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Full text of "Survey of the subject matter of general science in the junior high schools in Kansas"

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1 


1 


A SURVE7 OF THB SOBJSCT MATTER OF OKIERAL SCXSICS 




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by 






IBOtURD H008DBI NODUSR 




- 


B. S., lUtnsM SUt« CellAge 
Of Agrlsulture and Appllsd Selsne*, 1940 


-M^m 




A TBS&IS 


1 




•ubalttwl In partial fulfilliMnt of tb* 






requlranwnta for tha dagraa 






■ASm or SOZBHCE 






DapartMDt of Muoatloo and Fayoholosr 




1 


XAISAS STATE OOIXBSS 

or AaRicuLTaRE Ain> Apptixn scxehcb 






1948 


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1 

■ 

4 
ft 

4 


TABLE OF OOnHRS 




mSTOSZCAZ. BOTE 




THW PROIHAH . 




NBfHQO 




PART 1 SOUS TEXISOOK STODiSS ............. 




Oumn ot BarXlsi* TMxtbooks •..*...... 


. . 8 


8«rv*y of tnmaat StaU Adoptaa Tntkoote . . . 
PART IX IBB saaiwet mattbr <v osskkal sozboi in thb 


. . U 
• . 18 


The Junior Ugb a«hool and Zta yttnetlan .... 


. . IB 


Sabjaet Matter 


. . 38 




. . AS 


Visual Aids In OwMnJ Selwia* 


. . 48 




. • 88 


sawAXX AID coiotaszoss 


• • 88 


AOXBOWLSraOBnB ••••...•......■•.•■. 


. . 84 


LZTBRATOBK OITSD 


. . 88 


APPBKDZX. . 


. . 80 







ZSTRODUCnoi 

A sours* in gMMtral soleno* offers nMuny ohallMtslng 
•xpsrlanoss to ths student. a«n«r«l selencs is dsaignad 
to prepare students to oaet life situations* It this oversU 
objeotive Is to be eohlcved It is neoesssry that writers of 
textbooks, ourrloulun worlMrSf and teachers of general soienoe 
toe a««re of the life situations i<iioh «tll oonfront the student* 
This can be done only if writers, ourrloulum designers, and 
teachers constantly bear in mind that these life situations are 
always changing* Situations whioh oonfrant youth In the forties 
are different from those of the thirties and those of the fifties 
will be different still* «ith this In inlnd it is necessary tliat 
■Titers, ourrlculuitt workers, and teachers be continuously revis- 
ing and improving the offerings of general solenoe, droppinf; 
that portion whioh no longer has a plaee in suoh a oourse and 
adding new subject matter as new knowledge, new teohniques, and 
new inventions make their appearance* 

BZSTORICAI. HOTS 

In the period 1871-1S78, aocordlng to Laker (21), about 
five percent of the schools offered natural science, this early 
beginning was short lived* In 1884 the United States Office of 
Bduaation sent out a bulletin encouraging solenoe work. During 
this time and shortly after, oertaln eduoators beoamo interested 
in special soienoe courses for the grades. Physios texts were 



^ 



tbc tazta ua«d in thla grad* «a4c mora than any oKhar anlanaa 
taxt. Out of thla, aoaw aarly auttiora got tha Idaa of aoa- 
blnlBC aavaral aolaneaa In ooa taxt but It ean ba aaan tliat 
thajr alvaya atraaaad tha aeianea of thatr o«t apaelal Intaraat. 
Ibla baa lad ta tt^a orltletan that thara ara no «all-balanead 
taxtboolM on gaoaral aoianoa* Prasant taxta, ho«avar« hava 
aahlavad a an^ mora daalrabla balanoa In thair traatawat of 
tba rarioua araaa of daalrabla aubjact laattar* 

Bw gmaral aoianoa novaoant In Ita praaant foi« bad Ita 
baclnnlag In tha aabooXa of tha natlcm around 191S, aoaordlng 
to Onam and Douglaaa (11, p.ll4). It «aa toaard tha eloaa of 
tha flrat daeada of tha praaant oanturXf bowavar, that oouraaa 
naaad "alaoantary aoianoa", "Introduetor/ aoianoa", and 'vfrj- 
day aalanaa" bagm to appaar. Tha flrat taxtbooka aa haa al- 
raady baan polntad out wr» adaptatlona of bo«Aa In tha apaolal 
aolanaaa. About 1910 ganaral aoianoa taxtbooka in aoaaahat 
tbalr praaant form bagan to appaar* Tha oontant of Bodam 
taxtbooka and ayllabl raflaot tha Inf luanoa of many aarly 
■nttaoni In tha flald. Hany toploa Introdoead by tha aarly 
mtbora hava wlthatood tha taat or tleaa. Tba probXaa of baat- 
Ing tha hoaa, vantllatlon, aaathar, alaotrlolty, and pur* 
«atar aupply, for axa^la, ara no« aa foraarly, of giwat In- 
portanea. 

Sclanca aaa foraarlj taught only In tha hl|^ aebool but 
with tha ooalng of tha Junior high aobool movanant lAsloh oo- 
ourrad alaultanaoualy with tha gaaaral aoianoa aoTCMat, aalanaa 
baeaaM an of faring of tba Junior hl^ aobool and In many oaaaa. 



M today. It «M ofr«r*d In tha al^th gndm* Many of our 

•ohool ayatagw ara atlll (wganlsa<l on tha 6>2-4 plan In ahleh 

tha aaeondary aohool InoXudaa gradaa 8 to 18* On tha othar 

hand, muxf aohool ayataaa ara arranged aooordlng to tha 6-3-S 

plan* A fa« ara organlsad on tha 6-6 plan. Thla altuatlon 

haa reaultad In tha ratardatloo of a aolanoa program In gradaa 

V to 9 baoauaa It haa baan naoaaaary to davalop two typaa of 

aolanoa prograaa for tha gradaa* Qna finda pupils an taring 

junior high aohool «lth no pravloua aolanoa tralnlns and aoaw 

with from 4 to 6 yaara of Inatruotloo* Fro* tha organisational 

aapaet thla altuatlon praaanta aubjaet aattar dlf f loultlaa . 

loll (86, p* 99) nakaa tha following atatanantt 

A ona-yaar oouraa In ninth grada aolanoa 
In a four yaar high aohool ahould ba dlffarant 
In aoopa and thorou^maaa fron a tao-yaar, or 
thraa>yaar oouraa for Junior hlglb aohool gradaa* 

Ba aXao auggaata that tha taxtbook and tha approach might 

raaaonably ba dlffarant. At tha praaant tlaa ooa aay find aaay 

Junior high aohoola offarlng a oouraa In ganaral aolanoa in tha 

alghth grada «han tha plan of organlaatlon la tha 0-3-3 plan. 

In other ayatana whara tha plan of organliatlon la tha 6-2-4 

plan caneral aolanoa la not of farad aa a part of tha Junior 

high aohool ourrloulun. 



^ 



TBI raoujR 



fb» prtAtlmt of this atudr «ia to d«t«rmln* «b*t subjsot 
iMittcr was b«lng offtrM at the tlnw In tta* Junior Blgb Seboolo 
of K«n«aa« «hat aubjeot aattor warn being aopbaalaod, «h«t «aa 
bolns taught that might mil bo loft out, and «hat. If anything, 
was balng loft out that ahould bo Ineludod* 

■BtBOD 

Ibo ftold of study «aa dlvldod Into two parts* Part cmo 
doals with tho problOM fron tho standpoint of the toztbook 
and was dlvldod Into two phasos thuai (a) A survey was mada 
of four nationally Icnowa toxtbooka, two having boon on tho 
Kansas state adopted list at one tine or anothart (b) a sur- 
vey was made of the four texta adopted by the state of Kansas 
for use In the Junior high sohools beginning with the sohool 
year 1947-48. The results of the surveys are given In tabular 
fors In order that oonparlaons between the texts can be aada 
with ease* 

Part two la an overall study of the general solenoe sub« 
Jeot Matter In the Junior high sohools of Kansas as revealed 
ky a ^BOstloDnalre* 

far this study three elasses of Information were sou(^tt 
(1) Znforaatlon regarding objeotlves and outeomea} (S) Infor- 
■atlon as to oontent and subject natteri and (8) Information 



1 



tram rslatwl ktms «bleb vXt«U>« and give laeaning to th« 
oubjcot oHkttar auoh m vIkuhI alda, aupplanMtntary materials, 
and oooinialty raaourcaa* 

During the spring aanwater 1946^7, the <iueatlois>*lre 
«aa aent to aTerr jttnlor hl^ aohool In Kanaaa aa oataloguad 
In the Kanaaa Bduoatl<m«l Wreotory for 1948-47, eanQ>tled by 
Dr» L. «, aro<&8. State Superintendent of Publle Xnatruetlon. 



^ 



FART Z 80HX liaTBOOX STODIBS 



ppoti th« v*pjr bagixmlng tMCtbocdca of gMi«ral aolcno* h*v« 
l)Mn a aubjaot for stody and diaouaaion. Thla la aa It ahould 
b« alnoa It la • *«U aatabHehed raot that taxtbooka muat kaap 
up «tth the devalopoMnta In aolanoa If tbay are going to b« 
•bla to aaat tha naeda of tha puplla who uaa thaa. Taxtbooka 
m* baat are at«tlo and onat ba ravlaad frequwitly if they ara 
going, to aarva tbalr purpoaa well. Qua of the eerllaat atudlaa 
«aa made by Rainaman (14) In whloh ha ahowad the nunttser of 
prlnolplea preaentad by each book atudlad, tha mmbar of prln- 
olplaa llluatrated by each, and the nuaibar of prlnolplea Implied 
though not definitely preaentad by aaoh book. Ileineoian analyaed 
16 booka In hla work, the earlleat ma publlahed In 1911 and tha 
Uteat vaa publlahed In 1986. Slamona (36) conducted a atudy In 
which ha brought out the teaching halpa found In varloua general 
aelenoe textbooka. Ha eonoludaa that It —mmm raaaonsble to aay 
that aide to taaehara add to the value of general aclwioe text- 
booka. Thla atudy waa reported In 1986 and covered a period ex- 
tending from 1911 to that time. In hla oonolualooa ha llata 16 
different faotora which he oonaldera to be of apaolal help to 
teaohera. Theae arei 1. Da«onatratlonei 8. Exorclaeat S. Ex- 
p«rlaants| 4. Footnoteat 6. Qloaaarleat 6. Key atateaentai 
7. Kay wordat 8. Plotxa^ai 9. Projecta; 10. Queatlona) 11. Raf- 
aranaaai 18. Reporta} 13. Sunaarlea; 14. Tableaj 16. Teatai and 
16. Topic Survaya. 






^ 



Anothsr group of Invastlgators, Pohly (80), Po«wm (81), 
•Qd Pnaacy (38), acoordlng to NoXl (86, p. 106), hM MMlyMd 
t*xtbo<&a and artlolva on gwMral aolanea aad tabulated tha 
Awquanoy of ooourranoa of aolantlfle tarma. Thaaa raaulta 
«wr« than ohaeked by axparlanoad taaohara, or againat Thorn* 
dlka'a tWaohar Kord Book, two of tba taxta uaed In tha Povara 
atudy «ara ganaral solanoa taxta • Tha vocabulary biirdan of 
taxt A ma 1891 »orda, of taxt B »aa 1857 worda> The author 
polnta out that tha vooabularlaa of tha general aotenoe texta 
were aoaller than thoee of texta In blolofy and chemlatry and 
do not exceed the number of vorda found in booka cm other aab« 
Jecta prepared for children of the aaoie grade level* Be eon- 
eludea, however, by aaylng that It can hardly be denied that 
the vocabulary burden of all the texta la unneceaaarlly large. 
In fact, all theae atudlea agree that there la unneceaaarlly 
large uae of unimportant, unooanoa, and difficult worda. Theae 
atudlea would tend to give emphaala to a fact already known, 
that the aubjeot matter of general aolence or any aubject for 
that matter, auat be couched in teroa that are within the vo» 
eabulary ability of the puplla. 

Ihe foregoing atudlea are examplea of atudlea done from 
the atandpolnt of the mechanical aspeota of the general aolence 
textbook. 



^ 



S^arvuj of Earlier Twctbooka 

For tho purpoao of thla axirvay, fotir natloi\all7 known 
taxta of tha daeada of tha thirties vj^ ohoaan. Text A la 
Hood and Corjjantar, "Our Bnvlronsoant, How V» Uaa and Control 
Z%"* This taxt waa ohoaan baeause It haa baan uaad aa a atata 
adopted taxt and a vvry z>eoent revision la now on the atata 
adopted llatt Taxt B la Oruenberg and Unsloker, "Solenoe In 
Our Llvee"^ and aaa ohoaan beoauae It was the atate adopted 
text throui^ tlte aohool year 1946-47. Taxt la Cleraent, Col- 
llatar and Tburaton, "Our Svun>oundlnf;a"^, ohoaan beoauae tt la 
gKiarallr known, la representative of the gMiaral offering and 
oovara a wide variety of aubjaot niatter* Text D la Halatar, 
"Living With Solenoa"^, Book Three, and waa ohoaan beoauae tha 
author haa made oontrlbutlona to the daval^pnsnt of general 
aelenoe* 

The araaa of aubjaet matter treated In these texts are: 
■aohanloa, heat, aound, elaotrlolty and maenatlaa, light, 
weather and ollmate, plants, anlmala, gaoXog/, natural r*« 



^Wood, 0. C. and H, A. Carpenter, "Our amrlrannant , How Ha 
Uaa and Oontrol It", Chicago. Maonlllan. 704 p. 19S0. 

^anwnbars, B. C. and 3. P. Onaloker, "Solenoe In our I.lvaa", 
New York. World Book Co. 7fi4 p. 1998. 

'oiaMnt, A. a., M. 0* Oolllster and B. L. Thurston, "Our 
Surround Intia", Syraeuaa, Haw York. Irojpiols. 676 p. 19»a. 

Ulster, Morris, "Mvlng with Science, Book Three", New York. 
Char lea Sohrlbnar's Sons. 791 p. 1940* 



^ 



aoupoes, h*«lth, ph/alologyt h«r*dlty, oh«mlatry, ••• 
tronamgr, oanrmnloatlanay fooda and tranapoptatlon* 

Table 1 la aeir-axplanatopy and offera tha raadar 
a aaana of oomparln^ tbaaa taxts* 



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Survey of Pr«**at Stat* Adopted Textbooka 

For till* aitrvey four t«xta adopted for ua« In tha 
Junior Ht(^ Schoola of Kanaaa beginning wlt^i the 1047-48 
aehool year wvn uaed* 

Text A. "Our aaTlranaent, Ho« tte Dae and Control It, 
Book 111," by Oeorge C (rood and Harry A. Carpenter publlahed 
by Allyn and Bacon, Bew York In 1946, Is an entirely new re- 
vlalon of an old and proven text, ^le authors assuaw that 
the students ocme to a oourse In general solenoe with every 
eoneetvable background. With thla In lalnd the flrat unit, 
p. 1>76, la devoted to tie aolentlflo aethod of thinking and 
atudy. Unit two, p. 76>346, ia divided Into tool topics. It 
aeta up the working informatiooal toola for the solution of 
the aajor topics whloh follow* 

The authors Introduee each unit with a reproduction of 
an oil painting. Below each painting Is en appropriate and 
challenging quotation from aoae well-known author. Follow- 
ing this Is a one pa!{e Intraduotiork and drawing to Instill a 
friendly emotional reaction from the group. This la follow- 
ed by an tnapirational and guiding prevue of the chapter. 

