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Full text of "South Carolina. Resources and population. Institutions and industries. Published by the State Board of Agriculture of South Carolina"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/southcarolinareOOsout 



)ic :{( 9(e 

This is an authorized facsimile of the original book, and was 
produced in 1970 by microfilm-xerography by University 
Microfilms, A Xerox Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 

♦ 9|C 9|e 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



' RESOURCES AND POPUESTIONr^ 
INSTITUTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 



IMIBMSIIKI) r.Y TMK 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Governor HUGH S. THOMPSON, Chairman. 
• A. P. BUTLER, Commissioner. 



CHARLESTON, S. C 

WaLKRH, PjVANS (t COCJSWEI.L, PlUNTKrwS, 
ym, :i Broiid and 1(»9 Eftst Hny Streets. 

1883. J> 




'J 



F 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

CHAITERI. INTRODUCTORY. LocATfox. AuKArMapM. (Jk.vkkal KrATtKKM. 
RiVEnH. Rkoions. Aonicui,TUUK : Hmall drain, Rico, Indijjo, Indian Corn, Cotton, 
Sea Island Cotton, Remarks, Diagram ok (Uinvn. l<170to IS.SO pp, 1 -i;j. 

CHAPTER II. COAST RJ'XilON, Location: Area, ChiiractoriHtifH. (iKouH;v: 
SubHidenco, Erosion, Sodirncntation, Korriiiifion of IwlandH, Toiio^ruphy, PirvsicAiy: 
FofttiircH, TidoH, Soilh: UplnndH. l5uyH, Siilt-MurHlicH. Anai-vmix: Error, Ofriirrcnco 
of Marls, &c. Cmmatk: Ilealtli. Statistics. I'ltoDtx-noxs. Cott(»x: Thren Kinds of 
Seeds, IIyl)nds, Oripin, Iinprovt'incnt, and Cliaracteristics of Sea Island. Fakms: 
Xumbor, Value of Land. Laijou: Tenures, Credits, Diajrriiii), Enclostiros, Drainage, 
Plows, Hoes, Fallows. Cci/rciiK: Of Sea Island Cotton. E.vkmikh; Of the Plant, 
Handlinjr. Skkd: Santoos an<l Mains. Ijmits: Of Ciiltnro, ('qmt of Prodiulion. 
Yield, Itemized Statement of Exi)Oiiditur('S pp. ]4-4'i, 

CHAPTER III. LOWER PINE IJELT, OR SAVANNA REOION. Ixkvtiox. 

PiiYsicAiy— Features, liivers, Lakelets, Elevation. t>raina<,'e, Irri^ration, FresJiets. 
(JEouxiv: Cretaceoiis, Riihrstone, .*<anteo Marls, Ashley and Cooper Marls. Pnos- 
PHATiw : Ocfurrence, Cluiractors, I'ossils, Changes, ()ri<rin. Extent. Mininij. Hotm: 
Uplands, Analyses, Swainjis. OuowTir. ('mmatk : Ilealtli. Statistics. PitonctTioxs : 
Rice Cuiturc, <Jats, (irasses. Akf.a : In Cotton. Farms: Labor, Wa!.'es, Rents. Value 
of Land, Credits. Tim.A(ik: Fallowiiij,', Rotation of Crojis, AL-iniires. Cotton: Culture, 
Ilandlinj;. Cost : Of Production. Disasters to the Plant. Abstract of Township Cor- 
respondence pp. 44-70. 

CIIArrER IV. ri'PEli PINE HELT. Lo(,\rioN. Ki.kvation : Water Courses- 
(ii:oi.o(!v: Cretaceous, Miocene, and Eocene Marls, Puhi-stone. SoiiJ*: Analyses. Pee 
Dee Lands, River Lands, Swamp Lands, (/'m.matr : Frost Diafiram. (iuowth : Indian 
Fires. PitonccnoNs Statistkn. Ai)vanck.s: To Farmer.s. Si/.i: of Farms. Labor: 
Wa<.'(;H, Rent, Value of Liiiid. Tabi.k: E.\hibitin<r Production in Relation to Credits, 
Size of Farms, those Itentcd and those Worked by Owners. Enclosiiii-s: Draina;.'e, 
Fallows, Rotation, Ti!Ia>;e, (irowth on Lands Lyinj.' Out, ^lanures. Cotton: Culture, 
Ilaiidiiui,'. Ratio : Of Lint to Seed (;otti>n. Siiici'iN(i. (Jrass, Lice, Rust. Co^T : Of 
Production. Ditto in bSlS. .Aiistka't; Of Township Correspondence pp. 71-H«>. 

CHAPTER V. RED HILL REOION. Location. (Jkolouv :* Siennu Colored 
Clay, (inivel lied, Hulirstone, Siliceous Rock. Soii>*: ,\nalyses. Ci.imatk. (Jrowth, 
SrATisTi(>< j,p, )1(>-11<!. 

CHAITER VI. S.\ND HILL REOION. PomitioN and Area: Elevation, Contour, 
Diagram, Streams, Lakelets, Hlowinp Wells. (fi:oi.o«iv: Granite, Sandstone, Loose 
Sand, Kaolin Clay. Soim : Analyses, (irowtii and Productions. Ci.i.mate. Sta- 
tistics pp. 117-1'.'.>. 



VI TAIJLK OK CONTKNTS. 

CHAl'lllU VII. IMKUMONT RKGION. Location, Name, Klevutlons. Fall in 
StrfiiiiiK, Wut(>inlu'(lr«, UivcTH, Tabk', Niivlpitlon. Geolooy : Triple Occurrence of 
(Jrnnito: fliicisM, IIoniblon<lo, Mica Slate, Ores and Mineraln, Talc Slato, DiamondB, 
Clay Slalo, Trap, (ioi.i) MincH: Occnrrenco, Diagram, (ioiilcn A^'c, Sii.vKit, Lead, Zinc, 
C<)i)pcr, IJisniuth, Iron, IJarytcH, ManjraiicHC, (irapliitc, Fclnpar. AKbcKtoH, SoapHtone, 
Beryl, Tourmaline, Corundum, Zirconx. Soii,h: Disintejjration of RocUh. Soiij^: Gray 
Siuidy, Analyses, Red I/Oams, Analyses, llornblendic, Analyses, Mica Slate. Clay Slate, 
Analyses, Trajipcan, Anrilyses, I5ottoni Lands. Clim.vte: Temjjerature, Rainfall, 
Ileallh, Malarial Lino. (JuowTit : Cane, I'ines, Chestnut. Pkodictioxs : Cattle, Hemp, 
Tobacco, (Jrapes, Rermuda (irasrt. Lucerne. Statistics; Farm Values and Productions 
in relation to System of Ai^rlculture, Table, Deductions Land IIoldin;js, Provisions, 
Advances, Ranks, I/AIioh, Wa^es, Value of Jjands, Rents. Tii.i.aok: Rotation. Fallow- 
ing, Old Fields, Manuring. Cotton Culture, Knemies Crab Grass. (Ji.nnmno, Simpi'ino, 
Cost of Production. AnsTRAcr of Townsbij) Correspondence pp. ll.'(>-182. 

CHAPTER Vin. ALI'INE REGION. Location: Features, (Jreat Fault, W»-ter- 
slieds, Mountain Knobs, Elevations, Aspect. Gkolooy : Rocks, Ores.Minerals- Soils. 
Statistics. Laiior. Tillaok. Cotton Culture. Gi.vnino. Abstract of Township Corres- 
pondence pp. 183-195. 

CHAPTER L\. WATER POWERS. Sources of Information. Tiikee Regions, 
Physical Conditions, Climate, Rainfall. Water Courses, Table, Power Utilized, Table. 
JIetjioo of Estimating Water Power. Scmmarv of Powers, Notes. Affluents of the 
Savannah, Aggrejiate of Power, Employment of Water Power, Cost pp. 10(>-208. 

CHAFrER X. LL«;T OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Mammals, Birds, Reitii,f,s, Fishes, Bibliography pp. 209-2C4. 

CHAPTER Xr. LIST OF THE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CARO- 
LINA. IxTRODCCTORV : Iksects, Bibliography, SpiDEiis, Hcndred-lec.s, Crabs. Worms, 
PARAsiTJis, CcTTi.E-Kisii, Snails, Mussels, Stak-fish, Jeli.v-fish, Corals, Sponge.s, 
Infcsoria, Bibliography pp- 2(k>-311. 

CHAPTER XII. LIST OF TIIE PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. Flowering 
Plants, with two seed leaves, with one seed leal. Fi-owerless Plants, Horsetails, 
Ferns, Club-mosses, Water-ferns. Mosses. Lichens. Seaweed. Mushrooms. Sum- 
mary. Bibliography pp. 312—359. 



TABLES. 

TABLE I. Meteorological Records from 17o2 to 1880. 
TABLE II. . Statistics of the Agriculttiral Regions of South Carolina, 1880. 
TABLE III. Statistics of the Agricultural Regions of South Carolina, 1870. 
TABLE IV. General Statistics of Agriculture in South Carolina, and in the United 
Stttto.'^, from 18.">0ta 18(i0. 
TABLl', V. Agricultural Statistics of each Township of South Carolina, in 1880. 

N. B. The data of Tables II., III., and V. may bo locallrcd by rcforonce to tho Map 
accompanying this Voliinic. 



TAIjLE op* C0NTKKT8. VI I 



PART II. 

CH\PTP:RI. population. Indianm, origin, XumbcrH, HynopHis of Nations and 
Tribes, Survivors. Negroes, Introduction of, Numbers of Imported, Rate of Increase 
from 1714 to 1790, from 1790 to I860, InrrcaHU of Free Negroes, Increase in South Caro- 
lina, 1810 to 1880, Compared with Other Populations, Intermixture, Fenales, Centres of 
Population, Divergence of African and European, DisTRini'Tiox of Negro, Foreign, and 
Aggregate Population according to Elevation, to Moan Annual Temperature, to Summer 
Temperature, to Winter Temperature, to Highest Temperature, to Lowe'jt Temperature, 
to liainfall. Distriiu'tion within the State, Chronolngicjilly. Dikki;hion. Ei'itorEANs, 
Chronology 1497 to 1783, Numbers, 171/0 to 1880, Increase, 17!)(» to 1880, Tables, Diagram, 
No Antagonism of Races, Prospect. Movement of Population, Population Maps, 175K)to 
1880, Tables. Foreigneiw. Sexks. Ages, Aggregate Years Lived, Ilatio of Different Ages, 
Tables, Military Age, Citizenship Age, Table. Dwellings and Families, Tables. 

pp. »),V3nO. 

CHAPTER II. VITAL STATISTICS. Mortuary Records, Comparison of Deatli.^ 
in South Carolina and in the United States, Diagram, Death Rate of Foreigners. Mar- 
riages : Table, Season. Births: Number, Table, Season, Plurality Births, Still Births. 
Deaths: Table, 18.").'} -59, Months, Ages, Longevity, Causes of Death. Malarial Dis- 
eases: Census of 1880, Mortality in the Different Regions of the State, Age, Sex, 
Principal Diseases pp. 400-421. 

CHAPTER III. INSTITUTIONS. Government and Laws of South Carolina. Origin 
of the name Carolina. Character and Nationalities of the Colonists, Government 
under the Lords Proprietors. Locke's Constitution, the Royal Governors. Constitutions of 
177(5 and 1790, Progress between the Revolutionary War and Secession. Leadixg Prin- 
ciples of the Constitution, Declaration of Rights and Form of (rovernment. Legislative 
Department, Executive Department, Judicial Department; The Sufirage, Taxation, 
Education ; The Militia, Marriage and Divorce, Amendments and Revision of the 
Constitution. The Statute Law, Crimes and Punishments, Murder, Rape and Arson, 
Manslaughter, other Crimes aud Misdemeanors. Law ok pRorERXV, PniLic Instruc- 
tion, Depart.ment ok Agriculture, Im.miorant8 and Si:a.men, General Remarks, 
Authorities consulted pp. 421-444. 

<;HAFrER IV. A SKErCH OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

pp. 445-^9. 

CHAPTER V. CHURCHES. Church of England, other Churches, Negro Churches, 
Tables pp. S-VV-STuj. 

CHAPTER VI. OCCUPATIONS. Population Accounted for, Percentage of Work- 
ers, Increase. Sex, and Nativity, Changes of Occupation, Agriculture, Professional and 
Personal Services, Trade and Transportation, Manufactures and Mining. The Insane: 
Idiots, IMind, Deaf Mutes, Paupers, Prisoners Pp. 5.">7->>72. 

CHAFfER VII. MANUFACTURES. Compared with Agriculture, Retrospect^ 
Growth. Present Condition. Cotton Goons, Cotton Ginning. Fertilizers, Flour and 
Grist M1L1.M. Sawing LvMiiKR, Turpentine, and other Manufactures. Mining: Phos- 
phates, Kaolin. Granite, Fisheries pp. 573-»ll0, 

CHAPTER VIII. THE HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION OF TRANS- 
PORTATION IN SOUTH ("AROrjNA PI». (\\l-M(). 



vni 



tAnLFi 01<' CONfKSfS. 



(,'IIAITKU IX. JJHBT AND TAXATION. FIhcaI History, Bank of the State. 
l.NTKiiNAi- Imi'Uovkmknth: Financial Condition, 18.')9-1K08, 1871-2, 1882. Tadle or 
Dkiit AM) Taxation: ISOl-lSHl, Fkdkhal Taxation : Internal Revenue CiiHtonis: 
Suininury, tlin>p PlatcH pp. (UMi-W. 

CHAPTEK X. TOWN.*^ OF SOUTH CAKOLINA. Retrospect, Table of Towns 
nn<l Tradinir Points; Pank Stutcinent, 1849 to 1881. Oast Region : Port Royal, Beau- 
fort, Mount Plciisant, Charleston, Georm-town. Lower Pine Belt : Hampton, Colleton, 
Berkeley, WiJliani'^hur;:, Clarendon, Ilorry. Uri'Eit Pine Belt: Barnwell, Orange- 
burp, Sumter, ParIin;;ion, Marlboro, Marion. Keo Hill and SandHilu: Aiken, 
LpxingtoM, Richland, Columbia, Kershaw, Chesterfield. Piedmont REtiiON: Abbeville, 
Anderson, Chester, Fairfield, Greenville, Lancaster, Laurens, Newberr}', Spartanburg, 
Union, York. Alpine IteiioN : Oconoe, Pickens pp. 6.'>0-7H3. 



ERRATA. 



lotli pap:c. Inst line, for IHW) read IWii. 
nth pnge, ")lh line, for ISV) read is»«l. 
1:1th piipo, 4lh line, forStato read United SUttCH. 
l.jth puKe, ;w;ih line, for erosive read eroded, 
*i2<l paRp, Vth line, for being read was. 
Kill page, llh line, for 11.4 read l.U. 
lllth psiRC, .'Ctli Urio, for by read but. 
llu'lh page, ■lt!> line, for literal read littoral. 
ll"ith pnge, mih line, for Included road unculti- 
vated, 
lliitti page, isili line, for In read It. 
li-'d page, :!i)lh line, for said rea<l ^nnd. 
IJIlh pjipc istli line, for I'ledinrnt read Alpine. 
VZM\ p»»{e, -IHU line, for trul.'<" read to rely. 
124tli pajje. illith line, for herJ read head. 
l«-d pane, mtli line, on\ll "and tlioir gradual 

slopoH on their northeastern face." 
•JiNlh pai;o, .■.ih line, for IK7I1 read 1K7(1. 
-Mlib page, llth lino, for nellvagans reail nocll- 

vagans. 
U:istli page, isth Ihie, for Hpring rend spiny. 
2l'!d i»age, ".Tth line, after Prof. Goode Innert 

annuiilly, 
•Jldth page, l:Uh line, for PelarU read Polarl«. 
■JlHth page, I'.lh lliie, for ralarliiKrcad aratrarlun. 
■JII'lli pag(>. •-7lh line, for Hollosoma read Holco- 

noma. 
S'llut page, .'id line, for IMetharl rend IJtepharlo. 
'Z'tUt page, l.")lh line, for coIkos read ("olias. 
:iVUI page, Ith line, for baxU read bascf!. 
Z\hl page, ;!«)lh lino, for Illtnrhatnplins read 
llenilrliainpluiN. 



j :i'>llh page, Hth line, for of flshes read of other 

; tishes. 

i i'>lth page, "ild line, for eylold read cycloid. 

■ i'>Uh page. 24ili Hue, for kell read well. 
2.V)th page 2Uh line, for vertebrate read verte- 

I brue. 

j 'SMh page, 12th line, for BepldoBteusread Lepld- 

I osteus. 

j .'tisth page, 2Uh lino, forcopllllnaread copalllna. 

.■?2.")th page, 1.1th line, for inasculata read macu- 
! lata. 

I ;i">ltlli page, .'Wth line, for Hooko'8 read Hooker's, 

.■!<i.)th page, .Ith line, for natives read natlonn. 
I :{S()th page, 20ih line, for counties read Slates. 

iWlHt page, l.ith Hue, for:!77 reud 402. 

iDSiilh page, (Ith line, for eighty read Rcventy- 
i eight. 

' ;RWth page. 2(lth line, for Belqulver read Belgium. 
I KKilh page, IKth line, for 42S read 417. 
I KKilh page, 2Uh line, for 277 read 2(0. 
I 40*ith page. 2ltli line, for read ,9. 
1 4i:tth page, 2iith line, after mortality read from 

this cause. 
! .vwth page, :wili line, for H read F. 
i')7llli page, 21«t line, for possoHses read pos- 
i sesHed. 

.'>7rtth page, 17th line, for renunicratlon read re- 
enumeration. 

♦Xllst page, KUh line, for changes read charges. 

6ixth page, 1st line, read "years subsequently 
I was, In the hands," Ac. 



PART I. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE COUNTRY. 



OHi^PTIER I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



LOCATION. 



The State of South Carolina lies between North latitude 32° 4^ 30'' and 
35° 12' and longitude West from Washington 1° 30' and 0° 54\ 

AREA. 

William Gerald Dc Brahm gave to the public, in 1757, the first Map of 
South Carolina, estimating the area of the State at 33,700 square miles. 
James Cook, in 1771, and Henry Mouzon, in 1775, published in London 
excellent maps of the State, from wliich Drayton and Kamsay make tho 
area 24,080 square miles. Between 181G and 1820 the State expended 
$52,700 on a map of the State, under the direction of John Wilson ; tliis 
map was published in 1822, The State Bi)ent $12,000 more for this pur- 
pose in 1825, and obtained Robert Mills' largo Atlas of South Carolina, 
probably the most accurate map of the State even to this day. Mills 
estimates the area of the State at 30,213 square miles. The United States 
Census of 1870 places it at 34,000 square miles, while the census of 1880 
makes it 30,170. Thus, although geography may be held as one of the 
exact sciences, it seems that these geographers, with no material changes 
in the boundaries, vary in their estimates from twenty-six to thirty- 
seven per cent. 

BOUNDARIES. 

The State approaches in shape the form of an isosceles-triangle. Tho 
equal sides being on the North, the boundary line of North Carolina, and 
on the South and West, tho Savannah river separating it from Georgia. 
The apex of the triangle rests upon the sunmiits of the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains. The base sweeping with a gentle s shaped curve from the .soutli- 
wcst to the northeast, forms part of the Atlantic shore line of North 
America. This line is parallel, or nearly so, with about one-half the 



4 INTRODUCTORY. 

coast lines of the continents of the earth, as witness the northwest const 
lines of America, Europe and Africa, and tlie southeast coast lines of 
South America, Africa and Asia. 

GENERAL FEATURES. 

Parallel also with this coast line trend the divisions between the vanous 
geolo<:;icul formations of'thc State. First, extending not more than ten miles 
inland, we have the strata of the i)Ost j)l(.'ioccne resting on the formations 
of the eocene. These, with iicre and there a patch of the meioccne and 
cretaceous formations, stretch back ijito the interior about one hundred 
mik's, until they reach the crystalline rocks, whose well marked line has, 
during the entire past history of the State, divided it socially, politically 
an<l industrially, as well as jihysically, into wliathas always been known 
as the ujx'ountry and the low-country of Carolina.- This division of the 
Slate into up-country and low-country by the line bounding the southern 
margin of tlio crystalline rocks, and trending northeast and southwest 
across its central portion, is strongly marked in everything, in the hills 
and liighlands of the up-country, with their heavy red clay soils, and in 
the gentle slojx's or wide flats of lighter colored sandy loam of the low- 
country, in the rapid, turbid water courses of the one, and the slow, clear 
currents of the other; in tlic vegetable growth, the chestnut, the deciduous 
oaks and the short leaf pine, occupying the up-country, and the long leaf 
pine, the nuignolia and the evergreen oaks, with the long gray moss, 
marking the low-country; and lastly, in the manners, character, ancestry, 
and even in the very tones of voice of the inhabitants. Passing beyond 
the lower margin of the crystalline rocks and proceeding towards the 
mountains, we lind in all the various strata — in the order of their super- 
position — one above the other, the limestones, the itacolumite, the clay 
talc and mica slates, the gneiss and the granite — that the same parallel- 
ism is maintained throughout, the prevailing strike in all being X. 20° to 
30^ E. If we regard the movements of the atmosphere, we find here also 
that the predominating currents of the air move in a northeasterly and 
southwesterly direction. 

RIVERS. 

Perpendicular to this direction — that is to say, in a southeasterly 
course — the four great rivers, with their numerous tributaries that drain 
and irrigate South Carolina, make their way from the mountains to ♦he 
sea. Before leaving the cry.'^talline rocks — the point that marks their 
lower falls and the head of steam navigation — the rivers have received 
the rapid currents of nearly all their aflluents. Thereafter their stately 



• INTRODUCTORY. 5 

flow proceeds more slowly, passing the great inland swamps of the low 
country, as if the waters still remembered when they found issuances 
through these ancient deltas. In the great freshet of 1700, the waters 
of tlie Santee river broke through at Ilell-IIole swamp, and made their 
way to the sea through Cooj)cr river. During the same freshet, the 
Savannah river made its way t})rough the Hwumi)s of Hami)ton county, 
and cmjitied its waters through liroad river into the sea at Port, Royal. 
As each river leaves the region of rocks to enter the borders of the low- 
country, it makes a sudden and well-marked detour eastward, except the 
Savannah, which seems to have had its bed shifted westward at this line 
of demarcation. Thus, had the grooves cut through the ancient strata of 
the crystalline rocks by these streams been j>rolonged ainong tlie sands 
and clays of the low-country, their estuaries would have been <juite 
diderent from what they are at present, JIad the lino of the Savannah, 
as it channeled its way ages ago through the mica, slate and gneiss rock 
of Oconee, Anderson and Abbeville counties, not been thrown westward - 
by the granites of Horse creek and the high sand and clay hills of Aiken 
county, it would have continued its course to Broad river, at present 
that magnificent arm of the sea forming the head of Port Koyal harbbr. 
Here it would have been joined, too, by the waters of the North and 
South Edisto, had they not been deflected eastward by the granite rocks 
and sand hills of Aiken and Orangeburg counties. Here, also, the 
waters of the Santee, containing those of the Wateree and Congaree, 
would have joined them, had they followed the line of the ancient 
channel of the Catawba, their most easterly affluent, as it grooved its 
way through talc slates and granites of Lancaster, York and Chester 
counties. It would seem more appropriate that some great Father of 
Waters, liaving these proi)ortions, should have built up such a grand 
delta as the islands, rivers, sounds and bays of Beaufort present, rather 
than it were the sole and undisputed estuary of such insignificant 
claimants as the rivers Tillifinny, Pocotaligo and Coosawhatchie, 
preserving in their long names alone the memory of the noble river 
that once must have found its way to the ocean here. Noting the 
remarkable parallelism in this eastward deflection of nearly all the water 
courses of Carolina, it would seem that one and the same cause must 
have produced these changes. Such a cause would have been an 
upheaving force — or forces, rather — operating from the southwest to the 
northeast, in the line of the eru})tive rocks that cross the State from 
Edgefield to York counties. Wo may readily imagine how these 
successive elevations running from the southwest, after turning the 
Savannah into its present delta, pushed the other streams e:Lstward, 
droi)})ing the diflerent aflluents as it passed along, leaving the Combaliee 



INTRODUCTORY. ' 

nnd Ivlisto nt St. Ilclfim Hound, an tho Tillifinny, Pocotali^o nnd 
Cuosiiwliatcliio were lel't at Port Koyjil to mark tho delta there, and lowing 

1 he Asliley and Cooper rivers ut Cliarle-ston harbor, while tho Santce, 
iiun'efl Airther westward, still marks out its channel to the sea near 
Winyaw bay. 

A;;ain, on tho near approacli of the rivers to the sea, some of them 
show a deflection westward. But the previously noticed parallelism does 
not o])tain in this case. In sonic, as in the Peo Dec, the \vestward bend 
is well niarkeil. In others, as in the Edisto, tho river is merely turned 
from an eastward to a south course, while the Santce seems scarcely at 
all diverted from its eastwardly course. It would not seem, therefore, 
that this change had resulted from the action of any single cause, but, 
rather, that it was tho resultant of opposing forces, o])erating with 
varyihg intensities. Such forces would be found in the soutlieasterly 
currents of the streams themselves, opj)Osed by that southwesterly ocean' 
current — a recurrent of the (Julf Stream — that sweeps along the Carolina 
coast. Where tho river currents were strong, and loaded with a wealth 
of detritus from tho drainage of an extensive back country, it would hold 
its* own against tlie ocean current, dam it out and establish for itself the 
direction of its outlet. Hence the Santce piles up its banks and carries 
the shore line out beyond Cape St. Romain, and all the coast southwest 
of it, the site of ancient and actual deltas, is lined with islands. Short 
or sluggish streams, however, supported by the detritus of no great 
water-shed — as the Waccamaw river — would yield readily to the action 
of the ocean currents, conform to their direction, estaolisli no nests of 
islands at their deltas, but leave the sea to make a smooth, bare sand 
]>each. Such we find the curving shore from Georgetown entrance to the 
North Carolina line to be, where, for twenty miles on a .stretch, a carriage 
may roll along the beach at low water, leaving in the hard sands not 
tlie slightest impress of its wheels. 

Cros.ying the crystalline rocks nearly at right angles, the watens in 
their course through the up-country, encounter a series of natural dams, 
which, while it renders them easily available as water-powers, seriously 
obstructs navigation. Tho passage of boats, say of two hundred tons 
burthen, as a rule, reaches inland but very little farther than the 
remarkable belt of high and healthy sand hills which lie along the lower 
borders of these rocks. 

The tortuous course into which the streams have been forced by tho 
causes already stated, after entering the low country, while it has 
increased the navigable waters of the State, giving, "apart from creeks 
and inlets of the sea, an inland navigation of twenty-four hundred miles," 
has seriously impeded tho drainage of the low country, creating there 



INTRODUCTORY, 7 

Bomo fifty-fivo hundred «quaro inilcH of Hwamf) htuU, which, though 
naturally, when reclaimed, of uhiKwt inexhau«tiblo fertility, remain to 
this day for the most part wawte, the j)roli(ie Moureo of the mia'^ms m 
deleterious to the health of this region. Numerous sug/^estions to remedy 
this evil have been made, but as yet nothing lias been attempted on a 
scale commensurate with the importance of the undertaking. The 
Legislature even refused, in 184(>, to grant a charter to a company 
proposing to prolong the channel of the Edisto in a direct line through 
Wassamassaw swamp to the Ashley river; and a suggestion of a similar 
character, for straightening the Hantee through to the Coojjcr river, and 
draining, thereby. Biggin, Fair Forest, Walleye, and the numerous 
adjacent swamps, made by Governor Seabrook, in 1848, met with no 
rcsi)onse. Such works would have reclaimed for the plow large bodies 
of soil, consisting of fine mud and decomposing vegetable matter, resting, 
at a depth of live to ten feet, on marl or gravel ; restored the adjoining 
uplands to remunerative culture; and would have established on a 
secure foundation the healthfulness of the entire region. 

PHYSICAL AND AGRICULTURAL REGIONS. 

In addition to tlie two grand divisions of South Carolina already dwelt 
upon into the " up-country " and " low-country," it will facilitate the con- 
sideration of the agricultural characteristics of the State to treat of them 
under certain minor natural and parallel sub-divisions, which arc quite 
well marked. These are as follows : 

I. TJie Ccast Region. It coincides very nearly with the post pleioceno 
formation, rarely extending inland more than ten miles from the shore 
line. It consists — 

1st. Of the Sea Islands lying south of Santec river, and containing 
about eight hundred S([uaro miles. 

2d. The .'<alt marshes, uncovered at low tide, bordering and intercalating 
with the Sea I.^lands, capable of being reclaimed, and embracing six 
hundred sciuaro miles, 

3d. The continuous sliore line north of Santee liver and Georgetown 
entrance, three hundred square miles in extent. 

II. The Lower Pine Belt orSavfunxih Urrjion, h/iiifj inland and parallel un'th 
the (had Rrtjioii. It has a width of about lifty miles, attains a maximum 
elevation above the sea of one hundred and thirty feet. It may be 
divided, 

1st. Into the region below the influence of the tides, the rice fields of 
South Carolina, 



is INTRODUCTORY. 

2(1. Tho rop^iou above tide water, notable for its turpentine farms and 
its cattle ranges. 

III. Tlir Up]>er Pine licit or the Coitral Cottoii Bdt, having a width of twenty 
to fort II inilcn. It w covered with a growth of long leaf pine, mixed with oak and 
hichnrij. Tlje soil consists of a li^ht sandy loam underlaid by red and 
yollow clays. It has an elevation above the sea of from one bundred and 
thirty to two bundred and fifty feet. Large inland swamps, bays and 
river l)ottoiiis of unsurj)assed iortility, covering (ive thousand five hundred 
square miles, are interspersed among the two regions last named. 

IV. The Red Ililh are immediately north of the last region. They 
bn,vo an elevation of three hundred to six hundred feet above the sea. 
The soil is red clay and sand, and tliere is a heavy growth of oak and 
liickory. They embrace the range of bills extending from Aiken county 
througb Orangeburg to Sumter, where they are known as the High Hills 
of Santee, and also the ridge lands of Edgefield, famous for their fertility. 

V. TJir Sand Hill Region. A remarkable eluiin of siuid hills, attaining 
an elevation above tho sea of six hundred to seven hundred feet, and 
extending across the State from Aiken to Chesterfield counties. 

VI. The Piedmont Region includes that portion of the State known as 
the upper country. It has a mean elevation above the sea level of four 
hundred to eight hundred feet. Its .soils are — 

1st.. The cold gray lands overlying for the most part the clay slates. 
2d. The gray sandy soils from the decomposition of granite and gneiss, 
od. The red hornblende lands. 

4th. The traj)})ean soils, known as flat woods meadow or black-jack 
lands in various sections. 

VII. The Alpine Region is the extreme northwestern extension of the 
rooks and soils of the region just mentioned, differing from the former by 
its more broken and mountainous character, and by its greater elevation, 
ranging from Jiine hundred feet to three thousand four hundred and 
thirty feet at Mount Pinnacle, near Pickens C. H., the highest point in 
the State. 

AGlHCUI/rrKAL RKTROSPI'XT. 

The first permanent settlers established themselves on the sea-coast-of 
South Carolina in 1(570. Bringing with them the traditions of a hus- 
bandry that must have been very rude at a period so long ante-dating tho 



INTRODUCTORY. 9 

Tullian era of culture, and adapted solely to the requirements of 
colder latitudes, they met with such poor success in the cultivation of 
European cereals that they soon found it would bo more profitable to em- 
ploy themselves in collecting and exporting the i)roductHof the great for- 
ests that surrounded them. In return for the necessaries of life, they ex- 
ported to the mother country and lier colonies, oranges, tar, turj)entine, 
rosin, masts, potashes, cedar, cypress and pine lumber, walnut timber, 
staves, shingles, canes, deer and beaver skins, etc. It is interesting to re- 
mark in the accompanying diagram, that after being more or loss in 
abeyance during a period of two hundred years, amid the fluctuations of 
other great staj)le croj)s, these forest industries seemed, in 1870, about to 
assume their ancient supremacy once more. With the settlement of the 
up-country the culture of small grain became more successful ; and when 
Joseph Kershaw established his large flourmg mills near Camden, in 17G0, 
flour of excellent quality was produced in .such abundance as to become 
an article of export of considerable conse([uence. In 1802, flouring mills 
had proven so profitable that quite a i^umber were established in the- 
counties of Laurens, Greenville and elsewhere. About that time, how- 
ever, the attractions of the cotton cro{) became so great as to divert atten- 
tion from every other, and the rereals lost ground, until the low prices of 
cotton prevailing between 1840 and 18r)0 prei)ared the way for a greater 
diversity of agricultural industries, and the small grain crop of 1850 ex- 
ceeded four million bushels. Since then cereal crops have declined, and 
seem likely to do so, unless the promise held out by the recent introduc- 
tion of the red rust proof oat should be fulfilled and restore them to 
prominence. 

In 1093, Landgrave Thomas Smith — of whose descendants more tlian fivo 
hundred were living in the State in 1808 (a luimber doubtless largely in- 
creased since), moved ])erchanee by a prophetic sense of the fitness that 
the father of such a numerous j)rogeny should provide for the support of 
an extensive population — introduced the culture of rice into South Caro- 
lina. Tlie seed came from the island of Madagascar, in a vessel that put 
into Charleston harbor in distress. This j)roved a great success, and as 
early as 1754, the colony, besides supplying an abundance of rice for its 
own use, exported one hundred and four thousand six hundred and 
eighty two barrels. Creat imi)rovements were made in the grain by u 
careful selection of the seed. Water culture was introduced in 1784, by 
(lideon Dupont and General Pinekn^y, rendering its j)roducl ion less de- 
pendent on the labor of man or beast than any cultivate*! er(»p. In 1778, 
Mr. Lucas established on the Santee river the first water power mill ever 
adapted to cleaning and preparing rice for market — the model to which 
all sub.sequent improvements were due — diminishing the cost of this pro- 



10 INTRODUtTORV. 

cess to a degree incalculable without some standard of reference as to the 
value of human labor, on which the drudgery of this toil had rested for 
ages. In 1.828, one hundred and seventy-five thousand and nineteen 
tierce' were exi)orted, and the crop of 1850 exceeded two hundred and 
fifty thousand tierces, that of 18G0 was something less, and in 1870 the 
product tumbled headlong to fifty-four thousand tierces. 

INDIGO. 

In 1742, George Lucas, governor of Antigua, sent the first seeds of the 
indigo plant to Gvrolina, to his daugliter, Miss Eliza Lucas (afterwards the 
mother of Charles Cotcsworth Pinckney). With much perseverance, 
after several disappointments, slie succeeded in growing the plant and ex- 
tracting the indigo from it. Parliament shortly after placed a bounty on 
the pioduction of indigo in British possessions and this crop attained a 
rapid development in Carolina. In 1754, two hundred and sixteen thou- 
sand nine hundred and twenty-four pounds and in 1775, one million 
one hundred and seven thousand six hundred and sixty pounds were 
])roduce(i. But the war with the mother country, the competition of in- 
digo culture in the East Indies, the unpleasant odor emitted and the 
swarms of fiics attracted by the fermentation of the weeds in the vats, but 
ulxive all the absorbing interest in tiie cotton croj), caused the rapid de- 
cline of its culture, and in the early part of tliis century it had ceased to 
be a staple product, although it was cultivated in remote places as late as 
1848. 

INDIAN CORN. 

Indian cori^, the grain which, " next to r. supplies food to the largest 
mnnbor of the human race, * * the most valuable gift of the new 
world to the old," as a plant unknown to European culture, and in ill 
repute as tlie food of the ever hostile red man, received little attention 
from the early settlers. Nevertheless, with the steadiness that marks true 
merit, it worked its way to the front rank among the crops grown in the 
State. As early as 1730 it had become an important article of export and 
continued such until after 17!)2, in which year ninety-nine thousand 
nine hundred and eighty-five bushels were exported. About this time, 
in consequence of the absorj)tion by cotton of all surplus energy, it fell 
from the list of exports and shortly after entered that of imj)orts, on 
which to-day — taken in all its forms — it stands the largest. But its cul- 
ture was by no means abandoned; on the contrary, the crop grew in size 
Avith the increase of the population. In 18G0, more than sixteen millions 



INTRODUCTORY. 11 

of bushels were produced. In 1857, Dr. Parker made, near Columbia, the 
largest crop per acre ever obtained anywhere ; from two acres he gath- 
ered three hundred and fifty-nine bushels, and one acre gave two hun- 
dred bushels and twelve quarts. In consequence of the higher prices of 
cotton the corn crop was reduced in 1850 by one million of bushels ; in 
1870 it had gone down one half, having fallen to seven and a half 
million bushels. 

COTTON. 

Cotton is mentioned in the records of the colony as early as 1664, and 
in 1747, seven bags appear on the list of exports from Charleston. In 
1787, Samuel Maverick, and one Jeffrey, shipped three bags of one hun- 
dred pounds each of seed cotton from Charleston to England as an ex- 
periment, and were informed for their pains by the consignee, that it was 
not worth producing, as it could not be separated from the seed. In 1790 
a manufactory of cotton homespuns was established by some Irish, in- 
Wiliiamsburg county, the lint used being picked from the see<l by hand, 
a task of four j)ounds of lint per week being required of the field laborers 
in addition to their ordinary work. All this speedily changed with the 
invention of the saw gin by Eli Whitney, in 1794. The first gin moved 
by water power was erected on Mill Creek, near Monticcllo, in Fairfield, 
by Cupt. James Kincaid, in 1795. Gen. Wade Hampton erected anotlier 
near Columbia, in 1797, and the following year gathered from six hundred 
acres, six hundred bales of cotton, and cotton ])lanting became soon after the 
leading industry in nearly every county in the State. The crop steadily 
increased in size until 1800, when the three hundred and fifty thousand 
bales produced in the State were worth somethitig over fourteen millions 
of dollars. From this date to 1870 there was a great decline, the crop of 
that year being more than one-third less than the crop of ten years pre- 
vious, and reacliing only two hundred and twenty-four thousand five 
hundred bales. 

TABLE, 

Showing the Production oj Cotton in South Carolina from 1830 to 1880: 

Ye".. '^^'-•J,'::, VcK Lb,. Ltnt Cotton. 

1830 .... 185,1 (;0 X 341 = 03,440,000 
1810 .... 15(),<;()0 X .394 = 61,710,274 

1850 300,301 X 429 = 128,829,120 

1800 .... 353,412 X 477 = 108,577,524 
1870 .... 221,500 X ^42 = 90,229,000 
1880 .... 510,490 X 475 = 245,480,305 



12 INTRODUCTORY. 

SEA ISLAND COTTON. 

The first crop of sea island cotton was raised on Hilton Head, in 1790, 
by William Elliott. This crop reached its year of maximum production 
in 1827, when 15,140,708 pounds of long staple cotton was exported from 
the State ; in 1841 it had fallen to 0,400,000 pounds. Since 1856 this crop 
has fluctuated from a minimum in 1807 of 4,577 bales to a maximum in 
1872 of 13,150 bales. 

Even in so brief a summary as this, the attention of the reader must be 
called to the remarkable influence exerted on the three great crops of 
corn, cotton and rice, by their culture on the South Carolina coast. 

The finest, as food for man, of all the known varieties of corn is the 
wjiito flint corn, i)cculiar to the sea islands. 

The finest cotton ever produced is the long staple cotton of Edisto 
island, which has sold for ^2 per pound, wh«^n other cottons were bring- 
ing o)ily nine cents. 

Carolina rico heads tho list in the quotations of that article in all the 
markets of the world. Not only has its yield and culture been brought 
to tlie highest perfection here, but mankind are indebted to the planters 
of this coi\st for the mechanical inventions by which the preparati(»i) of 
this great food stuff, instead of being the most costly and laborious, is 
made one of the easiest and cheapest. 



DIAGRAM 



13 



Sliomng the relative importance and fluctuations of the staple crops cultivated 
in Smith Carolina from 1G70 to 1880. TJu; money value 
of each crop is estimated for the year of its maximum pro- 
duction anterior to 1880, and a point assngned it above the 
line A B. From this point the distance of the line of each 
crop above the line A B is determined by the amount pro- 
duced ivithoid regard to prices. 



\lk — H- 
2 



K K )( — K— »< Upland Cotton. 
Corn 



-" Sea Island Cotton 

Rice 
Indigo. 



6^.^_^-^H-^H-^-|-^-^-^-^-^ Forest Products. 
7 1 ■ I I I I ) I t Small Grain. 




CHAPTER II. 



THE COAST REGION. 



LOCATION AND AREA. 

The const of Carolina, from the mouth of the Savannah river to that of 
Little river, on the North Carolina line, i8 about one hundred and ninety 
miles in length. East of the outlet of the rivers, that is northeast of 
Winyaw Bay, the coast line curves inland, there are no islands, and the 
smooth liard beach (noted for its delightful seaside residences during the 
summer months) that forms the continuous shoreline, is of little interest 
agriculturally. South of Winyaw I3ay, whence issue the waters of Black 
and Lyneh's rivers, and of the Great and Little Pee Dee, with the AVae- 
eamaw, the Santeo river, with its great watershed in North and South 
Carolina, draining an extensive region stretchinj^ to the highest eleva- 
tions of the Apalaehian range, dikes its delta out into the ocean, and the 
shore line swelling seaward becomes lined with nun)erous islands. From 
this point to Charleston Harbor the islands, though numerous, arc small 
and low, and in this distance of more than fifty miles not more than seven 
hundred acres arc planted in cotton, yielding about two hundred and 
seventy-five bales of long staple. South of Charleston Harbor the islands 
increase rapidly in size and number to the waters of Fort Royal, where 
they line the shore in tiers three and four deep. They attain their maxi- 
mum develo})ment around Broad river, and diminish again in size and 
number more rapidly even than they had increased, as they approach 
the Georgia line at the mouth of Savannah river. The Sea Islands are 
separated from the mainland by numerous salt water rivers, creeks and 
inlets of the sea. 

GEOLOGY. 

The coast region corresponds almost exactly with the post-pleiocene for- 
mation. Its strata of sand, clay and mud, have an estimated thickness of 
about sixty feet, stretching inland some ten miles and thinning out at a 
slight elevation above tide water. They rest in Ilorry and Georgetown 
on the pleioccne, and for the remainder of the coast, on the eocene, in 
which occur the phosphate deposits of the Ashley, the Cooper and the 
C-oosav; rivers. 



THE COAST REGION. 15 

The origin and formation of the sea islands may be accounted for by- 
one of four possible suppositions. 

Ist. By a subsidence of the coast resulting in the submergence of the 
lower lands. This explanation was offered by Sir Charles I^yell, and 
recently by Professor G. H, Cook, who believes that the whole Atlantic, 
seaboard is sinking. 

2d. By the elevation of the sea bottom. This theory has not been 
maintained by any one and need not be considered. 

3d. By the erosive action of the tides and currents of the sea, cutting 
into the shore line and detaching, as it were, portions of the mainland. A 
theory of Professor Shaler. 

4th. By ah outgrowth of the land into the sea, resulting from the depo- 
sition at the mouths of the rivers of the detritus brought down by their 
currents from the interior. 

Mr. Tuomey shows in detail that the instances of the submergence of 
oak, pine and cypress trees, and other landmarks, adduced as evidence 
of subsidence of the coast, occur in jocalities of restricted area. That the 
lands immediately adjacent show no signs of particij)ation in this move- 
ment, whicli they would do if the cause were so general a one as the sub- 
eidcnce of the coast. That encroachments of the sea of a purely local 
character after storms explain the i)henomena. And lastly, that if it were 
admitted that the submerged live oak and i)ine stumps near Little River, 
or the dead cedars and cypress of the "Ciiurch Flats," on Wadmalaw 
island, were evidence of a subsidence of the coast, the rate at which it is 
progressing, according to this data, is so rai)id that on this low lying 
shore, sea water would long since have been admitted to the rice planta- 
tions, totally destroying them, and that St. Michael's Church, the orna- 
ment of Charleston, would now be a geological monument of the greatest 
interest, with its tall spire only protruding above the wave«. 

If the sea islands resulted from the ero.sive action of ocean currents, we 
should expect to find them most numerous in localities where the erosive 
action is most manifest. Such a locality is the recess of Long bay, hol- 
lowed out by the action of the sea, between Winyaw bay, the outlet of the 
great rivers of South Carolina and the outlet of the rivers of North Caro- 
lina at Cape Fear. So far is this from being the case, however, that there 
is not a single island on this incurving line of erosive coast. On the con- 
trary, it is only when the land bellies out into the wa near where the 
great rivers deliver their detritus to its waves that the sea islands make 
their appearance. 

At this point, namely, at Georgetown entrance, we look in vain for 
evidence of erosion. The records all point the other way, to a gradual 
encroachment of the land upon the sea. Thus, in the year 1700, the 



]G THE COAST REGION. 

"Rising Sun," a large vessel, with throe hundred and forty-six passengers, 
that could not cross the Charlcrton bar, made its way without a pilot to 
the present site of Georgetown, a thing utterly impossible during the last 
one hundred years. Moreover, a comparison of the soundings on Chart 
No. 428, of U. S. Coast Survey of 1877, with a Chart of the same locality, 
j»uhlis]icd in Drayton's View of South Carolina, in 1802, shows that, instead 
of any scouring out or erosion, there has been a great filling up in the 
interval. Seaward from Georgetown Light House, Drayton gives dei)ths 
of feet to 30 feet, where Captain Boutelle only found Gi feet to 19 feet 
of water. Inside the entrance, where the water once was 30 to 30 feet, the 
mean level of low tide now only gives a depth of 9 to 31 feet. Ten sound- 
ings taken off South Island average now 7^ feet, wliile ten soundings in 
the same locality on Drayton's Chart average: 18 feet. 

It would seem, then, according to the fourth and remaining hypothesis, 
that tlie Sea Islands were an outgrowth of the mainland into the sea. 
And that this is but a continuation of the process by which the tertiary 
plain, stretching back to the feet of Jhe ancient and lofty Apalachian 
chain, was itself formed. The broadest portion of this plain lies under 
the loftiest and broadest vestiges of this mountain chain, whose denuda- 
tion furnished the most abundant material. Northward, under lesser 
(.'levations, which could only furnish less material, the tertiary j^lain 
g.c.duall}' wedges out and the sea approaches the mountains. The slow 
uniformity of this long process of growth is further shown by the gentle 
and uniform slope with which this plain ap})roaches the sea. Nor does 
it end abrujUly there. For one hundred miles or more the sea scarcely 
exceeds one hundred fathoms, until it suddenly deepens to two thousand 
fathoms under the gulf stream. The sea islands are not isolated phe- 
nomena ])eculiar to this period. In the interior the intricate network of 
swamps and bays corresj)onding with the present inlets, creeks and rivers 
of the coast, represent the old channels and deltas through which the 
waters flowed, when the pine flats and ridges, still resting in the meshes 
of this network, were themselves veritable sea islands. 

Prof. Tourney refers to Murphy's island, south of South Santee inlet, as 
furnishing a ty{)ical illustration of the manner in which this occurs. A 
bar is formed at the mouth of the river by the action of the ocean. 
" Breakers make their appearance seaward, and gradually push forward 
the sand as they approach the shore. When the sand rises above the 
surface, the water becomes too shallow to produce breakers; they disap- 
pear, and commence again off the shore, and further south. An eduy is 
formed between the sandbar and tlie shore, in which the river dej)osits 
it.s sediment. From an eddy it is changed, first into a lagoon, and then 
into a mudflat, which increases until the level of high water is reached. 



THE COAST REGION. 17 

It then becomes a marsh and is taken possession of by the marsh reed, to 
be succeeded, when the debris collected, by their growth has raised the 
locality above high water, by tufts of rushes. Meanwhile seaward, the 
sands, first pushed up against the outflowing current of the river by the 
ocean, are dried by the sun, and then blown forward and heaped into 
hills and ridges, forming -a protection against the encroachments of the 
waters whence they came. Every breeze blowing landward carries along 
with it particles of fine sand, till they meet with a log or bush, or other 
obstacle, when they begin to accumulate in proportion to the velocity of 
the wind, sometimes with extraordinary rapidity — piling up and running 
over the top, rising in ridges and hills to the height of thirty or even of 
forty feet. The ])revailing wiirds of this region, the southwest and north- 
east, are indicated by valleys running in this direction through these 
hills." 

In the manner thus described, the salt water of the ocean being ex- 
cluded, the surgent island is prepared for the growth of fresh water 
plants, such as the cypress and other swamp trees, while pines and pal- 
mettocs, the advance guard of the vegetable kingdom, establish outposts 
wherever a few inches of intervening sand renders them safe from im- 
mediate contact with sea water. 

This theory will also account for certain topographical features observed 
on these islands and in their vicinity. The highest land is usually found 
on the margin of the island, • A fact which, viewed in connection with 
the general observation that the banks of streams are higher than the 
adjacent alluvial lands, strongly sustains the view of their deposition from 
river currents. The prevailing shape of the islands is triangular. The 
apex is directed southwest, often terminating in marshes, while the higher 
and dryer base faces northeast. From Mr. Tuomey's observations, it 
appears that it is the sandbar on the northeast that first rises above the 
waves, remaining the most elevated, while the growth proceeds in a south- 
westerly direction. This southwardly growth results from a deflection of 
the river current that is transporting the material of which the island is 
to bo formed. Whether this deflection toward the right (or the southwest) 
be due, as Prof Kerr thinks, to a force arising from the earth's rotiition, 
which deflects all moving bodies to the right in the northern hemisphere, 
or to the prevailing southwestwardly current along these shores, or to 
both, it is certain that such a deflection clearly exists. Seaward it mji.y 
be clearly noted in the charts of the coast survey in the depositions now 
taking place at the mouths of the rivers. The ship channels are always 
found to the south of the harbors. Inland, the south and southwest bend 
of the rivers has been already mentioned ; and coupled with it is the 
observation made long since by Mr. Kuflin, that thobluflsareonthe west 
2 



18 THE COAST REGION. 

and the swamps are on the east banks of these streanxs, or as it would be 
stated from observations on the seu islands, the short slopes face north 
and cast, and the long slopes south and west. The contours of the slopes 
throughout the tertiary plain conform generally to this rule, and may 
be accounted for in this way. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

In approaching the coast from the sea about the time the white caps of 
the first breakers are seen, a long, low line of smooth, hard, sandy beach, 
for the most part of a snowy whiteness, makes its appearance. Imm<5di- 
atoly inland from the beach swell the undulating ridges of blowing sand, 
rijiple-marked by the action of the wind, in striking similarity to the 
M'ave marks of water. 

Here the ])almctto meets you, standing often solitary and alone, a con- 
spicuous landmark in the picture. Beyond rise the dark green turrets of 
the pine, bcneatli which a tangled growth of myrtles and vines is found. 
Sometimes more than one ridge of Siind hills, with an average elevation of 
ten or fifteen feet, must be traversed before the borders of the salt marsh are 
reached. The salt marshes, their stiff, green reeds rising out of the black 
ooze visible at low tide, and at the fiow apparently fioating on the'water, 
Aviili hero and there a stray palmetto or a group of under-sized live oaks, 
their limbs covered with the long, gray moss, form the scarcely varying 
framework of all landscapes among the st% islands. Everywhere these 
marshes are penetrated by sjilt rivers and creeks of greater or less widtli 
and depth, and surround islands varying from a few acres to many square 
miles in area. Tlic.se islands attain a height of ten to fifteen feet — rarely 
of twenty-five or thirty — above high tide. The mean rise and fall of the 
(ides is G.O ft. at the mouth of the Savannah river ; 0.7 ft. at Port Royal ; 
5.1 ft. at Gliarle.ston liarbor, and 3.5 ft. at (Jcorgetown entrance, showing 
a marked diminution as you advance nortlieast along the coast. The 
infiuenco of the tide extends to a distance of tliirty miles in a direct lino 
from the sea, up the Savannah river, and about fifteen miles up the San- 
tee. Salt water, however, usually ascends the Santee river only about 
two miles, and even when the current of the river is diminished in seasons 
of great drought, not more than four miles. Up Georgetown bay it 
reaches farther, and is sometimes injurious to the crops at a distance of 
fourteen miles. What has been said of the Santee in regard to fresh and 
salt water, is true to nearly the same exte/it of the Savannah river. 

SOIL 

The soil of the sea island consists, for the most part, of a fine, sandy 
loam. This soil rests on a subsoil of yellow sand or yellow clay, of fine 



} 



THE COAST REGION. 19 

texture and deepening in color, sometimes to red. These clays give a yel- 
low hue to the otherwise gray surface, which is noticed by Mr. Seabrook 
as indicating lands peculiarly adapted for the production of the silky 
fibre of long staple cotton. Besides these soils there are numerous fiats, or 
fresh water swamps, known as bays ; here and there a few of these have 
been reclaimed by drainage ; the soil is a black vegetable mould of great 
fertility, resting on fine blue clay and marl. To a very limited extent , 
the salt marsh has also been reclaimed, but as yet agriculture has availed 
itself so little of the vast possibilities in this line, that the chief value of 
the salt marsh attaches to its use in furnishing forage and litter for stock 
and inexhaustible material for the compost heap. Low as these lands lie, 
they are susceptible of drainage. The following analyses will indicate 
more in detail the character of the soils : 

(1) 

Insoluble matter 89.3G8 

Soluble silica 2.002 

Potash 0.131 

Soda 0.077 

Lime 0.077 

Magnesia 0.038 

Br. ox. manganese 0.1.54 

Per oxide iron 0.598 ) 

Alumina 3.051 / 

Phosphoric acid . . " 0.103 

Sulphuric acid 0.154 

Water and organic matter 4.789 

Carbonic acid 

(1) Is soil from northeast end of James island, furnished by Elias Riv- 
ers, Esq., for analysis, to Dr. Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Ala., and 
may bo taken as a specimen of the loss sandy soils of the sea i.»<lands. 
Such land will yield three hundred pounds of long staple lint one year 
with another. 

(2) Is by Prof. C. U. Shopard, of Charleston, of soil from Mr. J. J. Mi- 
kell's place on Edisto island, famous for having long and profitably pro- 
duced the finest grade of sea island cotton, and may bo considered as a 
representative soil. 

(3) Is also by Prof. C, U. Shopard, being an analysis of an air-dry speci- 
men of salt marsh. 

These analyses will serve to correct serious errors in statements as to 
the poverty of sea islands, made by J. B. Lyman and J. R. Sypher, in a 



(2) 
92.480 


(3) 

58.110 


0.425 


0.328 


0.200 


0.190 
1.470 


0.892 


0.420 


trace 


0.317 


2.490 


1.8G0 
1.131 


0.095 


0.0G2 


0.070 


0.422 


2.928 


44.SG5 


0.420 


0.840 



20 THE COAST REGION. 

work on ootlon culture, published by Orange Judd & Co., New York. It 
is stated thoro (page 129) that a chemical analysis discloses the fact that 
the soil on an acre of sea island cotton land, taken to the depth of one 
foot, contaijis only fifteen ])Ounds of phosj)horic acid and twenty pounds 
of pota;-h. I>y the above analyses, however, Ave find an average of more 
tlian one-tenth of one per cent, of pho.sphoric acid, and one-sixteenth of 
,one ])er cent, of i)otash. Allowing a cubic foot of earth to weigh one hun- 
dred ])ounds, A\c would have on an acre to the depth of one foot four mil- 
lion, three hundred and fifty-six thousand pounds, of which one-tenth of 
one per cent, would be four thousand, three hundred and fifty-six pounds, 
showing nearly two long tons of j)hosph()ric acid instead of fifteen j)ounds 
to the acrj. The potash, by the same calculation, would amount to five 
thousand and fifty jKUinds instead of twenty pounds to the acre. Thus, in 
the place of being barren for lack of these ingredients, each acre of the .'^ca 
islands possess an amount which, if rcn<lcrcd available to plant growth, 
would sufiice for the proihiction of over eight million, six hundred and 
eighty thousand pounds of lint cotton, as they do not, by Jackson's and Shep- 
ard's analyses, constitute the one-twentieth of one per cent, of cotton fibre, 
liesides, the salt niarsh nrntcrialsfor maintaining and developing the fer- 
tility of the soil abound throughout the coast region. There are numer- 
ous deposits of post jileiocene marl on the islands, as at Daton's swamp, 
Johnson's island, Slono creek, Kdisto island, James Seabrook's island, 
Distant island, near l'eaufor(, and (>lsi'\vher(«. The banks of " raccoon 
oyster'' shells, peculiar to this latitude, are found in abundance on 
this coast and furnish excellent and easily accessible stores of lime. 
The.so shells are also used for concrete for walls, known as tabby 
work. The walls of forts several centuries old attesting its dura- 
bility. l{oads and stn ets are also nuide smooth and hard by their use. 
Here, also, in the Stono, Kdisto, C'oosaw, Bull, ^^organ, Johnson's, Beau- 
fort and Jiroad rivers, and in other creeks and marshes, is found, and 
largely exported as n fertilizer to foreign lands, the phosphate rock. Ex- 
periments have also demonstrated that the fish, so numerous in these 
waters, may be caught and used for manures. 

CLIMATE. 

Notwithstanding their proximity to the mainland, the .sea islands 
enjoy in a high degree the equable climate peculiar to islands generally. 
The extremes of temperature are, as might be expected, greatest in the 
direction of low temperature, and the cold, which is sometimes injurious 
to the orange and olive trees, destroys, also, the germs of many insects, as 
of the cotton caterpillar, inimical to vegetation ; and of more importance 



THE COAST REGION. 21 

still, it destroys the germs of disease, as of yellow fever and of riumerous 
skin diseases that flourish in similar regions elsewhere, preventing them 
from becoming indigenous, and keeping them exotics forever, requiring 
yearly renewal from without. 

Table I, at the end of Part I, presents the leading features of the coast 
climate, as preserved in the records of meteorological observations made 
at Cliarlcston, S. C. 

Notwithstanding the amount of rainfall and proximity to the sea, the 
climate is not excessively moist, as might be inferred. This is owing to 
the large number of clear days, averaging about two hundred and thirty- 
five during the year, against an average of eiglity-six days in which rain 
fell, and forty-four cloudy and rainlcsH days. Fogs Jire of very infn'(jUont 
occurrence. Vegetation is usually checked by cold for not more than six 
weeks in the year, from the middle of December to the first of February. 
Nature, that does not allow the inlial)itants of liigher latitudes to become 
purely agricultural in their jmrsuits, forcing them, during the snows and 
ice of winter, to seek occuj)ation in other arts and industries, here bares 
her bosom the year round to furnish food and work for man, and seed 
time and harvest occur in every month. 

HEALTH. 

By the U. S. Census for 1870, it appears that the minimum number of 
deaths in Houth Carolina occur during the month of (h'iohvr. After tliut 
month the number steadily increases during winter and spring, until tlio 
month of May, when the maximum number of deaths take place. From 
this date the mortality diminishes, more rapidly than it lias increase*!, 
until the minimum in October is reached. By the same authority it 
is also shown that the grouj)s of diseases most fatal during the month of 
May arc such as hydrocejdialous, apoj)lexy, accidents and injuries, none 
which can in anyway be considered as due to climatic or local influences. 
From this it follows that death, and, conseciuently, ill health, in South 
Carolina amnot bo attributed to the j)rei)onderance of any clinuitic or 
local causes, but supervene from such causes as may and must exist 
everywhere. The correctness of this negative conclusion may be safely 
accepted as descriptive of the sanitary condition of the State at large. 
There has been, however, and not without some foundation, an idea 
prevalent regarding the unhcalthfulness of the coast region from malarial 
causes, which recjuires mention, especially as occurrences of recent date 
have greatly modified it. While the sand ridges between the rivers have 
always been esteemed healthy; while the well-kept vital statistics of the 
city of Charleston show that its health record will compare favorably 



22 THE COAST RKOION. 

Willi tlmt of other cities; nnd while numerous localities along the coast, 
ns Mount rirn?nnt, Sullivon's iMlnnd, and Beaufort, and many other 
places were much frequented as health reports during the summer 
months, even by people from the up-country, it was confidently predicted, 
at the commencement of the late war, that no picket line along the coast 
between the armies could bo maintained during the summer months. 
To the surprise of nearly every one, however, such did not prove to be 
the case. Climatic influences interfered in no way with the vigorous 
prosecution of hostilities. And it was t • monstrated that large bodies of 
white men, under proper hygienic regulations, with the use of quinine as 
a preventive, might be safely counted on to endure unusual exposure and 
toil on these shores during the heat of summer. Since the war numerous 
white families, who formerly removed to the North or to the up-country 
during summer, have remained upon their farms the year round in the 
enjoyment of their usual health. By the census enumeration of June, 
18.S0, the death rate among the rural population of the entire sea island 
district was fourteen per one thousand for the preceding year. Of tho 
twenty-three white men who were enumerators of the tenth census on 
the .sea island.s, during the months of June and July, 1880, there was no 
day lost from work on account of sickness, though many of them were 
unaccuslonu'd to the exposures which the work necessitated. Doubtless 
tho proj)hylactio u.se of quinine has had something to do with tho 
ap])arently incrca.sed healthfulness of this section, but it is also true thai 
the danger to health was formerly greatly overestimated. "With thorough 
drainage and careful attention to the rules of health, and especially to 
securing pure drinking water, there is no question that fevers might be 
expelled here as completely as they were from the fens of Cambridgeshire, 
in Elngland, where they once prevailed, but have since yielded to 
tho al>ovo methods. During the excessively hot and dry summer of 
1728, "yellow fever" made its first appearance in Charleston. At greater 
or less intervals of time it has since vi.'^ited the city during the summer 
months. After 1748 it did not make its appearance during a period of 
forty-four years. John Drayton writes, in 1801, "to the natives and long 
inhabitants of the city it has not yet been injurious." The germs of this 
di.sea.se have never been naturalized on this coast, and require a fresh 
importation every year. An epidemic occurring in Charleston during tho 
war being clearly traced to a vessel from Havana, that had run the block- 
ade, and, as Mr. Drayton describes it, this disease still remains restricted 
to certain localities, within a few miles of which perfect immunity from 
it may be enjoyed. This was clearly shown in the very fatal epidemic 
imported into Port Royal in 1877, causing a number of deaths there, 
while no case originated in the town of Beaufort, four miles distant, to 



THE COAST REGION. 



23 



which place, however, patients suffering from the disease in Port Royal 
wore carried for treatment. 

The following table is from the reports of the Board of Health, and 
shows the number of deaths occurring in each one thousand of the 
population of the city of Charleston : 





1881 


1880 


1870 


1878 


1877 


AVERAGE. 


Whites 

Negroes 


29 
47 


22 
41 


23 

40 


23 

41 


2r3 

50 


23 
46 


Total 


_4()_ 


a:i 


32 


38 


37 


34 



The figures for 1880 show fifty per cent, more dcatlis than were 
reported by the enumerators of the tenth U. S, Census. Of 1,021 deaths 
in 1881, 01, or nearly 4 per cent, were of persons over 80 years of age. 



STATISTICa 

The population of the coa.«<t region, exclusive of the towns of Beaufort, 
Charleston and Georgetown, is 07,132. Of this number, 83 per cent, are 
colored, being the largest percentage in any region of the State, the 
proportion of the colored to the white population decreasing in each 
successive region as you go inland, until it is only 27 per cent, in the 
mountain region. This percentage has decreased on the coast since 1870, 
appearing in the census of that year as 90 per cent, a difference of 7 per 
cent. The population per square mile is 39.4, which, in spite of the 
large amount of marsh land, is the largest of any region in the State, the 
ratio varying elsewhere from 11.7 in the sand hills, to 37.8 in the upper 
country or region of tlie metamorphic rocks. 

The f amis are 5,847 in number, and average 3.4 per square mile, which 
is the largest average of any of the regions of the State except that of the 
upper country, which is 3.7 per square mile ; but excluding the six 
hundred square miles of marsh on the coast, no similar tract of wasteland 
being found in the upper country, the ratio of farms to area is much greater 
on tlic coast than elsewhere. This is not the case with the ratio of farms to 
population, which here reaches a minimum of eight-hundredths of a 
farm per capita, or twelve and one-half people to the farm, while in the 
sand hills it reaches fourteen-hundredths of a farm per capita, or seven 
people to the farm. This shows that hero the population is in excess 
even of the small farms ; and there being no other occupation, except, 



24 THE COAST REGION. 

porIia])s, jdiosplinto mining, in which tliey mny bo employed, it follows 
that a ljn-jLi;t' minihtT nmst I'lirn a living as fnrm laborers or live without 
einploynient, both of which coiicIusIoiih uro correct. 

Tlio n'ork stoci: inmiljcrs 7,002 animulH, beiiifj; elcven-hundrcdths of nii 
animal {)cr ca])ita, which i.s iriore than the ratio in the lower j)ine belt, 
but less than that of the other repons, The work Htock per wquure 
mile is Afi, bcin^j; p;rcater than in any other rej^ion, except in the uj)j)er 
pine belt and riedmont re^'ions. 

The j)roduct of grain, including corn, small grain and rice, is 793,009 
bushels, being 11 bushels per capita, the minimum found in any region 
of the State. Per scpiare mile, the average is 400 bushels, which 
compares favorably with an average of 501 bushels for the whole State, 
especially when the salt marshes are allowed for. This is an increase on 
the crop of 1870, which was only stated at 380,720 busliels, or 220 bushels 
per square mile, and 18 bushels per capita, the latter figure being much . 
diminished by the larger population returns of 1880. 

The total of all siod; including work stock, is 43,040, averaging 25.8 per 
square mile again.st an average of 57.1 for the whole State, and 0.05 j)er 
ca]>ita, being a little less than half the average of the whole State, which 
is 1.27. This is an increase since 1870, the average then being 0.4 per 
square mile, and 0.70 per capita. 

The acreage of im pro red land is 100,772, being 02 acres per square mile, 
not quite one-tenth of the total area, and 1.5 acres per capita, as against an 
average of 3.8 acres per caj)ita for the whole State. The bulk of this 
land is planted in corn, cotton, small grain and rice, there being only 
0,552 acres in other crops and fallow ; a large part of the latter being, 
doubtless, the cotton lands left fallow by the best planters each alternate 
year. 

PRODUCTIONS. 

The olive and orange tree bring their fruit to full perfection on the 
South Carolina coast. Once only during a period of sixteen years pre- 
vious to 1880 were the orange trees injured by frost, when the tops of 
about one-fourth were killed, while the roots put out fresh shoots; the 
fruit from single trees in the neighborhood of Beaufort has for a series of 
years .sold for $150 to $250. The oranges of this region bring a higher 
price in the market and are thought superior to those grown further 
south. Even the baiuma, with a not expensive wintcT protection, has 
been made to ripen its fruit. Fig trees of every variety, with little or no 
attention, grow everywhere and produce several abundant crops yearly ; 
so that could some process similar to the Alden process for drying fruit 



THE COAST REGION. '25 

bo adapted to them, thoy might bccomo an important staple of export. 
Kvery variety of garden ])rodu('o does well, as witness the extcnnivo truck 
gardens on Charleston Neck, which furnish largo sui)j)]ies of fruits and 
vegetables of the finest quality to distant markets. Tho wild grapea, 
which attracted tho notice of tlio first French colonists in ]r>()2, still 
abound, and perhaj)s tho largest grape vino in tho world is one eighteen 
inches in diameter, near Sheldon Church, JJcjuifort County. Jlay made 
of Bermuda grasses, ranking in tho market with tiie best imported hay, bus 
been profitably grown. Five acres at tho Atlantic farm have, for a series 
of years, yielded nine thousand pounds per acre yearly, and on tho .Stono 
farm two tons one year, and four and a half another, has been made to 
tho acre. "Winter vetches grow wild, and tho vine of tho cow pea fur- 
nishes an abundant forage, besides increasing tho fertility of tho soil. Tho 
red rust proof oat, recently introduced, is peculiarly adapted to the mild 
winters of this region, yielding readily, and with great certainty, thirty to 
fifty bushels per acre. Should an increase of the population call for a 
larger food supply, the sweet potato would furnish it to an extent prac- 
tically unlimited. Indigo, rice, hemp, beans, peanuts, the castor oil bean, 
the sugar cane, and many other sub-troi)ical fruits and vegetables, too nu- 
merous to catalogue here, have been successfully cultivated as field crops, 
Indian corn, of tho white flint variety, yields in the coast counties a little 
more per acre than the average yield of the same crop throughout tho 
State. Nevertheless, only a very limited attention is bestowtnl on tho 
culture of any of these articles, the leading crop, to the exclusion or 
dwarfing of all others, being 

LONG STAPLE COTTON. 

In every handful of ordinary cotton seed, three varieties, presenting 
well marked differences, may bo recognized at a glance. Tho largest of 
these is covered with a green down ; another, smaller and much more 
numerous .seed, is covered with a white or grayish down ; tho third variety 
is naked, smooth and black. Whether these three sorts of seed corres- 
pond to three classes under which tho numerous varieties of cotton are 
arranged, that is, the green seed with gossypium hii-suttnn or shrub 
cotton, attaining a height of ten or twelve feet, a native of Mexico, and 
varying as an annual, biennial or perennial, according' to the climate in 
which it is grown; the white seed, with gossypium lierbaceum, or 
herbaceous cotton, an annual, attaining a height of two feet, native of the 
Coromandel coast and thoNilgeherries ; the black seed, with gossypium 
arboreum, or tree cotton, a native of tho Indian Peninsular, but attaining 
a height of one hundred feet on tho Guinea coast, and producing a silky 



20 THE COAST REGION. 

cotton, it may not be possible to say. The black Feed, however, is not 
distinguished from the seed of the long staple or sea island cotton. If 
selected from among the other varieties of upland cotton seed, it will in a • 
series of years produce a finer, silkier and stronger fibre than ordinary 
uplands. If the best and purest sea island cotton seed be planted in the 
neighborhood of the upland or short staple cotton they will readily 
hybridize. Among the numerous varieties of hybrids thus produced, 
there will prominently appear a vigorous plant, with a very large green 
seed. The staple of these green seed plants varies greatly, in some in- 
stances being very short and coarse, in others longer and finer even than 
the best sea island. The most marked characteristic, however, of these 
hybrids will be the size and vigor of the plants, the size of the seed 
and the very small amount of lint they yield. A noticeable feature, 
too, is the large number of vigorous, growing, but unfruitful, plants that 
these green seed hybrids produce, their large, glossy leaves showing above 
the other plants, but bearing the scnson through neither bud or blossom. 
Possibly such plants merely resume the biennial character of the tree or 
the shrub cotton and would be fruitful the second season. 

Were it in place here to offer a theory, these characteristics of this 
green .«:ccd hybrid might be adduced as evidence of a reversion to the 
original type of the allied species which Darwin refers to, as a frequent 
occurrence among hybrids produced between remoter and more dissimilar 
varieties. 

ORIGIN OF LONG STAPLE COTTON. 

It would be a matter of much interest to determine the origin and his- 
tory of the varieties of cotton now in cultivation. The difficulties of doing 
this arc much increased by the very wide geographical range occupied by 
the plant. The earliest explorers, Columbus, Magellan, Drake, Capt. 
Cook, and others, seem to have found it almost everywhere in the broad 
belt extending from the equator to 30° S. and to 40° and 45° N. latitude, 
where it now grows. Although it is not found among those oldest of vest- 
ments, the wrappings of Egyptian mummies, its use was known to man in 
Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and the outlying islands of the sea, in 
the remote past, far beyond the historic age. Its very name itself bears 
evidence to this, occurring as it does in many, and in the most ancient 
languages. Thus Ihrough the Dutch ketoen, Italian cotone, Spanish al- 
godon, we pass to the Greek kiton, turned wrong side out in the Latin tunic, 
to the Arabic katan, the Syriac kethene, the Samaritan kitana, the Sanscrit 
katan, the Hebrew kuttoneth (Gen. xxxvii : 23, 31), the Ethiopic kethan, 
the Chaldcc kethan ; and Gcscnius conducts us to a most ancient and 
obsolete Seractic root, kathan, signifying to cover. Nevertheless nothing 



THE COAST REGION. 27 

can show more clearly the importance of tracing and tinderstanding the 
history of plants under cultivation than the variations and improvements 
in black seed cotton since its introduction on the Carolina coast. It is 
known that the first bale of long staple cotton exported from America, in 
1788, was grown on St. Simon's island, Georgia. That this bale was 
grown by a Mr. Bissell, from seed that came from either the Bahama or 
the Barbadoes islands. Singularly enough the authorities leave this mat- 
ter in doubt — the Hon. Wm. Elliott saying it came from Anguilla, one of 
the Bahamas, and Signor Filippo Partatori (Florence, 18GG) saying it 
came from Cat island, one of the Barbadoes. But as Anguilla is one of 
the Barbadoes, and Cat island one of the Bahamas, it would seem difficult 
to decide to which group of islands we are indebted for these seed. How- 
ever, as Mr. Thomas Spalding, of Sapclo island, says in a letter to Gov- 
ernor Seabrook, i'n 1844, that three parcels of long staple cotton seed were 
brought to a gentleman in Georgia, from the Bahamas, in 1785 and 1786, 
it would seem that the seed reached our coast from those islands. In the 
Bahamas it was called gossypium barbadense, in consequence doubtless of 
being brought from Barbadoes. In the latter island it was known as 
Persian cotton (Edward's West Indies, vol. iv.,p. 3C3) and was thought to 
have come from that country where it was originally derived from the 
gossypyum arborcum of India. Be this as it may, Mrs. Kinsey Burden, of 
Burden's island, Colleton county, S. C, obtained some of these seeds from 
Georgia and planted them. This crop failed to mature, and the first suc- 
cessful crop of long staple cotton grown in South Carolina was planted in 
1790, by William Elliott, on the northwest corner of Hilton Head, on the 
exactspot where Jean Ribault landed the first colonists and erected a column 
of stone, claiming the territory for France a century before the English 
settled on the coast. Mr. Elliott's crop sold for lO^d. per pound. Other 
planters made use of this seed, but it was not until Kinsey Burden, Sr., of 
Colleton county, began his selections of seed, about the year 1805, that at- 
tention was strongly called to the long staple. Mr. Burden sold his crop 
of that year for twenty-five cents per pound more than did any of his 
neighbors. He continued to make selections of seed and to improve his 
staple, and in 1825 he sold a crop of .sixty bales at$l.lG per pound. The 
year subsequent his crop sold for $1.25, and in 1828, ho sold two 
bales of extra fine cotton at $2.00 per pound, a price not often exceeded 
since. The legislature was on the point of offering Mr. Burden $200,000 
for his method of improving the .staple of cotton, and Mr. Wm. Seabrook, 
of Eflisto, wa.s prepared to pay him $50,000 for his secret, when it waa 
discovered that the fine col ton was due wholly to improvements made in 
the seed by careful and skillful selections. Since then tlie greatest care 
has been bestowed upon the selection of the seed, and to such perfection 



28 THE COAST REOIOK. 

was the stni)le brought by this means, that the crops of some planters 
were sold, not by sample, but by the brand on the bale, as the finest 
wines are. During the war tlie cultivation of the finest varieties being 
abandoned on tlie islands, the seed removed to the interior greatly dete- 
riorated in quality. So scarce, on this account, was good seed directly 
after the war, that J. T. Dill, a cotton merchant in Charleston, at one 
time had in an ordinary letter envelope the seed from which all the bet- 
ter qualities of long staple cultivated now was derived. Nor have the 
improvements made by careful selection of the seed ceased in later years. 
The staple has kept fully up to the best grades of former days, and the 
projiortion of lint to seed cotton has been increa.^^ed. Formerly one pound 
of lint cotton from five])ounds of seed cotton of the fine varieties was con- 
sidered satisfactory. Thanks to the ellbrts of Mr. E. M. Clark, a fine va- 
ri(!ty of cotton has been recently found, which yields one pound'of lint to 
three and one-half i)ounds of seed cotton, preserving at the same time the 
strength, length and evenness of fibre characteristic of the best varieties. 

APPEARANCE OF THE PLANT. 

The sea island cotton plant is a larger and more vigorous grower than 
the upland plant. It withstands the vicissitudes of the heat and cold 
better, and it is loss subject to disease ; blight and rust do not afiect it as 
readily as they do the upland cotton, nor does it shed its forms and bolls 
to anything like the .«iame extent. These remarks as to rust apply also 
to those varieties of uplands in which the length of the .staple has been 
improved by selection of the seed, and rows of this are often seen healthy 
and vigorous, while the short stajjle uplands around are withered with 
the rust. The early growth of the sea island is so vigorous, that it main- 
tains it.«^elf in fields infested with Bermuda and nut grass, as the uplands 
could not do. The leaves are larger, smoother, and of a brighter green 
than ui>lands, and tlie flowers are larger, handsomer, and of a more 
golden yellow. But the bolls are smaller, and instead of being five-lobed 
are only three-lobed — these lobes being so sharp pointed as to prick the 
fingers, to the serious inconvenience of pickers not accustomed to gather 
it. Of course the small size of the bolls requiring so many to make a 
pound, adds much to the tediousness and expense of harvesting the crop. 
The fibre of the lint is much finer, stronger, smoother and silkier than 
uplands; and while the latter is only ^ to J inches in length, the sea 
i-sland will measure IJ to 2| inches; the color, too, has a cast of creamy 
yellowness not observed in uplanJls. 



THE COAST REGION. 29 



LABOR AND SYSTEM OF PLANTING. . 

On the sea islands of Carolina, field labor is performed almost exclu- 
sively by negroes. Nearly all of them are enp;a<j;ed in farming on their 
own account; a large number own farms; a still larger number rent lands 
for cultivation, and even the laborers are paid most generally by granting 
them the use of so many acres of land for certain stipulated services. 
The total number of farms on the islands is stated to be fifty-four hundred 
and fifty-three, but the number probably exceeds six thousand, the enu- 
merators having had the lands and crops cultivated by renters returned 
by the landowner, and consolidating them as being in some sort under 
one management, when they were, in reality, entirely independent — an 
error ever likely to occur, and sometimes quite difficult to avoid, and 
whicli has no doubt caused the number of farms to be underestimated 
and their size overestimated in many sections of the South. The largest 
number of acres of sea island cotton ])lanted under one management 
nowliere exceeds one hundred acres. The white planters do not proba- 
bly average more than thirty acres, and this necessitates that they 
should be landlords of considerable estate. For as the laborers are fre- 
quently given five to seven acres for two days' work in the week, and as 
this two days' work per week does not suffice for the cultivation of more 
than four acres, to cultivate thirty acres of cotton under this system 
requires s(n'enty-five acres of land; add to this the amount usually 
planted in corn and other crops, and we will have one hundred and 
twenty acres. As under the best system the land lies fallow every other 
year, the planter of thirty acres of cotton will require two Imndred and 
forty acres of open land ; and as scarcely one-fifth of the land is under 
cultivation, such a planter will probably own some twelve hundred acres. 
Thus there is no proportion between the size of the farm actually culti- 
vated and the land holdings — the fir.'it being quite small and the last 
large. This state of things is owing to absence of capitid and the low 
price of land and labor. Lands which were worth ^50 to S(>0 an acre 
more than half a century ago (Mill's Statistics S. C, pp. 372 and 472), and 
which had increased in value down to 18G0, being until recently cither 
wholly unsaleable or selling at $10 per acre or less. 

, / WAGES. 

On James island, which at this time is perhaps under a more progres- 
sive .system of culture than the otlier sea islands, laborers are paid cash for 
their work, at the rate of fifty cents per diem and $10 per month, with 



30 THE COAST REGION. 

board — the latter being a ration of three pounds of bacon and one peck 
of grist a week, with shelter and fuel. The soil and the condition of the 
laborers is rej)orted as improving, and cash wages are considered prefer- 
ablo to the share, or the land system of payment. Arable land rents 
lierc at $2 an aero per annum. The price of land is from $15 to 830 an 
acre. A few laborers own their houses, but very few own any farming 
land. 

On John's island, cash wages are from $8 to $10 a month, with board. 
Most of the laborers, however, are engaged for two days' work a week by 
allowing them a house, fuel, and six to seven acres of land free of rent. 
The report is that the system is not satisfactory. The lands worked by 
the landlords arc improving; tliat worked by the laborers on their own 
account is deteriorating rapidly. The labor is not so easily controlled as 
when cash wages are paid. The lands vary greatly in price — prices 
ranging from $2.50 to $20 per acre, with some lands valued recently still 
higlier. Kent is higher than on James' Island, in consequence of a sys- 
tem that increases the demand by multiplying small farmers, and it is 
about $3 per acre per annum. 

On Edisto island, the two days' system prevails. The laborer gives 
the landlord two days' work in every week during ten months of the year, 
and receives in return n house, fuel, and six acres of arable land, which, 
together with such other land as ho may rent, ho cultivates on his own 
account during the remainder of the week. When extra work is required 
on the farm, these laboring tenants are employed at fifty cents by the day. 
The system is reported as being quite unsatisfactory, these two days 
hands not ciiltivating more than two acres as an average for the pro- 
prietor, and burdening his estate with the support of a much larger 
population than necessary to its cultivation. By means of this, however, 
a large aniount of resident labor is secured on the place, which is of prime 
imj)ortancc during the cotton-picking season. The laborers themselves 
prefer tliis system, having four days out of the week for themselves, they 
arc more independent, and can make any day they choose a holiday. As 
a rule, they are comfortably olf, and about seven per cent, are reported as 
owning homes of their own and some land. The land for which they 
pay rent service generally deteriorates in value. Th6 lands worked by 
the proprietors are among the very best on the sea-coa.st, and are improv- 
ing. The average yield of cotton on the whole island is a bale to 2.6 
acres; for the six largest planters it is a bale to 1.7 acres. Considering 
the quality of the staple produced, it may be safely said that the larger 
farms yielded between two and three times as much as the small ones. 
Lands here are worth from $10 to $25 per acre — formerly they were 
worth from $50 to $70 per acre. Small tracts rent for about $4 per acre 



' THE COAST REGION. 31 

per annum, larger tracts for less. And there is a state of things which 
tends to reduce the saleable value of lands, while it increases the rental 
value of it. 

West of St. Helena sound, land is almost witliout exception in the 
hands of small negro farmers, either as tenants or proj)rictors. Much of 
this land, valued formerly at ?10 to ^(50 an acre, was confiscate*!, as a 
war measure, by the U. S. government. A good deal of it was purchased 
by negroes at tlie government sales, at $1.2r) an acre, on credit, and is still 
owned by them. The size of the land-holdings is from one to twenty 
4icrcs, and nowhere is more than fifteen acres of cotton cultivated under 
one management. Much of the land is uncultivated, and the remainder, 
in small patclies, varying from one-oiglitlj of an acre and less to tlireo 
acres in size, is planted in corn, cotton and sweet j)otatocs, curiously 
intermingled. Nowliere in the State, not even among the gardens on 
Cliarleston Neck, is the system of small culture so strikingly illustrated. 
The farmers usually own a cow, a mule or horse, and the work stock is 
sufficiently numerous, though of a very inferior quality. Farm fi.xtures 
are of the simplest and chcajjcst dcscrij)tion. Tliere is seldom any shelter 
for the stock, the cabin of the proi)rietor being generally the only house 
on tlie premiseH. The stock is fed on marsli grass, with a little corn, and 
is, in tt large measure, subsisted by l)eing j)icketed out, when not at work, 
to graze on such weeds as the fallow spontaneously furnishes. Plows 
are numerous enough, but the chief reliance is upon the hoe, which, for 
several generations, was the only implement known to agriculturists on 
this coast. These small negro farmers have enjoyed many advantages. 
They bought their lands on easy terms, at one-thirtieth to one-fiftieth of 
their value. They had the benefit of the famine prices of cotton during 
the war for their staple product. Since the \?ar, tlie industries connected 
with the working of the phosphate rock in the rivers, and on the main 
lands adjacent to them, have furnished the men with employment at 
higher wages than could be obtained elsewhere in the State. The 
opening of the railway to Port Royal harbor has, also, made a demand 
for labor in loading and unloading vessels, at a better per diem than wiis 
elsewhere obtainable. Graded schools were early established here, and 
have been maintained on a large scale, uninterruptedly, for many years. 
Fish, oysters and game abound, and poultry, as chickens, ducks and 
turkeys, do particularly well. This adds largely to the ease with which 
these people subsist. They live comfortably, happily and peacefully. 
All the larger houses and buildings about the old farmsteads have rotted 
down or been burned down, and have been replaced by small cabins and 
a few country stores, where the traders, invariably white men, who take no 
part in the cultivation of the soil, collect and dispose of the crop and supply 



32 TJIE COAST REGION. 

tho community with Buch urticlcs of food and dress us are required. Mo«t 
of tlio nu'ii iiro cu^iigud iit tho })hosphuto works, or on tlie wharves at Port 
Roynl, and tho hoft of tho farm work is performed by the women and 
children. Land is worth ^10 to $15 an acre. (See opposite table, phowing; 
relation of size of farms, number of work stock and production.) 

CREDITS AND ADVANX'f:S. 

Purduisin;:; sni^plies on a credit prevails to a considerable extent,, 
especially among tho small farmers. TIjo exact rate at whicli thcso 
advances aro made cannot bo given, as it is not charged as interest, but 
is included in an increased price asked for sup})lies purchased on credit. 
It varies from twenty to one Imndred per cent, above the market value 
of the goods, according to the amount of competition among the 
store-keepers, wlio here, as elsewhere in the State, are by far the most 
prosperous class of the community, in proportion to the skill and capital 
employed. The better class of farmers do not a{)prove of this credit 
system. It furnishes facilities to small farmers, and encourages them tO' 
undertake operations they cannot make remunerative to themselves; it 
reduces the number of laborers, and precludes high culture. The rental 
value of land is tlms increased, and landWhich could not be sold for $10 
may be rented for $5. The thriftless culture resulting from the small ' 
farms, unduly multiplied by this unhealthy stimulus of credit, causes- 
many acres to be thrown yearly out of cultivation. Thus the increasing 
demand to rent land, in consequence of tlie increasing facilities for credit 
to small farmers, and the constantly diminishing area of arable land, 
resulting from tlie very imperfect system of culture their lack of means- 
forces them to adopt, create high rents, injurious to the small farmer, 
and impoverishes the landlord by deteriorating the quality of his land, 
as well as by abstracting the labor he could employ in remunerative 
culture. 

TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

The sea islands have, since 18GG, enjoyed a law special to them, requir- 
ing the owners of live stock to enclose them. Owing to this and to the 
numerous creeks and marshes that intersect these islands, and which 
serve as natural divisions, when required, between the different fields,, 
fences arc not a burden on the agriculture of the coast lands, and there 
is comparatively little fencing. 

Drainage, althougli said by Gov. Seabrook to be so little attended to on 
the ?ca islands as to be scarcely worthy of being considered a regular ag- 
ricultural operation, has of necessity always been practised to some extent. 








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THE COAST RKOION. 33 

The remarkably high beds on which cotton is planted here, being from 
eighteen inches to two feet high, subserves this purpose. The best plant- 
ers have long had open drains through their fields. These were gener- 
ally made by running two furrows with a plow, and afterwards hauling 
out the loose dirt with a hoe, thus leaving an open ditch, if it may be so 
termed, a foot or more in depth. In recent years the enterpri.sing farm- 
ers on James' island have made deeper ditches and placed plank drains 
in them. Seeing the great benefit resulting from this, they subsequently 
replaced the plank with regular drainage tile. In this way they have 
reclaimed a good deal of land, besides adding largely to the value of that 
already under cultivation. The outlets open to the sea at low-water 
mark and the pressure of the water in the pipes preserves a constant out- 
flow even at high tide. So that land only a foot or two above high -water 
mark, is susceptible of thorougli drainage to the deptli of four or even 
five feet. The borders of these islands being usually their highest parts, 
and the interior often quite low, a wide field for improvctment is offered 
in this direction. 

In the early part of the century, when agriculture had so far devel- 
oped the value of these lands as to make $00 an acre for planting land 
not an unusual price, the use of the plow was entirely unknown liere, and 
all the operations of tillage were i)erformcd by hand with the hoe alone. 
This continued to be the usual practice until the war. Since then plows 
have come more and more into use, until their employment is now quite 
general. 

Fallowing is practiced to the extent that land planted in cotton one 
year is pastured by cattle and shec}), not hogs. It is claimed that great 
benefit is derived by having the loose soil of tlie islands trodden by stock 
during the year they lie fallow. The rapid growth of bushes, briars and 
weeds is kept down by the stock, and the dried stems of the cotton stalks 
of the previous year are broken uj) and trampled down. If care be taken 
" that the grass is not eaten so clo.se as to expose the soil on the tops of 
the beds to the summer sun," it is found when the stock are turned off in 
November, to range througli the fields, that the pasture " is in exactly tlie 
right condition for the coming season's cotton fields, with no cotton 
stiilks, or troublesome growth to bo got off, or under the land and make 
it too husky." 

About one-iialf of the land formerly cultivated is reported as " turned 
out" on John's island, and the same or a larger proportion on Wadma- 
law. On the other islands less land has passed out of cultivation, but no- 
wliero has the acreage under cultivation increased. 



34 THE COAST REGION. 



CULTIVATION. 

A mule can do the plowing required in the cultivation of thirty acres 
in J^ca island cotton, and can, in addition, cultivate a sufficiency of land to 
supply corn for its own feed, j)erhap3 something over. The first step in 
llic i)reparation of the land is to hoc off the weeds (" hurricane "), cut up 
Die cotton stalks, and pile and burn this litter. This costs forty cents per 
acre. Bushes arc grubbed up at a cost of seven cents per acre. The land 
is not broken up broadcast with the plow, but early in February two fur- 
rows of a single-horse turning })low are run in the old alleys, making a 
tronch seven or eight inches deep. In this furrow a subsoil plow may or 
may not be ruu, according to the character of the subsoil. Wherever un- 
der drainage is j>ractiscd, as on James island, the furrow is generally used. 
Before })lows cahio into use this trench was never made, and even iiow it 
is omitted by some of the most successful ])lantcrs. Into this trench, or 
into the middle of the alley, where there is no trench, the manure is 
j)laced. This consists usually of about twenty cai-t loads of marsh mud 
and one thousand to one thousand four hundred pounds of cotton seed. 
Stable and lot manure, together with composts of mai-sh mud and rushes, 
are also apjilied in the furrow at the rate of forty cart loads per acre on 
such a portion of the land as the limited number of stock enables the 
farnior to treat in this method. On the lines of manure thus laid down, 
a (.-ertain quantity of commercial fertilizer is drilled. This j)ractice, 
wholly unknown formerly, is very common now, even the smallest negro 
farmers often going heavily in debt to obtain these fertilizers from the 
store-keepers. Tiiey are handy, obviate the labor and care of stock and 
the foH'thought and toil of collecting and manij)ulating compost.s. On 
.lames island and John's island a mixture consisting of two hundred and 
fifty pounds acid ])hosphate, two hundred pounds kainit (German potash 
salt) and two hundred pounds calcined marl is applied per acre. On 
Edisto island they use two hundred pounds fish scrap (half dr>' in bar- 
rels), two hundred pounds kainit and two hundred pounds acid j)hosphato 
})('racre. On 8t. Helena island little fertilizer is used. Cotton seed in 
worth §15 to $20 per ton, and the commercial fertilizers from $1510 $30, 
which would make §15 an acre the cost of the manure among the best 
farmers. 

The land is now ready for listing, which is done by hauling on to the 
maiuire with a hoc the soil from the tops and sides of the old bed. A 
more recent practice is to lap in with two furrows of a turning plow on 
tlio manure. This' costs only seventeen and one-half cents per acre, 



THE COAST REGION. 35 

while the listing with the hoe costs eighty cents, although the latter has 
the great advantage of bringing all the vegetable mould and humus di- 
rectly to the spot where the roots of the plant are to grow. Over the 
mass of dirt, weeds, manure, etc., thus collected in the old alley, a double 
roller, five feet from centre to centre, and weighing about eight hundred 
pounds, is passed to press together and compact the whole, completing 
two rows at a time. All this should be completed by the first to the mid- 
dle of March, and the bed is then built up by lapping in two more fur- 
rows on a side, with a single or double horse turning plow. 

The land is now ready for planting, which may begin any time after 
the 20th of March ; but the 1st to the lOtli of April is the time preferred. 
Cotton planters are not used. Three hands do this work ; the one ahead 
chops a hole with a hoe on the top of the bed at intervals of twelve to 
eighteen inches; another hand drops efght or ten seed in each hole, and 
the third follows and covers carefully with the hoe. Three to four pecks 
of seed are used to the acre. The seed makes its ai)i)earance above ground 
in eight to twelve days after being planted, and the stand is perfected 
from the second week in April to the first week in May. lloeing begins 
about the first of May. The second hoeing takes place the last of May. 
The plows then break out the middles (the spaces between the new beds 
where the old beds stood). The hoe hands follow, and pull up the loose 
dirt left by the plow to the foot of i\\e cotton. This is called hauling; 
by it the new bed is completed, the cotton is kept from "flagging "(falling 
down), and the grass is kept under. It costs eighty cents per acre. At 
the .second hoeing some stalks are tliinned from the bunch in which the 
seed breaks the ground, and at each succeeding hoeing and hauling other 
stalks are removed, until in July only one stalk of each bunch is left. 
There are four hoeings and four haulings by the last week in July, one 
or more furrows with a sweep plow being run through the middles pre- 
vious to each hauling. By the last of July the culture is completed, 
exce})t to run a furrow with the sweep between the rows in August, to 
destroy grass and keep the cotton growing. 

The first blossoms appear about the middle of Juno, when the cotton 
is fifteen inches high, and tlie bolls open towards the end of Augu.st, when 
the plants have attained a growth of four to. five feet. Cotton picking 
commences from the last week in August to the second week in Siiptem- 
ber. For the first picking, while the cotton is thin, one and a half cents 
per pound seed cotton is paid. Subsequently the i)rice i.s one cent |xt 
pound, never less, until the last of November, when it rises again to one 
and a half to two cents. By the 15th December the crop is gathered. 

Mr. 'W. E. Fripp, a progressive i)lanter on John's island, remarks in 
concluding his report : " No improved implements arc u.^ed or nwded 



3(> THE COAST RKGIOK, 

in pca isIaTid cotton culture." " Any one liand, with ordinnry implements 
and nunia^(nicnt, can make four times as much cotton as ho can gather." 
Naturally tiiis Kuggcst.s the reflection, what is to be done, in u region 
devoted almost exclusively to cotton culture, with tlie three hands not 
needed during the cultivation of the crop, but of paramount importance 
during the j)icking season. What industries con be introduced to give 
them employment? It would seem, whatever they are, they nmst be of 
such a cliaracter as is suited not only to cheap labor, but to cheaiien labor. 
Already lln- cotton picker pockets one-sixth of the gross value of the crop, 
and is a heavy burden on the producer. At §7.50 per bale, which is 
below the actual cost of picking, it requires an expenditure of §40,000,000 
to §45,000,000 to gather the crops now made. This large sum is j)aid out 
in the sjviee of two months for work in which the most unskilled and 
least robust laborers excel. Ju.st here there is a gorge in the industry of 
the cotton belt, piling up a vast reserve of stagiuuit energies to surmount 
the obstacle of cotton picking. Should it ever be removed, and ma- 
chinery be invented to reduce the cost of this work, improvements in 
culture would follow so rapidly, otuI the product of cotton could be so 
greatly increa.sed, that, besides being used for clothing, it might become 
one of the cheaj)est materials for building ])urposes. Everywhere, in the 
production of this staple, improvements are possible to an indefinite 
extent; but when cotton i)icking is reached, there, as in gold digging, 
the only resource is a human being, an unskilled drudge, at low wages. 
This absolute dependence of cotton production on purely luunan labor 
has not been without its humanizing influences, and king cotton has been 
more ]>owerful to preserve friendly relations between the stronger and 
the weaker race than military governors and reconstruction acts. The 
comjiaralively small amount of manual labor necessary for croj)s of grain 
or hay might, had such crops replaced the culture of cotton, have left the 
negro with as little supixnl on American ^V\\ as the Chinaman, and their 
hcgira to the West, or to Africa, might have been possible; as it is, the 
home of the cotton j)ickerM has been made too soft and easy a place to 
them to render any such occurrence at all probable. 

DISEASES AND ENEMIES. 

As has been already stated, the long staple cotton is a more vigorous 
grower and less subject to discttses than upland cotton. Neither sore 
shin, blight, rust, or the shedding of fruit in unfavorable seasons, seems 
to afleet it to the .^ame extent. Its enemies are in the vegetable kingdom, 
weeds and grass, especially the nut grass and the Bewnuda, and against 
these the constant and skillful use of the hoe and plow are the only safe- 



THE COAST REGION. 37 

guards. The most dreaded enemy of tlie crop is the cotton caterpillar, 
which makes its appearance in warm wet spells in the latter part of 
summer, and speedily consumes the foliage. At one time so great and 
constant were the depredations of these worms, that it was feared that 
they would, as they did for some years, put a stop to the profitable cul- 
ture of this crop. Now, however, by the use of paris green the planter 
counts securely on contending successfully with them, and no crop has 
been lost in late years where it has been used in season. A mixture of 
one pound of j)aris green, one of rosin, and forty pounds of flour, is dusted 
by hand over the leaves on the first aj)pearancc of the worm, and this 
inexpensive process secures exemption from their ravages, even when 
they come in such numbers and work with such rapidity, that the por- 
tion of a field not treated to the mixture in consequence of the interven- 
tion of fcJunday, is consumed beyond remedy. 

TREPARATION OF THE COTTON FOR MARKET. 

When the cotton has been j)i('ked, weighed and housed, it is next 
spread (nit in the sun, on what is called " an arbor." This is a platform, 
usually made of inch boards, raised a few feet above the ground and 
some twenty-five feet, or more scpiare. Here the sun and air dries the 
cotton, preventing it from heating, which it is liable to do when stored 
in bulk, and it is also thought to cause the lint to absorb some of the oil 
in the seed, which adds to the silky lustre of the fibre. After being thus 
dried, it may be either stored or passed at once to the "whi|)p(;r,"u 
machine that knocks out the dust and sand, an<l leaves the cfitloF) whiter 
and more o[)en. Formerly, when the price was higher than it is at 
present, it was all assorted. A hand was given one hundn-d and fifty 
pounds of seed cotton as a diiy's task, wiiich he thoroughly overhauled, 
picked out all specks, stained cotton, fragments of leaf, etc. At i>resent, 
however, this is usually done by two hands, who examine the coUon as it 
passes into the gin, and two others behind the gin, who pick oui cracked 
seed, motes, etc., as the lint issues from the gin. The roller gin in 
some form has always been used for detaciiing the lint from black 
seed cotton. Nean-hus, the admiral of Alexander the Great, n.'ports its 
use among the Hindoos in his time. The first roller gin used in this 
country was one constructed in 17H8, by Mr. Bissell, of Georgia, the gen- 
tleman alix'ady mentioned as having introduced this variety of cotton. 
It Consisted of two short wooden rollers moving in opposite directions, 
each turned by a boy or girl, and giving, as the result of a day's work, 
five pounds of lint cotton. To this succeeded the foot or treadle gin, im- 
ported from the West Indies, where they had been iu use, havii»g reached 



38 THB COABT REGION. 

there with tliis vnriciy of cotton seed, descendants, doubtless, of the Hin- 
doo ^ins, mentioned by Neurchus. In 1700, Dr. Josepli Eve, a distin- 
^nislied physician and poet, tlicn of tl)c Kaliania islands, but subsequently 
a resident in (leor^ia, near Augusta, made preat improvements in this 
^in, and a<laj)ted it to lie run by liorse or water j)0wer. It was claimed 
that his p;in would detacli the seed from short stajdo cotton; but it ap- 
pears not to have succeeded in doin/^this. Other imjirovementstook place 
in the roller gin, from time to time; and about IMO, P\ McCarthy, of 
Alabama, devised a machine which bears his name, and has been in use 
ever since on the sea islands. Shortly after this, small steam engines 
were used with the McCartliy gin, and now oxen and horses have been 
discarded and all the gins on the sea islands are run by steam power. 
A two horse power is required for each gin, which turns out on an average 
!i bale weighing three hundred and fifty j)ounds as a day's work. 
There is a recent English improvement of the McCarthy gin, known on 
the sea islands as the double McCarthy. This gin gives two bales in a 
day's work ; but as it re(iuircs greater skill to attend it, they are not in 
general use; two, however, are in successful oj)eration in the large gin- 
house of Mr. John G. Nichols, on St. Helena island. 

The great subdivision of the land into small farms under independent 
management, renders it impracticable for each cotton jdanter.as formerly, 
to have a gin and ginhouso of his own. To meet this state of things, 
"toll" gins liave been established. They are usually in the hands of 
store-keepers at the various boat landings. The largest establishment of 
this sort is the one above mentioned on St. Helena island. Here ten gins 
under one shelter are run by one steam engine. Bagging is kept on hand 
for the convenience of customers, and the cotton is either purchased by 
the proprietor of the gin, or shipped by him directly from the ginhou.so 
to any American or European port the planter may i^refer. There being 
a large store on the premi.'^es, where the wants of the planters are sup- 
jilied throughout the year, and a skilled machinist being in constant 
attendance on the gins, to keep everything running in the best order, it 
is much jiatronizcd. Almost the entire crop is prei)ared and marketed 
here, and planters, even as remote as Edisto island, bring their cotton to 
be ginned and disposed of at this gin, saving thereby, as they say, the 
heavy charges of wharfage, storage, insurance and commission, which are 
incurred when sent to city factors to be sold. This establishment is 
worked, in connection with others of a similar character along the coa.st 
of Georgia, and in Elorida, Avhich together handle and disj)ose of eight 
thousand or nine thousand bales of long staple cotton annually. 

The usual charge at these gins is three and a half to four cents per 
pound, lint, and they are said to pay well. The cotton is packed in 



THE COAST REGION. 39 

Dundee bagging, in round bales. No press is used, as it is thought it 
would injure the fibre. The work is done by hand, the cotton being 
beaten into the bag with a pestle. At the large ginhouse on 8t. Helena, 
however, even this work is accomplished by machinery. The bag is con- 
veniently suspended from an iron hooj), and a disc of two inch plank, 
exactly fitting tlie bag, and moved by steam, pushes the cotton in, secur- 
ing greater dispatch and accuracy in the packing. 

The seed is used for manure, and when sold for this puq)Ose, brings 
twenty-five to thirty-five cents per bushel of forty pounds. In 1880, only 
about fifty tons were exported from Charleston, clnefly to Egypt, to be 
used as planting seed. In this connection an incident related by Governor 
Seabrook illustrates the difiiculties attending the handling of newly in- 
troduced i)roducts. In 1790, on Mr. Brisbane's White Point i)lantation, in 
8t. Paul's J^iriwh, the disposition to be made of the cotton .seed, which 
" the gins began to furnish freely, became a i)erplexing question. Being 
carelessly thrown on the ground, the hogs ate it and they died. It was 
then put into pens, but the i)igs found their way between the interstices 
of the rails jaid shared the fate of their elders. As a last resort, and with 
a view to be rid of the nuisance, it was deposited in a small creek con- 
tiguous to the Mansion House, There, at low tide, it soon generated a 
miasmatic odor, which, when the wind was favorable, was so offensive 
as to create a strong feeling against the future culture of the crop." 

What has been written refers distinctly to the sea islands, A consider- 
able quantity of long staple cotton in addition is grown on the mainlands 
and is known as Santees and as mains. The general economy of tlie cul- 
ture is the same as on the sea islands, Tiie seed is obtained annually or 
biennially from the islands, as it is thought to deteriorate very rapidly on 
the mainland. In the absence of determinate experiments for a series of 
years it is not easy to say what the cause of this deterioration is, or even 
if it is due to causes of a permanent character. That the .seed does deteri- 
orate is a fact beyond question. But whether it would do so if not ex- 
posed to hybridization with uplands, and if the .selections were made with 
the .same skill and patience that is .shown by the sea island planters, can- 
not be said to have been demonstrated. To be perfectly secure from the 
infiuence of uplands it should be planted at least three miles distant from 
it, t])at being determined as the range of the bee whose search for honey 
and pollen is the fruitful source of this miscegenation. New factors too 
might have to be taken into consideration in tlie selection of the seed on 
new soils and in a new climate. Crops of sea island cotton liave been 
made as high up as Orangeburg and Aiken counties. The yield was as 
good as on the coast, and the staple, while ranking well in the market, 
did not command the higher prices. Were a serious effort made for a 



40 ' THE COAST REOIOy. 

number of years, it is not improbable that the culture of this high-priced 
cotton miglit be much extended. 

It is difficult to find a satisfactory answer to the question why is long 
staple cotton planted exclusively on the coast. Uplands have been tried 
there, and it has been found that they yield no more than long staple, 
which of course caused their abandonment as less profitable. The only 
exi)lanation ollered is to refer this ctuso to that general law of cultivated 
j»lants, that their culture is most profitable at the northern limit at which 
tliey can be grown, inasmuch as tlieir yield at that point is greater, their 
cultivation clicaper, the period of growth being shorter, and their j)roduct 
of better quality. This certainly is true to a large extent of cotton. 
Latitude is tlie only reason that can be given why the Carolina long sta- 
})les are su])crior to those of Florida and Georgia. Cotton samplers say 
tliat the same is true of uplands, and the staple grown near the moun- 
tains are finer, stronger, and more even than the crops raised south of 
them. Tlie rapid advance that cotton culture is making in the Piedmont 
country would seem to show that its culture there was being found more 
profitable than further south. 

THE COST OF COTTON PRODUCTION. 

The cost of i)roducti()n may be considered from two points of view. 
First, the actual cost to certain j)roducers, of whom inquiry has been 
made. Second, what nuiy be termed the rational cost, that is, the labor, 
material and cajMtal necessarily expended in production, directly or 
indirectly, liy tlie i)roducer himself, or by some one else. The first is 
real, but by no means expresses everything involved. For instance, on 
unsaleable land, a landholder, with little or no expenditure of capital, 
may produce a certain amount of cotton witlj labor given in return for debts 
that could not be otherwise collected. Such cotton would cost almost 
nothing to the producer. Between this and the opposite extreme, where 
the land had been bought above its real value, and a large expenditure 
made in the culture, there is every variation of individual experience — 
from one of immense ])rofits, to one ending directly in bankrui)tcy. The 
rational cost, on tlie other hand, is purely theoretical; in estimating the 
cost of each item of exj)enditure, it must be generalized and reduced to an 
average that does not, perliaps, conform exaetly to the exj)erienco of any 
individual. It summarizes these items, and leaves them recorded for 
(Consideration. Polh methods aro given. Me.«srs. Ilinson tt Rivers, on 
.laTues' island, say §.S0 a bale of 400 pounds, or 20 cents per i)Ound. Dr. 
A. R. Rose, of Charleston, puts the cost at §70 per acre, which should yield a 
bale of 350 pounds, which gives, likewise, 20 cents per poujid. One of 



tUE COAST REGION; 41 

the most, if not the most, successful among sea island planters, Mr. 
J. J Mikell, of Edisto, says the cost is 15 cents per pound there. 

Before considering the rutionnl cost, a word should bo said as to tho 
amount of production. Tho highest yield on record to one acre is oOG 
pounds of lint, on a single acre on Mr. Schafler's place, on Wadnialaw 
island. A planter on John's inland made an avenigo of 200 j)Oundsof lint 
per aero, on a tract of 20 acres, while small farmers in the ."^ame locality 
produced only 50 pounds to 75 pounds lint i)er acre, Tho members of 
the Farmers' Club on James' island recorded, for 1S70, an average yield 
on their fields of 280 pounds of lint. On Edisto island, there is u tract 
of 100 acres, producing, in that year, 210 j)ounds of lint per acre, and 
conservative farmers there consider 200 i)0unds of lint an average on tiio 
larger farms, year in and year out, a fair yield of line staple. In Mills' 
Statistics of South Carolina, i)ublished in 1825, it is stated that a 
farmer on Edisto island produced, on an extensive scale, an average of 
270 pounds of clean cotton to tho acre. He also states that there were 
lots of land that had j)roduced 435 pounds of lint to the acre. From 
which it would ai)pcar that the soil, climate, and old methods of culture 
had a capacity not very far infcsrior to that with which the invention of 
fertilizers, and of improved iihplements and methods, at the present time, 
endows this locality. 

The following table presents tho rational cost, giving an itemized 
account of all expenditures, as reported by intelligent sea island planters. 
The first three columns are from Edisto, the yield being placed at 200 
pounds of lint cotton to the acre. Number four is from James' island, 
the yield taken at 280 pounds of lint per acre. Number five representa 
the average expenditures of the better class of small farmers on John's 
island: 



42 



THE COAST REGION. 



Coi^t of each Item of Labor end Matenal expended in the Culture of an Acre 

of Cotton. 



ITEMS. 



ONE. 



TWO. THREE. 



FOUR. 



5 00 
1 00 

40 

07 

1 00 

80 

G 40 

m 



2 Go 
1 50 



00 
30 



Kent or interest on money invested 

in lands 

AVcar and tear of implemont.M . . . 
Cleaninjjj and burning weeds and 

stalks 

Other cleaning; up .... . . . 

l>i,Lr,uinp: and carting salt mud . 

Spreading salt mud 

Cotton s(>ed for manure, 20 bushels, 

at .'>.") cents 

Lapjiing mud and seed in with two 
furrows, or rolling ditto .... 
Fish scrap, 200 lbs., and spreading, 

1.") cents 

Kainit. 200 lbs 

Acid Ph()sj)hate, 200 lbs 

Spreading last two, 15 cents each. . 

Conuncrcial manures 

J loine-made manures 

-\j)]>l_ving manures 

Px'dding ujjwith plow 

Splitting middles 

Breaking out ridge of old bed . . . 

rianting 

Ivcjtlanting 

Seed 

Kight to ten hoeings and haulings. 
1 Mowings with sweep plow .... 
Thinningand regulating stand . . 

Cleaning ditches 

Ticking cotton 

Sunning and drying cotton . . 
Ciinning, cleaning and ])acking . , 
lagging and twine, per bale. . . . 

JIauling to gin 

Hauling to steamboat and freight to 

city 50 

Storage, insurance, weighing, dray 

ago and selling 2 50 

Foreman's wages and rations. . . 2 75 



5 00 
1 00 

40 
07 



m 



5 00 
1 00 

40 
07 



$ c. 

3 00 



25 



25 



12.^ 
45" 
20 
30 

5 GO 
25 
12^ 
lO" 

8 00 
15 

3 00 



Total 



8 



8 



G 50 

7 25 

1 45 

40 

25 

Vl\ 

50 

25 

30 

5 (50 

25 

10 
00 
15 
00 



O.) 

40 

50 

2 50 
1 .50 



6 50 

7 25 
1 45 

40 
25 

in 

50 
25 
;}() 

5 GO 
25 
12 J 
10 

8 00 



10 00 

2 00 

55 

50 

50 



7 00 
55 
40 

50 

2 50 



50 
25 

1 50 
G 00 

2 50 
50 



11 20 



8 80! 
55i 
50| 

I 
50 

2 50 



FIVE. 



5 C. 

3 00 



30 
25 



15 . . . 



50 
50 
10 
50 
50 



50 
25 
40 
6 00 
2 50 
50 



4 00 



3 50 
27 
25 

25 

1 25 



45 GOA 51 20J 48 52 I 52 25 27 32 



THE COAST REGION. 



43 



It would be a still more difficult problem to arrive at a satisfactory 
estimate of the profit per acre to the farmer. This would vary, in tlie 
first place, according to the grade of cotton produced, the prices fluctuat- 
ing, M'ith the fineness of the staple, from 30 cents all the way up to §1.10 
per lb. The value of the cotton, too, would depend greatly on the hand- 
ling of the crop, whether it was picked in time, properly stored, sunned, 
dried, ginned, and moted — in all of which operations the skill, care, and 
forethought of the farmer would count for a great deal. But if we place 
the price of the cotton at 40 cents per pound, we may offer the following 
estimates as coming somewhere near the correct deductions to be made 
from the data furnished by the foregoing figures. 



Cod of Cotton Per Pound, and Profit Per Acre. 





ONE. 


TWO. 


THREE. 


FOUR. 


FIVE. 


Cost per pound . . . 


22 8-lOc. 


25 Jc. 


24Jc. 18 3-oc. 


27 3-1 Oc. 


Do. plus value of seed "j 
produced and less in- > 
tercst on investment, j 


17 9-1 Oc. 


20 7-lOc. 


19 3-lOc. 


15 1-10c.21|c. 


Trofit per cultivated acre! $45 20 


$38 20 1 $41 40 1 $G9 72 


$78 25 



Those figures can, of course, only be approximately correct, but the 
wide difference that prevails between largo farms and high culture, and 
the small farms and insufficient culture, is a hopeful indication that the 
efforts at in)j)rovement have met with huccosm, a suocoss tliat would bo 
much enhanced if wo estimate tho improved value of soil itself, where 
high culture has been practiced. 



CHAPTKR III. 



THE LOWER PliXE BELT, OR SAVANNA 

REGION. 



LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES. 

Contipious to and immediately inland from the coast repon lies the 
Lower I'iiie Belt, or Savanna region, of South Carolina. Northward it 
may be bounded by a line dividing: Hampton county nearly in half, 
leaving; the Savannah river in Lawton township, running east across the 
county and throu'^h Droxton and ^Vnr^cn townships, in the northwest 
corner of Colleton county, to Oran^n-burg county, including the town- 
ships of Branchvillc aiid Cow Castle. Thence along the northern bound- 
ary of Charleston county to the Santee river. Leaving the Santee river 
about Wright's Bluff, this line traverses Clarendon county to its north- 
oast corner, crosses Lynches river, descends that river to a point opposite 
where Catlish creek empties into tiie Great Pec Dee ; follows that stream to 
Barker's creek, imsses uj) it to Heedy creek, down it to the Little Pee Dee, 
and up that river to the North ('an)liiia line. The section thus bounded 
includes the half of Hampton county, nearly all of Colleton, two town- 
fihips in Orangeburg, all but the northwest corner of Clarendon, tlie 
southwest j)ortion of Marion, the whole of Williamsburg, and all Charles- 
ton, Georgetown and Ilorry counties not lying on the coast, and com- 
prises nearly one-third of the entire State. • 

TIIE PHYSICAL FEATURES 

of the Lower Pine Belt bear a striking analogy to those of the coast 
region. The uplands, the so-called " pine barrens," represent the sea 
islands. Numerous large fresh water rivers replace the great salt water 
rivers and arms of the sea along the coast, and the interminable net-work 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 45 

of extensive swamps and bays recall the salt marshes of the coast. Eight 
large rivers receiving all the water that falls in South Carolina, and a 
largo proportion from the watershed of North Carolina, besides several 
smaller rivers and innumerable lesser streams, traverse this region and 
furni.sh more than 1,000 miles of navigable waters. The general ap- 
pearance of the country is low and fiat. The uniform level of the sur- 
face is scarcely broken anywhere, except here and there on the banks of 
the streams by the occurrence of slightly rolling lands. Lime sinks are 
found and there is a notable chain of them south of Eutawville, between 
the grtat bend of the fc'iintee river und the head Maters of Cooper river. 
In a depression of the surface a miniature lake, never exceeding fifty 
yards in length by a dozen in width, and sometimes only a few feet in. 
diameter, is found. The water is of crystalline clearness, with a visible 
depth of twelve to fifteen feet, und iseentained in a iunncl-i'luii)e«l hollow 
of the blue limestone rock, that underlies the soil at the dej)th of a few 
inches. These lakelets or springs have no outlet, but at tlu'ir bottom 
fissures in the limestone rock, leading to unknown depths, are observed. 
Through these fissures numbers of all the varieties of fresh water fish 
common to this locality, including eels and alewives, some of them of 
considerable size are seen to pass. So numerous are these fish that if all 
these open basins were put together into one, it would not afford food or 
breeding space for one-hundredth part of the fish found in anyone of them. 
The inference seems warranted- tliat there is here, in the caverns of 
the limestone rock, a subterranean stream or lake many miles in extent. 
The maximum elevation of this region above tide-wiUer is reached at 
the viHage of Branch vi lie on the South Carolina railway, and is 134 
feet. From the data furnished by the surveys of the railroads traversing 
this region, the Port Itoyal, South Carolina and Wilmington roads (the 
(/harleston and Savannah road luns near to und j arallel witli the coast, 
and the surveys of the Northeastern road iiave been destroyed), it ap- 
I)ears that the average slope is about 3J feet per mile. This slope, liow- 
ever, seems to be nmch more rajud in the western and narrower part than 
it is in the eastern and broa<ler portion of the belt. Altmans, ou the 
Port Royal railroad, is 105 feet above mean high tide at the head of 
Broad river, 18 miles distant in a direct line, giving a fall of 5.8 ft. p(!r 
mile. IJranchville is i;M ft. above tiie sea, which at North Edisto inlet, 
near .lehos.seo island, is 48 miles distant, making the fall 2.8 feet per mile. 
In the east the railroad bridge of the (ireat Pee Dee is 52 miles from tlio 
sea and has an elevation above it of only about 50 feet, or but little more 
than one foot to the mile. This fall would, with skillful engineering, bo 
sufiicient for thorough drainage. Left as it is, however, wholly to the 
operation.s of nature, this desirable object is far from being accomplished, 



40 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

and the brond but slow currents of the tortuous streams never free the , 
swamps and lowlands of their superfluous water. So level is the country 
and so abundant the supply of water, that the engineering skill and out- 
lay rcfjuired to })erfoct its drainage woidd, at comparatively small addi- 
tional outlay, render the larger part of the surface susceptible to cultiva- 
tion by irrigatioji. In connection with drainage and the embankment 
of the rivers, the assertion is freijucntly made, that such works are less 
]>nicticable now than formerly, when they were attempted in conse- 
quence of the increased size and frequency of freshets, resulting from 
cutting down the forests, the chief obstructions to the rapid passage of 
rain water into the streams. In the absence of records giving exact data 
on this point, this assertion rests more on the apparent nature of the 
case than on asc«n-taijied facts. On the contrary, nothing can be more 
certain than that no sub.<5cquent freshet has attained the height and ex- 
tent of the great Hood of ITJH), known as the Yazoo freshet, and that none 
lias exceeded the May freshet of 1840. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

Out-crops of the cretaceous rocks of the secondary formation occur 
(>ast of the Sanlce river, in numerous localities in-tho Lower Pine Belt of 
South Carolina. Commencing at Little river, in the southeastern corner 
of Horry county, I'rof. Tuomey followed these rocks to Mars Bluff on the 
(ireat Pec Dee and to points as far north as Darlington C. II. They make 
their appearance on Lynches river in about the same latitude, and were 
traced by Mr. Ruflin as far west as Kingstrce, the county seat of Williams- 
burg. They consist of a soft marl of a dark gray color, containing (as at 
Mars Blufl) the remains of belemnites in great number. This marl av- 
erages about 84 i)erccnt. of carbonate of lime, and rests on a stratum of 
hard lime or marl stone, which yields 75 per cent, of airbonate of lime. 
The marl stone in turn rests on a black shale of laminated clay, which 
rests on beds of sand. Tlie buhr-stonc reaches down into the Lower Pino 
Belt in several localities along its northwestern edge. Prof. Tuomey 
tliought ho had traced it as far as the Ashepoo river in Colleton and to 
lluspa creek in Beaufort county. But as the rocks he referred to are now 
recognize*! as belonging to the j)hosphate rock formation, tlie buhr-stone 
does not extend so far south as he sui)p()scd. 

The body of the Lower Pine Belt is underlaid by marl belonging to 
that portion of the eocene formation of the tertiary, designated by Mr. 
UuHin the Great Carolina Bed. These marl beds are divided into two 
well-marked groups, known as the Santee marls and as the Ashley and 
Cooper river marjs. The Santee marls are the older, lower and more ex- 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 47 

•tensive formation. Reaching from Mazyok's ferry on the Santee in 
Charleston county to Vance's ferry on that river in Orangeburg county, 
and underlying nearly the whole of Clarendon county, they have been 
traced along Potato creek as far north as Suintc'r county. Westward they 
extend through Colleton, Orangeburg, Hampton and Barnwell counties, 
to the Savannah river ; reaching as high up on that stream as Shell bluff, 
a noted locality in Burke county, Ga. Their northern margin rests on 
the buhr-stone, and to the west and south they i)ass under the Ashley and 
Cooper marls. The Santeo marls form the lowest member of the cal- 
careous strata of the Charleston basin, and was designated by Prof. 
Tuomey the Coralline bed of the Charleston basin, being composed of 
the remains of corals and gigantic oyster shells. It consists of strata of 
soft marl, marl-stone and green sand, and is very rich in carbonate of 
lime, averaging 90 per cent, of that valuable ingredient of the soil. 

Resting on the Santee marls, and passing out with them beneath tho 
pleioceno and post-pleiocene of the coast under the sea to a great depth, arc 
tho Ashley and Cooper marls. Unlike the Santee marls, they contain 
neither corals or oyster shells, but are comjH)S(!d of minute many cham- 
bered shells (I'olythalamia an<l Foraminfeia). These marls arc of a 
dark gray color and granular texture, sometimes so compact as to render 
the material suitable for building i)urj)oses. Prof, Tuomey mentions a 
ruined house, erected long ago, by Sir John Colleton, of this material, 
which reminded him of Portland stone. The marks of the tools nj»on 
the walls exposed to the weather were as well defined as if they lm<l been 
impressed yesterday, and the angles of a tasteful nuintelj)iece, handsomely 
moulded and decorated, were as sharp, despite its long neglect, as when 
first executed. These marls are not so rich as tho Santee marls and av- 
erage only about GO per cent, of carbonate of lime. They have long 
been known, however, to contain a notable quantity of phosj)hatc of 
lime, and a great interest attaches to them, as it is the fragments broken 
from their irregular surface, and romided l)y the waves, which have been 
converted into tho nodules rich in phosphate of lime and known as 

PHOSPHATE PvOClv. 

The deposits of {ihosphatc rock occur over a wide range of country, 
reaching from North Carolina to Florida, and extending in some instances 
as much as GO miles inland. Vertically, so far as their occurrence in 
quantities of value economically is concerned, their distribution is con- 
fined within narrow limits. They arc found at the bottom of rivers, 20 to 
30 feet in depth, and on land they occur at an elevation but slightly 
above mean high tide, so that the tides of tho existing sea, supplemented 



^18 TIIK I/AVFU PINE UHLT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

in u fcM' instances perhaps by the action of storms, is sufficient to account 
for any niovenientH tliat tliese water-worn nodules luu'e underj^one. The 
rock of coniinercc occurs always above the marl, and is known as the land 
•or water rock, according as it is found in the one clement or the other. 
'i'h(! water rock is <larker in color and harder than the land rock, and is 
fre(iuently found in a layer or sheet of cemented or tightly comjiactcd 
nodules, overlying the marl at the bottom of the rivers and creeks, where 
it either forms the bottom itself or is ov*'rlaid by a deposit of mud of 
greater or less depth. It has been seldom dredged for at a depth exceed- 
ing 20 feet. The land rock is found at a depth of 2 feet to 10 feet (and 
more underclevations) below the surface of the soil, but is not mined at a 
depth exceeding") to 7 feet. It is found in masses or nodules, varying 
from the si/.e of a potato to several feet in diameter. These nodules are 
rounded, rough, indented, and frequently perforated with irregular cav- 
ities. They vary in color from olive or bluish black to a yellowish or 
grayish wiiite. Their speeilic gravity is 2.2 to 2.'). Their hardness from 
o.r)to'l. The fragments of a nodule give off a peculiar fa-tid odor on 
friction. I5y analysis it is found to contain phosphate of lime 5') to 01 
j)er cent., carbonate of lime 5 to 10 and organic matter and water 2 to 
10 per cent., with small quantities of fluorine, iron, magnesia, alumina 
and sulphuric acid, besides sand. The land rock is found in a loose 
layer, varying from a few inches to 80 in de]>th, averaging about 8 
inches. It occurs in sand, mud, clay or peat, and is often intermingled 
with numerous remains of land and marineanimals. Among the former 
are the remains of the mastodon, elephant, tapir, deer, and of our do- 
mestic animals, the horse, the cow and the hog. Thus showing that these 
very animals which were imported by the first white settlers had once 
iidiabiled this region, from which they had disappeared, so far as tradi- 
tion informs us, before the advent of man, furnishing Prof. Agassiz with 
one of his strongest arguments i)i favor of " independent centres of crea- 
tion." The remains of these land animals are found intermingled with, 
but never imbedded in, the phosphate rocks, giving no evidence that there 
was any community of origin between them. So abundant arc the re- 
mains of marine animals that Mr. Toumey named this formation the 
" Ashley Fish Bed." Most striking among these remains are the beauti- 
fully preserved teeth of sharks, from 2 inches to 4 inches in length ; if the 
]»roporlions between the teeth and the body found among exi.sting. sharks 
obtained with these monsters, they must have been 00 feet to 80 feet in 
length. The sharks teeth, o)i the other hand, found in the Santee marls 
do not difi'er nuieh as regards size from those of the sharks now living on 
the coast, and artesian wells in the phosphate region yield, at a depth of 
700 feet below, these colossal teeth — teeth similar in size to the ancient 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 49 

fossil teeth found far inland, imbedded in the Santce marls, and to those 
of the fish now living in the vicinity. As to the origin of the phospluxte 
rock, the identity of the fossil shells it contains with those of tlie under- 
lying marl make this much certain, that it consists of fragments broken 
from tlie irregular surface of tlie marl, and that its rounded and nodular 
form was imparted to it by the action of the waves and currents to whicli 
it was subsequently subjected. The im])ortant question of how a marl 
containing originally (10 per cent, of carbonate of lime and 2 to 4 per 
cent, of pbosjdiato of lime has been changed into one containing 50 to (jO 
per cent, of pliosphato of lime and 5 to 10 per cent, of carbonate of lime 
remains for consideration. It is a notewortby circumstance, tbat, while 
the great body of the eocene marls in South (-'arolina have preserved their 
constitution almost unchanged, a ren)arkabl(! cliange is manifest at tlie 
beginning and at the close of the series; in the buhr-stone on the north- 
ern border, and in the widely removed {)hoHphate rock on th(? southern; 
in the buhr-stone the original carbonate of lime coiTij)osing thesliells has 
been replaced by silica, rendering great masses of rock, that once might 
have imparted valuable ])roji(!rtics to the soils, valueless agriculturally; 
in the phosphate region masses of carbonate of lime; have been converted 
into the phosjthate, rendering them still more valuabU; to the tiller of tho 
soil. Two theories have been offered to account for this substitution of 
the phosi)hate for the carbonate of lime. 

One theory assumes that the fragments of marl were charged with the 
swee})ings from guano beds formed above them by the congregation there, 
at some indefinite time in the i)ast, of vast fiocks of birds; in this case, 
bones of the birds should be among the fossils j)reserve(] in thcf>e beds. 
No such remains having been found, but instead the remains of numerous 
animals, such as the mastodon and elejdiant above mentioned, and it was 
thought that immense herds of these animals had collected at one time 
about the shallow salt lakes in which the nodules were left upon the re- 
cession of the sea, just as animals now do about the salt licks of Kentucky, 
and that the ])hosj>horic acid derived from their excrements and remains 
wrought the change in the marl. To this it is objected that tho spots 
where the most of these bones arc found arc not tho richest in phos- 
phates; and while it is by no means proba])le that the nodules were in 
all, or even in most instances, formed where they are at present found, it 
is difficult to su[)posc that agencies of sucli local and restricted character 
as salt licks could account for the conversion of so great a mass of material, 
over an area so extensive, as that ])resented by the phosphate formation. 

The other exjilanation of the formation of these rocks is, that certjiin 
mollusks possess the power of separating tlie j)hosphate of limo from sea 
water, and that through their instrumentality tho marl, and especially 
4 



50 THE LOWER PIKE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

tho upper strata, became charged with a certain amount of phosphate of 
lime. That the proportion of the [)ho«phate of lime thus obtained to the 
whole body of the superficial layers of the marl wa.^ afterwards increased ; 
1st, by the removal of a considerable amount of the carbonate of limo, 
rendered soluble by the percolation through it of rain water containing 
carl)onic acid, derived from tho decomposing vegetable matters in the soil 
overlaying the marl. 2d, by a well knoM'n proneness of phosphoric 
acid, when difluscly <listributed, to concentrate and to give rise to concre- 
tionary processes similar to those observed in the flint nodules and peb- 
bles, of the Engli.^h chalk. This theory agrees with the diffused occur- 
rence of phosphate of lime in the superficiul layers of the marl, as well as 
with the fact that the upper layers of the deposits and the outside of the 
nodules are the richest in phosphate. It substitutes for a local cause a 
general one, commensurate at once with tho wide area occupied by tho 
j)hosj)hate rocks and by the phosjdiatic marls of the South Atlantic sea- 
board. Such a cause also might have been in ojjeration ages ago, when 
the layers of phosj)hate rock, found at a (lei)th of 300 feet in artesian 
borings, were forming ; and it may be in operation now, as the dredging 
work of the United States Coast Survey .shows that the marls accumulat- 
ing at the depth of 200 fathoms on the floor of the Gulf Stream, between 
Florida and Cuba, contain a considerable percentage of phosphate of 
lime. 

No sy.«:tematic survey, determining the extent of these deposits, has 
yet been attempted. The only information on this head comes from 
j)ros[)ectors, seeking easily accessible rock in localities convenient for 
shipment. "Widely varying estimates as to the quantity of the rock have 
been ventured. Some have placed it as high as five hundred millions of 
t^->ns, and others as low as five millions. The latter is the estimate of 
Prof. Shepard, who has prepared a map of the region, lie traced the 
deposit ov«r 240,000 acres, and roughly estimates the accessible rock as 
covering only about 10,000 acres. Even this estimated area at 800 tons 
per acre, which he gives as an average, should yield 8,000,000 tons. But 
if we examine a single mining region, as that for instance occupied by 
tlic Coo-aw company, we must conclude that he has very greatly under- 
estimated the amount. This company lias the exclusive right to a terri- 
tory of about G.OOO acres in Coosaw river, besides the adjacent marshes, 
yet unexplored. Everywhere the river bottom is covered with rock, 
wiiich for the most part forms a solid sticet, varying from 8 inches to H 
feet in thickness. Taking the lesser thickness, we have, with a specific 
gravity of 2.5, after subtracting 25 per cent, for loss in washing and dry- 
ing, something over 1,700 tons to the acre, which would give for the 
river territory alone belonging to this one company something more than 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 51 

ten millions of tons. And in effect this company (wliich is the only 
thoroughly equipped river mining company now at work, 1881) con- 
eider, in spite of their large plant, consisting of extensive drying yhcds 
, and wharves, three heavy dredges, four large steam tugs, sixty large flats 
and a numerous fleet of smaller ones, besides washers, M'orkshops, (fee, 
by which they daily raise and prepare for market hundreds of tons of 
rock, that their su[)ply of material is practically unlimited. From the 
works of tliis comj)any fleets of dredging boats belonging to other parties 
may be seen at work, and in the neighborhood there are several well 
known localities where rock as rich, as abundant, and, with suitable ma- 
chinery as accessible, is found, but which remain uncorked. It seems re- 
markable that while coal mining at great depths is found profitable, 
when the product sells at $3.00 per ton, that capital has not more eagerly 
sought employment in these sui)erficial dejwsits, worth never less tlian 
$5.00, and now $0.00 per ton. 

There arc ten (1881) companies engaged in land mining. The land 
either belongs to them or is leased by them for a term of years. Parallel 
ditches, two yards wide, are sunk through the soft soil to a depth of 4 feet 
to 7 feet, to the stratum of .''and or mud in which the loo.se layer of pho.s- 
phate nodules is found. The rock is shoveled out, thrown into heaps 
and transported by rail to the wa.shers situated on tlie wharves, whence it 
is shipped. A common laborer will raise a ton a day, for which he is 
paid $1.75. The product of the land rock is about 100,000 tons a year, 
and the most of it is ground and manufactured into acid i)hosphates and 
other fertilizers, by the eight manufacturing companies within the .State, 
The river miners work under charters from the State, which grant 
them a general right to work a s{)eciried territory with any *t her comers, 
or under an exclusive right to such territory. In either case they pay a 
royalty to the State of $1.00 for every ton of rock raised, Tlic river 
works yield about 100,000 tons of rock per annum ; being harder, and 
therefore more diflicult to grind, it has been mostly .shipped to foreign or 
northern ports to be manufactured. Labor receives good wages at this 
work. Divers raising the rock from a depth of 10 feet or 12 feet, paid by 
the amount raised, working \\ hours on the ebb and \\ on the flood tide, 
earn as much as $18 a week. This work is neither dangerous or un- 
healthy, and those engaged in it seem to enjoy their aquatic exercise. It 
is thought that large quantities of rock underlie the .salt marshes between 
the high and low water mark, which would be the property of the State, 
So far very little work, and no extensive exploration, has been made in 
this direction. In fact, vast quantities of the best rock yet unworkcd 
cover the lxtt)m of many of Ihee rivers. 
The total amount of phosphate rock mined from the 1st of June, 1874, 



r)2 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

to tlic 31.st of January, 1882, is estimated at 1,505,550 tons ; of this about 
44 per cent, was shipped to foreign jwrts. Tiio royalty of SI. 00 per ton 
I)aid to the State for rock raised from navigable waters amounted, in 1881, 
1o $124,541; a single company, the Coosaw, j)aying $!)!), 135. In this 
year 71,310 tojis of river rock were shipped to foreign, and 52,225 tons 
to domestic ports. The State can .safely count on a much larger revenue 
from this source for years to come, for at this rate of production the 
Coosaw comjniny itself would not exhaust the rock in sight, without 
further exploration in its own territory, in 120 years, and the demands of 
agriculturists for this valuable material, while they can scarcely be less 
than at present, are likely to increase very much. 

SOIL. 

The 7,000 square miles of uplands in the Lower Pine Belt comprises 
three leadhig varieties of .soil : 1st. A .<andy loam, with a white sandy 
subsoil. 2d. A sandy loam, with a yellow subsoil. 3d. A .sandy loam, 
with a clay subsoil ; the clay is generally yellow, but sometimes it is red. 
The surface soil is lighter or darker, in proportion to the varying quan- 
tities of vegetable matter it contains, and where the clay subsoil occurs, 
it assumes, on cultivation, a mulatto color. These soils bear a strong re- 
send»lance to the sea island .soil, having this advantage, however, over 
them that are very generally underlaid by easily accessible beds of 
marl, richer in lime than those of sea islands. In drainage, however, 
they compare unfavorably with the sea islands. For the scouring effect 
of the rise and fall of the tide, which keej)S.tho water ways around the 
islands op<,'n,.is not only not exjK'ricnced in this belt, but, on the contrary, 
the luxuriant water growth that flourishes here lias filled up the chan- 
nels, converting them into swamps, through which scarcely any current 
passes. This, in connection with the level character of the country, 
renders the body of these lands wet. But for this, the good mechanical 
con.stitution of the soil, being light and easily tilled, and at the same 
time (except in the case of white sandy subsoil) sufhciently compact to 
be retentive of manures and moisture, together witli the abundance of 
marl and of peat and muck at hand as amendments to the virgin soil, 
wcuild have made them most desirable lands for tillage. As it is, not 
more than one acre in 22 is under cultivation, and the prices of lands are 
from '^5.00 down to 50 cents. 

The following analyses by C. U. Shepard, Sr., from Tourney's report, 
give an idea of the constitution of some of the poorer soils of this re- 
gion, classed as pine barren. 1. Loose .'<andy soil. 2. Dark gray soil. 
3. Very light .sandy soil. 4. Loose yellow sandy .soil : 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 



53 





1 


2 


3 4 


Silica 


92.57 


01 .01 


94.00' 93 00 


Alumina : . ... 

i'eroxicle iron, and carbonate and phoHpliatc 
lime 


1.70 

0.71 
5.03 


1.70 

0.50 
G.IG 


.94 .«! 
50 1 20 


Water of absorption and organic matter. . . 


4.5G' 4.99 

1 




100.00100.00100.00100.00 



Dr. J. L. Smith furnishes, in the report cited, the following analyses of 
cotton lands in this section. In 1,000 i)arts of surface soil : 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Sand 


700 j 
140 

30 

70 


900 

G2 

8 

30 


800 

105 

12 

22 


080 

270 

20 

30 


800 


Clav 


170 


Moisture 


10 


Vegetable matter 


20 



Portions of these soils, soluble in warm muriatic acid, were found to 
contain j)liosphoric acid. 

- The 4,500 square miles of overflowed lands in the savanna region 
present quite a variety of swamp hinds. The most elevated of these arc 
cypress ponds — shallow flats, with an impervious clay bottom, thickly 
grown with small cypress. Some of them contain a thick deposit of 
vegetable matter, and, when drained, have proved very productive. Next 
in order come the almost impenetrable bays, thickly set with a growth of 
bay, gum and tulip trees, and a den.se undergrowth of vines andbu.shes. 
The soil is peat or muck, resting on blue mud, and underlaid by marl 
and .sand. Then come the oi)en savannas and the river bottoms, a rich, 
f tough, loamy soil, having at times a depth of sixty feet, derived from the 
denudation of the upper country, whose " richest possessions are found 
in well-sifted purity in these vast swamps." These are the rice lands of 
Carolina. Taken all in all, whether we consider the physical character 
of the soil, the amount of organic matter it contains, the variety of its 
mineral constituents, or the subtroi)ieal climate of the locality, with the 
facilities for irrigation, either for culture or to renew the surface fertility, 
tliey are, perhaps, excelled in productiveness by no lands in the 
world. 

