 279, 

296. 
drksh 281, 306. 
didhl 290, 294. 
dip 281, 297. 
dirghas 282, 328. 



350 — 



SANSKRIT 



du (to twist) 279, 296, 

297. 
du (to go) 296, 297, 

307 ter. 
dukh 307. 
dugdhas 280. 
dundubhis 291. 
duryas 327. 
durv 278, 323. 
did, d6l 281, 297, 299, 

300. 
dush 307 (bis), 
dus-, dur-307. 
duh 307 ter, 308, 

^09. 
duhitri 278, 307. 
du 296, 297, 307. 
duras 282, 322. 

dri 278, 282,320,324. 
drinh 282, 320, 328. 
drip (to joy) 283,335. 
drip (to vex) 282, 283, 

324. 335- 
dri5 282. 329. 

drib 282, 320, 323, 

326, 328. 331. 

dri 282, 323, 325 bis. 

dSv 292, 295 bis. 

devas 294. 

devaras 25, 295. 

dehas 308. 

dSii 279, 292. 

dyu 279. 292. 294. 

dyut 292. 

dy6 294. 

dra, dram 282, 320, 

324. 

dra, dr^ 282,320,322. 
drakh, dhrikh 283, 

323. 327- 
dr^gh, dhr^gh 282, 

323»327. 328, 329. 
dranksh, dhr^nksh 

282,323,328,330. 
drSd 323, 326. 
drah 327, 329. 
dru (to run) 282, 320, 

323. 324. 
dm (to regret) 282, 

320. 

drud 282, 326. 



drun 320, 325. 
drumas, drus 278, 

320, 322. 
drub 327, 329. 
drgk, dbrgk 282, 323, 

327- 
dr5ghas 327. 

dvSram 278, 282, 323, 

327. 

dvi 280, 297 bis. 

dvish 280, 307. 

dhakk 306. 

dhan, dhan 280, 290. 

dhan (to fruit) 284, 

285, 289. 
dhanus, dhan van 18, 

279,289, 290. 
dhanyas 285, 289. 
dhanv 290, 296, 299. 
dhara 320. 
dharmas 320. 
dhavas 284. 
dha, dhi (to set) 38, 

278, 281, 283. 
dha, dbg (to nurse) 

278, 285. 
dhatus 284. 
dhav 279, 299. 
dhiksh 280. 
dbinv 278, 285, 289, 

290, 294. 
dhi 290, 299. 
dbrtis 285. 
dbiras 320. 
dbu, db€i 279, 296, 

299. 
dhuksh 280, 299, 306. 
dbur 320. 

dhurv278, 323, 325. 
dhup 279, 299. 
dbur 282, 320, 323. 
dbumas 299. 
dbug, dbusb 280, 299, 

306. 
dhri 278, 282, 320, 

322,324.325. 
dbrisb 282, 323. 
dbri 282, 320. 
db^ 278, 285. 
db§nus 285. 



db6r 282, 320, 323, 

327- 
dbma 299. 

dbyai, dhi 290, 299 

bis. 

dbra^, dbrang 282, 

283. 323- 
dbran, dbvran 328. 

dbranksb 282, 323, 

328. 

dbrS^gb, dr&gb 282, 

327. 328. 
dbru 282, 320, 323, 

324, 327- 
dbruvam 320, 322. 

dbrgk, drek 327, 328. 

dbvans 280, 290, 306. 

dbvag 280, 290, 307. 

dbvan 280, 290. 

dbvanksb 280, 290. 

dbvri 282, 323, 325, 

327- 

na 13, 22. 
nanQukas 30. 
nakk 29. 

naktis, naktam 30. 
naksb, nakb 29, 30. 
nakbas 29. 
naganas 29. 
na^ 29. 
nat 24, 25. 
nad 25, 26. 
nadas 25. 
nad 25. 
nadam 25. 
nana 25. 
nand 25. 336. 
napat 30. 
nabb 31. 
nabbas 19, 31. 
nabbanus 31. 
nam 19, 31. 
namb 31. 
narb 27, 28. 
nay 21, 22, 24, 27. 
nal 21, 27, a8. 
nalas, nilas a 8. 
navan 2a. 
navas 23. 
nag 30, 337. 



