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Full text of "The Teutonic name-system applied to the family names of France, England, & Germany"

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j^, a. . // 





! 



I 



TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM. 



THE 

TEUTONIC NAME-STSTEM 



APPLIKD TO THE 



FAMILY NAMES 



OF 



FRANCE, ENGLAND, & GERMANY. 



BT 



EOBEET FEEGUSON, 

AvTHOB ov '* Thb BiVES-NAMn ov EtntoPB," '* Swiss Msn 
AVB Swiss Mottntaius," fto. 



LONDON: WILLIAMS ^ NORGATE, 

U, HXNBIBITA BTBEBT, OOYXNT OABDBN ; 
▲in> fO, SOUTH fBEDXBIOK BTBEBT, SDINBUBOH. 

OABUSLB : B. & J. SIEKL. 
1864. 




fiAHT.TflT.fB : 

TBJJSrnSD BY B. AND J. STEEL^ ENGLISH STREET. 



TO 



JOHN ANSTER, LL.D., 



WBOU HIS FaOEETD 



THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



Hie pre0«Dt work, though fotinded on one pre- 
viotudj publiBhed by me trnder the title of 
^ PinglwTi StimameB and their place in the 
Teutonic Family,'' is so entirely changed, not only 
in its general principle but also in all its details, 
that it cannot be considered in any other light 
than that of a new work. Even the former titles 
as inadequately describing its present contents^ 
has necessarily been abandoned. 

It is now put forward as an attempt to con* 
nect the &mily names of France, England, and 
Germany — so far as the ancient Teutonic element 
in each is concerned — as members of one conmion 
&mily, and to form them into a definite Efystem 
in accordance with the nomenclature of the old 
Germana It undertakes to shew that as the 
Saxons and other German tribes in the names of 
England and Germany, so are the old Franks 
represented in the present names of Franca And 
it further undertakes to shew that in each case 
this correspondence does not consist merely in 
the casual resemblance here and there of individual 
names, but is to be traced in the coincidence of a 



VIU PBBFACE. 

complete and connected system common both to 
the old peoples and the new. 

The basis of my theory is the Altdeutsches 
Namenbuch of Forstemann, in which the ancient 
names of Germany are collected, arranged, and in 
most cases explained Of this work, which I fear 
is not so weU known in England as it deserves, I 
cannot speak in terms more suitable than those 
in which Mr. Taylor refers to the companion 
volume on the names of places, as a work ** which 
even in Germany, must be considered a marvel- 
lous monument of erudite labour/' 

But Forstemann draws the line of the Old 
German period sharply at the end of the 11th 
century, and as has been shewn by Stark in a 
little work containing some observations and 
criticisms on the Altdeutsches Namenbuch, an 
extension of the survey over the three centuries 
following would throw much additional light 
upon the subject. From this little work (which 
I have unfortunately mislaid and of which I am 
consequently not able to give the precise title) 
are taken the few ancient names which are of a 
later date than the 11th century. 

A more important supplement to the Alt- 
deutsches Namenbuch will be found ux the names 
which I have introduced from our own early 
records, and in particular from the Codex Diplo- 
maticus of Kemble, and the liber Vita^ or list 
of benefactors to the shrine of St. Cuthbert at 
Durham. The latter record commences about 



PREFACE. IX 

the ninth and is continued up to the thirteenth 
century, but the names which I have introduced 
may be taken to be generally of the early period- 
For the names of later date taken from the 
Hundred Bolls drawn up in the reign of Edward 
Ist I am indebted to the Patronymica Britannica 
of Mr. Lower. 

Though the explanation of Old German names 
is a subject which has engaged the attention of 
almost all the leading philologists of Germany, 
and though conclusions have in many cases becm 
arrived at which have met with general accept- 
ance, there still remains much which is unsettled 
and obscure. And further — there are many 
names now for the first time brought to light 
through the labours of Forstemann, of which in 
some cases he has offered an e:q)lanation and in 
others not. Though as a general rule I have 
adopted the conclusions of the German scholars, 
I have in some instances ventured to express a 
difference of opinion, and in a still greater number 
of cases I have been thrown upon my own 
resources for the explanation of names not dealt 
with by any other writer. 

The English names, with very few exceptions, 
are taken fix>m the London Directory, the two 
works of Mr. Lower, and that of Mr. Bowditch. 
The little work by Mr. Clark called ** Surnames 
metrically arranged,^' and which, by the way, is 
executed with no little ingenuity, contains a few 
names not found elsewhere. The French names 



X PREFACE. 

are taken from the directory of Paris, and the j 

Modem German names from the works of Forste- j 

mann, Potb, and the other writers elsewhere enu- j 

merated. It has not always been an easy task 
to ascertain the nationality of a name, particularly 
as the directory of Paris does not generally give 
the christian names, which might be a guide in a 
doubtful case. The same remark apphes to SuflTolk 
Surnames, some of the names of which look very 
much like German in an English guise. The 
interchange which has taken place between the 
respective countries at a comparatively recent 
period, as for instance the immigration of French- 
men into England at the Bevocation of the Edict 
of Nantes and of Scotchmen at an earlier period 
into France, must also be taken into account. i 

This introduces an element of uncertainty which j 

must to a certain extent modify the particular 
classification of modem names, though not affect- 
ing the general theory of their origin. 

In the arrangement of the different groups I 
have taken, first the simple form or the stem- 
name, and then the various forms which have 
grown out of, or which have been built upon it. | 

It wiU be observed that while there are some ! 

groups, as at pages 115, 202, 231, 289, 454, which 
shew the connection between the ancient and | 

modem names in a very complete form, there are 
many others which exist in a more or less frag- , 

mentary state — ^the system which I have adopted 
allowing the missing links, as they may turn up, 



PREFACE. XI 

to fell into their respective pliaces. It follows, 
therefore, that a random reference to any par- 
ticular group might be by no means convincing, 
and that my theory must be judged as a whole. 
The dates which I have affixed to the Old 
German names, and for which I am indebted 
to Forstemann, shew the earliest period at which 
that particular form has so fex been found — ^as to 
the real antiquity of the name of course they are 
no guide whatever. 

In conclusion, while expressing my obligation 
to the scholars of Germany for the standing point 
on which to form my theory, I may perhaps 
not be thought presumptuous in expressmg a 
hope that I have done at least something to pay 
ojff the debt which I have incurred — ^no such 
systematic attempt having as yet been made 
even in Germany to connect the past and the 
present in men's names as will be found in these 
pages. 

R F. 

McrUm, Caiiide, 



LIST OF THB PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED. 

AltdeatBches Namenbaohy von Dr. EniBt F^xBtemann. YoL 
Ly PersonennametL Nardhauaen^ 1856. 

Die Penonennameiiy insbesondere die Familiennameny Ton 
August Friediich Pott. ' Leip^Ag^ 1853. 

GrimnL Deutsche Grammatik. OoUmgen, 

Grimm. Deutsche Mjtholo^a OoUingen, 1854. 

Grimm. Geschichte der Deutschen Spracha 

Leipzig, 1848. 

Grimm. Fraaennamen aos Blomen. BeHin, 185S. 

Weinhold. Die Deutschea Fraoen in dem Mittelalter. 

Vienna, 1851. 

Weinhold. Altnordiscbes Leben. Berlin, 1856. 

Giaff Althochdeutscher Spraohschatz. Berlin, 1834. 

Zeusa Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstamma 

Mtmick, 1837. 

Mona IJntersuchungen zur Geschichte der Teutschen 

Helden saga Leipzig, 1836. 

Gliidk. Die bei C. Julius Cflosar Torkommenden Keltischen 

Namen. Viewna, 1857. 

Wassenberg. Yerhandeling over de Eigennaamen der 

Friesen. Frcmeker, 1774. 

Frohner. Karlsruher NamenbucL Earlaruhe, 1856. 

Outzen. Glossarium der Friesischen Spracha 

Copenhagen, 1837. 
Islands I^mdnamabdk, hoc est, liber originum IslandisB. 

Copenhagen, 1774. 
Kembla Oodez Diplomaticus ^vi SazonicL 

London, 1845-48. 

Kembla Names, Surnames, and Nic-names of the Anglo* 
Saxons. London, 1846. 



UBT OP THE PRINCIPAL WORKS OONSULTED. xiii 

liber Yito EcdesUa Dnnelmeimia, pabliahed by the Snrtees 
Sodety. London, 1841. 

Pdyptyque de FAbb^ Imimon oa Denombrement deB 
niMMeBy dee aer&, et dee reyeniiB de 1' Abbaye de Baint- 
Germain-dea-Prte sone le regne de Oharlfimagpft. 

Fans, 1844. 

Polypfyqoe de TAbbaye de Saint Remi de ReimBy <m Denom* 
brement dee manflesy dee ierfr, et dee leYenna de oette 
abbaye yers le miliea da neaTieme ndde de notre dre. 

Parte, 1853. 

BalTerte. Histozy of the names of men, nationa, and places. 
Trandated by the Rev. L. H. Moidaoqu& 

London, 1862. 

Lower. Enj^iah SnxnamesL London^ 1849. 

Lower. Patronymioa Britannicai London, I860. 

Bowditch. Bnffolk Snmames, Sid Edition. BoaiM, 1861. 

(aitffolik mmm Botkm and U$ vioMtiff hut the work in reaUt^ tabu in 
atMckwiderrwiigt,) 

Miss YoDga History of Christian Kames. London, 1863. 
niylor. Names and Places. London, 1864. 

Thoip& Northern Mythology. London, 1851. 

Thorpe.' The Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf^ the Boop or 
Gleeman's tale, and the fi|^t at Finnesbnrg. 

OiKford,lWi. 
Wozsaae. Danes and Norwqpans in England, Scotland^ 
and Ireland. London, 1852. 

BoBworth. Origin of the English and Germanic languages 
and nations. London, 1848. 

Talbot EDgliah Etymologies. London, 1847. 

Halli well Archaic and Proyindal Dictionary. 

London, 1831. 
Wedgwood. Dictionary of English Etymology. 

London, 1859-62. 

Brockie. The Family Names of the Folks of Shields traced 

to their Origin. Skidds, 1857. 



CONTENTS. 



Ohatxd L 
CHArm n. 
OHAFnB m. 
Ohard TV, 
Oharxb T. 
Ohaftie YL 
Ohaptib vn. 



nrCBODuonoN 

SmPLB FOBMB 

DQONUnVBB 

PHOmsnO ADDinONB 
PATBOMTBaOS 
OOMPOUin>B 

LSmnEB 0HANOE8 

Ohaptib vm. 
OT7B NATURAL BNEMIES 

Chaftxb IX. 

MAN AS THE TTPE OF POWER 

Ohaftbb X. 
THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES .., 

Ceaftbb XL 
THE OODS OF THE NORTH 

Ghafteb XIL 
THE HEROES OF THE NORTH 

ohaptkb xm. 

THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS 

Ohaptib XIV. 
THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND .. 

Ghafteb XV. 
ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN 

Chattib XYI. 
THE NATION AS THE NAME-OIYER .. 



Paob. 

1 

17 
SO 
28 
31 
34 
44 
60 
57 

«r 

113 
145 
161 
260 
287 
295 



CONTENTS. XV 

OHAPm XTIL 

THE SBA AND THB 8BA LIFE 320 

CHAm XYIIL 
THB BULEB AND THB PBINCE 327 

CHAPm XTX. 
WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE 347 

Ohaftd XX. 
THE TBUUFBT OF FAMB 368 

Ohaprb '^'^fT, 
WBALTH AND PBOBPBBITY 361 

ohaftkb xxn. 

THE OUTEB MAN 386 

THB INNER MAN 426 

Ohaftib XXIV. 
THE STATION IN UFB 461 

Ohaftkb XXV^ 
ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS 464 

CHAinBXxyL 

THB STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF 474 

CHApm xxvn. 

TEEB CHRISTIAN ERA 482 

CHAFnEB XXYin. 
THBIT CALL THEIR LANDS AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES 486 

OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS 604 

Chaptib ZXX. 
THE SCANDINAyiAN VIKINGS 610 

CHAPTIB X JJ'H-ly 

a chapter of fragments 616 

Chatub ttttt, 
00NCLX7SI0N 626 



ADDITIONS AND CORRBCTIONS 520 

INDEX 631 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Directory of London is perhaps the crown- 
ing wonder of that wonderful place. There may 
have been in ancient times — who knows 1 — cities 
as great. There may be even now an \mcounted 
population as prodigious at Pekin. But was there 
ever a city so registered, and classified, and 
chronicled, as is this teeming Babylon of ours ? 
No poor man in a dark corner can turn his face 
to the waU and give up the key of his house un- 
noticed — no petty shop be shut — ^no humble name 
be painted out. As surely as the plaice which 
knew him knows him no more, ere many months 
can pass thei^ is a new name in the Domesday of 
London. 

Here it is — ^the book of the Modem Babylon 
— ^bound in her own scarlet too — ^two thousand 
two himdred and sixty pages of names ! How 
dreary seems the catalogue, and yet what a world 
of hidden history is there within the pages of this 
book ! For of all these thousands of names not 
one has been given in vain. There are deeds of 
forgotten valour that are summed up in a word — 
there are trivial incidents that have named genera- 
tions of men — ^there are good Christians that are 
called after heathen gods — there are gentle women 

A 



2 INTBODUCnON. 

that are called after savage brutes — ^there are 
names on the signs of Regent Street that were 
given in the unhewn forests of Grermany. 

Truly then the question, ** Who gave you this 
name 1" if it could be answered rightly — ^and in 
many instances it can — ^would give us interesting 
records. One might say — " Eight centuries ago 
an Anglo-Saxon* bravely withstood the Norman 
usurpation, and so harassed their forces by his 
stratagems that he was sumamed Prset, or the 
crafty — ^therefore it is that I am called Peatt/^ 
Another might say — " A Northman had a son 
mischievous and full of pranks, so that he was 
called Lok, after the god of mischief Steady 
enough our family has become since then. We 
have produced the most sober of philosophers — 
one of the most practical of engineers — ^yet still 
we bear the name of Locke t from the mischief 
of our ancestor.'' And a third might say — " See 
you yon white horse cut on the turf of the 
southern down — whence came that white horse 
came my name. The great Roman historian tells 
us how our ancestors held the white horse sacred. 
Hence, when the early invaders wrested the soil 
from its British owner, they stamped it with this 
as the sign at once of their victory and of their 
faith. And, unconsciously as the Wiltshire 
peasant does reverence to the heathen symbol 



* Ooe of the oompaiiloiM of the Sftzon b«io Htrewaid. 
t This may obtain In Bomo indlTidnal caae^, bnt I do not think, on eon- 
slderailoD, that it li the general origin of the name. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

when he annually dears away the grass from the 
outlines of the white horse, as his &ther8 have 
done for perhaps a thousand years before him, so 
do I, good Christian as I am, preserve a record of 
that same pagan superstition in my name of 
HiNCKa''* 

The etymology of proper names is the only 
branch then of the subject which can in any sense 
be called popular ; for most men, even of those 
who care not to enquire the origin of the l&mguage 
they speak, feel some interest or curiosity in 
knowing the meaning of the names they bear. 

In the investigation of this subject tradition 
gives us little or no assistance. Not but that 
there are many traditions as to the origin of 
names, but in almost all cases they aie worthless 
and delusiva Indeed it is rather curious how 
tradition, in matters of history so often substan- 
tially correct, in matters of etymology is generally 
sheer invention. 

Thus I have no faith in such legends as that 
which derives Tubnbull from a man having 
turned by the head a wild bull which ran against 
Bobert Bruce. Or in that which derives Bull- 
STBODS from an ancestor of the family, having, 
along with his followers, sallied forth to a conflict 
mounted upon bulls. Or in Pubseglove from a 
man having found, at a time when he much 

* HiNOD Moms to be » eomptioii of HensUt or Hlngoik, which siffniflat a 
staUloo. Some tndUioiM make HengitI a FriiUn, Id whloh Ungvece the word U 
Mni/tt, which approaches ne^r to Hinckb. la the names of places Henglst has 
become changed into Hlnks, as In Hloksej. Berks.— Ang.-8ax. Hen g ee te s l ge. 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

needed it^ a purse of gold wrapped up in a glove. 
Or in LocKHABT, from an ancestor of the family 
having accompanied Sir James Douglas to the 
Holy Land with the heart of the Bruce. 

Nor do I give much more credit to the German 
story which accoimts for the name of the poet 
Saphir in this wise. The grandfather of Saphir, 
a Jew named Israel Israel, being required, in con- 
formity with an ordonnance of the Austrian 
government, to change his name, expressed his 
own perfect indifference on the subject, and his 
readiness to take any name which the authorities 
might recommend. " You have a very handsome 
sapphire ring,*' said the official, " have you any 
objections to let Saphir be your name V " Not 
the least in the world,'' replied this accommodat- 
ing Jew, and so Saphir became his name. Now 
I cannot take upon myself to say unhesitatingly 
that this story is a myth, but it is at least sus- 
picious, and a different origin can readily be sug- 
gested for the name. 

Neither is much value to be attached to the 
old Latinization of names. When we find the 
Ang.-Sax. Goodrick rendered " De bono fossato" 
— Godshall, the Old German Gottshalck, " De 
casa Dei" — when we find Armine, the glorious old 
hero Arminius, made into a " Sancta Ermina^ — 
when we find such childish attempts as Dimoak, 
"De urabrosa quercu" — Salvein, "De salicosa 
vena," we see clearly that these are simply guesses 
— perhaps not unworthy of the age in which they 



INTRODUCmON. 5 

were formed, but certainly of no account in this. 

Archaeology and genealogy will do a great 
deal, and what they will do has been well done 
by Mr. Lower in his two works on English Sur- 
names, which will always remain standard books 
of reference on the subject. It is to him that the 
credit must be given of being the first to bring to 
bear on the subject the researclies of modem 
science. 

The history of Christian names, which, accord- 
ing to my view, is to a great extent the history 
also of surnames, has received a most valuable 
contribution in the recent work of Miss Yonge, 
which does much to place the subject on a more 
solid basis than heretofore. And from the other 
side of the Atlantic we have a work, Suffolk 
Surnames, by Mr. Bowditch, which, though with- 
out pretensions to etymological research, con- 
tains the most curious catalogue of names that 
has yet been published. 

With respect to the names of France, there is, 
as far as I know, no work on the subject which 
does much more than skim the surface. That by 
Salverte is elegant and philosophical, but does 
not go much into etymological detail, and is not 
always to be depended upon when it does. 

In Germany, family names have received a 
large share of attention, and the same system of 
patient analysis which has raised the character of 
German philology has been applied to them. The 
preliminary step has been to collect all the ancient 



6 INTEODUCIION. 

names, and arrange them under their respective 
roots. This gives a firm standing-ground for the 
investigation of modem names. In this depart- 
ment the AUdeutaches Namenbuch of Forstemann' 
is a most complete,' solid, and trustworthy work, 
extremely well arranged, and throwing, indirectly, 
more light on English names than any other book 
I know. This, as the latest work, is the best and 
the most complete, but the works of Graff and 
others which it supplements, are of the highest 
value and importance. Grimm, himself the 
&ther of Teutonic philology, has, in his various 
writings, supplied knowledge upon which all 
others have drawn. Professor Pott's book on 
Modem German family names is also one of great 
learning and research, and the want of an index, 
which sadly diminished the debt of gratitude on 
the part of whose who had to consult him, has at 
length been supplied. 

The study of English names embraces a wider 
field than that of the English language, because 
we have no longer the same Ang.-Sax. starting 
point. The dialects of the various tribes who 
came over to this country were fused into one 
common language, and that was Anglo^axon — 
but there was no such fiision of their n(Wies. In 
all iheir dialectic variations the names of those 
early settlers still stand in the London directory. 
Certainly there did spring up in after times a 
nomenclature properly Anglo-Saxon, formed in 
accordance with the general Teutonic system, but 



IKTBODUCnON. 7 

still having its own distinctive character. But 
this nomenclature, as I am inclined to believe, 
never pervaded the mass of the people, who still 
held on to the old sort of names which they had 
brought over with them, and which they carried 
through Anglo-Saxon times up to the present 
day. 

A word then on the antiquity of our English 
namea How far some of them may remount we 
cannot even guess. AU we know is that when 
the dim light of history first shows us the G^erman 
tribes battling in their rude strength against the 
legions of imperial Bome, the names they bore 
were such as are current now. Among some of 
those mentioned by Tacitus are Yerritus, a prince 
of the Frisians^ same I take as our WEBBirr and 
Verity. Sigimer, the father of Arminius, is the 
same as our Seymotjb ; and Segimund, his brother- 
in-law, as our SiGMUND and SiMMONna Arpus, 
a prince of the Catti, is the same as our Harp — 
YiBSLLiiJS^ a general of the Hermanduri, as our 
WiPPBLL, Then there are several compound 
names, as Inguiomer, Cariovalda^ Maroboduus^ 
and Molorix, of which we have the simple forms, 
which we may fairly suppose to have been the 
first in use. This leads me to remark that many 
of our short and simple names are, as being such 
root-names, among the most ancient that we have. 
And not a few there are, which in the changes 
and chances of this mortal life have become of 
small account, yet which were names of honour 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

in the days — aye, and long before the days — ^when 
the Redeemer walked the earth. There is a name 
in the directory, Siggs — ^it has no very distin- 
guished sound, and its owner is but a worker in 
tin plate — ^yet it is older than the Sigimer, and 
the Segimund of Tacitus. Nibbs and Nobbs are 
not names which command respect, yet they are 
probably the parents of the 'Nibelungs renowned 
in German song — of the courtly Nevilles, and, 
according to a German writer, of the mighty 
Napoleon. Then there are other names ap- 
parently honourable — ^yet thrice honourable when 
their meaning is made clear. Thus Abmingeb 
has been supposed to be a corruption of Armiger 
— ^that is, " one entitled to bear arms.'' Entitled 
— ^aye, well entitled to bear arms ! — ^no herald's 
college needs to furnish them — ^for he bears the 
spear of Arminius.* Generally speaking, the 
names derived from war are among the most 
ancient — ^probably also some of those derived from 
animals, as the bear, the wolf, and the boar — ^and 
some of those of which the meaning is simply 
" man." Such names as Sun and Moon we must 
also include — ^we do not meet with them before 
the fourth or fifth century — but the thought is 
an oriental one, — ^and there are no names which 
might more probably have been brought with 
them by the wanderers firom their ancient eastern 
home. 

* A3.MJSQEB. U a compoond of Armin (Arminins), and ger, spaar. 



INTBODUCriON. 9 

In referrmg to the high antiquity of some of 
our English names, it is necessary to call atten- 
tion to their two-fold origin. They are derived 
in< part from original sximames, and in part from 
ancient single or baptismal namea The term 
** baptismal" must be understood . in a modified 
sense, as implying a name bestowed in infancy, 
and probably with some attendant rite or cere- 
mony, for many of these names are in reality older 
than Christianity. The former of these two 
classes of course cannot be older than the period 
at which surnames became hereditary — a period 
not earlier than the Conquest, or if earlier, only 
in some very exceptional cases. The latter — 
those derived from ancient baptismal names — 
may remount to the highest Teutonic antiquity. 
For those names were not, like surnames, coined 
as the occasion required, but handed down from 
generation to generation, perhaps even in some 
cases, as I have elsewhere suggested, without any 
reference to their meaning. It will be my object 
to prove, throughout the present work, that a 
very much larger proportion of English names 
than has been generally supposed, are from the 
latter origin. 

I have already made the remark that while 
the dialects of the various tribes who came over 
to this country were ftised into one common lan- 
guage, which was Anglo-Saxon, their names still 
retained all their dialectic variations. To the 
period from Anglo-Saxon times to the present 

B 



10 INTBODUCTION. 

day the same principle applies. English names 
have not shared pan passu, with the changes 
which have taken place in the English language. 
The reason of this must be obvious to any one 
who considers the subject. When a word changes, 
it changes altogether, because there is only one 
standard of the language. But this is not the 
case with names ; one man's name is no rule for 
another's, and each name separately resists inno- 
vation on its own account. Names do change — 
because the same principles of phonetic mutation 
affect them — but only individually and partially. 
Hence we have them in all stages, pure Anglo- 
Saxon, wholly English, and half-way between the 
two. In our names Nagle and Nail, we have 
the Anglo-Saxon ncsgel, and the English nail — ^in 
our names Wegg and Way we have the Anglo- 
Saxon weg, and the English way — ^in our names 
Gum and Groom, we have the Anglo-Saxon 
guma, and the English groom. And in the names 
FuGQLE, Fuel, Fowell, and Fowle, we have all 
the stages of mutation from the Anglo-Saxon 
fugel to the English fowl. 

In one respect names have been subjected to 
an influence from which the English language 
has been exempt ; they have frequently been cor- 
rupted from the desire to make sense out of them. 
Of course all namies have originally had a mean- 
ing ; I speak of cases in which the ancient mean- 
ing has become obsolete. When a name has no 
approach towards making sense, men are content 



INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

to let it alone, but when it is very nearly making 
some sort of modem sense, it is very apt to be 
corrupted. Thus, Ashkettle is no doubt the 
Danish name Asketil ; Goodluck is very pro- 
bably a corruption of Guthlac. There is a place 
in Norwich called Goodluck's close, formerly 
Guthlac's close. We have the name Thorough- 
good, and we have the name Thurgood. The 
latter is a Danish name, and at once suggests to 
us that the former is a corruption. So also pro- 
bably Grumble and Tremble for Grimbald and 
Trumbold, Halftard for Alfhard, Inohboard 
for Ingobert, Gumboil for Gundbald, &c. 

This principle, whidi is indeed natural to man, 
pervades also Modem German nomenclature. 
Thus the name of Maria Theresa's minister was 
corrupted from its original form of Tunicotto into 
Thunichtgut, which she again, thinking there was 
something in a name, changed into Thugut.* Our 
friend Todleben, who gave us so much trouble at 
Sebastopol, and whose name appears to be such a 
paradoxical compound,t is another example. The 
name is in fact, as I take it, formed of two words 
of the same meaning, both Implying affection, and 
would be more properly Todliebea 

It is to be noted, however, that there are not 
a few cases in which names have come to us in a 
corrupted form. We have a name, Archam- 
BAUD, and the French have the same name, 

♦ Thuniohtgnt, " do not good." Thagnt» " do good," 
- t Tod, dMtb, Mf% Uli». 



1 2 INTRODUCTION. 

Archambault. This is a corruption of an old 
German Ercanbald, but aa a coniiption it is nine 
hundred years old, b^g found in the 10th cen- 
tury in the form of Archembald. And upon the 
whole, English names are mudi less corrupted 
from their ancient forms than might be expected. 
Independently of names which have been cor- 
rupted to a meaning, it follows almost as a matter 
of course from my theory that I should believe a 
large proportion of the apparent meanings of 
English names to be merely coincid^ioes. This 
I do to a very considerable ext^it, both in regard 
to our own names, and also, as elsewhere stated, 
to those of France. In many of these cases there 
is a primd facie probability in fevour of the 
alteration. Thus, when I suggest that Bastard, 
Paramour, Harxx)tt, Wanton, Outlaw, Scul- 
lion, Coward, Vasball, are not what they 
seem, but on the contrary ancient names of the 
highest respectability, the reader, already puzzled 
to account for the transmission of such disreput- 
able titles, will be disposed to fajl readily in with 
the amendment. Again, when such names as 
Purchase, Wedlock, Flattery, Melody, Par- 
don, Power, and such as Vinegar, Marigold, 
Dandelyon, are referred to ancient compounds, 
there will not be much objection, because the 
English meaning is not very satis&ctory. But 
when I go on to argue that Pilgrim is an Old 
German name, and that it does not mean one who 
has made a pilgrimage, some of those who have 



INTBODUCnON. 13 

followed me thus far maj begin to draw back. 
" Why,'' it may be said, " meddle with a name 
which has already so good a meaning i What 
can be mare natural than that a man who had 
Tinted the holy places, and come back an object 
of wonder and reverence to those aroimd him, 
should from this, the one great event of his life, 
derive a name to be transmitted to his postmty V' 
All this I grant — Pilgrim, in this sense, might 
naturally — might very naturally — ^become a man's 
nama But in the sense which I propose it was 
a man^s name. And the best of ^ might he's" is 
not so good as a ''was.'' Again, the system 
which thus explains Pilgbim explains also Pill, 
Pillow, Billow, Bilke, Billet, Billiard, and 
a numb^ of other names, both English and 
French. Not but that I recognize the possi- 
bility, both in this and other cases, of two dif- 
ferent origins for the same name. 

With respect to the period at which surnames 
became hereditary in England I am inclined to 
concur with Mr. Lower in the probability of their 
being in occasional use before the Conquest, 
though I do not feel so sure that the particular 
document on which he relies for proof (a grant of 
land to the Abbey of Croyland, dated 1050) is 
sufficient to bear out the conclusions which he 
draws from it. 

There is a document quoted from the MSS. 
Cott. by Mr. Turner, in his History of the Anglo- 
Saxons, in which we find an Anglo-Saxon family 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

with unquestionably a regular surname. " Hwita 
HoUe* was a keeper of bees in Haethfelda ; and 
Tate Hatte, his daughter, was the mother of Wul- 
sige, the shooter ; and Lulle Hatte, the sister of 
Wulsige, Hehstan had for his wife iq Wealadene. 
Wifiis, and Dunne, and Seoloce, were bom in 
Haethfelda ; Duning Hatte^ the son of Wifus, is 
settled at Wealadene ; and Ceolmimd Hatte, the 
son of Dunne, is also settled there ; and ^Etheleah 
Hatte, the son of Seoloce, is also there ; and Tate 
Hatte^ the sister of Cenwald, Maeg hath for his 
wife at Weligan ; and Ealdelm, the son of 
Herethrythe, married the daughter of Tate. 
Werlaf Hatter the father of Werstan, was the 
rightfiil possessor of Hsethfelda^ ko!' 

This document, which is numbered 1356 in 
Mr.* Kemble's collection, is without a date, but 
has every appearance of being earlier than the 
Conquest, and if so, Hatt is the. oldest surname 
we have on record. 

But at a much earlier period we may observe 
a sort of approach to a family name in particular 
instances. Mr. Kemble (Names, Swnmnies, and 
Nic-names of the AnghSaxons), refers to the 
manner in which the first word of a compound is 
reproduced in some Anglo-Saxon genealogies. 
** I think it evident that a great family often de- 
sired to perpetuate among its branches a noble 
name, which was connected with the glories of 



* What a cariona name thia would be in EogU8h->" White Hatt r 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

the country, and had been distinguished in the 
arts of war or peace, by military prowess or suc- 
cessful civil government. ... Of the seven 
sons of -ffithelfrith, king of Northumberland, five 
bore names compounded with Os» thus Oslaf 
Oslfic, Oswald, Oswin, and Oswidu. In the suc- 
cessions of the same royal family we find the male 
names Osfiith, Oswine, Osrlc, Osrsad, Oswulf, 
Osbald, and Osbeorht, and the female name 
Osthry th : and some of these are repeated seve- 
ral timea" Here Os, which signifies demi-god, is 
a sort of family title, and contains a claim to a 
divine lineage. And the various compounds 
Oslaf, Osl&c, &c., seem to be formed with a view 
of preserving this title, and at the same time giv- 
ing distinctive names, by adding to it suflixes in 
common use. 

But in the Polyptyque de TAbbe Irminon, 
compiled in the time of Charlemagne, I find still 
stronger instances of the iadividual yearning after 
a family name. Thus a man called Hildebodus 
gives to his two sons the names of Hildoardus 
and Hildebodus, and to his daughter the name of 
mdeberga. One Nodabicus calls his son Nodal- 
gis, and his two daughters Nodalgrima and 
Nodaltrudis. In other cases the mother's name 
shares in the family nomenclature. Thus, a man's 
name being Ermengardus^ and his wife's Sicle- 
verga^ one son is called Ermengaudus after his 
fitther, and the other Sicledulftis aft;er his mother. 
In another instance, a man's name being Ercan- 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

firedufi, and his wife's Ermena^ the two sons are 
called Ercanricus and Ercanradus after the father, 
and of the two daughters one is called Ercantru- 
dis after the fitther, and the other Ermenberga 
after the mother. 



CHAPTER 11. 



SIMPLE FORMa 



As the basis of the etymological system which 
xb is my objeet m the present work to construct* 
must be takeo the class of names whieh consaat 
of A single word, without any other modification 
thjui the vowel-oMling usual in men's iwnes. 
This i^ass of. names we may presume to be the 
most ancient of all — ^perhaps indeed it may have 
beea icmginally the most common, though in the 
earliest Teutonic records that we possess, we find 
a decided preponderance of compounded name& 
At the same time, the remark of Miss Yonge thajt 
ZeutcHiic names ^ were almost all compoimds of 
two w<n9ds/' is certainly too strong. 

These names appear very rarely indeed in 
ttacicDt times witiiioat the endiog a, i, or o, though 
at present in the &mily names both of England 
and Germany, it is very fi^que^tly lost. Thus 
we have varioudy, with and withoujt such end- 
ing, the names Em Ellby, and £kiiA, Oox^i^ 
OoUiEY, and Ooxj;«i^ Sast^, tlAjmEY, and 
Haswa, Mxub; MnJBTr, and Mnx). When I 
forther adduce Bjix, Billy, Billow, Pill^ Fil- 
let, PniLOW, as variations of one single name, 
wiih and without this ending, it ^yillbe sem how 
gteaJt a revolution my theory, if it can be sus- 

c 



18 SIMPLE FORMS. 

tained, must create in the received notions on the 
subject. 

In the next place we have to consider what 
was the value of this termination. We know 
that the Anglo-Saxon had the property, by the 
addition of a to a noim, of forming another word 
implying connection with it. Thus from scip^ 
Si, ship, is formed scipa, a sailor, — ^from hiUs^ a 
house, hilsa, a domestic. This principle is more 
fully carried out in proper names ; by the ad- 
dition of the Teutonic terminations a, t, or o, a 
name would be formed out of a noim, or an ad- 
jective, or a verb. And it is still a living prin- 
ciple among us. Thus, when we hear a man with 
a remarkable nose called in vulgar parlance 
" Nosey,'' we have a name formed according to 
Teutonic analogy. Nurse-maids carry it still 
further, and form a name out of a verb — thus 
a child given to screaming they would call 
" Screamy." This p7*inciple lies at the bottom of 
Teutonic names. And thus it is that a man from 
the South is called Southey. 

Of these three terminations a is the most 
ancient. It is that found in Gothic names, as 
Wulfila, Amala^ Totila, though in after times it 
became changed among the High Germans into 
the weaker form o. It also prevailed among the 
Old Saxons, and descended from them to the 
Anglo-Saxons. But among both, the weaker 
ending i was also common, and it is evident from 
the names in Domesday and in the Liber Vitae of 



SIMPLE FORMS. 19 

Durham that there was a large infusion of it 
among the tribes who settled in this country. 
In the latter record, for instance, we find such 
names as Tydi, Bynni, Terri, Betti, Tilli, Cuddi, 
Cynni, Locchi, every one of which is still existing 
at the present day. Indeed this is the form 
which is most in accordance with the genius of 
the English language ; that is to say, if we had 
to form names now, we would, as it appears to 
me, form them in that manner. And as this end- 
ing is now much more common in English names 
than the regular Anglo-Saxon form a, it seems to 
me very probable that the process of change fi-om 
a into i may have been still going on. The end- 
ing in o is also not uncommon in our early his- 
tory ; in Domesday, for instance, we have Dodo, 
Baco, Bugo, Odo, Wido, Heppo ; and there are 
not a few still remaining among our fiimily 
names. 

The termination in a sometimes appears in its 
simple form, as in Colla^ Ella, Saxon names 
without change — sometimes in the form of ay, as 
in Hannay and Hayday. The termination in i 
is sometimes y, as in Brandy — sometimes ey, as 
in Attey — ^sometimes ie, as in Lockie. The ter- 
mination in o appears most firequently in its 
simple form, as in Haddo, Cutto, but sometimes 
in 06, as in Pardoe, sometimes in oh, as in Scx^is 
TOH, and sometimes in ow, as in Hadow. 



CHAPTER III. 



DIMINUnVSS. 



A diminutive in the language implies small- 
ness. Thus manne^in is a little man — streamlet 
a little stream — satcheZ a little sack. But in pro- 
per names, I take it — ^at least as the general rule 
— ^that the sense is that of affection or familiarity 
expressed through the medium of smaUness. 

The English language is not strong in diminu-' 
tives ; in this respect the Scottish language, 
which in such a phrase as " wee bit lassie," can 
string three diminutives together, has much more 
power of expression. English names, on the 
other hand, are very rich, both in the number and 
variety of their diminutives^ almost every Teu- 
tonic form being represented. . 

The principal diminutive endings contained in 
our proper names are, according to my estimate^ 
seven^ viz., that in k^ that in 2, that in kin^ that in 
2m, that in «, that in ns^ and that in m. There 
are certain other endings, elsewhere referred to» 
which may be in some oases diminutives. 

The diminutive in £, ek or ock is common to 
all the Germanic branch. Hence from Gabb we 
have Garrick, from Love we have Lovick, from 



DIllINUTiy£S. 21 

Fiz we have Phasic* From Jblly we have 
Jbllicx)S» from Sim we have Smca — ^these have 
the old German termination in o. From Mann 
we have Mannioo and Mannakat, with the two 
terminations in o and a ; from WiUiB y we have 
WiiiKU (Williki) with the termination in i. 

The French diminutive in et appears to some 
extent in our language to have superseded the 
Sairon form in eo. Thus we use linnet instead of 
the Ang.^ax. linece. But there is a continual 
tendency among the uneducated to substitute — 
or rather to retain — ^the old form. Thus when 
our friend Jeames» of immortal memory, con- 
tributed to the pages of Punch what he was 
pleased to call a "sonniok"— he merely substi* 
tuted one diminutive for another. Let us then 
forbear contempt when we hear this vulgar form 
—it is a relic of that stem old struggle which 
preserved us our glorious language. 

The diminutive in 2, e2 or il is common to both 
the Gtermanic and Scandinavian branches. In 
the latter, as well as in the English language, it 
is much used in verba In aU such words as 
quarrel, wrangle, squabble, scuffle, shuffle, wriggle, 
higgle, smuggle, grumble, tinkle, tipple, the sense 
of pettiness iif more or less prominent. In this 
form, from Bbnn we have Bennell, from Dunn 
we have Dunnell, from Hasb we have TTaatct.t. 



* Hot» id mm iBitMiM of ftte wajr la which aunM (am np^ «iid mlHliig Uaki 
Me tapplied. In the former edition I had to say "from an old German Flao we 
hare PHTncs.'* Patthenoomeaanewdirectoiy.anditbringsiuanBnsUahFu. 



22 DIMINUTIVES. 

From Babb^ Barry, Barrow, we have Bar- 
RELL, Barley, Barlow* Grimm refers to an 
Old Grerman Runilo as a diminutive of Runo ; we 
have a name, Runicles, which seems to be a 
double diminutive, viz., this and the former com- 
bined. This double form obtains sometimes in 
Old High German. 

The diminutive in kin is of later growth, and 
is more common in Modem German than in Old 
German names. It is not, as has been supposed, 
cognate with German hindy child, but is more 
probably formed by the addition of a phonetic n 
to the diminutive in h From Dunn we have 
DuNKiN, from Benn we have Benkin, fix>m 
Parr we have Parkin, from Will we have 
Wilkin, &c. 

The diminutive in Zm is probably formed in a 
similar manner to the preceding by the addition 
of a phonetic n to the diminutive in I. Hence we 
have Cattmn, Tomlln, Evelyn, &c., and in the 
form ling, which also appears both in ancient and 
modem names, Butling, Watung, Dowling, &c. 
Neither the diminutive in kin, nor that in lin^ are, 
like the more ancient forms in ek and eZ, found 
with the endings a, i, or o (except with the first 
as a female ending.) *' 

The diminutive in 5, like those in k and Z, is 
of great antiquity, being found in the name 
Cotiso, of a Dacian mentioned in Horace. This 



* The ending! in ley and low, ihongh sometimM fkom thij dimlnntlte, are 
doubtleM in tome caaee local, from ky, % meadow, and from {qio, a mound. 



DIMINUTIVES. 23 

name — elsewhere referred to — I take to be a 
High German form of the later name Godizo, and 
to be still surviving in our Godsoe. From the 
Old German names Milo, Willo, Walo, Rico are 
formed with this diminutive Milizo, Wilizo, 
Walizo, Richizo, whence our Millis, Willis, 
Walms, -Riches. I think also that this diminu- 
tive is frequently represented in our names simply 
by a finaJ «, and that Milm, Wills, Walls, 
Ricks are probably the same as the above, 
though an s final is no doubt often added only 
phonetically. With the ending in i we find in 
Domesday Copsi and Brixi (Bricsi), which we still 
have as Copset and Brixey. A Saxon bishop 
of Worcester was called Leofsy, and an archbishop 
of York Cynsy ; these two names still exist as 
LoVESY and Kinsby. But there enters here an 
element of doubt on account of these Saxon names 
sometimes appearing with the ending si or sy, and 
sometimes with sige, as if from sig, victory. Thus 
the Archbishop Cynsy signs in a charter as 
Cynsige ; Wynsy, bishop of Lichfield, appears as 
Winsige ; Albsi as iElfsige, &c. Has the guttu- 
ral been added in the one case, or has it been lost 
in the other ? The former supposition would be 
most in accordance with analogy, for as diminu- 
tives, Cynsy, Wynsy, Albsi, Leofsy would corres- 
pond with the Old Germ, names Cimiza, Winizo, 
Albizo, and Luviz. 

Occasionally, though very rarely, the form s 
becomes sc in ancient names. More frequently 



24 DJWXUTPnsB. 

m English oames, aa Buimrifss; M^llish, Yjlbt 
NiSHt for it is m aooordaoce with tiia chaiueter of 
the language. ladeed, I am mclined to think 
that the diminutive m question is th^t which we 
nan use in adjectivee^ as amaHish and brownifi4. 
The ending ns I take also to be diminutive 
and to be formed by the addition ci a phonetic n 
to the preceding. HeDce from an Old German 
Custanzo we have Oustanob ; from the Old 
German Cholensijs we Cojjesqo a^d Couins. . 

The ending m, which I take to be ajso 
diminutive, is suj^aed by Forstemann, who £nds 
it to fHi-evail specially among the West Franks* 
to be in some eases of other than German origin. 
And so, in some pres^at Fr^^ch names, as Bon- 
A&iY and Bellamy, we can hardly help thinking 
of ami, friend. And yet, when we find this end- 
i ing to prevail most extensively at present among 

Frieeic names, where it can hardly be otherwise 
than German, and when we find the names Bon- 
NEMA and Ballema corresponding wiili the 
above, it suggests the possibility, even for these, 
of a common German origin. Another instance 
of coincidence between the Frieac and the French 
is found in the name c^ the well-known tragedian 
TAliftiA, which corresponds with the Friesic Tlal- 

LBMA and TLA.LMA. 

Among Snglish names we have Jessmat, 
Whttmee, Ivymey, and Wakbm, which seem to 
be from this origin, and to correspond with the 
ancient names Gisoma^ Widomia, Ivamus, and 



DiMmunvEs. 25 

Wakimus quoted by Forfltemann. To this source 
also I am inclined to refer the names Youngmay, 
MiLDMAY,* and Crickmay, the first of which cor- 
responds with a Friesic Jongma, and the second 
possibly with 'a Friesic Mellema. I before took 
the ending in these names to be jfrom Ang.-Sax. 
mcBg, Old Eng. may, maiden, for which there 
seemed a reasonable probability in each case — 
the name Cmckmay being referred to hrieg, war, 
and supposed to be connected with the war- 
maidens of Odin — while the others seemed too 
natural to require explanation. But the forms in 
which this ending ia found in ancient names seem 
irreconcileable with this theory. Among other 
names from this origin may be mentioned that of 
the Dutch painter Hobbema. 

The ending sm^ which is also found in some 
Frankish names, Forstemann seems more de- 
cidedly to consider as not German. But here 
again its prevalence in present Friesic names 
seems to me to militate against this opinion. Can 
it be the Ang.-Sax. «mea, small, delicate, used 
like the Danish liUe as in ToveUUe (Dovey), 
BosaZ^22a (Bosie) 'i The fact of its being anciently 
used more especially in the names of women, and 
of its always appearing in the form sma, seem 
rather in favour of this opinion. And the fact of 
its being added to compound names, as in the 
case of the scholar Halbebtsma, stamps it with 

* Mr. LowwnyB (Pat. Brtt.) thftt "tbefamilj an tzMed toU47,«nd the< 
Bftme to IDkbnA." 



26 BIME^TmVEfl. 

a different character to that of the other duninu- 
tiveB. Among the few English names which 
seem to be from this source is Bai^am, which 
compares with the ancient name Balciftius. I hare 
also found in Lancashire the name 'Erasmus ; it 
seems not to be a new name in England, for in 
the Liber VUm there is an ^Erasmus ; it seems 
curious that in both these cases, as well as that 
of the well-known scholar, the name should be in 
the Latinused form. I rather think that the 
French name Doubsamy may be from this source, 
representing the Old Prankish name Teodisma^ 
and comparing with the present Friesic names 

DlUDESMA, DOYTSEMA. 

The termination e<, as a German ending there 
is no groimd for thinking to be a diminutive. 
But as a French diminutive it is frequently added 
to German compound names, as in the French 
names Henriquet, Hbnriot, Bernardet, &c. 

The same rule applies to the ending in en, 
which is often added as a French diminutive to 
German names. Probably in this manner are 
formed the French names Girardik, Bernardin, 
GuiLLOTiN, Lamartine, from Gerard, Bernard, 
GtriLLOT, Lamart, all likewise French names in 
use. Pure German names do not thus form 
diminutives out of compounds — ^they resolve them 
first into their simple forms — ^thus Willico, accord- 
ing to Pott, is a Frisian diminutive of Wilhehn. 
When therefore we find en or in added to a com- 
pound name, as in Girardin, we may, I think. 



DIMINUTIVES. 27 

take it to be the French diminutive. But when 
we find it added to a simple form^ as in Wallen, 
it must be taken to be from the origin referred 
to in next chapter. 

The ending in let may probably be in some 
cases the French diminutive et added to the 
German d. But in other cases it is no doubt the 
second part of a compound name. 

There is no doubt that in the English language 
ey or ie is a diminutive form. It is more particu- 
larly common in the Lowland Scotch, which has 
such words as doggie, mousie, lassie, dearie. It 
is of Teutonic origm, and occurs also in the Dutch 
and in the Swisa Hence might be such names 
as MiNNET, Deary. But more probably they 
are only the ending of men's names in i. 

The ending in cock, as in Hakooce; Wiloook* 
is iiusluded by Mr. Lower among diminutives. 
It is found in French names as well as Enghsb, 
as, for instance^ in Balooq, BiUiEooq, YiLCOCXi, 
Videoocq. But nothing that I have met with 
in the study of ancient names helps me to throw 
any further light upon the subject. 



CHAPTER IV. 



PHONETIC ADDITIONS. 

By a phonetic addition we mean something 
which is added to a word only for the sake of 
sound, and which leaves the sense exactly where 
it was before. There are two kinds of phonetic 
additions common in Teutonic names— one in 
the middle of a word, and the other at the end, 
the former occurring only in compound, and the 
latter only in simple names. 

The feivourite sound employed at the end of £^ 
word is n, and thus from the Old German names 
Godo, Hatto, Lando, Waldo, Aldo, Baldo, are 
formed Godino, Hattin, Landina, Waldin, Aldini, 
Baldin ; and the corresponding English names 
GoDDEN, Hatten, Landon, Walden, Alden, 

BOLPEN. 

Now as proper names are of course subject to 
all the tendencies of the language to which they 
belong, we may expect to find in the popular 
speech a parallel principle to that which I have 
assumed for names. Or rather, I should say, it 
is becav^e I find this principle in the popular 
speech, that I feel warranted iiu applying it to 
proper names. Now, if we compare the German 
rabe with the English raven, and conversely, the 
English bow with the German bogen, we find that 



PHONETIC ADDITIONS. 29 

while, in meaning, the two words are iu each case 
perfectly identical, there is an ending added which 
serves as a finish or rounding off of the word. 
So also in the provincial word ratten for rat, and 
many other cases. 

A similar office is also performed by the letter 
r. Thus to the simple form contained in the 
Gothic wato, while aU the Scandinavian dialects 
add n, as in Swedish vatten, all the German add 
r, as in English water. We have examples in our 
own provincial dialect ; for, as Mr. Latham ob- 
serves^ ** wolfer, a wolf, hunker, a haunch, flitcher, 
a flitch, teamer, a team, fresher, a frog, are north 
country forms of the present English.'' The end- 
ing ei^ in our names (so far as they are derived 
from Old Teutonic names), is generally to be 
referred to Gothic hari, warrior, but there are 
cases in which the form of the ancient name is 
incompatible with this derivation. At the same 
time, the phonetic origin of r is not so clear when 
it occtirs as an ending, as when it occurs in the 
middle of a name. 

When a phonetic addition is made in the 
middle of a name, it comes in between the two 
words of the compound, and generally consists of 
one of the liquids, I, Uy or r. Thus Godulf be- 
comes Gk)denulf, whence, I take it, our Good- 
enough. So Godehar becomes Godelhar, whence 
probably the French Godbuer. Godeman be- 
comes Goderman, whence the French Gauder- 
MEN ; and also Godahnand, whence perhaps our 



30 PHONBTIO ADDITIONS. 

GoDUMAN. Thus when I find the names Syca- 
more and SiCKLEMOBE, the former of which cor- 
responds with the Old German name Sicumar, I 
know how to account for the 8econd> since, though 
the particular name to correspond does not turn 
up, I see that the phonetic I is very frequent in 
the ancient names of that group. So also, finding 
the ancient name Siginiu, I can at least suggest 
an origin for Sioourney. The above forms of 
phonetic addition seem to be found chiefly in 
Old Frankish names. 



CHAPTER V. 



PATBONYMICa 



Of the two patronymic forms, ing and san^ the 
former is more properly German, and the latter 
Scandinaviaa The form ing was discontinued 
about the time of the Conquest, and consequently 
all the names in which it appears are carried back 
to Anglo-Saxon timea (In some few cases the 
termination ing may be local, from ing a meadow, 
and not a patronymic.) Many apparently adjec- 
tive and participial forms, such as Willing, Liv- 
ing^ Dining, Pant!ING, are from this origin, the 
simple forms being found as Will, Livet, Dine, 
Pant. 

The terminaticm son is a characteristic feature 
of all the Scandinavian countries, while in Ger- 
many on the other hand it is of comparatively 
rare occurrence. So well is this distinction uiwier- 
stood that a writer on ** Nationality and Language 
in the Duchy of Sleswick and South Jutland" 
advances the frequency of names ending in son^ as 
an argument for the Danish character of the 
population. Of the twelve most common names 
in the directory of Copenhagen, there are only 
two, Moller and Smidt, that are not patronymics. 
The most common of all are Jansen, Johnsen, or 
Hansen, Petersai, Andresen or Andersen, and 



32 PATRONYMICS. 

Nielsen. Verstegan, in his "Restitution of 
decayed intelligence/' refers to a tradition " among 
some of our coimtry people that those whose sur- 
names end in son, as Johnson, Thomson, Nichol- 
son, Davison, Saunderson, and the like, are 
descended of Danish race." Either he mistakes 
the tradition, or the tradition overstates the truth. 
Some of these are no doubt Scotch, and others 
are German — ^though the termination itself may 
be of Scandinavian origin. Many of our names, 
however, correspond altogether with cxuxent 
Danish names — as Hanson, Nanson, Jephson, 
Erickson, Gunson, Iverson, Jesson, Hebson, 
HiPSON, LowsoN, Anderson, with Hansen, Nan- 
sen, Jepsen, Ericksen, Gunnesen, Iversen, Jessen* 
Ebsen, Ipsen, Lauesen, Andersen, names common 
over the whole of Denmark. It does not follow 
that aU the above names are exclusively Scan- 
dinavian, but I do take it that the prevalence in 
England of names in son is a relic, of the Danish 
conquests. 

It is to be observed that when a name ends 
in s, we cannot be certain of the patronymic form. 
Thus Jesson and Masson may not be Jess-son 
and Mass-son, but Jess-en, and Mass-en. 

The final s so frequently added to names, as 
Wills for Will, Watts for Watt, Box for Bock, 
may be sometimes a patronymic form. It is so 
used in Frisian names, according to Pott. In 
other cases I take it to be a diminutive, see p. 22. 
But in the majority of cases, and particularly 



PATBONYMICS. 33 

when it is added to compound names, I take it to 
be merely a phonetic addition. 



B 



CHAPTER VI. 



COMPOUNDS. 



Almost all the names which occur in simple 
forms occur also compoxmded with other words. 
The extent to which these compoimds are trans- 
latable, or in other words, to which they have a 
meaning, seems to me an exceedingly doubtful 
point. Some of our highest authorities hold the 
aflSrmative opinion. Thus Mr. Kemble, speaking 
of Anglo-Saxon names, says, "These compoimd 
words are translatable, intelligible, in other words 
their conjoint meaning depends upon the separate 
meanings of the words which unite to form them.^ 
And Mr. Turner, on a similar principle, translates 
Anglo-Saxon names — thus jEthelwulf, " the noble 
wolf," Dunstan, " the mountain stone,'' &c. The 
earlier German writers, as Wiarda and Beneken, 
certainly followed the same rule, and I think that 
the principle is also recognised by the modem 
school of German philologists. I therefore feel 
bound to use all deference in suggesting a doubt 
whether Teutonic compound names are in all 
cases translatable, and formed with a meaning. I 
am of opinion, however, that even simple names 
were in most cases bestowed in ancient times 
without reference to their meaning. There can 
be no doubt that the first man who was called 



COMPOUNDS. 35 

Wulf was named directly after the animaL But 
of the thousands of men who were called Wulf in 
the long centuries after, I think that the most 
part must have been called aft;er other men. 
Much on the same principle, I take it, as that on 
which baptismal names are given now they were 
given then — ^sometimes after a relative or friend, 
sometimes after a name of popular renown — ^the 
word itself becoming in such cases, as regards 
sense, an abstraction. If this theory be correct, 
it will follow as a matter of course that compound 
names must also have been formed without a 
meaning. 

It is true that in many cases a certain sort of 
sense may be screwed out of such compounds, yet 
even to get any kind of a meaning we are often 
driven to great shifts. Thus though Frithu-ric 
as "powerful in peace"" may be held to have a 
sufficient meaning, yet Frithu-gar, as " the spear 
of peace"" would have to be explained in a sort of 
metaphorical sense. Again Frithu-bald, " bold in 
peace,'" seems rather satirical. And as to Fride- 
gunt, "the peace of war,"" and the Old Norse 
Snae-firid, " the peace of snow,'" let those find a 
meaning who can. Mr. Turner appears to see 
this difficulty when he observes that Anglo-Saxon 
names are frequently " rather expressive, of cap- 
rice than of appropriate meaning." 

But to my mind the strongest argument 
against giving a meaning to compound names is 
not so much the difficulty of making sense in any 



36 COMPOUNDS. 

particular case, as the fact that there is a c^*tain 
set of words with which almost all names are com* 
pounded. And it does not seem consistent with 
reason to expect that promiscuous words» with 
all sorts of meanings^ should make sense when 
compounded with a set of a dozen or twenty par- 
ticular words. 

But if compounds were not formed with a 
meaning, what was their value or intention 1 One 
of the principles upon which they might be given 
may perhaps be traced in Old Norse names. 
Thus Ketel was a very common Scandinavian 
name ; its meaning can hardly be anything else 
than English ''kettle/' and Grimm suggests a 
mj^hological origia Ul^ signifying wolt and 
Bjorn, signifying bear, were also common namea 
In Ulfketel and in Ketelbjom, these names are 
severally joined together. Now there can be no 
possible sense or meaning in such compounds as 
these — ^they are in fact not two words joined 
together, but two names joined together. And 
the principle upon which such names were formed 
might be the same as that on which a father 
might now call his son John Henry Smithy com- 
bining the names of two relatives, or persona 
whom he respected. Or it might be for the sake 
of distinction — Ulf and Ketel both being common 
names — Ulfketel would, without travelling out 
of the customary range, be sufficiently distinctive. 
It seems probable that many Oerman names are, 
on the same principle, not two words compounded. 



0OMPOUND& 37 

but rather two names joined together. Such, for 
instance, as those which contain the names of two 
animals, as Amxdf, Ebarulf, Wol^irin, Wol£raban, 
respectively "Eagle-woir " Boax-wol^'^ Wolf- 
bear/' " Wolf-ravaou'' All these were common 
names singly. 

Again, perhaps another principle may be traced 
in such a name as the Old German Zeizolf This, 
if we translate it, means ** darling wolf." But if 
we suppose " wolf' to have been used as a common 
name, and without reference to its meaning, then 
the idea of darling would attach rather to the 
chUd that was called Wolf than to the abstract 
meaning of wolf 

But that there were compoimd names with a 
meaning I do not for a moment doubt, only it 
seems to me that it was not the universal, nor, 
perhaps, the ordinary rule. 

Again, there are many names which are simply 
compound words taken bodily out of the language. 
Thus, Gabwood is the Anglo-Saxon garumdu, 
** spear-wood,"^a poetical or pleonastic expression 
for a fspear. And Askwith is " ash-wood," a 
similar expression for a spear — spears being made 
of that wood. So also Skjpwith, " ship-wood," 
a ship. {With, as compared with wood, is the 
Gothic form instead of the Saxoa) Again, 
BoNiGER seems to be from the Anglo-Saxon 
bon-gar, a fatal spear. These, then, are not com- 
pound names, but compound words adopted as 
names. 



38 OOMPODNDS. 

Almost all the words which appear in com- 
pounds axe fotmd also as substantive names, and 
will therefore find their places under the various 
heads into which I have distributed them. But 
for the sake of facility of reference, I introduce in 
this place a list of the principal terminations of 
those English names, which may be referred to 
ancient compoimds. 

Am, lam, as in Willam, William, Hillam, 
HiLTJAM. Ang.-Sax. helmi, helmet. This 
was a common postfix, but in our names it 
is diificult to separate it fi-om the local 
ending, ham, home, and firom the ending m 
referred to p. 24. It is probable, however, 
that more names than are suspected are fi:om 
this origin. The French generally have it as 
aume or eaume. Hence the French 
Allaume, Alleatjme, are probably the 
same as our Allah, Allom, Allum. 

And, Avi as in Eenaxjd, Kenaut. Aitd, the 
Gothic form of Ang.-Sax. ead, prosperity. 
This is very common in French names, but 
in English, following the Saxon form, it 
becomes more firequently et or ot, and is very 
liable to mix up with other words. 

Be7% as in Herbert. Ang.-Sax. beort, bright,, 
illustrious. Pert, as in Rupert, is the High 
Germ. form. 

Bold, Ball, Bh, as in Rumbold, Ruhball,. 
Rumble. Ang.-Sax. hold, bold. 



COMPOUNDS. 39 

JBuU in many cases is the same as the above. 

Thus our CiiARiNGBULL is no doubt the same 

name as Claringbold. 
BaicU, in French names, as Herbault, Gerbault, 

the same as bold. 
Brandy as in Hildebrand, Gillibrand. Ang.- 

Sax. brand, sword, Eng. " brand." 
Brown, as in Gorebrown, Phillibrown. Either 

hrown, fiLSCUS, or cognate with Eng. "bum" 

in the sense of fiery or impetuous. 
Bum, as in Osburn. Old Norse bjom. Old 

Germ, berin, bear. 
Pern, as in Asperne, is the High Germ. form. 
Bvtt, Botty Body, as in Garbutt, Talbot, Pea- 
body. Anglo-Saxon boda. Old Norse bodi. 

Germ, bote, envoy or messenger. 
Cough, Copp, as in Ayscoxjgh, Whincopp, I take 

to be Ang.-Sax. cdf, strenuous. 
Day, as in Loved ay, Hockaday.. Anglo-Saxon 

dag, day. Grimm suggests the sense of 

brightness, glory. 
Dew, Die, Dy, as in Ingledew, Purdie, Abdy, 

French Abbadie. Old High Grerman dio, 

servant. 
Hr, Ery, as in Warner^ Gunnery, Hillary. 

Har, hari, warrior. 
Forth, as in Garforth. Perhaps Anglo-Saxon 

ferhth, life, spirit. Perhaps in some cases a 

corruption of frith, peace. There is abo a 

root, farth, faerd, travel, but it is imcertain 

whether it occurs as a termination. 



40 COMPOUNDS. 

Fredy Frey, as in Manfbed, Humfbey. Anglo- 
Saxon .^*i^A, peace. 

Oar, Oer, Ker, as in Edgab^ Boboeb, Habkeb. 
CraVy geTy heTy spear. 

GiUy as in Habgill. Old High German gis(d^ 
hostage. Or local, from ** giU,'* a ravine. 

Ooody as in Habgood, Bidgood. God, deus, 
good, bonus, and perhaps Goth as the 
people's name, are difficult to separate. 

Hardy Ardy as in Bsbnhabd, Bebnabd. Ang.- 
Sax. heardy hard, strong. 

KisSy as in Atkiss, Hadkiss, Watkiss, is from 
ffisy which Grimm thinks the same as gisaly 
hostage. 

LakCy Lock, as in Wedlake, Havelogk. Pro- 
bably Ang.-Sax. 2acan, Old Norse leika, to 
play, in a war-like sense. 

Land, Land, as in Gabland, Dollai^d. Ang«- 
Sas. land, Eng. land. It is also no doubt 
sometimes a local termination. And also 
sometimes a corruption of lindy probably 
shield. 

Let, as in Hamlet, Hablot, may be from Ang.- 
Sax. Idd, Old Sax. ISd, in the sense of 
terrible. In some cases it may be a diminu- 
tive. 

Love, Liff, as in Cutlove, Maklove, Ratuff. 
Ang.-Sax. leof, dear. 

Har^ as in Habm ak, Biidman. Ang.-Sax. man, 
Eng. man. 



COMPOUNDS. 41 

JMer, More^ as in Mutim£b» Philumobe. Ooth. 

mer, Ang.-Sax. mdr, famous. 
Mot, as in Willmot, Hiokmot, Old High Germ. 

m6U Mod. German mvth, courage. 

Mond, Menu as in Redmont, Garment. Ang.- 
Sax. muvd, protection. 

Nant, Nan, as in Remnant, Pennant, Qthl- 
UNAN. Goth, nanthjan, to dare. 

iVey, as in Rodney, Goldney. Ang.-Sax. niw, 
Dan. and Swed. ny, new, in the probable 
seose of young. 

Not, Net, Nut, as in Habnott, Harnett, Dil- 
ndtt. Ang.-Sax. ndth, bold. 

Ram, as in Bertram, Outrah, Ingram, seems, 
fix)m the ancient forms in which it appears, 
to be a corruption of hrahan, raven. 

Band, as in Eng. Bertrand, Walrond. Ang.- 
Sax. rand, shield. 

Bed Bat, Bet, as in Alfred, Tancred, Garrett. 
Ang.-Sax. red. Old High Germ, rat, counsel 
Some terminations oiwright, as Arkwright, 
are evidently corruptions of ral. But there 
is also an ancient termination rit, apparently 
of the same meaning as Eng. ride. 

Bick, Bich, Bidge, By, as in Frederick, Ald- 
RiGH, Aldridoe, BAiiDRY. Ang.-Sax. rice. 
Old High Germ, richi, powerful In some 
cases bridge, as in Groomrridge, may be 
from this origin. 

F 



42 OOMPOT7ND8. 

Bon^ Ren, aa in Waldboh, Caldbbon, Chilobkh, 

This tennioation, whidi is exduaivelj femi- 
nine, Grimm derives from rUn^ 8oda» amioa. 

In French names it is often a corruption of 

rabariy ravea 
Sant, Sent, as in Hebsant, Milucent. Old 

High Grerm. sind, via. Or perhaps in some 

cases a corruption otsmnd, vehement. 
Stoney Stin, as in Fbebstonb, Garstin. Ang.- 

Sas:. stAa^ stone, in the sense of firmnesa 
Thus, Tu8S, TisSy as in Malthus, Fbltuss^ 

Anstiss. GotL thins, servant See also 

dew and thew, 
Thew, as in Willthbw, Anglo-Saxon theow, 

servant, corresponding with Goth, thiits, and 

High Germ. dio. 
Ulph, Olph, as in Biddulph, EiANDOiiPH, Must- 

OLPH. Ang.-Sax. twif. Old Norse tdf(rj, 

wolf. 
Ward, Wart, as in Howard, Seward, Tewart. 

Ang.-Sax. weard, guardian. 
Wdld, as in Oswald. Ang.-Sax. wecUd, power. 

The terminations in old are from the same 

origin. 
Way, Wick, Vey, Vig, as in H athway, Harvey, 

Harvig. Wig, wih, war. The termination 

in wich is probably in most cases local. 
Win, Wirke, as in Baldwin, BiuGHTWiii^. 

Ang.-Sax. vnne, friend. 
Wood, With, Weed, as in Gurwood, Asewtth, 

DiGWBED. Ang.-Sax. vmdu, Goth, vidfsj, 



COMPOUNDS. 43 

wood. Forstemann also suggests Old High 
Germ, ivit, wide, which may obtain in certain 
cases. This ending is no doubt also often 
local. 

Out of the above list there are many which do 
not often occur, and the range of reaUy common 
terminations is not more than about twenty. 

The terminations a, h o, are not foimd in 
compound names» and such names as Bicardo, 
Alphonso, Grimaldi, though of German origin, 
are Italian or Spanish as regards the termination. 



CHAPTER VII. 



LETTER CHANGES. 

The greater part of the letter changes which 
occur in our names are to be accounted for by the 
differences of Teutonic dialects, and, in particular, 
by the variations between High and Low 
German. The High German prefers aspirated 
and hard — ^the Low German soft and liquid 
sounds. The former may be taken to be repre- 
sented generally by the present German, and the 
latter by the present English, though it is to be 
observed that the standard language of Germany 
does not present the extreme phases of High 
German. Take, for instance, the range of names 
of which the root is Germ, gehan, Eng. give^ and 
from which we have Gieve, Gibb, Gipp, and 
KiPP. The two former, Gieve and Gibb, show the 
form contained in English and in German, the 
difference between which is a Low German v for 
a High German 6. But in the name Gipp we 
have another point of difference in favour of the 
High German, viz., p for h. While the last name 
Kipp shows the extreme point to which, in that 
word, the High German can go, by changing g 
into h In addition to the four forms above 
quoted, we have also four others, viz., Jebb, Jipp, 



LETTER CHANGES. 45 

EliBBE, and Ghipp, the last form being, I think, 
Frankish. Nor yet do these eight names exhaust 
the permutations of this little word — there being 
also, as will be seen in its place, a vowel change 
which scarcely comes within the range of the 
present chapter. 

Another of the most common interchanges is 
that of d and t. The latter is High German, as 
in Gam. latU, Eng. loud. Germ, hette, Eng. bed. 
Hence we have Dodd and Todd, Dandy and 
Tandy, Dennison and Tennyson, &c. 

The High Grerman frequently changes t into s 
or 2^, as in Genn. silss, Eng. sweet. Germ, salz, Eng. 
saU. Hence our SusE and Susans may corres- 
pond as High German forms with Sweet and 
Sweeten. And our name Salt may be the 
same as the Mod. Germ, name Salz. So also our 
Gbote and Grose may be respectively Low 
Grerman and High German forms of great. 

Another High (Jerman form is sch for s. This 
is very common in Mod. German names — ^thus, 
German Schmidt, Eng. Smith, German Schwann, 
Eng. Swan, Germ. Schneider, Eng. Snider, Dutch 
Sny dera This form is very uncommon in English 
names, because it is of comparatively modem 
growth in Germany. 

These are for the most part the common varia- 
tions of High and Low German. But there are 
other peculiarities of ancient dialects which are 
not without their effect upon otir names. Ldl the 
Frankish dialect of the Merovingian period it is a 



46 LETTEB CHANGES. 

peculiarity to change h at the begiimmg of a 
word into ch^ or sometimes into simple a Henoe 
the names of the Merovingian kings Childibert 
and Childerio for Hildibert and Hilderic. This 
seems to be the origin of some of our names, sach 
as Chillman (iq the Hundred Bolls Childman), 
for Hildman — Chabman for Habman — ^Chil- 
BBEN for Hilderannus or Hild^rma — CHiLiiBCAiD 
for Hildimod, &c. 

This peculiarity of the Frankish dialect has 
had the effect of prefixing c to many names begin- 
ning with I and* r» in the following manner. 
Several of these names anciently began with hi 
and hr : this h was aspirated, or in other words, 
it had something of a guttural sound. The 
Frankish dialect, increasing the guttural, made 
this h into a o. In English, this guttural sound 
of A at the beginning of a word is altogether lost. 
On the other hand, when it has been so com* 
pletely defined as to become a o, it has preserved 
itself by its own strength. The result is that we 
have in EngHflh the same names variously, as 
Cboaj> and Bode, Cbotgh and Botoh, Cbook 
and Book, Cboageb and Bogeb, Cloud and 
Loud, &c. Hence also the French names Clod* 
OMIB and Clovis still eidsting, and the Christian 
name CixxniiDE. 

Anoth^ point to be noticed is that ia some 
German dialects g is prefixed to words beginning 
wiih w. We have an iostaoce of this in the name 
of our gracious Sovereign, Guelfh for Welp. So 



LETTER CHANGES. 47 

we have Gwillan for Willan, Gwillam for 
William, Gwalteb for Walter, &c. Hence 
comes, I take it, the name of the Italian painter 
GuiDO, corresponding with our Widow. Perhaps 
also GX71Z0T, if it be the same as a Guizo found 
in the 11th century in the Niederrheinisches 
Urkundenbuch. The High German prefixing c 
instead of gr, gives us many names beginning witJi 
q (which is only c added to w). Thus we have 
QuiN for Winn, Quarrell for Warrbll, 
QuARRiER for Warribr, Quill for Will, Quil- 
LAN for Willan, Quiluams for WrmAMa 
Hence comes Quilunan &om an Old German 
WiUinant. Hence also Quabitch, known to 
bibhophiUsts, firom an Old Grerman Wericho, also 
found, with the other prefix, as Guerich. 

On the other hand, as ^ is sometimes added, 
so it is much more frequently lost. As a ter- 
mination this is very commonly the case in 
English, as in Anglo-Saxon lag, English " law," 
Ang.-Sax. bog^ Eng. " bow/' Hence as names we 
have Wago and Way, Bogub and Bowe, Buoq 
and Bew; perhaps Begg and Bee, BidG and 
Bye. But this occurs also in Anglo-Saxon and 
other ancient dialects. Indeed the g in such cases 
can hardly be said to belong to the root ; it does 
not seem to occur in the parent Sanscrit^ but to 
be a hardening of the sound which has accrued 
in the Gothic languages. Again, g between two 
vowels, or between a vowel and a liquid, is very 
commonly dropped. Thus we have Megen and 



48 LETTEB CHA140Ea 

Mayne, Baqlet and Bailet, Beagle and 
Beale, Buglea and Bewlet, Daglet, and 
Dalt. This again is common also in ancient 
names — thus we have Old German names M^in- 
hard and Mainhard, Beginhard and Rainard, 
Baganar and Beinher, Bagingar and Baingar. 
Hence our Matnard, Benabd, Batneb» and 
Banger. 

Another change of frequent occurrence in Old 
Frankish names is that of n, before b, p, or m, into 
m. We may trace the same tendency among the 
French at present in their change of Edinburg 
into Edimbourg. The few names that we have 
in which it occurs, such as Gimbebt for Ginbert, 
Wimble for Winbald, may not, however, always 
be due to French influence, but to a natural prin- 
ciple of euphony. It is more common, however, 
in French than in English, as in Masimbebt for 
our Massingbebd. 

The vowel changes are less capable of being 
reduced to definite rules. But as a general prin- 
ciple the Low German prefers simple vowels, 
while the High German is partial to diphthonga 
Take the German taube, English " dove.*' The 
difference here is^ first, d for t — secondly, v for 6 
— and thirdly, the simple vowel for the diphthong. 
So our name Stbutt may be the same as the 
German Strauss — $s for t, as before noted, and 
the simple vowel for the diphthong. I have before 
referred to Gbose and Gbotb as respectively 
High and Low German forms of the same nama 



LETTER CHANGES. 49 

But the Grerman grossy great, is in some High 
German dialects grauss. So that while Gbose 
and Gbote are High and Low German, we have 
another name Gbouse, which may be extra High 
German. 

With regard to the simple vowels, there is in 
proper names — and has been from the most 
ancient times — ^an interchange which it would be 
dijBSbult to refer to any strict rulea 

But Weinhold (Deutsche Frauen), sets forth 
something of a more definite principle, and sup- 
poses that a variation of the vowel was sometimes 
employed for the perpetuation of a family name. 
** Thus if the father had a name with a simple 
soxmd, the son tjikes the same name with an 
augmented voweL The Germans share this 
peculiarity with the Indians (Grimms geschickte 
der Deutschen sprache 441.^ Thus, if a German 
mother were called Ada, the daughter might be 
called Ida; the mother Baba, the daughter 
Buoba ; the mother Tata, the daughter Tuota ; 
the mother Wada, the daughter Wida, kc!' I 
do not think, however, that this amounted to 
anything like a general principle. 

It is to be observed that the quantity of a 
vowel often varies in the same name ; thus we 
have Godding and Gooding, Godman and Good- 
man, GoDMCH and Goodrich, Godwin and 
Goodwin, Ac. We have only, for an instance of 
this, to cross the border, and we shall often find 
Tdm and B&b for Tom and Bob. 

a 



CHAPTER VIIL 



OUB NATURAL ENEMIES. 

That a large proportion of French Christian 
names, as Albert, Adolphe, Edouard, Frederic, 
Guillaume, Henri, Robert, &c., are of German 
origin, is a point about which there can be no 
dispute. The extent to which the present family- 
names of France may also be referred to a German 
origin is a subject which has not hitherto been 
investigated. A few there are, such as Aubo- 
GAST, Armengaud, Clodomib, Grimault, and 
IsAMBERT, which, as corresponding with names of 
historical Franks, carry their own origin on their 
front. It is not difficult, again, to trace in 
Dacbert and Degobbrt the name of the Frankish 
king Dagobert — ^in Fermond and Ferment that 
of Faramund — ^in Charmond and Charmont 
that of Charimund — or to find in Gombault a 
form of Gimdobald less perverted than our own 
Gumboil. But the names of historical person- 
ages are few, and the comparison serves rather to 
suggest, than to fulfil an enquiry. Nor are the 
materials of investigation wanting, for in the two 
Polyptyques whose titles I have elsewhere quoted, 
will be found a register of thousands of men and 
women of the Frankish period, and chiefly of that 
class which history allows to live and die un- 



OUIt NATURAL BNEMDSS. 51 

noticed. Further, as the Frank and the Saxon, 
and all the other members of the Teuton race 
were branches of one common family, cognate in 
the names they bore as well as in the dialects 
they spoke, so all such records, of the one or of the 
other, find their mutual parallels in each other. 
The result then of the enquiry which I propose in 
these pages to make, will be to show, as I 
believe, that a very large proportion, indeed I may 
almost say the staple, of French, as of English 
names, is German in its origin. And may not 
mutual sympathies be encouraged, and mutual 
antipathies be rebuked, if it can thus be shown 
that there is more in common between the two 
races — ^perhaps even than is suspected by ethno- 
logists — certainly than is present to the minds of 
people in general. And why, after all, should we 
be surprised if the French turn out to be — what 
their name describes them — Franks 1 

It must not be forgotten, however, that a 
second Teutonic element, of great political im- 
portance to them and to us, has entered into the 
composition of French nationality. We shall, I 
think however, be disappointed if we expect to 
find any strongly-marked Scandinavian element 
in French names. If that element had been more 
distinct, it might have remained more conspicu- 
ous ; as it is, though it may not have been with- 
out its effect in modifying the nomenclature, yet 
it seems essentially to have been absorbed in the 
predominant element of the Frankish. And thus. 



52 OUR NATUBAL ENEMIES. 

though here and there we find names, such as 
Omn, Anqxjetil, Raoul, which seem more par- 
ticularly to bespeak a northern origin, yet such 
names are not sufficient to give a character to the 
nomenclature. 

With very few exceptions, I have taken the 
modem French names from the Annuaire de 
Paris, and following the analogy of the language, 
have in aU cases adopted the spelling and not the 
pronunciation. 

The Prankish dialect being more nearly allied 
to the High German than to the Low, the diflTer- 
ences between French and English names will, to 
a considerable extent, be the differences between 
High and Low Grerman, as referred to in last 
chapter. Thus, though the French Christian 
name happens to be fixed as Edouard, yet the 
form most in accordance with the Frankish 
language would be Audouard. And Audouaed, 
AuDEVARD, &c., is in fact the form which in 
French family names is the most common. So 
also AuDOUiN, AuDiGUiER, and Audibebt, pre- 
vail rather than Edwin, Edgar, and Edbert. 

The most common ending for simple names, 
among the French, as among the Old Franks, is 
0, or with the usual superfluous letters, eau. 
Thus French Couteau corresponds, as I take it, 
with Eng. CooTE — ^the same name with the end- 
ing and without. And as I have before observed 
that the ending in i is that which is in accordance 
with the genius of the English language, and 



OUB NATURAL ENSMIBB. 53 

that, if we had to form names now, we would 
give them that ending, so the same remark 
applies to the French and the ending in o. 

It has been remarked that names derived 
from trades are more common in France than in 
England. I should rather say that it is the ter- 
mination in er which is more common, and that 
among a multitude of names with this termina- 
tion there are many which accidentally coincide 
with names of trades. I do not for a moment 
doubt that there are names derived from trades 
both in France and England, but what I say is 
that in a number of cases these names may be 
accounted for — and often more satis&ctorily — 
otherwise. This view is confirmed by the &ct 
that many French names correspond with English 
names of trades. M. de Gennlle has noticed one, 
French Houelleub, English Whseleb, and he 
has been driven to the shift of supposing that '' it 
was introduced into Normandy during the thirty- 
two years occupation by the English in the 
fifteenth century." Truly the French must have 
been apt to learn, or the lesson must have been 
sharply taught. For they have also Colueb, 
Tannisbe, Miller, Glaeser, Brazier, Krier, 
RiNGiER, Tascher^ Cartier, Pottiee, Pacquier^ 
corresponding with our Collier^ Tanner^ Miller, 
Glazier, Brazier, Crver, Einger, Tasker, 
Carter, Potter, Packer. Now my theory is 
that aU these are, or may be in some cases^ 
ancient compounds, and as I shall elsewhere show. 



54 OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 

we have in almost all cases, both in French and 
English, names which contain the roots, and 
names which form other compounds. 

Regarded from this point of view, French and 
English names mutually throw great light upon 
each other. When I doubt whether our Potter 
means a maker of pots, it very much strengthens 
my suspicion to find not only a French Pottier, 
but also PoTERiE, with a corroborative termina- 
tion. So when I doubt whether the French 
NoTAiRE means a notary, an English Notter is 
at hand to back me out. 

In another point of view French and English 
names throw Ught upon each other — ^it often 
happens that the group is more complete in one 
language than in the other, and there is always a 
double chance of a missing link being suppUed. 

It seems natural to expect that at a transi- 
tional period in France there might be a certain 
mixing up of Teutonic and Romanic forms. And 
we find accordingly that there are some names 
which, though they run through a range of 
Teutonic compounds, do not themselves appear 
to be of Teutonic origin. Such are 6a?'6, didc, 
just, which seem to be French or Latin, and yet 
which are found with the usual German endings,v 
such as h&rty hardy Ac, appended to them. So 
also some words of Christian import, as Crist, 
Sanct, &c., seem to have been treated in a similar 
manner, in order to make German names of them. 
These forms> however, are not very common, and 



OUB NATURAL ENEMIES. 55 

it is not always certain that the word in question 
is not German. 

This chapter may not inappropriately be con- 
cluded by an argument to prove that the present 
ruler of the French may have a name of German 
origin — ^that Bonaparte in fact may be an Old 
Frankish name, come back, after long exile, to its 
native land. The case stands thus. Bonibert in 
the 7th and Bonipert in the 9th century, appear 
as Frankish names. In that part of Italy which 
was subdued by the Franks I find the present 
Italian name Boniperti — ^it is — or was — ^that of a 
jeweller at Turin — and there is no doubt that it 
is the same name as the Frankish Bonipert. Now 
from the same part of Italy came originally also 
the Bonapartes, and the question is simply this — 
May not the name Bonaparte be nothing more 
than an attempt to shape the other name, Boni- 
perti, to something of an Italian meaning ? Still, 
the name may be German, and yet not Frankish, 
for the Lombards, who held that part of Italy 
before them, were also Germans, and may have 
had the same name Bonipert. Curiously enough 
too, from the other side of the Atlantic the name 
comes back to us in a Saxon form, for the Bon- 
bright quoted by Mr. Bowditch — ^Anglo-Saxon 
6W^=01d High German pert — ^is evidently the 
same as Bonipert. 

As to the etymology of the name, it may be 
taken to be from bana, bo7ia, a slayer, and bert 
or pert, famous. 



56 OUB NATUBAL ENEMIE& 

A famous slayer indeed was he who called 
men " food for powder T' 



CHAPTER IX. 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWEB. 

There are several names of which the etymo- 
lo^cal meaning is simply Man. And there appear 
to be some — ^but generally these are not so certain 
—of which the meaning is simply Woman. Into 
many of the names signifying man there enters 
no doubt something of a higher sense — ^that of 
manliness or heroism. And the words appear to 
be used par excellence, as we apply the terms 
manly and manful. Something of this sense 
appears in the line of Burns' — 

" A man's a man for a' that.*' 
Still there are cases in which it is diflScult to 
trace any other sense than that of mere sex. 

At the head of the list is Mann, which is 
in a more direct manner connected with hero- 
worship than the rest, i^ as is probably the case, 
its use as a name is to be traced up to the 
Mannus of Tacitus, the fabled son of the hero or 
god Tuisco, and founder of the German nation. 
We do not, however, meet with the name in after 
times, at least in its simple form, before the 7th 
cent., though in a compound form, it is found as 
early as the 4th. Two other forms are Men and 
Mon, the latter of which was Anglo-Saxon, and is 
stiU used in the Lowland Scotch. 

H 



58 MAN AS THE TTPE OF POWER. 

fllUPLB lo&iia. 
Old Germ. Manno, Manni, Metii, 7th cent. A2ig.-8az. 
Mann, Manniy Mon. Eng. Mank, Many, Mkhki^ Mbnhib, 
Homo. Mennow. Modern Qerman Mank. French MAmr, Maity, 
Maheau, "Mjosnsn^ Msmr, Mensau, Monnt, Monnbau. ItaL 
Mahvi. 

DDCINUTlVlfii. 

Old G^ennan Mannila^ Manili, 6th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
Mannel — Eng. Maiwell, Manlet — ^Manlaj, BcU of BaiUe 
Abbey — Modem Germ. Mannel, Meknel — French MANi<ETy 
Menel. Old Qerm. Manniko, Mannic^ 9th cent. — Engliah 
Mannico, Mannakay, Manchee, Mannix — Mod. German 
MAinscKE, Manneck — French MANEa Old Germ. Mannikin, 
Mennechin — Eng. Manchin. — Modem German Maknikik, 
Mankchen. 

PATBONYMIGSi. 

Old Frieno Manninga — ^English MAmriNO — French 
Maninous. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Frid, peace) Old Germ. Manfrit — Eng. Maitfred — Mod. 
German Manfried — French Manfray, Mokfrat — Italian 
Manfredl (Gror, ger, ker, spear) Old Germ. Mangar, 8th 
cent — Eng. Manqer,* Monger 1 Moncxtr. (Here, warrior) 
English Monery — French Mannier, Menier, Monnier. 
(Litih, leqf, dear) Old German Maualiiib, 7th cent. — English 
Manloye. (Hard, fortis) Modem German Manhardt, 
Mannert — French Monard. (Goldj gcdda, virere) Old 
German Managold, 7th cent. — Eng. MANiaAULT,t Mangles 
— Mod. Germ. Mangold— French Mangal. (WcUd, power) 
Old Germ. Manold, 8th cent. — French Manalt, Menault. 

In the former edition I thought that Oman 
might be from Old Norse omannr, a nobody, o 
negative and manvry a man. But it is more pro- 
bably the same as Homan, from ?ioh, high. (See 

'^ If this U pronoonoed like the Engllah word " mufw," it ii probftUy Um 

M an Old Oerm. Meginger. 

t Uamiqaous, % South CktoUim namob nuij b* of Wna/tk oilgiB. 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 59 

what it is to drop oiir h's 1) Obman again» which 
I thought might be from the corresponding Ang.- 
Sax. negative particle or, is probably the same as 
an Old Germ. Oraman of uncertain meaning. 

Another word signifying a man, a male, is 
Ang.-Sax. carl. Old High Germ, charal. This was 
a very common name, both German and Scan- 
dinavian, and is found as early as the 7th cent., 
but it does not seem, like most other words, to 
occur often in a compound form« A notable 
exception, however, is that of the Frankish king 
Carloman, the combination in whose name of two 
words both signifying man, gives, as in the Old 
Norse harlmenni, the sense of hero. 

SnCPLB TOBMB. 

Old Germ. Karol, Garolus, 7th cent. Aiig.-Sax. CearL 
Old Norse KarL Eng. Cabl^ Cablet, Charles, Carroll, cm 
Cabloss, Carless (Carolus f) Mod. German Karl, French Mm. 
Carol, Charle. Span. Carlos. 

A third root signifying man is Ang.-Sax. gum, 
gom. Old High Grerman gomo, como, chomo, per- 
haps cognate with Latin homo. Hence comes 
the Eng. " groom,*' assuming a phonetic r. 

SIMPLE FORMa 

Old Germ. Ooma^ Como, Chomo, 7th cent Old Dan. oom. Onm, 
GommL Eng. Gumma, Gummosa Gomm, Gumm, Groom, ^^ 
OoMBE. Mod. German Gk>MM, Komm, Kumm. French GoM, 
Gomme, Com, Chomeau, Grumay. 

COMPOUNDa 

{Bice, Biehe, powerfol) Old German Gumarich, Gomarih, 
Komerih — English GROOMBRU>OEy Combbidgb,* Gomebt, 

* H«nM th« Seoltth bmm McGambbisob qaoUd bf Loww. 



Ab. Eb, lb, 



60 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWBK 

OoHRiE— Modem German Guhicbich — French Goicbriob. 
(Mundf protection) Old Germ. Gummund^ Cummunt — Eng, 
Grummant, Comont — French Gomant, Comont, (Leih^ 
carmen) Old GernL Gomaleih, Comaleih — English Gumlet, 
CoMLET. (MoTf mer, illustrious) Old Germ. Gummar, Kum- 
mar — Eng. Gummer, Comer — ^French Gojcer, Ohauxeb. 

Seeing the interchange of c and g in this root, 
it may be worth while to enquire whether our 
word " comely/' for which there is no quite satis- 
factory etymon in the dictionaries, may not be 
from gom or com, a man, in the sense of manly 
beauty. 

From the Gothic aha, man, Forstemann de- 
rives the following group of ancient names. 
Stark, however, recommends to go back to the 
root-meaning, as found in the lost verb aban, 
poUere, referred to by Grimm. But if we suppose 
the sense to be that of man as the impersonation 
of power, we may, I think, as well take that 
meaning as the abstract one. Whether the root 
ib should be included also in the group, is not so 
certain. 

SIMPLE FORMS 

Old Germ. Abbo, Abbi, Abba^ Appo, Appa» Ebbo, Hebo, 
Heppo, Ibba> Hibba, Ippo, 5th cent. Ebba, queen of the 
South Saxons, a.j>., 678. Ibbe, an Ang.-Sax. (KenMe,) 
Ebbi, a Northman (Anv^ Id,) Abo (D<»ne$day Lvnc) 
Eng. Abbe, Abbey, Abba, App, Happey, Epp, Hebb, Hbf- 
PEY, Hipp. Mod. Germ. Abbe, Appe, Heb, Ibe. Mod. 
Dan. Ebbe, Erba. French Abb]^, Appay, Habat, Habt, 
Happe, Happey, Hipp. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Abiko, Eppiko — Eng. Appach, Ebbidoe — 
Mod. Germ. Abich, Ebbecke — French Habich, Happich* 



VAN Afl THE TYPE OF POWBB. 61 

Old Gerouui Ibikin« Ipoin — English Hipkin. Old German 
Abbilin, Appulin — Eng. Applik. Abissa, son of Hengest — 
Eng. Abbiss^ Apsxt — French Habez. 

PATitOHYMICS. 

English Absok, Hebsok, Ibison, Hibson — Dan. Ebsen, 
Ifsbn. 

C50MPOUND3. 

{Dioy servant) English Abdy — French Abbadie, Habdbt. 
{B^rty p^rtf bright) Old Germ. Ibert — English Ebeet, Hsb- 
BEBT, HiBBEBT — Mod. German Ebbrecht — French Abert, 
Habebt, Appert, Happert, Ebert, Hebert, Ibert, Hibebt. 
{Wald, power) Eng. Appold — French ABAtrin*. (Wid, vidf 
wood) Old Germ. Abuid — Eng. Hipwood — French Abayid. 
{Beadoy war) Old Germ. Ibed, Ibet — Eng. Abbott, Ebbeits, 
Ibbett, HiBBiTT — French Abbette, Abit, Habit. 

A fifth root signifying man is the Old High 
Grerm. 6ar, which however it is very difficult to 
separate from Ang.-Sax. 6ar, a bear, with which 
in its root, it is probably allied. I place the fol- 
lowing here. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Paro, 10th cent. English Babb, Babry, 
Babbow, Pare, Pakby. Barre, Bary (Roll Battle Abbey J. 
French Babre, Bap by, Babbeau, Barb^, Parra. 

DIMINUTIVE. 

English Barlow, Barley, Barrell, Parrell — French 
Barblle, Parly. Eng. Parkin — French BARAcmN. Eng. 
Bablikq. Eng. Barras, Paris,* Pabsey, Parish — French 
Babriss, Parisse, Pariseau. 

COMPOUNDg. 

(Frid, peace) Old German Bavfrid, 8th cent.— English 
Parfrey. {Wald, power) Old Germ. Baroald, 7th cent — 
French Barault. (Goth, thita. Old High German dio, 
servant) Old German Paradeo, Paradeus — English Paraday, 

* Robl. Paqra/.ODe of the "good meo of London "—Pell Records, tamp. Ed. 8. 



Bar, Pur. 



62 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWEB. 