There are S3 experlmanta, SS of them labeled aa key ex- 
periaenta. Moat of the experlaents oan be done without a 
large outlay of material and equl potent. In tlie earlier e- 
dltions the experiments were within the body of the text. 
In this edition tliey are boxed out and hence do not inter- 



12 



f«r« with th« story b«lng told the pupil* 

Th* illustrations sr« very good. They oonslst of (X) 
line drswlnss «tiloh are large and easily understood, (2) 
photographs, aud (3) reproduotlMis of oil palntlni;s. 

Closing the study of the topic Is a suaauury, list of 
key statements, thought questions, and researoh problems 
or projects to work out and write. 

Subject sMttter ableb nlgbt be oonsldered under the 
following headings Is presented: ineohanloe, heat, sound, 
electricity and oagnetlsin, llgt>t, weather and ollmate, 
transportation, planti^ animals, geology, oonserratlon, 
natural resotiroes, agriculture, oodem Inventions, health 
and safety, physiology, heredity, obealstry, ooomunloatlons, 
astranony, and foods. 

The appendix Includes a aet of 88 pictures called key 
ptotures Illustrating solentlflo Ideas and 11 sets of rules 
covering a wide variety of activities. A good bibliography, 
pronouncing; glossary, and a oonprehenslve Index are also ln> 
eluded. This Is a practical text containing a wealth of 
teachable naterlal and one worthy of consideration for use 
as a text for a course In general science* 

Text B. "Science," by Ira 0. Davis and Richard W, Sharps 
published by Henry Holt and Cooqoany, Kew ITork In 1947, la a 
book containing 19 units. Baoti xinlt la Introduced with a aee^ 
tlon entitled, "The Story of Progress and Discovery". Follow> 
lag this is • set of questions for directing the study of the 



^ 



unit wad • Xlat of vorda with thalr meanings i&loh *r« Inelud- 
•d to help tb« pupil undaratftnd tha unit. Thla la a wall writ- 
tan ravlaloQ of a pjwvloualy usaful taxt. "Ba^r* ara many larga 
and aaaningful Una drawings and many good halT-tona photographs. 
Each unit la olosad with a dlaouaslon or tha old and tha naw. 
Dlraetlona for many uaaful daaonatratlooa ara Inoludad In thla 
taxt which tha authora suggest are bast dona by ttm taaolMr. 
Also there ara sucgastad pupil aotlvltles, whloh In reality ara 
almpler experlaenta. Subjeot matter whloh alght be oanaldared 
under tha following leadings Is presantadt asehanlos, heat, 
sound, aleotrlolty and oa^etlan, light, weather and ollmatc, 
transportation, plants, anlswla, geology, oonoervation, natur- 
al resouroee, agriculture, «odem Inventloos, health and aafety, 
physiology, heredity, ohsalstry, eoosunloatlon, aatronoBiy, and 
foods. Xo glossary In the usual sense Is provided but the word 
list at tbs beginning of eaoh unit replaees tlte glossary very 
well* There Is a biographical gloasary of wilnent solentlsts* 
A «all-«hosen Index Is Included. This Is au excellent text but 
■oat teachers of science think It Is soMSwbat too advanced for 
use In the eighth grade. 

T»«t £. "Kveryday Selenoe," by Otis «. Caldwell and 
Pranels l>. Curtis published by Olnn and Company, Mew tork In 
1946, Is rewritten front the older book, "Science for To-day". 
!t has In the oontent a very large anount of material not known 
when the flrat book was written. The 14 unite which aake up 
the body of the bo<& oover adequately the material which should 



^ 



b« ineXud*d in a eoxxra* in gma»ra.l solanoe* Hi* artiol* at 
tha baginnlng of tha book antltled "To tha Studant" on bo« to 
study ia partloularly valuabla* Chaptar 1 of tha taxt ia not 
■•da a part of any unit taut la a ganaral introduotion to tha 
antlra fiald of aoianoa. Baeh xanlt la Introduoad by uaa of a 
doubla paga photograph partioularly aultad to tha unit to ba 
prasantad. Thara ara 86 ohaptara, aaeh introduced with quas- 
tlona anawarad in tha chaptar daalgnad to atlmulata Interaat. 
In thla taxt nam voinla ara daflnad at tha bottom of tha paga. 
Ibara ara 93 axparlmanta auggactad with full axplanatlona ln« 
eluding; axplanatlona of alapla apparatua which aaka It poaalbla 
for tham to ba parfomad by taaohar or pupil. A aalf-taat, 
objactlva In natura, ia provided after each aajor aaotlon in 
tha chapter. A wide variety of exerolaaa and act Iv It lea la 
provided at the end of each chapter. Additional llata of 
problems and a aeleoted llat of additional reference booka 
are also provided. 

In the back of the book la a llat of atatementa re* 
garding "Soientlflo Attltudea", "Elementa of Solantlfle 
Method", and a llat of "Scientific Prlnclplae". Follow- 
ing thla ia a aectlon entitled "Science for Lelaure Time" 
whloh deacrlbea a number of aelentlflo paatlaaa, hobblea, 
and recreational aotivltlaa. SUf^eated activities are a 
aclence diary, atar atudlea, a stxidy of induatry, making 
collactiona, atudy of the life of a given region, a aclence 
acrapbook, the writing of aclence drama, waking a balanced 



^ 



ftquariuffl, and making m study of our national parks • Sub- 
jset nattsr «hloh nl|{ht bs considered vindor ths following 
bsadlngs is prsaented: oMohanlos, heat, sound, eleotrlclt7> 
and aagnatlsai, light, veatbar and oliaate, transportation, 
plants, anloals, geology, oonaervatlon, natural resources, 
agrloulttire, modem Inventions, health and safety, physiol- 
ogy, heredity, cbealstry, eoMBunioatlon, aatronomy and fooda* 
A glossary of 80 pages Is provided. The last Inoluslon Is 
a very good Index of 16 pages* This text Is wsll-balanoed 
with a wide variety of topics both physical and biological. 

Text n. "Science for Bveryday Dae," by Victor C. Salth 
and B. B. Vance published by J. E. Llpplnoott, Hew York In 
1B40, Is another flrat-olass text on general science* It 
does not specialise In any one field but gives a balanced 
program for all. The untisual aivangenent of this text Is 
Its outstanding characteristic. It la divided Into six 
units « "Matter", "aaergy", "Ufe", "Karth", "Man", and 
"Inventions". Eaob unit Is divided into three chapters of 
six main topics each. Each of the six aaln topics Is In- 
tended for a single day's problem. Suggestions as to the 
time to be spent on pupil planning, activities, reports, 
fllMS, and mastery tests uro provided. Motion ploturea to 
be used are suggested In the teacher's handbook which the 
publisher will furnish together with mastery tests upon re- 
quest* Saoh chapter Is followed by a study test, sugges- 
tions for review of the chapter, a word list for study, a 



.^vTuna 



1 



r«Tl«« matohing 9X9rol.»9, • Hat of r«lkt*d topioa, and a 
••l«ot«d Hat of thou(^t quaatlona. Followlni; tba main 
body of tha taat la a abort list of solantlfle «orda wltb 
tba Rtaabar of tba paga en lAiloh aaoh la uaad. Tba Indax 
la ratbar brlaf eovarlng only IX pagaa* Ibla taxt la ona 
of tba moat up to data and praaauts In a vrf aeoxirat* and 
latai^atlng manner a «ida varlaty of uaaful aubjact matter* 
Tbar« is a total of 108 damonatratlona outllnad within tha 
body of tba taxt and in addition 100 ajgwrlmants are auggaat- 
ad» Illuatrationa consist of (1) line dravln,^, (8) pboto- 
grapba in black and wblta, and (8) color pbotograpba, all of 
«biob are very good. Subject matter wbieh mtitbt be considered 
under tbe following headings la presented < nachanlos, heat, 
sound, eleotrielty and magnetism, light, weather and olinata, 
transportation, planta, aninala, geology, conaarvation, nat- 
ural resources, agriculture, modem inventions, health and 
aafaty, phyaiologsf, obainiatry, oaasminloation, aatronooy and 
foods* 

Following la Table 2 which suoiaarlBaa atatiatioally tba 
four books on tha atate adopted list and offers a means of 
ocaiparing these texts* 



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18 



PART IZ IBS SOBJBOt MAnB QT OKKBRAl. SCIENCE Hi TUB 

juHzm HxaB acBOOLs of xaisab 



fha vrltor acnt a (luMtloonalrc (Aiq;)«ndlx) to svery 
Junior Hl^ Sohool In Kansas as oatalogued In ths Kansas 
Muoatlonal Dlrttctox7 for 1046>47 as oosq^llsd by I>r« L< V* 
Brooks, Stats Supsrlntendsnt of Publlo Instruction. Of ths 
78 schools to shloh ths (iu«stlannali>s vas nallsd, S5 rs- 
portsd a oourss in gsnsral science. Five othsr aehools re* 
piled tout stated that they did not offer a eouraa In general 
solsnos. This repressnts a total participation of 65.6 per 
cent. It Is likely that aany schools which did not offer 
general science courses at ths time did not reply at all and 
tbat ths numbsr returning the questionnaire represents a 
fairly large peroantage of those offering such a course. 

Since this study Is concerned with subject matter, those 
portions of the (juestlonnalre shlch do not deal directly with 
tbat particular natter «111 not be treated in this thesis. 
Biose questions ifeleh do not deal with subject matter and 
have no bearing on the problem represent areas of special In* 
terest to the writer. 



^ 



Tb* Junior High Sobool and Its Kunotlon 

Th« writer did not intsnd thmt this thaals b* a treatise 
on the Junior hlfi^ school as suofa« BovsTer, slnoe the Junior 
high school was orgsnlsed to perform certain functions and 
sine* general science has become such an Integral part of 
the traditional currloulua of the Junior high school, it 
seeaed only proper to review these functions and aee how 
general science helps In brtngln.^ about their realisation* 

llueh of the work of forsiolatlng and setting forth the 
funotlons of the Junior bl^ school was dotte In the period 
between 1915 and 19C7. 

Rnasrous statements of the functions of the Junior hl^ 

school have been set forth by various authorities In the field. 

Amoaa the aost significant worKs, In the period referred to 

above, are those of Brlgucs (2), Koos (20), Solth (S6), snd the 

Departnent of Superintendence of the national Education Assoc* 

latloo (2S}. Following Is the Brlggs* list of 102Oi 

To continue. In so far as It aay seem wise 
and possible snd In a gradtuaiy lessening degree, 
eowaan Integrating education. 

To ascertain and reasonably to satisfy pupil's 
Important lanedlate and assured future needs. 

To explore by aeans of materials In thenselves 
worth-«ftille the Interests, aptitudes and capacities 
of pupils. 

To reveal to pupils, by materials otherwise 
Justifiable, the possibilities In the major fields 
of learning* 



^ 



7o Start «»oh jwpll on t!ie o*r««r «hloh« as 
■ result of th« •xploratory courses, hs, the aohool, 
and his pamnta ars ocnvlnosd Is most likely to be 
of profit to hla and the Investing state. 

Xoos has brou^t togatbsr a number of purposes for the 

Junior hl^ school nentlotied In various writings before 1980. 

Those aost fractuently oentlotied «ere as follows: 

Realising a daaooratlo school system throu|^ 
(a) retention of pupils, (b) eoonoaqr of tlae, 
(o) recognition of Individual differences, (d) ex- 
ploration and guidance, and (e) the beglnnlncjs of 
vocational edtioatlan. 

Reoogolslag the nature of the child at adolesoonce. 

Providing the conditions for better teaching. 

Improving tlw disciplinary sltuatl<» wad socialis- 
ing opportunities. 

Securing better scholarship. 
Snlth has evolved one of the most oemprehenslve and 
carefully planned statements of function of the Junior high 
school, nis statements ean be grouped under three main 
headings. The following Is a listing of the major state- 
ments of function according to Smiths 

To provide a suitable educational environment 
for ehlldren approximately twelve to sixteen years 
of age. 

To diMaooratlse the soiiool system. 

To effect eocnody of time In education. 
Tbm 10 most Important functions of the Junior hlg^ 
sehool, determined by an analysis by 60 public school of- 
ficials and 20 college specialists conducted by the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence of the National Education Association 
in I9B7, are as followst 



1 



Matting Individual dlffer«no«« of puplU 
— •nfcbllng pupllB to follow tho llnoa of their 
Interest and ability. 

Prevocatlcoal training and exploration 
resulting In wlae oholeea of later achool eouraea 
and life work* 

Counseling or guldanee-— bringing puplla 
Into contact with the Influences that ahould give 
direction and purpoae to their lives* 

Meeting the needs of the early adoleaeent 
group. 

Bridging the gap between eleaentary woA 
aeoondary soboola«~>*proper coordination between 
lower and higher eohools. 

Davelopaent of iiualltles of good oltlaen> 
ship— preparation of pupils to play a larger 
part In t!je life of the oomaunlty. 