GROWTH. 

The characteri.stic growtli of the ujdands is the long-lcavcd pine, ex- 
tending in open pine woods over the wide plain, with scarcely any 
undergrowth excej)t liere and there the .Mcrub oak and gra.s.seH of tlie 



I 



54 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA RtGION. 

genus m^ittada and spordolus, the wire and drop seed grass. The palmetto 
readies only a few miles inland from Siilt water, but the live oak is found 
as much as sixty miles from the shore line. The magnolia, tulip tree, 
sweet and black gum, the white and red bays, the white oak, the black 
walnut, the elm, hickory and cypress are among the largest and most 
conspicuous trees of the swamps; the undergrowth, commencing with a 
fringe of gall berry (prinoH <jlaJ)cr) on the margin of the swamps, and 
consisting of a great variety of grape, briar and other vines, myrtles, etc., 
is very dense. 

CLIMATE. 

In the absence of weather records, it is difficult to express the difTercnco 
between the climate of lower pine belt and that of sea coast, already 
described, more definitely than to .say that it is such diiference as is to 
be found between the conditions favorable for the growth of the cabbage 
palmetto, wliich ])arely touches the southcTU border of the belt, and of the 
live oak, that just e.Ktends to its northern or inland margin. A low, flat 
country, inter.sected by numerous swamj)S, might naturally be thought 
very sickly. This region, however, has one advantage. Almost every- 
wliere there are found small tracts, islands, as it' were, of dry, sandy soil, 
heavily timbered with the long leaf pino, which is a barrier to the in- 
vasicMi of malaria. These retreats furnisii j)laces of residence as healthy 
lis are to be found anywhere; such a place is the village of Summerville, 
on tiie S. C. K. 11., u health resort that divides with Sullivan's island tho 
[•atronago of the citizens of Charle.^ton during the warm M'cather. 
McPJjersonville, in Hampton, and Pinevillc, in Georgetown, are villages 
of the same character, and there is scarcely a neighborhood that has not 
some such healthy spot as a place of residence during summer. The 
dread of malaria is much less than it was when the opinion that tho 
colored race was exempt from such influences was adduced as an argu- 
ment to .show the providential nature of their location hero to develop 
these fertile lands. The rever.ses of fortune, sustained as a result of the 
war, have forced many white families to reside the summer long where it 
was once thought fatiil to do so, and the experiment has been successful, 
thus exploding the idea that white people C(»uld not enjoy health hero 
during tlie .summer months. Re])lies from twenty-three townships .state 
without exception, that the inhabitants enjoy good health, and that a 
considerable ])ortion of the field work is performed by whites — a great 
change since the war. The census returns give fifteen deaths per one 
thousand population in the portions of Charleston and Colleton counties 
lying in this region, for the vear 1880. 



THE tOWER PINK BELT, OK SAVANNA BEOIOS. 



55 



STATISTICS. 



The lower pine belt^ontein, 10,220 square miles.of winch 4,500 arc ailu- 
vial or swamp land,, either covered with water or sabj<^t to overHow .The 
tilled land is 3r,8,.53.3 acres, by the census returns of 1880, which is ,50 per 
cent or 171,300 .^cres, less than the number siven by the census of 18,0^ 
Thcr'elrelOfarmsand 35 acres of tilled land per square .mle, or 20 
a c of tilled an,l 400 acres of untilled land to the farm. Sometnng 
less tha 1 per cent, of the total area, or G.4 acres per square nule 

pT:n"d :n cln; there is in .rain of all •<'".^r ^^^ --• J^c'rl tl 

irons and fallow, 13 acres per square mile, with 1.8 head of work stoti. 

and 23 headof all live stock. These figures represent the muumum 

t area it other crops and fallow alone excepted) '" « ^-"Ij;;;;^' 

n the State Xotwithstan.lii.g the small proportion of stock to the a a, 

e ,1, le here arc the staunchest adherents of the fence aw, and claim 

entire fedom range for their cattle. This, too, while the entire num- 

berof It" all sorts is only 1.15 .per capita of the population, being 

less than in any part of this State, except «i-onthee„a^^ 

The poimlation numbers 2(13,748 (mclu.ling 4!),9!)0 in the city oi 
CI, lies ),orl8.9 per 'square mile, which is less »'- '" -^,1^;^, 
the State the sand hills excepted, where the number is 11.7. 1 he ratio 
l; eowldto white is greater than elsewliere ex,-ept upon the coast, and 
is sixtv-iiine per cent., tlie same that it was given at in 18,0. 

Tit hin<l i» -7 "^res per capita; .2 acres more than on ho coast. 
Th SI It quite one-half the average for the whole State, and is own* 
1 to Hr a go area of unreclaimed swamps; 2nd, to the number o the 
• 1.1a in '-a.ed in the turpentine and lumber business. Tlui large 
b la fheld soleW for the forest products they yield as urpeiitiie 

Umi Ir s h^les, staves,&e., accounts for the fact that while the number 
tr HO the square mile is few, the number in proportion to the po^ 
u atl r s a, great, even as among the small farms on tlie coas being one 
to e^ry tw-elve ami a half of the population. Nevertheless the anunnit 
ofind tilled per capita has decreased thirty-eight per cent, since 18,0. 
Showin- tlial tlie forest industries are gaining on agriculture. 

I^rpoint of pro,!uetion we have 2.7 bales of cotton per square de 

a<.i inst 1 in 870, an increase of forty-one per cent., but stil less tlian 

S Tl e 1 i imnm pro,luce,l elsewhere, except on the coast. Per capita 

;! V Id s only six v-eight ,.«u„dsof lint, but per acre planted m cotton 

H / , „ s, nn^^ing thi'it in this little cultivated region the yiel of 

.Ik d plante, is not ca.lv ..hove the average of the State, but is a1 so- 

u e y himaxinuiMi any where reached. So, too, of the grain crop, while 



OO THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

it wjLS only .seven biisheln in 1870, and in 1880 only eleven bushels per 
cnpita, nnd only 230 bushels to the square niilc, it averaj^es over fifteen 
bushels to every neve j)!unte(l, whieli is nearly fifty per cent, above the 
iivcrM;,^' of the State. The increase in the amount of pjrain produced has 
Inrii eii;Iity-t\vo per cent, on the crop of 1870. The work stock durinpj 
the same period have increased fifty per cent., and the live stock seventy- 
six jH'r cent. 

Tlie explanation of these seemin<j:ly paradoxical faet.s is found in the 
consiileration, that this fertile but thinly peopled re;;ion is scarcely re- 
claiitMMl at all from the dominion of the waters for man's uses. Tliat there 
beiiii; neither cai>ital or or;j:ani/ed labor eommensurati' with this under- 
lakin;;, what of eithcM* of4heso forces is to be found, employs itself in cul- 
tivalin;^ the ])oorer, but more easily tilled land, or in the more tempt in;X 
oi'cupation still of ^atherin;^ the products of the forest, which nature with 
lavish haiKroU'ers in id»undancu. 

rUODlXTIOXS. 

The most characteristic, if not the mf)st important, crop of this region 
is the rice crop. The various methods of its culture full under two cla.sses, 
the dry and the wet culture. 

The dry culture is i)ursued on uplands and on low grounds not suscep- 
tible of irrigation. It is cultivated very much like cotton, planted in 
drills two and a third to three and a half feet, and in hills eighteen to 
twenty-four inches apart, twenty to thirty seed being dropped in the hills. 
Tlu^ ground is afterwards kept clean and stirred by the use of the plow 
and hoe, with one ha!id picking of the grass in the hills, when the rice 
is aboiU six inches high. The yield varies with the soil and culture, from 
tiftern bushels to fifty bushels to the acre. This rice sometimes fetches a 
fancy ]irice, as seed rice, being free from the seed of the red rice that 
s]»rings up as a volunteer in the fields under water culture. 

The water culture of rice is conducted on three sorts of low grounds. 
1st. Flats, which may be irrigated from ponds or water " reserves " lying at 
a higher level. 2nd. River swamp.s, into which water may be conducted 
by canals running from the river above, and returned to it again at a lower 
level ; such lands may Ix' found anywhere in the State. 3rd. The tide 
water lands, which are only found near the coa.st. These lands lie in such 
a position on the lower course of the rivers, that while they are subject to 
a sudiciont " pitch of the tide " to irrigate them on the flood and to drain 
them on the ebb, they may be dammed against the invasion of salt water 
below and from the freshets above. By taking in the fresh water from 
the rivers above and letting it out below at low tide, these lands have been 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 57 

reclaimed as Tow down as the salt marshes. They are of limited quantity 
and of inexhaustible fertility, the waste of cultivation W\n^ con><tantly 
restored by the rich deposits from the turbid ntrcams that irri;;ate them. 
Formerly their value was estimated in hundreds of dollars per acre. Since 
the war the <lifliculty of obtaining labor has changed tliis, nuiny of tho 
finest plantations remain uncultivated, or are only jtartially cultivated, and 
lands once worth from $200 to $800 per acre may now be bought at from 
$20 to $80, or less. There are more than two million of acres of land, 
consisting of inland and river swamps, and of fresh water and of salt 
marshes, admirably adapted to rice culture, now lying unused, in this 
section of tho .State, most of it in its original wilderness. There are nu- 
merous metliods employed in the water culture of rice, from tliat known 
ns dry culture, when water is sparingly used, to that known as tho "all 
WJiter culture," where the crop is oidy dried once or twice during the 
season for the purpose* of weeding it. Usually it is jlowed f<»ur times. 
Known as the "sprout /low," to perfect germination, the " \xt\ui How," to 
stretch uj) the young plant, the " long flow/' when the plant is si.x to eight 
inches high, after the lirst and second hoeings, and the " lay by How," 
after the third hoeing and until harvest. The line mud an<i deeoujposed 
vegetable matter that compose this soil is so soft that a horse will readily 
bog in it, and therefore horse power has been little used in their cultiva- 
tion, an objection that, with the solid cross dams at short distances, would 
not apply to the plow moved by steam j)Ower, Ilorse power has, how- 
ever, been used so far as to show that seed drills for planting and the 
mowing machine for harvesting may be successfully employed in rice 
culture. Under these circumstances, taking into consideration the amount 
and certainty of the yield, from forty to eighty bushels per acre, and the 
improved machinery for threshing and hulling, there is perhaps no food 
crop so entirely under the control of mechanical inventions, and so little 
subject either to the vicissitudes of season, or the uncertainties of human 
labor as the rice crop. The straw is much sui)erior as forage to that of 
any of the small grains, and except the hulls of the grain, there is no 
waste in the crop, the very dust from tho i)Ounding, known as rice flour, 
being most nutritious food for stock. 

Although eighty bushels per acre is generally given as a large field 
crop, the possibilities of the product are much greater, and Mr. Kinsey 
Burden reports a yield from selected seed at the rate of 1,480 bushels per 
acre. The rice crop for the whole State averages 20 bushels to the acre. 
This means 000 pounds of merchantable rice, worth say $30 ; 400 pounds 
of straw, worth $2.80 ; and 100 pounds of Hour, $1.50 — in all, $30.80. 
Cotton gives an average of 182 pounds per acre, which, at ten cents, 
would be only $18.20, or a little over half the gross yield of rice. Why 



58 THE LOWER TINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

is it, thon, tliat rico culture is in so doprosMcd ft condition, nnd cotton 
cultuni HO lloiiriHhiiifjf ? It nmy bo briclly Htiitcd mm tluit condition of in- 
dustry which liivors snuill enterprises, and discounigcs nccumuhition of 
cupitul iji hir^o invustnicnts and tho orpmizution of kibor into hir^'o 
itms.'^cs, which tho oinl)anknu'nt, drainu;;o and irripition of a rico field 
reciuii'es. 

Jt has also boon usHcrtcd that tho proteciivo duty of 2 J cents per 
j)ound on rico operates adversely to its culture. This culture requires a 
lar;;c outlay of vested cai)ital in dams, ditches and waterways. But as 
an act of Conj^M-ess may any day remove the i»rotectivo tarilf, and thus 
lower the luarki't value of tho product by one-third or more, ca]»ital is 
unwillin^j; to encounter such a risk, refuses to enter into i)ermanent in- 
vestments in improving^ and rcstorinj^ these lands, or in mort;;aj;es given 
for this i)urj)()se, and prefers to restrict itself to hand to mouth advances 
on the <:;rowing crop at exorbitant rates. Thus throwing largely into tho 
hands of mere speculators what was once the most solid and certain in- 
dustry of the State. One thing is certain: while the cotton crop has 
largely increased, even while burdened with a tax of two cents j)er j)ound 
on it, the rice crop, with the protection of a duty of two cents per pound, 
has not recuju'rated, and aminmts to scarcely one-third of the production 
it attained formerly without protection. 

The allurement of tho ready money realized by collecting the products 
of the forest, and by rice and cotton culture, has diverted attention from 
other crops in this section. The culture of corn as a market crop would 
be profitable. Tho red rust proof oat is admirably adapted to this 
climate, and is one of the most certain crops, yielding readily thirty 
bushels to fifty bushels to the acre. Although New England, and e\en 
European, hay has for many years been purchased to subsist, in part, the 
work stock in this section, Mr. RufHn, who came from the clover fields of 
Virginia, says in his otficial report on the agriculture of the lower and 
middle parts of South Carolina : " Few countries possess greater natural 
facilities, or which are more improvable by industry, fur producing in 
abundance, grasses, hay and live stock, and tiieir products of meat, butter 
and milk, all of which are now so deplorably deficient." 

COTTON. 

Although the lower pine belt comprises nearly one-third of the State, 
it produces only a fraction over five per cent, of the cotton crop. The 
per centagc of the total area planted in cotton is less than one-tenth of 
one per cent, in the southeastern third of Ciiarleston county, in the whole 
of Georgetown county, and in the greater portion of Ilorry county. 



• THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 59 

From ono-tonth to one per cent, of tho area is planted in cotton in tho 
lower half of Haniptoii county, in Colleton eounty, in tlio nortlieantern 
portion of (^iiarleston eounty, in tho Mouthern thinlof WillianiHlnir;?, an<l 
in portions of Horry. From one to five per cent, of the area is planted 
in cotton in tho northeastern corner of Collet(ni, in the northeastern jmrt 
of Charleston, in tho upper two-thirds of Williamsburg, in tho lower ono- 
fourth of Marion, and in Clarendon county. 

LABOR AND SYSTEM OF FARMING. 

In Colleton county, tho farms on which cotton is planted vary in nizo 
from fifty to two hundred acres, and aro in some instances as much as 
four hundred acres. A system of mixed iurming is j)ursued ; food sup- 
plies mostly, and in an increasing degree, aro raised at home. Bacon, 
however, for tho laborers Is usually bought in Charleston. There are a 
few white laborers, and the labor is cliieily performed by negroes. "Wages 
vary from $G a month to $120 and to ^b'O a year. Very few farms aro 
worked on shares; when it is done, the landholder usually furnishes all 
8Upi)lies, and takes one-third of the cotton and one-half of the provision 
crop. Tho share system is not entirely satisfactory ; tho (juality of tho 
staple is not afiected by it, but the (juantity produced is snuill, and tho 
land deteriorates. Money wages are preferred, because it places the man- 
agement under intelligent control, enables the laborer to meet his current 
expenses and preserves his inde])endence from debt. The condition of 
the laborer is good, and about two per cent, of the negro laborers own 
some land, or the houses in which they live. The market value of land 
is two to five dollars. The rent is from one dollar and fifty cents to three 
dollars an acre. Tho system of receiving advances on the growing cotton 
crop is diminishing. 

In Williamsburg county, tho farms on which cotton is planted vary 
from one liundrod to six hundred acres in size. Mixed farming is prac- 
ticed; tho family suj)plics of the landlord being usually raised at liomc, 
those of the laborer purchased in Charleston ; the tendency to raise sup- 
plies is increasing. There aro some white laborers, but generally negroes 
are employed; wages averaging eight dollars a month, are paid monthly 
or oftener. A few cotton farms aro worked on shares — the terms being 
one-quarter of all crops for the landlord, ho for tho mo.st part advancing 
all supplies, for which ho is rei)aid. Land deteriorates uivler the share; 
and improves under tho wages sy.'^tem, which latter is better for tho 
laborer, h' energies being more intelligibly directed his labor is moro 
productive and worth more, besides it induces economy, enables him to 
understand fully his financial condition, and he is more satisfied at tho 



CO TIIK LOWKll PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. * 

end of tlic year, than when tlicrc is a settlement of aceounts, the run of 
wliich he cannot keep. There is little demand for land ; the price ranges 
from two to fifteen dollars an acre. It rents for one to two dollars an 
acre; more generally for one-quarter or one-third of the crop. The 
system of credits and advances on the growing cotton crop prevails largely 
from one-half to three-quarters of the farmers, both black and white, 
receiving such assistance. 

in ("lan-ndon, the usual si /.o of a cotton farm in eighty acres. Mixed 
farming ispnicticcd, hut nnich of tiio supplies consumed is jmrchased in 
<"har]('sloii, though tlie tendency to raises them at home is increasing. 
The Held lal)or is i)erf()rme<l by native whites and negroes. Laborers are 
usually contracted with l)y the year, and the settlement takes place at its 
close. One-third of the crop to the lan<llord is the usual rate, where 
cotton farms arc worked on shares, he advancing all supplies, for which 
he is repaid. The share .system is preferred to wages. The condition of 
the laborers is good, and about five per cent, of them own houses and 
lands. Land is worth from three to five dollars an acre, and rents for 
one dollar per acre. The liens for advances on the growing crops, re- 
corded in the Clerk of Court's office for the year ISSO, numbered 2,71G, 
or one to every farm save nine, and aggregate §283,317.18. 

In Horry, the farms average fifty acres, and run from ten acres to two 
hundre<i acres in size. All .'supplies are made at home. The laborers are 
largely white natives, but there are some negroes. AVages five to sixteen 
dollars by the month, fifty dollars to §12.") by the year. No cotton farms 
arc worked on shares. The soil imi)roves under culture. Wages system 
j)referred. The condition of the laborers is good, and about twelve per 
cent, of the negroes own houses and land. Unimproved land sells for one 
to two dollars an acre; very few advances on the crop, and those wholly 
for fertilizers. The liens on the growing crop recorded in the Clerk's 
ofiice, 1880, numbered twenty-seven, and aggregate §1,179.80. 

TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

In Colleton county, one-quarter to one-half of the swamp lands are re- 
ported as thrown out of cultivation, but none of the lighter uplands. In 
Williamsburg, ten to thirty per cent, of the cultivated lands have been 
al»andoncd. In Clarendon, at least one-third of the cultivated lands have 
been turned out since the war; in Horry, very little. These lands all 
])roduce as well as virgin .soil when reclaimed and again brought under 
cultivation. The de[)th of ])lowing is usually four inches with a single 
horse i)low; sometimes a double horse i)low is used, and a depth of six to 
seven inches attained. Subsoiling is little practiced; fall jdowing is cs- 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. Gl 

pecially adapted to these light soils that are not run togctlicr and packed 
by winter rains, but it is not gcnernlly practiced, because the weak force 
on the farms are scarcely ever sufficiently up with the work to aflord the 
time. Fallowing is only practiced to the extent of letting fields lie idle 
during summer, which it is found greatly benefits them. A rotation of 
crops is attempted so far as the exigencies of the cotton crop allow; by 
following cotton with corn, and that in the same year witii oats, sowing 
j)caH on the stubble, and folhnving with cotton again next spring. Home 
made manures are used, ho far as tliey go, witli excellent results. ('ompo><tH 
of muck and stable mantires are coming more into use, and the field j)ca, 
either turned under green or allowed to witiier on the surface, adds largely 
to the fertility ; by these means almost any of the uplands are made to 
produce a bale of cotton to the acre. The limited means at the disposal of 
the farmers in these regards, in a section where little attention is paid to 
corn and cattle, is largely supplemented by the purchase of commercial 
fertilizers, especially the Charleston phosphates. In Clarendon, these are 
used almost exclusively, but in Colleton they are coming :-omewhat into 
disfavor, and the preference is given to the potash salts. Cotton seed, 
which were once thought to be only valualde as a manure for corn, arc 
now applied with great benefit to cotton, and with the exception of a very 
small amount fedtostock, it is all employed in this manner; selling at from 
ten to fifteen cents a bushel. 

PLANTING AND CULTIVATION. 

Under the best system the land is broken up broadcast, with single or 
double plows, in the winter or early .spring, but the prevailing practice is 
simply to turn the old beds into the alleys by running the bar of a single- 
horse plow to them, making two to four furrows to the bed, the usual 
width of the rows being three and a half feet. This leaves an open furrow 
in the centre of the old bed, in which the manure is deposited as early as 
practicable in February and March. The furrows are then re-covered, 
and the dirt thrown on the manure, the bed built up again, and the 
land is ready for planting. The .seed used belongs to the more prolific 
and improved varieties of short staple, and passes under the names of 
Dickson's or Ilerlong's imj)roved, .select, or cluster cotton. From one to 
three bushels are sown to the acre. Cotton-planters are much used, a 
cheap machine, drawn by a mule, rolling on a wheel similar to that of a 
wheelbarrow, by the rotation of which motion is imparted to fingers that, 
keep the seed moving in a hof)pcr containing them, and from whicli tli<>y 
fall into the furrow; a plow in front of the hopjx'r opens a trench to receive 
the seed, and a board follows and covers. There is an arrangement to 



02 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

regulate the amount of seed sown, and a good hand and mule will easily 
j)lant.six acres a day and do it in the best manner. The only objection to 
the use of the macliinc is the difficulty of obtaining a careful hand to 
work it; simple and easy as it is, practically it is found they allow the 
seed to give out, plant them too deep, or neglect to cover them — such care- 
lessness, which may escape notice at the time, resulting as irreparable loss 
in injury to the stand. On this account much seed is sown in a trench 
oj)cncd on the top of the bed, made with a plow or some implement de- 
vised for the pur])0.t'e, or in holes choi){>cd at proper intervals with a hoe. 
The latter method has the advantage of spacing the plants more accu- 
rately than can be done after they come up, by choj»])ing them out with a 
hoe. Planting takes [)lace about the lOthof April. The seed appear above 
ground in five to ten dnys, although when late })lanted, in dry time, 
they may remain in the ground for four weeks, and when the rain 
comes, still give a good stand. The work of cho})ping out the plants 
in the drill, to a stand twelve to fifteen inches apart, is commenced 
as soon as they are firmly set, that is when they have a height of 
five inches, and the third, or first true leaf makes its appearance. 
It is desirable to complete the thinning early in June, in order 
that the jtlants may sj)read when the forms or squares are making 
their appearance. The after cultivation consists usually of four hoeings 
and four ]»lowings, to keep the plant free from gra.ss and the surface 
^•(nl light and" porous. These are completed from the last of July to 
the 1st of August. The plant attains a height of ten to fifteen inches 
before blooming, and the first blooms make their appearance from the 
1st to 20th of June. The first open bolls are seen from the last of 
Julv to the middle of August. Picking commences from the middle 
of August to the 1st of September, By the 10th of November the 
cotton is generally all {)icked. JJlack frost occurs sometimes as early 
as the 20th of October, but is not counted on until the middle of No- 
vember, and it is sometimes deferred as late as the middle or end of 
December. 

Cotton attains a height of two to four feet, and is most productive at 
three feet. Fresh upland, unmanured, yields from 300 to 1,000 pounds 
of seed cotton, the average being safely .set at 000 pounds. Under good 
cultivation, even without maimre, five crops may be taken without 
(liniiiiishing the yield ; 1,200 [)Oun(ls of seed cotton is thought, on an 
average, to yield a bale of 400 pounds of lint, and the estimates of the 
amount recjuired for this purpo.se range from 1,000 to 1,300 pounds. 
It is thought by some that the staple on old is shorter than on fresh land, 
but so nice a point is difficult to decide, and there is no general opinion 
upon the subject. 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. G3 

PREPARATION OF THE CROP FOR MARKET. 

The cotton is housed or carried to the gin as fast as picked, and the 
object is to prepare it for market with the greatest dispatch. The ginning 
season closes about the Christmas holidays. A variety of saw gins — the 
Henry, the Brown, and the Winship — are employed. Mr. Grace, of 
Colleton, uses the needle gin. They vary in size, from forty to fifty saws, 
require, when run by horse-power, one mule to fifteen saws. Alx)ut half 
the gins are run by steam engines of from six to ten horse-power ; the 
balance by horses. The average of lint turned out per hour is 217 pounds, 
but it varies from 120 pounds per hour on a forty-saw Winship gin, run 
by horse-power, to 400 pounds on the needle gin, run Vjy steam. There 
is, also, a variety of presses. The old-fashioned screw is gradually being 
replaced by lever presses of cheap construction. Man and horse power 
alone are used, four men and one. to two horses packing from six to 
eight bales a day. Rope has been entirely replaced by iron ties for baling, 
and the arrow tie is generally used. Gunny bagging is used, the object 
being to get the heaviest in the market. Much of it is furnished from a 
bagging factory established in Charleston, which produces annually 
about the amount consumed in the State. The bales range from 450 to 
550 pounds, and the average is 500 pounds. The crop is shipped by 
sailing vessel direct to New York from Horry county, at a co.st of $1.75 
per bale, and all charges, including insurance, commission, <fec. «fec,, 
amount to §3 to $3.50 per bale. Elsewhere, the crop is mostly shipped to 
Charleston — if by river, the Santee and Pee Dee, at a cost of $1 per bale; 
if by rail, on the Northeastern or Charleston and Savannah railway, at 
$1.25 per bale The total co.st of marketing, including freight and all 
charges, when sent to Charleston, is rei)orted at from $3 to $5 per bale. 

The total cost of production is stated at seven cents per pound, at six 
cents to seven cents, at five cents to ten cents, varying with the season, 
and at eight cents. 

From the following table, taken from thcstatcment.s of planters as to 
the co.st of the labor and material expended in cultivating an acre of 
cotton, it would ai)pear that this averages $31.32 in the lower pine belt. 
Such cultivation should i)roduce a 500 pound bale, but allowing for the 
vicissitudes of .season, and taking 450 pounds of lint a.s a fair yield under 
this plan of operations, j)Utting this at ten cents at the gin house, we have 
a net j)rofit of $13.08 per acre, making the co.st of lint cotton per pound, 
G 1-10 cents, or a little less than the above estimates. This profit j)er 
acre \.< not credited with the value of the 1,000 pounds of cotton seed 
produced, amounting to about $10 more. 



CA 



THE LOWKU PIXE RELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 



Cost of carJi linn, of Labor and Muferial expended in the Cultivation of 

an Acre of Cotton: 



Unit . ; 

l-'cncini:, li('j)Mir!' aiul rnterest 

K'nockiiit; stalks 

riilliiii^Mind burning .stalks . 

Other clcaiiii;:: up 

Listiii;^ . . 

JU>(l(liiifr nitli liocs 

]{reakiii;;ui) 

Ilarrowjjii; 

Iiarrin<; old beds 

SjilittiiiLT middles 

iieversijj^ 

Laying' oir 

CoiDimTeial maiuiros .... 
Iluiiu'-inade manures .... 

Applyiufj^ manures 

r>eddin<j: U|) 

SplittiuL; middles 

KiKH-king of!" be<ls 

I'lanting — o))eninp 

dro])])in«;. . . . 

coverinj; .... * 

Replanting 

Seed 



Thinning 



ownig 

Hoeing 

Pieking 

Hauling to gin . . . 

(linning 

Management. . . . 
Wear of imjdemcnts. 
liiigging and tics . . 
~"TotalTT7~r: 



00$ 2 00 
00 1 00 
25' . . . 
25 
25 50 




851^35 i)7|$2« 15 



DISEASES, INSECTS, ENE>nES, AC. 

It may be safely said that more injury is done to cotton in this section 
by grass than by anything else, and the only remedy tliat can be devised 
against this is hoeing and i)lowing. Crab grass is the chief intruder. In 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 65 

warm and wet seasons the cotton sometimes grows too much to weed, when 
henvily manured, Tojjping is tried as a remedy, but it is thought that un- 
der-drainago would be more eflective. " Sore shin " is supposed to result 
from bruising the plant from careless hoaing, and is not a trouble of 
much consequence here. Shedding occurs in extremes of heat and cold. 
Rust and blight make their appearance late in July and August; they 
are attrilmted to the exhaustion of some elements of the soil, and potash 
is very ])0})ular as a remedy ; they are likely to occur on coarse, sandy, 
ill-drained soil. Caterpillar is seldom hurtful, and Paris green has been 
used successfully for its destruction. 



ABSTRACT OF THE REPORTS OF TOWNSHIP CORRESPOND- 
ENTS IN THE LOWER PINE BELT. 

HAMPTON COUNTY. 

Coosaivhatchie Township: Pine uplands — light, porous, gray, sandy 
loam, with yellow sand, sometimes with yellow and red clay subsoil. 
Swamp lands — vegetable mould or fine alluvial deposits, resting on blue 
mud. About one per cent, under cultivation. Land for sale at from two 
to ten dollars per acre ; imj)roved land rents at from one dollar to three 
dollars per acre. Phosphate rocks found, but not developed. Clay of 
good quality for brick making. Summer })asturagc of native grasses 
good ; fine growth of cane in swamps for winter i)asturage. Little at- 
tention paid to stock. Very little white labor in the lower, but a good 
deal in the upper portion of the township. — H. D. Burnett, Grahamville, 
S. C. 

Pceples Toivnship: Uplands — light, sandy loam, with clay in some 
sections; subsoil generally a coarse, yellow sand, under which is found 
red clay, with strata of coarse, white gravel and quicksand. Price of 
land, one dollar to five dollars. Rents, one dollar per acre. Wages of 
labor, filty cents to one dollar i)er day. One-half of field labor performed 
by whites. — J. 11. Steimage, Jr., Early Branch, S. C. 

COLLETON COUNTY. 

Adam's Run : Level, light, sandy loam, on dark sandy subsoil. Depth 
to water in wells, five to ten feet. Price of land, three dollars to five 
dollars per acre. Wages of day labor, seventy-five cents for men, fifty 
cents for women. One twentieth of field work is done by whites. Marl 
in abundance. 
5 



fiG THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

Cam: Lands level, flat, mostly cluy loam, sometimes sandy, yellow 
clay subsoil. Corn yields ten to thirty bushels per aero ; rico, ten to forty 
liusliels })cr acre. Much land is rented, little for sale, price two dollars to 
four dollars per acre. Much ash, poplar and cypress timber in Four-IIolo 
swamp. Little attention paid to stock. Day wages, forty cents. 

(k'orgc^H : Lands level ; two-thirds fine sandy loam, light gray color, four 
to six inches to sandy subsoil, resting on clay. Corn yields ten bushels, 
rice llftcen bushels, and sugar cane 300 gallons syrup per acre. One-third 
in swamps and bays unreclaimed. Price of land $2 to ^5 per acre. Clay 
for brick. Three water-]iow(TS, one working, the other two abandoned. 
Wages forty to iifty cents a day, One-tiiird of field work done by wliites, 

(j'lorrr : Fifteen per cent, pino ujdands, barely rolling enough for good 
drainage, .Soil coarse sandy loam, resting on red clay, with a white coarso 
sand below it. Ten percent, abandoned rice fields. Soil, vegetable mould 
two to four feet deep, resting on still" blue clay; easily reclaimable by 
cleaning out the old canals and ditches, which, while serving to drain 
and irrigate the land, would also give water transportation for the })ro- 
<lucc. Seventy-five per cjnt. swamps and hammocks unreclaimed, but 
very fertile, yielding, when fresh, fifty bushels corn per acre, and yield- 
ing now twenty-five bushels to thirty bushels corn, after being worked 
every year without manure since 1852. Nearly all the land owned by 
non-residents, and for sale ; rents when improved for two dollars per acre. 
Soils for cash at from fifty cents to two dollars per acre. Lower portion 
underlaid by phosphate rock, but not developed. Stock do well, but little 
attention is paid to it. AVages fifty cents a day. One-tenth of the farms 
worked by white men. — IL C. Glover, Walterboro, S. C. 

CHARLESTON COUNTY, 

St. Thomas and St. Dcnit: Once one of the wealthiest and most popu- 
lous parishes of the Colony and State, now scarcely one per cent, of the 
land under cultivation. Uplands level, light, sandy loam, resting on 
clay. Natural growth— pine, live oak, palmetto. Swamp lands unre- 
claimed, except the rice plantations on Cooper river. Industries — three 
brick-yards, five turpentine .'^tills, and wood for fuel boated to Charleston. 
l'hosi)hatc rock abounds in Wando river and the adjacent swamps, not 
developed. 

St. Jnlnis Berkeley: Much of the land unreclaimed swamp ; there is a 
belt of open prairie near the Santee, running from Orangeburg to the 
St, Stephen's line. Soil, light, fine sandy loam, resting on yellow clay ; at 
six inches to twelve inches depth below chalk and marl arc found. Lime 
rock crops out on Santee river, that hardens on exposure and might be 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 67 

utilized for building material; water, near the river, limestone ; inland, 
free stone. Price of land, $1 to $5 an acre. One place sold for ^S. Very 
little field work by whites ; negroes hire at from twenty cents to forty 
cents per day, or $50 to $75 by the year, or work two days in the week 
. for a house and as much land as they can cultivate, or on shares, the land- 
owner furnishing all except manures, and faking half. Timber abundant 
for lumber, staves, shingles, hoops, &.c. 

St. Stephen's : Lands along tlie river rolling, for tho rest level and 
swampy ; soil, a sandy loam, resting, at depth of six inches to twenty 
inches, on subsoil of stiff rod clay. Much unreclaimed swamp, composed of 
alluvial deposits and rich vegetable mould. Some marl stone found on the 
river, with some green sand. Trice of land, $1 to $5; per diem wages, 
average forty cents ; the long 8ta[)lo cotton, known as Santees, formerly 
grown here, neglected now; woods grass, swamp cane and marsli 
furnish a good range for stock, to which little attention is paid. 

St. Andrew's: Fine, dark, gray, sandy loam, resting, at six to ten inches 
depth, on blue clay, underlaid by phosphate rock and marl. No land for 
sale ; rents at from $1 to $3 per acre ; eighty per cent, not under cultiva- 
tion ; cane, woods grass, and swamp marsh furnish a good range for stock. 

CLARENDON COUNTY. 

Mott's Township : Three-fourths level, fine, gray, sandy loam, six inches 
to twelve inches to yellow sand (sometimes clay) subsoil, clay found one 
to two feet beneath surface; one-fourth white, sandy soil, and stiff clay 
land, or black flat land. Yields 700 pounds of seed cotton, five to twenty- 
five bushels of corn, ten to twenty-five bushels of rice. Land sells from 
$2 to $10 an acre, and rents for from $1 to §5; unimproved water-powers 
on Lynch's river and Douglass swamp. Two-thirds of field work done 
by whites ; wages average sixty-two and a half cents by the day. 

St. Paul's : 1st. Light sandy soil ; near tho river swamp, not subject to 
overflow ; contains lime, and is very productive. 2d. Inland from last, a 
belt of stiff clay land, called " bay land," produces a bale of cotton to the 
acre, without manure. 3d. The highlands, comprising the body of 
the township, known under the name of " clay lands," low and somewhat 
rolling, a sandy loam with small gravel in it, subsoil, yellow clay. Marl 
is found four to eight feet below low water mark ; yields 700 pounds of 
seed cotton, ten to twenty bushels corn, and the same of rice. Sugar-cane 
two to three hundred gallons of syrup per acre; potatoes two to four hun- 
dred bushels. Half tlio landholders reside outside tho township; lan(' 
mostly rented to negro farmers for four hundred pounds of lint for one 
mule farm ; two hundred pounds for one ox farm. White farmers do their 



08 TIIK LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

own fioM work ; labor only to bo had by tho job or by the day, nt forty 
(•(Mils to ono dollar. Laud .sells cheap for ca.sh ; on time at from ^-i to $0 
per acre. 

Manning : Surface level ; two-thirds uplands, fine dark sandy loam, rcst- 
iniT on siil>s.)il of yellow sand with yellow clay at one to twelve feet, boneath 
which a blue clay is found ; alluvial bottoms. Virgin upland soil yields 
fifteen bushels corn, or six hundred pounds seed cotton, or two hundred and 
fifty bushels potatoes; per acre. Price of land, one dollar to twenty dollars 
per acre. Besides clays, kaolin, etc., there are peats of good quality, marl 
anil lime rock. Wages of day labor, fifty cents to one dollar. One-third 
of farm work done by whites. 

Sammy Swamp: 1st. Light, dark gray, sandy loam. 2d. Reddish 
clay and sand loam, with clay subsoil. 3d. Low, flat, sandy loam, v.'ith 
a gray clay subsoil ; wet, but produces well when drained. No. 2, the 
most productive, yielding, with manure, two thousand pounds of seed 
cotton. Price of land, one dollar to ten dollars per acre. Day wages, 
forty cents to one dollar; one-half the field labor performed by whites. 
Marl, as a shell rock, underlays this township at a depth of .five feet. 

WILLIAMSBURG COUNTY. 

H'>ps T)wn'ihlp : Lands low, flat, level ; uplands fine, dark gray, sandy 
loam, with yellow sand subsoil ; clay found at a depth of eighteen inches ; 
flwamp lands unreclaimed ; yield of cotton, two hundred to four hundred 
pounds per acre; corn, eight bushels; rice, fifteen bushels; rent for one 
dollar and fifty cents per acre ; can bo bought for cash at three dollars to 
four dollars per acre; two water-powers unimproved; amount of white 
labor increivsing; day wages fifty cents; abundance of yellow pine, oak, 
cypress, etc., for lumber, staves and shingles. 

Scrmiton : Low, level lands, with fine, gray, sandy soil ; subsoil of 
yellow sand, beneath which is fine, stiff clay, overlying quicksand ; four 
percent, under cultivation ; yield — corn ten bushels; rice, twenty bushels; 
potatoes, one to four hundred bushels; cotton, eight hundred to twelve 
hundred pounds in tho seed; price, from one dollar and fifty cents to 
three dollars per acre; rents for one dollar, or one-fourth of the crop. 
Strata of marl occur; some valuable water-powers; turpentine, shingles 
and staves are gotten; abundant timber, including black walnut ; wages, 
a day, fifty cents for men, thirty cents for women; five-sixths of the work 
done by whites. 

Camp Ridge : Lands low, level ; large swanps unreclaimed ; upland 
fine, sandy loam, gray and dark, with yellow sand subsoil, under which 
occurs clay and sometimes strata of marl ; about ono per cent, cultivated. 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 69 

Forests yiold staves, shinfjlos, yellow pino lumber and turpentine. Yield 
of corn, two to twenty-five bushels ; rice, five to fifty bushels ; seed cotton, 
two hundred to eijLjhtcen hundred pounds. Land sells from one dollar 
and fifty cents to three dollars per acre ; improved land rents from one 
dollar to three dollars per acre ; lands rented mostly to negro tenants, a 
house and six to twelve acres given for two days' work in the week for 
ten months of the year ; day wages, from twenty cents to seventy-five 
cents ; half of the field work done by whites. 

Suttin^s: Near the river, lands rolling, fine, dark sand ; six inches to 
clay subsoil ; wells twenty-five to fifty feet deep. Further off, low, flat, 
light sandy soil, one foot to clay subsoil;, wells, four to ten feet deep; 
strata of marl rock occur ; white oak staves, shingles, ton timber, &c., 
abound in the forests, besides turpentine. Yield, without fertilizers, six 
to twenty bushels corn, one-half to one bale cotton. Turpentine lands 
sell for one dollar and fifty cents to two dollars per acre ; other lands, 
three dollars to ten dollars per acre. Day wages, fifty cents to one 
dollar ; nine-tenths of the field labor white, though the negroes are one 
and one-half to one of the whites. 

Mingo : The uplands level, fine sandy loam, gray to darkish and black, 
with clay subsoil. Swamps yield fifty to eighty bushels corn per acre ; 
rice, twenty to fifty bushels ; uplands, ten bushels corn, one-half bale 
cotton, without manure; sweet potatoes, one hundred to three hundred 
bushels per acre. Naval stores, white oak staves, cypress shingles, and 
other forest products abound. Day wages, fifty cents on farms, one 
dollar in tur[)entine business ; land rents from one dollar to two dollars 
per acre, sells for two dollars to three dollars. Three-fourths of field work 
by whites. Yellow calcareous sands and marl occur. 

MARION COUNTY. 

Britton's Neck : Most of the land river swamps or inland .swamps, 
known as bays or back swamps ; not reclaimed, but might be. Tiie up- 
lands are pino ridges and flats, a gray, sandy loam ; four to twelve inches 
to subsoil of yellow clay ; produce well. Cyjiross timber and other swarnp 
woods in abundance; cattle raising much followed formerly. Day wages, 
fifty cents ; much, if not most, of the -field work done by white men. 

IIORRY COUNTY. 

Gallivant^ H Ferry : Three-fourths of the land is a fine, dark gray, sandy 
loam, six inches to twelve inches to subsoil of red, less frequently of 
yellow clay, below which pipe clays of various colors occur. One-fourth 



70 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

swamp land of great fertility, but unimproved. Yield, three hundred 
to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton per acre, five to thirty bushels corn, 
fifteen to thirty bushels rice. Nine-tenths of the labor performed by 
whites, and directed principally to collecting forest products, timber, 
staves, shingles, naval stores, &c. 

GEORaETOWN COUNTY. 

Planicrm^lle. Largo inland swamps, not cleared ; pine upland, white 
t^'^ gray colored sandy soil, with a subsoil of sand, sometimes of red clay ; 
tide water rice lands, alluvial deposits, four to fifty feet thick. Price of 
uplands, one dollar to fifteen dollars per aero ; of rice lands, three dollars 
to fifty dollars per aero. Wages fifty cents per day. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT, 



LOCATION, PHYSICAL FEATURES AND GEOLOGY. 

The upper pine belt of South Carolina is sometimes called the middle 
country, as distinguished from the upper country and the low country, 
between which it lies. It has also been known as the central cotton 
region of Carolina, having formerly led, as it still does, in some regards, 
in the culture of that staple. It may be defined as that portion of the 
State lying between an elevation above the sea *of 130 and 250 fcet. It 
crosses the State, in a nortlieasterly direction, from the Savannah river to 
the North Carolina line. To the south it is bounded by the lower pine 
belt, where the flat, open piney woods, with an undergrowth of coarse 
grasses, gradually gives place to the higher and more rolling pine lands, 
with an undergrowth of oak and hickory. To the north, the upper pine 
belt sweeps round the feet of the interrupted range of high red hills 
traversing the State, or rises, in the intervals of this range, to thestill more 
elevated sand hills. It com[)rises, generally, the counties of iJarnwcll, 
Orangeburg,Sumter, Darlington, Marlboro and Marion. The northern half 
of llamptonandthenorthwestcornerof Colletonarc included in it. Along 
the rivers, it penetrates northward beyond the limits of the counties named. 
As ui)]ands, on the first level above the swamps, it extends, in Aiken 
county, as high up the Savannah as Old Fort Moore, at Sand Har ferry; 
in Richland, it reaches along the Congareo nearly to Columbia, em- 
bracing the wide, level area of Lower Townshij), lying between that river 
and the sand hills; along the Wateree, between the swamps and the High 
Hills of Santee, it passes into Kershaw county, and along the Great Pee 
Dee it passes up among the sand hills of Chesterfield. 



72 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 



The land is level, without being flat, anil is sufficiently rolling to insure 
good drainage for the most part. While the general slope follows the 
soutlieasterly course of the rivers, the land rises more rapidly in the west, 
wljich gives the region a marked easterly slo])e in addition to its south- 
easterly inclination. Thus, in the west, Ajipleton, on the Port Royal 
railroad, 4(3 miles distant from tide water, has an elevation of 259 feet, 
while Orangeburg, on the South Carolina railway. Go miles from tide 
water, has only the same elevation, and Wedgefield, on the Manchester 
and "Wihnington road, 74 miKs from tide water, has an elevation of only 
2oG feet ; these behig the liighest points on the respective roads. The 

WATER COURSES 

rising in this region, or in tlie sand l)ill region above, are clear and rapid, 
wliile the larger rivers passing through it, that come from the mountains, 
are turbid. The latter I'urni.'-h tliis rigirn wilh valuable facilities for the 
transjiortation of produce. On the western side, the Savannah is navi- 
gable to Augusta for steamboats of two hundred to three hundred tons 
burden. The Salkehatchie river, rising in Barnwell county, might be 
rendered navigable to tlie county seat, by ren.oving logs. The two 
Edistos might be rendered navigable for small steamboats, and if the 
contemplated canal, connecting these streams with the Ashley river, were 
opened, it would become an important avenue for the cheap trans])orta- 
tion of produce. Steamboats carrying eight hundred to one thousand 
bales of cotton have passed up the Santee and its confluents, the Con- 
gareo and A\'aterec, as far as Granby (two miles below Columbia), 
and to Camden. lu the cast, the Great Pee Dee is navigated to Cheraw, 
one hundred and twenty miles in an air line from tlie sea, by steamers ; 
for smaller craft. Lynch 's river (the Kaddipah) and Black Creek Avere 
navigable, the one eighty, and the other thirty miies from where they 
join tlic Great Pee Dee. The Little Pee Dee is also navigable for vessels 
of considerable burden. Besides the large streams mentioned, there are 
numerous smaller ones in this region, flowing with a rapid current, 
through liealtliy localities heavily timbered with pine, and capable of 
furnisliing water-powers sufHcient for the largest factories. Such are the 
Three Runs creeks and the Little Salkehatchie river, in Barnwell, with 
many smaller mill creeks ; in Orangeburg, such arc Four Hole, Caw Caw, 
Halfway, Bull, and Dean swamps, with many lesser mill streams (on the 
ridge between the North and South Edisto, springs of fine drinking water 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 73 

furnish a water-power sufficient for grinding and ginning, a few hundred 
feet from the spot where they issue from the earth). In Sumter, such 
are Black river, Scape, and Big and Little Rafting creeks ; in Darlington, 
Cedar (where a cotton factory was erected in 1812 by General ^\'illiams), 
Sparrow, High Hill, Swift, Dake, Jeffry's, Middle, and Brickhold creeks, 
with others; in Marlboro, Crooked, Beaver Dam, Three Runs, Naked, 
Muddy, White's, Phill's, Husband's, and Hick's creeks ; in Marion, Cat- 
fish, Ashpole, Buck, Sweet, Big, Smith, and Pope creeks. There are 
numerous small lakes, chiefly in the swamps, but sometimes on the up- 
lands ; in Barnwell, there is one, a beautiful sheet of clear water, two 
miles in circumference, with a beach-like shore, affording a fine drive, 
and surrounded on all sides by high and healthy pine uplands. The 
sweep wells, the bucket being attached to a pole, fastened to a long lever 
balanced near its midtlle, are characteristic of tliis region ; generally they 
are from ten to twenty feet in de])th, with only a short wooden curb on 
top, for the rest uncurbed, being dug through a fine, compact, yellow or 
red clay, to a stratum of quicksand, in which an abundant supply of 
pure and cool water is found. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

West of the Black river, in Sumter county, the line where the buhr-.stone 
formation pa.sses under the Santee marls, traverses the centre of the upper 
pine belt. North of it occur the silicificd shells of the buhr-stone ; .south 
of it, the coralline marls, botli belonging, to the eocene. East of the 
stream named, and in the direction of Darlington courthouse, occur 
numerous outcroppings of the miocene marls, in Sumter and Darlington 
counties. Lower down, in Darlington and Marion counties, on the 
waters of Lynch's river and of the Great and Little Pee Dee, extensive 
beds of marl of the cretaceous formation of the secondary make their ap- 
pearance. 

Commencing on the Savannah river, a few miles above the mouth of 
the lower Three Runs, Mr. Tuomey traces the upper limit of the Santee 
marls to Tinker's creek, the dividing line of Aiken and Barnwell counties ; 
thence, southeasterly, to Binnaker's bridge, on the South Etlisto river ; 
thence to Caw Caw swamp, north of Orangeburg, and across to Halfway 
swamp, where, below the site of Stuart's old mill, the most satisfactory 
locality is found for observing the pasj^ago of the buhr-stone formation 
under the green sand, overlaid by thick strata of Santee marls ; thenco 
to the Santee river, and across that stream into Clarendon and Sumter 
counties. As an average, the Santee marls are found to contain 88i*i per 
cent, of carbonate of lime, and were formerly in considerable use as an 



74 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

amendment to the soil. Quantities of excellent lime were also obtained 
from them by burning, especially by Dr. Jamison, on Caw Caw swamp. 
The green sand marls intercalated with them contain 30 per cent, of car- 
bonate of lime, and 22 per cent, of green sand. 

The marls of Sumter and Darlington, examined by Mr. Tuomey, were 
found to contain GO to 70 per cent, of carbonate of lime, with traces of 
phosphate of lime. Larger quantities of the latter are said to have been 
found here since attention has been directed to the value of phosphates. 

SOILS. 

The upi)er pine belt contains something over 0,000 square miles, about 
one-sixth of which is swamp and the remainder uplands. 

Tiie ujilands consist of a fine, light, gray, sandy loam, resting on a sub- 
soil of re«l or yellow clay. In the east, in Marlboro and Marion, it is 
usually found at only three inches to four inches. In the west it is often 
deeper, and a subsoil of yellow or red sand intervenes between it and the 
sui'face soil ; even hero the depth to clay is seldom as much as two feet. 

The following are the analyses of these soils, made by Eugene A, Smith, 
of Alabama, for the Tenth United States Census : 

(1) (2) 

Insoluble matter .... 93.G95 91.230 

Soluble Silica 1.483 2.489 

Potash 0.07G 0.092 

Soda O.OGO 0.046 

Lime 0.114 0.092 

Magnesia 0.202 0.046 

lin. Oxide of Manganese . 0.020 0.105 

Peroxide of Iron .... 0.737 0.700 

Alumina 1.840 2.389 

Phosphoric acid 0.03G 0.125 

Sulphuric acid O.IOG O.IGO 

^Vater and organic matter 1.771 3.001 

Total 100.146 100.G25 

Hydroscopic moisture @ 
* 75° F 2.512 2.245 

No. 1 is from the John.son field, on the Cathwood plantation of P. F. 
Hammond, in Aiken county, near the Savajiiiah river, the .soil being taken 
uniformly, as all the samples were, to the depth of twelve inches. The 



(3) 


(4) 


96.000 


84.754 


0.950 


4.435 


0.040 


0.192 


0.027 


0.009 


0.052 


. 0.0G8 


0.0G2 


0.294 


0.023 


0.036 


0.564 


1.997 


0.456 


4.854 


0.049 


0.022 


0.0G3 


0.236 


1.561 


3.312 


99.843 


100.209 


1.441 


4.518 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 75 

original growth was long leaf pine, with undergrowth of post oak and 
black jack runners. The land was cleared in 1835 and has been planted 
continuously in cotton for the last thirteen years, yielding from 1,000 to 
1,200 pounds seed cotton average on two hundred acres last year. The 
cotton being a long staple variety of uplands, selling for two to five cents 
a pound above ordinary uplands and not very prolific. 

No. 2, from Gov. Hagood's plantation, near Barnwell C. H. ; mulatto 
soil; original growth, long leaf pine ; oak and hickory undergrowth; 
yield 704 pounds seed cotton, average for ten years on one hundred and 
forty acres. 

No. 3, field of Hon. C. S. McCall, near Bennettsvillo ; original growth 
long leaf pine, with undergrowtli of oak and dcjgwood; has been planted 
for two or three generations ; yield for several years past, one bale per 
acre. 

No. 4, virgin forest soil, from red clay ridge, near Marion and Marlboro 
line, on Donohoe, plantation of W. D. Johnson ; growth, large hickory, 
oak and pine; similar land under present culture averages for large fields 
a bale of cotton to the aero one year with another, when plante<l for a 
succession of years in the same crop. 

The following analyses are by Prof. Shepard, and were published in 
Tuomey's Agricultural Survey of South Carolina, in the year 1848. No. 

1 is from the cotton lands below Columbia, in Richland county ; and No. 

2 is from near Bennettsville, Marlboro county : 

(1) (2) 

Organic matter 9.00 5.40 

Silica 70.50 77.30 

Alumina 6.G0 4.80 

Oxide of iron 2.40 5.00 

Lime 1.00 0.80 

Magnesia 0.50 1.00 

Potash and soda trace 0.00 

Phosphates 0.00 0.00 

"Water and loss 4.00 4.70 



100.00 100.00 

The Pee Dee lands were little esteemed formerly, and seventy-five years 
ago many of them were considered so impoverished by cultivation as to 
have been abandoned by their owners for the fre.sh lands of Alabama. 
Under the present system of culture they are the most prwluctive and 
certain in the State, As the above analyses show no superiority of tho 



70 TnK UPPER PIN'E BELT. 

cli(>niioal ronHliluciits of tlicsc poils, it muMt bo stAtod that tlicir grofttor 
productivi'iicsH am only bo nttriLutod imiinly to tlioir cxcoUont and ju- 
dicious maim^Tcmont, by which lands, naturally yielding only thrco to 
four hundred pounds of seed cotton, arc made to give a bale of cotton one 
yr-ar with anotlior. A good, though not a thorough, drainage, by o])cn 
ditche.i, has lowered the water level in tho.sc lands at least four feet. Tiie 
])liysical properties of the soil lend themselves readily to improvement. 
The sandy surface soil, although thin, is very fine, and the clay is of so 
fine a texture as to bo usually described as floury. It is noteworthy, also, 
that fresh land of a grayish color, or where the plow turns up the subsoil 
of a yellowisii or reddish cast, blackens on exposure, and becomes darker 
year by year as they are cultivated. Tiie exemption from drought, which 
these lands in largo measure enjoy, while greatly duo to their drainage 
and good tilth, may depend somewhat on the body of live water in the 
quicksand which underlies them at a depth of fifteen to twenty-five feet, 
whose inhaustion, in hot dry seasons, through the fine texture of the in- 
tervening clays, is not unlikel}'. At any rate this locality rarely sutlers 
from drouglit. 

. The swamps, covering 1,000, square miles of this region, are of two 
descriptions: 

1st. The river swamps. Tho soil is of a mulatto or mahogany color, 
and is a heavy alluvial loam, rendered lighter sometimes by an admix- 
ture of fine sand and mica, whence they are called isinglass lands. Such 
swamps are found on tlie banks of the Savannah, tho Santee, tho Con- 
garee, Waterec and Pee Di-c rivers, varying from narrow strips to broad 
bottoms six and eight miles in breadth. The following is an analysis made 
for the })atcnt oflice, by C. T. Jackson, M. D., of Boston, in 1537, of the 
alluvial soil of the Savannah river : 

Silica 78.000 

Alumina 10.040 

Lime 0.200 

Magnesia 0.200 

Potash 1.000 

Soda 0.730 

IV'Toxido of iron and oxide of manganese 4M')0 

Piio.sphoric acid ■ O.iUO 

Sulphuric acid trace. 

Chlorine 0.060 

Crenic, apocrenic and humic acids 0.400 

Insoluble vegetablo matter 4.300 



100.140 



THE UPPER PINE DELT. 77 

The })ody of those fl\vatni)» lie below the i)oiiit where tljo above wamplo 
was obtained, and are of eourMO more fertile. Such soil, well cultivated, 
yields, without manure, 1,200 to 1,500 pounds of seed cotton, and from 
forty to seventy-five bushels of corn. These lands were being rapidly 
cleared and cultivated anterior to the war. Since then they have been to 
a great extent al)andoned for the higher and more easily tilled uplands. 
The freshet of 1(S05 broke the dams on the Great Pee Dee, which excluded 
the freshets, and they have never been repaired. These lands are subject 
to overflow, and the erection of levees for protection has been only prac- 
ticed here and there by large planters. In the absence of records show- 
ing the risk from freshets to these lands, the following extract from a 
plantation record, kept by James II. Hammond, is taken. The island 
field is at Silver Bluff, on Savannah river, and lies rather lower than the 
averoge of the Savannali river swamps. It received no manure, and be- 
ing small and of little moment in the larger operations of the plantation, 
it had hardly average care bestowed upon it. It was planted continuously 
in corn and jmmpkins (no record kept of the latter crop, which was always 
abundant). The years not entered are due to the absence of the proprie- 
tor, the land being planted as usual : 

Year. Aches Planted. 

1838 25 

1839 25 

1840 15 

1841 20 

1842 25 

1843 20 

1844 25 

1845 25 

1847 10 

1848 : 25 

1840 25 

1850 25 

1851 25 

1852 25 

1854 30 

1855 30 

1850 30 

1800 25 

Giving an average yield of thirty-five bushels corn per acre. During 
these twenty-two years only one crop was seriously damaged by freshets. 



Crop. 


925 


bushels. 


950 


« 


450 


i( 


075 


K 


2,075 


<( 


895 


« 


850 


(1 


500 


« 


S32 


(( 


974 


<( 


IjOOO 


« 


250 


U 


587 


l( 


800 


« 


OOO 


« 


210 


<l X 


900 


II 


000 


l< 



78 THE Uri'ER PINE BELT. 

The jrreat August freslict of 1852 injured one-third of the crop so that it 
could only bo fed to hogs. The fluctuations of yield from eight to eighty- 
five was due to the seasons to a very small extent, and resulted chiefly 
from neglect of this field for larger interests, 

2d. The other descriptions of swamps are known as bays, or upland 
swamps, and creek bottoms. They occur on the smaller streams, and 
rarely exceed two miles in width. They are also found in bodies of seve- 
ral thousand acres in the pine lands, on the second levels from the rivers — 
probably ancient lakes, choked up with water-growth. The soil is black, 
consisting largely of decomposed vegetable matter, with a depth of three 
to fifteen feet, resting usually on white sand. The following analysis wag 
made by Professor Shepard, of a sample taken from the swamp of South 
Edisto river : 

Organic matter 28.00 

Silica 60.00 

Alumina 4.00 

Oxide of iron 3.40 

Lime 0.50 

Potnsh and soda • trace 

Water aud loss 5.10 



100.00 



From 1845 to ISGO, a good deal in the way of clearing these lands waa 
done. Since then thev have been much neglected, of necessity, and are 
relapsing into their original state. They are not suitable for cotton, but 
I)roducc large crops of corn. The Cowdcn plantation gave for twelve 
ycar.s, without manure of any sort, an average yield of thirty-five bushels 
of corn per acre, on GOO to 900 acres in one field. One year GOO acres gave 
an average of sixty-two and one-third bushels of corn per acre. Now it 
docs not j)roducc even enough to feed the stock of the negro renters, who are 
cultivating patches of cotton on its margin, owing to the abandonment of 
all drainage. 

Under the system of agriculture, at present pursued, the chief atten- 
tion is paid to tlio more easily tilled, but k's.s fertile uplands. Neverthe- 
less, there is in the upper pine belt a body of GOO.OOO acres of productive 
corn land, now almost wholly neglected, but once cultivated with great 
profit, when corn was worth only fifty to sixty cents a bushel, capable now 
of yielding fifty per cent, more than the present entire corn crop of the 
State. 



o 




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THE UPPER PINE BELT. 79 



CLIMATE. 



The upper pine belt is a peculiarly healthy region, and throughout ite 
extent Mills and Simms, in their statistics, have enumerated a remarkable 
number of instances of longevity. There are no prevailing diseases 
unless it bo a mild type of mahirial fever during autumn, along the 
river swamps. The ui)land swamps not being subject to overflow, and 
resting on sand, are not troubled witli these complaints when drained and 
cultivated. The seasons most favorable for cotton are those in which 
there is a dry, cold winter to facilitate the preju'ration of the land. Light 
showers in April to insure germination, A dry and warm ^lay and June, 
not only to render the destruction of the grass easy, but, as the cotton- 
planters term it, to "cook" the cotton plant"; hot weather, and even 
drought, at this stage of growth, increasing its productiveness. In July 
and August, hot weather, and seasonable showers, to keep up the strength 
of the plant and promote. fnictification, A dry fall for picking. The 
length of time between the latest frost in the spring and the earliest frost 
in autumn has an important bearing on the crop, and^ in the absence of 
other records, the preceding table is given. 

Although the cotton planting during these years wan sometimes com- 
pleted as early as the 30th of March, irreparable injury to the stand was 
only, inflicted once, in 1S40, when snow foil on the ir)t}i of April, and was 
8UC(;eeded by cold weather. Nor do the autumn frosts always destroy the 
plant completely ; blossoms at Christmas and New Year arc not unfre- 
quently seen, and there are occasionally winters of such mildness that 
tlio old cotton roots throw out fresh shoots in the spring, and there are rare 
instances where fields lying out have thus borne a crop the second year, that 
was worth gathering. 

GROWTH. 

The early settlers in this region were stock raisers. They kept up 
the Indian practice of burning off the woods during the winter. The 
destruction of the undergrowth by this means favored the growth of 
grasses, and numerous herds of almost wild cattle and horses found abun- 
dant pasturage, chiefly upon what was known as the wild oat, and the 
wild pea-vine. The cattle were sometimes slaughtered for their hides and 
tallow. The names of many townships and neighborhoods still testify to 
this primitive industry, as Steer Pen, Steer|)oint, Horse Pen, and Pen Cor- 
ner. The uplands wero covered, as they still are, with a large growth of 
yellow pine, but a deer might then have been seen, in the vistas made by 
their smooth stems, a distance of half a mile, where now, since the dis- 
continuance of the spring and autumn fires, it could not be seen fifteen 



80 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

jmccs for the thick growth of onk and liickory that has taken the land. 
AmoMj; the many varieties of oaks, the live oak does not appear, except 
HM a i)]an(<'(l tree ; the water oak, liowever, attains perfection, covering with 
its evergreen foliage, not unfrequently.an area of half an acre, and niea.s- 
uring eight to ten feet through at the root. Tliis is the northern limit of 
the magnolia in its wild state, and of the gray moss. The swamp woods 
are cypress, while oak, gum, ash, hickory, beech, elm, and black walnut, 
besides tlu''i)ine, there is on the upland, dogwood, hickory and eight or 
ten varieties of oak, among which are the forked leaf blackjack, indica- 
tive here of a dry an<l thirsty soil; and the round leaf blackjack, showing 
a m(»ister and.more fruitful soil. The olive, the Italian chestnut, and 
l)ine, vari(!ties of mulberry, the fig, peaciies, applet, pears, pomegran- 
iti's, plum-i, pecan nuts, Englisli walnuts, grapes, etc., are succed.sl'uUy 
grown. 

• PRODUCTIONS. 

The staple crops are cotton, corn, oats, rye (the southern variety), and 
wheat, to a limited extent; peanuts, yielding an average of forty bushels })er 
acre, sweet potatoes and rice. The culture of indigo and tobacco has been 
abandoned, though once found profitable. Considerable attention is paid 
in some localities to forest products — turpentine, pine timber, cypress 
shingles, and white oak staves. Little attention is paid to stock raising. 
Ninety to ninety-five per cent, of the work stock, oxen excepted, are im- 
jiorted. Cattle, hogs and sheep depend almost entirely for their sup|)ort 
ui)ou such food as the range furnishes, with as little (or less) looking after 
as tlie first settlers bestowed on their wild herds. Mills gives the stock 
in Orangeburg county, in 1825, as follows : cattle, 25,0UU ; sheep, 10,000 ; 
swine, 50,000. In the census of 1880 it stands: cattle, 10,57o; sheep, 
5,7GG; swine, 37,742 — a decline in the total of 20,000, notwithstanding 
the po])ulation has increased from 15,5G3, at that time, to 40,905 in 1880, 
agriculture remaining still their chief pursuit. Besides clay for bricks 
and marl.(except a deposit of iron ore near High Ilill creek, Orangeburg), 
no minerals of value have been discovered in this region. The Pee Dee 
is the last river to the south where herring is caught in large numbers. 
Shad in the spring, and sturgeon and rocklish in the summer and autumn, 
ascend all the rivers in this region, exce})t that shad never enter the 
waters of the Little Pec Dee, notv.'ithstanding they are clear and deep like 
those of the Edisto. 

STATISTICS. 

Tiie upper pine belt covers about G,230 square miles, and has a popu- 
lation of 221,409, or 35.5 to the square mile, bearing in this regard about 
the same proportion to the other regions of the State that it did in the 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 81 

.enumeration of 1870. The percentage of colored population is sixty 
against sixty-three in 1870. 

The area of tilled land is 048,.')21 acres, being 152 acres to the square 
mile, or nearly one-fourth of the entire surface. It is 4.2 acres per cai)ita, 
and twenty-one acres to the head of work stock. These lands being of 
easy tillage, not unfrequcntly forty-five acres, exclusive of small grain, is 
well cultivated to the mule. This is an increase of ] (57,407 acres over 
the enumeration of 1S70, by no means proportionate to the increa.^c 
in the population f^nce that date. More than one-third, or 358,505' acres, 
is in cotton, which is nine and a third per cent, of the entire surface, and 
twenty-yix per cent, of the cotton acreage of the State. It is ten acres to 
the work animal, and one and a half acres per capita of the population; 
418,417 acres are in grain crops of all kinds, including corn, small grain 
and rice; 100,700 acres arc in fallow and in other crops; as fallow is not 
regularly practiced in the husbandry here pursued, and as the other crops 
include only sugar cane, potatoes, orchards and gardens, almost exclu- 
sively for local use, and consequently small, this figure includes some of 
the corn lands whose culture has been so largely abandoned, but which 
are not yet entirely grown up. 

The farms number 10,040, averaging nearly fifty acres of tilled land to 
the farm, which is the largest average in the State. Their relation, how- 
ever, to the iK)pulation remains al)out the same as in th(T regions .south of 
this, viz: one farm -to twelve and a half of the population; north of this 
the number of farms in proportion to the population increases. 

The crops are : 

Cotton, 148,050 bales, against 8.3,210 in 1870, an increase of seventy 
per cent. It is twenty-eight per cent, of the crop of the State. The yield 
is 327 pounds lint per capita, the largest, except in the comparatively 
small Red Ilill region, where it is 348 pounds of lint. The average yield 
per acre is 202 pounds of lint, which is also larger than elsewhere, except 
for the small crop of the lower pine belt. In Marlboro county, the yield 
per acre averages 207 pounds of lint, and the yield per capita, 530 pounds 
of lint. This is the maximum product in the State, and entitles the region 
to its designation as the central cotton belt of Carolina. 

The grain crop is 3,031, .302 bushels, an increase of one and a half mil- 
lions of bushels on the returns of 1870. This includes corn, small grain 
and rice, and constitutes twenty-one per cent, of the grain crop of the 
State. It is sixteen bushels per capita of the population, and 8.0 bushels 
per acre. Allowing eighty bushels a year to the head of work stock, the 
35,400 head in this region would leave less than 000,000 bushels for the 
population, two and three-quarter bushels per capitn, with nothing for the 
other live stock. The maximum average product is attained in Marlboro, 
C 



.'^2 THE urncR pine iuclt. 

toil aiii] a qnnrtcr bushels per acre, twenty nnd a half bushels per capita . 
of population. 

The live stock number 313,811, which is one to every thirteen acres; 
sixteen to- each farm ; 11.4 head to each one of the population; two to 
the bale of cotton, and one to every eleven bushels grain produced. 

SYSTEM OF FARMING AND LABOR. 

A mixed system of farminpj is pursued in the uppei*]nno belt, and the 
attempt is made to raise at least a portion of the necessary farm suj)plics. 
They are not raised, however, to the extent they were formerly, and al- 
thoufrh the reports all state that the teiulency to raise them is increasing, 
the deficiency still remains very great, as the number of liens given for 
provisiojis and recorded against the growing crop show. In Barnwell there 
were 2,0*20 lions, averaging one hundred and twenty-five dollars, being 
eight dollars and eighty cents per bale of cotton j)roduced ; in Orangeburg 
there were 2,470 liens, averaging ninety dollars, being nine dollars and 
eighty-seven cents per bale; in Darlington there were 3,025 liens, averaging 
one hundred dollars, being sixteen dollars and forty cents per bale; in Marl- 
boro there were 1,1S3 liens, averaging one hundred and ten dollars, being 
five dollars and forty cents per bale ; in Marion there were twelve hundred 
liens, averaging one hundred dollars, being five dollars and a half j)er 
bale. The number of liens for ISSO show an increase on those given 
above for 1870. This docs not indicate u diminution in tlie amount of 
supplies raised by farmers, but oidy shows an increase in tiie nund)er of 
laborers who arc seeking a credit, to enable them to do business on their 
own account as tenant farmers. It is by this class chiefiy that the liens 
arc given, mostly for provisions, next for fertilizers, and to some extent 
for mules and farm implements. It is the general ex{)eriencc that these 
small tenant farmers, mostly negroes, meet their obligations to the best 
of their ability; nevertheless, a mortgage given in January or February, 
on a crop not to bo })lanted until April, is not taken as a first-class com- 
mercial security, and consequently the charges on the advances are 
heavy ; for instance, when the cash price of corn is seventy five cents, 
the credit price is not unfrcquently one dollar and twenty cents and up- 
ward. 

West of the Santce and Watcree rivers in this region, the average acre- 
age in cotton to the farm is fourteen acres; on only one farm is there over 
four hundred acres in cotton ; in seventeen townships the maximum acre- 
age is under one hundred acres; in twenty it is one hundred to two hun- 
dred; in five it is two hundred to three hundred; in two it is three 
hundred to four hundred. 



THE UITEIl PINE BELT. 83 

East of tho rivers named there are farms liaving over six hundred 
acres in cotton, the average acreage in cotton to the farm is sixteen acres. 
Here forty-six per cent, of the farms are rented, and fifty-four per cent, 
worked by the owners. Of the rented farms, thirteen per cent, are over 
fifty acres, while of those worked by the owners eighty per cent, are 
above tliat figure. 

The hiborers are chiefly negroes, but the number of whites engaged in 
fiehl hibor is largely increasing, in some localities, especially cast of the 
Pee Dee, where one-third to one-half the field labor is performed by 
whites. The general price of day labor is fifty cents and food, tlnnigh it 
fluctuates from forty cents to Hcventy-fivo cents. The cla.ss of day lalxjrers 
is also largely increasing, being recruited from the increasing class of 
tenant farmers, who supplement tlieir earnings ])y hiring out when not 
busy with their own crops, or when pressed for ready cash. Contract labor- 
ers are becoming much fewer; tho general wages is ten dollars a month 
and rations, but in some localities it is as low as six dollars to eight dol- 
lars, and in others as high as twelve dollars to fifteen aollars, the higher 
prices prevailing in the northeast, tho lower to the southwest, being less 
where the percentage of negroes is greatest, and vice versa. Hands 
hired by the year receive from ninety dollars to one hundred and twenty 
dollars, with rations, shelter firewood and truck patelies. Hands, how- 
ever, have always preferred, when contracting for a year's work, to have 
some interest in tho crop, and this desire has steadily increased so as to 
have become by far the most general )>raeticc. This has been arranged in 
so many, and in such complicated ways, as to jyreciludo any geni-rnl de- 
scription. For instance, a widely adopted system is one j)roposed as <'arly 
as ]8()(), by a negro laborer in Silverton township. Tiie laborer works 
five days in the week for tho land owner and has a house, rations, three 
acres of laud, and a mule and j)l()W every other Saturday to work it when 
necessary, with sixteen dollars iuvmoney at the end of tho year. Had ho 
-worked four days and a half j)er week for tho land owner, and one and a 
half days for himself, this would have been equivalent to one-fourth of 
the crop and his food. The sixteen dollars was intended to cover tho fifty- 
two half days more than this, which ho worked.* This .system proved 

* Tliis freediniin was imprc«Hed Mith the belief that the share of tlio laboicr HhuiilJ 
be his food an<l slielter, and one-fourth of the produce. While lie was sure that 
his i>foportion covered thin, he coidd neither state tho rationale as above j:iven, or aj*- 
parently understand it, when stated. It may serve as an ilhistrafion of the instinctive 
processes by which these |)Coplc seemed to i^rasp intuitively the most comijlicated j>rob- 
leins, and the most advanced doctrines in fho ureat questions as to the remuneration of 
labor. Only just emancipated, they at once take jrround, to which the laborers of tho 
old world seem to have been struggling up through all the centuries since the abolition 
of serfdom. 



84 ■ THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

very successful, and tlic second year a number of laborers proposed to 
work only four days, feed them.selves and take double the land and mule 
■work, without the money. The third year three-day hands came in, fur- 
nishin^T in part their own work stock ; and as some hands paid the rent 
for a house and an acre of land by giving two days work a week, there 
were found various classes of hands on the same places, working from two 
to six days in tlie week. The share system i3'i)racticcd more largely in 
Barnwell tlian in Hampton, and still more in Darlington and Marlboro. 
The terms arc generally the same, the employer furnishing land, teams 
and implements, the laborer feeding himself and getting one-third to one- 
half, after paying for his pro rata of bagging, ties, and ftTtilizcrs. Chan- 
cellor Johnson says (Marlboro county) : " I have a good many tenants, 
wliite and l)lack, I furnish the stock, food f(»r it, ])ay one-half the black- 
smith, fertilizer, bagging and ties account, and furnish giiniing facilities; 
the truant (luis his garden and potato patch free) does all the work, from 
repairing fences and ditches to preparing the crop for market, my ad- 
vances arc rcpaid^nd the crop is equally divided. Tiie tenants generally 
get at tlie rate of eight to ten bates for each mule they work, grain for their 
f;imily supitliivs and enough to make their meat. I get the same amount of 
cotton and more tlinn grain enough for the next year's crop. I have had 
some tenants over ten years." lie prefers liired labor where the j)lanta- 
tion is not too large, that is about eight ]>lows. The advantage of 
cither system depends upon the character of the individual, good tenants 
Itcing sometimes jjoor laborers, and vice versa. Each locality repoVts 
favorably of the system pursued there. 

In Hampton, the wages system is preferred, the laborers run no risks, 
the soil is improving, the condition of the. laborers good, very few of them 
own house or land. Lands sell from one dollar to twenty-five dollars per 
acre, and rent for one dollar to three dollars in small patches; little land 
is rented. 

In Barnwell, the laborer decides under which system ho will work. 
Share hands and renters i)ick cleaner cotton than wage liands, 'The 
Mages system is preferred, by the planters, tiie laborer runs no risks, his 
])ay is net money, lie spends it nnd lives and works better, and land im- 
jiroves. The condition of the laborer is good and imi)roving, quite a 
number own houses and lands. The market value of land is three dollars 
to ten dollars an acre, including improved and unimproved. The rent 
is from one dollar to three dollars in money.; in kind it is seventy- 
five pounds of lint cotton per acre, or one thousand pounds of lint 
for a forty acre farm, or a five hundi'ed pound bale for fifteen to twenty 
acres. 

In the lower j^art of Orangeburg, year hands receive monthly six dol- 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 85 

lars; the share system is also practiced hero; no preference expressed be- 
tween the two. The condition of tlio laborers is reported* as good.* The 
market value of land is from two dollars to ten dollars; and a good deal 
is rented from two to four dollars. 

In Darlington, wages by the year are one hundred and twenty dollars 
for men, ninety dollars for women, with house, rations, fuel and truck 
patches. The share system and tenant system are largely practiced ; 
the laborers do not work so well, nor do they realize sof much, but 
they prefer less and ^to ])0 independent of control ; their condition is 
good, two per cent, own houses and land. The market value of land 
is ten dollars^ and the rental yields about seven per cent, on the invest- 
ment. 

In Marlboro and Marion, a considerable part of the field labor is per- 
formed by whites ; day wages are from thirty to sixty cents,-by the month 
six dollars to twelve dolhirs, and the same when engaged for the year, in 
all eases with board. The share and tenant system are largely practiced 
(see above for terms, &c.). Condition of the laborers gw>d, they arc 
contented and happy ; three to five i)er cent, of the negroes own 
land or a house. The market viduo of land is ten dollars to fifty dollars 
per acre, and rents are from three dollars to fifteen dollars per acre. 
(For further particulars see abstract of reports of townsliip corres- 
pondents.) 

From the southwest of Aiken county it is reported that the tendency to 
raise supplies fluctuates with the price of cotton, being increased by low 
and diminished by high j)rices. The share system is largely practiced, 
the laborer having one-third where he feeds himself, one-fourth where he 
is fed, the land owner advances everything, and the laborer's proi)ortion 
of the expenses is taken out of the crop. Tiie share sy.stem is not gene- 
rally .satisfactory ; it is difficult to get cotton cleanly handled ; land worked 
under the supervision of the proprietor generally improves ; when rented, 
es[)ecially to negro tenants, it rapidly deteriorates ; five per cent, of the 
negro laborers own land or their house; those who work steadily are 
prosperous, the i)roi)ortion that do this is not, however, large. Tho 
market value of land is four dollars to fifteen dollars jicr acre, in- 
cluding wood land; tilled land rents for from one dollar to five dollars 
per acre. • 

The following comi)arison in some of the regards above treated of be- 
tween Darlington and Marlboro counties is offered, because in 1870 Dar- 
lington led all the counties in the State in the production of cotton, nearly 
doubling the crop of the next highest; now it .stands eighth in total pro- 
duction, and Marlboro stands highest in the yield per capita and per acre; 
the counties-lie side by side : 



80 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



• 


Yield in 
lbs. lint 
Cotton. 


Amount 

of liens 

for each 

Bale of 

Cotton 

produced 

in 

1879. 


FARMS. 


COUNTIKS. 






Percentage. 


Percentage 

woi'ked by 

owners. 


Percentage 
worked by 






renters. 




Under 
fifty 

Acres. 


j Over 

fifty 

Acres. 


Under Over 

fifty fifty 

Acres. Acres 


Darlington... 
Marlboro 


o3G 


107 
207 


$10.40 
Sr).40 


43 
55 


57 
45 


17 
12 




85 
80 


15 
20 



TILLAGE AND LMPROVEMENT. 

Enclosures, under the colonial laws, that have not been changed, are 
r('(|nirc<l to be cattle proof. The fences are built of pine rails ten feet 
in h'ligth, running about one iiundred to the cord, worth usually fifty 
cents a cord, and are split for fifty cents j»er hundred, making the cost 
one dollar ]»er hundred in the woods. Fourteen rails make eight feet in 
length of worm fence, or 0,240 rails })cr mile, lasting, on an average, five 
years. A recent act of the legislatui'c allows each township to determine 
by vote, whether the crops or the stock shall be enclosed, if the latter, the 
townshi]) to tax itself for the fences necessary to j)rotect it from the stock 
of the adjoining townships. To this date few townships in this belt have^ 
availed themselves of this law.* 

Drainage is little practiced in this region; the culture of the swamps 
being generally abandoned, and the uplands being thought not to require 
it. Li ^rarlboro and Marion, however, great benefit results from a system 
of oj>en ditclies very generally adoj)ted (see above soils). Little or noth- 
ing is require*! in the way of hillside ditches on these comparatively level 
lands, where little injury is experienced from washing. 

The former practice of allowing fields to lie fallow, for the benefit of 
the growth of weeds, which increased the vegetable matter in the soil, and 

*Since tlu» al)ove w;i8 writton the .'•^tate Ie;^i.><l:itiiro lias passed u <reneral law for 
tlio whole State, inakiiiL; it incmnhent on the owners of live stock to sec that they 
flo nottrosjiass on others. The tillerof thesoil is no lon'^rer compelled to build fenccflto 
jirotect the fruits of his labor from the inroad;* of his nei^rhbors' cattle, thus cavinj: all cost 
in building and repairing fences, estimated in 187'J at ir'JlT.ODO by the 10th U. i<. Census. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 87 

which killed by their shade the grasses that were especially troublesome 
on cultivated lands, has been almost wholly abandoned. Nor is there 
any regular or general system of rotation of crops. Cotton lands espe- 
cially are planted year after year in the same crop, and if properly man- 
ured, are thought to improve. Rotation, when practiced, is two years 
cotton, one year corn ; small grain is planted in the fall, after the corn is 
gathered, and the next summer a crop of corn or cow-peas is grown on 
the stubble, to be followed the next spring l>y cotton. In Marlboro county, 
land planted in cotton for fourteen successive years, without additional 
manure, except the increased cotton seed from the larger crops, produce 
double what tliey did at first. 

The fiill j)]owiiig of cotton and corn lands, onco much practiced, has 
been very generally abandoned ; some still think it pays to ]>rciik the 
land eight or ten inches deep in tlie fall about every fourth y<-ar, other- 
wise it is only done to turn under weeds on land that has been resting. 

The dcj)th of tillage varies from two and a half to six inches, measured 
on the land side of the furrow, and it is very rare to sec more than one 
animal used in plowing. It is only the larger farmers, who are becoming 
scarcer, who use two-horse plows occasionally. 

The amount of land once cultivated, that has been abandoned, is stated 
as very little in IIan)j)ton county ; 'at from ten to twenty per cent, in Barn- 
well ; at ten to fifteen per cent, in Orangeburg; at twenty-five \)cv cent, in 
Darlington, and, excluding swamps, at nothing in Marion and Marlboro, 
AVlien tlie uplands are turne<l out in tliis region, they grow up first in 
broomsedge, which is succeeded by .short leaf pine, beneath which in time 
all gniss and undergrowth disappears. When again taken in, they yield 
Avell with maiuiring, but without good treatment they deteriorate more 
rapidly than virgin soil. It is a question— on which there is a diversity 
of opinion — whether the second growth of pines is a benefit or an injury 
to land ; in the lower country it is thought to be injurious, supporting 
the view that narrow leaved growths do not improve the soil. In the upper 
country the opinion is, however, decided that the soil improves under the 
old-field pine. With some other growths there is no question, in this 
regard ; for instance the persimmon always improves lands, and seems to 
exert no bad infiuence even on the growing crops in cultivated fields, it 
being often remarked that the tallest cotton is found under such trees, 
where it is dwarfed by the proximity of a pine or a post-oak. Certain 
other forest trees seem to favor particular growths here, as the sugarberry, 
under which verdant patches of blue grass are often seen, when found no 
where else. There seem to be friendly and unfriendly relations among 
})lant3. Bermuda grass will not grow under ])ines or cedars, but thrives 
most under the Euonymus. Polk is said to give the ru.st to cotton, 
and Jamestown weed will, it is believed, eradicate nut grass. 



88 " THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

Green manuring, especially witli the cow-pea, is regarded favorably, al- 
th()U;jjh it is not i)rucliccd as a system. Sown broadcast, manured witli the 
"Ash element" (a cheap fertilizer comjjosed chiefly of lime and potash) 
and turned under after the vines are wilted by frost, remarkable results 
have been attained. Col. Thomas Taylor says that lands subject to rust, 
and never yielding more than seven bushels of wheat, have given twenty- 
six bushels under this treatment. After the cotton is laid by a furrow is 
.'^ometitMes run in the alley, and cow-peas drilled in, fonning the basis on 
whicli the next year's cotton bed is to be constructed. Teas grown auxong 
corn are esteemed highly for tlic beneficial influence they exert on the 
soil, as well as for the crop they yield. 

The limited amount of stable and lot manure, furnished chiefly by the 
wprk stock, other cattle being rarely fed or jfcnned systematically, is much 
valued. Cotton seed is wholly, used for manure, and its use has much in- 
creased, either alone, or comiiosted with woods mould and litter, or the 
suiHTphosphates. These means of maintaining the fertility of the land 
lire largely supplemented by tlie use of guanos and other fertilizers. In 
Marlboro county the general rule is, to return to the land all the cotton 
seed jiroduccjl on it, and in addition one sack of Guanai»o guano, or 
half a sack of it, with one hundred pounds of superphosphates, and if 
rust is apprehended, one hundred ])ounds of kainit. Lands so treated 
arc counted on with much certainty to give a bale of cotton to the acre 
one year with another. This may bo taken as the best established and 
most successful practice regarding maimres. There are wide variations 
from it. A very few, but not the least successful farmers, purchase no 
commercial fertilizers and rely wholly on cotton seed, composts of woods 
moulds and leaves, and stable manure. The use of fertilizer is very gen- 
erally dejirecated as unthrifty, and extravagant, but the facility with 
which thoy may be obtained and used, makes their emjdoyment the 
general i)ractice. 

The first ste}) in preparation for planting cotton is to dispose of the old 
stalks. If small, they are not attended to. Ordinarily they are knocked 
to i)ieees by hand with a club. Machines have been devised for this pur- 
pose, but have not proved successful, thus leaving a field open to inventors. 
When the stalks arc very large, say four to five feet high, they have to be 
pulled up, and sometimes to be burned. Some planters pull up the stalks 
and lay them in the furrow on which the bed is to be made ; it is objected 
to this practice that the plow in cultivation strikes the buried stalks and 
dastroys the young cotton. 

The furrow for the bed is either run in the alley between the rows, or 
the oM betl is barred off and the furrow run through its centre. The 
first practice alternates the cotton rows every year, the second plants on 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 89 

the same spot. The rows are rarely under three feet three inches, they 

average three and a half, and are sometimes four feet, and even five feet, 
on land making a large growth. The maimrc is j)lacod in the furrow, and 
the bed is built up in February and March, the object being to get cotton 
seed in and covered as early as jxwsible to prevent its sprouting and heat- 
ing after j)lanting, which is injurious to the stand. In Marlboro the fer- 
tilizers are not applied with the cotton seed, but a furrow is run through 
the bed just before planting and tiie fertilizer j)Ut into it then. The usual 
practice has been to put the manure in as deeply as [)Ossible; a practical 
difficulty in accomplishing this arises from the settling of the finely pul- 
verized and lightly thrown up beds; and finer and specifically heavier 
particles of the soil pass through and under the coarser and lighter cotton 
seed, compost, or stable manure. So that even after the greatest care4o 
cover them dee[)ly has been taken, they disai)})oint the planter by af)pear- 
ing at or near the surfaceduring planting or the subsequent* cultivation 
of the crop. A very successful practice in Aiken and Barnwell counties 
has been to put the manure in a shallow furrow, but to finish the bed by 
splitting the middle out with a double horse shovel plough running to 
the depth of fourteen inches. This leaves the sides of the beds and the 
alley light and loose, and it is kept so by after cultivation. The sweep 
runs shallow in the harder soil near the plants, and deeper in the looser 
soil of the alley, and can thus skim the surface and destroy weeds near 
the plant without cutting the roots; the drainage of the bed is increased, 
and loose earth is provided, where it alone can be maintained during'cul- 
tivation, in the alley, to absorb atmospheric moisture, and to dirt tho 
plant or maimre. 

Planting occurs during the month of April, from the 1st to the 30th. 
Early planting runs tho risk of frost, late planting runs the risk of a dry 
spell, which not unfrequently prevents cotton planted the last of April 
from coming up before the first of .June. These risks are nearly e([ual, 
and the early planting has the additional advantage of a longer season 
for its growth and maturity. Bancroft's or Dicksons's improved cluster 
cotton seed are generally used ; a prolific cotton, making a good yield of 
lint, being sought after, without regard to the (juality of the stajjle. Im- 
proved staples have been produced, and are profitably cultivated by tho 
larger planters who ship it themselves to tho North, or Europe. Smaller 

*It ajjpcurs that particles of tlio Holid earth are not at rest, but are continually in 
movement, cavinj: in an«l settling after rains, &c. So that liero the law of 8|)ci'ific 
pravities also operates, amlin tlio Iai)se of time, the diverse eomjjonents are assorted, 
finding: their true level as certainly as a cork rises or lead sinks in water. In illustration 
of this law. Iar;.'e fpiantitics of hones, Ixiried two feet deep, in land formerly prepared 
for vineyards in tliia region, have, in tho courao of ten yours, worked their way to tho 
surfuco. 



90 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

farnuTs, confined to the liomo markets, cannot soil such staple to advan- 
ta;,^c, and therefore neglect it. The quantity of seed used depends on the 
ni('tho<l of jilantin^ ; in drillin;^ by hand, the mo.st common practice, three 
huslii'ls is rctjuircd; witii Ihu j)lant(>r, wiiich in cominj^'inore into use, 
one to one ami a half bushels answers; witli tlie dibble, a two-wheeled 
iniph incnt, drawn by a horse, the wheels runnin;jj on the beds and n;ak- 
iiiL,' holes for the seed by blocks fastened on to the tire, a half-busliel will 
<li». The seed comes up accordin;^ to the f^reater or less favorableness of 
the season, in from four to ten days after planting. The younj; plants 
are thinned out to hills ei;,dit inches to twelve inches apart, sometimes to 
cij,ditcen inches; usually only one stalk is left, some ])refer to have two. 
Tliinnini; occurs four to six weeks after plantin^jj, from the time the third 
ti^the sixth leaf makes its ai)j)earance, and is completed early in June. 
JJlossoms first appear when tiio plant is h\x inches to twelve inches hi^h, 
from the lOth to the 2()th of June. Bolls oj)en forty-two to forty-five 
days after the blossom in the latter part of July and first of August. In 
favorable seasons, pickini^ lias commenced bef(jre the 12th of iVugust ; or- 
ilinarily not until the 2Uth. The cotton is })ickcd and ginned as fast as 
it opens, and the work can be done, the best i)lanter3 estimating the loss 
of leaving it in the field, even during good weather, for a few weeks, as 
very heavy. All the crop is })ickcd by the 1st to the 15th of December, 
and by far the most of it in the market before Christmas. The after cul- 
tivatiiHi of the crop consists of four to five ploughings with the sweep and 
three to four hand hoeings, and is completed from the first of July to the 
last of August. 

GINNING, BALING AND SHIPPING. 

No decided preference for any of the numerous gins used in this region 
can be ascertained ; those most commonly in use are the Brown, Winn- 
ship, Gullett, Carver, Findley and Massey, Elliott, Winn, Taylor and Ex- 
celsior. Thirteen correspondents report that four employ steam engines, 
seven emjiloy horse power, and two employ water power in ginning. The 
steam gins turn out two hundred and twenty-five to four hundred pounds 
lint })er hour, the horse-powers one hundred pounds to two hundred 
jxiunds in the same time, the water-powers two hundred and fifty to four 
hundred. The estimate of seed cotton required to make four hundred 
pounds of lint, varies from 1,200 to 1,400 pounds, and averages 1,225 
pounds. On this point a correspondent says: " The proportion of lint 
varies largely with the season, with the variety of cotton, with the stage 
at whieh the cotton is picked, and even with dilferent bolls of the same 
variety jucked at the same stage. I plant a large part of my cro[) with 
a fancy long staple upland variety. I have known it to re(iuire 1,800 



THE UPPER PIXB HELT. 01 

pounds seed cotton avcrngo through tlic season to make a bale of five 
hundred pounds, while the pant season the entire crop gave at the rate 
of a five jmndred pound bale to 1,540 pounds of seed cotton. A few 
years ago my croj) of Kio Grande, a very short staple variety, gave a five 
hundred i)ound bale to l,u(!.' ijounds of seed cotton. Cotton picked 
damp, and that suH'cred to remain sometime without picking, gives the 
smallest proportion of lint, while that picked as soon after opening as the 
bolls dry off gives the best. I once picked a large nundjcr of bolls from 
a patch, itself grown from selected seed, weighed them separately on a 
druggist's scales and separated the lint from the seed by hand. The 
poorest boll gave nineteen per cent, of lint, the best thirty-six per ci-nt. 
The weight of the heaviest boll, seed and lint, was one hundred and 
thirty-six gross, and of the lightest, forty-two gross. Even such wide va- 
riations as these could not have been detected by the eye or without the 
use of the scales." 

Owing to the unsatisfactory character of the mechanical arrangements 
for using horse power, the use of horses for ginning is being superseded 
by steam engines. It was thought that traction engines would supj^ly 
this want, and, like steam grain threshers, would move from farm to farm 
and gin the cotton. They were tried to a considerable extent, but it was 
found that the exigencies of the farmer did not allow liim to keep his 
cotton, as he might his grain, until the gin came to him, and that it did 
not pay to move the gin once or twice a day, to gin the crops, bale at a 
time as it was gathered, so that they have been mostly abandoned. 

There is a similar diversity as to the press in use. In twelve gin houses 
there were six liand presses, the Brooks, Schofield, McBride, Finley, Board- 
man, and Smith, packing about eight bales witii four liands per day. 
There was one water press, and one run by steam, four old wooden-j)in 
screw presses run by mules. Four liands on the Smith or the Boardman 
press will average a bale every fifty minutes ; eight men and three mules 
on the old screw will average a bale every thirty minutes; by pushing, 
more can be done. The delay and cost in i)acking occurs in treading the 
light, loose cotton into the box, at which only one, or at most two men 
can work, the other hands being meanwhile idle. Formerly the lint- 
rooms were built very large, and twenty or thirty bales were ginned be- 
fore any was packed. Now with smaller lint-rooms, and with condensers 
coming into use as a preventive of lire, the cotton is packed as fust ha it 
is ginned. Feeders to gins have been tried, but owing to the difficulty of 
keeping them in order, they are not much used. 

iiope for baling has been entirely replaced by the iron "Arrow" tie 
and the heaviest gunny bagging is used. The bales vary in weight, from 
four hundred luid fifty pounds to five hundred and fifty j>ounds, and 



02 TIIK UPPKR PINE BELT. 

average four Imiulred and eiphty-nino pounds. Shipments to market 
arc made during tlie fall months, from September to January. By steam- 
boat there are no extra ehar^^e.s for extra weight; the charge is seventy- 
five cents i)er bale oil the .Savannah river to .Savannah, and one dollar on 
the Peo Deo to Charleston. On the Port Royal railroad to Charleston or 
Savainiiih the charge is twodollars per baleof four hundred and fifty j)0und3 
or less, and twenty cents for each hundred pounds over that weight. On 
the .South Carolina railway tho charge from Augusta is one dollar for 
way stations on tliis route, one dollar and fifty cents and thirty-five cents 
per hundred weight over five hundred pounds. From Darlington to 
Cliarleston by rail the charge is one dollar and twenty-five cents. From 
Marlboro and Marion it is three dollars and twenty-five cents to New 
Yoik, and one dollar and fifty cents to Charleston or Wilmington by rail ; 
in the latter there is an extra charge (amount not stated) for bales weigh- 
ing over four hundred and fifty pounds. 

DISEASES, ENEMIES, &c. 

There are few crops grown anywhere more certain than the cotton crop 
in the upj>er pine belt. A comi)lete failure never occurs, and a reduction 
of twenty per cent, in the yield is an unusual occurrence. The greatest 
variations have been in an increase of product under better cultivation, 
and it is believed that a wide field for development lies in this direction. 
The j)rincii)al obstruction to tho growth of the plant is the crab grass,* 
necessitating constant labor and vigilance, or resulting in fatal injury to 
the crop. Usually the task is one acre in hoeing, which is completed by 
dinner time; but most frequently it is far from being thoroughly done. 
In Marlboro, where the work is well done, and ])erhaps on this account, 
two acres is the task and it is completed by 4 P. M., usually. 

Drought is very seldom injurious, except during the fruiting season in 
July and August. Sore shin, except as resulting from bad hoeing, is not 
known. 

Lice, a minute aphid, appears on the underside of the leaves in May 
and later, and gives them a curled, but at the same time a deeper green 
apj>carance. Dry weather is favorable to them, and in good seasons they 
are not thought to injure tho plant. Some ^ay they promote fruitfulness. 
In bad seasons, i. c, excessive drought, during fruiting, rust appears ear- 
liest and is most injurious where these aphids have been most numerous. 

liust and blight allect tho crop, especially during the fruiting season ; 
it is most injurious to tho prolific short-limbed cluster cotton. Under fa- 

*('()rrtipti<>n for croji grass, being found only on lultivutccl lun<l8,uutl often furniHlicd 
cxiullent crops. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

vorable conditions the plant will take on a heavy crop of fruit in four to 
six weeks, any time from the middle of Juno to the middle of September. 
At such a period it will cease to ^row, tlie leaves will i)ale and turn red, 
all the energies of the plant being devoted to reproductive efforts. Com- 
mercial fertilizers promote tliis crisis, by contributing more to the fruit- 
fulness than to the growth of the plant. Any vicissitude of the weather, 
heat or cold, wet or drought, will seriously enfeeble or even kill the j)lant 
in this its term of labor, especially on poor, sandy, or ill-drained soils. 
A crop will have been made, the utmost that the soil, the variety of seed, 
and the seasons admit of, but the future growth and fruitfulness of the 
j)lant is checked or destroyed. This is what is usually termed rust or 
blight. The remedies are, varieties of the plant that are more vigorous 
growers, those of longer limb, and less given to excessive fruiting; stable 
manure in the place of fertilizers ; the potash salts are used with marked 
benefit; and thorough drainage. 

Cotton sheds by far the largest portion of the forms which come on it, 
and the closest observers state that in the great mass of our cotton lands, 
the cotton plant will not, in the best of seasons, mature into open bolls 
one in five of the blossoms that appear, generally not one in ten. Reme- 
dies for this are being sought in the selection of seed, and in various 
methods of culture, but nothing decided has been thus far obtained. 

When the early season is wet and warm, the })]ant may run too much 
to weed. Some attribute this in part to late thinning and deep cultiva- 
tion ; others think it may be checked by running a deep, narrow furrow, 
closing nfter the plow, close to the cotton. Short-limbed varieties of cot- 
ton, cotton seed and phos])hates as fertilizers, are recommended as remedies. 

Although tlie cotton caterj)illar moth is frequently met with, even dur- 
ing the severest winters, the worm rarely makes its api)earance before 
September, and luirdly ever does any damage. 

CHARGES ON SELLING. 

In addition to freight, these consist of the following items, at the rates 
stated : commissions on sales, two and a half per cent.; storage, twenty-fivo 
to fifty cents per bale per month ; drayage, wharfage, mending, forty cents ; 
insurance, twenty-five cents. Tlicsccharges vary slightly, and with freight, 
amount to from three-quarters to one cent per pound of lint, or a little 
over seven per cent, on the net sales. 

COST OF PRODUCTION. 

Eight correspondents state the cost of production at six to eight cents 
per pound lint; one at eight and a half cents; one at twelve and a half 



04 



TlIK UrPKR riNE BELT. 



cents; one at four cents, Paul F. Hammond, of Beech island, furnishes 
the following: "The cost of production varies greatly with the character 
of the land cultivated, and the skill of the j)lanter. The complement of 
liands and mules is two of the former and one of the latter. The items 
of exi)enso are, wages of hands, meat for hands, cost per annum of mule, 
exclusive of feed ; extra picking, guano, gear, implements, bagging and 
ties. One mule and two hands will cultivate, on an average, twenty acres 
in cotton, fourteen acres in corn and four acres in oats, making grain 
enough to furnish bread to the hands, and feed for the mule. I am in- 
clined to think that 4,000 i)ounds of lint, including weight of bagging 
and ties, to the mule, is rather above than below the average. In some 
instances j)lanters may reach a production of 8,000 or even 10,000 ])ounds 
of lint to the mule, wliile more freciuently tho.so who fall below 2,000 
pounds may be met with. In the fullowitig estimates no allowance for 
taxes, rents-, interest on capital invested, nor for the services of the pro- 
I)rietor or manager, nor for transportation or charges for selling, is made. 





Twelve bales 
to the mule. 


Eight bales 
to the mule. 


Four bales 
to the mule. 


Wages for two hands per annum. . 
Meat for hands, 300 lbs., ^8 cents . 
Cost of mule per annum .... 
JCxtra picking 


§1.S0 00 
24 00 
30 00 
48 50 
00 00 
10 00 
. 13 50 


§180 00 
24 00 
30 00 
20 00 
00 00 
10 00 
9 00 


§180 00 
24 00 
30 00 


Ciuano 


00 00 


( Jear and im])lements 

Bagging and tics 


10 00 
4 50 


Cost per pound lint 


§3(')0 00 
0.10c. . 


§333 00 
8.32^c. 


§308 50 
15.22^c. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



95 



Table showing the cost of each item of Labor and Material expended in the cid- 
tivation of an acre of Cotton in the Upper Pine Belt Region of South 
Carolina : 



ITRMS. 



Reui „ 

Fencing, repairs and Intereston 

Knocking 8tHlks 

Pulling and burning stalks. .. 

Other cleaning up 

Listing 

Beddlnx with boeit 

Breaking up 

Damming 

Barring old bods..,, 

Splitting middles 

IlfverslDg 

Laying off _...... 

Manures, Commercial 

Manures, home-made 

Applying manures 

Bedding up 

Splitting middles 

Knocking off beds 

Planting, opening .»,.... 

Planting, dropping 

Planting, covering , 

Replanting ,. ^. 

Seed , 

Thinning „.,., 

Numberof plowlng8,6,5, 6and6 
Number of hoeings, 4, 4, 1, 4 ... 

Picking 

Hauling to gin 

Olnnlng , 

Management 

Wear and tear of implements. 

Bagging and ties 

ToUil 

Cost per pound lint 



1. 



$200 

1 00 

20 



• ••M. 


05 


50 




1 50 


I 60 




37 


60 


18 





87 



25 

800 

200 

25 

50 



20 
25 
30 
60 
80 
25 

1 65 
80 

6 75 
15 

2 25 
6 00 

1 a5 



8 200 
40 
12 



360 

4 00 

38 



S 3 00$ 250 



6. 



37 
18 
15 

20 
20 
10 
28 
60 
28 
2 0O 
I 00 



15 
200 
300 

15 



10 
&5 

60 
1 0.5 

60 



00 6 00 
60 .»,., 

2 00 8 00 

1 00 6 00 



1 3,5 



831 r>5 ?2?< 9M 
07 



Profit, per acre, at ten cents per 

pound $23 45 811 K 

Proflt. dedncdng charges fori 

rent and munagcnieni $20 43 $U 02 



1 10 



360 
2 25 
08 
50 
25 
25 
25 



25 
06 
60 
15 
2 25 

1 40 
4 70 

00 

2 60 
2 60 



1 20 



*-M flO S'.7 IS 

08 l-« 0(10-10 

I 
86 10 $11 O'J 

$14 40 816 W 



7. 8. I ». 10. 

$250$2d0$400$4 00 $ 3 CO $ 3 00 



05 



S3 
17 
83 
25 
800 
4 25 
S7 
33 
20 



10 
30 

30 
133 

1 00 
600 

25 

2 08 



1 15 



1 00 



1 25 



1 25 



10 

■ I 
4 50j 4 50 

SOOJ 300 

1 00; 2 50 

75! 100 

60 

20 

16 90 



10 10 

801 80 

201 >,... 

260 800 

1 75i 2 OO 

6 60 6 00 

60j 1 00 

1 65 2 00 

2 00 2 00 



1 10 1 30 



13 
625 
6C0 
35 
50 
25 

13 
17 
13 



60 



2 25 
2 00 
600 
60 
260 



1 35 



«25 12 827 :5.5 Sa5 75 J.TJ M 



100 
10 
20 



50 



60O 

260 

50 

25 

10 

10 
23 

25 
20 

60 

40 

2 25 

200 

600 



200 
800 



25 


10 


...... 


75 



600 

12 
150 

19 
20 
15 
20 

30 
60 
200 
1 60 
500 
1»X) 
1 20 
20U 



1 08 1 10 



II. 
S3 75 
1 00 
15 



«;W 13 *-26 



007-10 



?11 88 



OS |107-10()S 2-10 00 1-10 
86 25! 82 45 87 14 



81t 30 $10 75 



$3 5.5 $11 14 



81 87 



$7 87 



86 53 



423 

I 10 
8^6 73 
W 4-5 



$11 63 511 22 



90 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

1. E. IT. Poppies. Lrtwton Townnlilp, irnmpton county: Mnke« a bnle of 450 pound* lint cotton 
j)«;r lUTO uiiiliT thiH culture— need cotton \,'XiO pouniln, colton iit'cd thirty buHbeU, 

2. lIouK-r II. I'cciiIcK, ]'ct']ilcn' TowuNlilp, Imniplou county; Average 1,20U pounds need cotton, 
4(M) pouiulx lint, twciily-Ri'Von InnhflN hcuiI, ' 

3. U. Vuru, Ksii., Folk's Store, Colleton county: Crop 1,000 pounds need cotton, lint 333 poundi, 
Boi'd l\viM)ly-t\vo biiHlii'N. 

•I. \\. H. KUo, Itnnibeix, narnwell county : Crop KV) to l.W) pounds per ocro, Hny 1,175 seed cotton, 
nviTiiKo :;iil pnundH lint, iwcnly-Nlx bUMtielK Kced, ut twelve und ii hull centM. 

r>, John S. sioiicy, .Mlendiilo, Ihiruwell county: Yield l.'JuU p<jund)« Heed cotton, 370 pound* lint, 
m-ed Iweiity-lwo IiumIicIh 

ti. O.N. llowniHii, ItowcBVlllc. Orangeburg county: 1,100 pounds need cotton, 370 poundalint, 
twenty-six bushels seed. 

7. K. T. siiiekliouse, i^lttle Kock, Mnrlon county : He hhv*. " I worked lRf>t yenr twenty acres In 
colton on contriicl with Ksau ^lt^ce, which iiclually cost HN follows: All work repairing lenclng, 
plekliif,', K'nnlin;, Ac., J.tH.O(>; Coinniercliil inanures, f IH.OO ; feed nnd rent of mule, timi.OO; wear 
and tear to machinery, S^-VK); hauling straw, Ac, to stable, Sl.'l.OO; bagging and ties lor iwenly- 
nine bales, StU.O<i; for my direction, f.'yi.OO. 'iotol, S702.00, or f-ijCO per Here. Crop. IJ,:^ pounds 
lint colton. Contract (•atlsfaclory ; has run for several years. Rents .IW of the I'tW acreK of his 
home larrn for lorty-four pounds lint cotton. Ueiiiers engage to innko all repairs and keep up 
fertility ol land. Kotlniute on 1,<KJ0 pounds seed cotton. .'i.'tl pound.* lint, iwenty-lhree bUKtu Is seed." 

8. W. 1>. Jolin.von, Marlon C. H: Yield J.l'OU pounds, -Jiw pounds lint, thirty bushelsseed. In a 
good year l.luo to l,."j"0 jiounds seed ef>tton. N. It. The rent aud home made manure, i. e., cotton 
seed, conslltuteono-hulf or more of profits. 

1>. C. H. MeCiill, Henneltsvllle, MarH>oro county: Avcrogo yield 1,000 pounds, 333 pounds lint, 
tweniy-thn-e bushels seed. 

II'. Kdward E. Kvans, Society Hill, Darlington county: YIeldl.OOO pounds, 333pound8llnt, twenty- 
eight btisliels secil. 

11. Henry I'. iJuvfdl, Clioraw, Cheslorfleld county : Yield 1,'JO^) pounds. -100 pounds lint, thirty 
bushrls seeil. 

The mean o( the above estlnintes makes the cost of cotton K.'}-IO cents; not calculating the Im- 
I'rovenieiit of the huiil by culture or any of the numerous i«eri|UlslieH attending such employ- 
ment. The averaue prolll per aero Is i'.si), deducting charges for rent und management It Is Sl.5.7.5. 
'J"hririHntl manngenient will uiso reduce and even wl|>e out matiy of the items charged as ex- 
penses. Home-miido manures, consisting largely of colton seed which Is reproduced each suc- 
cessive year In con.stnntly increasing (luantlty. Is such un Item. • 

It is interesting to compare tlicsc estimates of the cost of produc- 
ing cotton with those made in former times. A writer in the 
Cui'oUnian, in 18-18, declares that five cents a pound for cotton will not 
});iy a i)rolit., and gives this statement as the experience on a plantation 
with twenty field hands, total investment, §20,000. 

Expenses for 1S4S. 

Wages of overseer % 300 00 

Blacksmith and medical accounts . . . . G5 00 

Clothing 88 00 

Bagging and rope for 120 bales cotton 150 00 

Taxes '. . . 30 00 

Salt $12, nails §5.00, lioes §4.50 21 50 

Hospital supplies 7 50 

AVcar and tear of land 330 00 

Wear and tear of mules, wagons, <fcc . . 200 00 

Transporting cotton to market at seventy-fivo cents per bale . .* 90 00 

^1,282 00 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 97 

Crop 120 bales of 350 pounds, 42,500 pounds lint, cost three cents per 
pound, not counting interest on investment. That, at seven per cent,, 
would have made the cost six and a third cents, omitting to credit the 
account with all perquisites to the planter, as a home and homo supplies, 
with increase of negro property, &c. 

Mr. Solon Robinson, of New York, in an extensive tour tlirough the 
South, gave, in 1848, the following carefully prepared statement regard- 
ing the plantation of Col. Williams, of Society Hill, Darlington county, 
South Carolina : 

CAPITAL INVESTED. 

4,200 acres land (2,700 cultivated) at $15 per acre 3 G3,000 00 

254 slaves at §350 average, old and young 89,900 00 

GO mules and mares, one jack, one stud 3,720 00 

2,000 head of aittle 2,000 00 

23 carts, six wagons 520 00 

500 head of hogs 1,000 00 

GO bull-tongue plows, GO shaving plows, 25 turning plows, 18 

drill plows, 15 harrows 2G2 00 

All other plantation tools, estimated , . 1,000 00 

Total investment . . • $161,402 00 



EXPENSES. 

Seven per cent, interest on first five items $11,103 00 

3,980 yards Dundee bagging at 16 cents 530 SO 

3,184 pounds rope at six cents 191 04 

Taxes 263 04 

Three overseers, wages $900, medical attendance $317.50 . . . 1,217 50 

Iron and tools purchased 200 00 

Clothing account 1,579 50 

Fifty sacks of salt $80.00, lime and plaster $194.00 274 00 

Carpenters and blacksmith work extra 100 00 

Outlay for gin belts, Ac . 8000 

Molasses, tobacco and flour 170 00 

Three-eighths cent per pcAind freight and charges for market- 
ing cotton 2,069 00 

$17,894 48 



,98 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



CROP. 



13,500 pounds bacon for homo place and factory $075 00 

IJcef and butter for ditto and sales 600 00 

1,100 bushels corn for ditto and sales 550 00 

lCif;hty cords of tail bark for tan yard 4S0 00 

Charp;es to others for blacksmith work lOO 00 

Mutton and wool for homo use and sales 125 00 

$2^130 00 
This sum, that is products other than cotton, deducted from 

expenses above stated leaves then $15,4G4 00 

This was the cost of a cotton crop of 351,000 pounds lint cotton, mak- 
ing the cost i)or pound 4 7-10 cents. The cotton was sold at seven cents 
per pound. Omitting charges for interest and taking no account of the 
increasing value of the property, this gives 11 6-10 per cent, profits on 
the total investment. Mr. J. J. Lucas, also from Society Hill, Darlington 
county, reports, for 1870, that the cost of making cotton is twelve and a 
half cents per pound, that the value of land is ten dollars and not fifteen 
dollars per acre, as Mr. Williams states it, and that rents pay seven per 
cent, on the investment in place of the above. 

It Avill be noticed that the cost of transportation to market and charges 
for selling, ifcc.,were about one-half in 1848 what they are now. 

Abstract of the replies of Township correspondents, arranged accord- 
ing to the Counties, Supervisor's Districts (Sup. Dist.) and Enumeration 
Districts (E. D.) of the 10th United States Census, in which they resided : 

Hampton County, (2d Sup. Dist. 10th United States Census.) 

Laidon Toiimship, {E. D. 118 and 119) : Northern part rolling, remainder 
level. Swamps on the Savannali river and other water courses, for the 
most part unreclaimed ; one-third, a stiff mulatto upland, with clay sub- 
soil borders the swamp; two-thirds, upland, a dark gray sandy loam, 
underlaid by clay at the depth of eighteen to twenty inches. Crops under 
good cultivation yield four hundred pounds lint cotton, twelve to twenty 
l)ushels corn, thirty bushels oats, fifteen to fifty bushels rice; peanuts, 
twenty-five to fifty bushels; sugar cane syrup, two hundred gallons per 
acre. Timber, best yellow l)ine, cypress, wiiito oak, ash and poi)lar. 
Stock raising lias been profitable, and might be greatly enlarged, there 
being alunidance of Bermuda grass, cano and swamp mast. Wages of 
field labor, forty to fifty cents a day; one-tenth performed by whites. A 
large portion of the laborers rent lands, obtain supplies by giving a lien 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 99 

on the growing crops to the country merchants, and work most of the 
time on their own account. Land sells from two dollars to ten dollars 
per acre ; rents for one-fourth of the crop, or one dollar to two dollars in 
money. Health good, except mild type of malarial fever in low places. 
Peeples* Towmhip,{E. D. 120): One-fourth of the land in swamps. The 
uplands slightly rolling ; soil coarse and fine sandy loam, gray to brown and 
black in color. Subsoil yellowish red, bhieand brown clay,containing brown 
pebbles, underlaid by gravel and quicki^and at twelve to twenty feet, in 
which water is found. Considerable business in collecting turpentine, 
getting timber and shingles and sawing lumber. Little attention paid to 
stock. Wages for field work, eight dollars per month ; one-half field 
labor performed by whites. At Pondtown there is a large number of 
white farmers owning small tracts of lands, doing all their own work and 
working out for wages, who are prosperous and excellent laborers, free 
from debt. Land rents for two dollars an acre. Malarial fever in the 
swamps, otherwise healthy. 

Barnwell County, (2d Sup. Dist. 10th United States Census.) 

Bull Pond, {E. D. 20) : Gray pine lands, generally level, a fine sandy 
loam with clay subsoil. Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Little attention 
paid to stock. Wages, forty cents per day. Five per cent, of field labor 
performed by whites. No land in the market; one-half is rented for 
eighty pounds of seed cotton per acre. Yield, about one bale to the three 
acres, rented land badly cultivated, reduces the general average. 

Allendale, [E. D. 25): "Light clay lands," rather elevated and rolling. 
Soil, a light clay loam, gray and yellow in color, underlaid by clays of 
various hue, from red to purple, also sandy subsoil. Growth, pine, oak, 
hickory, dogwood, maple, poplar, ash, black walnut, cypress. Marl occurs 
and is available. Two streams, twenty and forty feet wide, respectively, 
with velocity of three to four miles an hour, furnish water powers. Little 
attention paid to stock. It might be })rofitably raised. Wages, forty to 
fifty cents a day. One-tentii of field labor performed by whites. No 
lands in the market. No fevers except in the river bottoms. 

Bennett Springn, [E. D. 2(5): Land level. Soil, sandy subsoil, sometimes 
red clay and sometimes red sand. CJrowth, pine, oak and hickory on the 
uplands; usual growth of the Savannah river swamps on that stream. 
Crops, seven hundred and fifty pounds uf seed cotton, ten bushels corn, 
twenty-five bushels rice, seventy-five bushels peanuts per acre. Some 
business done in shingles, staves and turpentine. Stock raising might bo 
made profitable. Six gins and grist mills driven by water power, not 
more than one-fifth of which is utilized. No prevailing di.sea.ses. No 



100 Tiir: uiTER riNE belt. 

licld M'oik pi-rformcd In' Miiitc'8, Much of tlio land is rented for five 
iuindrcd pounds lint cotton for twcnty-fivo acres. 

\Vllli!<fon, {K. J). 37): The level Innds arc a sandy loam, with clay sub- 
soil M'ithin two feet. The rolling lands arc a clay soil. Clay extends 
beneath the soil and subsoil to depth of twenty to sixty feet, as shown in 
wells. (Irowth, yellow pine, oak, hickory. Crops, ten to twelve bushels 
corn, eifiht hundred to one thousand jjounds seed cotton; oats, twenty- 
live to thirty bushels per acre. Little attention paid to stock. Edisto 
river is a dear stream, one hundred feet wide, six feet deep, velocity, two 
to three miles an hour. Two mill streams empty into the Edisto. Wages 
(<f field labor, six dollars to ten dollars, and rations, per month. One- 
(liird of field work jjcrformed by whites. Very little imj)roved land for 
.^ale. It rents from two dollars to three dollars per acre, sui)plies and 
rents secured by a lien on the crop. 

Orangkuuro County, (2d Sup. Dist.) 

Hebron, {E. D. 143) : Some valuable swamp lands on the Nortli Edisto 
river and its tributaries. Ui)lands rolling sometimes, but generally level, 
without being fhvt. Soil, mostly a fine sandy loam, subsoil sandy, in some 
places clay. Growth, pine, with large red oak in places. Crops, ten to 
thirty bushels corn per acre, four hundred and fifty pounds lint cotton to two 
acres, thirty to thirty-five bushels rice per acre. Some business in tur- 
pentine, shingles, staves and timber is done. Stock is not, but might bo 
raised jjiofitably. Wages of field labor, forty to fifty cents a day. One- 
fourth of it performed by whites. North l'>listo affords a large water- 
j)()Wt'r, and there aro two flour and four saw inills on its tributaries. Land 
nnts for two dollars an acre, or one-fourth of the croj). There are somo 
tracts for sale at five dollars an acre. 

LiUrii/, {E, IK 144): Largo bodies of swamp lands on the North Edisto, 
consisting of deep, black vegetable mould, resting oh clay. Little of it 
iiupruveil. The uplands are elevated, fine, diirk, gray, sandy loam, six to 
eight inches to subsoil of yellow clay, underlaid by chalk and clay, 
(irowth on ujilands, pine, oak, hickory and dogwood. As much as 2,000 
pounds of seeil cotton, thirty bushels corn, and sixty bushels oats per 
acre has been made on these lands, but the usual average is much les.^. 
Wages of farm labor, forty cents a day. One-half to two-thirds of it j)cr- 
Ibrmed by whites. Very little land f\)r Kule; prices, three dollars to ten 
dollars an ai-re. The poorer lands are rented at from one dollar to two 
dollars an acre. The locality is very healthy. 

Willow, {]'!. J). l')l): Some very fertile, but mostly unreclaimed, swamps 
rn the South ICdisto and its li'lbularies. Tplands level, fine, gray, sandy 



■ THE UPPER PINE DELT. 101 

loam, six to eighteen inches to subsoil of sticky clay, beneath which sands, 
gravel and chalk are found. Marl occurs on South Edisto river. Growth, 
pine, oak and hickory. Crops, fifteen bushels corn, one-half bale cotton, 
twenty bushels oats per acre. There is a largo turpentine factory. The 
tributaries of the Edisto furnish water powers for ginning and grinding. 
Stock does well, and might be profitably raised. Wages for field work, 
fifty cents a day. One-third of the field work performed by whites. 
Land for sale at four dollars to ten dollars an acre ; rents from two dollars 
to three dollars. . Generally healthy ; mild form of chills and fever 
sometimes. 

Uniouy {E.D.WS): Land level. Soil, fine, gray, sandy loam, three 
inches to yellow sand subsoil, and eighteen to twenty inches to yellow 
clay, containing sometim-is numerous brown pebbles, which become mixed 
with surface soil and give it a darker color. Growth of uplands, pine, 
ash, hickory and dogwood ; of the swamps, elm, poplar, ash, white oak, 
gum. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, fifteen 
bushels rice, one hundred and fifty bushels sweet potatoes, three hundred 
gallons syrup per acre. Besides the South Edisto river, there are Cooper 
creek, ten feet wide, two feet deep, velocity two miles an hour; Snake 
creek, fifteen feet wide, four feet deep, velocity two miles an hour. Some 
industry in shingles, hoops and turpentine. No attention paid to stock ; 
it might be profitably raised. Wages for work, forty cents per day. One- 
fourth of field work performed by wliites. Mild form of chills and fever 
in swamps, otherwise healthy. Lands .sell at five dollars to six dollars an 
acre, and rents for two dollars and fifty cents. 

Goodhijc'H, [E. I). 141): Lands level. Soil, light sandy loam, M'ith oC- 
casionally a stiff strij). Subsoil, at six inches depth, light yellow clay. 
Growth, j)ine, oak, hickory. One-third of the field labor performed by 
whites. Lands sell from one dollar to five dollars, and rents from one 
dollar to two dollars an acre. Some chills and fever. 

VancM, {E. D. 1.").)) : Lands level, except along Santeo river, where they 
are rolling. Soil, fine sandy loam, beneath which is a yellow sand sub- 
soil renting on red clay, that extends to a depth of twenty to thirty feet 
on the river, and twelve to fourteen feet elsewhere, to the depth <»f the 
wells in both instances. Growth, pitch pine. ('ro{)S, five to twenty-five 
bushels corn, five hundred to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton, ten to 
forty bushels oats i>or acre. Marl occurs in abundance. Little attention 
given to stock ; it might bo profitably raised. Some lands for sile at 
eight dollars to ten dollars an acre. Some cliills and fever. 

Su.MTKii Cou.vTY, (3(1 Sup. Dist, 10th United States Census.) 

Privateer, {E. I). 120): Lands level; light gray Handy loam, with «ub- 



102 THE UPPER PINE BELT. ' 

soil of yellow sand and clay. Growth, pino, oak and hickory. Crops, 
five hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn per acre. A 
black rock found that is used for building to some extent. Forest 
products arc turpentine and shingles. Several mill sites. "Wages for 
field work, fifty cents a day. All kinds of stock do well. Land sells at 
from three dollars to twelve dollars ; rents from one dollar to five dollars 
per acre. 

Concord, {E. D. 114) : Lands low and level, much of it swamp ; up- 
lands dark gray calcareous sands, with clay subsoil at depth of eight 
inches to ten inches that extends to the depth of the wells, fifteen 
feet to twenty feet. Marl occurs. "Wages, fifty cents a day for field labor, 
one-fourth of which is performed by whites. Little land for sale ; rents 
for one dollar and fifty cents to two dollars per acre. Some chills and 
fever. 

Mt. Clio, {E. D. 119): Lands level; dark sandy loam, four inches to 
six inches to suUsoil of red clay, beneath which layers of white clay and 
fine sand arc found to the depth wells are dug, fifteen to thirty feet. 
Growth, pine, with occasional ridges of oak and hickory. Average crop, 
four hundred pounds seed cotton. Marl occurs. Scape creek affords 
fine water power. Wages for farm work, forty cents to fifty cents a 
day ; one-eighth of field work performed by whites. Lands sell from 
five dollars to ten dollars, and rent from one dollar to three dollars an 
acre. 

Shiloh, (E. D. 123) : Land level. Soil, light, loose sandy loam, four 
inches to six inches to subsoil of yellow clays underlaid by stiffer clays, 
containing gravel to the depth of the wells, sixteen feet to twenty feet- 
Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Crops average eight hundred j)ound3 
seed cotton, eight bushels corn ; as high as one and a half bales of cotton 
per ai-re has been made. Marl is found under all the swamp lands. 
Stock raising might be made i>rofitablo. Farm labor receives fifty 
cents a day; in somo portions nearly all the work is done by whites. 
Land sells from five dollai*s to eigiit dollars an aero, rents for one- 
fourth to one-third of the crop. Sometimes chills and fovcr, otherwiso 
healthy. 

BisJiopvillr, (E. J). 112): Western or upper part sand hills, the middle 
undulating, known as " ridge lands;" the lower part level. Soil, light 
sandy loam, six inches to two feet to red clay subsoil, extending to tho 
depth of the wells, ten to twenty feet. Growth, pine, with occasional 
spots covered by largo red oaks and hickory. Crops, eight hun<lrcd 
pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, but tho tenant system has so dimin- 
ished the yield that an average can not bo stated. Wages, fifty cents for 
field labor, more than one-half of which is performed by whites. Land 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 103 

sells at eight dollars to ten dollars, and rents at from two dollars to four 
dollars an acre. 

Darlington County, (3d Sup. Dist. South Carolina.) 

Farr's Bay, {E. D. 48): Lands low, level, interspersed with bays that 
are very productive when reclaimed ; uplands, a fine light sandy loam of 
a dark gray color. Subsoil, light sandy clay, underlaid by white clay- 
Heavily timbered with pine and oak ; swamp growth, oak, poplar, walnut 
and cypress. Crops, cotton, five hundred pounds to fifteen hundred pounds 
seed cotton, eight bushels to fifteen bushels corn, fifteen bushels to thirty 
bushels rice. Little attention paid to stock. Much of the land uncleared. 
No demand to purchase land ; rents for from one dollar and fifty cents 
to two dollars per acre. No prevailing disease; fifteen deaths in 18S0 — 
no three from same cause. Farm labor, thirty to fifty cents a day. Nearly 
all the whites do field work. 

Ilartsville, {E. D. 3G) : One-half lands elevated, level. Soil, coarse gray 
sandy Joam. One foot to subsoil of yellow clay, underlaid by alternating 
strata of sand and clay. The other lialf hilly, broken and sandy ; not 
very productive. Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Crops, six to eight 
hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, five to forty bushels small 
grain per acre. Largo beds of chalk occur. Black creek affords good 
water power. Wages, fifty cents. One-half the field work done by 
whites. Land sells for six dollars to twenty dollars an acre ; rents for 
two dollars to four dollars. Very healthy. 

Tlminomville, {E. D. 40) : Soil, a stiff mixture of sand and clay, with a 
red clay or pipe clay subsoil at fourinchc-j to six inches depth, underlaid 
by very stiff clay and gravel to the depth of the wells, ten feet to twenty 
feet. Growth, pine, oak and dogwood. Crops, eight hundred to two 
thousand })ounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, ten to one hundred bush- 
els oats, ten to fifty busliols rice per acre. Grapes do especially well and 
a good (leal of wine is made. Geoso are raised in great nutnb(!rs. Lake 
Swamp creek, twenty feet wide, four feet deep, velocity three to four miles 
an hour. Oue-hidf of the field work done by whites. No land for sale 
price ten dollars to fifty dollars; rents for three dollars to six dollars an 
acre. Very healthy. 

Florence, {E. Z). 35): Lands level, flat. Soil, dark sandy loam, four 
inches to five inches to subsoil of red clay. Growth, pine and small oaks. 
Crops, seven hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, twenty bu.shels 
to thirty busliels oats per acre. Wages, fifty cents a day. No field work 
done by whites. Improved lands sell at from ten dollars to twelve dollars 
an acre. About half the lands are rented at two dollars and fifty cents 
per aero. 



J 



104 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

Jlhjh mil, {E. D. 37) : Land flat. Soil, a dark clay loam, with clay sub- 
soil to the depth of the wells, fifteen feet to twenty -five feet, when a yellow 
sand is found. Growth, i)ine, oak and hickory. Improved lands sell at 
eight dollars to twelve dollars, and unimproved at three dollars to six 
dollars an acre. One-fourth field work performed by whites. 

Antioch, (E. D. 29) : Lands level. Soil, mostly saody, though clay lands 
cover a considerable portion of the township; subsoil, red clay and red 
sand, the latter is best adai)ted to corn, the former to cotton. Growth, 
pitch and yellow pine, oak, liickory and dogwood. Much fine shingle 
and stave timber, and a considerable amount of turpentine produced. 
Little attention is paid to stock. Several water powers. Farm labor, forty 
cents to fifty cents; one-half or more performed by whites. Lands rent 
at from five hundred pounds to one thousand i)ounds lint cotton for a 
one-horse farjn (thirty acres). Very healthy. Mux;h uncertainty in se- 
curing laborers. 

SiK'cti) mil, {E. D. 45) : There are clay lands, mostly swamp along tho 
Pee Dee river. The central portion is rolling; the soil is a fine stmdy 
loam, four inches to subsoil of a yellowish color, turning wliite on ex- 
jiosure; underlying this is red clay, in tho west the gum flats, consisting 
of iine black sand, have a similar subsoil. Growth of uplands, pine, oak, 
and dogwood ; of tho swamps, white oak, ash, and poplar. Crops, aver- 
age three hundred jniunds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, tliirty bushels 
oats i)er acre; under good culture \fA)() jwunds to 2,000 ])Ounds .seed 
cotton, and twenty bushels to twenty-five bushels corn per acre is made. 
A sand stone is used for building chimneys. Cedar creek is twenty feet 
wide, three feet deep, velocity tliree miles an hour. Wages, fifty cents a 
day. Locality very healthy. Imi)roved lands sell at ten dollars to twelve 
dollars an acre, unimproved at three dollars to five dollars. 

Palmdto, {E. D. 43): Lands rather rolling. Soil, of coarse and of fine 
sand, mi.xed with clay; subsoil, red clay; growth, pine and oak. Crops, 
five hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, twenty bushels oats 
per acre. High Hill creek is twenty feet wide, with good fall ; Black 
creek is forty feet \vide, eight feet deep, velocity four. to five miles an hour. 
Wages, fifty cents a day. No land ofTered for sale ; rents for about two 
dollars an acre. 

Marion County, (3d Sup. Dist., 10th United States Census.) 

Cain, (E. D. 87): Lands level; soil, fine dark gray sandy loam, six 
inches to eighteen inches to clay subsoil, beneath which occur strata of 
marl and clay. Growth, pine, oak, dogwood, cypress, &c. Crops, seven 
hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn per acre. Wages of field 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 105 

labor, twenty-five cents to fifty cents a day; one-third field work done by 
whites ; land sells from three dollars to ten dollars an acre. 

Roivell, {E. D. 101) : Lands level ; soils, on the bottoms, heavy ; on 
the uplands, a light " fluffy " sandy loam, on a red clay subsoil. 
Growth, pine, oak, poplar, dogwood, hickory, cypress, &c. Some business 
done in shingles, hoops, staves and turpentine. Fine pasturage for 
stock. Wages for field work, forty cents to fifty cents a day for men, 
and thirty cents to forty cents for women. The local it}' has been very 
healthy for fifty years. Land sells for ten dollars, and rents for two dol- 
lars an acre. 

Jeffrici, {E. D. 91) : Prevailing soil a sandy loam, mixed with clay, 
varying in color from yellowish to dark gray, and resting on subsoil of 
red and yellow sand, containing a good deal of clay. The higher lands 
have more clay, the bottoms are more sandy. Much very fertile land 
unreclaimed on the Great Pec Dee and otlier water courses. Most of the 
land needs drainage. Growth of lowlands, oak, hickory and dogwood ; 
on ridge lands, pitch and yellow pine, with oak, etc. Grapes arc unfail- 
ing, and grow with little care. Stock raising has been i)rofitable. Wages 
for field work, thirty cents to forty cents a day ; one-third of it performed 
by whites. Some fever in the swamps, otherwise healthy. Some lands for 
sale at five dollars to ten dollars an acre. 

Marion, (E. D. 05): Lands level or slightly rolling, one-half known as 
" fluffy soil," is a dark gray clay loam, four inches to twelve inches to a 
subsoil of red or yellow chi}'. The other half is fine dark sjindy loam, 
with subsoil of yellow sand; below the sulwoil occur clays of various 
colors, which extend to the depth of the wells, ten feet to twenty-five feet, 
where excellent water is found in a stratum of quicksand and gravel. 
Very fertile bodies of unreclaimed swamps may be purchased at fifty 
cents to one dollar an acre, admitting of thorough drainage and ea.sy til- 
lage. Growth, pine, oak, hickory on u])lands, with the usual swamp 
growth. Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, fifteen bushels corn, 
twenty bushels rice, two hundred bushels sweet potatoes, under good cul- 
ture much more is made. Much attention is paid to fruits, which do well ; 
the finer varieties of grapes succeed admirably ; the scuppernong is native 
to the locality. Timber for shingles, staves aild hoops abundant, and 
some turpentine. Marl occurs. Field work, paid forty cents to fifty 
cents a day ; one-half of it performed by whites. A little land for sale 
at five dollars to eight dollars an acre, more for rent at two dollars to six 
dollars an acre, or one-fourth or one-third the crop, rent for a portion of 
Uie crop preferred. No malarial disease ; very healthy. 

Klrh;j,{E. D. 72): Land level. To the north, coarse, sandy soil, three 
feet to ten feet to light colored clay, mixed with gravel. In the centre, 



lOG THE UPPER FIXE BELT. 

the la!i(l in darker and finer. To the south, there is a gray loamy soil, 
resting at one foot to three feet on bright red clay. The ridges on what 
is known as the " slaslics," is a mulatto soil on dark red clay, beneath the 
clay, white sand, mixed with gravel, is found. Growth, long and short 
leaf pine, with the usual swamp growths on the water courses. Crops, 
ciglit hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, twenty bushels oats, 
twenty V)ushcls rice per acre. The sandy lands were formerly considered 
wortlilcss, a bale to three acres was unusual ; now with manures and ju- 
dicious culture, an average of 1,500 pounds to 2,000 pounds seed cotton 
is not uncommon. Farmers now who do not make their supplies and a 
IkiIc to the acre are not considered as doing well, c. //., a farm of tlireo 
hundred and thirty acres in cotton made, last year, three hundred and 
forty -six bales; on smaller fields more has been made; last year a farm 
of twenty acres made 44,000 [)Ounds seed cotton. Besides thorough til- 
lage, twenty or thirt}' loads of straw or litter, one hundred pounds to two 
liundred pounds Kainit, with one hundred and fifty pounds or two hun- 
dred pounds of sui)erphosp]iate or of Peruvian guano, is applied to the 
acre. The " Thomas grape," a fine variety scui)pernong, was first culti- 
vated hero, and is still found wild. Farm wages, for men, fifty cents a 
day; for women, thirty cents; one-eighth of the field work is performed 
by whites ; some fever near the river, otherwise remarkably healthy. 
Improved lands rent for five dollars an acre, unimproved for a four hun- 
dred pound bale for a one-horse crop. Lands sell from three dollars to 
one hundred dollars an acre. 

LrrjrtCfi, (I'J. D. 03): Rolling clay lands, sometimes flat and low. The 
sandy soils are level and dry. The subsoil mostly a yellow clay, some of 
red, or yellow .sand. Sand is found again four feet to ten feet beneath 
the clay, and in some places marl occurs. Wages of field labor, forty 
cents to fifty cents a day, four dollars to eight dollars a month. One- 
half of the field work done by wliites. Knows of no land for sale, may 
be bought for four dollars to ten dollars an aero. Rents for one-third or 
one-fourth of the crop, or worked on shares for one-half to two-thirds of 
tlie cotton, and two-thirds of the corn; rents often yield five dollin's to 
ten dollars an acre. 

Jliflshorn, {K. I). 00): Soil a darkish gray clay loam, six inches to eight 
inches to a yellow clay subsoil, overlying a^ very compact red clay that 
reaches twelve feet to twenty-fivo feet, the depth of wells, where water is 
found in quicksand. In the eastern part thousands of acres of most 
fertile swamp lands miglit bo reclaimed by drainage. There are also 
some sandy soils, with yellow sand sulnoil. Crops, ten bushels to twonty.- 
fivo busliels corn, i\vo hundred pounds to fifteen hundred pounds seed 
cotton, one hundred bushels to two hundred and fifty bushels sweet po- 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 107 

tatoes per acre. Field work paid thirty cents to forty cents a day ; one- 
third done by whites. Health good. 

Carmichael, {E. D. 88) : Lands elevated and level. Soil, a fine sand or 
red clay loam, containing much vegetable mould, underlaid at two feet 
or more by a very dark clay. Growth, pine, oak, hickory and dogwood, with 
juniper and cypress in the swamps. Average crops, one thousand pounds 
seed cotton, twelve bushels to fifteen bushels corn, fifteen bushels wheat, 
thirty-five bushels oats, twenty-five bushels rice per acre. Grapes do un- 
usually well. Field labor paid, thirty-five cents to fifty cents a day ; one- 
third of it done by whites, a sturdy wide awake population of Scotch 
descent. Locality very hcaltliy. Some land for sale at two dollars to 
thii*ty-five dollars an acre. Most of it rented to laborers at two dollars to 
eight dollars an acre, or for one-third of the crop. 

HarUccsmlle, (E. D. 89) : Most of the land is elevated and level, some of 
it, however, is low enough to require drainage. Three-fourths of the 
soils are fine clay, with little vegetable matter, except in the bottoms; 
one-fourth are sandy soils, with a subsoil of yellow clay, mixed M'ith 
sand; it is the best adapted to corn and small grain ; beneath the subsoils 
clay is found to the depth of the wells, fifteen feet to twenty feet, where 
water is found in quicksand. Growth, on uplands, pine and oak ; in the 
swamps, poplar and cypress ; much timber is rafted down the Little Pee 
Dee. Provision crops are neglected for cotton, and high prices for the 
advancement of suplpies are paid. No fever, the locality is very healthy. 
Price of lands, six dollars to forty dollars an acre. Farm labor paid, 
thirty cents to fifty cents a day ; one-half the field work done by whites. 

ALvRLnoRo County, (3d Sup. Dist., 10th United States Census.) 