PABDKWy Paradise t — Frenoh Pababb, Parabis Y (Man) 
Eng. BABBETifAK, Parman — Swifls Barman. (Wine, fHend) 
French Baroin. (RcU^ oounsel) Eng. Barrett, Parrot — 
French Barratte, Barret, Parrette. 

From the Goth. fatfiSy man, Forstemami takes 
the following Old Germ, name, which is the only 
one that we find. And to the same source we 
may perhaps venture to refer the following 
modem namea 

6IHFLBIX>Rlf& 

Old Qerm. Fatto, 8th cent Eng. Fatt, Fattt, Faddt, 
Fbtt. French Fath. 

COMFOUNDS. 

Eng. Fatman) Fetmak9 
The names signifying woman are attended 
with more difficulty and doubt, owing to the 
manner in which men's names intermix, some- 
times fi*om the same apparent root. Thus there 
are several which appear to be from Ang.-Sax. 
tuify Old High Germ, wtp. Mod. Germ, weib, wife 
or woman. But among the ancient names there 
are some that are those of men,* and Forstemann 
thinks that the root of weban, to weave, inter- 
mixes. Or, I should rather suggest. Old Norse 
vippa^ to move rapidly, Eng. •*whip.*' Wippo 
was the name of a mythical Frankish king» 
(Grimm's Deutsch, Myth. 277.) 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wippo, Wippa, Wibi English Whipf, 
wlpp! "Whifpt, Wibrt. Mod. Qerm. Webbil 

WOBIMlt ■ 

* If the prloeiple which I ham before ngRaetad be admitted, riM., that 
•Doiently nunee wen often giTen witboat xeferenee to their meeninb it would be 
quite ooBceiTftble that a name of whioh the literal meaning waa woman mlght» of 
eonne in a maaonllne form, be borne bj a mia, and «i« vend. At the aame tine 
I think it probable that there ia an intennlztiire of rooti in thiagroop. 



Wibb, 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWEB. 63 

DIMINUTlVJfiHu 

YilaJliiu, a general of the Hermimdiixi in Tacita& — Old 
German Wipilo.— Old Norse VifilL— Wivell, BoU of Battle 
Abbey. — ^Eng. Wippkll, Weible, Whiblet. — Mod. Germ. 
WiPFBL, WiBEL — French Wibaillb. Old Gfenn. Wiviken 
— ^Eng. WiPKiN. — Mod. Germ. Wibkikg. Eng. Wkblino. 

OOMPOUKDa. 

(Dag, daj, or diOf aervant) Eng. Whipdat. {Wald^ 
power) Eng. Wyfoldb. 

Then we have QuiN and Queen. It seems 
very doubtful whether these are from Goth. 
qmna, Ang.-Sax. cwSn, a woman, Eng. ** queen.** 
For an Old German Quino comes before us as a 
man's name, and Forstemann takes it to be an 
aspirated form of Wino, from wine, friend. This 
we have also in many other names, as Quiluams 
for Williams, &c. 

It might seem fair, however, to give women's 
names the benefit of the converse. For we have 
a name Quomman, which on the same principle 
might be an aspirated form of woman. But more 
probably it is the Gothjc form of Commin, from 
Goth, quama, quuma, Ang.-Sax. cumma, guest, 
stranger. 

Then Doll, Dolling might be from Old 
Norse doU, a woman (Eng. doll 1) This seems 
rather probably the meaning of the name of a 
female serf, "Huna et soror illius Dolo," in a 
charter of manumission, Cod. Dip. 981. But we 
have several compound names which are evidently 



64 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 

from a different source, probably Ang.-Sax. doUi, 
a wound, and these two might be the same. 

In the former edition I thought that Pbgg 
and PiGG might not improbably be from Ang.- 
Sax. piga, Dan. pige, a virgin, particularly from 
finding Pegaor Pegia as the name of an Anglo- 
Saxon woman, the sister of St. Guthlac, A.D. 714. 
But on ftirther consideration I think they are 
more probably, by the interchange of b and p^ the 
same as Begg and Bigg. 

So also I thought that Fann, Fanny, Fan- 
ning, might be from Friesic faen^ fana^ Ang.-Sax. 
famna, a maiden. And that Fenn, Fenning, 
might be from/em/ie, another Ang.-Sax. form of 
the same. But the Old High Germ, fanna, an 
ensign, seems, upon the whole, to be an etymon 
more in accordance with the general character of 
our names. 

There is another name. Diss, which I before 
thought might be from a female origin, but which 
is at any rate uncertain. The Old Norse dis 
signified a goddess, but 'originally, according to 
Grimm, simply a woman, and in proper names, 
the sense probably wavered between the two. 
Dis by itself occurs as a woman's name in the 
Landnamabok, and it was very common in com- 
pounds, one of which was Aldis. Hence I 
thought might be our names Diss and Aldiss. 
But there is an Old German Diss, Disso, a man's 
name, which Forstemann refers to Goth, deis. 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWEB. 65 

wise — ^hence may be our Diss. And Aldiss may- 
be Ald-iss, the diminutive form referred to in 
Chap. 3. 

Lastly we have the names Verge, Vibqin, 
and VntGO — apparently the French merge, Eng. 
virgiuy Lat. virgo. But these are only a few 
names out of a group, the root of which I am 
rather inclined to take to be wearg, a wolf, 
ivurgen, to worry. 

Upon the whole then it will be seen that 
names signifying woman are certainly not com- 
mon, and in most cases tmcertain. 

A word as to family names apparently from 
the christian names of women. These have been 
supposed to indicate illegitimacy, and if any of 
them have been given in comparatively modem 
times, this may be the case. But with regard to 
such surnames as Anne, Betty, Moll, Pegg, 
Sall, Lucy, I have elsewhere given reasons for 
supposmg them not to be women's names at all, 
but ancient men's names. That we have some 
names of female origin I do not doubt, and in the 
origin of surnames, I can see no reason why they 
might not in some cases, without any injurious 
imputation, be taken from the mother. We find 
that it was so in the case of christian names, as, 
for instance, in the Pol. Irm.y where a woman is 
called Scupilia^ and her son Scopilius, an instance 
of the vowel change referred to by Weinhold, 
p.. 49. 

I 



66 ICAN AS THB TYPE OF FOWBB. 

There are one or two names, such as Man- 
hood and Manship (Ang.-Saz. mansdpe^ man- 
hood), which seem to contain an abstraction. 
We have also Mahood, which may be either 
maidenhood or boyhood (Ang.-Sax. mcBg^ Old 
Eng, meyy maiden, GotL inagus, puer). But the 
ending heid or Jiait (Mod. Germ. ?^it, Eng. hood)^ 
is found in many ancient names, particularly 
among the West Franks, and in the 8th and 9th 
centuries. Thus we have Adalheid, = noble-hood, 
I.e., nobility. So also Williheid, which seems to 
be equivalent to resolution, and Billiheid, which, 
according to the meaning of the root suggested 
by Grimm, woidd be gentleness. 



CHAPTER X. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Names taken from animals form a very 
numerous and important list — ^many of them 
being of the highest Teutonic antiquity. Several 
of them are also closely connected with Northern 
mythology, for as certain animals were conse- 
crated to certain deities, so we find that these are 
the animals which were most in favor for the 
names of men. Thus the wolf was sacred to 
Odin, the bear to Thor, and the boar to Frey. 
And the names of these three animals, consecrated 
respectively to the three principal Northern 
deities, were among the most honourable and the 
most common names of men. Indeed Bjom, 
signifying a bear, was one of Thor's own names^ 
and I am very much inclined to think that we 
have here some vestiges of an older worship, 
superseded by, and incorporated with the more 
recent Odinic faith. Throughout the whole of 
Northern Europe we have traces of a sort of 
superstitious respect paid to this animal, which, 
according to a Swedish proverb, has twelve men's 
understanding and six men's strength.* Hence 

* Horrebow, In bU natural hUfcoiy of Iceland, gives an acooant of the bear 
in whloh the IceUndlo eeUmate of his menUl wfiMiij Memi bj no means in keep- 
ing with the Swedish. If a man, according to hU story, is attacked bj one of 
theee a nim als, be hat nothing to do bat to throw him something to amuse him till 
he can get out of the way. Nothing is better fur this porpose than a glove, *' for 
he will not stir till he has tnmed every linger of It Inside ovt^ and as tbey are not 
Teiy dexterona with their paws^ this takes np some timet and in tbe meanwhile the 
penonmakMoff r 



68 THE BBUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

one of the heroes of Northern romance, fabled to 
have been the offspring of a woman and a bear, 
is described as surpassing other men in wisdom, 
a3 well as strength. In the former edition I sug- 
gested this as the possible origin of our name 
Babwise (i.e. " bear-wise"), but retracted it in 
the addenda, assigning the name to an Old Germ. 
Berwas, Ang.-Sax. hwcBSy keen, bold. But I over- 
looked the fact that there is also an Old German 
Berois,* which may probably be from wis^ wise. 
And the decided form of our name Babwise 
claims connection with this rather than with the 
other. So that, if the compound were formed 
with a meaning, the reputed wisdom of the bear 
might be the idea intended to be conveyed. 

The king of the Northern forests was much in 
fevour on the Scandinavian peninsula, and also 
among the Saxons of the continent. But among 
the Germans generally, and also among the 
Anglo-Saxons, names from the wolf were much 
more common. 

There are two forms — the simple and older 
form 6er, and the extended form berin. 

SIMPLE FORMSu 

Old Germ. Bero, Pero, 6tli cent. English Beab, Beer, 

"Betf Par. 

B^ Pear, Peer, Pero, Pauio. Mod, Genn.'BAHR, Beer, Ber. 
French Ber, Beer, Bi^re, P^re, Petre, Perreau. 



* In Old Franltish Bunes, of which this i« one, oa and oi lUnd for wa ud 
wi, M indeed ie the caie alao in modern French. 



THE BKUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 69 

DIMIKUTiyE& 

Old German Berila, 8th cent — Eng. Berrill, Burley, 
Pearl, Perlet — French I^ral, Berille, Berl, Berlt, 
Perol, Perrelle, Perilla. Old Geiman Berico, Berrich, 
9th cent — English Berridge, Perrigo — Modern German 
Barecke — French Berich, Periche, Perocueau. English 
Perkik — French Berquin, Perichon. English Purling — 
French Berillov, Perlin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(G^er, spear), Old German Bereger, Pereker, 8th cent — 
Eng. Berger— Modem German Berger — French Berger. 
(GU, hostage) Old German Perakis,»9th cent — Eng. Purkis, 
PuRCHES, Purchase. {Grim^ fierce) Old Germ. Peragrim, 
8th cent — English Paragren, Paragreen, Peregrine 7 
(ffart, hard) Old Geiman Berhard, 9th cent. — Eng. Barb- 
hard — French B^rard, Perard. {Here, warrior) Old Germ. 
Beriher, Bercher — Eng. Berrier, Purrier, Percher — Mod. 
German Biercher — French Berrter, Bercher, Perrier. 
{Jldtn, helmet) Old German Perrhelm, 8th cent. — English 
Perriam, Perram — French Berheaume. (Land) Old 
Germ. Pereknt, 9th cent — English Purland. (Man) Old 
Germ. Bermun— Eng. Burman, Pearhan-- Modem German 
Berm ANN. {Ma^y famous) Old Germ. Bermar, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Barmore, Parramore, Paramour ) (Afard, reward f) 
Old Germ. Beremard — French Bermard. (Mund, protec- 
tion) Old German Berimund, 5th cent — Frencli Bermond 
Bermont. {^(^i counsel) Old German Perrat — English 
Berret, Perrott — French Berot, Perrot. (Z)to, servant) 
Old German Biridio, Peradeo, 6th cent — English Perdue — 
French Perodt, Peyredieu. (Wald, power) Old German 
Beroald, Berolt, 7th cent — French Berault, Perault — 
ItaL Beroaldus. ( Wine, friend) Old German Berewiu, 8th 
cent, Beroin — Eng. Perown — French Perrouin. (Geltan, 
Talere) English Purgold — French Perigault. {Wctrd, 
guardian) Old German Beraward, Perwart, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Berward, Perwort. (Wisy wise) Old German Berois, 8th 
cent — Eng. Barwise, Purvis. 



^ 



f 70 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTBIBUTES. 

, Perhaps to this root may belong the name of 

the well-known fanatic Barebone, with which 
may correspond a French Bababan {bana or 
bonay a slayer). Another English form is Bear- 

> BENN. 

The following are to be assigned to the ex- 
tended root berin, with which corresponds the 
Old Norse bjorn. The Anglo-Saxon beorn^ chiei, 
hero, may mix up with this root. It will be seen 
in this and the former, how close a connection 
there is between the roots of bear and man. 

SIMPLE FOEMB. 

Old German Bemo, Berino, Bern, Pern, Pirin, 8tli cent. 
Baiin, Old Norse Bjom, Birna. Anf^.-Sax. Beom. Eng. BtBNE, 
f*"' BuEN, BiBNEY, PuRNET, Byron, Perbin. Modem German 

Baur. 

Beebin. French Bebkk, Bebitey, Pebny, BiitOK, Pibok, 
Pbbbin. Ital Bebni. 

♦ DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Bimioo, 8th cent — Eng. Bubnidge — Mod. 
German Bebnicke. English Bubnell, Pubnell — French 
Bebnelle, Pebnelle. Old German Berinza, Bemiza, 10th 
cent — Eng. Bubkess, Bubkish ? — ^Mod. Germ. Behbens. 

PATBONYBaCS. 

Old German Beming, 9th cent — Eng. Bu&mKG.— Mod. 
Germ. Bebnino. 

C0MK>ITND8. 

(GoTf spear) Old German Beringar, 8th cent. — ^English 
Beringeb, Bebbikqeb — Mod. German Bebbingeb — French 
Bebikgeb, Beranoeb. (Hard) Old German Berinhard, 8th 
cent — English Bbbnabd — Mod. German Bebkabd — French 
Bebkabi>— -Span. Bebnabdez. (Here, warrior) Old German 
Berinher, Bemer, Bemier, Pemher, 8th cent — Eng. Bibneb, 



THE BRtTTB AKD ITS ATTRIBUTE& 71 

Psums — Mod GeroL Bkrivbb^ French Bebkibb, PaanxB. 
{W€dd, power) Old German Bemeold, Bemolt, Sth oent.^- 
Eog. Bbbitou) -^French Bisbvault. 

Afl the bear was sacred to Thor, so was the 
wolf to* Odin, and by his two wolves, Geri and 
Freki, he is represented as always accompanied. 
I scarcely know how to account for it that though 
of all German names this was one of the most 
common, it is not particularly so in English 
names, and in French names rather the reverse. 
As a prefix in our names it generally loses the f, 
as in WooLGER for Wulfgar. 

SIMPLE FORMB. 

Old Germ. Vulf, fith cent— Wol^ 8tli cent./— Ov'Xm^ 
Procopiua. Ang.-Sax. Wulfl Old Norse TJlfi:. English wnif. uif. 
Wolf, Ulph, Ulp. Mod. Germ. Wolf. French Volf, ^«"- 
OuuF. 

BIMINUTIYEB. 

Ang.-Sax. Wolfei — English Wolsey («ee p. 23). Old 
Germ, Wulfico, 8th cent — Eng. Woolfolk. Old German 
Vnlfemia» 9th cent — Eng. Wolfem, Vulliamy. 

ooMPOu^mfi. 

(5ert, bright) Old German Wolfbert, 8th cent— English 
WooLBBBT. {Frid, peace) Old Germ. Wolflfrid, 8th cent— 
Ang.-Sa3L Wulfred— Eng. Woolpbeys. {Gar, spear) Old 
German Wolfgar, 8th cent— Ang.-Sax. Wulfgar— English 
WooLGAB, {Gaud, goth T) Old Germ. Wulfegaud, 8th cent 
— Ang.-Sax. Wul%eat— Eng. Wooloott. {Heidy p. 66) 
Old Germ. Wolfheid, 8th cent— Eng. Woolhead. {H(vrd) 
Old Germ, Wolfhard, 8th cent— Ang.-Sax. Wulfhard— Eng. 
WooLLABD— Mod. Germ. Wulfkbt. {Here, warrior) Old 
Getman Vtdfhar, bishop of Rheims, 7th cent — ^Ang.-Sax. 



72 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Wulfhcre— Old Norae TJlfar — Eng. Wolper — Mod. Germ. 
WoLFER. (Hath, hady war) Old German Wolfhad, bishop 
of Bourges, 9th cent. — Eng. Woollatt — French Wotllot. 
(Helm) Old German Wolfhalm, 8th cent— Ang. -Sax. Wulf- 
helm — Eng. Woollams — French Woillaume. (Hohf high) 
Old Germ. Wolfhoh, 8th cent.— Ang. -Sax. Wulfheh— Eng. 
WooLLBY. (Mar, famous) Old German Wolfmar, 8th cent. 
—Ang. -Sax. Wulfmer— Eng. Woolmeh. {^oth, bold) Old 
Germ Vulfnoth, 9ih cent.— Ang. -Sax. Wulfnoth— English 
WoOLNOTH. (Raban, ram, raven) Old Germ. Wolfhraban, 
Wolfram, 7th cent. — English Wolfram (perhaps of German 
origin). (Rice, powerful) Old German Wulfrich, 8th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Wulfric — Eng. Woolrych — French Wulveryck. 
(Stan, stone) Old Germ. Wolfetein— Ang.-Sax. Wulfstan— 
Eng. WooiSTON. 

Though in Old German names this was the 
most common of all post-fixes, yet it is by no 
means frequent either in English or French. We 
have the following. 

(Ead, prosperity) Old German Audulf, 7th cent. — Ang.- 

Wttif. uif. Sax. Eadulf — Eng. Adolph-— Mod. Germ. Adolph — French 

Wolf. Adolphe. (Beadu, war) Old Germ. Badulf, 8th cent.— Old 

MapotWix.^^^^ Bodolph — English Biddulph, Butolph ? (Bardi, 

giant 1) Old German Bartholf — English Babdolf. (Ga/nd, 

wolf) Old German Gandulf, 7th cent. — French Gandolphe. 

(Fast, firm) Old German Fastulf, 8th cent — ^Eng. Fastolp,* 

Fast AFP. (Rand, shield) Old German Randulf, 8 th cent. — 

English Randolph. (Rag, counsel ?) Old German Hagolf, 

Baholf, Raulf — English Ralph — Mod. German Ralphs. 

(Hroc, giant) Old Germ. Rocculf, Roholf, Roolf — Old Norse 

Hrolfr — Eng. Rolf — Mod. Germ. Rolf. (Stede, steadfast) 

Old German Stadolf, 8th cent. — Eng. Stidolf. Our name 



* I do not And this u » present English name, bat there wm a Sir John 
Fastolf, the sappoied prototype of Shakeipero's Falftaff, who belled bis e^ymologj 
b7 mnnlng away from Joan of Arc. 



THB BEX7TB AND ITS ATTBIBUTBS. 73 

Balvi, Pott makes a contraction of Badul£ But I think 
that it 18 more probably the same as the Ang.43az. Beowulf, 
perhaps from beag^ beah, bracelet ; hence, same as an Old 
Qerm. Baugul£ 

Wid/oT Ul/wBA the honourable name of the 
wolf. It was the wolf as the servant of Odin— 
the attendant on the battle-field — ^the brave^ 
patient hunter. But the wolf has another char- 
aeter — ^that of the midnight robber — ^the ruthless 
derourer — the curse of the shepherd — the terror 
of the mother. In this character his name was 
wearg or varg^ which also means assassin. The 
wolf himself seems to have had an aversion to this 
name, for in the old days when animals could 
speak, he is represented in Northern fable as 
saying — 

''Oaliest thou me Yarg, I will be wroth with thee.** 

But what was not good enough for a wolf 
seems to have been good enough for a man, for 
Weabq was the name of a Solicitor-General in 
the last century. The names Yebge, Yntoo, and 
ViBGiN I should also be rather inclined to bring 
in here — ^referring them to wearg, a wolf, or the 
verb wiirgian, to worry. However, there is un- 
certainty about this group ; Forstemann finds a 
root werk to which he gives the sense of opus. 

SDCPLS FOBM& 

Old Germ. Waigus, Wergio, 9th cent Eng^ WsASO, ^^^ 
WsRoc, YsBG^ Werk, Wobkkt,* Vbrco, Ymaa Mod. woit 
Qerm. Wxbck. French Ykboe, 7srg£ 



♦ In > chMtor of mMiamtMlffli, Cod, Dip. 861, we find Won! m tb« luuBe ol 
»Mrf. ItMeiiMpn>biAtoth»tthiai«aiobil4Qe^a]idt]ui(ttin6UifUt«ml]7'*oiM 
whoworka," i^i, wUh * wia Perbftp* than the «bofe nama WoBsn ought 
nMbarto ba aaaodntad with a 



74 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES, 

PHONEnC EXTENSION. 

Eng. YiRoiN. French Yebgeok, Ybbgne. 

00MPOITND& 

(ffari, heTf -warrior) Old Germ. Weixjhari, "Werkher, Sth 
cent. — Eng. Yergeb — Modem German Webkeb — French 
YBBCHkRE. (Mem) Eng. Wibgman, Workman % {Notky 
bold) Engliah Wokknot — French Yi;;bgnaud, Yebgnot. 
(Wine, friend) French Yirquin. 

Another name for the wolf in Old Norse waa 
gandry to which Forstemann assigns the root 
gand, gant, gent, kant, kent, in Old German 
names. To this I add chandy chanty as a form 
common in French names, though chamter^ to 
sing, probably mixes with it.* 
simple fobmb. 

Old German Gando, Ganto, Canto, Gento, son of the 

Oftnd, Ctant. Yandsl Geiserich, 6th cent. Old Norse Gandr (sumam&) 

^^- Eng. Gandb, Gandy, Gant, Cant, Canty, Cande, Candy, 

Chant, Gent. Mod. G^rm. Gante, Eant, Gent. French 

Qand, Canda, Candy, Gente, Genty, Chanteau. 

diminutive3. 

Old Germ. Gantala, Cantulo, 9th cent. — Eng. Gandell^ 
Candall, Cantelo, Cantle, Gentle 1 Modem German 
Genedl, Kendel — French Gandell, Gentil? Cantdellb, 
Cantei^ Chandel. English Candelih — French Gandillon, 
Cantillon, Gentillon. 

oompounds. 

{Here, warrior) Old Germ. Ganthar, Sth cent. — ^English 
Gander, Gendeb, Ganter, Cantor, Chanter — ^Mod. Gkrm. 
Ganter, Kanter — Swiss Gander — French Gandieb, Gan- 
ter, Candre, Cantier, Chantier. {Rady rat, counsel) Old 
German Gendrad, Sth cent. — French Gendrot, Chantrot. 

* Ab in the names Chantecbdre and Chantoiseao. 



THB BBX7TE AND ITS ATTBIBTJTES. 75 

(RicBf powerfal) Old (German Qendirili, Cantrih — English 
Gentjery, Gentbt, Chantbey, Kebtd&ick, Kendbay — ^Mod. 
Germ. Genderich — French Genbsy, Cbajxteblac (Ulf, 
wolf) Old German Gandulf, 7th cent — French Gandolphe. 
{Wine, friend) French Gandoin. 

Another word signifying wolf is Old Norse 
sdmr. We find this as a man's name in the 
Landnamobok, and as a dog's name in the Nial- 
saga. The root sam in Old German names 
Forstcmann refers to Old High Germ, samo, Eng. 
" same/' in the sense of " equal." But I think 
that the above derivation is to be preferred, 

SDCPLBFOEMa 

Old Germ. Samo^ 6th cent. Old Norse S&mr. English g^^^ ^^ 
Saji, Seky. Modem German Sahic, Semm. French Sem^ woif . 
Semey. 

DDilNUTIYZa 

English Samkik. French Ssmichon. 

The boar, which was sacred to Frey, the third 
of the principal deities, was also in very common 
use for the names of men. As the Anglo-Saxon 
beorUy the original meaning of which seems to 
have been " bear," was used in the sense of prince, 
hero— so the Old Norse jofurr, signifying boar, 
was employed in Northern poetry in the same 
sense. The root of the word seems to be the 
same as that of the group ab, efe, p. 60, viz., 
Sansc. abhaSy powerful, and the lost Teutonic 
verb ahatiy pollere. From the Old High Germ. 
e6er, Ang.-Sax. efor and ofor^ Old Norse jofuTVy 
are the following. 



76 TH£ BBUTE AI9D ITS ATTRIBUTS8. 

aXMFLEFOBMa. 

Old Genn. Ebur, Gth cent. Ibor, Lombard pxinoe, 4ih 
Eton, Svw, cent, not certain. Old None Jofnrr, Irar. Snglish Ebbb, 
^^- HsBEB, EvEB, HJBAYER^ Heifer, Oyebl Modem German 
' Ebsb, Eyebs. French HivEBy Heybb^ OuvbM. 

^ DIMINFUVES. 

Old German Eaerlin, 8th cent — ^Mod. German OniBLiir 
—French Ebebun. English Ebobau^ Eyxrau.) Oteball 
— French Ebkblx, O^au^ Iyobsl. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(ffardf fortis) Old Germ. Ebarhard, Everhard, BFerazd, 
8th cent. — English Eyebabb — ^Mod. German Eberhard — 
French Eybabi), Ehrabd, Ouybasd. (Mwn) Old German 
Ewnnnan, 8th cent. — ^Eng. Hkayebman — Modem German 
Brermane. {fiad^ rai, oounsol) Old German Ebnrrad, 8th 
cent— Eng. Eyebed, Eyerett, Oyebed, Oybbbtt— French 
Eyratt. (Bice, powerful) Old German Eburicos, king of the 
Snevi, 6th cent.— English Eyert, Iyory, Oyery, Ouyry — 
French Eyericelx, Iyry, Obry. (Ger, spear) Old German 
Eburacar, 8th cent. — Ez\g. Oyeracbb % (Mar, fiftmous) Old 
Germ. EYremar, 8th cent — Eng. Oyebxobb ! 

The Old Norse has gaUif a boar pig, whence 
^^ "gait/' a word still in use in the North of 
Boftrpig? England Galti occurs both as a baptismal and 
as a surname in the Landnamabok^ and hence 
may be our Qalt. But the root gaiU in Old 
German names Forstemann refers to gdtan^ 
valere. 

In the former edition, I derived Sugg from 
Ang.-Sax. sug^ a sow. But I now think that this 
root is both deeper and wider, and have intro- 
duced it elsewhera Hogg also is not to be re- 
ferred to the animal, but to Anglo-Saxon hog. 



THB HBUTi: AND ITS ATXIOBUTES. 77 

prudent, thoughtful. There was a Thurcyl but- 
named Hoga {Cod. Dip. Afig.-Sax. No. 743), 
which Mr. Kemble explains as ** the wise or con- 
siderate.'' So also FiQO is to be connected with 
Pick, and by the interchange of b and p, with 
Bioa and Bick, ficom a root signifying to slash. 
The Old Norse gris^ a little pig, occiirs both as a 
baptismal and as a surname in the Landnamabok. 
Hence might be our Gbice, and the diminutiye 
GmssELL. But the Old High Germ, gris, grey, 
(or perhaps grisly) is more probably the general 
root of our names, and also of the French 
Gkibabd, Gbisol, &o. 

The horse seems to have been held in especial 
veneration by the Ancient Germans. Tacitus in- 
forms us that they kept white horses, which they 
r^arded as sacred, and by whose snortings and 
neighings, when yoked to the sacred chariot, they 
prognosticated future eventa Some trace of this 
worship or respect may perhaps be found in the 
use, referred to by Grimm, of white horses in 
solemn or state processions. Perhaps also in the 
frequency with which they appear as the signs 
of inns in Germany and Switzerland, and, though 
not to the same extent, in England. In London 
alone there are about 50 inns or public houses 
with the sign of the White Horse. The eating 
of horse flesh seems to have formed a part of 
heathen festivals, and hence was coupled by the 
Christian missionaries along with any other 
idolatrous ceremony, and interdicted as such. 



78 THE BBUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES, 

Nor does the attempted revival, among our some- 
what whimsical neighbours, seem to have met 
with any very signal success. We do not find 
that in the Northern system of mythology the 
horse was dedicated especially to any particular 
god, but twelve horses, belonging to different 
deities, and each distinguished by its particular 
name, are enumerated in the Eddas. 

The names of Hengist and Horsa, the leaders 
of the first Saxon invasion of England, are both 
derived fi:om the horse. The former is from 
Ang.-Sax, hengsty Old High German hengist, Old 
Fries, hingst, Low Germ, hangst, a stallion. The 
last word is still in use in some parts of West- 
phalia to denote a horse in general. Hengist 
seems to have been anciently by no means a 
common name. It occurs as the name of a Jutish 
chieftain (identical or not with the above), in the 
Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf. The only other 
instance is that of a Hengest in the Monumenta 
Boica, A.D. 1042. But Hengst is a name still^in 
use among the modem Frisians. And it is found 
in names of places in Germany, as Hengistfeldon 
and Hengistdorf. In the names of places in 
England it is generally corrupted into Hinks, as 
Hinki. in Hinksey, Berks., Ang.-Sax. Hengestesige. So 
that our Hincks may probably be the same 
name. We have also Hinxman and the local 

HiNGESTON. 

The word hors is common to almost all the 



THB BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTBS. 79 

Teutonic dialects. An Old High Germ, form is 
orSy and an Old Fries, form is hers. 

SIHPLB FOEMS. 

Old German Oiao, 10th cent. Sax. Horsa, 5tli cent. Hon^ 
Engliflh IIoBSSY, Heabbb, Hebsst. French Obsat, Hebse^ °*"*' 
Hkrcr ^"""^ 

DIMIM UTlVJes. 

Old German Ondcuiy 10th cent — English Hobskins, 
Ebskute 9 Eng. Horsell — French Obsel. 

OOMPOUOTH. 

Old Germ. Ursiraan, 7th cent — Eng. Hobsmak. (There 
IB alao an Old German Horseman, 9th cent, horaCy nimble.) 

From the other form hros may be the follow^ 
ing. But Grimm also suggests a word ros, red, 
which may intermix. And our name Ross may 
of course also be local. 

SQIPLBFOBMa 

Bom. 
Eng. Bo8& French Bossi. aorM, 

DnoNimyEB. 
BoBoelin (Lib, VU.J — Eng. Boslikg — French RossBLiir, 
EosLm. French Rossel, BtOSLT. Eng. Bosooe. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(BeH, famous) Old Germ. Rospert, 10th cent— English 
BosBEBT. (Rtm, her, warrior) English Rosseb, Bosieb, 
KosEBT — French Bosseb, Boscheb. (Mem) Eng. Bosoican 
—French Bos]£mon. (Kd for Keid ?J Old Norse Hrosskel 

—Eng. BOBKELL. ' 

From the Ang.-Saxon mcBve, mere. Old High Ma». 
Germ, marahy a horse, Eng. "mare/' are probably 
Mabe, Meebs, Meabing, Maba, and perhaps 
Mabt. There may be other names> but it is 



80 THB BBIJTB AND FTS ATTBIBtTTBS. 

difBcnlt to separate this root fix>m ma/r^ mer^ 
illustrious. One or two compounds^ such as 
Mabyman or Mebeocan, which would correspond 
with HoBSMAN, HiNXMAN, Seem more naturally 
to belong to this. 

From the Old High Germ, marah^ march, a 
horse, Forstemami derives the root marc in Old 
Germ, names, observing that m^rka, a boundary, 
may also intermix. Mark may of course also be 
in some cases Scriptural 

SEMPLB FOBMB. 

ji^^ Old GemLBXi Map#cia«, Gkthio leader in ProoopiuB. 

uueh. Maroo, 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon March, Cod. Dip, Na 971. 

Hone. 2|^g, Mabx, Marxkt, Mabccts, Mabcs. Modem Q«niian 

Mabx, Mabch. French Maboq, Mabo^ Mabochs, MabchA. 

DDCDnrriviBS. 
Old Gexman Marolin, 9th oenl — French MABcnJLOV. 
Eng. MABKLiL&t French Maboou * 

OOKFOUNDe. 

(ffer0f wBixior) Old Qerman Marcher — ikig. Marksb, 
Maboheb — Modem German MlBKEB-r-Frendi Mabohib% 
Mabqubby. (Mar, illustrious) Old German Marcomer, 2nd 
cent. (Awrd VicL de Ccbb.J — Marcamar, Frankish prince, 
4th cent. — ^Eng. Mabbamobk* (Lmf, superstes) Old Germ. 
Maideif, Maidef, 6th cent.*-^Eng. Mabkloyb — Mod. Germ. 
MabxiiOff. (Ward, goardian) Old Germ. Marcoard, 8th 
eent» — ^Modern Gennaii Mabkwabdt — French Mabouabd. 
{Wig, me, war) Old German Marcovicos, 6th cenl-^Eoglidi 
Mabkwiok. 



t Omi thk be the BanUh dlmlnntlTe UUe, m In TavtUUe, North. Enc lUef 
Tk6 WUM If foind In theDftnlah county of linoolnihire. 

* Sevenl Old Oenurn nenee ftom tUt roo^mppetut both m Mnnh nod Iffnrk 
ThoB Mwnheln d and linrcdnd, Ac The High Oerm. K, howeTer, miut be taken 
to fepreient lomethlng of a gntkual eouid. 



THE BBX7TE AND ITS ATTfilBUTES. 81 

I do not think that Staluon is from the 
anima], but» along with the French Stalin, from 
^tcM^ steel, which enters into some Old German 
names. 

Palfrey seems also doubtfril. It may be 
from the Old Germ. Baldfred or Paldfred— ^/rec? 
in Eng. generally making /rey, as in Godfrey and 
Humfrey. But Palfbiman camiot be so ex- 
plained 

Colt is, I doubt not^ the High Germ, form of 
Gold. So also Coltman corresponds with 
Goldman and Coldman. Other compounds are 

C!0LTEB» COLTABT, &a 

These four animals then, the bear, the wol£ 
the boar, and the horse, all possess obvious 
attributes which would make them in favour for 
the names of men. The bear, with his power, his 
tenacity, his secretiveness, and his imputed wis- 
dom — ^the wol^ with his ferocity, his endurance 
and his discipline — ^the boar, with his vindictive 
sturdiness — ^have always been favourite types for 
the Teutonic race : the horse, with his noble and 
generous spirit> has had an attraction for all men 
inall tima 

But the cow — ^the innocent and ungainly cow 
— ^what is there in her usefrd and homely life that 
could inspire sentiments of reverence in a fierce 
and warlike people 1 The honour which was 
paid to her was from a more ancient and a more 
deeply-seated source. From the time when Israel, 
tainted with Egyptian superstition, set up a 



82 THE BBTJTB AND ITB ATTBIBUIB8. 

golden calf and said ''These be thy gods, which 
brought thee out of the land of Egypf^^-and 
from who can tell how many ages before that 
time, the cow, as the type of the teeming mother 
earthy haB been an object of human idolatry. In 
the Northern system of mythology she is not^ 
like the bear, the wolf, or the boar, sacred to any 
particular divinity, but appears — in what seems 
to be a fragment of a more ancient myth^-as 
mysteriously connected with the first cause and 
origin of all things. Grimm has remarked 
(Deutadi. Myth. p. 681 J that the Sanscrit root 
gd signifies both ox or cow, and also earth* coun- 
try, district Hence, on the one hand the Old 
High German chiu>y Ang.-Sax. cH, English cow— 
and on the other Gr. 70, 79^ earth, German ^u. 
He frirther remarks upon the connection which 
rinta, the earth, and Bindr, wife of Odin, may 
have with Germ, rind^ ox. 

Both of the above two words, gow or cow^ 
and rind, are found in our names, and we have 
the choice of the above two meanings. But, 
upon the whole, the meaning of land, country, 
seems more in accordance with the general charac- 
ter of Teutonic nomenclature. 

I do not take Bull to be from the aniiriali 
though, as elsewhere stated, I am not certain* 
while preferring a different derivation, that it is 
not from the same root. 

There is a root^ ur, found in several Old 
Germ, names, which Forstemann refers to Aug.* 



TSK BBX7TE AND ITS ATTBIBUTEa 83 

Saxon, Old High Oennan, and Old Norse, ^r, 
buffiJa 

anCFLB VOBMBL 

Old Oerm. TJriua, Uro, 4tli cent English Use, XTbi^ ur. 
HUBBT. Modem German XJhb. French Oxtbt, Houb, BaStio. 

HuXBAUy HUBXT, HxTBiy HjBOTtiL 

BDmnrnvBB. 
Ebg. HuJUUEL — French Hubbl. French Hubez. 

PATBONnaca 
Old German XJrinch, 10th cent — English Youriko. 

OOHFOUNDfiL 

(Hard J Old Germ. Urard, Uth cent — Frendi Hubabb. 
(Sw0^ iraniOT) French Ubdeb, Htjbisb. (W<dd, power) Old 
German Urold, 9th cent — French Hubault. ( Wine, friend) 
Eng. UBwnr* {Wig, war) Eng. Ubwigk. 

Calf was not an nnconunon name among the 
Northmen ; there are several men called Kalfr 
in the Lsoxdnamabok and elsewhere. The Old 
Norse kaif7\ though primarily signifying the 
young of the cow, was applied in a more extended 
sense to the young of various animaJa And 
there is a Northman in the Landnamabok with 
the name of Selakalfir (seal-oal£) Forstemann 
has one Old Germ, name Calpho, which he takes 
to be a transposition of Claffo (name of a Lom- 
bard king). But I do not feel at all certain that 
this^ ^along with a seemingly English name 
Kalvo in the London directory, and a French 
name Calvo, are not to be referred to the Goth. 
halbo, cal£ We havealso CaXiF and the Germans 
have Ealb and Kalfb, which Fott^ though I 



84 THE BEX7TE AND ITS ATTBIBUTSa 

think unnecessarily, supposes to be a contraction 
of some compound name ending in leih or leif, 

There are very few names derived from the 
dog. DoGGETT, which I before classed under 
this head, I must now withdraw, as I think it 
belongs to the root of Ang.-Sax. dtigar^ to be of 
use or value. Also BiCK, and the more pro- 
noncS name Bitch foimd in Bowditch, which I 
take to be from bicken, to slasL 

Mnnd, HuND and HuNDY, corresponding with an 
^ Old Germ. Hundo, 8th cent., are probably from 
hund, a dog, Eng. "hound." Hunt, Mr. Lower 
derives from " hunt^'* a chase or himting ground^ 
as a local name. And Mr. Arthur frt>m " hunte,'' 
used by Chaucer for huntsman. It is possible 
that both these derivations, and particularly the 
latter, may obtain in some cases. But as the 
general rule I think that Hunt, corresponding 
with an Old German Hunto, Mod. Germ. Himdt^ 
is only the High Germ, form of Hund. In a roU- 
call of German officers given by Mameranus, AJD. 
550, are the names Hundt, Himtus, and Hon- 
tus, the last of which is explained ^'GeorgiuB 
canis seu Hontus.'' Hence Hunting, French 
HoNTANG, as a patronymic form, belongs more 
certainly to this last. The Hundings (Hyndin- 
gas), are a people mentioned in the Sc6p or Bard's 
song, and are supposed to have been the people of 
Hundland, which the editors of the Copenhagen 
edition of the £dda place in Jutland 



THE BBUTE AND ITS ATTBIBT7TES. 85 

Though the fox was much mixed up with the Fbi. 
popular superstitious of the Middle Ages^ it does ^^"^^ 
not seem to have been conunon in the names of 
men. Indeed no ancient names come before us^ 
and the word appears first in the Hundred Bolls 
as a surname, Le Fox. 

Deer might be from the animal, though per- 
haps rather in the wider sense of the German 
thier, signifying any wild animaL But it is im- 
possible, even in the ancient names, to separate it 
from dear, carus^ Germ, iheiter, which I take to 
be the preferable sense. 

Bain might be in some cases from Old Norse 
hreinn, a rein-deer, the name of three Northmen 
in the Landnamabok. But as a name of German 
origin it is to be referred to Goth, ragin, counsel. 

Of other names I take Stagg, Buge; Habt, 
Goat, Bam, Ewe, to be derived otherwise than 
from the animala 

Lamb was not an uncommon name among ^^^ 
the Northmen — ^little suited as it may seem for i^m. 
those ferocious warriors. It occurs twice as a 
baptismal name, and thrice as a surname, in the 
Landnamabok. There was also an Erik Lamb, 
King of Denmark, A.D. 1139. The High Germ^ 
form of lamb is kmip, and there is an Old Germ. 
Lampo, 10th cent., but Forstemann thinks lamb, 
agnus, an improbable root^ and suggests Old 
Norse lempa, moderari, or Ang.-Sax. limfan. Old 
High GteruL limpan, evenire, convenire. But in 
the face of the above Scandinavian names, I hardly 



86 THB BBUTE AND ITS ATTBIBUTBS. 

think that his objection can be maintained. It 
seems probable, however, that there may be an 
intermixture of another root, Old Norse lemia, to 
beat, whence in the Cumberland dialect ''lant'' 
Again, there are some names, such as Lambert, 
in which Icmi is a corruption of land. But upon 
the whole I think that the following may come 
in here. 

aUCFLB lOSMB. 

Old QmoL Lampo^ 10th oeni. Old Ncmw LimbL Ed|^ 
^^^ Lamb,* Lambet, Lamp, Lajcpeb. Modem Oerman Lakfx, 
Lajul DaxL Lakp& French Lambtk^ Laky, Lampt. 

DmiMUTxvjgi 
Old Oemt Lampnlo, 9th cent — ^Eng. Laxboll — ^Modern 
Oenn. Laxle — French Lambat.TiK, TiAimT.A. Eng. Lajcelin 
— ^French Laxbeun, Lakbuk. English Lamfkik — ^French 
LAXBqunr. 

PATBONnaca 
Eng. Lajcfsok. Eng. Laxpiko. 
ooicpouinxL 
(Frid, peace) Old German Lempfiit, 8th cent — ^Engliah 
Laicpbet 9— French Laxtbot ft 

The noblest animal with which the Teutonic 
nations were &miliar was the bear ; — if they came 
in contact with the lion, it must probably have 
been some inferior animal of the species. Tet 
names from this origin, though not very common, 
are of considerable antiquity, bemg foimd as early 
as the 6th cent There are two forms-— the 



• P«riiftiNiw«mAja]«Qbii]ig In haroLuMB, Lvw, Lum, «idLuMPK» 
[BowOUeh,) 

t Ormlgbftb8,MPott]iMttkfhwil4aidfk«L 



THB BBXJTE AND ITS ATTBIBUTBB. 87 

Bunple root leo^ lew, low, (Old High German and 
Old Saxon lowe, leo. Old Frie& Umw^ and the 
extended root lion, lewon. These I take 
separately. 

Eng. LiOy Lkw, Lbwxt, Lows, Lowt. Modem Oerman i^, j^, 
JJECE, IaATHL Frenoh L^, Lewt^ Lou& uoil 

OOllPOUNDS. 

(Wold, dominion) Old Oemu Leoald, 6th cent. — ^Modern 
Germui Lxwald — ^French Lioult, Louauld. (Wolf) Old 
Germ. Lewol^ 8th oeiit — Eng. Liowolf. 

XXTENDED BOOT ZsOfl^ UuOfl. 

Old Genn. Leon, Leuan, 9th cent Eng. Lewsn, Liok, £^^ 
LowEN, French Liok, LotriK. liob. 

DIMDTUTIVBS. 

Old Germ. Leonza^ 9th cent. — ^Eng. Lyons ? Lowancb — 
French t Liontz. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Ha/td) Old German Leonard, 6th cent— Eng. Lbonabd» 
Lennabd — ^Modern Gh^rman Leokhabd, Lekhard — ^French 
Lbokabd — ^ItaL Lbonabdt. 

Leopabd I take to be the Old Germ, name 
latibhart, Leopart, Leopard {liuh, love, and hart, 
hard.^ And Panther, along with Pantbe, 
Pander^ Bantkr, and perhaps Painter, I refer 
to the root hand, bant, pant, (Ang.-Saxon bcmd, 
crown.) 

It is probable that onr Link, LiTNcaa ; the 
French Line ; and the Mod. German Linck ; are i^^nz. 
from Old High German linch, lynx. There is an 
Old German Linco, 8th cent, which Graff and 
FOrstemaim refer to this origin. The Ang.-Sax. 



I 



88 THB BBUTE AND ITS ATTBIBITTEa 

word is fox, whence may be our LosH, while fipom 
the form liLchSy found in Mod. Germ., may be our 
LusK and Lush, and the Mod. Germ. Leuchs. 

Among the names deiived fix>m beasts of prey 
must be included that of our gracious Sovereign 
— Guelph being a dialectic form of Welph, Eng. 
**whelp,'^ signifying the yoxmg of beasts of prey. 

SniPLB FOBMB. 

wdRWeif. Old German Huelp, Hwel^ Weif, 9th cent, Guel^ lltii 

^^ cent Welp, Domesdcty Tark$, Engliah Wblp, Ouklpa,* 

Yalpy f Mod. Germ. Welf. Frenoh Yelpbau, Gelpt t 

DnaNunvEs. 
Old German Walpulo, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Wslplet. Bog. 
Wbllitjk. 

oompounds. 
(ffardj Old German Welfhaid, Welfert, Welfexd, 7th 
cent — ^English Waltord, Wblfobd— French Yalfobt, 
Walfebdin (dvmin,) 

ouphMit. Upon the whole I take Oliphant to be, as 
^'****"" generally supposed, from the animal Both the 
two forms, difant and olifant, are found in High 
as well as in Low German. The former I have 
never met with in English names, but a writer in 
Notes and Queries adduces an ^Eneas Elephant 
from a list of the society of writers to the signet 
in Edinburgh for 1 711. The name in this form is 
found in Germany as early as the 8th cent. At 
least I take it that the Old German names 
Helfant, Helphant, Ehphand, Eliphant are from 



* A Boiioii iuniftm«^ but wImOmt of JEnglkh oilglii or noi Hr. fovdltoh 
doM not MJ. 



t&B Bbum AKb tM ATXitlBUtSS. 89 

th&t oligiiL I encd copied firom & Witob&deh 
fSi^tMM' lldt aa "* El^phabty, ck\i& Louden,'''— a faafaib 
Utrkieh looki like Frmidli. 

I db not think thi&t CamSi is firoM the 
atdoiai There is a root ^rdmoJ or oamailt, found 
in ee^fal bneient natnefc, and whioh b probably 
from Ang.-Sax. ^amo^i old. 

Ajmk for t^hich Mr. Lowe^ hieia authority as ail 
English name^ and which coif eisponds ^ith a 
l^oh Abs% may |)eitihati(M have to be etevated 
fioM a donkey to a demi-god. It may be the Old 
K<d*0B ih, Anglo-Sakon (fo, semideuB, whenoe Old 
Ger&L namee Abo iand Aai, Old Noree Asa« Of 
If it be the same as Hass, it will correspond with 
Old Germ, names fiasso and Hossi, of which the 
meaning is probably Hessian. 

HAbB I take not to be from the animal, but 
either to be classed along with Harre, Hatihy, 
fiAttBOW^ from hariy warrior ; of with AiB> Aibt, 
from Goth, aru, eagla And HAsb I take not to 
be from the Germ, hose, hare, but along with an 
Old Getm. Haso, from hath, war. 

Babbit, along with the French Babot> 
Ba&otts, I take to be a corruption of an Old 
iStefin. Badbot^ or Batbod. As an ancient name 
this appears variously as Badbod, Babbod, Bat- 
^t^ Bappot. There is a Babbod mentioned as a 
"duke of tiie Frisians'' in Boger ci Wendor^'s 
Ohlronicle. 

BADGltt I take to be either a compound of 
9lM^ wtf ) and ger, spear ; or of Ang.-Saz. heag, 

L 



i 90 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTBIBXJTES. 

Eng. '^ badge/' and hari, warrior. Another name, 
I Badgebt, is more eyidenti j the latter compoimd. 

I I also doubt Bbogk^ which corresponds with 

I French Bitocq and Bkoca, being from '* brock," 

I a badger. Even if from the same root, the derivar 

tion seems too narrow. In Ang.-Sax., Old Norse^ 
and Old Eng., the word signified a husbandry 
horse, which sense obtains in the North of 
I England at the present day. The origin seems 

[ to be Old Norse hrocka^ to go with a heavy and 

\ jolting gait. Brock was the name of a dwarf in 

I Northern mythology, and he being a wonderful 

worker in metals, the above derivation may 
\ perhaps suggest a comparison with the lame 

\ Vulcan. The name then might have a mytholo- 

gical origin, but I think on the whole that it may 
! be better accounted for. Forstemann has nothing 

to throw light upon it, but Stark supplies the 
I deficiency, and produces Old German names 

\ Bruocho and Bruogo, and Ang.-Sskx. Broga, with 

' compounds Brocardus and Brochard, all of which 

\ he refers to Anglo-Saxon brdga, terror. I think* 

however, that there may be also a root 6roc, 
I from Ang.-Saxon brocian, to affict, persecute, a 

j sense quite in accordance with the character of 

I ancient names. 

It seems rather probable, upon the whole, that 
Beaver is from the animal No doubt there is 
a root bef, bif, biv (Old Norse, bif, movement), 
which enters into a number of names, and of 
which it might be a compound. But the forms 



THE BBUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 91 

in wKich it appears seem to be too extensive and 
complete to be thus accounted for. There are 
three forms — ^the Low German hever, the High 
Germ, biber, and the Old High Germ, pipar, all 
represented in our names — ^there is also a mixed 
form pever. 

fiOCFLKFOBMa 

BCTW.BlbM' 

Biber (Hand Rods). English Bsatib, Bibkb, Pifxb, pip^. 
PsnoBy Pkbtob. Modem German Bstxb, Biebeb, Pipkil Bmtv. 
French Bwvaibe, Bibem, Pipbb^ Pibfrb, Piyeb. 

DDHNUnYBB. 

Eng^ PXTXRALL— PeyieU, BoR. B<UL ilU.— Frenoh 

PSUYBBLLE. 

I do not think it probable that Otter is from 
the animal There are Old Germ, names Other» 
Oddar, Mod. Germ. Oder, which Forstemami re- 
fers to awe?, prosperity, and there is an Old Norse 
Ottar, which he classes along with these, but for 
which I prefer the derivation of Haldorsen, from 
Old Norse dtta, to strike with fear. 

The cat, from the earliest times, seems to have 
been connected in the Teutonic mind with magic 
and witchcraft. The Icelandic Sagas relate that 
Thorolf Skegge, a celebrated magician, had 
twenty large black cats» which came to his assist- 
ance in time of need, and were each nearly a 
match for a man. 

It seems certain that the Northmen had names 
derived from the cat Weinhold (AUnordUches 
Lebenjf refers to the names of two brothers^ Kott 
and Easiy as both having this meaning. Kott 



s^gwi uppears aa a surname in the T^ndnawiabol^ 
In the iGyrbiggia Sa^ there ia an account of % 
-witch called Katla^ a name which eeeme probably 
jBtqiq a fiiqiilar Qiigin, and which* but that we find 
it borpe by eeyeral other womei?^ we might b^ 
disposed to connect with her magical ehara^iler. 
But as in Northern mythology the chariot of the 
goddesa Freyia is represented ae drawn by two 
cats, this m^ht be the most probable reason 1w 
its adoption in proper names. 

We do not find any Old Germ, names which 
ean with certainty be referred to this origin. The 
word cat in some very ancient names, as Catu- 
mer and Oatualda, though by some writers sup- 
posed to be from the cat, is referred by Grimm to 
hath, war. And with respect to our own names^ 
and those of France ; though I think it probable 
that such may occur, yet in all cases there are 
other roots which present themtselves, and render 
it more or less doubtftd« 

Batt and Mot7SB are both English names, 
and Battb and Mousse appear also in the diree- 
tory of Paris ; I have placed both of them else- 
where. 

Lastly, we have MotLB, which along with 
Moll, and the French Mole and Moll, I refer 
to Old Norse mola, to beat, English *<mauL*^ 
And now, having run the quadrupeda ta earth, I 
laust turn to the birds. 

Bird itself seems daubtful, and theie a^ twa 
9ther rocita which I tkiok mcore suitable thuibhp^ 



TRl m7¥¥ AND 1ft ATTOTOUTWt 99 

ftm Obq ia 014 Norse ^de* Qerman &i{n^ 
% extended root of which is Ang,^Saie^ byrth^n^ 
Eng, " buydeiL'' The ide^ of s^yeiigtl^ aeema ta 
k$!fe beez^ aPBQQifited with this root In Qld 
Ncfffift &ii«^M (plvT'X aigwfi^ strength, \iw«i 
aii4 &|«r€?aZav« sigiufied ^e^Jj^. TWft might b* a 
^(B496 present in proper pames. AftOth^P, fifn4 
p^h^p^ 1^ litUl better derivatioi^ iei Old NoiTS^ 
^W^i Apglot-Baxpn hfTii, birth, whioh obtained 
onciwtly Qk seqae precipely sinulax to that whicib. 
it has fit present in such a phrase fia *' a ma^ of 
birth/'^ A^d thero l^ppoar to be other roo^ 
^th aipiilm* mefou^g in proper iiames, Jn ^xd» 
few cases, hgw^ver, l^vvd is po doubt a can^ptioQ 
of hert (famous). Aud there is one name, Bxjudb- 
KIN, which I am rather inclined to take to bo 
from the bird. 

From the GptKyii^, kng.-^^OL fu^\ Grerm. 
vo^dj^ fowl pr bird, are the following. 

SPCPLX VOBHS. 

Old German Fi^gal, 9t]^ oent, Efigliali Fuoos^ ?ukl^ 
FowxLi^ FowLE, VowELL, 7owLBS. MocL GemL YOGKL. ^^ 

BDffDfiniV'JUL 

Old GenoM FokeliD, F^galins, lltb 9ei|t.^&|(Slk 

FAiBFOxnEi, as Mr. Low^r obserres, aeemapaia^ 
doxicaL But spell it Fabbfowl, and its mean^ 






Baxdo^ iiotesplaliiedV nntonaaa, piopoMtU 
Ihftvtrantited. 



Ar. 



94 THE BBUTE AKD ITS ATTBIBUTES. 

ing is explained at once, ** bird of passage.^ Such 
names were common among the Northmen. A 
Summerfiigl and a Winterfugl, "Summer-fowr 
and *' Winter-fowV' are among the names on the 
coins minted by Scandinavian coiners at York, 
(Worsaae, Danes and Norwegians.) Sommeb- 
VOGEL is found at present in the directory of Paris, 
and if French, may be a legacy of the Northmen. 
A similar sort of name is our Summebseli^ the 
Sumersul in the Domesday of Yorkshire, which 
appears to be from Old Norse sula, explained by 
Haldorsen as a sort of pelican. In the genealogy 
of the kings of Northumbria occurs a Saefugd, 
which name we still have as Sefowl. 

The eagle, as the king of birds, is at the head 
of the list, and frimishes by fax the greatest num- 
ber of names. But Eagle itself is uncertain — ^it 
may be the same as an Old German Agil, Egil, 
Ang.-Sax. Aegel, elsewhere noted. So also the 
French Aigle and Aiguill6, the latter corres- 
ponding with an Old Germ. Aigila. 

There are two forms, the simple root ar, (Old 
High German arc, ar. Old Norse art) — ^and the 
extended root arin (Ang.-Saxon earn. Old Norse 
am, em, Old High German am, emi). The 
former is apt to mix up with another word, hart, 
wamor. 

Old German Ara, Aio, 7ih oent. Engliah Ant, Aibxt, 



Ei^ Eabbb. Mod. Germ. Aae, Abb. 



THE BBUT£ AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 95 

DIMINUTIVJBI. 

Old German Arila^ 8th oent. — English Ai»»t.t^ Abli — 
French Abioll 

OOUPOtTllDa 

(Fasi, firm) Ariovutiifly* leader of the Helretii, lot oent. 
B.O.y ArefiutoB, 11th cent, Arfast, Bishop of East Anglia-* 
Eng. Habybbt 9 — French Abbitetz I (Hwd) Old German 
Arard, 8th cent. — BSng. Eabhbart— -Mod. German Ebhabdt 
— ^French Erabd. {Bad^ war) Old (German ArA^h<^i^^ 8th 
oent — Eng. Eabbatt, Ebbatt. {Wwrd^ guardian) French 
Ebouabd, Ebouabt. (Wold, power) Old German Arawald, 
9th oent. — French Atbault, Abbault. (Wig, war) Eng. 
EabwioI 

sdcflb wokmb, abn, abik. 

Old Germ. Ajin^ Amo, Am, 8th cent — Old Notse Arm. j^a^ j^ 
English Ajsls, Abnbt, Abno, Habhet, Eabhet, Hebns. lifb. 
French Abak, Abvou, Ernie, Hebnt. 

COMPOtmBS. 

(Here, warrior) Old Germ. Amheri, 9th cent — ^English 
Habhob. (Wold, power) Old German Amoald, 7th cent — 
Old Norse Amalldr — ^Eng. Abnold — Mod. G^rm. Abnhold, 
Arnold — ^French Abnault, Abnould, Abnold, Ebnoult, 
Habnault. ('Helm J Old German Amhalm, 9th cent — 
Eng. Abnum. (Man) Eng. Abnaman, Hbrnikan. (Ger, 
spear) Old German Amger, 9th cent — French Abeanoeb. 
(EardJ English Habnabd. (Bert, famous) Old Gterman 
Amipert, Arembert^ 7th cent — French Ebambebt. (Dio, 
servant) Old Germ. Axindeo, 8th cent-»French Abbondeau. 
(WtU/) Old German Amul^ 5th cent— Eng. Abvulfhb— 
French Eenouf. 

The Mod. German adler is formed from ar, 
eagle (or perhaps large bird in general), by the 



* FQntcniaim oonildfln fhe Q«nnainhood of Azloriitai imonteiii. TIm 
GffmMi wxilen in gvnenl mmd, howwrsr, to oomidtr U T«atonlo^ but fhe oUter 
OTpianfctfon of Imi^trd, "■mqr iMidtt," 1% I tUiik, iaadiateftto. DtoftBlMoh 
■ppMn to ^tn aoma Mnetlon to the abort plMlng of miiM. Azftett th« Uihop, m 
a ohavtaln to wnUam tho OoBQiioror, wu, I appnhMid, a Nonua. 



&6 iltfi ftBim^ ANt> Its ATTampTBd. 

prefix add, noble. But as a name^ Adler is more 
proWbly from the Old drenBAn Adalliar {kari* 
warrior.) The Dutch form is a^end, which we 
find as a name of the 14th century, and wh^ioe 
mB^ be ouf Abiihkd. 

!SaWk)b (Aioig.-Sax. hdfoc), 1 do not find as 
aa ancient name. In the Pdl Records it occurs 
as a Bumame^ Bene Havekin^ the teleoSieTi fienee 
Mems to be out Hawksi^; 

(jrOSHAWK is the Anglo-Saxon gos-ha/oc^ a 
^goose-hawk,*' i.e., a hawk po#erful enough to 
Strike the wild goose. And SpABh6wlaA\^fit is a 
name dating from Anglo-Saxon timea l!here 
was a Sperhafoc elected Bishop of London, A.D. 
1060, but ejected before consecration. 

Next to the eagle, the raven, &s being sacred 
to Odin, was of all birds the most common in the 
names of men. Particularly so among the Norths 
m^ whose war-standard he formed^ — ^thefe bekig 
seventeen persons called Bafii in th^ Landnama- 
bok. Among the Germans the name was not 
universally common, being scarce among the 
Goths and Saxona In proper names, particularly 
as a termination, it often becomes hnoMni rdfn oi^ 
ran. The Ang.-Sax<Hi ha« similar forms, hrcBm, 
hr^m, hremn^ for hrmjkn. The Old Frankish 
dialect, increasing the initial aspirate, makes 
htamin, hi^am, hran, into ehramn, cram, cran. 
HeoM Chfatnniis» lion e( Olothw let, Chratmus, 
(genealogy llerovi&giMi kings.) 



TBE BHUTE AND ITS AITBIBt7TB& 97 

aofPLB fOBua 
Old QeroL Rabanua (Arcbbkhop of Majenoe^ 9tk oent^X ^»*>^ 
Bapaiif RaTBQy Ramno, Bam, Chramnua^ Ghrannua Old ^|[^ 
Vcfne Bafii. Eng. Raban, Rabonb^ Batbi , Oram 9 Baku t 
Mod. Oenn. Baben. ]>an. Bafet. French Babak, Babov, 
BAMirBAtr, BAPiHy Bapxhsau, BATAiorx, Ravov, BAtnrHA0» 
BAntv, OBAJOf t 

OOUPOtmDGL 

{M0fi, fitfnona) (M Germ. Hramberty Bambert, 7th osnt 
Trenoh Bambxbv^ (ffariy warrior) Sng. Batenob — Modem 
German Babeneb. (Rice, powerful) Old Germ. Bamnericfay 
Bamarichy 10th cent. — ^Eng. Bambidge. 

LOCAL NAME. 

En^ Bayenbbeab. (Bavnaore, " Bayen's pomt," on the 
finmbert) 

Cr&we was the surname of an Anglo-Saxon orow. 
lady. Cod Dip. No. 685. And I do not find any- ^""^ 
thing to indicate a different origin for our 
Cbowb. Unless indeed it be Cbowson, which 
however is not certain, as it may be an extension 
of a root crose, and not the patronymic of 
Gbowb. 

The Old Norse hrakr, Suio-Groth. kraka, a 
€l?ow, occurs frequently in Scandinavian names^ 
and seems to have been generally, though not 
invariably, a surname. Weinhold (AUnordischea 
LebenJ rrfers to two brothers called respectively 
Hrafii and Er^ (raven and crow) as instances of 
names of similar meaning given in a &mily. 
Graca also appears as a simple name in the 
Liber VitcB. Hence may be our Crak£, Cbaik, 
Ceaig, Cbaigie, and CrakeUj as a diminutive. 

M 



Gkaka 

Crow. 



98 THE BBUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

There are some names, Corby, Corbi^, Cob- 
BBTT, which we probably have from the French, 
and which all appear in the Roll of Battle Abbey. 
For these the French corbeau, corbin, raven, 
Scotch "corbie," crow, naturally suggests itself. 
But there is a Corbus, son of the Frankish king 
Theoderic, 7th cent., for which Forstemann pro- 
poses Ang.-Sax. ce(yi*fan^ to cut, carve, in a war- 
like sense. We have, however, scarcely sufficient 
data on which to form an opinion. 

It may be doubted whether Booke is from 
the bird, as there is a group of ancient names 
with which it would fall in, though in any case 
it is probably from the same root. 

The swan seems a more natural type of 
woman than of man. Yet, though it was more 
common in female names, it was not exclusively 
so used. Swane appears on the coins minted by 
Scandinavian coiners at York. It occurs again 
in the Domesday of Yorkshire, and is still a name 
well known in that county. Mr. Worsaae re- 
marks that "names of birds appear on the whole 
to have been often assumed in the old Danish 
part of England.*' The earliest name on record 
from this origin is that of Swanahilda^ wife of 
Charles Martel, 6th cent. Weinhold (Deutsche 
FraicenJ observes, in reference to its use in the 
names of women, that along with the beauty of 
the swan, was contained a warlike sense derived 
from the swan-plumage of the maids of Odin. 
Two other forms are swen and sworiy the latter 
Anglo-Saxon. 



THE BBUTR AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 99 

aniFLE VOIUIB. 

Old Qerm. Soana^ 9tli cent SuanuB, Lib, ViL EDgliali Swui, Soan. 

Swank, SoakbI Modem Gernuui Schwajtk. French Cyinw- 
Sovurf Suorf 

DIMINTTnVBa 

Old Oenn. Suanncho, Sth cent. — Eng. SwAimACK — Mod 
Germ. SoHWAinBOKE — French SAUNAa Old Gtorm. Snanila, 
7th cent. — ^English Swanhell, Swonnxlk 

00MP0T7KD& 

(Berty fi&motts) Old German Soanperht, Soamperht, Sth 
cent. — French Sombret. (Burg, protection) Old German 
Swaneburgh, 11th cent. — Ibig. Swanbebg. (Rwrd) Old 
German Suanehard, 9th cent. — French Soinabd. {fiwri^ 
warrior) French Soikouby. ( Wig, war) English Swanwicb:. 
(fioA, counsel, or ril, ride) Eng. Swenwbioht. 

The nobility of the goose is not so obvious as 
that of the swan. Yet it was in ancient and 
honorable use as a man's name, if Genseric, the 
name of the great Vandal chieC is rightly referred 
by Grimm to gdnserich, a gander. But it was 
no doubt the wild goose which gave the name, 
and if we consider, we shall see that this bird has 
some qualities calculated to command the respect 
of these early roving tribes, A powerfiil bird, 
strong on the wing, taking long flights to distant 
lands, marshalled with the most beautifiil discip- 
line of instinct^ it formed no inapt emblem of 
those migratory plunderers who renewed their 
unwelcome visitations with each succeeding 
spring. 

But I doubt very much whether Goose itself 
is firom the bird. It corresponds with a French 
GoussE, and I have elsewhere placed them both 



100 THE BBXTTS AKD ITS ATTBIBuxjdb. 

to an Old German Gauso. So also Goslinq, and 
the French Gosselin I include in the same group, 
Gandeb I have already referred to a diSereut 
origin, p. 74. The only two names that seem 
with any certainty to be firom this origin are 
WiLDQOOSB and Gbatqoosb, Ang.-Sax. ff^c^g^M, 
a grey or wild goose. 

Swan was usujally — ^if not invariably a bap- 
tismal name^^Goose s(»netimes a baptismal, and 
sometimes a surname, but Duck always a sms 
name. There was a Northman sumamed Oend 
in the Landnamabok, and an Anglo-Saxon lady 
sumamed Enede in Flor, Wig. Our name And 
might be from the Dan. and Swed. and, correst- 
ponding with the Old Norse ond, Ang.-Sax, enedet, 
a duck. But we have also Andoe, and this is 
very evidently the Old German Ando, 7th cent<i 
from anda, zeal, spirit. So that And may be 
more probably the same. Duck again is not by 
any means certain — the Modem German DiJCKi;^ 
Forstemann refers to Ang.-Sax. dugan^ to be pf 
use or valua So that Duck may go along with 
DuGA, DuGGiN, Tuck, and other names elsewhere 
noticed, while Duckling will correspond with an 
Old Germ. Dugelin from the same root. 

Drake again, along with Drage, and the 
French Drache, Dracq, is most probably from a 
root dra€, drag, trag, found in many Old Germ, 
namei^ and which Forstemann refers to Gotk 
tragjan, to run. 



XHB VKOn AND ITS ATTRIBUTB9. 101 

It 14 not at all probable that the French 
Cavabd signifies duck* It comes in its place as 
one of several compounds from a root gan or can, 
and it interchanges with another French name 
Gakabd, which again corresponds ¥rith an Old 
Oenn. Oanhart 

Thtis it will be seen that though there were 
andent somajnes from the duck, there is no name 
at present^ in French or English* which can with 
anj certaintj be referred to that origin. 

From the QotL and Anglo-Saxon hana. Old 
NoTM Jiani, Mod GerxxL hahn, which signify the 
male of all birds, but particularly of the hen, maj 
be HAsm» Hanka, Hanky, Hankisu;^ &c. But 
it is rather more probable that this is only 
another £irm of an, which is from a different root. 

The names derived from the peacock must fm. 
probably have been bestowed on account of the ^**<»^ 
magnificence^ or perhaps the ostentation of the 
individual There was an Icelandic chieftain of 
the tenth century, named Olaf Pi (Anglo-Saxon 
pawa. Old Norse p4 pea-fowl), the splendour of 
whose dwelling is commemorated in the Laxdsolar 
saga^ and who probably owed his surname to thia 
cause. Hence might be Psa, Pay, Po«» the 
Mod Germ. Pfau and our Pbaoook and PooocK* 
all of which I take to have been originally given 
as surnames. 

Among the names which I think are to be 
otherwise ezplaizied are Coots; same as Ooops 
and QooD — ^Tbalb same as Dsal (Anglo-Saxon 



102 THE BBtJTE AND ITS ATTBIBXJTE& 

deal, illustrious) Quail, an aspirated form of 
Wale — ^Bunting, the patronymic of Bunt — 
BusTABD, BuzzABD, Mallabd, and Partridge, 
which I take to be ancient compounds — and 
Grouse, referred to at p. 49. 

OsTMCH I have elsewhere taken to be firom 
the Old Germ, name Austoric. In an Ang.-Sax. 
charter Ostrich also occurs as a corruption of the 
female name Ostrith. 

Snipe I cannot think to be from the bird, 
though it is not improbable that it may be from 
the same origin, Dutch and Dan. sneb, beak. 
Compare an Ang.-Sax. Cnebba, " he that hath a 
heak" (Kemble, — Names, Surnames, and Nic- 
names of the Anglo-Saxons) 

Names derived from small birds enter into a 
different category. They seem in most cases to 
have been sohHquets — perhaps often pet-names, 
given especially to women. So the Bomans 
employed columba, puUvs, and passer — ^ my 
dove,'' "my chick," "my sparrow." The same 
prevails very much at present among ourselves ; 
indeed birds, with their pretty ways> seem a 
natural emblem of woman. 

Nonemore so than the dove, which appears some- 
times as a pet-name, as in the case of Tovelille 
(little dove), the name of Valdemar of Denmark's 
mistress, and Dy veke (dovie), that of the German 
mistress of Christian the Second. Sometimes 
apparently as a baptismal name, though Forste- 
mann proposes Old Norse dvhba, to beat^ in pre- 



THE BBUTE AND ITS ATTEIBUTES. 103 

ference. However, I am inclined to place the 
following here, viz., to Goth, duha, Anglo-Saxon 
duvOj Old High Germ, tuba, Dan. tc^e, dove. A 
rather common name among the early Danes in 
England seems to have been Tofi or Tobi. 

8IMPIJIFORM& 

Old Germ. Dubi, TuIms Tupa, 9th cent. Old Dan. Tofi, 
Tobi EogliBh Dove, Dovey, DoBne^ Tubb, Tubby, Tupp, o^^,u^ 
TovBY, Toovby, Toby. Modem (Jerman Taube. Frenoh 

DUBBAU, DUTZAU, DOBBI^ DoUBEY, TOUY Y, TOUY^ 

DDfnrunvESw 
Eng. Dobel— French Dobel. "Rn gliah Doblin — French 
DoBELiN. Old Oerm. Tubinso, 8th cent. — Eng. DuBBlNa 

We have also Tubtle, corresponding with the 
name Tyrthell, of a bishop of Hereford, A.D. 688. 
This may be from Ang.-Sax. turtiU, a turtle-dove, 
but it may be a question whether we should not 
look somewhat deeper. For we find the simple 
form Turta^ a woman's name of the 8th cent. 
This seems to interchange with other women's 
names Truta and Trutta, and men's names Truto 
and Trut, 9th cent. May not then the Old High 
German trUt, beloved, trdten, to caress, be the 
common origin of aU these names, and also of that 
of the turtle-dove 1 

It seems probable that Thbush, Trush, and 
Thbossell are from the bird (Ang.-Saxon thrisc, ThrodL 
ihrode.) There are, however, two Old German Tuidiw. 
names, Traostilo and TrostUa, 9th cent., which 
Forstemann refers to Old High German, trdst, 
comfort. But the Old Norse throstr, Dan. trost, 
thrush, appears in the name (Throstr) of three 



nndL 



104 THE BftUTfi AJfD ITO ATFBIBIJim 

NortluDQmi in the Landnamabok, which 
tibe former deny&tion mons profoabla 

A name which I take to be pretty certaifttf 
not firom the bird is Ldinxt. We can toaoe thk 
name from an Old Qerman linheLt^ through A 
Saxon Liniet^ to our Linnbt, French LiNSTt 
LiNOTTS. It is a compound hosa the root Un 
(probably Old Norse Hnr^ snldX with h^ states 
-hood'' 

Fink and FiNCH, French FinK, seem to be 
Fink, probably from the bird (Ang.-Saxon Jinc, finch). 
This we find as a surname in Anglo-Saxon times ; 
there was a Godric Fine {Cod. Dip. 923.) 

Some other names from small birds, as Bxtl- 

WKCH, GoLDMIirCH, ChAFPINCH, NiGHTINaAUS; 

Trrauss, which cannot reasonably be otherwise 
explained, have probably also been surnames. I 
do not class Wren along with these, for I think 
that it is the same as Renn, Rennie, BeNNO, 
French Ren6 (probably rrfn, rapine.) 

Sporr (sparrow), is found as a surname among 
8iM^. the Northmen* And to the same origin I am 
disposed to refer our Spahrow, Spaii^ Spakling, 
and Sperunq (Germ, sperliiig, sparrow.) 

There is some doubt about Swallow, though 
the type would not be an inapt one in ancient 
times, and though there is a Modem German 
Schwalbe to correspond. But we have also 
Swale, and we find an Old German Swala^ 9th 
cent., along with different compounds. So that 
our Swallow might be the same name, vaiying 



Spftr. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 105 

the termination. A probable etymon seems to 
be Anglo-Saxon swSlan, to bum (NortL Eng. 
** sweel"), swol, heat, fire. 

It is not easy to see upon what principle the 
cuckoo and the owl should have given us names. 
Yet Gaukr (Old Norse gaukr, cuckoo), appears 
as a baptismal name in the Landnamabok of 
Iceland, and seems to be the orimn of otir Gowk ^*^ 

Cackoa 

and GooK. We have also Cuckoo and Gouoou 
— ^the Grermans have Kuckkuck, and the French 
have Cucu and Cuqu. The Old Norse gauhr 
had a contemptuous sense similar to that which 
obtains in the North of England at the present 
day, where gowk signifies both cuckoo and also 
simpleton. Either this, or the peculiar habit by 
which this bird evades parental responsibilities, 
might account for its origin as a sobriquet^ but 
not as a baptismal name, of which, however, I 
find no other instance than the above. 

The owl is found more fi:«quently in baptismal 
named, unless some other origin can be suggested 
for the following group than the Old High Germ: 
uia, Ang.-Sax. vle^ owL 

SIMPLE fOItMa 

Old German OvXtas, Prooop. 6ik cent. English Owle, uiai 
OwLBT, HooLE, HowLE, HowLET. Modem German XThlb. <^^ 
Frefich H0ULI&. 

DlMDilUTiVES. 

French XTiiLiAa Old German Ulit — English Houlet, 
HuLETT — French Houlet, Hulot. 

COBIPOUNDS. 

{Bert^ famous) Old German Ulberta^ -Sth cent. — T^n glii^li 
Hulbbbt — Modem German Ulbricht — French Hulbebt. 

N 



106 THX BBUTB AND ITS A<ITB1B(JTB& 

(ffard^ fortdfl) French Houlaboi. (Hcui, warrior) OUChniL 
Ovkiapis, Prooop. Gth cent. — ^Eng. OwiiEB^ UuxR — ^IVenoli 
HouLLiER. (Man) Old G«rm. OvXc/aovi^, Prooop. 6th cent. 
— ^Eng. Ulxan — Mod. German TJllmann — French Ouucak, 
UuiAir. {Mcur, funonn) Old German TJlmar, 8ih cent — 
Ulmeras {Domuday) — Eng. Uluoeb. 

It will be seen from the foregoing pages that 
while the number of names derived from birds iB 
very considerable, a large proportion of tiiiem hav« 
be«i originally sohriquets^ while others are found 
only as isolated baptismal names, and that the 
number of these which have been adopted into 
what I may call the regular Teutonic name* 
system is only three or four. 

Of the whole tribe of fishes I do not think 
that th^e is one which is to be found with cer- 
tainty in our names. Fish itself and Fise; are 
certainly not from fish, pisces, though they might 
be from Ang.-Sax. Jisca, fisherman. But I have 
elsewhere given a reason for proposing Welsh 
ffysg^ impetuous, as obtaining at least in some 
cases. 

Of other names Bream is the Anglo-Sajt<Mi 
brSine, famous, Burt is the same as Bright, 
Smelt is the Ang.-Sax. smelt, mUd, gentle, and 
Trout is Germ, traut, beloved. Tunny and 
Minnow are Tunn and Minn with the endings 
I and o {Chap. 2) — Haddock is a diminutive — 
Sturgeon is Sturqe with a phonetic ending 
{Chap. 4) — Herring and Whiting are patrony- 
mics — Cod is another form of God ; Perch and 
Tench of Birch and Dench {Chap. 7). 



THS BRUTE AND IT8 ATTBIBUTBa 107 

There may remain a few namea, originaUy 
sobriquets^ derived from, or connected with fish. 
I lately met with the curiotis name Rotten- 
FYS€H£, like the name Bottenhebynq found by 
Mr. Lower in an ancient record of the town of 
Hull. There is a Northman in the Landnamabok 
with the not very elegant surname of Hwalmagi 
(whale-belly.) Mr. Lower produces a similar 
English name Whalebelly. 

With the exception of the serpent, I doubt 
whether reptiles or insects have contributed to 
our nomenclature. Perhaps, however, another 
exception may be Wasp, which would not be an 
unnatural etymon. Mr. Lower, moreover, ad- 
duces from a Sussex subsidy roll for 1296, a 
" Boger le Waps,'' ( Ang.-Sax. VHBps^ another form 
oiwiBsp.) 

Owing, as we may presume, to its supposed 
wisdom or subtlety, the serpent was anciently a 
common type in the names of men« Li the names 
of women still more so, at least among the 
Germans. Weinhold (Deutschen Frauen) classes 
the snake and the swan together as the two 
types most peculiarly femiaine, Kespecting the 
former he waxes almost poetical — ** Our ancestors 
had a different idea of this animal to that which 
we have ; they not only thought it beautifrd, but 
from its insinuating and entwining habits, a type 
of the living woman. Moreover the mysterious 
pow«r and magic craft that was attributed to it 
reminded them of the like mysterious subtlety 



108 THE BBX7TB AND ITS ATTBIBUTB& 

and power of woman, and thus the name Unda 
had nothing of that hateful sound which our 
word snake conveys^ but everything of insinuar 
tion and enchantment that can be put into a 
word" I cannot but fear, however, that the 
original idea may have been a shade more 
prosaic. 

From the Ang.-Saz. wurm^ Old Eng. uwm. 
Old Norse (yrmr^ serpent, I take the following. 
Ormr was a veiy common name among the 
Northmen, there being twenty-four men so called 
in the Landnamabok. It does not seem to be a 
common name at present in Denmark. 

SIMPLE FOUia 

Old Germ. Wurm, 11th oent. Old None Oimr. Eng. 
WoBME, Obmb. Mod. German Wubil Mod. Dan. Obk. 
French Wabk^ 9 

coMPonKDa 

{BM^ andax) Eng. Wobmbolt.* {Waid^ poorer) Eng. 

WOBMALD. 

Snook, flnag. ^® ^®^* g^oup, Snook, Snakb, Snago, 
>r Skugg, is not quite so certain. They might be 
from Ang.-Saxon m6ce. Old Norse sndkr^ sndkr, 
Dan. snog, snake. But the Old Norse mdkr, 
sndhr, as well as another word, snoggr, also means 
active, nimble, in a derived, or secondary sense. 
There is also a verb snxigga, increpare, which 
might be the origin of Snugg. There is a 
Snocca^ whose name is signed to a charter of 

* Or thb may go along with the Mod. Oerm. Wabicbou>» irhleh Pott makm 
lh« nine •■ Wabhxbold, from the item, warint vam, eleewfaera notioed. Indeed 
I am not quite mure that the name Woamboia Iteelf la not of Oennan origin. 



Wbraif 



THE BRUTE AKD ITS ATTRIBUTES. 109 

Cadwaiha of Wessex, comparing with our 
Snook. 

From the Old Norse lingvi, lingormr, serpent, 
I am inclined to take the following, though Graff 
and Forstemann refer to German gdingen, to 
prosper. Lingi was the name of a king in the 
Norse Yolsungasaga. 

8IMPLI F0BM8. 

Old Qerm. Lingo, llth cent Old None IdngL Eng. n^ 
LofoOy Lnra French Linox^ Lurofi 

PHOKEno XXXB2!IBI0N. 

Old QeniL Lingani Eng. LuraBV. 

OOMPOUllDa 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Likoabd. (HaU, state, condition) 
Old Oenn. Lingeeid^French Linget. 

Of a similar meaning may be Hnd, Old High 
German lint, snake, basilisk, ^lindworm." But 
there are other words which are also suitable^ 
and while Weinhold proposes the above, Grimm 
refers also to Undy fountain, and Forstemann 
thinks of Und, gentle. The older writers again 
propose Und, the lime-tree, the wood of which 
was used for shields. It is probable that there 
may be an admixture of these different meanings, 
or of some of them. As a termination, in which 
it is only used in the names of women, Und, 
gentle, seems to me to be a very suitable mean- 
ing. In such more modem names as English 
LiKDEGBEEN, which seems to be from the German, 
the sense is no doubt that of the limetree. But 
there is a name Lenpobmi in the directory of 



VP 



110 THB BRUTE AND ITS ATTUBUTSa 

Paris, which seems clearly to be from the snake, 
and to mean lind-worm. 

BDCPLB VOBMa 

liind. Old Qerm, Linto, 8th cent. Eng. Lnn), Lindo, Lent. 

^•"P"*- Mod. Germ. Lindb, Lende, Swed. Liin>. French Lent£ 

OOMPOUKDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Linbeb — French Lindeb, Lender. 
(Mem) English Lindemav — French ? Lindexanh. (Orm, 
serpent) French 9 Lendobhl 

Of names apparently from insects, Moth and 
Mote may be taken to be from Old Saxon mdd. 
Mod. German rmUh, courage. Emmett is from 
Ang.-Sax. emeta, quies, an ill-fitting derivation 
for poor Robert Emmett. 

Lastly — ^we have Bugg, and an impleasant 
name it seema Yet there may be crumbs of 
etymological comfort for the BuQGS — ^indeed I 
think a good case may be made out to show that 
it is a name of reverence rather than of contempt. 
It is at all events of respectable antiquity, for Mr. 
Eemble (Names, Surnames, and Nicnanies of the 
AnglO'Saooons), mentions an Anglo-Saxon lady, 
Hrothwaru sumamed Bucge, which he thinks 
can be derived from nothing else than the name 
of the odious insect. The opinion of Mr. Eemble 
is not lightly to be gainsayed. Still I should 
like to know whether there is any other proof 
that there were bugs in Anglo-Saxon times^ or 
whether there is any other trace of the word in 
ancient Teutonic dialects. For I have heard it 
maintained that the bug is one of the many im- 
portations — ^good and bad — ^that we have received 



XHE BBUTB AND ITS ATTBIBUTB8. Ill 

dumg the last few centuries. In Old Eog. the 
word meant a spectre — " Thou shalt not be afraid 
of any bugs by nighty" in an old version of the 
Scriptures, referred to an imaginary, and not a 
real horror. The lady in question, Hrothwaru, 
sumamed Bucge, is described as ** Abbatissa et 
sanctimomalis" — she was an abbess and a holy 
person. Now in some ages of the church a per- 
verted self-mortification did make uncleanlineas 
next to godliness, and I could not undertake to 
say that it was never so in Anglo-Saxon times. 
Yet still it does not seem very likely that the 
feeling of reverence, amounting often to super- 
stition, which prevailed among that simple- 
minded people, would allow them to apply to a 
holy lady a term which could not be otherwise 
than one of contempt. Might not th^i Bucge be 
classed with several other ancient names, Buga^ 
Buge, Buggo, referred to in another chapter, and 
probably, if it be taken to be a surname, having 
the meaning of bowed or bent^ as with age or in- 
firmity? In that case nothing can be more 
natural than that the venerable abbess should be 
called by a name which would at once bring to 
mind the reverend years, — the cares of her high 
office — and the self-mortification which had com- 
bined to bow down her frame.* And even if it 



* IUb standi u I had It bef ora. Bat I now donM wliethar Bnoge wtM • wut- 
name at alL It Menu to have been another-^and perhaps more probaUy— her 
original name. I find that Mr. Halg, in some brief, bat very Jndicioas lemarlcs on 
Anglo4azon names appended to a treatise on the cross at Bewoastle, has taken tbe 
same objection to Sfr. Xemble's opinion. 



112 THM BBUTE AND ITS ATTRIBXJTEa 

were perfectly clear that this lady derived her 
name from the bug aad nothing else — other 
Buaas» as I have elsewhere shown, may wear 
their name with a difference, and have no occasion 
to change it to Howard 

Having now gone through the names of 
animals, beginning with the bear, and ending 
with the bug, we may conclude this part of 
the subject with a general observation. We 
find that the names of the nobler quad- 
rupeds, and of the nobler birds, have gene- 
rally been assumed as baptismal names. That 
the names of the inferior quadrupeds^ and 
of the smaller birds have been generally conferred 
as surnames. That any names that may be de- 
rived from fishes — ^and whether there are any is 
very doubtftil — ^were also probably surnames. 
That — ^with the exception of the serpent — ^names 
from reptiles and insects, of which I know only 
one at aU probable, were also probably surnames. 
And, in the exception of the serpent we may 
perhaps find a trace of that widely-prevailing 
worship or respect which was paid to that animsJ 
as the representative of evil throughout the 
world. 

NOTE TO CHAPTER i 

To eber or ever, boar, we may pat {wacar, watchful) Old German 
Eburacer, Sth cent — ^Enrenuacre, Domesday— ^D^iah Eabwaksr. 
The only Old German name which has been distinctly rec<M;nised as 
having this termination is that of Odovacar, and it is creditable to the 
discernment of Forstemann to haye suspected the same form in 
Eburaoer — ^his judgment, it will be seen, being confirmed by the 
Domesday name of Eureuuacre (Evrewacre.) Both our own name 
and the Domesday are quoted from Lower. I must therefore amend 
the derivation of Overigrb, and make it same as above. 



CHAPTER XL 



THE QODS OF THE NORTH. 

The names or titles of their deities have, 
among various nations and from the earliest 
period, been assumed as the names of men. Thus 
we read that Daniel was called by Nebuchad- 
nezzar Belteshazzar, *' according/' as the king 
says, " to the name of my god." In this respect 
the Teutonic nations were not an exception, 
though, as it seems to me, the practice was more 
common among the Scandinavians than among 
the Germana But it is to be borne in mind that 
the Scandinavian mythology is the only one 
which has come down to us in its integrity, and 
that of the corresponding Germanic mythology 
we have only fragments. Th^re was a general, 
but by no means an exact coincidence between 
the two systems, and we are therefore not so well 
able to judge how far the names of their deities, 
the whole of which are not preserved, were 
assumed by the Germans as the names of men. 

Before, however, entering upon the traces of 
the Northern pantheon, I must refer to two words 
signifying divinity, and both very common in 
Teutonic names, whose roots may go down deeper 
than the Odlnic mythology, and perhaps even 
reveal to us a glimpse of an older and a purer faith. 

o 



114 THE GODS OF THE NOBTH. 

One of these is the same as our own word 
God, Goth, gvthy Old Norse gaudy Ang.-Sax. god^ 
Friesic goady guad, &c., Old High German goth. 
god, cot (the last the oldest form.) Various 
derivations have been suggested for its origin, as 
that of Pott, from a Sansc. word signifying to 
hide, as found in gMha, mystery, and that of 
Eichhoff, from Sansc. guddha, pura The word 
occurs first — ^if we set aside the fabled Gothic 
king Gothila mentioned by Jornandes — ^in the 
name, as I read it, of a Dacian referred to by 
Horace, — 

'' Occidit Daoi CotiaoniB agmen." 
Mr. Talbot says " The name of this Dacian, 
Cotison, appears to mean Gottes sohn, or Dei 
fili\is." Such a name, however, would be quite 
out of keeping with Old German nomenclature ; 
and, moreover, I take the nominative of Cotisonis 
to be, not Cotison, but Cotiso. This brings it in 
at once as an Old. Grerman name, corresponding 
with a later Godizo — cot, as Diefenbach observes, 
being the oldest High German form — and connects 
it with the present names Godsoe, Godso, &c. 

The word is very apt in Teutonic names to 
mix up with the adjective, guot, god, bonus, which 
may be from the same root, and also with Goth, 
the people's name, a word likewise perhaps allied 
in its root. But the most of the forms I think 
come in under this head. As an ending, how- 
ever, I agree with Forstemann in preferring the 
people's name. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 115 

aiMPLS VOBMB. 

Old Qemu Godo, Goddo^ Goda^ Gotti, Otido^ QaUi, Got, God. 
Ootta, Codes Ooutua, 6ih cent. Ang.-Sax. Goda. Oudda, ^^^ 
Oaddi {Lib. VU.) Engliah Gob,* Goddt, Good, Goad, 

GoODXYy GoODDATy GOTT, GOTTO, GXJT, CoDD, GODT, GoODXi 

CkK>TE^ CoTT, CuDD, CuDDY. Modeiu Gemuui Godb, Gcds, 
GuTTB, KoTTy KuDB. French Goddb, Godkau^ Gudb, 

GOUDBAU, GrOUT, GOUT^ COUDT, CoUTY, COUTBAU, COTTB, 
Ck>TTKYy COTTA, GOX^, COTEAU| OCDEY, OuiT* 

DIMIlTUnnSSL 

Old German Godaoo, 4tli cent. — ^Mod. Germ. Godeckb — 
French Goudchau. Old Germ. Godila, Gudila, Ooutilo, 7th 
cent, Gothilas or Gudilaa {Jomandes, mythical king of the 
time of Philip of Macedon). — English Goodali^ Cottle, 
OuTTELL — ^Mod. German Godei^ Gottel^ Guttel — French 
GouDAL, €k)DEL, GuTEL, CoTEL. Old Germ. Gotichin, 10th 
oentw — £ng. Godkin t— French GoDQum, Gauduchon. Old 
German Godelenus, Godelin, 6th cent. — English Codlinq 
— French Godillon. Old German Ootiso (Horace), Godizo, 
10th cent — Eng. Godsoe, Goodess, Coutts — Mod. German 
GoTZB — French Coutz. Old German Chotenza — French 
Cottance, Coutance, Coutanseau. Old German Godemia, 
9th cent — Eng. GtODDAM, Cottam— French Coutem. 

PATEONYMICS. 

Old Crerm. Goding, 8th cent — Eng. Godding, Goodiho, 
Ourrnro — ^Modern GeraiAa Gdrrnro, Kottdto — French 

OOTTUNO. 

OOMFOirNDeL 

(Bald, bold) Old German Godebald, 8th cent— Godebol- 
dns, Domesday — Eng. Godbold, Godbolt. (Bert, &mous) 
Old Germ. Godabert, 7th cent — Fi-ench Gaudibert. (Fnd^ 
peace) Old Germ. Godafrid, 7th cent — English Godfrey — 

* John God, the name of % writer who lived about the 17Ui centuxy. 

t Pott, ia aeoordanoe with hie genearal iTBtem of oontractions— which, how- 
eif«r, 1 canaot help ^K<«%<"g an eironeous one— makee oar name GoDUir, as well 
aa Goad and Goddxh, an abbreviation of Godard or Godfrey. 