Providing opportunity for profitable self- 
aotlvlty-»early develojnent of leaderahlp. 
Individuality, and Initiative, 

Retention of puplla beyond oompulaory school 
age* 

Cmtlnuatlan of oonmon education or regular 
scholastic or academic training* 

Hovindlnr. out a complete unit of training 
beyond the elementary grades for those lAio mtat 
lenve school early. 

aruhn and Douglass (11) In their reeent work have made 

a statement to the effect that It la desirable tvau tloe to 

tlae to re-examine the purpoaea of the Junior bX$^ achool to 

forcmlate a atatement of Ita functions which 
is aoeeptable In the light of present day thinking 
eonoemlng the natux^ and purpose of the educational 
progran for thla Institution* 

Oruhn has re-examined the most significant statements of 

functions of the junior high aohool and in the light of this 



^ 



■tudy h«a sat forth * atatwwnt of funotlona «hloh 

worthy of mantlon at thla point. Thaaa funotlona ara 

grouped under alx main haadtn^a as folXowai 

Zntagratlon 
To ayataaatlia and Intlgrate aduoatlenal outoooMa 
psravloualy ao<ialrad> 

Exploration 
To provlda opportunity for the davelopaant of a 
eontlnually widening; ranga of oultural, aoolal, 
clTlo and x^ereatlaoal Interaata* 

Ouldanea 
To prapara atudanta for making Intalllgant da> 
olalona ragardine lanadlata and future educational 
and pravooatlonal opporttinltlea* 

Differentiation 
To provide differentiated eduoatlonal faollltlaa 
aulted to the varying; baokgrounda, naeda, Intereata, 
oapabllltlea, and peraonalltlae of puplla and to 
provide differentiated eduoatlonal facllitlea aulted 
to the vai^lnj.:; future oooujjatlonal needa of puplla* 

Soolallaatloi 
To provlda opportiinltlea for the aoolal growth and 
aoolal portlolpatlon of puplla* 

Artleulatlon 
To provide a gradual tranaltlon from elementary to 
aeooDdary education • To prepare the pupil to par- 
ticipate aa effectively aa poaalble in all preaent 
and future learning experlencea* 

ProB the foregoing atatament of funotlona It la poaalble 
to detenalne certain fundaMantal and underlying prinolplea 
ehloh pervade thla Hat of Oruhn and Douglaaa evolved in 1947 
and the llata from two dooadea ago and tie theae ^oupa to- 
gether* Then, aa now, the natter of integration waa an in- 
portent oonaldaratlon* The exploratory function of the Junior 
hi|^ achool haa alwaya been an Important function. Itetentlon 
of puplla waa one of the early purpoaea of the Junior hl^ 




^ 



•ohool and thta la an •qually laportant funotlan to-day. 
Soeialleatlon and d*mooratl«atlon hava bean end are no* Im- 
portant funotlona of tha Junior hlg)i aehool. Tha guldanoa 
function, vhlla It had Ita placa In tha paat, la at prasant 
raoalvlng graatar amphaala In tha Junior high aohool. To af- 
faet aooncmjr of tlma In aduoatlon was ona of tha raaaona for 
tha aatabXlahmaut of tha Junior hl^ aohooX and today ramalna 
aa on* of Ita primary funotlmia. 

Mainly through Ita c\»rrlculuia la thjB Junior high aohool, 
or any aehool for that matter, able to fulfill Ita purpose. 
Oaneral aolanca la an Important offering In the traditional 
Junior hl(^ aohool and lialpa to I'ulflll Ita funotlon In tha 
following aayai 

1. It maata present and future needa of puplla. 

e. It reveals to tha pupils tha poaalbllltlaa In 
some of the major flalda of learning. 

3. It la an exploratory ooursa. 

4* It does effaot aconony of time In education by 
preparing studenta for future aolanca oouraea and providing 
thoaa «ho leave aohool early a wealth of uaeful Information. 

5. It aervea a guidance function In that tha vary 
nature of the eouraa makaa for clear Independent thinking 
80 necessary If pupils are to learn to make aatna deolalona 
for thamaalves. 

6* It bridges the gap between elementary and aeoon* 
dary aohool laamlns* 



^ 



Just AS It Ic d«Blrftbl* to foiwulat* » at«t«M&t of 
funetlona «hioh la aooaptabla In Vh» ll^t of prasant day 
tblnlcing, ao la It daalmbla to ra'-axamlne, ravlaa and 
bring up to date tb« eurrlculvim vftiloh brlnga about tha 
vaallaatlon of thaaa fimotions* 

Alna and Objeotlvaa 

In tba pravloua aactlon the apeclal funatlon of tha 
junior bla)i aohool waa dlaouaaed* It «aa polntad out that 
tbla Inatltutlon antst fulfill Its fxinotloa throu^ Ita our» 
rloulua. The «ork of Xooa (SO) and bla atataoant ragarding 
tha funetlona of tha Junior high aohool have been cited* 
Frea hla auaataary It oan be aald that the function of a 
Junior high aohool la to render aervlce to puplla. If the 
Junior hl^^ aohool or any aohool for that matter, la to 
render aarvloe to puplla than It oust offer i/tmt thoae pu* 
plla «ant and need* What the aohool haa to offer nuat reach 
the pupil, to a large extent, tlirough the curriculum. Since 
It haa been eatabllshed that the aim of the aohool la to ofo 
far to the atudant thoae thlnga ahlch he needa to meet life 
altuatlons and that tha needa of the puplla are net throuflib 
the ourrloul\«a, then It Immediately beoomea apparent that 
the ourrloulun muat be kept \ip to date* tThat It nuat be 
aooatantly studied and Improved, and that tba alaa must be 
kept alearly In view la equally apparent. Since aolenee la 



^ 



a d«flnlt« port of tha ourrloultai of ths traditional Junior 
hl^ sohool It is odI^ raaaonatola that the alma of ganaral 
solanca b« ooneldared In thla morV.» 

Id loe? Curetou (8) mad* tba atataaaat that, "there la 
DO gatteral agrvenont conoamli»; the basic alns of Junior hlgb 
sohool ^neral aolence." Bo«aver, by golog back aooo 80 years 
and atudylng the alas c>i>*'^^7 aooepted froa that time to the 
lireaant, the writer ean aee a eownon thread of objectives run- 
ning through most of the stateaents of alJBS for J\silor hl:^ 
aohool gmeral solenoe* 

Pollowlns are reporta of aoaw of the more significant 
atudles made to Investigate the alaa and objectives of gen- 
eral science* 

Leicer (31), In 1924, made a study of general science alaa 
In vblch he set forth alias of four leading textbooka of the day. 
Be reported a atudy made by Mr* tRallaee H. Klang at the Oalver- 
slty of Klseonsln In 19B4 regarding the alas of i^neral aclenee 
aa listed by 4S authors and vrltera* Pollowln'^ ere Klang* a 
alas as reported by Leker. the ntoober following the aim rep- 
raawita the noaber of authors and writers Hating that aim. 

Better tmderatandlag and ocntrol of envlreoaent 88 
Znfonaatlaa about natiire and aolenoe 88 

PreparatlcQ for later aolenoe courses 19 

Training In the eclentlfle method 16 

Development of power of Interpretation and appreciation 14 
Oevelopoent of interest In aelenoe 11 

Culture 10 



r ^ 

liClnr atatcB In oanoluslant 

Do oth«r aubjeot oan give the boy or girl 
«bo quits aehool ae anioh uaable knowledge aa 

faneral aoienee In the time that la given to 
ta teaohlng* ^ tha other hand, akould the 
pupil oontlnua through the high aohool, he will 
have the eXementary fundaaentala of the apeelal 
aolencea and can continue In biology, ohemlatry, 
or phyalca, Juat where be quit in general aolenoe. 

CuretoQ (8) gwde a atudy In 1927 the aim of lAiioh waa to 
determine the oonaenaua of opinion of gaaaral aolenoe experta, 
junior high aohool authorltlea, aolentlata, and Junior hl^ 
aohool atudenta oonoeming apeolf Ic problena aa they are re- 
lated to general aoienee. Among other thlnga the problem of 
alma waa oonaldered. Following la a Hat of alma which ware 
rated by the above mentioned groupa. Hated In their order 
of rank* 

1* 7o develop In the child an appreolation 
of tlia value and iiaportanee of aolenoe aa It af- 
fects hla dally life to the end that he may aequlre 
the proper attitude toward thoae oivlo-aolentif le 
iaauea wbloh he will later be oalled upon to lend 
his voice in aolving. 

2* To develop in the child thoae general at- 
tltudea and hablta of broadalndedneaa, fidelity to 
truth, oareful Inquiry and evaluation of evldenoe 
in oooneotloD with problena, of logical analyaia of 
data iftiieb will tend to mould hla eharaoter and tam- 
perament in the beat manner, 

8* To develop In the ehlld an Intereat In the 
value, worth and beauty of aolenoe to the end that 
he oiay have opened before him a great number of In- 
tereatlng avooationa and that be may be atlmulated 
to go farther into one or more of the meay f lelda of 
adentlflo endeavor, 

4. To develop In the child thoae partloular 
babita and attltudea and to preaent to him thoae 
partloular facta and prlnclplea, moat likely to be 
of definite uae to him both aa a child and aa an adult. 



^ 



5. To 8tv« th* flhlld a e«Mz«l j>r«vl«« of th« 
fleXd of aoiono* to tb* aod that he may hava a battar 
baala for the celeotlOD of further aolenoe work In 
the BObool and pertiapa In life. 

Bargan (1) reporta a atudy made at tiie Tlblveralty of 

Wlaeonaln during the atanar of 1980. Iha Inveatlgatlaix «aa 

■ada to datanalne a Hat of apeolflc objectlvea of general 

aelence. The data for the atndy aara aecured from a grot^ of 

88 graduate studenta Mio had a nwdian of five yeara experience 

In aolence teaohing. A llat of 57 apeolflc objectlvea for 

aelence teaohing vaa aeourad and tUeae wt» olaaalfled Into 

eli^t aeparata eatagorlee. It «aa found that aeve aS^phaala 

aaa given to aolentlflo thinking aa an objective than to 

Bolentlflo knowledge. Folloalng la a llat of the apaclflo 

objectlvea receiving the le highest ranka. 

1. Ilablt of adantlflc thinking. 

5. Development of aolentlflo attltiida. 

8^. Knowledge ahloh will give an Inaight Into the 
nature and orsanlaatlcn of the aBvlronaent aaklne of It 
and organlMd whole inatead of a lot of die Jointed parte. 

8i. Powara or ability In the uaa of the aelentlfle 
■athod. 

&• Appreolatlon of the beneflta of aolenoe. 

6. Khowledi^ of aolentlflo faota, prlnelplea, and 
Ideala. 

7i, Dealra for further knowledge. 

7i. Habit of Inquiry. 

0. Power to apply general prlnelplea to new and 
ooaplloated faota. 



^ 



10 • Kno«l«d^ oonocmlnr:; appllonMs and prln- 
alpl«8 «tilch aelMiee hM d*v«lop«d irtileh are uaaful 
In walftng for isr9mt»r eomfort and eonvanlenoe In hoiM 
and eooamlty. 

11. I&iowledga vbleb will eatlafy natural ln« 
taraata In foroaa of nature «lth «hl<^ aa are aur- 
rouDdad, and «lth «hi6b «• moat daftl« 

IS* Appreciation of unlveraal operation of 
natiiral !•«• 

Brlgga (8) oooduotad an tnfonsal Inventory of the needs 

of aelenee toy repreaentatlve oltleens and of Ita poaalble 

valuea« Aa a reault of tbla atudy tbe author ma'tes tlie atate* 

■ent that "aotenoe deaervea a greater place In education than 

ever before •" Bo alao loalces It clear that be doea not feel 

that the Hat of objeetivea obtained In thla atudj la eomplete 

but au(;;'^e8ta that the Inventory dlaoorera the objeotlvea to> 

eard whlob general aolenoa oouraea ahould ala. nie Hat of 

objeotlvea reaultlng fron Brlggs' atuOy are Hated under alx 

■aln headlnga thuai 

!• Utility! Oensral aolenee shall teaeh pupils 
to hno« shat the utilitarian values of adonoe are, 
how seienee Is applied to make life safer and eaaler* 

S* Appreelatloni Solenoe should naks stvtdenta 
aware and appreciative of the wonders of nattire* 

S« Avocation t Science should contribute to 
ths vise and profitable uae of lelaure tlae* 

4* Soolal Contaotai Although not an objective 
directly sought, a knowledge of science maJeea poealble 
■any soolal contacts > 

6* Solentlflo Attitudes! Okie of tlie first ob- 
jectives of science teaching Is the aolentlflo at- 
titude and approach to any problem altuatlon* 

6* Preparation! To prepare students for later 
■ore apeolallaed etudy of the sciences* 



SB 



Croxton (8) m«d« « study In ieC5 the purpose of irtiloh 

«es to further consider end elerlfy alna of solenoe teeoblni* 

In this work the author aekea a atatetoent vhleb la very slg* 

nlf leant* 

Our problais In aolanoe teaching la clear* 
Ve muat detenalne ehat «e are trying to aooon- 
pllab* Instead of attea^tln/; to find poaalble 
uses for the traditional body of subject aatter 
ehloh «e are teaching* 

PoXloelng Is a list of the solenoe alms as evolved by 

Oroxton* Their order has no slsnlflcance* The author sug- 

gests that sach aim la to be kept clearly before the teacher 

that definite measures may be taken to aehleve It* 

1* To open nee avenues of Interest and satisfaction* 

8. To lead to broader ooooepts and wider outlooks* 

S* To lead to utilisation of knowledge and ex- 
perience In coping with the forces of nature and In 
making \ise of the fruits of discovery end Invention* 

4* To develop soelal attitudes and appreciations* 

S* To cultivate scientific attltudea and habits 
of procedure* 

In the Forty-Sixth yearbook. Part 1, of the National 

Soelaty for the Study of Education (SS) la found a very good 

statement of objectives for science teaching* Tbs statement 

of objectives as given is not Intended to be exhaustive* To 

(|aote the yearbook t 

It alms to show types of objectives and to Illus- 
trate, rather than to list In ccnqslete detail* As a 
matter of fact, a oorsplote listing of all possible 
specific objectives should probably not even be con- 
sidered* The statement of objectives themselves. Is 
Intended In a real sense to Indicate directions of 
growth^— perhaps never oomplete, but always being re- 
vised by claasroom teaehers and others, and thus 



^ 



thins nevar finally uid «holly ranllsAd. 

FeXXovlDS !• « Hat of tb« objective aroaa auggoated by 

the yearbook with a few of the illustrative exaapXea for each. 

A* JPunottoaal infomatlon or faot about suoh 
natters asi 

1. Our unlverae. 

2. Living thlntjia. 
5* Snersy* 

8. Functional oonoepts, suoh asi 
1* Spao« Is vast. 
2< The earth is very old. 
C. I^lnctlonaI unders tendinis of prlxielples. 
suoh act 

1. All living thlnf^ reproduce their kind. 
Z, Energy oan be changed frotn one fora to 
another. 
0. Instrumental skills, suoh ast 

1. Read solenoe content with understanding 
and aatlsfactlon. 

2. Perform fundaoental operations with 
reasonable aeeuraoy. 

E» Problem solving skills, suoh ast 

X. Sense a problem. 

2. Draw ooneluslons. 
y. Attitudes, suoh as I 

1. Openalndedness, willingness to 
oonslder new facts. 

2. Intellectual honesty. 
S. Suspend Jud0Bent. 

Q. Appreciations, suoh as: 

1. Appreciation of the ooDtributlons 
of scientists. 

2. Appreciation of basic oause>and>effeet 
relatlcnshlps. 

B. Interests, suoh ast 

1. Interest In some phase of solenoe 

as a reoreational activity or hobby, 
8. Interest In science as a field for 

a vocation* 

The first question proposed by tlw writer in the ques- 
tionnaire sent out to the Junior high schools inquired Into 
th* ains and objectives of the course In general solenoe. In 
all, 16 speolfle aims of a oourse in general solenoe were sug- 
gested. These 16 aajor alas have been grouped Into five oata- 



^ 



gorlvs* The five oataisorloB witli tba aloui of aaoii oatagory 
ar« given In 7abl« 3* The numbar following the apeolfio aim 
repreaenta the nuslber of aolenoe teachera voting for the 
apeolfio ala* 



1 

Tabic 8* Alms of aoiance tsaohlxu;. 