Red IliU, {E. D. 110): Lands generally level or slightly rolling; rarely 
liilly or broken. The cultivation of largo bodies of rich river lands on 
the Great Pee Dee has been abandoned, or they are rented to negro ox- 
farmers. Some bay lands have been reclaimed. To the north, the up- 
lands are a sandy loam, resting on dark clay. Growth, oak and hickory. 
Crops, six to twelve hundred pounds seed cotton, ten to fifteen bushehi 
corn, eight to forty bushels oats, fifteen to twenty-five bushels wheat. 
Fruit very fine. Wages of farm labor, fifty cents to seventy-five cents a 
day. One-eighth of field labor done by whites. The best land will com- 
mand twenty-five dollars to thirty dollars; average lands fifteen dollars, 
and river bottoms two dollars and fifty cents per aero. Ordinary land 
rents for one hundred pounds seed cotton an acre, or two four hundred 
pound bales for a one-horse farm. Some fever on the river, eLsewher^j 
remarkably healthy. 



108 * THE UPPER riN'E BELT. 

JJcrtndtffville, {E. D. lOo) : Lnrpo bodies of bottom Innd on the Pco Deo, 
ojicc very productive, nrc now iibnndoncd. Culture is chiefly confined to 
the uplands, which nrc level or gently undulating. Soil, n fine pandy 
loam, resting at fod' inches on red clay underlaid by n chalky clay. 
(Irowth, j)iTie, oak r-l dogwood, with the usual swamp growths.. Crops, 
one thousand ])0untu) !■• fil'teen hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels 
to thirty bushels corn, twenty bushels to sixty bushels oats, fifteen bushels 
wheat p(T acre, (jrapes, fruits and vegetables do well. Wages for farm 
work, fifty cents to seventy-five cents a day; one-third of it done by 
whites. Two largo mill creeks traverse the township. Little land for 
sale, price ten dollars to twenty-five dollars. Rent, three dollars to five 
dollars per acre. Very healthy. 

Ikhron, (I'J. D. 108) : Level to flat lands. Soil, a sandy loam, mixed 
witli clay on clay subsoil. Growth, i)ine, oak and dogwood. Crops, eight 
hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels to thirty bushels corn, ten bush- 
els to forty bushels oats, five bushels to thirty bushels wheat per acre. 
All fruits do well. "Wages, fifty cents to seventy-five cents a day ; one- 
fourth of field work done by whites. No prevailing di.seasc. Land .sells 
from ten dollars to fifty dollars an acre; rents for three dollars to five 
dollars an acre. 

Jiri(/htsrtll(\ {K D. lOCt): Lands elevated. Two-thirds of the soils fine 
gray sandy loam, with yelhnv sand subsoil resting on red clay; the other 
one-third the same, without the clay. Growth, pine, oak and dogwood. 
Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn per acre. 
Wages, fifty cents a day ; two-thirds of the labor })erformed by whites. 
No prevailing disea.se. No land offered for sale or to rent. 

Adfuyi^rillr, (E. D. 104): Lands level or n little broken. Soil of fino 
and coarse whitish or yellowish .sand, ten inches to fifteen inches to sub- 
soil of red clay, under which a chalky clay occurs. Growth, pine, oak, 
hickory and dogwood. Crops, one thousaiul pounds seed cotton, fifteen 
bushels corn, seventy-five bushels oats, twenty bushels wheat per aero. 
Crooked erci'k is twenty feet wide, eight feet de(>p, fall eight feet per milo. 
Wages, fifty cents a day. One-half of field work done by whites. Very 
little sickness of any .sort. No land oll'erecl for sale ; j)rieo would bo 
twenty-five dollars an acre; it rents for one hundred and tweiity-fivo 
jMuinds .seed cotton, or two bales of five hundred pounds for one-horso 
farm (twenty-fivo ncre.'<). 

lud Wii(j\(E. D. 100): Prevailing soil n gray or brown ."undy loam, 
with subsoil the same, less the vegetable matter, resting at one foot to two 
feet on clay that extends eighteen feet to the bottom of the wells, whero 
excellent and abundant water is found in quicksand. Growth, pine, oak, 
hickory, dogwood and gum. Great resources in timber, hooj)s, shingles, 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 109 

turpentine, &c., untouched, except a little rafted down the Little Pee Deo. 
There is a mill at Red Bluff, on the Little Pee Dee; the river hero has a 
width of fifty-five feet, a depth of six feet, and a current of three miles 
an hour. Crops, one thousand pounds seed cotton (many farms yield a 
bale j)er aero), and fifteen busliels corn. Farm wafj;es, forty cents to sixty 
cents a day ; one-half of the field work done by whites. Little land 
odered for sale ; prices ran^e from fivo dollars to forty dollars an aero. 
Kent, in money, is six dollars an acre, or one-third of tiie crop. 



CHAPTER V. 



THE RED HILL REGION. 



LOCATION. 



The very gradual slope of the upper pine belt having attained an ele- 
vation of two hundred to two hundred and fifty feet above the sea level, 
an irrc;;ulur and somewhat interrupted line of high hills is encountered. 
These hills rise two to three hundred feet above the plane of the upper 
pine belt in the distance of a few miles, and not unfrequently this eleva- 
tion is attained in traversing a few hundred yards. To the south and 
east extensive views over the gentle and irregular slope of the lower 
country are exposed from the summit of these declivities. To the 
nctrth luid west a sort of tul)le land stri'tchos back and gradually merges 
into the higher and inoro e.Ktensive sand hill' region of the .State. 

The general trend of these hills corresi)ond pretty nearly with that of 
the other regions of the State. Starting on the Savannah river near 
Hamburg, they extend across the southern and western portion of Aiken 
and the northern townships of Barnwell counties. Following the north- 
ern boundary of Orangeburg, they acquire their greatest width in that 
county around Fort Motte, near the confluence of the Congaree and the 
Wateree rivers. West of the Santeo river their course is more to the 
north, and they constitute that remarkable line of hills traversing Sumter 
county, long known as the " High Hills of Santee." Included in this re- 
gion is also a body of lands in Edgefield county, known as the " Ridge," 
which lie along the Augusta and Charlotte railroad. Although the latter 
are alxn-e the outcrop of the granite rocks, being continuous with the 
red hills, and resembling them closely in physical features and soil, 
they are described with them. 

While these red hills form a well marked bolt across the State below 
the sand hills, from the southwestern part of Aiken county to the north- 



THE RED HILL REGION. Ill 

eastern corner of Sumter, they are not continuous, but are interrupted at 
greater or less intervals by the protrusion of the sand hills. Mills' descrip- 
tion of them east of the Santee river will give an idea of how this occurs. 
He says, " they take their rise about nine miles north of Nelson's ferry on 
the Santee, and form that fine body of brick mould land (3d Sup. Dist, 
E. D. 14 and 15) in the Richardson settlement. After continuing eight 
miles, they become suddenly sand hills a little above Manchester. At 
the end of eleven miles they again become red land, which continues to 
Buck creek, nine miles above Statcsburg. These hills up to this point 
appear to hang over the Wateree swamps, but now they diverge and turn 
to the northeast, with one ridge in tlio middle forming a backbone; 
breaking off into hills towards the Watcrce, and sloping off gradually 
towards Black river. At Buck creek the hills again become sandy, whicii 
gradually increases for fifteen or sixteen miles, to Bradford Springs ; a 
little above this place they join the sand hills of the middle country." 
If these alternations were carefully traced it is probable they would be 
found to be due to removal by denudation of the red clay loam from the 
slopes of sand and gravel that rise in the sand hills. For the sienna- 
colored clay loam, characteristic of this region, seldom has a depth greater 
than twenty feet, and is underlaid by beds of sand and gravel. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

The red hill region belongs to the buhr-stone formation of the eocene. 
It presents a scries of four quite dissimilar and well marked strata. 
Commencing with the superior, or more recent, theso are : 

1st. Beds of red sienna-colored siliceous cluy, liaving u tliickness of 
fifteen to thirty feet, and containing fragments of buhr-stone. It was the 
observation by Mr. Tuomey of the passngo of theso clays under the marl 
and green sand formations of the Charleston basin, at tiie Belle Brough- 
ton place, on Halfway swamp, in Orangeburg county (E. D. 150), which 
satisfied him that Mr. Lyell had erred in supposing that the buhr-stone 
overlaid the calcareous beds in South Carolina. This observation settles 
a point of considerable practical importance. For as the buhr-stone under- 
lies and forms the floor of the lime formations of the eocene, no marl beds 
need be looked for above the line of its occurrence. 

2d. Jieds of coarse red and yellow sands, having a thickness of thirty 
to sixty feet. In these ])eds are sometimes found, at a depth of fifty feet, 
crystals of rutile, either lying loose among the sands or imbedded in 
rounded masses of quartz or fcls})ar, water-worn by still quite perfect 
pyramidal crystals of quartz an inch in length, are also found among theso 
sands. 



112 THE RED HILL REOIOX. 

3d. Masses of buhr-stono, composed of silicified shells and other organic 
reniaiiis of the eocene. Among these shells gasteropoda predominate, 
wliicli, together with tlio presence of land shells, and shells of mollusks 
which li\'e in marshes (Auriculae), indicate the literal character of the for- 
mation. The leaves of oak, beech and willow trees, silicified or converted 
into lignite, were found here by Mr. Toumey. On Cedar creek, in Aiken 
county, there are beds of bulir-stone thirty feet in thickness, and at several 
points between this locality and thcSavaiinah river on the west, and the 
8antce and Congaree on tlie east, there are extensive outcrojjs of this mate 
rial, from which mill-stones of excellent ({uality, equal to the best French 
l)uhr, have l^een quarried. In thesoutliwestern corner of Aiken county, on 
Hollow creek (E. D. 10), be<ls of lignite occur, underlaid by clay that was 
used by the ordinance dei)artment during the late war for the manufac- 
ture of lire-i)roof crucibles, and pronounced ecjual to the best Stourbridge 
clay for that lairpose. Similar beds of lignite are found in Chesterfield 
county, on "Whortleberry branch, and at Mr. Croghan, underlaid by clay of 
the same character. 

4tli. Beds of a, white siliceous rock, varying from a laminated siliceous 
clay to a hard rock, having a jointed structure, breaking with a conchoidal 
fracture, and resembling mcnil'de. This curious rock has been traced from 
near Aiken C. II. to the northern part of Clarendon county. In the latter 
county there is a remarkable occurrence of it on the public road just 
north of Gov. Manning's residence (3d Sup. Dist. E. D. 15). On the head 
waters of Congaree creek this rock is sawed into blocks, fashioned with 
an axe, and used for building chimneys. It resists disintegration well, 
and its extreme lightness facilitates its carriage and handling. 

Below tlio series of strata thus described are the great beds of loose 
sand, intermingled with kaolin and variously colored clays, which rise 
into the extensive sand hill region, lying north of the red hills. 

SOILS. 

The reddish loam of this region presents an appearance somewhat sim- 
ilar to that of the soils derived from the hornblende rocks in the upper 
country, but it is not so tenacious and waxy. Although when not culti- 
vated it becomes very hard in dry weather, in wet weather, owing to the 
large amount of sand it cojitains, the intervals when it can not be worked 
are short. Vegetable matter rots rapidly in it, and for this reason long 
manures (as composts) arc better adapted to it than commercial fertilizers. 
The former arc rapidly incorporated and well retained, and there is no 
soil that responds so well or is so ca])able of great improvement under 
treatment with stable and lot manures as tliese. Worked without ma- 
nure they rapidly consume themselves and become unproductive. 



THE RED HILL REGION. 113 

The following analyses of typical soils in this region were made by 
Dr. Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, for the 10th United States 
Census : 

1. 2. 

Insoluble matter 88.0G0 89.340 

Soluble silica 3.055 2.847 

Potash 115 .138 

Soda 050 .0G3 

Lime 0(52 .077 

Magnesia 028 .OGl 

Br. oxide of Manganese 008 .090 

Peroxide of Iron 1.250 1.559 

Alumina 4.000 3.080 

Phosphoric acid 075 .007 

Sulphuric acid 047 .0.'i8 

Water and organic matter 2.G21 1.GG8 

Total 100.3G1 99.050 

Hygoscopic moisture absorbed at 80° Fah. . . 1.982 . 1.444 

These samples were taken uniformly to the depth of twelve inches on 
the table land in Amelia township, Orangeburg county, about three miles 
below the junction of the Waterce and Congarce rivers, from the place 
of J. Petcrkin, Esq. The three hundred and seventy-five acres in cotton 
on this place made, in 1879, two hundred and fifty bales of cotton. No. 
1 is from woodlands never cleared ; the growth, large red oak and hick- 
ory, with a sprinkling of very large short leaf pine. No. 2 is from a field 
that has been planted for more than one hundred years ; having on it a 
crop of about twelve hundred pounds of seed cotton to the acre when the 
sample was taken. The field had received only cotton seed and com- 
mercial fertilizers as manures for a number of yeans. Prof. Tourney, in 
his survey of South Carolina, publislied in 1848, gives the following 

analyses of these soils : 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Organic matter. . 5.G0 7.00 4.40 

Silica GG.90 71.00 80.30 

Alumina 9.00 8.50 COO 

Oxide of Iron G.OO 4.00 3.70 

Lime. . 2.00 1.50 0.90 

Magnesia 50 1.00 trace. 

Pota.'^h and soda trace. .50 ... 

Water and loss 9.40 C.44 4.10 

8 100.00 100.00 100.00 



114 THE RED HILL REOIOX. 

No. 1 -was from near Orangeburg village, the southern limit of the 
region under consideration, and near the lino where the buhr-stone passes 
under the Santee marls. 

No. 2 was from Lang Syne, the same plantation from which the sam- 
ples analyzed by Dr. Smith, were taken. 

No. 3 was from the " High Hills of Santee," near Statesburg, in Sumter 
county. 

CLIMATE. 

Having an elevation of four hundred to five hundred feet and upwards 
above the sea level, the red hills enjoy a dryer and more bracing atmos- 
j)]K're than the regions to the south. While it is a notable fact that they 
are not so subject to tlie severer influences of storm winds as the lower 
lying lands, the ordinary movements of the air are more perceptible there 
than in the lower ground.". Thus, during the extremest heats of summer, 
there is rarely a night when the refreshing influence of a gentle south 
wind is not felt, blowing with a uniformity as though it had directlr 
traversed the seventy miles intervening between these sloi)es and the 
ocean. Owing to this movement of tlie air and to its greater dryness, 
late s[)ring frosts are of less fre(iuent occurrence here than they are fur- 
ther .soutii. Nor is vegetation destroyed by cold so early in the fall. In 
ascending these hills in the autumn and early winter at a certain eleva- 
tion a stratum of warm air is encountered, which seems to cling about 
tlie hill-t()j>s, wliile a nnich chillier night air fills the bottoms. These ad- 
vantages at one time made this region famous for its fruits. During the 
severest winter of the last half century tlie banana and the sago j)alm 
in the open ground, protected only by a few handsful of cotton seed on 
their roots, though cut by the frost, retained sufiicient vitality to throw 
up vigorous shoots the ensuing .<?pring. This greater length of growing 
season has also made attempts at growing sea island cotton and sugar 
cane more successful here than lower down. The whole region is remark- 
ably healthy, no taint of malaria apj)roaches it and it is in an unusual 
degree free from ei)idemics of every description. For these reasons many 
localities here, esj)ccially the " High Hills of SantcK?," were formerly much 
fre(|Uentcd as sunnner and hcaltli resorts by })lanters from all parts of the 
State, as well as from other Southern States. 

GROWTH. 

The long leaf pine thins out on these hills and is sometimes replaced 
bv short li'af pine of large growth. Their southern aspect is the uj>per 
limit of the long gray nios.s. The characteristic growth, however, is oak 



THE RED HILL REGION'. 115 

and hickory of large size. All the oaks common to the section attain 
hero an unusual size, including even the blackjack and the post oak, not 
conspicuous elsewhere for their growth ; the red oak, however, sur- 
passes them all in size, measuring sometimes as much as seven feet in 
diameter, while trees four feet and five feet through are not uncommon. 
The live oak when planted docs well, the chinquapin is found wild in 
the woods; the Roman chestnut, the pecan nut, the English walnut, 
and the almond, bear abundant crops. So that the region is to a large 
extent suitable for the growth of plants natural to higher and to lower 
latitudes. 

STATISTICS. 

The red hill region contains about 1,020 square miles, and has a popu- 
lation of 44,8G6, being 27.G to the square mile. Fifty-six per cent, are 
colored. 

The area of tilled land is 234,082 acres; being 144 acres per square mile, 
or 22 per cent, of the entire surface ; and five acres per capita of the pop- 
ulation. 

The number of farms is 4,508, being 2,8 per square mile, or a farm to 
nearly every ten persons; averaging for the whole, 228 acres to the farm, 
of which fifty is under culture; the remaining 178 being included and 
for the most part yielding no return whatever. 

The crops are co'tton, in which 84,039 acres are planted, yielding 34,249 
bales of cotton in 1879. Averaging a yield per acre of 183 pounds of 
lint, or 348 pounds per capita for the whole population ; which is the 
largest yield per capita of any region of the State, This is a little more 
than six per cent, of the area planted in cotton in the whole State, and 
yields six and six-tenths per cent, of the entire crop of the State. In 
grain of all sorts 114,425 acres are planted, yielding 804,443 bushels, a 
little over seven bushels to the acre, and seventeen bushels per capita of 
the population, a yield wholly disproportionate to the capal)ilities of the 
soil, wliich is particularly adapted to small grain. This area is a little 
over six per cent, of the total area planted in grain in tiie State, and the 
yield is four and seven-tenths per cent, of the total crop of the State. Of 
course very little rice is planted here, which in part accounts for the fall- 
ing oir, that being the most productive grain crop in the State ; but lands 
which in 1825 made an average of eight to twelve bushels (see Mills, p. 
000), and when well manured, thirty-four busliels of wheat per acre, and 
from ten to twenty-five bushels of rice to the 'acre, and still more when 
planted in rye and oats, are fur below their Jiormal production when 
yielding as above indicated. In fallow and other crops there is 35,318 
acres, nearly fifteen per cent, of the land once under cultivation. The 



IIG THE RED HILL REGION. 

culture of much of this land is abandoned ns a consequence of the disas- 
ters that have overtaken the rich planters, who formerly lived hero, inci- 
dent to the results of the war. 

The work stock numbers 7,GG3, not quite five to tho square mile, one 
to every thirty acres of tilled land, and to every six of the ix)pulation. 

Tho live stock is G1,5G9, chiefly hogs; thirty-eight to the square mile, 
and nearly one to every four acres of cultivated land. 

At AVcdgcficld, on the Columbia and Wilmington Railroad, these lands 
are well cultivated and sell as high as twenty-five dollars an acre. At 
Fort Motto, on the Columbia and Charleston railroad, the prices are fifteen 
dollars to twenty dollars an acre, and in Millbrook, Aiken, by tho South 
Carolina railroad, they sell for fifteen dollai-s to twenty dollars, 
and in Beech island, in tho same county, near Augusta, Georgia, 
they have recently brought over forty dollars an acre. Tlie great 
body of these lands, however, lying off the railroads, are to be had 
at much lower prices. I^arge tracts, by no means inferior to those 
already mentioned, except as regards accessibility, are offered at from 
three dollars to ten dollars an acre. It is rcmarkablo that mere accessi- 
bility should affect prices to this degree. For, while the lands themselves 
produce every variety of crop, they are well adapted to cotton, of which 
a two-horse wagon ciin tmnsport as much as two hundred dollars worth 
at one load ; the roads are excellent and there is scarcely a point that is 
a day's journey removed from a market. That not 6ne-fourth of these 
lands, ca{)ablo of supporting, in health and abmidance, as large a popula- 
tion as land anywhere, are under cultivation, illustrates how much is 
wanting in capital and population to devclope the resources of this section. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 



The sand hill region of South Carolina stretches across the State from 
the Savannah river, opposite to Augusta, to tlie intersection of the Nortli 
Carolina line by the Great Pee Dee river. The average distance of its 
lower border, among the Rod Hills, from the sea, is about ninety-five 
miles. Its length is one hundred and fifty-five miles. Its width is 
variable; the maximum, wliich is reached in Lexington county, is about 
thirty miles, and the average width will hardly reach twenty miles. It 
occupies the larger portion of five counties, viz : Aiken, Lexington, Rich- 
land, Kershaw and Chesterfield. The upper pine belt, ascending the 
eastern bank of the Congarce river, in Richland county, until it touches 
the granite rocks of the Piedmont region at Columbia, divides the sand 
l)ill region into two portions, an eastern and a western portion. 

THE PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The physical features of this region are of a monotony aptly charac- 
terized by the term " pine barren," applied to it. The hills slope up 
from the Savannah river to a plateau, having an elevation at Aiken C. II. 
of about six hundred feet above the sea level. Beyond the North Edi.sto 
river the gradual ascent is resumed, until an elevation exceeding seven 
hundred feet is reached in Piatt Springs township, in eastern Lexington, 
whence there is a rapid descent of more than five hundred feet in a short 
distance to the Congaree river. East of this stream the rise is again 
gradual, and the maximum elevation is reached on the northeast border of 
Richland county, where the hills again descend al)ruptly to the Wateree 
river. Beyond this river there is no data as to levels, except that on the 
water shed of the Great Pee Dee there is evidence as toextensivo deuTidation 
of the surface to a dei)th of at leant one hundred and fifty feet. The evidence 
is furnished by a conical hill rising in central Chesterfield one liundred 
and fifty feet above the surrounding country, and known as Sugar Loaf 



118 THE SAND HILL REGION. 

mountain. Tliis liill consists of horizontal layers of sand and kaolin 
clays, similar to the prevailing formations of the sand hills, and has been 
preserved from denudation by blocks of ferruginous sandstone covering 
its top and sides, identical in character with the same sandstone, known 
as ironstone, found on the summit of these hills in many other localities. 
The following diagram presents a view of the relative elevations of this 
retrion : 







'i&>..v<M^ii.,i:\^',^u 



SlA I.KVKI,. AtKKN. LKXIN'iTOS. UlCIII.ANK. K Dll'-IIA W. Cll K-TI It I 1 H.Ii. HKA I.KVKI,. 

A KiivnniKih Itlvor; 7/ Hontli IMMo Klvi-r; C Nurtli KillMo Klvcr; 7> CoiiRiiri'i' lUvcr; /; Wfttoroo 
lUvir; /■'I.yncli'n lllvor; (/ rcu Iki- IMvit; // Alkiii Coini lIou«u; 7 fcSugnr Louf Mouiituln. 
ScAi.K— :!.'> iiilli"> piT Inch. Kk'ViiUoii UK) foct jtor I'o liidi. 

This longitudinal Hcctiou of the 8und hills illustrates onco more the 
law already noticed as prevailing elsewhere — that the long sloj)e9 face 
west and south, and the short sluj)es face east and north ; and, also, that 
the we<ten\ portion of the State is more elevated tlian the eastern. It 
will also he noticed that, notwithstanding their just rej)Utation for great 
dryness, lluv-c )>ine ban-ens are well watered. They are crossed by seven 
rivers of considerable si/.e, having an aggregate length among thc.'<c 
hills of more than two hundred miles. Of creeks, not counting lesser 
streams and immches, there i.s an aggregate length in this region of 
eleven hundn'd and seventy miles, cajjaide of furnishing a large amount 
of water power. For instance, ono average creek out of the seventy-eight 
found here, Horse creek furnishes in the single township ofdregg, in 
Aiken county, power for ti large paper mill and three cotton mills, being 
loOO horse i)ower utilized, and estimating the i)ower not emj)loyed, 
the stream can furnish 2500 horse power. Showing that the streams 
of medium size in this region have a capacity for work, now scarcely 
utilized, greater than that of all the work stock of the State. On the 
margins of these streams there are more than 100,000 acres of bottom 
lands, for the most part uncleared, but capable of being rendered, by 
drainage and irrigation, in the highest degree productive. The water of 
these streams, which are little subject to freshet, but maintain a flow of 
great uniformity throughout all tlie seasons of the year, is as clear as that 
of the purest si)rings. Spring branches, and even streams of considerable 
size, sink sometimes into the loose sands of this region and disa}>pear, to 
appear at distant points as "boiling" springs, that is, springs bubbling 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 119 

up with some force, and throwing out considerable quantities of fine, 
white sand. The action of these underground streams in removing and 
transporting these fine sands, accounts for a number of circular depres- 
sions not very different in appearance from lime-sinks, found scattered 
here over the elevated flats and plateaus, and when, by an accumulation 
of vegetable growth or a caving in of the earth, the channels of these 
streams are obstructed, rains sometimes fill these depressions, giving rise 
to clear sheets of water or lakelets. Another j)henomenon occurring here, 
and not well understood, are blowing wells, of which there are several. 
For example, on a high sand hill in Hammond townsliip, Aiken county, a 
number of unsuccessful attempts were made during many years to dig a 
well. At length an auger, eight inch diameter, penetrating the loose, 
coarse, white sand, and nothing else, to a depth of one hundred and 
twenty feet, encountered a bold stream of excellent water. "When the 
well was cuHkuI and completed, it was found tliat a cnrn'nt of air issticd 
from it all the tin)e, which, in threatening and stormy weather, acquired 
fiucli force as to make itself Ijeard at some distance, and to blow .«everal 
feet into the air a hat or cloth laid over the orifice. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATUllES. 

These hills form a dividing ridge between the more recent formations 
of the low country and the very ancient formations of the upj)er c<juntry. 
Their southern nsjiect overlooks the t(!rliary )>lnne descending to the sea 
whore of the Atlantic. On the Jiortli tin-y rea(!li the clay slates (dipping 
north) of Edgefield, Lexington, Richland an<l Chesterfield counties, and 
the granite and gneiss rocks of Kershaw county. Outcrops of these most 
ancient rocks occur among the sand hills themselves, as follows: 

In Aiken county, granite occurs (;n Horse creek, and granite overlaid 
])y gneiss rock and hornldende slate on the South Edisto, where the 
Columbia road crosses in. 

1)1 Lexington county, granite is found at (^uattlebaum's mill, on 
Light wood creek. 

In Kershaw county, masses of steatite occur on Spears, Twenty-five 
Mile, and Pine Tree creeks, and at Liberty Hill and at other places 
rounded blocks of coarse granite are seen, "as though they were jnished 
up through the sand." 

Next to the granite is found'a stratum of sandstone, consisting of the 
ruins of the granite consolidated into a pretty hard r(»ek. It occurs on 
Horse creek, on the ridges at the liead of Lightwood creek, on Congaree 
creek, where Mr. Tuomey observed in it eoniniinuted fbssilsof the eo<'ene 
type ; at the Koek House, in Lexington county, Mdiere it has been «juarried 
for architectural jairposes, and on Second creek, in the same neighbor- 



120 THE SAND HILL REOIOy. 

liood, wlicrc silicified sliells and fragments of lime were found embedded 
in the stone. 

Lyin;; on tliis sandstone are extensive beds of loose white eand, inter- 
mingled with strata of clay of various colors, the whole having an 
ostiniatcd vertical thickness of one hundred and fifty to two hundreu feet. 
Large beds of kaolin clay, free from grit or other impurity, and of great 
whiteness, are found intercalated among these sands. Several quarries 
lo the west of Aiken C. II. having been worked with much profit, the 
material being used as porcelain clay, and also by paper manufacturers. 
Some of the clays of Lexington county, beautifully mottled with various 
colors, harden, on exposure, to sucii a degree that it is thought they 
might be utilized for ornamental building purposes. 

Tlie last member of this series of strata is the "ironstone," already 
alluded to as covering the .summit of Sugar Loaf mountain. Next in 
order comes the porous, siliceous rock, resembling menilito, and thobuhr- 
stdiie series, 

SOILS. 

The characteristic of the soils of this region is the loose rounded .sands 
which form tlieir chief constituent. The organic matter which it con- 
tains consists largely of charcoal, resulting from burning of!" the woods, 
])rincipally the pine straw (leaves of the i)ine). Occasionally there are 
rounded hills of very fine sand of a dazzling whiteness, of such purity 
that they seem just to have emerged from the waters, or to have been 
blown together by the winds on the seashore. There are, however, many 
elevated Hats, which, under good culture and manuring, give excellent 
crops, and in the vales, the soil is often very productive; it is cultivated 
with care, and continues to i)roduce .so long as there is an atom left of 
anything that can sustain a plant. 

Tlie following analyses of the sand hill soils were made by Prof. C. L"'^. 
She^iard, Sr., in 1S4G: 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

^^'ater of Absorption 5.500 8.00 . . 

Organic Matter 8.500 . . 6.50 

Silica '....■. 77.000 81.00 80.00 

Protoxide of Iron 4.005 ' • I 

Peroxide of Iron . 3.50 / 

Alumina o.OO 5.50 5.G0 

Lime trace 0.40 0.60 

Magnesia trace trace . . 

Phosphates trace . . trace 

Water and Loss 1.60 4.30 

100.05 100.00 100.00 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 121 

No. 1 is surface soil near Aiken ; No. 2 is subsoil of the same ; No. 3 is 
from Piatt Springs, Lexington. 

In recent years, under high culture, " on a lot in Aiken, adjacent to tlio 
one where the above analysis was made, the product was forty bushels of 
corn, and thirty bushels of wheat per acre." Since the introduction of fer- 
tilizers, level lands in the neighborhood of the Soutli Carolina railway, 
which sold in 18G0 for three dollars an acre, have sold for thirty dollars 
and even as high as forty dollars an acre. Throughout this region 
thousands of acres, equal and superior to these, though not immediately 
upon a railroad, are for sale at one dollar to five dollars an acre. 

GROWTH AND PRODUCTIONS. 

The growth is almost exclusively long leaf pine, and on the more 
barren ridges, even this tree becomes stunted, and sometimes, on tlie 
liigher and finer sand crests, yields its j>lace to the New Jersey tea plant, 
which alone covers the dazzling whitenesH of the sands. Usually, how- 
ever, there is a heavy growth of long leaf pine, and this tree here — almost 
on its northern limit in the State — attains its highest perfection, not only 
a>i regards size, trees of three feet and four feet in diameter being not un- 
common, but also as to the quality of its wood, wliicli has more heart 
and is more resinous than elsewhere, a fact duly recorded in the naine.ii 
of localities, as Lightwood creek, and Lightwood Knot springs, tlic in- 
liabitants of even this mild climate being not unmindful of the light and 
warmth furnished bv this excellent fuel. There is often an undergrowth 
of the forked leaf blackjack, and where there is a suspieion of moisture 
in the soil, this is replaced by the round leaf blackjack, a sure indication 
here of better soil. On the hillsides, there are not unfrequently out- 
croppings of kaolin, and here a growth of kalmia adds a pleasing variety 
to the monotony of the pine forest. 

Besides the staple products of cotton, corn, the small grains, peas and 
potatoes, common to this latitude, these soils have been thought specially 
adapted to certain other crops. One locality has been known for more 
than one hundred years as '* Pinder Town," from the number of pea-nuts 
formerly produced there. Many years ago the lands of Lexington and 
Kershaw were thought especially adapted to the growth of Palma Christi, 
and even with the rude appliances for its extraction in those early days, a 
yield of one hundred and fifty gallons of excellent oil jier acre was ob- 
tained. These sandy .soils produce sorghum, which, while it is of smaller 
growth than that on more fertile lands, yields more abundantly a syrup 
that is much superior in quality. No where are watermelons produced 
with such ease anl certainty, in so great quantities, of so large a size, and 



122 . THE SAND HILL REGION'. 

SO fine a flavor as on the poorest of these lands. There was no finer veg- 
etable or flower j^fi.rden in the State than that of the late William Gregg, 
situated on a high and sandy hill between Aiken and Granitcville ; one 
scu]i])ornong vino covered the fourth of an acre with its luxuriant and 
productive growth. On the apparently barren hills of this vicinity there 
also flourisJied formerly a most remunerative culture of the j)each. The 
late James Purvis cultivated, witii three liands, sixty acres in this fruit, 
and in six years he made live crops, realizing on each from So.OOO to 
.^10,000. Neighboring orchardists engaged in this culture have more 
tlinii once made Ave hundred dollars to the acre. The 

CLIMATE 

of the Siuid liills is dry, tonic, sutmy and stimulating, and entirely free 
from malarial influences. They have long been a resort during winter 
for consumj)tives from northern latitudes, and during the summer months 
for i)ersons from the lower country of the State. The inhabitants thcm- 
f^elves enjoy an unusual degree of health. Cases of great longevity are 
common, and the death rate is unusually low. For examj)le, in Piatt 
Springs township, Lexington, in a population of eight hundred and fifty- 
three by actual count, there were only two deaths in 1879, and only four 
deaths in 18S0. Of the latter throe were of persons over eighty years of 
age; nor can this bo considered an exceptional case. 

The period without frost has an average duration of two hundred to 
two hundred and twenty-five days, nor are they of very frequent occur- 
rence, even during midwinter. 

The mean annual temperature is G2°, 50^ Fah, The winter mean is 
48°, .'):V Fah. The .spring mean is 55° Fah. The summer mean is 75° 
Fah.,nnd theautumn mean is 71°. Excluding August, the warmest month 
of tiie year, the mean for autumn, i. c, Sejttember and October, would bo 
G8° Fah. The average diurnal range of temi)eratures is 12°, ()5\ a frac- 
tion less than at the important health resort of Santa Barbara, California. 
The elevation au'l the porous subsoilof .slid, in which water is found only 
at a dej)th of eighty feet to one hundred and twenty-five feet, make this 
a remarkably dry climate. Steel instrumetits may be exposed for months 
without rusting; matches left open never miss fire; moth and mould are 
rarely seen, and the cryptogameous plants are feebly represented. Ob- 
servations at Aiken show that the relative humidity of the air is G4.04, 
being less than at any of the famous health resorts of Eurojtc, except 
Cannes and llyeres, which are somewhat less, due, perhaps, to the preva- 
lence of the mistral. Heavy dues never occur. Fogs are also rare. The 
numl)er of rainy days varies froin twenty-nine to forty-five, and of the 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 123 

remainder, two hundred and sixteen to two hundred and thirty-nine are 
clear, leaving only eighty-four to one hundred and seven cloudy days. 
During sixteen years the rain fall at Aiken varied from 03.87 inches to 
66,49 inches, with an average of 4G,70. During five years six falls of 
snow were recorded, but as a rule there were only a few flakes, which 
melted as soon as they reached the ground. Sleet is more frequent than 
snow, but disapj)cars on a few hours exposure to the sun. The prevailing 
winds are from the south and southwest. The water of wells and springs 
is of a su})orior character, being transparently clear, with a temperature 
varying from 02° to 04° Fah, ((climate and topogrjiphy of Aiken, by 
E. S, (laillard, M. D., Richmond, Va. ; Aiken as a Jlealth )Stati<>n, by W, 
II. Geddings, M. D.). It must be remembered that this (lcMcrij>tion applies 
to no restricted locality, but refers to an area of more than 2,000 square 
miles, where the sanitary conditions above alluded to are present with the 
terebinthinate and healing odors of a great pine forest. 

AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

The area of the sand hill region is estimated at 2,441 square miles. 
The population is 28,012; being 11.7 per square mile, nearly one-third 
less than the average of the State, and less than in an}- other region. 
Fifty-nine per cent, of the population is colored. 

The area of tilled land is 151,359 acres, which is sixty-two acres to the 
square mile, or a fraction under one-tenth of the entire surface. This is 
twelve acres below the average of the State, and less tlian in any other 
region except the lower pine belt, where it is thirty-five acres per square 
mile. It is five and a third acres per cai)ita of the population, the largest 
proportion in the State, and is due to tlie few towns and railroads in the 
region, leaving the rural population more exclusively to agricultural 
pursuits. 

Tlie tilled land is divided among 4,238 farms; giving thirty-five acre:} 
of tilled land to the farm ; five acres less than the average for the State. 
The number of farms in proportion to the populatiim is greater than 
anywhere else, being one farm to every seven of the population. More 
farms are worked by their owners, and fewer by renters than elsewhere. 
Thus in Kershaw and Chesterfield counties, sixty per cent, of the farms 
in the sand hills are worked by the owners, and forty by renters; in tlie 
portion of the same districts embraced in the ui)i)er pine belt, the Red 
Hill and the Riedmont regions, fifty-six per cent, of the farms arc rented. 
This independent small proprietary has exercised its infiucnee on the ag- 
ricultural policy of the State, and the long o})position to a cliange of the 
fence law is largely due to them. They luive also, in times ])ast, been a 



121 THE 8AND HILL REGION. 

third jiiirty, as it wore, stretching across the middle country of the State, 
l)ot\vcon the larger farmers of the upper country on the one hand, and 
the planters of the lower country on the other. This, together with the 
.sparsely settled country, where heavy sand hills were not favorable to 
transportation, before the days of railroads, has made this section in some 
.sort a l>arrier between these two sections, socially and industrially, as it 
{■* geologically. 

The crops are: cotton, 35,433 acres, two per cent, of the entire surface; 
yield, lo^O.j.j balc^, G.l bales per square mile, or about one hundred and 
nincty^-thrce pounds of lint cotton per acre, a little above the average of 
the State, owing doubtless to the large area from which the small number 
of acres plantc<l is selected. The yield per capita is only two hundred 
and thirty-nine pounds, less than in any portion of the State north of 
the lower jiine belt and south of the Piedmont country. 

Con\ and other grain, 03,283 acres, yielding 920,444 bushels, a fraction 
k'^s than ten busliels per acre, but thirty-two bushels per capita of the 
population, nearly double the average for the State, and twelve bushels 
j>or capita more than the next highest (the Piedmont) region. Another 
ivsult of an independent small proprietary and of a rural population re- 
moved from the thoroughfares of travel and of trade, and forced truly on 
their own resources for subsistence. 

In all other crops and fallow there is 22,G43 acres, most of which is in 
orchards and gardens. 

The Avork stock numbers 8,518, being 3.8 per .square mile, which is less 
than in any region of the State, except among the extensive unimproved 
forests of the lower pine belt, where the proportion is only a little more 
tlian lialf the above. The ratio of work stock to population is 20-100 to 
viw, being nearly double the average of the State. This is owing to the 
larger proportion of rural ])Oj)ulation, and con.scquently of farmers em- 
ploying stock ; to the small independent farm-holdings, separated by wide 
tracts of unim])rovcd land; the small proportion of crops worked by 
liand, such as cotton and rice and the larger proportion of land in grain, 
tilled chiefly by horse power; and to the great facility and cheapness of 
keeping stock on homc-rai.«ed supplies, in place of doing .so with corn and 
hay brought from the north and west. These same rea.sons will account 
for tliere being only seventeen acres of tilled land to the head of work 
stock, seven acres less than the average of the State, although the lands 
arc light and of easy culture. 

There is 70,001 lierd of all kinds, being only twenty-nine to the square 
mile, which is eight le.'ss than the average for the State, and less than any 
whore in the Stale, except upon the sea coast, and in the lower pine belt. 
This statement will doubtless seem very strange to the farmers in these 



THE SAND HILL BKOION. 125 

regions, affording the widest ranges of forest pasturage for stock, and wlio 
consider stock-raising as one of their most important concerns. This 
opinion among the sand hills arises from the fact, that there is 2,47 
head of stock to each one of population, nearly double the average for 
the State, which confirms the importance of their stock to them, while it 
fails to show that lands in woods-pasture, with freedom of range for stock, 
give as much return in stock as lands under cultivation. On the con- 
trary, tables here appended, show that the amount of live stock per 
square mile increases, with the increase ;n the number of acres of tilled 
land per square mile. Whence it follows that stock raising in this State 
has passed out of that early condition of things, when wild stock roaming 
at large yielded the largest return. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



LOCATION, PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

Tlie Piedmont region of South Carolina coincides very nearly with 
wliiit is known as the upper country of the State. It includes the whole 
of ei^ht counties, to wit : Abbeville, Anderson; Newberry, Laurens, Union, 
Fairfield, Chester and Lancaster. It also embraces the northern portion 
of Edyefield and Lexin((ton, and the northwestern portions of Richland, 
Kersliaw and Ciiesterlield. The southern parts of Oconee and Pickens, 
and the southern and larger portions of Greenville, Spartanburg and York 
are within its limits. A lino drawn from a ])oint on the Savannah river 
three miles above Hamburg to Columbia, and running thence northeast to 
where the Great Pee Dee river crosses from North into South Carolina, 
defines, in a general way, its southern border. Its northern boundary 
follows, in the main, the direction of the Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line 
railroad, which lies on the edge of the Alpine region, just north of the one 
under considiM'ation. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The physical features of this portion of the State entitle it to the name 
of the Piedmont Region. Its rocks arc .so similar to those of the Blue 
Ridge mountains that, though they have been broken down, levelled off, 
and worn away by exposure, during the countless ages, to the vicissitudes 
of the seasons, they are, and always have been, the foot hills of the 
Apalachian range, while the broken and mountainous region to the 
north, usually spoken of as the Piedmont country, might be better called 
the Alpine or Sub-Alpine region of the State. 



, THE PIEDMONT KEOION. " 127 

The elevation of thirty-one points in the Piedmont region, varj-ing 
from a minimum of 179.5 feet on the gmnitc rocks at tlie Congnrec hridge, 
below Columbia, to a maximum of 880 feet at Bclton, on the Greenville 
railroad, give a mean elevation above the sea of 500 feet. The mean 
elevation of the Columbia and Augusta railroad, where it passes along 
the southern border of the region, is 575 feet. That of the Air Line rail- 
road in South Carolina, lying to the north of it and almost wholly within 
the Alpine region, is 910 feet. Between these two lines, therefore, a dis- 
tance of some ninety miles, there is a general rise of the surface of three 
hundred and thirty-five feet, or less than four feet to the mile. This is a 
gentler slope than that of the tertiary plain or low country. The distance 
from the sea to its northern border being about one liundred miles, and 
the difference in elevation something more than five hundred feet, or over 
five feet to the mile. 

The face of the country presents a gently undulating plain, whi(;h be- 
comes more rolling as it approaches the rivers and larger streams, and is 
finally hilly and broken above the bottoms and narrow, low grounds, 
through which the numerous water courses find their passage. 

"While the general rise in the surface is less tlian that in the loW country, 
the rise in the beds of the streams, owing to the resistance of the under- 
lying rocks, which i)revent the water from deepening their channels, is 
much greater. Thus, the elevation above the sea of the lower falls of 
these rivers is, for the Savannah, 133 feet ; for the Congaree, 135.3 feet; 
for the "Wateree, 133 feet; but where they enter this region from the 
north, the surface of the water has an elevation above the sea level of 
403 feet for the Savannah, of 552 feet for the 13road river, and of 544 feet 
for the Catawba. Tliis gives an average difference of 3G0 feet in al)out 
83 miles, or a fall per mile in the Piedmont region of 4J feet, against an 
average fall in the lower course of these rivers of about 1.2 feet per mile. 
While this renders the navigation of the upper portions of these rivers 
difficult, it adds largely to their availability as water powers for movirg 
stationary machinery. 

Tlio Savannah river, on the western boundary of the State, passes 
through the inetamori)hic rocks for more than one hundred miles, and 
although it receives many alHuents, and .sojno of tJicm quite large, on its 
eastern bank, they join at such an acute angle as to make its eastern 
water shed very narrow — scarcely anywhere exceeding twenty miles 
in width. To the east, Lynch's river passes through this region forabout 
twelve miles, its western water shed not exceeding five miles. Between 
these two narrow water sheds in the east and west there is an interval of 
about one hundred miles. The numerous streams traversing this inter- 
val belong to one river system, and unite shortly after entering the ter- 



128 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

tiary plain to form the Santeo river, which has been called the river of 
South Carolina. The swift Catawba, with a fall of nearly six feet to the 
mile, mcrf^os into the "Watcrce and forms the eastern and main channel 
of tliis river system. Its larger afllucnts all roach it from the west, those 
from the east being, in comparison, small. The Saluda, on the other 
hand, the most westerly river of the group, receives all its larger afllucnts 
from the east; a high ridge on its western water shed, for the most part 
barely five miles wide, se})arate3 its waters from those flowing into the 
Savaimali. The triangular sjjaee enclosed b«t\veen these two streams and 
washed by their numerous tributaries, viz : Reedy, Little, Bush, Broad, 
ICiinoree, Tygor, Pacolet and Fair Forest rivers, besides many largo creeks 
and brandies, bears ample evidence to the erosion it has suffered. The 
softer rocks, such as talc and mica slates, found beyond these streams on 
the eastern and western ridges of tlio triangle, are wanting within, it 
liaving been waslied away, leaving behind them only the hard gneiss or 
the still harder granite to dispute the passage of the waters. 

RIVERS. 

The following gives the leading characteristics of some of these streams 
so far as they havo been ascertained, numerically : 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



129 



TABLE. 





NAMEOfr 

AFKLUKNTOR 

RAPID. 


LOCAL FEATURES. 




NAME OF 


DISTAKCB. 


Length in 
Miles or 
Yards. 


FKET. 




KIVER. 


i 


Place 
Whonco 
Meonured. 


1 ^ 






II 


REMARKS. 


SavanDdh... 


. Stevens Cref k 


1 
8 

71 


AugiiHta 


15.5 ml led. 

1 

000 feet... 10. 
6 miles... 35. 

1(10 miles 

17 inlleH... 74.8 


1S5(J 

(10( 
12O0 

150 

2100 

W 

2100 
IK 
120 


!.l 

2 
2 
2 

1 
30 

1 


0.8 

10. 
0.7 

10. 




*• 


. RoHch 




•'i 


Bluejurket rihoal 

. LoiiK Mlioal 




*' .... 


I.lttle Ulver 

Trotler'H.siioul 

Kocky Klver 




Itocky Rlvfei 
UuvaniiMh.... 


II-ee'HHlioiil 




a" 

'20, 
'IH. 

'Ml 




(ireCK'sHhoiil 

Mldiileion Hlioul 

LIlllO (iC'lHTOSU-e 

McUiuilel .Slioal 


HH 
81* 

vr> 

Jt7 
107 J4 
110 

lllj^ 

110>^ 
Ui 
2 

10 

22 . 

!(2 

i;i 

7(1 
HI 
\)l 
UI 

•r- 

15 

27 
.'1.5 
41 
40 

15 

89 

47 

a 

u 

12 
14 

01 

07 

m 

76 
23 
2t) 
40 

81 ( 
03 

in 
w 
It 

9 

U 

20 


" :::::: 


!l mile..,. 
11 mile 

|I2 lIlllcN. 




•i 


iLltHeJIeiiverDaniOr 

.seiiaca Ulver 

Halton'H Hlioals 

Ulg iSeaver Dam Cr'k. 

Oue.sts Shoals 


14 miles "JO- 


Fall In creek. 


•• . .'.'.'.' 


70 nillc'8. 
l'/4 miles 
.300 y'ds.. 

1 mile 


i 

.■If).. 

80, 
17, 


240 
500 
45 

1*0 
00 

100 

DO 
00 

«to 

00 

121 H) 

75 


2 

5 

6 

15 
1J< 


2.6 

e.6 


Fall 2 mileH above 
mouth 


•• 


A. AC. A.L. »{. 11 

Saluda Cai)al 

DrohcT'M Canal 




Baliidn 


Columbia 





'3«, 
21. 
4,5. 



70. 
2j"». 

'■"■ 

20.5 
I'l.'o' 








'„ 


(-'alk'H Ferry 

Hush Klver 


11 


3 miles... 
.T) miles 
40 miles.. 
V) miles.. 




•1 


IJlllo iUvcr 




ti 


Kicdy Klver 




•• 


Ureal KallM 

Narrow SlioalH 

Cedur MIiohIm 




,',' 


Columbia'.'..". 


2.0 miles 
11 miles.. 
;i') tulles,. 
1000 yd's, 





Droad River. 


null Hhilco 

(X'dar Crcik 




•• 11 


I-llilo Jtlvtr 




>i I. 


HumiiHTMhodI 




•• .1 


lUu'k Klioal 




•• •■ 


l.ylo, Shoal 


From mouth. 
It <i 
It It 

[Columbia 

From mouth. 


KHO y'ds, 
m miles.. 

TOO y'dd... 
528 y'ds... 
75 miles.. 


ii.:<u 

15, 
30, 
70. 

...... 

41. 




•t 11 


Kiinorco Klver 


Navlg-blo 110 miles 

Pcnnlngton'i Fort, 

Musgrarc'* Fort. 

Mountain .'<hoal. 

SavIftablerWinlleM 
UawkliiH Shoals. 
Calk's it ridjce. 

Fair Forent Creek 


" ... 










11 .1 


•1 11 


1 


11 1. 


Tyger River 


1^1 


2 


! 


11 11 




•1 11 


11 11 










11 11 


11 1 


Columbia 


to miles.. 


750 
16 


6 

6 


1 


•1 M 


Wood'n Ferry 




haHfimllesabo.e 
a lull of 20 feci. 


1. 11 


Turkey (YecK 




•• <■ 


Ix>ck hurt Creek 


" 1 

From mouth. 
" " ... ' 
" " ... f 


.4 miles. 
A) miles.. 
AtuWii... 

Miy'tls....! 

MO v'dH.J 


17.0 

»!"■ 

0. 

u. 




11 11 


Pacolet lUver 


160 2Ul 




•1 11 


rhickctty Creek 


lo! 


«" 


rrough Shoals, 
lurricano Hhoals, 


•1 11 


;;k)lumbla 'iH mlleH,. 

iSmllcH.. 


30 


7 






" .'.'.' 


<lim'n Creek 

loarlnx Hull .Mlulce... 
,'h<"r<)kee Hhoal 


30 15 
76 10 

450 5 




" ...1 


kVatoree Rlv. f 


^iinlles'KJ.ro! 






^uIiiu'h Ferry 


"iViiVeii'"' 


78." 
20. 


^I. Carolina Line. 


CnUwba ( 


ircat FallK 










KlKlilriK Creek 


" 7;iiiiile!j..| 
" " 2 nillL>H...l! 






LuudMlord 










1 





130 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

The Savannah river is now navigable for pole boats carrying fifty bales 
of cotton for one hundred and and fifty-four miles above Augusta. The 
report of the Chief Engineer U. S. A., 1879, states that, for an outlay of 
$18.s,()0(), a permanent channel, three feet deep and sixty feet wide, of 
safe and easy navigation for such boats, could he made. For §07,000, in 
addition to the above, one liundred and fourteen miles could be made 
into r; stcanilioat channel, ninety feet wide and three feet deep. 

The Saluda river is navigable for eighty -four miles above Columbia, 
where it unites with the Broad to form the Congaree river, for the same 
kind of l)oat. 

Tho Broad river is navigable for one liundred ond thirteen miles in 
South Carolina, above Columbia, and for twenty-eight miles more in 
North Carolina, for this class of boats. It has a total length of one 
hundred nnd seventy-five miles. 

The Catawba river has a fall of three hundred and twenty-five feet in tho 
fifty-five miles of its course in South Carolina. Its banks are three hun- 
dred to three thousand feet apjirt, and from ten to one hundred feet high. 
Above Rocky Mount, in Chester, there is a fall at one point of fifty feet 
in four hundred yards. It has a total length of two hundred and seventy- 
two miles, and its source is two thousand" five hundred feet above the 
level of the sea. 

The data above given were obtained by surveys made in the dryest 
season of a very dry year, and, therefore, represents these streams at ex- 
treme low water. This low stage of the water prevails during October 
and Xoveml)er. At other seasons, the volume of water would be, on the 
average, two or three times as great. Tiie rivers are subject to freshets, 
rising twenty to thirty feet above low watermark, this rise being greatest 
where they issue from the Piedmont region. No local falls under ten feet 
have been entered in the table, although such falls not unfrcquently 
afford tlie most available powers. Together, these streams furnish a 
navigable liighway of four hundred and five miles, which might be greatly 
and permanently imj^roved and much increased for a moiety of what the 
same length of railroad would cost. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

The rocks of the upper country of South Carolina are a continuation 
of and similar to the rocks of middle North Carolina, identified by the 
Geologist of that State, Prof. W. C. Kerr, as belonging to the Laurentian 
and Iluronian formations. They are heM to be the most ancient of rocks, 
and antedate the unnumbered ages during which the varied forms of 
plant and animal life have succeeded each other on this planet. Disclos- 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 131 

ing themselves no evidence free from question that any living things 
existed at the period when they were formed, it is upon their flanks, and 
largely from material furnished by their disintegration, that the whole 
series of formations composing the surface of the earth and marking the 
different geological eras of its history has been built up. In South Carolina 
these oldest rocks appear among the sands of the tertiary — the most 
recent geological age. The records of the intervening ages have dis- 
appeared, and the stone pages upon which the introductory and conclud- 
ing chapters of the earth's history are written, here lie side by side. 
Among the oldest of these rocks are the 

GRANITES, 

which have their outcrops in Carolina along three nearly parallel lines, 
as follows : 

1st. On the most southern of these lines the granite shows itself among 
the sand hills at Graniteville, on Horse creek, Aiken county, and thence 
at various points in a northeasterly direction to Columbia. Notable quar- 
ries for building materials are worked at Crraniteville and at Granby, 
below Columbia. 

2d. The second line of outcrop extends from the neighborhood of 
Horn's creek, Edgefield county, across Newberry, Fairfield and Kershaw 
counties, to the northwestern corner of Chesterfield. In Edgefield, New- 
berry and Fairfield, the granite is associated with beds of hornblende rock 
and forms the substratum of a heavy, dark, red clay loam, which is one 
of the best and strongest soils in the State. Here, also, quarries of excel- 
lent granite, fine-grained and easily splitting, have been found, especially 
in Newberry and Fairfield counties, where inexhaustible quantities of 
the best building granite are found. There is a beautiful flesh-colored 
porpliyritic granite found in Kershaw. In Edgefield and Lancaster it 
becomes coarser and syenitic in character. 

3d. The third line of outcrop stretches through Laurens, Union and 
York counties. In the vicinity of Union C. II., the granite is of exceed- 
ingly fine grain, and well adapted for architectural pur{)oscs, but the most 
of it on tliis line is characterized by a coarse porphyried structure, and it 
shows itself in an undecomposed state at only a few points. 

GNEISS, 

or laminated granite, forms by far the larger portion of the rock under- 
lying this region. No strict line of demarcation between it and the gran- 
ite has been established. In mineral constituents, color and grain, they 



132 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

nro alike and seem to shade off insensibly into each other. This explains 
why, in nearly every township, the occurrence of rock, well adapted for 
Imilding, and called pranitc, is reported in greater or less quantities. 
'Die most marked didcroncc is, that where the stratiform character of the 
;j;n<iis3 is most marked the hornblende beds, associated with the granite, 
itndofsucli hi;;h value as a soil yielder, disappear. Although traversed 
by numerous veins, this rock has so far furnished nothing of importance 
to the miner in this State. Its general dip is slight and to the southeast. 
Oil its southern border, however, the gneiss rock is found with a vertical 
dip, as at Edgefield C. II. South of the Saluda river, in Lexington, it is 
found between the granite and the clay slates, dipping N. E, 80°. In 
Newberry, near the thirty mile post on the Columbia road, a coarse feld- 
spathic gneiss, alternating with hornblende slate, forms an anticlinal ridge, 
dipping southeast on its southern, and northwest on its northern slope. 

Immediately overlying the gneiss, belts of hornblende slate, of no great 
breadth, and having nowhere an ascertained thickness exceeding twenty- 
tivo feet, are exposed. 

* MICA SLATE. 

These belts of hornblende generally surround isolated areas of mica 
slate, which overlie them. They are found chiefly towards the north, 
along the base of the triangle formed by the affluents of the Santee, or to 
the west of this river system in Abbeville, Anderson, Greenville and Pick- 
ens. They occupy the summit of ridges, as of King's Mountain, in York. 
On the water courses they give place, first to the hornblende slate, and 
then to the gneiss, which forms almost everywhere the beds of th^ streams. 
Thoy have an ascertained thickness, exceeding in no single locality one 
hundred feet. Mines sunk in them have, in several instances penetrated 
to the underlying gneiss. Mica .slate thus occurs as large islands, the 
remnants, jierliaps, of what may once have been a succession of wave-like 
parallel folds, dij)ping gently with the Atlantic slope to the southeast and 
covering the entire surface, but disappearing long ago under the erosive 
action of the present river system of the State. Numerous gold mines 
and veins bearing coppcr,lcad and silver, have been found in these rocks, 
and. to a limited extent, worked. The iron furnaces of Cowpens and 
Hurricane Shoals are also located in this formation. Mica of excellent 
(juality has been mined in Dark Corner township, Anderson, and in Ab- 
beville. In the former locality beryl and copper are also found; corun- 
dum and zircons are found in Hall township, Abbeville, and in other 
localities. Asbestos occurs near Glenn Springs, Spartanburg, a noted 
health resort, the curative virtues of whose waters, with those of many 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 133 

other similar springs in this region, is due to the minerals dissolved from 
these mica slates during their passage through tliem, 

TALC SLATES. • 

« 

Next in the order of superposition above the mica slates occur extensive 
areas of talc slate. Tiiese rocks seem to have yielded more completely to 
the erosive action of the rivers even than the mica slates. They scarcely 
appear at all in the angle enclosed between the Catawba and the Saluda. 
Their largest outcrops are egst of the Catawba, in Lancaster and Chester- 
field, and separated from theso by tlio whole width of the river system of 
the State, eighty miles, to the southwest they occur on the further side of 
the Saluda, in Edgefield and Abbeville. These two localities are the great 
gold-bearing regions of the State, 

ITACOLUMITE. 

On Broad river, near the northern boundary of the State, where Union, 
York and Spartanburg corner, an interesting series of rocks occur, the 
most peculiar of which is a flexible sandstone, the itacolumite or diamond 
bearing rock, which gives its name to the group under the designation of 
the itacolumitic series. Thus far only one diamond has been found in 
South Carolina, though several liave been obtained from the continuation 
of these rocks, both in Georgia and in North Carolina. 

CLAY SLATE. 

South of the rocks above mentioned, and extending along the edge of 
the tertiary from Edgefield to Chesterfild, a broad belt of clay slates 
occur. On their southern border, among the sands of Lexington and 
Chesterfield, or just 'north of the granite in Kershaw, Richland and 
Edgefield, these clay slates dip northwest 14° to 18°. This angle increases 
further north, until the slates stand vertically ; still further on the dip is 
reversed to the southeast. In Edgefield and Lexington, where they occupy 
the widest areas, these rocks seem to have had their positions much dis- 
turbed, and wliile the edges of the strata preserve their northeasterly 
strike, their faces are turned alternately northwest and southeast — now 
towards the mountains, and again towards the sea. These clay slates are 
contiguous to the Jurassic strata of North Carolina. Mr. Tuomey found 
in Chesterfield fossils which he credited to the new red sandstone, and in- 
timated tliat these slates themselves might possibly be identified with the 
paleozoic series. It seems at least certain that they overlie, and are, there- 



134 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

fore, younpcr than tho other rocks of this region, excepting, possibly, the 
itucoluniitic series alono. 

TRAP. 

Tiie Trnppean rocks remain to be mentioned. They are found cliiefiy 
(^n two lines. The principal one is tho most southerly and extends from 
E(l<,a'field across to where tho Catawba enters tho State. Their trend is a 
little more to the north of cast than that of tlie other strata, which they 
therefore cross at an angle. Their greatest dcveloj)ment is in Chester and 
York, where they form tho substratum of a largo body of very peculiar 
lands, known as the blackjack lands. These Trappcan rocks show them- 
.selves along another line parallel with this one and to the north of it, 
stretching from Calhoun's Mills, in Abbeville, to tho Lockhart shoals on 
Broad river, in Union. Here they also give rise to a peculiar and inter- 
esting body of lands known as the " Hat woods " of Abbeville, and tho 
" meadow lands " of Union. In Chester and York the prevailing dykes 
are of melaphyre and of aphanitic and dioritic porphyry ; in Abbeville 
of felsitic and dioritic porphyries. 

Til is brief sketch of the geological features of tho region requires a 
reference to the ores and minerals found there : 

GOLD. 

" Gold," writes Governor Drayton, in 1802, " is said to have been found 
in sutTicient quantity to bo made into a ring, but this is only a report of 
what is said to have taken ])lace many years ago." In 182G, tho occur- 
renee of gold in Abbeville and Spartanburg is merely mentioned by Mills 
in his " Statistics of South Carolina." Tho United States Census of 1840 
states, that " tifty-one hands were engaged (chiefly in iron mines) in min- 
ing in South Carolina." In 1848, Mr. Tuomey found over two hundred 
hands at work in the Brewer gold mine in Clicsterfield, from which more 
than $1,000,000 in gold has since been taken. In 1859, Lieber writes on 
a line on the ma]) of the State crossing it at the lower border of the meta- 
morphic rocks: " Above this lino most streams contiiin some gold in their 
.•^ands." At that date twenty-one gold mines had been opened in the talc 
slates of Chesterfield and Lancaster, and ten in the same slates in Abbe- 
ville ond Edgefield ; among the latter, tho Dorn mine, that has yielded 
$1,100,000 and upwards in gold. In Spartanburg, in Union and York 
there were niiu^teen gold mines, mostly in the mica slates, and in Green- 
ville and IMckeiH, eight others, ehiclly gravel d(»posits — in all fifty- 
seven. Work has been abandoned since the war in all or in nearly 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 135 

all of these mines. "With rare exceptions, if any, it was never 
systematically conducted, as may bo inferred from Mr. Tuomcy's 
description of the Brewer mine, wliich was leased to twenty or thirty-* in- 
dependent comi)anies, numbering three to six persons each, and having 
each a portion equal to about twelve feet square of the surface. 

From the returns of the 10th U, S. Census it appears that besides 
minor minerals, to the value of '$27,709, South Carolina produced in 1870 
of gold $13,040 ; ranking in the order of production of this metal 
fifteenth among all the States, and third among the States cast of 
Dakota 

Gold occurs in South Carolina : 

I. In numerous gravel deposits. Of these, one class occur in beds of 
rounded and water-worn pebbles and gravel, showing that the material 
has been transported from a distance. Other deposits are found among 
angular fragments of rocks, and these, in some instances, have been 
traced back to the neighboring rocks, from which they were derived. 

II. In silicious veins of three leading types, viz. : 

1st. The " Carolina group " of crystaline quartz veins. The upper part 
of the vein abounds with iron pyrites. The gold is in coarser grains and 
. more abundant above. In descending, the vein contracts and tlie gold 
lessens in quantity. At the same time copper makes its appearance and 
increases steadily in quantity so far as followed, and with the copper is 
frequently associated ores of manganese, lead and silver. These veins 
extend from the itacolumite above, down through the clay, talc and mica 
slates into the underlying gneiss. They are most productive of gold in 
traversing the talc slates. Of this type was the neighboring Reid mine, 
of North Carolina, famous for having yielded a nugget of twenty-eight 
pounds, and another of eighty pounds, and of which Lieber writes; " I 
question if any one spot in California or Australia ever produced as much 
gold." 

2(1. The saccharoid veins of a fine granular quartz, resembling powdered 
sugar. Only traces of these veins are found in the itacolumitic rocks, 
and none in the clay slate. They have their greatest productiveness in 
the talc slates, becoming less so as they descend through the mica slates 
to the underlying gneiss. 

3d. Tlie hornstene lenticular veins, irregular, wedge-shaped, detached 
quartz veins, liaving sometimes very rich pockets. They arc found only 

in the talc slates. 

* 

III. In gold-bearing beds of the slate rock itself. These auriferous 
beds are found only in the tale Hlato, save in one instance in the overly- 
ing clay Hlato. The following dingraiii, after Lieber, sliowing the rcliitive 



13G 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



I>osition of the different rocks' and tlie degree of development of the gold 
veins of tlic various types in each by the size of the dark blocks opposite 
its name, may make tliis clearer : 



Geological 
Eras. 



Rocks in the 

Order of 

their 

Superposition 



^ . . .- j Super Itncolumitic 

ost Auriferous! Limestone. 



II. 

Auriferous. 



III. 

Sub-Auriferous. 

IV. 



''Itacolumitic 
Kocks. 

Clav Slate. 



^Talc Slate. 



Mica Slate. 



Gneiss. 



Anti-Auriferous—Granite. 



VEINS. 





c 




»-4 


< 


O 


'A 


a 




■^ 


c t= 


X 


C4 o 




< « 


^ 


OC 


Ul 



< 

O 

H 

'A 
M 



r 



L.'^.^ 





u 

73 

o 




These facts support the views of Sir Roderick Murchison and Lieber, 
that there has boon a golden age among the geological periods. Here it 
si'oms doarly nuirkod as the ])eriod when the talc slates were forming. 
As to whether the gold came up from the bowels of the earth, through 
the ngoncy of eruptive forces peculiar to that or a subsequent period, or 
had a motcoric origin, falling upon what was then the surface, from the 
interplanetary spaces, just as iron dust is now falling on the perpetual 
snows of the east coast of Greenland, may bo matter for discussion. Gold 
certainly gives out at certain depths; whether it exists at all at .still lower 
depths is unknown. Tliat it exists outside of the earth the metalic 
vapors of the sun and stars revealed bv the spectroscope renders prob- 
able. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 137 

ORES AND MINERALS. 

Silver \n argentiferous galena is found in Spartanburg and Laurens, 
and more recently in Edgefield and Abbeville. Across the Savannah 
river, from the last named localities, the mining of this ore for silver, as 
well as for lead and the zinc blende associated with it, is attracting much 
attention at this time. 

Copper is found everywhere in the gold veins of the " Carolina group." 
As it increases regularly with the depth to which the veins have been 
worked, experts have been satisfied that it will be found in remunerative 
quantities. "With this view, work was being vigorously pushed in the 
Mary and in the Wilson mines, in York, just previous to the war. Since 
then attention has not been directed to the matter. 

Bismuth, in quantity, M'as found by Mr. Tuomey at the Brewer gold 
mine in Chesterfield. 

Iron in magnetic and specular ores is found in inexhaustible quantities 
on the western slope of King's mountain, in York, Spartanburg and 
Union, one also in Chester and Abbeville. Brown hccmatite occurs in 
the mica slates of Pickens and Spartanburg, a!id has been used at the 
Pacolet and Cowpens Iron Works. Bog iron ore occurs in nearly every 
county of the State. 

Limestone appears in York, Spartanburg, Laurens and Pickens. 

Barytes, in great quantities, occurs near the Air-Line railroad in York. 

Manganese, in great purity and abundance, is found at the Dorn mine 
in Edgefield, and also in Abbeville, York, Laurens and Anderson. 

Graphite, in considerable quantities, is found in Williamston township, 
and elsewhere in Anderson, also in Spartanburg, Greenville and Laurens. 

Feldspar, of excellent quality, in extensive veins, occurs in Easlcy 
townsliip, Pickens ; in Lowndesville, Abbeville, and also in Anderson 
and Laurens. 

Asbestos occurs in Spartanburg, Laurens, York, Anderson and Pickens. 

Steatite or soapstone is found in Chester, S[)artanburg, Union, Pickens, 
Oconee, Anderson, Abbeville, Kershaw, Fairfield and Richland; whet- 
stones and fiagging stones arc found in Edgefield, Abbeville, Chester, 
Lexington, Fairfield, and the Pee Deo country. 

S[)inel rubies, in Pickens; tourmaline, in York, Edgefield, Laurens, 
Anderson and Oconee; beryl, in Edgefield and Laurens; corundum, in 
Laurens, Anderson and Oconee; zircons, in Abbovillo and Anderson. 

SOILS. 

The area of land in the Piedmont region whose culture is impeded by 
the rocks prevalent there, is comparatively insignificant. This is due to 



138 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

the rather remarkable extent and depth of the disintegration of these 
rocks. It is not an uncommon occurrence that wells sunk through 
granite to a depth of thirty or forty feet, require for their excavation no 
otlier implement than a spade. Frequently so thorough is the decom- 
l)Osition, that tlio sides of railroad cuts and of mines might be mistaken 
for a heap of transplanted materials, did not the existence of seams and 
([uartz veins, whicli may bo always traced on the fresh surfaces, make it 
certain tliat the rock had rotted where it stood. The chief imi)ediments 
to culture arc tlio masses of quartz rock, once forming these veins, but 
now scattered broadcast over tlie surface, in consequence of the rotting 
and denudation of the strata tliat contained them. Tliis is especially the 
case among the clay slates, and often the first indication which a traveller 
lias tliat lie has entered the Piedmont region is the sight of fields and 
woods covered with angular fragments of these white quartz rock. The 
inclination of the rocks of this region allows drainage along their edges, 
and even where the rock is near the surface, water seldom collects above 
thom to an injurious extent. 

Owing to the transj)ortation and intermixture (often by the wind) of 
the debris from the dilferent rocks, the areas of the soils derived from 
each can be characterized with much less distinctness than the areas 
occui)ied by the underlying rocks themselves. Nevertheless three lead- 
ing varieties of soil may bo traced, with much clearness, viz.: the gran- 
itic, the clay slate and the Trappean soils. 

I. The granitic soils occupy by far the largest area, as under this head 
is eomi>rised the soils whoso substratum is granite and gneiss, and also 
those resting on the hornblende, tale and mica slates. These soils are 
characterized by two distinct names : 1st. the gray sandy soils ; 2d. the 
red clay soils. 

1st. The gray sandy soils occupy the ridges and levels, and have been 
formed by the gradual .separation of the silicious and argillaceous materials 
found in the debris of the decomposing rocks that underlie them. This 
has been etfected by a process of lixiviation, during which the rain water 
not running off, owing to the level nature of the land, sank directly into 
the earth, carrying down with it the heavier and finer particles of the 
clay through the interstices of tho lighter and larger particles of sand. 
This gives a light, loose, warm sandy loam, varying in depth from three 
to eighteen inches, and fine or coarse, according to the grain of the rock, 
from which they are derived. Tho subsoil is rod or yellow clay. Such 
soils are of easy culture, respond readily to the use of commercial ferti- 
lizers, and are well adapted for cotton. For these reasons they are much 
niore highly esteemed now than formerly. The following analyses of 
them are taken from Tuomey's report : 



• THE PIEDMONT REGION. 139 

(1) (2) (3) (4) ' (o) 

Organic matter 3.62 2.60 1.20 3.00 0.00 

Silica 84.30 90.00 83.00 80.00 80.00 

Alumina 5.80 7.40 5.40 7.00 9.80 

Iron oxide 2.00 3.00 "2.00 4.00 2.00 

Lime 0.50 0.00 0.60 0.02 0.30 

Magnesia , . 0.40 1.00 0.75 0.00 .0.40 

Potash and soda ..... 0.50 0.60 0.00 0.50 0,70 

Water and loss " . 2.88 5.40 7.05 ' 5.48 0.80 

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

No. 1 is from Pinckney township, Union ; No. 2 is from Waterloo 

township, Laurens ; No, 3 is from Donaklsville township, Abbeville ; No. 

4 is from Sullivan township, Laurens ; No. 5 is from Central townshij), 

Pickens. 

2d. The red clay loams are the prevailing soils of the hilly and broken 
.country. Occupying slopes of greater or less declivity, the loose .«and 
has been washed away as fast as it has been released from the tenacious 
clay, by the process of lixiviation, or settling, above alluded to. The 
washing of these hills is not so destructive of their fertility a» it would 
have been if the soil were not formed from rocks rotting in situ, and thus 
including at every dei)th, all the numerous and varied elements of the 
parent rocks. Tims it happens hero that the earth from the bottom of 
deej) wells, usually barren elsewhere, has been found, wlien spread over 
the surface, to increase notably the fertility of fields. Galled spots, 
deprived of all humus and every trace of organic matter, are, of course, 
barren for a time, but oven their nakedness is soon covered by the old- 
field pine, and their thriftiness restored. As might be expected, with the 
clearing of the lands, and the washing down of the ridges, the amount of 
gray lands is diminishing, and the amount of red lands is increasing. 
Mr. Tuomey gives the following analyses of these soils: 

(^0 (7) (8) 

Organic matter 2.18 4.50 6.00 

Silica 74.00 71.60 66.60 

Alumina 10.00 9.40 11.60 

Iron oxide 3.50 3.70 4.00 

Lime 1.00 1.40 1.00 

Magnesia • . . . .40 0.50 0.06 

Potash and soda trace. 0.06 0.40 

Water and loss 8.92 8.84 10.3) 

100.00 100.00 100.00 
No. 6 is from Liberty Hill, Kershaw; No. 7 near York village; No. 8 
north of Pendleton village. 



MO THE PIEDMONT HEOION. 

• 

The following analyses of soil of the same character, from near Spartan- 
hurj;, collected by Prof. W. C. Kerr, of North Carolina, was made by Dr. 
Eti^cnc A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, for the 10th United States 
Census. No. 9 is a yellowish red soil, taken to the depth of three inches ; 
No. 10 is its red subsoil, taken to the depth of twenty inches : 

(9) ' (10) 

Inpolublo matter 77.8G0 43.740 

Soluble Silica 1.790 6.870 

Potash 0.002 0.214 

Soda 0.041 0.087 

Lime 0.03G 0.003 

]vragne.sia 0.070 0.212 

Br. Oxide of Manganese 0.05G 0.010 

IVroxido of Iron 6.G4G 11.700 

Alumina 7.557 2G.5G7 

rho.sphoric acid 0.0G3 0.103 

Sulphuric acid 0.058 0.009 

"Water and organic matter G.1G7 ll.GGO 

Total 99.43G 99.G75 

Hydroscopic moisture . . 4.G85 11.210 

Absorbed at 23° C. 22° C. 

The hornblcndic soils are a variety of these red clay soils, derived from 
granite and gneiss rock, traversed by seams of hornblende. They are 
djirk in color, and of a more brilliant red. They occur in Edgefield, 
about Horn's creek, and most extensively in Newberry, especially between 
the Court House and Asheford's ferry, extending thence into Fairfield. 
They form excellent cotton lands, and are well suited to the culture of 
all the grains. The following analyses of them are from Tuomey : 

(11) (12) 

Organic matter G.20 7.00 

Silica 79.30 80.00 

Alumina 5.20 G.30 

Oxide of iron 1.75 2.20 

Lime 0.04 1.00 

^[agnesia 0.00 0.50 

Soda and potash O.OG 0.30 

Phosphoric acid 0.00 trace 

AVater and loss 7.40 2.70 

100.00 100.00 

No. 11 is from Newberry; and No. 12 is from Monticello, Fairfield. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 141 

Where the mica slates are underlaid by or alternate with gneiss, as in 
Abbeville, they give rise to good soils. In most places, however, the slate 
contains lenticuler quartz grains, coated with mica, which, being inde- 
structible, occupy the surface as the rock disintegrates and gives rise to 
poor soils. The sand of the talcose slate is exceedingly fine, and pack 
very closely. Says Leiber, in speaking of clearing out a spring: "At a 
depth of six inches below the bed of the stream, the sand was as dry as 
ashes, showing that the water had never penetrated to that depth." This 
affords an explanation of the serious effects produced by droughts on such 
soils. 

II. The clay slates underlie a soil that is characterized as a cold gray 
soil. In color they vary from gray to yellow and brown. The subsoil is 
for the most part, of yellow clay ; but, sometimes it is reddish. Tlic.se 
soils are better adapted for small grain, and csi)ecially for oats, than for 
cotton. They cover an extensive area in Edgefield, and reach along the 
northern border of the tertiary, thence to Chesterfield. The clay slate 
.soils in the last named county contain less silica than those of Edgefield. 
Instead of being gray, they are reddish, and are altogether better soils. 

The following analyses are given by Tuomey : 

(13) (14) • (15) 

Organic matter 2.40 6.70 5.G0 

Silica 80.72 7G.30 80.30 

Alumina 12.00 10.40 9.00 

Oxide of iron *. . l.GO 2.00 2.40 

Lime trace. 1.00 0.50 

Magnesia , 0.50 0.50 trace. 

Potash and soda trace. 0.40 0.30 

Water and loss 3.33 2.70 1.00 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

No. 13 is from Stevens creek, Edgefield; No. 14 from Richland; No. 15 
from Lexington. 

III. The Trappean soils overlie the extensive dykes of molaphyre and 
aphanitic porphyry, traversing York and Chester counties in a ncrtli- 
eaaterly direction, coinciding very nearly with that of the Charlotte and 
Columbia railroad. They give rise to a distinctly marked body of lands, 
known as the " rolling blackjack lands " and as " blackjack flats." The 
latter are the most extensive, and better defined in their characters. The 
kinds are level, the streams slow and tortuous, with low banks, notwith- 
standing that the general elevation is little less than that of the surround- 



142 THE PIEDMONT IlEOION. 

inp; country. The soil is of a rich, dark brown chocolate color. Some- 
tini(;s jot black. Tlic .subsoil is a yellow, waxy clay, exceedingly tena- 
cious, and, wliero the rocks aro not thorou<jhly decomposed, it assumes 
an olive ^reen color. Beneath it the decomi)Osed, and lower down the 
nndecomposcd, rock is found, called here "iron rock" or "negro head." 
The level configuration of tlic surface, and the imper\'ious nature of the 
sub'^oil, interfere naturally with drainage; an interference, however, not 
at all beyond the remedy of art, as the fall for properly conducted drains 
and outlets is ample. But because they require drainage, these lands, 
which, from their general apj)earance, and from their chemical analysis, 
should be ranked as among the very best in the State, have received little 
attention. Corn and cotton planted on them turns yellow, " frenches," as 
it is termed. When, howev^T, thorough drainage has been effected, and 
stable manure used, they have proved very productive and enduring. 
Such treatment is exceedingly circumscribed, the demand of the present 
system of agriculture being for light lands of easy tillage, whose defects 
of constitution may be at once supplied by the purchase of chemical fer- 
tilizers for the exigencies of the growing crop, and with no view to per- 
manent improvement. The " rolling blackjack lands," as might be in- 
ferred from their name, have a better natural drainage, and have long 
been highly prized for tlicir productiveness. The following analy.ses of 
these soils were made by Dr. Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
for the 10th United States Census: 

(IG) (17) 

Insoluble matter • 80.340 83.145 

Soluble Silica 9.114 3.585 

Potash 0.135 0.12G 

Soda 0.070 0.000 

T.ime 0.329 0.389 

Magnesia 0.329 0.251 

Peroxide Manganese 0.210 0.185 

Peroxide of Iron 1.895 3.774 

Alumina 4.701 4.051 

Phosphoric acid O.OOO 0.100 

Suli)huric acid 0.150 0.170 

Carbonic acid ... 

Water and organic matter 2.0G8 4.185 



99.401 100.021 

Hydroscopic moisture 3.9G7 • 8.392 

Absorbed at 82° F. 82° F. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 143 

No. 16 is from an uncleared blackjack flat, a short distance cast of Ches- 
ter Court House, considered worthless. No. 17 is from a field of J. B. 
Stokes, southeast of Chester Court House ; the land rolling blackjack, 
having on it a crop of about 1,200 pounds of seed cotton to the acre. 
The soil and subsoil taken uniformly to the depth of twelve inches in 
both instances. The dioritic and fclsitic porphyries of Abbeville, pro- 
duce a soil known there as the " flat woods." They are found in Cal- 
houn's Mills, Magnolia, Abbeville, Smithville, and Ninety-Six townships, 
of Abbeville county. Formerly, when more capital and skill was cm- 
ployed in agriculture, tlieso lands were very highly esteemed. Since a 
cheap and easy, not to say thriftless, culture has superseded other hus- 
bandry, they are neglected. (For more particular description see Cal- 
houn's Mills township, Abstract of Correspondents.) Mr. Tuomey gives 
the following analyses of these soils. 

(18) (19) (20) 

Organic matter 0.20 10.05 3.40 

Silica 52.00 48.30 53.00 

Alumina 22.10 19.3G 19.30 

Oxide of Iron 9.00 8.40 14.10 

Lime 2.50 4.00 1.80 

Magnesia . . trace. 0.00 0.50 

Potash and soda 0.40 ' 0.90 trace. 

Phosphate of lime 0.00 0.10 0.00 

Water and loss 4.80 8.89 7.90 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

No. 18 is from a well cultivated place north of Calhoun's Mills; No. 
19, ditto, near Ninety-Six ; No. 20 is from abandoned lands in the meadow 
woods of Union. 

These analyses are indicative of the chemical changes that afiect tho 
productiveness of these soils. The abandoned field in Union showing a 
great falling off in organic matter, lime and potash, due to insuflicient 
drainage and a thriftless culture, at the .'*amo time there is a large increase 
of iron, arising doubtless from the absence of those acids resulting from 
tho decomposition of organic matter, whoso office it is to di.ssolve and 
carry ofl' the injurious excess of the. salts of this metal. The large amount 
of lime in all these Trappoan soils will bo noted, it has induced somo 
writers to classify them as calcareous soils, and adapts them peculiarly 
for the growth of pea-vines and clover, which thrive almost spontane- 
ously upon them. 



144 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

In addition to tlio soils above mentioned, tbcro is a large amount of 
l)ottom lands scattered along tlic numerous rivers, creeks and branches 
that cvcrywlicrc traverse this well-watered region. Though rarely of 
any great width, they are for the most part of great fertility, and are 
highly valued. In some sections these lands have brought as high as one 
hundred dollars an acre; the adjacent ridge lands being thrown in at a 
nominal price, just as the pine barrens are, in the sales of the low country 
rice lands. 

CLIMxVTE. 

The shorter seasons and lower temperatures of the Piedmont region, as 
compared with those lying immediately south of it, are but slightly at- 
tributable to differences of elevation or of latitude, these differences being 
themselves slight. In so far as it obtains, it results, perhaps, from greater 
nearness to the mountains, and, as affecting agriculture, still more to the 
heavier clay soils and subsoils, more retentive of moisture, and, therefore, 
colder and later in spring than the lighter sandy loams of the lower 
country. Cotton planting is about ten days later than in the uj)per pine 
belt. Cotton blooms are also later, but by a lesser period, and the same 
is true of the opening and ])icking season of the plant ; showing that, 
with a later start, it grows faster, passing more rapidly through its various 
stages to maturity. This region, however, does not seem to bo much 
aU'ectcd by that varial)leness of temperature common to localities in 
])roximity to mountain ridges. This is shown by the singular exemption 
of certain localities here from the. injurious effects of late spring frosts. 
Thus, on Rich Ilill, in Pacolet township, Spartanburg, a ridge six miles 
broad, between the Pacolet and Fair Forest rivers, fruit has been injured 
by late frosts but once in forty years. Localities in Union also enjoy this 
innnunity in nearly the same degree. In the absence of other records, 
some idea of the temperature may be formed by observations on the tem- 
peratures of .'Springs, assuming that this tenii)erature a])proximates the 
annual mean. Liebcr states, as the result of a number of ob.servations, 
tliat the springs of the Alj)ino region have a temperature of 55° to 58° 
Fahrenheit; those on a line passing through the centre of the Piedmont 
rt'gion, one of 58° to 01.5° Fahr., and below this line, one of 01.5° to 00° 
Fahr. Tlie only accessible records of rainfall are those published by the 
Smithsonian Institution, May, 1.S81. Tliey give an average annual rain- 
fall in this region of 52..'M inches, varying from 44.05 inches to 00.12 
inches. This gives a greater annual rainfall for this region than for 
tiiusc south of it, and places it, in this reganl, next to the areas of greatest 
annual precipitation in the United States. Tlio spring rains vary from 



THE PIEDMONT REOION. 14rt 

twelve inches to fifteen inches, and in tliis regard it holds the same rclii- 
.tions as in the former to the regions south of it and to the United States. 
The summer rains are ten inelics to fourteen inches less than in the 
regions south of it, and third or midway between the areas of greatest 
and of least summer precipitation in the United States. The autumn 
rains are eiglit inches to ten inches, and in tlie counties east of Broad 
river, they are ten inches to twelve inches, being about the same as in the 
region to the south, and midway between the areas of greatest and least 
autumn precipitation in the United States. The winter rains are ten 
inches to fourteen inches, something more than in the lower country, and 
a little above midway between the areas of greatest and of least winter 
precipitation in the United States. In the whole year, and in eacli 
season of the year, the rainfall is less than in the Alpine region north of 
it. As suggesting a possible connection between meteorological condi- 
tions and the interior of the earth's crust, it may be mentioned that it 
has been thought that the synclinal axis running northeast, near Allston, 
on the Greenville railroad, has been, during some years past, a line of 
demarkation between areas suffering from drought to the south of it, and 
areas having seasonable rains to the north of it. The first occupying 
surface under whicli tlie rocks dip northwest, and the latter one under 
whicli they they dip southeast. Along this same line, during the months 
of drought, tremors were observed and ascribed to slight shocks of earth- 
quake. 

In point of hcalthfuhiess, tliis regioti leaves little to be desired. When 
first settled, the country was entirely free from all malarial influences. 
'Subsequently, during the period when the first clearing of the forest was 
in active progress, the hitherto clean-bordered channels of the streams 
became obstructed, in part with fallen timluT and brush from the clear- 
ings, and in part by the washings of the hill sides, under the injudicious 
use of the plow. These washings o(!eurre(l to such an extent as to alter 
the original level of the surface, and to pile the dirt u}) around the tre(!s 
in the bottoms until they wore killed. Such operations were attended 
with the i)revalenco of malarial fevers. Lat(>r, the uplands having Ix'cn 
cleared and partly exhausted, attention was directed to the drainage and 
reclaiming of the low grounds for agricultural purposes, and the health- 
fulnes.s of the locality was restored. It hns thus hiq)pened that, wifli ♦he 
extension of the settlements, a belt of malarial influences has moved for- 
ward with them, vanishing below and advnneing alcove, until it reached 
the wooded Hlojtes of the mountaijiH Ixsfore di^Uppearing. 



10 



I'lG THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



GROWTH. 



Remarkable ehanges have occurred in tlie growth of the upper country 
since its settlement, during the middle and earlier part of the 18th cen- 
tury. The " long-drawn, beautiful valleys and glorious highlands," 
si)oken of by Lord Cornwallis, were then interspersed with " forests, 
prairiv.s, and. vast brakes of cane, the latter often stretching in unbroken 
lines of evergreen for hundreds of miles " (Logan). On the highlands, 
tlie oak, liickory and chestnut were of large growth, standing so wide 
apart that a bull'alo or a deer could be seen by the pioneer hunters for a 
long distance. There was no underbrush, and the woodlands were car- 
l>cted with grass and the wild pea vine, the latter growing as high as a 
liorse's back. The cane growth was the staiwlard by which the early 
settlers estimated the value of the land. If it gre^v only to the height of 
a man's head, the land was esteemed ordinary ; but a growth of twenty 
or thirty feet indicated the highest fertility. This cane growth not only 
lilled the bottoms, but extended uj) the sloi)es to the tops of the highest 
hills. Thus it was designed to place tlie first house built on the present 
site of the town of Al)l>eville, on the summit of the hill ; but afterwards, 
when the tall cane that covered the M-hole j)lace was cleared away, an 
error of more than fifty yards was discovered. The Trappean soils around 
Xinety-Six, the " Hat woods " of Abbeville, the " meadow woods," Union, 
and the blackjack lands of York and Chester were prairies, with no growth 
of trees, but covered, for the most part, with maiden cane. L'pper Caro- 
lina was then not inferior to any portion of the great West as a grazing 
country. Buffalo and deer in' great numbers roamed through these 
luxuriant pastures. Henry Foster, a pioneer settler on the. Saluda, in 
Edgefield, counted one hundred budalo grazing at one time on a single 
aero of ground in Abbeville. The original forest luw disappeared almost 
altogether, and has been replaced by younger oaks of small growth, by 
underbrush, and by the l(jblolly })incM of the abandoned fields. The cane 
1ms gone likewise. The wild pea vine is no longer known, though since 
the stock has been penned, under the new fence law, a plant supposed to 
be it has a])})eared in the open woodlands, with several other grasses not 
observed before. The prairies have become covered with a growth of 
Ijcavy bodied post oak and blackjack ; the latter, in turn, has now given 
jdacc to the ce»lar in Chester. The chestnut has been dying out for fifty 
years. In some localities where it once fiourished, it has entirely gone, 
and in others, the large dead stems and stumps are the only vestige of 
this valuable and stately tree. The chinquapin is also sickening and 
dying, and the chestnut oak likewise. During some years past, somewhat 



THE riEDMONT REGION. 147 

similar symptoms of disease have appeared in the red and black oak, and 
fears on this account have been entertained. The distinctive growth of 
the region is the short leaf pine, with a large variety of oaks and hickories. 
On the water courses, willow, beech, birch, black walnut, ash, poplar and 
gum abound. In sections of Laurens tlie long leaf, formerly unknown in 
this section, has, within the last ten years, appeared among the old field 
pines. Tlie sycamore sometimes attains a great size, one in York being 
twenty-eight feet in girth. The tulip tree, also, is often very large. 
The sugar maple is found, and another maple of larger growth and yield- 
ing a superior sugar, botli as to quantity and quality, is known in Lan- 
caster, under the name of the sugar tree (Mills). 

PRODUCTIONS, 

The skins and furs of wild animals were the earliest products which 
the Tipper country gave to commerce. About the middle of the ISth 
century " the cowpen keepers " and the " cow drivers," led thither by 
the representatioi>8 of the trajjpers, hunters and Indian traders, built their 
cabins among these pastures, and made large enclosures, into which their 
numerous herds were driven for marking, handling, &c. The business 
was a large one, and numbers of neat cattle, were driven annually to the 
markets of Charleston, Philadolpliia and New York. Horse raising, also, 
was largely engaged in, and so higlily were the qualities of the Carolina 
horse of that early day esteemed, that a statute of the provincial Legis- 
latures forbids the introduction of the inferior horses of Virginia 
and other northern })lantations. Around the " cowpens " of the stock 
drivers the agricultural settlers aj^peared. Their crops of wheat and 
Indian corn formed,- for many years, a considerable item of export from 
tl»e province. Hemp, particularly between the Hroad and Saluda rivers, 
wa-s largely cultivated, and Dr. Brahm says it was the finest and mo.st 
durable grown anywhere in the world for the cordage of vc.'Jsels. The 
cultivation of tol)acco was engaged in, l)ut was restricted l)y the difficulty 
of bringing so bulky an article to market in the then condition of the 
country roads. It was i)acked in casks, trunnions fastened to cacli head, 
shafts attached, and drawn by a hoi-se several days journey to market, as 
a large roller. Silk was grown, and the vino successfully cultivated l^y 
tlie early settlers of New IJonleliux, in Abbeville. It is noteworthy that, 
within the last few years, since the French vineyards have suffered from 
the j)hyloxera, besides the scuppernong roots, hundreds of tliousaiMls of 
cuttings of the Warren gra})e, natives here, have been ordered from France, 
and being planted there they have yielded a wine of excellent quality. 
In 1801, Col. Hill, of York, nuule forty-eight tons of red clover on eighteen 



148 THE PIEDMONT REGIOy. 

acres of land, although Governor Drayton says the season was a very 
dry one. For several years past Governor Ilagood has obtained two cut- 
tings a year of excellent hay from fifty acres, and more, that he set out in 
Bermuda grass, on the Saluda river bottoms. The yield is two to four 
tons ])or acre. Mr. Doty, a Kentuckian, who owns a blue-grass farm in 
that State, but who is now living at Winnsboro, says, that taking the value 
of the land into account, he makes his forage cheaper on the worn out 
hills of Fairfield than he does on the famous blue-grass lands of his na- 
tive State. His crops are oats and (Jcrman millet. The latter he esti- 
mates that he houses at a cost of six dollars per ton. Lucerne has long 
been established in this town, and there are stools of this valuable forage 
plant, still vigorous, known to be fifty years old. In the same town, Col. 
James II. Kion sowed, in 1874, a half acre of red land, a worn out old 
Held, infested with init grass, in lucerne. In 1875 he got one cutting, and 
from that date to 18S0, from four to ten cuttings each year. The ten cut- 
tings were obtained in 1878. The lucerne averaged two and a hatf feet 
in height at every cutting, making a total growth for the season, of twenty- 
ilvc feet. By actual weighing, each cutting averaged 4,180 pounds from 
this half acre, which was also carefullv measured, irivinfr a total of twentv 
and a half tons, or at the rate of forty-one tons per acre. The mention of 
such facts arc not out of jduce, inasmuch as since the invention of the 
cotton-gin the culture of cotton has so superseded all other agricultural 
pursuits, tliat it iniglit well be thought that nothing else could be grown 
here. Cotton ])lanting lias become so easy and simple, it requires so little 
in<lividual thought and efl'ort, tiie money returns are so certain and direct, 
or the croj) may bo so cheaply stored and preserved from injury for such 
an indctinile time, every business, trade and industry accessory to the 
work of tln' farmers, from bankers and railroads to imjilcment and fertili- 
zer manuliu'turei's, have become so thoroughly .systematized and organized 
in unison with this pursuit, that any change is dillicult, and as a conse- 
quence, the manifold resources of the country are neglected and un- 
developed. 

STATISTICS. 

The metamorj)hic region embraces about 10,425 square miles, or nearly 
one-third of the entire State. The population numbers 305,043, the in- 
crease since the census of 1870 being thirty per ccut. The density of 
j)opulation per .sc[uare mile varies from twenty-six to twenty-seven in 
Laurens and Lancaster, to forty.six and forty-eight in Newberry and 
Gre-vMivillo; the average being 37.8 per square mile, which makes it the 
most thickly peopled portion of the State, except the sea islands, which 
have 30.4 to the square mile. The percentage of colored population 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. • 149 

varies greatly in the different counties, being as high as seventy in Fair- 
field, and as low as thirty-four in Spartanburg. The average is fifty-eight. 

Of the 6,672,000 acres of land in this region fifty per cent, is in wood 
lands; twenty-two per cent, is in old fields, and twenty-eight per cent, is 
tilled. There are 38,501 farms. Thin is an increase of at lea.st eighty 
per cent, since 1870, and of one hundred and eighty per cent, since 1860, 
while the increase in the decade preceding that, a time of much pros- 
perity, did not much exceed one per cent. ; fifty-six per cent, of the farms 
are worked by renters, and forty-four per cent, by owners. This is nearly 
six per cent, more of farms rented than in the State at large, or ten per 
cent, more than in the other parts of the State. The maxinmm of the 
farms rented is sixty-seven per cent, in Fairfield, and the minimum is 
forty-two per cent, in Laurens; forty-five per cent, of the farms are under 
fifty acres, but seventy-one per cent, of the rented farms are under fifty 
acres, while only thirteen per cent, of those worked by owners are under 
fifty acres. The farms under fifty acres worked by owners constitute only 
six per cent, of the total number of farms in thi.s region ;. thus, notwith- 
standing the great subdivision of farm holding that has been, and .still is 
taking place, it cannot be said that land is here, as it is on some of the 
sea islands, in the hands of a small i)roi)rietary. 

The tilled land is 1,861,022 acres, an increase of fifty-six ih.t cent, 
since 1870, This gives an average of 4.7 acres per capita, or nearly one 
acre above the average for the State, and one-half more tlinn in 1870. Of 
it forty-eiglit per cent, is in grain of all kinds, forty per cent, is in cotton, 
and twelve per cent, is in gardens, orchards, fallows and all other crops. 
The proportion in cotton varies from a maxinuim of forty-six per cent, in 
Laurens and Union, to a minimum of twenty per cent, in I.jincaster. 

The croj)S are cotton, 274,31 8 bales, agninsL 0J,I01 in 1870; an increase 
of one hundred and seventy-two per cent,, or nearly six times n.s great a.s 
that of the pojailation witliin the same period. It constitutes fifty-three 
■per cent, of the crop of the State, on less than one-third of its area. The 
average number of bales j)er square mile is twenty-six, and varies from 
twenty and one-third bales, in Lancaster, to thirty-six and three-quarters 
bales in Newberry. In many of the townships the number of bales 
grown per square mile is much greater. In Fairfield, town.ship No, 3 (K, 
D., 60) produces forty-six bales i)er .square mile; in Newberry, Floyds 
townshij) (E. D., 114) produces forty-seven ; in Chester, Chester township 
(E, D., 36) j)roduces fifty-nine ; in York, Fort Mill townshij) (E, D,, 160) 
produces eighty-four. These facts indicate that the establishment of en- 
larged and improved gin-houses for the better preparation of the .staple is 
practicable in many places now, as they show that the main obstacle in 
the way of such establishment, viz. : the distance over which a sufficient 



150 THE PIEI)MO>'T REGION. 

• jiiantitv of seed cotton would have to be hauled is greatly lessened. The 
yield of lint cotton per acre varies from one hundred and eighty-eight 
pounds, in Newberry and Lancaster, to one hundred and forty-four in 
.M)l>cvill(>. The average for the region being one liundred and .^ixty-six 
pounds of Hiit i)er acre, wliich gives it rank as fifth in the State in point 
of production jht acre. The yield of lint cotton per capita of population 
varies from four Imndred and three pounds, in Fairfield, to two hundred 
and three jmunds in Cfreenville; the average is three hundred and sixteen 
pounds, being less than in the red hill region, but more than it is else- 
wJR're in the State. The grain crop is 7,731, r)2.S bushels, an increase of 
one hundred and thirty-nine per cent, on the crop of 1870. The average 
yield for the whole region is nine Imshels per acre, and it varies from a 
niaxiinuin average of eighteen bushels })er acre in York, to a miniiiunn of 
eight bushels in Laurens; these variations depending more on the amount 
of attention bestowed on this class of crops than on diirerences in the 
[)ro(hu'tive ca[>acity of the soil. Per capita of the j)opulation the yield is 
nineteen l»ushels, which is four bushels more than in 1870. If this wcro 
all corn, or its cfiuivalent, and were fed to the population at a rale of ten 
bushels per ca[)ita yearly, and the work stock at the rate of seventy bush- 
els a head, it would leave, counting nothing for the supjdy of otiier live 
stock, a deficiency of 1,001,000 bushels, or about fourteen per cent. Es- 
timated in the same manner, this deficiency wius thirty-one percent, in 
1870. Compared with the other regions of the State the yield per capita 
is below that of the sand hills, which is thirty-two bushels, and that of 
the Aljiine region, which i^ twenty bushels, but above the four others. 

The work stock is one to every twenty-seven acres of tilled land, the 
averaire for the whole State being one to eighteen. More land is tilled 
here to the head of work stock than anywhere in the State, except in the 
red hill region. As the lands themselves are not lighter or of easier til- 
lage, this is chiefiy due to a more economical use of this power. 

The live stock number 473,180. This gives forty-five to the srpiare 
mile, against an average for the State of thirty-seven. Although this 
region ranks third in its proportion of live stock to area, it was here that 
the first movements in favor of the law requiring the enclosing of stock 
took place. It is also noteworthy that the counties here, in which the 
enclosure of stock has been enforced by law, for some years support fifty 
head of live stock to the square mile, while the four counties in which 
the stoek have enjoyed the freedom of ranging wherever they could, sup- 
port only thirty-six head to the square mile. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 151 



FARM VALUES AND PRODUCTIONS. 

The total of values invested in farms in tliis region, obtained as the 
sum of the values entered in the lOth United States Census for lands and 
improvments, for farm implements and machinery, and for live stock, 
amounts to thirty-nine millions of dollars, ^vhich does not differ very 
widely from the valuation of the same property on the tax returns of 
these counties. The value of farm productions annually, is nineteen and 
a quarter millions of dollars, or forty-nine per cent, on the above invest- 
ment. Tliis percentage varies in the different counties from thirty-nine 
per cent, in Greenville to seventy-one per cent, in Laurens, It niay not 
be possible to a-^certain, even ai)proximatoly, how the profits of this pro- 
duction is distributed ; how much of it rests with the farmer and laborer, 
or how much goes to merchants, bankers, and railroads. Nevertheless, 
whoever gets the net profits, it is safe to assume that the value represents 
in a general way the productiveness of agriculture in this region. Here 
are twelve adjacent counties, between whose soil, climate, population, 
social, political and industrial system, there is very great similarity. On 
the other hand, there are very wide variations, among these same counties, 
on four points, frequently and earnestly discussed as affecting fundamen- 
tally, southern agriculture. These are : 

1st. The ratio between tlie area planted in cotton and that planted in 
other crops. 
2d. The ratio of large and small farm holdings, 

3rd. The proportion of farms rented to those worked by their owners, 
4th. The proportion of the white to the colored population. 



152 



THE PIEDMONT REOION. 



The following; tabic will show the relations of these counties in these 
four respects to the percentage of farm production on farm values in each. 

TABLE. 





Percentage 


Percentage 


1,, 
Percentage 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Names of 


of 
tilled land 


of 
Forms 


of 


of 


of value 
of 


Counties. 


in 


over fifty 


Farms 


Colored 


Farm pro- 
ductions on 




Cotton. 


Acres. 


rented. 


Population. 


farm values 


Newberry . . 


45 


57 


5G 


G8 


40 


Lancaster . . 


20 


49 


5G 


52 


GO 


York .... 


34 


GG 


45 


54 


4G 


Laurens. . . 


4G 


82 


42 


GO 


71 


Spartanburg . 


38 


54 


52 


34 


41 


Edgefield . . 


38 


47 


57 


G4 


51 


Chester . . . 


43 


57 


GO 


G4 


54 


Greenville . . 


34 


48 


53 


38 


30 


Union . . . 


4G 


47 


GG 


5G 


50 


Fairfield . . 


30 


45 


G7 


70 1 


GO 


Andersun . . 


• 38 


. GO 


57 


43 


4G 


Abbeville . . 


39 


52 

1 


GO 


GG ! 


41 



Considered wholly within the limits of the above data, and bearing in 
mind that they can give only an approximation to the truth, Prof. B. 
Sloan, of the University of South Carolina, states the arithmetical con- 
chusions to be obtained from this tal.)le as follows : 

An increase of ten per cent, of the proportion of tilled land in cotton 
increases the values produced by seven and a half per cent. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 153 

An increase of ten per cent, of the proportion of farms over fifty acres 
increases the values produced by five per cent. 

An increase of ten per cent, of tlio proportion of farms rented increases 
the values produced by one-half per cent. 

An increase of the jiroportion of colored population increases the values 
produced three and one-third i)er cent. 

Such conclusions are liable to material modifications, when viewed in 
relation with the numerous conditions that complicate such a j)roblcm. 
For inHtance, the increase in the colored population docs not necessarily 
show that the proportion of colored farm labor is increased in the same 
ratio ; a fact which will be observed by reference to the rcj)Oi'ts of town- 
ship correspondents. Nevertheless, if these facts only show in which di- 
rection the answer lies, it follows that these answers are opposed to the 
generally received teachings and theories on these questions, and at the 
same time that these answers are in accord with the persistent and pre- 
vailing i)ractice of those whose decision is paramount in the matter — the 
land owners and the laborers. 

SYSTEM OF FARMING AND LABOR. 

The larger portion of the lands are held in tracts of from two hundred 
to five hundred acres. On three-fourths of the farms mixed husbandry 
is practiced, and on the remaining fourth attention is bestowed almost ex- 
clusively on cotton. 

The attempt to raise farm supplies is, therefore, pretty general, and is 
reported as increasing, except in Laurens, where it remains the same, and 
in Abbeville, wliere it is decreasing. Usually this attempt is in so far 
successful as to provide a considerable portion of the subsistence for farm 
hands and stock. Bacon is largely imported from the North and West, 
and sometimes, hay and corn also, for farm use. In two instances these 
supi)lies are reported as brought from North Carolina. The amount of 
provisions raised for sale is everywhere inconsiderable. The facilities 
offered by railroads have largely contributed to this. For instance, in 
Chester the country mills, which were formerly numerous and nourishing, 
have been to a hirgo extent abandoned, since it has been found easier to 
get meal by rail each week as required, from tlie Merchant Mills in Au- 
gusta, Georgia; and there is an increasing tendency, under the low rates 
of tljrough fares to sujjersede the Augusta mills by the product of the 
northwestern mills. 

The system of credits and advances prevails to a large extent, con- 
suming from one-third to three-fifths of the crop before it is harveste<l. 
The statement is general that this is on the decrease, and is correct in .so 



154 THE PIEDMONT HEGION. 

far tliat a larger amount of supplies is being produced at liome, and a 
larger number of purchases for cash are being made by farmers since 
187G. On the other hand, the number of farms having largely increased 
in the same i)criod, the number working on advances, especially among 
the smaller farmers, has largely increased also. The records of the courts 
show that the number of liens on the growing crop is greatly on the in- 
crease; the rate of increase being twenty-three per cent, per annum for 
the last two years. The number of such liens on record in eleven of the 
counties under consideration is (there being no return from Union) 30,205 ; 
a number nearly equal to the number of farms, but as tVvo or more liens 
are not unfrecjuently recorded against the same crop, probably not more 
than one-half of the growing crops are under lien. The aggregate value 
of these liens is $2,334,950 ; an average to the lien of seventy-seven dol- 
lars. It aj^pears that the five counties lowest in the ratio of farm produc- 
tions to farm values have a larger amount in liens, by thirteen per cent., 
than the five counties standing highest in this ratio. In the former the 
recorded indebtedness is four dollars and twenty-eight cents for each acre 
in cotton, on which crop alone liens are taken; in the latter it is two dol- 
lars and eighty-four cents per acre in cotton. 'As may be inferred from 
the number and average amount of these liens, they are mostly taken 
from the smaller farms, usually renters, for advances made by the land- 
lord, or more frequently by the store keeper. There has grown up in 
this region a system of banks at the county seats, for the accommodation 
of fnnner.s. The National Bank of Newberry was the first to be estal>- 
lished ; under the oxcelle!\t and judicious management of its ])resident, 
Hoberl L. McCaughrin, the ojierations of this bank have added largely to 
the prosperity and independence of this county ; which, besides leading 
in cotton ])ro(luction in proportion to its area, is, in many other regards, 
the most thriving in the region. The capital of this bank, $150,000, was 
subscribed by the citizens of the county, except $12,000, and ninety-five 
j)er cent, of the stock, which is at thirty per cent, premium, and not for 
sale, is now hel<l within the county. It has six hundred and fifty-four 
accounts, three-fourths of which are with farmers. These accounts vary 
in amount, from forty dollars u})wards; only sixty-fiveof them, however, 
reach or exceed $1,000. JSince 1872, the rate of discount has been 
fron\ twelve to seven per cent., or from one-half to one-third of the 
average rates prevailing elsewhere in tlie State. Tiie loans during the 
cro]) season aggregate $.')2l,000, and the doubtful debts for the operations 
of the last ten years do not reach in all $(>,000. Loans are made purely 
on personal security or on collaterals, liens and mortgages are not asked 
for or given. If there is a question as to the ability of the party seeking 
accommodation to meet his payments promptly, ho is recjuired to obtain 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 155 

the endorsement of one or more of Jiis neighbors. In this way it fre- 
quently happens that three neighbors endorse each others notes, so that 
if ill-luck befall one during a crop season, the others help him through, 
and it is found that such assistance is equalized in a scries of seasons. 
Besides the direct assistance this bank affords, its indirect influence is 
highly beneficial, not only docs it encourage personal trustworthiness and 
integrity, but by the circulation of its capital during the active season of 
the year, it gives a healthy cash tone to business ; where a large propor- 
tion of the sales are for ready money, the purchases by merchants are 
more carefully and economically made, and even advances on liens arc 
less exorbitant than elsewhere. 

Field labor is performed exclusively by natives, and chiefly by colored 
laborers. In Spartanburg, two-thirds of the field labor is performed by 
whites, even where the colored population largely preponderates. The 
reader will find by reference to the township reports, that a considerable 
amount of it is done by whites ; not unfrequentl}' a much larger pro])or- 
tion than one would infer from the ratio between the races. The laborers 
are healthy, easily managed, work moderately and live easily. Tlieir 
condition is reported as good in eight localities; as improving in two ; 
and as poor, but contented and happy, in one. Very few negro laborers 
own land or houses in Newberry, York and Abbeville; sixteen per cent, 
own a house or land in Greenville ; and five per cent, in Spartanburg, 
Fairfield, Chester and Laurens. 

■ The ])revailing wages of field labor is eight dollars by the month, or 
one liundred dollars by the year. In Greenville it is seven dollars, and 
in Laurens it is eight dollars to twelve dollars by the month. In ])ortions 
of Edgefield it is seventy-five dollars i)er the year. In all eases the la- 
borer is furnished with shelter, rations and firewood, and almost inva- 
riably with a garden and the privilege of raising poultry and some stock — 
a cow or a hog. The farm work is light, and the extreme enre formerly 
given to j)reserving the health of the slaves, lias bequeathed regulations 
regarding labor not customary elsewhere. Work commences at sunrise, 
and is over with at sunset; no night work of any ^n-i being required; 
the time allowed for meals varies ; for dinner it is from one to three liours, 
according to the length of the days. All exposure to rain or l)ad weather, 
even in pressing exigencies, is scrupulously avoided, and during excep- 
tionally eliilly weather little work is obtained or expected of negro 
laborers. 

A large proportion of the land is worked on shares. When the land- 
lord furnishes the tools, stock, and stock-feed, he takes one-half the eroj* 
in Laurens, (lliester, Abbeville, and York, and in portions of Fairfield 
and Spartanl)urg, In Greenville, and in portions of the counties la^t 



ir>0 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

luiiDod, tlic laborer takes one-thir(|, and the landlord two-thirds, under 
tlie above conditions. In Greenville also, the laborer takes two-thirds, if 
he furnishes tools, stock and feed for it. The portion paid for land alone 
varies from one-third to one-fourth of the crop — the latter rate being the 
most general one. 

In Laurens, Newberry and Spartanburg, and portions of Fairfield and 
Chester, wages are preferred, the laborer running no risk of the seasons, 
faring better and working better in conseciuence. In Abbeville and York 
the share system is preferred, and is the j)revailing practice; the demands 
on the care and attention of the landlord is less, and the independence 
of control and freedom from steady work it alfords the laborer is highly 
prized by him. In Greenville, laborers using stock, tools and i)rovisions, 
lind the share system most profitable, otlierwise they prefer wages. 

Tolerable satisfaction with the system prevailing in each locality is ex- 
pressed, but the feeling is general that the relations of labor and capital 
are in a transition stage, and; either that those now existing need per- 
fecting, or that better ones would be preferred. 

Eight out of nine correspondents rej)ort that under the present system 
the lands are not improving, but deteriorating, especially those rented 
and worked on shares; the nintJi only qualifies the general statement by 
the expression, "with care it improves." Though there nuxy be much 
sad reality in these statements, they are to be considered in connection 
with the facts above given, which show that within the last decade the 
two leading crops in this region have increased, one by one hundred and 
seventy-two, and the other by one hundred and thirty-nine per cent. 

Statements regarding the average market value of land vary with every 
locality. Tliey are for Greenville and Laurens, six dollars to ten dollars 
an acre ; for York, six dollars ; for Abbeville and Spartanburg, ten dollars ; 
tor Newberry, six dollars to twenty-five dollars ; for Fairfield, three dollare 
to fifteen dollars; for Chester, .seven dollars to eighteen dollars. There 
will be found a fuller detail in the Abstract of Township Correspondents, 
and attention is directed to their fretiuently recurring ex[)ression, that 
" there is little land for sale, but nearly all of it to rent." Only three out 
of eleven correspondents state the rental of land in money ; it is put in 
York and Chester at two dollars, and in Laurens at three dollars to four 
dollars. Three state, that no land i.s rented for money. In these ca.ses 
one-fourth to one-third of the crop — estimated in Fairfield at an average 
of five dollars an acre — is given, or a larger proportion where stock and 
other supplies are furnished. In Abbeville, the average rent is given as 
three bales of cotton for as much land as one plow can cultivate ; in Fair- 
field it is nine hundred pounds, and in Chester as much as twelve hun- 
dred pounds of lint. Or, in other words, something over one thousand 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 157 

pounds of lint cotton, worth one hundred dollars, for the rent of thirty 
acres of land. This would be three dollars and thirty -three cents rental 
per acre, whifch is the interest at seven per cent, on a capital of forty-seven 
dollars and fifty cents. Taking seven per cent, as the standard rate of 
interest, this may be taken as the intrinsic value at present of the arable 
lands of this region. As, however, only twenty-eight per cent, of the 
lands are under the plow, this amounts only to an average minimum 
valuation of all the land tilled and untilled at thirteen dollars and thirty 
cents per acre. As stated in the returns of the 10th United States Census, 
which may be considered as fairly up to the actual average market values, 
the lands with all farm improvements are put at an average of four dol- 
lars and eighty-seven cents an acre. At this valuation, placed uj)on them 
by their owners, these lands are paying dividends not less than twenty- 
eight ])cr cent, per annum, not taking into account that more than two- 
thirds of these values are wholly unemployed, and that tlie remaining 
one-third are operated mainly Ijy the poorest and most ignorant class of 
the community, where want of means alone would j)revent them from 
obtaining such returns as good culture would give. If the artificial ab- 
surdities, inherited from the dark ages and feudalism, which enslave land 
even under this free government, and l)ur(len its transmission from one 
owner to another, could be abolished, if titles to this species of property 
could be made commercial paper, and as convertililc as the titles to pro])- 
erty in railroads and factories are through the medium of bonds and 
stocks, such i)aradoxes as the above would be impossi])le, and that funda- 
mental value, held to bo the source of all others, land would be free to 
furnish its full quota towards supplying human wants and u.ssisting in 
huirum jirogress. 

TILLAGE AND LMPUOVEMENT. 

The usual depth of tillage is four inches on the land side of the furr9\v. 
In Abbeville, Spartanburg, and portions of Chester, it i« generally only 
three inches. In parts of Fairfield it is only two inches, but in some 
parts of Chester it is .six inches to eight inches. 

The draft employed is almost always one horse; in a very few in- 
stances two horses are used. 

Subsoiling has only been practiced on a small scale, chiclly as an ex- 
periment, generally with excellent results. 

Fall plowing is very little practiced ; it is opposed to what is known as 
the " David Dickson method of culture," whieh is the prevalent one, the 
opinion being, that lands broken up in the fall become tightly j)acked by 
the winter rains, an evil not counterbalanced by the disintegrating in- 



lo8 THE riEDMONT REGION. 

Huence of frosts in this mild clin!nto. Tlie additional expense is also a 
con.sidomtion. To the limited extent to which it is done, five reports 
;^ive the rcrsults as good, and in York and in portions of Chester, it is re- 
ported ns greatly on the increase; five other reports state that it is of 
doubtful advantage or none. 

liotation of crops i.s nowhere reduced to a system. With a moderate 
use of manures, and careful culture, the same lands are planted for years 
in cotton, it is tliought not only without deterioration, but with actual 
improvement. The ratio which the price of cotton boars to that of meat 
and corn uH'ects the succession of crops more than anything else. Never- 
theless, there is but one opinion as to the beneficial influence of a rotation 
of crops as a cheap means of i)rescrviiig the thriftiness of the soil. The 
succession of crops, as elsewhere in the State, is cotton, corn and small 
grain. The clean culture of cotton leaves the land in good order for any 
crop, and the .small grain is planted in the same year, after the corn is 
gatl)cred. Usually, the hind is kept in cotton from three to five years, 
and after one crop of corn and small grain is taken from it, the culture 
of cotton is resumed. 

FALLOWINC'r. 

Fallowing forms no i)art of the system of culture, and it is thought that 
tlie exposure of tiio soil, by tillage, to the .summer sun is injurious. The 
lall(Mvs consist chiefly of the lands lying out after the small grain crops 
aregatlicreil, in ^hly and June, and even these are generally used as pas- 
tures for stock. Tho 

OLD FIFvLDS 

are preferred, in many instances, to wood lands, and they are being 
cleared of the short leaf pine that covers them, and replanted. They pro- 
duce well with fertilizers, and, under careful treatment, are thought equal 
to any of the land. One of the principal reasons for abandoning these 
lands in the first instance was the washes and gullies produced by the 
unskillful use of the plow. Efforts to remedy this by horizontal culture 
and hillside ditches, where intelligently made — especially where the 
plumb or the level has been used to lay oil' the rows and ditches — have 
been very succes.sful. Unskillfully made ditches, however, often do more 
liarm than good. Filling the gullies with brush is a safer and a very 
cttective practice, but no attempt at under drainage, to remedy washing, 
has been made. The damage to the soil is mainly to the hillsides, and 
it is seldom the bottoms are injured by the detritus they receive. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 159 



MANURING 

has for its basis cotton seed. About one thousand pounds of cotton sce<l 
are obtained from each bale of cotton, which makes 137,000 tons the 
supply of this region. Of this, 25,000 tons, at two bushels per acre, is 
used for planting ; a small amount is fed to stock. None is carried to the 
oil mills, and very little is sold, the price being ten to fifteen cents per 
bushel; the balance, about 100,000 tons, is returned to the soil asmaimre. 
For small grain, it is sown broadcast, and plowed in with the seed in the 
fall. For corn, it is killed by heating, and api)lied in the hill. For cotton, 
it is becoming the practice to compost it with acid phosphates and stable 
manure, sometimes with the addition of other litter and lime. It is ap- 
plied in the drill, at the rate of a ton to two to four acres. This leaves a 
large portion of tilled land to bo sui)i)lied with manure from other sources. 
Corn rarely receives any manure, and the delicioncy for the cotton lands, 
when cott(jn seed and stable manures are exhausted, is supi)lied by the pur- 
chase of commercial fertili/ers. 'J'he amount j)urchaMed in tins region 
reaches an aggregate cost of nearly one-hair million of dollars, or !?l.i).S 
lor each aero planted in cotton. Jt varies, from a maxinuim in Spartan- 
burg of I?;}. 133 per aero in cotton, to u mininnun of ,JI2 cents in Abbeville, 
It is used most extensively in Spartanburg, Greenville, York and Ander- 
son, to stinmlate the growth and maturity of the cotton plant in tJjese 
counties, which, being more elevated and nearer the mountains, have a 
shorter growing season. In Newberry, the county most productive in 
cotton of tiio region, the average is 31.02 per acre in cotton. CJreen 
maimring has been practiced only as an experiment. Such experiments 
with pea vines have had a very promising success, but it has been found 
better to allow the vines to wither before turning them under. 

CULTIVATION. 

Fallow lands or lands that have been in other crops, and sometimes the 
heavy red lands, are broken up broadcast during the winter and spring. 
The great body of tho lands, however, being planted year after year 
in cotton, the usual method is to lay oil' in the alley with a shovel plow, 
drill in tho manure, and bed to it with a turning plow. Three to five 
furrows complete the bed, and the land is ready for planting. On the 
thinnest lands, the rows are two and one-half feet apart — generally they 
are three feet to three and one-half feet — and on the strongest lands they 
are four feet. Planting commences on and after 10th April, and is com- 
pleted on or before the 10th of May. The seed used is the short limbed 



IGO THE PIEDMONT REOIOV. 

cluster variety of cotton, known under the name of Dickson's improved, 
or Boyd's prolific. It is rather a delicate plant, a prolific bearer, 
of early maturity, and a short staple. Carefully sown, one bushel of seed 
will j)laiit an acre, though as much as three and sometimes five bushels 
arc used. With a planter, two bushels answer, and two to two and one- 
half may he taken as the averufje. Most of the seed is .sown by hand, in 
a furrow opened by n small plow, and covered by various devices of 
boards, j)r()pelled by hand or by a horse. On the smooth, wcll-pre])ared 
land, jilanlcrs, esj)ecially the Dowlow, are much used and well thouj^ht 
of. 'J'he seed comes up in four to ten days in favorable seasons ; late 
plan(inii;s in dry seasons arc longer in appearing, and may not come up 
in a moiitli, and then give a good stand. This occurrence is always a 
misfortuiK^, as it not only retards the crop, but allows the grass a chance 
to overtake it. As soon as the stand is perfected, thinning commences, 
and the cotton is chojiped out with a hoc to spaces varying from six 
inches on thin lands to eighteen inches on the strongest, usually to nine 
inclics and twelve inches. 

The after cultivation consists in keeping the ground light and loose by 
the use of the plow, and in keeping the grass out of the row witii the hoe. 
A great variety of plows arc used for this purpose — twisters, turn-plows, 
shovels and harrows; the later workings, when the plant is fruiting, are 
usually given by passing twice through the row with a sweep, which 
skims the surface. Generally there are four plowings, and four hoeings; 
sometimes three answer. 

When the jdant is ten inches to fifteen inches high — usually about the 
l.st of July — it begins to bloom, thcrugh blooms are sometimes noticed as 
early as the 15th of June. Open bolls appear about the middle of August ; 
in favorable .seasons they are sometimes seen thelastof July, and at other 
times not until the 1st of September. Although in some instances the 
j)lant grows as high as four feet to five feet, the height at which it is 
thought to be most productive here is from two feet to three feet. Pick- 
ing may commence about the 25th of August, but it is not in full blast 
until the 1st to 20th of September. The crop is gone over three to four 
times, and it is all out of the field by Christmas ; sometimes as early as 
the 20th of November. 

DISEASE AND ENEMIES. 

In its early growth, unless in exceptionally windy and cold seasons, 
or through bad hoeing, cotton does not suller here at all from " sore shin." 
Nor does it often run to weed; in unusually warm and wet seasons, or on 
strong fresh land this may occur; cultivation and manuring are thought 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. ICl 

to check excessive growth, and to promote fruiting. "Worms are rarely 
seen in this region, and are not at all feared. Shedding and rust are 
often injurious. The first is likely to occur during alternations of dry 
and wet weather. Black rust is confined to ill-drained soils, especially to 
those of the trap rocks. Wet weather is more likely than dry and hot 
weather to affect the cotton plant injuriously here. Xo crop grown any- 
where over so extensive an area is more certain than is the cotton crop in 
this region. Drainage and stable manure, with fairly good culture, are 
unfailing remedies for such diseases as have as yet affected it. The 
enemy most dreaded and most certain to rcfiuirc the best efforts of the 
farmer to hold it in check, is grass;' and, with one consent, the species is 
known as " crab-grass," " a corruption," John Drayton says, " of crop- 
grass, as it was unknown until the land was cultivated." BeHrahm, 
writing of Carolina in 1752, says: "Because new land produces scarce 
any grass, and once hoeing will do for the season, l)ut the grass comes 
and increases in such a manner that sometimes three lioeings are scarce 
sufficient in one season, and when this comes to bo the case, tlie plant- 
ers relinquish these fields for pastures and dear new ground of its 
wood." This grass makes an excellent hay, attaining a lieight of two 
feet to three feet, and yielding from one to four tons to the acre, according 
to the land and the season. Next to cotton picking, however, it is the 
chief source of trouble and expense in the culture of this crop. 

GINNING. 

The ginning and picking season open and close together. The gins in 
general use are Brown, Winnslops, Taylor and Hall gins. The most 
generally used power is horse-power — four mules and the old wooden 
cog-wheel gearing. Such power is used for gins of forty to forty-five saws, 
and the out-turn is about two and a half pounds of lint an hour to the 
saw, or an average of about eleven hundred pounds of lint as a day's 
work for a gin. With steam and water power the same number of saws 
are made to do double this work, but it is questionable if it is so well 
done. The cotton on the average does not quite third itself, and as esti- 
mated, 1,231 pounds of seed cotton are required to make four hundred 
pounds of lint. This gives seventy-one bushels of seed as the daily pro- 
duct, per gin, in the estimate above stated. For baling, six out of eleven 
reporters used and preferred the old wooden screw, run by horse power; 
two used the Scofield press, and the remainder the Finley and other 
hand-presses. It a{)pears with these presses, if three to four hands and 
one to two mules are employed, the out-turn for ten hours work is about 
four thousand pounds of lint in eight or nine bales. The iron arrow tie 
11 



1C2 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

has entirely superseded rope for baling. Jute bagging, the heaviest Dun- 
dee, or the domestic Ludlow is used. The v/eight aimed at in the bale 
varies from four hundred pounds to five hundred pounds ; the average is 
four hundred and fifty-two pounds. 

SHIPPING AND SELLING. 

As soon as the cotton is packed it is moved to market, commencing 
about the 1st of September; by the end of the year almost the whole crop 
has passed out of the farmers' hands. The farmer usually sells to the 
merchant at the nearest railroad station, and has only a charge against 
him of ton cents a bale for weighing. In some localities the transporta- 
tion, hauling from Laurens county to Greenville, is stated to cost two 
dollars a bale. Cotton shij)ped by railroad to New York costs three dol- 
lars and fifty cents a Ixile. To Charleston it costs, from Fairfield, two 
dollars to two dollars and twenty-five cents ; from Spartanburg, two dol- 
lars and fifty cents; from Abbeville, two dollars and seventy-five cents. 
From Chester the charge is, to Charleston, forty-eight cents per hun- 
dred weight; to New York it is sixty-three cents per hundred weight. 
Cotton shipj)ed from Fairfield to Charleston, and sold by the farmer, 
costs, everything included, four dollars and fifty-seven cents for a bale 
weighing four hundred and sixty-five pounds, and it is usually estimated 
at about one cent per pound. 

COST OF PRODUCTION. 

This is estimated in four reports at seven cents ; in one report at eight 
cents, and in one at nine cents per pounds of lint. The following table 
exhibits the detailed statements on this head. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



163 



Cost of each Item of Labor and Material expended in Hie Cultivation of an 

Acre of Cotton. 



ITEMS. 



Bent - 

Teaclug, repairs interest on. 

Knocking stalks. ~. 

PulllDg nnd burning stalks.,.. 

Other cleaning up 

Listing 

Beddlnit with boek 

Breaking up 

Harrowing 

Barring old beds.... 

Splitting middleif 

Reversing _ 

Laying off 

Commerclul Manures 

Homo-made Manures 

Applying manures m. 

Bedding up 

Splitting middles 

Knocking off beds 

Planting, opening 

Planting, dropping „. 

Planting, covering.. 

Replan tl ng 

8eed 

Thinning 

Three plowing!) , 

Three hoelncs 

Picking 

Hauling to gin 

Ginning 

Management ,. 

Wear and tear of tools 

Bagging and ties 

Totol « ., 



83 60 

25 

60 
10 

1 UO 



CoNt per pound, deducting cotton seed at 12 cents 
pur bUHhel ^ 



Pron I por acre, cotton 10 ots. per pound, sood 12 
olN. |iur bunhol, ,, ,. 

l'roni,r««nti>xcludflil from nost 



8.% 
200 
260 

60 
1 00 

30 
15 
30 

80 

69 
1 00 
1 69 
G 13 
1 00 
1 33 

60 
1 00 
1 00 



29 (/(» 



08 } 



1.1 ■:{ 



10 17 



II. 



$9 UO 



813 3-1] 82 60 



1 00 



25 
4 00 

20 
26 
25 

40 
20 
20 

30 

60 
1 00 
4 80 

1 60l 



1 00 



in. IV. 



26 



2J 



1 00 



25 
4 60 
200 
16 
75 
25 

25 



80 
50 
1 60 
1 60 
600 
10 
1 78 



1 00 



15 



100 



18 
800 
1 60 
10 
33 
17 

10 
10 
10 

25 

40 

1 00 



84 00 



40 



30 



1 00 60 



1 20 1 20 



5 0(> 



1 00 



1 OO 
&5 



2) «.5| 3.5 m 



m? 8,^, 



]am 



7 m 



i) K5 



m^ 



14 MH 



25 
400 
1 00 

15 

75 



25 

40 

1 a3 



4 00 



2 00 

22 



80 



VL 



»;{00 



25 
1 00 

25 
60 
10 



25 



20 
40 
1 50 
1 00 
300 
1 00 
00 



vir. 



S3 00 



20 



I 00 



25 
SO0 
1 00 

50 

76 
15 

10 
10 
10 

60 
GO 
1 20 
300 
2> 
flO 



Artnge. 



85 CI 
10 



45 5^ 



22 .55 



fllff 



51 



II 8!)il7 97 



067-10 08 1-10 



21 .1 71 



2it m> -M) n:i; III 1)1* 1)1 Till II 2|l A 71 



Zi 78 



06 7-10 



10 01 



lona 



I. U. (;. C.irllolo A .1. H. Untinlok, Nowhnrry, yluhl KV) poumN lint (Motion, Hii". pounilM cotton seed, 

II. Jmo. <;. Klunnlkon, (.;ii»'Hlor, ylild 3IK) pruinds lint ColUm, wil pounds cotton sdcd. 
HI. \V. li. ItOMiildKon. (Irocinvllo. vlcld (00 poiiiwlH lint Cotton. WH) poiin<ln colt/>n scod. 

IV. (i. II. Mc.MiiMtor. Kalrtlold, yl*-!!! ;1)0 pounds lint Cotton, (170 poundu cotton soi'd. 

V. jHinex I'liKiin, Wlnnnboro, yield !t(H) poundn lint Colton, 02<) poundu cotton so»'d. 

VI. W. It. Urndlcy. Abbeville, yield lt)S jioun<ls lint Cotton 40<)pounrlH cotton seed. 

VII. Jiio. A. Hiimnior. liCxlnntori. yield 'JO) pouiuU lint Co ton, 4JJ pounds cotton seed. 
Average, 318 pounds lint Colton, 014 pounds cotton seed. 



1G4 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

Abstract of reports of township correspondents in the Piedmont Region 
of South Ciirohna: 

Abbkville County. 

Cokahnry Township {E. D. 12): Lands hilly and broken, light, gray, 
gravelly and sandy soils, six inches to eight inches to subsoil of yellow, 
sonictiiiies of dark red clay. Streaks of red clay and mulatto soils traverse 
these sandy soils. Underlying the subsoil is rotten sandstones, soapstone, 
tough clay, and rotten mica slate. Growth, oak, hickory and i)ine, gen- 
erally small. Lands occasionally change hands at seven dollars to ten 
dollars an acre. Field labor is paid iifty cents a day, one-fourth to one- 
tliird of it performed by whites, 

Boiuil'lsvillc TownsJiip {E. D. 11): Lands level, soilsfine,light, gray, sandy 
loam, with some day loam; sub-soil red and yellow clay, underlaid by 
solid clay. Growth, oak, hickory, walnut, poplar and pine. Crops, corn, 
ten bushels ; wheat, eight bushels ; oats, fifteen bushels ; barley, fifteen 
bushels; potatoes, thirty bushels; seed cotton, six hundred pounds to 
one thousand pounds per acre. Lands sell for three dollars to ten dollars 
an acre. Uplands rent for one-fourth, bottoms for one-third of the crops. 
A good deal is rented for four hundred pounds to eight hundred pounds 
of lint cotton for a one-horse farm. (Quarries of building rock arc worked. 
Traces of gold occur. Lime rock is said to be found. Large water- 
powers on Saluda river. No attention is paid to stock, which might be 
made profitable. No prevailing diseases. Field labor is paid forty to 
fifty cents a day, with board ; nearly one-half of it is performed by whites. 

(iirvinmod Towiu^Jn'p, {K D. 13): Surface level and rolling. Soils, fine 
gray, sandy loam and rich clay loam ; .subsoil, red clay. Growth, oak, 
hickory and pine. Some land for sale at three dollars to ten dollars an 
acre. Average croj), six hundred pounds to seven hundred })oun(ls .seed 
cotton per acre. Lucerne, clover and millet do well. Summer })asturagc 
abundant. Sheep kept during the winter on cotton seed and turnij)s, at 
a cost of thirty cents a head. Attention is being much directed to stock 
raising since the abolition of the fence law. Field labor paid fifty cents 
to seventy-live cents a day; one-fourth is performed l>y whites. 

t<nilltirill(' Town}<!ii'p {E. 1). 1()) : Lands elevated and rolling. Soil, a fine, 
gray, saiuly loam, and a red clay loam, with subsoil of clay resting on 
clay or a fine white earth, resemlding chalk. Growth, oak, hickory and 
pine, with wild clover and various grasses. Crops, six hundred pounds 
seed cotton; ten bushels corn on uplands and twenty-five to thirty bush- 
els on bottoms. Lands sell from three dollars to ten dollars per acre. 
"Wages (tf farm labor, fifty cents a day to one dollar and fifty cents and 
two dollars during harvest; one-fourth performed by whites. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. . 165 

Whitehall Township (E. D. 15) : Level and undulating lands. Tlic post- 
oak and hickory land is a coarse, gray, sandy soil, resting on red clay, the 
red bottom lands are on the creeks and branches. Gro\Hh, oak, hickory 
and pine. Wild clover and native grasses^bound. Crops, the best fresh 
land will make a bale of cotton, without manure; a bale to two acres is a 
good average ; ten bushels to sixty bushels of corn ; ten bushels of wheat ; 
twenty bushels to one hundred and twelve bushels of oats an acre. Par- 
ticles of gold found in all the small streams. Traces of manganese occur. 
Most of the lands are rented for eight hundred pounds to one thousand 
pounds of lint cotton for twenty-five acres. Price of land from eight 
dollars to ten dollars per acre, and advancing. Very little field work 
done by whites. No climatic disease ; locality very healthy. 

Bordeaux Township {E. D. 5) : Ridge lands elevated and rolling. Soil, 
a sandy loam, with spots of gravel and rock, with a subsoil of yellow 
clay, mixed with sand, underlaid by a stiff red clay. Growth, oak, 
liickory, gum and pine, with some chestnut. There are extensive river 
bottoms, also creek and branch bottoms, which are very fertile. Crops, 
five hundred pounds to one thousand pounds seed cotton ; ten bushels to 
forty bushels corn ; twenty bushels oats per acre. Land can be bought at 
five dollars an acre ; rents for two bales of four hundred pounds of cotton 
for a one mule farm, or one-fourth of all crops. More than a million 
dollars in gold has been taken from the Dorn mine ; and several new 
mines have been recently discovered. The Savannah river. Reedy river 
and Longcane afford numerous water powers. One-fifth of the farm work 
performed by whites. 

Nincty-Siz TowmJu'p {E. D. 14) : Lands undulating, very little hilly. 
Soil, a gray sandy loam, and a deep red soil, subsoil generally clay, under- 
laid ))y clay. Soft rock and white chalk. Growth, oak and hickory, 
with some pine. Crops, half a l>alc of cotton; fifteen bushels of corn; 
twenty bushels of oats per acre. Very little land for sale; most of it 
worked on shares; little worked by hired labor. 

Cedar Sprliigs Township {E. D. 3) : High rolling ridges, broken and hilly 
on the streams. Soils, a gray sandy loam, and mulatto and red clay 
loams. Sandy soils coarser than in the low country ; these are consid- 
ered, since the introduction of fertilizers, as the most ])aying lands. 
Subsoils clay, underlaid at eighteen feet to twenty feet, by granite slates 
and an ash colored earth that has some fertilizing qualities. Growth, 
oaks of all kinds, short leaf pine, walnut, hickory, sugar-maple, cucum- 
ber tree and white gum. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton ; ten 
bushels of corn; twenty-five bushels to seventy-five bushels of oats; 
ten bushels to fifty bushels wheat. A little land for sale at three dollars 
to ten dollars an acre for some ; but not the best. Rent from three dollars 



iGG . THE PifeDMONT KEOION. 

to ten dollars an acre, or on shares. Building granite and soapstone oc- 
cur. Gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc and iron are found. Longcano creek 
furnishes several good water powers. Lucerne, clover, blue, orchard and 
timothy grass arc found to do well. No local diseases. One-half the 
field -work performed by whites. 

Calhoun Mills Toicnahip {E. D. G) : The flatwoods are low, flat land. 
Soil, a black loam, resting on a tenacious yellow clay, containing masses 
of carbonate of iron, which, when broken off by the plow and mixed 
with soil, give rise to the appellation, "Buckshot" lands; underlaid by 
decomposed felsitic and dioritic porphyry, that becomes hard iji descend- 
ing. Growth, heavily-bodied post oak and scaly bark hickory. Old 
fields grow up in persimmon and sassafras, later, in old-field \m\c. Lands 
wet, re([uiro draining ; make good corn crops. Clover, peas and the grasses 
do well ; but cotton rusts. Surrounding the flat^'oods, like the rim of ii 
cup, arc the rolling, liilly, red lands. Growth, oak, pine and hickory. 
Some of these lands, under cultivation since the Revolution, witli little 
manure, ^vill produce good crops still; although they have been poorly 
farmeil, and are much washed. I have made thirty bushels of corn, forty 
bushels oats, fifteen hundred pounds of seed cotton to the acre; but this 
is al)ovc the average. Excellent bottom lands are found on Little and 
Savannah rivers, and the small streams. Spring-water and shallow wells, 
impregnated with iron and sulphur. Farms may be ]x)ught at from two 
dollars to ten dollars an aero; if well improved will sell higher. Traces 
of gold, copper and antimony havobeon found. ICuritc furnishes blocks 
of excellent building material, a very fine granite, hammondito occurs, 
and soapstone. Farm wages, ten dollars a month, with rations, garden, 
the privilege of a cow and of poultry raising. 

Anderson County. 

Aiulcrmn Court Home {E. D. 18): Level in the north and east; rolling 
to the south. Soil : 1st. A stiff, sticky, red clay, with deep red subsoil. 
2d. Ked, loniiiy soil, mixed with fine sand, and having a red subsoil. 3d, 
Gray sandy soil, with yellowish subsoil. Growth, oaks of all kinds, 
hickory and pine. Crops, cotton, a bale to three acres ; corn, ten bushels ; 
oats, ten bushels to fifteen bushels an acre. Some land for sale, at ten 
dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. Rents for one five hundred pound bale 
of cotton for every ten acres. Farm labor paid fifty cents a day ; one- 
half of it performed by whites. Lias forty acres set in clover, orchard 
grass and red top, which does well. 