116 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

Mod German Oottfried— French Godefroid, Godefroy, 
GoDFRiK (French dimin.- ?) {Ger^ spear) Old Germ. Cnotker 
— Eng. GooDACBEL {GiaUy hostage) Old German Godigisil, 
GodesiluB, Buigundian King, 5th cent. — English Godsbll, 
GooDSALL. {Heidy state, condition) Old Germ. Gotaheid, 9th 
cent. — English Godhead (Mcmchr,) (Hard) Old German 
Gotahard, Godehard, 8th cent. — Eng. Goddard, Gk>0DHEABT, 
GoTHARD—Mod. German Godehard^ Gotthabdt — French 
GouDABD, Coutard, Coudert, Cottabd. (Harif warrior) 
Old German Godehar, Goter, 8th cent. — English Godjer, 

GO0D£AR,«Go0DTEARy GOODAIB, GOATER, CoTTER — Modem 

German Gotter, Outer, Euttbr — French Gouthierrb, 
CouTiERy Couder. (Gi/u, gift) Ang. -Saxon Godgifu — Plater 
Godiva — English Goodeve — French Gaudiveau. (Lef, 
Buperstes) Old Germ. Godolef, 6th cent. — Old Norse Gudleif 
— Eng. GooDLiFFE — Mod. German Gottleib. (Lac, play) 
Old German Godolec, 9th cent.— Eng. Goodlake, (Larul) 
Old Genn. Godoland, 8th cent— Godland (Lib. rt«.)--Eng. 
GooDLAKD. (Afan) Old German Godeman, 8tli cent — 
Godeman, Domesday — Eng. Godman, Goodman, Gutmak, 
GoTMAN — Modem German Guttman — French Gtoutmaitn, 
GuTMAN. (Mar, hmous) Old Germ. Godomar, Outhmar, 5tli 
cent. — English Cutmore. (Mund, protection) Old German 
Codemund, 9th cent. — ^Ang. -Saxon Godmund — Old Norse 
Gudmundr — Eng. Godmitnd — French Goudbmakt. (iVew, 
young) Old German Godeniu, Cotini, 8th cent. — Old Norse 
Gudny — ^Eng. Goodnow — French Oodini. (Ram, raven) 
Old Germ. Godramnus, 8th cent — Eng. Goodram. (Rai, 
red, counsel) Old Germ. Gbtrat, Ouotarat, 8th cent — Eng. 
GooDERED — French Gautrot, Ooderet, Coutrot, Coterkt. 
(Bit, ride) Old German Guderit, 6th cent — Godritius, 
Domesday — English Goodwriqht, Cutbioht. (Run, com- 
panion) Old German Goderuna, Guterun, 7th cent — ^Old 
Norse Gudrun — French Gutron, Codron, Oothrunb. (Rice, 
powerful) Godricus, Domesday — English Goodrick, CJood- 
RiDOE, GoDRiCK — Freuch Godry, Coutray. (Sealk, servant) 
Old Germ. Godscalc, 7th cent. — Eng. God^kall, Godsghall 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 117 

( Ward, gc^urdian) Old Germaa Godoward, Sth cent. — Eng. 
GoDWABD. (Wine, friend) Old Gennan Goduin, Codoin,5tli 
cent. — Ang.-Sax. Godwine — Eng. Godwin, Goodwin — Mod 
German Guttwein — French Goudoin, CouDonr. (Wealh, 
stranger) Ang.-Sax. Cudwalli — Eng. Goodwill. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Godin, Godino, Gudin, Cotini, 7th cent. — 
Gotten (Lib. ViLy^^-Eng^iak Godden, Gooden, Cotton, 
CuDDON. French Godin, Godineau, Gudiw, Guttin, 

COUTIN. 

PHONETIC INTEU8I0N OP n, T, I, See p. 29. 
Old Germ. Godenulf, Sth cent. — English Goodenouoh. 
Old German Godelher, Sth cent. — French CtODEIJER. Old 
Germ. Godalmand, 6th cent. — ^Eng. Godliman ? Old Crerm. 
€k)derman, 9th cent. — Eng. Gutterman* — Modem German 
Gutebhann — French Gaudesmen. 

It is striking to observe how the names of the 
Deity, in the three great languages of Europe, 
show forth, each for itself, some one or other of 
his attributes. The Romanic Dtos, Dio, Dieu, 
from a root signifying brightness, tells of his 
glory — " He dwelleth in the light whereunto no 
man can approach." The Germanic God, Got, if 
we take the meaning of Eichhoff,t speaks of his 
purity — "He is of purer eyes than to behold 
vanity." If we take that of Pott, it refers to his 
impenetrability — " Canst thou by searching find 
out God T The Slavonic Bog, from a root ex- 



* Perhaps this, along with some other namea found In Suffolk Boinamei, 
magr be ft German name anglicised. 

t Diefenbach, however, seems to dlBtmst both these derivations. Giimm 
observes {DeutMh, Myth.) that " the root-meiitaing of this word is a subject upon 
which we lequlxB to be»further enlightened/' 



118 THE QODS OF THE NORTH. 

pressive of abundance, speaks of his bounty — 
••He giveth us richly all things to enjoy" 

But there is another, and a remarkable word 
which was used by our Scandinavian forefathers^ 
and which is also found, though in a sense seem- 
ingly already somewhat debased, among their 
German kinsmen, the Old Norse, as, Ang.-Sazon 
6s, Goth, and High Germ. cms. The word does 
not seem to have any immediate co-relatives in 
the Northern speech — can we venture to connect 
it with the Sansc. as, to be, giving it the meaning 
of the self-existing, and comparing it with the 
great ** I am" of Scripture 1 In Old Norse as 
was a general title prefixed to the names of all 
the principal gods — ^thus Thor is called Asa-Thor, 
Brag Asa-Brag, while Odin is called by pre- 
eminence The As. In the Anses of the Goths 
the sense seems to be a little lower, and more 
that of demi-god, while the Ang.-Sax. ds is ren- 
dered by Bosworth, perhaps rather under its 
meaning, as hero. It is probable that in the 
first instance the prefix os was confined to the 
names of those who claimed to be descendants of 
Odin, though in after times it might come to 
be more generally assumed. AU the founders of 
the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms claimed a descent 
from Odin, but it was only in the names of the 
Northumbrian branch that the word was common. 
Mr. Kemble observes " This word is nearly 
peculiar to the royal (god-bom) race of Northum- 
berland, and occurs rarely in the south of 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 119 

England ; and wh^i it does it is rather of Jutish 
or Angle than Saxon character." 

It will be seen that there is in our names a 
considerable mixture of the two forms as or cs, 
and ans ; it is probable that most of the latter 
have come to us through the French, The roots 
haz and hass are rather liable to intermix with 
some of these forma 

SIlfPLB VOBMB. 

Old Qenn. Anao, Aao, dth cent. Old Norse Asa. Eog. 
Aims, Hancs, Abat, Asibt ! Aas I French Anckau, ^^ 
Rasb, Kajsoxz, Assb I 

DIMIKUTIYEB. 

Old GeruL Ansich, Esic, Sth cent — Eng. Ensooe — Mod. 
German Essich — French EssiQUK Old Oerman Ansila, 
Anailo, Ensilo, Asilo, 5th cent. — Ang.-Saz. Eala — English 
Akbell, Anslow, Okslow, Ensell, Essell — ^Modern Germ. 
ENBLBy AsBL — French Anskl, Akcel, Asskll. Eng. Asldt, 
EsLiNG — ^French ANcnsLiNy Aksxlin, Enslev, A^seuKj 

OSSELIH. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bern, bear) Old €rerman Osbem, Aspim^ 8th cent.-— 
Ang.-Sax. Osbeom — Old Norse Asbiom — English Osbobv, 
AsPXBX. {B^rt, bright) Old Germ. Ansperty Aaspert, Aspert^ 
7th cent — ^French Auspebt, Aspsbtl {Berg, protection) 
Old German Asbirg, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Asbbidoe, Asbebbet. 
(Gundf war) Old German Ansegunde^ 7th cent — Fr. AssE- 
GOKB. (Gaud, Goth) Old German Ansegaud, 9th cent — 
Ang.-Saz. Osgot — English Osgood. (Hard) Old German 
Ansardy 8th cent — ^English Haebabd — French Ahsabt. 
(Han, warrior) Old Germ. Ansher, 8th cent — ^Ang.-Saxon 
Oshere— 'Eng. Akseb, Enseb, Ekzeb, Osteb — Mod German 
AirsEBy Abseb — French Aussii^ Esseb.. (Helm) Old 
Germ. Anshehn, 8th cent — Eng. Akselmb, HAirsoM^Mod. 
Gorm. Ansbuc — French Anselme, AKCEAim. (Lao, plaj) 



Oi. 
Divvs. 



120 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

Old Qerman Ansalicus, 7th cent. — Ang. -Saxon Oal&o — Old 
Norse Asleikr — Eng. Aslock, Hasluck. {Man) Old Gernu 
Asman, Osman, 9th cent — Asseman ffufui. RoUs, — Eng. 
AsMAir, OsMAN — French AKSMAmr. {Mtxr^ famous) Old 
Germ. Ansmar, Osmer, 8th cent. — Osmer, Domeada/y — ^Eng. 
OsHEB. {Mvmd, protection) Old Germ. Ansemnnd, Osmund, 
6th cent. — Ang.-Saxon Osmund — English Osmond — French 
Ansmant, Ancemekt, Obmont. (Wald, power) Old German 
Ansovald, Ansald, Oswald, 7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Oswald — 
Eng. Oswald — Modem German Oswald — ItaL Ansaldl 
{WarUy inhabitant) Old German Ansveros, Assuerus) 8th 
cent. — French Assukrus % {Wine^ firiend) Ang.-Sax. Oswine 
—Eng. OswiN. {Ulf, wolf) Old German Asul^ Osulf, 7th 
cent. — French Ozoup. 

Of Odin or Woden, the father of the gods, 
there are but few subsequent traces in the names 
of men. In the genealogies of the founders of 
the Saxon kingdoms, for instance, all of whom 
claimed descent from Woden, the name is never 
reproduced as is so generally the case with that 
of a distinguished ancestor. Perhaps it might 
be deemed presumptuous to assume the name of 
the father of the gods. " It seems,'' says Miss 
Yonge, "to have been avoided as Zeus was in 
Greece, and, to a greater extent, Jupiter in 
Rome." We find, however, one Old Germ, name 
Wotan, 9th cent, which seems to be from this 
origin. Possibly also our name Weddon, which 
corresponds with the form the word has assumed 
in Wednesday, and in names of places, as Wed- 
nesbury, &c., may also come in here. The Scan- 
dinavian form Odin is rather more common. It 
is found among the names of Danish coiners in 



THB OOD0 OF IBM NOBTB. 121 

England, and it occtirs tmca in Domesday. The 
Engliflh name Odbn is adduced by Mr. Lower, 
and I find ihree persons called Odin in the direct 
tory of Paris. The name does not occur in the 
directory of Copenhagen, nor do I find the corres- 
ponding Gennan form in that country. 

One of the principal titles of Odin in the 
Scandinavian mythology was Oski^ from Old 
Norse 6sk, a wish, and which is supposed to 
signify " one who listens to the prayers or wishes 
of mankind." Grimm (Devtsch. Myth.) refers, in 
connectiDn with the above, to the maimer in 
which the German minnesingers of the 13th 
oent. personified the wunsch or wish. He gives 
a number of examples, on which he remarks : — 
''In the greater number of these instances we 
might put Deity instead of Wunsch. . . In 
the first example from Gregory^ the Wunsch 
seems almost to be ranked as a being of the 
second order; a servant or messenger of the 
higher deity." Pott remarks that we seem to 
have here " a trace of the German Cupid." From 
the above title of Odin seems to be Osk, a Scan* 
dinavian female name in the Landnamabok* 
Also the Mod German name Wunsch and the 
English Wish or Whish, showing the respective 
High and Low German forms of the same word 
The JBdiriburgh Review for April, 1855, suggests 
that the surname Wishabt {fiart, hard) may 
also have been formed from it. It may, however, 
perhaps rather be the same as the name Wisu- 

p 



122 THE QODS OF THB NORTEL 

cart, Wisigard, of the wife of the Frankish king 
Theodebert. But WiSHBaEi and Whisker^ cor- 
responding with a German Wcnschbr, rather 
seem to belong to it. Possibly also Wishman 
and WmsKEYMAN (Baioditch.) The only Old 
Germ, name from this root seems to be a Wiscolo, 
11th cent. 

On two different occasions Odin appears in a 
sort of trilogy ; at the creation of the world in 
conjunction with Vili and Ve ; at the creation of 
mankind in conjunction with Hoenir and Lodur. 
These beings do not seem to have had an in- 
dependent existence, but to denote, as Mr. 
Thorpe observes, "several kinds of the divine 
agency.'' The name Vili is from Old Norse vili, 
Anglo-Saxon wiUa, English " will,*' and may per- 
haps have here the meaning of creative impulse. 
According to Grimm the Anglo-Saxon mlla. Old 
High Germ, mllo, Old Norse vtli, denote not only 
inclination, " voluntas and votum,*' but also " im- 
petus and spiritus " the power that sets will in 
motion. From the personification of the will in 
this title of Odin, like that before referred to of the 
wish, may be the word willy so common in proper 
names. Miss Yonge, generally so trustworthy, 
has fallen into what I cannot but consider a grave 
error in following old Camden instead of the 
German philologists, and making hil and^ other 
forms of vnU. 

BniPLEFOBMa 

v^^i, ^^^ ^^^®™- ^^^* Wi\l&, Wilia, Guila^ 5th cent. Eng. 
impetw. WnJi, WUiLOE, Wu<LET, GuHJiB, QuHX. Modem German 



THB QODS OF THE NOBTH. 123 

WiLLBy QuiLB. Dan. Wills. French YillBi Yillt, 

VlLL^ GuiLLl^ GUILLI^ QuiLL& 

DDilNUTlVJCflu 

Old Germ. Willioo, Willie, 9th cent— Uillech, Lib. VU. 
— ^Eng. WiLLOCK, WnjUE, Wilkb, Quilkb — Mod German 
WnjJOH, WiLKis — French Quillao. Old Germ. Willikin, 
11th cent. — Eng. Wilkin — French Yillachok, Guillochik. 
Old Germ. WiUizo, 10th cent— Eng. Willw, Will»— Mod. 
German WiLLisZy Wilz — French Guilles. Old German 
WilliflcaSy 9th cent — Modem German Willisgh— English 
QuHjLish. 

PATBONTMICa 

Old German Willing, Willencns, 9th cent. English 
WiLLorGy WiLLiNE. Mod. Germ. Willhtg, Quiujko. 
PHONisnG ending. 

Old German Willin, 11th cent. English Willan, 
GunxAN. French Villain^ Guilaine, Guillon. 

0OMPOITND& 

{Bald, bold) Old German Willabald, 8th cent— French 
Vilbaut, Guilbaut. {Bemy bear) Old German Wilbemus, 
10th cent — Eng. Wilboubn. {Bert, bright) Old German 
Willibert^ Guilabert, 8th cent — French Guilbeet. {Brody 
dart) Old Germ. Willebort^ 11th cent— Ang. -Saxon WiUi- 
brord — French Wilbbod. {Burg, protection) Old German 
Williburg, 8th cent— Vilburg, Lib. VU. — Eng. Wilbub*— 
Modem German WiLLBEBa {Oom, com, man) Old German 
Willicomo, 9th cent — ^Uilcom», Lib. Vii. — ^£bg. Wiloomb, 
Welooke — ^Mod. German Willkomil {Fred, peace) Old 
Germ. Wilfrid, 8th cent— Anglo-Saxon Wilfrid— English 
WiLFOBD, Wilfbed (Ghrittlom name.) {Oer, spear) Old 
German Williger, Williker, 8th cent — French Yilleoei, 
YniCkBB. {Oie, hostage) Old Germ. Willigis, 5th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Wilgis— Eng. Wilgosb. (Hard) Old German 



* HaoM the local nam* Wilbbahax, oilglaaUjr WlllnugbMB^ Pott oar- 
talnljr miut hava bean nappliif whan ha daiiTad It fiom Will (WUlJjun}, and 
Atnaham! 



l!24 THB OODS X)F THfi NOBTB. 

Willihard^ Willard^ dih oent-^Sng. WnXAlO^ModMi 
German WiLLEBT^French WillabDi YtLLABO^ Gcillaxd, 
QuiLLABD. (Held, 8tatO| oondition) Old German Williheidy 
Williheit, 8ih oent^Eng. WUiLETT— Mod. Germ. Willet 
— ^French Yillstti^ Guilet^ Quillet. (^oriy warrior) 
Old Gennan Williheri, Willeri, Wilier^ 6ih oenl— EogliBb 
WiLLER-— Mod. Germ. WiLLBfr-^Erench Yillsbie, Yillkb* 

GuiLHERTi GuiLKRi QuiLUSBI, QuiLLIEB. (HdmJ Old 

Germ. Willihelm, Guilhelm, 8th cent— Ang.-3az. Wilhelmi 
(mAkfrmik Wod&n in the gtnetdogy ^f (A# lwng9 of <^ EcM 
AngleaJ — Eng. Williaics, QuiLLiAMSy Guillaume — ^Modern 
German Wilhelm — Dan. Wilhjblm — ^French Yillaume, 

YlLLIAlfBy WlLLAUHE, GuXLLAUlO^ GUILHEH. To the last 

Forstemann plaoea also Old German WillermuB, Yilleim, 
Guillerma, lOth cent, to which correspond French Wil- 
LEBMEy YiLLBfi]C> GuiLHEBiCT j but orm, serpent> seems to 
me a possible origin, thongh we do not find it elsewhere as a 
termination. (Mem) Old German Williman, Wilman^ 9th 
cent — ^Eng. Quillman — Mod. Germ. Willmakn — French 
WiLLSiitN, YiLLEMAiir, GtlLLtafAlK. {Mar, &mons) Old 
Germ. Willimar (SuAss prteH), Tth cent. — Eng. Willkeb — 
Mod. Germ. WiULAftr— French Villmar. {Mand, joy) Old 
Germ. Willmant^ 6th cent. — French GuiLLBttA2jrT. {M<4, 
Courage) Old Germ. Willimot, 8th C6nt — English Weluiow 
— F]fench WiLLEHot, YiLLEMot, GunxBiioi!. {Mundy pro- 
taction) Old German Willbnund, Guilemund, 8th cent — 
Uilmund, Lib. VU. — Eng. WtLLAttEwr — French Yillemont, 
GmLLEitONt. {ir(Md, daring) Old Geim. Wfllinant, 6th 
oent— English QuillinaIJ. {Rat, <»unsel) Old G^iman 
Willirat, 8th 6ent. — French VtLLEBKT, Qxjilleret. 

Among the many titles of Odin — ^no fewer 
than 49 of which are enumerated in the Eddas-^ 
one of the principal was Grimr, from Old Norae 
ffrtma, mask or helmet. To this origin Grimm, 
and, following him, Leo, place the ancient names 
of the following group, and though it is highly 



THB GODB OF THB NOBTEL 125 

probable^ as Fontemann suggestSi that grimf 
BasrxxB^ intermixes yet it is impossible to separate 
them, for the qtiantity of the vowel is no 
sufficient guide. 

BDIFLX FOBMS. 

Old Qerman Grimo, Grim, 7th cent. Old Nonw Grimr. cwma 
Eng. Gbiii, Gbkam, Gbime, Cream, Obtms. Mod. Germaii ^^^"^ 
Gbhol French Gbdi, Obbic^ Gbxhxait. 

BmiMUTlVJU. 

Old Germ. Grimik, 6th cent £^. Gbimut. Modem 
Qenn. Gbuooeu Eranch GuxAiii 

PATBOimDG& 

Eng. Onmsoir, CamBov. 

OOHPOUNDa 

(Baldf fortifl, Old German Grimbald, 8th cent — ^EngHah 
Gbimbold,* Gbimble — French Griicblot. (Bert, fiunons) 
Old G^nn. Grimberb, 7th cent — ^French GRncBEKt. (BeU, 
state, '<hood") Old Gei-man Grimheit, 8th cent.— English 
GRiHMBrr. (Jffarty Trarrior) Old German Grimhar, Crimher, 
8th cent — ^English GRimcEB, Creaicer t — ^Modern Crerman 
Grocmeb, Kbimmeb — French Gbdiab. (Mund, protection) 
Old German Grimnnd, 9th cent.— >Bng. GBimcoKD — ^French 
GniMOiiT. (Wold, power) Old Germ. Grimoald, 7th cent — 
Frendi GBiiiAi}ui>--IUlian GBUiAtDtt— Spanish Gbdcaxomx 
(ITmm, friend) Old (German Grimoin, 8th cent — ^French 
Gbdkoin. {Ward^ guardian) Old German €hrimwart^ 
Qiimoaid, 8th cent — French Gbdcoabd. 

The following names^ though perhaps more 
immediately connected with superstitions of a 
later date, may in iheir remoter origin be traced 
to Nikar, a title of Odin, in which he appears as 
a water spirit or daemon. Throughout Grermany 

* Of the lOkh cent I do not find it ftt preMni 



126 THB QODS OF THE NORTH. 

and Scandinayia popular superstition has pre- 
served some trace of him in this form. Iceland 
and the Faroe islands have their Hnikur, Norway 
and Denmark their Nok, Sweden its Neck, and 
Germany its Nix and Nickel All these are 
water dsemons» appearing generally in the form 
of a horse, and usually obnoxious to mankind 
England has its Old Nick, in which he appears 
directly in the form of the evil one. As the early 
Christian missionaries found it difficult to get 
rid of him altogether, they seem to have changed 
him into the devil The following root Forste- 
mann takes to be from this origin* 

HWk.lfadk. aniELRIOBMB. 

WfttvBphit Old German Niko, Keooho, 11th cent. Engliah Niok, 

Nbok, Nez, Nix, Nixdb. Modem Qerrnan Nick. French 

Nick, Kicaibb. (The latt name teems to he the Old High 

Oerm, mchiUf wheneehy cofUraeiion the Mod. Germ, mxe,) 

DnaNunw. 

Engliflh NiCKi^Eir. 

OaMPOUNIML 

{Audf proq)eTit7) French Nigaud. (Ha/rd) French Nioabd. 

EXTENDED SOOT=THE OLD NOBSB HNIKXTK 

Old Qerrnan Nickar, 8th cent. Engliah Nickxr(80n). 
Dutch Nbgkab. French Niooub. 

I am not sure that the father of the gods has 
not contributed to the commonness of the name 
of Beown, for Brftni, from the Old Norse JyHln^ 
the brow, was one of the names of Odin, and a 
probable meaning seems to be that of having 
marked or prominent brows, which is considered 
to give power and dignity to a countenance. 



THB GODS OF THE NOBTH. 127 

This is what Tennyson is generally understood 
to mean by — 

"* The bar of Michael Angelo." 
There are several Northmen called Bdini in the 
Landnamaboky and one of them was sumamed 
" The White,** shewing clearly that at any rate 
his name was not derived from dark complexion. 

The name of Thor, the second of the gods, 
from whom we have Thursday, seems also, like 
that of Odin, to have been uncommon as a man's 
name in its simple form. Finn Magnusen {Lex. 
Myth.) states that though he could reckon up 
about sixty compound names, he knew no instance 
of the simple form. 

We have, however, instances of its use in our 
own district; there was a Thor, sumamed the 
Long, an Anglo-Saxon or Northman of some note 
about the time of the Conquest, and who was so 
sumamed to distinguish him from another Thor 
who had possessions in the same part of the 
country. 

The name Tor occurs several times in Domes- 
day ; this is the Scandinavian pronunciation, as 
in Torsdag for Thursday, but it is not clear to 
me that this name, as well as our own Tobb and 
ToKRY, is not from another root, probably Old 
Norse dden\ spear. Thor does not occur in the 
directory of Copenhagen, though the patronymic 
Thobsen is common. ^ 

Grimm thinks that Thor is only a contracted 
form of Anglo-Saxon thuner. Old Norse ihonar. 



128 ZHB QOM OF THB NOBIS. 

thunder. And, in &ot, Thuner was another. Ang.- 
Sax form of his name, as found in Thunresdsag 
for Thursday. There was an Anglo-Saxon named 
Thuner, a ** limb of the devil," A.D. 654, {Rog. 
Wend.) And we have still the name Thukdsb^ 
though uncommon. 

The High Qerman form is Donar, as foundin 
Donnersiag for Thursday. This occurs, though 
not frequently, as a proper name in Germany ; 
there was a noble fiunily on the Bhine called 
Doimer von Loiiieim (Grimm's Deutsch. Myth.) 
Our names Donnob and Tonnob I apprehend to 
be the same. There are also some Old Qerman 
names compounded with it. 

Names compounded with Thor were very 

common among the Northm^i, and we have 

several corresponding. They seem also to have 

occurred, though rarely, among the Qermans, and 

one or two are to be found in French* 

ooMPomnM OF thok. 

^^__ ^ (^<»rf bear) Thurbarus, Qoth. leader 3rd cent — "Eag. Thus- 

of Thor. 9>IL (^u^ btfff*) Old Noise Thorbiorn—EoglM Thor- 

BUBN. ((Tor, spear) Old None Thozgeir — Eng. Thuboab. 

(Oa/ut, Goth) Old Norse Thoigautr— Tuigot {Dome9dayy^ 

Englisli Thobgatb, Thoboughoatb, Tabgbtt t TmraaooD, 

TwyBOUOHOOOD— Freaeh Tumot. (KeULg^) Old Nozae 

"^ FtobftVly from the saered bear bj wkioh Ilior wm aocompttoied. Henot 
Tbokbuut la limQar to OsBUBir, pi 11§. 

t AoooHUactoOiiiiuD^tron tt« famoni k«ttk whkh Tb«r oaftared |k«n 
Ihe giant Hymlr for the goda to brew their beer In. {DeuUdk. MvtK) KetUlitaeU 
waa a common SeandinavUn name^^md henoe log. Xbetub. The name !tav»> 
xanuB then ooneaponda with another Bag. name AaBxanz^ Old JKTone Aake- 
tni, Ang.-flaz. OioitlU. Hie P^«oh hsve f^gowea* and AxviawoL, prabaUj for 
ftn a w a rtl . I» JkumA I qnljr flad ftte patamjnlo Kaxaumr, lUmjonm, 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 129 

Thorketill — Bag. Thubkbttle — French Tctrqueth:.. (S^B, 
a contraction of EeUH, according to Grimm) Old Norse Thor- 
kell— Eng. Thubklb. (Man) English Thobxak. {M6dy 
courage) Old German Thurmod, 9th cent. — Old Norse 
Thdrmddr— English Thubmott. (Stone J Old Norse Thdr" 
steinn — Eng. Thub&ton. (Wald^ power) Old Norse Thdr- 
yalldr — ^Eng. Thobold — French TouBAULxf (Fic^ wood) 
Old Norse Thdrvidr — Eng. Thoboughwood. 

The name of this god in all its three different 
forms appearing to be synonymous with thimder, 
it may not be amiss to enquire whether there are 
any other names which, as perhaps also signifying 
thunder, may contain other forms of his name. 
There seems indeed to me a considerable proba- 
bility that the name of this god, or rather of some 
god wielding the thunder, is of older date than 
the rest of the Odinic mythology. There is a 
root dun, which in the opinion of Forstemann, is 
at least as probably from Old Norse duna, 
thunder, as from Ang.-Sax. dunriy brown. Along 
with this may be included din and don. Old 
Norse dyn, Ang.-Sax. d^ne, Belg. don, all having 
the same meaning of thunder. This, however, 
must be taken for nothing more than a conjec- 
ture, though an Old German name Dunitach 
(=Thimder-day, like ThunresdsBg, Thursday ?) 
seems rather to give a colour to it. 

BIMPLB lOBMS. 

Old Oerman Dnno, Duna, Dono, Dina, Tunno, Tnnna, ^^^^^ j^^ 
Tinno, 7th cent. Anglo-Saxon Dun, Dunna. Eng. Dunn, ma. 

DiNN, DONN, DONNET, DoNHO, TuN, TuNNO, TuNNAT, TUNNY, TJ»«nder? 

Ton, Tinnbt. Mod. Germ. Donn, Tonne. French Donne, 
DoNAT, Donnsr&f Tonne, Tunna, Tm6. 

Q 



130 THB GODB OF THB NOB«!H» 

DnoNunvuw 
Old Qenik DoiuIa, Donnolo^ Taxdla, TLnaulo^ 7th oeat 
— Efaag. jywKNELL, Donrsuii Tuiivbll, Tuw aiat, Dmurri 
TiKLMT— -French Toniteld^ Tono* Eog. DoniiAir^ Tur- 
uvo-i-Freiich Domvellah. 

Aiig.-€ax. DuD&iBg. Eng. Dmnnaro> Dnmnro, Dnrora. 

TiNNINO. 

ooMFouyDa 
{Qer, spear) Eng. Dunobb — Fren. Donokbb. {Stan, 
stone) Anglo-Saxon Dunstan — Eng. DuKdiy>KBy TunstaxT. 
(ITiiMS Mend) English Dttkatik. 

According to Grimm, a name under which 
tmces of Thor are still to be found in Germany 
is Hamer, and which is derived, no doubt, from 
the celebrated hammer or mallet which he 
wielded. Hence may probably be the following* 

6IMPIA FO&MB. 

Old German Hamar, Hamari, 8th cent. Eng. Hammsr, 
^"^^ HKimitR, AnoR 9 Amoay f Mod. Oerm. HiJOCBBy KvxMEaL 
French HaxoiBi Axobt t 

The name of Bragi or Brag^ the god of 
poetry^ seems unquestionably to have been borne 
by men. Finn Magnusen says ""Nomen Bragi 
ssepe viris, et non raro poetis celebribus in Sep** 
tentarione contigit.'' There was among others a 
celebrated Icelandic bard named Bragi Skalld 
(Bragi the poet) The Englidi Bbaqg, and the 
French Brag may be from this origin, but the 
Eng. Bba<3Gs& seems uncertain. 

The name of Baldxir, the Apollo of the 
Germans, seems to occur in one Old German 
name Baldor. Another, Baldro^ 9th cent.> (our 



THB Q0B8 OF THS NOBTH. 131 

BoLZ>BBO ^) seems less certain. There was also 
an Old German name Baldher^ from a difOsrent 
origin, to which, aa being more common, our 
Baldbb, and the French Baltab, may mcnre 
probably belong. 

The name of Tyr, son of Odin, in its Qothic 
form Tins, may perhaps be foimd in Teias, a Gothic 
leader of the 6th cent^ and with which our Tyas 
and Ttxts seem to correspond. But the Goth. 
ihdua^ minister, an allied word may put in a claim. 
It does not seem probable that Ldk or L6ki, 
who r^esented the evil principle in the Northern 
mydiology, would be much in favour for bap- 
tismal name& I find it only as a surname in the 
Landnamabok, and it might have been given for 
mischievousness or malignity of disposition. The 
group of names which we have, viz., Eng. LocKJi, 
LocKiE, French Loque, Locque, Loch, &c., 
might, however, be from the same root. Old 
Norse lokka, to decdve, seduce. A title of Ldki 
was Loptr or I^oftr, '' the aerial f this was a 
common Scandinavian name, and hence possibly 
may be Eng. Loft. The corresponding deity 
among the Saxons was Sseter, from whom we 
have Saturday, and whose name seems to have 
the same meaning, Ang.-Saxcm acBtere, a seducer. 
I hove found Sattbb as an English name, though 
Tcry uncommon. 

Mr. Lower (Pat. Brit) makes a suggestion ro- 
specting the name of Flint, which I reproduce* 
without^ however, being able to throw any 



132 THE OODS OF THE NOBTH. 

fiirther Kght upon it. " Our Ang.-Sax. anoestors 
had a subordinate deity whom they named flinty 
and whose idol was an actual flint-stone of large 
size. The name of the god would readily become 
the appellation of a man, and that would in time 
become hereditary as a surname. Such it had 
become, without any prefix, at the date of the 
Hundred Rolls (1273), and even in Domesday 
we have in Suffolk an Alwin Flint. The town of 
Flint, in North Wales, may however have a claim 
to its origin." 

The following group Forstemann connects 
with the name of the goddess Frigga or Frikka» 
wife of Odin. The Ang.-Sax. Jrec, Mod. Germ* 
frechy bold, is also a probable root. 

SIMPLE FOBMSL 

Old Germ. Frioco, Frich, 8th cent. Ang.-Sax. Freok, 
Frigga or Cod. Dip. 971. English Fricke, Fsicket, Fbsck, Freak- 
^^'^^^^ Mod Gennan. Fkigk. Freche. French Frioq, Fbbch. 

WifeofOdln- 

ooMPouin)a. 
(HerSf warrior) Old German Fricher, 8th cent. — English 
Frigker — Mod. Germ. Fricker — French Feikkb. {Wald, 
power) French Fricault, Frbcault. 

There are some roots which seem to be con- 
nected with the names of certain deities, though 
there is scarcely sufficient reason for supposing 
that they are derived from them. Thus the root 
had, haJthy war, Grimm thinks is connected with 
the name of the god Hodr, a son of Odia And 
the root sihy sify friendship, with the goddess Sii^ 
wife of Thor. Also the root nand, naUy with the 
goddess Nanna, wife of Baldur. And the root 



THE GODS OF THE NOBTH. 133 

fravo^ fn^\ expressive of freedom or authority, 
with the goddess Freya. But if the Odinic 
mythology be, as some think, of no very profound 
antiquity — ^if Odin were a real personage, the 
founder of a kingdom and of a dynasty, it is 
possible that the names may have been those of 
men before they were those of gods. 

The names of some of the Yalkyrjur, maidens 
of Odin appointed to select the victims in battle, 
seem, as elsewhere noticed, to have been common 
in the names of women. One of these is Hrist, 
probably from Old Norse hrista, to shake (per- 
haps to brandish as a sword), whence seem to be 
Eng. and French BiST. In connection with this 
name a suggestion occurs to me. There is a root 
crist found in Frankish names from the 7th to 
the 9th cent., and which Forstemann takes to be 
from the name of our Lord. But some of the 
compounds, as those with hild, war, savour rather 
of a heathen sense, and it now occurs to me as 
possible that crist may be nothing more than the 
Frankish form of hrist, the aspirated h forming c 
as noticed at p. 46. To this then may belong 
English Chmst, Chmsto, Christy, Chbystal ; 
Mod. Germ. Christ, Christel ; French Christ, 
Christy, Christel, or some of them. It may 
be objected to this theory that all the Frankish 
names in question occur in Christian times, but 
on the other hand it is from Christian records 
that most of the Frankish names known to us 
are derived. However, I only throw this out as 



134 THB GODS OF THB NOBTH. 

a st^gestion, but the fact that as well as Christ 
vre hare also Bi&rr and Obist seems rather to sug- 
gest a oommon origin for the three. 

There is a race of dwarfs or elves which fi^ 
quently come before us in the Northern mythology, 
and the names of many of whioh are entunerated 
in the Eddas. The root aft, alfi elf is very com- 
mon in Teutonic names, among the Anglo-Saxons 
as well as others ; the olda* German writers re- 
ferred it to the mountains of the Alps, and the 
words connected therewith ; but Grimm and 
Massmann connect it with these mythological 
elves. Some of these beings seem to have been 
noted for their wisdom, and oth^B tor their 
mechanical skill, and this may perhaps be the 
idea present in some of these names, as for in- 
stance, Alfred {rSd^ counsd.) 

SIMPLE fOBBia. 
Alls All 

jgif^ Old Genn. Albo^ Alpho, Albi, Stii cent. Sag. Altxt^ 

AxjPHAy Axf, BuM>w, ISLvn, Sltt, Ei.fhbk Mod. Gemfta 
Alt, Esjo. Erenfih Aiso, Albt, Aub&. 

DDaMUTiVAk 

QLd Gerawn Albocho, 11th eent^^^^lfecli, D<mhsaday — 
En^ Elphick, EiiVmoE. Old German Albizo, Aluezo, 8 th 
oent. — Albtd, L^. VU. — Eng. Alvis, Elvis, Elyss — French 
AuBEZ. Old QeroL Albilay 6th cent. — Mod. Genn. Albh. 
— ^Fr. AvBEL. 

VHOOnmO BmNBIQR.* 

Old German Alfan, Elbenn^ Albini, Alpuni, 8th cent. 
Eng. Albax, Alrakt, Aupenky, HALFPraorrt Modem 
GeruL Elbsn. French Albik, Aubot, AuBiamr, Axtbikeau. 

^ The Lftttn root maj intermix In tbeie nemet. 



THE QODS OF THB NORTH. « 185 

PATRONYMI0& I 

Old Qerm. AlbiDC, 8th cent. Frenoh Albevqux, i 

OOBCPOtTNDQ. I 

{Oe/f, Bpear) Old German Al%er, Halbker, 8th oeat— ' 

Aiig.-Saz. Alfgar — Eng. HalfacreI {Haidf state, con- 
dition) Old German Albheid, 8th cent. — ^Eng. HALnreAD Y j 
(Hmri) Old German Alfhard, Albhoid, 8th oent.— English 
Alvsbt — French Aubaba. {Hari^ warrior) Old G^erman 
Alfherii Albheri, 8th cent. — English Alvabt, Albbbt, 

Blvebt, Aubkey — ^French Aubikr, Axtbebt. (Mam,) Old i 

German Alpman — Eng. HalfxakI (iM, counsel) Old i 

G«nn. Alberat, 8th cent — ^Anglo-Saxon Alfred — English i 

Aijvbd — French AiiBarit, AjumBO^ Aubbibt. {Ewi^ com* 
panion) Old German Albrana,t Tck^ub^ Albrun, 10th oenk 

— Fr. AuBBUK. {Ww^ defence 1) Old G^erman Albwer, 8th i 

cent — French Auboueb. (TTtfM, friend) Alboin, Lombard 
king, 6th cent — Fr. Aubouih. 

As well as the dwarfs or elves there was a 
race of giants which figure in the Northern 
mythology as at continual enmity with the gods 
— ^the foundation of the myth (if not a relic of a 
still more ancient one), being perhaps to be traced 
to the subjugation by Odin and his followers of 
the oMer and less civilized races with whom they 
came in contact. But I do not know that there 
are any names in which the sense can with suf- 
ficient reason be taken to mean more than large 
stature. 

Many of the names derived from the weather 
appear to have a mythological origin. Thus 
Frosti was the name of one of the dwarfs or elves 



t A.'WGian meBttonea t^ ttie hiiftoritai m IdgU^ vv&emtaa ^tlie Qnauum 
for h«r wife eoonaela. Among tlM tuIoiui nadJagi of the luune^ tlda it mtaik la 
Moordanoo with •ndent nomenolatnre. 



136 THE QODS OF THB NORTH. 

before spoken of; the meamng, according to Finn 
Magnxisen, is ""gelidus vel gelu ac frigora 
efficiens." Our nursery hero, Jack Frost, may 
possibly have his origin in the old northern 
mythology. Frosti occurs as a Scandinavian 
name in Saxo; and we have Fbost and the 
diminutive Frostick. Frost occurs frequently 
in the Hundred Bolls, temp. Edw. 1. Mr. Lower 
observes (PaJt. Britt.J that "one Alwin Forst 
was a tenant in Co. Hants, before Domesday, and 
his name by a slight and common transposition 
would become Frost." This is true, but the con- 
verse might also apply, for forst is an Ang.-Sax. 
form oifrosA. In another name, however. Frost- 
man, given by Mr. Bowditch, I should take the 
proper form to be Forstman. 

One of the Valkyrjur was called Mist, which 
must be from Anglo-Saxon mist, English " mist." 
There is an Old German name Mistila^ 9th cent., 
which Weinhold takes to be a diminutive of the 
above. We have Mist, and Mister^ which may 
possibly be a compound. 

Of the same meaning and from a similar 
source to Mist might naturally be supposed to be 
Fog and Foggo. This, however, is less certain ; 
there is aroot^bc, for which Forstemann proposes 
Old Norse ybA;, flight, to which they might be put. 

The name of an old, probably a mythical king 
of Denmark was Snio (snow.) It enters into 
some Old German names^ and hence may be our 
Snow. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 137 

I thought hefore that Snowball might be a 
compound {bald, fortis), but on the whole I now 
think that Mr. Lower's derivation from a feudal 
tenure (Pat. Britt.J is to be preferred. 

It seems probable that something of a mytho- 
logical origin may be assumed for the English 
Rainbow, the German Begsnboqen, and the 
French Eainbeaux and Regimbbau — ^the two 
latter names appearing to bespeak for themselves 
a considerable antiquity. 

The system of personification which pervaded 
the Northern mythology, and which, extending its 
influence deep into the middle ages, has left its 
traces on the popular mind of Europe to the 
present day, extended to the earth, the sun, the 
moon, day and night, summer and winter. The 
sun in Northern mythology was reckoned among 
the goddesses, being feminine in all Teutonic 
languages except our own. The moon, on the 
other hand, was masculine, being the brother of 
the sun. In some parts of Germany the peasantry 
still give the sun and moon the title of Frau and 
Herr — ^Mrs. Sun and Mr. Moon. 

I thought before that the names signifying 
sun and moon might be derived from this per- 
sonification of Northern mythology, but I am 
now inclined to think that as the worship of the 
heavenly bodies is probably a relic of an earlier 
creed, so the names too may be of a date anterior 
to the Odinic system. From the Goth. sauU, 
Old Norse sol, the sun, may be the following. 

B 



138 THE GODS OF THE NOBTH. 

SllCPLB VOKMBu 

Old Qerman Sol, Sola, 8th oent Also probably, as it 

Bote, seems to me, though Forstemann places them elsewhere, 

^^ 2aovX ''Dux barbaroram,** ZoHnL 4th cent, Saul, 9th cent. 

Sol, Saul (DamBBdayy Sola, Lib. VU. Eog. Sols, Solbt, 

Souii^ Sauu Mod. Qerm. Sohl. Erenoh Sol, Sou^ Saul, 

SouLi^ SonL& 

ooii»>uin)8. 
(Burg, protection) Old German Solbuig, 9th cent. — Eng. 
SoLBEBBY. {HaH, warrior) French Soulebt, Solier. 
(Hard) French Solabd. (Rai, counsel) French Solkbbt. 

Of the same meaning, according to Forste- 
mann, is the name Sunno, of a Frankish prince of 
the 4th cent., and with which may correspond 
Eng. Sun. 

The moon, in Old Norse mdni, figures in 
Northern mythology as the brother of the sim. 
M&ni occurs as a Scandinavian name in the 
Landnamabok, but I do not find any trace of it 
as an ancient name among the Germans. Perhaps 
firom this origin may be English Moon, Moonsy, 
and Mawnet. 

Hiere is a root lun, which Forstemann, finding 
names of a simUat sort, thinks may be fi*om Old 
High Geim. luna, Mid. High Germ, lune^ change 
of the moon. He holds the word to be related 
to the Latin, but not borrowed from it. Luno is 
. mentioned in Ossian as a Scandinavian armoiner, 
and the maker of Fingal's swoid. But the 
name, at least in that form, could hardly be 
Scandinavian. None of the ancient names given 
by F&rstemann correspond with the following. 



THE Q0D8 OF THE NOETH. 139 

•DCPLBVOXMB. LniL 

Eng. LuHi, LooMT. Reach Lvwuv. MoonchMgti. 

DIMLNUTIVJL 

French LuNiu 

OOKPOITimB. 

(Audf prosperity) French Lvkauo. (Hard) French (or 

ItaL t) LUKABDL 

Some other names, such as English Sunbise» 
SiFNSHiNE^ German Monsghein, Germ. Mobgek- 
STERN (morning-star), Abekdstebk (evening- 
8tar)» MoBGENBOT (morning-red), Abenbbot 
(evening-red), &c., may be from a similar origin. 
Abendrot was the name of a spirit of light 
(GrvmmCs Deutsch. Myth.) I do not know what 
to say of such names as Faibweatheb and Fine* 
weatheb^ except that the Germans have similar 
— e.g., SgoblOkwetteb, Bobewetteb^ &c. 

The worship of the goddess Hertha (the per- 
sonified earth) was no doubt of remote antiquity 
among the Germans. She is reckoned among 
the goddesses in the system of Northern 
mythology, but this, I take it, is a relic of a more 
ancient myth. A root jord, which seems to be 
from Old Norse jord, terra, comes before us in 
some ancient names, and we seem, as below, to 
have it both in this and the Saxon form eorthe. 



SIMPLE rOBMS. 

Eng. Eabth, Eabtht, Jukd. Modem Qcnnan Esd. 
French Jobdy, Joubdy, Joubdk 

OOMFOUSBa « 

(ffarif warrior) French Jobdset, JotrBDniaK. 



JonL 
Euih. 



140 THE OODB OF THE NOBTH. 

EXTENDED BOOT. 

Old German JoidoneSy JordannBy 5th cent.* — Jordan' 
Jordan, Lib VU. Eng. Jordan^ Jobtot. Modem German 
JoBDAN. French Jovbdah. 

The name of Einda, one of the wives of 
Odin, is derived by Grimm from Old High 
Germ, rinta^ Ang.-Saxon rind, Eng. " rind,*' and 
explained as signifying the crust of the earth. 
From this source may be our names Rind, 
BiNDLE, Kinder, though rand, shield, is liable 
to intermix. There is one Old German name 
Bindolt, which Forstemann brings in as above. 

The Old High German himily heaven, occurs 
frequently in ancient names, where it is probably 
from a mythological origin. We have the corres- 
ponding Saxon word in our name Heaven, but 
it may be, as Mr. Lower thinks, only a cockney 
form of Evan. Himhel is a Mod. Germ, name 
and HiMELY is a French name. 

From a similar mythological personification 
may be our names Summer and Winter. These 
have been supposed to be derived from persons 
having been bom at these seasons. But it seems 
to me that though a man might naturally enough 
be called Friday because he was bom on a 
Friday ; or Christmas, Noel, or Yule, because he 
came into the world at that festive season ; yet 
to call him Summer because he was bom in all 
summer, seems rather wide. The names at any 
rate are of great antiquity. In Neugart's Codex 

* FOntemann thlnla that aonM of theie naxoM m»f be dadred from the 
MoredilTerJordftii. 



THE GODS OF THE NOBTH. 141 

Diphmaticus Ahmannice there are two brothers 
called respectively Sumar and Wintar, a.d. 858. 
And Winter was the name of one of the com- 
panions of the Anglo-Saxon Hereward. With 
the English Summeb correspond Mod. Germ, and 
Danish Sxjmmeb^ French Summer and Sommaibe. 
The French has also Sommerahd, which seems 
to be a compound. Winter is likewise a Modem 
German, Danish, and French name, but there is 
another word, elsewhere introduced, which is apt 
to mix up with it. 

The Eng. name Troix and the French Troly 
may be from Old Norse trolly a demon. There 
was a Danish family named Trolle, of great im- 
portance in the 15th or 16th cent., who bore in 
their coat of anns a headless troll or demon. The 
name and the arms were assumed in commemora- 
tion of an exploit of their ancestor in decapitating 
a troll-wife, which, sooth to say, he seems to have 
done in anything but a chivalrous manner, while 
she was presenting him with a drinking horn 
(Thoiye's North. Myth.) Trollo was also an Old 
German, and Trolle is a Mod. Germ. name. Our 
name Trail is supposed (Folks of Shields) to be 
a corruption of Troll, though etymologically it 
would go better to another root. 

The following root Forstemann derives from 
Goth, alhs. Old High Germ. afotA,* Anglo-Saxon 

• The/kwaanodoaUIn ttdaand BtmUaroues itronglr uplnrted, like the 
Hod. OeniL ek. 



142 THB QODS OF THE NORTH. 

ecUh, temple. An intermixture with halig, holy» 
is easy — ^indeed the two roots seem to be cognate. 

SIMPLE FOBMB. 

Aik,Bik. ^^^ German Alaoh^ ElachuB, 8th cent. Allic^ Alidh 
Temide. (DomudoAf). Eog. Atjjck, AuiIZ, Eul French Aux, 
Elck£ 

OOlfPOUNDB. 

(Hard) Old German EQdhard, 8th oent.^-Anglo-Saxon 
Alcheard, Cod. Dip. 520.— English Atj.cari) — French 
AucHARD. {Here^ warrior) Old German Alcher, 8th cent, 
— English Alxer — French Alquieb. {Ward, guardian) 

Eng. AUKWABD tt 

According to the tradition of Northern 
mythology the first man and woman were created 
out of two pieces of wood left by the waves upon 
the beach. The man was called Askr, which 
means ** ash/' and we may presume has reference 
to the wood out of which he was formed. Many 
men in after times were called after the Teutonic 
Adam, as, for instance, iEsc, son of Hengist. We 
have Ask, Ash, and various compounds, but I 
am inclined to think that the warlike sense de- 
rived from the spear (which was made of ash- 
wood), is stronger than the mythologicaL 

The first woman was caUed Embla, the meaning 
of which is not very dear. According to Grimm, 
it is derived from Old Norse ami, ambl, assiduous 
labour, a derivation which, however, seems open 
to considerable doubt. The name of the Teutonic 
Eve is stUl found in the Christian names of 
women, as AmeUa^ Emily, and Emmeline, though 

t Thongh thlf Mems s natoral oompoond, j9t we find no uietont nme to 
ooRwpo&d, and It may be on]y a oomiption of Aukjajux 



THB GODS OF THB NORTH. 143 

perhaps the Latin Emilia may intermix. The 
word, however, was by no means confined to the 
names of women, being foimd in the name Amal, 
of one of the Anses, or deified ancestors of the 
Ooth& It was most common among the West 
Gk>ths ; scarce among the Saxona 

flDfPUE rOBlffll 

Old Oerman Amala^ Amelias, Emila, Almo, namoB oi 
men, 5tih cent. Amalifty Ambla, Emilo, names of women, 
8th cent Eng. TTAmfn.T., Emly, Emblow. Mod Oennan 
Emelb, Emxxl. fVench Amail, Emvel. 

PIM m UTlVE H . 

Old German Amalin, Amblinus, men's names, 9th cent. 
Amelina, woman's name, 11th cent — Amelina (woman t) 
Lib, VU, English Emltk, Emblin, Emblem) French 
Ameldt, Emelin. 

patbontmicb. 

Old German Amalong, 5th cent. English Hamuno, 
Hamblhto. Mod Germ. Amelukq. French Ameliko. 
ooMK)nin)6. 

{OoTy spear) Old German Amalgor^ Emelgar, 7th cent. — 
English Almigeb^ Etj.kaekr {Hard, fortis) Old German 
Amalhart, Amblard, 9th cent. — French Amblabd. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Amalhari, Amalher, 5th cent. — Eng. 
Amwi.kb, EMEr.ER (Man J Eng. Amblbman, Ampleman — 
Mod German Hamelmanit. (Ric^ powerful) Old German 
Amalaricus, West Gothic king, 6th cent, Almerich, 10th 
cent — French Elmebigol 

Lastly — ^I do not think that any of the names 
which seem to be derived from the classical 
deities are so in reality. There are indeed Mabs» 
Bacchus, Venus, Cupid, and Pan ; also French 
Mabs, Janus, Minebve, and German Pallas, 
but not •* ut sunt divorum.'' Bacchus is the 



144 THE GODS OF THE NOBTH. 

same as Bace:house, which seems local, like the 
Modem German Backhaus and Backho£ Venus 
is also local, as shown by Mr. Lower — ^ Stephen 
de Venuse, Miles, temp. Edw. Isf Cupid I 
put along with Cubitt and Cupit. Mabs cor- 
responds with an Old German Marso, 7th cent., 
which Forstemann refers to the German tribe of 
the Marsi And the French name Minebve I 
take to be local, from a place called Minerbe, in 
North Italy, though I apprehend that the place 
is named after the goddesa 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

In the dim morning of the history of our race, 
when we first find the German tribes wrestling 
in their rude strength against the power of 
imperial Rome — there stands out — drawn by the 
hand of an immortal historian — one taller by a 
head and shoulders than the rest. Foiling in 
their own science Rome's trained legions— bafliing 
by his singleness of purpose her crafty policy — 
resisting by his honesty her fatal blandishments 
— ^we find in him, the hero, the patriot Arminius, 
the first embodiment of that principle of unity 
which Germany has yet fully to learn. With 
what generous appreciation the great historian 
describes his country's foe — ^with what elegant 
irony he points his description. *" The deliverer 
' of Grermany without doubt he was, and one who 
assailed the Roman state, not like other kings 
and leaders, in its infancy, but in the pride of 
imperial elevation ; in single encounters some- 
times victorious, sometimes defeated, but not 
worsted in the general issue of the war ; he lived 
thirty-seven years ; twelve he was in possession 
of power ; and amongst barbarous nations his 
memory is stUl celebrated in their songs ; his 



' Tadtus, "Annals." Oxford translation. 
8 



146 TUB HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

name is unknown in the annals of the Greeks, 
who only admire their own achievements ; nor 
is he very much celebrated among us Eomans, 
whose habit is to magnify men and feats of old. 
but to rega^ with indifference the examples of 
modem prowess.*' 

And yet how few are thereat the present day 
who know even the name of this first great man 
of oin: race ; another Arminius, the founder of 
one of the isms, is probably of much more exten- 
sive reputation. 

The name of Arminius^ Armin, Elrmii^ or 
Irmin, is not, as some writers have supposed, the 
same as Herman ; this opinion, as Fdrstemann 
observes, is to be considered as now completely 
set asade. It is a simple, not a compound word ; 
its Tixyt is arm, et'rn^ irm — ^the ending in being 
caaly phonetic ; its meaning, as Grimm observes^ 
is altogether obscure. Many names compounded 
from it occur in the genealogies of the kings of 
Kent and Mercia^ as Eormenrio, Eormenred, 
Eomiengild, &c. There are traces of Irmin as 
the name of a deity in the andent 'German 
mythology. 

SDfFUS VOBMB. 

Old German Aiminias, leader of the Ghemski, let cent, 
^s^^ Ermin, Irmina English Arhine, Abkent, Ehmine, Har- 
mony. Mod. 'German IESeihen. French Abhent. ItaliiEUi 
EbIunl 

fGer, upear) Old German Irmmger, Stih eent. — ^English 
ABKmoBB, iBifitebm^B ? {Gcvud, KMh) <M German Ermin- 



Annln. 



ipu>4, 8th cent— JVanck ^.bxikcuud. (Dip, ^rvapt) 914 
Genn. Irminditii Ermenteo, 7th cent. — ^French Armandkau^ 
Abmemti^. (Deo^, people) Old QermoQ Irmincleot, 8th cent. 
— French Abmakdet. 

" The older and the simple form of Irmin,*' 
says Porstemann, " runs in the form Irm, Erme^^ 
Iiim/' To this I place the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ermo, Inna, 8th cent Eng. Harme. Mod. Erm, inn. 
Germ. Hbrm. French Herm^ Hbrmy. 
DDdNurnrBa 

Old German Irmiz% 10th cent. — Pogliab Aitics. — Modem 
Qerman EfuoscH — French 4^^|[^, TTkrmks. Old Genow 
Hprmplo, 9th cent.— rMod. Germ. Ermel — French TTieRMTeT^ 
Old Germ. Ermelenus, 7th cent. — French Hbrmrltkr. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Qofy sj^eai) Old German Ermgar, 5th cent — ^English 
ABJiia^R. (Gi9, hoetage) 014 German Ermgia, 8^ pept — 
Fr^ch BE^4ai& (jSfjdUm, rsjleve) Old Germ. Ermegild-T- 
Eng. Arx€K>ld. (ffadf war) Old Germ, ^mhad, 9th cent. 
— Eng. A KM AT — ^French 4-»met. {Eari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Ermhar, 8th cent — Hermeros, Domesday — Eng. Armour, 
Armory, Harmkr — French Hkrmtkr. (Rtul, ooundl) Old 
Germ. Ermerad, 8th cent — Eng. OsLMfsmoD. 

But £df tlie most part the heroes of the North 
aare legendary ^ther than historical At the 
same time it must not be oyerlooked that legends 
and traditions are the most ancient vehicle of 
histoiy, and that as a general rule we may accept 
the azistfinee of the hero, whatever amount of 
faith we may be disposed to place in the story of 
ids achieyementa 

The most ancient heroic poem in the Teutonic 
language at present discovered is probably the 



148 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

Ang.-Saxon lay which recounts the achievements 
of Beowulf the Scylding. The Scyldings (in 
Ang.-Sax. Scyldingas, in Old Norse Skioldungar) 
were an illustrious race, the descendants of Scyld 
or Skiold, a name which respectively in Anglo- 
Saxon and Old Norse signifies " shield." The 
Danish traditions make their Skiold the son of 
Odin and first king of Denmark, but the Anglo- 
Saxon genealogies make their Scyld an ancestor 
of Woden. Beowulf, as the son of Scyld, was the 
Scylding by pre-eminence, though aU his people 
are called Scyldings. Our names Shield, Skeld- 
ING, Scolding, Skoulding, I have taken to be 
from this origin. As to the name Beowulf if we 
could suppose the right form to be Beahwul^ it 
would be firom Ang.-Sax. heag^ heah, ring, crown, 
bracelet, and would correspond with an Old 
Germ. Baugulf. Or it might be, as Bosworth 
has it, a contraction of Beadowulf. Mr. Kemble, 
however, and following him, Miss Yonge, derive 
it from beo, harvest. 

According to the Ang.-Saxon genealogy the 
father of Scyld was called SceaC which signifies 
sheaf: and whence perhaps the English name 
Sheap. 

The legend, as. related in the Anglo-Saxon 
chronicles is that, as an infant and asleep, he was 
brought by the waves in a small boat, with a sheaf 
of com at his head, to an island of Germany called 
Scani or Skandza. The inhabitants, struck by 
the apparently miraculous nature of the circum- 



THE HEROES OF THE NOBTH. 149 

stances, adopted him, gave him the name of Scef, 
and eventually making him their king, he reigned 
in the town which ** was then called Slaswic, but 
now Haithebi'^ — ^the locality mafking the legend 
as probably an Angle one. Very poetically in 
the poem of Beowulf (though the legend is by 
mistake transferred to his son Scyld), he is repre- 
sented, at the close of his long and prosperous 
reign, as placed by his own last command in a 
ship, surrounded by the arms and ornaments of a 
king, and again committed to the waves which 
had laid him as an in&nt on the shore. The 
story is so poetical, both in sentiment and expres- 
sion, that I may be excused in quoting a part of 
it from the translation of Mr. Thorpe, again re- 
marking that Scef, and not Scyld, should have 
been the hero. 

" Scyld then departed 
at his fisited time, 
the much strenous, to go 
into the Lord's keeping. 
They him then bore away 
To the sea-shore, 
his dear companions, 
as he had himself enjoined. 
* « • • 

There at the hithe stood 
the ring-prowed ship 
icy and eager to depart^ 
the prince's vehicle. 
lliey kid then 
the beloTed chie^ 
the dispenser of rings^ 



IflO TH£ HEBOBS 09 THB NORTH. 

ii» jpracit one by the mast ; 

th^re were treasores many 

from far ways 

eraameutB broagbt 

X have Aot heard of a oonelier 

k^ adome4 

With w^-weaponn 

%Dd martial weeds, 
• * • • 

Men oanxiot 
say ftMf 8o«th, 
pouneillQBa m hall 
heroes un4er heaven, 
who that lading re^ceived.** 

Does not this warrior's fun0raJ, ixi tlie oldest 
h^TQm poeiQ of our laaguagp. renuQ(i us somewhat 
in its toue pf Tennyson's ode on the funeral of 
Wellington ? 

Among the heroiq romance pf Germany the 
most notable is the Nibdungm^U^d, or lay of the 
Nibelungs. The name Nibelung is a patronymic 
or a diminutive of the name Nibel, which the 
German writers refer to Old High German nibidf 
Modem German nebelf a jnist. Mono, in his 
Heldensage, hm with gi:^ labour collected 
examples of this name from all parts of Germany, 
as well as the countnes into which the Germans 
have imported it. From the following list of 
Lombard names, it will be seen thjat he makes 
the name Napoleon identic^Jt 

Neapoleo de TJrainiB^ 190^ — ^l^apolio fipinula, naval 
captain of the GibeUines at Oenea^ 1889— STevolonaa, a oon- 



ims H£B(»BB 09* ins NOKSH. ISl 

feasor at Vsmm, IddO^Neapolion^ liead oTthe Gibettmee «ib 
Borne under Fred. 2nd — Napolione Yisconte di Camplglii^ 
1199, &c 

He fiirther remarks, though in language some- 
what wanting in clearness '' The name seems to 
have come to the Lombards through two causes. 
When we find the Napoleons in alliance with the 
Gibellines (more evidenoes thereof would be desir* 
able), the question arises whether or not this is 
accidental Napoleon is the older name^ and 
more nearly expresses the correct form. I cannot 
account for its transmission to Italy except 
through the Frankirfi conquest of Lombardy.t 
But as yet I have not been able to meet with any 
ancient examples.'^ 

I do not find the form Nibdui^^ except in the 
name Nefflen quoted by Mr. Bowditch, and 
whidi looks like an English name, though there 
are several examples of the simple form Nibel as 
below. 

SIMPLE FOBIIS. 

Old 'Germ. Nivalus, ^Nevelo, Novol, 6th cent. English^^N'^ 
Ihsuyt, Krv^OLEY, VEynxB, Novell, No&le 9 -Mod. ^Unli. 
KmasM, NiBSL. Fzencli Nibelle, NiVBLfisiu, Noysl. 

The Qerman hero-book tefers to a king 
Orendel or ikrentel, whom it describes as the 
greatest of all h*oes, and whose wife was ithe 
most beautiful among women. In the story of 
his shipwreck and subsequent adventures Ghrimm 
traoes a dose resemblance to the story of U^y^ses. 

-- - ■ f ♦ • • - ■». — • r ' I • -1 

* Older iluui Ne»poleon I suppoae is all that he 



152 THE HSBOES OF THE NOBTH. 

The origin of the name appears to be Ang.-Sax. 
earendd, a beam of light, a star. An Ang.-Sax. 
hymn to the Virgin Mary in the Cod. Ex., seems 
to apostrophize her under this title. 

<< Eala Earendel, engla beorhtast" 
O star, brightest of angebi ! 

The names Aurendil, Orendil, Orentil, occur 
Star, frequently in the 8th and subsequent centuries ; 
among others was a coimt of Bavaria. In the 
old metrical romauce of Sir Bevis of Hamptonn, 
his " good steed" is called by the name of Arundel, 
which has been presumed, though I think with- 
out sufficient reason, to be a corruption of 
hirondeUe, a swallow. Abondel is not uncom- 
mon as a French name ; there are five persons so 
called in the directory of Paris. In Holinshed's 
copy of the Roll of Battle Abbey is an Arundel, 
but it is not in all the othera The English name 
Abundel may be in all, or in some cases, from 
the place. 

Of Weland, the wonderfiil smith, the Vulcan 
of Northern mythology, many traces are to be 
found in this country. There is a place in Berks, 
called Wayland's Smithy, which retains its name 
firom Ang.-Sax. times. And our names Weland 
and Wayland are, I take it, derived from him. 
The etymology of the name I have elsewhere 
referred to. 

The fether of Weland is called in Ang.-Saxon 
Wada^ in Old Norse Vadi, in Old High German 
Wato. He was the son of the celebrated king 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 153 

Vilkinr or Wilkin, by a mer-wife, and was a hero 
of gigantic size. Some traces of him are to be 
found in our early English poets ; Chaucer cele- 
brates Wade's boat called Guingelot. In the 
Sc6p or Bard's Tale we are told that " Wada 
ruled over the Helsings/' a Scandinavian tribe of 
whose name memorials are to be found in Hel- 
singor (now Elsinore), Helsingfors, in Finland, 
and perhaps in one place in England, Helsington 
in Cumberland. As to the meaning of his name, 
Grimm says '' I think that it is derived from his 
having, like another Christopher, with his son 
upon his shoulders, waded over the nine-ell-deep 
Groenasund, between Seeland, Falster, and Moen.* 
Our names Wade, Wadd, Watt, &c., elsewhere 
introduced, I have hence derived. 

The brother of Weland was called in Anglo- 
Saxon Aegel, in Old Norse EgiL As Weland 
was celebrated as a smith, so was his brother as 
an archer, and precisely the same legend is related 
of him as of the Swiss TelL Having been com- 
manded by the king Nidung to shoot an apple 
off the head of his son, and having taken two 
arrows from his quiver, the king demanded his 
reason for so doing, and received the same bold 
reply that was given to the tyrant Gessler. The 
same myth re-appears elsewhere with slight 
variations and different heroes ; whether the 
legend of Aegel is the foundation of all the others, 
or whether it is to be traced back to a stiU more 
ancient source, we cannot say. The following 

T 



154 THE HEBOB8 OF THE NORTH. 

group of names are to be referred to this ori^n, 
but the meaning of the word is obscura The 
form ail for agil seems» as Forstemann observes^ 
to be more particularly Saxon. 

aiMFUE lOSMB. 

A«ii, AIL Old Qerman Agila (king of the West Goths, 6th oentX 
Aigil, I^gil, AilOy Aila Eng. Eaglb, Eqlst, Atle, Alk, 
Atlet, OnjEY. Mod. GeriiL Eoel^ Etu Fren. AiguilliS, 
EoLE, EoLT, Ayel, Aillt. 

DnnKunvK 

Old Oerm. Agilin, Aglin, Ailin, 7th cent.-— Eng. AoLUTy 
' Eaolino, Atuno — French Egaloh. 

ooiCFOtrNDei 

(B«ri, bright) Old Oerman Agilbert, 7th cent — ^Angjlo- 
Saxon Aegelbeorht — French Ajalbebt. (Ger, spear) Old 
Oerm. EigUger, Ailger, 8th cent — Eng. Ailgeb. (Hard J 
Old Oerman Agilard, Ailard, 7th cent. — English Atlabo — 
French Aillabd. (ffcm, warrior) Old Germ Agelhar, 8th 
cent — ^Eng. Aguilab.* (Man) Old Germ. Aigliman, 6th 
cent — Eng. Ajllkak, Alexav. (Jfor, famous) Old German 
Agilmar, Ailemar, 8th cent^Eng. Atlmeb. {Ra/t, counsel) 
Old German Agilrat, Eilrat, 8th cent. — French Ajllebet. 
(Ward, guardian) Old German Agilward, Ailward, 8th cent. 
— Eng. Atlwabd. (Wine, friend) Old German Agilwin^ 
Eilewin, 8th cent — Ang.-Sax. Aegelwine— Eng. Atlwdt. 

The son of Weland was called in Ang.^Saxon 
Wudga, in Old Norse Vidga^ in Old High Germ. 
Wittich, and in an tmpublished Low Germ, poem 
referred to by Grimm, Wedege. The name, 
according to Grimm, signifies silvicola, being a 
diminutive fix>m the root wudu^ witu^ vidr, wood. 
Corresponding English names are Wedge, Vetch, 
WnrncH, Whittook. 

• TUa name 1>, I beUera^ ImmedUtoly datlTvd from Sp«liL 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 155 

Other heroes of the Nibeltingen Leid were 
Gunter or Gunther, Hagan, Hildebrand, and 
Hawart. The German Gunter corresponds with 
the Old Norse Gunner of the Volsungasaga ; the 
etymon is gvnn, gund, war, and hence our names 
Gunter, Gunther, Gunner, &c., mtroduced in 
another place. Hagan, according to Lachmann 
(Kritik der sage von den NibelungenJ, is ** more 
than heroic." The name comes in a group else- 
where noticed ; according to Grimm its meaning 
is spinoms^ thorny. Hawart is described as a 
king of Denmark, and I think that our corres- 
ponding names (Haward, Howard, &a) are 
more particularly of Scandinavian origin. Never- 
theless, according to Mone, there are many in- 
stances of the name Haward or Hawart in 
Southern Germany during the 12th and two 
following centuries. 

It is to be remarked that in the poetic legends 
of various coimtries we frequently find something 
uncommon or supernatural attaching to the birth 
or to the rearing of the hero. Sometimes he is 
the ofispring of a mortal and a divinity ; some- 
times of a mortal and one of the nobler animals, 
as the bear or the wolf ; more frequently he is 
only reared or suckled by one or other of these 
animals. Grimm has remarked (Deutsch. Myth.) 
that something of the heroic character frequently 
attaches to one not bom in the natural manner, but 
cut untimely from his mother's womb. Such, among 
many other instances, was the Scottish Macduff* 



156 THE HEBOES OF THE NORTH. 

Matheth — ^I bear a channed life, which must not yield 

To oae of woman bom — 
Macduff— Despair thy charm ; 

And let the angel whom thou still hast served 

Tell thee— MacdniOr was from his mother's womb 

Untimely ripped — 
Macbeth — ^Accursed be the tongue that teOs me so. 

. . . Ill not fight with thee. 

The title of ungehomey " unborn/" is given to 
some of the heroes of German romance, and the 
corresponding one of dborni occurs in the Scan- 
dinavian Eddas. From this latter I before took 
to be our name Oborn ; it might, however, be 
properly Hobom, from the root hoh, hoCy celsus. 

It is also to be noted that the wearing of the 
hair long, or curled, or fastened up in a peculiar 
manner, was held among the ancient Germans as 
a badge of the hero. To this I have alluded in 
another chapter. 

It is to be remarked that among the Anglo- 
Saxons and other Teutonic races there was a sort 
of nobility arising from connection with a distin- 
guished ancestor. The whole of the descendants 
of such a man frequently took his name, with the 
addition of ingr, giving the meaning of" descendant 
o£" not as their own individual name, but as a 
family or clan name. Thus as well as being a 
simple patronymic, in the manner referred to at 
p. 31, ing is often applied as the badge of a family 
or tribe. Thus from the name of Uffa, king of 
East Anglia, his posterity were called Uffings 
(Uffingas.) In the life of St. Guthlac mention is 
made of a Mercian nobleman who is said to have 



THE HEROEd OF THE NORTH. 157 

been '* of the oldest race, and the noblest that 
was named Iclingas/^ In the genealogy of the 
Mercian kings there is an Icil, who most probably 
was the foimder of the Iclinga The names 
Hick, Higkukg, &c., elsewhere introduced, I 
have referred to this origin. 

The Billings were a powerfiil and celebrated 
family in North Germany during the 10th and 
11th centTuies, and there is some trace of them 
a himdred years further back (Grimm's Deutsch. 
Myth.) We seem to have a still earlier trace of 
them in the Scop or Bard's song, where we are 
told that " BiUing ruled the Wems" (the Verini), 
a people on the Elbe. There was also a noble 
family named Bille in Denmark The Billings 
seem, from the names of places, as weU as from 
the names of families, to have made considerable 
settlements in England. The etymology is else- 
where referred to. 

The Harlings (Herelingas) are another people 
mentioned in the Scop or Bard's song. Their 
locality was on the banks of the Bhine. There 
is a castle of Alsatia called Brisach, from which 
all the adjacent country is called Brisach-gowe, 
which is reported to have been anciently the 
fortress of those who were called Harlimgi 
(W. Grimm's Held. Sag.) We have the names 
Hi^KUNG, Harle, referred to in next chapter. 

Sometimes irig has the still wider sense of 
nationality. Thus from Skiold the son of Odin, 
and first Tfi^g of Denmark according to Danish 



158 THE HBROES OF THE NORTH. 

tradition, the Danes were called Skioldungar 
(Skioldings). 

The Hokings are a people mentioned in the 
Sodp or Bard's song — ** Unsef ruled the Hokinga'' 
These seem to have been a Frisian people, and to 
have derived their name from a Hoce mentioned 
in the poem of Beowulf. Mr. Kemble observes 
(ArchcBological Journal J that Hoce is " a reaUy 
mythical personage, probably the ?ieros eponymus 
of the Frisian tribe, the founder of the Hokings, 
and a progenitor of the imperial race of Gharle- 
magna"' The etymology and the names we have 
corresponding are referred to in another place. 

It would seem that a surname acquired by 
some distinguished man was ofton conferred on 
others as a baptismal name, probably on no other 
ground than that of hero worship. Thus Magnus, 
king of Norway, acquired the name of Barfot 
(bare-foot), on account of having adopted the kilt 
when in Scotland. And Barfot ever since has 
been a common name in the Scandinavian coun- 
tries. Babefoot is also an English name. 
Probably also on the same principle it is that we 
have the name of Ibonsidk There was a cele- 
brated Norwegian pirate named Olver, who, set- 
ting his face against the then fisiahionable amuse- 
ment of tossing children on spears, was christened 
by his companions, to show their sense of his odd 
scruples, Bamakarl or Bamakal, '' babies' old 
man.'' Hence possibly may be our name 
Babnacle. 



THE HEBOES OF THE NOBTH. 159 

There is yet another name which I have re>- 
fierved as a worthy oonclusion to this chapter. 
Very &mous in early English romance was the 
Danish hero Havelok^ of whom some traces are 
still to be found in the local traditions of lincoln^ 
shira There is a street in Grimsby called Have* 
lock Street ; and there was, according to the 
** History of Lincolnshire,^ a stone, said to have 
been brought by the Danes out of their own 
country, and known as " Haveloc's stone," which 
used to form a land-mark between Grimsby and 
the parish of Wello-v?. That the Danes would 
take the trouble of biingrng a stone out of their 
own country is not very probable — but it is 
possible. The stone in question may have been 
a bauta or memorial stone ; and some Northman, 
from a motive of superstition or pious friendship, 
might wish to consecrate the shores of his new 
home with the memorial of a revered ancestor. 

Havelok was not a common Danish, as it is 
not a common English name. Its proper Scan- 
dinavian form I should assume to be Hafleik, 
from haf, the sea, and leik, sport. War being the 
game of heroes, the termination hik or lac is 
frequently coupled with a prefix of that meaning. 
But there was another pastime in which the 
Northmen pre-eminently rejoiced. To them the 
sea was " a delight," and there were bold Vikings 
who could make the boast that they had ** never 
slept under the shelter of a roof, or drained the 
horn at a cottage fire." Thus then the name 



160 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

Havelok, " sea-sport," would be a name than 
which we could find no more appropriate for one 
of the wild sea rovers. 

And among the many brave men raised up in 
our time of great need, let us acknowledge with 
thankfulness and pride the daimtless valour of the 
old Danish hero, tempered by a christian spirit, 
in our own gallant Havblock. 



CHAPTER XIIL 



THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABMa 

In an age when war was — ^if not the " whole 
duty/' at least the main business of man — ^names 
taken from the pastime in which he delighted, 
and the weapons in which he trusted, were aa 
natural as they were common. And, directly or 
indirectly — ^from words signifying ^war, battle, 
death, slaughter, victory — ^from words signifying 
strength, valour, and fierceness — ^from words 
signifying arms and warlike implements — or from 
words signifying to wound, to slay, to strike, to 
crush — there are probably as many names from 
this source as from all other sources put together. 

Of such ungentle origin were the names of 
women as weU as men. Indeed two of the prin- 
cipal words signifying war, hild, and gund or 
ffunn, are more especially common in the names 
of women, and sometimes, as in the Norse Gun- 
hilda, and the Old German Hildigunda, these two 
words are joined together. They are stiU retained 
in some female christian names, as in the Danish 
HiUe and Gunnila ; in our Matilde, French 
Mathilde ; and in the French and ItaL Clothilde. 
The reason for the particular use of these two 
woords in the names of women is to be found in 
Northern mythology, where Hild and Gunnare 

u 



162 THB WABRIOB AKD HIS ASMS. 

the names of two of the Yalkyrjur, maidens 
appointed by Odin to select the victims in battle, 
and also to wait upon the heroes in Valhalla. 

Our name Hill has been generally supposed 
to be local, from residence on or near a hilL But 
I think it will be clear, from the place which it 
takes in the following group, that it is, at least in 
some cases, from hild, battle, which, even in 
ancient names, appears often as htU, The Frankish 
form child was conmion in the names of the 
Merovingian period, and we have a few in which 
it occurs, but it is rather singularly wanting in 
the names of France. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Hildo, Hilt, Hillo, Ohildi, Chillo, lHh cent;. 
•^„, Eng. Hii/r, HnJi, Hilly, Child, Chill, Chilly. Modem 
Qerman Hild, Hilt, Hill. 

PATBONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Hilding, 8th cent — English Hildino. Eng. 
Hillsok. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ber, per, bear) Old German Hiltiper — English HniHKB — 
French Hilbeb. {Bert, bright) Old German Hildebert, 6th 
cent — Mod Germ. Hilbebt — French Hilpebt. (Brandy 
sword) Old Germ. Hildebrand, 7th cent. — Eng. Hildebrakd 
— ^Mod. Germ. Hildebrand — French Hildebrand. (Ger, 
spear) Old German Hildigar, 6 th cent — ^English Hiloers — 
Modem German Hilger — French Hilger. (Hard J Old 
Germ. Heldiard, 8th cent — English Hildyard, Hiluard. 
(Here, warrior) Old Germ. Hildier, 8th cent — Eng. Hilder, 
HiLLYER, Hillary, Childers — ^Modern German Hiller — 
French Hiller, Hilairb. (Bam, ran, rayen) Old German 
Childerannus — English Children.* (Man) Old German 

* TIm fenule omim C8hfldcraii> (ntis oompanlon) mighl alio pat In % claim. 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS AHMS. 163 

Hildemaiiy 6ih cent. — Childman, ffund, Rdlh — Eng. Hnir 
icAN, Illxah, Ohillkai^ — Mod. Qerman Hiltmank, Hill- 
XAmr — French Chilmak. {Mar^ illtistiious) Old German 
Hildimar, 6th cent. — Eng. Hilmeb, Hellmorb — Mod. QeruL 
HiLLMBB, Helxab. {Mod, courage) Old Qerman Hildimod, 
8th cent — Eng. Chillmaid % {Rod, counsel) Old Qerman 
Hildirad, 8th cent — ^Eng. Hildbeth — French Hillaibet. 
{Eice^ powerful) Old German Hilderic, Goth, king, 4th cent 

— ^Eng. HiLBIDOE. 

LOCAL NAME. 

(Drup, trup, corruption of thorp, a village) TCngliaTi 
HiLLDBUP — ^Mod. Germ. Hii/tbup. 

As a termination hild was extremely common, 
particularly among the Franks. But as in 
modem names it would change into hiU, it be- 
comes confounded with the diminutive ending el 
or il. 

From the Ang.-Sax. gtUh, Old High Qerman 
gund, gunt, Old Norse gunn, are the following : — 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old (German Gundo, Gonto, Cund, 9th cent English q^^ 

GUKDEY, GuNN, CoNDY, CUNDY, CoUKD, OoUNTY, CoUWT 1 Qunn. 

Modem German Kunde, Kunte, Kunth. French Gonde, '^^• 

GOW, GOKT^ OOETL 

DnnNunvEa. 
Old Germ. Gundicho, 8th cent — Eng. Gundick — ^Mod. 
Germ. Kuntke. Old C^enn. Gundila, Cundilo^ tth cent — 
English GuNVELLy Cundell — Mod. Germ. Guin>EL — French 
Gondal, €k>in)0L0, Gonelle. Old German Gunzo, Gonzo, 
OunzOy Conzo^ 7th cent — English Guns, Countze — Modem 
German GuNZ, Kunz — French GtONSse, KunzjI Old Germ. 
Gunzila^ 8th cent. — ^Eng. Consell, Oounsell — Mod. Germ. 
GiJNZEL^ KiTNSEL — French Kuntzl^ CoNSEni — Span. Gk)N- 
ZALE& Old Germ. Guntiscus, 7th cent — Eng. Gondish. 

PATBONYMICS. 

Eng. GuNNnra^ Gunbon. 



164 ma WABBioit akd his abms. 

(Bald, fortia) Old German Gondobald, Bmgandiaa king, 
5tli cent, Gumfaaldy 9th oent — Enf^uh Gumboil — Franoli 
QoMBAULT. (Hard J Old Gennan Gundiuunl, 8th oent^-^ 
XVencih Gondhabd, Gonta&d. {Rm^, varrior) Old Gerraaa 
Ghmther, Gonthar, Ountaher, Otmdher, 8th oent. — Old Noim 
Guzmitr — ^Aiig.-Saz. Gather^'— -Engliah Gunthxb, Qusteb, 
QvjsnsEBL, OouKTEB, OoNDSB — Mod. Germ. GiJBTHE% Koktbe 
—French Gonthieb, Gontikr, Gonter, Oontous. (Zoo, 
plftj) Anglo-Saxon Guthlao — ^Eng. Goodlake, Goodluck.* 
(Ifand, fumi, daring) Old German Gundinand, 5th cent. — 
French Contikakt. (Bam, ran, raven) Old German Gund- 
ram, Oondramnus, 6th cent — Eng. Cokdbok. {Rai^ oonnael) 
Old German Gundrat, 8th cent — French Gondbbt. {Rioe^ 
powerful) Gundericus, Gothic chie^ 3rd cent., Vandal king, 
0th cent, Gunderih, 8th cent — English Gundet, Gxttheoi^ 
GuKinsRT, GoxTDRY. {WiM, Mend) Old Germ. Gondoin, 7th 
cent — French GoNDOum. {Steiwn, stone) Old Norse Gnn- 
steinn — English Gunston. {Salv, anointed 9) Old German 
Gundisalvus, Gonsalvus, 9th cent — Span. GoHSALva 

A third word signifying war is Ang.-Sax. and 
Old High German wig. Old Norse vig, which, 
losing the guttural, becomes in many cases wi^ 
both as a termination, and also in the middle of 
a word. In other cases it assumes a prefix of g 
or c, as referred to at p. 46. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old German Wigo, Wioo, Wihho, 9th cent* Wift 

wig; Wick, g^^ogy ^ Oerdio, king of the West Saxona Wiga^ 

War. Domeiday Torks. English Wioo, WiofiB, WiOK, WiOKST) 

VioK, Quick, Wyb, Qut. Modem German Wick, Wioh, 

WmH. French Wigt, Vioii, Vioq, Viey, Guiohe, Ouibi^ 

QuBCK, Qura 

DIBCIKCTiyEa. 

Old German Wigilo, 8th cent — Eng. Wious, Quigglb^ 

• High* atoo b« fkom anothw root, p. ua 



THB WAXBlOn AND HIS AKBfS. 165 

QmcKLT, WmoaBLO^-Modem Gennan Wbok^ Wm&vL, 
WiooxLi — French Vkila, Vicwu Old G^enxL Wikelin — 
Mod. Germ. Wbqklsin — French Yiolik. 

PATBONYXIGS. 

Old German Wiking, 8th cent — Eng. Wickiko. Eng. 

WlQSON, WiCKflON. 

OOMFOUKDO. 

(Soldi bold) Old Germ. Wigibald, Wibald, Guibald, 8ih 
oent-^'French GuibaIiD, Guibaud. (£&H, bright) Old Germ* 
Wigbert, Wibert, Guibert — English Vibebt — ^Mod. Germ. 
GuiBKKT — French Yibebt, Guibert. {Burg, protection) 
Old Germ. Wigburg, Uth cent— Wiburch, Lib. Fit^— Eng. 
WTUaOt WiBBOW. (Hard J Old Germ. Wighard, Wioard, 
WiBTt, Vichard, Guiard, 7th cent — XJigheard, Lib. Ftt.— 
Eng. Wyabi>— Mod. Germ, Wiggebt, WicotABDT — French 

WlOABT, WlABT, ViGART, ViOHABD, VlABD, GuiOHABD, 

GuiABix {Herey heriy warrior) Old Germ. Wigheri, Wiger> 
Wiocar, Wiher, 8th cent — IJigheri, Lib. VU. — Old None 
Yikar^BngliBh Wigkyb^ Witoheb, Yiqob, YiOiAY, Wno; 
GWTEB, QnxBB— Mod. German WEiOEBy WsiflBB^Frenoh 
YioiBB, YzGBBiB» YiCAiBB. {Hody WBT, or MK^, prcepcri^) 
Old Germ. Wicod, Wihad, Guiohai, 8th cent. — Ang.-Saxon 
-V^lgod— Eng. WiGGBTT, WioHBTT, Wyatt — French Wioor, 
YiBfix, GuioHOT, Gmm. {Hdm, helmet) Old German 
Wighdm, 8th cent.— XJi^iehn, Xtft. Fid.— English Whioak. 
(Bam, raven) Old German Wichraban, Wigram» 8th cent 
—English WiGEAX, (Man) Old Gennan Wigman, 8th 
cent— Eng. WianAH^ Wickman, Wyxan — ^Modern Gennan 
WioHXAVy WxBMAXN. (MoT, fiunons) Old Germ. Wigman 
Wimar, 7th cent.— TJicmer, Wimar, Lib. Vii — Sngliah 
WiGMOBB, Wymeb— Mod. Germ. Wdeueb — French Ydcab. 
(RcO, connael) Old German Wigarat^ Sih cent— French 
ViCHBRAT, QuiOKBBAT^ QuiBBOT* (Bioe, powerful) Old 
Germ. Wiguich, 7th cent— Eng. Yigkbidgk— Mod. Germ. 
Wbobbxch. (Waldj power) Old Germ. Wigold, 11th cent 
Modem GenB« Wbyooh)— French Yiaum. 



166 THE WABRIOB AND HIS ARMS. 

A fourth word signifying war is Goth, badu, 
Ang.-Sax. beado. I apprehend that the French 
names Badou, Battu, Pattu, &c., contain simply 
the Gothic word There are no such ancient 
forms in Forstemann's list, but it will be seen 
that they do occur in the Liber Vitas. 

SIMPLE FORMa 

Old German Bado, Batto, Patto, Bedo, Beddo, Betto, 
BAd, Bed. Beto, Betho, Peto, Petto, 6th oent. Saxon Bieda, A.D. 601, 
^•'- Peada. Betti {Beds'M Eoa Hist)— Bada^ Badu, Bettu, Lib. 
ViL — English Bad, Batt, Batty, Bath, Batho, Paddy, 
Patte, Pattie, Bkde, Bed, Beddoe, Beath, Beatty, Betty, 
Peedb^ Peat, Peatie, Pett, Peto, Petty. Mod. German 
Bade, Bath, Beede, Bethe, Bette, Pathe, Pitrel French 
Bady, Badou, Batt^, Battu, Patte, Pat^, Patay, Paty, 
Pattu, Pathe, Pathi, Bed^, Bedeau, Bedu, Bette, Bbtou, 
BnsD. 

DIMIMUTlVJftS. 

Old Germ. Badncho, Patncho, Bettik% 8th cent — Ang.- 
Sax. Beadeca — Baduca, Lib. VU. — ^Eng. Badogk, BmDiCB:, 
Paddiok, PfermcK, Pn)DucK, Phtock — Modem German 
Badioke, Bettaok, Bethke, Pattke, Pethks — ^French 
Patoche, Pettez. Old Germ. Bettikin, 10th cent. — Eng. 
Badkin, Batkin, Bbtkht. Old German Baduila, Patilo, 
Bedilo, Betilo, Pettilo, Pettili, 6th cant. — ^Eng. Baddeley, 
Batley, Battle, Beadle, Beetle, Bettbll, Bethsll, 
Beatley, Betteley, Padley, Paddle, Pattle, Patullo 
Pkdley, Petley — Mod German Padel, Pjltei^ Pedel — 
French Badel, Batel, Bataille, Bedel, Betille^ Betail, 
Pataille, Petel. 

PATBONYMIOa 

Eng. Batting, Beddikg — ^French Bedeng. 

00MF0UND& 

{HaH^ warrior) Old Germ. Bathari, 6th cent — ^English 
Baddeb, Bather, Beater, Pedder, Pktheb, Petteb — ^Mod. 
German Badeb, Bideb, Pbtteb — French Badeb, Badieb, 



THE WABRIOE AND HIS ARMS. 167 

BsDiEBy Bbthery, Padeb, Pathisr, Pbttisb. (Hiyrd) 
Beadheard, lAb, Vii. — English Beddabd — French Batabd^ 
Bedabd, Patabd, Petabd. (Mar, famous) Eng. Padmobb, 
Patmorb — French Bedkab. (Man) Badumon, Betmon, 
lAb, VU. — English Bapman, Bbadmav, Padmak, PAmcAir. 
Dutch Bbthman. (Biee, rich, powerful) Old Germ. Baturichy 
Paturich, Paturih, Betterich, 6th cent. — English Bethbay. 

BETTEBIDOEy BiTHBEY, PaTBIBOE, PaTBY, PeTBICBI, PeTBIB 

— ^French Bathrey, Pbtby, Patby. (Wine, Mend) Old 
Germ. Bettwin^ 7th cent. — French Bedouin. ( Wald, power) 
French Batault, Bidault, Pidaui/f. (Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. 
Badul^ 8th cent— English Biddulph. (Hild, war) Old 
Germ. Baduhilt^ wife of Chlodwig IL, 7th cent. — French 
'' Bathilde, Mme., Superieu/re de la maiaan dea dames de 
St. ClotUde** — Christian or surname ? 

A fifth root signifying war is Goth, hath, Old 
High Germ, had, Ang.-Sax. heatho, Old Frankish 
chad. There is also a form cat, as found in the 
Catumer and Catualda of Tacitus, which Grimm 
holds to be the most ancient form of this root. 
And in the Celtic cad or cath, war, we trace a 
corresponding form of the Aryan tongue — ^the 
Old Celtic name Cathmor being, as Gluck ob- 
serves, the precise equivalent of the Old German 
Catumer, and the more recent Hadamar, and the 
Old Celt. Caturix of the Old German Hadurich. 
Grimm connects the name of the god Hoedhr in 
Northern mythology with the above root signify- 
ing war, as a Scandinavian form, 

simple FORMa 

Old Germ. Hatto,* Haddo, Hatho, Chado, Hed, Heddi, =^ ^*» 
HettL Names of Anglo-Saxons, Had or Hath, Dux, in a ^„ 

* The legend of the haid-hearted Mshop of tUa name who wm deroorad bj 
nteliirall known. 



168 THJS WABBIOR AND HIS AXMA. 

ekarter of Atiielrtaa ; Hedda^ HmUo, or OktA, Buiiop of 
WeaMZ, A.D, 676.— HAd% LA. Ftt— Eng. Hatv, Haimmt, 
Hajd>t, Hbatb, Bmad, Hiddt, Hodi> f Hm, Chad^ Caa^ 
Oattit, Oatio, CATa — ^Mod German HAtT, BEbddb^ EIaA 
Frendi HAntf, Hxdou, Oat, Oatau/CattT| Oatu. 