! Frequency of 


Ai« : mantlon 


To promote understuidlag 




To mderstand n*tur«*s world, plant. 




anioal, and maobanloal 


8 


To underataad Ufa and how It oan coo- 




trtbuta to paraonal wall being 


4 


To underatand the valxw of eolence In 




our modem world 


a 


To help the pupil understand what be 




reads and haara 


1 


Ta promote developoient 




To develop creative ability end eklll 


4 


To develop a aoiantlflc attitude 


10 


To develop a wide and varied Interest 




In aoienee 


10 


To develop right hablta, methoda, and 


•k 


ppoeedures, and aeouraey In report- 




ing knowledge 


1 


To serve an Introduotory and exploratory function 




To Introduce the student to the baalo 




prlnolples and ftmdamental theorlea of 




solenoe 


18 


To acquaint hln with the apaclal aolences 




and prepare bl» for ftiture schooling 


14 


To promote learning 




To learn to manipulate equipment 




To make a atudent aware of and to help him 




to learn the Inplicationa of his environ- 




ment 




To leam to make adaptati<wa anc! adjuatments 




to ones environaent 




To learn of the oontrola man haa over hia 




environment 




To leam the aolentlfio method of attacking 




any problem 




To provide recreation and worthy use of lelaure 




To j»*ovide a worthy reoreational Interest 




for leisure and enjoyment 


6 





^ 



8ttbJ«ttt Mattmi> 

B«for« tha •atabllatJMnt of th« Junior high aohoola, th» 
typical sehool ayataa of farad ptagralology or natural aolanoa 
In tdie aaventh grada, phyalolojgr In tha alghth grada and 
pbyaloal gaography In tha ninth gmde aocordlng to aruhn and 
Douglasa (11, p<114). Betvaan 1910 and 191S couraea in ganaral 
aolanca bagan to appear lA^oh included much material from the 
flelda of chenlatry, pliyaioa, biology and othera. The offering 
in the field of general aoienoe oan be conaidered a traditional 
field in ttie modem Junior high aohool* Zta poaition there la 
defended en every hand. 

Vhile it vould not be neoeaaary to defend the poaition of 
general aoienoe in the Junior hli^ school it might be neoeaaary 
to defend aooie of the aubject matter areaa of the offering in 
general aoienoe. Indeed, the ourrioulum in general aoienoe 
grew out of the evolution of the aoienoe offeringe in the up- 
per elaaontary and lower high aohool {jpodea. That evolution 
la atill going on and ri^tly ao. I^irthemore it ia the Job 
of ourrioulum eorkera and textbook writers to aee that au«h 
evolution be continued. Only through axioh evolution ia it 
poaaible to keep the subject up to date, to meke it »9ry 
adequately thoae it is deaigned to serve* 

Extensive roseamh and experimentation have been done to 
determine ibet ia suitable subject matter for general aoienoe* 



^ 



ttadti «iXl n—d to b« don* In th« future. Of tb* r«a«u>oh 
that t»m b«on dons, nuoh h»B tMwi ba««d on tlw itnAlyala of 
taxtbooks. Savla (10), Zlar (17), Klopp (16), and Wabb (87) 
liava analyzad taxtbooka en ganaral selanca and all, aooord- 
tng to Holl (86, p* 106), oonour that tiieao taxtbooka are aub- 
atantlally allka in the aeleotlon of aubjact matter, but are 
not in oodforaity with ohlldran'a intereota, 

Harap (18), reported a atudy in 1984, one of the porpoaea 
of which ma to deteralne the aolenoe needed by preaent day 
Aaarloan eo«aanlo life with apeeial reference to food, fuel 
clothing, and ahelter* In his study he oade oonpariaona be- 
tween actual praotioe and iriwt was oonaidered efficient prac- 
tice at that time, Harap*a atudy reaulted in a list of aolen- 
tiflc terma found in the fields of biology, ohemlatry, health 
and hygiene, hoaw eooaoaica, and phyaloa* In all, there were 
707 acientifio tema found in 18SQ oooBaoditiea offered to the 
eonauiMr* 

Curtta (6) Bade a ayntheaia and evaluation of three city 
oouraea of atudy, four aoalyaea of textbocdca, aix atiuSiea of 
aoiantlfio interest, three analyses of current literature, 
Karap'a atudy of co n amer aoience, and one oannlttee report. 
Thla work reaulted in a Hat of 1880 topioa aa the baaia for 
detemlning what la auitable and the beat aubjeot natter for 
general acienoe. 

Cureton (4) brought together the reaulta of various 
eurrioular atudlea In general acienoe, including Inveatl- 
gations of newapaper aoience, ehildron'a and adulta* ({ueations. 



^ 



a larg* nmber of taxtbook uiftl7»e«» books oa aoteooe teach- 
ing, AQd tMt« la oeuitrkl •ol«no«. Viw parposo, amaoe othor 
thln«i» «M to axvlvo at tfliat ahould b« the coutent of subjeot 
■atter of ganai'al soienee* %• attidy reaultad' in a atataoant 
of 612 toplOB of gauaraX solanoa. 

Davla (10) BMda a atudy to dateralna the aubjaot natter 
toploa of the eight textbooka aoat widely vwed In the schools 
of Vlsoonsln. Analyaee aeve aade of the lateat edltloas of 
the eight textbooks appearing during the school year 1929-lsSO. 
Thla atudy reaulted In a atatenent of 137 toploa of gMMral 
aolenoe. It further revealed that of the el«fht textbooka 
studied there «as oloss agreeaent aa to tltb vinlte on Air* 
Cater, Heat, Veathar, Ll^t, Xa«Mtlaa and Eleotrlelty, 
Saargy and Kaehlnea, Plants, The Boaan Body, and Poods. There 
«as fair agreawent on the unlta Smmd, the Solar System, and 
Rooka and Solla* There aaa little or no agreeaant of the unlta 
Anlaala and Clothing* 

In the ThlPty-Flrat Yearbook of the national Society for 

the Study of Education, Part I, A Program for Teaching Solenee 

(84), the following atatenent la madei 

Probably the moat effective influence making for 
greater uniformity In the content and organisation of 
general aolanoe «aa the report of the Oomaiaslon on 
the Reorganisation of Scionce in Soooodary Sohoola* 

The Kepox^ of the Comalaalon on the Reorganisation of 

Salanee in the secondary School (28) says in parti 



Oeoeral sclenoe ahould uae any pbaae of any 
special aolenoe vhlch U pertinent in the citisen*a 

interprotatlon of a worth-ehlle problea...The par- 



*1 



^ 



tioular units or atvAj should be those tliat 
truly Interest ti^ie pupll««»*t*Mo topic ehoiild 
be selected niilcb Is aeegve In content or lack- 
ing In slffilfleent prol>lMui»«...Xn onsnnXutns 
this sMkterlal the topic should be the lu^ 
unit to ehich lasny specific pieces of nortc ere 
related* 

Many authors of textbooks heeded the reecHaeBdatlcDs of 
the report* Also, following the publloatlon of the report In 
lesOf there appeared several Investlgatloos of the content of 
general selenee courses* Webb (S7) made an analysis of IS 
current textbooks in tlie field and gained a picture of the 
branches of solenoe represented and of the aajor topics of 
each science* Ovem (87) aade a study of 13 textbooks appeer- 
ing i»>ior to 1080 and this study served as an additional cheek 
list for topics treated in general eclence, acoordlnc to a dl« 
gest of this study reported by Gurtis (6, p* TS^VS}* liieokel 
(88) analysed 14 textbooks and set forth the ftmdsswntal topics 
and their frequenoy of occurrence in the textbook studied* 

(hirtls and Bobart (7) aade a study, "A Qeoond Synthesis 
and Evaluation of Subject Uatter In deneral Science," in irtilob 
a total of 88SS topics eas eonpiled and evaluated to determine 
their appropriateness for inclusion in gsaeral ecienoe text- 
books and courses of study. This study revises and extends 
the list of 18S0 topics compiled and evaluated by Curtis in 
1988* Unfortunately, this second study Is unpublished and 
therefore the farmer study provides the beet available and 
meet ccnprehensive checklist of topics and principles that 
have reeeived recosoitlon In textboeke and courses of study. 



^ 



Th««« atudlea rovasl • olos* aiaillarlty In th* subjaet 
■ftttar araaa inoludad in th« vvlous taxtbooics* 7h*)?« la 
variation In tha naaaa appllad and tba manbcr of vmlta Into 
vhlofa tha varloua aubjact luttar araaa ara dlvldad. Th«ra la 
aooM variation In the numb«r of toploa treated In tha various 
taxtbooka analysed. There la great variation In the number of 
toploa atudled and evaluated by the various inveatigatora • 

The Ourtla and Ilobart study, olted above, would oonatitute 
ttas aoat valuable oheok Hat of aubjeot matter toploa In general 
aoienoe. Aa already stated, this la an tmpublished atudy. The 
lateat and most ooaq>rehenaive atudy irtiieh Blight be uaed for sueb 
a oheokliat is tba Ourtla liat already olted. Thia study doea 
not, however. Include any toploa appearing alnoe 1980. 

An endeavor has been made to devise a supplementary list 
of modem or reoent toploa iftiioh might be profitably uaed in a 
textbook or oourse of atudy. T«o aourees of data were utilised t 
(1) the eight textbocdcs reported on in seotion one sere analysed 
for reoent subject matter topies, (8) the problem was next ex- 
plained to the pupils in the general selence classes at Boawell 
Junior High School in Topeka, Kanaaa, tfisre t)ie preaent writer 
was teacher of general solence. The pupils' interest in the 
problem was aroused and then they were asked to submit lists of 
current and modem toplos lAiloh they would like to find discussed 
in their own science textbook, ^any valuable contributions to 
the supplementary list were thus obtained. Iliis supplementary 
list makes no pretense of being ooaplete, it Is believed that 




^ 



It ootitalna sqom vary valuable oontrlbutlooB • Th« raaulta of 
th«a« t«o taohntqu«a ara glvan balow and are ballevad to b« 
tha aoat appropriate a\)bJaot awttar areaa* 



Air 

aerodynanloa 

fll^t at apeed of aound 

liquid air 

altimeter 

wind tuonela 

alrfoila 



Electricity 

photoelectric eell 
frequenoy modulation 
ahort wave 
eleotronioa 
televlaioD 
sound pioturea 
•ire recorder 
teleeoMaunioatioQa 



Fooda 

deep freeaing 
food debydxnitlon 
gaa refrlgeratora 
hoiMgenlied milk 
dally food requlrementa 



Tranaportaticn 

autogyro 
helicopter 
Jet propulaion 
pilotleaa planea 
dleael eleotrio 
loooaotlvea 
dleael enginea 
auperobargera 
aail planea 
glidera 
rocket power 
Jet propulalon 
autcnatic pilot 
gyroaompaaa 
gyroatabiliaer 
atratoaphere flight 
midget eara 
railroad radio 

Sound control approach 
atrwaant landing 




. 


Induatry 


Hatter of the unlverae 


- 


air oondltlonlng 


radioactivity 




prefabricated dMlllag 


uranium 




atoBlo po«ar 


thorium 




plaatlos 


Plutonium 




■ynthatlo rubber 


new and rare elements 




rayon 


molecules 




nylon 


atoms 




airplane duattng 


eleotrona 




cellophane 


protons 




cfllluloae 


neutrons 




eleotrotyplnij 


atomic flaslon 




bakellte 






plexlglaa 






hl^ octane gasoline 

ambergris 

pyralln 


Uodem Inventions 




inlcrofilm 




thermit 


radar 

radio beams 

atcm smasher (oyolotroo) 




Health 


eleotron niorosoope 
magnetic microscope 


. 


protoxoana 


atomic bcnb 




penicillin 


Incindlary bomb 




atreptonyoln 


flame throwers 




D. D. T. 


flame weoder 




blood banlca 


black light 




sulfa drugs 


wallcie talkie 




biological warfare 


polaiK>ld 




iron lung 


V-a rockets 




virus 


neon lights 




atomic dlaease control 


fluorescent lights 
artificial precipitation 
public addreaa systems 
schnorkel breathing equipment 

The universe 

Mount Palamor 
Pluto 


- 




artificial meteorltea 



^ 



In th» q\i«etloQn«lr« a«nt out to the varloua Junior hl|^ 
school*, thr*« qiMstlons regarding subject natter areas vers 
asked. "Rm reauXts or t)>eae quaatlons are given in Tables 4 
and 5. From a study of these tables. It oan be seen that 26 
out of the SS repo)t>tiug a oourse in general solence feel that 
the present subjeot matter Is meeting the present needs. How- 
ever, It must be pointed out that soim of those obviously think 
that sooe alterations might be nade since 31 votes were oast 
for otaangea either by addition or deletion of subjeot natter. 
Fourteen voted to delete some sections of the present subjeot 
mstter vAiile 17 voted to make additiona of aooie aeotions. Aa 
ml^t be expected, there la considerable oonfliot in opinion 
as to «hat should be left out and what ahould be reinforced 
with additional topics. Kor example one teacher voted to 
leave out astronomy while one teacher voted to add topics from 
that area. Three teachers voted to leave out health #i.ile two 
voted to include more topics from that area. It should be poin- 
ted out here that those three voting to leave health out did not 
do ao because they considered it unimportant but beoause it was 
being covered in other courses. The one teacher voting to leave 
out the area on aeotMnics voted to do so on the baais of a purely 
local situation in wlUoh he atated that his olaaaea were all 
glrla. 

The area of modem Inventiona received more attention than 
any other as a possible new unit for inclusion in a courae of 
study or fceneral science textbook. In this area were mentioned 
such things as atoalo energy for ships, cars, trains, and ata- 




^ 



tloDATj povarpXants, radar, talavlalon, and alaotroraloa* 

Ob* taatfaar ■agcaatad a unit aa Boaanlea* this tA0tt 
•onad Ilka a unit for aoolal atudlaa but thla taaebar «aa 
Mptiaalitng tha ln^ortanoa of tba blologloal and aoologloal 
Moaldaratlona of tauaan axlatanoe. 

Two taaolwra votad to laava out araaa of tha presant 
aubjaot aattar but did not Indloata ibrnt araaa ttmj would 
laara out. Kour votad to tnoluda additional araaa of aub« 
Jaet aattar but did not maka auggaatlona aa to lAiat ahould 
ba laaltidad* 



Tabla 4* Taaehar avaluatlon of aubjaot aattar of 
Junior hlgb aohool ganaml aolanca* 



QMatlon t Mo. voting t not 

> yffi R9 t y^im 

i. Do you faal that tha praa- 
•at aubjaat aattu^ la fulfill' 
lac Ita porpoaat 88 8 B 

4A* Do you think that aoaa aao^ 
tlooa of tbm praaaot atd>Jaot 
aattar oould ba laft outT 14 17 4 

4B. Do you think that aooM 
aatarUl ahould ba Inoludad 
that la not at tha praaant 
tliM baln« glvan acnaldaratloDt 17 8 10 



^ 



I. 
ii 

o 



f 

!! 



i 



C4 ri H i-t n n '« C4 ■-• Oi i-< 



I 



♦a 



t s 



5 If 



8 4* -H 

«>4>r4 S 



O O 



• «« •• W«nMr-l r4 «H 






§3. 