SANSKRIT 



— 351 — 



nas (to curve) 27. 

nas (us) 8, 23. 

nah 21, 30. 

nSdi 25, 336. 

n^th, nadh 25. 

nabhis 31. 

naman 32. 

naras 27, 28. 

naii 28. 

nas 27. 

nas§ 24. 

ni- 14, 23. 

nihs, niksh 23, 26. 

ni^, nin^ 26. 

nid, ned 25, 26. 

nind 26. 

ninv 26. 

nil 28. 

nig. ni5a23, 29,30. 

nishk 23. 

nis 13, 23. 

ni 23, 30. 

nldas 25. 

niram 28. 

nilas 28. 

niv 22, 26. 

nu, nu (to praise) 22. 

nu, nu (now) 22, 23, 

31- 
nud 24, 2$, a6. 

nri 27, 28. 

nrit 27, 28. 

nemas 31. 

no 13, 23. 

nau 23. 

naus 24. 

nluka 24. 

pang, pans 36, 39, 42. 

43- 
pakvas 43. 

paksh 39. 
pakshas 39. 
pakshman 39, 41. 
pankas 36, 39. 
paK (to cook) 39, 43- 
pak (to unfold) 43, 44. 
pankan 39, 43. 
pat (to go) 48. 
pat (to burst, flash) 
48. so, 52, S3- 



pat (to bind) 48, 51, 

S2. 

patas 48, 52. 

patus 34, 48. 
path 34, 48. 
pan 48, 52, S3- 
pand (to go) 48. 
pand, pind (to heap) 

48. 
pat (to fall) 48,52, 53- 
pat (to rule) 36. 
patis 36. 
path, panth, pad 48, 

S3- 
padam 53. 

paragus 2, 75. 

paras 5s, S7» 66, 67, 

68. 
par§ 55, 56, 57. 
pari 55. 56. 
parut SS, 57. 
pard 70. 
parb 59, 60. 
pal (to go) 54,56,57- 
pal (to guard) 54,55- 
palas 54, 57, 58. 
palalas 54, 57. 
palitas 54, 58. 
palyul 54, 58 bis. 
pavanam 37. 
pavis 37. 
pag (to bind) 29, 39, 

40. 
pag (to see) 44. 
pajus 39, 40. 
pasas 42. 
pa (to guard) 32, 33, 

36.37,54,77- 
pa, pi (to drink) 32, 

34, 36, 48. 

patram 33, 34- 
pathas 48, 53. 
padas 54. 
payus 33. 
paras 67. 

pal 54, 55- 
pins 40, 42, 43. 

pikk 39. 41. 
pin^ 39, 40, 42. 
pind 48, 51. 
pitri 36. 



pinv 26, 33, 35. 

pil 54. 58. 

Pi9 39. 41. 

pish, pinsh 39, 42, 43. 

pish, pis 39, 42. 

pn 54, 58. 

piv 26, 33, 35. 
puns 39, 42 bis, 43. 
pukkhas 39. 
put 48, 51. 
pund 48. 
putras 34. 
puth, punth 48. 
pupphusas 38, 39. 
puram, purl 55, 60. 
puranas 57. 
purus 60. 
purushas 55, 76. 
purv, pur, pri 60. 
pul, pul 54, 57» 58, 60. 
push, push 39, 42, 43. 

pu 33. 37. 77- 
p€igas 40. 

pu| 40. 

P^y 35- 

pur 54, SS^ 60. 

purvas 68. 

pri (to exhilarate) 

55. 66- 
pri (to work) 55, 65, 

66, 71. 

pri, pii, prin 54, 55, 

60, 65. 

priK 55, 71. 73, 74. 75- 

prid 55. 69. 70. 

prith 69, 70. 

pri thus 55, 69, 70. 

prish 55, 71, 76. 

prt (to go beyond) 

55. 66. 
pgl, phel 54, 58. 
pSv 35. 
pegas 42. 
putras 34. 
pyush 34, 42. 
pyai, pi 32, 34, 35, 

38, 48, 77- 
pra- 55, 68. 

prakh 55, 77- 
prati 55, 68. 
prath 5S, 69, 70. 