DiMnnmyiBSb 
Old German OhadiohtiB, 7th cent — En^iah Haddock,* 
Hettich, Ohaddock, Shaddock! — ^Mod. Qetm. Hidickx. 
Old German Heddilo, Hetilo, Hathli, Oatla-— Eng. Hadlow, 
Hadlet, Hatlet, Hedlet, Hetlet, Hoadly, Catilb, 
Cattlet — Mod. German Hidel — Frencli Hadol, Catai^ 
Oatala. Old Germ. Hadalin, Ohadalenua, 7th cent. — Eng- 
Cattliv — Frendi Hedeuk, Catillok, OaATEUir f 

PATBONTMIOa 

Old German Hettinc, 10th oent. — Eng. HEADuro — ^Mod. 
Qtana. Hadakk — French Hadinoue. 
ootfPoiryDa. 

(BaU, bold) (M German Hadnbald, 8th oent— Eaglidh 
Shadboi/t— French Ohabault f (BeadOf war) Old Gennan 
Ohadbedq, Ghabedo, 7th cent — Eng. Ohabot — Fr. Ohabot. 
(Bern, bear) Old German Hadabem, 9th cent. — Eng. Oaad- 
BOBH. (Oia, hostage) Old Germ. Hadegia, 9th cent. — Eng. 
HiDKTHa. C If an J 'Ekkg. Ohadkak. (Mer, fitmons) OatumeTy 
Prince of the Oatti^ Ist oent, Hadamar, 8th cent— English 
OATOMOfiByt Oatxub, Hattbmobe — French HAPiifABr (Jfo^ 
bold) Eng. Hadnutt — French OHADnnET. (Bat, oonnael) 
Old German Hadarat^ 8th oent — ^Eogliah Hadbot — French 
Hadbot. {Biee^ powerful) Old Germ. Hadaricna, 8th oent 
— ^English EEatbick, B^eadrick, Shadrake (apparently not 
Jewish) — ^Mod Germ. EEsdbich — French OHADiBAa (^iff, 
wi, war) Old Germ. Hathuwic^ Hathawi, Hjithwi, Hadawi«— 

* The ouloiii uune Hxaoaghb g^oiad bj Mr. Low«r is no dooM » •Ugkfc 
•ccmplloii of HMdlok. 

t ICiiT iM dMivtd dtawO^r from OrtBura In Baika» Imfc t^ 
li duply thai of* man. ItvasoilgtDAUjrGatnifiro'igaiiimo. "Oatmanli boudMy ** 
llMliioQBmdfliiilastiiofwbidihaicnndaUtobodrQn^bni tho naao of tho 



THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABtfS. 169 

Eng. Hathaway, Hathwat, Hadawat, Chadwiok, Ohata- 
WAT. (Wold, power) Old Qerman Catualda, TacUua — ItaL 
Gataldl {Wine, Mend) Old Germ. Hadawin, Ghaduin, 7th 
oent — Eng. Hadwen, Ghadwin — Fr. HxDauiN. {Wal<ih, 
stranger) Soeadwala^ father of Beowulf Flor. War., Gad- 
whDus king of Wessex — Eng. Gadwell^ Ghatwell. 

The root Jiaz Forstemann takes to be another 
form of fiad or ficUh, while Graff proposes haz, 
hatred, in the sense, perhaps^ of hostility. So 
that in any case the names will come under this 
head. There is also a root az, but the separation, 
even in the ancient names, seems to me so doubt- 
ful that I have included them together. 

SIMPLE rOBMB. 

Old Qerman Hazo, Azo, Azzo, 8th cent, English Haze. Bu. 
Mod. Qerrn. Hetz. French Aze, ^^' 

DIMINUTlVEa 

Old Qerman Hezilo, Azzilo, 8th cent — English Haseu^ 
Hezei. — ^Mod. Qerman Hbtzbl — ^French Azillb. French 



PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Hayzen. French Azan. 

COMPOUNDa 

{BeH, fionons) French Azibert. (Hard) Eng. Hazabd 
— ^Bbrench Hazabd, Azabd. (Man J Old (xerm. Hacaman, 
Azaman, 10th cent — EngHsh EL^tshak — ^French Azimon 
(J/ior, fiunons) French Az^mab. 

There is a root san, for which Forstemann 
supposes a Goth, sanja, in the sense of beauty, 
taraces of such a word appearing to be found in 
seUsdni, precious, and unsdni, deformed. Instead, 
however, of this hypothetical word, I would sug- 
gest the Old Fries, san, strife, sania, to combat, 
as containing a meaning suitable for the purpose. 

V 



170 THK WABBIOB ANB HI8 ABliEL 

Old OeniL S«oo, Seno, 6tb oent Hod. Ctanun Smmm, 

DDujilmvJBi 

Old Gernm Senoooai 8ih cent. — ^Fren^ Bsvocx^ Skvaq^ 
Senega f Old Oerm, Sanilo, Seoiky 9t]i oeat^Eog, Sxno 
— French BbhbIiLV. French BKsiLum. 

OOXPOUNDa 

{Gund, war) Old €(erm. Sen^gandiB, 9th cent — ^French 
SAmsGOK, Bennbgov. (Hard J Old Qerm. Senazd, 8th cent 
— ^Mod. Germ. Bbnitsbt — French Beitaed. (Esri, warrior) 
Sog. Baekb — ^Mod. Germ. SEmfEa-^Freneh BAinniEB. 

Another root for which ForGrtemann's deriva^ 
tion seems to be still more unsatisfaotory ia 
criechy crieh, as found in the names Criechol^ 
CrieholC Crea^ which he appears to refer to the 
name of the Greeks, but for which the Mid. High 
Germ, krigen. Old Fries, kriga^ krija, New Fries, 
kryen, to make war, seems to me very appro- 
priate. 

snfraBpoBiiB. 
Kzieff. Old German Grea^ 9th cent. EngUflb Obxeoh/ Obbak, 

Ww. Greah, Obee, Gbeek, GBBGGf Grigo f Modem German 
Kbibgs. French GaiA, Gbioi 9 

pixnrunvx 
English Oriokmat — Seep^ 25. 

ooMPOxmnei 
(Hart, warrior) English Oreakeb, Gryer, Greer, Grier, 
Greer — ^Mod. Gennan KmEOER^-French ITRnnt^ Gbbhieb, 
OwERE. (Wald, power) French Grioaui/f. 

From the Goth, mkjo. Old High Germ. Mok, 
Anglo-Saxon sao, seo, war, we may take the 
following. 

I I IIIIIP ■■ III |IW>1 >lll> »l l«t ^— W» 

* There i« % mrrd anagh, onich, eritk, Aa, oocnning in nemei of plaom, «id 
probftUj from a Oeltto oilfiii, irUoh mi^ IntenBiz ia tiieie mmmh 



THB WARUOB AND HIS ABMB. 171 

anipu fOBMB. 
Old German Stooo, Bahho, 8ih oent^ Eng. Sack, Sago, bml 
Sat* Mod. Qerm. Back^ Saoh. French Saqui, Sat. war. 

DlMINUTnrBB. 

Old Genn. SaoqoilA, 8th cent. Eng. Satchell, 

PHommo SNDiifo. 
Old CkrnL Sediana French Saoquxn. 

OOMFOUinM. 

{Hart, warrior) Eng. Saoksb, Saqsb, Satzb — Modem 
Germ. Sagsb — French Saobx, Saoabxau, Sateb. (Man J 
Kig. Sackkak. (Wold, power) Eng. Saokelld.* 

From the Old High Germ, strit, Mod Germ. 
streit, war, are probably the foUowmg. 

SDCPLiroBMB. g^^ 

Sig. Studio SnuDer. Mod. Germ. Stbeft. ^^ 

DlMUnTTIVB. PHONlETiO KNBmO. 

Eng. STHViTELLb Eng. Stsseten. 

OOMFOUNIML 

(Hari^ warrior) Old Germ Stritheri, 9th cent — ^English 
Stbeetkr — ^Mod Germ. Stbbitib. 

Prom the Ang.-Sax. camp, comp, Mod. Germ. 
hampf, war ; Ang.-Saxon caempa^ cempa, com- 
batant, whence the NortL Eng. kemp, champion* 
are the following. 

flDCFUi FOBMa. 

Old G«nMn Ounpo^ Cempho, 8ih cent English Camp, oubpl 
Ohaxp, KflMR Modern GennAn Camper Kemp. French Wu. 
Oampt, Okaicpt, Ohaxpeau. 

DIMINUnVEB. 

Eng. Oampldt, OAXPUvay Ksmplen — French Ohamplok. 
Sag. Oampkoi. 

An 'eleventh root is bag^ back, pack. Old 
High Germ, bagan, to contend. 



* A Bortop «giMumb bat pgiapt only mootwpWoB of atww.ft, 



172 THE WAKRIOB AND HIS ABKS. 

SIMFLE FOfiMB. 

Old Germ. Bago^ Bacco, Bftgo^ 8th cent English Bagg, 

Big, Back, Back^ Pack. Baga, Bacca, Lib, Vit. — Mod. Germ. Backe, 

i**ck. Bage, Packs. French Bagxtb, Bag, Baoque, Baoqua, 

ToconteDdg^^ 

DD lINUTlVEa . 

English Baguley, Baqlet, Baiijst — ^French Paquex^ 
Pacilly, Pagelle, Bailly. Eng. Baglin — French Baglan. 

COMPOUND& 

(Aud, prosperity) Old German Bacauda^ 5th cent. — ^Eng. 
BaggetT; Pagkett — French Baocaud, Pacaud, Baoquet. 
(Ha^dJ Eng. Packabd — French Bagabd, Paccabd. {Bona 
warrior) Eng. Backeb, Packer — French Bagieb, Bagaby, 
Paoquier. (Ma/nJ English Packkan. {Mwnd, protection) 
French Bachiment, Pacquement. (Wold, power) French 
Pacault. (Ward J French Bacquabt. 

From the Ang.-Sax. sige. Old Norse sigr. Old 
High Germ, sign, victory, are the following. 

SIMPLE F0BM8. 

Old Germ. Sigo, Sico, S^^, Secki, 4th cent. Ang.-Sax. 
^^t^ Sig, Sigga. Old Norse SigL Eng. Seago, Seage, Sikb, Sea. 
Mod. Germ. Sieg, Sigg, Sieke, Sick. French BhsE, See. 

DIMZNuxiVJsa. 

Old Germ. Sigilo, Sigili^ 9th cent — ^Eng. Sigley, Sickle 
— Mod. Germ. Sigel» Siole, Siokel — French Sibgel, Sigi4» 
SiCHEL. Old German Sigiliii% Siclina^ 8th oent — ^English 
SiCKLEN, Sickling — Mod. Germ. Siglen. Old Germ. Sigiso, 
10th cent. — Eng. Siggs t Sykes I Old Germ. Sigonzo, 9th 
cent. — ^Eng. Sickens. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bold J Old German Sigibald, Sicbold, Sibold, 8th cent. 
— Ang.-Sax. Sigebald, king of Essex — Eng. SibbiId — ^Mod. 
Germ. Sibbold — Fr. Sicbel» Sebaxtlt. (Aud, prosperity) 
Old German Sigaud — French Sbgaut. {Bert, bright) Old 
German Sigibert, Sibert^ 6th cent. — ^Ang .-Saxon Sigebert — 



THS WAKBIOB AND HIS ABMS. 173 

'Eog. SiBSBT — ^Mod. Genn. Sikbebt — ^French Sibebt. (Btxl, 
meesenger) Old Qerman Sigibodo, Siboto^ 9th cent — Modem 
Germ. Sebode — Frenoh Sibot. (Fred, peace) Old German 
Sigifiredy Sieffired — Ang.-Saz. Sigefred, Bishop of Chiceater — 
Bng. SETFBiEDy Sbffebt — Mod. Germ. SibofbosDi Setfbid 
— ^French Setffebt. (Hard) Old Germ. Sigihard, Sigard, 
Sicard, 9th cent. — ^Mod. Germ. Sibghabdt, Siohebt — Frenoh 
Seoabd, Sicabd. (JTere, warrior, or^r, spear) Old German 
Sigger, Sicker, Sier, 8th cent — Siggser, genealogy of the 
Northumbrian kings, Sigar, bishop of Wells — Old Korse 
Siggeir, king of Gothland in the Yolsongasaga — Eng. Sbgab, 
Siqgebs, Seckeb, Sedgeb, Sieb, Seabs — Mod. Germ. Sixgeb, 
SiCHEB, Seteb — French Sbeqeb, Segub, Seguieb. (Man) 
Old Germ. Sigiman, 8th cent — ^Eng. SiCKHAir — ^Mod Germ. 
SiEOMANN. (i^Tot, bold) Old Germ. Sigenot — ^French Signet. 
{Ratj counsel) Old German Sigirad, 8th cent. — French 
S^ubet, Secbot. {Mary famous) Old German Sigimar, 
brother of Arminius, 1st cent, Sicumar — ^Eng. Sycamobi^ 
Sbameb, Sstmoub— Mod. Germ. Setiosb — ^French Siekebs. 
{M%mdy protection) Old Germ. Sigimund, Burgundian prince^ 
5th cent — Old Norse Sigmundr — Eng. Sigmubd, Simhondb 
— Mod. Germ. Sixgicxtnd, Sikund — French Sixond. {Wig^ 
war) Old Germ. Sigiwic, 9th cent — ^Eng. Sedgwick. {Wine^ 
friend) Old Germ. Sigiwin, Seguin — Seguin, Rett, BaU. Al>b. 
— ^Eng. Sbguik— French Sbgudt. 

PHONETIC INTBUBION OF I and r, $eep. 30. 
Old German Sicumar — Eng. Sicklemobb. Old German 
Siginiu — Eng. Sigoubnat. 

We have a name Sigbist, and there is a cor- 
responding French Sieobist. Bist was the name 
of one of the Valkyrjur, maidens of Odin, among 
whose duties it was to dispense victory. In this 
sense the compound seems a natural one, and I 
do not know of any other way in which the name 
can be explained 



174 THfi WABBIOB A19I> HIS ABMfiL 

Another root with the meaning of victoiy 
may be gagan, gain. This root, which is found 
in several Old German names, Forstemann refers 
to gagarit contra> which in the sense of opposi* 
tion» hostility, would not be unsuitable. But I 
think that a still better meaning is found in 
English •'gain,*' French gagner, and the Old 
Norse gagn, which had the direct sense of victory. 

SIMPLE fOBMBu 

GtciB,CM]i, Old Qerm. Oagaao, 8th cent. English Oaoak, Oahah^ 
"^^^^^f^T- Gaus, Oadhet, Jake, Oaban, Cain, Canet. Mod. Oermaa 
Cahn. French Gagin, Oaghi^ Oaoni^ Gagvt, Gagheau, 
Gaqt, Oagin, Oahek, Gain. 

DmUN UTIVEH. 

Old Germ. Eagimso. Eng. Gains, Janes, Cainb. 

OOMPOnNt)& 

{And, protspetity) French Gaignattix fHardJ Old Germ 
Qsganhard, Oaganhftid, 8th cent — French Gagnau), Gag- 
VASCD, Gainabd. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Geginheii, 9th 
cent. — Bng. Gaineb, Januabt) — French Gagnsb, Gagnieu^ 
Gagnebt— ItaL Gagnebl 

Hien there is another class of names from 
verbs signifying to wound, to slash, to strike, to 
kill, to devastate, to spoil, or else from nouns 
signifying death, havoc, slaughter. 

From the Ang.-Saxon bona, a slayer, are pro- 
bably the names in the following group. In the 
Scop or Bard's song, an ancient Saxon poem pro- 
fessing to be an account given by a wandering 
minstrel of the different countries he had visited 
we are told that ** Becca ruled the Bannings.*' 
We know nothing further of this people, but 
their name seems to indicate that they were a 
warlike tribe. 



r 



THE WABBIOE AMD HIS ABMa 175 

BIlfPIB tOBMB. 

Old German Paimo, 11th oent finglidi Banv, BiJnrr, pui, b«l 
Pank. French Baki^ Pakay. ffl«^- 

DIMilffDTXVttL 

English PAiariLL— French Banitisujb, Panxu Engliah 
BAHiracK. French Panubb — Ital Pavizsl f 

OOMPOUinM. 

(JSWvy wanior) Eng. Banveb, PAJonxBr— French Bavvio, 
PAViriEB* (€hr^ spear) Old Oena, Panager, 9th cent — ^Eng. 
BAKaxR (if not local) — Modem Oennan Bakoxr. (Eofrd) 
Kngliah Bavtard — French PAirHAJU), Pahabt. (TTonf, 
gnitfdian) Mod. Qerm. Bavnwabt — ^French BANOUABa 

Another form of Ang.-3axon hana^ a ^slayer 
was hiynxi. The root hon occurs especially in Old 
Frankish names^ and the Latin honu% may per- 
haps intermix in the simple forms. I have sug- 
gested, p. 55» that Bonaparte may be an Old 
Frankish name id an Italianized form. It will be 
seen from the following list that the name has 
representatives^ both in French and EDglish. 

SnCPLXrOBMB. 

Old Qerman Bonoa, Bono, Pona Bag. Bomrr, Boavr, ^^ p^ 
PovT. Mod. German Bomr, Boims, Bohn. French Botr, 
'BoKSM, Boxn, Boairr, Bovhat, Bohhxau, Boinro, Poor. 

DIiaNTTTIVXS. 

Old Germ. Bdhila^ 8th cent. — ^English Bomnur-^-French 
BoKNXUiy BomnELYB^ PomrxLui Old Genn. Bonigo, 10th 
cent. — Eng. Bonhigk — Mod. G^erman BomnscKS. En^^iah 
BoNXXN — ^French Boniohok. Old (German Bonuso, 10th 
cant. — ^Anglo-Baxon Bonsig^ Qod, Dip, 810 — ^Eng. BoNSsr — 
French BoHASSBAinCy Bqhz6, Bont& 

PATBOHTMI0& 

Eng. Boinnxra-^Franeh Bommrara^ BoMnro. 

OOHPOFKSe. 

{Aui^ prosperity) French Bonvattd, BomnrAUix {fi€fri^ 
fionous) Old Genn, Bonibart^ 7th oant» BQii4)ert^ 8th eant» 



176 THE WAjEtmOB AND HIS ABMa 

•— Eng. BoNBRiGHT — French BokpabD, Bompast — Italian 
BoHiPBRTi, Bonaparte ? (^^, fi"^"^^ prompt, eager) Old 
Qerm. Bonafusoa, BonafiiBse,* 11th cent — French Bohna- 
Fous, BoHHEFONB, BoNiFACB t BoNFiui % {Oo^^ spear) Eng. 
BoNiOEB, BoiiaAB(80K). {Hwe^ warrior) Old Qerm. Bonarins 
— Eng. BoNAB, BoNNSB — Modem Qerm. BoEiorER — French 
BoNKAiBE, BoKiEB, BoNNEBT, Bokheub! (Mcm) Ei%lish 
BoHimcAK — French Bonnemaik. {Mund, protection) French 
BomnocENT. f Hard J Old Qerm. Bonard, 8th cent. — Mod. 
G^erman Bohnhabdt — Fr. Bomkabd, Bonabdi, Bokvardet 
{French dimin,) (Sind, way) Old Qerman Bonednd, 9th 
cent.— French Boknissent. (Wald, power) Old Qerman 
Bonoald, Bonald, 9th cent. — French Bokald (Archbishop of 
Lyons)— ItaL Bonoldl 

From the Anglo-Saxon ben, a wound, in the 
sense, with the ancient termination, of a wound- 
inflicter, may be the following. I am inclined to 
think, however, that this, and the preceding 
groups ban, ban, are in reality only different forms 
of the same word. 

BIMPLBFOBM& 

Old Qerm. Benno, Benni, Ben, Penna, 8th cent. — ^Bynni, 
'yfl^ Lib. ViL — Eng. Beeth, Bennbt, Binhet, Penk, Pennt, Pinh, 
Pnnnr, Pino— Mod. Qerman Behk, Bihn, Peek. French 
Beka, Buta, Binbt, Bikeau, Peny, Pik, Piheau, Putau. 

It appears aleo thai Benno, Penno, wie eometimee ueed 
cmcierUly aa a contraction of Bemhard, Benedictus, and 



B«ii,BI]L 



DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Qerm. Benico, Bennic, 9th cent — Benoc, genealogy 
of Ida, king of Bemicia — Eng. Bennicki^ Benkooh, Psir« 
HICK, PiMNOCK — ^Mod. Qerm. Bbnicke, Binkeckb, Pennickb 
— ^Fienoh Bsitbckb, BEinBOH, BurooH. Old Qerm BcvtXos, 
FrocopkUf 6th cent., Benilo, 11th cent — English Bemnxli^ 

* Thaw li also an Old Oenn. BonafnliMfc, lOth cent Is not this th« French 
dIadBtiitivs addad, •§ In tha Old Franoh uuno Ohademalnsl t 



THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABMa 177 

Pkorll — French Pehsl, Pimb Engliih Behkot — Mod. 
Germ. Bsnxkbn — French Pknnbquin. Old German Benzo, 
Penio — ^Eog. Bennb, Bxnbs^ Binks — French Bknob, Benz, 
BonSy Psng4 Pm8KA.u. Old Gterman Benimias, Benimia,* 
8th cent— Fries. Bokhbica — ^Fiench Boeaxt, BohomI 

PATJtONTMIGB. 

Old Germ. Benning, 9th cent. — ^Engliah Bjonrnfo — ^Mod. 
Germ. Benitino. 

(Oer, spear) Old Germ. Benegar, 8th cent — Eng. Bebtobb 
— I^rench Bihvegheb. (Gaud, goi, Goth) Old Gkrm. Bene- 
gaud, 8th cent — £ng. Pjdtktoad— Fr. PtaiooT, PKnoAUD. 
(Rofrd) Old German Benehard, Benard, 9th cent. — Modem 
Otrman Bbmitbbt — French Benabd, Binabd, Phthabd 
{Hwty irarrior) Old German Beneher, 9th cent. — English 
Benver, Btekeb, Penkeb — Fr. Benxbb, Bdtier, Pent^bBp 
{Aud^ prosperity) French Penattd, Pikaud, {Befi% bright) 
French Pskabsbt. (Mom) Eng. Penman — ^Mod. German 
Benneicann. {Mar^ fiunons) Eng. Benkobe, PENNTMOBSi 
{NcMly daring) English Pennant— French Binant, Penabt. 
(Wald, power) Mod. Gterm. Bennolb— French Pinault. 

From the MicL High Germ, hicken. Old High 
Genu, pichan, to slash, Forstemann derives a root 
big, bic, pig, pic, to which I place the following. 

8DCPLEV0BM& 

Old German Bicoo, Bigo, Picco» Pigo, Picho, 8th cent. 
Eng. BiOK, BrrcH, Bioa, Pick, Piqo. Mod. Germ. Bieok, ^ ^' 
Biogb;, PiCKy PiOH. French Biai, Biqet, Pick, Pioqxte, to'iImIl 

PiGHI, PlOHOU, PiGEAU. 

DIMINUnVESL 

Eng. BiGKLEy BiOKLET, BiGELOW, PiCKELL— Mod. Germ. 
PiGKEL — ^French Bical, Bigle, Pioal. 



178 THE WARBIOB AND HI8 ABHa 

OOKFOONDS. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Picaud, Pichaud, Bigot! 
PiGBAT f PioQusr t — Eng. Pickett Y Piggott t (Hard J 
Eng. PiOKAiU) — Mod. Qerm, Pickharst — French Bicsauo, 
BiGBAHDy PicKABD, PiCHABD, PiGKABD. (Eere^ wurior) 
Engliah Biokbb, Biggab, Pickbb, Pitcheb — ^Frenoh Biobe, 

BlTOHXBy PlOHBB, PiCHEBT, PlOOBT, PlOBOBT. (MonJ Eng. 

BiGMAN, PiCKMAN. (Bam, ran, raven) English Piobam — 
French Biohebok, Pioeboh. (Wald, power) Old German 
Bigwald, Piooaldy 7th cent. — French PiCAni;r, Pioaxtlt. 

I am inclined to think that the following 
group are formed by a phonetic n from the pre- 
ceding, and that they correspond with the Old 
Eng. pivJc, to pierce, to stab. 

8IMPLB FOBMa 

Pink. EngliBh BnraET, Pnroo, Pimc, Pinket, Pdtch — French 

To pioroe. BiNG, BlKGl^ 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Pinceon, Lib, ViL, Eng. Pinchbon. French PiNGEONy 

PiNCHON. 

coiiFouNre. 
(Hard, fortis) Eng. Pinkebt — French Pingabd. 

From the Goth, malvjan. Old Norse mola^ 
contimdere, Eng. "'maul," we may take the fol- 
lowing. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old German Malo, 8th cent. Moll, " also called Ethel- 
wold," king of Northumbria. Maule, Maulay, EoU BaU, A hb, 
TobMt ^<i^- Mali^ Mallet, Maule, Moll, Mole, Molley. Mod. 
German Mahl, Mallr, Mohl. French "Mkj.rjt^ Mat.t.jj^ 
MAiiO, Moll, MoLui, Mole, Molat, Maull. 

DIBUNrmVEB. 

Engliah Mau/x^l — ^French Mallac^ Maleoo, Mquque 
Eng. Malbin — French Malaquin. 

PATBONYMICS. 

Eng. Maluhg, Mollino. French Malinguk 



MalL 
Hoa 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 179 

OOMPOUNDB. 

(BeH, £unoii8) Old Qennan Malpert, 10th ctnt. — ^French 
MaIiAFBBT. (Bot, envoy) Old Germ. Malboto, 8th cent.^ 
French Malbot. (Hard, fortis) Old Cterman Mallard, 7th 
oent — Maularde, EoU BaU. Abb. — Eng. Mallard, Mollard 
— French Mallard, Mollard, Mouillard. (Bad, council) 
Old Grerm. Mabrada^ 8th cent — French Malaret, Malrait. 
(Eice, powerful) Malorix, Friiian Prince, 1st cent, Malarich, 
prince of the Suevi in Spain, 6th cent — ^Engtbih Mallort — 
Frendi Malory. (Thitu, servant) Old German Malutheus, 
in a Gothic record at Naples, 6th cent — English Malthus, 
Malthoubk i^/f wolf) Old German Malul^ 6th cent — 
Eng. Maliff. 

It appears to me that mel and mil are dif- 
ferentforms from the same root, and corresponding 
directly with Old Norse melia, English " mill," 
which is still used in the sense of pxigilistic 
encounters. Forstemann calls this a yet unex- 
plained root, " ein noch unerklarter stamm,'' and 
refers to ** mild,'' also to a Slavonic root. But it 
appears to me that there is no occasion to go 
farther than the above. 

8IBIPLB FORMS. 

Old Germ. Mile, Mello, 10th cent. McAmv, a Sigamber 
in Strabo, Ist cent., Grimm makes the same as the abova ^*^ ^^ 

To bmt. 

English MiLOy MnjBY, Millie, Mello, Mellow. French 

MiLLE, MfT.T.^ MiLBT, MiLLY, MiLLAUX, MeLL^ MeLAYE. 
DIMINXTnVES. 

Old Germ. Milike— Eng. Miluoe, Milk — Mod. Germ. 
MiELEOKB, MiLCKE, MiLCH — French Melick^ M^que. 
Old German Miliz2so, 8ih cent. — English Milus, Mellis, 
Melijsh — Fr. Milisoh. Eng. Millikik. Fries. Mellema 
— French Malamy, Milhomhe I 

PATBONYMICS. 

Eng. MiLLiNGE — French Millakoe. 



180 THE WABRIOR AND HIS ABMa 

OOHPOUHIML 

(Dio, Berrant) Old G^nnan Mildeo, 9th cent. — Engliah 
Mellodew, Mblodt, Mbllowdat, Malady. (Hard) Old 
Qerm. Milehard, 7th cent. — ^English Mkt.tjard, Mnj.ABD— 
Mod. Qerm. Mielebt — ^French Millabd, Milobd. {EaH, 
wairior) Eng. 1VfRr«T.KB, Millbb % — ^M«d. Qemu Mfrjrjgn | — 
French MiaiTKK, Milleb, Miujcet. {Sindy expedition) Old 
German Milflmniltt^ Milissent — 'l<Vigliff h MiiJiiCENT"-Fr6nch 
Miuent. 

It is rather probable that the word nudd^ 
maU, mold, which seems to be a derivative of the 
previoiis root mcd, has also the meaning of hostile 
collision. The prefix meald occurs in several 
Anglo-Saxon names^ as Mealdhelm» &c., and 
Ettmuller supposes an Ang.-Saxon meaJd, in the 
sense of confrictio. The most natural meaning 
to give to this seems to be that of mingling in 
battle fray. The form mala, which appears in 
some French names, may be another form of the 
same. 

SIMPLE FORMa 

Ang.-Sax. Malte, charter of Edward, A.D. 1060. Maald, 
MaiA Maid, Xi6. Fit Eng. Malt, Mould, Moult. Mod. Germ. 
'^' Maldt. Dan. Malthel French Mauldb, Maioxauz f 

DDflNUTrVEB. 

Eng. MouLDiCK. Dan. Moltke. French MAT.gin 

PHOincnO BKDINOt 

Old QtenxL Maldra,* king of the Sueyi, 5th cent. Eng. 
Moulder. French Maltaibe, Mat.tar. 

PATBONYMIOa 

Eng. MouLDora. French Malbaeo f 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Bert, famona) Old Germ. Maldeberta, 7th cent. — French 
Maubebt) ((ror, spear) Old German Maldegar — French 

* GiUed in wothar doonlole MAHPa4. 



THE WABHIOB AflD HIS ABMa 181 

Mauoer t (Man J Eng. Mai/tman — ^French Maudbmain. 
(Vid, foiik, wood) Aiig.-Saz. Maldvit — ^Maldwith, Domesday 
— Eng. Maltwooi>— French Mauduit. 

From the Old Norse hasay to strive, contend, 
Forstemann derives the root has in Old German 
names. And from the Old Norse hisa^ to strive 
fiercely, a word no doubt cognate, he also derives 
a root his. It seems to me, however, that the two 
words are too closely connected to be separated. 
Thus we find that the Thuringian king Basinus 
was also called Bisinus. 

BDCPLB rOBMB. 

Old German Baso, Basso, 7tli cent., Biso, Piso, 9th cent. 
BaHS, a '^Mass-Priest," Ang,'Sax. Chron. Bassason, a ^^ 
Northman, Ann. Id. Bisi, bishop of the East Angles, 7tb Bis. 
cent Bysey, Roll BaU. Abb. English Bass, Besst, Bibs, ^^^ 
Pass, Passit. Mod. German Bass, Bese, Pass. French 
Bassb, Basse^ Basso, Besse, Bessat, Biseau, Bissat, 
Pabsb, Pabst. 

DDCCNUTIVKS. 

Old German Bassac, 9th cent. — Eng. Baseke^ Bass, 
BiBCOE — ^Mod. Germ. Basee, Basch. Old German Basolo, 
6th cent. — Eng. BASsUi, Bessel, Bbsley, Bissell — ^Modern 
German Basel, Pesel — ^French Beslat. 

PHONETIO EKDINO. 

Basinns or Bisinus, Thuringian king, 5th cent. Basina^ 
wife of the Prankish king Childerich, and daughter of the 
above. Pisin, 9th cent. Basin, Dom sday. Eng. Basdt, 
BisNET. French Baibbut, Bebbon, Bebsohbau, Bbbsona, 
Bibsen, Pisbin. 

C0MP0XTND& 

{Oanfdy Goth) Eng. Bisoood, Peascod t — Fr. Basbaoet. 
{Hard, fortis) French Bebsabd, Bisabd, Passabd, Pibsabd. 
( Jfor, fiunous) Eng. Bessemer, Bisshibb, Passkeb. (If an J 
fing. Passman — Mod. Germ. Basbmann. 



182 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABHS. 

I am not sure that Bishop is not in some 
cases from this root. No doubt it might be de- 
rived from the office, for even in ancient times 
such names seem to have been given baptismallj, 
and there is an Old German Pisco^ 8th cent., 
which Graff so derives. But there is a Biscop in 
the genealogy of the kings of the landisfari, who 
of course mast have been a heathen. Possibly 
it may be from the above root bis, with Anglo- 
Saxon cd/y strenuous, which apparently occurs 
sometimes as a termination in Saxon names. 

There are several words signifying to beat, 
some of which are still in use in the English 
language, or in provincial dialecta One of these 
is bang or bank. Old Norse banga, Danish banke, 
Eng. ** bang,'' Exmoor dialect " bank,'' to beat 

BIMPLS FORM& 

Eng. Bakg, Bank, Bknch, Pens. Mod. Germ. Bancs, 
tTmT Bang. Frenoh Banot, Bang. 

DDflNTTnVBSw 

Frekicli Benosl. French Panokoxtkx. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Qaud, Gtoth) Old German Banogot, 9th cent. — ^English 
Penkktt. (Aud, prosperity) French Panchaud. {Hard) 
English Banghabt,* Bankabt — ^Modern German Bekckebt. 
{Her^, warrior) Eng. Banckeb, Bankieb — French Penquieb. 

Another word signifying to beat, Old Norse 
beysta. North. Eng. " baste," may perhaps be the 
root of the following. This group is constructed 
on a purely hypothetical principle, as I have as 
yet foimd no ancient names to correspond. 

* A FhllMldphia luina^ potilblr of Genmui oiigiii. 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS AKMS. 183 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bng. BA8IB, Bastow, Bxbt, Paste, Pest. Mod. Oerm. 
BsBTE. French Basta, Bastib, Best, Past^ Pasty, ^obeat 
Pasteau, Pebtt. 

DDCINUTiVES. 

Eng. Bastiox: French Bestei^ Pestel. 

PATBONTMia 

Eng. Bastikq. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Bastard — French Bastard, (ffm-ef 
warrior) Eng. Baster, Bastrat, Pester — French Baster, 
Bastiee, Pastier, Pastr^ Pbbtrb. (Wald, power) French 
Bestauuf. 

A third root signifying to beat is Old Norse 
Jdappa, Old High Germ. Jdaph&n,. 

RTifPT.iE FORMa 

Old Qerm. Olaffo, Lombard king, 6th cent, Olapho, dep, cup, Oair. 
Oleb, deph. Ch^pa, son of Ida, king of Bemicia. Osgod ^obMt 
Olapa, Danish nobleman at the court of Oanute. English 
Olapp, Olayet. Modem Germ. Klapp. French Olayeau, 
CLAvi, Clatet. 

DIMIKT7nYE& 

Eng. Claplin. French Glabbeeck. French OLATEib 

PATRONTMIOB. 

Eng. Olapson. French Clapissov. 

OOMPOTTNDa 

{Aitdy prosperity) French Olabaut. {Hairif warrior) 
Eng. Glapfer — ^Modern German ElLABER-*-Frenbh Clapeer, 
Clayier, Olayerie, Kleber. {Eon^ raYen) Fr. Olapetrok. 
{Rai, r$d, connsel) French Olayrot, CLAPAnkDE. 

From the Old High Germ, bliuwan, to strike, 
to kill, Forstemann thinks may be a GotL name 
Blivilas of the 5th cent. There are a few names 
mostly French, which may perhaps be referred to 
this origin. 



184 THE WABJEULOB AND HIS ABMa 



DoDl 



B]aiT«. French Blaiyz, BiisYK 

TerbenNi 

PHONICnO BNDIKO. 

Eng. Blbvin, Pleydt. French Blayin, BLEVAiorB. 

OOMPOXTNDS. 

(Hardy fortiB) French Pur abd. (Hart, warrior) French 
Blayieb, Ploutieb. 

The following root seems to be referable to 
Old Norse dolgr^ foe, Ang.-^Saz. dolg, vulnus, 

SDCPLB fOBUa 

Old Germ. Tnlga (West Ooihio king, 7th cent), Tolcha 
Eng. TuLK. Mod. Germ. Dulk. 

PHONEno ENDnra. 
Old Germ. Toloon, 10th cent Eng. Toumor, Tolken. 
Mod. Germ. Duloken. 

00MP0Uin)& 
(Fin, people's name f) Old Norse Dolgfinnr-^Bnglikh 
DoLPHm. (Sifri, warrior) Eng. Toloheb. 

Then there are several roots signifying to 

break, subdue, crush, and in which the meaning 

probably often mixes with that of the former 

clasa From the Goth, hrican, Ang.-Sax. 5raoan, 

hrecan, Old High German brechan, brehhan, 

brihhan, prehhan, to break, crush, Eng. " bray,'" 

Cumb. " brake,** to beat violently, I take to be 

the following. There are but few ancient names, 

and Forstemann does not give any explanation. 

simfle fobmb. 

Old Germ. Brachio, Thuringian king, 6th cent., Bricdus^ 

Bd^ 5th cent English Brack, Bbakb^ Bbeach, Brick, Briqg, 

TobMit Bru>oe, Bray, Prigo, Pray. Mod. German Braoh, Bry. 

French Braoq, Brbok, BriquiS, Brahy, Bray, Br^v, BriIi^ 

Pray, Pr^u. 



Bmck, 



THB WABBIOB AND HIB ABMa 185 

DIMiNUTlVJfia. 

Ibg. Bbxaxell, Bricksll, Fbicklb. Brixiy Domte^day 
IfaUi. — EDgliah Bbixet, Bsix, Baiaas f Bridoes t — ^French 
Bbaok f Frax f French BiuqitbiiONKS, PidacLiN. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Bbigaui>, Bbatoub, Brioubs, 
(Aiwif life, spirit) Eng. Briakd, BBiAinr — French Bbxqavd, 
Bbiant. (Hard J French Bbaohabd, Bbbohabd, Bb^sabd, 
Bricabd, Bbichabd, BsiABD, Bbiabd. (Here, warrior) Eng. 
Bbacheb, Bbickkb, Bbeakeb, BbbegheBi BBiDasBy Bbateb, 
Bbieb, Pbeagheb — French Bbacheb, Bbateb, Bbeoebb^ 
Bbigaibe, BBEYEBy Pbeteb. (Mcm) English Bbakekajht, 
Bbatmajt, Bbigkhak, Bbiqmak, Bbidgexan — Mod. German 
Bbackmann, BBifcKMANN — French Bbaquemut, Bbbchbhin. 
{Wine, Mend) French Bbegeyik. {WcUd, power) Old Germ. 
Briceoldy 9th cent. — French Brajjuc, Pbeault. 

PHONETIG BNDma. 

Eng. Bbaqan, Bbidgen, Bbain, Pbaht. French Bbioov, 
Braikkb. 

PHONBnC INTBUSION OF fft. 

£bg. Bbainabix French Prbgniabd. 

Another root signifying to break may be hrit, 
Ang.-Sax. britian, whence Eng. ** brittle.'' But 
the Ang.-Sax. bn/tta, ruler, prince, may come in 
for all or part. Forstemann also proposes Ang.- 
Sax. Bri/t, a Briton, and brid, as the root of bridla 

HnffiT.TE FOB3CL 

Old German Briddo, Britto, 9th cent Brette, EoU BtUL 
Ahb. Eng. Bbbit, Pbitt, Pbettt, PsmB, PBmDT. French ^ ,,^,^1 
Bbbt, Bbetbau, Pbxi^ BBms, BBmsAU. 

DIMINUnyES. 

Eng. Bbbtieli^ Bbittkll — French Bbbiel. Ft. BBETocQi 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Here, warrior) Old Germ. Britiharius, Thoringian, 6th 
cent — English BsiTTEBy Pbeteb— French Bbetab, Pbetbe t 
(Hard) French Pk^abd. (Mem) Eng. Pbeityicah 9 

X 



186 THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABMa 

Another root of siinilar meaning I take to be 
found in Anglo-Saxon brysan. Old Eng. brise, 
French briber. Old French bruiser, English 
"bruise/' The following names show the Teutonic 
origin in French as well as English. 

SmPLBFOKMa 

nrapa,BniM. Old German Briao, PriBO, 8th cent Old None Bred. 
"mL" ^'^^^ Bbise, Brisset, Bbeeze, Bressst, Bbewss; Bbucb, 

Pbibset, Pbuse. Modem German Bbese, Bbxsa, Pbbiss. 

French Bbibe, Bbisat, Bbeyssb, Bbbsb^ BBxassAV, Bbbbst, 

Bbuot, Bboubsb. 

DDHNunvEa. 
English Bbislet, Pbislet — French Bbbbsel, BBBSOLy 

PsnzELLB, Old German Brisca^ 11th cent. — Eng. Bbiboo, 

BniSKy Bbetbig, Pbissick — French BBisAa Eog. BBBBUiiy 

Pbeslot — French Bbxsxllov, Bbuzeun. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Aud, prosperity) English Bbuzaud— French Bbissaud. 
(And, life, spirit) English BBcrzAND — French Bbessahd. 
(HardJ English Bbbazard— French BEXsaABD, Bbizabd. 
(Man J Eng. ^bisman, Pbisemak. (Here, warrior) French 
Bbesseb, Bbuezieb. 

Then we have several roots signifying to plun- 
der, to devastate, to overthrow. From the root 
rob (Goth, rauban. Old High German raupan. 
Old Sax. raven), are a number of names, many of 
which have been supposed to be contractions of 
Bobert. The word has not a pleasant sound to 
English ears, but it must not be understood in 
the petty larceny modem sense, but in the respect- 
able ancient sense of burning down a village^ 
slaughtering the men, and carrying off the goods 
and chattels, women and children. 



THE WARRIOB AND HIS ABM& 187 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

Old Germ. Ruabo, Bubbo, Bubo, 8th cent. Eng. BoBB, Bob, Bab. 
Bobbie, Boff, Boffib, Boaf, Boof, Bough, Bubb, BubYj^^p^"^***"* 
Buff, Bufft, Bope, Boope. Mod Germ. Bube. Erench 

BOBBE, BOBI, BOUBO, BUBIO, Bub6, BuBT, BuPP, BoUFFBy 

BOUVEAXT. 

DIMINUTrVEB. 

Old Germ. Bnpilo— English Boblow, Boblet, Boufell, 
BuFFLE — French Bubelle, Bouyel. English Bubidqe — 
French Bobiquet {double dUnin,) Old Gterman Buopilin» 
10th cent — English Bobolin — French Bobun, Boyillaik. 
French Bobquik, Bobichon. 

OOMPOFNDa 

{Here, warrior) Eng. Bopeb, Roopeb, Bubebt — ^French 
BoBiEBy BuBiEB, BouYiER. {Rioe, powerful) Fr. Bupbich. 

Then there is another root ra6, ra/p^ raf^ 
which I take to be most probably another form 
of the last, Old High Germ, rahan^ Ang.-Saxon 
reafariy Old Norse krapa. 

simple FOBMS. 

Old German Babo, 9th cent, Baffo^ 11th cent. "Rn glioK 
Baby, Bapp, Bayey. French Baby, Baba, Bahbau, ^^ ^^• 
Babou, Baffy, Bapp, Bapi^ Bayeau, Bayou. ** 

DIMINUTIYB& 

English Baffell — Modem German Baffel — French 
Baphel, Bapilly, Bayel. English Bapejn. French 
Babillon, Baffldt. 

ooMFouinia 

{Atulj prosperity) French Bayeaub. (Ha/rd) French 
Baffabb, Baffobt, Bayabd. {Herej warrior) Eng. Bapeb 
— ^French Babieb, Bayieb. {Oot, Goth) French Babioot. 
{Wold, power) Old Germ. Baffolt, 8th cent — Eng. Baftold 
— ^French Bay Aui/r. (TTtna, Mend) French BABomn. {Ulf, 
wolf) Old Germ. Bafbli; 9th cent— French Babeuf. 

Another form of the same root signifying to 
rob is* I think, re6, rev, rip, riv, Ang.-Sax. refan^ 



188 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABlfa 

rjfpan, Eng. ''rifle,'' (diminutive). Fozstemann 
proposes Ang.-Sax. n>e, English ''ripe'' in the 
sense of mature, a less probable root, as it seems 
to me. Some of the Old German names begin- 
ning with an aspirated h, it is possible that crib, 
crip, may be Frankish forms from this root^ as 
at p. 46. 

aiirPLE FORIIB. 

sib, Bif. Old OenzL Hripo, Hiiffo, 9th cent. Eng. Ribb, Hznr, 
Tophudflr. Obibb I Mod. Genn. Beibe, Reiff. Frencli Reyu, Ribott, 
Rur, RiYAT, RiYi, RiYAu, Obept ? Obep^ Cbefeau I 

DIMIM UTIVEU. 

Eng. RiBBBCK, Repuks, RiPKiET. Eng. Reffel, Revoj^ 
Reayell, RiPLsr — ^Rivell, BoU BaU. Ahb«y — ^Mod. German 
RiJppELL, RiFFEL — French Rible, Ribail, Rebel, Revel^ 
Reteh^ Cbepelle 9 French REBnJiOK, REYELiir, Rivslik. 

OOMPOUND& 

{Aui, prospeiiiy) French Riffaud, Ripaut, Riyaud. 
(Hard) French Rebabd, Ripabd, Riyabd, Revebd. (HerSy 
warrior) Old Germ. Ripher, Riper, 8th cent. — ^Eng. Ripbb, 
Retebe, Ritiebe, RnrEB, Oeipeb9 — Ripere, RiverSy BoU 
BaU. Abb. — Mod Germ. Reibeb — French Ribieb, Ribii^bx, 
RiYiXBE, CBiBiEBt — Spanish Ribeba. (Wcdd, power) Old 
Gennan Ribald, Rippo]d, 8th cent — French RiBAUi/r, 
Rebold, Riffault, Ripault — ^ItaL Riyolta t 

PHONETIC EKBIKG. 

Old Germ. Rifoni, 8th cent. English Rippor, Obipfbk f 
French,RiBUK, Ribovi, Riyain. 

Another root of similar meaning may be ran, 
ren, from Old Norse rcencc, spoliare, rdn, rapine. 
But this is difficult to separate in many cases 
from ragin, counsel, which is frequently con- 
tracted into rain, as at p. 48. Forstemann also 
refers to BAn, the vdfe of Oegir in Northern 
mythology. 



THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABMS. 189 

8I1IFLB fOBMa 

Old Oerm. Bano, 9th oent. Eng. Rahk, Bjosnxis, Bshn, 
Wuat, BxifNiB, RENva Modem Qeimaa Rahn. French jupiM- 
Rahob, Bknkt, Bsv& 

DDIIMUTiVn. 

Old Oerm. Banila^ 7th cent Eng, Bxbvelu Franoh 
Rbhel. 

patbokyxic& 
Eng. BxmnsoK. French RKinsBsoir, RENiixcx>ir. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Oar, spear) Old German Baogar — ^Eng. Rakixxb, RiiroxB f 
Another root of the same meaning is dil, til, 
which Forstemann refers to Old High German 
tUen, Ang.-Sax. dilgian, diruere, destruere. To 
the few ancient names of his list I add several 
others from our own early record& 

BIMFLB 70BMS. 

Old Germ. Dilli, Tilli, Thilo, 8th cent ISlli, ZA FftL ^ ™- 
Bill, Tilly, Tillc, Hund. lUdU. English Dm^ Dolet, ^ ^^"*^' 
Du.u>w, Till, Tnurr. Modem German Dill, Till, Tilo. 
French Dillt, Dill^, Tillt, Tjll& 

DIMIMUTlVjgi. 

Ang.-Saz« TiUuc (found in TiOueea IM, Cod. Dip. 436.) 
Eng. DiLUCK, DiLKE, Tillick, Tilk& French DiL&Aa 

PATBONTHICei 

Eng. Tilling. Mod. Gexm. Dmuna 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Oer, spear) Ang.-Sax. TilgAr (found in TUgSrea die, Cod. 
Dip. 714)— Dilker, ffund JMZ^.— Eng. Dilqsb, Dilligab. 
(Hard) Eng. Tillbabd — ^Mod. German Dillbbv — ^French 
TiLLiAXD, (Hore, warrior) Ang.*Sax. Tilhere^ bishop ox 
Woroester^Engliah Dillbb, Tilleb, Tillikb— l^Vench DiL- 
LEBT, TiLLUEB. (J7<*) English TiLLOTT — ^French Dillkt, 

^ VMKf Aaol«nt «Bdl]isi, m ancl-or and^ pntpezity, had, ww, hoM, "hood," 
eooTtise in modm nuMf into «l. 



190 THE WABBIOR AND HI8 AKUa 

TiLLOT. (Man) Ang.-Sax. Tilmann {found in TUmannei 
den, Cod Dip. 379)— Tilmon, Lib. Fit— TUeman, Hund. 
BoQs. — Eiig. DnjJCAK, Tillmajt, Tilomav, Tilkmak — Mod. 
German Dilleicank, Tillmabk — ^French Thjcajt. (Mar, 
fiuBums) Old German TUemir, Stih cent. — Eng. Dillimobb. 
(I^oih, bold) English Dilnutt. (W^ine, Mend) TUmni, Lih. 
ViL — Eng. DnjiWTir. (Mund, protection) An^o-Sazon 
Tilmnnd (/ound in Tilmunde$ hd, Cod Dip. 663)— French 

TiLMAHT. 

PHONXnO ENDING. 

Eng. Dillon. French Dillon, Tillon. 

Another root of similar meaning is probably 
tum^ which is found as early as the 6th cent., 
and which Forstemaim supposes to be from Old 
High German twman, Eng. '' tum,^ in the sense 
of overthrowing, or in the later sense of tilting. 
He has five ancient names from this root^ but 
none corresponding with ours. 

simple FOSUS. 

Td ovw^row. English TusNEY, ToxTBN AT 1 French Toubne^ Toubnat t 

DUBNET. 

DIMINXTnVES. 

Eng. TuBNELL, TuBNLEY — French Toxjbnai^ Doubnel. 
French TouBKAHiLON. French Toubnaohon. 

CX)MP0TJNI)a 

(Here, warrior) Tameros, Ci^>ellanns, in a grant to the 
monastery of Croyland, A.D. 1051 — ^Eng. Tubneb — ^French 

TOUBNEUB, TOUBNAIBE^ ToUBNEBY. 

Another root with this meaning may be 
strude, strut, Ang.-Saxon strudan, to devastate, 
destroy, along with which, as a High Germ, form, 
we may class struz. 

SItnSB, BDIFLE F0BM& 

Btnit Old German Strode, Strata Stmz, 8th cent. English 

To iMnj. qtotob, Stbutt. Mo4 Germ. SraAUBa 



THE WAEBIOE AND HIS AHMS. 191 

OOMFOUNDB. 

{Herey warrior) English Struthebs. {Wig^ imr) Eng. 
SrfiUBWicK. 

Another root of similar meaning may be Ang.- 
Sax, scathan, sceathariy Old Norse skSdia^ Old 
High German scadariy Mod. German schadeUy to 
injure, plimder, destroy. There is also another 
root proposed by Forstemann, and which might 
intermix — Goth. skadtiSy Old High Germ, scato, 
shade, in the older sense of shelter or protection. 
And a third might be Old Norse skati, rex, vir 
munificus, from skattr, tribute, whence Skati, a 
name in the Landnamabok. 

aniPLB POBMB. 

Old German Scato, 9th cent Engliah Skatb, Shaded ^^ dArtroj. 
SHBA.TH, Skeei. Mod. German Schat, Schade. French 
Scat, Bcatti. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Here, warrior} Eng. Sheatheb, Shsthsb. (Lac, play) 

Eng. SoADLOCK. (Leo/f dear) Eng. Skatliff. (Wealh, 

stranger) Sceadwala,* &ther of Beowulf (Flor. War. J Eng. 

Shadwell. 

phonetic endino. 

Old Genn. Scattani (Genii J, 9th cent. Eng. Scaddabt. 
Some other words of hateful soimd to 
Christian ears are no doubt derived in a warlike 
sense. Such is the root 6aZ, 6afe, pale — (xoth. 
bah. Old High Grerman paio, Ang.-Saxon bealo, 
bale, woe, calamity, in the sense of one who 
inflicts calamity upon others. This root is apt 
to mix up with another of very different meaning, 
bit, lenitas, placiditas, as explained by Grimm. 

• Or thif lUUDU might )>• put to th« root* had, chad, war, m at p. 100. 



192 THE WABBIOB AND HIB ABMa 

SDCPLK lOBMa 

Old Gennan BoUo^ Pallo, Sth cent Palejr or Paling, 
Bii, BiOfl^ Danish Jarl in the time of Eihelred. Eng. Ball, Ballet, 
^f ^_ Bail, Bailkt/ Pail, Paley, Bell» Bellt, Bellow, Bellew, 

Pell, Pellt, Pellew. Mod Germ. Ball, Pahl, Behl. 

Frenoh Balle, Balat, Ballt, Ballu, Bau^ Bailla, Baillt, 

Baillibu, Paille, Paillet, Pallu, Bell^ Belleait, 

Belli, Bellu, Pelle, Pell^, Pellu. 

DDOKUnyES. 

Eng. Ballook — French Ballochk En^^iiah Balaam, 
Bellaxt — Fries. Ballema — French Bellamy, Belhoxme f 
PATBOimao& 
Eng. BALLma, PAUNa French Pallanqu^ PELUSNa 

ooMPon2n)s. 
(Fred, peace) Old German PalMd — English Palfbet. 
(Ha/rd) Engli^ Ballabd, Paillabd — French Ballabd, 
Bailliabd, Paillabd, Pailuabt. {Here, irarrior) Eng 
Balleb, Balteb, Paleb — ^Fr. BAiLLiiBS, Balebt, Pailleub, 
Paillbeib. {M€t, £unoua) Old Germ. Ballomar, 2nd cent, 
Belimar, 8th cent — Eng. Balxei^ Bellmob^ PalmbbI — 
Frenoh Bellemabb, PAUCiEBf {EH, counsel) English 
Palaibet — ^French Ballebet. 

Then there are some roots which signify fear, 
loathing, horror, in the sense, with the ancient 
termination, of " one who is a terror to others.** 
Thus a warrior in Saxo describes himself — 

Bessos ego sum, 

Fortis in anni% 

Trox inimicis, 

Geutibus honor. 

Hence I take to be the root og. Old Norse 
dga, abominari, whence Oegr, a name in the 
Landnamabok. This seems to be the root of our 

• OrMBMofUMMmislUbepattotlMioo(6a9,M»ip.l71 



THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABMS. 193 

words ** tigl/' and " ogre." Forstemann, however, 
places og to the root hxig, thought^ reason, which 
may indeed intermix — ^the difference between og 
and hog not being much to build upon. 

SIMPLE rOBKS. 

Old Germ. Ogo, 9th cent. Old Norse Oegr. Eng. Ooo. og. 
French Oo, OaA ^««» 

OOMPOTTNDa 

{Bem^ bear) Eng. Ogbobk. {Here^ warrior) Eng. Ooieb, 
French OonsB, Ooeb. 

A root cognate with the above seems to be 
Goth, agis,^ Old High Germ, akiso, ekiso, horror, 
which is foimd in several Old German names, 
none however corresponding with the following. 

SIMPLE Fosua 
English Agois, Aogas, Ajlabs. French Aoicf, Aqassb, 

AoiTESSE^ A JA88B, EoASSB^ EqAZE. Honor. 

DIMIKUTIVS. 
Swiss AOASSIZ ? 

A third root with the same meaning may be 
broke, brook, which Stark refers to Old High 
Germ, bruogo, pruoko, Ang.-Saxon brdga, terror. 
There might also be a root h^ock, from Ang.-Saz. 
brockian, to afflict, oppress^ but a separation 
would be difficult. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old Germ. Broocho, Bruogo, 11th cent Anglo-Saxon 
Br6ga. Eng. Bbook, Bboke, Bbooe, Bbxw. Mod. Germ. !^^ 
Bbugh, Bbockk French Bboo, Beeuoq. Tmot. 

PATEONTMICS. 

Eng. Brooiuko. Eng. Bbookson. 



Mijiiott]ilsb«th«oilgliiofEiif. "agfaaitk'' fonntriy ipatt oiwml ' 
Y 



194 THB WABBIOB AKD HI8 ABMa 

OOMFOUKDa 

{Her&y warrior) En^iah Bbokxb, Brookbb, Bbbwsb f-^ 
Modem Qerman Bbockeb — ^French BBuaiiss^ Bbuhd^be. 
(Man) Eng. Bbockmahk, BftooKiCAir — ^Mod. Qerm. Bbuck- 
XAHir, BBOCKMAinr, BROOCKitAiiK. (Ewrd) Old German 
Brocard, 11th cent — Eng. Bbooabd — Mod. Germ. Bruoh- 

HABDT — ^Fr. BbOGABD. 

There is another root which may come in 
here, oUy from Old Norse tttxi^ terrere. Hence 
Tenor? Haldorscn derives the Scandinavian name Ottar, 
in the sense of metuendus, '* one to be feared," 
and hence, I take it, the Eng. name Otter. But 
.whether Ott, Ottey, Otway, are also to be 
placed to the same root, may be doubtful. 

Anoth^ word of similar meaning is Old High 
Germ. Uid^ Old Sax. Ud^ Ang.-Sax. IMi^ hateful, 
loathly, in the sense, like the preceding words, of 
one who is a terror to others. But it seems to 
me probable that there is an intermixture of 
another root, not noticed by Forstemann, Ang.- 
Saxon Udany to lead, Idteaw, latheow, Iddman, 
leader. 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

Old Germ. Lethn, Lombard Eang^ 5tli oent, Laita, Ledi, 
LetoB. English Laid, Lady, Late, Latht, Lsath, Lebte- 
^^^^** Mod. Qerm. Lethe, Lette, Letde. French Laitt, Lajti^ 
LsTHO, Led^ Ledo, Ledouz, Leddeu, Leitu. 

DIMINTTTiyBEL 

Old Germ. Ledila, 9th cent — Eng. Lathali^ Leathlet^ 
Letley — French L^aix^ Letaille, L^toiIiE. Old Germ. 
Ledoc, 8th cent. — French LsDUC, Letac, LsTOOQi 
pATBOKnaoa 

Old German Leiting, 9th cent English LsEDura, 
Lathanoue. Mod. Germ. Ledd^o. French LEiANa 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS AAMS. 195 

OOMPOUHDfi. 

{Oer, spear) French Ledaobe. (Hard J Old German 
Lethard, Letard, 9th cent — ^English Leathabt — ^French 
Latabd. (Here^ warrior) Old Germ. Leither, Letar, Lether^ 
8th cent — Ang^-Saz. Lethar (EpiacopWy Cod. Dip. 981) — 
£ng. Latbb, Lbatheb, Leader — ^Modern German Ledeb, 
Leiteb — ^French Ledisr, Lb TniiRB? (Man) English 
Laidmak, Ladtman. {Riee^ poweiful) Old Germ. Letoerich, 
8th cent — French Labdebich. (^omm, nvriy raven) Old 
Germ. Lethramnua, 9th cent — French Ladubon, Lettebok. 
{Raty counsel) Old German Laidarat^ (Archbishop of Lyons, 
8th cent) — French Ladbet, Latebbade. {Wordy guardian) 
Old Grennan Lethward, 8th cent — English Latewabd. 

There is another root very difficult to separate 
from the above, GotL lathon, Old High German 
ladon, to invite, in the sense, according to Forste- 
mami, of challenge. So that in any case the 
names come under this head. 

SIMPLE F0BH8. 

English Labd, Lath, Lattey, Latta. French Lad^, lmi, Lath. 

TtATTK, GbAUenge 

ooMPonin)a 
(ZTaro, warrior) Eng. Latteb — French Latbt, Latoub. 
(Leo/, dear) English Latliff. (J/or, fiunous) Old German 
Lathomar, 7th cent — ^Latomer, BoU JBaU. Abb, — ^Latimarus, 
Domeaday — ^Eng. Latdceb. 

From the Goth, driugan, Ang.-Sax. dreogauy 
militari, we may take the following. 
« simple forms. 

Old (German Drogo, Drugo, Trogo, Trugo, 7th cent p^og. 
Drogo, Domeaday. English Tboke, Tbow, Tbue, Dbew. i>rBw. 
Mod. Qerm. Dboge, Tboche, Dbue. French Tbpo, Tbou, ^^*«*- 
Dbov, Dbuet. 

DDaKX7nVE& 

Eng. Dbxwelz^ Tbowell — French TBtTELLE. French 
Dboulik. 



GiflL 



196 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABJCa 

PHONBinC XNBIKO. 

En^^iah Dbitooak, Drowh. French DBuaaoir, DBOcnor, 
Dfioimr (de LhuyiL) 

O01CPOUKI)& 

(Bmi, fiunoiu) French Tbuhebt. (Hard, fertis) French 
Dbouabb. (JIarif warrior) Old Gennan Tmogheri, 9th 
cent. — En^iah Drewert, Drurt, Trowbr — ^Mod. Qcnuan 
Druckeb, Truorr — French Druoquer. (ManJ Kngliah 
Trxteman — Mod. Qerm. Drumakk. 

The following seem to be from Anglo-Saxon 
griUan, ad litem provocare. There is only one 
Old Genn. name, which Forstemann thus derives. 

SIMPLBFORMa 

Eng. Grox^ Greele, Greelt, Crillt, Crealet — French 
Grill^ Grilly, Gbeel. 

OOHFOUinXL 

(HaH, warrior) French Gbeluer. (Man J Old Genn. 
Grilieman, 10th cent — Eng. GRSBLMAir. 

From the Goth, draban, Ang.-Saxon dr^an, 
to hew, slash, wound, are probably the following. 

SIMPLB FORJC& 

Drab. Old Genn. Drebi, 8th cent. Eng. Trapp, Tripp. Mod. 

To tiMh. Qerm. Trappb. French Trappe^ Tribou. 

DDfiNimyBaw 
Old Germ. Trebel, 10th cent Eng. Drabble, Travel^ 
Treble. French Treboul, Trsful. 

OOHPOUNDS. 

(Wold, power) Old German Trapold, 9th cent — ^French. 
Trabold, Drevault. 

In an age of hand-to-hand conflict, when 
every man had to depend on the strength of his 
own arm and the temper of his own steel, a tried 
and trusted weapon was naturally regarded with 
a feeling something aldn to veneratioa 



TH£ WABBIOR AND HIS ARMS. 197 

We find, both in the Celtic and Teutonic 
myths, that the sword of a celebrated warrior 
was often distinguished by a proper name, and 
that magical or peculiar properties were not 
unfirequently attributed to it. Thus the cele- 
brated sword called Skofnung, which belonged to 
the Icelandic warrior Hrolf Kraki, and which 
was afterwards carried away out of his grave, 
could not, as related in Scandinavian myths^ be 
drawn in the presence of women, or so that the 
sun shone upon the hilt, without losing something 
of its virtue. 

The sword of Roland was called Durenda^ a 
word which also occurs frequently in the names 
of men, where it is probably derived, at least in 
many cases, from the weapon of the renowned 
champion. In France, at the present day, the 
name is extremely common. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old German Durand, Duorant, 9th and following cen- JP°^^ 
turies. DorandnSy Lib. VU. Eng. Dubaivd. Mod. Qerm. 
DoBAND, DuRAND. French Du&anp, I>u&Ain>EAU, Buraitt. 
ItaL DUBAJTDT, DuBAinx). 

COMPOUND. 

(Eard, fortis) French Dubandabd. 
Names derived from weapons are extremely 
common, but not, as it seems to me, at least as 
the general rule, in any metaphorical sense, but 
rather on the principle referred to p. 18, That 
is, in simple forms, the ancient termination gives 
the sense of ** one having a sword,'" *" one having 
a spear,'" &c. 



Swwdo* 



Sword. 



198 THE WABHIOB AND HIS ARMS. 

Sword itself is not common ; it is found in an 
Old Germ. Sueridus, 4th cent. — ^in the name 
Swerting, of a Goth mentioned in Beowulf — and 
in Svertingr, the name of four Northmen in the 
Landnamabok. 

BIMPLB FOBM& 

Old Germ. Sueridus, 4th cent. Eng. Swobd. Modem 
Germ. Sghwjsrdt. French Soubd, Soubdeau^ Sebdou, Sebt. 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Here, warrior) Eng. Swobdeb, Sobtob — Fr. Soubdu^bb. 
(Or else the same as Old English <' sworder,** swordsman ?) 
{Wal^ stranger) Eng. Sobtwell — French Soubdeyal. 

A more common word is brandy Old Norse 
brandr, signifying literally a torch, a burning, 
but metaphorically a sword, from its shining, in 
which sense it is still used in poetry. Graff gives 
it the former meaning in proper names, but 
Forstemami, more reasonably, as I think, the 
latter. It was common among the Lombards, 
and among the Northmen, but not among the 
Saxons, nor, except as a termination, among the 
Franks. Another form in Ang.-Sax. and Old 
Fries, is brand. The Brondings are a people 
mentioned in Beowulf also in the Scdp or Bard's 
song. 

SIMFLEFOBMB. 

Old German BrantiLo, 9th cent. Old Noise Brandr, 
Bnnd, BiandL English Bbaio), Bbandt, Bbutt, Bbond, Bbemt — 
BroBd. Mod. German Bbandt — French B&and, Bbaiidt, Bbaxtbau, 
Bbakdao, Pbakd. 

DrmNTTTIYEB. 

Old C^erm. Brandila^ 5th cent — ^Eng. Bbaitdlb — ^Modern 
Germ. Bravdxl — French Bbaiidelt, Bboitdel. Old Germ. 



Sword. 



THE WABRIOR AKD HIS ABMa 199 

Brandalenus, 8th cent. — £ng. B&ahdukg — Modem German 
BBiNDLEiN. Eng. BRAin)i8;* BsAiffDisH — Modem Geraian 
Bbandeis — French BRAin)£S. 

OOMPOlTNDa. 

(Hard) English Brandabd. {Herey warrior) English 
Brakdeb — French Bbokder (or same as Old English 
^'sworder/' swordsman.) {Ramy raven) Eng. Brandbak. 
{R^i counsel) Eng. Braitobeth — ^Mod. Germ. Bbandboth. 
(Rice^ powerfdl) Eng. Bbandbiok. 

As a termination I find it in three English 
names, Gilubband, Shiebbband, and Hilde- 
BBAND. And in five French, Albband, Aude- 

BBAND, ChABBAND, OhEEBBBANT, and HiLDE- 

bband. Perhaps we may find another in Mali- 
bban. The name of the Dutch pq^inter, Bem- 
bbanbt, comes in here. 

Another word signifying a blade, sword, is 
Old Fries. klingCy Germ, and Dan. Hinge, Dutch 
Jding. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Qld Germ. Ohlincho, 9th cent English CLnra, CluNao,^J^,j^ 
OuNK, GLiNCHy Qlescsl Modem Qerman KLma, Klikk, 

KliENCKEL 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Eng. Olinkabd — ^Mod. Germ. Kunkhabdt — 
French Glenchabd. 

There is considerable probability that in 
proper names, spade (Ang.-Sax. spada. Old High 
German spata), had the meaning of sword. 
Forstemann observes that this sense obtains in 
the Romanic languages and in Polish. And the 

* Perlutps, nther, the ending in these names maj be, u Pott hM it^ from 
tU, iron. And thns B&aitdzb, fta, may be the oonyene of the Old Oeim. munee 
Ttbnnd, IianbxKnd, ''Iron-iwoid." 



200 THE WABEIOB AND HIS ABMB. 

probability is increased by the feet that plough, 
as hereafter noticed, had sometimes the meaning 
of spear. 

SIMPLE FOSHB. 

^^ Old Qerman Spatto, 9tli cent. English Spade, Spadt, 

Speight. Mod Genn. Spaeth, Spit. French Spada. 

OOMPOUmMl 

{Man) Eng. Spademan. {Hert^ warrior) Eng. Spader. 
(Or perhaps more probably aame as ** aworder," swoTdsman.) 

A fourth word for a sword is Groth. meki^ 
Ang.-Sax. meche. There is a Meaca mentioned 
in the Sc6p or Bard's song, as ruling the Myrg- 
ings (the people of the Old Nordalbingia), whose 
name seems to be from this origin. This root is 
very difficult to separate from another, mic, pro- 
bably meaning great. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old German Meco, 9th cent. Meaca^ Sti^ or Bard^s 

Swordr 9Whg, Eng. Mmnrj M khrk v^ MsBCH. 

PATBONTMIC. 

Engliflh Mi^EKiKCk 

00MP0T7ND. 

(J7er0, warrior) Eng. Meekbb. 

From the Ang.-Sax. seax or sex, a dagger or 
short sword, it is supposed by some writers — ^and 
this theory I think has the greatest probability 
— that the Saxons have derived their name. 
Hence in proper names the meaning may some- 
times be that of the nation, and sometimes that 
of the weapon. 

SIMPLE FOEMfl. 

Old Germ. Sax, Saxo, 7th cent. S»xa, genealogy of ihs 
Ecut Saxon kings. Eng. Saze, Sex, Sezet, Six. Modem 
Germ. Sachs, Sax. French Sax, Six. 



Meek, 



Sn, Sax. 
Dagger. 



THS WABBIOE AND HIS AKIf& 201 

i>DiiKir!nvx. ooMPOtmx 

Engliflh Saxl. (Mer, famous) Eng. Sxxxeb. 

The father of the above Sasxa was called 
Sledda. This seems to be from Old Norse deddc^ 
a faulchion or curved sword. We seem to have 
here one of the instances of the earliest attempts 
at a &mil7 name. The &ther being called by a 
name signifying a sword, the son is called by a 
name perfectly different in sound, yet having the 
same meaning ; so as, without any confrision, to 
connect him with his &ither. The following 
names come in here. 

SIMPLE FOBMSb Skdai 

Sledcb^ OresL East Sax. kings. Eng. Slak, Slate, Slight. rMkhiaar 

PHOlOCnC EVDINO. COlfPOUNDa 

EDg. SLiJ>EN. {Heret warrior) Eng. Sladeb, Slatbb I 
A very ancient name is Knife, which appears 
in the name Cniva^ of a Gothic king of the 3rd 
cent, in Jomandes. Two centuries later we find 
in the same author a Grothic name Cnivida. 
This has the same meaning, ^ knife-wood,'' a 
poetical or pleonastic expression for a knife. 

filMFLK FOBMB. 

Old Germsn CniTa, 3rd cent, GniTm. Eaglish KNin, ^^ 
Ehife; Cankotb (Mcmck,) Med Qerm. Enikp. French 
Oannbta, Ohkneykau. ItaL Oahoya % 

GOMPOUn}>& 

{Vidj vood) Old Qerman Cmvida, 5th cent — ^Engliflh 
Ehttbit — Eraich GAHivxr, Ganxvet. 

We see how in the English knife and in the 
French canif the awkwardness of the initial k 
has been variously got rid of — in the one case by 
dropping it in the pronunciation altogether, and 

z 



202 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABMfL 

in the other by the introductioD of a vowel, so as 
to make it a dissyllable, as is the case in some of 
the above namea The latter course we have 
ourselves adopted in the name of the English 
king Canute, properly Gnut or Knut. 

There are more names derived from the spear 
than from the sword. One of the most common 
of all roots is Ang.-Sax. gdr^ Old Norse geivy Old 
Sax. and Old Friea gSr. Forstemann thinks 
that ger, avidus, and garo, paratus, may mix up 
with this root. The Old Frankish forms char 
and car, of Aar, army, are also often difficult to 
separate. 

Ckm^GMs; BDIPLB FOBM& 

Gtom. Old Oerzo. Gero, Kero, Caro, 7th cent Old None Geir, 

^^^' GeirL Eng. Gare^ Garbt, Gabrow, Gebbe, Gbabt, Gobb, 

GuBB, Jaby, Jeaby, Gabb, Gabby, Oabew, Gobb^ Goby, 

EjSBB. Mod. GeroL Gehb, GdHB, Kshb. French Gabay, 

Gabe^ Gabby, Gabbau, Gbby, Gbbay, GniY, Guou, Gobbb, 

GUBBBE, GUEBBY, GoEB, JaYB, JABBY, OaBEY, CaBK^ 

Gabeau, Goba, Gobu. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old G^rm. Gericho, Kericho^ 8th oeut — ^Eng. Gabbiok, 
Gerich, Oabbick, KEBBmGE — ^Mod. Germ. Gebicee, G^bich 
— ^Frendi Guebioo, Gobiok. Old German Gerlo, Kerilo, 
Gherilo, 8th cent — ^Eng. Gabell, Gibl 9 Kebley, Kebbell, 
OmcBBnji — ^Mod. Germ, "gieitm.ig — ^French Gaibel, Gabuel, 
Gabbel, Gabblla, Gueubei^ Gabel, Goballl Engliflh 
Gablikg, Gabldio, Oablen, GnajNG — ^French Gabbelok, 
Garlin, Oablif. English Gabbab, Gebibh — ^Frendi G^bbz^ 
Gorez, Gorissi^ Garraz. Eng. Gerkik — ^Modern German 
Gherken — French Oabqus^. 

PATBONYMIOB. 

Old Germ. Geiing, 8th cent — English Gabiho, Gobiho, 
Geabibg — Mod. Genn. GsBUf o, G5bivo. 



THB WABRIOB AND HIS ARMa 203 

OOMPOUinM 

(And, life, spirit) Old Qerm. Geraad, 8th cent — ^French 
Garajxb, Gerandv, Qebemti^ Qorakd, Gu^band. (Bad, hety 
war) Old Germ. Keipato^ 8th cent. — ^Eng. Gabbett — French 
Gebbbt, Guebbet. (Baldj bold) Old Germ. Garibald, diike in 
Bayaria^ 6th cent^ Kerbald — ^Eng. Gobbold, Gobbell, Cob- 
BOXTLD— Frendi Gabibax., Gebbault, Gibbal — ^ItaL Gabi- 
BALDiy Gebbaldl (^^t^ bright) Old Geim. Garibert^ 7th Cent, 
Gerbert — ^Mod. Qerm. Gsebebt — Fren. Gebbzbt. (Brand, 
sword) Old German Gerbrand, 9ih cent. — ^Eng. Gabbbakp, 
17th cent — ^French Gheebbbant. (Brun, bright?) Old 
Geim« Gerbnm — ^Eng. Gk>BEBBOWV. (Bod, but, envoy) Old 
G^eiman Gaerbod, 8th cent — Gerbodo, Domesday Torht. — 
Eng. Gabbutt — ^Mod. Germ. GEBBOTH-T-Frenoh Gebbaud, 
Gbbbaut. (Hard) Old German Garehard, 7th cent, Ger- 
hard, (Gerard, Girard — Eng. Gabrabd, Gebabd— Modem 
German Gebhabd — French Gebabd, GibabDi GmABDnr 
(French dimin,) Gui^babd. (Hari, warrior) Old German 
Ckraheri, Caroheri, Gerher — Eng. Cababt, Cabbieb — ^Mod. 
Cknn* Gehbeb, TCigirRTeit — Fren. Gabsdsb, Gebbebb, GnuEB, 
GiTEBBXSB, Jabbieb, Cabbtt^rw. (Loc, pkj) Old €(erman 
Gerlac — ^Eng. Gablick — Mod. Germ. Gerlagh. (Land) 
Old Germ. Gerland, 9th cent, Jerlent, 11th cent — English 
Gablaitd, CajbSjAXD — French Jabland. (Ma/n) Old Germ. 
Garaman, Garaman, German — ^Ang.-Sax. Jaruman, bishop 
of Meroia — English Gabiian, Gebman, Gebmany, Gobkan, 
JabicaKj Cabkah, Kebman— Mod. German GEBMAior, Kab- 
iCAEir — Frendi Gebman, Gebmain, Oa&aman. {Mwnd, pro- 
tection) Old German Garimund, Germund, 7th cent — Old 
Norse Gkirmnndr — English Gabment — ^French GEEicoim, 
Guebmoet, Cabment. (Not, bold) Old Germ. Gamot, 8th 
cent — Eng. Gabnetiv— French Gabkot, Gubrkbt, Cabnot. 
(Bod, red) Old German Kaerrod, 8th cent— Old Norse 
Geirrandr— English Gabbod — ^French Gibod, Cabqd. (Laif, 
relic) Old Germ. Gerlif— Old Norse Geirleifi^--Eng. Gebloff. 
(FwMk, life, spirit) Gerferth, lAb. Fi&— English Gabforta. 
(SUn^ stone) Old German Eerstin, 11th cent — Old Norse 
Geirstinn — ^English Gabstie. (Fo^c^, power) Old German 



204 THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABMa 

GuiTald, GftToldy Qerwald, Gerald — ^English Gsbhocd^ 
Oakboid, Jarboid, Jsbbold — ^Mcdem Oennaa Gsehold^ 
Geboid — ^French GARAVur, Gerault, GntAULD, Gukboult. 
{Ward, goardian) Old German Chirward, Geroard — French 
GiBOUABa (WoB, wu, ooaiageoofl) Old German Gerras — 
Eng. JxRYn— French Gebyaisb. (Fii, wood*) Old Germ. 
Gervida, 7th cent. — ^Enj^uh Gabvood, Gubwood, Jebwood. 
(Wiff, wi, war) Old Germ. Gerayig, Gerwi, BA cent— Bng. 
Oabbaway, Gobwat, Gabyet, Jabvie, Oabbowat. (SUnd, 
way, joomej) Old German Gerdnda, 8th cent. — Frendi 
Gabzend, Guebsaht. (Wine, Mend) Old German Girwin^ 
Gannn, Oaroin — ^Eng. Cubwen— Modem German GsBWiHy 
Kebwdt — ^French GABYnr. (Wan, beauty f) Old German 
Gerayan, 11th cent — Eng. Oabatak. 
PHONETIC SNDnro. 
Old German Garino, Gerin, 7tii cent. English GoBKir. 
Mod. German €t5BEK. French Gabik, Guebut, Gxtbbihsau. 

The oldest form of gar, as found in the 
Gothic, is gdiSy which shows the identity of the 
word with the old Celt, gais, weapon, the gwsum 
of Caesar, a sort of javelin used by the Gaids, and 
the Greek yaitro^. Forstemann finds a difficulty 
in the fact that the word is found in personal 
names long after Gothic times^ as late as the 
10th cent. But the theory which I have else* 
where proposed as to the adoption of names in 
many cases simply as having been borne by men 
who had gone before, is, I think, sufficient to 
account for this. Such names would generally — 
but not invariably — ^follow the changes of the 
languaga The name of the great Vandal king 
Genserich, is in some readings, Gaiserich, and 
would come in here. 

* Aiig.-Su. gar-wudu, ipaar-wood, • ipew. 



THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABM& 205 

SIMPLE lOfilia 

(Ml. 

Old Genu. Gaioo, Geeao, 6th cent. Eng. Qase, Geaxey, gp,^ 
OAtE^ Gasbt, E1at& French Gaze, Caze, Jiz& 
DiMiNunyEa. 

English Gazelle, Cazalt — French Gazel^ Gazelius, 
Cazel. French Cazaloegt 

OOMPOnifDB. 

(ffard^ fortis) £ng. Gazabd — French Gaissabd. (B'0ref 
wani<») Casere, Gen. kings of the East Angles — 1>^ g1ia>» 
Catzeb f (Mtmd, protection) Eng, Oasememt t (Baud, 
red) French Jazebaud.* 

From the Gelt, gais, weapon, the Gaelic tongue 
forms gaisge, bravery. And probably from some 
German form of the same word comes Eng. gash, 
to cut. Whether of these two meanings is to be 
found in the following group I cannot say, as the 
German character is not very strongly marked, 
and as I find no ancient names to correspond. 
Perhaps also, as Pott suggests, the French 
Gabg may be the same as Gascon. 

simple FOBMa 

Eng. Gash, Cash, Cashow, Oask, Oaskt. Mod. Germ. ^^J^^ 
Easch, Kask& French Gaso, GaschiI 
nD miUTiVK 
Englidi GASXELL.t 

OOHPOXmDS. 

(Man J English Cabhmak? (Hari, warrior) English 

GASHBYt 

Another form from the same root as gar and 
gais is gaid, English " goad," to which I put the 
following. 



ito««Reooiidfrlthlli«OU ]foiMO«lBMMk. Ildi 
have taken to b« foneakUy from Another 'word, hrdd, gloxy. 

t Or Moording to ICc Arthur, from OmL ChUgtO^ Tallanl 



206 THE WABRIOR AMD HIS ABM& 

D,^ Old Oerman Gaido, Oaide, 9th eent Engluh Oads, 

Gatb, Cade, Gatb, Oato. Mod. German Gaibb. French 
Gaidi^ Gaittb, Gattte. 

ooMFOinrDa. 
(Bon^ fiital,) Bug. GA]>BAN-«EVench Oatteboh. (Chur^ 
spear) Eog. Gataker — French Gatbchaib. (Hart, wanior) 
English Gaiteb, Cater. 

The root sp forms maay of the words signify- 
ing a weapon or sharp instrument, and forms 
them perhaps in two different sensea One sense 
may be that of darting or shooting forth, as 
found in spew, spout, spirt, speed — ^the other that 
of diminution, as found in spare, speck, split, spin 
(to draw out or attenuate), sparrow, spink (small 
birds), sprat (small fish), &c., — ^this gives the 
sense of a fine or sharp point. 

In the latter sense I take it is formed the 
word spear, Ang.-Sax. spere. Old High German 
and Old Sax. spSr, cognate with Latin sparus, kc 
It is by no means a common word, either in 
ancient or modem names. 

SmFLB rOBlOL 

Old German Spenia, 8th cent English Sfbab, Sftxe. 
Mod. German Speee. French Spibe^ Sputa 

PATBONTMICB. 

Engiiah Spbabiko^ Spnuora Mod. Getm. SpoBiNa 

OOMFOUZnXL 

(Man J Eng. Speabmak. (Wine, Mend) Eng. Spebwqt. 

From the same root as spear comes spit — 
Old Norse spiot, Daa spyd, Dutch speet, ItaL 
spiedo. Old High Germ, spiz, Mod Germ, spiess, 
all having the same meaning of dart or spear. 



Spew. 



THB WABBIOB AKD HIS ABMa 207 

and no doubt closely allied to the word spade, 
p. 200. I do not find any ancient names to cor- 
respond with the following. 

taxnjt roBMa spa 

Engi SpiTTTy Spitti, S^it^ Svekd, Spicb. Mod. Qwol flptir. 
BvsMBa. 



BfXU 



A third form firom the same root is spik( 
Old Norse aptk, falcicula» Dutch y^njk, pike» Lat. 
spied, pointy &c. The Old Norse spekia, philoso- 
phari spdkr, wise, speki, wisdom, might inter- 
mix in the following names. 

SmPLB FOBU& 

Spech, Dinneida^. Eng. Speak, Bpiok, Bpikx. Mod. Pdnt 
Genoan Spxck. French Spicq. 

OOKPOUNDfl. 

CManJ Engliflh SPEAiocAir, Bpixsiun. Mod. German 
SpscxxAinr. 

From the root sp above referred to, and pro- 
bably in the former of the two senses, is formed 
Ang.-Sax. 8p7*eot, sprit, which has the double 
sense of sprout^ branch, twig, and also of dart 
or spear. In the latter sense might be taken the 
English names Sprout, Spboat, Sfbatt, ftc., but 
there is another sense allied to that of sprouting, 
viz., that of vigour, activity, *' sprighthness,'' to 
which, on the whole, I have thought it better 
elsewhere to place them. 

Another word for a spear was Old Norse 
doerr, probably firom the Sansc. root tar, to pene- 
trate, to which Forstemann places the following 
ancient name& The word dn/rand, durant, p. 197, 
I take also to be firom this origin. 



208 THB WABRIOB AND Hlfl ABMa 

amPLK F0B1I& 
^^^^' Old German Tano, Terra, Torro, 9th cent. Terri, Lib. 
ViL Engliah Dabb, Dabbow, Doob, Dobet, Dubei^ Tabb, 
Tabbt, Tebbt, Tobbt. Mod. German Doobb. Frencli 
Dabt, Dabbu, Dob^ I>ob4 Dobt, Dobeau, Dubb, Dubby, 
DuBBAUy DuBU, Tab^ Teb&at, Tbbbk. 
DiMnnrriyBs. 
Old German Darila, 9th cent — Eng. Dabbbll, Dablet, 

DOBBELL, DuBELLy DuBLET^ TC7BBELL — French DOBEL, 

DuBELy Tablat, Tubsli.. 

FHOSETIO ENDIMG. 

BngUflh DoBAE. French DoBDiy ToBur, 

OOMPOUNBa 

(Bcn^ &tal) Eng. Dobboe* — French Takabok. fOaud, 
Goth) Eng. Dabaoott— French Daboaud. (Ound^ war) 
Old Germ. Taragan,t 9th cent. — Eng. DABBiaasr, Dabgav 
— French Tabagon, Taboaet, Daboenns. ^Here, warrior) 
Eng. Tabbyeb, Tebbieb — Fren. Dabieb, TEBBiEBy Tebbeub, 
(Oit, hostage 1 comrade 9) Eng. Dabkies — ^Fren^ DoBCEOESy 
TuBOiB. (Man) English Dobxak, Dubman — Mod. German 
DoBMANK. (MmTy fitmons) Old German Terrimar, 9th cent. 
— ^English DoBMEB — ^Mod. Germ. Dobmeieb— French Doeb- 
MEB. {J^<a, bold) Old German Temod, 9th cent. — ^Engliah 
Tebvottth — ^French TabitaxtI), Dabhet. (Wine, friend) Old 
Ctocm. Daroin, 8th cent. — ^English Dabwin. (Wold, powcoc) 
Old Germ. Derold — Mod Genn. Dabold, Tubhold— -French 
Dabbalde, Dobyault. 

from the above root dar I take to be formed 
Ang.-Sax. darSth^ English dart, foimd in two or 
three ancient names. 

SIMPLE FOBH& 

D«t Qi^ German Daredna,! Tarit ? 8th cent. Eng. Dabdy> 



• FOntamaBn hM no ezamplM of 6«fi m an ending. Bat it eridflotlf oooon 
In MnM of tliA woxdi tlgnitjing spear, m In OAonjjr, p. 9(ML 

f YOntenuum aeems to think thii name oom4)ted. Onlj, I pranuna, In w 
for that it has lort the final dL 

t YOntemann does not place either of these two names here. Daredus, he 
snggeslB, maj slndfor Bagrsdnt ; aid Tailt he plaees to tlie root dm, with mt 
ending probably phonetia Bat from the root dar with saoh an ending nnj not 
the word dorsM^ dart, be tonnadr 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS ARMS. 209 

Bart, Deabth, Tabt, Tarratt ? French Darter Dard, 
Dardib, Tard, Tardt, Tardu, Tarids 1 Tarratte t 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Barton, French Baivdenne, Baridan. 

OOlCFOUNDa 

(J7an, warrior) Old German Birodhar, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Barter, Tarter — French Bardier, Taratre, Tarttee, 
Tartart. 

From the Old High Germ, ecca^ Mod Germ. 
eckey Ang.-Sax. ecg^ edge, sharpness, cognate with 
Lat. adeSy &c., and from the root found in Sansc. 
cLgy ac, to pierce, I take the forms ag, ac, egr, ec, 
widely spread in proper names. And I also in- 
clude the forms hag^ hoc, though Old Norse hagr^ 
handy, useful, might be suitable. Grimm, how- 
ever, explains the name Hagen as "spinosus.'' 
Still it must be admitted that the varied forms 
of the group suggest the probability of an admix- 
ture of roots. 

simple forms. 

Old German Ago, Acoo, Hago, Hacco, Ego, Eggo, Eeco, 
Hego, Hecco, Aiko, Aio, Eyo, 4th cent. Old Norse HakL ^g, Ack, 
English Ago, Ague, Ache, Ake, Akey, Haig, Haggie, Bck. 
Hack, Haw, Hay, Ego, Ego, Edge, Eye, Heggie, Heck, 
Hedge. Mod. German Acke, Egge, Ecke, Hacke, Heye. 
French Hacq, Hache, Hage, Haye. 
diminutives. 

Old Germ. Hagilo, Hachili, Eccila, 9th cent. — Ang.-Sax. 
Hagel, Cod, Dip. — Eng. Haoel, Heckle, Hatt. — Modem 
Germ. Hickel — Freneff HeckliS. Old German Hacchilin, 
Echelin, 8th cent. — Eng. Aghlin, Hailing — Mod. German 
HlGELEN — French Egalin. 

COMPOUNDS 

(Rwrdy fortis) Old German Agihard, Achard, Aicard, 
Eckhard, Heocard, 8th cent. — English Achabd, Haggabd — 

A 2 



210 THB WABRIOB AND HIS ABM& 

Mod. Germ. Egkardt, Haoasv, Hagkbbx — Freack AcsASi; 
Aycabd, Haoabd. (Hariy vanior) Old Gennan Agihai; 
Agar, Aichar, Aiher, Egiher, Ha^er, 8th cent. — ^Eng. Aoab^ 
Acre, Ayeb, Eaoeb, Hagab — Mod. Germ. Acxxb, ATmnen^ 
Egeb, ELageb, Hater — Frenoh Agar. (Bam^ ran, raven) 
Old German Agranmoa, Agvanniu^ SUh oeni.*-BDg; AcBOV, 
AooRH t — French Agram, Agron. (Lae, play) Old German 
Ekkileich, 9th cent. — ^Frendi Aclooquk (^/y ^bu) Old 
Germ. Ailiv, 9th cent — Old Norae Eylifir — ^Eng. Atuffk 
(Mar, famous) Old German Agomar, Aimarj 7th cent. — 
French Ayxer. (Man J Old German S^man, 9th cent. — 
Eng. AiKMAN, Hackmak, Hedgman, Batman — ^Mod. Germ. 
HACHXAinf 9 Heckmaith^ Hatmanh — Fr. Hsnoar. (Mtmd, 
protection) Old Germ. Agimond, Ekimnnt^ 9th oentw — Old 
Norse Agmnnd, Aamund. — ^Agemund, Dameada/^ — 'Rng1i«!^ 
Hammond — French Agmand, Etmond, Atmoet, Eghement. 
{Not, bold) Old German Eginot— French Aqenet. {Rait, 
counsel) Old German Egered, Aocarad, 7th cent — ^English 
AcrotdI — French Egrot, Etraub. {Wald, power) Old 
Gkrm. Agiovald, Agold, Ekkold, 7th oent-^Mod. German 
EcKHOLDT — French Agoult, Aooault. {Ward, guardian) 
Old Germ. Egoard, 11th cent — Fr. Echiyard, Hacquart. 
{Wine, Mend) Old German Agiwin, 8th cent — French 
AiGOiN. {mf, wolf) Old Germ. Achinlf, a Wem, 0th cent 
— Eng. AcHUFF. 

The root ig or ic, which Forstemann considers 
obscure, I shoiild rather take to be another form 
of ag or ac, as found in Old Fries, ig, pointy edge, 
sword, Lat. ico, &c. 

SIMPLE FORM& 

lo Old Germ. Igd, Ico, 8th cent * Iocin% Be]gio name in 

G<a*sflM. Cnear % Eng. Igo, Hiok. Mod. Germ. Icocb. 