8e Oi«> A4> w a o 



*84i:4»^ggg 



8 0410*38 ■rlrj. 

Com 4* Eo3o4>B4J 






imri 



^ 



SupplwMntavy Materials 

In moat sohool ayatMM tha aubjeot mattar offarad by 
tha adoptad taxt ooastltutas tha iMin body of aubjaot Mattar 
In tha oouraa In ganaral solanoa. This la cnly a natural 
aituatlon. Ho«avar, taxtbooica ara of naoaaalty mora or lasa 
static. Evan with constant ravision It is inpossibla to hava 
tha vary latast davalopnanta in tha fiald of scianoa included 
In tha taxtbook. For this raason it is raasonabla to urga tha 
usa of supplamantary matarlala to kaep tha oouraa in ganaral 
seianoa laodam in avary raspaot in ordar to ralata it to tha 
axparlancas of tha pupils. 

Baaad on information gainad from bastion 2 in tha <tuas- 

ttonnaira, tha following eatagorlas for classifying tha sup« 

pl am a n tsry matorials wars propoaadt 

1* Salaotad ganaral works i 
books on idiotography 
books on wsatbar 
books on haalth and first aid 
books on astranooiy 

8. Supplamantary taxtbooksi 

Basic Solanca Kduoatlon Sarias 
8mlth-Trafton Sarlaa for 7'th, B'th, and 

9*th gradaa 
Oruanbarg and Unsiokar, Scianoa In Our Llvaa 
Vood and CarjMntar, Our EtoTlrcnmant 
Dull, Mann, and JTofanaon, Modam Scianoa 
Davis and Sharpa, Scianoa 

8* Rafaranoa workai 

Qanaral Eneyolopadiaa 

Tha World Book 

BoA of Ibiowladga 

Comptons 

Junior Brlttanlca 



^ 



4* latMi^n** and Solantlflc Parlodleal*! 
Popnlar oolme* 
Selanee Dlgtat 
teienos Mmn L*tt«r 
Currwit SolMie* and Aviation 
Fopular Maehanlca 
Solano* Illuatratad 
latura Magasln* 

B* Oovamnient Pnopblata and Bullattnai 
laatbar Bureau Publleatlona 
Poraat Sarvlca Bullatlna 
Dapapttaant of Agrloultuiv Publloatlona 

A* NblloatloDa of OoEasarclal l^lmai 

Muaieipal Publla Utllltlaa Studlaa 

Vaatlni^ouaa Llttla Soianoa Qarlaa 

AaMrloan Talayhooa and Velagnvh 

OaXlfomla and Hawaiian Saifar Raf Inlas Corporatloo 

MatlooaX CartMn Co^any 

Sperry Oyvoasop* Conpany 

Oanaral Motora 

Alrllnaa of ttaa Unltad Stataa 

Aaaoolatlon of Aaarlean Rallroada 



tmhlm fl rt>a«a th« apaolflo eatagorx of aupplaaMBtary 
■atarlal and tba matbar of aohoola raportlng that oatasory. 
Six aohoola raportad no aupplanantary natarlala irtilX* 
aohoola raportad aaterlala froo Bor« than oam oatagory* 




Tabl* e. Ca« of mvpplMmaturf mtarlaXa in Junior 
hlcb lobool gtomrti. solenee. 



^••Iflo I lotfMr of aohoela t Bx%«nt of t lunbor of 
•mtrngfaj i roportlng fete i omfeagorio* i aohoola 



u 

M 

» 

It 

6 
7 




I 

« 
6 
4 
8 



^ 



VlmiiO, Alda la Omcmvl Sel«na« 

Tiaual aids aay b« thona^t of by som •■ a t/p* of aup* 
plwMntary Mitaplftl. This point of vl«» wi* ahowt bj awajr 
«ho Muiwercdl ths quastlanaalr* ue«d for this study* It Is 
tnw that visual aids sm^w additional subjaot matter avalX- 
abla* Indaad, that faot la th« Juatlfloatlon of tba Inelu- 
sloQ of tba Bubjaot of vlaual aids In tbla thasls iriilch Is 
prlowrlly oonoamad wltb sub J act matter* Visual alda mate 
subjsat matter available that would otherwlaa be loat. This 
Is true In such a unique vay that a separate olasslfloatlan 
la Justified* 

Hoban (18, p*9) defines visual aids as 

any ploture, model, object, or devloe iblch 
provides oonorete vleual experlenee to the learner 
tar the purjwae of (1) Introduolng. ball41ng up, 
or clarifying abatraot ooneepts. (8) developing 
desirable attitudes, and (8) stuulatlns further 
activity on the p«rt of the learner* 

Visual aids are very laportant In the teaching of solenoe* 

Preatoa (3S) makes many referenoes to the need for visual alda 

In developing dear mental Imagery. Re makes the st«tament 

that 

no field of knowledge offers greater variety 
and richness In theee belpe than does science, 
and probably no field needs tbea more. 

Perry (88) olaaalflea the various kinds of visual aids 

under six main headings i 



X» ttM a«bool Joum«7 

S« MiMimim iHitariala 

S. Oraphlo ia»t*ri*ls 

4. Daaonatratlons Mad dr«utlMti<ma 

C. SftlU flguras 

4. Motion ploturaa 

Mm r«f*ra to the sohooX journey aa th« aoat alople ot tb« 

viaual alda and Vam aotlon pleture aa the nioat eoaplex. 

the aohooX Journey aay be uaeful in Introduolng a unit 
of aubjeot matter or In auaaary of auoh a unit. There la 
uaually aaple aaterlal available regardleaa of the loeatloa 
of tbe aohool. 

n>e HuaeiaD la a valuable eontrlbutlcm to any aobool and 
•faouXd be Maintained In oonneetlon elth tbe solenoe departaant* 
Addltlona ean be aade to the aohool anuraum throu^ the aolenee 
elaaaea and tlie aolenoe olaaeea or aeaOiem of the aelenoe olub 
aan aaawM aame of the reeponalblllty of Ita malntenanoe* 

Oraphloal naterlala aueh aa waathMi* aapa, graphloal re- 
lief aapa, tbe globe, oharta and aodela offered by the biolof 
leal aupply houaea make valuable contrlbutiona to the general 
aelMioe laboratory or olaaaroon* Many eaoaerolal oos^aniea 
provide oharta uaeful in aolenoe olaaaea. A etaart of the atoaa 
le not out of plaoe in the general aelenoe elaaaroaa* A ehart 
of the aetrle ayatea or welfljata and oeaaurea is of si^at value* 

Somonatrationa aerve aa a tool of viaual inatruotton* If 
planned ahead of tine and «ell done they nay greatly enriob and 
extend the etibjeot natter of general aolenoe* 

rioturea are of aeveral foxva* Still pieturea, flat pie- 
turea, and atereographs are eoanonly uaed. Projeoted plottiree 




^ 



•u«h •• alidcs snd ftOa «trlp« ar* In eoaaan ua« an vlaual 

alda. 

Probably the laoat eomplax of all vlaual aids la tha 

aoond aotlen pletura* Of tiia 86 aohoole partlolpatlns In 

thla atudy all rapertad tba uaa of motion plotupaa. Parry 

(86) atataa that 

young taaolwra. aapaeially, ahould ba aamad 
that tha notion ptotura In tha elaaarocM la not a 
aubatttute f9r auparvlaad atvtdy, azparlmant, dls- 
auaalon, and i«vla«. 

Many axparlaanta bava baan undartakan to laam tha plaoa 
of olaasroom fllaa aa a aaana of Inatruotlon. Moat of thaaa 
atodlaa dawmatrata that thara Is a daflnita plaoa In tha elaa8« 
rooB for Inatruotlonal motion ploturaa» 

l^MB (89) oonduotad a atudy to datamlna i^loh of t«o 
groupa, otharvlaa handlad aa naarly tha aaraa as poaalbla, got 
tha Moat out of tha two aatboda of praaantatlon of aubjaot cMt- 
tar, that la, tha oral or vlaual. Tha author advanoaa axparl* 
mantal avldanea that the uaa of vlaual alda la of nore than tha- 
oratlonl value* Tha uaa of auoh alda atalcaa the aubjact auittar 
mora vital. It ({Ivaa It mora value, and adda a oartaln ollnoh- 
Ins power • 

fhara la another alda ahleh ahould be presented here. 
Kaaalar (18) made a atudy to determine tha extant to ahleh 
aartaln seleeted Instructional fllaa In aelanoe aontrlbute to 
tha reallaatlon of three of the major alma of aelanoa teaehlnj 
In the aaooDdaiT' aehoola* Ihase three teaohlnu alma. In terms 
of irtiloh the film oontenta w*Ta analyiad, arai 



^ 



la To affcet an undsretandilng of aolontlfio 
prluolplaa that will Amotion la tha avaryday Ufa 
and aatlvieiaa of tha atotent. 

B* To taaoh tha alaawnta of aolantlflo 
■athod aa aklll to t>a aaplojad In tha aolutlon 
of prdblaou. 

8* To davalop tha aolantlflo attltudaa* 

In hla work Xasalar uaaa tha tara *unlqua function." 

Ha daflnaa thla tarn by aaylact 

It la an aduoatlonal axporlanoa ahloh tha 
■otlon plotora owdlun oan provlda but «hleh 
eannot ba provldad by any othar typa of audlo- 
vlaual aid* 

Following la a Hat of "unlqua fttnotlooa" aa axiggaatad 

by talat 

1. Mathoda or prooaaaaa not dlreotly 
daaonatrabla 

S. AotloD obaarvabla only ▼loarloualy 

8* Obaarvabla aotlon obaarvabla only 
throng animation 

4* Unobaarvabla aotlon throng aalaatlon 

B» Slow aotlon pbotoir^tay 

e. Tlaa>lapaa photography 

7. Slaulatlon of raallty tlu*ou(^ tha 
Incorporation of raoordad aound 

Twantyfour fllaa* aaauaad to ba tha b«at avallabla, 

wara aalaotad for atudy. Tha 1784 aoaneaa ahloh inada up 

tha 24 fllaa wara analyaad "critically In tha light of eara- 

fully praparad avaluatlon orltarla." iCaaalar faala that tha 

baat fllna In tVM flald do not aarva thalr purpoaa wall| that 

tha baat (Unction parforaad la that of "brlnglag tha world la- 




^ 



to th* olacarooa." Many of the potentially valuablo fymo- 
tlons are utllisad far too llttla. Miniature photography 
la uaed too llttla. Too moh a^phaala la glvm to tba ln> 
aplratlooal and tha dranatte* Aocordlng to Kkaalar thar* 
la no aound avldanoe that tha fllaw do, or even try, to taaidt 
aclantlfle prlnolplaa« Tha beat fllma do not taaoh tha ala- 
■anta of the aolantlflo natbad. Thara la no Intantloo or ef- 
fort to teaeh aolantlflo attltudaa. Be ballevea that flla 
produoars fall to uae the apaclalliad fmotloo of ahlob thla 
■adlum la oapabla* 

In tha ((uaatlonnalre whloh ma tha baala of thla atody, 
queatlona vara aaked about t«o phaaea of tlia vlaual aduaatlon 
prograa, naaalyi Do you nake uae of plotxirea, slldea, and 
fllma. In developing your noarm* In general aelancaT Do you 
take your olasaea on aehool trlpa In developing your oourae 
In ganeral aolanceT Of the 36 aohoola participating In thla 
atudy, all reported the uae of pleturea, alldea, and fllna In 
tha ganaral aelenoe oourae* T«wnty-ana of the S6 reported the 
praatloe of going on aohool Joumeya In the developoant of tha 
eourae In general aolenoa. Table 7 glvaa Infoxnatlon eoneam- 
Ing aatlvltlea vlaltad* 



• 


Wbl* 7, Aotlvltiss vl«lt«d on school JounM^a and avt^bur 
of sohoola vlalttng* 


Aotlvitloa rlelted j Hunbor of 


Water plant IC 
PotMr plant 14 
rira atatloa 18 

LOMl 8U«g» 11 

Study of rooks » aolla, and arosian 9 
Oraan housa 9 
Vfaathar buraau • 
Airport e 
Obsarvatory S 
Radio station 6 
lallroad «i«p« 4 
Tolaphooa offloa 8 

MlMI 1 
Zoo 1 





OaHunitjr itosauro** 

Zt la • nattirel trwwltlfla fron • progr«a of visual alda 
la g/KomrtX aoleuo* to on* of Magntnlty atudloa* Thla la as- 
paolally trua wbaa otw thlnloi of th* aohool joumay. For 
tbrongh tba aohool Jeumay ooMaa ao mmaj «u<g«atlana for ooai- 
Mmlty atudlaa. fbo ooBMinlty atudy la mor«, ho«aver, than a 
aohool Joumay. Tba aohool Joumay la uaually not loo^r tlian 
t«o or tiiraa olaaa parloda oonblnod Into aom parlod. Th* ooa« 
jBunlty atudy may (;ro« out of aone aotlvlty^ oba*rv*d n**4l, or 
•xparl*ne* anoount*r*d during th* aohool Joaroay and aay raault 
In th* Initiation of a projoet oovarlng a «bol* saa*at«r or a 
y*ar> or ovan iaor*f In aom* apcolal caa*a< If tha oawaunlty 
atudy oaa ba th* dlraot reault oT tha aotlvltlea or obaervatlons 
of tha puplla, ao ouoh tha b*tt*r« Many eaa«a ar* In th* r*«> 
oorda In ahieh puplla hav* obaoi^ad osrtaln oandltlooa irtileh 
brought about a «orth-«hlla oonsunlty atudy. Partiapa In aoat 
Inatancas It «111 b* n*o*aa*ry for tha t*ach*r to guld* th* 
jniplls In their aotlvltloa and oaua* th*m to aaa lAiora vorth- 
«bll* atudlaa oan b* mad** Sine* thla la trua. It «111 b* n*«- 
asaaz? for tha taaolMr flrat to know th* eooBninlty In i^Ailch ta* 
la t*aehlnc* To know of Ita roaouroaa for gaaaral aolano* aub- 
J*at aattar, to know Ita problaaM, to aaam Ita paopl* and Ita 
Induatrloa will ba r«qulr«d of a taaohar «Aio la to dir*ot ooBt» 
■unity atudlaa* 

Ob* of th* moat aff*otlv* lnflu*ne*a making for gr**t«r 



^ 



unlforalty in tha eant«nt and orgsnicatlon ot gnaaml aolraec 

«M tba r«port of th* CoBnlasian for th« RsovcwlBatlati of 

Seianea In ttia SaoondaiT' ttoboola (82). This atudy haa also 

baan quota<l by ttaa Rational Boelaty for tha Study of Educatloo 

in Ita thirty-First Xaarbook, Part 1, A Pro«nM for Taaohing 

Saianoa (84). Following U a signlf leant stataownt fron tta* 

raport of that oooMisalan. 

Ttia aubjaot mattar of ganaral sdanca ahould 
ba salaotad to a larga axtant froa tba anvlraMant. 
It will ttasraf ora vary graatly In 4iffiarant oon- 
■unltlas. 

Sm oiwwiiilTjr haa lans! baan rfoaalwA aa a aouroa of 
valid sobjaot mattar by taxtbocric wltars and tbosa ehargsd 
slth tbs laprwmsMnt of eurrleulum. Tbm lltaratiira la xw 
plata with auooaaa atoriaa of how both sobool and oaasanity 
bava profltad wtWB sabools study thalr aoBBinltlaa. 

Fiaroa (89) ralatad a vary Intarastlng story of 10 yaan 
of davalopnant. axparianoa, and aucoaas as Vails High Sobool In 
caileago, studiad and oooparatad with tha oomounity. Itertn« tha 
tan yaar parlod tha aobool and aiamiiilty oooparatad In tha utl- 
Usatlon of oounolls of bsalth, rallgious aetlvltlaa* gardsolng. 
buslnasB training* labor aondltlons, eblld walfars, and youth 
raoraatlon. 

Ptsrcsa suggasts aa tha flrat stap in a eannunlty studty, 
a surray to Idantlfy tha oaaBunltlas adnoatlonal raaouroaa* It 
Is auggaatad that elaasas in aaeh aajov fiald autka aurvaya of 
raaoureas ralavant to thalr raapactlva flalda. Zha flald trip 
or aehool Joumsy la to ba wldaly usad. Ha suggasts that par> 



04 



Kits and lst«r«at«d lay eltlams saalst tcsofaars wul in soaw 
eas«a t^Mt tfa«7 aotually r*pl*a« t«tieli*r«* Pl«p«« nigaaatB 
that aa th« ollaax of all flaltt trlpa, a trip ba aada by poplla 
unaldad by taaetiara or othar adulta* Tbaaa trlpa ara to ba ra- 
partad on la tar « Soaa tangtbla outeooaa of aoanmlty atudlaa 
aiFS augsaatad by Plaroat 

8Bab aotlvitlaa aall tha aaaannlty on tha aehool 
Nakaa uaa of paranta and lay eitlsaoa 
Kaicaa tba ooaaamtty a olaaarooa laboratory 
Barvaa a galdanea p u r p oaa 
rrovidaa training for oonaunlty aarvloa 
Cavalopa good pobllo ralatlana 
Bugiiaa (16) raporta a ooMunlty atudy In I<oa Angalaa* Iba 
prevalanoa of tubarouloala aaaag laxloana and lagiraaa vaa alam* 
lag* TIM author talla ho» tha aohoola aot^yaratad In a wlaaly 
plamad and dtraotad progran to allay tha faara and auparatl- 
tlona aaMog >agF0 aad Maxloan aohool oblldran ragardlng tubar- 
ouloala* Tha aohool eooparatad with haalth authorlttaa Kid 
dootora In aoaibattlag a draated dlaaaaa* Tha oauaaa of tba 
dlaaaaa wv axplalnad togathar alth tba aatfaoda of dlavuMl* 
aad aoBtrol* 

Aa a aaeondary outcona an analyala «aa ami» of tba voea> 
tlanal poaalbllltlaa for youth In tba flald of publlo haalth. 
Dala (9, p.804) uaaa tlia axpraaalon *flald axparlaneaa"* 
Ba aaya tb«t aooMtliaaa flrat-band axparlanaaa taka on ecaaw 
nlty-«lda proportlaoa* Thia la rofarrad to aa a atudy of tha 
aoanmlty* Oala ralataa nany Inatanoaa ahava aebool groupa 



^ 



hten mad* inpoflt«bl« tu« of Vm oaaminity rsaouroas In sueh pro* 

Jeeta aa Inaaot eoQtrol, raforsatatlon, gaaa praaerratlon, fira 

pravantloa, Iqproraaant of aavaga cUapoaal, and food atudlaa. 

Salaa at al* (16, p*168) la dlaouaaing tba utilisation of 

II (■■mull J raaovircaa through tto aehool atata that 

a auTYOT of tha tinaafllata and nalgHborlag 
aurroundlnca ahould ba aada In orter to list 
all available aatarlala* 

Tbmj angitaat auoh a aarvay la order that teaehara aajr fBaillar* 

lae thaaaelvea with tha location and develop avenuaa of approaoh 

and at the aaaa time beeonw familiar with aagr apeolal featurea 

and purpoaea ahloh ml(^t be aerved* 

Seay (84) flnda that throu|th oaaamnlty atodlea atudenta 
find aa« Interest In aehool work* niey learn more eelenoe* 
The eoaaunlty leama too, and very often developa a oontlnulng 
Interest In Improving Itaelf . Ba auggeeta tbet probably the 
■oat valuable atudlee grow out of the aohools dealre to relate 
aoma aduoatlonal activity to oamnunlty needa> He auggaata tliat 
there are many maya to go about a eaaanmlty atudy and that elab> 
orate aurvaya are aeldom neoeaaary* Itae wlter agreea with the 
idee that elaborate aurveya are aeldom naeeaa*ry ainoe the main 
objective la not the aurvey but to midee Imom the edueatlonal 
reaou3roee* Koat useful community atudlee have begun with a 
aurvey* 

It aeemed worth-while to determine ttfiat uae waa being 
made of the eoamninlty reeoureea throughout the atate of Eanaaa* 
■tth thla In mind ti>e queatlon In the queetloonalre regarding 



^ 



• eoBMnity survey «•• propoMd. Of tha 86 aohoola partioipat- 
lag ■od reporting « oouro* In gMMral •elcno*, only flv« r«por> 
t«d faaving nada • ooiBuntty mirvvy to d«t«rmln* •duoAtional r«» 
■ourfl«a for ganaraX aelaooa* It la antlraly poaalbla for alab- 
orata and tlaa eaaaamlng aiirvays to \m aada, for facta alraadjr 
knoan to ba oataXagiiad» aid for tba aliola aattar to ba droppad 
thara. It la raaaooably aafa to stata ttiat noat aoboola do not 
maka aa nuab uaa of thalr raaourcaa aa ^mj shoold. Probably In 
thoaa araaa tdiara no aurvey haa baan aada llttla or nothing baa 
baan dona In aay of utlllsatloa of adueatlcnal raaourcaa* 

It vaa tha purpoaa of tbla atudy to point out na» toploa 
and naw araaa of atd>Jaot nattar, and to laam mora about tha 
adueatlonal raaouroaa for genaral aolanoa In tha Topaka araa. 
Tha othar taaohara of ganaral aolanoa agraad to eoeparata in 
a olty wlda aurvay and avaluatlon of raaouroaa* Baafa taaohar 
«aa Intarvlaaad uid a Hat of raaourcaa for tha laaadlata araa 
of tha aohool In abloh ba «aa taaohlng «aa laada* Thaaa Xlata 
vara ooapllad into ana Hat and any duplloatlona aara allainatad* 
Thla eoapoalta Hat «aa than aubmlttad to tba taaohara and tha 
auparvlsor of vlaual aduoatlon for avaluatlon. In avaluatlag 
tha Hat of raaouroaa tha ntsibar (8) aaa plaoad aftar thoaa Itaau 
oonaldarad to ba of graataat mar It, tba nunUwr (1) aftar thoaa 
ahleh aara oonaldarad aorthy but not of graataat Marlt, tha nua- 
bar (•!} aftar thoaa ahlah might ba profitably Inoludad If ad> 
dltlonal natarlal ahouXd ba daalrad, and ttia nuabar (•8) aftar 
tboaa Itaaa atiloh aara oonaldarad to ba antlraly unaultad. Fol« 
loalng la a Hat of tha Itetaa xwoultin r frorn tha aux^ay aboalng 



•7 



tb* mtlng glvan •aeb Itoa* 

I, TofWka Hunlolpal Airport 8 B BBSS 

B. 0. S. ■Mithsr BoTMra 8 8 8 B 8 B 8 

S* amatm F* Railroad flMpa 1-1 1 8-1 1 B 

4* Morrall Paoklac Ooapany 1 8 1 1-1 1 -l 

8* Burr M. IJ^MStt Ooapany 1-8 1 -1-8 

e* tlslt to a bukosy -X -8 1 1-8-1 -8 

7. City loo OonjMuqr 8 18 118 1 
B. Oood Toot Tiro Plant 8 1 1 B 8 1 8 

8. Printing Ooamany 11 11-11 

10. City Hatar Plant B 8 B 8 8 8 8 

11. Sooao* OUpooal Plant 8 8 B 1 1 8 B 
18. Vlait a dairy farm B -1 1 1 1 1-8 
18. Tooueuwh Pooor Plant 8 8 8 8 8 8 B 

14. Baatrloo Vooda Company 1-1 1 1-1 1-1 

15. Stato Sopt. of Boalth 11-1118 8 

16. Vlalt looal flaraoo -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 

17. visit City Parka 8-8 -11-1-8 

18. Vlalt Plro DopartMot 8-1 18 8 1 

19. City Hoalth OopartBMQt 1-1 8 8 8 8 
BO. Topoica PooDdry and Iron Vorka-l -8 8 1-1 -8 
81. JobnaoB Soroa Ooapany -X -1 -1 1 -1 -8 
n. visit a rook quary 1-1 11-1-8 
88. Radio broadoastiag atatloo 1-1 8 8 8 8 

84. Vslagraph off loo 1-1 18 1-1 
B8. Topoka Puro Wator Ooapany 1 -1 8 1 1 1 -B 

85. Call in roproaontatlvo of 

industry 8-8 18 11 

87. Obtain apoakor froa Kanaas 

Industrial Sovolcqwaat Cobb. 8 1 18 11 

88* Bsvoraco bottling Oaa)>any 1-8 111-8 

80. Flour mill 1-8 1-811 

80. Lako Sbaanoo 8 -8 -1 -8 1 -1 

81. Piold trip to study rotfcs, 

arosion, ainorala, ovidonoa 

of glaolors, fossils, ata. 8 8 8 8 1 X 

88. Stem sa«srs and drainaga 8-6 1-11-1 
88. Oarbags diaposal projaot 8 8 8-188 
84. Plro pravontlaD projoot 18 8 8 8 8 
88. Insaot and Rodont oontrol 8 8 X X 8 
86* «aahbum Obsorvatory 8 8 8 8 8 8 
87. fslspboB* Offieo -18 X 8 X X 



frtm a study aada of tho «ark of sovaral authora irtio bava 
mado investlijatians into tbo problsn of ooanunlty rosouroos it 
is possible to sot forth somo gsaoral objootlvos and prineiplos 
rogardiag oaaaunity studios. 




!• to aaln kaom t« tlh* aohool tha gHMral aolsno* 
i«couroea* 

•■ To aalca knoan to tha atudanta tba vital rola of 
ganaral aolanoa in tba iodaatriaa, oooupationa, and (anaraX 
aatlvitlaa of tba uuiaaunlty« 

8* Suoh atudiea halp tba atudaota find na* Intaraat In 
aahool nark, 

4* 'Sao oomrnmllgr laaxua £rtm auoh a atudy and aa it 
laazna ttaara la built up a daalra for lapawraaant* 

6* Ttaa aabeel and otaaaaalty ooom ta x«apaot aaoh otbar 
■ora and Xaam to aoopamta aora fully* 



1. Coanranlty atudlaa abould toa baaad ob a na*d» 
8« CoaDiunlty atudlaa abould ba a oo<q>arativa projaot 
bataaao tba aohool and tba aoHKulty* 

5. Iha aahoOI mat ba vlllixtg to ralata adueatlon to 
naada* 

4* tha problaai abould ba ooa In ablah tba aebool aan 
glva daflnlta balp. 

6. "Rvara la atqpla aatarlal la any aaananity for prof- 
Itabla atudy* 

9, Stodant aatlvl^ and Intaraat abould ba atlsulatad. 

7. ?ttpll Intaraat la an laportant orltarlon In dataniln- 
Ing ahat la aultabla aubjaot nattar. 

8* Subjaat nattar aay vary graatly ft>aa ooa aoaaunlty to 
anotbar* 



^ 



smum KXD coacxuszoK 

Ught taxtbooks war* used for tba aurvay In part 1 of 
this atudy. Tabla 1 lUBaariMa tha four aarlier taxta* Tabla 
B glvaa a avaaary of tha four taxta froa ttia atata adoptad Hat. 
Ttm t«o CMBfa aay ba ao^arad by oompavtzig tba data axippllad 
by thaaa tablaa* 

Vroa tba ftndlaga of thla thaala tba followlag eonoluaiona 
have baaa raaahad* 

1. Tbara ia auah variation In tba vm&Mr of pagaa davotad 
to a taxtbook In saoaraX aelanaa. In tba group of aarllar taxta 
tba nuabar of pagaa In tbm largaat book «aa 17 par oant graatar 
ttaaa tba Boabar In ttia aaalXaat. In tha group of taxta froa tbm 
atata adeptad llat tha msabar of paaaa In tba largaat taxt «aa 
61 par oant graatar than tha nuabar of pagaa In Vt» aaallaat* 

8. tbara la auob Tarlatlon In tba nvd>ar of ptaoto^wpba* 
Xa tta group of earlier taxta ona book uaad aa t9m aa 7S pboto- 
grapha al-illa ooa faaturad 887 pbotograpba. m tba atata adopted 
llat tbara «aa aom taxt with only 174 pbotagnviaa ablla t«o )>ad 
889 aaab* 

S* vide variation alao ooeurra In tlia matter of draalnga* 
In the earlier group tbara aaa ona text vltt) aa few aa 188 
dmalasa i*)lla one faaturad 887. In tha atata adopted group 
an* taxt featured 401 drawlnga ablla the one with tba aaallaat 
faaturad only 184. 



^ 



4* Iter* 1« • «ld« variation In Urn uailatr of oiiporlaMits 
outlliwd In • CKiMMl •olono* textbook* la tb» oarllor groiv of 
taxta* OD* did not owray an outXlna of oxperlsiantat anothsr out- 
llasd 68 and atill anothar outXlnad 141* In tba Hat of ^waant 
atata adoptod taxta tha ana *ltb tha laaat oatllnad 6S italla tba 
oaa with tha aoat oatllnad 144. 

8* Soaa taxta uaa gloaaarlaai aoaa do not* Of thoaa ualag 
gloaaarlaa tha nuHtwr of antplaa varlad vlthln «14o lialta* 
Ota* taxt ta tba aarllar group llatad M6 wttrlaa* Tfaa othara 
In that seaap had no gloaaarlaa* In tha jwaaant atata adoptad 
gro«|» t«a had no gloaaarlaa , ooa had a gloaaary «ltta 818 antrlaa 
ablla anothar had a gloaaary with 804 antrlaa* 

0. A «lda variation exlata In tha nuabar of antrlaa In tha 
aubjaet Indax from ooa taxt to anothar* In tha aarllar groi^ 
thara uaa ona taxt «lth only 067 witrlaa In tha ai&Jaet Indas 
Milla all tha othara llatad ovar 1,000 antrlaa ana rtmnlng to 
lf4B8* In tba praaant atata adoptad group tha variation «aa tra^ 
686 to If 401 antrlaa In tha aubjaet Indax* 

7* In tba aaaar taxta, at laaat, tiw variation In tha miBbar 
of unlta Into ahleh tha aubjaot nattar la dlvldad varlaa oon- 
aldarably*> In ona of tba praaant atata ad<H>t«d taxta tha noMbar 
of unlta «aa 6* In anothar tha numbar «aa 19. ihla la not of 
gvaat Mip«Ptanoa* 

8* In tha praaant atata adoptad taxta thara la a wlda 
aalaetlon of daalrabla aubjaat aattar and thara la a daatrabla 

balanaa nalntalnad bataaan tha anoont of apaea allottad to tha 



varioua owjor fialds of •oImm* r*iir«s«nt«d» Id tbmmv tcxta 
toylM trcm mjor ar*** auoh ut ■wh«rit M» teafe, ■ound, •!•«• 
trleltr and aaffiattaai, ll«ht, «Mth»r and allaata, plaata, 
aalmaXSf tf/tologj, eonaarvatlon, natiuvl iwaooroaa, agrlaoltoiw* 
■odam InvanUona, baalth and aafaty, pfe^lologx* baradlty 
■lnwliti J, toanapoptatlon, aananloattaBat ma%rtoatsf, aad feoda 
ara praaantad* 

9* TMCtbooka la s*n*ral aolanca, aa in all aubjaot flalda, 
ara of naaaaaity atatlo. Ttmv la at anr om tlaa a iradwr of 
toad tasta ia ttaa f&ald aad Vb» authora ravlaa and bring tfcair 
taxta up to data aa oftan aa la practioal* Iha praotloa of 
■oltlpla adoptiona la daalrabla. Xbla allow a fraadom of aholoa 
abloh la a point to ba aonaldarad atnea tha flald la ao laroa 
and tfaara ara ao nany varlatlona In naad and Infearaat fTcm ana 
loaallty to anottaar In a atata tha aln of Xanaaa. 

10* lliara ara aany varlatlona In tha atataaanta of apaalfia 
aim for a aouraa In ganaral aelanaa* Itaara ia, hoaavar, ganaral 
asraaoant on tba aajer alaa and ovar a parlod of 80 or aora 
7«ara It ia poaaible to traoa a eomian ttwaad of ati]«KitlTaa 
tliroa^ tha ▼arlooa atataaanta of apaolfla alaa. Cootlxaiad 
atudy Into tha alaa of ganaral aalanaa la daalrabla and it la 
to ba hopad thla phaaa of tha problaa will raaaiva eontimad 
attantloD froa aoapataat atudaata and lavaatlcatora* 

11. Oanaral aalanaa la ana of tha traditional ourrioular 
■ubjaota In tha Junior high aabool* Aa Jtulor high aahool ean 
fulfill Ita purpoaa only throng ahat It offara* Siaea thia la 
tha ourrioulua in gaaaral aelaaoa auat ba kapt up to data* 



lb* offwrlnga amst b« tnv«attgat«d fron tin* to tin* and thoaa 
•r«*s «tilob •««& to b« or tho loast valu* should glvo wmj to 
thoa* whlah soaoi to b« of graatoat valua. 

18* Moat of tha taaobora participating in ^la atudy In- 
dloatad tbat thay ballavad tha praaont aubjaot mattar to ba 
■aatlng the naada of tha paplla* However 31 out of ttia 86 
irioo partlelpatad votad for altbar dalatlon or addition of aub- 
jaot Matter. Ttm raaulta of tha aurv«7 abo« that thara la eon- 
aldarabla dlaagraaaant aa to what ahould ba laft out or addad* 
It la iiiii—iiiniiil that tha Individual taaohar uaa Iila baat Judg- 
■ant In thla aattar kaaping In mind tba intaraata and naada of 
tha puplla* 

18* In via* of tba faot that aolanoa taxta do baeocw atatle, 
that thara la a lag batvaan tha aubjaot oattar In tha taxt and 
that ahlab aay ba of Intaraat to tha pupil at a givan tltna. It 
la raeoammdad that aolanoa taaohara uaa a «lda varlat? of aup* 
plawantary Matarlala aueh aa nawapapar aolanoa, oagMlnaa, and 
■aiaaaa parlodlcala. "Rim Juni(»> bi|^ atfiool axiata for ona pur- 
poaa and that is to aaat tha naada of tba paplla. It la tha n- 
aponsibility of tha aolanoa taaohar to koap tba oouraa funotlonal, 
to aupplament it riimr»vr naeaaaary and adapt it to tha looal 
naada. 

14. Viaual alda, ahlla conaldarad aupplaaantary natariala 
by aoaa, ar« of aufx'lolant laq>ortanoa to ba aeoordad a apaaial 
aoaaidaratian. Viaual alda ara of ii^ortanoa froH tba atuid- 
point of aubjaot mattar alnoa through thla laadiua it la poaaibla 
to vitalisa and axtand tha aubjaot mattar in a vary mmtarial way* 



Hm Mhool Journsy la probably tha slmpUst and l«Mt 0xp«n- 
•lv« of th« visual aids, th« sound aotlon piotur* la tha (Mat 
aoiqtlax. 

U. Tha atady of a ooHMOltT la aora than a aobool Journay. 
Valuabla ooaaunlty atudlaa aay raault froni natarlal atudlad or 
axparlenca galnad from a aohool Joumay. It la raooaaandad that 
wldar uas of eeaaranlty aurvaya ba saada* It la Important for 
aolanca taaoyiars to loiov of tha aolanoa raaouroaa of tha oom- 
■nnlty* A aoMMnlty survay Is a point of dapartura. Thla atudy 
abova that aohoola «iloh hava not mada aurvaya hava dona llttla 
In tha aay of atodylng tha aoomiBlty. 



1 



kosaanxmnans 

Tbm writer «iah«« to axprvBa his •ppreolattoQ to 
Dr* V* L* Strlokluid, Major Znatruetor, Departiaant of 
Bduoatlon, for hla valtxoblo aaalatanoo and goldanoa In 
dli^ctlns thta atudy> 

To tba laany aetonoa taaehara In tha Junior bt|^ 
aohoola of Kaiwaa ibo roapondad ao favorablx, aad to 
tha atutenta of tb* aetanoo olaaaaa at Boaaoll JymXor 
Blgb S<Aiool( tba vrltor vlahoa to oxpraaa hla al&caro 
tbanica* 




UTSSAIURB OXTED 



(X) Bargm, L. M. 

ObJ«otlv*a of aelcno* t«*ciilng. Sehool iiolcuo* and 
iiattamatiea. Sit 650-859. Umy, 1031. 

(B) Brlssa, T. U. 

Oanaral aelanoa In tfaa Junior high aobool. Taaohara 
Oollaga Raoord, 8St 559-600 , 706-710. April and tUj, 
1958. 

(9) Ouraton, Iklward E. 

Junior high aohool aolanea. Sehool Ravlaw, S6i 767- 
775. Dao. 1987. 

(4) Curator! , Bdvard B. 

The aubjaet nattar of ganaral aelanea. Soianoa Edu> 
oatlon, ISi SSe-849. May, 1989. 

(8) Curtla, Franola D. 

A dlgaat of Invaatlgatlona In ttia taaehlng of aalanaa 
V. I. Phlladalphla. P. Blaklaten'a. 541 p. 1986. 

(6) Curtla, Kranola U. 

A aynthasla and avaluatlon of aubjaet-nattar toploa 
In ganaral aolanoa. Boaton. Uinn and CaBq>any. 85 p. 

(7) Curtla, Kranola V. and Calvin R. Hobart. 

A aaeond aynthaala and avaluatlon of 'aubjaet'-aattar 
toploa In ganaral aolanoa. (Unpubllahad atudy) 55 p. 
1943. 

(8) Oroxtou, K. C. 

Major alma In aolanoa taaehlng. Selanea Education, 
191 149-168. Dao. 1956. 

(8) Dala, Bdgar 

Audlo-Tlaual laathoda In taaohlng. lia« York. Urydan 
Praaa. 646 p. 1946. 

(10) Davla. Ira C. 

Analyala of tha aubjaot aattar In tha alg^t aoat vldaly 
uaad taxtbo<Aa in ganaral aolanea. School Selanea and 
Uathautlea, 51 i 707.714. June, 1951. 

(11) Oruhn, Willlaa T. and Harl N. Douglaaa 

Tha awdam Junior hl<^ aohool. 8a« York. Ronald Praaa. 
<i?l8 p. 1947. 



• 


(18) 


Hoban, Charles K. 

Vlaualiaing ttaa ourrleulua. Haw York. Cordon 


» 




Company. 800 p. 1987. 




(18) 


Harap, Haar/ 
tba adueattoo of tha oonauiMr. Haw York. Maoaailan. 
8S0 p. 1924. 




(14) 


HalnawKi, Allala M. 

A atudy of gauaral aolanca taxtbooka. (ianaral Salanea 
Quarterly, 18i 11-88. Nov. 1088. 




(IS) 


Balas, Elvoed D. Ellaworth S. Oboura. and C. Kaaalay 
Bofnaan. 

ilodam BMthoda and matarials for taadilng aclanoa. 

Raw York. Maoaailan. 3S1 p. 1940. 




(16) 


nu^iaa, ^arla M* 
Youth at work on a ao—inlty problaa. national 
IdQoatlon Aaaoclatlon Journal, 86t 880 Itareh, 1947. 




(17) 


liar, Smast 

An analysis and co:i:parlson of recant and aBrller taxt- 
booka In gwiaral aolanea. Unpubllahad guiatar'a thasla. 






Univ. of Oiloago* 99 p* 1987. 




(18) 


Kasalar, )raoD 

Contrlbutlooa of Instructional films to tb» taiiehlia( 
of high aabool aolanea. Sclanaa Bdueatlon, 80i 88-68, 
138-186. Xar. and April, 1946. 




(19) 


Xlopp, V. J. 

Study of Vb» offerlnga of ganaral aelanoa taxta. 










Uenaral Solenca Quarterly, lit 886-846. May, 1987. 




(80) 


Kooa, L. V. 

Tbm Junior high aohool. Haw York. Hairoourt Braea. 
1S6 p. 1981. 




(21) 


lakar, w. R. 

T^M artloulatlon of general soianoe trtth apaeial 
aclenee. Sehool iioienoa and Mathawatiea, 861 784- 
787. Oot. 1988. 




(82) 


National Education Aaaoeiatlon. 

CoMBisalon for the reordanlsation of seianoa in tha 
aaoondary aohools. United States Bureau of EduoatlOB 
Qullatln. 86. Washington. Tlnitad Stataa aovaranant 
Printing Offioa. 68 p. 1980. 



- 


(88) 


Ifttlonal SOvuomtlaa Aaaoeiatlon. 
Drnprnrtaunt of «up*rintand«no«. Plfth yMO^oek, Chayter 
1* Ths juDlor high Mhool ourrloulua. «Bablagton. 
the AMooUtlon. 688 »• 1987. 




(B4) 


latlooal SoeUtT fdr th* Study of Kduoatlon. 
nilrtyFlnt tttsrbook. Part 1. A ^otpwm for tMiehlag 
•olano*. Chlcatso. Qolvsrsltr FrsM* 804 p* 1988* 




(88) 


latlcnal Soeloty for tb« StaOr of Biluoatsion* 
Forty-Sixth Yoarbo^, Part 1. Hduoatlon In AaarUan 
•ehoola. (mioago. Ttaivaralty Praaa. 808 p* 1847. 




(88) 


8oXl, Victor H.' 

aohoola. Haw Tork. Lon^Mna, Oraaa. 888 p. Uae* 




(87) 


Ovarn* Orlando Sran. 
A eomaratlva analyala of ganaral aolanoa taztbooka. 
Qnoabllahad aastar*a thaaia* Itetv* of Chlaago* 
78 p. 1881. 


• 


(88) 


Parajr* vinlfvad. 

Viaual alda ror gKMral aolanoa ol«aaaa> Salanaa I8» 
ucatloo, 831 844-866. Fab. 1980. 




(80) 


Plaraa. Paul R. 
Sailing a aiMaonlty on Ita hl|^ aahaol prosran. 
PrograaatTa Bduaatlon, 88 i 16-81 and 48-46. Jan. 1946. 




(80) 


Pahly, millan T. 
A datarainattOD of tha vooabulary difficulty of a ear- 
tain ganaral aalanea taxt. Onpidillabad aaatar'a tbaala. 
Qnlv. of Mlahlgan. 114 p. 1888. 




(81) 


Povara^ S* 8. 

Tbm vooabularlaa of high aohool aelanoa taztbocdn. 
Taaabara Collaga Raaord, 86i 868-888. Jaooary, 1988. 




(88) 


Praaaay, Uwlla Cola. 
tbm datarmlnatlon of tba taotanlaal voaatoulary of ttaa 
aahool BUbJaota. Sahoal and Soolaty. 80i 91-86. 
Jtoly 19, 1884. 


• 


(88) 


Praston, CarlatoD £. 
nta hlga aabool aelanaa taaobar and bla aotk. Raw 
Yorii. NaOrav-HlU. 878 p. 1986. 


^ 







(M) SMgr* MnirlM 7. 

B9« •^oelji afeu^f ttMdr •oanBltlM* Itonau Ti»MfaM>. 
6Si 8. Jan. 1947. 

(M) SlMOBS, Mft&tlaoa P« 

Ctwn g lti g ooBoapto In t— e htng telpa la t/aamrml selaoM 
tWBtboolHi. 8«Uno« sauMtlan, QOi SU-ai4. Dm. 19M. 

(86) aailth, VUUmi A. 

7b» JvDloap ht#i aohaol. Ha* Vork. MaanllOwi. 478 p. 



(87) vabb, B. A. 

A qoantatlva analyala of ((anana aoianaa taxta. Con- 
trttoatlona to aduoatlon, lo. 4. Part X. Oaoaval aataaeo 
laatvuation in tha gradaa. Oaoria Paakody OoXlaaa far 
taaabara. 40 p. 1981. 

(88) «a«kal, Ada I. 

Ara prlnotpXaa of orgaoliatlon of OKimr^X aolanoa ml- 
danoad In tba praaant taxtbooka In tha aubJaatf Saheol 
Salanea and Matbanatlea, Ui 44-81. Jan. 1988* 

(88) ^TMO* Carl B. 

TUual alda*-of ifaat vorthT Satanaa Bduaatloo, 16i 881- 
— April, 19ai. 



70 



1781 lAnooln 
laptikM, SwMMi 
Hareh 4, 19«7 



DHir Sin 

X •■ •neloslng a qusstloniwlrc •onoMiiins tb* 
aobjvot matter «xd oootent of your ooonM In gMtoral 
•olouoo. Althou^ tharo la aeoa unifondty in tba 
ganaral aoionoo eouraoa in Xaoaaot tlwra ara prop- 
arljr* mmof ▼arlatlooa. It la tha purpoaa of thla 
atud7 to dataralaa abat la tMlag a^pbaalaad, abat la 
balng taugiit that algbt aall ba laft out, and ahat. 
If amrtttlng, la balng laft out that atioaid ba Inaludad. 
I vlll maka tba findlnga of thla atudy avallabla to 
any abo daaira tiMMi aa aoon aa tbay ara aoaplatad* 

1 am making thla atudy aa a part of tha aork 
for mg maatar'a dagraa at Kanaaa State Oollaga and 
alao for tha lanrovamant of tha quality of ay oan 
olaaaroom taaahing hara in Topaka* 

I raaliaa thla truaetioanaira oalla for uuoh 
work and thought* X hava praparad It in auoh a mannar 
aa to raquira a mtnlwiai of aotual arlting* X btqpa 
It «111 not ba too muah of an Impoaltlon upon you 
and I aant to aaaura you that your oe^oyaratlon all! 
ba appraolatad* It you ara daairoua of having a copj 
of tha raauXte will you ploaaa ao IndloateT I vlll 
appraoiate your ratum of thla quaationnalra at an 
aarly data* 

Slnoaraly, 



I<aoBard H> Kouldaa 



71 



OwMral Selanae Taaohlng 

PIMM* anavar eaq>l«t«lx 

A. List th« ultlawta objaativaa or alna that you aa 
a taaobar fMl daflna tba purposa or fli&ctiati of 
a eouraa in genaral aelanca* 



(a). 



B. It la agraad that In tha taaohing of any aubjaet 
to any groap «a mat bagla ahar* tba atudant la at 
tha tlaa* Vaaetaara of ganaral aotmea In Junior 
hl|^ aohool aaiat Imov i£mr* thalr atudanta ara 
and ahat tbay hava aoeompllahad In thalr alaman- 
tary aaianoa* Ite no otbar way la It poaalbla to 
brldga tha gap bat*aan alaoantary aehool. aolanea 
and ganaral aolanoa In junior high aohool* 
Doaa your aehool ayataa hava a atandard adoption 
of alanantary aolanoa taxtaT Yaa K o « If 
ttia ana«ar la yaa ara thaaa taxta avalXabla to 
you for your uaaT 1»» Mo « 
t* Vhat aupplasMntary natarlal do you havaT 

(a) 

(b) 

<o) 

(d) 



3* Do you faal that tba praaant aubjaet nattar la 
fuXfllllns Ita purpoaaT Yaa Ho » 

4* Tha aontant ahould ba in tanaa of uaaful aubjaat 
mattar, avarythlng Ineludad ahould ba of valua« 
Sotblng ahould ba for tha purpoaa of "padding 
tha eouraa* or awraly filling vp tha taxt or tha 
laaaon plan* 



78 



Do you think that soaa Motion* of th* pr«a«nt 
•ubj«et nattar oavHA b* left out? t»» Ho » 
If /our «na«»r 1* fm, list Vki» toplos or aao- 
tlooa «hloh xou think could wall b* laft out. 



(b). 



Do you tbliA that bomb aubjest aattar ahouUi 
b* Ineloikkl that la not at tba praaant tia* 
balng (Ivan eonaldaratlonT Yaa Bo , » If 
your aaaaar la yaa. Hat or na«a tha toploa 
ablah jreu faal ahould bo Ineludad* 

(a) 



(o)_ 



A vlaual odueatloo Brogroa mar bo dovolopod 
along too gonaral llnoa, (1) Ploturoa (8) Trlpo* 
A* Do jcn aako uaa of ploturaa, alldoa and fllaa* 
In doiroloplng your oourao In {(anaral aolanooT 
Yoa M o , . 

B« Do you tako your olaaaoa on aeliool trip* la 

dovoloping your oouraa In sanaral aelonooT 

Taa go . 
C* Boo la tranaportatloo for your aehool trlpa 

provldodt Sohool bu a P rlvata cara P ub Ho 

tranaportatlo n > 
D. Ro* ara trlpa pXannad to Inatiro valtw to all 

atudantat 



8* Ara groupa aaalffioil to cwk* apaolal roportat 
Taa Mo » 





r» Btlom Is ■ ll«t of pl«M« ocmoDljr vlsl««d an 
sohool trips. ?!•••• ehaek tb» plao*a your 
ol«a««a noTMilly vlalt* (K>vlou«l7 not ftll sug* 






. 


Mated pX«e«* ar* avalXabI* for visits by sobools 
In may one «r»a* 






(•) latsr plant 

(b) EXaotrieal roiSr Plant 






(e) Railroad Shopa 




(d) Airport 




(•) Vaatbar iiaraau station 




(f) AatroDoaleal cbMrvatovy 




(g> Zoo 




(b Oroan Bouaa 




(1 Kloa (aoalf aalt, load, clno, ato.) 
(J Plra Station 






(k Radio Station 




(X I.OO&1 Oamaa 

(a) Plold trips to atudy any of tlw follovlnKt 




• 


Kook foraatlons, rlvara, avldanca of voX- 




oanoa, «or)c of ^laelars, fossils, ef foots 


_ 


of aroslon 




(a) Otbar 




0* Obaak tlia plan of organlaatlon usad In your 




Bobool systaa. 




A. tha 6-8>8 plan 




B* tha 6>6 Dlan 




C. tha 6-8-4 plan 




7. In itiat srada la fonaral aolonoa In your syataa tmtgbtt 
A. tbs olcdbtib naida , , 




B. tha ninth orada 




8. Bo« lona ara 7our oXaaa oarlodaT ^jUnutas 
e. Do TOtt of far a full raar eouraat Taa Ho 
10« A* Is stodant halp aada uaa of in daacnatratlonsT 

Tfas^ .Mo 

B* In ttia following list of dawns tratloos ehsok 










tba anas you usually oonduot* 




(1) Praoaratlon and oroDartlaa of oicraan 




(B) Praoaratlon and nrooartlaa of earbon dloktda 


' 


(8) Praoaratlon and orooartlaa of lardroffon 




(4) ProDortlas of «atar 




(8 BlaotroXysls of aator 


< 


(8) Air praaaura, daaonstraclan baroaatar 
(7 Dlst Llllnjs Mtar 






(8 Praparatlon of a'oiap 








(10) Softanlnit watar 



(11) Clreulfttton of «at«r by cooTOotlo o 

(18) Brvatbing appAratua 

(l») OoMMla "~~" 

(U) Capillarity . 

(16) S*atruotive''^ratlllatiGn of wood and ooal 

(16) nw radloMtar 

(17) Ra^ttlrmMMtta iCT^aBbuatlo a 

(18) Hindi tng twparatxi w 

(IB) Tba thamomaf r, eoBvarlaon of aoalea 

S80) EzpanaloQ tj haa t 
81) DatanalaatloQ of ESZTdlty bj hygrowata r 
88) Production and tranaalaaion of aoaad 
(8S) Iilcht rajra and th* lan a 
(84) Souroaa of llA t 
(US) nrapartlas of a maiatm t 
(84) Making and oparatlng tTmnStil* alaotrle oall 

(87) Statto alaotrlolt y , ~~~" 

(88) Tba alaotrqaaiDMt 
(SW) Induoing a ouwn F~~ 

(80) Rtaarano T 

(81) Tba prlnolpla of ttia aubmarlna 
(88) Stroaallnad flow, aarodynaaHea 
(88) Aeld taatlog of aadliaantary rook a 
(84) Ttt» amoab a 

(88) Tba pawaalu t 
(80) Ibm lawr a 

(87) Dm Ineltnad plana 

(88) Prapar«tlan of aloohol «ith yaaat 

(80) Praaanea of baotarla and «old In air and on food 
(40) Uaa and ear* of a Mleroaaopa 

NaiM any othara ahlah you faalTpa aapaeially good^ 
11* Following la a Hat of aqulpaaot ooaaMoly uaad In tha 
eouraa In ganaral aolanoa. Chaok tha Itaaa itiieh you 
hava avallabla for uaa. 

A« Chaalatry apparatua 
Atoaio modal 
Balanoa with »alghta 
Baakara, aaaortad alaaa 
BXo«ar, hand ballowa 
Blewplpa , 

Bottlaa, wlda ■out h 
Bottlaa, raa«ant 
Bnahaa, taat tuba and baaka r 
Buratt a 

Bumar . alaoho l 
Bumar, Bunaa n 
Buniar, wing to p 
Candla a 
Claapf buratta 
Cla^p, taat tuba 
Claaipa, unlvaraal 



78 



Condaaacr, Llebt « 

Coric bor«ra, aat wttta ■h*rii*i>er 

Cruelbl* with oov t 

Cylinders, gradtiatad 

Caflagration «poo n 

Dish, orystsllslo g 

Dish, STSporstln a 

nsetrolysls sppsr»tus 

Firs sxtlagttlshs r 

Plssks, sssortsd. aistlllln a 

Flsaka, ssaortsd, Erlsn— ys r 

nsslcsf aasortsd, Florsne s 

FuBnsla, Olaa s 

Forcsp s 

■fflroMSts r 

JarSf battsr y 

Mortar and psatls 

Plpstt s 

Plnohcoclc s 

Platss, alaaa 

Ring standa 

Snppcnrt, taat tubs 

Teat tuisa 

Teat tubes. Ignitio n 

Thsrwomsts r 

ThlstXs tubs 

Trlaagls, «lrs 

TraatfiXf Pnsuwstlo 

•atsta Klaasss 

■Irs giua s 
BlologlsaX Bqulprasnt 

Oulturs dlshss 

OsrHlnatlon bo x 

Mlorosoops H ow wsmr t 

Dlsssotlng as t 

Xnssot sag e 

Sprsadlng bosrd. Insect 

SpsolHSB «ounta, Inssc t 

Llfs hlston' ■ovmta of Inaecta H ow iaan7T_ 

Prepared aloroasope allde aeta H ow muq^V 

Aquarltt a 

TerrarlU M , 

Preaerved apeolaens, anlaal a 

Caj^lllary tube set 
Koeka and alnsrals 

■Insral oolleotlo n 

Ssdlnantary rooks 

Mstaaorphlc rocka 

IgMous rooks 

Fossil collection 



X>» Foroaa and MaohliMa 

Pull«y«^ 

Houaahold seal* 

Inellnad plan* 

Inollnad plan* ea r 

Cantrlfu^l foroa hoona 

Staam anglaa, out a«ay modal 

Mlnlatura ataam angina 

MlnlatuiHi ataam tttfbina 
B. Sound 

Tuning forka 

Slra n 

Pitch plpa 

Organ pl;>a8 

Xylophona, ona octave 
F< Saathar arid Cllaata 

itarourjr baroawta r 

Anarold baronatar 

Altlaata r 

Hygro— tar 

to— owatar 

Barowfap h 
a. MagoatlaM and Blactrlclt/ 

Lodaatona 

Bar wmnala 

Koraaahoa Magna ta 

u-aaroata . 

Soft Iron roda 

Carbon roda 

Iron flllnga 

tlagnatlo oompaa a 

Dip naadla 

Friction rod and flannal or allk 

Pith ball a 

Static ma china 

l«ydan ja r 

Dry call battarlaa 

D C power aupply, 6 volta S-IO 

Induction oolla 

Magneto nanarato r 

Trma foraer 

St. Loula Moto r 

Hhaoatat 

Hadlo, daaonatratloQ outfit 

Vacuum tubaa, dawonatratlc m 

Talaphona raealva r 

Talaphona tranaaltte r 

Telegraph ke y 

Photoaleotrlc danonatratlon outfit 

Oalvanoo>ata r 

Voltaete r " 

AapMtar 



Blcotrle bell 

Blsotrlo bu»»T 

Kkiif* BWlto h 

Push buttoa 
H. Ltgbt 

Optical dl«k 

Plwi* airror 

CaneaT* »lwo r 

CoDvax ■Irro r 

Reading alaaa 

Pria m 

Lenaea, aaaortaent 

Kefraetloo tank and protractor 

Minera lam p 
I. Heat 

Ibermoa bottle 

Model hot water beate r 

Modal hot alp furnac e 

0«9ound ba r 

nwrmoa ta t 

Hadlomata r 

Ball and ring expanalon demonatratioa aat 
J. Miaoellaneoua 

Dell Jar and pum p 

Slide projecto r 

Motion picture projector, aound 

Terreatrial globe 

Airplane flight demonatrato r 

Modal airplane vlth moveable control a 

Motor driven preaaure vacutsa pum p 

Sink 

Hot and cold wate r 

Matiiral gaa 
K> In the apace provided Uelow Hat any aqulpnent 
not covered in ttt» Hat which /ou think ahould 
be a part of tlie equipment for every general 
aclenoe laboratory. 



to 
,ry 

18 • Bhloh of the atat* adoptad taxta will be adoptad c.^ 
for us* In your oouraa In ganaral aclanoa for ttaa 
yaar 1947-48T 

18* Haa an organlsad atudy or aurvay of your soaBwalty 
baaa laada to dataralna Ita raaouroaa for ganaral 
aelanoa taaohln^T Yaa M o 

(1) Vhat «aa your prooaduraT 



(8) Miat wmt* tha outoemaaf 



14» Do you faal that «a aa *|wiaral aolanoa taaohara 
axpaot too nuoh of our atudantsT Yaa »o 
Do you think that t>!« aubjact mattar of iha 
avara/.e taxtbook oa >;«naral aolanoa la on ttia 
propar lavelT Yaa ! ) o If your anaaar la 
no, do you tblnk It la (a) too aaay, (b) too 
difficult? 



to 
,ry 

18 • Bhloh of the atat* adoptad taxta will be adoptad c.^ 
for us* In your oouraa In ganaral aclanoa for ttaa 
yaar 1947-48T 

18* Haa an organlsad atudy or aurvay of your soaBwalty 
baaa laada to dataralna Ita raaouroaa for ganaral 
aelanoa taaohln^T Yaa M o 

(1) Vhat «aa your prooaduraT 



(8) Miat wmt* tha outoemaaf 



14» Do you faal that «a aa *|wiaral aolanoa taaohara 
axpaot too nuoh of our atudantsT Yaa »o 
Do you think that t>!« aubjact mattar of iha 
avara/.e taxtbook oa >;«naral aolanoa la on ttia 
propar lavelT Yaa ! ) o If your anaaar la 
no, do you tblnk It la (a) too aaay, (b) too 
difficult?