— 352 — 



SANSKRIT 



prathamas 68. 

pragas 75. 

pras 55. 68. 71, 75. 

pii 55. 66. 

prush, plush la, 54, 

55. 71. 76. 
prSman 66. 

plav 54, 56, 59. 60. 
plavin 59. 
plihan 55, T^- 

pli 54. 

plu 54, 56, 59, 60, 71. 

pl€v 54. 

phakk 41. 46. 47. 
phan 34, 48. 5o» S^- 
phanin 48, 50. 
phal' 54, 64. 
phalam 54. 64. 
phalas 55. 62. 
phull 54, 64. 
phenas 34, 48. 

baah. vanh 204. 259, 

269. 270. 
bat, vat 205, 271, 

274, 275- 
bath, vath 272. 

bant, vaiit 274. 

badh (to revile) 272, 

275. 
badh. bandh (to bind) 

51. 205, 272, 276. 
badh. vadh (to strike) 

272. 
badhiras 272. 
ban, van 271. 
babhr, vabhr 61, 204, 

219. 
barb 55, 63, 219. 
barh, varh 62, 197, 

199, 200 bis. 
bal54, 55,62,64, 190. 
balam 64, 190. 
bahus, vahus 259, 

262, 269. 
bad, vad 205, 276. 
badh, vadh 271. 

balas 45. 54, 55. ^4- 
bah, vSh 259, 262, 
264. 



b&hus 259, 262. 
but 272. 
bud 48, 272. 
budh, bud, bund 49» 

272. 
budhnas 50. 
bul 190. 
byus, vyus 203. 
Brahman 197. 
bra 64. 195. 

bhaksh 40, 46. 
bhagas 46. 
bhangis 46. 
bha^. bhSg 40. 46. 
bhan^ 40. 41. 46. 
bhat, bhan, bhand 

48. 53. 
bhadras 48, 53. 

bhayas 44. 

bharas 64. 

bharanam 64. 

bharv 55, 61. 62. 

bhal. bhall 55. 64. 

bhallas 55, 64. 

bhavas 38. 

bh&, bh&s 37, 45 bis. 

bhSnus 45. 

bhash 45. 

bhiksh 40, 46. 

bhid 48, 50. 

bhil 64. 

bhi 44, 45. 

bhu^ (to eat) 40, 46, 

47- 
bhu^ (to bend) 40, 47. 

bhura^ 72. 

bhuri^au 72. 

bhu 38, 39- 

bhutis 38. 

bhumis 38. 

bhush 45. 

bhri. bhri 30, 55, 63. 

bhrigata. 55. 

bhogas 47. 

bhrang, bhrans55. 71, 

73. 

bhra^^, bhrig 55, 71, 

74. 

bhran 69. 

bhram 55. 61, 69. 



bhr&g. bhr^g a6, 55, 

71. 74- 
bhr&tri 64. 285. 

bhrfts. bhlas 55, 71, 

74. 
bhra 20. 

bhriin 61, 63. 

bhr§sh, bhlSsh 55, 71, 

73. 74. 151- 

xnanh (to grow) 77, 

81. 90 bis, 91. 
manh (to shine) 77, 

8x. 93. 

makk, makh 78, 90, 

91. 94- 
maksh 77, 78, 91, 92. 

makshas 78, 93. 

magham 77, 90. 

mank, mang 78, 91. 

mangh 78 bis, 90, 91. 

mak 78 bis, 92, 93, 94. 

ma^^ 78, 92, 94. 

mank 78, 90. 

manth 81, 86. 

manis 85. 

mand 86 bis. 

matis 79. 

math 86, 87. 

mad 86, 89. 

madhus 86, 89 

madhyas 86 bis. 

man 78, 79. 

manas 78. 

manus 79. 

mantr 79, 81. 

manyus 79. 

marus 97. 

marut 96. 

marmaras 96. 

marv 95, 96, 98, 99 

bis, loi, 103. 

mal, mall 95, 98, 100. 

malam 99. 

mallas 100. 

mallis 100. 

mav, mavy 77, 83, 

84, 95- 
mag, mash 78, 93. 

mah 77, 90. 

mahat 77, 90. 



SAI^SKRIT 



— 353 — 



mansaxn 20,42, 78,92. 
ma 77, 78, 79, 81. 82, 

86, 95. 
manksh 92, 93. 
matri 78, 79. 
man 79, 81, 86. 
mar^ 10 1. 
masas 78, 81. 
mi 77. 85. 
mittras 88. 
minminas 85. 
miksh 94. 
mikh 94. 

mid, mind 86. 

mil 100. 

migr 78, 94. 

mish 78, 92, 94, 337. 

mih 78, 95. 

mi 77, 85. 

miras 97. 

miv, me 77, 84, 95. 

miv, minv 77, 83. 

mukutam 78, 91. 

mukham 78, 91 bis. 

muk, munk 78, 92, 94. 

mu^, mun^ 78, 92, 94. 

mut, munt, mund 86, 

87, 88 bis. 
mud 86. 
munis 79. 

mur 95. 96, 98, 99. 
murkh 102, 103. 
murv 95, 96. 
mush, mush 78, 93. 
muh 78, 93. 94. 
mu 77, 82. 
mukas 82, 83. 
mul 95, 100. 
mushas 93. 
mri 95 bis, 103. 
mrig, 102. 
mri^ loi. 
mrid 103. 
mrid 103. 
mridh 103. 
mrig 102. 
mhsh 102. 

» 

meth,medh 86, 89 bis. 
medh (to think) 81. 
mev 77. 
mdghas 78. 



maulis 100. 
mna 79. 
mraksh 10 1. 
mluk 102. 
mlekkh 103. 
mlai 95 bis. 

yakrit 104, xo8. 
yaksh 5, 104, 107. 
yakh 108, 109. 

ya^ 5» 104. 106, X07. 
yat 10, 15, 104, nobis, 
yatnas no. 
yatra 10, 1$, 104. 
yada 11, 1$, 104. 
yantri 10, 109, no. 
yantram 10. 
yam 19, 21, 104, 109. 
Yamas 109, 337. 
yavas 105, in. 
yavishtas 105, 11 1. 
ya9as 104, 107, 108. 
yashtis 104, 106. 
yas 104, 106 bis, 107 

bis. 
ya I. 10, 33, 104, 105 

bis. 
yak 104, 107. 
yatri 109. 
yanas 105. 
yapayami 52. 
yu 105, 112 ter. 
yugam 182. 
yu| 105, 108, 112. 
yut 104, no bis. 
yudh 104, ni. 
yup 105. 
yuvan 105, in. 
yushme 112. 
yathas 105, in. 
yupas 105. 
yush 105, 107. 
yusham 107. 
yesh 104, 106 bis, 108. 
yoktram 112. 
ydgas 113. 

ranh 121, 130, 135. 
rak, rag 121, 122, 127. 
raksh 121, 130, 131, 

i3S» 137- 



rakh, rankh 121. 
rangas 122, 131, 135. 

136. 
rangh 121, 122, 135, 

136. 
rak 122. 

ra^atam 123, 136. 
rai^us 131. 
ran^ 39, 121, 127. 
rat, rath 146. 
ran, ranv 118, 119, 

120. 
ratis 119. 
rathas 113, 144. 
rad 146. 
radh 146. 
randhram 146. 
rabh 137, 138. 
ram 113, 119. 
ray 117. 

ras 121, 123 bis. 
rah 121, 134. 
rakh 121, 135. 
ragh 121, 129, 130. 
ra^ 122, 130, 136. 
rS^an 130. 
radh 144, 145. 
ra5, ras 121, 123. 
rikh, ring 121. 
rik 121, 122, 125, i26y 

134. 

rinv 117, 197. 

riph 138, 141, 196. 

rish 118, 121, 132. 

ri 117, 118. 

ru (to sound) 118,120. 

ru (to harm) 133 bis. 

ruk 122, 136. 

ru^ 121, 124. 

ruth (to wound) 146, 

149. 
ninth (to be slow) 147. 

rud 146, 202. 

rudh 147. 

rudhiras 149. 

rup 138, 141. 

rurus 120. 

rush 121, 124. 

ruh 121, 125, 126, 197. 

r^ksh 121, 124, 125, 

200. 



— 354 — 



SANSKRIT 



rflp 138, 141. 
r£|: 122, 136. 
r§i 120. 

laksh 122, 13X, 13s, 

136, 137- 
lag 127, 128 bis, Z29. 

laghus 121, 129. 

langh 9, 39, 121, 127 

bis, 128, 129. 
la^^ 121, 127. 
lan^ (to pounce) 127. 
lan^ (to shine) 136. 
lat, lad 145 bis. 
lap 122, 123. 
labh 137, 138 bis, 139. 
lamb 137, 138, 140. 
lal 124. 
lavas 133. 
lag, lash, las 121, 123, 

124, 129, 136. 
la 121, 123, 124. 
lakh 121, 135. 
lagh 121, 128, 129 bis, 

130. 
likh 121, 126, 134 bis. 
ling 121,126,131,134. 
lip 139. 

lig 121, 126, 134 bis. 
lih 121, 127. 
ll 118. 

lunKi2i, 124,131. 133. 
lut, luth 144, 145, 

146 bis, 147, 148, 

i49» 33^- 
lud (to whirl) 144. 

lud (to wrap) 147 bis. 

lup. lup 121, 138, 140, 

X41. 
lubh (to whirl) 138, 

140. 
lubh (to desire) 138, 

140, 141. 
lumb 138. 
lush 121, 124. 
luh 121. 
lu 121, 124, 133 bis, 

134 bis. 
legas 121. 

lok, lok 122, 123, 136. 
lot, I6d 148, 338. 



Idsht 147. 

vangas 204, 259, 263, 

266, 269. 

vanh 204, 259, 266, 

267, 269, 270. 
vakk, valdi, 204, 259, 

262. 
vaksh 204, 259, 269. 
vakshas 204, 259, 269. 
vank, vang 204, 259, 

260, 267. 
vangh 204, 259, 260, 

262, 263, 270. 
vak, 204, 259, 270. 
vank 260, 267. 
va^ 260, 262, 263, 

267. 
va^ras 260, 262. 
vat, bat (to speak) 

274, 2*75. 
vat, vand (to enclose, 

wrap) '40, SI. 57. 

205, 272, 276. 
vath, bath 272, 276, 

278. 
vadabis 276. 
vand (to distribute) 

205, 271, 272, 274, 

276. 
vand (to robe) 276. 
van, ban, van (to 

sound) 275. 
vatsas 272, 277. 
vatsaras 272, 277. 
vad 205, 274. 
vadh 205, 271, 272. 
vadhu 272, 277. 
van, ven, [von] (to 

love) 25, 69, 79, 

204, 259, 260, 267. 
van (to kill) 259, 261, 

271, 272. 
van (to sound) 275. 
vanam 261, 262, 272. 
vand 205, 275. 
vap 203, 218, 220 bis, 

221. 
vabhr 204, 219, 221. 
vam 204, 220. 
vayas 203, 207. 



var 194. 

varas 194. 

Varunas 36, 189, 193. 

varutham 189. 

varn 190. 

vartakas 201. 

vartulas 201. 

vardh 202. 

val, vail 189. 

valayas 189. 

vag 204, 259, 260, 270. 

vashk 259, 271. 

vas (to shine) 204, 

267, 270. 
vas (to dwell) 204, 

2S9» 265, 266. 
vas (to robe) 260, 266. 
vasantas 267, 270. 
vasa 266. 
vasus 259, 266. 
vastu 259, 266. 
vast ram 266. 
vah 259, 264. 
va 13, 203, 204, 205, 

207, 209, 217, 259. 
vSnksh 204, 259, 260. 
vSd, bad 205, 276. 
vatas 209. 

vadh, badh 205, 272. 
vamas 204. 
vayasas 207, 209. 
varas 189. 
vSri, vSr 189, 193. 
vag, 204, 270, 271. 
vashpas 260, 271. 
vasas 259, 266. 
vah 259, 262, 264. 
vi 297. 
vingati 265. 
vik 4, 260, 267, 338. 
vikh 259, 260, 262, 

264, 265. 
vig 4, 260, 262, 263, 

267, 338- 
vit, bit 275. 
vid 205, 272, 275. 
vid 205, 272, 275. 
vidh 271, 277. 
vidhas 205, 271, 277. 
vidhav& 272, 277. 
vidhus 271, 277. 



SANSKRIT 



— 355 — 



vimbas 204, 218. 

viyat 207, 209. 

vis (to seek) 259, 260, 

264, 267. 
vis (to dwell) 265. 
vis, vaisyas 259. 264, 

265. 
vispatis 265. 
visvas 259, 264. 
vish (to visit) 259, 

264. 
vish (to sprinkle) 4, 

260, 268. 
vish (to separate) 260, 

267. 
visham 260, 268. 
vishus 268. 
vishuvam 268, 337. 
Vishnus 260, 268. 
vis 207. 

visam 260, 268. 
VI 203, 207. 
vf^ 263. 
^aras 189, 193. 
viryam 195. 
vunt, vitit 272. 
vri (to surround) 55, 

122, 189 bis. 
vri (to choose) 122, 

189, 194, 196 bis, 

197. 
vrinh (to grow) 122, 

197 bis, 198, 199. 
vrinh (to roar) 196, 

197, 199 bis. 
vrinh (to overflow) 

198. 
vrik 122, 197, 200. 
vrikas(wolf) 197, 199. 
vriksh 122, 197, 200. 
vrij^ (to swell) 198. 
vri|(to pour) 122, 197, 

198. 
vri^ (to leave) 122, 

197, 200. 
vrit 122, 201, 202. 
vridh 6s. 122, 202. 
vrindas 201. 
vris 199. 
vrish 198, 199. 
vfih 5, 197. 



v§ 203, 217. 
v§n, 39, 261, 262. 
vStas,v§tras 2x7, 272. 
vedas 275. 
v€p 203, 218, 220. 
vel, veil 189 bis. 
vesas 259, 266. 
vesht 203, 260, 266, 

272. 
veh 259, 262, 264 bis. 
v3.i 203. 
vaidyas 275. 
vyath 203, 205, 217, 

271, 272. 
vyadh 203, 205, 271, 

272. 
vyap 203, 218. 
vyay 203, 204, 209, 

211, 212, 217, 218. 
vyalas 189. 
vyush, byus 209, 212, 

217. 
vye 203, 205, 217. 
vra^ 122, 197* *200, 

201. ^'' 

vran 189, 191. 
vratam 194, 201. 
vrask 122, 133, 197, 

199 bis. 
vri, vli 189. 

sans 204, 252, 2SS. 
Sanst, s^s 255. 
Sak 204, 258. 
Sakunis 258. 
Sakrit 258. 
Saktus 255. 
sank 204, 253. 
Sankus 253, 258. 
Sankhas 253. 
5ak 255. 
sank 253. 
sat, ^dXh (to bathe, 

twist hair) 205,213, 

242. 
sat s^h (to pounce) 

242/245, 246. 
Sanas 214, 2x5- 
Sand (to languish) 214. 
sand (to heap) 22, 

205, 242, 243. 



Satam 22, 205, 243. 
sad 24s, 248. 
sap 222, 255. 
Saphas 204, 222. 
Sabd 222, 255. 
Sam 204, 227, 228. 
Samb 204, 223, 225. 

227 bis. 
Saras(water) 150,163. 
Saras (reed) 159 bis. 
Saranas 150. 
Sarabhas 143. 
Sariram 163. 
Sarkara 166, X72, 336. 
Sarv.sarbi43bis, 155. 

337. 
sal, sel iSS» 160 ter. 

162. 
Savas, s^vas 212, 236, 

252. 
Sas 62, 204, 257, 258 

bis. 
Sasas 258. 
sash, sas 204, 258. 
Sakh 253, 258. 
San 234. 
sanas 234. 
Sadas 214 bis. 
san 234, 337. 
Santv 204, 227, 228, 

255. 
Sar 162. 

Sala 159. 

sas 255. 

si, so. 212, 233 bis, 

234 ter, 23s bis. 
Sikha 253, 337- 
Siksh 216, 23s, 256. 
Singh 204, 255, 256. 

Sin^ 253- 
sit, sit 214. 

SirasisSbis, 159,337. 

Silas 158, 159 bis. 

Sila 158, 159. 

Qivas 177,212 bis, 268. 

Sisus 212,252, 253. 

Sish 203, 212, 216. 

Si 204, 235. 

Sik 212, 216. 

Sinas 232 bis. 

^rsham 158. 



— 356 — 



SANSKRIT 



gllam 158. 

Qukas 253. 

9uk 212, 216, 253. 

9ukis, gukras 212. 

guth, 5unth 205, 214. 

9udh 205, 214 bis. 

9ubh, gtimbh 204, 

219, 227, 228, 229. 
9ulv 150, 162, 164, 

166. 
gush 203, 212, 213, 

216. 
gushmas, 212, 216. 
9unyas 203, 212, 252. 
9ur,9ul, 157, 158, 159. 

195- 
9uras 27. 157, 195. 

9ulas 27, 157. 

9ush 203, 212, 216. 

9ringam 158. 

9ridh 174, 175. 

9n 27, 157, 159, 161. 

96, 9i 204, 233, 234, 

235. 
9on 203, 234. 
9Kut, 9Kyut 205 bis, 

230, 232, 233. 
9nath 237. 
9mil 83, 224. 
9yamas 232 bis. 
9yalas 233. 
9yai 231, 232 ter, 233. 

235. 
9rang, 9lang 173. 
9rath, 9lath 167, 174, 

i7S» 176. 
9raddha 175, 283. 
9ram 143, 168. 
9rainbh 143, 168. 
9ravas 156. 
9ra, 9ri, 9ir 150, 165, 

167. 

9ri 152. 
9rr 27, 160. 

9ru (to flow) 165, 173. 
9ru (to hear) 150, 156. 
9ruvas 165. 173. 
9ronas, 9loilas 158. 
9lagh 156, 173. 
9vath, 9vanth 205, 
213. 



sad Oft go) 119, 24s, 



9van, 9va 251 bis. 
9vabhr 204, 219, 221. 
9val, 9vall 150, 164, 

170. 
9va9uras 156. 
9vas 204, 255. 
9va, 9vi 203, 212, 252. 
9vit 205, 215. 
9vind 205, 215. 

shash 258. 
shtiv, shtiv 299. 

sa 9, 104, 211. 

sahst 255. 

sakhis 257. 

sag 256. 

sagh2S6, 257,258. 

sak, sa9k 257 bis, 338. 

sa^^ 256. 

sat 9. 

satatas 9. 

satyas 9, 38. 

24W 

sad (to sit) 119, 245, 

250. 
san 245, 249, 250. 
sanas 250. 
sap 257. 
saptan 221. 
sam, samb 204, 223, 

227 bis. 
sam (with) 204, 227 

bis, 228. 
samas 204, 227 bis. 
sama 204, 227. 
samb 223, 227 bis, 228. 
Saranyus 150. 
sarat 151. 
Sarama 149. 
saras 150, 162. 
sargas 126. 
sarpas 142. 
sarb 142, 143. 
sarvas 150, 154. 
sal 150, 160 bis, 162. 
salilam 163. 
savyas 15, 203, 209. 
sas, 9as 255. 
sah 212, 255,256,257. 



sahas, 256. 

sadh 245, 248, 2 50 bis. 
sadhus 248. 
santv,9antv 204, 227, 

228. 
sam, 9am 227, 228. 
sSman 204. 
sami 204, 227, 228. 
s§myam 204. 
sSyas 203. 

s^r, 9ar 150, 162, 164. 
saras 150, 163, 164. 
Sarameyas 149. 
si 203, 217, 218, 337. 
sinhas 204, 255, 256. 
sik 203, 212, 216. 
sidh 246, 249. 
sit, 9it 214. 
sibh, simbh 228. 
siv 203, 217, 218. 
su 203, 212 bis, 213, 

215 bis, 216, 230. 
su- 203, 212. 
sukhas 212. 
sutas 203, 212. 
subh, sumbh 204, 227, 

228. 
sur 153. 
suras 153. 
suh 212. 
su 203, 212. 
suk 253. 
sud 249. 
sudas 214. 
sunus 212. 
sumam 212. 
sur, 9ur 150, 152, 

i53» IS7. 159. 195- 
suras 150, 153. 

suryas 150, 153. 
sush 203, 212, 216. 
sri 150, 151 bis, 152, 
162, 164, 170, 337. 
srij^ 126, 164. 
srip 142. 

sribh, sribh 143 ter. 
sii, 9ri 149. i59. 161. 
sel 150, 160 ter, 163, 

337- 
sev 203, 209, 211, 215. 

s6 211, 218, 233. 



SANSKRIT 



— 357 



sdmas 212. 

skand 205, 24s, 246. 

247, bis. 
skambh 219, 221. 
sku 242. 

skund 205, 24s, 247. 
skhad 245, 247. 
skhal 155. 
stak 301, 304. 
Stan 279, 288. 
stanas 287, 288. 
stabh 311. 
stam 281, 287, 3x1, 

314 (bis), 
stambas 281, 3x1. 
stambh, stubh 281, 

311. 
stigh 280, 304. 
stip 281,311,314. 
stibhis 311, 314. 
stim 281, 311, 314. 
stu 279, 281, 286,312, 

313. 
stup 281, 311, 313. 
striksh 283, 329, 330. 
strih 283, 329, 330. 
stri 282, 319, 332. 

333. 334, 335- 
sten 279, 292. 

st5m 281, 286, 312, 

313- 
stai 279, 280, 286, 

292, 301. 
styai 286, 292. 
sthag 280, 301. 
sthal 278, 281, 315. 
sthalam 278, 281, 316. 
sthaviras, sthavaras 

28, 282, 319, 320. 
stha 9, 104, 278, 283, 

287, 311. 
sthanus 287. 
sthud 279. 
sthuna 278, 287. 
sthul 282. 
sthairyam 318. 
sna 24, 26. 
sn§yus, sna van ax, 

28. 
snih 26. 
snu 23, 24, 26. 



sniil£ 26, 27. 
snusha 27. 
snus 26, 27. 
snuh 26. 

spand 48, SI. S3- 
spardh 5s, 69, 70. 
spargas 55, 71. 76. 
spag (to twist) 39, 40, 

4i» 43. 47- 
spa5 (to see) 39. 44- 
spri 5S, 6s, 66 bis, 71. 

fipnj 55. 71. 73. 75. 
bis, 76 bis, 77. 

spph 55, 71, 76, 77. 

sphat, sphant, spand, 

48.* 50. 52. 
sphar 54, 60, 62, 65, 

69. 
sphal 54, 60, 62, 64. 
sphay 32, 34, 38, 44. 

45. 48. 
sphit 34. 48, SO. SI- 
sphut 34, 3 S. 48, SO. 
sphund 48, 49, 50. 
sphur 54, 55, 60, 62, 

63, 65, 68. 
sphurkh 55, 71. 
sphur^ 55, 71, 72. 
smaranam 97. 
smaras 97. 
smi 83. 
smil, gmil 83, 224. 

smri 95. 97- 
syand 246, 248. 
srans 143, 164, -173. 
srag 173. 

sru 118, 150,164, 165. 
sruK 165, 174. 
sva, svas 203, 210. 
svag, svang 204. 259. 
svan^ 204, 2S3- 
svath, jvat 205. 
svad 205, 214. 
svan (to sound) 2SX, 

262. 
svan (to adorn) 251, 

259- 
svap 203, 219, 220 

bis, 227. 

svar 150, IS3. 

svargas 153. 



svasn 155. 




svadus 214. 




svid 205, 21S. 




svri 150, 154, 


155. 


156. 195- 




svri 143, 153, 


IS9. 


161, 195. 





hansas 204, 2S2, 255. 

hat 230. 

hath 230, 245. 

hatis 230. 

had 231. 

han 205, 230. 235, 

237, 244, 2SI. 
hanus 204, 230, 235, 

237, 244 bis, 245, 

251. 252. 
hamm 203, 223, 22s, 

336. 
hay 230. 
haras 177. 
haris 177, 182 bis. 
harit 177, 182. 
harmutas 177. 
harmyan 180. 
haryatas 178. 
hal 177. 
has 255. 
hastas 245. 
ha 8, 203, 212, 230 bis, 

231 bis, 243. 
havas 230, 241. 
hi, ghi 230 bis, 231, 

233. 235, 237, 240. 
bins 230 bis, 237, 255. 
hikk 230, 2SS- 
hind 245. 
hinv 230. 
himam 232 
hiranyam 177, 182. 
hira 181. 
hil 166, 177. 
hu 203, 212, 230 bis. 
hud, hund 205, 230 

bis, 242. 
hri 176, 177 bis, 178, 

179. 184. 
hrid 175 bis. 

hrish 137. 176, 179, 

180, 181, 183. 



— 358- 



GREEK 



hSt 245. 
hgtis 245. 
hesh 255. 
hdd, hSud 246. 
hnu 205, 237, 238. 
hmal 224. 
hyas 232. 



bras 176, 179, z8o. 
hrad 174, 175- 
hri, hrikh 176, 179. 
hrSsh 176, 179, z8o. 
bl&d 174. 
hlikus 181. 
hval 164. 



hvri 164, 176, 177, 
181, 184, 186 bis, 
187. 

hvS 204, 312, 331, 

226, 230 bis, 340, 

341, 351, 353. 



GREEK. 



The accentuation follows Harper's edition of Liddell and Soott. 



a- intensive 17, 33, 

98, 127, 129, 141, 

183, 321. 
4- negative 13, 88, 

129, 321. 
i- synthetic 30, 128, 

129, 131, 187, 188, 

227. 
i- euphonic 34, 49, 

56, 61. 
dil^G) 209. 
5