DiMiNTrnvBaL 
Old Germ. Ikjko, 10th cent — ^Eng. Hickook. 

OOMFOUNDS. 

{Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Igol^ 8th oant-^Frenoh Igouf. 



THS WABKIOB AND HIS ABMS. 211 

From the root ag or ac is produced by a 
phonetic termination the form <igin or akin. The 
only appellatives that I find are the Old High 
Germ, agana^ Goth, ahana, Old Norse ogn, stalk, 
stem, spike, North Eng. avm, the beard of barley, 
from' which we may assume for proper names the 
meaning of spear or weapon, 

SDiFLE TOBHa 

Old Germ. Agino, Eggino, Acbino, Hagino, Haino, 7th ^^«^ 
cent Eng. Aqas, Acksn, Aikut, Haoen, Haoon, Hain.* ^^^'^ 
Mo<L G^rin. Haqket, Hxrins. Ft. Aoobt, Egov, Etchkhne, 
Hagbnb, Haoquin, Hain. 

OOMPOUNDfl. 

{Berif fEunoos) Old Gennan Aganbert, Agembert, 8th 
oent — Eng. Agombab ? — French Eohanbabd. (Fred, peace) 
Old Genn. Aganfred, Ainfired, 8th cent — French Hainfbat. 
(Han, warrior) Old Germ. Agenar, Haginer, 7th cent. — Old 
Nqebo Agnar — Mod. Germ. Kaokeb — French Haoxjenoeb. 
(Hard, fortis) Old GernL Egjuihard, 8th cent.— Mod. Germ. 
Heinhabdt — French Ecqunabd, Iqnabd. 

From the same root ag or ac, is also probably 
formed agil, p. 154, which may have a kindred 
meaning. I have there referred to the word as 
obscure, but I am inclmed to think that it comes 
in here, and^that it corresponds with Ang.-Sax. 
egli a point, eglan, to pierce. 

From the root ag or ac, as a nasalized form 
comes ang or anc (Old High Germ, ango, Ang.- 
Sax. oiiga, goad, prick, point), to which I put the 
following. There are several other names, par- 
ticularly French, which would seem to come in 

* A fonn Ain appeus to be fonnd In names of placet, m Alnsl«f and 



212 THE WABRIOB AND HIS ABMS. 

here, but a comparison with the Old Frankish 
names shows the original form to have been ing. 
At the same time I feel by no means sure that 
the root tngr, except as a termination, is not often 
the same as ang. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

^^ Old Germ. Anco, Hanoo, 8th cent Eng. ? Ang, Hako 

Pdnt. (^<>^^*ck). Mod. Germ. Anke, Hanke. French Ang4 
Akgut. 

cx>mpotjnd& 
{WvMy Mend) Old German Ancoin, 8(h cent — English 
Angwin — French AKGEvm. 

As agil from ag, so angil seems to be formed 
from ang. The appellative corresponding is 
Ang.-Sax. angel^ a hook, but in proper names I 
should rather suggest the meaning of a barbed 
spear. The theory which derives the Saxons 
from their seaxc or knife, the Lombards from their 
hart or axe, and the Franks from their ^arica or 
javelin, derives the Angles also from their angd 
or hook. In proper names then we may hesitate 
whether to take the weapon, or the people's name, 
or, if we accept the above theory,, the one as 
derived through the other. Forstemann also 
proposes the Lat. angeluSy as a word of Christian 
introduction, with an admixture of ingil^ as an 
extended form of the root ing. My own impres- 
sion — taking all the above groupings together, 
and finding in them one common root — ^is in 
favour of the prevailing meaning of weapon. 

^^jj^ 8IMPLB FORMS. 

Hook. Old German Angilo, Engilo, Ingilo, 7th cent English 

Barb. 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS ABMS. 213 

Angil^ AiroLET, AnoELOy "Esqauj, Ikous, Ingblow. Mod. 
German Ahgele, Engel, Inqel. FreDch Akgel^ Enosl^ 
Ingel. 

DIMINtTnyBBu 

Old GemL Angelin, 9tli oent— Eng. Anglot — ^Modern 
Germ. Enqelik, Englen — French Encelaik. 

OOMPOUIOW. 

(BeH, bright) Old Germ. Angilbert, Engilbert, 8th oent. 
Eng. Enolebubtt — Mod. German Enqlebbeght — French) 
Inghelbbbghi^ (ffa/id, ''hood") Old Germ. Anglehaidub 
9ih cent— :Fr. Angladb. (Hard) Old German Angilhart, 
Engelhart, 8th cent — ^Engliiih Engleheabt — Mod. German 
Engelhabdt — French Ahgla&d. (JTiere, warrior) Old Germ. 
Angelher, Engilher, 8th cent. — Eng. Angler — Mod. Genn. 
Engleb — French Angelder. (Land) Old Genn. Ingaland 
— ^Eng. England. (Man) Old G^rm. Angilman, 8th cent. 
— Eng. Angleman — ^Modern German Englbkann. {Mtmd^ 
protection) Old (xerman Angelmund, 8th cent — French 
Anglement. {Dioy servant) Old Germ. Angildeo, Engildiu, 
8th cent — Anglo-Saxon Angeltheow — English Ingledew. 
{Sindy via) Old Germ. Ingilsind, 9th cent — Eng. Inglesent. 

Another root with the probable meaning of 
spear or sharp instrument is to be found in Aug.- 
Saxon staca^ stake, spear — sticca, stick, spike — 
stician, to pierce — Old Norse sticki, dagger, &c. 

SIMPLE FOSMS. 

Staek. 

Old GemL Stacco, 9th cent, Stucchns, 8th cent Eng. g^^^ 
Stack, Stag, Stick, Stock, Stuck, Stuokey. Mod. Germ, coipta. 
Stacks, SncH, Stock, Stucke. French Stach, Stocq. 

C0MP0T7ND& 

{Here, warrior) Old German Stacher, 9th cent — ^English 
Stakes, Stickeb, Stokeb, Stockeb — Mod. Germ. Stbcker. 
(Hard) Eng. Stackabd — ^Mod. Germ. Steckebt, Stichebt, 
Stockhabdt. (Man) Eng. Stackman, Stagkan, Stickiian, 
Stockman — Modem German Stackemann, Stegemann, 
Stockmann. 



214 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABMa 

From staca, sticca, a sharp pointy is iS>nned, 
perhaps as a diminative. Old High German 
stachiUa, cuspi£f, Old Norse stickiU* a sharp 
poiot. 

SIMPLBFOBM& 

Eng. Stagoall^ SrEoaALL^ SnoKLS^ Stockill. Modem 
Genu. SncKsi^ Stockxl. 

OOMFOUNDS. 

{Hm^ wurior) Eog. Stagkud, Siigkleb, 8ioo<)UEiiSft — 
Mod. Genn. BrxBcajBiL 

A nasalised form of sloe or stic I take to be 
stang^ sting (Ang.-Saxon stCBtig^ styng, pole, or as 
Forstemami suggests, spear, stingian^ to pierce^ 
stab). None of the aiKnent names in Fdrste* 
mann's list fall in with this group. 

BDfPLS FQKBia 

sung. JSng. &FASK, BnNa Mod. Genn. SrAxra Mod. Daa. 

^^^ BrAJxax, SmrcK I 

Bpewr O0]fPOI7inD& 

{Hars wttrrior) Old Non» Staogar — ^EngUah Stavges, 
SnNGXB. (i/on) Eng. Stinohxan. 

As spade in some ancient dialects was used in 
the sense of sword, so plough (Ang.-Saxon plog, 
Old High Oerm. ploh)y had in a similar manner 
the sense of spear. This obtained in Old High 
GffimaD^ and Stark gives that meaning to the 
following three ancient namesi 

8DEPUS FOiBinL 

Old Germ. Bhe, 11th oenl Pluooo, Lib. VH &q^ 
^^^ "Pluck, Pluog, Plough, Bloci^ Blogkkt, Blogg, Bwck^ 
Btow. Mod. Gorman PtilGGB, Block. Eranok PtooQUE^ 
Plov, BLoa 

* Hanoe the lammit oalled BtloUe PUn in Coinberliiid, and fha a«nnAli 



Bpauf 



THE WABBIOB AND HIS ASMS. 215 

DDONl/TlVJfii 

Old German Plagelo, 13th cent. French Blooajllb, 
Bloquel. 

phoketio skdinq. 

Old Qerm. Pluckone, 1 3th oent Eng. Blowsv. French 
Floquih, Pluqitik, FLOunr. 

OOKPOXTNDa 

(Hdmy helmet) French Plougoulil (Hem, warrior) 
Eng. Blowzb — Modem Qerman PLUCSSBy I^ioger — French 
Ployeb^ Bjjoqoi£&i^ (Mem) Eng. Ploughman — Modem 
GemL Blockmann. {Not, bold) Plukenet, EMBaU. AVb.— 
Eng. Plucknbtt.* 

Tacitus tells us that the Germaos were generally 
armed with a short spear, adapted either for close 
or distant fighting, and which was called in their 
language ^amea. From this word, apparently 
allied to the Modem Grermanj^^iem, Forstemann 
derives the following ancient names, which are 
mostly FrankisL 

SIMPLE FOBMS. ^ 

English Framed Feeem. French Fej^mt, Fbemeau^ Fnun. 

FbOMM4 FoBMB. 9P«r- 

DDULNUTlVKSw 

Eng, Fbemldt. French FBOMniKUr. 

FHOmBXIO ENDING. 

Old Germ. Fermin. Ferminna, Lib. 7iU Eng. FsBMcr. 
French Fbemin, Fbemineau, Febmin. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(B<dd, fortis) Old German Frambold, 8th oent. — ^French 
Fbadgbaui/t. {Hcvriy warrior) Old German Franmder, 9ih 
oent. — ^French Fbemieb, Fbemebt, Fbbmebt. {Man) Old 
German Framan, 9th oent. — French Fbomain. (Mund, 
protection) Old Germ. Framnnd, 8th cent — ^Eng. Fbomunt, 
Fbbmont— French Fb^ont, Fboment. 

* PorhApi, If ftdight compttoDi Pl^wnff. 



8pwr. 



216 THE WARBIOB AKD HIS ABM& 

FHONVnC INTBU8I0K OF «k 

{fi<ur^ Spear) Old German Fnunengar, 8th cent — BngliA 

FiBMIHGEB — ^fVench FsEMUNGEBy FbEMAKOOUB t 

From the Gothic and High German ast^ 
branch, also spear (cognate with Lat. hastaf)^ 
Forstemaim takes the following root. 

SDfPLB FOBHa 

Eng. AsT^ EsTE, EsTT. French Ebte, HEsrrEAxr. 

DDOMUTiVJfil 

Eng. Ahtle, Ebtle — ^French Astel, Estellb. French 

ESIOOQ. 

COMPOUNDBl 

(ffari, warrior) Old German Asthar, 8th cent. — Engliah 
AffTOB, AsT&AT — French Astieb. (Rie, power) Old Germ. 
ABtericns, 9th cent — Mod. Germ. Ebtrich — ^French Astbuo 
— ^ItaL AsTfiico. (Waard, goaidian) Old German Afidaard, 
9th cent. — French Ebtayabd. ( Wood) EngUah Astwood 
Qike Oanooodp. 204.) 

Perhaps allied in its root to the last word is 
% Ang.-Saz. cbsc, the ash tree. The Ang.-Sax. tesc 
also signified a spear, on account of spears being 
made of ash-wood. For the same reason it like- 
wise signified a ship or a boat. There is a third 
sense derived from Northern mythology {see p. 
142), which might obtain in proper names. But 
on the whole I prefer to take as the general sense 
that of the weapon. 

SOCPLB FORMS. 

Mac, son of Hengist. Old Norse Askr. English A&H| 
^^ As»K. AsKXT. Mod. Germ. Asghe, Esch. 

8p6ir. ^ 

DDfXNUTiVKS. 

Old German Askila> 4th cent. — ^Eng. Haskell — ^French 
AsooUy EsQXTiLLB. Old German AsceUn, 11th cent — Eng. 
AsHLor— French Eboalqt. 



TJSB WABBIOE AKP HIS ABVa 217 

(.Arc, &B10II8) Ang-^SaY. Machjvbt (fi)imd in .<£acbgrrlitfl9« 
geati Cod. Dip. lOdiy^Magf Ashpa^v* (^ors waniov) 014 
Ghonn* Aflobiriv Ssk^re, 8tli ma%. — Aoglo-Sazpm jSwduv^-^ 
En^^mk JurnVBh^Mod^m Qermm Abchmr, Jk^mxa^VteiDek 
EsGAB^. {B€ildy fortifl) Eng. Abhbouo. (ManJ Old CUnp, 
Ajcip»a— A «chro>n» ffun4» Bolk-S^. Ashkak — Modem 
Q^nnan Ebcqhann — Fre^cli A^scHiiCAinr. (Mar, famous) 
Aiig.-Sax. JESacmtr — Eng. Ashmobe (or local). (Eie, power) 
(M ChnL EBkirleli, SQk cent. — ^Mbd. Geroutt Bbghbioh — 
7w&ch BmiatbjUI. ( Wid, wood) Old Oenn. Asquid— Aaanit^ 
Ihmesday — Eng. Abqwith,* Ashwith, Asswood. {Wmst 
fiiend) Old Qerm. Aansmji^ Stb cent.-^Ang.-Sazon .^Iscwine 
•^Eng. AJ9HWIK. < Ulf, wolf) Old GemL A^woli^ 9th oent.— 
Epg. AsQouao. 

Anotlier word BigDifying dart or spear ia 
Goth, vjzd^ Ang.-Saxon and Old Fries, ord, Old 
High Germ, or*. Old Norse oddr^ to which I put 
the following. Most of our forms in od seem, 
however, rather to be from aud^ prosperity, than 
from the iaboye Old Norse word. 



Old Gem. Orfc, 8tlL ee&t. <Hd None Oddr, OddL Eng. 
Oasbf OBom, Hobd, Hobt, Oiwt. Mod. Qeem. Oimp, Obkh. 
French f Qbth, Hobtus I 

fxwxfmnraa, 

OldOero. Qrtila, 9th oeat^^Eng. SJ^Dis^Mod. Qem. 
OBTSBCr-^ItaL Ovrsud. Mod. Qermaa Ob^ti^no, Obtelit — 
French Obtolak. Eng. Obdish — French HozDSZ (GotMo 
Jarm.) French HoBDEQirnr. 

ooMPomn)& 
(O0r, Epesff) Old QeiTn. Ortger, 8th cent-r-Eng. Obqab ff 
<«*IWnch OvsuKnn. (Soiri, wanior) Old ChwiB. <Mahar, 

* SooM Of these oames might be local 

b2 



Old 
Dttt 



Dtrt. 



218 THE WAKRIOB AND HIS ABMS. 

8ih cent., Hoitarius* (prinoe of the Alamanxii), 4th cent— 
Eng. HoBDEB. {Liiuh, loye) Old Qerm. OrtHub, 1 1th cent- 
Modem German Obtlibb — ^French Hobteloup. (Ward^ 
guardian) Old German Hoidward, 11th cent — "RngKi^K 
Obdwabd. (Wiff, wif war) Old Germ. Ordwig, 9th oent. — 
Eng. Obdwat. 

From the above root ord or odd seems to be 
formed^ by a prefix, the Anglo-Saxon hrord. Old 
Norse broddr, spear, dart^ Old English brode, to 
prick. To this Stark places the following Old 
German names. 

SnCPLB FOBMS. 

Old Germ. Broda^ 13th cent. Ang.-Saa:. Brordb. Old 
^ Norse Broddr. Broth, EoU BaiL Ahh. English Bboai^ 
Bbodib. French Bbot, Bboet, Bbaxtd, Bbodu, Pboteau, 
Pbot. 

PHONETIO ENDING. 

Eng. Pbotyn. French Bbodot, Pbodin. 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Hadf war) Old German Prothadius, 7th cent. — English 
Bbodhead — French Pbothaut. {Hariy warrior) Old Germ« 
Brothar,f Broter, Prodnriiuf, 8th cent. — Brother, King of 
Denmark, Brother, Danish king of Dublin — ^Eng. Bbotbeb, 
Pbotheboe — ^Mod. German Bbttbeb. (i?tc, power) English 
Bbodebiok. 

From the Ang.-Sax. pU^ Old Norse pda^ dart, 
arrow, I take the following. And I do not feel 
at all sure that many other names placed else- 
where to hUy pil, lenitas, placiditas, ought not to 
come in here. 



* Orimm's deilration of this name {Cfeach. d. DmUtdk. Bprcuh.), from Anglo- 
Bazoii eorthfeTf troap, oompuiy, Menu bj no means a aatisfactoiy ona Bat w« 
mnat remember that thii great scholar wrote without the fall data whioh the 
AUdeiUtekti Nammbwh now affords. 

1 1 take it that brother, Crater, intermixes in these names. 



THE WABKIOB AND HIS ABMS. 219 

SmPLB FOBMa 

Eng. TeeIm Mod. Germ. Piehl^ Feel. French Pebllb, jy^^ 

PncLLAy TioiA 

PATBOxmnca 

Eng. Peeliko. French PiOLENa 

OOMPOITNDB. 

(Ban, &tal) French Pelabon. (Ea/rd) Modem German 
PiELERT — French Pielabd. (Beam^ shaft, handle) English 
PmsEAX.* 

As the Ang.-Sax. darelh^ dart, from the root 
dar, p. 208, so may, I take it, J)he Old Norse 
hiOdr (biledr f), dart, be formed from the root 
hil or pil (Gr. pdXXat ?) To this we may place 
the following, though bcdd, audaz, is apt to 
intermix. 

EtIMPLE POEMSi. 

Old Germ. PUda French Pn/r^, Pelt^ Billotbau ? ™^ 

OOMFOUNOa 

(ffari, warrior) English BiLLiTEBy Buildeb — French 
Bellettbb, Peltdsb^ Peltzeb. (R(U, coTinsel) Old German 
Bildrad, 8th cent — French Peltbet, Pelletebet. 

From the Old Sax. scapt, Anglo-Saxon scaft, 
scefl, spear, shaft, arrow — ^literally, that which is 
shaped or smoothed — ^we may take the following. 

SIMPLE FOBM& gj^^^ 

Eng. Shaft, Shafto. French Chaft, Chapt. spew. 

001CP0I7NDS. 

(Hart, warrior) Old Germ. Scaptarius, 6th cent. — ^Ang.- 
Sax. Sceafthere— Eng. Shapteb — Fr. Schefteb, Ohefteb. 
(Wald, power) Old Germ. Scaftolt — ^Eng. Scaffold. 

From the Ang.-Sax. Jldn, dart, arrow — that 
which is flown or flung — we may probably take 
the following. 

t Like the Aug. -Sax gorbeoffik spaw handle. But pro^blj in both caaei iha 
word ia only nied aa a plaonastle fonn of ipear or dart 



Anow. 



AZTOW. 



9^0 TBE WAKtaOB AKD mM ABIIA 

admn faBHSL 
Bog. ftiAX% Flawk. Traidi Flait, VLAjsftnUtXjy Fu^mr. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Bertf fJEunons) Old Germ. Hanbert, Mamberty 8th cent, 
— ihig. Flambabd— French Flaxbbbt. (6^y ^'P^'') 0^<^ 
Qeim. Flanigaiv 9ih cent. — ^French FhAMMQASL 

Theore is a word nagal found in a few ancient 
names, which I think may come in here. Fonte*- 
mann refers to nagcd, unguis^ remarkix^ at the 
same time that the sense does not seem a 
particularly suitable one for names« But nag^ 
davisy in the s^ose rather of a sharp pointy spike» 
spear, appears to me to be sufficiently iq^propriate. 
Nor does it seem necessary to take it, as 
suggested by Mone (Hddensage)^ in connection 
with the mythological smith Weland. 

fiOIPIAFOBln. 

KagaL ^^^ Qerman Nagal, 9th cent. Old None Kagle^ Bog. 
ouTia. Kaole, Nail. Mod. Qerm. Naqel^ Nahu Dwdl ISaoxu 
cn«pi»- French Naobl, Ne6l, N^y. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hcvrdy dttms) Old Germ. Nagalhaitl, Mi oeni-^French 
KalXiABB. {B9H, bright) Frenoh NAUUDnr. {Sm% warrior) 
Eng. Naylob* — Modem German Naoleb — ^Dan. Naolbb — 
French NioxUflB. 

There is a curious set of names derived from 
the above word nagal, nail — ^to all appearance of 
comparatively modem origin — ^and found both 
in English and in German. Such is English 
TuFPNBLL^ on which Mr. Lower remarks — ** In 
the 17th century this name was spelt Tu&aile^ 
and I am therefore rather inclined to take it 

* Of oonxM thMe nuoM, ytUh tha raoflptton pOTbapt oC Um FmboIh mi^ 
be from lh« tnde. 



THB WABRIOB AND HIS ABM& 221 

aupied de la UUre^ and to consider " tough nafl'* 
as its etymon. I believe that in this case Mr. 
Lower has '' hit the nail on the head'' Not 8q» 
however, in the case of Hobs£NAIL (the name^ 
by the way, as he tells us, of a Kentish farrier)* 
which he seems to have been beguiled into think- 
ing a corruption of Arsenal I take it that this 
name, corresponding with the Germ. Bosnagel, 
is also nothing else than what it seems. We 
have also Habtnell corresponding with a Germ* 
Habtnagel^ Cofpebkoll with a Germ. Kupfer- 
NAGEL, and HooENAiL with a Germ. Huenagel. 
And we have Isnell (iron-nail), Bba2NBLl» 
Cbucknell, Hocknell^ Bkadnell, Dabtneli* 
pRANGNELL (Germ, prangeuy to glitter ?) Brit- 
NBLL (German hreit, broad), Soabneli^ Coubt- 
KELL (Dutch, Dan. horty short.) The Germans 
have ThCbnagel (door-nail), Becenagel (rack- 
nail), ScHiNNAGL (plate-nail), Blankennagel 
(white-nail), Bodnagel (red-nail), Bunbnagel 
(round^nail), Wacejsbnag£L»^ and several others. 
This curious class of names, standing very much 
by themselves, must I think have had some 
peculiar origiu. 

From the Old High German hoHa^ an axe, I 
take to be most probably the following. Words 
also suitable are harty beard, and Old Norse 
hardiy giant. And the root hert^ bright, famous, 
is also Hable to intermix. 

* OenoL looMlMr, noUe, iton^ bz»y& Potf s soegoiUon tbAt wadber la an 
epItlMt applied, not to the nail, bnt to a man called Nage)^ hardly helpt Hf rnneh, 
■eelng the niunber oC other limilar namee. 



222 THE WAPItlOR AKD HIS ABMS. 

SIlfPLB FOBMa 

Old Qerm. Bardo, Barto, Pardo, Parto, 9th cent. Eng. 

^^ BABDy Babdt, Bartie, Pabt, Pabdob. Modem Qerman 

Babde, Babt> Babth. French Babd, Babdi^ Babdt, 

BABDBAUy BaBTEAU, PaBTY. 

DIMraUTIVBEL 

Old Qerman Bardilo, 9th cent. — ^English Babdouleau, 
Babdelle — ^Modern German Babdel — French Babdellb9 
Babiel. French Babdillon, Pabdailloh. 

PHONETIC Ein>mo. 
Old Qerm. Bardinns^ 8th cent Eng. Babbin, Pabdon. 
Mod. Qerm. Babkebt. Ft. Babdok, Babdonneau, Pabdon. 

PATBONYKIGS. 

Old Qerm. Barding, 9th cent Eng. Babddtg, Pabdibto. 

00MP0UND8.* 

(Hart, warrior) Eng. Babteb, Pabdab, Pabteb — ^Modern 
Qerm. Babtheb. (Man) Eng. Babtman — Modem Qerman 
Babthxann. (Ul/, wolf) Old Qerman Bartholf— English 
Babdolph. 

From the Ang.-Sax. becca, axe, might be the 
following. But I think, now too late, that they 
ought not to have been separated from the root 
big, bicy to slash, p. 177. 

simple FDBMS. 

Beck. Old Qerm. Becoo, Begga, Becca, 7th cent Eng. Beck, 

^^ Begg, Beach, Bebohey, Peak, Peach, Peachet. Modem 

Qerm. Beckh, Peck. French Bec, Beck, Bbcquet, Pech. 

DIMXNUTIYES. 

Eng. Beacall, Pechell — Mod. Qerm. Beckel — French 
Beckl& Eng. Beakeh 9 — French Becquehie. 

00MP0UND8. 

{Had, war?) Eng. BECKirrr, Peckett — French B^hade, 
Beoquet, Pecquet, (ffari, warrior) Eng. Beecheb, Pecker 
— French Beckeb, Pecqueby. (Man) English Beckkah, 
Beachman — French Bechjcan. 



* I do not Include here Babtuett and Bastbam, for I tlilnk that they •*• 
nther from beH, f amooi. 



THE WABRIOR AND HIS ABMS. 223 

There is a word scorCy found in two or three 
ancient names, which Stark refers to Old High 
Germ, scora^ schora, spade, shovel, supposing, as 
in former cases, the meaning to be that of weapon. 
This word, and another, scar, which Forstemann 
assigns to Old High Germ, scara, acies, I include 
together in the general sense of cutting, as shown 
in Ang.-Sax. scearian, sceorian. 

8IMFLE FOBMa 

Old Qerman Scarius, 9th oent, Sooro, Sooii, IStli cent Sear. 
English ScABB, Scabbow, Sheeb, Shebbt, Sgobe, Shobe, ^<'<^^ 
Shobby, Scubby, Shubey. . Modem German Scab, Sohab» 
ScHEEB, ScHUBB. French Ghebi ? Chebeau 1 Chobey f 

DDOMUTIVEH. 

Old Oerm. Scherilo, 9th cent — ^Eng. Shebbell. 

COMPOITND& 

(Brand, sword) English SmEBBBANP — ^Modern German 
Scheubbband. (Man J Old German Scoreman, 14th cent. 
— ^Eng. ScABHAN, Shabmak, Shebmax, Shobmak — ^Modern 
German Schtebkane, Schubhank. 

I am inclined to the opinion that wood in 
proper names has sometimes the sense of spear, or 
at least of a weapon. We find a peculiar use of 
this word in AJiglo-Saxon ; thus gar-vrndu is 
"spear wood,'" a spear — Whence the Old German 
name Gervida> our Garwood. The same is no 
doubt the sense in the Old German Asquid, our 
AsQWHH — ** ash-wood" in the sense of a spear, 
and probably in our Astwood, p. 216. An Old 
Franiish name Bonavida, 9th cent., " fatal wood,'' 
is probably also a figurative expression for a 
spear. So also the Gothic name Cnivida^ our 



22i T&B WABBIOB AND HIS ABMa 

Entvbtt, 18 '' kmfb-wood/' a knife. It fleems to 
me probable that wood of itself may sometiines 
have the same sort of meaxuog. There is an Old 
Qerman name Widolaic; our Wsdlakb and 
Wedlock, fix)m lacan, to play* This compares 
with the Anglo-Saxon asc^lega, '' aah-play/' Le^ 
play of spears. A eimilax mode of expression is 
by no means uncommon even in English Thus^ 
in a sense more or less poetical, we use steel for 
a sword» and gold for money. Hence also in 
saered poetry, such an expression as *' &tal wood'' 
for the cross. And the poetical element^ it muist 
be observed, enters largely into the composition 
of ancient names. 

From the Ang.-Sax. bog<z. Old High Gonnan 
bogo, pogo, poco, English bow, arcus, I take the 
following. But there is another word firom the 
same general root signifying to bend, viz., Gothic 
bangs. Old High Germ, bauc, AngIo-Sax(»x bedg, 
ring, bzacolat^ which I think also enters into the 
oomposition of men's names, and which it is 
extoomely difficult to separate from the present 
group, 

ffliPLS roBiia 
Old Qmxx. Boeoo, 9th cent ? Ang.-Saxon Bogo. Old 
^^ None BqgL Eng. Bogci, Boag, Bogie, Boht, Bow, Biraxj, 
^^' BookI Mod. Germ. B5gb, Pogoe, BockI French Pog^ 
BooHf 

Sooui^ BovsuCi — ^Mod. Genoan Poggbl — French Pqggiale* 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS ABMS. 225 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Bogabd — Modern German Bogebt — 
French Boohabd^ Bohabd, Pochabd. (Mem) English 
BoGiCAN, Bowman — Mod Germ. Bochmann 1 (if<w, fiunons) 
Anglo-Saxon B6cm^r, B6hm^ (/atmd in Bdcm^ea stigde^ 
Bdhmirea* stigde) — English Poomobe, Bowxeb — French 
Bochmer, Boimeb. 

From the extended form found in Modern 
Germ, hogen, may be the following. 

SIMPLE F0BM& 

Eng. Boggon, Bowen. Mod. German Bohk 1 French Bogeo. 

BOCHIN^ BOIN, B0HK& ^'^• 

OOMPOUIOM. 

{Hardy fortis) English Poigkabd % — ^Modern German 
BooENHABDT — Fr. BoGNABD, PoiGNABD ? {H<»r% warrior) 
Eng. BoDGENEB — Mod German Bogneb — French Bognieb. 

A common word in ancient names was helm^ 
helmet. We have very few names at present in 
which it can be traced, but as it is apt to change 
into hem or em, and so to mix up with other 
words, it is probable that many more names may 
€xist in a disguised form. 

simple fobmb. 

Ang.-8axon Helm {found in Hdmes tre&Wf'f Cod. Dip. Hdm. 
1266.) Eng. Helm. Mod Germ. Halm, Helm. ^'^^ 

oompouxds. 

{Burg, protection) Old German Helmbuig, 9th cent. — 
En^^ish Hembebg, Hembebt, Hembbow. {Ger^ spear) Old 
Overman Helmger, 8th cent. — Eng. AjiMIGEB {or to amal, 
p. U3.) 

Another word signifying helmet is Ang.-Sax. 
col. Old Norse koUr. This seems to have been 

* Bohmer's style. These two xuunea leem to be the Mune. 
t Helm'i tree. 

C 2 



226 THE WASRIO& AND HIS AHM& 

common in Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse names, 
but, judging by Forstemann's list, not generally 
in Old German names. 

SIMPLE F0BM8. 

Goa Old Germ. Colo, 9tli cent. Ang.-Sax. Col% Colo, Coku 

Old None KoUr, KolL Eng. Colla, OoLLKTy Colbt, Colb. 
Mod Germ. Kohl^ Koll. Dan. Kohl. French Collb, 

COLI, COLLEAU. 

DmiMUTlVJOL 

Old Germ. CoLdclio, Sth cent. — 'Eng, Coluck, Collbcdb 
— ^Mod. Germ. Kohlig. Frencli Coluchov. Old German 
CholensuS) 8th cent. — ^Eng. CoLEirao, Collinb. 

PATJKONTMIGB. 

Eng. CoLLura. Mod. Germ. Kohlutg. Dan. Kolldtg. 
French Collanqe. 

OOMPOTTNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Colobert, 8th cent. — English 
CoLBBEATH, CooLBBEATH — Fr. CoLBEBT. (Brand, fiword) 
Ang.-Sax. Colbrand — Eng. Colbrak. (Biom, bear) Old 
Norse Kolbiom — Eng. Colbubn. (Hard) Eng. Collabd — 
Modem German Kohlhabdt — French Collabd. (ffari, 
warrior) Eng. Collier, Collab — Modem German Kolleb — 
Dan. Kolleb — French Collieb, Collebt, Col^be. (Man) 
Old Germ. Coloman, Colman, 9th cent. — Colman, Bishop of 
Tiindisfame, A.D. 663 — Eng. Colmak, Colbhan — Modem 
Germ. Kohlmann — French Collman. (Jfor, famous) Ang.- 
Saxon Colomdr (/atmd in Colom^es* sic. Cod. Dip. 509)— 
Eng. CoLLAMOBE, CoLMEB — Mod. Germ. Kollmeyeb. 

PHONETIC niTBUSION OF n, m. 

(Bert, bright) French Colombebt. (Hwrd) French 

COLmABD. 

*' Until something better shall be found," 
Forstemann places the following to Old High 
Germ. Mba, Ang.-Sax. hiife. Mod. Germ. Jiauhe^ 

• " Oolomoie'8 sjrke/' Syka, a word tfcUl wed in tb* North of Kntfund, 
lignlflM a nuuMr ■om g Unm dij. 



^t^B^BBs^T^r^^m^mfmmm^ w^ m m w 



cap, crest, or, most probably, helmet. As I 
camiot say that I am able to suggest aaything 
better, I continue them under the same head. 
The root of the Saxon names Ofia or Uffa may 
be, however, liable to intermix. 

8IMPLB FOBlia. 

Old German Hubo, Huba, Hafo, 8th cent HobbeBime, Hub. 
Domesday. Eng. Hubib^ Hqbt, Hoop, Hopiv Hoof* Mod. u«im*t. 
German Haubb, Hupb. French Hottbb, Houppe, Httpp^, 

CHOUPEi 

DumnnmrBB. 
English HxTBBAGK, OHUBBAOK-^Mod. German Hobbbks, 
HdPKS — Frenoh Hxtbac. Engliah Hopkot — ^Mod. German 
HoPEEN. Eng. HuHHUi— Frenoh Hubbl. Eng. Hohlik — 
French Hxtbldt, Houplok, Oeobillon. Datch Kobbema. 

OOMPOITKDa. 

(Sard) English HuBBABi>"*Frenoh Hubabd, Ghopabd. 
(Man) Itagi Hobhav, Hopxan, HooncABr-**Mod. German 

HOPPXAHV, HOVWAEN t 

There is a name Copestakb or Capstick, 
which in the previous edition I completely 
mistook. It is evidently the Qerman kopfstilck, 
head-piece. 

From the Ang.-Sax. scyld, Old High German 
sciUy Old Norse shiold^ English shield, there are 
not many names, though as noted p. 148, it was 
anciently a name of honour. 

SIMPLB VOBBCS. 

Scyld, ancestor of Woden (Anglo-Saxon Qen.) Scyld 
(found in Scyldes Preow, Cod, Dip. 436.^ Skibld, mythical 
king of Denmark EngliBh Shield, Skbul Mod. German 
ScmuxF.* French? SoHn^rs. 



Bcatixm. 



* EeM» BoranoBZLP, " nd ■htold," idopted. m II to Mid, by Ike f omder 
of fli« temflf from the ■!{& of hto p]M« of ImsloMi^ And MfUiBljr not an impra<r»- 
meBl upon Ut oilgfaua BABM of AxiBBLM, *'dtTliMhilm«t." 



228 THE WABJUOR AND HIS AIUCS. 

PATBONTMIGSl 

Old Sax. Sdltong, 9th cent Eng. Skeldihg, Boolding, 

SlLOULDIKa. 

A more common word in men's names is randU 
rim, in the sense, according to Forstemann, of 
shield, and to which, as a High German form, I 
put vans. 

SniPLB fOBll& 

Old Germ. Rando, Bento, 4th cent Eng. Rakd, Rakce, 
EoKDEAU, EouNDt Mod. German Rand. French Bond, 
RoNDY, Rondeau, Rongs, Ronze. 

DOUNUTIVKS. 

Engliflh Randlb, Render Rehtle, Rxthdlb \ — ^Erench 
RoNDELLK English Rantem, Ransom. 

OOHPOUNDfi. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Ranthar, 8th cent, Ranzer, 
10th cent — ^Eng. Render, Rentes — ^Mod German Rantbb, 
Rentes — ^French Randieb, Ronzieb, Rohcerat. (Mar, 
famoua) Eng. Rentmobe, Wbentmobe. (YTtne, Mend) Old 
Genn. Randuin, 8th cent — French Randouin. (Ulf, wolf) 
Old Germ. Randnl^ 8th cent — ^English Randolph — ^Modern 
(German Randolff. 

An allied ibrm of rand is Old High German 
ramjiy Mod. Germ, ranjiy which seems to occur in 
a few names. 

Bamft. SIMPLE FQBMS. 

Shield. Old Germ. Rampo, 9th cent Mod. Germ. Rampf. 

DIMINXJnVB. 

English Rampling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hwriy warrior) Eng. Rafteb, Rjifteby. Fi*. Raftieb. 

A third root signifying shield is Ang.-Sax. hord. 
Old High Germ, horiy which, though Forstemann 
only has it as a termination (as in Heribord, 
Hiltiport, &c.), evidently occurs in the following. 



W^^^^w^Ess^^^mmm^mmmmmmmmm 



THE WAKBIOB AND HIS ABMS. 229 

BOfPLE FOBHB. ^^ 

English BoABD, Port. French Bobde, Bobda, Port, sbiaid. 
Porta. 

oohpoundb. 

(ffar% warrior) Eng. Boabdbb, Bobber — Fr. Bordirb, 
BoRDERT. (Man) English Boardmak, Portican — French ? 
BoRDHASN. (Wme, friend) Eng. Boardwine, Portwine — 
French Porteyik. 

A fourth word signifying shield — but of 
which I find no trace in ancient names — may be 
Ang.-Sax. disc. Old High Germ. tisc. This had 
the meaning of dish, plate, flat surface, but I 
think that like rand and bord, the most probable 
meaning in men^s names is that of shield. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^ ^ 

Disk. 

English Dix ?* Dixie 1 Mod. German Disch. French shield. 
DlESCH,t Tisci. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Eng. Dibher — Mod. German Tischer — 
French Discrt, Tizier. (Mem) English Dishman — ^Modern 
German Dixmann. 

From the Ang.-Sax. hringy hrinc, Eng. ring, 
in the sense of ring-armour, coat of mail, Forste- 
mann derives a word ring in ancient names. And 
from the Old High Germ, ringan, luctari, rang, 
battle, Ang.-Sax. rinc, combatant, he also derives 
a form rang, rank, renk. But as the separation, 
in the ancient names even, is doubtful, and in the 
modem impracticable, I take them together — 
the sense being in either case a warlike one. 

* In Axtg. -Saxon «e and x froqnently interchange. Thus Boiworth giyes the 
plural of dite as di»ea$ and diaas. 

t Or, as seems to be the case in another name, Dibtsch, this may only be a 
corruption of Dentsch. 



230 THB WASBIOB AND HIB ABMR 



aar, 8er. 
Annonr. 



Old GeniL Bincho^ Benco, 9ih cent &ig. Bnra^ Botk. 
Mod. Germ. Raske, Rotos, Bihck. 

DD ULNU T IVgL 

Old GemL Bingilo— Eki^^ Wboklb— Mod. Qemuui 
RniCBL— Frendi Bnroiu 

OOMFOUNIML 

(Sardf fortis) Old Gennan Bendiftrd, 6th oMit — ^Modam 
German Rdtgkbt — ^French RnroABD, Ramohxabix (Hari^ 
warrior) Old German Bincar, Banchar, 9ih cent — ^English 
BiKOSB, Basoour — Mod. Germ. BorGSB, Bbnceeb — Frmch 
BnioiEiL (Waldy power) Old Germ. Bingolt — ^Ang.-Saxon 
Hringwold (finmd •» ffringwoldet heorh. Cod. Dip. 1117.^ 
— Eng. BiHGOOu>— Mod. Germ. Botowaij). 

The root sar^ ser, for which Forstemann pro- 
poses Old High Grerman saro, Ang.-Sazon searo, 
armour, enters into a great number of names. 

aiMTLB FOBMB. 

Old Germ. Saro, Sario, Sana, 8th cent. English Barb, 
Sarah, Sbar. Mod. German Sahr, Sehb, Serrbl French 
Sarre, Bar, Sarra, Bari, Sbrri^ Berra, Ser^ Bert, Seudsu^ 
sorr^ borieu. 

DDOKXJnVBS. 

Old German Serila, Berlo, 6th oent-^ld None Sorli, 
Bolli — Eng. Barel^ Berrexj^ Berle^ Sorue, Sollt — French 

BeRAIL, SORBIk 

OOMPOUNDS. 

{B(4, envoj) Old Germ. Sarabot, 9th cent. — Eng. Serbutt 
— French Borbet. (Hard) French Berard. (ffere, warrior) 
French Berrier. CGer^ spear) French Saboer. fOaud, 
Goth) Old German Saregaud, 8th cent — English Bargood. 
(Mem J Old Germ. Baraman, 8th cent — Eng. Sebxok — Mod. 
German BAARMAinr — French Saramon, C^R^ONDsf {RcA, 
counsel) Old German Barrad, Barrat, 9th cent. — ^English 
Sarratt — French Barbtte. (Wald^ power) Old German 
Serald, 9th cent. — French Sarrault. (Wvm^ friend) Old 
Genn. Baroin, 8ih cent— French Barrion, SEROUr. 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS ARMS. 231 

From the above root sar, acx^ording to 
Diefenbach, is formed Old Norse serkr, Ang.-Sax. 
syrice, syrce^ shirt. North. Eng. sarh. To this 
may be put the following names, the meaning of 
course being taken to be that of a shirt of mail 

SIMPLE FOBHB. 

Old German Saracho, 10th cent. Sere, Lib VU, — Eng. gexk. 
Sabch, Seabch, Shabx, Shabkby, Shirk, Shibkey. shirtofmAii. 

DIMINUnVBa 

Old German Sarchilo, 10th cent Eng. Sharkt.ry. 

One of the most common of all roots in Teutonic 
names is Goth. Aari, Ang.-Saxon here^ Old Norse 
her^ army. Grimm suggests that the original 
meaning may rather have been soldier, which 
would consist better with the use of the word as 
a post-fix. Other roots which may intermix are 
ara^ eagle, and Ang.-Sax. hear. Old Norse hi'&r^ 
sword, both found in ancient names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Herio, 8th cent English Harre, Hare, ^^ ^^ 
Harry, Harrow, Charie, Cherry. Mod. German Hehr, Army. ' 
Herr, Heer. French Hard, Harry, Herr, Hj^reau, 
Herry, Herou, Charey, Chario, Oharue. 

DIMENUTlVEa 

Old German Haric, Herioo, 8th cent. — Eng. HARRmoE, 
Herridoe, Herrice — Modem German Hxricke, Harke — 
French Hi^RiCHii Old Germ. Heril, Herilo, Herili — Eng, 
Harral, Ha RLE, Harley, Harlow, Hearl, Hearly — Mod. 
German Herel, Herl, Herrle, Hirle — French Harel^ 
Hariel, Harlay, Harl4 Herel. Old German Herelin, 
11th cent — Eng. HARLINQ—Mod. Germ. Hjlrlik — French 
Herlan. Eng. Harris, Harrifj<, Hkrrtes — Fr. Herisz, 

HWRRTRSI^N 



232 THB WABBIOR AND HIS ABMS. 

PATROKYMIOS. 

Old Germ. Heiinc, 9th cent. Eng. Heabhto, HEBRiKa 
Modem C^erman Harbino, Kebbino, Heebikq. French 
Bjlujlsq, Hebinoq, Hebing. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Heriand, 9th cent — French 
Haband. (Bat, pat, path, var) Old German Heripato, 9th 
cent. — English Hebepath, Hebbet — French Herbette. 
(Bald, bold) Old German Haribald, Herbald, 8th cent- 
French Hebbault. (Ber, bear) English Habbab, Habbeb, 
Habboub — Mod. Germ. Herbeb — French Herbeb. (Bert, 
bright) Old German Hariberaht, Frankish king, 6th cent — 
Aripert, Lombard king, 7th cent, Heribert, Herbert — Eng. 
Habbebt, Hebbebt — ^Mod. Germ. Kabpbecht, Hebbebt — 
French Hebbebt. (Bord, shield) Old Germ. Heribord, 11th 
cent — Eng. Habboabd, Habbobd. (Bod, envoy) Old Germ. 
Herbod, 8th cent — English Harbud — Modem German 
Hebbothe — French Herbut. (Oer, spear) Old German 
Hanger, Hariker, ECarker, Ohargar, 7th cent — English 
Habkeb, Chabkeb — Mod. Germ. Hebgeb. (Gaud, Goth) 
Old German Haregaud,* 6th cent — Eng. Habgood. (Gtail, 
gU, hostage) Old German Charegisil, 6th cent — English 
Habgill. ("Hard J Old Germ. Hariard, Herard, 7th cent 
Ft. H^abd. (Here, warrior) Old Germ. Harier, 9th cent. — 
French Chabieb. (Ladth, terrible) Arlot, Lib, VU, — ^Eng. 
Hablot 1— Fr. Hablet ? (LcmdJ Old Germ. Hariland, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Habland. (If an) Old Ger. Hariman^ Harman, 
Herman, 7th cent — English Habbtmak, Harhan, Hermon, 
Ghabman — Modem German Habmann, Hebilann — French 
Hebkak, Hebmain. (Momd, gaudium) Old Grerman 
Herimand, Herimant, 10 th cent — Fr. Habmand, Habmant, 
Hebmakd. (Mar. fEimous) Old German Herimer, Hannar, 
6th cent — English Habmer — French Harmier^ Hermieb. 
(Mot, courage) Old Germ. Harimot, 8th cent — Mod. Germ. 



* Perhaps also, vdth a phonetic n> the Old Germaii Heringaud, English 
HsBiKaAtTD. Bat FOntemann takes it to be rather the same as Azingaud {arin. 



THS WARRICK AND HIS ABHS. 233 

Hkrbxuth — French Hermet, Oharmotte. (MutuI, pro* 
tection) Old Germ. Herimund, Chanmundy 5th cent — ^Eng. 
Habmoio) — French Ckabmokd, Gharmont. {Ncmd, daring) 
Old German Herinand, 10th cent. — Spanish Hernandez. 
(Sandy envoj) Old Grerman Heraand^ 11th cent. — ^English 
Hbbsaht — ^French Hersent. (Wold, power) Old Gkrmau 
Garioyalda,* prince of the Batayi, Ist cent, Heroald, Hariold, 
8th cent. — Old Norse Haraldr — Eng. Harold — ^Mod. G^erm. 
Herold — French Herold, Heroult. (Wctrd, guardian) 
Old Germ. Hariward, Herward, Heroard, 8th cent — ^Ang.- 
Saz. Hereward — Old Norse Harvardr — English Harward, 
Harvard — ^Mod. German Harward — ^French Herouard. 
(Vid, wood) Old German Eryid, 7th cent. — Eng. Harwood. 
(Wiff, vd, war) Old German Heriwig, Hairiyeo, 7th cent. 
— ^Eng. Haryet — Mod. Grerman Herwig — French Hervt, 
Hervieu, Charvey, Charavat. (Wine, Mend) Old OensL 
Harwin, Gharivin, Gharoin, 8th cent — Eng. Harwin — 
French Herouin, Gharyin, Gharoin. (To this Old G^rm. 
Erwin, Errin — ^Eng. Irwin, Iryin ?) 

The above word, AaW, warrior, was one of the 
most oommoQ post-fixes in Old German names. 
It appears variously as har, Jiari, her, heri, and 
forms many of our endings in er and ery, and of 
the French in ier. In certain cases, however, the 
ending er appears to be phonetic, as noticed at 
p. 29. 

From the Ang.-Sax. fana, Old High German 
fano. Mod. German fahne. Old French ^anon, an 
ensign, of which, however, there is but a sKght 
trace in ancient names, I take the following. 
Another word fagin, fain, joyful, is apt to 
intermix. 

* Af eat of hadt p. 107, to Mr ii the oldait f onn of har, 

d2 



Fw. BngL Fabu, Fjlhvt, FbrI. Mod. Gena Fab»IL Aendi 

FAXO^FAHli 

DDUN UTiVJSBk 

Eogliflk FENmB^r-^Frencii Fekailul Eo^^iah FAVuin^ 
FraiiOV — ^French Fenslok. 

PHonrnc sndino»old rsaofim/anan i 
Eng. Fakkow. French Fasvok. 

(Jffof^ ^TERior) Ibg. Pahmbs FKRHlra^-Jif odem Owaua 
PFAHiraB — F^rendi FAjnnkBB(or laaie m Old Higk Qeamk 
fmnny&ty^ eteadaid-beaiMr.) 

From the Anglo-Saxon cfwmh(yr^ statidard Of 
^^^ ensign, appears to be the name Cumbra^ of an 
Ang.-^Sax* chie^ a,d. 756 (Rog. Wend.) Also of 
a Cumbro in the Traditionss Corb^enses. And 
hence may be our Cumber and Cukpeb. The 
names Cumberbeaoh, Gumbebbatch, Cukbsi^ 
Patch, all no doubt variations of the same word, 
may possibly contain ^e Ang.-Saz. bedg, English 
hadge. 

Bannsb^ thou^ it might be, as at p. 175, It 
oomponnd of ban^ mi^t also be from banner, an 
ensign. Th^:e was a noble fitmily of Banners in 
Denmark, whose founder, according to Saxo^ was 
a Dane named Tymmo, who assumed the name 
of Banner for some exploit, probably capturing a 
standard, at a battle between Canute and 
Edmund of England. 

From the Lombard bandu, ensign, standard, as 
the most appropriate derivative from bindan, to 
bind, Forstemann derives the root band, bend. 
But the Ai^.^-Saxon bcmd, bend^ crown, chaplet. 



Burner. 
YezUliim. 



THi; WAKBIOR ANJ> HIS AKtfa. 235 

firom hendan^ to bend, appeare to me to be a word 
that might at any rate intermix. In addition to 
the above, Forstemann also suggests the Old Sax. 
bant, pagus, and its High German form panz. I 
am also inclined to include in the group the 
forms bond, bund, for, though the derivation 
&om the Ang.-Sax. bonda^ bunda, husbandman, 
seems at first mght the moat natural, it does not 
appear to receive much sanction from the ancient 
names. Nevertheless, it is very probable that 
there may be some intermixture of roots. In the 
comparative table of patronymic forms appended 
to ** Words and Places,'' Mr. Taylor finds Bond- 
ings in BondiDgham fSomers), and in Bontigny 
(Lorraine). I also add Bansings as found in 
Bensingtoii (Oxf,), anciently Banesinghas. 

aiMPLB FORMS. 

Old German Bando, Bant, Pando, Peuta, Fonto, Panzo> 
Benzo, PeD20, 6th cent. Ang.-Sax. Fenda, king of Mercia. Band. 
Benia, Finda, Zift. Fit Bng. BAirn, Bendy, Bbnt, Bond, Vexiuam. 
BuNDT, PoMD^ Bajtce, Bencs, Bqnsst, Bunsb. Kod. Germ. 
$AN9E^ FiJTSX^ Bbnte, Bsn&e, Bund^ Buntb. Freaoh 
BEND4, BiNDA, Bancs, BencEi Bekz, Bondt, Bokdeau^ 
BoNTi, BoNz4 Fantou, Fanthou, Fond, Pont, Fonti, 

FONTEAU, FtONTHUSir, FaNSU, FENS^ FmSEAU, FONOEAU. 

DnaNunvEa. 
Eng. Bantock, Bundock — Modern German Bandke, 
Pantss — JBVench Fantichbl Ang.-Sax. Buntel (fownd in 
Bumidu pfft, Ood. Dip. 1102>— Eng. Bsndle, Bendelow, 
Bbntall, Bundlib, Bovsali% F£pn>Aij.,PENTEi^w — Mod. Ger. 
BandeXi, Bendell, Benzbl — Fr. Fantel, Bunzel, FoNCEi«i 
Old German Benzlin, 10th oent — Benzeliniia, Domesday. — 
Ibg. Pantun — ^F^neh Bancbldt. 



236 THE WABSIOB, AND HIS ABMS. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Engliflli Banton, Benton, Binden, BEVSONy* Bunten, 
Panton, Pehtik, Penson, Ponson. Mod. Gennan Bunsen. 
French Panbin, Pinson, Pinsonneau, Ponson. 

PATBONTMIOEL 

Eng. Bantino, Bending, Bentinck, Bunting, Pantdto. 
Mod. Germ. Bentingok, Buntino. 

00int>UNDB. 

(Eard, fortis) Old German Pantard, 9tli cent.— Bngliah 
PiNDABD^French Bansabd, Pensabd, Pinbard, Ponbaed. 
(Rari, warrior) Ajig.-Sax. Pender (found in Pendere$ dify 
Cod. Dip. 1266^— Eng. Bandeb, Bender, Bindeb, Bonteb, 
BoNSEB, Bunter, Panter, Pantry, Panther, Pender, 
Pindbb, Pondeb, Punter — ^Mod. Genn. Bender, Binder — 
French Bender, Binder, Pontier, Ponsert. {Rat^ counsel) 
Old Genn. Bandrad, Pantarat, 6th cent— Eng. Banderet, 
Bentwright, Pendered. (^(^ wolf) Old Geon. Pandulf, 
prinoe of Capua, 11th cent. — Ital. Pandolfio. 

Then there are some names of a different class 
derived from weapons, such as Shaejespere, 
Shakeshaft, Drawsword, &c., which are of 
less, though still of considerable antiquity, and 
which do not enter into the Teutonic name- 
system ; on these it is not necessary for me to 
dwell frirther, as all that can be said upon them 
is to be found in the last work of Mr. Lower. 

We now come to another class of names of 
warlike origin — ^those derived from words signify- 
ing courage and valour. One of the most common 
roots is the Old High Germ, rndt^ muaty Old Sax. 
muody Ang.-Saxon mddy Modem German mvthy 
courage. Along with this I foUow Forstemann 

* Bxvaov, BuvBBir, fto^ might be pOronymiOf. Bat I am mora incUnod 
to take the form fee Bene-on, Buu-en. 



THB WABBIOB AND HIS ABMS. 237 

in classing rruyij muoZy though Weinhold (Deutsche 
Frauen) refers it to Old Higl^ German muoza^ 
moss. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old Germ. Mot, Moata, Muaio, Moda, Moza, Muozo, 6th 
cent, Ang.-Sax. Moda {found in Modingctham, " the home ^^ 
of the sons of Moda" now Mottingham)* Mote, Htmd, Mod& 
BolU. Eng. MoTT, Mottow, Mote, Moat, Mouat, Moth, ow»«^ 
Mouth, Mode, Mood, Moody, Mose, Mobet, Moss, Mouse;, 
Muzzy. Mod. German Mode, Muth, Moth, MiJTZ, Musa. 
French Motte, Mott^ Moteau, Momi, Mothu, Moutds, 
Mossy, Mousse, Moussy, Moussu, Mussey. 

DIMXNUTIVEa 

Old Germ. Motilo, Mutil% Muezill, 7th cent. — English 

MOUTTELL, MUTLOW, MoTLEY, MoDEI^ MUDDLE, MOUSELL, 

MussELL — Mod. Germ. Model, Mudel^ Mutzell — French 
MoTELLE, Mutei^ Moussel^ Old Germ. Mudilane, Motilane, 
8th cent. — Eng. Mudlin, Mosldt — Mod. Germ. Muslein — 
French Modelonde 9 Eng. Muddock, Musick — ^Modern 
Germ. Mushacke — French MousAa 

COMPOUNDa 

( Bert, famous) Old German Mutbraht, 9ih cent. — Eng. 
MusPRATT. (Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Moathart, 9th cent. 
— Eng. MussABD — Mod Geim. Mozabt, Mushabd — French 
MoTABD, Moutard, Mouzabd, Musabd. (Hon, warrior) 
Old German Moatheri, Motar,t Modar, 8th cent. — English 
MouTRDB, Modeb, Mutteb, Moser, Mouser — ^Mod. Germ. 

MODEB. MiJTTER — Fr. MOUTRY, MOITRY, MOUTIER, MOITIER. 

(Helm) Old German Moathelm, 9th cent — Eng. Mootham f 
(Man) Eng. Muddiman, Mossman. (Ramf ran, raren) Old 
€ter. Moderannus, 8th cent. — Eng. Mottram — Fr. Motheron, 
MoussERON. {Bed, counsel) English Moderatil {Bio, 
dominion) CHd German Modericha,:^ 11th cent. — English 
MuDRiDGE — Mod. Germ. Muthreich. 



* Mr. Tftylor flndf the lame name in Mntignjr in Fnmoe. 

t It ifl f9Tj probable that motharj mater, intermixes. 

t Henoe perhaps the town of Motrioo in Spain. 



238 IBB WAKUOR A^D BIS AlOfSk 

FBONXnC ENPHrO, 

Old GemL Moatin, Muatin, 8th cent English Motioh, 
MuTTOK, MouzoN. Ft. MousoN^ MossoN, MoziK, Musaov. 

I am rather inclined to daaaalong with the above 
a group of names ending ia ^-^either bj trans- 
position for ts, tz (as for instance Must =« Mutz) — 
or by a simple phonetic hardening of the terminar 
tion. The latter is in accordance with a oommoni 
tendency-^for iostanoe, a number of Fundi is 
before me in which an Irish game-keeper oomfoits 
an unlucky sportsman with " Shur^ yer honner, 
you do it very nist/^ 

BiHPXjs roi;mL 
Eog. MqI8I» Must^ IdjjwrTp MusTO, MooL Q^rm, H08T* 
^'"^^ Frwdi Mourn, 

PDUJMUXiVJfieu 

Ekii^MnssQiU Mod. Q^vm. MioffTHA^t Fr* HirstEu 

OQMPOUNIMl 

(Eardy fortis) Eng. MUCTAIUK (Hari^ warrior) English 
llmrtEft-^od Own, Tdxmnm^Vvtnf^ Mounrinu* (Son, 
m9w) Bni^ iSjowsux. {Ul/» wolf) E^|^ Mvrropn. 

Another word signifying valour or courage is 
GotK aljan^ Old BGgh German efiaw, Ang.-Sax. 
e22en» cognate probably with Qaal dUanta^ fierce, 
to which may be placed the following. 

SIMPLB rOBSIR 

Old GFennan Alyan, 8th cent English Allaut^ Allan, 
Blliok, Ellkn. Mod. Gennan Allbhn. French Allaut, 
0(mzif«. Ahhuss, Hellion. 

* Pott ouUem the French Moostter a oontractloii of Monastter, and if the 
name ftood bjtlMlf; that dedvatton might be aooepted. 

t AujLv, asaChiUtfAaiiameto more pnMd^ ftom tbeOaeUa 80 majr 
alio be Mme oC the ibOTO tfm]^ Cmvu. 



Kaod. 
Kan. 



IHB WAKBIOB A»]> HI8 AfiXS. 239 

(^07^, £unous) Old Gmnan EUinbert, 9th oent. — Erendi 
thjOfBEBT. {Bu/rg, protection) Old Qerm. EUinbnrga^ 8th 
cent. — Modem German Ellenbebo — ^French HALnrBonBO^ 
(Oer, spear) Old German £lkaig«r, 11th cent — French 
Anxsmr. {S^ WMTior) Old Oetn. EUanhw, 9tk cent 
«^ESiig. £kbUBro»^SCod G«mi. AiiLinsa---nre&Qli Ai&oaiBi. 
(ManJ Eng. HALLUroitAB. 

A third root with the meamng of valour or 
daring is nan, narU^ from the Goth, naniffiian^ 
audere. 

SIlCPLfi FOBHa. 

Old German Nando, ITannq, 5th cent EngBsh ISass^ ^ 
Nankt. Modem German Kaiotb, Ninkt, 13ense. French Duing. 
Naht, Namteau, Nanta. 

DIUIN UTIVKS. 

Old Germ. Nandilo, 8th cent — ^Mod. German Nisio>el — 
French I^amteuil. Old Germ. Nanzo^ 8th cent — ^English 
Naks, KAjnOE—Mod. Germ. Kakz — ^French ISTanctI* 

PATBONYMIGEL 

Old Germ. Nandung, ^enSng, Bth cent — Mod. Germ. 
IfTiinKG— French Nennino. ISng.. Naitson-— Dan. Nahseel 

COMPOUlTDa 

\Eciri, fortifl) Old German Kanhait, 11th cent — ^French 
Nenab^. iBariy ^warrior) Old <}erm. FsDrtfaar, 9iSk oni!t.«— 
£&g. Naisheby, NEKKEB-^JVranch^AaTflOu 

The •word nod, wot, tather common inpermmal 
names, is referred by Fiirstemann to QotL natrfA»» 
Mod. Germ, noth, English need, with u probable 
admixture from Old High Germ, hndton, quassare, 
or Goth, hndds, genus. But as the ending of 
Ang.-Saz. names, in which it was rather common, 

* JIajr of oouM be ttom the pUoe. CSaa the filue be Irom the yeoonal 
name? Mr. Taylor ref en it» elong with Nantea, to Oett. iiaii<» a Taaqr. 



240 THB WAKBIOB AKD HIS ABMa 

Bosworth derives it from Ang.-Sazon ndth, bold, 
daring, nithan, audere, which is certainly a 
preferable sense for namea 

SIMPLE POBM& 

Kotfa. Old Qenn. Noto, Noid, Not, Nuti, 8th cent. Eng. NoTT^ 

^^•'^■»- NoTHKT, NoAD, NuTT.* Mo<L QemL NoTH, NuTT. French 

Naud, Naudeau, Naudy, Nod^ Nottk 

DiMiNunyiiB. 

Old Germ. Kothicho, 9th oent. — Bug. Nothdoe. Eng. 

Noddle, Nuttall — ^Mod. Qerm. Notel — French Nottelle. 

PATBONYHTGB. 

Old Germ. Noding, Noting, 9th cent English Nodiho, 
Nuttino. Mod. Germ. Nudino. 

COMPOITNDfl. 

(Bcbri, warrior) Old Genn. Nothar, 10th cent. — ^English 
NoDDEB, NuTTEB, NosER 9 NuBSEB ) — Mod. Germ. Notteb* 
NiJTZBB — Fr. Naudieb, Nodier, Notbe, Notable, Nozi^bb. 
(Hard, fortis) Old Qwm, Nothart, 8th cent. — Eng. Nothabd. 
(Man) Noteman, ffund SoUs.-^Eng, Notjcak, Nuttican. 

PHONETIC INTRUSION OP I 

(Harif warrior) Old Geim. Nodalhar, 8th cent — ^Frendi 

NODLEB. 

The most common of all words with this 
meaning in men's names is the Ang.-Saxon b6ld. 
Old High Germ, hold, audax, fortis. The form 
baltz, hahy which runs through the formation, I 
take to be High German. This word is apt to 
mix with &aZ, p. 192. 

SIBCPLE FOBMfl. 

»^ Old German Bald, Baldo, Baudo, Paid, Belto, 4th oent. 

^^ Eng. Bold, Baldet, Bolt, Belt, Baud. Modem German 



* The Danish Knat (Cuxnte) might Intermix. The name wm derived, m I 
hftTe reed, from % wen upon hla head, hut I cannot find the authority again. The 
name KarrB is 1101 foond in Denmark and tlie patronjmlc Ksunnir Is yvtf 



THE WABRIOB AND HIB AfiMa 241 

Bald, Boldt, Poltb. French Baldi^ Baldi, Baud, 
Baudeau, Fold. Old Germaii Baldzo,* Balzo, Pakoi 9tli 
cent. — Eag. BaUiS, Palsy — ^Mod. Germ. Baltz, Balz. 

DnflMUTlVlBL 

Eng. Baldick, Baltic — ^Mod. Germ. Boltche — Frencli 
BALZAa Old QenxL Baldeohin, 9th cent — Eng. BALCHisr — 
French Baudichon — ItaL Baldaohhtl Old Qer. Baldemia, 
BalBcmia, BalsmnB, 8th cent — ^Eng. Beldam, Balsam — ^Mod. 
Qerm. Paldamub — ^French Balsemine (French dimm, f) 

PATEOXTMIGS. 

Old Germ. Balding, Palding, 8th cent Eng. BoLDora, 
BoiTLTiNa, Paulding. Mod Germ. Baldikq. 

OOMPOTJNDa 

(Htbrd, fortis) Old German Baldhard, 8th cent. — French 
Baia!ASD, Baltazabd (s=Baltasard.) (Hart, warrior) Old 
Germ. Baldher, Balther, Paldheri, Paltar, 8th cent. — Ang.« 
Sax. Baldhere — ^Eng. Boldert, Baldeb, Bolter, Poulteb, 
PowTEBy Powder — Mod. Germ. Baltzer — French Baltai^ 
Baudier, PAXHiTRE. (ffod. War) Old Germ. Balthad, 8th 
cent — ^Eng. Baldhead 1 (Ectm, ran, raven) Old German 
Baldram, Baldrannns, Paldhram, 8th cent — Eng. Beltram 
— Modem German Pelldram — French Baudron — Italian 
Beltramo. (JHftmd, protection) Old G^rm. Baldmunt, 8th 
cent. — French Baudement. (Rat, counsel) Old German 
Paldrat^ 8th cent — French Pautrat. (Randy shield) Old 
German Baldrand, 9th cent — French Baudraio). (RiCy 
dominion) Old Germ. Baldarioh (Tharingian king), Baldric* 
Baldrih, 6th cent — Ang.-8axon Baldric — Eng. Baldridge, 
Baldry, Bowdry — French Baudry. (Rit, ride) Old Germ. 
Baldrit, 9th cent — ^French Baudrit. (War, defence t) Old 
Germ. Baldoar, 8th cent — Eng. Bouohtwhore It — French 
Baudubr. (Wine, Mend) Old Germ. Baldwin, 8th cent — 

* It Is nol easjto Mj how th«M ■faonld be eloased— Ftartenuuin plMM tham 
m dimliratlTeii— L«., BiJdfloaBaldlao, m WiUiso from WUlo, pu 2a I taAve tokm 
them, however, onlj to be High Gemuui foimi 

t An early freeman of Connecticat f Suffolk SwmameiJ. He hM oertain^ 
ooQtiiTwl to wptXl hli name with the ntmoat amount of nnplemintnwt. 

K 2 



Trua. 
Flwoe. 



242 THE WABRIOB AND HIS ABM& 

Ang.-Saz. Baldwine — Eng, Baudwin — Dutch Boudewtit-^ 
French Baudouik — ^ItaL Baldovino. (Vidy wood) Old 
German Balsoidis, 9th cent. — Eng. Boltwood. (U2/, wdf) 
Old German Baldulf^ 8th cent — ^Mod German Baldauf* — 
French Baudeuf. (Wig, war) Old Germ. Balduig, 7th cent. 
— French Baldeyeck. 

FHONETIG ENDING m n» 

Old German Baldin, Paldeni, llth cent. Eng. Bolder; 
PoLDEN. Modem German Baldeniub, Folten. French 
Baudin, BaL8AK. 

PHONETIC ENDING IN f. 

Old Germ. Baldro, 9th cent Eng. Boldebo, BouDBOwt 
— French BAUDBa 

From the Goth, thrcis, fierce, swift, vehement. 
Old Norse thrasa, to contend, Forstemann derives 
the following ancient names. The name of the 
Vandal king Thrasamund comes from this root 
which is probably cognate with Irish treas, 
combat. 

SIMPLE FORM& 

Old Germ. Thraso, Traso, Treso, 9th cent Eng. Trass, 
Trace, Tress, Traies, Tracy, Drayset. French Trays, 
Tress, Tracy, Trens, Dreys& 

compounds. 

(Hard, fortis) French Trassard, Tressard. {WaSLd^ 
power) Old German Trasuuald, 7th cent. — Modem German 
Traswalt — ItaL Tresoldi. 

PHONETIC ENDING IN n. 

Old Germ. Drasuno, 9th cent. French Tressan. j: 

phonetic ENDING IN r. 

Old Germ. Trasarus, 9th cent. Eng. Traiser, Treasure, 
Dresser. French Terseur 9 

* Pott^ taking this name om pUd de la lettre, ezfOalna it as IxOd mtf^ 
" early np.** 

t See p. 180. 

I PotVs dAtiTati<m of Trenan fh>m *' int tain" it, I think, vwy unhappy. 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS ABMB. 243 

The Ang.-Sax. trum, firm, strong, courageous, 
appears to be found in a few names. The 
AUdetUsches Namenhrich has only one name, 
Tromolt, 8th century, corresponding with a 
TrumuaJd in the Lib. ViL In addition to the 
Saxon Trumhere below cited, there was also a 
Trumwine, bishop of Whitherne. The placing 
of Tumbull here is in accordance with a sugges- 
tion of Mr. Chamock in Notes and Queries. 

SIMPLB FORlCa 

TnuxL 

Eng. Dbum, Dbuhmet, Trump, Tbumpy. Mod. German Yirm. 

T&AX71L atroiw. 

COMPOUNDS.* 

{BcUd, foriiB) English Trumbull, Tremble, Turnbull. 
{Here, warrior) Anglo-Saxon Tnunhere, bishop of Merda — 
Eng. Trumper, Drummer 1 — Mod Germ. Trummer — French 
Dromery. 

From the Old High Germ, hwas, Ang.-Saxon 
hw€BSf Old Norse hvass, sharp, keen, fierce, rather 
than from the verb wcisjan, pollere, suggested by 
Grafl^ I take the following, though it is likely 
enough that there may be an intermixture. And 
I also think that wot is in some cases from hwcet, 
another Ang.-Sax. form of the same word. Thus 
the Old German names Kerhuuas, Gerwas,t 
Kerwat (grer, spear) all seem evidently to mean 
" spear-sharp.'' At the same time, except as a 
termination, I do not find suflScient ground for 
bringing it in here. As I have at p. 238 taken 

* The Eng. ]>BUicMOin>, French Dkumoxtd, might be pUced here, tmt I 
nther prefer the snggestion of Pott, who refers them to an Old Oerm. Dradmuni 

t I h*Te, p. 204, taken the secondary sense of boldness, bnt in connection 
with the spear the direct sense of sharpness seems on the whole the best 



244 THE WABRIOR AND HIS ABMB. 

mtist to be the same as mtiss, so owmg to the 
same cause — ^the unsatisfying sound of s final — ^I 
bring in here some forms in toast and wash. We 
have an instance of the latter in the name of 
Washington^ Ang.*Sax. Wassingatun, '' the town 
of the Wassinga** 

SIMPLBF0B1I& 

-^Mi. Old German Oasus, Waso, 9th cent ADg.-8ax. WaaBO, 
Keen. Cod, Dip. 971. Old Norse Hvaasi (awmame.) Eng. Wass, 
^***- Wash, Quash, Waste. Modem (Jerman Wass. French 
Vabse, Vasby, 

DIMDi(UTiV£& 

Eng. Wassell, Wastell, Yassall — Modem (German 
Wesssl — French Vassal. Old Qerm. Wasoelin, 11th cent. 
— French Yasselik. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) French Yassabd, Gusbsabd. (i5Ws 
warrior) Eng. Yasser, Washes — French Yasseue^ YsssncR. 
(Man) Old Germ. Wesmannus, 11th cent — Eng. Wash ah, 
Washman — Mod. Germ. Wassmann. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Hnasuni, 8th cent Eng. Wesson. French 
Yasson, QuEznr. 

There is a root jitg, which is referred by 
Stark to Goth, jukariy Old High German juMiun, 
to combat, Goth, jiuka^ Ang.-Sax. geoCy courage, 
fierceness. The root is probably the same as the 
Sansc. yug^ to dart forth. 

BUiPLE FOBMS. 

Old German Joga English JuGO, Judoe, Jew, Jua* 
^j^f French Jauqe, Jaugey, Juge, Jub, Jui, Jui. 

DnoNunvEs. 
Old G^erm. Jugaz, Jugizos — Eng. Jukes, Juggb, Jewiss 
— French Jouisbe. Eng. Juggiks. Eng. Jeula, Jewell — 
French Juqla, Julla ? (homme de UUres.) 

* ABortom 



THB WABBIOB AND HIS ARMS. 245 

OOMPOUNDa. 

(Avd, proBperity) French Jouoaud, Jouhaup, Jouet — ' 

Eng. Jewett, Jowett. (Bert, famous) French Jotjbert. 
(Hardy fortis) French Ja0QEABD, Jouard. (Ifari, warrior) 
Eng. JswEBY ?* — ^French Jugisr, Ju^by. (M<Mr, fiuaous) 
Old Qernum Jugamar, 9th cent. — French Joumajgl ( Wcdd, 
power) French Jouault. 

PHONETIC BNDINa 

Eng. Jewik. French JuQum, JuiGir^ Juik I 
From the Ang.-Saxon stare, sterc. Old High 
German starh, strong, rough, fierce, are the 
following. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old Germ. Starco, Staracho, 8th cent English Stabx, ^^^ 
Stabkbt, Stibk, Stobk 1 Stubgb. Modem German Stabk, ^?^ 
Stbbk. French Staab 9 

COMPOUNDS. 

(ffari, warrior) Old Germ. Storohar, 8th cent. — ^English 
Stabkeb, Stebickeb^ Stbaxeb — Modem German Stebkeb — 
French 9 Strickeb. (Man J Old Germ. Staroman, 8th cent 
— ^Starcman, fftmd, Bolls, — ^English Stabbjcan — French 
Stebckeman. 

In the Ang.-Sax. and Old High German snd^ 
Old Norse sniaUr, there mingles with the sense 
of swiftness or celerity sufficient of that of bold- 
ness or fierceness to bring them under this head. 

simple FOBMa SneL 

Old German Snello, Snel, 8th cent Old Norse Sniallr. Bnye. 
Eng. Snell. Mod. Gei-m. Schhell. ^^^ 

PATB0NYMIC8. 

Old Germ. Snellung, 8th cent Eng. SinsLLnro. 
ooMPouNna 
(GoTf spear) Old German Snelger, 8th cent English 
Skeloab. 



Or ]iOoal» tion /MMT^ * diiMot InhabUed by Jews rHottii^ 



Fortif. 



246 THE WAKRIOB AND HIS ABM& 

From the same root as snd comes Ang.-Sax. 

snear^ celer, fortis, which is found in two Old 

^^'^^ Germ, names. Snaring and Snarholf. Also in a 

Snearri in the Liber VitcB^ and in English Snare 

and Snaeey. 

Also I think in a warlike sense are to be 
taken the names derived from the Old High 
Germ.^.rw, Old Norse and Ang.-Sax. fds^ eager, 
I impetuous, a word which we still retain in the 

degenerate sense of fuss. In ancient names we 
I, find it more frequently as a termination, as in 

( Haduftins {had, war), Yalafons (voZ, slaughter), 

I Bonofusus (ban, slaughter), &c. 

SDCPLE rORM& 

I Fmu. Old Gennu Fonsa, Funso, Fossio, 6tli cent. Eng. Faukce^ 

I "^ Fuss, FussBT, Fobs?* FossbyI French Foussb, Fuby, 

I DDOKUTiVEa 

I FoBsel, HwuL Eolls. — Eng. Fussell — ^Frenoh FubHi — 

ItaL FuBELL English Fossick — ^French Foissao — Span.1 

FONSECA. 

COMPOUNDS. 

! (Hard, fortis) Eng. Fuszabd — Fr. Foubsabd, Fobsaed. 

{HaH, wBfrior) French Foubsieb, Fusieb, Fossieb, Fohcier ? 

It seems to me rather probable that the 
following contain an allied form to the abova 
Qra£^ 3.733, has some trace of a root Jiz, in the 
sense of movement. 

SIMPLE FOSM& 

n>. Old Qerman Fizo, 9th cent. English Fize, Fiz, Fees. 

^P**"^' French Fizeau, Fesst. 

* BMldM the looal word, the Low Oenn. fou, foi, might oome in. 



THE WABRIOE AND HIS ARMS. 247 

BDCDnJTITEa 

Eng. Teasal — French Fizel. English Physiok. Old 
Cknn. FiznjN, 9th oeni — Eng. FiSHLuns ? 

COMPOUNDS. 

{ffardy fortis) Eng. Fizabd — French Fissabt, Fbssaxd. 
There are two unexplamed words, Jisc and 
Jusc, occurring in Old Grerm. names, which I think 
may be formed out of the preceding — ^the Swed. 
Jiaska, Old Eng.^^, to bustle about, showing the 
related Teutonic words, and the Welsh ffysg, 
impetuous^ which I take to be also cognate, 
preserving most closely the sense. The formic 
is only found in one Old Grerm. name Fisculf ; the 
form fuse in the following. From the frequent 
interchange of sc and x, it is probable that Jix 
( = fisc), and^aj (==foscJ, may in some cases 
come in here. 

anCPLB FORMS. 

Old Qerm. Fuscias (a Vandal)^ 6th cent., Fosoo, Fosca 
(Franks), 9th cent Eng. Fux f Fox 1 Foskey, Fisk, Fish, j^^^, 
Fix. Mod Qerm. Fisch, Fix. French Fusch, Fix, Fisg^ 
FnoKm. 

DI MmU T IVJM . 

Old Qerm. Foscolo, 8th cent — ^Eng. Foxell ? — ^Modern 
Germ. Fuchsel f — Ital. Foscolo. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. FoxEN, FisKEN, FixsoN. French Fixon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(iTarf, warrior) Old German Fuscari, 8th cent — Engliflh 
FoxEBT — French Fixaby — ^ItaL Foscarl (Hard, fortis) 
Mod. Germ. Fischabt. {HUdy war) Old German Foscildis, 
8th cent— ItaL Fuscaldo.* {Ul/y wolf) Old Germ. Fisoolf, 
8th cent — ^Mod. Germ. Fischhop ? 

* GonwpoBdi mora newly with wUd, poirar, though kUd tad wM we 
UftUe to intenniz. The name PoMUdlf it Fnnldih. 



248 THE WABBIOB AND BIB ABME 

From the Aiig.-Sax. cdf, cdfy strenuous^ seem 
to be the following. There are but slight traces 
of this root in Old Germ, names, but it frequently 
occurs among the Anglo-Saxons. There was a 
converted heathen priest named Coifi, who on the 
reception of Christianity by the people of North- 
umbrian imdertook the demolition of the ancient 
shrines. It has been asserted that this is not a 
Saxon but a Cymric name, and that it denotes 
in Welsh a druid ; but Mr. Kemble has shown 
good reasons for believing that it is from the 
Ang.-Sax. cdf, active, strenuous. It also appears 
in the form cuf, as in the names Blethcuf and 
Wincuf, Cod. Dip. 981. The Old High German 
kop. Mod. G^rm. kopf, head, perhaps in the sense 
of helmet, is a root liable to intermix. 

BDIPLB FOBM& 

Old Qerman Cuppa, a Frank, 6tk cent., Coppo, 9th oent. 
Btrenuoiu. Ang.-Ssjc. Coifi. Eng. OoppEY, Covey, Copp, Cob,* Cupf, 
CuFFEY, Cubby. Modem Qerman Ka.up, Kopp, Kubbb. 
French Coffy, Copeau, Cdfay. 

nnaNUTZYBa 

Old Germ Cuffi)l% 8th cent — ^English Cuffley, Cxtbley, 
Copley, Covell — ^Mod. German Coppel — French CoynxB, 
CoPEL. Cofei, Copsi, Domesdof/ — Eng. Copsey — ^Modern 
German Kopisoh — French Coppez. English Oubbu>gb, 
CoppooK. Eng. Copelin, Cuffuk. 

OOMPOUND& 

(RaardJ English Covert, Coppabd— French Coffard, 
OoiFFABD, Caffobt. (JBt, p. 189, note) Eng. Cdbut, Cupit. 
(Mcun) Old Germ. Coafman,t 9th cent — English Coffmak, 

COPEKAK, CUFMAH. 

* Job Cob, one of the qnaintest of luimeB. 

t "One of the very few andent names," FOntemann remarki, "that it 
derived from a tradiuf orlglB.* I take It, however, to be bj no metai oertaia that 
itleia 



THB WABBIOB AKD HIS ABMB. 249 

Engliah GoFmri (ToppiKj OoYmnr. Frenoh Ooms^ 

OOFFINEAU. ^ 

From the Old Norse fko^ NortL Eng. feeh^ 
Eng- fidg^U are probably the following, but the 
sense I take to be rather that of warlike ardour 
and impatience. 

SDCPLB FOBMBw Fidk. 

Old German Fiocho, 9th oent. Figge, Um/p. Sdw. Zrd. ^v^taan. 
Eng. FiGO, Frnox. Modem Qerman Fueob, Fiox. Frendi 
FiaxA0. 

Dn iiUlJ T XVJft l 

Eng. FioKLor, FioKuva 
00MP0X7in)a 
(Hctri, wairior) Eng. Fioksr— French Figuikb, Ficheb. 

From the Goth, driusan^ Ang.-Sax. dreosan, 
cadere, mere, we may get also a sense of 
impetuosity suitable for the purposa 

SIMPLBFOSM& 

Old Qemian Drauso, DrooE, DroBa, Ti-uozi, 6ih cent ^^"^^ 
Eng. Dbocs, Tbug]^ Tbowsb, Truss, French Trousseau, ^^^'^"^ 
Tboss, Dboz. 

niMUV UTIVJBSL 

Eng. TsusSELL. French Tbousei. 

PHONETIO ENDING. 

Old (German Drosim, Trason, 11th cent Fr. Taussoir. 

The Ang.-Sax. thrist, bold, daring, appears to 
be found in Thristlingaden, " the valley of the 1^^. 
Thristlings,'' Cod. Dip. 670. And to this, rather ^d. 
tiian to Fr. triste, sad, I put Eng. TaiST, Tristeb^ 
perhaps Tbistbam {raniy raven) though a Celtic 
origin may be upheld.* 



BigUnj of ChzlstUa Vfuam, Sa45 

f2 



250 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABXBL 

The woTd haid (GotL hardus. Old High 
GemL hart, Anglo-Saxon heard), so common, 
partictdarfy as an miding, in men's names, may 
be taken to comprise some sense both oi fortU 
and durus, and to betoken endurance»Tigonr, and 
couiaga The older deriyation of Bernard, &a, 
from ard, art, kind, sort^ nature, is certainly 
erroneous, but it is very possible that there may 
be an intermixture of hard or ard, not in the 
sense of fortis or durus, but as an ending like 
that in coward, drunkard, and many other words 
both in the Teutonic and Bomanic languages, as 
noticed by Qrimm (Deutsch. Oramm^ 2.339 J 
saai^woBMB. 
g^^g^^ OldOerm. Hardo, Herti, 9th oenl Eng. Hard, Habdt, . 
HsBD, Hart, Hxajkt, Habtib, Hkabtt, Ohabd, Grabt. 



Hai^f. Modem German Habdt, Habt^ Hkbd^ Hestbl Frendi 
Habdi, Habdt, H^bt, Abtub* 

DnmrDnYBBL 
En^^iah 'ELaxobll — ^Modern Gkmuui HABBTBEr— Freacb 
BLabdxu^ AlXTKOm 

PATBORTMIGEL 

Old Qerm. Hardmg, Aiding. Eng. Habduto, AsDnro, 
HABTiKa Mod. Genn. SLabtdto, HABTUKa* 

00MF0UND6. 

(Oar, spear) Old German Hariker, 8th cent.— English 
Habdacbb* (Hard, reduplication) Old German Hariart, 
10th cent—- French Habtabd. (iTa^) Old Germ. Arthelm, 
9th cent. — Eng. Habdhail (Hart, warrior) Old (German 
Artheri, Hardier, Gharterius, 6th cent — ^English Habdieb, 
Habdteab, Habteb, Abteb, Ohabtbb — ^Modern German 
Habdeb, H5BDBB — Fr. Hardtcb, Abdibb, Abtub, Ohabtixb. 

• The Bug. iubm HAftnxovoB may noi iinprolwlilj adM out of • 
eeptton of Htfhug. 



IHB WABBIOB AND HIS ABM8. 251 

(Land) Old Gennaii Artaknd, 8th cent — ^Eng. HABTLAira 
(If an) Old German Hartnuu^ Hertmaiiy 8ih oent— Engliflli 
KiBDKAKy Hebdxan — Mod. GemL HABTMASVy Ebbmakk — 
French Habtmahk. {Mundy protection) Old Geno. Harto- 
mnnd, did cent. — ^Eng. Hardikent. {Nagaly nail) Old 
Germ. Hartnagal, 9th cent — Eng. Habtkall — ^Hod. Germ. 
HlRTNAiGXL. {Nidy strife) Old Germ. Hartnid, Hartnit^ 9th 
cent. — ^Eng. Habxhstt. {RcA^ counsel) Old Gtrm. Hartraty 
6th cent — ^English Hartwbight — ^Mod. (German Habtbot. 
{Rioty powerful) Old Germ. Harderich^ Hertrih, 5th cent. — 
Eng. Habtbidoe, Habtby — ^Modern German Hebtbich — 
French f Hebxbbich. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Hardul^ 8th 
cent — Eng. Habooff. (Wald, power) Old German Artald, 
9th cent — Mod. Germ. Abtelt — French Abtaui/t. (Wig^ 
me^ war) Old Germ. Hardwic, Hartuih, 8th cent. — English 
Habdwiok, Habdwidgs, Habdawat — Modem German 
Habdwecse. (Winey friend) Old QenxL Hardwin, Hardoin, 
7th cent — ^English Abdoudt — French Hebdeyik, Habdoot, 
HABDOXTIKy AjBDOxnir. 

PHOKETIC XNDIKO. 

Old German Hardinii Hardin^ 8th cent Eng. Habden, 
HABTOEy Abden. Mod. Germ. Hebdeit. French Habdon, 
Ohabiok. 

From the Old High Germ, fasti, Ang.-Sazon 
fcBSt, firm, unyielding, I take the following, which 
I think may come in here. 

bdiplb fobmb. 
Old German Fasta. Feste, Hund RcUb. English Fast, n^i 
Feast, Fist. Mod. Germ. Fest. French Fastgu, Feste, 'i™- 

Fehtu. 

PHOKETIO ENDmO. 

Old Germ. Fastun, 8th cent Eng. Fastin. 

COMPOUNDfi. 

(Burg, protection) Old German Fastburg, 8th cent. — 
French f FurrEBEBG. (Hari^ warrior) Old German Fastheri, 



^52 THB WABmOB AKD HIS AB1I& 

9th oent.— Eng. Fasisb, Vmnat, FMAmxB, FifltBii— Modem 
Ckiman FlSKBft— Frenah Fastieb, VAfftaA, Fibteb. {Uffi 
wdf) Old Oerman. Fastul^ 8th cent — Eng. Fasiaiv. 

From the Ang.-Sax. sttdCy stith, firm, steadfeat 
— ^the latter also having the meaniBg of severus^ 
asper, we may take the following. I also include 
the form stad^ which Forstemaon refors to stadt^ 
town, but which — ^referring to Old Norse staddr, 
constitutus, stedia, firmare — ^I take to be only one 
of the forms of this root. 

BIMFLB POBMS. 

Btid. Eng. Srm, Sttth, Btbad, Btsady, Bneed, Biatb, Beahd, 

^ Sekht. Mod. Qenn. Btadb. 

PATB02nrMIG& 

Old Germ. Stiding, Stindiiig, 9th cent. Eii|^ SxANBiNGk 
Mod. Oerm. SrEDurG. 

OOMFOUNDa 

(Man J English Stedhan, Steedxak — ^Modern German 
Btedmann. (in/, wolf) Old German Stadolf, 8th cent. — 
Stithuulf, Lib F**.— Eng. Stidolph. 

Probably in something of a warlike sense is 
to be taken the following group, the root of 
which seems to be the Sanscrit kruc, vociferarit 
whence a number of words of similar meaning in 
the Aiyan languages. Then in the Old Norse 
hroki, pride, insolence, hrdkr^ vir fortis et grandis^ 
also insolens, the sense seems to approach to that 
of defiance, which is suitable for proper namea 

BIMFLB F0BM& 

Old German Roooo, Bnccho, Boho, Boo, CmeoB, Oiooos 

Btridera. ^°^ ^ ^^ Alamamii, 4th oenl) En^^iah Rook, Rocket, 

BoAKB, BoAd^ BuoK, Ruvw, BJooiK, Bite, Obock. Modem 



THE WABBIOB AND HIS ASMS. 253 

German Books, BitcKE, Bacoh, Boooe, Buhb. French 
BooQUB, Boobs, Bogus, Booi^ BoosAt;, Gbooo, OkuQi 
OboxtL 

BIMXNUnVSB. 

Old Qenn. Bocnla^ 7tli oent-^French Bouoolle. Old 
GeroL Booodenafi^ 6th cent. — ^French BooQinBLnr, BoocnsLiK. 
Bog. BoGHBB — French Boasz, Boqueb, 

OOUFOXrSDQ. 

(Berty &moii8) Old German Bocbert, 8th ceni — ^French 
BoQUSBXBT. (Ety p. 189, note) EngliBh Boget, BocKsiTf 
Obockstt — French Boost, Boqxtett^ Cbochst. (Eard^ 
fortU) Old (Jerman Bnchart, Hrohhart, 9th cent. — ^Modern 
German Bugkebt — ^French Bochard, Bohabd, Cboghabd. 
{B^arif warrior) Old German Boacheri, Bnachari, 9th cent — 
Sng. BoKEB, BooKEB, BucEXB, Obokeb, Obocker — Modem 
German Bijokeb — ^French Baucotte, Bocheb, Botthee. 
(Man) English Buoxan. ( Ulf, woH) Old German Boccnl^ 
Boh<^ Bool^ 8th cent— Old Norse Hrolfr— Eng. Bolfs— 
Mod. Germ. Bohloit. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Bochold, 
Bouhold, 8th cent — French Booault, Booauld, Bohaxtlt. 
(Ward, guardian) French Cboquabt. 

In a similar sense I take the root iTnm, which 
Forstemann considers obecurei and which Abel 
takes to be a contraction of irmin. The root 
meaning seems to be noise, as in Old Norse ymia, 
stridere. Hence Old Norse ymr, clash of arms, 
and ^rtuX'y battle. The name of the giant Ymir in 
Northern mythology is from this root — the sense 
being primarily that of loud voice, which suggests 
that of huge stature. 

SDCPLB WCfSOSA. 

Old Qetm. Immo, Ymmo^ Emmo, 7th cent Old Ntwse 
YmL Eng. YA f Modem German Imx, Ibdil IVench gt||^««, 

BlOByElCT. 



254 THB WABBIOB AKD Bm ABMa 

DIMJLMUTIVJBL 

Old Germ. Ymiao, llth cent— A^pUah Baieb, Bnam, 
Sum — ^Modern Qennan Imbb — ^Franch I1CB& Old G«niuyi 
Imiooy 8th cent. — ^Ekig. Jmaom — Mod. Genu. Immigb. 

(Beri, fiunoos) Old OemiAn Imbert^ 7tii cent. — ^Eoj^ifllL 
Imbibt — French Ikbebt. (Bald^ fortia) French Imbaultw 
(Hardf fiirtia) Old Germ. Emehard, 8ih cenl — Mod. Germ. 
Ekmbbt— French Ikabb. (ffori, warrior) Old German 
Emaher, Emheri, 10th cent. — Eng. Exbeb, Emery — French 
iMKBf ExMBBT. (Bicy dominion) Old German Emrich, 8th 
oenl — ^Eng. Emxbicx — ^Modern German Emebigh — French 
ExBBio, Embbioqub. 

PUONBnC BNDIKO. 

Old German IminOy 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon Imminei 
Eng. EifEEnr. French Emx ok. 

Probably in something of a warlike sense 
are to be taken the following, which seem to 
be from Old High Germ, titan, Ang.-Sax ridan, 
English ride. 

8DCPLBF0BM& 
21^ Eng. BiDB, RmET, WBirr, Wbtte. Mod. Germ. Rm 

French BmBAir, Biddi^ Riettb. 

BDCINUnVBS. 

Eng. BmDELL— Modem German Ruedl — French RmEL, 
BiBDiiB. Old Germ. Bidelentu, 8th cent. — ^Eng. RmLON — 
French Bibdukg. Eng. BmDiOK. 

PATBONTMia 

Eng. BmuTG, EmDnro. 

OOMFOUNDa 

{Oer, spear) Old German Bideger, 10th cent. — ^English 
BooBE. (Hard) Engliah RmHABD. {Aud, prosperitjr) 
French Ritaus, Bxdaut — ^Eng. RtDBOUT, Bedout. (JJors 
warrior) Eng. Bideb, Wbiteb, WBiaHTBB— Mod. German 
BnTEBy BiPPEiii French BiDiiaiE. 



THB WABBIOB AKD HIS ABM& 255 

From the Goth, neiths, Ang.-Saz. nith, malice, 
hatred* strife, Forstemaim derives the following. 

8IMPLB roBMa 
Old Genn. Nid, Nitho, Nitto, Nizo, Sth cent. Ea^h ^nth. 
Kritt, Neate, Nsed, NissSy Nigs 9 Mod. Qennan Nikd, B«rif«. 
Nisni^ NrrzBy Nizzk French Nizbt. 

OOMPOTTND0. 

(Bald, fortb) Old German Nithbald, 9th cent— Modem 
German Nifpoia< — ^French Nibaxtlt. {B&H, fiunooB) Old 
Germ. Nidperht, Sth cent. — French Nibabt. (Bod, envoy) 
Old Germ. Nidaboto, 9th cent — Eng. Kebbeit, Nisbbt f — 
Mod. QeniL Niepoth — ^French Nebout. {Go», Goth) Old 
Germ. Nidgoz, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Nbgi7&* {Hardy lortis) Old 
German Nidhord, Nihard, 9th cent. — ^Modern German 
NiEDHAJKDT, NiTZEBT — French Nizabd, Nisabd, Niabd. 
(ZTcm, warrior) Old Germ. Nither, Sth cenl — ^Mod. German 
KiEDEB — French Nii^Bli, Netteb. {Hady war) Old Germ. 
Nidhad, Sth cent— Ang.-Sax. Nithhad— French NrroT. 

The following group, which are rather apt to 
mix with the preceding, I connect with a word 
nodal, very common in Frankish names^ and 
which Weinhold refers to Old High German 
nadcday acus^ in a supposed poetical allusion to 
the snake. This, however, I think very far- 
fetched, and simply class the word along with 
others of the same sort already introduced in 
this chapter. The root is nod, which, as Mr. 
Wedgwood has shown, has the sense of piercing, 
and from which are formed needle (Old High 
Germ, nadala, Ang.-Sax. nedT) — ^nettlet (Ang.- 
Sax. netl. Mod. Germ. n£ssd) — ^and as he thinks, 

* Htnoa th* name of the h^mnf, tnm. lU Inyeotorp one CoIoimI JUtgOJL 
t The JjA. urMoamaj bt from » xoot of iliiiilar mMalaff— oif. ord; ortf p. il7. 



256 THE WABBIOB AND HIS ABMB. 

the Ang.-Saxon nwddre, Eng. adder. I include 
the form nestle on the principle referred to p. 238 
— ^the Norwegian naestle, nettle, is a case in 
point. And for an example of the converse we 
have Eng. nesty Lat. nidus, Welsh nyth, 

SIMPLE FOBMft. 

Old Germ. NacUd, Nadabs 8Ui cent English Nadall^ 
KmnAy Nketlb, Neboxa. Modem Gennan Nadell, Nxmii^ 
Nbsskl. French NmELAT, Nizollb^ Neotl^ 

Old Gennan Nadalina, Natalinns, 8ih oent — ^Eni^ish 
NiSTUNa — ^Modern German Nidvun, NuDuna — ^Frenoh 

NEBXUEir. 

OOBCPOTTNDa 

(JIarif warrior) Old Germ. Natlahar, 8ih cent. ^English 
Needles, Naldeb* — ^Modern German Nadleb, Nessleb — 
French Nesseleb. (Bat^ counsel) Old Germ. Nadalrad, 8th 
oent — Eng. Naldbett — Mod. Germ. Nesselbath ? 

Another name which I take also to be icoia 
a weapon is Sneezy. This, along with an Old 
German Snizolf {vXf, wolf) may be referred to 
Ang.-Sax. snds, spear. 

And there are a few names overlooked in 
their proper place in this chapter, which may be 
referred to Old High Germ, fehd. Mod. German 
fehde, Ang.-Sos:. fcegth, faeth, Eng. feud. 
simple fobms 
^ Old Germ. Feito, 9th cent. Eng. Faed, Faith, Faitht. 

French Feydeau, Feytou. 

PHONETIC ENDOTG. 

Old Germ. Fedane, 7th cent. Eng. Feddon. 
I take the above to be from the same root as 
the Germ, fechten, Ang.-SsiX. fsohtan, Eng. fight. 

* Either 1^ tnuisposltloii for Kadlar, or p«rh»iNi oontalnlng the Datch fofm 



Fend. 



THB WABRIOB AKD HIS ABH& 207 

The name Feohter seems to be of German 
origin, but FiCATiER in the directory of Paris 
looks like the same name in a more thoroughly 
French guisa Or we might connect it with 
Germ, fickte^ the pine-tree, whence Pott derives 
the German name Fichtb. 

From the Old Sax. werod^ Ang.-Saz. weorod, 
host, army, we niay take the following. 

SnCFLBFOBMS. 

Old Gennan Werot, 9th oent TemtoSy Frisiaa prince wwod. 
^n Tadtaa, 1st cent — ^here 9 EngliBh Wsbkett, Yeritt f a™7- 
YiBTUB I French Vmor, Y]£bit4 Ykbtu f 

From the Goth, slahan, slohun, Anglo-Saxon 
slogan, dean, Eng. slay. Old English sle, slaw, 
occidere, rather than from the Old High German 
dou. Mod. Germ, schlau, "Eng. sly, as proposed by 
Forstemann, I take the following. The name 
Slybody, found in Sussex in the 17th century, 
might have been included here, but as the name 
Slytbody is found in the same county at an 
earlier date (Pat. Brit.), we may rather refer it, 
along with our name Slight, to Anglo-Saxon 
slitta, contention, and explain Slytbody as a 
messenger of strife, or perhaps rather in the 
higher sense as a herald of war. 

SniPLB VOBM& 

Old German Slaugo, Slougo, Sliu,* 8th cent. English 
Slaoo, Slegq, Slack, Slay, Slbwst, Slow, Slowet, Slee, 
Slt. Mod. Germ. Schlauch, Schlech. 

• Orimm (Ffxnunuumtn amt bfmmfmj, dezlTw tMi {funato} name from Old 
Hons «iK coBlerrapalnitrii a fwy dmiMfnl inbrnOaa, MltwwiMto ma. 

g2 



eOaf. 
glanglitflr. 



258 THE WABmOB AND HIS ABHS. 

001CPOT7KD& 

(Man) English Slewman, Slowman, Sltican, SusEiCAir. 
{Ulfy wolf) Old German Slougolf; Sliholf, 8th cent— English 
Slyofp. 

There is a word of yet more hateful sound 
which appears to come before us in men's names» 
viz., the Old High Grerm. mort^ Ang.-Sax. viord 
morthf Old Scotch morthy murth, Eng. murder. 
Old Eng. mart, Lat. mm^s, death. The meaning 
is probably nothing more than that of slayer, so 
commoD in the names of this chapter. There are 
but few names in the AUdentsches Namenhnch^ 
and Fcirstemann does not give an opinion upon 
them. Pott suggests the above meaning in the 
case of the Germ, names Mordt and Mordtmann, 
but the German Martyrt and the French 
Mortemart he explains, imsatisfiictorily, as I 
think, as mors martyrum, 

SDiPLE FO&MS. 

Mori Old German Morto. English Mort, Morde, Mobdat» 

^**^ Mordue, Murt, Murta, Murtha, Morse. Mod. German 

MoRDT, MoRTZ. Fr. Mort, Mortieu, Morda, Mourceau. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

MurdoG, Domesday — Eng. Murdock — Modem German 
Mortzschke — French Mordaque. Eng. Mortal, Myrtle, 
Morsel^ Mursel — French Mourzelas ? Fr. Morsaline. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hardy fortis) Eng. Murtard — Mod. Genn. Martyrt ? 
— French Mordret (for Mordert?) (Ram, raven) Old 
Germ. Mordmmnus,* Maurdrannus (Abbot of Corvey), 8th 
cent — Eng. Mortram. (Hari, warrior) English MoRTARt — 
French Mortier, Morzi^re. {Ma/rd, fi&me) French Morte- 

* Wronglj pUoed by Fttntemann. 
t Or the «rt«nded f onii» m found In Eng. mwrder. 



THE WABRIOB AND HIS ABMS. 259 

MABD, MOBTEMABT.* (Mcm) MoRTDCAIN, RM BoU. Abb, 

£ng. MoBSiCAN — Mod. Germ. Mobdtmakit. 

In concluding this chapter we may remark 
how the one thought of war seems to have been 
at the bottom of the hearts of our forefathers. 
We have seen how everything long and straight 
seems to have been, par excellence^ a spear — 
everything broad and flat^ par excellence, a 
shield. And so, in proper names, a song may 
have been the song of victory — an ornament may 
have been the reward of valour. Thus there 
may be in reaUty a number of other names at the 
bottom of which is a war sense, but in which the 
expression is not sufficiently prominent to warrant 
their introduction here. 

* Might be local— there being two plMes lo called in France. At the tame 
time I believe, aaelMwhere itated, that maajr namee of placet in Fxaaoe are aimidj 
names of men. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THS FB0TBCIO& AND THK FBIKNH 

It ift a long list of fierce and crod names that 



we have just been oonaiderii^. These — with 
scaicelj an ezoeptioD — must have been given in 
the cradle — it was a war baptJam, so to Bpetik. 
The innocent babe on his mother^s breast vras 
called by a wariike name, in the hcipe that his 
sword would one day make other babes oiphan^r 
and other w<MMn lAildhww, 'Et&i the gentler 
sex had the same ungentle namee^ for war was 
the religion of the day. 

It is a pleasant change then to turn to names 
which speak of peace and good-will, of love^ 
friendship, and affection — even though in some 
cases we may have to put a certiun limitation 
upon the seDse. We can scarcely suppose, for 
instance, that frid or friths peace, so conmion in 
ancient names» was used in that sense of peace on 
earth and good-will towards men, which had no 
place in the fierce religion of our fore&thers. 
The idea^ if applied to their own tribe, might be 
rather that of protection or security — ^if applied 
to their enemies, that of conquest or subjugation. 
This root was widely spread over all the Grerman 
tribes, but it is by no means so common in French 
and English names as might be expected. In 
many cases, both as a prefix and as a termination, 
it changes intoyrey or free. 



THE FROTBCTOB AND THB FBIBND. 261 



SDfPIJirOB 

Old Qerm. Friddo^ Fritto^ 9ih oent. Sag. Ebid^ Fbxd, tdd, Fktth. 
Friao^ Futh, Fhskth, Fbsfht. Modem Qermaa Fruh^ ^**^ 

UlMlNUTlV'ffiL 

Old German FritOa^ FridOa, 8th cent— Angi-Sax. Ftidk 
— Mod Germ. Fbiedel — French Fbedoillb, Fritel, Old 
German Fridulm, 9th cent. — ^En^&di FaxBUNat — French 
Fb^lokY 

cxmFOtniDflw 

{Bad, war) Old German Fridibad, Saabkn Prince^ ffth 
cent — Bug, FRBEBOtJT— Frendi Fa^AT. {Baid, bold) Old 
German Frithubald, 6th cent. — IVench FasBAtrLt: (Bern, 
bear) Old German Fridnbem, 9th cent — Friebemoaf 
Domesday — ^Eng. FasEBOsir f (Birg, protectkm) Old Germ. 
Fixdabugy 8th eent. — En^ Fbkbboxouoh 9 FaianBlDGB Y 
(Bed, envoy) Old Germaa Frithubodo^ 9th cent. — EngUah 
Fbeebodt. (Eari, warrior) OkL Germ. Fridehere, 9th cent 
— Mod. German Fbetteb — French FaBDlias. (Datg, day) 
Old Germ. Frittag, 9th cent — £ng. Fsidat — ^Mod. German 
FEEsriA. (Lmd, gentle) Old Gemum FtidoHnd, 9th oenl 
Frelond, Himd. Bolls.— Eng. Fbeelakd ? (Liub, love) OU 
German Fridiliuba — Eng. Freblovb ? (Bice, powerful) Old 
Germ. Frithnric, 5th cent — ^Old Korse Fridrcfo (Icdandio 
biahop) — Eng. Fjeuederiok — ^Mod. Germ. Fbidbbich — Fronoh 
Fbedebick. (/Sj(an> stone) Ang.-Saacon Frithestan — ^Engliah 

FiCEEBTOVK t 

Another word with the meaning of peace — ^but 
uxta which there enters more <^ the aens^ of 
friendship and rdationship— i» Anglo-Saxon sih 
Hence the nam^ according to Grimm^ of the 
gioddesB SiC wife of Thoir in. Northern mythidogy. 

SIKPLK VOBM& 

(»ikGefantKb)fl^6th0Bttt,8]Ai)8No. A^^^'Oimm ^^^ 
Sibba, buhop o£ Elmham^ Eag^ Sipp, SxaTT. Mod. ChtBL Wmoaop. 
SisBB, Sbppbl French Sivx. 



262 THE FBOTECTOR AND THE FBIENB. 

omDrcnm. 

(M Genn. Kbioo, 8th cent.— Eng. Sibbick— Mod. Gcnn. 

S iEiMUMJ L Old German Sevilat 7th cent. — Ekigiiah SiBn^ 

BiBLET — Mod, Gennaa Stbbl — French Sbtilla f StbillbI 

Eng. SiFTKsr — Mod German SiEYEKDia En^iiah SiPLora 

French Sebillob, Db Setbldpoeb.* 

PATBoinnac& 

Eng. Sibsoh. Eng. SEPPnrG& 

OOMPOUinML 

{Hari, warrior) Ekig. Sibeet, Sietieb — French SiPiisBt 
Ss^VEB. (Lett, learned) Eng. Sipless t (Ricy power) Old 
Germ. Sivracaa, 8th cent — Eng. Sivrac, Shiyeeick — ^French 
Sbybt f {S(U, ooonael) Eng. Sietewbight t 

LOCAL NAME. 

(Thorp, Tillage) Eng. Sibthobp, Sifthobp. 
Another root of similar meaning may be sem, 
sim (Anglo-Saxon sernan, to mediate, appease; 
sema, syma, a peace-maker.) There is only one 
Old Germ, name from this root, which Forstemann 
does not class. The word sam^ p. 75, is apt to 
intermix. 

SIMPLE POBBa 

Sol ttm. ^^^ Germ. Simo, Sjme, 9th cent. Engliah Stmb, Sdcm. 
M«dtotioiL French Semey, Semi^ Sem, Simus. 

DIMINUnVEa 

Eng. SiMCO. English SiMMUiL— French Semei^ Semelk, 
SiMiL. Eng. SuiKUf — French Bemighon. 

OOMPOUNDa. 

(Oii, kii, hostage) Eng. SncKiss. (Eariy warrior) French 
SiMnsB. (Hard) French Suiajeud, Simabt. 

There are a number of words of which the 
meaning is friendship and affection. Friend itself 

* Thli looks u if it wen fonned on the Mune prindple m the It«iiAn naiiMi 
itfemd to bj BalTerte, originating in the taMoOj fewli of the middle acet. "A 
Bun did not oeU himMlf Tibaido OapuUUi, or BaMno ArmaH, but Tibatdo di 
CtaV«M«i, Sulvfiio ikvr i^moM-one of the Ckimlettl, one of the Arm atL " 



THE PROTECTOB AND THE FRIEND. 263 

is an ancient name, though not commoa We 
find an Old Germ. Friunt, 8th cent., Eng. Fbiend, 
Modem German Freund, French Friand and 
Friant. Then we have Friendship, correspond- 
ing with an Old Germ. Friuntskap, 9th cent., of 
which Forstemann observes that it is ** a name 
standing altogether by itself.'' But we seem to 
have one or two similar names, as probably 
WiNSHiP, from ^[}^ne, friend. 

The last word mne, is the most common of 
all words with this meaning, occurring most 
frequently as a termination. It frequently, 
and especially in French, takes the prefixes g and 
q, as noticed at p. 47. It is probable that Ang.- 
Sax. win, strife, war, intermixes. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old German Wino, Win, Wina. Wini, Winni, Sth cent., 
Gnuine, Sth cent., Quino, 11th cent. Ang.-Sax. Wine, 3rd wine, 
bishop of London. Eng. Winn, Winney, Wine, Wheen, '''*«*^ 
Whenn, Vine, Vinet, Quin, Quiney, Queen, GwynnI 
Mod. Germ. Wein, Winne, Quin. French Vina.y, Guen^ 
Gueneau, Guenu, Quenay, Queneau, Quin, Quineau. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Yinnilo, 9th cent. — English Winlo, Vinali^ 
QuENNELL — French Quenelle. Eng. Quinlin. Old Germ. 
Winicho, Winika — English Winch — Mod. Germ. Winecke, 
WiNKE — French Vincke, Vinche. Old German Winizo, 
Winzo,* Sth cent. — ^Ang.-Saxon Wynsy, bishop of Lichfield 
— Eng. QuiNOE^ QuiNCEY — French Vincey, Quincey. 

PATEONYMICa 

EDg. WiNSON — French Vinson, Quenessen. Old Germ 
Wininc, 8th cent. — Eng. Winning — Mod. G«rm. Winning. 

* F^yntamaim— leM rsMonAbly, u it App««n to m»— plMM theio two lumuf 
to tha root winid, wmd (VandaL ) 



264 XHB PBOTBCTOB AND TEDB FUKND. 

OOMPOTTNDB. 

{Bald, bold) Old Germaa Winibald, 8th o«ni.~Engli8li 
WiKBOLT, WiMBLB — French Gudcbal. (Burg^ protection) 
Old Germ. Winebnrg, 8th cent — ^Eng. Wdibridgb 1 — ^Mod. 
Qernuui WsDmBBO — ^Frenoh Yinboubo. (Oof, streniKras) 
▲ng.-Sftz. Wmco^ Cod. Dip. 981— Eog. Wincuf— Modem 
Oeim Wbikkopf. {Dntd, dear) Old Germ. Wimdrad, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Windaed. (Oaud, Goth) Old Germ. Winegaud^ 
8th cent — Eng. Wdtoood, Wdtgate. (Gar, spear) Old Ger. 
Winiger, Vinegar, 7th cent. — Eng. WiNBaAB, VrraoAR — 
Mod. Germ. Weikoeb. (Hard) Old Germ. Winihart, 8th 
oent — Mod. Germ. Wkixhabdt — Fr. Quenabd, Quikabd. 
(Hcuri, warrior) Old Genn. Winiheri, Winier, 8th cent. — ^Eng. 
WunsB, QuiKEB — Mod. Germ. Wikhebb — French Guikieb, 
QuDTEBT, QuiNiEB. (Loio, plaj) Old Germ. Winleich, 8th 
•ent— TJinilao, lAh. Fi^.— English Wihlock. (Man) Old 
Germ. Winiman, 7th cent. — ^Ang.-Sax. Winemen — EngliRh 
WiNEiCAK, WiNiiEN, Wjossius — Mod. German Wedtmanh. 
(Mar, famooB) Old German Winimar, 8th cent. — French* 
QuBNEiosB. (Rat, connael) Old Genn. Winirat, 8th cent. — 
French Gui^nebat. (Stan, stone) Anglo-Saxon Wynstan — 
Eng. WiKSTOK, (Wold, power) Old German Winevold, 
GniiuJd, 8th cent — Modem German WBmHOLD— French 

QUENAULTy QUXITATTLT^ QuXKAULT. 

FHOKETIC ENBIKa 

Old Germ. Yinin, 8th cent. Eng. Ynncir. Mod. Germ. 
Wbdiev. French Wjsses, Gctnol 

The Old High Geim livb, Ang.-Saxon ledf^ 
dear» is also very common in proper names. 
There are, however^ other roots very liable to 
intermix, as Goth, hiifs, superstes, and Old High 
Germ, l&p, praise, both found in ancient names. 

SIMPLB FOBMa 

Lfl>, lif. Old Germ. liaba, linf, Lenpo, liebas, 6th cent Ang.- 
^^J^ 8«. LaoC Old None Uv&l. English Lisp, Lite, Loup, 



THB PROTECTOB AND THE FiWEND. 265 

LiFP, Leap, Lubt, Love. Mod Germ. Lies, Lippe, Lubbe. 
Fi-ench lavio, Leppe, Lieppe^ Lovy, Loup, Louva, Louveau, 
Lupp^ 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Liuvicho, Libicho, 8th cent. — Old Danish 
Livick — Eng. Liyick, Loyick, Lubbock — Modem Gennan 
LiEBicH, LiEBia, Leppoc, Lubbecke — French Libec, Lubac, 
Leppich, Ley£que ? Leyick. Old German Lienikin, 10th 
cent. — Eng. Loyekin — Fr. Liefquin. Old Germ. Liubilo, 
8th cent. —Eng. Loyell, Leyell — Modern Grerman Liebel, 
LiPPEL — French Louyel. Old German Liebizo, Luviz, 
Liubisi (genvt) — Ang. -Saxon Leofsy, bishop of Worcester — 
Eng. LiBBis, LoYETS, LiYESET, LoYESET — Modem German 
Lepsius — French Liboz, Lips. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Geiman Liubing, 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon Living, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. Lufincns, Domesday. English 
Living, Loving, Leyinge. 

compounds. 
(Dagy day) Old German Liopdag, 10th cent. — Luiedai, 
Domesday — English Loyeday. (Frid, peace) Old German 
Liupfrit — Eng. Lefkoy ? (Hard) Old German liubhart. 
Leopard, 7th cent. — Eng. Leopabd, Liberty ? — Mod. Germ. 
Liphard, Lippert, Liebert — French Libert, Lippert. 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Liubheri, Libher, Lipher, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Lepper, Lover, Lever — Mod. Germ. Lieber — 
French Liebherre, Leyier, Louvier. (Lind, gentle) Old 
German Liublind, 8th cent. — English Loveland ? (Man) 
Old German Liubman, 8th cent — Eng. Loveman — Modem 
Germ. Liebmann. (ifar,«famouB) Old German Leobmar, 
10th cent. — English Livemore. (jRic, power) Old Gennan 
Liubrich, 7th cent — ^Ang. -Saxon Leofric — Eng. Loyeridqe. 
(TrtUf dear) Old Germ. Lipdrud, 8th cent. — Eng. Liptrot — 
Mod. Germ. Liebetrut. ( Wald, power) Old Germ. LupoaJd, 
7 th cent. — Ang. -Sax. Leofweald — French Libault. 

H 2 



266 THE PBOTECrOB AN0 THfi SBIEbtD. 

Another word of simOar meaning is probably 
minn^ from Old High German minna, Ang.-Saz« 
myn, love, affection. 

SDCPLE POBMa 

MioiL Old Qennan Minna^ 9th cent. En^^iah Mimk; MTmr, 

^^'^ MiHirET, MmHow. French Mnms, Mnri 

DnaNTjmrBSL 
Old QenxL Minigo, 9th cent — ^Eng. MnrocH, MnfKS — 
French Minich. Old German Miniul, 11th cent — ^French 
MiKEL. Eng. MiNcmN — French Minaghov. Eng. MimnSy 

MiKCE. 

COMPOUNDSw 

(IlaU, hood) Eng. Minnett — ^French Minnette. {Hard) 
Old German Minard, 11th cent. — English Mikard — French 
MiNARD, MmABT. {E<vr% warrior) English MnrsR — ^French 
MiNiEBy MiKEUB 9 {R(U^ counsel) French Mikebst. 

The word sweet, dulcis, in the various forms 
of Old High German suaa. Mod. Germ, siiss. Old 
Sax. sdt, Anglo-Saxon sw^, swSs, appears to be 
found in some ancient and modem names. The 
few Old Gterm. names which I have ventured to 
put here are not explained by Forstemann, and 
the existence of the word is more clearly shown 
by the names found in our own early records. 
The Ang.-Sax. stmth, vehement, may be liable to 
intermix, as well as a word swed found in some 
names, and referred by Forstemann to Old High 
German sivedan, cremare. » 

SIMPLE FDBMS. 

Old German Suoto, Soto, Snto, Suzo, Swiza, 9th cent 
Sweet Q^g^^ ^^ under-tenant be/ore Domesday. English Sweet, 
j^^ Sweat, Sutt, Suett, Suse, Sauce. Modem German Saubb, 
Su8& French Suasso, Soussi, Susse, Soto, Suet. 



IHB PBOXBCrrOB AND ntB nUXND. 267 

PAXBoimaoBL 
Baetdngy Ikm99day. Eng. SwJU HE JU i a 

OQHFOUim 

(Jfon) Aiig.-Saz. Bw^man, fUHiM ^Ma mtn^tfr ornmb^f 
fA« eoim found ai Alfirision, SuffoOk — ^EngUsh BwKKnUN — 
Hodern (}eniian StJBMAHir — ^French ? ZouncAV. (£012^ dear) 
Engliah Owkbtloy^ Butlut t Sxttolut t 

The root of $weet is su, the primitiTe meaning 
of which seems to be liqueacere, and whence also 
the words suck, sugar^ &c. The particle su or 
9ug is found in several Old Celtic names^ as 
Sncarius^ Sncaria {Orut^ 742.3), which Gluck — 
taking the Old Celt sucar as the equivalent of 
the Welsh hygar — explains as amabilia The 
same word comes before us in some Old German 
names ; I take it to be from Old High German 
sugary Ang.-Sax. sucan^ Eng. mck^ and suppose 
the meaning to be the same as that of the above 
word sweet. 

8DCPLB FOBHB. 

Old German 2acha Anglo-Saxon Bucga^ Bacoa^fovni 

apparmUty m Suogangrd/^ Suecanacylf, CocL JDip. HI, 1233. 

Bonoh, BoU JBaU. Abb. EngUsh Buoo, Buck, Bucblbx; Suob, 

Bkw, Sswxt. Mod. Germ. Zugk. Freaoh BotJODELkT, 8u&* 

DnoNimvEa. 

Old German ZadulOy Lombard king, Gib cent. — ^Ekigtiah 
BxTCKLST— French SuohbIi. BnoKLoro^ D&m ud a^^-^EB^SA 
BucKuve. 

00MP0Uia>& 

(Atid, proeperity) Trench StrcGAUD, Buquibt, Bougit-^ 
Eng. BuoGErr. (Hard) Mod. Qenn. ZuoKxair, Bucxaed— 
French Bouohakd. (Man) Eng. Buoiaujr. (Bai, ooonael) 
French Boughebas^ BouoHEBEr. 

* Potfi loggiiUoii of fOfi^^nM^ toooh, hnOf UMdi to bo 



Dmt. 



268 THB FBOTBCTOB AND THB FBDSND. 

KXTDTDSD rOBMsSVO. mtgO/Ty OSBM. WWshtT f 

Old Genu. Soger.* En^^ Suoab, Sugkib. Modem 
Germ. Zvoembl Frenoh Souaiaai 8oughxiib& 

OOMPOUBSa. 

(JTord) Frenoh Soughbrabix (Mar^ fiunoiis) Eni^ish 
BuoKXBMOBSi (Man) Eng. Suoabiiav (Sh^. Sum,) 

Between dear, carua, and deer, the aimnal, it 
is impoBsible to distmguish even in ancient namea. 
The foimer is the preferable sense, though it is 
probable that there may be an admixture of the 
two. The laiger proportion of the ancient names 
are those of women. 

SIMPLI FOBIOL 

Old Genn. Dioro^ Ditun^ Teor, 8th cent An^ioStoDosEL 
Diora. Old Norse DtrL En^^ Dbab, Dxabet, Tbab, 
Teabxt. Mod. Gemuui Dxehb, Tbise, Thxusb. Fmicii 
Tbixy, ThixbbTi TmxBB^ TnxAu. 

OOMPOUND& 

(Leo/, dear) Ang.-Sax. Deorla^ bishop of the Magaagtas 
-— Ehig. BxABLOYE. (Bertf £Eunoiu) Eng. Deabbibd. (Man J 
Dereman, Domesday — Eng. Deabman. (Wald, power) Old 
Germ. Deorovald^ Deorold, 7th cent. — Mod. Germ. ]>5bwald 
—French TmBAui^. (Wine, Mend) Ang.-Saz. Deorwyn 
(Mas. (7oMl)— Eng. Dxbwin — ^French TmBOunr. 

There is a word bil, common in ancient and 
modem names, and which Grimm (Deutsche 
Myth.) explains to mean ^^lenitas^ placiditaa^'t 
BU was the name of que of the minor goddesses 
in Northern mythology. 



VOntenuum oukM tbto a oomptlim of 8wltii(<r. Ilien Mwni, howww, 
ittnrandfdrtaktacltMttta. OompAn the Oettlo aunt Soaului. 
t TUi loot fluiy, hawuvw, ■wnttliutg lAtenniz frtth anottMr tel, hak, m 
•IPlUL 



BiL 

pa 



THE PBOTflCrOB AND THK FBIfiND. 269 

gmPLi roBMa 
Old Genu. Bilo» Billa^ 9th cent. Eogliflh Bill, Billt, 
Billow, Pill, PiLLBTy Pillow. Mod. Qerm. Billk, Bila. o^nttiHiMi 
Dan. BiLLK French Bille, Billet, Pille, Pilley. 

DIMINUTIVE8. 

Old Oerman Bilicha, Pilioho, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Bilks — 
Mod. Qenn. Bilkb, Belkb, Pixlke — French Biloo, Belao, 
BxLLoa Old Qemu BiUza, Piliz% Peliza, 11th cent. — ^Eng. 
BiLLiB, Beluss, Belbet — French Billez, Belaizk, Belz, 
Pelez, Pillas. French Bilken, Billequik. 
PATAOimcros. 

Old Qerm. Billong, Billing, Pilluno, 8th cent English 
Billdto, BiLLDroAT. Modem German Billing. French 

BlLLUIG. 

COMPOUND& 

(Bold) French Bilbaui/t. (Frid, peace) Old German 
BilMd, PillMd, 8th cent— Eng. Belfbt, Pilford. (Gaty 
union f) Old German Piligat, 9th cent — French Pellaoot, 
PsLLBCAT, Peloot. (Gctrd, protection) Old Germ. Beligarda, 
9th cent — ^Mod. German Peleoaabd— French Belligabd, 
Belicabd. {QeTy spear) Modem German Bilqeb — French 
P^UGBL (Grim, fierce) Old German Biligrim, Pilgrim, 
Pilegrin — English Pilgrim — ^French Pellbgbin. (Heit, 
state, hood) Old Germ. Biliheid, 8th cent — English Billet, 
Bellett, Pellett, Pilot — French Bilhet, Billet, Belet, 
Pilette, Pilot, Pilate. (Hcvrd) Eng. Billiabd, Bellobd 
— ^Modern German Bilhabdt — French Billabd, Billiabd, 
Bellabt, Pslla&d, Pillabo. (Harij warrior) Eng. Belleb 
— ^Mod. Germ. Billeb — French BiLLiiBB, Bellies, Pellieb. 
(Hdm) Old German Bilihelm, 9th cent — Eng. Billham, 
Pelham— ^French Belhommb. (Mcm) English Billman, 
Belucab, Bellmain, PiLUCAir — French Bellemaih, Pelman. 
(Mcw^ fiunous) Old German Belimar, 8th cent — English 
BiLLAKOBB, Bellmobb — ^Modem Grerman Bilmee — French 
Bellema&e. (Mvmd, protection) Old Germ. Pilimant, 8th 
cent — English Bellment — French Belment. (Not, bold) 
Fr. Bellenot, Belnot. (Sind, via) Old Germ. Belisaendi^ 



270 THS FROiaCIOB AND THB FKDDID. 



llih cent— Frendi BteOBBX. (WmU, pow«r) So^ish 

BBmABBi (Wms, Mend) Froodi BBJ^vomL {Wi^, wi, 
war) Frandi Pkltbt. 



Old (knoL FilliiL Bog. Bnuv, PiUMr. Mod* Chman 
Bmllou VteoA Bbjb, BiLuaVy PnuD, Fellol 

The Ang.-Sax. ^meft, mild^ gentle, is found as 
the name of a priest^ CodL Dip. 822, and we have 
an Eng. Smelt. I find no other trace of it as an 
ancient name, and it is pos^ble that the one in 
question may have been conferred on account of 
character, superseding his ordinary name. 

Another word of similar meaning may be 
found in Old High German tritt^ Modem G^man 
traut^ Low German dr4d, dear, beloved. But 
the name Thrudr, of one of the Valkyrjur, is 
supposed by Weinhold (Deutschen FrauenJ, to 
come in, which is probable, more particularly 
when the word is used as a termination, in whidb 
case it is found only in the names of women.* 
And perhaps for this reason, though it was very 
common in Frankish names^ we find at present 
only scanty traces of it in FrencL Another root 
liable to int^mix is Gothic drauM, Old Norse 
drdtt, peopla 

SIMPLE FOB3C8L 

Dnd, Tnn. ^^ GwnL Drado, Trudo, Truto, Truut, Trut, 8th cent 
0Mr. Eng. Dbouoht, Dbowdt, Tbood, Tbout, Tbott. Modem 
QeruL DsuDBy Deutb. Erenoh Dbudb^ Trouimb, Tsunr, 
Thotb^ Tbott& 

* It li ttiU rsUined la torn* chilitlAii niuaw of womm, m Ocrtrndt «iid 

midNd. 



THE PBOTBCTOE AND THE FBIEND. 271 

ooMPouinw. 
(ffoMri, warrior) Old Qerm. Trudhar, 8th cent — ^English 
TsoTiERf — Modem German TrSder — French TBorriEBt 
(Mem) Old German Trutman, 8th cent. — ^Troteman, HurndL 
RcU9 — ^Eng. Tbottican — ^Modern Germ. Tbaxttmait. {RaAj 
OGiuuel) French Tbotrot 9 

PHONETIO ENDING. 

Old German Tmtiny 9th cent. English Tbouohton, 
Tboddbn. French T&udon, Tbutin. 

Another word of similar meaning is tale (Old 
Norse teitr. Old High Gterm %eiz\ which denotes, 
according to Mr. Kemble, " gentleness, kindness, 
and tenderness of disposition.'' Perhaps some- 
thing of cheerfulness may enter into the sense, *• 
the Old Norse teitr being expressed by " hilaris.'' 
It was not unfrequent in Anglo-Saxon times, but 
seems to have been more especially common 
among the Northmen* There are rather an 
unusual number of churchmen with this name ; 
thus, out of eleven Northmen called Teitr in the 
Annales Islandiae, there are five, viz., one bishop, 
one prior, one deacon, and two priests. We 
might almost be disposed to think that it was 
sometimes a name of endearment bestowed upon 
a beloved pastor, to the superseding perhaps of 
his ordinary name. 

8IHPLB FOBM& 

Ang.-Sax. Tata, Minister — Tata, Presbyter — ^Ethelberga, Tkte. 
^otherwise called Tate/' daughter of Ethelbert, king of AmiftUA. 
Kent— Tate Hatte, M99, CoU. Old Norse Teitr. English 
Tait, Tatb, Tato, That, Tete. French TA'ra, TatA 

Upon the whole then it will be seen that 
Tait is a very good name for a bishop. And 
there is a very good bishop for the name. 



272 THE PBOTECTOB AND THE FBIEND. 

The following names may perhaps be referred 
to the Old High Germ, form zeiz, corresponding 
with Old Norse teitr. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

I ^f ^^^ German Zeizo, 8th cent — £ng. SiZB. Mod. German 

Zeiz. French Siess, Ciza. 

DiMnnTTHTBa. 
Old Germ. Zeizilo, 8th cent — English SisleyI — French 
Setbsel, G^zille. French Sisoo, OicsAa 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hivrd) French G^zabd. (ffctri, warrior) Old Germ« 
Zeizheri, 9th cent. — English Sizeb — Modern German Zaiseb 
— French Giceri ? {Lind, gentle) Old Germ. Zeizlind, 9th 
cent. — English Sizblaio). 

PHONsnc ending. 

Old German Geizau, 9th cent. English Sizen. French 
Getsson. 

Another root having the meaning of affection 
or fondness may be dody tod, tot In the former 
edition I referred to the Friesic dod, a blockhead, 
and to the two Old English words doddypate 
and dodipoly of the same meaning, quoted by 
Halliwell. Also to the name of the curious and 
extinct bird the dodo, which I suppose to have 
been so named by the Dutch from its well- 
known stupidity. But there is another sense, no 
doubt allied, and perhaps from the same root, 
which I think more suitable for proper names — 
that of fondness. We see the connection in our 
own word ** dote" — ^to be foolish and to be fond. 
Forstemann speaks of the root as obscure, and 
refers to Old High German toto^ patrinus, tofa, 
admater, which may perhaps however only be 



TH£ PBOTECrOB AND THE FRIEND. 273 

derived senses — the root lying deeper. Another 
root very apt to intermix is deot, people. 

SIMPLE FORM& 

Old German Dodo, Doddo, Doda (wife of the Frankish jy^ j^^ 
king Theodebert), Todo, Totta, Tozo, Tozi, 6th cent. Ang.- Dear, 
Sax. Dodda, Dudda, (bishop of Winchester), Totta,* (bishop 
of Leicester). English Dodd, Todd, Toddt, Tottet, Dutt, 
DuDDY, Dozy. Modem German Dode, Tode, Tott, Todt. 
French Dodo, DoDi, Doth^ Toty. 

DiMnomvEa. 
Old Germ. Totilas, GJoth. king, 7th cent. — Eng. Tottell, 

DOZILL, DUDDLE. Eng. DOTCHIN. 
OOMPOUNDS.t 

(Hard) French Dodabd. (Hart, warrior) Old. German 
Dothari, 9th cent — Eng; ToziER-^Fr. Dozi^re. (Man) 
Old German Totman, 9th cent. — English Dodman, Todmak, 
ToTMAN — Modem German Todtmakni— French Dodeman. 
(J?ic, power) Old Germ. Dotrih, 9th cent. — English Dotrt, 

DODDRIDQE, DOTTBIDOE. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Dodlin, Todin, 8th cent English Totten. 
French Dodin, Dotik, Dozon. 

Along with the above, and in accordance with 
the Qlassification of Forstemann, I bring in a 
group containing a dipthong as below. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Duodo, Tuoto, Touto, Tooza, 8th cent p^,^ 
Eng. DowD, Dowdy, Doody, Doubt, Doubty, Toot, Dowse. Dear. 
Fr. DouDEAU, Doutey, Tout, Toutay, Dousse, Touzeau, 
Touz£ 



* Thli biflhop WM alio called Torthelm, and Mr. Kemble oonsiden Totta 
nothing more than an abbreTlation, which maj be the case. 

t The German name Todleben seemB to be formed upon an Old German 
Totloib. I have taken this, pi 11, to be from itsb, dear ; however, the form is 
tathar that of k»i5, inpentes. 

I2 



274 THB FBOTECrOB AKD THE FBIEND. 

DDUNUTIVJEHl 

Old Germ. Toutilo — Eng. Dowdle, Toodle, Tootall — 

French Doudelle, Touzel. Old German Duodeliu, 1 1th 

cent. — French Doussoulin, Toczeuh. Old Germ. Tuoticha 

— Eng. TooTHAKSB? — French TousAa Eng. Dowbikst. 

PATBoimaca. 

Eng. DowDorOy DowsDra 

PHONETIC EKDIK6. 

English DowDEN, Douphey, Dowsok. French Doudah^ 

DOUSSAK, ToUTANy TOUZQT. 

From the Old Norse linr^ Old High German 
leni^ mild, we may perhaps take the following. 
The Old Norse Zmm, snake, may, however, put in 
a claim. 

SIlfPLB FORMS. 

^^^^ Old German lino, 9th cent. Eng. Link, Linney, Lini;, 

HQd. LiNET, Lean. Mod. German Linn, Leine. French Len^ 

LlNN^ 

DiMiNi7ny£a 
French Lenique. Eng. Linnelu 

PATB0NTMIC8. 

Eng. Leaning, Lining. 

COMPOUNDS 

{Hmty "hood") Old Germ. Linheit— Ang.-Sax. Liniet, 
Mss. CoU, — Eng. Linnet — Fr. Linottr (Hard) French 
LiNARD. {Ger, spear) Eng. Linneoar — French Len^gre. 

From the Goth, ansts. Old High Germ, anst^ 
gratia^ Fdrstemann derives some ancient names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

AMt Old Germ. Ansteus ?* Eng. Anstey. 

GiftUa. 

COMPOUNDa 

(Ha/riy warrior) Old German Anster, 9th cent. — ^English 
Anster. 

* Fontenunn derivw this luyne from aim, Mmi-dena, and (Mm, Mmmt 



THE PBOTEOrOB AND THE FBIEND. 275 

Another root of similar meaning may Be nad, 
not, which Forstemann refers to Old Norse ndth, 
gratia. Old High German gandda. However it 
seems to me very doubtfiil whether it is not a 
simpler form oinadaly acus, p. 256. 

SIMPLE POEMa ^^^^ 

Old Germ. Natto, Nado, 8th cent. Eng. Natt. Mod ontiA. 
Germ. Nath. French Nattb. 

DIMINUrrVES. 

Eng. NATKIN& French Natibz. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{And, prosperity) French Nadaud. {Hari, warrior) 
French Natieb, Natter. ( Wald, power) £ng. Nadauld— - 
French Nabault. 

Then theie are several words with the mean- 
ing of help or protection. Help itself was by no 
means uncommon in ancient names, though it 
will be seen that we have a very scanty list at 
present. 

SIMPLE F0BM& 

Old Germ. Helpo, leader of the Saxons, 10th cent. Eng. j^^j^jm^un. 
Helps. Mod. Germ. Help. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Eari, warrior) Eng. Helper. (Ric, power) Hilpericus, 
Burgundian king, 5th cent., Frankish king, 6th cent., 
Helfrich, 8th cent. — ^English Helfrich — Modem German 
Helkrich. 

A very common word, particularly as a 
termination, is Old High Germ, muntj Ang.-Sax. 
mww(i, protection. The earlier German writers 
— ^as English writers still do sometimes at present 
— ^translated mund by mouth — thus Rosamund, 
" rosy mouth.'' 



276 THE FBOTECTOB AND THB FRIEND. 

SOfFLB FORHSL 

Mimd.Mii]it. ^^d (German Mundo, Munt, 6th cent. — ^English Musbt, 

i^rotocttoo. MuNDAT, MouND, MouHT — Modern German Motd, Mukdt, 

MuNTZ — French Monde, Mondo, Mokt^b — Span. Moktbs. 

BnUH UTIVKB. 

Old German MowSiXas, Frocopnu, 6th cent. Rngliah 
Muin>ELL — French Mcndei^ Montei* 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Muntinc. £ng. Muntiko. Modem Germaa 

MUKDING. 

OOMPOUNDa. 

{Ha/rd) French Mondehabd. (Hari, warrior) French 
MoNDi^Ri:, MoNTiEB. (Woldy power) Old Germ. Mondoald 
— French Montault. 

PHONETIG ENDING. 

Eng. MuNDEN, Mountain. French MoNDnr, Montagni^ 

MONTAGNT. 

As a termination, mund in English becomes 
frequently meiiL as in Wilmment, Element* 
Garment, Habdiment, Argument, which are 
probably from the Old Germ, names Wilhmund, 
Elemund, Garimund, Hartomund, Argemund. 
Another similar name may be Monument, from 
an Old German Munemimd. 

Another word having the meaning of pro- 
tection is gard, gart, with its High Germ, forms 
card, cart. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

' ^^ Ang.-Sax. Carda (found in Cardcm'^ htcsw. Cardan 
Protection. 6tigde, Cod. Dip. 427,670J English Gard, Gardib, Card, 

Cart, Cartt. French Gard, Gardey, Gerdy, Cart, 

Carteau. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Gardilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Cartell — French 
Gerdolle. English Gerducx. 

* Oardft'i {owe or monnd (probablj a graTe-moiiiid), and C$sda,*» itjle. 



THE PROTBCTOR AND THE FRIEND. 277 

COMPOUNDa 

(ffari, warrior) Old German Cartheri, Karthar, Gardar, 
8th cent. — English Garter (16th cent), Ca&deb, Cabteb — 
French Gard^re, Cartier, Carthert. (Rat, connsel) Old 
German Gardrad, 11th cent. — Eng, CARTWRiOHTf — French 
Carteret. (Etc, power) Ang.-Saz. Gjrdhricg (fownd in 
Oyrdhricges ford. Cod. Dip. 369.^ English Cartridge. 
{Dio, thew, servant) Old Germ. Cartdiuhay 8th cent. — Eng. 
Carthbw. (Waldy power) French Cartajjlt. {Wealh, 
stranger) Eng. Cardwell ? 

PHONETIC EITDIKG. 

Old Germ. Gardin, 11th cent Eng. Garden, Garden, 
Carton. Mod. Qerm. Karthin. French Gardin^ Cardon, 
Carton. 

Another word of similar meaning is ward, 
warty (Ang.-Sax. weard, Old High German wart, 
guardian.) 

SDfPIiE FORMa 

Old Germ. Warto, Wardo, Ward, 6th cent. Ang.-Sax.^^^;^JJ^ 
Wearda (fourul in Weardan* hyl, Cod. Dip. 1101^, Weard, 
(fowkd in Weardesbeorh, now WcMrhorough, Oxf., Cod. Dip, 
S43.^ Eng. Ward, Vardy. Mod. Germ. Wart, Warth. 
French Yart, Yerdi& 

DIMINTTTIVEa 

Fng. Wardell. French Verdel. 

COAfPOUNDa 

{Hariy warrior) Eng. Warder, Warter — Fr. Yerdier, 
Yerdery. (Ma/n) Old German Wartman, 9th cent. — Eng. 
Wardman — Mod. Germ. Wartman. 

For the word war^ Forstemann proposes no 
fewer than five different derivations, viz., wari, 
defence, wdr, true, wdroUy servare, war, domi- 
cilium, and wer, man. To these I add Anglo- 



4 



* WeanUI hill and Wmrd'i terrow— Weardan and Weaides, aa the reepeefelTe 
genitlTea of Weaida and Weard, following the roles of Anglo-Saxon dedeudon. 



278 THB FBOTECrrOB AND THE FRIEND. 

Saxon wiBTy beUum, aa a root liable at any rate 
to intermix, though I am inclined to take as the 
general meaning the first of those proposed by 
Forstemann. 

SItfPLE F0B1C& 

yf^^ Old German Wen>, 8th cent. English Wars, Wabbb, 

War&t, WEiBy Weabet, Quarry. Mod German Wehr. 
French Yar^ Yarat, Y^ro, Yerrt, Waro, Warrb, 
War^ Qxjsrrkt. 

DIlLLNUTlVJEa 

Old Qerm. Yaracoo, 8th cent — Eng. Yarick — Modem 
German Quaritch — French Yarachb. English Warrell^ 
Yarrell, Quarrell — French Yarrall. Old German 
Waralenos, 8th cent. — English Yerlino — Modem German 
Wehrlen — French Yerillon. French Yarichok. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Warinc, Waringa, 8th cent. Eng. Wariho, 
Warring. French Yarengue, Yiareinoue, Warenguk 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, fortis) Old Germ. Warbald, Warbalt, 8th cent— 
Eng. Warbolt. (Burg, protection) Old German Warburg, 
8th cent — Eng. Warbbick — Mod. Germ. Wabbubg — Fren. 
Yebbbugg£. (Ger, spear) Old Crerman Warger, 8th cent — 
Eng. Wabbakeb, Wabwickeb— French Waboquieb. (Goz, 
Goth) Old German Werigoz, 9th cent. — Eng. Yebgoose.* 
(Hctriy warrior) Old German Weriheri, Warher, 8th cent 
— ^English Wabbieb, Quarbier — French Yeri^ire. (Laic, 
play) Old Germ. Warlaicus, 8th cent — Warloc (Hund. BolU) 
— Eng. Warlock — Mod. German Warlich. (Man J Old 
German Waraman, Warman, 8th cent — English Warmak, 
QuABMAN — Modem German Wehbhann — French Yermon. 
(Mar, famous) Old German Werimer, 8th cent — English 
Wabmeb. (Lind, gentle) Old German Waralind, 7th cent 
— Eng. Warland. (yamd, daring) Old German Werinant^ 
8th cent — French Yabinont. 

•Suffolk 



THE PBOTBCTOB AND THE FBIEND. 279 

PHONEnO SNDIKO. 

Eng. Warren. French Yarainb. 

Another word of similar import in names 
may be hurg^ to which Forstemann gives the 
meaning of condere, servare. In female names, 
in which, as a termination, it was most fi:^uent, 
the meaning may perhaps be rather that of 
chastity or maidenhood. It was most common 
in Frankish, and is still in French names. 

SIMPLE FORM& 

Old German Burgio, 9th cent., Purgo, Buroo, 5th cent. Bazg,Biiik. 
Eng. BuRGE, Burke. Mod. Germ. Burkel French Bbrge, Pmeetton. 
Beroeau, Bourg, Burc, Burq, Perjeaux 9 

DIMINUnVBSL 

Old Germ. Burgizo, 10th cent. — Eng. Buroess — French 
Bouroes. Eng. B(jrchell— French Burgal, Burokel. 

OOMPOUKDS 

(Hao'd) Old German Burghard, 8th cent — Burchard, 
Domesday — Eng. Burchard — Mod. Germ. Burckhari/t — 
French Burgard, Bourquaro, Burchard. (ffari, warrior) 
Old Germ. Burghar, 8th cent. — Eng. Burger — Mod. Germ. 
Burger, Burger — French Berger, Berquier, Bourgert. 
{RcUf counsel) Old German Burgarad, 8th cent — French 
Bergerat. (Randy shield) French Berguerand. ( Wold, 
power) Old Geim. Burgoald, 7th cent — English Purgold — 
Mod Germ. Burghold — French Berjeault. (Wine, friend) 
Eng. BuRGwm — French Burvevin. 

The word hud, hut Forstemann refers to the 
Old High Grerman htUtay hut, or to hiU, hide. 
Perhaps, however, we might rather take the sense 
which is at the root of both of the above, that of 
covering, hiding, or protecting, as in Old High 
German hitotan, Mod. Germ. hiUen, Eng. hide. 



280 THE PBOTECrOB AND THB FmEND. 

SIMPLE FOBHB. 

Htid. Hut ^^^ Germ. Hudo, Hutto, 8th cent Eng. Hudd, Huddt, 
ProteotioB. HuTT, HuTTY. Modem G^erman Hutte. French Hudib^ 

HOUDB, HUTTEAU. 

DIMIMUTiVJU. 

Old Germ. Huodilo — English Huddle — Modem German 
HitTHEL — French Uudelo, Houdaille. Eng. Hxn>KiN. 

PATEONYMIC. 

English HirrTiKa. 

OOMPOUKDB. 

(B&rij famous) Old German Hudipert, 7th cent. — French 
HuDiBERT, Haudibert. (Burg, protection) French Haudb- 
BOUBG. (Hard, fortis) Eng. Huddebt — French Houdabt* 
(ifon) Old German Hutnman, 9th cent. — Eng. Huttmah — 
Modem German Hudeuanit. (Mar, famous) Old German 
Hudamar — French HoaDEiCABE. (Wine, friend) Old Germ. 
Huuduin, 8th cent — French Houdouin. (WcUd, power) 
French Hudaui/t. 

A somewhat doubtftd word is hoi, hid, which 
Ettmtiller places to Ang.-Sax. hdl, dormitorium, 
but for which Forstemann proposes Mid. High 
German huole, brother, friend, consort. This 
word, which is evidently allied to the Old Eng. 
huUy, comrade, seems to me to be upon the whole 
the best, but there are other derivations which 
might be proposed. First, hull, taurus, as a 
symbol of strength. Secondly, the root of Eng. 
hvUy, which is, first loud noise, then bluster, 
intimidation, similar root-meanings being found 
at pages 252-3. Thirdly, the sense of bigness, 
as foimd in hoU, hulk, and other words derived 
from the sense of swelling. 

^^ ^^ SIMPLE FORMS. 

J^^, Old Germ. Bolo, Buolo, BoUo, Boli, Puolo, PoUo, Poulo, 
' 8ih cent Eng. Bool, Bowi^ Boullt, Bull, Bullet, Poole, 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 281 

PooLST, Pole, Pollo, Pollet, Pull, Pulley. Mod. QenxL 
BoHL, Boll, Buol, Buhl, Bull. Norw. Bull. Fr. Bola, 
BoLLi:, Boll, Bollet, Bouill^ Bouillt, Boulay, Boulo, 
BouLu, BuLLE, Bulla, Bully, Bulleau, Poulle, Pol, 
Poly, Polleau, Pulle. 

DIMINUTrVEa 

Eng. Bullock, Bulck, Pollock — Mod. Germ. Bolickx, 
BoLKE — French Bollagk, Bouillac, Boulloche, Polac. 
Eng. BuLLiss — French Boulas, Buloz, Polusse. 

PATEONYMICa 

Eng. BoLiKO, BuLUNO, PuLLma. Mod. Germ. Bohlino. 

COMPOUNDa 

(Gar, spear) Old Germ. Pulcari, Pulgar, 9th cent. — Eng. 
BuLQER, BuLLAKER — Mod. Germ. Polqab. {Oaud^ Goth) 
French Bouligaud. (Hard) PoUardus, DomeacUHf — English 
BuLLARD, PoLLABD — Modem German Bollebt, Pohlebt — 
French Bouillabd, Boullard, Bulard, Poullard, Polart. 
{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Bolheri — Eng. Buller, Bowler, 
PuLLi^R — Mod. Germ. Buhler, Pohler — French Bouillier^ 

BOUJLLERIE, BOULIER, BOULLERY, BOLEB, BULLIER. (Mcm) 

Eng. BoLLMAN, BuLMAN, PuLMAN, PoLEXAK — Mod. German 

BOLLMANK, BUHLMANN, PoHLMANK. (AfcMT, fiunous) Anglo- 

Sax. Bulemnre (fvumd in BtUenujcres thcn^ Cod, Dip, 533.^ 
English BuLLMORE, Bulmer — French Boulmier. (TTtfM, 
fiiend) English Polwin. ( fTor, defence) English Bulweb 
— French Polffer ? 

phonetic endiko. 
Tlngliah BoLLiN, BuLLEN. BULLION, PuLLAN. French 

BOULAN, BOUILLIEN, POULIN, PoULAIN, PuLIN. 

From the Goth. huUhSy Old High Germ. hoU, 
Ang.-Sax. hold. Old Norse hoUr, faithful, friendly, 
Forstemann derives the word huld, hold, hul, ho\ 
found in Old German names. To this I put the 
following, though there may be an admixture of 
Ang.-Sax. hoU, Old High Germ, holz, wood, in the 
sense of spear or shield. 

J 2 



282 THB FBOrB0IO& AND TSB WBIBSD. 



Hdid. Old Oermaii HoMa, 9th cent. (Old N<ne Holhi, i 

^^^ piobftblj in the other senae.) HoDe, ffmnd. BoUm. BD^nh 
Holt, Hoix^ Hole, Hoolk, Hullab. Mod, Qerm. Hulim^ 
HoLDy Hoi/r, HoLLB. Fiendi Hauio?, Houl 

PATAOimaaL 
Old GeriD. Hulling, ikig. HouMva* 

OOMFOUKDS. 

(Ger, spear) Eng. Holkkr — French Holacbsb. (ffairi, 
warrior) Old Germ. Hoidear, 11th cent — ^English Holdeb, 
Holteb, Hollbb — ^Mod. Germ. Holdsb, Hollrb — French 
HoLLiEiL (Lindf gentle) Old Germ. Holdelinda, 10th cent 
— Eng. Holland I — French Hollands t (Mem) Old Ger. 
Holzmanf 9 th cent — ^Eng. Holtman, Holkkan — Modem 
German Hollmann. {Rad^ counsel) Old Gkrm. Holdrada, 
10th cent — Eng t Holdbrbibd (Buff, Swm.) 

From the Gothic autlis, Ang.-Sax. eath^ mild, 
gentle, Forstemaon derives the stem etrfA, with 
which, however, and, ead, prosperity, is very apt 
to intermix. 

SDCnJB FOBMS. 

Batb. Old German Eado^ duke of AquUama^ 8lh esfii., Hondo, 

Mild, llth cent Eng. XJdt, Ybwd, Youd. French Ectdi^ Uni^ 

^"*^ Hbud^ 

jmnmrrrrBB. 

Old Germ. Eudila, 6th cent — Fr. Heudel. Old German 

EatiHna, 8th cent — French Eudbune. 

PHONEno ending. 
Old German Eodin, 7th cent. — Eng. Yowden — ^French 

Heudin. 

ooupounds. 

(Bert, &mous) Old German Eutberta^ 8th cent. — French 
Heudebert. (ffarij warrior) Old Germ. Euthar, 8th cent. 
Eng. Ether ? — Fr. Heudier, (Ric, dominion) Eutharicus, 
a Ooth, san-wrlaw to Theodorich the great, 5th cent — Eng. 
Ethbridoe 1 

* And HoLLno, m fonnd in Holunobwo&tb, " HoUings tana or efUte.* 



THB PBOTESOTOB AND THB FBIEND. 283 

The Ang.-Sax. mild, gentle, is found in three 
female names, Mildthrith, Mildburh, and Mildgith 
in the genealogy of the kings of Mercia. And in 
two names, Milta and Miltunc, the former of 
which is also that of a woman, in the AUdeutsdheB 
Namenhuch. 

SDCPLEFOBMa 

Old GUnn. Milta. Mod. Gemu Mnj>B. French Mnj)^ 

DDiUUTlVJCa 

Mildm^, 12th cent Eng. Modmat.* 

OOMPOUKD& 

{Thriihy woman) Ang.-Sax. Mildthrith — Eng. Mnj>RED, 
MUiDEBT (fhe/arfMT alio a Christian name.) 

I am rather inclined to think that arm^ 
armin, p. 146, may also have the meaning of 
mild or gentle. The German arm, so far back 
as we can trace it, seems to have had, as at 
present^ the meamng of poor. But the Celtic 
araft which I take to be from the same root, has 
the meaning of gentle, and in river names I have 
elsewhere taken arm to be its equivalent. At 
the same time, the root-meaning of arm, poor, 
may be found in Sansc. arv, to desolate, and thus 
Arminius may signify vastator. 

From the Anglo-Saxon (Bmeta, emeta, quies, 
Fdrstemann derives the following ancient names. 
The Old English am^Cf to calm, quoted by 

* I before took fhla nomA to h6 ftom Aog.-Saz. mag, Old Eng. mey, nudden. 
8Mh • iwBie would be la MeordaaM with ndent pnotloa, mmI it would be the 
eqtdralent of the Aiig.-a«z. Mildthrith. Bat I h*ye found no trace whaterer of 
ttiwordlAAaelefttttMMMieDdliig. I have raggeeted, p. S6, oompMiag tt with 
Ihe Friedo MeUenuK that the d mej be intrailTe. Howerer, of ooiinetheoonTene 
woold eqnallj applj- Pott, ee Qsnal, taUng it aufUd d§ ki UUn, makei it " mild 
ICax,^ Le., bom at fbai aeiaon. 



Mild. 
Mitis. 



284 THE PBOTBCrOB AND THE FRIEND. 

Halliwell, indicates that that form must also 
have prevailed in Anglo-Saxon, and points to the 
sense in proper names as probably that of peace- 
maker. The emmet (contracted ant), German 
anieise^ is probably hence derived, in reference to 
its supposed rest during the winter. 

SDfPLE FOEM& 

Old German Ammatas, £mita» Amizo, Emez,* 5th cent. 
Eng. Amkit, Emmett, Amiss, Einrs. Mod. German Ameis. 
French Amette, Amadb, Ak^^ ? Ajob. 

COMPOUND. 

(U2/, wolf) French Amabsuf. 
In the same manner the stem foZ, lul, referred 
by Graff to Old Norse loUa, segnities, may rather 
be taken in the sense of Eng. " lull," to calm, in 
the sense probably of peace-maker.- 

SniPLE FOBMa 

Old Germ. Lullo, Lul, LoUa, 7th cent. Ang.-Saz. Lnia 
LvL f/ound in Lidan treow, Cod. Dip. 18^, Lull (fwund in 
LuUeiheorh, LuUestoyHh, Cod. Dip. 37 4,7 li. J Eng. Lxtli^ 
LtJLLT. Modem German Lohlb. French Lully, Lolly, 
Laulhi^ Laull. 

patronymics. 
Ang.-Sax. Lulling (fofwnd in LuUingea treow, Cod. Dip. 
227. J French Lulino. 

00MP0UN1>S. 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Lollabb ? (Man) Eng. Lulmak. 

Perhaps on the whole most appropriately in 

this chapter will be introduced the names having 

the meaning of liberality or munificence. Though 

it may be imcertain in some cases whether the 



* Henoe BulngBtoke, in Anglo-Saxon EmbMinga ttOc, the pUoe of the 
EmlMstngs, properlj Emaiingt. 



THE PBOTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 285 

idea is not rather that of the prince than of the 
friend. " Bracelet-giver/' in the sense of a 
rewarder of valour, is an expression of Anglo- 
Saxon poetry. 

From the Old High German gehen. Modem 
Grerman geben^ dare, Forstemann derives the 
following Old German names, which he observes 
are found both with the root-vowel as gab, and 
with the vowel-change of the present into gib. 

SIMPLE FORM& 

Old German Gabo, Gebbo, Geppo, Givo, Jebo, Kyppo, 
Chippo, 8th cent Eng. Gabb, Gapp, Gafp, Gavey, Gibbt, ^^» ®p* 
GiBB, GiEYE, Jebb, Jeff, Kibb, Kibbey, Kipp, Chipp. 
Modem German Gabe, Gapp, Gepp, Kibe. French Gab^ 
Gapy, Gayeau, Cab4 Gibou, Gif, Jaffa, Japy, Chevy 1 

DIMINUTnrES. 

Old Germ. Gkibilo, 9th cent ^English Gable, Gayellb, 
Cable, Kebel, Keppel — Mod. Germ. Gabel, Gavel, Gebel 
— French Gavelle, Javel, Gebel, Cavel — Span. Gavila. 
Old German Gibilin, 9th cent — English Giblek, KiPLma — 
French Gibldt. Old Germ. Gebizo, 1 1th cent — Eng. Gibbs f 
Gipps ? Gipsy — French Giboz, Gibus — Belg. Geefs. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Geiman Gebino, Givin, 8th cent — English Gaffin, 
Gibbon, Given, Giffin, Chippen — French Gabin, Gibon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Berty bright) Old German Gibert, 9th cent. — English 
GiPPEBT — French Gibebt — ^Italian Ghiberti. (Arriy erriy 
eagle) Eng. Gibebne — French Givebne, Givebny, Gavabhi. 
(Hard) Old German Gebahard, Givard, Gi&rd, 9th cent- 
English Gebhabd, Gibbabd, Giffabd — ^Modern (German 
Gbbhardt — ^French Giffabd, Chippabd. (ffari, warrior) 
Old German Gebaheri, 9th cent— Old Norse Giafar— 
Eng. Gafveby, Chippeb, Cheeveb — Mod. Germ. Oebeb, 



286 THB FBOTBOTOB AND THB FBIENI). 

KSBBB, — Frencb Gibort, Chipieb. (Sat, oounsel) Old 
G«riXL Ckberat, 8th cent — French Gababet. {Man) Eng« 
Chipman. {Wald, power) Old Grf^rman Gebald, Givold, 6th 
cent. — Mod German Gabold — French Gabalda, Gatalda, 
Gatault, Gibault. (Wine, friend) Old Germ. Ghiboin^ 7th 
oe&t.^ — French Giboin. 

From the Ang.-Saxon unna, dare, maybe the 
following^ though Forstemam:! takes the n^ative 
partide un to mtermiz. 

8IMPLB fobhbl 
Un. Old Germ. Unno, Unni, Una (/emahj, 9th cent Eng. 

»~^ TJinfA. 

OOMPOtrNlM. 

(ITtd, strife) Old German ITnnid, 8th cetit— Sag. Visrt 1 
(Wine, friend) Eng. XJhwin.* 



* We do ftot And i& iadeat ftcme t6 oonMpoBd, but tkovli en Old OenL 
Uniran, 0th cent, ftnd an Ang.-Sax. Unwon* (8nl blBhop of Laloetter) ; to which 
perhaps may he pat our UmriH. The meaning of win U not veij dear; 
mnlemaan nig»tata Q«th. Wii% epei) whl0b Mtaia to Mii hi this oMSk 



CHAPTER XV. 



ANOESTOB Ain> KINSMAN. 



Of the names derived from relationship, some 
have probably been surnames and nothing more. 
Others, in tibe first instance surnames, may have 
subsequently been adopted as baptismal, on the 
principle to which I have already referred. In 
one or two cases, as in the names signifying 
father, the idea may have extended somewhat 
beyond mere relationship. "* My father,'' said his 
servants to the Syrian king, ** if the prophet had 
bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not 
have done it T So also in the case of names 
having the meaning of ancestor there is no doubt 
present something of that sense of nobility which 
is always attached to ancient descent. Words 
with both of the above meanings seem to run 
through the range of the Teutonic name^system. 
The most common word with the former meaning 
iBod ox at^ which Forstemann and other writers 
refer to Goth, atta^ Old Fries, atha^ etha, father. 
The stem had or hath, war, p. 167, is, however, 
likely to intermix, as well as in some cases 
ead, prosperity. 

SIMPLE FOSHa 

Old Germ. Atto, Ati, Adi, Atha, Etti, 7tli cent Atta» 
Zt6. Vit Bng. Attob, Atty, Addt, Bptt. Mod. OeroL y^^*" 
AdE| Eits* Freuob Aom^ Ajd^ Brafis, Sckt. 



288 ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

DIMLNUT1VJS& 

Old Qerm. Atacho, 8th cent. — English Atack, Atket. 
Eug. Adkin, Atkin. English Addis, Atts — French Atts. 
Old German Attalus,* (rex. Gcrmanorum, Aurd, Vict.) 3rd 
cent — ^Ang.-Saxon Attila — Old Norse Aili — Eng. Attlb^ 
Atley. 

oompoundb. 

{Gi», kis, hostage) Old Germ. Atgis, 8th cent. — English 
Atkiss. {Goty Goth) Old Germ. Adogoto, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Addicott (Ha/rd) Old Germ. Adohuxl, 9th cent — French 
Edard — ItaL Attardl {tlari^ warrior) Old Germ. Adohar, 
Adoar, 8th cent — English Adieb — French Adou& (Ze^ 
superstes) Old German Adlef^ 8 th cent — French Atloff. 
(Mam) Old G^rm. Adiman, 9th cent — English Admaks — 
French Adkant. (Jfar, famous) Old German Adamar, 9th 
cent — Eng. Atmore ? — French Adheicar — Ital. Adimarl 
(i?tc, power) Old German Aderich, 6th cent — Anglo-Saxon 
jffitheric (found, in j^therices hlype,f Cod. Dip. 813, and eUe- 
where) — ^Eng. Attridge, Etridoe. {Rid, ride) Old German 
Atharid, 4th cent — Ang.-Sax. jEthered (Jawnd injEtheredei 
haga^X Cod Dip, 595, and elsewhere) —Eng. Attride. ( Wid, 
wood) Old German Adhuid, 8th cent — English Attwood ? 
(Wolf) Old Germ. Athaulf, Goth. King, 5th cent— English 
Adolph§ — Mod. Germ. Adolf — French Adolphe. 

There is a root an, for which Forstemann 
proposes Old High Grerm. ano, MoA Germ, dhne, 
avus, but suggests also an intermixture of another 
word ann, from Ang.-Sax. ann, favere. In the 
female names the latter seems the more probable 
derivation. There may also possibly be an inter- 
mixture of another word, Ang.-Sax. hana, Germ 
fiahn, cock, which is not unsuitable for proper 
names. 

* The name of AttiU, the renowned leader of the Hum, Orimm holds to be 
Qennan and not Hnnnieh. 

t JStheiic's leap, probablj in oonunemomtion of eome feat 

I JEth«red*i hedge. 

f Thla, aa a ■omame, la, ai Mr. Lower obitrvea, of recent introdootlon. 



ANCBSTOB AND KINSMAN. 289 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Anna^ Anno, Enno, Hanno, Henno, 5th cent. 
Ang.-Sax. Anna, king of the East Angles. English Anke, An, 
Hann, Hjlnna, Hanney, Henk, Henney. Modem German 
Hahitx, Henke. French Akne, Aim^ Amr^E, HAmrE, 
HAimo, Haky, Henne, Henno, Ekne. 

DiMnninyES. 
Old German Annioo, Ennioo, 8th cent. — English Enoch, 
Enook, Hakexy? — Mod. German Hannigke, Hennicex — 
French Haknigque, Henique, Henoo, Enique. Old Germ. 
Analo, 8th cent. — English Hannell, Hennell — French 
Hennel. Old Germ. Hennikin, 11th cent. — Eng. Hanein 
— Mod. Germ. Hakkeken — French Hannequin, Henkequik. 
Old Grerman Ennelin, 11th cent — Eng. Hahlok. English 
Ankiss, Enviss, Hennis, Hennessy — Mod. Grerm. Hanisok 
— French Hbnnecy. 

PATBONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Anninc, 8th cent. Eng. Annino, HENKiNa. 
Mod. Geim. Hennikg. French Hannong, HENNiNa 

GOMPOUNDS. 

{Bertf bright) Old German Anibert, 8th cent. — French 
Hannebert, Hennebert. (Fredy peace) Old Germ. Anafred, 
Enfrid, 8th cent. — Eng. Henfrey — French Anfray, Enpr^ 
(Gard, protection) French Heknecart. (Ger, spear) Old 
Germ. Anager, Eneger, 8th cent. — Eng. Hanger, Hennikeb 
— French Anicker. {Grrim, fierce) Old Germ. Anagiim, 8th 
cent — English Ancrum. (Hard) Old German Henhart — 
Mod. German Hennert — French Enard, Henard. (ffcMri, 
warrior) French Hannier, Anery. (Man) Old German 
Enman, 9th cent — Eng. Hanhan, Henman — Mod. Germ 
Hannemann, Hennemann. {Mar^ famous) Eng. Hanmer. 
{Redy counsel) Old Germ. Henred, 9th cent. — Eng. Hanrott, 
Enright. {Wald, power) Old German Anawalt, Ennolt — 
Eng. Anhault — Mod. Germ. Hanewald, Hanelt — French 
Enault, Renault. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Anaolf, Gothic 
UadeTy 5th cent. — Eng. Enough — French Enouf. 

K 2 



Atob. 



Aw, At. 



290 ANCBSTOB AKD KmStfAK, 

There is a root aw, av, which Forstemann 
thinks may be from Goth, avo, grandmother^ but, 
no doubt, like the Lat. avus, in the wider sense 
of ancestor. Graff refers to Old High German 

away river. 

sniPLBfOBiia 
Old Gtennan Ato, Ovo, Quo, 8th cent Engliah Ovxr. 
French Avi. 

DDCMUTiVJU. 

Old Oerman ArUsk, 6th cent — ^English Ayila, Avilu 
Old German Avelina^ llih cent — ^Eng. AvKLon^ Aybuho, 
Eyeltv — French Atelikb. 

OOMPOUNBa 

(Hard) Eng. Hayabd — French Ayabt. (E(»rs wairior) 
Eng. Ayery, AYERy Ower — French Ayare, Aueb. (Land) 
Old Germ. Anilsnd, 9ih cent — Eng. HAYn^Aim. (Man) 
Old (German Ouwaman, 11th cent — Eng. Howman I — Mod. 
Germ. Ayehank. 

From the above stem av comes apparently an 
extended form aviz, found in the followmg. 

bimple forms. 
^"^ Old Germ. Aveza, 1 1th cent Eng. Ayis, Ayiz. French 

Ayisse, Ayisseau, Ayizeau. 

C0HP0UND6 

(Eard, fortis) Eng. Eyezard. Ft. Ayizaed, Ayizabt. 
A word of rather uncertain meaning in 
proper names is 6a6, respecting which Forstemann 
observes that it is ** of a very ancient stamp, and 
approaching, as it seems, the nature and expres- 
sion of children's speech ; according to MtiUer 
(M.H,D. Wdrterhuch), the original meaning 
seems to be that of mother." 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

"^ Old Germ. Babo, Bavo, Pabo, Papo, 7th cent Anglo- 

Saxon Babba (found in Babbanbearh, Cod Dip. 623^. 



Parent? 



AKCB8T0B AND KINSMAN. 291 

John Babi, menAerfor Bodrmnt a.d. 1302. Engliah Babb, 
Babe, Babt, Bauqh, Pape^ Payet. Mod. German Babe, 
Pape, Pappk, French Babeau^ Bab^ Pape, Papau, Papt, 

Pavy. 

dimikutives. 

Old Germ. Babilo, 6th cent. — Ang.-Saz. Babel (fawnd 
M» BdbeUs bearh, God Dip, 618^— Eng. Babell— French 
Babuleau. Old Germ. Bauika, 10th cent — Eng. Babbaqb. 
Old Germ. Babolenus, Papolenus, 6th cent. — Eng. Papillon 
—French BABouiikNE, Bablik, Papillon. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. BABor, Batin. French Babin, Babonneau, Papik> 
Payin. 

compounds. 

(Ecird, fortifl) Fr. Bayabd, Baffert, Pappebt, Payabd. 
(Hari, warrior) English Baber, Payieb — French Papeb. 
(Wold, power) Fr. Babault, Papault. (Wcurd, guardian) 
French Babouabd. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Babol^ 8th cent. 
— ^Fr. BABEur. 

Perhaps with something more of certainty 
the root tat may be taken to mean "father." 
Diefenbach quotes many ancient and Y^idely 
spread forms with this meaning (as EngUsh 
«dad,"&c.) 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old Qennan Tatto (Lombard kingX Tado, Daddo, Dadi, 
DattOy Deddo, Tedo, Tazo^ 6th cent. Eng. Dadd, Dadbt, Dad, tml 
I>AJ>iL, Date, Datt, Daze, Dazby, Tadd, Taddy, Ted©. ^•*^«'' 
Mod Germ. Date^ DittB) Tade. French Dado^ TAzi. 

DIMINXrnYBSL 

Old Germ. Tadilo, Tatila^ 8th cent. Ang.-Saxon Tatel, 
name of moncyer on a coin of Burgred, kiTig of Mercia^ 
found cU Southampton, English Tadloo, Tattle, Tetlow. 
Mod. Germ. Taddel. 

compounds. 
{Ha/rdj fortis) Old German Tethard, 9th cent.— French 
Tktabi). {HaHy warrior) Old German Tether, 8th cent. — 



292 ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

Eng. Tedbbr, Teatheb. (Man) Eng. Dadmuk, TADXAKy 
Tedxah. {Lac, play) Eng. Tatlocx. {Wins^ Mend) Old 
Germ. Dadoin, 8ih cent. — Eng. Tatudt. 

It is probable that the stem ing^ inc, though 
its etymology is not yet explained, has the 
meaning of son, offspring, and is cognate with 
Eng. "young." As an ending in patronymic 
forms like Dtmning and Billing, this is of course 
certain, but in other cases it is apt to m\yr with 
ang, p. 212. Ingo was one of the three sons of 
Mannus, the mythical founder of the German 
nation, as related by Tacitus. 

SIMPLE FOEMa 

Old Qerm. Ingo, Hingo, Hincho, Engo, 7th oent. Ingi, 
^> ^>^ King of Norway. Incge (Beowulf) English Ino, Inooe, 
^Ikch, Hikob, Hinch, Hinchet. Mod. Qerm. Enge, HnrcK. 
French Iiro4 Hingue, Hdtque, Eng. 

DIMINUTIVEB. 

Old German Ingizo, 9th cent — Eng. Inches — French 
Ingisch. 

patronymio. 
English Inksok. 

COMPOXTNDa 

(Baidy fortis) Old Qenn. Ingobald, Incbald, 8th cent — 
Eng. Inchbald — Fr. Anjubault. (Bert, famous) Old Qenn. 
Ingobert, 7th cent. — Eng. Ikchboaed — French Angibekt. 
(Body envoy) Old Germ. Ingobod, 7th cent. — Fr. Angibout. 
(Sard) Old German Inghard, 8th cent. — Modem German 
Engebt — ^French Engxtehabd. (Sari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Inguheri, 7th cent. — Eng. Ikgbey — Mod. German Engeb — 
French Ingeb, Ingbat. (Bam, ran, raven) Old German 
Ingram, Ingranna, 8th cent — English Ikgbah — French 
Ingbain — ^ItaL Inghibami. (Leo/, dear) Eng. HmoBUFF, 
Hinghouff. (Wold, power) Old German Ingold, 7th oent 
— Old Norse Ingvald — Eng. Ingold — ^Mod. Germ. Engwald 



ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 293 

— French Inoold. (Ward, gaardian) French Akoouabd 
(Wis, sapiens) Old Germ. Inguis, 9th cent — Eng. Ahguish.. 
( Wolf) Old Germ. Ingulf, 8th cent— French Ingouf. 

Then there axe some other words of similar 
meaning which are foimd both in ancient and 
modem names, but which do not appear, like the 
foregoing, to enter into the Teutonic name- 
system, Grimm observes that " in Old Saxon 
records Fadar, Brothar, Modar, Suster, appear 
not unfrequently as simple proper names.** 
Forstemann has Fader, Fater, &c., of the 8th 
and following centuries — Mothar, Moder, &c. — 
Brothar, Broter, of the same period — Suester, 
Sustar of the 9th cent. The origin of these 
names is not, however, always certain — ^Mothar 
for instance is sometimes a man's name, and other 
words may intermix — see pp. 218, 237. 

We have Fathbr, Mother^ Bbotheb, Stster ; 
also Fetteb and Fettebman, apparently from 
the Ang.-Sax. form feder. The Germans have 
VateRj Vetter, Feder and Fetter ; Mxtddeb 
and Bruder, also the diminutives Vetterlein, 
Mctterlein, BrCderlein. Pott has not Suestar, 
though according to Outzen Soster or Soster 
is a common name in Friesland. The French 
have Sister, Sester, and Sestier — also Systeb- 
MANN, which, however, seems to be of German 
origin, and which means a sister's husband. 
We have also Brotherson and Sistersok, 
meaning a nephew respectively by the side of the 
brother and of the sister. 



294 Al^CESTOB AJ!9D KII9SMAN. 

I do not include the name Uncle in this 
place. It seems rather to be the same as an 
Unculus, 8th cent., and a Hunchil in Domesday ; 
Forstemann proposes unCy snake. 

I doubt also the derivation of Cousin from 
consohrinus — ^first, because such a relationship 
seems scarcely sufficient to mark a name — and 
secondly, because it falls in with a group else- 
where. 



CHAPTEK XVI. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

Names derived from nationality have probably 
been in many cases originally surnames. A 
stranger coming among men to whom his name 
might have an unfamiliar sound, would be very 
apt to be called instead by the name of his 
nationaUty. And such names, once established, 
might afterwards come to be used baptismally. 
But it is also probable that names of this class 
might be bestowed baptismally in the first 
instance firom a feeling of national pride ; and it 
is not difficult to conceive how even in the present 
day, if the choice of names were open, many a 
&ther might delight to call his son an English- 
man. Other causes have no doubt combined to 
give names of this sort — causes which though in 
most cases beyond our ken, are sometimes open 
at least to a conjecture. Thus, whereas it might 
seem strange that the name of the Picts should 
be given to Anglo-Saxons, yet when we find that 
two of the men who bore it, Pehthelm and 
Pehtwine, were bishops in the territory of the 
Picts, it seems natural to suppose that the name 
was assumed, perhaps as auspicious, on the 
occasion. Once become a name, it might be 
adopted by other men, as we find afterwards 
Pectuald, Pectgils, &c. 



296 THE NATION AS THE NAME^GIVER. 

In the sense of advena we may take the 
following, which seem to be from the Gotk and 
Old High German gast, Ang.-Sax. gwst, gest^ gist, 
Eng.*' guest/' 

SIMPLE FOBHa 

oui, Qmt Old German Gasio, Oast, 8ih cent Old Norse Gestar. 
"Gwrt." jjj^g Gabt, Guest, Gist, Keast. Mod. Germ. Gast, East. 
French Gast^ Gastt, Oastt, Geste. 

DnnNunvES. 
English Castle, Cassell, Oastlet, Oastello — French 
Oastal, Oastsl, Gestelll English Guestlikci — French 
Gassbuk. 

pATBoimacs. 
Eng. Gasting, Castanq. French Oastainq, Ohastaikg. 

PHONBno ending. 

Old Germ. Gestin, Kestin, Castuna^ 8th cent. English 
Oastik, Gastinsau, Gaston, Ejsstten. French Gastin^ 
Geston, Castan. 

compounds. 

(Eard, fortis) Old Germ. Gastart — ^Ang.-Sax. Gisteard 
(found in QUteardenoyly Gad, Dip. 595 J — French Gassabt I 
(Hariy warrior) English Gastee, Caster — French Gastieb, 
GuBSTiEB, Castieb. {Lindj gentle ?) Old Germ. Gestilind — 
French GaslondeI (RcU, counsel) Old German Gastrat, 
Castrat, 8th cent. — French Castebat. (Ric, power) Old 
German Castricus, 6th cent. — ^French Castbique. (Wold, 
power) Old German Castald, 9th cent. — French (or ItaL 9) 
Oastaldl 

From the Goth, quuma, Ang.-Saxon cumma^ 
advena^ we find some names, which are however, 
apt to mix with gum, man, p. 59. 

simple FOBMS. 

Q^agag^g^ Ang.-Saz. Oamnia» name of a ser^ Cod. Dip. 971. Eng. 
AdTMUk CoMBB ? French C6me. 



THB NATION AS THB NAHE-GIVER. 297 

PHONxnc XMDmo. 
Old Qennan Goman, 8ih cent £ng. Oommiit, Quomxak 
(OoMeftrm.) French Oomxuk, Cumon, Oommebtt. 

PATBONTMIGB. 

Eng. CuMMiKa. French CumENGB. 

The above word occurs more commonly as an 
ending, and in some of the names, particularly 
those compounded with words of affection, we 
may perhaps rather find a reference to the "little 
stranger" for whom an auspicious journey through 
life is invoked. 

{Eiid^ happineSB) Old German Otoquim, 9th cent. — 
Eatcume, lAb. ViL (Old High Germ. zU^ Ajig..Saxon Hd, ^'°™^ 
time — in the sense of seasonable 9) Old Qerm. Zitooma^ 8th jj^ 
cent — Tidcume, Lib. ViL — Eng. Titoomb. (JTew?, novus or 
jnyenis) Nencnm ('J)omesdayJ — Nequam ("Gothic fonn) 
English monk, 13th cent. — Eng. Newcomb. (Tft^/, in the 
sense of desire or pleasure) Old Germ. Williquema^ 8th cent* 
— TJilcomn, lAb. VU. — English Welcome* — ^Mod. German 
WniLCOXiL 

In the sense of advena we may also take 
English Newman, German Niemann, French 
Neyman. We find it in England in the 13th 
cent., but I take it to be more ancient. But the 
stem new in general is taken by Grimm and 
Weinhold to have> hke the Greek veo9, the mean- 
ing of yoimg, and I have introduced it elsewhere. 

From the Old High Germ, walah, Ang.-Sax. 
weahl, stranger, foreigner, variously with and 
without the aspirated A, as waUack, walk, wall, 
we may take the following. But the Ang.-Sax. 
wcbI, strages, seems a very likely word to intermix. 

* I hvw pat thla, p. 128, but I thlak wnmgljr, to gom, num. 

l2 



298 THE KATION AS THE NAMB-GIVE& 

SIMPLE FOBMB. 

waiah. Old Germ. Walah, Walach, Waloo, Walch, Walo, Wal, 

stniiger. Gualo, 7th cent. Ang.-Sar. Wala. Eng. Wallace, Walk, 

Walko, Walkey, Wall, Walk, Waley, Quail, Qualet. 

Mod. German Walke, Wallich, Wahl, Walu French 

Yalci, Yali^ YALiikE, OuALLE, Wal^ Guala. 

DDciKtrnyESL 
Old GenzL Walezo, 11th cent. — Eng. Walliss, Wallaci^ 
Walls, Yallis — French Yallez, Yalls, Walles, Walz. 
Old German Yalahilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Yallely, Walkley. 
Walchelin, Lib. Ft«.— Eng. Walkun. 

PATBONYMICS. 

Old German Walunc, 9th cent. English Wallhto. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Andy life, spirit) Old German Waland, Yaland, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Waland, Yali ant— French Yalant. (Frid, 
peace) Old Germ. Walahfrid, 8th cent — Eng. Wallpree — 
French Yalproy. (Hcvrd, fortifi) Old German Walhart, 9th 
cent. — Fr. % Walla rt — Mod. Germ. Wahlert. (fftmy 
warrior) Old Germ. Walachar, Walchar, Walaheri, Walhar, 
7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Walchere, bishop of Lindisfiune— 
Eng. Walliker, Walker, Wallower, Waller, Yaller — 
Mod. Germ. Walcker, Wahlbr, Waller — Fr. Yallery, 
Yallier, Yalh^rb. (Had, war ?)01d Germ. Wallod, Yalot, 
7th cent. — ^Eng. Wallet, Quallet — Fr. Yalet. (Bcwen^ 
ram, ran, corbus) Old German Yalerauans.* (Jomomdn) 
Walarammus, Walerannus, 8th cent. — ^Walrafan, lAb, VU. — 
Eng. WjLLLRAYm (Suff. Sum^J — French Yalleran. (Man) 
Old Germ. Walaman, 8th cent— Eng. Walkman— Mod, 
Germ. Wahlman. (ifflw, famous) Old German Walahmar, 
(king of the Ostro-GothaJ Walmar, 6th cent — Mod. Germ. 
Wahlmar— French Yalmer. (Rand, shield) Old German 
Walerand— Walerandus, Lib, VU. — Eng. Walrond — ^French 
Yalerand, Yalerant. 

* This Gothic name (=ValentT»n) must be of an older date than the 8th 
cent. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVEB. 299 

From the Goth, a^a, alius, in the sense of 
peregrinus, foreigner, GtbS and Grimm derive 
the foUowing stem. 

SIMPLE FOaM& 

Old Germ. Alj, EUo, Ella, 7th cent Aiig.-Saxon EUa. Ai, kl 
Eng. Ell, Ellet, Ella, Fawignw. 

DIMD^UTIVES. 

Old Germ. AlOdn, EUkiu, 10th cent. English Allchin, 
Elkdt. 

compounds. 
(Brand, sword) Old German Aliprand, 9th cent — French 
ALBRAjm. (Budf envoy) Old Germ. Ellebod, 10th cent. — 
English Allbutt. {Gar, spear) Old German Elger, 
5th cent — English Elqab, Elliker. (Oavd, Goth.) 
Old German Eligand^ 8th cent — Eng. Allgood, Elgood, 
Ellaoott. (Hardy Ibrtis) Old German Meard, 10th cent. 
— English Ellabd — ^Mod. German Ellsbt. (HoH, warrior) 
Old German Alier, Elier, 9th cent — ^Eng. Ellebt. (Mar, 
fiimous) Old German Alimer, 9th cent — Eng. Elmobe — 
French Elmibe. (Ma/n) Eng. Elliman. (Mnnd, protection) 
Mmund, DojMsday — ^Eng. Element. (Winn, friend) Old 
German Eliwin, 9th cent— Mwinus, Lib. Vit — Eng. Elwin 
— ^French Elloudt. (Wis, wise) Eluis, Lib. ViL — French 
Elluis. (Wood) Elwod, Lib. Fit— Eng. Ellwood, 

From the above root oZ or d, is formed, in the 
same meaning as I take it, the extended form alis 
or elts. So from Gr. iiKw comes eKia-a-w, verso, 
volvo, a word which may indeed have some 
relationship to the one in question. The river- 
names of Germany, Use, Elz, Alass, Elison (now 
the Lise), may compare with the Ilissus and the 
Helisson of Greece. Grimm refers this stem in 
proper names to the German tribe of the Elysii 
(Tac. Germ.) But the tribe may derive from a 
word signi^nmg stranger, wanderer, faintly traced 



300 THE NATION AS THE NAHE-QIVER. 

in the Old High Germ, alis, Ang.-Sax. eUes, Eng. 
dse^ aliter. The scriptural name Elias may, as 
Forstemann remarks, be liable to intermix ; in 
the Liber VitcB, however, it seems invariably to 
be recognized as distinct. 

SIMPLE fORMa 

^,. jg^ Old Germ. EUso, Elis, Sth cent Aluso^ ELeea, genealogy 

Ptngiinni. o/ the kinge qf Northumbria. AUz, Alia, Elsi, Lib. ViL 

Eng. Allies, Alice, Ellis, Ellicb^ Else^ Elset — ^French 

AT.f.4yff ^ ElUBS, 

COMPOUNDS. 

(OoTy spear) Old Qerman AJsker, llth cent. — ^English 
Alsageb. (Oaiudy Qoth.) Eng. Elsegood. 

Probably the same meaning of stranger may 
be fotmd in the following, which seem to be from 
Goth, anihar, alius, but with which, in the simple 
form, the scriptural Andrew is very apt to mix up. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eng. Heetdeb 9 Mod. Germ. Emdeb t Frenoli Aitdbo f 
AndbtI 

COMPOUinXSL 

(Audy prosperity) Old Qerman Andriaad, 9tli cent, — 
Er. Akdraub. (Berg, protection) Old Qerm. Andreberga, 
8th cent — Mod Qerman AjBTDEBBURa. (Oau, spear) Old 
GemL Andragais^ 4th cent — Fr. Antbatoues, Entbagues. 

Names from the points of the compass, as 
North, South, East, and West, may be included 
in this chapter. The ancient terminations, a, t, o, 
(which it will be seen are in some cases still pre- 
served), would give them the force of " one from 
the north,'' " one from the south," &c. 
SIMPLE foemb. 
North. ^^^ GerxsL Nordo, Nordi, Nord, 9th cent Eng. Kobtr, 

BoTMUfc NoBTHET, NoBBiE. Mod. Qerman Nobd, Nobis. French 
NoBT, Naubt. 



THE NATION AS THE NAMB-GIYEB. 301 

DmUNUTlVJGa 

Old German Norlinc, 8th cent Engliah Noblav. 
ooMPOxrin)s. 
{Bertf fiunona) Old Germ. Nordbeit, Norbert^ 7t1i cent. 
— ^French Nobbebt. (Gaud, Gfoth.) Old Germ. Northgaud, 
Norgaudy 9tli cent — "Eng. NoBTHCXxrr ) Nobqate ? Noboott? 
Nabbowooat f — French Noubigat. (Gtut, guest) Old Germ. 
Norigaa, for Norigast, 8th cent — Eng. Nobquest. (Hwri, 
warrior) Old German Nordheri, Nortier, 8th cent — ^French 
NoBTiEB. (Man) Old Germ. Nordeman, Norman, 8th cent 
— Eng. NoBMAK — Mod. Germ. Ngbdjcabk, NoBicAinr. {Mafr^ 
fitmons) Old Germ. Nordmar, 9th cent — Eng. Nobthmobb, 
Nobbamobb — ^Mod. Germ. Nobdmeteb. Engliah Nobfobs 
north-faring t Eng. NoBTHEiiST % — French Nobest % 

From the Old High Germ, sund, sunt, Ang.- 
Sax. 9iUh, Eng. south, we may take the following. 
The Ang.-Sax. sund, sea^ is a word that might 
intermix. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old Germ. Snndo. Ang.-Saz. Sunt or Santa (found m 
SuMtwQa gwnof&ro, the boundary of the SwUings, Cod, Dip, 
445). Ang.-Sax. Silth* (found apparmUy in SiMstwyrth^ 
Cod Dip, 314). English South, Southet, Suhdat. French 

SoUDATy SOUTT. 

C0MP0UND& 

(Hard, fortis) Old German Sunthard, 8th cent-- Engliah 
SouTHABD.t (ffari, -warrior) Old Geiman Sunthar, Sum* 
thahar, 7th cent — English Sueteb, SuMFTEBy Suthebt — 
French SounnsB. (Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Snntnlf, 7th cent. 
— French Soutif. 

PHONEnO BNDIKO. 

Suihen, Lib. ViL English Southov, Sudden. French 

SOUDEV. 



* Thtn IM oOmt Iimm of tUi wwd m a pflnonal bum In Um Cod. Di^,— 
for ImlMioi^ SoufhUac; found in SonthlfaglAh, Ood. Dip. 881; and oompTing 
villi A Mod. Gomaa Sinri»Lzv— 8athb«rht» foond In SttthbwrhtlngiilOTd, Ood. 
Dt|k 1,088. 

t lUj be ft ootrnptton of ftnothor name Souikwajux Afain— Sontbwftid 
BMj bo obJ^ ft BditeluB ftMompt to nett^ Soottuad. 



302 THE NATION Afi THE NAMS-GlVmL 

VXTKSmED FOBM IK 0r 

EngliBh BouTHSB. Frencli Sonpbb. 
ooMPotnn). 
fUl/, wolf) Old Geim. Sondarolf^ 8th o^t. Mod. Genn. 

8ihn>REH0FF. 

Names derived from the east were most 
common among the Franks^ which^ as Foistemann 
observes^ is to be accoimted for hj their being 
the most west-lying of the Grerman peoples, and 
of course having, for the most part, come from 
the east. Among the Saxons, whose course was 
northward, he observes that these names were 
almost entirely wanting. Nevertheless — at pre- 
sent it seems to me that they are more common 
in English than in French. 

BIMPLB FOBMB. 

Oil, KMt Old German Osta. English OsT, Hosts, Owbt, Yost, 
OiiMtaite. East, 'Eamty, Easio. Mod. Germazi Oflt. 

DmXKUnYBB. 

Old QeniL Axwtilo, Stli eeiiL^-Eng. Ostklk^ AobtelIu 

OOMPOVTHDa 

(Man J Eng. Eastkan — Mod. Gemu OsniABK. (i^«r, 
&moii8) English EAffTMUBE — Daii« OsnoB. (Bad, oounsel) 
Old Qarman AiutrMl, 8th cent. — ^Mod. Gram. Obtkkrath^ 
Enneh Ostakd {^r to hard). 

The extended form oster or eccster is more 
common than the simple form ost or etist. It ia 
possible that in some eases theie may be a refer- 
ence to the goddess Ostara or Eastre, but I think 
in general that it is only the same word as o^ 
or east. 

MMFLEWOmiBk 

^^ Old Oerm. Oster. Eng. Easteb, Otbtbb. Mod. Genn. 

Obbteb. French Oubtbia. 



THB NATION AS THB NAMS-OITICB. 808 

00MPOUKD& 

(Burg, protection) Old German Ostarptirc, 9tli cent.— - 
Sng. Easterbbook. (Dag, day) Eng. Eastbrday* — Mod. 
Qerm. OsTEBTAa. (€h>$y Gotk) Old Qerm. Atutiigoaa) wife 
of the Lombard king Wacho — French Astobgis. (Mar^ 
fiimous) Old Qerm. Austrimiry 9th cent. — Eng. Ostebmoob 
— Mod. Qerman Obtebmbieb. {Mam) Old German Anstre- 
mooiuBy 6th cent. — English OTSTEBMANt — Mod. German 
Ostebmank. (Rio^ rule) Old German Anstorioy 10th cent — 
English OcrrBiCH. 

Names derived from the west seem to have 
been the least common of all. 

SIMPLE lOBMS. 

English West, Vest, Vebtt. French Vurro f ooJaI^ 

nniUNUTiVEs. 
English Webtall^ Yebtal. 

OOMFOUNDa 

(Man) English Westkan. (Rai, counsel) Old German 
Westrat, 9th cent. — French 1 Vestbabtb. Eng. Wbbtfall 
— Mod. Germ. Westphal » Westphalian. 

EXTENDED FOBM. 

English Westeb. French Yestieb. 

OOHPOUNDS. 

(Da^, day) English Westekday, Testekday.J (ifan) 
Old German Wistremand, 7th cent. — English Westebmab, 
Ybstebmas — ^Mod. Germ. WBSTBBXAinff. 

We now come to names derived from those 
of ancient German tribes^ and of the races which 
bordered upon them. But here an important 
question suggests itself Are the names of men 
derived from those of the nation — or may not 

•Hii^tbetappoMd tobefrom the ChzlatUii f ertlM bat It ntiMr mmb» 
to be the nme u an Old Gennan Ostdag. Oompue alao the name Wbrbboat. 

t A N«ir ToEk name, but periiape oolj a coRnptfan oC the Gkmm 
Oatennann. 

X TMzm>AT Bright be a ooovptUm either of Baotudat or Wwtiboat. 



304 THE NATION AS THE NAKE-OIYIBB. 

both, at least in some cases, be from the same 
ancient origin 1 Thus, if Jute signifies giant — 
if Friese (or Frisian) signifies comatus, curled — 
if Wend signifies wanderer — ^may not the names 
of men be carried back to the same ancient 
source, and have the same meaning 1 This is a 
difficult question to answer, and I think that in 
fact both ways do probably obtain. 

From the ancient tribe of the Suevi, Suavi, 
Suebi, or Suabi (whence the present Swabia), 
may be the following. Zeuss refers the name to 
Old High German suipan, ferri. Mod. German 
schwehen. I also suggest Old Norse aveipr, a 
curl or lock of hair, because the whole of the 
Suevi, who comprehended several tribes, were 
noted, according to Tacitus, by a peculiar way of 
fastening the hair up into a knot. 

SniPLB FORMS. 

g^^ Old Q«nnan Suabo, Suap, Suppo, 8th cent. Swvsppa, 

BwaidML Ang.-Sax. geneaL Eng. Swabb^ Swabet, Swaaf, Sweebt. 

Mod. Germ. Schwabe, Schweppb, Buppe ? French SouPi^ 

BoUPiy SOUPEAU. 

DnaNunvEB. 
Old German Snabilo, Suapilo, 8th cent. — ^Eng. Supple — 
Mod German SchwJLble — French Soxtplt, Supply, Sobbel. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Suabheti, 9th cent — ^English 
Soupeb— Fr. SouPiB. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Suapold, 
9th cent — French Soupault. 

From the Varini, Werini, Wami, or Wems, 
whose name Zeuss derives from Old High Germ. 
ivarjan, to defend, may be the following. Graff 
places the names to the above Old German stem, 
but Forstemann proposes also the people's name. 



THB NATION AS THB NAMS-GIVSR. 305 

SDfPLB FOBMB. 

Old Qermaii Warm, Ghiarin, WamOy Wemo, Wem, 7th wuiii, 

oent. EngliBh Wabbev, Waknb, Ybknet. Mod German Wan. 

Wahbev, Wkbiol French Wajuit, GuiBOTy Qubbnb, Yaiuk, ^•™* 
Yjlbikat, Yshnxt, Ymustay, Yebmxau. 

DDOKUnYEa 

Old Germ. Wemicho — Eng. Wabnook — ^Mod. German 
Wabneokx — French YABAGKiAa Old German Werinela, 
9th cent. — 'Eng. Yabkell — French Wbbnl^ Ykbhsl. Old 
Gennan Wemiza^ 11th cent. — ^English Yabni8H — French 

YXBSAZ. 

OOMFOUNDe. 

(Aud, proeperitj) French Yebnau©. (Burg, protection) 
Old Cterman Werinbuig^ 8th cent. — English Wabbebtbubt. 
(OiHtd, Goth.) Old German Warengand, 7th cent. — French 
Yabanoot. {H<vrd) Old Germ. Wemhart, 8th cent— Mod. 
German Wkbnbbt — French Yebhebt. {Hari, warrior) Old • 

German Warenher, Warner, Werner, Gnamer, 7th cent. 

English Wabbknkb, Wabneb, Webneb, YEBmsB— Modem 
German Wabneb, Webneb — French Ouabnieb, Wajelinieb, 
Yabnibb, Yebnieb, GuEiNiBB. (Eod, war) Old German 
Wamad, 8th cent — English Wabnett— French Wabnbt, 
Yebnet. {Red, counsel) Old Germ. Werinred, 9th cent- 
French Yebnebet. 

From the tribe of the Jutes Fdrstemaim and 
Zeuss derive the following ancient namea 

SDfPLE FOBMBw 

Old German Judo, Juto, Judda, Jutta, Yuto, 8th oent j^ ^^ 
English JuDD, JooTH, Yept. Mod. German JitDK, JifriB. jute. 
Dutch Jut. French Judeau, Judb, Jutbau. 

DDflNUTlVEl 

French Juttel. English Judkin. French Jxtdlin. 

PATB0NTHIC& 

Old German Judinga^ 8th cent — Ang.-Sazon* Ytting 
(fcfixnd m Tttingea hldw, Cod Dip. 1,IU, and eUewhere.J 
Eng. JuTTiNO. Eng. JtmsoN, Jotson. 

• Tfc» Aag.'Ux. tarm Yim IoU» Jnto. 
M 2 



806 VBE VAXION Afi THE If AHBH3IVE& 

otmroujiiNiL 
(J7or^ warrior) Fmidi Jutibl (Mmn) Eng. TsAfiiAV. 
(Bat^ ooonael) Old Qerm. Joind, 8th cent— Ftenoh J<ynAr» 
(Wme, Mend) Old Qerm. Jodain, llth oenl— Eng. Jmwnr, 
JsuDwiHs-— French Jonnv. 

From the name of the Franks may probably 
be derived the following. Though common in its 
simple form, this does not oft^i occur in com* 
pounds, which may perhaps be attributed to the 
more recent origin of the name, it having been 
given to a confederation of diflferent tribes. 

SIMFLB rOBMS. 

Ch» Wn»kL Old Germ. Franco, Frando, Frenko, 5th cent l^nglM^K 
Frajtk, Franco, Fbange f Fbshch f Mod. Germ. Fbangkb^ 
JPbjlsk, French Fbahg^ FaAKQin^ Franco^ Fraiige% 
Fbakoia, France^ Francbt, Franz. 

DDOMUTlVJBi 

Old Germ. Francola, 5th cent. — ^EngUsh Franddl Old 
Germ. Francolin, 8th cent. — Eng.. Frankun — ^Mod. Germ. 
Frankun — ^French Franqxtzlin, FRANcnjx)N. 
phonetic xndino. 

Old German Franchin, 8th cent French Franquin. 
ItaL Franconi f 

OOKFOTmiNl 

(ffard) Old Germ. Francaid, 6th cent.-— Eng. Fbancoxtbt 
— IVenchf Frankaebt. 

I find no ancient names to throw any light 
upon the following group, which I think may 
perhaps be derived from the tribe of the Chauci 
or CaucL* The commonness of these names in 
French would be accounted for by this being one 
of the tribes which formed the Francic confedera- 
tion. However, I only bring forward the subject 
as one for further enquiry. 

• Thn* mN alM MKHlMr tifbs odM tiM GhanloL 



TfiB KATIOM AS THB NAHE-QIVBR. 307 

ampLi voBMa. 
Bngliah Chale, Chalxxt, Cauls. Franoh OHAXiasYf''^^'^*^'^ 
Chauss^ Oaxtchb^ Cauchy, Choqu& " ^'^ 

PU imU T lVH L PATBONTiaOB, 

Eng. Chalxlen. Eng. Qalkukq, GAULKDra 

00MPOXTKD& 

(Hard) IVench Cbabsahd, Gauchabd. (Sari, warrior) 
BiigiiA Ghalkbb, Ghauobb — Mod. Germ. KaTiKKH — ^French 
Chaussixb, Ghoqub. (Man) Eng. Kalexav. 

From the Falii or Falians^ (whence the name 
of Westphalia,) Forstemaim derives a root fal, 
falah^ in ancient German names. 

SIHPLXrOBMa. 

Old Qerman Falho, FaL English Fall^ Faixow, Faii^ The FdU, 
FeiiLOW f Mod. Germ. Fahl. French Faullb, Faulbau, ^ **»««• 
Fallou, Faille. 

EXTENDED F0SM=FALIAN. 

Engliflh Fallon. French Faxtlon. 
From the name of the Hessians is probably 
the following stem, which is, however, very di£Bicult 
to separate from another, haz, p. 169. Also from 
am, as, semideus, p. 119. 

SIMPLE VOBHa 

Old Germ. HasBO, Asao, Hessi, 8th cent. English Habs, Hmi, h«i. 
Hesse, Hesset. Mod. Germ. Hass, Hess. French Hassb, 

T ^f qiygp HeSZ. 

EXTENDED FOBMsENO. " HESSDLN." 

Eng. Hassan, Hesson, Hbssion. French Hassan. 

There is a stem, sal, ad, rather common in 
ancient names, for which Forstemann proposes 
scdo, dark, (Eng. ^^salloV), sal, hall, or Goth. 
sds, benignus. I think it probable, however, 
that at least a portion may be placed to the name 
of the SaUi, a tribe of Franks (whence the Salic 
law in France). 



308 THE NATION AS THE NAMB-GITER. 

aiMPLB lOBMB. 

8^ 8^ Old Qennan Salo, Sallo, Salla^ SelK /jfth oeat. 8d]a» 

Lib. VU. Eng. Salb, Sala, Sell, Skllet. Mod. Qerman 

SAHLy Skllb, Sxllo. French Salle, Sall^ Sala, Saillt, 

Sellb. 

DmiNumnHi 

Old Gemum Salaoo, 6th ooDt. — English Seluox — ^Mod. 
German Selke. Old Oennon Saliao, 9th cent — Enj^iflh 
SALLESy Sellis — French Salesse, GeleehuBp Gelb. 

PATBONTiaCB. 

Old Germ. Salinga, wi/e of the Lowha/rd king Waeho, 6th 
cent Engliflh Selling. 

OOMPOUNIM. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Salabald, 9th cent— French 

Selabelle. (Fridf peace) Old German Salafrid, 9th cent — 

French Salfrat. {F<ut, firm) French Saillofest t* {0<4 

Goth.) Salgot (Saxo.) — French Saligot. (ffariy warrior) 

Old German Salaher, 8th cent. — English Sellab, Sailob — 

Fr. Sallieb, Sellier, Oellier. (Hard) French Saillabd, 

Salabd, Gellabd. (Mem) Old German Salaman, Saleman, 

Seliman, 8th cent. — Eng. Salakon (apparently not Jewish)^ 

Salmon, Saleman, Sel9can — Modem German Sallkank — 

French Salmon. (Bam, rcuiy raven) Old German Salaram, 

9th cent. — French Salleron, Sellebin, Gellebin. (Wig, 

wi, war) Old German Selwich — English Sallawat, Selwat. 

(Dio, thiuy servant) Old German Saladio, 8th cent. — ^French 

Salath£ 

extended F0BM="SALIAN." 

Ang.-Sazon Salenn. English Sellon. French Salin, 

Saliony, Selzn. 

compound. 

(FaH, firm) French Saillenfest. 
It is probable that there are many names from 
the Gothsy but the root is a very difficult one to 
deal with, mixing up with good, bonus, and 
perhaps with got^ deus. Goth itself (a Yorkshire 
name), might be supposed to be most certainly 

* W« li*T« no rare iavUaoe of tUa word m an a&dlBff. Oompvo AiiovlfliUi 
p. 95. 



THB NATION AS THE NAMIH^IYER. 309 

from the nation. Tet Forstemonn refers the Old 
German names Gotho and Goth, 8th cent., to the 
other stem, while at the same time — not quite 
consistently, as it seems to me — he derives the 
Mod. Germ, names Gothe and Goethe from the 
nation. I will not attempt to divide the two 
stems, but I bring in here the form goz^ which 
Grinun» Graff, and Forstemann concur in making 
another form oi gaud, Goth. 

BIMPUB FORMS. 

Old Qerm. Gozo, Qaiuo, Qau^ Gossa, Jozo, Con>, Gauzo, ^^ 
Sth cent. Goza^ Lib. Vit. English Qoss, Goose, Goosbt, goUi. 
GoozE, Gausb, Gausby, Gose, Gosset, Gooze. Mod. Germ. 
Gause, Gose, Gbss; Koss. French Gauzet, Gobse, Gousse, 

JOSSE, JOSSEAU, JOSSU, JOZEAU, JoUSSE, GOSSE^ GOSS^ GOZB^ 

Gozzi, GoussT, Gausse. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Gozekin, 11th cent — Eng. Josktk — Mod 
Germ. Ctoseken, Goschen — French GosQunr. Old German 
Gauzilin, Gozlin, Joscelin, 8th cent. — Gozelin (Domeaday) — 
English GosLiK, Goslikq, Joslin — ^Mod. German Goslxkg — 
French Gosselin, Jousselin, Josselin. Old Germ. €ku>zaich, 
8th cent — Eng. Gossack — French Gauziqu^ Gozio. 

PUONETIG ENDIKO. 

Old German Gozasuni, 8th cent. Gosin (ffund, EoHU)' 
Eng. Gaussen, Gossov, Gousin. French Gossnr, Gausseet, 
JozAir, Gossnr, Gaubin, Gousin, Gouzineau. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Baidy bold) Old German Gauzebald, 8th cent— English 
Gosbell, €k>SFELL. {EM, state, condition) Old German 
Oaosheid, 9th cent — ^English Gosset) — French Gaussadb, 
Gaussat, Gosset t Josset ? {Hard) Old German Goshart, 
Gozart, Gozhart^ 8th cent — ^Eng. Gozzabd, Gossabt — ^French 
Gossakd, Gossabt, Gauzabd. {Hari, warrior) Old German 
Ganzer, Gozhere^ 8th cent — Eng. €k>ZAB, Gosieb, Gauseb — 
French Goussebt, Jossibb. {Helm) Old German Goshelm, 



Th0 
DudnttT 



SIO THB NATION AS TQB NAMB-OIVBB. 

JooBEehn^ 8th oant-^-French Oobsiou, JoflBB^uxB. (Baim, 
ran^ rftyen) Old G^erm. Cozram, Sth cent — ^Eng. GtosHEBov— » 
French Oaussxrajt. (Leih, carmen) Old Germ. Gofdeih, 8th 
cent — Eng. Gosleel (Lind, gentle) Old German Ganzlind, 
8ih cent — ^English Goslahd, Jo8Lijn> (or from hmdf terra). 
(Man J Eng. Ooosbmak — ^Siod. German GoaaMAir— French 
Cosid^NK (i^or^ famous) Old Germ. Gosmar, 8th oent^* 
English GosxEii — ^Mod Germ. Cobxab. {yw, young) Old 
Grerman Oozniw, Cozni — French Cosve, Oosnuau. (Raty 
oounsel) Old Germ. Gozzaiat^ 9th cent. — French Oossebet. 
(Rand, shield) French Joossblaxd, Joussxbanu (Wealk, 
stranger) Old German OoBwaIh» 9th cent — Eng. Qoswelu 
{Wald, poirer) Old German Gausoald, 8ih oent^-Bo^^ 

GkMWOLD. 

Zeuss refers the following stem to the name 
of the Danduti, in which Graff and Forstemamx 
also seem to agree. 

SmPUB BOBMB. 

Old Germ«n Dando, I>endi, Tando, Tanto, 9th cent ; 
DanzOy Tanao, 8th cent. Ang.-Bax. Daunt (/ound'perhiapif 
in Dofunteaboum, Cod. Dip. 384). Dando, Dandi (Hutid 
EoUi). English Dakp, Dakoo, Davdt, Dshbt, DAiKTr, 
DAiniT» TAJra, Tent, TA2n)Ty Davgi^ Daxgst, Tahbet. 
French Dasdou, Daktt, Dshtv, Tanpou» Davsi^ TsBroifL 
ItaL Dante? 

DDONUTlVJfiB. 

Old Germ. Tantulo, 8th cent. — ^Eng. Tendall, Tanbell 
— ^French Dakzel— ItaL DakdoIiO. Old German Dantlin, 
Dentlin, 10th cent. — ^Eng. Dandelyon — French Dsnulledt, 

TKNAHiLOH. 

PflOKETIO BNDINO. 

Ikiglish TANTDHy Danson. French DANTONy Tandon, 

Tanton. 

oqmpounm. 
(i7an( fbrtis) French Dansabd, (£rar% warrior) Daontre 
(s, Danntherl t) JMl BatU ii&&.— English Dakgbb )— French 
Dantieb. (TTvm^ friend) Tanduini, Lib. Yil. — ^Fr. Dantot 
TEVBSvnr. 



tHB NATION AB THS NAMB-GlVmU 311 

Then there is a stem dan, which FSrstemann 
thinks may be, at least in part, from the name 
of the Danes. It seems, probable, however, that 
it is sometimes only a degenerate form of dand, 
and in one or two instances I have so classed it. 

BDCPLB roBica 
Old Geiman Dano, Danno, Denno, Tanno, Texmo, Sthji^j^,^^^ 
cent. T)ene^ Lib, VU, English Dakb, Dana, Dahk, "Dmnst^ 
DB2nnr, Deak, Takk, Tsn. Mod Qerman Dakk, Dehit, 
Tahhs. French Dan, Danne, Danet, Tainne. 

DIMlMUTlVJfii. 

Old Oenn. Tanucho, 9th cent. — Eng. TAKNoCK-^French 
DEiTEOHAn. Old Germ. Danila^ Teuil, 7th cent. — English 
Dannell, Denkbli^ Tenrellt — ^French Dansl^ Dahexxs^ 
Tanlat. 

pataokymicb. 
Old German Daning, Dening — Eng. Denning. Eng. 
DEiraoK,* DsNUOK, Tenhtsoh — ^French Tennebon. 

PHONETIO SNDIKG. 

EDglish Dannav. French Danin, Dehin. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(And, life, spirit) English Tennant — ^French Denant. 
(Bwrg, protection) Old German Danabnrg, 10th cent. — 
Frendi t Dannebbrg. {Frid, peace) Old German Danafrid, 
8th cent. — English Danfobd % (Omui, Goth.) Old German 
Danegand, 8th cent, — ^Mod German Dankegott ? — French 
JhsMioELAxnx (Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Denihart, 8th centL 
— Ang.-Sax. Deneheard (fwmd u> LcBvytikMrdeB hegercewe,'^ 
Cod. Dip. 272)— Eng. Denhabd — ^French Denabd, Denebt, 
Tenabb. {OofT, spear) Old Germ. Thanger, 9th cent — ^Bng. 
Dangeb — ^Modern German Danneckeb — French Denbcheb, 
Dencbe, Denaiqbe, Tanqbe. {Hari, irarrior) Eng. Dbnteb, 
Danneb, Tanner — French Denieb, Dennebt, TaniIxe, Tan- 

* I do aoi feal wan of these names. Thej might be the aame m Tanton, Ae., 
hi the pNflow groopk See also Benson* Bnnsen, Ao., p^ SUL 



312 THE NATION AS THE NAMB-GIVEB. 

KSUB. (If an J Eng. Dsnman, Tehneman. (Bed, oooiiBel) 
Old Germ. Tennared, 6t1i cent. — French Takradb, Tsnbkt. 
(Ul/, wolf) Old German Tlianol^ lOth cent— Ang. -Saxon 
Denewulf— Eng. Denolf — French Dekeff, Denaiffb. 

From the tribe of the Ambrones Zeuss and 
Forstemann derive the word aniber in proper 
names — the latter also suggesting that the b may 
be only euphonic and the proper form amar, in 
which case it might be an allied word to amal, 
p. 143. 

SIMPLE F0B3ia 

j^^ Ang.-Saxon Amber (fovnd in Ambresbyrig, now Amet- 

bury, Ambrededh, now Ombersly.) Eng. Ambeb, Haxfeb^ 
Embeb^ I11BE&* French Ampaibe, Empaieb, Embbt. 
DuaNunyEa. 
Old German Ambricho, Embiicho, Lnbrico^ ffth cent. — 
Eng. AjfBBn>GE 9 

The Frisian or Friese (Ang.-Saxon Fiysa^) 
appears to give the name to the following. Accord- 
ing to Richthoven this people's name is allied to 
French ymcr, Eng. frizde, and signifies comaJtus, 
curled — ^the wearing of the hair long or curled 
being considered among the German tribes as a 
badge of the freeman and the hero. According to 
Zeuss it is derived firom Goth, fraisan, tentare, 
Ang.-Sax.^4sa, periculum, in the sense of valour 
or courage. In this case, and perhaps in any 
case, we may include the form fras. 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

Fri«M, Old Germ. Friaso, Friso, Yras, 8th cent. Eng. Fbeeze, 

^^^'^^ Fbasl Mod. German Friess. French Fkise, Fratsse, 

F&AfiET. 

* Might be referred to the YmbrM of the Tr»Teaer's Song, whom Lappen- 
betg n&ppoeei to be the Imben of the Ide of Femem. Thorpe engfafte that tbeee 
Imben might be % remiumt of the Ambronei. 



TH£ NATION AS THE NAME-OITER. 313 

K JL T KNim) VOmMsUrO. FBIUAK.* 

French FBiaov , FsEsaoir. 

Then there are several names which maybe 
derived firom peoples not themselves Teutonic, 
yet who bordered upon, or might be partially 
intermixed with, the German tribes. Thus we 
find that the Anglo-Saxons had several names 
compounded with Peht or Pict ;t I have sug- 
gested a possible reason at p. 295 ; I do not 
think, with Mr. Kemble, that an intermixture of 
blood is necessarily to be assumed. 

From the Boii, a Celtic tribe who gave the 
name to Boioaria, now Bavaria» Forstemann 
derives the stem hoi in proper names. There 
appear to be three forms — first, the simple form 
found in the name of the Boii — ^secondly, the 
extended form found in German Baviar — ^and 
thirdly, the further extended form found in Eng. 
Bavarian. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old G«rmaa Boio, Beio, Peio, 7th oent. Ang.-Sazon The boil 
Boia. Eng. Boy, Bye, Pye. Mod Genn. Boys. Fr^ch 
Boy, Boy4 Poy, ForiL 

OOMPOUNDA. 

{Hard, fortu) Eng. Byabd — French Boyasd, Poy^bd, 
PoYABT. (Mom) Eng. Boyman, Pymak. 

EXTE]n>BD FOBHsOESM. BAVIAS. 

(Md Germ. Baior, Peior, 9th cent Eng. Boyeb, Byeb. 
Frenidi Bovsb, Boybbau, Poye& 

OOMPOUNB. 

(ifcm) English Beybbm AV. 

* PoMiUj another ateaded form maj be found In Enf . FmASSE, F&xczok, 



t Our name Pzotubb (Begtatemr-OenenJ's retain} seenu rather probably to 
be from thii oi)|^ repreeenttng an Ang.-Saz. Peethere or Pehtheie. 

N 2 



314 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

BXTBNDSD FOBMsBKO. BAVABIAN. 

Old OetUL Beiarin, 8th cent. French Boirok, Botbok, 
From the name of the Huns Forstemann 
derives the following stem, observing however 
that the root un {unna, dare, or un, negative), is 
very liable to intermix. It is further to be 
observed that if Hun, as Grimm suggests, sig- 
nifies giant, this may also be the meaning in 
proper names. 

SIMPLE FORMS 

The Hnni. ^^^ German Huno, Hani, Hun| 8th cent Hon, a king 
of the netware (Trtwdler^s 8ong). Honey ("Hwnd. Bolls J. 
Eng. HuNN, HoNBT. Mod Genn. Huhn, Hunk, 

DDONUnyES. 

Old German Hunico, 10th cent. — Honoc, Lib. VU. — 
English HuNNEX — Modem German Hoxicke, Honkb — 
French Hokache. Old Geiman Hunichin, 10th cent. — 
English HuNKiNG — Mod. GeroL HuNECKEir. Old German 
Hunzo, 9th cent. — Eng. Hokiss, Hunks. 

OOMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Hunbert, Humbert, 8th cent. 
— ^Ang.-Sax. Hunberht, bishop of Lichfield — Mod. German 
HuKBEBT — French Humbert. (Bald, bold) Old German 
Hunibald, 8th cent., Humbold, 9th cent. — Eng. Honeybali^ 
Hunibal — Modern German Humboldt — French Humbuxt. 
(Frid, peace) Old Grerman Hunfirid, Homfrid, 8ih cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Hunfrith, bishop of Winchester — Eng. HuMPmiET 
— French Honfray. (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Hunger, 8th 
cent — English Hunger — Mod. German Hunger — French 
HoNGRE, HoNACKER. (GmU, goz, Goth.) Old Germ. Hungoz, 
9th cent — Eng. Hunqate. (Hwrd) Old Germ. Hunard, 8th 
cent — ^English HuKKARD—Mod. Germ. Huhnert — French 
HoNKARD. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Honher, 8th cent. — 
English HoNiTER — Mod. German Honer. (Man J Honiman 
(Hund. BoUsJ. — English Honetman — Mod. Germ. HoKio- 
MANN, HuNNEMANN. (B<U, couuscl) Old Germ. Honrad^ 9th 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 315 

cent. — French Honobat. (Waldf power) Old Germ. Hun- 
wald, Hunoald, 8th cent. — Hunewald, Lib, VU. — English 
HuNHOLD — Mod. Germ. Hunold — French Hunault 

From the name of the Fins Forstemann 
derives the following stem, found in five Old 
Grerman names, observing that as the Fins have 
been neighbours of the Germans ever since the 
time of Tacitus, it would be surprising if no names 
had been derived from them. The same remark 
applies to the Northmen, among whom the name 
was more common than among the Germans. 
The word however requires fiirther investigation ; 
Miss Yonge explains it as ** white/' and referring 
to Finn as a title of Odin, thinks that it was " an 
idea borrowed from the Gael by the Norsemen." 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Fina. Finn, ancestor of Woden, Ang.-Sax. 
geneal. Fin, a prince of the North Frisians (Beowulf). Old 
Norse Finnr, Finni. Eng. Finn, Finney. 

COMPOUNDa 

{Bert, bright) French Finbert. (Bog, bow) Old Norse 
Finbogi — Eng. Finbow. (Gctr, spear) Old Norse Finngeir — 
Ang.-Sax. Finger (found in Fmgringahb* Cod, Dip. 685) — 
Eng. Finger. {Ma/r, &mous) Eng. Finnimore ? 

From the Venedi, Veneti, Winidae, or Wends 
may be the following. According to Grimm 
(Gesch, d. Deutsch. Spr.J this people's name, as 
well as that of the Vandals, is to be referred to 
Germ, wenden, Eng. wend, wander, &c. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Winid, Windo, Wenda, Wento, Wenso, 9thTheWcnd8 
cent Winta, son of Woden, in the genealogy of the kings 

* Th« mound ol^the Fingntngt, "deso«ndenU of Finger," now Flngrlnghoc 



316 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GtVER. 

of the LindiBfarL English Wind, Window, Wsht, Wiht, 
Vent, Vint, Quiht. Mod. Oerman Wind, Wbnd, Wbtt, 
French Vinit, Vibnt, Vintz, Quintt. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Qerm. Vinidin, 9th cent. Eng. Wbndon, Vindim, 
QuiNTnr. French Vintin, Qubntin. 
compounds. 

(ffari, warrior) Old Oerman Winidhari, Winidhar, 
Winithar, 5th cent. — Eng. Windeb, Wintbr,* Vinteii — 
Mod. Qerm. Windeb, Winter — French Ventbe, Guindbe. 
(Bam, ran^ raven) Old Germ. Winidram, Winedrannna, 8Ul 
cent. — Eng. WmDBAii — French Vendbin. 

Then there is a form tuand, which may he, at 
least in some cases, the same as the preceding. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Wand, (Md Germ. Wandoj Wandi, Wanzo, 8th cent. Engliah 

wendf Wand, Want, Vant, Vandy, Wansey, Vance. Mod. 
Germ. Wande, Wandt. French Vancy. 

DIMINUnTES. 

Old Germ. Wendico, 9th cent. — Eng. Quantook — Mod. 
Germ. Wandtke. 

PATEONYMICa 

Old Germ, Wanding, 8th cent. — "Eng, Wandino. 
phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Wanzina Eng. Wanton, Vension. French 
Vanden, Quantik. 

compounds. 
(Sariy warrior) Old Germ. Wanther, 8th cent— Snglish 
Wander — French Vantisr, Quantiisu (Man) English 
Wantman. 

Then there is a third form from the same 
root, which may probably be referred to the 
name of the Vandals. 



Might also be from Another origin— see p. 141 



Tlia 



THE NATION AB THE NAME-OIVEE. 317 

smPLE roBMa 

Old German Wandilo, Wandil, Wendil, Wyndele, 6th 

cent. Ang.-Sftzon Windel (fownd in Windleaora, now 

Windsor, Ae.J. English Windle, Whttle. Modem 

Qerman Wandel, Wekpiel^ French Yaitdale, Vahutellb^ 

QUAMPELLB. 

DIMINUTIVBa. 

Old €krman Wandalin (bishop of Ghartres), Wantelin, 
Wendelin, 6th cent. — ^Modern German Wendldto— French 
YAHTHiBLSir. Eng. Wendelken. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hairdf fortis) French Vantillamd. (HaH, warrior) 
Old Qerm. Wandalarias, 6th cent, Bai/6aA.a/>4oc, Prooopius 
— Eng. YAHDSLSUBy WiNPELERy Yanzlleb — Mod. G^muuL 
Wendeleb. 

Though we cannot doubt that the very 
common name of Soott has been in most cases 
a surname derived from nationality, yet we find 
it also in ancient use as a single or baptismal 
name. Whether in this case also it may, like 
other names of the same sort, be derived from 
the nation, or whether, as appears to be the case 
in the name Scottsmith, we may think of Old 
Norse skot^ dart, spear, there are scarcely sufficient 
grounds for deciding. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Qerm. Scot, 9th cent. Ang.-Saz. Scott (fifwnd in scoi 

&coUu healh, Cod. Dip. 1,218.) Seott^ Lib. Vii. 

DnamjnvB. patboktmio. 

English ScoTTocK. English Scottino. 

OOMPOUNDS.* 

(Bald, fortis) Eng. Shotbolt f (Land J Scotland, Lib, 
Vit — Scotland, a Norman in ihe Acta Sanctorum — English 
Scotland. {I£ar famous) Old Germ. Ecotmar (for Scotmar, 
according to Fbntemann) — Eng. Scotchmeb. 

* BmMm th« names here quoted, Soothud oocnn twiee m ft Frftnkdth name 
iathePoLInL 



318 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVEB. 

I do not think that Spain is from the country ; 
it seems rather to be the same name as Spegen 
which occurs two or three times in the liber 
VitsB, and which is probably from Ang.-Saxon 
spanan, allicere. So also Sweden, which com- 
pares with an Old German Swedin, referred by 
Forstemann to Old High GeruL $wedan, to bum. 

Sweetsur evidently means a Sweitser or 
Swiss. But I do not think that Pickard, p. 178, 
means a native of Picardy. And though Jane- 
way may be, as Mr. Lower suggests, from an old 
word for a Genoese, yet I should rather take it 
to be the same as Gannaway, from the stem 
gan, elsewhere noticed. English and Inglis 
may be the same as the Ang.-Saxon name Ingils 
(for Ingisil). Ireland may be, like the Old 
Germ, names Erland, Airland, &c., the same as 
Harland, p. 232. BoMAN also may be from 
Rodman, as Robert, Roger, and Roland, from 
Rodbert, Rodger, and Rodland. 

Lastly, there are one or two names which 
seem to refer to a mixture of race. Such is an 
Old Germ. Halbthuring, 9th cent., which seems 
to mean a Thuringian on one side. Also an Old 
Germ. Halbwalah, 8th cent., which may mean 
half foreigner or half Welsh. So likewise the 
Danish Halfdane, whence the Scottish Haldane. 
But I doubt very much whether Mr. Kemble is 
right in thinking that the Anglo-Saxon name 
MAI signifies half-breed ; Miss Yonge at any rate 
is certainly wrong in thinking that Ceadwalha^ 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 319 

his brother,had a Cymbric name ; for, as elsewhere 
shown, it is clearly Teutonic. At the same time 
it is very probable that the similarity of the 
name to the Celtic Cadwallader might be the 
cause of a mutual concision of the two names. 



CHAPTER XVIL 



THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 

While the Gothic tribes were wanderers in 
the great Northern Forests, they took their 
names from the objects that were familiar to 
them there. The nobler of the savage brutes — 
the bear, the wol^ the boar — ^were among the 
Teuton's favourite types ; — the war-game that 
he^loved, and the sword that "^ was to him as a 
daughter.'^ 

But it was a new life when they came to the 
water's edge. A new horizon opened to their 
view — new visions stirred their minds — their 
destiny took them by the hand — ^and the bold 
hunter became the daring viking. Short flights 
of piracy trained their wings — and the narrow 
British sea was bridged ; — a thousand years to 
gather head — ^for it was the wide Atlantic that 
came next. 

On all the German sea-board there were fierce 
pirates and bold seamen — but the Northmen 
were the fiercest and the boldest. They harried 
all shores, and crossed swords with all races. 
They brought back the gold of Caliphs, and the 
dark-eyed daughters of Italy. They laimched 
forth into the frozen deep, and saw the whale at 
his solemn gambols, and met the sea-bear — ^hoary 



THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 321 

€tnd grim — drifting on his solitary raft of ice, like 
an ancient warrior on his way to Odin's Hall. 
And — ere yet the fxillness of time was come — 
they lifted up a comer of the veil, and peeped 
into the grand New World. 

Even in death the Viking loved to have his 
grave overlooking the sea, that his spirit might 
listen to its old familiar voice. Sometimes he 
was even buried sitting inside his trusty ship, 
with his good sword by his side. More frequently , 
his barrow was made in the shape of a ship 
turned upside down. And sometimes — with a 
feeling of poetry not always found in the pro- 
ductions of Scalds — that the old sea-rover might 
sleep the sounder, they made his bed of the salt 
sea-weed.* 

From the Goth. saivSy Old Sax. and Old High 
Germ. sSo, Ang.-Sax. sae^ Eng. ** sea," Forstemann 
derives the following stem, which is however 
liable to intermix with sig, victory, p. 1 72. It 
is as might Be expected, a stem especially Saxon. 

OOMPOUNDB. 

{Ber^ bear) Sibar, Xt6. Vif. — Eng. Seabeb, Shebeare — Sm, Sew. 
Fr. Seebeb, Sebire. (Bern, bear) Old Germ. Sebem, 9th cent. ^^*'^- 
— Old Norse Snbiom — Sbeme, Domesday — Eng. Seabobk, 
Setburn, Sporne — French Sebron. {Berty bright) Old Germ. 
Sebert, 11th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Snberht — Eng. Seabright — 
Mod. German Sebert — French Sibert. (Burg, protection) 

* Oraves of this aort— evideatly T6atonl<>— h*ve been dlsoorered in the 
Crimea. See the " Antiqnitiee of Kertch and Reeearchei in the Cimmerian Bos- 
phorua," hj Dr. Duncan MThenon. In the ooone of a dlscuuion on the subject 
at a meeting of the Archseological Institnte, Mr. Kemble remarked "Thelajer 
of sea^weed in the tomb is a remarkable fact ; a similar nsage has been noticed in 
interments on the shores of the Baltic, and it roight have originated in some tradi- 
tion of water- worship, of wliich traces occur in the saperstitions of Scandinavia." 

O 2 



322 THB SSA AND THE SSA UFB. 

Old German Seborg, Seopuro, 9th cent — Seakmrchi LA, 
VU, — English Seaburt, Sbabbook — Mod. Genn. Skkbubo — 
French Sibourg (Fugd, fowl) Ang.-Sax. Ssfugel — Engliah 
Sefowl. (Man) Old German Seman, 9th oentu — Kngliah 
Seaman — ^Mod German Hebmann. (RU, ride) Old Gterm. 
Seuerit, 9th cent — Engliah Bbaright — French Seuriot. 
(Wold, power) Old Germ. Sewald, 11th cent— Em;. Sea- 
WALL) SswsLL 9 — Mod. Germ. Sebwald— French Soualle f 
(Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Seward, 6th cent — Ang.-Saz. 
SflBward — Eng. Seaward, Seward, Saw abd— French Suard. 

Another stem of similar meaning may be und^ 
which Foretemann refers to Old High German 
unda, fluctus, unda. Hence Old German Undo, 
8th cent., and Eng. Undey, though hund, dog, 
is liable to intermix. 

The only ancient name from ship, navis, 
seems to be a Gothic Scipuar of the 6th cent, 
in Procopius, and which answers to our Skipper 
and Shipman. 

The Ang.-Saxon ceol, appears to be found in 
the names of several Anglo-Saxons, but it is 
not easy to say whether it is intended for that 
word or for coi, helmet, p. 226. The only name 
from this source among. the continental Germans 
seems to be a CheHng (Goldast, rerum Alamanr 
nicarum scriptores). 

SIMPLBfORMB. 

^f- Ang.-Saxon Oeol, royal line of Weesez. English Ebbe^ 

Keblt. Mod. Qerm. Kiehl. French Chelt ? 

PATRONYMIOS. 

Old German Cheling. English Keeukg. 
We find in Anglo-Saxon several poetical or 
periphrastic expressioDS for a ship, some of which 
seem to occur in English names. Thus we have 



TELA SBA AND THS SEA UFB. 323 

Sbamabk, which appears to be from Ang.-Saxon 
samtearhy a sea-horse, a ship. And the name 
Seahorse itself of English origin, occurs, as Mr. 
Lower informs us, in New Bnmswick. Another 
Anglo-Saxon expression for a ship was scBumdu, 
** sea-wood,"' whence seems to be the name Sea- 
wood, found in New York. 

From the Old Norse fara^ Ang.-Sax. faran, 
to fare, sail, travel ; Old Norse /aW, Ang.-Saxon 
fara^ voyager, we may take the following, which 
are however rather apt in some cases to intermix 
with fair^ pulcher. A large proportion of the 
ancient names are Frankish. 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

Old Germ. Fara^ Faro, Pharo, 7th cent Engliflh Faib, 
Phajb, Fairey, Fa&ra, Pharaoh, Fa&bow, Fsrrt. Mod. 
Gknn. Fahb, Fbha. French Fab^ Fabt, Fabau, Fsrat, 

FXBBT. 

DiMnamyBa 
English Fa&bxli^ Fkrrell — French Fa&al. Old Germ. 
Farleniu, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Ferling (fownd in FwJxng- 
amere^ Cod. Dip. 73)— English Faiblait, Fublong — Mod. 
Germ. Fbhblen. Old German Farago, 9th cent — ^English 
Faboo— Modem German Fbbbach. French Fabachok — 

TBnglia>i FiBKIN f 

PATB0NYH10& 

French FABENa English Fnuva f 

phonetic endino. 
Old Germ. Farana^ 8th cent English Fabbszt, Fbabon. 
French Fabbak, Fabine, Febon. 

ooMPOvJsms. 

(Andf life, spirit) Old Germ. Ferrand, 11th cent — ^Eng. 

Fabbahj>, Febband — French Febbakd, Febaiit. (Ber% 

fiunons) Old G^rm. Farabert^ 8th cent — Eng. Fatbkeabd t 

(Foa, pedes) Eng. Faibfoot— Fr. F£bafiat. (Oa/ud, Goth.) 



Fan. 
TnveL 



324 THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 

Old Qerm. Faregand, 8th cent. — Eng. Farragat, Fobokt — 
French Fa&aouvt, Faboot, Fbraout, Foboet. (&w, hostage! 
companion 1) Old Germ. Ferigis, 9th cent — French Fabcib, 
(ffairi, warrior) Old Germ. Feriher, 9th cent — Eng. FAiuuEBy 
Farbeb, FERRiEn — French Ferrieb, Ferrer. (Lind^ gentle) 
Old Germ. Ferlind, 9th cent. — Eng. Forland. (Mem) Old 
German Faraman, 9th cent. — Fareman, ffund. RdU — Eng. 
Fairman, Ferrimaw — Modem German Fehrmakn — Frendi 
FiRMiN? (Mundf protection) Old Germ. Faramund, Frankdah 
king, 5th cent — Engliah Farrixohd, Farmont — French 
Fermond, Ferment. (Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Faroard, 
8th cent — English Forward. ( Weal, peregrinns) English 
Farewell — French Ferouelle. 

From the above stem far, as an extended 
form comes fam ; the Goth, faimi, Ang.-Saxon 
Jirn, old, might be suggested, but I should rather 
prefer to keep to the same sense as found in the 
previous group, and which is found in the Mod. 
German fern, 

simple forms. 

Fath. 

xnT«L ^^'^ Germ. Famus, 7th cent Fome, {Domuday), Eng. 

' Fairkte, Fern, Fernie;, Forney. French Farke, FBRKnt, 

iORNET, FOURNY. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Femncns, 8th cent. — French Ferniquk 
French Forkachon. Eng. Farnell, Furnell, Fernilow— 
French Fernil, Fournel. 

FATRONTMICS. 

Ang.-Saxon Feaming (fownd in Feaminga brde, Cod. 
Dip. 4^6). French Fernino. 

COMPOUNDB. 

(ffari, warrior) Eng. Feriner, Ferner — French Fernier. 
(Ul/, wolf) Old GeiTD. Farnulf, 9th cent. — Eng. FerntouohI 
( Waldf power) Eng. Fernald. (ffeit, state, condition) Mod. 
Germ. Farenhett? 



THE 8BA AND THE SEA LIFE. 325 

As another extended form from the same 
root far we may take fardy which corresponds 
with Old Norse faerd. Old High German farty 
Old Saxon yar*A, voyage, expedition. 

SIMPUB FORMS. ^^^ 

Old G«rm. Forti Englisli Fabdo, Faibday/ Fabadat, Tt««L 
FoBD, FoBT, FoBTT. French Febt, Febt^ Fort, Fobtbau. 

BDdNUTiVJBI. 
TCn gliaK FABDEUit — French FOBTEL. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Faidan (Dameaday). Eng. Fabden, Fobtin, Fobtune 1 
French Fobtin, Fobtune ? FoBTUNt f 

PATBONnaCBL 

Old Qenn. Ferting, 8th cent. English Fabthing. 

ooMPouNna 

(ffariy wmrrior) Ang.-Sax. Forthere, biahop of Sherborne 

— Engliah Fobdeb — French Fobtier. (Man J Old German 

Fartmann, 8th cent. — English Fobtyman — Mod. German 

FoBTMANN — French Febdman. (I^cmd, daring) Old Genn. ^ ! 

Ferdinand, king of Gastile, 11th cent. — Eng. Febdinand — 
French Febdinand — ItaL Febdinandi — Spanish FebnandO} 
Fbbnandez.:^ (Bed, counsel) Forthred, Lib. ViL — English 

FOBDBED. 

From the Ang.-Sax. worian, vagari, Forste- 
mann derives the following stem. 

SIMPLE FOBMa Wor. 

Old German Woro. English Wobbow, Wobby, Wubb. ▼•«««. 
French Voiby, Vauby. 

DIMINUTlVESw 

English WoBBELL, Whoblow — ^Mod. (German Woble — i 

French WeblI 

compounds. 

{Wald, power) Old German Worald, 8th cent.— EngHsh 

WOBLD. 

* La.sFalidmj. OtlMrwlM Faikdat, Fa&u>at may be from th« ttna 
far, with the ndBx dag, daj. I 

t Might b«fhnnth« Old GermuiiwBM Fwthllt (MM; wv ). 

t The endlnff m. In Spanlih Mid Portacii«w f unilj nuam, Is * patronjndc 
form, and la rappoaed by BohmeUer fu^lbfr die mdnmg m, 8pani$ehtr and Portu- 
9i4$iseh$r /amtUmtiMmmJf to ba of Gothlo orlgliL 



326 THE SEA AND THE SEA LUE. 

I have before observed that no animal was 
held in such high reverence among the Scan- 
dinavian races as the bear. And when the 
Norsemen, penetrating into the depths of the icy 
sea^ foimd him there before them, in a solitude 
sublimer than that of the forest— yet* grimmer 
and hardier than before^ and a sailor too like 
themselves — ^all their old reverence would come 
on them with increased force. Hence we find 
as Scandinavian names Sadbiom (sea-bear), and 
Snaebiom (snow-bear). The former I have already 
referred to— the latter I do not find in English, 
though the Germans have both Schnebern and 
SoHNAUBEB. But we have the name Isbork, 
which, as I take it, has just the same meaning, 
viz., " ice-bear,** and which corresponds with the 
names Isebum and Isjbur id the liber YiLao. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

There are several words having the meaning 
of birth, race, &mily» &c., in which is contained 
the sense of nobility. A manner of expression 
precisely similar we still use when we speak of a 
man of birth or a man of family. 

A word of the above character is Old High 
German chunni, Ang.-Saxon cyn^i^ race, lineage. 
Hence, in the sense of nobility, is formed Old 
High German chuning^ Ang.-Saxon cyning, con- 
tracted cyng, English " king."' A word liable to 
intermix in the following group is Old High 
Grerman chuoniy kuoni^ Ang.-Saxon cSne, English 
" keen,'* in the sense of boldness. 

iSIMPLE FORMS. Chun, Cn». 

OH Germ. Ohuno, Guno, Cono, Oonno, Ounni, 8th cent q^^ ^j^ 
Cyni, Lib. VU, Eng. Chunk, Cunio, Oonne, Ooke, Connt, 
Kenka, Kbnny, Kine, Kinney, Chine. Modem Oerman 
OuNO, EoNE, KuHN. French Chon, Chonneauz, Cunt, 
CouNB, Conneau, Cinna. 

DUflNTTTTYEa 

Old Genn. Chunulo, 9th cent —Eng. Connell, Cunnell, 
CuNLEY, KiNNELL, Eennell — Modem Gemian K0HNI4B, 
KrHNEL — French Conil, Conillbau. Old Germ. Cinelin, 
llth cent — Eng. Conlan. Old German Chanico — English 
KiNKEE, KmcH, Kench — Mod. Germ. Eunioke, Kuhnke, 
KoNiCKB. Old Germ. Chunzo, Cuniza, llth cent. — Ang.-Saz. 
Cynsy, Archbishop of York — Eng. Kinsey, Kinns, Eenibh 
— French Chonbz, Conn^ Cynicin, Lib. ViL — ^English 
KnroHur-^French Cinquin, Gonghait. 



328 THE BULEB AND THE PBINCE. 

OOXPOUKIM. 

(Bald, bold) Aiig.-Sax. Cynebald, royal line of Wessex— 
Engliflh Ejnipple f (Ber, bear) English GoNTBKABt (Bm% 
bright) Old German Chnniberfc, 7th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
Cynebert, bishop of Winchester — Fr. Kenkkbbbt. (Burg^ 
protection) Old Germ. Ohnnibnirga, 11th cent — Ang.-Sax. 
Cyneberga^ royal line of Northnmbria — Eng. Kiumiuuboh. 
Probably the same as the last is Old German Chunibmeh-* 
Eng. KiNNEBBOOK. {Drud, thryth, woman t) Old German 
Ghonidrud, 7th cent — Ang.-Sax. Cynethryth or Cynedryd, 
wife of Offis king of Mercia — Eng. Kindred — Fr. Goihdbbt. 
(G^r, spear) Old German Chnneger— Eng. Cokgeb, Conxxb. 
(Ge9$y hospes) Old Grerman Cunigast, Conigastns, 6th cent — 
Eng. CovQUEST t (Hard) Old German Ohonihard, 8th cent. 
— ^Anglo-Saxon Cyneheard, bishop of Winchester — ^English 
KiKHAiBD, Kennabd, Ounabd — Modcm German Kohnebt, 
Kuhnhabdt, Kuhnebt — French Ookabd, Ookobd, Coeobt. 
(Bart, warrior) Old German Ghunihari^ 8th cent — English 
GoxTEB, Gokkeby, Kdtkeab, Kikker, Ghinkxbt — ^Modern 
German Koneb, KuKte — French Goenieb. (Man) English 
KiKMAK — Mod. Germ. Konemahe — French! KnuEirAiiK. 
(Laf, superstes) Ang.-Sax. Gynl&f (fcAtmd ff» Cyfd6ft% Mn^ 
Cod. Dip. 714) — English Ounliffe. (Mwnd, protection) Old 
Germ. Ohunimnnd, king of the Gepid», 6th cent. — ^Ang.- 
Sax. Gynemund, bishop of the Magesietas — Eng. Kinmonth 
— Modem German Kunemund. (Lac, play) Old German 
Ohunileihc, 9th cent — Eng. Sonloch, Kivolake f (^«o, 
young) Old Germ. Gunnia^ 8th cent — Eng. Gunnew. (Rad^ 
counsel) Old Grerman Chunrad, Ounrad, Oonrad, 8th cent 
Goenred, Lib, VU, — Eng. Ookbath — Mod. Germ. Conbad — 
French Oonvebat, Oonbad, Kunbath. (Ric, power) Ang.- 
Sax. Oynric, son of Gerdic — ^English Keitbiok — Mod. Germ. 
KiHBEiOH. (Wold, power) Old Germ. Kuniald, Gonald, 8th 
cent — Ang.-Sax. Gynewald, bishop of Worcester — ^English 
GuNKOLD — ^Modern German Kuhkhold — French Oukault. 
(Wvif) Old Germ. Ohonulf; 7th cent.— Ang. -Saxon Gyne- 
wulf; king of Wessex — ^English Oonoff, Guniffe. (Ward, 
guardian) Ang.-Saxon Gyneward, bishop of Wells — ^English 



THB BT7LER AND THE PRINCE. 329 

KsNWABD. fWig, war) Eenewi, Eund. R6U$ — English 
Eennawat. 

From the above root churiy cun, con, cyn, is 
formed variously the Old High Grerman chuning. 
Old Sax. cuning. Old Fries, kenmg, Ang.-Saxon 
cyningy king. Whether our Cunnings, Kjsnning, 
Chenning, and the French Coninx have this 
meaning, or whether they are the simple patro- 
nymic is uncertain. In the contracted form we 
find an Old Grerm. Kung, 9th cent., Eng. King 
and Ching, French Congs and Congy. The 
commonness of the Eng. King is not accounted 
for by anything we find in Old German names. 
It is probable that a Celtic word may intermix, 
viz., the Irish cing, ctngeadh, fortis, Gael, cingeadh, 
fortitude. Hence Old Celtic names Cingius and 
Cingetius. Also the Cingetorix and Vercingetorix 
" most valiant ruler" of Caesar.* 

A similar sense of nobility to that found in 
the above word signifying " race'' is probably con- 
tained in the oUowing, which Stark derives from 
Old Norse burdr, Ang.-Sax. byrde, " birth.'' A 
word hable to intermix is bert, bright, illustrious. 

SIMPLE F0BM8. 

Old Germ. Burdp. English Burd, Bibd. Mod Germ. ^"^ 

BiJKDE, BUBTH. Fr. BURDEy BOURDEAU, BURTHE, BUBTH^ 
DIMINUTIVES. 

English Burdock. English Burdell — French Bouedel. 
French Bouedelon. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Burdin, 11th cent Eng. Burden. French 

BurDIN, BOURDIN. 

• Glnck, Die bel C. Julltis Cesar rorkommenden Keltischen namen. 

P 2 



Birth. 



330 THE BULrai AND THS FSIKCBl 

€OMPOimD& 

{Heiti state, oonditioo) Eng. Bubdbit* — French BuaDST, 
BouBDET. (Hart, warrior) Eng. Bubdbr — French Bourdieii. 
{Land) French Bourdelande. 

It is rather jDrobable that the sense of nobiUty 
may be contained also in the words signifying 
** people/' such as ledd^ ihedd, folc. Bosworth 
renders ledd as "countryman, man, prince.** But 
in compounds the ordinary sense of "people** 
may, at least in some cases, obtain. Thus, for 
instance, in the compounds with mund, ward^ 
and gard^ the idea may be that of " protector of 
the people." StiU, the sense being akin to that 
of sovereignty, the names would be introduced 
appropriately here. The Ang.-Sax. hdd. Old 
High German Ziirf, was a very common word in 
ancient names. It is apt to mix with some 
others, as laith^ p. 194. 

SIMPLE FOBMS 

x^^ Old Germ. Liudo, Lint^ Lutto, Luith, 4th cent. English 

People. Leutt, Lutto, Lyde, Ltth, Leddt, Litt. Mod. German 

LuDE, LuTH. French Liot, Luyt, Luthe, Litteau. 

DIMmCTIYES. 

Old Germ. Liudila, 8th oent^Eoglish Lu>dblow. Old 
Germ. Leodechin, Ludechin, 8th cent. — English Ludkjk — 
Mod. Germ. LiJDECKiNO. 

PHONETIC ENDINQ. 

Old German Liudin, Lin tin, 7 th cent. English Lttdek, 
Luton. French Ludon, Luton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Burfff protection) Old Germ. Luitbarc, 9th cent, — Eng. 
LuPBBOOK. {Ger, spear) Old German Lindiger, Leodegar, 
Ludger, Luger, 6th cent. — Eng. Ltdekkeb, Ledger, Luoab, 

* Tha tnuliuilioii H waaj, m tUted at i>. 188, be Tarioiulj derived, but tlie 
above name leemi to be lUv tbe Old G«niuui Adelheld, or Adelbelt. Xb^ldi 
Adelaide, "aobUbood.* 



THE BULEE AND THB PRINCE. 331 

LucAB, LucBX — Mod. Germ. Leutiosr— French t Ludoeb. 
{Oardf protection) Old German liudgard, Liucard — £np;li8h 
Ledoaeu)— French Lucard. {Ooz, Goth.) Old German 
Luitgoz, Luikoz, 8th cent. — Lucas, lAb. VU, — Eng. Lucas* — 
Mod. Germ. Luttkus — French Lucas. (Hard) Old Germ. 
Luidhardy Leotard^ 6th cent — £ng. Liddabd— Mod. Germ. 
Luthabdt — French Liotabd, Leotard, Leutert. (Hctri, 
warrior) Old German Liuthari, prince of the Alamanni, 6th 
cent., Leuthar — English Luthsb — Mod. German Luther — 
French Liottier. (Beit, state, condition) Old Germ. Liut- 
heit, 8th cent. — English Lethead — French Liottet, Luj>et. 
(Hrddy gloiy) Old German Liutrod, 8th cent — French 
LuTTEBOTH. (Man) Old Germ. Liudman, 8th cent — Eng. 
LuTMAN, Ltteman — Modem German Ludtmann. {Waa-d, 
guardian) Old Germ. Liudward, 8th cent — Eng. Ledward. 
{Wig^ wicy war) Old German Liudwig, Liutwic, 6tb cent — 
Eng. LuTWiDOE, LuTWYCHB — Mod. Germ. Ludwiq — French 
LuBovic, LuDWio,t Louis — ItaL Luigi. (171/^ wolf) Old 
Qerm. Liudul^ Litul^ 6th cent — English Litolff— Mod. 
Genn. Ludolf. ( WaUd^ power) Old German Liutolt, 7th 
oent — Mod. 'Germ. Lsuthold — French Lieutaut. {Witi^ 
wood) Old Germ. Leudoidia, 9th cent — Eng. Ledwith. 

As a High German form of the above, the 
following may come in here. 

SIMPLE Fo&na. 
Old Germ. Liuxo, Liuz, Liutso, Liuce, Liuzi, 10th cent y^ 
Luse, Lucy (Rdl BaU, Abb, J, English Luce, Loose, Luct. 
Mod. Germ. Leuze, Lutz, Luz. French Luce, Luct, Lubby, 

LUEZ, LUTZ. 

DnuNurn^EB. 
Old Germ. Liuzik, 8th cent. — Eng. Loosely. French 
LusQunr. 

C0XF0UND& 

(iTors warrior) French Luzier. (i/ior, famous) English 
LooesMORE. 

* HtthArto.oonitdand to bo * CItMk or Latin form of Liiko. 

t " Lndniff dSt Loiiia"->p«rhafi m^j b« « G«nuo, from the Altai. 



People. 



People. 



332 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

A stUl more common word in ancient names 
was Goth, thiuda, Ang.-Sax. iMod, Low German 
deoty people. Several names compounded with 
it occur in the genealogy of thB Kings of North- 
umbria. Its forms are widely spread, and it is 
therefore liable to intermix with some other 
words, as dody p. 273. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Theod, Old Gerai. Theudes, king of the West Goths, 6th cent., 

^^^ Teuto, Tutto, Thiedo, Tito, Tjdi, Diedo, Dido, Dudo, Deot. 
Ang.-Sax. Dudda, Tudda. l^di, Lib, VU. English Tuita, 

TUTT, TUTTY, TiTE, TlDD, TiDY, ThODY, ThEED, DuDDY, 

DuTT, DuTHiE, Deed, Deedy, Dyte, Dyett. Mod. German 
Thiedt, Tiede, Tiedt, Diede, Ditt. French ThiSot, Thibdy, 
Tudey, Dute, Duthy, Diette, Ditte, DmA. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Theudila, Tutilo, Dudel, 6th cent. — English 
TuTTLE, DuDDLE — Modem German Tutel, Titel — French 
DuTiL, TiTTEL, DmELLE. Old Germ. Dudecho, 8th cent — 
Modem German Duttke — French Dotaoq. Old German 
Dudechin, 11th cent. — Eng. Tutcmikg, Titchkn — ^Modern 
Germ, Didtchen — French Thi^oon. Old Germ. Teodisaus 
8th cent. — Fries. Diudesma — French Doussabby. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Theodan, Thiotuni, Dudan, Tutan, 7th cent 
Eng. Thoden, Dudin, Teuten. French Thiodon, Tutuny. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Teuding, Dieting, 8th cent Eng. TuTiNO. 
French Detunco, Detang. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Theudobald, Frankish king, 6th 
cent, 1 heobald, Dietbold, Dibald— Ang.-Sax. Theodbald— 
Tidbald, Lib. VU,—Eng. Theobald, TmsALir— Mod. Germ. 
Theobald, Diebold— Fr. Thibault, Thibadt, Thi^blot^ 
Diebolt. (Bert, bright) Old Germ. Theudobert, Frankish 
king, 6th cent, Theobert — French Thibert. (Berg, pro- 
tection) Old Germ. Theutberg, Teuberga, 8th cent. — French 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE* 333 

ThibSroe. {Oard, protection) Old German TeutgardiB, 8th 
cent. — French Dieuteqabd. (Gaud, Goth) Old German 
Teodgoty 8th cent. — French Tttgat, Debgot. {Ha/rd) Old 
Germ. Theodhard, Diethart, Dithai-d, 8th cent. — Mod Germ. 
DiETEBT — French Didabd, Dxttabd, Titard. {HaH^ warrior) 
Old German Theodahar, Tudhari, 5th cent — Ang.-Saxon 
Theodhere — Eng. TheodobE) Tudob — Mod. Germ. Dieteb — 
French Theodob, Tudob, Didieb — ^Ital. Teojdobl {Ramj 
r€m, raven) Old Germ. Dietrammiis^ TeutrannuB^ 7th cent. — 
Eng. Teuthobn — French Didbon, Dedbon. (MaaiJ Old 
German Tiddman, Dietman, 8th centi — En gl ish Tiddemak, 
TmMAN, DiBTUAN, DifiTMAN, Dedman — ^Modem German 
TiEDEMAi^K, Detmann. (JfoT, famouB) Old Germ. Thiudemer, 
king of the East Goths, 5th cent, king of the Snevi in Spain, 
6th cent., Dietmar, Ditmar, 8th cent. — ^English Dettmeb, 
TmEMOBE — Modem German Dettmeb, DrmiEB — French) 
DiTTMEB. (Bic, power) Old Germ. Theodoricmi, a Sigamher, 
Ist cent, king of the East Gotha, 5th cent, Deoderich, 
Diderich, Dietrich — Ang.-Saxon Theodric — ^English Todbio, 
DoDDBiDGE, DoTTBiDOE, Dedebick, Dedbidge — Mod Germ. 
Dedebich, Deitbich — French Dietbich, Di^bickb) (Wtdf) 
Old Germ. Theudul^ Diudolf, 7th cent — Frendi Dedouye 1 

A third wjrd having the meaning of " people'* 
\b folk or falky in which may be contained the 
same sense as in the preceding. 

SIMPLE FOBMB. 

Old German Folco, Fulco, Volko, 9th cent Fuloo, '^^"^ '^' 

PwplA. 

Dome9da/y. English Folk, Fulke^ Fouke, Yoak. Mod 
Gerpi. FoLKE, Volk. French Fouque, Fouche, Fouch^, 
FoucHT, Fauque, Fauche. 

DiMDnrnTEai 
Old Germ. Folchili, 9th cent — ^Mod Carman Folkel — 
French Fauchille, Faucille. French FauoUiLon. English 
Fowkbs — French Fouchez. 

OOMPOtTNDS. 

{Bwij fiunons) Folcberaht, 8th cent — Eng. Fallbbight — 
French Faubeet. {Haid, state, condition) Old (Jerman 



J 



334 TH£ RULEB AND THB FRINCS. 

Folchaid, 8th cent — Zkiglish FouuTT^Freach Vouqpwt, 
FouoHET. (Hardy fortis) Old Genu. Folcfaard, 8Ui cent— ^ 
Fulcardus, DwMsday — Engliah Folkabd — Modem G^rnum 
YoucHABDr — French Fovcabt. {Hmri^ varrior) Old GeraoL 
Fulohar, Foloheri, 6th cent— Ang.-&ax. Folobare— Engliah 
Toi&BR, FuLCHSR— Mod. Qorm. Yolkbe — French Fouquikb, 
Fou<)U£r4 Fouchbb. {Man) Old German Folkman, 8th 
cent — £ng. Yolckmait* — ^^Mod. Germ. YouLMAinr — Freneh 
Falcimaiqvb. (Ram^ ran, raven) Old German Fulcranoa, 
7th cent — French i'uLCRfN, Fulchibon, FotrcnoN. (Bad, 
counsel) Old German Folcrat, 8th cent. — French Fauobot. 
(Wald^ power) Old German Fttlcuald, 7th cent — French 

FOUCAULT. 

Perhaps a similar sense may be found in the 
word odal, udal, which Forstemann refers to Old 
High German uodol, patria. It was a very 
common word in ancient names, but I can only 
trace very few at present. 

SIMPLE POKMS. 

OdaL Old G^erman Odilo, doke in BaTaria^ 8th cent., Odilo, 

^•*^ romamed the Holy, Abbot of Clugnj, 10th cent, Odal, 

XTdal» 4oL English On«Li» Udajuu Mod. G^rm. Ositbl. 

French Odoul. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Odelina, Odeling, 9th cent Oddin, Lib. TU, 
Otelinufl, Domesday, Bnglish Odlin, Oduvo. French 
Odkun, Houdeliv, Odilon (Babbot). 

OOXPOUNDa 

(Hofrdy fortia) Odalhard, 7th cent — French ODiLLiBP. 
(Hdmy helmet) Old Germ. Odilelm, 8th. cent — Eng. Odlam t 

Upon the whole I think that the words sig- 
nifying " land," ** country * will also be introduced 
most appropriately here. The idea seems to be 
' something akin to sovereignty. The most common 



rmS mXTLBE and the PRtKCS. 335 

word with this meaning is Ang -Sax land. Old 
High German tant, terra ; which is found as 
early as the 5th cent., and seems to have been 
especially common in the 7th. Most of the forma 
in Ian, and some of those in lam probably belong 
to this stem. 

SMPLB POBMBL 

Old German Landoi Landa, Lanto, Loot, LanDO, LanSD, ^enm. 
Lenzi, 8th cent. Eng. Land, Landt, Lant, Lanob, Lancet. 
Mod Qerm. Land, Landt, Lanz. French Landa, Lanti^ 
Lantt, Lanne, Lannbau, Lance, Lanzl 
DiiciNTrTrns& 

Eng. Landell — French Landblle, Lancel^ Old Germ. 
Lancelin, 11th cent. — French Lanoelin. French Lantiez, 
Laniesse. Old Grerm. Lanzioo, 10th cent. — French LANZAa 
Old Germ. Landechina, 11th cent — Eng. Lankut. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Landina, 8th cent. Eng. Landen, Landon. 
French Lakdon, Lantin. 

PATBONTMIOft 

Old Germ. Landing, 8th oent. Bn^tth LAVNma 

OOMPOTTNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Landbert» Lambert, 7th oent* 
— Ang.-Sa^ Lambert, Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 764 — 
Eng. Lambert — Mod Germ. Lahbbrt — French Lambert, 
Lambret. {Burg, protection) Old German Landbuig, 8th 
cent. — English Lambrook — ^Mod. Genn. Lambebo — French 
Lanzberg. (Frid, peace) Old Germ. Landfrid, Lanfrid, 8th 
oent. — ^Lanfrei, Lib, VU. — Eng. Lahdfeab, Lanfear — Mod. 
Gefm. Lanfried— French Lanfrat. {Hard) Old German 
Landohard. 8th oent. — French Landaro^ Lanbard. {HaH, 
warrior) Old German Lanthar, Landar, 6th cent — Engliah 
Lander^ Lender — Mod. Germ. LANDHERB^French LANDnea, 
Lantibb, Lanisb. {Htkn) Old Germ. Lanthelm, 9th cent — 
French Lanthbaumbl {Hadt war) Old Germ. Lanthad, 9tli 
cent — ^French Lamtat. {Baim^ rrn^ lavea) Old Gennaii 
LMtnftBii% 8 A otnU—- Franflk Lammow; (Mcvr^ ftnuMu) 



336 THE RULEB AND THE PRINCE. 

Old Germ, Lamdamar, 8th oent. — ^French Lasoeicab. 
power) Old GeroL Landerioh, Lantrih, 7th ceut. — Landric, 
DamMday Tork§ — ^English Lavdbidob — French Lanbby, 
Lakzabick. {Winey friend) Old Qerman Lantwin, 7th 
ceut. — French Laitvin. {Wig^ %ioiy war) Old Germ. Lantwih, 
9th cent. — ^Eng. Lavaway— Mod. Germ. Laitdwig. {War^ 
defence) Old Germ. Landoar, 8th cent. — English Lanwbr — 
Mod. German LA]n>WEHB. {Wcvrd^ guardian) Old German 
Landward, 8th cent — ^English Landlobd f 

Another stem of similar meaning is gow (Old 
High German gawi^ Mod. German gaUy country, 
district). 

HrMPT.TB FOBMB. 

^^^^^' Old Germ. Gawo, Cawo, 8th cent Caua, Lib. ViL Eng, 
Gow, GowA, Cow, CowiB, Gob, Cob. Mod. German Gau. 
French Gouat, Gou^ Gout, Coui. To this stem Forste- 
mann also places the Old German names Greio, Keio, Keyo, 
8th cent, and hence might come in English Gti^ Gut, Got, 
Kat, Kbt — Mod. Germ. Gbu, Gbt— French Gut, Got. 

DDOMUTIVAS. 

Old Germ. Canwila, 9th cent — Eng. Cowbll — French 
Goubl, GounxT, French GouBLLAnr, Gounj<oK. Old G^erm. 
Gawiso, 8th cent. — ^Eng. Coish. 

PHONBTIO ENDIKO. 

Old Germ. Gawin, 8th oent English Gowak, Cowah — 
French Gounr, Gotok, Guyon, Couenhb. 

PATBONYMIO. 

Engliish GowiNG^ Goma^ Cownra. 

OOMPOXTNSS. 

{BMi fortis) Old German GawipaJd, 8th cent — Fiench 
GoiBAXTLT. {Berty bright) Old Germ. Qawibert^ Gaipert, 8th 
oent — ^Mod. Germ. EIaupebt — French Guybebt, Coubabt. 
{Hard) Eng. Gowabd, Cowabd — French Guyabd, Goyabd, 
CouABD, CouABDEAU. (J^, p. 189) Eng. GiTYATT — French 
QouBT, GoYKT. {Hivriy warrior) English Goweb, Guyeb — 
French Gouhueb, Qoueebb, Goybb. (Ixmd) Eng. Gowlanb, 
OowLANB. (Man) Old Germ. Gkwiman, 8th oent — ^Eng. 



THB BUUBB AND THE PRINCB. 337 

CkmiUi^— Modem German GoDCiinr, Kavuasv — French 
GomCAnTy Oouxov. (Bie, power) Old German Gawixioh, 
Goerioh, 7tli oent — Eng. CouBBiDQi^ Goubaok 

One of the most widelynspread stems in ancient 
names was athd^ add, ethd, edd, noble. It is 
angular tliat though it was common both among 
the Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, it is uncommon 
at present both in French and English. Forste- 
mann and other German writers suppose a 
frequent contraction in Modem German names 
of adal into al — ^thus Albert for Adalbert, Allard 
for Adelhard, AUmer for Adalmer, &c. But this 
seems too uncertain a rule to follow, otherwise 
many names might be added to the list. 

SDffPLB FOBM& 

Old Germ. Athala, Athal, Adilo, Ethil, Edilo, 5th cent. 

TBn gHip'h TCnpT.T.^ EiDLOW, EhnBOSU Mod. Germ. Ahat^ "Rmef^ V^fithi 

French Adoui^ Edei^ HADOLi 

DnaNtrnviEa 
Old German Adilin, Edelen, 7th cent EngUah Adlav. 
Aenoh Adxloh, Adkluxe, Edbldt. 

PATBONTMIOB. 

Old Germ. Adalon^ Ediling, 8th cent Mod. (German 
Aj>xluh€^ Eoiuzra French EnuKa. 

OOlCFOnNDS. 

{Ger, spear) Old Germ. Adalger, 8th cent — ^ItaL An- 
QHDEBL* (Hard) Old German Adalhard, 8th cent — ^Ang.- 
Sazon Ethelhard, king of Wesaex — Adelardua, Domesday — 
Eng. Ai>LARi>— Mod. Germ. Adelhabt. (Sdm) Old Germ. 
Adalhalm, 8th cent. — ^Ang.-Sax. Ethelhelm — ^Eng. Ablam, 
HKADLAif ? (Raid, state, condition) Old German Adalhaid, 
9th cent— English Adducedbad (and the Christian name 
Adelaids). (ffariy warrior) Old Germ. Adalhar, 8th cent. 

* TIm lumiA of th« poet la to d«ilTed bj Dl«i ; time were, howerer, ebo 
Old Genua lumee AJe^er end AUger. Hla other name Dente ii % oontiwtion of 
I>iinate^ P^ 197, wfaioh Z oofht to hftte wimembewd At p^ SLO. 

Q 2 



338 THS EtTLEB AKD THE PBIKG& 

— Eehimeri, lAb. TO.— Eng. Ediabt— Mod. Germ. Ableb^ 
Epkt.kb. (Funa^ Jua^ eager) Old Germ. Adalfdns, Adalfb% 
8th oent— Eng. Adolfhub* — French Alphoksb — Spanish 
Alphokso. {Stan^ stone) Old Germ. Adelstein, 9th oent.^- 
Ang.-Saz. Athelstan — ^^gli^ EDELffTEir, EDUssTEir. 

From the above word ethd^ signifying nobIe» 
was derived the title of Etheling» given in Anglo* 
Saxon times to the son of the king. Next to him 
in rank was the Ealdorman^ who had the highest 
title that could be given to a subject. And our 
name Alderman, found in Domesday as Aldre- 
man, may not improbably be referable to this 
more ancient and higher sense. 

A rank of nobUity below the Ealdormen were 
the ThaneSy who were divided into two classes, 
simple Thanes and King's Thanes — ^a main quali- 
fication being the possession of land. This word 
is found in many ancient names, but as the 
Ang.-Sax. thegen is contracted into thane, so the 
Old High German form degan being contracted 
into dane, is apt to mix with another stem, p. 311. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

"^^^^ Old Qerman Thegan, Thahan, Tegeno, Degan, 8th cent. 
English Teggin, Thain, Thane, Deiohen, Dboak, Dank 
Mod. Germ. Degen, Dein, Teoek, Theot. French Dagdt, 
Dagneau, Teighe, Teigny, Tainne. 

DDflNTTTITEa. 

Old Germ. Theginzo, 10th oenti^Eng. Danes — ^French 
TADr& English Dagnall. 

COMPOTTKDS. 

{Dioy servant) French Thenadbt. {Oer^ spear) Old Germ. 
Theganger, 9th cent. ^English Danger — French Denaigri^ 
Dencrb. (Ha/rd) Old Germ. Theganhard, 8th cent — Mod. 
* Or, M genenUsr lappoMd, the Lfttin fonn of Adolpli. 



TlUUM. 



THE RX7LEB AND THE PBINCK 839 

Qerm. THSiinBRi>— Frendbt Th^ntard. {Hturi^ warrior) Old 
Q«nn. Tbeganher, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Theineb — French 
Thxhueb. 

The Anglo-Saxon heretog or heretoch was the Hweto*, 
leader of an army, and the word corresponds with ^^ 
the High Germ, herzog. I find Hertocks as an 
English name of the 17th cent. ; the Germans 
have Herzog ; and Herczegy, apparently French, 
occurs in the du-ectory of Paria 

A word of similar meaning is Old High Germ. 
heroti. Old Norse herradr, leader, general, which 
is found in some ancient names, though another 
word harudy referred by Zeuss to the tribe of the 
Harudes, is difficult to separate. 

SDCPLB FOBM& 

fleroi 

Old German Harad, Herido, 8th cent., Charietto ? 4th q^osc^ 
cent, Cariatto 1 a Frank, 6th cent Eng. Habbod, Hebod, 
Habritt, Chabbott, Chabitt f Cabbitt. French Hebodt, 
HiBOT, Ghabot, Cabbette. 

PHONBnO BNDING 

Old Germ. Araduni, 9th cent. (yM, variaiiana). Ebg. 

HaBADOK, HABBn>AN. 

There is a stem erZ, found in many ancient 
names, which is referred by Grimm, Grafl^ and 
Forstemann to Old Norse jarl, Ang.-Sax. eorl, 
Ang.-Sax. erl, English earl. I may also mention, 
however, the Old Norse erZa, assidue laborare, 
whence Haldorsen derives the Scandinavian name 
Erlingr. 

8IMFUS FOBMS. 

EarL 

Old Germ. Erlo, 9th cent. English Eabl, Eablt, Able. 
Mod. Germ. Eblb, HsbLp French Ible. 



340 THB BI7LEB AND THS FBINCBL 



Dl 
Old Germ. Erlioho, 8th cent — Engliih Hubuxs — ^Mod. 
Qerm. EiRLBoke — French HoBUAa TCngliaK Amjnfi Modi 
Qerm. Harlebs — ^Frenoh Hablbz. 

PATBONYMIGB. 

Old Germ. Erlunc, 8ih cent Old Norse Erlingr. Eng. 
TJbling. Mod. Germ. Oblino. 

OOlCPOXJNDe. 

(Bad, war) Old German Eiiebad, 9th cent— En^^iah 
HuBLBAT. (Berty &mous) Old Germ. Erlebert, 8th cent. — 
English HuBLBUBT. (Ha/ri, warrior) Old German Erleher, 
Herler, 8th cent. — ^English Hublbb — ^Mod. Germ. Eblbb — 
French Houblieb. (fTtiM, friend) Old German Eriiwin^ 
bishop of Constance, 8th cent — English Ublwiv — ^French 
Ablouik. 

From the Old High Germ, hSh, Mod GeniL 
hodi, high, in the sense of '' exalted,'' Forstemann 
derives a stem hoh, hoc, in proper namea To 
this I place the following, including one or two 
names in which the Ang.-Sax. form AIA> English 
«higV seems to be found. The Old Frankish 
ch for h occurs in some of the French names. A 
word very liable to intermix is hig, hog, Anglo* 
Saxon hyge, hog, prudent, thoughtful 

BDIPLB fOBMB. 

^^ Old Qermu Hocoa, 9th cent Hooe (Betnmdf). SbgMA 

HooKET, HoBT, Hob, Hiok. Mod. German HooK^ HoOB. 
French Hocq, Hoohb, Ohoque. 

onaNunvxs. 
Old German Hohilo, Hoilo, 8th cent EngUsh HoTUL 
Mod. Germ. Hockel. 

PHONBnO bkdino. 
English HooKEV. French Hooquight, Ghoohov. 

PATEONTMIO. 

ESnglish Hookutg. 



High. 



THB BtTLBft AND THB FBINCOB. 341 

ooiiponimL 
(Swri, brii^t) Old Germ. Hochbert, Hoberfc, 8th oent— 
En^^luh HoBASV — ^Mod. Qenn. Hobbbght. (Dctg, day) Old 
Germ. Hodag, 9th cent — Eng. Hookadat — ^Frenoh Hockd^ 
HoGD& (Hard) French Hocaat, Hoohabd, Hoohabt, 
Ohooast. (Hart, warrior) Mod Qerman H5ckea — French 
HooHBBy Cboquikb. (Heid, state, condition) Eng. Hookbtt, 
HioHATT — French Hooguxr, Kocbxid, Chocqubt. (Mam,) 
Old German Homan, 9th cent. — English HocKMAKy Homak, 
Oman — ^Mod. German Hohmann, Hoxank. (i^a^> fibmona) 
Old Germ. Hiemar % — English Hiohxobb. {R%c power) Old 
German' Hohrich, Horich, 11th cent. — English H0BBOCK89 
Obboce; Obbidgk {y9'<»rd^ guardian) Old Germ. Hohowart, 
8th cent — Old Norse H&yardr — ^Engliflh Howa&d— French 
HocxiUABr, HouASD, Ohoquabx. 

From the Ang.-Sazon math^ honor, rererenoeb 
Forstemann derives a stem rMxd^ mat, math, wiAcii 
also appears in an Old Frankish form as mec?* 
In the names of women the sense might be that 
^f tKe Anglo-Saxon m^csth, a maiden, mMhte, 
modest. A word very liable to intermix is Old 
High German m>aht, might. Also in some of the 
simple forms the scriptural name Matthew is 
difficult to separate. 

BIMFLB VOBM8. 

Old Germ« Matto, Ifato, Math, 8th cent. Ei^. ^^^^^^1 '^^[Jj^ 
MATTms, MSDD, Mbab, Metteb. Mod. German Mxan, sm^ 
MxTXo. French Matte, Matt, Madt, Math^ Mathi^ 

MaTHEY, Ml^AT. 

DTMCDSfXmtWk 

Old Oeiman Madacho, 9i^ cent. — Englidi Maddook, 
Mattook — ^Modern German Madicbx, Mattxck^ Metkb — 
French Metge. Old Germ. Matuas, 8th cent — ^Eog. Matti^ 
Mbtz — French MATms, Matisbe, Mats. English MA«nr, 
Matghdt — ^Mod. Germ. Midohev. Old German KatheKn» 
11th cent-^Franch MATHiiOr, Mattelain. 



342 TBB BITLEE AND THE PBINOE. 

PHONEnO BKDLMG. 

Old Gl6rm. Medana, 9th cent. Eng. Maddket, Meddot, 
MaedeeT) Meadbn. Fr. Madut, Maton, Mathak, Mettoh. 

OOMPOUITDB. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Medard, 6th cent. — ^French M^aeDt 
{Hariy warrior) Old Carman Mather, 9th cent. — English 
Mather, Madeb, Meadeb, Medabt — Mod. G^rm. Madebi 
MlTHEB, Mebder — French Matre, Mattab, Medeb. {Orimf 
fierce) Old Germ. Mathgrim, 9th cent. — French Matagbin. 
(Hdm) Old German Madelm, 8th cent. — English Mabdax, 
Mathams, Mattam, Mettail (Lac, play) Old (Jeiman 
Mathlec, 9th cent — Eng. Medlook. (La/nd) Old German 
Madoland, 7th cent. — Eng. Matlakd, Medlakd. (Man) 
Old Germ. Medeman, 9th cent — Eng. Maidmak, Meddimait, 
MsniAK, Meatman, Matthewman ?— Swiss Mattmank — 
French Madaxok, Meticak. (J?^;, power) Old German 
Madericus, Matrih, 4th cent — French Matey, Methorul 
{RoA^ counsel) French Mattbat. {Rii^ ride) Old German 
Medarid, 6th cent — French Mathebet. (ffrod, glory) 
French Matbod, Matbaud. (Ran, raven) French MadboKi 
Mathebok, Matubin. (Wold, power) Old Germ. Meduald, 
Madolt, 7th cent — English Methold. (Wine, friend) 
English Medwin, Methuin. (Wig, toi, war) Old German 
MedoveuS) 6th cent — Eng. Meadway — Mod. Dan. MABVia 

UNCEBTAnr NAMES. 

English Maddebn. French Matebnk 
The names Matam and Matemi (both of coarse masculine) 
appear in the book of the brotherhood of St Peter at Salz- 
burg in the 8th cent Fdrstemann seems to doubt whether 
ihey are German': tliey might, however, be from am, eagle^ 
found as a termination in some other names. 

In this chapter will be introduced most appro- 
priately the words having the meaning of power, 
rule, and authority. The most common word 
with this meaning is rick, rich, ridge, Ang.-Sax. 
rtce, power, rule, dominion, or the adjective rtce. 



reOL BtJLEft AKD TfiB PRIKCS. 843 

Old High Grerm. richi, rihi, powerftd. This is a 
very ancient word in proper names, being found 
in the 1st cent, in the names of Cruptorix^ a 
[Frisian in Tacitus ; Baitorix, a Sigamber in 
Strabo ; and Theudoricus, also a Sigamber. The 
ending War, in many Old Celtic names, contains a 
corresponding and equivalent word. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old Germ. Rico, Ricco, Richo, Riho, 8th cent English ^^«"»- 
Rich, Ridoe, Riekie, Ritchie, Rte. Mod. GeniL Reich, 
Rick, Rieck. French Ricque, Riche, Richt, Rich4 Rioci. 

DIMINXTTlVEa 

Old Germ. Rioilas, prince of the Suevi, ffth cent., Ricill% 
Richilo— Eng. Richlet, Riogall — Mod. German Riegel-* 
French Rioal. Old German Richizo, Rikizo, 10th cent. — 
EDgUsh Riches, Ridoes, Ricks — French Richez, Riquibz. 
Old Germ. Richinzo — English Ritching& 
phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Richini, Riohin, 8th cent. English Riohan. 
Mod. Germ. Reichen. French Richin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Baldy bold) Old German Richbold, Rihbold, 8th cent— 
Eng. RiCHBELL, Rtbauld. {Bertf bright) Old Germ* Rich- 
bert, Rigobert, Rihbert, Rihbret, 7th cent. — Eng. Ribbsad, 
17th cent — French Riqaubeet. (Berg^ protection) Old 
Germ. Rigaberga^ Richbirg, 8th cent — French Richeboubg. 
{Ocvrd, protection) Old Germ. Richgarda, 8th cent — Eng. 
Ridgyabd. {Heidi state, condition) Old Germ. Richeit, 8th 
cent — Eng. Rickett — French Riquet. {Hard) Old Germ. 
Ricohard, Frankish prince, 6th cent, Riccard, Richard — 
Eng. RicHABD, Rickabd, Rbcobd— Mod. Germ. Reichabdt, 
RiCHABO, RicKEBT — French Riohabd, Ricabd. {Hari^ 
warrior) Old Germ. Richari, prince of the Suevi, 5th cent. 
Richer, Riker — Richerus, Domesday — Eng. RiCHEB^Mod. 
German Rickheb — French Richeb, Richieb, Ricquibb. 
{Hdm) Old Germ. Richelm, 8th cent — Mod. Germ. Reioh« 
HXLM-^French RiCHiME^ Righommb t {Leos^ people f) Old 



844 THB BtrUEE AND THE VBHSfOK 



Germin Biohlo^ lOdi omt— I^ai^ 
RBaLU& (Man) Old German Bicmaiif Bichmaiiy Bilimaa, 
9th oent — ^Eng. Riokican, Bichicav, Rticah— Mod. Germ. 
RKCHMAiiKy BiCKMAK, BxDCANN. (MoT, &m(ra8) Old Germ. 
Biomar, Beoomu; Bilimar, 4th oent.— Eng. Btxsb — ^Mod. 
German BmuA— Frenoh Bboamueb. (Mtmd, profceotion) 
Old Germ. Bihmnnd, Biehmond, 7th oent. — EDgliah Bioa* 
KOMD— Frenoh BiCHmcoirr. (Rai, oonnael) Old German 
Beooaxed, West Gothic king^ 6th oent — French Bbou&at. 
{Wold, power) Old German Biooald^ Biohold, Bigald, 7th 
cent — ^Eoj^iiah Bighold— Mod. German Bibkxlt — French 
BiGHAULT, BiGAUiA*. (WecUh, stranger) Old Germ. Bicwal, 
9th cent — ^English BmawBUU (Wig, toi, war) Old German 
Bihwih, Biowif 9th cent— En^^ Bidobwat. 

Another very oommon word with this meanmg 
is wold ; Qoth. waldan, Ang.-Saxon wealdan, to 
rule, govern, command, Ang.-Sax. wecUd, power, 
"wecdda^ a ruler. This is also a very ancient 
stem, being found in the 1st oent. in the names of 
Gariovalda, a prince of the Batavi, and Gatoalda, 
a prinoe of the Cattl It is yeiy liable^ par- 
ticularly as a prefix, to mix with the stem wai^ 
p. 298. 

7^ O^ German Waldo, Waldi, Welto, Gnelto^ 6th cent 

▲ng.-Saxon Wald (Jimnd in Wakhi weg, Cod. Dip. 1,077 J. 
Old Norse YaldL Ebg. Wacdo, Waldie, Waub^ Weld, 
GwiLT t Mod. German Wald, Wbldi^ Welik French 
Yald, Vaudb, Vautb, Wkld. 

DIMUIUTIVES. 

Old German Waldiko, 8th oent— Eng. Walduok. Old 
Germ. Waldila, Weltila, 8th oent— fVench Wbloill. Old 
German Waldelin, 7th oent— Eng. YAUDSUir. 

PHOKBnC BNDINO. 

Old German Waldin, 8th oent Anglo-Saxon Wealdea 
{/mni Ml W€aUme$ weg. (ML Dip. M17X Waldinii% 



THB Et7LEE AND THE FRINCE. 345 

Domesday. Engliah WALDnf, Wildon, Wkltoh — ^Modem 
OemL WKLDBr, Wsltkst — Fr. Yaldht, Yaltov, Yaudut, 

WSLDOV. 

PATBONTMICB. 

Old G«niL Waldiug, Welting, 8th cent Eng. Wsidinq. 

OOMPOUNDS. 

(ffartf warrior) Old Germ. Waldhar, Lombard king 6th 
cent., Walter, Gualter, Qualter — Ang.-Saxon Wealdhere — 
Old Norse Yalthar — Engliah Walteb, Wbldeb, Yalder^ 
GwAi/TKB, QuiLTERf — Modem German Walthis — French 
Waldkb, Walter, Wauthikr, Yauthieb, Yaultieb, Yel- 
TER. (Had, war) Old German Walthad, 8th cent. — French 
Yaltat. (M<m) Old Germ. Waldman, 8th cent— Engliah 
Waldkav — ^Mod. German Waldmank — French Ybltmajt. 
(Ram^ r€M, raven) Old German Walderannua, 7th cent — 
Walteraniia, Damesday^Eug. Waldbon — Fr. Yaldeirgit, 
Yaudroh (or from an Old Germ. Waldruu, 1 1th cent., run, 
companion). fEca, counsel) Old Germ. Waltrat, 7th cent — 
French Yautrot. (Rio, power) Old German Waldirih, 7th 
cent — French Yaxtdrt. (Band, shield) French Yaudrakd. 
(Sehalky servant) French Yaudesgal. CWine, friend) Old 
Germ. Walduin, 8th cent — 'Eng. Waldwik (christian name). 

A third word of similar meaning is star, stur, 
Ang.-Sax. and Old Norse stdr, Old High Germ. 
stiuri, great. 

aiMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Star, 9th cent Old Norse St6ri (surname). 

Stori, Domesday Tarki. English Storr, Store, Stort, ®*^^;^* 

Storah, Storrow. 

DnnKXTrrvBa 

Old Germ. Sturilio, 7th cent — French Storslli. (Old 

Norse Sturla, Eng. Sturla, Haldorsen derives from sturla, 

aagere, in the sense of terrens). English Sturrock. English 

SiORRS — French Storez, Stourza 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Bald, bold) French 8turra.ut. (HaH, warrior) Eng. 
Storxr — French Stohber. 

PBONETIC ENDING. 

Bag. Storrok. 
R 2 



346 TH< RULER AND THE FRINGE. 

Some other names having the meaning of 
great, as Grose, Mickle, &g.> must be understood 
rather in the sense of large stature. 

There is a word scdv, found in some ancient 
names, for which Forstemann proposes Old High 
Germ, scdo, dark, or the Latin sahms. And there 
is another word gdb, sdf, for which he proposes 
Old High Germ, selbo, self, ipse. I am inclined 
to refer both these words, and with more certainty 
the former, to Old High Germ, salba, Ang.-Sax 
salfy sidf, salve, Ang.-Sazon secdvian^ to anointw 
The sense might be either that of healing, or it 
might be that of conferring regal dignity, of 
which anointing has been from the most ancient 
times the symbol In the latter sense I include 
them in this chapter. 

SIMPLBfOBMB. 

Mt^ Betf. Qij Q^fgj^ Selbo, Selpo, 8th cent. English Salvb, Belt, 
^ *"* Selves, Selyet, SavB, SUiVA. French Salvt, Sarr, Silva, 

SlLYE. 

PATRONYMia 

French SALTAmo. 

COHPOirNDfi. 

(Ha/rd) Old Qerm. Salvard, Selphard, 9th cent— Franoh 
Salyebte, Stlyert. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Qerm. Salvan, 9th cent English Saltik. French 
Saltan. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Names derived from wisdom or learniDg in 
the abstract we might fairly presume not to be 
of the highest antiquity. And there is to a 
certain extent an evidence in the names them- 
selves that they are not. The oldest sense in 
which any word of this class was used was pro- 
bably that of counsel in war. And yeit even this 
carries us forward to a time when contact with 
powerfrd neighbours had taught the rude Grerman 
tribes that something more than brute force and 
a headlong rush were necessary to contend against 
disciplined troops. 

The most common stem with this meaning is 
rud, rat, red. Old High German 7^(it, Ang.-Saxon 
rSd, Mod. Grerm. rath, counsel, which occirns, as 
a prefix and termination, since the 5 th cent. A 
word which might intermix is rod, rasth, swift, 
eager — also Ang.-Sax. read, red. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old Germ. Rado, Radi, Rada> Rato, 6th cent. English K^ «»*. 
Rat, Ratty, Reed, RsmY, Ready. Mod German Rade, ^^^ 
Rath, Ratti, Reddb, Reeds. French Rad^ Radi, Rattb, 
Rat, Ratkau, Rathbau, Rati^, Rbad, Rbty. 
DiMnnrrrvEs. 

Old Germ. Radacho, Rathago, 9th cent. — Eng. Raddick 
— ^Mod. German Radicke — French Radigue. Old German 
Ratilo, Radila^ 8th cent — English Rattle, Raddall, Red- 



848 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

DALL — ^MocL Gearm. Radel, Bidbl — ^French Radel» Ratbl. 
Eng. Reddish, Radish — Erench Radez, Ratisseau. Eng. 
Reddeleik, Redline. 

PHONEnc ending. 
Old Qerman Raduni, Ratin, Redan, 8tb cent. English 
Badden, Ratton, Redden. Mod. Qenn. Rathev, Rbden. 
French Radannb, Raton, Redon. 

PATBONTMICa. 

Old Oerman Rading, Reding, 8th cent — ^Eng. RxDDiNOy 
Reading — Mod. Qerm. Ratting. 

OOllPOUNDS. 

(Bald, bold) Old Oerman Ratbold, 8th cent— French 
Rataboul. ("Brand, sword) Old German Radbrand, 8th 
cent — Eng Rbdband f (Geil, elatus) Old Genn. Ratgeil, 
8th cent — English Redgell^ Rattioal. {Gwud, Goth) Old 
Germ. Ratgand, 8th cent. — Eng. Rbtoatb % {Hart, wairior) 
Old Germ. Rathere, Rateri, Rater, Rethere, 6th cent — Eng. 
Ratter, Rather, Rattray, Reader, Redtear — Modem 
Germ. Rader, Ratter, Reder — French Rathert, Rathier, 
Rattier, Ratter, Redier, Reder. (Heid, state condition) 
Old Germ. Radheit, Ratheid, 8th cent — Eng. Redhead — 
French Radet, Ratott, Redet. (Hdm) Old Germ. Rat- 
helm, 8th cent— Eng. Ratthail (LM, U\f, superstes) Old 
Germ. Ratleib, 8th cent ~ English Ratliffe, RadguffeI — 
Modem German Radleff. (Man) Old German Radman, 
Redman, 9th cent — ^Eng. Redman, Redhayne, Readman — 
Mod. German Radehann, Redmann. {Ma/r, famous) Old 
German Radmar, Redmer, 8th cent — English Radmorb, 
Rbdhore — Mod. Germ. Redher — French Redicer. {Mund, 
protection) Old German Radmund, Redemnnd, 7th cent — 
Eng. Radmond, Redmond. (Ram, ran, raven) Old Gennan 
Ratramnus, 8th cent — English Ratheram. (Wdd, power) 
Old Germ. Radoald, 8th cent — French Radoult. (War, 
defence) Old German Ratwar, 8th cent— English Redwab. 
(Wig, wi, war) Old German Ratwig, Ratwih, Redwi, 9th 
cent — English Radwat, Beddawat. (Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Radowin, Redoin, Retwin, 8th cent — ^Eng. Readwdt 



WISDOM AND KNOWLBDaV. 349 

— Frenoh Ratouiv, Badottait. fWu, wiae) Old G«niiaa 
Batwisy RaduiB, 8tb cent — French Ratouu. (Ulf, wolf) 
Old G^nnaii Badul^ Thuringian duke, 7th cent. — French 
Rabvlphe. (Wid, wood) Old Qerm. RadoidiB, 9th cent. — 
English Rbdwooix 

Another common stem with this meaning is 
ragin (GotL ragin, counsel), which, in accordance 
with the principle referred to, p. 48, frequently 
becomes rain. A word which might intermix 
with the latter form is Old Norse hreinn^ rein 
deer, whence, according to Haldorsen, the Scan- 
dinavian name Hreinn. 

SniPLB rOBMB. 

Old Oerman Ragan, Ragno, Regin, Raino^ 8th cent. Bacia, 
Eng. Raoin, Ragov, Rboan, Radt, Rsur, RAnrar. Mod.3Btf<»*^ 
Germ. Raur, Rktitb. French Ragan, Ragoh, Ragohnkau, 
Ragnbau, Rsgni^ Radtb, Redis, Ratva. 
dhonxttitsb. 

Old Germ. Reinoo» 11th cent — ^Mod. Germ. Runoks — 
French RAnroo. Old German Reginzo, Reinao, 9th cent — 
Eng. Rboans, Rains — Mod. Gkrm. Rsnz, Eng. RiOKNBiXy 
Rktnal — French Rainau 

OOMPOUNSSL 

{Bwi, bright) Old Germ. Raganbert, Reinbert, 7th cent.— 
Eng. RAoraiRD. {Bald^ fortis) Old Germ. Raganbold, Rain- 
bald, 8th cent — English RAranoLD — ^French Ratxbault. 
{Fridy frith, peace) Old German Raganftid, Rainfiid, 7th 
cent. — English Rainfobd, Rainfobth — French Rainfrat. 
(&0r, spear) Old German Ragingar, Raingar, Reginker, 8th 
cent. — ^English Ranges, Ranakbr* — ^Mod. Germ. RsmoBB. 
{Hard) Old German Raginhart^ Regnard, Raynhard, 8th 
cent — English Rbgnabt, Renard, Retnard — ^Mod. German 
RlONHARD, Reinhart— French Regnard, Rbgnabt, Rat- 
VAB2>, Renabd, Reinert. {HoHy warrior) Old German 
Raganhar, Franldsh king, 6th cent, Rainher, Rainer — Old 

* Or to r«MS i»pla«t p^ ISO. 



850 WISDOM AND KNOWLBDO& 

None Bagnaiv— Eni^iik Batvib—- Mod. 
BianEB^Fr. BacariEBy Rbqnei, Ratbkr, Bjethool (Hmi, 
war) Old G^erman Beginhad, Rainhad, 8ih cent. — l^n gKA 
Bevaub— French Bainaud, Bainot. (Hdm) Old German 
Baganhelm, Bainelm, 8tb cent — Eng. Batvham — French 
Bkvbaumb^ Behox. (Man) Old Qerm. Bajmnan, 9th cent. 
— Eng. Beinmak — Mod. Germ. Bsinmank. ( fTtfoA/yStranger) 
Old Germ. Bainnwalo — Eng. Beikwell — French Bbthetal. 
{WaUL, power) Old Ger. Raginald, Beginold, Bainold, Benald, 
6th cent — Eng. Rignault, Betmolds (and the christian name 
Bboikald) — Modem German Beinhou), Bbtkold — French 
Bbonauld, Beonault, Benauld, Benault — ^ItaL Benaldl 
(W<»rd, guardian) Old German Baginward, Bainoard, 8th 
oentb — French Benouasd. {Ulf^ wolf) Old QeroL Baginolf, 
Bainnl^ 8th cent — ^French Benouf. 

In an age when experienoe was Hie only 
teacher, the man who lived the longest might 
generally be presumed to know the most. And 
thus we find that the Aog.-Saxon frdd signified 
both ** advanced in years^'' and olso " wise, pru- 
dent." This was a common word in ancient 
names, but is rather scarce at present. 

simple FORBia 

j^^ Old Germ. Frodo, Frada» Fnioto, 8th cent Ang.-Sax. 

wiM. Frdda. Old Norse FrddL Frodo, Domesday. Eng. Fsoob^ 

Froude, F&owd, Fbudd. French Fbioud, Fbou>, Fbot, 

Fruit. 

DunNimvE. 

Old Qennan Frutilo, 8th cent — English (or Qerm. t) 

Fbxuteu 

phonetio ending. 

Old Germ. Frodin, Fruatin, 8th cent. — ^French FBOTTEir. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Gar J spear) Old German Frodger, Froger, 8th cent. — 
Eng. FnoGES — French Frogeb. {Harij warrior) Old Germ. 
Frothar, Frotar, Fnither, 8th cent— Fr. Fbotteb, Fruitier, 
Froidube. ( Wealh, stranger) Old German Frudawalh, 9th 
cent — French Froideyal. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLBDOa 851 

From the Ang.-Saxon tuts, wise, wtsa, a wise 
man, leader, vdsian^ to instruct, lead, govern, are 
probably the following. 

The Old High Germ, wiz. Mod. Germ, weiss, 
white, might intermix. 

SIHPLB FORKS. 

Old German Wiso, Wis, Wizo, Vizo, 7th cent. English J^ 
W18B, W188, VizB, Vysb, Vicjb. Modem German Weisb. 
French Weiss^, Vissb. 

DIMINXTTIVEa. 

Old Germ. Wiaili, Wiala^ 8th cent— Eng. WrasruBf— 
Mod. Germ. Wibsel. Old Germ. Wiziko^ 10th cent. — Eng. 
VisiCK — French Wissooq, Vissao; Old German Wizikin, 
10th cent — English Whiskd^. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Wisnn, 9th cent French Yisonhbaxt. 

CX)MPOUNDa. 

{Otvrdy protection) Old German Wisigard, wife of the 
Frankish king Theodebert, 6th cent, Wisncart — English 
y I8CX)RD, Whiskered % {Mam) Old German Wisman, 8th 
cent — English Wiseman — ^Mod. Germ. Wissman — French f 
WiZEMANN. (Hard) Eng. Vizard. (Hari, warrior) Eng. 
YizER — French Vissbr, Visier, Vissier. (Wdd, power) 
English WisEwouLD — Mod. German Weiswald. Here also 
Eng. Wisdom, a name of an uncommon class, like Friend- 
ship, p. 263. 

Another word of the same meaning may be 
dis, tis, for which Forstemann proposes Goth. 
deis^ wise. It is not, certain, however, that the 
Old Norse dts, Ang.-Sax. ides, woman, goddess» 
may not come in for part. 

SIMPLE FORM& 

Old Germ. Diso, Disso, Dis% Tiso, Tisi, 8th cent Eng. 
Dtce, DicBT, Diss, Dias, Ttas, Tisob. Modem German 
Thixb. French Diz^ Dizt, ThiS| Thisbe. 



Dli. 
WiM. 



352 WISDOM AND XNOWLSDGB. 

DnUKUTIVSB. 

Eogliflh Ttback. Fiendi TiflscLnr. 

PHOmnC SNDDTO. 

English Dtsov, Ttsoh. Frenoh DiZAor, Tnov. 

OOMPOUKDa. 

(And^ life, ipirit) French Duand, Dibavt. (Eard) 
En^ieh TiZABD^Frenoh Dissabix {HaH^ warrior) Eog^iah 
Ttoeb — French Tiasm, Tisbaibb. (J/or, famous) English 
DiSMOBX. {Ra/nd^ shield) French Tisserahd. 

Another word with the meaning of wisdom 
or prudence is Old High Germ, glau^ dau, Ang.- 
Saxon gledw, which takes the guttural in the 
Gothic glaggvus. Old Norse lldh% Danish and 
Swedish Jdog, Mod. German Jdug, Dutch Uoek. 
Forstemann has only three ancient names, which 
are all in the Old High German form gla% and 
none of which correspond with the following. 

SIMPLBFOBH& 

^^''!^^^' Ol^Qy Ihmetday Lmc English Oloao, Olock, Glbio, 
Olxw, Clogo, Oloak, Clow, Clack, Clbqo ! Clat t Mod. 
QermML Kluob, Kluck, Klooks. Frenoh Oluok, Olouz, 

.QLBOHf CLATXt 

OOliPOUNDa. 

{Hriif state, condition) English CLAOOvrr, Clbgort, 
Cliwstt — French Glochkt, Cloquet, Clouet, Clateitk. 
(Fori, warrior) English Gluer, Clueb. {Man) Mod. Germ. 
Klookxanh — French Cloqueiok. 

From the Old High Germ. Uzan, Mod. Germ. 
leaen^ to read, Grothic leisan. Old Norse fewt, to 
study. Old Norse hBS, lesinn, learned, I derive a 
stem laa^ ks, lis, in proper namea The above is, 
however, only a derived or secondary meaning, 
the original sense being that of pursuing or col- 
lecting, which may be in part that which is found 
in the following names. 



LMned. 



WISDOH AJND KKOWLEDQS. 353 

SUftPLBfOBMa 

Old Oerman Lemo, 8th oent. Laoj, Boll BatL Abb. ^^ ^ 
Lean, Domuday Lmo. English Lact, Lbbst, Lts. Mod. 
Garman Lb88S. French Leys, Lbz^ Lazb, Lassat^ Las, 

LlSBl^ TfXy ^A ^ LlS^ 

DIMUIUTIVKa 

Frenoh Lbaoq, Lkbabo, Lasbqus. English Layzsll, 
Labsbl — Frenoh Labbalu^ Lotsxl. 

FHOKBTIO XNDINO. 

Old Germ, Lisinia, 9th cent. — Eng. Leason, Lisimr — 
French Lassinat, Labnb, lasKSKEy LEffiiB, Lizok. 

PATB0NTMIC8. 

Leising, Lib, ViL Modem German Lbssiko. Frenoh 

LAfltANHS. 

C01fK>Uim8. 

{Ha/rd) Old German Lisiard, 11th oent. — Eng. Lezabd, 
Lazabd— Fr. Lbzabd, Lazabd, Letsabd. {HaH^ warrior) 
Lessere, lAb. F«&— Eng. Lstsbb, Lbbskb, Leabubb — Frenoh 
T.Aaangttj Lassbbat, Lbzbb, Lizbbay. {Man) Frenoh Lassi- 
KOKNB. {Ma/r^ fionous) English Lisbimobb. {Ral^ counsel) 
Frenoh Lahhabat, Lbzebbt. (mf, wolf) Old Germ. Lisolf—- 
Eng. Lb Soubf— Frenoh Lassblyb. {War^ defence) English 
Lbbswabb — Frenoh LASsuiBS. 

Ab a termination his occurs in five German 
names of the 8th cent., and Forstemann proposes, 
though doubtingly, the above derivation. These 
names are Bertleis (&erf, illustrious), Guntleis 
{gund^ war), Hildeleis {Jtild, war), Witleis {wit, 
wisdom), Vulfleis {wulf, wolf). We have a list 
of names in English with a similar termination 
which I think tend to confirm this derivation 
These are Lawless, Legless, Eegeless, Shabp- 
LESS^ BooEiiESS) Fairless, Loveless, Barlass, 
Landless^ and Unglbss. Of these. Lawless 
has been explained as ** regardless of la V — Beck- 
less as " void of prudence" — Legless as "wanting 

s 2 



354 WISDOM AKD KNOWLEDO& 

legs"— and Booklbss as •'destitute of books* 
A much better and more natural meaning is 
given to almost all of these bj the derivation 
proposed above. Lawless^ then, I take it^ tneain^ 
** learned in the law f and liKOLiss has nothing 
to do with Miss Biflin, but is only anoUier form 
of the same. Fairless^ as •'travel-learned," 
expresses a most natural idea» for so much ^iras 
trave] regarded as the best means of getting 
knowledge^ that in the idiom of the German and 
Danish languages, •'travelled'' has become synonj*^ 
mous with *• experienced.** Landless may have 
the same meaning as S'airless, or it may, though 
less probably, be restricted to a knowledge of 
one's own country. Reckless^* from Ang.-Saz» 
reccaUj to explain, interpret; and Saarplbsi^ 
from Ang.-Sax. scearp, sharp, quick, skilful, are 
also most natural compounds. Bookless is not 
so called from the scantiness of his library, but 
from the good use made of what he had The 
Old Norse has the very word^ hdklas, •'book- 
learned," also " able to read," a much more notable 
circumstance in his day than that of being without 
books. Loveless, alias Lovelace, is not quite 
so obvious. We know that in the Romance days 
the lore of love became so intricate as to require 
a specnal court for its adjustment, but this seems 
to involve rather too modem a sentiment. Lastly, 
Barlas and Ungless,! (ber, bear, and ung or 

* Another derivation ia Alao propoeed for BaoKLBsa^ at p. 844. tet w« 
hare alio Ejlolxm, whloh seeme to eome In here. 

t With UiroLMS we ma^ perhape put Unolm. 



VnSDOU AND KNOWLEJDUift. 355 

time, serpeot), refemng to the two animals most 
noted in anciant times for their wisdom, and the 
former being synonymous with Babwisb, have 
as natural a meaning as could be desired. I do 
not include with the above Wanless, for it seems 
to be from Ang.-Saxon w(»n^ a blemish, with the 
negative termination, which would make it the 
same aa another name Faultless. Some of 
the other names may be open to doubt, indeed 
I bring forward the subject rather as a question 
f pr enquiry. 

Suoh names then as the above, which seem to 
have more of a direct meaning than is usually 
found, are among those to which I referred at the 
beginning of this chapter aa indicative of a more 
recent originl 

From the above word lis is formed Ang.-Sax., 
Old Norse, and Old High Germ, list, art, science, 
from whicih are derived the following name& 

9IMFUB10BM8. 

Old Germ. Lista^ 9th cent. English List, Lbsty, Last. Utt. 
Mod. Qem. Um. **««^ 

DIHINnnVES. 

Old GemuoL Listillo, 8th cent French Lestelle. 

PUONBTIO Bin>iNa 

Old Germ. Listin. Eng. Liston. French Lestienkb. 

PATBONTiaCB. 

Mod* German {jernrp. Frendi Lestoxko, 

OOMPOUNDS. 

(ffari, warrior) CHd German Listhar, 8th cent.— English 
LuTTEB, Lesteb — Frenoh Luteb, Lbsteub, Lastbtbia (Bad, 
rai, oouiisel) Frepch LESTRADBy Lastbbt. 

From the Old Norse laira, Ang.-Saxon l^ratif 
to teach, to know ; Old High Germ, lera, Ang.- 



35 (> WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE 

Sax. Idr, Uer, Eng. '' lore," leaming ; Aiig.-Saxoii 
lareow. Old Norse loBrari^ teacher, I derive the 
following. It will be observed that there are 
very few ancient names from this root, though it 
is common at present ; and this may perhaps be 
taken as an additional illustration of the remark 
which I made at the beginning of this chapter as 
to the comparatively recent origin of this class of 
namea 

SIlfPLB fOBMB. 

^^^- Old Germ. Liia^ Loria, 8th cent Engliah Lasa, Labbt, 

T.fft-niff. j^^uQ^^^ Lbab, Lsart, Lkbba, Lobit, Laurdl IVencib 

LaBBA, Labb4 LsBB4 Lib4 LaUB, LaxTBBT, LaITBBAU, LOBAf 

LOB^ L0BT9 LOBBAU. 

DI MlNU T iVB a 

Engliflh Laubbl — ^French Lobbax^ LobbiIiL& Ebgliah 
Lbbioo— French Laboqui^ Lobiquk Eng. Labkiv, Lobkui 
— French Lobiohob. French Lobbz^ Lobba, Labs. French 

LOBSXT. 

001CPOXTND& 
Eng. Labouz, Lxbew — ^French Labbixu, Labui^ Lbbbuz 
s= Ang.-Sax. lareaw, a teacher f (ffard) EngliRh Lababd. 
(Man J English Labxah, Lobbimak. (Mary fionoas) Lori- 
marinsy Dame$day — ^Eng. Labmbb, Lobdibb — ^French LoBi* 
xiEB, LoBXiXBy LABMTTnt (MfOh, coursge) Eng. Labxuth» 
Leabxoitth. (WeM, stranger) English LabwUiL — ^French 
Labubllb. (Wig^ wi, war) English Lebway — ^French Lab- 
BOUTy Labitat. 

From the Ang.-Saac scearp. Old High Germ. 
scarf y Mod. German scharfy ^arp, quick, acute, 
there are a few names. Forstemann finds seven 
firom this root in the 8th and 9th cents., but only 
one corresponding with oura 



SIMPLB FOBMS. 



^^"^^ English Shabp, Shabpbt, Sbabfus, Scabiv, Sghabb, 



Modem Qerman Schabpff, Sghabf. French Ohabft, 
Ohabfb. 



WI8D0M AKD KNOWLBDGB. 357 

DDIUiUTlVK. 

Engliah Shabplkt. 

PfiOKSnC INDINa. 

Old Genn. Soherfixi, 9th cent Eng. Shabpht. French 
Chabpih. 

OOMPOimD. 

('LeU, learned) Eng. Shabpubsb, Subpuct t 
A oommon word is hig, hog^ hug, from Ang.* 
Sax. hyge. Old High Germ, hugu, mind, thought^ 
Anglo-Saxon hygian, hogian, to study, meditate. 
The Saxon form, it will be seen, is common in 
English but not in French. A root very liable 
to intermix is hoh, hoch, high, p. 340. 

SDCPLB FOBMBl 

Old Qerman Hugo, Hug, Hue, Hnga^ Hnghi, Hogo, 
Ghngo, 8ih cent Eng. Hugo, Huo, Hugh, Huib, Huok, 
Hogo, Hodgi^ Hiox, Ohiok, Ohkbk, Ohuok. Mod. Oerm. 
HuGB, Hugo, Huoxs, Hoox. French Hugo, Hug^ Hug, 
Hup, Hux, Hu, HuA. 

BDULMUTiVJfil 

Old Germ. Hngila, Hnkili, 9th cent. — English Hugall, 
HuGKXii^ Whxwell^ Higlet, Hioklkt — Modem Qerman 
HifGXL — French Hugla, Hukl^ HiiTgwrJi. Old Qerman 
Hngizo, lOih cent — Eng. Hughes, Hewish, Huoxs, Hioks, 
HoDGXB — French Hugues. Hogoin, Zift. VU. — English 
HoDGxnr. Hngelinns, Domesday — ^Hneline, Lib. VU. — 
Eng. HuxuNSy HioxLXK, Hickuhg — ^Fr. Huouxux, Higuk. 

PHONETIO EKDnm. 

Hjgine, Lib. ViL English Hugouk, Huoxxn, Hogak, 
HiGGix, Chicken. French Hugon, Hogax, Huan, Honr, 

HnonnL 

ooiipouxne. 
[ (Bcdd, bold) Old Qerman Hngibald, Hubald, 8th cent— 
Eng. Hubble f — French Hubaui/t — ^ItaL XJBALDa (Beri, 
br%ht) Old Qerman Hngnbert^ Hubert, 7th cent. — ^English 
HuBEBT — Mod. Qerm. Hubbbt — ^French Hubebt. (Hard) 
Old Qerm. Hngiharty Hngard, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Huggard, 
Hbwabi>— French Hugabd, Huchabd, Huaxd, Huabt, 



358 WISDOM AHD XVOWLSDO& 

Ohigabi». (Eari, warrior) Sng. Hbwbb, Hewbt, OHBQUEBf 
— ^French Hughsbt. {Lae, plaj) Old Germ. Hugikih, 8th 
o^t — Old Norse Hn^eikr — Aiig.-Sexon HygelAo — Engliah 
Hillock f Hullock t Ullook 1 — French Uiosk t fLind, 
mild) Old German HagOind, 8th cent ^Engliah Hswlaitd. 
(Man) Ang'-Sax. Hi ooe inann (fofimi fti Eyoomfm/nauidn^ 
Cod, Dip. 643)^ English Hu&iUK, Huohman, Humak, 
HoDOXAN, HiOMAir, Hickman — Freneh Humakv, Hibck- 
i£AMir. {OUf bU^ hostage) Eng. H(»>0KI8& (Ma^ oourage) 
Old Germ, ^ugimot, 9th eent — ^E!n|^ UiCKVprr. (Mar^ 
ftmous) Old Ger. Hugimar, 10th oeut. — Eng. Hoqmibi^ Hioh- 
XOBJL (ilTo^ bold) French Huokot,* Hognet. ( WcUd, pawer) 
Old Germ. Hugold, 9th oent— French Hu^ult. {BeU, state, 
oondition) Haet% Domudof^ — Rngliah HnoosTT, Huckxtt, 
Hbwjt— French HuooTy Hubt, HucnxTn, Chiquet. 

Another stem <;)f ^imilw meaning J tadce to \h> 
mun. Old Norse muni, the mind» Goth, munan, 
to think. Grimm, howerer, refers to Old Norse 
munr, pleasure. The names of Odin's two ravens^ 
Hugin and Munin, whose office it was to bring 
him intelligence of all that passed in the w<Mrld, 
are derived respectivelj from this and the former 
root. Mr. Blackwell, in the edition of Mallet's 
Nort^iem Antiquities edited hj him, has an 
amusing speculation upon our two comio iur- 
separables Huggins and Muggins, which he sug- 
gests may possibly be alliteratively corrupted 
from the names of Odin's two ravens. This root 
is liable to intermix with man, men, p. 57, and 
with mundy p. ?76. Also with Moon, which I 
think may be from a mythological origin. 

* Hanee the luune of the Hngnenoti, the oriclB of whloh !• not yet eettiedr 
Theahove oameHuoxo* Isevldeiitij not from the mqI^ but the taol night veiT 
BitanHy teiTe, m indeed most eeete hsie done, fhNB the neme of * auuL The 
oalj ether deriretiOB I ham wma is ft lame one. 



WISDOM AKi) fun^TttttMl. 9b9 

Old QwmBh Miliioy Moliio, 8th oeht Eng^ Hvmr, j^ 
MoKXT. French MomOE, Muki£ 

PATBOHTMICi. 

Old Germ. Miming, 8th o«&t» Eng. MmffHiscM; 

OOMFOUNIXL 

(Here, army) Old G^emuui Munihari, 6th cent.— -French 
M tiriXB, MbinoBB* (Nem, jroong) ^ng, Mtmniw. (Mund, 
IxroteddoD} Old German Munimiind, 7th eentb-^Engliah 

MONUXEMT. 

From the Old High German dankfan, Aug.* 
Sax. thencauy to thinks may be the following. 
Or it may be fix>m the derived sense of German 
danken, English thank. 



Old German Thanoo, Danoo, Thenka, Tenca» 6th cent 
English Danks, Dknoh, Taitk, Txmob. Mod. Germ. DAVXt 
Dink. l*renoh Takc 

DIMINUTIVEB. 

Old Geirman l^andla, a Goth, 5th 6eiii, Dandiilo — Mod. 
Germ. Dangkil — French Danola, DaMLA. Eng. TAirSLtK. 

OD1CPO0FD& 

(iTord) Old Germ. Tkmchard, 9th eenk— Eng. Tahkabd 
— ^Modern German Dakkebt — Froioh Dakoocat. (ffa/ir% 
warrior) Old Genn. Thancheri, 9th cent. — English Tamksb, 
tjonquzBLAY^ Thaoksbay — ^Mod. Gena Dehckul (JRat, 
red, counsel) Old Genn. Thanoharat, Tancrad, 8th cent. — 
Old Noree Thaokrftdr— Eng. Takobbd. (Wealh, stranger) 
Old Germ. Thangwil, 9th Cent. — Eng. Thackwbui— French 
Dangouelia. {Wine, friend) Old Germ. Tanquin, 8th cent 
— French Dakquik, DANOonnL (Wis, sapiens) French 
Dahquis. 

Another word having the meaning of thought 
or meditation may be ch%idy ckut, which Forste- 
mann refers, though doubtingly, to Old High 
German chiUim^ meditarl It might only be 
another form of hud or hvi. 



860 WISDOM AMD KNOWLBDGK. 



cfanL (Md Gem. Ohndo^ 8th oent ]bi|^ 0HOOf% Ohoix. 

>"•**«*• Franoh Ohorbau. 

00MP0UHD8L 

(Haird) French Ohoitabdi (iJor^ inniar) Ai^^uh 

OsUTBBy OUUITUL 

From the Old High Germ., Mod. Germ., Old 
Norse hanst^ Mod. German kust^ art^ scienoe, may 
be the following. Perhaps the German gunst^ 
&yor, may intermix. 

^ , , anCPLB fOBlOL 

Bug. Oomrr, Cost, Oubt. Mod. Qerm. Koer. French 

Qo&S% OOBIA^ OoflTET, OOUBRFBAU, GofftBAU. 
DIMiNUTIVJU. 

Old Germ. Oostila^ 6th cent. — ^Bngliah Oostello, Ooer- 

hOWf OoffTALL, OOffTLT, G08TBLOW— Fr. OOffTILUi^ Ck>0TEL. 

Bngluh GoflTUHa. Mod. GenoAn Oosm — ^Frandi CkMRTACi 
Oosna Old German OuBtans)^ 9th cent— Oastanca^ Lib, 
ViL — ^English OuRnrcB. 

OOMPOUMBa 

(OeTy spear) Eng. Oostkksb. (ffmrd) Old Germ. Costard, 
9ih oent^-EogliBh Oubtard, Gubtabd — ^French Oostabd, 
OousTASD. (Hart, warrior) EngUah OoenR t (Ulf, wolf) 
Old Germ. Ousted^ 9th cent. — Eng. Ooffmrr. 

From the Old Norse akUia^ to understand^ 
discriminate, apprehend, I take to be the follow- 
ing. An intermixttire with shiddy p. 227, is easy, 
but I think there is a separate stem, though only 
one ancient name comes before us. 



afctn. 



BDCPUBFOBIOL 

ICn g1iiy)i SKiLiii Mod. Germ. SchUiL. 

PATBOKTMIOB. 

Aiig.-8azon Sdlling, a poet in the So6p or Baid*B Bong. 
Eng. SmuiDra. Mod. Germ. Sghouho. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 361 

OOMPOUNUEL 

(B0rt bear) EngUah Shillibkkb f {HeU, state, condition) 
Eng. Skillstt % SHtLLiTO % {Ha/riy warrior) Eng. Skxllbb — 
Mod. Qenn. Sohiluer — ^French Scelldeb. 

From the Goth. iimM^ concio, sermo ; Aug.- 
Sax. maihdian^ to discourse, harangue, are pro- 
bably the following. The stem math^ p. 341, is 
however liable in some cases to intermix. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old Qerm. Madalo, 9th cent. M«dle, Lib. VU. English jjf|^ 
MadTiW, MkpaTj, Medley, Methley. Mod. G^m. Madel. dimoqim 

DIlflNUnVES. 

Eng. Madlik, Medlbn. French Mathlin, Methlin. 

COMPOUNDB. 

(Haiid, state condition) Old Qerm. Madalhaid, 8th cent. 
— ^French Madoulaud. (HaH^ warrior) Old Germ. Madal- 
har, 8th cent.— English Medlas — Modem German Madleb 
Mmrgp- (Gaud, Goth) Old Germ. Madalgaud, 8th cent — 

TCn gliali MeDLICOTT. 

In accordance with the principle of optimism 
which prevails in proper names, we may presimie 
that names derived from the various members of 
the body are to be invested with the highest 
qualities which pertain to these members. Thus 
the hand may be taken to mean dexterity, and 
the foot activity. In like manner tongue may 
be taken to have the meaning of eloquence, 
wisdom, or persuasion. There is only one Old 
German name in which it appears, but it enters 
into some Old Norse names, as Tungu-Kari, 
Tungu-Oddr, &c. Here, though a prefix, it is of 
the nature of a surname, as in our Apple-John. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Tungo. English Tokgtte, Tonoe, Tungay, Tongue. 

DUNGBY. ' "»««»• 

T 2 



362 WISDOM AND KNOWLKDOS. 

OOKPOUFUL 

(Mim^) Ibiglkh Tonoiuv. (Namd^ danug) Fraick 

In this chapter may be included the names 
having the meaning of vigilance or watchfulness. 
From the Ang.-Sazon wmcan^ ivcBccan, to watch. 
Old High German wok, vigil, are probably the 
following. A word liable to intermix is wag, way, 
which I think has the meaning of waving or 
brandishing, 

W«lu. BIMPLB fOBMS. 

WatehfuL Old German Yaoo, Lombard king, 6th oent., Wadio, 
Waooo. Uach, Lib. VU, Eng. Wakb, Wage. Mod. Germ. 
Waoh. Frendi Ouaoh^ Vachy. 

DimHUTlVJU. 

Old Oerman Wachilo, 8th oent. — ^English Waxlkt, 
Weaklbt, Weekly. Old Germ. Wakis, 6th cent. — Eng. 
Weeks — French Yaquez. Eng. Wakelii^ , Wbaklik. Old 
Germ. Wakimua, Gothic leader, 6th cent. — Eng. Waxek. 

OOMPO0NDa. 

(Mem) OldGemu Wachmnn, 8th cent — Eng. Waxb- 

MAK, WaOEMAIT. 

extended fobmsANO.-sax. waoor, watchful. 
Old C^erm. Wacar, Waocar, 7th cent. English Waxeb. 
Mod. Germ. Wackeb. French Yaquieb. 

As a simple form of the stem ragin, p. 349, 
I bring in here the stem rag. 

SIMPLE F0BM& 

^^' . Old Germ. Ragio, Raoco, d^, 8th cent. English Racks 
Rack, Rat. Mod. Germ. Rach, Rlcx. French Rat. 

DIMINUTiVBi 

Old German Ragilo, Regilo, 7th cent English Reoau 
Mod. Germ. Rbgel. French Raole. 

OOMPOUNDS. 

(Bold, audax) Old German Ragibald, 9th cent— English 
Ratbauld— French Ratbaud. {Ha/rd^ fortis) Old German 
Reguhart, Rehhart, 11th cent — Mod. German Rahabdt-*^ 



WISDOM AND ivxNvy»»x.j.^v>^. 363 

French Raocubt, Rayabd. (Hari, warrior) Old German 
Baghar, Racheri, 6th cent — English Rabet—MocI. German 
RsTGEB, Rethxr— French Raoeb, Raoabie, Raybb. (Had^ 
war t) Old German Rachot^ 8th cent — Eng. Racket, Rao- 
obtif — ^French Raoot. (Hdm) Old German Rachelm, 8th 
cent — English Rackhail {Mwnd, protection) Old German 
Ragimnndy Raimund, 8th cent. — Eng. Raymond, Raymbbt 
— Mod. Germ. Raimukd — French Raymond. f^lTwM, friend) 
Old GemL Racoin, 8th cent: — French Ragoin. {Ulf, wolf) 
Old Germ. RagoL^ Raholf, Raulf, 8th cent.— Eng. Ralph,* 
Relph — Mod. Germ. Ralfs. 

In this chapter may be included the words 
in which is contained the meaning of law or judg- 
ment. It is rather remarkable that the principal 
word with this meaning occurs more especially 
in the names of women, and we can hardly help 
thinking of that ancient state of society when 
&tidical women, like Deborah among the Jews, 
and Albruna among the Germans, seem to have 
been the real law-givers and judges of the nation. 
The word in question is the Old High German 
tuom, thuom^ thum,^ Ang.-Sax. d6m. Old English 
dooniy judgment. 

SIMPLB F0BM& ^ 

Old Germ. Tumo. Tummi, apparewSy a Dane^ %n Saoso, j^^^g^gg^^^ 
Ang.-Saxon Dioma^ biahop of Merciab Ang.-Saxon Toma, 
/otrnd perhaps in Tamanwarthigy now Tamworth^ Cad, Dip, 
141, dsc Tomnus Lib. VU. Tomj, BoR BcUL Abb. Eng. 
ToxxT, Tomb, Thukm, Dumb, Tom ? Mod. Germ. Thoma, 
DuMM, DoHM. Fr. Tbow^ Tombs, Thom, Domb, Dommbt, 

DOMBET, DUHOMMl^ DuMAT. 

* Deitvad bj Pott, Lower, and oth«n from Badnlph. But nnlen a reuon; 
of ft different aort can be giren, the natural e^mological deriratlon la fron Bagolf. 

t Maj not thia be the origin of the name of Thnmelieoa, aon of Arminiua, 
lat cent., for which Grimm propooea Old Norse thumhmifr, thumb ? The seoonA 
part of the name might alao be from a word of similar meaning, viz., lag, law. 



364 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

DDaMUTiVBi 

Old QeruL Duomelo, Tomila, Tiiiiiila» 9tli oeni. — ^Eogliflh 
DmooELow, DuMBELL^ ToMMKLL — Modem Qeimaa Dummel, 
TtTMMSL — ^French Dommel, Thomel, Tombel. Old Gennaa 
Domlin, 7th cent. — Eng. Tomlin, Dukuk, Dumflqt — ^Mod. 
German Daumlxn, Ddmldig — French Dumoldt, Dumoulik I 
Anglo-Saxon Domec, (found perhaps in Domeooedge^ now 
Dauntsey^ Cod, Dip, 271, <l&e.^— Modem German DdiaoH — 
French Domectq, DouMia £b:i£^d8h ToMKnr — Mod. German 
DiTMicHEH. Eng. ToMBSYy Tombs — ^French Dojoz, DuiCBi^ 

Dumas? 

compounds. 

(GxB^ hostage 9 companion ?) Old GemL Domi}^ Tomi- 
chis, 8th cent. — Eng. Tomkies. fOual, same as git) Old 
Ckrman DomigisU, 6th cent — French Domicile f (ffeid, 
state, condition) Old German Tomaheid, 9th cent — ^English 
DoMMETT — French Doumet, Thomet. . (Hard, fortis) Old 
Genn. Domard, 6th cent. — Eng. Dummebit — Fr. Domard, 
DoMABT. {HaHj warrior) Old German Domaiins, 7th cent. 
— Old Norse Domar — Domheri, Lib, VU. — ^Eng: Dummeb, 
Toomeb — Mod Germ. Dohmeteb— Fr. Domeb, Dumaibe, 
DuMEBT. (Eii, ride) Old GemL Diunerit^ 6th cent. — French 
Thommebet. (Rtin, wisdom, mjsteiy) Old Genn. Dommo- 
runa,* 7 th cent. — French Domaibok. 

Varying forms of the same stem I take to be 
the following, as foimd in Anglo-Saxon dcBma, 
dSma, a judge. Hence the " dempsters,'^ judges 
of the Isle of Maa 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

judgnMnt ^^^ Germ. Tammo, Temmo, Dimo, Diemo^ Timo, Temo, 
8th cent. Tymmo, a Dane or Northman in Saxo. Demma, 
Lib, VU. English Damm, Tame, Tim. Mod. Germ. Damm, 
Demme, Thamm, Temm, Dieme, TmifM, Timm. Fr. Dami^ 
Damm, Dam^ Damay, Demat, Demey, DiMi, Dimet, Tami, 
Tama. 

* Th« t«niiiMtloii nm in f flmale luaam 1 hftw gtm&nOj tektn to ba^ M. 
OilauB makes it» mmIa, amiea. Bat In tnoh a nama as tbe aborv it mom to bo 
that it Bhoiild xathar have the meaning of mytteiiona, perha|M cabaUatle koow- 
ledge. 8o in the eiM of tho wise woman of the Old Gonnana, Albnma. p. 1S6. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 365 

DUdNUTIVES. 

Old Qerm. Tiemich, 11th oent. — Eng. DnociCK, Dik- 
VOCK, Tamkagb — Mod G^rm. Thiemke— French Demoquil 
French Damel, Demolle, Thihel, Timel. Eng. Taklth, 
Tamplin, Tivlik— French Damelok, Demolxn, DEMELmf, 
Dkmoulin (quan De Moulin). English Dames, Dbmpsey, 
Dimes, Times, Tims — French Damez, Damas, Damazy, 
Demoist. 

oompounbs. 

(Hard) Old German Taxnard, 9th cent. — Mod Qennan 
Dammert — French Demart. (Heid, state, condition) Eng. 
Tamtrt, Dimmeti — Fi'. Damet, Damotte, Demotte. (Hari, 
warrior) Eng. Dameb, Damoby — Mod Germ. Dammeb — ^Fr. 
Dameb, Damoub (qwui " d'amour"), Demab, Demieb, 
Demory, Dimieb. (Eun, wisdom) English Timperok, Tam- 
BOBDaE ? — French Dameboh. 

Another word of similar meaning may be stow^ 
which Forstemann refers to the Gothic staua^ a 
judge. There are only two ancient names in 
which it is foimd. 

simple form. DIMDnmVE. 

stow 

English Stow. English Stowell. j,-^ 

OOMPOXJNDS. 

(JTort, warrior) Old Germ. Stauher, 8th cent. — English 
Stoweb. (Wald, power) English Stovold, 

The Ang.-Sax. Uzg, lah, leak, law, is found in 
a few ancient names, and in a still greater num- 
ber of modem ones. There are however some 
other words liable to intermix : as lakcy Anglo- 
Saxon lacan^ to play ; laug^ Old Norse laug^ 
lavacrum ; perhaps also Ang.-Sax. leg^ flame. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old Germ. Lago, Lacoo, Leggi,* 9th cent Eng. Lack, j^ 
Lacelet, Lagkat, Law, Lay, Lahee, Leah, Lego, Lbggt, 

* FOntanuum thlnki ihia dmm maj pwbaiM be » miitek* for SeggL I do 
not Me any leeson for (he sappoaltion, and bring It tn here. 



366 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Lbl Mod. Gemma Lass. French Laous, Lac, Laok, 
LsGi, Lboat. 

DDUMUTIVA. 

Old Gemum Liigile, llth cent — Eng. Lawlbt, Lowlt 
— Erench Lkoal^ LBasLBT. French Lachklqi. Old Germ. 
Lagozy 9ih cent. — Eng. Lawbs — French Laobsbb. 

PHONXnC BNDQTO. 

English Laqgok, Lani. Mod. German Lehh. French 
Lagnt, Laoneau, Lado^ Laike. 

comfouniml 

(Hard) English Layabix {Hari^ warrior) Old German 
Lager, 8th cent. — l^gli«»h Lawteb — Mod. Germ. Lfffmm — 
French Laqdeb, Lagusrei^ LfaiEB. (Or the above may all 
be amply the same aa English '' lawyer" ; perhapa, however, 
in an old meaning of judge). {Ei^ p. 189) En^iah Lbsstt — 
Fr. Laost, Laoquet, Lboat. (Zmj^ learned, experienced) 
Eng. Lawless, Lowlbss, Lbglbss. {Man)* Eng. Lackxan, 
Lawxah, LowMAir, LATicAir^Mod. Germ. Laohxait — ^Fr. 
Laujcaik, Lehman. {WM, power) French Lbqault. 

As a termination lag is difficult to separate 
from other words. The name Wihtlseg in the 
genealogy of the Mercian kings from Wo I'en, Eng. 
Whitblegg, Whitelaw, seems to belong to it. 

The followiDg stem seems to be from Gothic 
aiv3, Old High German Sv^a^ Anglo-Saxon j4y 
lex, statutum. 

SIMPLE FOBMB. 

^ Old Germ, Euo, Jo, Bvo, 9th cent English Yeo, Yea^ 

Stotatnm. EwE, Eye. Mod Geim. Iw& French Eye, Yvk 

DDCIMUTlVlflS. 

Old German Ewuli, 9tii cent. — Engliah Ewell, Evill t 
Old Germ. Eveoo, llth cent. — ^Mod. Geam. Ewioh— French 
Eveque) Old German Evizo, 10th cent. — English Eaybb. 
French Ytose, 

PATB0NYHIC& 

Euing (Domesday), English Ewinq. 

* Ajic.-8«x. lahmam, juige. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 367 

COMPOUNDS. 

ffftmi, fortifl) Engiiah Ewabt — Mod. German Ewsbt — 
French Tvxrt. {ffari, warrior) Old Q«nn. Euhar, 9th cent. 
— Eng. EwBB — French AmsB. (If an J Old QemL Eoman« 
Joman, 9th cent — Eng. Tbokak, Yeamait. (Bie, ppwer) 
Old Qenn. Eoarix (West Qothio king, 5th cent.), Eoriciu — 
Eng. ToBicK. (W^eMf power) Old Genn. Ewald, 8th cent — 
TCnglwli EwALD — ^Mod. Qerman Ewaldt — ^French Joualt. 
{Ward^ guardian) Old German Euvart, 6th cent — ^English 
Tbowabd. (Ul/y wolf) Old Germ. Eol( 8th cent— Bng. 
Yealfb — French Yoxtv. 

The followiDg stem may be referred to Old 
Norse thingcLy to deliberate. Old High Oerman 
dingon, to judge. The Old Norse thingy corres- 
ponding with the Ang.-Sax. gerndt, was a council 
both judicial and deliberative. 

SUfPLI FOBMB. Things 

English DnrOy Dinqt, Txnoet, Tink. French Tinqat. Fonun, 

DDUKumrEa 
Anglo-Saxon Dengel, Cod, Dip, 981. — Tgn glifth Ddtglk, 
DoraiAY, ToraLB. Engliah TiNKLnro. 

COMFOUNDa 

{Hfjvriy warrior) Old Qerm. Thincheri, 8th cent — ^English 
TmKBB — ^Mod Qerm. DnroEB. (Man) EngUsh Dingmak. 
{Wealhy stranger) Bng. DnrawxLL — French DnrouBL. 



CHAPTER XX. 



THE TBUHPET OF FAKB. 



One of the most ancient stems in Teutonic 
names is mar] (Old High German mdri, iUus- 
trious), which is found in five names of the 1st 
cent., two of the 2nd, one of the 3rd, and nine of 
the 4th. Hence it was widely spread, as Forste- 
mann remarks, over all the German tribes. It 
does not seem, however, to be found in Old Norse 
names, or to have been common among the Anglo- 
Saxons. It is most frequent as a termination, 
and in English names generally takes the Saxon 
form more. As a prefix there are other words 
liable to intermix, as Anglo-Saxon nuere, horse, 
p. 79. Grimm also refers (Deutsch. Gramm.) to 
mxiri^ the sea. 

■Max, Mtt. SIMPLE FOKMS. 

Old Germ. Maro, Mar, Mer, Merio, 9th cent. Ang.-Sax. 
Mar, {God. Dip. 981). Engliah Mabb, Marbt, Mabbow, 
Mebby. Mod. GeroL Mattp^ MapHj Mbeb. French Mj^eau, 
M£ea, Mebet. 

DDCINUTIVKS. 

Old Oerman Maricus, Merioa, 9th cent. — Eng. Mabioa, 
Mebbiok — Mod. Germ. Miebokb, Mibioh — French M^biq. 
Old Germ MerUa, 6th cent — Eng. Mebbell^ Meble — Mod. 
Germ. Mxret.Ti^ MuHRr.E — French MiSbkt.lk, Meblt, Mabl^, 
MAimT.T.A^ MARntTJ.E, • Old German Merling, 9th cent. — 
English Mabling, Mablin — French Mabldt. Old Cterman 
Mariza, Meriasa, 9th cent — Eng. Mabis, Mabbs^ Mebcy I — 
French Mabis, Mabizt. 



1?HE TRUMPET OF FAME. 369 

00MP0T7XD& 

{Bod, eiivoj) Old Greiman Maroboduus, prinoe of the 
Macoomanni, Ist cent. — Mod German Meerbott — French 
Maiubot. (Gc^, spear) French Marooeb, Mergeb. (Gaud^ 
GoZy Goth) Old German Merigoz, 9th cent — Merigeat, Lib, 
ViU — Eng. Margot — French M^rigout, Misioor, Margot, 
Marigot. {Gild, companion ?) Old German Margildus^ 8th 
cent — Eng. Marigold. (Hard) Old Germ. Merhart, 9th 
cent — French Merard. {Lind, gentle) Old Grerm. Merlind, 
9th cent — French Marland, Merland. (Man) English 
Marman, Merrikan — French Merman, Mirahok. (Mund, 
protection) English Marmont, Merryment ? ( Wold, power) 
Old German Maroald, Merolt, 6th cent — Modern German 
Mehrwald — French Merault. (Wig, war) Old German 
Merovecufl, Maroreus, 5th cent — Eng. Marwick, Marvy — 
French Marvy. (Wine, friend) Old German Marnin, 9th 
cent. — Mervinus, Lib, Vii. — English Mjryin — Mod. Germ. 
Meerwein. 

phonetic ending. 

English Marriaht, Marine, Merrin^ — French Marin, 
Marion, Marini^ Marne. 

phonetic intrusion op n, p. 20. 

(Baid, bold) French Mirahbaut. (ffari, warrior) Old 
Gkrm. Mamehar, 7th cent. — English Mariner, Marner — 
French Marinier, Marnier. (Ulf, wolf) French Marneuf. 

A still more common word is bert, pert, bright, 
illustrious, corresponding with the Latin darus. 
It is derived from the Gothic bairhts. Old High 
German peraht, Anglo-Saxon beort, briht. It 
was scarce among the Old Saxons, but common 
among the Anglo-Saxons, Lombards, Franks, and 
Bavarians. It is not of the same antiquity as 
the former word, not making its appearance in 
names before the 6th century. The form brikt 
is common in Anglo-Saxon names, as bright in 
English. 

u 2 



370 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

Btft^Brigfai SDIFLK VOBMB. 

GUnii. Old C^ermAn Berto, Perhto^ 7th oent Bertha or Berbttf, 

daughter of the Frankish king Charibert, and wife of Ethel- 
bert, king of Kent. Ang.-Sazon Berht or Beort, 7th cent, 
English BiBT, Burt, Bebtie, Bright, Briohtt, Pert, PcrRt« 
Mod. Germ. Bert, Berth, Brecht. French BEBTSy Bebtbt, 
Beeteau, Berta, BuRTy Burtt, Breht. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Bertilo, Pertilo, dth cent. — English Bibtle, 
Brightly, Purtell — ^Mod. German Brbchtel, Preohteii — 
French Bertel, Bertall. Old Germ. Bertelin, 7th cent — 
French Bertelok, Berthelin. Anglo-Saxon Byrtde, Cod. 
Dip. 981— English Birdsete % 

phonetic ekdino. 

Old German Bertin, 7th cent. English Bertin, Pebtok. 
Mod. Cterm. Bertin. French Bertin. 
patronybucs. 

Old Germ. Berting, 8th cent. Eng. Brighting. Mod. 
Germ. Bertong. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Berthart, 8th cent — French Burtard. 
(Edm) Old Germ. Berthelm, 8th cent — English Bertham 
. — French Bertheaume. (ffcm, warrior) Old Germ. Berht- 
hari, Berther, Berter, 7th cent — French Berthier, Bertieb. 
(Bam, ran, raven) Old Germ. Berahtram, Bertram, Bertran, 
6th cent — Eng. Bertram — Mod. Germ. Bertram — French 
Bertron. (La/nd, terra) Old Germ. Bertland, 8th cent — 
Eng. Brightland. (Rod, war) Old German Berthad, 8th 
cent — French Pertat. (ifon) English Brightman. {Mar^ 
fiunous) Old Gei*m. Bertemar — ^Ang.-Sax. Brihtmar, bishop 
of Lichfield — Eng. Brightmore, Birdmore — French Bert- 
OMIER. (Z6t9, learned) Old Germ. Bertleis, 8th cent — Eng. 
BiRTLES. (Lac, play) Old Germ. Bertlaicus — Eng. Birdlock. 
{Ramd, shield) Old Germ. Bertrand, 9th cent — Eng. Bert- 
rand — Mod. German Bertrand — French Bertrand, Bert- 
bant. {Ric power) Old Germ. Perhtrick, Pertrih, 8th cent 
— ^Partriche, fftmd. RoUa — Eng. Pabtrick ? Partridge % 
Peartree? — French Bertbay. (fTa^, power) Old Germ. 
Berahtold, 7th cent — French Bertault. 



THB TRUMPET OF FAME. 371 

A third stem of similar meaning is hram, 
hrem, (Anglo-Saxon brSme^ renowned, Suio-Goth. 
hram, splendor). 

SIMPLE FORlia ~^„ ^ 

Old Germ. Brimo, 11th cent. Bram, a Dane or North- Benown. 
man in Saxa Eng. Brame, Bbahah, Bbeem, Brim, Pram, 
Prime. Modem Qerman Brehm, Preim. French Brame, 
Bramma, Premt. 

DIMINUnVEa 

Eng. Brammsll, Bramble^ Bramlet, Brimiley, Brime- 
Low, Brimble. 

OOMFOUNDB. 

(Hofrd) French Bremard, Primard. {JBLofriy warrior) 
Eng. Bramer, Bremer, Primmer — Mod. German Brimbb — 
Swed. Bremer — ^French Brimeur, Premier f {Mvmdy pro- 
tection) English Bremond — French Beemokd, Bremont, 
Brimont. {Bicy power) English Bremridgb. {Waldy power) 
French Pbimault. 

A very common stem is rod, rot, which 
appears since the 5th cent. It was very frequent 
among the Hessians, Alamanni, and Bavarians^ 
but not so much so among the Saxons. Forste- 
mann refers it to Old Norse hrddhr, glory, and 
a supposed corresponding Gothic hrdtJis. The 
aspirated h in some cases forms a c, as noticed at 
p. 46. It is probable that r6d, rdt, red, also 
intermixes. 

BIMPLEfORMa 

Bod, Rol 

Old German Hrodo, Eoado, Ohrodo, Eodi, Rudda^ Bot, q]^^ 
Both, Ruth, 8th cent Rudda, Lib. VU, English Rood, 
Roth, Wroth, Rout, Routh, Root, Rooth, Rudd, Rurr, 
RuTTT, Ruth, Oroad, Crottt, Growdt. Modem German 
Rhode^ Rodde, Roth, Rott, Rutte, Ruth. French Rode, 
BoDDB, Rota, Roth, Rotta, Rott]^ Rom, Rude, Rudbau^ 
RuTBAU, Grott^ 



372 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

DDtmUTIVEa 

Old German Hmodicho, 8th cent. — English Rodick, 
B.UDDICK — Mod. German Rodeck. Old German Rutechin, 
11th cent. — Ebg. Rudkin — French Rouchon. Old Germ. 
Hrodelus, Rodil, ChrodHa^ 8th cent. — English Ruddell, 
RouTLEY, RuTLEY— Mod. German Rodel^ Rudel — French 
RoDEL, RouDiL, RuDELXE, Cboutelle. Old GeruL Rodelin 
— French Roudillok, Roullik, Rollin. English Roddis, 
Rhodes, Roots, Rootsey — Fr. Rodiez, Cbouts, Gboutsch. 
Old Germ. Krodemia^ 9th cent. — Eng. Roddak. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Hrodin, Ruathin, Chrodin, 6th oenl Eng. 
Roden, Rothon, Rotton, CaoTONy Oeowden. Mod. Germ. 
RiJDON. French Rodin, Rutten. 

PATBONYiaCB. 

Old Germ. Rodinga, 8th cent. English Ruddino. Mod. 
G^erm. Rodino. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bald, bold) Old German Hrodbald, Robald, 7th cent- 
French RouBAUD. (Ber, bear) Old Germ. Hroadbero, 9th 
cent. — English Rodber. (Birin, hem, bear) Old German 
Rondbim, 8th cent. — Old Norse Kr5thbiom— English Roi>- 
BOUEK. (BeHy bright) Old German Hrodebert, Duke of the 
AJamanni, 7th cent., Rodbert, Robert, 8th cent — English 
Robert — Modem German Robert, Rupprbcht — French 
Robert. (Berg, protection) Old Germ. Hrotberga, Rodbirg, 
6th cent — French Robebge. (Gar, spear) Old Gennan 
Hrodgar, Crodegcr, 7th cent. — Anglo-Saxon Hr6thgar (Beo- 
vxulf) — Old Norse Hr6thgeir — Roeger, Lib, VU. — Bqger, 
Domesday — English Rodger, Ceoaoer — Modem German 
Rodger, Roger — French Roger. {Gardy protection) Old 
Germ. Hrodgart, Rutgard, 8th cent — English RodqajBD^ 
Rudgard. {Hfvrd) Old G^rm. Hrodhard, Rohard, 7th oenl 
— Englidh RoDYARD — Modern German Rothabdt — French 
Rohard, Rohart. (HaH, warrior) Old German Hrodhari, 
Lombard king, 7th cent, Rotheri, Crother, Rudher — Eng. 
Rothery, Rudder, Rixteb, Crotheks — Modern German 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 373 

RODKB, BUDBB — Fr. BODIEB, BOUDI^BE, RUBDEB, BUTTEB. 

(Land, terra) Old Oerman Bodland, Holland, Sib cent — 
Rolond, Lib. VU, — Eng. Rolland — Mod. G«rm, Rolland 
— French Roland. (Laicy play) Old German Ruodleich, 
Rutleich, 8th cent. — Eng. Rutledqb, Routledgr {Ram, 
raven) Old Geim. Rothram, Rodrannus, 8th cent. — English 
RormBRAM — French Rodron. (Mem) Old Grerman Hrod- 
man, Ruodman, 8th cent. — English Rodman, Ruddihan, 
RuDMAir — Modem German Rodemann. {Mar^ &mou8) Old 
Qerm. Ruadmar, 7th cent. — Old Norse Hr6thmar — French 
RuDEMABE. {Niw, joung) Old Qerm. Hrodni, 8th cent. — 
Old Norse Hrddnj— Eng. Rodnet, RormrET. {Rio, power) 
Old Gernoan Hrodric, last of the West Gothic Kings^ 8th 
cent — English Rodbick — Mod. Grerman Rudrioh — Spanish 
RoDBiGO. {Wedlh, stranger) Old German Ruadwalah, 8th 
cent. — English Rodwell, Rothwell, Cbutwell — French 
RonvAL. {WcUd, power) Old G^rm. Hrodowald, Lombard 
king, 7th cent — ^Mod. Germ. Rodwald — French Roualt. 
{Wa/rd, guardian) Old Germ. Hrodowai-d, 8th cent. — French 
RoDUWABT. {Wig, wi, war) Old Germ. Hrodwig, Ruodwih, 
8th cent — English Rudwick, Rodawat, Rodwat — Mod. 
Germ. Rodewig. (Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Hrodulf, king of 
the Heruli, 5th cent ; king of Buigondy, 9th cent — Ang.- 
Sax Hr6thwulf-— Eng. Rudolph — Mod. German Rudolph, 
RuDBLOFF— French Rodolphe. 

A fifth stem of similar meaning is rom, rum^ 
which Forstemann refers to hrdm, hruam, glory. 
The aspirated h forms c in a few English names. 

smPLE Fosica 

Old German Hruam^ Roomo, Rumo, 8th cent Rum, qxotj. 

name of a female serf, Cod Dip. 981. Eng. Rome, Rooic, 

Run, RuMMBT, Gbome, Cbomet^ Cboom, Cbum.* Modem 

German Rohm, Rohm, Rom. French Rommt, Rom^, 

ROMIEU. 

* This might be from «n Old Noxm luune Krumr, which leemi to bo from 
Bml hmm, brat or crooked. 



374 THE TRUMPET OF FAME: 

PD ILNU T IVJW . 

Old Qerman RumalL English Bomillt, ILukley, Bum- 
BKLOW, Cbomlet. Mo<L Germ. BoiocBLy Aummel. French 
Rommel, Roumuxy, Rummeu 

OOMPOUNDe. 

(Bald hold) Old German Rumbold, 10th cent ^English 
RuMBOLD. (HaH^ warrior) Old Germ. Hmmheri, Rumhar^ 
6th oent.— Eng. Rombb, Rummer — Mod. German Raumeb, 
RsA^UMUBy RoMEB — ^French Roumieb. (C^ wolf) Old Germ. 
Romulf, 6th oent. — French Romeuf. 

The following stem, found in three ancient 
names, all in German form% Forstemann refers- 
to Lat. dams, Mid High Germ, ddr, illustriotis. 
Some of the following are certainly of German 
origin, but others may be doubtiiiL 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

^^^^ English Clabb, Olabt, Cleab, Cleabt. French Olaib^ 
Glabet, Oleb, Olebt. 

DDCIMUTIVEB. 

Eng. OLABnx}& Eng. Glabis — ^French Ol^risbe. 

PATEONTMia 

French CLABENa 

OOMPOUNDB. 

(Bt, p. 189) English Glabet — French Glabl^t, Glebet. 
{Mwndy protection) Old Germ. Glarmunt, 9th cent^ — English 
Olabemomt — French Glebmont (or local 9). (Fw, wise) Eng, 
Glabyis, Glabtise. 

PHONETIC EMDHf O. 

French Glaibin, Gl^bik. 

PHOKETIO INTBUBION OF fk 

{BM, Md) Old German Glarembald, 11th cent.— I^. 
Olabieobold, Glabingbull— French Gu^rambault. {Burg, 
protection) French Gleramboubo. 

There is a stem dal, tal, which Forstemann 
refers to Ang.-Sax. deal, illustrioua Another 
stem dale he separates doubtingly, mentioning 
the Goth, dails, Ang.-Sax. dad, part (better the 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 375 

verb (Many to dispense, distribute). A third 
word which wotdd suit very well for the sense of 
some of the compounds is Old Norse tola, Ang.- 
Sax. taHan^ to relate, recount. However, I will 
not attempt the separation, but introduce the 
whole group here. 

BIMFLB FOKMS. jj. jj^ 

Old Germ. TaUo, Dal, Tello, Telo, Sth cent, Daila, Deil, mmitrioiu. 
Tail, 5th cent. Tella^ Lib. VU. Delee, RcU BaU. Ahb. Eng. 
Tall, Dallt, Dallow, Deli^ Dellow, Dale, Delay, Teals. 
Modem German Dahl, Thal, Tell. Swiss Tell. French 
Dall:^ Dallt, Tallb, Tel, Delle, Delay, Deleau. 
DiMnamvEa 

Eng. Dallas, Talliss — French Dalloz, Delesse. Eng. 
Tallack — French Dellac. Fries. Tlilma — Fr. Talma. 

PHONETIC EKDINO. 

Old Germ. Thailina, 11th cent Eng. Dallen, Tallon. 
French Dalok, Delan, Delanneau, Tallon. 

PATJEU)NYMIGS. 

English Dallikg, Telldtg, TEEuna. Modem German 
Dablino. French Delinoe. 

coMPOUin>& 
{Berty bright) Old GJerman Dalbert> Sth cent — ^Talberct, 
Lib. VU. — ^English 1*albert — French Dalbeet, Talbert. 
(Bot, envoy) English Talbot — French Talabot, Talbot, 
Delabaxtd ? {Ban, slayer) Eng. TsLBiN^-French Dalibon. 
(Dio, servant) Eng. Daldy I (Fer, travel) Old Germ. Dal- 
feri* — Eng. Telfer — Fr. Tailfeb, Taillefeb, Deloffre. 
(Fcird, travel) English Talfoubd 9 Telford 9 (Ger, spear) 
Eng. Talker 9 — Fr. Dalger, Deloqer, Delocre. (ffaH, 
warrior) Old German Dealher, Delheri, 9th cent. — English 
Dallor, Delhier, Deller, Teller— Mod. Germ. Thaler, 
D5LEH, TiELER— Fr. Dallery, Delaire, Delery, Tellibr. 
(Hcbrd) Fr. Dalliard, Tallard, Teillart. (Man) Old 

* Thlf ■ftmeFOntemftim doM not teem to beoertain about ; IHdfeil, Daofeil, 
and Ddferi occur nearly together, and he appean to think that one maj be pat for 
the other. Of oonrse I do not pat oat of qneitlon the oidinaty deriTation of 
TaUlefer, "Iron-deaTer." 



376 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

Ckmian Dalman, 8ih oent. — ^English Dalmak, Taujcan — 
Mod. Germ. Dahlmann, Thalmank — ^French Domotx, Dal- 
LEKAGNE f Tallemah. (Mot, famous) English Dallimobe, 
DsLLAMORE, Delkar — ^Mod. G«rm. Thalmeieb, Thalham- 
ICER 1 — French Delamabhe, Delemeb, DetiTMTKh, Delmeb. 
(Mag, mae, might) Eng. Tallemach? Talmaqe) (Jfo«, 
courage) Old Qerm. Talan^ot, 8th cent — French DELAMOTTBy 
Delmotte, Delamothb. {Rioj power) Old Genn. Delricus, 
9th oent. — French Dalbbac, Delrogq. {Ramd^ shield) Fr. 
TalletbandI (TTorc^ guardian) French Delouabd. {Wig^ 
toii war) Daliwej, ffuaul RcUa — Eng. Dallowat — French 
Dalyl 

There is a stem hlady hlat, which Forstemann, 
supposing a metathesis, places to the root haldy 
p. 240, but which Stark, as I think, more judi- 
ciously, refers to Anglo-Saxon hlcBdj glory. The 
Ang.-Saxon hlcedy a blade, lea^ metaphorically a 
sword (as in English), seems however equally 
probable. A name Blatspiel, apparently German, 
in the London directory, seems more naturally 
referable to the latter, in the sen^e of " sword- 
play." 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Qiorj. English Bi^ADE, Blatb, Platt. French Blab, Blatte, 

Bled, Blet, Platte, Plateau, Plait, Plet. 

DIMINTTnTES. 

French Plattel, Platel, Bletbl. 

PHOMSnc ENDINO. 

Old (}erm. Bladin, 8th cent. Engliflh Platok, Plattek. 
French Blatdt, Bleton. 

COMPOUNDa 

(Ea^d) Old Germ. Bkdard, 7th cent — French Platabd. 
(Hiuri, warrior) Old Germ. Blathar— Eng. Plater — French 
Bladier, Blatter, Bletert, Plaideur? (Rat, counsel) 
French Platret. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAHK 377 

In this place may come in the stem load^ lote, 
laud, -wldch Forstemami refers to Old High Germ, 
MiU, loud, which, as in the Greek, had also the 
flense of illustrious. In support of the latter 
derivation Abel quotes a line from Ermold Nigel 
in his poem in praise of Saint Louis. 

^'Nempe Bonat Hluto pnacUrum, Wicgch quoque Man est." 

Forstemann observes that there is no more 
diflGlcult root than this in the compass of German 
names, from its liability to mbc with livd, liut^ 
people. The initial h forms c in many names of 
the Merovingian period, as also in several French 
and English. 

fiOQIPLE FORMS. 

Old Gorm. (Bdodio, Frankiflh king, 5th cent ; Ohludiua, ^,^ ^^, 
Lotta Ikigliflh Laud, Loat, Lots, Lott, Clode, Cloud, 
Olout. Mod. German Lojde, Loth, Lott, EIlodb^ Kloth. 
French Laude, Laudy, Lodd^ Clauds. 

DnflNUTIVEB. 

CNd Qerman Luotheoo, 11th cent. — ^Eng. Lotcho. Eng. 
Lowdbll-— French Claudbl. 

PHONXnC ENDING. 

Engliah LoadeNj Loton, Loudon, Clutton. French 
Laudov, Loudun, Lautten, Clauddt. 

PATBONYMia 

English Clowting. 

OOMPOUND6. 

(Ha/rif warrior) Old Germ. Hlodhar, Clothar, 6th cent — 
Lothere, King of Kent^ a.i>. 673, called also Clotherins, Cod. 
JMp, 981 — ^Ekig. LoADEB, LowDBBy Clothieb — ^Mod. German 
L0THEB, LoREB — ^Fr. LoEDEB, Laudxeb, Lautosb. (Hild, 
w«r) Old German GhlotLclulda or Clothilda, daughter of the 
Boi^gandian king, Chilperic, 5th cent. — French Clotilde 
(ehrifltian name), (Mar, fiimous) Old German Chlodomir, 
son of Chlodwig lat, 6th cent. — French Clodomib. (Mtm) 

v2 



Walder. 



378 THE TRUMPET Of FAME. 

English LoADMAN, Cloudmak, Oloutman — French f Lautb- 
MANK. (Wigy wi, war) Old Grerman Lodewig, Ohlodowichi 
dodoTeuSy OloyiB, 5th cent. — French OLOYia. 

Another word having the meaning of gloiy is 
Ang.-Sax. and Old High German wuTdar. Tlxisy 
in its simple form, is apt to intermix with Walter, 
p. 345. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Q)arj' English WoLTEB. French Yoltdsb, Woi/tbb. Or all 
the above may perhaps only be the same as Walter. 

OOMFOUNDS. 

Old German Uuldeiich, Ynlderich, 8th cent. "Rnglial* 
WooLDBmoE. 

In this chapter may be included the names 
having the meaning of crown, bracelet, or orna- 
ment, in the probable sense of a badge or dis- 
tinction, as the reward of valoin:. There, is a stem 
howh, b(mch, which I take to be from GotL haicgs. 
Old High Germ, haicc, bracelet. And the forms 
biig, huckj I also take to be most probably from 
the same, on account of the constant tendency to 
change the more ancient form ou into the simpler 
u. A third form is found in the Ang.-Sax. hedg, 
bedhy hSh, whence I take to be the Eng. " badge/' 
A word very liable to intermix is hog, bow, axcus, 
p. 224, from the same general root signifying to 
bend. 

^^ SIMPLE POEMS. 

S0Q^ Old German Banco, Faugo, 6th cent. Bucoo, Bnggo, 

Bnoeiet Fucco, 8th cent. Ang.-Saxon Bucge, Buga, Beaga Bnge, 
{Domesday NoUa.). Eng. Bough, Bouchet, Beuoo, Buqo, 
Bew, Buck, Buckie, Badge, Bee, (the two latter the Ang.- 
Saxon form). Mod. Germ. Bauch, Baucke, Pauck, Buck, 
BuooE, PucHE. French Bouch^ Poucha. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 379 

DiMDnrnvEs. 

Old Germ. Buooelis, General of the Alamanni, 6th cent. 

— Eng. BucKLiK, BuGGELN — ^French Bouquillon, Bouglon. 

English Buckset — French Boucasse, Bouchez. English 

Buglea, Bewly, Buckley, Buckle, Pucklb — Fr. Boucly, 

BUCKD^ BUCAILLE, BoUGLI 

phonetic ending. 
Old G^rm. Buchinus, 7th cent. Eng. Bucsney, Buggik, 
PuGiN. French Bouoon, Bouchon, Boucheny, Bouqok, 

POUQIH, POUGKY. 

COMFOUNDa 

(Hard) French Boucabd, Boucabt, Bouohabd, Pou- 
CHABD. {Hari^ warrior) Old German HavKopis (Procop) — 
English BowKEBy Bougheb — French Boucher, Bouchebie, 
Buckeb, Bouhieb. (Et, p. 189) Eng. Bowkett, Bucket, 
PucKBT — ^Fr. Bouquet, Bouchet, Pouchet. {Ra;t^ counsel) 
Old German Bougrat, 10th cent — English Bouchebett* — 
French Bouguebet, Bouquebot, Bouchebot. {Ron^ raven) 
French Bouobain, Bouchebon. (jRie, power) Eng. Buck- 
BiDOE, PucKBiDGE — French Boucby. (Wald, power) Old 
Germ. Budowald, 6th cent. — French Bouoault, Pouoeault 
(Ulf, wolf) Old German Baugulf, 8th cent— Anglo-Saxon 
Beownlf 9— English Balfe? 

From the Gothic mizdo, Anglo-Saxon mSd, 
Old High German mi^ay reward, Eng. " meed,'' 
Forstemann derives a stem mid, miz, which may 
come in here. 

simple F0BM& * 

Old German Mieto, Mizo, 8th cent. Mede, Lib. Vit, 
English MsAi>,t Mustte. French Mmi, Miette. 

DIUIMUTlVJa). 

Old Germ. Mitola^ 7th cent — Eng. Mu>dle, Mtttell — 
French MmoL. French Midooq. 

* Of French oilglii. 
t Or to th« Item nuUh, nud, p. 841. 



MMd. 



380 THB TBUMFBT OF FAME. 

PHOmnO XNDIKO. 

Ed£^ Hmov, Misov. Frenck Miton, Mstiov. 

PATBONTMia 

Eogliah Mi80iKa 

OaMPOT7ND& 

(iTofti) French MisABD. (ffari^ warrior) French Mf pti^hi^ 

MI88ISB, MlZERY. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



WEALTH AND PROSPBRITT. 

Among the words having the meaning of 
wealth, prosperity, success, the most common 
root is Old Norse aud/r^ Ang.-Saxon eddy whence 
the Gothic avdctgSy Ang.-Saxon eddtg, eadg. Old 
Norse avdgr, wealthy or prosperous. Forste- 
mann extends this root rather widely, taking in 
all the forms in od and of, for which I think that 
two other derivations may perhaps in certain 
cases be proposed, see pp. 194, 217. Most of the 
English names, it will be seen, are in the Saxon 
form edy and most of the French in the Gothic 
form aud. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old German Audo, Oudo, Outo, 7th cent. Old Norae^"^^ 
Audr. Aiig.-Sax. Edda, Eddi, Ekta. Auti, Outi, Damesdatf. 
Eng. Aught, Auqhtxe, Ought, Auth, Eade, Eadie, Eddy, 
Eat. Modem German Ott. French Aude, Audt, Auti^ 

OXTTI, OdBL 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Audila, 6th cent. — Eng. Outlaw » — French 
AuDiLLE. Old Germ. Audac, 6th cent. — French AuDiQUxr 
(double dnmin,). English EnKma English Eddis — French 
AuDis. Old German Odemia, 8th cent. — Eng. Odam. 
FHONsnc ENDma 
Old Germ. Andin, 7th cent. English Auton, Ouorton, 
Eadok. French AuDor, Autin, Oudin. 
patbontmics. 
Old German Anding, 8th cent Eoj^h Ournra 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Bert^ bright) Old German Andebert, 7th cent — Modem 
German Odsbbecht — French Audibert. (Brand, sword) 



382 WEALTH AND PBOSPERITY. 

Old German Autprand, 9th oent. — ^French AuBBBBAHDb 
(Bwrg, protection) Old German Antbuig, 8th cent. — ^Anglo- 
Saxon E&dbnrh— Eng. Edbbook ? (Am, Om, eagle f) Old 
German Autom, 8th cent. — Odiema, Lib. ViL — ^Hodiema, 
temp, WiUiam the Conqueror — Eng. Odiebve, (Fred, peace) 
Old Germ. Autfrid, 8th oent. — French Audiffbed, Audif- 
FBET. {Gatiy magic) Old German Andiganus, 9th cent — 
French Audioanne. (Ger, spear) Old German Audagar, 
Augar, 8th cent. — ^Ang.-Sax. Edgar — Eng. EnaAH^ I^tctw^ 
Auosa — French Audiguieb, Odioier, Auokb. (Hard) Old 
German Authard, 7th oent. — French Oudabd. (HoH, 
warrior) Old German Autharis, Lombard king, 6th cent., 
Anthar — Eng. Auther — French Authieb, Autier, Audieb* 
(Ram, ran, raven) Old German Audram, Antranniu^ 7th 
cent. — ^Eng. Autbam, Outbam — French Audbak, Autran. 
(Land) Old Germ. Aotlund, 8th cent — ^Franch Authxland. 
(Mad, 9ned, reverence) Old German Automad, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Edmead, Edmett. (Man J Old German Autman, 8th 
cent. — ^English Edmahb — Modem German Odemahit. (Mar, 
&mous) Old Germ. Audomar, 7th cent — ^French Audekaba. 
(Mwnd, protection) Old Germ. Audemnnd, 7th oent — ^Ang.- 
Saz. E4dmund — English Edmond— French Edmond. (Bad, 
red, connsel) Old Germ. Auderat, Antrad, 8th oent — ^Ang.- 
Sax. E&dred, XJhtred — Eng. Audbitt, Outbed. (Ric, power) 
Old German Andricus, Autricns, 7th cent — ^Ajiglo-Saxon 
E^rio — English Outeidoe, Edbidgb — French Autbiqub, 
AuTEBOCHE. (Weahl, stranger) Otuel, Lib. VU, — English 
Edwell, Eatwell, Ottiwell. (Ward, guardian) Old Germ. 
Andoard, 8th cent — Ang.-Saz. Eidweard — Eng. Edwabd— 
French Audevabd, Audouabd, Edouabd. (Wig, war) Ang.- 
Sax. E4dwig — English Edwick — French Audout. (Wine, 
friend) Old Germ. Audowin, Audoin, 6th oent — ^Ang.-Sax. 
]B4d^^e — English Edwin — French Audoin. (WuLf) Ang.- 
Sax. Eadwnlf, E^ulf— Eng. Edolph. 

A word of similar meaning is Anglo-Saxon 
wda, weola, weal, wealth, prosperity. Forste- 
mann separates this stem from another, which he 



ft 



WEALTH AND PBOSPERITY. 383 

derives from M?eZ, bene, but I think the distinc- 
tion is scarcely to be made, and class them 
together. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^ 

01dQ«nnaii Wialo, Weala, Welo, 8th cent. English "^^ ^ 

Wealb, Wellow, Vbalb, Wheeley. Mod. Germ. Wiehl. ^"^p^*^- 
French Weil, Wbl, Veii^ Vibl, Vblly, Viollbau. • 

DIMIMUTIVKB. 

Old Qerman Weliga. English Wheelock, Whellogk, ^ 

Wellock. French Yelic. 

phonetic ekdino. 
English Wheelan. French Yeillon. 

PATBONTMIC& 

Old (German Wellunc, 9th cent. English WELLma, * 

Whbelino. Mod. G^rm. Wehuno. French Welling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(ffard) English Wellabd — ^Modern Qerman Weilebt — 
French Ouellabd, Yellakd, Yeillard, Yiolabd. (ffcMri, 
warrior) Old Germ. Wielher, 8th cent. — English Wheelbb, 
Welleb — ^Mod. Germ. Weilleb — Fr. Veilleb, Yiolueb, 

(Land) Old Germ. Wiolant, Weland,* 8th cent.— Ang.-Sax. % 

Weland — Old Norse Yolundr — Eng. Waylahd, Weland, 
Wblland— Mod. Germ. Weyland, Wieland. (Man) Old 
Grerm. Weliman, 8th cent. — Eng. Wellman — Mod. German 

Wellmann. (Eat, counsel) Old Germ. Wiebrat, 8th cent. — ^ 

Eng. Whbblwbight ? (Ulf, wolf) Old German Weololf— 
French? Wblhopp? 

From a similar root is wol, which Forstemann 
refers to Old High German wolo, wolay fortuna^ 
bene. As a prefix it may in some cases be formed 
by syncope from wolf. 

SIMPLE fobms. •^oH, 

Old German Wolo, Wol% 9th cent English Woli, proqwltj. 
WoLLEY, Wholet. Mod. German Womi, Woll. French 
Yol, Yolu^ 

* Orimm thinks that the Weland of Northern niTthologj mMj p«rh*pe 
derive his nune from Old Norse vOa, to deoeive, a derivation whioh would aooord 
with the stoiy of which he is the hero. 



384 WEALTH AND PBOaPSBTTY. 

DnaNunm. 
Eng. WoLEDOB. French Woillez. Frenoh YoiLQUnr. 

PHONXnC ENDIKG. 

EngUflh WoLLEN. FreDLoh Yoilik. 

OOMPOUinMI. 

(JSifP, 189) Eng. Wolultt, Yollsi — Frenxik YohuSE. 
(Hart, warrior) Eng. Yolleb— French Yolldeb. (Hdm) 
Eng. YoLLAic, YoLLUM — French WoiLLAUioSy YuiLLAUifS. 
(Frid, pecce) Old ^German Wola&id, 9th oant.— Frondi 
YunxEFAOY. (Ma/r^ fiunons) Old German Wolomary 8th 
cent — Mod. Germ. Wollmsb — French Yoxlleioeb. (Mu^ 
coarage) Old German Wolamot^ 8th cent — French Yuillb- 
MOT. (Mufndy protection) Old Gam. Wolamnnt, 9th cent. 
—French Yoillbmoiit. (RiCi power) Old Gezm. Wolarih, 
8th cent. — Eng. Wolbiob. (Work^ opua)* Eng. Wkoub- 

WOBKf 

From the Goth. ufj6, abuadance^ Forstemaxm 
thinks may perhaps be derived the root uf^ of^ 
remarking, however, that the root «&, (Old Norse 
vhhiy fierce) is liable to intermix. There is, more- 
over, another derivation suggested by the name 
of the Mercian king Ofiist or UflGsL His ancestor 
of the same name, who ruled over the continental 
Angehi, ^ was blind till his seventh, and dumb 
till his thirteenth year ; and though excelling in 
bodily strength, was so simple and pusillanimous 
that all hope that he would ever prove himself 
worthy of his station was abandoned.^ (Thorpe.) 
This description naturally suggests to us as the 
etymon of his name, the Anglo-Saxon uuf, owl, 
English "^ oaC^' blockhead. It does not, however, 
seem to me necessary to assume with Mr. Thorpe 
that it was any resemblance to his Anglian 

* Tblt to found m (he (vrmliiAUoB of aomt anolMit nmam. 



WEALTH AND PEOSPERITY. 385 

anoestor that gave the name to the Merciaa 
Offit ; I should rather suppose that the ignoble 
origin (if such it were) of the name had paased 
out of mind, and that it was assumed in accord- 
ance with the common principle of taking the 
name of an ancestor. 

SIMFLB FORMS. ^ ^^ 

Old Germ. Uflfo, Offo, Sth cent Ang.-Saxon OfCa, kingj^j^^i^oe. 
of Mercia. EngUah Offet, Ouqh. Mod Germ. Off. 

DIMDJUTIVJBdL 

Old Oerman Qfilo, 7th cent. English OffOiL, XJffbll^ 
Offlow, Offlbt. Mod. Qerm. Obffelb. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Oerman Oftuni, 8th cent. English Offen. French 

Ofin, Offnt. 

compounds. 
(Hcurd) English Offobd. (Sari, warrior) Eng. Offer. 
(Man) French Offman. 

For the following stem, on which Forste- 
mann remarks as very obscure, he suggests Ang.- 
Sax, toss, acervus, congeries frugum. 

simple FOBICS. 

Old German Taso, Lcmbard king, 6th cent,y Tasso, Dasso. 
Eng. Dasst. Mod. Germ. Dasse. French Dasst, Tassy. 
ItaL TASSof 

DIMINIJnVES. 

Old German Tassilo, Bavarian king, 6th cent., Dassilo, 
Dessilo— Eng. Tassell — Mod. Grerm. Dassel — Fr. Tassel^ 
TassHiT, Desolle. French Tasselin. 

<X)MP0UNDa 

(Andy life, spirit) English Dasent? — French Dessakt) 
Desaint 1 (M, p. IS9J English Dassett — French Dasset, 
Tassot. (Hard, fortis) English Dessert— French Tassebt, 
Desert, (ffwri, warrior) French Dassier. (ManJ English 
Tabman — Mod. Germ. Debsmann, Tessman. (RcU, counsel) 
Old Germ. Tasrad, 9th cent — French Desrat. (Ger, spear) 
English I'asbiker ) Tasker ?— French Tascbeb ? 

W 2 



Tms. 
Aoeinu. 



386 WSALTH AND PBOaPSRlTy. 

The idea of inheritaiice seems to be found in 
the root arb, arp, which Fdrstemaim refero to 
Gothic curbjay Old Norae a/rfiy heir» Gothic a/rbip, 
Old Norae arfr^ Ang.-Sax. er/e^ hereditaek I do 
not feel aure, however, that we ought not to take 
the most ancient meaning of the root^ aA found 
in Sansc. arv, to destroy, to desolate. Zeuss and 
Grimm mention also Gothic airpSy Anglo-Saxon 
eorpy fuscus. (In Ang.-Saxon and Old Norse this 
word had also the meaning of wolC a auitable 
sense for proper names.) 

Art. Arp SIMPLE FORMS. 

inheritonoo. ^^'^ German Arbo, Arpo, Erbo, Erpo, Herbo, Herpoj 
Herfo, 8th cent. Arpua, a prince of the Catti in Tacitus, 
1st cant., probably comes in here. Old None Erpr. Bng. 
Harp, Herp. Modem German Aryi^ Erb, Erpf, Harpb. 
French Arbbau, Arbby. 

DIMINUnVBS. 

Old Germ. Erfilo — ^Mod. G^rm. Erpel — ^Fren<^ Hxrbkl, 
Harblt. French Hrrbelih. French Hbbbso^ Frencb 
Harbez. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Erbona, Arbun, 8th cent*— English Arbov, 
Arpin^ French Arpin, Herbin, Hbrpin. 

COMPOUNBa 

{Oast, gaest) Arbogastes, a Prankish general tinder the 
Emperor Gratian, 4th cent. — French Arbogast. (Sard) 
Old German Arphert, 9th cent — French Arfost. (Sairi, 
warrior) Old German Erphari, 8th cent. — English Arber, 
Arbery, Herper, Harper f — Modem German Herpfbr t — 
French Arbre, Aryier, Heryier. (Mund, protection) Old 
German Erpmnnd, 10th cent. — French Arbomont. (Uf/i 
wolf) Old Germ. Erpulf, 8th cent — French Arybuf. 

Another stem of similar meaning may be laib, 
Imv, which Forstemann refers to Gothic laifs. 



WIALTH AND PBOSPEMTY. 387 

superstes. The meaning, however, may be, as 
Forstemann suggests, simply that of soa A 
root liable to intermix is Hub, leojl {x 264. 

Old Genxk Lei&. Englidi L^vsr, I^by^ I^vst. Mad. siip«ntM 
CkiacL Lbfk IVonch luLot, Labim, Ijgbbt, Lehbau^ Levd, 
Lbvxau. 

DIMINUTlVSa 
iBn gHA IjLTKLL, LlfiTlSLL — IVeilch LAfiSLLIB, IaYJOXE, 

LxTAtLBT, LsBiBL. SVeiich Labicrs, Lxbocq. French 
Lbflon. English Layis, Levis — Frendb TiKWUZ. 

PfiONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Leibin, Laifin, 9th cent. — English Lavin, 
liEVur — Mod. Germ. Lsbin — Fr. Layenat, Lafon, Lebak. 

OOMPOUKDB. 

fJBm, eagle) English Labesn— French Layebne. CBi, 
p, 189) English Leyett — French Labitte, