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Full text of "The School of Mines Quarterly"

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SCHOOL OF MINES 
QUARTERLY. 



NimcuHiw, 1SS4, to Junk, 1S85, 



THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 

IE ENGINEERING ANI> THE CHEMICAL SOCIETIES 
OF THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES, 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

NEW YORK: 

John Wiley & Sons. 

■1885. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



■ I 



EDITORS. 



For the Alumni Association, 

J. K. Rees. A.M., E.M. J. B. M. 

H. T. Vulte, Ph.B. 
For the Engineering Society, 
A. S. Dwicht. C. F. Lacombe. 

For Ike Chemical Society, 
F. J. H. Merrill. R. Van A. Nonius. 



W. G. flBRRV. 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS. 



W. P. Trowb 



llEJ 



;. Mt' 



F. R. Hotto. 



V. A. P. lJAKNARD, S.T.D.. LI..D. 

M.D., L.I..D. 

ton, Ph.D. E.M. 

ogk, Ph.D.. I.I..D. 

roe, E.M.. Ph.D. 

C.E., Ph.D. 
Elwvn Waller, E.M., Ph.D. 
P. de P. Ricketts, E.M., Ph.D. 
W. M. Iles, E.M. 
Roland D. Irving. A.M., E.M., l'n 
H. 11. Cornwall, E.M. 
Peter T. Austen, Ph.D., F.C.S. 
Charles M. Rulkkr, E.M. 
John A. Church, E.M., Ph.D. 
William E. Potter, E.M. 
-S. A. Reed, E.M. 
W. U. Deverel'x, E.M. 
John M. Adams, E.M. 
H. M. Wilson, C.E. 
John C. F. Randolph. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



//a uUx ■ 



'ls4 






CONTENTS OF VOL. VT. 



ORIGINAL PAPERS. 

Additions to the Assay Department of the School of Mines. 224 

Arches, relation of the united strain and thrust in 209 

Arizona Copper, notes on production of 370 

Austen, P. T., relation of Aluminic and Ferric Salts to plant 

life 235 

Balch, S. W., Mechanics of the Friction Clutch 118 

Barus, Carl, Ph.D., Kaolinization 1 

Baume, value of degrees 158 

Beet Root Sugars, the inversion process applied to 257 

Bessemerizing Copper Mattes 320 

Blast, going into 358 

Chlorides in Rainfall of 1884 335 

Comparison of cost of power in exhaust and plenum ventila- 
tion for mines and dwellings 82 

Copper in Arizona, Notes on production of 370 

Copper Mattes, Bessemerizing of 320 

Coxe, Eckley B., Practical management of Public works. . . 251 

Determination of Graphite in Minerals 159 

Egleston, T., Ph.D., steel forgings, Haswell and Whitworths 216 

Gold and Silver, parting of, by means of iron, at 

Lau ten thai 240 

Bessemerizing Copper Mattes 320 

Going into Blast 358 

Engel, L. G., Masonry supports for the hanging walls at the 

Tilly Foster mine 289 

Eroding power of ice 142 

Feldspathic Rocks, thermal effects of the action of aqueous 

vapor on 1 

Friction Clutch, mechanics of 118 

Furman, H. Van F., Notes on ore deposits 138 

Furnaces, Anthracite, Going into Blast 358 



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iv Contents of Vol. VI. 

Geodetic and Topographical Surveying 37 

Gizeh, pyramid hill of 193 

Going into Blast 358 

Gold and Silver, parting of, by means of Iron, at Lauten- 

thal 240 

Graphite, determination of, in minerals 159 

Gratacap, L. P., Chlorides in Rainfall of 1884 335 

Greek Tunnel of the Sixth Century, B.C 264 

Greenleaf, J. L., Relation of Strain and Thrust in Arches.. 209 

Hanging Walls of the Tilly Foster Mine, masonry supports 

for 289 

Haswell and Whitworth's Steel Forgings 216 

Hathaway, N. and Waller, E., Hydrometers, modulus of. 153 

Hcbl Method for testing oils and fats 276 

Hydrometers, the modulus of 153 

Ice, eroding power of 142 

Ingram, E. L., Planimeter 347 

Inversion process applied to beet root sugars 257 

Iridium, its occurrence, fusion, electroplating, and application. 97 

bibliography of 114 

Island Pyramid in the Lake of Morris 130 

Kaolinization, by Carl Barns, Ph.D 1 

Lautenthal, Parting of Gold and Silver at 240 

I.egcf.tt, T. H., Mechanics of the Friction Clutch 118 

Mackintosh, J. B., Manganese methods 35 

Graphite, determination of, in minerals 159 

Manganese, determination of in Spiegel 24 

methods 35 

Masonry Supports for the hanging wall at Tilly Foster 289 

Merriam, A. C, A Greek tunnel of the sixth century, B. C. . 264 

Middle Third Theory for Stone Arches 209 

Minerals, Tables for determining 339 

Modulus op Hydrometers 153 

Moeller, Walter, The Hiibl method for testing oils and fats 276 

MtERis, the wonder of the world 71 

Island Pyramids in the lake of 130 

Moses, A. J., Tables for the determination of minerals 339 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



Contents of Vol. VI. v 

Native Silver Ores and their treatment at Batopilas 57 

Newberry, Prof, J. S., eroding power of ice 141 

Newberry, W. E., Arizona Copper 370 

New Mexico, Notes on ore deposits of South western 138 

Oils and Fats, the Htlbl method for testing, 376 

Ore deposits of south-western New Mexico, Notes on 138 

Ores, treatment of native silver 57 

Ore Sampling, Remarks on 351 

Ore Testing Works and additions to the Assay Department 

of the School of Mines 224 

Partial Solar Eclipse of March 16 261 

Parting Gold and Silver at Lautenthal 240 

Perry, Nelson W., M. E., Iridium 97 



Plant Like, relation of aluminic and ferric salts to 235 

Public Works, some thoughts on the practical management 

of 251 

Pyramid Hill of Gizeh 193 

Rainfall of 1884, Chlorides in 335 

Reed, S. A., Remarks on Ore Sampling 35 1 

Rees, J. K., solar eclipse of March 16th, the partial 261 

Sampling, Ore 35 1 

Silver and Gold, parting of, by means of iron, at Lauten- 
thal 240 

Silver Ores, native, treatment of at Batopilas 57 

Solar Eclipse of March 16th, the partial 261 

Steel Forgings, Haswell and Whitworth's 216 

Stone, Geo. C, Determination of Manganese in Spiegel 24 

Surveying, geodetic and topographic 37 

Tilly Foster Mine, Masonry supports for the hanging walls 

at the 289 

Trowbridge, Prof. W. P., comparison of cost in exhaust and 

plenum ventilation for mines and dwellings. . . 82 

Ventilation, comparison and cost of exhaust and plenum. . 82 

Waller E. and Hathaway, N., The modulus of Hydrome- 
ters 153 



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vi Contents of Vol. VI. 

Wiechmann, F. G., Ph.D., the inversion process applied to beet 

root sugar 257 

Whitf.house, F. Cope, M. A., Mreris, the Wonder of the 

World 71 

Island pyramids in the Lake of Mceris 130 

The pyramid-hill of Gizeh 193 

Wilson, H. M., Geodetic and Topographic surveying 37 

PROFESSIONAL NOTES, ABSTRACTS. 

Chf.mistry. 

Albumin, preparation of 385 

Aluminium, recent method for preparing 284 

Coal and Cannel Gas, composition of 167 

Cryolite in the U. S 284 

Fats and Oils examination of 285 

Fractional Distillation of Naphtha with steam 375 

Iodine and Chlorine, separation of by dry method 283 

Mercury Iodide, solubility of 286 

Morphine in Opium, determination of 375 

Paraffins, Some new 375 

Peroxide of Copper 286 

hydrogen, new reaction for detecting 283 

Quartz, blue, from Nelson Co., Va 286 

Silica, determination of in silver lead ores 161 

Slag Analysis. 164 

Sulphur crystals on blast furnace cinder 281 

in iron and steel, determination of 284 

Zinc and Nickel, separation of 284 

Engineering. 

Bridge, the Forth 165 

Heat Conduction in non-conductors 166 

Hydrostatic Pressure, tests by. 167 



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Contents of Vol. VI. vii 

Metallic Rollers, Strength of 282 

Railroad Corves, proper compensation for 166 

Rockdrills, improvement in 281 

Rollers, strength of metallic. 282 

Safety Valves, formula: for making calculations about 282 

Strength ok Metallic Rollers \ 282 

Waterpower, hoisting on inclined planes by 283 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

American University, The 169 

Applied Mechanics 88 

Astronomy for the use of Colleges, Academies, and High 

Schools, Text Book of Popular 287 

Copper Bearing Rocks of Lake Superior, The 171 

Electricity and Magnetism 89 

Light 89 

Metrolocical System of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, The 

Imaginary 90 

Ore Dressing in Europe, The art of 89 

Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh 288 

Text Book of Popular Astronomy for the use of Colleges, 

Academies andHigh Schools 287 

Totten, Lieut., on Mr. Petrie 91 

Treatise on Ore Deposits, A 170 

the Adjustment of Observations with applica- 
tions to Geodetic Work and other Measures 
of Precision 287 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
Alumni Association, extracts from meetings of.. .92, 174-175, 377 



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viii Contents of Vol. VI. 

Book Reviews 88, 169, 287 

Errata r6a, 384 

Graduates, addresses and occupation, 1867-1884 178 

changes of address 383 

department 92, 174, 376 

list of 190 

special rates 91 

In Memoriam 96 

Library Notes 86 

Notes, Professional, 163-281; special, 92; School of Mines, 

84; library 86 

School of Mines Notes, Summer schools 84 

Watts, Henry, B.A., F.R.S., F.C.S., fund for 160, 280 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



SCHOOL OF MINES 
QUARTERLY. 



NOVEMBER, 1884. 



ON THE THERMAL EFFECT OF THE ACTION OF 

AQUEOUS VAPOR ON FELDSPATHIC ROCKS 

(KAOLIN IZATION). 

BY CARL BARUS, PH.D. 

The present paper is largely taken from "The Geology of the 
Comstock Lode and of the Washoe District," G. F. Becker, Geol- 
ogist-in-charge, Monographs, U. S. G. S., Vol. VIII., with the 
permission of its author. The experiments were made by order 
of Prof. Becker and at his suggestion. The reader desiring a full 
account of their bearing on problems connected with the Geology 
of the Comstock is referred to the said memoir. 

Mr. Church 1 in his report has endeavored to account for the 
abnormally rapid increase of the temperature of this district with 
increasing depth 2 by ascribing it to chemical action — more imme- 
diately to the decomposition (kaolinization) of the feldspathic 
rocks in consequence of the presence of moisture. This theory, 
however, notwithstanding the ingenuity with which it has 
been discussed by its author, is based on an assumption that 



The Conutock Lode, it. formation and historj 


■ ; by John A. Church, 


.879. 








ret to b very large number of data taken at differ 


entihafuontheLode 




jeimture (0, ii in degrees Fahrenheit, deplh (d). 




cf. H. 


Rote Bridge Collieries) it ii very much tmaller ; 


<= 5 6-H>.°i 5 rf.> The. 




(fore fully twice the normal rate. <Cf. eicellet 


11 digest in O. FeKhel' 




1., p. 1S3-100, Leipzig, 1879, 







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i THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

has scarcely a single experimental datum to support it ; nor is 
the fundamental hypothesis upon which Mr. Church bases his 
argument, namely, that the process of kaolinization is one from 
which we may, a priori, expect the production of heat (as Mr. 
Becker has already pointed out) by any means of a kind to be 
readily admitted. It appeared very desirable, therefore, insomuch 
as from theoretical grounds alone there is abundant room for 
difference of opinion to put the matter to a direct physical test. 
At the outstart, and with the time and means available in camp, 
qualitative experimentation only could be judiciously attempted, 
the necessarily complicated quantitative study being reserved for 
more favorable opportunities ; if, indeed, the preliminary investi- 
gation should furnish results of sufficient interest to warrant fur- 
ther research. 

Mathematical relations.— We will define the thermal effect of kao- 
linization (abbreviated T. E. K.) as being the quantity of heat 
produced by the action of aqueous vapor on unit of mass of felds- 
pathic rock, in unit of time. T. E. K. may, therefore, a priori, 
be either positive, zero, or negative. We must regard it, more- 
over, as a function of the time during which the action has been 
going on, of the temperature and of the quantity of feldspar con - 
tained in the given sample of rock. 

The bearing of this new effect on the deductions of Fourier's 
"theory of heat" may be briefly exhibited as follows: 

Let there be a solid (rock) homogeneous as regards its thermal 
conductivity, of any determinate form or dimensions, within which 
kaolinization is supposed to be taking place at rates which 
vary from point to point We, therefore, essentially affirm that 
in the interior of the given solid there exist one or more 
known regions, within which kaolinization is particularly active, 
and that heat is communicated to the solid by these as well as 
by any other stated causes. 

Let k be its specific thermal conductivity; p its density; let c 
its specific heat; x the thermal effect of kaolinization. 

Let 

a*=— anda a = — 
pc P c 

Let u be the temperature at the point x, y, s, at the time /. 
Then the quantity of heat which accumulates in the element 



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KAOLINIZA TION. $ 

dx dy dz during the interval dt in consequence both of condm 
tion and kaolinization is 

The increment of heat experienced by dx dy dz during dt is 
on the other hand 

du 
pcdx dy dz-j- dt 

These two expressions for the same elementary quantity of 
heat are necessarily equal. Hence, we derive the fundamental 
equation 

ydx^dy* dz*J dt W 

Here k, and therefore a 3 has been assumed to be constant. 
x has the form x=y (x, y, s, «, r, m), where m, {o < m <.£) 
denotes the mass of feldspar per unit of mass of solid. We will 
suppose that a mean value can be introduced for » and t into the 
function ip, to the effect that these quantities like m may be 
regarded as parameters, x will then depend on the x, y, e, 
only. 

In the especial case of some interest where the given solid is 
a sphere, and the isothermals concentric spherical shells, (x a 
function of radius), the partial differential equation (i) reduces to 
the simpler form 

where r is any radius and «i a known function of r. 

The expression (r) differs from the corresponding equation 
of Fourier 1 by the presence of the quantity <& in the left hand 
member of the former. If we regard x as constant as regards 
x, y, s, and the solid very large then u the temperature at this 



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4 THE QUARTERLY. 

point may be expressed as the sum of two quantities 

u=ui+ua, (II) 

where u\, is the result of conduction, and therefore a function of 
x, y, z, t\ «3, however, the effect of kaolinization, hence ( con- 
stant) depending on / only. Equation (i) then takes the form 

^j/d 2 ui , d 2 ui d 2 uA d(ui+u 2 ) 



+ 



d*ui d 2 uA 

dy 2+ dz 2 / 



dt 



_dui x 
dt + 7c 



2 /d 2 ui d ! m d z ui\ dui 
\dx2 + dy2" + dz 2 j / - ~dt ' 



which is Fourier's equation. But this case is here without inter- 
est, because the only effect of kaolinization would be that of 
changing the temperature of the given solid as a whole without 
interfering with the heat conduction which may take place as the 
result of other causes. The interpretation given to equation (I) 
is, moreover, inapplicable for points relatively near the surface 
of the solid. 

When x is variable with x,y, z, and the solid finite in extent 
the reduction to Fourier's equation is not, I think, feasible. We 
encounter a new integral and the results of the mathematical 
theory of heat furnish no available information with respect to 
the problem in hand. At all events, the great bulk of labor 
which consists in determining the arbitrary functions resulting 
from rhe integration by the aid of the given configuration of the 
solid, the initial and surface conditions 1 , remains. This would 
involve an amount of labor quite out of proportion with the 
physical and geological importance of the result to be obtained 
— so long, at least, as no binding grounds are advanced for the 
assumption of positive values for x. Yet it is only from this 
mathematical result that a satisfactory criterion as to the suffi- 
ciency of the data of any direct means of inquiry, such a one, for 



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KA OLINIZA TION. 5 

instance, as is now to be described, will be ultimately obtainable. 
General plan.— Experimentally the problem before us is none 
other than the measurement of very small increments of temper- 
ature with all the accuracy attainable, For such a purpose either 
therm 0111 etric or electrical means are applicable. The former 
requiring specially constructed apparatus, had at once to be dis- 
carded. It is a question, moreover, whether the thermometric 
method of research will not, under all circumstances, offer 
obstacles of a very serious character. In the measuremeni of 
small increments at the boiling point it becomes a matter of great 
importance to keep the mercury column throughout at a temper- 
ature as nearly as possible equal to that of the bulb — a condition 
which can be realized only with great difficulty, when a division 
of the stem into very small fractions of a degree is also required. 1 
Electrically, there are two methods applicable. The first, how- 
ever, based on the relation between temperature and resistance, 
would have necessitated the measurement of increments of the 
latter quantity, amounting to scarcely 0.0005 P* r cent °f the 
■whole, in order to arrive at the accuracy desired. Though even 
this is feasible in the laboratory, I despaired of being able to 
reach this nicety with the means at my disposal. In view of 
these facts, it was finally determined to try how far a thermo- 
electric method might be successful in answering the question. 
The research is essentially of a kind, in which satisfactory results 
can be reached only by a process of gradual and laborious 
approximation. As T. E. K. may, even in the final experiments, 
escape detection, the problem may more accurately be said to 
consist in reducing the limits, within which T.E.K. must lie, to 
the smallest interval possible. 

Processes of this kind, in which the effect observed is due to 
chemical action, are usually accelerated by the application of heat. 
In other words, the assumption is warranted that the thermal effect 
of the action of the aqueous vapor on feldspar (T. E. K.) will 
increase, and will therefore be more easily detected as the tem- 
perature of the vapor increases ; provided, of course, that this 

thermometer subjected id large diSerencei ol temperature is by no meani coutaut in vulume, but 
subj.-ct tu variation, dependent, cit. par., upon Ibe glatachown. (Phenomena of "after-action"). 

Hernet on Thermometry. (Cf. Carl'i Rcpertorium, XI., p. jjj, 1S75- Tra.aux et Memoirei du 



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6 THE QUARTERL Y. 

temperature is not chosen so high as to dissociate the products 
of decomposition resulting in a normal case. Believing, there- 
fore, that the phenomena of kaolintzation are reproduced at all 
temperatures below a certain limit, and that the difference in 
effect is merely quantitative, the rock in the experiments here 



described was subjected to steam at the boiling point of water on 
the Comstock. 1 Besides this, it was intended to modify the 
method of research sufficiently to trace the action of superheated 
steam also. This must, however, be reserved for a future report. 



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KAOLIN I ZA TION. 7 

Apparatus.— The apparatus (a boiler) in which the rock was 
subjected to the action of steam is given in longitudinal section, 
one-fifth of the actual size, in Fig. I. As will be seen, the well- 
known contrivance for determining the boiling point of ther- 
mometers was made the pattern of construction. Steam is gene- 
rated in the interior conical compartment a b e c d of heavy tinned 
sheet iron, 18 inches in diameter at the bottom and 12 inches at 
the top, and between i8and 20 inches high. The top, </<:*, also 
conical 1 , and provided with a hole at c for the escape of steam, 
can be removed, and tits like a lid over the walls of this com- 
partment The whole is surrounded by the cylindrical mantle, 
fgikf, of the same material. The top, gik, of this can also be 
removed, has the form of an ordinary lid, and is provided with 
tubulures for the insertion of corks, etc., at h and *'. The exterior 
compartment communicates with the air by the tubulures / 
and/*. 

In the interior of the inner compartment, and held in position by 
a suitable tripod (not shown in the cut), is the cylindrical cham- 
ber rsu t, 1 1 inches in diameter and 1 2 inches high, and provided 
—like a sieve — with a bottom of wire gauze strengthened by 
radical supports of thick brass wire; Pq finally, is a feed pipe for 
resupplying the water lost by the evaporation. 

The rock to be tested was broken into small fragments, from 
the size of a hazel-nut down to that of a pin-head, but excluding 
dust, and placed in the chamber r s u t. Previously, however, 
the thermo- element xy s (to be described below) had been fixed 
in position, supported by suitable cross-bars of wood covered 
with thick sheet rubber. In putting the rock into the chamber, 
care was taken to pack it sufficiently tight so as to prevent cur- 
rents of steam from possibly passing through the mass. Steam 
reached the interior by a process of diffusion, thoroughly satu- 
rating the whole, however. Of this I had frequen.. occasion 
to convince myself. Water having been poured into the boiler 
to a level, / /, approximately, and heated to ebullition, the steam 
completely enveloped the rock chamber, permeating the material 
in its interior. Passing through the hole, c, and again around 
the greater part of the apparatus, it finally escaped at _/~and /' 
into the air. 



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8 THE QUARTERLY. 

As a source of heat, two small petroleum stoves were found 
excellent By means of the four broad flames thus obtained, the 
heat could be regulated as desired and kept constant during the 
whole time of experimentation. Oil could be supplied without 
interfering with the flames. Trimming of wicks was seldom 
necessary, and, there being four flames, gave rise to no serious 
disturbance. To diminish the heat lost by radiation as much as 
possible, the whole apparatus, with the exception of the bottom, 
was covered to a thickness of three-quarters of an inch with 
cotton batting, wrapped in layers and surrounded externally by 
heavy paper. Finally, the water lost by evaporation was replaced 
drop by drop by means of a pneumatic arrangement placed upon 
the boiler, but not shown in the figure. Moreover, the number 
of drops fed in a given time was so regulated by the aid of a 
small faucet as to keep the level, / /, of the water in the boiler, 
as indicated by the gauge, m n, approximately at a constant 
height The ebullition was not allowed to become sufficiently 
intense to produce an increase of pressure in the interior. 

To recapitulate: By the aid of a fairly constant source of 
heat, the ebullition from a water level of constant height could 
be maintained at a nearly constant intensity. It was believed, 
therefore, that a stationary thermal condition would soon set in 
and continue indefinitely. Errors due to the fluctuation of the 
barometric column, — this being likely to produce a positive as 
negative effect,— -could be excluded by proper methods of re- 
duction. 

Thermoelement.— To measure the small increments of temper- 
ature, a thermopile composed of three bismuth-silver elements 
was first used. Though this acted well, there was danger, in 
consequence of the amount of sulphur in the rocks [Fe S2), of 
complete destruction of the silver terminals during the course of 
the experiment Silver was therefore discarded, and platinum, 
which is not thus affected, chosen in its stead. The bismuth was 
cast in the shape of three adjacent sides of a rectangle, the length 
and width chosen being such as to allow the two ends to occupy 
the positions* and z given in Fig. 1. Of course, care was taken 
to insulate the whole thoroughly from the walls of the boiler, this 
being accomplished by surrounding the element on all sides by 
strips of thick sheet rubber. The parts of the element were 



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KAOLIN IZA TION. 9 

lcept from touching each other by pieces of glass tubing suitably 
placed. The terminals — which, to prevent confusion, are not 
indicated in the figure — were themselves insulated by a covering 
of rubber hose of small caliber. They passed out of the boiler 
through tubulures (also omitted in the figure) placed conveniently 
on its sides, the hose and wire being secured by small perforated 
■corks. Of course, no attention was paid to the purity of the 
metal employed. The silver and bismuth were fastened together 
by melting a little globule on the end of the silver wire, and then 
applying it, while still hot, to the end of a bismuth bar. The 
soldering thus produced was very perfect The platinum and 
bismuth had, however, to be soldered together by ordinary 
means. 

Method of Measurement.— The relation between the electro-motive 
force, e, due to the temperatures T and / ( 7"> /) of the ends of the 
thermo-element, can be expressed with the aid of two constants, 
a and b, thus : 

e=(T— t) [a+6(T+t)l 

But as T — / in this case is a very small quantity (a few hun- 
dredths of a degree) we can put: 



"where T is the temperature of ebullition of the water as given 
by the aid of the barometer. Knowing, therefore, a, b, and the 
barometric height, we are able to find Jt, or the difference of 
temperature between the interior and the exterior of the rock 
■chamber (x and z in Fig. 1). 

For the measurement of e a "zero" method was employed. 
In Fig. 2 a diagram of the connections as actually made is given, 
for the purpose of calling attention to a few details of im- 
portance in measurements of this kind. The platinum ter- 
minals of the thermometer e are soldered to copper circuit wires 
at P, the points of junction being immersed in a reservoir 
filled with petroleum. Before each observation this liquid was 
stirred. The copper wires pass through the commutator B, and 
thence the one through a double key, K, to the point b, the 
other through the galvanometer G\, to the point a, thus com- 
pleting the first branch. The smaller resistance r forms the 
second branch, also terminating at the points a and b. For the 



;v Goo^lc 



io THE QUARTERLY. 

convenient insertion of this resistance a number of small lioles 
were bored in a thick piece of wood and filled with mercury. 



The points a and b are connected with the extreme holes ol the 
series by means of strips of thick copper foil. Finally, the 
terminals of a zinc-sulphate Daniel], .£, pass through the commu- 
tator A; thence the one through the key K and directly to b, 

the other through a large rheostat R (i- 10,000 ohms), 

and by a thick wire, c, to a, completing the third branch. 
When the current in G\ is zero we have 

e=E- - , or, more simply. =E — , 
R+r *" R' 

where e is the electromotive force at /, E at E in the figure ; 
where, furthermore, R is the resistance at R, r at r in the figure, 
and where r is negligible in comparison with R. 

Having thus described the general method, it will be perti- 
nent to mention a few of the more important details. By means 
of K two circuits conveying currents due to E and e, respective- 
ly, are closed simultaneously. It is, however, necessary that 
they should be so closed as to act simultaneously and differ- 
entially on the galvanometer Gx ; for, if the current due to the 
electromotive force e were to act atone, serious disturbances 
might be the result This can be accomplished by the follow- 
ing simple contrivance in the construction of the key. Fig. J 



, v GooqIc 



KAOLINIZATION, rr 

gives a section through the line of mercury cups cd, Fig. 2. 
Pieces of thick copper wire, bent as 
shown, are fastened to a thin piece of 
board, capable of revolving partially 
about a horizontal axis parallel to the 
line cd. In this way the pieces m and n 
l can be dipped into the mercury cups 
fic. 3 . under their extremities, or lifted out 

of them together. The board is, moreover, provided with 
a spring so arranged as to keep tn and n out of the cups, 
and the circuit therefore remains open, unless closed by the ob- 
server. The cups corresponding to m, and conveying the cur- 
rent due to the Daniell E, are, however, filled with mercury to 
a level a little higher than the rest Hence, under all circum- 
stances the circuit containing E, G% and not passing through G\, 
is closed first A moment after, however, that containing e and 
<n,is also completed, but it will be obvious that the effect from e 
and £, if the directions of these electromotive forces are prop- 
erly chosen, will act differentially on G\, as was desired. 

The electromotive force obtained as above, is never wholly 
due to the thermo- element t alone, but contains also a disturb- 
ing electromotive force, e, resulting from the accidental distribu- 
tion of temperature in the connections. For a short period of 
time (that of an observation) t may be considered as nearly con- 
stant, or at least varying linearly. In order to eliminate the 
latter, very largely at least, Dr. Strouhal and myself, 1 in a part 
of our researches on the physical characteristics of iron-car- 
burets, inserted the two commutators A and B. In a series of 
corresponding positions of the commutators, alternately opposite, 
direct measurement would give 

+£ =ai 

+e+t(i+2a) 

+~E " ~ = ° 3 

H-e<i+4«) 
+ E =fl6 



d Hclmbolu), XI.. p. <>]», itfe. 



i ,-, Google 



12 THE QUARTERLY. 

where a is a constant. If now an odd number of observations 
be made, and if Mi be the mean of the odd right-hand members, 
M% the mean of the even right-hand members, 

In the present investigation, the electromotive forces meas- 
ured being exceedingly small, at least five commutations of both 
A and B were made for each value of At cited. 

The galvanometer, G\, was one of low resistance, consisting 
of a few hundred turns of wire around an astatic needle on silk 
fiber. The instrument was quite delicate, and, with the aid of 
proper methods of interpolation, would easily have enabled us to 
measure increments as small as a few ten -thousandths of a de- 
gree centigrade. Unfortunately, the silk was too thick, and the 
zero point of the instrument, as a consequence, too variable ; 
while, on the other hand, the strong winds of the region and the 
frail foundation of the house itself rendered this accuracy unat- 
tainable, and we were obliged to content ourselves with measure- 
ments accurate to a few thousandths of a degree. Readings 
were made with a mirror and scale. 

Thus far E has been considered constant. As this is not 
the case, its variations were measured by the aid of a second 
galvanometer, G2 (Fig. 2), made by Mr. Grunow, and described 
elsewhere. This instrument was placed at a distance from the 
boiler, in the cellar, where the atmospheric condition was tolera- 
bly uniform, and for convenience provided with a commutator 
of its own, D. It will be easily seen that by breaking the cir- 
cuit at B and C and closing K, E will be in a simple circuit, 
including G% and that its value may be measured in terms of 
R, which is also included. 

The value of the constants, a and b in the above equation, 
was determined by putting the ends of the thermo-element / in 
adjoining jars, containing water at different temperatures. 1 
Ten or more observations were usually made, from which a and 
b were calculated by the method of least squares. 

I cannot but consider this method of measuring differences 



, v GooqIc 



KA OLINIZA TION. i $ 

of temperature as theoretically very perfect. First of all, dis- 
crepancies due to Peltier's phenomena are avoided, while the 
constants a and b are used precisely in the same way in which 
they were obtained. Moreover, methods of interpolation are 
particularly applicable ; even a method of multiplication might 
be thus employed. There can be no doubt that under more 
favorable circumstances the minimum difference of temperature 
measurable with certainty would be much smaller than I have 
been compelled to consider it 

Materia! experimented upoo. — The rock selected by Mr. Becker for 
these experiments was the freshest diabase encountered in the 
mines. The feldspars show scarcely a trace of decomposition,, 
and a large part of the augite is unaltered. It was collected in 
the Sutro Tunnel, close to the hanging wall of the Lode in the 
Savage claim. The same rock is described in Chapter III., 
slide 1 8, and its analysis is given in the table following, page 
i S i , of Becker's Report 

Results. — The results are reported chronologically, but with 
all corrections, including those based on subsequent experi- 
ments. Temperatures are given throughout in degrees centi- 
grade ; electromotive forces in volts. 

From an inspection of the tables containing the results for 
the variation of the electromotive forces of bismuth -silver and 
bismuth- platinum with temperature, it will Be seen that the re- 
lation is in both cases so nearly linear that it may at once be 
assumed as such. One constant, a, only, therefore, results from 
the calculation. Tables I. and II. contain the data for the 
calculation of the thermo-electric constant a for the triple ele- 
ment bismuth-silver, together with the results obtained. T is 
the temperature of the warmer, / of the colder end of the ele- 
ment, e the electromotive force corresponding to the tempera- 
tures of the respective observations, observed or calculated as 
specified, (Se) finally the difference between observed and calcu- 
lated results. Two sets of observations were made in order to 
ascertain in how far a fixed value for a could be presumed — the 
bismuth bars being cast and not pressed. In the calculations 
preference was given to values of e corresponding to greater 
differences of temperature. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



THE QUARTERLY. 
Table I, 



No. 


i T. 


obiervcd. 


calculated. 


• fix.* 




, 


..... i n .r 


M. n 


.,.» 


±6 




■ 


... } 1 64.. 


« 


(6 


».«, 


-4 




3 


».S | S»-T 


to 


7» 


IO.JO 


± 




j 


IS.* 47.8 


S 


3" 


O.JO 


*' 


0=^6 .7 : 10' 


6 


».J 4'.' 


6 


7* 


e.7« 


+ 1 




1 


».J . 36.0 


5 


43 


■'" 


+ 3 




9 


IJ.O j 17.* 


3 


19 


J.H 


- 3 




,o 


ii.S ' 16.4 





»J 


** 


+ S 





Table III. contains the successive values of Jt, or the dif- 
ference of temperature between the interior and exterior of the 
rock-chamber. It also shows the date of each observation and 
the number of hours which had elapsed since ebullition first set 
in. Corrections for the variation of a and the electromotive 
force of the normal element E have been applied. During the 
time covered by the first six observations, the water lost by 
evaporation was supplied somewhat intermittently ; subsequent- 
ly, however, as well as throughout all succeeding experiments, 
it was fed into the boiler, drop by drop, so that practically the 
feeding process may be considered as continuous. 4t is posi- 



]V GooqIc 



KAOLINIZA TION. 15 

tive, this sign having been chosen to indicate that the space 
exterior to the rock-chamber— or the end of the thermo-element 
in steam — is the hotter. 



I- 



'', 


Die. 14,. 


>j " 


„ 






J6 


<7 






fc 


,s 


Dec. IJ. . 


~ " 


68 


.9 


Dec i S 


" " 


*> 


x> 


Dec. ,6.. 


. ...4 " 


J« 


« 


Dec. 16.. 


8 " 


BO 


- 


Dec. 16.. 


» " 


84 


"3 


Dec. i6.. 


18 - 


9° 


'4 


Dae. 16. . 


»4 " 


9« 


"5 


Doc. 1;. . 


4 " 


™ 


- 


0*0.17.. 


8 " 


.=4 



Table IV. finally gives the data obtained for the calculation 
of a after the experiments in Table III. had been completed, 
together with the results of calculation. The nomenclature is 
the same as above. 



Table IV. 



No. 


<" 




T 


obat 


■o« 


cmlculiled. 


a («) x iu'. 




■ 


W 


- 


: 


8 ., 


J» 




- 6 

- 6 






» 


4 | » 


8 1 9 


91 


9-99 


± 


a=.. 9 .i:«.*. 




» 




9 1 9 


» 


8.5! 


+ 4 






» 


7 


„ 


3 I 1 


39 


73* 


+ 3 






» 


8 


; 






:: 


+ 3 
-M 




9 


■I 


■ ij 




*7 




+ 7 




.0 


" 


8 


- 


1 . 


88 


1. Bo 


+ 8 





a 3, Google 



1 6 THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

If the values of a in Tables I. and II. are compared with 
that in Table IV. a difference of about 3 per cent, will be found. 
This may be due partly to a change in the internal structure of 
the bismuth bars, partly to the fact that both bismuth and silver 
were attacked by the sulphur fumes generated in consequence 
of the presence of iron pyrites in the rock. In the case of 
bismuth this action merely produced a thin, colored coating of 
sulphide on the exterior. The silver, however, was so deeply 
corroded that its use had to be abandoned, and in subsequen 
experiments this metal was replaced by platinum. 

The data for Jt show a difference of temperature between 
the interior and exterior of the rock -chamber, which is much 
greater than was anticipated. Moreover, the consecutive values, 
of this quantity gradually decrease, indicating thereby an ap- 
parent increase of the temperature of the rock itself. 

Tables V. and VII. contain the data obtained in the deter- 
mination of a before and after the measurements of Jt, made 
during the intermediate week, respectively. In Table VI., the 
latter, together with the date, barometric height, and water- 
level, / (in inches from the bottom as zero), corresponding to- 
each Jt, are given. The figures for barometric height were ob- 
tained from a small aneroid. No reliance can therefore be 
placed on the values as absolute, though the fluctuations are 
probably represented with tolerable faithfulness. Besides these 
data, the number of hours (An.) which had elapsed since ebulli- 
tion first set in are also given. 

Table V. 

No - * J '■ ' oUerved. ' calculnted. | ' "> x IO *- j 



^Google 



KAOLINIZA TION. 



i |Dw. 16, jh... 

3 \Oec. 16, gh... 




A large difference between the temperature of the interior 
and exterior of the cylinder, the former being the smaller, but 
increasing more rapidly than before, is again apparent. 

Table VIII. records an uninterrupted series of observations 
made by Mr. Becker on the variation of Jt during an interval 
of three weeks. 

Table IX. contains the final check of the value of a. 



^Google 



THE QUARTERLY. 

Table VIII. 



I No Our. Hre. Bur. HY a(. 



c*3 


t.3'| 4jJ« 

4.7/ 4« J— 
4.s'l 47 J™ 
4.6 48J« 


19, 30h 

a., 8h 
Hi, iik 

21, Mil 

15, lib 

=6, 7 
26. 11 

37, '5 



.0.87 .egg 



^Google 



KAOLTNTZATION. 19 

In the foregoing determinations of a, the temperature t had 
been chosen to coincide as nearly as possible with that of the 
room. Though this arrangement furnishes important practical 
advantages, (/varying but slightly), only that part of the thermo- 
element lying near the hot end is really in action. It 
was, therefore, thought desirable to reverse the element, so 
that the end which was formerly in hot water would now be in 
cold, and vice versa. Table X. contains the results thus ob- 
tained. 





Table X. 






No. ' I. \ T 

I 


observed. 


«Xio" 

calculated. 


»WX">' 




\ 1 Z\ ! 1', 

. , ... 1 « 


S.6s 
4.69 


6.58 
4.6B 


+4 

+1 

+' 


—■■'-• 



The difference between the values of a in Tables IX. and X. 
lies within the range of unavoidable errors. 

In Table VIII. there is a difference of temperatures between 
the interior and exterior of the rock-chamber analogous to that 
in preceding tables. The former is, as usual, smaller, but in 
this case the temperature of the rock apparently decreases as the 
action continues. 

Between the observations No. 34 and No. 38 there appeared 
disturbances of a kind which seemed to indicate that a break 
had occurred in the insulation somewhere. Subsequent inspec- 
tion showed that the parts of the rubber hose around the plati- 
num terminals, which were in contact both with air and steam, 
had swollen to a spongy mass of many times their former bulk. 
It is not improbable that the wire during the disturbances men- 
tioned had been more or less perfectly in contact with the walls 
of the boiler, the doughy rubber protection having either given 
way or offering imperfect insulation. Though this was partially 
remedied, yet the last week's observations were nevertheless to 



^Google 



20 THE QUARTERLY. 

be regarded as somewhat suspicious, and were consequently 
omitted in the calculations below. 

Discussion. — In the following discussion the observations in 
Tables III. and VI., and the first two weeks in Table VIII. are 
to be considered. Together these data correspond to an in- 
terval of four weeks. Endeavoring to decide as to the most 
probable conclusion to be derived from the large number of 
observations, the end in view will be attained most speedily and 
perhaps mDst satisfactorily by assuming for the relation be- 
tween the variables some approximate form, and calculating the 
constants involved by the method of least squares^ In the 
present case there is as much reason to adopt a linear form of 
function as any other, which would have the advantage of 
greater simplicity. Denoting the number of hours which have 
elapsed since the beginning of the experiment by «, let 
Jt=a+ftu (l) 

In this equation the constant a is without great interest. It 
simply denotes the value of At when u is zero, but is largely 
influenced by the normal difference of temperature between the 
interior and exterior of the rock-chamber, /'. e., the difference 
which an inspection of the above tables, as well as of Table 
XIV., below, induces us to recognize, ft, however, is of im- 
portance, representing the increment of temperature of the 
rock per hour in consequence of the T. E. K. It will be noticed 
that ft is either negative, positive, or zero, according as the pro- 
cess of kaolinization apparently produces or absorbs heat, or is 
without appreciable thermal effect. In making the calculation 
for ft I had hoped to be able to derive this constant from the 
four weeks' observations, as a whole. The problem is difficult, 
however, insomuch as the results obtained do not form one con- 
tinuous series. The problem is not, in other words, that of a 
single straight line as in equation (i), but one involving three 
straight lines, for all of which, however, the value of,? is the 
same. Denoting the whole interval during which the observa- 
tions were made (four weeks) by jt 1 , and regarding the values 
of dt in Table III. as being ordinates of the component line 
whose extreme absciss* are o and J, those in Table VI. as be- 
longing to the line between ", and \, those in Table VIII. finally 



^Google 



KAOLINIZA TWA'. 



to the line between J and iz ; then the whole line between o and 
jt, expressed as a special case of Fourier's series, would have 
the equation, 

J/=^4isin «+^2sin2K+ +A m siamu+ . . . 

where 

+ I. (a 3 +j-l<p)s\amtfd<f f, 

and «i, a%, 03 are the intercepts of the component lines on the 
axis of ordi nates. This finally leads to an equation which, 
though linear with respect to «i and /9, is not capable of simpli- 
fication, and cannot be practically utilized. 

In view of this fact, it was decided to calculate the constants 
«i and [i for each set of observations separately. Tables XI., 
XII. and XIII. give the results, these tables corresponding to 
III., VI. and VIII., respectively. 

Table XI. 



ofe 1 






ow ; 


ofe 


-. 


=w 


ofe 


-> 


ofe 1 o 


ofc 


*o 


ofa 1 o 


e» 


+1 


os a . o 


°» 


-> 


C&, ' o 


05S 


+1 


C.57 ' 


o S 8 


-1 


°59 


<** 


+■ 


°" 


oJ7 


±0 



o„ r,a .Google 



THE Q UAH TERL Y. 

Table XII 



No. 


■ 


utobt. 


••-• | "■■!'»•• !■■ "*• 


"-■ i »■ 




* 
4« 


' 


°9» 

oM 
■M 

•*, 

068 


• 


OOO 

aU 

087 

085 

°e 3 
079 


r !, " r 

f. I 1 ',' : Z 

±0 ■' 16 ' i»» 


• 


=66 

<*7 

=67 

061 
09I 

■Hfl 


* 

* 


06* -I 
=6. ; +, 

°S9 j +4 
°S7 , +1 
OM + 
°S* +3 









Table 


XIII. 






No. 


It. i( 


ob>. a( 


calc. 


Diff. 


No. 1 U. j At 


ob*. | M 


talc, 




,! I 


: : 


: 


-9 


" p • 


z ' : 


:;: 


3 




oj 3 


OJ 6 


-* 


» 08. i 


040 


Ojg 


4 


37 


044 


°37 


+7 


■> j 191 i 


OSJ 


-S3 


3 


4« 


04J 


a,B 


+1 


39 1JS ' O 


OJJ o 


OJJ 


* 


it 


04. O 


cjl 


+4 


<)U| O 


060 


o« 


T 


61 


04* 


039 


+3 


14 1 «9 j 


06; ' 


°S7 


1 


,t I 


04! O 


040 


+1 




0fi3 ! 


° 5 a 


9 


75 ° 


044 


C41 


+3 


96 


.33 1 


069 ' 


-So 


to 


B( 


044 


04a 


+9 


1 


,6j , 


o6j 1 o 


oft. 




•3 ° 


043 


"43 


±0 


•1 


•77 ! 


067 


oftj 


a* 


04* 


«H3 


-1 


■9 


901 ' 


ofiS , „ 


064 


13 


<oa 


044 


044 


±0 


jo 301 ! 


063 ' 


<*S 


u 


no 


04. 


»4I 


-4 


3' 1 3>J ! = 


064 1 


<«0 


•s 


«3 


03, 


040 


-7 


3» 1 3* [ ° 


068 ! 


06a 


It 


>33 


04. 


047 


-s 


33 ! 339 <■ 


- I - 


060 


' 


*" ° 


04, 


048 


-6 


" 


36 * 1 ._' 


- 3 , 


°" 



;-+*-°33 






The constants ft in these tables are, however, of incon- 
venient magnitude, and it will be more expedient to represent 



, v GooqIc 



KAOLINIZATION, a 3 

these quantities on the scale of a year. Let JT, then, denote 
the apparent increase of the temperature of the rock in the 
apparatus per year, the variation being supposed to have con- 
tinued during the whole of this time in the same manner as 
during the time of observation. 

Then from Tables XI. and XII., which, together, compre- 
hend an interval of two weeks, 

jr= + i°.5±o°.i; 
and from Table XIII., corresponding to the same interval, 
Jr=-0°9±0°.I. 

These figures express the final result of the investigation. 
They indicate that, as far as these experiments go, it would be 
about equally correct to assume a positive or negative thermal 
effect from the action of aqueous vapor on the rock ; and that 
for the present, at least, the thermal effect must be assumed to 
be absent 

By comparing corresponding values of a in the tables above, 
it becomes evident that the changes in the values of dt cannot 
in any way be referred to the thermo-element ; nor is there, in 
the results taken as a whole, an effect due to the variation of the 
barometric pressure or to the water level apparent 

A series of experiments made with the rock-chamber empty, 
the rest of the apparatus remaining, however, as before, gave 
the following results: 

Table XIV. 



No 


Tim 




Hn. 


"' 


... 


Ti„. 


H, 


*, 




!»-..,. 


„h. 5 




D .™ 


, 


Dcc.7,,.1,.0 




».«g 




Dec. 17. 


■ih.a 


».» 


».« 


■ 


Dec. 17, isb. 5 


"■5 


o.™ 


3 


1 Dee. 17, 


lab.j 


1.0 


j O.OJ4 


3 


Deo. > 7 .i6h.o 


..o 


,=.«,, 


* 


Dec. 17, 


■3h_5 


..0 


J °-" 8 


* 


Dec.. 7 ,,7b. 


'" 


o.o„ 



The interval of time covered by these experiments is, of 
course, too small to justify any confidence in the constants 
which might be derived from them. They are, however, suffi- 
cient to show that At undergoes changes analogous to those 
noted in the preceding pages. It probably follows, therefore, 
that the final results may be regarded as giving an estimate of 



;v Goo^lc 



24 THE QUARTERLY 

the degree of accuracy attainable by the method in its present 
shape. The chief source of error is the fact that the apparatus 
does not maintain the constancy of temperature necessary. It 
is apparently impossible by means of it to heat the large mass 
of rock to the same temperature throughout Furthermore, the 
thermometer employed is neither in sufficiently intimate contact 
with the rock, nor are the junctions placed in circumstances as 
nearly identical as is desirable. The means of insulation adopted 
deteriorate in a marked degree with the time of exposure to 
aqueous vapor. This may introduce feeble hydro- electric ef- 
fects. Finally, I am inclined to infer that a stationary thermal 
condition was not reached in the experiments. Although this 
supposition accounts for only a part of the anomalies met with, 
it will nevertheless be necessary in future researches to extend 
the time of each set of observations considerably beyond the 
duration of the above experiments. I omit a detailed discussion 
of these matters, however, as a further study of the subject is 
intended. The present experiments commend themselves to the 
interest of the reader : 

1. As showing in how far very small increments of tempera- 
ture, increasing continuously, through infinite time, are accurately 
measurable. 

2. As containing the first direct attack upon physical prob- 
lems of this character, many of which have an important bearing 
on geological and metallurgical subjects 



Phjr., L»b.. IT. S. G. S 



THE DETERMINATION OF MANGANESE IN SPIEGEL. 
BY G. C. STONE. 

THE following paper is a revision of three papers recently read 
before the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 1 Some of 
the determinations that were originally included in the table of 
results have merely been noticed with the detailed account of 
the work of each chemist. 

The work originated in the dispute about the composition of 



^Google 



MANGANESE TN SPIEGEL. 2$ 

some spiegel we had sold. A sample was taken by our custom- 
er's chemist, "A," and myself, portions of it were sent to C, D, 
E, F, G, H, I and J, and the results seeming to me to be of 
sufficient interest to warrant it, I published them, offering to send 
portions of the sample to any chemist wishing to try it. I re- 
ceived reports from K, L, M, N, 0, P, R, S and T. 

As to the chemists and their methods ; 

A is a steel-works chemist of large experience. His method 
is as follows: Dissolve 0.5 gr. in hydrochloric and nitric acids, 
evaporate to dryness, take up with hydrochloric acid, filter; 
nearly neutralize by sodium carbonate, add a little acetic acid 
and sodium acetate, boil, filter, re-dissolve, and re-precipitate, 
evaporate the filtrates to small bulk and precipitate by bromine, 
filter, wash, re-dissolve in hydrochloric acid {if any iron is 
present, nearly neutralize by ammonia, and precipitate with 
acetate of soda), and precipitate the manganese as phosphate, 
and wash thoroughly with hot water. Ignite, brush from the 
crucible and weigh. Results: Nos. II, 12 (12.92, 12.96). 
Whenever I have had an opportunity of comparing A's results 
for manganese with those of most other chemists, they have been 
lower. I think this may be due either to his adding too little 
free acetic acid to keep all the manganese in solution, or so much 
that he is unable to completely precipitate the manganese by 
bromine ; or to loss of manganese when separating the last traces 
of iron by ammonia; or to loss in brushing the precipitate from 
the crucible before weighing. The precipitate is very light and 
sticks tightly to the crucible. 

B is myself Results: Nos. 50,51 (13-53. 1368) were ob- 
tained as follows : Dissolve 1 gram in nitric and sulphuric acids, 
evaporate till fumes of sulphuric acid are given off, dilute to 
500 c.c, and take 200 c.c. (equal to 0.4 gr.) for each determina- 
tion, add sodium carbonate until a decided precipitate forms, 
then 30 c.c. acetic acid (1.047 S P- gO ai) d 7 or 8 grams of 
sodium acetate, dilute to 300 or 400 c.c, and boil gently about 
twenty minutes, filter boiling, and wash with very hot water, 
containing 3 or 4 grams of sodium acetate to the liter. Work- 
ing in this way, I have never found any manganese in the pre- 
cipitate, and very rarely any iron in the filtrate. Evaporate the 
filtrate and washings to about 200 c.c. (if any iron separates, 
filter it out), make acid with hydrochloric acid, and precipitate 



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26 THE QUARTERLY. 

as phosphate as usual. A determination can be made in 7 or 8 
hours. Results N03. 13, 14 (13.38, 13.44) were by precipitat- 
ing basic acetates twice as above, then by bromine, and weigh- 
ing as phosphate. Nos. 37, 38 (13.50, 13.58) were by Ford's 
method. 1 

At the time this work was started C was my assistant. His 
results, Nos. 34, 35 (13.52, 13.68) were made by Williams' 
volumetric method, the solutions being standardized by two 
samples of Spiegel instead of by iron wire as recommended by 
Mr. Williams. The method is as follows: Dissolve 0.5 gm. in 40 
c.c. nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.42) by boiling, add potassium chlorate 
gradually to the boiling solution until the last addition produces 
no reaction, cool, filter through asbestos, wash with cold water, 
dissolve in an excess of standard oxalic acid and sulphuric acid, 
in dilute solution, and titer the excess of oxalic acid with per- 
manganate. In standardizing, the standard spiegels are treated 
as above and the final calculation reversed 

The remainder of Cs results were obtained after he had left 
me. Nos. 52,53 and 54 {13.32, 13.65, 13.68) were by the ace- 
tate and phosphate method as I use it He tried Ford's method 
and obtained 14.76 and 15.04 percent. Ashe found no iron 
in his precipitate, he concluded that the asbestos must have 
caused the trouble. To test it he precipitated his manganese 
by bromine, to remove any lime or magnesia salts, before 
precipitating as phosphate, and obtained 13.68 (No. 41). Nos. 
39 and 40 (13.53, 13.68) were made by Ford's method, using 
asbestos that had been purified by washing with acid before 
using. 

D is a commercial chemist of considerable experience. He 
writes of his results, Nos. 64, 65 (14.18, 14.56). "The results were 
obtained by precipitating basic acetates twice, separating the 
manganese by bromine, precipitating finally by sodium carbonate 
and washing until the washings gave no reaction with coralline. 
The analyses were made in a hurry, and the precipitates washed 
on the filter." He was not entirely satisfied with the results, 
and considered 14.18 per cent, the nearer to the truth. 

£ is a firm of commercial chemists, who have had an ex- 



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MANGANESE IN SPIEGEL. 27 

ceptionally large experience in Spiegel analysis. They precipi- 
tate basic acetates, separate by bromine and precipitate as phos- 
phate. I do not know the exact details. Their result, No. 1 5 
(13.46), is an average. 

7ms a commercial chemist. He uses Troilus bromine and 
ammonia method.t His result. No. 61 (14.41), I think is high. 

G is a commercial chemist. He uses the same method as 
D. His result, No. 66 (14.47), ' s a ' so I think high. 

H is an assistant in a prominent technical school. His de- 
terminations, Nos. 1,2,3 (12.60, 12.72, 12.86), were made as 
follows : "Solution in hydrochloric acid, boiling with large ex- 
cess of nitric acid until all the hydrochloric acid is driven off, 
precipitation while boiling by potassium chlorate, solution of 
the manganese oxide in oxalic and sulphuric acids, and titration, 
with potassium permanganate, of the oxalic acid undecomposed. 
The oxalic acid is standardized by iron wire." 

Nos. 1, 2 were made on the first sample sent to H. No. 3 
on a second sample differently marked. 

/ is an assistant in the same technical school. He used the 
same method as H for Nos. 6, 7 (12.92, 13.05). He tried the 
method on ores with results that compared more favorably 
with other methods, and accordingly repeated his analysis of 
spiegel, adding to the solution zinc, lime and alumina to see if 
they exerted any influence on the result. No. 4 (12 81) was 
with zinc No. 5 (12.91) was with lime. With alumina the re- 
sult obtained (10.36) was very low, owing to the formation of 
basic sulphates (the alumina being added as potash alum). 

7 is a chemist on the State Board of Health. He uses 
Williams' method. Result, No. 8 (12.95.) 

AT is an iron-works chemist whom I only know by corre- 
spondence. He writes: "No. 55 (13.64) was obtained by the 
method I generally use, as follows: Dissolve 0.8 grams spiegel 
in hydrochloric acid and a little potassium chlorate, in a half- 
liter flask. Boil off most of the acid, add ammonia in slight ex- 
cess, redissolve in acetic acid, using rather more than is really 
necessary, and then add 8 or 10 grams of sodium acetate and 
make up to the mark with warm water. Boil hard for fifteen 
minutes, then allow to settle (cool ?), until the liquid reaches the 

t Tram. Am. Inn. Mid. Ens. Vol. X., p. i 73 . 



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28 THE QUARTERL V. 

mark, and withdraw 300 c.c. of the nearly clear liquid. Add to 
this an excess of hydrochloric acid, evaporate to dryness, take 
up with hydrochloric acid and water, and separate the iron by 
two precipitations with ammonia. (I have often tested the 
ferric hydrate for maganese but have never found any, if the 
separation by ammonia was properly made). Finally, precipi- 
tate the manganese as phosphate." Nos 42, 43 (13 87, 13.35) 
were by Ford's method." No. 62 (13.50) was by Troilus's 
method.t He writes, "I may add the results are quite as good 
as I expected, although for any element except manganese, they 
are not close enough for anything like accurate work." 

L is a firm of commercial chemists of large experience, who 
have made a specialty of iron work. Their method is as fol- 
lows: Dissolve 0.5 grams spiegel in 10 cc. nitric acid (1.20 
specific gravity), by heating; cool, dilute, and precipitate the 
iron by barium carbonate, add a considerable excess of barium 
carbonate (to help the precipitated Mn O2 settle), titrate with 
potassium permanganate, which has been standardized by oxalic 
acid; 1 cc. of the permanganate used contained 0.00199 grams 
manganese. They also analyzed separately portions of the 
sample sent them which would and would not go through very 
fine bolting cloth, with the following results : 

No. [. 14.05 per cent. Mn. | No. 5. 12.41s per cent. Mn. 

" a- 14.05 I " $■ >3'34 

" 3- i4-»5 I " 7. 13.174 

" 4- '3-134 ' I 

Nos. 1, 2, and 3 passed through the bolting cloth; No. 5 
would not go through ; No. 4 was "0.25 grams coarse, 0.25 
grams fine ;" and Nos. 6 and 7 were just as the sample was re- 
ceived. They write, "These results we think will explain some 
of the discrepancies in the results you have obtained from other 
chemists." This is a conclusion in which I cannot fully agree 
for the following reason : the results are what I should have ex- 
pected, as the low grade spiegels are always harder and more 
difficult to pulverize than the high grades, and it is impossible 
to get a sample, even from a single casting, in which the coarse 
and fine parts are of the same composition. Knowing this, I 
had the entire sample sifted through a forty-mesh sieve before 
dividing it, and took great care to give each chemist a fair pro- 

• Tnuu. Am. lost. Mm. Ei.g, Vol. IX, p. 197. 



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MANGANESE IN SPIEGEL. 2 9 

portion of coarse and fine; and it will be seen that the low re- 
sults are mostly by one method, the medium by another, and 
the high by a third, so that I hardly think L's results will ex- 
plain anomalies. 

M is a steel-works chemist His determinations, Nos. 57, 
58, 59 and 60 (13.24, 13.82, 13.84, 13.96) were made as fol- 
lows: "Precipitate the manganese by potassium chlorate from 
a concentrated nitric acid solution, dissolve in hydrochloric acid, 
separate all iron as basic acetate twice, then precipitate the 
manganese by bromine, dissolve, precipitate by sodium carbon- 
ate, and weigh as M113 O4." 

N \s an iron-works chemist of several years experience; he 
tried the spiegel "by precipitating with sodium phosphate after 
making two basic acetate separations in the old way ; I am not 
satisfied with them." The results were 13.66 and 14.20; al- 
though he is not satisfied with the results, 1 have included the 
lower one (13.66 No. 16) in the table, as it is within the limits 
of the results he obtained by another method which he does 
consider accurate. Results Nos. 44, 45, 46 (13.65, 13.68, 
13.84) were obtained as follows (Ford's method) : "The spiegel 
was dissolved in concentrated nitric acid, and the manganese 
thrown down with potassium chlorate. After washing, the 
filtrate was tested for manganese, and none found. The asbes- 
tos was then washed into a beaker, and dilute hydrochloric acid 
and a few drops of sulphurous acid added, when the manganese 
went into solution at once. The sulphurous acid was boiled off, 
the asbestos filtered out and the filtrate oxidized by boiling with 
nitric acid. The iron in the filtrate was precipitated by am- 
monia in presence of a large excess of ammonium chloride, the 
precipitate dissolved and re -precipitated. In the combined 
filtrates the manganese was precipitated as phosphate as usual." 
N also tried Williams' method, results 1076, 10.82, 10.82. He 
writes with regard to them, "I can only say I worked it as care- 
fully as I could, and took every precaution, with but little suc- 
cess, as the results show." I have not included these results in 
the table. 

O is an iron-works chemist. His results, Nos. 17, 18 (12.93, 
12.97) were obtained by dissolving in nitric and hydrochloric 
acids, evaporating to dryness, redissolving and filtering out the 
silica, precipitating as basic acetate twice, using a large excess. 



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3° THE QUARTERLY. 

of acetic acid, then by bromine, dissolving the precipitate in 
hydrochloric acid, and separating the small amount of iron 
present by precipitating with ammonia and sodium acetate 
twice (the precipitate was tested for manganese but contained 
none) ; finally the manganese was precipitated and weighed as 
phosphate. Results Nos. 47, 48 (13.18, 13. 21) were by Ford's 
method, precipitating in 75 c.c. by repeated additions of nitric 
acid and potassium chlorate, diluting with cold strong nitric acid 
and cooling before filtering. 

P I know only by correspondence. His methods are : For 
results Nos. 9, 10 (13.03, 13.26) dissolve in hydrochloric acid, 
evaporate, oxidize with nitric acid, filter from silica, separate iron 
as basic acetate, precipitate manganese as sulphide, dissolve in 
hydrochloric acid; and precipitate as carbonate. No. 63 
(13.72) was obtained by Eggertz's method. Nos. 22, 23 (13.10, 
13.10) were dissolved and oxidized as before, the iron precipi- 
tated by oxide of zinc, filtered and washed four times with cold 
water ; and the manganese titered hot with permanganate. P. 
regards these two results as low. Nos. 24, 25 (13.75, '3-69) 
were dissolved and treated tike the last two, the precipitated 
iron was again dissolved, separated, and titered as before ; the 
results are the sum of the manganese joined in both filtrates. 
Nos. 26, 27, 28 (14.08, 1402, 14.02) were treated like the last, 
but the filtrates were combined before titering. P says: "I have 
the utmost confidence in these three results, although they are 
much higher than any of the others, which may possibly have 
been due to a change in my permanganate standard, although I 
have no reason to believe such to be the case. ... I tested the 
chemicals used." I am inclined to think, however, that his per- 
manganate had changed, or else (as is usually the case) the 
oxide of zinc used contained manganese. 

R. is a steel-works chemist. No. 36 (13.13) was made by 
Pattinson's method, in one hour and forty minutes; No. 19 
(13.63) by the acetate, bromine, and phosphate method in four 
hours and thirty minutes. He writes: "I consider Pattinson's 
method to be the shorter, and to give sufficiently accurate re- 
sults, although the acetate, bromine, and phosphate method will 
always be the most accurate." 

5" is a steel-works chemist of several years' experience. His 
result No. 49 (13. 36) was obtained by Ford's method ; No. 56 



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MANGANESE IN SPIEGEL. 31 

(13.40) by the acetate and phosphate method, as (Tand I have 
used it. Knowing that 5 was in the habit of using Williams's 
method for manganese in steel, I asked him to try it on this 
Spiegel ; but he said it was of no use, since that method always 
gave too low results for spiegel ; although he considered it ac- 
curate enough to check the working of a steel furnace. 

T is the chemist of a large smelting and refining company. 
All his determinations were made by Volhard's method, as fol- 
lows : Dissolve 0.5 grm. in nitric acid, evaporate to dryness 
and ignite to decompose nitrates. Take up with the least pos- 
sible amount of hydrochloric acid, and replace this by sulphuric 
acid, heating till copious fumes of SO3 are evolved ; dilute, boil, 
and add pure oxide of zinc to precipitate the iron ; filter, wash, 
dilute to 500 ex., take out at least two portions of 100 c.c. each, 
and titrate hot with potassium permanganate, of about half 
normal strength, which has been standardized by iron. T says 
this is the first time he has tried the method on spiegel, although 
he has used it frequently for ores. Nos. 29, 30(13.02, 13.21) 
were made on one solution of the sample ; Nos. 31,32,33 (13.05, 
13.13, 1321) on a second. 

In all there are sixty-six determinations by nineteen chemists 
using eleven methods. In the table" I have arranged the results 
by each method in columns, giving the average result and prob- 
able error calculated by the method of least squares. I have put 
the single result by Pattinson's method (R. 36) with C's two 
results by the modified Williams' method. 

Combining the mean results given in this table, giving to 
each the weight due to its mean error, we get: 

(1} Williams' method 12.852 ±0.033 

(2) Acetate, sulphide and carbonate 13. 145 ±0.078 

(3) Acetate, bromine and phosphate 13.261 ±0.069 

(4) Volhard's method 13.405 ±0.073 

(5) Williams' method modified, and I'altinson's I3.443±o. 109 

(6) Ford'smethod i3.4Ss±o.483 

(7) Acetate and phosphate I3>557±0><>37 

(8) Potassium chlorate, acetate, bromine and carbonate. . . 13. 715 ±0. 108 
<9} Acetate, bromine and ammonia . . 13. 877 ±0.184 

(10) Acetate, bromine and carbonate 14.403 ±0.077 

General mean 13.388 ±0.132 

If we include N's three results, 10.76, 10.82, 10.82, in column 
(1), the average by this method would be 12.29.2io. 195 and the 
general mean would be 13.522io.102. 



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THE QUARTERLY. 





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MANGANESE IN SPIEGEL. 33 

We see by the table that by far the largest number of deter- 
minations are between 1 3 and 14 per cent, and that most of those 
below 13 are by one method (Williams'), and most of those 
above 14 are also by one method (bromine and carbonate), and 
further that all the determinations by these two methods are 
either below 13 or above 14, except one by Williams.' method, 
which is only 0.05 per cent over 13. 

As regards Williams' method, Mr. Sands and I tried it when 
we first had occasion to use a volumetric method for manganese. 
We found that it invariably gave only about 90 per cent, of the 
amount of manganese found by other methods. We tried in 
various ways to ascertain what was the trouble, and finally con- 
cluded that it was because the manganese was not all precipitated 
as Mn02; but as a lower oxide. We analysed the precipitate 
and found this to be the case. 

We then tried standardizing our oxalic acid by spiegels, 
which we had repeatedly analysed with concordant results, and 
had no further trouble. 

By standardizing in this way, of course, the composition of 
the precipitate has no influence on the result, provided the com- 
position is constant That this is the case is, I think, well proved 
by our analysis of the precipitate, and by the close agreement of 
duplicates and of analyses made at different times and by different 
people, of the same sample. 

Our conclusion that the precipitate was not MnC>2, but a 
lower oxide, was a good deal criticised by several chemists, and 
while the composition does^not affect the accuracy of the method, 
I thought it well to try experimentally whether Williams' method 
as originally proposed or as modified by us was the more 
accurate. 

To test it I analysed two samples of Spiegel, using oxalic acid 
that had been standardized by iron wire (Williams' method), and 
also by Spiegel (modified method). I then repeated the analysis 
of the same samples, adding to each 0.2 gms. Mng P2 O7 (equal to 
0.07746 gms. Mn), which I had prepared and purified with great 
care, with the following results: 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



THE QUARTERLY. 



Manganese 

Gms. 


M>n K ui«e 

found hy 
William,' 
method. 


0_ 


Gain equali 

I ManKan™ 
added. , 

a..4< 


tr 


Gaiot. pe"' n «?t™of 
1 M.ng.ne™ 
added. 




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..„.* 


..86 3 4 

O.cjUe 


1 


• «™e 


0.077" W-S* 












;-;;; 


...„, 




:: 


0.077" 99.69 
0.07s,, 101,13 



* When the KCIO, ni added to Ihia il exploded violently and lome of Ihe precipitate waa prob- 
ably lost. ] have included it here la complete the act. 

1 think these experiments are sufficient to prove the sub- 
stantial correctness of the modified method; and also, indirectly, 
to confirm the results by the acetate and phosphate and Ford's 
methods, as the standard spiegels used were analysed by them. 

All but one of the analyses which gave much over 14 per cent 
are by the acetate, bromine and carbonate method, which is admit- 
ted by many who use it to be very liable to give high results, 
owing to the difficulty of washing out the last of the alkali from 
the final precipitate. 

If we omit these two methods from the general mean it 
becomes 13.4s5io.055 per cent, which I think is probably very 
near the truth. If we only omit (1) the general mean is 13.537 
±0.101 per cent 

It may be objected that the method of least squares is not a 
fair means of comparison, because some, at least, of the methods 
are liable to be vitiated by constant errors. This is undoubtedly 
a valid objection, but it seemed to me desirable to use some 
criterion to judge of the probable value of the different methods ; 
and all things considered, I thought this the fairest, as eliminating 
all possible "personal equation." 



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MANGANESE METHODS. 35 

MANGANESE METHODS. 
BY J. B. MACKINTOSH. 

In selecting the best of the methods described in the preced- 
ing paper, a chemist unused to manganese determinations 
might well be excused if he refused to accept any on the evi- 
dence set forth. Take, for instance, the method described as 
"acetate, bromine, phosphate," we have B's results, 13.38 and 
13.44, an d E's result, 13.46, three closely agreeing numbers. 
Then we have A's results, 12.92 and 12.96, and O's 12.97 arK * 
[ 2.93, four numbers which agree still better with each other, but 
which average half a per cent, lower than the three first; we 
still have N's 13.66 and R's 13.63, forming a third class, to 
say nothing of N's other figure, 14.20, which disagrees with all 
the rest. 

On passing to Volhard's volumetric method, we do not find 
quite so much variation ; we certainly would have, however, in 
P's results, ranging from 13.10 to 14.08, evidence enough to 
weaken our faith in this method, if it were not for the results of 
L and T, which corroborate each other closely, besides agree- 
ing with P's lowest results. Perhaps, as Mr. Stone suggests, P's 
trouble lay in the oxide of zinc he employed being contaminated 
with manganese. It is evident, however, that we cannot employ 
any of his results with such a doubt hanging over them, and 
with such variation among themselves. 

On consulting the table it will be noticed that nearly all the 
gravimetric methods give higher results than the volumetric 
ones, excepting P's results, and those obtained by C by Wil- 
liams' modified method. That this is not the result of accident 
and what we should expect, I think is plain, for if there are any 
substances present which form insoluble compounds and which re- 
main in solution under the samecircumstancesas does manganese, 
which are not subject to the same actions of oxidation and reduc- 
tion as manganese, then our gravimetric results would be in- 
creased by the presence of these foreign substances, while our volu- 
metric results would be unaffected. Among such substances 
which are liable to occur in spiegel is copper, which will follow 
manganese through basic acetates, bromine precipitation and 



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36 THE QUARTERLY. 

phosphate, finally to be weighed with, and increase the apparent 
per centage of manganese. Other possible sources of error may 
be lime and zinc. Even distilled water, made in copper stills, 
or stored in contact with copper or zinc receptacles, will dis- 
solve sufficient of the metals to seriously interfere with the 
accuracy of an analysis in which large quantities of water are 
used, and that this is not a fanciful objection is shown by our 
experience at the School of Mines, where some of us find it 
necessary to prepare our own distilled water, using glass vessels 
only. 

In comparing the results of Williams' and Volhard's methods 
we will see some close agreements. Now these two methods, 
though both volumetric, are essentially different in other respects ; 
in the one the manganese is precipitated, in the other it remains 
in solution; in the one it is reduced, in the other oxidized, yet 
the agreement between I, J, L, andT is as close as that obtained 
by any one of the other methods, between the chemists using it. 

The volumetric method employed by Mr. Stone, {Williams' 
modified method), furnishes results agreeing excellently with the 
gravimetric results of B and C, by Ford's, and the acetate and 
phosphate methods, and this could hardly be otherwise, for 
these methods were used to determine the amount of manganese 
in the spiegels used in standardizing the volumetric solutions. We 
do not, however, find such close agreements with the results of 
K, N, O, and S, using the same methods, and this, also, could 
hardly be otherwise, for the volumetric results obtained will cor- 
respond to the gravimetric results of the chemist who employs 
it, partaking of the errors inherent in the method used and the 
personal errors of the analyst. There seems to be no good 
reason why these two methods should have been employed to 
determine the manganese in the standard spiegels in preference 
to the acetate, sulphide, and carbonate, (13.14%), or the acetate, 
bromine and carbonate, (14.40%,) or any of the intervening 
methods. The capabilities of the "modified method" are evi- 
dently great; we may buy spiegel on the results of a 12.92 
chemist, and sell on those of a 14.56. • 

It seems to be a step in the wrong direction to standardize a 
volumetric process by a doubtful gravimetric one, as it is well 
known that volumetric work is often capable of greater accuracy, 
witness the wet assay for silver, and the recent atomic 
weight determinations by Mallett, Cooke, and others. 

1: <]*.-«! .Google 



MANGANESE METHODS. 37 

Since the "modified method" could have no reason for be- 
ing if the precipitated manganese oxide were Mn Oa, and not a 
mixture of oxides, I instituted a series of experiments to settle 
this point, the results of which were read before the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers. 1 I have shown in these papers 
that the precipitate produced by potassium chlorate in a hot con- 
centrated nitric acid solution of manganese is Mn 02, and not a 
mixture of oxides, that organic matter and iron do not affect 
the composition of the precipitate, and that the manganese is 
completely precipitated, certain precautions being observed. 
This being the case, the only source of loss in Williams' original 
process will be in the incomplete precipitation of the manganese, 
and that this is of a comparatively small amount, a reference to 
the papers mentioned will show, the amount lost rarely exceed- 
ing a milligram, and usually being less. 

This being the case, if the gravimetric results do not agree 
closely with the volumetric results, the proper precautions hav- 
ing been taken, the probability is that the gravimetric results 
are in error through the simultaneous precipitation of other sub- 
stances with the manganese. 



GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 

BY H. M. WILSON, C. E., 



Topographic surveying is daily becoming a more important 
adjunct of engineering works; and there is an increasing demand 
for good topographers on the various government and state sur- 
veys, and since very little of a practical nature has ever been 
written on this subject, I have decided to attempt to give the 
readers of the QUARTERLY a short resume of the various 
methods employed in topographic surveying, including the 
observation, adjustment, and computation of geodetic triangu- 
lation, prefaced by a few remarks on base measurements and 
astronomical observations. 

1 The Volumetric Determination of Manganese. Roanoke, Va„ meeting, June, j88j. The 



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38 THE QUARTERLY. 

As the subject is a very extensive one, I cannot, in as short 
an article as this must necessarily be, attempt to enter into any 
of the mathematical details, nor reproduce any of the various 
formula; used in the computations, but since these may already 
be found in print in many places, I will refer to the works in 
which they occur, and will confine this article to the immediate 
explanation of the more practical field and office operations, 
which will render it of rather a popular than technical character. 

Geodesy may be defined as a system of exact land measure- 
ments by means of triangles, extending generally over a suffi- 
ciently large area to be affected by the curvature of the earth, 
and controlled in relation to the meridian by astronomical azi- 
muths, located from the meridian by astronomical latitudes and 
longitudes, computed by formulas based on the dimensions of 
the spheroid, and from triangles adjusted and corrected for the 
various errors of observation and position of instrument. 

Base Line. 

The first thing to be done before beginning operations, is to 
make a general reconnoisance of the territory to be surveyed, 
with a view to choosing the best location for the base line. 

This must be selected with reference to the convenience of 
measuring; secondly, with regard to having the ends of the base 
located in such places as will be least likely to be disturbed ; 
thirdly, that the ends of the base shall be in such a position as 
will admit of the best possible expansion of the base; and, 
fourthly, the base should be situated as nearly as possible to a 
telegraph line so as to afford the most convenient means of tele- 
graphic communication with some astronomical observatory in 
order to exchange signals for longitude. 

The two forms of base measuring apparatus most used are 
the compensating apparatus, which consists of a brass and an 
iron bar fastened together at one end, and at the free end are 
connected by a compensating lever, of which some point will be 
necessarily nearly constant in position at all times. The other 
form is the metallic thermometer, which consists of a steel and 
a zinc bar fastened together at their centres and supported on 
rollers, so that the ends of the bars are free to move parallel to 
the axis of the enclosing tube, and the upper surfaces of the 
bars are marked near the ends with graduations, of which those 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 39 

on the steel bar are taken as the standard, and the amount of 
change of these with reference to those on the zinc bar gives, 
theoretically, the change of temperature which the bars undergo." 

This apparatus is used by placing two such tubes, containing 
the measuring bars, on trestles with the rear end of one over the 
reference point at one end of the base, and mounting a micro- 
scope at the forward end of the tube with a micrometer thread 
over the graduation marking the length of the bar, and placing 
the rear end of the second tube in line with the thread, and mov- 
ing the rear bar forward, etc. The tubes should be kept in line 
by a theodolite ; and the inclination of the tubes is marked by 
means of sectors placed on the sides. It is customary to meas- 
ure the base twice and take the mean of the two lengths as the 
true length; another method of checking the measurement 
is to remeasure the central portion of the base, at about a third 
of its length, and to expand this by means of a triangulation in 
such a manner as to determine the length of the whole line, by 
making the base the diagonal of a quadrilateral, that is, the com- 
mon side of two triangles. 

This may be done, as shown in the accompanying figure, by 
setting stones with centre points in the base at 2 and 3, and on 
a line at right angles to it at its centre, at 5 and 6, in such a 
manner as to give the best shaped triangles, and then measuring 
and computing the various angles and sides respectively. 




The chief corrections to be made in the measurement of the 
base are for the inclinations of the tubes, and for the differences 
in length of the bars at different times, produced by changes in 
temperature. 

Astronomical Longitudes. 

Fifteen times the interval of sidereal time between the pas- 



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40 THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

sages of the meridians of two places by a fixed star is the differ- 
ence in longitude of those places. This interval is determined 
by observing for local time at the two places, and by the simul- 
taneous exchange of signals, as by telegraphing, at both stations. 
The best method of determining the longitude is by means 
of the ordinary astronomical field transit and electric chrono- 
graph. With a good instrument and proper care the constants 
for azimuth and collimation will remain about the same during 
a night's observations. The instrument should have a small ob- 
servatory built around it to protect it from the wind, etc. When 
the reticule is adjusted, the horizontal hair will be parallel to the 
horizon, and, if the transit is approximately in the meridian, the 
direction in which the star crosses the horizontal thread will 
indicate which way the telescope deviates from the meridian ; it 
the star crosses the horizontal thread upwards, the telescope will 
be pointing to the eastward of the meridian, and vice versa, and 
if moved in azimuth until the star follows the hair, it will be 
approximately in the meridian ; if the telescope is then set for a 
close circumpolar star, and moved in azimuth until the collimated 
hair bisects the star at the time of culmination, the instrument 
will be sufficiently near to the meridian.* 

In observing the times at which the star crosses the threads, 
the observer may either note the times of transit by listening to 
the beats of a chronometer or by recording them automatically 
by means of a chronograph; the latter is better, as it is more 
convenient in determining the longitude, for the same circuit 
which records the observations on the chronograph may be con- 
nected with the wires of a telegraph line, and the break of the 
chronometer be recorded on the chronograph at the other station, 
thus comparing the local times and determining the difference 
in longitude at once. 

The probable error of a good longitude observation is about 
003 second of time. 

Latitude. 

The most accurate method used for determining the latitude 
is probably that by means of the zenith telescope. 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 41 

If the difference of zenith distances of two stars culminating 
at about the same distance north and south of the zenith be 
measured, and one half be applied to the mean of the declinations, 
the only errors affecting the resulting latitude will be the diurnal 
aberration and the difference in refraction of the two stars, which 
latter will be small as the two stars have nearly the same 
altitude. 

The instrument may be placed in the plane of the meridian 
by means of the same process described for the held transit. 

In making up a list of pairs of stars, some star catalogue, as 
those published by the U. S. Coast Survey* should be used. It 
is best to prepare a table of declinations of north and south stars 
corresponding to different zenith distances. The best stars to 
select are those which do not differ more than io m in right as- 
cension and 30' in zenith distance ; 30 pairs or so of stars may 
be observed in a night, and a few nights should give a latitude 
having a probable error not greater than o". 10. 

Azimuth, 

The most common method of determining the azimuth is to 
measure the angle be.tween the line of which the azimuth is to 
be found and a circumpolar star near its elongation, and to 
compute the azimuth from the hour angle of the star at the time 
of observation. 

Stars observed at their lower culmination have the advantage 
of being at a less altitude when observed, and close circumpolar 
stars will have errors but little larger than made in observations 
of stars at the time of elongation. 

For accurate work observations should be made on stars at 
both elongations, to eliminate the effect of errors of declinations. 

When observations are made on circumpolar stars near 
elongation, the latitude of the place should be known within less 
than 05".0, otherwise the errors of computed azimuth due to 
this cause may be greater than those due to observation. 

The instrument used for azimuth determinations is commonly 
the ordinary repeating theodolite, though the non-repeating 
theodolite, reading with micrometers is far preferable, both for 
accuracy and for the ease and rapidity with which it can be 



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4 a THE QUARTERLY. 

manipulated. The errors of azimuth observations are both acci- 
dental and instrumental, the former being due to atmospheric 
disturbances and errors in reading and may be eliminated 
by arranging the observations so that the algebraic sum of 
the corrections for the final result shall be equal to zero. 

The greatest error in azimuth determinations is due to lack 
of precision in determining the inclination of the rotation axis 
Another error, which is of considerable importance in astro- 
nomical observations, is due to the heating of the wyes by the 
lamp which illuminates the cross hairs, and this may be elimin- 
ated by placing the lamp on an independent support, a foot or 
so from the instrument with heat screens between. 

In a series of azimuth observations, the instrument may be 
placed in the meridian in a similar manner to that previously de- 
scribed for the field transit; the chronometer errors may best 
be determined by reading the horizontal circle for position of 
telescope when the time observations are made, and referring it 
to the direction of the azimuth signal, and by adding the angle 
thus obtained to the azimuth of, the signal deduced from the 
observation of circumpolar stars, the azimuth constant for time 
observations may be determined. 

The mean chronometer error obtained from transits of 10 
stars will give sufficiently accurate results. 

It is best to commence a series of observations about 25 
minutes before elongation of the star, by making readings to the 
azimuth signal and then turning the instrument in azimuth until 
the telescope is in the plane of the star and clamping it Bisect 
the star by the collimated hair and note the exact time of bisection 
by the chronometer, then read quickly the micrometer and strid- 
ing level, reverse the level on the pivots and make another bi- 
section of the star in a similar manner, reading micrometer and 
striding level, then take another reading on the azimuth signal 
and the set will be complete; reverse the telescope and make 
the next set in the same manner.* 

Triangulation Reconnoisance. 
The location of stations for triangulation requires a consider- 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 43 

able amount of experience, and is one of the most practical and 
imuurijw* iwanches of geodetic work. 

The topographer most he iamiliar with the principal features 
of the country to be triangulated and mast determine the 
heights of the various hills in order to be able to ascertain 
whether or no the stations will be made intervisible by the erec- 
tion of high observation stations, and how tall they must be 
made." 

The most important object of the reconnoisance is to choose 
triangulation stations, so located as to give the best shaped tri- 
angles, and to combine them in closed figures of quadrilaterals, 
pentagons, etc., and so that if possible, none of the angles in any 
of the triangles shall be less than 25 . A closed triangle is one 
in which all of the angles have been read so that they may be 
added together in order to determine if the sum of the three 
angles of the triangles is equal to 180 , and a closed quadrilateral 
or other figure is one in which all of the sides and diagonals 
have been sighted. 

The lines of sight may be sufficiently clear to enable the to- 
pographer to determine, if any, the directions of the lines which 
need clearing, and the most narrow lines possible should be cut, 
in this way saving money, both on labor and in damage to 
property. 

When three of the stations of a quadrilateral are, or can be 
made intervisible, and the other is invisible in one direction, 
the angle to be laid off at the latter station, in order to determine 
the direction of the invisible station, may be computed, and thus 
give the direction in which to cut the line of sight. 

It is sometimes necessary, in order to see over intervening 
obstacles, to build signal stations as high even as IOO ft, these 
are best built in two parts, the inner being a tripod of heavy 
timber for supporting the theodolite, and the outer built similarly 
to the inner, but independent of it for supporting a platform on 
which the observers stand.* 

Methods of Measuring Angles. 

In measuring angles the observations should be made with 
as much rapidity as possible, in order that each set may be con- 

•Stt L". S. Caul Survey report of 1881, App. No. a. 



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44 THE QUARTERLY. 

eluded before any of the points are obscured by the sudden ap- 
pearance of haze, cloud?, etc., and that they may also be meas- 
ured under the same conditions of temperature, and wind as 
nearly as possible. The errors depend chiefly upon the pre- 
cision of the theodolite and the atmospheric disturbances alongthe 
line of sight, which latter may be eliminated by making various 
sets of observations under as many different circumstances as 
possible; and upon accuracy of pointing which can best be ob- 
tained by having the smallest signal observable at the distance 
sighted, or better by the use of a heliotrope. 

Though the opinion is prevalent that the accuracy of the 
work depends on the use of large theodolites, this is probably 
not true, for, if the instrument is sufficiently heavy to be stable, 
little can be gained when the probable error of the mean micro- 
meter reading (in the use of non-repeating theodolites) is less 
than the probable error of a bisection with the telescope,* 

With ordinary atmospheric disturbances the probable error 
of a micrometer reading on a io-in. circle is only o".2, while the 
probable error of a bisection of the signal is about o".4. Many 
comparisons show that a 10-inch theodolite will give as good re- 
sults as an instrument of three times the diameter. 

A common method of reading angles is to repeat between 
two stations, making about 16 repetitions, but the best method 
is probably that of circle readings, which consists in reading 
consecutively on each station, and closing the set by sighting to 
the initial station, and then reading similarly around in the op- 
posite direction; the object of this being to eliminate any error 
produced by the twist in the observing station, caused by ex- 
pansion, owing to the heat of the sun, and then repeating this 
order until about 12 such sets have been read, 

It is frequently advisable to make circle readings in sets of 
two or three, that is, skipping one or two intermediate stations, 
which enables the observer to read on the stations which at that 
time are most distinct, so that the set shall not be broken by 
missing some stations which at the moments are invisible.* 

Should the instrument for any reason not be placed over the 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 45. 

signal, but eccentric to it, a set of repeated angles should be 
taken from its eccentric position between some well-defined 
triangulation station and the signal on the station occupied, and 
the distance from the centre of the signal to the centre of the 
instrument accurately measured ; this will enable the observer 
when in the office, to reduce the angles read to the true centre 
or station.* 

Topographical Field Work. 

Topographical surveying diners very much in the various 
methods of its prosecution, according to the scale upon which 
the maps are to be drawn, and the nature of the country in 
which the work is conducted. 

Extensive topographical surveys, such as those made by the 
Hayden Survey, or the present U. S. Geological Survey and 
the State Surveys, the maps of which are published on a scale 
varying from 1 to 8 miles to the inch, with hachures or else con- 
tours with from 50 ft. to 200 ft. vertical interval, are, according to 
circumstances, conducted on two general plans, which may be 
defined as "With the use of the Plane Table" as in open or 
rocky country, affording good topographic points from which to 
sketch, and "Without the Plane Table" as in heavily wooded 
country, or where there are many erratic gullies and "hogs, 
backs," making the sketching of contours from a given point 
more difficult. 

It is usually advisable to make the sketches in the field, be 
they plane-table or note-book work, to a scale of about twice 
the size which the finished office maps call for; thus for work to 
be published to 4 miles to the inch and 200 ft. contours as in the 
U. S. Geological Survey, the field work should be done with 100- 
ft, contours and at 2 miles to the inch. The object is that much 
more detailed maps are thus obtained with the same amount of 
labor. 

With the Plane Table. 

The topographer's outfit consists of a small gradienter or 
mountain transit, with a vertical sector and a horizontal circle, 
each reading to minutes, a plane table, with, for convenience, a 
tripod and head made common to both instruments, a sight or 



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46 - THE QUARTERLY. 

a telescopic alidade, field glasses, aneroid and mercurial baro- 
meters, prismatic compass, scale and protractor. 

Before. commencing work the topographer should have at least 
two points, as the ends of the base line, or intervisible triangulation 
points, plotted accurately to scale on his plane table sheets, and 
then he is ready for work; should he not be able to plot any 
points, owing to no previous triangulation having been made, 
he may plot two (and only two) points on his paper, to scale, 
assuming the distance between the points, and when later the 
real length of the assumed base is determined, he may reduce 
and replot the whole to the scale of that base. 

Upon arriving at a station, the assistant must hang his baro- 
meter in a shady place and make hourly readings and records 
of the barometer, psychrometer, aneroid, etc. It is advisable to 
let the barometer settle for some minutes after arriving at a 
station and before reading it. 

The topographer proceeds to orient his plane table from the 
plotted points, preferably occupying one of them, though he 
may occupy a point not located on his paper, orienting by the 
three point problem,* though in this case he must not forget to 
eventually locate the point thus occupied by intersection angles 
with the transit from some well located points. 

Having oriented the plane table, lines are drawn to every 
noticeable point or object, as a mountain peak, cliff-edge, fork 
of a river, edge of a lake, church steeple, etc., always choosing 
some easily distinguishable point, which is sufficiently small to be 
used as an object for triangulation with a telescopic instrument. 

Of the various methods of designating the stations, it is prob- 
ably best to name the primary triangulation points, and since 
they are usually high mountains, they will probably already 
have local names, and, if not, they should be given names which 
will aid in their easy recognition at any future date, such as the 
name of the man on whose property the point is situated, or 
from some topographical, geological or other characteristic in 
the appearance or structure of the mountain. 

The secondary points are best numbered in Roman charac- 
ters, and the intersection points should be numbered in Arabic 
characters, and should retain the number given them at the first 
point from which they were sighted. 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 47 

From the first station occupied, the points may be numbered 
successively from r upwards, so that if from Sta. X. you sighted 
a point the successive number of which became 65, and you 
next saw it from Sta. XII., the number of this sight being 83, 
you may call the sight 83-65, and should it eventually be occu- 
pied as a station, it would be called for instance Sta. XIX.-65. 
This is the method employed by the writer. 

Another method is to remember only the new sights taken 
from any station, retaining always the old designation for any 
point previously numbered. Thus X.65. when seen from Sta. 
XII. would be simply X.65. and Sta. XIX-X.65, while the new 
sights from Sta. XII. would be XII.83. XII.84., etc. 

It will probably be found convenient to letter resection or 
three-point stations, calling them Sta. A., etc., in order that in 
looking over the note book, it will at once be seen which points 
are resection points, which it will be necessary to be careful to 
get intersections on from well located stations. 

Fi 3 .i 



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4 


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4 8 



THE QUARTERLY, 



To return to the plane table, the lines which are drawn from 
the point occupied are numbered, and to avoid a confusion of 
lines are best merely indicated on the edges of the plane table 
sheet, (see Fig. i .), and are recorded in the note book as shown in 
the accompanying illustration, while a detailed sketch of the 
point is made opposite to it in the note book, to aid in its future 
recognitions, and it is likewise indicated in the general profile 
and drainage sketch made in the sketch book, which shows its 
surroundings and its relative position with reference to other 
points. 

If in Fig. i. Lime-top is first occupied, and lines numbered 

13, 14, 15, 16, etc., are drawn to those points, and then Forked 
Pk. top is occupied, and the same points sighted, the numbers 
of these sights being respectively 23, 26, 30 and 28, the points 
themselves will be indicated on the map by the first numbers as 

14, 15, etc., and in the note book at Sta. Forked Pk. as 23-13 
26-14, etc., while as shown in Fig. 2, 13 and 14 are eventually 
occupied, their station numbers become II- 1 3. and III- 14.. 

Ti,,. 




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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 49 

Having now a number of points located on the sheet, one 
has the means of judging of relative distances, and may begin to 
sketch the topography, sketching from any occupied station about 
half way to the surrounding stations, beginning by indicating 
the drainage lines, and then sketching in the topography either 
by hachures, broken conventional contours, or full arbitrary con- 
tours without necessarily indicating the elevations upon the 
latter, merely making them the required distance apart in verti- 
cal interval, having as a basis of judging of heights, the aneroid 
elevations of the valley below, and of the top of the peak occu- 
pied. See illustrations of these operations, Fig. 4. 



Fi,.i. 



From Fig. 3 will be seen the method of sketching drainage 
and contours after a few points have been occupied and some 
intersection points located. 



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5 o THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

Horizontal and vertical angles are next taken to every point 
sighted, whether occupied or not so that in the office the eleva- 
tions of all the points, may be determined by means of the dis- 
tances and angles of elevation or depression. It is advisable, 
while in the field, to sum up the angles of each triangle as soon 
as it is closed, in order that no mistake shall be made by leav- 
ing any triangle unclosed, or in case the angles do not sum up to 
sufficiently near l8o°, some of the points may be reoccupied in 
order to correct the error, as it will be found of the greatest im- 
portance when the topographer begins to plot in the office, to 
have all of his triangles closed, a point which novices do not 
generally appreciate. 




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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 51 

mi No. Description and Sketch. Hot. Ass. Vert. An S- 



:h I Rounded hill, Keep and bold on North 

■ r f Hide, brown lock. South tide woody 

and gently iloping . 



rs\ 



I B 300 jo 



There should be established a permanent base barometer 
station, the elevation of which must be accurately ascertained by 
means of a line of levels run to it from some known bench-mark, 
and at this station a barometer, thermometer, etc., are kept and 
hourly readings taken each day. This barometer, as it is not dis- 
turbed by transportation, should be taken as the standard, and 
the other barometers compared with it, at convenient intervals, 
and their index errors determined and recorded. 

Barometer Note Book. 




In the above class of topographical work, carried on in a 
favorable mountainous country, such as we have in the west, 
where long distances can be easily seen, and the hills are mostly 
bald and are favorably situated for a good triangulation scheme, 
fair average work would be to map about 1,000 sq. miles per 
month, occupying from 10 tc 15 stations, or one station to 75 or 
100 sq. miles. Thus sketching about 5 miles in each direction 
from a station with the addition of many intermediate inter- 
section points; under exceptionally favorable conditions, about 
10,000 sq. miles have been mapped in 5 months with about 1 15 
stations occupied, which is less than 90 miles to the station. This 
is sufficiently detailed when published, as are the Geological 



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5a THE QUARTERLY. 

Survey maps, at a scale of 4 miles to the inch and 200 ft. contour 
interval. 

Without the use of the Plane Table. 

The topographical and drainage sketches in this work are 
made in a note book, which may be held in the hand horizon- 
tally and used somewhat as a rude plane table, distances being 
estimated and plotted to scale, and the relative directions of the 
points determined by sighting along the page. The contouring 
and other operations, as barometer and transit work, are similar 
to those already described for the plane table. In this manner 
of using the sketch book, one soon becomes able to estimate 
distances with remarkable accuracy, and to make sketches nearly 
as valuable as those made with the plane table, since the dis- 
tances and locations are finally corrected by the triangulation, 
the chief objection to the method being, that even with the great- 
est skill one is apt to find when plotting in the office, that the 
sketches have not been quite full enough, and that they do not 
exactly fit together, leaving occasional blank patches here and 
there, which were thought to have been sketched from other 
stations. 

In case of much timber and other obstacles in the way of 
sketching, it is advisable o run numerous meanders or traverses 
over all the wagon roads. These must not be disconnected but 
continuous, and frequently tied to the triangulation by locating 
some point on the road by triangulating to it from the stations, 
or by locating positions on the road by means of the three point 
problem. 

In these meanders the distances may be measured by an 
odometer attached to a light wagon, and the angles read by a 
prismatic compass, recording fore and back sights, while the 
elevations are read at each station by an aneroid barometer, 
which should be compared with a cistern barometer in camp 
each night, and considerable angles of elevation or depression in 
the road should be read in order that the odometer measure- 
ments may be reduced to the horizontal, a small transit or a sex- 
tant being carried for this purpose and for locating position by 
the three point method, or inclinations may be measured by a 
pocket clinometer. 

In such work as the above in a mountainous and wooded 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING 53 

country, where the drainage may be intricate and the hills broken 
into numerous cross spurs and hogs backs, with a topographical 
party running one or two sub- parties with odometers, good work 
would be done in mapping 600 sq. miles a month, at the rate of 
about 30 miles per station, since on account of the timber, not 
many miles can be seen per station, and as such countries are 
usually very moist, not so many working days can be had on 
account of the rain, still as many as 5,000 sq. miles have been 
mapped in 5 months in the Appalachian mountains by the Geo- 
logical Survey, at a field scale of 2 miles to the inch, and 200 ft. 
vertical contour interval. 

Detailed Maps. 

Work in a more detailed manner as to a scale of 1,000 ft. to 
the inch and with 20 ft. vertical contour interval, must be con- 
ducted very differently. 

The plane table may be worked independently of the transit 
instrument, better and more stable instruments being used, 
greater care taken with the intersections, orientation, etc., and 
this work must be kept straight by having a more extensive ter- 
tiary system of triangulation, with stations at intervals of from t 
to 2 miles. In this case the plane table maps are made as final 
maps in the field. The elevations are obtained by means of ver- 
tical angles between the triangulation points, to which occasional 
lines of check levels are run; and of the plane table and inter- 
section points by means of the Locke or the water tube level; 
distances may be measured and side topography sketched by 
two or three assistants with telemeter rods, who will place 
them at various points and also sketch the topography adjacent 
to their positions, the distance being measured on the telemeter 
rods by cross hairs in the telescopic alidade, used by the chief 
topographer. 

In a very woody country, topography may be advantageously 
mapped to a scale not coarser than y& mile to the inch, by 
means of cross sectioning the country by meander lines run by 
transit instrument and telemeter rod, checking occasionally on 
triangulation points, previously located. Such a party would 
consist of an assistant who would choose the fore sights and hold 
the telemeter rod, and an instrument bearer. The topographer 
would read distances and deflection angles, taking back sights 



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54 THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

on a stick with a piece of paper on it, left at the last point, and 
vertical angles at any considerable change in slope, also reading 
the aneroid at each change in elevation, whether at a station or 
otherwise; and the instrument bearer carries the transit ahead 
and sets it up, while the topographer remains behind to sketch, 
erect a back flag, etc. Additions can advantageously be made to 
such a party in the employment of a couple of assistants, who 
may with telemeters occupy positions on either side of the lines 
and sketch adjacent topography as before described. 

In such a survey, without the two assistants last mentioned, 
the writer has made in open gently- rolling country, when tri- 
angulation would be difficult because of lack of points, as much 
as 15 linear miles a day with 50 settings of the instrument and 
sketched some hundreds of feet to either side of the line, while 
in the worst conceivable woody country, with short sights, 5 
miles a day with 75 stations were made. 

Office Work. 

The computations and reductions in the office will necessarily 
be performed in somewhat the same order as the field work, and 
will begin with the reduction of the length of the base measur- 
ing bars to the length of the standard bar, with which they 
must be compared, and then making the corrections for temper- 
ature, and inclination of the bars and finally the whole length of 
the base must be reduced to sea level, that is, the length of the 
chord between two radii from the earth's centre at a given eleva- 
tion above the sea level, must be reduced to the corresponding 
chord between the same radii, at the level of the sea. 

The office work of the primary triangulation involves the 
onsideration of the curvature and figure of the earth, and the 
reduction of the spherical angles measured to plane angles. 
First, the average of all the angles read between any two stations 
is taken, and Pierce's criterion is applied" to determine whether 
any doubtful observations are to be eliminated; then, if for any 
reason, the angles were read from a position eccentric to the true 
signal station, they have to be reduced to centre, 1, e., find what 
would have been the value of the respective angles, if the instru- 
ment had been placed at the station.t 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 55 

Next the sum of the mean reduced angles read at any station, 
to all the surrounding points, and approximately corrected for 
spherical excess is obtained, and, if it is not equal to 360 (which 
is rarely ever the result, as owing to errors in pointing, twist in 
tripod or observation station from expansion, etc., the angles are 
always a trifle out), a station adjustment has to be made, the 
object of which is to make the sum equal to 360 . This may be 
done by the method of probable errors,* and by giving weights 
to the various observations according to the known conditions 
of sighting and whether the observer thinks that certain sights 
are liable to be less accurate than others ; or more accurately, 
the station adjustment may be made by the method of Least 
Squares, t 

Finally, the Adjustment of Figure is made, the object of 
which is to make the sum of the angles of any triangle equal to 
180 . In this a closed figure as a quadrilateral or hexagon is 
taken and all of the triangles in it are adjusted in such a manner 
as to make the sum of the angles in each equal to 180 , or the 
centre angles in the hexagon equal to 360 , or a series of figures 
may be adjusted at once. This adjustment may also be roughly 
made by the method of probable errors, or better by means of 
Least Squares. 

Having now the triangulation all adjusted, the next operation 
consists in the computation of the length of sides, and beginning 
with a triangle, the length of one side of which is already known, 
as the base line, or a previously determined side, and taking the 
spherical angles, he corrects them for spherical excess and thus 
obtains the plane angles,} he proceeds by the formula, given two 
angles and the included side, to obtain the remaining sides, % and 
so on through the whole system of triangulation. Having now 
the distances between the various stations, the fourth and last 
operation is to be performed, which consists in computing the 
Geodetic coordinates, i. **., the Latitude, Longitude and Azimuth 
of each station. These are usually, for the conveinence of having 
a check, computed in pairs, that is, from each end of a given 



Prof cniond Pap 
Report of 1875. app. Eg. 



•SkLw'i 


T* 


jlamdU. 


S. C. ■: 


id G. S. Report of iSSa 


tScc Chain 
Copt, No. 11. 


«. 


lt*i Atltoo, 


>wy,Vul 


.1; Clark 


*°"**" 


tSttU.S. 


c. 


andG. S. 


Report 


of 1 Baa, ' 





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56 THE QUARTERLY. 

line at once, and consists in taking any triangle, and knowing 
the three angles and sides, and the geodetic coordinates of one 
station and an adjacent side. Thus knowing Sta. !., and wishing 
to go to Sta. 2, by adding or subtracting the spherical angle at 
l from the azimuth of the known side i, 3, the azimuth of 1, 2, 
will be obtained, and then by means of long formulae, the differ- 
ences plus or minus of the latitudes and longitudes of 1, and 2, 
are obtained, and thus the coordinates of 2, are found*. 

Having now the latitude, longitude and azimuth of each pointi 
these are plotted by means of the polyconic projection, t In this 
projection the parallels and meridians are plotted, with reference 
to a given central meridian and parallel, and to any required scale- 
at intervals of 5', 20', i°, etc., and the points laid off from these 
to scale by means of coordinates of latitude and longitude, and 
checked by measuring the distance between them. 

The secondary triangulation may be roughly adjusted by 
means of Weights, and as the triangles are usually small, the 
spherical excess will be inconsiderable; the sides may be com- 
puted as for the primary, and the points plotted on the map 
from the primary points as a base, by means of angles and dis- 
tances, using a vernier protractor and scale. 

The intermediate points may be plotted by angles and inter- 
sections only. Then measuring the lengths of the various sides, 
and knowing the elevations of the primary and secondary points, 
from the barometer work, the elevations of the intermediate points 
may be computed trigono metrically from the distances and ver- 
tical angles. The elevations of the occupied stations are obtained 
from the barometer readings at those stations. This is done by 
determining the index error of the field barometer, taking the 
base barometer as a standard, then reducing the readings of 
both barometers to 32 F., and finally by means of one of the 
usual barometric formula;, finding the difference in height be- 
tween the known and the new station, and adding it algebraically 
to the height of the known station above the sea, thus giving the 
elevation of the new station. % 

•See Lee'*T»ble», pp. 04, il» IT. S. C. and G. S. Report for 1875, npp. in. 

tSee I*e'» Table, and U. S. C. and O. S. Report for 18S0. 

]Sh Lee'. Table* [or William ion' » Hypsometric formula: ud libltj, or Cujrot'l Ubla and 



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GEODETIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING. 57 

Another and theoretically better method of determining 
elevations by means of the barometer, is that of G. K. Gilbert,' 
which consists in using two base stations, one as low as the low- 
est work and the other as high as the highest points, and from 
the barometric gradient or mean pressure of the column of air 
between the two, computing the difference in elevation between 
the new station and one of the base stations. 

The traversers or meanders are to be plotted separately by 
angles and distances, plotting on them the positions of the tri- 
angulation points as located by the traverse itself, and then the 
meander may be fitted to the map by taking the true computed 
geodetic positions of these triangulation points, and dividing the 
plotted trails into squares by cross lines of two minutes or so 
(of arc.) from the triangulation points plotted by the trail, and 
taking each of these squares and fitting it to the true plot of the 
triangulation points on the polyconic projection. With odometer 
work the traits may be plotted to a scale of so many revolutions 
to the inch, and then reduced by pantograph. 

It now remains to sketch in the topography, and having the 
locations and elevations of various points, and the drainage and 
roads sketched on, the contours may be sketched in, copying the 
plane table sheets or sketch book work, by adjusting the indi- 
cated contour of the country to the prescribed bounds and ele- 
vations. 

In the case of topography obtained by means of traverses 
run by transit and telemeter or otherwise, it may be found most 
rapid and accurate to plot the lines run by means of calculated 
latitudes and departures, as described in Gillespie's Land Sur- 
veying. 



NATIVE SILVER ORES AND THEIR TREATMENT 
AT BATOPILAS. 

BY T. H. LEGGETT. 

Nature has not favored mother earth with many large de- 
posits of native silver, though more kind toward the New World 
than the Old in her disposition of the few. 

•See U. S. Geol, Survey Report for iSSi. 



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58 THE QUARTERLY. 

On this continent are the two well-known districts of Silver 
Islet, Lake Superior, and Batopilas in south-western Chihuahua, 
where silver occurs in masses in its native state, and is mined as 
an ore; while on the eastern continent exists the old and famous 
district of Kongsberg in Norway. 

Native silver occurs most frequently as an accessory product 
in many silver mines, as in the Comstock lode of Nevada, in 
Peru, in the Copiapo district of Chili, at the Silver King Mine, 
Pinal, Arizona, and in many other regions; but only in the first- 
mentioned districts does it constitute the essential ore exploited 
for and mined ; only in these districts does the native silver form 
rich pockets or "bonanzas" in the vein, with which may be as- 
sociated a small percentage of base ores, and between which 
bonanzas the vein may or may not hold sufficient low grade 
base ores to admit of concentration. 

The Kongsberg mines naturally lead the others in point of 
age, having been worked more or less constantly since the year 
1624,' while the most authentic records of Batopilas show that 
the first discovery made there was that of the Pastrana mine, in 
the early part of the eighteenth century.' 

The discovery of Silver Islet occurred as recently as July, 1 868, 
but great developments of the property have taken place in these 
comparatively few years, sufficient to show many points of sim- 
ilarity to its older brothers, in formation and character of deposit, 
class of ore, of country rock and gangue, and a common history 
with them of alternating extremes of richness and poverty. 

Together with the native silver, which constitutes the greater 
part of the entire product of these districts, occur associated ar- 
gentite, proustite, pyragyrite, stephanite, cerargyrite, galena, 
sphalerite and iron pyrites. These are common to all three dis- 
tricts, but Silver Islet is distinguished by the associated nickel 
and cobalt minerals, and by the new minerals Macfarlanite and 
Huntilite. 

The character of these latter does not seem to be fully de- 
termined, as to whether they are definite minerals or a " partial 
separation of the different minerals from the surrounding mass 
of sulphurets and other combinations." 3 

1 Ptretft Metallurgy of Sold ami SUcer. Part i, p«ge 5^. 

• Effort on Ott Pastrana Miru. J. C. F. Randolph, Qinurrrav. Vol. », No. 3. 

■ Mining and Engineering Journal. Mirth 19th, 1879. 



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NATIVE SILVER ORES. 59 

There are at present no thorough analyses of the native silver 
from any of these three districts. 

The Kongsberg silver is said to invariably contain mercury, 
at times amounting to as much as 2%, while O.J% of antimony 
has been found in one specimen, 1 but the silver from all these 
localities seldom contains any or more than a mere trace of gold. 

Mercury, found by Mr. Courtis to exist in some Silver Islet 
ores, was only noticed when sulphurets of silver accompanied 
the specimen tested, a piece of white wire silver giving no mer- 
cury; his conclusion being that arquerite is more or less intimat- 
ely mixed with the sulphurets and furnishes the mercury. 8 

To the writer's knowledge, no blowpipe or other analysis has 
ever been made of the Eatopilas silver, which in some mines, as 
the Camuchin, is found very pure, and in others is associated 
with considerable silver and base metal sulphurets. 

The silver itself is discolored and apparently contains ap- 
preciable amounts of arsenic, giving forth the characteristic odor 
when masses, too large to go into the batteries, are being broken 
up under a sledge.' 

There is little doubt, however, that in both Silver Islet and 
Batopilas, the white wire and sheet silver itself, disengaged from 
all sulphurets, contains but a trace, if any, of foreign metals. 

A certain association of native silver with a wall rock of dio- 
rite, or other greenstone, and a gangue of calcite and quartz, 
seems to be quite remarkably maintained throughout all three 
of these widely separate localities. 

Of Kongsberg, Percy says: "The lodes traverse the crystal- 
line schists and from the researches of Kjerulf and Dahll appear 
to be intimately connected with the intrusion of the eruptive 
Gabhro, which has broken through and disturbed these rocks." 

At Silver Islet an eruption of trap dykes has also taken place, 
corsyte, anorthite and diorite dykes having broken through the 
argillites and sandstones of the district, and it is only within the 
limits of the diorite dyke, which has a width of 200 feet at the 
Islet, that the vein has been found profitable. 

Diorite and greenstones in the compact or aphanitic state 
form the prevailing "panino," or country rock, at Batopilas, as- 
sociated with syenites, syenite granites, and similar plutonic 

■ Prrsy't Metallurgy qf Bold and Silver. Put t, page jo;. 

■ Engineering and Mining Journal. Much 39th, 1879. 



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6o THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

rcfcks, composing the foot hills of the Batopilas valley, and lying 
beneath the porphyries and volcanic rocks of the Sierra Madre. 

The gangue of the silver ores of Kongsberg is principally 
calcite and quartz, with occasional zeolites, barite and steatite. 

That accompanying the Silver Islet ores is also chiefly calcite 
and quartz, some dolomite and occasional gypsum and rhodo- 
crosite. 

At Batopilas the gangue consists of calcite and vein rock, 
the latter a more or less metamorphosed condition of the wall- 
rock, which, as just stated, is usually a greenstone. 

The deposits in all these districts occur in well-defined true 
fissure veins, that have been worked at Kongsberg to a depth 
of i ,800 feet, at Silver Islet for about t ,000 feet vertically, while 
the deepest mine at Batopilas is not over 800 to 900 feet from 
the surface. 

From the very nature of the deposit, the occurrence of the 
silver in chutes forming bonanzas, a long continued season of 
prosperity, or even an average continuous output, would seem 
impossible. 

On this continent efforts have been made to insure the latter, 
by the concentration on vanners, invented by Mr. W. B. Frue, 
at Silver Islet, of the low grade ores, chiefly zinc blende and 
galena, that occur more or less evenly distributed throughout 
the veins. 

A detailed description of the treatment of the Silver Islet 
ores will be found in the Transactions of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, vol. 8, at page 226, and of those of the 
Kongsberg region in Percy's Metallurgy of Gold and Silver, 
Part I, page 504. 

Here we purpose to confine our attention to the methods 
followed at Batopilas, and in this connection a word may be said 
as to the modes of mining employed there. 

The entire district is opened up exclusively by tunnels. 

Not only is the ground very favorable for these in most 
cases, but they have other advantages in that they do away with 
expensive hoisting machinery and the skilled labor necessary to 
run it, and moreover open up the mine beneath and away from 
the old Mexican workings at the surface. These old workings 
are usually in such a dispillared and impoverished state, by 



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NATIVE SILVER ORES. 6t 

reason of the "gouging" methods of mining employed, and be- 
cause of the " gambucinos," who make their living off what they 
can scrape out of abandoned mines, that they have to be left 
severely alone, and only utilized, perhaps, by making connec- 
tions for ventilation where practicable. 

The "gouging" methods of mining just referred to cannot 
be altogether discarded in this district, even by Americans. 

That is to say, rich silver must be followed and searched for, 
too, where only suspected, and this necessitates more or less ir- 
regular workings. 

Proper regard to the maintenance of the mine, its ventilation, 
etc., does away with the objectionable features of the method, 
however. 

Sloping can only be followed, of course, where there is suffi- 
cient low grade ore to so warrant its extraction. 

Double hand-drilling is employed, the miners being paid at 
so much per drill hole, according to the hardness of the rock, 
and making usually from $1.50 to $2.00 per day, in Mexican 
currency. 1 

A "poblador," or foreman, at $2.50 to $3.00 per day, points 
the holes for the miners and directs the work inside the mine. 

Peones, paid 75 cents to $1.00 a day, handle the rock, shove 
the cars, etc., windlasses being used wherever possible, and the 
" surrones," or ore- bags of the peones, done away with as far as 
practicable. 

As the veins average 4 to 6 feet in width with good walls, 
timbering by means of stalls is all that is required, the usual 
mills, or ore-chutes, three feet square, being built in the stopes. 
Timbermen, also Mexicans, make $2.00 to $3. 00 per day. 

The simplest kind of wooden ore-cars of a capacity of three- 
quarters of a ton are used, running on a track of 18-inch gauge, 
the rails weighing I2j4 pounds to the yard. 

All entrances to the mines are closed with iron-barred gates, 
and a man is stationed at the tunnel-mouth to search every work- 
man as he leaves the mine, for silver, which he is very skilful in 
hiding. 

The ores produced are classified as follows : 
1st Class. — In which native silver is plainly visible, often in wire 



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6z THE QUARTERLY. 

and massive form, associated at times with rich silver 
sulphurets, and assaying anywhere from 500 to to, 
000 ounces Ag. per ton. 
DcspunteK — Arising from the hand-cleaning of the I st class ore, 
and forming a medium grade between 1st and 2nd 
class. 
2nd Class. — Assays from 40 to 300 oz. per ton, and may or may 

not show native silver in small specks or flakes. 
3rd Class, — Stamp rock, consisting of galena and zinc blende, 
distributed through spar and vein rock, and minute 
particles of native silver only visible on the vanner 
belt. This assays between 12 and 25 ounces per ton. 
" Tierras, " or soft vein filling, or gouge, in the 
regions adjacent to a bonanza, also often form a 3rd 
class ore. 
The small mill for the treatment of the 1st and 2nd class ores 
and despuntes consists of 15 450-pound hand-fed stamps, 4 
pans, 2 settlers and s clean-up pan ; the motive power for which 
is furnished by two 20-inch Leffel turbines under 12 feet of head, 
the water being taken from the Batopilas river through 35x4 
ft. ditch, three-quarters of a mile in length. 

The three batteries running at the rate of 85 7-inch drops 
per minute, can crush but 600 pounds per hour, or 7.2 tons per 
day, of average 1st class ore, on account of the resistance offered 
by the native silver. 

Taking, for example, a lot of 3,694^ pounds of 1st class ore 
from the Roncesvalles mine, it took 6% hours to run it through 
the batteries, Including time of clean up. This produced as 
follows : 

61 # pounds of " Cabazuelas," or massive silver, weighing from 
an ounce to 5 pounds, a portion being sifted out 
from the battery cleanings, but the larger part com- 
ing into the "azogueria," or retort room, in the 
shape of 10 to 20-pound pieces and there ham- 
mered under a 12-pound sledge to rid them of 
rock, and then broken into 5 -pound pieces, so as 
to enter the crucibles readily. 
373 pounds of sieved battery cleanings, assaying 19,274 ounces 
silver per ton and consisting of silver from sand to 



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NATIVE SILVER ORES. 



63 



pea size, with a greater or less percentage of 
gangue in the shape of sand. 

This material is scraped out from around the 
dies after each lot of 1st or 2nd class ore is run 
through the batteries. 
3260 pounds of slimes, assaying 659 ounces silver per ton, and 
divided into 4 pan charges, to which the battery 
cleanings were added, as shown in the following 
page from the Pan-Book. 



Pah 

No 


ORE. 

RonowmL- 


Class 


Lb*. 


MERCURY. 
Lbs. 


£ 
f 


Whin C 




Wmh Ri-NOrr 


RlMABKX. 


■ 


«9+«°W4-73 


Fob. r. 


,'« 


J«n. =3. 


B« 


,3 hours in 




mgiof 


>«J 


+7«!i+3H-S' 
TouJ 377 














6 .Ronccm-nl- 1 

• ™. . 900 | Tot ^_l«_ ll8 

l™. 1 Ul. 900 1 7I+J-J+H 

££. rf I I "" Tm.I +M 


n 


- | ;•- 




s 


19 hour, in 

ji hours in 
pan. 


S !Ron«*™l- i p.K. 
1 ks. 1 .St. \ 560 74 35 | " "3° 


" 


rs. 


i4£ boar. 



The salt was charged with the ore, and steam was turned on 
at various times as the pulp thickened and cooled. 

The mercury was added at intervals, as the spoon tests showed 
the necessity for it That in pan No. 7 was known to be insuf- 
ficient, but the amount of mercury on' hand being very low, an 
emergency difficult to provide against always in these remote 
localities, the pan had to be run off. The unamalgamated silver, 
being the heavy battery cleanings, was all caught in the wash- 
up pan and re-charged. 

This practice of adding battery cleanings to the pan charges 
is most reprehensible and should be discontinued, the lead bath 
of the cupellation furnace being the proper place for them. 

It is difficult to know just how much mercury to charge, as 
an assay of such rich stuff can only be a poor kind of an approx- 
imation, but most of all a pan is not made to grind metallic silver 
and gangue of coarse sand, the consequence is the charges must 
stay a great while in the pan, and the amount of iron ground of) 



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64 THE QUARTERLY. 

and taken up in the amalgam is very large, greatly lowering the 
fineness of the silver, while at the same time wearing out the pan. 
The pans are 4^ feet in diameter, hold a 1,000 to 1,200 
pound charge, are run at So revolutions per minute, and are 
furnished each with a three-quarter inch steampipe, which runs 
behind and to the lower edge of one of the wings. 

All the features of the amalgamation of 1st class ores are 
made to vary in accordance with the requirements, *'. e., the rich- 
ness of the ore. With the 2nd class ores, however, the treatment 
is more methodical. Despuntes and the richer 2nd class ores are 
generally charged in 1 100-pound lots, with 80 pounds mercury, 
2% per cent, salt and 3 per cent, sulphate of copper. 

The pan is run grinding for 8 hours, at the end of which 
time the mercury is charged by straining through a cloth, the salt 
and sulphate of copper are put in and amalgamation continued 
for 4 hours. The settlers are run 6 hours on these charges, at. 
17 to 20 revolutions per minute, a plug being drawn at the be- 
ginning of the 4th, 5th and 6th hours and a sample taken each 
time. The bottom plug is only taken out when the settler is 
cleaned up. 

The poorer 2nd class ores, assaying 80 ounces per ton, and 
under, are charged with 40 pounds mercury, usually the same 
amounts of salt and sulphate of copper, and the pan is run grind- 
ing for 5 hours, and amalgamates for 3 ; while the settler is run 
for but 4 hours, the first plug being drawn as soon as it is full, 
and the samples taken as usual. 

The settlers are cleaned up into the wash-up pan, the set- 
tlings from which are amalgamated every month, and the pro- 
duct credited to the different mines proportionately to the rich- 
ness of the ore that has been treated from each. 

The amalgam is squeezed and retorted, that from 1st class 
ore usually yielding a third part crude silver. 

The retorts, of which there are four, are of 300 pound capac- 
ity each, and are built in an adobe setting, which lasts extremely 
well. They are lined before charging with a thin, gruel-like 
mixture of water and pan-slimes, against which sifted ashes 
are thrown which stick fast to the wash. This prevents the silver 
from sticking fast to the retort, in the bottom of which the ashes 
should be J^in to J^in thick. 

The balls of amalgam are then put in and the cover luted 



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NATIVE SILVER ORES. 65 

with a mixture of ashes one part and slimes two parts. When 
necessary to keep amalgam from different lots of ore separate, a 
semi -circular piece of sheet iron is covered half an inch thick, 
with the luting mixture, and placed in the retort, thus separating 
the resulting silver. 

The firing must be done lightly for the first hour or two till 
the mercury begins to come over regularly, and again at the end 
the temperature must be lowered in order not to melt or cake 
the silver. 

It takes nine to twelve hours to drive all the mercury out of 
a 300-pound charge. 

In the melting, the usual charge for a No. 40 graphite crucible 
is 56 lbs. crude, or retorted, silver with a handful or so of borax 
glass. 

The " cabazuelas" are here added in quantities of not over 
6 lbs. to the crucible, as they are usually very refractory, and in 
greater amount would delay the melt too much. 

It is impossible to entirely rid the lumps of silver of their 
gangue, which is principally calcite, and often some of the sul- 
phurcts of silver, and of lead and zinc, go with them into the 
crucible, making it necessary to add a little iron filings and 
broken glass. 

The slag is skimmed off, crushed by hand and carefully sieved, 
the silver mechanically contained being melted down in the assay 
office and divided equally among the bars producing it, while the 
slag is charged in the lead shaft furnace. This furnace is run 
only semi-occasionally, when necessary to reduce litharge for 
the cupcllation of the precipitate from the lixiviation works. 

The silver accounts are necessarily somewhat complex. The 
Hacienda of San Miguel treats the ores of the outside companies, 
under the same management, buying them at a tariff rate of so 
much per oz. Now, a knowledge of the value of a lot of first 
or second-class native silver ore, cannot be arrived at by means 
of sampling and assaying, on account of the impossibility of get- 
ting an average sample. Therefore, the only method is to keep 
each lot separate and distinct tili the silver is obtained in the form 
of bars, or as crude silver from the retorts. This entails, of course, 
a great amount of extra work throughout the entire treatment. 
Instead of having regular clean-up days twice a month, for in- 
stance, as in the case of a mill running steadily on a single grade 



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66 THE QUARTERLY. 

of ore, pans and settlers must be thoroughly scraped of all adher- 
ing amalgam, sometimes as often as twice in twenty-four hours. 

The batteries also have to be carefully cleaned of all adhering 
grit, generally very rich in silver, and the amalgam in the retorts 
must often be kept separate as before described. 

When it is found necessary to mix the crude silver from dif- 
ferent lots of ore in order to make up a bar of proper size, assays 
are taken to determine its fineness, and this gives the amount of 
silver that should be recovered in the bar. The loss in melting 
down is then divided proportionately to the fine weights of the 
retorted amalgam, and so each company gets credit for its proper 
share in the bar 

Should " cabazuelas" have been added also, their fineness, 
as determined by many trials, is averaged at 850. 

The tailings of these ores belong, of course, to the Hacienda, 
and they are oftentimes quite rich, it being difficult to obtain all 
the silver in these high grade ores, and also uneconomical to run 
the pans so long on a single charge. Those from the lot of 
Roncesvalles, 1st class described, ran 79 ozs. p. T. 

These are subjected to a chloridizing roasting in two 3-hearth 
reverberatory furnaces, which take a charge of 1 100 lbs. every 
three hours, turning out 4^ tons each per day. 

Five per cent, of salt is added on the last hearth, on which 
the ore lies but 2 % hours, }4 hourbeing allowed for discharging 
and shifting of charges. 

In such remote districts as Batopilas, where machinery has 
to be carried 200 miles on mule-back, and where labor is cheap, 
these "Fortschaufelung-6fen"are undoubtedly the most econom- 
ical roasting furnaces that can be used, 

One foreman at $2.00 per day, and six roasters at $150, 
constitute one shift for the two furnaces. 

The furnaces are 32 feet in length, the hearths being 8 feet 
square, with a 2° step between, and working-doors on one side 
only. These are /"X9" apertures, and at 3' 2" to 3' 6" above the 
floor. 

The roof is 21" high in the centre, and 9" at the sides, and is 
built of adobes over the two hearths furthest from the fire. 

The fire-bridge is 2 ft. thick, and is 9" above the last hearth 
and 22" above the grate, which latter is 1' 6" wide and 5' 3" 
long. The fire-bridge, fire-place, roof over the same, and over 



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NATIVE SILVER ORES. 67 

the last hearth are built or lined with red brick. All the rest of 
the furnace may be built of adobes, with the exception of the 
hearth, the last two of which should be laid in fire-brick, and the 
first in red brick, 

The stacks, 35 to 40 ft. in height and 2 ft. square m section 
of flue, are built also of adobes, but strengthened with tie-rods 
and plastered outside with mortar, and between them and the 
furnace is usually a small dust chamber. 

Adobes, 22"X 1 i"X4j^", cost only $22 per thousand, which 
quantity is equivalent in volume to over 13,000 ordinary red 
brick; so it will be seen how very cheaply such a furnace may be 
built. 

The ore is dropped through a hole 6" square in the last 
hearth, into a chamber below, and here it is allowed to lie for an 
hour or two, as an appreciable amount of chloridization takes 
place in the heated ore when left undisturbed. It is then 
wheeled out from here and dumped into the leaching vats, of 
which there are 8, 10 ft. in diameter and 4 ft. deep. They have 
a capacity of 1 5 tons each, and are provided with false bottoms 
of perforated boards covered with heavy cotton cloth. 

There are 3 precipitation tanks 5'X5^', with small clean-up 
tubs 2 ft. deep beneath each, and a filter vat 3' 2"X2' 10", lined 
with cotton cloth and having a false bottom 5 inches above its 
floor. 

Pump and reservoir tanks, and a polysulphide vat S'X4', in 
which the liquid is boiled by steam admitted through a %" pipe, 
and kept in motion by a stirrer run by a belt above, complete 
the lixiviation plant 

The leaching vats are sunk in the ground to within a couple 
of inches of their tops, as a guard against the drying effect of the 
climate and the shrinkage induced in case of their remaining 
empty any length of time. 

The process diners in no way from the usual one described by 
Kustel, Aaron, Egleston, and others. 

Twenty-four to thirty-six hours are consumed in washing 
each vat of ore of the soluble salts present, and then the leaching 
with hyposulphite of lime goes on for six or eight days. As 
soon as a precipitating tank fills to within about 16" of the top, 
the silver is precipitated, this space being left in order to run in 



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68 THE QUARTERLY. 

more solution in case of getting an excess of polysulphidc of 

lime. 1 

After one or two precipitations have taken place in a tank, 
the precipitate settles quickly after ten or fifteen minutes vigorous 
stirring. It is cleaned out every week, filtered and then masted 
in a one-hearth rcverberatory furnace, also built of adobes. 

After roasting, this precipitate holds from 50 to 75 per cent 
of silver, and usually it is thrown on the lead bath and cupelled. 
It is at times, however, melted down in a No. 30 crucible, with 
iron filings, and borax or glass, and carbonate of soda 

All the 3d class ores, previously described, go to the large mill 
This consisted of 15 750 lb stamps, 6 Frue vanncrs, and 2 pans,, 
and I settler for treating the concentrates from the vanncrs. A 
40 H. P. engine furnishes power for the former, while the pans, 
located in the lower yard are operated by a 10 H. P. engine, 
which also drives a 30" circular saw. 

The past year the power has been doubled and 1 5 stamps 
and 6 vanncrs have been erected alongside of the others, more 
pans and settlers being also put up. 

The stamps make 80 7" drops per minute, and average 2 tons 
of ore per stamp in twenty-four hours. 

The stamps fall in the usual order of 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, the middle 
3 getting a half inch less drop than the end ones to better equal- 
ize the pulp under them. 

The batteries are furnished with No. 40 mesh punched screens, 
and the pulp from them goes directly on to the vanncrs, which 
concentrate the Galena, Blende and fine native silver of these 
ores most admirably. 

The San Miguel low grade ores are brought down from the 
mine in cars at a cost of 62 }4 cents per ton, and over a road a 
little less than a mile in length, extending from the mouth of the 
San Miguel Tunnel to the ore "patio" above the mill. This 
road was built at a cost of over $36,000, arroyos having to 
be bridged over, rocks blasted and retaining walls 30 and 40 feet 
high built. Yet it more than paid for itself within a year after 
its completion. 

The low grade rock is carefully cobbed and sorted by Mexi- 
can " quebradorcs," who pick out the pieces that contain blende 

'Refer to Browning' 1 Gold Chlurinalion in.California Quarterly, Vol. V., page 363. 



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NATIVE SILVER ORES. 69 

and galena, and become very expert in separating from the more 
barren vein filling such portions as contain native silver, though 
none whatever be visible to the naked eye. 

Third class, or concentrating ores from the outlying proper- 
ties, having to be brought down on pack animals, can only be 
made to pay when, as in the case of the "Tierras" from the 
Roncesvalles mine, they have to be extracted in pursuance of the 
necessary work in the mine, so that their cost of mining is prac- 
tically nil. 

The freight on these is 75 cents per "carga" of 300 His. 
{$5 per ton, Mexican currency), and they assay 18 to 20 ozs. 
silver p. T. The tailings from the Frue vanners assay .6 to 1.5 
■ozs. p. T., averaging below 1 oz.; while the headings run from 
350 to 470 ozs. p. T., and of these there are obtained daily from 
2,400 to 3,000 pounds from 6 vanners. 

These are amalgamated in 1,200 lb. charges, the pans grind- 
ing for 7J^ hours and amalgamating for 4, both pans and settlers 
being run for a week before cleaning up, when the heavy slimes, 
usually 500 to 600 lbs., that have accumulated in the latter, are 
recharged in the pans with as much more concentrates. 

The tailings from these assay from 28 to 32 ozs. p. T., and 
■are lixiviated, after mixing with the richer tailings from the 1st 
•and 2nd class ores, previous to roasting. 

The pan tailings from the concentrates of San Miguel 3rd class 
ores, run often double this amount in silver, as the ore carries 
more base metals and less free particles of native silver, while the 
concentrates themselves run 50 to 100 ozs. poorer. The charge 



(With allowance tor moisture, equal to about % ton). 

Mercury 40 lbs. 

C11SO4 . .3 to -5*— 3-5 " 

NaCl 2%i—as " 

It is probable that if, in all the pan charges, the mercury 
were increased, lower tailings would result, but several causes com- 
bine to make it advantageous to use less mercury and extract the 
remaining silver by lixiviation: 1st, mercury is very expensive 
on account of the high cost of transportation from San Francisco; 
2nd, an unusual percentage of loss occurs, due to the amount of 
handling necessary in keeping the various lots of ore separate; 



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7 o THE QUARTERLY. 

3nd, lixiviation is cheaper than amalgamation in such remote dis- 
tricts as Batopilas. 

A word as to the method of getting the silver to the mints 
may not here, perhaps, be inappropriate. 

Two bars, weighing SO lbs. to 60 fts. each, form a load for 
one mule. 

One driver to about every three mules; a foreman, his assist- 
ant, and an American in charge, constitute the force accompany- 
ing each "conducta," and as the mules are kept on a trotwhen- 
ever practicable, usually one half as many more than the requisite 
number are taken to insure quick traveling. 

The Mexican "arrieros" or drivers are armed with single- 
barreled shot-guns, loading at the breech with a buckshot cart- 
ridge, while the man in charge, the foreman and his assistant, 
carry rifles. 

Never less than 30 bars are sent out at a time, and usually 
40 or fifty, while the largest "conducta" yet sent consisted of 
IOO bars, the result of 27 days' work of the small mill. 

Seven to eight days are consumed in a trip to Chihuahua, 
and five and six days to Alamos, Sonora, and for a number of 
years past these have been made in perfect safety, not a bar of 
silver being stolen. 

Occasionally, in crossing a deep ford, a mule turns over and 
deposits one or both bars at the bottom of the river, but the 
Mexicans are very skilful in recovering them. 

As, from the slowness of communication, returns from the 
mints are often much delayed in reaching Batopilas, the accounts 
are made out on the results of their own assays, and a credit or 
debit made of the difference, on receipt of the mint values. 

The mints of Mexico are rented by the government to private 
individuals, who turn over the dollars produced by the bullion 
to the credit of the producer, less their charges for coinage. 

A fire assay to determine the fineness is all that is ever made, 
at least in both the Chihuahua and Alamos mints, a check assay 
being run with it generally, but the wet method never used. 



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M<ERIS: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD. 71 




SECTION THROUGH THE FAYOUM, 

MCERIS: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD. 

BY F. COPE WHITEHOUSE, M.A. 

Seventy miles to the Southwest of Memphis, the government 
of Egypt, at an early period in its history, animated by the 
noblest motives, seeking to utilize to the utmost the annual flood 
of the Nile, converted a vast extent of low desert into an im- 
pounding reservoir which was regarded during the entire thou- 
sand years of Greco-Roman history as the most stupendous of 
the engineering works of the world. It was not only of 
marvellous utility, but also planned on a scale of unique and 
incredible grandeur, and executed by the labors of successive 
generations. As a fitting monument of this immense under- 
taking, two pyramids were constructed on an island near the 
middle of the lake. Their summits rose three hundred feet 
above its surface. Their base, however, lay two hundred feet 
below the level of the Mediterranean and in nearly fifty fathoms 
of water. An eighth of a mile high, they outranked all the 
other pyramids of Egypt and were as far above the bed of the 
lake as the present apex of Cheops is above the Valley of the 
Nile. Such was the unanimous statement of antiquity from Her- 
odotus to Hassam Ibn-Isaac, from B. c. 434 to a. d. 700. With 
equal unanimity these accounts were denied and even derided by 
modern historians from Voltaire to Lcpsius, and as late as 188 1 . 
No such lake, it was declared, ever had or could have existed; 
no such island with its superstructure was ever seen by Herodo- 
tus or Diodorus. Moeris and its pyramids were excluded from 
consideration. The excavation or erosion ceased to play any 
role in the magnificent drama of Egyptian development. Its 
alleged pyramids were never classed with Mcdoum, Dahshour 



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7 2 THE Q UAR TERL Y, 

or Gizeh, and contributed nothing to the elucidation of the 
problem of the construction or purpose of the structures in the 
Valley of the Nile. 

In June, 1881, in New York, I had said that " in prosecut- 
ing local researches on the frontiers of human thought many 
mysteries of Egypt proved to be only natural facts, distorted 
and exaggerated by European prejudices and habits of mind. 
Difficulties are created by a failure to appreciate the wise 
moderation which characterizes eastern attempts to deal with 
the forces of nature. The utilitarian motive being obscured, 
some fantastic notion is invented and substituted. Its improba- 
bility then places it beyond attack." In September, 1 88 1 ,* at 
York, during the meeting of the British Association, an oppor- 
tunity presented itself of calling attention to certain errors in re- 
gard to Lake Mceris. An apparent connection was also shown be- 
tween some of the most celebrated public works in middle 
Egypt, which had previously been regarded as wholly inde- 
pendent. The idee mere of these suggestions was the accuracy 
of the ancient records when correctly translated and harmonized. 
They were the oftspringof a refusal to admit any charge of folly or 
superstition brought against the ancient government of Egypt 
which was not clearly proved. It is impossible to conceive a 
frontier of human thought more sharply marked than the plateau 
of Gizeh. If the pyramids are only sepulchral mounds, the 
tumuli of nameless kings who sought, but vainly, to perpetuate 
their personality for all time by the preservation of their bodies 
in the most stupendous of sepulchers, the failure is accentuated 
by the contrast between the terrace covered to the East with 
hewn basalt, polished granite, carved limestone and glittering 
alabaster, and the coarse rock to the West which rises and sinks 
and rises again to the near horizon in a jagged wall whose ledges 
mark the successive strata of cretaceous deposit. Seamed and 
scored by deep waterless ravines, the high plateau of the Libyan 
Desert with its majesty of absolute desolation commences at the 
very foot of what are alleged to be the most colossal monu- 
ments of human egotism. 

Lake Mceris also marked a frontier of human thought, if it was, 
as Diodorus said, the most gigantic as well as the most unselfish 



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AHER1S: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD. 73 

creation of royal will, where successive monarchs had guided 
the energies and expended the resources of their subjects to the 
greatest possible advantage. " Who is he," said the Sicilian 
geographer, himself an eye witness, " that considers the great- 
ness of this work that may not justly ask the question — How 
many thousands of men were employed, and how many years 
were spent in finishing it? Considering the benefit and ad- 
vantage brought (by this great work) to the government, none 
ever could sufficiently extol it, according to what the truth of 
the thing deserved. For being that the Nile never kept to a 
certain and constant height in its inundation and the fruitfulness 
of the country ever depended upon its just proportions, the king 
dug this lake to receive such water as was superfluous, thatitmight 
neither immoderately overflow the land, and so cause fens and 
standing ponds, nor by flowing too little, prejudice the fruits of 
the earth for want of water. To this end, he cut a canal along 
from the river into the lake, fourscore furlongs in length and 
three hundred feet broad ; into this he let the water of the river 
run, and at other times diverted it and turned it over the fields 
of the husbandmen, at seasonable times, by means of sluices, 
which he sometimes opened and at other times shut up, not 
without great labor and cost; for these sluices could not be 
opened or shut at a less charge than fifty talents ($53,000)." 
This lake continues to the benefit of the Egyptians for these 
purposes to our very days, and is called the Lake of Myris, or 
Mcris to this day;" "The annual royalty on the fish taken in 
the weir, at the entrance of the lake, amounts to two hundred 
and fifty talents ($254,400)." For there were in it two and 
twenty sort of fish and so vast a number were taken that those 
who were employed continually to salt them up (though they 
were multitudes of people) could hardly perform it. 

In order to show that this explicit accounthadin 1881 been re- 
jected in its entirety it is only necessary to turn to any work on 
Egypt published in the last quarter of a century. From the 
Egypt of Bunsen, Brugsch, Ebers, or Rawlinson, to that of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica credit is given to M. Linant de 
Bellefonds Pasha for demonstrating the errors of the ancient 

• " The canal of Khatatbch, though only ?6 miles long, requires annually [he labor of »,™ 
men fin fifty days id dtnn [optn] it. ThKnrc ciid of fstding this army amuunts to £15,™ 
<|tiS,ooc)."— W. Ahdkhsoh, M. I. C F.., April, 1E84. 



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74 THE QUARTERLY, 

geographers and establishing the true dimensions and situation 
of this much belauded basin. "In the Eastern and highest part 
of the Fayoum to the North (sic) of el-Medeeneh, may bo traced" 
the remains of that venerable work the Lake Mceris, or more 
properly, the Lake of Mceris, since Mceris is the name of the 
king by whose orders it was dug. A French engineer, M. 
Linant, was the first to determine the position and character of 
this famous work of antiquity and the results of his investiga- 




ERRONEOUS SECTION OF L 

tions are in accordance with the opinions of some (?) who had 
previously noticed the subject in published works. To M. 
Linant certainly is due the merit of having settled a controversy 
of no little importance, and the Egyptian Society of Cairo de- 
serves our thanks for the publication of his most interesting 
memoir. The Mceris who gave his name to the lake was proba- 
bly Amenemha III., the king who can scarcely be doubted to 
have been the f minder of the Labyrinth. The object of the 
Lake Mceris was to regulate the irrigation of the Fayoum, 
very anciently the Crocodilopolite Nome, and afterwards the 
ArsinoVte ; and it was valuable on account of fisheries. It seems 
rather to have deserved the name of a very large reservoir, or 
' broad canal than that of a lake. Notwithstanding the drying up 
of the Lake Mceris, the Fayoum is still an important and fertile 
province." [8th ed. 1855, p 503.] This account is abbreviated 




in the ninth edition (1877), but the "Memoire sur le lac Mceris 
Soc. Eg. 1843" is cited for reference. The title "Mceris, see 
Egypt" of the eighth edition, is omitted in the volume published 
this year. The italics indicate some slips on the part of the 
learned author. Dr. Leopold Von Ranke is now engaged upon a. 



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MCERIS: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD. 75; 

Universal History. In the volume recently published (dated 
1885), he says that "in spite of all the efforts of research, we 
have, as one of the most distinguished Egyptologists has ex- 
pressly admitted, not advanced far beyond Herodotus in positive 
knowledge of ancient Egyptian history. Herodotus had seen 
and admired the Lake Mceris ; the name of tlte King Maris, to 
whom he attributed it rests upon a misconception. But the work 
magnificent in its very ruins still exists. It is not a natural lake 
but an excavated reservoir with enormous dykes about 50 feet 
in width, and it was designed, when the Nile rose, to receive the 
waters which might perhaps have worked mischief in the Delta, 
and reserve them for times when the inundation of the country 
did not attain the height requisite for its fertility. In the water 
was to be seen the colossus of stone which perpetuated the 
memory [not the name, see above] of the constructor Ame- 
nemhat III." In the Encyclopaedia Hritannica, we are told that : 
"As we approach the Pyramids of Gizeh these structures do not 
give us that idea of size that we had expected from our first 
distant view, and until we stand at their feet we do not appreci- 
ate their vastness. But as we endeavor to scan the height of 
the great pyramid, when about to begin its ascent, vie fully 
realise a result that human labor has not achieved elsewhere. 
The very dimensions {a height of about half-a-thousand feet, 
four sides each measuring the seventh of a mile) are in them- 
selves gigantic; but when we know that this huge space is 
almost solid, containing a few chambers so small as not to be 
worthy of consideration in calculating its contents, we discover 
that no monuments of man's raising elsewhere afford any scale 
by which to estimate its greatness." Thus the sober judgment 
of the ninteenth century affirms that the pile of limestone at 
Gizeh commonly known as the Pyramid of Cheops is unap- 
proachable in its greatness. This seems a strange decision with 
a similar pile of limestone, nearly as large and always loftier, so- 
close that the two are always coupled as haramen — the twin 
pyramids of Shufu and Shafra, of the brothers Suphis. Von 
Ranke who also reduced Mceris to an excavated reservoir simi- 
larly endorses the praise of these "noble sepulchral monuments- 
of epochs inconceivably remote," where "the amount of force 
employed is as remarkable as the architectural skill displayed 
throughout." Thus, therefore, the engineer of modern times is. 



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76 THE QUARTERLY. 

bid to see in the Pyramid of Cheops a structure erected in the 
infancy of the world, and before the dawn of history, which rapidly 
passed beyond the powers of the human race, so degenerated 
and enfeebled that for six thousand years no monument of 
Greece or Rome, of mediaeval or modern Europe can even 
furnish a standard of comparison. On the other hand Lake 
Mceris becomes a shallow pool or a broad canal. 

This was not the opinion of Herodotus: "It took ten years 
to make tlte causeway, a work not much inferior in my judg- 
ment to the pyramid itself. This causeway is five furlongs in 
length, ten fathoms wide, and in height at the highest part eight 
fathoms. It is built of polished stone and is covered with carv- 
ings of animals. The pyramid itself was twenty years in build- 
ing. There is an inscription in Egyptian characters on the 
pyramid which records the quantity of radishes, onions and 
garlic consumed by the laborers who constructed it, and 1 per- 
fectly remember that the interpreter who read the writing to me 
said that the money expended in this way was 1600 talents of 
silver (ca. $1,700,000). If this then be a true record what a vast 
additional sum must have been spent on the other works in- 
cluding the underground apartments." So far therefore from 
being astounded by the pyramids the Greek immediately points 
out the superior artistic and practical value of the approach or 
dromos which led to the hill, and the basalt, limestone, syenite 
and alabaster employed in the decoration of the terrace. He 
specifically ranks the engineering works of the world in a later 
chapter. "It seemed good to the twelve joint sovereigns to leave 
a common monument. In pursuance of this resolution they 
made the Labyrinth, which lies a little above Lake Mceris. 1 
visited this place and found it to surpass description; for if all 
the walls and other great works of the Greeks could be put to- 
gether in one, they would not equal either for labor or expense 
this Labyrinth, and yet the temple of Ephesus is a building 
worthy of note and so is the temple of Samos. The pyramids 
also arc greater than they are commonly reported, and are 
severally equal to a number of the greatest works of the Greeks, 
but the Labyrinth surpasses the Pyramids." The Labyrinth 
had shared the fate of Lake Mceris at the hands of Dr. Lepsius. 
The enthusiastic admiration of the Ionian Herodotus, and the 
weighty sentences of the polished Strabo had not sufficed to pro- 



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MCERIS: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD. 77 

tect it. The leader of the German Expedition, eager to surpass the 
work of his predecessor, M. Jomard, suffered himself to be be- 
trayed into depicting with absurd exaggeration in the Denk- 
maler aus jEgypten miserable walls of mud brick as immense 
ruins. Simultaneously exposed by M. Perrot and myself," the 
recent work of Ebers unintentionally gives them, by the inser- 
tion of erroneous standards of measurements, the guaranty of a 
most accomplished and painstaking writer. Dr. Pleyte, citing 
with approval from an article of mine in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Biblical Archaeology (June, 1883) the expression that 
the Egyptian Stonehenge could never perish, endorses the de- 
scription of Herodotus. Dr. Scliweinfurth has also expressed his 
belief in its existence. t "It is from hearsay only," said Herodotus 
with an honesty rarely imitated by the modern sightseer and maker 
of guide-books, "that I can speak of the lower chambers. The up- 
per chambers, also fifteen hundred in number, however, I saw my- 
self with my own eyes and found them to excel all other human 
productions." For the passages through the halls and the 
varied windings of the corridors across the courts excited in him 
infinite admiration because the roof was throughout of stone like 
the walls, and these were carved all over with figures and every 
court was surrounded with a colonnade, which was built of white 
stones, exquisitely fitted together. But, continued the Greek his- 
torian : "Wonderful as is the Labyrinth, the work called the 
Lake of Mceris which is close by the Labyrinth is yet more as- 
tonishing. The measure of its circumference is sixty schcenes 
[each "cable-length" being a day's "tow"], or 3,600 furlongs, 
which is equal to the entire length of Egypt along the sea-coast. 
The lake stretches in its longest direction from north to south 
and in its deepest parts is of the depth of fifty fathoms." Thus 
in the opinion of the Greek, the Pyramid of Cheops was 
not more than twice as great as the Causeway. It 
was little greater than that of Chephren. It equalled a num- 
ber of the great works of the Greeks, and even the temples of 
Ephesus and Samos. But a pile of rough stones, however large, 
could not be named in the same category with the Labyrinth, 
and even the Labyrinth, with its skilful arrangement of halls and 

Girco-Koman Netropolii of Arsinoe, (p. jfa). 

t " Sahmchtlf erwam kb Siein Aegypten lurauliuchungdei Libyrinihj." — Cairo, Majr if. 



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78 THE QUARTERLY. 

passages, lacked {at that period) the crowning attribute of util- 
ity. The exhibition of mere force which stupefies the modern 
writer is justly relegated to a low rank in the presence of the 
beautiful Capitol of feudal Egypt But the highest place is re- 
served for the vast inland sea, Mer-Uer, the sacred pool of Horus, 
Pithom or Pi-Tum of Mosaic record, where the fair offspring ot 
the Nile, the "daughter of Pharaoh," the Coptic Arsinoe, and 
the Rhodope of the Grecian fable had been set apart by 
Pharaoh- Osiris, Father and King, for the use and pleasure ot 
man. The lake, treasure city (Ex. I. u), and fortress, the fossa 
jrrandisor huge circumvallation of Memphis, was also named by 
Pliny next to the Labyrinth. That " most prodigious expend- 
iture of human labor," (portentosissimum humani impendii opus) 
-was certainly the grandest architectural feature of the Fay on m, 
but, seemingly, also part of the same stupendous system of irriga- 
tion and defence. 

Thus classified, the Sphinx at Gizeh and the Pyramids in 
the Lake of Charon form an orderly sequence. These monu- 
ments of history are splendid illustrations of man's triumph 
over nature. The din of arms and the shock of religions is 
echoed in Homeric Hexameters, and in the tales the Phoeni- 
cians told to Virgil of the conflict at Turra, and the loss of Caft- 
Ur(Manetho). The labyrinth on the Bahr Hunt (Jousuf ) ceases 
to be a riddle and becomes a key. It closed its lower chambers 
to Herodotus when its vergers put him off with a story about 
Icings and crocodiles, which might nevertheless have led him 
through the aqueduct of Samos to the leather water-mains and 
pipe-lines of the Corys. Its Roman governor opened its inmost 
recesses to Strabo. He listened as the slaves swung its stone 
■doors on their bronze hinges (Papyrus), and the clang resounded 
through the dark and devious network. The descendant of the 
Pontic kings looked upwards from its low roof. He saw above 
him Pa-El, the Sun-God, Apollo, and believed the building a 
Heliopolis-Baalbec. He thought it a temple to Ra, while Jose- 
phus cited Manetho to witness against Apion that here was the 
first Jerusalem where Eastern Monotheists, then as now, wor- 
shipped an ineffable and personal Jehovah. Strabo should have 
looked beneath his feet for the clue which Ariadne gave to The- 
seus and Pliny offers to the student. Had he been Hesiod, an 
inspired fancy might have found it westward where Danae 



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M&R/S: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD. 



79 



■welcomed the God of Heaven in golden dust, and where the 
wings of Icarus failed him above the Icarian deep. " I saw 
everything in Egypt," said^Elius Aristides, "in my four visits — 
Lake, Labyrinth and Pyramids." The Lake, strangely enough, 
■did not survive its great compeer in history, and they both dis- 
appeared when Clio turned the page of the second century. 

The accompanying maps show the extent and position of the 
ancient lake. The Bahr Jousuf is a canal commencing near 
Assiout, which follows the western shore of the valley, while the 
main stream, the Bahr el-Nil, runs under the eastern cliffs. At 
high Nile, however, both channels are effaced, and the floods 
cover the entire width of cultivable land. Immense labor was 
expended upon the redemption of the Fayoum, and an ounce of 
dynamite placed in the dyke of El-Lahun by the retreating 
army of Arabi Pasha would 
have demonstrated beyond 
all possibility of cavil that 
wherever the figures are 
less than +ioo, Moeris, the 
Neptune of the Nile, 
reigned. By such a disaster 
all its fertile fields would 
be again submerged, 
though Strabo saw the j 
northern basin filled with 
water, and the waves break- 
ing against the dyke which 
excluded it from the plateau 
marked as the Mceris of M. 
Linant, later generations 
confined it to the southern basin or Wadi Reian. This is the 
only part which it would be possible or expedient to restore. 
So easily could this be accomplished, and so imperative is the 
necessity, that before the first of March, 1 888, it is far from im- 
probable that a lake of several hundred square miles in extent 
will relieve the pressure of high Nile, even if the works required 
to utilize the water for irrigation have not been completed. It 
is almost superfluous to explain how the reservoir of the Roman 
age ceased to exist. The alluvial deposit of the Nile choked 
the canals and aqueducts. The Arabian domination of the 



, "-0(1 I 

* 

• ?• 

■■ -J 





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8o THE Q UAR TERL V. 

twelfth century was peculiarly disastrous. Famine and Icono- 
clasm are forcibly depicted in the lucid pages of Abdollatif. 
They may have been related in fact as well as time. The canal 
of supply was neglected and plundered in its long course. The 
inhabitants of the Fayoum shut out all the water not required! 
for their own use, and there was no central government strong 
enough to compel a corvee which would work for the common 
weal. Our own century has seen Egypt at its lowest point. 
Europe has inflicted blow after blow upon the unhappy coun- 
try. Mcnzalch was a fresh-water lake in the geography of 
Edrisi (1150) and Tanis Parva (not Zoan, /". e., Tanis- Memphis) 
was an agreeable miniature capital of a flourishing province. 
Marcotis became a lagoon in 1801. 

The ruined temple of Ammon, the Qasr Qeroun, in the desert 
to the south of the Birket el-Qeroun, was occupied on the night 
of the twenty-ninth of January, i?99, by a squadron of French 
cavalry and a distinguished scientific corps. On March 3d, 
1882, it was also occupied by me, with a horse, a camel, and 
seven Arabs, picked up at hazard two days before. The contrast 
presented by the military arrays was not greater than that of the 
intellectual attainments of the respective leaders. Yet, if M. 
Jomard had gone (as I did), to the Haram, marked upon his 
map as a Butte Pyramidale, and so conspicuous from the top of 
the temple that he ought to have known that the adjacent desert 
must be a deep erosion, or had he, with greater faith in antiquity,. 
in his library in Paris, put the Ptolemaic centre of Mceris- Fayoum 
where that geographer had fixed it by latitude and longitude, 
in the very spot where he had bivouacked, (as I had done in 
London, so as to make sure of what I ought to seek before the- 
desolation of the desert should confront and deter me), it is more 
than probable that the regeneration of Egypt would have been 
anticipated by nearly a century. Instead, therefore, of being 
paralysed by the Pyramid of Cheops as wholly beyond the 
range of human intellect, with a superstition which would have 
amused a Roman Augur and shocked the astrologers of the Chal- 
dean war-office, we should rather follow the guidance of the 
sensible Greek and thepractical Roman. The Canals, the Gate- 
house and the Lake of Mceris, are achievements which thevast 
resources and vast needs of our own West, the floods of the 
Mississippi and the deserts of New Mexico, require us to equal 
and may enable us to surpass. 



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MtERIS: THE WONDER OF THE WORLD 81 




Google 



THE Q UAR TERL Y. 



COMPARISON OF COST OF POWER IN EXHAUST 

AND PLENUM VENTILATION FOR MINES 

AND DWELLINGS. 

BY PROF. W. P. TROWBRIDGE. 

Let D be the downcast shaft. 
U " upcast shaft 

It is supposed that equal weights of air are to be forced 
through the mine from D to U, first by exhausting the air at U, 
and second, by compression at D. 

Let A be the cross section of the gallery of flow. 

v, velocity of flow. 

A, cross section. 

S, surface of gallery=lXp. length by perimeter. 

D, density of rarefied air in gallery, 

The resistance from friction will be 



The work per second will be, 

v 3 
R v=f D S =W for rarefied air. 

■ For plenum with air forced in at D we shall have, 

R'v'= D'S V =W' 

To compare W with W', since the weights of air are equal we 
have 

V_ D' 
V'~ D 
Vand V being the volumes of flow, but 

V = v = _D' 

• V v' D 

f D' S X* 



V D=V'D' 



V = A> 



V'= A v'o 



W fDS 



_ 2 3 = 






v' v 3 



i ,-, Google 



COST OF POWER. 83 

But v > v* because the velocity of the the rarefied air must 
be greater than that of compressed air, for the same weight going 
through in a second. 

Hence the work for the plenum will be less than for the ex- 
v^ D' 2 
haust in the proportion of —% or -fyb 

In the above we have neglected the work performed on put- 
ting the air in motion which is proportional to the square of the, 
velocity. But as the same weight put in motion with the higher 
velocity will require more work, *'. e., 

W v' 2 

— will for this also be = -, 
W v 

The conclusion is that the total work, both in overcoming 

Mv a 
friction and the work of producing the living force, — - will be 

less for the plenum than for the vacuum. 

The result is contrary to popular ideas. Callon gives a simi- 
lar demonstration — but not the same — and comes to the same 
conclusion. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



SCHOOL OF MINES NOTES. 

Summer School in Mechanical Engineering. — The sessions 
of this class were held as usual in the month of June after the con- 
cluding examinations. The effect was noticeable of the concurring 
class in surveying at the close of the summer, which deterred sev- 
eral members of the class from joining as they would otherwise 
have done, and the scope of the work was somewhat narrowed to 
release the men just so much sooner. Instead of visiting three es- 
tablishments as in previous years, the whole time was spent at one 
shop, and three weeks were consumed instead of four. The Dela- 
mater Iron Works were chosen as presenting the greatest variety of 
practice and because the foundry department is there particularly 
valuable. But of course the opportunity had to be forgone for see- 
ing such heavy forging and very large casting as is done at the 
Morgan Iron Works. 

The methods of work were essentially the same as in previous 
years. The class assembled for a preliminary talk in some corner of 
the yard, and were told by the instructor what to look for and study 
for that special day. After noon-spell, the intention was that prac- 
tical applications should be observed of the principles of the morn- 
ings discussion. Some interest centred this year around the ice 
machines using air as the refrigerant, and one of the machines was 
under test upon one of the days. The Ericsson & Rider hot-air 
pumping engines were also studied with profit, but there was less 
large work than usual upon the floor. The class adjourned about 
the 20th of June. 

Adjunct- Professor Hutton has expressed himself uncertain as to 
the future of this class, in view of the present crowding of work 
upon the engineering students. While he is as decided as ever as 
to the advantages offered by this class to those whose future calling 
is likely to deal with the mechanical sides of the profession; and 
he would uphold it and make it obligatory upon students for the 
degree of " Mechanical Engineer," should there ever be such, yet 
he speaks of it as an open question whether the tendency to special- 
ize and subdivide our students, and the importance given to the 
furnace and out-door work of the profession may not indicate the 
expediency of intermitting the class, at any rate for the present. 
The question will present itself for solution in the spring. 

The Summer School of Practical Mining was held again 
this year in the Lake Superior copper region. The class was a 
large one and had to be divided between several mines, one section 
beginning work at the Allouez mine, one at the Central, and one at 
the Conglomerate. A. F. Bardwell, '83, and S. S. Fowler and W. 
Newbrough, of '84, acted as assistants to Professor Munroe and had 
charge of the several sections. Owing to the distance of the mines, 
from Hancock and Houghton, and the more civilized part of the 
region, the class had to " rough it " somewhat more than in 
past years, and some of the men bring back most dismal tales of 
their hardships and sufferings. One of the mines, however, proved 
to be a sort of oasis in the desert and those who were so fortunate 



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SCHOOL OF MINES NOTES. 85 

as to be assigned there have returned with more roseate views as to 
Mining Engineering as their future profession. Indeed, it is whis- 
pered that one or more of the party found it difficult to resist the 
fascinating studies of the beauties of mining, and lingered long 
after the others were on their homeward way, filling their note- 
books with sketches, and studying mining from the aesthetic stand- 
point as well as from a more practical point of view. After two 
weeks at one mine the sections changed places and spent several 
days at the other mines, studying variations in the practice, and 
finally, during the fourth week of their stay, visited mines about 
Houghton and in the Marquette iron region. The reception ac- 
corded the class was everwhere most hospitable, and the experience 
and insight obtained of the practical and business side of mining of 
great value. The only regret that we have heard expressed was 
that the time allotted to the work was not long enough, and that 
four months instead of four weeks might have been profitably spent 
in the region. 

The Summer School of Surveying. — A new departure in the 
course in surveying was instituted this year. By resolution of the 
Board of Trustees, six weeks at the end of the vacation between the 
second and third years are now devoted to field work in surveying un- 
der the direction of Professor Munroe and his assistants. Accordingly 
August 25th, the class, or quite a respectable percentage of them, 
assembled at Pelhamville, Westchester county, which place was 
designated by the Professor as the scene of the summer work. 
Messrs. S. S. Fowler and W. Mulford, of '84, and J. Y. Wheatly, of 
'85, acted as assistants. Without loss of time the class were 
promptly put through their paces, and the inhabitants of the town 
were treated once more to the absurd spectacle of dignified young 
men, in most immaculate toilet, gravely pacing backward and for- 
wat'd over the rocks and grassy slopes, hitherto sacred to goats and 
geese, or solemnly pacing along up the precipitous sides of the New 
Haven railroad embankment, where no sensible goat would ven- 
ture. As time wore on, red and white poles, three legged compasses, 
and other recognized apparatus of surveying made their appear- 
ance, and the costumes of the students became more and better 
adapted to the work to be done, and the difference between them 
and the regular surveyors, both in outward appearance and in skill 
and practice less and less manifest. 

The course of instruction, so far as the number of exercises and 
surveys is concerned, was this year but slightly altered from that 
given to previous classes. A great difference, however, was ob- 
servable in the manner of doing the work — the requirements of each 
survey were somewhat increased, and care and accuracy insisted 
upon. The squads instead of four or five men as in the past, were 
reduced to two men each — so that everybody was kept busy — in- 
cluding the professor and his three assistants, who found their hands 
full in directing the work of the students, the number of surveys 
going at once and the number of instruments in the field being 
largely increased by reason of the diminished size of the squads. 
The assistants authorized by the trustees this year for the first time 
proved of great value, and without their help the full gain from the 
increased time allotted to surveying could not have been realized. 



, v GooqIc 



LIBRARY NOTES. 

Since our last number the Library has published two important 
pamphlets. The First Annual Report and the First Annual Circu- 
lar of Information, similar to those issued for the otner five depart- 
ments of the University. 

The circular has 36 pages giving general information about the 
Library and its methods, and 16 pages announcing the School of 
Library Economy, which the Trustees at the May meeting voted to- 
establish. A very full, exact reference index enables one to find 
any point mentioned in the pamphlet at a glance. Copies may be 
had at the Loan desk or by mail, on application to the Chief Libra- 
rian. The reading of this circular of information can but make 
students elsewhere envious of the facilities being afforded us in the 
new University Library. 

The Annual Report of the Chief Librarian makes 42 closely 
printed pages and gives a summary of the great changes brought 
about during the past year. To any one interested in Columbia, 
especially in its University developement, this record will prove of 
the greatest interest. As copies may be had on application to the 
Chief Librarian, we will not undertake to summarize the points of 
interest, but note some items of special interest. 

A " give away " shelf has been started just in front of the Loan 
desk at the Library entrance. On it are placed daily, duplicate 
catalogues, pamphlets or other matter, with which the Library is 
already supplied and which it thinks some reader may care to take 
home. Instead of putting such things in the waste basket, they are 

put with a label "Free duplicate pamphlets not needed in the 

Library." 

The great Reading Room is much quieter than last year, but 
still some readers forget the rights of others, and over some book 
or query get into a low buzz of conversation that annoys all sensi- 
tive nerves very seriously. As the Loan room space outside the 
central curtain is ample for such conferences, fair regard to the 
rights of others should completely stop this carelessness. Now and 
then some "saw mill" reader gets his feet upon the counter ledge 
or in the window seats, with heels against the polished oak finish 
and subjects the librarians to the annoyance and himself to the* 
mortification of a personal suggestion as to propriety. 

The Coat Room is now in operation at the Loan desk and 
coats, hats, umbrellas and packages may be checked without charge. 
Hereafter no bags can be carried about the Library, but must be 
checked at the entrance. The checks are square and the numbers 
begin with a letter, so there is no danger of confusion with any 
other checks given on the College grounds. 

Speaking tubes and electric bells have been put in, connecting 
both observatory, dome and cloak rooms with the Library system. 



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LIBRAR Y NOTES. 87 

Hereafter it will be unnecessary to climb to the 8th floor to learn 
who is on duty, or send any message. Inquiries for the Observa- 
tory, as for all parts of the Library, must be made at the Loan 
desk. 

The reading tables have been numbered on a simple plan, e. g., 
in the main Reading Room table No. 45 is 4th row and 5th table, 
counting from left to right. In the private Reading Rooms on the 
4th and 5th floors, special students, making original investigations, 
receive permits to have books charged to the table at which they 
work and the books are not removed till the student has finished 
with them. Practically this amounts to transferring the Library 
place of books to the table temporarily and no inconvenience results, 
because the book card of every volume removed shows at the Loan 
desk at a glance that it is to be found on a specified table, and any 
Other reader wishing to consult it can see it as readily as if it were 
on its regular shelf. This plan of charging to tables for graduate 
and special students is proving a very great convenience and the 
double-entry charging system removes the ordinary objections to it. 
As in charges to individuals, each two weeks the books must be re- 
turned or renewed, thus guarding against books being kept on the 
tables after they are no longer specially needed there. 

Permits to work at these tables are issued only by the Chief Li- 
brarian on personal application with statement of needs of the appli 
cant. Every available table is in demand and great pains are taken 
to give the special privileges to those who need them the most. 

Officers, graduates or students of the College wishing to intro- 
duce friends to the Reference use of the Library (no books are 
loaned outside of College) must remember that tickets are issued 
only when readers bring introductions from some one known to the 
Chief Librarian. The privileges granted to these complimentary 
readers are so unusual that it is imperatively necessary that tickets 
should be issued only under careful restrictions against any possi- 
ble abuse. Tickets are always given to any one satisfactorily in- 
troduced to the Chief Librarian. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Applied Mechanics. By James H. Cotterill, F.R.S. London: Mac- 

millan & Co. 1884. 584 pp. 

Prof. Cotterill, of the Royal Naval College of Greenwich, has 
gathered together into a text-book the course of instruction which 
he has found best adapted for his use. Based originally upon 
Rankine, yet it has been found necessary to amplify his condensed 
discussions and supplement even his fullness with references to 
newer practice and altered co-efficients. 

The first hundred pages discuss the Statics of Structures in 
considerable detail. Beside the analytical treatment, the graphi- 
cal method for strain and shear diagrams and curves is elucidated 
and applied to examples. 

The second part to page roi is taken up with the discussion of 
Kinematics. The method and nomenclature of Reuleaux are fol- 
lowed, and some of the illustrations of inverted chains of pairs of 
elements are thoroughly interesting and valuable. A very suitable 
condensation gives clearness to the discussion of teeth of wheels, 
and the section concludes with a discussion of the general theory 
of motion, based on the principle of the instantaneous centre. 

The third part discusses the dynamics of machinery from the 
principle of "work" as a starting point and the resistances which 
cause losses of work receive due treatment. The effect of the 
mechanism of the steam engine upon its efficiency receives admirable 
notice, and several valuable monographs have been laid under 
contribution and a very lucid presentation of the subject is the re- 
sult. The effect of losses from straining of improperly designed 
details of machinery is made very clear. 

The fourth part treating of the strength of materials is one which 
must follow, of necessity, very much the path laid out by fuller 
treatises on the subject. 

Part fifth includes discussion of transmission and conversion of 
energy by fluids, subdivided into Hydraulic, Pneumatic and 
Thermodynamic sections. Hydraulics receives most extended 
notice, while the discussion of thermodynamics seems unduly brief 
for those expecting to be steam engineers. A very admirable feature 
of the book is the frequent interjecting of practical problems for 
solution, at the close of the different sections. It is by these that 
the student is made to assimilate and digest the theoretical discus- 
sions, and while those presented are specially intended to cover 
details of practice in naval engineering, yet they can be easily sup- 
plemented for other specialties in the profession. 

The book is a valuable one for students and beginners who are 
laying the foundations of their study, and it is intended only for 
such. For advanced students, the special treatises must be ob- 
tained, under each head, as this book will not give them the points 
they need. But it can be thoroughly commended for the purpose 
to which it aims. F. R. H. 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 89 

The Art of Ore Dressing in Europe. By W. B. Kunhardt, E.M. 

John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1884. 

The art of ore-dressing has been highly developed in Europe, 
because the profitable working of the foreign ores, which are mostly 
of very low grade, has depended largely on cheap, efficient methods 
of mechanical concentration. 

In America, good systems of ore-dressing are becoming daily of 
more importance, as the rich gossans of the Western mines are be- 
ing worked out and attention turns to the exploitation of the ores 
of lower grade, found in the deeper workings. 

A few well-known dressing works in this country are avowedly 
modelled upon German designs, but it is recognized that the mere 
copying of existing plans without a knowledge of the correspond- 
ing practice is no great step in advance. Technical literature has 
not heretofore offered in compact, easily obtainable form an ac- 
count of the practice developed by long experience in the ore-dress- 
ing field abroad. 

It is the purpose of the book to give an accurate description of 
leading European ore-dressing practice which has become familiar 
to the writer by close observation during an extended visit to foreign 
mining districts. The characteristics of each dressing operation 
are noted, and particular attention is given to stating the local con- 
ditions which modify the various processes. 

To the ore-dressing expert the book will afford means for an 
interesting comparison between his own and foreign practice. 

To the miner or engineer, facing, possibly for the first time, the 
problem of designing, improving or successfully operating a con- 
centrating plant, it is hoped that not only valuable working data are 
presented, but also means for forming intelligent judgments, in- 
dependent of the blind follower of precedent and the agent of 
patent concentrators. 

Light. By P. G. Tait, M.A., Sec. R.S.E. Macmillan & Co. 1884. 
Like the similar treatise on Heat by the same author, this is in- 
tended as a text-book for college students, servingto furnish the in- 
formation of the details of the subject, which of necessity have been 
left incomplete in the lecture room. As the average lecturer on Phy- 
sics has to treat on the varied subjects of Light, Heat, Electricity, etc., 
it is manifestly impossible to do them all justice in the course of a 
single series of lectures. The book is suited to the capacity of the 
class for which it is intended. It is neither very elementary nor very 
abstruse, and though the amount of mathematics employed is small, 
the author evidently assumes that the reader will be familiar with 
the calculus. Several interesting historical accounts of the work 
of Newton, Laplace and others are introduced in the body of the 
work and in an appendix. \ 

Notes on Electricity and Magnetism. By J. B. Murdock, U.S.N. 

Macmillan & Co. 1884. 

This little work, as its preface indicates, is intended as a supple- 
ment to S. P. Thompson's " Elementary Lessons in Electricity and 
Magnetism." The subjects are treated in a clear and concise man- 



]V GooqIc 



90 THE QUARTERLY. 

ner, and it is to be regretted that the supplement plan was so strictly 
adhered to, as with the expenditure of very little more space the 
work could have been rendered much more independent in tone as 
well as clearer in its explanations of some of the more useful pieces 
of electrical apparatus. In its present form it is very handy as a 
pocket reference book to one already familiar with the subjects of 
which it treats. The chapter on Galvanometers could with advan- 
tage have been a little more complete. The chapters on Potential 
are well presented. Chap. IV. on Measurements and Formula;, 
contains in a condensed form many of the most important methods 
and formulae, and is one of the best and most useful in the book. 
The chapter on Dynamo-machines gives a very systematic exposition 
of the subject and covers a great deal of ground in a small space. 
The work ends with a short chapter on telegraphy and telephony. 
Taken as a whole the work is an addition to our electrical literature 
and is well worth a perusal. S. 

The Imaginary Metrological System of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh. 

By F. A. P. Barnard, S.T.D., LL.D., President of Columbia 

College, and President of the American Metrological Society. 

This is a very remarkable criticism of a still more remarkable 
superstition. The annals of human folly will be searched in vain 
for a parallel to the singular delusion which, within the past twenty 
years, has invested, in the minds of some persons otherwise pre- 
sumably sane, the great Pyramid of Cheops with a sacred character; 
ascribing its original design to no less distinguished an architect 
than Noah, the builder of the ark, and its actual construction to a 
series of biblical patriarchs, including among the number PELEG, 
REU, JOKTAN and his thirteen sons, with whom is strangely 
enough associated, the mysterious MELCHIZEDEK. King of 
Salem. The inventor of this wild hypothesis was John Taylor of 
London, who published his crazy confession of faith in 1859; but 
its more recent apostle and prophet has been Prof. Piazzi Smyth, 
Astronomer Royal of Scotland, whose ingenuity of reasoning, flu- 
ency and eloquence of language, and burning fervor of conviction 
have made his books as fascinating to the reader as the tales of the 
thousand and one nights. It has thus happened that the inspira- 
tion-theory of the Pyramid has been clothed with a plausibility which 
has secured for it a wide acceptance among lovers of the marvellous, 
and has even turned the head, of here and there, a man having some 
claim to a scientific reputation. 

That feature of this fantastic theory to which, more than to any 
other, it owes the favor with which it has been received in this 
country, is the pretension that the main design of the Pyramid was 
to embody, to exemplify and to perpetuate forever a certain system 
of weights and measures divinely imposed upon man, and of which 
the use and preservation is a religious duty. The unreasoning and 
ignorant prejudice, therefore, which prompts men to resist any im- 
provement of the imperfect metrological systems to which they are 
born, finds itself reinforced and justified by a doctrine according to 
which prejudice becomes piety. The inspiration -doctrine of the 
Pyramid possesses, consequently, something more than a merely 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 91 

speculative interest. Its bearing on human affairs, its claim to con- 
trol human conduct, is of a very positively practical character. Its 
universal prevalence would involve the perpetuation forever among 
us of the clumsy system of weights and measures which we have re- 
ceived from our Anglo-Saxon forefathers, with whom it has grown 
gradually up during ages of darkness, partly through accident and 
partly through stupid and bungling legislation. 

President Barnard's book strips this silly theory bare, and sub- 
jects its pretensions to a scrutiny as thorough as it is merciless. It 
has been pronounced by excellent judges to be a master-piece of 
destructive criticism. It is entertaining also as well as instructive; 
for there runs through it a vein of apparently unconscious humor, 
which makes it as pleasant reading to one to whom the subject is 
new, as to those who have followed Prof. Smyth through alt his vol- 
uminous discussions and homilies. 

Lieut. Totten on Mr. Petrie. 

Though the book on the Fyiamids of Gizeh by Mr. W. M. 
Flinders Petrie, referred to in the postscript to President Barnard's 
Essay on that subject which recently appeared in this magazine, has 
utterly demolished, in the minds of all sane men, the fantastic theory 
of Messrs. John Taylor and Piazzi Smyth, yet the disciples of the 
true faith appear to be no whit dismayed. One of these, Lieut. 
Totten of the U. S. Army, recently endeavored to prove, in the 
columns of The Churchman, of this City, that the measurements 
of Mr. Petrie confirm instead of invalidating the grounds of their 
belief. To this argument of Lieut. Totten, President Barnard, in 
The Churchman of October 18, makes an absolutely crushing reply, 
a reply which we should pronounce to carry with it the end of 
controversy, if we did not know that the mental disease of the 
Pyramidists is incurable. They one and all belong to the class of 
Goldsmith's -Schoolmaster, for "even though vanquished they can 
argue still." We may therefore confidently expect to see Lieut. 
Totten come up again smiling as though nothing had happened. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 



Numerous changes have taken place in the addresses, occupa- 
tions, etc., of our Graduates; but, as we purpose shortly to publish 
-a separate and complete list of all the Graduates of the School, we 
will this month only give a few items that will interest our readers, 
^nd present for consideration extracts from the proceedings of the 
last meeting of the Board of managers of the Alumni Association. 

Special Notes. 
We learn with pleasure of the marriage of the following Gradu- 

Class of '74, E. E. Olcott, E.M., to Miss Catherine L. Van Sant- 
voord, on Thursday evening, October 16, 1884. 

Class of '76, F. N. Holbrook, C.E., to Miss Julia Macy, on Tues- 
day, October 28, 1884. 

Class of '80, James H. Merritt, Ph.B., to Miss Adele Ovington, 
on Wednesday, November 5, 1884. 

Class of '81, Percy Neymann, Ph.D., to Miss Magdalena Shu- 
berth, on Thursday evening, October 16, 1884. 

We hear of a new firm, under the title of Cooper & Sands, hav- 
ing just been started. Mr. Cooper, as will be remembered, was for- 
merly connected with Cooper & Staunton, and Mr. Sands for 
some time past has been with Prof. W. B. Potter, of Washington 
University, St. Louis. 

We are pleased to learn of the appointment of Mr. C E. Colby, 
iss of '77, as Assistant in Organic Chemistry at the School of 



Class of '77, as Assistant 
Mines. 

We have also to note the appointment of Thomas H. Leggett, 
E.M., as Assayer and Chemist to a Smelting Works at Kingston, New 
Mexico. 

Extracts from the Last Meeting of the Board of Managers 

of the Alumni Association. 

A Special Meeting of the Board of Managers of the Alumni As- 
sociation was held in the Library Building, Columbia College, on 
October 16. 1884, at 8 P. M. 



, v GooqIc 



GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. oj 

The Treasurer presented an informal report as follows: 

January I, 1884, Balance % 483 oft 

Collected S4S 35 

Total to date 91,038 41 

Expenses of Meetings $350 31 

Quarterly 333 50 

948381 

Sundries 115 3a 

599 '3 

Balance on hand 9 4*9 38 

Due Quarterly 50 00. 

Net Balance 9 379 3& 

Moved and seconded that the report be accepted. 
The Standing Committee on Constitution and By-Laws then re- 
ported through the Chairman, Mr. Hale, as follows: 

The following proposed amendments to the Constitution of the 
Association of the Alumni of the School of Mines, are transmitted 
to the members of the Board of Managers, in compliance with a reso- 
lution passed at a Special Meeting of the Board held April 15, 
1884. 

ARTICLE III. 



Section i. — Meetings shall be held at least four times during each year, for the 
reading of papers and the discussion of subjects of general or of professional inter- 
est, and for social intercourse. Three of these meetings shall be held in the city of 
New York in the months of May, October and December, and one in the city of Den- 
ver in the month of July; unless otherwise ordered by the Board or Managers. 

Section 2. — The Annual Meeting of the Association shall be held in the city 
of New York in the last week of December, the place and day of meeting each year 
to be fined by the Board of Managers. 

ARTICLE IV. 



Section t. — The officers of this Association shall be a President, three Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, a Secretary and an Assistant Secretary. 

SECTION 2.— The President, Second Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary 
shall be residents of New York City or vicinity. The First and Third Vice-Presi- 
dents and the Assistant Secretary shall be residents of Denver or vicinity, and shall. 
constitute an Executive Committee of the Board of Managers, for the territory 
west of the Mississippi. 

ARTICLE VI. 



Section I. — It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to collect all money and pay 
all bills of the Association; but no indebtedness shall be incurred unless previously 
authorized by the Board of Managers. No bills shall be paid unless previously en- 
dorsed by the Secretary. The Treasurer shall present to the Board, etc., etc. 

ARTICLE IX. 



Section i. — The Board of Managers shall be elected as follows. The Secre- 

D,iil,;ido,GoOgIe 



94 THE QUARTERLY. 

tary shall mail to each member, at least three months before the Annual Meeting, a 
list of the regular members, etc., etc. 

These ballots must be opened and counted one month before the Annual Meet- 

Section a. — The officers of the Association shall be elected by the Board of 
Managers, iu a manner similar to that provided for the election of the Board of 
Managers in Section I of this Article. The ballots must be opened and counted at 
a meeting of the Board to be held immediately before the Annual Meeting. 

Section 3. — John Magnus Adams, the first graduaie of [he School o I Mines, 
shall be a life member of the Board of Managers. 

A. W. Hale, ) Standing Commit- 
F. R. HUJTON, \ la an Constitution 
A. L. Beebe, ) and By-Laws. 

Moved by Dr. Ricketts and seconded by Mr. Van Sinderen that 
the report and amendments as submitted be acted upon by the 
members of the Board present, and that a sufficient number of votes 
of absent members be secured to give the necessary two-thirds vote 
as provided for in Article XIV. of the Constitution. A ballot being 
taken, all the members of the Board present voted for the adoption 
of the amendments to the Constitution as submitted by the Stand- 
ing Committee. 

The Standing Committee on Quarterly Meetings reported 
through its Chairman, Prof. Rees, that the meetings during the past 
School year had been exceedingly successful and largely attended, 
and that the largest proportion of the expenses had been defrayed 
by the subscription paid in by those attending; some deficiencies, 
however, had been paid by the treasurer. 

Prof. Rees tendered his resignation as a member of the Standing 
Committee on Quarterly Meetings, as the great press of work which 
he had to attend to made it impossible for him to continue on the 
Committee. After some discussion, as Prof. Rees insisted upon 
resigning, it was moved and seconded, that the resignation of 
Prof. Rees be accepted, and that the thanks of the Board be ex- 
tended to Prof. Rees for the great interest he had taken in the 
meetings and work of the Committee which had resulted so success- 
fully for the Association. Carried unanimously. 

The report of the Committee on Incorporation was called for, 
but as it appeared that since the retirement of Mr. Norris from the 
Board, the vacancy on the Committee had not been filled, the mat- 
ter was laid over. 

Moved by Mr. Hale and seconded that the vacancy on the In- 
corporation Committee be filled, and that the Committee be in- 
structed to draw up a report as to the desirability of incorporating 
the Association, how it had best be done, etc., and to take the nec- 
essary steps to procure a charter or incorporate the Association. 
Carried. The Chair appointed Mr. A. H. Van Sinderen. 

The Secretary then submitted a letter just received, signed by 
Messrs. Lawrence, Reed, Leavens and lies, graduates of the School, 
asking for some immediate action on the part of the Board, having 
in view the establishment of a Western Office in Denver by Novem- 
ber r, 1884. 

After some discussion it was 

Resolved, That Messrs. B. B. Lawrence, S. A. Reed, H. W. 
Leavens and M. W. lies be appointed a Committee of Arrange- 



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GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 95 

merits to take immediate steps for the establishment of a Western 
Office of this Association in Denver, and the holding of such pre- 
liminary meetings as may seem necessary. It being understood 
that the appointment of this Committee is made in order to carry 
into effect at once the amendments to the Constitution adopted re- 
lating to such Western Office and Meetings. The Committee ap- 
pointed, to hold office until the next election of the Association, 
after which the First and Third Vice-Presidents and Assistant Sec- 
retary shall, as provided for in the amendments to the Constitution, 
have charge of the Western Office of this Association. Also, that 
the Secretary notify Messrs. Lawrence, Reed, Leavens and lies by 
telegraph and mail of the action of this Board. Carried. 

The time of the Quarterly Editors having expired, the Board 
proceeded to elect the Editors for the year 1884 and 1885. 

Moved and seconded that Prof. J. K. Rees be elected to succeed 
himself as an Editor of the School of Mines Quarterly. Carried. 

Mr. Beebe stated that he was not a candidate for re-election, 
owing to the present press of work and students in the Assay Lab- 
oratory ; and it was therefore moved and seconded that Mr. H. T. 
Vulte be elected in his place. Carried. 

Moved and seconded that Mr. J. B. Mackintosh be elected his 
own successor. Carried. 

Prof. Rees stated that the subscriptions and receipts from all 
sources would be sufficient to pay off the liabilities of the Quarterly, 
amounting to some $240, and leave it free from debt. Total 
amount raised during the year, $1,500. Also that arrangements 
had been made with Messrs. Wiley & Sons for publishing the Maga- 
zine and reprints, and that two of the latter had been published in 
book form, i. e., Dr. Barnard's works on the Pyramids, and Kun- 
hardt's work on Ore-Dressing in Europe, some 300 copies having 
already been sold. 

The Treasurer stated that he had received a communication 
from the Secretary of the " Committee of Ten," stating that he had 
spent for necessary printing, etc,, to facilitate the work of the Com- 
mittee, $150, and there would necessarily be further expenditures. 

On motion it was 

Resolved, That the Treasurer be authorized to pay all expenses 
of the " Committee of Ten," for which proper vouchers are sub- 
mitted, provided that the sura total of such expenses shall not ex- 
ceed $250. 

The Secretary suggested the advisability of . publishing an 
amended Constitution and By-Laws and also a list of the members 
of the Association. 

On motion, the Standing Committee on Constitution and By- 
Laws were requested to make a careful examination of the same 
with a view to any further amendments that may be necessary, and 
that the printing of the Constitution, etc., be deferred until after 
the report of the Committee. 

Moved and seconded that the Meeting now adjourn. Carried. 

P. I)F. P. RlCKF.TTS, 

Secretary School of Mines Alumni Association. 



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THE QUARTERLY. 



twxxm. 



Whereas, It has pleased an all-wise Providence to remove 
from this life our fellow- graduates, 

FREDERICK EVERETT BRUEN, E.M., 

OF THE CLASS OF 1876, 
and 

ANTON FERNEKES, E.M., 

OF THE CLASS OF 1 878. 

Resolved, That by their death the Alumni Association of 
the School of Mines has lost faithful friends and earnest 
associates. 

Resolved, That the profession has lost men of ability who- 
gave great promise of a successful future. 

Resolved, That we tender our heartfelt sympathy to their 
families in their bereavement, 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to* 
the respective families of the deceased. 

Knight Neftel. 
Charles M. Rolker. 
C. E. Munsell. 

Committee^ 



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THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES 
QUARTERLY. 

.. VI. JANUARY, 1885. N< 



IRIDIUM: ITS OCCURRENCE, FUSION, ELECTRO- 
PLATING AND APPLICATIONS IN THE ARTS. 

BY NELSON W. PERRY, E.M. 

In the following pages the author has endeavored to present 
in concise form most of the important facts now known, that 
properly come under the above caption. The accomplishment 
of Fusion and Electrotyping of the metal have had their birth 
and development in the laboratory of Mr. John Holland, the 
celebrated Gold Pen manufacturer, of Cincinnati, with whom, 
and Prof. Dudley, the writer has long enjoyed an intimate ac- 
quaintance, during which he has become well acquainted with 
their processes and through whose courtesy he is enabled to give 
many facts and details in regard to the metallurgy of the practi- 
cally new metal. 

As regards the fusion of Iridium and its subsequent treat- 
ment, the whole story is told without reserve ; but, as to the plat- 
ing, he is placed under restrictions pending issuance of patents. 
Appended is a bibliography compiled for the benefit of students 
caring to go more deeply into the subject of Iridium, than is 
possible for the writer in an article such as this. 

In the year 1803, Smithson Tennant, while investigating the 
metallic residue which remained when Platinum ores were dis- 
solved in aqua regia, thought he had discovered a new metal. 
Descotils, Fourcroy, and Vauquelin were at the same tirne ex- 



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9 8 THE QUARTERLY. 

amining similar residues, and they also came to the conclusion 
that a peculiar metal was present ; but, however, in 1804, Ten- 
nant announced to the scientific world that he had proved the 
presence of two new metals in these Platinum residues, to one of 
which he gave the name of Iridium, on account of the irides- 
cence of some of its compounds ; and to the other, the name of 
Osmium (derived from the Greek, va/iij, smell), because of the 
peculiar odor which its volatile oxide possessed. 

Iridium is found in considerable quantities in the Platinum 
ores, in the forms of Platiniridium, which is an alloy of Platinum 
and Iridium, and Osmiridium or Iridosmine, which is an alloy 
of Osmium and Iridium. The Platiniridium occurs in grains, 
and sometimes in small cubes with rounded edges. The Iridos- 
mine is usually found in the form of flat, irregular grains, and 
occasionally in hexagonal prisms. 

The geographical distribution of this metal is quite wide; it 
is found in California, Oregon, Russia, East India, Borneo, South 
America, Canada, and Australia, and in small quantities in 
France, Germany, and Spain. 

As we find Iridosmine, or the so-called native Iridium, it is 
associated with numerous rare metals; viz.: Osmium, Platinum, 
Rhodium, Ruthenium, and Palladium, and also with Iron and 
Copper. 

The principal sources are Slatoust, Kyschtimsk and Katha- 
rinenberg in the Ural Mts. ; the latter place producing about 
200 ounces per annum. California comes second in production. 

Iridosmine has never been found in situ, but is obtained in 
the alluvial deposits and beaches, where it has been collected by 
a natural concentration as is our placer Gold and Platinum. 

Though California now stands second in production to Rus- 
sia, it is probable that as the demand increases and the mineral 
is more carefully sought after, she will take first rank; Oregon 
and British America being close competitors. The great sources 
in these regions being certain stretches of beach sands, which 
have from time to time been worked in a .desultory way for 
Gold. 

These beach sands derive their Gold as well as their Iridium, 
doubtless from the erosion of the bluffs by the waves. No veins 
have as yet been discovered in these bluffs, but it is supposed 
that the metals are disseminated throughout their mass. 



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IRIDIUM. 99 

The mineral varies in hardness according to the varying per- 
centages of Platinum and Osmium present, being usually placed 
between 6 and J in the scale of hardness, though occasionally 
reaching nearly 8. 

As indicated, its composition, and therefore its specific grav- 
ity also vary. The former being 
Iridium, 70% — 75%, 
Osmium, \%%—zo%, 
with varying amounts of Platinum, Ruthenium, Palladium, Rho- 
dium, and occasionally traces of Iron and Copper. In some 
specimens slight magnetism has been detected, but in all such 
casss analysis shows the presence of Iron. Iridosmine as well 
as Iridium when pure is non-magnetic. Other impurities also 
impart to the mineral different characteristics. In color it varies 
from a bright steel gray to blue. That obtained from Russia is 
lighter in color, and is usually richer in Platinum (sometimes 
containing as high as 33% PL); while the California product is 
remarkably free from Platinum, is heavier, denser, bluer and 
harder, and consequently is the most desirable for the pen- 
maker's use. It is unattacted by either alkalies or acids, though 
slightly soluble in aqua regia, when in a very fine state of sub- 
division. 

When highly heated in Oxygen or air, the Osmium becomes 
oxidized and volatilizes as Osmic acid, which is characterized by 
its exceedingly offensive and penetrating odor somewhat resem- 
bling garlic, and also by its exceedingly poisonous and irritating 
qualities. Henri St. Clair Deville completely lost his sight for 
six months by getting some of the fumes in his eyes. 

The pure Iridium takes up Oxygen at a red heat, but parts 
with it again at a temperature of about 1000 , C. 

Iridium is one of the most difficultly fusible of all metals, as 
will be seen from the following partially successful attempts to 
fuse it : in Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry, Vol. 6, we find 
the results of some of these experiments. " Vauquelin fused it 
in very small quantity only, on charcoal ignited in a stream of 
oxygen, and obtained a somewhat ductile globule." This could 
not have been pure iridium if the globule were ductile, as he 
states. " Children fused it by his galvanic battery into a white, 
strongly lustrous, brittle, and still somewhat porous globule of 
specific gravity 1 8.68. This globule probably contained Platinum 



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ioo THE QUARTERLY. 

(Berzelius). One gram of Iridium, heated upon charcoal before 
D5bler*s oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe, fuses into a bright globule 
which, however, appears to absorb gas, since, on solidifying, it 
throws out excrescences, and cavities are formed in its interior." 

Platinum, which melts at a much lower temperature than 
Iridium, was first fused by Dr. Hare, of Philadelphia, the inven- 
tor of the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. He succeeded in melting 
about two pounds (971 grams) at one time. He was also the 
first to melt Iridium by this means. 

As was before stated, the Iridium which these old chemists 
claim to have melted, must have been impure, containing metals 
of lower melting points; since one says he "obtained a some- 
what ductile globule," and another found the specific gravity to 
be 18.68 ; when it is well known that pure Iridium in the cold 
is not in the least ductile or malleable, and its specific gravity 
is 22.38. Alloys of Platinum, with a small percentage of Iridium, 
can be comparatively easily melted by the oxy-hydrogen blow- 
pipe. 

In a late determination, Violle estimates the melting point 
of pure Iridium at 1950 C, and Platinum at 1750 C. 

A few years ago MM, Deville and Debray succeeded in 
modifying Dr. Hare's blow-pipe to such an extent as to obtain 
more satisfactory results, and in 1 870 they prepared bars for the 
International Metrical System Convention, of 10 per cent. 
Iridium and 90 per cent. Platinum ; and they successfully melt- 
ed, in one charge, over 400 pounds of this alloy. This work 
was carried out under the superintendence of Mr. Geo. Matthey, 
of the firm of Johnson, Matthey & Co., of London. 

This alloy is largely in use for making Platinum dishes, stills 
and crucibles, as the Iridium renders the Platinum much stiffer 
and harder, and consequently more durable than the pure 
metal. 

Mr. Matthey has succeeded in producing alloys containing 
as high as 50% of Iridium, but with high percentages it be- 
comes exceedingly hard and brittle, and very difficult to work. 

Mr. Matthey recommends for future standards of weights and 
measures an alloy containing 20% of Iridium instead of 10% as 
is the case with the present standards of the Metric System. 

It has been found impossible to form artificial alloys with 
Gold, Tin, Iron, Nickel, Cobalt or Silver, though in nature Iron 



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IRIDIUM. 101 

seems to have alloyed in some cases, but Gold never. It seems 
strange that all authorities up to within a few years have credit- 
ed Iridium with the property of alloying with Gold. This it 
does neither in nature nor in art As has been intimated before, 
on account of its high specific gravity it remains behind with 
the Gold in placer washings, from which it is with difficulty 
separated. This placer Gold, therefore, when melted up into 
ingots, since it does not form an alloy with Iridium, incorporates 
in its mass the grains of the latter, greatly impairing its value 
both for minting and jeweler's purposes. It becomes in this way 
a great nuisance to the mints, as the sharp edges of the grains cut 
and ruin the rolls and dies and produce flaws in the work of the 
jeweler. The Russian Government is the greatest sufferer on 
this account, as the gold obtained from the Ural Mts. is rich in 
Iridosmine, which must be separated at great expense before 
the gold can be coined. Formerly the government used to sell 
this Iridosmine, but finding that it was bought up by unscrupu- 
lous parties'and used again for the adulteration of Gold, it now 
not only buys Iridium to make it an object to the miners to keep 
it out of the Gold, but refuses or has refused absolutely to sell 
any. There have, therefore, accumulated at the Russian Mints 
large quantities of the metal, which they hold merely for their 
own protection, daring not to sell at prices the inferior stuff 
would bring, for fear of its improper use. 

Mr. Holland also finds it absolutely necessary, when work- 
ing up his Gold sweeps, to bring the gold into solution and filter 
it — this being the only way of getting it free from Iridium, 
which even in the smallest quantity and in the finest state of 
sub-division fails to alloy and renders the metal unfit for pens. 
It has, however, the property of being readily soldered to Gold — 
ordinary hard Silver solder is that most used. 

The chief application of Iridosmine in the arts has been the . 
pointing of Gold pens. Iridosmine being the so-called "Dia- 
mond Point" of the pen manufacturers which consists simply of 
a small grain of Iridosmine which has been selected for the pur- 
pose, and soldered to the tip of the pen. These' points are se- 
lected by first removing from the ore, by means of a magnet, 
the magnetic oxide of iron which always accompanies it, and 
then dissolving out, by means of acids, the other impurities 
which may be present ; the ore is then washed with water, dried 



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10a THE QUARTERLY. 

and sifted in order to remove the fine dust, and the sifted ore is 
then ready for the selection of points. This is done by an ope- 
rator, who rolls the grains of Iridium around with a needle 
point, examining them under a magnifying glass, and selecting 
those which are solid, compact, and of the proper size, color and 
shape. These points are usually selected in three grades, small 
medium, and large, depending upon the size of the pen for 
which they are intended to be used. The grain of Iridium hav- 
ing been soldered on the end of the pen, it is sawed in two 
(which makes the two nibs of the pen), and ground up in the 
proper shape. 

A more recent application in the same direction, is to the 
point of the Mackinnon pen, which is tipped with a circle of 
solid Iridosmineor Phospho-iridtum drilled in the centre. These 
tips being non-corrodible, very hard, yet non-abrasive, and 
though infusible and not forming alloys, yet capable of being 
readily soldered to Gold, Silver, Copper, Brass, etc., have added 
much to the pen maker's art. But suitable grains are rare, con- 
stituting but about 10% of that brought to market. While the 
latter cost but $2.00 to $6.00 per ounce in Russia, the selected 
grains are worth $100.00 and upward here. Platin- iridium is 
unsuited for this purpose, being too soft. One ounce selected 
Iridosmine contains from 3000 to 6000 grains. Of this, the 
pen makers of the United States use from 20 to 30 ounces an- 
nually, which is equivalent to from 200 to 300 ounces of the 
crude article. A good Iridium or "Diamond pointed" pen will 
last upwards of 20 years' constant use. 

Another use for Iridium in the form of Oxide, is to produce 
an intense and permanent black in porcelain. In fact it may be 
substituted in most cases where Platinum black is applicable. 
It occludes hydrogen, as does Platinum, and, when precipitated 
in alcohol, will ignite dry paper. 

When we have mentioned the application of " Matthey's 
alloy" (Iridium 10%, Platinum 90%) to the vents of heavy ord- 
nance, and for standards of weights and measures, we have 
about completed the enumeration of the uses heretofore made 
of Iridium in the arts. 

Messrs. Johnson, Matthey & Co., of London, exhibited at 
Paris, in 1867, one vent that had fired 3000 rounds from a 
Whitworth cannon without appreciable wear. 



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THE FUSION OF IRIDIUM. 

As we have already seen, the use of Iridium in the arts has 
been confined almost entirely to that very small portion of the 
product, which by nature has occurred in suitably large grains. 
Doubtless over 80% of all the Iridosmine found has been put to 
no use whatever. It has either been thrown away as valueless, 
or stored up, as in the case in the Russian Mint, to prevent its 
improper use. It is not surprising that in the case of a mineral 
possessing such refractory qualities as does this Iridosmine, 
many attempts should be made to fuse it, and thus to make its 
application in the arts wider, and to utilize this large waste of 
a by-product, for Iridosmine has never been systematically 
mined as such, but is a by-product, and a very unwelcome one, 
too, in the metallurgy of Gold and Platinum. 

But it so persistently baffled all attempts in this direction up 
to the time of Hare's partial success with the oxy-hydrogen blow- 
pipe that the thoughtful metallurgist or experimenter began to 
realize that he was in somewhat the same position as the al- 
chemist of old who sought for a universal solvent — if he found 
it, what vessel could hold it ? and if such a vessel could be 
found, it was proof that his object was not attained, for there 
would then remain still one substance which his solvent would 
not affect. Without rehearsing the many fruitless endeavors to 
accomplish the much-desired result, let us take up the thread 
which has led to the most complete and satisfactory solution of 
the problem. 

Mr. G. W. Sheppard, a gold pen manufacturer of Cincinnati, 
appreciating the desirability of accomplishing the fusion of 
Iridium, commenced an elaborate series of experiments with that 
object in view in the year 1842 or 1843. He employed every 
method that his ingenuity could suggest, including the oxy-hy- 
drogen blow-pipe and the electric current, but died in 1862, 
after nearly twenty years constant experimenting, apparently no 
nearer the goal than when he commenced. It seems, howeven 
that he builded better than he knew, for by his zeal he sowed 
the seeds that have since matured to ripe fruition. 

He had as an employee, a young man who afterwards be- 
came his partner and finally his successor, Mr. John Holland, 
who throughout these years shared with him the labors and dis- 
appointments of his fruitless experiments. 



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io 4 THE QUARTERLY. 

At the death of Mr. Sheppard, Mr. Holland succeeded to his 
business, and also fell heir to considerable of his enthusiasm, and 
to a very large stock of information as to how Iridium could not 
be fused. 

He continued the line of experiment with varying degrees of 
assiduity and discouragement until the year 1858 or 1859, when, 
with the view of setting other experimenters at work, and see- 
ing if the thing could be accomplished, he offered $1,000, both 
in the United States and France, to any one who would fuse for 
hirn one Troy ounce of Iridium. No one being able to claim 
the reward, he would doubtless have abandoned all further at- 
tempts, had not two events occurred shortly afterwards. He 
took the contract to supply the Iridium tips for the Mackinnon 
stylographic pen, then a new patent, which required an Iridium 
point drilled in the centre, for which only the larger grains were 
suitable. The demand for the pen so far exceeded his anticipa- 
tion that he found it utterly impossible to fulfill his contract, and 
begged the company to cancel it. This they refused to do and 
threatened to bring suit for breach of contract. This meant fin- 
ancial ruin to him, and the dim vision of fused Iridium seemed 
the only genius that could avert it, so he went to work again 
with renewed energy. At about this time (1880), a friend sent 
him a piece of iron ore from East Tennessee with the request 
that he melt it down for him. He did so, but noticed that it 
melted exceedingly readily and became much more fluid than 
did other specimens treated in like manner. The question arose 
in his mind, what was the cause of this ? Might not this cause, 
if detected, aid him in the solution of the Iridium question? 
And it did. He found that the ore in question differed from the 
other specimens only in the excessive amount of phosphorus 
present. Very bad for the iron, but as it proved, good for 
Iridium. Would this phosphorus prove to be his long sought 
friend ? He resolved to try it, and putting a small amount of 
Iridosmime into a small Hessian crucible, he heated it to a white 
heat, and then threw in a piece of stick phosphorus. When the 
fumes had cleared away he poured the crucible and beheld to 
his joy and amazement a white, compact, hard metal. No file 
could touch it nor acid attack it. This, the first successful fusion 
of Iridium, made a cast weighing about j£ ounce. The metal, 
which we will call " Phospho-Iridium," possessed all the proper- 



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IRIDIUM. 105 

ties of the original Iridosmine, except that it was slightly harder, 
— being a good 9 in the scale — and became very liquid at a 
white heat. It was a phosphide. The problem of the pen 
points was solved, and many other applications rendered possi- 
ble ; but how to remove the phosphorus and render the Iridium 
again infusible, to fit it for applications where intense heats were 
employed, was the question that now arose. At this stage of 
the process Prof. W. L. Dudley was called in, and we can. do no 
better than quote a portion of a paper* read by him before the 
Cincinnati meeting of the American Inst. Mining Engineers. 

" At this stage of the discovery we became acquainted with 
it, and began experiments with the intention of putting the pro- 
duct to some practical use in the arts. It was found that the 
presence of phosphorus rendered the metal quite readily fusible 
at a white heat, but this, of course, was an obstacle in the way 
of its use for electrical purposes. Desiring, therefore, to remove 
the phosphorus, we found by experimenting that by heating the 
metal in a bed of lime the phosphorus could be completely re- 
moved. In this operation, the metal is first heated in an ordin- 
ary furnace at a white heat, and finally, after no more phos- 
phorus makes its appearance, it is removed and placed in an 
electric furnace with a lime crucible and there heated until the 
last traces of phosphorus are removed ; the metal which then 
remains will resist as much heat without fusion as the native 
metal. 

In mechanical applications, where the metal is not subject to 
great heat, it is melted with phosphorus and cast into the shape 
desired, aiyi then ground or worked as the application may re- 
quire. The first application to which it was put was for the 
manufacture of the Mackinnon pen-points. For this purpose, 
the metal, after being fused, is removed from the furnace and 
poured between two slabs of iron, which are kept apart the de- 
sired distance so as to make a sheet of Iridium of the thickness 
required. The metal is poured, as I have said, between these 
plates, and the plates are brought suddenly together, on the plan 
of a closed ingot with a hinge, so that as the metal cools it is 
subjected to pressure which closes the pores and makes a very 
compact casting. The slabs for the Mackinnon pen-points are 



•Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Engineers 1683-84. 



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io6 THE QUARTERLY. 

about one-thirty-second of an inch in thickness, and are broken 
up into small, irregular pieces, which are soldered on a strip of 
brass and ground down to a flat surface by means of a copper- 
lap. The copper-lap (Fig. l) consists of a plate of copper, about 



one-half inch in thickness and eight inches in diameter, fixed on 
a spindle, which is made to revolve from eight hundred to a 
thousand revolutions per minute; the copper of which the lap 
is composed is wrought copper, well annealed, and consequently 
very soft. In order to grind with it, corundum or diamond-dust 
is mixed with oil and applied to the flat surface of the lap by 
means of a flat steel instrument, upon which pressure is applied 
in order to force the corundum or diamond-dust into the copper, 
thereby making a cutting surface. The Iridium to be ground is 
held against this sharp surface of the lap, and the corundum or 
diamond-dust gradually cuts the metal away. As the cutting 
material wears from the copper-lap, another application of cor- 
undum and diamond-dust is made by means of the steel instru- 
ment as described ; this operation is continued until the grinding 
is complete. After the slabs are ground to a surface they are 
then drilled. In the drilling operation, the Iridium is first coun- 
ter-sunk by means of a diamond drill, consisting of an upright 
spindle suitably fixed in a frame so as to revolve freely, the bottom 
of the spindle holds a small rod of brass, to the lower end of which 
is set a white diamond-splint. This drill is made to revolve 
about nine hundred revolutions per minute. The Iridium is 
held up against the diamond with a light pressure, and the dia- 



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IRIDIUM. 107 

mond gradually makes a conical hole or countersink. After 
countersinking the Iridium, it is finally pierced by means of a 
copper drill (Fig. 2), which consists of a piece of soft copper 
wire, which is filed down to a point and set in a drill similar to 
that in which the diamond 
is placed, but this drill 
makes about thirty-five 
hundred revolutions per 
minute. Corundum or dia- 
mond-dust and oil is put 
into the countersink open- 
ing in the Iridium, and 
then it is held up against 
the piece of revolving cop- 
per. The diamond-dust 
or corundum, imbedding 
itself in the copper, acts 
as a cutting surface, and 
finally accomplishes the 
drilling of the hole. The 
holes having been drilled 
in the pieces of Iridium 
which were soldered to 
the brass, the brass is 
finally dissolved from the 
Indium by means of nitric acid ; and then we have irregular- 
shaped pieces of Iridium, pierced with holes. These pieces of 
Iridium are then soldered in proper position to the end of 
the Mackinnon pen, fitting into the opening of which there is 
a valve consisting of an Indium-pointed wire. The Iridium is 
then ground to the proper shape on the outside by means of a 
copper-lap, as shown in Fig. 3, consisting of three or more cop- 
per cylinders on a common spindle, making about three thousand 
revolutions per minute. 

The operation of sawing Iridium is carried on by means of a 
copper disk (Fig. 4), from four to eight inches in diameter, made 
of soft thin sheet-copper, held between two clamps, placed on a 
spindle revolving at the rate of about twenty-five hundred revo- 
lutions per minute. This sheet of copper revolves in a box 
which contains corundum or diamond-dust and cotton-seed oil. 



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io8 THE QUARTERLY. 

The cotton-seed oil, with the cutting material, adheres to the 
periphery of the saw, and as the saw comes in contact with a 
piece of Iridium it gradually does the work. Cotton-seed oil is 
preferred for this purpose to any other oil, on account of its vis- 
cosity. 

Now this Phospho-Iridium possesses some peculiarities of its 
own. In the first place it is considerably harder than the Iri- 
dosmine from whichit was made, usually reaching 9 in the scale, 
retains perfectly its metallic character, is somewhat lighter in 
weight, due to the addition of Phosphorus, and an increase in 
volume, is homogeneous, not perceptibly more brittle than the 
mineral, and has acquired a slightly increased capacity for polish. 



It also forms some alloys not heretofore produced with the 
mineral itself. 

With Silver it unites in small quantities, forming the most 
elastic and hardest alloy of that metal. 

With Gold and Tin no alloys have yet been made. 

With Copper it forms, when added in small quantity, a very 
hard anti-friction box metal suitable for bearings subject to 
great pressure, as in screw presses, etc. This alloy seems to re- 
tain the lubricant in such cases better than any other metal, and 
its great hardness prevents distortion. 

With Iron, Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum, it forms alloys seem- 
ingly in all proportions, and of the greatest importance. 

With Iron, whose alloy has been most studied, it unites in 
all proportions, giving a product retaining the properties of pure 
Phospho-Iridium, practically to a lesser degree as regards incor- 
rosibility and hardness after large proportions only of Iron have 
been added. Slight magnetism begins to make its appearance 



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IRIDIUM. 109 

almost at once, but the alloy is unaltered by acids or alkalies, 
and its hardness is such as to turn the best file, until the Iron 
reaches 50%. From this point on, the alloys become less and 
less refractory, partaking more of the qualities of the iron, but re- 
maining always brittle. 

In casting the Phospho- Iridium, it is found that it will take 
the form much more sharply after two or three meltings. It is 
therefore seldom cast into closed moulds directly after the addi- 
tion of Phosphorus. 



The more complex shapes are cast in iron or steel moulds, 
opened or closed, (previously heated to prevent too rapid cool- 
ing or chilling of the phosphide), or are subsequently sawed out 
of slabs previously cast. It is found that one melting of the 
Phosphide is usually not sufficient, and that better casts are ob- 
tained after repeated meltings up to a certain point. At each 
melting, however, some of the Phosphorus is volatilized, requiring 
at each succeeding firing a higher temperature for fusion. A 
certain point is at last reached, discernible only to the practiced 
eye, when the metal will take the most perfect cast. If carried 
beyond this point its capacity in this direction diminishes, and 
if carried far enough, the metal becomes again infusible at the 
temperatures attainable. Should this stage be reached, the 
metal can be returned to its fusible condition by addition of 
more Phosphorus. 



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no THE QUARTERLY. 

We have now a cast or slab of Iridium combined with Phos- 
phorus. The next step is to remove the latter. Though Prof. 
Dudley states that this is accomplished with the aid of a lime 
crucible and the electric furnace, the first method employed was 
as follows: — A piece of perforated fire clay is fitted into a Hes- 
sian crucible so as not to quite touch the bottom. Upon this is 
placed the cast to be dephosphorized, carefully packed in dry 
powdered lime. The crucible with its contents is now heated to 
and kept at a good red heat for some time. The Phosphorus 
unites with the lime, forming a dirty greenish semi-transparent 
slag (Phosphate of Lime?) which as fast as formed, runs down 
through the perforations in the fire clay and collects at the bot- 
tom of the crucible. After a certain time the crucible is remov- 
ed, cooled, the cast taken out and repacked in similar manner 
in another or the same crucible, with fresh lime and again heat- 
ed as before. This is repeated a number of times, the tempera- 
ture being increased at each succeeding heat, until the metal is 
deemed to be sufficiently dephosphorized. 

Although Mr. Holland's offer of $1000 failed to bring him 
one ounce of fused Iridium, he has by his process fused over 
thirty ounces at one heat, in a Hessian crucible with a natural 
draft furnace. Larger melts could be made, but thus far have 
not been attempted. 

On May 10th, 188 1, Mr. Holland took out letters patent for 
the fusion of Iridium with Phosphorus, and a few months later 
took out patents covering all alloys with other metals. 

At about this time a company was formed known as "The 
American Iridium Co.," with headquarters and factory in Cin- 
cinnati. Of this, Prof. Dudley was elected general manager, 
and to him is largely due the present state of perfection of the 
new industry. He iimnediately set himself to work to increase 
the applications and usefulness of the practically new metal in 
the arts. His thoughts naturally early turned to electroplating. 
He was experimenting in an entirely new field, with no prece- 
dents to go by except those furnished by the electro metallurgy 
of the other metals, so different in kind. It is not surprising 
therefore that he made many failures, and that his progress was 
slow, but it has been nevertheless sure. 

With a slightly acid solution of the double chloride of So- 
dium and Iridium, and a Phospho- Iridium anode, he succeeded 



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IRIDIUM. 1 1 1 

in getting a fine reguline deposit on Copper and some other 
metals as a base. This is capable of the highest polish, and in 
color I should place it between polished Steel and Nickel, 
though some specimens are so white that they might be placed 
between Nickel and Silver. At first it was found possible to 
make but a very thin plate. This would at times scale off, and 
at others, after long standing, become discolored by the founda- 
tion. The bath, too, required constant strengthening. 

He has later, however, discarded this method, employing an 
entirely different anode and electrolyte, and has completely 
overcome the previously mentioned difficulties. The deposit 
can be made heavy, is somewhat whiter and he obtains the great 
desideratum — a perfectly constant bath. The principles involved 
are doubtless applicable to the electro metallurgy of Gold, Sil- 
ver, Platinum, Nickel and Copper, which are now being experi- 
mented upon. 

Prof. Dudley has applied for patents covering his inventions 
in electro-plating, but they have not yet been issued. For ob- 
vious reasons-, therefore, I cannot now give the details without 
violating confidence. I may, however, give these in a future 
paper. 

Prof. F. W. Clarke and Mr. O. T. Joslin early made a series 
of chemical analyses of the Phospho-Iridium with exceedingly 
interesting results. The subjects analysed were some fused 
Iridium and some of the original Iridosmine from California, 
from which the fused Phospho-Iridium was made." 

The Sp. Gr, of the Iridosmine was found to be 19.182. 

" " " Phospho-Iridium " I3>7&8. 

Three estimations of Phosphorus in one sample of the latter 
gave 7.52*0, 7.58%, and 7.74%. This sample contained barely 
a trace of Osmium. In the Iridosmine itself 15.38% of Osmium 
was ound. A second fused portion gave 

Iridium 80.83*. 

Osmium 6-95" 

Phosphorus 7.09 " 

Ruthenium and Rhodium 7.20" 



From these results, they conclude that the fused Iridium is 
a definite Phosphide having the formula IreP. For this formula 

•See their original article in Am. Chetn. Journal, Vol. V., No. 4. 

ntrod vGoO^lc 



ii2 THE QUARTERLY. 

the percentage of Phosphorus should be 7.43, the difference 
they account for by the presence of other metals than Iridium, 
and adduce, in support of its correctness, some investigations, 
with Platinum, which will be found in their original paper. 

Now a peculiarity is observed. It is noticed that the Os- 
mium is largely eliminated, in the above analysis, more than one- 
half. It will also be noticed that, according to the same analysis, 
but 7.09% is added in the way of Phosphorus, yet in practice it 
is noticed that in fusion an increase in product is uniformly ob- 
tained of from 7% to \o% in weight According to the above 
analysis the loss of Osmium and increase as Phosphorus about 
counter-balance each other. How then can we account for the 
additional weight ? This is an interesting point for investiga- 
tion. 

The increase in weight 7-10% with decrease of Sp. Gr. of 
5% show considerable increase of volume, which in the case 
of such a valuable metal as Iridium, is an item of considerable 
importance in its economy. 

It may be observed that dephosphorization has not been 
found necessary in any of the applications of the metal except 
for electricity. 

When dephosphorized the metal appears to be very slightly 
porous, but not to such an extent as to depreciate its value in 
any of the applications thus far made. 

Among the applications thus far made may be mentioned 
the following : 

1. Draw-plates for brass, gold, silver, copper and very fine 
iron wire, supplanting for this purpose steel and the ruby. The 
advantages claimed for it are, that it will outlast steel, and has no 
temper to be lost, as is the case with steel, and is tougher than 
and not so liable to break as the ruby. 

2. Knife edges for fine analytical balances. It seems to have 
less friction than steel, and is uncorroded by dampness or acid 
fumes. 

Mr. Troemner, of Philadelphia, has made practical tests of 
its application in this direction. His first balance provided with 
Iridium knife edges was made in the latter part of 1881. This 
trial so fully satisfied him of its superiority to steel for such pur- 
poses, that he now uses the Phospho-Iridium exclusively on his 
finer balances. 



.vGoogle, 



IRIDIUM. ii 3 

3. Small drills for jeweler's work, drilling the eyes of but- 
tons, etc Is harder than steel and has no temper to be drawn. 

4. Electrical contact points ; replacing Platinum with which 
it has similar electrical properties. Does not "stick" nor oxi- 
dize as does the latter. Some of these points have now been in 
constant use for 1 J^ years by the Western Union Telegraph 
Company and the Union Switch and Signal Company of Pitts- 
burg without signs of deterioration. 

5. Stylus points for manifold writing. 

6. Negative electrodes in the arc lamp. It was not found 
suitable for the positive electrode, as the heat was so intense as 
to partially fuse it, but as a negative electrode in a lamp having 
carbon as a positive, it seems to answer quite well. The heat in 
the negative is not sufficient to melt it, but simply enough to 
make it malleable. The difficulty has been that the lamps as 
ordinarily constructed permit of the hammering of the negative 
by the positive electrode. This is sufficient to batter the Irid- 
ium out of shape in time. Experiments have been made to 
prevent this hammering, and I am reliably informed, very suc- 
cessfully. Mr U. L, Egerton, of Philadelphia, has constructed 
a lamp of this sort that meets all the requirements. I have been 
unable to get any details of his experiments, and therefore give 
these statements merely from hearsay. Messrs. Holland and 
Dudley provided a Maxim lamp with the Iridium electrode, and 
operated it for 168 hours. 

The Iridium used was weighed both before and after its use, 
and there was no sensible loss of weight. This lamp was one of 
the pounding kind, and after being in use for this length of time 
the Iridium was so battered out of shape as to put a stop to the 
experiment The advantages of the use of Iridium in a pro- 
perly constructed lamp readily suggest themselves, viz.: the 
unvarying position of the point of light, thus adapting the 
electric light to conical and other reflectors without additional 
machinery ; the shortening of the length of lamp by nearly the 
length of the usual negative carbon, and the saving in running 
expenses of negative carbons. It is also claimed that a consid- 
erable increase of light is obtained by its use and that the qual- 
ity is superior, being less glaring. To the latter fact I can test- 
ify from personal observation. 



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H4 THE QUARTERLY. 

Edison and others have experimented with Iridium for in- 
candescent lighting, but not with encouraging results. 

7. Tipping of gold pens and Mackinnon pens. 

8. Tipping of blow-pipes. 

9. Jewels and bearings for delicate machinery, such as 
watches, clocks, etc. 

10. Anodes for electro-plating of same metal. 

1 1. Tips for hypodermic syringes, etc. 
[2. Bearings for compasses, etc. 

13. Edgings for tools used in turning rubber, ivory, and for 
such other substances as readily draw the temper of steel. 

14. The electro-plate is used where an indestructible coating 
is desired, and where the additional expense would not prevent 
its supplanting nickel or silver plate. Its extra durabilty — al- 
most indestructibility we may say — and the fact of its never 
tarnishing, are qualities that recommend it above all other metals 
for plating and outweigh any additional cost. 

I purposely avoid giving any prices, as they are constantly 
changing as improvements are made. 

A basis for calculation, however, may be had by taking the 
price of Phospho- Iridium as a starting point. The American 
Iridium Company now place a value upon it of $20.00 per ounce 
Troy. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE METAL IRIDIUM. 

1803 Descotils, Ann. Chim. 48, 153 ; A. Gehl, 2, 73. 

1804 Fourcroy and Vauquelin, Ann. Chim. 50, p. 5 ; A. Gehl, 
3, 262. 

1804 Tennant, Phil. Trans., p. 411 ; A. Gehl, 5 p. 166. 

id 5 Thomson, Phil. Trans., 1805, pp. 316. 

1813-14 Vauquelin, Ann. Chim. 88, p. 234; 89, pp. 150, 225 ; 

90, p. 260. 
1816 Children, Schweiger's Chemie. und Physik. 16, p. 365. 
1818 Vauquelin, " " " " 24, p. 21. 

1822 Faraday and Stoddart, Ann. Chem. Phys. Vol. 21, p. 73. 
1826 Thomson, Schweiger's Chemie und Physik. 47, p, 59. 
1828 Fischer, " " " " 53, p, 117. 

1828 Berzelius, K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1828, p. 53, 57, 58. 



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IRIDIUM. 115 

1828-29 Berzelius, Pogg. 13, 435, 527; 15, 208, 213. 
1833 Persoz, Annales de Chemie 50, p. 210. 

1833 Prinsep, Asiatic Researches, 18, part 2, p. 279. 

1834 Frick, Pogg. 31, p. 17. 

1834 Wohler, Pogg. 31, pp, 161. 167. 

1834 Wohler and Booth, Pogg. 31, p. 161. 

1834 Persoz, Pogg. 31, p. 161. 

1834 Weiss and Dobereiner, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 14, p. 16. 

1834 Bottger, Jour. prak. Chem. 3, pp. 276, 277. 

1835 Svanberg, Pogg. 34, p. 379. 

1835 Lassaigne, Jour. Med. Chem. 1, pp. 57, 63, 

1835 Joss, J. pr. Chem. 4, p. 371. 

1836 Hermann, Pogg. 37, p. 408. 

1836 Dobereiner, Pogg. Vol. 37, p. 548. 

1837 Bottger, Jour. pr. Chem. 12, p. 352. 
1837 Rammelsberg, C, Pogg. 42, p. 139. 

'837-38-39 Fellenberg, Pogg. 41, p. 210; 44, p. 220; 50. p- 66. 

1839 Gaudin, J. pr. Chem. 16, p. 55. 

1844 Fremy, Comptes Rendus, 18, p. 144. 

1844 Claus, Jour. prak. Chem. 32, p. 488. 

1846 " " ". " 39, p. 99. 

1846 Berzelius, Berzel. J. B. 25, 100. 

1846 Hare, Sill. Am. J. [2] 2, p. 365. 

1846 Fritzsche and Struve, J. pr. Chem. 37, p. 483. 

1846 Claus, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 59, p. 234. 

1847 " " " '< 63, p. 341. 
1847 Berzelius. Ann. Chem. Phar. 61, p. I. 

1847 Claus, Jour. pr. Chem. 42, pp. 100-108, 351—359. 
1849 Schrotter, Sitzungsberichte Wien Akad. 1849, p. 301. 
1849 R °se G., Ber. Akad. Ber. 1849, p. 98. 
1849 R°se G., J. B. 1849, p. 14. 

1851 Karmrodt and Uhrlaub, J. B. 1851, p. 372. 

1852 " " " Ann. Chem. Pharm. 81, p. 12a 
1852 Skoblikoff, J B. 1852, p. 428. 

1852 " Ann. Chem. und Pharm. 84, 275. 

1853 " Iridium-Ammoniak Verb. St. Peters. Akad, 
Sci. Bull. 11, pp. 25-32. 

1853 Skoblikoff, Jour. prak. Chem. 58, pp. 31-39. 

1854 Dubois H., Annales de Mines [5] 6, p. 5:8. 

1854 Claus, Beitrage zur Chemie der Platin metalle, Dorpat 
15. 26, 74, 75.76,62,90,91. 



i6 THE QUARTERLY. 

854 Fremy, Comptes Rendus, 38, p. 1008. 

854 Fremy, J. B., 1854, P- 3<>7 

855 Fremy, J. B., 1855, p. 422. 

855 Fremy, Ann. Chim. [3] 44, pp. 385, 389. 
855 Marignac, Recherches sur les formes exist. Geneve, 1855. 
p. 25. 

855 Claus, J. B., 1855, p. 434. 

856 Weltzien, Ann. Chem. Pharm. Vol. 96, p. 29. 

856 Regnault, Annal. Chim. [3] 46, p. 257. 

857 Birnbaum, J. B. 1857, p. 263. 

857 Wohler and Muckle, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 104, p. 370. 
857 Devi lie and Caron, Comptes. Rendus Vol. 44, p. hop 
857 Opper, Ueberdie Jodverbind. d. Iridiums, Gotjingen, 1857. 

857 " J. B. 1857, p. 263. 

857-58 Eisner, Chem. tech Mitth. 1857-58, p. 36. 

858 Gibbs and Genth, Sill. Am. J. [2] 25, p. 248. 
858 " " " J. B. 1858, p. 214. 

858 Claus, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 107, pp. 129-136. 

860 " J. B. 

860 Claus. St. Petersb. Akad. Sci. Bull. 2, pp. 158, 173, 175, 

176, 179, 180. 
860 Gibbs Am. Jour. Sc. [2] 29. May, i860. 

860 Martius Cyanverbind. der Platimetalle, Gottingen, i860, 
pp. 5,6, 29. 31, 33, 34. 

861 Martius Annalen Chem. und Pharm. 117, p. 371. 
861 Claus, J. B. 1861, p. 323- 

861 Lang, K. Sv. Vet Akad. Handl. N. F. 5, No. 7, pp. 7-9. 

861 Regnault, Annales Chim. [3] 63, p. 5, 

861 Torrey, Am. Jour. Sc. [2] 31, p. 64. 

861 Gibbs " " [2] 31, p. 63. 

861 " J. B. 1861, p. 328. 

862 " Am. Jour. Sc. [2] 34, p. 342. 

862 Claus — St. Petersb. Akad. Sci. Bull. 4 pp. 465, 467, 469, 
474. 475. 48o. 

863 Gibbs, J. B. 1863, p. 290. 

864 " " 1864, p. 287. 

864 " Am. Jour. Sc. [2] 37, p. 57. 
864 Lea C. " " [2] 38, p. 81, 
864 Brunner, Pogg, 122, 153. 
864 " J. B. 1864, 125. 



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IRIDIUM. 117 

1864 Birnbaum, Bromverb. des Irid. Gottingen, 186 4,1 2. 17, 29 

1865 " J. B. 1865, pp. 283, 284. 

1865 " Ann. Chem. Pharm. 133, p. 161; 136 pp. 
177. 179, l»3- 

1866 Birnbaum " " " 139, p. 164. 
1866 Eisner, J. B. 1866, 36. 

1866 Bunsen, Ann. Chem. Pharm. 138, p. 257. 

1867 Rose H. Handb. d. anal. Chem. Leipzig, 1867^ Vol. 1, 
P' 364- 

1867-68 Schneider, Ann. Chem. Pharm. Suppl. 5, p. 267. 

1868 Wohler, Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. 145, p. 375. 

1868 Bunsen, " " " 146, p. 282. 

1869 Fizeau H. Comptes Rendus 68, p. 1 125. 

1871 Sadtler, Iridium Compounds. Gottingen, 1871, 16. 
1871 Gibbs, Ber. Deutsch Chem. Gesell. 1871, p. 280. 

1871 Deville & Debray " " " p. 2?o. 

1872 Bettendorf, Niederrhein, Sitzungiberichte, 1872, p. 9. 

1873 Kern S. Chem. News, v. 27, p. 4. 

1873 Phillipp J. Ber. d. Wiener Weltaust, 1873, v. 3, 1st abst. 
999- 

1873 Deville & Debray, J. B. 1873, p. 291. 

1874 '" " Technologiste, 1874, 194. 
1874 " " Ding, J. CCXIII, p. 337. 
1874 " " Poly. Centralbl. 1874, 966. 
1874 Deville, Ver. J. B. 1874, p. 181. 

1874 Fizeau, Comptes Rendus, 78, p. 1205. 

1874 Morin, Comp. Rend. 78, pp. 1502, 1509. 

1875 Lasaux, Jahrbuch, Mineralogie, 1875. 
1875 Deville & Debray, Chem. News, 32, p. 281. 

1875 " " Ber. Deutsch Chem. Gesell, p. 1591. 

1875 " " Comptes Rendus, 81, p. 839. 

1876 " " " " " 82, p. 178. 
1876 " " Chem. Centralblat, 1876, p. 4. 
1876 " " Monit. Scientif, 1876, p. 75. 
1876 Terreil, Comp. Rend. 1876, pp. 1 1 16. 

1876 Boussingault, Comp. Rend. 82, p. 591, 

1876 " Chem. Centralbl. 1876, p. 307. 

1877 Kern. S. Chem. News, 35, p. 88. 

1877 Debray, Bull, de la Soc. Chim. 1877, 27, Nr. 4, p. 146. 
1877 " Chem. Centralbl. 1877, p. 210. 



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n8 THE QUARTERLY. 

1877 Deville, Ver. J. B. 1877, p. 1 16. 

1878 " Comptes Rendus, 86, p. 441. 
1878 Deville & Debray, Comptes Rendus, p. 87. 

1878 Seubert C. Ber. Deutsch, Chem. Gesell, 1 1 pp. 1 761, 1767. 

1879 " Chem. News, 39, p. 74. 
1879 Perry, Nelson W. Chem. News, 39, p. 89. 
1879 Matthey, Geo. Chem. News, 39, p. 175. 

1879 Girard A. Bull, de la Soc. Chim., 1879, 32, p. 3. 

1879 " Mon. Scientif. 1879, No. 451, p. 795; No. 452, 

p. 911. 
1879 Luthby, O. Handelsblatt der Chemiker Zett 1879, No. 38 

P- 559- 
1879 Deville & Mascart, Comp. Rend. Vol. 88, p. 210. 
1879 " " Dingl, J. 232, p. 547. 

1879 Birnbaum, Deut. Chem. Gesell. Vol. 12, p. 1544 

1880 Debray, Comptes Rendus, 90, p. 1195. 

1S80 Riemsdyk, Annales, Chim. Phys. [5] 20, p. 66. 

1881 Dudley, Wm. L. Proceed Dept. Sci. & Arts, Ohio Mech. 
Inst May, 1881. 

1882 Wilm, Jour. Russ. Chem. Soc. 1882, p. 240. 

1882 Debray, Chem. News, 46, p. 280. 

J883 Le Coq de Boisbaudran, Chem. News, 47, pp. 240, 257, 

1883 Le Coq de Boisbaudran, Comptes Rendus, 1883, 293, 299. 
p- 1339- 

1883 Clarke & Joslin, Am. Chem. Jour. v. 5, No. 4. 

1883 Clarke, F. W. Mineral Resources of U. S. 1883'. 
1883-4 Dudley, Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Engineers, 1883-4. 

1884 " Mineral Resources of U. S. 1884. 



THE MECHANICS OF THE FRICTION CLUTCH. 

BV S. W. BALCH. 

The object of this paper will be to consider the mathematics 
and the practical application of some of the forms of the 
friction clutch. Wherever machinery is extensively used it 
becomes necessary to provide means for connecting and discon- 
necting certain parts without stopping all of the machinery. 



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FRICTION CLUTCH. 119 

The friction clutch is a device used for this purpose. Two sur- 
faces, that when pressed together, oppose considerable resistance 
to slipping on each other, are essential -to all friction clutches. 
The parts carrying one of the surfaces will be kept continuously 
running. The other surface will form a part of the mechanism 
driving the machine, which it is desired to stop or put in 
motion, independently of the other machinery. 

In the majority of places, where the fricton clutch is appli- 
cable for the starting and disconnecting of machinery, the use 
of a leather belt, with a fork to shift it between a tight and a 
loose pulley, is preferable. So before we can determine where 
the friction clutch is to be used, we must understand the uses of 
the belt with tight and loose pulley. This is so simple a device 
that it must continue to hold an important place in machine 
construction. Its main advantage is simplicity. In most places 
admitting the use of a friction clutch, a belt is also necessary to 
transfer the motion from the main shaft to the machine, and by 
putting a loose pulley on the machine, it may be managed 
usually as well as with the friction clutch. The belt driving the 
machine may be required to run on step pulleys for varying the 
speed, as on the lathe, then a friction clutch may be used to 
avoid using a counter shaft, but counter shafts are necessary, 
except where it is practicable to place the machine directly 
under the main shaft. 

Machines having lost motion may be started with less jar- 
ring, by slipping on a belt, than with a clutch. This is why 
the friction clutch is not extensively used for the starting, stop- 
ping and reversing of planing machines and other tools with 
heavy reciprocating parts. In the planer, a train of gearing is 
necessarily used to transmit the motion to the table, and drive 
it at the proper speed. As the cogs are not as wide as the 
spaces in which they fit, there will be a slight change in the 
motion of the gear train, occurring in advance of a change in 
the motion of the table at each reversing of the machine, and 
when the lost motion, from the clearance of the teeth, is taken 
up, the gear teeth will knock together with considerable force, 
jarring the machine in a manner detrimental to its remaining in 
repair. When the planer is reversed by shifting the belts, the 
belt which is to slip on the tight pulley will not move com- 
pletely on it, so as to transit its full power until the motion of 



^Google 



no THE QUARTERLY. 

the planer is reversed, and the pulley is turning in the same 
direction as the belt. The lost motion is therefore taken up 
and the machine reversed, while the edge of the belt only is in 



*M 



Fif.2. 



contact with the driven pulley, and with only a fraction of the 
power necessary to drive the work against the cutting tool. 
The jar in reversing the machine is thereby reduced to a mini- 



]V GooqIc 



FRICTION CLUTCH. 121 

mum. The planer table may have its motion controlled by a 
pair of friction clutches driving in opposite directions, one of 
the clutches being used to drive the table forward and the other 
to bring it back. The friction clutch develops its full power in- 
stantly upon the shifting of the lever, which applies the clutch. 
It will, therefore, when applied to a planer, reverse it with great 
suddenness. While this disadvantage exists in the clutches, 
which the writer has examined, he does not consider it inherent 
in the nature of the clutch, but one which may be avoided by 
proper design. 

On the plate are shown some of the typical forms of clutches. 
Fig. 2 is a form that is frequently employed for driving feed 
motions of metal working tools. As shown in the figure, the 
power is received by the gear wheel, G, which transmits it 
through the clutch to the lead screw. 

The lead screw and the gear wheel may be replaced by their 
mechanical equivalents, without departing from the type of the 
clutch. Thus the lead screw may be replaced by a pinion 
working either a rack or controlling the feed motion through a 
gear train, and the gear wheel instead be a worm or a band 
wheel. B is one of the bearings for supporting the lead screw. 
The gear wheel, G, runs loose on the screw shaft ; it carries a 
■coned friction surface and is kept continuously running. The 
other friction surface is carried by the hand wheel, H. This 
wheel is keyed to the screw shaft. The key is, however, fitted 
loosely to the hand-wheel, so that this wheel may have a slight 
motion lengthwise on the shaft, that when the nut, N, is 
tightened, the clutch will be applied. The hand- wheel adds to 
the convenience of the machine, the hub only is essential. 

As the key fits loosely in the key-way in the hub, it is advis- 
able to fasten it to the shaft with two small screws or rivets. 
This form of clutch is evidently suited to light work only, and 
must not revolve faster than the nut can be turned by hand. 

Let m be the moment of the force with which the nut is 
screwed up in tightening the clutch. This will equal the pro- 
duct of the outside radius of the nut, in inches, multiplied by 
the force applied to its rim. The work expended in turning the 
nut through one revolution will be 2 jt m. If the diameters of 
the screw thread, and the bearing of the nut against the hub of 
the hand wheel, are small, their friction may be neglected, and 



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123 THE QUARTERLY. 

the work expended in turning the nut placed equal to the power 
consumed in pressing the friction surfaces together. If P is the 
pressure in the direction of the axis, pressing the surfaces to- 
gether, and n the number of threads to an inch, this power con- 
sumed during one turn of the nut, will be 

PX — 
ft 

Placing the work expended equal to the work consumed. 



If a represents the angle made between the coned friction 
surfaces and the axis, the normal pressure between the friction 
surfaces will be P -5- sin a. The moment of the force that will 
slip the friction surfaces on each other, will be the product of 
the coefficient of friction by the normal pressure, by the mean 
radius of the friction surfaces. Let ip be the coefficient offric- 
tion, and J AO the mean radius of the friction surfaces, then the 
moment 



M ■■ 



t m « D ip 
Sin a 



This formula: is approximate. The friction on the screw 
thread in tightening the clutch, was neglected for the sake of 
simplicity in the formula. The error from this source is slight, 
if the thread is of small diameter. The diameter D may be 
anywhere between the diameters at the two ends of the coned 
friction surfaces. It may however be taken at a mean between 
these two diameters, the correctness of this value depending up- 
on the accuracy with which the friction surfaces were fitted and 
the stiffness of construction to maintain them at the same taper 
under pressure. The errors from these sources are small, com- 
pared with the errors liable from not using the correct coefficient 
of friction as it is continually varying with the condition of lubri- 
cation of the friction surfaces. 

Fig. 3 is a section of the Hunter clutchapplied to a pulley. A 
sleeve, S, is keyed on the shaft. This sleeve has a flange at one 
end, to which the friction ring, R, shown separately in view 



r y G00^lc 



FRICTION CLUTCH. raj 

twice the size of the section, is bolted. The bolts pass through 
the two ears, shown on ring at B. The pulley has a hub of ex- 
tra large diameter, and is bored to run loose on the sleeve. 
One end of the hub is turned off on the outside to fit the friction 
ring This ring grips the hub of the pulley, when the ears HE 
are drawn together. According to the printed circular describ- 
ing this clutch, the mechanism for drawing the ears together is. 
about as follows. A bolt passes through the two ears, between 
which the ring is split. A cone formed on the head of the bolt 
engages a similar one on one of the ears. When the bolt is 
turned the cone presses the ears toward each other, and thus 
tightens the ring around the hub of the pulley. A lever, L, 
shown in the section, is secured to this bolt. When the cone, 
C, is slipped along the shaft up against the pulley, it lifts the 
lever, L, and thus tightens the friction ring around the hub of 
the pulley. This mechanism makes it possible to manage the 
clutch while the shaft is revolving at a high rate of speed. In 
most cases the power which a clutch will transmit, is propor- 
tional to the speed at which it is run ; so a small clutch will trans- 
mit a large amount of power when traveling at a high speed. 
It will be advisable to use a small clutch at a high speed, with 
the proper mechanism for controlling the clutch, wherever high 
speeds are admissable, and the power to be transmitted is consid- 
erable. 

The clutch just described has the merit of simplicity. It is, 
however, gained at some sacrifice of advantages possessed by 
more complicated clutches. When the cone is withdrawn, the, 
lever, which the cone pushed up, may not drop back against the 
shaft, and release the clutch if it becomes gummed, or the 
mechanism fails to work easily from any cause. The makers 
of this clutch suggest the proper remedy in their larger clutches. 
Instead of the cone for lifting the lever, a bush slides on the 
shaft A link has one end attached to the bush, and the other 
to the end of the lever ; the link and the lever together form a 
toggle. By using a bolt with a right and a left hand thread, 
the ends of the ring are drawn together with more power, and 
the clutch is loosened with a positive action. Fig. i shows a 
section of the Brown cut-off coupling. The friction clutch is 
shown applied to the coupling of the ends of two shafts. Two 
bolts, BB, each with screw threads cut on both ends, one end 



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i*4 THE QUARTERLY. 

right and the other left, are turned by the toggle connected with 
the sliding sleeve in a manner similar to that described for the 
improved Hunter clutch. When the sliding sleeve is slipped to 
the position shown in the section, two semi-circular pieces are 
pressed apart by the bolts. 

These pieces press against the inside of the rim, R, which is 
bolted to the casting, C, keyed to the shaft at the left. The 
semi-circular pieces turn with the shaft at the right, being carried 
around by guides on the casting keyed to this shaft. The above 
pieces have hard wood blocks screwed to them. These blocks 
furnish one of the friction surfaces, so the friction in this clutch 
is between hard wood and cast iron. One feature of value in 
some cases in th*is clutch is the positive connection between the 
sliding sleeve and the friction pieces, so that when the sleeve is 
drawn back, there is a sixteenth of an inch space between the 
friction surfaces, and they must run entirely clear of each other. 
This clutch, therefore, does not present difficulty from the ma- 
chinery not stopping when the clutch is disconnected. A loose 
brass bush shown in section, but not shaded, keeps the ends of 
the shafts in line when the clutch is not in operation. The 
bolts, with right and left threads, turn in brass bushes threaded 
to receive them. These bushes are fitted in the semi-circular 
pieces and are kept from turning by set screws. The clutch is 
adjusted by loosening the set screws and turning the bushes till 
the surfaces press together on alt sides with the requisite pres- 
sure. The work which such a clutch will transmit is propor- 
tional to two factors — the speed of the friction surfaces and their 
extent. If the revolutions per minute, the width of the face of 
the friction surfaces and the pressure to the square inch with 
which they are pressed together is the same, each of these two 
factors will be proportional to the diameter. The power of the 
clutch will therefore be proportional to the square of the diame- 
ter. The clutch, rated by the makers at 20 H. P. at 1 00 R. p. m., 
is 12 inches in diameter at the friction surfaces. The work 
which this clutch will transmit in one minute will be 11,000 
foot pounds. The number of feet traveled by the friction sur- 
faces in the minute will be 314.16 feet Dividing the foot 
pounds by the feet travel gives the number of pounds necessary 
to slip the surfaces when pressed together at 35. If the area 
of the surfaces is 100 square inches each, then the tractiv 



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FRICTION CLUTCH. 125 

force is 0.35 pound to the square inch, and this figure divided 
by the coefficient of friction gives the pressure necessary to de- 
velop the power at which the clutch is rated. This will be from 
3 to s pounds to the square inch, if the wood is greased, and 
about three-quarters of a pound if it is dry. 

The clutch manufactured by Frisbie & Co. has some promi- 
nence, and is used by the firm of Beckett & McDowell on their 
hoisting machinery. The manufactures of the latter firm afford 
good illustrations of the application of the friction clutch to 
hoisting machinery. Some notice of the value of the friction 
clutch in various types of hoisting machinery may here be inter- 
esting. It is used in two of the classes of hoisting machinery ; 
lifting powers or factory elevators and steam hoists. The lifting 
power takes its motion from the shafting in the factory through 
an open and a crossed belt, and transmits- it to the hoisting 
drum through a gear train. The operator, by pulling down on 
a chain by the side of the elevator, causes the belt to drive by 
which the platform is hoisted. When the chain is pulled up the 
other belt drives and the platform is lowered. In the interme- 
diate position of the chain a break is applied to prevent the plat- 
form from running down. The belts are made to drive at the 
will of the operator, either by arranging to shift them between 
tight and loose pulleys, with a belt shifter connected to the hand 
chain, or the belts may be run on friction clutch pulleys, and 
these arranged to connect and disconnect by pulling on the hand 
chain. 

The former arrangement has the merit of simplicity ; the 
only objection to it is the additional wear on the belts from fre- 
quent shifting. This additional wear is slight, so this objection 
is of little account. More power is required to apply a clutch 
than to shift a belt ; a lifting power with clutches is therefore 
harder to operate. We saw that the machine was held fast by a 
brake when not ascending or descending. The mechanism must 
be constructed to release the brake just when the belt com- 
mences to drive, and to apply it at the precise moment that the 
power is released. As a clutch takes hold and releases its grip 
suddenly, while the action of a shifting belt is more gradual, it 
wilt be seen that the brake mechanism is more easily adjusted 
and better adapted to this latter method of applying the power. 



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tj6 THE QUARTERLY . 

When an engine is used directly for hoisting, the dutch may 
■sometimes be used with advantage. Its purpose will be to con- 
nect and disconnect the hoisting drum and engine. On small 
machines a positive acting clutch is often preferred to the fric- 
tion clutch, on account of its much greater simplicity. The ob- 
jection to it is the suddenness with which it starts the drum if 
thrown in gear while the engine is in motion. If the drum is 
light and the engineer is careful to slow up the engine before 
throwing it into gear with the drum, the latter may be started 
with very little shock to the machinery. The friction clutch is a 
safety device on a hoisting engine by which the drum may be 
stopped if the brake should fail. 

Figure 4 is a section of the Hepworth clutch. This clutch 
is manufactured at Yonkers, for driving centrifugal machines, 
used in the manufacture of sugar. In its usual service the clutch 
runs at 240 R. p. m., and drives a 50-inch pulley, from which the 
power is taken by a belt to a 10-inch pulley on the centrifugal 
and running it at 1,200 R. p. m. Construction of the clutch: A 
casting, C, is keyed to the shaft The clutch grips the flange 
of this casting between two cast iron rings. P and R, in which 
wooden blocks are set to form the friction surface. The me- 
chanism is contained in a casing. This casing has a hub and 
arms like a pulley. The hub has a brass bush shown in section, 
but not shaded. The form of the bush is such that, when in 
place, it leaves oil chambers between it and the hub. One of 
the rings, R, is bolted to the casing and encloses one side of it 
The other ring, P, slides in the casing like a piston. The sliding 
sleeve, S, is connected with three toggles, one of which is shown 
in the section. The toggles have each one end hinged on the 
ring, P, and when in the position shown, turn cams against the 
adjusting ring. A, screwed in the casing, and thus press the fric- 
tion surfaces together. The cams, it will be seen, are thrown a 
little past the center, as they will not then be likely to slip back 
and loosen the clutch. Wear of the friction surfaces is taken 
up by screwing the ring, A, forward. This operation takes up 
the wear to exactly the same amount all around and prevents 
any carelessness of adjustment that will cause the clutch to drive 
with more power on one side than the other. The effect of 
such unequal adjustment is to cause a thrust against the loose 
bearing on the shaft, wearing it to one side so that the clutch 
and pulley will not run true. 

ntrod vGoO^lc 



FRICTION CLUTCH. 127 

This clutch the manufacturers have designed to replace a 
much simpler form, in which the friction was obtained by two 
-straps attached to the loose pulley with the mechanism for draw - 
ing them tight. The straps when drawn tight press around the 
rim of a small pulley keyed to the shaft. Care is necessary to 
have the straps when drawn tight have the same tension, so as to 
avoid a thrust to one side. Where such care is exercised this 
clutch accomplishes the work as well as the more complicated 
•design. The later design is neater in appearance and safer, since 
the mechanism is enclosed to protect it from external injury and 
prevent any parts from being thrown by centrifugal force, in case 
-of breakage from any cause. 

Attention may be called here to the fact that the clutches in 
the conditions of service usually found have very little work to 
■do affecting their durability. The friction surfaces are subject 
to wear only when they slip on each other, and this, in the pro- 
perly adjusted clutches, is only during the speeding up of the 
machinery to be driven, and ceases as soon as its inertia has 
been overcome. In the service for which the Hepworth clutch 
is designed the speeding up of the centrifugal machine is the 
principal work of the clutch. In this clutch the friction sur- 
faces are, therefore, of the most durable construction. One of 
the surfaces is cast iron, the other is wood. Blocks of pine 
wood, three-quarters of an inch in depth, are snugly fitted be- 
tween ribs cast on the rings. The end of the grain of the wood 
is at the surface. Split hickory pegs are next driven into these 
blocks as closely together as possible, wedging the whole firmly 
in place. The surface is then turned true on a lathe, and tallow 
rubbed in with a hot iron. The tallow sinks into the pores of 
the wood and is retained so that the clutch will often run for a 
very long time without the friction surfaces needing any at- 
tention. 

If the wood was not greased it would be cut away in a short 
time. A considerable amount of heat is generated by the fric- 
tion in such a clutch. This heat must not raise the temperature 
at the friction surfaces sufficiently to burn the wood. The rim 
of the casting, C, Fig. 4, in the largest size of clutch has radial 
air passages in it, through which currents of air are created by 
the centrifugal force. These air currents keep the clutch from 
heating enough to burn the wood. The number of heat units 



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a8 THE QUARTERLY. 

generated when a clutch is speeded up, will be found by dividing 
the work of friction by 772, the mechanical equivalent of" 
heat The work of friction will be shown in the discussion of 
the efficiency of the clutch to be equal to the work in overcom- 
ing the inertia of the masses pot in motion. If the heat gener- 
erated is assumed to be absorbed by the metal surface and not 
by the wooden surface, which does not conduct the heat readily, 
hen the rise of temperature will be found by dividing the 
heat units by the product of the weight of the metal, in which 
the. heat is absorbed, by its specific heat. 

The grip on the Brooklyn Bridge cars is a recent application 
of the friction clutch.' The endless rope is gripped between 
four wheels, which at first revolve as the rope travels between 
them. These wheels are then stopped by friction clutches to 
put the car in motion, the speed of the car increasing as that of" 
the wheels is retarded. In starting the car the rope is pressed 
between the wheels of the grip. As the car cannot at once at- 
tain the speed of the rope, the mechanism must slip somewhere 
until it does. On the bridge cars, this slipping is prevented from 
injuring the rope by transferring it to the friction clutches. 
Difficulty has been found in grasping the rope between the 
wheels tightly enough to prevent its slipping between them, 
without the pressure being so severe as to injure the rope. A 
device, illustrated in the American Machinist, last fall, suggests 
a way out of the difficulty by distributing the pressure over a 
considerable length of the rope. It seems doubtful, however, 
that so simple a device as was there shown should meet all the 
requirements. There is no defect inherent in the use of friction 
for such a purpose, if its use for other purposes affords any 
means of judging, and if this is at present the only weak point 
in the system, there is good reason to expect that rope haulage 
will eventually be the leading system under such conditions as 
are found on the Brooklyn Bridge. 

Efficiency of the friction clutch in over-coming inertia : Sup- 
pose the clutch to put in rotation a fly-wheel with a moment of 
inertia, K. Denote the angular velocity at any time t by v. 
Let s be the angular space passed over in the same time The 
fundamental formula; for variable motion are 



its' 

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FRICTION CLUTCH. 129 

Let r be the radius of the friction surfaces, P the pressure 
with which the surfaces are held together, and / the coefficient 
of friction. P/r will be the moment of the rotating force 
applied to the fly-wheel. The energy communicated to the 
fly-wheel in the time dt will be P/rds. The energy in the 

fly-wheel, due to its velocity, is — K. The energy imparted to 

it in the time dt may be found by differentiating to be K vdv, 
then P fr ds = K vdv or, 

P/r vdv . P/r 

As P and /are practically constant, the laws governing the 
friction clutch will be those for uniformly varied motion. Sub- 
stituting in the formulae for such motion we find, 

■ _?/-•„ __.K 

2K ?/r 

Let v\ be the uniform angular velocity of the driving side of 
the clutch and the final velocity of the fly-wheel. Let t\ be the 
time in attaining this velocity ; then 

< 1= Pfr 

The angular space passed over by the driving side of the 
clutch in speeding the fly-wheel to its maximum velocity will 



The work expended is the product of this space by the mo- 
ment P fr. Then the work W=m 3 K. The work stored, up in 
fly-wheel we know from mechanics to be J vi 2 , K. Hence, the 
efficiency of the friction clutch must be one-half and the work 
of friction equal to the work transmitted. This efficiency is in- 
dependent of the coefficient of friction, or the force with which 
the surfaces are pressed together. It may be shown to be the 
same if both these quantities are variable, and if the fly-wheel is 



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130 THE QUARTERLY. 

connected to the clutch by gearing or a belt and has a different 
velocity. It is also the same when the power is applied by 
shifting a belt on a tight pulley. This efficiency may be in- 
creased by making the speed of the driving surface of the clutch 
variable, running it at a slow speed at first and increasing it as 
the driven surface, which is connected to the fly-wheel, speeds 
up. This may be done if the power is transmitted to the clutch 
through a belt running on cone pulleys. The rate of accelera- 
tion of the driven surface and fly-wheel does not depend upon 
the speed of the driving surface, except that the speed of the 
latter must be greater. In making this statement it is assumed 
that the coefficient of friction is the same at different velocities 
and other conditions do not vary. In reality, if the speed of the 
driving surface is slightly in excess of the other, it will 
drive with a little more power than if the excess in speed 
is considerable. The work- consumed in friction is propor- 
tional to the difference in the speed of the two surfaces, so 
the friction will be reduced to the lowest limit by so shifting 
the belt on the cone pulleys as to keep the speed of the driving 
surfaces as little in excess of the other as possible. An automatic 
device to accomplish this result would probably be so compli- 
cated as to be of doubtful utility, since it is only in overcoming 
the inertia of the mechanism that such a device would effect a 
saving. The instant that the mechanism attains its maximum 
speed, slipping of the friction surfaces ceases, and as there can be 
no further loss of power from friction, the efficiency of a friction 
clutch becomes unity. 



THE ISLAND-PYRAMIDS IN THE LAKE OF MCERIS. 

BY F. COPE WHITEIIOUSE, M.A. 

"The annals of human folly will be searched in vain for a 
parallel to the singular delusion which, within the past twenty 
years, has invested, in the minds of some persons presumably 
sane, the great Pyramid of Cheops with a sacred character." 

The subject will be compleled in a third paper, on the Pyramid Hills of 
Middle Egypt, with diagrams showing thu relative height of the natural hills 
and the artificial mounds, from original drawings and surveys. 



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P YRAMIDS IN THE LAKE OF MCERIS. 131 

This pile of uncemented limestone blocks, on the edge of the 
desert opposite Memphis— Cairo, is one of a class of structures 
whose purpose has not been explained. The scientific school 
to which Sir John Lubbock belongs, desirous of showing that 
man has developed during a long period of time, by gradual 
■and scarcely sensible stages, uses the Pyramids in order to carry 
to the remotest period conclusive proof of the presence of an 
organized society on the earth. Accordingly, at the meeting of 
the British Association at York, in 1881, in a semicentennial 
review of Science, he allowed himself to make the rash if not 
erroneous statement : " The researches in Egypt seem to 
have established the fact that the Pyramids themselves are 
at least six thousand years old." In response to this I ven- 
tured to say, that had he, "turning to the phalanx of 
learning arrayed behind him in serried ranks, asked what 
do you understand by the Pyramids themselves ? the answer 
would have been far from explicit or unanimous." It would 
have varied according to sources of information and personal 
credulity so widely as to prove that his words did not 
convey the same definite meaning to any considerable num- 
ber of his hearers. They would have replied, if questioned in 
detail; in number, three to one hundred: in material, sand, 
mud bricks, hard or spongy limestone and polished granite: 
in construction, loose rubbish, rubble work tied by bonding 
walls and headers, brick strengthened by stone, irregular 
layers of hastily fitted stones, blocks placed with consummate 
skill and scarcely visible joints: in height, twenty, forty, 
five hundred, or even six hundred feet : in situation, in the 
desert, a marsh, a lake, on the banks of the Nile, the slope 
of a hill, its summit, with a base two hundred feet below 
the Mediterranean, or five hundred feet above the plain of the 
Delta: in shape, conical, square, rectangular, sharp, blunted, 
stepped or fiat-topped : in purpose, astrological, sepulchral or 
metro logical. 

At precisely the same time MM. Perrot and Chipiez had in 
press their admirable volumes on the history of art in Ancient 
Egypt, in which considerable space is devoted to exposing the 
popular error of the simplicity and uniformity of the Pyramids. 
Profiting by the authority of their opinion, I repeat what they 
have said, adding, within brackets, the results of my personal 



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1 3 2 THE QUAR TERL Y. 

examination oi every known Pyramid, together with one other 
never included in the list 

"To an attentive observer the Pyramids offer more diversities 
than would at first sight be believed. From Meidoum in the 
South ("the most southerly stone Pyramid in the Nile Valley] 
to Abu-Roash in the North, is a distance of 43J4 miles as the 
crow flies. Between these two points about one hundred have 
been discovered, sixty-seven of which have been examined by 
Lepsius. Now, in this whole number there are not two 
which resemble each other in all particulars, or which seem to 
be copies of one model. We do not refer only to height, which 
differs in an extreme degree. The three large Pyramids at 
Gizeh are 482, 454, and 218 feet high respectively, while at 
their feet are several little Pyramids, which hardly exceed 50 to 
70 feet of vertical height. The stepped Pyramid, near Sakkarah, 
is about 190 feet high ; the largest of those at Abousir is about 
165 ; one of those at Dahshour is not quite 100 feet (p. 199). 
The Pyramids differ also in the material employed. The great 
Pyramids of Gizeh are built [in small part] of fine limestone 
[similar to that] from Mokattam and Tourra; the chief one at 
Sakkarah, ofa bad clayish limestone from the neighboring rocks; 
at Dahshour, El-Lahun, and Hauwarah, there are. Pyramids of 
unburnt brick. There is the same variety in the position of the 
chamber. Sometimes [twice] this is within the sides of the 
Pyramid itself, sometimes [in all cases, except the upper chambers 
in Cheops] it is cut out of the living rock upon which the Pyra- 
mid stands, [or, as in Meidoum, against which retaining walls 
have been built]. Most of the Pyramids have no more than one 
or two entrances, giving access to narrow galleries, sometimes as- 
cending, sometimes descending [but except the upper galleries 
in the Pyramid of Cheops, wholly in the solid rock], which lead 
ne or two chambers of very small dimensions, when com- 
pared to the enormous mass which rises above and around them. 
In the subterranean part of the stepped Pyramid, the proportion of 
voids to solids is far less insignificant. This Pyramid, which is 
not nearly so carefully oriented as the others, has four entrances 
and a series of internal passages, horizontal galleries, staircases 
and cells [all in the natural rock] which make it little else than 
a subterranean labyrinth. It is singular also in having upon its 
central [vertical] axis and at the point upon which, at various 



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PYRAMIDS IN THE LAKE OF MCERIS. 133 

heights, its galleries converge, a sort of large well or chamber about 
twenty feet square and eighty feet high, in the pavement of which 
a huge block of granite, cut in the shape of a cork or plug, was 
so placed as to open at will, and leave a free passage for the de- 
scent into a second chamber, the purpose of which is more than 
obscure, as it is too small ever to have contained a sarcophagus. 
The end of the long passage which leads to the thirty chambers 
has been found [far outside the base of the structure} in the 
neighboring sands. [The entrances to the subterranean cham- 
bers under other Pyramids have also no connection whatever 
with the mounds above, and similar galleries are found where no 
structure could have existed]. Another point of difference : 
most of the Pyramids are built around a core of living rock, 
which is embraced by the lower [and in the case of Meidoum, 
by all the] courses of their [uncemented] masonry. But the 
Pyramid of Mycerinus is just the reverse of this. It is built over 
a hollow in the rock, [above the base of the great Pyramid, but 
not on the summit of the hill of Gizeh] which is filled with ma- 
sonry. The inequalities of the surface were usually taken ad- 
vantage of so as to economize material and [apparently] to 
make a greater show with less labor. Mycerinus, however, did 
not fear to increase his task by rearing his Pyramid over a de- 
pression in the plateau [thus conclusively proving that the arch- 
itect was not always influenced by a desire to make the Pyra- 
mid conspicuous and that show was not an essential characteris- 
tic]. There is no less diversity in the external aspects of the 
Pyramids. We are most familiar with the shapes of the great 
Pyramids at Gizeh. Their images have been multiplied to in- 
finity by engraving and photography, but we make a great mis- 
take when we imagine all the royal tombs at Memphis to be 
built upon this one model. [The Pyramids were certainly not 
all of them sepulchral mounds. None (except that of Cheops) 
contains a chamber within the upper masonry. Thirty mummies 
of the lowest class were found beneath the stepped Pyramid o* 
Sakkarah, and bones of a young woman and of an ox, under 
two at Gizeh]. The Pyramids do not all present the same sim- 
plicity of form, the same regular slope from summit to base, or 
the smooth and polished casing which distinguishes [some of] 
those great monuments, [but which never covered that of Cheops 
within the historical period]. The Southern Pyramid of Dahshour 



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134 THE QUARTERLY. 

offers us one of the most curious variations on the original theme. 
Its angle-ridges are not unbroken straight lines from base to 
summit The slope of its faces becomes less steep at about half 
their height. The lower part of its sides makes angles of 54°. 
41', with the horizon, while above they suddenly fall back to an 
angle of 42 , 59'. This latter slope does not greatly differ from 
the 43 , 36' of the other Pyramid in the same neighborhood. 
A second variation, still more unlike the Gizeh type, is to be 
found in the great Pyramid of Sakkarah, the Stepped Pyramid, 
|n which Mariette was inclined to see the Serapeum or Apis tomb 
of the Ancient Empire. Its present elevation is about 190 feet. 
Each of its sides is divided horizontally into six large steps with 
inclined faces. The height of these steps decreases progressive- 
ly from the base to the summit, from 38 feet, 2 inches to 29 
feet, 6 inches. The width of each step is nearly 7 feet. It will 
be seen therefore that this building [rather tends to the Pyram- 
idal form than achieves it; it is a rough sketch for a pyramid." 
(History of Art in Ancient Egypt, Vol. I., pp. 170-207). 

In spite of this diversity, the structure known to the modem 
and mediaeval Arab as Haram, and to the Latin and Greek histor- 
ians as Pyramid, is a member of a well-defined class. In the lists 
of Pyramids given by Herodotus or Pliny or Abd el- Atif we recog- 
nize the piles of brick or stone which are still visible. In addi- 
tion to these, however, we are told that at about the middle of 
Lake Mceris (from North to South,) an island of natural rock, 
in fifty fathoms of water, was crowned with two Pyramids 300 
feet in height, and a sepulchre. They were erected, it was said, 
by the monarch who converted the eroded basin into an im- 
pounding reservoir, in memory of himself and his queen, be- 
cause he believed that by his great works he had left an imper- 
ishable claim on th; gratitude of his subjects. Two colossal 
statues on the island and against the Pyramids suggest the 
rock-hewn figures at Abu-Simbel.' The Nubian temples are 
in a mass of rock, easily worked. Its horizontal strata differ 
imperceptibly from the artificial layers of stone, upon which the 

* The common translations are a gloss. There is nothing in the Greek text 
which requires such a violation of architectural propriety. The notes contributed 
by me to the Revue Arch£oj ogkjue, 1882, I., p. 342, and the Proceedings of the 
Society for Biblical Archoeology were adopted by the English editor of Art in 
Ancient Egypt, ani this si.n.)!-; etp'initio.T has nit be;n questioned. 



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PYRAMIDS IN THE LAKE OF MCEA'/S. 135 

Parisian sculptor carves facades of equal height, but so much 
smaller in detail as to require a far greater amount of labor. 
There, also, two temples occupy the foot of two mountain spurs, 
which project into the water right and left, forming the sides of a 
steep and narrow ravine, " with a slope as steep as the side of 
the great Pyramid and forming as sharply defined a triangle." 
The legends on the smaller temple read : " Rameses, the strong 
in truth, the beloved of Ammon, made this divine abode for 
his royal wife, Nofreari, whom he loves." " His royal wife, who 
loves him, Nofreari, the beloved of Maut, constructed this abode 
for him in the Mountain of the Pure Waters." There is, there- 
fore, nothing inherently improbable in the plain statement (cor- 
tectly understood) of Diodorus, that he saw A.D. 30, two Py- 
ramidal structures, six hundred feet above the bottom of Lake 
Moeris, somewhere near the isolated hill known as the Haram 
Medhouret el-Berl. Although it is ( 
only forty miles west of the Nile, 
it has never been visited by any one 
except myself (March 2d, 1882). It 
is equally certain that no structure 
of any corresponding importance 
lay to the south of the Canal of 1 
the Fayoum, or to the north of 1 
the bold summit of Abu-Roash ' 
four miles north of Gizeh and opposite to the Mokattam hill 
and citadel of Cairo. 

The topography of the Pyramids, therefore, possesses an 
importance which it will be observed has hitherto been over- 
looked. Southward from Memphis, the point where the Hyk- 
sos kings ruled Egypt, along a terrace on the west bank of the 
Nile, dominating the great canal which these Arabian engineers 
are said to have constructed, we reach a point, el-Lahun, where 
a Pyramid of mud-brick marks the defile through which Dio- 
dorus saw the water, stored in the Hun or Marsh, return to the 
valley of the Nile. A mere ribbon of verdure, irrigated by me- 
chanical means, is the selvedge of the deep and rapid stream which 
traverses eight miles of desert to glide down into the Birket 
el-Qeroun. It divides into many channels among the fertile 
fields of a miniature Delta, and empties info a brackish lake a 
hundred feet below the Mediterranean. Visible from all parts of 




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136 THE QUARTERLY. 

the Fayoum, another Pyramid at Hauwara marks the point of 
contact between its fields and the desert. The name Hauwara 
is of extreme antiquity. Its ideograph is a leg. It was the 
right or western leg of Osiris-Nile, facing to the South. It was 
the/oot of the great Bahr Suph, or jusuf, whose praises have 
been hymned in unwearied strains for four thousand years, by 
Ramesside, Greek and Arab Poets. When the water of the 
Northern and Eastern basin was drained into the South- 
western Wadi Reian {known to this hour by a title which 
the Arabs interpret as " Pharaoh's Valley"), the sovereign who 
completed the work deemed himself justified in selecting one of 
several islands, and shaping, and perhaps revetting or rebuilding 
the natural summits of its saddle-back into rectangular struc- 
tures with sloping sides. The two angular masses served to 
screen the Eastern terrace (as at Gizeh) from the noisome wind 
of the Desert and divert it upwards. The surface of the water 
was a little higher -at high Nile than the cultivated land from 
which it was excluded. The contrast between the yellow river 
charged with silt on the east, and the sapphire lake to the west 
of the green "island" of El-Hun, was in itself sufficient to 
show that the particles which successfully escaped through the 
devious channels and chambers in which this earth (as valuable 
as guano freighted to England from a Pacific isle) was caught 
and saved, sank into some considerable depth. It was a legiti- 
mate and a clever device to make the summits of these Pyramids 
exacdy as high as the water beneath. The apex of the inverted 
Pyramid thus rested upon the bottom, while the true summit 
was visible from the distant hills which separate this oasis from 
the valley of the Nile. 

Before me lies the Report of the Idaho Mining and Irri- 
gation Company, fresh from the press. Its cover bears as a 
Vignette the picture of two Egyptians watering plants. The 
motto is from a Psalm. The first introductory sentence refers 
to the Oriental use of water and Menes is cited as an example 
for our own Government. Before me also lies a fac-simile of a 
map of that Lake in which were two Pyramids, and of that 
canal on a part of which stood all others in Egypt. How can 
one turn from the picture representing the Lake of Mceris as a 
noble woman, offering from her deep bosom the generous stream 
of life to the impoverished peasants, struggling with the fierce and 



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PYRAMIDS IN THE LAKE OF MQERIS. 137 

uncertain floods of the Nile, to the pitiful charges of falsehood 
tyranny or superstition brought against the ancient rulers of 
Egypt, without disgust. The present condition of Egypt is a 
sufficient reply. 

Before me also lies a tiny folio, once owned by M. Chabas, 
translating, from Arabic into French, a manuscript purchased by 
■Cardinal Mazarin. It is addressed to the grand monarque, and 



From the geographic*] papyru* in the M mucin of Rulwi, published by the Dutch Academy of 
Science*, with * memoir by Dr. Pleijte, tBB4. 

anticipates by a century and a half (1666) the attempt of Bona- 
parte to restore Egypt to Ptolemaic glory. " Your Majesty," 
said Vattier, " by restoring the ancient system of reservoirs and 
canals in Egypt, will in like manner cause the Pyramids them- 
selves to cease to be the objects of admiration, being surpassed 



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138 THE QUARTERLY. 

by a work far grander and far more important - Whether the 
Pyramids in the Nile Valley, like those in the Lake, were monu- 
ments to the wise expenditure of the resources of the kingdom, 
near which, or even under which some monarchs may have 
elected to rest, or served some other or useful purpose, there 
is no possibility of classifying these structures, and therefore 
no hope of profiting by the lessons of wisdom, foresight and 
benevolence which, according to the most ancient tradition, 
they were supposed to teach, unless we include in their number 
the two merimeters which were not a tomb,. and make topo- 
graphical distribution an important factor. The Mississippi is. 
now an unbridled stream. There are Vegas in Spain, and canals 
in Merv, which have lessons for our engineers. Shall super- 
stition and conceit bar the way to those branches of learning 
which once formed an essential part of education from the Nile 
to the Ganges, from Heliopolis to Calcutta ? "A race from 
Arabia," said Manetho, " men of ignoble birth, taking pos- 
session of the fetid marshes of Fayoum-Avaris, strangely 
gained a peaceful conquest dver our nobles, and ruled them for 
four hundred years." " They were our ancestors," exclaimed 
josephus, triumphantly " who, experts in hydrostatics and 
hydrodynamics, availed themselves of that key to Middle and 
Lower Egypt, stored and controlled the water, used it for 
offensive and defensive warfare, utilized it for mechanical pur- 
poses, and obtained inexhaustible supplies of food from its 
fish, It was we, who built the Pyramids together with the 
dykes and ramparts which controlled the course of the Nile." 



NOTES ON TWO ORE DEPOSITS OF SOUTH 
WESTERN NEW MEXICO. 

BY H. VAN F. FURMAN, E.M. 

Recently, having had occasion to pay a hurried visit to some 
of the mining districts of Southwestern New Mexico, two of 
the ore deposits which I examined seemed to me to present 
some remarkable features, a brief description of which I 
thought might be of interest to some of the readers of the: 
Quarterly. 



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ORE DEPOSITS. ' 139. 

Georgetown Mines. 

The mining camp of Georgetown is situated in the Mim- 
bres Mountains, about sixteen miles northeast of Silver City. 
The principal locations are the Mimbres, Commercial, McGre- 
gor and Satisfaction claims. These claims are located on a 
side hill, the outcrop being a contact between porphyry and a 
light colored slate. This contact is vertical, and extends to an 
average depth of one hundred feet from the point of contact on 
the hill, to the point of contact between the slate and limestone 
underneath. This second contact is horizontal and quite regu- 
lar, although occasional waves and breaks are encountered. In 




the sketch, the horizontal section is taken on the line of the 
contact between slate and limestone. The shaded portions 
represent the ore bodies, and the dotted portion represents the 
decomposed slate on the line of contact, drawn on an exagger- 
ated scale. 

The Mimbres Mining Co. have sunk a shaft five hundred 
feet deep, and have had some ore nearly all the way down on 
the vertical contact, but the main ore body appears to be at the 
first level, or the horizontal contact, and here the ore bodies lie in 
distinct courses, lying parallel to the porphyry dike, and more 
or less continuous. In addition to these main ore courses other 
ore bodies, running nearly at right angles to them, are occa- 
sionally encountered, as shown in the sketch. These ore 
bodies seem to be connected with each other in every c;ise, 
although the connection is frequently nothing more than a stain„ 



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140 ' THE QUARTERLY. 

and the limestone adjacent to the ore bodies presents unmis- 
takable evidence of having been subjected to the action of 
mineral waters. In following these ore streaks, or stains, small 
caves in the limestone are encountered, the walls of which are 
-studded with crystals, and which have stalactites [hanging from 
the roof. Whilst more or less ore has been found on the con- 
tact between the slate and limestone, by far the greater portion 
has been taken from pockets in the limestone, large pockets 
having been discovered forty feet below the slate. From one 
such pocket in the Commercial Mine, eight hundred tons of 
igood ore were extracted. The ore appears to follow the hori- 
zontal contact for a greater or less distance, and then pitches off 
into the limestone. One ore course running parallel to the 
dike, was followed for over nine hundred feet with ore nearly 
all the way. The slate adjacent to the limestone, and for a 
thickness of from four to nine inches, is decomposed and of a 
talcose nature, although barren of valuable mineral matter. 

' The following analyses were made on average samples of 
two separate car loads of ore, and may be safely taken as 
representing the character of the ore. 

No. i. No. a. 

Silica 63.00^ 4350% 

Carbonate of Lead 17-35 " 40.70 " 

Carbonate of Calcium 6.00 " ;. 14 " 

Carbonate of Magnesium 3-S7 " 0.7a " 

Sesquioxide of Iron 6.36 " 5.56 " 

Chloride of Silver 1 

Chloro-bromide of Silver \ " 1.88 " 2.0a " 

Sulphide of Silver ) 

98.16 " 99.71 " 

Ois. of Silver per ton of 3000 lbs 414.8a 471-75 

•Calculated approximately. 

The Bremen Mine. 

The Bremen Mine, which is situated in a flat or valley about 
•one and a quarter miles west of Silver City, N. M., is owned by 
Mr. W. H. Bremen, of that place, and has been operated since 
1876. 

The strike of the deposit is nearly north and south, and the 
dip of the overlying slate is on the average 20 to the east. 
The mine is worked by means of several shafts, from fifty to 



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ORE DEPOSITS. 141 

eighty feet in depth. The deposit presents a contact between 
slate and dolomite. The slate next to the contact, and for several 
feet above it, is of a light reddish yellow variety, although the 
surface slate is black. The slate adjacent to the contact is de- 
composed and of a talcose nature, for a thickness of from four 
to eight inches, and in many places this slate carries nodules 
of oxide of iron, rich in chloride of silver, and not infrequently, 
small nodules of nearly pure horn silver. The mine has pro- 
duced considerable quantities of this class of ore, which would 
average from thirty to forty ounces to the ton, with very little 
sorting. These nodules are not confined to the soft decomposed 
slate, but are frequently encountered in the hard slate, two or 
three feet from the contact. The chief ore supply, however, is 
on the contact, and in pockets in the limestone below the con- 
tact, by far the greater amount of ore, which the mine has pro- 
duced, having been taken from these pockets. Caves are occa- 
sionally encountered in the limestone, and sometimes of con- 
siderable size. In a few cases, boulders of ore have been found 
lying on the floors of these caves, and in one case, a boulder of 
two tons was found, which was quite rich in carbonate of lead, 
and chloride and sulphide of silver. These boulders were to all 
appearances stalactites, which had fallen from the roofs of the 
caves. Stalactites of ore, principally carbonate of lead, have 
also been found in places in these caves. The pockets of ore 
are found in all directions in the limestone, and generally there 
appears to be no connection between the ore bodies. Where- 
ever barite is found in the limestone, or on the contact, good 
ore is generally encountered not far away. 

The following analysis will represent pretty closely, the aver- 
age character of the ore : . 

Sulphate of Baryta 2(1.05 "• 

Silica 19.03 " 

Calcium Carbonate 21.35 " 

Magnesium Carbonate 18,74 " 

Sesquioxide of Iron 6.01 " 

Manganese dioxide 3.00 " 

Carbonate of Lead 5.03 " 

Chloride of Silver 0.383 " 

Sulphide of Silver , 0.146 " 

99-739 
Ozs. of Silver per ton of iooo lbs 109. 50 



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1 42 THE QUARTERLY. 

I think this deposit should be classified with the segregated 
deposits, although I have heard it not infrequently spoken of as 
a contact deposit 

I have examined quite a large number of ore deposits in 
New Mexico, in nearly every case finding a contact present, 
and still I have not seen a single deposit, which I would venture 
to call a contact deposit, although I have frequently read and 
heard the New Mexico ore deposits spoken of as nearly all con- 
tact deposits. 



THE ERODING POWER OF ICE. 
BY PROF. J. S. NEWBERRY. 

The geological history of our great and yet largely unex- 
plored continent offers a most important and fascinating subject 
for observation and study. Many earnest men have devoted 
themselves to it, and they are making commendable, I may 
even say, splendid progress, but the impediments thrown in 
their way by hasty generalization and unwarranted state- 
ment are scarcely less than those which nature has opposed 
to their progress. We have too much closet geology, too much 
evolution of theory and system from inner consciousness, and 
too much dependence upon views seen through other people's 
eyes. What we want instead, is facts and more facts, and 
still more facts, in order that we may have more real knowledge. 

No better illustration of the justice of these remarks can be 
given than are furnished by the heterodox notions which have 
been promulgated in reference to glaciers and the giacical 
period. 

The most important heresies, as I deem them, which have 
been advanced in regard to this subject are, i. The denial that 
there ever was a glacial period; 2. " If there was an ice period 
it was a warm and not a cold one;" 3. "That the phenomena 
usually ascribed to glacial action in the record of an ice period 
were generally caused by icebergs;" 4. "That ice has little or 
no eroding power," and " that glaciers have never been im- 
portant geological agents." 

It has chanced to me to have opportunities of studying the 
record of an ice period and glacial action in different countries, 



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THE ERODING POWER OF ICE. 143 

-viz., in the Alps of Switzerland, in the Sierra Nevada and Cas- 
cade Mountains of California, Oregon and Washington, in the 
Wasatch and Rocky Mountain belts and the Canadian highlands, 
throughout New England, New York, the basin of the Great 
Lakes and the valley of the Mississippi. Over this wide field I 
have observed a variety of facts, all tending to prove, as it 
seems to me, the truth of the conclusion reached by the pioneers 
and masters in the study of glacial phenomena, and heretofore 
accepted by the best geologists of Europe and America, viz., 
that the glacial period was a reality, and that its record consti- 
tutes one of the most important and interesting chapters of geo- 
logical history; second, that this was a cold and not a warm 
period; third, that ice has great though unmeasured and per- 
haps unmeasurable eroding power, and that in the regions they 
have occupied glaciers have been always important and often 
preponderating agents in effecting geological changes. 

I have elsewhere discussed the first three of these propo- 
sitions, -and I now propose to say a few words in regard to the 
.last. 

The excavating action of the glaciers of the Alps early at- 
- traded the attention of Charpentier, Agassiz, Guyot and others, 
who were the pioneers in the study of glacial phenomena, and 
they described in detail and gave names — now everywhere 
adopted into the language of geology — to the characteristic in- 
scriptions and the masses of debris which are the products of ice 
.action. By later geologists, " glacial stria" " roches mouton- 
-.nees" and "moraines" have been discovered and described in 
various parts of both the northern and southern hemispheres, 
.and the space given to these records in geological literature at- 
tests the potency ascribed'to ice as an agent effecting changes 
on the earth's surface. All the most distinguished geologists of 
the Old World have conceded to moving masses of ice an im- 
portant role in producing or modifying topography, and one 
eminent authority, Prof. Ramsay, late Director of the Geologi- 
cal Survey of the United Kingdom, has gone so far as to at- 
tribute the excavations of all lake-basins to this cause. In our 
own country witness has often been borne to the record of 
powerful erosive action produced by ice; and while the effect 
of this action has not been accurately measured, it has not un- 
til recently been denied. 



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144 THE QUARTERLY. 

Within the last few months, however, a number of Ameri- 
can geologists have taken upon themselves to deny that ice 
possesses any eroding or excavating power. Examples of the 
utterances of this School may be found in Prof. J. D. Whitney's. 
" Climatic Changes" in papers by Prof. J. W. Spencer on " The 
Old Outlet of Lake Erie," 1 by Prof. W. M. Davis on the 
"Classification of Lake Basins," 3 and the "Erosive Action of 
Ice," 3 and remarks on the same subject by Prof. J. P. Lesley.* 

No new facts or original observations are adduced by any 
of these writers to refute the prevailing opinion that ice is a 
powerful eroding agent, but they have for the most part con- 
tented themselves with the assumption of a judicial attitude and; 
the delivery of a verdict, without a trial of the case. 

As one of those who have had some opportunity of studying 
this question in the field, and one who has committed himself to. 
a view opposite to that now become locally popular, I venture 
to submit a few facts and arguments which make it impossible 
for me to accept the recently promulgated views on ice erosion 
to which reference has been made. These naturally arrange- 
themselves under several heads, as follows: 

I.— GLACIAL TOPOGRAPHY. 

In the Alps the glaciers have done the characteristic work 
of local ice streams; have scoured and filed the bottom and sides, 
of the valleys, forming rocks montonnees of all projecting points, 
and giving to these valleys a simpler and more open section 
than would be produced by water. Good examples of the con- 
trasting action of ice and water in erosion are given in some of' 
the views in Agassiz's " Ettides." The broad valley with planed, 
sides, the work of ice, is cut at bottom by a deep and narrow 
channel formed by the flow of the stream which drains the di-. 
minished glacier. 

In the mountains of Oregon a remarkable monotony of sur-. 
face has been produced by ice action. The crest of the Cas-. 
cades, crowned by the volcanic peaks, Mt. Jefferson, Mt. Hood,, 
etc., has sides sloping east and west like the roof of a house. 

i Proc. Amir. Philos. Soc.. Vol. XIX., p. 30?., 

a Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XXI., p. 315. 

3 Broc. Host. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XXII., p. 19. 

4 1'roc. Araer. Philos. Soc., Vol. XX., p. 0.5. 



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THE ERODING POWER OF ICE. 145 

These slopes are planed down, and their asperities removed ; 
everywhere showing the effects of a powerful grinding agent 
Where a rough volcanic ledge once rose above the surface only 
a remnant of it now remains in a roc he moutonne'e or a low ridge 
like a boat-bottom, its top and sides smoothed over or beaded, 
as a plasterer beads a cornice, by the moving ice under which 
it once was deeply buried. From the great crater in the center 
of the group of snow peaks called the Three Sisters, the courses 
of ancient glaciers can be traced far down the mountain sides 
by the polished or- deeply furrowed surfaces of the hard vol- 
canic rock which composes the mass of the range. In the Sierra 
Nevada, the Wasatch and the Rocky Mts., similar inscriptions 
are visible in innumerable localities. Slopes are ground off, the 
outlines of the mountains rounded, the valleys broadened, their 
sides and bottoms smoothed as they could only be by the re- 
moval of a vast amount of material. 

In the Laurentian belt north of Lake Huron, Lake Ontario 
and the St. Lawrence, where were formerly high mountains, 
are now only low hills and rolling surfaces. Over hundreds of 
square miles the rock is mostly bare, consisting of strata of gran- 
te, slate, dolomite, diorite, etc., standing at high angles, but 
planed down, scratched and ground by glaciers until their cut 
edges are like the boards in a floor. 

In the interval between the Hudson and the Connecticut, 
layers of crystalline rock of similar character stand on edge, 
the arches so truncated by erosion that it is almost impossible 
to analyze the section. Here also, the edges of the granite, 
slate or marble layers are "ground down into a plane or rolling 
surface. Here, too, as in Rutland County, Vermont, and many 
places where the strike of the strata has been nearly in the line 
of the glacial movement, the softer beds, as slate and marble, 
are scooped out into ice-worn and glaciated valleys, the harder 
strata left in relief on either side. Where the whole face of the 
country has been ground off, and nothing is left to mark the 
original level, it is of course impossible to measure the amount 
of erosion produced by ice, but where we find broad, straight, 
glaciated troughs scooped out of the softer rocks in the line of 
glacial motion, we have evidence that ice has done most, if not 
all of the erosion; and facts of this kind are sufficiently numer- 
ous and striking to furnish in themselves a refutation of the 
statement that ice has no eroding power. 

DoitjedoyGoOgle 



146 THE QUARTERLY. 

Any one who has any knowledge of surface geology knows 
that the action of running water on topography is not only 
different* from that of ice, but antagonistic to it Water falls 
in rain from the clouds, is immediately gathered into lines 
of drainage and there it expends its power in deepening such lines 
and increasing the asperities of the topography. The canons of 
the Colorado, are typical and characteristic illustrations of 
water action on continental surfaces. Great ice sheets on 
the contrary tend to reduce all asperities, fill depressions 
and render the topography monotonous.* Since water has 
fallen from the clouds in all ages and over all portions of 
the earth's surface, while ice has been local and temporary, 
it is true that the aggregate amount of erosion produced 
by water is much greater than that caused by ice, but over 
equal areas and in equal periods of time, the erosion of ice is far 
greater. This is illustrated by the difference in the water of the 
streams which drain glaciers and those which drain adjacent 
valleys in which there are no glaciers. In the first it is always 
opaque from the sediment it carries; in the other, generally 
transparent from its purity. Good examples of this contrast 
have recently come under my observation in the streams which 
flow down the west slope of the Cascade Mountains in Washing- 
ton Territory. Of these, the Cowlitz, Pyallup, White River, etc., 
drain the glaciers of Mt. Tacoma and are always turbid and 
opaque from the amount of fine eroded material which they 
carry. The others, fed by rains only, are clear. Two branches 
of the Dwamish are called respectively White and Black rivers, 
because one flowing from a glacier and loaded with sediment, is 
always milk-white; the other, draining an equal area and having 
about the same volume of water is transparent or slightly colored 
with carbonaceous matter. The contrast in the color of these 
streams where they join, has suggested the names given them. 

In the Alps the turbid, milky water of the streams which 
drain the glaciers, is recognized as characteristic, and it is called 
gletscker milch, by the German-speaking Swiss. The finer part 
of the sediment of such streams, transported to great distances 
in virtue of its fineness, causes the peculiar opalescence of 
the Swiss lakes. This fine and far-carried sediment, constitutes 
but a part of the material eroded by glaciers; the coarser part 
being left behind as boulders, gravel and sand under the glacier, 



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THE ERODING POWER OF ICE. 147 

where they are its cutting tools, or as lateral and terminal 
moraines. Yet the measurement of the finer half of the glacial 
grist, flowing off in the draining streams, gives striking proof 
of the eroding power of glaciers and the error of those who deny 
it. For example, the stream which drains the Aar glacier car- 
ries away daily 280 tons of sediment, and the Justedal glacier 
of Norway wears down and removes 69,000 cubic meters of 
solid rock annually,"— and these are only partial measurements 
of the eroding power of two small glaciers. 

The Champlain clays of the Atlantic coast represent the fine 
flour ground by the glaciers when they covered New England, 
and when a thousand milky streams ran down to the higher- 
standing sea and deposited their load of sediment in the first 
dead water that checked their flow. The coarser products of 
glacial erosion are left in Karnes, and Eskers, or sheets of gravel, 
sand and boulders on the higher lands. It is probable also that 
the loess of the Missouri Valley, as well as that of the valleys 
of the Rhine and Danube, was the deposit of sediment-loaded, 
ice-cold streams, which drained the greater glaciers of the Ice 
Age. 

At the meeting of the American Association in Minneapolis, 
last year, Prof. J. P. Lesley reiterated his oft-made assertion, 
that the erosive power of ice is insignificant, and wrote out a 
table on the blackboard in which the erosive power of pure ice 
was set down as I, that of pure water as 10, that of acidulated 
water as 100, that of ice set with stones as 1,000, that of water 
carrying stones at 10,000. 

No facts were cited to support these statements, perhaps for 
the reason that none are known which warrant them. It is 
not too much to say that they were not based on any trust- 
worthy observations, and that the figures given in the table cited 
were mere figments of the imagination. 

II.— THE DRIFT DEPOSITS. 

The most conspicuous and indisputable proof of the erosive 
power of glaciers is given by the vast amount of material which 
they have ground off or detached in one place, transported and 

•Giekie, Geological Text-book, p. 41S. 

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148 THE QUARTERLY. 

deposited in another. The sheets of boulder-clay which cover so 
much of the glaciated area in our own and other countries, are 
nothing but this ground-up material remaining where and 
as the glaciers left it; and the great heaps of coarse morainic 
matter, beds of sand, gravel and boulders, which occupy so much 
of the highlands, as well as the sheets of Champlain clay below, 
washed out of such debris, supply the most striking and con- 
vincing illustrations of the error of those who claim that ice is a 
protective rather than a destructive agent. South and west of 
the Canadian Highlands is an area of not much less than 1,000,- 
OOO square miles, which is covered with glacial debris. I have 
elsewhere estimated it to be 1,000 miles long and 500 miles 
wide, but it really occupies nearly twice as large a space, since it 
extends from eastern Newfoundland around to Cumberland 
House, at the head of Lake Winnepcg, and probably to the 
Arctic Sea, 1 ,000 miles further. The Banks of Newfoundland, 
George's banks and Cape Cod, constitute its eastern margin. 
Its southern limit within the United States has lately been 
carefully traced by Upham, Lewis, Wright and Chamberlain. 
Dr. George Dawson and Dr. Scudder have told us something 
about it in Canada. No geologist has followed it further north 
than Cumberland House, but Capt. Back, Dr. Ray and Sir John 
Richardson have incidently described topography and super- 
ficial deposits of more northern regions, which we must consider 
as of glacial origin. 

It has been said that the northern part of British America is 
without evidence of glaciation, and this has been urged as an 
argument against an ice period, but I venture to predict that 
when that region shall be traversed by experienced geologists, 
they will find conclusive evidence of general, if not universal 
glaciation. An unskilled observer might not detect any sign of 
the former presence of glaciers where he could not discover 
glacial scratches on the surface rocks, but such marks are often 
invisible over areas which have certainly been occupied by 
glaciers. Exposed surfaces of most rocks disintegrate so rapidly 
that they will not long retain glacial marks, and it is only when 
a country is occupied by man and the protective covering of 
clay, sand, etc. is locally removed in roadways, railroad cuts, 
canals, cellars, etc., that the buried inscriptions are brought to 
light. Glacial deposits are, however, quite as conclusive evidence 



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THE ERODING POWER OF ICE. 149 

of the presence of glaciers as glacial stria:. Moraines, Kames, 
Till with striated pebbles and boulders, and barrier lakes are 
all trustworthy witnesses; and it may be said that banks of 
clay containing disseminated pebbles and boulders, even if these 
are not striated, must be referred to ice action, as flowing water 
sorts the materials transported by it, leaving the boulders in one 
place and the clay in another, or the two in distinct strata de- 
posited in different conditions as regards the depth and move- 
ment of the water. In the Yellowstone Park I found no glacial 
stria?, but moraines and glacial lakes proved that the valleys 
had once been occupied by glaciers of great size; and the party 
of Mr. Hague, in their longer stay and more extended explor- 
ations, found abundant rock inscriptions made by the ice. So 
in Puget Sound no rock is seen in place over a great area, but 
I took striated pebbles from the boulder clay at Tacoma, Port 
, Townsend and elsewhere ; and when rock is reached on Van- 
cover Island, ice-cut grooves and planed surfaces everywhere 
abound ; and these coming up out of the water show that the 
basin of the Sound was once filled with an enormous glacier. 

In New York, Ohio, Illinois, etc, the sheet of glacial debris 
is estimated to have an average thickness of from 30 to 50 feet, 
of which the smaller figures are quite within bounds. Probably 
half of the original mass, perhaps much more, has been 
washed away during all the thousands of years which have 
elapsed since the melting of the glaciers. Rain and rivers with 
their boasted eroding power have been steadily at work on it, 
and yet this residual sheet is vast enough in its proportions to 
afford a complete refutation of the statements ol those who would 
ignore or belittle the power that has produced it. 

III.— THE EXCAVATION OF LAKE BASINS. 

Generally modified topography, truncated mountain ranges 
and half a continent covered with glacial debris, constitute such 
stupendous monuments of the eroding power of ice, that the 
question of its ability to excavate lake basins requires no dis- 
cussion. The power which has done the greater work is cer- 
tainly equal to the less. Just how far ice is to be credited with 
the excavation of lake basins is, however, a matter which may 
fairly give rise to a difference of opinion. In my discussion of the 



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ISO THE QUARTERLY. 

origin of our great lakes, in the Report of the Geological Survey 
of Ohio, I have considered them as expansions of river valleys 
caused by local glaciers, which, in the advance and retreat of 
the great glacier that filled and buried the lake basins, 
occupied the preexistent valleys and locally broadened and 
deepened them. Other writers have either denied to glaciers 
all participation in the excavation of lake basins, or have 
limited their action to the formation of moraine dams in 
river valleys. It is abundantly proven, however, that glaciers 
have occupied the basins of our great lakes, as well as the 
elongated lakes of the State of New York, and have done 
something, perhaps much, to effect their excavation, Moraine 
dams, which are among the characteristic products of glacial 
action, have certainly helped to form many water basins, but 
all the facts known indicate that most of our lakes are in rock, 
and in some instances are excavated in nearly horizontal strata , 
to a depth of many hundred feet, by some agent which differed 
greatly from running water in its mode of action. We shall need 
to probe the earth banks which border Lakes Michigan, Huron, 
Ontario and the smaller lakes mentioned, before positive and 
quantitative assertion can be made on this point. But there is 
certainly no proof that these profound excavations have ever 
been drained to their bottoms by flowing streams. That there, 
are elsewhere many rock-lipped basins which have been exca- 
vated by ice is abundantly proven. The Scotch lochs, the rock 
basins of Norway, described by Whitmell, and those mentioned 
by Penck as existing at the mouths of the old glacial valleys of 
Bavaria, afford abundant demonstration that ice can excavate 
and has excavated lake basins. Unfortunately, most such basins 
are filled with water or debris, and full examination of them is 
impossible. Lake Saltonstall, in Connecticut, is a rock rimmed 
basin excavated in the Trassic sandstone, and, in my judgment, 
is the work of ice. 

That our lakes are not generally the result of local elevation 
or subsidence, — warping of the earth's crust, — all those who have 
carefully examined their surroundings are agreed. Lake Su- 
perior alone lies in a synclinal fold, and that has been largely 
excavated. That our Lakes were for ages occupied by glaciers, 
which moved in the direction of their major axes, and protruded 
beyond their rims, spreading around the lower end of each a 



, v GooqIc 



THE ERODING POWER OF ICE. 151 

fan-shaped moraine, was shown by the writer long since, and 
has been more fully demonstrated in the masterly reports on the 
geology of Wisconsin by Chamberlain and Irving. But' the 
suggestion that the ice masses by which they were filled were 
sufficiently heavy to cause a subsidence of their beds and thus a 
depression of the earth's crust is untenable, since the weight of 
the ice, however thick, could never have been half that of the 
rock that has been removed from them. Aside from this, such 
subsidence would give a synclinal structure to the troughs, of 
which we find no traces in those which are among the deepest of 
the series, Michigan, Huron and Ontario. 

In this connection 1 would again call attention to the facts 
that our chain of great lakes holds a peculiar relation to 
the arch of the Canadian highlands, and that beyond Superior 
a continuation of the series reaches to the vicinity of the Arctic 
Ocean. While no positive assertion would be warranted without 
a thorough exploration of this boreal region, we may at least 
suspect that its larger lakes will be found to bear, like those 
nearer home, unmistakable marks of glacial action ; and that they 
are like our lower lakes, old river valleys which have been locally 
occupied, broadened and deepened by glaciers. 

Prof. Lesley said at Minneapolis, that our great lakes were 
valleys similar to those of Pennsylvania, &c, south of the Drift 
area, but they are radically different. The Pennsylvania valleys 
are troughs between ridges formed by faults and folds, while 
most of the lake basins are excavated in nearly horizontal strata. 

In the most important contribution that has been made to 
the subject of Quaternary glaciation since the study of the 
Swiss glaciers by Agassiz, Guyot, etc., "The Glaciation of the 
German Alps," by Dr. Albrecht Penk, of the University of Mu- 
nich, the eroding power of glaciers is illustrated by a great num- 
ber of striking facts ; for example, the residual debris of glacial 
action now spread over the Bavarian plateau is estimated by 
Penk to be equivalent in quantity to a sheet of rock 36 meters 
in thickness over the entire northern Alps. Penk also credits 
the excavation of the most important lake basins of the regions 
he studied, the Ammer See, Wurm See, etc. to glaciers, and 
also states that a lake basin filled with water or sediment lies at 
the mouth of each of the Alpine valleys through which glaciers 
protruded in ancient times. 



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I5z THE QUARTERLY. 

MODE OF GLACIAL EROSION. 

Probably much of the misapprehension which has existed in 
reference to the erosive power of ice is due to the fact that the 
composition and action of a glacier has not been understood. It is 
perhaps regarded as a mass of pure ice, which by itself would 
have little grinding power ; but a glacier is a great moving mass 
which by its weight and motion crushes and removes all 
but the most solid rock prominences over which if passes. 
Where it impinges against cliffs, these are sometimes lifted, and 
huge blocks are carried bodily away. In many localities we 
find stones hundreds of tons in weight, which have been torn 
from their beds and carried many miles. Pure ice then in 
sufficient volume is a potent and almost irresistible agent of 
erosion, quite independent of its grinding action ; but as a mat- 
ter of fact all glaciers are studded below with rock fragments, 
great or small, which they have torn up in their course; so that 
sand, gravel and boulders constitute a coating to the under sur- 
face of a glacier, which may be compared with the emery on a 
copper wheel. The efficiency of such an eroding agent may be 
in part realized when we reflect that the great glaciers which 
covered so much of our country had a thickness of from 1000 
to 5000 feet, and hence that the sand and gravel beneath them 
was pressed upon their beds with a force of from 50,000 to 
250,000 pounds to the square foot Such a moving mass would 
not only be capable of sweeping away any ordinary barriers 
that opposed its progress, but would grind down the underlying 
rock with a resistless and comparatively rapid action. In a 
country completely covered with an ice sheet and worn down 
simultaneously in all parts, we have of course no direct means 
of measuring the amount of erosion produced ; yet when we 
find the residue of the glacial debris, perhaps not more than half 
of the original mass, covering nearly a million of square miles 
adjacent to the Canadian Highlands, we have a witness to the 
potency of ice action which is sufficiently impressive. 

Prof. Lesley has attempted to measure the erosion of 
glaciers by the record of glacial action shown on the Kitta- 
tinny Mountain. He represents the rock removed from the 
summit to have been 70 feet in thickness, and makes this the 
basis of a general estimate, but he docs not seem to have con- 



]V GooqIc 



THE ERODINQ POWER OF ICE. 153 

sidered that this was just on the margin of the ice sheet, at the 
period of its greatest extension, and where its stay was shortest. 
One hundred miles further north the ice was probably ten times 
as thick and its erosive action was perhaps continued through 
ten times as many years. This would give it an efficiency 
perhaps one hundred times as great. 



THE MODULUS OF HYDROMETERS. 

BY E. WALLER AND N. HATHAWAY. 

The general definition of "modulus," as given in Worcester's 
dictionary, on the authorityof Prof. W. G. Peck, is as follows: 

"MODULUS; a constant factor of a variable function, which 
serves to connect the function with a particular system or base." 

In the literature treating of areometers or hydrometers, the 
modulus for those instruments, when the scale is even (the di- 
visions equidistant), is frequently mentioned, as a constant bear- 
ing some mathematical relation to the indications afforded, but 
-scarcely any mention is made of what the modulus actually is, 
how its value can be determined, or what its relation may be to 
the indications afforded by the instruments, in short, what its 
use may be. 

As information on these points has been found to be of ser- 
vice, we desire here to present the results of our examination of 
these questions. 

In the case of hydrometers with an arbitrary (even) scale, 
•(the graduations equidistant), it is evident that if the hydrometer 
consisted of a single stem of uniform calibre, there must be some 
ascertainable limit to the number of graduations, since, as we 
follow down the stem, the divisions represent greater and greater 
differences of specific gravity. 

The modulus of an hydrometer of this kind is its length, ex- 
pressed in the number of degrees into which the instrument 
■could be divided, were the divisions carried down to the extreme 
«nd. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



*54 



THE QUARTERLY. 



To calculate the length of an instrument gradu- 
ated thus arbitrarily, let us assume a tube having a 
uniform cross section, r, which sinks to O when float- 
ing in water, and to B when floating in a liquid of 
known specific gravity, g. 

Let 1= length from to N, and 
H=s length from to B, also 

let V= volume of the instrument from O to N 

and V'= " " " " " B to N. 

According to the laws of floating bodies, the vol- 
umes displaced are inversely proportional to the spe- 
cific gravities; hence. 



The volume of the instrument comprised between O and B: 
is V — V or, substituting the above value of V, it is: 



v_ v_ v(g-0 

g B 



But V=/ r, and this expression is 



'r(g-l) 



The volume between O and B is also equal to /* r, the pro- 
duct of the length by the area of the cross-section. This gives- 

the equation /' r= — a ' 

Solving with respect to / we have 



from which we can calculate the length of an instrument arbi- 
trarily graduated, were it all stem, when any specific gravity 
and the distance between the graduations for that specific gravity 
and for unity are known. 

If we represent by M the number of arbitrary divisions pos- 
sible on the stem, — the modulus — in other words, making the 
length of the degrees our unit of measure, reckoning Sp Gr=i 



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THE MODULUS OF HYDROMETERS. i$j 

as zero, and represent by B the number of degrees between O 
and B, we will have for Sp Gr=g, l=M. and F=B and the above 
formula becomes: 

„. 8 B 



from which we can always find the modulus, when the gradu- 
ation and corresponding specific gravity are known. 

On the other hand, if the modulus is known, the specific 
gravity corresponding to any given degree may be calculated. 

M 
For, solving with respect to g, we would have g= „ g 

If the arbitrary divisions are carried upward (for ■ 
liquids that are lighter than water), a similar course of 
reasoning will give us a formula similar to that first 
obtained with the sign of I reversed. 

V=/ r and V'=(/+Or 
and V : V'=/ r : (f+?)T=g : 1 



hence E = Tr* or ^ = TZ 



or using M and B as before. 



M 



=1_ B 3 



These formulae are frequently given, though the 
mode of obtaining them is usually omitted. The 
nearest suggestion of the kind may be found in 
tides by P. Casamajor (Am. Che^m., IV., pp. 129 and 286), which 
were, however, overlooked, until the above demonstration had 
been worked out. 

To apply these formulae to the hydrometers with an arbirtary 
scale most extensively used — Baume's, 

1st. For liquids heavier than water. 

According to Baume's direction * the point o is that to 
which the instrument sinks in pure water, while the 15° mark 

* Elements de Pharmacie par A BaumS, S ed- Paris, 179S, pp. 340-346. 

McidnGoOgle' 



156 THE QUARTERLY. 

is the point to which it sinks in a solution of 1 $ parts of salt 
^Na CI.) in 85 parts of water, the observations being conducted 
at io° R. 

For many of the instruments now in use, the specific gravity 
for the 15° mark is taken as about 1.11628. Substituting in the 
formulae first obtained, 

M= .gB = _ L ..628x l 5_ = 



■or the specific gravity corresponding to any given degree Be 
will be 

Sp =Gr '44 

144-B 

The true position for the 15 mark was found by Drs. Chand- 
ler and Wiechmann, when working in exact accordance with 
Baume's original directions, to be at Sp Gr= 1.1 1 18988, or 
practically 1.1119, which gives a modulus ot 149.04969. 

This result was the mean of thirteeen different determinations 
by nine independent observers. * • 

It may be here noted that those gentlemen found and tabu- 
lated twenty-three different tables of specific gravities corre- 
sponding to the different degrees Baume for liquids heavier than 
water, no one of which corresponded to a table prepared in ac- 
cordance with Baume's directions. The main reason for those 
differences are due to a disregard in one particular or another 
^temperature, etc.) of the original directions of Baume. Some 
scales have been made from the standard of the'strongest com- 
mercial sulphuric acid, its gravity at 6o° F. being taken at 66° 
B. The result was a variation Corresponding to the degree of 
perfection attained in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 

2d. for liquids lighter than water. 

The specific gravity of pure water is taken at io° and the 
o° mark is at a point corresponding to the specific gravity of a 
solution containing 10 parts of salt (Na CI.) in 90 of water, the 
observations as before at io° R. Assuming, as is usually done, 

* The Baume Hydrometer, a paper read before the National Academy of Sci- 
ences at the Philadelphia meeting, 1881, by C. F. Chandler. 



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THE MODULUS OF HYDROMETERS. 157 

that the Sp Gr of a ten per cent, salt solution is 1.0747, we have 
the following result B = — 10, since the zero point is ten divi- 
sions below Sp Gr = 1. 



i = s B LP21Z x : 



or the specific gravity corresponding to any given degree B£ 
will be: 



Sp Gr = - !44 =_ 144. . 

F i44+(B-io) 134+B 



Chandler and Wiechmann (loc.cit.) found as an average of 
nine determinations by four different observers that under the 
conditions prescribed by Baume, the proper position for the o° 
mark on this instrument was at Sp Gr = 1.0737665, which 
gives the modulus 145.56289. 

Chandler and Weichmann also found eleven different tables 
for the value of degrees Baume for liquids lighter than water 
which they tabulated in the same manner as those above re- 
ferred to. 

The table of correspondence for liquids heavier than water, 
which most closely corresponds with the true Baume scale is 
that given by Gerlach (Dingl. Polyt. Jour., Vol. 198, p. 314). 
For liquids lighter than water that of Krancceur (Memoir sur 
I'Areometrie. Paris, 1842) is most nearly correct, and has been 
adopted by the U. S. Petroleum Association. 

For liquids heavier than water when M= 144, 44 B = 
Sp Gr 1.44 ; if M = 145, 45 B = Sp Gr 1.45, etc. Hence a 
simple inspection of the tables of correspondence will often serve 
to show which modulus may have been used. 

The tables prepared by Drs. Chandler and Wiechmann, show- 
ing the values which the degrees on the Baume instruments 
should possess are here given. 

The experimental work having been conducted in exact ac- 
cordance with Baume's original directions. 



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*58 



THE QUARTERLY. 

I-VALUE OF DEGBEES BAUME. 



Calculated from o°=i and 15°= 1. 1118988 by the mo- 
dulus 149.04969. 



FOR LIQUIDS HEAVIER THAN WATER. 
Temperature io° R=I2.5° C=54-5° F. 



mn 


■ncinc 




«ino 


»i»u» u 




■"" 


owyirr. 


Blum, a 






lATtrr. 


\ 


1:5 


3 : 


„,„ 


g 


535»" 


I 


'i"Sm 


.21$ 


M 


as 


| 


I'SIJJ 




as 


P 


as 


I 


; : S 


i i 
| 


ass 


S 


6 3 7<>i 


il 


:S 




fa 




"J 


::3 B 


S2 


a 


"733S 


!:£«£' 






3 

159 


as 






JJ 


" a s 


H$ 


=3 


!:§ 


46 

s 




73 


5860. 








5°*T9 







H-VALUE OF DEGBEES BAUME, 

Calculated from o°= 1.0737665 a °d io°=i by the modulus 
145-56289. 

FOR LIQUIDS LIGHTER THAN WATER. 

Temperature io° R=i2.5° C = 54-5° F. 



■ADM* 


— >"■ 


""— 


QBAVI7T. 


35 


s3s 

O.SS3«» 


I 

6) 


0.80616 



,»GoogIe 



GRAPHITE IN MINERALS. 



THE DETERMINATION OF GRAPHITE IN 
MINERALS. 

BY J. B. MACKINTOSH. 

In many instances the accurate determination of the amount 
-of graphite present in a rock has proved a rather troublesome 
problem. The first thought which naturally suggests itself is 
to burn the graphite and weigh the carbonic acid produced, but 
in the case of the sample which led me to seek for another 
method, this way could not be employed, for the specimen had 
•been taken from the surface and was covered and penetrated 
by vegetable growths which could not be entirely removed me- 
chanically. Add to this the fact of the presence of iron pyrites 
and the probable occurrence of carbonates in the rock, and it 
will be at once seen that no reliance could be placed on the re- 
sults obtained by this suggested method. 

As the problem thus resolved itself into finding a way by 
which all interfering substances could be destroyed without af- 
fecting the graphite, it at once occurred to me to try the effect 
of caustic potash. I melted a few pieces of potash in a silver 
crucible until it had stopped spitting and was in quiet fusion. I 
then transferred the weighed sample to the crucible, the melted 
potash in which readily wetted the graphite rock. The mass 
was then gently heated and occasionally stirred with a piece of 
■silver wire. The heat never need be much above the melting 
point of the potash, though toward the last I have been in the 
habit of raising the temperature slightly, to ensure the complete 
decomposition of the melt. When the decomposition is com- 
plete, which can be known by the complete absence of gritty 
particles, the crucible is cooled and then soaked out in cold 
■water. This is very quickly accomplished, and we then see 
that we have an insoluble residue of graphite and a fiocculent 
precipitate of lime, magnesia, iron hydrate, etc., while the or- 
ganic matters have disappeared. The sulphides of iron, etc., 
■have given up their sulphur to the potash, and everything ex- 
cept the graphite has suffered some change. The solution is 
now filtered through a weighed Gooch crucible, the residue 
-washed a few times with water, and then treated with dilute hy- 
drochloric acid (followed by ammonia to remove any silver taken 



.vGooqIc 



i6o THE QUARTERLY. 

up from the crucible), which will dissolve all the constituents of 
the residue except the graphite, and after washing will leave the 
latter free and in a condition of great purity. 

As evidence of the accuracy of the method I subjoin the re- 
sults I obtained on a sample whose gangue was free from all or- 
ganic and other impurities, consisting chiefly of quartz : 

New Method. Combustion in Oxygen, weighing CO2 

IS-SI 15.54 

It is plain that such a result leaves nothing to be desired 
for the accuracy of the method, while as regards time and trou- 
ble, the advantage lies on the side of the new method. I have 
completed a determination in less than two hours from the 
start, and did not hurry myself over it in any degree. 

Fine pulverization of the sample is not essential, and in fact 
is rather detrimental, as the graphite when fine is more difficult 
to wash without loss. When operating on a coarse sample more 
time is necessarily taken, but the resulting graphite shows the 
manner of occurrence better, whether in scales or in the amor- 
phous form. 

In consulting the literature bearing on the subject I cannot 
find any mention of this method employed as an analytical pro- 
cess ; it has, however, been previously described as a commer- 
cial method for the purification of graphite,* and I understand 
has been tried on a small scale in this country. The method, 
though inexpensive, yet seems to have been abandoned for some 
reason, and I am not aware that it is now employed anywhere. 



fTHE LATE HENRY WATTS, B.A., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

It having become known to some of 'the friends of the late Mr. 
Henry Watts, whose death occurred very suddenly on the 30th of last 
June, that his widow and family are in very straightened circum- 
stances, an informal meeting was held at the Royal Institution on 
Tuesday, the nth of November. Those present resolved to form 
themselves into a committee, with power to add to their number, in 
order to collect a fund for the benefit of Mrs. Watts and those of 

* SchlOflel, Zeitschrift der K. K. geotog. Reichanstalt, 1866, p. 116. 
fFrom the Chemical News, Dec. 5th, 1884. 



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THE LATE HENRY WATTS. 161 

her children who are not of an age to provide for their own sup- 
port. Dr. Atkinson consented to act as Secretary, and Dr. Perkin, 
President of the Chemical Society, as Treasurer. 

The following gentlemen constitute the Provisional Committee : 
Sir F. A. Abel, H. E. Armstrong, Edmund Atkinson, William 
Crookes, Warren De La Rue, James Dewar, G. C. Foster, J . H. 
Gladstone, A. G. V. Harcourt, Hugo Mtlller, E. C. Nicholson, Wil- 
liam Odling, W. H. Perkin, W. Chandler Roberts, Sir H. E. Roscoe, 
W. J. Russel, W. A. Tilden, W. A. Williamson, P. J. Worsley. 

Mr. Watts's public labors for the advancement of Chemical 
Science may be said to have begun with the translation of Gmelin's 
" Handbook of Chemistry," the 'admirable English edition of which 
was prepared and edited for the Cavendish Society by him. This 
work occupies eighteen large octavo volumes, of which the first ap- 
peared in 1849, and the East in 1871. A work scarcely if at all in- 
ferior to this in magnitude, and one which has perhaps been of even 
greater service to English chemists, both scientific and industrial, 
is Watts's " Dictionary of Chemistry," which appeared from 1863 
to 1881, in eight volumes, containing altogether 9700 pages. Mr. 
Watts also edited and largely added to the second volume of the 
late Professor Graham's " Elements of Chemistry," published in 
1858 ; he prepared several editions of Fownes's well-known " Man- 
ual of Chemistry," which he almost entirely re-wrote and made into 
virtually a new work ; and in conjunction with Mr. Ronalds and 
Dr. Richardson, he prepared for Messrs. Bailliere, an elaborate 
treatise on Chemical Technology. Up to the time of his death, and 
for about thirty years previously, Mr. Watts was editor of the Jour- 
nal of the Chemical Society, and in this capacity, as well as in that of 
Librarian to the Chemical Society, he became personally known to 
and gained the friendship of very many among the Fellows of the 
Society. 

But although Mr. Watts's life was one of unremitting labor, the 
money return for his work was barely sufficient to enable him to 
provide for the daily wants of a delicate wife and a numerous fam. 
ily. It was not possible for him to provide for their future needs. 
But if he could not leave behind him pecuniary resources, he accu- 
mulated esteem and affection among all who knew him, which, it is 
confidently hoped, will prove a valuable legacy for those who were 
dependent on him. The following facts will show that there is great 
need of whatever practical proof of their regard for him and ap- 
preciation of his labors Mr. Watts's friends and English chemists 
generally, may be willing to make, 



: ,t-od .GoO^lc 



161 THE QUARTERLY. 

For many years Mrs. Watts has been in ill health, so that she 
cannot do anything for her own support and that of her family. 
Her only income is about ^roo a year, and of her ten children only 
two are in a position to afford her help. They hope to contribute 
between them $150 a year. One son is a permanent invalid, and 
the four youngest children have still to be educated. A consider- 
able expenditure is therefore unavoidable for a good many years to 
come, if the children are to have a fair chance of a start in life. 

Subscriptions will be received and acknowledged by the Secre- 
tary, Dr. Edmund Atkinson, Portesbery Hill, Camberly, Surrey, or 
by the Treasurer, Dr. W. H. Perkin, The Chestnuts, Sudbury, 
Harrow. 

The editors of the Quarterly recommend the above appeal to 
the consideration of their readers. It is unnecessary to add any- 
thing regarding the invaluable nature of the work performed by 
Mr. Watts, and it is hoped that there will be a fitting response from 
those in this country who have been benefitted by his labors. 

Contributions will be received by Dr. Elwyn Waller, School of 
Mines, Columbia College, and will be acknowledged in the 
Quarterly. 



From the Comptes-Rendus of the Atademie des Sciences, we learn 
that M. Daubree presented to that body, in its session of Dec. 1st, 
various treatises of Mr. Cope Whitehouse, on the island of Staffa 
and its Caves. In these the author has shown that the current pic- 
ture of Fingal's Cave are grotesque and impossible caricatures. The 
cuts in the Text Books of Dr. Geikie, (1883) and Mr, Jukes Brown, 
(1884) do not bear the slightest resemblance to the island, to each 
other, or to the mythical colonnade of earlier works. But Mr. Cope 
Whitehouse also asked the question, now repeated by M. Daubree, 
whether these caves are not artificial excavations, made by the an- 
cient race which once extended its sovereignty over Iona and the 
adjacent coast. , 



Erratum. — Vol. 6., No. r, p. 64, line 12, for 3 per cent., 
read 3 /io per cent. 



,i;n,t.-ed::yG00^lc 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 



Determination of Silica in Silver Lead Ores, carrying a high percen- 
tage of Sulphate of Baryta and Silicate of Alumina. By H. Van 
F. Furman. 

I am indebted to Mr. A. Raht, late Superintendent of the Horn 
Silver Smelting Works, for the following method, which I understand 
has been in use there over two years : One-half gramme of finely 
pulverized ore is introduced into a covered casserole with 5 c. c. 
hydrochloric and 3 c. c. nitric acids, and the mass is evaporated to 
dryness on a sand-bath or water-bath. The dry mass is then moist- 
ened with hydrochloric acid and dissolved in water after heating. 
The solution is now filtered and thoroughly washed- by decantation 
with warm water until all chlorides, with the exception of a small 
amount of chloride of lead, are removed. To the insoluble mass 
in the casserole from 10 to 20 c. c. uf ammonium acetate are now 
added, the amount depending on the quantity of lead salts present, 
and the mass is stirred with a glass rod. When the ore contains 
lead sulphate it should be heated on a water-bath with frequent stir- 
ring at this stage of the process. The insoluble mass is now fil- 
tered, the same filter being used, and if one washing with the am- 
monium acetate is not sufficient to remove all the lead salts, this 
washing should be repeated, although one washing will generally be 
found sufficient. The residue is now washed into the filter and 
thoroughly washed with warm water. The filter is now removed 
from the funnel, rolled around the insoluble residue, placed in a 
crucible, dried over a lamp, ignited and weighed. This mass is 
mixed with about two grammes of mixed carbonates of soda and 
potash, and introduced into a small charcoal block having a hole 
bored in the center to hold the mixture. These charcoal blocks can 
be purchased, or they can be made of finely pulverized charcoal and 
starch paste. A piece of charcoal is placed on the top of the block 
holding the mixture; this is placed in an ordinary Hessian or clay 
crucible and the cover of the crucible luted on to exclude the air. 
The crucible is now placed in the crucible or muffle fire and allowed 
to remain there for nearly an hour, being almost at a white heat 
when removed. When cold, the charcoal block is taken out of the 
crucible and, after removing the cover, is held inverted over a cas- 
serole and gently tapped, when the fused mass falls out in the form 
of a glassy button. This is now dissolved with water on the water- 
bath and acidified with hydrochloric acid, the silica being determ- 
ined in the usual way. If care be taken in luting on the cover of 
the crucible, the charcoal block may be used for a dozen or more 
fusions. The theory of this fusion is that the Ba SO t is reduced to 
Ba S, or to Na, S and Ba CO,, and the silica and alumina combine 



^Google 



,6 4 



THE QUARTERLY. 



with the soda and potash, so that on adding hydrochloric acid 
Ba CI, goes into solution and H,S gas is given off. The Baryta being 
determined in the filtrate, the alumina is obtained by difference. I 
have used this method for determining the silica in many ores 
which were not lead ores, and also for the determination of silica in 
lead slags with the most satisfactory results. In this case the pre- 
liminary treatment may be dispensed with, the weighed ore or slag 
being fused directly. The advantages of this method over all the 
ordinary methods are so apparent that it is hardly necessary to 
dwell upon them. 

Slag Analysis. By C. A. Meissner. 

I have made several experiments in regard to decomposition of 
Blast Furnace Slag after the method described by Mr. M. W. lies 
in your last volume, and find that the results are very satisfactory. 
I have a rod, slightly spoon-shaped, with which I collect the sample, 
dipping it immediately into cold water. After this treatment it dis- 
solves completely in concentrated HC1 with the exception of Si O, 
which may be filtered and weighed, practically free from all impur- 
ities. The results compared with the fusion method are as fol- 
lows : 



INSOLUBLE KF.S 


H'E 


LEFT AFTER SOLU- 




N IN HC1. 


32-71 




32-98 


3f '3 




36-74 


19-03 




29-22 



This shows a slight increase of insoluble residue when the cin- 
der is cooled in the ordinary way, and dissolved in HC1, but in most 
cases it would be close enough for practical purposes. 

I would further state in regard to cinder that when alumina is 
higher than 17%, the silica may be as low as 24%, without slack- 
ing or showing too much lime in the burden. This with argilla- 
ceous ores should be taken into account. The iron in such cases is 
liable to be weak and full of spots, with a smaller percentage of No. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



ABSTRACTS. 



Civil. Enginf.frin 



The Forth Bridge. Mr. B. Baker read a paper before the British 
Association at Montreal on the Forth Bridge, which is now in 
process of construction. In mentioning the materials used in the 
superstructure, he says: 

" About 42 miles of plates have to be bent for the tubular com- 
pression members, and the best method of doing this became a ques- 
tion of great practical importance. Bending cold did not answer, 
as the true curvature could not be so obtained. Theoretically, a 
10,000 ton hydraulic press would be required to bend, truly, our 16 
ft. by 1 % in. thick steel plates, and practically a 2000 ton press was 
of no use. Heated in a gas furnace, the plates bent readily, but 
distorted considerably and irregularly in cooling. Covering with 
ashes, packing up, and a variety of expedients were tried before the 
proper method was hit upon, which was to bend the plates hot and 
to give them a straightening squeeze afterward when cold. Uniform 
heating is secured by admitting the gas near the door, and midway 
along the furnace. An important incidental advantage of the use 
of tubular compression members thus, is that every plate gets re- 
lieved from any internal strains which may have been set up by 
shearing or improper usage at the steel works, which is of greater 
moment, as steel having the comparatively high tensile strength of 
34 to 37 tons per square inch is used. 

Some alarm was occasioned at the works by certain iVi in. thick. 
plates breaking like cast iron, on being bent cold to the flat radius 
of 6 feet. I felt certain, however, that the Landore steel was not at 
fault, as our inspectors test a shearing from every plate by bending 
it round a radius of i'4 in. after being made red hot and cooled in 
water. On investigation I traced the cause of the fracture in the 
local damage the plates received from shearing What the damage 
consists in is an unsolved riddle. It cannot extend more than 1-16 
in. from the edge, because planing to that extent relieves the plate ; 
and yet it effects the entiie width ; for the 4 ft. 6 in. plate snapped 
as readily as the 1 inch wide strip sheared from it. Neither can it 
arise from " nicking" by bad shearing, because making the plates 
red-hot cures the evil, though the " nicking," if previously existent, 
remains as visible as ever. Practically, the important point of in- 
terest to bridge builders is that with planed edges and drilled holes 
we have had no mysterious fractures, but the Forth Bridge plates 
have behaved as a material having as the higher limit a tensile 
strength of 37 tons per square inch, and an elongation of 17 per 
cent, in 8 inch should behave. Our specifications for steel com- 
pression is 34 tons to 37 tons, with an elongation of 17 per cent., 
and for steel in tension 30 tons to 33 tons with 20 per cent, elonga- 



]V GooqIc 



i66 THE QUARTERLY. 

tion. The strength rarely varies as widely as the stated limits 
and the elongation averages some 3 per cent. more. One of the 
plates which fractured from sheared edges, when bent cold was 
tested by me in various ways. A specimen made red-hot and 
cooled in water at 80 degrees stood 38.3 tons per square inch, and 
elongated 21 per cent. Another specimen made hot and allowed to- 
cool in air stood 36.6 tons, and also elongated 21 per cent., whilst 
one planed from the plate direct without heating failed with 34.3 
tons, but extended 25 per cent. For practical purposes, therefore, 
it mattered little how the plate was treated, provided the effect of 
the shearing was eliminated by planing or by heating." 

A. S. D. 

The ^Proper Compensation for R. R. Curves. Wm. R. Morley 
from his experience in building Mexican railroads, comes to the 
conclusion that the resistance due to curvature is measured, not 
by the length of radius, but by the ruling grade ; hence a sliding; 
scale, of compensations, depending on the grade as well as the 
degree of curvature, should be adopted. 

The figures which he adopted weie : 
Kate of maximum grade .0 to 0.7 ft. per 100; compensation 0.06 per 100 ft. perdeg 

'.'. '.'. .'.' » °'7' oi -*,7 || || °'°5 11 11 

With this compensation he found that not only did the train 
movement not pick up on striking the curves, but that whenever, 
as was seldom the case, there was any perceptible drag of the train 
in rounding the curves an examination showed that something was 
wrong with the track; usually either the elevation of the rails was 
wrong, or the gauge had not been widened on the curve. 

On several roads where the curves had been compensated at the 
uniform rate of 0.05 per degree, per 100 feet, it was found that on 
the 0.6 per cent grades, the compensation was about right, while on 
the 1.2 per cent, grades, there was a very perceptible "picking up" 
in the movement of the train when the engine was fully loaded as 
it struck a curve, and the higher the degree of curvature, the more 
this picking up was noticeable. 

The figures stated, while sufficient for the average train, as much 
as one engine can drag, are not sufficient for double headers ; 
where these are expected to be used, the author used the same 
compensation on the heavy grade with two engines that he would have 
used on the lighter grade where one engine would have the same 
number of cars. Trans. Am. Soc. C. E., July, 1S84. 



R. V. A. N. 



Mf.chanical Engineering. 



Heat Conduction in Non-Conductors. 
Mr. J. J. Coleman, in a paper read before the Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow, gives the results of some carefully conducted 
experiments to determine the relative heat-conducting power of cer- 
tain substances used for non-conductors. They are as follows : 



;v Goo^lc 



ABSTRACTS. 167 

Silicate cotton (Blast furnace slag wool) . . 100 

Hair felt 117 

Cotton wool 122 

Sheep's wool 136 

Infusorial earth 136 

Charcoal 140 

Sawdust 163 

Wood and air space 280 

A. S. D. 

Tests by Hydrostatic Pressure. 

In applying hydrostatic pressure, the momentum of the fluid as 
forced into the vessels, plays an important part ; hence, vessels will 
stand a far greater pressure applied gradually than they will if 
applied per solium. The plunger of the machine should be as small 
as possible, the best form of machine being one which has a series 
of very small reciprocating force-pumps, worked by cams or cranks 
from a revolving shaft, so as to give an almost uniform delivery of 
fluid. The additional pressure per square inch, caused by the force 
of impact, P, may be expressed by the formula. 

2LVA 
Ta " 

11 which L— length of delivery pipe in feet. 

a— cross area of delivery pipe in sq. in. 
v— velocity of plunger in feet per second. 
A— cross area of plunger in sq. in. 
T— time in seconds in which the impact acts. 
From the above formula it is evident that this difficulty of addi- 
tional pressure is proportionate to the length L of the pipe, and 
area, A, and velocity, V, of the plunger, and inversely as the time 
of impact T and area, a, of the delivery pipe. 

The elasticity of the vessel into which the water is forced and 
the air in the water diminish considerably the force of impact, 
but still the formula shows that the delivery pipe should be as large 
as possible. — Journal Franklin Institute, Aug. 1884. 

R. V. A. N. 



The Composition 0/ Coal and Cannel Gas in Relation to their Illumi- 
nating Power. 

Dr. Frankland finds that while the illuminating power of the 
cannel gases is far higher than that of the coal gases, the latter are 
better when considered in relation to their proportional contents of 
hydrocarbons, the average figures in candle powers for each per 
cent, of ethylene being for cannel gas, 2.02, and for coal gas, a. 71. 
The hydrocarbon contents are calculated to ethylene as the hydro- 
carbons contained give nearly C„ H tD as an average formula. 

He determined the carbon density by exploding some of the gas 



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1 08 THE QUARTERLY. 

with excess of oxygen and then absorbing the CO, formed with 
caustic potash. This total CO, is then calculated for 100 volumes of 
gas and from this percentage is substracted the CO, due to the 
marsh gas, the CO and any CO, that was originally in the sample. 

This percentage divided by the percentage of hydrocarbons 
gives the carbon density. From this, almost invariably less than 
three, it is evident that ethylene and propylene form much the 
larger proportion of the luminants. 

That much of the actual illuminating power is due to the higher 
hydrocarbons, is proved by dis-illuminating some of the gas with 
bromine and then recarbu retting with ethylene. It took 13 % of 
ethylene to restore sixteen candle power to a gas which had pre- 
viously a hydrocarbon content equivalent to 6.58 % C, H ( , and to 
make this gas produce a light of twenty-eight candle power took 
31% of C, H„ while another gas of twenty-seven candle power 
only gave the equivalent of 13.71 %. 

Using benzol instead of ethylene it was found that 3.09% 
C»H, gave dis-illuminated gas 22.79, ant ' 3-3 % 6 ave 2 A^9 candle 
power. — Jour. London Chcm. See, June, 1884. 

R. V. A. N. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



"The American Univsnitv .- When sha'l it be? Where shall it he 7 

What shall it be r By John W. Burgess of Columbia College, 
(published by Guin & Heath, of Boston. Pamphlet, 22 pp., price 
15 cents). 

We have received a very full review of the above, but have not 
the space to print it in this number of the Quarterly. 

Many of the officers and graduates of the School of Mines, take 
decided exception to the views expressed by Prof. Burgess, and 
consider that in the following passage the author has cast an " in- 
jurious reflection upon the School of Mines." 

" It should be added, however, that although the University 
should instruct as well as discover and conserve, yet its means and 
its energies should not be expended upon the mere pratique of its 
subjects. In Theology, for instance, it should not be held to teach 
forms and rubrics, better learned at the reading-desk of some church; 
nor in Medicine the methods of practice, better seen in the wards 
of the hospital; nor in Jurisprudence the technique of procedure 
and administration, better acquired in the office of an attorney or as 
clerk in a governmental bureau; and not in the Natural Sciences is its 
■work their application to the exploitation of the wealth of the universe — 
that is the object of the Polytechnicum ; ami all of these things are the 
industrial side of knowledge ami instruction, which should take care of 
itself, or else be taken care of by those immediately interested therein, 
and has no claim upon the community at large for sacrifice and support '." 

The italics are ours. 

In this connection the following correspondence has taken place, 
which we were unable to print in our last number. 

New York, Oct. 20th, 1884. 
To the Editors or the Quarterly: 

I have read with great surprise an essay on "The American 
University," by Prof. John W. Burgess. As the essay is written by 
an officer of Columbia College, whose position gives him authority 
with the Public, it seems to me that your attention should be called 
to what appears to me to be an injurious reflection upon the School 
of Mines contained in the pamphlet. I refer to the covert sneer at 
the School of Mines as a " Polytechnicum," " which should take 
care of itself," "and has no claim on the community at large for 
sacrifice and support," in which, by implication at least, the author 
permits himself to indulge and which should not be allowed to pass 
without rebuke, or at least a protest from the professed organ of 
the school. 

Very truly yours, 

A "Graduate of the School of Mines." 



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i7o THE QUARTERLY. 

New York, Oct. 24, 1884, 
Prof. John W. Burgess, 
Columbia College, 
Dear Sir : I have received a letter, of which the enclosed is a 
true copy, from a prominent graduate of the School of Mines. I 
find that the opinions of this graduate are held by many others; 
but I feel sure that a word from you, published in our magazine, will 
correct this misapprehension. We go to press on Monday and 
would ask you to send as a favor, a reply before that time to 
Yours very truly, 

J. K. Rees, 

Managing Editor. 

323 West 57th St., Oct.-26th, 
Prof. J. K. Rees, 

Dear Sir : In answer to your favor of the 24th, I would beg to 
reply this. There is no reference made in my pamphlet to the School 
of Mines, and none intended. My pamphlet is an abstract discus- 
sion of the subject of the American University, and contains no re- 
flections upon any specific Institution. 

Yours very truly, 

J. W. Burgess. 

A Treatise on Ore Deposits. By J. Arthur Phillips, F.R.S., London. 

Macmillan & Co. 1884. 

This is by far the best work on the subject yet published. Sim- 
ilar in its plan and methods to Von Cotta's " Die Lehre von den Erz- 
tagerstatten" of which the last German edition was published in 
1859 (translated by Prof. Fred. Prime in 1870), it is not only more 
modern, but more comprehensive in scope, clearer in definition and 
far richer in illustration. Since the publication of Von Cotta's and 
Rivot's books, each excellent in its way and for its time, the sub- 
jects of ore deposits and vein mining have been illuminated by all 
the discoveries and experiences of American miners in our Western 
States and Territories, of the English colonists in Australia, New 
Zealand, India, and South Africa, to say nothing of the later devel- 
opments of the Copper and Silver mines of Chili and the instruc- 
tive operations of the English in Spain. These, though imperfect- 
ly described, have already doubled the literature of mining as it 
stood at the middle of this century, and have poured such a flood 
of light over the economic and scientific questions connected with 
it that everything before written has been made inadequate and an- 
tiquated, if not obsolete. The want has long been felt and often 
expressed, of some work on mines and ores, which should combine 
the information gained in the last twenty-five years — a period of 
unprecedented activity in mining enterprises and rich in pecuniary as 
well as scientific results — and add to it what was known before on 
these subjects. That want the present work of Mr. Phillips has 
largely supplied. He was, perhaps, better qualified than any other 
man living to undertake the task, being an accomplished geologist 
and mining engineer, and having visited in person most of the im- 
portant mining regions of the world, and he has performed it well. 
The principal development of the mines of the United States has, 



- 



,»GoogIe 



BOOK REVIEWS. 171 

however, taken place since Mr. Phillips was in this country, and he 
therefore scarcely does justice to our immensely diversified and rich 
ore deposits, which have already, though but imperfectly exploited, 
made the United States the most important mining country of the 
world. 

Much would be added to the scientific interest and practical 
value of the book if Mr. Phillips would take another trip through 
our mining camps, and embody the results of his observations in 
additions to the sixty-four pages in which he has put all that he has 
to say about the mines of the United States. We are not claiming 
too much in saying that the ore deposits of our Western States and 
Territories exceed in variety and interest those of any and all other 
countries ; and that our mines afford the best data known for test- 
ing the truth of the various theories of ore deposition, and the best 
illustrations of what students and miners need to be taught. Mr. 
Phillips's acquaintance with American mines has given him 
resources and facilities such as no other has enjoyed, and he has 
availed himself of them to good purpose. It is to be hoped, how- 
ever, that the next edition will better represent the later develop- 
ments of our ever expanding mining industry. 

The first part of the book (108 pages) is devoted to a general 
exposition of the characteristics and genesis of ore deposits, and 
gives the best review of the subject yet published. The system of 
classification is essentially that given by Prof. Newberry, in his 
article On the Origin aud Classification of Ore Deposits, published in 
the Quarterly for March, 1880, which he commends and 
largely quotes. The later article by Prof. Newberry, in the Quar- 
terly for May, 1884, had evidently not reached Mr. Phillips when 
his book went to press, as no reference is made to its discussion of 
the theories of vein formation, and the examples of bedded veins 
there cited, which would not have been passed over if he had seen 
them. 

In conclusion we heartily commend Mr. Phillips's book as the 
best treatise of the kind extant, and one which every mining engi- 
neer should possess. 

The Copper-bearing Rocks of Lake Superior. By Prof. Roland Duer 

Irving, U. S. Geological Survey. Washington, 1883. 

This important work issued by the U. S. Geological Survey is 
one of a series of monographs on the geology of the principal min- 
ing districts of this country, and treats of the, at present, most im- 
portant copper-producing region of the United States. 

The volume opens with a history of the earlier geological inves- 
tigations and a complete bibliography of the subject. The author 
then defines "tne Keweenaw" or copper-bearing series as including 
only the succession of inierbedded " traps," amygdaloids, felsitic 
porphyries, porphyry-conglomerates, and sandstones, and the con- 
formably overlying thick sandstone, as typically developed in the 
region of Keweenaw Point and Portage Lake on the south shore of 
Lake Superior. 

In geological age this series is Cambrian or Huronian, but pre- 
cise location is impossible owing to lack of fossils. 



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172 THE QUARTERLY. 

The lithological characteristics of the eruptive rocks are then 
elaborately treated, showing them to belong, in general, to the au- 
gite-plagioclase class, being principally olivine and olivine-f ree gab- 
bros, grading in one direction, by an increasing fineness of grain 
and loss of diallagic cleavage in the augite into diabase ; and finally 
by an increasing amount of uncrystallized base and introduction of 
gas vesicles into Amygdaloid, (the froth on top of the lava flows). 

These basic gabbros also grade by increasing acidity of the feld- 
spar, loss of olivine and addition of primary and secondary quartz, 
through orthoclase-gabbro into augite syenite and finally into augite- 
granite. 

The acid rocks, like the basic ones, have their fine-grained mem- 
bers, and finally, when the ground-mass becomes irresolvable or 
crypto-crystalline, we have quartz- porphyry and felsite. Vesicular 
kinds have not been found among the acid rocks. 

Besides the eruptive rocks, their derivatives the detrital rocks, 
conglomerates and sandstones, are fully treated. 

The descriptions of all the above rocks are lavishly illustrated 
by very accurate and delicately colored lithographs of microscopical 
sections, placed as is especially commendable opposite the pages 
on which they are described. The copper is principally found in 
the Amygdaloid, that is, in the upper vesicular portions of the inter- 
bedded successive lava flows, having evidently been deposited from 
aqueous solution, and in the detrital rocks made up from its 

Upon the source of the copper no new light is thrown, the au- 
thor stating that, " we have too little to go upon," in deciding be- 
tween "the view that the original home of the copper was within 
the mass of the trappean flows themselves, with which it issupposed 
to have come to the surface": and Pumpeliy's view " that it was 
originally deposited in a sulphuretted form along with the detrital 
members of the series, from which it was subsequently leached, 
partly in the shape of sulphate, but principally as a carbonate and 
silicate." 

Prof. Irving gives Pumpelly "the credit of having advanced the 
only satisfactory view as to the cause of the arrest of the copper in 
the places where it is now found. He has shown the existence of 
an intimate relation between the precipitation of the copper and the 
peroxidation of the ferrous oxide of the augitic constituents of the 
basic rocks, a relation so constant as to render irresistible the con- 
clusion that in the ferrous oxide is to be found the precipitating 
agent of the copper." The author then gives a view of the general 
stratigraphy of the Keweenaw series, separating it " into two grand 
divisions : an upper member made up wholly of detrital material, 
mostly red sandstone and shale ; and a lower member made up 
chiefly of a succession of flows of basic rocks, but including layers 
of conglomerate and sandstone nearly to the base and more or less 
of original acid rocks." 

The maximum thickness of the Upper division he places at 
15,000 feet and the Lower from 15,000 to 30,000 feet. The Ke- 
weenawan rocks are then traced all around the western end of Lake 
Superior, from Keweenaw Point to Clinton Point : thence to Du- 



]V GooqIc 



BOOK REVIEWS. 173 

luth the rocks in question commence some 10 miles south of the 
shore and extend back as far as 60 miles into the country, the water 
front being occupied by "Western" sandstone. 

The Lower division rocks of the Keweenaw series border the 
lake from D ninth to Grand Portage Bay ; thence to the east shore of 
Thunder Bay the Huronian Animike slates occur. Silver Islet is 
in this formation, but the dykes closely resemble the finer ortho- 
clase-gabbros of the Keweenawan. 

The characteristic rocks of the Keweenawan again touch the 
lake from Silver Islet to the east shore of Nipigon Bay. 

Most of the islands of the lake, including Isle Royale, Michipi- 
coten and Caribou islands, and many headlands on the east shore 
are Keweenawan ; and from these principal facts and many subor- 
dinate ones, Prof. Irving has good authority for constructing a 
map showing almost the entire bottom of Lake Superior to be made 
up of Keweenawan rocks. 

The book is plenteously illustrated with carefully executed maps 
and sections in color, and numerous wood cuts, all put in for use 
and not for show, giving the reader a better insight into the struc- 
ture and nature of the country than would pages of descriptions. 

Our readers will be sorry to hear that about Dec. 1st, 1884, part 
of the Wisconsin State University was burned and all Prof. Irving's 
typical collections of rocks were lost, the thin sections alone being 
saved, but unfortunately these will be of little value without the 
hand specimens from which they were chipped. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 

Alumni Association. — It gives us pleasure to record a very 
full vote for Managers for the year 1885. 

The Teller's report shows a total of 23a votes cast out of 430 
graduates, or 52 per cent, of all the graduates of the school. This 
is an excellent showing as there are many graduates who have never 
joined or taken any active interest in the Association. The Managers 
elected are as follows : 

Class '67 A- W. Hale. E. M. Class '76 F. R. Hulton, Ph. D 

" '68 F. A- Scherroerhorn, E. M. " '77 J. B. Mackintosh, E. M. 

" '69 W. A. Hooker, E. M. " '78 W. P. Butler, E. M. 

" '70 Elwyn Waller, Ph. D. " '79 N. L. Brilton. Ph. D. 

" '71 P. de P. Ricketts. Ph. D. " '8o A. L. Beebe, Ph. B. 

" "72 P. T. Austen. Ph. I). " '81 A. II. Van Sinderen, Ph. B. 

" '73 F. A. Canfield. E. M, " '82 A. J. Moses. E. M. 

" '74 W. de L. Benedict, E. M. " '83 J. H. Banks, E. M. 

" '75 J. K. Rees, E. M. " '84 J. F. Kemp, E. M. 

The new method of electing officers of the Association, provided 
for in the amended Constitution, was inaugurated this year, and 
worked well. 

The list of officers elected is as follows : 

President — F. A. Schermerhorn, of New York. 

First Vice-President— M. W. lies, of Denver. 

Second Vice-President — A. W. Hale, of New York. 

Third Vice-President— S. A. Reed, of Pueblo. 

Treasurer — J. K. Rees, of New York. 

Secretary — P. de P. Ricketts, of New York. 

Assistant Secretary — H. W. Leavens, of Denver. 

From the above it will be seen that the Amendment to the Con- 
stitution providing for the establishment of a Western office of the 
Association has gone into effect, and that Messrs. lies, Reed, and 
Leavens constitute the Executive Committee of the Board of Man- 
agers for the territory west of the Mississippi. 

As outlined in the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Man- 
agers published in the last number of the Quarterly these gentlemen 
were appointed in connection with Mr. B. B. Lawrence to arrange 
for a preliminary meeting to be held in Denver during December. 

The following letter from Mr. H. W. Leavens may prove of in- 
terest as showing what action was taken at the meeting and what is 
proposed by our Western Committee. 

Denver, Colo., Dec. 19th, 1884. 
P. de P. Ricketts, Ph. £>., Sec. Al. Assoc. S. of M. 

50th St. & 4th Ave., New York City. 
Dear Sir : 

A meeting of several members of the S. of M. Alumni Association, 
was held in Denver, Dec. 15th, to consider the establishment of a 



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GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 175 

Western office. The meeting was called to order with Mr. H. W. 
Leavens in the chair. An expression of opinion from each gentleman 
present developed only favorable views regarding such action. 
Among the more salient points discussed were : The necessity for 
some permanent headquarters in Denver where members coming to 
Denver could obtain information regarding graduates in the West, 
and more particularly those in Denver and vicinity, also, where 
they might find facilities for correspondence, as well as scien- 
tific publications on file. The desirability of a bureau of infor- 
mation regarding positions vacant in the West, was also discussed 
favorably. It is thought that such vacancies can be much more 
speedily filled by men on the ground, though, failing such appli- 
cants, the home office will be communicated with at once, and 
members in the East be given opportunities for good positions. 

The small number of men residing in Denver and its immediate 
vicinity seems to render the renting of a room permanently inad- 
visable at present. Mr. Leavens having offered desk-room in his 
office which is centrally located, his offer was accepted with thanks. 
The following resolution was then offered : 

Resolved. That the temporary committee through their chair- 
man, H. W. Leavens, convey to the Board of Managers of the S. 
of M. Al. Assoc, the thanks of the Western members for the inter- 
est they have manifested in the establishment of a Western office, 
and for their prompt action in the appointment of the committee 
requested. That they be requested to solicit an appropriation of 
One Hundred dollars ($ioo.co) to enable the Western office to ob- 
tain a suitable desk and to subscribe fur the S. of M. Quarterly and 
such other periodicals of scientific value as the members may deem 
advisable. Carried. The meeting then adjourned. 

While the number of members present was comparatively small, 
many letters of regret had been received from graduates who were 
prevented by business from attending, and all such letters conveyed 
the hearty approval of the venture and promises of their coopera- 
tion in the plan. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient Servant, 
H. W. Leavens, Chairman Temporary Com. 

Extracts from Minutes of Meetings of the Association and 
its Board of Managers held since our last issue. 

First Quarterly Meeting. — The first Quarterly Meeting of 
the Alumni Association of the School of Mines for the year ending 
1884 and '85 was held in Hamilton Hall on Wednesday evening, 
Nov. 19th. 1884. 

Present about 88 members of the Association. 

The meeting was called to order shortly after 8 o'clock by the 
President. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and approved. 

The Treasurer reported that the net balance on hand was 
$502.43- 

The Secretary presented an informal report, reading a letter 
from Mr. Leavens on the Western Office, and a notice of the death 
of Mr. F. E. Bruen, "76. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



176 THE QUARTERLY. 

A report from the " Committee of Ten" appointed at the last 
meeting was then called for and was read by Mr. Butler, Secretary 
of the Committee. 

After submitting the report, the Committee also submitted a- 
summary, outlining the changes which would be made if their recom- 
mendations were adopted. 

After discussion, it was decided that the "Committee of Ten" 
obtain suggestions and opinions from the members of the Associa- 
tion by sending to them copies of the report with a printed slip to 
be filled out and returned. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 P. M. to partake of the collation 
provided. 

Board of Managers. A Special Meeting of the Board of 
Managers of the Alumni Association was held in Library Hall, Col- 
umbia College, on December 2id, 1884, at 8 P. M. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and. approved. 

The Secretary presented an informal report stating that he was 
in receipt of a communication from Mr. H. W, I.eavens, of Denver, 
acknowledging the action of the Board at its last meeting relating 
to the establishment of a Western Office of the Association, and ac- 
cepting on the part of Messrs. Lawrence, lies, Reed, and himself 
the appointment as members of a Special Committee to act until 
January 1st, 1885. 

The Committee on Constitution and By-laws then reported 
through its chairman Mr. Hale, who presented the following resolu- 
tion on behalf of the Committee. 

Resolved, That before publishing a new addition of the Consti- 
tution and By-laws which is now required, the members of the As- 
sociation be and are hereby requested to forward to the Secretary 
any Amendments or Additions thereto which they may have to sug- 
gest, on or before February 1st, 1885. 

Resolved, That a copy of this Resolution be sent to the members 
of the Association. 

The Standing Committee on Quarterly Meetings then presented 
through its Chairman, an informal report to the effect that the last 
meeting had proved exceedingly successful, some 88 members of 
the Association being present. That the charge of $1.00 per capita 
had however proved insufficient to entirely defray the expenses of 
the meeting and that as usual a small deficiency had necessarily 
been paid from the Treasury. 

That for the Annual Meeting to be held on December 30th, a 
charge of $1.50 per capita had been made, and that it was hoped 
that this would be sufficient to cover all expenses. On motion the 
Report was accepted. 

The following Resolutions were then adopted : 

Resolved, That hereafter only those members and graduates who 
signify their desire to belong to this Association by paying their 
dues, shall be retained upon the roll of membership, and that only 
the addresses of such shall be kept and published after May 1st, 
1885. 

Resolved, That a full list of members and graduates be published 
in the January number of the Quarterly, and that a sufficient num- 
ber of extra copies of said list be struck off and sent to all gradu- 
ates and members, with a copy of the foregoing resolution ; and 



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GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 177 

that the Secretary notify the same that this will be the last full list 
published, as in accordance with the resolution adopted, the names 
of alt graduates and members not paying dues will hereafter be 
omitted. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 

Second Quarterly Meeting. — The Second Quarterly and 
Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association for the year 1884 and 
'85 was held at Library Hall, Columbia College, on Tuesday evening, 
December 30, at 8 P. M. 

Present about 100 members of the Association. 
"Meeting was called to order at 8.30 by the President. 

The results of election of Managers and Officers for the year 
1885 were announced by the Tellers and Secretary. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Treasurer reported a net balance in the Treasury of $646.35. 

Mr. Hale reported on behalf of ttie "Committee of Ten," and 
presented the answers received from members approving or disap- 
proving of the suggestions of the Committee. 

On motion it was 

Resolved, That the Report of the " Committee of Ten" be adopt- 
ed as embodying the views of this Association and that the Com- 
mittee be discharged with the thanks of the Association. 

It was further 

Resolved, That a Committee of Three, of which the President of 
the Association shall be the Chairman, be appointed for the purpose 
of considering the best means for bringing before the Faculty of the 
School of Mines and the Trustees of Columbia College the views 
and recommendations of the Alumni Association in regard to the 
course of study in the School of Mines as embodied in the report of 
the Committee of Ten ; to report at the next meeting of this 
Association. 

Mr. Lawrence called attention to the request made by the 
Assistant Secretary, Mr. H. W. Leavens, for an appropriation of 
$100.00 to help start the Western Office. 

The Secretary spoke in favor of the appropriation, remarking on 
the assistance that the Western Office would prove to members 
seeking situations, and stating that if the Association expected to 
meet in Denver in July, such arrangements could probably be made 
with Railroads, Smelting Works, etc., through a well established 
branch, that many Eastern members would be induced to attend. 

On motion it was 

Resolved. That the Alumni Association will endorse any action 
the Board of Managers may take with a view to carrying out the 
suggestions contained in the letter of the Assistant Secretary. 

The President then made the following appointments : 
On the Committee to arrange for bringing the Report of the 
"Committee of Ten" before the Faculty and the Trustees — Mr. 
William Allen Smith, and Mr. Wiilard Parker Butler. 

To arrange for Railroad Facilities for the Western Meeting in 
Denver, in July— G. S. Baxter, P. de P. Ricketts, and W. Fellowes 
Morgan. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned to partake of the colla- 
tion provided and to inspect the New Chemical Museum of the 
School, which through the politeness of Prof. Chandler had been 
thrown open to the Association. 



^Google 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 



York City. 

Edward Steele Branson. A.B., A.M., EM., Residence, 39 Garden Place, Brook- 
lyn, N. V. 
ioho Adams Church, E.M., Ph.D., care of Church 4 Gray, Prescott, Arizona. 
lenry Bedinger Cornwall, A.B., A.M., E.M., Professor of Analytical Chemistry and 
Mineralogy, College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. I, 

Edward Everett Giddings, E.M., Merchant, Chicago, III. 

Charles King Gracie, A.M., E.M., Broker. 37 New Street, New York City. 

Albert Ward Hale, A. B., A.M., E.M. , Civil and Mining Engineer, 1 Broadway, 
Room 30&, New York City. 

Thomas Hayes Harmcr, A.B., E.M., 113 East Thirty- seventh Street, New York 
City. 

Frederic Milton Heath, E.M., Potsdam. St. Lawrence County, N. Y. 

William Wey Tutlle, EM., North Springfield, Mo. 

David Van Lennep, E.M., Auburn, Placer Co., Cal. 

1868. 

Augustus Porter Barnard, E.M. Address care of- D. Van Nostrand, 1} Murray 

Street, New York City. 
George Strong Baxter, A.B., E.M., Mining and Civil Engineer, North- 
ern Pacific Railroad, Mills' Building. New York City. 
James Petigru Carson, E.M., Mining Engineer. Address 16 Exchange Place, 

New York City. 
Albert Huntington Chester, A.M., E.M., Ph.D., Chiids Professor of Agricultural 

Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton, Oneida Co., N. Y. 
George Hampton Coursen, E.M., C.E., 307 Greenwich Street, New York City. 
George larvis Geer, Jr., E.M., Merchant, 453 Broome Street, New York City. 
George Byron Hanna, A.B., E.M.,Melter U. S." Assay Office, Charlotte, N. C. 
•Archibald MacMartin, A.B., A.M., E.M. Died in New York City May 7, 1881. 
Edward Stuart Moffatt, A.B., A.M., E.M. , Assistant General Manager, Lackawanna 

Iron and Coal Company, Scranton, Pa. 
George Howland Parsons, E.M., Superintendent of Land Improvement Company, 

Colorado Springs, Col. 
William Pistor, E.M., Architect, 35 Broad Street, New York. Residence. 136 

East Thirty-seventh Street, New York City. 
Charles Slason Plait, E.M., Assayer. 4 Liberty Place, New York City. 
Kenneth Robertson, E.M., Secaucus Iron Co., Secaucus, Hudson Co., N. J. 
Albert P. Schick, E.M., Ministry, 63 Auburn Street, Paterson, N. J. 
Frederick Augustus Schermcrhorn, E.M., Trustee of Columbia College. Address, 

61 University Place, New York City. 
Lenox Smith, A.B., E.M., Trustee of Columbia College. Steel Rails, 1 Wall 

Street, New York City. 
William Allen Smith. E.M., Treasurer Harvey Screw and Bolt Company, 53 Wall 

Street, New York City. 
Frederick Stallnecht, E.M., Editor, 11 Bond Street, New York City. 



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LIST OF GRADUATES. 179, 

William Henry Van Arsdale, A.B.A.M., E.M., Vice- President Aurora Smelting 

and Refining Company, Aurora, III. 
Moses Dillon Wheeler, A.B.. E.M.. P. O. Bo*. 539, Stapleton, Richmond County. 

Stater, Island. N. V. 

i860.. 

•Thomas Monahan Blossom, A.B., A.M., E.M. Died October, 1876, in Cali- 

Frwkrick Bruckman, E.M., Excelsior Iron Works, 128 West sthSt.Leadville, Col. 
Alonxo Clarence Campbell, E.M., Chemist and Mining Engineer, 337 Shelby Ave- 
nue, Nashville, Tenn. 
William Augustus Hooker, A.B., A.M., E.M., Consulting Geologist and Mining 

Engineer ; office, a Wall Street, New York City. 
Roland Duer Irving, A.M., E.M., Ph.D., Professorof Geology and Mineralogy in 

the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, and United States Geologist 

in charge of survey of crystalline rocks of the Northwestern States. 
Walter Proctor J enney, E.M., Ph.D., Consulting Engineer and Geologist. Address, 

care of S. Jenney Sl Son, 138 Pearl Street. New York City. 
Henry Smith Munroe. E.M,, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor in Surveying and Practical 

Mining, School of Mines, Columbia College, New York City. 
Lionel Robert Nettie, E.M,, Superintendent of the Gregory Consolidated Mining 

Company, Helena, Lewis and Clarke County, Montana. Address, 13 Upper 

Weslbourne Terrace, Hyde Park. W., London, England. 
•Henry Newton, A.B., E M., Ph.D. Died August 5, 1877, at Dead wood City, 

Dak. Ter., while occupied as Assistant Geologist of Black Hills Expedition. 
William Hleecl<er Potter, A.B., A.M., E.M. , Professorof Mining and Metallurgy, 

Washington University, St. I-ouis. Mo. 
John Cooper F. Randolph, A.B., A.M., E.M., Consulting Engineer, 35 Broadway, 

New York City. 

1870. 

Ogden Height, E.M., Stock Broker, 38 Broadway, New York City. 
. William HaTsey Ingersoll, A.B..A.M., I.L.D., E.M., United States Stamping Co., 

Portland, Corm. 
John Augustus Knapp, A.B., A.M., E.M., General Manager Mingo Furnace, P. 

O. Box 515, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
John Leo Lilienthal, E.M., P. O. Box 2358, San Francisco, Cal. 
Stuart Lindsley. E.M., in Colorado; address. Orange, N. J. 

Edward Moore Parrott, E.M., Parrott Iron Company. Post-office address, Green- 
wood Iron Works, Orange Co., PL Y. 
Richard Henry Terhune, E.M., Superintendent of the Morgan Silver Smelting Co., 

Salt Lake, Utah. 
Theodore Francis Van Wagenen, E.M., General Manager Twin Lakes Hydraulic 

Gold Mining Syndicate, Leadville, Col. 
Eiwyn Waller, A.B., A.M., E.M., Ph.D., Instructor in Analytical Chemistry, 

School of Mines, Columbia College, and Chemist to the New- York Board of 

Health. New York City. 

1871. 

William E. S. Faies, A. B., E.M.. LL.B., Counsellor -at-Law, 189 Montague Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Samuel Anthony Goldschmidt, A.B., E.M., Ph.D.. Manufacturing Chemist, Co- 
lumbia Chemical Works, 66 Water Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

John Gordon, Jr., E.M. Address, care E. Johnson & Co., Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Pierre de Peyster Ricketts, E.M., Ph.D., Instructor in Assaying, School of Mines, 
Columbia College. New York City. 

George Washington Riggs, Ph.B., 115 West Forty-seventh Street, New York City. 

Cracie Sayre Roberts, E.M. , C.E., Topographical Engineer, Department of City 
Works, Brooklyn, I- 1. Address, Rockville Centre, Queens Co., N. Y. 

Richard Spotswood Robertson, Jr., E.M., Jackson, Minnesota. 

I»72. 



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i8o THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

•Frank B. Jenney, E.M. Died in Trinidad, 1876, while engaged as -Superintendent 

of the Orinoco Exploring Company. 
Frederick H. McDowell, E.M. , Beckett & McDowell, 120 Liberty Street, New 

York City. 
Thomas O'Connor Sloane, A. B., A.M., E.M., Ph.D.. Chemist, 119 Pearl Street, 

New York City. 
Arthur F. Wendt, E.M., C.E., Consulting Engineer, ro Wall Street, New York 

City. 

1873- 

Frederick A. Canfield, A.B.. A .M., E.M., Consulting Engineer, Dover. N. J. 

Charles Adams Collon, E.M., Director Newark Technical School. Address 21 
West 1'ark Street, Newark, N. J. 

Henry Augustus Mott, Jr., E.M.. Ph.D., Mining Engineer and Analytical Chem- 
ist, 61 Broadway, Kmm 50, New York City. 

Henry Walter Webb, E.M., Broker; residence, 14 West Thirty-eighth Street, New 
York City. 

John Townsend Williams, E.M., Fh.B., Williams, Clark & Co., 101 Pearl Street, 
New York City. 

1874- 

Charles Sumner Allen, Ph.B., M.D., Practising Physician, 109 East Eighty-sixth 
Street, New York City. 

William de Liesseline Benedict, E.M., Benedict & Cole, 32 Liberty Street, New 
York City. 

John Gednev Mott Cameron, E.M,, C.E., Assayer, Spears & Howard. Address, 
Fifty-fifth Street and Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Samuel Morris Lillie, E.M., Chemist, Harrison, Havemeyer & Co., 101 South 
Front Street, Philadelphia; residence, 1910 S. Kittenhouse Square, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

George Murray, E.M., Superintendent Horn Silver Smelting Works, Franklin, 
Utah. City address, 235 West Twenty-third Street. New York City. 

Eben Erskine Olcott, E.M., Superintendent St. Helena Gold Mine, Delicias, Mexi- 
co. Address, in West Thirteenth Street. New York City. 

Benjamin Franklin Rtes. E.M.. Merchant, 37 Ferry Street, New York City. 

Francis Bell Forsyth Rhodes. EM., Mingo Works. Sandy, near Salt Lake, Utah. 

Frederick Harrison Williams, E.M. Address, care of W. Williams, Orange, K. J. 



Magnus C. Ihlseng, E.M., C.E., Ph.D., Prof, of Engineering, State School of 

Mines, Golden. Col. 
Malvern Weils lies, Ph.D., Metallurgist, Omaha and Grant Smelting and Refining 

Company, Denver, Col. 
Charles Edward Jackson, C.E., Assistant Engineer, Brooklyn Elevated Railroad 
Company. Addres, 12! East Nineteenth Street, New York City. 
■ Douglas Arad Joy, E.M., Assistant in Chemistry, University of Michigan. Ann, 
Arbor, Mich. Address, Marshall, Mich. 
•Robert Schuyler Lamson, C.E. Died at Darbour, Upper Egypt, 1S76, while act- 
ing as Major in the Eygptian Army. 
Harry Wenman Leavens, E.M., 411 Larimer St., Denver, Colorado. 
Arthur Macy, Ph.B., C.E., Supt. Silver King Mining Co., Silver King, Pinal, 

Arizona. 
William Skaats Noyes, E.M., Oakland. Cal. 

Philip Charles 1'fister. E.M., Black & I'fister, 142 Maiden Lane, Nfw York City. 
Franklin Pool, E.M., Chemist, Celluloid Manufacturing Company. Newark, N. J. 
Bayard Taylor Putman, E.M., at Newport, K. I. Address, care of G. P. Putman's 

Sons, West 23rd Street. New York City. 
JohnKrom kees, A.K., A.M., E.M., Professor of Geodesy and Practical Astrono- 
my, and Director of the Observatory, Columbia College, New York City. 
Charles M. Kolker, E.M., Mining Engineer, 63 Broadway, New York City. 
Samuel Howland Russell, K.M., 135 East iSth Street, New York City. 
Hunter Stewart, K.M., Civil 1-1 nj; inter, address unknown, 

Milton Strong Thompson, Ph.B., Chemist. Chrolilhiun Manufacturing Co., N'ew- 
buri port, Mass. 



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LIST OF GRADUATES. 181 

John Henry Tucker, Ph.D., Superintending Chemist, Philadelphia Sugar Refinery, 

225 Church Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 
James Simpson Chester Wells, Ph.D., Instructor in Analytical Chemistry, School of 

Mines, Columbia College, New York City. 
Edwin At water Wet more. E.M. Care E, A. Wetmore & Co., Iron Merchants, 

Marquette, Mich. 
Albert Allen Wright, A.B., A.M., Ph.B., Prof. Oology and Natural History, Ober- 

lin Collece, Oberlin, O. 

1876. 

Thomas Septimus Austin, E.M., Supt. Germania Smelting Works, Salt Lake, 

Utah. 
•Frederick Everett Bruen, E.M.. C.E. Died suddenly. November 8th, 18S4, at 

Leadville, Col. 
Francis Sanderson Craven, E.M.. C.E., address, 30 Walnut Street, Newark. N J. 
George Rockwell Cornwall, E.M., C.E., Mining Engineer, Gunnison City, Col. 
Herbert Carrington Foote, C.E., Professor of Chemistry, Central High School, arid 

Homeopathic Hospital College. Address, 37 Arlington Court, Cleveland, O. 
Edmund Hyatt Garrison, E.M., C.E., Asst. Treas. Central Park, N. and E.R.R.R. 

Co., Tenth avenue and Fifty-third Street, New York City. 
Louis Pope Gratacap. Ph.B., M.A., Curator Am. Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City. 
Robert William Hall. E.M.. American Gas, Fuel and Light Co., 12 Cliff Street, 

residence, 3 West 56th Street. New York City. 
Schuyler Hamilton, Jr., A.B., A.M., E.M.. care of Wm. Pistor, Architect, 35 Broad 

Street, New York City. 
Francis Newber.y Hoibrook, C.E., Mining Engineer and Agent for the Pacific Iron 

Works, El Paso, Texas. 
Walter Lowrie Hoyl. E.M., C.E., Orange, N. J. 
Frederick Furneaui Hunt, E.M., C.E., Box 335, Quebec, Canada. 
Frederick Remsen Hutlon, A.H.. A.M., E.M., C.E., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor in 

Mechanical Engineering, School of Mines, Columbia College. Address, (1 W. 

Thirty -third Street, New York City. 
Charles King. Ph.B., Motive Power Dept. P. R. R., Jersey City, N. J. 
Nathaniel Wright Lord, E.M., Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, Ohio State 

University, Columbus, Ohio. 
Edward Gurley Love, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Tester of illuminating gas, Dept. of 

Public Works, New York ; Examiner in Chem. College of Physicians and 

Surgeons. Address, School of Mines. Columbia College, New York City. 
John Holme Maghee. A.B., A.M., C.E., 16 East Fifty-Fourth Street, New York 

City. 
Henry Francis Morewood, E.M., Importer, 34 South Street, New York City. 
James William O'Grady, E.M., C.E., Home Street, opposite Villa Place, Morris- 

ania. New York. 
Ja-nss Fiti Randolph, E.M..C. E., HI Broidwav, Rojm 40, New York City. 
William Coleman Ross. E.M., C.E, Silver City, Grant Co., New Mexico. 
Albert Francis Schneider, E.M., C.E,, Supt. G. Billings Smelting Works, Box 211, 

Sorcorro, New Mexico. 
George Cyrus Tilden, C.E., Hildebrand & Tilden, J47J4 Seventeenth Street, Den- 

Elbert Chaplin Van Blarcom, C.E., Tombstone. Arizona. Address, P. O. Box, 

3085, San Francisco, Cal. 
Augustus Clark Walbridge, E.M., C.E., Builder. 120 Broadway, New York City. 
James Robert Wardlaw, C.E., 39 Nassau Street, Room 31, New York City. 

1877, 

Louis de Souza Barros. C.E., E.M., San Paulo, Braiil. 
James Thorn Beard, E.M., C.E., 103 St. James 1 Place. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Edward Behr, C.E., Piano Manufacturer, 15 East 14th Street. New York City. 
Charles Ramsay Buckley. A.B., A.M., E.M. Address, 35 Broadway, Room bo. New 

York City. 
Linus Bertram Cadv, E.M,, C.E. Address, 234 West Thirty-eighlh Street, New 

York City. 



; g ,t7od : :vGoO^|c 



,8a THE QUARTERLY. 

Augustus Cass Can tie Id, E.M., 60 West Fifty-fourth Street, New York City. 

Iohn Britlon Cauldwell, C.E., 6 East Forty-ninth Street. New York City. 
Henry Gilbert Clark, E.M.. C.E. Died of Typhoid fever, August 2, 1SB1, while 
acting as Supt. Cortez Mining and Milling Company, Aurora, Nev. 

Charles Edward Colby, E.M., C.E,, Assistant in Organic Chemistry, School of 
Mines, Columbia' College, New York City. 

Charles Louis Constant, E.M., C.E., 5 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York City. 

George Birdsall Cornell, E.M., C.E., Chief Eng. Brooklyn Elevated R. R., 31 
Fulton Street, Brooklyn ; residence, 46 West Forty-eighth Street, New York 
City. 

Frederick William Floyd, E.M.. C.E., Oregon Ironworks, 539 West Twentieth. 
Street, New York City. 

"Frank Stuart Helleberg, C.E. Died October 4. 1883, at I-eadviHe, Col. 

Walter Edwards Hildrcth, E.M., C.E., Consulting Engineer, 5a Broadway, Room 
48, New York City. 

Axel OUf Ihlseng, B.S., E.M., C.E., U. S. Mineral Surveyor, Silverton, Col. 
Winter address, 151 East Thirty-third Street, New York City. 

Jose' Nabor Pacheco Jordao, C.E., E.M., Ph.B., I'aulista Railroad, San Paulo, 
Brazil. 

William Kelly. A.B., E.M., Superintendent Kemble Coal and Iron Co., Riddles- 
burg, Bedford County, Penn. 

James Buckton Mackintosh, E.M., C.E.. Private Assistant to Dr. Egleston, School 
of Mines, Columbia College, New York City. 

John Glen vi lie Murphy. E.M., C.E., Murphy, Churchill & Buchanan, Helena, Mon- 
tana. Also, 35 Broadway, New York City. 

Ralph Nichols, E.M.. C.E., Superintendent Viola Mining and Smelting Co.. Nicho- 
lia, Leenhi Co., Idaho. Winter Address, a6 Broad Street, New York City. 

Dudley Hiram Norris, E.M., Lawyer, Mills Building, 35 Wall Street, New York 
City. Residence, 112 Lafayette Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

•James Robert Priest, E.M., C.E. Died. 1880, at Greenville, Sinon County, Li- 
beria. Africa. 

William Helsham Radford, E.M., North Bloomfield, Nevada Co., Cal. 

Sylvanus Albert Reed, A.B., E.M., Ph.D., President and Manager Pueblo Ore 
Sampling Company, South Pueblo, Col. 

Charles Lewis Rogers, E.M., C. E., Gilbert Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Edward Eugene Sage, C.E., Assistant Assayer, United States Assay Office, New 
York City. 

William Henry Smeaton, C.E., E.M., Mt. Vernon, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

Roland Mulville Smythe, E.M., C.E.. 539 Henry Street, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Arthur Thac her, E.M., C.E. ,61 Broadway, Room 15, New York City. 

Robert Ward Van Boskerck, C.E.. Artist, studio, Sherwood Building, 58 West 
Fifty-seventh Street, New York City, 

Cornelius Reed Waterbury, C.E. , Engineer and Surveyor. 250 West 55th Street, 
New York City. 

1878. 

William James Adams, A.B., A.M., E.M. Address, 109 California Street, Room 

7, San Francisco, Cal. 
Marcus Benjamin, Ph.B., Chemist United States Laboratory, residence, 43 East 

Sixty-seventh Street, New York City. 
Charles Edward Blydenburgh, A.B.. A.M., E.M., Mining Expert and Prospector, 

Rawlins, Wyoming Territory. 
Robert Elmer Booraem, E.M., Manager Evening Star Mining Co., Box 386, 

Leadville, Colorado. 
George Charles Hrinkerhofl", E.M. Address, Apartado 183, Malanias, Cuba. 
Willard Parker Butler, E.M., I.L.B., Counsellor-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents, 

59 Wall Street. New York City. 
Alexander Ramsay Cushman, Ph.D., 128 East Sixteenth Street, New York City. 
John Woodbridge Davis. C.E., Ph.D., Principal School of Mines Preparatory 

School, 32 East Forty-fifth Street, New York City. 
Walter B. Devereux^ A.B., A.M., E.M,. Manager Aspen Smelting Co., Aspen. Col. 
Isaac Wyman Drummond, E.M., Ph.D., Chemist, F. W. Devoe & Co., corner 

Fulton and William Streets, New York City. 



doyGooglc 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 



, Ph.D., Consulting Sanitary Engineer, 206 
Broadway. New York City. 
Anton Fernekes, E.M. Died March 13, 1884. at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Leopold Haas, Ph.B.. Zucker & Levett Chemical Co., 540 West Sixteenth 



Street,' New York City. 
Yolhinosuke Hasegawa, E.M., Ph.D., Imperial Mint, Osaka. Japan. 
•Henry Albert Hodges, E.M. Died July 4th, 1881, ?t Ne- York City. 
Edward Henry Holde'n, C.E., Surveyor anJ Civil En^ln er, One Hun ire J am 

Sixty-ninth Street and Boston Avenue, Morrisania. N, Y. 
William Hollis, C. E., P. O. Box log. Eagle Pass, Texas. 
Elias Mattison Johnson, Ph. I)., tire of I. Ci. Johnson & Co.. Spuyten Duyvil 



i. Johnson & Co., Spuyt 
1 Aqueduct. 



n Duyvil, 

53 Mount 



N. Y. 
Gilbert Henry Johnson, Ph.B., Chemist, I. 

New York. 
Corydon Powell Karr, Ph.B., Engineer an New I 

Pleasant Avenue. Newark. N. J. 
Benjamin Bowden Lawrence, E.M. The Sisapo Sampling Mill, Montetuma, Sum- 
mit County, Col. 
Frank Lyman, A.M., E.M., 130 Water Street, New York City. 
Edward Austin McCulloh, Ph.B. Address, P. O. Box 2346, New York City. 
Nawokichi Malsui, Ph.D., Instructor in Qualitative Analysis, University of Tokio, 

Tokio, Japan. 
George Barrow Morewood, E.M., Ph.B., Tea Importer, 121 Front Street, New 

York City. 
Gouverneur Willi ltn Morris, E.M., Myers, Rutherfurd & Co., 58 Wall Street, New 

York City. 
Charles Edward Munsell, Ph.D., Milk Inspector, New Yurk Health Department. 

JlS Worth Street, New York City. Address, Rye, N. Y. 
Henry Morgan Murphy, E.M., Murphy & Co., 231 Broadway, New York City. 
Kiugo Okuma, E.M., Senmon Gakko Waseda, Tokio, Japan. 
Spencer Baird Newberry, E.M., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, Agricultural De- 
partment, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
James Atkins Noyes, Ph.B., A.B. Address, 155 Remsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. , 
*Owen Frederick Olmsted. C.E. Died at Albany, N.Y., November 31, 1881. 
Frederick Nash Owen, K.M., Civil and Sanitary Engineer, 06 Fulton Street, New 

York. Residence, 52 West Fifty-first Street, New York City, 
Cortlandt Edward Palmer. E.M,, Engineer, North Brother Island Hospital, Ad- 
dress, 25 Madison Avenue. New York City, 
RichirJ Alexander Parker, C.E.. Manager Atlanta Hill Gold Mining and Milling 

Co., Atlanta, Alturas Co., Idaho Territory, 
Vincent Felix Pa'zos. E.M., Lima, Peru. ' - * '■., 

Nelson W. Perry, E.M., 238 Auburn Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio. * k ■ 

William Strieby, A.B.. E. M,, Professor of Metallurgy and Asswi»jf, 1 ftjlorado, 

College, Colorado Springs, Col. •**-*"'^ftS^"' 

Bail=y Willis, E.M.. C.E., Ueolozilt, Unitei States Geolo*yHBS*?yT Washing- 
ton. D. C. 

1879. 



iy. School of Min 



. Co- 



Nathaniel Lord Brition, E.M,, I'll,!)., Assistant 

lumbia College. New York City. *V 

Robert Bolton, Ph.B., Rock Hill Iron and Coal Co., OrbisoniMtentfhgdon Co., Pa. 
Leo George Cloud, A.B.. E.M., 216 Monmouth St., Newport, Campbell Co., Ky. 
Harry Clay Corn well, E.M., Mining Engineer, Nevadaville, Bald Mountain P. O., 

Gilpin County, Col. si- 

Louise Phillipe de Lu*e, C.E., New Rochelle, Westchester Co., ^"^fiBBo*. 
George Spencer Eastwick, C.E., Manager Louisiana Sugar Refinery. NaS^dffMS, 

l^a. Address, care Havemeyer & Eastwick, Jersey City, N. J. 
Louis Francis Haflen, A.M.. C.E., Brewer, One Hundred and Fifty-Second Street 

and Cortlandt Avenue, New York City. 
Charles Sumner Harker, E.M., Bodie Tunnel Co.. Bodie, Cal. 
Nathaniel Hathaway. Ph.B,, Analylical Chemist. New Bedford, Mass. 
Herman Hollerith, E.M., Solicitor of Patents, P. O. Bon 125. Washington, D. C. 
Charles Arthur Hollick, Ph.B., Sanitary Inspector New York Board of Health, I'm 

105, New Brighton, S. I. 



ntrod .GoO^lc 



i8 4 THE QUARTERLY. 

Isaac Bradley Johnson, E.M., SpUyten J luyvil, N. V. 

Robert Andrew Johnson, C.E., Assistant Sanitary Engineer, New York Board of 

Health. Address. Scarsdale. N. Y. 
Edward Cabot Koch, E.M., Little Annie Gold Mining Company, Summitville, 

Rio Grande Co., Colorado. Address, 160 East Fifty-sixth Street, New York 

Thomas Haight Lcggctt, Jr., E.M., Address, Flushing, Queens Co.. I.. I. 

Edwin Ludlow, E.M., Superintendent Union Coal Co.. Shamokin. I'a. 

Charles Wells Marsh, Ph.D. Address care of Lazelle, Marsh ^Gardner, 10 Gold 

Street, New York Citv. 
Theophilus Smith Mathis, E.M., Engineer of Mines and Deputy U. S. Mineral 

Surveyor, Telluride, San Miguel Co., Col. 
Ralph Edward Mayer, C.E., Assistant in Drawing, School of Mines, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York City. 
Hubert John Mcrwin, E.M,, Engineer, East Tennessee Iron and Coal Co., Knox- 

ville, Tenn. 
George Fanshaw Mtlliken, E.M ., 120 Broadway, Room 27, New York Citv. 
Otis Mortimer Munroe, Ph.B., 102 East Forty-fifth Street, New York City. 
Knight Neflel, C.E., ITi.D., Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., 62 Reade Street, 

New York City. 
James Nesmith, E.M., 256 Henry Street. 
Charles Milton Noble, E. M., General For 

Alabama. 
Robert Dunn Rhodes, E.M., Box 211, Socorro, New Mexico. 
William Bell Stephen Reed. E.M., 171 St. Marks Avenue, Brooklyn, L. I. 
Francis Morris Rutherfurd, E.M., Assistant Supervisor Pennsylvania K. R., Bor- 

dentown, N. J. 
Gardner Hutchinson Shelden, E.M., Corralitos, Chihuahua, Mexico. 
George Cameron Stone, Ph.B., Chemist New Jersey Zinc and Iron Co., Newark, 

Sew Jersey. Address, 146 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
Henry Fowler Surr. Ph.B., Chemist, Newark Steel Works. Address, gt Mount 

Pleasant Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
•Francis Baretto Stewart, Ph.B. Died of Typhoid fever, at Harlem, New York. 

August, 1S79. 



Alfred Lockwood Beebe, Ph.B., Fellow in Chemistry. Assist: 

Columbia College. Residence 

Address, 31 West Nineteenth Street, New York 

City. 
Frederick Dentson Browning, E.M., Colorado Springs, Col. 

William Frederic Brugmann. Ph.B.. 327 East Fifty-seventh Street, New York City. 
Nathaniel Butler, E.M., care H. & N. Russell, 42 Barclay Street, New York City. 

or 10 Warrenton Street, Boston, Mass. 
Alfred Daniell Churchill, A.M.. M.S., E.M. , Ph.D., Instructor in Drawing, School 

of Mines, Columbia College, New York City. 
Edwin Perry Clark, E.M.. 340 Clinton Street,' Brooklyn, N. Y. ; also Room 3, 

Bryant Building, 55 Liberty Street, New York City. 
William Elliott, Ph.B.. Chemist, Elliott, Hopke & Mattison, 197 Pearl Street, New 

York City. 
Louis George Enge!, E.M., Mining Engineer to Tilly Foster Iron Mine, Tilly Fos- 
ter, New York. 
Robert Otto Francke, C.E., traveling in Europe. Address, care I). O. Francke, 

Gothenburg, Sweden. 
Herman Garlichs, E.M., Aurora Smelting and Refining Co.. Aurora, 111. 
Wilkins Updike Greene. Ph.B., care EI. G. Torrey, V. S. Assay Office, New York 

City. 
James Leal Greenleaf. C.E., Assistant in Engineering, School of Mines, Columbia 

College, New York City. 
Albert Peter Hallock. Ph.D.. Chemist, N. Y. Gaslight Co.; residence, 249 East 



^Google 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 185 

Harry Harmon Hendricks. I'h.B., Hendricks Bros., ag Cliff Slreet, New York ; 
residence 512 Filth Avenue, New York City. 

Louis Mosher Hooper. C.E.. Sanitary Dept. New York Board of Health. Resi- 
dence, 5 West 42nd Street. New York City. 

Theodore M. Hopke, Ph.B.. Chemist, Elliott, Hopke & Matlison, 107 Pearl Street, 
New York City; residence, Hasting* -on- Hudson. 

Edward Henry Hudson, C.E. Address unknown. 

Frank Klepetko, E. M., Mining Engineer to Osceola and Tamarack Mining Com- 
panies. Address. Opechee 1'. O., Houghton County, Mich. 

Whealon Bradish Kunhardt, E.M.. Engineer with the Bower-Barff Rustless Iron 
Company of New York. Address, care of I'rof. Maynard, 35 Broadway, New 
York City. 

Joseph Godley Mattison, Ph.B., Chemist, Elliott, Hopke & Mattison, 107 Pearl 
Slreet, New York City. 

Charles August Meissner, Ph.B., Chemist. Briar Hill Iron and Coal Co. Address, 
Box 142, Briar Hill, Mahoning Co., O. 

James Haviiand Merritt, Ph.B., Chemist, Bradley White Lead Co., Water Street, 
New York; residence, 1S4 Lefferts Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Juan Adalbert*) Navarro, C.E., Commissioner for the Mexican Government. Ad- 
dress, care of Mexican Consul, 35 Broadway, New York City. 

Andrew McClean, Parker. E.M.; Address, 50 and 61 Wall Street, New York City. 

John Randolph Parks, E.M., 35 Broadway, New York City. 

Henry Alvord Robinson, Ph.B., I-awyer, with Robinson & Scribner, 150 Broadway, 
New York City; residence. 19 East Sixty-second Street, New York City. 

Ferdinand Ruttmann, Jr., E.M., 51 Broadway, New York City. 

George Singer, Jr., E.M. Address, Wilkinsburg, Allegheny Co., Pa. 

George Harton Singer. F.M.. Singer, Nimmick A Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Wallace Augustus Smallev, E.M., Surveyor and Assayer, Silver City, New Mexico. 

Maxwell Smith, C.E., care of Adon Smith, 8 Bridge Street, New York City. 

Theodore Tonnele, Ph.B., with W. D. Wood 4 Co.. McKeesport, Pa. City Ad- 
dress, 48 East Sixty-eighth Street, New Yo ' '" 
arles Herbert Torrey, Ph.B. Instructor Ii 
Avenue and 67th Street, New York City. 

Joseph Walker, Jr.,C.E., 289 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Herbert Allen Wheeler, E.M., Instructor, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 



Charles Alfred Andresen, E.M., with Pickard & Andresen, 8 Gold Street, New 
York City. 

Frederic Theodor Aschman, Ph.B., Analytical Chemist. Sharon, Mercer County, Pa. 

Chas. Popham Bleecker. E.M. 11 W, 129th Street. New York City. 

Victor Manuel Braschi. E.M.. Ph.B., C.E. Address, care ol F. N. Owen, 96 Ful- 
ton Street, New York City. 

Edward Renshaw Bush, E.M. Address, iae J. A. Bush. 54 Wall Street, New 
York City. 

Philip Edward Chazal, A.B., E.M., State Chemist, Columbus, S. C. 

Albert Ladd Colby, Ph.B., Instructor in Quantitative Analysis, Lehigh University, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Edward Moorhouse Douglass, C.E. Topographer, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Austin, Texas. Address, Mechanicville, Saratoga Co., N. Y. 

Edward Kellogg Dunham, Ph.B., Student in Medicine, Harvard Uni 



Arthi 



dress, 93 Boylston Street, Boston, M; 
-ill " " 



Henry Elliott, Ph. D., Assistant in Chemistry. College Physicians and Sur- 
hu. Address, School of Mines, New York City. 
Howard Van Fleet Furman. E.M. 
William Tudor Griswold, C.E. , U. 

ington, D. C. 
Frederick Aldoph Hemmer, Jr., Ph.B., Arminius Copper Mines, Tolersville, Va. 

Address, East Morrisania, New York City. 
Chas. Breck Judd, E.M., United States Deputy Surveyor, Care of Smith and Win 

sot, Lordsburg, New Mexico. 
Daniel James I.cary, C.E., E. M. Address, 138 Keap Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Clement Le Boulill'ier, Ph.B., care Cambria Iron Co., Johnstown, Penn. Address, 

50 East 25th Street. New York City. 



nt-od .Google 



1 86 THE Q UAR TERL Y. 

Augustus Damon Ledoux, Ph.B., with Ledoux & Rickrtts, to Cedar Street, New 
York City. 

Willard Parker Little, E. M., Ph.B.. Address, 60 West Fortieth Street, New York City. 

Waller Monfort Meserole, C.E.. with N Y., W. S. & B. R. R., Kingston, N. Y. Ad- 
dress, 500 Lorimer Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Percy Neymann, Ph.D. Care of Sherwin, Williams & Co., 100 Canal Street, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Michael Joseph O'Connor, E.M., Ph.B. Address, 42 West Twenty -eighth Street, 
New York City. 

Thomas Devlin O'Connor Ph.B. Address, 42 West Twenty-eighth Street, New 
York City. 

Lucius Pitkin, A.B„ Ph.B., Chemist, Laurel Hill Chemical Works, Penny Bridge, 
L. I, Address, 432 Madison Ave., New York City. 

George Sharp Rayraer, A.B., E.M., Idaho Springs, Col. Address, 63 Seventh 
Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Thomas Richmond, Ph.B., 68 Thomas Street, New York City. 

Arthur Carr Roberts, E.M., 372 Broadway, New York City. 

Chas. Pike Sawyer, Ph.B., Chemist, Whiting Manufacturing Co. Residence, I 
Gramercy Park, New York City. 

William Waldemar Share, Ph.D., Tutor in Physics, Columbia College. Address, 
336 Navy Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Chandler Dannat Starr, C.E., Assistant Engineer Croton Aqueduct, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Thomas Beaie Steams, E.M., Idaho Springs, Col. 

Alfred Earnest Swain, E.M. Address, 90K Prospect Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Edgar Granger Tmtle, E.M., care S. Tuttle, Derby Station, Frio Co., Texas. 

Alvan Howard Van Sinderen, Ph.B.. Lawyer, 45 William Street, New York. Resi- 
dence, 178 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Herman Theodore Vulte, Ph.B., Fellow in Chemistry. Assistant Instructor in 
Qualitative Analysis and General Chemistry, School of Mines, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York City. 

Ferdinand G. Wiechmann, Ph.D., Fellow in Chemistry. Assistant Instructor in 
Chemical Philosophy and General Chemistry, School of Mines, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York City. 
William Fish Williams, C.E., E.M. Address, Box 33, Wet hers field, Conn. 

Herbert M. Wilson, C.E., Topographer, U. S. Geological Survey. Washington, 
D. C. 



Albert Caiman, Ph.B., Student in Germany; care of Carlsbich S: Cahn, Mayenc: 

a. R., Germany. 
Thomas Peters Conant, E.M., with Thomas A. Edison. Address, care of Harper 
Bros.. New York City. 

*Villiam Hamilton Cooper, Ph.B., Constructing Engineer, 62 William Street. New 

* York City. 

Francis Bacon Crocker. E.M., Curtis & Cro:k:r, 140 Nassiu Street. Residence, 
54 West Twenty-first Street, New York City. 

Oscar Vincent Dougherty, Ph.B., with A. Dougherty. So Centre Street, New York. 
Address, 138 Columbia Heights, Broaldyn, N. Y. 

Standcliff Bazen Dowries, C.E., Office of Top^rap'iicil Engineer, Dspt. of Public 
Parks, Fifth Avenue and Sixty-fourth Street. New York. Address, 719 Lexing- 
ton Avenue, New York City. 

William Fletcher Downs, E.M., Supt. at Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, New 

Anton Frederick Emrich, E.M., care of Colorado Smelting Co., P. O. Box 8, South 

Pueblo, Col. 
David Beauregard Falk, C.E. Address, care Falk, Hirsh & Co., Charleston, S. C. 
Henry Feuchtwanger. Ph.B. Address, care of Feuchtwanger & Co., 73 Leonard 

Street, New York City. 
Charies Lincoln Fitch, E.M,, Superintendent Silver Mine near Compas, Sonora, 

Mexico. Address, 124 W, 42nd Street, New York City. 
Charles Buxton Going, Ph.B., Porter & Going, Engineers and Chemists, Cincinnati, 

Ohio. Address, Glendale, Ohio. 
William Hill, C.E., with Collins Co.. P. O. Bon 106, Collinsville, Conn. 



^Google 



LIST OE GRADUATES. 

William Charles Illig, E.M., Park Department, New York. Address, 327 East 

Forty-first Street, " — ''--'■ ■" - 
ralier Hargrove Jol) 

New York City. 
Antonia Eateban Mesa, C.E., Sagua la Grande, Cuba. 
Alfred Joseph Moses, E.M., Assistant in Mineralogy, School of Mines, Columbia 

College, New York City. 
Edward Austin Oothout, E.M., Architect, 18 Broadway, New York City. 
William Stevens Page, E.M., 70 Cedar Street, Room 31; care White & Page. 
William Barclay Parsons, Jr.. A.B., C.E., with N. Y., L. E. & W. R. R„ Rath- 
bun House, Elmira, N. Y. 
Clarence Quintard Payne, E.M., Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., 324 Franklin 

Street, Boston, Mass. 
John Bonsall Porter EM., Ph.D., Lecturer in Metallurgy, Cincinnati University. 

Address, Glendale, Ohio. 
Cornelius Van Vorst Powers, Ph.B. Address, 22 West Forty-eighth Street, New 

York City. 
Ferdinand Sands, A.B., Ph.B. Cooper & Sands, 62 William Street, New York 

City. 
Willard Adams Shumway, A.M., E.M., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
William Field Staunton, jr., E.M., Tombstone Mill and Mining Co., Tombstone, 

Nathaniel Strange Stockwell, E.M., in Washington, D. C. Address, box 550, 

Orange, New Jersey. 
Donald Butler Toucey, E.M.. Lawyer. Address, 3 9 and Beekman St., New York 

City. 
Frank Weiss Traphagen, Ph.D., Instructor in Chemistry and Physics, Staunton 

. Male Academy, Staunton, Va. 
Rudolph Harrison Vondy, E.M., 469 Jersey Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 
John Howard Wainwright, Ph.B., Chemist, U. S. Laboratory, 403 Washington 

Street, New York City. 
Albert George Wanier, Ph.B., care of ' Frederich Beck & Co., 206 West Twenty- 
ninth Street, New York City. 
Norbert Reillieux Ward, E.M. New York Milling and Ore Testing Works, 526 

West Sixteenth Street, New York City. 
William Scherf White, E.M., Surveyor, 79 Cedar Street, care White & Page, New 

York City. 
William Alexander Wilson, E.M., Ontario Mill, Park Citv, Utah. 
Charles Augustus Wittmack, M.S., Ph.D., Chemist, 98 Wall Street, Residence, 

150 East Eighty-Sixth Street, New York City. 
Edward Leavitt Young. E.M. .New York Milling and Ore Testing Works, 52S 

West Sixteenth Street, New York City. 

1883. 

George Howard Abeel, E. M.. Iron Cliffs Mining Co., Negaunee, Michigan. 

Randolph Adams, E. M., N. Y. L. E. & W. R'y., Susquehanna Penn. 

A. Ayestas, Ph. B, Address, Tegucicalpa, Honduras, Cent. Amer. 

Samuel Weed Balch, E. M., P. O. Box 43M Yonkers, N. Y. 

John Henry Banks, EM., Chemist, with Ledoux & Ricketts, 10 Cedar Street, New 

York City. 
Alonzo Frink Bard well, E. M., Summit, New Jersey. 
Thomas John Brereton, A. B., C. E.. Pennsylvania R. R. Address, 227 Palisade 

Avenue, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Charles Bullroan. Ph. B., care Polly, Goiticoa & Ca, Flo. Cabelb y Caracas, Ven. 
Joseph Maxwell Carrere, C. E., P. O. Box 3273, New York City. 
John Parke Channing, E. M., Houghton P. O., Michigan. 
George Endicott, E. M., 273 West Eleventh Street, New York City. 
Carlos Ferrer Ferrer, C. E.. Engineer Corps Aqueduct Commission. Address, P. 

O. Box Q. Tarrytown. New York. 
Junius Colton Ferris, E. M., care H. G. Ferris, Carthage, HI. 
Enrique Constantino Fiallos. C. E., Tegucicalpa, Honduras, Cent. Amer. 
Dunbar Ferdinand Haasis, E, M. Address, 142 Quincy Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
TV 111 mm Scott Humbert, E. M. T Croton Aqueduct Engineer Corps. Address, care 

of W. B. "Humbert & Co.. 7 Nassau Street, New York City. 



^Google 

. -4 



»88 THE QUARTERLY. 

Alfred Wipple I.illiendahl, E. M„ 
Charles Francis McKenna, Ph. D. 

York City. 
John Joseph MacTeague, E. M., Assayer, with Billings Smelling Works, Socorro, 

New Mexico. Address. B23 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
J. Q. Oxnard, Ph.B., Fulton Sugar Refinery, Corner Pock and Water Streets, 

BrooKlyn, N. Y. 
George Edward Painter, Ph. B., care J. Painter &. Sons, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Charles Frederic Paraga, C. E. In Europe. Care of D. de Castro & Co., 55 Wil- 
liam Street, New York City. 
Robert Peele, E. M. T Silver King Mining Co., Pinal, Arizona, also Bloomfield, N.J. 
Frederick Powell, A. B., E. M., 114 W. 113d .Street, New York City. 
Edmund Randolph, Ph. 13., Sec'y and Tress. Alabama Mineral Land Co., N. Y. 

Office, 7 Nassau Street. New York City. 
George Renault, C. E., 115 Hroadway, New York City. 
Jacob Monroe Rich, E. M., C. E., residence, 50 West Thirty-eighth Street, New 

York City. 
John Clarence Richardson, E. M., C. E., 316 Peach Street, Erie, Penn. "*"' 

Thomas Weddle Ridsdale, E. M., Ruby Camp, Irwin, C-unnison Co., Colorado. 

Winter address, 155 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
George. Augustus Suter, E. M., with N. Y. Exhaust Yentilator Co., 45 Fulton 

Street, New York City. 
George Att water Tibbals, C. E., Continental Iron Works. Address, 148 Milton 

Street, Greenpoint, Long Island. 
Albert Edward Tower, K. M., Fallkill Iron Co", Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Arthur Lucian Walker, E. M., Assayer Old Dominion Copper MiningCo., Globe, 

Arizona. 
Walter Harvey Weed, F.. M.. Asst. Geologist U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D.C 

1864. 

"William Crittendon Adams, C.E., 116 Madison Avenue, New York City. 
Herbert Clarendon Alden, E. M., care S. R. Lang, 160 Broadway, New York City. 
William Mood Baldwin, Ph.B., in Europe. Address, 332 West Twenty-third 

Street, New York City. 
Edward Chester Barnard, E. M., U. R. Geological Survey, Washington. D. C. 
Edgar Grant Barratt, C.E., Exhaust Ventilator Co., 69 Madison St., Chicago, Ills. 
Oscar Bodelson, E.M., care F. N. Owen, 96 Fulton Street, New York City. 
John Rowlett Brinlcy, C.E., 322 Belleville Avenue, Newark, N, J. 
William Brice Jr., Ph.B., 40 West Fifty-fourth Street, New York City. 
.Frederick Endicott Buckingham, E.M., 9.15 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
"Wilmot Woodward Burritt, Ph.B., New Jersey Zinc and Iron Works, Newark, 

N. J. Address, 31 Sidney Place, Brooklyn, New York. 
John Thomas Corcoran, E.M., 97 Dean Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Francis Del Calvo, C.E., 31 West 49th Street, New York City. 
William Patterson Duncan, E.M., address unknown. 
Walter Laton Dusenberry, E.M., P. O. Box 989, New York City. 
Langdon Cheves Easton, Jr., C.E., 1701 Broadway, New York City. 
George Ernest Fahys, C.E., 275 Clinton Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Josiah Huntington Fitch, E.M., 240 West Forty-third Street, New York City. 
George Edward Fitzgerald, E.M., 314 Park Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Samuel Stewart Fowler, A.B., E.M., Address. Box 247, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Ghas. Gardner Glover, E.M., 311 Gates Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Edgar Bonaparte Gosling, E.M., 34 West Forty-seventh Street, New York City. 
Samuel Palmer Griffin, Jr., E. M. 18 East Eighty-third Street, New York City. 
Louis Nathan Gross, B.S., E.M., care Hattenback Bros., Deadwood, Dakota; also 



East Fifty-eighth Street, New York Cit; 
Furman Kemp, A.B., E.M., 443 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, 



James Thurston 



kCity. 
N. Y. 



Andrew Johnson Lamb, E.M., Yonkers, New York. 

Eberhard Luttgen, Ph.B., care Crane Iron Works, Catasauqua, Pa. 

John Wilkeson McGenniss, Jr., E.M.. Roon 408, National Bank Building, Cbi- 

Bobert Albert McKim, C.E., 3a West Fifty-eighth Street, New York City. 



^Google 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 189 

Charles Swain McLoughlin, Ph.B., 2041 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Charles Walls Miller, E.M., 271 Quiney Street, Brooklyn. 
Walter Moeller, Ph.B., 336 West Twenty-ninth Street, New York City. .' 

Daniel Edward Moran, C.E., 85 Stale Street, Brooklyn, N. V. 
William Eellowes Morgan, A.B., E;M., 64 West Fortieth Street, New York City. 
Robert Mulford. E.M.. 33 West Thirty-fourth Street, New York City. 
Arthur Howeli Napier, E.M., 6 Strong Place, Brooklyn, New York. 
Wolcott Ely Newberry, E.M., Superintendent of Smelters, Casa Grande Copper 
Co., Casa Grande, Arizona. Address, care Professor J. S. Newberry, School 
of Mines, New York City. 
William Newbrough, A.B., E.M., Instructor in Civil Engineering, Lafayette Col- 
lege, Easton, Penn. 
Thomas Nolan, M.S., Ph.B., Rochester Savings Bank Building, Rochester, N. Y. 
John Isaiah Northrop, E. M., 555 Madison Avenue, New York City. 
Alvan Crocker Nye, Ph.B., Yonkers, New York. 

Charles Albert Painter. E.M., care of J. Painter & Sons, Pittsburgh, Penn. 
Charles Fowler Pearls, E.M., Brush Electric Light Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Charles Ernest Pellew, E.M., Student Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Address, 9 East Thirty-fifth Street, New Y'ork City. 
Abram Skidmore Post, C.E., Great Neck, L. I. Address, 173 Madison Ave. , New 

York City. 
Lewis J. Powers, Jr., E.M., Springfield, Mass. 
William Ross Proctor, E.M., Pittsburgh Club, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Daniel William Reckhart, E.M.. White House, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Frederick Roescr, B.S., E.M., care U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Charles Bradley Rowland, C.E., with Continental Iron Works. Address, 339 

Madison Avenue, New York City. 
Philip Rupp, Jr., Ph.li., Student in Medicine, College Physicians and Surgeons. 

Address. 961 Third Avenue, New York City. 
Emanuel SchOney, E.M., 257 East Seventy-second Street, New Y'ork Ciry. 
Frank Dempster Sherman, Ph. B., Harvard College. Address, 7 Waterhouse 

Street, Cambridge, Mass. 
Charles Goddard Slack, E. H., in Leadville, Colorado. Address, Marietta, Ohio. 
Henry Ashton Smedberg, C. E., 447 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Thomas Edward Snook, E. M , 158 South Eighth Street, Brooklyn, N. \'. 
Clarence Livingston Speyers, Ph. B., so West Seventeenth Street, New Y'ork City. 
Samuel Gaylord Tibbals, C. E.. 148 Milton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Beverly Reid Value, E. M. P. O. Bo* 46.. Elizabeth, N. J. 
Frederick Kidder Walbridge, E. M., 71 Downing Street, Brooklyn, New York. 
George Edward Wood, E. M., 37 West Fifty-fourth Street, New York City. 



ENUMERATION. 

13 Class of 1K76. 26 



Total number of gradua 



,»GoogIe 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 



KNOWN TO BE DECEASED. 



186S. Archibald Mac Martin. 
1869. Thomas Monahao Blossom. 
1869. Henry Newton. 
1873. Frank B. J«nney. 

1875. Robert Schuyler Lamson. 

1876. Frederick Everett Bruen. 

1877. Henry Gilbert Clark. 

Total 



1877. Frank Stuart Helleberg. 
1B77, James Robert Priest. 
187B. Anton Femekes. 

1878. Henry Albert Hodges. 

1878. Owen Frederick Olmsted. 

1879. Francis Banetto Stewart. 



Total number of graduates living 430 

This list is corrected to January 17th, 1885. 

P. de P. RlCKHTTs. Secretary Alumni A 



GRADUATES— ALPHABETICAL LIST. 



Abeel, '83 
Adams, I. M.. '67 
Adams. R., '83 
Adams, W. J., '78 
Adams. W C, '84 
Alden, '84 
Allen. '74 
Andresen, '81 
Aschman. '81 
Austen, '73 
Austin, '76 
Ayestas, '83 

Balch, '83 
Baldwin, '84 
Banks, '83 
Bardwell, 'B3 
Barnard, A. P., '68 
Barnard, E.C.,'84 
Barrett. '84 
Barros. '77 
Baiter, '78 
Beard, '77 
Beebe. '80 
Behr, '77 
Benedict. '74 



Bleecker, '81 
"Blossom, '69 

B lyd CO burgh, '78 
Bodelsun, '84 
Bolton, '79 
Booraem, '78 
Braschi, '81 
Brereton, '83 
Bridgbam, '67 
Brice, '84 
Brinckerhoff, '78 
Brill ley, '84 
Britton, '79 



Brownson, '67 
Bruckman, '69 
* Bruen, '76 
Brugman, '80 
Buckingham, '84 
Buckley, '77 
Bullman, '83 
Burritt, '84 



Caiman, '8a 
Cameron, '74 
Campbell, '69 
Canrtcld, A. C, '77 
Can field, F. A., '73 
Carrere. '83 
Carson. '68 
Cauldwell, '77 
Channing, '83 
Chant, "8 1 
Chester, '68 
Church, '67 
Churchill, 'Bo 
Clark, E. P., '8o 
•Clark, H. G., *77 
Cloud, '79 
Colby, A. L., '8r 
Colby, C. E.,'77 
Cohon. '73 
Conant, '8a 
Conslant, '77 
Cooper, '83 
Corcoran, '84 
Cornell, '77 
Cornwall, G. R'., '76 
Cornwall, H. B.. '67 
Cornwall, H. C, '79 
C nurse 11, 68 
Craven, '76 
Crocker, '83 



Cushman, '78 

Davis, '78 
Del Calvo, '84 
De Luxe, '79 

llevereux, '78 
Douglas, '81 
Downes, 'Si 
Downing, '7B 
Downs. 83 
Drummond, '78 
Duncan, '84 
Dunham, '81 
Dusenberry, '84 

Easton, '84 
Eastwick, '79 
Elliot, '78 
Elliott, A. H., '81 
Elliott, Win., 'Bo 
Em rich, '83 
Endicott, '83 
Engel, '80 

Fahvs, '84 
Fales, '71 
Falk. 'Sa 
"Feroekes, '78 
Ferrer, '83 
Ferris, '83 
Feuchtwanger, '8s 
Fiallos, '83 
Fitch, C. L., '8» 
Fitch, J. H., '84 
Fitzgerald, '84 
Floyd, '77 
Foote, '76 
Fowler, "84 
Francke, '80 
Furman, '81 



,»GoogIe 



Geer, '68 
Giddings, '67 
Glover, '84 
Going. '82 
Gold schroidt, '71 
Gordon, '71 
Gosling, '84 
Gracie, "67 
Gratacap, '76 
Greene, '80 
Greenlcaf, '80 
Griflin, '84 
Griswold, '8 1 
Gross, '84 

Ha 



Ilaa 



*. '83 



Haffen, '71) 
Haight, '70 
Hale. '67 
Hall, "76 
Hsllock. '80 
Hamilton, '76 
Hanna, '68 
Harker, '71) 



liar 



.'67 



Hasegawa, '78 
Hathaway, '79 
Heath, '67 
•Ilelleberg. '77 
Heanm«, T 8l 
Hendricks. '60 
Hildreth. '77 
Hill, '83 
*Hodges, '78 
Hoi brook, '76 
Holder.. '78 
Hollerith, '79 
Hollick, '79 
Hollis, '78 
Hooker, '69 
Hooper, '80 
Hopke, '80 
Ho 



1. '84 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 



77 



Hoyt, '76 
Hudson, '80 
Humbert, '83 
Hunt, '76 

Mutton, '76 



Ihi.si--.ni-.. A. 0. 
Ihlseng, M. C. '75 
Il«. "75 
ILlig. '8a 
Ingersoll, '70 
Irving, '69 

Jackson, '75 
Jenney, F. B., '72 
Jenney. W. P.. '69 
Johnson, E. M., '78 
Johnson, G. H., '78 
Johnson, I. B. '79 
Johnston, '79 



'81 



Jordao. '77 
JoUet, '%i 
Joy. '75 
Judd, 81 

Karr, '78 

Kelly, '77 
Kemp, '84 

Klepetko, '80 

Knapp, '70 

Kunhardc, 'So 

I. A mb, '84 
•Lamson, '75 
Lawrence, '78 

Leavens, '75 
I x Boutillier 
LedouK. '81 
Leggett. '79 
Lilltendahl, '83 
Lilienlhal, '70 
Utile. '74 
Lindsley, '70 
Little, '81 

Lov*\ '76 
Ludlow, '79 
Luttgen, '84 
Lyman, '78 

Mackintosh, '77 
•Mae Martin. '68 
MacTeague, '83 
Macy, '75 
Maghee, 76 
Marsh, '79 
Malhis, ';<) 
Matsui, '78 
Mattison, 'Bo 
Mayer, '79 
McCulloh, '78 
McDowell, '7a 
McGinnis, '84 
McKenna. '83 
McKim, '84 
McLougblm, '84 
Meissner, 'So 
Merritt. 'So 



. "81 



Ma 

Miller, '84 
Milliken, '79 
Moeller, '84 
Moffat, '68 
M ova u, '84 

Morewood, G. B., '78 
Morewood, H. F., '76 
Morgan, '84 
Morris, '78 
Moses, '82 



Mott, '73 
Mulford, '84 
Munroe, H. S., '69 
Munroe, O. M., '79 
Munsell, '78 
Murphy, H. M., '78 
Murphy, J. G., '77 
Murray, '74 



Navarro, '80 
Neftel, '79 
Nesmith, '79 
Neltre, '69 
Newberry, S. B., '78 
Newberry, W. E.. '84 
Newbrough, '84 



"Newt 
Neyrn; 



,'69 
, '81 



Nichols. '77 
Noble, '79 
Nolan, '84 
Norris, '77 
Northrop, '84 
Noyes. J. A., '78 
Noyes, W. S„ '75 
Nye, '84 

O'Connor, M. J., '81 
O'Connor, T. D., '81 
O'Grady, '76 , 
Olcott, '74^ 
•Olmstead, '78 
Oothoiil, '82 
Owen. '78 

Page, '8a 

Painter, C. A., '84 

Painter, G. E., '83 

Palmer, '78 

Parker, A. McC, '80 

Parker, R. A., '78 

Parks, '80 

Parraga, '83 

Parrott, '70 

Parsons, G. H., '68 

Parsons, W. B-, '8a 

Payne. '8a 

Pazos, '78 

Pearis, '84 

Peele, 'B3 

Pellew, '84 

Perry, '78 

Pfister, '75 

Pistor, '68 

Pitkin, '81 

Piatt, '68 

Pool, '75 

Porter, '82 , 

Post, '84 

Potter, '69 

Powell, '83 

Powers, C. V. V., '8» 



* Google 



LIST OF GRADUATES. 



Powers, L. J., '84 



Radford, '77 
Randolph, E., '83 
Randolph, J. C. F.,'69 
Randolph, J. Fit*, '76 
Raymer. '81 
Reck hart, '84 
Reed, S. A., '77 
Reed, W. B. S., '79 
Rces, B. F., '74 
Rees, J. K.. '75 
Renault-, '83 
Rhodes, F. B-, '74 
Rhodes, R, D., '79 
Rich, '83 
Richardson, '83 
Richmond, '81 
Rtcketts, '71 
Ridsdale, '83 
Riggs, '71 
Roberts, A. C, '81 
Roberts, G- S-, '71 
Robertson, K., '68 
Robertson, R. S., '71 
Robinson, '80 
Roeser, '84 
Rogers, '77 
Roland, "84 
Rolker, '75 

Rupp, '84 
Russell, '75 
Rutherford, '79 



Schermerhorn, '1 
Schneider, '76 

Schoney, '84 



■Sa 



Shack. 'f,S 
Share, '81 
Sheldon, '79 
Sherman, '84 
Shumway, '8 
Singer, (_>., 'l„ 
Singer, G. H., 'so 
Slack, '84 
Sloane, '72 
Sm alley, 'So 
Smeaton, '77 
Smedberg, '84 
Smith, L., '68 
Smith, M., 'So 
Smith, W. A., '68 
Smythe, '77 
Snook, '84 
Speyers, '84 
Stallknecht, '68 
Starr, C. D., '81 
Starr, H. F., '79 
Staunton, '81 
Stearns, '81 
•Stewart, F. B., '79 
Stewart, H., '75 
Stockwell, '8a 
Stone, '79 
Strieby, '78 
Sutcr, '83 
Suydam, '79 
Swain, '8r 

Tehhi'ne, '70 
Thacher, '77 
Thompson, '75 
Tibbals, G. A., '63 
Tibbals, S. G-, '84 
Tilden, '76 
Tonnele, '80 
Torrey, '80 
Toucy, '82 
Tower, '83 
Traphagen, '82 
Tucker, '75 
Tuttle, E G., '81 



Tuttle, W. VI., '67 



Vall-e, '84 

Van Arsdale, '68 
Van Blarcom, '76 
Van Boskerck, '77 
Van Lennep, '67 
Van Sinderen, '81 
Van Wagent ' 
Vondy, '8 a 
Vulte, 'Hi 



7t> 



Wainwbioht, '82 
Walbridge. A. C, '76 
Walbridge, F. K., "84 
Walker, A. L., '83 
Walker, J,, Jr. '80 
Waller, '70 
Wanier, '82 
Ward, '82 
Wardlaw, '76 
Waterbury, '77 
Webb, '73 
Weed, '83 
Wells, '75 
Wendt, '72 
Wetmore, '75 
Wheeler, H. A., '80 
Wheeler, M. D., '68 
White, '82 
Wiechmann, '81 
Williams, F. H„ '74 
Williams, G. W., '79 
Williams, I. T„ '73 
Williams, W. W., '81 
Willis, '78 
Wilson. H. M..'8i 
Wilson. W. A., '8a 
Wittmack, '82 
Wood, '84 
Wright, '75 



Youm 



'82 



•d :i Google 



THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES 
QUARTERLY. 



No. 3. 



THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH, 
BY F. COPE WHITEHOUSE, M.A. 

" No one who has had the happiness to set foot on the black 
soil of Egypt, ever turns back on his homeward way before his 
eyes have looked upon that wonder of antiquity, the threefold 
mass of the Pyramids on the steep edge of the desert. The 
desert's boundless sea of yellow sand, whose billows are piled up 
around the gigantic mass of the Pyramids, deeply entombing the- 
tomb itself, like a corpse long since deceased, surges hot and 
dry far up the green meadows, with its scattered vegetation, 
where the grains of sand and corn are intermingled. From the 
far distance you see the giant forms of the Pyramids, as if they 
were regularly crystallised mountains, which the ever-creating 
Nature has called forth from the mother soil of rock, to lift 
themselves up towards the blue vault of heaven. And yet they 
are but tombs, built by the hands of men, which, raised by King 
Khufu and two other Pharaohs of the same family and dynasty, 
have been the admiration and astonishment alike of the ancient 
and modern world, 'as an incomparable work of power. Per- 
fectly adjusted to the cardinal points of the horizon — the S. and 
N., the E. and W., — they differ in breadth and height, as is 
shown by the measurements of Colonel Vyse." 

"The construction of these enormous masses was long an 
almost insoluble enigma for experts in such work; but the 



^Google 



194 THE QUARTERLY. 

younger generation, applying its enquiring spirit to the unknown 
solution, has succeeded in stripping off the outer shell, so as to 
find the kernel " (pp. 69, 70). A Pharaoh "began his work from 
his accession. As soon as he mounted the throne the sovereign 
gave orders to a nobleman, the master of all the buildings of his 
land, to plan the work and cut the stone. The kernel of the 
future edifice was raised on the limestone soil of the desert, in 
the form of a small Pyramid built in steps, of which the well- 
constructed and finished interior formed the King's eternal 
dwelling, with his stone sarcophagus lying on the rocky floor. 



THE PYRAMID-HILL OP CIZEH KROH THE SOUTH. 

Let us suppose that this first building was finished while the 
Pharaoh still lived in the bright sunlight. A second covering 
was added, stone by stone, on the outside of the kernel ; a third 
to this second and to this even a fourth; and the mass of the 
giant building grew greater the longer the King enjoyed exis- 
tence. And then, at last, when it became almost impossible to 
extend the area further, a casing of hard stone, polished like 
glass and fitted accurately into the angles of the steps, covered 
the vast mass of the King's sepulchre, presenting a gigantic 
triangle on each of its four faces " (pp. 7 1 , 72). " The stones, 



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THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH. 195 

which the master's careful consideration chose for the building of 
* the lights ' {the Pyramid of Cheops), were laboriously quarried 
out of the rock in three different places by the grievously op- 
pressed workmen. The material — a spongy limestone without 
firmness — from which the inner kernel of the building was con- 
structed and which remained afterwards hidden from every eye, 
was found close at hand ; for the native rock on which the build- 
ing was raised yielded it in abundance to an unknown depth. 
The better sort of stone, chosen for the steps and successive 
layers, was drawn upon rollers along the causeway (above half a 
mile long), which extends from the mountain on the right of the 
river to the plateau of the Pyramids."* 

This description has been selected because the eminence of 
its author makes it, to a certain extent, representative of its 
class. It needs no personal knowledge of the plateau of Gizeh 
to detect obvious misstatements of fact and erroneous opinions. 
In the most recent work on the subject, it is said with melan- 
choly truth that " descriptions of the Pyramids are usually re- 
plete with extraordinary mistakes — 'granite' for 'limestone,' 
' height ' for ' width,' etc. In the Pyramids and Temples of Gi- 
zeh by W. M. Flinders Petric.t three pages (68-70) are de- 
voted to the analysis of this accretion theory, and " its falsity 
has been fully demonstrated." Instead of the desert's bound- 
less sea of yellow sand.f the " Pyramids stand both on the same 
hill, an elevation not far short of a hundred feet in height. "% 
This hill was adorned with magnificent edifices. || Its basalt 
pavement, covering more than a third of an acre, is formed of 
blocks sawn and fitted together, and laid upon a bed of lime- 
stone of fine quality. An edifice, commonly called the Granite 
Temple, stands near the Sphinx at the foot of the hill of Gizeh ; 
and is directly connected with the Second Pyramid by means of 
a causeway, about 15 feet wide and a quarter of a mile long (F. 

* Brugsch's History of Egypt, Vol. I. 

\ New and revised edition 1885. 

{There is very little sand on the high desert. In the valleys it has drifted into 
dunes, leaving the horizontal limestone exposed, or covered only to the depth of a 
few inches. 

§ Herodotus, ii, § 117. 

| See my paper, " The Topography of the Pyramids." London, 1881. 



^Google 



i 9 6 THE QUARTERLY. 

P., p. 43)." On both sides of it the rock is closely perforated 
with the large shafts of rock tombs bordering on it. It led to a 
second temple, similar in character, in front of the large middle 
Pyramid. There are also passages which are an exact " model 
of the Great Pyramid passages, shortened in length, but of full 
size in width and height" {F. P., p. 15). 
642.9 



Top of Third Pyramid, . 406.3 




Base of Third Pyramid, . 303.8 
Base of Second Pyramid, . 195.3 
Base of Great Pyramid, . 162.1 



Excavated Chamber. . . 60. 
Sand plain at Base, . 33. 

High Nile of 1838. , . 24.8 15 
Low Nile of 1838, .... 

THE PVRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH FROM THE EAST. 

The doorway of the Pyramid of Cheops is about 55 feet 
above the pavement t This descending passage speedily enters 
the solid rock, and reaches a depth of nearly a hundred feet be- 
low the surface of the hill. The subterranean chambers and 
passages are all cut roughly in the rock. They are above the 
level of high Nile. A view of the Pyramid of Gizeh from 
the south shows' that the hill is detached on that side also. It 
is, as a matter of fact, completely isolated, and was an island 
surrounded by water during the long period before the Nile 
eroded its present channel between Abu-Roash and the hills 
behind Cairo. Of the total height of 594 feet, from high Nile 



* The abbreviations used are: F. P., Pyramids and Temples of Giich by 
Mr. Flinders Fetrie ; P. S., Onr Inheritance, by Prof. Piani Smyth ; V, Pyramids, 
by Col. Vyse. Proper names, in quotations, follow the original spelling. 

t I am indebted to Mr. A. D. F. Hamlin, of the Department of Architecture, 

for these accurate drawings from photographs. 



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THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH. 197 

to the present summit of the Pyramid of Cheops, at least 1 50 
feet is solid rock. The rock also rises as a core not less than 
twenty-five feet within the Pyramid, whose lower courses are 
merely a revetment. It is natural to suppose that only the finer 
stone was brought from the eastern cliffs, and that the bulk of 
the masonry was quarried out of the hill itself. The other 
Pyramids are built of material found on the spot. "The Pyramid 
of Abu-Roash is about five miles to the northwestward of those 
of Gizeh. The base (320 feet square) alone remains. The 
defective places have been made good with masonry, but the 
bulk of it is formed of the mountain (composed of a hard 
chalk) which has been reduced to a level around it It is 
about 510 feet above the plain." "The material of the 
Pyramid of Zowyet el-Arrian has been quarried from the 
adjoining hills." " The Pyramids of Abousir are on an elevation 
which is about eighty feet higher than the adjacent plain. 
The greater part of the material consists of stone found on 
the spot" The bulk of the masonry of the stepped Pyramid 
of Saccarah "consists of loose rubble work. The stones have 
been quarried on the spot." " The northern stone Pyramid 
of Dashour is built with stone taken from the adjacent 
mountains." "The body of the Blunt Pyramid is built with 
stone from the immediate vicinity."* The Pyramid of Me- 
dum is little more than a revetted hill. Lastly, the Pyramids in 
Lake Mceri.s, 600 feet above the bed of the lake, were, accord- 
ing to Diodorus, formed from one of the numerous isolated 
masses in the depression west oi the Nile. There is, therefore, 
strong reason to suppose that in the case of the Pyramids of 
Gizeh the material was quarried on the spot. But Dr. Brugsch 
is wrong in limiting its use to an inner kernel, and wrong also in 
implying that the quarries lay beneath the native rock on which 
these structures stand. The hill of Gizeh rises to a considerable 
height above the bases of the Pyramids. It is inconceivable 
that rational beings, who could, as we know, transport, polish 
and hollow immense blocks of granite but who did not hesitate 
to place beautifully-fitted masses of limestone near " rude 
masonry, consisting of rough blocks, put together like rubble 
work, with Nile earth instead of mortar," in order to economize 

* Vyse. iii., pp. 8, 10. 15, 43. 63. 66. 



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198 THE QUARTERLY. 

labor, would have gone below the level of the Pyramid for 
rock which lay above it. 

Mr. Petrie, however, has expressed the opinion that " the 
whole of the stones were quarried in the cliffs of Turra and 
Masara and brought across to the selected site." He describes 
the actual mode of work as he conceives it. " At the end of 



MIDDLE COURSES OF THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS. 

July, when the Nile had fairly risen, a levy of 100,000 men 
would assemble to the work. Not more than eight men could 
well work together on an average block of stone of 40 cubic 
feet, or 2% tons; and the levies would probably be divided into 
working parties of about that number. If, then, each of these 
parties brought over 10 average blocks of stone in their three 
months' labor — taking a fortnight to bring them down the 



, v GooqIc 



THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH. 199 

causeways at the quarries, a day or two of good wind to take 
them across the stream, six weeks to carry them up the Pyramid 
causeway, and four weeks to raise them to the required place on 
the Pyramid — they would easily accomplish their task in the 
three months of high Nile " (p. 82). But this period " is only 
mentioned in connection with the removal of the stones and not 
with the actual quarrying or building ; on these labors probably 
a large staff of skilled masons was always employed." 



STRATIFICATION OF THE HILL OF GIZEH. 

Undoubtedly a Pyramid might have been constructed in 
this way. But it is an important factor in this enquiry, which 
has escaped the attention of Herodotus and every subsequent 
observer, that some of the stones on the exterior of the Pyramid 
of Cheops could not have been quarried in the interior of a hill. 
They are deeply scored and veined by the action of water. 
They could not, therefore, have been cut out of homogeneous 
rock, for although there is not the slightest evidence that this 
Pyramid was cased, no such disintegration would be effected by 
the action of the atmosphere in many thousand years.. "The 
Great Pyramid " is supposed to contain " about 2,300,000 stones. 



^Google 



aoo THE QUARTERLY. 

averaging 50x50x28 inches, or 2# tons" (p. 83). This average 
is merely the result of calculation. No considerable number 
of stones have the same approximate weight. The two hundred 
courses are irregular in thickness. Prof. Piazzi Smyth found it 
was often difficult to say where any particular course began or 
ended : especially as the courses — though generally running 
uniformly along all four sides — were in some particular places 
composed of two layers of stone, each of which might then 
be taken inadvertently as a single course; or, again, two small 
courses rather ruined, might appear as one large one. There 
is, however, abundant proof that the courses are not of uniform 
or regular decreasing or increasing thickness" (P.-S. ii, 128). 
The three lower courses of the revetment are exceptionally 
thick. From the thirtieth to the fortieth course the stones are 
30, 26, 28, 24, 24, 50, 41, 39, 38, 34 inches in height The up- 
per thirteen courses range between 20 and 22 inches. The # 
thirty-sixth course, with a maximum thickness of four feet two 
inches, is nearly a hundred feet above the base. The ninety- 
ninth, one hundredth, and one hundred and nineteenth, are 
41, 37 and 35 inches, while all higher stones are between 31 and 
20 inches in height It is evident from the strata exposed on 
the sides of the hill that these thicknesses correspond substan- 
tially to the irregular deposits of limestone, which are so plainly 
marked in the head of the sphinx. If the stones had been de- 
livered from a quarry situated at a distance, the engineer in 
charge and master- workmen would have finished them to a 
scale. The labor of dressing them to a size would not have 
amounted to one- thousandth part of the expense of transport- 
ing blocks of uncertain weight and shape, to be fitted at an 
altitude of five hundred feet, with the danger and annoyance in 
removing the fragments. Yet it is obvious that many of the 
blocks were fitted in situ. In the rock-hewn temples of Nubia 
which have a portico of hewn stone, the walls of dressed blocks 
are carried up against the rough sides of the hill. The rectan- 
gular stones are neatly fitted, and there has been no disintegration 
at the joints or in the face of the blocks. When Richter, there- 
fore, put on canvass, in his celebrated picture of the Building of a 
Pyramid, his conception of the results of such a method, he was 
forced to depict a structure which differed essentially from that 
which we are examining. Each gang of slaves delivers its tale 



;v Goo^lc 



THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH. aoi 

of average stones ready for the skilled masons. They receive 
them on well-laid terraces of regular height. But a detached mass 
of rock, like this island of Gizeh, would have been left by the 
subsiding waters with several knolls, the highest towards the 
northeast and the lowest to the southwest, where the action of 
the water had been most strongly felt. Such hills exist by 
thousands in the desert and on the banks of the Nile. They are 
formed in the sandstone of Nubia and in the limestone of 
Egypt, as in the Laurentian rocks of Canada and other horizon- 
tal stratifications. Their height is limited by the plateau out 
of which they are carved and the depth to which erosion or 
subsidence has exposed their sides. They may have, as at Abu- 
Simbel, a slope as steep as a Pyramid. They are often far more 
precipitous than the angle of convenience and stability usually 
selected for a pile of flat stones. "The southern Pyramid of 
Lisht having been built with a soft limestone has crumbled 
away until it has the appearance of a round hillock ; and, in fact, 
many of the desert hills are much more pyramidal."* The en- 
gineers at Gizeh, therefore, did not commence with a flat sur- 
face. If the core of rock in the Pyramid of Cheops is squared 
and levelled, a considerable amount of stone has been removed 
to bring it into that condition. How high did the natural hill 
rise before the present constructed summits were begun? The 
base of Abu-Roash is natural rock 500 feet above the plain. 
Its chambers in the natural rock are over a hundred feet above 
the chambers in the Pyramid of Cheops. To the west the 
Kom el-Kashab, eight miles distant, is nearly 300 feet higher, 
while eastward the whole range of the Mokattam is at an equal 
-elevation. In order to determine this, inter multa alia, I 
undertook in March, 1882, an expedition into the desert, west 
■of the Pyramids.t 



•Vyse, iii.,p. 78. 

t No one had ever been beyond the visible horizon. I.t. Gen. Stone, then chief 
■ of staff, exerted to the utmost his rare zeal and tact to secure for me the support, or 
-at least the countenance, of the revolutionary government of Arabi, then Minister 
of War. Permission was refused, and I was even forbidden to take a European 
companion. At the Pyramids, however, I found Mr. Petrie engaged in that work 
which has since been published with so much credit, and, literally at an hour's notice, 
before sunrise of March 22nd, we were on our way into the desert. His engage- 
ments compelled me to curtail my plan. The survey is published on his responsi- 
bility. His accuracy in such a matter is beyond question. These observations have 
been borrowed from me by the British War Office, the Dutch Academy of Science 
.and Dr. Schweinfurth. 



,»GoogIe 



2oi THE QUARTERLY. 

The result is very striking. It shows that in a depression- 
similar and parallel to the Nile valley, in the same latitude, at 
the distance of seventeen and twenty miles, there are natural 
hills which are precisely the same height as the pyramidal sum- 
mits of the Gizeh hill. There is, therefore, nothing to prevent 
the hypothesis, if it simplifies the task, that the architect found 
a natural elevation of over 500 feet on the very spot where the 
present piles stand. 

If the knolls selected for the sites of the two larger Pyra- 
mids were even a hundred feet in height, it is obvious that the 
work would commence by an excavation. The material would 
be piled up in the form of a square embankment, on all four 
sides, until a level space had been prepared as a foundation. 
The material could thus be restored to its former situation with 
very little waste of labor. " The chips were [apparently] thrown 
over the cliffs, on both the north and south of the Pyramid ol 



SECTION OF FIFTY MILES ON LAT. SO*. 

Cheops; and they form banks extending about 100 yards out- 
wards from the original edge of the rock and reaching from top 
to bottom of the cliffs ; taking them altogether they are proba- 
bly equal in bulk to more than half the Pyramid" (F. P., p. 85), 
"In preparing a base for the Second the rock has been levelled 
so as to form an area round the building, bounded on the west- 
ern and northern sides by a low cliff, but immediately under the 
Pyramid it has been merely stepped up in horizontal layers, and 
it appears at the southwestern corner eleven feet ten inches, 
and at the northwestern fourteen feet three inches above the 
base. Mr. Perring is of the opinion that the interior is divided 
by massive walls of wrought stone into square compartments 
which have been filled up with a sort of gigantic rubble work" 
{V., ii, 114, 115). Diodorus was told that " the building was- 



* Google 



THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH. 203 

made by means of mounds," and that " the Egyptians make 
wonderful stories about them, saying that the mounds were made 
of salt and nitre, which by directing the water of the river upon 
them, were afterwards dissolved without human aid, when the 
work was completed. This cannot be true ; but the same 
number of hands that raised the mounds removed the whole to 
the original place whence they were brought." The angle 
of the two large Pyramids, 52 , is somewhat steeper than the 
stratification at the angle of rest, of the chips, 40 , but it remains 
the convenient angle of stability for such a work. In some 
such manner as this the thick strata of the upper part of the 
knoll would go back "to the original place whence they were 
brought," moved horizontally or downwards, both when they 
were qoarried and when they were put back. 

In such a hill there would be layers of stone as fine in qual- 
ity as any at a corresponding elevation on the other side of the 
cafion.* Different qualities of chips have been found in the rub- 
bish heaps, which shows that so-called Turra limestone was dress- 
ed on the Gizeh plateau. The chambers in the Pyramid of 
Cheops strongly favor the idea that they were actually in the 
original hill before it was attacked by the Pyramid builders. 
The 56 roofing beams of the King's chamber and of the spaces 
above it average 700 cubic feet, weighing about 54 tons. They 
are blocks of granite, roughly dressed on the under sides which 
form the ceilings, but wholly unwrought above. There are hun- 
dreds of chambers formed with roofing beams of granite in the 
Libyan Hills. In no other case is the chamber surrounded by 
hewn stone. A rule, therefore, absolutely without exception, 
seems to require that these blocks, however high above the Nile 
Valley, should have been below the surface of the rock contig- 
uous to the mouth of the passage, down which they were made 
to slide, or of the pit into whose sides they were built. These 
chambers are, in fact, disconnected from the Pyramid. Two 
immense limestone walls wholly outside of, and independent of, 
all the granite floors and supporting blocks, were built on the 
east and west. " Between these great walls all the chambers 
stand unbonded, and yielding freely to settlement (F. P., p. 31). 

* The strata which form the body of the Sphinx are very coarse, but the bead 
ii carved out of material as line in texture as the best quality of Mokattam stone. 



* Google 



2o 4 THE QUARTERLY. 

Thus the sepulchral chamber under the third Pyramid is "roof- 
ed with blocks of granite, which extend from east to west and 
meet in a ridge in the centre. Their reverse ends were lodged 
in deep groovings cut into the (solid) rock," {V., ii, p. 86) and 
nearly 100 feet below the point at which it is still visible (9 ft. 2 
in.) above the (apparent) base of the Pyramid. On the other 
hand, the chambers formed in the excavated pit on the summit 
of Abu-Roash are 500 feet above the plain of the Nile. Per- 
ring considered that there were traces of superposed ceilings 
and spaces exactly the same as those over the King's chamber at 
Gizeh. We may, therefore, suppose that this Pyramid of Cheops 
was a hill, and that those chambers were constructed before the 
hill was taken down, in whole or in part, piled about it " in a 
mound and then put back whence it was brought." The material 
for the chamber was not brought through the present passage. 




PYRAMIDAL HILL IN THE DESERT. Lor 



The granite blocks and the (coffer or) sarcophagus are too large 
to pass through it. There is another point which, I believe, has 
escaped attention. These engineers were accustomed to corbel 
out walls until they met. It is a far stronger and simpler meth- 
od than tlie arch. The Treasury at Argos is a familiar example 
in European architecture. The Doge's Palace at Venice shows 
how Gothic arches in general may be entirely independent of the 
opening so far as any support is concerned. Why should these 
Pyramid architects, singularly frugal of the labor (or food) 
which was at their disposal, have indulged in the reckless waste 
of discharging chambers unless there was some weight above ? 
They corbelled the passage. The so-called Queen's chamber 
was underneath a very much greater mass, and had it yieided it 



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THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GJZEH. 205 

would have wrecked the structure to the apex. It was rendered 
for more secure than the solid rock by a few courses of stone, 
breaking joints.* 

It is at least conceivable that a part of the natural eminence 
might have been reconstructed with still less labor. The quar- 
ries of Memphis were underground. The Egyptians mined their 
soft rock in chambers, and the doorways of no great size lead 
far into passages, through which in the picturesque language 
of Abd el-Atif, a warrior might ride with upright lance, If 
there was a hill, it could scarcely have escaped the hand of man. 
The Valley of the Nile was converted into meadows and inter- 
sected by canals with infinite pains. Nature turned it over to 
the human race with ragged masses of stone cropping up as 
islands in the bed of the stream, attaining in some cases a con- 
siderable height. They have long since been quarried and re- 
moved. The Gizeh hill furnished immense blocks to the work- 
men, still visible near the Temple of the Sphinx. If there were 
quarries in the upper part of the rock on the site of the Pyramids 
of Gizeh, it would account for the worthless character of the 
remainder. For these stones (as Col. Vyse has pointed out) 
would shatter if the blocks were thrown to the ground. There is 
a very remarkable tradition repeated by Herodotus (ii, % 128). 
" The upper portion of the Pyramid was finished first, then the 
middle, and finally the part which was lowest and nearest to the 

* At the northern extremity of the Assasseef. and immediately below the cliffs 
of the Libyan Mountain is an ancient temple. The inner chambers ate made to 
imitate vaults. They are not on the principle of the arch, being' composed of 
blocks placed horizontally. One projecting beyond that immediately below it, till 
the uppermost two meet in the centre, the interior angles being afterwards rounded 
off to form the vault. The reason of their preferring this construction (to the arch) 
probably arose from the difficulty of repairing an injured vault in the tunneled rock, 
and the consequences attending the decay of a single block. Nor can any one in 
observing the great superincumbent weight applied to the haunches, suppose that 
this style of building is devoid of strength, and of the usual durability of an Egypt- 
ian fabric, or pronounce ii to be ill-suited to the purpose for which it was erected, 
the support of the friable rock of the mountain, within whose excavated base it 
stood, and which threatened to let fall its crumbling masses on its summit. 

"The large blocks placed en d&harge over the entrance have given rise to 
many conjectures. Some have imagined that an immense portal existed; others 
have conceived that a succession of these stones was placed over the passage, in 
order to sustain the superincumbent weight of the structure ; but upon examination, 
square masonry is found immediately behind them; and it may also it remarked 
that owing to the form of the Pyramid, the upper end of the passage, near the 
exterior, has no great weight to support. — V. 1, 336." 



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ao6 THE QUARTERLY. 

ground." The blunt Pyramid of Dahshour is divided by its 
double angle into a roof and sides. There is. therefore, some- 
thing suggestive about this reported division of the Pyramids of 
Cheops into three parts. The lowest part is that upon or against 



SECTION OF THE SPEOS OF A 



THE TEMPLE DESTROYED BY OVERSTOPINr.. 



THE PYRAMID 



the core of the live rock. It is more important than might at 
first sight be supposed, because twenty feet at the base of a Py- 
ramid-represents a large amount of material. The middle part 
would be that which was formed by bringing back the material 



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THE PYRAMID-HILL OF GIZEH. 207 

which had been piled about the excavation. The top might 
then be the upper courses. 

But there is another explanation, which has met with favor 
at the hands of the most competent experts in such a problem.* 

If a chamber were formed in the hill above or around the 
core, it would be easy to overhead or back stopet through the 
hill until the top was reached. The Arabic traditions were de- 
rived from the Copts, and Makrizi quotes Ibrahim ibn-Wasyf 
Shah as saying that the "Pyramids had been worked down from 
the top" (V., i, 354). This agrees also with the statement of 
Herodotus which has always been explained by the (imaginary) 
casing. Many of the rock-hewn tombs at Saqqara have fallen 
in. Under that Pyramid there is a gallery which " is an exca- 
vation. But, as the rock above it has not been left of sufficient 
thickness to sustain the weight of the superincumbent masonry, 
the ceiling is supported by a row of twenty short columns form- 
ed with blocks of compact limestone. The passages are very 
intricate, leading in some instances to the excavations for the 
floor of the large apartment, in others to small recesses." {V., 
ii, 42) Herodotus also said that under the Shepherd Kings 
" the affliction of Egypt endured for 106 years, during the whole 
of which time the temples were shut up and never opened. The 
Egyptians so detest the memory of these kings that they do not 
mention their names. Hence, they commonly call the Pyramids 
after Philition, a shepherd who at that time fed his flocks about 
the place" (ii, 128). Philition has been identified with Philistia 
or Palest inia, and Pelusium (Rawlinson, Herod, ii, p. 176). 

No one, however, hadj associated the Fayoum with these 
Hyksos kings, or ascribed to this oligarchy the construction of 
Lake Mceris and the Labyrinth. It had been observed by Col. 
Vyse that, " The roads leading into the Faioum are often distin- 

•See the proceedings of !he Society of American Civil Engineers, Buffalo, 1884. 

\ Slope ; to excavate in the form of Slopes or Steps; to fill in with rubbish as a 
space from which ore has been worked out. 

"In openirg a new quarry, they pierced it with a horiiontal shaft, beginning 
with a square trench and then breaking away the stone In the centre, after which 
they extended the work downwards in stefi, thus descending as far as they found 
convenient or the stone continued good. They then returned and cut away the 
steps, and when the quarries were of very great horizontal extent, pillars were left at 
intervals to support the roof . " The ancient Egyptians, SirG. Wilkinson, II, p. 303. 

JSee the proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, London, 1885. 



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so8 THE QUARTERLY. 

guished by Pyramids." But he was over careful to add: "Mr. 
Ferring does not consider that any connection existed between 
the Pyramids and the roads, but that they were so placed merely 
because the entrances to the Valley of the Nile afforded appro- 
priate situations for their erection."" The Hyksos were mono- 
theists and are said to have destroyed the ancient idolatrous 
worship. Suppose that the hill at Gizeh contained a Speos, or 
grotto- temple, similar to that in the Mokattam, now a church, 
or the wo rid -renowned Abu-Simbel. In order to destroy such a 
shrine it would be necessary or expedient to reconstruct the hill 
above it, as is represented in the accompanying cuts. In that 
case the top would be finished first, for the hewn stones would 
first appear at a considerable height on top of the natural hill. The 
hill might then be squared and revetted below and " the middle 
parts" (or more exactly, "the following" or "succeeding parts") 
be arranged at any time. 

We have nothing to do, at this point, with the purpose of these 
structures. The hills might have threatened, as the cliff of the 
Assasseef, to crush the buildings at their feet. Naples is contin- 
ually reminded, by the immense retaining wall of Santa Lucia, 
how that hill crumbled in 1869. They may have been squared, 
as Abd el-Atif supposed, with a view to protect the terrace by 
their inclined angles against the sand and wind of the desert A 
stately procession may have mounted a causeway of brick or 
stone, as at the teocalli of Mexico, offering in this respect a no- 
ble contrast to the exclusive worship of the largest cathedral 
But the aqueduct of Samos was led through a hill, and one 
cannot study a map with the vast impounding reservoir of 
Mceris immediately above and behind the Pyramids without a 
suspicion and a hope that they were in some way worthy of the 
Arabian Engineers who made the two most stupendous works 
of Ancient Egypt — the Labyrinth and its Lake. The fair 
question is whether this view removes more difficulties, explains 
more factors, requires fewer assumptions, presents more consist- 
ency with observed facts, is in greater harmony with the ordin- 
ary workings of the human mind and with the peculiar period 
of history to which it relates, without, at the same time, expos- 
ing itself to any fatal objection. 

•This explanation is manifestly insufficient unless exceptional importance 
given to the Fayoum as a seat of empire. 



,»GoogIe 



THE RELATION OF THE UNITED STRAIN AND 
THRUST IN ARCHES. 

THE "MIDDLE THIRD" THEORY FOR STONE ARCHES. 

BY JAMES L. GREENLEAF, C.E. 

The external forces acting on an arch, which are ordinar- 
ily the weight and the reaction of the abutments, are held 
in equilibrium by the strain existing in the arch itself. 

If for any cross-section of the arch ring, the resultant of the 
external forces for that point is taken ; this resultant is held in 
equilibrium by the strain exerted in the arch ring at that section. 
These strains resolved into their ultimate elements, consist 
ist, of shearing stress in the arch at the section, and, 2d, of di- 
rect tensions and compressions of the fibres in the direction of 
the axis of the arch. Leaving shear out of consideration as a 
matter to be separately treated, and considering the tensile and 
compressive strains of the fibres solely, the calculation of their 
amounts is necessary. The designing of an arch, from an en- 
gineering standpoint, consists in making it such that a proper 
relation shall exist between these tensile and compressive strains 
and the strength of the fibres of the material used, whether the 
arch be of wood, iron, stone, or any other material. Instead of 
dealing with the strain in a single fibre, which is supposed to 
have infinitesimal dimensions, it is necessary to use a finite 
quantity as a unit of strain, and hence the strain of tension or 
compression in a square unit of section is calied the unit strain. 
The breaking unit strain is the strain per square unit of section 
which will just suffice to rupture the material considered. The 
safe unit strain is that to which it is safe to subject the material. 
The object of this paper is to get a mathematical expression 
for the relation between the resultant of the external forces at 
any section of the arch, and the resulting unit strain at that sec- 
tion. The aim is to treat the subject in a general manner, ap- 
plicable equally to the iron and the stone arch by merely in- 
troducing the proper conditions. For the sake of simplicity, 
only arches of solid rectangular section are treated. With 
framed arches of iron or wood, the matter of shear enters to 



^Google 



aio THE QUARTERLY. 

complicate the subject It would be easy to develop the dis- 
cussion so as to treat other forms of section than the rectangu- 
lar. 

The general course of treatment is to apply the theory of 
bending moments to the arch irrespective of the material, for 
a bending moment can rightly be considered to exist in a stone 
arch the same as in a wooden one. By this means a general 
expression is obtained that can be modified for different mate- 
rials. The basis of the deduction is the mechanical principle, 
that the effect of any force with reference to a point outside its 
direction is twofold; ist, the effect of the force acting directly 
on the point, and 2d, the moment of the force around the 
point. 

Let the arch of Fig. i be acted upon by the weights W and 
Wj and let the broken line A B C D be the equilibrium poly- 
gon which represents at every point of the arch the direction of 
the resultant at that point of all the external forces acting on 
the arch. It is identical with what is sometimes termed the line 
of thrust, or line of pressure. 




In the case chosen the distribution of weights is such as to 
make it very eccentric from the center line of the arch. In the 
case of stone arches it must lie within the middle third of the 
depth of the arch ring, as will be demonstrated. 

The line A B represents the direction and position of the 
thrust which .acts on the arch in the section ss, and the amount 
of this thrust, which can be readily found by the method used 
in constructing the equilibrium polygon, will be denoted by T. 

The thrust T exerts at one and the same time, a direct thrust 
or compression of the value T in the arch on the section ss, and 
a bending moment upon the arch at the section, of the value 
Tx. This bending moment tends to bend the arch away from 
the line AB, producing tension in those fibres of the section on 



;v Goo^lc 



ARCHES. 211 

the further side of the centre line from the line A B, and com- 
pression in those fibres on the same side as the line of thrust. 
The combinations of these tensions and compressions with the 
compression due to direct thrust are the ultimate strains of the 
fibres that the arch has to be designed to resist. 

For any given material these ultimate strains must not ex- 
ceed a certain amount, the safe strain for the material consid- 
ered. 

It is readily seen that the force T being given, these ultimate 
strains will depend upon the position of T with reference to the 
center line of the arch ; that is, on the value of x, and also upon 
the area of cross section. It is necessary then to deduce a mathe- 





matical expression for the relations between x, T, the ultimate 
unit strain of the material used, and the area of cross section. 
Figs. 2 to s, the essentials of which are borrowed from Professor 
Greene's book on " Arches," will aid in understanding this de- 
duction. 

The arrows of Fig. 3 indicate the unit strains due to the 
bending moment of T. Fig. 4 illustrates the unit strains due to 
direct thrust from T, and Fig. 5 illustrates the combination of 
the two strains, the arrows indicating the ultimate unit strains 
in the section, caused by the force T at the distance x. Let d 
and b denote the depth and breadth of the arch section. 

Let a denote the ratio of unity to area of section, .\ a = — 



^Google 



aiz THE QUARTERLV. 

Let/ denote the ultimate unit strain at the extreme fibres of 
either edge of the section from the centre. Let/i denote the 
unit strain of these fibre due to bending moment. 

The unit strain from direct thrust equals T«. Give compres- 
sive strains a negative sign, and tensile strains a positive sign. 

Then an inspection of the figures will show, that for either 
edge of the section, (A)/=/i +Ta. 

There are two edges of the section ; one on the same side of 
the centre line with the force T ; the other on the opposite side. 
A discussion of equation (A) for each of these edges will show 
two cases. Giving to/i and la their proper signs according as 
they are compression or tension ; for the edge nearest the force 
T, /= — fi — Ta=— (fi+Ta), for the further edge from the force 
T,/=/i — Ta. Hence, for any given position of the force T 
the numerical value of/ cannot be the same for both edges, see- 
ing that /i has equal numerical values in both edges. Also, 
the value of/ will always be negative for the edge nearest the 
force T, and for the other edge will be + or — , according at ./I 
> or < Tu. It is necessary to design the arch so that its fibres 
will not yield on the one hand to the maximum compression ex- 
erted on those of the edge nearest the force T, or on the other, 
to the maximum strain whether + or — , exerted on the fibres 
in the edge furthest from the force T. 

A study of Figs. 2 to 5, shows that for the edge nearest the 
force T,/i = f— Ta (B) ; for the further edge from the force T, 
f\ = ±/ + Ta (C). The +or — sign is used according as /is 
a tension or compression. 

Let_»< denote the distance, measured along the axis Y, of a 
fibre whose cross section is d (y), from the center line of the 
arch. The unit strain /1 due to bending moment, at different 
distances from the centre line, will, within the limits of elasticity, 
vary directy as the distance. The unit strain due to bending 

moment at the distance - is seen from equation (C) to equal 

Ta =t / Hence the unit strain due to bending moment at the 
distance^ equals 



wtdnGoogle 



ARCHES. 213 

The strain in the fibre equals 

(Ta±/) J-rfCr) 

2 

and its moment of resistance with respect to the line of the arch 
is 

For the nearer edge it is 

Let M denote the total moment of resistance of the half section 
on either side of the centre line. For the further edge, 



-jUS^fL^.iS^HJy 



dy 



d 8x3 v "12 

Now, the total moment of resistance of the section equals the 
bending moment, which is Tx. 

.: 2 M = Tx, or M = % Tx 



6T 1 ' 6 6T 

If the ring is assumed to be a unit thick, then 



o„ r,a .Google 



THE QUARTERLY. 



<">"*"& 



for the edge furthest from the line of thrust. 
,^1-^d 



v ' 6T . 

for the edge nearest the line of thrust. 

In equation (D) and {E) is the relation sought between f, T, 
x and d. Having any three of these factors given, the other can 
be determined. Knowing T and x, and taking a unit strain/ 
for the material used, the value of d can be calculated. Or, 
vice versa, fixing the value of d, the resulting ultimate unit strain 
of the outer fibres can be calculated. Again, having T,/ and 
d given, the value of x is readily found, which gives the posi- 
tion the line of thrust must occupy at the section in question. 

It must be remembered, that as before stated, the arch should 
be designed not only with reference to the maximum strain of 
compression that will-exist in that edge of the section which is 
nearest to the position of the force T, or the line of thrust, but 
also to sustain the maximum strain, whether compression or 
on tension, that will occur in the fibres furthest from the posi- 
tion of the force T. Equation (E) applies in the former case 
and equation (D) in the latter. 

Each case must be taken separately. When / is a — strain 

f<P 
inthefurthestedge from the force T, the term ,-~- is to be sub- 
tracted. When / is a + strain it is to be added. 

Of course, for any one section the value off must be differ- 
ent for the two edges of the section, and hence, treating each 
case separately, theory might not require the same value of d 
for both cases. The practical way would be to take that value 
of d, which was the largest obtained from the two calculations. 



A useful application of this formula would be in designing 
the section of the curved members ot a framed structure, such, 
for example, as the rafters of a crescent roof truss. In the dia- 



]V GooqIc 



ARCHES. 315 

grams of Graphical Statics, these members are considered straight 
between the panel points, and, in fact, so far as concerns the 
strains in the other members of the structure, the strains in 
these rafters do act along the chords between the panel points. 

The rafter is really an arch hinged at each panel point, and 
subjected to several variously inclined forces at each of these 
points. The equilibrium polygon or line of pressure, must pass 
through the hinge points of the arch, and hence coincides with 
the chords mentioned. The thrust acting along this line of 
chords causes the transverse strain in the sections of the rafter, 
and the latter can be designed according to equations (D) and 
(E). 

APPLICATION TO STONE ARCHES. 

In designing arches of stone or brick it is not allowable to 
subject any part of the arch to tension, as the joints would open 
under a comparatively slight tensional strain, and the arch 
might fail. Such arches must be so designed as to undergo 
compression only. 

As was demonstrated from Figs. 2 to 5, the fibres of that edge 
of the section on the same side oi the centre line as the line of 
pressures will always be in compression, and the fibres of the 
other edge may be in compression or tension, according to the 
relative values of f\ and Ta. If f\ > Ta these fibres will be 
in tension, and that tension will diminish as f\ diminishes until 
/1 = Ta, when the ultimate unit strain /will equal zero. Be- 
yond that, as /i diminishes, /will increase as a compressive 
strain. 

If the condition is imposed that there shall be no tension in 
the section, what is the limit to which the value of/ can be car- 
ried without making it a tension ? It is manifestly when / 
equals zero. Hence for the stone arch, the position of T or the 
line of thrust must be confined within limits that will make the 
value of/for that edge of the section on the opposite side of the 
centre line from the force T equal to zero. 

Imposing this condition /= o on equation (D) 

6 6T 



a 3, Google 



THE QUARTERLY. 



(E), = ^ 

Equation (E) shows that for stone or brick arches the equi- 
librium polygon or lines of pressures must fall within the mid- 
dle third of the depth. At the distance — d either way from 

the centre line, the limit is reached where tension commences 
and the joints of the arch tend to open. 

Knowing thus the limits between which the line of thrust 
must pass, and having the lineof thrust fixed, it is easy to deter- 
mine on a depth of arch ring which will satisfy these limits. 
Or, vice versa, for a definite value of d, the loading can be al- 
tered so as to bring the line of thrust within the limits. 

It remains to see that the ultimate unit strain of compres- 
sion/, in the edge of the section nearest to the line of thrust 
shall not be so great as to crush the material. This is easily 
done by taking the equation 

= f d% — ' A 
* 6T 6" 

and after giving x the proper value solve with respect toy. 

In conclusion it may be well to recall to the mind of the 
reader a previous sentence in this paper, viz., that the aim has 
been to deduce a general formula, applicable to an arch of any 
kind of material by simply introducing the proper conditions ; 
and as one application of this formula is obtained a very simple 
demonstration of the "middle third" theory for arches of 
stone or other material not adapted to resist tension. 



HASWELL AND WHITWORTH'S STEEL FORGINGS. 

BY THOS. EGLESTON, PH.D. 

Very great interest has been elicited in the making of hy- 
draulic forgings since it has become evident that some other way 
than hammering will have to be introduced for the treatment of 



;v Goo^lc 



STEEL FORGINGS. aij 

very large steel castings either for machine or for ordnance 
purposes. 

The hammer has held such an important position in the man- 
ufacture of iron and steel for so many years that any fault found 
with it seems at first unreasonable; yet nothing became appar- 
ent more quickly when very large pieces were required for shaft- 
ing or for ordnance purposes than that the hammer was very in- 
efficient in its action on the metal and often produced defects 
which weakened the strength of the piece. The rapid blowsof light 
steam hammers often produce flaws where none existed before, 
while the blow of the heaviest hammer yet made is less efficient 
than the same force applied as pressure. One of the principal 
reasons for making forgings is to get rid of blow" holes or at least 
of diminishing the size of the cavities in which the gases are con- 
tained, or which are produced by contraction, but the metal 
when brought under the hammer is often already too cold to 
make this entirely possible. 

The effort to substitute rolls for the hammer has not succeeded. 
It has been found that while the hammer and the rolls answered 
very well for small pieces, for very large ones they were entirely 
inadequate. One of the most striking defects in the casement 
plates made for Fort Delaware, in 1868, was, that although made 
of the very best charcoal iron, they did not stand a single fire, 
and when they were torn apart by the blow of the shot, no place 
was found larger than the palm of the hand where the welding 
was perfect. This was owing to the fact that a partial oxidation 
of the iron took place before the temperature was raised high 
enough to do the welding. On the outside such oxide can be 
easily removed by adding a flux ; on the inside this flux does 
not reach, and the oxide, if formed, remains to prevent welding. 
Often it enters the body of the piece seriously affecting its qual- 
ity, and producing effects which are rarely ever attributed to it 
It must also, be borne in mind that the heat, which is sufficient 
for forging, is not sufficient for welding, and, also, that in large 
pieces it is quite possible that the heat may be black on the out- 
side, while it is still high in the inside, and vice versa. The con- 
sequence is that under the ordinary circumstances of either roil- 
ing or hammering, there are both the dangers of absorption of 
oxygen and defects of welding, to contend with as well as the 
strains produced by the blow, both of which weaken the iron. 



^Google 



2i8 THE QUARTERLY. 

Besides this, small surfaces only, are acted upon at a time. With 
the hammer the shock may be too great on the outside for the 
temperature, and yet too slight to expel the cinder from the in- 
side, and at the same time the stroke may be too slight for the 
temperature of the outside to effect the welding, yet the shock 
may be sufficient, especially at the critical temperature to pro- 
duce internal strains or even serious defects. The result is that 
heavy and sudden shocks will very often break welds, indepen- 
dently of any strain which may be produced by want of proper 
annealing. It is admitted that the so-called fibrous structure of 
iron is that which makes the material the strongest; that is a 
tendency to crystallization of such a kind that when the iron is 
submitted to a strain, the crystals are drawn out rather than sep- 
arated. The tendency towards this so-called fibrous condition 
is very much increased by pressure and decreased by repeated 
shock. The advantage of pressure, if it can be made uniform, 
is that it works everywhere upon all parts of the iron orsteel, and 
works so slowly that the crystals have time to extend themselves 
in the direction in which the pressure acts, while with sudden and 
repeated blows this is not the case. Rolls do excellent service 
in this direction in a small way, but their action can only be on 
very small surfaces at a time, and they have been found to be 
entirely inefficient in the working of very large pieces. 

In the year 1871 Mr. J. Haswell, appreciating these incon- 
veniences of forging iron and steel, and the expense attendant 
upon the ordinary method of making pieces forged in the black- 
smith's shop very much larger than they were required, and 
then cutting them down with tools, invented a press with a 
power of 800 tons, to make the various parts of locomotives 
used by the Austrian R.R., of which he was theengineer. In the 
year 1873 he made, at the World's Fair in Vienna, a very inter- 
esting and important exhibit of the parts of locomotives that 
had been made in this way, by pressing them into cast-iron 
moulds. The pieces were made very nearly of the size required 
for the finished parts', provided they could be delivered from the 
moulds when they had been pressed into shape. When they 
could not be delivered, it was only necessary to add a small 
amount of extra material to some part which was easily re- 
moved afterwards with but little comparative waste and expense. 
It was found that the molds could be made very cheaply, and, if 



^Google 



STEEL FORCINGS. 219 

broken, could be easily replaced. The use of this press re- 
quired that there should be a certain number of forgings of each 
kind made, which he found by experiment was not less than 
ten for every piece, in order to make it economical. When 
more than that were required it was very cheap, the cost being 
diminished in some cases as much as 50% ; when less, it was 
too dear to be used. 

The iron brought up to red heat was placed upon the 
molds or swages, and the press brought gradually down upon 
it, so that every particle of the iron was slowly forced, without 
noise or jar, into every part of the mold, and came out with the 
so-called fibrous condition instead of being crystallized. Of 
course, the molds have to be made so that the forgings can be 
easily delivered, which requires, in some cases, some superfluous 
thickness or extension of the parts which can be very easily 
removed. These forgings are homogeneous, have the so-called 
fibrous condition, are in such a shape that the iron is even, with- 
out annealing, in every part in the strongest possible condition. 
The work has grown to such an extent that several presses of two 
thousand tons are now working continuously by this method. 
The advantage of the forgings thus produced is that they are 
strong, have no tendency to crystallization, that they admit of being 
worked up rapidly and with the greatest economy of both time 
and labor, and of material as well. But it has always been ad- 
mitted, up to a comparatively recent period, that such forgings 
with hydraulic powercould be done only upon small pieces, as the 
efforts to make large pieces had not always been successful. It 
is remarkable, the articles made by this process are almost 
always sound, and contain so few local defects that the percentage 
of loss in the forging is exceedingly small, while their quality is 
greatly increased. 

The recent demand for steel ordnance of heavy weight has 
directed attention to the many experiments made, noticeably by 
Whitworth, of Manchester, England, who, for the last twenty- 
five years, has been experimenting in this direction, and has 
succeeded in making a quality of steel which for strength and 
durability is equal to if not superior to any previously made. The 
striking peculiarity is its homogeneity, not in the sense of being 
cast from a fluid state, but in the sense of freedom from blow 
holes and of uniform composition and quality throughout. 



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320 THE QUARTERLY. 

I had occasion, in the month of Sept, 1884, to visit the 
recently- constructed works at Manchester, which are of very 
large size and arranged with every modern convenience, both 
for making large and small tools, and to see their methods 
of measuring with the greatest accuracy very minute quantities, 
as well as of making the largest size shaftings and guns of the 
heaviest weight, all of it being done with apparently the same 
ease. Their methods of obtaining very large ingots free from 
blow holes and of forging them, are undoubtedly those which 
must be used in the near future for the treatment of steel in 
large masses. The experiments which have produced these re- 
sults were commenced in 1863, and have been continued with 
great success, but with enormous expense ever since, securing 
for the inventor the honor of knighthood, in addition to a world- 
wide reputation, not only for the size and quality, but also for 
the great accuracy of his work at the same time. 

The steel is made in the Siemens- Martins furnace, and is 
poured in at the top of steel ingot molds, which are cylindrical 
in shape and cast especially for the purpose. They are built up 
in sections, which are securely bolted together by means of 
flanges, the size and number of the sections depending on the 
length and weight of the piece to be cast 

These molds are fitted with rods on the inside in such a 
manner as to facilitate the packing of molding sand in the 
strongest way. The melted steel is let into the ingot mold 
standing on a truck in front of the furnace. The truck runs on 
rails placed in the bottom of a trench, which is parallel to the 
furnaces, and is carried at once to the press. The head of the 
press is brought down on to the liquid steel and allowed to rest on 
it without any pressure, except its own weight, being put on it, 
and is locked in that position. The first effect is a shower of 
sparks, which, as the mold is closed by the projection on the 
head, last only a few seconds. The pressure is then very grad- 
ually applied from below. It has been found necessary to com- 
mence with the pressure as soon as the mold is closed and the 
head of the press locked, as the gases are all the more easily 
driven out of the steel as it is more fluid. The maximum 
pressure is usually arrived at in about half an hour, the time 
depending on the weight of the casting. This maximum is 
generally about 13,000 pounds to the square inch. The pres- 



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STEEL FORGINGS. «i 

sure varies with the amount of ductility required of the metal, the 
greatest being when the greatest, and the least when the least is 
required. When the process was being experimented on pres- 
sures as high as 20 tons to the square inch were used, but exper- 
ience has shown that beyond the pressure of about 6 tons, no 
sensible advantage is gained, and this is now generally adopted 
for the limits of the heaviest ingots which have as yet been 
made. 

During the time of pressure, gas in large quantities escapes 
from every aperture in the mold, which at once takes fire and 
burns on the outside. The volume of the steel diminishes in the 
course of the first five minutes as much as ^ to Ji of the length 
of the ingot. Experience has shown that there is no gain in com- 
pressing it more than this, but that the maximum pressure must 
be gradually applied, and that there is no advantage of extend- 
ing the time even for very large castings much over 35 minutes. 
After the maximum pressure has been applied it is gradually 
let down to 1500 lbs. per square inch and kept at this pressure 
until there is no longer any danger of further contraction 
of the metal, which, if allowed toact as it would without pressure, 
might crack in the interior, and thus endanger the strength of the 
ingot. The forcing out of the gases and the enormous compres- 
sion which each particle of the steel undergoes tend to make 
the ingot more homogeneous, not only preventing the forma- 
tion of cavities but closing them and welding them together while 
the steel is in a pasty condition, and probably also preventing 
to a considerable extent the liquation of the elements which 
takes place even where steel is cast in small ingots, as recent 
investigations which I have made to determine this point 
show. When the ingot has cooled and is sufficiently consoli- 
dated to be removed from the ingot mold, the pressure is re- 
moved and the ingot is taken out and reheated, unless it is hot 
enough, to be taken directly to the place where it is to be treated. 
The method is exactly the same whether a cannon of large cali- 
bre is to be made or a shafting of small diameter. The ingots 
are always cast hollow, and all the forging is done upon man- 
drils of large size. They are brought under the hammer head, 
which is pressed down a certain depth and the ingot moved 
in the swage below from its middle towards one end. At each 
successive plunge of the head, the steel yields like dough and 
moves forward towards the end, exactly in the same way. As the 

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aza THE QUARTERLY. 

movement is slow and without shocks, all the particles move in the 
same direction. When the movement has been made from themid- 
dle towards one end, the pieces are made to move in the other di- 
rection. It is generally found that it is best to increase the length 
of the ingot no more than six feet at a single operation. The 
ingot then goes back to the furnace, is reheated, and this oper- 
ation is continued until the requisite form is arrived at All the 
forging being done in this way on a mandril and in a die, the 
pieces are forged with remarkable accuracy. 

The press which serves for shaping is made to accommodate 
itself to any size or form of piece*. By turning the piece round 
in the die, perfectly uniform results can be obtained as far as the 
shape of the steel is concerned, while the continued action of the 
pressure forces the steel toassume the shape which the quick, sharp 
blow of the hammer could not produce both on account of the ex- 
ceedingly short time of action, and the elasticity of the piece. The 
slow penetrating action of the press draws out the crystals and 
makes them assume the direction of the flow. All shocks and con- 
sequently all tendency for the crystals to assume large faces are 
avoided. The small crystals are simply forced to follow the di- 
rection which the pressure gives, and to flow continuously with- 
out changing their form or their size, their general arrangement 
only being changed, so that instead of becoming larger or more 
separated, they tend to become smaller and more closely com- 
pacted, which probably is the reason of the high quality of all 
the steel made by this process. 

The method of doing the work, and of making all the pieces 
hollow, has a decided advantage. It is well known that the 
centre of all large pieces is an element of weakness, adding 
nothing to the strength of the piece, but greatly increasing its 
weight. It is exceedingly doubtful whether by hammering, a 
large ingot can ever be made perfectly sound at the core. Many 
of the serious accidents which result from the fracture of large 
forgings have been caused by the propagation of these central 
defects to the outside, when rupture takes place. The center 
of any very large forging is always an element of uncertainty 



•In Vol. X. of the Proceedings of the U. S. Steel Institute there is a description 
of these presses. Accurate drawings have also been given of both of them in plates 



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STEEL FORCINGS. 213 

By removing it altogether, and forging on a mandrel, the 
pieces can be made one -third, or even more, lighter and 
stronger, thus diminishing the quantity of material while in- 
creasing its efficiency. Sir Joseph Whitworth claims that in 
addition to these advantages, the ductility of the steel is 
easily brought up 30%. All these effects become the more 
apparent according as the casting is heavier. The method 
seems to be the only one for treating very heavy castings. The 
various government commissioners, who have examined the 
method, have reported in favor of it, and some of the largest 
works in Europe are now about to adopt it, as the work done 
by the press could not be done by the hammer at all. The 
great hammers in use near St. Petersburg, at Essen and at 
Creusot, seem to have reached their limit both of size and useful- 
ness. The cost of the foundations increases so rapidly with the 
capacity of the hammer, and the danger to other structures of 
striking such heavy and quick blows as are necessary to make 
such forgings, seem to put them out of the question independ- 
ently of the effect of the blow on the quality of the steel. A 
2,000 ton press, which is entirely independent as a machine and 
produces no shocks, and requires, therefore, no expensive foun- 
dations, is equal in efficiency to an 80-ton hammer, and can do 
as much work, and do it very much more accurately, than any 
hammer. It is doubtful whether it would ever be worth while 
under any conditions, to build a hammer that would be equal in 
efficiency to the 8 and 10,000 ton presses which are doing the 
current work of Whit worth's establishment. If we are to have 
castings capable of turning out lOO-ton guns, we must have 
some other means of treating the steel than the sharp, quick 
blow of the hammer, which is quite as likely to tear and crack 
the steel in certain stages, and to produce unnecessary internal 
strains in all, as to benefit the metal. The press seems to solve 
the problem. 

I saw at the works a hollow crank shaft 58 feet long, 18 
inches in diameter, so true, when it came from the press, that 
when a sixteenth of an inch was removed from the surface the 
shaft was ready to go into its bearings. It is very doubtful 
whether so large and true a forging could have been made in 
any other way. Much larger and heavier shafts have been made, 
and have been used under circumstances where they would prob- 



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224 THE QUARTERLY. 

ably have failed if made in any other way. One of these recently 
finished was 55 feet long, 30.5 inches in diameter, with a hole 
14 inches in diameter in its centre, and weighed 48 tons, a re- 
duction in weight of 16 tons, with much greater strength than 
the solid shaft. A tube for a 1 10-ton breech loading gun was 
42.5 feet long, 27.1 inches in diameter. The centre hole was 
14.75 inches in diameter; it weighed 26 tons. If it had been 
cast solid it would have weighed 40 tons. 

Such remarkable results produced with so much certainty, have 
attracted the attention of our own government It is doubt- 
ful, however, whether such pieces could ever be made, or such 
a work be managed by any government. It needs the stimu- 
lus of private enterprise with government patronage to make suc- 
cess possible. In the first instance private parties would probably 
be fearful of the results of a new enterprise, and capitalists with- 
out the certainty of government orders, would be slow to con- 
struct the necessary works, but it needs no gift of prophecy to 
foretell that in the near future the parts of machinery and of or- 
dnance which must be of great weight to bear very heavy 
strains, will be constructed hollow and by pressure, so as to re- 
move altogether from the piece the central part where the great- 
est uncertainty lies. 



ORE TESTING WORKS 
And Recent Additions to the Assay Department 

School of Mines, Columbia College. 

The continued and increasing development of the mineral 
interests of the United States, especially in the West and in the 
Mining of Gold and Silver Ores, renders it necessary for the 
mine owner or capitalist to thoroughly investigate, not only 
the assay value of the output of the vein or deposit in which 
he may be interested, but also the nature of the ore econom- 
ically considered. The time is passing when a mining claim 
can be sold on the assay of selected samples, which can not be 
representative. The assayer who gives his return as to the 



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ORE TESTING WORKS. 225 

value of a sample, knows that his certificate is absolutely worth- 
less, unless the sample submitted is averaged on and representa- 
tive of the lot of ore or portion of the vein from which it was 
taken. Hence, the demand for a system which calls for the 
testing of a large amount of ore, and the consequent guarantee 
that the sample examined shall be average, and indicate correct- 
ly the quality of the deposit from which it comes. This demand 
has led to the establishment of works for sampling and testing 
ores in various parts of the country, with a view to obtaining not 
only a more average assay, but also of enabling the assayer to 
report upon the nature of the ore as well as its contents in gold 
and silver. Such works have been established, both in the West 
and East, and the attention of the Trustees of Columbia Col- 
lege having been drawn to the matter, the Assay Department 
of the School of Mines has been enlarged so as to include the 
necessary space for crushing, pulverizing, and ore-treating ma- 
chinery, and the instruction extended to cover the sampling 
and testing of ores on a large scale. 

It is obvious that the education of the Metallurgist and En- 
gineer should include practice as well as theory, and the impor- 
tance of his understanding how to sample, assay and determine 
from the mineral characteristics of an ore, its value and method 
of treatment, cannot be over-estimated. 

In view of the foregoing, it is thought that a description <if 
the Assay Department, of the School of Mines, as now arranged, 
will prove of interest to the readers of the Quarterly. 

In November, 1882, an outline of a proposed course in As- 
saying, arranged with special reference to fitting the student for 
practical work in connection with the sampling, milling and 
smelting of the ores of the precious metals, was submitted to the 
Board of Trustees, of Columbia College. 

This plan included : 

1st. A course of lectures and recitations, on the books of 
reference, the machines, furnaces, fuels, apparatus, fluxes, etc., 
employed, and the methods of sampling, testing, and determin- 
ing the contents and economic value of the ores of Gold, Silver, 
Lead, Copper, etc.; and especially the testing of refractory ores, 
and the assay of slags, mattes, and metallurgical products. 

2d. Practical laboratory instruction on the use of apparatus, 
furnaces, and machines, the preparation of reagents and fluxes. 



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ai6 THE QUARTERL Y. 

the sampling and testing of large and small lots of ores of the 
precious and base metals, and of alloys, slags, mattes, etc. 

In order to inaugurate the proposed course, the Trustees as- 
signed for this purpose the north end of the basement of the 
new building on Fourth Avenue, then in process of erection. 
The portion set apart is connected with the assay laboratory in 
the 50th Street building by a substantial staircase, and is "L" 
shaped. The main room is 24x29 feet, the extension 17x17 
feet, and the distance from floor to ceiling, 14 feet. 

An appropriation of $1,500, since increased to $1,850, was 
made for the purpose of placing in position the new plant, and 
practically establishing the proposed system of instruction, much 
of the machinery necessary having been promised, or already 
donated by manufacturers and friends of the School. 



The Department as it now stands consists of: 

I. Ore sampling and testing works, fitted up with necessary 
power, crushing, pulverizing, amalgamating and concentrating 
machinery, leaching tubs, etc. 

II. Furnace room, containing furnaces for assaying and test- 
ing Gold, Silver, Lead, Iron, and other ores. 

III. Desk room, where each student is provided with the 
necessary conveniences for sampling, weighing and mixing ores 
fluxes, etc. 



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ORE TESTING WORKS. 227 

IV. Room for testing Silver alloys volu metrically. Weigh 
room, containing balances for weighing Gold and Silver, and 
cellar for storing ores and supplies. 

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The machinery in position is as follows: 
Power. — One fifteen-horse power engine which occupies 
about 22x50 inches of floor space, and one two-horse power en- 




gine, both donated by the Noteman Rotary Engine and Pump 
Company, of Toledo, Ohio. 

Figure 1 represents the large, and Figure 2 the small en- 
gine. They are run by steam from the boilers in the centre of 



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22S THE QUARTERLY. 

the College block. The large engine is employed for running 
the stamps and general work ; the small engine for driving a 
small pulverizer used in preparing assay samples. 

CRUSHING. — Three crushers, one large, (4x6 jaw), for pre- 
paring ore for the stamps, capable of crushing one ton per hour, 
donated by the Beckett & McDowell Manufacturing Co. {See 



Figure 3.) One small crusher, receiving capacity 2x4 inches, 
for sizing preparatory to concentrating tests, known as the Bu- 
chanan sectional crusher, manufactured by M. Hoagland, of 
Rockaway, New Jersey. Figure 4 shows the construction of 
this crusher, the letters indicating the essential parts of the ma- 
chine. One old style Blake crusher for the reduction of small 
samples for assay, and run by hand. 



PULVERIZING. — Small Buchanan High Speed Rolls, 8 inch 
diameter, and 4 inch face, as shown in Figure 5, manufactured 
and donated by M. Hoagland, and designed to receive the 
crushed ore from the Buchanan crusher above mentioned, being 
set and run in connection with the same. 

One Morey Pulverizer, set to receive the ore from the same 
crusher that supplies the stamps, and used for wet pulverization. 



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ORE TESTING WORKS. «o 



One Hendrie & Bolthoff Pulverizer with steel grinding sur- 
faces (see Figure 6). The machine is the same as employed in 
most of the Sampling Works in the West, for preparing assay 
samples. It is run with a 24 inch pulley, by the little two-horse 
power rotary engine before mentioned, at the rate of 250 revo- 
lutions per minute. It is a gift from Mr. William C. Hendrie, 
of Denver, Colorado. 

MILLING. — A three Stamp Mill with wooden frame, neces- 
sary copper inside and outside plates, etc., complete, built by 
Messrs. Fraser & Chalmers, and similar to the one shown in Fig. 
7. This mill is placed to receive the ore from the crusher, and 
high enough to give sufficient fall for the tailings to pass directly 
from the plate on to the concentrators. For pan amalgamation 



there is a 30 inch combination pan and 4 foot settler with neces- 
sary amalgam outfit, and settling tanks for tailings. The pan and 
settler are of the most improved pattern and are set for practical 
work, the ore passing directly from the pan to the settler and 
thence to the settling tanks. The general construction of both is 
shown in Figures 8 and 9. 

Concentrating. — One Frue Vanner, half the full size, pro- 
cured for the school by Mr. Walter McDermott. 

One Golden Gate Concentrator (Now being constructed), 
from Mr. D. U. Jennings. 

One of Wendt's Patent Jigs, given by the inventor. 



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23° THE QUARTERLY. 

The Frue and Golden Gate Concentrator are to receive the 
tailings from the Stamp Mill Plates. Figures 10 and 1 1 show 
the general appearance and construction of these machines. 

The Wendt Jig is set separately, and is designed for special 
jigging tests of ore previously sized and prepared by passing 



through the Buchanan Crusher and Rolls. Figure 12 gives a 
side view of the Jig and settling tubs for tailings. 

SAMPLING. — In addition to the necessary crushing, and pul- 
verizing apparatus, large and small grinding plates (Figure 
1 3), sizing sieves and samplers have been provided, so that large 
samples can be impartially reduced to the necessary size for as- 
say work. 



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ORE TESTING WORKS. 231 

Box Sieves {Figure 14), which prevent loss, are employed 

for the preparation of the final sample. 



LEACHING. — Space has been left for a leaching outfit, which 
is being placed in position, and is to be used for treating ore in 



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a 3 i THE QUARTERLY. 

connection with a small reverberatory, roasting and chloridizing 
furnace, so that tests on at least 100 pounds of ore can be made 
at a time. 

The general arrangement of the whole plant is, as far as pos- 
sible, with special reference to continuous work, the ore passing 
from the Crusher to the Stamps, thence to the plates, pan or 



concentrating machinery, so that the system shall be represen- 
tative of what is done on a large scale. Plates I. and II. repre- 
sent the ore-testing works a-> they now stand. Plate I. shows 
the south end of the works, with the Beckett & McDowell 
Crusher arranged to feed to the Stamp Mill or Morey Pulverizer. 
the Frue Vanner, beside which the Golden Gate Concentrator 
is to be placed, the pan, settler and settling tank. Plate II. 



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ORE TESTING WORKS. 233 

gives a view of the north end, or main portion of the works, 
with the Frue Vanner and the settling tanks; in the centre, the 
pan and settler ; on the left, crusher and rolls, pulverizing plate, 
etc.; and on the right, the large and small engine, also the jig. 



In the furnace room, in the 50th Street building, a small re- 
verberatory furnace will replace some of the old furnaces, and 
the number of scorification and cupellation furnaces have been 




increased, and the arrangement improved for rapid work and 
better ventilation. 



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234 THE QUARTERLY. 

In connection with the assay of Silver alloys, the new volu- 
metric apparatus devised by Mr. Patterson DuBois, of the United 
States Mint, has been introduced. The general construction of 



H* 14. 

this apparatus is such that neatness, dispatch, and great accur- 
acy are attained. 

Other changes have been made, but as they do not effect 
the general arrangement of the Department and are of less im- 
portance, a description of them is unnecessary. 

In following out the course of instruction, after giving the 
necessary lectures and preliminary work in the laboratory, the 
students are divided into sections of not more than ten men each, 
who work under the immediate instruction of the officer in charge 
of the Department, personally running and using all the different 
machines, furnaces, etc. Lots of, say, IOO to IOOO pounds of 
ore are given out to each section, and the students are required 
to throughly sample and assay the same, and from the assay re- 
sults and mineral characteristics of the ore, determine upon a 
method of treatment, keeping in view always that the process 
shall be practical. They then treat the ore by the method se- 
lected, making all necessary assays from samples drawn during 
treatment, to check the work and determine the applicability of 
the process adopted. The trials made will necessarily depend 
upon the nature of the ores treated, but the machinery and ap- 
pliances described in the foregoing pages are sufficient to enable 
the student to make milling, pan amalgamation, sizing, concen- 
trating, roasting, leaching, and small smelting tests. Also to 
make comparative tests, employing the different methods of con- 
centrating. To illustrate the plan of working, say the ore is one 
which should be concentrated. The student must concentrate it 
by different methods, assay the concentrates, middlings and 
tailings, and prepare a clear statement as to the process and the 
results, giving an opinion founded upon the facts observed as to 
how the ore should be worked, and making his report in writing 
in a business-like and practical manner. 



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ORE TESTING WORKS. 235 

It is evident from the foregoing- that the Trustees have in- 
stituted a system of practical instruction, which should prove of 
immense benefit to the Metallurgical and Engineering student, 
placing in position in the neighborhood of $5,000 worth of val- 
uable machinery at a reduced cost to the College, which is use- 
ful not only in preparing samples and testing ores, but in famil- 
iarizing the student with the machines themselves, thus illustra- 
ting the descriptions given him in his ore-dressing and metallur- 
gical lectures. Of course, it will be necessary to keep the plant 
in good running order, and to make additions and changes, such as 
the introduction of new machines from time to time, to keep the 
works on a par with others of a similar nature, and maintain 
their practical value. 

The recent change of the course of assaying from the fourth 
year to the second and third years, thus doubling up the classes 
during the present winter, and making instead of 40 to 50 stu- 
dents, a total of 90 students in the Assay Department, has ren- 
dered it difficult to give this year the full course outlined, and 
has made the duties of the officers in charge of the Department 
exceedingly arduous ; but good work has, and it is hoped, can be 
done. In any event, the practice obtained, combined with sum- 
mer travel and field work, cannot fail to enlarge the views of the 
student, and give him a more practical insight into the testing 
of the ores of the precious metals. 



THE RELATION OF ALUMINIC AND FERRIC SALTS 
TO PLANT LIFE 

BY PROF. PETER T. AUSTEN, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

The action of minute amounts of substances in aiding plant 
life has been known for a considerable time. Liebig drew fre- 
quent attention to the effect of small amounts of chlorides, etc., 
in decomposing phosphates, and others have stated that the 
mineral salts in solution helped the filtration of water by the 
soil. Attention has been directed, however, chiefly to the re- 
moval of suspended matters, rather than the precipitation of or- 
ganic substances. 



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a 3 6 THE QUARTERLY. 

The study of the relation of plant life to its foods and wastes 
is, indeed, interesting, and brings out vividly the adaptations 
here involved. The animal is an analytic being, and has to have 
its food prepared for it. It cannot live on the elements, but 
must have its nutriment worked up into starch, protein, and 
other highly constituted compounds. In the midst of infinite 
amounts of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and all the elements of its 
food, the animal would still starve, unless the plant were present 
to collect, by means of its synthetic processes, these various sub- 
stances, and prepare from them the food necessary to animal 
life. The animal eats the products of the plant, fruits, seeds, 
leaves, or it may be other animals, and by its analytic processes 
breaks them up into simple substances, which pass again into 
the ceaseless circulation of matter, to be again synthetized by 
plants and again analysed by animals. 

But the animal has the power of locomotion, and it goes 
where it will, seeking its food where it finds it the best, or the 
most easily, and settling in the environment most suitable to it 
The plant, however, is stationary. 1 It cannot move about and 
seek its nutriment, hence nature brings food to it. The rain falls 
on the mountains and washes them down, undermines them, 
planes them with glaciers, grinds them with rocks, cracks 
them with ice, pulverizes the pieces by attrition, and bears the 
fine mineral matters down to the fertile plains. The water 
runs to the ocean, evaporates and falls again as rain, thus keep- 
ing up the continual cycle. Against the mountains, water acts 
like a huge grindstone, which nature keeps continually in mo- 
tion. The rain, falling through the air, dissolves carbonic acid, 
and the water thus acidified dissolves vast amounts of lime, 2 and 
other valuable plant foods, and carries them to the plant 
Strangely, too, the plant, when it dies and rots, gives off car- 
bonic and other organic acids, and these dissolving in the water 
rob the rocks of fresh supplies of mineral food, which the ever- 
circulating and percolating currents of water bring to the plants' 
progeny, so that it may be said, plants die that others may live. 

1. These are broad definitions. I am aware that some of the lower forms of 
plant life have the power of motion, and that certain species of animals have not 
the power to move out of their em 

2. The Khine carries into the 
lions of oysters. 



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ALUM/NIC AND FERRIC SALTS. 237 

This continual flow of water on and in the earth bears the 
sa'me relation to the earth that the blood does to an animal. It 
carries the nutriment in solution, and bears away the effete mat- 
ters and products of life. It seems to be a law, not yet well 
recognized, that every organized being, plant or animal, will die 
unless the products of its life are well removed. In other 
words, both plants and animals are continually producing the 
means of their own death, and are more or less dependant (the 
former almost entirely) on natural laws for the removal of the 
danger.' The result of life is death. 

The soil also has its part to carry out As the water con- 
taining the food of the plant percolates through it, the phos- 
phates are seized on and bound securely within a few inches of 
the surface,.so vigilant are the oxides of iron and aluminum to 
the wants of the plant But little further does the potash go, 
when it is imprisoned and held for future use. Only small 
amounts of these substances fall in the rain, and hence must 
come by moving water, so the soil holds them tightly. In the 
rain come down continually nitrogen compounds, but the soil 
affords little obstruction to them, for more will come, and their 
accumulation might do harm in forcing leaf growth. To the 
mineral substances which the plant does not require, the soil 
gives a free pass, and they go their way unmolested. 

In this relation the peculiar power of aluminic and ferric salts 
to aid the clarification of water seems to come into play. A 
short time since I examined, with Prof. F. A. Wilber, the effect 
of alum in purifying water, 1 the clarifying power of which has 
been known for many years. Jeunet 2 states that the addition 
of 0.4 grms. to a litre of water will cause the impurities to settle 
in from seven to seventeen minutes. We found, however, that 
a much smaller amount of alum would cause precipitation and 
clarification. The New Brunswick city water contains in the 
winter considerable clayey matters, which are very fine, and 
cannot be removed either by settling or filtering through paper. 
The suspended matter in water is frequently in an astonishingly 
fine state of division. The water of the river Rhine, at Bonn, 

I. The full investigation will be found in the Report of the State Geological 
Survey of New Jersey for 1884. 

a. Moniteur Scientifique, 1865, 1007. 



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a38 THE QUARTERLY. 

for example, does not settle in four months, and cannot be 
cleared by filtration. 

The addition of 0.4 grms of alum did not cause the precipi- 
tation of the suspended matters in seventeen minutes, as stated 
by Jeunet, but after ten to twelve hours a considerable amount 
of a voluminous precipitate was formed, and the supernatant 
liquid became perfectly clear. Following the matter up, it was 
found that this coagulation took place when only 0.02 grams of 
alum were added to a litre of water (1.6 grains to the gallon). 
Still, smaller amounts of alum caused the precipitation, but 
a greater time was required. 0.02 of a gram of alum seemed, 
however, to be about the limit of action of the alum to produce 
a clear filtration of this particular water. Water treated with 
this amount can be at once filtered, and will run through clear 
and brilliant Smaller amounts will effect a clarification by fil- 
tration, but the water must be allowed to stand some time before 
filtering. In the filtered water (treated with 0.02 gram alum) no 
further precipitation was produced by the addition of more alum, 
and no appreciable traces of alumina could be detected in the 
water thus purified. The alum acts, without doubt, as suggested 
by Jeunet, by the formation of a basic aluminic sulphate which 
envelopes the suspended matters and coagulates the organic sub- 
stances, carrying them down together. The sulphuric acid, set 
free in the formation of the basic aluminic sulphate, attacks the 
calcium carbonate, etc., which are always present, forming sul- 
phates, and setting carbonic acid free. Ferric salts appear to be 
about as active as alum, but we have not yet determined the 
limit of their action with exactness. 

A number of salts were tested to determine this effect in 
causing the clarification of water by filtration, but as yet none 
have been found to equal in efficiency aluminic and ferric salts. 
To determine the nature of the precipitated matter, fifty liters of 
New Brunswick hydrant water were precipitated by adding two 
grams of alum. The whole was allowed to stand two days, then 
carefully siphoned off, and the slimy precipitate brought on a 
filter, dried and analysed. It gives : — 

Carbon 16.53 P« "*M- 

Hydrogen 2.02 " 

Nitrogen 0.76 " 



,»GoogIe 



ALUMINIC AND FERRIC SALTS. 239 

The ash contained silica, phosphoric acid, alumina, and oxide 
of iron, the latter in considerable amount. 

The minute amount of alum that produces the precipitation 
is remarkable. 0.02 grams to a liter is 0.002%. As it is the 
aluminic sulphate beyond all doubt which acts as the precipi- 
tant, and as alum contains 36.1% of aluminic sulphate, the 
amount of the latter causing the clarification of a liter of water is 
0.0072 grams; or referred to the weight of the water 0.00072% ; 
in grains per gallon, 0.57. This result, like many others 
which have been obtained in late years, shows what impor- 
tant parts may be played by minute traces of elements. We 
may yet find that the wide distribution of titanium, 1 zirconium, 2 
yttrium 3 and copper, 4 have a far deeper meaning than we can at 
present ascribe to them. 

In all waters which percolate through the soil, there are found 
small amounts of iron and aluminium oxides. It is fair to infer that 
the organic acids which are formed by the decomposition of plants 
act slightly on the ferric and aluminic compounds 5 in the soil, and 
thus impregnate the water with small amounts of soluble salts of 
these metals. The action of these substances would be to cause 
a precipitation of the* organic matter held in solution, and the 
coagulation of the suspended inorganic -matters, and to effect 
their removal on percolation through the soil. The substances 
thus precipitated are of high value as plant food. The nitrogen 
is in a most available state, and the phosphoric acid is also in an 
easily assimilable condition. The large amount of carbonaceous 
matter will afford the best nutriment to the many fermentations 
which take place in the soil, and thus establish suitable nidi for 
the bacterial life so necessary to the opening up of the land. 

Thus we see that when the soil is unable directly to bind the 
plant nutriment, the acid products of the death of the plant, and 
probably also of the bacterial fermentations, supply agents 

t. Id soil, and in the ashes of coal plants. 

3. In lime. — Crookes' Chem. Nnus, 49, 159. et seq. 

4. In wheat and the human liver. 

5. The oxides of iron and aluminium which are dissolved by the carbonic acid 
in water, would doubtless be decomposed by the action of organic acids to form 
aluminic and ferric salts. 



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24° THE QUARTERLY. 

which precipitate these plant foods in such a state that mere 
mechanical nitration will remove them, and leave them stored up 
for future use by the plant. Here again plant life serves the 
animal, for rain falling on the fields and washing into the earth 
in an impure state percolates through the soil, is coagulated and 
filtered to appear again as sparkling spring water, pure and 
wholesome, Nature's Nectar. 1 

Chemical Laboratory of Rutgers College. 



PARTING GOLD AND SILVER BY MEANS OF IRON 
AT LAUTENTHAL. 

BY T. EGLESTON, PH.D. 

Having had occasion in the year 1882 to visit the works at 
Lautenthal, in the Hartz Mountains, where the silver and gold, 
which are produced in the Hartz, are parted, I have thought it 
would be of interest to describe them, as the process is exceed- 
ingly interesting and the plant a very simple one. At the time 
of my visit they were regularly parting 1500 kilos of silver 
bullion per week, which contained quite a large quantity of gold, 
the proportion being variable according to the quantity of ores 
from this country which were purchased for treatment. The 
works are situated in a building used only for that purpose, 
which is divided into three rooms. In the first of these the solu- 
tion and precipitation are effected. In the second the mother 
liquors are treated; in the third the gold and silver produced are 
prepared for market. The legend below gives the full descrip- 
tion of this plan. 3 

A and B. Cast iron solution pots. 

C. Lead vat for weak acid solution. 

I. The remarkable action of alum in aiding the, filtration is well shown in the 
large Hyatt filters, now in use in many manufacturing establishments. 

a. In the year 18B0 I translated an article by B. Rosing for the Director of the U . 
S. Mint, to whom I am indebted for the use of the plates made for that article. ! 
have also freely Used the information contained in it either to supplement or con- 
firm my Own notes taken in the works at Lautenthal. 



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PARTING GOLD AND SILVER. 241 

D. Lead steam vat for treating the liquors from R. 

d. Launder for draining N and S. 

e. Chimney vent for the escape of the acid fumes from A 

and B. 

f. Space covered with lead for the settlings from the vat D 
and the tank N. 

g. Launder for carrying off the liquid from H. 

H. Wooden vat lined with lead for treating the silver sul- 
phates. 

i. Chimney vent for carrying off the acid fumes from P. 

K. Wooden tank lined with lead for the wash waters contain- 
ing gold and silver. 

k. Launder with partitions for settling the liquors from H. 

M. Copper vessel for cleaning the silver sulphate. 

N. Vats for crystallizing the iron sulphate. 

o. Steam pipe for heating the liquors in T. 

P. Cast-iron pot for treating the gold residues. 

p. Injector for raising the liquors from R into D. 

Q. Iron boiler for heating water. 

R. Basin for settling the liquors from H and K. 

S. Vat lined with lead for draining the iron-sulphate crystals. 

T. Lead vat for treating the insoluble residues from A and B. 

U. Muffle for driving the water out of the silver cake. 

u. Sheet iron chimney of the muffle. 

V. Furnace for melting the silver, 

v. Place in the vat H to which the silver sulphate is drawn. 

W. Furnace for melting the gold. 

X. Heated cast iron plate on which the silver is cast. 

Y. Table for the hydraulic press. 

Z. Bin for silver slags and rich residues. 

z. Bin for broken crucibles. 

The process is composed of five different operations. 

1. Solution of the silver in sulphuric acid. 

2. Reduction of the silver sulphate by means of iron. 

3. Purifying the silver and melting it into ingots. 

4. Treatment of the sulphuric liquors. 

5. Purifying the gold and melting it into ingots. 

I. Solution of the Silver in Sulphuric Acid. 
The metal is first inquartated and granulated. It is then 
placed in one of the cast-iron kettles, A or B, arranged as shown 



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*4* THE QUARTERLY. 

in Plate I, Fig. I. The bottoms of the kettles, which are some- 
what thicker than the sides, are heated directly by the fire. The 
ash pit is very much inclined and is connected with the vat, S, 
Plate 2, Fig. 2, set in the floor of the works to catch the contents 
of the pot when it breaks. The charge is from 400 to 500 kilos 
of silver, which is the usual work for a day. This is treated 
with twice its weigh of sulphuric acid at 66° B. The charge is 
placed in the pots in the evening. If it is to be 400 kilos, which 
is the usual charge, 600 kilos of the strong acid, which has been 
used to treat the gold residues, diluted to its proper gravity with 
200 kilos of the weak acid from the pot C, shown in Plate I, is put 
poured over it and left until the next morning. Only 0.9 part of 
acid are required to dissolve the silver, but it is necessary that the 
silver should not only be dissolved, but that the silver sulphate 
should remain in solution, so that a great excess of acid must be 
used. This has no inconvenience unless the acid is made too 
dilute, in which case the iron of the pots is attacked and the 
residues make the gold residues impure. The use of dilute 
acids also somewhat lengthens the process. The pots are 
covered with a cast-iron cover which fits tight. In this, a lead 
pipe is fitted, which enters the flue at c, and carries off the 
sulphurous vapors. The silver is left over night with the acid on 
it. In the morning a fire is kindled under the pots. A gentle 
fire is kept up in order to prevent the too energetic boiling 
of the acid. If for any reason it commences to foam, the acid 
must be cooled down. This is generally done with the acid 
taken from the pot C. The sulphuric acid attacks the silver and 
dissolves it. The reaction which takes place is represented by 
the formula 

2Ag+2H 2 S04=Ag2S04+S02+2H 2 0. 

Any particles of the silver sulphate which may be carried 
off in the vaporized acid are for the most part caught in the soot 
in which the acid condenses. When the flues are cleaned the 
soot is washed in the wash-kettle, M, and most of the silver sul- 
phate recovered. When most of the metal is dissolved, which 
takes from ten to twelve hours, the hot liquor is ladled out with 
copper ladles o. 1 8 m. in diameter and o. 1 o m. deep, into a lead- 
lined vat, and poured from thence into the second vessel, E, 
where it is mixed either with water or the weak solution from 
the succeeding processes, or both, until it is at 6o° B, and is al- 

ntrod vGoO^lc 



PARTING GOLD AND SILVER. 243 

lowed to remain there for two hours. The weakening and cool- 
ing of the solution causes the silver sulphate to crystallize out in 
the bottom of the vessel. When this is complete, which can be 
easily seen, the supernatant weak acid is ladled out to the lead- 
lined vat, C, and is again used from there to mix with the 
stronger acid. 

The solution in the pot, .-4, is made twice; the accumulating gold 
residue is then treated. At first the silver solution was trans- 
ferred immediately from A to H, and then allowed to crystallize, 
but this practice had to be abandoned, for the very large amount 
of free acid contained in the sulphate, produced with the iron 
such very large quantities of hydrogen, that not only were the 
workmen driven out of the works by it, but very perceptible 
quantities of silver were lost. By the method now used, most 
of the free acid is separated before the silver sulphate is trans- 
ferred, and this inconvenience no longer exists. 
II. Reduction of the Silver Sulphate by Means of 
Iron. 

The mass of yellowish crystals of silver sulphate in the bot- 
tom of the pot B, freed as much as possible from acid, are trans- 
ferred with ladles into cylindrical copper vessels 0.32 m. in diam- 
eter and 0.30 m. deep, to be treated in the lead-lined vat, H. 
There are two of these tanks together, //'and K, Plate 1 and Fig. 
3, Plate 2. They are exactly alike, being 2.70 m. long by 1.10 
m. wide and 0.55 m. deep. The lead is turned over the top of 
the sides, which are 0.25 m. thick. The bottom of each is inclined, 
being o. 10 m. lower in the central than at the opposite end. 

The silver sulphate placed on the bottom is covered with wa- 
ter, and pieces of very thin and pure scrap iron, the residue from 
the manufacture of buttons, are then placed in it The sul- 
phuric acid goes to the iron and forms iron sulphate, while the 
silver becomes metallic. The iron is added very gradually, care 
being taken not to make a fresh addition before that previously 
put in has been dissolved. During the whole time that the iron 
is being added, the material in the vat must be carefully stirred 
with the wooden stirrers, Fig. 4, in order to break up any lumps 
of silver sulphate, and to bring the iron into intimate contact with 
it Towards the close, when nearly all of the sulphate is re- 
duced to silver, the iron must be added with great care, so as 



^Google 



244 THE QUARTERLY. 

not to have an excess of it. Towards the last the strips are 
hung in, so as to be certain not to have an excess of iron, which 
would make the silver impure and increase the quantity of slag 
in the melting, and consequently the loss. In order to ascertain 
when the whole of the silver sulphate has been reduced, the 
solution is tested with a strip of copper or a solution of salt. 

If for any reason there is an excess of iron, a little copper 
sulphate is added, which throws the copper down, forming iron 
sulphate. This copper goes into the stiver, but it is very small 
in quantity, and no attention is paid to it, as a little copper in 
the silver does no harm. When the decomposition of the sul- 
phate is complete, the metallic silver is at the bottom of the 
tank with iron sulphate above it. The time usually required 
to finish the decomposition is from two to three hours- The fine 
silver is then drawn to the high side, v, of the vat The iron 
sulphate solution is drawn off with a lead syphon, Fig. 5, into 
the launder, g, which connects with the vat, R, sunk below the 
level of the floor. To be sure that no particles of silver are car- 
ried off by the suction, a cloth is tied over the mouth of the fun- 
nel-shaped end syphon, which is twice the diameter of the tube, 
and this is inserted in a lead saucer, Fig. 6, in which there are 
six holes, which is placed on the bottom of the tank, H, By 
this means but little of the silver is carried over. 

The tank, K, was originally intended for the same purpose 
as H, but as in all ordinary times a single vat is all that is re- 
quired to treat the silver sulphate, it is now used exclusively to 
collect all the wash liquors containing gold and silver. After 
they have remained there sufficiently long to become settled, 
they are used in H or B, as occasion may require. The set- 
dings in K, when they have accumulated sufficiently, are re- 
duced with iron and are added to the silver in the tank, H. 

3. Purifying the Silver and Melting it into Ingots. 

The silver remains on the high side of the vat at v, in the 
shape of a grayish powder. It is first washed with hot water to 
remove any iron sulphate adhering to it and then treated on a 
filter M, Fig. 7, made of two basins, one inside of the other. 
The lower one is made of copper, and is filled with holes ; over 
the bottom of this vessel a linen cloth is placed. The upper 
one, which is exactly like the lower and fits into it, is made of 



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PARTING GOLD AND SILVER. 245 

lead 0.004 ***• thick, and is pierced with holes 0.015 m. in diam- 
eter. These two are placed together. The under one has two 
handles by which to lift them. They are placed in a wooden 
frame over a lead-lined vessel, q. 

The washed silver from H is placed in the upper vessel and 
carefully treated with hot water from the boiler, Q, until neither 
litmus nor ferrocyanide of potassium gives any reaction with the 
wash water. All of this water is collected in the lead vessel be- 
low. So long as it ccntains any silver it is conducted by a lead- 
lined launder 0.16 m. wide and 0.15 V. deep and 3 m, long 
into the vat K. When the silver is entirely sweet, it is placed in 
the hydraulic press, Fig. 8. This is arranged on the table, Y. 
The press consists of a hollow circular piece m, placed on a cast 
iron table, f, which moves up and down on a piston. The circular 
piece, m, is lowered and the silver put in it ; it is then raised 
against the plunger, E ; during this time water carrying fine par- 
ticles of silver flows out. These are caught by a leather launder 
and conducted into a vessel placed underneath the table, where 
the silver is allowed to settle. When the compression is complete 
the circular part, m, is caught by the hook, k, which is made to slip 
under a projection made for the purpose and holds it up with 
the silver cake in it The table, f, is now let down and the pan, 
r, put upon it. It is again raised. The sides of the pan, strik- 
ing the cylinder, raise it up so that the silver cake drops into the 
pan below and can be removed when the table,/, is lowered. The 
cake of stiver is cylindrical and about 0.12 high. It is broken 
up with a chisel and hammer. The silver still contains some 
moisture. In order to remove it, it is heated to redness in a 
round retort, U, Plate 1, which connects with a sheet iron chim- 
ney, », 1.8 m. high. The metal is then melted with a small 
quantity of nitre to prevent sprouting on cooling in graphite cru- 
cibles, Fig. 13 a. 0.38 tn. in diameter, 0.5 m. high, and holding 
between four and five hundred kilos, in a shaft furnace with 
two tuyeres, V. It is poured into cast-iron molds, Fig. II, 
which are heated, and protected with a cast-iron cover and are 
placed on the heated cast-iron plate, -V, next the furnace. The 
silver is 995 to 996 fine. The ingots weigh about 75 kilos 
each and are sold in this shape, their weight, fineness and value 
being stamped on them. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



2 4 6 the quarterly. 

4. Treatment of the Sulphuric Liquors. 
The liquid iron sulphate from the vat, H, passes from the 
launder, g, to the trough, k, in which there are eight compart- 
ments so divided that the liquid overflows from one to the other 
in order to facilitate the settling of the silver. The last one of 
these compartments is filled with grains of metallic lead. This 
compartment overflows into the large reservoir, R. From here 
it is raised by means of the steam injector, p, into the lead lined 
vat, D. Here it is boiled with steam. If on trial the liquor is 
found to be very acid, it is saturated with the thin iron plates, 
the same which are used in the vat, H, to precipitate the silver. 
When the evaporation has concentrated the liquor sufficiently, it 
is transferred to the two lead lined vats, N. The green vitriol 
crystallizes out on the sides on cooling. These crystals are re- 
moved and placed in the wooden vat lined with lead, 5, to drain. 
The mother liquor which is still attached to them runs into the 
launder, d, and is carried back to the tank, R. The crystals are 
selected by their size for sale, being mixed with those that are 
produced at Goslar. Those which are too small to be sold are 
either recrystallized or are kept at the works and are used to pre- 
cipitate the gold. When the crystals have been removed from N, 
the contents of the vats are allowed to run to waste. Extremely 
small quantities of silver remain in the iron solution. The small 
quantities of it and of the copper sometimes used to precipitate 
the last traces of silver and which is thrown down by the iron, are 
collected either in the tanks, N, or the steam vat, D. All of these 
settlings are collected together on the lead floor, g, beside the 
crystallization tanks, and are added to the charge of ores, which 
are smelted in the other parts of the works. 
5. Purifying the Gold and Melting it into Ingots. 

All the material insoluble in sulphuric acid settles at the bot- 
tom of the solution pot, A. It is generally allowed to remain 
there for two charges only; sometimes, however, the residues of 
four charges are allowed to accumulate. The residue, which is 
gold, and any other insoluble substances, will then weigh from 
6.5 to 7 kilos. It is boiled with fresh acid at 66° B. It is then 
allowed to cool and is transferred in cylindrical copper vessels to 
the lead-lined vat, 7", Fig. 9, which is about 1 m. square and 
O.50 m. deep, where it is boiled with steam introduced into it by 



^Google 



PARTING GOLD AND SILVER. 247 

pipe a, in order to separate any remaining traces of the lead, 
or silver sulphates and of the salts of iron and copper insoluble 
in concentrated acids. In order to prevent any loss of gold 
from spilling, in the transfer, a sheet of lead is put under the 
vessel used to transfer it. It is boiled until the gold is red and 
looks very much like ground, burned coffee. At first it was 
washed several times with hot water taken from the boiler, Q, 
but the steam does the work much better. 

The liquor from the vat, T, is transferred by means of a glass 
syphon into a porcelain vessel, where it remains sufficiently long 
to allow the gold particles which are exceedingly fine, to settle, 
and is then poured into the vat, K. In order to be sure of the 
separation of any silver which may still remain in the gold in 
the vat, T, the gold is put into a porcelain vessel where it is 
covered with sulphuric acid at 66° B, and placed in the boiler, P t 
where it is heated and then allowed to cool. This is repeated sev- 
eral times. When no reaction for silver is detected, the gold is 
sweetened. The liquor is then transferred. The same arrangement 
is made to catch the gold in case of a crack in the boiler, as is 
made in the case of A and B. All the acid which is volatilized 
is carried into the chimney by the opening, *'. All the acid used, 
as it contains some very finely-divided gold, is kept to be used 
in the solution of the silver. 

The gold is about 920 fine. As it is not entirely fine, it is 
put into the covered porcelain vessels, Fig. 10, a, and treated on 
the sand-bath with aqua regia. It dissolves very slowly, as the 
vessel is only slightly heated. The gold contains a little graphite 
from the pots and a little silver. The silver is precipitated by 
the chlorine of the aqua regia. It contains some gold which is 
separated by several boilings with nitre. It is decomposed by 
iron to which some sulphuric acid is added. The silver obtained 
after it is sweetened is melted in a crucible and added to the 
silver in the pot, A. 

The geld goes into solution according to the following for- 
mula: 

Au + HN0 3 +3HCl=Au CI3+NO+2H2O 

The silver chloride is allowed time to settle and the liquid is 
drawn off with a glass syphon into a porcelain vessel, Fig. 10, b. 
It is again allowed to settle and is again drawn back into the 



^Google 



348 THE QUARTERLY. 

first vessel and so on until it is entirely clear. The residues are 
placed on a filter and washed with aqua regia. The clear liquid 
is, if necessary, concentrated under a hood with a very gentle 
heat and the gold precipitated with iron sulphate. The reaction 
which takes place is represented by the formula : 

2AuCI 3 +6FeS0 4 =2Au+Fe2 Cl 6 +2Fe2(S0 4 )3. - 

Where no more gold remains in solution an excess of the iron 
sulphate causes a considerable evolution of gas from the de- 
composition of the nitric acid. The liquid is decanted and 
clarified in a porcelain vessel, I, Fig. 13, c* when all the gold is 
separated, it is thrown away. The gold is repeatedly washed 
with hot water. When ammonia no longer gives a reaction for 
iron it is dried on the sand-bath and melted down in Hessian 
crucibles. Fig 13, b., in the two tuyer furnace, W, under a 
cover of potash and flour, to pieces weighing about y£ kilo. 
These are melted in the same furnace in a graphite cru- 
cible, Fig. 13, c, and cast in a warmed iron mold, Fig. 12, 
which has been smeared with oil, into bars weighing 4 to 5 kilos 
and sold. The gold is 999-5 fine. 

All the crucibles are used several times except the Hessian. 
These are broken to get the gold out. AH the old and broken 
crucibles, silver slags and rich residues are collected in the vats, 
z and Z. When a sufficient quantity has accumulated they are 
stamped, washed, fluxed, and the metal added to the cupel 
when a cupellation is made. 

Cost of the Process. 

The figures given below, which are taken without alteration 
of the amounts from Mr. B. Rosing's paper, give a clear insight 
into the working of the process. 

Bullion Tkeatfd in 1876. 

From the Lautenthal works 994>5°o kilos. 

Bought from the Altenau works 5,367.000 " 

Bought from the St. Andreasberg works 5,121.500 " 

Coins purchased .315 

Total 11,483,225 kilos 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



PARTING GOLD AND SILVER. 249 

Gold and Silver Produced in 1876. 

Gold in bars 83.184 kilos. 

Sihrerinbars 1,130.861 " 

Not accounted for in the residue 9 '.431 " 

Total 11,483.335 

Iron sulphate produced 24,300 kilos. 

The process shows a gain in gold and a loss in silver as fol- 
lows: 



Amount of Metal Calculated. ' 


Fine Gold. 

KILOS. 


Fine Silvek, 


In the 994.5 kilos of silver-gold from Lautenthal. .1 


36.2850 


979-9415 


In the 5,367 kilos " " Altenau. ...' 


25-56645 


5.304.303 


In the 5,121.5 kilos ' " " St.Andreasberg 


51.90685 


5,026.7725 




0.00035 


0.169 




Total 


80.19315 


11.311.186 



Actual Product. 


Fine Gold. 
Kilos. 


Fine Silver, 


11 30S 61 kilos stamped silver bars 


83.0765 
0.2820 


11,282.353 






23.500 




Total 


333585 


11,365.852 



Gain in Gold 3.16635 

Loss in Silver 5.334 

In percentages the product was : 

Gold 103.943 

Silver .-. 09.953 

The cause of the very important gain in the product of gold 
is not so much the inaccuracy of the assays as the inexact 
method of making the calculations. 

There was used during the year : 

Coke 154 Centners. 

Coal 496 " 

Charcoal 

Faggots of Wood 

Sulphuric Acid, at 66" B 412.68 

Refuse Iron 

Copper Sulphate 



Cubic Meters. 
3.60 Centners. 



,»GoogIe 



15» THE QUARTERLY. 

There were produced per 100 kilograms of granulated silver 
parted: 

Gold in bars 0.72 kilos. 

Silver in bars g8.48 " 

Iron Sulphate iia. " 

There were used for the 100 kilos of granulated silver 
parted : 

Coke 1.34 Centners. 

Coal 4.32 „ 

Charcoal o. 16 „ 

Faggots 004 ,, 

Sulphuric Acid, at 66° B 3.60 

Refuse Iron 0.69 ,, 

Copper Sulphate 0.04 „ 

Expenses per 100 kilograms granulated silver: 

Marks. Pfennigs. 

Wages 14 78 

Material 37 86 

General Expenses as 3a 

Total 77 90 

The process is a very expeditious and simple one. The 
cost of the plant is not large nor are the operations so difficult 
that they may not be very quickly learned. The objections to 
it can all be avoided with a little care. It seemed at first as 
though the great evolution of hydrogen gas which took place 
when the iron was added to the silver sulphate when the process 
was first introduced, was a serious difficulty which could not 
readily be overcome, but this has been entirely remedied by 
bailing out the crystals from the acid so that there is but little acid 
in excess, leaving nearly all the acid to be used over again. The 
objection that was first made that the use of iron would lower 
the fineness of the metals by the introduction of foreign sub- 
stances, such as graphite, silicon, phosphorus, Sec, in the silver, 
does not hold good, for in the first place, but little foreign ma- 
terial is contained in an iron so very pure as the sheet iron 
used, and if they were there even in much greater quantity than 
now, it would make but very little difference, as they go into the 
slag when the silver is melted, or are burned, so that the metal 
is even purer than it otherwise would have been if copper had 
been used, as it generally is, while the iron is much cheaper. 



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MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS. 351 

The use of the acids which have already acted once, to bring 
down the gravity of the fresh acid is also a very great advantage 
in the process. The gold is also finer from the treatment with 
aqua regia, and precipitation* with iron chloride. All the plat- 
inum, and other platinum metals can be separated from the 
solution in aqua regia and saved. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PRACTICAL MANAGE- 
MENT OF PUBLIC WORKS.* 

BY HON. ECK.LEY B. COXE. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

When I had the honor of receiving the invitation to appear 
before you this evening I was not aware that this was anything 
more than a meeting of the Engineering Club. My remarks 
were prepared, so far as they were prepared, with the view, 
more of a practical conversation with the members than an ad- 
dress to the public. I was a student myself, and I know from 
experience what are the feelings of the young man who is pre- 
pared to enter the active pursuits of life, during the last year 
that he passes at college. I appear before you this evening as a 
traveller who has been in some foreign country which his young 
friends may wish to visit. I come not with any well-prepared 
story or book of travel, but simply to give you a few hints as to 
the dangers you may encounter, and the difficulties which you 
will have to overcome,, and how you may avoid them. 

We should all remember that life, active, useful life, life of 
industry and work, means a life of struggle; and I assure you, 
my young friends, that that to me is the only life worth living. 
The man who enters life with wealth, with all that fortune and 
family can give, and passes through it without work will never 
be a happy man. By a working man we understand a man 
who devotes himself to art, to music, to teaching, to the practi- 
cal pursuits of the world, in fact to anything that has a tendency 

•An abstract of a Lecture delivered before the Engineering Society of the School 
of Mines, February 13th, 1885. 



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25* THE QUARTERLY. 

to have him leave the world better than he found it; a man who 
can go to his grave feeling that he has deserved well of his 
country and his generation. 

As I did, and aH my friends did, no doubt most of you are 
building castles in the air ; looking forward with the hope of 
reaching certain goals ; in these attempts most of you are des- 
tined to be more or less disappointed. 

I wish to call your attention to a fact which is perhaps ap- 
preciated by the students themselves, but which is certainly to a 
large extent misunderstood by the general public. Take a 
young student, graduating with the degree of Mining, Civil, or 
Mechanical Engineer. He is not an engineer: the faculty will 
tell you, that they do not mean when they sign the diploma that 
the student is an engineer ; but that such a diploma means that 
those who receive it have studied with profit all those branches 
of physical, theoretical and applied science, which the experi- 
ence of the world has shown are necessary for any one who 
wishes to become an engineer ; an engineer in the highest sense 
of the word. But before you become a real engineer, you must 
graduate and receive your diploma in the great school of prac- 
tical experience. Many a young man enters life with a diplo- 
ma, and not understanding the fact, is surprised and astonished 
to find that in many cases he can not get as large a salary as a 
common clerk. He abandons his profession, saying, it is a de- 
lusion and a snare ; there are more engineers than are wanted, 
I can not get a situation. This is not the fact. Trained men who 
have practical experience are rare, and are prized. A student, 
finding it difficult to obtain a position, except perhaps as rodman 
or assistant, thinks he has been deceived. Now when you go out 
into life, make up your mind not to be disappointed by any such 
experience, which you are almost certain to encounter unless 
you belong to the band of supposed lucky ones who are so sit- 
uated as to obtain a good place at once, 

The practical experience of the engineer must be acquired 
at the expense of somebody. He may, by hard work, gradually 
and thoroughly work up into the foremost ranks of his profes- 
sion. He has many things to learn, many things to study, and 
one of the most important is the study of human nature, the 
study of men. In almost all engineering works the handling of 
men is an important factor in the success of the enterprise ; and 



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MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS. 353 

while I refer to it at this point, I shall speak further on of the 
great question of the management of men, of the relation between 
labor and capital, of strikes, etc., particularly at times like these 
when all industries are in a depressed condition. 

A great deal is said about theory and practice. There are 
those who do, and those who do not, believe in practical men. 
I think the difference of opinion is, to a large extent, due to the 
want of understanding of the meaning of the terms, theory and 
practice. I can not conceive of theory without practice. Theory 
is merely a true conclusion drawn from well coordinated facts. 
Theory and practice are so intertwined that without one the 
other is absolutely useless, and it is ridiculous to say that they 
do not go together. 

We have found at Drifton, that our practical foremen profit 
greatly by theory. We train our apprentices at a school, com- 
bining theory with practice, and I assure you the difference be- 
tween a boy who has grown up with a little theoretical training 
for four years, and one who has grown up in the same shop 
without such training, is marvelous. Before many years, there 
will be established throughout this land schools of theoretical 
training for practical men. When a man is put in charge of 
other men he has a great advantage from this kind of training, 
and before long public opinion will be strongly in favor of a 
thorough theoretical training for the engineer. Qf course, there 
are some who will have nothing to do with the theoretical men. 
This reminds me of a man who came and asked me to name 
some one to take charge of a large mine he owned. I recom- 
mended him to a mining engineer, but the man objected, say- 
ing, " Oh, no ! I know what a mining engineer is ! He charges 
a large fee and breaks up the company, I want a practical 
man !" On the contrary, there are those who expect too much 
of a theoretical man ; and this reminds me of a story told by 
Mr. Heller, of the firm of Heller and Brightly, of an apparently 
intelligent man who wrote to the firm, that he understood there 
was an instrument that would show where coal, metals, water, 
etc., were to be found, where the veins or seams existed, how 
they pitched, etc., and asked Mr. Heller to get him such an 
instrument. Mr. Heller wrote him that there were two such in- 
struments, and if he would send him $5, he would forward them 
to him. On receipt of the $5, Mr. Heller sent him a pick and 



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S54 THE QUARTERLY. 

shovel. This shows what the public expects sometimes from 
what they call in the West a " scientific cuss." In many cases 
you will be expected to do what you cannot do, and will be 
laughed at if you attempt to do anything practical. 

When you go out into practical life, do not expect to get 
the place of Chief Engineer of N. Y. C. & H. R. R.— you will 
have to wait awhile. If you did get it, it would be the worst 
thing for you, as you would either go crazy, or be discharged 
within a month. A doctor on graduating goes to a hospital, 
where he works for nothing and does no harm, or if he does, no 
one knows it. The same thing is true, in one sense, of the en- 
gineer. 1 would rather have a young man get a place where 
he has opportunities, and not too responsible a position, one 
■ where he would not be overburdened. Try to more than fill 
your position, and when you do that, you will have opportuni- 
ties for a better one. Men in charge of public works generally 
find it much more difficult to discover men capable of filling im- 
portant places than positions for men worthy of promotion. In 
other words, try to be worth more than your salary. When 
you have graduated from the practical school of experience, you 
may demand a high salary, and expect promotion, but until 
then be more anxious to earn your salary than to try to increase 
it. Show your ability by the work you do, rather than by 
talk. 

In the management of public works, there is one very im- 
portant matter to bear in mind, and that is this: that while it is 
important that your works should not get behind the times, you 
should not make changes for the sake of keeping every portion 
of the work abreast of all the latest and most advanced methods. 
You may not have the means to pay for such improvements, 
and consequently fail. Many enterprises have been wrecked 
in this way ; more of the capital was put into improvements 
than into making money. However, it is necessary that you 
should be posted on all improvements, and avoid getting behind 
the times. Your works need not be as good as the best, to 
pay; they should be equal to the average. I think that if we 
could only keep a record of our failures, it would be more useful 
to us than a record of our successes. One of rhe most success- 
ful industrial managers of Pennsylvania told me that when a man 
has in his works one-half of what he thinks he ought to have, 



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1 



MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS. 255 

he should be pretty well satisfied. Of course, when you hear or 
read of improvements, it is natural to say, " This is just the 
thing I want," and to put it into your works ; but after you 
have done it three or four hundred times you will probably not 
be so quick to begin. 

When any business gets into a depressed condition on ac- 
count of overproduction, we often form a pool or combination 
to keep up prices or restrict production. I don't believe in 
them. I have tried them often ; in the long run they cost more 
than they come to. 

The most important matter we have to consider is the rela- 
tion of labor to capital and the management of men. The great 
difficulty that an employer has in managing men, is to manage 
himself. He is apt to think that he knows more than all his 
men ; but though a man be educated, wise and careful, some 
one on the other side will catch him if he trips. You may 
represent your case to the men very ingeniously, and get them 
to look at it as you do, but when there are a thousand men to 
take that picture to pieces day and night, it will not take a long 
time for them to find the flaws in it, if you have deceived them, 
or misrepresented the case. You may persuade a man that he 
will make more money if he works, for example, by contract ; 
but when he works just as many hours a day, and just as many 
days a week as before, and at the end of the month he gets no 
more pay, he will not believe that you have advanced his wages; 
and he is right I have lived twenty years among my men, 
and I have never known them to go back on me when I made 
an honest bargain with them ^ when I said to them that under 
such circumstances the new arrangement is better, and under 
such circumstances it is worse. Brains are about evenly dis- 
tributed, and you will find many bright men among your labor- 
ers. Men do not want to be treated as children, patted on the 
back, fooled or coaxed, but they want justice. You will find in 
works where strict discipline and justice is enforced, the men 
are pretty well satisfied. Dissatisfaction seldom exists, to any 
great extent, in works where men believe they are justly and 
squarely dealt with. Still another thing: there should always be 
the " right of appeal." If a man is unjustly treated, there should 
be some one to go to for justice. I do not mean by this the en- 
couragement of complaints as to pay, etc., the question whether 



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i S 6 THE QUARTERLY, 

he is being paid enough for his services is not involved, but wheth- 
er he has been dealt with as he was promised. Of course, if a 
man gets $2.50 per day and deserves $3, in the long run it is 
worse for the employer than for the man, for the latter will find 
it out and leave. In Pennsylvania one of the largest companies 
has a Bureau of Complaints, and I have been told that this 
Bureau of Complaints has done more to bring about good feel- 
ing between the men and company than anything else, and a 
foreman who does gross injustice to a workman usually receives 
permission to work for somebody else. A young engineer 
should gravely consider this question of labor and capital. I 
have been studying it for twenty years. There are a great 
many people who take an interest in it, and many suppose that 
this conflict is eventually going to overwhelm the country, re- 
sulting in communism, nihilism, etc.; but where intelligent 
workmen are found, there is no communism, there is no nihil- 
ism ; these only exist where the majority of the workmen can 
neither read nor write, and are led on by unprincipled men. 
The remedy is the common school and the newspapers ; the 
more newspapers they have, the better, as thereby they have 
presented all sides of a question. They learn'that they must 
sell their labor for what it will bring. The keynote of the 
whole question is — justice. Don't give the men anything they 
are not entitled to, and don't deprive them of anything they 

One of the most uncommon things in this world is common 
sense. It is difficult to find men who can understand how to 
do a new thing, from oral instructions alone. We who have 
been educated at college, have been trained to learn things in 
this way ; but we must not expect too much of those who have 
not. It is the realization of little details that makes up success 
in life. 

Mining engineering is a great profession. Have a pride 
in your profession. Live for it as well as by it Mining, civil 
and mechanical engineering, are the basis of modern civiliza- 
tion. 

And now with regard to the temptations which beset the 
engineer. If you are told that if you make a favorable report, 
your fee will be larger, don't make a favorable report if you can 
help it Look out for a snake in the grass. Many reputations 



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J 



MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS. 257 

have been ruined in this way. Capitalists have learned the 
value of a true mining engineer. If you yield to such tempta- 
tions, you will soon, like Othello, find your occupation gone, 
for the very men who buy you will despise you. I have been a 
college student myself; I know what it is to start out with high 
hopes and meet with disappointments ; but I implore you do 
not allow yourselves to be tempted to make money quickly by 
selling yourself or your profession, for that is what it amounts to, 
if you allow money to influence your opinion. 



THE INVERSION-PROCESS APPLIED TO BEET-ROOT 
SUGARS. 

F. G. WIECHMANN, Ph.D. 

So much has been written for and against the inversion 
method of Clerget for correcting the results obtained by the 
polariscope on solutions containing optically- active invert sugar 
besides cane sugar, that, on collating the evidence brought for- 
ward by the supporters and opponents of this process, respect- 
ively, it becomes a matter of no little difficulty to form an opin- 
ion as to the value of the method. 

Of late it became necessary for me to ascertain whether-this 
process could be applied to beet-root sugars, and whether relia- 
ble results might be obtained by it To this end a number of 
experiments were undertaken, to which reference is here to be 
made. 

In all, twenty-five beet-root sugars were examined, fifteen 
of these being so-called first, ten, so-called second products. 

The experiments were in each case conducted with great 
care and exactness. 13.025 grms. of the sugar were dissolved 
(without warming) in distilled water, introduced into a 100 c. c. 
flask, lead acetate and a few drops of salt solution added, and 
the solution made up to 100 cubic centimetres with distilled 
water. 

After filtration, a direct reading was taken on part of this 
solution; the result, and the temperature at which obtained, 
noted. Fifty cubic centimetres of the solution were then poured 



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s$S THE QUARTERLY. 

into a 50-55 c.c. flask, and five cubic centimetres of pure con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid added. The flask was then placed 
on a steaming water-bath and allowed to remain for 10 minutes. 

It was then removed, cooled, and a reading of the inverted 
solution taken. If the solution had turned too dark to be used, 
a little bone-black was added, and a second filtration made be- 
fore reading. 

As the temperature exercises so great a bearing on the rotary 
power of an inverted sugar solution, the determination was in 
each instance made in a pol a ri scope- tube provided with a deli- 
cate thermometer, the bulb of which was immersed in the solu- 
tion, so that the exact temperature of the same might be 
obtained. 

The percentage value was calculated in the usual manner: 
the minus reading doubled (as the test was made on a one-half 
normal solution), and increased by one-tenth, to allow for the 5 
c.c. acid added. To the sum thus obtained was added the per- 
centage obtained by the direct reading, the result multiplied by 
200, and the product divided by 288 minus the temperature 
(degrees centigrade) at which the reading of the inverted solu- 
tion was taken. An example will more readily explain : 
Direct polarization 90.0%. 
Pol.: after Inversion — 12.7 degrees at 26.O °C, 
— 12.7X2=25.4 
V10 added = 2.54 

27.94 
Direct Pol.: added=9O.00 

1 17.94X 200=23588.0x1 
23 588.CKH- (288-0— 26.0) 
23588.00-^262=90.0^ 
A parallel set of tests was made on these sugars at the same 
time by the Reichardt and Bittmann modification of the Cler- 
get process ; that is, the clarification was brought about by the 
use of very carefully prepared bone-black only, the use of lead- 
acetate solution being entirely avoided, these chemists claiming 
the use of this reagent a fruitful source of error.* 

•Zeitschrift fUr Rubenzucker- Industrie, Oct. 18S2. 



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l 



INVERSION PROCESS. 359 

The results of these experiments are given in the following 
tables. (See next page). 

In the 25 experiments made with the Clerget process, the 
maximum difference between the direct polarization and the 
polarization after inversion is 0.9 %. This difference occurs in 
but a single instance. 

There are two instances where 0.7% is the difference, but in 
most cases the difference is 0.3% or less. 

In the set of experiments made by the Reichardt & Bitt- 
mann modification, the results are about equally good, the max- 
imum of difference being 1.0%, this figure being reached in two 
instances. 

Looking at the Clerget column of the table given, it will be 
seen that the differences are plus and minus, that is to say, some 
of the numbers are higher, others lower than the percentage 
obtained on direct polarization. 

The greater number, however, are lower than the direct 
polarization results. In the Reichardt & Bittmann column there 
are also a few instances where the results are lower, but by far 
the greater number stand higher than the direct polarization 
figures. 

While the Clerget tests were carried on, note was carefully 
made as to whether bone-black was used in addition to the lead- 
acetate, and if so, what amount. 

From these data it appears that the use of lead acetate alone 
gives results agreeing very well with those of direct polariza- 
tion, that the use of bone-black in addition to the lead acetate, 
however, tends to give lower figures ! * 

Where bone-black alone is used for clearing the solution 
(Reichardt & Bittmann's process), the values obtained are, as a 
rules, higher. 

In order to learn whether these methods give constant re- 
sults with the same sugar, six inversions were made on a second 
product beet-root sugar. 

•Since ascertaining the above, the writer finds that Scheibler (Zeitschr. d. Ver. f. 
Rttbeniucker, Industrie. 1870. 21S) has already called attention to the fact that on 
permitting a sugar solution (13.024 g- in 50 c.c.) clarified by lead-acetate, to be in 
contact for la to 24 hours with 5.5 grms. of dried bone-black, the results obtained 
on polarization were, on an average, 0.4 to 0.5 too low. 1 



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the quarterly. 
1" Products. 







CLERGET. 


Rbichardt aho Bittuann. 


N» |T_ 


DIlFCL 

Pol. 


Temp 


Inverted 
Pol. 


Hi flit- 


Temp 


LlLrtct L Inverted Differ. 
Pol. ]»™P| Pol, ! enot. 


: '1 

:|: 


« 

9« 

9« 
9S 

9« 

95 
M 
91 


; 

s 

1 


3» 


95-? 

94-9 
9S-7 

96.3 
94-9 


I! 


at 

16 


96 

94 

9* 
M 


6 ■• »«-' = 

; Li' Z' . 

6 1 =7 j 9«.o . » 

' 1 " , - ' • 

| «S 1 06.6 e, 

6 1*6 96.fi | . 


■ 



2" Products. 









| 


CLER 


GET. 


« 


■ DT A 


.» 


Br™. 


No. 


T„p 


D PoL* ,Tem P 

1 


Inrer 

Po 


ed 1 Differ- _ ' Dire 
em. T ™P Pol 


« It™, 


Pol. 


Difler- 


: 




89 


: : 


»9 


4 0.. 1 .J «9 


: : ! 


*9 


s 


«.e 


3 


"* 


94 


1 z 


1 


o ' o.c, 3 o 1 „ 


6 Hi : 


94 


5 


=.« 


s 


■!S 


9= 


>6 


9» 


. 0.0 .jaj.j , 90 


» 'S 1 


9= 


? 


o.o 


* 


.6 


»9 


4 «i 


SB 


, .., .« * 


4 rf 


«9 







8 


* 


9. 


: hi 


9° 




3 18 


9° 


« 


1.1 


9 


>6.g 


9° 


4 ' -t 


9° 


: 0.3 Irf.j 1 go 


4 *4 


9= 


« 


o.> 


'" 


" S 


" 


1 ! '♦ 


9° 


i ■ ..J ...! | J- 


" ** 


90 





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INVERSION PROCESS. 261 

The direct polarization was 89.8%. The percentages ob- 
tained by the Clerget method were 90.3, 90.O, 90.T, 90.1, 90.1, 
90.1, respectively; those yielded by the Reichardt & Bittmann 
process: 90.5, 90.2, 90.2, 89.8, 90.0, 89.8. 

Either, then, of these methods is suitable for actual use in 
the laboratory. In practice a lee-way of 1.0% will be permis- 
sible, though 0.5% should fully answer. Of forty tests made 
on as many beet-root sugars by the Clerget process, since the 
before detailed experiments, one instance occurred, where the 
difference between the polarization before and after inversion 
was 0.7% (the maximum), one of 0.5% difference, one of 0.4%, 
three of 0.3%, three of 0.2%, sixteen of 0.1%, and in fifteen 
cases the readings corresponded exactly. 

Hence, as long as a beet-root sugar, first or second product, 
shows on polarization after inversion, a percentage value differ- 
ing by not more than \.o% from the figure of direct polariza- 
tion, it may be regarded as a "correct" sugar; if this limit, 
however, be exceeded, the sugar in question should be carefully 
examined for impurities. 



THE PARTIAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF MARCH i6th. 

J. K. REES. 

Partial solar eclipses are not generally of very great impor- 
tance, and the eclipse of March 16th was no exception to the 
rule. Along the path of annularity observers saw an almost 
totally eclipsed sun, and no doubt might have made some inter- 
esting observations on the Corona. 

The observations of interest for this section of the United 
States, where the sun at the time of greatest obscuration had its 
diameter only half covered by the moon, centered in the determ- 
ination of the contact times and a spectroscopic examination for 
an atmosphere of the moon. In regard to the latter point, Prof. 
Young's observations at Princeton were negative, thus still fur- 
ther strengthening our previous ideas. 

The photographic method for determining contact-times was 
used at Washington, Amherst, &c, but in the majority of places 
the times of contact were observed with telescopes provided with 
solar eye-pieces. The results of the observations made at the 
Columbia College Observatory are given in the following table. 



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THE QUARTERLY. 



SOLAR ECLIPSE, 



Cob hect ions. 



Contact, i Contact. Contact. 



12135.0.135724.5 25140.5 +0.5I 

I Fleecy! , 

clouds, but Error of 
i with nu- quite good! P. and F. 
cleui of o bserv- Chron. on' 
ilargestand a,i , orl - ;75,' h . Me-I 

Kocuased efly spot. cul out Standard 
ini 1 view at .Time- ' 

25' nA 



1 5" 3J.o| 



Sunspots, 



Error of Error of 
■watch on watch on 
IP. and F.jP.andF. 
Chron. Chron. 



J Error of Error of 
rwatch on watch on 

1". and ¥. i'. andF. 

Chron. Chron. 



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SOLAR ECLIPSE. 



MARCH 16, 1885. 



Corrected Times. 



Contact. Contact. Contact. Contact. 



2 17 11.8 2 55 47-3' 



Parkinson & Frods- 

on 75th Meridian Mean 
Time from several 
parisons. 



2 51 34.u|i2 1730-9 3SS40.g \v el 



a 51 30.5 11 17 298 2 55 45-8 



All the instru- 
ments were sep- 

Ttae first was 

mounted within 

dome, the 

uthers upon op- 

The observers 

could not hear 

'' the recording of 

■' e by the oth- 



2 51 34.5 IZ 17 36-8 2-55 40.8 



,P. &. K., 12 15 50 
2 54 30 

Tiffany, 12 15 53 
2 54 34 



Tabulated by W. G. Bates. 

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THE QUARTERLY. 



A GREEK TUNNEL OF THE SIXTH CENTURY, B. C. 

PROF. A C. MERRIAM, Ph.D. 

AFTER relating the immortal story of Polycrates and his ring, 
and the fruitless siege of the city of Samos by the Lacedaemo- 
nians about 525 b. C, Herodotus pauses in the third book of 
his history to apologize for the space which he had given to 
Samos, and alleges as his reason that the Samians had con- 
structed three of the greatest works existing among the Greeks 
— a tunnel through a mountain 900 feet high, a mole or break- 
water in the harbor, 120 feet in depth and more than two fur- 
longs in extent, and the temple of Hera, the largest with which 
he was acquainted. The tunnel, however, excited in him the 
greatest wonder and he gives the following particular descrip- 
tion of it: 

"The tunnel, beginning from below, runs through a moun- 
tain 150 orgyice in height, and has an opening at both ends. 
The length of the tunnel is seven stadia (1294 M.), the height 
and breadth, 8 feet (2.44 M.) each way. Through its whole 
length another channel has been dug, 20 cubits deep and 3 feet 
wide, through which the water is conveyed by pipes into the 
city from a copious fountain. The engineer of the tunnel was 
Eupalinus of Megara." 

No other ancient author describes this tunnel, and its loca- 
tion in the mountain remained unknown to modern scholars 
until 1882, when the aqueduct in the city was accidentally dis- 
covered by Kyrillos, the Abbot of the neighboring cloister of 
Hagia Trias. At the depth of about six feet he unearthed some 
stone slabs, on removing which he disclosed the ancient conduit 
sunk in the rock, and running parallel to the ridge above it, or 
almost due east and west. He followed the course of this chan- 
nel westward by opening a series of pits at short intervals, till, 
as the channel approached the steep and rocky height which 
dominates the western end of the city, it turned northwards 
towards the base of the acclivity. Here it was found that the 
channel penetrated the mountain-side by a tunnel. As the only 
copious spring existing in the region adjacent to the northern 
side of the mountain was under one of three chapels lying close 



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GREEK TUNNEL. 265 

together, called the Hagiades, it was assumed that this was the 
source mentioned by Herodotus, and the Abbot conceived the 
idea that the channel might be opened throughout its whole 
length, repaired, and used for the conveyance of water to the vil- 
lage now occupying a portion of the old site of Samos. The 
governor of the island became interested in the project, and work 
was begun upon it in May with fifty men, and continued for five 
months under the direction of the Abbot. During this time the 
conduit connecting thesource with the north end of the tunnel 
was cleared out, about one-half of the tunnel itself, and several 
hundred metres of the main in the city. At this point their 
means were exhausted, the work was abandoned, and it has 
not since been resumed. During the progress of the work 
George Dennis paid a flying visit to the island and wrote a short 
account of the discovery to the London Academy, and last win- 
ter the German Archa:ological Institute of Athens sent one of 
its members, ERNST FabriCIUS, to make a detailed survey of 
the whole work. The excellent report of his investigations has 
been published in the Mittheilungen des Deutschen Arcktzolog- 
iscken Institutes su At/ten for 1884, pp. 163—192. and from this 
the following account is taken, together with the map of Samos 
and the drawings representing the various parts of the aqueduct. 
As the whole structure of the aqueduct was determined by 
the configuration of the city and its surroundings, it will be well 
to devote a few words to a survey of these features. The an- 
cient city lay for the most part on the lower ground along the 
sea, facing the south, but a part was built higher up on the 
slope, as far at least as the point where the theatre is laid down 
on the map. Advancing further up the slope, the mountain be- 
comes so steep that habitation was excluded, and it is only with 
great difficulty that one can climb to the summit, which is 228 
M. above the sea level. Here the ancient wall is reached, re- 
mains of which, especially of the towers, are still to be traced. 
Near the western extremity of the height, at tower 25, the wall 
turns to the south and descends "to the sea. The mountain, now 
called Kastro, slopes to the north from the wall, less abruptly 
than on the southern side, but is still difficult to climb. From 
the northeastern side, near a ruined chapel, a small stream will be 
seen on the map to head. Running in a northwesterly direction, 
through a ravine that skirts the foot of the declivity, it finally 



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z66 THE QUARTERLY. 

turns to the west, and at a point just north of the entrance to the 
tunnel joins a much stronger creek descending through a ravine 
from the north, and then the combined streams pass off to the 
southwest. On the left bank of the larger creek, about 400 M. 
north of the foot of the Kastro, under the chapel of St. John, is 
the copious spring mentioned by Herodotus. The water might 
have been conveyed from this source round the west end of the 
mountain into the city, but it would have been necessary to cut 
through perpendicular rocks of great height, and it would prob- 
ably have been impossible to conceal the structure from an enemy 
beleaguering the city. This, added to the imperial spirit of 
Polycrates, determined the construction of the tunnel straight 
into the city itself, through the mountain, and at a point of the 
city, too, namely, the western extremity, high up upon the de- 
clivity, whence the main could be run quite through the town 
to the east, with small pipes leading off at convenient distances 
along its course down to the sea, and thus supply the entire 
population. North of the mountain, from the source to the tun- 
nel entrance, it was necessary to make a considerable detour to 
the east in order to reach a point where the conduit could be run 
under the small stream, instead of over it, if security in war was 
to be attained for the water supply. 

The French traveller, Guerin, about 1855, found a large res- 
ervoir beneath the floor of the chapel of St. John, and assuming 
this to be the original reservoir, opened the old conduit for some 
distance to the south. The chapel is built directly over the res- 
ervoir, which was constructed in the shape of a right-angled tri- 
angle, of which the hypothenuse was carved into an arc (fig. 2). 
This side was cut out of the original rock and shows now the 
smoothed surface. The south side consists of a well-preserved 
wall (7.60 M. long), composed of squared blocks of limestone 
carefully fitted together without mortar, while the west wall (5.57 
M. long) is made up in part of a late structure of bricks, behind 
which the ancient wall is concealed. To support the cover of the 
reservoir, fifteen pillars were constructed of large squared stones, 
in four rows parallel to the south wall. Each of these has a square 
base of about 0.75 M. long and 0.45 M. high, while the shafts 
consist mainly of three blocks of dissimilar height, and 0.60 M. 
in length and breadth. The entire height of the pillars must 
have been about 1.70M. The covering was formed of stone 



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GREEK TUNNEL. 267 

cross-pieces laid from pillar to pillar and wall, over which flat 
slabs were closely fitted, so that the whole could probably be 
covered in out of sight The ancient cover is still used as a part 
of the floor of the chapel, but a portion was destroyed in build- 
ing the chapel and has been reconstructed out of a miscellaneous 
lot of stones, many from the city itself. The floor of the reser- 
voir was laid with limestone slabs. 

On the north side, near the west corner, are two openings 
broken through the rock, through which the water streams into 
the reservoir. Just opposite, in the south wall, are two open- 
ings, an upper one through which the standing water flows off, 
and a lower one by which the reservoir can be drawn off, as was 
done for Fabricius in part, that he might make a more thorough 
examination. The out-flow is now used by the inhabitants of 
the adjacent hamlet. The impression produced by the whole 
structure is that of the greatest solidity and the greatest 
antiquity. 

The conduit from the reservoir to the tunnel. About To 
metres south of the chapel the conduit is now first met with. It 
is here a subterranean structure of sufficient height and width 
for a man to walk in upright. On the floor of this conduit lay 
the pipes in which the water flowed. It runs in a southerly 
direction on the edge of the ravine which lies to the west of it ; 
and about 130 metres from the reservoir it must have diverged 
somewhat to the cast to pass under a small runlet, dry except 
after rain falls, and then on nearly to the confluence of the two 
Streams before mentioned. There it turns to the east up the 
right bank of the smaller stream for 320 M., and, at the distance 
of 556 M. from the reservoir, bends to the south, passes under 
the stream, and thence southwesterly to the mouth of the tun- 
nel, covering 853 M. in its entire circuit. 

In this part of its course the conduit is either tunneled 
through the rock where it was feasible, or cut through, and hor- 
izontal slabs of stone laid across from side to side as a cover ; or 
where the rock failed, the sides were constructed of polygonal 
blocks, with a similar covering. At distances varying from 22 
to So metres, perpendicular shafts were made, either cut through 
the rock or built up with rectangular blocks. 20 of these have 
been counted, and their number was increased by the Abbot's 
workmen, to assist in removing the refuse in the trench. The 



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268 THE QUARTERLY. 

depth of the ancient shafts varied of course according to the lay 
of the land. The last one, 60 M. from the entrance to the tun- 
nel, was 13.80 M. deep, of oval form (1, 40 : o, 90 M.), cut 
through the rock. The next one, 23 M. to the east, was 14.50 
M. deep, and mostly built up. North of the creek they were 
from 3 to 4 M. deep. They appear upon the map in black dots 
The only place where an adit occurs is near the entrance to the 
tunnel, where the declivity is high and steep, and the trench lies 
1 5 M. below the surface. The mouth of the adit is described 
as inaccessible and hidden from sight by rocks. Fabricius con- 
ceives that Eupalinus kept to the ridge of the ravine, instead of 
cutting straight across to the point where he ran under the 
creek, in order to secure the easier disposal of the refuse down 
the declivity. Here becomes apparent the great deficiency in his 
report, the lack of levels, which he was unable to take. 

Throughout the whole of this part of the aqueduct, great 
numbers of round clay pipes were found on the bottom of the 
trench. They were of two kinds, differing not in construction, 
but only in their length and in the quality of the clay. One of 
the larger ones is represented on the plate (fig. 3), where its 
measurements will also be seen. They average about two feet in 
length {diameter o. 19 M.), with a shoulder at one end which fitted 
into the end of the next one and was fixed by a fine white cement. 
On the upper side of a number of those still well preserved, 
apparently in every other one in the original course, appears a 
round hole of 0.10-0.15 diameter, to give access to the inside 
of the pipe The other kind of pipe is shorter (i}4 ft.), less 
numerous and badly injured. 

The aqueduct through the mountain. It was this part of the 
course which excited the especial wonder of Herodotus and of 
which he gave the description. Here we must distinguish, as 
he did, the tunnel proper, and the trench beneath, in which the 
pipes were laid. Fabricius was able to make his way some 500 
M. into the tunnel from the south end. but on the north, at the 
distance of 106 M., his advance was stopped by huge stalactite 
pillars closing the passage. In general, the tunnel is hewn 
through the living limestone rock with hammer and pick, and 
where the walls are not covered with lime deposit one can still 
see the marks of the single strokes. Except at the ends, the 
roof consists throughout, of the original rock, maintaining the 



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GREEK TUNNEL. 269 

conformation of the strata, with a slope from west to east, as may 
be seen on the plan, (fig. 5) where one is supposed to be looking 
down stream from the north. In a few places only has the roof 
given way and fallen in. As the roof is not always the same 
height from the floor, so the side walls are not carefully smooth- 
ed and made vertical. All along in the wails small'niches were 
cut, about o. 10 M. deep, o. f5 high, and 0.20 long, in many of 
which terra-cotta lamps were found, as elsewhere in the tunnel. 
Numerous measurements in the southern half of the tunnel gave 
an average of 1.75 M. square, but 25 M, from the exit it was 
2.15 high and 2.30 wide. The direction of the tunnel, with the 
exception of a few irregularities, is a straight line, 17 west of 
north. Its entire length was made by Fabricius, measuring over 
the mountain with a protractor, 1000 M. 

The construction was begun at both ends, and the two sec- 
tions met 425 M. from the south end. At this point the south 
section runs into the rock dead, and is there abandoned. 1.50 
M. south, the west wall is broken through, nearly at a right angle, 
and the tunnel continued in a curve till it meets the northern sec- 
tion, as represented on the plate (fig. 6). In other words, while 
the two sections were run quite accurately, each along its own 
line, the north end was begun a distance estimated by Fabricius 
as s to 10 metres too far to the west Not only was this error 
in the horizontal committed, but another in the perpendicular. 
The north section, just before it joins the other, is from 
4 to 5 M. high, and the original floor, until it was cut down, 
must have been a metre higher than the roof of the south sec- 
tion (see fig. 1). If this level was maintained from the outset, 
the north end should have been lowered 2.75 M. before starting, 
in order to meet the south section. 

At each end of the tunnel the rock did not offer sufficient 
firmness to sustain its own weight, and was consequently built 
up with polygonal walls of large blocks without mortar, and 
closed above by a sort of gable roof formed of blocks inclined 
against each other, as may be seen in the plate (fig. 4). At the 
south end are the remains of an ancient building closing in the 
entrance, in which were six steps, three of which are now in situ y 
mounting up to the tunnel proper. Here, for 12.70 M., the 
polygonal walls and gable roof form a passage 0.60 M. wide, 
and 1.75 M. high, ending in a door whose threshold is still visi- 



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27° THE QUARTERLY. 

ble. This section is clearly contemporaneous with the tunne! 
itself. Next .follows a distance of 14.50 M. cut through the 
rock, whose roof has at some time fallen in and is now support- 
ed by walls. Thence one passes for 2.60 M. between strong 
walls, 0.63 M. apart, covered partly by horizontal slabs. These 
walls are of later construction, as is another, 7.50 M. further 
on, that fills up but half the passage (see fig. below No. 8). 
From this point the tunnel advances through the live rock. 

In the north section the rock was more friable, and more of 
the passage had to be built up. The entrance now lies 8 M. be- 
low the surface of the slope, and there is no evidence, Fabricius 
maintains, to show that this was accessible or left open after the 
work was completed. The first 64 M. appear originally to have 
been found sufficiently stable, so that Eupalinus left this stretch 
without interior walls ; but at some time in antiquity a part of 
the roof seems to have given away ; for at a distance of 14.50 
M. from the entrance the tunnel for 35 m. is built up with walls, 
apparently of Roman times, supporting a round, arched roof, 
and forming a passage about 0.60 M. by 1.78. Then succeed 
14.70 M., where so much has caved in that one clambers over 
it with difficulty. Passing this, one reaches a point where the 
passage was built up by Eupalinus, and this construction con- 
tinues as far as Fabricius was able to make his way, to6 M. 
from the entrance. The structure here is very similar to that 
in the south end, but somewhat more carefully done. The pass- 
age is built nearer the west wall than the east, and the blocks of 
the roof are slightly hollowed out so as to resemble somewhat 
a Gothic arch of considerable elegance. 

Nine metres from the north end of the tunnel, the conduit 
from the reservoir approaches from the east, turns nearly at right 
angles, and assumes the direction of the tunnel itself, not under, 
but along its eastern side, as will be seen on the plate, ^fig. 8). 
Here the bottom of the trench is 2.53 M. below the bottom of 
the tunnel, and where the turn is made, the conduit from the 
east, tunneled through the solid rock, has its roof 2 M. higher 
than that of the tunnel. Below the angle the trench is tunneled 
in the rock likewise, to the height of 2 M., so that its roof is 
0.50 M. lower than the floor of the tunnel. Its width is 
0.60 M. Standing water prevented investigation further south. 
However, in the place where the tunnel has caved in, a shaft 



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GREEK TUNNEL. 271 

connects the tunnel with the trench, which there, apparently, runs 
under the tunnel Another similar shaft exists at the extreme 
point reached towards the south, but, like the tunnel there, it is 
filled with lime formation. Whether the trench was tunneled all 
this distance, or opened into the tunnel proper during its con- 
struction, and was afterwards closed when the walls were built, 
Fabricius was unable to determine. 

In the south section, however, the trench was for the most 
part open, and ran along the east wall, leaving a passage of more 
than a metre free on the west side of the tunnel. The perpen- 
dicular sides of the trench are far more carefully hewn and 
plumbed than those of the tunnel. About a metre apart, square 
sockets are cut on each side of the trench at the top, for the re- 
ception of cross pieces to support a flooring, no doubt. At 
points 20 M. or more apart, a piece of the trench already dug 
was covered, at the height of 2-3 M. from the bottom, with flat 
stones, and upon these as they proceeded the refuse was built 
up quite to the floor of the tunnel, thus relieving greatly the 
labor of removal. On short stretches, too, the trench is actual- 
ly tunneled through the rock. 

Measurements of the trench taken along its course showed 
that it was gradually deepened from the north to the south end. 
At the junction of the two sections of the tunnel its depth was 
4.90 M.; 213 M. from the south end it was 6.00 M.; where it 
leaves the tunnel forthecity, 8.30 M. In the bottom of the trench, 
bedded in earth or clay, were laid the pipes, which were here 
not round but square and open at the top, and fitted together 
with a shoulder like the others (see fig. 3). 

The conduit in the city. Forty-five metres from the south 
end of the tunnel the trench leaves the east wall, makes a detour 
to the west side, and after a space of 15 M., leaves the tunnel 
altogether and passes off to the east through the city. The con- 
struction here is very similar to that north of the mountain. At 
first it is tunneled through the rock to the height of more than 
3 M., but of the usual width of 0.60 M. Further on it is cov- 
ered with horizontal slabs, and where the rock did not supply 
walls these were built up. The pipes are open as in the moun- 
tain. From time to time smaller mains pass off to the south, to 
supply the inhabitants. Fifty metres from the tunnel appears 
a perpendicular shaft communicating with the conduit, and 



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272 THE QUARTERLY. 

thence for 332 M. 12 more are found, from 22 to 50 M. apart. 
Through these shafts access could be had to the conduit at any 
time, as shown by the fact that several still have square stones 
covering their mouths, with circular holes through their cen- 
tres, into which round covers fitted. In one case a half of the 
round cover is still preserved, and, in another, three steps of an 
ancient stairway leading down from the south have been found 
in position. 

The description of Herodotus is thus found to be verified in 
every particular except the exactness of some of the measure- 
ments. The size of the tunnel at the lower end, where he prob- 
ably saw it, is the same, the depth of the trench there the same, 
though the width is a foot less. He made the length of the tun- 
nel 1294 M., Fabricius IOOO, while Dennis was told that it was 
1270. Herodotus estimates the height of the mountain at 274 
M.; the English admiralty charts give it as 228. 

It is to be regretted that the historian did not give us the 
reasons for the construction of the trench beneath in addition to 
the tunnel itself. It has been a standing puzzle to all commen- 
tators upon his history, and the solutions that have been offered 
are numerous. There are two which may be said now to stand 
the test of our more accurate knowledge of the structure. One 
is that of Curtius, who has given much time to investigating the 
Greek system of water conduits, and examined many on the 
spot His opinion has been that the tunnel was intended pri- 
marily as a substitute for the air shafts, which it was impossible 
here to construct, but which are found so universally elsewhere. 
The most ancient tunnel of the kind known in Greece is assign- 
ed to the period of the so-called Cyclopean architecture, and 
must be contemporaneous with the bee-hive vaults of Orchome- 
nus and Mycenae, and the other gigantic structures whose re- 
mains still exist in the land. This tunnel was built to carry off 
the waters of Lake Copais in Bceotia, and is described by Forch 
hammer (Hellenika, p. 167 seq.) as running for 4 miles under 
ground from the lake to the sea. Along its course are about 20 
vertical shafts, from 100 to 1 50 feet deep, and the tunnel is run 
under a valley where the surface could be reached most easily 
by the shafts. A shorter tunnel exists between Copais and 
the neighboring Lake Hylica. Here Forchhammer counted 8 
shafts, and was assured by the natives that there were 1 5. In 



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GREEK TUNNEL. 273 

Attica an ancient conduit conveyed water under ground for a 
long distance, from the foot of Brilessus to Athens. North of 
the present Am pelokepos, no air shafts have been counted, 
from 40 to 50 M. apart, sunk through the rock to the conduit, and 
covered with flat stones. Many are built up from the bottom and 
project some feet above the surface. Another conduit, running 
from Mt Parnes to the city, also had air shafts, and they are 
seen in Italy in the emissaria of Lakes Fucinus, Albano, etc. In 
the Roman aqueducts they were constructed at regular intervals, 
either through the masonry at the top, or, if another channel 
passed over it, at the sides. Vitruvius lays down the rule that 
in a subterranean conduit they should be built every 120 feet. 
Of course these would assist in the removal of the refuse while 
the construction was progressing, but this would not apply to 
the masonry of the aqueducts, and ventilation was the main 
object. Fabricius feels certain that the shafts in the Samian con- 
duit, between the reservoir and the tunnel, were permanently 
closed, as well as the north end of the tunnel. But this may be 
doubted. It would be simple enough to cover them in out of 
sight for the time being, in case of a threatened invasion. The 
adit in the vicinity of the tunnel he acknowledges to have been 
kept open. 

But granting that the tunnel may have been intended to 
supply the place of the wonted air-shafts, we are confronted by 
the fact that the trench beneath was sunk to a depth which is 
extraordinary upon any such hypothesis, and we may well ask 
why the tunnel would not have served its purpose in every way 
if the pipes had been laid along its floor. The fact is that the 
tunnel seems to have been built first, and the level then found to 
be so high that the water would not run through it, and the 
trench was resorted to afterwards as a stern necessity demanded 
by the law that water will not run up hill in open pipes. It has 
been seen that a mistake was made in the levels on the two sec- 
tions of the tunnel itself, and the gradual lowering of the trench 
from upper to lower end, together with the height of three M. 
towards the south end wherever the trench is tunneled through 
below, tends to prove that it was not till the water was actually 
brought down to the tunnel that they ascertained where it would 
run, and then they made an error towards the south and were 
compelled to dig deeper than they had calculated. The proper 



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374 THE QUARTERLY. 

solution of this problem, however, as far as it can ever be de- 
termined, must wait until some competent engineer visits the 
island and makes an accurate determination of the various levels 
of the entire structure. As we have already said, this is the 
one desideratum in the accurate and painstaking account which 
Fabricius has given us. As it now appears, while striving to 
bring the exit to the tunnel as high as possible, that the whole 
town might be reached by the water, the constructor overshot 
the mark by 3 M. on the north and 8 on the south. 

At Megara, the native place of the engineer Eupalinus, a 
long conduit bringing water from the mountains had been built, 
under the tyrant Theagenes, towards the close of the seventh 
century, B. C.j but we know nothing of its construction. The 
tunnel at Jerusalem, however, between the Virgin's Pool and 
Siloam, offers many suggestive points of comparison with that 
of Eupalinus. This has recently been carefully examined by 
Lieut. Conder in the interest of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
(see their reports for 188 1-3), though it had been explored be- 
fore by Warren, Robinson and others. Its course resembles an 
irregular S, so that it measures 520 M, by the channel, but the 
Pools are distant from each other in a straight line only 337 M. 
The width of two feet is pretty uniform throughout, but the 
height varies greatly. In the first 360 feet from Siloam, the 
height descends from 16 feet to 4 £ 4 in.; at 450 £ it is 3 f. 9 
in.; at 600, 2 f. fj in.; at 850, I.IO; 900, 14. Here it suddenly 
rises to 4 f. 6, and so continues for 150 f., when it is again re- 
duced to 2.6, and at 1 100 f. to 1.10. At 1450 f. it runs on 
from 2 f. to 2.6, and at 1480 it rises into the open vault The 
roof is flat, but the floor is hollowed out into a groove resem- 
bling an inverted sugar-loaf, in which the water ran and runs. 
The walls are mostly left rough, but occasionally a space is 
smoothed, and niches occur at intervals. Conder has shown 
that the work was begun at both ends, and the two sections, 
after wandering about considerably, and making many false 
heads, finally met, 944 f. from Siloam. This is proved by the 
fact that the false heads on each side of this point were worked 
in opposite directions. When the two parties had arrived with- 
in about 7 ft. of each other, they were working nearly parallel, 
and it is to this that the inscription refers, which was discovered 
on the east wall near the entrance from Siloam in 1880, and 



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GREEK TUNNEL. 275 

drew renewed attention to the tunnel. The inscription is thus 
translated : 

" (Behold) the excavation. Now this is the history of the 
tunnel While the workmen were still lifting up the axe, each 
toward his neighbor, and while three cubits still remained tb (cut 
through), (each heard) the voice of the other who called to his 
neighbor, since there was an excess in the rock on the right 
hand and on (the left), And on the day of the excavation the 
workmen struck, each to meet his neighbor, axe against axe, 
and there flowed the waters from the spring to the pool for 1 200 
cubits ; and ... of a cubit was the height of the rock over the 
heads of the workmen." 

The difference of height of the two channels at the point of 
junction was just 13 inches, and Conder says, "the floor was 
probably cut down at both ends after completion to get the level, 
and if so it was only accidental that the levels were so nearly 
the same at the point of junction." The tunnel had two air- 
shafts, one 470 f. from Siloam, where the surface in a valleywas 
only 14 f. above the tunnel floor; the second was about halfway 
between the first and the meeting point of the two sections. 

The date of this tunnel has been stoutly disputed. The in- 
scription, from its epigraphic character, cannot be later than 550 
B. C, and most authorities refer it to the .time of H ezekiah, 700 
B. c. Sayce thinks it as early as the time of Solomon. It is 
evidently a poor affair in comparison with the work of Eupali- 
nus, and while its levels proved better, it seems more good luck 
than calculation, and it is a wonder that the two sections ever 
met at all in their leisurely saunterings. No pipes were ever 
used in it, so far as appears, and it seems almost incredible that 
it would have been worked, for a considerable distance with the 
height only 16 inches and the width 24. If Eupalinus did 
make an egregious blunder in his levels, he produced a structure 
that was well worthy of the admiration of Herodotus and his 
countrymen.* 

* The discoveries described above, furnishing details unknown before of Ihe 
Tunnel of Polycrates, give a new historical interest to [he description of Herodotus, 
in many points of view. 

It is only within a few years that a Tunnel of this magnitude and extent would 
not have been considered an engineering work of more than ordinary magnitude, 
not only in its engineering aspects, but as a financial enterprise. Connected with a 



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276 THE QUARTERLY. 

THE HUBL METHOD FOR TESTING OILS AND FATS. 

BY WALTER MOELLER, Ph.B. 

In a recent number of Dingier' s Polytechnisches Journal* 
Baron Hubl describes a new method for testing oils and fats. 
The process at once secured our interest not only in consequence 
of its novelty, but also on account of the curious reaction which 
it involves. 

Most natural fats and oils consist chiefly of the glycerides of 
one or more of the fatty acids belonging to the formic, acrylic 
or propiolic acid series. The relative quantities of the several 
glycerides in a fat are supposed to vary within certain definite 
limits, and the proportions to differ in the different fats. 

Hiibl's method is based upon the constitution of these fatty 
acids or their glycerides and their consequent behavior when 
treated with halogens. 

The fatty acids belonging to the formic acid series have the 
general formula CnH2n02. These, as is shown by the formula 
of formic acid H.C02H, are saturated compounds, and under or- 
dinary circumstances must remain indifferent to the action of 

modern project for the supply of water to a city, it would even now excite unusual 
attention. The methods of excavation in rock must have been slow and tedious 
when this Tunnel was made, compared with the rapid work of Gunpowder and 
Dynamite at the present day, and it would be especially interesting lo know all the 
tunnelling processes employed by the ancients, among these not the least in interest 
would be the ventilation of the Tunnel during the progress of the work without 
ventilating shafts. 

The facts brought out that in this and in other ancient Tunnels, the line of the 
Tunnel was laid out and prosecuted from both ends towards the middle point, 
the termini not being intensible, would show some knowledge of surveying and 
levelling, even though the methods might have been rough and the instruments of 
the rudest sort. While the fact that the two lines from the ends did not coincide at 
the point of meeting, anit the grade from one end to the other was not established 
with accuracy would show that the requisite knowledge to bring about these results 
did not then exist, or at least was not applied. 

There seems to be no doubt, as stated by Professor Merriam, that the trench in 
the now of the Tunnel was the real conduit made necessary perhaps by the incor- 
rectness of the grade of the main Tunnel. The grade of the trench was probably 
obtained by allowing the water to " follow the workmen," a common practice in 
excavating ditches at the present day. 

• Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal, 253, p. 281. 

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TESTING OILS AND FATS. 277 

an halogen. But the acids of the series CnH2n — 2O2, as acrylic 
acid CH2=CH— COgH, can combine with two atoms of an halo- 
gen: CH2I — CHI— CO2H; and the acids of the series CnH2n— 4O2 
as propiolic acid CH= C— CO2H, can combine with four atoms : 
CHr 2 -Cl2-C0 2 H. 

Hiibl now aims to produce these additive compounds of the 
glycerides under such conditions as will exclude the possible 
formation of substitution compounds, and this result is brought 
about most effectually when the fat, dissolved in chloroform, is 
treated with a mixture of iodine and mercuric chloride dissolved 
in alcohol. If then it be practical to determine the amount of 
iodine which can be added to a fatty acid or its glyceride, it will 
be found that the different fats and oils will absorb different and 
almost constant quantities of iodine, according to the character 
of the glycerides which enter into their composition. 

This quantitative determination is made by adding to a 
known weight of the fat or oil, dissolved in chloroform, an excess 
of the standard iodine solution and allowing the reaction to go 
on for two hours. This iodine solution is made by mixing a 
solution of 25 grms. of iodine in 500 c.c. of 95% alcohol with a 
solution of 30 grms. of mercuric chloride in 500 c.c. of alcohol ; 
the mixture must stand for 6 to 1 2 hours and any precipitate 
which may form in that time must be filtered out. It is stand- 
ardised by means of a solution of sodium hyposulphite (about 
24 grms. to the L.). 

If at the end of two hours the mixture of fat and iodine so- 
lution still maintains a deep brown color, the excess of iodine 
is determined by means of the standard solution of sodium hy- 
posulphite, using starch as an indicator. If, on the other hand, 
the color can be made to disappear by repeatedly shaking the 
mixture, before the lapse of two hours, more of the iodine solu- 
tion must be added. By means of a simple calculation the 
amount of iodine absorbed by 100 grms. of the fat is then de- 
termined, and this is the " iodine number" for that fat. 

Htibl investigated the substance produced by the action of 
the iodine solution on c. p. oleic acid, and found it to be Iodo- 
chloro-stearic acid, C1BH34O2ICI, thus showing that thereat pro- 
duct is not a simple iodine additive compound. This, however, 
does not interfere with the quantitative estimation of the excess 
of iodine added. Both chlorine and iodine are monatomic ele- 



]y GooQle 



3 7 8 



THE QUARTERLY. 



ments, and the atom of CI which the HgCl2 surrenders to the- 
fat is replaced by an atom of I. Hence, it is immaterial whether 
iodine alone or whether iodine and chlorine are added to the fat, 
nor does it matter in what proportions the iodine and chlorine 
enter into the combination. 

The following are some of the results of numerous experi- 
ments which were made to test the practical value of Hiibl's 
method for identifying the different oils and fats and for ascer- 
taining whether they have or have not been adulterated. 

Shark liver oil 368.3 

Manhaden oil 170.8 

Porpoise oil 131.3 

Seal oil 103-4 

Sea-elephant oil S8.5 

Lard oil 47.3 



Oleic acid 

" Olcinic" acid 

Butyric acid 

Olero 

Commercial Stearic. . . 



■ »S-7 



Linseed oil 

Corn oil 

Cotton seed oil.. 



107.9 
. 107.3. 



Sweet Almond oil 101.7 

Rape seed oil 09.4 

English Mustard oil 94.6 

American Mustard oil 85.5 

Castor oil 84.6 

Oliveoil.i, , 81.3 

Olive oil, t, 102.9 

Palm oil 48.6 

Cocoa Butter 34.4 

Muskat Butter 31. 6 

Cocoanut oil, 6.8 



Bees wax, 5.3 

Japanese wax 5.61 

Bayberry tallow. 1.38 

Butter. 36.8 

Oleomargarine 53.5 

"Butter,",!. ... 4 a.8 

"Butter," b 43.0 

"Butter, "e 43.6 

43 71% Oleomargarine, ) 

56.29% Butter ) 43-53 



Mutton fat. . 

Lard 

Beef suet... 



S7-3 



3S.4 



3l.94,°o Butyric acid. . . . 

48.52,°^ Butter, ) 

68.34 V Olive oil ) 

31.76%' Cotton seed oil, i ' 

47.88% Butter, > 

33.29?; Oleomargarine, r . 
iS.82% Cotton seed,.. I 



S.07 



Judging from these results, we can safely say that the Hiibl 
method will serve as a convenient adjunct to the analysis of but- 
ter. For instance, Butters, a, b, and c, are samples which were 
analyzed by Prof. Waller, and declared by him to be adulterated 
to the amount of 25 to 30 per cent. As a general means for 
identifying oils or fats it can not besafely recommended, although 
there are cases in which it might be available as for instance, in 
detecting mixtures of olive oil with sesame or cotton seed oil, or 
in general, mixtures of oils having a very high, with those which 
have a comparatively low iodine-number. To illustrate this. 



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TESTING OILS AND FATS. 



'79 



two samples of olive oil are tabulated above, one has the iodine 
number 81.3, the other 102.9; Hfibl gives as the limits for olive 
oil 81.6 to 84.5 ; hence it might be inferred that olive oil, a, is 
genuine, while b is either adulterated olive oil or some other oil 
or oils entirely. 

If the two constituents of a mixture are known, the amounts 
can be approximately ascertained by means of the formula, 



in which m = the larger iodine number of the two constituents, 
ft = the smaller iodine number, /= the iodine number of the 
mixture, and y = the percentage of the constituent whose iodine 
number is ». Thus in the first mixture tabulated above, 

m = 53> " = 36.83, /= 43.5, y = % of butter present; then, 

i^S-43_5_ IOO 8 

7 53-S-36.83 3 

hence 58% of the mixture is butter and 42% is oleomargarine. 

Of the fats which enter into the composition of butter, olein 
is the only one not derived from the formic acid series ; we thus 
have an easy method for determining the amount of olein in but- 
ter or, in fact, in any fat which contains in addition to olein, sat- 
urated glycerides only. In examining butter we must remember 
that the composition of animal fats is greatly influenced by the 
breed and age of the animal, its food, treatment, &c, so that 
different samples of butter will have different iodine numbers, or, 
in other words, will contain different amounts of olein. 

It is a remarkable fact, that the amount of unsaturated acids 
or their glycerides, which are supposed to be contained in many 
of the oils, does not account for their respective " iodine num- 
bers." Cocoa-nut oil for example is supposed to contain only 
traces of an unsaturated glyceride (olein), yet 100 grms. of the 
oil absorb 7 grms. of iodine. These numbers, as Hiibl points 
out, are comparatively constant and it seems as though they 
must indicate the presence of some acids of a higher scries 
which as yet, have not been found by analysis. The Hiibl 
method may therefore also be of service in ascertaining the 
constitution of fatty bodies. 



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THE QUARTERLY. 



THE WATTS FUND. 



The following subscriptions 
ceived up to the present time : 

Dr. J. C. Booth %\a oo 

Prof. F. P. Dunnington 10 oo 

G.W. Riggs 5 oo 

H. Holt 10 oo 

J. B. Mackintosh io oo 

E. W.M z 50 

A. A. Breneman 5 oo 

"F.C.S." 500 

M. E. Waldstein 5 00 

G. Miller 5 00 

P. Casamajor 5 00 

Prof. A. R. Leeds 5 00 

Dr. E. R. Squibb 5 00 

Prof. A. B. Prescott s 00 

W. M 3 00 

A. H. Elliott 10 00 

C. E. P 2 00 

Prof. C. L. JacltsoD 5 00 

F. W. Devoe & Co 10 00 



to the Watts Fund have been rt 

A.L. Colby $ s 

Prof. S. W. Johnson 5 

E. S. Wood. M.D 5 o 

Prof. F. H. Storer 25 o 

Prof. G. F. Barker 50 

S. A. N 10 

"W." 30 

Prof. Henry Morton 10 o 

Prof. P. Fraier 50 

Dr. Alfred Springer 10 o 

Prof. H. B. Cornwall 50 

J. H. Stebbins. Jr 20 

Dr. C. F. Chandler 25 o 

W, S. Thompson 50 

"Cash" s 

Prof. W. P. Mason 5 o 

Dr. W. Simon 50 

Prof. J. W. Langley 30 

I. W. Drummond 50 

C. S. McLoughlin 50 



Also the following from the Washington Chemical Society and 
its members, through the hands of Prof. F. W. Clarke : 



Washington Chemical Soc $: 

F.V. Broadbent 

F. W. Clarke 

E. T. Fristoe :. 

A. E. Knorr 

Thomas Robinson 

G. L. Spencer 

Win. Wheeler '. 

A. W.-Wiley 

Total 



Thomas Antisell $ 

T. M. Chatard 

Wm. Frear 

F. A. Gooch 

E. Richards 

W. H. Seaman 

T. C. Trescot 

E. Whitfield 

Dr. J. H.Kidder 

*3°S 



A contribution of $25 has been promised by the Chemical Society 
of the School of Mines, and other contributions have been more or 
less definitely promised. 

The first installment of ^45 has already been sent to Dr. W. H. 
Perkin, the treasurer of the fund in England. 

E. WALLER. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



PROFESSIONAL NOTES. 

An Improvement in Rock Drills. 

During the recent meeting of the Institute of Mining Engineers, 
one of the most interesting excursions was to the Government 
works at Flood Rock (Hell Gate). There Lieut. Derby, resident en- 
gineer, showed an improvement that he had made in rock drills. 
Instead of the ordinary solid drill, he uses a hollow steel bit attached 
to a hollow drilling rod by a copper screw ring. This crown bit, 
which has a serrated edge, is used for cutting the whole length of 
the hole by changing it from one rod to another ; it cuts a circular 
groove, leaving a core which breaks when it gets an inch or so 
long, and is then crushed by the next blow. 

Further, he has applied the principle long used in the diamond 
drill, of having a current of water flowing constantly through the 
drill, carrying away the debris, and leaving always a clean surface 
of rock for the drill to strike on. 

The water connection is made by a tube passing through the up- 
per end of the cylinder and working as a plunger in the piston. 

The water pressure required, which is slight, is there easily ob- 
tainable as the workings are all under water and the roof leaks bad- 
ly in many places. 

The increase in work done is really remarkable, an advance of 
sixteen feet in one eight-hour shift by the old drill, rising to twenty- 
five when the new form was substituted. The invention is said to 
have saved the Government about twenty thousand dollars in the 
Flood Rock work alone. 

The only valid objection to the drill seems to be the extra black- 
smithing work necessary in making and keeping it in order. 

We understand that the Messrs. Rand have obtained a control- 
ling interest in the patent for this drill and will soon put it on the 
market. 

R. V. A. N. 

Sulphur Crystals on Blast Furnace Cinder. By C A. Meissner. 

Some time ago, in looking over an old pile of cinder, a number 
of yellow incrustations were noticed, which on close examination 
by magnifying glass and a few quantitative tests, proved to be lit- 
tle rosettes of sulphur crystals. They were too minute to examine 
their separate form, but were almost invariably in form of rosettes. 
They were bright yellow when found, but soon turned a dirty white 
on the shelves of the mineralogical collection. They were found 
almost exclusively in a mass of fused coke and cinder taken from 
the furnace at the time of blowing out. When occurring on cinder 
alone they were white and lost their rosette form more or less. I 
have a number of very handsome and interesting specimens of this 
kind, the only drawback being the impossibility of keeping the 
crystals bright and clear. 



^Google 



ABSTRACTS. 



Civil Engineering. 



Strength of Metallic Rollers — Mr. J. B. Johnson, of the Engineers 
Club, of St. Louis, deduces a formula for the strength of metallic 
rollers, particularly for use in bridge work, thus : 



°-\ s, i 



tJP 



E+E 1 



EE 1 
in which 1'^ total pressure 

E = modulus of elasticity of cylinder. 
E 1 — " " roller. 

K = maximum intensity of stress. 
R — radius of cylinder in inches. 
/— length . " " 

This, applied to rollers and plates of different materials, gives 
for steel rollers and plates, P— 1930 Rl 
for wrought iron " " " P — - 640 Rl 
for cast iron " " " P — 3040 Rl 
for steel rollers and cast iron plates, P =— 2250 Rl 
assuming that the plates bear uniformly along the whole length of 
the roller. 

Jour, of the Ass'rt. of Eng. Soc's. Jan., 1885. 

R. V. A. N. 

Mechanical Engineering. 
Safety-valves: Formula for making the necessary calculations about 

Safety-valve weights. 

Let W denote weight at end of lever in lbs. 

Let L denote distance between centre of weight and fulcrum in 
inches. 

Let w denote weight of lever itself in lbs. 

Let g denote distance between centre of gravity of lever and 
fulcrum, in inches. 

Let I denote the distance between centre of valve and fulcrum, 
in inches. 

Let V denote the weight of the valve and its spindle in lbs. 

Let A denote the area of valve in square inches. 

Let P denote pressure in lbs. per square inch, at which the 
valve commences to blow. 

To find the weight required to load the valve for any given 
pressure. 

L, 1, g, A, V, and w, must be known. Then, 



w— (pxa; 



-(v + <T>){ 



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ABSTRACTS. 283 

To find the length of lever, or distance, from fulcrum, at which 
ic weight must be placed for any required blowing of pressure. 
W, w, g, I, V, and A, must be known. Then, 



(PxA,_(v + (^)|xJ 



The Locomotive, October, 1884. E. J. H. A. 

Mining Engineering. 

Hoisting on Inclined Planes by Water Power. 

Mr. Meyers' system consists in attaching to the drum carrying 
the two ropes of a double slope another smaller drum, on which are 
wound two ropes passing over sheaves overhead, and attached to 
receivers holding each about one cubic meter of water. A pipe 
controlled from below supplies water to the receiver which happens 
to be up; this descending lifts the loaded car, partially counter-bal- 
anced by the unloaded one, and when the receiver reaches the 
ground, its water is discharged ; the other one now at the top being 
filled. The speed of hoisting may, of course, be controlled by a 
brake. This system seems especially applicable to mines, where 
water must be conducted from elevated workings to the sump. 

Dinglers Polytechnisches Journal, January 1, 1885. 

R. V. A. N. 

Chemistry. 

New Reaction for Detection of H t O t . M. Traube. 

Schflnbein's reaction for the detection of H,0, by means of po- 
tassium iodide, starch, and sulphate of iron requires a neutral solu- 
tion ; in the presence of free acid the reaction is very much less sensi- 
tive ; and in very strong acid solutions it is impossible to detect 
minute quantities of H,0,. The author has found that thereaction 
loses none of its sensitiveness in strong acid solutions, if a small 
quantity of copper sulphate is present. If to 6 to 8 cc. of a solution 
containing potassium iodide, starch, and minute traces of H,0„ 
from one to four drops of a 2 % solution of copper sulphate, and a 
little of a s % solution of ferrous sulphate are added, a blue color 
will be produced in a very few seconds. 

American Chem. Journ., December, 1884. 

■W. G. B, 

Separation of Iodine and Chlorine by Dry Method. J. Krutwig. 

When a dry mixture of potassium iodide and potassium bichro- 
mate is heated,the iodine is liberated, and there are formed chromium 
sesquioxide and potassium chromate 6KI- r -5K t Cr J 0-=6I-f Cr,O s -|- 
8K,CrO,. 

If the mixture is weighed before heating, and the heating con- 
tinued until no more iodine vapors escape, the loss of weight de- 
notes the quantity of iodine which was present. Or the fused mass 
may be treated with water. Everything but the chromium sesqui- 
oxide will be dissolved, and from its weight the quantity of iodine 



•d :i Google 



284 THE QUARTERLY. 

which was present can be calculated. Sodium chloride, on the other 
hand, is not changed when fused with potassium bichromate. 
American Chem, Journ., December, 1884. 

W. G. B. 

Separation of Zinc and Nickel. T. Moore. 

The author recommends the following process for the separation 
of Zn from Ni as effectual and easy. Expel the excess of acid by 
evaporation from the solution containing the two metals, dissolve 
the residue in 20-25 cc - 01 H,0, and precipitate with -excess of 
(NH,),S. Dissolve in KCy by heating, make up to 250 cc, add a 
few drops of sodium acetate solution, acidify with acetic acid, and 
heat to boiling. Aftera few hours, wash the ZnS with water con- 
taining a small quantity of sodium acetate and H^, and finally con- 
vert into oxide as usual. To estimate the Ni, evaporate the filtrate 
and washings to dryness with aqua regia, dissolve the residue in 
H t O, and precipitate with KOH and bromine. Redissolve the pre- 
cipitate in H,SOi, adding NH 4 OH,and precipitate by the battery if 
desired. 

Chetn. News, Vol. 50, p. 151, 

W. G. B. 

Cryolite in the U. S. 

It is stated that cryolite has been found in the Yellowstone 
Park. The east coast of Greenland has hitherto been the only 
source of the mineral so valuable for the production of aluminium, 
and as the export of the same is attended with many difficulties, the 
manufacture of the metal can only be done at a high price. If a 
sufficient supply of this mineral can be found in the Yellowstone, 
the manufacture might be so cheapened as to bring the metal into 
more general use. 

American Chem. Review, December, 1884. 

W. G. B. 

Recent Method for Preparing Aluminium. 

H. A. Gadsen, of London, has devised a method for the manu- 
facture of aluminium ; the new feature of which consists in bringing 
together in the form of vapor the aluminium chloride and metallic 
sodium (formed by reduction of a sodium saltl. The aluminium 
and sodium change places and the Na CI is condensed in one cham- 
ber while the metallic aluminium is condensed in another. 
Ding. Poly. Journ., 232-436. 

W. G. B. 

Determination of Sulphur in Iron and Steel. M: Perillow. 

The metal is dissolved in acid, the gases being passed through 
a solution of nitrate of silver. Instead of weighing the resulting 
sulphide it is filtered and carefully washed, then dissolved in nitric 
acid, no attempt being made to separate any filter paper that may 
go with it. A few drops of nitrate of iron are added, and the 
solution titrated with a solution of sulphocyanide ; each drop pro- 
duces a red coloration, which disappears on agitation as long as the 
silver is being precipitated. The close of the titration is shown by 
a permanent red coloration, best in a solution nearly neutralised 



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ABSTRACTS. 285 

with ammonia. The sulphocyanide is standardized with a solu- 
tin of nitrate of silver of known strength. 

This process, it is claimed, eliminates two of the three causes of 
inaccuracy in sulphur determinations. 

1. The difficulty of weighing with the filter. 

2. The formation of precipitates other than the sulphide, as 
chloride. 

The third difficulty, the formation of sulphuric acid in the liquid 
is not affected by this method. 

CompteS Rend. Soe. lad. Minerals, April, 1884. 

R. V. A. N. 

Examination of Fats and Oils. HUbl. 

The author describes a systematic method for the determina- 
tion of fats and oils. It is based upon the fact that nearly all 
fats are composed of the glycerine ethers of members of three 
groups of fatty acids. These are the acetic, acrylic and tetrolic 
acid series. The relative proportions of these acids in any variety 
of fat or oil is constant within certain limits, and this proportion is 
different only in different kinds of fats. These fats unite with the 
halogens under different circumstances, and the author has found 
it possible to make them unite under circumstances which preclude 
the possibility of substitution and the amount which enters into the 
compound, being accurately determined, has been found to be a con- 
stant, and would depend upon the amount of unsaturated acids 
present in the fat. Standard solutions of sodium hyposulphite 
and of iodine and mercuric chloride are used. An oil is exam- 
ined by weighing out a small amount and dissolving in chloro- 
form; an excess of standard iodine solution is added and the 
excess is determined by the sodium hyposulphite solution. By 
a simple calculation the number of grains of iodine taken up 
by 100 grms. of fat, is determined, and this number is a constant 
for the fat examined. Htibl has determined this constant for a 
large number of fats and oils, and finds the method affords a 
ready means of determining the nature of a fat. 

American Chem. Review, January, 1885 

W. G. B. 

Preparation of Albumin. W. Mihailoff. 

The author describes a new method for obtaining pure albumin. 
White of egg, filtered through muslin, is treated with three times the 
quantity of a saturated solution of ammonium sulphate, and to this 
as much more solid ammonium sulphate is added as wilt dissolve. 
The albuminoids (globulins, globulinates, and albumin) are thus 
precipitated. The precipitate is washed with a saturated solution 
of ammonium sulphate, and having been rendered slightly alkaline 
with NH 4 OH, is dyalized. The H,0, which replaces the excess of 
sulphate and the alkalies of the precipitated albuminoids, leaves the 
whole of the globulins and globulinates in the precipitate and the 
pure albumin is obtained in solution. This solution may be boiled 
without coagulation taking place, is almost neutral in its reaction 
(slightly acid), and gives no precipitate with barium salts. By 



;v Goo^lc 



286 THE QUARTERLY. 

means of ammonium sulphate all albuminoids and their derivatives 
may be precipitated. 

Bull. Soc. Cliim., Vol. 41, 547-548. W. G. B. 

Blue Quarts from Nelson County, Va. R. Robertson. 

This quartz is found associated with feldspathic rocks in varying 
quantities ; it has a characteristic waxy lustre, varies in color from 
pale to deep blue, and is penetrated by numerous thin brown films. 
A thin section under the microscope shows a network of thin aecic- 
ular brown crystals throughout the mass, so that when magnified 
400 times it presents an appearance similar to that of sagenite when 
seen by the naked eye. Some of the crystals are twinned, forming 
genicuiations common with rutile. The section is yellow by trans- 
mitted light and blue by reflected light. A fragment fused before 
the hot blast blow-pipe, retains its blue color. Analysis shows 
Fe,0, .539% TIo, .069% SiOi by difference 99.392%. Rutile is 
frequently found in the granulitic rocks of the district and the 
magnetic iron ores of the locality contains large quantities of TiO* 

Chtm. News, Vol. 50, 207. W. G. B. 

Copper Peroxide (G. Krtiss). 

The experiment of Thenard seemed to indicate the formation 
of a copper peroxide by the agitation of cupric oxide with a dilute 
solution of H,O t . In this paper a description is given of a repeti- 
tion of this work, and it is shown that if very finely-divided cupric 
oxide is agitated for several days with H,0„ there is gradually 
formed an olive green precipitate of composition (CuO*. H,0). It 
is decomposed at a temperature of 6° when moist, but is far more 
stable when dry. The formation of this compound points to the 
tetratomicity of copper. From other experiments it would appear 
that an oxide can be obtained intermediate in composition between 
cupric oxide and peroxide, formed by heating cupric oxide with 
caustic potash or potassium or sodium chlorides. 

/our. Lond. Chetn. Soc, February, 1885. W. G. B. 

Solubility of Iodide of Mercury. 

M. Bourgain has determined the solubility 'of iodide of mercury 
recently recommended as an antiseptic, as follows : 

Distilled water I7.5°C. . . . 0.0403 gms. to 1 litre 

" " and io"-^yo r alcohol iS°C .... 0.086 " " " " 

80° alcohol i8°C 2.857 " 

Absolute alcohol i8°C 11.86 " " " " 

Hence the solubility 40 mg. to the litre in water at ordinary 
temperatures is doubled by adding 10% of alcohol, and increases 
with the temperature and the amount of alcohol. 

Bull, de la See. Ckim. de Paris, Dec. 20, 1884. R, V. A. N. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Text Book of Popular Astronomy for the use of Colleges, Academies 
and High Schools. By Wra. G. Peck, LL.D., of Columbia Col- 
lege. A. S. Barnes & Co., N. Y. City. 

This work, prepared for special purposes, is a most excellent and 
reliable book. 

The author departs from ordinary usage by treating of the stars 
and the nebulae in the opening chapters. In these chapters are given 
some very good miniature maps of the principal constellations. 

The several chapters have been written with exceptional clear- 
ness. There are introduced (in finer type) many simple mathemati- 
cal discussions on the use of instruments, etc. These discussions 
can be omitted, by those desiring to do so, without breaking the 
thread of the discourse. We notice with pleasure that the subjects 
of "The Tides" and "Calendars" receive much fuller and more 
careful treatment than are usually given to them in books prepared 
for the ordinary college student. In the second edition of this 
book the author has given a very instructive appendix on the " Op- 
tical principles used in the construction of Telescopes." We know 
of no work of its size that is better arranged for giving the ordinary 
student a good idea of the Astronomy of the present day. ** 

A Treatise on the Adjustment of Observations, with Applications 

to Geodetic Work and other Measures of Precision. By T. W. 

Wright, B.A. Published by D. Van Nostrand. 

In 1808 the illustrious Gauss gave to the world the results of 
many years of labor in his Theories Mollis Corporum Celestium. In 
this able work he furnished the first explanation of the method 1 of 
least squares, "a method which has been of inestimable service in 
investigations depending on observed data." 

Since that time this method of least squares has been used in all 
scientific researches in astronomy, physics, chemistry geodesy, etc. 

After Gauss' publication, many other works were written bear- 
ing on the application of the method to different departments of 
science. 

Up to the time of the appearance, in 1863, of Chauvenet's ele- 
gant work on Practical and Spherical Astronomy, the advanced stu- 
dents were compelled to obtain most of their knowledge from 
foreign publications. Chauvenet, in his volume, gave a very lucid 
explanation of the theory of the method, and throughout his book 
furnished many examples, worked out in detail, showing the appli- 
cation of the method to the reduction of astronomical observations. 
This work contains almost everything that can be required in re- 
ducing the fundamental observations of practical astronomy. Scat- 
tered through the reports of the U. S. Coast Survey, the Lake 
Survey, etc., we find numerous papers by Schott and others, giving 



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THE QUARTERLY. 



The great advances made, during the past twenty years, in the 
scientific education of engineers, have brought us to the point where 
it is not only desirable, hut necessary, that the best students should 
have some thorough fundamental instruction in this method of 
least squares This instruction has been given in some institutions 
by lectures, supplemented by references to the best foreign works, 
to Chauvenet, and to the government reports. A "blank in our sci- 
entific literature " was filled, for students in our colleges, by the 
publication of Merriman's Text Book of Least Squares. (Wiley 
& Sons). This work gives many practical examples, but does not 
undertake to deal with any but quite simple cases. 

In the work before ns we have "a systematic account of the 
method of adjusting observations founded on the principle of the 
mean. The more important applications, especially with reference 
to geodetic and astronomical work, are fully discussed." The au- 
thor is very practical, and shows throughout the work the beneficial 
effect of his considerable experience on the U. S. Lake Survey. 
The examples in the book have been drawn chiefly from American 
sources, and " special attention has been given to the explanation 
of checks of computation, of approximate methods of adjustment, 
and of approximate methods of rinding the precision of the adjusted 
values." The rigorous methods are also given. 

There are numerous practical hints throughout the book, and 
the constant references to authorities and standard works are ex- 
ceedingly valuable to the reader. The examples given to test the 
reader's mastery of methods are well chosen, and enhance the value 
of the work very much. 

This work ought to be carefully studied by every one who wishes 
to familiarize himself with the method of reducing scientific obser- 
vations. J. K. Rees. 

The Pyramids and Temples of Giseh. By W. M. Flinders Petrie. 

New and revised edition. Scribner & Welford. 

The first edition of this work contained a large amount of mat- 
ter which it was desirable to record, but which was only of technical 
interest to surveyors or mathematicians. In this abridged edition 
of a hundred pages may be found a most interesting summary of 
those investigations which demolished the theory of Piazzi Smyth. 
The title itself, shows that there were costly edifices associated with 
the pyramidal piles of rough limestone at Gizeh, The frontispiece, 
a clever sketch by the well-known artist, Tristram Ellis, showing 
the nine Pyramids from the South, has been reproduced at page 194 
as an effective reply to those who assign peculiar importance to the 
Pyramid of Cheops, or suppose that these. structures stand in a plain. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



a j, Google 




.Google 



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THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES 
QUARTERLY. 

VI. MAY, 1885. Nt 



MASONRY SUPPORTS FOR HANGING WALLS AT 
THE TILLY FOSTER IRON MINES. 

BV LOUIS G. ENGEL, E.M. 

The peculiar shape and disposition of the ore body at Tilly 
Foster, as will be seen by the accompanying maps, has hereto- 
fore rendered the mining, although somewhat dangerous, of a 
simple character. 

The ore body to the level of the present open pit, about 
165 ft., had been worked for a number of years in large cham- 
bers along the deposit, pillars being left to support the roof; 
when in 1874 a large cave occurred, completely filling the then 
opened portion of the mine with a mass of ore, rock and surface 
loam, some of which ore is still being recovered, while much of 
the broken rock is now being utilized in the construction of the 
masonry pillars to be hereinafter described. After the cave-in 
above referred to, a new system of mining was adopted. 

The Cheever shaft, which is situated at about the middle of 
the ore-body on the foot wall and of which the vertical angle is 
about 66°, was sunk to a level of 300 ft. below the surface, 
measured on the slope. 

This shaft, owing to the narrowing of the ore-body at the 
top, as it assumes its well-known form of a lens, really starts in 
the foot-wall, being mostly in rock till a short distance above 



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ago THE QUARTERLY. 

the 300 ft. level, when it passes into the ore at an angle of 66°, 
and as the ore-body gradually approaches a vertical below this, 
the shaft has passed entirely through the ore and strikes the 
hanging-wall at about the 500 ft. level, aitd is in the hanging at 
the 600 ft level, a distance of about 30 ft. 

The shaft has now reached a depth of 630 ft. 

At each level the shaft has been broken out to form a plat 
or bin at either side, which bins have been enlarged on each 
succeeding level, those at the 300 ft level holding about 18 
tons, while the 500 ft plat probably holds three times that 
amount 

These enlargements have been timbered, as shown on Plate 
I., with ordinary stiills and levellers, let into hitches cut in the 
foot and hanging, to hold — 

1st A platform at the level, with dump holes on either side 
of the shaft. 

2d. A shovelling platform about ten feet below the latter, 
forming the bottom of the bins, which have an inclined rock or 
ore-back and a timber face ; and 

3d. A box or well of plank, built on heavy stulls and pro- 
vided with doors in the bottom, in which the skip rests while 
being loaded, the top of the skip being about on a level with 
the shovelling floor. Below this the ordinary shaft timbering is 
continued to the next level, when another plat is provided in 
the same manner. 

From the level of the upper platform of each plat, drifts 
7 ft. x/ ft were run along the walls entirely encircling the ore- 
body, and cross drifts were run between these at proper inter- 
vals, which cross drifts were afterwards broken out to a width 
varying from 20 to 30 ft and a height of 12 ft., forming on the 
300 ft. level six south rooms and four north rooms ; on the 400 
ft level, five south rooms and three north rooms ; and on the 
500 ft. level, three south rooms and four north rooms, which 
north rooms really correspond to but two rooms on the 400 ft. 
level, as they are divided by a horse of rock, as may be seen by 
the maps. 

The distance from wall to wall south of the shaft is 80 ft, 
while north this distance becomes 160 ft., so that it was 
necessary to leave the pillars enormously thick, owing to the 
checks of serpentine which separate the ore into blocks, and 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. i 9 i 

which partings, by weathering and winding, cause these blocks 
of ore to become loose. 

This peculiar checking, although it makes the ground break 
easily, renders it difficult afterward to trim properly, so as to in- 
sure safety to the miner. 

These rooms, 12 feet high, were now timbered, as shown in 
Plate II., with sets about 6 ft sill, 4 ft. cap, and having an out- 
side height of 7 ft. along the walls, which sets were then covered 
with two-inch plank, thus making a continuous passageway on 
each wall, consisting of a drift in the pillar and a gangway of 
timber through the rooms. 

An extension or plat of round timber was built into each 
room from the side of these gangway timbers, in section about 
8 ft square, and extending into the room about 10 ft 

This formed really an alcove, trom which a car in the gang- 
way could be loaded and in which pieces of ore could be block- 
holed without interfering with the traffic in the gangway. 

Thirty-pound rails were then laid in the gangways, to a 14- 
inch gauge, and the rooms were ready to work. 

In blocking out a room in the manner described above, 
which, excepting the drifts, was done by machine drills, all of 
the broken ore was not removed, but only so much as was 
necessary for the gangway and plat, and to leave a working 
space of about 7 ft between the broken ore and the roof. 
Hence, by casting back some of this ore, the timbers were 
packed and secured against any injury by subsequent blasting. 

Each room of a level is immediately under its corresponding 
room of the level above, as determined by a survey line carried 
down the shaft. 

The raising of the rooms was accomplished, as is shown on 
Plate II., by mounting a machine drill run by compressed air 
on a column jammed between the broken ore and the roof, usu- 
ally at the foot-wall, and drilling upper holes in such a manner 
as to blast out a raise the width of the room and extending 
about 10 ft. from the wall. The blasting was done entirely by 
dynamite, exploded usually in sets of three holes with a battery, 
The drill was then reversed, and the raise worked toward the 
hanging by overhead sloping on the face thus exposed, and 
when the hanging was reached the. operation was repeated. 



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* 9 z THE QUARTERLY. 

The surplus ore, that is, the increase in volume by breaking, 
was removed at the plat into cars, trammed to the bins at the 
shaft, and then loaded into the skip by a separate contractor. 

The contractors working rooms were paid so much per ton 
measured in the solid as broken, and so much per ton trammed 
of the broken ore; a slight advance being made on the latter 
both as an inducement to tram as much as possible and to cover 
the extra expense of block- holing after the ore had been broken 
from the solid. 

Communication was established between the level and the 
top of a room as the raising progressed, by a small shaft 2 ft. 
square, called a " manway," which was started out of each gang- 
way against a pillar, surrounded by loose ore, and according to 
which, vertically, the raising of the room was guided. 

Thus there were usually two man ways to each room, one on 
the foot and one on the hanging. 

The raising was continued in this manner to a height of 
75 ft. for the 300 ft. level, 70 ft. for the 400 ft. level, and 65 ft. " 
for the 500 ft- level, so as to leave approximately a floor of 
25 ft thick of solid ore between the levels. 

The rooms were also sensibly narrowed at the top and arched 
as perfectly as the before- mentioned checks in the ore would 
admit of. In some places the roofs are quite flat, as a slip in 
the ore has disclosed a flat " floor," which has been followed and 
trimmed clean. 

The room having been thus raised to within 25 ft. of the 
level above, was now emptied of its contents by drawing the ore 
away from the plats at the level, care being taken to remove any 
loose slabs of ore on the pillars and also to trim the walls, espe- 
cially the hanging of soft masses of gouge and disintegrated rock 
occurring between the ore and the walls. 

This rock has at various times caused a hurtful admixture of 
waste in the ore, but it was still absolutely necessary to remove 
it or to risk its falling a height of perhaps 60 ft. upon the miners 
working below. 

I should have remarked that room No. 1 south has not been 
raised on any level, so that there is now a pillar of solid ore 
70 ft thick separating the north and south ends of the mine. 

Rooms No. 1 south, 400 and 500 ft. levels, serve as passage- 
ways ; while in No. 1 south, 300 ft. level, is a large sump 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 293 

capable of holding 70,000 gallons, in which is collected as much 
as possible of the water which runs into the mine on the fault 
extending into the lake surrounding the mine. Also to this 
sump is pumped, by means of compressed air, by ordinary 
steam pumps, the water from the 400 and 600 ft. levels re- 
spectively. 

The water from the 300 ft sump is pumped to the surface 
by a Cornish bob pump, with a two-inch pipe for a rod, which 
passes down the Cheever shaft on rollers and raises the water 
on the up stroke. 

Besides the Cheever shaft there are two others, the CosgrifF 
shaft, 10 ft x 14 ft, angle 6$°, 350 ft. deep, through which all 
the material for the masonry has heretofore been lowered, and 
the Durant or Rock shaft, 400 ft deep, which is sunk in 
rock to the extreme north beyond the ore-body, and is an up- 
cast for ventilation. 

A good skip road of 30 pound rails to a gauge of 2 ft. 9 in. 
extends to the 600 ft. level in the Cheever shaft The capacity 
of the skip in ore is about 1 j4 tons gross. 

The Cosgriff shaft is timbered and tracked to the 300 ft. 
level. The skip runs on a track of 3 ft. 6 inches gauge and has 
a capacity of 35 cubic feet 

With this brief description of the mining heretofore carried 
on, I will proceed to describe the masonry under construction. 

The presence of such an enormous mass of first-class Bessemer 
ore, having for its gangue and associates, minerals which, by their 
ready fluxing, render it especially valuable as a regulator in a 
furnace, has given rise to considerable discussion as to the proper 
method of recovering the residue left after mining by ordinary 
methods had been exhausted. 

Four methods have been proposed at various times : 

1st. Uncovering the entire mass. 

2d. Robbing the pillars and recovering as much as possible, 
leaving the hanging wall to take care of itself. 

3d. Filling the entire space mined out with concrete masonry 
and then removing the pillars. 

4th. The system of robbing adopted, which is a combination 
partially of masonry and partially removing surface rock, 

No. 1 was abandoned as too expensive. 

No. 2 was abandoned as too -dangerous and uncertain. 



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294 THE QUARTERLY. 

No. 3 would also have been expensive. 

No. 4, which as regards expense, will according to estimates 
and present experience, be within an economical limit, is also 
somewhat hazardous, but less so than any other seemingly feas- 
ible system. 

The present operations are being directed towards the recov- 
ery of all that mass of ore remaining south of the south side of 
room No. 2 south from the 500 ft. level to the surface, and in- 
cluding the two floors of No. 2 south at the 300 and 400 ft, 
levels. 

The problem, as so far developed, has been hardly a ques- 
tion of mining, as no mining of the above ore has yet been 
done. 

The use of masonry in mines is historic, but the conditions 
of this particular case are without precedent ; thus, many hang- 
ing walls have been successfully supported with masonry where 
the distance between the walls has been under thirty feet and 
in instances where every pound of the deposit was valuable, 
notably at the quicksilver mines of Almaden, but when the 
walls are eighty feet apart and the deposit is only iron ore, and 
it is necessary to carry on the work through the inclemency of 
winter, and at the same time to carry on active mining in the 
lower levels, where it would be most desirable to start the 
masonry, my readers will have some conception of the difficulties 
to be overcome. 

These have been, therefore, really a question of the mechan- 
ical handling of the material, for in the simplification of that 
handling lies the reduction of expense. 

The facilities for starting the work consisted of a steam der- 
rick, commanding at one end of its swing the tracks of the open 
pit, which was filled with a mass of broken rock 35 feet deep at 
its least depth, and the Cosgriff shaft, tracked and timbered, the 
mouth of which is all commanded by the derrick above re- 
ferred to. • 

This derrick is fitted with a double whip on a boom about 
45 ft. long, the running block of which is a grooved iron wheel 
2 ft. in diameter for a ^-inch steel rope, which, owing to the 
great distance to the surface, reaches a length of 570 ft. 

The load is carried in a pan or schooner of boiler plate about 
S ft. X4 ft. x 1 8 inches deep, open at the front end, which schoon- 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 295 

er is hung by four chains to the hook of the running block 
above referred to. The two chains at the open end can be un- 
hooked by resting the schooner, when by again hoisting, the 
schooner is tilted, so as to slide out its load. 

The skip which was constructed especially for the purpose 
and will be afterwards described, is hoisted by the second drum 
of the main hoisting engine, by a l J^ inch steel wire rope pas- 
sing over the vertical wheel of the poppet and thence around 
two horizontal wheels to the engine house, which is situated to 
command the Cheever shaft direct 

The Cosgriff shaft enters the loose material in the pit along- 
side of the great retaining wall which forms one end of the latter, 
about 60 ft. from the level of the solid ore floor of the pit. 

As this floor is covered with loose material, it was impossible 
to collect the great quantity of water which enters the pit from 
the lake through the fault previously mentioned, which water 
finds its way down the shaft, so that the latter was usually 
blocked solid with ice during cold weather and resembled a 
small cascade daring the summer. This water was partly col- 
lected in a dam at the pit level and then discharged by a pipe * 
to the foot wall. In order to control the water, it was necessary 
to confine it, hence a box or flume, 1 ft. square and 80 ft. long, 
was built on the foot wall, with gutters to lead into the flume to 
carry this water to the 300 ft level. 

At about 60 ft from the level this flume was tapped by a 
sliding trough which could be made to lead the water into a 
barrel at pleasure, from the bottom of which a three-inch pipe 
conveyed the water to the level, where it was distributed by 
smaller pipes to the various rooms. 

The head thus obtained afterwards proved very desirable to 
free the pipes of grit and sand which accumulated at the elbows. 
This water supply was placed below a plat or platform con- 
structed in the shaft at about 60 ft. from the 300 ft. level, so as 
to be out of the reach of frost and ice, and was afterwards sup- 
plemented by a pipe directly from the dam in the shaft at the pit 
level. 

The original intention was to fill the rooms from the top, 
hence two drifts were now driven from the Cosgriff shaft north 
and south to rooms No. 2 south and 3 south respectively, 
opening into these rooms about 60 ft. from the floor ; but the 



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296 THE QUARTERLY. 

difficulties in the way of this plan led to its final abandon- 
ment. It was then decided to build the arches and load them 
from the level, and as soon as feasible to complete the filling 
of the rooms from the top, which in general has been the plan 
pursued. 

About this time in the fall of 1883, the lake surrounding the 
mine having been partially drawn off, a large force of men were 
engaged in digging sand from the old river bed and conveying 
it to a place above the rise of the lake. In this way a bank of 
over 2,000 cubic yards of good sand was stored. 

At the same time the skewbacks, intended as a footing for 
the arches, were commenced. 

These consist of enormous hitches, averaging about 1 5 ft 
deep and running up the wall about 35 ft, which were blasted 
out of the solid gneiss foot and hanging walls and carefully 
trimmed of any loose pieces. 

Some of the rock from the skewbacks of No. 2 south was 
hoisted to the surface, but most of the rock from one room was 
trammed into an adjoining room and afterwards brought back 
again to be built into a pillar. 

It was now necessary to make preparations for handling 
four kinds of material at the surface, for it was impossible to 
make the concrete anywhere but in the mine : 

1st. Because there was no room in the pit for machinery, 
and it was not desirable to hoist the broken stone from the pit 
to the surface. 

2d. The mixed concrete would set too rapidly if made on 
top, and might freeze in the winter. 

The four kinds of material to be lowered were — cement in 
barrels, sand, broken stone, and larger stone such as could be 
readily handled by one or two men. 

As it was the intention to commence work in the winter of 
1883, a house was built in the fall and filled with 1,000 bbls. of 
cement before the close of navigation. 

This arrangement was afterwards abandoned for a better, 
viz.; storing the cement in house cars, which were switched 
to the shaft when needed, several cars being constantly kept on 
hand. 

The cement used in the work has been American Rosedale 
from F. O. Norton's quarries, and comes direct to the mine 



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I MASONRY SUPPORTS. 297 

'via West Shore R. R., N. Y. & N. E. R. R., and N. Y. C. & 
N. R. R. 

It was found more desirable to bring it in barrels rather 
than in bulk as the barrels could be run on a skid from the car 
and lowered into the skip with an ordinary tackle and hooks. 
The skip is then run to the 300 ft;. level and the door in the 
bottom is opened, when by raising the skip the barrels slide out 
with but slight danger of breaking, provided no more than three 
barrels are run down per skip load. 

As has been previously mentioned, the Cosgriff shaft enters 

*"* a mass of loose rock, about 60 ft. above the pit level, and as it 

I was impossible to clear the pit of this material, a large platform 

was constructed at this point to store the rock which it was 

' necessary to hoist with the derrick in order to run it down the 

■ shaft 

This platform was built very heavy, with chestnut trees for 
sills, interlaced with ties, and the whole covered with two thick- 
nesses of two-inch plank, the first course of chestnut and the 
second of oak, laid to break joints and cross seams. 
;. Plate III. is a plan showing the general arrangement of this 

platform and of the open pit, which, with the perspective view 
appended, gives a clear idea of the movement of material. 

A, is a crib shaft, 12 ft square and 35 ft deep, commanded 

C. y the derrick, B, on the surface, and opening at the bottom in 
- timbered way on the floor of the open pit, the track from 
^ hich runs out into M. 

■-j F is the platform previously mentioned, which has on it a 

bin, D, with inclined bottom and perpendicular face, capable of 

* storing 100 tons of broken rock, hoisted to it by the swinging 

■ derrick, B. This fine rock slides through slots in the face upon 
■the floor around the shaft, E, whence it is shovelled directly into 

the skip. 

C is the sand bin shown in detail on Plate IV. It consists 
o a box, of two inch plank, about 10 ft. cube with 8x8 inch 
■ s' ruce corner posts, built on double 8x8 inch interlocked sills, 
and tied by 8x8 inch caps all around. 

The planking is spiked to the inside of 4x6 inch studding, 
let into the sills and caps and the whole bin is tied together with 
^ inch rods. 



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a 9 8 THE QUARTERLY. 

The hopper bottom is supported by a square oak frame, 
hung from the sills and a cross timber by I J^ inch rods. 

The bin stands on four heavy posts footed on the shaft tim-^ 
ber and sills. 

By means of a small removable slide leading from the hop- 
per bottom to the skip, by opening the gate of the hopper, a 
load of sand may be deposited in the skip in a few seconds. A' 
quantity of large rock is kept constantly stored at F, and fine 
rock at; D, as a reserve against an accident to the derrick or an 
interruption to the work in the pit. 

It now became necessary to arrange some way of depositing 
the sand to be brought in wagons into the sand bin and as the « 
derrick formed an inadequate means it was decided to builct-a. 
chute from the surface to the bin. 

The distance from the edge of the retaining wall to the top 
of the sand bin as shown by the perspective view, is 54 ft, and , 
an additional 11 ft is necessary to reach the level of the surface. . 

Accordingly a strong bulkhead of 8x8 inch spruce covered 
with two-inch plank, was built as near the edge of the retaining 
wall as the angle struts would permit, to hold back the surface ; 
dirt, and outside of this near the edge of the wall, a line of posts 
was erected on a sill and covered by a cap. 

The space between was then spanned by a platform of oak ' 
plank laid on spruce beams, G, Plate III. This platform with; 
the dirt surface behind it, made an easy approach and turn fori 
a two horse wagon carrying about one cubic yard of sand, which! 
was found by experience to be a fair load for the roads in the 
vicinity of the mine. 1 

It was finally decided to build the chute of wood rather than ; 
wrought iron, not only because cheaper, but because the scour- 
ing of the sand would necessitate a considerable thickness of 
metal which was an objection in point of weight, as no other 
method of supporting the chute except hanging it seemed to be 
practicable. 

The cross section is shown on Plate V. and perspective views 
on Plate VI. 

The construction adopted was essentially that of a stiffened 
box girder, consisting of a box of two-inch plank, 10x19 inches 
inside; the top being composed of two spruce plank laid edge 
to edge, the bottom of two oak plank similarly placed, and the 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 299 

sides of two-inch spruce plank butted square on the top and 
bottom and spiked, care being taken to break joints in the plank 
at different places. 

Two keels were now built, one of 6x6 inch and the other of 
4x6 inch spruce in as long lengths as possible, which lengths 
were connected by bolted scarf joints. At intervals of five feet 
a two-inch oak cross plank was let in and bolted to each keel, 
forming a frame resembling a huge centipede. 

One keel with its cross pieces was now bolted to the bottom 
and the other to the top of the box girder and the projecting 
ends of the cross pieces we.e connected by % inch bolts, which 
were slightly cut in to the top and bottom plank and stapled to 
prevent slipping along the length of the chute, 

By this construction the rigidity of the stringers was im- 
parted to the chute and the top, bottom, and sides of the latter 
were held together every five feet by what is practically a strap. 

This chute was put together, 65 ft. in length, with the end 
just overhanging the edge of the retaining wall. It was estima- 
ted to weigh about 2^ tons, and as it had a capacity of 4'/, tons 
of sand when full, it was necessary to make preparations to hang 
this combined weight to guard against filling by the workmen 
in spite of orders to the contrary. 

This distance from solid rock on the foot wall to the hanging 
is 105 ft According, from A to 3, Plate VI, a 1*4 inch steel 
cable which happened to be in stock, was stretched slack, leaded 
into huge sockets at each end which were secured by links to 
cramps in the solid rock. Upon this rope was placed an oak 
saddle, Plate VI, Fig. 2, grooved in a curve to distribute the 
weight over about four feet of rope, which grove was lined with 
lead to prevent contact between the wood (which was liable to 
absorb moisture) and the steel cable. 

Surrounding this saddle is a U loop of I % inch round iron 
with three links in the loop for the shackles of the guys. 

Plate VI., Fig. 3, shows the strap for attaching these guys 
to the chute. This strap consists of a plate of 1x3 inch wrought 
iron let into either keel and the two plates bolted together by 
two I j£ inch eye-bolts, with a short eye-bolt in the middle of 
the top plate. 

One of these straps was placed at the lower end of the chute 
and a second about 25 ft. from the first. 



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3 °o THE QUARTERLY. 

The chute was now launched over the pit by the aid of the 
derrick and suitable tackle, and by adjusting the length of the 
ropes, C and D, Plate VI, Fig. i, which are ^ inch steel cables, 
the chute was hung approximately in the correct position at an 
angle of 54 . The remaining ropes, shown in Fig. 1 , were after- 
wards added as reinforcements, but the main weight is carried 
by C and D. 

The top of the chute passes through the platform, G, Plate 
III., previously described, and enlarges there to a hopper to 
facilitate shovelling. 

Excepting some stoppages caused by freezing, but little dif- 
ficulty has been experienced in sliding sand directly from the 
wagon into the sand bin. 

Thus having explained the method of handling the material 
at the surface, I will now describe the medium of communication 
from the surface to the mine, the skip. 

The skip used for the purpose, Plate VII., was built of ^j 
inch boiler plate flanged and riveted ; in section inside 3 ft. 3 
inches by 2 ft 9 inches, and about 4 ft. 7 inches deep. 

This makes its capacity about 35 cubic ft which might have 
been increased by making the skip longer, except that such in- 
crease in length would have resulted in a constant jamming of 
the large stone in the skip and a refusal to slide out of the door 
in the bottom, as some trouble was experienced even with the 
present dimensions. 

The wheels are 16 inches in diameter and have steel axles 
turning in solid cast iron boxes. The skip is provided with a 
bail in the usual manner. 

The principal new feature is the door in the bottom and the 
arrangement for latching the same. This door is made of y£ 
inch plate strengthened by flat iron strips on the edges, and al- 
though the full width of the skip it is but 22 inches high or just 
sufficient to a cement barrel to slide out. In the center of the 
door on the outside is a rotating circular plate with two handles 
to which plate are pivoted the two bar latches which end in 
round pins and engage holes in projecting irons on either side 
of the skip. This is merely an application of the Corliss wrist 
motion ; by rotating the circular plate the latches may be with- 
drawn. 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 301 

Some attempt was made to counterweight this door but this 
was abandoned, as after a tittle practice, one man could close 
the door and spring the latch. 

In loading large rock, the door is first covered with a layer 
of broken stone, which not only facilitates the sliding of the load 
but protects the door from injury by large pieces. 

Small side doors to close over the edge of the skip were used 
at the shovelling platform to prevent pieces from dropping down 
the shaft when loading. 

The Cosgriff shaft, 10x14 ft-t » divided into two compart- 
ments, a skip-way and a ladder and pump way. The shaft 
opens at the 300 ft level in a large timbered cross drift between 
rooms 2 and 3 south. 

It now became necessary to afford some storage for material, 
especially sand, at the 300 ft. level. 

Accordingly a sand bin was constructed in the ladder-way, 
using the hanging wall as a back, and leaving a passage at the 
foot wall for the ladder, pump, pipe, etc. 

This bin extends up the shaft about 25 ft., and is provided 
with a hopper bottom and a sliding gate or knife of boiler plate 
so that the sand can be run into a barrow without shoveling. 
Its capacity is about 16" skip loads. 

As the skip was in the track-way and the sand bin in the 
ladder way, a slide was now constructed designed to transfer the 
load across the shaft without losing it down the slope. A huge 
triangular door was built for this purpose, turning on pins in a 
line with the dividing of the shaft and counterweighted so as to 
handle easily. This door was provided with a lower side also 
hinged, so that when down it reached across the track under 
the skip, and when it was necessary for the skip to pass it could 
be doubled up and swung clear of the skip-way so that it formed 
part of the dividing of the shaft. It was afterwards found neces- 
sary to block the skip door so that it could not swing open too 
far and throw the load down the slope. With this addition but 
little trouble has been experienced in handling the sand. 

For lack of room no storage was provided for rock, but a 
platform with a movable bottom of loose plank, hung on hinges 
and chains was built, so that it could be swung out of the way 
in handling lumber and cement. This platform was just above 
the level of the barrow so that the rock was shovelled into the 



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3 oa THE QUARTERLY. 

barrow on a slight incline which was found to have some advan- 
tages over throwing it on the floor and picking it up again. 

Several skip loads can be put on the platform at once, and 
as the latter projects but slightly from the shaft the drift is left 
entirely clear. 

As the sides of No. 3 south were much more regular than 
those of No. 2, and as it was the nearest to the shaft it was 
decided to begin operations there. 

It was now necessary to adopt a barrow for transferring the 
material from the shaft to a room that should carry a maximum 
load for one man and be of such a form as to go on to an ele- 
vator 4 ft. 6 inches square. Hence the ordinary blast furnace 
barrow of thin steel plate, to carry 8 cubic feet was decided on. 
This made a live load of about 600 lbs., or with the weight of 
the barrow a total of 924 lbs., which after some practice it was 
found one man could move rapidly on a good level floor, or even 
up a slight grade. A five-light arc machine with engine was 
now erected in the compressor house and a circuit with return 
current of 1200 ft. of No. 4, copper wire, insulated with rub- 
ber and cotton, was run down the shaft on glass insulators. 

After altering and rebuilding the swinging gear of the der- 
rick on the surface so that it would swing a full circle, overhaul- 
ing and strengthening the timbering of the shaft and the build- 
ing of shearpoles to the handle machinery for the shaft a the 
surface, all the preparations for sending the material to the 300 
ft. level were complete, having taken a gang of ten carpenters a 
period exceeding three months. 

I will now defer the description of the method of handling 
the remainder of the work, to explain the general plan by which 
it is proposed to rob the south end of the mine and the dispo- 
sition of the masonry intended to support the hanging wall ac- 
cording to the plan adopted which is due to A. CosgrirT, Esq., 
superintendent of the Tilly Foster mine. 

By referring to the maps and the longitudinal and cross sec- 
tions submitted, it will be observed that the mine is divided by 
a solid ore pillar 70 ft. thick, which carries the Cheever shaft 
and the unworked No. 1 south rooms into two parts, the north 
ore body and the south ore body. 

Also that the north end is traversed by a fault which extends 
through the country rock, by which the top of what was once 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 303 

a lenticular mass, has slid down on the normal body diagonally 
to the northeast end, about doubling the thickness of the ore at 
this point and making the distance from wall to wall about 160 
ft. as against 80 ft in the south end, which is in the normal con- 
dition. The character of the ore has also been considerably 
changed by this slipping in the north end. 

The general plan of masonry comprises the building of pil- 
lars in No. 1 and 2 north from the 500 ft. level where the horse 
of rock on the fault finally cuts the north ore body into two 
parts, so that it will be possible to spring an arch from the foot 
to the horse, and on the opposite side from the horse to the 
hanging for a foundation. These' pillars will have to be carried 
to such a height as to support the overhang of the wall. 

Also the building of a pillar in No. 2 south, on an arch 
sprung in the 500 ft. level from foot to hanging and extending 
from that level up through the present ore floor at the 400 and 
300 ft levels, to a line at right angles to the walls under the roof 
of the 300 ft level. 

Also the building of two struts of masonry in rooms No. 3 
and 4 south, on arches sprung from the foot to the hanging in 
the 300 ft. level and extending to a line square with the walls 
under the roof of that level. 

It was considered most desirable to commence operations in 
the scjuth end of the mine for the following reasons r 

1st The distance between the walls being but half that in 
the north end, very much less time must elapse before robbing 
could be begun than at the north end. This is it is hoped will 
ensure a continuous output of ore while the masonry for the 
north end is under way. 

2d. The Cheever shaft may be used to hoist the ore from 
the south end by the plan adopted. 

3rd. The Cosgriff shaft was already sunk in the south end, 
and formed a convenient channel for lowering material. 

4th. It was possible to commence operations in the upper 
levels of the south end which would have been impossible north 
of the shaft as building there must be commenced at the 500 ft. 
level where even to this day active mining is being carried on. 

Accordingly all the work heretofore undertaken has been 
towards securing the south end of the mine, and the building of 
the continuous pillar from the 500 ft. level in room No. 2 south, 



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3 o 4 THE QUARTERLY. 

together with the pillars in Nos. 3 and 4 south 300 ft. level, as 
shown in Plate VIII., will complete the masonry for this pur- 
pose. 

As has been previously remarked, the pillars in Nos. 3 and 
4 south, are merely struts between the walls and are intended 
to act like stulls in a deposit of ordinary dimensions. The con- 
tinuous pillar No. 2 south will naturally act as a strut also, but 
it is not intended for that alone. It serves as a partition between 
the north and the south ends of the mine, so that they may be 
robbed independently, and is intended finally to replace in sup- 
port to the hanging, the solid ore pillar now in the.center of the 

The pillar carries an artificial shaft which has been con- 
structed as the pillar progressed in height and has been made 
to conform to the foot wall in the 300 ft. level as nearly as pos- 
sible. In section it is the reverse of an ordinary shaft, with the 
skip-way on the foot and the ladder-way on the hanging so as 
to cut out only so much of the width of the pillar as would per- 
mit the use of the standard skip of the Cheever shaft. 

It will be noticed that to build pillar 2 south, the floors of 2 
south at the 400 and 300 ft. levels will have to be removed, 
which will be accomplished from below when the masonry shall 
have been built under each. 

Probably before the supports for the south end shall have 
been completed, robbing will be begun. According to present 
explorations it appears that the strip of ore shown on the map 
of the 500 ft. level to the south between the horse of rock and 
the hanging wall, extends to the 600 ft. level unchanged in width 
or length and averages 1 5 ft in thickness. 

The ore under No. 3 south is apparently isolated by the 
horse shown in the map of the 500 ft. level. 

It is intended to break all of this ore, leaving no pillars, up 
to the 500 ft level and including the floor of the latter, and to 
tram away by suitable timbering in the 600 ft level only the in- 
crease in volume by breaking, leaving the space full of broken 
ore. 

Then to run over this broken ore near the foot wall of the 
500 ft level, a line of heavy sets to form a double gangway with 
loading plats and manways at proper intervals, from the ma- 
sonry pillar in No. 2 South, to the south end of the deposit. 



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_MASONR Y__SUPPORT& 303 



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THE QU ARTE R 



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_ MASONRY SUPPORTS. 305 

Then to break out the ore remaining south of No. 2 south 
from below, not on a level line, but on a line at right angles to 
the walls, keeping only the working space between the broken 
ore and the solid and allowing the broken ore to fill the entire 
pace between the walls, the surplus to be trammed away at the 
plats and hoisted by the Cheever shaft. 

I When the 400 ft level is reached, another gangway will be 
un in and the operation repeated up to and perhaps including 
the floor of the 300 ft. level as experience will demonstrate to 
be the best, breaking to be stopped with the finishing line at 
J right angles with the walls. 

I The broken ore from the 400 ft. level to the 300 ft level 

: will then be drawn off at the 400 ft. level by the plats and gang- 

1 ways provided, from thence to the 500 ft. level will be wtth- 

1 drawn at the 500 ft. level in a similar manner, and so to the 600 

I ft. level, all of which ore will be hoisted by the Cheever shaft or 

the new shaft in the artificial pillar, according to which is used 

to lower the material for the masonry of the north end. This 

it will be observed by referring to the section, Plate VIII., will 

leave a great void between the walls. No effort to trim the 

walls will be made as the trammers in withdrawing the ore will 

always work under the timbering. The walls must now be held 

apart by the masonry and the ore above the 300 ft. level left in 

place, but it is not intended to leave this space empty but to use 

it as a storage wherein to get rid of what surface rock and debris 

it is necessary to remove to a line of safety in order to uncover 

the ore down to the level of the open pit. 

This surface rock including the overhang on which the der- 
rick stands to a point opposite the Cheever shaft is estimated to 
amount to 70,000 cubic yards, which it is proposed to blast and 
roll down the Cosgriff shaft together with all the debris left in 
the open pit, and that at present backed by the retaining wall 
in the south end. 

Thus the void will be filled up to the solid ore left standing, 
which will be removed either from the top or in the usual man- 
ner. 

By this time considerable progress will have been made on 
the north pillars, so that the remaining ore may be removed in 
a similar manner. 



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3ofi THE QUARTERLY. 

Now having outlined the general plan by which it is pro- 
posed to rob the mine, and having heretofore described the 
method of lowering material to the 300 ft. level, I will now pre- 
sent the methods by which this material has been conveyed and 
built into the masonry pillars to date, with some idea of future 
plans, and the estimates which have formed a basis for work. 

As has been previously stated, it was finally found necessary 
to begin the construction of the pillars from the 300 ft. level and 
in order to be able to recover the floor of the level, as has been 
outlined in the preceding, the pillars had to be supported on 
arches let into skew-backs in the solid rock walls. 

It was essential that these arches should be as flat as con- 
sistent with safety, for the rise of the arch represents a decrease 
of the area of the pillar as a strut ; accordingly, as the thrust on 
the walls was a factor which it was not necessary to consider, a 
segment of a circle was adopted, which in Nos. 2 and 3 south 
covers a span of about 93 ft., being a trifle shorter in No. 4 
south, with a riseof approximately one sixth of the span or 15 ft. 
for Nos. 2 and 3 south, and 13^ ft. for 4 south, and a uniform 
thickness for each arch of 3 ft. 

The choice of material lay between cut stone, concrete and 
brick. 

The first was abandoned as too expensive to obtain and too 
difficult to handle. 

The second will probably be adopted for any future arch to 
be constructed, as each brick arch has been backed by a mono- 
lithic concrete arch about 2 it. thick, but a lack of experience at 
the commencement prevented its use. 

Hard burned Haverstraw brick were finally used. These we 
laid in Rosendale cement mortar, sand from two to three to one 
of cement, in courses with the ordinary bond the full thickness 
of the arch, with two rows of headers every sixth course. The 
skewbacks were first squared to a line with a backing of stone 
faced with brick. 

Each arch was finished in about three weeks and contains 
about 135,000 brick. 

In order to support the arch while building, a center of 
somewhat peculiar construction was erected to suit the circum- 
stances, for as under each arch there is a solid floor of ore, it 
was manifesdy of advantage to increase the number of posts to 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 307 

the limit consistent with free travel on the level, rather than to 
have long spans between the posts and thus necessitate the use 
of heavy caps. Hence nothing larger than 6x8 inch spruce has 
been employed. 

On Plate IX. the construction of the centre is shown. Owing 
to the inequality of the floor, the posts were stepped in sills 
which were notched at proper intervals, and spiked together to 
form continuous rows from the foot to the hanging wall and 
were studded apart to 5 ft between centres, by 6x6 inch spruce 
at the steps for the posts. These steps formed boxes out of 
which it was impossible for the bottom of the posts to slip. 

The sills were underpinned to a level with flat stones. The 
posts which are 6x6 inch spruce, rake so as to line with the ra- 
dius of the arch, and over each row across the center is run a 
6x8 inch spruce cap in two pieces, scarf jointed over a post, 
and wedged against the ore pillars on either side of the room to 
insure steadiness. 

To prevent this cap from slipping off, a plate of oak plank 
was run up on either side from the top of each post and secured 
to the latter by spikes and a single ^ inch bolt through both 
plates and the post 

Over these caps in line with the posts, were run 6x8 inch 
stringers in 10 ft lengths, notched slightly at the caps to pre- 
ver. slipping, so that every other post along the stringer is under 
a b'.tt joint and the intermediate post is under the middle of the 
str. iger. 

Other rows of stringers resting on caps between the posts 
were now placed, thus making the distance from center to cen- 
ter of the stringers 2^ feet, or the greatest span for planking 
2 ft 

These stringers now formed an arch of 10 ft. segments, which 
was raised to a true circle with pieces of spruce plank cut to the 
curve on each stringer, and the whole was then covered with two 
inch spruce plank across the center, spiked into the stringers and 
cut at the ends to lit the ore sides of the room and wedged as 
a brace. 

All the inequalities of the underpinning and joints were now 
taken up with oak wedges driven until the entire center refused 
to give any more. 



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3o8 THE QUARTERLY, 

In the completed center the posts were now 5 ft between 
centers every way at the top, which made the weight on each 
post for a 3 ft. brick arch equal to 5 tons net, or in other words, 
the longest post has a factor of safety of five, which factor in- 
creases towards the skewbacks by the shortening of the posts, 
but not so rapidly as would at first appear as irregularities in 
the alignment with the radius cause cross strains which cannot 
be estimated. No attempt was made to arrange wedges to strike 
the center in the usual manner, as owing to the dirt and mire 
of the mine and the swelling of the wood caused by the moist 
atmosphere, such wedges would have become immovable. 
, Three such centers have been successfully constructed and 
notwithstanding some abuse by unequal and excessive loading, 
the settling has been slight in spite of a difference in the under- 
pinning in No. 4 south of over 3 ft. in the length of the room. 
Two of the centers have to date been struck by cutting out the 
posts nearest the skewbacks, and then removing two rows at a 
time and wedging down the planking and stringers. 

This material has been used again, thus the center of No. 2 
south is largely built of the lumber from No. 4 south. 

The mixer which has been used to make the concrete is 
shown in its most improved form on Plate X., which drawing 
was furnished by the makers, the Pioneer Iron Works of South 
Brooklyn, and is similar to that of the mixer used in filling the 
towers of the Brooklyn Bridge. 

It consists of a horizontal semi-circular trough of J^ inch 
wrought iron with cast iron heads, with "the lower half of the 
head at the discharge end cut out 

Each head has on it a journal box, which boxes carry a 
square shaft turned down at the journals, set concentric with the 
circle of the trough so that the arms on it clear the trough as 
little as possible. 

These arms are bolted together around the shaft in sets of 
two, and the sets follow one another on four different diameters, 
which, in combination with the inclined face of the paddles, forms 
a screw which will convey material from the upper to the dis- 
charge end and at the same time administer a thorough stirring. 

The motor is a 5x7 inch vertical engine, which, as may be 
seen by the drawing, is directly connected to the shaft by a uni- 
versal joint and suitable gearing. The whole ts carried on an 
ordinary wooden frame. 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 309 

Two men are required to run the mixer, one of whom stands 
on the engine side and shovels in the sand and cement, which 
have already been mixed in measured proportions, and the other 
throws in broken stone. 

An unvarying supply of water runs into the mixer head from 
a barrel, the level in which is kept constant by a float valve 
which draws on the water supply from the shaft 

Thus the man at the engine has only the throttle to control, 

and by suitable signs he informs the man at the broken rock 

when he is exceeding the limit for the mortar. 

1 No attempt has been made to screen the broken stone, but 

. the shoveller removes such pieces as would be liable to break 

1 the arms, which accident however happens occasionally. 

The quantity of stone incorporated by a certain amount of 
mortar lies in the judgment of the attendant at the engine, who 
by watching the product can modify its character. 

The ordinary proportions are assumed to be one of cement, 
three of sand and from four to five of broken stone. It has been 
.found advantageous to raise the lower end of the mixer about 
*> ur inches so as to form a basin for water and to compel the 
1. ixer to discharge up a slight incline. 

It will be obvious as the shell of the mixer is two feet high 
and the blast furnace barrow is 3 ft. high, in order that the mixer 
may discharge into a barrow, a distance of nearly five feet is re- 
quired from the shovelling floor to the run of the barrow. 

Owing to this and to the fact that the first room No. 3 south 
was very near the shaft, I thought it was best to place the mixer 
over the arch and carry it up with the masonry as that would 
avoid first hoisting the sand, cement and stone to the mixer, dis- 
charging into a barrow and then again hoisting the mixed con- 
crete to the top. 

Hence, in the center of the arch there was constructed an 
oval hole with arches on the ends, of sufficient size to permit 
the passage of two elevators placed side by side lengthwise of 
the arch. These elevators, which are shown on Plate XI., are 
the ordinary cages with wooden posts and sills and a single cap 
braced with iron rods to the sills. 

The side posts run on 1 J^x2 inch oak slides which are bolted 
to suitable running timbers forming part of the shaft 



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j» THE QUARTERLY. 

This shaftway was carried up as the work progressed by 
suitable 6x6 inch spruce posts shown on Plate XI., which also 
shows the wheel frame. This frame encompasses the shaft posts, 
being loose so as to slide along them, and as the masonry in the 
room increased in height, the frame was jacked up to suit and 
the rope lengthened by taking a coil off the drum. 

The inconvenience of jacking the amount necessary for a 
full cotl soon became apparent so that a new drum was con- 
structed in which one half the face is a loose revolving shell 
which niay be tightened at intervals by bolts, so that just the 
requisite length of rope can be paid off, the last adjustment be- 
ing made by a turnbuckle on each elevator. 

The ^i inch steel rope from one elevator passed directly up 
the shaft to and around the wheel on top, thence down along- 
side the shaft and around a wheel just under the center to the 
drum. 

The other rope took a similar course so that the elevators 
were always balanced. 

A platform to run off on, was attached to either side of the 
sliding frame at the top of the hoist, which platforms joined on to 
two others, as shown on Plate XII., Fig. r, on either side of the 
room with the mixer between them, one for cement and sand 
and the other for broken rock. Thus a barrow was loaded at 
the shaft, run on to the elevator, hoisted to the platform, run 
off and dumped alongside the mixer, which delivered its product 
into another barrow to convey it along the runway in the 
room. 

The large rock, which was imbedded in the magma produced 
by the mixer, was trammed directly to the place where it was 
used. 

In order to measure the sand and cement economically, I de- 
vised the following method, which is somewhat novel: 

A platform was constructed under the center alongside the 
elevators about 7 ft. from the floor capable of storing 1 5 bbls. of 
cement. From this a hopper bin with a slide in the bottom 
was built to deliver cement into the barrow. 

A sheet iron measure, circular in section, open at both ends 
and cut to fit the bottom was set into the barrow. 

The latter was then run under the cement spout and the 
space inside the measure filled with cement, when the barrow 



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MASOJVJiY SUPPORTS. 311 

was run under the sand bin and the space outside the measure 
filled with sand. 

The measure was now withdrawn, leaving the proper quan- 
tity of cement in the middle of the sand so that the dumping of 
the barrow partially mixed the two, when they were afterwards 
turned over with shovels. 

By jacking up the hoisting frame and the mixing platforms 
as the work progressed, No. 3 south was filled to within about 
12 ft of the bottom of the drift leading into the side from the 
Cosgriff shaft, when operations were begun on the arch of No. 
4 south, and the arrangements of No. 3 were changed, as is 
shown on Plate XII., Fig. 2. 

The platforms with the mixer between them were now placed 
opposite the drift near the foot wall, and the skip was dumped 
directly into, the car shown on Plate VII., to hold which a door 
with rails on it was placed in the shaft. 

The car was then run out and dumped on the platforms, the 
sand and cement one side and the rock on the other. 

A grooved wheel, properly braked and carrying a manilla 
rope with a bucket on either end, was rigged over the hole left 
by removing the elevators and shaft timbers, which hole was 
then rilled solid with a concrete of broken stone rammed so as 
to penetrate the spaces between the stone sides of the shaft, 
which had been purposely left rough in building. 

When the general level of the masonry was reached, this 
rigging was removed, and the rest of the material was trammed 
by barrows on suitable runs. 

Thus the masonry in No. 3 is partly composed of broken 
stone concrete alone, and partly of a rubble of the latter and 
large stone imbedded in the mass. 

Soon after the center had been removed, the spaces under 
the arch in the skewbacks were filled with concrete to the line 
of the walls, thus reinforcing the arch and shortening its span, 
Theoretically, the brick arch merely supports a small volume 
immediately above it, as the concrete itself forms an arch rest- 
ing on the walls in the skewbacks and is abundantly able to 
hold itself. 

This plan of filling from the bottom, described in the pro- 
ceeding, was abandoned in Rooms 4 and 2 south for a better 
method in which each elevator has its own shaft, so that the 



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3 i2 THE QUARTERLY. 

arch is cut by two small holes instead of a single large shaftway 
and the top of the masonry is left clear of all platforms, etc., 
which were found to be an annoyance in N0.3 south. All the 
material is mixed beneath the center. 

To this end a platform was erected about 7 ft. from the 
floor covering the space between the elevators and leading to 
the sand and rock bins on either side of the mixer, which was 
placed in a natural recess of the ore pillar, as is shown on Plate 
XII., Fig. 3. 

Thus the barrows containing sand and cement and broken 
rock could be hoisted, trammed from either elevator to the 
mixer and dumped, and the empty barrow run down an incline 
shown on Plate XII., Fig. 3, to the level, which arrangement 
left the elevators more free to hoist the product of the mixer, 
which was discharged directly into a barrow, and the large rock 
to the top of the room, 

The construction of the sliding frame which carries the upper 
wheels will be readily understood from Plate XIII. 

It consists of two parallel timbers on either side with cross 
blocks between, forming a built beam. This frame is supported 
by the running timbers of the shaftways, which carry the slides 
and the two back posts of each shaft, together with a set of 
steadying posts in the center of the span. 

The frames which have been described may appear heavy, 
but they have been severely tried at times by the impact of 
pieces of ore and rock, which have been blasted from the pillars 
and walls to cut off projections, make way for the foot wall shaft 
or to take down dangerous ground. 

While changing from 3 to 4 south and from 4 to 2 south, 
the material for the arches of Nos. 4 and 2 was hoisted by means 
of a small double trunk engine placed directly over one shaftway 
with a double whip of ^ inch steel rope around a running block 
on the elevator. 

While room No. 4 south was being filled by the arrange- 
ments described in the preceding, the masonry in No. 3 south 
was raised to within a few feet of the drift at the 250 ft ievel for 
a working space, by two side walls and a filling of loose rock, 
and a drift was driven through the pillar between 3 and 4 south 
with a view to filling No. 4 south through this drift. 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 313 

At the same time the centre, elevators, etc., were erected in 
No. 2 south on the plan which has been described for No. 4 
south, which method is still in use there, but will soon be aban- 
doned in favor of the arrangements which are shown on Plate 
XIV., and which are also designed to finish No. 4 south. 

On the level space prepared on the pillar of No. 3 south, 
there was now constructed a suitable platform on which the 
mixer was placed, as is shown on Plate XIV., near the foot wall 
with the sand and rock bins on either side, and a water supply 
was obtained by a pipe from the Cosgrifif shaft. 

The track in the drift from the Cosgriff shaft was extended 
in No. 3 south to form a double switchback so that the car could 
be dumped into either bin alongside of the mixer. The drift 
between Nos. 3 and 4 south was now floored, and as the masonry 
in No, 4 south lacked some 18 ft. of reaching this drift, an in- 
clined tramway was run around the sides of the room with such 
a grade that a loaded barrow could be run down without dan- 
ger. 

A modified arrangement of the device used to fill the shaft- 
way in No. 3 south was then constructed, and the two shaftways 
of No. 4 south were filled in a similar manner, and the further 
building of the pillar has been continued. 

Thus in filling No. 4, the car is loaded by dumping the skip- 
load into it at the shaft, run in on the switchback by two men, 
and dumped at its proper bin; or, if the load be large rock, it is 
reloaded into the barrows and trammed into 4 south. 

In No. 2 south instead of the inclined tramway of No. 4 
south, a frame for two elevators side by side has been erected 
to lower the barrows into the room, and, if found feasible, it is 
intended to dump the large rock from the car between these 
elevators and the pillar in a kind of chute. 

This completes all the arrangements for finishing the pillars 
above the 300 ft. level. 

Reference has been made to the shaft under construction on 
the foot wall of No. 2 south in the artificial pillar. This shaft 
as soon as practicable, will be extended through the ore floor of 
No. 2 south, and down to the 500 ft. level, and will form the 
channel through which the material for No. 2 south will be 
lowered. 



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314 THE QUARTERLY. 

An .arch will be constructed on the 500 ft level from wall to 
wall, similar to those on the 300 ft level, and on it the pillar will 
be raised to meet the masonry above the 300 ft level, which 
will necessitate the removal of the two floors at the 400 and 300 
ft. levels when the masonry shall have been built up under each. 

It is hoped that no great delay will occur in changing from 
the Cosgriff to the new shaft, as there is still considerable ma- 
sonry to be built above the 300 ft level, while the preparations 
for the work below are in progress. 

I will now present the following estimates which have formed 
the basis for the work. 

1st The estimate of all the ore left standing in the pillars 
south of the south side of room No. 2 south, and including the 
floors of No. 2 south at the 300 and 400 ft. levels and the pro- 
portion of ore north of this to be benefited by this masonry 
under construction. 

2d. The original estimates of the cost per cubic yard, the 
proportion of cement to be used, etc. 

3d. The actual cost as per the summation of all expenses to 
December 1st, 1884, or a trial test of the cost of the masonry 
completed to that date in rooms Nos. 3 and 4 south. 

4th. The total Masonry to be constructed to release the 
above ore and the probable cost on the basis of the foregoing. 

TILLY FOSTER IRON MINES, 

January 15, 1885. 
Estimate of Ore south of the south side of Room No. a South, from 

THE FLOOR OF THE 500 FT. LEVEL TO 

BV THE PROPOSED MASONRY AT PRESENT TJ 

Ore standing in Pillar from I65 (t. Level to Surface— Ton. 

One Pillar lao ft-x Bo ft.x 15 ft 14,400 

50 ft. x 50 ft.x 15 ft 3, 75° 

The following is estimated solid, as though the body 
were unworked. The shipments from the rooms and ore 
taken from Cosgrifl Shaft will then be deducted, but no 
account is taken of drifts. 

Ore from 165 ft. Level to 300 ft. Level. 
Area of total Ore body south of the south side of Room 

No. a South, at floor of 300 ft. level. .. .10,800 sq. ft. 

Area of same at 165 ft. level about 10,800 sq. ft. 

Vertical distance from 165 ft. level to 300 ft. level.. 100 ft. 
10,800 sq. ft.xiooft. vertical 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 



o 500 ft. Level, 
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4,400 9,400 



Ore from 300 ft. Level to 400 ft. Level, 
South of Room No. 2, S. 

Are* at 300 ft. floor 10,800 sq. ft. 

Area at 400 ft. floor 7,100 sq. ft. 

Vertical distance 300 to 400 93 ft. 

By Prismoidal Formula contents 83,235 

Total t9I,33S 

Ore from 400 ft. Level ti 

South of 2 South (hoi- 
Area at 400 ft. fluor 7,100 sq. ft. 

Area at 500 ft. floor 3,500 sq. ft. 

Vertical distance 86.5 ft. 

By Prismoidal Formula contents 

Ore in floor of No. 2 South Room at 300 and 400 ft. levels, 
necessary to remove to build Pillar No. 3 South. 

At 300 ft. level, floor of 2 south .' 

At 400 ft. level, floor of 3 south 

Grand total of Ore south of the south side of Room No. 2 
South, from 500 ft. floor to 165 ft. floor level were the 
body unworked and including the two floors of Room 
No. 3 South 246,480 

Shipments which have been made from this Total Volume: 
300 ft. Level. Toss. 

Room No. 3. S 10,133.06 

Room No. 4, S 0,926.41 

Room No. 5, S 4,°3&-3 *4>°9S-77 

400 ft. Level. 

Room No. 3, S 12,551.8 

Room No. 4. S 9,456.64 22,008.44 

500 ft Level. 

Room No. 3, S 10,220.6 

Total as per Books 56-324-81 

Ore taken from Coseriff Shaft in Pillar between No. 3 and 

3, S. 140 ft. shaft about 10x14 3,000 

Total Ore removed from 300, 400 and 500 ft. levels, south 

of Room No. 2, S 58,324-81 

Total Ore as in preceediog from level of 165 ft. level to 

floor of 500 ft. level supposing body unworked 246,480 

Shipments from same volume 58,334.81 

Leaves from Level of 165 ft. level to floor of 500 ft. Level 188,155.19 

Add Ore left standing from 165 ft. Level to surface in 

Pillars 18, 150 



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316 THE QUARTERLY. 

Proportion of Ore in Pillar between No. 2, S, and No. 1, 
N., to be credited to cost of South Masonry, as re- 
leased by tbe same 100,000 

Total Ore liberated 306. 305.19 

Surface Rock necessary to remove to a line of safety : in 

section a triangle 190 ft. dccpx 100 ft. base x 200 ft. 

long 70,000 cu. yards 

Cost of removing $40,000.00 



I will now submit 

2D— The Original Estimates made in Oct., 1883, OF the 
Cost of One Pillar and Brick Arch. 

Masonry exclusive of Arch assumed to be 3,°33 cu. yds. 

Brick Arch 267 cu. yds. 

For cutting Skewbacks in Walls..- $57° 

For Centre 516 

For Brick Arch 

154,2x4 Brick, at $10 per M ti.W 34 

Mortar for same 1 bbl. cement and '/i cu. yd. sand per cu- 
bic yard of brickwork 421 87 

Cost of handling and laying brick, at $4 per M 616 89 2,581 

3033 cu. yds. Rubble Masonry at $4.50 t13.648.50 

Total cost l7,3l5-50 

It was assumed that One Ban-el of Cement would make 

One Cubic Yard of Masonry. 
It will be seen that the Brick Arch is estimated at about 

$10 per cubic yard. 

3D — Resume of Actual Expenditures. 
Actual Cost of Skew-backs, 300 ft. Level. 
Room No. 2 South. 

Foot Wall, 156 cu. yds. at %a $312 

Hanging Wall, 17OCU. yds. ar $2 340 

Total, 326 cu. yds. at $2 865= 

Room No. 3 South. 

Foot Wall, 142.2 cu. yds. at $2 284 40 

Hanging Wall, 208 cu. yds. at $2 416 

Total, 350.2 cu. yds. at $2 700 40 

Room No. 4 South. 

Foot Wall, 132 cu. yds. at 81.50 198 

Hanging Wall, 133.6 cu. yds. at $1.50 200 40 

Total, 265.6 cu. yds. at $1.50 308 40 

Total Cost of Skew Backs in three Rooms I.7S*> 80 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 

Average Cost per Room 583 60 

Estimated Average Cost per Room 570 

Total Expenditl-re. 

There had been expended to Dec. 1st, 1884, for all the ap- 
pliances, machinery, material and equipment a grand 

total of 3 

Cost of Machinery. 

The Machinery on band including skip, barrows, cars, 
Electric Lights, ropes wheels, etc. 

Cost to December 1st, 1884 

These were estimated to be worth in view of the large 

amount of work still to be done 

Credit for Material. 

There was a further credit to be deducted from the Total 
Expenditure consisting of Material on hand for No. 3 
South, (none of the masonry of which will be consid- 
ered in the work accomplished). Material other than 
Machinery for general use, Ore which had been re- 
moved by Mine Masonry Labor, Cement sold outside, 
etc. 

The Total was 5,703 46 

To which add Machinery 4,355 05 

Total Credit to be deducted 

To show for the Total expenditure there has been 

Work Completed to Dec. i. 1884, 

Pillar No. 3 South. 
238 cu. yds. Brick Masonry (Arch), at $10 

3801.3 cu. yds. Cement Rubble Masonry 

77 cu. yds. loose filling to level up No. 3 South, for Mixer, 

etc, at $2. 50 

Pillar No. 4 South. 
314.5 cu- yds. Brick Masonry (Arch), at 1 10 ' 

1503.4 cu. yds. Cement Rubble Masonry 

Total Masonry. 

451.5 cu. yds. Brick Masonry 

4304.7 cu. yds. Cement Rubble Masonry 

77 cu. yds. Loose Filling 

From which we deduce the following : 

Resume of Cost Per Yard prior to Dec. ist, 1884. 



To Total Expenditures, (Labor and Materials) 33.957 86 

Cr. 
By Total Deductions, (Machinery and Materials) 10,058 51 



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3'S 



THE QUARTERLY. 



By 45 a -S cu. yds. Brick Masonry, at |io 4,535 

By 77 cu. yds. Loose Filling, at $3.50 19a 50 

Total 4.717 50 

Balance 

Leaving the Cost of 4304-7 cu. yds. of Cement Rubble 
Masonry, at $4.45 

Cost of Whole Number of Yards of Masonry and Filling; 
Complete. 4834.2 cu. yds. at $4.94 

It was also found that 4175 bbls. of cement had been used 
for 4757.2 cu. yds. of Masonry .' 

The following Estimate gives the Total Masonry to be 
completed according to the General Plan, the cost of 
which has been assumed in view of the foregoing, at 
$5 per cubic yard 

Total Masonry to be completed to Release Ore 

Accompanying Statement. 

Pillar No a South. (Partly finished). 

Area of Masonry at 300 ft. level in Room No, 1 S. 8012a 

ft, — 1760 sq. ft 

Area of Masonry at 400 ft. level in Room No. 3 S. 701 

25, about 1760 sq. ft. 

Average distance of Pillar above 300 ft. level, 60 ft. 

Cu. Ft. 

1760 sq. ft. x6o 105,600 

Masonry from 300 to 400 ft. Levels. Distance Vertical, 

93 ft., 1760 sq. ft. 1 93 163,680 

Masonry from 400 to 500 ft. Levels. 

Area at 400 ft. level, 1760 sq. ft 

Area at 500 ft. level, including horse, 1634 sq. ft 

Vertical Distance, 86. 5 ft 

Contents by Prismoida! Formula, 146,358 cu. ft 

Less Horse of Rock to ) 

[ 33,600 •' 113,758 

be imbedded in Pillar. ) 

Grand Total of Masonry in Pillar No. 3 South, if solid 
from floor of 500 ft. level to 60 ft. above 300 ft. level, 
32 ft. thick at the top and 28 ft thick at the bottom. . 363,038 

383,038 cu, ft. — I4,t49cu. yds 

Pillar No. 3 South, (Completed). 

Cu. Yds. 

Rubble 3,801.3 

Brick 338 

Loose Filling 77 

Pillar No. 4 South, (Partly finished). 

Rubble, (estimated) 3,751.4 

Brick, (completed) 314. 5 

The following summation will give the total Masonry in 
round numbers, an addition having been made for re- 
inforcing the Arches at the skew-backs, and contin- 



19,181 85 
33,899 35 



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MASONRY SUPPORTS. 319 

Hilar 3 South 14,149 

Pillar 3 South | 3,040 

Pillar 4 South 3,000 

Total 30,189 

It now remains tp combine the Estimate of Total Ore to 
be Recovered with that of the Total Masonry to be 
Constructed, and to deduce the estimated cost of the 

Masonry per ton of Ore 

Estimated Coat of Masonry per Ton of Ore. 

Estimated cost of removing Surface Rock 

About 70,000 cu. yds (40,000 

Estimated cost of 10,189 cu.yds. of Masonry at $5 100,94$ 

Total Estimated Expenditure $140,943 

Against which is the following : 
Ore. 
South of Masonry Pillar No. a South and including the TONS. Tons. 

Soots of No, 3 South at the 300 and 400 ft. levels. . . 306,30; 
Between Room No. 3 South and Room No. t North to be 

benefited by Pillar No. s South 100,000 

Total tons of Ore Gross in place 306,305 

306,305 Tons against (140,945, or a cost against the Ore 
for the Masonry of 46 cents per Ton. 

It would be tdle to discuss here the reasons why so many 
different methods of handling the material have been used, as 
the whole question was gradually developed by unseen differ- 
culties, and particular improvements in the arrangement for a 
certain place would not be apparent to anyone, but to a person 
on the ground seeking to take advantage of any circumstance 
that might lessen the expense of handling. 

In closing I would state that Mr. James Addis, of Ithaca, 
N. Y., has been directly in charge of the mason work. 

I would acknowledge the free use which I have made in the 
preparation of the estimates and of this article, of the maps of 
the 300 and 400 ft levels, and the sections left by my prede- 
cessor, Mr. Ferd. S. Ruttmann, Jr., E.M. 

I would also acknowledge the very material assistance I have 
had from Mr. John McQuay, of Brewsters, N. V., the boss car- 
penter, if not in the conception of the general scheme by which 
the work has heretofore been handled, certainly in many valua- 
ble suggestions in the details and especially in the workmanlike 
manner in which the drawings and plans have been carried out 

Tilly Foster, N. Y., 

April iith, 1885, 



ntrod .GoO^lc 



3 2o THE QUARTERLY. 

BESSEMERIZING COPPER MATTES. 

BY T. EGLESTON, Ph.D. 

The treatment of copper mattes by the Bessemer process has 
acquired such an interest in this country from its successful in- 
troduction at the works of the Parrot Silver and Copper Co., at 
Butte City, Montana,* where a copper matte containing 72% of 
copper was converted in 20 minutes in a single operation to 
black copper containing 98.9% of copper, that I have thought 
it would be of interest to publish what is known about the process. 

The first attempts to concentrate copper mattes in the Besse- 
mer converter were made by Lemennikow, in 1867,+ the next, 
the same year, by von Jossa and Laletin, Russian mining en- 
gineers in the works of Wotkinsk, in the Ural Mts. They were 
made both with blast alone and with air and superheated steam, 
but were only partially successful. In the following yearf Strids- 
berg and Koelberg, at Westanfors, in Sweden, made similar ex- 
periments on a small scale, but did not follow them up. In the 
year 1879, Mr. P. HoIIoway, having made a large number of 
experiments in the two previous years, announced that he had 
solved this problem and took out patents for the process,^ but 
after trying it on a large scale during the two following years 
the difficulties were found to be so great that the process was 
generally abandoned. 

The problem of treating copper mattes in the Bessemer con- 
verter is quite different from that for the treatment of iron.|| 
There only 9 to 10 per cent, of the weight of the cast iron is to 
be oxidized, but with copper mattes, 40 to 50 and sometimes 75 
to 80 per cent, must be removed by oxidation. In the Besse- 
mer apparatus the iron, the silicon, and the carbon develop from 
7800 to 8000 calorics; while the sulphur and the iron contained 
in the matte do not produce more than from 1500 to 2200 

•Dr. E. D. Peters, who constructed the furnaces, but not the converters at 
Butte, has kindly given me the details relating to the working of the process there. 
fBergund HQt. Zeit., 1871, p. 7. 
% " " " 1882, p. 180. 

g Berg, und Hiltt. Zeit., 1879, p. 151. 
1 Annates dcs mines, 8 series. Vol. 3, p. 431. 



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BESSEMER/ZING COPPER MATTES. 321 

calorics. The specific heat of the copper is less than that of 
iron, being only about two-thirds of it, but the weight of the 
copper in the matte is much lower than the proportion of iron 
in the cast irons, so that in reality the matte requires less heat 
than the cast iron. The realization of the process would seem 
therefore comparatively easy, but it has not proved so in prac- 
tice, for, although all the experiments made up to about 1880 
gave the greatest promise of success, they failed, as it afterwards 
proved, for the want of a very little experience of how the mattes 
ought to be treated at or near the time when the converter was 
ready to be turned down. 

In 1880, Mr. F. Manhes made a series of experiments in the 
works of Vedennes, and Eguilles, 8 kilometres from Avignon in 
the department of Vaucluse, France. They were made with a 
small converter containing about 100 kilograms of matte with 
vertical tuyers like the ordinary Bessemer converters. The 
matte contained 25 to 30 per cent, of copper and had been made 
from ore which had been previously melted without having been 
roasted. The sulphur and iron oxidized rapidly. The sulphur 
escaped, and the oxide of iron formed a fluid scoria with the 
silica of the converter. Everything worked well during the first 
part of the process. The heat developed by the combustion of 
the iron and sulphur was sufficient to keep the bath and scoria 
fluid, but towards the close of the operation there were many 
difficulties. The condition of the whole charge changed very 
suddenly. The slags became very pasty, owing to a partial de- 
composition of the silicate of iron and the formation of a mag- 
netic oxide, the blast could only penetrate it with difficulty, so 
that the ordinary movement caused by the blast was succeeded 
by a tumultuous ebullition with the projection of scorias, the 
reaction becoming so violent that large quantities of both the 
matte and the scorias were thrown out of the converter. As 
the sulphur burned, the metallic copper, which was denser than 
the matte, went to the bottom and became chilled on account of 
there being no combustible elements there, by the constant 
stream of air passing through it The tuyers became gradually 
filled up by the solid copper which forced them to cast the metal 
before the operation was finished, so that both matte and copper 
were produced at the same time. As long as the ordinary Besse- 
mer apparatus was used, the results were always the same. The 



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$22 THE QUARTERLY. 

operation had to be stopped, and the rich matte cast before it 
was entirely converted into black copper. The tuyers were 
then made horizontal, entering the bath at a certain distance 
above the bottom of the converter. The wind chest below was 
replaced by a circular air chamber around the sides of the vessel 
above the bottom. Lateral orifices were made through the sides 
of the converter so as to throw the air horizontally into the bath. 
In this apparatus the copper did not become solid, and the whole 
matte could be transformed into black copper. In order to avoid 
as much as possible the great abundance of ferruginous scorias, 
the mattes were made to contain from 50 to 60 per cent, of cop- 
per, and cast iron containing manganese introduced to give 
greater fluidity to the scorias. With poorer matte the quantity 
of scorias was so great that it was necessary to pour them off or 
to perform the operation in the converter twice, and to bring 
the matte up to 60 to 70 per cent, of copper before submitting 
it to the final part of the process. 

The works of Mr. Manhes were put into operation towards 
the last of 1 882. After a little, a second works of the same size 
were erected, which worked alternately, the monthly production 
being 80 to 100 tons of copper. The plant, which is now used, 
consists of 3 shaft furnaces, each capable of melting 25 to 30 
tons of ore per day ; two small cupolas for remelting the matte 
when necessary ; three converters each capable of making 22 
to 24 blows in a day and of converting 1.5 tons of matte into 
black copper at each blow, and in addition to these the necessary 
engines to produce the blast 

The process is applicable to any ore containing sufficient 
copper and sulphur to form a matte. Those which are treated 
in France are often used mixed with the pyrites which has been 
roasted for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, with foundry resi- 
dues and cement copper. The ores used at the Manhes works 
come from France, Italy and Spain. Most of them contain sul- 
phur, and are sent to the works without being roasted. They 
vary from 4 to 23 per cent, in copper. The difficulty with their 
treatment has been the great variety both in their composition 
and richness. With a regular composition there would be no dif- 
ficulty. In the present condition of the ore market the ores are 
all sampled. In the works at Eguilles they are quartzose sulph- 
ides and carbonates, which are mixed so as to contain from 1 2 



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BESSEMERIZING COPPER MATTES. 333 

to 1 5 per cent of copper. They also purchase for treatment 
with the ore old bronze, brass, old and impure copper, cement 
copper, in fact, anything which contains copper enough to 
make it worth while to treat it 

The ores at Butte, Montana, come from a mine situated 
about a mile from the works, and connected with them by a 
tramway. They are sulphurets and are quartzose. The general 
assay of the ore of the mine is about 12 per cent, of copper. 
The ore is divided at the mine into two classes, the first very 
small in amount, containing about 22 per cent It is broken by 
hand to pieces a little smaller than the size of the fist and is 
roasted in stalls. The second class contains about 9 per cent, of 
copper, and is crushed and concentrated at the furnace, where 
the dressing works are situated, up to about 18 per cent, of cop- 
per and then roasted in reverberatory furnaces. 

The process as a whole consists of a variable number of 
operations, the number depending on the size of the plant, and 
whether it is considered essential to go from the matte to the 
black copper in a single operation. It may consist of six, four, 
or in certain cases, of three operations. It will generally differ a 
little for poor and for rich ores. 

For poor ores the operations are as follows : 

1. Melting ores without any previous roasting to produce a 
matte containing from 25 to 30 per cent, of copper and a fluid 
scoria. 

2. Fusion of this matte in a cupola. 

3. Treatment of the matte in the converter and bringing it 
up to 72 per cent, of copper. 

4. Fusion of this matte in a cupola. 

5. Treatment in the converter for black copper. 

6. Fining and refining in a reverberatory furnace. 

For rich ores the operation with a sufficient number of con- 
verters only requires processes I, 5 and 6, as the mattes can be 
run directly from the shaft furnace into the converter, for the 
cooling of the mattes after they are once made is entirely un- 
necessary This does away with the operations 2 and 4. 

For poor ores two operations in the converter will have to 
be made, so that the matte may be poured from one converter to 
the other to be enriched. When the ores must be roasted an 
additional operation is necessaay. All of these operations are 



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324 THE QUARTERLY. 

exceedingly simple and are carried out with the least possible 
expense for labor and fuel, but they require care and skill and 
as the process is new, great watchfulness is necessary on the 
part of those in charge. 

The greatest difficulty in carrying out the process in France, 
has been, however, to obtain ores which were not of the most 
variable character, for where the ores vary very much in yield 
it is necessary to sample them to bring up the grade of the poor, 
and thus diminish the yield of the rich, ores, in order to get a 
matte rich enough to treat it in a single blow. But if they are 
all poor, two blows will have to be used, and thus the whole 
routine of the works be changed from day to day, which is very 
embarrassing. Those used are pure and rich copper pyrites, 
rich impure ores and rich pure ores; even ores containing 10 
to 1 5 per cent of antimony have been successfully treated. 

It was supposed when the process was first invented that it 
would be possible to go in one operation from the matte to black 
copper, and this can be done, provided a matte of about 72 per 
cent, is produced in the first fusion of the ore, but in practice it 
has been found more economical to make a matte of about 40 
per cent., and have two operations in the converter, than to 
make the very rich matte first in the cupola, in order to avoid 
the two operations in the converter. To do this it is only neces- 
sary to increase the plant so as to have a double set of converters 
so arranged that the matte may be charged from one directly to 
the other, getting rid of the slag in the transit. The result of 
the present practice is that it is not economical to produce 
mattes of 72 per cent, in the shaft furnace. It is not economical 
to go in one operation from the matte to black copper unless 
the matte contains 72 per cent., so that in fact the latest Con- 
structed works have abandoned the idea of attempting to make 
the black copper in a single operation, and propose, as at Butte, 
to use an intermediate concentration of the matte. If the ores 
or material treated are very impure, all that is done is to add 
a little manganiferous cast-iron to make the slags flow easily. 
When the ores contain silver and gold, it is proposed to con- 
tinue the operation on the black copper after the iron is removed. 
For this purpose all the slag is taken away. Irons containing- 
manganese, phosphorus or silicon are then added and the opera- 
tion continued until the larger part of the impurities have been 



, v GooqIc 



BESSEMERIZING COPPER MATTES. 325 

oxidized and removed in the slag. The copper they contain is 
recovered by a subsequent treatment. The gold and silver is 
thus concentrated in a small quantity of copper, which can be 
treated in the wet way. There are, however, great practical 
difficulties in the way of carrying out such a process. The losses 
in gold and silver will be very large in any case and especially 
so when the ores are very impure. 

When the ores contain a large amount of sulphur, as at 
Butte, Montana, they were at first all roasted. This is called 
calcination. It is done in a reverberatory furnace which is about 
54 feet long and 14 feet wide in the inside. Wood is used for 
fuel. It takes about one-sixth of a cord of wood per ton of ore 
treated. After roasting, the ores contain about 22 per cent, of 
copper and five per cent of sulphur. They are, however, about 
to make a change in this respect, smelting a large part of the rich 
ore raw, so as to produce a 40 per cent matte, which is to be 
treated in two operations, and roasting only the poorer ores. 

The present plant at Butte consists of a concentrator capable 
of enriching 1 50 tons of ore per day, which produces 75 tons of 
concentrated material. Six reverberatory calcining furnaces 
capable of treating twelve tons a day each, consequently of 
roasting 72 tons, for treatment in the blast furnace which is ca- 
pable of treating 70 to 80 tons per day, and of 6 converters. The 
old plant consists of a 90 ton concentrator, six calciners and six 
1 2 ton reverberatory smelters. 

The shaft furnace at Butte is circular and has the shape of 
an inverted truncated cone, and is 48 inches in diameter at the 
tuyers, and 60 inches at the feed door, and is 9 feet high. It ' 
has nine tuyers. The pressure of the blast is three-fourths of a 
pound to the square inch, equal to I % inches of mercury. The 
ores in France are melted in a shaft furnace without being 
roasted, with such additions as are necessary to make fusible sili- 
cates. In the works at Eguilles, Basic Bessemer slags are added 
which contain from 4 to 5 per cent, of copper, which goes into 
the mattes. The three shaft furnaces have the following dimen- 



Height of furnace" 5 meters. 

Height of slag tap - O.60 ' ' 



" Berg. u. Hat. Zeit. 1884, p. 484. 

at rod vGoO^lc 



3*6 THE QUARTERLY. 

Height of layers above the bottom 80 c. m. 

Diameter at the tuyers 1.00 meters. 

Diameter at the bottom 0.70 " 

Diameter of the tuyers 13 to .15 meters 

Number of tuyers 3, 

Pressure of wind 20 c. m. of water 

f 70 kilos coke, 



Charge -j 500 

( 50 



The quantity of coke used is about 7% of the weight of the 
ore. The furnace is tapped every three hours. 

Quantity of ore treated in 24 hours 20,000 kilos, 

slag 3,000 " 

" matte produced. , 4,000 " 

Percentage of copper in the matte as to 30 

The furnace lasts two to three months without repairs. 

The matte produced is called a bronze matte and contains :• 

Copper 26.39 

Iron aft.gi 

Sulphur 33.65 

Manganese o. M 

Nickel 1.65 

Zinc 4-7a 

Lime , 0.94 

Magnesia o.oj 

Baryta J.57 

Insoluble 4.56 

This matte is concentrated in the Bessemer converter which 
is 1.54 meters in its greatest outside diameter, 65 centimeters at 
the bottom, 1.44 meters in height from the bottom to the top of 
the arch, which has a radius of 70 centimeters, the spout is 50 
centimeters in diameter, but projects oniy about 15 c. m. beyond 
the vertical sides. It is simply a cylinder made of sheet iron .60 
m. high, rounded at the bottom by a circle of 1 m. radius to a 
flat bottom 0.65 m. in diameter, and terminated by an arch of 
0.70 radius, to which a spout is attached. 

At Butte the converters are about 1 m. 80 high and 1 m. 30 
in diameter, but with the lining they are so filled up as to 
be about the size of an ordinary oil barrel. They have a capa- 
city of 1 000 kilos. These dimensions are about the same as those 
used by Mr. Manhes. At Butte the converter is lined with 

•Ibid. 



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BESSEMERIZING COPPER MATTES. 317 

ganister made with a mixture of crushed quartz held together 
by clay and is rammed into its place. It has been found that 
this answers much better than bricks, and that the lining is 
more easily made and repaired. In France the converter is 
lined with a mixture of 3 parts quartz and 1 part fire clay, 
which is 30 c. m. thick on the bottom, 30 c. m. on the lower 
part and 25 c. m. on the upper part at the sides ; at the spout 
it is only 0.06 m. thick. The tuyers are in the side 15 to 25 
centimeters above the stamped bottom, there being 18 to 20 
holes through the sides of the furnace. The diameter of the 
tuyer hole is 1 2 to 15 mm. The holes are drilled through 
the lining, which forms the side of the furnace, while it is still 
soft, with a pointed iron tool. They are made perfectly horizon- 
tal. They are generally made about 12 mm., but they grow 
larger during the operation. They connect with the air cham- 
ber which is a cast-iron ring which encircles the furnace. 

It has been suggested that there would be a great advantage 
in increasing the number of tuyer openings to from 80 to 100, 
and that this would materially shorten the time so as to allow 
of 30 to 35 operations in the 24 hours. This would be equivalent 
to making a continuous tuyer, and its effect seems doubtful, as 
there is so much difficulty with the present tuyers in keeping 
them open. It would be even more difficult to keep open a 
continuous one. There does not seem to be any advantage in 
this. The best results so far have been obtained with from 1 8 
to 20 ; the tuyers are very easily clogged so that during the 
operation it is necessary for them to be constantly watched and 
cleaned out with an iron rod so as to prevent their becoming 
stopped during the operation. Without this precaution so 
large a number would become clogged that it would be difficult 
to keep the furnace in operation. 

A freshly lined converter is dried at Butte in less than 24 
hours. It is charged before it is quite dry, and the moisture 
gradually escapes as it gets heated through. In France it takes 
generally about twenty-four hours heating with coke to dry the 
freshly lined converter. From one and a half to two tons of 
matte which has been previously melted in a cupola furnace or 
cast directly from the shaft furnace is then introduced. This fills 
the converter to about 20 c m. from the bottom. The vessel 
is then turned up and the operation conducted exactly as in the 



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328 • THE QUARTERLY. 

Bessemer process. It must, however, be remarked that the 
capacity of the converter for the treatment of mattes is much less 
than it would be for iron, not only because the matte yields 
more slags, but because if the same quantity of matte as iron 
were treated these slags would be projected from the converter. 
The quantity of blast blown is about IOO cubic meters in a 
minute, with a pressure of 25 to 35 centimeters of quicksilver. 
It is seldom more than half an atmosphere. The amount of 
fuel consumed is 90 per cent, of the weight of the matte. As 
soon as the pressure is put on, the temperature rises very rapidly 
from the combustion of the iron, sulphur, and other substances, 
all of which burn more readily than the copper. They must, 
however, be present in predetermined quantities to produce the 
best results. The oxides formed by the combustion are absorbed 
at once by the silica taken from the sides of the furnace. The 
flame is at first short and yellowish, accompanied with sparks. 
The temperature rises very rapidly and the smoke is thick and 
whitish yellow. It will be all the thicker, if zinc and lead are 
present. After two or three minutes the foreign metals will be 
for the most part oxidized, and there will remain only copper 
matte, the sulphur of which commences to burn ; the flame then 
becomes longer and clearer, and dark yellow. In about 15 to 
20 minutes according to the richness of the matte the flame be- 
comes clear, and continues so to the close of the operation. If 
any carbon remains in the converter after drying and heating it, 
or if any carbonic oxide is generated, the flame is greenish on 
the edges. The addition of coke at the commencement of the 
operation to increase the temperature of the converter, changes the 
color of the flame from the alkalies that are volatilized so that 
judging the process by the flame is more obscure than the ordin- 
ary Bessemer process. The sulphur flame will generally be visi- 
ble however, during three-fourths of the blow. 

At the commencement, more especially with low grade mattes 
the flame is accompanied with sparks. A dense smoke of white 
sulphurous vapors escapes immediately upon turning the blast. 
It usually begins to be slightly green about five minutes be- 
fore the end of the operation, but unless there is a considerable 
amount of carbon present, it is never very marked. The time 
of the operation will vary with the quantity of mattes. It will 
generally take 25 minutes to bring a 40% to a 73% matte, and 
about 30 minutes to bring the 73% to 99% black copper. 



;v Goo^lc 



BESSEMERIZING COPPER MATTES. 3*9 

When the mattes are very low grade and contain a large 
amount of iron, and there is danger that the oxide will attack 
the sides of the furnace, ground quartz sand is blown through 
the tuyers from a sand box, the quantity being calculated in 
such a way as to form sub-silicates and thus prevent destruction 
of the lining. 

When the mattes are poor the whole contents of the con- 
verter are, in France, poured into a conical mold to allow the 
slag and matte to separate by gravity. The matte should be in 
small quantity. It is all caught in the first molds. It is made 
to separate easily from the black copper by cooling the contents 
of the mold suddenly with water when it is at a dull red heat. 
The matte is then remelted and retreated. It would be quite 
practicable, if the number of converters were sufficient, to pour the 
matte trom one converter to another, which would save the re- 
melting, but as the works must be considered as trial works, it 
was thought to be cheaper to allow the matte to cool and re- 
melt it, rather than to increase the number of the converters. 

At Butte, each converter has a hood over it with a small 
chimney so as to scatter the gases in the air. In France where 
they are much nearer cultivation, it is discharged into a chim- 
ney 50 meters high. The process is generally finished in 25 to 
30 minutes. When the flame appears quite clear, the converter 
is turned down and the charge is poured out into cast iron 
moulds, where the slags and matte separate, The slags contain 
from 5 to 6% of copper and are treated in a shaft furnace. 

If the mattes are poor, the casting must be made quickly, in 
order to avoid a violent ebullition and projections. If black 
copper is made, there is no such inconvenience to be feared. 

This matte contains from 7$ to 77 per cent copper and is 
called a white matte. It contains 

Copper* 77.61 

Sulphur 30.65 

Insoluble 38 



At Butte when the furnace runs with one single operation 
on high grade matte the composition is : 



^Google 



33« THE QUARTERLY. 

Copper 70. 

Iron 3.9 

Arsenic 8 

Sulphur 34. 

When they are running on poor mattes in two operations the 
the analysis is : 

Copper 40. 

Iron 98. 



Arsenic 0.8 

Sulphur 39.5 

In the works as at first constructed in France, all the matte 
was cast and had to be remelted in the cupola furnace, but in 
Butte this is not done, and the matte is run directly from the 
shaft furnace into the converter. 

The slags are easily separated from the matte. They are 
always rich, containing often as high as 5 per cent, of copper. 
They are melted with the ore in the shaft furnace. Their usual 
composition is, 



35. 



90 



Copper. . 



Occasionally, when the operation is carried from a low grade 
matte to blister copper, it will be necessary to remove the slags. 
They contain, at Butte, from 1 yi to 3 per cent, of copper, and 
are always re-treated in the shaft furnace, as they make an ex- 
cellent flux there. These slags are basic sub-silicates of iron and 
sometimes they are even highly magnetic. 

This matte is either again melted in a furnace and re- 
charged in the converter, or is poured from one converter to 
another, and smelted to black copper in 15 to 20 minutes. 
There is very little smoke in this operation, and the flame is 
short and yellow. Sometimes it is greenish. The cessation of 
the smoking and the throwing out of small quantities of shot cop- 



, v GooqIc 



BESSEMER/ZING COPPER MATTES. 331 

per show the close of the operation. The black copper contains 
at the least 97% of copper. Its usual composition is,* 

Copper 98.S to 98.8 

Sulphur O.g to 0.8 

Iron 0.6 to 0.4 



The temperature produced by the combustion of the sulphur, 
iron and other metals, which are in small quantity, is not very 
high, so that the black copper is cast at a very low heat and is 
not very fluid. When for any reason it is necessary to turn the 
converter down before the close of the operation, some matte 
will be produced with the copper, but that floats upon it and is 
separated without any difficulty. 

At Butte the black copper contains from 98 to 99.2 per cent, 
of copper and is absolutely free from arsenic and antimony. 
The mattes often contain arsenic, antimony, lead, zinc, and tin. 
These mattes cannot be treated by any other process so as to 
make pure copper. It would seem as if the arsenic and antimony 
would in the process be separated with as much difficulty as in 
any of the other processes, but this is not the case. The very 
high temperature of the blast and its intense oxidising action 
causes them to be carried off by it, as they disappear completely, 
before they have time to act upon the copper. Zinc, tin and lead 
are separated without difficulty. Some of the cobalt is scorified 
but some of it remains in the copper. The nickel and bismuth 
seem also to concentrate. The Bessemer process is, therefore, 
no better for these last metals than the others in which they can 
also not be separated. The elimination of the arsenic and anti- 
mony is the most imporant result of the process. 

The black copper is refined in a reverberatory furnace. At 
first only from 7 to 12 operations could be made even with rich 
matte, before the sides were completely corroded. The iron of 
the matte is slagged off by the silica obtained from the sides of 
the furnace. When the mattes are poor and contain not over 
33 per cent of copper not more than 8 operations can be made. 
Silica cannot be added during the operation with poor mattes, 
except in fine powder and in very small quantities through the 



•Annals lies Mines, 8 S., Vol. 3, p. 438. 

ntrod vGoO^lc 



33* THE QUARTERLY. 

tuyers, as it chills the slags. With rich mattes which contain 
from 50 to 60 per cent of copper, only a small quantity of 
quartz need be added in order to prevent entirely the formation 
of the magnetic oxide. Very often manganiferous cast iron is 
added so that the manganese makes a very fluid slag. The only 
practicable way to get rid of the iron is to furnish the silica from 
the sides of the converter, but by the careful addition of silica, 
phosphorus, manganese and other substances which make the 
slag fluid, the number of operations has been brought up from 8 to 
18, and laterly to as many as 25, and it seems likely from recent 
experiments that even this number will be increased. At Butte, 
at least twenty operations can be made in the course of 24 hours. 
They have made thirty under ordinary circumstances, but there 
are always delays which prevent its being done, so that it is sel- 
dom that they make more than one in an hour. 

After every 20 to ?$ operations the converter needs patching 
with balls of clay and quartz. By patching with care the lining 
can be made to last a great number of times, even several months. 
As soon as the sides are too much worn to continue any fur- 
ther, the converter is cooled with a spray of water. When it is 
sufficiently cool, a workman gets inside and stamps a new lining 
in, which takes about eight hours. 

When they go directly from the first matte to blister copper, 
a few hundred pounds of coke are used in the course of 24 hours 
to keep the converter sufficiently hot, in order to bring the ma- 
terial up to black copper. But in running on low grade mater- 
ial, to bring it up to a matte of 72 to ys% *h* sulphur generates 
sufficient heat, and no extra fuel is required. If the work is 
done only in one operation, a 70 per cent, matte has to be made 
in the blast furnace directly from the ore, and in this case much 
of the advantage of the process is lost. Whether the operation 
shall be performed in one or two operations is entirely a ques- 
tion of economical treatment, and although it can be done, it 
does not usually pay to run directly from low matte to blister 
copper in one operation, and it has been the intention at Butte 
from the start always to do the work in two operations. 

The amount of fire-clay and quartz used at Butte is about a 
ton daily, for the converters. This amount will be much less 
when the works are in good running order. 



^Google 



BESSEMERIZING COPPER MATTES. 333 

With regard to the amount of labor, the converter requires 
six men per shift of twelve hours, besides a man to do the re- 
pairs, with an assistant. 

The economical relations of this method of treatment to the 
other copper processes are of great interest Mr. Gruner* has 
given them in detail for France. They can, therefore, be very 
easily reduced to what it would cost in this country, 

The amount of fuel necessary to produce the blast required 
is about 3,000 to 4,000 kilos of coal in 24 hours for a produc- 
tion of 3,000 to 4,000 kilos of copper, or ton per ton. 

For the fusion of 10 per cent, ores in the shaft furnace 140 
to 150 kilos of coke are used, which corresponds to 140 to 150 
kilos to produce 100 kilos of brute copper. 

For melting the mattes and heating the converters, about 50 
to 60 kilos of coke are used for 100 kilos of copper. 

Counting all the fuel used it will amount from 2 to 2^ tons 
of coke or 3 to $}4 tons of coal. For fining and refining 700 
kilos are used per ton of copper. Thus for the total expense 
we have 

For blast and power It It 

For motte fusions 3t 3t.5 

For fining and refining 0C.7 0C.7 

Total fuel, -|t.7 5t.a 

The total amount of fuel consumed must therefore be con- 
sidered as about 5000 kilos for the ton of merchant copper. For 
ores of the same kind treated by the English method the amount 
would be from 13,000 to 16,000 kilos. The amount of coal is 
thus two-thirds less than by the English method. 

For a works producing 100 tons of copper per month, the 
number of workmen required for everything about the works 
would be about 70 men, or 20 days per ton of copper produced. 
In larger works it would be much less, as the output would be 
greater ; under ordinary conditions it would also be less, for in 
the French works everything is carried by hand. The cost of 
operating per ton of refined copper is 1 60 to 1 70 francs, the 
coke in France costing 35 francs; but in England, with a fuel 
which costs half less, the cost of treatment is from 320 to 350 
francs. The cost, therefore, by the Bessemer process with asim- 

"Aunales des Mines, 8 Series, Vol. 3, p. 439. 

ntrod vGoO^lc 



,334 THE QUARTERLY. 

ilar price of fuel is one-third of that by the English methods. 
This would be further reduced, if water could be used as a power. 
Instead of having six operations at least, as in the English pro- ' 
cess, they are reduced to three, or at the most, four. 

The total loss of copper in France is not over one per cent 
of the copper used in the mattes. The loss of copper at Butte 
is extremely small, although the furnace has not been running 
long enough to determine what it is, but it probably is not as 
large as it would be in the ordinary furnace operations. The 
amount of labor and fuel required at Butte is about the same as 
that in France. 

The use of this process has been prevented from extending, 
owing to the fact that it is often not practicable to treat a 
matte which contains about 33 per cent, of copper in a single 
fusion. There is no difficulty with rich mattes. When they are 
poorer, it is doubtful whether it will pay. The reason being 
that the only way to get rid of the iron is by slagging the most 
of it with the lining of the converter. A matte with 33 percent 
of copper contains usually about 35 to 40 per cent of iron, 
while one with only 20 per cent, will contain 50% of iron. In 
order to get a matte of the same richness, about double the 
amount of iron will have to be slagged, and as this can only be 
done by the lining, the output will be reduced one-half and the 
cost doubled. It is therefore essential to have a rich matte, and 
if this can be made without too great a cost the process will 
pay. It must be remembered that most of the difficulties of 
making a rich matte from impure ores lie in the concentration 
of the arsenic and antimony in the black copper, or with pure 
ores of making a very poor black copper rich in iron. This 
need not be feared in this process as the impurities are removed 
in the converter. To be able to judge with certainty how far 
this rapid process can compete with the older and slower ones, 
a plant of sufficient size must be erected to admit of the mattes 
being poured directly from the furnace into the converter, and 
from one converter to another with only preliminary fusion. 
This would both save fuel and increase the output of the plant 
The apparatus is simple. It can be constructed rapidly and 
cheaply. The works occupy but little space. The operation 
can be easily learned. The work is not difficult and can be car- 
ried out by persons of ordinary intelligence. The losses are not 



, v GooqIc 



CHLORIDES IN RAINFALL. 335 

large and when rich ores are to be treated the time gained is 
so great that the increase of output for the capital required makes 
it incomparably cheaper than the old methods. With poor ores 
there will always be a question, the solution of which, however, 
depends on a very few considerations. Taking it for granted that 
the ore cannot be concentrated, which may not always be the 
case, two operations in the converter will then be necessary, 
whether this can be done will depend first, on the price of cop- 
per, second, on the capital available for the erection of a double 
plant. t 

If the ores contain the precious metals, the rapidity with 
which they can be concentrated in a matte or black copper seems 
to be a very great advantage. As many such ores are very im- 
pure, the advantage would appear to be very great, as all the 
metals can be collected in a copper which is quite pure. It re- 
mains to be seen whether the complete volatilization of the 
metals which make the copper impure does not cause so large a 
loss of the precious metals as to interfere with its use. 

The process cannot, however, be used unless the vapors can 
■escape into the air without making it necessary to pay large 
fines for damages. There is no way of collecting this smoke so 
that it must escape sufficiently far from cultivated grounds not 
owned by the works to cause no damage assessments. If, as in 
the French works, the power can be furnished by water, the 
great saving in fuel and labor, and the ease with which impuri- 
ties are got rid of make the process of the greatest value. 



CHLORIDES IN RAINFALL OF 1884. • 

BY L. P. GRATACAP. 

We are apt to regard the rain solely as a product of distilla- 
tion, and, as such, very pure. A little reflection and a very slight 
amount of experimental examination will quickly disabuse those, 
who have this mistaken and popular impression, of their error. 
A great number of bodies which arise from industrial processes, 
domestic combustion of coal, natural changes in vegetable and 
animal matter, terrestrial disturbances as tornadoes and vol 
-came eruptions, vital exhalations, &c, are discharged into the 



33* THE QUARTERLY. 

atmosphere, and whether by solution or mechanical contact, 
descend to the surface of the earth in the rain, leaving upon its 
evaporation in many instances the most incontestable evidences 
of their presence. The acid precipitation around alkali and sul- 
phuric acid works is well known, the acid character of rains col- 
lected near and in cities, and the remarkable ammoniacal 
strength of some local rainfalls, have been fully discussed. The 
exhaustive experiments of Dr. Angus Smith in Scotland, and 
the interesting reports of French examiners, have made the 
scientific world familiar, not only qualitatively but quantitatively, 
1 with the chemical nature of some rains, as well as with their 
solid sedimentary contents. 

Some years ago my attention was unpleasantly drawn to 
the fact that the rain water in our use reacted for chlorine, and 
on finding this due solely to the washing out from the atmos- 
phere of suspended particles of chloride of sodium or other 
chlorides or free chlorine, it appeared interesting to determine 
the average amount of these salts in the rain water of the sea 
coast. The results given in this paper refer to a district on 
Staten Island, New York harbor, at a point four miles from the 
ocean, slightly sheltered from the ocean's immediate influence 
by the intervention of low ranges of hills. They were commu- 
nicated to the Natural Science Association of Staten Island, but 
the details of the observations may prove of interest to the read- 
ers of the QUARTERLY, and may there serve as a record more 
widely accessible. 

It has long been recognised that the source of chlorine in 
rainfalls near the sea was the sea itself, the amount of chlorides, 
putting aside local exceptions arising from cities or manufac- 
tories, increasing with the proximity of the point of observation 
to the ocean, and also showing a marked relation to the ex- 
posure of the position chosen to violent storms. Thus the west 
coast rainfalls of Ireland contain larger quantities of chlorides 
than those of the east, and the table given by Dr. Smith shows 
the variations in neighboring localities on the same sea-front 
The chlorides of the English rains diminish as the observer 
leaves the sea coast In the following observations the waters 
of thirty-two rains were collected, the chlorine determined by 
nitrate of silver in amounts of the water varying from one litre 
to one-half a litre, and in some instances less. While it is likely 
that some of the chlorine was due to the presence of chlorides 



^Google 



CHLORIDES IN RAINFALL. 337 

other than common salt, as the position of the point of observation 
is not removed more than a mile from oil distilleries and smelt- 
ing and sulphuric acid works in New Jersey, yet this could not 
even generally have been so, as the rain storms came, for the 
greater number of instances from the east, in an opposite direc- 
tion to the position of the factories alluded to. It has also been 
noticed by Mr. A. Hollick, to whom these observations were of 
interest, that in heavy storms a salt film often forms upon fruit 
exposed to the easterly gales upon the shores of the island. 

The subjoined table (see next page) shows the amount of 
chlorine, and the same calculated as chloride of sodium for the 
various determinations, and it is followed by the averages of the 
same bodies for the months, seasons and year. The test of 
June 26 was exceptionally high, and should be regarded with 
suspicion, though I am not aware that there was any actual 
introduction into the water of chlorine compounds from outside. 
As the summer average was considerably raised by the un- 
usual result obtained in June, we may conclude, as might have 
been antecedently expected, that the highest averages of chlorine 
contents in the rains belong to spring and autumn. The yearly 
average for chlorine is .228 grains per gallon ; for sodic chloride 
.376 grains. The total rainfall in our region for 1884 as re- 
ported by Dr. Draper at Central Park was 52.25 inches, some- 
what higher than usual, as the average for a series of years be- 
fore gives 46 inches, but taking these former figures we find 
that for that year (1884) each acre of ground received, accept- 
ing the results obtained by my examination, 76.24 avoirdupois 
pounds of common salt, if we regard the entire chlorine contents 
of the rains as due to that body, or 46.23 pounds of chlorine 
alone. 

In comparison with this result, we find that at Caen, in 
France, an examination of the saline ingredients of the rain gave 
for one year about 85 pounds of mineral matter per acre, of 
which 40 pounds were regarded as common salt. 

Although chlorine is almost constantly present in plant tis- 
sues, it is not indispensable for most plants, and for those assimi- 
lating it in small amounts, our rainfall would seem to offer an 
ample supply. These facts open our eyes to the possible ferti- 
lizing influence of rains, and they also suggest to what extent 
rains may exert a corrosive action when they descend, charged 
with acid vapors. 

,t-od .Google 



338 the quarterly, 

Table of Chlorine Determinations in Rains of 1884; 

Grains, in a Gallon. West New Brighton, Staten 

Island, N. Y. 



T» 


Chlodwb. 


SO D1C 

Chlojum. 


UlIIECTIOH OF 

R[>mn S , - Eic 


MONTHLY AvntOE. 


J«n. 8. 


»54 


K. E. 1 


CI. 


VmCl. 


" r*^ 


.•j* 


'*" 


N-ind. J 


Jan. .». 


•"* 


FA. Ii-lj. 


-'57 


.=» 


N. E. 








^ 


.,66 


E. 

N. E. 


Ftb. .ioj 


..76 


It «*■ 


-MS 


.. 5 6 


Snow. 






Mar. 8. 


.t6o6 


..6) 


'• } 


"" "*> 


" 


April 5. 


.308 


.50S 


, 


April .308 


■ S* 


Hajr 5. 


■■43 


.4008 


Shown 






6. 


.IOB4 


.i6j 


E. 






7-8- 


.3363 


-S39 


E. 


May .1:43 


.3B86 


.. M- 


.308 


.jog. 


Shower* 






>8. 


--M 


■'S3 


E. 






Jhm n. 


.'444 


.*** 


E. 1 






„ »s. 


.'73 


->»S 


E. ! 


June .3704 


.6>] 


., *6. 




■■34 (?) 


E. J 






J«iy 4. 


'.L 

.nj6j ■ 


.■8s 


T ! 


July .0844 


.ij») 


Aug. ,. 


.063 


.IB 




! 






.3603 


■S44 




Aug. ..JM 


.J»° 




.,7-6 


■44« 




. 




Sept. 











1 





Ott. 3. 


.6,3 


,.06 


Previous 
drought. 


, 




„ H. 


.36=3 


■ J94 


E. 






J9-30. 


■3^3 


-6 S 3 
.6o3 


Tali en at end 
rainfall : ad 
•vnplc. 


Oct. .4411 


7*9 


•B. 


1 

! '3S' 


|Wl 


E. 


Nov. .MS' 


.». 


lite. 6. 


.=36, 
.063 


•3809 
..4«o 


E. 




- 



,»GoogIe 



DETERMINATION OF MINERALS. 339 

TABLES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF 
MINERALS. 

BY A. J. MOSES. 

In the following tables an attempt has been made to group 
the more important minerals so that any one may be referred 
to its group by simple tests and prominent physical characters. 
Doubtful lustre, the varying results of certain tests upon speci- 
mens of the same variety, and the marked differences between 
varieties of the same species have made it necessary to place 
certain minerals in two or more groups. 

The chief divisions are as follows : 

Table I. To include all minerals of evident or doubtful me- 
tallic lustre, and all dark opaque minerals with a lustre like that 
of anthracite coal or magnetite. 

Table II. To include all minerals of non-metallic or doubtful 
lustre which do not give the silica test. 

Table III. To include all minerals of non-metallic or doubt- 
ful lustre which yield in a phosphorus salt bead a translucent 
permanent* skeleton. 

The lustre is best shown by a fresh fracture. All tests 
should be made upon homogeneous material, and are unreliable 
when the mineral is impure, unless the effect of the impurity 
upon the test is known. The classifying tests should be decided, 
and if weak should be attributed either to improper manipula- 
tion, or to the presence of some accidental impurity. In making 
use of the reducing action of soda on coal, the finely powdered 
substance is mixed with 2 to 3 times its bulk of soda and treated 
with a strong reducing flame, until most of the soda sinks into 
the coal. There may result coats, yellow or white ; fumes with 
or without odor ; sulphide, telluride, or selenide of soda ; mag- 
netic particles; and metallic globules ("buttons"). 

Gelatinization can only be obtained by evaporating the ex- 
cess of acid. 

The symbols I. T. 0. M. Tri. H. A. refer to the crystalline 
system of the mineral. 

* A few silicates dissolve completely in small amounts, but a larger quantity 
nil] leave the insoluble skeleton. 

Sn0 5 , TiOi & AliO I dissolve very slowly, but may be easily distinguished from 
JSiOj by other tests. 



,»GoogIe 



34° 

TABLE I. 



THE QUARTERLY. 

MINERALS WITH METALLIC 
The Mineral Fused on Charcoal with Soda in 







..«-. 


__» 


iTO - 




In Ph.8. A OF. 


]n Ph-8. * O.F. 


Than ha 




s 


Yellow to Red. 


Bins (uicl Green. 


White coat. 




1. O. AKBENOPYRITB, 


5. L COBALTITB. 


T. O. ENARGITE, 




5 


PeSj+FeAg, 
*. O. LETJCOPYMTE, 


CoSj+CoAj, 
S. I. 8MALTITE. 


Cu.AsS, 
8. I. TETRAHEDRITE. 








[OomtKQAa, 


4Cu,8+Sb,8, 
B. O. FOLYBASITE. 




1 


8. H. NICCOLITE, 






NI,A«, 




9(A([,C-u,>B-|-Bbrf, 




4. 1. TJLLMANITE. 








NiS,+MISb, 






1 










"5 


5 












18. H. PYRRHOTITE 


17. 1. LIMFjKITE, 


SO. O. STDSNITE, 




L 


Fe,S, 
14. 1. PTR1TE, 


Co,S, 8b,8, 
IS. I. BORN1TK. 11. M. KERMBSITE. 


« 


*i 


Fe.8, 
15. 0. MARCA9ITE. 

FeS, 


IB. T. CHALCOPYR.'lTE.'jSS 


«Sb,S 1 -|-8b,U, 
T. STANNITE, 


1 






8nCu.8.eto. 


5| 


lfl. n. MII.LER1TE, 




I. TBTRAHEDRITE, 


S18 


'u 


4CnjS+Sb,S, 
I. POLYBASITE, 




1 


WA K ,Cu.)K+Sb,S, 
H. PYRARGYBITE. 


ss 




I, 


SAe.K+abrf, 
O. STEFHAN1TB. 


1 


! 




It! 


5A)r,S-)-Sbi9, 
H. TKLLtRJUH, 


| 






Te 


a 




In 


O. HESSITK, 






I 


A«,Te 


i: 








M. SYLVANITE, 






(AuAg)Te, 


a 






1 






! 




d 


42. 0. GOBTHITE, 
48. A. limon'ite. 


^icnnBi^V "■«■>»«. ,„ 




3 


Fe,O,+Fe,(0H). 
44. 11. HEMATITE. 


1 




3 


Fe.O, 






45. 1. MAGNETITE. 






s 


Fe.O, 






46. I. IRON. 






g 


Fe 








47. I. FRANK LINITE. 








§ 


FeMiiZniO+iKB,Mn,iO, 
48.H. MENAL'fAS'lTE. 








(FeTJI.0, 
«. O. WOLFRAMITE. 










(FeMnlO.WO, 










50. O. COLUMBITE, 










(FeMn)O,i(.b,Ta,i0 t 









, v GooqIc 



DETERMINATION OF MINERALS. 



OR SUBMETALLIC LUSTRE. 
the Reducing Flame yields, 



».,„„. ™,. 


„™..™,»,o...™,.„.. 


Thereto a 
Yellow coat. 


&si 


WithPh.S * KtNO, 


With I'taS. 4 N«NO, 
No Violet. 




10. H. PBOU8TITE, 

li. i. tennaIntite. 

«u,S+Ab,8, 




19. II. ARSENIC, 


80. 1. GALENrTK. 

PbS 

81. O. BOURNONITE 
SPbS-|-Cu 1 S-)-Sb,3, 
89. 0. AIRTNITE. 

aPbe+Co^+Bi^j 

88. CBISMUTHINIT* 

M. H.TBTRADYMITJ 

BUTeS), 

8S. I. CLAUSTHAL- 

ITB, PbSe 


Ag,a 

87. O. CHALCOCITE, 
Cu,8 


K, I. ALABANDITE, 
HaS 


». 1. SPHALERITE, 

». B.MOLYBDENITE 

MoS, 
«. H. CINNABAR. 

Hffl 


SS.LLBAD, 

Pb 
M. B. BISMUTH, 

Bl 


58. I. COPPEB. 

Co 

VI. 1. CUPRITE, 

Co.O 
BS. I. SILVER, 

-.LAHALiU.. *" 

60. I. GOLD, ** * 

An 

81. L PLATINUM, 

89. II. IRLDOSMINE, 

IrOs 


88- 0. COLUMBITE, 

M. O. PYROLUSITE, 

MnO, 

83. 0. MANGASITE, 

SMi^Oj.+KiwOH), 

(0.T.HAUSMANN1TK 

Mn.U. 

IT. T. BRAUNITE, 

iSMn.O.+MaSIO, 
BS. A.PSILOMEJ.ANE 
*MnO,+lK,B»)0 
9B. A. WAS, 

SMdO.+H.O 


10. H. GRAPHITE, 

71. L MERCURY, 

He 
-S. T. RUTiLE, 

•no, 

78.T.OCTAHEDRITE 
TIO, 

"4. O. BROOKXTE. 

TIO, 

75. I. URANINITE. 

u.o. 



,»GoogIe 



THE QUARTERLY. 



MINERALS WITHOUT METALLIC 
The Mineral, in finest Powder, boiled with Water, 



I. MELANTERITE. 



78. H. SIDEB1TE, 

Fe8(l 1 +fe(OH),+flH,0 FcCO, 

,77. TrL CHALCANTH1TE. 79. O. CERUSS1TE, 

<'uSO,-f-SH a O PbCO, 



Strrak ts Colored. 



HO. M. MALACHITE. 

CuCOj+CtHllH), 
a. M. AZUR1TE, 

SCuCOj+CulOHl, 
82. X. KEKMEMTE, 

4Sb,S,+Sb,0, 



II: 



K,SC 

:e. 
Sa, 
M GLAUBERITE, 

Ka-Siij ■<:!•:•«, 

M. MIRAB1LITE, i 

Na,S(),-tl0H,O| 

0. ma.scagni1 e, 

inh.i.jSO.+HjO 

0. epsomite. 

MiftO.+TH.O 1 I 

H. AU.-.NOGEN IK. O. WITHERITE, ! 

A 1,( SO,], +1811,0 B»C0,' 

1. KALINITE. US. II. BARYTOCALCITE. 

" K,A]j..sr).),4-MH,0 iBaC'alCO, 

0. GOBLARITK, 13J. 0. BTROXTIANITE, 1 

Zn.1O,+TH,0 SrCO, 



I. SPHALERITE. 



0. XITRE.KNO, 

H. BODA NITRE, 

NaNO,: 

1. HALITE, 

NaCl 
I. SAL-AMMONIAC. i 
NII.Cl' 
Tri. SASSOLITE, 

H,BO, 
M. BORAX, 

Na,B,O,+10H,O 

M. SATRON, I 

Na,CO,+10n,O 

I. ARSENOLITE, I 



136. I. SPHALERITE. 



168. H. DOLOMITE, 
158. H. MAGNESITE, 



iMglCO, 
MkCO, 



101. H. SMITH BONITE. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



DETERMINATION OF MINERALS. 



LUSTRE.— NOT SILICATES. 
and then with Hydrochloric Acid, 



es. o. scoRomm 
S4. o.triphylutk, 

85.H.PYROMOEPH(TK 
SPb,P,0 B +PbCI, 
SB. H. MIMET1TE. 

BPb.A 5,0.4 Pb<Jl. 
H. VANAI1INITE. 

»Pb,V,o H 4-Pbci s 
T. ST0L21TB, 

PbWO, 
T. WULFENITE. 

PbMol. , 

0. VALENTIN ITE, 

1. SEN ARMOJlV 



140. 1. FLUORl' 



ANHYDRITE^ 

GTPSVM, 

I.'SSO.+U'II. 

:te, 



41. H. APATITE. 

aCft,P,0,+Ca(C],F,), 

42. M. PHARMACOL- 
ITE, 

2IICaA»0,4-6H,0 
148. T. SCHEEUTK. 
CaWO, 

i. boracite, 
smb,b,i'„-(-MbC1.. 

146. Til CRYOLITE, 



1(5. A. ALUMINITE, 

Al,8O,+9H,0 
l(fl. O.WAVELLITE, 

«*•*••■ 

187. A. TURQl'OIS. 

AUPiOii+811,0 



Streak Is Colored. 



92. H. COP1APITE. 

5Fe,ftio,l,4-FPjiOHi, 
OS. M. VIVIANITK. 

>'*iP-jO*4-fH,0 
4. 1. PHAKMACOSID- 
ERITE. 

BFe,A«,0,+Fe,(OH>, 
». I. AR8E.NIOS1DER- 
ITE, 
Fe,CH„8AB,0„+8Fe, 

99. O. TRIPLITE. 

lSInFecal.P,0, 



100. H. FYROMORPU- 

ITE, 
8Pb,P,0,+PbC1s 

101. SI. CROOOITE. 

PbCTO, 
I. CUPRITE, 

M. BROCH A NT- 
'S. CaSO,4-3Ci 
HI, 
O. ATACAMITI 

l.'nCl, . SCiiiOU),, 
O. OIJVENITE. 
Jb,A(!.O,+CuI0H), 
108. M. UROC'ONITE, 
(Cu,A],l(Aa,P,10, 
107. O. LlBETHENlTE. 
Cu,P,0,+C'u(Oin, 



106. O. AKGLESITE, 

r PbSO, 

109. 1. CERARGYKITE. 
AgCI 



la.l ,Ujj,»J' 5 ij 
11,0 
17. T. TORBERXITE, 

cu.u,o,„»p»o ( +a4- 



68. A. LIMONITE, 

Fe-O.+FejIOH), 
70. B. HEMATITE. 

n. a. wai», ' ' 

2Mn0,4-H,O 

72. H. ZINCITE. | 

ZnO 



IODYRITE, 

lis. i. bromyrite; 

118. H.FROUSTITE, 

.... *.%&$& 

1TE. 3AK,94-Sb,8, 



149. O. BARITE, 

150. O. CELESTITE, 



152. O. SULPHUR, 

9 
158. M. REALGAR, 
Ap,S, 
O. ORP1MENT. 

H. CINNABAR,' 



^lSO.T. RUTILE, 



CUKCNlilM, 

a:, a, 

78. O. DIASPORE. 

H,A1,0, 
CilRYHOHEKYL 



Uoo^lc 



THE QUARTERLY. 



MINERALS WITHOUT 
Tht Mineral, in Finest Powder, heated with 



u 

k 

I 8° 



iss. t. apophVlu . „ 

4[H,ObO„ SMIO.+Hj 

oUk# 

188. k. laumonttte, 

CaAl.O,, 4R!O,-HH I 
H. H. CHABAZITE, 
(H t K,lCaAl,0,.—- 



Ylelds water. 



<B. M. DATOLITE, 

Na, Al.O,. 481 (.}.-+ 
8. O. NATROLITL, 

NB,A],o„asio,+SH,o 



is ■ 

it < 



Formula unoertatn 



185. O. STTLBITE, 

Hi] R Al.O.,«8!0,-H H ,0 
'. B. HBULANMTE, 
H ,Cs A 1 ,0 , .SSIO, -3 11 , 
188. M. H AKM OT*)HE. 
B».AI«0 1 ,l58IO,-i-SH„0 
). O. PREHNITE, 

Co, Ai , 0„4sio,+sh,0 



IU,SSHt,+BH,0 CaOB 

LLAMINE, .SSO. I. HATJTWTTB, 

—• O,SIO,+Hj0 Wa,CBj,Al i O„43KVt- 

iaai. e. wil'lemite, ' 

SZnO.BlO, 
3S3. Trt. ANOHTIIITE, 
CoAt,O < ,S8l0, 



azno.sio, | ii,o aiMaKoto.sio, cuo.sio.+an.o 

1. DRIPTAliE, *4R. O. CUOMIRuniTE, , 

H,CuO„8tO,l SUkO.SSIO,. 



.vGoogle 



DETERMINATION OF MINERALS. 



METALLIC LUSTRE.— SILICATES. 

Hydrochloric Acid and the Solution partially Evaporated. 



Doea not yield water. 



Does not yield water. 



1M. O. LRPIDOLITE, 

<LI,Xj) % AI,0 1 ..1*3fO a 
191. T. WERNBRITE. 
(OKaiUltOtrWO, 



Tri. OLIGOCLASK, 

Tit ALBITE, 

.64. O. LEFIDOUTE. 

(Li.B 
196. M. SPODUMENE, 



RAJ,0„&8iO, 

Na,Al,0„BSIO, 
■)ial|0,i,lSSIO, 



SOI. Tri. OL1G0CLASR, 
Tri. ALBITE, 
M. SPODDKENR, 



RAl,O„IlSI0 1 
Na,Al,0„«SIO, 
U,Al,O„,lSS10i 



«. T. VESnVLANITE, 
8RO,SR,O,,7S10 1 
1. M TITANPTR, 

CaO.T10„BlO, 
a». I. GARNET, 

8RO.R,0,.S8IO, 
SOS. TrL RHODONITE, 

WnO.310, 
310. H. PYROXENE. 

R0.8K 
". AH PHI BOLE. 



MS. M\ EFIDOTE, 

H,C a, ( A l,Fe,) , n ,»8i , 
ai». T. YESUVIANITE, 



(.PYROXENE, 
SIS, M. AMPHIBOLE, 
BI6. 1. OARNET, 



R0.S10, 
HR0.R|0„SSlO, ' 



SS«. O. SERPENTINE. 

«lI«O^8I0,+VH a O 
SST.O. HYPERSTIIF.Nt. 



9. H. PROCHLORITE, 
». O. TALC, 



O. TALC, H.Mp.O.-HSIO, 

M. OKTH0OLA8E, K,Al,O,.0WKI, 
H. B70T1TK. 8IKl,R,O„8S10j 

(I. MUSOOVITK, RO,R 5 (.)„Ji«fO» 

M. 1'KTALITE, LI, AI.O, ,,80310, 

H. TOURMALINE, 
t^HCSS ht J » R,0„48I(OF,1,.B,0, 

*S8. H. BERYL, B*,A] ] 0,.BBIO» 

«S8. M. EUCLA8E, H t Be,Al,b„ SSIO. 



{UCITE, 
K.,A],0<,4S: 



OXARTZ, 
. OPAL, 
Ol-VAROVITE, V8,t,T,U,.»Bl 

ENSTATITB, HbO.SI 

TOURMALINE. 

*RiO,.4SI(OF,l„B,0, 



Ca,Cr,0„3SIO, 



ZrO„f 



HVM'|!Pe),AI )1 M ,6aiO, 
PHENACITE, SBeO.SlO, 

l^THT.rtJITT? ll.rt flirt" 



Al a O,.H10, 

Al,O„il10 5 

Al,O,Sl(0F,), 



^Google 



3* 6 



the quarterly. 
Index to Tables. 



Albite, 193, 202 
Allanite, 204, 205 
Aluminite, 165 
Aluniie, 178 
Alunogen, 121 
Amalgam, 59 
Amphibole, 211, 21; 

235 
Analcite. 197 
Andalusite.255 
Anglesite, 10S 
Anhydrite, 138 
Annabergite, 98 

Antimony, 52 
Apatite. 141 
Aphthitajite, 115 
Apophyllite, 182 
Aragonite, 157 
Argentite, 36 

Areeniosiderite, 95 
Arse oolite, 131 
Arsenopyrite, I 
Atacamite, 104 
Autunite. 146 



Clausthalite, 35 
Cobaltite, 5 
Columbite, so, 63 
Copiapite, 92 
Copper, 56 
Corundum 17s 
Crocoite, 101 
Cryolite, 145 
5, Cuprite, 57, 102 
Cyanite, 257 

Datolite,.la6 
Diamond, 173 
Diaspore, 176 
Dioptase. 241 
Dolomite, 15S 



I-eucopyrite, 2 
Libetnenite, 107 
I. i mo nite. 43, 169 
Linnieite, 17 
Liroconite, 106 

Magnesite, isg 
Magnetite, 45 
Malachite, So 
Manga nite, 65 
Marcuite, 15 
Mascagnile, 119 
Malanterite, 76 
M 



Sal- Ammoniac, 127 
Sassolite, 128 
Scheelite, 143 
Scorodite, 83 
Senarmontite, 91 
Sepiolite, 217 
Serpentine. 223, 226 
Siderite, 78 
Silver, 5S 
Smaltite, G 
Smithsonite, 161 
Soda-nitre. 115 

Sphaleri te.39, 1 36, 1 37 

Spinel, 174 

Spodumene. 19s, 203 



Barite, 149 
Barytocalcite, 133 
Beryl, 238 
Biotite, 234 
Bismuth, 54 
. Bismuthir.ite, 33 
Boracite, 144 
Borax, 129 
Born he, 18 
Bournouite, 3! 
Braunite, 67 
Brochantite, 103 
Bromyrite, 112 
Brookite, 74 
Brucite, 164 

Calamine, 218, 240 
Calcite, 156 
Calomel, 151 
Cassiterite, 179 
Celestitc, 150 
Cerargyrite, 109 
Cerussite, 79 
Chabazite. 184 
Chalcanthite, 77 
Chalcocite, 37 
Clialcopyrite, 19 
Chondrodite, 243 
Chromite, 51 
Chrysoberyl, 177 
Chrysocolla, 244 
c hrysoIite. 241 
C innabar, 41, '55 



Embolite, IK 
Enargite, 7 
Enstatite. 23 
Epldote, 212 

Erythrite, 97 
Euclase, 239 

Fibrolite, 256 
Fluorite, 140 
Frank Unite, 47 

Galenite, 30 
Garnet, 208, 216 
Granberite. 117 
Gold, 60 
Goslarite, 123 
Goethite, 168, 42 
Graphite, 70 
Gypsum, 139 



253 



Minium. 99 
Mirabilite. 118 
, 250 Molybdenite, 40 
Molybdite, 148 



Natrolite, 198 
Natron. 130 
Nephelite, igq 

NIccolite, 3 

Octahedrite, 73 
Oligoclase, 192, 2t 
Olivcnite, 105 
Opal, 246, 248 
Orpimenl, 154 
Orthoclase, 333 
Ouvarovite, 249 



Htanroliti 
Stephani 
Stibnite, 20 
Stilbite, 186 
Stoliite, S8 



Halit< 
Harm 



126 



, 188 
. 66 
Hauynite, 220 
Hematite, 44, 170 
Hessite, 18 
Heulandite, 187 
Hydroiincite, 162 
Hypcrsthene, 227 

Iodyrite, in 
Iolite, 228 
Iridosmine, 62 
Iron, 46 



Sulphur, 152 
Sylvanite, 29 

Talc, 230. 232 
Tellurium, 27 
Tennantite, II . 
Tetradyraite, 34 
Tetrahedrite, 8. 23 
, Thenardite, 116 
Titanite. 207 
Topaz, 258 
Torbernite, 147 
Tourmaline. 551. 237, 

■95 w 

Triphvllite. 84 
Triplite, 06 

Turqi4ois, 167 



Pectolite, 18: 
Petalite, 236 
Pharmacolite, 142 
Pharmacosiderite, 94ULlmannite 
Phenacite, 254 Uraninite ■ 

Platinum, 61 
Folybasite, 9, 24 
Pre'hnite. 189 
Prochlorite, 229 
Proustite, 10, 11 
Fsitomelane, 68 
Pyrargyrite, 25, 114 

Pyrolusite, 64 Wad, 69, 171 

Pyromorphite,8 E ,ico" i »ell 1 te. 166 

d . _.. Wemente, 191 

''Willemite, 32i 
Witherite, 



Valentinite, 90 
Vanadinite. 67 
Vesm-i anile, 206, 2 13 
Vivianite, 93 



Pyruxt 

Pyrrhotite, 13 



(, 247 



Wolframite, 49 
Wollastonite. 3iq 
Wnlfenite, 89 



I.epidolite, 190, 194 Rhod 



Kutile, 72, 180 



^Google 



THE PLANIMETER. 



THE PLANIMETER. 

BY E. L. INGRAM, '85. 

The Planimeter is an instrument for mechanically measuring 
the area of any plane figure by passing a pointer around its 
periphery. 

The form chiefly used in practice is the Polar Planimeter of 
Amsler, which is superior to all others in cheapness and sim- 
plicity. The present article treats of this form only. Its con- 
struction is shown in Fig. I. It consists simply of an elbow 
joint, ABC, the point, A, being fixed, and the point, C, movable. 
The arm, B C, carries the wheel, D, which rests on the paper. 
The wheel, F, registers whole revolutions of the wheel, D. Parts 
of a revolution are read by the vernier, E. If the wheels, D 




and F, are set at zero, and the pointer, C, be passed around any 
plane area, then the value of that area will be given by the 
readings of the two wheels. The unit of that area depends on 
the distance, BC, which may be made variable by the plan 
shown in Fig. I, so that we can get the area in sq. inches, sq. 



^Google 



348 THE QUARTERLY, 

centimeters, &c, as we please. Theoretically, we should obtain 
the correct area of the figure in question, but practically, our 
result may vary as much as one per cent from the truth. 
Difficulty in following the exact outline of the figure, dirt on the 
main wheel, and like causes, tend to vitiate the result. 

It will be observed that the main wheel not only rolls, but 
slides over the paper, 

The instrument works on the following principle: 

The area in question equals the space rolled over by the 
wheel, multiplied by the distance, EC. The constant factor, 
EC, however, is taken up in the graduation. 

The principle may be proved as follows: (See Fig. II.) 

Let DGNbt the unknown area=Z. 

Let EFG be an element of the periphery. 

Let PBD be the initial position of the instrument 

Let PLE be any position of the instrument 

Let PMG be the next consecutive position. 

Let the wheel be at C. 

Let PB=z. 

Let ED=h. 

Let BC=c. 

Draw MF parallel to LE. Connect LM. 

Draw RF, HI, and LS perpendicular to LE. 

Prolong DB and EL to meet at A. 

Let BAL = 6. Then FMG = d6. 

Let BPL = a. Then LPM= da. 

Let EFR = <p. Let <p = n at D. 

Let A denote the variable area DELPB. Then dA=EGM 
PL. 

6A=LEFM+PLM+MFG. 

Since da and dd are infinitely small, we have, 

dA=adacos^Xb+)4^da+}4bM0 

Integrating from the initial position back to the initial 
position, that is from (a=o,d=o,f =n) back to (a=o,ff=o,y=n), 
and denoting these limits by i, we have 



^Google 



THE PLANIMETER. 



i: 

J: 



j^a 2 d« = o 
}4b 2 d0 = o 



f: 



adacosy xb. (i.) 



Let us now consider the motion of the wheel. 

Let S denote the space rolled over by the wheel. Then in 
passing from H to K, the wheel rolls over the distance, dS. 

In passing from H to J, the wheel moves obliquely, and 
hence not only rolls, but slides. The rolling is measured by 
HI ; the sliding by IJ. In passing from J to K, the wheel 
rolls the distance, JK. 

Hence dS=HI+JK. 

Therefore d5=ad«cosf +cdd. 

Integrating between the limits i and i, we" have 



jC- 



cd0=o 

Hence 5= / adacos^ 
Hence bS= f adacos^Xb. (2.) 

Combining equations (l) and (2), we have 
Z=b5 
which was to be proved. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



350 THE QUARTERLY. 

From this result we draw the following remarkable conclusion; 

Ii the position of the wheel is fixed with respect to BD, it 
may be at any point on or off BD without affecting the final 
result, provided its axis of rotation is parallel to BD. 

Referring to Fig. I. we see that when the joint is at G, the 
record on the wheel will be greater than when the joint is at B. 
This is because GC is less than BC, and not because GE is 
greater than BE. 

If the pole, P, lie within the area in question, we get a 
somewhat different result. Remembering that $6o°=2t:, our 
limits in this case will be from (o = o,d = o,tp = n) to (a=27r,0 
= 2z,f = n). Denoting these limits by i and f, we have 



i: 



AA = Z 



i: 



'. ;4M«=xs? 



J* 



•4b 2 d0"b B 



Hence Z= / aducosy X b+^+^b 2 . (3.) 
For the wheel we have 



S= I *adacosp+2ffc. (4.) 



Combining (3) and (4) we have 

Z=bS-2-bc+~a 2 +j:b 2 

Hence in this case the record of the wheels must be increased 
by the constant quantity (^a 2 +~b 2 — 2~bc) expressed in proper 
units, in order to obtain the required area. The attention of 
the reader is specially called to the significance of the terms 
which make up this constant 



^Google 



ORE SAMPLING 351 

The Planimeter is a little instrument, about eight inches 
long, which can be carried in the pocket. It is extremely 
convenient for measuring irregular areas, such as occur on 
topographical maps, indicator cards, etc. 

The Planimeter is remarkable for the simplicity of its con- 
struction, and for the work it is capable of executing. As 
a valuable adjunct to mathematical instruments, and as a 
curiosity, it challenges the admiration of the world. 



MORE REMARKS ON ORE SAMPLING. 

BY S. A. REED, Ph.D. 

In Vol. III., No. 4, of the Quarterly, the author indicated the 
principles that should govern a properly conducted ore samp- 
ling operation. They are briefly the following : 

1. Adequate mixing. 

2. Impartial selection. 

3. Proper relative comminution. 

A correct instinct in these matters and long experience have 
so regulated the practice of the art, that, in point of accuracy, 
little fault is to be found with the work of our large ore-samp- 
lers. In fact, it may be be stated that the probable error in 
properly conducted ore sampling operations is less than the 
probable error of the assay of the sample when obtained. The 
practice of taking a double sample (very highly to be recom- 
mended), has given us a large store of figures to establish the 
truth of this assertion. Yet this degree of accuracy undeniably is 
obtained in many cases by an undue expenditure of labor, 
owing to the fact that, while a certain method is known to give 
correct results, the nature of its operation is but dimly compre- 
hended, and the work degenerates into rule of thumb, and blind 
reliance on the favorite system as in a sort of fetich, which pos- 
sesses certain inherent virtues apart from the manner in which 
it is conducted. Hence much unreasonable prejudice, not by 
any means confined to ignorant men, and thus we find one man 
condemning every method except quartering, another declaring 
sampling by tenth shovel to be unfair to miner or buyer, 



^Google 



352 THE QUARTERLY. 

another denouncing the split shovel, while a last will not hear 
of anything but fine crushing and mechanical sampling. 

Is there no principle to guide us in this matter ? The result 
of diligent enquiry from men of large experience and coolest 
judgment, supplemented by my own work in the same field 
leads me to the conclusion, that in point of accuracy, all the 
methods in general use, if properly directed, are of about equal 
value. The relative availability and economy of the different 
systems, however, vary with circumstances. 

The methods in vogue may be classified as follows, viz : 

i. Quartering. J Halving, etc. ■ 

2. Fractional selection. J ioth, 5th, etc., shovel. 

3. Split shovel. \ ? in S ,e ' d °"!> k . "iP 1 ". eK - SC0 °P 
J r i Assayers riffles. 

("Driving one or more channels 

I through a pile, shovelling a slice 

4. Channelling. < out of every wheelbarrow or car. 

I Driving a scoop through a car of 
1^ fine ore. etc. 

, .. , . , ,. ( Continuous. 

5 . Mechanical samplmg. | Intermittent 

The various methods under No. 5 operate upon a stream of 
ore either by taking a portion at regular intevals or by drawing 
off a portion continuously. A great number of ingenious de- 
vices have been contrived, some of which are in very success- 
ful operation. A number were mentioned in the author'spaper 
in Vol. III. The latest and best is that of Mr. Brunton, de- 
scribed in a recent paper read before the Am. Inst of Mining 
Engineers. This is an intermittent apparatus. It is better than 
continuous mechanism, since it does not require ore to be fine 
crushed. But the sample should not be reduced in this machine 
below about 200 lbs., from there on it should be reduced by 
some continuous method like the assayers " riffle." The earliest 
suggestion of Mr. Brunton's device I find in Rittinger's old 
Atlas, Table 34, Fig. 279. Mr. Brunton, by the way, in his 
paper makes the misleading statement that the bulk of Colorado 
ore is sampled mechanically, whereas I will venture to say that 
Y^ of the ore product of that State is sampled by hand. When 
it is borne in mind how much of the ore output comes to the 
works wet and often frozen, the situation can be appreciated. 



, v GooqIc 



ORE SAMPLING. 353 

The genera] principles to be observed in conducting the 
several methods are these : 

In No. I, mixing should always precede quartering. Mix- 
ing is generally effected by coning or shovelling to the top of a 
conical pile, and then flattening out the cone in some such way 
as not to disturb the radial distribution of coarse and fine, since 
the maintenance of the due relation of coarse and fine seems to 
involve the maintenance of the due relation between rich and 
poor. 

In No. 2, mixing can be dispensed with, since the elements 
going to make up the, sample come from places at regular in- 
tervals throughout the mass; for example, in taking a 10th 
shovel sample, a sample from 1 ton is made up of about 20 sep- 
arate shovelfuls from various parts of the pile. In this method 
the chief matter to insist upon is that the workman shall take 
his sample shovelful as it comes, without discrimination, and 
shovel always from the floor. No pieces should be shovelled 
which are too large to be comfortably accommodated on the shovel 
since they will have a tendency to crowd off some portions at 
the expense of others. Such large lumps must be picked or 
screened out, and crushed separately, and then cut down to the 
same degree as the main lot and the samples united. 

In No. 3, mixing need not precede the operation, but it is 
essential that the largest particles present should not be wider 
than y^ of the width of the scoop used, otherwise they may tend 
to fly out rather than in, when they strike the edges of the 
scoop. Also the scoop should be deep enough to render it im- 
possible for particles striking the bottom to bound out. Lastly 
the material should be thrown or delivered upon the scoop 
squarely and in a wide flat stream. 

In No. 4, mixing should precede, except where a large num- 
ber of separate channels make up the sample. 

In all these systems the workmen should be simply trained 
machines, but the head sampler should have brains and use them. 
Allowing now that by observance of these points we have got 
adequate mixing and impartial selection, what rule is to guide 
us as to the degree of fineness to which we should crush or grind 
before each successive reduction ? I conceive the principle in- 
volved to be the following: 



ntrod vGoO^lc 

J 



3S4 THE QUARTERLY. 

The divergence of any portion of a lot of ore from the aver- 
age percentage composition of the whole is due to the excess or 
deficit of one or more particles. The effect upon the result will 
be greatest when the pieces causing this divergence are of the 
largest size and richest quality. That is, if we divide up one ton 
of ore carrying pieces of pure argentite or horn silver, the diver- 
gence will be greatest when the portion chosen for the sample 
carries one or more large pieces of those minerals more or less 
than its due. 
' Let/ = the quantity of the lot {in Troy ounces). 

/ = the number of parts into which we divide / before se- 
lecting one as sample. 

k = percentage [of silver or gold in the richest specimens in 
the lot. 

s = sp. gr. of the same. 

m = the grade of the ore in ozs., per ton. 

D = diameter of largest pieces in the lot in inches. 

a — the number of pieces of D size and k value that can be 
an excess or deficit in the portion chosen for sample. 

Then if / = the largest percentage error we can allow in the 
result, it may be shown that we must crush or grind the lot, be- 
fore cutting to - t so that 



D = .o$ 3 / m P l 



i order to be safe against an error of more than I— as follows : 
Since 1.89 cu. in. water = 1 Troy oz., 
a sphere of D diameter and k per cent, silver or gold carries 

0.5236 B 3 s k 



Troy oz. silver or gold. 

If the sample contains I such sphere too much or too little, 
its deviation from the average = 

/-i 0.5236 EPsk t 

J — . J J 1 roy ozs. 

/ 100. 1.89 ' 



]V GooqIc 



ORE SAMPLING. 355 

If a such spheres, the deviation — the last expression multi- 
plied by a. 

The silver or gold contents of the lot operated upon — 

m p 

J— ozs. 

29166 ■ 

The silver or gold contents of any portion obtained by dividing 
the lot into /parts should be 



but it may be allowed to deviate from this value by 

m p I _ 
Troy ozs. 



29166 . 100 ./ 

But this deviation is caused by an excess or deficit of a par- 
ticles of D diameter and k per cent, silver or gold, hence ; 

/-i 0.5236. L»st_ mpl 



f 100 . 1.89 29166.100./ 

. re ;_ .000125 mpl 



^,; 



m p I 



[f-i)a 

Now a depends upon the thoroughness of the mixing and 
the impartiality of the selection of sample. With good work it 
should not be greater than 2 or 3. It may be shown by the 
law of probabilities, that under ordinary circumstances the 
chances are quite large against its being greater than 2, and 
very large against its being greater than 3, when the work is 
skillfully conducted. But its value can be arrived at inductively 
if we take a large number of actual results in practice, find out 
the value of I by the process of double sampling, or by re- 
sampling, give the other factors values obtained from experience 
in various particular cases, and determining a for each case. 



]V GooqIc 



356 THE QUARTERLY. 

Then taking a mean according to the method of least squares 
we can get the general value of a for the method of sampling 
employed. A rough estimate may be arrived at as follows, viz : 
Most samplers will agree that ore of a pretty good grade, say 
IOO ozs., and quite irregular, say carrying 3000 oz. specimens, 
may be cut down from 1 ton to 20 lbs. without crushing finer 
than J^ inch, and that the error likely to occur is within 1% of 
the result, a very fair allowance for assay error. Substituting 
we get 



1. 6. and Z> = .o42 '/ m P j 
Vsklf-i) 



a theoretical expression that we can venture to apply to other 
cases. 

Applying this to cases of different ores we get a set of values 
which illustrate the subject and are well sustained by experience. 
(See next page.) 

In the last reduction, viz., to bottle sample, the grinding is 
usually carried considerably beyond the point necessary to in- 
sure a good sample, This is to meet the requirements of the 
assay, which demands usually a fineness of about So mesh. 

It is to be noted that most grinding operations comminute 
the rich portions far more than the gangue, so we seldom have 
the extreme cases we are guarding against. Where, however, 
malleable minerals like cerargyrite and argentiteare present, these 
resist comminution more than the gangue, and, at certain stages, 
frequently have to be screened out and assayed separately. It 
is also to be noted that by making such careful provision against 
material error in the determination of precious metal, we are 
far within bounds with reference to estimation of other consti- 
tuents such as lead and copper. An error of 1 % on a 50 oz. 

ore = ■ — — of = -- — of the quantity taken for assay, 

100 600 60000 

whereas in lead determinations a variation of %% or of 

500 
the quantity taken for assay is immaterial. In practice we would 
have to know m in advance if we were applying our formula 
strictly, but for ordinary use we either know it pretty nearly, 
from our previous experience of the ore, or we arrive at it from 
a " grab sample," or we give it arbitrarily a value high enough 
to be safe. 



, v GooqIc 



ORE SAMPLING. 



High grade ores, carrying 
rich minerals, for example, m 
= 500. Specimens assay up 
to 10,000 ozs. per ton, .-. k — 
3°- 


ill 

a s 

E 




1 

5 - 

u 8 


"" 3 

if 

u _g 

it 


Grind to 50 mesh. 


Medium grade gray copper 
chloride, ruby silver, eta, ores. 
m — about 75. Specimens 
assay up to 3000 ozs. per ton, 
.-. k — 10. 


1 uj 

S 


bo 




1 "s 

Cl-S 

J 
* 


^ 2 

■0 
■c 


Medium galena and carbo- 
nate ores, free from rich min- 
erals. Ore averages about 50 
ozs. -= m. Best specimens as- 
say about 300 ozs. — i% — 
k. 




§ 




l« 

& 8 


1 1 

^ B 

n 


. a. 

il 

u 


'1 

O 




J2 

l-fl 

1-° s 
« s % 


if 

!1 


5 1 

if 

ii 

-1 


1 j 

8 9 
8 5 

.E £ 


Reducing the 5 lbs. to a 
sample from which portions 
can be taken directly for assay, 
i. e., i-ro A. T. (bottle sam- 
ple). 



,»GoogIe 



358 THE QUARTERLY. 

In handling wet or frozen ore, it can be cut down to about 
t ton without drying. At that time it is best to dry it on a 
dryer. Before grinding in " coffee mill" the sample should be 
thoroughly dried. In sampling large lots of ore for a smelting 
works it is desirable to keep the material coarse, except where 
it requires reverberatory roasting, and if it is desirable to transfer 
the bulk of a lot directly from the cars to the bins, or beds, then 
no method can compare with that given as No. 2, usually ap- 
plied by taking out 10th or 5th shovel for sample, and the sam- 
ple quartered, etc. It is a mistake for a general works to ar- 
range plant for one special process only, or for automatic hand- 
ling exclusively. 



GOING INTO BLAST WITH ANTHRACITE 
FURNACES. 

BY T. EGLESTON, PH.D. 

The method of blowing in which is adopted in .almost all 
the anthracite furnaces in the United States was imported orig- 
inally from Staffordshire, and has been modified to suit the cir- 
cumstances and conditions which arise from different situations, 
different fuels, different ores, and different shapes of furnaces. 
It is applicable to all kinds of fuel and is much saferand quicker 
than the method of scaffolding formerly used exclusively in 
charcoal furnaces, and still used in some of the European coke 
furnaces. With moderate care and precaution it has been so 
universally successful that a description of it cannot fail to be 
interesting. 

When a furnace has been lined new, the first thing to be 
done is to place a good roof over the top so as to prevent the 
action of the weather. Then all the lower part of the furnace 
being open the air is sometimes allowed to circulate through it 
for several weeks in order to air dry it as much as possible. In 
most works in this country, however, no air drying is done. It 
is considered either that the furnace has been so long in repair 
that the masonry is dry enough, or, if business is good that they 
cannot afford to wait, so that the fire is started as soon as the ma- 



^Google 



GOING INTO BLAST. 359 

sons have finished their work. When the furnace is ready, in open 
breast furnaces, a coal fire is made in the fore hearth which is 
transformed into a fireplace by building a temporary wall under 
the tymp and leaving a fiue of about 10 inches square going 
directly into the furnace. The fore hearth is then arched over 
and a grate placed in it. The grate bars of the furnace will be 
about three feet long and the grate about 34 inches wide. As 
but little draft is required at first, the area of the flue is usually 
diminished by putting bricks into it. When the furnace has a 
closed breast, a temporary brick furnace 2 feet wide and 3 to 4 
feet long is built outside of the furnace and the heat carried in 
by a flue built for the purpose. As soon as this is ready the 
top of the furnace is covered loosely with sheet iron supported 
on iron bars in order to prevent the too rapid escape of hot air. 

A fire is then lit in the furnace which is kept up until there 
is no condensation of moisture anywhere about the colder parts 
of the furnace and all the inner brick feels dry. The dryer the 
furnace is before it is filled the better it will work and the 
longer it will last. Any time or fuel that is expended in 
this way in drying it, is extremely economical in its results, 
both for the preservation of the brick work and the lengthening 
of the campaign, so that for this reason drying should be car- 
ried as far as possible, and any fuel so expended will be eco- 
nomically used, so that for this reason the filling should be de- 
ferred until the last moment or until the furnace is perfectly 
dry. When business is pressing the time occupied is sometimes 
as short as ten days, but two months is a better time, the longer 
the time the better. It is not intended nor expected that all 
the moisture should be expelled in this way. When the newly 
constructed furnace goes into blast it will often continue to give 
off steam in small quantities from the moisture of the lining for 
a month after it is blown in. The length of the campaign, 
other things being equal, will, however, generally depend on the 
way the furnace is first dried. 

While it is drying the tuyers should be put in, and all the 
water pipes should be tried to ascertain whether they are work- 
ing perfectly. The blast engine should be started and all the 
pipes and valves connected with it and the blast main should be 
examined to see that they are ready to work. The nozzle 
should be examined and placed in readiness to put up at once. 



^Google 



3<5o THE QUARTERLY. 

When the furnace is ready the hearth is covered with sawdust, 
fine charcoal or anthracite dust to the depth of six inches at least 
This is done to prevent any melted material which comes down 
after the furnace is fired, from sticking to the hearth. Sometimes 
no such precaution is taken, but the wood rests directly on the 
hearth. When the furnaces have a closed hearth a cribbing is 
made with eight inch to ten inch blocks, from eighteen inches to 
two feet high, to support the wood above, which is filled in with 
light wood or shavings only, just enough being put in to light 
the wood. This light wood being relieved of any pressure ig- 
nites very easily. 

In the open breast furnaces a man gets into the hearth 
through the fore hearth, and fills it with sticks of cordwood from 
4 to 4^4 feet long, set on end, putting in generally only two 
tiers and filling the furnace to the height of eight to ten feet 
As soon as the furnace is so full that there is no longer room to 
work, the man comes out through the fore hearth and fills up 
all the remaining space that he can from the outside, putting in 
at the last dried shavings and small wood in the spaces not 
filled by the cord-wood, so that the furnace will light easily. 
When the hearth has a closed breast all the filling is done from 
the top. The wood to be used should be hard and well seasoned, 
oak or hickory is preferred, but any other hard dry wood may 
be used. 

Long experience in the Lehigh district has shown that two 
tiers is about the best quantity of wood to be used. This is 
sufficient to light the furnace and any more than this may be 
injurious and likely to cause an accident Occasionally the fur- 
nace is filled as high as 20 feet with wood, it being filled nearly 
to the boshes. There is always danger that an excess of wood 
above what is necessary to light the furnace will cause it to draw 
irregularly, the materials burning out at one side more than the 
other, and it may even cause an accident from excessive heat or 
produce a scaffold even before the blast is turned on. It is to 
be kept in mind always that when the wood burns out the stock 
must descend the whole height of the wood. If this took place 
suddenly it would cause a serious accident. It, however, takes 
place gradually, but much quicker than with the ordinary fuel, 
so that it must not be allowed to burn out too quickly, nor should 
there be too much of it. The time that it will take to put in 



^Google 



GOING INTO BLAST. 361 

the wood depends both on the quantity put in and the way it 
is introduced. If only two tiers are introduced from the fore 
hearth, as at Glendon, it will take about a day and a half. If it 
is lowered from the top it will take from six to twelve hours. 

When the wood is filled in below, and every part of the 
space which is left has been filled as tight as possible, the dam 
is put in position. The cover is now removed from the top of 
the furnace. As the wood will reach to the height of the top 
of the hearth or higher, pieces of boards are placed against the 
boshes in order to protect the bricks in that position against 
abrasion from the material that is to form the charge. This is 
very desirable, and as there is plenty of old lumber about the 
furnace which is useless for any other purpose, it is a matter of 
no expense. If, however, there is none, new boards must be 
used, and for this purpose slabs will answer as well as anything 
else. They should be placed close together so as to be sure that 
no abrasion will take place before the bricks have received their 
proper glaze. As soon as the cover is removed from the top of 
the furnace a tackle is rigged for the purpose of letting the ma- 
terials down into the furnace. This is usually done in a bucket. 

On top of the wood ten to twenty, and occasionally as high 
as thirty, tons of coal, varying with the size of the crucible, are 
then piled. This should be freshly mined coal, as almost all 
coal deteriorates by being kept, and serious accidents have hap- 
pened to some furnaces owing to the fact that the coal they used 
in filling had been kept too long after mining. The coal is 
broken before being put into the furnace, to the size of six 
inches cube or steamboat size, and great care is taken to dis- 
tribute h as uniformly as possible over the top wood, no fine 
coal whatever being used. In some works it is simply shoveled 
in from the top. This is a bad plan even for furnaces of less 
than sixty feet, and would be impossible in very large furnaces, 
since the height of the fall is so great as to break the coal and 
produce a great deal of fine dust, besides causing it to pack in 
the lower part It is very undesirable, and may be dangerous. 
■ It is much better to let down all the coal in buckets and 
level it carefully by hand. In some of the furnaces the coal is 
charged in buckets until the furnace is half full, and the 
rest is shoveled in from the top. In so important a matter 
the time and labor which is saved by working in this way 



^Google 



362 THE QUARTERLY. 

is of no account, since the expense attendant upon any accident 
would necessarily be very great, and it is much better and more 
certain to be successful to fill the furnace entirely with buckets. 
For the rest of the filling the practice is a little different in the 
different works although the principle is the same everywhere. 
AtGlendon, five-eighths the weight of thecoa! of carefully selected 
blast furnace cinder broken to the size of the fist is then put in. 
All the slag selected for this purpose should be very carefully, 
chosen, that produced while gray iron is being made, being the 
best, and also slag which is very basic, as the substance that it 
is required to Mux at this time is for the most part the ashes of the 
fuel, which are for the most part acid. At Glendon the charges 
used in the furnace are known as the single, which is used in 
the normal working of the furnace, and the double, which is used 
in the first stage of the filling. The double charge is composed 
of 24 barrows of coal, 1 2 barrows of slag, 6 of limestone, and 1 2 
of ore. The weight of the material per barrow is exactly the 
same for all kinds of material when filling. After four or five 
charges of this kind are made, two barrows of slag are replaced 
by two barrows of ore and one barrow of limestone, thus grad- 
ually substituting ore for cinder until it replaces it entirely, and 
the weight of the ore per charge is made equal to the weight of 
the coal. 

In this way the furnace is filled to the top, a few charges at 
the last being of the regular or single charge, 1 2 barrows of coal, 
6 of limestone, and 12 of ore. It is essential that, these charges 
should be distributed as nearly as possible in horizontal layers, 
and that just as little fine material as possible should be used. 
This filling takes four to six days according to the size of the 
furnace. The annexed drawing for which I am indebted to 
Mr. F. Firmstone, shows the method of filling a No. 3 furnace 
at Glendon. At Bethlehem," from 1 500 to 2000 pounds of cinder 
are charged on the coal and at every tenth succeeding charge un- 
til the furnace is filled. The cinder is withdrawn when near the 
top by first putting in a charge of coal and 2000 pounds of slag, 
and then going on with the regular charge of ore, coal and lime- 
stone. The filling takes sixty hours. At Port Henry, as shown 



>.gitaSd :::y GOO<^IC 



N'o. 3 FURNACE. 



^Google 



o„ r,a .Google 



GOING INTO BLAST. 3 6 i 

Journal of a Filling at Port Henry. 







LinuSon. 


s=r 


Ore. 


ClNDIR. 


^ 


Remaukj. 






Like. 


Magncsi*. 




1878. 1 

" i 

i 

i 


■ 


- 

z 

z 

z 

360 
38. 


376 

63P 

*M 

7«S 

ess 


1350 


4« 


lbh 


1 Cordj ol wood to 

Full to Flat. 
Fired it if. n P. M. 


' 


- 


.,. 


« 


» 




3000 


Full itMr wood 


Total i 


'3' 






- 




3» 


["*-«"■• 

G« under boiler .t 
1,55 P. M. 

Gu into stoves it 
No, 1,3.35; No. a, 

No 7 e.SMBo"cin 
L de"aTo K F , 'M! n " 
















1 1 


« 


..7 


«3S 


34~ 




3™ 


| lr0n ' ! '. o *i M "' 7 


" 




S'7 


103s 


3400 




yx» 


.stft™. 


! 


» 


"■ 


mto 


3 6co 




3 ™ 


39K ton.. 



il Ore 10 3,360 lbs. o( Fuel 



^Google 



.364 THE QUARTERLY. 

by the annexed table,* 500 lbs. of slag are put in to 3000 lbs. of 
coal, which is gradually increased to 2000 lbs. and then, when 
the furnace is about half full, as gradually decreased until it is 
withdrawn. The charge of ore is increased regularly with every 
three to five charges, so that by the time the furnace is filled, 
the ore will weigh from I }& to l % times the weight of the fuel. 
The amount of limestone is about five per cent. The time of 
filling is forty-eight houis, depending, however, on the way the 
hoist is worked and its capacity. The furnaces both at Bethle- 
hem and Port Henry have closed breasts. 

The use of cinder was formerly unusual, but has grad- 
ually grown into favor, as the cinder above the first coal not 
only begins to melt almost as soon as the blast is put on, thence 
running down into the fore hearth and warming the bottom, 
fluxing the ashes of the wood and the coal, but it also helps to 
glaze the bricks of the furnace. The success in blowing in 
will depend very largely upon the bricks getting the proper 
glaze. The iron which is first reduced instead of becoming scat- 
tered, as in the method of scaffolding it must do, amongst the 
cold ashes below, sinks through the melted slag as in the fur- 
nace in regular work. This employment of cinder has always 
worked well, and its use is constantly extending. The cinder 
which flows at first, is much more vitreous than that which has 
been put into the furnace. Its color is sometimes dark brown, 
from a little iron or other impurities, but is never black. 
When no cinder is added limestone is put in with the first coal 
in order to flux its ashes. The quantity of lime required is a 
little less than that used in the regular working. The regular 
filling commences at this point, the charge being let down in 
the same way, and each charge containing twice as much coal 
as what is to be the regular charge in the furnace. It is dan- 
gerous to use much fine ore while filling the furnace, as it is more 
likely to sift down through the charge and to pack, than during 
the regular working. 

It is essential that sufficient space should be left between the 
parts of the charge- to cause a good draft at the start When 
the furnace is lighted the fire should come round regularly with- 

* I am indebted to Mr. F. Witherbee for tbis Journal of the filling of one of 
the Port Henry furnaces. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



GOING INTO BLAS-T. ' 365. 

out any accident There should be a good draft through the 
tuyers and under the tymp up into the furnace so that the fire 
will light regularly all around. A want of care in these respects- 
will sometimes cause a great deal of difficulty. It is better 
generally to avoid the use of fine materials of any kind at this 
time. 

While the filling is going on, if it has not been previously 
done, every part of the outside of the furnace should be exam- 
ined to see that everything is in full working order, because it 
is desirable to light the furnace as soon as it is full. As this 
takes several days there is plenty of oportunity to examine 
everything, for while a furnace may stand full of material for 
some time and blow in without any serious trouble, the charge 
is very apt to pack from standing, and serious accidents have 
occurred from allowing the furnace to be filled sometime before 
blowing in. Just as soon as the furnace is filled it should be 
lighted. This is done with shavings through the fore hearth 
which with all the openings at the bottom is left open, but the 
draft should be restricted so as to be certain that the wood does 
not burn too quickly. In the closed furnaces the lighting is. 
done at the tap hole, cinder notch and tuyers at the same time, 
the ignition being often made with red hot iron bars put in through 
these openings. 

If the draft is good as it should be, at the end of six to ten 
hours the fire will generally appear at the tuyers next to the 
fore hearth, and pieces of ignited coal will begin to drop in front 
of the tymp. The fore hearth is now filled up with coal dust, 
wnich is covered over with a layer of loam and packed down 
with a shovel. Over this two heavy cast iron plates are put for 
weights to keep it in position. If the furnace has been properly 
filled there is generally a strong draft at the tuyers, and the fire 
will work around gradually and quickly. It however, some- 
times refuses to draw, when the weather becomes suddenly 
warmer than when the furnace was filled, because the materials 
inside are cooler than the outside air. If the draft is not good 
and the fire does not come round quickly, small nozzles may 
be put in and worked at a very low pressure by blowing in the 
open tuyer. 

There is always danger in allowing the fire to come round 
slowly by itself, for in this case the wood in the center of the 



^Google 



366 THE QUARTERLY. 

furnace may be completely converted into charcoal, or be 
burned out before that at the outside has begun to take fire, and 
thus cause an irregular descent of the charge. It is therefore 
desirable to put the nozzle in to hasten the fire if it does not 
come around properly. After about ten hours more, or 16 to 
20 hours after the furnace has started, incandescent coal will be- 
gin to come down before the tuyers, which are closed at once 
with clay when this takes place. 

As soon as the coal appears in front of the last tuyers, so 
that they have all been incandescent, they are all opened and 
the air is allowed to enter them in order to freshen up the fire 
for about an hour before the blast is put on. The blast should 
be put on after no longer delay than this. At Glendon, the 
practice is to commence the blow gently as soon as all the wood 
is converted into charcoal. This is ascertained by thrusting a 
pointed iron rod through the tuyers. If there is no uncarbon- 
ized wood it can be pushed from wall to wall without difficulty. 
In some works the tuyers are not closed but the draft is ob- 
structed or the tuyer left open according as there appears to be 
a necessity for more or less draft This is more especially the 
practice in furnaces with a closed breast. 

It will be possible if there is any accident, to bank the fur- 
nace at this time by stopping up all the tuyers and allowing it 
to remain so for 24 hours or even for twice that time, but there 
is always danger of scaffolds if at this stage any delay occurs in 
putting on the blast. There has been so much time to look after 
every part of the furnace and its machinery that there should be 
no accidents, as everything should not only be in perfect order 
but in good repair. The time from lighting to putting on the 
blast will be from 12 to 36 hours, depending somewhat on the 
weather but mostly on the filling. 

Before blowing, good fires should be lighted on the grates 
of all the boilers to insure plenty of steam, and a fire of wood 
should be started in the combustion chamber of the hot blast 
stoves if they are iron, or in the center of the brick stoves if they 
are regenerative. All of these fires should be started two or 
three hours before the blast is put on, so as to warm the walls 
and the pipes. There should always be a bed of incandescent 
coal under the boilers, and in the combustion chamber of the 
hot air stoves when the blast is put on, which renders certain 



^Google 



GOING INTO BLAST. 367 

the ignition of the gas as soon as it enters them, and prevents 
an explosion which would be likely to take place if the gas did 
not at once become ignited there. It is not best to put on the 
blast before the gas at the top is combustible. It is not how- 
ever best to light it before closing the bell, as explosions may 
occur in the space beneath the bell, or even in the interstices of 
the materials in the furnace. It is safest to commence with the 
charging bell open, and not close it until there is a godd circula- 
tion of gas. The bell and all other outlets of gas are then closed 
almost tight and also all the valves leading from the gas flues 
to the stoves and boilers, thus driving all the air out ahead of the 
gas through the small openings and leaks. By thus maintaining 
a good pressure in the flue an explosion is made impossible. 
When the air is out the valves must be opened very cautiously 
and one at a time. In some works the air is driven out by smoke 
from a smouldering fire made in the flues and combustion cham- 
bers and this is gradually replaced by gas. If a good fire has been 
kept up in the combustion chambers they will be well heated 
from the start, and no accident can take place. It is well always to 
maintain a plenum in the gas flues even when the furnace is in 
regular working. The bell should always be "chocked" open 
from the time the furnace is lighted until the gas is let into the 
flues, as explosions are liable to occur in the furnace itself. From 
such explosions the bell and hopper have sometimes been lifted 
from theirseatsand the brick work around them shattered, or both 
the bell and hopper broken, a serious thing at such a time, as 
it occasions delay. In the open breast furnaces the stopping 
should be put in before the blast is started. The time of firing 
should always be so selected that the blast shall be put on and 
the gas ignited in the day time. 

About an hour after blowing is commenced the fore hearth 
is opened. If everything is in good working order at this time 
the fine dust and the loam, with which the fore hearth is filled, is 
removed from it, and stopping under the tymp is put in. The 
fore hearth is again filled, and the weights which cover it are 
put on and propped down. 

In some of the furnaces a point is made of using smaller noz- 
zles to blow in with than are used during the regular working, 
the diameter in some cases being reduced to two inches. These 
are kept in from 12 to 24 hours according to the way in which 



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368 THE QUARTERLY. 

the furnace is driven. They are after this time changed for 
those used in the regular working. In others, tuyere of the 
full size are used from the beginning. The space between the 
nozzle and the tuyer is carefully packed with day, open tuyers 
never being used in anthracite furnaces. In the best practice 
seats are turned in the tuyers into which the turned end of the 
nozzle fits; this not only prevents leaks, but greatly facilitates 
changing the nozzles. 

After the blowing has commenced, fires should be started at 
once on top of the furnace and over the fore hearth, to ignite the 
gas as it escapes. If no accident has happened the material in 
the furnace will begin to sink regularly. As the charges descend 
new charges are added, keeping up the same charge as that 
which was last put into the furnace. The gas will generally come 
off in considerable quantities, but will not be very combustible 
at first, as it is cold and filled with steam, for which reason the 
fires must be carefully looked after. The gas is used from, the 
start. It will be about 36 hours before it can be depended on to 
be used without fires. It will be possible to increase the tem- 
perature in the course of five or six hours to 6oo° or 8oo° F. 
The slag will rise and appear in front of the tuyers in three to 
twelve hours after the blowing has commenced, depending on 
the way the charge is made and the size of the crucible. What- 
ever cinder is melted before the blowing commences settles in the 
hearth and no attention is paid to it in the closed breast furnaces 
After the blowing the slag is allowed to accumulate and runs 
off through the cinder notch ; sometimes the first cinder is tapped 
through the iron notch to warm up that part of the furnace, but 
this is not always done. In the open breast furnaces the con- 
dition of the slag must be carefully watched in order to "spring 
the cinder" into the fore hearth. In many of the works they 
wait to do this until the slag appears in front of the tuyers. In 
others the cinder is sprung as soon as the flames under the tymp 
and over the fore hearth commence to diminish or disappear. 
This shows that the slag has risen so high as to prevent the 
escape of the gases at that point, and that there is sufficient of 
it to fill the fore hearth. This is a much safer way, as it avoids 
every possible difficulty with the tuyers. To spring the cinder 
some of the blast is taken off, only enough being kept on 
to prevent the cinder from entering the tuyers. The weights 



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GOING INTO BLAST. 369 

and covers are removed from the fore hearth which is cleaned 
and the slag admitted into it by driving heavy iron bars down 
obliquely under the tymp. This admits the slag to the fore 
hearth, heats it up and gets it ready for the iron. As soon as 
the fore hearth is full of slag the weights are put on again, and 
the regular pressure of the blast resumed If from the first ap- 
pearance of the slag, or at any other time during the blowing 
in, there is any irregularity in its appearance the hearth is 
cleaned out. 

The iron will begin to appear in from 12 to 20 hours. If 
the hearth should become choked with cold slag or pieces of 
unconsumed coal, it may appear sooner, and may even run over 
the dam, if proper attention is not paid to it. In a sixty ton 
furnace if everything is working well, the first cast will be from 
14 to 15 tons, sometimes not more, than 5 to 6 tons, but it is 
generally expected that it will be about one-third of the regular 
product. The normal working will usually not be arrived at in 
less than four or five weeks, but it is sometimes reached in two 
weeks. 

The quantity of biastshould be increased very slowly. There 
are two ways of doing it. One is to blow at a low pressure, and 
increase the quantity by increasing the pressure, and the other 
to commence at once with the full pressure and to increase the 
size of the nozzles. The latter seems to be the most rational 
although it gives more trouble, as the nozzles have to be re- 
moved. If the number of tuyers is greater than three or four it is 
well to reserve some of them at first and blow say from only 
half of them, but with the full pressure, as it is easier to start a 
new tuyer than to change a nozzle. 

It is important to keep everything in the furnace moving 
regularly by properly handling the blast so as to prevent the 
danger of a hot scaffold, which is very apt to occur in blowing 
in if the blast is not properly handled. On no account should 
any attempt be made to force the furnace at first. It will not 
be economical so far as the length of the blast or of the cam- 
paign is concerned, to produce at once more than half or one- 
third of what the furnace is expected to do in its normal work- 
ing. Ordinarily the furnace will not get to its normal condition 
in less than a month or six weeks after it starts. Every possi- 
sible precaution should be taken while the furnace is going into 



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370 THE QUARTERLY. 

blast to avoid stoppages of any kind. It is impossible to tell 
what the effect of such stoppages will be, and every possible 
precaution should be taken to avoid them. 

Failures by this method are extremely rare and when they 
occur they are usually caused either from the unskilful filling in 
of the furnace, from allowing the furnace to stand too long be- 
fore it is fired, from the use of bad fuel, or too much fine ore, or 
from some delay. The most critical period is when the fur- 
nace is approaching its normal burden, which will generally 
be from two to three weeks after the blast is put on, for the 
maximum burden may or may not suit the conditions which 
are assumed for it, but by constant watchfulness with prompt 
action if needed, the furnace will generally work up to its proper 
condition without accident. 



NOTES ON THE PRODUCTION OF COPPER IN 
ARIZONA. 

BY W. E. NEWBERRY, E.M. 

The history of the development of the copper deposits of 
Arizona is the history of a very few years, but in that time this 
industry has made itself prominent among the business interests 
of the Territory. But little has been written with regard to the 
character of the deposits, and the obstacles to be met with in the 
treatment of the ores of this region, and a few words on the 
subject, based on the recent experience of the writer, may be 
acceptable to those interested in the matter. 

Arizona copper is for the most part produced by the smelt- 
ing of oxidized ores. The ore most commonly met with is a 
mixture of the red and black oxides with the green and blue 
carbonates, and rarely yields in quantity over 20% copper. 

The deposits are usually quite irregular, but consist generally 
of masses or filled chambers of ore, sometimes connected by 
stringers and sometimes isolated, but lying in the same general 
plane, which dips usually across, but often with, the country 
rock. None of the workings have yet attained a depth suffi- 
cient to warrant any conclusions as to the general permanency 



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COPPER IN ARIZONA. 371 

of the deposits. Some of the smaller mines which showed good 
ore at first have given out entirely in the deeper workings, while 
others (notably the Old Dominion, at Globe) which promised 
little in the first levels, have developed with depth into valuable 
properties. 

The gangue varies very much in different mines, and often 
in different parts of the same mine, but it is generally so silicious 
as to require the use of basic fluxes in smelting. These, either 
limestone or iron ore, or both, can be obtained of good quality 
with more or less ease in most parts of the Territory. 

As I shall endeavor to show, in computing the cost of smelt- 
ing, under ordinary circumstances, and at the present price of 
copper, the poorest ore that can be profitably worked in Ari- 
zona must yield about 10% of copper, leaving out of the ques- 
tion any precious metal which may be present. Under the 
present methods of working, little ore is treated from which the 
slag contains less than 1% of copper, while in some furnaces 
slag assaying 2%% is thrown over the dump. With more at- 
tention to slag composition than is now given this loss could be 
somewhat reduced, but, whatever the amount, the loss must be 
added to the minimum yield of 10% to give the lowest percent- 
age of copper for a workable ore. 

The absence of arsenic and antimony from ores which ap- 
proach this limit is a sine qua non, and is very desirable in richer 
ores, as almost the whole of these substances goes into the bul- 
lion, considerably reducing its value. 

Great economy in smelting can be obtained by producing 
such a slag, that the ore shall be as nearly self-fluxing as possi- 
ble. In many cases this can be done by mixing the silicious 
and basic ores which are found in the same mine. The copper- 
smelter has still much to learn from the lead-smelter in this mat- 
ter; as in many works an unnecessary amount of flux is used, 
amounting sometimes to over 40% of the charge, necessitating 
the use of a large amount of fuel, reducing the capacity of the 
furnace, and, from the great quantity of slag formed, causing an 
increased loss of copper through the slag spout 

Next to the ore the question of the water supply is of the 
greatest importance to the Arizona copper-smelter. A single 
water jacket furnace requires from 6,000 to 7,000 gallons of 
water per 24 hours, and even with this supply, none can be 



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37* THE QUARTERLY. 

wasted, but tanks of sufficient capacity must be provided, to al- 
low the water which has been used once to cool, before going 
to the furnace again. In some cases where the supply is small, 
the hot water is pumped up, and allowed to run through a ser- 
ies of broad, flat troughs, so that it may be cooled quickly by 
exposing a large surface to the air. Sometimes, also, the water, 
although sufficient in quantity, contains so much matter in solu- 
tion and suspension that the furnace must be frequently blown 
out and the interior of the jacket scraped clean of the scale 
which has been deposited. In such cases the water for camp 
purposes has often to be brought by pack animals from a 
distance, and at a considerable expense. 

Much of the southern part of Arizona is little better than a 
desert, and water must be obtained from deep wells which are of 
small and uncertain flow, In such a situation the water from 
several wells from different locations must be pumped to the 
furnace, necessitating a large outlay for pipe and pumping plant 

Coke is almost exclusively used in the furnaces, charcoal 
being scarce and expensive. Coke can be had in three varie- 
ties, namely: that from England, frum Crested Butte,. Col., and 
from Trinidad, Col. In their hardness, freedom from sulphur 
and percentage of ash, they are about in the order named, the 
English coke being the best in all the points. 

The English coke is brought to San Erancisco as ballast in 
ships which take back wheat and the supply is therefore quite 
limited and is usually engaged a long time before its arrival. 
Consequently, it cannot be depended upon for regular use, but 
it is advantageous to keep a small supply on band for starting- 
the furnace and for use in burning- out obstructions when the 
furnace is working badly, 

Trinidad coke is the fuel generally used, and its cost depends 
on the distance it has to be transported. The first cost, at El 
Moro, where is it made, is about $5 per ton. The railroad 
freight to any station in Arizona is from from $8 to $15 per 
ton. From the railroad to the works it is hauled in wagons 
with teams of from twelve to twenty mules. The cost of this 
method of transportation depends upon the distance and the 
nature of the road. For a distance of fifty miles over a fairly 
level road it would be about $10 per ton, but this would be 
much increased by the necessity of hauling over mountains. 



, v GooqIc 



COPPER IN ARIZONA. 373 

These teams will usually take bullion on the return trip for from 
^ to Y^ the rate charged for coke. 

Cord wood is plenty in some parts of the Territory, but is 
quite scarce in the southern part where it costs from $4 to> $5 
per cord and is of very poor quality. 

Labor is high everywhere in Arizona. Furnace men receive 
$4 per day; engineers $4 to $6; carpenters $5 to $6; miners 
$3.50 to $4; white laborers $2.50 to $3; and Mexican laborers 
$2 to $2.50. But little dependence can be placed upon men 
calling themselves skilled. The territory is full of engineers who 
know little beyond starting and stopping an engine, and it is 
much the same in all other trades. 

The following calculation of the cost of smelting is made for 
both one and two furnaces, each smelting 40 tons of ore per 
day, using 400 lbs. of Mux to the ton of ore. and 333 lbs. of 
coke to the ton of charge {ore and flux). It is of course impos- 
sible to give the exact cost of anything used without locating 
the imaginary works at some particular point, but we will sup- 
pose them' to be about fifty miles from the railroad. 

Approximate cost of producing Copper from one 
and two furnaces, in arizona. 



Coke, ii>*/{% of 4S tons of charge — S tons, at say $25 per 

Cord wood, 5 and 7 cords at $4.00 so 

Oil, lights, waste, &c 4 

Tapping bars, &c 1 

Tamping clay I 

Repairs to furnace, (lining, &c.) 3 

Bullion and slag pots, wear and tear a 50 

Engines and boiler " " 3 

Flux, limestone, 8 tons at tl.JO 12 

Hauling ore to furnace 10 

Carried forward, $276 50 

3 Crusher men al 83 6 

1 Man handling flux at S3 3 

3 Feeders at $4 M 

4 Wheelers at $3 " 

3 Tappers at (4 la 

3 Helpers at $3 a 

2 Roustabouts al $3 6 



idvGooqIc 



374 THE QUARTERLY. 

i Man wheeling slag to charging floor j 6 

2 Bullion men at $3 6 la 

a Foremen at $5 10 10 

2 Engineers at $4 8 8 

I Metallurgist Io 10 

Men employed during stops 2 4 

*375 SO 8705 00 

Laboratory supplies I r 50 

Water supply 30 25 

Superintendance and Office Expenses 35 35 

$431 50 $766 jo 
Now let us suppose that the ore yields 10% of copper, which 
is in bullion running 96%. Then we will have for the cost of 
running one furnace per day. 

Mining 40 tons ore, at $4 per ton 8160 

Smelting, &c 431 50 

Cost of 10%, or 4 tons of copper $591 50 

Cost of one ton copper 147 83 

Freight to refinery, say 3a 

Refining at 1 % cents per lb 30 

Loading, commission and waste 5 

Cost of 1 ton, refined copper $214 87 

Or, per lb 10^ cents. 

Running two furnaces we have as follows : 

Cost of mining 80 tons ore $320 

Smelting ". 766 50 

Cost of 8 tons crude copper 1086 50 

Or, per ton $135 81 

Freight, refining, 4c 67 00 

Cost per ton, refined copper $202 81 

Or, per lb 10& cents. 

From this it will be seen that, as I before stated, the poorest 
ore that can be smelted with profit, must yield 10% of copper. 



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ABSTRACTS. 



Some New Paraffins. 

Cetane, C„H M made from cetyl iodide by action of zinc and fum- 
ing HC1 is a crystallized solid fusing at at i9°-2o°, boiling at 278 
and yielding vapor density of 7.85-7.90. Theory requires 7.84. ° 
Dicetyl, C S H M and diheptyl, C tl H n , were prepared by the method 
of Wurtz ; action of sodium upon iodides of the alcohol radicles. 
Dicetyl crystallizes in pearly scales from its solution in acetic acid, 
fuses at 70 , boils at a temperature far above the range of the mer- 
cury thermometer, distills unchanged and is not dissolved or black- 
ened by strong H,SO t at 150°. Vapor density found = 16.1-15.64 
calculated 15.5 Diheptyl is a colourless mobile oil having slight 
odour, solidifying at 6 boiling at 145° at 750 m. m., without de- 
composition, and yields a vapour density of 7.06-7.04, theory 6.82. 

K. B. Sorabji, Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, February, 1885. 

W. G. B 
Determination of Morphine in Opium. 

In the following method the opium is heated with barium hy- 
drate and H,0 filtered, and washed with hot water. The filtrate 
containing all the morphine, is saturated with carbon dioxide and 
the whole rapidly evaporated to dryness on a water bath. The 
dried mass is extracted with absolute alcohol and the alcoholic fil- 
trate freed from alcohol by distillation. The residue is allowed to 
stand some time with ammonia water, brought upon a filter, washed 
with H,0 containing ammonia, then with chloroform, then dried and 
weighed. This crude morphine may be purified by dissolving in 
acetic acid, adding a few drops of potassium ferrocyanide, filtering, 
neutralizing the filtrate with ammonia and allowing the morphine 
to crystallize out, collecting the crystals upon a filter, drying and 
weighing. TV. G. B. 

V. Perger, Jour. Amer. Ckem. Soc., January, 1885. 

Fractional distillation in a current of Steatn as a new means of inves- 
tigating Naphtha. 

Steam is conducted from a boiler to the bottom of the distilling 
flask, (not otherwise heated). The mixture of steam and hydrocarbon 
vapours is dephlegmated by cooling in tubes and by washing in Men- 
dell Jeffs dephlegmators (from one to three in number). These latter 
are not heated. The mixed vapours coming from the last dephlegma- 
tor are collected after condensation, in quantities of 65-70 cc, and 
for each such fraction the specific gravity and the ratio of water to oil 
(by volume or weight) determined. The numbers thus found serve 
as coordinates for the curves representing the results of each dis- 
tillation. The fraction! ng depends upon the peculiarity of these hy- 
drocarbons that, when thus distilled, the ratio between the quantity 
of oil and of water used in distilling varies with the specific gravity 
of the oil. 

Rasinski, Jour. Med. Chan, Sjc, January, fSS'j. W. G. B. 



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GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 

This department was omitted in the March number of the Quar- 
terly, as the Alumni Association had. just published a list of its 
members, corrected to March 16th. This list in accordance with 
the Resolutions adopted at the meeting of the Board of Managers, 
held December 2ad, 1884, has been distributed in pamphlet form 
accompanied by the following circular: 

Office of Secretary School of Mines Alumni Association, ) 
Corner 49th St. and 4th Ave., New York, March 16, 1885. ( 
Dear Sir : 

I enclose a list of the members of our Association, and gradu- 
ates of the school, and beg leave to draw your attention to the fol- 
lowing extract from the minutes of a meeting of the Board of Man- 
agers, held Dec. 22, 1884. 

Resolved. That hereafter only those members and graduates, 
who signify their desire to belong to this Association by paying 
their dues, shall be retained upon the roll of membership, and that 
only the addresses of such shall be kept and published after May 
1st, 1885. 

Resolved. That a full list of members and graduates be published 
in the January number of the Quarterly, and that a sufficient num- 
ber of extra copies of said list be struck off and sent to all gradu- 
ates and members, with a copy of the foregoing resolution : and 
that the Secretary notify the same that this will be the last full list 
published, as in accordance with the resolution adopted, the names 
of all graduates and members not paying dues will hereafter be 
omitted. 

As you will see from the list sent you, the graduates of the 
School of Mines now number 423, more than one-half of whom, it 
gives me pleasure to state, take an active interest in its Alumni As- 
sociation. 

Our Association has done and is doing good work. It has a 
Western office in Denver through which it hopes to find employ- 
ment for many of its members. It holds four meetings a year at 
which papers are presented, and discussions of great interest occur. 
It publishes with the aid of the Engineering and Chemical 
Societies of the School of Mines, the School of Mints Quarterly, a 
magazine of value and merit, and is endeavoring as far as possible 
to advance the interests and standing of its members and our Alma 
Mater. 

Sincerely trusting that if you have not already done so, you will 
enter and continue your name on the Roll of Membership of the 
Association, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

P. de P. Ricketts, Secretary. 



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GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 373 

The January number of the Quarterly contained extracts from 
the minutes of the meetings of the Association and its Board of 
Managers held in November and December. , 

We now give extracts from the minutes of a meeting of the 
Board of Managers held on February 2d, and also extracts from 
the last Quarterly meeting of the Association held on April 1st : 

Board of Managers. — A Special Meeting of the Board of 
Managers of the Alumni Association was held in Library Hall, 
Columbia College, on February ad, 1885, at 8 P.M. 

The President in the Chair, the minutes of the last meeting were 
read and approved. 

The Treasurer having presented his annual report at the last 
meeting no special report was called for. He stated informally that 
the receipts since the last report had amounted to $30, while bills 
for some $400 had been received for payment. 

The standing Committee on the Quarterly reported progress 
through its Chairman, Prof. Rees, who spoke of the favorable con- 
dition of the Quarterly and gain to the magazine by the addition as 
Associate Editors of the names of prominent Scientists. 

The Standing Committee on Constitution and By-Laws reported 
through Mr. Beebe, that as yet no special action had been taken or 
meeting held by the Committee which called for the attention of 
the Board. 

The Special Committee on Incorporation reported through Mr. 
Van Sinderen, as to the laws under which the Association could be 
incorporated. 

The Auditing Committee reported that they had examined the 
Treasurer's accounts and found them correct in every way. pn 
motion the report was accepted and the Committee discharged. 

The bill for printing incurred by the " Committee of Ten" was 
then discussed ; the Treasurer stating that it had not been paid, as 
under the Constitution it required the approval of the Secretary of 
the Association. The Secretary stated that as the bill exceeded the 
appropriation of $250 made for the expenses of the " Committee of 
Ten" he did not feel authorized to approve the bill without special 
action on the part of the Board of Managers. 

The following resolution was then offered and carried. 

Resolved, That the appropriation of $250 be increased sufficient- 
ly to cover all bills of the " Committee of Ten" presented to date, 
and that the Treasurer be authorized to pay the same. 

The Secretary then read a communication from Mr. H. W. 
Leavens, the Assistant Secretary, asking about the promised appro- 
priation of $roo recommended at the last meeting of the Associa- 
tion. After some discussion Mr. Beebe offered the following reso- 
lution : 

Resolved, That $50 be appropriated for the expenses of the 
Western office and that the Treasurer be authorized to pay the same 
on the receipt of proper vouchers. 

Dr. Ricketts moved as an amendment that the amount of Sioo 
be appropriated for the expenses of the Western office, and the 
Treasurer be authorized to pay the same on receipt of proper 



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373 THE QUARTERLY. 

vouchers, for the year 1885. After some discussion, the original 
motion was withdrawn and the amendment carried. 

On recommendation of the Chairman of the Standing Commit- 
tee on Quarterly Meetings, the following resolution was then 
adopted. 

Resolved, That the next Quarterly Meeting of the Association 
be held in the month of April instead of the month of May as pro- 
vided for in the Constitution, and that the Standing Committee on 
Quarterly Meetings be authorized to arrange for holding such 
meeting. 

The President presented a letter received from Mr. W. P. But- 
ler, relating to and urging the incorporation of the Association. 
After some discussion it was 

Resolved, That the Committee on Incorporation be enlarged to 
five, to include the members of the Committee on Constitution and 
By-laws, and that if this Committee conclude it is desirable to in- 
corporate the Association, that it draw up a plan for doing so and 
present the same at a meeting of the Board of Managers to be 
called for the special purpose of considering said plan, and that 
copies of the plan for incorporation shall be sent to each member 
of the Board before said meeting. 

Moved and seconded that the resolution passed at the meeting 
of the Board of Managers held December 221I, relating to sending 
notices to the members of the Association before February 1st, 
1885, in view of the action toward incorporating the Association be 
reconsidered and tabled. Carried. 

Prof. Rees spoke of the desirability of the Alumni Association 
having a larger representation on the Board of Editors of the Quar- 
terly. 

On motion it was 

Resolved, That a Committee of Two be appointed toconfer with 
the Engineering and Chemical Societies of the School of Mines as 
to the best means of reorganizingthe Board of Editors of the Quar- 
terly, so as to give the Alumni Association proportionately a larger 
representation. * 

The President then made the following appointments : Mr. Van 
Sinderen and Mr. Butler with the members of the Committee on 
Constitution and By-Laws, as a Committee of Five on Incorpora- 
tion of the Association; Prof. Rees and Mr. Mackintosh as a Com- 
mittee of Two to arrange for a larger interest in the Quarterly. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 

Quarterly Meeting. — The Third Quarterly Meeting of the 
Alumni Association was held in Hamilton Hall, Columbia College, 
on Wednesday Evening, April 1st, in accordance with the following 
notice. 

Association of the 1 

Alumni of the School of Mines, Columbia College. \ 

New York, March 16th, 1885. J 
Dear Sir : 

The third Quarterly Meeting of this Association, for the year 
1884-85, will be held in Hamilton Hall, Columbia College, Room 
25, on Wednesday, April 1st, 1885, promptly at 8 P.M. 



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GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 379 

The matters of special interest to be presented will be : 

1st. Report of the Committee of Three, appointed at the last 
meeting of the Association, to determine the best means of bring- 
ing the report of the "Committee of Ten" to the consideration of 
the Trustees of Columbia College, and the Faculty of the School of 
Mines. 

ad. " Remarks on recent Astronomical Work," by Prof. J. K. 
Rees ; very handsomely illustrated by lantern views, etc. 

An informal collation will be served at about ten o'clock, for 
which the usual charge of $1.00 per capita will be made. 

To avoid possible misapprehension, the Committee take the op- 
portunity of stating that no one is obliged to remain for this colla- 
tion, unless he so desires. In order, however, that suitable arrange- 
ments may be made, it is extremely important that the Committee 
should know the number of those intending to do so, and you are 
therefore requested to state on the enclosed postal whether you will 
or will not remain for the collation, and to return the same by March 
28th. Your special attention is called to this request. 
Yours truly, 

Alfred L. Beebe, 

Alfred J. Moses, 

James F. Kemp, 

Standing Committee on Quarterly Meetings. 

Present at the meeting about 75 members of the Association. 

The meeting was called to order by the President at 8.45 P.M. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The report of the Secretary was called for. The Secretary 
stated that he had no formal report to make, but said he had re- 
ceived a number of circulars issued by the Assistant Secretary, H. 
W. Leavens, showing that he means business and that he is going 
to build up in Denver a very efficient branch of the Association. 
The first circular calls the attention of all our graduates in the West 
and others to the fact that this Western office has been established 
and that he hopes they will cooperate in making the office of prac- 
tical and real benefit. The second one calls upon all the members 
of the Association both in the West and elsewhere, to aid in build- 
ing up a Library of scientific works for the use of the graduates of 
the school in the West, and reads as follows : 

Dear Sir : 

Having in view the establishing of a library in connection with 
the Western office of the Alumni Association of the School of Mines, 
I take the liberty of soliciting your contribution of any works of a 
scientific nature which- you may feel inclined to donate to that end. 
Any report which you may be able to obtain through your in- 
fluence with the Government of the U. S. will be held of great value. 
Very Respectfully, 

H. W. Leavens, Asst. Sec. 

Mr. Leavens has also issued another circular as follows : 
Dear Sir : 

Enclosed please find two sets of blank forms. Should any va- 
cancies in the positions of assay er, chemist, metallurgist, civil or 



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3&o THE QUARTERLY. 

mining engineer, come to your knowledge, will you kindly fill out 
the proper form and forward it to me at once. When such a va- 
cancy has been filled, please notify me of the fact by forwarding the 
corresponding form. With your cooperation I hope to keep our 
fellow-graduates in positions. 

These blanks attached are simply notifications which he has 
mailed to every member of the Association in the West, asking them 
to keep in view the vacancies and to return the proper blank to him. 
He wilt notify me here, and in this way if a vacancy occurs in the 
West, we can fill the place. 

Mr. Smith, acting as Secretary of the " Committee of Three," 
then read the report of that Committee as follows : 

To the Alumni Association of the School of Mines of Columbia College: 

Your Committee, appointed at the meeting of the Association, 
held December 30th, 1884, for the purpose of "preparing a plan 
for bringing the views and suggestions of the Alumni Association, 
as embodied in the Report of the " Committee of Ten " before the 
Faculty of the School of Mines and the Trustees of Columbia Col- 
lege," respectfully reports as follows : 

In beginning its work the Committee found that it was not ex- 
pedient to bring the Report before the Faculty as a body. Any 
changes in the curriculum of the School of Mines are made by the 
Trustees at the suggestion or with the advice of the Faculty. It 
did not appear proper or desirable to request the action of the 
Faculty as a body on the Report, and before making any further 
progress, your Committee thought best to submit the report to the 
members of the Faculty as individuals, requesting their opinion in 
writing on the Report, with specific criticisms or recommendation^. 
To this request most of the members of the Faculty have most 
kindly acceded, by addressing to the Committee communications 
containing their views in detail on the matter of the Report. These 
communications are chiefly in the form of private letters, whose 
substance it would not be fitting to quote, or to embody in any ad- 
dress of the Alumni to the Trustees of Columbia College. They 
have, however, given to your Committe new light, and much aid in 
determining the proper manner of presenting the report to the 
Trustees. 

With these preliminaries, your Committee recommends the 
adoption by the Association of the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the following recommendations be withdrawn 
from the report of the Committee of Ten : 

(19) That the study of Dynamics of Machinery in the first ses- 
sion of the fourth year, in the course in Mining Engineering, be 
dispensed with. 

(29) That the time devoted to the subject of Heat and Heat 
Engines, taught in the first session of the fourth year, be somewhat 
reduced for students in the course in Mining Engineering. 

(33) That the instruction in Mechanics in the third year be so 
arranged as to include as much practice in Calculus as possible, in 
order that the students may retain their grasp upon that subject 
when they commence the studies of the fourth year. 

(46) That the study of Physics in the first year be made more 
complete and thorough. 



, v GooqIc 



GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 381 

(48) That in the subject of Physics in the third year of the 
Chemical course, less time be devoted to the Undulatory Theory 
of Light and more to the subjects of Heat and Electricity. 

(50) That it is a question whether the amount of time devoted 
to the subject of strains, (Stoney's text-book) is not more than is 
necessary in the course in Mining Engineering. 

(51) That it would be better to teach the subjects of Surveying, 
in the Civil Engineering course, in the second session of the first 
year ; and that the first and every Summer vacation be in part de- 
voted to field instruction and work under the supervision of an offi- 
cer of the School. 

(52) That more time be devoted to the Summer School of Sur- 
veying, in order that ali office work and computation of field work 
may be done prior to the commencement of the school session. 

Resolved, That the responses received from Alumni to the re- 
quest for their opinion on the report be tabulated and that such 
tabulation be printed and annexed to the report. 

Resolved, That the report of the " Committee of Ten, "as amend- 
ed by the two preceding resolutions, be presented to the Trustees 
of Columbia College accompanied by a Memorial in the following 
words : 
To the Trustees of Columbia College : 

The Alumni Association of the School of Mines of Columbia 
College respectfully submits herewith, for such consideration as the 
Trustees may see fit to accord, the Report of a Committee appoint- 
ed by the Alumni Association at a meeting held May ad, 1884, to 
discuss all questions relating to the relief of the Students and 
changes in the courses or requirements of the School of Mines. 
This report was submitted to the Alummi Association at a meeting 
held November 19th, 1884, and was adopted at a meeting held De- 
cember 30th, 1884, as embodying the views of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation. 

The Association ventures to present this report to the Trustees 
for the purpose of showing the interest taken by the Alumni in 
their Alma Mater, and with the hope that as occasion for action on 
matters connected with the course of instruction arises, the Trus- 
tees may give such consideration as they may think due to the 
views of those holding degrees as graduates of the School of 
Mines. 

These views are presented in the simplest form without proof or 
argument, but they embody the general feeling of the graduates in 
regard to certain deficiencies of education which have appeared to 
many of them in actual practice, and to certain changes in the 
methods of instruction Which retrospect suggests. 

The members of the Association are fully aware that many of 
the suggestions contained in the report may be at the present time 
impracticable, involving as they doubtless would, an unwarranted 
increase in the expenditures for the School of Mines ; other sug- 
gestions might tend to a possible diminution of the receipts from 
students' fees ; still others may be found to be impossible of exe- 
cution on account of interference or discrepancies concerning which 
the Alumni are not competent to judge. The relations of the larg- 
er questions of how far such an institution should attempt to pro- 



]V GooqIc 



38a THE QUARTERLY. 

duce expert graduates, the Association has not attempted to dis- 
cuss. The Association begs leave to state further that after con- 
sultation with members of the Faculty since the adoption of the re- 
port, the suggestions contained inNos. 19, 29, 33, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 
appear to be inexpedient or ill-advised, and that these suggestions 
have consequently been withdrawn and erased. 

Finally, the views and suggestions contained in the report are 
emphatically objective and impersonal, and the Alumni Associa- 
tion expressly disclaims the intention of criticising any member of 
the Honored corps of Instructors of the School of Mines. 
New York, April rst, 1885. 

F. Aug. Schermerhorn, 1 

Wm. Allen Smith, > Committee. 

Williasd Parker Butler, ) 

It was moved and seconded, that the Committee be instructed 
to lay this report before the Board of Trustees as showing the sense 
of the members of this Association. After some discussion this 
resolution was carried. 

The Committee on Railroad Facilities for the Denver meeting 
reported through Dr. Ricketts as follows : In the absence of Mr. 
Baxter, the Chairman of this Committee, I take the liberty of pre- 
senting to the association the results of our labors to date. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Baxter and his introduction to the 
officers of the various roads leading to the West, I am enabled to 
make this statement : The Northern Pacific Railroad propose to 
furnish to the Alumni Association of the School of Mines a special 
train, say with four Pullman cars and dining-room car, to leave New 
York some time about the middle of June. The party to go 
through from New York to Chicago, and from Chicago to St. Paul ; 
thence to the Yellowstone Park, down through the Yellowstone 
Park back again to the line of the Northern Pacific Road ; thence 
to Garrison's. At Garrison's they will have a narrow gauge Pullman 
train ready for us to take us down to Salt Lake City, and thence 
to Denver. When we get through with our meeting in Denver, 
and the warm reception which we will doubtless receive from our 
Alumni of the West, then the Northern Pacific will arrange to get 
us back to New York. The ticket for the round trip will be $175, 
less $25 if we don't take in the Yellowstone Park. The berths in 
the Pullman car and the living expenses, of course, to be extra. Mr. 
Morgan has kindly interested himself in obtaining the rates for the 
direct trip to Denver, leaving out the Northwest and puts it at $150. 
He says tickets from here to Chicago, Denver and Pueblo, and back 
to New York by Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, St. 
Louis, and thence to New York, allowing one week in Denver, 
would cast from $70 to $85. Then, if there were other matters 
brought in, such as arranging for hotel and living accommodations, 
&c, en route, including fees to the Pullman Company, it would 
make it $150 to $200 each. Now, of course, this last trip is much 
the cheapest. The only question is whether we want to take in the 
delightful scenery of the Northwest and the pleasure which it would 
give to many of our members who have never been to that region. 
To do this it will be necessary to have seventy-five men, at least, 



^Google 



GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 383 

willing to go to take the special train. Of course, having a special 
train we can stop where we please. 

I have a letter from Mr. H. W. Leavens, our Assistant Secretary 
in Denver, who says he will cooperate in every way he can and 
will endeavor to make the meeting in the early part of July a great 
success. 

On motion, the Report of the Committee on Railroad Facilities 
was accepted, and the Committee authorized to issue a circular to 
be mailed to each member of the Association stating the different 
routes and the relative cost, and requesting an immediate reply. 

There being no new business, the Chairman announced a lec- 
ture by Prof. Rees, with magic-lantern views. After the lecture, a 
collation was served, and the meeting adjourned to partake of the 
same. 

Graduate Addresses. Since the publication of our list of 
members, notifications have been received of the following changes 
of address. 

■68. Albert P. Schack, E.M., 11 West 18th Street, New York 
City, where he has opened a school for preparing students for the 
School of Mines. 

'69. A. Floyd Delafield, Ph.D., University Club, New York 
City, also Noroton, Conn. 

•77. James Thorn Beard, E.M., C.E., P. O. Box 145, Aspen, Col. 

■77. J. Glenville Murphy, E.M., C.E., Care of Churchill & Mur- 
phy, Consulting Engineers, 35 Broadway, New York City. 

'79 Harry Clay Cornwell, E.M., Gunnison, Colorado. 

■79 Knight Neftel, Ph.D. Care of Knight Neftel & Co., En- 
gineers and Contractors, 32 Liberty Street, New York City. ■ 

'80. Frank Parkinson Benjamin, C.E., 44 New Street, New 
York City. 

'80. Wilkens Updyke Green, Ph.B., 15 Cranberry Street, Brook- 
lyn, New York. 

'80. John Randolph Parkes, E.M., 56 Front Street, New York 
City. 

'81. Victor Manuel Braschi, E.M., Ph.D., C.E., 400 West 23rd 
Street, New York City. 

'81. Howard Van Fleet Furman, E.M., 137 West 34th Street, 
New York City. 

'84. Francis B. del Calvo, C.E., Spanish American Light & Power 
Co., Havana, Cuba. 

'84. Charles Watts Miller, E.M.,Care of Miller & Slack, A s- 
sayers & Chemists, Aspen, Colorado. 

'84 William Fellowes Morgan, E.M., Care of Leavitt & Davis, 1 
Exchange Court, New York City. 

'84. Thomas Nolan, M.S., Ph.B., American Express Building, 
Rochester, New York. 

'84. Daniel William Reckhart, E.M., Yosemite Mine, Bingham 
Canon, Utah. 

'84. Charles Gordon Slack, E.M., Care of Miller & Slack, As- 
sayers & Chemists, Aspen, Colorado. 

The addresses of the following members are unknown, and the 
Secretary would be much pleased if any member of the Association 
or subscriber to the Quarterly, will give him information which will 
■triable him to communicate with the gentlemen mentioned : 



^Google 



384 THE QUARTERLY. 

'75. Hunter Stewart, E.M., last address New Orleans, La,, (let- 
ter returned). 

'78. Vincent Felix Pazos, E.M., last address Lima, Peru. Not 
heard from for several years. 

'7g. Chas. Sumner Harker., last address Boriie Tunnel Co., Bo- 
die, Cal. 

'80. Edward Henry Hudson, C.E., last address in New York 
City, letters returned, marked "not found." 

'81. Frederick A. Heminer, Jr., Ph.B., last address Arminius 
Copper Mines, Tolersville, Va., letters returned, marked "not 
found." 

'84. Wm. Patterson Duncan, E.M., address unknown, letters to 
address given on School of Mines Register returned, marked "not 
found." 

As new addresses are received or other changes noted they will 
appear in this Department of the Quarterly. 

P. DE P. RlCKETTS, 

Secretary, School of Mines Alumni Association. 



Erratum. — Page 276, foot note, line 10, for "intensible" should 
read "intervisible." 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



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COLUMBIA COLLEGE, 

NEW YORK CITY. 



SCHOOL OF ARTS. 

Examinations for admission are held on the first Wednesday in 
June, and on the Wednesday next preceding the first Monday in 
October. Candidates from other colleges must present certificates 
of dismission in good standing. For students entering after October, 
1880, the annual tuition fee is • 150, payable half-yearly in advance. 
The first term begins annually the first Monday in October ; the 
second immediately after the intermediate examination in February 
(Feb. 5, 1885). Annual Commencement, the second Wednesday in 
June. Courses of instruction are given to graduates of this and 
other Colleges, on a. large variety of subjects. 

SCHOOL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. 

The prime aim of this school is the development of all the 
branches of the political sciences. The requirement for admission 
is, that the applicant shall have satisfactorily completed the regular 
course of undergraduate study in this college or in some other main- 
taining an equivalent curriculum of study, to the end of the Junior 
year. Annual fee, $150, payable half-yearly in advance. The scho- 
lastic year begins annually the first Monday in October ; Matricula- 
tion, the Friday preceding. 

SCHOOL OF MINES. 
There are six courses of instruction, viz. : Mining Engineering, 
Civil Engineering, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Metallurgy, 
Geology and Palaeontology, and Architecture. Candidates for the 
first class, at its formation, must not be less than 17 years of age; and 
candidates for advanced standing must have a correspondingly 
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Examinations for admission, on the Friday next preceding the Com- 
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scholastic year. Annual fee, taoo, payable half-yearly in advance. 

SCHOOL OF LAW. 

Applications for information should be addressed to Prof. T. W. 
Dwight, LL.D., Warden of the Law School, Columbia College. 

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 

Catalogues and information may be obtained of Prof. John G. 
Curtis, M.D., Secretary of the Faculty, corner of Twenty-third 
Street and Fourth Avenue. a 

F. A. P. BARNARD, LL.D., President. 
Madison Avenue and Forty-Ninth Street, New York. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



DAVIES' SURVEYING. 

Revised by Prof. J. H. VAN AMRINGE, of Columbia College, n. Y. v 

Editor of ill the works of Charln Davit., LL.D. 



B«e Page*, Svo, Sheep. Price for Examination, S1.7B. 



" In the present edition, while the admirable features which have hitherto- 
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"In the section on Magnetic Declination or Variation of the Needle, papers of 
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"A change made in the present edition, which must prove particularly accept- 
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" If there it a better leorh than this on Surveying, tither for students or surveyori, 
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and metallurgical products of different countries, reviews 
of consular reports, etc., etc. 

Each number of the MONITEUR INDUSTRIEL 
also includes a financial review. 

Price of a single number, 50 Centimes. Annual 
Subscription : France, 25 fr. ; Postal Union, 30 fr. 

ntrod vGoO^lc 



BECKETT & MCDOWELL MANDFACTDRING CO., 



PULLEYS, SHAFTING, Etc. 



Works, Arlington, - New Jersey, 

Warerooms, ISO I'^ibarty Street, New Yorlc. 



We refer to the following as a few of the works fcuilt by u; 

Hoisting-works, 500 Ions daily capacity, Horn Silver Mining Company, Frisco, 



Utah; 40-starap dry crushing silver mill. Highland Chief Mining Company, Lewis, 
Nevada; 20 stamp silver mill hoisting and pumping works, Cusihuiriachie Mining 
Company, Mex. ; jo-stamp gold milt, Gold Hill Mining Company, N. C. ; 50-lon lead 



smelting -work 5, Corral itos Co., Men. ; zo-stamp mill, Rico Reduction Company, Col. ; 
20-stamp gold mill, hoisting and pumping works, HaileGold Mining Company, S. C. ; 
i5o-ton concentration works. Canada Consolidated Gold Mining Company, Marmora, 
Ont, ; 100-ton concentration works, Paymaster Mining Company, Col.; 100-ton con- 
centration works, Wythe Lead and Zinc Company, Va.; ro-slamp gold mill, 
Designolle Reduction Company, N. C. ; 20-stamp gold mill. Hoover Hill Gold 
Mining Company, N. C. ; 20-ton lixiviation works, Ward Mining Company, Patal, 
Mex.; 10-stamp silver mill, Jessie Benton Consolidated Mining Company, Red 
Rock, Arizona; 10-stamp gold mill, Thorington Gold Mining Company, Panama; 
300-ton hoisting engines, Swedish Government, Sweden; Dredging machinery U.S. 
Government, N. C 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



"RACKAR OCK " 

the StlW™*(i5™boli 







rcoftwoingredien 






utely 


-N EXPLOSIVE uni 












Thee 


















EeiSS 






in porout cloth cartridgea. 








■town 












bslar.cc 


A given weight 


of cartridge^, «ay 






|. it* 


ipu.inthe.ieve. 










takes h 












the jic 


e into the ~~l 


holding th 


fluid: 






then l>f 


weight"™ the°ipr 


he observes the tn- 










, and if 






the inc 


tut ii inuRicien 










as. 


The cartridge. Me 


»s«idts»£r 






The. 










L r X" 


"deKribed^hTo 


one bye* 
^0« 


& 








cm be 






FOR 


'raIlroad'work. oil 


to the 






weight 


of it to -A the 


anndgel 


may be 






billed ( 3 K id j Itn. oil to 15 Ibi. cartr 
FOR MINES, tut only 3 JJ lbs. 


dges.) 






Ibtcar 












the immenion'a* follow*! 


J*!"-." 


rider.. 



- -..- ., -.^ .... -artridgei. S sccondi? 

i«-in. cartridge^ to lecond.. 
The cartridge! saturated u above, if cur 



'proportion. After combination 1 
" handle than dynamite. 

™ c cartridge is exploded * 



hole, or under water. Tlufi.iddeti nul/nnt. The cartridge, an BHIllly audi of (he following 

limply slate the number of pimttds of povnUr you van t and the aiie of the cartridges desired; we 
willfotward the proper proportion, of material. Dipping apparatus furnished. Order, filled by 
aipress or freight. REMEMBER, it ilimposlible to e.plode either the fluid or the solid matter 
when separate. Thev are absolutely aafe to transport or .tore. All railroads take it in any form 
a. ordinary merchandise. This combination contains nt mtrt-glyturlmt, but approximate, it in 
ilrtKgtk. It ii ilrsngrr lha* jVa. t DjmamiU. This new departure in ejtplmivei it fully 

REFERENCES— Arnold ft Stephens, Hnimnv Tunnel, M. Y.i C.C.Mowel. Little Palu, 

N. Y.; Longdate Iron Co.. Longdate. Vs.: Hoover Hiil Gold Minmir Co.. High Point. S. C; 
Bessemer Iron Ore Co., Soonton, N.J.; Sherman & McDonough. Stony Point, N. Y.: A. V. 
Mom*, A.mlerdam. N.V.t Dooley & Hicltey. Kingston. N.Y.: Canaiohane Wa.e.-works Co.. and 
Atkellft Smiths, Canajoharie. S.V.; Samoa* & Mt. McGregor R. R. Co.. Isaac Thomas, Sunt. 
Saratoga, M.Y.i Blosijurg Coal Co.; Arnot 5t Pine Creek R.R.,Aroot, PaCi Lehigh Valley R.R.Co. 

aHandtS™ t RENDROCK POWDER CO., 

If". W. HORTON. Sec'y. f »S fctrfc ■*•!■«, KXW TOMK. 



MINING MACHINERY 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

n 

ROCK DRILLS, 
AIR COMPRESSORS j 

Running Pumps, Rock 
Drills, Coal Cutting - 
Machines, etc. 
23 Park Place, Now York. 



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REVUE UNIVERSELLE DES MINES. 



ESTABLISHED IN 1857. 



Under the supervision of Messrs. Ch. DE CUYPER, Professor 
Emeritus at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Liege; A. 
HABETS, Honorary Engineer of Mines and Professor of Mining 
at the School of Mines at Liege; A. NOBLET, Civil Engineer, 
Proprietor. 

OFFICES t 

At Liege — 40 Rue Beckman ; 

At Paris — 9 Rue des Saints-Peres. 



The Universal Review of Mines, of which the collaboration 
is confined to the most eminent engineers and professors of France 
and Belgium, occnpies the first rank among European technical 
publications. 

Mining, Metallurgy, Mechanics, Railroads, Public Works, Elec- 
tricity, Applied Sciences, Geography, Statistical and- Economical 
Industry are treated by the most approved methods. 

This work is indispensable to Engineers, Directors of Industrial 
Societies, Librarians of Technical Institutions, and to the public 
and private administrations of every country who desire to keep up 
to the industrial progress of our times. 

The work is issued every two months and comprises 6 numbers 
per year, equal to two large volumes containing each 600 to 700 
pages, accompanied with 60 or 70 engravings. 

Prices of Subscription : — Paris and Liege, 35 francs ; Bel- 
gian Provinces, 38 francs; Postal Union, France, 40 francs; pay- 
able in advance by postal order. 

The Universal Review of Mines also inserts advertisements, 
exclusively industrial and of the highest order. 

Price of the complete collection: 1st Series, 1857 to 1876, 40 
volumes, 500 francs; 3d Series, 1877 to 1883, 14 volumes, 245 
francs. 

With the "Revue Unlverselle" Is attached a bureau 
for the examination of Industrial affairs and scientific 
missions. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



ENGINEERING NEWS 

AND 

American Contract Journal 

Is the only Weekly Journal in America devoted exclusively to the interests of 

CIVIL ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

Is now in its Thirteenth Volume; is a large 24 page paper, published weekly at 

S4.00 PER TEAS, 

Engineering News Publishing Company, 

Tribune Building, New York City. 



ENGINEERING NEWS 

Alms to give a weekly record, carefully edited, of the Engineering Constructions, 

proposed, in progress or completed, of this Continent. It gives all the 

news of the societies and the movements of prominent Engineers 

so far as obtainable. It publishes well selected papers in 

PRACTICAL ENGINEERING, 

And during the present year it will publish illustrated descriptions of the principal 

plans used by Engineers and Contractors in the construction of 

public or private works. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO 

ENGINEERING NEWS, 

Tribune Building, New York. 



:<,*.-«! vGoO^lc 



OF THE 

ASSOCIATION OF ENGINEERING SOCIETIES, 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE ENGINEERS' SOCIETIES 

Boston, St. Louis, Chicago, Cleveland, Minneapolis. 



$3.00 A TEAR. 30c. A NUMBER. 



This Journal was started in November, 1881, as a 
private enterprise by four of the societies named above, 
in order to reduce to each society the cost of publishing 
its transactions, and at the same time to give to each 
member of each society the publications of all. 

The result is a monthly magazine of rare and valu- 
able engineering literature, which is not printed in any 
other form. 

An Index Department has lately been added to this 
Journal, giving a monthly index of current engineer- 
ing literature, in which a short note is added to each 
title, that the reader may judge of the value to him of 
the paper considered. 

Complete sets of the three volumes now published 
will be sold at the subscription price. Single numbers 
will be sold at 30 cents each. 

Subscriptions and advertisements are solicited. 

For further information address 

H. G. PROUT, 18 Chambers Street, 

NEW YORK CITY. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



*-<£>»* 



AN ILLDSTBATEE WEEKLY JOURNAL, 



DEVOTED TO 



MINING, METALLURGY^ ENGINEERING 

THIRTY-SIX PAGES AID HUMEROCS SUPPLEIKHTS. 

RICHARD P. ROTHWELL, R.E.,M.E., ) 
ROSSITER W. RAYXOSD, Ph.D., [ Editors. 

CHARLES EIRCHHOFF, Jr., M.E., 



THE ENGINEERING AND MINING JOURNAL 

II the recognized highest authority in America on all questions of Mining, Metal- 
lurgy, and Engineering, and has the largest circulation and greatest influence of 
any newspaper in the United States devoted to these subjects. Its statistics of 
Coal production are accepted by the United States government as the only 
accurate reports published. 

THE GOLD, SILVER, COPPER, LEAD, IRON, AND COAL 
MINING and SMELTING interests of the UNITED STATES and MEXICO 
are fully represented, the Journal having the ablest engineers throughout the 
country for special correspondents. 

THE ENGINEERING AND MINING JOURNAL 

also publishes full and accurate trade reports on Iron and Metals ; gives an 
accurate report each week of the prices and sales of Mining Stocks sold on the 
New York, San Francisco, Boston, and Philadelphia markets. The absolute 
Independence of its financial and other reports, and the accuracy of its statements, 
make it of great value to those who are or purpose becoming interested in Mining 
investments of any kind in America, 

Subscription price, including postage, $4. Foreign Countries, $5.50— 
22 shillings— 28 francs— 22 mark?. 

Address, 

THE SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING CO., 

P.O. BOX 1S33. 27 Park Place, New York, U.S.A. 

Advertising rates and specimen copies sent on applies tion. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



C. G. & F. NEUMANN, 

BOOK-BINDERS, 

76 EAST NINTH STREET, 

Oppo.ltc A. T. Stewart's, 

Near Broadway, NEW YORK. 



We do all the Binding for the Columbia College Libraries. 



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Report of Award at Centennial International Exhibition. 

_ : Platir 

All i 



" The exhibitors manufacture Platinum Vessels (or laboratory u: 
pain, which they refine, or scrap. All articles arc made from melted platinum, and 
hammered out Excellence in the quality of Platinum Apparatus." 

Signature of the Judge, F. A. GeNth. 
Lawrence Smith, F. Kuhi.man, 
«>~,„,™i i r~. i t a ^ / ""■ Dewildb, Dr. V. Wagner, 

Approval of Group of Judge., J E Paterno ; Charles A. Joy! 

' ". W. Mallett, 



ESTABLISHED 1848. 
FlrM Premium at Franklin Inatitut 



JOAQUIM BISHOP. EDWIN T. COX. 

J. BISHOP & CO., 

SuKartown, Cheater Co., F*w, 

REFINERS AND MELTERS OF PLATINUM, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Platan Appanhs, Vessels, Dislts, CndUes, it, for ill Laboratory & laanfactoriiij Purptm. 

Experimental Instruments made to order (from drafts) at the same rate as other 

platinum work. All work hammered into shape, and warranted equal to 

any European work made. Old Platinum or native prain bought or 

taken In exchange. Scrap melted at the shortest notice. 

All arUalti tent fry A4mm» Xmpren, dtreelad to J. Bithop A Co., Ihlnn 

SlmUon, J'. B. B„ mHU ifim( ivtlh prompt a< («.((•». 



JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

IRON AND STEEL 



WI1E. 



WORKS : VEV TOBI OFFlCffi & WABEHOU&Ei 

TRENTON, N.J. 1 1 7 & 1 19 LIBERTY ST. 
H. L. SHIPPY, iuujff. 



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lined with strength ; limplici _ 
with high power; stcudinr-J of »d. 
nder varying temperatures: uiflncH. 

""are in general "Z7hy the U. S. 

... .It esitf ineerEfgeologista and uirveyon, 

and the range of .instrument* as made by them 

"" thou made for 



ngulation, topographical work and lurveying, etc, i> larger than that of any 
er firm in the country. mnitnWMnnnalantlfktaluguBmnUnappliwtimj. 



JAS. T. PRATT & CO., 

DEALERS IN 

FINE MECHAN ICS' TOOLS AND CUTLERY. 
Wood and Metal Working Tools aid Lathes for Amateurs, 

A. 8PKCIALTY. 
Complete Assortment of Fancy Weeds for Scroll Saw Work. Agents for the 
" Fleetwood," " Dexter," and other first-class Scroll Saws. Foil stock of Repousse 
Tools and Material!. 

53 FULTON & 42 CLIFF STS., N; Y. City. 
USE PARSONS' 

HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA! 

FOR 

Laundry, Toilet, Bath and Nursery. 

Unnxcelled for Purity and Cheapness- 

Beware of Imitations. For Sale by all Grocers, 

Sole Manufacturkrs, 

COLUMBIA CHEMICAL WORKS, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

"Notes on Assail and Assay Scones." 

By P. de P. R1CKETTS, Ph.D., 

Instructor in Assaying, School of Mines. 
PUBLISHED BY 

Price, $3.00. JOHN WILEY & SONS. 



,»GoogIe 



Prof. CHARLES F. CHANDLER, Ph.D., 

' of the SCHOOL OF MINES, 
• HAS ASSUMED THE EDITORSHIP OF 

ANTHONY'S PHOTOGRAPHIC BULLETIN 

A sample copy of which will be sent free to any one 
requesting it. 

ITS CORRESPONDENCE COLUMN 
will be open to all Amateur Photographers who subscribe for it, 
and who have any questions to ask. 



Any one who wishes to become an Amateur can find 

AMATEUR EQUIPMENTS IN GREAT VARIETY, 

From $ 1 0.00 Upwards, 

at the old established house of 

E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO., 

No. 591 BROADWAY, 

NEW YORK. 



Illustrated catalogue free. 

40 years established in this line of business. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



PLATINUM 

APPARATUS, VESSELS, SHEET, WIRE, Etc 

LABORATORY AND MANUFACTURING PURPOSES.. 



H. M. RAYNOR, 

No. .35 Bond Street, New York. 

NATIVE PLATINUM AND SCRAP PURCHASED. 



Orders can be sent to the office of the QUARTERLY or to 
JOHN WILEY & SONS, NEW YORK CITY, ' 

for Reprint No. II., which is now ready :— 

W. B. KTJNHAKDT, E.M., 

OK 

ORE DRESSING IN EUROPE 



This work haa been adopted as a standard reference book in the 
School of Mine*, Columbia College. 

STONE CUTTING, 

By Prof. W. P. TROWBRIDGE. 
Pamphlet No. I , - Price, 25 cts. 

Address School of Mines Quarterly. 

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- -BANNERS- IN-SILK- AN D-GOLJ>~ - 



ARTISTIC-STAINED-GLASS 

HANDBOOK - BY - MAIL 



CHURCH-FURNITURE 

Pulpit8-I>esl£8-Chair8-<£c-/£c- 

BEHR, POPE & CO., 

Fine Colors and Lithographic Inks, 

75 BEhiK ~M~ ATT STEEBT, 

NEW YORK. 

THE FOLLOWING "8x10" 

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF COLUMBIA COLLEGE 

are now offered for sale. They were made during December, '84, 
and January, '85, and show the latest improvements. 

1. Law School and Library, 49th Street, from South-east. 

2. School of Mines, Fourth Avenue. 

3. Law School and Lihrary from Soulh-west. 

4. Hamilton Hall from Forty-ninth Street. 

5. Hamilton Hall, Madison Avenue, front. 

6. School of Mines from Forty-ninth Street. 

7. Old Building. 

8. 9. IO. II. Views of Interior of Library. 

12. Quantitative Laboratory. 

13. Mineralogical Museum. 

14. School of Mines, Class '87. 

15. Mechanical Drawing Room. 

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Geological Museum. 

21. Engineering Drawing Room. 

22. Chemical Museum. 

23. Group of Professors. 

24. School of Arts, Class '87. 

25. School of Mines, Class '88. 

Other Groups will soon be ready. Price, $1.00, or $ 10.00 per 
dozen. Mailed to any address. 

E. M. BIDWELL, 31 Union Square, 

NEW YORK. 



ntrod vGoO^lc 



BUY YOUR 

DRAWING MATERIALS 

FROM 

E. C. SOLTMANN, 

119 JSTTLTON STBEET, NEW YOBK. 



27 PULTON STREET, 

NEW TOBK CITY. 



SPECIAL RATES TO STUDETS. 

Direct reading* Volt or Am-Meters, Spec- 
troscopes, Bi-Sulphide Prisms, Microscopes, 
Mirror Galvanometers, Photographic Outfits, 
Magic Lanterns, Projection Supplies, Scienti- 
fic Outfits and Apparatus made to order. 

A. D. FISK, 

27 PULTON STR 

NEW 

Will Remove April 1 5th, 1885, to 26 BEEKHAN STREET. 
Improved Engineering and Astronomical Instruments. 

J. E. BRANDIS, 

58 Fulton Street, New York. 

Makes in the most accurate manner all kinds of INSTRU- 
MENTS OF PRECISION for BRIDGE, TUNNEL, RAILROAD, 
MINING and TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERING. . 

Also dealer in MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS and 
DRAWING MATERIALS. 

Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue sent on application. 

My Instruments are in use by the U. S. Engineer Corps, and 
the principal water works and railroads throughout the country, 

ADTBBTZSINa BATES IN 

SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

4 insertion*. a JiMoitionn. B Insertions. 1 Insertion. 

I Page, - - $30.00, 25.00, 18.00, 10.00. 
H Page, - • • $18.00, 15.00, 11.00. 6.0O. 
X Page, - • 910.00, 8.00. 6.00, 3.50. 



SCHOOL OP MINES QTJARTEHLY, 
COLUMBIA COLLEGE, N. Y. CITY. 



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FREtfXW DEVOE. - MME1 F. DNUMMOND. J. SEAVFJt PAGE. 

IF. -W_ DEVOE SS CO., 
Oor. Pulton and William Streeti, Nnr Tork, 

MANUFACTI.'HKHfi OF 

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SUPPLIES FOR 

Oil and Water Color Painting, Pastel and Miniature Painting, 
Etching, Ornamenting and Designing. Materials for Tap- 
estry Painting, Repousse Tools and Lustre Paints. 

— MANUFACTURERS OF FINELY PREPARED— 

Artists' Oil Colors in Tubes, 

fine brushes fob oil & watee coloe painting*, 

Dry Colors, Colors in Oil and Japan Fine Varnishes, 

Beady Mixed Faints, White Lead, &c. 

— MANUFACTUBKKS OP— 

MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

Engineers' Supplies and Draughtsmen's Materials, 
T Spins, Trim In, Scales, lanes, tin section Papers, Tnitaollks, Trunin, Levels, Etc. 



I GELATINE. J 
We desire to draw your attention to our various processes of 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE PRINTING PRESS, 

by which the reproduction of any drawing or object is quickly 
and cheaply effected in permanent printing ink. 

We believe that you may frequently utilize these processes 
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pleased to advise with you as'to any work that you may require. 

A book of specimens of our various processes will be for- 
warded on receipt of one dollar. 
Respectfully, 

THE PHOTO-CRAVURE CO. 



,»GoogIe 



,,■ •'. - • " - - - 'c r ■ , - ,„ /, , / , i f ■■ 

Registered at the New York Post Office as Second Class. Matter. 
Vol.. VI. No. I. 

THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES 

QUARTERLY. 

NOVEMBER, 1884. 

CONTENTS. 

On the Thermal Effect of the Action of Aqueous Vapor oti Felds- 

pathic Rocks (Kaotinization). Carl Bams, Ph.D I 

The Determination of Manganese in Spiegel. G. C. Stone 24 

Manganese Methods. J. B. Mackintosh 35 

Geodetic and Topographic Surveying. H. M. Wilson, C.E 37 

Native Silver Ores and their Treatment at Batopilas. T. H. Leggett. 57 
Maris: The Wonder of the World. F. Cope Whitehouse, M.A. . . . 71 
Comparison of Coat of Power in Exhaust and Plenum Ventilation for 

Mines and Dwellings. Prof. W. P. Trowbridge 82 

School of Mines Notes 84 

Library Notes 86 

Book Reviews 88 

Graduate Department . . 92 

Content! of Vol. V 

PUBLISHED FOR 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 
THE ENGINEERING AND THE CHEMICAL SOCIETIES 

OF THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES, 
COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

NEW YORK: 
JOHN WILEY & SONS. 



,»GoogIe 



SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

Vol.. VI., 1884-85. 



EDITORS. 

For the Alumni Association, 



J. K. Rkks, A.M., R.M. J. B. Macki 
H. T. VultS, Ph.B. 


tosh. E.M., C.E 


For the Engineering Society, 

A. S. DWIGHT. C. F. I.ACOMBK. 


E. J. H. Amy 


For the Chemical Society, 
F. J. H. Mkrhii.I.. " R. 


Van A. Morris 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS, 

V. A. P. Barnaki>, S.T.I)., I.L.D., 

President of Columbia College. 

J. S. Nkwhf.hkv, M.D., tL.D., 

Prof. Geology and Pahrentology, Columbia College. 

T.HOMAS ECLESTON, Ph.D., E.M., 

Prof. Mineralogy and Metallurgy, Columbia College. 

W. P. Trowbridge, Ph.D., L.L.D., 

Pro/, of Engineering, Columbia College. 

Henrv S. Musroe, E.M., Ph.D.. 



Adj. Prof. MeehanUal Kn K i,ieering. Columbia College. 

Elwvn Waller, E.M., Ph.D., Columbia College. 
P. DE P. Ricketts, E.M. Ph.D., Columbia College. 
' M. W. Iles, E.M. 

Metallurgist, Omnia and Grant Sdtetting and Refining Co., Denver, Colorado. 

Rolanu I). Irving, A.M., E.M., Ph.D., 

Prof, of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Wisconsin. Geologist in ekargr 
V. S. Sultry of the iWirthiveitctn States. 

II. B. Cornwall, E.M., 

Prof, of Analytical Chemistry, College of New frsn: Prince/on, N. /. 

Peter T. Austen, Ph.D., F.C.S., 

Prof, of General and Applied Chemirtiy, Rutgers College, .Vein Brimsmiek, .V.J. 

Charles M. Rolkkk, E.M., Consulting Engineer, New York. 

The Quarterly is the official organ of the Alumni Association, 
and of the Chemical and Engineering Societies, and as such should 
have the support and cooperation of every graduate and student of 
the School. All are therefore invited to send, at any thrie, items of 
interest for the different departments, and to contribute original papers. 
Subscription price, two dollars per year, or fifty cents pe( num- 
ber. Send money by check, registered letter or postal order payable 
at Station H, New York City, to order of 

F. J. H. Merrill, Treasurer. 
Address all Communii-KtiiiTis 

MANAGING EDITOR, 

School of Mines Quarterly, 

Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 



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WALTER McDEBMOTT. Gen'l Agent, S3 Wall St., New York. 

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j&jjool of Miqeg prepSrateij {School, 

32 EAST 45th STREET, 
NEW TOBK. 

J. WOODBRIDGE DAVIS, C.E, Ph.D., Principal. 



ITS OBJECT IS, 

To produce refined, intelligent and educated young men as 
applicants for admission to scientific colleges 
TO ACCOMPLISH THIS, 

No primary or commercial students are received. 

The course is limited to three years. During the last year, 
in addition to the prescribed work, a thorough review from ele- 
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complete course of preparation for students old enough to 
undertake it. 

No student is admitted except upon examination — as to his 
abilities rather than his knowledge. No student under fourteen 
years of age may enter. 

Studcnts,\vhen admitted, remain members of the school 
only while they remain industrious and worthy. 

The services, in all departments, of the best instructors to 
be procured in the city, are retained. 

The instruction is. such as familiarizes the student with 
college methods. He is taught how to take notes ; and he is 
required to undergo written weekly, semi-annual and annual 
examinations. 

REMARKS. Foreign students, unfamiliar with the Eng- 
lish language, are instructed rapidly in this branch, while pursuing, 
as well as possible, the regular course. 

All the students, who finished last year the course of prepara- 
tion, have passed without condition their entrance examinations 
to the colleges. 

Tlit SUMMER SESSION, for all students deficient in 
the Spring college examinations, begins AUGUST 17TH, 1885. 

The SUMMER SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS, 

for School of Mines students deficient in calculus, analytical 
geometry, trigonometry, geometry and algebra, begins AUGUST 
i;tii, 18X5. 



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Registered at the Hew York Post Office as Second Class Matter. 

Vol. VI. No. 4. 

THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES 
QUARTERLY. 

MAY, 1885. 



CONTENTS : 



Masoniy Supports for Hanging Walls at the Tilly Foster Iron Mines. 

By Louis G. Engel, E.M 289 

Bessemerizing Copper Mattes, By T, Egleston, Ph.D 330 

Chlorides in Raiafall of 1884. By L. P. Cratacap 335 

Tables for the Determination of Minerals. By A. J. Moses 339 

The Planimater. By E. L. Ingram, 'S5 347 

More Remarks on Ore Sampling. By S. A. Reed, Ph.D 351 

Going Into Blast With Anthracite Furnaces. By T. Egleston, 

Ph.D 358 

Notes on the Production of Copper in Arizona. By W. E. New- 
berry, E.M 370 

Abstracts 375 

Graduate Department 376 

Contents ol Volume VI 

PI' M.I 51 [ED FOR 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 

THE ENGINEERING AND THE CHEMICAL SOCIETIES 

OF THE 

SCHOOL OF MINES, . 
COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

NEW YORK: 

JOHN WILEY & SONS 

1885. 



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SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

Vol. VI., 1884-85. 

EDI TORS. 

For the Alumni Association, 

J. K. Rf.es, A.M., E.M. J. B. Mackintosh, E.M., C.E. 

H. T. Vult£, Ph.B. 

For the Engineering Society, 

A. S. Dwight. C. F. Lacombe. E. J. H. Amy. 

For the Chemical Society, 
Y. J. H. Merrill. R. Van A. Norrjs. W. G. Berry. 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS, 
F. A. P. Barnard, S.T.D., LL.D., President of Columbia College. 
J. S. Newberry, M.D., LL.D., Prof. Geology and Paleontology, 

Columbia College. 
Thomas Eoleston, Ph.D., E.M,, Prof. Mineralogy and Metallurgy, 

Columbia College. 
W. P. Trowbridge, Ph.D., LL.D., Prof, of Engineering, Columbia 

College. 
Henry S. Munroe, E.M., Ph.D., Adj. Prof, of Surveying and 

Practical Mining, Columbia College. 
F. R. Hutton, C.E., Ph.D., Adj. Prof. Mechanical Engineering, 
Columbia College. 
Elwyn Waller, E.M., Ph.D., Columbia College. 
P. de P. Ricketts, E.M. Ph.D., Columbia College. 
M. W. Iles, E.M., Metallurgist, Omaha and Grant Smelting and 

Refining Co., Denver, Colorado. 
Roland D. Irving, A.M., E.M., Ph.D., Prof of Geology and 
Mineralogy, University of Wisconsin. Geologist in charge U. S. 
Survey of the Northwestern States. 
H. B. Cornwall, E.M., Prof, of Analytical Chemistry, College of 

New Jersey, Prince/on, N. J. 
Peter T. Austen, Ph.D., F.C.S., Prof of General and Applied 
Chemistry, Rutgers College, New Brunstvick, N. J. 
Charles M. Rolker, E.M., Consulting Engineer, Neio York. 
John A. Church, E.M,, Ph.D., Mining Engineer, Preseott, Arizona. 
William B. Potter, E.M., Proj '.of Mining and Metallurgy, Wash- 
ington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

S. A. Reed, E.M., South Pueblo, Col. 

W. B. Devereux, E.M., Aspen. Col. 

John M. Adams, E.M., San Francisco, Cal. 

H. M. Wilson, C.E., U. S. Geological Survey. 

John C. F. Randolph, Nav York. 

The Quarterly is the official organ of the Aluntni Association 
and of lite Chemical and Engineering Societies, and as such should 
have the support and cooperation of every graduate and student of 
the School. All are therefore invited to send, at any time, items of 
interest for the different departments, and to contribute original ' papert- 

. Subscription price, two dollars per year, or fifty cents per num- 
ber. Send money by check, registered letter or postal order payable 
•it Station II, New York City, to order of 

F. J. H. Merrill, Treasurer. 

Address all Communications 

MANAGING EDITOR, 

School of Mines Quarterly, 

Columbia College, New York. N. Y. 



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