Garvin Toumship [E. D. 27) : Land elevated and rolling, with some flats. 
Soil: 1st, A gray or brown sandy loam, on red or yellow clay, 2d, Red 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 167 

loam; depth of soils two inches to eight inches; the soils on bottoms 
have a depth of from two inches to six inches, or more. Beneath the 
subsoil is a fine, gray, soapy, sandy earth, mixed with mica. It has been 
used successfully as manure. Growth, red, white, black, post, Spanish 
and chestnut oaks, chestnut and hickory. Very little land for sale ; price 
from eight dollars to ten dollars an acre. A good deal td rent for one- 
fourth the cotton, two-thirds of the other crops. Croppers furnishing 
labor and paying for guano, get one-third, two-fifths or one-half of the 
crop. The worn out old fields, grown u}) in pines, are, when cleared again, 
more productive than virgin forest, yielding with one hundred and fifty 
pounds of guano one thousand pounds of cotton the first year. Clover 
and other grasses do well. Wages of farm labor nix dollars to ten dollars 
a niontli; about one-half performed by whites. 

IloUnjuVi^ Sloir. ToiunHhip {E. J). '!'.)) : The ridges are flat topped, ami arc 
a fine gray sandy loam, on clay subsoil ; not having waslied under cultiva- 
tion, they have steadily risen in value. Near the rivers and creeks the land 
is hilly and broken, the soil a red clay, and soft micaceous rocks are found. 
Growth, oaks, hickory, sourwood, dogwood and old-field pine, Since the 
abolition of the fence law has restricted the range of cattle, many grasses 
and forest plants, thought to be extinct, have re-appeared, among them 
the wild pea and vetches. Wild oats are getting so abundant that large 
tracts of wood lands look like oat fields. Crops, one-third of a bale of 
cotton, ten bushels to twenty-five ]>ushels corn, on ui)land ; and twenty 
bushels to fifty bushels on bottom land, six bushels wheat, ten bushels to 
twenty bushels oats per acre. Traces of gold are found. A bed of brown 
hammotite coverf^ a square mile or more, and near it is a knob of soap- 
stone, much used for hearthstones. Generostee creek furnishes six mill 
sites of twenty to fifty horse power, and at McDaniel's shoals, on the Sa- 
vannah river, there is a fall of twenty-five feet to forty feet in two miles. 
Wages of farm labor, fifty cents a day ; for ditching and harvesting, one 
dollar and sixty cents; more than one-half performed by whites. 

Eqitallt\j Towmhip {E. D. 28) : The ridges are fiat or rolling, of a light 
gray, gravelly and sandy porous soil, suited to cotton, but requiring fer- 
tilizers to i)reserve their fertility. Towards the streams the hind is more 
hilly and broken. Soil, a stiff red clay on a red clay subsoil ; there are lands 
under cultivation, yielding good croj)3, that were cleared one hundred years 
ago, and have been worked for the last twenty-three years without manure. 
Subsoil underlaid by rotten gneiss, mica, slate and hornblende, about 
one-sixteenth dark brown loamy creek bottoms. Growth, black, white, 
post and turkey oak, hickory, pine and chestnut. Crops, eight hundred 
pounds seed cotton, fourteen bushels to forty bushel corn on uplands, 
thirty bushels to seventy on bottoms, eight bushels to thirty bushels 



1G8 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

wlicat, twcnty-fivo bushels to one hundred bushels oats per acre. Pea- 
vinos and red clover make good forage crops. Traces of gold are found, 
but no rc<,'uliir mining. Field labor j)aid fifty cents a day and board, and 
is largely j)erfornied by whites. 

WllllavistiDi Toumhip [K. I). 29) : Land rolling. Soil, light brown or 
reddish siindy loam, five inches to six inches to subsoil of red clay, mixed 
with .'•and. Ik'neath the subsoil rotten gneiss rock is found. Growth, 
oak and i)ine, with .some hickory and ash. Cotton yields a little less than 
three-fourths of a bale jiracre. Provisicns not much raised. Price of 
land, ten dollars to thirty dollars per acre. Grajdiite of good quality is 
found in lumj)s over a considerable area, also red hcrmatite. The Pied- 
mont and Pel/.er factories are two largo cotton mills on the Saluda. At 
the first it is estimated that a twenty-ibot dam will give over eight hun- 
dred horse power; at the latter an eight-foot dam will give three to four 
hundred horse power. The Allen shoals, between the two, is about equal 
to the Piedmont falls. Below the Pelzer factory, the Clement shoals fur- 
nish a fall of fourteen feet, with abundant rock and an excellent site for 
building. Native grasses and cane afford forage. Little attention is paid 
to .stock. Day labor, fifty cents to one dollar and twenty-five cents. 
Nearly one-half the field work is jierformed by whites. Williamston is a 
health resort, with a chalybeate .s])ring, containing iron, magnesia, pota.sh, 
sulphur, iodine and an excess of carbonic acid ; and it has a largo male 
academy and female college, with one hundred and twenty-five pupils. 

I'avainrs 7oimship{E. D. 20): Land elevated and rolling; sometimes 
hilly and broken. Soils are : 1st. Fine and warm sandy loam, three inches 
to four inches to a yellowish sandy or dark drab-colored subsoil. 2d. 
Clay loam, four inches to eight inches to a red or brown subsoil, which is 
generally stiff clay, underlaid for ten feet by stiff red clay, that there be- 
comes mixed with rock, mica, sand and rotten looking clay of all colors. 
Growth, red, post, black, white and water oak, hickory, elm, pine, black- 
jack and blackgum. Croj)s, four hundred pounds seed cotton, fifteen 
bushels corn, eight bushels wheat, twelve bushels oats an acre. Lands 
sell at eight dollars to twenty dollars an acre ; rents for one-third of the 
crops. Building granite abounds. The McDonald mine yields gold, 
some silver and rubies. Corundum of inferior quality is found at various 
jdaces ; also zircons and beryl. High shoals on Rocky river has a fall of 
thirty -one feet in three hundred yards, estimated as furnishing one hun- 
dred horse power. 

Chester County. 

Baton Rouge Township {E. D. 37): Rolling lands. Soils, gray, sandy, 
gravelly, six inches to red clay subsoil and red clay loam. Growth, oak, 



* . THE PIEDMONT REGION. 169 

ash, walnut, pino, hickory. Lands rent for two bales cotton per one-horso 
farm. Thoro is a gold mine, not worked now, however. The Lockluirt 
shoals furnish a great water power. The river is one-fifth of a mile wide, 
eight feet deep, and has a fall of forty-seven feet in one-half a mile. 
Field labor paid fifty cents per day; one-half performed by whites, 

JioHSi'ille Towufihip (E. I). 43) : Northeastern corner, blackjack land and 
level ; the balance hilly and broken. Soils, gray, sandy loam, red and 
mulatto clay loam. Subsoil, mostly red clay and grayish pipe clay. 
Growth, a variety of oaks, hickory, blackjack and old field j)ines. Crops, 
ten bushels to twelve bushels corn, four bushels to five bushels wheat, 
fifteen bushels to twenty bushels oats, and three hundred pounds to four 
hundred pounds cotton an acre. Sixty bushels of corn have been made 
on my place. Lands for sale at ten dollars to twelve dollars an acre ; 
rent for three bales of cotton of four hundred pounds to the mule, and 
less. Much land could be rented for clearing it up. Afost of it having 
been thrown out is grown up in old field pinOs. Good building granite is 
found. An immense water power furnished by the old State canal on 
Catawba river. Farm wages, fifty cents a day; one-fourth performed by 
whites. 

Lemmlle Tmniship {E. D. 42): Broken into hills and ridges, about one 
hundred and fifty feet higher than the valleys of the numerous streams 
crossing it. boils, a gray sandy loam, and a red clay loam, resting on 
red clay. In the northwest the blackjack lands have a grayish or whitish 
pipe clay subsoil. Growth, many varieties of oaks, pine, chestnut, walnut, 
and chinquapin. Cedar is taking the j)lace of the old field pine. Little 
land for sale.^ Most of it is forest. Abundant water powers. A large 
cotton factory is being built on Fishing creek. 

Chcder Township {E. D. SG) : Northwestern portion a light, sandy soil. 
Growth thirty years ago was chestnut and chinquapin. They have died 
out, and been re])laced by oak and hickory. Once considered worthless, 
these lands, with fertilizers, now produce heavy crops of cotton, and sell 
for from ten dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. The middle portion is the 
blackjack lands, level and flat, requiring ditching. The blackjack is 
disappearing, and being replaced by oaks. These lands are adaj>tcd to 
corn and clover and the grasses. With ditching, stable manure, kainit, 
to prevent rust, they make good cotton crops. Spring water is limestone. 
They may bo bought for from two dollars to five dollars an acre. The 
.southern portion is nnilatto or red land. It is broken and hilly; hard to 
cultivate; rents to negroes for seventy-five cents to one dollar an acre. 
Farm wages, from forty cents to fifty cents a day ; one-fourth performed 
by w'hitcs. 



170 the piedmont region. 

Edgkfield County. 

Wise Towmhip {E. D. Co): Lands elevated and hilly and broken, with 
narrow l)ottoms on the creeks. White sandy and red clay loam the pre- 
vailinjx .soil. Subsoil heavy, red, clay, gravelly. Growth, short leaf pine, 
wliilo oak, rod oak, walnut, hickory and maple." Average yield, four 
Iiundrc'il pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, fifteen bushels oats per 
acre. Most of tho land rented by the year for one-fourth of the crop ; 
may Ix- ])ur(.'1msed on easy terms. Good building granite and soapstone 
are A)und, with clay, used for making earthenware. Several mill sites; 
very healthy; only about one-tenth of the field work performed by 
whites. 

Ihjnn Towmliip {E. I). GO): Lands elevated and slightly rolling. Soil, 
a fine, gray, sandy loam, with a yellow clay subsoil, and a coarse mulatto 
loam, with red day subsoil. Tho subsoil is close and compact, and is 
underlaid by slates, soapstone and granite. Growth, short leaf pine, 
cedar and a variety of oaks, hickory, walnut, dogwood, ash and elm. 
Crops, six lumdred pounds of seed cotton, fifteen bushels corn, fifteen 
busiiels wheat, thirty-five bushels oats, twenty-five bushels peas, one hun- 
dred and fifty buslicls potatoes per acre. Lands sell at from three dollars 
to ten dollars an acre, and rent at fifty dollars for a one-horse farm. Gold, 
manganese, silver and copper ores are found, but are only slightly devel- 
oped. Wild clover, cane and several native grasses afford pasturage. 
Stock raising is profit{d>le, and could be made more so. Farm wages, 
fifty cents per day ; one-tenth of it performed by Avhites. 

Waiiliington Toimiship (E. D. G3) : Elevated, hilly and broken in the 
upper portions. The level soils are gray, sandy and gray clay loam. 
Subsoil, grayish, light colored clay, underlaid by red clay, flint and slato 
rock. Growth, white, red and post oak, hickory and pine. Crops, one- 
fourth to three-fourths of a bale of cotton, twenty bushels to forty-five 
bushels oats, ten bushels to twenty-five bushels corn, five bushels to twelve 
bushels wheat per acre. Very little land for .sale, prices ten dollars to 
twenty dollars an acre ; rents from three dollars to five dollars per acre. 
Good water powers on Stephen's creek. Very little field work done by 
whites. 

Rchohdh Toicmldp (E. D. G2) : Hilly, some level places and a few flats. 
Soil, a dark or light gray loam, with subsoil of red clay, underlaid by clay 
slate. Growth, oak, hickory, pine, ash and cedar. Crops, one-fourth to 
one bale of cotton, ten bushels to twenty bushels corn, ten bushels to 
twenty bushels wheat, Jen bushels to thirty-five bushels oats an acre. 
Know of none for sale, plenty to rent, for two bales to the plow. Prices 
of land would average from two dollars and fifty cents to eleven dollars 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 171 

an acre. Traces of gold. Large water powers on Stevens and Turkey 
creeks. Wages of field labor, thirty cents to seventy -five cents a day ; 
one- twentieth of it performed by whites. Very healthy. 

Duntonmillc Township {E. D. 45): Rolling lands. Soils, clay loam, 
mixed with small particles of clay slate, or with grit or a stiff waxy clay. 
Subsoils of the first two varieties compOHcd of shatters of rotten clay slate : 
of tlio last, yellow and deep red clay, underlying the subsoil is rod clay, 
clay slate, granite and clialk. Growth, oak, hickory, pine and ash. 
Crops, one-third of a l)alo of cotton, fifteen bushels to fifty bushels oats, 
five bushels to ten bushels wheat, seven bushels to ten bushels corn an 
acre. Land for sale at four dollars to five dollars an acre ; rents for fifty 
dollars for what one horse can cultivate ; house, firewood and pasture in- 
cluded. There are three slate quarries, and traces of gold. Grasses do 
well on flat places. Very healthy. Farm wages, fifty cents a day, and 
board ; one-third performed by whites. 

Grey Toimsldp (E.D. 51): Level, undulating and hilly, not broken. 
Soil, mostly a gray clay loam, underlaid by gray slate rock. Growth, red, 
black, post, white and other oaks, with hickory, pine and dogwood. Crops, 
six hundred pounds to eighteen hundred pounds (with acid phosphate) 
seed cotton, ten bushels on upland to thirty bushels on bottoms of corn, 
five bushels to ten bushels of wheat, ten bushels to forty bushels oats per 
acre. Unimproved lands sell for from three dollars to five dollars an 
acre. Little improved land for sale; it rents for eight hundred pounds 
to one thousand pounds seed cotton for forty acres. Arable land, farmed 
on shares, everything furnished but labor and rations, and the crop divided. 
Traces of gold are found, and there arc quarries of soapstone and whetstones, 
but not much developed. Good chalk and clay for manufacture of earth- 
enware abound. Farm wages, fifty cents a day ; cradlers, one dollar and 
twenty-five cents to one dollar and fifty cents. No prevailing disease. 
One-fourth of the labor is performed by whites. 

Mohlcy Township {E. 2). 50) : Generally level. Soils, gray clay loam, 
underlaid by hard and soft slate rock. Growth, mostly pine. Crops, 
three hundred pounds to eight hundred pounds .seed cotton, five bushels 
to twenty bushels corn, five bushels to twenty bushels oats per acre. 
Some land for sale at from five dollars to ten dollars per acre. A good 
deal to rent for four hundred pounds lint cotton for ten to fifteen acres. 

Ilihblcr'a Toimiship {E. D. 53) : Generally level, in some parts hilly. 
Soils, a black clay loam, with red clay subsoil ; and a gray clay loam, 
with white and yellow clay subsoil. The subsoil is underlaid by slate rock 
and some granite. Growth, white oak, rgd oak, ash, pine and poplar. 
Croi)S, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, thirty bushels 
oats, twenty bushels wheat per acre. Land sells for four dollars per acre ; 



172 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

and rents for four hundred pounds lint cotton for twelve acres ; some slate 
and soiiptone.s arc found ; also veins of gold. Clover and grasses do well. 
One-lialf of the field work perfornied by whites. 

Jhdt's Towmldp {K. D.^j\)'. Elevated and rolling. Soils, gray and red 
clay loam, two and one-half inches, the subsoil of yellow or red clay. 
Growtli, oak, hickory and pine. Crops, .six hundred pounds seed cotton, 
ten bushels to fifteen busliels corn, fifteen bushels to thirty-five bushels 
oats, eight bushels to twenty bushels wheat per acre. Lands sell for five 
dollars to ten dollars an acre, and rent for two dollars to three dollars an 
acre. Fine water power on Saluda river. Very healthy. One-half of 
the field work is performed by whites. 

Cooper Toivmlup {E. D. 49) : Lands rolling. The prevailing soil a stiff, 
red clay. The subsoil is the same, with absence of vegetable mould. 
There are also flat lands, known as " buckshot" or " black gravel soils," 
very dark. Cotton rusts, and corn " frenchcs " on them ; but oats do 
well. Flint and black rock (trap) occur under the subsoil. Growth, 
white, red and post oak, hickory and pine. Crops, five hundred pounds 
cotton (seed) to one bale, ten bushels corn on the hills, twenty-five bush- 
els to forty bushels on the bottoms ; ten busliels to forty bushels wheat, 
twenty-five bushels to seventy-five bushels oats per acre. Blue grass is 
making its appearance. Red and yellow clover do well. Stock raising 
has been made profitable by a few persons on the streams, where native 
grasses and clover, growing wild, furnish gr)od pa.sture. Farm wages, 
from twenty-five cents to fifty cents a day ; sixty dollars to seventy-five 
dollars by the year with board. 

Fa 1 1 5 f I V. \. n Co u n t y. 

Fairfeld Township {E. D. 70) : Lands level, rolling, sometimes hilly and 
l>roken. Soil, light gray sandy loam, with yollow clay subsoil and red 
mulatto loam, with red clay, subsoil underlaid by red clay, granite and 
deconiDosing rocks. Growth, short leaf pine, oak, elm, walnut. Fine 
building granite. Little attention paid to stock. Wages of field labor, 
men, fifty cents to seventy-five cents; women, thirty cents to fifty cents a 
day. The negro not a success as a tenant. The land for sale at six 
dollars to eight dollare an acre, and one-half to rent for one-fourth of the 
croj). Varieties of granite, iron rock and soapstone occur. Gold and 
iron liavo been mined. Bermuda grass and clover do well ; also crab- 
grass and Hwanip grasses. Stock raising is found profitable. One-twen- 
tieth i>f the field work performed by whites. 

Falijitid, Xo. 10 Townnhlp {E. I), 70): Hilly, rolling or broken. Soil, a 
fine sanily loam, with yellow clay. Subsoil, a heavy clay loam, and a 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 173 

shallow, gravelly soil, with red subsoil of red clay, mixed witli gravel ; 
under the subsoil strata of red clay and sand of variegated colors, with 
gravel, are found. Growth, red and white oak, hickory, ash, walnut and 
short leaf pine. Crops, one-third of a bale of cotton, eight bushels corn, 
five bushels wheat, ten bushels to thirty bushels oats i)cr acre. Know of 
no lands for sale ; rents are one-fourth the crops. Farm labor, from 
twenty-five cents to fifty cents a day. 

No. 2. Township {E. D. G8) : IClevated, broken and hilly. Soil, fine sandy 
loam, with red clay subsoil, underlaid by soft rock. Growth, oak, hickory 
and gum. Crops, one hundred pounds lint cotton, six bushels coni, five 
bushels wheat, fifteen bushels oats per acre. No land for sale, but much 
rented for three dollars to four dollars an acre. Very little field work 
done by whites. 

No 1. Township {E. D. 67): Elevated and mostly hilly, with some table- 
land, consiiderable bottoms on Broad river and its tributaries. Soil, of a 
gray, chinquapin, sandy loam, and red clay loam. Subsoil, red or mu- 
latto clay. Growth, oak and hickory, and old field pine, the latter assist- 
ing greatly the recuperation of worn out soil. Crops, three hundred 
pounds to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton, six bushels to twenty-five 
bushels corn, fifteen bushels to fifty bushels oats, eight bushels to fifteen 
bushels wheat per acre. Little land for sale, most of it rented for one- 
fourth of the crop, or for from one to six bales of cotton for a one-horse 
farm. Good water power at Lyles's ford, on Broad river. The Egyptian 
or Means grass grows luxuriantly on the red lands. "Wages of field labor, 
fifty cents a day; one-fifth of it performed by whites. 

No. 1. Toionship {E. D. 07) : Hilly ; thT'cc-fiuarters of the soil coarse and 
sandy; one-fourth stilF red clay. Su])soil, red or mulatto colored clay. 
Growth, oak, hickory, pine and blackjack. Some land for sale at eight 
dollars to ten dollars an acre. Wages, forty cents a day, except in harvest 
time, then one dollar and fifty cents. One-fifteenth of the labor is white. 

No. 5. Towmnhip {E. D. 71): Lands elevated and rolling. The soil is a 
sandy loam. Subsoil, stiff red clay, underlaid by rotten granite. Growth, 
red, white and blackjack oaks, and old-field pine. Cash jrricc of lands, 
in large tracts, three dollars; in smaller tracts, six dollars to seven dolhirs 
an acre. Most of it is rented; field stock and implements furnished 
for one-half the crop, or for from two to four bales of four hun«lred and 
fifty pounds of cotton for one-horse farm. Traces of gold found, but not 
mined. One-fifth of the field labor j)erf()rme(l by whites. 

No. 4. Toniixlilp {E. J). 70) : Elevated and broken. Soil, gray and yel- 
low, gravelly, an<l sandy loani, and red clay loam. SiibHoii, re«l clay. 
Growth, oak and hickory. Crops, four hun<lre(l pounds Hee<l cotton, ten 
bushels corn, ten bushels wheat, twenty l)UHhel« oats per acre. Some 



174 TnE PIEDMONT REGION. 

lands for Pnlo nt six dollnrs to seven dollars an acre; rent for about one 
dollar and fifty cents. 

Greenville County. 

Greenville Township (E. D. 82) : Land rolling. Soil, gray sandy loam, 
four inches to subsoil of fine red clay, underlaid by soft gray rock. 
Cirowth, red, white, black and chestnut oaks, hickory, ash, walnut, dog- 
wood and pine. Crops, about eight hundred pounds seed cotton, and 
twenty buslicls of the various grains per acre. Lands sell for ten dollars 
to forty dollars an acre. There is good brick clay and abundant water 
power on Reedy and Saluda rivers. About one-fourth of the field work 
is performed by whites. 

Gani Township {E. D. S2) : From level to rolling; more or less hilly 
and broken on the streams Soils, a gray sandy loam and a red clay loam, 
six inches to sixteen inches to subsoil of red or brown clay, underlaid by 
sound and rotten granite, sometimes coarse and fine gravel. Growth, as in 
last, with the addition of long leaf pine. Crop, one-half bale of cotton per 
acre. Clover and the grasses do well, when attended to. Attention is being 
directed to fruit culture, especially apples. Price of land from ten 
dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. A largo proportion rented for one- 
third the crop, or where stock, tools, seed, provisions and feed are ad- 
vanced, for one-half the crop. Cost of fertilizer divided by renter and 
owner. Iron ores occur. Abundant water powers on Reedy and Saluda 
rivers. No climatic disease. One-twelfth or more of the farm work per- 
formed by white men, women ami children. 

Bafc^ Towniihip {E. D. 9()): Land rolling. Soil, coarse, dark, sandy 
loum,'six inches to eight inches to subsoil of deep red, sometimes of dark, 
mulatto clay, underlaid by clay and dark gravelly sand. Growth, oak, 
hickory and chestnut. Crops, six hundred pounds to seven hundred 
pounds seed cotton, twelve bushels to forty bushels corn, eight bushels 
wheat, fifteen bushels oats per acre. Lands sell from six dollars to ten 
dollars an acre; improved bottoms at forty dollars to fifty dollars; rent, 
from two dollars and fifty cents to five dollars per acre, or for one-third 
the grain and one-fourth the cotton crop. Granite and red soapstone, 
with other good building nuiterials found. Gold found in the branches. 
Wild clover, gnt^'ses and cane furnish forage. Three-fourths of the 
labor performed by whites. 

Dunklin s TownsJiip {E. D. 85) : Mostly rolling, some parts level and some 
flat. Soil, a gray sandy loam, and a red clay loam, both with red clay 
."subsoil, underlaid by coarse gray gravel ; sometimes by gray rock mixed 
with Hint. Growth, oak, hickory and pine. Crops, one-half to one and 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 175 

one-half bales of cotton, fifteen bushels corn, seven bushels to twenty 
bushels wheat, fifteen bushels to fifty bushels oats. The mud bottoms on 
Reedy river will produce fifty bushels of corn to the acre, and the corn 
crop would be largely increased, if this stream, now much obstructed by 
logs, was cleared out. Clover, lucerne and the grasses do well, when at- 
tended to. Lands sell for ten dollars an acre; about one-half is rented 
annually. Shoals on the Saluda river unimproved, afford abundant 
water power. Good building granite is found. Farm wages, from eight 
dollars to ten dollars a month. One-half the field work performed by 
whites. 

Paris Mountain Township (E. D. 90 and 97) : Level, broken and hilly. 
Soils, sandy, chocolate and clay loam. Subsoil, red clay, underlaid by a 
white gravelly earth, containing mica. Growth, oak, hickory and pine. 
A little land for sale from five dollars to twenty dollars an acre. Build- 
ing granite and soapstono are found. Farr's mills and Mackelheny's 
shoals on Saluda river furnish water powers. Farm wages, fifty cents a 
day ; one-half performed by whites. 

Lancaster County. 

Waxhaiu's Tonmship {E. D. 84) : Land rolling. Soil of southern portion red 
loam, ten inches to red clay. Subsoil, granite, crossed by porphyritic 
dykes. Northern portion, coarse, light colored sand, four inches to 
white clay, rocks, talcere slate ; underlying subsoil a light colored dirt, 
showing mica. Growth, oak, hickory, short leaf pine and holly. Crops, 
eight hundred pounds seed cotton, and twelve bushels corn per acre. No 
land for sale. Plenty to rent for eight hundred pounds to fifteen hun- 
dred pounds lint cotton to the work animal. Splendid water power near 
Land's ford, on the Catawba. Field labor j)aid fifty cents a day, witliout 
rations; comparatively none performed by whites. 

Pleasant Hill Township (E. D. 42): Generally level. Soil, coarse ."and, 
three inches to eight inches to red clay subsoil. Growth, pine, oak, 
and hickory ; on the bottoms, black gum and poi)lar. Crops, six hundred 
pounds cotton (seed), ten bushels com, eight bushels wheat, ten bushels 
or twelve bushels oats per aero. Not much land for sale. Unimjiroved 
land is selling for three dollars, imjjroved land for five to ten dollars an 
acre; rents for one-fourth of the crop. There is a gold mine, and kaolin 
is found. Long and short leaf pine in abundance. Little attention paid 
to stock ; might bo profitably raised, ilavo practiced medicine here for 
twenty-three years, and know of no place freer of disease. More than 
one-half the field labor is performed by whites. Wages, fifty cents a day 
and fed. 



17G THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

Cedar Creek Township (E. D. IS) : Elevated, hilly, and broken. Soil, coarse 
sand and sandy loam ; Hubsoil, yellow clay, underlaid by red, pravelly 
clay. (irf)\vth, short leaf pine, oak, and hickory; abandoned fields grow 
up in loblolly pines in three to six years, which, in turn, give ])laco to 
cedar. Croi)s, seven hundred pounds of seed cotton, eight bushels corn 
per acre. Land sells at from three dollars to ten dollars j)er acre. Un- 
limited M'ntor power on the Catawba river, which is one hundred and 
fifty yards M-ide, three feet deep, and flows nearly with the velocity of a 
cataract. Little attention paid to stock. It might be made prolitable. 
Good building granite. Very healthy. Wages of field labor thirty to 
fifty cents a day. 

Flat Creek Township (E. D. 70) : Some level land, but mostly hilly and 
rocky. Soils, coarse and fine, white, sandy loam and red clay loam ; sub- 
.soil, a red clay. Growth, long leaf pine, oak and hickory. Crops, one-half 
bale of cotton, ten bushels corn, ten bushels wheat, ten bushels oats per 
acre. Price of land, horn two dollars to ten dollars. There are several 
gold mines. Valuable mill sites on Lynch's River. 

Oine Crerk Township: Elevated, rolling, in some places nearly level. 
Soil, a fine, sandy loam, changing to clay loam near the streams; sul)soil, 
red clay, underlaid with yellowish clay and gravel. Growth, oak and 
liickory, also short leaf pine. Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, 
ten bushels corn, fifteen bushels oats per acre; an average, on twenty 
acres, of eighteen hundred pounds seed cotton luus been made. Ivnow of 
no land for .sale. At Land's ford, tho Catawba river is three-quarters of 
a mile wide, one foot to three feet deep, with a fall of thirty fe(!t to the 
mile. Lucerne, red and wiiite clover, orchard, meadow, red toi) and blue 
gras.s, all do well. These lands sold for fifteen dollars to twenty-five dollars 
before the war, and have been under cultivation for nearly two hundred 
years. 

Lauukns County. 

Jaeks Township [E. D. 103) : Elevated and rolling. Soils, red or mulatto 
clay loam, with red clay subsoil, and gray, sandy lands, with a light- 
colored clay subsoil. Growth, red, white, post, and water oaks, hickory 
and walnut, some sugar maple. Hundreds of acres of abandoned land 
are grown uj) in short leaf pine; in the last decade, many long leaf pines 
have appeared among them, and are rapid growers. Crops, five hundred 
pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, twenty bushels oats, eight busiiels 
to ten busiiels wheat, are about the average ; on the bottoms, fifty bushels 
corn per acre is made. Know of no lands for sale. There are thousands 
of acres, owned by non-residents, rented to freedmen for a portion of the 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 177 

6rop, and miserably farmed. There is an immense amount of fine granite. 
No prevailing sickness. Amount of field work performed by whites in- 
creasing. Wages, fifty cents a day and rations, 

Waterloo TowuHhip {E. D. lOG): Hilly, washes when not properly 
ditched. Soils sandy, gravelly, and clay loam ; color mulatto, sometimes 
a deep red ; depth, two inches to three inches to a pale red clay subsoil, 
underlaid by clay, and in some places, by a dusky or bluish sandy earth. 
A very hard, bluish granite rock found in some wells. Growth, red, 
white, and post oak. Lands thrown out of cultivation grow up in pine, 
and arc more productive than the original forest. Crops, six hundred 
pounds to twelve hundred pounds seed cotton, ten busliels corn on up- 
lands, and fifty on bottoms, fifteen bushels oats, eight bushels wheat per 
acre; crab grass, after small grain, yields, sometimes, hay to the value 
of twenty dollars an acre. Lands for sale at from five dollars to twenty 
dollars per acre. Indications of gold are found in many places, but 
no mines are worked. Reedy river and Saluda river furnish valuable 
water powers. These strciims are much obstructed by logs. Farm labor 
paid \c\\ dollars a month, generally cmi»loyed for a share of the crop; 
one-fourth of it is performed by whites. 

SidUran's Towtnhip (E. D. 105) : Elevated ridges and level land between 
'the streams. Soils, a fine sandy loam, gray and chocolate in color, and 
a red clay loam, resting on red clay subsoil. Growth, oak, liickory, ash, 
dogwood, poi)lar, walnut and elm, with abundance of cedar along tho 
Saluda river. Crops, five hundred to twelv(; liundred j)ounds seed cotton, 
ton bushels to thirty liUshelM corn, twenty bushels to thirty bushels bar- 
Icy, fifteen bushels to sixty bushels oats, and eight bushels to twenty-fivo 
bushels wheat to the acre. Land can be bought at five dollars to ten 
dollars an acre ; rents for one-fourth of the crop, or eight liundred jtounds 
lint cotton to tho plow; sometimes tho laborer lK)ards himself and pays 
one-half to tho land owner, who furnishes everything else. Gray and 
blue granite, tho latter used as mill rocks, are found. Gold, copper and 
lead are found, but not mined. Lime rock crops out on Reedy river, and 
below Garlington falls, on Reedy river, it is quarried for monuments and 
for lime burning ; soapstone of fine quality also occurs. The great falls 
on Saluda river, at the head of navigation, are seventy feet in two miles. 
Abundant water powers are also furnished by other falls on the river, by 
five falls on Reedy river, by falls on Rabnor creek. Very healthy. One- 
half the field work performed by whites. 

Scnjjk'touii Toumskip {E. D. 104): Undulating. Soil, gray, gravelly, 
sandy loam ; subsoil, clay. Growth, oak, hickory, maple, pine, cedar and 
walimt. Crops, six hundred pounds to twelve hundred pounds seed 
12 



178 THE PIKDMONT REGION. 

cotton, five bushels to thirty bushels corn per acre. Know of no land for 
sale ; rents for one-fourth of the crop. 

Newdeuuy County. 

Cromer Township {E.D. 112): Level and flat, rolling on the rivers. 
On the levels, fine, gray, sandy loam, six inches to eight inches to subsoil 
of Tvd clay. The rolling lands have a clay soil and subsoil ; sand and 
gravel miderlias the subsoil. Growth, oak, hickory, walnut, cedar and 
pine. Crops, one-half bale of cotton, ten bushels corn, twenty bushels 
oats, eighty bushels barley, nine bushels wheat, seven bushels rye per 
acre. About one-tenth of the land for sale for six dollars to eight dollars 
an acre, and one-half to rent for one-fourth of the crop. Varieties of 
granite, iron rock and soapstone occur. Gold and iron have been mined. 
Bermuda gra.s.s and clover do well, also crab grass and swamp gra.s.ses. 
Stock raising is found profitable. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day ; 
one-twentieth of it performed by whites. 

JIdlci-Touiiship {IC. D. 119): Lands elevated, level, along the streams, 
hilly. Soils, fine sandy loam, gray or whitish, eight inches to twelve 
inches to subsoil of fine, comjjact, red clay, free from grit. Growth, oak, 
hickory, short leaf pine, walnut, mulberry, ash and maple. Japan clover 
and Bermuda grass cover the land when left uncultivated, and the 
Egyptian or Means grass grows luxuriantly along the borders of streams, 
and on sandy bottoms. Land for sale in small tracts at eight dollars to ten 
dollars an acre; three-fourths of it for rent; if stock, stock feed, and im- 
plements arc furnished, the rent is one-half the crop ; for the land alone, 
it is four hundred pounds lint cotton for every twelve or fifteen acres, or 
one-third of all crops. Granite of the finest quality for building abounds. 
Splendid water powers on Broad river and Hellers creek. Little atten- 
tion paid to stock raising. AVages,seventy-five dollars to eighty-five dollars 
per annum, or fifty cents a day, with board. One-fifth to one-seventh of 
the field labor performed by whites. 

Jalapa Toiiiiship {E. D. 113) : Lands hilly and broken. Soil, red clay 
loam, eight inches to red clay subsoil, underlaid by red clay. Growth, 
oak and hickory. Three mill sitas. Wages, fifty cents a day with board. 
Very little white labor ; negro labor very unreliable, only willing to work 
about one-third of the time. 

Salvda Old Town Toicmhip {E. D. 115): Lands level or gently un- 
dulating, broken into abrupt slopes near the rivers and creeks. Soil, on 
the uplands, red clay loam and gray, sandy loam, subsoil of red — rarely 
of yellow — clay; a very fine and nearly white granite underlies the clay 
at the depth often to twenty feet. The. Saluda river bottom averages a 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 179 

mile in width, and is a very rich, alluvial soil. Growth, short leaf pine, 
oak, ash, hickory, walnut, poplar ; a considerable variety of native grasses 
afford good summer pastures, both on the uplands and in the bottoms, 
and cane for winter pasturage is abundant. Crops from one-third to one 
bale cotton, seven bushels to fifteen bushels corn on uplands, and twenty 
bushels to sixty bushels on bottoms, twenty bushels to fifty bushels oats, 
eight bushels to twenty-five bushels wheat per acre. One-fourth of the 
land for sale at six dollars to twelve dollars an acre ; one-half for rent for 
two to two and one-half bales of cotton for a one-horse farm of thirty 
acres or more. There is a mill-dam across Saluda river. Little attention 
is paid to stock. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day ; about one-sixth 
of it is performed by whites. Locality healthy. Traces of gold are found. 
Mayhinton Township {E. D. Ill): Bottoms level, uplands rolling, hilly 
and broken near the water courses. Soil, red clay und gray, sandy loam, 
underlaid by red and snufT-colored clay ; depth of soil, three inches to 
five inches; below the subsoil, granite, gneiss, hornblende and traprocks 
occur. Growth, hickory, several varieties of oaks, short leaf pine, cedar, 
walnut, dogwood, ash, poplar ; cane abundant in the bottoms. Crops, 
from four hundred pounds to twenty-nine hundred pounds seed cotton, 
from five bushels to one hundred bushels corn, from six bushels to forty 
bushels wheat, from twenty bushels to one hundred bushels oats an acre; 
clover has given four tons per acre. All for rent for from one hundred 
pounds to three hundred pounds seed cotton per acre ; not much land 
for sale ; price seven dollars to fifteen dollars per acre. There is excellent 
granite for building. Broad river is six hundred yards wide; depth, in 
shoals, four feet; velocity, in shoals, estimated at thirty miles an hour; 
fall, at Lyles ford, eighteen feet in a mile. Ennoree river eighty yards 
wide, six feet deep ; velocity, six miles in an hour. Wages of field labor 
fifty cents a day ; one-fourth performed by whites. Very healthy. 

Spartanburg County. 

Coivpens Toimvildp {E. D. 145): Rolling. Soil, coarse, gray, sandy 
loam, with subsoil of red clay, underlaid by mica slate. Growth, white 
and post oak, hickory and pine. Bottom lands very fertile. Gold is 
found, and there are several fine water powers on Pacolet river, notably 
at Clifton cotton factory. One-half of the labor is performed by whites. 

Glenn Springs Towmhip (E. D. 143) : Elevated, level. A dark gray, 
sandy soil, eight inches to ten inches to subsoil of red clay. Growth, oak, 
hickory, pine. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels to 
ten bushels corn, eight bushels to ten bushels wheat, twenty bushels to 
forty bushels oats per acre. Land sells from five dollars to twenty dollars 



180 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

per ncrc, and rents for one-third of the crop. There are several gold 
mines nnd nn asbestos mine. Glenn Springs has long been a health re- 
sort for tlioso using mineral waters. One-tliird of the labor is white. 

Chrrolrr. Toumshij) {E. D. 140): Elevated, rolling, with steep hills on 
the largo streams. Soil, a gray, sandy loam, with yellowish sandy sub- 
soil, and a red clay loam, with stiff, red clay subsoil, underlaid by a 
yellowish isinglass earth that crumbles on exposure, and enriches the 
soil when strewn on the surface. Growth, oak, hickory, and pine. Crops, 
seven hundred nnd fifty pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, eight 
bushels wheat, fifteen bushels oats per acre, a yield that is more than 
doubled by manuring and good culture. Lands sell for eight dollars to 
ten dollars an acre; rent for one-fourth of the crop, or, with stock and 
tools, for one-half. Bottom lands arc very fertile. Gold is found, and 
iron mines were formerly worked. There are several mineral springs. 
The north fork of the Pacolct furnishes great water power. All the cul- 
tivated grasses may be grown. Farm wages, fifty cents a day ; three- 
fourths j)erformed by whites. 

FairforcHt Totcnship {E. D. 142): Rolling; on the water courses, hilly 
and- broken. A gray, sandy loam, underlaid by a yellowish or dark red 
clay, is the prevailing soil ; there is some clay loam; ten to fifteen feet 
below the clay subsoil, rotten, and sometimes decomposed, granite and 
gneiss are found. Growth, oak and hickory, occasionally chestnut and 
walnut. Crops, four hundred pounds to eight hundred pounds seed 
cotton, ten bushels to fifteen bushels corn, five bushels to ten bushels wheat 
per acre, without fertilizei"s. Traces of gold. Valuable water powers on 
Tyger river. The ridge between Tyger and Fairforest rivers is well 
adapted for fruit growing, being seldom allected by frosts. Lands are 
advancing in price, selling from eight dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. 
Abotit one-half the farm labor performed by whites. 

Pacold Towufildp {E. D. 145): High, table land. Soil, a fine sand, 
twelve to fourteen inches to a light red clay subsoil, deepening in color 
as you descend; at twenty to twenty-eight feet, solid or disintegrated 
granite is met ; in the northwest, lands arc red clay. Lands sell from 
ten dollars to fifteen dollars an acre, and rent for one-third of the 
crop. There is a quarry of fine granite. Shoals on the Pacolet have a 
fall of twenty-two and one-half feet in one hundred yards, and a mile 
below, there is another fall of thirty-three feet. All garden vegetables, 
melons and grapes do well. Rich Hill, a high plateau, six miles in ex- 
tent, between the Pacolet and Fairforest rivers, is unequalled for the pro- 
duction of fruits of all kinds. Frosts have injured it but once in forty 
years. Farm wages, from eight dollars to ten dollars a month. Two- 
thirds of the field work done by whites. 



the piedmont region. 181 

Union County. ' 

Union Township {E. D. 150) : Lands broken, hilly. A light, ^avelly 
soil, resting on red clay subsoil, underlaid by granite rocks. Wat^r of 
the shallower wells impregnated with magnesia ; of deeper wells pene- 
trating the granite freestone. Growth, short leaf pine, oak, dogwood, 
sassafras, walnut, beech, poplar. Price of lands much advanced since 
passage of stock law ; sell for ten dollars to twenty dollars an acre. A 
. fine-grained, hard, durable, and easily split granite abundant. Water 
powers, a fall of twenty feet on Fairforest river, over granite rocks, and 
another of five and one-half feet ; several falls on Tyger river. Stock 
raising not considered profitable. No attention paid to anything but 
cotton. No prevailing disease. Very healthy. 

GowdeysvUle Township {E. D. 150) : Hilly, and a good deal broken. Pre- 
vailing soil red clay, with a red clay subsoil ; some sandy soil, with white 
clay subsoil. Underlying subsoil is granite, and some rotten rock, or 
white clay. Growth, short leaf pine, oak and hickory. Bermuda and 
Means grass thrive. Clover grows finely. Creek bottoms, rich, sandy and 
vegetable loam. Crops, seven hundred pounds seed cotton, corn, upland, 
twelve bushels to twenty-five bushels, and fifty bushels on bottoms per 
acre. Lands sell from five dollars to- fifteen dollars an acre ; rent for 
one-third of the crop. Several mill sites on creeks, and unlimited water 
power on Broad river. Stock might be profitably raised, but no attention 
is^paid to it. Field labor, ten dollars a month, and fifty cents a day. No 
local disease. Three-fifths of the field work performed by whites. Seve- 
ral gold and iron mines. 

Santce Towmliip (E. D. 140) : Lands generally level towards centre of 
township. Prevailing soil is a fine white sandy loam ; along Broad and 
Tyger rivers, red clay hills ; depth to subsoil of pipe clay six inches to 
twelve inches. Sand underlies the pipe clay. Growth, short leaf pine, 
oak and hickory. Average crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, ten 
bushels corn, and fifteen bushels oats per acre. Price of lands increased 
from two dollars and fifty cents to ten dollars per acre, since passage of 
stock law. Sandy lands considered the poorest before the use of commer- 
cial fertilizers, now bring the higliest prices. A neighbor made last year 
forty bales of cotton, a sufficiency of corn, and sold seed oats, on a two- 
horse farm. Not an isolated case. Know of no lands for sale. Most of 
it to rent for three four hundred and fifty pound bales of cotton for a 
one horse farm, which usually contains forty acres in cultivation and sixty 
acres in old field pastures and woodlands. Almost impossible to hire a hand 
for wages. Laborers prefer to work on shares or to rent. A mill site on 
Broad and also on Tyger rivers. No attention paid to stock. Day labor 



182 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

on farm, fifty cents a day, with rations; seventy-five cents without. Very 
henUliy. Don't know a doctor who lives by his profession in the county. 
One-fifth of the field labor performed by whites. 

Goshen ToiviisJiip {E. D. 155): Hilly and rolling. Soil, fine, dark gray, 
light sandy loam, two inches to four inches to subsoil of stiff red clay, or 
pipe clay, with rocks underlaid by whitish sand, hard and soft rocks, with 
some isinglass. Growth, different oaks, poplar, ash, walnut and pine. 
Crops, one-half bale of cotton, eight bushels to fifteen bushels corn, on 
uplands; twenty bushels to fifty bushels, on bottoms; ten bushels to 
eighty bushels oats, four bushels to ten bushels wheat per acre. Clover 
and the grasses do well, where attended to. Lands sell from five dollars 
to ten dollars an acre; rent for three bales of cotton for a one-horse farm. 
Farm hands paid eight dollars a month. No attention paid to stock 
raising, except some fine horses. A very small proportion of the labor 
is white. 

York County. 

Kinrj's Mountain Township {E. D. 170): Lands rolling or level, in places 
mountainous, elsewhere hilly. Soils, sandy, rocky gravelly or clay loam, 
with red or yellow clay subsoil. Growth, oak ; where cut down it is suc- 
ceeded by broom sedge and pine. Crops, twelve bushels corn, upland ; 
thirty bushels creek lx>ttom ; wheat, ten bushels to twenty bushels; oats, 
ten bushels per acre. The poorest soils yield cotton well, with aid of 
guano. Fine monumental granite, iron ores and barytes are found. 
Lands sell for from two dollars and fifty cents to ten dollars an acre. 
Healthy; negroes suffer from consumption. Wages of field labor, fifty 
cents a day, or ten dollars a month, with board ; one-half of it performed 
by native whites. 

Bctftcsda Township {E. D. 102): The hilly and rolling lands are red 
clay or sandy soils, with yellow clay subsoil. These are the best cotton 
lands. The level or flat lands are the blackjack lands. Black, rocky 
soils, with pipeclay subsoil, underlaid by a hard, whitish, gravelly sub- 
stance, ])roduco the small grains well, but cotton rusts and continues 
yellow or frcnches after a few years cultivation, unless stable manure is 
aj)plie(l. Lands soil from two dollars to twenty-live dollars an aero, and 
rent for eight hundred pounds of lint cotton for a ono-horso farm of 
twenty-five or thirty acres. 



CHAPTKR Vlir. 



THE ALPINE REGION. 



LOCATION. 



The Alpine Region of South Carolina occupies the extreme north- 
western border of the State. Commencing at King's mountain, in York 
county, it extends westward through Spartanburg, Greenville, Pickens and 
Oconee counties, widening in the three last named, until it embraces a 
tier of the most northern townships, two or three deep. This wedge- 
shaped area has a length of one hundred and fourteen miles, and a width 
varying from eight to twenty-one miles. 

THE PHYSICAL FEATURES 

of this region present a rolling table-land, broken and hilly on the mar- 
gin of the streams, but scarcely anywhere inaccessible to the plow. It 
has a general elevation above the sea level of 1,000 to 1,500 feet. The 
gently undulating surface extends to the mountains, whose rock-bound 
walls often rise suddenly to their greatest height. The southeastern face 
of King's mountain rises perpendicularly five hundred feet above the 
plain, and its northwestern slope descends gently towards the Blue Ridge 
motintains. Table Rock also rises eight hundred feet vertically, or a 
little overhanging above the southeastern terrace at its base, formed of 
the loose fragments that in the course of ag(!s have fallen from above. 
The steep jiscont of thcHo mountains from their South Carolina or south- 
eastern face, and their gradual slope on their northeastern face, and their 
gradual Hloj)e to the northwest, where the mountains of North Carolina 
rise ap[)arently from a level country, is the reverse of the prevailing rule 
on the Atlantic Hlo[)e, which is, that the short, steep sides face northwest, 
un<I the long, gentle slope.s face Houtheust, J.«i(!bor thinks that these 



184 THE ALPINE REGIOK. 

mountain clifTs indicate the occurrence hero, in the remote past, of a great 
fissure or crevasse in the earth's crust, a gigantic fadlt when the southern 
slopes fell down hundreds of feet and exposed the precipitous rock walls 
that now face the southeast. 

The boundary line of South Carolina reaches the most easterly chain 
of the Appalachian mountains, known here as the Saluda mountains, 
near the corner of Greenville and Spartanburg counties, and follows the 
summits of the ridge for fifty miles (thirty miles in an air line) until it 
intersects the old Clierokcc Indian boundary line. From this point the 
mountain chain, here called the Blue Ridge, curving lightly to the north, 
passes out of the State, and the boundary line pursues a more southerly 
and a straight course to where the east branch of the Chatuga river in- 
tersects the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude. The Chatuga, fiowing 
westward to its junction with the Tugaloo river, which in turn becomes 
the Savannah river, fiowing to tlie southeast, are the northwestern and 
western boundaries of the State. The mountain chain divides the waters 
of the State fiowing to the Atlantic- Ocean from those flowing northward, 
which eventually find issuance to the southwest through the Tennessee 
and Mississi})pi rivers into the Gulf of Mexico. Considering the water-shed 
of South Carolina alone, the culminating point whence the rivers of this 
section fiow, is to be found in the horse-shoe curve of the mountain chain 
north of the straight boundary line referred to as uniting the Chatuga 
and the Blue Kidge. Hence the numerous sources of the Keowee river, 
\\'hite Water, Toxaway, Jocassee and other creeks take their rise and flow 
nearly due south. The main stream of the Saluda sweeps away to the 
east, and the Cluitugu hurries westward. 

It wjus from it noted summit of this range (Whiteside) that Mr. James 
K. Calhoun observed, as early as 1825, that the character of the mountains 
change from an unbroken chain to i.solated masses towards the south. 
Such isolated masses form a striking feature of the mountains of South 
Carolina, and tlu-y mnko their apjiearance over a wide area of the State, 
extending west and east from Slump House mountain, near Walhalla, in 
Oconee county, pa.st Paris mountain, in Greenville, Gilkc's mountain, in 
Union, to King's mountain and Henry's Knob, in York. Southward 
they reach to Bird's mountain, in Laurens, Parson's mountain in Abbe- 
ville, and Rull's mountain on the Newberry and Lexington line. The 
narrow mountain ridge that divides the river system of the Mississippi 
from that of the Atlantic slope, and the interdigitation, as it were, of the 
sources of the Iliwassee and Tennessee with those of the Savannah, have 
long suggested to engineers the possibility of establishing an interflow 
between these watei*s. A canal, Mr. Calhoun says, across Rabun Gap 
would pour thirty-live miles of smooth water from the Little Tennessee 



THE ALPINE REGION. 185 

into the Tugaloo river, while the Chatuga, the Hiwassee, the Toxoway, 
and innumerable mountain streams of this well-watered region would 
serve as feeders to maintain the water supply in any desired quantity. In 
1873 water was drawn from Black creek, an affluent of the Tennessee, 
across the Gap, to Izell's mills, on Chicken creek, an aiilucnt of the 
Savannah. 

The elevation above the mean level of the. sea of the following points 
in western South Carolina were determined by the United States Coast 
Geodetic Survey: King's Mountain, 1,G92 feet; Paris Mountain (near 
Greenville), 2,054 feet; Cajsar's Head, 3,118 feet; Mt. Pinnacle (near 
Pickens, the highest point in South Carolina), 3,43G feet. 

The bracing and healthy climate of this region, its beautiful scenery, 
the bold mountain outlines, the rich luxuriance of every growth, no 
stunted plant on mountain side or summit, every part, even the crevasses 
of the rocks, covered with trees and shrubs of some kind, all full of life 
and vigor ; the clear, swift streams that everywhere leap in a succession 
of cascades from crag and cliff, and sparkle in their course along the 
narrow but fertile valleys, have made it for generations a health and 
pleasure resort during summer. 

THE GEOLOGICAL FEATURES 

of this region are very similar to those of the one lying immediately 
south of it. The prevailing rock is gneiss, sometimes changing into 
granite, of good building qualities, and sometimes slaty, furnisliing su- 
perior flagging stones, a remarkable locality of wliich occurs eight miles 
soutli of Pickens Court House, on the Greenville road. For the most 
part, the rock is found at a depth of thirty to flfty feet beneath tlie sur- 
face in a state of greater or less decomposition. Above the gneiss, whose 
out crops are much confined to the buds of streams, islands of mica slate, 
occupying the more elevated lands, are found. The largest of these iso- 
lated bodies extends for a considerable width along the ridges ul>ovc the 
Chatuga river. 

The proportion of mica slate is greater hero than elsewhere in the 
State. Between the mica slate and the gneiss, and cropping out almost 
everywhere around the edges of the first named rock, are extensive seams 
of hornblende rock, and its decomposition adds largely to the fertility, 
especially of the creek and river bottoms, of this region. Above tho mica 
slate, on the large body of that, rock on tho Chatuga, some talc slate is 
found. The last named slate underlies a considerable area of itacolu- 
mitic sandstone that, in turn, support several bodies of limestone rock. 
A number of limekilns have been in operation hero. 



186 THE ALPINE REGION. 

Of tho useful ores and minerals of this section, it may be further 
stated : 

Tlierc are numerous gold deposits, at some of which washings have 
been carried on with much profit. Vein mining, in spite of many 
promising indications, lias not been regularly undertaken. 

Indian and Revolutionary traditions toll of lead mines, which in former 
times furnished belligerents with an ample supply of this necessary 
metal. Unfortunately, these traditions have not preserved the dis- 
closure of their locality. At tho Cheoliee gold deposit mine, on the head- 
waters of Little river, in Oconee county, Liebcr examined a very prom- 
ising vein of argentiferous galena, which he thought might be profitably 
developed. 

Traces of copper were observed by Lieber on Tyger river, in Spartan- 
burg county, near the Galena mine above mentioned, and in some mill 
races in southern Pickens and Greenville. 

Grai>hito is found on Paris mountain, and also in Oconee county. 

Manganese and iron occur, but have not been explored. 

Valuable soapstonc quarries have been worked to a limited extent in 
Pickens. Large sheets of transparent mica have been found near Wal- 
lialhi, and aabestos of good quality is re])orted as occurring near Seneca 
City. 

THE SOILS. 

The soils aro similar to those found elsewhere in the State, which are 
produced by the decomposition of gneiss rock in situ. On the more level 
uplands, a gray, sandy loam, witli a red, and sometimes on the mica 
slates, with a yellowish white, clay, predominates. On the hillsides, a 
stiff, red clay soil prevails. In the bottoms, a still darker loam, more 
tlioroughly saturated witli lime and potash from tho decomposed horn- 
blende and mica slates, is found. Those bottom lands have long been 
highly esteemed as yielding abundant croi)8 of corn, the small grains, 
and tlio grasses. Little thought or attention was bestowed on the up- 
lands previous to the attempt so successfully made within the last few 
years to introduce upon them the culture of cotton. 

CLnL\TE. 

According to the physical charts of the ninth United States census, 
and the rain charts of the Smithsonian Institute, 2d Ed., 1877, this region 
has a mean annual temperature corresponding with that of Kansas or 
New Jersey. The more mountainous portions have, however, a mean 
annual temperature that corresponds with that of Montiina, or the lower 



THE ALPINE REGION. 



187 



region of the great lakes. The mean of the hottest week of 1872, taken 
at 4h. 35m. P. M., was 90° F. The mean of the coldest week of 1872-3, 
taken at 7h. 35m. A. M., was 25° F. 

The prevailing winds are from the southeast, and the mean velocity of 
the movement of the atmosphere is much below the average for the 
United States at large. In the frequency with which the region is 
traversed by storm areas of say fifty miles in diameter, it ranks with the 
lowest in the United States. With the more extensive region south of it, 
it is peculiarly exempt from destructive storms. 

Blessed with an unusual number of clear days and a large amount of 
sunshine, the fig tree thrives here without protection, at an elevation of 
fifteen hundred feet above the sea. " The climate is less subject to sudden 
changes than in the plain below. Vegetation is late, but when once fairly 
begun, is seldom destroyed by subsequent frosts. Neitlier are there any 
marks of trees being struck by lightning,* or blown up by storms." 
(David Ramsay, Hist, of S. C.) 

Tlio annual fall of water is over sixty inches, and this is, therefore, 
among the regions of heaviest precij)itation in tlio United States. For 
spring, it is over eighteen inclies, and for autumn, it is twelve inches, 
which are also the maximum in the United States. In winter, it is six- 
teen inches, which is less than the maximum, and in summer, it is four- 
teen inches, which places it third in a series of five, or just medium. 
Dewless nights rarely occur, and the luxuriant vegetation of this region 
does not in consequence sutler from the rigor of extreme droughts so fre- 
quent elsewhere. 

The following observations on the temperature of .springs in this region 
were made by Lieber : 



Locality. 


Time of 
Observation. 


Temperature. 




ATMOSIMIKKK.! WATRR. 


Poinsett Spring, in Greenville, 
near N. Carolina line. . . 

Sj)ring on Jones' Gap Road, 
near Turnpike gate. . . . 

Cold Spring, or Cuu.sar's Head. 

House Spring, Ca'sar's Head . 


7th June, 7i A. M. 

10th Juno, 2 P. M. 
29tii Juno, 9J A. M. 
29th June, lOJ A. M. 


72.050° 

75.74° 
80.00° 
78.80° 


50.80° 

57.50° 
55.40° 
57.50° 



*lt is a snyinjz in tljis rejjion that " to pick tho teeth with a splinter from a tree stnick 
by lightning. «vill cure tho toothache ;" the meaning being that Huch a splinter is not 
to be hud. 



1S8 THE ALPINE REGION. 



GROWTH. 

The prevailing growth is oak, chestnut, and short leaf pine. Proceed- 
ing toward the mountains, the following trees mark the ascent in tho 
order hero named : Rock chestnut, oak {qncrcus primus monticola), cucum- 
l>ur tree {mnfjnolia accuminafar), mountain laurel {rhododendron maximum), 
white pine {})inus strobns), hemlock or spruce pine {abics canadensis). The 
forest products are shingles, tan bark, and dogwood, with other hard 
woods, besides abundant timber for building "purposes. The Indians 
once gained their chief livelihood here by gathering and disposing of 
medicinal herbs, such as spigelia marylandica, ginseng and snake root, 
wliich are to be found in great abundance. 

STATISTICS. 

The Alpine region of South Carolina embraces an area of 1,250 square 
miles, and is, therefore, the smallest division of tho State here treated of. 
The })opulation numbers 34,40G, an increase since the census of 1870 of 
sixty-six per cent. This gives the density of the population as twenty- 
seven to tho square mile which is below the average of the State, and 
less than in other regions — the sand hills and lower pine belt alone 
excepted. Twenty-six per cent, of the population is colored. 

Eighty per cent, of the land is wood land and forest, sixteen per cent, 
is tilled, and four per cent, is in old fields. The arcxt of tilled land has 
more than doubled since 1870, being now 132,791 acres, and then, only 
G4,802 acres. This is 3.8 acres per capita of population, against 3.1 acres 
in 1870, showing that improvement has more than kept i)ace with the 
increase of the population, 

The number of farms is 4,G46, which gives an average of twenty-eight 
acres of improved land to the farm. Of this number, forty-three per 
cent, is under fifty acres, and may bo considered as in the hands of small 
farmers. Nevertheless, there are some large landholders in this region. 
For instance : Mr. James E. Calhoun owns a body of 100,000 acres* of 

*0n the marjiin of his plat of these lands, Mr. Calhoun remarks : " Well timbered, 
soil pood, scenery superb. It is so healthy that no physician ever lived in that part of 
the country. There are minerd 8prin;.xs. Cultivation is exchisively by white labor. 
It is a plateau witliin the ' thermal bell.' where fruit is never affected by frust Gold, 
iron, litnc, hydraulic cement and kaolin are known to bo abundant. Report adds 
silver, copper. lea<l and corundum. ThcJilue Rid;;e railroad runs twelve miles through 
it- In its lenirtli of twenty-two miles and width of fifteen miles, it would be difiic-ult 
to find a 8in;:le spot two miles distant from water powers, of which there are 
more than eighty miles in direct lino, and wnich, if developed, would be exempt from 



THE ALPINE REGION. ' 189 

land along the Chatuga river, in Oconee county. Of the fanns forty-five 
per cent, are rented, and of the rented farms seventy-four per cent, are 
under fifty acres— showing that the renters are farmers on a small scale. 
Of the fifty-five per cent, worked by their owners only fifteen per cent, 
are under fifty acres. Of bona fide small proprietors, if landholders of 
under fifty acres, who till their own land, may be termed such, the num- 
ber is small, being only seven per cent, of the total number of farm- 
holders. By far the larger number of farms are rented for a portion of 
the crop, very few being rented at a fixed money rental. For instance : 
in five adjacent townships in Greenville, where there are six. hundred 
and thirty-one farms rented, only one is reported as rented at a fixed 
money rental. 

Of the tilled land, 88,700 acres, or sixty-five per cent., is in grain of all 
kinds ; 25,740 acres, or twenty per cent., is in cotton ; and 18,285 acres, 
or fifteen per cent., in fallow, and all other crops, including gardens, 
orchards and vineyards, and a small area in tobacco. 

The average yield of grain is only a little over eight bushels to the 
acre, and does not express the capability of this section for the produc- 
tion of this article. Fields of corn on bottom lands averaging forty to 
sixty bushels an acre are not uncommon, and the minimum calculation 
of the crop for uplands without manure is ten to twelve bushels per acre, 
while twenty to thirty bushels are obtained by good culture. Kice has 
grown here, without any manure, over one hundred bushels to the acre, 
though very little of it is ])lantcd. The yield of grain per capita is 
twenty busliels, and is greater tlian elsewhere in the State, except in the 
Sand Hill region. 

The average yield of cotton to the square mile is 0.3 bales, an increase 
of over six hundred per cent, since 1870. This is more than upon the 
coast, in tlie lower pine belt, and in the sand hill region, but much less 
than elsewhere in the State. The average yield of lint per acre planted 
in cotton is one • hundred and forty -one pounds, which is sixty per cent, 
more than the yield on the coast, but less than elsewhere in the State. 
The yield per capita is one hundred and five pounds of lint against four- 
teen pounds in 1870. This is one hundred per cent, more than the 
yield on the coast, and seventy per cent, more than the extensive lower 

laxiition for ten ycare. Immigrants are excmj)! for five years. The northwestern 
States oii^'iit to be most urj^'cnt for an outlet to tlie ocean thronj,'li tlic Tennessee, 11 i- 
wuHsee, Tii!.'al()o and Savannah rivers. Besides bein;; tiie shortest and safest, and always 
available, it would brinj; tlietn directly in front of the inartsof tiie world ; whereas, by 
descending' the Mississippi, they are tiirown widely away, and, moreover, are made U.) 
encounter deadly malarial diseases every season, and yell')W fever at short intervals. 
The eastern cities should also advocate this outlet, since it would place the vast pro- 
ductions of the Northwest within easy grasp of their coast shiitping." 



190 THE ALPINE REGION. 

pine belt. Still it is not one-third of the yield in the remainder of the 
State. 

The work .-Htock number 5,798, against 4,096 in 1870. This is 4.1 to 
the square mile, the average for the Stat<} being 4.4. The ratio of work 
stock to the population is less than elsewhere in the upper country, but 
more tlian in the regions below the red hills. There are twenty-two acres 
of tilled land to the head of work stock, which is more than elsewhere in 
the State, except in the red hills and the mctamorphic region. 

Other live stock numbers GG.035, being more per square mile than else- 
wlicrc in the State, and more per capita of the population except only 
among the sand hills. 



LABOR AND SYSTEM OF FARMING. 

The fiirms are very rarely larger than can be worked by four horses. 
The landholdings average from one hundred and fifty to three hundred 
acres, including woodlands. The larger portion of the farm supplies are 
raised at homo, but near the towns, and along the Air-Line railroad sup- 
plies from the west are largely purchased, the system of credits and ad- 
vances to the smaller farmers prevails, absorbing with rents, not unfre- 
quently, seven-eighths of the entire crop. Most of the land is rented or 
worked on sluircs. The ca'^h rental varies from two dollars and fifty cents 
to four dollars an acre; the usual terms arc one-fourth the cotton and 
one-third of the grain; where stock and implements are furnished by 
tlio landlord, he gets one-half the crop. The average market value of 
lands is .stated at five dollars an acre ; improved lands sell at from six 
dollars to ten dollars an acre. About one-half the field laborers are ne- 
groes, and since attention has been given to cotton culture they arc on the 
increase. Wages are fifty cents a day ; six dollars to eight dollars a month, 
with board ; seventy-five dollars a year, with board. The condition of in- 
dustrious laborers is good. The number of negro ^aborers owning houses 
and land varies from one to five per cent, according to the locality. 



TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

One-horse plows arc generally used, very rarely two horses. The 
depth of the furrow on the land side varies from three to four inches. 
Subsoiling is not practiced. Occasionally lands lie fallow, and the result 
is beneficial if stock are not allowed to destroy the crop of grass and 
weeds. Cultivated fallows are unknown. There is no system in the ro- 



THE ALPINE REGION. 191 

tation of crops. After land has been planted two or three years in cotton 
it is planted one or two years in wheat, corn or oats ; the results of such 
a change are excellent, if stock is kept off the stubble. Fall plowing is 
little practiced ; it has been found of advantage where stubble, grass or 
weeds cover the land to turn them under at this time. The amount of 
land in old fields is not great. Such fields, after lying out eight or ten 
years, have been found to produce as well as over, and most of them have 
been brought into cultivation again. The washing of hillsides does not 
amount to a serious evil, and it is reported as easily prevented and effect- 
ually checked by hillside ditching when necessary. The use of commer- 
cial fertilizers has largely increased with the facility of obtaining them 
by railroad, and the practical demonstration of their value in the culture 
of cotton. Cotton seed is worth ton to fifteen cents a bushel ; little of it is 
sold. It is applied green and broad-cast as a manure for wheat, and com- 
posted with stable manure as a fertilizer for cotton. A portion of it is 
fed to stock. 

COTTON CULTURE 

was a leading industry in the upper counties of South Carolina previous 
to 182G. The crop raised was from one hundred and twenty pounds to 
two hundred pounds lint per acre in the four most northerly counties, 
and averaged one hundred and forty-five pounds. At that date, however, 
and for long afterwards, probably not an acre of cotton was planted in the 
region now'under consideration. The opening of the Air-Line railroad 
having reduced the cost of fertilizers, attention was drawn to the large 
bodies of gray sandy lands hitherto little considered, and experiments in 
cotton growing by their aid proved so successful that the cultnre was 
largely increased. It has extended over the table lands and even up the 
mountain slopes, and is now grown in every townstiip of the region except 
one, Chatuga township, in Oconee county, already referred to as the cul- 
minating point of the river system. It has boon found that wliile the 
.season is shorter, the stimulation of the growth by the use of fertilizers 
compensates for this. The same tillage as is given further .south ex- 
pended here in a shorter period of time has a like effect in pushing the 
plant to maturity. With slave labor this was inconvenient, if not im- 
practicable. With free labor it is, if anything, easier and cheaper to ac- 
comj)liHh thirty days work in three Jays than to do it in ten. It has been 
, further found thai the growtii of the plant is .steadier here; it does not suffer 
from those checks duringlongdewless intervals, which retard its progress in 
the iiottor and dryer sections. The claim is also made?, tliat better cotton is 
grown here tlian furtliorsouth. Experienced cotton buyers have longgivcn 



192 THE ALPINE REGION. 

preference to staples of both long and short cottons grown towards the 
northern limits respectively of their culture. It is said that the fibres 
are stronger and of more equal and uniform length, admirable qualities, 
which might naturally be expected from a short, steady and continuous 
growth. For all these reasons, together with the improvements in the 
selection of seed, by which the period of growth is lessened and an earlier 
and more simultaneous ripening of the fruit is obtained, it is expected 
that what lias been already done is only the commencement of a much 
wider extension towards the mountains of the growth of the cotton plant. 
No peculiarities of cotton culture arc to be noted in this region. Little 
or no previous preparation is given to the soil until it is thrown into 
ridges tliirty inches to four feet apart, according to the strength of the 
land, just before planting. The seed is planted from the 10th to the 20th 
of April, commencing on the same date as in the region below, but con- 
cluding earlier by ten to twenty days. About two bushels of seed are 
used to the acre, and it is, for the most part, sown by hand, the outlay of 
twelve dollars for a planter being generally considered too great for the 
advantage gained, especially by small renters, who hold their farms only 
for the crop season. The seed comes up in six to fifteen days. The 
variety preferred is some one of the cluster cottons, prolific bcarei"s, of 
early maturity. In two weeks after planting, the cotton is chopped out 
with a hoe to about .twelve inches apart, sometimes to only six inches, 
and on very strong land, intervals of eighteen inches between the plants 
may be left. If tlie .soil be well stirred with the plow, and kej)t clean in 
tiie drill with the hoc, tho cotton will have obtained a height of eight 
inches to eighteen inches by the 1st to the 10th July, when blossoms will 
appear. The first blooms arc now looked for the latter part of June, but 
until the last year or two, they were never expected before the 4th of 
July, an<l even that was thought early. Open bolls are .seen from tho 
*2")th of August to tho 1st of iScptember. Picking commences from tho 
lOtli to the l.')th September. Tho growing season ends with the first 
black frost, which occurs about tho 15th October to the 1st November. 
The crop is gathered by the loth to tho 31st December. The plant is 
considered most ]>ro(luetive when it attains the height of two feet. Fresh 
lan<ls yield seven hundri'd pounds to twelve hun<lred pounds of seed 
cotton. The same lands, after two to ten years culture without manure, 
yield six hundred pounds to four liundred j)Ounds seed cotton; with 
moderate manuring and fairly good oulturo, they improve. It is esti- 
mated that it requires here an average of twelve hundred and twenty-five 
pounds of seed cotton to produce a bale of four hundred pounds. 



THE ALPINE REGION. 193 



, DISEASES AND ENEMIES 

are restricted here almost exclusively to one — frost. Caterpillar is un- 
known. A little nist and shedding occur on ill-drained soils, but there 
is no general complaint regarding them. The vegetable enemies of the 
plant are crab grass, with now and then complaints of rag weed and May- 
pop vine. 

GINNING 

here differs in no regard from the accounts already given of it in the other 
regions. The weight aimed at for the bale is four hundred and fifty 
pounds to five hundred pounds, and the average obtained, from the state- 
ments made, is four hundred and eighty-three pounds. 

Farmers sell their cotton to the merchants at the nearest railroad sta- 
tion, without charges of any kind, and make no estimate as to the cost 
of sliipping and selling. 

The cost of production is estimated at eight cents to ten cents per 
pound. No itemized statement of the cost of culture could be obtainc<l 
from this region, and it probably differs in ho wise from that in other 
regions. 

Abstract of the reports of township correspondents for the Piedmont 
Region : 

Oconee County. 

Wafjnrr Toivmhip {E. D. 120): Lands hilly and rolling, embracing 
Stumj) House mountain, the slopes of which are very fertile; below the 
mountain there is much table or level land. The soils are, 1st, a gray, 
sandy soil, underlaid by stiff clay, with partially decomposed slates at a 
dci)th of fifty feet ; this soil is well adapted to cotton : 2d, a mulatto 
soil, producing tobacco well, the culture of which is found very re- 
munerative and is yearly increasing : 3d, black, loamy soils of creek and 
branch bottoms, very i)roductive in corn, oats and the grains. The 
growth is pine, oak, hickory, very large chestnut, and dogwood ; the last- 
named wood is being sawn into blocks for shuttles, and shipped north by 
the carload. One-half mile from Walhalla there is an inexhaustible 
quarry of very fine building granite ; very largo plates of mica are also 
found here. Numerous swift, clear streams afford abundant water powers 
not developed. Land is cheap, but is not priced by the aero. Stock 
13 



104 THE ALPIXE REGIOX. 

raising miglit be made profitable. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day, 
two-thirds of it performed by whites. There are no prevailing diseases. 

Keowcc Tomisliij) {E. D. 123): Southern portion nearly level, we.stern 
portion hilly ; Smclt/.cr's mountain in northeast corner. Soils chiefly 
gray, san<ly soils ; the bottoms of the Keowee river, averaging two 
hundred yards in width, and extending eighteen miles through tlie 
township, are very fertile; the subsoil is red, sometimes white clay, 
Growtli, pine, oak, ash, hickory, chestnut, beech, blackjack, dogwood. 
Crops, corn, thirty bushels per acre in bottoms, twelve bushels on uplands ; 
sweet and Irish potatoes, one hundred bushels i)er acre; tobacco docs 
well, is grown only for home use ; cotton was not planted before 1870 ; 
the average yield is six Imndred pounds seed cotton per acre. Improved 
lands, witli river or creek bottoms, would sell for ten dollars an acre; 
improved ujjlands at three dollars to five dollars an acre ; forest lands at 
two dollars ; a largo pino forest recently sold at less than one dollar per 
acre. Not more than one-tenth of the lands under cultivation; about 
one-third of the farming lands for rent, at from one-third to one-fourth 
the croj)s, or where stock and tools are furnished, at one-half. There are 
fourteen fine water powers in the township. There are four tanyards. 
Most of the farm lands, hitherto neglected, are well suited for cotton cul- 
ture, under the present method, with the us(! of fertilizers. 

!\ihid-i Tini'iislilp [K. J). 124): The Stump House mountj\in belt crosses 
the southern portion; on tlie north, along the Chatuga river, and on tho 
west along Tugaloo river, the river hills and dills make it mount^iinous; 
through llu' ceiiiro a belt three to four mil(*s wide of well-watered rolling 
land is found. The nunu'rous crri'eks and branches crossing it have bot- 
toms, llfly yards to two hundr('(l yards in width, of great fertility, yield- 
ing, with good culture, twenty-live bushels to eighty bushels of corn, and 
abundant grass crops. Fruits do well ; ai)ples, from the early June to 
the late winter })roduce well, gra{)es grow well also. The soil is mostly 
a sandy loam, with red, sometimes with yellow clay subsoil. Limestone 
i.'« found and there is a lime-kiln in operation. Soapstone of excellent 
quality occurs. Not more than one-twelfth to one-fifteenth of the land is 
under cultivation. There are numerous water-powers, there being on four 
streams twelve falls, varying from thirty feet to one hundred feet fall per- 
pendicular. There are indications of gold, silver and copper ores, but no 
regular mining is done. Lands .sell for fifty cents to ten dollars an acre. 
Parties elearing have the u.se of it free of charge for two to four years. 
Rent is one-third of the cro}), or one-half if stock and tools arc furnished. 
Fine stock ranges aro found among the mountains, the large droves of 
sheep, however, destroy the gniss for the cattle. 



the alpine region. 195 

Pickens County. 

Hurricane Township {E. D. 131) : Country for the most part broken and 
hilly. Soil, a light yellowish brown loam, three inches to five inches to 
a stiff red clay, lying on sandstone and gray rock. Growth, pine, oak, 
and hickory. The uplands yield ten to twenty bushels corn per acre. 
Within a few years the people have found out that they can raise cotton, 
the lands producing five hundred pounds to one thousand jx^unds seed 
cotton to the acre. Lands for Hale from two dollars to ten dollars an acre. 
There is considerable good bottom land on the streams. Four creeks 
afford good water-powers. There are no prevailing diseases. Nine-tenths 
of the field labor is performed by whites. 



CHAPTER IX. 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Between tlic years 181G nnd 182G, 81,71 2,G2G were expended by the State 
of Soutli Carolina in internal ini[)rovemcnt3. A larp;o portion of this 
amount M'a.H appropriated to building nine canab around the rapids of 
tljc Wateroe, the Catawba, the Congaree, the Broad and the Saluda rivers," 
with a view to the ini})rovement of their navigation. From time to 
time surveys of these streams, esi)ccialiy by engineer officers of the 
United States army, have been made with the same object in view. In 
the absence of anything like a general or detailed account of the water- 
power of the State, it was upon reports regarding these works that per- 
sons interested in the matter chiefly relied for information. (Juite re- 
cently, however, Gen, Francis A, Walker, Superintendent of the 10th 
United States Census, as a part of the census work, has had a survey of 
the watcr-j)()wer of the Southern Atlantic water-shed made by Mr. (leorgo 
F. Swain, S. B., Instructor in Civil Kngincering in the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, Boston, Mass. Mr. Swain's report, just published 
by the census oflicc, contains a large amount of new and very valuable 
information; so far as South Carolina is concerned, it is the first attempt 
to give a systematic account of its water-power. , In the endeavor hero 
made to condense a statement of the points of chief interest in this report 
relating to tliis State, the reader is informed that Mr. Swain's report is so 
closely written and so full of facts that it is not susceptible of such treat- 
ment satisfactorily, and those interested in the subject are referred to 
the rc])ort itself. 

Mr. Swain divides the Southern Atlantic water-shed into three belts, 
running in a nortlicastcrly direction, parallel for the most part with each 
other, and also with the sea coast on the soutiieast, and with the general 
trend of the Appalachian mountain chain-on the northwest. These are: 

I. The eastern belt, reaching inland from the coast one hundred to one 
liundred and forty miles, and formed by the slowly descending slope of 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 197 

the tertiary plain. In South Carolina the average elevation of the streamH 
at the upper edge of this belt above tide level is about seventy feet in an 
average distance, following the windings of the streams of about two hun- 
dred and fifteen miles ; this gives something like 0.3 foot fall per mile, 
and of course renders the streams of this section, as a rule, unavailable 
as motor i)Owers, although the smaller streams sometimes have such fall 
as to allow of their use for cotton gins, grist, and even for saw mills. For- 
merly along the coast of Carolina tidal water-power was utilized for rice 
mills, but this motor has been here superseded by steam. 

II. The middle belt comprises what has been described as the " Red 
Hill," "Sand Ilill " and " Piedmont" regions of South Carolina, with a 
portion of the upper pine belt, in all about 18,000 sqiiare miles. It has a 
general elevation above the sea level of al)out six hundred feet, and 
the average fall of the streams passing through it varies from two feet to 
seven feet i)er mile. Tiiis is the region of the great water-powers, and to 
it Mr. Swuin has devoted his chief attention, 

III. The western belt is among the mountains. In South Carolina it 
is dc-jcril)ed as the Alpine .region, and embraces about twelve hundred 
Hfjuaro miles. The streams here are numerous, and their fall is very great, 
but they are mucli inferior in volume to tliose of the middle belt, an<l 
coiiser[Uontly rank bulow it, as ad'ording water-i)0W''er of the largest 
cai)acity. 

The advantages offered by the water-power of South Carolina are much 
enhanced by topographical and climatic conditions prevailing here. 

The undulating plateau of the Piedmont region has a })ervious soil to 
an average depth of fifty feet or more, formed by the unusually <lecp dis- 
integration of the metamor[>hic ro(;kH, and prescsnting a mixture of .safid 
and clay, well adapted for the absortion of rain water. This pervious 
soil rests at the depth indicated on the impervious strata of rock, granite, 
and gneiss, or the various slates, which impede the deei>er jwrcolation of 
water. The streams have cut their channels down to these underlying 
beds of rock, and it is along their surface that constant supplies of water 
held in reserve by the permeable soils of their water-sheds are received, 
thus adding largely to the amount and the regularity of their flow. A 
similar condition obtains among the sand hills, where the i)orous sands, 
through the interstices of which the rain disappears almost as readily 
and rapidly as it does through the air, rest at a depth of one hundred 
feet to one hundred and fifty foot on impervious beds of kaolin clay. As 
a consequence the streams of the sand hill region lose little of the rain- 
fall through surface evaporation and maintain a flow hardly aflccted per- 
cei)tibly by unusual seasons of rain or drought, and Mr. Swain more than 
once expresses his astonishment at the horse-power furnished by streams 



198 WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Iiavin^ so small n drainage area. This result is likewise promoted by 
the extensive woodlands of tlio middle and western bolt, which occupy, 
accordin;^ to the census of 1880, something more tluin seventy-five per 
ceiit. of the surface. The larger streams of the Piedmont region, in ad- 
dition to their drainage area within the State, receive the rains from 
;j,Or)S sijuare miles of water-shed in North Carolina. The rocky beds of 
these streams allbrd everywhere good sites and permanent foundations 
for mill «lams, while the high angle at which they cross the ledges of rock 
increases the perpendicularity of the fall, and presents u clean smooth 
edge, adding to the facility with which the water-power is made available. 
Tlius, at Vanl'atton's shoals, on the Knoree river, so very even is tlie edge 
of the rock that a single plank bolted to it, forms a sufficient dam by which 
1,550 ]iorse-])Ower may be utilized. " The facilities for storing water are 
on the whole good." — Swai.ii. Besides the resources of the neighboring 
pine forests, building material is furnished everywhere in the excellent 
clay for brick-making that is found. In addition to these, the metamor- 
phic rocks laid bare on the banks of the streams furnish material for dams 
and Iniililings of the best quality. Besides soapstonc, gneiss, talc and 
jiiica slates, there are few localities where a fine-grained and easily split- 
ling granitic is not to be had. The last named rock extends even into the 
sand hill region, forming the .shoals and rapids in the streams there, and 
has been utili'/.ed in the structure of the large cotton mill at Graniteville 
on Horse creek. 

Speaking of the climate, Mr. James E. Calhoun writes: "Blessed with 
sunshine and showers throughout the year, there is just winter enough 
to keep tlie insects in check, while the i)omegranate and the fig do not 
require to be slieltcred. Destructive storms of wind, rain or hail never 
occur here. Living iminediatel on they l)anks of a river half a mile 
wide (Trotters's shoals, on the Savannah), I am never troubled with mos- 
quitoes. Nowhere can there be found a larger percentiige of the popula- 
tion of seventy years and upwards. I am an octogenarian, with the fresh 
vitality of twenty-five." Low water from snow-fiill or freezing, and fresh- 
ets from ice gorges are unknown here. It has been argued that in more 
braciTig climates, as in Maine, the operatives in factories can accomplish 
ten per cent, more work than in these warmer latitudes. It is possible that 
unacelimated Northern operatives might experience some such degree of 
languor here. Nevertheless there are few better workers than the Southern 
factory hand. The climate does disincline the Southern white to out-of- 
door employment, and, surrendering, in a large measure, farm labor to 
the colored race, they eagerly seek employment in factories. Thus it 
happens that factory hands are much more abundant than would be an- 
ticipated from the density of the population. Northern mill owners have 



WATER-POWERS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



199 



not been slow to express their high estimate of Southern help. Contrast 
with the negro element of the population cultivates a pride of race which 
inspires a higher tone and renders the white working class more reliable 
than it is usually found elsewhere. Labor unions and leagues are un- 
known, and there are those who maintain that this freedom from labor 
troubles, and the permanency and certainty they enjoy in their help 
more than compensates for some remotciiesH from railroad transportiition. 
Tlio expense saved in the item of heating adds largely to the economy of 
factories, and by rendering the conditions of life easier an<l healthier, it 
promotes the increase of an already very prolific population, which, if 
prevented from migrating and fostered by such capittil as would open up 
employment in manufactures, would respond readily to almost any de- 
mand made upon it. 

The average annual rainfall is stated at fifty-two ^nchcs, and it proba- 
bly exceeds ratlier than falls below this figure. Tiiis is from four inches 
to six inches more than in tlie same region in Virginia, North Carolina 
and Georgia. The following statement shows how it compares with the 
rainfall bf the New England an I Mi'ldle State-?, the mjan of observations 
mido at twenty-six stations on the principal rivers in those States being 
given : 





6 
•/; 

CO 


u 

CO 


H 

< 


H 


• 

< 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


Piedmont region of South Carolina.. 


12 


14 


10 


16 


52 


New England and Middle States 


11 


12 


10 


9 


42 



There are four chief river systems in South Carolina — the Pee Dee, 
the Suntee, the Edisto and the Savannah. The numerous salt water 
rivers, important as they are for purposes of communication along the 
coast, and even for a consfderable distance into the interior, are omitted, as 
tidal water-power is not to be considered. Such streams as flow through 
the level country, although they are sometimes of considerable length, with 
large drainage areas, and affording some water-power, as the Big and 
Little Saltkehatchie and others, are likewise omitted. The following 
table exhibits the leading features of these rivers. Tiio number of mills 
and the horse-power utilized are from the enumerator's returns for the 
10th United States Census; the estimate of drainage area, length and fall, 
are bj' Mr. Swain : 



200 



W'ATEU-POWKRS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Table, giving Names of Streams, NuviLer of Mills, Horse-Power Utilized and 
estimated Drainage Area, Length and Fall of the Rivers of South Carolina. 



NAME OF STREAM. 


W J. J 

a • o 


1^ 


u. 


ca — 


X 

'id 

CO 3. 
M 


PkB DeK bYHTKM. 

Great Pee Dee niui lesser tributaries (9,700 eq 

miles ill North Carolina) 

Wnpi'ntnnw 


17,000 
1,200 
2,000 
1500 
1,350 


159 
65 
ftU 


0.44 


62 
2 

211 
1-1 
26 


880 
22 


Litllo Poo Dec 







V43 


Black llivcr .■ ■•'•• 


232 


Lyuch'3 River 


240 




383 






Total ^ 


124 


1760 


Santee System. 


14,725 
5,225 

4 375 
7,905 

4,950 
730 
720 
475 

2 350 
38G 


184 
116 

76 
50 

H-5 
7(. 
3<i 
.50 

110 
60 


0.5 
1 to4J 

5.24 

1. 

3.9 

"4 toV"' 

7 
3 tu 6 




"Waterce and triI>iifarios 

Catawba and tributaries (1,725 eq. ra. dr. area 
ill North Carolina 


28 

40 

\:7 

38 
36 
52 
37 
10;-! 
66 


375 

825 


Congaree and tributaries 

Eroad and tributaries (1,400 sq. ni. dr. area in 

North Carolina... 

Enoree and tributaries (length in straight line).. 
Tyger River au<l tributaries •* '* " '' .. 
Pacolet and tributaries '' * '■ " .. 
Saluda and tributaries 


384 

640 
574 

809 
2.267 




1,330 


.. 




Total 


41:7 
95 

78 
8 


7,830 


Edisto System. 


1535 

11,000 
143 
650 
5:50 
241 
908 
870 
350 


60 

355 
20 


2 to 4 

4 to 2} 
20 


1,1 2G 


Savannah River Sy.ste.m. 

sq. rn dr. area iu Georgia) 

Horse Creek 


1.4.53 

1,«07 


Stevens Creek 




Koeky River 

Seiieea liiver and aflluentf* 


4.^ 

60 
49 
30 


"VVo'sj 

6} 


10 

7 

75 

28 

206 

124 
427 

95 
206 


252 

. T2I 
8h0 


Tiipaloo River — 


ol3 






Total 


4 806 


Recapitulation. 
Pee Dee systeni 


, 

1 





1.760 


Santeesysiem 

Edisto svstoin , 


7.830 
1.1^6 


Savannah system 







4,806 




1 
1 




Toal 


f-52 


15 522 



WATER-POWERS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



201 



The kind of mills and the amount of power employed by each may 
be summarized thus : 



KIND OF MILL 



Grist and flour mills 
Cotton factories . . . 

Saw mills 

Cotton gins 

Miscellaneous- . . . . 

Total 




The water-power that a stream will furnish is determined by its fall and 
its volume of water. The amount of fall is accurately determined by a 
carefully made • line of levels. The time allowed Mr. Swain to survey 
the large field allotted to him enabled him to visit in person only a few 
of the most important water-powers, and even in these instances the only 
instrument of measurement ho could use was a Locke pocket level, with 
which he says ho was in some cases " enabled to arrive at quite close aj)- 
proximation of the fall, while in othoi-s the results obtained are liable to 
large errors." To determine the volume of water in a stream is a much 
more difficult, tedious and delicate matter. Accurate gaugings of the 
stream are to be made, and these are to bo continued tli rough the different 
seasons of the year, and for a series of years, before the average amount 
of flow to bo relied on can bo stated. " In the al)senco of such a series of 
gaugings," Mr. Bwuin was forced, in order to arrive at any apprftxitnnto 
cstiniato of power, to adopt an entirely dillerent method. He points out 
tho uncertainty of this method, and is scrupulously careful that his errors, 
whatever they may be, shall always bo. on tho safe side — that is, bolf)W 
tiio mark, but never above it. Ilis method consists, hrst, in determining 
the drainage area of the dillbn^nt streams by geometrical measurement 
on tho best maps accessible to bin), and hero he naturally remarks on tho 
inaccuracy and lack of agreement among tho maps ; tho next was tho 
determination of tho average annual rainfall and the spring, summer, 



202 WATER-POWERS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

autumn and winter rainfall on each drainage basin. Hero, again, the 
number of years during which observations have been recorded, at least 
so far as South Carolina is concerned, leave much to be desired, espv.'cially 
in the rc,2;ions remote from the sea coast. Then comes the consideration 
of the very complex factors affecting the disposition of this rainfall, the 
proportion dissipated by evai)oration under the various and varying in- 
lluoncis of temperature, the huiiiidity of the atmosphere, the prevalence 
of winds, the permeability of the soil, and its protection by forests, and, 
la-tly, the residue remaining to bo' discharged by the streams. Now, it 
would seem that in these regards, the item of temperature only excepted, . 
the discharge of streams in the South should be greater than those of the 
North. The force of the wind is less. No large lake^ i)rosent broad sur- 
faces for evaporation There is no loss by evaporation from snow and 
ice during months of the year. The soil is deeper and more permeable, 
and its protection by forests must be as groat or greater. For the streams 
of the sand hill region Mr. Swain seems to allow some force to such con- 
siderations in placing the minimum How at one-third to one cubic 
foot per second for each stpiare mile of drainage area. For the 
other streams of. South Carolina he allows a less discharge, placing 
the mininuim flow at 0.13 to 0.23 cubic feet per square mile of 
drainage area, notwithstanding that the average minimum flow in 
ten New England rivers which he gives, is 0.2G cubic feet. Whenever 
Mr. Swain's estimates of fall or flow differ from those made by others, it 
will be found that Mr. Swain's is much below theirs. As an instance of 
h{»w much such under-cstimates may amount to, Mr. Swiiin himself points 
or.t that while his estimate of the mininuim flow on the Portman shoal, 
of Seneca river, is one hundred and eighty-nine cubic feet per secon<l, 
" it must be specially mentioned here that Maj. Lee, who is an engineer 
of eminence, long experience and well acquainte<l with the country, 
writes that 'one thousand cubic feet of water per second all the year 
round — two-thirds of the year double this flow — is to be had.' " But, 
however far short of the aggregate Mr. Swain's estimates of the water- 
)>ower may be, tiiere can bo no (juestion that, under the circumstances, 
he has accomplished a great deal, and, a.s a preliminary reconnoisance, his 
treatise is invaluable. 

Mr. Swain makes four estimates of tlic liorse-powcr at each locality ho 
mentions : 

I. The minimum, being the minimum flow during a period not exceed- 
ing a few days at intervals of several years. 

II. The minimum low seasons. This occurs for a period of three to 
six weeks, when the stream is at its lowest. In most years the average 
flow during the season of least flow will exceed this amount, and a small 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 203 

storage of water will render it available at all times. This flow is ascer- 
tained by taking twenty-eight per cent, of the rainfall as the amount dis- 
chargoj by the streams. This would be sometliing like fourteen and u 
half inches for the middle and western water-power regions of South Car- 
olina, but Mr. Swain limits it not to exceed ten inches to thirteen inches. 

III. Maximum with storage. This is the same as tlie last, assuming 
that by storage (ponds and dams) a discharge of two inclios to four inches 
on the water-shed can be added tlieroto, less for the larger and more for 
the smaller areas. 

IV. Low season flow dry years. Witliout storage this flow may be de- 
pended on. In ordinary yeai-s a quarter more ma^' be calculated on. 

The following summary of the water-power of South Carolina, so far 
as investigated by Mr. Swain, tlirough corrcsi)ondence or by i)ersonal ex- 
amination, will not be liable to any charge of being an over-estimate. 



204 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Suminarii of Powers on Rivers in S'juth Carolina, Examined by G. F. Sivain 
IS. B.f Special Agent Tenth U. S. Census. 



















^ 






s 

i| 

1= 
It 


Fall. 


Flow 
Pkk 

Seco.nd. 


HORSr-POWKR 
AVAILADLIC. 


STREAM AND LOCALITY. 




a 


E 
s 
S 

£ 


S 

9 

E 


E 

s 
E 

i 


if 


-i\ s 
ill ^s 


WnUreo lUvcr, Wntt-rce Cniml (n) 


4.Tfl 
' .V) 

■S.UiMI 


Feet 

1)2 
40 
IK 

l7;i 

40 


6 m. 


WW 

2M 



711.1 

7^10 

IS 

Z'l 

ft'» 


3fiOO 

1^ 

2IHHI 

2,0' »0 

100 

200 

:no 

(1,200 


6.700 

A.2 

07 

I.'.,0 H' 

3,400 

2 

2s 

r.i. 

4,200 
00 

"a.'i.vi 

7IHI 
1,3'.0 
J.' .VI 

(IVI 
2000 

1M>I 

\.>vn) 

1,'KN) 
2S<I 
112 
ll'IO 

4S 
2.1O 

H- 

20 
'ft 
201 
70 
72 

:'« 

HI 
42o 

76 

I.OOO 

2100 

l.l.-Hl 
hOo 
ttO 
120 

■"■ico 

7 
31 
40 
2J 

~\fi"d\ 

5,700 

ftOo 

H2'i 

I.INUI 

1.000 



2.") 


7.7.50 
4 1 

;i 2 
21 000 

4,(1.>I 

.1 

4..". 

OS 

5,ftO) 


20.700 8R50 

M< 


LILII.) •• ) W 


.... 




1 4.9 

'iiniin 


CdtJiwIm Itlvcr, 'irt'at FiiIIn('') 


H ni. 


.'.7.<I0 


Oliiwliii lllvi-r. I.iunlsfcird (tl) 


isr, 
mi 

7,:fUU 


i;(0(Hi! a'sio 


Triliuiiirli's oi C'atiiwbu lUvor: Uocky Creek 

h'lKliliiK Creek 

SUKiir Creek 





lS2i Xi 

2ix 5.8 

37 .ft s.u 

I'-.'HJO 0.4ua 

l:).2i 


Congiireo Klver nt Coluinbln 


22 i^ 

ai 





TrlbuUirlcNofOoiiKitrco RIvor: ConuurooCr'k ),.. 

lU'tlHimkCr'kr*'' 

Uroftil lUvor, Jhilt Kliilcof/) 


US 


12 


(iVtii'm" 
i.ii.!o ru 
:t.*)0 It 
1.11 in. 
3.20 in. 

2 III. 
I,7.'i III. 

i III. 




"*(I2 
42 
Ik'i 
in 

10 
10 
10 

4r, 

"jf? 

U2 
■■■(12 

■■■70 
02 

"m 

'■■70 
22 

..." 

Irt) 
1. 

20 


"4(»li 

;ioo 
2.V1 

IIH) 
loo 

ino 
'.m 

■■ai) 

420 

■■•iii 

400 
2.>»y> 

■4.76 
Ift-* 

WT) 

■fC"> 
13.-) 
lO"* 


40 
•i'mt 
1.77.'i 

l.:ty. 

K)l 

:mioo 

2:rx) 

2,:i.') > 

I2.fl 

;io> 

111 

4.0 

'1 

21HI 
42 
2.-. 
.•12 
272 
1«0 
UO 

lOM 
UUO 

■■ Tlii 

i.-.rr, 

2,71 PO 

1 .'yo 

10.10 

It) 
151 

-■2i'6 
"2 Kin 

K.tOO 

W>|. 

l.iryi 

1.5001 

2 2"., 

12' 
3.2 






7'lrii 
2(100 




NliKiy-Nlin) ImIiuiiI Mlioiil 

Kiiiiey Sill ml 


4MVt 

4,IHII 

;t,i;Ki 


17.2 

0.0 

IHll 

1 1 ;vi 

ti.7 ) 
47.11 

10 

III 
70 
12 

r>, 
w 

\H 

21 

10 

H't 
20 
II 
11 
.Tl 


3,2.51) 
1 inn 


SiimiMcr .siKiiil 

J.ylr'M SliDiiI 


ft.OHl' 2,(XlJ) 
•i.>oo 1.000 

2.'>.Vi 1.000 
11,000 4//I0 


Nenl'M Shoiil 


•J.V.n 
2 UN) 
1.:m 
1 .•i,-,7 
I.IIJ 
1,112 

L'li 

i.'.ti 
III 
III 
III 

:iiih 

271 
112 


Minty-Mno iMliiiid Mliotil 

(•licriiUi'c SIiimIh (A.) 

HiiniillMlii.nl 


Otn«l 2.700 
(IIHiO, 2.700 
1.000! I,4.V) 


(Im>Iiiii Hliniil 

Kiu»rec Ulver, Vnriu.r.i Mill 


i.i.vi; 400 

72.V 17(1 


Mimiiliilii .*^liiml (t) 

I.i< iiliiTWiioit slnml 




2 10"! ftoo 
.lio, Ti 


Villi I'lithin .slioiil 

IN'lliiiiii .MiinuiiK-iiii'lnK Cum puny., 
Iliieiiii VIslii Kaclory 


!!!!!!!!!!! 


l.\'<ih .";io 
:iio| 61 
2001 Ml 


'J"i'Mi:ui''M l''iiil 

TyRcr Ulvcr, illirK I'uctory 


so fi. 
y* ni. 


2001 :a> 

1 .IINIj •{•JO 


N.>.liiii.« 


27 1 200 


(Ht"K Mill.. 

( iivciiiiiirM 


iliJO ydM 


2SS 

"Tm 
■■'(iiVi 


206 
OU 


Drilll'H Mill 

llMllllitfer'N 


ft* 


.-12 


I'riinv >li(i.il 


li in. 


42 


• 'rn\vl(>iil.svUI<'( /) 


40 


Mnrpli v'h, l-'nlr l-'oroMl Creek 


1K>I 

;w(i 

S2 

2.avi 
2 ;ivi 
2.:»i"ii 

IHMI 

r>.'A 

:wi 
mi 


27 .1 Ml vdn. 


i:U 


PhcoU'I River, 'rriiuiiirsimMN (^-i 


OO 




2.s(io: 700 


lllMllc.lll.'SlKliilH t) 

UlftlcliiliMftI 

HitliKla River, Sulmlu Im-txry (o) 

Miiulli of Sjilti.lii 


I'l 

:r. 

10 

;ii 
'-V 
ft 

10 
21 

..." 

10 

f: 

01 
IS 

30 




1 If) 

2101 20'J 

3NNi! 1r.n0 


•iy, in. 

I m. 

\Si III. 

■■■■75 ft. 
m'ydn. 

"of-o'fi! 

7 m 
U m. 
1 in 

5 m. 


s.ioo ;i.200 


I>n>!nT'H Cuiiiil (;<) 

({n-iu Kii'l-i <fj) 


4.100, 1.7.V1 
4.()<Hil 1.20>l 


Mllllnx Mill 


.-HiO 00 


I'.rulirM Mill ir) 


000 175 


Pfizer MiiiiiifiictiirliDtCompiiDy («». 

PleiliiKiiU MiiiiuriiclurliiK Co. it) 

•Reedy River 


'■■j<70 ■■"iti 

4..1 111 


Tiiiiil>Iliii{ sliimiR (lyi 


70 5:1 


Fork Slmjil (r> 




!.....„. 


Reedy HI ver .MunnfiiflurlngCo. (jy).. 
♦ 'iiniperiliiWM MIHm 


K7 


2110' 89 
710' 


tCo.x A Miiiklcy'M iMictory («) 




! 12 


BAVHnriHli River. Hliie .Iitrkei sliuiil 


■JMH 


5.>Wi 2..^V) 


TrotleiN Shoal 

<;herokeo shnal 

Oreifsr's sliiiiil 


•.'.'ifll 
2 2 2 
2.MNI 
207.S 
l,!KM 

nu 

IHI 
HJ.5 
7T.5 
710 
IIS 
140 


217.V1I OIRi 
2.lO'il 'JO 
.VJiHI l.'ii 


Mlil.lleti.irn shoal 

MeDaiijerM Shoal 

TrlbutRrles Savatinah Ulvor:Lltlle River .. . 


4.(NiO| 1.7i» 

0,100 2,ii00 

/>l 14 




""i't 
17 
W 
00 




IS 3 6 


TuRnloo River, llaitonN Slioul 


1 in. 

2 m. 


9.KI Mil 

.i7.-> 4.10 

1.20i' ,7„f, 

102 lU 


4.0-1.-, \j2<7 


(iuevfM Shoal „ 

ScnecR River. Portinnii h simal 


1 (LV) .-.3) 
.5(12.1 10.50 


Twelve .MlleCreok 


I»2I Irti 


LUlle Ulver 




2 3 


3 1 


10.1 


4.0 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 205 

. (n) A canot here built by the State, HIS-28, Is Ave miles long and has flfty-two feet Cili, with 
six locks, ond would be available In ullllzlnj; the entire power. 

(6) Streams In sand hills of Kershiiw county. The horse power given per foot fall. That 
given here may be doubled by storing the water at night. Other trlbuUirles to the Wateree fur- 
nish gfKxl powers, concerning which no detailed Information could be obtained. 

(c) Three state canals here: 1st, Lower canal, one mile long, with three locks. The total 
smonnt of water could be utilized through If. 2(1. Middle canal, three miles long, having three 
flights of lotkM, viz., four locks thirty-two feet lift, four locks thlrty-sIx feet llfi, three lockn 
twenty-seven leet lift, another lock above, nine feet lift, and guard lock. In all, thirteen locks, 
one hniidied and four feet lit. At any and all the throe flights, the facilities for using a large 
power are very great; building room ample. 

The upper caiiHl Is the property of Mrs. .S, A. Roylston, of WInnsboro, B.C. It Isoneand 
Uirce-fourllis miles long, on the west side of Catiiwba river, and enters Fishing creek at a point 
about live tnlles from Fort Liiwn, on the Chester and Cheraw railroad. The tolal fall Is fifty-one 
feet. Tliire are two flights of locks; ilie lower one has four locks, thirty-three ft-et lift ; the upper 
hns two locks, fifteen feet lift. These works are well built of cutslone laid in Cfment are In 
good prescrviillon, and were cohsiriictod by the Htate at a cost of about $1'X),'kx). There are four 
factory sites, with ample building room. The flrst site hasa fallof twenty-four and twenty-one- 
one-linndredttiH feet; the second, of thirty feet; the third, of thirty-eight feet; the fourth, of 
thirty-three feet. Ornnlto of the best quality Is at hand. The available power Is estimated 
atflfiecn thousund liorKC-power, 

(d) State canal hero, two miles loni?. <lam, guard look, and four other locks of thirty-five feet 
lift; nliuiidaiit luilldlng room, no liability tooviMflow, 

(e) Hand hill sirciinis of Lexington, 'J'lios(t of Ulcliland not ejtnmlncd, 

(/) The Ht.alo of South (!ar<illini Is now eni;ag(!(l In developing the power In Uroad river, from 
Hull Sluice shoal, by building a dam at that point, with a canal two and sevn-clghtlis miles 
long, oxten<llng to Oervals street In the city of (/')hiinbla. The works are being built flrst-clasti 
In every respecl. with dlmeiiMlons sulllclont to give four hundred and fifty-three hc)rMe pr>weni of 
water for eiicli foot fall. The total power developjtl will be, on the average fall, about lU.OX) horse 
powers of water. 

The Hiiluda and Uroad rivors unite opposite the city of Columbia, Thexo streams, near their 
OondiieMce, have, In ordinary low water, a How with sullh^lent fall to yield 4't,f)0i) liorNe-powcru of 
Wilier If jM'op^'rly devnioiped, 'J'liey tahit tlitir rlnn In the lllu" llldgti iii'iiiiitaliiH, H'twliig through, 
111 their iMiprr CDurso, a woixh'd eoiiniry, glvln/ tliein a wry nnlfcn'm Mow of wal<M',aiid siiir<irliii( 
but llttlif from hluh water, and thitt butof short duration. This magnineent powir lias surround' 
lugs adapting It to rnanufiicturing piir))oM*>i4 e(jnal to any locality In the Mouth ; a healthy rllmalo, 
an abundance of the raw jnalerlal, railroad facilities In every direction, with good sites for 
bulldlngw, and ollnir desirable features, (.MaJ. Thos, It. Lee, Kiiglneer f.'olumbla canal, i 

((/) stiito canal here, 7,Htlll feet long with guard lock and six other locks of flrst-elaix cut stone 
iniisonry, cost *;i.'UI,(X)(), lO^ilmate of cost to put gates, hjcks and masonry In goo<l onlor, |.{,7tfi. 
Used III is-iU, 

(A) Above Is site of abandoned works of Magnetle Iron Ore fJompany. Three linndrnd horso 
power olilaliicd, with siirplns of water all the lime from fall of ten feet, A fall «>f slxieoti feot !■ 
available; banks very favorable for building. 

(f) Abiivo .Mountain Shoal are Kilgore's, Yarborough's, Flemmlng'n and WofTitrd'n nhoalii, 
having avuilalile falls. 

(J) South Tycer river, drainage area one hunrlrod and eight H«iuaro miles; furnishes two to 
teven horse-|><)wer per foot fall, and has several available fulls, 

(Ar) Above are lirown's mill, fourteen feet fall; llammett's mill, ten feot fall; Crocker'n, 
Thompsoii'M fonis, shoiils and other rapids. 

(I) Above Is Lindner shoal, eight feet fall; North and South Pacolct forks, with eighty square 
miles dralnaue area ; each have numerous fulls of twelve feet to thirty-four feet. 

(a) Uciow (ilendale, on Hainr>son's fork, Is a full of flfteen feet— ninety horse-power; above are 
several good shoalH, Tlilckelty creek, one huiulred square miles drainage area; Bullock's and 
King's creeks, seventy- two square mlli-s drainage area, and Bnirdo creek, one hundred and seven - 
ty-i wo square miloidraltnige area, empty Into Uroad river. Bufl'alo crock lias considerable fall, 
with five and r>iic-hall t<i llltoen horse-power per fool fall, 

(o) There Is here a State canal two and one-half miles long flvo locks, thirty-four feet llflj 
might be repaired, and would rentier available double the present fall, 

(;>)'''<taie canal here, two and ono-hulf miles long, with four looks, twenty-one feet lift. 
Between this p. lot and the Newberry ami Ijcxlir^ton lino are seven lall-i, viz. : Wise's ferry, 
seventeen leet; Hunter's ri;rry, six fei-l; SnelUrove's Isla.id, nine feet ; -M.vnnlng Ulind. flfteen 
feot; HI in ms ferry, fifteen feet. Above, In .NovlM-rry and ElgedolJ, are MoNary's mill, eleven 
feet; I'c kin's ford, ten fo(!l; riouknlght's mllt.sl.x foot, 

(rj) Mills gives this fall as seventy-six feet. 

(r) Above are Harper's shoids, eight feet: Kay's and Qambrcll's shoals. Poor's and Cox's mills. 



200 WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

eight feet; HfttnlUon'H mIiouI, ton feet; H'llivnd'H nIiohI, fifteen feel lo three hundred yard*, one 
aiidont'-quiirtiT iiillcH from r-illroiid; Uliickl)urir« IkUiiJ mUouI, to-i feet; Tripp'ii ahuiil, Rlxteeu 
feel. 

(j») Above, Allen's shoal, fDurteoii foci fill In two hundred and fifty yardn; mny b3 Increased 
to 18 fctt. 

(0 AWovo aro Dliis^lnifxme's, H.irrlHoti'H, Kurrln'n and other shoals, all about six miles from 
Orccnvlllo. 

(«') Above Is Ccdiir falls, tweiUy-ono feet. 

(z» Above arc IfarrlNDMH iiml U )iiir'M mills, ton feet fall each; Log shonl, fourteen feet fall; 
Ashmore'K mill, ton fool full, and I/liidormun's shoal. 

(.»/) .loiics'H ))ai)Hr nUU, olovim and ono-liulf feet fill, fifty horso-pnwor; Parkin's mill, eleven 
feet fall ; tJroon'N sluml ; Siiwmlll nhoal. nine foot fill. 

(t) Trlliiilary to Koody river arc Laurol crook and Koarburn creok, with a ijood fall of twenty, 
six foi't at Oooditlon'M mill, and anothor of foiirtoori foot ai KiillMr's factory, 

(•i Twolvo .\tl|o <'i-ook, trlbiit'iry of tlio Hiiluda. In Lo.xInKlot) comit.v, has n dralnaee area of 
njn'-ly-throo .x>inaro nilloH. niid five liirMe-powor por foot tall at low walor. Hoveral lalN on It are 
from novon fool t« twolvo fool, and rnlulu, In InorouM-d to iwonly foot or thirty fool. Ollior trlbu- 
tan OS :>ro, l.ltllo .H iliiiliv rlviT, dr ihiln,' iwoluindcod and iilin'ty-Hovon Minuircf mllos In Kdnollold ; 
Hush rivor, one hnndrod and fivo Hijuaro mllui In Nowborry; LUilo rlvor, two hitndiud aiid 
iwouly vijuaro mllos. 

(t/ North Fork Hilftda, dralnlnv: rlfty-slx mm irn inllos. h is a pTpomllcular fall of two to 
throe huudrod fool over ii kiioNm lol^o.and anolhor not •|iillo so hli(h, .Mltdlo H'oik drains 
liriy-Nix siinar<< lullos. Houlli l-'ork drulns N«vonty-cl,(hl squiru riUlos; on Itlltok shmil has nine 
loot, and an unnsod sho.il, twi'lru fool fidl. A mill slxloon mllos from Urounvlllo has oUhlcon fool 
fi*ll. All the head waters abound In cataracts, some sovonil hundred foot, almo«t verllc »1. 

The tributaries iind afllucnts of tlio Siivunnah rivor not enumerated 
.'ibovo nro in the sand liill re^jion — the Upper and Lower Three Runs, 
Hollow cvi\'k and Horse ereek, all ('onsiderablo streann. On Horso 
creek 1,S07 hor.se-i)Ower liave been utilized, and there i.s a large amount, 
,say one-third, still unemployed. The streams named should furnish at 
least as much as this one, which would give about 10,000 additional 
horse-power available in this section alone. Above the fall line Big Stevens 
creek is a large stream, and so are Big and Little Generostee creeks. 
Tugaloo river has for its tributaries Big Beaver Dam, Choestoe and 
Cliauga creeks. The Chatauga river has Brasstown, Whetstone and 
other considerable tributaries, scarcely any spot in its drainage basin 
))('ing two miles from a watcr-j>owcr. Seneca river has Deep, Eighteen- 
Mile, Twenty-three Mile, Twenty-six Mile and Conner's creeks, all lorgo 
streams, with abundant fall. The Keowee river has Toxaway, Big Es- 
tatoe and .Whitewater creeks, the latter with one fall of six hundred feet 
in three hundred yards. Tliis whole region abounds in streams of clear 
water flowing over rock, having numerous cataracts and fed by an annual 
rainfall of more than sixty inches. 

In the above statement the available water-power examined is estimated 
at something over 300,000 horse-power. Of this amount about 4,000 
liorse-power only arc employed by all kinds of mills, which is only a 
little more than one per cent. The returns of the census enumerators, 
however, above given, show that altogether more than 15,000 horse-power 
are actually employed by mills in this region. Now, it is more likely 
that Mr. Swain would pass over without examination such water-powers 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 207 

as were not utilized than such as were, and the total may be safely in- 
creased in the proportion in which ho has done this, which would be to 
.multiply the above total by four. So that, without furtlier allowance for 
his low estimates or for the improvement that art might effect by dams 
and canals, there can be no question that from the lower lino of liill 
country northward in South Carolina there is more than a million of 
horse-power in water-powers, varying in size from thirty to thirty, thousand 
horse-power, easily and cheaply available under condition peculiarly ad- 
vantageous, not counting the i)re-jenco of the large amount of raw ma- 
terial in the Hhai)e of cotton to be manufactured. 

A million of horsc-i)ower is about eighty per cent, of all the water- 
powers now in use in mamifacturing throughout the United States. It 
is about seven times the amount of water-power now em[>loyed in the 
United States in the mnnufaciluro of cotton goods, and nearly four times 
the steam and water-power together so einploy(!d. It issunici<!nt to move 
all the cotton factories, grist and flour mills and saw mills now worked 
by water throughout the entire country. If such a power were used in 
manufacturing cotton goods it would call for 000,000 operatives; in 
grinding flour and grist, 75,000 ; in sawing lumber, over 200,000. It 
appears, therefore, that the supply, for some time to come, must bo in 
excess of any demand likely to be made on it. If, however, the j)resent 
rate of increase in the employment of water-power in South Carolina 
should continue, the time when all this power might be utilized is not so 
indefinitely remote as might at fir.st sight be thought. The amount of 
water-power employed in manufacturing in South Carolina was thirty- 
threo per cent, greater in 1880 than it was in 1870. At this rate about two 
hundred and twenty years would elapse before all this power would be 
required. Just at the present time, however, the rate of increase is much 
greater than this. By the census of 1 880, only 2,308, H. P. water-power Wiis 
employed in the manufacture of cotton goods. By an enumeration, liow- 
ever, made by the State Department of Agriculture, in November, 1882, 
it was ascertained that 4,113, II. P. water-power were thus employed, an 
increase of seventy-one j)er cent, in a little over two years, or ten times 
greater than the rate of increase shown between the 9th and 10th 
United States Census. Up to this date this rate of increase is maintained, 
and may bo .said to be accelerated, rather than diminished. How long it 
will contimie, and what will limit it, can not now, with any certainty, be 
estimated. The increase in the employment of steam-power in South 
Carolina, as given in the 0th and 10th Census, is much greater than that 
of water-power, and amounts to one hundred and sixty-four per cent. Of 
the total power used in manufacturing in South Carolina, in 1870, 69.02 per 
cent, was water, the balance being steam, but in 1880 this ratio is much 



208 WATER-POWERS OF BOUTII CAROLINA. 

reduced, and water gives only 53.03 per cent, of the total power employed. 
Tliis tendency of supplanting tlio usoof water by steam prevails through- 
out the United States, with tlio exception of five only of the newer and 
n^uoter .Sliites and territories. For the whole country the percentage of 
stc.ini in the total power used has risen, since 1870, from fifty-one to sixty- 
four j)er cent. 

Under tlic United States tariff protecting manufactures, no pressing 
noi'.os-^ity luH h^ion felt for attention to economy in the matter of motive 
powers. The presi<nt attitude of the ])uhlie mind seems to indicMito llnit 
tliis sUite of tilings will not obtain much longer, and the co^t of motive 
powers of dillerent kin<ls and in dilferent localities nmst become a ques- 
tion of much consequence. The following statement exhibits the cost of 
water and steam powers at several well-known manufacturing points: 

Annual Rent or Edimated Cost of One Horse- Power. 

WATKR-rOWER. STEAM-POWER. 

Lawrence, Mass $14 12 SG4 00 to 874 00 

Dayton, Ohio 38 00 33 00 

IJirmingliam " 20 00 

Colioes, New York 20 00 

Turner's Falls, Mass 10 00 

Augusta, Georgia 5 50 

It is estimated that if the State rents the water it is now developing at 
Columbia at five dollars per annum for one liorse-power, that it will ob- 
tain a liand'^oino revenue from the labor and material expended. 

At seven per cent, on the cost of dams and canals for the water-power 
utilized and available in South Carolina, the following is a statement of 
the cost of a horse-power per annum at several factories in this State: 

Langley 82 10 

Graniteville 5 81 

Vauclu.se ' 7 00 

No. l.Camperdown 43 

Glendalc 39 

Saluda Factory 28 

Average for the whole, one dollar and seventy cents per annum per 
liorse-powcr. 



OKEAPTKH X. 



A LIST OF THE VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF 
SOUTH CAROLINA.* 



BY FREDERICK W. TRUE, 
CURATOR IN THE U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



SUB-KINGDOM VERTEBRATA. THE VERTEBRATES. 
CLASS MAMMALIA. MAMMALS. 

A class of hair-clad vertebrates, possessing a four-celled heart, dis- 
charging warm, red blood, which contains both white and red cor- 
puscles. Skull with two condyles. Limbs never less than a single pair, 
nevermore than two jmirs. Symmetry of the two sides of the body com- 
plete. Young from a minute e<:!;^, brought forth alive, and nourished 
by a secretion (milk), from modified glands of the skin. 

*Tliis li8t is Ijasod, in jiart, iiixm diita fnriiisliod by Dr. G. E. Manipanlt, of the 
CliarleKtnn MuHeuin. The literature relating: to the vertebrate f:nina of the Somliern 
States has likewis^e been carefully exainiiied. That the list may not be n merely nom- 
inal one, the mark of interro;:ation lias been placed Ijefurc the names of those spciea 
whose ran^'c is supposed to extend over fi'onth Carolina, but whuse occurrence in the 
State lias not been recorded. An exception is ma<le, however, in the case of species 
known to occur in both North Carolina and (Jeor<iiii. These are included without 
question. A comparison with the list published by Prof. (Jibbes, in 1H47, is almost im- 
Ijrarticable on account of the many chai pes which huvo occurred in the nonienclaturo 
and dctermi!)ati<in of sjiecics, residtiuj: from the i)rogress of the study of vertebrate 
zoology since that time. F. W. Thi'K, 

14 



'210 VEltTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLIKA. 

A grouj) of aniinnls representing the higliest phases of the devolop- 
meiit of life. To man, the highest exponent of the class, the less 
])L-rfec-te(l species stand in the most important relations, hoth as being, in 
a sense, liis progenitoi's, and as furnishing him with those things which 
are (piite inilispen^^able to liis sustenance and advancement. A immber 
of species iiavo existed in a state of domestication from time immemorial. 

Compared witii lower grouj)s, the class is a small one, altliougli 
having no inconsiderable nund^n* of species. About tliree liundred spe- 
cies iidiabit North America. 



SUB-CLASS MOXODELPHIA. 

Mammals, whose young are of considerable size and almost perfect 
develoi)mcnt at birtli. The anterior portion of the brain, or cerebrum, 
much overlaps the posterior j)ortion, or cerebellum (super-order E(hi- 
vaJiiJin), or leaves the latter considerably exposed (super-order lucJu- 
cnbHin). 



SUPER-ORDER EDUCABILIA. 



ORDER CARNIVORA. CARNIVOROUS MAMMALS. 

Flcsh-eatiiig mammals, having both fore and hind feet well devel- 
oi>ed ; in one sub-order, rbinipcdia or Seals, for aquatic progression; 
m others, for terrestrial progression. The thumb or pollex of the fore 
limb is never opposable to the fingers, as in man. Teeth of three 
sorts, molars, canines and incisors. 

It is .somewhat diflicult to deline this order in a manner intelligible to 
all. since the distinctions are mostly of an anatomical nature. Two of its 
representatives, however, the house cat, Fdh <I<jrncxtlca,an(\ the dog, Canis 
fiiiKllinrls, are familiar to every one. The Carnivores furnish but little 
food sniijfly for man, but their tluck fur.s enable him to withstand the 
rigors of winter. In the tropics, where one l»ranch of the order, thai of 
the cats, riNiches its highest development, they are decidedly more 
harmful than useful to man. 



VERTEDRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 211 



FELID^E. 



WILDCAT. Lynx rufVis (GnlilenstiUlt), Rafineaqne. 
PUMA or PANTHER.* Fells concolor, Linm.'-. 



CANIDyE. 

WHITE- AND-GRAY WOLF. Canis lupus, Linnt'-; griseo-albus. 

RED FOX. Vulpes fulvua, Dcsm.arcst. 

GR.\Y FOX. Urocyon virginianus, (Sihrebor) Gray. 



MUSTELIDyE. 

BROWN MINK. Putorius vison, (.'^rhrcber) Gapp. 
ERMINE; STO.VT. Putorius erminea, (Linm') Griffith. 
AMERICAN OTTER. Lutra canadensis, (Tnrton) F. Cuvior. 
COMMON SKUNK. Mephitis mephitica, (Sh.-.w) Bainl. 
LITTLE STRIPED SKUNK. Mephitis putorius, (LinnC-) Coues-t 



PROCYONIDyE. 
RACCOON. Procyon lotor, (Linno) Stnrr. 

URSID.E. 
BLACK BEAR Ursufl americanua, Pallas. 



PHOCID/E. 
COMMON SEALt Phoca ritullna, Linm'. 



* 



•Probably extinct in South Cnrulinn. 

tlncludod upon the nutljority of Ciit<'Hby w interpreted by Couch, 
JA peal waH ran^lit in tlie Imrbor of ClmrlcMton In 18o2. The Hpcciinen l» now in tlio 
mnpcntn of the Colicgo of Charloston.— U. K. M. 



212 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER UNGULATA. HOOFED MAMMALS. 

Herbivorous, terrestrial mammals, possessing three sorts of teeth, the 
pormanent series of which is preceded by a set of milk teeth. Fingers 
and toes encased in liorny coverings or hoofs, and never prehensile. 
One sub-grouj) with horns or antlers, and more or less complex stomachs 
(ArtiodoHi/li) — deer, antelope, swine, &c. ; another with neither (Ar/Mor/w- 
tyli) — horses, tapirs, etc. 

Tiie most useful of mammalian orders, including the majority of domes- 
ticated animals, and furnisliing the greatest proportion of the most valu- 
able animal ])roducts employed in the arts and for consumption. 

The order is not abundantly represented in North America, the num- 
ber of recognized species being about fifteen. 

CERVIDiE. 

VIROINLV DEER. Cariacus virginianus (Boddaert), Gray. 

"WAPITI; ELK. Cervus canadensis, Erxlel)en. (Extim-t) 

BISON; BUFFALO. Bison americanus, (Gmelin) Smith. (Extinct.)* 



ORDER CETE. WHALES. 

An order of aquatic mammals, devoid of hind limbs, but possessing 
fore limb*», modified into paddles, the fingers being furnished with an 
unusual number of bones, and enveloped in a common integument, 
t^kin without hair; teeth, when i)resent (porpoises, sperm whales, etc.), 
conical and not preceded by milk teeth ; absent in .somo .speeios (baleen 
whales), which are furnished, instead, witli horny ])lates. 

The whales arc, perhaps, the least known of nuimmals. The number 
of species is still unsettled, and the habits and migrations of some are yet 
cntirelv unknown. 



*Mr. Vini-eiit killed the Uxst elk known of in .South Carolina, in Fairfield 
oo-nty. Tlic followintr statement rc;:ardinp the last buffalo known on the .Atlantic 
slope is by Col. Chas. C. Jones, Jr., of Aujrusta, Ua. : 

" I have seen tho skull of a buffalo, with tlie horns still attached, in pood stale of 
preservation, which w:u< ploughed up in a field in Brocks county, Geor>:ia ; and the 
lather of Mr. Jaiiios Ilaniilton Couper, of .St. Simon's island, shot a wild buffalo early 
in the present century, near the head waters of Turtle river, not very far from Bruns- 
wick, Georgia. The swamp is known to this day as Buffalo swamp. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 213 

The majority of toothed whales subsist upon fish and cuttlefish, while the 
whalebone whales devour immense quantities of small organisms, prin- 
cipally crustaceans, which they strain out from the water taken into the 
mouth, by means of their baleen plates. 

The whale fishery, once a most extensive industry, has shrunken to 
comparatively small proportions, principally on account of the disuse of 
whale oil as a burning fluid. 



BALiENIDiE. 
lilGHT WHALE* Eubalaena clsarctica. Cope. 

ZIPHIIDiE. 
BOTTLE-NOSED WHALE.* Hyperoodon semyunctus, Cope. 

DELPHINIDiE. 
PORPOLSE. ?Phocsenabrachycion, Cope. 

SUPER-ORDER INEDUCABILIA. 

ORDER CHEIROPTERA. BATS. 

An order of mammals at once distinguishable from all otiiers by 
the great modification of the anterior limbs for purposes of flight. Tlie 
fingers are much elongated, devoid of nails except in one family, and 
connected with each other and the body by an extremely thin skin. 
Thumb abortive, and furnished with a strong hook or nail. Teeth of 
three sorts, encased in enamel. Young suckled by pectoral mammae. 

The bats form a group of moderate size, and are distributed througli- 
out the globe. They are eminently fitted for atrial progression, but walk 
very awkwardly and with much difficulty. They are active only during 
the dark hours, remaining, during the day, in secluded places, suspended 

* Specimens of both tliOHC CetacoanH have been civiipht in Cliarleston harbor, and 
their Hkeletons are in the nmseuin of the College of Charleston. — G, E. M, 



214 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Ity tlic liiiul feet, wliich arcfuniished with strong, acutely-pointed cluws. 
The majority cat insects and worms, but a few are fruit eaters. They 
iire most abundant in tropical countries. North American species, about 
twenty-five. . . 

NOCTILIONIDyE. 

LAKGE-NOSED BAT. Nyctinomus brasiliensis, Geoffroy. 

• 

VESPERTILIONID.E. 

TWILIfiMT liAT. Nycticejus crepuscularis, LeConte. 

i:i:i)l!AT. Atalapha noveboracensis, (Krxichcn) Potere, 

noAIJY HAT. Atalapha cinerea, (Hi'iiuvois) Pctorfl. 

r'.VKoLINA r..VT. Vosporugo serotinus, (SchrulxT) Keys, and Bios. ; fuflcus. 

(JKOlKil.VN BAT. Vespenigo goorgianus, {V. Cuvlor) pobson. 

MTTI-K nUOWN BAT. Vespertilio 8ubulatus, Sny. 

.^II.VKKY-IIAIKEI) BAT. Scotophllus uoctivagans, LeConto. 

BI.UNT-NOSEI) BAT. *Vosportilio lucifugus, LcConto* 

r.Kt-KABvKn B.AT. Plecotus macrotus. LcConto. 



ORDER INSECTIVORA. INSECT EATERS. 

A ;:roup of small mammals, possessing many of the characteristics of 
the bats, but having both fore and hind limbs adapted for walking. The 
two bones of the fore-arm are separate. The mammae arc inguinal. 

This order, of wliieh tlie common mole forms a well-known example, is 
composed mo.stly of burrowing animals, which feed upon insects and live 
ji secluded life. Few or none are of economical value, and the moles, at 
least, prove obnoxious to tlie farmer l)y injuring his pasture land. 



SORICTD.E. 

MASKED SHREW. Sorex personatus, Geoflroy. 
CAKOLINA SHREW. Blarina brevicaudata, (Say). Baird. 



*V':nprrt!!lo vinjlninniis, Aixdnhon and Bachinan, a species of uncertain identity, is 
iiulinK'd by GiVtbcs in tlic South Carolina fauna " V. nigrescent, Bachraan," also given 
]>y Gilibos. I have been unable to lind a description of. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 215 



TALPID.E. 

COMMON MOLK. Scalops aquaticus, (Llnn6) Fi-chcr. 
STAR-NOSED MOLE. Oondylura crlstata, (LInno) Dcsmarcst, (G.) 



ORDER GLIRES. RODENTS. 

A large order of mammals, at once distinguishable from all other pla- 
cental mammals by the form of incisor teeth, which are bent into an arc of 
greater or less magnitude, ])OS,sos8 a chisel or gouge-like edge, and grow- 
perpetually from a soft pulp. Canine teeth are wanting; the feet are 
suited for walking and leaping. 

The _s])ecies of ro<len(s are more numerous than those of all other 
orders of mammals combined. They are distril)uted tliroiighout llic 
world. Some, as the squirrels and chipmunks, arc adapted for arboreal 
life, while others, as the marmots, live in the open prairies. The com- 
mon rat has l)een introduced everywhere where commerce has pene- 
trated, 

.The rodents are of comparatively little commercial value, although 
some families, as the beavers, furnish beautiful furs, and others, as tlie 
squirrels and hares, may supply some considerable amount of palatable 
food. On the other hand, many members of the family Muruhi; or rats, 
are injurious to grain and other products of husbandry.* 



SCIURID^E. 

? EASTERN CHICK ADKE. Scuirus hud3onius..Pi\lIafl ; hudsonlus. 
SOUTHERN FOX SQUIUUEL. Sciunis niger, I.inno ; niger. 

? NORTHERN GRAY S(iUIRREL. Sciurus carolinensis, Giuelin ; leucotls. 
SOUTHERN (iRAY SQUIRREL. Sciurus carolineflsis, Gmelin ; caroUnensIs. 
FLYING SQUIRREL. Sciuropterus volucella, (Pallus) GcjiT. ; volucella, 
CHIPMUNK ; STRIPED .SQUIRREL. Tamlas striatus, (Li..ni:>) BuinL 
WOODCHUCK ; GROUND HOG, Arctomys monax, (Linne) Schreber, 

. *The Jiiinpiiv^ Mouse, Z'lpiut hiuhon'tu^, (Ziinin.) Coiics, representing the family Za/io- 
didiv, is incliKJcd by (iibbes in the fauna of South Carolina, but apparently without 
reason. 



210 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



MURID^E. 

BROWN RAT. Mus decumanus. rallart. (Introduced.; 
lU.ACIC RAT. Mus rattus, LInno. (Introduced.) 
COMMON MOUSi:. Mus muBCulus, I.iniu'. (Introduced.) 
MUSK RAT. Fiber zibothlcus, (I.lnnc') C'livior. 
I'INK MOUSE. Arvicola pinetorum, ( LoConte) A. and D. 
COMMON MKADOW MOUSK. Arvicola riparlus, Ord. 
11 \RV1-:ST MOUSK. Ochotodon humilis, (And. and IJacli.) Wag. 
REO MOUSE. Hesperomys aureolus, (And. and Bach.) Wag. 
COTTON MOUSE. Hesperomys gossypinus, LoConto. 
(tRAY-BELLIED MOUSE. Hesperomys leucopus. Wagner. 
RICE-FIlsI.l) MOUSE. Hesperomys palustris, (Harlan) Wagner. 
FLORIDA OR WOOD RAT. Neotoma floridana, Say and Ord. 
COTTON RAT. Sigmodon hispidus, Say and Ord. 

CASTORID.E. 
AMERICAN BEAVER. Castor fiber, Lin m'. (Extinct.) 

LEPORID.E. 

GR.\Y RABBIT. Lepus sylvaticus, Bachman ; sylvaticus. 
MARSH HARE. Lepus palustris, Bachman. 



SUB-CLASS DIDELPHlX. 

A sub-class of mammals distinguished from the preceding by the fact 
that the young are borii in an incompletely developed condition, and 
are protected in a pouch on the abdomen of the mother, where they are 
retained for several month's, being nourished by the milk secreted 
by the mammae therein contained. The sub-class contains but a single 
order, tlie ^[al'supalia. 

The mai'iupiali vary v.ny mui-!i in si;'..\ an! are mo:tly confmed to 
Australasia. A single family, the DlddpJiidx, or opossums, inhabits 
America, and is peculiar to our continent. 

DIDELPHID.E. 
OPOSSUM. Didelphys virginiaaa, Shaw. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 217 



CLASS AVES. BIRDS. 

A class of oviparous, wann-bloodcd, air-breathing vertebrates, having 
tho ttutorior limbs greatly modified for flight. Hind limbs always 
present. Exoskeleton in tho form of feathers. Teeth in existing species 
absent. In certain extinct forms, Odontorniths, teeth arc present. 

Tho birds form a remarkably eompaet (ilass of animals. They have 
attracted more attention on account of their beauty and prevailing harm- 
'lossncss than, perhaps, any gl'oup of animals, and vio with the mammals 
in the degree of their usefulness to man. 

No corner of the globe is without representatives of this group. 
About nine hundred and twenty-four species and sub-species are North 
American. Many orders, such as the ostriches, are not represented in 
our country. 



ORDER PASSERES. PASSERINE BIRDS. 

Birds having four toes fitted for perching, but never versatile, i. e., ca- 
l)able of being turned laterally from one position to another. Hind toe 
on a level with the others, and always with a claw as long or longer than 
that of the middle toe. Tail-feathers twelve, primaries (the stiff feathers 
inserted from the bend of the wing to the tip, and usually ten in num- 
ber), nine or ten. Sternum uniform in pattern in the various species. 

This group of birds is the most numerous of all in species. The 
musical capabilities are developed in a high degree, and throughout 
their structure they dispiiy "the highest grade of development and the 
most complex organization of the class." — (Coues), Their relations to 
tiie success of agriculture are varied, some families being granivorous, 
and doing much damage to corn and grain, others being insectivorous, 
and hence of importance in reducing tho abundance of noxious insects. 
Recognized Nortii American species, about three hundred and forty. 



TURDID/E. 

WOOD TIIRU.SH. Hylocichla musteUna, (Gmel.) Baird. 
WILSON'S THUUSII. Hylocichla fuscescens, (Stoph.) Baird. 
?(jUn:Y-ClIKEKKI) THUUSII. HylocicWa aliclae, Haird. 
OLIVE-BACKED TlllUJSIi. Hylocichla ustulata swainaoni, (Cuban.) Ridgw. 



21S VERTEnRATK ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

IIKRMIT TIIUUSII. Hylocichla unalascae pallaai, (dibania) Ritlgwfiy. 
AMKIIICAN liOBIN. Merula migratoria, (LlniK-) Sw. ftiid Rich. 
MOCKING BIliD. Mimus polyglottus, (Linno) Boie. 

CAT-BIHI). ' Galeoscoptes carolinensls, (Liniu') Cnbnn. 

BKOWN TIIKUSII UK TIIKASIIKK. Harporhynchus ruf\i8, (Llnn<5) Cabau. 



SAXICOLID.E. 

BLUE-BIRD. Sialiasialis, (Llnne) lIuMoman. 

SYLVIID.E. 

BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER, OR FLYCATCHER. PoUoptila caerulea, 

(Linne) Sclater. 
RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET, OR WREN. Regulus calendula, (Linnj) 

Lichtt'Jistein. 
GOLDEN-CRESTED KINGLET. Regidus satrapa, Licht. 

PARID.E. 

TUFTED TIT.MOU.se. Lophopliaiies bicolor, (Linnj) Bonaparte. 
BLACK-CAPPED CHICK EDEE. OR TITMOUSE. Parus atricaplllus, Uiini. 
CAROLINA TITMOUSE, OR CHICKADEIC. Parus caroliaensis, Audubon. 

• SITTID/E. 

WHITE-BELLIED NUTH.VTCH. Sitta carolinensls, Gmelin. 
? RED-BELLIED NUTH.\TCII. Sitta canadensis, Lmni. 
BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH. Sitta pusilla, Latham. 

CERTHIID.E. 
BROWN CREEPER. CartWa famlliaris maxicana, (Gloger) Ricl;,'\vny. 

TROGLODYTID.E. 

CAROLINA WREN. Thryothorus ludovicianus. (Gm.) Bonaparte. 
BEWICK'S WHEN. Thryomanes bewicki, (And.) BairJ. 
HOUSE WREN. Troglodytes aedon, Vicillot. 



VERTEBRATI! ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 210 

LONG-UILLED MARSH WREN. Tehnatodytes palustrls, (Wilson) Bainl. 
SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN, Cistothoms steUaris, (Lij:lit.) Acb. 
WINTER WREN.' Anorthura troglodytes hyemalis, (Vioillot) Cones. • 



MOTACILLIDyE. 
AMERICAN TITLARK. Anthus ludoviclanus, (Gin.) Lichtenstein. 

MNIOTILTIDiE. 

BLACK-AND-WHITE CREEPER. Mniotllta varia, (Linn^ Vicillof. 
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. Protonotaria citrea, (Bodd.) Baird. 
SWAINSON'S WARBLER. Helonaea swainsoni, Audubon. 
WORM-EATING WARBLER. Helminthothenis vermivorus, (Cm.) Salvin t<: 

Godnmn. 
BACHMAN'S WARBLER. Helmlnthopliaga bachmani, (Aud.) Cabjiiiis. 
BLUE-WINGED YELLOW WARBLER. Helminthophaga pinus, (Linne) Baird. 
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. Helminthophaga chrysoptera, (Linne) Baird. 
NASHVILLE WARBLER. Helminthophaga ruflcapiUa, (Wil.s.) Baird. 
? ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER. Helminthophaga celata, (Say) Baird 
TENNESSEE WARBLKR. Helminthophaga peregrlna, (Wilson) Baird. 
BLUE YELLOW-BACKED WARBl.ER. Pamla americana, (Linnt^) Bonaparte. 
CAPE MAY WARBLER. Perissoglossa tigrina, (Gmelin) Baird. 
SUMMl'.R YELLOW BIRD; YELLOW WARBLER. Dendroeca astiva, (Gm.) 

Baird. 
BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER. Dendroeca casnilescens, (Linne) Baird. 
YELLOW-RUMP WARBLER. Dendroeca coronata, (Linnc) Gray. 
BLACK-AND-YELLOW WARBLER. Dendroeca maculo-sa, (Gmelin) Baird. 
BLUE WARBLER ; CERULEAN WARBLKR. Dendroeca canilea, ( Wils.) Baird. 
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. Dendroeca pennsylvanica, (Linne) Baird. 
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. Dendroeca castanea, (Wilson) Baird. 
BLACK-POLL WARBLER. Dendroeca striata, (Forst.) Baird. 
BLACKBURNLVN WARBLER. Dendroeca blackbumiae, (Gm.) Baird. 
YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER. Dendroeca dominica, (Linne) Baird. 
BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. Dendroeca virens, (Gmelin) Baird. 
PINE-CREEPING WARBLER. Dendroeca pinus, (Wilson) Baird. 
YELLOW RED-POLL WARBLER. Dendroeca palmarum hypochrysea, Ri.l;;- 

way. 
PRAIRIE WARBLER. Dendroeca discolor, (Vieillot) Baird. 
WATER THRUSH. Slums naevius, (Bodd.) Couo.s. 
GOLDEN-CROWNED THRUSH. Siurus auricapillus, (Linne) Swains. 
■ LARGE-BILLED WATER THRUSH. Siurus motaclUa, (Vieillot) Coucs. 



220 VnnTEllRATE animals of south CAROLINA. 

( ONXECTICUT WAKHLER. Oporomls agillfl, (Wilson) Balrd. 
KKNTUCKY WARBLER. Oporornis fonnosa, (Wilson) Baircl. 
MOTMININO WARHLER. ,GeotMypl3 Philadelphia, (Wilson) Baird. 
MARYLAND YELLOW-TIIROAT. Geothlypis trichas, (Linn<5) Cabania. 
YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. Icteria virens, (Linn*:') Baird. 
IHODED WARDLER. Myiodioctes mitrata. (Gniel.) Audubon. 
BLVCk CAPPED YELLOW WARI5LER. Myiodioctes pusillus, (Wils.) Bp. 
? S^L\LL-liEADED FLY-CATCIIER Myiodioctes minuta, (Wile.) Baird, 
CANADIAN FLY-CATCIIING WARBLER; CANADA FLY-CATCIIEK. Myio- 
dioctes canadensis, (Liniie) Audubon. 
AMERICAN RED.START. Setophaga ruticilla, (Linn(5) Swainson. , 



VIREONID/E. 

RED-EYED VIREO; RED EYED FLY-CATCIIER. Vireosylvia oUvacea, 
? PHILADELPHIA VIREO. Vireosylvia philadelphica, Cassin. 
WARHLING VIREO. Vireosylvia gUva, (Vieill.) Cassin. 

(Lin no) Bon. 
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO; YELLOW-THROATED FLY-CATCHER. Lani- 

vireo fiavifrons, (Vieillot) Baird. 
BLUE-HEADED VIREO OR FLY-CATCHER; SOLITARY VIREO. Lanivireo 

solitarius, (Vicillot) Baird. 
WHITE-EYED VIREO. Vireo noveboracensls, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 



LANIID/E. 

LO{iGERHEAD SHRIKE. Lanius ludovicianus, Linn<5. 
? (iREAT NORTHERN SHRIKE. Lanius boreaUs, Vieillot. 

AMPELIDyE. 
CEDAR WAX-WING ; CEDAR BIRD. Ampslls cedrorum, (Vlelllol) Balrd. 

IIIRUXDINID.E. 

PURPLE MARTEN. Prognfe subis, (Linn<:') Baird. 
?CL1FF SWALLOW. Petrochelidon lunifrons, (Sny) Lawrence. 
BARN SWALLOW. Hinrndo erythrogastra, Boddacrt. 
WHITE-BELLI ED SWALLOW. Tachycineta bicolor, (Vieill) Cabanis. 
BANK SWALLOW. Cotile riparla. (Linno) Boio. 
ROUGII-WINGKD SWALLOW. Btelgidopteryx Berrlpinnls, (Aud.) Balrd. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 221 



TANAGRIDiE. 



8CARLET TANAGER. Pyranga rubra, (Linn<4) Vieillot. 
SUMMER REDBIRD. Pyranga sestiva, (Linii6) Vieillot. 



FPtlNGILLID^. 

PURPLE FINCff. Carpodacus purpureus, (Gm.) Baird. 

AMERICAN GOLDFINCH; YELLOWBIRD. Astragalinns tristis, (Linn^) 
Cabanis. 

PINE GOLDFINCH ; PINE FINCH. Chrysomitris pinus, ( VVils.) Bonaparte. 
? SNOW BUNTING. Plectrophanes idvaUs, (Linn^) Meyer. 

SAVANNAH SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna, nvils.) Ri<lg- 
way. 

GRASS FINCH. Pooecetes gramineus, (Gm.) Baird. 

YELLOW-WINGED SPARROW. Cotumiculus passerinua, (Wils.) Bonaparte. 

IIENLOW'S SPARROW OR BUNTING. Cotemiculus henslowi, (Aud.; Bon- 
aparte. 
? SHARP-TAILED FINCH. Ammodromus caudacutus, (Gm.) Swainson. 
?SE.\-8IDE FINCH. Ammodromus maritimus, iWils.) Swainson. 

WIIITlvCROWNED SI'ARHOW. ZonotricMa leucophrys. (Forstcr) Swainson. 

-WHITE-TIIROATED SPARROW. Zonotrichia albicoUis, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 

TREE-SPARROW. Spizella montana, (Forst.) Rid^'way. 

CIIIPPIN(i SPARROW. SpizeUa domestica, (liartram) Cones. 

FIELD SPARROW. Spizella pusilla, (WiIh.) Honapaite. 

BLACK SNOW BIRD ; SNoW BIRD. Junco hyemalis. i Linne) Sclater. 

BACII.MAN'S FINCH. Peucaea KStivalis, (Lidit.) Cabanis. 

SON(i SPA RRO W. Melospiza fasclata, ( ForHter) HcMi. 

SWAMP SPARROW. Melospiza palustrls, (Wiln.) Baird. 
? LINCOLN'S FINCH, Melospiza llncolni, (And.) I'.aird, 

FO.X-COI.ORED SPARROW. Passore'.la iliaca, iMfrrein i Sw. 
'CIIEWINIC; TOWIIEE GROUND-ROBIN. Pipilo erythrophthalmuB. (Linn.':) 
Vieillot. 

CARDINAL (JROSBEAK; REDBIRD OR CARDINAL REDBIRD. Cardinalia 
virginlanus, (Brisson) Bonaparte. 

ROSE- BUI': A ST ED GROSBEAK. Zamelodia ludoviciana. ( Linne ) Cones. 

BLUE (JROSBICAK. Ouiraca caerulea, (Linm') Swainsnn. 

INDKK) BUNTING. Passorina cyanea, (Linne) (;ray. 
? PAINTED BUNTING; NONPAREIL. Pasaerina corh, 'Linne i Gray. 

BLACK-THROATED IJUNTINCi. Splza americana, (Om) B.>nai»arto. 



222 VKRTEDRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ICTERID.E. 

ronOLINK ; MAY-BIRD; REED BIRD; RICE-BIRD. Dolichonyx oryzlvorufl, 

(Liniu') Swiiinson 
COWIIIRD. Molothrusater, (Bodd.)Grny. 
RED-AND-BUEF-SIJOULDERED BLACKBIRD. Agelseus phceniceus, (Linn^ 

Vicil. 
MEADOW LARK. Sturnella magna, (Linn<5) Swninson. 
OKCIIAKI) ORIOLE. Icterus spurius, (Linno) Bonnparto. 
BALTIMORE ORIOL!:. Icterus galbula, (Linne) Cones, 
r.r LLOCK'S ORIOLE. Icterus bullockl, ^Swainson) Bonaparte.* 
RU.STY BLACKBIRD OR CRACKLE. Scolecophagus ferrugineus, (Gmolin) 

Swalnson. 
BOAT-TAILED CRACKLE OR JACKDAW. Quiscalus major, Vicillot. 
m'Kl'Li: GlfACKLE. Quiscalus purpureus, (Bartr.) Licht. 



CORVID.E. 

COMMON CROW. Corvus frugivorus, Bnrtr. 
? AMERICAN RAVEN, Corvus corax camivorus, (Bartr) Ridgwny. 
FISH CROW. Corvus ossifragus, Wilson. 
BLUE .TAY. Cyanocitta cristata, (Liniu') Strkk. 

ALAUDID.E. 
SHORE LARK. Eremophila alpestris, (Forst.) Boie. 

TYR.VNNID.E. 

KIXOniRD; BEE MARTIN. Tyrannus carolinensis, (Linn(5) Temminck. 
GREAT-CRE.^TED FLY-CATCII i:U. Myiarchus crinitus, {Linni5) Cabnnis. 
rilCEBE BIRD; PEWEE. Sayornis fascus. lii-.n.) Baird. 
? OLIVE-.^IDED FLY-C.VTCIIEK. Contopus borealls, (Swains.) Bp. 
AVOOD BKWEE. Contopus virens, (Linn') Cabanis. 
TRAILI/S FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax pusillus trallli, (Anduhon) Baird. 
YELLOW-BEMJEP FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax flaviventris, Baird, 
ACAMVN, OR SMALL GREEN-CRESTED FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax aca' 

dicus, f(MiicIin) I?aird. 
LEAST FLY-CATCHEU. Empidonax minimus, Baird 
YELLOW-BELLIED FLY-CATCIIER. Empidonax flaviventris, Baird. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 223 



ORDER PICARIiE. PICARIAN BIRDS. 

Birds with four toes, the hinder small, sometimes absent, with a claw 
shorter than that of the middle toe. Third and fourth toes sometimes 
with fewer than the normal number of joints; second and fourth some- 
times versatile. Tail feathers eight to twelve, but usually ten ; primaries, 
ten. 

A much varied group of peculiar birds, M'ith imperfect musical powers. 
Includes the humming birds, in some respects the most beautiful of 
birds. Mostly insectivorous or carnivorous, and, with a few exceptions, 
of great usefulness to the farmer. "Widely distributed over the globe, 
except the humming birds, which are strictly American. 

TROCHILID.E. 
RUBY-THROATED HUMMING BIRD. TrocMlus colubris. Linne 

CYPSELID.E. 
CHIMNEY SWIFT OR "SWALLOW." Ohaefcura pelasgica, (LinnO BainL 

CAPRIMULGIDyE. 

CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW. Antrostomus carolinensis, ((Jm.) 0<-Ul. 
WHIP-roOR-WILL. Caprlmulgus vocifems, (Wlls.) B]). 
NKJHTIIAWK. Chordeiles popetue, (Vieillot) Baird. 

' PICTDiE. 

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. Campephilus principalis, (Linn<5) Gray. 
HAIRY WOODPECKER. Picus villosus, Linn^. 
• DOWNY WOODPECKER. Picus pubescens, Linnt^ 

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER. Picus querulus, Wilson. 
YELLOW-BELLIED WOODl»ECKER. Sphyrapicus varius (Linnt^), Baird. 
PILEATED WOODPECKEP. OR BLACK WOODCOCK. Hylotomus pileatuS, 

(LinnO Baird. 
RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. Centurus carolinus, (LinrK?) Bp. 
RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. Melanerpes erythrocephalus, (LlnnOSw. 
YELLOW'SHAFTED FLICKER. Oolaptes auratus, (Lima) S\v. 



224 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ALCEDINIDyE. 
KKLTED KINGFISHER. Ceryle alcyon, (Linnd) Doie. 

CUCULID7E. 

YELLOW-IJILLFD CUCKOO. Coccyzus aoiericanua, (Linnd) Bonaparte. 
' BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus, (Wila.) Bair.1. 

ORDER rSITTACI. PARROTS. . 

l^rilliantly colored birds, witli cxtromcly tliick bills, strongly hooked 
toii|j:iiL's .short and fleshy (Jordan). The outer toe of the foot reversed, so 
that two toes are ojjposed to two (zygodactyle). 

"Well-known bird.s, much admired for their gorgeous plumage, and for 
the quaint efForts at speech ^vhieh some can be trained to put forth. 
Inhabitants of trojiical countries. Not well represented in North Amer- 
ica, but abundant in South America. 

rSITTACID.E. 
CAROLINA TARAKEET.* Conurus carolinensis, (Linnd) Kuhl. 

ORDER RAPTORES. BIRDS OF PREY. 

Large and powerful carnivorous birds, with strong beaks and sharp 
claws. Four toes, the fourth sometimes, versiitile. Legs frequently 
feathered to the ankle. Tail feathers, twelve ; primaries, ten. 
. Found in every part of the world. The order includes some of the 
strongest flying birds. Many are obnoxious to the poultry keeper 
(hawks), while others (buzzards) arc of great service in removing carrion. 

STRIGID/E.' 

• ?BARN OWL. Aluco flamm3U3 americanus, (Aiul.) Ridgway. 
LONG-EARED OWL, Asio americanus, (Steph.) Shnrpe. 
.^IIORT-EARED OWL Asio accipitrinus, (Pallas) Newton. 

•Extinct in South Carolin.i — G. E. M. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 22o 

BARRED OWL. Strix nebulosa, Foreter. 

LITTLE SCREECH OWL. Scops asio, (Linnd) Bonaparte. 

OREAT-IIORXED OWL. Bubo virginianua, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 

SAW-WHET OWL. Nyctale acadica, (Gmel.) Bp. 

SNOWY OWL. Nyctea scandiaca. Linnet 



FALCONID/E. 

PEREGRINE FALCON DUCK HAWK. Falco peregrinus naevins, (Gm.) 
Kidj;\vay. 

PIGEON HAWK. lEi&lon columbarlus (Llnn6), Kaiip. 

SPARROW 1I.\WK, Tinnunculus sparverius (Linne), Vieillot. 

AMERICAN OSPREY; FISH HAWK, Pandion haliaetus carolinenslj, (Om.i 
Ridfrway. 

SWALLOW-TAILED KITE Elanoldes forflcatus, (Linni') Ki(l«\vay, 

MISSISSIPPI KITE. Ictinia subcaerulea, (ILirtrani) Cones. 

MARSH HAWK; HARRIER. Cirius hudsonius, (Linnc.') Vieillot. 

COOPERS HAWK. Accipiter cooperi, Bonaparte. 

SHARP-SHINNED HAWK. Accipiter fuscus, (Giuelin) Bonaparte. 

RKD-TAILED HAWK. Buteo borealis, (Gm.) Vieillot. 

RED-SHOULDERED HAWK. Buteo lineatus, (Gm.) Jardine. 

WHITE-TAILED HAWK. Buteo albicaudatus, Vieillot. 
? BROAD-WINGED HAWK. Buteo pennsylvanicus. (Wi!«,) Bonaparte. 
? ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis, (Gm.) Riil-;- 

way. 
? GOLDEN EAGLE. Aquila chrysaetus canadensis, (Linne) Ridgway. 

BALI) EAGLE; GRAY EAGLH. Haliaeetus leucocephalus, (Linne) Savij;. 



CATHARTIDiE, 

TURKEY BUZZARD Oathartes aura, (L\nn6) IlliKcr. 

BLACK VULTURE; CARRION CROW. Catharista atrata, (Wils.) Lesson. 



ORDER COLUMB.E. DOVES. 

Birds, typified in the common dove, having small heads and 
straight beak.s, horny nt the tip, which is .separated from the .softer por- 
tion by a constriction. The hinder toe on a level with the rest. 
15 



220 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Birds of downy plumage and gentle manner. Monogamous. Many 
species domesticated. Abundant in most regions, but especially so in 
the East Indies. The Columba livia of that part of tlie globe i^s supposed 
to be the ancestor of all the domesticated breeds of pigeons. 



COLUMBIDyE. 

MESSENGER; WILD PIGEON. Ectoplstes mlgratorla, (Linn(5) Sw. 
MOURNING DOVE; TURTLE DOVE. Zenaldura carolinensls, {Unn6) Bp. 
GROUND DOVE. Chamapelia passerina, (L.) Swaineon. 



ORDER GALLIXiE. GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. 

Mostly thick-set birds, having short and stout wings, legs and bills, 
the latter convex and horny and not constricted. Hind toe elevated, 
shorter than the rest, sometimes wanting. 

A large order of the most useful birds, including some of the domes- 
tic fowls and the principal game birds. Too well known to require 
comment. 



MELEAGRID.E. 
WILD TURKEY. Meleagris gallopavo amerlcana, (Bnrtram) Coues. 

TP:TRAONIDiE. 

RUFFED GROUSE. Bonasa umbellus, (Linne) Steph. 

PERDICID.E. 

PARTRIDGE; BOB WHITE; AMERICAN QUAIL. Ortyx virginlana, (L.) 
Bonai).irtCt 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 227 

ORDER LIMICOLiE. SHORE BIRDS. 

Birds usually of small size, with rounded heads, long legs and necks, 
and long, soft bills, suited for probing in the mud. Hind toe elevated. 

Largely aquatic and widely distributed. Abundant in America. The 
order includes many much valued game birds. 

PLATALEID.E. 
? ROSEATE SPOONBILL. Ajaja rosea, (Brisson) Ridgway. 

H^MATOPODID.E. 
AMERICAN OY.STERCATCHER. Haematopus palliatus, Temminck. 

STREPSILID.E. 
TURNSTONE. Strepsilas interpres, (Linn6) Illiger. 

CHARADRHD/E. 

BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER. Sqiuatarola helvetica, (Linn^) Cuvier. 

GOLDEN PLOVER. Charadrius pluvialis, Linn*?. 

KILLDEER; KILLDEER PLOVER. Oxyechus vocifems, (Linn/-) Reich. 

SEMFPALMATED PLOVER, .ffigialites semipalmata, (Bonap.) Cabanis. 

PIPING PLOVER. .ffigiaUtes meloda, (Onl) Bp. 

WILSON'S PLOVER. Ochtholromus wilsonius, (Ord) Reich. 

SCOLOPACID.E. 

AMERICAN WOODCOCK. Philohela minor, (Gmel.) Gray. 
ENGLISH SNIPE. OalUnago media. Loadi. 
WILSON'S SNIPE. Oalllnigo madia wilsonl, (Tcimn.) Ri(l'.?way. 
RED-BREASTED SNIPE; GRAY SNII'i:. Mxcrorhamphus griseui, (Gmel.) 
Lc.ich. 
? RED-BELLIED SNIPE; GREATER GRAY-BACK. Macrorhamphus grlseus 
scolopaceua, (Say) Coucs. 
STILT SANOI'IPER. Micropalama himantopus, (Bonap.) Buird. 
KNOT. Trlnga canutus, Linn(5. 



22.S VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

rUIiPLE SANDPIPER. Arquatella maritima, (Erunn) Baird. 
(.JKASS SNIPE. Actodromus maculata, (Vieillot) Cones. 
LONAPAKTE'S SANDPIPER. Actodromas ftiscicoUis, (Vieill.) Ridgway. 
■ LE A.ST SANDPIPER. Actodromas minutilla (Vieill.) Bp. 

KED-I5ACKED SANDPIPER. Pelidna alpena amerlcana, Cassin 
?(;i'RLEW SANDPIPER. Pelidna subarquata, (diilb.) Cuvier. 
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. Ereunetes pusillus, iLinn^) Cnssin. 
SANDERLIXG. Calidris arenaria, (Linm') Illi-er, 
MARBLED (iODWIT. Limosa fedoa, (Linn(:-) Ord. 
HVDSONIAN GODWIT. Limosa haemastica, {Linn«5) Coues. 
TELL-TALE; GREATER YELLOW-LEGS. Tetanus melanoleucus, (Gmel.) 

Vieillot. 
YELLOW LEGS; LESSER YELLOW SHANKS. Tetanus flavipes, (Guiel.) 

Vieillot. 
SOLITARY SANDPIPER. Rhyacophilus solitarius. (Wils.) Ca.ssin. 
WILLET; STONE CURLEW. Symphemia semipalmata, (Gmel.) Ilartlaub. 
FIELD PLOVER; BARTRAMS SANDPIPER. Bartramia longicauda, ( Cech- 

stein) Bp. 
ni'FF-P.REASTED SANDPIPER. Tryngites fuscescens, (Vieill ) Cabanis. 
SPOTTED SANDPIPER. Tringoides macularius, ( Linm') Gray. 
LONG-P.ILLED CURLEW. Numenius longirostris, Wil.s. 
IIUDSoNIAN CURLEW. Numenius hudsonicus, Latlmrn. 
ESKIMO CURLEW. Numenius borealis, (For.st.) Lathanj. 

PHALAROrODID.E. 

? RED PHALAROPE. Phalaropus fulicarius, (LinnO Bp. 

? NORTHERN PHALAROPE. Lobipes hyperboreus, (Linne) Cuv. 

? WILSON'S PHALAROPE. Steganopus wilsoni, (Sab.) Coues. 

RECURVIROSTIUDyE. 

? AMERICAN A^'OSET. Recundrostra americana, Gmelin. 
? BLACK-NECKED STILT. Himantopus mexicanus, Miillgord. 



ORDER IIERODIONES. STORKS AND HERONS. 

r.irds of jK-culiar niijioaranoe, with loii;; hi^H iind S-Hlmpcd necki^, 
afid witli l>ruatl wiii<j;.s and .sliort tail-. Hind too long, and u.-^ually 
not elevated. Bill long, hard and pointed, with sharp, cutting Hur- 
Jace?. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 220 

Readily recognizable birds of odd form. Of no considerable value 
commercially. Certain species are or have been venerated by difFere"nt 
nations, e. g., the European stork and the sacred ibis of Egypt. 



ARDEIDyE. 

GREAT BLUE HERON. Ardea herodias, Linn(5. 

AMERICAN EGRET; WHITE HERON. Herodias alba egretta, (Omel.) Ridg- 

way. 
SNOWY HERON. Qarzetta candidissima,(Gmelin) Bp. 
LOUISIANA HERON. Hydranassa tricolor ludovicianuas, (Wils.) Ridgway. 
LITTLE BLUE HERON. Florida caerulea, (Linn6) Baird. 
GREEN HERON. Butoridcs virescens, (Linn(:') Bp. 
NIGHT HERON. Nyctiardea grisea naevia, (Bodd.) Allen. 
WHITE-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. Nyctherodius violaceus, (Linn^) Rich. 
AMERICAN BITTERN. Botaurus lentiginosus, (Montague) Steph. 
LEAST BITTERN. Ardetta exilis, (Gin.) Gray. 

CIRCOXIID/E. 
WOOD IBIS. Tantalus loculator, Linn6. 

IBIDID.E. 

WHITE IBIS." Eudoclmus albus, (LinnC') Wagler. 
0L09.SY IBIS. Plegadis falcinoUus, (Linn6)Kaup. 



ORDER ALECTORIDES. RAILS AND CRANES. 

Birds somewhat resembling the herons. The hind toe small and ele- 
vated. " Body more or less compressed. Wings short, rounded, con- 
cave. Tail short and small ; size various." — (Jordan). 

A comparatively small order of tall birds, chiefly valued as gamo- 
birds. 



230 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOVTII CAROLINA. 



RALLIDiE. 

IIKP-BREASTED RAIL ; MARSH HEN. RaUus elegans, Audubon. 
CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus longirostris crepitans, (Gniel.) Ridgway. 
VIRGINIA RAIL. Eallus virginianu-s, Linii<?. 
SORA RAIL ; CAROLINA RAIL. Porzaua Carolina, (Linn<?) Bnird. 
LITTLE YELLOW RAIL. Porzana novoboracensis, (Gmel.) Balrd. 
LITl'LE BLACK RAIL. Porzana jamaicensis, (Gmel.) Baird. 
PURPLE GALLINULE. lonornis martinica. (Linn^-) Reich. 
FLORIDA GALLINULE. GaUinula galeata, (Licht.) Bp. 
AMERICAN COOT. Fulica americana, Gmol. 
WHOOPING CRANE. Grus americana, (LinnO) Tomm. 



ORDER LAMELLIROSTRES. ANSERINE BIRDS. 

Birds with flattened bills, rai-sed on the edges into a series of iooth- 
likc ridges. A high, compressed head, with small eyes. Usually with 
short legs (excepting the flamingoes, in which they are remarkably long), 
giving a " squafly " appearance. All swimming-birds to a greater or 
less extent. 

In economic importance this group comjmres favorably with the galli- 
naceous birds. " An important and familiar order, comprising nearly 
all the 'water-fowl ' which arc valued in domestication or as game-birds." 

TIio order is comiianitively ."Uiall, and includes but two families, tho 
ducks and the llamingocs. 



riLENICOITERID.'E. 
? AMERICAN FLAMINGO. Phoenicopterus ruber, Linnd. 

ANATIDyE. 

WHISTLING SWAN. Olor amerlcanus, (Shnrpless) Bp. 

SNOW GOOSE. Chen hyperboreus, (Pallas) Boie. 

AMERICAN WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. Anser albifrons gambeli, (Hartlaub) 

Cones. 
CANADA GOOSE. Bemicla canadensis, (Linnd) Boie. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 231 

BRANT GOOSE, Bernicla brenta, (Pallas) Steph. 

MALLARD. Anas boscas, Linn(5. 

BLACK DUCK. Anas obscura, Gmclin. 

GADVVALL. Chaulelasmus streperus, (Linn<5) Gray. 

PIN-TAIL DUCK ; SPRIG-TAIL DUCK. Daflla acuta, (Linn6) Bonap. 

BALDPATE. Mareca americana, (Ginel.) Steph. 

SHOVELLER; SHOVELLER DUCK. Spatula clypeata, (Linn6) Boie. 

BLUE-WINGED TEAL. Querquedula discors, (Linn6) Steph. 

GREEN-WINGED TEAL. Nettion carolinensis, (Gmel.) Baird. 

WOOD DUCK ; SUMMER DUCK. Aix sponsa, {Unn6) Boie. 

SCAUP DUCK ; BIG BLACK-HEAD. Fulix marila, (LinrK:-) Baird. 

LITTLE BLACK-HEAD. Fulix affinis, (Eyt.) Baird. 

RING-BILLED BLACKHEAD : RING-NECKED DUCK. Fulix collaris, (Donov.) 
Baird. 

CANVAS-BACK. .ffiythsria vallisnerla, ( Wils.) Boie. 

REDHEAD. iEythyia americana, (Kyt.) Bp. 

AMERICAN GOLDEN-EYE. Olangula glaucium americana, (Bp.) Ridgway. 

BUTTERHEAD ; BUFFLEHEAI). Clangula alveola, (Linn(5) Steph. 
? LONG-TAILED DUCK ; OLD SQUAW. Harelda glaciaUs, (Linnc?) Leach. 
? AMERICAN SCOTER. (Eiemia americana, Sw. and Rich. 
? AMERICAN VELVET SCOTER. Melanetta velvetina, (Cassin) Baird. 
?SURF DUCK. Pelionetta perspicillata, (Linne) Kaup. 

AMERICAN SHELDRAKE. Mergus merganser americanus, (Cassin) Ridg- 
way. 

RED-BREASTFD SHELDRAKE. Mergus serrator, Linn6. 

HOODED SHELDRAKE, Lophodytes cucullatus, (Linnc) Reich. 



ORDER STEGANOPODES. TOTIPALMATE BIRDS. 

Toes entirely webbed ; tlio liindcr one lengthened. Bill homy, but 
never lamellate. A prominent guliir pouch. 

A tolerably largo group of medium sized or largo birds, aquatic and 
largely marine. Fish-eating. Well distributed over the globe. 



TACIIYPETIDyE. 
FRIGATE PELICAN ; MAN-OF-WAR BIRD. Tachypetes aquUa, (LinnC) Vieil. 



•232 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

PELECANID.E. 

AMKHICAN WIIITK PELICAN. Pelecanus erythrorhynchuB, Gnielln. 
IlKOWN PELICAN. Pelecanus fuscus, LiHiK:-. 

PIIALACROCORACID.E. 
rLOKIDA CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax dilophus floridanus, (Aud.) Ridgway. 

PLOTIDyE. 
SNAKE BIRD; AMERICAN ANIIING.\. Plotus anhlnga, Linn^.' 

SULARID.E. 

COMMON GANNET. Sula bassana. (LinrKT-) Bripson. 
iiOOBY GANNET. Sula leucogastra, (Boddert) 8nlvin. 



ORDER LONGIPENNES. LONG-WIXGED SWIMMERS. 

Birds with peculiarly lonpj mid pointed wings, and possessing remnrk- 
uhlo i)OwerH of flight. Feet webbed ; hind toe small (sometimes wanting) 
;ind elevated. 

This order includes only two families, the gulls and the petrels. 
Both are largely marine, subsisting on fish. Being* excellent flyers they 
are often found many hundred miles from land. 



RHYNCIIOPSID.'E. 
BLACK SKIMMER. Rhynchops nigra, Lin mV 

LARID.E. 

GREAT BLACK BACKED GULL. Lams marinus, Linn^. 
HERRING GULL. Larus argentatus. Briinn. 
RING-BILLED GULL. Lams delawarensis, Ord. 
LAUGHING GULL. Larus atricilla, Linne. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 233 

B0NAPARTP:'S gull. Lams philadelpMae, (Ord) Gray. 

BULL-BILLED TERN ; MARSH TERN. Sterna anglica, Montag. 

COMMON TERN. Sterna fluviatilis, Nnutnunn. 

FOSTER'S TERN. Sterna forsteri, Nuttall. 

CABOT'S TERN. Sterna cantiaca acuflavida, (Cabot) Ridgway. 

ROYAL TERN. Sterna regla, Gambel. 

ROSEATE TERN. Sterna dougalli, Montague. 

LEAST TERN, Sterna antillanim, (Lesson) Cones. 

BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon lariformis surinamensis, (Gmelin) Ridgway. 

PROCELLARIIDiE. 

GREATER SHEARWATER. Puffinus major, Faber. 

DUSKY SHEARWATER. Puflnus audubonil, Finnch. 
? BLACK-CAPPED PETREL. CEstrelata haesitata, (Temin.) Cones. 
? MOTHER GARY'S CHICKEN ; STORMY PETREL. Procellaria pelagica, Linn^. 

WILSON'S PETREL. Oceanites oceanica, (Kulil) Coucs. 



ORDER PYGOPODES. DIVING BIRDS. 

Birds with very short wings and palmate or lobate feet. External -por- 
tion of the body legs very short, causing awkwardness in terrestrial i)ro- 
gression. Bill horny, variously serrate or lamellate. 

Strietly American birds. Noted for their powers in diving and lack of 
proficiency in flight. About twenty-one species arc recognized. One 
member of this group, theGrcat Auk, Alca impcnnis,haHhcon exterminated 
.within a century. Purely marine and mostly arctic birds. 

PODICIPITID/E. 

AMERICAN RED NECKED GREBE. Podlceps holbblll, Rcinhardt. 

HORNED GREI3I3. Dytes auritus, (Unn6) Ridgway, 

THICK-BILLED GREBE; DABCHICK, Podilymbuspodiceps,(Linn<J)Lowron(:o. 

COLYMBIDyE. 

LOON. Oolymbus torquatua, Brunn. 

RED-THROATED DIVER. Coljnnbus septentrlonalls, Lfnn6. 

BLACK-THROATED DIVER. Colymbus arcticus, Linn<5. 



201 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ALCIDiE. 
? C OMMON PUFFIN. Fratorcula arcUca, (Linn6) Sleph. 



CLASS REPTILIA. REPTILES. 
» 

Air-breathing vertebrates with cold, red blood. Exoskeleton developed 
as scales (serpents and lizards), or horny or bony plates (tortoises). Limbs, 
absent (serpents), or present and adapted for walking and swimming. 
Eggs hatched externally (oviparous reptiles), or in tlie body of the parent 
(ovoviviparous reptiles). 

A large class of useful (tortoises) and baneful animals, remarkable for 
their varied modifications of structure. Many species which are per- 
fectly harmless, and possess great interest for the unbiased observer, are 
commonly regarded with an aversion kej)t alive by the fables of folk-lore. 
About two hundred and sixty species are North American. Five orders 
are usually recognized. 



ORDER OPHIDLV. SERPENTS. 

Reptiles of an extremely attenuated form, devoid of limbs (rarely 
possessing rudiments of hind limbs), and with the two halves of the 
lower jaw united by ligament. Right and left lungs unequally developed. 
Exoskeleton in the form of scales. Oviparous. 

Tliis order includes some of the most venomous of all animals. Only 
two poisonous families, however, are represented in the United States, 
namely, the rattlesnakes {Crotalidcp), and the harlequin snakes {Elapidn). 
All other Nortli American snakes, except five species, belong to the great 
family Colubridrr, and are perfectly harmless. About one hundred and 
thirty-two species of this order inhabit North America. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 235 



CROTALIDiE. 

BANDED RATTLESNAKE * Crotalus horridua, LinnC*. 
WATER RATTLESNAKE. Crotalus adamanteua, Beauvois. 
GROUND RATTLESNAKE. Caudisona miliaria, (Linn6) Baird and Girard. 
BLACK RATTLESNAKE ; PRAIKIE RATTLESNAKE; MASSASAUGA. Caudi- 
sona tergemina, Say. 
WATER MOCCASIN. Ancistrodon piscivorus, (Lac<:'pc-<le)Cope. 
COPPERHEAD. Ancistrodon contortrix, (Liiin(5) B. and G. 



ELAPID/E. 
BEAD SNAKE. Elaps fWvlus, (Linn<:') Copo, 

COLUBRIDiE. 

GROUND SNAKE; WORM SNAKE. Carphophiops amoenus, Say. • 
VALERIA'S SNAKE. Virginia valerise, Baird and Girard. 
BROWN SNAKE. Haldea striatula, (Linn<5) B. and G. 
CROWNED TANTILLA. Tantilla coronata, Baird and Girard. 
RED-LINED SNAKE. Abastor eryfiirogrammmus, (Daiidin) Gray. 
RED-BELLIED HORN SNAKE. Farancia abacura, (Holbrook) B. and G. 
YELLOW-BANDED SCARLET SNAKE, Cemophora coccinea, (Bluuipnbach) 

Cope. 
SCARLET SNAKE. Osceola elapsoidea, (Holbrook) B. and G. 
SCARLET KING SNAKE. Ophibolus doliatus doliatus, (Linni:') Cope. 
RED KING SNAKE. Ophibolus doliatus coccineus, {UnuO} Cope. 
HOUSE SNAKE; MILK SNAKE; CHICKEN. SNAKE ; THUNDER AND 

LIGHTNING SN AKE. Ophibolus doliatus triangulus, (Linn*:-) Copo. 
THUNDER SNAKE;! KING SNAKE; CHAIN SNAKE. Ophibolus getulus 

getulus, (Linne) Coj)e. 
BLOTCH ED KING SNAKE. Ophibolus rhombomaculatus, Holbrook. 
RING-NECKED SNAKE. Diadophis punctatus pimctatus, (LinnC-) Cope. 

* Tliin and the stiooecdinjr spoc-ics of venomoiiH HnakcH, except the linrloquin, can be 
readily diHtin^'llisllcd from the innocent oncH, on oIoho examination, by the prcrtonori 
of a pit in tlic duck, Ijctwecn the eye and tlie noHtrll. No Infiillible n-medy Heems to 
have been dJHnn'enMl for the cure of biten of these nerpentH. The imineiliate cauteriza- 
tion of the wound ami tlu; application of Inr;re <iiiantitie8 of Htimulan tn, alcohol, whisky, 
and the like, interniiUy, conHtilute the treatment most generally 8Ucce.H.sfnl. Delay in 
this matter ia dangerous. 



230 vehtedrate animals of south Carolina. 

? UING-NKCKED SNAKK. Dladophls punctatus amabllls, (Llnn^) Copo. 

XAXTUS' SNAKE. Hypsiglena ochrorhyTicha, Cope. 

GIIEEX SNAKE. Cyclophis aestivus, (Linn(:-) Guirther. 

CHICKEN SNAKE. Coluber quadrivittatus, (Hoi brook ) B. and G. 

MOUNTAIN BLACK SNAKE. Coluber obsoletus obsoletus, (Say) Cope. 

IlED-IIICADED COLUBER. Coluber obsoletus conflnis, (B. and G.) Cope. 

CORN SNAKE. Coluber guttatus, (Linn/-) B. nnd G. 
? COUPER'S SNAKE. Spilotes couperi, Ilo'brook. 
? c;i:ORGIA SNAKE ; INDIGO SNAKE. Spilotes erebennus, Cope. 
?PINE SNAKE; BULL SNAKE. Pityophis melanoleucus, (Daudiu) Holbrook. 

BLACK SNAKE. Bascanium constrictor, (Linn(5) B. and G. 

COACH-WIIIR SNAKE. Bascanium flagellum. (Slunv) True. 

RIBAND SNAKE; SWIFT GARTER SNAKE. Eutcenia saurita, (Unn6) B. 
and G. 
? LONG'S GARTER SNAKE. Eutaenia proxlma, Say. 

STRIPED SNAKE ; GARTER SNAKE. Eutsenia slrtalls sirtallfl, (Linn(?) Copo 
?CIIURCIIILL'S GARTER SNAKE. Eutaenia sirtalis dorsalis, (UnnC) Copo. 

GRASS SN.VKE. Euttonla sirtalis ordinata, (Linm') Cojjo. 

STORER'S SN.\ KE. Btororla occipitomaculata, St(;rfr. 
? DE KAY'S SNAKE. Stororia dokayl, llnll.n...k. 

BROWN QUEION SNAK E. Tropidonotus leberis, Linn6. 

GRIOEN QUEICN SNAKE. Tropidonotus rigidus, Say. 

BELTED WATER SNAKE. Tropidonotus fasciatus, (Linn4) Holbrook. 

WATER SNAKE ; WATER MOCC.VSIN. Tropidonotus sipedon Bipiedon, (Llnn<i) 
C<>|)0. 

COPPER BELLY. Tropidonotus sipedon erythrogaster, (Llnni^) Cope. 

DARK-SPOTTED WATER SNAKE. Tropidonotus taxispilotus, Holbrook. 

BLOWING VIPER; IIOG-NOSED SNAKE. Eeterodon platyrhinus, Lutreille. 

P.LACK HOG-NOSED SNAKE. Heterodon platyrbinusatmodes, (Latreille) Coj)6. 

BLACK VIPER. Heterodon plat3rrhinus niger. (Latrdllc) Yarrow. 

HOG-NOSED SNAKE. Heterodon simus simus, (Li iin(?) Copo. 



ORDER LACERTILIA. LIZARDS. 

A very compact order of rci)tile.s, presenting close affinities witli the 
serpents. From those they arc distingui.slied, however, by tlie presence 
of external ears, the osseous union of tlie two lialvesof the lower jaw, and 
the occurrence, in the majority of cases, of visible limbs."* 

* Tlie " glass f»nnke," OjMosaurun ventrallf. although devoid of external limbs, preecnts 
tho remaining and fundamental charactoristics of the lizards, and is not to be regarded 
as a serpent. 



VERTEnilATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROUNA. 237 

* 

The lizards, as a class, revel in sunshine and all warmth, and abound 
most in countries where these things are most plenty. In the United 
States, they live principally in the southern States, though one or two 
species make their way as far north as Pennsylvania and Washington 
Territory. Many species will bite when provoked, but few are venomous. 
The order will repay a far greater amount of attention than has yet been 
bestowed upon it. 

SCTNCID^. 

GROUND LIZARD. Ollgosoma laterale, (Say) Girnrd. 

SCORPION; RP:D-IIKADKD UZAKD; BLUK-TAILED LIZARD. Eumeces 
/ fasciatus, (LIuik'') C'oi)c. 



TEID.E. 

SIX-STRIPED LIZARD. Onemldophorus sexllneatus, [UimC-) Dumcril and 
IMbroii. 

ANGUIDiE. 
GLASS SNAKE. Ophiosaurus ventralis, Daiulin. 

c. . , 

IGUANID/E. 
BROWN LIZARD. Sceloporus undulatus undulatus, (Harlan) Cope. 

ANOLIDi^. 
GREEN LIZARD, Anolis principalis. (MnndO Cope. 



ORDER TESTUDINATA. TORTOISES. 

An order of reptiles characterized by the absence of teeth, and the 
modification and expansion of tlic ribs and vertebrae to form a more or 
less bony cliamber, whicli cover?* and protects the soft part of the body. 
Exoskclcton usuallv in the form of liorny scales. Oviparous. 



238 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

This order is, perhaps, the most useful of the class, at least from an 
economical point of view. The flesh and Qggs of the sea turtles furnish 
palatable and nutritious food, while the scales of some species, the hawk- 
l.»ill turtles, afford the beautiful " tortoise-shell " of commerce. The terra- 
pins and soft-shelled turtles arc the deliglit of the epicure. The " gopher " 
is the bon houchc of tlie Soutliern negro. Many species of tortoises now 
unused might be employed for food were it not for prejudice. 

The tortoises have a very peculiar distribution, being most largely 
represented in the eastern parts of America and Asia. About seventeen 
genera and forty-t'wo species inhabit the United States. 

SPIIARGIDID.E.* 
LEATnKU TURTLE. Eermatochelys corlacea, (Vnndelli) Strauch. 

CIIELONIID.E.* 

LOGGKUTIEAD. Thalassochelys caretta, (Linnd) True. 
CiUEEN TUIiTLE. Cholonia midas, (LiniK?) Schwcigger. 

TRIONYCIIID.E. 

SOUTIIERX SOFT SHELLED TOUTOI.^E. Aspldonectes ferox, (Schw.) Wngler. 
SPRING SOFT-SIIELLED TORTOISE. Aspldonectes spinifer, (Les.) Agtisslz. 

CTIELYDRID/E. 
SNArPIXG TURTLE. Ohelydra serpentina, (Linn6) Schw! 

CINOSTERNIDyE. 

MUSK TORTOISE; STIXK POT. Aromochelys odorata, (Lntreillo) Gray. 
MUD TORTOISES. Cinostemum pennsylvanlcum, (Rose) Gniy. 

EMYDID.E. 

FLORIDA TERRAPIN*. Pseudcmys conclnna, (LeConte) Gray. 
YELL(nV.Ri:LLIED TERRAPIN'. Pseudemys scabra, (Linn(^) Cope. 
SALT WATER TERRAPIN. Malacoclemmys palustris, (Gmelin) Agftssiz. 



*Thcse mnrine turtles occur nlong tlie Rrcnter port of the Atlantic coaat of the 
United States, a!id althnuph likely at nny time to be found on the shores of South 
Carolina, cannot jjropcrly be said to bo included in its fauna — F. W. T. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 239 

CHEQUERED TERRAPIN. Chrysemys picta, (Hermann) Grya. 
CHICKEN TERRAPIN. Chrysemys reticulata, (Bosc) Copo. 
SPECKLED TORTOISE. Chelopus guttatus, (Sdiw.) Cope. 
COMMON BOX TORTOISE. Cistudo Carolina, (I.inn<?) Gray. 

TESTUDINID^E. 
GOPHER. Xerobates polsrphemus, (Dnudin) Cooper. 



ORDER CROCODILIA. CROCODILES. 

An order of lizard-liko reptile?, with four Iq^^, fitted for walking or 
swimming, the feet being webbed. Skin hard and raised into scales, 
beneath which there are often bony plates. Tail with a series of scales, 
each crested on the back. Teeth conical, rootless. Heart with two ven- 
tricles. 

The Crocodilia, of which the prominent North American species, the 
alligator, is well known, form a compact group, better represented in 
past time than at present. Tlioy live in sluggish rivers and ponds, and 
subsist largely on animal food. 

Si)ecics of this order are abundant in South America. In North 
America there are but two recognized species, the alligator and the 
Florida crocodile {Crocodilus acutm, Cuvier). 

ALLIGATORID.E. 
ALLIGATOR. Alligator mississippiensis. Dnudln.» 



CLASS AMPHIBIA, AMPHIBIANS. 

A class of cold-blooded vertebrates, closely allied to tho fishes. Thoy 
breathe when young, or throughout life, by external gills. Limbs, when 
present, present bony elements homologous to those in the limbs of rep- 

*The question 1ms been rnlsed whether there are two flpeclca or varieties of alliKntors 
in North America, difrcrinjr in color and other characters. ObHcrvation<i on this point 
would bo of great value.— F. W. T. 



240 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

tiles. Skin usually without scales. Eggs without hard shell, strongly 
resonil)ling those of fishes. 

A class of aninuils mostly of no economic value. The frogs, however, 
furnish excellent food, and the toads are invaluable to the agriculturist 
as insect-enters, ^hiny absurd notions exist regarding these animals, 
which have no foundation of truth, but are progeny of ignorance and 
prejudice. The majority of amphibians are entirely harmless. 



ORDER ANURA. TAILLESS AMPHIBIANS. 

Amphibians without tails in the adult state. Body broad and short; 
Icsjjs larLTO, usually adapted for jumping. Young (tadpoles) with tail and 
gills, but without teeth. 

A oom]>aratively small group of closely allied animals, found tlirough- 
out tbo world. Some are almost exclusively terrestrial (Bnfonidie and 
Ifi/ladir), wliih' others are almost totally aquatic. This and the remaining 
orders of amphibians are, in certain respects, the least known of the 
vertebrates. 

RANID.'E. 

RULL-FROG. Rana catesbiana, Sliaw. 
(}I:KKX FllOG; SPiaXO FKOG. Rana c'.anxitang, Merrem. 
SHAD FKOG. Rana halocina halecina, (Kalm) Copo. 
MAUSII FKGG. Ranapalustrls, LoCcntc. 
WOOD FIKKJ. Rana temporaria sllvatlca, (Llnni?) Cope. 
? FI.OUIPA FROG. Rana areolata caplto, (Bainl and Girard) Cope. 

SCAPIIIOPID.E. 
SOLITARY SPADE-FOOT. Scaphiopus holbrookU, (Harlan) Baird. 

HYLID.E. 

GREEN TREE-TOAD. Hyla carolinensis, Pennant. 
DAUDIN'S TREE-TOAD. Hyla femoralis, Daudin. 
COMMON TREE-TOAD. Hyla sqiuirella, Daudin. 
? FLORIDA IIYLA. Hyla gratiosa, LeConto. 
CIIAMELION IIYLA. Hyla carolinensis semifasciata, (Pennant) Cope. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 241 

ANDERSON'S HYLA. Hyla andersoni, Baird. 
DARK-GREEN TREE-FROG. Chorophilus nlgritus, (Lcconte) Cope. 
BLACK-SPOTTED BROWN TREE-FROG. ChorophUus ornatus, (Holbr ) Cope. 
? TREE FROG. Chorophilus ocularis, Daudin. 
CRICKET FROG. Acris gryllus gryllus, (Leconte) Cope. 
WE.STERN CRICKET. Acris gryllus crepitans, (LeConte) Cope. 



ENGYSTOMIDiE. 
CAROLINA TREE FROG. Engystoma carollnense, Holbrook. 



BUFONIDiE. 

LATREILLE'S TOAD. Bufo lentiginosus lentlginosua, (Shaw) Cope. 
AMERICAN TOAD. Bufo lentiginosus americanus, (Shaw) Cope. 
OAK FROG. Bufo quercicus, Holbrook. 



ORDER URODELA. SALAMANDERS. 

Amphibians, possessing elongated bodies, covered witli smooth, naked 
sicin. Four limbs present. No extcrnaf gills in the adult. Tail long, 
round or flattened. 

A large group of peculiar and, usually, small animals. 



PLEURODELID.E. 

EASTERN WATER LIZARD. Diomyctylus miniatus miniatus, (Raf.) Cnpe. 
GREEN TRITON. Diemyctylua miniatus viridescens, (Raf.) Cope. 



DESMOGNATIIID.E. 

BLACK TRITON; BLACK SALAMANDER. Desmognathus nigra, (Grt-en) 

Baird. 
BROWN TRITON. Desmognathus fusca fusca, (Raf) Cope. 
EARED TRITON Desmognathus fusca ariculata, (Raf.) Cope. 
16 



242 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



PLETHODONTID.E. 

TWO-STRIPED SALAMANDER. Spelerpes bllineatus, (Green) Baird. 
YELLOW-BACKED SALAMANDER. Spelerpes guttolineatUB, (Holbrook) 

Cope. 
RED SALAMANDER ; RED TRITON. Spelerpes ruber ruber, (Daiidln) Cope. 
.MOUNTAIN TRITON. Spelerpes ruber montanus, (Daiidin) Cope. 
HA L:\I0N TRITON. Oyrinophilus porphyriticus, Green. 
LEAST SALAMANDER. Manculus quadridlgltatus, (Ilolbr.) Copo. 
VI.SC'JD SALAMANDER. Plethodon glutinosus, (Green) Baird. 
]:ED-BACKED salamander. Plethodon erythronotus, (Green) Baird. 



AMBLYSTOMIDyE. 

ILUIIKOWING salamander. Amblystxjma talpoidoum, (Holbrook) Gray. 
Ol'AtiUE SALAMANDEU. Amblystoma opacura, (fJruvonliorHt) Bulrd. 
SPOTTED SALAMANDEIJ. Amblyfltonm punctatum, Llnu^. 
TKJJ:R SALAMANDER. Amblystouia trigrlnum.cJn'on. 



MENOPOMIDiE. 

HELLBENDER. Menopoma alleghlcnse, Ilnrlnn. 
TENNESSEE HELLBENDER. Menopoma fuscum, Holbrook. 



AMPHIUMID.E. 
CONGO EEL. Amplduma means, Linii<S. 



ORDER PROTEIDA. PROTEANS. 

Tailed amphibians, with largo external gills persistent throughout life. 
The lungs, however, retain a more or loss functional capacity. 

Peculiar animals, closely resembling fishes, for which they are fre- 
quently mistaken by the unlearned. Some species inhabit caves and are 
blind. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 243 

PROTEID.E. 

GIBBES' PROTEUS. Nectnrus punctatus, Gibbcs. 
LAKE SIREN ; PROTEUS. Necturus lateralis, Sar. 

SIRENIDiE. 

STRIATED SIREX. Pseudobranchus striatus, LoConto. 
SIREN. Siren lacertina, Linn6. 



CLASS PISCES. FISHES. . 

Cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates, with foro and hind limbs, the j)ecto- 
rnl and ventral fins, adai)ted for «\viniming. A more or lesH bony wkull. 
A relatively small brain. The single or unpaired finn, namely, those 
on the median line of the back (dorMul fins), aifd that behind tiio vent 
(anal fin), do not represent limbs, but arc special developments from the 
skin. A distinct lower jaw. A heart with two cells and an arterial bulb. 
Breathing carried on by means of gills (branchio)). Skin covered with 
scales or bony plates ; rarely naked. 

The foregoing definition is intended to include the true fishes and the 
ganoid fishes, such as the sturgeons and gar-pikes. 

The . fishes constitute a very large group, whose representatives vary 
greatly in size, form and mode of life. They are distributed everywhere 
over the globe, occurring in all bodies of water, whether large or small, 
as well in arctic as tropical regions. A few lakes, sucli as the Dead Sea, 
are uninhabited by fishes. Other bodies of water of quite as unusual a 
character, such as hot springs and saline springs, often contain represen- 
tatives of this class. 

Fishes form the object of the most completely organized, extensive, and 
important industry anywhere carried on in connoction with animals in 
the wild state. The fisheries of the world, according to Prof. Goode, furnish 
products at the present time valued at not less than ^235,000,000. Not 
only do fishes furnish an abundant food-supply, but, also, great quan- 
tities of other valuable products, such as oils and fertilizers. 

About thirteen thousand species of fishes are known, of which some 
thirteen hundred are North American. 



244 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

SUB-CLASS PHYSOCLISTI. CLOSED-BLADDER FISHES. 
ORDER PLECTOGNATHL 

Fisluvs wliicli havo tlio intormaxilhiry bono (tlmt in front of tho upper 
jaw 1k)1u») inimoviibly united with tlio jiiw bono. Vcntrul fins absent. 
Skin liard, rough, or covered with plate:^. Marino fisihes. 

ORTILVGORISCID^E. 
8UN-FISII. Mola rotunda, Cuvicr. 

TETRODONTID/E. 

riN-CUSHION; KAIJDIT FISH. Chilomycterus geometrlcus, (Bl. nnd Schn.) 

Kanp. 
SMOOTH PUFFER ; TAMDOR. Lagocephalus Isevigatus, (Linn(5) Gill, 
ROUGH PUFFER ; BLOWER ; SWELLFISII. Tetrodon turgidua, (Mitch.) Gill. 
?.SPENGLER'S PUFFER. Tetrodon spengleri, Bloch. 

BALISTID.E. 

LONG-TAILED FILE FISH. Alutera schoepffl, ( Walb.) Goode. 
CHECKERED FILE FISH. Alutera scripta, (0..bcck) Blccker. 
HOG FISH ; FILIO FISH Coratacanthus aurantiacus, (Mitch.) Gill. 
STORER'S FILE FISH ; FOOL FISH. Monacanthus broccus, (Mitch.) Dole. 
EUROPEAN FILE FISH; OLD-WIFE; LEATHER-JACKET. Ballstes caprll- 
cus, Gmclin. 

OSTRACIID.E. 
COW-FISH ; CUCKOLD. Ostracium quadricome, L. 



ORDER PEDICULATL 

Fishes, prominently represented by the goose-fish {Lophius piscatorius), 
which arc peculiar in having the wrist-bones elongated so as to form a 
.'^ort of arm, at the juncture of which with tho body the gills open. Ma- 
rino fishes. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 245 



MALTHEID^. 

? BAT FISH ; NOSE FISH. Malthe vespertilio,(Linn6) Cuvier. 

? SPOTTED SEA-BAT. Malthe vespertilio nasuta, (Cuv. and Vnl.) J. and G. 



LOrilllDiE. 

7 FISHING-FROG; MONK-FISH; GOOSE-FISH; ALL-MOUTH; BELLOWS- , 
FISH ; ANGLER. LophiuB plscatoriufl, LinnC*. 



ORDER HETEROSOMATA. FLAT-FISHES. 

Fishes which are peculiar in tlmt tlic anterior portion of the skull is 
80 twisted that the sockets of botli eyes are brougjit to tlic same side, one 
being vertical, the other lateral. The posterior portion of the skull is 
normal. — (Cope). 

The Flat-fishes form a compact group, all the species being included 
in a single family. They are almost exclusively marine, and arc widely 
distributed. About four hundred species are recognized. 



PLEURONECTIDiE. 

TONGUE-FISH ; LONG SOLE. Aphorlstia plaglusa, {Unn6) J. and G. 
SPOTTED SOLE: HOG CHOKER. Achlrus llneatus, (Llnn<5) Cuvier. 
GRAY FLOUNDER. Etropus crossotus, J. nnd G. 
NEW YORK FLOUNDER. Paralichthys ommatus, Jor. and Gilb, 
FLOUNDER. Paralichthys sciuamilentus, J. and G, 
? PALE-SPOTTED FLOUNDER. Paralichthys albigutta, J. and G. 
SOUTHERN FLOUNDER. Paralichthys dentatus, (Linn{') J. and G. 
FLOUNDER. Paralichthys ocellaris, (Dck.) J. and G. 
FLOUNDER Citharichthy3 spiloptenis, Giinthcr. 



ORDER ACANTKOPTERI. SPINY-RAYED FISHES. 

This is the great order of typical modern fishes. The skull is symmet- 
rical. The gills and their covers (the opercular apparatus) are normal and 



240 VERTEBRATE AXIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

complete. The former open anterior to the pectoral fins. The anterior 
rays of the dorsal and anal fins exist as spines. 

The fishes of this order are of wide distribution, and among them are 
found both marine and fresh-water forms. The majority of the marine 
food-fishes belong here. About six hundred species are found in the 
waters of and about North America. 



GADIDiE. 

HADDOCK. Oadus segliflnus, L. 
EAIILL'S HAKE. Phycis earlll, Bean. 



OPHIDIID.E. 
? BROWN SNAKE-FLSH. Ophidium marginatum, DeKay. 

LYCODIDiE. 
Lycodalepis pclarls, (Sabine) J. and G. , 

BLENNIID.E. 

7Clinu3 nuchipinnis, Quoy and Galmard. 
CAROLINA B LENNY. Blennius caroUnua, (C. and V.) J. and O. 
? BLENNY. Hypleiirochilus gemlnatus, (Wood) J. and G. 
SPOTTED BLENNY. Isesthes punctatus, (Wood) J. and G. 
IIENTZ, BLENNY. Isesthes hentzii. (Lcs.) J. and G. 
OLIVE-GREEN BLENNY. Isesthes scutator, J. and G. 
BOSC'S SILVNN Y. Chasmodes boscianus, (Luc.) Cuv. and Val. 

BATRACHID/E. 

TOAD FISH ; OYSTER FISIJ. Batrachus tau, (Linn^) Cuv. and Val. 
MIDSHIPMAN. Porichthys plectrodon, J and G. 

GOBIESOCID.E. 
Gobiesox stnimosus, Cope. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 247 



TRIGLIDiE. 

FLYING ROBIN. Oephalacanthus spinareUa, (Linn6) Lnc. 

LINED SEA-ROBIN ; FLYING FISH. Prionotus evolans, (Linn^) Gill. 

WEB-FINGERED SEA-ROBIN; CAROLINA ROBIN, PrionotuS palmipes, 

(Mi*(;h.) Storcr, 
SEA-ROBIN. Prionotus tribulus, Cuv. and Val. 
SPOTTED SEA-ROBIN, Prionotus scltulus, J. and G. 



SCORPyENIDyE, 
SCORPION. Scorpsena steamsii, Goodo and Bean. 

GOBIIDJE. 

? SCALELESS GOBY. Qobiosoma bosci, ( Lac.) J. and G. 
BLACK GOBY. Gobius carolinenais, Gill. 
OLIVE GOBY. Gobius encaeomus, J. and G. 
STRIPED SLEEPER. Dormitator lineatus, GilL 
OLIVE CULIUS. Culius amblyopsis, Cope. 

Lepidogobius thalassinus, J. and G. 
Gobionellus oceanicus, (Pall.) J. and G. 

URANOSCOPIDiE. 

? NAKED STAR-GAZER. Astroscopus anoplus, (Cuv. and Val ) Brevoort. 
Astroscopus y-graecmn, (C. and V.) Gill. 

CH/ETODONTIDiE. 

? ANGEL-FISH ; ISABELITA. Pomacanthus ciliaris, (Linn.) J. and O. 
? BANDED BRISTLE- TOOTH. Chaetodon maculocinctus, (Gill) J. and G. 

EPIIIPPIID/E. 
. ANGEL FISH ; MOON FISH. Chaetodipterus faber, (Brouss.) J. and G. 



2 IS VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

LABRIDiE. 

r.r.ACK-FISII ; TAUTOG. Tautoga onitis, {Linn(S) Giinther. 

Callodon ustus, Cuv and Val. 
IIAZOK-FISII. Xjrrichthys lineatus, Cuv. and Val. 
BLVE-FISII ; DOXELLA. Platyglossus radiatus, (L.) J. and G. 



GERRIDiE. 

? BROW>' GERROID. Gerres homonymus, (Goode and Bean) J. and G. 
SILVER GERROID. Gerres gulo, C. and V. 



SCI^NIDiE. 

SPC)TTED SEA TROUT ; SALMON TROUT. Cynosclon maculatum, (Mitchell). 

Gill. 
SA LT-WATER TROUT ; ^VEAK FISH. Cynosclon regalls, (Dioch) Gill. 
SALT-WATER TROUT. Cynosclon thalassinus, (Ilolb.) Gill. 
"WHITE TROUT : SALT-WATEK TROUT. Cynosclon nothus, (Holb.) Gill. 
DRUiM. Pogonias chromis, (Linnd) C. and V. 
YELLOW TAIL. Llostomus xanthurus, Lac(/pede. 
CHUB. Scisna stellifera, (Block) J. and G. 
SILVER PERCH. Sciaena chrysura, (Lac.) J. and G. 
SEA-BASS ; SPOn'ED-BASS. Sclsena oceUata, (Linn<;) Gunther. 
CAROLINA WHITING. MentJcirms alburnus, (Linn^-) Gill. 
SHORE WHITING. Menticimis littoralis, (Holbr.) Gill. 
CRO.VKER. Micropogon undulatus, (Linnc) Cuv. and Val. 
CROAKER. Larimus fasciatus, Ilolbrouk. , 



SPARIDiE. 

BRE.VM. Pimeleptems boscil, Lac('pcdo. 

SroT-TAILED PIN-FISH. Diplodus caudimacula, (Poey) J. and G. 
BREAM. Eiplodus holbrooki, (Bean) J. and G. 
BREAM. Lagodon rhomboides, (Linnc) Ilolbrook. 
SHEEPSHEAD. Arcbosargus probatocepbalus, (Walbauna) Gill. 
rORGY. Stenotomus arg^rops, (Linne) Gill. 
GILT HEAD. Sparus aculeatus, (Cuv. and Val.) Gill. 
FLASHER. Lobotes surinamensis, (Bloch) Cuvier. 
? WHITE GRUNT. Diabasis trivittatus, (Bloch and Schn.) J. and G. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 249 

STRAIGHT-BACKED GRUNT. Diabasis chrysoptenis, (Linn.) J. and G. 
BLACK GRUNT. Dlabasis fonnosus, (L., J. nnd G. 
? VIRGINIA HOG-FISH. Pomadasys virginicus, (Linn^) J. nnd G. 
SAILOR'S CHOICE; HOG-FISH. Pomadasys fulvomaculatus, (MitchoU) J. 

cndG. 
Mi^NGROVE SNAPPER ; BASTARD SNAPPER, Lutjanus auroruTjens, (Cuv. 

and Vnl.) Vaillant- 
YELTING ; GLASS-EYED SNAPPER. Lutjanus caxis, (Bl., Schn.) Gill. 



SERRANIDiE. 

SOAP-FISH. Rypticusmaculatus, Holbr. 
RED GROUPER. Epinephelus morio, (Cuvier) Gill. 
BLACK GROUPER. Epinephelus nigritus, (Holbr.) Gill. 
SQUIRREL FISH ; SERRANO. Serranus fascicularis, Cuv. nnd Val. 
GRAY SERRANO. Serranus trifurcus, (Linn.) J. nnd G. 
BLACK FISH. Serranus ratarius, (Linud) J. nnd G. 
ROCK-FISH ; STRIPED BASS. Roccus lineatus, (Bl., Srhn.) Gill. 
WHITE PERCH. Eoccus americana. (Gmelin) J. nnd G. 



PERCID^E. 

YELLOW PERCH; AMERICAN PERCH; RINGED PERCH. Perca ameri- 
cana, Schranck. 
BARRATT'S DARTER. Poecillcthys barratti, (Holbr.) J. and G. 

? Nothonotus vulneratus, (Cope) Jor. » 

? Nothonotus rufilineatus, (Cope) Jor. 
CRAWL-A-BOTTOM. Hadropterus nigrofasciatus, AfruBsiz, 

Alvordius crassus, Jordan and Brayton. 
? Alvordius neviensis, (Cope) Jor. 
?Bollosoma effulgens, (Grd.) Cope. 
?Boleosoma olmstedi, (Storor) ApnHHlz. 
? loa vitrea, (Copo) J. nnd B, 



CENTRARCIIIDiE. 

SMALL-MOUTHED BLACK BASS. Micropterus dolomieu, Imc 

Lepomis holbrooki, (Cuv. nnd V.il.) MoKny. 
BLUE SUNFISH ; COPPER-NOSED BREAM ; DOLLARDEE. Lepomis paUidus, 

(Mitch.) Gill nnd Jor. 
LONG-EARED SUNFISH. Lepomis megalotis solis, (Cuv. nnd Vnl.) McKny. 



250 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

? LONG-EARED SUNFISH. Lepomi3 aurltus, (L.) Raf. 

Lepomls elongatUB, (Ilolbr ) Gill and Jor. 
BLACK-BANDED SUNFISII. Mesogonistius ch^todon, (Baird) Gill. 

Enneacanthus simulans, (Cope) McKay. 
? Enneacanthus gloriosus, (Holbr.) Jor. 
? Enneacanthus obesus, (Baird) Gill. 
MUD SUNFIsn. Acantharchus pomotis, (Baird) Gill. 

Centrarchus macropterus, (Lao.) Jor. . 



APHREDODERID.E. 
? PIRATE PERCH. Aphredodems sayanus, (Gillinms) DeKay. 

BRAMIDiE. 
Pteraclis carolinus, Valenciennes. 

CORYPILENID.E. 
Coryphaena sueuri, Cuv. and Val. 

STROMATID.E. 
HARVEST FISH. Stromateus peru, Linnc. • 

POMATOMID.E. 
BLUEFISH ; SKIP-JACK. Pomatomus salatrix, (Linn^) Gill. 

CARANGID.E. 

HORSE FISH. Selene setipinnis, (Mitch.) Liitken. 

SILVER MOON-FISH. Selene vomer, (Linnc) Lutken. 

DOTTED SCAD Decapterus punctatus, (Agassiz) Gill. 

MACKEREL SCAD. Decapterus macarellus, (Cuv. and Val.) Gill 
? BIG-EYED SCAD. Caranx crumenophthalmus, (Bloch) Lac. 

YELLOW CREVALL6. Caranx pisquetus, Cuv. and Val. 
- HORSE CREVALLfi. Caranx hippos, (Linn*:') Gunther. 

HORSE CREVALLfi. Caranx fallax, Cuv. and Val- 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 251 

GREEN CREVALL6. Caranx falcatus, Holbr. 
? BEAN'S CKEVALLfi. Caranx beani, Jordan. 

THREAD FISH. Blethari crinitus, (Akerly) DeKay. 

THREAD FISH. Chloroscombrus chrysurus, (Linn6) Gill.- 

SHORT PAMPANO. Trachynotus ovatus, (Linn(5) Gunther. 

GLAUCOUS PAMP \N0. Trachjmotus glaucus. Cuv. and Val. 

CREVALL6; CAVALLI. 

POMPYNOSE Trachynotus carolinus, (Linn6) GUI. 

POMPYNOSE. Seriola fasciata, (Bloch) C.-and V. 

RUDDER FISH ; BONITO. Seriola zouata, (Mitch.) C. and V. 

RUDDER FISH. Seriola carolinensis, Holb. 
? YELLOW-TAIL. Seriola lalandi, Cuv. and Val. 
? PILOT-FISH. Naucrates ductor, (Linn.) Raf. 



SCOMBRIDiE. 

MACKEREL. Scomber colsos, Gmelin. 

MACKEREL (occasional). Scomber scombrus, Liun6. 

BONITO SKIP-JACK. Sarda mediterranea, (Bl. and Sch.) J. and O. 

HORSE MACKEREL. Orcynus thynnus, (Linn(5) Poey 

SPANISH MACKEREL. Scomberomorus maculatus, (Mitch.) J. and G. 

BLACK-SPOTTED SPANISH MACKEREL. Scomberomorus regalia, (Bloch) J. 

and G. 
SIERRA. Scomberomorus caballa, (Cuv. and Val) J. and G. 



TRICHIURIDyE. 
HAIR-TAIL. Trichiurus lepturus, Linne. 

XIPHIIDiE. 

? BILL-FISH; SPEAR-FISH; AGUJA BLaNCA. Tetrapturus albidus, Pbey. . 
? COMMON SWORD-FISH. Xiphias gladius, L. \ 

ELACATIDiE. 
CRAB-E.\TER ; COBIA. Elacato canada, (Linu6) Gill.. 

ECHENEIDJE. 

REMORA. Echenels remora, L. 

LONG-JAWED REMORA. Phthlrichtliys lineatus, (Menzios) Gill. 

PEG A DOR. Echeneis naucrates, L. 



2o2 VERTEDRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

POLYNEMIDiE. 
• Polynemus octofllis, (Gill) J. and G. 

SPYRiENIDyE. 

riCUDA ; BARRACUDA TIKE. Spyraona picuda, Blcch and Schn. 
? 15 A RUACUDA. Sphyrajna guaguancho, Cuv. and Val. 



ATIIERINIDiE. 

V SILVKRSIDKS. Menidia notata, (Mitch.; J. and G. 
WANI)1',UINU SILVJ'-RSIDKS. Menldla vagrans, (Goodc nnd Bonn) J. and G. 
BOSC'S SI LVI':rsI DES. Menidia vagrans laciniata, Swain. 
CAROLINA SILVERSIDES. Atherina Carolina, Cuv. and Val. 



MUGILID.E. 

I^IULLET. Mugil albula, Linnd. 

WHITE MULLET; LIZA. Mugil brasiliensis, Agassiz. 



ORDER IIEMIBRANCHII. HEMIBRANCHS. 

A small order of fislios, nllied to tho Acanthoptcri, but having tiie 
mouth 1)ouii(UmI uhovo by tho promu.Killiiry bones only, and tho bonos of 
the throat reduced in number. Tho ventral fins aro abdominal. 

The North American species aro but eleven in number. All the rep- 
resentatives of the order are of small size and economically unimportant. 



GASTEROSTEID.E. 

STICKLEBACK. Apeloa quadracus, (Mitch.) Brevoort, 

CO^DION STICKLEBACK ; BURNSTICKLE. Gasterosteus aculeatuB, L. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 253 



ORDER LOPHOBRANCHII. 

Fishes with tufted gills and small toothless mouths, bounded above by 
the premaxillary bones and carried at the end of a long snout. TJio 
basis of the pectoral fins are elevated, and the skin is covered with bony 
plates. 

Small fishes of peculiar form and curious and interesting habits. Six 
species representing two families occur in North American waters. 
Fishes of tlio sea and brackish waters. 



HIPPOCAMPIDiE. 

FLORIDA SEA-HORSE. Hippocampus stylifer, J. nud G. 
SEA-IIOIiSE. Hippocampus heptagonus, Raf. 



SYNGNATIIIDiE. 
LOUISIANA PIPE-FISH. Siphostoma louisianae. (Gunther) J. and G. 

ORDER SYNENTOGNATHI. SYNENTOGNATHOUS FISHES. 

Fishes in which the shoulder-blade is connected with the skull by 
means of a post-temporal bone. The parietal bono of the skull is very 
small. The ventral fins are abdominal, and, as in the case of the others, 
are without spines. 

This order includes but a single family, the ScoDihcrcscida;, or Flying- 
fishes and Gar-fishes. They have peculiar elongated mouths, and arc 
carnivorous. The family is represented in North America by seventeen 
species, Afarino fishes. Tlie fiyiug-fishcs have attracted much attention 
on account of tiieir curious ai'-rial ])erf()rmaiices. They arc able to huh- 
tain themselves in the air for about a minute at a time, during wiiich 
period they vibrate their " wings " or pectoral fins, and move with great 
rapidity. At such times they are fleeing from their aquatic enemies. 

SCOMBERESOCIDyE. 

FLYING FISH. Exoccetus novaboracensis, MitchiH. 
FLYING FISH. Exoccetus Mllianus, Gossc. 
HALF-BEAK. Himrhamphus unifasclatus, Ranznni. 



254 VERTEDRATK ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

HHOIJT-NOSKD FKII'PKU. Bcomboresox brevirostrls, Potors. 
?. SAURY; SKFITKU; IlILrv-FlSII, Scomberesox saurus, (Wulb.) Fleming. 

HILVi'K OAK ; iJlLI^risir, Tylosurus marlnus, (131. nnd Helm.) J. and O. 
? NKKDLK-FISII. Tylosurus hlans, (C. und V.) J. and G. 



SUB-CLASS PHYSOSTOMI. SOFT-RAYED FISHES. 



ORDER APODES. EELS. 

An order of fislies well known from its representative, the common 
Eel. The maxillary bones and p^ill-covers are frequently wanting, as are 
in all cases the ventral fins. The vertcbne are unusually numerous. 
No spines in the dorsal and anal fins, which are not distinct from the 
tail. The body is serpentine and usually entirely without scales. 

There has been much doubt relative to the manner in which eels 
spawn, but it has at length been proved that the mode is not unlike that 
of fishes. The male is smaller than the female. 



ANGUILLIDyE. 

? CONGER EEL. Conger niger, (Risso) J. and G. 
COMMON EEL. Anguilla rostrata, (Lo Sueur) DeKay. 
GOLDEN SNAKE-FISH. Ophichthys chrysops, Poey. 



ORDER HAPLOML HAPLOMOUS FISHES. 

In the fishes of this order the mouth and gill-covers are normal, and 
the former is furnished with teeth. The ventral fins are present (except 
in a few instances), and are abdominal in position. The vertebrce are 
normal. The scales of the head and body are cycloid. 

A large group of fishes of varying size, of which the family of Pikes 
are kcll known. The majority inhabit fresh waters. The Cyprinodonts 
swarm in every brook. 



VERTEDRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 255 

ESOCIDiE. 

COMMON EASTERN PICKEREL ; GRKKN PIKE. Esox reticulatus, Lcsucur. 
BANDED PICKEREL. Esoxamericanus.Oinclln. 

CYPRINODONTIDiE. 

Oirardinus fonnosus, Grd. 
Oambbusia patniells, (U. jind G,) Girnnl. 
Zygonectes clngulatus,, (C. nnd V.) Jor. 
MINNOWS, -j Zygonectes zonatus, (Mitch,) .Tor. 

Zygoaectes chrysotus, (Giinther) Jor. 
? Zygonectes melanops, (Cope) Jor, 
[ ?Zygonectes atrilatus, Jordan nnd Brayton. 
COMMON KILL! FISH; MUMMICIIOO; SALT-WATER MINNOW. Fiindulns 
heteroclitus, (L.) Giinther. 
? Fnndulus nigrofasciatus, (Lc S.) C and V. 
Fundulus similis, (Baird and Girnnl) Gtlir. 
KILLIFISn ; MAYFISH ; ROCKFISII Fundulus majaUs, (Walb.) Gthr. 

Fundulus swamplus, (Lac.) Gthr. 
, ? Cyprinodon variegatus, Lac(?pC'de. 

AMBl YOPSIDiE. 
BLIND-FISH. Chologaster comutus, Agassiz. 



ORDER ISOSPONDYLI. ISOSPONDYLOUS FISHES. 

A very large order, of which mnn)- representntives are well known, 
but which it is dificult to define On account of the lack of positive char- 
acters. The vertebrate, mouth and gills are normal. The latter arc 
four in number, and behind the last is a slit. Pn several families, 
notably in the Salmonidrc, an adipose, raylcss fin is found on the back. 
The order has nearly a hundred representatives in North America, in- 
cluding the Salmons, Herrings, and other very important food-fishes. 



SALMONID.E. 

BROOK TROUT; SPECKLED TROUT. Salvelinus fontinalis, (Mitch.) GiU and 
Jor. 



2."<) VKllTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAHOLINA. 

SCOPELID.E. 
SAND PIKE ; LIZARD FISH. Sinodus foetens, (L.) Gill. 



ENGRAULIDip.E. 

ANCHOVY. Stolephorus brownil, (Gmclin) J. and G. 

MITCIIILL'S ANCHOVY. Stolephorus mitcWllil, (C and V.) J. and G. 



DOROSOMATIDiE. 
GIZZARD SHAD ; HICKORY SHAD. Dorosoma cepedianum, (Le S.) Gill- 



CLUPEIDiE. 

MENHADEN f BUG FISH. Brevoortia menhaden, (Mitch.) Gill. 

SILVD. Clupea s?,pidissima, "Wilson. 

THREAD HERRING; MHNHADEN. Opisthonema thrissa, (Osbeck) Gill. 

BRANCH II ICRRING. Clupea vernaUs, Mitch. 

HICKORY SHAD; FALL SHAD. Clupea mediocris, Mitchill. 

GLUT HERRING; BLUE-RACK. Clupea seestivalis, Mitchill. 
?CO:\IMON HERRING ; " WHITEBAIT " (Young.) Clupea harengus, L. 
? ROUND HERRING. Etrumeus teres, (DuKay) GQnther. 

ELOriD.E. 

TARPUM ; JEW-FISH. Megalops thrisoidea, (Bloch and Schneider) Gunther. 
r.IG-EYED HERRING. Slops saunis, L. 

ALBULID.E. 
? LADY-FISII ; BONE-FISH, Albula vulpes, (L.) Goode. 



ORDER PLECTOSPONDYLI. PLECTOSPONDYLOUS FISHES. 

A liirge group of fishes, with normal mouths and gills, but with the 
first four vcrtebni) much modified. They ure mainly inhabitant of fresh 
water, and abound alike in large rivers and tiny brooks. They vary 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OV SOUTH CAROLINA. 



257 



much in size, some species being the smallest of all fishes, while others, 
such as the Buffalo fish, are conspicuously large. More than three hun- 
dred species are recognized as inhabiting North America. 



FALL-FISH 



CYPRINIDiE. 

CARP. Oyprinus carplo, L. (Introduced). 
SOUTHEUN BREAM. Notemigonus americanus, (L.) Jor, 
BREAM. Notemigonus gardoneus, (C. and V.) Jor. 
Squalius vandoisulus, (Vul) Jor. and Gilb. 
? CHUB ; HORNED DACE. Semotiius corporalis, (Mitch.) Putn. 
f Ceratichthys zanemus, Jordan and JJrayton. 
D,\CE. } ? Ceratichthys labrosus, Cope. 

[ Csratichthys hypsinotus, Cope. 

Minnilus scepticus, Jordan and Gilb. 
? TiTinnilus matutinus, (Cope) Jor. 
? Minnilus altipinnis, (Coihj) Jor. 
Minnilus chiliticus, (Cope) J. and G. 
[ Minnilus chlorocephalus, (Cope) Jor. and Gil. 
? RED FALI>-Fisn. Minnilus rubricroceus, iCope) J. and G. 
RED-CHEEKED SIIINKU. Minnilus coccogenis, (Cope; Jordan. 

f Cliola pyrrhomelas, (Cope) J. and G. 
SHINERS. \ Cliola chloristia, Jordan and Bmyton. 

[ Cliola nivea, (Coj><») J. and G. 
MILKY-TAILED SHINKU. Cliola galactura, (Cope) J. and G. 
Cliola euryopa, (Bean) J. and G. 
Cliola storeriana, (Kirt ) J. and G. 
Cliola saludana, Jor. and Brayt. 
? Cliola spectruncula, (Cope) J. and G. 



SHINERS. 



CATOSMIDyE. 

JUMPING MULLET ; JUMP-ROCKS. Moxostoma cervinum, (Cope) Jordan. 
r ?Moxo8toma conus, (Coj)c) Jordan. 
?Moxostoma crassllabre, (Cope) Jordan. 
JUMPING 7Moxo8toma thalassinnm, (Co))e) Jordan. 
MULLETS. 7Moxo3toma pldienso, (Co])o) Jordan. 
?Moxo3toma velatum, (Coi)e) Jordan. 
Moxostoma papillosum, (Cope) Jordan. 
? WHITE MULLl'/r. Moxoatom album, (Cope) Jordan. 
BLUE MULLET. Moxostoioa coregonus, (Cope) Jordan. 
17 



2.')8 VKIITKBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

SPOTTED MULLET ; STRIPED SUCKER Mlnytrema melanops, (Raf.) Jordan. 
? CREEK EISH: CHUB SUCKER. Erimyzon sucetta, (Lac) Jordan, 
? HOG SUCK KR; STONE ROLLER; TOTER ; CRAWL-AROTTOM ; HAMMER- 

HEAD; STONE LUGGER; H0<5 MOLLY. Catostomua nigricans, Le 

Sueur. , 

? COMMON SUCKER; WHITE SUCKER; BROOK SUCKER; FINE-SCALED 

SUCKER. Catostomus commersoni, (La(<''i'ttle) Jonlaii. 



OKDEPv NEMATOGXATIII. CAT FISHES. 

• 

This order isi)rincipiilly ty])ifleJ in the well-known cat-fislies {Sihmdit). 
The lower jaw is rudimentary, and prolonged into the base of the longest 
of the barbels whicii adorn the chin. There are no real scales, but sonic- 
tinics bony plates in the .skin. 

These are mostly fresh-water fislics, and are particularly abundant in 
Soulli America. 



SILURID.E. 

FORK-TAILED CATFISH, ^lurichthys marinus, (Mitch.) Baird and Girard. 

SEA CATFISH. Alius fells, (L.) J. and G. 

CHANNKL CAT ; WHITE CAT. Ictalunis punctatus, (Raf.) Jordan. 

MCI) CAT. Amiurus platycephalus. (GnL) Gill. 

(iKF.EN MUD CAT. Amiurus brunneus, Jordan. 

Noturus insignia, (Rich.) Gill and Jurdun. 
7 Noturus eleutheruB, Jordan. 



SUBCLASS IIOLOSTEI. BONY GANOIDS. 

ORDER HALECOMORPIII. AMIAS. 

Ganoid fishes with partially heterocercal tails, vertebrae concave at 
both ends, and peculiarly modified pectoral fins. The intestine with a 
rudimentary spiral valve. But one species is known. It inhabits tho 
fresh waters of the United States. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 259 



AMIIDiE. 

MUD FISH; DOG-FISH; BOW-FIN ; GRINDLE; "JOHN A. GRINDLE;" 
LAWYER. Amia calva, L. 



ORDER GINGLyMODI. GAR-PIKES. 

The Gar-Pikes resemble the Amias, and with them form the sub-class 
Holostei or Bony Ganoids. The tail is heterocercal ; the vertebrae are 
concave only in front. The jaws are elongate, the upper being the longer. 
The body is covered with rhombic plates. 



LEPIDOSTEIDiE. 

LONG-NOSED GAR ; BILL-FISH; CO.MMON GAR PIKE. Lepidosteus osseus, 

(L.) Agnssiz. 
SHORT-NOSED GAR. Sepidosteus platystomus, Raf. 



SUB-CLASS CHRONDROSTEI. 
ORDER GLANIOSTOMI. STURGEONS. 

An order of ganoid fishes possessing an elongated body covered witli 
five rows of bony scales or shields. There nro four barbels under tho 
mouth, which is toothless and opens directly downward, Tlio tail is 
heterocercal. 

A small order of peculiar and readily recognizable fi.shes, usually of 
large size, and mostly inhabiting fresh waters northward. A few spe- 
cies are marine. The eggs of these animals furnish tiie well-known 
caviare, a food product more extensively eaten in Europe than in 
America. 

acipenserid;h:. 

SHARP-NOSED STURGEON. Aclpenser oxyrhsmcus, Mitch. . 
SHORT-NOSED STURGEON. Aclpenser brevirostris, LoSucur. 



2G0 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



CLASS ELASMOBRAN'CHII. SPIARKS AND RAYS. 

Having a cartilaginous skeleton, no swim-bladder and a naked skin, 
or one covered with plates. The skull is cartilaginous. The pectoral 
fins are largo. Teeth are invariably present. The eggs are few, large, 
often laid within a leathery, tendrilled case, secreted by a large gland in 
the oviduct. 

The class contains two sub-classes, the Chimairas, Iloloccphali, which 
have sub-terminal mouths, large fins, very long tails, and naked skins; 
and Sharks and Rays, Phif/iosiomi, which liave inferior mouths, shorter 
tails, and skin covered with large, placoid scales. The sub-class of the 
ClunuiTas is undivided, but in the sub-class Plagistomi, two orders are 
recognized, the Sjmrks, »S''y(/a//, and the Rays. Hain. All are marine. 

This class was more fully represented in the past than at present. 
The American species are not well known. The members of the group 
have but little commercial value in America, except among the Chinese 
of the West coast. In Europe, however, skates are quite extensively 
eaten. Sharks, especially those .«5pecies known as dogfish, furnish con- 
siderable quantities of oil. 



ORDER RALE. RAYS. 

CEPHALOPTERID/E. 
DEVIL-FISH. Manta birostris, (Walbaum) J. and G. 

MYLIOBATID.E. 

CLAM-CRACKER; BISIIOl' RAY. iEtobatis narinari, (Euphraaen) Mullerand 
Ilenlc. 
? CO\V-NO.Si:n ray. Rhlnoptera Quadriloba, (Lee.) Cuvier. 
? SIIARP-XO.SED ray. Mylobatifl fremenvlllei, LcSueur. 

TRYGOXID.E. 

HUTTERELY ray. Pbsroplatea maclura. (LeSueur) Muller and Henle. 

STING R.\Y*. Dasyatis sabina, 'LcSuour) Gooile and Bean. 
?. STING RAY ; STINGAREK. Dasyatis centrums, (Mitch.) J. and G. 
? SAY'S RAY. Dasyatis sayi, (LcSueur) Goode and Bean. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 2G1 



RAIIDiE. 

? CLEAR-NOSED RAY. Rala eglanteria. (Lac.) LeSueur. 
? SUMMER SKATE. Eaia erinaceus, Mitchill. 
? WINTER SKATE. Raia laevis, Mitchill. 

Eaia omata, Garman. 

Raia plutonia, Garman. 



TORPEDINIDiE. 
TORPEDO; CRAMP FISH. Torpedo occidentalis, Storer. 

RHINOBATIDiE. 

SPECKLED LONG-NOSED RAY. Rbinobatus lentiginosus, Garman. 

PRISTIDiE. 
SAW FISH. Pristls pectinatus, Latham. 



ORDER SQUALL SHARKS. 
SQUATINIDiE. 
? ANGEL-FISH ; SHARK RAY. Siuatlna angelus, Dameril. 

LAMNIDiE. 
MACKEREL SHARK. Isunis glaucus, (M. and II.) J. and G. 

CARCHARIIDiE. 

SAND SHARK ; SHOVEL-NOSE. Oarcharias americanus, (Mitch.) Jordan and 
Gilbert. 



"202 VERTERRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



SPHYRNID.E. 

IIAM.MKIMIEADED SIIAKK. Sphyrna zygsena, (Linn<5) M. nnd H. 
SIIOVKL-HKAD SHARK ; BONNKT-IIKAI). Reniceps tiburo, (Linn(5) Gill. 



GALKOJiniNID.E. 

SlIARr-N()Si;i> SIIAItK. Scollodon terrsB-nova}', (lilvh.) Ulll. 
KIK )ItT-NOSKD SAW-TOOTH. Hypoprion brevirostrls, Poey, 
SMOOTH HOUND ; DOU-FISH. Mustelus hinnulus, (Blainv.) J. and 0, 

GINGLYMO.STOMATID.E. 
NUKSE SHARK. Ginglymostoma cirratum, (Gmel.) M. and H. 



CLASS LEPTOCARDII. LEPTOCARDIANS. 

A class of aquatic vertebrate animals in which the skull is undevel- 
oped, being rei)resentcd by a continuation of the cartilaginous back-bone 
(notochord). The brain and the heart are not developed. 

A very limited group of rather rare animals, the lowest of the verte- 
brates, connected with the fishes, in a^ systematic arrangement, through 
tijc class Jhdslpo brancliiatei*, or lamprey, eels and hog-flshes. All are 
marine. The following species belong to the order Cirrostomi: 



BRANCIIIOSTOMID.E. 
LANCELKT. Branchiostoma lAnceolatum, (Pallas) Gray. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



1. GENERAL WOIIKS ON BIOLOGY. 

Jevons— Tho Principles of Scionro, Vols. 
L titul II. London; Mucin i liun i^ Co., 

1874, 

Si'ENCEii— Tlio Principles of IJiolofry, Vols, 
I. nnd II. American edition. 'Sew 
York : D. Appleton & Co., 18cSl. 

Dahwin— On theOri;,'in of Si)eci('H. Ameri- 
can edition. Kew York : D. Apj)leton 
& Co., 1«80. 

2. GENKUAL WORKS ON ZOOLOGY: 

Kemi'Kk — Animal Life. New York: D. Ap- 
pleton «& Co., 1881. 

Geokxdbauu — Elements of Comparative 
Anatomy. En<,'li«li Translation. Lon- 
don : Macmillan & Co., 1878. 

Balfour— A Troatiso on Comparative Em- 
bryology. VoIh. I. and II. London : 
Macmillan & Co., 1880. 

Huxley— An Introduction to the Clansifl- 
cation of Animals. New edition. Lon- 
don, l!5S2. 

3. WORKS RELATING TO NORTH 

AMERICAN MAMMALS. 

Baird— Mammals of North America. Phila- 
delphia: J. R. Lippincott & Co., 1839. 

OiLL — Arrangement of the Families of 
MammnlH. Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington. 

Coues— Miisielidje, or Fur-Bearing Ani- 
mals. T'nited States CJeological Sur- 
vey. Washington, 1877. 

Allen— History of North American Pln- 
ne|ieds. Unitiul States Geological Sur- 
vey. Washington, 18H0, 



Coues ANi> A lles— Monographs of North 
American Rodentia. United States 
(Jeological Survey. WaMhington, 1877. 

Allen, IL — Monograph of the Bats of 
North America. Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, Washington, 18i>4. 

JoKDAN— Manual of the Vertebrates of the 
Northern United States. .*^econd edi- 
tion. Chicago : Jansen, McClurg & 
Co., 1878. 

4. WORKS RELATING TO NORTH 

AMERICAN BIRDS 
RiDowAY — Nomenclature of North Ameri- 
can Birds. United States National 
Museum, Washington, 1881. 

Baikd— Review of Anjeriran Birds. Smith- 
sonian Institution. Washington, 1804. 

Bairo, Buewer and RiDciWAY— A History 
of North .\merican Birds, \jinil Binl.M. 
Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1874. 

Cofiia — Birds of the Northwest. United 
States Geolotrical Survey. Washington, 
1874. 

Cooper— Ornithology of California, Vol. I, 
Land Birds. Baird, Editor. Cambridge: 
1870. 

5. WORKS RELATING TO NORTH 
AMERICAN REPTILES AND B.V- 
TRACHIANS. 

CoPE-Check-List of North American Rep- 
tiliaand Batrachia. Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Washington, 187.'>. 

AoAssiz— Contributions to the Natural His- 
tory of the United States, V(»Is. I. and 
II. Boston : Little, Brown A Co., 1m.'i7. 

HoLiiiiooK —North American Hcrpetohjgy, 
Vols. I.-V. Philadelphia. 1842. 



204 



niBLIOGRArilY. 



H/Mun AND GiitAun— Catnlogtie of the Ser- 
jiciitH of North America, Siiiitlisoniun 
Institution, Washington, ISo.*}. 

I5oL'i,AN«Eii— A Cntalogiio of the Spccijncnn 
of r.iitrnchiaSalientia and Kcaiitlata in 
tlio British Museum, Second edition, 
l.ondon, 18B2. 

C. WORKS RKLATING TO NOKTII 
AMKKICAN FISHES. 

<.Jooi>E — Kinliery Report, United States 
JOtli Cen.stjs, Vol. I., Part ;>3. Fishes, 
Waphington. [In Press]. 

Gc.vTiiKH — An Introtluction to the Study 
of Fifhcs. London, 1881. 



On L— List of the FamllicB ot Fishcu. 
SniitliHonlan Institution, Woahington, 
1872. 

Gi'NTiiER— Catalogue of the FishcB in the 
British Museum, Vols. I. -VIII. Lon- 
don, 1804. 

Jordan — Conlrihutions to North American 
Ichthyolo^ry, Nos. 1 to :?. United States 
National Museum, Washington, 1877, 
1878. 

Jordan and Gilrert. — Synopsis of the 
Fishes of North America. Bull. IG, 
I'. S. National Museum, Washington. 
1883. 



CHAPTEK XT. 



A LIST OF THE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA 
OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



BY L. 0. HOWARD, 

U. 8. AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

As an appendix to the report of Professor Tuomey, or the Geology of 
South Carolina (Cplumbia, 1848), appeared a list of the fauna of the 
State, prepared by Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes. To tlie portion of that list 
upon the invertebrata, the present paper may be consi<lered as a svjipk- 
meiit, so far as the classes Insecta, Arachnida, and Myriapoda are con- 
cerned, and as a rmxion of the rcnininder of the list, including many 
species since described, and others which have since been found to form 
part of the fauna of the Slate. For the portion of tlie list relating to the 
Insecta, I am myself responsible. With regard to the order Araneina 
(spiders), I have been enabled, through the kindness of Mr. George 
Marx, of Washington, to present not only a list of the described species, 
but to add to it a large number of undcscribed species, indicated by Mr. 
Marx's manuscript names. The list of Myriai)oda I have compiled fr(»m 
Prof. II. C. Wood's monograph of this group. For the remainder of tlio 
list, beginning with the Cruslacca, Mr. Henry W. Turner, of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, is responsible. He has carefully comj)arcd Prof. 
Gibbes' list with the more recent j)ul)li(ations, nnd the list is as accurate 
as the limited time and material will allow. 



2<JG 



INVERTEBKATn FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



It "will be noticed that where a species is recorded from an adjoining 
State, ronderin*; it highly probable that ft also occurs in South Carolina, 
the Stare i.s entered after the s])ecific name in parenthesis. The species 
is recorded without remark (1), wlien it has been collected within the 
confines of the State ; (2), wheii, as is frequently the ease, it has been 
collected at Savannah, just across the border line; and (3), where it has 
been reconled both from North Carolina and Georgia, or from Virginia 
and (Georgia, as, in such case, it is almost certain to be also found in 
South Carolina. 

"With the Class Insecta, a complete list would swell this work far be- 
yond its practical requirements. I shall, therefore, conline myself to the 
enumeration of the i)rincipal species which are injurious to vegetation, 
or which arc beneficial through their direct products, or from the fact 
that they jtrey upon or are jiarasites upon injurious species. This enu- 
meration i.s suj)})lcmcntcd, however, by a list of such works as the student 
will find useful in filling out gaps. In this li.<t no works are mentioned 
which do not bear upon the geographical distribution of the species. 

LELAXD O. HOWARD. 

Washington, October 22, 1S82. 



SUB-KINGDOM ANNULOSA. 



CLASS INSECTA. 



[.\ir brcntliinR artlcnlntos, with tlircc rc^jions (head, tliorax nnd abdomen), six 
legs, nnd usually wing.'^.] 

LIbT OF WORKS. 



r.oisnuvAi. AM) Li;CoNTE— lIistolreG<;n(''ral I 
et Icon(>i:raphic des Lcpi<loptC're.s ct 
des ChenillcH dc r.\?nerlquc Septen- 1 
trionule, Tarirt, ]$'M). j 

I 

CoM.MTiwK. .T. II.— Report on Senlo In^cetH. : 
An. lU'j.t. U. S. Dci>t. A>:rle., 1880, ! 

CnEspox, K. T. — Cntalf'pue nf the described 
specie* of several fuuiilicHof Ilyrnenop- 
tera inhnbitin^ North America. I'roc. 
KntniiK^lityical Society rhiladclj>hia, 
18(11 -(•.;?. 



Cri:s.s<>n,K. T.— Notes on the Species be- 
loM;.'ing to the Hub family Ichneumon- 
idcH found in America, north of Mexico. 
Trans. Am. Entomolojrical Soc , 1877. 

EnwAuns. W. H.— The llutterflics of North 
America Boston, 1871). 

Gi-OVKB, T.— Manuscript Notes from my 
Journal — IIen)iptera "Washinuton, 
1S70. (Only a few coj)ie8 printed from 
stone for private distribution) 



IN^VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



i::i 



Hagex, Dr, II. A.— Synopsis of the Neurop- 
tera of North America. Washington, 
* Smithsonian Institute, 1801. 

LeConte, J. L. — All of Dr. LeConte's gen- 
eral papere in the Proceedings Aoad. 
Sciences, Pliilada., and Proc. American 
Philosoph. Soc. 

LkConte and Horn — The Rynchophora of 
America north of Mexico — Proc. Am. 
Phil. Soc , 1876. 

Morris, Dr. J. G— Synopsis of the described 
Lepidoptera of the United States, 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst., 18G2. 

Norton, Edw.— Catalogue of the described 
Tenthredinidaj of North America 
Trans. Am. Entom. Soc, 1807-08. 

Osten-Sackkn, C. R — Catalogue of the 
described Diptera of North America. 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. 1878. 



Packard, A. S , Jr.— A Monograph of tlie 
Geoinetrid Moths, or Phahenida.', of 
tlie United States. Vol. X. Reports of 
the U. S. Geological Survey of tlie 
Territories. Washington, 1876. 

deSAVssvRE, Henri— Synopsis of .■Vmerican 
Wasps. Washington, Smithsonian In- 
stitute, 1875. 

S.MITHAND Abbott — The Natural History 
of the rarer Le]iid(>pterous In-ects of 
Georgia. London, 1797. 

Thomas, Cyrus — Synopsis of the Acrididto 
of Nortli America. U. S. Gelogical Sur- 
vey of the Territories, Vol. V. Wasli- 
ington. 1873. 

ZiMMEKMAXN, C. — SynopsIs of the Scolyti- 
da? of America, north of Mexico, witli 
Notes and an A})iiendix by Dr.LeCV nte 
Trans. Am. Entom. Soc, 1868. 



ORDER HYMENOPTERA. 

[Four membranous wings with comparatively few veins; the posterior wings 
emaller than the anterior; mouth parts formed for sacking and biting; metamorphosis 
complete- ] 

Of the families Urocendx (Horn-tails). Cynipidx (Oall-flies), Evaniidif, 
Proctotnipidie, Chrysididvc, Formicidsc (Anis), Mutillidic, Scoliada", PompilidiP, 
Sphcgidvc, Larridic, Bembccidie, Nyssonidfc, Crabroindir, T'f.spiW/r (true Wasps) 
Andrcnidie, and Apidre (Bees), wo shall omit detailed lists. 



FAMILY ICHNEUMONID.'E. ICHNEUMON FLIES. 



As nil Ichneumon Flics are of prime importance, in that they are para- 
sites upon other insects, we give as complete a list as possible of the 
principal sub-family. 



208 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Ichneumon eiiuciua Cress, 
maunis Cress, 
viola Cress, 
cincticornis Cre s. 
galenas Cress., (Va.) 
centrutor Say. 
iwrulens Cress, 
nienis Cress, (Vn.) 
Biibcyanous Cress 
vittifrons Cress. 
Hublntus Cress., (Va.) 
nzotus Cress., (Va.) 
nnifasi'iatorius Say. 
brontena Cress, 
wilsoni Cress., (Vn.) 
vcrsibilis Cross., (Va.) 
comes Cross., (Va.) 
lactHS I?riilk', (Va.) 
zobratus Cress., (Ga.) 
])iirv»i,'> Cress., (Vn.) 
llavi/onatiiH Cress,, ( Va.) 

IlopUsjnenns nionilns (Say), (Va) 

Amblytoles mnntaniis (Cross.), (Va.) 
illactiibilis Cress., (Gn.) 
lntli,stIiicfiiH(rrov.), (Ga) 
fraleriniM (Cross.), (Va.) 

Trogiis cxesoriiis I5riill(''. 

()b-<i(Iianator Bnill(?. 
brtiUi'i Cress. 



SUB-FAMILY ICHNEUMONINyE, 

Ichneumon paratus Say, (Va.) 

vinulus Cress., (Va.) 
honcstus Cress., (W. Va., Ga.) 
levicuUis Cress., (Va.) 
grandis Brull(?, (Va.) 
rufiventris Brull<5, (Va.) 
devinctor Say. 
insolens Cres.s. 



lewisil Cress, 
trogiformis Cress, 
instabilis Cross, 
funestus Cress., (Va.) 
mains Cress. 
dui)li(atiis .Say. 
annulipcs Cress., (Va.) 
scitiiliis Cress., (Va.) 
Beminigor Cress., (Va.) 
volens Cress. 
iniUTonatus Prov., (Va.) 
nnniiH Cress. 
rut ibis Cress., (Va.) 

Aniblytelos nubi vagus Cre.ss., (Va.) 
subruftis (Cress.) (Va.) 
(Ill tu rails (Say), (Va.) 
conclnnuH (Say.) 

TrogUH aploalls Cress. (CJa.) 

aiistrinus Cress., (Ga.) 
nubilipcnnlsllild. 



FAMILY CHALCIDID.E. CHALCIS FLIES. 

The species of thi.^ family, also parasitic upon other in.?ects, have been 
very little studied in this country, hence the list subjoined, on account of 
the present state of knowledge, can liardly bo considered as even indi- 
cative of the genera : 

Leuoospis aflinis Say. 



Sinicra torvina Cress, (Va ) 
nortonii Cress., (Va.) 
braoata Sanborn, (Va.) 



Smlcra marlae (Riley.) 

nigrifex Walk., (Ga.) 
Diirabilis Cress, (Ga ) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Chnlds minuta Fabr, (Ga.) 

Perilampus cyaneus Brull^. 



2C)9 



Chalcis ovata Say, . 
Phasgonoplioni Bulcata, Westw., (Ga.) 
Penlampus alexinus Walk., (Ga.) 
leprv.-08 Walk., (Ga.) 



Isosoma hordei (Harr.) (The joint worm-fly.) 
Spalanj:ia politiis (Say) (Va.) 
Epistenia coerulata Westw., ^Ga.) 
Enpelnius mirabilid (Walsh.) 
Metapelma spectabilia VVestw., (Ga.) 
Comys bicolor Howard, (Va.) 
Chilonciirns albicornis Howard, (Va.) 
Aphycus cruptor Howard, (V^a.) 
Blastothrix longipennis Howard, (Va.) 
Aphelinus inali (Ilald.) 

mytilaspidis LeBaron. 

abnonnis Howard, (Va.) 



Coccophagiis lecanli Fitch. 

fraternus Howard, (Va.) 

Knplectrus comHtockil Howard, (Ga ) 

ClrroHplluH CHuriiM, Uiloy, (Ga.) 
Trichograiiiiiiti prulluna Uiluy. 



Aphelinus fuscipennis Howard, (Va.) 
pulchellus Howard, (Va.) 



Coccophajjus varicornis Howard, (Va.) 



I 



FAMILY TENTPIREDINID^E. SAW FLIES. 

The larvae of nil tho saw flics, sometimes called " false cateq)illars," 
are injurious to vegetation. The following list is taken mainly from 
Norton's Catalogue of the described Tcnthrodinidiu : 



Clmbox anicricnna Leach. 
BchizoccniH i)luiiii}iora (King.) (Ga.) 
Atoinacera nidcollis Norton, (Va.) 
Hylotoma madeayi Leacli. 
analiij Leach, (Ga.) 
viroHccnH King, (Ga.) 



PriHtlphora tibluliri Norton, (Va.) 

Emphytus inornatus Say, (Va.) 
apertus Harr., (Va.) 



Hylotoma nbdominalis, Lrach, (Ga.) 
humcralis, Beauv. 
coccinca Fabr. 

PriHtophora grosHu'ariao Walsh., (?) (Na- 
tive currant worm). 

Emphytus varianiiH Norton, (Va.) 
tcBtaceus Norton, (Va.) 



270 



INVKHTEBRATE FAUNA OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



DtOoniH arvensis P:\y. . 

Hclandriii vit'iH Harris, (The vine saw fly.) 

obtiisn (King.) (Ga.) Selandria lablata (Klug.) (Ga.) 



Miicroidiyii imlchclla (King.) (Ga.) 
Unvico.xae Norton, (Va.) 



Macrophya tibiator Norton, (Va.) 
formoBus (Klug.) 



TiixontM nlhiilo-])i<.'tuH Norton, (Va.) 
Str()n;:yl()<:aHter niultii'in(.'tus Norton, (Va.) 
Tontlirivlo N-punctatiis Norton, (Vu.) 

L'ipliynis fabritii Lcuuh, (Ga.) Lophyriis abbottil Leach, (Ga.) (Pine saw 

fly.) 
ooinpar Loach, (CJa.) fimcricanus Loach, (Ga ) 



Lydn Honiiiincta Norton, (Va.) 
fin-imicincta King., (Gn.) 



Lyda nniplecta Fabr. 



ORDER LKPIDOPTERA. BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS. 

[Win'_'?^, four, nictnbranous; covered witli imbricated scales. Mouth parts formed for 
suckinj: : Metamorphosis complete.] 

FAMILY PAPILIOXID.E. BUTTERFLIES. 

There are about scvcnty-fivo species of diurnal Lepidoptera or Butter- 
llies in South Carolina. We will mention, however, only three species, 
distin^^uished by their particularly injurious larvae : 

I'ieris rapae L. (The Rape Butterfly, parent of the " Imported Cabbage- Worm.") 

protodice Bd. (The Southern Cabba^^e Butterfly). 
Goniloba protcus L. (The Roller-Worm Butterfly). 



FAMILY SPHINGID.E. IIAWK-MOTHS. 



Sidiinx Carolina L. (The<obacco-\vorm of the South). 
Diilainpolus pandorus Hb, (Injurious to the vine), 
achcmon Pr. (Injurious to the vine). 
Danipsa myron Cr (Injurious to the vine). 
Thyrcus abbotti Swains. (Injurious to the vine). 



IXVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



271 



FAMILY AEGERIDiE. CLEAR-WINGED MOTHS. 

Aegeria exitiosa Say. (Peach tree borer). . 
tipuliforinis L. (Currant borer). 



FAMILY BOMBYCID.E. SPINNERS. 

Although this family contains many leaf-eating caterpillars, none are 
•sufficiently noted to be mentioned here. We give, however, several of 
the larger spinners, the silk of which has been or could be used. 

ActiaB liina (L.) 
Attacus cynthiii Dm. 
Antheria ]>olyi)hemii8 (L.) 
Callosamia promcthca (Dru.) 
Samia ceeropia, (L.) 



FAMILY NOCTaiDiE. OWLET MOTHS. 

This family comprises many of the most injurious insects of the State, 
which we shall give somewhat in detail. Every species not otherwise 
designated in the list is a cut-worm in its larva state : 



Agrotia baja S. V. 

iiornianiana Gr. 
c-nigruin liinn. 
bicarnca Guen. 
flubgothica 1 1 aw. 
tricosa Lintner. 

hvrilis Gr. 
plecta Linn, 
cupula Or. 

Mamcstra legitima Gr. 

subjuncta G. and R. 
Hadena arctica Boisd. 
Hyi)pa xylinoides Guen. 
Prodenia cominelinao Guen. 
Trigonophora pcriculosa Guen, 
r-brunncum Or. 



AgrotiH clandestina Ilarr. 
incivls Guen. 
lubricans Guen. 
velleripcnnis Gr, 
mcssoria Ilarr. 

annuxa Treit«ch., (one of the cot- 
ton fut-woruis). 
nialefida Guen. 
ypnilon Rott. 
naucia Iliibii. 

Mamestra laudabiliH Oucn. 
Hadena tniaelioidcs Guen. 
Prodenia tlnviniedia Ilarv. 



272 INVERTKDnATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ICujiloxhi lucipum (L.) 
Ni'phelodcs violiinw (Jiicn. 
Ilydroc'c'iii nictltiuiH Itutjk. 

Lajpliy^'Miii frii^'iiicrdii (Sin. and Abb.) (OraHS-worm). 

Lmii'iuiia pidk'iH L. Lo'.icanlu unl])micta, (IIuw,) (Army worm 

of the North.) 
j)hrapmitldicoIa Gr. pHCudiirgyria Guen, 

Ak'tia xylina (Say). (Cotton worm). 
PliiHin bnissicac Riley. (Cabbage looper). 
Ilcliothis armij,'cra Iliibi. (Bjll-Wonn or Corn E.ir Worm). 



FAMILY GP:0METRID/E. 

The larvae of the Gcomctridac are fiimiliarly known as "measuring- 
worms," or " looper.s.'' Dr. ruckard, in liis Monograph, referred to before, 
enunierates 184 species found in the liniitsof the Alleghanian and Caro- 
linian faunae, and the great majority of these are doubtless to be found 
in South Carolina. A comnjon exam[)le is the " Gooseberry Span-worm " 
[Ki(J!fr}iia ribcria, Fitch). The larva of Eiir/onia siibHif/naria (Iliibn.) has 
recently done much damage to fruit trees in Fannin County, Georgia, 
and is verv common in South Carolina. 



FAMILY PYRALID.E. 

This is a poorly defined and very miscellaneous family. It has recently 
been split up into several smaller families, but it answers our purpose to 
consider it as a whole. The liabits of the larvae are extremely varied, 
and many of them are very injurious. The most injurious South Caro- 
lina species are subjoined : 

Aaopia cosialis (Fabr.) (The Clover Ilay Worm). 

IVinpoliii lipnosL'lla Zl-II, (The smaller Curn-StalU Borer). 

Dintraea sacclmri (Fabr.) (The larj,'C Corn-Stalk and Siigar-Cane Borer). 

Cldlo oryzaucllii.s Uiloy. (Tho Uic'c-Stalk Borer). 



FAMILY TOIITRKTD.E. LEAF ROLLERS. 

This is a large family of small moths, the larvae of which roll the 
leaves of dilleront trees and plants. Although .injurious to a certain 
degree, they rarely occur in sulliciently great numbers to become mark- 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 273 

edly SO. A familiar example in Carolina is the "Cotton leaf-roller," 
(Loxotfcnia rosaccana, Harr. ?) 



FAMILY TINEIDiT^. LEAF MINERS. 

The larvae of tins family are mainly leaf-miners, twig borers or case 
bearers! About eight hundred species have been described in the United 
States. The most injurious South Carolina species is undoubtedly the 
Angoumois grain moth {Gdcclda ccrcalla, CMiv.). The clothes moth 
[Tinea flarifrontella, Linn.) is also a familiar example. 



ORDER DIPTERA. FLIES, GNATS, P:TC. 

[Wings, two ; tlie posterior pair replaced by a pair of knobbed threads ("poisers" 
or "balancers"): Moutli parts formed for Hiickinj; : MetamorphoHis cotnp'ete.] 

The collected North American Diptcra number about 5,000 species of 
sixty families. We shall mention hero the eight families which possess 
the greatest economic interest. 



. FAMILY CECIDOMYID.'E. GALL FLIES. 

This family contains several very injurious insects, two of Avhich are 
found in South Carolina, as will be seen in the following list: 

Cecidomyia chrysopsidis L(e\v, (D. C.) Cecidomyla liirtipes O. S., (D. C.) 

destructor Say. (The lies- Bcrnilatae O. S., (D, C.) 

sian (ly). 
Diplosis caryae 0. .S., (D. C.) Diplosis robiniae (Ilald.) (D. C.) 

maiTUs Ltcw, (D. C.) tritici (Kirby). (The Wheat 

Midj:o.) 



FAMILY CULICID;E. MOSQUITOES. 

Culex boBcii R, Dcsvoldy. Culo.x taeniatus Wied., (Ga.) 

nibidiis R. Desvoidy. taoniorhynchus Wied. ( Atlantic 

States.) 

18 



274 



invertehrate fauna of south Carolina. 



FAMILY ASILID^E. ASILUS FLIES. 

The Asilus, or "Robber-flics" are of much interest, as they destroy 
other insects, botli injurious and beneficial : 



I.oplopaster carolinensis Schiner. 

Dio^inites discolor L(cw. (KilU cotton vf/rmn.) 

AtomoHin i)r.ellft "Wicd. 

DuHvlIifl Hiiirriina Va.hr. 

I.ni>liria nrrulliii'iihlH Hrliiner. 

(IllVl'HCCIlM Miicq. 

bicolor, Wiod. (So. StutoH.) 
Andrcnosoina pyrrlmcrn Wicd. 
MalloiiliDrn boinb(ii<lc.s 'Wiod, (Ou.) 
claiiHlcollii Miicq., (Va ) 
rn)nia<'liU8 quadrntus Wied, (Ga.) 
Erax apicalis Wied { KilU cotton wormg.) Erax femoratua Macq. 

bawtardi Macq., (X. A.) 
Proftacanthus lieros Wied. Proctacanthus longus Wied, (Ga.) 

Neomocthcrns f^racilis Wied. 
Tolmenis anmilipes Macq. Tolmerus notatus Wied. 



Lnplirin molonoj^nftter Wiod. 
goorjrina Wiod. 



Mallophora ordna Wied. 
Promaohiis niflpcs Wiod, (Ga.) ♦ 



FAMILY OESTRID.E. BOT-FLIES. 

GaHtropliiliis cqui Fabr. {Horse bot-fy.) GaMtrophilus nasalis L., (N. A.) 

liacmorrhoidaliB L., (N. A.) 
Ilypodonna bovia DeG. (Cattle hot-j'y ) Hypoderina Hncata Villiera, (N. A., Ky.) 
Oestrus ovis L. (Shrep hot-Jly,) 
Ccphoncmyia phobifcr Clark. 

Cutcrcbra buocata Fabr. Ciiterebra horripiium Clark, 

cuniculi Clark. {Rabbit bot-fly.) 



FAMILY TACHINIDiE. TACHIXA FLIES. 

The Tacliina flics much resemble common house flies. They are 
imnisitic upon other insects : 



Triiliojioda riliata Fabr. 
oil i pea Wicd. 
flavicornis U. Dosvoidy. 
formosa Wicd, (Ga.) 



Trli'hopoda hlrtipcs F«br. 

lanlpcs Fabr. (Ga.) 
phimlpca Fflbr, 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 275 

Gymnosoma fuliginosa R. Dosvoidy. 

Cistogaster immaculata Macq. 

Ocyptera epytus Walk., (Ga) • Ocyptera lituarta Oliv. . 

Ervia triquetra Oliv. 

Jurinia amethystina Macq., (Oa.) Jurinia virginiensia Macq , (Va.) 

georgica Macq., (Ga.) 
Micropalpus piceus Macq. 
Gonia auriceps Meigen, (Ga ) 
Kemoraea leucaniae (Kirk,). { Prey t 9n the Army-worm.) 

trixoidcH, Walk., (Ga.) 
Tttchliift tttra Walk., (Gn.) Tiicliliift Intorniptn Walk., (Go ) 

Clytltt atra II. Dowoldy. 



FAMILY HIPPOBSCIDiE. FOREST FLIES AND SHEEP TICKS. 

Olfersla amerlcana (Leach), (the owl tick), 
ardero Macq., (N. A.) 
brunnea Oliv. 

Ornithotnya avicularia L. (X. k.) (bird tick), 
nebiilosa Say, (N. A.) 
pallida Say, (N. A.) 

Melophagus ovinns L., (X. A.), (sheep tick). 

Ilippobosca equina L., (X. A.), (horse tick). 



ORDER COLEOPTERA. BEETLES. 

[Wings four; anterior pair (f/y/ra) meeting, usiially, in a Htrnight lino down the 
back. Elytra much thickened, forming a case, ^^nder which the poHterior wings art* 
folded : Posterior wings membranous : Month parts formed for biting. Metamor- 
phosis complete.] 

Thi.s is the be^t known order of Insects. Sonic cis;1it thonsand five Ijun- 
(Ired species linvo been described in th(» linitcd Stntes nnd ('jinnda,and, at 
an estimate, some four thousand .species will i)robably be found, bydili^jcjit 
collcctinpf, in South Carolina. An e.Kteiisive collection of the Coleoptcra 
of the State was nuido by Dr. C. Ziininerniann, who rc-idrd for sonic 
time at Columbia. This collection is now in the possession of the 
Museum of Comi)arative Zooloj;y, at Caml)ri(lj;e, Ma^'s., and Dr. Zimmcr- 
mann's MS, notes are in the good care of Dr. LeConte, of l*hiladelpliia 



270 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



The number of known species of South Carolina Coleoptera is so great 
that, in ordor to keep our list to its proper proportions, we have intro- 
duced simply an authoritative list .of the genera of tiie more important 
families. For this list we are indebted to Mr. E. A. Schwarz, a well- 
known Coleoptcrist. Each of these genera is represented in South Caro- 
lina, tho.sc in italics being cs.sentially Southern genera. 



FAMILY CICIXDELID/E. TIGER BEETLES. 

The beetles of this family are all predaceous. 

Tdrachu West. Cicindela Linn. 



FAMILY CAUABID/E. GROUND BEETLES. 

The ground beetles are mostly carnivorous ; Home of the species Imve, 
however, been found to bo vegetable feeders. 



Oiiu)]iliri)i\ Latr. 
Culo.soiiiu Web. 
Carabiis Linn. 
Noiiinrotiis LcC. 

I'usiinmliUM 
SniritcM l'iil)r. 
DyHcliiriiiM Hun 

AfiliKtaiDin I'lllZ. 

Ai>i>l'!'>i!'in<^'i l*utz. 
CliviiKV Liitr. 
Si-liir.o;,'(<ninM riitr. 
Uracln niiH Wob. 



ranii^^ious Lutr. 
Mvrio Latr. 
Holuoiiiorplia Lat. 
Gulerila Tabr. 
Ptcrostiolius Hon. 
Ainara Bon 
HailiHtcr (-'lalrv. 
I)i|)l()rliila nriillo. 
nii'ii'ltii lion. 
Anonioj^'losHiiH Cliii. 
ChlipniiiH Hon. 
OodoH Hon. 
Cratacanthus Dyj. 

TufhvH 



Casnonla Latr. 
Leptotrachehis Latr. 
Euc.rniB LeC. 
Lebia Latr. 
NemotnrfHH LeC. 
Tutra;;onorlenH Dej. 
.ApriHtiiH Cliaiul. 
lUocliriiH .MfitHi'li. 
.Xponc'M Lt'C. 
Cyinlndirt Latr. 
riila'xona Clit»nil. 
Calli.la DoJ. 
(-optoilcru Dej. 

ZilplLT. 



Calalhus Bon. 
Platynue Bon. 
Loxandrus LeC. 
Eiiartlirus LeC 
Aj^onoderus Dej. 
Anirtodactyitis Dej. 
.\MiHotar8UH Chd. 
(lynandropiiH Doj. 
ItradycolIiiN V.r. 
Sc'li-lioplioriin Ik'J. 
Ilurjtaluii Lutr. 
HtonoloidniM Dej. 
Heinbidiutn Latr. 



FAMILY COCCIN'ELLID.E. LADY-BIRDS. 

Tbc familiar lady-birds are, in the main, beneficial by destroying in- 
jurious insects. Certain .species have, however, been found to be vege- 
tarian. 

McL'ilia Mul.". Cyrloneda Cr Exoclioinns Redt. ^oymnuB Kng. 

Ilippodaraia Cher. Anatis MuIh. G-^neis Muls. CepJialotcymnuB Cr. 

Anisostic'ta Chev. Payilobora Cliev. BrachyacnnthaMiils. Pentilia. 

Coccinclla Linn. Cliiloconig Leach. Ilyperaspis Cliev. 



I^^VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLIXA. 



277 



FAMILY SCARABEIDiE. 

Many of the Scarabeids are vegetable feeders ; others feed upon dung 
and decaying animal and vegetable material. These last are here 
omitted. 

Serica McLeay. Diplotaxis Kirby. 

Macroilactylus Latr. Lachnosterna Hope. 
Cyclocephala Latr. Polymceclius LeC. 
Vhaleput McLeay. Xyloryetcs Ilojie. 
Ligyriis Bnrui. Strategus Hope. 

Aphonus LeC. Dynastes Kirby. 



Polypliylla. 

Anomala Koeppe, 
rfi'ileurus Latr. 
Allorldna Burm. 
Euphoria. 
Cremnstodiilus Kn. 



Strigodernia Burm. 
Pelidnota McLoay. 
Osmodcrma Lep. 
Gnorinius Lep. 
Trichina Fabr. 
Vuliius Scriba. 



FAMILY BUPRKSTIDyE. 
The larva) of the Buprestida' are wood-borers. 



Calcophora Sol, 
Dicerca Each. 
I'ujcilonota Esch. 
Buprestis Linn. 



Cinyra Laj). Actonodes Lac. Agriliis Sol. 

MoUinophila Each. Acnia>odera Eflch. Tajdiroccrim Sol. 

Anthaxia EhcIi. MaHtogonius Sol. Brachys Sol. 

ChrvHobothriB Esili. lUm-boscclis Chcv. Brachyscelus Sol. 



FAMILY ELATERIDii^. CLICK-BEETLES. 



The larvo) of 

Corophytuin Latr. 
MolaHlH Ollv. 
I)oltoiiiotopiiH Bv. 
Fornax I/ap, 
Anelnste» Kirby. 
I'crothopH Er. 
Adelocera Latr. 
Klator Linn. 



the " Click -beetles " are the familiar "wire-worms." 

DniHtoriiifl V.wA\, Laooii (icrm. Glyi)honyx Cand. 

M('gai>entIi('H Cnnd. Chnlcolrphlinn EmcIi. Mfslnnotim EmcIi, 

MonocrcpldlMH EhcIi, AIuiih EhcIi. Llmoiiiufi EhcIj, 

Dlcrc'pldhiH EmcIi. lIoiuirlii|tpim Latr. AMioum EhcIk 

IfjchiodontiiH Cand. CanllNphoniH EhcIj. ScrlcoHoniim E«ch. 

LinlliiH Latr. IIorUtonotiiH ('and. CoryndtifoH Latr. 

OtiiostothuH Lac. Cryptohypnu.s EhcI). AHajihcH Kirby. 

CrigmuH LoC. Do'opiuH EhcIi. Melanactos LeC. 

Cobrlfl Fabr. 



FAMILY TELEPHORIDiE. SOLDIER BEETLES. 

The larvo) of the Soldier beetles often destroy injurious larviu: Thus, 
Chaidio(/nathm marglnatns destroys the Cotton worm. 
Chauiiognathus Telephoriis SchiifTer. Ditemnus LeC. Malthiniis Latr. 

llentz. Poleinius LeC. Tryphorus LeC. Malthodcs Kiescnw. 

Podabrus Westw. SilisCl.arp. Loborus Kiesonw. 



27S 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



PWMILY CERAMBYCID.E. LONG-HORNS. 
Tlic lavvLr of the Loriir-liorns are almost all wood-borers. 



Mallodon Sltv. Clytim Laioh. Pliymutodcs Muls. 

OrtliosmiKi Scrv. XylotrccliuH Chev. tJ^iic Ncwm. 

IVioiius (icoff. Needy tii8 Thorns. CliionNewui, 

SulicnnstothiiH IIiilil. Clytnnthus Thorns. Ehuria -Serv. 

.\soiMUin Kscli. MirrocIytiiH LcC. Klaphidion Serv. 

i'riocophiihiK Muls. CyrtophornM I.oC. Tylonotus Ifnld. 



Liopus Serv. 
Lepturties Bate-i. 
HyjKjrpliitya Ilald. 
Graphisurus KirDy. 
Acimtliocinus Stejili, 
DcctoH LoC. 



Atiiniu Ilnlrl. 
Distenia Serv. 
Nccvdiili.s Linti 



Sinoiliiniin LcC. 
l>iihitiii.s Thoiiis. 
riiytoii Xewm. 
C'allyiiioxys Kraatz 
Mi>I>>rchus \'i\\)\\ 
Khfipuliipiiom Sorv. Ulu\;;uiin. 
I'ntylo TliDiiiM. Coiitroilom T,oC'. 

SU-no-phoniiM Iluld, ToxotusSorv. 
CyHfuo Xcwiii. (iiuiri)tc8 LcC, 

.Vrhnpalus "riv. Stran^'iiUaServ. 

TypoioniH Lo(.'. 



T{H<>morphn\\\i\\w\\, Ht'torafhtlics Newin. fJcyrus LcC. 

Kiiderces LeC- (-'iiriiiH Newin. Eiipugonius LeC 

Leptura Serv. Oncidcroa Serv. 

Cyrtinus LeC. Ataxia Ilald. 

Psonoionis LeC. ]Ii;)po])si8Sorv. 

Mnni)liaininu« Sorv. Sapcrda Fabr. 

I>urchiiitrlicm<t LoC. Mt'can LoC. 

llctioiiiif) Ilald. Obcroa Mull*. 

(id'rt LfC Totraopos Serv. 

At nntliddoroM .'^orv. AiiiphiuiiycliaThomB. 

Li'iito.HtyhiM LcC. 



I'WMILY CIIRYSOMELID.E. LEAF BEETLES. 

Tliis fimiily inoludcs ninny of the most injurious beetles, including 
tlie Colorado Potuto-beetle, the Sweet Potato-beetle, tlie Grape-vine Flea- 
beetle, and nianv others. 



Pi mafia Fabr. 
^Llc•ropIea Sum. 
Ordodaclina Latr. 
Loina Fabr. 
AnoinT I Iav:. 
Bahia Chev. 
Srixini'* Liic. 
Cu!<rinr)ptera Lac. 
Chlamys Knoch. 
Kxema Lac. 
Monachus Chev 



ruL'liybrachys Chvv. PiiyllecthriisLe'. 



LnjKTUs Geoir. 

Diabrotica Chev. 
Adiinonia Laich. 
Galenicra Ge jlf- 
Trirhahda LeC. 



Fidia Baly. 

Xanllionia I'aly. 

IIeterasj)i8 Cliov, 

Glyi)tos.'clis LeC 

MyofhronsChev. 

Typoplionis Ciiev 

Pari a I>eC. 

Metacliroinu Chev 

CohvspiH Fal)r, 

Chrysotncla Linn. 
Cryptocophalus Geoff. Gastrophysa Chev. Lonj;itarsii9 LeC. 
Triai'hnsLeC Melusoma. P>at(jphila Fond. 

Diachus LcC Corotoina Chev. Piiyllotretrx Fond, 

liriburius Ilald. Chcliniorpha Ciiev. Aphthona Chev. 

Phvsonota Boh. l»ibolia Chev. 



Systena Chev. 
Orthaltini Cr. 
, Lyperaltica Cr. 
Cre[)idodera Chev. 
Epitrix Fond. 
Mantnra Steph. 



P.u-liyonychua Cliov. Ceratultica Cr. 
Ilypohunpsis Clk. Chaetocnenia Steph. 



CEdionychis Latr. 
Disonyclia Chev. 
Graptodcra Chev. 



Psylliodes I>atr. 
Blepharida Chev. 
Odontota Chev. 
Charidtena Baly. 
Microrhopala Chev. 
Cassida Linn. 
Coptocyla Chev. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



279 



FAMILY MELOIDiE. BLISTER-BEETLES. 

The Blister-beetles are vegetable feeders, but their larvsc are usually 
parasitic. 

Meloe Linn. Epicauta Redt, Pompfiopfea LeC, Tetraonyx Latr. 

Macrobasia LoC Pyrota LeC. Cantharin L. Zonitis Fabr. 

Nemognatha 111. 



COLEOPTERA RHYNCOPHORA. 

[Several of theolj family, includin}? the weevilH and the Staphylinids, are now united 
in this group, wliich may be called a stib-order. Nearly all the species are injurious.] 



FAMILY RHINOMACERIDiE. 
Rhlnomacor Fabr. 



Auletes Sch. 



FAMILY RYNCHITID^. 

Eugnamptus Sch. Rynchites Ilbst. Pterocolus Sch. 



FAMILY ATTELABIDiE. 
Attelabus L. 



Epictcrut Sch. 
Phyxelis Sch. 
AgraphuB Sch. 



FAMILY OTIORHYNCHIDiE. 



Neoptochiu Horn. 
PachtueuB Sch. 
Tanyinecus Sch. 



PandeletejuH Sch. 
Jirachysti/hit Sch. 
AramiguB Horn. 



Aphrastus Sch. 
Eudiagogus Sch. 



FAMILY CURCULIONIDyE. 

Sitones Sgh. Anchoderaus LeC. Conotrachelns Sch. 

Listronotus Jekel. Lissorhoptrus LeC. TlhysHematus Sch. 

Macropfl Kirby. Bagoue Germ. Chalcodermng Sch. 

Pachylobus LeC. Otidoccpliulus Chev. Zaglyptus LeC. 



Coeliodes Sch. 
Ceutorhynchus Germ. 
Pelenoraus Thorns. 
Coelogaster Sch. ' 



2.S0 



ixvp:rtebrate fauna op south Carolina. 



llylobiii.s .Sch. 
rissodes Germ. 
I.i.xiiH Fiibr. 
]>()rytoiimH Sch. 
PcMiioriH LoC. 
I'iicliytyihiiiH .Tckol. 
SinicTiiiiyx Sell, 
riiyllulrox Sch. 
KiKhihiH r,n]). 
Kracliy IminiiH Germ. 
OnychyliH LcC. 



KiiI>KtiIiH Lac. 



^lugdalis Germ. Acnrnptus LeC. 

AnthonomusGcrm. Acalles Sch. 

Orclicstes 111. Tyloderma Say. 

rrinnoincrus Sch. riiyrdemis LcC. 

riazorhiiuiH Sch. Cryptorhynchus III. 

'J hysnnocncmlH LeC. riuziiniM Sch. 

Gymnctn^n Sch. C'oj>turuH Sch. 



MiaruH Sdi. 
LaemoBnccuB Sch. 
Contrimis Sch. 
ZygohnrlH LeC. 



Acoj)tuH LcC. 
Tnchyponiis Sch. 
MononycluiH Germ. 
frnpoviu* LeC. 



JitilaniniiM Germ. 



FAMILY BRENTIIlDiE. 



Rhinonchds Sclj. 
Triohobnria LeC. 
Aulobarit LeC. 
Baris Germ. 
Onychobaris LeC. 
pHCudobaris LeC 
Ampeloglypter LcC. 
MadaruH Sch. 
StethobariH LeC. 
liarilepton LoC. 
riocnmuB LcC. 



FAMILY CALANDRIDiE. 



lihyncophorut. 
Sphenophorns Scl». 
Calandra Cha'uv. 



DryopthoruB Sch. 
Cossomus Clairv. 
Stenomimus WoU. 



PhloephaguB. 
Wollastonia. 



Amaurorhinus. 
Stenoscelis. 



FAMILY SCOLYTIDiE. 



riatypus nixst. 
Corthvlns Kr. 



XylcboruB Eich, 
Crj'plmlus Kr. 



Monarthrum Kirsdi. Xylocleptcs. 
I'ityoptlionis Eich. Tomicns Latr, 
HyjKithcnemus West.Micracis LeC. 



ScolytUH Oliv. 
ChramcBUB LeC. 



PhloeosinuB Eich. 
Carphoborus Eich. 



Phloootribus Latr. DendroctomuB Er. 



Cnesinus LeC. 
IIvlcsinuB Fabr. 



Hvlastes Er. 



ORDER HEMIPTERA. 



[WinjTH, four; anterior portion either of same thickness tliroughout, and, umially, 
.sloi>inj.' at sides, or thickened at base with thinner extremities which overlap: Mouth 
parts formed for sucking: Metamorphosis incomplete.] 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 281 

SUB-ORDER HOMOPTERA. 

[Hemiptera having the anteridr wings of the same thickness throughout, and 
•usually sloping at the sides: Mouth parts inserted at the posterior and inferior por- 
tion of the head.] 

FAMILY COC(;iD^^:. BARKLICE, OR SCALE INSECTS. 

This is ono of the most injurious families of insects, Tho species have 
been very little 8tu(iied,sothat their gco;;raphical distribution is not well 
known. A number of species have been described by Prof. Comstock, 
from tho District of Columbia, and, as tho majority of these will proba- 
bly bo found in South Carolina, thoy arc included in tho following; list: 

Aspidiotus ancylus Putnam, (I). C, on Ma- Aspidiotus pini Conist., (Ga., on pincM). 

pie, Peach, Ilackberry.) 

ohsourus, Conist., (D. C, on tenebricosus Com8t,(D. C, on 

Willow and Oak.) red Maple.) 

Diaspis oanieli Targ., Tozz.— (I). C, on Diaspis rosae (Sandberg). (On Rose, P.latk- 

Juniper and Arbor Vitae.) berry and Raspberrj'.) 

Chionaspiseuonymi Conist., (Va, on Etion- Chinaspis nyssae Comst. (On Black Gum.) 

ymus. 
furfuru8(Fitcli). (1). C, on Apple.) pinifoliae (Fitch). (On Pines.) 

Mytilaspis pomorum (Bondx''). (On Api>le.) 
Lecaniuni hesj)eridum (L.) (On Ivy and Orange.) 
Kcrnies gallaeformis Riley. (On Oak.) 
Dactylopius destructor Com«t. (Mealy bug.) 
longifilis Conist. (D. C.) 

FAMILY APHIDID^. PLANT LICE. 
About 170 .species of Plant lico have been de.scribcd in the United 
States. They are very injurious insects, and are familiar to all gardeners 
and florists. During tho past year the grain louse {Siphonophora avame, 
Fabr.) has done much damage to wheat in North and South Carolina. 
\Vc mention some of tho most prominent South Carolina species : 

8ii>honophora avenae (Fabr.) (The grain Siphonophora rosae Beauv. {On Rote.) 

louse.) 
Myzuscerasi (Fabr.) {On Cherry.) Myzus persioao (Selzer). {On Peach.) 

.\ pills inali Fabr. {On Apple.) Aphis brasaicao Linn. {On Cabbage.) 

maidis Fitch. On Com.) 
Schizonoura lanigera Ilausm. {The Woolly Sdiizoneura americana Riley. {On Elm.) 

Apple Louse.) 
Pemphigus alnifolii Riley. {On Maple.) 
Phylloxera vastatrix IManchon. {The Grape Phylloxera.) 



282 INVEUTKnnATE FAUNA OP POUTH CAROLINA. 

FAMILY CICADELLID^K. LEAF HOPPERS. 

Tliis is n ftunily of larpjo extent, ami is not well worked up. The com- 
mon " (ii'ii\)Q xhw ihripH^' {I'Jrytltroucura vitis Fitch) is a good example. 
Tiic Cicadula critiom of Uliler did niuc i damage to winter grain in York, 
Abbeville, L'nion, and Laurens countie.^, South Carolina, in the spring of 
1870, and another member of this family, Dicdrocepliala JIaviceps Riley, 
was concerned in the same work. 



FAMILY CICADID.E. "LOCUSTS." 

The Seventeen Year Locust (C/cat/a septcndecim Linn.) is the best known 

rejirescntative of this family. 



SUB-ORDER HETEROPTERA. 

[Ilcmiptera having the anterior wings thickened at base, with tiiinncr extremities, 
whirh overlap on the back : Mouth parts inserted at the anterior and inferior portion 
of tiie head.] 

This sub-order is one of great extent and includes many of our most 
injurious insect enemies, as well as many of the most beneficial predatory 
species. The North American species have been carefully monograi»hed 
by Mr. P. R. Uhler, of Baltimore, and this monograph will probably be 
published before long as one of the Smithsonian contributions. 



FAMILY REDUVIID.li:. 

The insects of this family prey upon other insects and may be classed 
ius very beneficial to man. 

Nabis fonis Lair. {DrMroys plant lice.) 

Trionotus cristatus L. ( The " Wheel-bug" or " DeviW Coach Hone ;" deslroi/s a variety of 

iujrtrioi"< tnwdg.) 
i>ln(a inHltlspinosa Say. {Destroys the Cotton' norm). 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OP SOUTH C'AU(njNA. 2.S3 



FAMILY COIIISID.E. 

The members of this family (wo use it for coiivonieiicc in its old si;;- 
nification) have varied habits, some being vegetable feeders and very in- 
jurious, while others are carnivorous ; others still combine the two habits : 

Acanthocei)linla fcinorata Fubr, {Deftroyf cotton and army nvrmx.) 
Anasa triatis DeG. (Fa-dt on garden vcgdalles.) 

nnnigcm Say, 
Antlioconw insidious Say. ('* False Chinch bug") 

Coriiuelaena pulicaria Germ. (Punctures slrawbeng and ratp'jtrrg plants.) 
Euschistis tristijrTna Say. (Curnivoroun.) 
Lepto^losstis pliyllopua L. {Destroys Cublnge-hug.) 
Lygaeus bit-ruci.s Say. 

lineoluris I3eauv. {Puncture* plants.) 
Micropiis leiicdpterus Say. {Chinch bug.) 
Nezaraliilaris Say. {Destroys Cotton-worms.) 
Oebaliis tyj)hcu8 (Fabr ) {Carnivorous.) 
Pirates bijiiittatus Say. {Feeds on Bed-bugs.) 
I'odisus oyni(,U8 Say- ( Vegetable feeder ; also carnivoroue.) 

spinosus Dallas. {Destroys Cotton- worms.) 
Strachia histrionica Ilahn. {The Harlequin Cabbage bug.) 



FAMILY MExMBRACID.E. 

Mention is made of this family on account of its containing, among 
its members the common bed-bug {Acanthia Icdularla, L.) 



FAMILY PEDICULIDAE. BODY LICE. 



ORDER ORTHOPTERA. CRICKETS, GRASSHOPPERS, ETC. 

[WinizH four; anterior i)air thickened and usually ovfrlapjiinz; posterior pair thinner 
and folded in plates longitudinally : Mouth parts formed for bitini;: Metam .>rphoHi^ 
incoinpleto,] 

This order includes many injurious injects. Wo shall make .•special 
mention of four of the seven families, omitting the PJianr)iidce (Walking- 
sticks), Blattidsc (Cockroaches), and Furjiculida: (Earwigs). 



284 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY GRYLLIDyE. CRICKETS. 

This family is not well worked up for America. Among the South 
Carolina species wc mention only the following : 

(JrylliiH lii{.tuo?ns Scrv. Gryllns abbreviatus Serv. 

Gryllotalpa lonjjipcnuis Scudd. {Hole criekel.) 
Oecaiitlius nivcus Ilarr. (Snoinj tree- cricket.) 



FAMILY LOCUSTID/E. LONG-HORN GRASSHOPPERS. 

Microcentrus retinervis Sciidd, (" Kaiy-did.") 

Orclioliinnm ^rlaberrluin Biirm. (?) Orclielimum agile DeG. 

Xii))ii(litiin fasoiatum DeG. 

Conorcplialiia crepitans Scudd. 

Plinnerotptera curvicauda llarr. 

FAMILY ACRIDID.E. GRASSHOPPERS OR TRUE LOCUSTS. 

Tljo members of this family aro all so injurious that wo shall give as 
complete a list as possible. 

Tryxall8 brevijtonls Clinrp. 

Opoinala piinctipennis Porv. Oponiala varipes Serv. 

bivitfata .'^erv. marginicollis Serv, 

Pyrpomorpha pmictiponnis Thos. ChryHOchraon viridis (So., III. and Fla.) 
.Stenol>()tlirus admirabiliH UI>l.(D.C.S.Ill.) Stenobothnis Maciilipennia Soudd. 

oct'idoiitalis Sauss. 

Traj;occj)bahi infiiscata IFarr, Traj,'ocoi)lmla viridifasciata Harr. 

TomoiiotuH Hi)li)hnreus Sauss. Toinonotus xanthopterua (Burm.) 

(Kdipodasonlida Biirm G-'dipoda discoidia Serv. 

Carolina Linn. pba'nicoptera. 

fetiestralis Serv. sincerata llarr. 

nin<iHa Scndil. 

rozotottlx loiijricorniB SaiiM. Pcrotettlx acudderl Uhl (Md.) 

c'dax SaiiHH. 

"iJaloptonus foinur-nibrnm Do Goor. Caloptenua blvitUitua (Say.) 

dinVrcnlialiH Thos. 

Cl.roinaciiris colorata (Sorv) Oxya claviger (Serv.) 

Acridium rtibi;;inosnm llarr. Acridiuin ainbiguuni Thos. (Tenn.) 

nliitaccnm llarr obKcurum (Fabr. 

nniericanum (Drury.) obtusum Burra. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. .285 

Rhomalea centurio (Drury.) Rhomalcft tnarcl Serv. 

Tettix ornata (Say.) Tetlix oxycephala Burra. 

femorata Scudd (Md.) 

Tettigidea lateralis (Ilarr.) Tettlgidea polyinorplm (Bunn) (Ala.) 



FAMILY MANTID^. , 

The insects of this family are raptatorial, and prey upon other insects. 
The common South Carolina species is Mantis Carolina Linn., commonly 
known as the " Rear-horse." It is common all through the South, but 
was originally described from Carolina. 



ORDER NEUROPTERA. 

[Wings four, membranous, net-veined, generally large and of nearly equal size: 
Mouth-parts formed for biting: Metaniorpbosis complete or incomplete: Abdomen 
of female with no sting or piercer.] 

Thin is a very heterogeneous (^rder, and none of its members arc of 
Buflicient importance economically to merit npecial mention hero Dr. 
llagen, in his Hynoj>siH (18G1), mentions eight hundred and twelve 
North American, of which twenty-nine only arc from Carolina, while 
one hundred and four are from Georgia. This, however, cannot bo 
taken as an index to the true number of species in the State 



CLASS ARACIINOIDEA. 

[Body of two regions (ceplialo-thorax and abdomen): thorax with eight legs : ab- 
domen with six spinarots: head without antcnnin : No metamorphoHis.] 



ORDER ARANETNA. SPIDERS. 

[.Taws uped exoliisivcly for biting: abdomen H|)licrical, nac-ahapcd, not divided 
into Hegments, and attached to the cephalo-thorax by a slender pedicel.] 



280 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY EPEIROID^. ORB-WEAVERS. 



Gastoracantlia cimrer (Ilentz.) 
Acrosnina spineu (Iluiitz.) 
ruposa (Ilcntz.) 
Ar^iopc riparia (Ilcntz ) 
l''jMMra iiisularis Ilontz. 
scptiina Ilcntz. 
(loniiiiliDnim Ilentz. 
MiruDua bitmbyi-iiuiria (Ilcntz.) 

(lisplicata (Ilcntz.) 
AciinthcjH'ira stcllata (Ilcntz.) 
vernicoHu (Ilcntz. 
OiTopeirn ectyjui (Walk.^ 
(Jyrtophora tnbcrciilata Marx M.S. 
(..'yrtaraolino cornijicra (Ilcntz.) 
Sinya foliata (Ilontz.) 

pratcnsifl (Ilcntz.) 
rubella (Ilcntz.) 
Zi:la uloboHa (Kcyserling.) 
labyrlnthca (Ilcntz.) 
j>Iaci(la (Ilcntz.)" 
pibboroHa (Ilcntz.) 
Kpcira prompta Ilcntz, 

albi.la Marx MS. 
I byllira nianicata Ilcntz. 
llypiii'lcrt cavatiiH (Ilcntz.) 
Ncpbilla pluniipcs Koch. 



AcroBoma mitratA (Hentz.) 

Arpiope fa8ciata(Hcntz.) ' 
Ki)eira vulparie Ilentz. 

Btrlx Ilontz. 

tliaddcuH Ilontz. 
Miranda niprostriata Marx MS. 

boptapon (Ilcntz.) 
Acanthci)oira sjiinosa Marx MS. 



Sinpa tetrapnathoidcs Marx MS. 
nigrifrons Marx MS. 

Zilla maculata KcyB. 

hortorutn (Ilentz.) 

scutulata (Hcntz.) 

caudata (Ilcntz.) 
Epcira fcra Marx MS. 

tcxtrlx Marx MS. 
Phylllra ri])aria Ilcntz. 



FAMILY TIIERIDIOIDyE. SNARE-WEAVERS 



Episenustruncatus Walk. 

Eriponc coccinea (Hcntz.) 

indirocta Cambr. 

ncopbita (Ilentz.) 

Linyphia comunis Ilcntz. 

marmorata Hcntz. 
scripta Hcntz. 
^liuiethus interfecta Ilcntz, 
Tbalamia parictalis Ilontz. 



Erigone anplica (Ilentz.) 

oscitabundum (Hz.) 
rofiida (Hcntz.) 

Llnyphia confcrta Hcntz. 
costata Ilcntz. 

MimethuB tuberosus llentx. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



2S7 



Theridium vulgare Hentz. 

serpentinum Hentz. 

inarmoratiim Hentz. 

boreale Hentz. 

studiosuni Hentz. 

frondetiin Hentz. 

cruciatum Hentz. 

fnnebrc Hentz. 

rancellatnm Hentz. 
Lathrodectns verecundurt (Hentz.) 
SpinthruB flavidiis Hentz. 



Tlieridinm intentnm Hentz. 
blandum Hentz. 
lyra Hentz. 
sphaerula Hentz. 
trigonum Hentz. 
tectum Hentz. 
pictiim Hentz. 

fulincciiin Hentz. 



PholciJfl atlanticus Hentz, 
Spermaphora nieridionalis Hentz. 



FAMILY PIIOLCOID^n:. 

riiolciis jnillnhis (Hentz.) 



FAMILY SCYTODOID.E. 
Soytode* cnnierndus Hentz. LoxoBce'es lonj^ipoH Marx MP. 

FAMILY AGALENOIDiE. FUNNEL SPINNERS. 



Dic'tynu mjblata (Hentz.) 

voluph Kevrt, 
Ainauroblusatrox Marx MS. 
Oviotca conuiniH Marx MS. 
Tcgenaria niodiiinali« Hentz. 
nnl\nia i)uh'hellft Marx MS, 
A^alena niwla Hcnts. 



Dictynn mndcrata }Iarx MS. 



FAMILY DRASSOID/E. ASSASSIN SPIDERS. 



Trachelas inermis Marx MS. 
Liorraniiin zonariuin (Hentz.) 

crocatum (Hentz ) 
Micaria nitenn Marx MS. 
Herpylhis ccrlcsiasticufl Hentz. 

!)ifolor Hentz. 



Llocranum variegatum Marx MS. 



Herpylliis vulgaris Marx MS. 



28S 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Anyphirna fullon'S (Ilontz.) 
nlbcns (Ilcntr.) 
rhonolitliuH tiitens Miirx MS. 
(inaphojui varioiriilii (llcntz ) 
Clubiona pallons Ilcntz. 

obcsji Ilcntz. 

piscatoria Hcntz. 

tranj.MiilIa Hcntr. 

colcr llentz. 

sjixatiles Kni-h. 
Chciraranthiiiiti aibi'iun Marx MS. 

saltabiimluin (Hcntz.) 
Dnissns niireulis .Mar.x MJ?. 

lon};ipal|'ii8 Marx MS. 
riiruroIitliuM nitons Marx MS. 



Anyphttnn pracllls (Hentz) 

riionollthiifl fu8(latu8 Marx MS. 
Gnaphosa colunibiana Marx MS. 
Clnbii^na amnrantha Walk. 

abottii KcK-h. 

oxoepta Koch, 

corticalia Wulk. 

riparia Koch. 

Chcirui-anthium atrox Marx MS. 

ripariuin Mnrx MS- 
DniRsns tristis Marx MS. 

pavidiiH yUux MS. 
Phr:irolltbii8 foHciatus Marx MS. 



FAMILY DYSDEROID.TC. 



Pvhirns bieolor llcntz. 



FAMILY FILISTATOID.E. 

Filistata hibcrnalis llentz. 



FAMILY TIIERAPHOSOID.E. MINING SPIDERS. 



Atypns nincr Hcntz. 
Pafhylomcnis solsticialis (Hentz.) 
Kurypohna bieolor (Hentz.) 
Mygalo trunaita Hcntz. 



Pachylomerus carolinensis (Hentz.) 
Euryielrna gracilis (Hentz.) 



FAMILY THOMOSOID.E. CRAB SPIDERS. 



Xysticus tritnittatus Keys. 

pulgcrimus Keys. 

lenis Keys. 

pnnctatus Keys. 

cicgans Keys. 
Oxyptillu georgiana Keys. 
Corianichne versicolor Keys. 
Syneraa parvula Keys. 



Xysticus limbatus Keys, 
emertonii Keys, 
variabilis Keys, 
gulosus Keys. 



Synema nigrotnaculata Keys. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



•280 



Misnmena epinosa Keys, 
rosea Keys, 
americana Keys, 

Diaea lepida Thorell, 

Runcinia brendelli Keys. 

Tmanis candatns Keys. 

Tibellus duttoni Keys. 

Thanatus rhombodoidus Marx MS. 

Philodromus aureolas Keys 
laticeps Keys, 
vulgaris Hentz. 



Mieumena georgiana Keys, 
vatia Walk. 



Thanatus rubicundus Keys. 
Philodromus infuscatus Keys. 

imbecillus Keys. 

niolitor Marx MS. 



FAMILY LYCOSOIDiE. WOLF SPIDERS. 



Lycosa scutulata Ilcntz. 

punctulata Ilcntr. 
Tarentula sagltata (llcntz). 
ocrcata (Hentz). 
ruricola (Ilentz). 
lenta (Ilentz). 
carolinensis (Hentz). 
georgiana (Marx MS), 
fatifera (Hentz). 
Trochosa furiosa Marx ms. 
Dolomedes tenebroeus Hentz. 
tenax Hentz. 
albineus Hentz. 
urinator Hentz. 
Ctenus literal is Marx MS. 
Ocyaie carolinensis (Hentz). 



Lycosa funerea Hentz. 

Tarentula saltatrix (Hentz). 
erratica (Hentz). 
litorallH (Hentz). 
maritima (Hentz). 
aspersa (Hentz). 
ripararia (Hentz). 



Dolomedes sexpunctatns Hentz. 
niarginatus Marx MS. 
audax Marx MS. 



Ocyaie variegata Marx MS. 



FAMILY OXYOPOID^. LYNX SPIDERS. 



Oxyopes viridans Hentz. 
Bcalaris Hentz. 



Oxyopes salticus Hentz. 
astutus Hentz. 



FAMILY ATTOIDiE. JUMPING SPIDERS. 



AttuB insolens Hentz. 
cardinalis Hentz. 
capitatus Hentz. 
militaris Hentz. 

19 



Attus parvus Hentz. 
rarus Hentz. 
niger Hentz. 
gracilis Hentz. 



200 



INVKUTEimATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



jniilficolor Hei)tz, 

K0Xl)11IlctutlIH HonlT!, 

falnirluH IltMitr,. 

Iicbcs IICMltZ. 

cnstanonH Ilentz. 

tncnifoliti Ilontz. 

ek'f.'JinH Ilcntz. 

fiiniiliuris Hentz. 

tripunctutus Ilentz. 

j.iy8taccu.s Ilentz, 

atioHiiH Ifentz, 

faHciolatus Ilentz. 

rnfiia Hcntz. 

podauToaus Hcntz. 

rn{)icul;\ Ilentz, 

niil>ili» Ilentz. 

parvus Hcntz. 
Ei)ibk'inuin faustum Jlentz. 
Hcntzia jialmanim (Ilentz). 
SyneinoHvna forniira Ilentz 

Ht'orpionia Hentz. 



looparduB Ilentz. 
jiiu'rperuH Ilentz. 
vlttatim Ilentz. 
eoronntiiH Hentz. 
eocrntns Ilentz. 
pulex Hentz. 
aiirntim Ilentz. 
viridipes Hentz. 
niultiva^'us Hentz. 
criHtatiifi Hentz, 
niitratus Hentz. 
sylvantis Ilentz. 
8ni)erciIiosiiH Ilentz. 
moricerus Hentz. 
eyaneiis Hentz. 
oitavuB Hentz. 



Synemosyna epliippiata Hentz, 
picatft Hentz. 



ORDER PEDIPALPI. 

[Maxillary palpi greatly enlarged, ending in a forceps ; abdomen jointed.] 



FAMILY PHALAXGIDiE. HARVEST MEN, "DADDY-LONG- 
LEGS." 

Phalnnginm dorflatum Pay (?) (Va.) Phalangiuin maeulosum Wood, 
vittatnm Say. ventricoHnin Wood, 

ealcar Wood. grandc Say. 

fonnosuni Wood. nigrum Say. 



FAMILY GONILEPTID.E. 

Gonylcptes ornatum Say, (?) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 291 



ORDER ACARINA. MITES. 

[Ceplinlo-thornx morgod with tho non-jointotl nbdomcn : Mouth partH adapted for 
biting or Bucklng.] 

Tho Mites of this country have not been well studied, and we shall 
omit them from our list. 



CLASS MYRIAPODA. 
[Body cylindrical ; composed of from ten to two hundred joints.] 



ORDER CHILOPODA. CENTIPEDES. 

[Each body-joint simple, and bearing a single pair of logs: Head composed of two 
regions; one before and one behind the mouth.] 



FAMILY CERMATIID;E. 
Cermatia forceps Rafinesque. 

FAMILY LITHOBIID.E. 

Lithobinus americanus Newport. 
Botliropolys multidentatus Newport. 

.FAMILY SCOLOPENDRID/E. 

Scolopendra heroB var., castaniceps Wood, Scolopondra viridis Say ; (mountains of 

(Ga.) Ga.) 

polymorpha Wood. 
Cryptops hyalina Say (Ga.) 
Opisthemega postica Wood. 
Scolopocryptops soxspinosa (Say). 



292 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY GEOPHILIDiE. 

MccJstocoj)hftlu8 melnnotiis Wood (Oa.) 

Gcophilus Incvia Wood (Ga.) 

Strigainia lacvipcs Wood (Ga.) Strigamia taeniopsis Wood (Ga.) 



ORDER DIPLOPODA. MILLIPEDES. 

[Body divided into numerous joints, each furnished with two pairs of short legs.] 

# 

FAMILY LISIOPETALID/E. 
Spirostrephon Jactarius (Say). 



FAMILY JULIDiE. 

Juhis minutus Brandt. 

Spirobolus raarginatus (Say). Rpirobolus spinigerus Wood. 



FAMILY POLYDESMID^. 



Paradcsmus erythropypus Brandt. 
Fontaria virginiensis (Drury). 



FAMILY POLYXENIDiE. 
Polyxenus fasciculatiis (Say). 

FAMILY POLYZOXID^. 
Octoglcna blvirgata Wood (?) Ga. 

FAMILY SIPHONOPHORID^E. 

Brachycybo LeContii Wood (?) Ga. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



293 



CLASS CRUSTACEA. 

[Articulate animals with two pairs of antennae or feelers, with jointed appendages 
to some of the abdominal segments, with gills or vesicles for breathing air in water, 
and a hard chitinous or subcalcareous covering to the body.] 



ORDER DECAPODA. TEN-FOOTED CRUSTACEANS. 



Achclous spinimana Dellaan (N. C.) 
Alpheus minus Say. 



Cancer borealis Stm. (Atlantic coast). 

Cambarus immunis Hagen (N. C.) 
latimanus LcConte. 
lecontei Hagen (N. C.) 
pencillatus LcConte. 



Achelons gibbcsii Stm. (N. C.) 

dcpressifrons Stm. (N. C.) 
Alpheus heterocholis Say (N. C.) 
Araneus cribrarius Dana (N. C.) 
Calappa marinorata Fabr. 
Callianassa stimpsonii Smith (Atlantic coast). 
Callichirus major Stm. 
Crtllinectes hastatus Ordway {Sea-crab). 
Cancer irroratus Say (Rock-crab). 
Cambarus (Cray-fishes Fresh water.) 

advena. 

acutus. 

blandingii Harlan. 

carolinus Erich«on. 
Carinus moenas Leach (Atlantic coast). 
Clibanarius vittatus Stm. (N. C.) 
*Crangon vulgaris Fabr. 
Euceramus praelongus Stm. (N. C.) 
Eiirytium limossum Say. 
Eupagurus (Hermit-crabs, living in abandoned shells of periwinkles, and other mol- 

lusks; the following three species are found) : 
E. annul ipes Stm. 
longicarpus Stm. 
pollicaris Stm. 
Gebia aflinis Sny. 
Gelanimus. (Fiddler-crabs. Very abundant on the muddy banks of salt-marsh, 

streams, and hiding in holes in the ground). 
G. mlnax LeConte (N. C.) 
pngnax Smith, 
puglllator (N. C.) 



•Thin \u tlio common $hrlmf>. It mny bodlnllnKUltliod from lU oonnonor.llio common jirmnv 
by tbo cliariiclor o( tho rontrmn or bonk tlwxt proJcclK Irom tlio hun<l ond of tho bfwk. T»il« bciik 
In thoi/jrhMp ludhort, with fi ulnglcj uplrio behind It. In tlin prnwn U In long, upturned, nn-l 
toothed, hnving eight or nine tooth on the nppor edico, and lliroo or four on tho lower, Tho Jiomc 
of tho common prawn \n Palaemonelei vu((/arii. 



294 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



IIci)atus (Iccorus Gibbcs. {Spotted crah.) 

llcterocnpta granulata Gibbes. 

Ilippa talj)oida ?ny. 

lIil>Iioly8iunta •wnrdoinanni (Gibbes) Stin. Ilippolysmata paludosa. 

Homarus americanns M. Euw. {Lobfter.) 

[Tlie cominon Lobster l)n3 been found at Ft. Macon, North CarolioR, but it does not 
ai'pcar to have been recorded from South Carolina.] 



Lepidoj)3 Bcntella Desm. (N. C.) 

Libinia caniliciilata Say i Spider crab\ 

Lithadia oariosa Stra. (N. C.) 

Mcnippe niercenaria Say (Stone crab). 

Metoporhains calcarata Say. 

Neptunus sayi Stm. (Atlantic coaat). 

Ocyojioda arenaria Say [Land crah). 

Palacmonetes carol inns Stm. 

Panopeus herbstii M.Edw. 

Panopeus dcpressus Smith (Atlantic coast.) 

I'eneus braziliensis Latreille. 

constrictus Stimi>8on. 
Pelia nuitica Gibbes 
Persephone punctata Browne. 
Pilumnns aculeatus M. Edw. 
Pinnixa chn;toi»terana Stimpson (X. C.) 

cylindrica Say (N. C) 
Pinnotheres maculatus Say 
Plagusia. 

Platyonichus ocellatua Ilcrbst {Sand Crab.) 
Pont<)niu domestlca. 
Porccllana ocellatu Gibbea 
llunllia inuricata Edw. (Atlantic coast.) 
Sfsarma cinerea Pose. 
Tozcuma carol! ncnsisKingsloy (N. C.) 
Urocarls lony;iaiudata Stimpson. 
Virbius plcunuanthus Stimpson (N. C.) 



Libinia dubia (M. Edw) 



Palaemonetes vulgaris Say {Common prauii). 
Pariopeus harrisii Gould (Atlantic coast). 
Pnnoueus sayi Smith (Atlantic coast.) 
J'eneus sctiferus M. Edw. 



Pinnixa sayana Stimpson (N. C.) 
Pinnotheres ostreura Say {Oyiter Crab.) 

Porccllana soclata Say. 
Scsarina reticulata Say. 



[Seven or eight pairs of legs 
false fat of the abdomen.] 
Squilla dubia M. Edg. 
empusa Say. 
? mantis. 



ORDER STOMAPODA. 

Eyes pedunculated. Gills generally attached to the 



?Squilla neglecta Gibbes. 
scabricauda Sas. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 295 



ORDER AMPHIPODA 

[Seven pairs of legs. Eyes sessile. Membraneous vesicles for breathing orgaus. 
Body frequently compressed.] 

Amphithcc dentata Say. 

Gnmniarus mucronatus Say. Gammarus fnsciatus Say. 

Talorchestia longicornis Smith (commonly known as Beach-flea, and Sand-hopper.) 



ORDER ISOPODA. 

[Seven pairs of legs. Eyes sessile. Gills for breathing organs. Body usually de- 
pressed] 

Armadillidium pilularis Say (Pill-bitg.) 

Asellus comnuinis Say. Asellus lineatus Say. 

Conileni concharum Hargr. 

Idotjea cffica Say. 

Livoiieca ovalis Say {Fieh-louee.) . 

Lygia gaudichaudii M. Edw. ( Wliarf-loxiee ) 

Nesjea cauduta Say. 

Nerocilla variabilis Gibbee. 

Porfellio (probably several species ; on land only ; commonly known as sow bugs auJ 

pill bugs.) 
Sphreroraa quadridentata Say. 



ORDER LiEMODIPODA. 

[Posterior segments of body provided with legs. Eyes Bc«ile, Breathing by 
vesicles. All marine.] 

Caprella equilibra Say. Caprella goometrica Say. 



EATOMOSTRACA. 

[This group includes several orders of crustaceans, which have mostly a horny or 
chitinous shell. Most species are minute, and many live in fresh water.] 

Cyclops naviculus Say. 
Cypris sp. 



200 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Cythere bifasciata Bay. 

Daphniji nngulatn Say. 

Liuiulus polyplienms Linn. (This species liaa a long, pointed, spine-like tail. It at- 
tains a length of more than a foot. It is commonly known as the Horse-shoe 
Crab, also King Crab.) 



CIRRIPEDIA. BARNACLES. 

[Six pairs of forked, cileated limbs. Permanently attached in the adult state ] 

Acasta spongites. 

BalanuB balanoides Stm. (Acorn barnacles.) 
ebiirncus Gould. 
gnlcatuH Darwin. 
Lepas (Goose barnacles.) 
aimtiforu Linn, 
ansorifora Linn, 
pcctinata Spcuglor. 



CLASS ANNELIDA. TRUE WORMS. 

[Mostly with red blood; body with external segmentation. No jointed appendages. 
Aquatic rcspinition by means of the general surface of the body, by involutions of the 
skin, or by gills.] 



ORDER POLYCH.ETA. 



Arabella opalina Verrill (N. C.) 
Anthoatomo robustura Verrill (N. C.) 
Cistenidcs gouldii Verrill, 
Dioj>aira cuprea ClaparOde 
Ilydroides dianthus Verrill (N. C.) 
Nephthys picta Ehlcrs. 
Nereis limbata Ehlcrs. 
Rhynchobolus amcricanus Verrill (N. C.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 297 

Sabellaria vulgaris Verrill (N. C.) 

Sabella micropthalina Verrill (N. C.) 

Serpula fascicularis Lam. 

Splo caudatus. 

Spirorbis sp. 

Terebe'la conchlfera Pall. Terebella ventricosa Bosc. 



ORDER OLIGOCHiETA. 
Lumbricus terrestris Linn. (This is tho common earth or angle worm.) 



ORDER IIIRUDINEA. LEECHES. 

Clepslne swampina Diesing. (Upon frogs and toads.) 



CLASS SCOLECIDA. 
[Mostly parasitic; possessing a water-vascular system.! 



ORDER TURBELLARIA. NON-PARASITIC. 



Balanoglossus aurantiacus Verrill. 
Cerebratulus ingens Verrill (N. C.) 
Meckelia ingens Leidy. 



ORDER GORDIACEA. HAIR WORMS. 

[In one state parasitic in grasshoppers, etc. They are the so-called Hair-snakes 
when in water.] 



20S 



INVERTEBRATE PAU.VA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER NEMATODA. ROUND WORMS. 



The two followinR doubtless occur: 
Trichina Bpirulie. (The pork paniHitc.) 
Anj-uillula accti, (Vinegar eel.) 



ORDER T/ENIADA. TAPE WORMS. 

Ticniaochinococcus ia found in the dop, and Ticnia mcdiocanellata and solium in 
man. (For further information, sec Verrill's work on Parasites.) 



MOLLUSCA. 

CLASS CEPHALOPODA. 

[Mollusks with a distinct head ; around the mouth are eight or more tentacles ; body 
enclo'«ed in a mantle ; two or four plume-like gills.] 

Loligo brcvis Blainville. (Squid.) 
Octopus pranulatus Lam. (Cuttle-fish.) 
O.nmastrophes bartramii Lcsuour (N. C.) 



CLASS GASTEROPODA. 

[Shell univalve ; locomotion effected by a ventral foot or fin-like organ : head dis- 
tinct.] 

TERRESTRIAL OR LAND SNAILS. 



Glandina truncate Gmelin. 

Ilyalina cernioidca Anthony (N. C.) 
arborca Say (Eastern U, S.) 
indentata Say (East. U. S.) 
intcrtexta Rinney (Ga.) 

(Ildicodiscus) lineata Say (E, U. S.) 



Hyalina ligera Say (Ga.) 

deraissa Binney (Ga.) 
fulva Draparnaud (U. 8.) 
interna Say (Ga.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



209 



Macrocylis concava Say (Ga. 
Helix alternata (Kast U. S.) 

pcrspectiva Sny (East. U. 8.) 

poHteliana Blainl (Ga.) 

esplcola Ravencl. 

hazardl Bland (Ga.) 

pustula Fer. 

pustuloides Bland (Ga.) 

leponna Gould (Ga.) 

spinosa Lea (Ga.) 

barbigera Rcdflcld (Ga.) 

Btenotrema Fer (Southern States) 

maxillata Gould (Ga.) 

monodon Rackott (East. U. 8) 

palliata Say (Ga.) 

obstricta Say. 

appressa Say. 

inflecta Say (Ga.) 



Helix rnpila Sliuttloworth (N.C.) 
tridentata Say. 
fallax Say. 

introfercns Bland CS. N.) 
hopctoncn8i« Sliuttloworth. 
inajcft" Binney. 
nlbolabris Say. 
elevata Say (Ga.) 
clarkii Lea (N. C.) 
christyi Bland (N. C.) 
cxolcta Binnoy ((Ja.) 
whcatlcyi Bland (N. C.) 
thyroides Say. 
buoculenta Gould (N. C.) 
jejuna Say (Ga.) 
pulchella Mueller. 

aspcra Muelltr (European. Intro- 
duced.) 



Bulimulus dealbatus Say (N. C.) 

Stenogyra decolata Linn. (Introduced from Europe at Charleston, 8. C.) 



Pupa pentodon Say. 
fallax Say. 

Vertigo milium. 

Succinea avara Say (East IJ. 8.) 
obliqua Say (Ga.) 

•Sonites kopnodes Binney (Ga.) 

Irevigata Pfeiffer (E. U. 8.) 
inornata Say (N. C.) 

Tebennophorsus carolinensis Bosc 

Limax flavus Linn. 



Pupa contracta Say (East. U. 8.) 

costicaria Say. 
Vertigo ovata Say. 
Succinea campestris. 

Sonites sculptilis Bland (N. C.) 
elliotii Redfield (N.C.) 
Buppressa Say (East. U. 8.) 



MOSTLY FRESH WATER. 



Carycliium exiguum Say. 
Melampus bidentatus Say, 
Limn?ea columella Say 
Pliysa gyrina Say. 
Planorbis lentus Say. 

glabratus Say. 

trivoluis Say (U. 8.) 
Pomus depressa Say (Ga.) 
Viripara intertexta Say (Ga.) 

contectoides Buiney (Ga.) 
Melantha decisa Say, 



Melampus obliquus Say (On beach N. C.) 

Limnrca humilis Say. 
Physa hcterostropha Say (Ga.) 
Planorbis bicarinatus Say (E. U. 8.) 
parvus Say. 



Viripara goorgiana Lea. 
Melantha coarctata Leo. 



300 



IKVERTEDRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Liojiliix cydoBtomntiformls Loo (Qa.) 
IJytliitiolIa tcniiljx.'H Coiii)r. (Gn.) 
roiimtiopHis lft|)uliiriu Siiy (Ga.) 

(Ujidcr Btoncs in wet places). 
Ilolii'lna nrticuluta (Ga.) 



MOSTLY MARINE. 



Utriculus canaliculatUB Say. 
Bulla eolitarla Say. 
Chiton apiculatuB Say. 
EnUilis pliocena T. and 11. (N'. C.) 
Croj)idu!a forniicata Linn. 

formlcata var. intorta Say (N. 

convcya Say. 
Fisaurella alternata Say. 
Zizyphinus sp. (N. C.) 
Turbo cronulatua Gm, ? 
Littoiina irrorata Say. 
Scalaria humphreysii Keiner (N. C.) 

angulata Say. 
Solarium granulatum Lam. (N. C) 
Vcrinctus radicula Stimpson (N. C.) 
Ccrithium sp. (N. C.) 
Bittium nigrum Tott. 

greenii C. B. Ad. (N. C.) 
Triforifl nigrocinctus C. B. Ad. (N. C.) 
Cheninit7.a spirata Ktz. and Stm. 
Odostomia seminuda C. B. Ad. 
Turbonilia interrnpta Tott (N. C.) 
Obeliscus crenulatus Holmes. (N. C) 
Rissoa pupoidca Ktz. and Stm. 
Eulima oleacca Ktz. and Stm. 
Rigarctus perspoctivus Say. 
Natica pusilla Say. 

Porcollana (Cypraoa) exanthema Linn, 
riourotoma corina Ktz. and Stm. 
MargincUaapicina Mcnke. (X. C.) 

guttata Dillwyn. 
Oliva litiTata Lam 



Crepldula ungulformis Say (N. C.) 
C.) aculoata Gmelin. 



LIttorlna dilatata d'Orbrgny. (N. C) 
Scalaria linoatii Say. 

turbinata Conrad (N. C) 



Bittium sp. (N. C.) 



Odostomia Impressa Say. 



Eulima conoidea Ktz. and Stm. 



(N. C.) 

Ploutotoma plicata C. B. Ad. (N. C) 
Marginolla roselda Redfleld (N. 0.) 



INVERTEBRAIE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



301 



Ollrella mutlca Sny, 
Columbolla nvnra Say. 
lunata Say, 
Dolium galea Linn. 
Beinlcassle granulosa Lamarck (N, C.) 
Cassis catnoo Stm. (N. C.) 
Purpura floridnna Conr. (N, C.) 
Ilyonassa obsolcta Say. 
Xassa vibex Say. 

Cerithiopsis terebralia C- B. Adams. 
Acus concavus Say. 
Anachis Bimilis Verrill. (N. C.) 
Rapana (Fusus) ciraerea Say. 
Busycon pyrum Dillw. 

canaliculatura Linn. 
Cancellaria reticulata Linn. 
Fasclolaris tulipa Linn, 
distans Lam. 
^Innolla caudata Say. 
Murex spinicostata Val. (N. C.) 
Strombus pugilis Gm. (N. C.) 
Mitra granulosa Lamarck. 



Columbolla morcatorlo Linn. (N. C.) 
ormata Ravcncl 7 (N. C.) 



Nassa trivittata Say. 
Acus dislocatus Say. 



Busycon carica Linn. 

perversum Linn. 

Fasciolaris gigantea Kricner. 



Strombus alatus Gm. 



CLASS PTEROPODA. 
Free ; swimming by means of two wing-like appendages (epipo«lia). 
Styliola acicula Lesueur (N. C.) 



. CLASS LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 
Gills in the form of lamellae; shell bivalve. 



302 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY UNIONIDiE. FRESH-AVATER CLAMS OR MUSSELS. 



Unio abbcvillcnsis Lea. 
nbcrana Lea (N. C.) 
nnf^usfatus Lea (Cooper River.) 
barrattii Lt-a (Abbeville.) 
bt-averciiHiH Lea (N. C.) 
biHscliiinuH Loa (N. C.) 
buxcns Lea (Abboviro.) 
cnstus Lea. 

catawbensis Lea (X. 0.) 
charlottcnsig Lea (N. C.) 
chathaniensiH Lea (N. C.) 
cistellaeformis Lea. 
coinplanatus Sol. 
concavus Lea (Abbeville.) 
confertus Lea (Santee canal.) 
congaraous Lea (Congaree River.) , 
contij:ini9 Lea (X. C.) 
contractus Lea (N. C.) 
curatus Lea (N. C) 
ilatus Lea (X. C.) 
dccoratus Lea (.\bbevillo Dist.) 
dorsatus Loa (X. C.) 
emmonsii Lea (X. C.) 
cxactii3 Lea (X. C.) 
fulvu.s Lea. 

ir.-xstonensia Lea (X. C ) 
fjeddin^'sranus Lea (Conpareo River.) 
pracilentus Lea (X. C.) 
prinithianufl Lea. 

heiiaticus Lea (Salkahatehlo River.) 
hutnerosus Lea (N. C.) 
inJeflnittis Lea (X. C ) 
ineptus Lea (Abbeville Dist ) 
insulus Lea (X. C ) 
jejunua Lea. 
lanceolatiis Lea (N. C.) 
Inzarus Lea (Abbeville DiHt.) 
livlnK^tonoriHid Lea (X. C.) 
huidiM Lea (X. C) 
mooklenberpenHis Lea (X. C.) 
nicdiocris Lea (X. C.) 



Unio menis Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 
micans Lea (X. C.) 
modioliformis Lea (Santee canal.) 
nasutulus Lea (X. C.) 
neusensis Lea (X. C, ) 
nubilis Lea (X. C.) 
obesus Lea. 
oblatns Lea (X. C) 
pulliatus Lea (X- C ) 
pawensis Lea (X. C.) 
percoarctatus Lea (X. C.) 
pcrlatns Lea (X. C.) 
perl mens Lea (X. C.) 
pprnodosus Lea (X. C.) 
perstriatua Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 
pcrtennis Lea (X C.) 
planilaterus Con. (X. C ) 
protensus Lea (X. C.) 
pidlus Con (Wateree River.) 
pnmilufl Lea (X. C.) 
purus Lea (X. C) 
pygniaeus Lea (.\bboville.) 
qnadrilatcruH Lea. 
raleipliensis Lea (X. C.) 
ravel ianus Lea (X. C.) 
roanokenais Lea (X. C.) 
rostrum Lea (N. C) 
rufnsculua Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 
sordidua Lea (Abbeville Diet.) 
spadiceus Lea (X. C.) 
squalidua Lea (X. C.) 
(iquaniens Lea (X. C.) 
etriatuluH Lea (X. C.) 
teneruH Rav. 

luoiiieyl Lea (.Vbbevilio Dist.) 
ntriculus Lon (X. C.) 
vnuplianlaiuiH Lea (Camden.) 
vlrlihiluH Loa (X. C.) 
watoreonHlH Lea (Watorcc cnnftl.) 
waccainawcnsia Lea (X.C.) 
weldoncnaia Lea (X. C.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Margarltana trianpulata Lea. 

Anodonta virgulata Lea (N. C.) 



303 



Margaritana marginata Say. 

raveneliana Lea (N. C.) 
Anodonta doliaris Leu (N. C.) 
dunlapiana Lea. 



Teredo megotara Hanley. 
Pholas tnmcata Say. 



MARINE SPECIES. 

{Sltip Worms.) 

Teredo dilatatn Stin. 
Fholas coetata Linn. 



Panopaea bitruncata Coar. (fossil?) (N. C.) 

(Tliis is also called thesofl-ehelled clain.) 

Siliquaria gibba Spengle. 

Strijrilla flcxnosa Fay. 
Tellina iris Say. 
polita Say. 



Zirj'hrea crispata Morch. 
Saxicava distorta Say. 
Pandora trilineata Say (N. C.) 
Lyonisia hyalina Cour (N. C.) 
Cochlodesma leanutn Conr. (N. C.) 
Gastrochrena sp. (N. C.) 
Panoprea americana Conr. (N. C.) 
Myalina subovata Conr. (N. C.) 
Cor^ula contrarta Say. 
Mya arenaria Linn (long Clam.) 
Solonya velum Say (N. C.) 
Siliquaria bidens Chemn (N. C ) 
Solen onsis Linn. (Kazor sbell.) 
StrigillaBp (N.C) 
Tellina alternata Say. 

tenera Say. 

tenta Say. 
Abra rcqualis Say. 

Ampbidesma constricta? Phill. (N, C) 
Semele orbioulnta Say 
Cumingia tellinoides Cour. 
Donax variabilis Say, 
Mactra lateralis Say. 

BolldiMHlnyi Chem. 
Rreto lincata Say. 
Petrlcola pboludi formic Lam. 
Venus morconaria Linn. (Qimhojf ) (This Is the eouiinon round clom,) 
LuclnopslH sp. (N. C ) 
Dorf»inia diflcus Itcevo. 

Cytherea gl;,'antoa Chomn. (N. C.) Cythoroa confoxa Say (N. C.) 

Tottonia nuinluilKMisls VorrlU (N, C.) 
Cliiduo grata Say (N.C.) 
OcininatottenlStm.(N. C.) 



Ma'-tra rnvcneli Cour. (N. C) 

Ricta ranaliculata Say. 
IVtricola dai'tylus Sow. 



304 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Mercenaria mortoni Conr. (N. C.) 

violacca Schum. (N. C.) 
Cardita tridentata Say. 
Astartc lunulata Conr. 
Diplodonta? punctata Say (N. C.) 
Lucina chrysostoma (N. C.) 
Liocardium mortoni Conr. (N. C.) 
Cardium isocardia Linn. 

murlcatnm Linn. 
Chama macrophylla Chemn. (N. C.) 

MytiUis carolincnsis (N. C.) 

cdulis Linn. (N. C ) 
Argina pcxnta Gray (Bloody clam.) 
Modiola americana Leach (N. C.) 

castanea Say? 
Modiolaria lateralis Say. 

Avicnla atlantica Lara. 
Pinna murioata Linn. 
Leda acuti Conr. (N. C.) 
Yoldia limatula Say. 
Nucula proxima Say. 
Area americana Gray, 

liolmesii Kurtz. 

llcnosa Say. 

nore Linn. 

ocridentalis. 
Pcctunciilus charlcstonenels ? Holmes. 
Poctcn nodnsua Lam. 

conccntricua Say. 
Lima 8cal)ra I3orn. 
Plicatula doprossa Lara. 

Ostrrca virpiniana Latr. 
cqucstris Say. 

Anomia glabra Vcrrill (fossil ?). 

TUNICATA. 

[Body protected by a leathery, elastic integument, 
of* ft respiratory sack.] 
Molgula pcllncida Verrill (N. C ) 
Cynthia partita Stm. (N. C.) 
Amaroccium stellatum Verrill (N. C.) 



Mercenaria violacea var. notata (N. C.) 



Lucina strigilla Stm. 

Laocardium Ircvigatura Lam. (N. C.) 

Cardium magnum Born. (N. C.) 

, Chama arcinella Linn. - 

(Sea JifuBBtlt ) 

Mytilus cubitus Say. 



Modiola plicatula Lara. 

hamatus Verrill (N. C) 



Pinna seminuda Lam. 



Area transversa Say. 
. limula Conr. 

ponderosa Say. 
incongrua Say. 



Pocton dlslocatus Say. 



(Oysters) 

Ostrrca fundata Say. 



Mouth opening into the bottom 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 305 



BRACHIOPODA. 

[One nerve ganglion ; shell bivalve ; mouth with two long cirriferous arms. Mostly 
fossil.] 



Lingula pyramidata Stm. (N. C.) 



BRYOZOA OR POLYZOA. 

[Body consisting of a double walled sack ; mouth surrounded by a (;ircle or crescent, 
of hollow, ciliated tentacles. Animals always in composite colonies.] 

Crisia eburnea Lamx. (N. C) 

Amathia altemata Lamx. (N. C.) ' 

Vesicularia armata Verrill (N. C.) 

Aetea anguina Lamx. ? (N. C.) 

Bugula turrita Verrill (N. C.) 

Acamarchis neritina Lamx. (N. C.) 

Membranifora lineata Busk, (N. C.) Membranifora catenularia Sraitt (N. C.) 

Biflustra denticulata Smitt (N. C.) 

Hippothoa hyalina Smitt (N. C.) Hippothoa (Aescharella) variabilis Verrill. 

biaperta Smitt (N, C.) 
Cellepora avicularis Hisscks (N. C.) 
Lepralia americana Verrill (N. C.) 
Discopora nltida (N. C.) 



CLASS ECHINODERMATA. 

[Radiate animals, with a calcareous shell, or with calcareous spicules In the skin- 
They possess an ambulacral system.] 



ORDER HOLOTHUROIDEA. SEA CUCUMBERS. 

[Echnlodorms covered with a coriaceous skin, in which are calcareous granules or 
spicules. Hhapo of body, elongated, slug like.] 

Thyone briareus Selenka (N. C.) 
Pentamera pulcherrima Ayrcs. 
Thyonella gemmnta Verrill. 
Anapcrufl caroTinus Frosch. 
20 



30G INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER ECIINOIDEA. SEA URCHINS. 

[Ei'liinodcrras •with n bIicII usually plobose in shape, and made up of calcareous 
plates, having a definite arrangement. Teeth present, forming a complicated mechan- 
ism, known as Aristotle's lantern, Pedicellaria present in some ] 

Arbacia punctulata Gray (N. C.) 

(Commonly known as the purple sea-urchin). 
Cidaris tribuloidos BI. * 

Ciypcaster subdoprcssus Ag. 
Kchinanthus royaceus Gray. 
Kchinomctru .subangularis Dcsml. 

lAhinucardiunj (iuvcscens A. Ag. Echinocardium cordatum Groy. 

Kncopo cmiiv^inata Ag. 
McUila pputapora Li'itkon 1 Sand cnkos. 

Kcxforis A. Ag. j Shape fluttonod. 
Moira atrojtoH .\. Ag. 
."^tronyyloccntrntuadroobachionBis A. Ag. 

(Commonly l<nown as the green sea-urchin). 
Toxopncustfs variegatus A. Ag. (N. C.) 



ORDER ASTROIDEA. STAR-FISHES. 

[The viscera extending into each of the five arms. Pedicellaria present. No teeth.] 

Asterias forbesii Verrill (N. C.) Asterias spinosus Link, 

AHtropectcn articulatu.s (Say) Luetkcn. 
I.uidlrt dnthatra (8ay) Luctkon. 



ORDER OPHIUROIDEA. BRITTLE SEA-STARS. 

[Body discoidal ; the five arms do not contain prolongations of the alimentary canal- 
No pedicellaria. A masticatory apparatus.] 

Ophiura brevispina Say. Ophiura elongata Say. 

Ophiophraguius wurdemanni Lyman (N. C.) 
Ophiotrix angulata Ayres. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



307 



CLASS ACALEPHiE. JELLY-FISHES. 



[Radiate jelly-like animals, with a central cavity hollowed out of the mass of the 
body, which is usually made up of four (or some multiple of four) parts.] 



Bolena littoralis McCready. 

Mnemiopsis gardenir Agaasiz. 

Beroe punctata Esch. , 

Idyiopsis clarkii Ag. 

Stomolophus meleagris Ag. 

Dactylometra qninquecirra Ag (N. C.) 

Cyanea versicolor Ag. 

Fovcola octonaria A. Ag. 

Cnnina dlscoides Fowkos (N. C.) 

Chelrops'alamus quadrumanus F, Mueller 

Tamoya hai)lonoma F. Mueller (N. C.) 

Porsa Incolorata McCready. 

Liriopo scutlgern McCready. 

Oceania folliata Ag. 

Eucheilota ventricularis McCready. 

Dipleuron parvum Brooks (N. C. 

Clytia bicophora Ag. 

Platypyxis cylindrica Ag. 

Campanularia carol inensis Verrill (N. C.) 

Eucope divaricata A. Ag. 

Eutima raira McCr. 

cuculata Brooks (N. C.) 
Aglaophenia tricuspis Ag. 

trifida. 
Neraatophorus sp. Brooks (N. C.) 
Plumularia quadridens McCr. 
Dynamcna cornicina McCr. 
Diphasia (nigra-like) Ag. 
Murgelis carolinenHis Ag. 
Neniopsis bachol Ag. (Charleston). 
Endondrium ramosum McC. 
Turritopsis nutricula McCr. (Charleston) 
Stomatoca apic.ita McCr. (Charleston). 
Willia ornata McCr. 
Dipurina cervicata McCr. 
Corynetis aga-ssizii McCr. 
Gemraaria gcinmosa McCr. 
Pennaria tiatella McCr. 



Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agasaiz. 



(N. C.) 



Campanularia noliformis McCr. (N. C.) 
Eucope obliqua Brooks (N. C.) 
Eutima emarginata Brooks (N. C.) 

variabilis McCr. 
Aglaophenia rigida ? Allman (N. C.) 



Plumularia (catharina-like) McCr. 
Dynamcna bllatoralis Brooks (N. C.) 



Endondrium tennc ? A. Ag. (N. C). 



Dipurina strangulata McCr» 



Pennaria inornata Brooks- (N» CJ 



308 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Ectoplenrn turricula Ag. Ectopleura ochracea A. Ag (N. €.) 

Paryplm cristata Ag. 
Strcenstnipia gracilis Brooks (N. C.) 
llydractinia polyclina Ag. 
Eniioxia alaUi McCr. 
Diphycs pusilla McCr. 
Physalia arcthiisa Til. 
Vek'lla mntica Bosc. 

Porpita linniana Less. * ' 

Naiiomia oara A. Ag. 

Obclia cominisstiralia McCr. (Charleston). 
Lafooa calcarata A. Ag. (Charleston). 

Scrtularia cornicina Vcrrill (Charleston). Sertularia carolinensis Verrill (N. C.) 
( Desmoscyphus ) achilleas Ver- 
rill (N. C.) 
Pelagia cyanella Peron and Lesueiir (N. C.) 
Piphasia sp. (N. C.) 



CLASS POLYPI OR ANTHOZOA. 

[Radiate animals, with a tubular or sack-like body, in the centre of the summit of 
which is an opening called the mouth, which is surrounded by one or more rows of 
tentacles.] 



ORDER ALCYONARLV. CORAL ANIMALS. 

[Body built on the plan of four; eight pinnately fringed tentacles. They are 
called the Asteroid Polypes. The red coral of commerce belongs here.] 

Rcnilla rcnifornls Cuvier (N. C.) 

Leptogorgia carolinensis Verrill (N. C.) Leptogorgia virgulata M. Edw. (N. C.) 

sctacea Vcrrill (X. C.) 
Anthopodium rubens Verrill (N. C.) 
Titanidcum snbcrosum Verrill (N. C.) 
Tclesto fructiculosa Dana (X. C.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 309 



ORDER ACTINARIA. SEA ANEMONES &c. 

Sagartia leucolena Verrill (N. C.) 
Paractis rapiformis M. Edw. (N. C.) 
Halocampa producta (Stm.) Verrill (N. C.) 
Calliactis sol Verrill (N. C) 
Aulactinia capitata Verrill (X. C.) 
Cladactis cavernata Verrill (N. C.) 
Cerianthns americanus Verrill (N. C.) 
Ilyanthus chloropsia (Ag.) Verrill (N. C.) 
Paranthea pallida Verrill (N. C.) * 



ORDER MADREPORARIA. 

[The polypes of this order have tentacles, mostly six or some multiple of six in 
number. Most corals are formed by animals of this group. They abound in tropical 
waters ] 

Aetrangia dan« Ag. (Star coral.) 

Oculina arbuscula Verrill (N. C.) Oculina implicata Verrill (N. C.) 



PROTOZOA. 

[Animals generally of minute size, composed of a nearly stnicturelesa, jelly-like 
substance, having no definite body cavity, presenting no trace of a nervous system, 
and whoso alimentary apparatus, if at all differentiated, i« very rudimentary. 



SPONGIDA. SPONGES. 

Microciona prolifera Verrill (N. C.) 

Chalina arbuscula Verrill (N. C.) 

Cliona sulphurea Verrill (N. C.) 

Hircinacampana Nardo (N. C) 

Spongia vermiculata var. Hyatt (N. C.) 

Spongelia spinosa Hyatt (N. C.) Sponizeliadublovar.forarainosaHyatt(N.C.) 

Dysidea fragilis Johnston ? (N. C.) 

Doubtless, if tho fresh water ponds are examined, other sponges will 
be found growing in quiet spots on submerged branches, stones, ttc. 
Tiie student is referred to an article by H. J. Carter, in the Ann. and 



310 INVERTEnUATE FAUXA OF SOUTH CAllOLINA. 

Mag. Xdt. Hist., Fcbr., 1S81, on the known species of Spmigilla ; also, to 
Mr. E. Potts, Acnd. Nut. Sci., Pliila., Pa,, who is making a special study of 
Fresh Water Sponges. 



MICROSCOPIC PROTOZOANS. 

[Mo't of tlie followin'; Rhlzopods and Infusorlans wera originally described by 
Klircubcr;;.] 

Aina'bii j)ro(cii8 

Ainblyn[>liis viridis. 

Ainlihileptns anser, 

.\roc'lla dcntrtta. Arcella vulgaris. 

Dillliijiifi protciforniis. Difflugia spiralis Bailey. 

Dinobryon scrtularia. 

Epistylis anastatica. 

Kiii^lcna pleuroncctes. Euglena viridis. 

Hydutina scnta. 

Lcpadclla oval is. ' 

^Icgalotrocha alboflavicans 

Monostyla lunaris. 

0])hryditim versatile. 

Pcridiniiiin carolinianum Bailey. Peridinium cinctum Ehrenberg. 

Ptcrodina patina. 

.Soardidium longicauduin. 

SquaincUa oblonga. 

Vorticclla clorostigma. 

Tho followinsr Protozoans belonging to the Rhizopoda, as defined by Leidy, are so 
wide spread in the fresh waters of the United States, that they probably all occur in 
South Carolina. They arc to be looked for in the ooze of ponds, among Spliagnum in 
swamps, t^c. 

Amoeba verrucosa Ehrenberg. Amoeba radiosa. 

Pelomyxu villosa. 

Difllugia pyrlformis Porty. Didlugla lobostoma Loldy. 

urcoolata Carter. corona Walllch. 

cratera Leidy. , constrictu Ehren. 

acuminata Ehrenberg. 
Xcbola coUnris Ehren 
.Vrcclla discoides Ehren. Arcolla mitrata Leidy. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



311 



Centropyxia aculcata Eliren. 
Cochliopodium bilimboaura Aucrbach. 
Patnphagus mutabilis Bailey. 
PseiidodifflugiagracilisSchlumberger. 
Cyphoderia ampulla Ehren. 
Campascus cornutus Leidy. 
Eiiglypha alveolata Dujardin. 
Sphenoderia lenta Schluinberger. 
Actinophrj's sol Miiller. 
Actinosphfcrium eichornii Ehren. 
Acanthocystis cha^tophora Schrank. 



Coclillopodinm vcstitum Archer. 
Faniphagus hyaliuis Ehren. 



Moflt of the above species marked (N. C.) are given on the authority of Drs. Coties 
and Yarrow, whose papers on the fauna of Ft. Macon, N. C, in the Troc. Phila. Acad. 
Sci., 1871 and 187C, will be found of value to the student. We suggest that those in- 
terested endeavor to verify and add to this list. 

The following works, most of which have been used in the revision, will be useful 
to the student of South Carolina Invertebrata: 



Invertebrates of Vineyard Sound ; by A. 
E. Verrill in the Kep. U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, 1871-72. 

Land and Fresh Water Shells of N. A. • 
by W. G. Binney. Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections. 

A Synopsis of the Family Unionid.e : by 
Isaac Lea. 4to, Phila., 1870. 

MoNOORAPii OP N, A, Astacid.f- ; by Her- 
mann Ilngen, Museum of Comp. Zoolo- 
gy, Cambridge, Mass. 

The External and Intf,rnal Parasites 
OF Man and Domkstic Animals ; by A. 
E. Verrill in the Report Connecticut 
Board of Agriculture, 1870. 



Illustrated Catalogue of N. A. Acalepiis 
or Jelly Fishes ; by A. Agassiz, Mu- 
seum Comparative Zoologj', Cambridge, 
1805. 

History of the Infusora ; Pritchard. 
Published in London. 

Microscopic Observations made in S. C, 
Ga. and Fla. ; by J. W. Bailey, and 
published in the Smithsonian Contri- 
butions to Knowledge, Vol II., 1S51. 

Fri«h Water PuizoronA of N. A.; by 
by Jos. Leidy. U. S, Geol. Survey, 
1879. 4to, with 48 plates. 

(The last three works treat wholly of 
microscopic animals.) 



CHAPTER XII. 



A LIST OF THE MORE COMMON 

NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS 
OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



BY H. W. RAVENEL, 

AIKEN, S. C, MARCH, 1882. 



SERIES I. 

Flowering plants, with roots, stoins, leaves, fruit and seeds. Phaenogama. 

CLASS I. 

Plants with two seed loaves (cotyledons), as cotton, peas, &c., having 
stems with bark and pith, and a woody layer between them : growth 
by annual layers between the wood and bark ; veins of the leaves form- 
ing a network. Dicotyledons or Exogcna. 

DIVISION I. 

Having two sets of floral leaves, one green, the other colored ; the 
colored leaves more or less numerous ; separate. Pohjpdalous. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



313 



ORDER I. CROWFOOT FAMILY. RANUNCULACEiE. 

Herbs or climbing shrubs, with watery, acrid juice : leaves generally divided, with 
leafstalk dilated at base ; ovaries distinct, numerous ; fruit dry. 



1, CRISPED CLEMATIS; BLUE JESSAMINE. 

2. TRAVELER'S JOY; LEATHER FLOWER. 
S. VIRGIN'S BOWER. 

4. DWARF CLEMATIS. 

5. WOOD ANEMONE 

6. CAROLINA ANEMONE- 

7. LIVER LEAF. 

8. EARLY MEADOW RUE. 

9. MEADOW RUE • 

10. RUE ANEMONE. 

11. ORANGE ROOT; YELLOW ROOT; GOLDEN 

SEAL. 

12. MARSH MARYGOLD ; COLT'S FOOT ; 

GROUND IVY. 

13. CELERY-LEAVED CROWFOOT ; BITING 

CROWFOOT. 

14. CREEPING CROWFOOT. 

15. ROUGH CROWFOOT, 
10. SHINING CROWFOOT. 

17. SMOOTH CROWFOOT. 

18. DWARF CROWFOOT. 

19. COLUMBINE. 

20. BLUE LARKSPUR. 

21. TALL LARKSPUR. 

22. DWARF LARKSPUR. 
2.3. GARDEN LARKSPUR. 

24. MONKSHOOD ; WOLFSBANE. 
2.J. YELLOW ROOT. 

20. RATTLE-TOP; BLACK SNAKE ROOTj CO- 
HOSH. 
27. BANEBERRY; WHITE COHOSH. 



Clematis crispa. 
Clematis viorna. 
Clematis Virginica. 
Clematis ochroleuca. 
Anemone nemorosa. 
Anemone Caroliniana. 
Hepatica triloba. 
Thalictrum dioicum. 
Thalictnim comuti. 
Thalictrum anemonoides. 

Hydrastis Canadensis. 

Caltha palustris. 

Ranunculus sceleratus. 
E. repens. 
E. recurvatus. 
E. nitidus. 
E. abortivus. 
E. pusillus. 
Aquilegia Canadensis. 
Delphinium azureum. 
D. exaltatum. 
D tricome. 
D. consolida. 
AconitUm uncinatum. 
Zanthorhiza apiifolla. 

Cimicifuga racemosa. 
Acteea alba. 



ORDER II. MAGNOLIA FAMILY. MAGNOLIACEiE. 

Aromatic trees or shrubs, with alternate, leathery leaves, and large, showy flower*. 

1. MAGNOLIA; BIG LAUREL. Magnolia grandlflora. 

2. SWEET BAY ; WHITE BAY. M. glauca. 

3. LONG-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE. M. Frazerl 



314 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

4. HEART-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE. M. cordata. 

5. CUCUMBER TREE. M. acuminata. 
G. UMBRELLA TREE. M. umbreUa. 

7. TULIP TREE; POPL.\R. . Liriodendron tulipifera. 



ORDER in. CUSTARD APPLE FAMILY. ANONACE/E. 
1. PAPAW ; CUSTARD APPLE. Asimina triloba. 

ORDER IV. MOONSEED FAMILY. MENISPERMACE.E 

Climbing, shrubby vines. 

1. RED-BERRIED MOONSEED. . Cocculus Carolinus. 

2. MOONSEED. Memspennum Canadense. 

ORDER V. BARBERRY FAMILY. BERBERIDACE/E. 

1. BARBERRY. Berberis Canadense. 

2. BLUE COHOSH; PAPOOSE ROOT; SQUAW 

ROOT. Caulophyllum thalictroides. 

3. UMBRELLA LEAF. Diphylleia cymosa. 

4. WILD JALAP; M.VY-APPLE; MANDRAKE. Podophyllum pcltatum. 

OliDER VI. POND-NUT FAMILY. NELUMBIACE/E. 
Aquatic horbs, with Inrgo, circular, flouting loaves. Fruit, a nut. 
1. WATER CHINQUEPIN ; POND NUT. Nelumblum luteum. 

ORDER VII. WATER SHIELD FAMILY. CABOMBACE.E. 

Aquatic herbs with floating leaves. 

1. WATER SHIELD. Brasenia peltata. 

2. NARROW-LEAVED WATER SHIELD. Cabomba Caroliniana. 

ORDER VIIL WATER LILY FAMILY. NYMPHEACE^. 

Water plants, wUh round or heart-shaped loaves. Fruit, berry-liko. 

1. W.VTER LILY ; POND LILY ; BONNETS. Nymphffia odorata. 

2. YELLOW WATER LILY. Nuphar advena. 

3. ARROW-SHAPED WATER LILY. N, sagittifolia. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



315 



ORDER IX. PITCHER PLANT FAMILY. SARRACENIACE/E. 

Perennial marsh herbs, with hollow, pitcher or trumpet-shaped leaves, and nod- 
ding flowers. 



1. HUNTSMAN'S CUP; PITCHER PLANT. 

2. RED-FLOWERED TRUMPET LEAF. 

3. SIDE-SADDLE FLOWER ; TRUMPETS 

FLY-TR\P. 

4. SPOTTED TRUMPET LEAF; FLY-CATCHER. S. variolails. 



Sarracenla purpurea. 
S. rubra. 

S. flava. 



ORDER X. POPPY FAMILY. 

1. MEXICAN POPPY ; THORN APPLE ; 

PRICKLY POPPY. 

2, PUCCOON ; BLOOD ROOT. 



PAPAVERACEiE. 

Argemone Mezicana. 
Sanguinaria Canadensis. 



ORDER XI. FUMITORY FAMILY. FUMARIACEiE. 

These are mostly mountain plants. 



ORDER XII. MUSTARD FAMILY. CRUCIFERiE. 
Herbs with pungent juice ; the four petals of the flower forming a cross. 



L WATER CRESS. 

2. MARSH CRESS. 

3. WALTER'S CRESS. 

4. SPRING CRESS. 

5. PEPPER ROOT. 

6. SICKLE POD. 

7. TANSY MUSTARD. 
8 HEDGE MUSTARD. 
9. AVIIITLOW GRASS. 

10. WART CRESS; SWINE CRESS. 

11. PEPPER GRASS. 

12. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. 

13. SEA KALE. 



Nasturtium officinale. 
Nasturtium palustre. 
N. tanacetifolium. 
Oardamino rhomboidea. 
Dentaria diphylla. 
Arabis Canadensis. 
Sisymbrium canescens. 
S. officinale. 
Draba vema. 
Senebiera pinnatiflda. 
Lepidium Virginicum. 
Capsella bursa-pastoris. 
Cakile maritima. 



ORDER XIII. VIOLET FAMILY. VIOLACE/E. 

1. BLUE VIOLET. Viola cucullata. 

2. HAND-LEAF VIOLET. V. palmata. 

3. WILD PANSY ; HEARTSEASE. V. tricolor, va. arvensls. 



31G NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

4. HAIRY VIOLET. V. vlUosa. 

6. ARKOW-LEAF VIOLET. V. sagittatft. 
0. BIRD-FOOT VIOLET. V. pedata. 

7. PRDI ROSE- LEAF VIOLET. V. primiUaefoUa. 

5. LANCE-LEAF VIOLET. V. lanceolata. 
0. PALE VIOLET. V. striata. 



ORDER XIV. ROCK ROSE FAMILY. CISTACE^. 

1. FROST WEED. Helianthemum Oanadenae. 

2. ROCK ROSE. H. Carollnlanum. 
8. SMALL PIN- WEED. Lechea minor. 

4. LARGE PIN-WEED. L. major. 



ORDER XV. SUN DEW FAMILY. DROSERACEiE. 

1. THREAD-LEAVED SUN DEW. Drosera flUformis. 

2. LONG-LEAVKD SUN DEW. D. longifolia. 

3. ROUND-LEAVED SUN DEW. ' D. rotundifolia. 

4. SIIORT-LEAVED SUN DEW. D. brevifolia. 

5. VENUS' FLY-TRAP. Dionaea muscipula. 



ORDER XVI. PARNASSIA FAMILY. PARNASSIACE^. 

.1 GRASS OF PARNASSUS. Pamassia Carollniana. 

ORDER XVII. ST. JOIIN'S-WORT FAMILY. HYPERICACEiE. 

1..R0CK ROSE> Hypericum prollflcum. 

2. ST. JOIIN'S-WORT. H. perforatum. 

3. GROUND PINE ; ORANGE GRASS. H. sarotlira. 

4. ST. PETER'S-WORT. . Aflcyrum crux-Andrea. 

5. MARSH JOIIN'S-WORT. Elodea Virginica. 

ORDER XVIII. PURSLANE FAMILY. PORTULACCACEiE. 

1. PURSLANE. Portulacca oleracea. 

2. GARDEN PORTULACCA. ' P. pilosa. 

3. SPRING BEAUTY. Claytonia Virginica. 

4. SEA PURSLANE. Sesuvium pentandrum. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



317 



ORDER XIX. PINK FAMILY. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 



1. SAND SPURRY. 


Spergularia rubra. 


2. PINE CHEAT; SAND SPURRY. 


Spergularia arvensis. 


3. INDIAN CHICKWEED. 


Molu^o verticilata. 


4. SAND-WORT. 


Alsine squarrosa. 


5. SAND-WORT. 


Arenaria serpyllifolia. 


6. CHICKWEED. 


Stellaria media. 


7. STAR CHICKWEED. 


S. pubera. 


8. ONE-FLOWERED CHICKWEED. 


S. uniflora. 


y. MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED. 


Cerastiuin vulgatum. 


10. STAR CHAMPION. 


Silene stellata. 


11. INDIAN PINK. 


S. Virginlca. 


12. CATCH-FLY. 


S. antirrhina. 


13. SOAP- WORT 


Saponaria officinalis. 


14. COCKLE. 


Agrostemma Githago. 


ORDER XX. MALLOW FAMILY. MALVACEA. 



1. MALLOW. 

2. SPRING MALLOW. 

3. VELVET LEAF. INDIAN MALLOW. 

4. MARSH MALLOW. 



Malva rotundifolia, 
Sida spinosa. 
Abutilon Avicennae. 
Hibiscus Moscheutos. 



[In this order are also the Garden Okra, Hibiscus esculcntus, and the Cotton-plant, 
Gossipyuin herbaeeum, and the Althea.] 



ORDER XXI. THE LINDEN FAMILY. TILIACEAE. 



1. SOUTHERN LINN. 

2. AVHITE LINN. 



Tilia pubescens. 
T. heterophylla. 



ORDER XXII. CAMELLIA FAMILY. CAMELLIACEAE. 



1. LOPLOLLY BAY. 

2. STUARTIA. 



Qordonia Lasianthus. 
Stuartia Virginica. 



[Under the Order Aurantaceae, Orange Family, may bo mentioned the Or&nge, both 
sweet and sour, the Lemon, and the Shaddock, which are cultivated in the southern 
port'on of the State, extending up as far north as Charleston.] 



318 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ORDER XXIII. PRIDE OF INDIA FAMILY. MELIACEAE. 

1. PRIDE OF INDIA. CHINA BERRY. Melia azadarach. 

Now well naturalized. 

ORDER XXIV. FLAX FAMILY. LINACEAE. 
1. WILD FLAX. Linum Virginicum. 

ORDER XXV. WOOD SORREL FAMILY. OXALIDACEAE. 

1. rURPLE WOOD SORREL. Oxalis violacea. 

2. WHITE WOOD SORREL. 0. acetocella. 
3 YELLOW WOOD SORREL. 0. stricta. 

ORDER XXVL GERANIUM FAMILY. GERANIACEAE. 

1. CRANESBILL, ALUM ROOT. Geranium maculatum. 

2. CAROLINA CRANESBILL. O. Carolinianum. 

ORDER XXVII. BALSAM FAMILY. BALSAMINACEiE. . 

1. PALE TOUCII-ME-NOT. Impatlens pallida. 

?.. JEWEL WEED-SPOTTED TOUCH-ME-NOT. I. fulva. 

ORDER XXVIII. RUE FAMILY. RUTACE^. 

1. PRICKLY ASH ; TOOTH ACHE TREE. Zmthoxylum CaroUnianum. 

2. HOP TREE. Ptelea trifoUata. 



ORDER XXIX. CASHEW OR SUMACH FAMILY. 
ANACARDIACE.E. 

1. STAG-HORN SUMACH. Rhus typhlna. 

2. SMOOTH SUMACH. R. glabra. 

3. CO.MMON SUMACH. R. copillina. 

4. DWARF SUMACH. R. pumila. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 319 

5. POISEN SUMACH ; POISEN ELDER. R. venenata. 

6. POISEN OAK. R. toxicodendron. 

7. POISEN VINE. R. radlcans. 

ORDER XXX. VINE FAMILY. VITACE^. 

1. FOX GRAPE. Vitis Labrusca. 

2. SUMMER GRAPE. * V. ffistivaUs. 

3. FROST GRAPE ; WINTER GRAPE. V, cordifolia. 

4. BULLACE ; SCUPERNONG. V. vulpina. 

5. VIRGINIA CREEPER; AMERICAN IVY. Ampelopsis quinquefolia. 

ORDER XXXI. BUCKTHORN FAMILY. RHAMNACE^. 

1. SUPPLE JACK. Berchemla volubills. 

2. TI-TI. Sageretia Michauxii. 

3. CAROLINA BUCKTHORN. Frangula Caroliniana. 

4. JERSEY TEA ; RED ROOT. Ceanothus Americanus. 

ORDER XXXII. STAFF TREE FAMILY. CELASTRACEiE. 

1. STRAWBERRY BUSH ; BURSTING HEART. Euonjrmus Americanus. 

2. BURNING BUSH. • E. atropurpureus. 

3. WAX-WORK ; BITTER-SWEET. Celastrus scandens. 

ORDER XXXIIL BLADDER-NUT FAMILY. STAPHYLEACEiE. 

1. BLADDER-NUT. Staphylea trifolia. 

ORDER XXXIV. SOAP BERRY FAMILY. SAPINDACE/E. 

1 SOAPBERRY. Sapindus marginatus. 

2. BUCK-EYE; HORSE-CHESTNUT. .ffisculus Pavia. 

3. YELLOW BUCK-EYE. JE. flava. 

4. SMALL FLOWERED BUCK-EYE. .ffi. parviflora. 

ORDER XXXV. MAPLE FAMILY. ACERACE^. 

1. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE; BOX-ELDER. Negundo aceroides. 

2. RED MAPLE. Acer rubrum. 

3. SILVER MAPLE, A. dasycarpum. 

4. SUGAR MAPLE. A. saccharinum. 

5. STRIPED MAPLE. A. Pennsylvaricum. 



320 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER XXXVI. MILKWORT FAMILY. POLYGALACE^. 



1. BACHELOR'S BUTTON. 

2. SENECA SNAKE-ROOT, 
X BLOOD-RED POLYOALA. 



Polygala lutea. 
P. senega. 

P. sanguinea. And many other 
species. 



ORDER XXXVII. PULSE FAMILY. LEGUMENOSiE. 



Herbs, shrubs nnd trees with compound altern 
A large and very important family of plants— well 

1. RATTLE BOX. 

2. TARTRIDGE PEA. 

3. LUPINE, 

4. HAIRY LUPINE. 

5. BLUELUPJNE. 
G. RED CLOVER. 

7. WHITE CLOVER. 

S. CAROLINA CLOVER. 

9. BUFFALO CLOVER. 
10. RABP.IT-FOOT CLOVER, 
n. YELLOW CLOVER. 

12. HOP MEDICK, LUCERNE. 

13. YELLOW MELLILOT. 

14. WHITE MELLILOT. 

15. BUCK ROOT. 
1(1. INDIGO BUSH. 

17. LOCUST; FALSE ACACrA. 

18. CLAMMY LOCUST. 

1!». ROSE LOCUST. 

20. VIRGIN'S BOWER) AMERICAN WISTARIA. 

21. RABI5IT-PEA; GOAT'S RUE. 

22. CAROLINA INDIGO. 
2.1 INDIGO. 

24. MILK VETCH. 

25. VETCH ; TARE. 
20. WILD VETCH. 



ate leaves, fruit a legume or pod. 
represented in our State. 

Crotallaria saglttalis. 

C, ovalis. 

Lupinus perennis. 

L. villosus. 

L. difFusus. 

Trifolium pratense. 

T. repens. 

T. Caroliniana. 

T. reflexum. 

T. arvense. 

T. procumbens. 

Medicago lupulina. 

Melilotus officinalis. 

M, alba. 

Psoralia canescens. 

Amorpha fhiticosa. And one 

other species. 
Eobinia pscudo-Acacla. 
R. viscosa. Only in the moun- 
tains. 
R. hlspida. 
Wistaria firutescens. 
Tephrosia Virginica. And two 

other species. 
Indigofera Caroliniana. 
I, Anil. Introduced and formerly 
cultivated. 
Astragalus glaber. 
Vicia satlva. 

"7. Caroliniana. And two other 
apccies. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



321 



20. 



PENCIL FLOWER. Stylosanthes elatior. 

JAPAN CLOVER. Lespedeza striata. A native of 

Jftpan— now naturnlized and spreading everywhere— also three or four 
more native species. 

BEGGAR'S TICKS. Desmodium. ThU is a large fam- 

ily of plants, of which there are si.xteen species growing in the State. 
The term " Beggar's Ticks " is indiscriminately applied to all of them, 
from the peculiar formation of the Legume, or seed-pod, composed of 
jointed parts, easily separated, and clothed with hooked hairs, causing 
them to adhere to clothes of any one brushing them. • 



30. DOLLAR PLANT. 

31. WILD GROUND-NUT. 

32. WILD BEAN. 

33. NATIVE ERYTHRINA.- 

34. WILD PEA VINE. 

35. MILK PEA. 

36. WILD INDIGO. 

37. JUDAS TREE; RED BUD 

38. WILD SENNA. 

39. FLORIDA COFFEE; STYPTIC WEED. 
4a PARTRIDGE PEA; GOLDEN CASSIA. 

41. HONEY LOCUST. 

42. ONE-SEEDED LOCU.ST. 

43. SENSITIVE PLANT. 



Rhynchosia monophylla. And 
two other species. 
Apios tuberosa. 
Phaseolus perennis. And two 

other species. 
Erythrina herbacea. 
Amphicarpa monoica. 
Qilactia pilosa And four other 
specie.''. 
Baptisia tinctoria. And neven 

other species. 
Oercia Canadensis. 
Cassia Marylandica. 
0. occidentalis. 

C. chamsBcrista. And two other 
species. 
Gleditschia trlacanthos. 
O. monosperma. 
Schrankia angustata. 



[Under this Order are many of our cultivated plants— (fnrden PeaH, Cow Pea«, Hoans, 
Oround-Nut, or Pindar, or Poa-Nut— and n)uny otherH,] 



ORDER XXXViri. R03E FAMILY. R03ACE.E. 



L CHICKASAW PLUM. 

2. RED PLU.M ; AUGUST PLUM. 

3. SOUR PLUM. 

4. WILD CHERRY. 

5. WILD ORANGE; MOCK ORANGE. 

6. INDIAN PHYSIC. 

21 



Prunas OUcasa. 
P. Americana. 
P. umbellata. 
P. serotina. 
P. Caroliniana. (A 

QiUenla trifoliata. 



fine ever- 
green.) 



322 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



7. AMEUICAN IPKCAC. 

8. AGRIMONY; rEVERFEW. 
5). WILD BURNET. 

10. AVKNA. 

11. CINQUirOIL; FIVE-FINGER 

STRAWBERRY. 

12. WILD STRAWBERRY. 

13. CO.M.MON STRAWBERRY'. 



O. stipulacea. 
Agrimonla eupatorla. 
Sanguisorba Canadensis, 
Geum album. 



WILD 

Potentilla Canadensis. 
Fragaria Virginiana. 
F. vesca. (This species etraye 
from jzardcns nnd has become 
natiirali/.ed.) 
!». IIIGIII5USII BLACKBERRY; DEWBERRY Rubus viUosns. 



1.-). .lUNE BERRY. 

10. LOW-BUSII BLACKBERRY; TRAILING 

BLACKBERRY. 
17. FLOWERING RASPBERRY. 
IS. BUlirLi: RASPBERRY. 

1<». SWAMP R(>SE. 

•JO. WILD OR DWARF ROSE. 

•-•1. EGLANTLM-:; SWEICT BRIAR. 

21. CHEROKEE ROSE. 

•j:5. NARR0W-LEAV1:D THORN. 

2». SUMMER HAW ; RED HAW. 

2o. HAIRY THORN. 

20. DWARF THORN. 

27. SCARLET HAW. 

2S. SUMMi:U HAW; POND HAW. 

2!t. PARSLEY-LEAVED II.VW. 

;i(). COCKSPUR HAWTHORN. 

:U. TREE HAW. 

•:,2. CRAB APPLE. 

:i:5. NARR0W-LI:AVED CRAB. 

.!». CHOKE IJKRRY. 

:!'). WII>D CRANBERRY. 

:•.(!. SERVICE TREE. 



R. cuneifolius. 

R. trivialis. 

R. odoratus. (In tliemoiintainfl) 

R. occidentalis. (In the uioun- 

tnins.) 
Rosa Carolina. 

R. lucida. 

R. rubiginosa. 

R. Isevigata. 

CratiEgus spathulata. 

C. flava. 

C. glandulosa'. 

C parvifolia. 

C. coccinea. 

C. aestivalis. 

C. apiifolia. 

C. Crus-galli. 

C. arborescens. 

Pyrus coronarla. 

P. angustifolia. 

P. arbutifolia. 

P. erythrocarpa. 

Amclanchior Canadensis. 



[The cnltivaiiMl rc'f)rcsontatIvc.s of tills lar>:o niid iiiii)ortuiit order nro, the Apple, 
IV'ar, CiiiiiK'o, I'iiim, Pom;li, Apricot, Almond, Cherry, Ruhcm, KjiireuH, etc.] 



OUDER XXXIX. CAROLINA ALLSPICE FAMILY. 

CALYCAXTHACEyE. . 

1. SWEET-SCENTED SHRUB. Calycanthus floriduB, and two 

other species. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



32^ 



ORDER XL. DEER-GRASS FAMILY, MELASTROMACE^. 

1. DEER GRASS. Eliezia glabella, and five other 

species. 

ORDER XLI. LOOSE-STRIPE FAMILY. LYTHRACEiE. 



1. LOOSESTRIFE. 

2. SWAMP LOOSE STRIFE. 

3. BLUE WAX WEED. 



Lythnun alattun. 
Nesea verticillata. 
Cnpbea vlscosissima. 



[The Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia Indica), so common in cultivation as a flower- 
ing tree, from Eastern Aeia, belongs to this order] 



ORDER XLII. EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. ONAORACEiE. 



1. EVENING PRIMROSE. 
2- SUN DROPS, 

3. SEED BOX. 

4. WATER PURSLANE. 

5. ENCHANTER'S NIGIITSFIADE. 

0. MER.MAIDWEED. 
7. WATER MILFOIL 



Oenothera biennis. 

0. fruticosa, and two or three 

other spocios 
Lndwigla alternlfolia. 
L. palustre, and ton other specicti. 
Circsa Lntetiana. (In the 

mountains.) 
Proaerpinaca palustris, and one 

otI)er species. 
Myriophyllum verticiUatum. 



ORDER XLIIL CACTUS FAMILY. CACTACEyE. 



1. PRICKLY PEAR. 

2. CROWFOOT PRICKLY PEAR. 



Opuntia vulgaris. 
0. Pes-Oorvi. 



ORDER XLIV. CURRANT FAMILY. GROSSULACEyE. 

1. SMOOTH GOOSElilCURY. Ribe« rotundifolium. (In the 

inotintaInN,) 



ORDER XLV. PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY, PASSIFLORACE^E. 



1. MAY POP ; PASSION FLOWER. 

2. YELLOW PASSIFLORA. 



Passiflora incamata, 
P. lutea. 



324 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER XLVI. GOURD FAMILY. CUCURBITACEiE. 



1. COMMON GOURD; CALABASH. 

2. ONE-SEEDED CUCUMBER. 



Lagenaria vulgaris. 
Sicyos angtdatus. 



[In this order .'iro tlic Squnsh, Pumpkin, Watermelon, Mnskmelon, Cuntnloupe, 
Cucumber and Glierkin of the ^;ardcn8.] 



ORDER XLVII. ORPINE FAMILY. CRASSULACEiE. 

1. AVILD ORPINE. ' Sedum telephoidea. (In the 

mountains.) 
1'. THREE-LEAVED STONE CROP. S. ternatum. 

3. MOUNTAIN MOSS. S. pulchellum. (In the mountains.) 

4. DITCH STONE CROP. Penthorum sedoides. 



ORDER XLVIII. SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. SAXTFRAGACE^E. 



1. LEITUCE SAXIFRAGE. 

'J. EARLY SAXII'RACJE. 

:;. ALUM ROOT. 

I. FALSE MITUE-WOUT. 

:.. MITRE-WOKT. 

(1. OOLDEN SAXIFRAGE. 

7. WILDIIYDUANC.EA 

S. SNOWY HYDRANGEA. 

'>). CLIMBING DECUMARIA. 

10. ITEA. 

11. SYRINGA. 

TJ. ROUGH SYRINGA. 
13. SCENTLESS SYRINGA. 



Saxlfraga erosa. (In tlto nioun> 
tains.) 

S. VIrglnlensis. (In the moun- 
tains.) 

Houchora Amorlcana. 

TlaroUa cordifolia. 

Mitella diphylla. 

Chrysosplenlura Amorlcanum. 

Hydrangea arborescons. 

H. radlata. 

Documarta barbara. 

Itea Virginlca. 

Philadelphus grandiflorus (In 
the mountains.) 

P. hirsutus. (In the mountains.) 

P. Inodonis. 



ORDER XLIX. WITCH HAZEL FAMILY. HAMAMELACEyE. 



1. WITCH HAZEL. 
•2. DWARF ALDER. 
3. SWEET GUM. 



Hamamelis Virginica. 
Fothergilla alnifolla. 
Liquidambar styraciflua. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



325 



ORDER L. PARSLEY FAMILY. UMBELLIFERiE. 



1. PENNY-WORT. 

2. WATER GRASS. 

a. SANICLE; BLACK SNAKE ROOT. 
4. BUTTON 8NAKE ROOT. 



5. DWARF CARROT. 
0. COMMON CARROT. 

7. WATER HEMLOCK. 

8. BISHOP WEKD. 

9. WATER PARSNIP. 

10. MEADOW PARSNIP. 

11. ANGELICA. 

12. A RCI I ANGELIC A. 

13. WATER DROP- WORT. 

14. COW-BANE ; PIG POTiVTOE. 

14, CHERVIL. 



Hydrocotyle Americana. 

H. nmbellata, and two or three 
other species, 

Sanicula Marylandica, and one 
other species. 

Eryngium Virginlanuni. (We 
have fivo species of P>yngiuni, 
and most of them are known 
as Button Snake Root,) 

Daucus pusillus. 

D.carota.(Sf>iiicwhatunturalizcd,) 

Cicuta masculata. 

Discopleura capillacea. 

Slum lineare. 

Thaspium auroum, and two other 
Bf'ccies. 

Ligusticun actseifoliom. 

Archaugelica hirsuta. 

Tiedmannia teretifolia. 

Archemora rigida, and one other 
n]}cd(;n, 

OhaQTophyllum procumbens. 



ORDER LL GINSENG FAMILY. ARALTACE;!^. 



1. SPIKENARD. 

2. WILDSARSAPARILLA. 

3. PRICKLY ASH; HERCULES CLUB. 

4. GINSENG ; SANG. 

5. DWARF GINSENG. 



Aralla racemosa. 
A. nudicaulls. 
A. spinosa. 

Panax Quinqtiefoliam. (In the 

mountains ) 

P. trifolium. (In the inonntains.) 



ORDER LII. DOGWOOD FAMILY. CORNACE/E. 



1. DOGWOOD. 

2. SWAMP DOGWOOD. 

3. SOUR GUM ; BLACK GUM ; PEPPERIDGE, 

4. TUPEIX); POND TUPELO. 

6, SWAMP TUPELO ; COTTON GUM. 
C. OGEECHEELIME; SOUR TUPELO. 



Oornns Florida. 

0. sericea, and three other Bpccios, 

Nyssa multiflora. 

N. aquatica. 

N. uniflora. 

N. capitata. 



:;20 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 



DIVISION II. Floral envelopes double, consisting of both calyx and 
corolla, the latter mostly united into one petal. Monopetalous. 



ORDER LIII. HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. CAPRIFOLIACEiE. 



]. COKAL BERRY. 

•J. Wmn IIONKYSUCKLE. 

:;. woodiune; honeysuckle. 
4 yelt.ow woodbine. 
.-.. iio]v.^e(;entian. 

r.. ELDER. 

7. RE|)-!'.ERRIEI) ELDER. 
K. BLACK HAW. 
!•. SHEEP BERRY. 

10. ro.^sr.M HAW; SHAWNEE HAW. 

11. ARROW-WOOD. 



Symphorlcarpus vulgaris. 
Diervilla triflda. (In the moun- 
tains.) 
Lotticera sempervirens. 
L. flava. 

Triosteum perfoUatum. 
Sambucus Canadensis. All over 
tho Stuto. 
8. pubens. In ttio mountains. 
Viburnum prunlfolium. 
V. Lentago. 
V, nudum. 
V, dentatum. 



ORDER LIV. MADDER FAMILY. RUBIACEiE. 



1. S^IALLBEDSTRAW. 

'2. BUTTON WEED. 

:!. BUTTON BUSH. 

4. IWRTRIDOE BERRY; RUNNING BOX. 

.-.. GEORGIA BARK. 

G. BLUETS; DAISEY. 

7. riNK ROOT. 

s. ^HTRE WORT. 

1>. YELLOW JESSAMINE, 



Galium trifldum. And three other 
specioi. 
Diodia Virginiana, 
Cephalanthus occidentalls. 
Mitchella repens. 
Pinckneya pubens, 
Houstonla ccerulea. And several 
otlier species. 
Splgelia Marylandica. 
Mitreola petiolata. 
Qelsemium semperTirens. 



ORDER LV. VALERIAN FAMILY. VALERIANACEiE. 
L LAMB LETTUCE. Fedia radiata. 



ORDER LVI. COMPOSITE FAMILY. COMPOSIT/E. 

1. IRON WEED. Vemonia Novaeboracensis. And 

two other species. 
■2. ELEPHANT'S FOOT. Elephantopus Carolinanus. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



327 



3. BLAZINO STAR. 

4. BUTTON SN A KE-ROOT. 

5. VANILLA PLANT. 

,0. THOROUGH-WORT; BONE-SET. 

7. TRUMPET WEED. 

8. UPLAND BONE-SET. 
i). RICH WEED. 

10. WILD HOREHOUND. 

11. DOG FENNEL. 

12. DOG FENNEL. 

13 CLIMDING IIEMP.WEED. 

14. MIST FLOWER. 

15. WHITE-TOPPED ASTER. 
10. ASTER; STAR WORT. 

lnr;,'0 j,'enuH, comprising about thlrty-flve Hpccies found in tlie Stutc, but 
they have received no common names. 

17. DAISEY FLEA-BANE. Erlgeron strigosum. 

18. HOG-WEED; HORSE-WEED. E. Oanadenae. 

10. FLEA-BANE. E. Philadolphicum. 

20. ROBUIN'S PLANTAIN, E. beUIdifolium. 

21. GOLDEN ROD; ANISE-SEED GOLDEN ROD. Solidago odora. 



Liatris sqttarTosa. 

L. spicata. 

L. odoratissima. And six or seven 

other species. 
Eupatorium perfoliatmn. 
E. purpurem. 
E. sessilifolium. 
E. ageratoides. 
E. aromaticum. 
E. foeniculaceum. 
E. coronopifolium. And eleven 

other species. 
Mikania scandens. 
Oonoclinum coelestinmn. 
Sericocarpus conyzoldes. 
Aster corymbosus. TIiIh is a very 



[This is another large genus, comprising over thirty spocies in this State. Most of 
them are called indiscriminately Golden Rod, but that name more properly applies to 
the species noted above.] 



22. SILK GRASS; SCURVY GRASS. 
23 COTTONY SILK GRASS. 

24. ELECAMPANE. 

25. GROUNDSEL; CONSUMPTION WEED. 
20. MARSH FLEA BANE. 

27. STINKING FLEA BANE. 

28. BLACK ROOT. 

29. LEAF CUP. 

30. BEAR'S FOOT. 

31. ROSIN WEED. 

32. MARSH ELDER. 
3.3. BUFFALO WEED. 
34. 



Chrysopsis graminifolia. 
0- gossypina. . 
Inula Helenium. 
Bacchatis halimifolia. 
Pleuchea bifrons. 
P. foBtida. 

Pterocaulon pychnostachyum. 
Polymnia Canadensis. In the 

mountains. 
P. uvedalia. 
Silphium laciniatum. 
Iva frutescens. 
Ambrosia triflda. 



RAG WEED; CARROT WEED ; STICK WEED. A. arUmesiaefolia. 



328 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



S.'i. COCKLE BUR; SHEEP BUR. 

36. THORNY COCKLE BUR. 

37. BRAZILLVN COCKLE BUR. 



Xanthium strtunarium. 
X. spinosum. 
Acathospermum zanthloldes. 



This Exotic is a recent introduction of about twenty years ago. Spreading from the 
woollen mills of Au^nHta, Ga , it lias extended along the railroads in all directions, and 
may be found at nearly every station. 



38. 
3;>. 

40. 
41. 



SE.V OX-EYE. 
ZINNLV; OLD MAID. 

OX-EYE. 

PURPLE CONE FLOWER. 

CONE-FLOWER. 

NARROW-LEAVED SUN-FLOWER. 



BorrlcUa frutcscens. 
Zinnia multiflora. Stray from the 
gardens. 
Hellopsls Isevis. 
EcMnacea purpurea. 
Rudbeckia hirta. 
Helianthua angustlfolins. We 



have several other sjjecies in the State. Tlie common cultivated Sun- 
Flower, Helianthus annuu«, and the Jerusalem or Ground Artichoke, 
Holiantluis tuberosus, are partially naturalized. 



43. 
44. 
4J. 
40. 
47. 
4S. 
41». 
50. 
•31. 
52. 
.'S3. 



TI'K-SEED. 

TICK-SEED SUN-FLOWER. 

TALL COREOPSIS. 

BUR MARYGOLD. 

BEGGAR'S LICE. 

BEGGAR'S LICE; SPANISH NEEDLES. 

STICK WEED ; CROWN BEARD. 

SNEEZE WEED. 

.AIAY WEED; FALSE CHAMO .MILE. 

MILFOIL; YARROW. 

OX-EYE DAISY ; WHITE DAISY; WHITE 

WEED. 
TANSY. 



.'>.}. 


WILD WORMWOOD. 


5r.. 


EVERLASTING. 


57. 


CUD WEED. 


5S 


EVERLASTING. 


.">',). 


FIRE- WEED. 


GO. 


INDIAN PLANTAIN. 


lil. 


RAG WORT. 


02. 


THISTLE. 


f.3. 


SWAMP THISTLE. 


G4. 


YELLOW THISTLE. 



Coreopsis discoidea. 
C trichosperma. 
C. tripteris. 

Bidens chrysanthemoides. 
B. frondosa. 
B. bipinnata, 
Verbesina Siegesbeckla. 
Helen! urn autumnale. 
Maruta Cotula. 
Achillea millefolla. 

Leucanthemum vulgare. 
Tanacetum vulgare. Sparingly 
naturalized. 
Artemesia caudata. 
Gnaphalium polyceph&lum. 
Q. purpureum. 
Antennaria margaritacea. 
Erechthites hieracifolia. 
Cacalia atriplicifolia. 
Senecio aureus. 

Cirsium lanceolatum. Introduced 
and naturalized. 
C muticum. 
C- horridulum. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



529 



05 BURDOCK. 

63. HAWK-WEED. 

67. RATTLE-SNAKE WEED. 

08. WHITE LETTUCE. 

09. GALL OF THE EARTH. 

70. DANDELION. 

71. FALSE DANDELION. 

72. WILD LETTUCE, 

73. BLUE LETTUCE. 

74. SOW THISTLE. 



Lappa major. 

Hieracium sca1}7Tun. 

H. venosum. 

Nabalus albns. 

N. Fraseri. 

Taraxacum Dens-Leonis. 

Pyrrhopappus Caroliniaaus. 

Lactuca elongata. 

Mulgidium acuminatum. 

Sonchus oleraceus. 



ORDER LVII. LOBELIA FAMILY. LOBELIACE/E. 



1. CARDINAL FLOWER. 

2. GREAT LOBELIA. 

3. BLUE LOBELIA. 

4. INDIAN TOBACCO; LOBELIA. 



Lobelia cardinalis. 
L. B3rpbilitica. 
L. puborula. 

L. inflata. And three or lour 
other species. 



ORDER LVIII. CAMPANULA FAMILY. CAMPANULACE/E. 



1. BELL FLOWER. 

2. MARSH BELL FLOWER. 

3. HARE BELL. 

4. VENUS' LOOKING-GLASS. 



Campanula Americana. 
C. aparinoides. 
C. divaricata. 
Specularia perfoliata. 



ORDER LIX. HEATH FAMILY. ERICACEAE. 



1. BLUE HUCKLEBERRY. 

2. DWARF HUCKLEBERRY. 

3. BLACK HUCKLEBERRY. 

4. BEAN BERRY. 

5. SWAMP HUCKLEBERRY. 

0. DEER BERRY ; GOOSEBERRY. 

7. CREEPING HUCKLEBERRY. 

8. SPARKLE BERRY. 

9. GROUND IVY; MAY FLOWER; TRAILING 

ARBUTUS. 

10. MOUNTAIN TEA ; WINTER GREEN. 

11. DOGLAURKL. 

12. TI-TI. 



Gay-Lussacia frondosa. 

G. dumosa. 

G. resinosa. 

G. ursina. In the mountains. 

Vaccinium corymbosum. 

V. stamineum. 

V. crassifolium. 

V. arboreimi. 

Epigsea repens. 
Gaultherla procumbens. 
LeucothoB Catcsbaei. 
L. acuminata. 



330 



NATIVE AXD NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



13. FKrTKRBUSII. 

14. STAIKJKU BUS[I. 
1.5. PKri'KIt IJU.SII. 

Ifl. SOUll WOOD; SORIIKLLTREE. 

17. WHITH KLDKK; SWKICT PKPPER BUSH. 

15. CALICO BUSH; KALMIA. 

19. WICKY; SHEEP LAUREL. 

20. rUKPLE IIOXEY-SUCKLE. 

21. ELAZINCJ HONEY-SUCKLE. 

22. CLAMMY HONEY-SUCKLE. 

23. SMOOTH IIOXEY-SUCKLE. 

24. LAUREL; ROSE BAY. 

23. OAK-LEAVED LAUREL. 

2(1. DWARF LAUREL. 

27. SAND MYRTLE. 

2-<. FALSE WINTER OREEN. 

2:> PIPSLSSEWA; PRINCES PINE. 

.•■■0. SPOTTED WINTER GREEN. 

:;i. DUTCH.MAN'o PIPE; EYE-BRIGHT. 

:;2. PINE SAP. 



Andromeda nltida. 

A. Mariana. 

A. Ligustrina. 

Oxydendrum arboreum. 

Clethra alnifolla. 

Ealmia latifolia. 

K. angustifolia. 

Azalia nudiflora. 

A. calendulacea. 

A. viscosa. 

A. arborescens. 

Rhododendron maximum. In 
the inountainH. 

R. Catawbiense. In tlie moun- 
tains. 

R. punctatum. In the moun- 
tains. 

Leiophyllum buxifolium. In the 
mountains. 

Pyrola rotundifolia. 

Cbimapbila umbellata. 

C. maculata. 

Mjajtropa uniflora. 

M. Hypopitys. 



ORDER LX. GALAX FAMILY. GALACIX.E. 
1. COLT'S FOOT. Galax aphyUa. 



ORDER LXL HOLLY FAMILY. AQUIFOLIACEiE. 



1. COMMON HOLLY'. 

2. DAHOON HOLLY. 

3. YAUPON. 

4. GALL BERRY: INK BERRY. 

5. TALL GALL BERRY. 



Ilex opaca- 
I. Dahoon. 
I Cassine. 
Prinos glaber. 
P. coriacea. 



ORDER LXII. STYRAX FAMILY. STYRACE.E. 



1. MOCK ORANGE. 

2. SNOW-DROP TREE. 

3. SWEET LE.VF: YELLOW WOOD. 



Styrax grandifolla. 
Halesia tetraptera. 
Symplocos tinctorla. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 331 

ORDER LXIII. CYRILLA FAMILY. CYRILLACE^E. 
1. BURN- WOOD BARK ; HE HUCKLKBERRY, Cyrilla racemiflora. 

ORDER LXIV. EBONY FAMILY. EBENACEiE. 
1. PERSIMMON. Diospyros Virginiana. 

ORDER LXV. SAPODILLA FAMILY. SAPOTACEiE. 

1. BUCK THORN. Bumelia lyciodes. 

2. TOUGH BUCK THORN. B. tenax. And two other species, 

ORDER LXVL PLANTAIN FAMILY. PLANTAGINACE^. 

1. PLANTAIN. Plantago major. 

2. NARROW-LEAVED PLANTAIN. P. lanceolata. And three other 

species. 

ORDER LXVII. LEAD-WORT FAMILY. PLUMBAGINACE^. 

1. MARSH ROSEMARY. Statice Caroliniana. 

ORDER LXVIII. PRIMROSE FAMILY. PRIMULACE/E. 

L FEATHERFOIL. Huttonla inflata. 

2. LOOSE STRIFE. LysimacMa stricta. 

2. FIVE SISTERS. L. auadrifolla. And three or four 

other species. 

3. AMERICAN COWSLIP. Dodecatheon Media. 

4. PIMPERNEL. AnagaUls arvensis. 

5. CHAFF WEED. Centunculus minimus. 

6. BROOK WEED. • Samolus floribundus. 

ORDER LIX. BLADDER-ROOT FAMILY. LENTIBULACEyE. 

1. BLADDER WORT. Utrlcularia inflata. And seven 

other si)Oclo9 ; mostly in boppy pronnds, or floating in still waters. 

2. BUTTER WORT. Pinguicula lutea. 






NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



OIIDER LXX. BIGXONLV FAMILY. BIGNONIACEiE. 



1. CROSS VINE. 

2. TliU.M PET FLO WE II. 
r.. CAT A I. PA. 

4. UNICORN PLANT. 



Bignonla capreoleta. 
Tecoma radicans. 
Catalpa Bignonloldes. 
MartTnia proboscidean 



ORDER LXXr. BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. OKOBAXCHACEiE. 



1. BEECH DROPS. 

2. SQUAW ROUT. 

3. CANCER ROOT. 



Epiphegua Vlrginiana. 
Conopholis Americana. 
AphylloQ uniflorum. 



ORDER LXXII. FIG-WORT FAMILY. SCROPIIULARIACEiE. 



1. MULLEIN. 

2. MOTH MULLEIN. 

:;. FIG woirr, 

4. SNAKE-MOUTH. 

5. I5EARD-T0NGUE. 
0. TOADFLAX. 

7. MONKEY FLOWER. 

8. UEDdE HYSSOP. 

9. FALSE PIMPERNEL. 
10. CULVER'S PHYSIC. 
IL PAUL'S RETONY. 

12. PURSLANE SPEEDWP:LL. 

13. CORN SPEEDWELL. 

14. KICK EL SPEEDWELL. 
l.>. RLUE IIE.VRTS. 

1(1 FALSE FOX-GLOVE. 

17. FLAX-LEAVED GER.\RDIA. 

18. PURPLE GER.VRDIA. 

P.). CHAFF SEED. 

20. LOUSE WORT. 

21. COW WHEAT. 



Verbascum Thapsus. 
V. Blattaria. 
Scrophularia nodosa 
Chelone glabra. 
Penstemon pubescens. 
liinaria Canadensis 
Mimulus ringens. 
Gratiola N'irginiana. And two 
or tlireo other epocics. 
Ilysanthes gratioloides. , 

Veronica Virginica. 
V. serpyllifolia. 
V. peregrina. 
V. arvcnsia. 
V. agrcstls. 
Bucbnera Americana. 
Dasystoma pubescens. And three 
other Bpccies. 
Gerardia linifolia. 
O. purpurea. And three other 

flfK^cic'S. 

Bchwalbea Americana. 
Pedicularis Canadensis. 
Melampyrum Amorlcanom. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER LXXIII. ACANTHUS FAMILY. ACANTHACE/E 
J. RUELUA. 

2. WATER WILLOW. 



Dlptercanthus strepens And two 
otijcr ^pccicH. 
Dianthera Americana. 



ORDER LXXIV. VERVAIN FAMILY. VERBENACE.E. ' 



1. WHITE VERVAIN. 

2. BLUE VERVAIN. 

3. VERVAIN. 

4. FROG FRUIT. 

O.AMERICAN MULBERRY; WILD MUL- 
BERRY, 
C. LOP SEED. 



Verbena urticifoUa. 
V. hastata. 

V. officinalis. And two other 
species. 
Lippia nodiilora. 

Callicarpa Americana. 
Phryma leptostachya. 



ORDER LXXV. MINT FAMILY. LABIATiE. 



1. SPEAR MINT. 


Mentha viridis- 


2. PEPPER MINT. 


M. piperata 


3 ROUND-LEAF MINT. 


M. rotundifolia. All our Mints 




are introduced. 


4. BUGLE WEED. 


Lycopus Virginicns. 


5. DITTANY. 


Cunila mariana. In the moun- 


' 


tains. 


0. MOUNTAIN MINT. 


Pycnanthemum incanum. And a 




few otl)cr species. 


T. HORSE BALM. 


CoUinsonia Canadensis. 


8, PENNY ROYAL. 


Hedeoma pulegioides 


0. BASIL THYME. 


Calamintha Nepeta. 


10. BALM. 


Melissa officinalis. 


H. WILD SAGE. 


Salvia urticifoUa. S. offlcinatls 


in tlie common garden eage. 


S. Cocclncu, irt partly naturalized. 


12. HORSE MINT;. RIGNUM. 


Monarda punctata. 


13. HORSE MINT. 


BlephiUa ciliata. 


14. GIANT HY.SSOP, 


Lophanthus ncpetoides. 


15. CATNIP. 


Ncpcta Cataria. 


10. HEAL-ALL. 


Brunella vulgaris. 


17. SCULL-CAP. 


Scutellaria versicolor. Five or six 




other spcdcs. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



IS. MACKRIDA. 

1!). DRAGOX IIKAD. 

'20. DKADNICTTMi:; HEX-BIT. 

•21. IIORKIIOIJXD. 

'22. MOTHERWORT. 

'J.3. HEDGE XETfLE 

LM. FALSE TEXXY ROYAL. 

lV). blue CrRLS. 

'2r>. WOODS ACE. 



Macbrldea pulchra. 

Physostcgla Virginiana. 
Lamium amplexicaule. 
Mamibium vulgare. 
Leonurus Cardiaca. 
Stachys aspera. 
Isanthus coeruleus. 
Trichostema dichotommn. 
Teucrium Canadense. 



OIIDER LXXVI. BORAGE FAMILY. BORAGIXACE^. 



1. HELIOTROPE. 

2. IXDI.AX HELIOTROPE; TURNSOLE. 
:;. (JKO.MWELL. 

4 HAIRY PUCCOON; GROMWELL. 

.-,. ROAXOKEBELL; VIRGINIA COWSLIP. . 

(!. HorXD'STOXGUE. 

7. WILD COM FREY. 

8. I5EGGAR LICE. 

(t, forgi:t.mi>xot 



Hellotropium Curassavlcum. 
HeliopMtum Indlcum. 
Onosmodium Carolinianum. 
Litnospermum hirtum. 
Mertensis Virginica. 
Cynoglossum officinale. 
0. Virginicum. 
C Morisoni. 
Myosotis laxa. 



ORDER LXXVII. WATER-LEAF FAMILY. 
IIYDROniYLLACEyE. 

1. W.VTERLEAF. 



Hydrophyllum Virginicum. (In 
the mountains.) 



ORDER LXXVIII. POLEMONIUM FAMILY. POLEMONIACE.E. 



1. phlox. 

2. wildpixk; running phlox. 

3. hairy phlox. 



4. GREEK VALERIAN. 

5. FLOWERING MOSS. 



Phlox paniculata. 

P. subulata. 

P. pilosa, and three or four other 
• flpecies ; the Texan Phlox, 
Phlox Drummondii, of the 
gardens, is partially natural- 
ized. 

Polemonium reptans. 

Pjrzidanthera barbulata. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



335 



ORDER LXXIX. CONVOLVULUS FAMILY. CONVOLVULACEiE 

1. CYPRESS VINE. 

2. MORNING GLORY. 

3. WILD rOTATOE. • 



4. SWEET POTATOE. 



5. BIND WEED. 

C. LOW BIND WEED. 

7. SILKEN BIND WEED. 

8. DWARF GROUND CONVOLVULUS. 

9. DODDER; LOVE VINE. 
10. LC3\'E VINE. 



QuamocUt vulgaris. 

Pharbitis Nil. 
• Ipomea pandurata, and three 

other epec-ies. 

Batatas edulis. (This can scarcely 
bo said to be naturalized, the frosts of winter killing 
the tubers, and the plant not maturing? seed. Wc 
have a native epecies growing on the sands of the 
coast, B. Littora'ds.) 

Calystegia sepium. 

C. spithamea. 

Evolvulus sericeus. 

Stylisma humistrata. 

Cuscuta arvensis. 

0. Qronovii. 



ORDER LXXX. 

1. NIGHTSHADE. 

2. HORSE NETTLE. 
}}. SODOM APPLE. 



4, GROUND OH ERR Y. 

5. JAMESTOWN WEED; 

STRAMONIUM. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. SOLANACEiE. 

Solanum nlgmm. 

S. Oarolinense. 

S. aculcatlssimum. (Amonpr tl)c 
cultlvntod roprcHontativcH of thirt order ore the Jeru- 
salem Cherry, (H. Pooudocapslcum), Tomato (8, Ly* 
coporslcum), the IrlHh Poiatoo (S, tuborosum), nrnl 
the Egg Plant or Guinea ScjuaHh (8 Mdongcna). 

Physalis viscosa. 
THORN APPLE ; 

Datura stramonium. 



ORDER LXXXI. GENTIAN 

L CENTENARY. 

2. FIVE-FLOWERED GENTIAN. 

3. FRINGED GENTIAN. 

4. SAMPSON SNAKE ROOT. 

5. SAMPSON SNAKE ROOT. 
0. SAMPSON SNAKE ROOT. 

7. NARUOW-LEAVED GENTIAN. 

8. COLUMBO. 

9. FLOATING HEART. 



FAMILY. GENTIANACEiE. 

Sabbatia angularis, andsix other 
species. 
Gentiana Quinqueflora. 
O. crinita. 
G. ocbroleuca. 
G. Elliottii. 
G- saponaria. 
G. angustifolia. 
Frasera Carolinensls. 
Limnanthemum lacunosum. 



330 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER LXXXII. DOGBANE FAMILY. APOCYNACE.E. 



1. INDIAN HEMP. 

2. DOCJBANE. 

3. PEUnVINKLE. 



Apoc3mum canabinum. 
A. androssemifolium. 
Vinca rosea. (Naturalized.) 



ORDER LXXXIII. MILKWEED FAMILY. ASCLEPIADACE.E. 



1. POKE MILKWEED; SQUAW ROOT. 

2. PLElJIilSY liOOT ; BUTTERFLY WEED. 

3. PURPLE MILKWEED. 
'1. SWAMP MILKWEED. 
5. RAI'.HIT'SMILK. 

n. GREEN MILKWEED. 
7. RUNNING MILKWEED. 



Ascleplas phytolaccoides. 

A. tuberosa. 

A. purpurascens. 

A. Incamata. 

A. amplexicaulls, niul eight other 

BpodCB. 

Accrates vlridiflora. 
Gonolobus hlrsutus. 



ORDER LXXXIV. OLIVE FAMILY. OLEACE.E. 



1. DEVIL WOOD; AMERICAN OLIVE. 

2. PRIVET. 

3. FRINGE TREE; OLD MAN'S BEARD, 

4. WHITE ASH. 

5. WATER ASH. 

6. RED ASH. 

7. GREEN ASH. 



Olea Americana. 
Lifjustrum viilgare. (Partly nntii- 
ralized.) 
Cliionanthus Virginica. 
Fraxinus Americana. 
F. platycarpa. 
F. pubescens. 
F. viridis. 



DIVISION III. Floral envelopes single, consisting of a calyx only, 
or altogether wanting. Apdalous. 



ORDER LXXXV. BIRTHWORT FAMILY. ARISTOLOCHIACE.E. 

1. HEART LEAF. Aaanim Virginicum. 

2. HEART LEAF. A, arifolium. 

3. WILD GINGER. A. canadense. 

4. VIRGINIA SNAKE ROOT ; SMALL SNAKE 

ROOT. Aristolocbia serpentarla. 

0. BIG SARSAPARILLA ; WILD GINGER. A. sipho. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 337 

ORDER LXXXVI. POKEWEED FAMILY. PHYLOLAECACEiE. 
1. POKE WEED. Phytolacca decandra. 



ORDER LXXXVII. GOOSE-FOOT FAMILY. CHENOPODIACE^. 



J LAMB'S QUARTERS. 

2. WORM SEED: JERUSALEM OAK. 

3. ORACIIE. 

4. SAND ORACHE. 

5. SEA GOOSE-FOOT. 

(]. SAMPHIRE. 
7. SALT- WORT. 



Chenopodiom album. 
0. anthelminticum. 
Atrlplex hastata. (Sea shore.) 
Obione arenaria. (Sea shore.) 
Chenopodlna maritizna. (Salt 

marsh.) 
Salicorniaherbacea. (SaltmnrHh.) 
SalRola kali. (Boa Mhore.) 



ORDER LXXXVIIL AMARANTH FAMILY. AMARANTACEvE. 



1. AMARANTH. 

2. GREEN AMARANTH. 

3. THORNY AMARANTH. 

4. DWARF AMARANTH. 

5. WATER HEMP. 

6. FORTY KNOT ; REBEL PLANT. 



Amarantns albus. 
A. hybridus. 
A. spinosns. 
Euozolus pumilus. 
Acnida canabina. 
Altemanthera achyrantha. 



ORDER LXXXIX. BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. POLYGONACEiE. 



1. SOUR DOCK. 

2. SWAMP DOCK. 

3. BLOODY DOCK. 

4. BITTER DOCK. 

5. GOLDEN DOCK. 

6. SORREL. 

7. SORREL. 

8. BUCKWHEAT. 

0. PRINCE'S FEATHER. 

10. LADY'S THUMB. 

11. S^L\RT WEED. 

12. WATER PEPPER. 

13. KNOTGRASS. 

22 



Bumex crispus. 
E verticillatus. 
fi. sanguineus. 
R. obtusifolius. 
B. maritimus. 
B. acetosella. 
B. hastatulus. 

Fagopyrum esculentum. (Par- 
tially naturalized.) 
Polygonum orientale. 
P. persicaria. 
P. acre. 

P. hydropiperoides. 
P. aviculare. 



338 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

14. SCRATCH GRASS. P. arifolium. 

l.j. TKAU THUMB. ' P. sagitatum 

K). KALSKIiUCKWIIKAT. P. dumetorum. 

17. i:i;i(XJC)NUM. Eriogoaum tomentosum. (In the 

Sand Hllla.) 



ORDER XC. LAUREL FAMILY. LAURACEiE. 

1. Ivi:i) HAY. Peraea Carollnensls. 

L\ SASSAFRAS. Sassafras officinale. 

:;. SPICE BUSH. Benzoin odorlfenim. 

4. POND BUSH. Tetranthera genlculata. 



ORDER XCL MEZEREUM FAMILY. TIIYMELEACEiE. 
1. LEATHER-WOOD; MOOSE-WOOD. Dirca palustrls. 

ORDER XCII. SANDAL WOOD FAMILY. SANTALACE.E. 

1. TOAD FLAX. Comandra umbellata. 

2 OIL NUT ; BUFFALO NUT. Pyrularia oleifera. 

ORDER XCIII. MISTLETOE FAMILY. LORANTHACE.E. 
1. ^IISTLETOE. Phoradendron flavescena. 

ORDER XCIV. LIZARD-TAIL FAMILY. SAURURACE^E. 
1. LIZARD-TAIL. Saururus cernuus. 

ORDER XCV. HORN-WORT FAMILY. CERATOPHYLLACEiE. 

1. HOUN-AVORT. , Ceratophyllum demersum. (In 

etill water. 

ORDER XCVI. WATER STAR-WORT FAMILY. 
CALLITRICHACE.E. 

1. WATER STAR-WORT. CaUitriche verna. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 339 

ORDER XCVII. RIVER WEED FAMILY. PODOSTEMACE^. 
1. RIVER WEED. Podostemon cerfttophyllum. 



ORDER XCVUl. SPURGE FAMILY. EUPIIORBIACEiE. 



1. FLOW EKING RPUROE. 

2. WAUTKDSrUROE. 

3. WILD IPECAC, 

4. SPOTTED SPURGE, 

5. SHORE SPURGE, 

C. VARIEGATED SPURGE. 
7. QUEEN'S DELKiflT. 
8 CANDLE TJtEE; WAXTREE. 
y. THREE-SEEDED MERCURY. 

10. NETTLE. 

11. TREAD SOFTLY; HORSE NETTLE. 

12. CASTOR OIL PLANT. 



Euphorbia corollata. 

E' obtusata. 

E. Iplcacuanhae. 

E. maculata. 

E. polygonifolla. 

E. marglnata. Naturalized. 

Stilllngla sylvatlca. 

S. Bobifora. (Naturalized.) 

Acalypha Vlrinica. 

Tragia urens. 

Cnidoscolas stimulostui. 

Bicinus communis. 



ORDER XCIX. CROWBEtlRY FAMILY. EMPETRACEiE. 

1. HEATH CERATIOLE. Oeratiola ericoides. (In the Sand 

Hills.) 



ORDER C. NETTLE FAMILY. URTICACEiE. 



L TALL NETTLE. 

2. STINGING NETTLE. 

3. WOOD NETTLE. 

4. CLEAR WEED. 

5. PELLITORY. 

6. FALSE NETTLE. 



Urtica gracilis. 

U. urens. 

Laportea Canadensis. 

Pilea pumila. 

Parietaria Pennsylvanica. 

Soemeria cylindrica. 



ORDER CI. MULBERRY FAMILY. MORACE.E, 

L MULRERRY. Morus rubra. 

2. FRENCH MULBERRY; PAPERMULBERRY, Broussonetia papyrifera. 



[The edible fig (FiCM carica) belongs to this order.] 



310 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER CII. ELM FAMILY. ULMACE/E. 



1, WHITE ELM; COMMON ELM. 

2. .SLIPPERY ELM. 

:{. WAIIOO; WINGED ELM. 

4. PLANER TREE. 

o. SUGAR-BERRY TREE ; IIACKBERRY. 



Ulmus Americana. 
U. fulva. 
U. alata. 

Planera aquatlca. 
Celtis occidentalis. 



ORDER CIIL PLANE TREE FAMILY. PLATANACEiE. 
\. SYCAMORE ; PLANE TREE. Platanus occidentalis. 



ORDER CIV. WALNUT FAMILY. JUGLANDACE^. 



L BLACK WALNUT. 

2. WHITE WALNUT; BUTTERNUT. 

3. SIIELL-BARK HICKORY. 

4. THICK SHELL-CARK HICKORY. 
.-). PECAN NUT. 

(i. WHITE HICKORY'. 
7. PIG-NUT HICKORY. 

5. SMALL NUT HICKORY. ^ 
9. NUT-MEG HICKORY. 

10. BITTER-NUT HICKORY', 
n. WATER BITTER NUT. 



Juglans nigra. 

J. cinerea. 

Carya alba. 

C. sulcata. 

C. olivseformis. (Nnturalized.) 

C. tomentosa 

C. glabra. 

C. microcarpa. 

C myristicaefonnis. 

C. amara. 

C. aquatica. 



ORDER CV. OAK FAMILY. CUPULIFER^. 



8. 

a. 

10. 

11. 



WILLOW O.AK. 

LAURELOAK. 

MYRTLE OAK. 

SHINGLE OAK. 

TURKEY OAK; HIGH GROUND WILIX)W 

OAK. 
DWARF OAK. 
LIVE OAK. 
DWARF LIVE OAK. 
WATER OAK. 
BLACK JACK. 
SCRUB OAK. 



Quercus Phellos 
Q. laurifolia. 
Q. myrtifolia. 
Q. imbricaria. 



Q. cinerea. 
Q. pumila. 
Q. virens. 
Q. maritima. 
Q. aquatica. 
Q. nigra. 
Q. Oatesbsel. 



(Coaat.) 
(Mountains. 



(Coast.) 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP. SOUTH CAROLINA. 



341 



12. BLACK OAK, 

13. SCARLET OAK. 

14. RED OAK. 

16. SPANISH OAK ; RED OAK. 

16, BEAR OAK. 

17, POST OAK. 

18, WHITE OAK 

18, OVER-CUP OAK. 

19, MOSSY-CUP OAK. 

20, SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK. 

21, ROCK OAK. 

22, CHESTNUT OAK. 

23, CHINQUAPIN OAK. 

24, CHESTNUT 
2.5, CHINQUAPIN. 
21]. BEECH. 

27. HAZEL NUT. 

28. BEAKED HAZEL NUT. 

29. HORN BEAM; IRON WOOD. 

30. HOP HORN BEAM. 



Q. tinctoria. 

Q. coccinea. 

Q, rubra. 

Q. falcata. 

Q. iliclfolia. (Mountains.) 

Q. obtnsiloba. 

Q. alba. 

Q. lyrata. 

Q. macrocarpa. (Mountains.) 

Q. prinus. 

Q. monticola. (Mountains.) 

Q. castanea. 

Q. prinoides. 

Castanea vesca. 

0. pumila, 

Fagus femginea. 

Corylus Americana. 

0. rostrata. 

Carpinus Caroliniana. 

Ostrya Virginica. 



ORDER CVI. WAX-MYRTLE FAMILY. MYRICACE^. 



1. WAX MYRTLE; BAYBERRY. 

2. DWARF MYRTLE. 

3. SWEET FERN. 



Myrica cerifera. 
M. pumila. 
Comptonia asplenifolia. 



ORDER CVIL BIRCH FAMILY. BETULACEiE. 



1. RED BIRCH. 

2. BLACK BIRCH. 

3. ALDER. 



Betula nigra. 

B. lenta. (Mountains.) 

Alnus serrulata. 



ORDER CVIII. WILLOW FAMILY. SALICACE^E. 



1. SWAMP WILLOW. 

2. GRAY WILLOW. 

3. WEEPING WILLOW. 

4. CAROLINA POPLAR. 

5. COrrON TREE. 

0. LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN. 
7. LOMBARDY POPLAR. 



Salix nigra- 

S. tristis. (Mountains.) 

S, Babylonica. (Naturalized,) 

Fopulus angulata. 

P. herterophylla. 

P. grandidentata. 

P. dilatata. (Nnturalieed.) 



rA2 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER CIX. PINE FAMILY. CONIFERyE. 



1. TAKLK MOUNTAIN PINK, 

2. JERSEY OK .SCRUB PINE. 

3. SPRUCE PINE; WALTER'S PINE 

4. SIIORT-LKAF PINE ; OLD FIELD PINE. 
;•. IMTCII I'INE. 

(1. POND PINK. 

7. L0I5L0LLY PINE; OLD-EIELD PINK. 

s. LONG-LEAF PINE; YELLOW PINE. 
■ 1). ELLIOTT'S PINE. 
1(1. WHITE PINE. 
11. HALS AM FIR. 
11'. BLACK SPRUCE. 
i:5. WHITE SPIiUCE. 
\4. HEMLOCK SPRUCE. 
i:>. RED CEDAR. 
1(5. WHITE CEDAR. 

17. CYPRESS ; BALD CYPRESS. 

18. ARBOR VIT.E. 



Plnus pungens. (Mountains.) 

P. inops. 

P. glabra. 

P. mitis. 

P. rigida. 

P. Borotina. 

P. Taeda. 

P. australla. 

P. ElliottU. 

P. strobus. (Monntnine.) 

Abies Fraserl. (.Mimntulns.) 

A. nigra. (MountnlnH.) 

A. alba. (Mountnins. 

A. Canadensis. (Mountains). 

Juniperus Virginlana. 

Cypressus thyoidcs. 

Taxodium disticbum. 

Thuja occidentalis. 



CLASS II. 

Plant.s with one seed Icnf {cotyledon), (is the Grasses, Sedges, Palms, <fec., 
liaving stems composed of cellular tissue, and scattered bundles of woody 
fibre and vessels, without proper pith ; bark in concentric layers, and in- 
creasing- in diameter by the deposition of new fibrous bundles. Leaves 
mostly alternate, entire, and parallel-veined ; commonly sheathing at 
the base, not falling off by an articulation. Monocobjtcdons or Exogens. 



ORDER ex. PALM FAMILY. PALM^. 



1. PALMETTO; CABBAGE PALMETTO. 

2. SAW PALMETTO. 

:5. DWARF PALMETTO. 
4 BLUE PALMETTO. 



Sabal Palmetto. 
S. semilata. 
S. Adansonl. 
Chamaerops hystrlx. 



ORDER CXI. ARUM FAMILY. ARACEJE. 



,1. INDIAN TURNIP. 
2. DRAGON ROOT. 
X ARROW ARUM. 



Arisaema triphyllum. 
A. Dracontium. 
Peltandra Virginlca, 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 343 

4. SPOON FLOWER. Xanthosoma sagittifolinm. 

5, GOLDEN CLUB ; WATER DOCK. Orontium aquaticuxn. 
0. CALAMUS. Acorus Calamus. 



ORDER CXII. DUCK-WEED FAMILY. LEMNACEiE. 

1. DUCK-WEED. Lemna minor, and tw^ other spe- 

cit'H, Very Htnall aquatic plantB 
floating in Htill water. 



ORDER CXIII. CAT-TAIL FAMILY. TYPIIACE.E. 

1. CAT-TAIL. • Typhalatifolia. 

2. BUR REED. Sparganlum ramosum. 



ORDER CXIV. POND WEED FAMILY. NAIADACE^. 

1. EEL GRASS ; SEA WR\CK. Zostera marina. 

2. DITCH GRASS. , Ruppia maritima. 

3. POND WEED. Potamogetonpectinatus, and four 

other species. 



ORDER CXV. WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. ALISMACEiE. 

1. WATER PLANTAIN. Alisma Plantago. 

2. ARROW GRASS. Triglochin triandrum. 

3. ARROW LEAF. ^ Sagittaria varlabillis, and four 

other spcdea. 



ORDER CXVL FR0G3BIT FAMILY. IIYDROCIIARIDACEiE. 

1. WATER WEED. Anacharis Oanadensia. 

2. TAPE GRASS. Valisneria spiralis. 

3. FROG BIT. Llmnobium Spongia. 



ORDER XCVII. ORCHIS FAMILY. ORCIIIDACE/E. 

L ADDER'S MOUTH. Microstylls ophioglossoides, 

2. TWININ'Ci BLKDE. Liparls Ulilfolia. 

3. CORAL ROOT. Corallorhiza odontorhlza. 

4. PUrrY ROOT. Aplectum hiemale. 



344 



NATIVK AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



r,. BEARDED PINK. 

0. CRANE-FLY ORCHIS. 

7. TREE ORCHIS. 

8. POGONIA. 

n. SHOWY ORCHIS. 

10. YELLOW ORCHIS. 

11. GREEN ORCHIS. 

12. YELLOW FRINGED ORCHIS. 
V.l WIHTE FKIN(JED ORCHIS. 
14. CRESTED ORCHIS. 

lo. RAOCi ED ORCHIS. 

10. TWISTED ORCHIS; LADY'S TRESSES. 

17. 1?.\TTLESNAK'E PLANTAIN. 

IH. TrKVYlU.ADE. 

l!i. YEI.LOW LADY'S SLIPPERS. 

2(». PURPLE LADY'S SLIPPERS. 



Calopogon pulchelltu. 
Tipularla discolor. 
Epidendrum conopseum. 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, and 

three other species. 
Orcliis spectabilis. 
Platanthera flava. 
P. bracteata. 
P. clliaris. 

P. blephariglottis. , 
P. cristata. 
P. lacera. 

Spiranthes cemua. 
Goodyera pubescens, 
LlHtora australls. 
Oypripedlum pubescens. 
0. acaule. 



ORDER CXVIII. CANXA FAMILY. CANNACEiE. 

1. INDIAN SHOT. Canna flaccida. 

2. CANNA. C. Indica. Partly naturalized. 



ORDER CXIX. AMARYLLIS FAMILY. AMARYLLIDACEiE. 



1. ATA MASCO LILY. 

2. SriDERLILY. 



Amaryllis Atamasco. 
Pancratium rotatum. And throe 
other species. 

3. RATTLESNAKE'S MASTER-PIECE : FALSE 

ALOE. Agave Virglnica. 

4. AMERICAN ALOE. A. Americana. (In cultivation.) 

5. YELLOW STAR GRASS. Hypoxia erecta. 



ORDER CXX. BLOOD-WORT FAMILY. HyEMODORACE.E. 

1. RED ROOT Lachnanthes tinctoria. 

2. WHITE STAR GRASS ; COLIC-ROOT. Aletria farinosa. 

3. GOLDEN STAR GRASS. A. aurea. 



ORDER CXXI. riNEAPPLE FAMILY. BROMELIACE^. 



L LONG MOSS. 

2. BARTRAM'S MOSS. 



Tilandsia usneoides. 
T. Bartramii. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 345 



ORDER CXXII. IRIS FAMILY. IRIDACEiE. 

1. BLUE FLAG. Iris versicolor. 

2. THREE-PETALLED FLAG. I. tripetala. 

3. CRESTED IRIS. I. cristata. 

4. DWARF IRIS. I. vema. 

5. BLUE-EYED GRASS ; PEPPER GRASS. Sisyrinchiun Bennudlannm. 



ORDER CXXIII. YAM FAMILY. DIOSCOREACE^. 
1. WILD YAM. Dioscorea viUosa. 

ORDER CXXIV. SMILAX FAMILY. SMILACE^E. 

1. EVEUGREKN SMILAX ; CHINA ROOT. Smilax Psoudo-OMna. 

2. SARSAPAKILLA. S. glauca. 

3. RED-BERRIED BAMBOO. . S. Walteri. 

4. LAUREL-LEAVED SMILAX. S. laurifolia. 

6. CARRION FLOWER. Coprosmanthus herbacens. 

6. WAKE ROBIN. TriUium sessile. 

7. WILD PEPPER. T. erythrocarpum. (In the moun- 

tains.) 

8. CUCUMBER ROOT. Medeola Virginica. 

ORDER CXXV. LILY FAMILY. LILIACEiE. 

1. TURK'S CAP LILY. Lilium auperbum. (motintainfl.) 

2. CAROLINA LILY. L. Oarolinianum. (Low Country.) 

3. YELLOW LILY. L. Canadensis. (Mountains.) 

4. ORAN(iE LILY. L. PhiladelpWcum. 

5. CATESBY'S LILY ; SOUTHERN LILY. L. Catesbaei. (Flat woods in low 

country.) 
0. SPANISH BAYONET. Yucca aloifolia. 

7. BEAR GRASS. . Y. fllamentosa, and two other 

8peci(;8. 

8. DOG'S TOOTH VIOLET; YELLOW ADDER'S 

TONGUE. Erythronium Americanum. 

0. SOLOMON'S SEAL. Polygonatum biflorum. 

10. FALSE SPIKENARD. Smilacina racemosa. 

11. LILY OF THE VALLEY. Oonvalaria majalis. 

12. WILD ONION. Allium mutabile.nnd two or thrco 

other Bpci'ioH. 



34G NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER CXXVI. COLCIIICUM FAMILY. MELANTHACE/E. 

1. J5I:lI>-W0KT. Uvularia perfollata, and three 

other Hpet'ic'H. 

2. r.UNCII KLOWKU. Melanthium Virglnicum. 

3. MK; IIKLLKHORK; BEAR COIIK. Veratrum virlde. (Mountfllns.) 

4. KLY roiSOX; CROW POISOX. Amianthium muscfietoxlcum. 

5. DLAZIXG.STAR; DEVIL'S BIT. Chamaelirium luteum. 
(). FALSE ASPHODEL. Tofleldia glabra. 



ORDER CXXVII. RUSH FAMILY. JUNCAOE.^. 

1. BIG RUSH. Juncus effussus, nnd twelve other 

species. 



ORDER CXXVIIL PICKEREL-WEED FAMILY. 

PONTEDERACE.E. 
1. PICKEREL WEED. Pontederia cordata. (Swamp.) 

ORDER CX.X:[X. SPIDER-WORT FAMILY. COMMELYNACE.E. 

1. DAY FLOWER. Commelyna communis, and two 

other species. 

2. SPIDER-WORT. Tradescantia Virginica. 

3. ROSE SPIDER-WORT. T. rosea. 

ORDER CXXX. YELLOW-EYED GR.VSS FAMILY. 

XYRIDACEiE. 

1. YELLOW-EYED GRASS. Xyria brevifolia, and seven other 

species. 

ORDER CXXXI. PIPE-WORT FAMILY. ERIOCAULONACEiE. 

1. PIPE- WORT FAMILY. Eriocaulon decangularie, and two 

other species. 

2. YELLOW PIPE- WORT. Pffipalanthus flavidua. 

L). HAIRY PIPE-WOKT. Lachnocaulon Mlchauxli 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



347 



ORDER CXXXII. SEDGE FAMILY. CYPERACE/E. 



2, 

3. 

4, 
5, 
0. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 
10. 

17. 
18. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 



STRIGOSE CYPERUS ; BRISTLE-SPIKED 

GALINGALE. 
JOINTED CYPKUUS. 
COMPACT-IIEADED CYPERUS. 
SnAKPUKAS.S 
YELLOW CYPERUS. 
SLENDER CYPERUS. 
NUT GRASS. 
GRASS NUT. 

SHEATHED DULICHIUM. 
DWARF KYLLINGIA. 
UMBRELLA GRASS. 
SPIKE RUSH. 



SWORD GRASS. 
AVEAK-STALK SCIRPUS. 
LARGE MARSH SCIRPUS. 
MARITIME SCIRPUS. 

COTTON GRASS. 

TICK-SEED GRASS ; BEAK RUSH. 

HORNED RUSH. 
BALD RUSH. 
SAW GRASS. 
TWIG RUSH. 
NUT RUSH. 



24. TUSSOCK SEDGE. 



Osrperus strlgosua. 

0. articulatus. 

0. vegetuB. 

0. virens. 

0. flavescens. 

C. gracilis. 

0. rotundus. 

O.repens, and fifteen other species. 

Dulichium spathacenm. 

Kyllingia pumila. 

Fuirena squarrosa. 

Eleocharis equisetoides, and six« 
teen other species?. 

Scirpus pungens. 

S. debilis. 

S. lacustris. 

S. maritimus, and four or five 
other Hpecies. 

Eriophorum Virgiiiicnin. 

Bhjmchospora plomosa, and twen- 
ty other 8[>ecie3. 

Cerate Dchoenus machrostaclisnis. 
, Psylocarya rlijmchosporoides. 

Cladium effusum. 

0- mariscoides. 

Scleria triglomerata, and four 
other species. 

Oarex stricta. (This very lar;.'e 
genus of sedges, Carer, containing about seventy-live 
species in tlie Southern States, is well represented in 
South Carolina, but tliere are few that have attracted 
attention enough to liave acquired common names. 
There are some fifty or sixty species within the 
limits of our State.) 



ORDER CXXXIII. GRASS FAI^IILY. GRAMIXE^. 

1. RICE GRASS; FALSE GRASS. Leerzia oryzoides, and two other 

specios. 

2, CULTIVATED RICE. Oryza sativa. (The common rice 

in cultivation.) 



318 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



.",. WILPIIICE; INDIAN RICE. 

4. AVILDOATS. 

5. KI.OATING WILD RICE. 
C. FLO ATI N(} FOX-TAIL. 

7. MEADOW FOX-TAIL. 

8. TIMOTHY; CAT'S-TAIL GRASS; HERD'S 

(JKASS. 
\). HEARD GRASS. 

10. WIREORAS-S; DROP-SEED GRASS. 

11. 15LACK SEED GRASS. 

12. RUSH GRASS. 

13. THIN GRASS. 

14. HAIR GRASS. 

14. BENT GRASS; HERD'S GRASS. 

15. DELICATE HAIR GRASS. 
10. WOOD REED GRASS 

17. NDIBLE WILL; DROP-SEED GRASS. 

IS. IIAIRGRA.SS. 

1!). REED r.ENT GRASS, 

20. FEATHERGRASS. 

21. WIRE GRASS. 

22. POVERTY GRASS. 

2;). Til REE. ARM ED GRASS. 



24. MARSH GRASS. 
2.-). MARSH GRASS. 
20. MARSH GRASS. ' 

27. FLAT GRA.SS 

28. BERMUDA GRASS; JOINT GRASS. 
2t>. LEMON GRASS. 

GO. CROW-FOOT GRA.SS; EGYPTIAN GRASS. 

31. GOOSE-FOOT GRASS. 

32. SAND GRASS. 

33. MELIC GRASS. 

34. CANE; LARGE REED, 

35. REED; DWARF CANE. 
30. SPIKE GRA.SS. 

37. MAYGH.VSS; SPE.\R GRASS. 
:'.7. BLUE GRASS; MEADOW GRASS, 
3S. lU.UEGRAS.S. 

30. orchard grass. 
40. j:ragrostis. 



Zizanla aqnatica. 
Z. miliacea, 

Hydrocholoa Carolinensia. 
Alopecurus genlculatus. 
A. pratensis. 

Phleum pratense. 

Polypogon marltlmus. (Sea coast.) 

Sporobolus junceus. 

S. Indicus. (Cuunnon about lawns,). 

Vilfa aspera. 

Agrostls perennans. 

A. scabra. 

A. alba. 

A. arachnoides. 

Cinna anmdinacea. 

Muhlenbergia diffusa. 

M. capilaris. 

CalamagTostls coarctata. 

Stipa avenacea. 

Aristida stricta. 

A. dichotoma. 

A. purpurescens, and five other 

ppciios, all of which are known 

as " Wire Grass." 
Spartina juncea. ^ In the salt 
S. polystachya. V marHhes of 
S. glabra. J the coast. 

Eustachys petraea. On the coast. 
CjTiodon dactylon. 
Ctenium Americanum, 
Dactyloctenium .ffigyptlactun. 
Eleusine Indica. 
Triplasis Americana. 
Melica mutica. 
Anmdinaria gigantea. 
A. tecta. 

Brizopsnrum spicatum. 
Poa annua. 

p. pratensis. ) Both species are 
p. compressa. j called Blue Gmas. 
Dactylls glomerata. 
Eragrostis. Nine species of this 
grass. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA.' 



349 



41. FESCUE GKAS;!. 

42. TALL FESCUE; MEADOW FESCUE. 

43. CHEAT: CHESS. 

44. RESCUE GRASS. 

45. BEACH GRASS. 

40. REED GRASS. 

47. LYME GRASS; RYEGRASS. 

47. BOTTLE BRUSH. 

48. DARNEL; RAY GRASS. 

49. HAIR GRASS. 

50. WILD OAT GRASS. 



Festnca Msrorus. 
F. elatior. And four other spedes. 
Bromus secalinus. And one other 
spei'icH. 
Oeratochloa breviarlstata. N.it- 
uralizod. 
Unlola paniculata. And two 

other Bpccii'8. 
ThT&emites commnais. 
Elymns Virginlcns. And one 

other sperics. 
Oymnostichitun Hytriz. 
Lolium Temnlentum. 
Aira fleznosa. 
Danthonia spicata. 



[Triticiim vulgare, Wheat; Secale cereale, Rye; Hordeum vulgare, Barley; A vena 
sativa, Oats, are in common cultivation.] 



59. 
00. 
01. 
02. 
6.3. 
ft4. 
Go. 
06. 

67. 
08. 
09. 
70. 
71. 



TALL O.VT GRASS. 
SWEET-SCENTED GRASS. 
SOUTHERN CANARY GRASS. 
VELVET GRASS. 
FLOATING PASPALUM. 
.SHEATHED PASPALUM. 
TWIN SPIKED PASPALUM. 



Arrhenathenun avenacenm. 
Anthoxanthom odoratnm. 
Phalaris intennedia. • 
Holcus lanatus. 
Paspalum fluitans. 
P. Walter!. 
P. Digitaria. 



JOINT GRASS ; RICE-FIELD JOINT GRASS. P. distichum. This grass is some- 
times confounued with Bermuda Grass, or highland joint grass, Cynodon, 
Dactvlon. 



EARLY PASPALU.M. 
SMOOTH PASPALUM. 
PURPLI-: PASPALUM. 
HAIRY-LEAVED PASPALUM. 
FLORIDA PASPALUM. 
CRAB-GRASS. 
ERE(rr PANICUM. 
GUINEA GRASS. 

TEXAN MILLET. 
PURPLE PANICUM. 
GAPING PANICUM. 
COM PR HSS !•: D PA NICUM. 
SEA-SHORi: PANICU.M. 



P. praecoz. 
P. laeve. 
P. tindulatum. 
P. ciliatifolum. 
P. Floridanum. 
Panicum sangtdnale. 
p. filifonne. 

P. jumentomm. Introduced and 
partly naturalized. 
P. Tezana. Partly naturalized. 
P. gibbtun. 
p. hlans. 
P, anccps. 
P. yirgatum. 



350 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



78. 
79. 

80. 
81. 
S2. 



niTTKIl PANICUM. 
I.AKCK WATKK PANICUM. 
IIAIKY-STALKKD PANICUM. 
NAKKOW-LEAVED PANICUM. 
BKOAD-LEAVKD PANICUM. 
LAUG E-SEEDED PANICUM. 
FEW-FLOU'EUED PANICUM. 
VISCID PANICUM. 
KOUGII-STEM PANICUM. 
MA N Y-B U A NCI I ED PA N ICU M. 
COCK'S-FOOTGUASS. 
SOI^ PANICUM. 
CHEEPING PANICUM. 



P. amarmu. 

P. geniculatum. 

P. capiUare. 

P. angaustifolium. 

P. latifolium. 

P. scoparium. 

P. pauciflorum. 

P. viscidum. 

P. scabriusculum. 

P. dichotomum. 

P. Crus-Oalli. 

P. molle. 

P. hirtellum. This is the largest 



genus among the Grasses. There arc some otnittcil from this list, as 
they have not received common name<. .M i.st of the common names 
above (of Puspalmn and Punicum) have been taken from Elliott's 
Sketches. 

S'). FOX-TAIL. Setaria glauca. 

SO. ITALIAN MILLET. S. Italica. Along the coast natu- 

ralized. 

87. SAND SPUR. Cenchrus tribuloides. 

88. COCK'S .SPUR. C echinatus. 

SO. GAM A GRASS. Tripsacum dactyloides. 

!M>. liUOOM GRASS. Andropogon scoparius. And Ave 

or six other species, nearly all of which arc calleil '" Broom Grows " 



01 FOX-TAIL. 

!••_'. INDIAN GRASS. 
0.?. WOOD GRASS. 

0-1. MEAN.S' GRASS ; JOHNSTON'S GRASS ; 
CUBA GRASS; COCO GRASS. 



Erianthus alopecuroides. And 
. one other species. 
Sorghum avenaceum. 
S. nutans. 

S. Halapenae. Naturalized. 



[Of the Sorghum in cultivation there are the Dnrrah Corn (S. Vulgare), the Broom 
Corn and S'rcd Sorylium (S. saccharatum) and the Guinea Corn (S. cernuum). 



SERIES II. CRYPTOGAMS, OR FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 

Vegetables destitute of proper flo\vcr.>», ftiid producing, in place of seeds, 
minute homogenous Inulies (spores) containing no embryo, 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAnOLINA. 3;jl 



CLASS III. ACROGEXS. 

Plants with a distinct stem, growing from the apex only, containing 
woody fibre and vessels. 



ORDER CXXXIV. HORSE-TAIL FAMILY. EQUISETACE.E. 
1. SCOURING RUSH ; HORSE-TAIL. Equlsetum laevigatum. 



ORDER CXXXV. FERNS. FILICES. 



1. POLYPOD. 

2. IIOARY POLYPOD. 

3. BRAKE. 

4. DWARF BRAKE 

5. LIP FERN. 

6. MAIDEN HAIR; HaIR FERN. 

7. WOODWARDIA. 

8. WALKING LEAF. 

9. SPLEEN WORT. 

10. EBONY SPLEEN WORT. 

11. BLADDER FERN. 

12. WOOD FERN. 

13. SHIELD FERN. 

14. SEN.SITIVE FERN. 

15. CLIMBING FERN. 
10. POWERING FERN. 

17, MOON WORT. 

18. ADDER'S TONGUE 



Poljrpodium vnlgare. 

p. incanum, and one other spedcs. 

Pteris aquilina. 

P. Cretica. 

Cheilanthes vestita. 

Adiantum pedattun. 

. Two species. 

Camptosorus rMzophyUns. In 

the mountains. 

Asplenniom pinnatifidom. In the 

mountains. 

A. ebeneum. And two or three 

other species. 
Cystopteris fragills. 
Aspidiuin Thelypteils. 
A. Novseboracense. And two 

other species. 
Onoclea sensibilis. 
Lygodium palmatom. 
Osmunda regalis. And two other 
species. 

Botrychium Virginictun. And 
one otlier species. 

Ophioglossiun vulgattim. 



ORDER CXXXVL CLUB-MOSS FAMILY. LYCOPIACEiE. 



1. CLUB-MOSS. 

2. CAROLINA CLUB-MOSS. 

3. GROUND PINE. 



Lycopodium clavatnm. 
L. Oarolianntun. 
L. dendrodetim. 



352 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROUNA, 

4. CREKriX(} CLUB-MOSS. L. alopecuroldes. 

.'). SKLA(iINELLA. . Two epedes. 

«. rSILOTUM TRKiUETRUM. 



ORDER CXXXVII. WATER-FERN FAMILY. HYDROPLERIDES. 

L FLOATING AZOLLA. Azolla Caroliniana. In etill 

water. 



CLASS IV. ANOPIIITES, OR ACROGEXS. 

Cryi)togiinious acrogcnous plants, growing upwards by an axis or stem, 
and usually furnished with distinct leaves (sometimes the stem and 
foliage confluent into a frond) composed of cellular tissue alone. 



ORDER CXXXVIII. MOSSES. MUSCI. 

These sm.ill and inconspicuous plnntw have attracted so little of general attention 
that scarcely any of tliein have received common or popular names. It is only of late 
years that they have claimed the attention and study of I'utanists in our country. 
The elder American botanists confined themselves mostly to the lar^rer and more con- 
sjiicuous tio\verin<; I)Iant8; and thus it is that there are many new species continually 
boinp discovered. 

The same may be said of all the other lower Cryj)tO).'ams, the Hcpatics, the Lichens, 
the Kunp, and the Al^rie. 

.\ mere list of scientific names of species of all these Crypto?:ams, besides occupying 
iiiiire space than cm be spared, would be of little interest, except to botanists I will, 
therefore, give an enumeration only, — and say that in my own herbarium there are 
about 127 species of Musci collected within the limits of the State. 



ORDER CXXXIX. LIVER WORTS. IIEPATIC^E. • 
Of tills order I have In my herbarium slxtydlvo spoclcs collected In this fitutc. 

CLASS V. TIIALLOPIIITES, OR THALLOGENS.' 

Flowcrless plants of the lowest grade, entirely composed of cellular 
tissue, with no distinction of stem, root, and leaves ; not growing by 
buds, nor furnished with reproductive organs analagous to flowers ; some 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOtJTir CAROLINA. 353 

of the lowest forms remarkable for the spontaneous movements they 
exhibit. 

ORDER CXL. LICHENS. LICHENES. 

Perennial plants spreading in the form of a lobed-thallus over trees, or npon rock««, 
or on the ground. Some of them contain nutritious qualities, and are used in the arts 
and in medicine. The Iceland Moss of the druggists shops (Cetraria Islandica) con- 
tains eighty per cent, of gelatinous nutritious substance. The Tripe de Boclm (Uock 
Tripe) is a species of Umbilicaria, and the Rein-deer Moss is a Cladonia. Some of them 
yield important coloring matters, and are employed in the arts. 

I have in my herbarium 258 species, collected in this State. 



ORDER CXLI. SEA WEEDS. ALGiE. 

Leafless plants with no distinct axis, growing in water (fresh or salt water) and rarely 
entrees, consisting either of simple vescicles or of articulated filaments, or of lobed 
fronds. Many of the marine sea weeds have useful properties. Tiie "Irish Moss" 
(thondrus crispus) of the shops is used for its gelatine in making blanc-i.iange 
Many other species have similar qualities, and the famous edible "SwallowVnests" 
of the Chinese is composed of a species of Alga. 

Of the Algie found in our State, Prof. Harvey, in his " Nereis Boreal I- Americana," 
gives twenty-eight marine species found in Charleston harbor. TheMO added to my 
own collection, amounting to 140 species (composed altogether of tlioae inhabiting 
fresh water, trees, &c.), will give a total for the State of 108 species. 



ORDER CXLIL THE MUSHROOM FAMILY. FUNGL 

Plants growing on dead or dying matter, — sometimes on living plants, — often on the 
ground, deriving nutriment mostly from the substance on which they grow. Fruit 
various in external character. Spores either naked or contained in utricles (Asci) and 
then called Sporidia,— mostly producing a mass of threads or cells (Mycelium) from 
which the plant grows. 

This is an iinmense Order, counting by the thousands; but a sinnll proportion of 
which have attracted popular attention— and wo cannot pretend to do more than 
merely to Indicnte a few of tlio more prominent and con«i)icuouH fornin which n/Fei't 
us, either for tJM.'lr benellts or for the evil tlioy entail. 

They comjJrlHe a great variety of external form and hIzo, from the larger Miihliroomu 
which wo see on the ground and on trees, to the inlnuto species which infcMt the 
leaves of j)lantH, an<l are scarcely visible to the naked eye. 

If the annual loss on our cultivated crops by insect depredation Is estimated at mil- 
lions of dollars, no less do the minute fungi do their j)art to tlie same elfect, in the 
form of rust, smut, mildew, and mould. Most growing plants— crop plants— are more 
or less infested by these microscopic organisms, wldch injure them to some extent, and 
frequently destroy vitality. It is only of late years that much attention has been 
drawn to them. In fact, it is only through the superior micropcopes, so much improved 
of late, that we can form any idea of their structure and organization —and thus pro- 
ceed in a proper manner towards their treatment. Their utructure, habit* and mode 
23 . 



354 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



of propapration must be InvestiRated and understood, before any legitimate mode of 
treatment can be devised. But in order to do this, we have first to collect, classify and 
arranjre them in some intclllj^ible order, and to give them names, so they may be 
known, and flo that scientists, in describing them, may know what they are talking 
about. The first pioneer work llicrefore is to make collections, and then classify and 
nrranjrc them by some definite method for futnre nse. To thoughtless i>erHons it may 
seem uselt-Hs to devote attention to such small objects, and even frivolous to occupy 
oneself with such matters, but the day for such comments is passing away. As we 
learn more and more of the works of the Creator, wo see that "small and great" are 
only terms of our own. They liavo no place in the vocabulary of nature. In fact it 
is by the examination and study of these simplest forms of life, that we are enabled 
to learn more of the higher and more complete forms. They assail us directly at all 
points. Their minute and invisible spores are everywhere present — in the air wo 
breathe and in the water we drink. Di.weascs, injurious to animal as well as ve^tetable 
life, owe their origin to them and their destructive agency, — and demand our attention. 
It is to these simplest forms of the animal and vegetable kingdom, as easiest of com- 
prehension, that the most jjrofound philosopliers of our day are turning their inquiries 
and studies in tlieir search after the origin of life. 

Kvcry one is familiar with tlie ordinary Mushrooms which we see springing up about 
the woods, or on the roadways, and in fields ami gardens— how numerous they are— 
and how they vary in color, and size. These are the Agarics. They constitute a very 
large genus of fungi, and to them belongs the famous edible Mushroom, and many 
others which are not only wliolesome food, but even sotight after as delicacies. They 
are the most liighly organized group of the order. There are doubtless many un- 
wholesome, and some very j)oi8onou8, members of this genus, but probably the much 
largest portion are either innocuous or wholesome. The late Dr. Curtis, of North Car- 
olina, who jMiid special attention to this branch of botony, proved by personal experi- 
ment, the wholesome j)ropertle3 of over one hundred different species. In Kuropo, 
where i)opul:\tion is more dense, large quantities arc consumed. In our newer country, 
where the means of living is easier, wo liear less of them, because other food is more 
abundant. 

I will now proceed to note a few of the most prominent and well known opecies (in 
accordance with the arrangement in the previous part of this paper) and then give an 
enumeration of the whole number of fungi found in our State. 



1. IMrEUIAL MUSHROOM. 

2. FLY-AGARIC. 

3. IIALLIMASCHE. 

4. CLUSTERED AGARIC. 

C. PARASOL MUSHROOM. 

0. LONG-ROOTED MUSHROOM. 
7. OYSTER MUSHROOM. 



Agaricus Osesareus. Edible; in 

woo<ls. 
A. muiSCariuB. Poisonous ; in 

woods. 

A. melleus. Edible ; in clusters on 

rotten stumps. 

A. caespitosus. Very similar to 

the last. 

A. procenis. In lawn? and woods ; 

edible. 
A. radicatus. Edible ; in woods. 
A. ostreatuB. Edible ; on dead 

trunks. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



355 



8, COMMON MUSHROOM. A. campestris. This is also tho 

famous eatable mushroom of Earoi>e, and cultivated for market in lar>;e 
quantities. 

9, PEACH-SCENTED MUSHROOM. A. amygdallmis. Fully as good 

as the lust 
10. FIELD MUSHROOM. .A. arvensis. Also very good. 

[Tho Agarics constitute one of tho largest jrcnera among fungi. We have collet-ted 

and noted about different species growing in this State, of which a large portion 

are edible. 



11. LA CHANTARELLE. 

12. DRY-ROT 

13. FAIRY-RING MUSHROOM. 

14. BEEF-STEAK MUSHROOM. 

15. MEDUSA-HEAD MUSHROOM. 
10. CLAVARIA. 



Oantharellos cibarius. Edible; 

in woods. 

Merulius lacrymans. In cellars 

and damp vfood. 

Marasmins oreades In woods ; 

edible. 

Flstulina hepatica. Edible ; on 

trees. 

Hydnum Caput • Medusae. On 

triinkH. 

. Most of the 



17. JEWS-EAR. 

18. STINK-HORN; DEVIL'S BREATH. 

19 PUFF BALL; EGG MUSHROOM. 



. 20. EARTH-STAR. 

21. HYDROMETER^ 

22. CUSTARD MUSHROOM. 

23. LITTLE-NE.ST. 

24. RUST. 

25. CEDAR BALLS 

26. RED RUST. 

27. SMUT. 

28. CORN SMUT. 

29. CLUSTER CUPS. 



ClavariaH are edible. 
Hernlola aurlcula-Judo. On logs. 
Phallus rubicundus. In f1(>l<ls and 
roa<lHido. 
Lycoperdon Bovlsta. Very gmd. 
There are also several other smuller species equally good. 
Chaster fomicatus. 
O. hygrometricus. 
JEthalium septicusL On logs; 
not eatable. 
Nldulatia pulvinata. 
Puccinia graminls. Common on 
grasBcs. 
Podisoma macropns. On Cedur 
' trees. 

Uredo rubigo. Common on graases 
ond cereals. 
Ustllago Sogotum. On oats, &c. 
TJ. Z«8B. On Indian corn, destroy- 
ing the ear. 
jEcidium. There are lar^c© num- 
bers of species, growing on various 
plants. 



35G yATIVK AST) NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA, 

TO. HORNED CLUSTER CUP. Ecestelia. Many species of this 

. also, mostly on the Apple family. 

"]. BLACK-SEED GRASS SMUT. Helminthosporium Ravenelil. 

Very common on Black-seed 

grass (Sporobolus Indicus), and 

destroys tlie seed. 

32. MOUELLE. Morchellaesculenta. Good, edible, 

3:J. EARTH TONGUE. Geoglossum hirsutum. In woods, 

near rotten logs. 
n4. PLUM DLSEASK. Sphaeria morbosa, Attackingthe 

living branches, 
r.G. TUCK.\IIOE; INDIAN POTATOE. Pachyma cocos. 

M. MOULDS. Various species of Mucor, PenDlcilium, &c. 



[Note. — In the above " List of the more Common Native and Xaturaliged PlanU of Sovih 
Cuvo!l)ia" I have only noted : 

Ist. Suih /*/i.T/i(7(imott(i plants as were most common and well known^ and had 
rcccivfd p<)i>ulnr names. To have given the botanical names of all others would have 
exceeded tlie limits to which this paper is restricted. In the recapitulation, at the 
end, I will state the whole number found within the limits of our State, including 
these above-mentioned. 

-d. Of Crripto'javious plants, there are but very few that have received popular 
names, and to these few I have alluded ; and for the same reason as stated above, I 
have omitted tlie others, but I will also give, in the recapitulation, the whole number 
found thus fur in our State. I am not aware that any other botanists have ever made 
any collections of the lower Cryptogams within our State, e.xcept the late Dr. Curtis 
(who resided a few years at Society Hill) and myself, nor have any catalogues ever 
been jmblishcd Not having access to Dr. Curtis' collections to ascertain his species, I 
am com])elled to consult only my own Herbarium. In stating the number, therefore, 
it must be borne in wind that these are only what I have myself collected in this 
State.] 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA- • 357 



SUMMARY. 

FLOWERING PLANTS— Exogens, about „ 1,310 Species. 

Endogens, about 600 

1,810 

FLOWERLESS PLANTS— Filicea, about 30 

Equisotaccce 1 

Lycopocliaceje » 9 

Hydropterides 1 

Characen3 ~ 3 

MuBci, about 127 

Hepatioaj, about,..,. 05 

Lichenes, about , 258 

Algtc, about 16v8 

Fungi, about 1,920 

2,582 

Total Bpecios found in the State... 4.392 



]o8 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



LIST OF BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, CATALOGUES AND 
CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES. 

RELATING TO THE BOTANY OF THIS STATE. 



Flora Caroliniana, Thomas Walter; 1 
Vol. London, 1787, 

Flora Carolin.ee.ssis, J. L. E. Shecut ; 1 

Vol. Charleston, 1800. 

C.\R0LiNA Florist, by John Drayton; 1 
Vol., 1807. MSS. in library of State Uni- 
versity, Columbia, S. C 

^KETCn OF THE BOTANY OF SoUTH CAROLINA 

AND Georgia, Stephen Elliott ; 2 Vols. 
Charleston, 1817-1824. 

Catalogue of Pii.f.nogamous Plants and 
Ferns, Native or Naturalized, found 

CROWING IN THE VlCIXlTYOF ChARLES- 

ton, John Bach man. 1834. 

Catalogue of the Plants of Columbia 
AND ITS ViciNiTy, Lewis R. Gibbes. 
1835. 

A Medico-Botanical Catalogue of the 
Plants and Ferns of St. John's Berke- 
ley, F. Peyro Porcher. . 1847. 

Catalogue of the Natural Orders of 
Plants in the Vicinity of the Santee 
Canal, as RErRE-sEXTEo by Genera 
and Si'ecies, H. W. Ravenel ; Proc. 
Am. Ass. Adv. Science, Vol. III. ISoO. 

Flora of the Lower Country op South 
Carolina, Wra. Wragg Smith ; Proc. 
Ell. Soc. 1859. 

Notice of Some New and Rare Plavts 
FOUND IN THIS State, II. W. Ravcncl ; 
Proc. Ell. Soc. 1850. 



DF.SCRIPTION OF A NevV SpECI E8 OP BaPTIBIA 

(with plate), H. W. Ravenel; Proc. 
Ell. Soc. 1850. 

Some Rare Southern Plants, H. W, 
Ravenel; Bulletin Torrey Bot. Club, 
New York, 187G. 

Description of Species op Fungi pound 
near Charlhston, S. C, M. Bosc. 
French Consul, in Berlin Magazine, 
1811. 

Contributions to the Cryptogamic Botany 
of South Carolina, H. W. Ravenel ; 
Southern Medical Journal. 

Fungi Carolinian! Exsiccati, H. W. Rav- 
enel ; Charleston, 5 Vols. 1852-1860. 

Fungi American:, H. W. Ravenel ; Lon- 
don, 8 Vola» 1878-1882. 

Enu.«er.\tion and Description op South 
Carolina Fungi, M.C.Cooke-Grevillea. 
London, 1878. 

Thirty New Species of American Fungi, 
Baron de Thuemen. Vienna, 1878. 

Species of American Hvphomycetes, 
Baron de Thuemen. "Vienna, 1879. 

Notes ON THE Marine Alo.e op S. C. and 
Florida, J. Cosmo Melvil, InTriraens' 
Journal of Botany, Vol. IV. Lon- 
don. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



359 



PUBLICATIONS OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER, IN WHICH THE 
BOTANY OF THE STATE IS ILLUSTRATED. 



Flora Bobeali-Americana, Andre Mi- 
chaux. 1706. 

Flora op North America, Frederlfk Pureh. 

1814. 

SvLVA Americana, or Forest Trees of 
North America, F, A. Michaux. 1804. 

North American Flora, Torrey and Gray. 
1838-1840. 

Southern Kotanv, Darby. 1 Vol. 

Flora of Southern United States, A. W. 
Chapman, ISGO. 1 Vol. 

Resources of the Southern Fields and 
Forests, F. Peyro Porcher. 16G9. 1 
Vol. 

Nereis Boreali Americani, W. H. Harvey. 
3 Vols. Smithsonian Institution. 1857. 

Prodromus of a Study of North American 
Fresh Water Alg.I!, H. C. Wood. 18G9. 

Contributions to the History of the 
Frf-sh Water A L()-E OF North America, 
H. C. Wood. Smithsonian Institution, 
1873. 1 Vol. 

Specifjs op Fresh Water Alg.e, Francis 
Wolle. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. New 
York. 

Synopsis Fungorum Carolin^e, L. de 
Schweinitz. Leipsick, 1822. 1 Vol. 

Synopsis Fungorum in Boreali-America, 
L. de Schweinitz. Philadelphia, 1831. 
1 Vol. 

Introduction to Cryptooamic Botany, M. 
J. Berkley. London, 1857, 1 Vol, 

CoNTRinUTIONfl TO THE MyCOLOGY OF NoRTH 

America, Berkley & Curtis. Silliman's 
Journal, 1848. 

CONTRinUTIONS TO TUB MVCOLOOV OP NORTH 

America, Berkley <fe Curtis. Ilooko's 
London Journal of Botany, 

MyCOSRAPHIA, 8EU IcONCS Fu.VGORUM, M, C, 

Cooke. 1875-1870. Six Purta. 



North American Fungi, M. J. Berkley, 
Grovillca, London, 187^1874. 

The Erysiphei op the United States, C. 
E. Bessy. 1877. 

The Vai-saei of Norih America, M. C. 
Cooke. Proc. Ac. Nat, Sci. Pha., 1877. 

The Hypomycetous Fungi op the Umted 
States, M. C, Cooke, 1877. 

Synopsis of the Discomycetous Fungi of 
the United States, M. C. Cooke. 
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Science, 1875. 

The Myxomycetes of the United States, 
M. C. Cooke. Annals of Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist., New York. 

Species of Lycoperdon in United States. 
Ch. H. Peck. Albany Institute, 1879. 

Musci Boreali-Americani, Sullivant & 
Lesquercux. 1850. 

The Mosses and Hepatics op U. S., Ea.st 
of the Missis.'jippi, W. S. Sullivant. 
1850. 



IcoNEs MuscoRUM, W. S. SulHvant. 
1 Vo'., with plates. 



ISTA. 



Musci Appal.\chiani, C. F. Austin. 1870. 

HEPATiCiE Boreali-Americanje, C. F. Aus- 
tin, 1873. 

Description of Mo.sses and Hepatic», C. F. 
Austin. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. 

Genera Lichenum, or an Arrangement 
OF THE North American Lichens, Ed. 
Tuckcrman. 1 Vol, 1872, 

A List of North American Liche.vs, H. 
Willcy. 1873, 

OnsERv ations on North American Lichens. 
Ed. Tuckcrman. 

Synophih of North American Lichens, Ed, 
Tuckcrman, Part I, 1882, 

Botany of North Carolina (in connection 
with the Geological Survey of the 
State), M, A, Curtis. 1807. 



Insert 



Foldout 



Here 



KATTVB AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



359 



PUBLICATIONS OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER, IN WHICH THE 
BOTANY OF THE STATE IS ILLUSTRATED. 

North American Fundi, M. J. Berkley. 
Grovillca, London, 1873-1874. 



Flora. Boreau-Americana, Andre Mi 
chaux. 1790. 



Flora or North America, Frederick Pursh. 

1814. 

Sylva Americana, or Forest Trees of 
North America, F. A. Michaux. 1804. 

North American Fix)ra , Torrey and Gray. 
1838-1840. 

Southern I^otany, Darby. 1 Vol. 

Flora of Southern United States, A. W. 
Chapman. 1800. 1 Vol. 

RrsovRCES OF the Soi'thern Fields and 
Forests, F. Peyro Porcher. 16G9. 1 
Vol. 

Nereis Boreali Americani, W. H. Harvey. 
3 Vols. Smithsonian Institution. 1857. 

Prodromus OF A Study op North American 
Fresh Water Alg.e, H. C. Wood. 18G9. 

Contributions to the History op the 
Fresh Water A lc.t. of North America, 
IT. C. Wood. Smithsonian Institution, 
1873. 1 Vol. 

Species op Fresh Water Alg.e, Francis 
Wolle. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. New 
York. 

Synopsis Fungorum Caeolin^e, L. de 
Schweinitz. Leipsick, 1822. 1 Vol. 

Synopsis Fungorum in Boreali-America, 
L. de Schweinitz, Philadelphia, 1831. 
1 Vol. 

Introduction to Cryptooamic Botany, M. 
J. Berkley, Ix)ndon, 1857. 1 Vol. 

CONTRiniTTIONS TO THE MyCOLOOY OP NORTH 

America, Berkley & Curtis. Silllman's 
Journal, 1848. 

CONTRinUTIONS TO TUB MyCOLOOY OF NORTH 

America, Berkley <fe Curtis. Ilooko's 
London Journal of Botany. 

MyCOSRAPHIA, 8EU IcONCS Fu.VOORUM, M. C. 

Cooke. 1875-1879. Six Parte. 



The Erysiphei of the United Statei, C. 
E. Bessy. 1877. 

The Vawaei of Norih America, M. C. 
Cooke. Proc. Ac. Nat, Sci. Pha., 1877. 

The Hypomycetoub Fungi op the United 
States, M, C, Cooke. 1877. 

Synopsis of the Discomycetous Fungi of 
THE United States, M. C. Cooke. 
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Science, 1875. 

The Myxomycetes of the United States, 
M. C. Cooke. Annals of Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist., New York. 

Species of Lycopkrdon in United States. 
Ch. H. Peck. Albany Institute, 1879, 

Musci Boreali-Americani, Sullivant & 
Lcsquercux. 1850. 

The Mosses and Hepatics op U. S., East 
op the Mi.S3is.iippi, W. S. Sullivant. 
1850. 



IcoNEs MuscoRU.M, W, S, SulUvant. 
1 Vol., with plates. 



isr^i. 



Musci Appalachiani, C. F. Austin. 1870. 

Hepatice Boreali-Americanje, C. F, Aus- 
tin. 1873. 

Description of Mosses and Hepatics, C. F. 
Austin, Bull. Tor. Bot, Club, 

Genera Lichenum, or an Arrangement 
OF THE North American Lichens, Ed. 
Tuckcrman. 1 Vol, 1872, 

A List of North American Lichens, H. 
Willey. 1873. 

OnSERVATIONS ON NoRTH AMERICAN LlCHENll. 

Ed. Tuckerman, 

Synopsis of North American Liciie.xs, Ed. 
Tuckerman. Part I. 18.S2. 

Botany of North Carolina (in connection 
with the Geological Survey of the 
State), M, a. Curtis, 1867, 



Insert 



Foldout 



Here 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



359 



PUBLICATIONS OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER, IN WHICH THE 
BOTANY OF THE STATE IS ILLUSTRATED. 



Flora, Boreali-Americana, Andre Ml- 
chaux. 1700. 

Flora op North America, Fredericl? Pureh. 

1814. 

Sylva Americana, or Forest Trees of 
North America, F. A. Michaux. 1804, 

North American Flora, Torrey and Gray. 
1838-1840. 

Southern Botany, Darby. 1 Vol 

Flora of Southern United States, A. W. 
Chapman. 18G0. 1 Vol. 

Resources of the Southern Fields and 
Forests, F. Peyro Porcher. 16G9. 1 
Vol. 

Nereis Boreali Americani, W. H. Harvey. 
3 Vols. Smithsonian Institution. 1857. 

Prodromus of a Study of North American 
Fre8H Water Aui.e, H. C. Wood. 18G9. 

CoNTRinUTIONS TO THE HiSTORY OF THE 

Fresh Water A Lo.E OF North America, 
IT. C. Wood. Smithsonian Institution, 
1873. 1 Vol. 

Specif-8 of Frf-sh Water Alo.e, Francis 
Wolle. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. New 
York. 

Synopsis Fungorum CAROLiNiE, L. de 
Schweinitz. Leipsick, 1822. 1 Vol. 

Synopsis Funoorum in Boreali-America, 
L. de Schweinitz. Philadelphia, 1831. 
1 Vol. 

Introduction to Cryptooamic Botany, M. 
J. Berkley. I>ondon, 1857. 1 Vol. 

CONTRiniTTIONS TO THE MyCOLOOY OF NoRTH 

America, Berkley & Curtis. Silliman's 
Journal, 1848. 

CONTRinUTIONS TO THE MyCOLOOY OP NORTII 

America. Berkley <fc Curtis. Ilooko's 
London Journal of Botany. 

MYCOeRAPlIIA, 8EU IcONCS FUNdORUM, M. C. 

Cooke. 187^1879. Six Parts. 



North American Funot, M. J. Berkley. 
Grevillca, London, 1873-1874. 

The Erysiphei of the United State«, C. 
E. Bessy. 1877. 

The Valsaei of North America, M. C. 
Cooke. Proc, Ac. Nat. Sci, Pha., 1877. 

The Hypomycetous Fungi op the United 
States, M. C. Cooke. 1877. 

Synopsis of the Discomycetous Fungi of 
THE United States, M. C. Cooke. 
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Science, 1875. 

The Myxomycetes of the United States, 
M. C. Cooke. Annals of Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist., New York. 

Species of Lycoperdon is United States. 
Ch. H. Peck. Albany Institute, 1879. 

Musci Boreali-Americani, Sullivant & 
Lcsquoreux. 1856. 

The Mossfjs and Hepatics of U. S., East 
of the Missi&iippi, W. S. Sullivant. 

1S56. 



Iconf-s Muscorum, W. S. Sullivant. 
1 Vol., with plates. 



ISCA. 



Musci Appalachiani, C. F. Austin. 1870. 

Hepatice Boreali-Americanje, C. F. Aus- 
tin. 1873. 

Description op Mosses and Hepatku, C. F. 
Austin. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. 

Genera Lichenum, or an Arrangement 
OF THE North American Lichens, Ed. 
Tuckcrman. 1 Vol. 1872. 

A List of North American Liche.vs, H. 
Willey. 1873, 

Observations ON North American Lichens. 
Ed, Tuckcrman, 

Synophim of North American Liche.vs, Ed. 
Tuckcrman, Part I, 1882, 

Botany of North Carolina (in connection 
with the Geological Survey of the 
State), M, A. Curtis. 1867. 



Insert 



Foldout 



Here 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



359 



PUBLICATIONS OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER, IN WHICH THE 
BOTANY OF THE STATE IS ILLUSTRATED. 



Flora Boreali-Americana, Andre Ml- 
chaux. 1790. 

Flora of North America, Frederick Pursh. 

1814. 

Sylva Americana, or Forest Trees of 
North America, F. A. Michaux. 1804. 

North American- Flora, Torrey and Gray. 
1838-1840. 

Southern Kotany, Darby. 1 Vol 

Flora or Southern United States, A. W. 
Chapman. 18C0. 1 Vol. 

Rfbovrces of the Southern Fields and 
Fore-sts, F. Peyrc Porcher. 18G9. 1 
Vol. 

Nereis Boreali Americani, W. H. Harvey. 
3 Vols. Smithsonian Institution. 1857. 

Prodromus of a Study op North American 
Fresh Water Al{i.e, H. C. Wood. 18G9. 

CoNTRinUTIONS TO THE II18TORY OP THE 

Fresh Water A LG,E OF North America, 
H. C. Wood. Smithsonian Institution, 
1873. 1 Vol. 

Bpfxif-s op Fresh Water Alg.e, Francis 
Wolle. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. New 
York. 

Synopsis Fungorum Carolin^e, L. de 
Schweinitz. Leipsick, 1822. 1 Vol. 

Synopsis Fungorum in Boreali-America, 
L. de Schweinitz. Philadelphia, 1831. 
1 Vol. 

Introduction to Cryptooamic Botany, M. 
J. Berkley. Ixandon, 1857. 1 Vol. 

CONTRiniTTIONH TO THE MyCOLOOV OF NoRTH 

America, Berkley & Curtis. Silliman'8 
Journal, 1848. 

CONTRinUTIONS TO THE MVCOLOOY OP NORTH 

America, Berkley <fc Curtis. Ilooko's 
London Journal of Botany. 

MyCO«RAPHIA, 8EU IcONCS FUNGORUM, M.C. 

Cooke. 1875-1879. Six Purta. 



North American Fungi, M. J. Berkley. 
Grcvillca, London, 1873-1874. 

The Erysiphei op the United States, C. 
E. Bessy. 1877. 

The Valsaei of NoRitH America, M. C. 
Cooke. Proc, Ac. Nat. Sci. Pha., 1877. 

The Hypomycetoub Fungi op the United 
States, M. C. Cooke. 1877. 

Synopsis of the Discomycetous Fungi of 
THE United States, M. C. Cooke. 
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Science, 1875. 

The Myxomycetes of the United States, 
M. C. Cooke. Annals of Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist., New York. 

Species of Lycoperdon in United States. 
Ch. H. Peck. Albany Institute, 1879. 

Musci Boreali-A.mericani, Sullivant & 
Lesquercux. 18.50. 

The Mosses and Hepatics of U. S., Ea.st 
op the Mlssis-iippi, W. S. Sullivant. 

1850. 



IcoNES MuscoRUM, W. S. Sulllvant. 
1 Vol., with plates. 



ISCA. 



Musci Appalachiani, C. F. Austin. 1870. 

Hepatice Boreali-Americanjs, C. F. Aus- 
tin. 1873. 

Description op Mosses and Hepatku, C. F. 
Austin. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. 

Genera Lichenu.m, or an Arrangement 
OF THE North American Lichens, Ed. 
Tuckcrman. 1 Vol. 1872, 

A List of North American Liche.vs, H. 
Willey. 1873. 

OnSERVATIONSON NoRTH AMERICAN LlCHE-VS. 

Ed. Tuckcrman. 

SYNorsiH OF North American Liciif.xb, Ed. 
Tuckcrman. Part I, iaS2. 

Botany of North Carolina (in connection 
with the Geological Survey of the 
State), M. A. Curtis. 1807. 



Insert 



Foldout 



Here 



NATIVB AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 359 

PUBLICATIONS OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER, IN WHICH THE 
BOTANY OF THE STATE IS ILLUSTRATED. 

Flora "^-"'"tt. Americana. Andre Ml- 1 North American Fungi, M. J. Berkley, 
cl 

Flor^ 
1( 

SVLVJ 

N 

NORTI 
1! 

SOUTI 

Flor. 

c 

Resoi 
F 
\ 

Nere; 
3 

Prod 
F 

CONT 
P 
I 
1 

Speci 



Sync 

( 

Sync 

] 
] 

I NTH 



CoNT 

An 

JOUi IIUI, ALTZU. 

CONTRinUTIONS TO THE Myi 

America, Berkley <fe _ 

London Journal of Dotnny. 

MYCOflRAPHIA, BEU IcONCS Fu.SOORUM, M. C. 

Cooke. 1875-1879. Six Parte. 



JL Ut IWl I 



Botany or North Carolina (in connection 
with the Geological Survey of the 
State), M. A. Curtis. 1807. 



TABLE IV. — General Statistics of Agriculture for the United States and for 
South Carolina, according to the United States Census, vnth the Percentage 
of Increase and Decrease in each Particular, since I860. 













t 
1 


Pbrcewtaob or 






ISSO 


1S7* 


IMO 


1830 


INCREASE 
OK 

Decrease. 




1 1 
1S89.1870 1800 

1 1 


>ainberof Fi^rms < 


U.S. 
P.C. 


4,008,907 
93,864 


2,659,9M 
61,889 


2,044.077 
:3,171 


1,449,073 
29.967 


50 

m 


24 

as 


41 
1* 


Total Land In FarmiJ 


U.K 


686,061 ,8S5 


407,735,041 


407.212,6.38 


293.500,614 


31 


00 


36 


«"" (H.C. 


13,457,613 


12,105,2SO 


16,195,019 


16,217.700 


11 


»24 


00 


PercpntflKe of unim- ( U, H. 
proved Land 1 n^ 
F»ini§ J ( 8. C. 


46.9 
69.3 


63.7 
75.1 


69.9 

71.« 


615 
74.9 


•6.5 
•5« 


•6.2 
3.3 


•3.1 


Averftse Klx« of J 
FHrmH, ucrei j 


U.K 
H.C. 




153 
233 


199 

488 


203 
611 


•11 
•38 


•23 
•52 


•46 




•11 


(lU.P. 

Value of Forms 9< \ 

I jH. C. 


10,197.(K»6,776 

efl,fl77,4f!2 


0,:fl2,t'03,«fll 
44,808,761 


6,615,045.007 


3,271,675,426 
S2.43 1,084 


10 
63 


30 

•67 


103 
60 


Vnlii* of FnrmlnKil'^'''" 


40(),02n,ftW 


a'}fl,878,4':9 


246,118,141 


151587.638 


20 


36 


02 


MHchliury 1 1 'm_ c_ 


3,202,710 


. 2,282,(im 


6.151 (W 


4.i:w..t'.t 


41 


•62 


48 


(lU. K 
Val tie of Live Block, t'< 1 

IKC. 


l,M<0,4fl4,0(rt» 
12,270,412 


1,525,276,157 
12,44;t,5IO 


1,0811,320,1115 
23,f»l,4(l5 


5H,1W)510 
15.0W.0I6 


•1 
•1 


40 

•48 


100 
50 


(U.S. 

Horiei, number < \ 

(P.C. 


10,867,48« 
60,600 


7 145,370 
44,105 


(1.249.174 
81,125 


4,3.16,719 
97,171 


61 
37 


14 
•45 


21 
•19 


Mule* and AKHes.J 
number ( 


U.S. 

s. c. 


1812.>S0S 
07,005 


1.12,5,415 
41,.ri7 


1.151.148 

66.1.56 


659,331 
»7.I83 


61 

62 


•2 

•28 


106 
60 




WorkinKOxon.Num- J 1 
ber ' 


U.R. 
H.C. 


Wl3,f.JI 

2i,ry»7 


l,31l>.271 


2,2.>1,U11 

22,(r.l» 


1,700,744 
20..W7 


•2-1 
.18 


•41 
•21 


32 
10 




Milch Cow«,number.,'< 


U.«. 
S. C. 


12,44.';.120 

. i;iii,wii 


«.f)3rv'tl2 

m.tmi 


H,5M.',,7;W 

M3,9;w 


193,24 ( 


90 
41 


4 


94 
•1ft 


Other Cattle, Dumber'] 


U.H. 
-•. C. 


mi,:i2i 


i3,r.<K;,t 05 

132,1(2.'. 


M,77l»,37!« 


0,(W3.0(H) 


n-'f 

4U 


•7 
•HO 


61 
•76 


Bbeep, number > 


U.H. 
■i.e. 


jtt,iu'.',o;4 

llH.h«ll 


!«, 177.051 
121 5<M 


22, 171. m 
2;i3 ;,oii 


2i,72;i.2a» 

2K'i,/»jl 


•ft 


27 
•49 


H 


, 


•IH 


f 
Bwlne* number < 


U.H. 
S. C. 


47,(W1,7(H) 
628, KM 


25,i;u,:kjii 


3.'1,5I2,WI7 
Wl.".,77l» 


3«,3.->l.2W 
1.0(i'>,503 




♦25 


10 


I 


•9 


Butter, pound* < i 


11.8. 

-I.e. 


777,'r;«,2«7 
3.1iW,8.'jl 


1,401,1»«0 


4.V).(l«l.;i72 
3.177,934 


313 515.306 
2.9Nl,85V 


51 

no 


11 


46 



Note.— In the three oolnninn ^IiowIhr pcrctntjiKCof 
cated by *. In comparing the vnliieK of 1W>0 wllh 1<70. It 
prpnr Jupi of j:old lor the )nlt<;r >vhh 2')..t per cent, 



lncr<>niientid di-crcoce, dccrwme In Indl- 
|H to be renumbered that llie nvcrii«« 



TABLE IV.— (Concluded.) — General Statisties of Agriculture for the United 
States and for South Carolina, according to the United States Census, with 
the PerceiUage of Increase and Decrease in each Particular, since 1S50. 















Pbkckwtaob or 
Inckkahe 

OK 






1»S0 


1»70 


iseo 

1 


ISSO 


Deckeaae. 




ISSO 

1 


IS7OJS0O 


Wool, poundu -| 


U.S. 
S. C. 


155,flfil.751 
272,758 


100,102,387 
lo6,.'ll4 


00.264,913 
427.102 


62,510.050 
487,233 


65 
74 


«5 
•61 


14 
•10 


Cottoti, bales ■< 


U.S. 

s.c. 


6,7^5.359 
522,.>I8 


•S.0 11,996 
221500 


5.387.052 
353,412 


2,409,003 
300,901 


01 

132 


•78 
•30 


117 




" 


Corn, bushels •< 


U.S. 

s. c. 


1.7W,59),870 
11.707,090 


760.044,519 
7.614.207 


888.792.742 
J5.0(i5.600 


. 602.071,101 
16,771,451 


130 
64 


•9 
•95 


41 
•7 


UIco, pounrU < 


U.S. 
H. C. 


110,131,373 
r)2,077,:.l6 


73,a35,021 
82,301,8:5 


187,107.012 
1I9,I00,52K 


215 313,407 
15ll,9:WI,013 


40 
61 


•60 
•72 


•13 


^1 


•K 


Wlioiil, buNholn \ 


U.S. 
H. C. 


i')9.1H.U37 

W):',;i.v 


287,745,fl.»l 

7Ki,nio 


m.101,021 
i,2>i5,(ni 


100.48.5,011 
1,000,277 


60 
22 


0<i 

•30 


73 




20 


()al8, buNlioU ). \ 


U.«. 
H.C. 


407,K.V,!)1>0 
2,715.506 


282,107,157 
B13,.503 


172,013,18.5 
030,074 


140,681,170 
2.322, l.V. 


41 

312 


•03 
•30 


17 
•6D 


Hurlpy, liiishuls •< 1 


U.8. 
H.C. 


43,007,JOr, 
1(),2.>7 


20,70 l,.'«)k'. 
4,752 


15,82.5,80rt 
11.400 


5,107,015 
4.583 


47 
312 


88 
•58 


206 


I, 


160 


Uyc, busholn I I 


U.S. 


19,8;n,595 
27,040 


10,918,7a5 
30,lft5 


21,101.380 
80,091 


14,188,813 
43,790 


17 
•26 


•10 
•60 


82 
103 


I r 1 K h PotMopR.J j 
bu.slielB 1 


U.S. 

s.c. 


160.4.'i8,.')39 
1U0I2 


143.337.473 
83,2.52 


111,148,867 
220,735 


«5.797,896 


18 


28 


68 




130,491 


74 


•<B 


67 


Sweot rntnioen.J 


u. s. 


a{,378,fia3 


21.700 824 


42.095,020 


38,208,148 


63 


•48 


10 


bushels 1 


s.c. 


2.180.C22 


j;}42,16.3 


4,115,088 


4.337.469 


63 


•67 


•5 



TABLE V. — Affricultural Statidica of South Carolina, for the year ISSO, 

by Townships. 

FIRST SERIES. 



1 I 

I 

2 I 

3 ' 

I 

4! 

I 

5i 

01 

I 

7 ' 

s! 

9 
10 
11 
12 
\'i 
U 
15 
10 
17 



POPULATIOW. 



88.5 
853 
9*25 
1315 
VJM 
13:n 

\m 
iao7 

1171 

1SC8 

iGia 

880 
103U 
1(MU 



852 027 916 
9991 630 l:«l 
893 430 1310 



929 
1401 
IflCi 
1315 
14«W 
1008 
l!iV) 

857 

H74 

1900 
1078 
007 
1067 
1092 



720 
95 1 
097 



1128 
1795 
2173 

2294 



1513 30 

i! 

1&H4 258 

II 
1740 180 

l| 
1851 ;206 

ll 
2749 i332 

3170 2S() 

2aV.''321 



Cotton 



8TOCK. 



1140 308 1191 16 
98O5! 4180 1205 105 



175 



1072; 1858 

819 12281 

I 
1287 1170J 

88<jI 791 j 

1177 1708 
109U 2072| 



8807 3902 1031 110 

'I I' 
12240 1974 1393 114 206 

!l I I I 

11988 0775 1953 188 274 

II I I 
20180 ^-iaiO 1833 il5N2.')7 

12110 5280 1082 153 217 

'I II I 11 I 
2930 323,15181 5090 2128 205 282 



042 
376 
441 

725 



2as4 

1418 
1006 
1413 



2077, 

2167 

1077! 
I 
2915 3*)' 

3708 201 

.TI26 275 

II I 
1792,182 

ll 
2100 202 

2138,1187 



!l 



329'10l52:i610145o;|16l!239i 

107 
100 



12320 5018 

4;iai ,2795 

!l 
12957 0107 

Zmii 0.')I5 

il 
10870 5809 



11781 
10842 



450:. 
4702 



9061' 6081 



875 
958' 
1118 

I 

740l 
701 
806 
61lj 



975 
1019 

1098 
777 
732 



2> l| 10171 
20 ! \Z% 



1114! 
120o' 



29 i! 1170 
1U69 



1176 
940 

9.15 

758 



1024 
1051 
873 

739 
926 

799 830 
052 767 

1008 1241 

I 
1301 1274 

1125 1368 

H99i 1462 

1370 1079 

1112 1198 

1146 1200 

970 1232 

90« 901 

78S 093 



828 
920 
1343 

778 
611 
774 

620' 

811 
1285 

8811 
1007 

807 

983 
1114 

078 
1002 

55.3] 



1920 '185 234 
1167JI2I 12>< 

2208,250 214 
2081 l'222 290 
2017j218 284 
1280 117181 
1205,129,179 
14.55 177199 

Ji J" 



39 39 

339 391 

280 410 

4201 aw 

302 910 

1121 480 577 

187 449 Oil 

113 6771 771 

104 478 48.3 

21 302 403 

28 227 300 



Oraik. 



cjs i\ •it i 

\t S3 «3'r;3i:3 



1850 29 
1977,250 

2210 200 10716 3779;i671 125 227 

II I 
1517 207 



1437|j229 
160l''100 
1293 233 



8881 223 91 33 11 1 

I I II I 
9910 .3770 1.339 141 209! 

9730 .38(J8'135ri52 2(r7 

8292 -^078 968' 157ll2:J 

r I II I 

7809 3.398 1219,, 88' 181 

h I III 
0825 2(«0 1007 127 151 

1098o' ,4375 1415 'l70, 148] 



205.5 195 

II ■ ,, 
2559 310 10104, 3204 liai 148 206 



IL 



22:511, 308 

II I 
21.59 .386 

II I 
2510 j239 

2181 221' 

|l I 
2320; ,33 1, 

1910; i318 

ll I 
1903 280, 

ISiO 291 



ll 



11033,1020 1222 1 S3 222 

|l I il i 
12189, 1.311 1317, 209 209 

ll M 

9206,4216 1370 181 195 

II' 
10283 ,1809 1607 126 220 

12187,;43S8 1779^1.54 259 

10682' 3830 1076 '171219 

II I 'I 
8120,.3O84'l400 131 191 

ll ll 

9515 37I4I1331 ,152 177 

-^ y I .11 -L 



4 nil r>50 

:WJ) 662 

42(1 509 

07 200, 327 

CO 200 441 

27 380; 416 



43 43 

18 291 339 

I I 

25| 251 370. 

22 28o' 329 

60 321 360 

8 2C9 190 

20 248 250 
63 273! 308 
38 3-19 331 

21 416 497 
16 409! 460 



80; ! 2270 2318 
621, 18002 8906 

706 20937110731 

I! 
11.38,21910 12803 

'I 
1162 371051105101 

I' I I 

1103 .'takv* i8a<S| 

il I 

85r-2Vlt8lll0.<<7 

591 1748 47520 121103 

|l I 

193 I2«l ;I2818 0182, 

Ml 

321 087 .MO;iO 9382 
4.'<7| 71f7 21.543 7903 

I h i I 

1M,1009 ll.Tw« 13019 

I ll I 

376 1217 3!81IM4»80, 

II' 
08,5 l.Vi7, 27818 IKKCW 

170 7II« l.S.'>20 18107^ 

II •! , 

188, 802,20135 12:177 

'II 
tXiXOCM 2fl677| 9978 

I II I I 



689 
4978 
3830 
4485 
4700 
8910 
C650| 106 
8509 



5280 
8061 
0120 
0107 
9730 
0632: 
6707 
0281 
0800' 



310! 325 

I 
2S2' 462 

461 063| 

431 632 

311 375 

367 1 198 



11 ; 2007 3610 



697 T(M03 

I 
412 :!0034 

'I 
520 28700 

|l 
774|250n 

i ll 
127 485, 30069 

1.39 576 27914 

I43i 600 '20001 



8355' 

7344 

2743 

47111 

3702' 

5C82 

I 

7429: 



741 

6291 1 809 

0234' 

6190 



427 1 683 .33878 83C8 

'III 
4.'W 970 319171 739H 

I ,{ I 

377! 9"! «^30 6037 



°< I 

394 ,21295 7214 

663.30230 6611' 



670 915 35207 
6S7 932 30119 
asi' 481 3250C 



6661 

1 
3669, 

2936 



28, 714 21803 28G0. 



4936 4 
5761 

7101 

63H:iI 120 

I 
fl21K) 291 

8130 18 

0818 

7600j 

9210| 

7727 

0218 

5II2I 6 



TABLE V. — Agriadtv.ral Statistics of South Carolina, Jot the year 1880, 

by TowMhips. 
FIIIST SERIES— (CoNTiNi'ED.) 





c 

e 


POPOLATIOK. 




•0 

B 
.1 


1 

'COTTOK. 

1 




Stock. 


Qraiw. 






6 



d 






i 

£ 



i 


l 

I 

1 
1(W 












p 


il 

7, 


%> 

1 

1014 




t 



5 


"5 
I 


480 




: 

1 


i 

a 


a 


1 




4)3 

Is 


d 

% 

a 


a 


1^ 

£15 


OK 




4 

Is 

c:ca 




1 


U7m| 021 


1899 So:! 


11 
223 38 


ao 


14 




20,; 2301 


2159 


007 




^ • 


«0 10(H) 


arxw 


77K 82S7J 10ft> Xr, 


22274 11512 


3.VW 2«2 


550 


21 


407 207 


413 


1208 01515 


12104 


4091 






37 1757 


1802 


131 1; 2215 .Y>W .tJli 2i)5ft'i «I3 


2558:271 


463 


18| 699| 009 


2-J9 


1410 52293 


0173 


4831 




o 


3)4 1140 


12rK} 


810 1529; 2345.1213 11001 %«5 


1910:154 


296 


9 


280 236 


09 


993 :i7615 


9765 


4046 




o 


39 6CH 


' 720 


329 lO.'W 13«S 121j 0507 3170 


1377; 83 


195 





240 203 


85 


660 32201 


6418 


876 





■A 


40 1 1290 


13.>S 


811, 1S40 2C51 avj' 13057 ,6534 


2453 198 


330 


25j 3So' 505 


478 


1028 39510 


12358 


4413 







41 ! 1324 

42 1 lKi2 


1321 


904' 1741 2i)45 l(M, 13503 GG30 

1 II II 
1148 2528; 3C7C 28120102 73a-) 

1 1 


2290 |288 


2S5 


26 639 S23 


351 


748 31414 


11314 


6323 




1811 


2H39 :122 .'WO 


23 629 7<M 


6fl;i 


1727' ilCl.S 


20759 


8613 






43 Ij 1..-.2 


ro 


55l' 13(iS; 1922 241 ! 10021 1715 

1 1 PI l> 


1857 129 247 

Il 1 


16 269 169 


■« 


lOOO 13628 


5873 


2277 


— 




44 j 


1913 


1994, 


1 1 1' i !> 1 il 1 
1002 2S77, :«)3!t J» 11921 .r,43 2391 220,227 

|> 1 . 1 ;l 1 


1 1 
71 aw 007 


04:1 


1 
l.ntO Wl(;2 21737 


4000 






*! 


831 


050 


473 808 1281 'l4l 10730 2218 


819,183 119 
857 79 12a 


SI 281 436 


31 


992 20800 


15134 


l»32 






40 \ 577 


SSllj 


545: 021 IIM 100] 0828 2ft'yi 


30 230 417 


87 


1031 12007 


10CO8 


2172 






47 1 1022 


tool 


XA\ 17:12' 2080210' 7720 1041 


1503' 07:197 


45' 219' 019 


180 


769 19102 


0069 


610 







48 1 1211 


1221) 


10S0| l;i75 2101 j813 13550 !5a»4 


2305 '292 202 


391 617 606 




212l'43a34 


25801 


4801 







49 " 12!>n l23o| 


vi52 laso 2vi'.'';u5 iiso,') 


2017 


ia5«'228r»3 


38 430 492 




2081' 17582 


lOlOO 


CJ63 


..~.... 




SO ': C72| 710 


1075 


307; i:W2 ISO 7508 


2119 


875 214,103 


41 407' 458 


1002 


1870 19208 


17439 


4747 






61 || 10C4 1121 


1010 


11751 2185 218 10202 ,8550 


1486,123 


2-^ 


30 422j 483 


49 


1584 81653 


36117 


4277 


.._.... 




52 '! 3l! 31 


2C 


:mi| 621 10! 5S8 »w 


110 10 




4 


21 24 




131 ' 1C77 


200 


110 




o 


63 :i 905, 878 


787 


99c' 1783 195 9205 320O 


903 210 


130 


80 375' 615 


537 


162C :8095 


-•1811 


4190 







64 : 1215 


UOll 


.,„ 


1199; 


2rK 243114133 3917 


1753 302 


222 


47! 497j 675 


730 


2031 11S52 


3s753 


6759 




J 
u 


65 ' ISM 


1779| 


7T5 


287"! 


3C15'319'17717 9?21 


3389 189 


385 


17 438' 672 

; 1 


104 


17.S6 32158'25571 


1658 


-~.... 




56 1413 


^^ 


1398 


1198; 


»<W 320,16283 5909 


2339 S-.-e 210 


95 563, 806 


812 


2095 30252 .iSTOO 


4192 




Q 


57 ! 785 


A 


337 


1143 


14S0 180' 0800 28.'jO 82S U3 102 


89 344 472 


180 


1102 11279 11011 


2305 




M 


58 : 147(;' 


!<•«; 


1<>C2 18*JC. 


29i-j8 182 15555 7512 3227 225 24.5 


39 304 354 


105 


1811 :M1!jO 1(^82 


4264 


24 




69 1320, 


t3»' 


1174; 1482 


2030 371 17196 4579 1858 J05 212 


65 


6041159 


20 


2907 4.0C3O 37511 


39S1 







60 i 562, 


6J5j 


315 802| 1117 121 


4408 1600 471 88 93 


55 


219 477 


355 


616 12378 


7524 


2218 







61 812 


747. 


508; 1051 1 


1539 150 7418 4081 


1750 81 142 


19 


170 320 


78 


1092 14731 


4175 


1722 




i 


62, 018 


oio' 


202 990 

1 1 


1253,157 7125 2875 


761 84 130 


60 


285 363 


605 


619 11039 13884 


2135 




1 


C3 ■; 912 


7C2| 


310 13C1 


1071 ■-•00, 8048 4550 


1471 87 218 


« 


300 410 


237 


993 1-0007 102C5 


22(r 


.■-..~ 


i 


64 '; 1284 


1284J 


Wl 15C7 


2518 203, 9435 4718, 


1850 137 178 


39 


2991 365 


51 


1419 27919 4711 


1310 




1 
i 


63 1 1420 


1410 


47»' 2351 

1 


2830 313' 13677. 7027, 

1 II 1 


2831 171 234; 

i 1 1 


39 


322, 434 


121 


1245 23718 11191 


1142 






TABLEi V. — Agricidtural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year ISSO, 

by Tonm ships. 
FIRST SERIES.— (Continued.) 



«.' 










■o 


1 j 


n 

•0 




POPCIJITIOK. 






5 


Cotton. 


K 
N 


1 








^ 


















o 



"A 


1 


1 

s 

V 




o 

6 


3 
^ 


5 



d 


to 


1 « 


55 
^ 1 



Stock. 



OSAtN. 





1 e I 
















1 H 






&< 


«|0 L^. 


b « 


n 


1 




•a 5? 

S. !=P 
i 


4* 73 

55 


I 
w 



•5 «-5 2£ 



•S ' -oS^" 



•^33 OK 






1003 
1209 
1391 
1200 
79C 
782! 
763 
437 
120U 
1011 
631 
823 
922 
1180 



1117 
1213 
1473 
1230 



683 1105 

705 1717 

627 2310 

489 1017 

720 207 1315 

737! 217 1302 

793 605 951 



402 
1298 
1071 
601 
821 
018 
11S9 



1801 710 
1131 1127 
GJol 1512 
387 905, 
202' 1385 



?a3 
Oil 



1537 
2358 



2150 

I 
2122 

I 
2867; 

2130 

1522' 

1519 

I 

1550 
899 
2558^ 

2088! 
1292 

1017 

I 

I810J 
21KJ9 



I 85 3S.'I.5 2000 900 ! So'lOS 
200 19312 5211 12130 130 310 
IKO' 12208 a^>87 2710, 118 336 

I I Ii ! < I 

;».') 17389 70053181 ;135.36l 
■M\ 7192 1559 1506 1 4l!231 



231 '12308 1307 



1512; 02'l51i 

i' I I 
5718 2879; 050; 88 120 

!' 'M 
6100 J980, 808 33 111 

7737| 1119 1133 122 1881 

' II I I' 
190 10157 5911 1788 •274i 196 

' |! li I 
130! «»17':»irill6 60 149 

I li I It I 
210; 0711,3135:1117: 77 176 

221 12799 0920 2753 ; 83 331 

I ' I II I 
328, 118.J0. 8103,2955 126 ;«J9 



2 


67 


42 


6 


109 


151 


4 


218 


371 


12 


253 


351 


6 

1 


218 


237 


53j 


190 


287 


\ 


176 


229 


lo! 


1.5 


90: 


62! 


3a5 


1281 


63 


635 


410 


30 


157 


320. 


26 


193 


308 


4| 


218 


I85' 


"1 


300 


103' 

1 



S3 CO; 8199, 436l! 



133' 816 38280 12750 

I '■ I I 

2iii:ii33 irao W5i 



1017,;.'J3525 6511 
427 20725' 1229 
329 19750, aj55 
8S5|l5938 3741 
216 12CH0 39(22 



408 1181 21144 7474 
258! 775 18088 1 139») 
.127' 501 14210 50C6 

87! 655 17920. 4300 

I :l I 
200. 800 , ir36l 5I80I 

17o! 09iV11035i 9357; 



1109. 

2>12 

3014 

2691 

698 

420 

US 

686 

1562 

1723 

1356 

819 

3805 

2732 



1206 
1018 
1086 
800 
851 
1008 
1117 
1130 
1175 
1172 

nil 

1131 

8ai 

810 
912 
437 
1083 
775 



I I I 'I 
13.50 1529; 1020; 25551 11 



19571 1810 

1006 6J7 

I 
868 831 

I 
m) 1058 



999 
1211 
1116 
1119 
1220 
1103 
1133 
913 
851 
997 
410 
1083 
698 



1163 
1373 



17a5 
1515 
901 
623 
&51 
088 



3005 j 18 

II 



132! 47 

616 20() 



30 151 4 

II I 
79 i 131 11 



2152 239; 6l09;i2505lll56 127 159 

■ I !l I 

1181 1281103 



II' 



1156 1095! 

1217 10l7i 

rwo lOHo! 

nil 803 



1712 257 7193 31)13 
1081 ; 105' 5718|'r)C8] 789 

I I II ! 

2007 195'l0S3J 1277 i:584 

il I 'I II I 
2301 257,13039,1321 1220 1 13' 176 

2251 190 11156 ,1700 1812 230 216 

' I ll 
2291 3971 8089 .5308 

I I 
2192 179 lOftW ,.TO2;{ 



79; 113 
110 219 



.. I 
(20.521112 223 

1557: 1 158 182 



1062 
1J77 
1517 
1590 

780 
15'S 

786 



005 
359 
111 
319 
91 
601 
088 



2217 203! 8309 ,2732 122.5 il7I 12S| 

I I ll II I , 

1202,226 193 



2207 2911 811711.3372' 
1830 230 7599'|213l! 



898 201 157 

II 
1001 2671 aj09il059' 425 119 116 

310 124 146 

20' 81 43 
718'l«.'»l7e 

1173 227' 0001 2118' 8'i9 117 103 

,1 I II I I! I I 



1939 .321 0291 i 802 
877 100 .3011 631 
2100 .350' 8810 20731 



8 

2 

21 

10 

28 
18 
11 
14 
16 
16 
61 
60 402 
12 305, 
62 330 
117' 333' 
61) ^11' 
65 100 
49 209' 



61 jl 162, 

17 ! 2530; 
231| 123i 390 23151 



215| 218 
300 36) 



075 29743 
472 '19799 
4771 189; 619 :0721 
217j 202 665 -.niOl 
491 482; 1113 .•«158 
431 1 1132' 1314 .'!30S6 



2891 277 
414 46^3 



763 20391 
912 38703 
615' 061' 1321 ;«187 

271 662 1276 11093 

I i' 
617 4181516 388&5 

I ; 
380 502 2082 780C5 

I ' 
387 .381 1148 21865. 

.Vifl' 635 2519' 61324 

I I' 
312 90 939 3162« 



1 

, 260 


20I 


60 


130oi 


' 4059 


3061 


3152 


319S 


' 2396 


2851 


4741 


6172 


4661 


4621 


6192 


4820 


' 8101 


3921 


4621 


2212 


' 4300 


3C79 


sm 


5204] 


2151 


0021 


2114 


61.31' 


2300 


2!>2l| 


1 " 


299 


5191 


3955 


4906 

1 


2701 



20 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 

FIRST SERIES.— (Continued.) 





a.' 


1 

j. 




I'll 












POPULATXOW. 


t 


,1 


COTTOK. 




Stock. 


GRAiir. 








-z 
















1 - 












s 






1 




t 

a 


'A 


i ^ 


8 

a 


4J 
1 S 


1 


I 




H 

09 
< 


I 
< 




c 



K 


1 ^ 


V 
M 




psooC 


0. 


« 

B 
«3 


M i' „'•' i 

■°~: 5= 5= ^S 
mS ok :^n cioq 




a.-; 


1 


' «7Sl t>21| 1890 aV IWS 4801 223' 3« 


' 22 


1 1 

20 14' 


20 1 2301 2150 097 







m 


1J)90| •2>m 


; 778; 32871 40(V) .-{57 22274, 9512 3530 285 


|65.. 


21 407 207 4l3jl208 Ol.S.35'12404' 4091 






37 


1757 ISO! 


; 13H 2215' 3.vV .■CH»,2<)505''s513 2i58'l271 

1 1 '{ 1 


463 


18] 599j 009 229] MIO' '52293; 0473] 4834 





L3 


3S 


1140] 12<tt 


Sio' 1529 2345 213 IKJOl .y)O5,1010' 154 

1 1 'i ' '' '1 


295 


9 


280 236 


09j 993 .•t7045' 9765J 4045 







39 1 «W 720 


32l>, la-iOi 138.S,121 0597 3470 1377 ; 83 


195 




240 203 


85 


6C0 .-CiJOl 6418 876 







■10 i 129C 135S 


' 811 1840 2054' '252 13057, '6534|24&3"l98 
1 II l| 
004, 17411 2045 IW laVC (jC30 2200 288 


330 


25 


380 605 478l 1028 39510' 12358' 4413 





S 


41 ; 132JJ 1321 


U 


28' &19j «23| 351! 748 34414]ll314| 5323 





« 


IR32' \Mi 


1148 252S| 3070,281 20102 ,73ft-i2S39| 322 


;i80 


23 


528 


7iM 69;n727 5371.^ 20759 8613 







43 


0.)2 


970 


651 1308 1022,241 10C2i|l715 1857 129 

1 ll 1 ll 1 ll 


'247 
1 


16 


269' 1091 195' 1000' 4.3628 5873' 2277 

1 1 1 |l 1 


...... 




1 
44 ! 


1915 


19«M 1002; 2877 


II 1 H ! !l 1 
3939 J18 1 1921, 5.543 2394 220 227 

ll 1 ll 1 ll 1 


72 


aw 007 


043 


i 1 
i:«tO :JOI02 24737 


4000 






«| 


Kll 


050 


473 1 KOS 


1281 141 


10730 2218 819 1R3 119 


34 


281 436 


31 


092 20800 15134 


2532 






«! 


577 


6S> 


545 021 


MOO 109 


0828 2C5<J' 857 79 122 

7720 1041 1593' 97 197 

1 ' 
13c>59' 5614 23*5 292 202 


30J 23oi 417 


87 


1034 12007 10008 


2472 






47 


1022 1061 

1 


354 1732 


2080 210 


45' 219' 919 


180 


7C9Jl9t02 


0069 


640 






<S ' 1211! 1221) 


lOSfl i;r75 


2101 '113 


39! 547] 505 




2121 43<>u'2J801 


4801 






40 1' latC 1230 


852 1G.S() 


IWl 315 


11895 2017! I0.« 223:393 

1' '' 


38 430 


'49-2 




2081 47582 40100 


06ft3 






60 !j «72 


710 


IO75I 307 


1382 180 


7508,2119 875 214:103 


41 407 


458 


1002 1870 'l9208|l7439 


4747 






61 ll 1004 


1121 


1010; 1175 


218,5 218 


10202 ;."J550: 1486 123 225 


30 


422 


483 


49 


1584 31053 30117 


42n 







62 'i 31 


31 


20 .'Ml 


021 10 


Ssj'j 2001 110^! 10 


4 


24 


24 




13) 1077' 2C0 


110 





3 

o 


63 1 905 


878 


787 WOO 


178.5 i 195 


920.5 3200I 903 210,130 


80 


375 


615 


537 


1C2C 18005 21811 


4100 




a 


64 ; 1215 


1101 


1177 1199 


2370 243 


H133 3917:175.3 302 222 


47 


497 


675 


730 


2031 41852 3^753 


5769 






66 i' 18C6 


1770 


775 2870 

1 


3015 319 


17717: a?21 .3389 189 385, 


17 


438 


672 


104 


17.MJ .32158 


23571 


16?8 







50 ! 1413 


1452' 


1893 1498 


2S'I0 320 


16283 .5909 2339! 326 240' 


95 


603 


800 


812 


2C95 30252 


:I37C0 


4192 




o 

Q 


57 i 735 


745 


337 1M3 


1480 180 


0800 2880, 828 143 102, 


80 


344 


472 


18(1 


1102 14279 


14041 


2305] 




W 


68 li 1470 


14S2 


1002' 18!I0 


2ft->8 182 


15555 7642 3227 223245' 


39' 


304 


354 


105 


1814 ;J4480 


1C7S2 


4254 


21 




69 ' 1320 


1329 


1174i 1482 


20.'jO ri' 


17190 4579 1858 305 212, 


05; 


004 


1159 


20 


2907 4.003O 


17544 


39S1 







00: 602, 


655 


315' 8O2; 


1117 121 


4408 1000, 471 88 


93| 


66' 


219 


477 


355 


640 123781 


7524 


2218 






81 !j 812 


7471 


608: 1051 1 


1550 I6<l| 


7418 4081 1750 81 


142 

I 


19' 


170 


320 


78 


1092 14731 


4175 


1722 




1 


02 , 018 

03 1 912 


010 


202 990 


12M 157! 


7125 2876 751 84 130 

1 1 1' 1 1 


60| 


285 


303 


605 


019 11039 


13884 


2135 





i 


702' 


310 ISUl' 


1074 200, 


8048 4550 1471; 1 87 218 


47, 


300 


440 


237 


993 20007 


10206 


22Vr 




1 


04 |j 1:34 


12M4 


9511 1507' 

1 1 


251l» 203 


9435 4718 1850 137 178 


39 299| 


305' 


64 


1419 27919 


4711 


i;mo 





1 


05 ll H20 


ItlO 

1 


479' 23511 

1 1 


2S30 318 

1' 1 


13977 7027 283l' 171 234' 

I 1 !. 1 1 


39 322, 

1 1 


434 


,.,| 


1245 23748 

1 


11191 


1442| 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of SoiUh Carolina^ for the year 18S0, 

by Toitmships. 

FIRST SERIES.— (CoNTiNUKD.) 



POP0LATIOir. 



«5 


i 

o 

S 


1195 


661 


2IK1 


W9 


1358 


861 


1250 


2H 


1107 


60 


1124 


737 


620 


216 


152« 


fllli 



Stock. 



M 



X 



Obaiit. 



c-= •=«••= I •= 



c3 013^3^3 

zx\ cx ^pQ ax 



128 

129 I 

130 

131 

132 

133 

134 

135 



005 
1502 
840 
738 
572 
1088 
416 
10«5 



136 

137 

138 

130 

140 

141 

142 { 

148 

144 

14.^ 

140 

147 

148 

140 



970 

688 
2612 

188^J 

ino 
nil 

818, 
1216 
1017 

029 
2181 
11)8 

911 
2a'SI 



951 
1528 
879 
732 
695 
1073 
425 
1060 



II 
18.56 310 

1 
3030 357 

1719,280 

I 
1470,258 

I 
1167 196 

2161 '229 

8-n!|i3i 

2145 307 1 



9014,|2747 
12395 4721 

10007 2142 

I 
5J0O 1620 

tl 
5018 458 

812ji3195 

3105 283 

121)0 3189 



721 175 168 

172.3 219'23l» 

I' I 

aw: uoii82 



43 



1090 
506 
20)5 
1807 
1400 
lll'l 
912 
1330 
lOC'J 



1019 

682 

3)21 

2818 
2381 
1611 
O'JI 
1099 
2.'>81 
022 1180 



2;i9 
1180 



27.V1 



980 1114 
2217 2751 



1775 
1110 
729 
100) 
810 
»I6 
1005 
lOCO 
155.^ 
1280 



1802 
1110 
700 
112;i 
87) 
870 
101 
1078 
1672 
1290 



1020 
602 

1830 
9<(.3 
52,'. 
7)3 
807 
840 

1209 
071 

10<J7 
828 
813 

1617 



2000 

118); 



I06| 07 
218 1 113 



20 13 4 

44'! 18! 2 
62.57' ')37;21 100 7881 .^106 '■m 410 



879 115 

l! 
133j 151 

1008 1.37 

88 82 



814 1GO;103 



29): 147 
30j 4.391 474 
33: aiO 316 



! .J ,J 



97 308 
76 207 
20 833 



170 210 
363 279 



;J78) .W) 9;)0<) )1(J.5 



2IKN1310 
22.5)171 



11 
10070 ! 814 



lO'iO, 227 .'WI2 

123 250 250 

li I 
I8I0! 120 208 



lOOtW 1800 
!l 
17.10 20.5; 1046) .'1747|l30) 1571101' 

il 11 I' 

2.515! 411 11,577: 5220 1725 182 178 

[i ' ii I 

.')K8(|i .523 1 )«ltO .52)7 1950 .')20:;W7 
I' I l> I 
70((;i .'iO;)0 1 1100,15,3 1158 



1851 270 



4)20 .502 2a5l9 8714:4202, .■i20|2n 



2rOT 211 
1027|,170 
4208, .370 



7771 Mmv.m mm 

9714^.3209 1100^ 155 202 
13107 ,)022I9,V> 2)0,276 



1600 
979 
825 

1208 
271 
833 

1810 
088 

1600 



2071 
125.1 
670 
070 
14)3 

laso 

1400 

11.50 

1467 
1739 



3O.T7|,150 

22:12 322 

li 
II9.V2IO 

I 
2187 :fc)) 

171) 212 

1722'2U 

32.52; 120 

21.>.M)9 

3)27|397 



10.56' 1)7 205 
12100 158,230 
,1397,11) 171 



907014728 

mm -.irm 

8810 l.'J79i 155.5' 172,230 

:l ■ I il I 
Ml3 125 171 

!l I 
It 15 118:201 



7195 300.3 

!l 
8901 ,;«I75 



12210:5007,2500,204 3)8 
0887 ,;i83: 
1.5030 7200 

1! I II 

2567 208:12895 0272 



,1138 ia5,277 

II 
Ii2>. $7112.50,369 



I fa)n i^vj I "'-I 



2)05 100 310 

II I 



.V>3,1292[4S372! 

6.%5 1103 .50021' 

I 1: 
827,1604 63867 

I' 
618 14.W 26.'3»5 

085 1.5S8 32001 

512:1259 '42966 

478 10.39 .312»l 

I '' 
.398 1,3:!8 .32158 



4360 313S 
3719 8821 



3367 
2C91 

558 



34.'V> 
1760 
1231 



4M2' 6211 

300 852| 
4050 6OI61 



1015 



6)7 



m 406 1.36 



'I , 

15' 480 430f 200 

'; I ^ 

22«0 7;5fiO 5792 1.5261 



0.52 82) 1.310 514.50 
460 1088: 1002: 47772 



872 
4(r7 
507 
1187 
270 
870 
287 

3o;i 

.370 



6)70 «721 
5.579! 6099 



235 1221 20.512 lOinol 50761 
450 1075 .T.'t;MI9 
4121402.30903 
1473' 183) 511971 



434 809 3.Tft5fl| 3096 10721 



ia30''J.53l' 78ft5rt 11911 



788' .X5980 2140 

1100 28&5.5 8868 

!' 
1125.532961 4303 



lflOH.5' 
2r>12| 
5108! 
4610 



120 


II 
6.10 2IK)03 


46)2 


•t50 1079 .5.^S14 

1 


6720 


185 


729 21.501 


.5313 


4)7 


8.% 13:»1 


2787 


61 80.121159 


2570 


2.52 861 25070 


.5062 


35-) 1270 02270 


.1613 


2H6 1320 34161 


27.56 


602 1057^ |5270« 


&V» 


396 


1.114' 36flr72 

11 


.3122 



2712 
4112 
219:1 
3<i22 
537 
1677 
6)63 

4556, 

I 

873.51 
2011! 



W>21 6.508 

4000 4098 

4724 4067 KiO 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
FIRST SERIES.— (Concluded.) 



1 






•dl 


1 












1 

1 




roroLATiow. 




i 


3 
? 


COTTOJ* 


Stock. 




















c 






• 












ce 










&i 










a 




1 



5 


5 


w 
C 

c 


H 1 

< 1 


< 


1 




IS 


i 




55 5 


SI 

X 1 


■OS 



ORAIIf. 




a>80i 216S 

ll iioq lltO 
>| lurrJ 1071 

11*1 \'M 



I'JIO 
tlOs 
Ul)7 

1.11,') 



tool 

10(10 



206.1 
1232 
129U 

la'i.'i 
1.11.') 

002 
ff70 



2185 
1.140 
2.V2 
1101 
20:11 
1157 



10(17 771 

osnl 15I.V 



1.102 
lfl(VN 



HI2: 



«1K 261 13887 .y>06;2332 I OS 353 
2)72 22,5 lh630 4050 2l.i;i 222 376 

i: i r ' I 

.*;6Hl:,.10(i 1U(3<JI 7005 .12!«i .'UK 100 
2210 lOOIl.lll .1%'V6il3l7, I71,:WI 
aUil 22lt l(Vl.j() 0107^2(10 l.%x '103 
2M0 17o| 8117 10211 iyrf< 131 177 
10oV2N»l,^'■»0^ 5710 2201 123 27M 

|i I !' I I ( 

2111 227i 7»7<i 2212 N2ii lOd 22N 

, I '^ I 'I I 
22JH 2(l;i 21127 7.'>77,:i'22(l 102 1S2 

2»3l'3l| IIM7 7311 270N IkMMH) 



2(174 '3IA|ll7U.Vj l.'>4 



01; 215 3(MI 



111 230 

&'> 2110 

25 .'CIA 

8 20N 



4111 540J 023 

406 7a>'l2;H 

fiOO 27o'l4Wl 

TOs! 72')'lM>, 

67;>j 427' 1 10.) 

270 20 032 

1751 101, 570 

518 002,1177 



lOfl 711 

232 1107 

I I 

I21.VI7I5 



62024 SCS") 

miSJ 10305 

I 
e7W) 10082 

I i 

II200(1| M3I 

fts*;^! 717': 

22101 I02l<i 

I ] 

.1115(1 10727 

I 
5N08I! 400(1 

(10127 I0U71 

:>'>3I2 21028 

02005 5002 



825;i 
8464 

Oiirt 

5()13 
5922 
2,>fl 

I 

.185(1 
7071 
•021 
7408 
010.-1 



25 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year ISSO, 

by Townships. 
SECOND SERIES. 





B 




POPULATIOW. 




^ 


t5 

B 

5 


COTTOh 


Stock. 


ORAijr. 




> 
'A 














1 

H 
t 

V 

< 










t 

1 


i 


i 

a 


i 


i 

9 




4! 

< 


i 


X 


g 


u 


u 




C 

i 

03 


— 


Is 


4 


Is 




1 


602 


608 


470 


721 


II 
1200 200 


0102 1781 


678, 05 


78 


60 221 


382 




1173 10197 


7370 


lOSO 


12 




2 


818 


000 


701 


1110 


1817: 14 

1 


80 173 


Iio'l 20 

i 1 


13 


23 


10 


•••«•• 


128.5 


KV> 









8 


4i) 


400 


4.V) 


306 


8J6'l2<l 


4002! 


1151 


.102'' (W 


04 


80 254 374 


80 llOr* 11770 


\KA 


1882 


01 




4 


11K3 


1444 


2167 


470 


2027 2K 


1076 


212 


«,l 


18 


8 


10 M 


61 




!ffl2 


1 


01 


52 


KK) 







112fl 


1202 


1104 


087 


2301 100 

1 


4030 


1381 


013 


60 


08 


68 221 


420 


720 IIh:'' IWIH 


2710 


20J> 


220 




6 


884 


W)r> 


410 


1370 


1781) 221 


flOH'J 


21)08 


1210 


80 


107 


21 


211 


100 


iiiojauoo 


2:1.5.5 


.101 


,1.50 




7 


m 


877 


3X8 


1412 


1800, ;wio 


0003 


1401 |llKXl! 114 


W 


24 


170 


302 


18N wr; 561.'tt 

1 II 


018.5 


617 


lH.'iO 


O 

8 


6 


m 


200 


302 


73 


375 


51 


1300 


388 


111143 


17 


37 


135 


241 




020 1 70W> 


68H 


1217 








2AI 


2.Vi 


112l» 


180 


:mi 


82 


2707 


50fl 


100 


51 


37 


00 


100 


320 


120 


OW) lOION 


451 


IIWi 


8tiO 


10 


2f;o 


227 


317 


170 


487 


01 


mm 


8.17 


310 


Wl 


46 


110 


122 


i;i3 


27 


774 8020 


1001 


I'XM 




•11 


820 


821 


412 


238 


or/i 


no 


3708 


002! 101 


83 


40 


01 


2IN 


401 




14.10 IMHt 

ll 


10H4 


1527 


55 




12 


KW.', 


Oil 


UrjH 


OOti 


.02M 


230 

1 


KKXII LlH)0Jl2(2 


173 


10.-1 


78 


414 


707 


H5'2317' vm 

1 ' ' 


fli;a> 


2702 


8ft 


1.1 


300 


201 


38(1 


132 


621 1 O/i 


3123 1 070 

j 


214 62 


45 


01 


100 


m 


2^6.1104 ISfW 


i<, 


1822 


73 




14 


443 


45S 


401 


410 


001 1 72 


42.JHl,1200 


600 


80 


77 


61 


102 


380 


1 
IIIIOO', 10174 


2W7 


17»5 







15 


1102 


12.50 


400 


1052 


2142 137 


0187 


H403 


1321 


83 


IfiO 


47 


287 


4'2-| 100 1107; !l«C24 


8035 


27: 


12 




16 


1018 


1018 


401 


1032 


2U30'10S 


11107 ',3532 


1283 


116 


206 


84 


271 


601 


6|2.W .18070 


970 


H) 


l-JSOO 




17 


870 


601 


420 


741 


1170 15S 


0077, 2168 1134' 78 
n%H m\ 1521 105 


1.33 


68 


22(1 


860 




110.1' 10472 


3088 


1110 


11 




18 


080 


061 


788 


1143 


1031 103 


2;w 


.10 024 


715 


7 


1420 '3.5.570 


2I.S0 


0.5.1 


1310 




10 


474 


4£3 


624 


403 


0'.:7||121 


674(A747 fiOO 03 


02 


45 208 


m 


11.11 ,12321 

1 


6C.5 


1171 


80 




20 


683 


648 


730 


805 


1181 :140 


8f8« 1105 815;107 


72 


112 283 


278 208Jl803:'lOr»83 


1322 1600 


213 




21 


328 


307 


200 


sm 


03.'j ! 74 

ll 


4013 783 203 04 

11 1 ll 


53 


61 100 


423 161 876 ia510 

1 h 


5701 1032 

1 


H»0 



TABLE V. — AgrknUural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 18S0, 

by Tovjiiships. 

SECOND SKRIK8.-{CoNTiNUED.) 



PorULATIOX. 



5 COTTOW 



i 



Btock. 



ei I 



is ?.C CO z 



Grai.'*, 






B I ~.A JS , 4. £ I c' 

(A I ^a CK >x sa 



33 I 
21 

H 

a? . 

I 
^ i 

iti I 

I 

:«,[ 

»l 

32 ' 

a? j 

S5 ' 

:» I 
37 j 

as! 

I 

39; 



ll'lD) 
ITOltj 

im: 
lusij 

17)11 ' 

H 

r.iK)j 
tA 
my. 
mil 
ia>v 

1U24! 
OOoj 
5do| 

4.)7 
787 
(K» 
1311 



tnsi) M2: 172MI 
17701 \m 2370 
1171 84S; WW 



838 
{KM 
1782 



518; 121U| 
457' 1622 



2.>tO ,227 11222 51121015,130,150 

3170 j2U1704i 5707 21W101,20iJ 

'£.n\ 201 10007: 1232 13li3 110 104 

<l I I I 'i ! 
1701 J.SO; 8«(XI''l270 1302 100:102 



2070' 173 laiMao-.? 

I I !l I I 

U3ll 2112' a-»73 700 173t)2 ;7ijl 



1879 129,197 
2157 I23«;^ 



034 
200; 



00 1500 '.'8371 5715 

6811004' i,OOP5 1C070 773 
118ll77l'u303.5' 7782,1820 



2731 278, '1011,22W;{, 2900 :o 

I I : ' 
399 7.«l 3192173 35178 0550 830 



I I I' 

.' 1 «/■ 01 4 I I 



tZ\ 402, 829 14(1 8144 53432 10841 



7tt5 430, 1137 

1310 a*» 2217 

I I 

770l W2 952 

1012 37Hi 1594 

1203 900 1514 

1008' 1202' 8()1 

J070, 8071 1210! 

850 520 1235 



O22J 355 

SOOj 40a 

700^ 095 

t91 780 



847 

887 
852 
10.38 



1WJ7,,1I5 10272 1000 lttni;l24 127 

I I Hill 

2IW)'|108 23.52ri 0241 20in |I38 2:W 
l.W 104| 8<i70 1902 (WD '147 101 

. I li :l I 

1072, 109 I316.> <K70'l85(t 101 248: 

I I I'l I IM 

2114, 217 l82»rlHi«7 1378 249 223 

2003; 240 14187: '«72« 2319 257.120 
2100 191 8078 .•W2:n2H4 182 109i 

il I '1 I H I i 

1701 iimt l(i37o :i040 1000 268l 120 

\\ \ II II I 

12«>UHt r:952 20::5 8C9j 77 128 

8.V}''104 578.'>2059 012 78 



422! 

I 

5581 

020| 

471' 

930 



I 

'iiai 22299: "8^6 

I : I 

103 12<i5 2S234:128:KI 



110 



15-17 12s; 9480 '3144 1035 170 .._ 

1' I 11 I- !l I 
1824 1701 9008 ;{715 1300 197 152 



132S 11041 \Mo\ 2009 ,190 12881.4984 18t0 I7ri93 



889 717 

I ! 

16 784 388 

lOj 2591 301 

8 250 300 

56 198: 490 

28 188; 52-5 

21 278 623: 

52 308] 672 



70 2U2() vSO-'tt 380^ 
140 2:139 39-J87| 2650: 843 

18,2794 41291 j 74071 540 

i 1 

270 2834 41221 0744 2CC8 

I 1 I 

0312334 :}3726 73951 Mh 

37 14.VI 29723! S004i 843 

I: I I 

.... 1502 22160 3491; 793 

:! I I 

78 1770 22057 3324il741 



490 

29::2 

765 

01 

370 

1730 

7211 

2840 

2942 

754 

715 

2125 

1424 

69 

693 

484 

1123 



123 2139 2 -480' 49811 247 

\ - I I I 
280 2292 Ti^^ 92C3! 96, 22S5 

151 2187 39144 12704 2H7, 700 



41 || 1117 

42 !j 1367 

43 I 1157 

.1 
41 I 1277 

43 \\ 877 

46 II 1215 



47 1788 

48 I 073| 

40 ! 10S3 

■I 

5-1 2i;Vi 

51 1013; 



14.32 
l.>il 
12Rs! 
133(11 

856 
1298 
1821 

884 
1104 

2*2 

1 



OlOj 1933 

228; 2TO0, 

29' 2390 

545' 21S8 

I 
412 1321 I 

61 2402! 

t I 

2.5| KS<\ 

I I 

140 1711, 

aV 2212 

77; 4320 
2nS' 3l>17; 



251 

2918 
24i-, 
2613 

nai 

2513 

3000' 
1857[ 
2247 
4397 
aJ15 



1705 ; 936 
4097, 1290 
5430 I 783, 
3174 ! 435, 
21921 783j 
6874 1776 
2329,'! 804 
81.52! 1647 

5688 .'ion 

'I 
8375 1 03 

|l 









.... 






211 


38 


11 


118 


161 


148 


204 ! 91 


3t» 


149 


288 


213j 


275 114 


8V 


180 


758 


1100] 


94 137 


a5 


62 


744 


805 


168 124 


56 


7 


88 


7 


327 185 


97 


167 


387 


207 


109 75 


42 


67 


175 


69 


331 ! 61 

II 
t'99 207 


20 


151 


382 


66 


10 


318 


407 


205 


'*! 


«■ 


219 


56 


310 


4()3i 



816- 5(138 

'I 
808 14145 



5«' 1259 21087 

I ■ I 

93, 715 6117 



200 



914 1206 19802 121! 



972 11081, 400 
449 ' 69541 ..... 
565 31339 
S77'l0856 
633:1 7776 



800 
80' 



20, 
330, 



2183 

2812 
173C3 

8C29 

640 

74113 

0532 



3721 
285216 



TABLE* V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year ISSO, 

by Tovmsliips. 

SECOND 8ERIES.-(CoNTiNUKD.) 





B 

2 




POPULATIO!*, 






e 
1 

< 


COTTOK. 


Rtock. 


OKAIf. 




t, 


73 
7^ 


i 


$ 

i 


1 






I 


i 


z 


<1 

si s 


Jit 


1. &.' 

12 


X 


s 

"S 


ll 


4 

it 

5a 


i*5 


n 




78 


im 


12.^2 


112 233H 


2I.5(J 


80 2157a 


4.34 


201 


52 


20 


10 


88 


:m 




11.3I 40115 

22711 5000 

.•J98 loac 


1215 


•a 


m) 




80 
81 


50J 

mi 


007 
1241 


8 090 
77 21H5 


10071 

1 
2502 


170 
10*1 


2312 
2321 


87, 
250 


1^ 

Tit 


28|27 
KXi' 50 


18 

28 


71 
1.57 


31.5 


1.37 






22.5 




611 


40 


17K5 




83 


7« 


051 


70 1.123 


1898' 


liO 


355>j 


262 


1.3< 21 34 


31 


81 


81 51 


378 1 M« 


300 




00 




84 


•too 


412 


87 781 


818' 


94 


12S9 


88 


85 27 24 


6 


82 


32| 140 


84! 2.597 


18 




l.%325 




85 


21*J 


mm 


1219 8002 


422l' 

1 


343 


4693 


1101 


590 1021103 


2 


71.5 


527: 402 


20)r47ft57 


6.V) 


40 


Jfl2/,2 


> 

H 
•A 
3 


m j 


451 


402 


'29 881 


013 


13 


1372 


10!l 


41 !l2(), 25 


80 


101 


80 


I2|l2«)l 


85 


2099 


80 ; 


iOW) 


1557 


1221 203.5 

1 


8250 


284 I nil 


1201 


107H:2lHl22l 


28 


1.38 


2Slfl 


<JUI,I41.V< 


81271.. .. 


12182 


8 


87' 


1907 


1*17 


931 2S13 


37 U; 


21(J| 0120 


15«i 


71 112! 70 
1 


18() 


715 


1200 1.50) 


13.')... j MOsa 


815: 


.vrro.! 




88 ' 


loyi 


1008 


2H) 


18011 210(^ 


115 


37J2 


8 


1 53 81 


22 


2tl 


217 622 


tf74'i .l-Cfl 


.w 


K7.VI2 


RO 1 


a042 


2101 


919 


8224 


4143 


340 


872S 2:{84 


880 ,193 184 


04 


740 


907; 742 2170'5S740 


f9»}\ 


50.120 


si 


90 


.7ir. 


1028 


314 


3029 


33 ir 


177 


7200 3202 


1003 j 151 


:26 


112 


781 


100 523 .882 'USD* 


257o| ei 


1.5.'J2 




91 i 


UG7 


1212 


152 


2227 


23 r» 


440 


770.5,2307 

[1 


1121 


•250 131 


21 


467 


147 3.-i5 82:< 1414;; 


415 .... 






173 


702 


098 


67 


13;« 


IKK) 


85 


4G05 


•.•507 


531 


105 9M 


8 


8.37 


223 103 l:Ci« ».V>50 


I05I 


aim 




02 


1145 


1220 


189 2182 


2171 


300 


8515 


18.51 


611 JUOJ 44 


1 


225 


59' 03 :I0I lOliO 


i«o| 


87 




m 


2077 


2101 


161 4087 


41W' 


l.V) 


7190 


2998 


Olt 


2751111 


38 


678 


212' l.» 585! 10304 


:8o| .... 


4.5 




05 


9% 


988 


781 1193 


1977, 


140 


3981 


481 


i:n| 


87 


25 


49 


*17 


889 599 2044 1 9i;74 


92:;! 20 


2011 




03 1 


822 


800 


2-.3 1380 


102S 


1«0 


2410' 


509 


1.53! 

1 


146 


38 87 


2>3 


3;« 213' 6.58 1 9255 

i I 1! 
88S1 4Si 751,1 47n« 

1 1 u 


260 




11S9 




97 


1218 


1101 


2.52 2090 


£H2 on 

1 


sjio' 


177 




48 Oil .58 


:i03 


■^ 





<.510-i 


8 


52 

to 
77 

79 


221-5 
1270 


1 
27 IM 

14.« 


t25fl> 
893 


27110 
1807 


II 

m-ii 

2703 21 


690 
1319 


190 


53 


39 48 . .. 


30 
159 


2 

104 


S 


14 

t 

1 

212 


2I10 


•- 






?5 

1 

a: 
< 

3 


17 


19 .w- 






82 1 


1.131 


ni5 


115 


1521 


2010 72 


5S40' 


120.5 


820' 


144 


47 2 


310 


1*5 n>2 


149 5005 


•30 




(M 


9t 


023 


soo 


175 


1009 


1183 


48 


039 


2 


1' 
1 


34 


71 


32 


11 4 


122! l:W7 

1 


1810 




7.5 



TABLE y. — Afjncultaral Statistics of South Carolina, for tlie year I8S0, 

by Townships. 

SECOND SERIES.— (Continued.) 



a: 




. 










■o 


1 




s 




Population. 






<! 


Cotton. 


* 








«r 




1 










g 


-3 1 







. 1 






i ^ ii . 1 




c 


i 

"3 


I 

e 




I 



8 


i 1 




I 

•< 


< 


i 



Grain. 




08 I: 2217 

00 oso' 



100 


124si 


101 1 


ll:il 


102 


1001 


10:) 


io\ 


lOi 


Ui 


103 
IOC 


1310 


si- 


107 j 


072 


lOS 


^. 


luU 


C70 


no 1 


94a 


111 


747 


ii*.i 


741 


113 


830 


lU 


1775 


113 1 


032| 



i I I 

2102 fiW. .•W72, 

97o! 1207 761 ! 

1273 JO 2I7J: 



I' I II I 
4tOb; 10.V 8370,1 42t 

10««'2J0; 70.30,1 "050 

I I 



104) 100 
2*«;250 



llMj 1207 
02ilj 700 

420 427 



1110 

I 

1230; 

4S0\ 



2.J2l''l30 CftW 103i 74 : SOJIO 
2317 10. lOCWl, 2S17 1178, ,207 132 



0^7 390; lOlt 

I 
I3.J1) 071 10871 



I 

80 1 1 100 l.>48 

lU'Xl' 713 1315 

SSI I 403 003 

ft'jS 170 11.58 

OOo! 1107 581 

743! Oil 840 

814 78j 1477 

782 77«| 8.'W 

1770 1553i 21)01 

I 

043' 900 Oil 



lltO<J,20O 32371 SS7, 

877] 149 3fl0t> 810| 

ItJr 100 2»20l 230 

I' I i I 

2ftJ8 242, 37a{" 5)4: 



1708 122 323' 

H i 
202Siitt», 5418 



3571 
0O4 



l.'WO; 1.19; 2047 I 385 

1748 'U8 
woo'; 05 



2212 j 300 
4143{| 440 
4780 ' 480 



197] 43 

81 54 

129 181' 57 

;' I 
253 132 05 

no! 77, 50 

370 j 151 1 72 

182 1 561 00 



1121125 27 

|1 
170, 100 



421 4.VI 

708 1032 

01 810 294 

Pi 629 1470 

I I 
19 611 1 510 

40| 304| 593 

9j 3001 877 

34j 433' 379 

2l| 108! 299 

22 504 540 



403 409 85331 30| 

Oil mi 20801 ! 29ftJ| 17 

I |, I I 
150j 618! 

509 3740' 



1555! 05| 5103; 378 

1012; .2401 3851 247 

.35>1 '2241 5219 521 

I' I \' 

1877' 260 9840 1192. 

Ii I II I 



229 103 

I0ii\ 58 

l| 
139:203 



245 212 108 



440 213' 83 

ll I 



256 725 

253 584 
772 122s 
202 38.1 
2a> 472 
732 515 
737 1779 

9C7;il53 

I 



189 281S 

I 
13;223« 

009 1885, 
I 'I 

341 1331; 

I ' 

96: 120| 

1601800! 

2oii3a<; 

I I 

no 10511 

2401585! 
0310271 

1791 530 



147151 200 

43031V 16440; 623 

21137 »76i| 

I I 
14049' 2985 11 

! I 

19108' 11761 

22.3841 33ol .... 

1 72r3| 358' 

I I 
,17183 8345 

JI5408 

17096 

!l9172 

11880 



281|«J| 

12u! 

2805 SO 
007o' 



9536 

402 3334:31975 

30511 



872 2203 

I 
584 2970, a5880 8436 194 



I 

ei8| ... 

4970 1 30 
2730 



50301 
7210 
188.522 
6840 
3571 
8150 
4750 
6940 

60221 
8750' 
7033 
2584 
3509 
722-) 

62184 
4413 

10080 
0560 



I 110 !l 031 



II 

117 I 

118 

119 '. 

I 

120; 

121 I 

122! 

174 ; 



1480 

12<J 

030 

I 

2415 

064 

800 
410 



832 


705 


lO.'W 


1.191 


1000 


1087 


1309 


.55-) 


20;J7 


1(CW 


.138 


1075 


2290 


2iW 


2409 


9.J8 


757 


iiv. 


801 


811 


1440' 


431 


2'<1 


393 

1 



176.'i.1041 0943 782 

II I , : 

3077 i39(l 15714, 5490 

2392 204 12818 14411 1 

■I I '! I 
201.1 112, 7473 ;3803 

' I ' 

474') -W' 104 10 [4008 

1922 1421 5.144 I G07 

17001 0.11 2:74 1.128' 

870 ; 761 1120! 202 

>: I ll I 



245 145, 75 



I. I'.J 



1677 .111191 

il I 
172i> 138 210 

1 I 
1414 76 134 

1874; ^318 248 

23o' 133! 58 

1' i 
442 ; 58 04 

! i 
47 , &3| 14 



1.3 


1 
689 1245 


619 


1374' 22709 


1430 




01 


7981740 

1 


766 


4577|;47550 


14807 


04 


30 


685iai5 


503 


2864 41471 


15219 




19 


189 419 


362 


920 19228 


7493 


82 


931 082 


404 


4572I 68002 


I.'>206 83 


34 


409 400 


152 


I24J 14505 


1990 


11 


2301 364 


38 


031 11100 


18«o' 


. 


320 823 

1 


161 


445' 2629 

IS 


495 


9 



25253 
6850 
1050 
273 
8750 
7523 
8^64 
1371 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year ISSO, 

by TovMships. 

SECOND SERIES.— (Continued.) 





s 

99 


POPULATIOW. 




i 



'A 


■0 

a 


COTTOW 






Stock. 


Orain. 




1 












1 
H 

t 
< 












M 
• 

I 




1 

» 

s 


^ 
2 

^ 


1 

6 


i 


s 

h 

u 

< 


1 

a 

n 


i 

£ 




i 

a 


e 

H 




i3|55 


d 

z 

a. 
91 


e 

"5 

35 


u 

i.1 

1 


.-1. 


J! 


4 
• 

II 




123 


3C7 


870 


017 


120 


H 


113 3711 


477 


169 90 10 


85 


20.5' 531 


1 |l 
8311658 15030 


^ 


2270 


893 




12^ 


411 


451 


758 


131 


892| 


117 3832 


147 


OljjlOl 67 


80 


230 483 896J 1503' 11200 


663 


2578 


263 




125 


1108 


125S 


1159 


907 


2120 


316 12021 


1101 


1688,250 280 
279 127 51 

1 


6 


4851002 890,29111 Wl78 21515 

J 


6J75 







128 


458 


485 


OUO 


217 


913 


141 6006 


780 


48 


297 680 4551100 17551 925 


2702 


725 


p 


127 


723 


821 


025 


922 


1517 


155 4741 


1211 


621 02 129 


61 


220 455 3511161, 23600 2188 


1183 


550 


8 


128 


Oil 5117 


800 


408 


1208. '142! 5712 


1436 


482 in 01 

1 


68 


202 498 436,1109 17127 2892 

1 


2817 


53 


o 


129 


1008 1000 


887 


1237 


2074, 191,1003^ 13503 

1 


1510 ilSO 295 


6 


816 79S 600jl9KJ31318'21978 


8933 


100 


O 


130 


920 805 


1003 


722 


1785 1 181 80a3',2041 

1 1 


1035 2911107 
913,, 221 j 122 


18 


309 655 


57811705 22552 12873 


4305 


121 


Ed 


131 


033 021 


818 


400 


125J j201| 732»|2092 


10 


310 


623 


606,1916, 2710|15101 


5017 


2 


132 


1025 


1010 


1370 


005 


200& 


220 9635"l915 

1 


732 


•233,173 


18 


881 


830 


713 2379 27185 19022 


6879 


483 




133 


437 


414 


0.58 


193 


851 


122 3723 


601 


239 


103 30 


35 


-199 


450 


136 157113025 280 


2109 


405 




131 


720 


755 


925 


550 


1175, '230' 83.j5"2200 

1 1 11 


81K 


221 219 


4 


451 


735 


1619 2781 29115 19398 


5921 


45 




135 


005 


000 


410 


601 


1301 ;i50 5016 1012 

II I ll 


637 


70 111 


20 


327 


002 


178 1091, '23598 352 
1 ll 1 


1615 


790 




130 


1760 1881 


029 


8015 


3001 :m lOTOH 0707 2931 175 318 

1 1 II 1 ll 1 


33 


371 


489 


110 


1531' 31771 


9115 145 


1210 




137 


1013. 997 


007 


1313 


2010 2ul 


0111 1050 1071151 00 


SO 


181 


.591 


400 


laiT^iaoeo 

2079 11685 


7033 187 


0121 




138 


1052 


1001 


708 


1318 


2110,210 


11293 :«02 U72' 188 171 

ll 1 ll 1 


23 


295 


871 


487 


1885 2581 


8510 




139 


nil 


1410 


861 


2017 


2881-377 


18039 5791 


2:}78' 1220 209 


43 


555 


1020 


71 


27C6I477O8 

ll 


2782 


1114 


150 




140 


501 


688 


301 


788 


1110 jlOl 


6.51fi 


701 


801 131 38 

1 ! 


19 


209 


407 


017 


1«» 12012 

1 j 


3883 


6 


5025 




172 


632 


ca3 


611 


401 


1030 


IW 


flllOj|1.501 


631,116 71 


12 


229 


100 


206 


11C7| 22607 


10791 


S88 


1903 




141 


700 


730 


433 


1057 


1100 


111 


5038, ,2^0 


931; '109 121 


9 


112 


871 


225 


1219 10550 


4826 


42 


0221 




U2 


1372 


1309 


1182 


1499 


2681 


202 


13502 :.<?893 


1392 231 217 


95 


418 


671 


310 


1857|15C80 


07OS| 4129 


0921 


'A 


113 


471 


480 


610 


loO 


900 


152 


1129 1208 


390 115 58 


42 


236 


477 


673 


1002 16519 

II 
1010 H518 

1380 21100 


1293 


1310 


090 


8 


141 


023 


592 


621 


501 


1215 


97 


5013 1018 


358 110 81 

1 


16 


130 


32«) 


55 


5366 


1587 


1889 





115 


121)0 


1228 


410 


2000 


2128 1109] 13281: |1800 


200.3:157220 


3 


152 


406 


110 


5291 


128 


2293 




110 


830 


833 


618 


1115 


1003,222 


88;n 2172 
6809 1413 


883 I203 109 

1 





292 


698 


329 


215S' 28832: 7691 


19l|l3113 


u 
c 


117 


001 


' 003 


272 


09.5 


1207 110 


OCO: 100 100 


7 


117 


439 


2Vi 


108Hi 17120 4766 


235 


4033 


o 


118 


1051 


1080 


927 


1213 


21101 30 


1298 295 


183 88 


21 




6.5 


00 


21 


1 

1C9 1 «00 13JW 

11 





1310 


110 


1911 


1905 


833 


3073 


3900 ,29o|a0311 '.5810 2GOo''2!)5'2.'H 

1901 215 90,V> 3880 l.W 130 177 

II li '1 
1512 110 8'l3i:;2fl03 1107, 111 lOO 

II li HI 

imiWHuuymi mtmm 

1118 13.5: 8222|2I81 H«lj|117[jll 


11 


302: 665 


738 


21.M 56509 15722 


797 8500 




130 


970 


1024 


803 


1001 


13 


160| 670 


48 


1736 20127 4621 


AV\ i50 




l.)l 


700 


71(1 


410 


1000 


12 


148 


271 


82 


1.T70 15823 2838 

ji 


061 COO 

1 




102 


COO 


004 


887 


873 


3 


187 


801 


250 


1878 12220 9I«> 

II 


M 4.V.0 




l.U 


700 


712 


881 


1037 


li 


100 


482 


09 


1136 16689^10007 


802 2203 




mi 


aw 


801 


97H 


770 


nWimi 9317 


,21)21 9>()| 180 


81 


31 


321 


461 j 179 


187IX2U068 


7210 


1011 11.50 




i« 


030 


050 


200 


lOHO 


128«,|101i 62:11 '2110 M'2 


80 


109 


11 


109 


318' 170 

1 


1092,11181 


3104 


122, 2125 




130 


785 


787 


570 


900 


1.572 105 7418' 2172, 887: 1.52 

ll 1 II 1 II 


75 


10 


197 


121, 230 


1,312, 23081 

li 


11100 


679, 102.5 

1 



TABLE Y. — Agricultural Statistica of South Carolina^ for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
SECOND SERIES.— (Concluded.) 





h 




1 


•6 '1 










K 



d 


POPCLATIOy. 




E 
1 

c 


5' 

1 

< 


COTTOJJ 


Stock. . 


OKAiir. 


i 

X 

p 

6 


•0 

— 


m 

a 

6 



i 


1 

a 


2 


<6 

s 

u 

< 


1 


i 


1 


a 

1 


ii 

i5 


55 5 


aa !|.Sh| oa. 


1 




157 


789 


709 1110 


418 


1588' '220 


3731 705 


22.5 68; 88 


115, 888 2W 155 1211 10921 1 500, 


1 


>> 

H 


q 


158 1 


1163 


1118 


1021 


1282 


2280 I2OO 


030.5 2504 


017.101 07 


89 830 437] 502jl402 17652| 403; 


551 290 


1.50 


481 


S29 


421 


687 


1010 


05 


2512 1 553 


25il 


05j 50 


9 100 


72 .... 


1 

141 


6321j 6110 


6'JO 150 


100 


015 1092 


374 


1063 


20^7 


187 


6455 ,2251 


1108 


05 166 


40 


190 


161 44 


610 


23414 5100 


785 2510 


lot 

to 

107 


4630 


5397 


4338 


5093 


10030 


e 


1 


91 


1 
50 


« 10 




12 


12 


j 
12 


400 100 






::: 


16S 


1601 


ISIO 211 


2910 


8100 ,396, 


1810S 0018 


2035 


80 282 


107 


220 280J 200 


886 


■«802 ?« 


117 




U 


109 ; 


1121 


j 
1093| 151 


2000 


2-.'14|{20 


0089 52a3 


1920 i 88 105 


05 ifti 25s; 101 ion! 10173! 1592I 


9 


350 


c; 


170 j 


1739 


1768 510 


2088 


3507: JOl 


12202 7150 


2000 '145 259 


180 853' a5l| 802 008 31587 6354^ 


62 




171 j 


1350 1370; OOO' 

1 1 1 


1700 


273.5 322. 


0030 3100 


109S 184 217 

1, 1 1 


85 4a5 682 327 1809 22007 107911 


1872 

1 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year iSSO, 

by Townships. 



THIRD SERIES. 





00 




POPUl^TIOW. 






S 


COTTOK 




Stock. 




Gkaik. 




O 

d 










■ 
S 
ee 



d 


■a 
H 

CD 

V 

u 
V 

< 














K 

1 




CD 
V 

e 

e 


i 


o 

6 


3 


a 
•< 


i 


e 



X 


1 


a 

H 

•2 
1 


11'^ = 


c. 


V 

an 


a 


1 ^i 


if 


li 


"3 


> 


1 


639 


586 


891 


834 


1225 146^ 3790ll 930 325^ 93' 47 

' i' 


100 


276 


392 


444 1.545 19651 


540 


416 


•••■•■ 




2 


1205 


1878 


778 


1870 


2618, 165 7108, ^2791 11273|113|108 


86 


181 


807 


109 1429' 2W62 


10712 


799 


25 


8 




8 


4.S5 


483 


616 


402 


918 19 1939 


622 499 1 25 

1 


80 


6 


29 


53 


6 177' 10121. 

1 ll 


6776 


^.. 


m,... 


4 


488 


40»j 74« 


241 


987149! 3495 406 143' 60 

jl '1 1 j 


19 


164 


275! 261 


264 1300 1456P 


408 


198 


75 


h3 


5 


1187 


117o[ 1499 


858 


2357 ;J59 9189 .^5.•J8 1387 196Jl00 


337 


472 230 


610| 1321 .38172 


4876 


1598 


81 







882 


87U 


1273 


488 


17611 232 7937' 2820 1?32 129il64 

II |l 1 
2209 317 8824 2531 932 197 116 

li 11 ll 


114 


427 869 


830 1805 .32493 


2770 


1378 





7 


1112 


1167 


1411 


858 


268 


458! 879ll256'2099' 378831 7246 


211S 


-.... 




8 


1015 


101)0 


1440 


60.5 


•i!105 303 99M| 2807 1161 189 109 

|t 1 l< 


90 173J 8(M 


514 2187 40142 5588 

1 


3728 






• 


983 


1007 


949 


1131 


2080:247 8600:1905 

II ll 


T78 119 114 


172 302 759 


329 1730 27938 2731 

1 1' 1 


85 


10 




10 


253 


2S5 .259 


219 


1 
508, 80 


3453:1 321 

ll 


9.3!! 38 


21 


81 HI 140 


80 


678;' 3913 


790 


...... 


252 




11 


SM 


832 


455 


1181 


1031!, 171 


9100 3126 998 110 

ll 


113 


36 181 


401 


78 


031 ' 17582 

1 


2299 


42 


810 




12 


480 


484 


295 


609 


00>! 118 

1 


50401528 


616 


47 


61 


27 


147 


257 


5 


7!<2' 12005 


1495 


12 


1132 




13 


318 


843 


516 


176 


69lj,114 


2407 62H 


185 


63 


40 


40 


117 


107 


218 


1102JI 9195 
1355 IU976 


880 


60 


1.530 




14 


928 


032 


817 


1543 


1800 242 

II 
1155 108 


9150' 3^38 13.5.3' 

|l 1 
3711; 1743 512 

I 1 


119 137 


81 82« 


271 





8341 


27 


9S5 




13 


580 


673 


122 


io;j3 


72 82 


18 134 


.315 


46 


987 8809 

1 1 


1027 


-48 


190 




16 


8«7 


354 


170 


551 


721I 85 


2917|| 855 250 


40 34 


87 139 


330 


147 


744|! 8118 


5.35 


24 


990 




17 


712 


728 


692 


748 


1440,107 

j [ 


3201 1032 327 


55 58 


80 201 


390 


40 


1450! 13920 

1 


3187 


84 


1685 


8 


18 


612 


527 


332 


707 


1039 104 

11 


5125' 1152 398 


51 79 


63 


197 


407 


190 


1907[ 1.5976 


1003 


6 


1925 


is 


19 


481 


446 


761 


173 


927:120 


4075 ' 071 821 
19281; 521 172| 


W 46 


61 


190 


243 


228 


1514' 14822 

1 


1404 


182 


6099 


•:o 


27o 


290 


287 


287 


674 too 


27 22 


81 


l.W 


210 


m 


&)l' 7295J 275 


61 


775 




21 


407 


888 


> 221 


f)71 


70r* 141 


32SHj0tll 303' 


46 01 


GO 


161 2-:o 


00 


lorw., frm \m 


«.... 


17M 


g 


!U 


4W 


408 


;i2i) 


020 


9.W Kw n\mnw 4,W 

ll 1 1 i 


40 


00 


38 m 206 


101 


loriH 11.121 


2112 





010 


u 


23 


400 


«n 


422 


607 


102I> 170 4483 I.Vil 161 


ri, 74 


to 170 


ZV) 


47 


908, 12908 


1360 


121 


i.avj 




24 


212 


190 


218 


151 


402 01 1017 471; 141 


36 15 


33 


74 


m 


01 


009 0190 






]2ia 




2S 


800 


852 


323 


1428 


1751 213 7082 2198' 788 

1 1' 1 1 


W118 


79 


282 


681 


10 


17.52' 20784 

ll 
W7i 14026 

1 


160 


10 


2925 




26 


496 


455 


172 


779 


951 191 413h ;i817J flSO^ 


56 91 


70 


217 


320 


14 


1156 





6i9 




27 


857 


352 


275 


434 


700 112 


21971 729; 214 


48 22 

1 


43 


170 


165 





830[' 8538 


418 


6 


1317 




28 


«. 


W7 


.3 


090 


10&3 200 


5403 1.5.57! 514 

1: 1 1 


Oil 62 

1 


50 ISO 

1 


277 


102 


9.'^ 10241 


903 




1570 



TAi^LE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 18S0, 

by Townships. 
THIRD SERIES.— (CoxTiicuED.) 





a 


POPULATIOW. 




a 
3 


COTTOW 


Stock. 






Oraiv. 




O 

6 

55 






ii V 












>< 

H 

b 

5 


i 

1 a 
1 


i 




i 



8 


■5 


1 

d 


it 
< 


g 

< 


a 


a, 
iS 




1 c 

a e.= | 5- 

2 ^|Z5p5 


i 


i 

a 

* 

CO 


k 

n 




1 

1 ^ 




29 


57S 


570 


503 691 


Il5ril2 4027, 1980 701' 90 49 54 125 126 

1 II 


42 


838 14017 


2107 W2 88 




30 


811 


770 


17oj 1417| l.'>37 195| OaSO j 4782 1760 'lOo[l67|l05 


225 202 

1 


411 [1.310' 28517 


4320 65| OSO 




31 


700 


713 


722 


001 1412 175 


08T9 2OCO; 1129 104 

1 1 


08j 63 


178 330 


01 1 14.50 17893 


5100 1281J 050 




S2 


1387 


1420 


774 


2012 2810 200 


72I& 8238 1192 


96 


02 03 


I42I 232 


7 


921 16747 
829 17013 


6.V0 


287 WO 




33 


657 


001 


287 


1031 1318 'l53 902s'l 3122[ll02| 


90 


74 1 81 


120: 101 


17 


4510 


274 784 




3t 


678 


682 


0.51 


609 UOo'lOl 4a>3 


1113 


413| 


80 


78 74 


Itni 341 


80 1500 11872 


7242 210 2942 


. 


35 


1615 


1507 


072 


2110 


3082 67 

1 


6358 


1437 


008, 


70 


37 87 


81 48 


16h 4 to' 10130 


2205 


H 

s 

o 


30 


771 


700 


001 


0.% 


ir,37 101 


073o'[ 27.V5 
7178 3:iV) 


1215 135 


112' 01 

j 


201' 215 


170 l.',2<) 23.TJ0 


IW, 874 4125 


87 


Kll 


813 


62tl 112.'. 


1051' 1511 


I.Vj1!'i.52 


02 05 


180 108 


191 1500 2(1H0 

1 1 


3;ril 621 1258 


.<» 


Si'i 


310 


4:>2 aw 


071:! 03 


31100! 831 


2.S7I 61 


401 30 


145 280 


no' 12.'iO 10710 

1 1 


660 314 


899 


30 


7S0 


781 


612 1022 1/Wl!'l57 


hOOtij 3l2«l'li(.t2'i:n'll7 


58 


103 221 

1 


22s 122-/ 2lKl'i 


OIH51 745 


253 


'A 


40 


! iin-J 


1003 


1180 1030 22iV.35 


100 HI 


3781 ! MHO 171 132 

1 \ ■ t 


100 


317 


S.)0 


02 2027 303.'W 


4020' 245 


1725 


5 

«5 


41 


7fW 777 


835 708 1512 IO2I 7702' 

1 1 


8177 123(n50 97 

1 ii 


50 


m 


236 


48 l.vrr 28417 


311.32 1320 


285 


42 

43 


701 
8N 


718 
701 


20.^ 1307 1512 238 70:).)i 3147'r2:i7"l07'l3.'j 


12U 


102 


300 


179 Il.TO 17078 

i 
m 1107 27475 


1030 
7275 









904 


't 1 

1274 im m Koio 

1 J 1 


1 Ii 
4011 1012 137 


,« 


1'" 
70 l.KI 


402 


072 




44 

1 


020 08.1 


710 


5(t0j i:jO0 202| 0>i22; 


2761 


001 il44 


80 


74 17M 


280 


6o'l6(K» 2172U 


3181 000 


012 




« 


Lw! i;i.')7 


4:h) 


2214 


Srtfl) 21fll 07l.'l 


4.701 'a)311W 


192 


144 


itri 


202 


fl7i 701 ';i.i;i;io'i2iX)o 1.301 


20 




40 


O.VI 017 


8.50 


411 


IfKX) 210 7177[ 


n2i«'l.'VIH 152 


95 


21) 107 


473 


119^1521 10070 


Oi;W1057 


103 




47 


820 


880 


757 


010 


170fl''l57 

1! 


78411 


3070 1200 130 

1 j ; 


90 


60 150 156 


2j' 1400 27879 

1 , 


5007 1731 


092 




48 


605 


680 


805 


786 1001 'm 3923J 


1732 031 47 


50 100! 150 228 


13 927 15096 


290! 

j 


2i:8 




49 


784 


807 


715 


820 1511 110 3955 

II 1 1 


1403 O-'tl'lOO 

1 1 


45 49' 13U 

1 


131 


69,1027 15023 

1 II 


3503 581 


850 


>1' 


60 


1 
1107 1300 


737 


1820 


'1 

2«'j| 










.*.M 


„,„ „^„ 


■«•••* 





,,„, 






61 


044 970 


107 


1750 


10231 60 

1 


63081 


2 


11 47 

1 


87 


111 


823 328 


1450 


152f. 7825 


15« 


132125 


o 


1 

52! 

1 


614 685 


455 


874 


1329 140 


2413, 


78 


22 71 

ii 


20 IW 


561 001 


099 

1 


2ft->5 12051 


ftJO 


28725 


o 


53 
Si 


639 618 
1074 2082 


231 

4*10 


820 
35U1 


1057 I 49 
4057 120 


1237! 

62;m 


44 

80 


1' 
22 33 

17! 63 


17 46' 90' 100 

83 105 334, 631 

1 1 


1 

42 


330 3032 
1139 6320 






850 


o 


227 





123i:U 


65 


1010 1177 


155 


2031 


2100' 44 


28461 


17 


11 25 


70 100 113 105 


2S0 


378: 2160 


900 





81382 


2 


56 


717 803 


144 


1370 


1520,; 22j 


1223 




22 


S; 40 34 51 


25| 


101'! 871 


80 

1 


12220 


'A 


57 


10<!1 1080 


314' 


2997 


3311;! 69 


2219 


20 


81 44 


30! 66 98 69 


118 


35' 3611 

1 , 


400 


63001 


o 


5si 


soil 832 

1 


757 


870' 

1 


1033 117 


1584 

1 


166 


74 SO 

. Ii 


IS 120 859 366 

1 1 1 


».! 


1393 8491 




1810 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, f&r iJie year 1880, 

, ' by Townships. 

THIRD SERIES.— (CoNTiKUED.) 



POPULATIOS. 



i 

■5 


i 
a 


622 


64S 


1074 


1062 


1177 


1185 


43S 


892 


374 


822 


034 


030 


553 


668 


487 


474 


on 


049 


1IH2 


UM 


OM 


008 



COTTOM 



Stock. 



sSoo 



!C 



Oraih. 



3 i! 
so 



fir- a. S « 

£c3 OKi^s p;ea 



1119 
1013 
1477 
738 
622 
IOTA 
935 
878 
446 
1(M3 
7(T7 



1701 1021 
2976 8112 



621 
1698 
1057 

law 

1236 



960 
1076 
lUlO 
1252 
1261 



2227 
1841 

ai2 

528 
732 
1010 
680 



151 
1123 
885 

02 
174 
210 
170 

83 
808 
713 
401 

1098 
4217 
048 
2746 
1311 
1450 
1811 



1270jjl79 
213ftj 178 
23021 1109 
830||118 
OOfl'llOl 



2359i 94 

I 

2636J 208 

I553I 00 



1270) 

nil 

061 
1254 
2426 



2541 

205o! 

4578' 

I 

81411 



2340i 288 



1258 64 



a-l'irkiH) 



27T7j 

45k;j, 

571 



7101 00! 



08 



23 



164 
l&l 
130 

16| 113 
8 91 
12 145 
30 119 
171 192 
12 307 



.11 



00881 

178a 

8273 

I 
2()73 

2502 

ai97 



I4691lj3fl08 1407 |243, 

1505.Jj|7081823a;22U 

:2o!| m 74 

2020 |I40 



320'. 16'i 
0109 ,553'1 



906:1 
1 1789 
8612 



i3208 

J5381 
i3244 



1220 
1917 
14ai 



259 


400 


281 


020 


204 


616 


220 


831 


210 


827 


23!) 


400 


:M3 


890 


180 


435 


205 


434 


411 


on 


2;i5 


522 



1086'2720| 8569 

I ll 
1232 2499jjl 1941 

1772 2562 W05 




106312271 
586. 2(3<ii '10200 
2084 5<r.)5|il43U6 
1032 I5r/J 5524 



118 


062 


86 


722 





10 


186 


425 


(17 


443 


145 


J197 


96 


374 



1608 

1011 

34 

360 
691 
327 
391 



3.V/7 

2900 

l.<^ 



48011 

080 



13291 

i;i5i 



12101 :M\r,% 



'.7289 
2»)850 



8641137310 



iMO 
123 
114 



260 
126 
6U 
23 

25 



0347 
6011 
060 
60)0 
7300 
2980 
7075 



2912 

487 



1.330 

1030 

62H 

02 



2601 
8200 
29.50 

996 

285 
1933 
2122 
1725 

710 
2K50 

013 



160 
1402 



14 

2960 



1191 
970 
1315 
14.52 
717 



1128 
1043 
1357 
1389 
092 



12151 1210 



788 
762 



880 
779 



508 

572 
ia58 
1221 

081 
1472 
1220 

834 



1751 
1447 
814 



2319j 
2019j 

2or? 



16201 2811 



728 
953 
418 
1207 



1400; 

I 

1077 
1641 



2191 

15391 

I 

2109| 

14.37 



15890^5154 

8273 '3471 

I 
10800 J4715 

90061.3400 

7OO0||;!OO8;1127 

13710] !j6Ai|2009j 

8022| 21641 88-1! 
10062' 4008 l.T8» 



89 237 
1161233 
230,248 
210il72 

701183 

I 

230214 
160 134 
09 173 



280 447 



986.'J42899 

1004,34022 

l| 
2297. pO?! 

1.31.5; J41(>10 

lOOi 436';.'K)649| 

317 



1612'!lS198i 

II I 

821'I10222 



81&i 
3556 
5430 
6383 
8008 
70J3 
6517 
.32(H 



2029. 
1075, 

2343, 
I990j, 
1806, 

2727!, 
.3-173, 
810, 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of iSmUh Carolina, for the year 1880^ 

by To^wnships. 

THIRD SERIKS.— (CoNTiMUED.) 



ropuiaxiow. 



•3 



•3 « 



I 702 
I IIKI 

I 7^.'^ 
I mi 
1 11^1 

K.'K> 

783 

' WJ 

! 117^ 
i 
411 

07 i IlHl',' 

|l 
(HVI 

K7l» 

ICIl 

I)H1 



730 
7()7 

7toI 



i 


1 




o 






^ 


6 


imi 


r7H 


(M) 


701 



a 



OOTTOK. 



Stock, 





SI ?; 






55 S 



Obaiv. 



^31 *B r 3 






II I l. 
iiitN^iirui ouiir-r>su 



!:1 



iiLthiiH-Ji :Kr7(»!i ft7o 



mo wv^-zj'it KAO'imt 



iar7|| TH 1»» 
•£&1>\ 71 iCI 

iwiati wi aw 



(IS2 inifhiiN:) 7i.sK<-'i(M0i'vi.'Ui iw ik9 

I ' • , I I 
Lunij iwm> i.vc aw:t:.'7iti|*j7o:p"J7oii;«v<t>aoO|aM 

1115! i-Hi io.rJ aaoiKiai ww :wso'iOT2j:i8r,'i27 



H18 

8a) 

O-JO 
1257 

410 
1UV< 

714 



81ll niol ZV.7<2iH| IWS.'J.'.'fli-nH.VJl 



;a2i 140 



711) 

wo 

907 

81):} 

408 
888 

7;w 

1017 



1470 1710 



1014 
IIU 



001 

a>i 



m>\ ia78'i:K)( 8i»sa2soi:i5Wioiii27 

(K IGl'J! m OiaiJOOO' 84&il2J| 60 

803 1770j2n 808(5! .•»08i2098! 112: 180 

irrf," 2I.T.I ai8iio7a> a)7i!i40il;2i4li27 

I I' l' I 'i I 

aioi »n« ml 20u<| 44! sal sol 2 

II I ' I 11 I 

iswl 2ia»'2io csory :vr!2\ WOilSSl 03 

(M2' 1378' i:n (mS'JIMI 1122, 1 07 102 



40i 21H 340 
1«)| 3«» 705 
:B1 «07 
2431 H87 
'.m\ 001 
270 
809 

av< 

257 



1101 

at 



1770 au 

ajwlivi 

II 
irit.Mi 



4751 1503 
Itmj 1213 



5W.110 3«l 273 



1001|213ia<l 130 

:(7| 118 



1891 221 

I 
231; 835 



18 27 



323 • 501 



847|llfn;V74:ff| 57(MI1H0« 

air);i.'.72'iiOH-i| 4Wi 40 

a)lll54H|'31W2 731lj 42 
382'258i|':)l2rih STltt'lj VW 
aW'ZVtl, 42«7Hil4253!;»47 

272' 2200 Jt.5H00] a)M5l 200 

I i I 

C&'i 2008, ,33030 6IIO1 10 

015 2247 22291 01471 412 

I ii I 

33raa)4| 105021 8334 25 

130 2C59'' 3«800| 3102il206 

I ' I 

230ia>H5; 358801 03&5 »»5 



74;l 600 

103.2006 22330 



480.1 S7 



lOlW 2201 71101,2810 

I; I 

210; I 41 474' 10 



1410 
U 



98 



421 
212 

832 381 

t 



32; 

4aV)| 402 

4440; C76 

1753 

J075i 108 

315 112 220(1 130271 llKl' 12 
I ; • 1 

00 3179 atWI 370.5 28 



152; 240 2091770 22900 
353 



822 61 29.»'V 21221 
6871 428|331t(V 3740O 



1011 KH 00:14(18, 258H 

I 



44 i 



\:m\ WW r)3ol i:m\ 2(woi2i5ii;i:j«.>'i8.j3030''ao 107 

I I r I : 'I I 

li'tt) ICTJ 808 aww 317i;i02'l28UOI9S.l212|170 22S 

031 (t.V< 80»i Um 1889l'lK". 703.0 ;3atl'll';il)107j Ml 

0(Vi 973 RVt loa'.i 10:W' I75l|10(l(i 42l5 2ll(li 110 18H 

I i K , . i .1 i 

1395 122!)! l()0(»| 2S29 10(1. 11 131 4019 3(M8' 10.'j 2(JH 



1431 



■| 1 



1220' 1215' 1011 1421' aWi 100:11703 r>417;S132'l95. 204 



.1 I 

10 I 14S0I 15;>i 

n il 1282! 1348 



870 21401 SOlO; 201 10591 .5071 28071,185 204 
OIK) 10341 2C30', 400! 10804; 'oOai 12740 !145'238 



I 



P 

Kgq 



m 

IKrJO- 
nM2I ' 
1740- 

730 

080- 
18553 
2312 
1050 

350 
7625- 

135- 
0321 
10.'i5 
534:< 
37ai 
1325 
1991) 
82' 



31' ai5| 4:ill 22'a!(KI 52(ljO; 7110i3;)'/r 

. ■ ; 

2S0I 330 l;«f: IIO-.O 12000 1018 

I : I 

:i8|l 113 2008 .J;U»54i 3^13:1:2(73 

ir7l2aH) '»1015| 7:KH.t| 037 

I i, I I 

25 2.187 417021 7:1161035 



475 
r,07| 



290 577 88 2;}32 49055 7401,3510 



80 1654 38162 0306,1735 



£04 1716 479(;0 



8076 2492 



40^ 
16 
SCO 
42» 
20 
75^ 



TABLE V. — Agricultural SUUistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Toivnshipa. 

THIRD SERIES,— (CoMCLUDKD.) 





«.' 


POPOLATIOJf. 






,1 


OOTTOK. 




—— — H ■! 

1 

Stock. 


■ 1- - - ^ ■ 1" - ' ^ 

OsAiir. 




1 

6 










i 


1 

V) 






1 




i 


•a 


i 

1 


1 


i 


1 


6 
'A 


1 

u 


a 





i 


1 

>* 


is 






1 

CO 1 


-s'l 




u 






112 


117S 


mil 


9T7 


i;vt2 


2:io(J2«iiJioioh{[i91o 


zm 


175 177 


43 


252 


513 


Mt 


nirJ .32^85 


0529 


4ff7 


?M 




113 


Ki') 


7UH 


iX! 


lino 


I02;il 102 


iK2r;'2o:r7 


1182 


HI 119 


13 


115 


18l» 


28 


741'lir.75 


4289 


K7 


38 




IM 


IDl.'l 


im 


im 


1M2 


2IIN||2IM 


wiJ2ii5 m, 


128|1,'«) 


78 


283 


412 


45.1 


•jfynifmm 


4212 


79 


4925 




115 


MOO 


1371 


7M 


201(1 


•ijm'-ZH) 


(r7()2| 3M0I 


1W1| 171 148 


98 


Ui 


(/.') 


210 


ZllJjiPVl-'W 


4759 


W 


3I(X) 




110 


279 


all 


lOA 


4H5 


5ilO' 10.') 


3145- \y» 


.^mI 82 
1 


40 


10 


0<J 


228 


10 


W7 1 MH.3 


703 


11 


1ft 


t 

/; 


117 

118 


11« 

885 


lliX) 

88H 


439 
300 


1805 

147:^ 


2301|212i HiVJli'w^l 
1773!ll71illM2(|2iV10 


1250 ■ 105 
lllJjlll 


159 
140 


60 
55 


2;rr 
210 


4y) 
217 


152 
219 


l.Vni| '^10072 


(TWO 
&'W7 


83 
101 


.3238 
391 


D 

8 

(6 

U 


119 


12U 


1212 


50J 


1802 


2lw|;Uljl()2Vlj'lS80 


lOS.')! 100 


257 


93 


287 


601 


1.31 


10221 ,T2.'*8 


Of*3 


IM 


3.32i 


120 


1017 


1121 


725 


UU 


2171 '201 


8932' I'MOl'lLW, 137 

1 l{ 1 h 


122 


80 


808 


307 


283 


19fI7»W60 


.3300 


1008 


3W 


121 


1013 


1021 


403 


1631 


2o;mi 201 


j 92(«»|j4305 


10.51 JI37 


150 


115 


25!t 


215 


101 


100KiiM5fr74 


4114| 25 


85C 


S 

D 


J22 


j 1087 


1089 


4-tU 


1780 


2170j|;i->2 
2JO-J';«7 




2118 1109! 197 


40 


2;» 


2S0 


227 


10171^24007 


MOl 77 


3.' 


M 


123 


1208 


1107 


1009 


1330 


751012719 


1013i|l.')0ill2 


103 


380 


420 


150 


29^2■;W12: 


3372 1.50 


1.3i 




124 


OHJ 


\m 


802 


108S 


li).V)!,272 


7013'3'J«;7 


13IIiil2:i'110 


93 


277 


192 


17 


lil^-i 'J51hO 


I700I 171 


45< 




125 


nitt 


1500 


372 


2<M» 


3001 241 


O.'W^.WI 


lS2(ri45|183 


28 


2«.'i 


229 


122 


'12r,(>i!23l« 


3015J 


17.' 




120 


i&iri 


1009 


4(ltl 


2087 


Hl.Wj.t.'W 


7807 13189 


13131 i;w] 118 


182 


215 


3.1.1 


152 


108.5i,JM72« 


4100 05 


321.' 




127 


8.SH 


1123 


nw, 


070 


2011 { 2( 


:W'-I| 9(1 


47 27 


4 




2N 


18 




.11 i l.T7>i 


1155 


m 




128 


loir? 


91» 


AV 


1731 


20!) 1 


r 


TM 


17(13 


l(Kt2 


,1,V. 


173 


31 


359 


121 


40 


2020 -V.SW 


i930 




2911 



129 


•,m 


.'100 


405 


208 


733 111 


! 

173':t 


205 


•"^ 


59 


21 


5<l 


57(» 


(KK) 


2r.8i 


20001 7403 


40 




130 1 


1115 


1181 


015 


1711 


'£Oi m 


(L'lOO IMHN 


7..! 


132 


74 


2()M 


47(1 


7M| 


MM 


'j:(75 21571 


003 





131 1 


919 


90.-) 


817 


1597 


19141 214 


r>m^ 1799 


rm 


105 


51 


2-29 


2(r7 


578 


714 


1751i'155':i 


728 




132 


1188 


1209 


972 


u'2:, 


2:197:120 


4270! 7.58 


273 


89 


:5s 


155 


300 


708 


030 


2251| 12)20 


ir.2S 


15 


1.33 


1387 


1 15.-) 


595 


'2217 


28l'.V'.i7;t 


7H.'IMJ 21K2 


774 


138 


101 


ino 


421 


811 


07 


2113 'JClsa 


91.3 


5 


131 


(U7 


Oil 


792 


480 


127.' 175 


as-Clj 70i( 


238 


79 


39 


199 


•:-2f> 


207 


758 


2209 18,V«i2 


475 


23 


135 


018 


017 


208 


1087 


129.-Y02 


3.5221 751 


312 


47 


48 


60 


\>f: 


4.10 




W4 835.1 


210 





130 


809 


810 


1217 


W2 


1010,100 


40181 1038 


3.39 


99 


43 


1(M 


2.11 


327 


037 


2:Mo' '19101 


968 


138 


137 


702 


009 


*J2 


1009 


137lj}l.51 


2817 


043 


245 


45 


44 


141 


393 


5.'i9 


104 


2(J74!j 1,83.30 
I.IOIJ1 9436 


.VI 




1.38 


res 


753 


237 


1241 


14811 1217 


2S90 


811 


3;«i 


71 


00 


107 


401 


477 


1002 


210 


ao 


139 


963 


103H 


410 


irm 


2001' il 17 


575'> 


iroo 


0(0 


121 


44 


140 


28:j 


4.13 


010 


ias.S '17701 


707 


?8 


140 


laii 


1400 


102<! 


m\ 


2757:241 


7KS1 1 1722 


581 


1,19 


00 


105 


509 


875 


702 


.307.1 ,2,v<rj 


10-17 


41 


141 
142 


885 
007 


304 
OTA 


232 
310 


547 

1013 


7791 121 

1 
i;«3]il90 


1023 

5i'v; 


473 
1100 


1»1 

892 


3.S 
08 


19 
47 


02 
99 


137 
828 


227 
055 


109 
1270 


100-1 6010 
1078 14737 






1016 


70 



PART II. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE PEOPLE. 



24 



CHAPTER I. 



POPULATION. 



INDIANS. 



The three fundamental races of mankind, the yellow, the white and the 
blnck — the American, the European, and. the African — are occupants of 
the soil of South Carolina. Within her borders, as elsewhere on many 
wider fields throughout human history, the still unsettled problems of 
the conflict and intermingling of races present themselves for solution. 
Although four centuries barely separate us from the discover}* of America, 
it would bo quite as difficult to give an accurate statement of the nations 
and tribes of the Indians and of tlicir numlx?rs, as cncounteretl by the 
first European explorers, as it would be to turn back forty centuries and 
to disentangle the Egyptian, Ethiopian, Libyan, Chaldean, Nubian and 
•Berber races, united under the sixth dynasty of the Pharaohs in the con- 
struction of the pyramids. The history of the Indians is almost a blank. 
Their earth mounds, stone implements and weapons, and other relics, 
throw only a very uncertain glimmer of light over their past. Their vague 
traditions are known in some instances not to retain any count of many 
memorable events for even one century. Their oiigin is a subject open to 
the widest conjecture. Adair entertains the fanciful notion that they are 
descended from the lost tribes of Israel, and the proximity of Nortiiwest 
America to Asia, has suggested their migration by way of IJehring Straits 
to this continent. Tlie most recent researches, noting on the other hand 
a general westward migration of the Indian tribes from the Atlantic to tlie 
interior, and tracing a resemblance between their languages and that of the 
Bas(juo j)eople of Europe, hold that they are emigrants from that country. 
That they were driven thence by the intrusion of the Aryan hordes from 



3G4 POPULATION. 

the East, themselves contemplative and submissive races, whose character 
and language was modified by the high spirited, liberty-loving aborigines 
of Central and "Western Europe, Avhom they absorbed or dispersed. A 
remarkable fact in the economy of the Indians is, that they alone, of all 
the peoi)les of the world, possessed and cultivated Indian corn, and thai it 
was their only cereal. That the most valuable of all the grains should 
have been the exclusive possession of one i)eople is sufficiently strango, 
l>ut becomes much more so, when it is considered that this people were 
the least advanced of all in the arts of peace, that they were the poorest and 
most thriftless of laborers, in fact, in no sense laborers at all, and yet that 
they depended entirely for their bread on this grain, requiring more skill, 
care, and labor in its culture than any otlier. 

Great discrepancies exist as to the estimates of the condition and num- 
bcrsof the Indians between the accounts of travelers in the IGth and in the 
18th centuries. The latter, in explanation of the small number of frag- 
mentary tribes they found, where great and powerful nations were reputed 
to have dwelt, give the traditions of great wars, famines and epidemics, that 
were si\id to have occurred. The prevailing opinion now is that these were 
not exceptional occurrences among the aborigines, but that they had always 
been subject to such disasters, which had kq^t in check their population and 
their civilization. Bancroft and Draper think that, by the highest estimates 
that can be placed upon their numbers, all the Indians east of the Missis- 
sippi, from the Gulf of Mexico to the St. Lawrence, did not, 200 years ago, 
exceed 180,000. As the great plains of the West were not habitable for man 
before the introduction of guns and liorses by the Europeans, the estimate 
of these distinguished authorities may be considered as applying, with in- 
considerable additions, to the wliolc area of the United States having its 
drainage towards the Atlantic. This area contains now (Rep. Secretary 
of Interior, 1881) 203,008 Indians, and the number of Indians in the 
United States, exclusive of Alaska, is 255,038. 

Governor Drayton hazards the opinion that the Indians of South Caro- 
lina may have numbered originally 30,000 or 40,000 souls, but. gives no 
data upon which it is founded. Adair says, that old traders stated that 
about 1700, the Chcrokees had G,000 warriors. In 1752, he found only 
some 2,300 warriors among them, and says, " so great a diminution, that 
after a like revolution of time there will be few of them alive." A j)redic- 
tion regarding the destructibility of a race, that, like many similar ones, 
has fallen far wide of verification. Mr. Ikncroft says that the " Chcro- 
kees are more* numerous now than ever." 

The oldest rejiorls from (Joorgla claim that there were only a few In- 
dians within 400 miles of Savannah. John Lawson estimates very suc- 
cinctly the Indian population of North Carolina as 4,780, men, women^ 



POPULATION.. 



3G5 



and children, including 1G12 fighting men, in the year 1700. Judging 
from his journal of a thousand miles travel among the Indians, from 
South to North Carolina, they could not have been more numerous in this 
State at that date. 

The following is a synopsis of the natives and tribes of Indians men-' 
tioned as residing in South Carolina : 



NATIONS. TRIBES. 

1 2 3 

Cherokee Echotee, Nequassee, Tehohec, 

•15 6 

Chatusee, Novowee, Chagee. 

7 8 9 

Estatoo; Tussee, Cussatee, 

10 n vi 

Tugoola, Keowee, Ecliay, 

li U 15 

Aconee, Toxawav. Sencka, 

16 17' 

Tewraw, Tukwashwaw, 

18 19 ?» 

Chickorohe, Naguchie, Totero, 

21 22 ^ 2:) 

Quacoratchie, Chota, Enoe, 

24 2) 2tJ 

Stickoev, Esaw, Sapona, 

27 

Wisack. 



II 

Catawba. 



28 



The Cherokecs were a moun- 
tain race, occupying extensive 
territory in Alabama, Tennessee, 
Georgia, North and South Car- 
olina and Kentucky. Less than 
1-10 of this territory is in the 
present boundaries of South 
Carolina, comprising the coun- 
ties of Oconee, Pickens, Ander- 
son, Greenville and Spartan- 
burg, which would make the 
number of warriors in this State 
by Adair's computation, to have 
been 230, or a total population 
not exceeding 1000. They were 
expelled in 1777, for siding with 
the British, and are now the 
most advanced in civilization of 
the Indians, 

The Catawbas were a Cana- 
dian tribe, driven thence, in 
IGoO, by the more powerful Con- 
newangas. Part of their num- 
ber amalgamated with tiic 
Chickasaws and Choctaws. The 
remnant reached South Caro- 
lina in IfiOO, fought a great bat- 
tle with the Cherokecs on Broad 
river, nnd made that stream tlie 
dividing line between the two 
nations. Tliey occui)ied Yorlv, 
ChoHter nnd Lancaster counticH. 
Tlicir warriors were CMtiniaici] 
l)y Governor Glenn at -tOO, giv- 
ing a j)opulation of about ICOU. 



30G 



rOPULATION. 



III. 

Uchccs. 



23 



IV. 

Creek or "^ 3i 32 

Mus Koffco 'S*]^'^'"^"^> Sernna, Cusoboc. 

33 3» 3.5 

Yumassee, Huspa, Cosah, 



About 1-8 of the territory of 
the Ucliees extended acroas the 
Savaniiali river into Aiken, 
Edgefiehl and Barnwell coun- 
ties. Tiiere i.s no estimate of 
their numbers. Their Princess 
of CutiGichiqui (Silver Bluff) 
entertijined DeSoto with great 
splendor, according to the narra- 
tive of the gentleman of Elvaa 
(1540). They were absorbed by 
the Creeks, and liavo left no 
trace except in the name of a 
small stream in Silverton town- 
ship, Aiken county, and of a 
neighboring steamboat landing 
on the Savannah, Talemeco, af- 
ter their grciit temple, which it 
is .said stood there in DeSoto's 
time. 

Fragmentary tribes on the 
Savannah river, south of the 
Uchees, in Barnwell county. 

The Yamassees numbered 
about 100 men, women and 
children, near Pocotaligo, in 
1715, and were driven across 
the Savannah, by Governor 
Craven. Twenty men of the 
tribe were left at Saint Augus- 
tine, Florida, in 1743, and they 
were absorbed by the Seminoles. 

The Yamassce, or Jamassi, 
were one of a small number of 
isolated tribes, of dark com- 
plexion, found widely scattered 
among the inhabitants of North 
and South America. Supposed 
to have been immigrants from 
Africa prior to the European 
discovery of America (see IIu- 



POPULATION.- 



367 



m 
Salutah. 



87 

Congaree. 



88 

Santee. 



40 



"Westoes and Stonoes. 



41 42 

Watcree and Cliickaseo. 



in 
Waxsaws. 



44 

Wcnoe. 

4.T 

Winyaw. 

44 

Seweo. 



man Species, by A. De Qiiatrc- 
fages). If this be so, it explains 
why D'Alyon persisted in slave 
liunting about Beaufort (1521), 
these negroes being valuable as 
laborei*s, while the Indians were 
worthless. It were strange, too, 
if negroes first occupied this sec- 
tion where they now predomi- 
nate. 

Located near Saluda old town, 
Newberry county, removed to 
Connestoga, in Pennsylvania. 

On the river of that name. 
Jno. Lawson visited them in 
1700, and found a town of 12 
Imts, one man at homo and the 
women gambling. 

Near Nelson's Ferry, in Clar- 
endon, Jho. Lawson found a few 
of their huts, in 1700. 

Between Edisto and Ashley 
rivers, in Colleton and Charles- 
ton counties, amalgamated with 
the Catawbas. 

^ On Pine Tree Creek, Kershaw 
county, Lawson says they were 
more pojjulous than tl>c Con- 
ga recs. 

Lawson makes a day's march 
from the last. 

Indian, old township, Wil- 
liamsburg county. 

On the inlet of that name. 

On Seweo bay. Lawson says 
the larger part of them were 
lost at sea, or rescued and sold as 
slaves by the English, in an at- 



3CS POPULATION. 

tempt they made to open direct 
communication with England, 
by a fleet of canoes, in which 
they put to sea in the direction 
wlience they had observed the 
English vessels arrive. 

Saraw or Cheravv. Cheaterfleld and Marlboro 

counties, absorbed by the Ca- 
tawbas. 

40 

Kadapaw. Lynch's crcekyjoined the Ca- 

tawbas. 

The Pec Dee3 are not mentioned, as it is thought the name is of Euro- 
pean origin, probably from P. D., the initials of Patrick Daly, a white 
man, carved upon a tree by an early settler. The nineteen tribes, claimed 
under the Creek nation, occuj)ying at least one-half of the State, appears 
to have been very insignificant in numbers, according to the earliest au- 
thentic accounts of them. Governor Glenn sums them all up in one sen- 
tence. " There are among our settlements several small tribes of Indians, 
t'onsisling only of some few families each," Lawson says of them: " AU 
tiiough their tribes or nations border upon ono another, yet you may olt- 
en discern as great an alteration in their features and dis])osition (he was 
much impressed by the comeliness of the CongAree women) as you can in 
their speech, which generally proves quite different from each other, 
though their nations bo not above ten or twenty miles in distance," 

Admitting, however, that these scattered and fragmentary tribes 
eciualed in numbers the Cherokees and the Catawbas, there is no data 
for supposing that the total Indian i)0pulation within the present bound- 
aries of South Carolina could have much exceeded 3000 at the date of 
the early white .settlements. 

Accepting Lawson's enumeration (above given) of the Indians of North 
Carolina, and assuming an equal density for them in the two States, there 
would have been 2S70 Indians in South Carolina. % 

Adopting the maximum estimate of Bancroft and Draper, it would give 
a population of one Indian to five sijuare miles, or 0110 for South Caro- 
lina. In 1750 there were in Soutli Carolina 04,000 whites and negroes, 
HO tliat even at this early date immigrants from across the Atlantic ex- 
ceeded the aborigines by more than ten to one. 

By. the census oflSSl, the number of Indians, chiefly Catiiwbas, in 
South Carolina, is 131. This statement would seem to confirm the very 
general notion as i-) the rapid process of decay and extinction among the 



POPULATION. 369 

Indians. Such a conclusion is, however, by no means warranted, if account 
is taken of the number of Indians removed from the State and residing 
on reservations west of the Mississippi. The Cherokecs are there more 
populous and prosperous than ever, and with them are Santees, Senekas, 
and the other small tribes absorbed by them. Furthermore, there is scarce- 
ly a township in the State in which one or more famiHes (cliiefly negroes) 
are not found, showing the distinct traces of the Indian descent wliich 
they claim. If such half-breeds numbered C-10 of one per cent, of the 
present population, there would be as much Indian blood in South Caro- 
lina to-day as at the date of its settlement by the Europeans. The inter- 
mixture of the Indians with the whites and negroes was facilitated by the 
total absence of all moral restraint among their women — there was no 
word for continence in their languages — a.s well as by the remark- 
able lack of sexual initiative on the part of the men, as observed by 
Lawson and otliers. In 1758, Anthony Park found a solitary Scotchman 
among the Indians west of the Alleghanies, who had lived there forty 
years and was the father of some seventy children in the nation. One 
hundred such Scotchmen would liave transmitted to anotlier generation 
as much Indian blood as was found in Carolina In' the first settU-rs. 

The conclusion from sucli facts can only be that an inferior race, in a 
condition of ^ibsolute savagery, brought into contact with superior races, 
enjoying all the advantages of the higljest civilization, has not only not 
dwindled away and perished, l>ut has fully held its own and pcii»etuate(l 
itself So indestructible is a race of men. 

NEGROES 

were brought to America as early as the year 1503. In 1511 they were 

pronounced by tlic Spaniards to bo more robust and liardy, more cai>abl(j 
of enduring fatigue, and more patient under servitude than the aborig- 
ines. The labor of one negro was computed as equal to that of four 
Indians. Charles V., in 151G, granted a privilege that was transferred to 
the Genoese merchants, of introducing four thousand Africans to the 
Spanish colonies; and Queen Elizabeth, through lier agent. Sir John 
Hawkins, engaged, about l.'OT, in a lucrative African slave trade with 
these colonics, A Dutch vessel, in 1018, sold part of her cargo of Africans 
to the English colonists on James river, Virginia. The first negroes 
brought to South Carolina were brought by Sir John Ycamans, from the 
Barbadoes, in 1071. The year following, whiteslaves from England wore 
sold in Virginia at jCIO ai)iece, while negro slaves brought there, at the 
same date, from £20 to £25. In 1727, the citizens of South Carolina 
loudly comi)laincd of the importation of Africans, both because they 



370 POPULATION. 

were Africans, and because they could only bo slaves. -Tho mother 
country, however, persisted in forcing them upon the colony, maintain- 
ing, as late as 1745, that " the African slave trade was the great pillar 
and support of the British plantation trade." 

The negroes were brought from the whole western coast of Africa, be- 
tween tlie Sahara and Cairro land. There is no record of their lineage. 
A single ship would bring emigrants of ditierent nations, and from places 
a thousand miles apart in Africa. They came as strangers to each other; 
they l)r()Ught no connnon language, no abiding usages, no worship, no 
nationality. Tiie admixture of diverse people thu3 inaugurated, was 
further greatly increased by the numerous and widely remote settlements 
in America among which the negro emigrants were distributed. Never 
in the same space of time was any race so rudely mixed, shaken together 
and sifted out. 

Iviiynal and Ilume comj)ute that, outside of the United States, nine 
millions of Africans were forcibly imj)orted into the various European 
settlements. T!ie present treatise is not concerned with their fate, still it 
may be mentioned, that, of the total import into the British West Indies 
of two millions of Africans, there remained to enjoy the advantages of 
emancijjution. in 18.'^>1, only six hundred and sixty thousand. 

Nor was this fearful mortality due to climatic causes; for among the 
British troops in tlie West Indies, the average annual death rate for the 
whiles was 8..S1 per cent., and for the negroes, 3.91 per cent. 

The importations of negroes into the United States never approached 
these iiguivs. In Mac{)herson's Annals of Commerce (Vol. VI., p. loU.ci ec].), 
isueii statements as these are to be found. During the eight months end- 
ing 12ti» July, 17.'3, five hundred and eleven negroes were imi)orted into 
Charleston ; fourteen hundred and eighty-two Africans were imported 
into Georgia in the years 17G5 and 17GG; from 1783 to 1787 none were 
brought directly from Africa to the United States, but it was estimated 
that three hundred came annually from the West Indies. The slave 
trade was abolished by Act of Congress in 177G, but was reopened for the 
port of Charleston for four years — 1804 to 1807. During this period the 
following numbers of African slaves were imported in two hundred and 
two vessels into Charleston, by citizens of foreign nations and the United 
States, as here given : 



POPULATION. 371 

By English merchants 19,649 

• " merchants of Rhode Island 8,238 

" " of other foreign nations 5,177 

" " and planters of Charleston and vicinity 2,00G 

" of other Northern States 1,400 

of France 1,078 

" " of other Southern States (587 

Total 38,775 

In 1714, there were in all the English colonics, from New Hampshire 
to South Carolina, fifty-eight tliousand eight hundred and fifty Africans, 
of whom it wa-j thought tliat about one-half had been imported. 11. C. 
Caroy, in his work on the slave trade, domestic and foreign, gives the 
following estimate of the numbers of Africans imported subsecjuent to 
that date : 

Prior to 1714 30,000 

1715 to 1750 90,000 

1751 to 1760 35,000 

1761 to 1770 74,500 

1771 to 1790 . . . ! 34,000 

Subsequent to 1790 ... 90,000 

Total 353,500 

By the United States census of 1790, there were 757,208 negroes, which 
would make 464,858, the number of the natural increase. This would be 
for the whole period of seventy-six years, from 1714 to 1790, a natural 
increase upon those already in the country, and imported during that 
time, of something over one hundred and fifty-eight per cent., or more 
than two per cent, per annum. 

At the date of the emancipation of the negro slaves, which practically 
took place in 1865, they numbered about 4,600,000. Subtracting the 
number imported during this period, viz: 90,000 (a very large estimate), 
and not counting those who emigrated, this gives an increase of 3,752,792, 
or the enormous natural increase in seventy-five years of four hundred 
and forty-two per cent. If there be something roj)ulsive to the delicate- 
minded in this rapid proj)agation of the human sj)ccic3 under slavery, 
perhaps it may be admitted that it were better, as in this cose, that twelve 
shouM be emancipated where one was enslaved, than as in tlie case of the 



372 POPULATION'. 

Britisli ^V(!.st Indies, where tlie pliilanthropists only found one to bo 
enmncijuitcd where four had been enslaved. 

But this rai)id inorotiso is by no means duo to slavery. The free negroes 
increased durinfj; slavery oven more rapidly, and while their numbers 
were au'i:mented by manumitted slaves, the fact that their increase was 
somewhat the same in the slave, as in tlie free States, shows that it was 
dependent in a largo degree on tiie birth rate. The numbers are for the 

FREE NEGROES.- 

17!)0 18G0 P. C. InciOi*<. 

United States r><},ry21 488,070 723 

South Carolina .... l,SOl 9,914 450 

The census of 1880 shows that there are 0,580,793 negroes in the United 
States, an increase of 1,980,793, or a natural increase of forty-three per 
cent, during the hfteen years which have elapsed since emancij)ation. 

Practically, there has been no importation of negroes from foreign coun- 
tries into South Carolina since 1810. By the U. S. Census of that year, 
there were 200,919 negroes in the State. The census of 1880 shows that 
tlse number has increased to 004,332. But these figures do not show the 
full rate of increase. For in 1880, of negroes born in South Carolina there 
were 93,498 residing in other States, chielly in Georgia, Mississippi, Ala- 
bama and Florida, in the order here named. On the other hand, there 
were only 15,513 negroes residing in South Carolina, who were born out- 
side of the limits of the State. Showing a nett loss of 77,985 by emigra- 
tion in the negro population. Nor is this loss so great as the one in tlie 
I)receding decade on the same account. By the census of 1870, it appears 
that 97,179 negroes l.)orn in South Carolina were living in other States, 
while the negro population of the State was only increased by 7,219, born 
beyond its limits, showing a nett loss of 90,200 in a snuiller pojjulation 
than that of 1880. 

The extmordinary nite of increase among the negro population is one 
of the most interesting and important questions presented by the race 
j)roblem in America. .J. Stahl Patterson, who has made a special study 
of til is subject, estimates this rate of increase for the negro race throughout 
the United States hiis been 33J per cent, for the last decade, while that of 
tlic native whites at the North was less than 15.7 per cent. Should these 
respective rates of increase continue without interruption, for tiic next 
century, the negro would outnumber the native Northern whites by 12,- 
000,000, not\vitlistanding that at the jiresent time the negroes stand six 
and one-half millions to twentv-four and one-half millions of Northeru 



POPULATION. 373 

whites. Majorities may not always govern, even under universal suf- 
frage, but they have their importance, and it is interesting to note that 
the competitors in point of increase with the negroes are the Southern 
whites, wlioso rate of increase is 30.4 per decade, and immigrants from 
Europe, whoso rate of increase here is as great, or greater. 

No effort adequate to even an fl{)proximato determination Matis- 
tically of the intermixture of the negro and white race, has, as yet, 
been undertaken. The enumeration of mulattos, attempted by the 
census of 18G0 and of 1870, was entirely unsatisfactory, and, in the 
census of 1880, none was attempted. Mr, Patterson, who has given 
attention to the subject, says: "Even now they are no longer negroes. 
One-third has a large infusion of white blood, another tliird has less, 
but still some, and of the other third it would be diflicult to find an 
assured specimen of pure African blood." This is a startling statement, 
but in the absence of statistics, who puts it to the test among his negro 
acquaintance, will be surprised at the degree in which it conforms to the 
facts. If the lineage of those negroes whose color luid features seem most 
unmistakably to mark them as of purely African descent, be traced, indu- 
bitable evidence may often be obtained of white parentage, more or less 
remote. In such cases it will be noticed that external characteristics are 
' by no means invariably associated with internal ones, and that such 
blacks are often more intelligent, and bear morally a closer resemblance 
to the white race than do many bright-colored mulattos. Here, as else- 
where, " in the crossings between unequal human races, the ffither almost 
invariably belongs to the superior race. In every case, and especially in 
transient amours, woman refuses to lower herself ; man is less delicate." 
{Qiiatrejagc^. 

Thus, whatever advance a race makes, it is the female who preserves and 
perpetuates it. The intermixture of the races being dependent on negro 
mothers will be most rapid and complete M'here the negro females arc in 
excess to the males, and vice verm. In this connection it may be re- 
marked that the number of negro females, in proportion to males, seems 
to have been steadily on the decline in South Carolina since 1850. The 
number of negro females to 100,000 males of that race, as given at the 
following dates, being: 

18.50 1800 1870 1880 

105,290 104,192 104,232 102,938 

The last figure is less than the ratio of white females to males, which,' 
in 1880, is 103,125 to 100,000 males. The proportion of females to males, 
among the negro population, is much greater in some of the Northern 



0/4 POPULATION. 

.States. Thus, in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania, there were, in 1850, 108,100 females to 
100,000 males in the negro population of these States ;'and in 1880, the 
number is 108,410 females to each 100,000 negro males, 

The centre of the negro population of the United States lies near the 
SI meridian, between the 32 and 33 parallel north latitude, a few miles to 
southeast of Macon, Georgia. On the same meridian, but some GOO miles 
to the north, lies the centre of the foreign born poj)ulation of the United 
States, between the cities of Toletlo and Detroit. The foreign born ex- 
ceeds the negro population by only about 100,000, each being in the neigh- 
borhood of ()| millions. On the same meridian again, and between the 
two centres named, is found at a point in Kentucky, a short distance 
southwest of Cinciiniati, the centre of the aggregate j)Oi)ulation of tlic 
United States ; since 1700 this centre has moved westward from the city 
of Baltimore along the 30 parallel of latitude, a di.stance of 457 miles. 
The wide divergence of these two well marked and nearly etjual streams 
of population, the European and the African, while making the same pro- 
gress westward during so considerable a period of time, might naturally be 
taken to indicate tiiat it was a result fj/ i.atural and insurmountable cli- 
matic and geographical conditions. Between these poles the greater pro.x- 
iniity l)y 200 utiles of the aggregate jwpulation to the northern one, in " 
conse(iuence of the sympathy of Christendom with the European immi- 
grants, and race prejudice against the African, have contirnied this 
plausible but superficial view, and given rise to many wide spread and 
erroneous impressions, regarding tiio unsuitablencss of the Southern 
.section of the United States as a home for the Caucasian race. It 
has come ,to be regarded as a low, wet, marshy, malarial region, fitted 
tor the negro and cotton culture, and owing to these, as it were acci- 
dental features, its chief importance. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that before the advent of negroes, and long before any importance 
attached to cotton, wealthy Englishmen, with the whole country open 
to them, well informed as to its climate and resources, after two centuries 
of explorations, made choice of South Carolina as the locality best 
adai)ted for the material development of an English colony. The 
Northern and Middle States were colonized by political and religious 
refugees, or by persons of jieculiar social views. The South was chosen as 
a land of promise for those who sought to increase their fortunes, and es- 
tablish a people under conditions most favorable for their develoi)ment. 
This is not the place to discuss the adventitious circumstances which have 
favored the mis-impressimis here referred to; such, for instance, as the 
changes in the art of navigation, which opened the most direct and speedy 
communication between the nearest points of Europe and America, in 



POPULATION. 375 

spite of ocean winds and currents, whereas the sailing vessels of a 
hundred years ago found their easiest route from Europe even to New 
York, to be by Charleston. But the relation of the population to climatic 
and topographical conditions, as given by the 10th United States Census, 
will show that these are not real hinderances to the peopling of the South 
with greater numbers of the Caucasian race. For while it appears that 
the African race does not thrive outside of certain climatic limits, t^iese 
limits include nothing injurious to the Caucasian race It will be noted 
that the percentage of negroes diminishes in low temperatures 
and that it also diminishes in high temperatures, and that in both 
cases where the negroes decrease in numbers the percentage of for- 
eign bom Caucasians increase. It would seem that the more temperate 
and genial climate and the most fertile soils, having been first occupied b}' 
Africans, European immigrants, influenced by prejudice against the insti- 
tution of slavery, which has passed away, and by prejudice against a race 
which, as has been shown, has greatly changed, and is in process of still- 
greater changes, have settled on less favored soils, under greater extremes 
of climate. 

The following table shows the distribution of the population in eleva- 
tion above the sea level, according to tlie 10th Census. 

PEBCENTAGE OF 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. 

Below 100 ft 28.31 18.25 22.28 

. Between 100 and 1000 ft . 40.07 59.41 70.85 

Above 1000 ft 31.02 22.34 G.87 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Here the negro population occupies the medium elevations, while a 
larger percentage of foreigners occupy low lands or greater elevations. 
The largest percentage of the aggregate population is also found at the 
same elevations with the negro population. And in each instance, ex- 
cept as to extreme elevations, the distribution of the negroes more closely 
approaches that of the aggregate than the foreign does. 

In South Carolina 27 per cent, of the negro population is below 100 ft. 
and of tliis number one-third is immediately on tlic coast, and not exceed- 
ing 40 ft. above tlie sea level. The remaining two-thirds who live below 100 
ft. are tliiuly saittered over a wide region. It appears that each population 
falls off Ix'tween an elevation 100 and 500 feet. Owing doubtless to 
the fact that these elevations, more tlian others, need drainage to render 



37G 



POPULATION. 



them suitable for human habitation. Between 500 and 1000 ft. 43 per 
cent, of the negro population of South Carolina is found just where the 
larf;ei;t i>crcentage of tlie foreign and the aggregate pojmlation are located 
in the country at large. 

The moan annual temperature of South Carolina varies from 50° in 
the mountains to G-i° on tlie seaboard. Within this range of temperature 
is found fifty-four per cent, of the aggregate population of the United 
States. 

Tlie following table shows the distribution of the foreign, aggregate 
and colored populations in accordance with the mean annual temperature: 



Foreign. 

Below 40° 1.30 

40° to 50° .... 53.GG 
.50° to G0° . . . . 40.03 

G0°to70° 4.10 

Above 70° 91 



PERCENTAGES OF 




VEGETABLE PRODUCTS 


• Apprcgate, 


Xegro. 


OF THE REGIO.VH. 


1. 


0.03 


Wheat. 


37. 


3.67 


Corn. 


44. 


3G.52 


Tobacco. 


17. 


57.42 


Cotton, Rice, Sugar, 


1. 


2.3G 


Tropical Fruits. 



100.00 100.00 



100.00 



Botli tlie foreign and the aggregate population are distributed over a 
wider range of mean annual temperatures than the negro. The lower 
temperatures are doubtless not favorable to the latter, if indeed they are 
to any, but thoy occupy a temperate climate, and one that yields to the 
agriculturist the largest variety of the most profitable crops, with a 
mean annual temperature similar to the region reported to have been the 
birth-place and cradle of the human race. 

The distribution of the population according to the midsummer tem- 
perature, or the mean cf July as the hottest month, is : 



PEnCEXTAGFJ OF 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. 

Below 00° 1.G3 1. 0.02 

G0° to 70° 17.27 12. 5.44 

70° to 85° 80.G9 87. 94.35 

Above 85° 0.41 0. 0.19 ; 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Here again the bulk of the population forms the mean between the 
negro and the foreign, and the latter has a wider distribution, especially 
as to the extremes of high and low temperatures. 



POPULATION. 377 

The distribution of the population according to winter temperature, or 
the mean temperature of January, taken as the coldest mouth, is as 
follows: 

PERCENT AG Ea OP 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. 

Below 10° 1.80 1. 0.01 

10° to 30° G3.94 • 50. 5.39 

30° to 50° 29.10 44. 82.58 

Above 50° 5.10 ■ 5. 12.02 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Here again the negro has a more restricted distribution in the more 
temperate regions than the foreigner, whose percentages exceed those of 
the aggregate in the extremes of both heat and cold. 

The distribution of the population according to the greatest observed 
heat is as follows : 

PERCENTAGES OP 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. 

Below 90° 3.59 0. 0.07 

90° to 105° 91.87 94. 9G.53 

Above 105° 4.54 6. 3.40 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

The extreme high temperatures here referred to arc much more fre- 
quent at the North than at the South, and the result is shown by the 
numerous deaths from sunstroke at the North every summer. Such heat 
does occur at rare intervals at the South, and it is equally as fatal here, 
as witness the deaths in Charleston in June, 1870, when the hottest day 
in more than a century occurred. 

The distribution under the extremes of cold observed is : 

PEUCKXTAGE OP PorULAilON, 

Foreignci-s, ' Aggregate. Colored. 

Below — 45° 0.09 0. 

—45° to 10° 92.52 80. 33.88 

10° to 20° ..... , 4.53 19. GG.OO 

Above 20° 2.8G 1. 0.12 

100.00 100.00 100.00 . 

The remarks made regarding other climatic conditions apply liere also ; 
the negroes occupy the medium and temperate regions, the aggregate 
population comes next, and on the outside, in the extremes, are the 
foreign born. 
25 



378 POPULATION. 

Distribution of population in conformity to the annual rainfall, Table 1, 
and to the summer rainfall, Table 2. . , - 

TaHLE 1st — PERCENTAGE OF 





Forei;:n. 


Afrpregate. 


Nepro. 


Below 30 in. . . 


. . 12.89 


G.08 


0.38 


30 in. to 45 in. . 


. . 54.55 


52.57 


17.14 


45 in. to 00 in. . 


. . 81.54 


89.05 


70.88 


Above GO in. . . 


. . 1.02 


1.70 


5.00 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

TAiii.r; 2d— rzRCBJCTAor op 
roreipn. 



Below 1 3<^ 5.80 

15° to 2.V 87.83 

25° to 35° <>.29 

.Vbovc :r)° 0.02 



A«grfprftte. 


Nepro. 


2.89 


0.20 


70.18 


38.47 


20.77 


00.70 


0.10 


0.57 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

It is to be iKinic in mind tliat where the annual rainfall is Ichs than 
twenty-live inches, or tiie sunimcr rainfall, tluit is' the rainfall during tho 
crop season, docs not reach fifteen inches, a.i;riculturo cannot be conducted 
prolitably except by irrigation. And of course the irrigation aflbrded by 
streams traversing .such regions must be .so limited that a large agricultural 
population can take no foothold there. In these arid regions the bulk of 
the jmpulation is foreign, and engage little in agricultural pursuits. ^Vith 
regard to rainfall, as with the other factors of climate, the percentage of 
negroL's is greatest where the comlitions are most favorable for the sup- 
port of the human race; the aggregate {mpulation have the next choice, 
and the foreigners again fall ui)on less favored region.s. While the negroes 
occujty regions of abundant rainfall, this rainfall is nowhere excc-rsive, 
nor does it i)roducc an atmosphere saturated with moisture. The porous 
character of tlie soils of South Carolina, through which the water, not neces- 
sary for vegetation, readily disappears, and the large number of cloudless 
days make mist and fog, mildew and ru.st, a rare occurrence, so that even 
in areas of the heaviest rainfall the relative humidity of the atmosphere 
is similar to, but even less than that of the most noted health resorts of 
the world. (See Sand Ilill Region Climate.) 

Within the State of South Carolina the distribution of the negro popu- 
lation does not appear to have been dcterminately influenced by climatic 
or topographical conditions. They still preponderate most largely along 
the southern and south-western borders of the State, where they were first 



POPULATION. 379 

colonized. Hence they have spread over irregular areas, maintaining in 
them their preponderance even to the northern boundaries of the State. 
The areas thus successively occupied by them are those where cotton cul- 
ture has been the leading pursuit. They are characterized by a light soil, 
of easy culture, yielding a crop readily and directly convertible into cash, 
requiring no fore-cast as to drainage and fallows, and no complex combi- 
nations of the areas to bo directed to tillage and pasturage, to gi-ain and 
cattle. Their niinimum percentage to the other population is found in 
Horry county, upon the southeastern seaboard of the State and diagonally 
across the State from this locality, among the mountains in the northwest. 
While three or four lines, where the white pofmlation predominates, cross 
the entire State in a north and south direction. 

The rate of increase of the negro population from 1790 to 1800 was 
much slower in those counties in which they were originally the 
most numerous — in Beaufort, Charleston, Georgetown and Colleton, 
Hero their numbers were barely doubled during tiiis period, while they 
were being quadrupled in the State at large, Tiicy seemed to have reached 
their maximum then, and were on the decline. Tliis was most marked in 
the case of Charleston county.. Here, in 1790, they numbered 34,840, in 
1830 they were 05,534, and then steadily declined to 40,822 in 1800, 

Since 1800 tlie increase has been i)retty uniform, Cliarleston lias re- 
gained her losses, and reached and passed her maximum of 1800, num- 
bering now 71,808, but the other counties which were earliest most 
thickly i)eoi)led with this race still lag behind, and Beaufort, Colleton 
and Georgetown continue to show considerable losses, while the increase 
of the upper country has- been large. This is the more notable, as this 
region where these losses have accrued is the very o\\c thought best 
adapted to the African, being low, wet and warm. 

The geographical indefiniteness of the census of 1870 does not allow 
the movements of the colored population during the last decade to be 
traced with precision. The following table gives tlie nearest approximation 
that could bo obtained to the facts in this regard, - 

PEnCENTAOE OF COLOIIED IX TOTAL POTULATION, 

1870. 1880 Increase Decrease. 

Alpine Region 23 27 3 * 

Piedmont Region 49 50 7 * 

Sand and Red Hills 01 50 ♦ 5 

Upper Tine Belt GO 59 ♦ 7 . 

Lower Pine Belt 07 70 3 * 

Coast Rcsrion ,...••. 90 84 * G 



380 POPULATION. 

Til cso fijru res show no tendency of tlie colored population to separate 
from the a^,:i:rcgato population and to become localized. On the contrary, 
tlie coast re;j;ion, where they have i)rej)onderated for generations, where 
they own more ])roperty than elsewhere, where they have retained 
undisputed control in political affairs, and where, in fine, every condition 
seems most favorahle to promote, develoj)c and maintain colored prcdom* 
inance, exhihits a marked decrease in their percentage of the i)Opulation. 
At the same time in tlic Alpine and Piedmont regions, where their num- 
l)crs have always been smaller, an increase apj)cars which more than com- 
jHMisates for the decrease on tlio coast. Such fluctuations seem rather to 
indicate that the colored race has a tendency to mi.x with the white pop- 
ulation ill certain limited j)roportioiis. This opinion gathers force l»y 
considering their ratio in the towns as comi)ared witli what it is in tjjo 
rural districts in the dillorent sections of the v'^tate. Thus, while the 
n(>groes form Si; per cent, of the rural j)opulation of Charleston (old), 
Ik'iiufort and (ieorgetown counties, they oidy form 50 percent, of tho])opi 
ulation of the towns themselves. And in the Piedmont region, while they 
are only 35 per cent, of the rural population of Greenville and 8i)artan- 
burg counties, they form 45 per cent of the population of the towns. 
Of the 73!) towns of the united counties having a population of 4,000 
and upwards, only eight are without a colored population. Only three, 
however, in all this number, viz: Newbcrn and Wilmington, X. C, and 
Danville, Va , have a colored j)0pulation that reaches sixty per cent, u 
percentage quite common among the rural i)opulation. 

The ra[)idly augmenting and more mobile populations of the towns 
may thus indicate what is to be the general tendency in the pro- 
portions of the races that where negroes are, in excess of 50 per cent, they 
will diminish, and where th(>y are less than 45 percent, they will iucreaso 
in presence of the white race. It is at least more i)robable that the final 
result will be determined by some law like this, and not by any wholesale 
movement on the part of either race. For the exodus of negroes to the 
northwest appears, in the light of the late census, to have amounted to 
nothing, just as their much talked of return to Africa from Cliarleston 
a few years since did. Mississipi)i, Louisiana and North Carolina, whence 
the emigrations took place, .show large gains in their colored population ; 
while Kansas and Iowa, whither these emigrants went, have actually lost 
in the relative proportion of the black to the white population. But 
wliile a movement in ma.ss of the negro population has not and may 
never take place, the indications that their general diffusion is j)rogress- 
ing rapidly are well marked. They are now present in greater or less 
number in every State and Territory, and are increasing most rapidly 
where formerlv thev were fewest. The northern and western non-slave- 



POPULATION. 381 

holding States had less than six per cent, of the negro population of ISGO, 
but they have nearly ten per cent, of the much larger negro pojmlation 
of 1880; and while the increase during this period was only forty-eight 
per cent, for the whole country, it was one hundred and twenty-five per 
cent, for tliis region. 

Contrary, then, to tlio many theories on this Huljject, the facts, up to 
this date, point decidedly to a general di.Mseniinalion of the negro race. 
To say that they are not adapted to these northern and western latitudes, 
and that they will only go there to bo destroyed by the severity of the 
climate, is, to use an argument that has no gent ral ai)j>lication to the 
great njovements of mankind. Kven now, the foreigners who go to 
those same regions, Hu/ler fearfully from the Hcverity of the eliinnte, ns 
shown by their death rate (see j)age.'377); nevertljelef<s, they continue 
to go. 

The negro in South Carolina is performing a fair share of physical 
labor, but left to himself he is without initiative and is well content to do 
little work and to reap small profits, Tliey are of temperate habits, and 
drunkenness and gluttony arc rare among them. Without the more 
robust virtues or vices of the white race, they are cheerful, pleasant tem- 
pered and inoffensive. If they suffered grievous wrongs during slavery, 
as has boon .so widely asserted, with every opportunity and incitement 
from outsiders to do so, they have shown no disposition to take revenge 
upon their former masters. The personal relations between the two races 
continue most friendly, and perhai)s no where in the world and at no 
time in its history, has such easy, considerate, kind and respectful intcr- 
cour.so subsisted between employer and employee, as between the Southern 
white man and the negro. 

EUROPEANS 

1497 derived their first knowledge of South Carolina from Sebastian 
Cabot, an English subject, who visited these coasts shortly after 
the discovery of the new world. 

1520 D'Ayllon, in quest of gold and slaves, landed on St, Helena island, 
gave it its name, and claimed the country for Sj)ain. 

1502 Admiral Coligny .sends a colony of French Huguenots, in two 
small vessels, to Port Royal ; a settlement of twenty-six persons is 
made there; but the following year they build a vessel and return 
to France, leaving to the country only its name, Caroline, after 
their king, Charles IX., and a small fort. 

1629 The couTitry is granted to Sir Robert Heath by Charles I. of 
England, under the name of Carolina. 



382 POPULATION. 

1GG3 Charles II. of England grants the country to certain English 
nol)Iemen, .styled the Absolute Lords and Proprietors of Carolina. 

1070 The proprietors, at an expenditure of £12,000, send out two small 
vessels, under Capt. Wm. Sayle, to Beaufort. This colony removes 
tho next year to Ashley river, and a few years later occupy the 
present site of Charleston, and form tho first permanent white 
settlement in South Carolina. 

Tho proprietors offer to all immigrants lands at £20 per one 
thousand acres; where cash could not be paid, an annual rent of 
one penny per acre was required. For tho first five years every 
freeman was offered one hundred acres, and every servant fifty 
acres, at an annual rent not exceeding half penny per acre. 

1071 The proj)rietors grant land to a colony from the Barbadoes, 
under .Sir John Yeamans. 

1C74 Tho i)roprietors furnish two pmall ves.sols to remove a Dutch 
colony from Nova Belgia (New York) to John's island, whence 
they si)read into the surrounding countr}'. 

1079 Charles II. provides at his own expense two small vessels to 
transport foreign Protestants, chiefly French Huguenots, to 
Charleston. 

1G9G Members of a Congregational clmrch, with Mr, Joseph Lord, 
their pastor, remove in a body from Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
to the neighborhood of Charleston. 

1701 According to Dr. Hewitt, the population of South Carolina 
is seven thousand. It consists of a medley from many countries, 
and of different faiths. There are Cavaliers and Puritans from 
England, Dissenters from Scotland, Dutchmen from New York, 
French Huguenots, and Africans. 

1712 Tiie Assembly of South Carolina offer £14 to the " owners and 
importers " of each healthy male British servant, between the ages 
of twelve and thirty years, " not a criminal." 

1715 Five hundred Irish immigrate at their own expense to occupy 
the lands from which Yemassee the Indians have been driven, 
but finding them laid out in baronies for the Lords Proprietors, 
most of them remove to tho North. 

171S The Lords Proprietors, having advanced £18,000 to the settlers, 
refuse to furnish additional supplies, and when« asked for cattle, 
reply that " they wished not to encourage graziers, but planters." 

1719 The proprietors sell their right and interest in the soil and gov- 
ernment of Carolina to tho king, for £17,500, and an additional 
£5,000 for the quit rents, over due by the colonists. 

1724 According to Dr. Hewitt, the population is thirty-two thousand. 



POPULATION. 383 

1730 The colonial government marks out cloven townships of twenty 
thousand acres each, and offer fifty acres, rent free for ten years, to 
every man, woman and child who would come over to occnf)y 
them. After that period a rental of four shillings per one hundred 
acres was to be paid annually. 

1731 The government offers Peter Pury jC400 for ever}' one hun<lrcd 
effective men brought over from Switzerland. Three hundred and 
seventy arrive, and are granted forty thousand acres on the lower 
Savannah river, at Purysburg, (Full fare across the ocean at this 
time is £o for immigrants.) 

1733 The Scotch-Irish descendants of the Scotch Covenanters, from 

Downe county, Ireland, settle Williamsburg county, named after 

King William III. 
1735 A colony of Germans settle in Orangeburg county, which is 

named after the Prince of Orange. 
1730 The Assembly grants a largo tract of land on the Pee Dee to 

Welsh settlers from Pennsylvania. 

1739 The council appropriate £0,000 as a bounty to the first two hun- 
. dred immigrants (above twelve years of age, two under to count 

as one over tliat ago) from Wales, settling upon the Welsh tract oa 
the Pee Dee. They offered in addition to each head above twelve 
years, twelve bushels corn, one barrel of beef, fifty jmunds pork, 
one hundred pounds rice, one bushel salt, and to each male one 
axe, one broad hoe, one cow and calf, and one young sow. 

1740 After the battle of Culloden many of the Scotch rebels were 
removed to South Carolina. 

1750 Saxe Gotha township (Lexington county) was laid off and occu- 
pied by settlers from Saxe Gotha, Germany. In the same year a 
colony of Quakers from Ireland settle Camden (Kershaw county). 

1755 Governor Glenn opens the upper-country for settlement by a 
treaty he makes with the Cherokee Indians, obtaining from them 
the cession of a large tract of territory, and by erecting in the 
Northwest (Pickens county) Fort Prince George. 

1700 After Braddock's defeat, numbers of Pennsylvanians and Vir- 
ginians, feeling insecure on account of the Indians, move overland 
to the upper-country of South Carolina. 

1704 King George furnishes £300, tents, one hundred and fifty st^uul 
of arms and two small vessels, to a colony of Germans, who receive, 
on reaching Charleston, £500 from the Assembly, and are assigned 
lands in Londonderry township (Edgefield county). 

1704 Two luindred and twelve French Protestants reach Charleston, 
and aifc furnished transportation to Long Cane, Abbeville county, 
where xhey settle New Bordeaux township. 



384 
17Go 



rOPULATION. 



Population according to Hcwit : white, 38,000; colored, 85,000; 
total, 123,000. 
1783 Tlio war of independence being achieved, " multitudes from 
Europe and the Eastern and Middle States of America moved into 
South Carolina. " 

Such, in brief, were tlio various and numerous peoples who contributed 
to the early coloiii/.ution of South Carolina. Tiie i\Tsi permanent settle- 
ment had for its motive the ambition of certain wealthy English noble- 
men. In the hope of increasing their power and wealth, they offered 
lands, transportation, and bounties to all adventurers ; offers not unac- 
ccj)tablc to the crowded populations of Europe, who had fallen heirs to 
religious, social and political oi)prcssions as their sole legacy. Afterwards 
colon i/.ation was promoted by direct trade with England, by European 
wars and persecutions, by military disasters in the Northern States, by 
largesses offered to settlers by the local government, and last, but above 
all, by the successful issue of the war of independence, which opened this 
country to the oppressed of all nations. 

The following table shows the population of South Carolina and of the 
United States for each census, from 1700 to 1880 : 





United States. 


South Carolina. 






i 3 

: 3* 


3 








C/2 


1 
o 




"-' 'A 


11 


"^ 






02 


'S O O ai 


CENSUS 


o •« 




-:: 








o "S <y 3 




J:^^ 


o 


M^^ ' 


Ch 






x ^"^ 


tc-^ ■ tC i> 


YEAR. 


^ a> 


tj 


<i 1 
>> 


& 


c^ 


i. 


. << 
i^ 


■5 c, .3 y 




o 2 


3 


■/J 


"i 




o 


75 








£ 






^ 


o 


8.2 




1700 . . 


230,035 3,929,214 


10.41249,073140,178 


108,805 


.00 




1800 . . 


305,703 5,308,483 


17.4' 


1 345,591 190,255 


149,330 


11.5 


.00 


38.7 


1810.. 


407,945 7,239,881 


17.7, 


415,115 214,190200,919 


13.8 


.05 


20.1 


1820 . . 


508,7171 9,(533.822 


18.9 


502,741 237,440 205,301 


10.7 


.05 21.1 


1830.. 


t'>32,717112.8()(i,02() 


20.3 


581.185 257,8()3 323,322 


19.3 


.04 15.G 


1840 . . 


807,292 17,0(;9,453 


21.1 


594,398 259,084 335,314 


19.7 


.03 2.2 


1850 . . 


979,249 23,1 9 1,S7(; 


25.7 


i 008.507,274,503 3i)3,944 


22.2 


.03 12.4 


1800.. 


1,194,754 31,443,321 


20.3 


1703.708 291.300 412,320 


23.3 


.02 5.2 


1870 . . 


1,272.239 38..'')58,371 


30.3 


7O5,70(;289,0(;7;415,814 


25.3 


.OlVff 0.2 


1880 . . 


l.r.!;9,570 


.■)0,l.'r,,7s:j 


32. 


995.577 


391,105 


004,332 


32.9 


.Olr'a 


41. 



PERCENTAGE OF THE INCREASE 

At Each Census, from 1790 to 1880, of the Population of South 
Carolina, represented Graphically. 




1780 



1600 



1810 



1S20 



1830 



1810 



1830 



Ytyo 



PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE ACGBEGATE POPULATION. 
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE" OF THE WHITE POPULATION. 
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE COLORED FREE POPULATION. 
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE COLORED SLAVE POPULATION. 



1880 



POPULATION. 



385 



Percentage of Increase of the Populatio:a of South Carolina from 1790 to 1880. 





Period. 


White. 


Colored. 


Totals. 




Free, i Slave. 


South S^i^ 

Carolina. ,^/t.^<^ 
union. 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 


1790 to 1800 . . 
1800 to 1810 . . 
1810 to 1820 . .' 
1820 to 1830 . . 
1830 to 1840 . . 
1840 to 1850 . . 
1850 to 1800 . . 
1800 to 1870 . , 
1870 to 1880 . . 


40.00 
9.14 

10.85 
8.00 
0.47 
5.97 
0.05 
(«)0 55 

35.01 


70.84 1 30.40 
42.08 i 34.35 
49.89 i 31.02 
10.04 ! 22.02 
4 48 i 3.08 
8.20 i 17.71 
10.04 ! 4.52 


38.75 

20.12 

21.11 

15.00 

2.27 

12.47 

5.2 

0.2 

41.0 


34.00 
3«>.30 
33.11 
33.53 
3274 
35.38 
35.57 


8 
9 


00.87 
45.33 


22.22 
29!50 



(a) Decrease. 

THE INCREASE OF THE POPULATION 

of South Carolina from 1790 to 1800 was greater that it has been at any 
subsequent period prior to the census of 1880. The increase for that de- 
cade was much greater than for the country at large, and there were only 
five out of all the States, at tliat date, tliat were making a more rapid 
growth than South Carolina. The second decade — the one during which 
the slave trade was temporarily reopened at Charleston — showed a large 
diminution in the rate of increase; it went down sixteen per cent, below 
that of the country at large, and from fifth, the State fell to eleventh in the 
order of increase. The third decade showed a s]ight improvement, and 
South Carolina stood thirteenth among the twenty-four States of that 
'date in order of increase. In the fourth decade the decrease continued: 
twenty States had a larger growth, and South Carolina was increasing at 
a rate less than half of that at which the country at large was growing 
in population. The fifth decade was marked in South Carolina by the 
nullification agitation ; the rate of increase fell enormously. AVhile the 
country at large maintained nearly the same rate as at the outset, the 
rate here was only one-seventeenth of what, it had been in 1800, and 
South Carolina stood last of all the States, at this date, except one — Dela- 
ware. There was a marked im[)rovement between 1840-50, the rate of 
increase being nearly six times as great as in tlie preceding decade. 



3SG POPULATION. 

Ncvcrtliclcss, South Carolina was ng^ain lowest, except the States of 
Vermont and New Hampshire, and the very erroneous opinion was en- 
tertained in some quarters that, like those States, she had about reached 
the limit of the population that her soil would sustain. The next de- 
cade opened with the first secession agitation ; there was a still lower 
rate of increase, and South Carolina still stood behind all the Stiites ex- 
cept Vermont and New IIami>.shire. Then came the sixth decade, of 
war and reconstruction; the political and social doctrines at variance 
with the ]>ublic opinion of all Christendom came to an open rupture, and 
were submitted to the arbitrament of the sword. The increase of the 
jtopulation was less than one per cent.; among the whites there was an 
actual decrease of one-half of one per cent., and South Carolina was 
behind all the States but Maine. The dust has scarcely lightened from 
t!ic ruin wrought by this great overthrow tiian a new South Carolina 
appears, more vigorous than ever. The cen.sus of 1880 shows that, from 
next to last, she Ini'^ advanced above twenty-nine of her sister States, and 
stands eightli in the order of increase of the population. For the ninth 
decade her increase is forty-one per cent. — higher than it ever was — and 
more tlian one-third more than that of the country at large. One of the 
most remarkable features of this increase is, that it is not due, to any 
very large extent, to immigration, but cliiedy to the large degree in 
which the migration of her natives to other States has ceased. 

The obvious parallelism between the changes of the aggregate popula- 
tion and those of each of its constituent elements, indicates most clearly 
that hero tliero has bc6n no distinctive antagonism of the races and con- 
ditions of men. Slave insurrections and the dread of them have been 
mucli dwelt on. In reality, they have amounted to nothing. Only two 
are recorded in a period of more than two hundred years. In 1740, a mob 
of drunken negroes, supposed to have been incited thereto by hostilo 
Spaniards, marched a distance of fifteen miles, murdering two clerks in 
a warehouse and Mr. Godfrey and his family. Tliey were attacked by 
the congregation of a small country church at Willtown, who at once 
dispersed them without sufFering any loss. In 1821, some negroes (34)' 
were hanged in Charleston on what was held to be evidence of a con- 
spiracy to excite a slave insurrection. The Hamburg and EUenton 
riots, in 187'), resulted in seventeen homicides, with, possibly, an equal 
number for nil the election conflicts during reconstruction ; and were all 
the casualties resulting from the contests of the whites and negroes in 
South Carolina during the whole history of the State counted, the num- 
ber would not equal that of the agrarian outrages reported in a single 
year in Ireland. For ninety years the increase of the white and colored 
population of the State has moved on parallel lines, with only two ex- 



POPULATION. 387 

ceptions. The variable element in each of these exceptions has been the 
slave population, which, in 1820 and in 18G0, diminished, while Ihe 
white and free colored wore augmenting their rate of increase. 

The variations are not great, and were, probably, duo to the movement 
of slaves in larger numbers, at these dates, to the fresh lands of the 
Southwest. No such variations aj)pcar between the rate of increase of 
the whites and the free colored. With the facts as they presented them- 
selves in 18G0, it is remarkable that, in view of the uniformly greater 
rate of increase of the free colored population, that the Superintendent 
of the seventh census should have ventured to predict the disappearance 
of the negro race as the probable consequence of emancipation. It is 
noteworthy, regarding these predictions of the census office, made during 
the war, that, while the white population of 1880 in the United States 
falls fifteen per cent, short of the figure it was thought it would reach, 
the colored population reaches within one-half of one per cent, of the 
number it was estimated at. Tliis prediction was based on the estimate 
that tlio colored race would increase at the rate of 22.07 per cent, in each 
decade, a rate of increase that is less that the least recorded at any date 
for the aggregate population of the United States, In as much as the 
increase of the colored race has fallen sliort, in the last two decades, of 
even this moderate figure, the fears that have been expressed by certain 
scientific writers, that their numbers would attain proportions tlircaten- 
ing the supremacy of the white race, are evidently without foundation 
in fact. 

The wonderful recuperation in the rate of increase of the population 
of South Carolina within the last decade, after seventy years of steady 
decline in that rate, and so immediately after the final and oven^'helm- 
ing catastrophe of the decade of 18(30 to 1870, makes it plain that the 
limit of the natural resources of the State for sustaining a large popula- 
tion has not only not been reached, but that these resources may be said 
to be almost untouched. If the drainage basin of the Santee river, the 
river of Carolina, were peopled as thickly as the ba.sin of the Hudson or 
the Delaware, instead of a poi)ulation of three hundred thousand, it 
would liold one of more than two and one-half millions. In natural ad- 
vantages, whether the amount of navigable highway bo considered, or 
the power its waters could furnish for stationary machinery, and the 
facility with which it might be utilized, or the healthfulness of the cli- 
mate, or the fertility of the soil and the diversified crops it can produce 
— in any and all these regards the river of Carolina will comj>are favor- 
ably with the others named. If the State wore as thickly settled as 
Rhode Island and Massachusetts, it would contain a population of seven 
to eight millions, a number equal to the population of the entire United 



388 POPULATION. 

States in 1810, more tlinn doublo that of Scotland, and more than twice 
tl»c population of Australia, now paying annually ninety millions of 
dollai-H intcivMt to England on loans of Knglish capital invested there, 
Moanwhilo, ton thousand s(juare miles of the most fertile region of Caro- 
lina docs not to-day average as many inhabitants to the square mile as 
ore to be found in each house of the old town of Edinburg. Practically, 
therefore, in these regards, the natural advantages and capacities of South 
Carolina may be said to be unlimited. "Whatever her future increase 
may be, it will sufler no let or hindrance on these accounts, but will de- 
l>ond upon (he degree in which she can succeed in establihhing and 
maintaining cordial relations with the other Slates and nations ol Chris- 
tendom. Freed finally and forever from all that in the past has so 
lieavily shackled their intercourse with outsiders, the })olityof her people 
has taken a new and vigorous departure ; they have thrown their gates 
wide open to all comers ; aid and welcome is extended to immigrants ; 
manufacturers are encouraged by relieving the capital invested in them 
from taxation, and their traditional doctrines of free trade would admit 
all people to their commerce. 

MOVEMENT OF THE FOPULATION. 

The first seltlementH took place along the seacoast, thence, slowly mov- 
ing inland, they followed the rivers. There were settlers in the 
upi)er-country as early as 173(5, but no great progress was made there 
until tlie middle of the eighteenth century. Meanwhile there remained, 
as there is now and has been during all the movements of population in 
tiie State, a vacant or thinly-settled belt between the upper and the lower 
country. The State is this day traversed by two such belts of thinly- 
settled country, the sand hill region and the flat lands of the lower pine 
belt. The first is comparatively narrow, and is due to the dry and sandy 
soil which unfits it, in large measure, for the present methods of agricul- 
ture. The other is due to the want of drainage, which, with the accession 
of wealth, will be remedied, and an extensive and fertile region will be 
opened to settlers. 

The Indians were, perhaps the most mobile of all the populations that 
have inhabited South Carolina. Nevertheless, there is everywhere and 
always a contiimal movement of the population in progress. Even in 
England and Scotland, where the population might be considered "to 
the manor born," it has been found that only a little over seventy-five 
per cent, were living in the counties where they were born. If for coun- 
ties, States are substituted, about the same percentage obtains for the 
United States, a little more than seventy -six per cent, of the native popu- 



POPULATION. 



389 



Ifttion being found in tho States in which they were born, according to 
the ccnHiis of 1880. Tliiw j)or('(!ntiige, however, varien wid(!ly in tho dif- 
ferent States. In Vermont, only lifly-eiglit per cent, of tlio<^c born there 
were found remaining in their native State. In Texas, on the other 
hand, tliis percentage was ninety-five, as given, in both instances, by tlie 
census of 1880. For South Carolina it is ciglity per cent., and only 
fourteen out of thirty-eight States retain more of their native population 
than she does. The fluctuations that have occurred in this regard will 
be seen by reference to the following data, taken from thcTeturns of tho 
United States census for the years specified : 

Movement of the Population of South Carolina in Ulc United States, and from 

other Countries. 









o 




Year. 






u 

2 

a 


< 



1860 



Persons born in S. C. living in the U. S. 470,257 
Persons born in S. C. living in S. C. . . 1270,868 
(Loss by movement within tho U. S. 

Population of S. C 

Gain by immigration from all quarters. 
Balance of emii^ration over immigration. 




703,708 



1870 



Persons born in S. C. living in the U. S. 
Persons born in S. C. living in S. C. . . 
Loss by movement within the U. S. . . 

Population of S. C 

Gain by immigration from all quarters . 
Balance of emigration over immigration. 



418,875 505,899 
270,301408,407 
148,574 97,492 
290,067:415,938 
19,766! 17,531 
1128,809 79,961 



924,774 
678,708 
246,066 
706,005 
37,297 
208,770 



1880 



Persons born in S. C. living in the U. S. 
Persons born in S. C. living in S. C. . . 
Loss by movement within the U. S. , . 

Population of 8. C 

Gain by immigration from all quarters. 
Balance of emigration over immigration. 



500,994 682,8171,183,311 
363,576 588,810 952,395 
137,4181 93,40Sj 230,016 
391,105,()04,472 995.577 
27,520| 15,653 43,182 
109,889 77,845 187,734 



390 



POPULATIOX, 

Pcrcnitnge of the Population at each Decade. 



Year. 






o 

M 
O 

a 

6 


J 

-< 

1 




Born in S. C. and residing in other States. 


.m 






ISGO Coming into S. C. from all quarters , . 


.04 






Balance of emigration over immigration. 


.01 








Born in S. C. and residing in otlicr States. 


.51 


.23 


.34 


1870 


Coming into S. C. from all quarters . . 


.06 


.04 


.05 




Balance of emigration over immigration. 


.44 


.19 


.28 




Born in S. C. and residing in other States. 


.35 


.15 


.23 


1880 


Coming into S. C. from all quarters . . 


.07 


. .02 


.04 




Balance of emigration over immigration. 


.28 


.13 


.17 



There can be no doubt as to the significance of these figures. The 
immense losses the State has hitherto sustained in the migration of her 
natives to other States, is rapidly lessening, especially as regards the 
•white population. Natives of South Carolina are found in every State 
and Territory of the Union, not excepting Alaska. They are met with 
in the largest number in the following States, varying in the order hero 
named, from 50,000 to 11,000: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, 
Florida, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee. Natives of each 
State and Territory of the Union, except Alaska and Washington Terri- 
tory, are found in South Carolina ; the largest number are from North 
Carolina, 17,207; Georgia, 7,(541; Virginia, 4,158; New York, 1,070. 
There are, also, among the citizens of South Carolina, natives of each of 
the following countries: Africa, Asia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Bohemia, Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, British 
America, Central America, China, Cuba, Denmark, France, Baden, 
Bavaria, Brunswick, Hamburg, Hanover, Ilessen, Mecklenburg, Nassau, 
Oldenburg, Prussia, Saxony, Wurtcmbcrg, England, Ireland, Scotland, 
"Wales, Greece, Greenland, Holland, Hungary, India, Italy, Malta, Mexico, 
Norway, the Pacific Islands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sandwich Island-?, 
South America, Spain,S\vcden,Switzerland, Turkey, and the West Indies, 



POPULATION. , 391 

besides thirty-two bom on the high seas. Th<i total number of foreign 
born is 7,080, which is 2,300 less than in 1800, showing that the State 
lias not yet resumed relations, as they existed previous to the war, with 
foreign countries, despite the efforts being made to encourage immigra- 
tion. That the conditions of life in South Carolina are unusually favor- 
able to foreigners is shown by the fact of the much larger proportion of 
persons descended from foreign born parents in South Carolina than in 
the country at large. Thus, the number of persons in this State having 
one or both parents foreign born is 21, GOO, or something over 2.8 for each 
resident foreigner, while for the country at large it is only 2.2 for each 
resident foreigner. That persons of foreign descent in South Carolina 
should number 182 per cent, of the foreign born population of the State, 
and only 123 per cent, of that of the whole country, is due to the lower 
rate of mortality and to the higher rate of natural increase promoted by 
a more temperate and healthful climate in Carolina, and also doubtless 
to moral causes. These are, that owing to the large colored po}>ulation 
of the State, the more skillful and intelligent foreigners are able to com- 
mand more remunerative positions in tlie higher occupations here than 
elsewhere. And when their descendants, having more time for observa- 
tion, ascertain this state of things, they are not slow to migrate hither, 
from places where, from the fiicilities offered b}' transportation, their 
parents may have first landed and settled. Thus 12 per cent, of the for- 
eign population of the whole country is engaged in agriculture, but only 
G per cent, of that population in South Carolina is so engaged ; 14 per 
cent of the foreign population of the country is engaged in personal and 
professional service against 10 per cent, in South Carolina ; and of this 
14 per cent. 11 per cent., or 777,382 foreigners belong to the lowest of 
drudgeries, that is to the class of common laborers and domestic servants. 
In tlie higher and more remunerative occupations of trade and tran.spor- 
tation only 7 percent, of the foreign population of the country at large 
find occupation, while 19 per cent, of that of South Carolina is thus en- 
gaged. Again, in manufactures and mining, 18 per cent, of foreigners 
in the country at large find work, against 11 per cent, of that poj)uhition 
in Soutli Carolina; and of this 18 per cent, there are 120,325 miners; 
74,901 cotton factory oi)eratives, and 107,071 operatives and laborers in 
other manufacturing establishments; making in all 5 per cent, of the 
entire foreign-born population in this cla.ss of laborious and compara- 
tively poorly paid occupations. Now that slavery is abolished and labor 
is free here, foreign workmen and artisans will not be slow to perceive 
the better chance offered by the condition of affairs in Carolina. • 



392 ropuLATiox. 



SEXES. 



There are fourteen thousand seven hundred and sixty-^ne more females 
than mules in South Carolina, or something over three per cent., indi- 
cating a peaceful and settled mode of life, and the prevalence of such 
occupations as furnish employment to females. In the ratio of females 
to males South Carolina ranks sixth among the States of the Union, the 
District of Columbia standing first. The Western and newer States, where 
the conditions of life arc luirder and the occupations require more robust 
nature-!, rank lowest, and in some of them the number of females are only 
half the number of males. Witiiin the State the males are slightly in 
excess in Horry and Chvrcndon counties, and in portions of Colleton, 
Hampton, Barnwell, and Edgefield. Elsewhere females predominate. 

AGES. 

Multiplying the number of individuals enumerated at each age and 
adding the products together, the aggregate number of years lived by 
the population is ascertained. This aggregate for the population of the 
entire United States, according to the late Census of 1880 is 1,211,508,528 
years. If divided by the number of individuals it will give an average 
of 24 7-10 years for each. For South Carolina the average number of 
years for each individual ascertained in the same way is 21 27-100 years. 
At lirst view it might be inferred that the population of South Carolina, 
having lived fewer years, was the shorter lived. The real explanation is 
however, quite different. Foreigners constitute about 12 per cent, of the 
population of the United States and only 7-10 of 1 per cent, of that of 
South Carolina. The maximum number at any one age among the 
foreign-born population is found between the ages of 40 and 50, while 
among the native population this maximum varies from the age of one 
year for colored females in the United States to six years for the same 
class in South Carolina. Thus it happens that the number of years lived 
by the population, including the larger percentage of adult foreigners is 
swelled by the number of years these immigrants have lived in other 
countries, while the years lived by the native population is diminished 
by the deaths common everywhere in the early periods of life. This 
observation hns especial force in South Carolina, owing to the greater 
number of children there. It will bo found also that the aggregate of 
years lived by those attaining old age in South Carolina gives an average 
of 77 2-10 years for each person over 70, while this average for the 
country at large, despite the advantage given by the foreign element, is only 



POPULATION. 



393 



76 years. Which indicates- that the chances for longevity of persons ad- 
vanced in life is greater in Carolina than elsewhere. If instead of the 
above estimate, the number of individuals enumerated at each age be 
multiplied by the mean future expectation of life from that age, as given 
in life assurance tables, it will be found the results for South Carolina 
and for the United States agree very nearly, being about 33 years each. 
From an economical point of view, the ages of the population may be 
considered in regard to the proportions between the number of persons 
belonging to the dependent and the number belonging to the self-sus- 
taining and contributing ages. The following table shows the number 
■ of persons in each 1,000 of the male and female, white and colored native 
population of South Carolina and of the United States at the early de- 
pendent or formative age, 1 year to 15 years; at the self-sustiiining and 
contributing ages, 15 years to 70 years ; and at the later dependent age, 
70 years and over, according to tlie United States Census of 1880 : 





White. 


Colored. 


Ages. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 




U.S. 


S. C. 


U.S. 


S. C. 


U.S. 


S.C. 


U.S. 


S. C. 


1 to 15 years. 
15 to 70 years. 
70 y'rs & over. 


448 

535 

17 


459 
523 

18 


443 

539 

18 


422 

557 

21 


4G4 

521 

15 


508 

473 

19 


460 

521 

19 


483 

497 

20 


Total 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 



2G 



394 



POPULATION. 



The following table gives the same data for the aggregate population, 
aiul for the male and female foreign born population of South Carolina 
and of the United States, and the average of seven European States: 





Aggregate. 


Foreign Born. 




Ages. 


U.S. 


s. c. 


Male. 


Female. 


o 2 

bj} o 




U.S. 


s.c. 


U.S. 


S.C. 


> 3 • 


1 to lo years 

15 to 70 years 

70 years and over. . 


399 

582 
19 


470 

511 

19 


70 

899 

31 


29 

921 

50 


79 

88G 

35 


45 

804 

Gl 


336 

G32 

32 


Total 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 







The most notable feature in these tables is the greater number of young 
persons in South Carolina than in the country at large and the still 
greater number than in foreign countries. While this necessarily adds 
to the burden of the working i)opulation, it forms the hope of the future, 
and life is so much easier in South Carolina than it is in more densely 
peopled countries, that the promise to multiply and increase and replen-' 
ish the earth is still regarded here as a promise of blessing, and surprise 
is felt that it should anywhere be a burden. There are only two excei)tion3 
to this preponderance, namely, among the foreign-born and white females. 
The foreign-born however do not seem to find the conditions unfavora- 
ble to them, the proportion that pass on tlirough the working ])eriod of 
life to full old age being much greater in this State than it is cither in 
the United States at large, or in their native countries. The somewhat 
smaller proportion of white females, if not accidental, is otherwise une.x- 
j>lained, unless it results from a diminution of female births, which might 
also account for the diminution of females to males, which has occurred 
within the last decade. 

It will be observed that in the particular above referred to, the ages of 
the population of the country at large resemble those of the European 
populations more than the ages of the population of South Carolina do. 



POPULATION. 395 

In Europe the natural increase of the population is much restrained, the 
closer struggle for existence there tells against the young, adults are re- 
quired to endure its hardships, and hence their preponderance. And it 
is at once sad and curious to recall that in this, these highly civilized 
Christian nations resemble savage tribes, among whom the proportion of 
children to adults, is always small. The population of South Carolina, as 
represented by the numbers at the different ages, is one growing rapidly 
by natural increase, and under favorable conditions ; these favorable con- 
ditions being exhibited by the relatively large numbers 7>assing over- 
from the working period of life to old age. Such a state of things is 
highly promising, provided that the numbers in the early formative age- 
realize by their labors on reaching the self-sustaining and contributing, 
age what has been expended in rearing them. 

It is a popular estimate that one-fifth of the population are fighting, 
men. If this is intended to designate the natural militia, that is the- 
male population over eighteen and under forty-five years of age, it will 
almost always be an over estimate except in a population receiving large- 
accessions of adult immigrants or among savage tribes. It is true that 
during the war of secession South Carolina is estimated to have put 
00,000 men in the field from a white population, from eighteen to forty- 
five years, not exceeding 55,040. Tliis was during a j)eriod of four years 
however, and the number actually in service at one time probably never- 
exceeded 44,000. During the war of the Revolution, 1775-83, South 
Carolina furnished more than eight per cent, of the entire American 
forces. — (Rep. Secretary of War, May lOt'i, 1700,) although her white 
population was only four per cent, of that of tfio old Thirteen States. 
During the war with Mexico, 184!J-48, the volunteer troops from South 
Carolina sustained one-seventh of all the casualties in the volunteer 
forces of the whole country. South Carolina's losses in the Confederate 
service, 18G1-G5, is estimated at 12,000 men. While in times of war 
South Carolina thus " stiffened her sinews and bent up every spirit to its 
full height," in times of profound peace, as at present, she feels there is 
"nothing more becomes her than ([uiet, stillness and humility." Her 
military service is purely voluntary. The whole number of troops en- 
rolled is about 4,000, of whom only about 2,500 parade at inHi)ection.s. 
The Legislature appropriates S5,500, or 81.35 a man, in aid of those con- 
nected with the military organizations of the State. Tiie following table 
shows, according to the United States Census for the years specified, the 
numbers of the natural militia in the white (native and foreign), the 
colored and in the aggregate population of South Carolina and of the 
United States, and also the percentage of this class in each of tho above 
named constituent elements of the population and in the total population : 



JOG 



POPULATION. 



MALES FROM 18 TO 45 YEARS OF AGE. 



Year. 





White. 




Colored. 


Per Cent, of 
Population. 


Native. 


Per Ct. of 
Populat'n. 


Foreign. 





-5.2 

Total, i = % 



O O 



18(10, U. S . . 
18G0, S. C. 
1870, U.S.. 
1870, S.C. 
1880, U. S. . 
1880, S.C 



4.782,409 
40,721 

7,028,134 
70,G1G 



17 
17 
18 
18 



1.873,402 

2,G0G 

l,9G0.7ol 



34 
32 

29 



2,0211 2G 



801.104 

70.407 

1,242.354 

98.285 



18 
10 
18 
IG 



5,G24,005 

55,04G 

7.570,487 

120.154 

10.231,239 

170.022 



20 
18 
19 
17 
20 
17 



It will bo noted how much the foreign element adds to this class in 
the country at large, being more than double the colored race, although 
the two populations differ in numbers only about one-tenth of one per 
cent. It will also be observed that this class is on the increase in the 
white population of South Carolina, while there is a marked decrease 
among the negroes, owing, doubtless, to the emigration to other States of 
adult negros. 



POPULATION. 



397 



Similar data from the same sources, in regard to the number of males 
at the age of citizenship, are exhibited in the following table ; 

MALES 21 YEARS OF AGE AND UPWARDS. 



Year. 



18G0, U. S. . 
18G0,S. C. 
1870. U. S. . 
1870, S. C. 
1880, U. S. . 
1880, S. C. . 



White. 

1 


COLOnED, 


Per Cent, of 
Population. 


Native. 


k. c. 


Foreign, 





























5.811,130 


20 


2.542,475 


45 


1,032,475 


21 


58,209 


20 


4,278 


53 


85,475 


20 


8,270.518 


23 


3.072,487 


40 


1,487.344 


22 


82,910 


21 


3,990 


51 


118,889 


19 



Total. 



o s 

U Cm 



0,090.020 

04.950 

8.425,941 

140,014 

12,830,349 

205,789 



24 
21 
23 
20 
25 
20 



Here a more remarkable increase is shown in the ratio of voters in the 
native white population, and it is quite sufficient to dispel any apprehen- 
sion than any but native whites will preponderate in this country. This 
increase occurs in South Carolina, but is less marked than in the country 
at large, the population of the State not having yet, in this regard, re- 
covered fully from the losses incurred during the war. Were the races 
arrayed politically against each other, as was practically the case prior to 
1870, it would have required a change of thirteen per cent, of the colored 
voters to the whites in 1880 to give the latter a majority, and, in 1770 it 
would have required a change of more than fourteen per cent. Local 
and restricted political issues between the races may occur hereafter, but 
the plea, that if the whites obtained representation the liberties of the 
colored race would be lost, with which alien white men organized a solid 
black vote in the State, has forever lost its force. The experience of seven 
years has assured the colored race in South Carolina that they have noth- 
ing to fear, as a race, from the native whites of the State. 



308 POPULATION. 



DWELLINGS AND FAMILIES. 



While the cliniiitc of South Carolina, like that of Greece, Rome and 
Pak'Htine, renders life out of doors plcasunt and preferable for the larger 
portion of the time, and while it never necessitates the protection of 
costly houses, the materials for buildin;; are abundant and cheap. In 
the ujiper third of the State the crystalline rocks furnish a great variety 
of buildijig stones; the granite itself being of the very finest quality; in 
the low country the great lime beds are being utilized in the manufac- 
ture of concrete blocks for building, and the lime rock, though not de- 
vcloj)ed, lias long since been tested, and found durable (see Lower Pine 
Belt). Clay suitable for brick is found in nearly every neighborhood, 
they are burned at a cost of about $3.00 j)er thousand, and sell at from 
live to ten dollars per thousand, according to the facilities of transporta- 
tion and the demand. The best yellow-pine lumber may be had forsevcn 
to twelve dollars per thousand. Cypress, for roofing, is cheap and abun- 
dant, and there arc many varieties of hard woods. The cheapest houses 
are log cabins. Such a house, twenty feet square, with a good wooden 
floor raised a foot or more above the ground, ten feet between joints, 
plastered outside with clay and ceiled inside with split pine boards, with 
a good chimney and board roof, furnishes complete protection against the 
vicissitudes of the seasons, and is estimated to cost, work and material, 
from thirty to fifty dollars, according to locality. The population of 
South Carolina has always enjoyed ample house room, as will aj)pear 
from the following comparison with the country at large, not to speak of 
tlie populations of Europe, where, with the exception of France, "Wap- 
poaus makes the average number of occupants to a dwelling from 8.S0 in 
Saxony to 5.42 in Belquiver, The following table gives the facts relating 
to dwellings and the number of persons to a family in South Carolina, 
with such general data as serves to exhibit the status hero in comparison 
with the country at large : 



POPULATION. 



309 



Year. 



Dwellings. 



o . 

3 ^ 

U 

o 



Maxima and Minima 

for tho 

United Stages, and 

Number of 8tuu)s liaving 

less tlian So, Carolina. 





eS 


Persons to 
Family. 



Families. 



Maxima and Minima 

for the 

United States, and 

Number of States having 

less than So. Carolina. 



1850, S. C. .! 5.39 2 States having fewer. 
U. S. .! o.OoIr. I., G.59 ; Cal., 3.90. 



1860, S. C. . 

U. S. . 
1870, S. C. . 

U.S.. 
1880, S. C. . 

U.S.. 



5.18 7 States having fewer. 



0.36 
5.50 
5.14 



5.54'R. I., G.43; Kansas, 2.90,1 5.28 



4,92 7 States have fewer. 



4.07 



5.49!N.Y.,G.37; Nevada, 3.27. 5.09 



5.1911 States having fewer. 
5.G0 R, I. G.GS ; Idaho, 4.24. 



8 States have fewer. 
Missouri, 5,89 ; Cal., 3.77. 
10 States had fewer. 
La., 5.93 ; Nevada, 3.38. 
4 States had fewer. 
Ken.,5.G7; Cal, 4.35. 



4.93 j20 States have fewer. 

5.04 !\V. Va., 5.54; Montana, 
I 3.94. 



CHAPTER II. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



It is conceded that the numbers of all the living in the United States 
are, with inconsiderable exceptions, included in the returns of the 8th 
and the 0th Census. Most strenuous efforts were made at these dates to 
obtain a complete enumeration of those who died during the census years 
of 18G0 and 1870. On an inspection of tho returns, however, it was ad- 
mitted tliat in no case did this enumeration approach the actual fact? 
nearer than by forty or forty-one per cent. Nor is it expected that much 
greater accuracy will be attained by- the results of the 10th Census. For 
instance, the attention of tho very intelligent enumerators in the city of 
Charleston, in 1880. being called to the difHculty of obtaining accu- 
racy in the mortality returns no pains were spared to accom- 
plish all that was possible in this regard. The result of the enu- 
meration made the death rate 2.01 per cent. The actual death rate 
obtained from the very accurate city registration being 3.25 per cent. 
A dificrcnce of about tliirty-eighl per cent. Even here it might be ques- 
tioned, whether the enumeration or the registration was the more correct. 
So rapidly docs that universal solvent, death, obliterate the traces of the 
tilings which pass from life, that all memory and record of their existence 
vanishes with unexpected, not to say indecent, haste. The known and 
numbered graves are as one grain to the sands of the sea-shore in com- 
parison with the vast multitudes of the unrecorded dead. The intelli- 
gence and power of mankind have been so actively engaged through all 
ages of human progress in devising and perfecting means for the destruc- 
tion of human life, that little of either has been left free to find employ- 
ment in the preservation of this obstacle to progress, and still less for 
collecting and preserving facts concerning tlie entrances and tiie exits on 
the stage of life, and of tho ills and accidents whicli besot the living. 
Witlioiit such data any opinion as to tiio comparative healthfulness of 
[.opulations and localities must be of tho vaguest and most uncertain 



VITAL STATISTICS. 401 

character; unfortunately this circumstance in no wise diminishes the fa- 
cility with which such opinions are formed, their prevalence, or the tena- 
city with which they are entertained. 

The United States Census returns for 1850, 'GO, 70 make the average 
annual death rate 1.25 per cent of the aggregate population. The same 
returns make the death rate for South Carolina 1.21 per cent. There 
being no reason to suppose that these returns wore more defective in the 
one case than in the other, it may be assumed that the ratio of these per- 
centages to each other expresses with tolerable accuracy the comparative 
mortality of the two populations. 

The following statement touching the same matter is derived from tlie 
census returns of 1800. It shows the order in which South Carolina 
stands among the other States of the Union in regard to the greatest 
mortality resulting from certain principal classes of disease. 

Percentage of total deaths caused Position of South Carolhia among 
by the following diseases: other States in the order of the 

greatest mortality from these 
diseases : 

24.7 Diseases of the respiratory organs 32d. 

11.3 Diseases of the nervous system 29th. 

5.9 Diseases of the digestive organs 13th. 

5.0 Violence 13th. 

4.3 Fevers . 9th. 

It will be observed that this State, ranking then as 18th in population 
ranked as 32d in the number of deaths from those diseases which destroy 
about one-fourth of mankind ; and 29th for diseases destroying more than 
one-tenth. For the less fatal diseases, where the variations are necessarily 
less between different communities, her position was higher. 

The comparison may perhaps be more accurately made by another 
method. If a people were perfectly liealthy, and free from all the acci- 
dents of life, death would only result from old age, and the population 
would form an unbroken column from tlio cradle to the grave, excej)t 
that if it were increasing, the base of the column, representing those 
under one year of age, would be larger than the other diameters, and if 
it were diminishing the base would be smaller. Of course no such con- 
dition of perfect healthfulness is ever found, and the numbers of the liv- 
ing at differont ages so far from being represented by a parallelograiii 
actually assume the form of a pyramid, with a very broad base for the 
early periods of life, rapidly diminishing as years advance, and terminat- 
ing towards old age in a very slender and attenuated apex. Neverthe- 
less, that population would bo most healthful which showed the greatest 



402 VITAL STATISTICS. 

similarity between tlio numbers living at each age. To institute a com- 
parison between South Carolina and the country at large, in this regard, 
the diagram on the opposite page has been prepared. The number of 
living persons at the five ages specified were obtained from the 7th, 8th 
and !)th United States Census, and their percentage of the aggregate, 
population of the United States and of South Carolina was calculated. 
A perpendicular line, A B, was marked off in lengths corresponding with 
the nunibor of years in each period of life from one to one hundred. The 
scale used was too small to show the relative height for those under one 
year of age, and this class are represented higher than it should be. The 
percentage of the population found in each period was divided by the 
number of vt-ars included in the period, and the quotient gave the 
breadth of the block representing the living of that period. 

It will be remarked that while the number under one year old is greater 
in the country at larg<! than in South Carolina, the decrease and conse- 
quent mortality from one to fifteen years is much more marked for the 
Avholc country than for South Carolina. In the working period of life, 
from fifteen to sixty, the numbers for the country at large considerably 
exceed those in South Carolina. This, however, is unfortunately not due 
to greater healthfulness, but to the large accession of foreign immigrants, 
persons mostly between those ages, very few of whom come to South Car- 
olina. In fact, South Carolina lost heavily by emigration, the emigrants 
being largely of the working age, (see Chapter on Population). Naturally 
it would be expected that the greater numbers between these ages would 
give the United States a marked superiority over South Carolina during 
the succeeding period of life, from sixty to one hundred. It is observed, 
liowcvcr, that such is not the case. The explanation is found in the excep- 
tionally large death rate of foreigners expo.sed to the vicissitudes and 
rigors of the northern climate, where the large majority seek homes. 
This death rate is estimated in the census of 1800 as 4.2(51 per cent, for 
the males who jtrepondenite, while the death rate for tlio whole country 
i.M put at 1.7'' per cent., and for the white population of the eleven largest 
cities at 2.75 per cent. 

It appears that the black spaces, which represent the dead, are less in 
South Carolina than in the country at large. Still they are of appalling 
magnitude, and if the health of a people be a matter of the first conse- 
quence it would seem that government, alone able to effect it, is called 
on to collect and preserve vital statistics to the end that some light at 
least might be thrown on this great darkness, so pregnant with human woe. 

I. — The proportion of white and colored in the aggregate population of 
South Carolina is summarized in the following table, taken from the 
records of the United States Census ; 













1 




Pkr Cent. 










w 






8 


'^'^ 


"^ 




S5 . 


2 


OF 


8 


8S 


to 

en 




^ 




POPUUITIOX. 


G Oi 


, 




g 






c"8s; s; 


3 S 


§ 3 1 1 


Ages. 


W ' " I 




g ! 




^ 




^ 






fc 




: 




g 


s>X^ 








e 


i 










S. 


k. ,,,^ 








s 



















Sc'-' 
















^'\- 










, 




If 










, 








3; 


^^■^ 








' 






H 


9 


iv • 








; 






2 


H H^ 


s$:-'- 








1, 






o 


= =« 


1 








t,. 




. 


i 


r 23 






i 












; 


73 


* it 
i 35 


§v 












:. 




S! ^(D 


















- ^3 


p. 












[- 




I H 


^. ■ 












i 




s ll 














i 




^ —3 


lj^ 
















o« "•> 


to 






► 






~ ' 


=J 


3 "9 


— 


ISI 






" 


1 














: 




?^S^==£ 




















^v-. 












1 




:^^^>"2 


\ >■"; 














73 


^•"-".^=1 
'^?^-i.~ 


•\ ■ 












O 


'/. - 5 - 2 '5' 


^-, 










' 




/■H 


5 - --2. 


^V -^ 














-1 


'i S-*.^-*-. 


S;- 


















■ ■"■ ' ■■ 




t- 














^ 


||??^| 


^^■^ 














'j^ 


- ? 


^'^ 














7i 


V ■ 















- * 










; 




■ • ; 


> 


1 s 

^ '1 














' 




\ 


















r^ 


























a 


1-^ i 






t^ 




H-S 


3 ^351 


en 


3 S 


S 3. 1 


Aon. 


S8 


t/i 






5 






1 










FmC'Eirr. 


8 


'ds 


-J 






2 


or 


S 


■s;3 "g 




CO 

ha 


S 


POPrtATlOW. 






\ ■'■ 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



403 



' 


Proportion to Populatiox. 


' , 


S i 




o 3 




."S a, 


U O 


*• M 




-s o 


fs^ — 


c; o 


YEAR. 




^?=.- 


c^!^ 




U-, a> 


® O o 


<.-r O 




o-o 




^-o 




^~* "^^ 




1 ' -T^ , 




c »»^ s 


a ^"s 


s> c 




O r' O 


o o ?: 


O r^ O 




^' ^'-^ 


c o 


^ ^*•- 




^BS 


5:-OPh 


t-3^ 








?.« 




Ph 


ph 


Ph 


1790 


50.28 
50.79 


0.72 
0.92 


43 


1800 


42.2 


1810 


51.00 
47.33 
44.37 
43.50 
41.07 
41.28 


1.10 
1.30 
1.30 
1.39 
1.34 
1.48 


47 3 


1S20 


514 


1830. . • 


.54 2 


1840 


55 


1850. 


57 5 


1800 


57.24 


1870 


41.05 


58.95 


• « • 


1880 


39.28 


00.72 









II. — Marriages. — In tho 4 years, 1850-9, tlicrc were rejji.stcred 6,537 
marriages among the white population, estimated at 287,000, or an 
average of 5.71 annually to eacli 1,0P0 of the population. 

The following table gives the ages at wliicli each sex was married 
during the same period : 





t^ 























o 






















-a 






















3 
6 


o 

hi 




?i 


©* 


Ji 


s 


?: 


% 






c 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


s 






^ 


^ 


•^J 




♦^ 


■*•> 


•♦-' 




c; 






^ 


►--^ 


o 


>0 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 






r^ 


»— ' 


G^ 


Oi 


CO 


f 


iO 


o 


t- 


^ 


Males 


0,537 


400 


2,718 


1,420 


858 


3is'l00 


77 


24 


547 


Females 


0,537 


2,020 


2,173 


013 


374 


138 31 


12 


2 


508 


Percent'ge of Marriages 






















at known ages : 






















Males 


5,990 


0.7 


45.2 


23.8 


14.5 


5.3 


2.0 


1.1 


.4 




Females 


5,970 


43.9 


30.5 


10.3 


0.4 


2.3 


.5 


.2 


.0 





404 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



For tlic year 1850 the social condition of those marrying is stated as 
follows: 1,213 bachelors, 281 widowers, and 1G9 unknown. Of the 
widowers more than half married again before they reached 40 years, 
and 20 of them were married beyond the age of Go. Of the women, 
1,3-10 were maids, 105 widows, and 108 unknown. One-third of the 
widows were married under 25 years, and 2 between theagesof OOandTO. 

The number of marringes occurring during each month of the year, for 
two years, is given ns follows: 



.2 
o 



l" 









c 




c 








z 


,• 


y 


6 


s». 




Z 


1 


i 
> 


s 


3 
•-5 


< 


&j 


C 


y. 



1 1 

J" "" 



c 
c 

Sc 

c 



185S |l,()8n;!l20 102 08 110 



1850 



|l,(il3;i3U,124 100, 00 



88 81 1 
10(5 G3i 



83113 104 151 100 200 150 
8l| 81122 137^171308 01 



z vears.. 



3.302 250 22G 198 200il94ll44'lG4194;22G 288 301,598 241 

' il I I I I I I I I I I 



We have here a striking coincidence in the result of the two years. 
December both times furnishes the largest number of marriages, Novem- 
ber stands second, October third, and January fourth, while we always 
find June lowest and July next. 

III. — BiUTiis. — The number of births, with distinction of race and sex, 
is given as follows: 



Whiti-: BiiiTHs. 



Negro Births. 





1 
3 






A. 1 tn J 


1 

s 

s 






Pop- 

lOf 

ales 
Fe- 


Year. 


Whole N 
ber. 


»«5 


•V 

£ 


One in a 
ulatioi 

No. of M 
to 100 
males. 


Whole N 
ber. 


1^ 




One in a 
ulatior 

NoTofM 
to 100 
males. 


1853 . 


2,011 


1,049 


902 81.31 109.04 


5,957 


3,0G1 


2,890 


32.47 105.69 


1854 . 


1,7G5 


914 


851 79.31 107.52 


5,734 


2,939 


2,795 30.98 105.15 


1850 . 


4,381 


2,204 


2.087(54.71 109.91 


14,492 


7,492 


0,980 


20.55 


107.33 


1857 . 


4,(528 


2.410 


2,218 01.20 108.(55 14,292 


7,332 


0,9(50 


2(5.93 


105.31 


1858 . 


4,81(5 


2,479 


2,337 


00.24 10(5.07,14,220 


7,110 


7,110 


27.00 


99.91 


1859 . 


5,G77 


2,050 


2,727 


48.27 108.14 14,377 


7,287 


7,090 20.05; 102.77 


Total. . 


23,278 


12.000 

1 


11,182 


73.09 108.17 

! 


09,078 


35,221 


33,837 


33.43 


104.08 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



405 



Comparing the births and marriages during the period 1856-0, for 
which the record of each is given, it appears that while the average 
annual number of marriages was 5.71 to 1,000 of the population, the 
births stood 13.6 to the 1,000. These figures apply to the white popula- 
tion. The rate of increase among the negroes was much greater. The 
above table makes the average annual number of their births 29.9 per 
thousand. For both races the birth rate was 23 per 1,000. The number 
of birtlis during each month for the four years 1850-9 is given with the 
distinction of sex as follows ; 

Births for Four Years. 



Month of Birth. 



Month op 
Conception. 



K® ^ .0 



5fi 

(«5 



c 



I 


o 


"a 


;'^ 


kp^ 


o r2 


^ 


'- :3 


<*• 

o 




% 


««iti 


'- ^ 


X 


d o 


W 


y.^ 



January. . 
February. . 
March . . 
April. . . 
May . . . 
June. . . . 
July. . . 
August.. . 
iSeptembor . 
October. . 
November . 
December . 



Total. 



April. . . . 
May . . . 
June. . . . 
July . . . 
August.. . 
September . 
October . . 
November. 
I )eccmber. . 
January. . 
February . . 
March. . . 



4,200 
4,204 
4,974 
5,39G 
5,023 
5,004 
5,f;34 
0,079 
(),1S1 
5,717 
5,8(18 
0,102 



2,372 

2,240 
2,721 
2,816 
2,926 
2,876 
2,831 
3,082 
3,()(;7 
2,881 
2,893 
2,978 



1,888 
2,048 
2,253 
2,580 
2,697 
2,728 
2,803 
2,997 
3,114 
2,836 
2,975 
3,184 



484 126.16 
198 109.66 
468 120.77 
236 109.14 
229: 10S.49 
148; 105.42 
281 100.99 
102.83 
98.19 
101.58 
97.24 
93.53 



85 
47 
45 

82 
206 



65,792 33,689 32,103 1,586 104.31 



This being the whole number of births of known dates, registered in 
South Carolina during this period. From the foregoing tables may bo 
deduced the following one, showing the order of relative fecundity of each 
month. 



Returns of 1850 


Sept. 


Dec. 


Aug. 


Oct. 


June 


July 


Nov. 


May 


Apr. 


March 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Roturn9oflS57 


Sept. 


Aug. 


July 


May 


June 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Oct. 


Apr. 


Mnrdi 


Feb. 


Jan. 


Returns of 1858 


Sept 


Dec. 


Nov. 


Oct. 


Aug. 


Mny 


Apr. 


June 


July 


March 


Feb. 


Jan. 


Returns of 1850 


Doc. 


Aug. 


Nov. 


Juno 


May 


Sept. 


July 


Apr. 


Oct. 


March 


Feb. 


Jan. 



400 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



It is romarki\])le tliat oitlicr Jaiumry or February always gives tlio 
lowi'st minilKT of births, while March uniformly comes next. 

The first quarter gives the least number of births, and the third quarter 
the groutost. If wo examine the following table we find that in four 
years the births of known dates registcre<l, stood thus: 



1st (luarter, 
13,r.28. 



2d cjuarter, 
] 0.(123. 



3d quarter, 
17,804. 



4th quarter, 
17,747. 



If the year be separated into summer and winter months, the former 
embracing tiie 2d and 3d quarters, and the latter the 1st and 4th, it 
will bo observed that there were 34,517 births in the warmer, and only 
31,278 in the colder season. 

It was noticed in the returns of 1858 and 1859 that January, which 
gave the fewest birtlis, gave much the largest male excess; while Septem- 
ber, November and December, showing the most births, produced the 
smallest proportion of males. December, .January and February appear 
to be the months most favorable to conception. 

Plukalitv Biutiis. — In the returns of twin and triplet births the races 
are not given separately until the year ISjO. In that year 428 children 
were born twins or triplets; which was 2.1 per cent, for all the children 
born. There ])eing 212 cases of such births, they were over 1 per cent, of 
the total number of births. Among the whites there was 74 eases of 
plurality births, and 148 children, the cases being 1.3 per cent, of the 
births, and the children 2.0 per cent, of those born. Among the negroes 
the cases were 138, and the children 277, the former being per cent, of 
the births, and the latter 1.9 per cent, of the children. 

The following table gives the number of plurality births in each month 
for four years : 

PluraUitj BirtJisfor Four Years. 



. 


>> 


1 




>, 


u 






fc4 


«3 


• 




53 


3 -^=3 _: 




3 
C 

a 


o 




>> 

S 



o 

c 

Z3 
•-5 



-4^ 




^1 


. 1 cc 


j; 1 O S 




...: ■ 3 


O ^ o 


hi 


>%■ tjc 


§""51 o 




^ < 


c^O;^ 


o 



o 

!148 
j2G9 

'417 
505 

!982 



12121 810141012 8;io: 

24 321 35 20 25 221818 25: 



Whites 14114 18 

Xegroes 1010 24 

______^____ ' ' 

Total in 1850 24 30;42 30 44' 43 30 39 38 3020 35 

Total in 1850, '57, '58 ;29 48|41 58 40| 03 58^4 48|35'50ol[ 

Total in four vears 153 78'S3 94 84 100 88|83 8065 TO'SO] 

I i I I I I I I I I I I I 



VltAL STATISTICS. 



407 



Juno is foremost in plurality births, and January stands lowest of all. 
Of 982, the total number, 512 were males, and 470 females, or 108.93 of 
the former to 100 of the latter. 

Stilt.-Bikths. — The races in these tables are p;ivcn separately only for 
the year 1859. In this year there were 403 children regi.stcred as born 
dead. Of these 139 were whites, or one cliild was lost out of every 40,80 
births; and of negroes there were 204, or one out of 54.40, whilst in tlio 
whole number of births in the total population, one wos still-born in 
every 49.70. This would give 2,4 per cent, of the white births, and 1.8 
of the negro births still-births : 

Still-Bom for Four Years. 




•-5 t-i 



72 









u 


.~ 


^ 






3 

n 


9 c 


"5 


s ^ 


O 


^ G 


8 


511 



o 

139 
204 



Whites, , 
Negroes, 



11 8 
24113 



9,15 

2G;17 



15,10 
1027 



12 

15.20 24132; 



Total in 18.59 , . 
Total in 1856, '57, '58 



35'21 35 32 31 37 

48141 58'40 G3 58 



2728 
48 .35 



29i4.3i 403 
50 51' 505 



Total in four years. 



58|83'G2l93'72 94|95 



85 



ib 



03 79,94! 908 



For a series of years, January gave almost uniformly the fewest still- 
born as well as plurality and also total births. July, June, December 
and April produced each nearly the same number of still-birtlis, and a 
good many more than the months next highest to them. There are 
more still-born negroes in December and fewer in March, while among 
the wliites tlierc were most in August and least in November. 

*There is a remarkable preponderance of males in the still-births. 
This preponderance is greater in the white than in the negro race. In 
the former the still-born were 102.33 males to 100 females. In the latter 
there were only 118.18 males to 100 females. For tlic two races during 
the whole 4 years the still-born were 121.54 males to 100 females. 

*NoTK.— It is 8upi>(>Hed the bcx Ih detennincd by the i»re|)omlcrnnce of the sexual im- 
piilBe in tlie Hexes at ncnesis. If the female iinimlt<e is stroii^reHt for the male, males 
are produced; if the iiialo iinpalHO for the female is Htron^iost, females are produced ; 
and the number of males preponderating among the still-born is another among the 
many natural cheeks to a strong sexual impulse among females. 



408 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



IV. — Dkatiib. — The following tabic presents an abstract of all the 
(leatliH registered in South Carolina during six years, viz: 



Deaths of Whites. 



Deaths of Negroes. 





u 






1 




1^ 






i 






o 






3 


£5 


^ 






2 


a5 




^ 






O , 


tc 


?3 






Of- 


So 




3 






^"o 


<: 


s 






en's 


< 


Year. 


Ya 




CC 


rt fi 


o 


k; 




o5 


«i C 


© 




a 


Of 




C.2 


tJD 
2 

> 


a> 

'o 


i 


o 

E 

o 


fi.2 

o 

c 


tX) 

2 

> 




r^ 


485 


457 


O 


<1 


J^ 


(^ 


fe 


O 


<J 


I8r,3.. 


042 


173.00, Unknown. 


2,740 


1,398 


1, 348' 70.44 UntDOWD. 


I8r,4.. 


1,117 


582 


525 


127.45 


" 


2,771 


1,414 


1,357 04.11 


(1 


1850.. 


2,188 


1,101 


1,082 


129.52 


<( 


7,027 


3,781 


3,840 54.70 


l< 


I8r,7.. 


2,917 


1,430 


1,481 


97.19 


28.03 


8,770 


4,404 


5,3(;(J 43.89 


21.13 


i8r>8 . . 


2,423 


1,205 


1,158 


117.01 


25..30 


7,277 


3,008 


3,(;(;!) 52.91 


15.29 


1859.. 


2,003 


1,033 
5,902 


970 
5,073 


130.82 


28.42 


0,318 


3,129 


3,189 50.20 


14.87 


Total.. 


11,585 


140.90 


27.27 


35,509 


17,734 


17,775 


05.05 


17.09 



The annual average of registered deaths to the population was 11.7 per 
1,000. Among the whites it was 7 deaths to the 1,000, and among the 
negroes 15.3, a disi)roportion not due altogether to the greater mortality 
of negroes, but owing to tlie fact that the return of dcatlis among this class 
of the population was more accurate, inasmuch as every case was reported 
by a master, who had sustained thereby a severe pecuniary loss, and 
was on tliis account less likely to overlook or forget the event. 

As regards the sexes, the proportion of deaths in both races together 
was 100.8 males to 100 females. Among the whites it was 104.03 males 
to 100 females; among the negroes it was 99.70 males, a difference due in 
part to the preponderance of males among the whites and females 
among the negroes. 

Deducting the deaths from the births, we have an average annual rate 
of increase for both races of 11.3 per 1,000. For the whites it is 6.6 per 
1,000. Fur the negroes it is 14.0 per 1,000. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



409 



■ The following table exhibits the number of deaths occurring in eacli 
month for four years : 



Months. 



January . 
February. 
March. . . 
April 
May. . . 
June . . . 
July.. . . 
August . . 
September 
October. . 
November 
December 

Total . . 



185C. 



442 
448 
517 
481 
490 
GoG 
849 
082 
8()7 
702 
540 
59G 



1857. 



1858. 



1859. 



446 
463 
529 
5G8 
570 
849 
998 

1,313! 

1,130' 
804 
75G 
699 



473 
538 
593 
588 
693 
81 G 
925 
1,039 
1,014 
758 
636 
718 



401 
463 
552 
522 
613 
736 
848 
8«5() 
804 
689 
588 
641 



aoorkoate 
Four Years. 



Per 

Cent. 



1,762 
1,912 
2,191i 
2,1.39 
2,366 
3,057 
3,(320 
4,200 
3.815 
2,953 
2.520 
2,554 



5..S0 

5.75 

6.89 

6..50 

7.12 

9.20 

10.90 

12.64 

11.49 

8.89 

7.58 

7.99 



7,570 9,1 25 1 8,791 7,723 33,209 100.00 



It will be observed that only 40.64 per cent, of the deaths occur during 
the first six months of the year, while 59.36 per cent, occur during the- 
last six months. 

The following table shows the order of mortality among the months,, 
commencing with the most fatal : 



1850 
1857 
1858 
1859 



.Vug.jSept. July Oct. June 
Aug. Sept. I July Juno Oct. 



Aug. Sept. 
Aug. July 



July 
Sept. 



June|Oct. 
JuncOct. 



Dec. Nov. Mnrrl) May. [April. Feb Jnn. 
Nov JDoc. !May. April. JMan-hiFeb I Jan. 
Dec. May I Nov. March April. Feb.ljan. 

I ' ! ' i I 

Dec. iMay Nov. iMarch April. Feb. Jan. 



The months showing the least mortality correspond very nearly with 
those most favorable to conception. 



27 



410 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



The following tnblc contains the returns of death at different ages, and 
also expresses the uggregutc number of eaeh sex dying at proximate ages, 
iind their proportions to each other: 



-r V — - 










Aggregate for Four Years. 




1^ 










Ages. 


185G. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 




c 




S 














'^ 


^ 


S 


<A 






1,G49 


1,821 


2.122 


1,973 


o 


O 




t^ 


A^ 


I'nder 1 vear. 


7,505 


23.31 


3,892 


3,073 


105.90 


Ito 5vo{irs. 


1,()3() 


2,151 


1,981 


1,500 


7,328 


22.58 


3,841 


3,487 


110.15 


5 to 10 years. 


484 


029 


077 


480; 


2,270 


7.01 


1,1GG 


1,110 


105.04 


10 to 15 rears. 


272 


410 


405 


328 


1,421 


4.37 


083 


738 


92.54 


15 to 20 years. 


230 


401 


423 


303 


1,583 


4.87 


728 


855 


85.14 


20 to 30 years. 


578 


755 


755 


555 


2,043 


8.14 


1,272 


1,371 


92.85 


oO to 40 years. 


439 


013 


554 


505 


2,111 


G.50 


919 


1,192 


77.09 


40 to 50 years. 


302 


479 


472 


40() 


1,719 


5.29 


795 


924 


80.03 


50to()0 years. 


350 


459 


390 


332 


1,543 


4.75 


778 


705 


101.09 


(10 to 70 years. 


373 


511 


452 


401 ! 


1,737 


5.35 


875 


802 


101.50 


70 to 80 years. 


313 


407 


345 


322 


1,387 


4.27 


700 


087 


101.89 


(.)yer<SO years 


203 


320 


283 


2()3 


1,135 


3.49 


542 


593 


91.39 


Total .... 


7,001 


{),028 


8,.S05 

• 


7,494' 


32,448 


100.00 


10,191 


10,257 


99.59 



.\s respirts the pr()})ortio)inl mortality of the sexes at the same nge, it 
will be seen that the male deaths are much in exeess up to the age of 10 
years, after which period, as far as 50 year.s, more females die. Males then 
predominate until 80 years, after which females again are rcmoyed in 
greater j)roj»ortion. Hence, it appears, that " from the apj)roaeh of 
l>uherty to the end of the period of reproduction, the female is more liable 
to disease and death." 



Dk.vtiis in IOxthkmk Old Ac.k. — There were twenty-two deaths regis- 
tered at the age of 100 years and oyer, of which only four were whites, viz: 
one male and three females, the remaining eighteen (nine of each sex) 
being negroes. The oldest were a black man and a black woman, both of 
whom <lied in St. Bartholomew's Parish, the former aged 120 years, and 
the latter 1 10 years. A list of them is hero given : 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



411 



Deaths at Advanced Ages, 



Districts. 

Abbeville 

i( 

Barnwell 

<< 

Clarendon 

Kershaw 

Laurens. ..... . . 

Lexington 

Marlboro' 

Marion 

Orange Parish 

(I 

Prince George, Win yaw . 

St. Bartholomew's. . . . 

(< 

it 
« 

St. Helena 

St. Luke's 

St. Peter's 

St. Philip's & St. Michael's. 
Williamsburg 



Race. Sex. Month. 



Col'tl 



White. 

K 

Col'd 

(( 

White. 
Col'd 



White. 
Col'd 



F. 
M. 
U. 
F. 
•M. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
^L 
F. 
F. 
F. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
F. 
M. 
F. 
F. 
F. 



] November. 

:June. 

Unknown. 

June. 

[April. 

I.June. 

IJuly. 

August. 

December. 

November. 

April. 

February 

September. 

Novemboi*. 

December. 

September. 

February. 

December. 

February. 

August. 

March. 

November. 



Age. 



100 years. 

100 " 

100 « 

100 " 

100 " 

100 " 

102 " 

102 " 

100 " 

100 " 

104 " 

100 " 

100 " 

100 " 

100 " 

120 " 

110 " 

100 " 

100 " 

100 " 

100 " 

100 " 



Cause. 



Old Age. 



Gastritis. 
Old Age. 

Debility. 

Diarrhoea. 

Old Age. 
<( 

Drowned. 
Old Aire. 



This list might bo largely added to. One compiled from the records of 
the Sextons of the Cemeteries of the City of Charleston enumerates, be- 
tween 180S and l.SSO. twenty-seven deaths in tliat city cjcurring between 
tlie ages of 100 and 128. During 1 880, forty-five deaths occurred of people 
over 80 years of age — twenty-one whites and twenty-four negroes. Robert 
Mills enumerates among a largo number of aged persons, 41 (specifying 
their names and residences) who exceeded 100 years, between 1800 and 
1820, in South Carolina, giving in addition cases like the following: Mrs. 
Morgan, of Darlingtf)n County, died in 1805, aged 00, leaving 211 descend- 
ants; Mrs. Easeley, of Pickens County, was the motluM* of .'J4 live-born 
children, having twin ■! only once; Mr. and Mrs. Neighbors, of Laurens 
county, enjoyed 80 years of nnirried life together ; Mr, and Mrs. Nettles, 
of Sumter County, who had been married 72 years, had 134 descendants 
in 1803. In 1882 there died in Orangeburg County, Mr. and Mrs. Smoak, 
over ninety years of age, leaving withiti a radius of miles from the .sj)ot 
where they had lived so long together more than 300 of their descendants. 



412 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



The following abstract exhibits the relative mortality from each class of 
diseases in the total |)oi)ulation during the six registration years: 









1 
1 






Average 




1853. 


1854.'185G. 1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


FOR 
















Six Years. 


I. Zymotic Diseases. . . 


42.99 


40.1530.81 


30.()8 


34.05 


28.84' 


37.08 


II. Uncertain Seat. . . . 


G.58 


0.95 


O f- 


11.20 


10.94 


11.02! 


9.35 


III. Nervous Organs . . 


5.97 


0.95 


7.79 


7.25 


9.15 


10.03 


7.85 


IV. Ivesj)iratorv Organs. . 


18.23 


17.77 


17.09 


19.40 


19.49 


21.97 


19.09 


V. Circulatory Organs. . 


.90 


.90 


.95 .84 


.04 


1.301 


.93 


VI. Digestive Organs. . . 


9.G8 


0.04 


9.31 12.00 


10.87 


10.94 


9.90 


^'I^. Urinary Organs . . . 


.01 


.08 


.29 


.21 


.40 


.401 


.24 


Vill. (ieneratiye Organs. . 


2.34 


1.80 


2.40 


1.85 


2.32 


2.33 


2.18 


JX. Locomotive Organs. . 


.58 


.35 


.05 


.45 


.42 


.42' 


.48 


X. IntogunuMitary Org's. 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.03 


.19 


.05; 


.05 


XI. Old Age 


4.37 


4.79 


4.71 


5.11 


4.22 


4.41J 


4.00 


XII. \'i()lence 


5.20 


7.52 


8.00 


5.91 


0.50 


7.54! 


G.79 



In the 1st Cla.ss, Mcadcs, Influenza and Whooping Cough are most fatal 
to tiegroes, and also "fever," which, however, is too vague a term to mean 
any disease in particular. Of Diphihcria, a zymotic which has been very 
l)revak'nt in the Northern States, we have but three deaths recorded in 
185!), all in negroes, two being under 10 years, and the other one of un- 
known age. 

Tiie second class in order of mortality, is always Class IV., comprising 
the diseases of (he I{esj)iratory Organs, at the head of which stands VnvU' 
vioniii, giving 10. II per cent, of all <lcaths from known causes. In negroes 
the j)ercentiige is 10.20, Init in whites only 7.80. The greater number 
occurred in February, nearly half being under 10 years of age, and there 
being 430 mules U> 301 femides, 

CtuiKunijilion comes ne.\t, killing 0.85 per cent, in whites, and 3.04 per 
c(Mit. in negroes, the month of July, and tiie j)eriod between 30 and 40 
years of age showing the highest mortality, there being a considerable 
excess of females in both races. Croup destroyed 150 children and 1 negro 
woman, the latter between 30 and 40 years of age. It is almost twice as 
fatal to whites Us to negroes. The largest number of deaths were in the 
month of November, all but fifteen of the whole being under five years, 
and only fourteen between five and ten years of age. 

In Class VI., which is the fourth in fatality, the principal causes are 
Tfdhhirj, Worms, and indefinite "diseases of the bowels," all of which 
claim the most victims in young negroes. Whites die in larger numbers 



VITAL STATISTICS. 413 

from Colic, Dyspepsia, Enteritis, Gastritis, Hepatitis, Jaundice, Diseases of the 
Liver, Peritoneum, Spleen and Stomach, &c. Tliere were two deaths among 
negroes from Dirt Eating, both females, one of whom was between ten and 
fifteen years, and the other of unknown age. 

Diseases of the Nervous System, comprising Class III., are the next in 
order, giving a mortality of 10.03 per cent., which is considerably higher 
in 1859 than in any one of the five preceding years. This class has been 
found more fatal to whites in each one of the past years, although more 
deaths of negroes are ascribed always to the indefinite " Convulsions,' 
the most iiital of all causes under this hciid, as well as to Tnamus 
Nascentium. Apoplexij, Delirium Tremens, Jli/drocephalns, Neuralgia, Paralysis 
and Disease of the Spine, were all more severe with whites. 

The r2th Class, external causes or violence, produced, in 1850,7.54 per 
cent, of all the deaths, which is a little more than the average for six years. 
As might be expected, it is more than doubly fatal to slaves than to whites, 
the principal figures being from Burnx, Acculents and Suffocation, (infants 
smothered, choked or overlaid.) Very few slaves died of Homicide, Jnfrin- 
pcraiu'c, Neglect, Poison and Suicide. 

Old Age, which forms the 11th Class, furnished 4.41 per cent, wliich 
is a little below the average for six years. In slaves, the mortality in 
1859 was 4.97, and in whites only 2.75 per cent. A very similar dif- 
ference in the two races is observed every 3'car. As to sex, tlije females 
were in the majority in both ruccs. 



414 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



Tabic }<Iiou'i)if; the Percentage of the Total Moiiality Due to the Pi'incipal Diseasei 
in each J!acc, ami for the Whole Pojnilation during Three Yearn. 



Pkincipal Diskasks. 



Pneumonia.. . . 
Ty]>lioi(l Fever . 

Dropsy 

Dysentery . . . 
Diarrliccii . . . 
Old Arc .... 

Measles 

Teelliili^' .... 
(\»tisinni>tion. . . 

I'\'ver 

15(>v.-els, disease of 

Worms 

Jirain, disease of.. 
Searlatina . . 
\Vliooj»ing Cough 
Convulsions . , 

Catarrli 

Burns and Scalds 

('rouj) 

iSuf located . . . 
Congestive Fever 
Kemittent Fever 

Accident 

Cliolera Infantum 
Apo])lexv . . . 
Child-bifth. . . 

(Quinsy 

Paralysis .... 
Yellow Fever. . 



Kktui{.ns 01' 
1857. 






o c 

P- o 



O s 



Rktuunsof 

1858. 



L 

o -: 



Uktuuxh of 
• 1859. 



10.20 
0.8:} 
5.79! 
5.71' 
11.51' 
3.791 
2.57 
1.83 
WKV 
2.04 1 
2.44' 

.531 
3.83, 
2.77! 

.73 1 

.891 
1..34 

.44 
1.51J 

.08, 
1.07 
2.3G 
1.30 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.34 
1.75 



12.55 
7.29 
7.43 
5.00 
2.83 
5.03 
5.32 
4.57 
3.0(i 
3.31 
.3.14 
3.37 
1.04 
1.84 
2.47 
2.11 
1.92 
2.08 
1.53 
2.00 
1.18 
.81 
1.25 
1.01 
.90 
.87 
.72 
.42 



11.90 
7.90 

0.98 
5.08 
5.2.3 

5.11 
4.55 

3.9:i 

3.281 
2.90; 
2.95 
2.59: 
2.25' 
2.14J 
1.99 
1.771 
1.70, 
1.29| 

1.5l! 

1.32| 

1.24 

1.20 

1.04 

.9t;' 

.941 

.89 

.79 



0.10 


11.12 


10.70 


.87 


3.84 


G..50 


4.07 


3.01 


2.84 


1.08 


3.08 


4.58 


3.55 


3.54 


1.32 


4.19 


5.31 


2.92 


1.00 


2.05 


1.80 


2.01 


.52 


3.72 


3.4(^. 


1..53 


7.21 


2.00 


1.13 


3.25 


.94 


2.92 


1.28 


1.35 


.71 


2.22 


2.27 


1.79 


.18 


2..35 


1.00 


1.25; 


1.80 


1.08 


1.51 


1.43! 


1.23 


.95 i 


2.08 


1.25 


1.28 


.87 


.71 


.11 


1.85 


.41 


9,15 


.20i 

1 



9.84 
9.27 
5.81 
3.41 
1.98 
4.22 
3.55 
3.15 
3.53 
2.40 
1.9.-, 
2.90 
2.03 
3.79 
2.70 
2.41 
1.33 
1.83 
1.92 
1.80 
1.23 
1.27 
1.45 
1.02 
1.47 
.97 
.2(5 
.78 
2.55 



I 



^ 3 



7.80 

8.70 

3.42 

3.87 

2.04 

2.75 

.44 

2.13 

0,85 

1.34 

1.51 

.50 

.34 

5.01 

1.02 

1.85 

.39 

.95 

3.20 

.33 

1.9(; 

1.51 

.78 

1..57 

1.79 

.95 

.28 

2.19 



,2010.41 
,30| 9.21 
83 



5.23 
2.20 
1.98 
4.41 
.08 
3.07 
4.07 
2.85 
1.07 
2.08 
2.04 
2.20 
3.92 
2.40 
1.73 
1.98 
2.12 
2.42 
1.49 
1.22 
1.40 
1.21 
1.12 
.94 
.15 
1.15 



Pneumonia was much more fatal among negroes than among whites, 
especially in the months of January and February, and under 5 years of 
age, as well as between 20 and 40 years. July produced the largest num- 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



415 



ber of deaths from Typhoid Fever, which was most fatal between the ages 
of 15 and 30, and more so by a fraction in negroes tlian in whites. 

The tables and statements above given are taken, almost exclusivelr, 
from the si.x annual reports to the Legislature, made ))y Robert W. (JibbeM 
M. D., Registrar, and publisliod with Acts of the (Jeneral Assinnbly. 

Tlie oj)inion has i)revai|od widely tlmt certain regions of South Carolina 
were peculiarly liable to malarial fevers of a deadly type. Those regions 
were the Coast and the Lower Pine I3elt, comprising togetlier about lO.OOO 
square miles. The remainder of the State it has never Ijccn doubted was 
as free from this scourge afj any portions of America. It was also main- 
tained that the negro race was less liable to these malarial fevers than tiie 
whites. It is, therefore, of interest to consult these reports of the Regis- 
trar regarding the causes of death in the different climatic regions of the 
State, and as to the two races, to obtain, as far as possible, some numerical 
expression as to the conclusions. 

The following table shows the percentage of total mortality from speci- 
fied causes, resulting from fever, including under the headings Fever and 
Congestive Bilious, Remittent, Intermittent and Yellow Fever, as recorded 
in tbe liegistrar's Reports, arranged witli reference to the dilferent 
regions, and compared with the percentage of death euuMed by Typb<»id 
Fever : 



Regions. 


1850. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


O Z 


I. Alpine . . . . 





3.24 





5.85 


3.04 


II. Piedmont 


2.57 


1.83 


3.66 


3.74 


2.78 


III. Sand and Red Hill 


14.10 


4.36 


7.66 


6.92 


8.00 


IV. Upper Pine Belt 


3.G5 


4.16 


6.25 


4.r>4 


4.52 


V.and VI. Lower Pine Belt and Coast . . 


3.81 


6,45 


11.80 


7.55 


7.72 


For the Whole State 


3 85 


4 33 


7.87 
9.27 


5.78 
9.21 


5 4-' 


Percentage of Deaths from Typhoid Fover. . 


G.25 


7.99 


8.45 



41 G VITAL STATISTICS. 

It is to be noted, first, tlint tlic unusual mortality in the Sand Hill 
Kc^ion. in LSoG, -was confined to Kershaw County. Seventy-five negroes 
died tliere from fever, while in the other three Counties of the region there 
were only four deaths from tliis cause. It was, therefore, dependent not on 
any general infhience, but ])robaljly on some local and accidental cause, as 
a new settlement and clearing on some stream, or the breaking of a mill- 
dam in summer. 2d. The next largest percentage of deaths was on the 
Coast, in ]S.'8, and was due to Yellow Fever, from which cause there were 
17-S deaths in the City of Charleston, where the disease was imi)orted,and 
21 deaths in Christ Church, across the liarbor, a health resort, to which 
cases contracted in Cliarleston were doubtless taken for treatment, these 
209 deaths in one locality being all that- occurred in the State. There 
were also 13 deaths en the Coast from Yellow Fever in 1857, the disease 
being again im])orted, but not spreading. 3d. In this table is included 
all the deaths that could have occurred from malarial or climatic cau.^es," 
and it is probable many that were not due to the.sc causes, for the general 
term fever may well cover many other sorts of fever than those in 
question. 

But taking the figures as they stand it appears: 

1st. That the number of deaths from Typhoid and Pneunionia much 
exceed those from malarial causes in Soutli Carolina, even crediting the 
imported di.sease, Yellow Fever, to the latter. 

2d. That if there is an excess of deaths from malaria in the lower 
country, it docs not amount to more than 2.30 per cent., which would 
make the malarial influences of that region rank as tenth among the 
causes of death, or less than the number of infiuits overlaid and suffocated 
by their mothers. 

Of Yellow Fever it is to be remarked tliat the epidemics of this disease 
are much less fatal in Charleston than in cities further North, as Norfolk, 
rinladelphia, Brooklyn, and, above all, Boston, where the largest propor- 
tion of deaths to eases occur. Nor is its recurrence anything like as fre- 
quent or its diffusion so great as in New Orleans and along the Missis- 
sij)pi River. Intervals of over 40 yearns have occurred between its visita- 
tions to the Carolina Coa^t, and it is almost invariably confined to the 
immediate locality into which it is imported. 

The following table shows the percentage of total mortality from speci- 
fied cau.scs in each race, resulting from causes that might in any wise be 
termed malarial: 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



417 



Malarial Fevers. 





Races. 










1 


1857. 


1858. 


1850. 


Total. 


White ; 

Blnck . 


CGI 
5.41 


14.17 
5.51 


5.21 
0.04 


8.13 
5.03 







This table would seem to confirm the general impression that negroes 
are less injuriously subject to malarial influences than ■whites. But this 
impression requires important modification when it is stated that deaths 
from Yellow Fever is included in the table. It being a question here of 
a large section of country, it is not proper to include a disease that never 
occurs except in one or two restricted localities of that region, and which 
is far more fatal in these localities to foreigners than to natives or resi- 
dents of either race. If, therefore, deaths from Yellow Fever be excluded 
from the table, it will stand thus: 



Races. 


1857. 


1858. 


1850. 


Total. 


White 


C22 
5.35 


0.08 
5.21 


5.21 
0.04 


5.93 


Black 


5.53 



Thus in 23,770 deaths from specified causes, the white race in South 
Carolina seems to have suffered from malarial influences more than the 
black race by four-tenths of one per cent., a difference which amounts 
literally to nothing. 

It is noteworthy that in the ratio of deaths from specified causes to 
total deaths reported in 1800, under the head of fevers, South Carolina 
stands ninth, while Kansas stands first. 

According to the mortuary statistics of Kentucky for eight years, 
South Carolina for four years, New Orleans for two years, fever, including 
congestive, remittent and intermittent fevers, caused 4.85 per cent, of tlio 
deaths among whites, and 7.82 per cent, of the deaths among negroes. 



418 



VITAL SfATISTIC?. 



Furtlicrmore, tlie death rate among negroo3 appears to be much greater 
in localities considered most subject to malarial influences than in those 
less so. Thus, up to ISGO, the returns of the eleven largest cities of the 
United States show an average annual death rate among negroes of 3.47 
j)er cent. In malarial districts, as New Orlciins, it was 5.82; in Memphis 
it wa-s 5.74; while in Charleston it only reached 2.(50 per cent. 

Since this cha})tcr has been in press the compendium of the 10th 
United States Census has been published, giving a portion of the Vital 
Statistics collected by the enumeration of 1880. The general results are 
exhibited in the following table: 

Taijle a. — Percentage of Deaths in the Pojxulation of the United States and 
So}ith Carolina, and in the Population of the Upper, Middle, aitd Lower 
Cunntry of the latter. 





Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


United States 


1.51 
1.57 
1.09 

1.33 
2.08 


1.53 
1.55 


1.48 


South Carolina 


l.GO 


Upper Alpine Region ••.■.. 

Middle Country, or Piedmont, Sand and ) 
l\ed Hill, and Upper Pine Belt Regions. J 

Lower Country, or Lower \ 












Pine Belt and Coast Regions j 







It is estimated the number of deaths not reported do not exceed thirty 
j)er cent, of those reported. The average mortality for the whole country 
is given, when thus corrected, at 18,2 per thousand, as against 20.5 per 
thou.sa!id in England, and 21,5 per thousand in Scotland. The slightly 
liigher death-rate above given for South Carolina, may be due to a more 
accurate enumeration, or it may bo accounted for by the preponderance 
of the colored race, whoso <leath-rato is always higher than that of the 
whites. In this census these respective rates, as given by the enumera- 
tion, are 17,28 per thousand for the colored population against 14,74 per 
thousand for tho white population. This diHerenco is chiefly duo to the 
dillerence in infant mortality. Both reasons above mentioned co-operuto 
to produce the heavy deuth-rato in tho Lower Pine Belt and Coast region, 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



419 



one-fourth of this population is in the City of Charleston, where an ac- 
curate system of the registration of deaths makes the mortality returns 
more complete than they are anywhere else, except in twenty-two of the 
large cities, where the same measures are in force. The colored race 
also forms seventy-three per cent, of the population in these regions, 
against sixty per cent, for the State at large . 

Table B. — Percentage of Total Deaths ocdin-ing under 1 Year, under 5 
Years, and under all Ages among the Male and Fimalc Population of 
the United States and of So^tth Carolina, and in the Ij.pcr, Middle, and 
Lower Country of the latter. 



A 


u. 


Under 


Un 


AOES. 


1 Year. 


5YJ 




6 




C) 














<o 




OJ 


<A 


<s> 










c5 




C3 




c3 




f^ 


••-1 


fe 


»«5 



S 

fa 



United States 

South Carolina 

Upper or Alpine Region 

Middle Country, or Piedmont, Sand and \ 
Red Hill, and Upper Pine Belt Region. / 



Lower Country,- or Lower "I 



Pine Belt and Coast Region 



51.8 48.2 


12.8 


10.3 


48.4! 51.6 


12.2 


11.1 


52.7 47.3 


18.5 


8.0 


47.0 


52.1 


12.5 


10.6 


48.4 


51.0 


13.0 


12.1 



21.5 18.2 
23.5 21.2 



23.7 



22.0 



The number of deaths under five years of age amount to sixty-three 
per cent, of all deaths in the country at large, and to nearly seventy per 
cent, in South Carolina, due to the excess of infant mortality in the 
colored population. The excess of female over male deaths is due in 
part at least to the preponderance of females in South Carolina. 



420 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



Table C. — Perceniages of Dcatlis in tlie United StcUes and in South Carolina, 
and in the Upper, Middle, and Lower Country of the latter, resulting from 
ten principal Diseases. 





B 

- 73 




o a 






CO 






•& 






S o 


d 
c 

2 


ses of th 
us Syste 


1 S 


o 

J3 


es of .th 
ive Orgj 


> 


o 

> 

fa 


3 

to 


S 






w 


a o 




.«.^ 

^ 


il 




s 


1 






^ S 
C^ 


^ 


5| 


|3 


a, 


^ tX) 

Si5 


2 


?• 


w^ 

^ 


United Stiitcs .... 


14.2 12.0 


11.0 


8.0 


5.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.0 


1.2 


1.1 


South Carolina . . . 


12.3 10.4 


9.2 


8.0 


3.5 


6.2 


3.7 


0.1 


2.2 


1.9 


Alpine Region . . . 


15.7 


7.7 


6.5 


7.7 


1.8 


4.0 


11.1 


0.2 


1.2 


• . 


Piedmont, Sand and ) 






















Red Hill, Upper } 


13.1 


9.8 


8.G 


9.0 


3.1 


0.7 


4.0 


, , 


2.4 


3.0 


Pine Belt Re„aons. j 






















Lower Pine Belt and "1 
Coast Regions. j 


10.7 


9.7 


10.4 


G.2 


4.1 


5.7 


2.4 


• • 


3.9 


1.1 



Table " C " exhibits the causes of death, and shows that tho most fatal 
diseases are less ])otent in South Carolina tlian elsewhere. Tho dat^i, as 
regards malarial diseases, are not given. But deaths from this cause arc 
only 2.7 per. cent, of tho total deaths for the country at largo, and 0.5 per 
thousand in tho grand group, where it is most prevalent, being in New 
Orleans itself only 4.4 per cent., are less than the deaths in the country 
at large from diseases of the digestive organs. Tho percentage from con- 
sumption in Carolina is doubtless much larger than it should be, the 
numbers being increased by the deaths of trai\sicnt visitors, having tliis 
di.^ease, to health resorts in this State, as well as by the permanent settle- 
ment hereof many persons bringing the disea.se with them, in tho hope 
tiiat tliey may find relief in the mildness of this climate. 



CHAPTER lir. 



A. SKETCH 



OF THE 



INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS 
OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



PREPARED FOR THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 
BY G. H. SASS, Esq OF THE CHARLESTON BAR. 



Tho first pormnnent Europcnn fctlKmcnt in South Carolina was made 
by a colony of Englishmen, who landed at Port Royal in 1070. There 
had been several previous attempts at colonization by French and 
Spanish expeditions, but tlicy had all failed, and had left no trace behind 
them except in the name bestowed upon tho Province, which was called 
Carolina, in honor of King (Jharles IX. of France* Tho advantages of 

*Tlie quoHtlon of tl)0 <k'rivttlion of tlic niuno of Carollnn Ih n Homewhat obsrnro 
ono. Some liiMtorinnH derive it from C'liark-H II. of Knj;Iaiul. Uivors hci'Idh togive 
tlic pro fi' re nee to Cliarlen I, of Kii^tland, IjccaiiHt', In llio jirant by that kinj; to Sir 
Robert Hcatli, in Ki.iO, tlic country in called Carolina, or C'arolann. This f;ict i» cer- 
tainly fatal to the claim of Cbarlen II., but it docH not dinpoHo of the prior claim of 
Charles IX. Some of the early annalints ((<ucli, for e.\amj)Ic, as Dru. Melli^'an and 
Hewctt) say dintinctly, that the name waH given in honor of CharlenIX. ; and it is 
reasonable to HUppoae that the name given by Kibault and LaudonniC-rc to.tlie country 
Biirrounding Charles Fort {arx Carolina), in honor of tho French King, survived the 



422 INSTITUTION'S, aOVERNMEXT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Port Royal, with its magnificent harbor, had also been pointed out by 
the French expedition under Ribault. and this led to its selection as a 
landing place by the English colony mentioned above. In 1G03, Charles 
II. of England granted a charter to certain English noblemen, known in 
the history of the Province as "The Lords Proprietors," conveying to 
them all the lands lying between the thirty-first and thirty -sixth degrees 
of north latitude, comprising all of the present States of North Carolina, 
Soutli Carolina and Georgia. This grant was enlarged two years later 
so as to include all between twenty-nine degrees and thirty-six degrees 
and forty seconds, nortli latitude, and from these two points on the At- 
lantic coast westward to the Pacific ocean. The Bahama islands were 
subsequently added to tlic grant. Tiie colony which- landed at Port 
Koyal in 1070 was sent out by the Lords Proprietors, and was commanded 
l)y Col. Win. Sayle. Port Royal i)roved to bo too near to the Spanisii 
settlements in Florida, and to the Indian tribes allied with the Spaniards, 
for the peace or safety of tho colony, and within a year Col. Sayle deter- 
mined to remove further U[) tlie coast. Leaving between themselves and 
their enemies the .several rivers, bays and estuaries which indent tho 
coast of Carolina between Port Royal and Charleston, the colonists .se- 
lected a spot on tho west bank of tlio Ashley river, about three miles 
above the present city, and called it, in honor of tho King, Cliarles Town. 
This situation, however, was soon found to bo inconvenient for sliipping; 
and by (h-grees, the iniiabitants of Charles Town began to move lower 
<lo\vn tli(< river, and to establish themselves nearer the sea. Tho i)oint 
formed by the eonlhieneo of the Ashley and (.'ooper rivers, and known 
ns OystiT Point, was low and nnirshy, and cut u}) by numerous creeks; 
but there was sullieient high ground on the Cooper river side to afford 
room for a settlement, and by K577 there were enough houses built upon 
it to need some designation, and the new settlement was called Oyster 
Point Town. In KJ.SO, so large a majority of the people had removed to 
this spot, that the seat of government was formally transferred to it, and 
its name was changed to New Charles Town. Two years later, tho old 
settlemi'iit was virtually ab:uidoned, and tho new one became the only 
Charles Town. It was at that time declared a port of entry, and in 1085 
a collector was appointed. It was not, however, until 1783 that the city 

dostnution of tlie French colony, nnd wns lulnptcd by the Enfrlish settlers. This is 
the view held by Simtn^, in Iuh " History of Sniith Carolinti." Speakin;: of the fort 
whiih I.niulonniere called " La Caniljne," in honor of the rei^'nin;: monarch, lie says 
(pa|.'e 2^) : " Tiu« iiatiio thus conferred cxten<led over the whole country a full century 
before it was occupied hy the lMi;.'lish. It remained un.'hanj:ed, and was adopted by 
them, as it really serve<l todistin^'uish their obli;:ations to Charles II. of Mn^Iand, under 
whos^e auspices and charter the lirst permanent European colony was settled in 
Carolina." 



INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 423 

was incorporated by the State Legislature under its present name of 
Charleston 

The colony of Carolina, very early in its history, began to attract to 
itself emigrants from all parts of Europe. Though the Church of England 
was the established church, freedom of religious worship was guaranteed 
to all, and settlers of all social classes and all religious denominations 
began to swell the population. Emigrants were offered land at an ea.sy 
quit-rent, and clothes and provisions were distributed by the Proprietors 
to those who could not provide for themselves. The Proprietors, being 
of the cavalier class, aided or induced many of their friends or dependents 
to emigrate to Carolina ; while the English Puritans, whom the restom- 
tion of the monarchy in England had deprived of many of their religious 
rights, were attracted to the colony by the greater religious freedom tliero 
enjoyed. Two vessels also arrived from New York witli emigrants, and 
in 1071, the Grand Council of tlio colony laid out for them a town on a 
creek to the south of Stono, to be called James Town, lots in wliich were 
granted to every person in each family. These colonists were Dutch, and 
they were followed by others of their countrymen from Ilollund. Tho 
settlement at James Town was abandoned after a few years, and the 
settlers spread themselves over tho country. In 1070, Charles II. pro- 
vided, at his own expense, two small vessels to transport to Carolina a 
few foreign Protestants, who might there domesticate the productions of 
the South of Kuroj)e, In 1 OS.'], u colony of Irish were attracted to tho 
Province by the fume of its fertility, whicli was spread (ilnvMid, and they 
were received with ho lieurty a welcome that they were soon nicfrgud 
in the other colonists; and about the siune time, the remnants of a 
Scotch settlement at Port Koyal, who were driven thence l)y th<,' Spaniards, 
found a refuge in Charles Town and its vicinity. In lO.S.VO, a very im- 
portant accession to the colony was made by the arrival of a large number 
of French Protestant refugees, whom the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
drove out of France, In 10i)0, a colony of Congregationalists, from Dor- 
chester, in Massachusetts, settled near the head of tho Ashley river, about 
twenty-five miles from Charles Town, 

Sucli were the comj)onents of tho colony over which the Lords Pro- 
prietors exercised their original jurisdiction, and for the government of 
which they proceeded to frame a system of laws under the powers com- 
mitted to them in the charter of Charles II, Their first organized at- 
tempt at such a system embodied itself in the famous Fundnuicntal Con- 
stiditions, <rvncri\\\y attributed to the English philosopher, John Locke, 
but i)robably inspired to a considerable ext(Mit by Lord Shafteslmry. It 
is unneces.sary lierc to state in detail the provisions of Locke's Constitu- 
tion, Its principal feature was the establishment of an oligarchy of rank 



424 INSTITUTIONS, OOVERNMRXT AND LAWS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

and powor. Tho oldest of tlio eight Proprietors was always to bo Pala. 
tine, and at liis decease was to be succeeded by tho eldest of tho seven 
survivors. The Palatine's court was to sit in place of tho King, to review 
all laws made by tho Colonial Legislature, and to appoint a Governor, 
who was the King's representative in the colony. Three orders of nobil- 
ity were created, called Barons, Cassi(iues, and Landgraves, the first to 
lH)ssess 12,000, the second 24,000, and tho tliird 4S,000 acres of land, and 
Ihcir possessions were to bo iiuilienable. An upper and a lower IIouso 
of Assonibly woro to be established, which, with tho Governor, consti- 
tuted tho Parliament. A sort of feudal military system was provided, 
and all the inhabitants from sixteen to sixty years of age were subject to 
tho call of the Governor and Council, Three terms of religious com- 
munion were fixed, 1st. Jk'Hef in a God. 2d. Tiiat lie is to be wor- 
shipped. 3d. Tiiat it is lawful and tlio duty of every man, when called 
uj)on by those in autliority, to bear witness to the truth. Witiiout ac- 
knowledging these tests no jnan was permitted to be a freeman or to have 
any estate or Jiabitation in Carolina. Ikit religious toleration witiiiii 
these limits was ensured, and all persecution for religious dillerences was 
expressly forbidden. Supremo Courts were established, but it was de- 
clared to be a base and vilo tiling to plead tho cause of another for money 
or reward. 

It is not surprising that such a system of government .should have 
been distasteful to the colonists. The introduction of Locke's Constitu- 
tion was strenuously resisted by the people, and its practical working was 
soon found to bo so unsatisfactory that, in 1003, the Proprietors, upon 
public petition, abolished the Constitution, and for a considerable time 
tlie colony was regulated by certain temporary rules and instructions pre- 
scribed by the Proj)rietors. The government was of tlie form which 
Englishmen naturally adopt. Tiic executive power was represented by 
the Proprietors, who appointed tho Governor and other officers; tho- 
Legislature, by a Council or L'pper House, also appointed by the Proprie- 
tors, and a Commons House of Assembly chosen by the freemen. The 
first popular election in South Carolina of which there is any record, was 
held in April, 1072, under a proclamation of the Grand Council, requir- 
ing all the freeholders to elect a new Parliament. From this body five 
Councillors wore chosen, who, with the Governor and the Deputies of tho 
Lords Proprietors, formed the Grand Council. 

Such a condition of things could not last. The rule of the Proprietors, 
exercised, as it was, from a distance, and with little regard to the local 
necessities of the colony, soon became intolerable to the free spirit of the 
people, and in 1710 tho colonists at last made up their minds to get rid 
of the Lords Proprietors altogether. The history of the Revolution, 



INSTITUTIONS, OOVEUNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAnOMNA. 425 

which onsuod, need not bo given in detail. It was bloodless but deci.sive. 

The colonists organized a convention, appointed a new governor, and 
announced their intention of casting off " the confused, lielpless, and 
negligent government of the Lords Proprietors," and putting themselves 
directly under that of the British crown. In 1721 the government of 
George I. decided in their favor, and in 1720, in the reign of George II., 
the Province was purchased by the crown from the Lords Proprietors, 
and was divided into North and South Carolina, The form of govern- 
ment conferred on the colony was modeled uj)on the English Constitution. 
It consisted of a Governor, Council and an Assembly, To them the 
power of making laws was committed. The King a})pointe(l the Gov- 
ernor and Council ; the Assembly was elected by the people. 

During the next half century the ])oj)ulation of South Carolina steadily 
increased. Many inducements were ollerivl to emigrants, bounties were 
given, free lands assigned, and the door was thrown open to settlers of 
every description. Parties of emigrants arrived constantly from (ireat 
Britain and the various countries of Europe. iJetween the years ]7;50 
and n")!) a largo number of settlers from Great Britain aixl Ireland, 
Germany and the Palatinate, .Switzerland and Holland, found homes in 
South Carolimi. The Germans established themselves cl)ief!y in that 
.portion of the country around Orangeburg and along the Congaree and 
Watcreo Kivers ; the Scotch-Irish settled in Williamsburg; the Welsh 
along the Pee Dee River, in what are now the counties of Marlboro and 
Marion, and the Swiss along the banks of the Savannah River. After 
the Scotch rebellions of 171"). and 1745 many of the expatriated High- 
landers came to Carolina. The population, which had hitherto been con- 
fined to a radius of about eighty miles from the coast, now began to 
spread into the interior of the State. A large territory was acquired from 
the Indians, embracing the present counties of Edgefield. Al)boville, 
Laurens, Newberry, Union, Spartanburg, York, Chester, Fairfield and 
Richland, and .settlements were soon made all through those fertile por- 
tions of the country. Fifteen hundred French arrived from Nova Scotia, 
and in 1704 a French Protestant colony settled in Abbeville Distriet, and 
gave the names of Bourdcaux and New Rochelle to their settlements. 
The cultivation of wheat, hemp, flax and tobacco was introduceil by col- 
onists who came from Virginia, Maryland and Pcnn.sylvania, and that 
of the vine and of silk by emigrants from tlio Palatinate. Indigo, also, 
was for some years profitably cultivated. When the War of Independ- 
ence began, the population of South Carolina amounted to forty thousand 
.souls. It is needless to dwell upon the part played by South Carolina in 
the Revolutionary War. It belongs to the history of the whole country, 
and cannot be treated of here. During the war, of course, the growth 
28 



420 IXSTITUTIOKS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

of the population was clicckeJ, but this was amply compensated by the 
progress nuulc l.)y the State after the peace of 1783, Multitudes from 
Kurojie and the more Northern parts of America poured into South 
Carolina; and Greenville and Pendleton Districts, which were obtained 
in 1777, by treaty founded on concpiests, from the Cherokee Indians, 
filled so rapi<lly with settlers that in the year ISUO those two Districts 
alone are estimated to liavo contained upwards of 30,000 inhabitants. 
The last j^roup of settlers which the State received from foreign countries 
consisted of several hundred French, chielly from St. Domingo, who 
settled for the most part in the vicinity of Charleston.. 

Ilcfcrcnce has been made to the Constitution of John Locke and to the 
forms of government which superseded it under the Lords Proprietors, 
and, later, under the royal administration of the Province. For the first 
ninety-nine years Charleston was the seat of justice for Provincial Caro- 
lina. In 1712, a Court of Chancery was established in the persons of the 
Governor and his Council, and, later, in 1700, an Act was passed by 
which new District Courts were established at Beaufort, Georgetown, 
Cheraw, Camden, Orangeburg and Ninety -Six. The Penal Code of Great 
Britain, when introduced into this Province, underwent con.siderable 
revision. An Act was passed in 1712 making certain English Statutes 
of force in the Province, and by that Act the English Common Law was 
declared to bo of full force in Carolina, except in a few comparatively 
uniniportant }mrticulars. The ancient tenures were abolished, and free 
and common .soccage was declared to be the tenure of all lands in the 
Province. The Ilabcofi Corpus Act of ChaiJes II. was also adopted and 
enacted. The Church of England enjoyed a nominal supremacy, but 
liberty of conscience was fully guaranteed to all persons; and all religious 
denominations worked together in the di.ssemination of moral and relig- 
ious training. The Presbyterians were among the first settlers, and were 
always numerous in South Carolina. The Independents, or Congrega- 
tionalists, in conjunction with the Presbyterians, were formed into a 
church in Charleston as early as 1082; and the Baptists formed a church 
there in 1085. The Methodists establi.shed themselves in 1785. The 
French Protestants formed a church in Charleston in 1700. The Jews 
have had a synagogue in Charleston since the year 175G ; and about the 
same jieriod the German Protestants formed themselves into a congrega- 
tion. The Uoman Catholics were not organized into a church in South 
Carolina until 1701. Tho Quakers were very early in the Held, and one 
of the most distinguished Governors of the Province, John Archdale, 
after whom one of the streets in Charleston is still called, was a Quaker. 
The impulse towards freedom, which had driven the emigrants who set- 
tled Carolina from their homes in -the Old World, kept alive in their 



INSTITUTIONS, OOVERNMEXT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 427 

breasts the spirit of religious liberty and toleration, and all through the 
history of the State the same spirit has manifested itself in shaping leg- 
islation and administering government. Such persecution for opinion's 
soke as defaced the annals of some of the other American colonies has no 
place in the history of South Carolina, 

When the State threw off the royal authority, it adopted (in 177(») a 
provisional Constitution, and, so far as the civil power could be exorcised, 
this Constitution was in operation during the Kcvolutionary War. After 
peace was declared, it became necessary to devise a more permanent form 
of government, and, in 1700, a convention was called, which, after mature 
deliberation, established a Constitution, which, with but few modifica- 
tions, continued to bo the law of the State until the end of the great civil 
war. As that Constitution has been sujiersedcd by the one now in opera- 
tion, and which was adapted to the new conditions and relations of 
society growing out of the results of the civil war, it will not be necessary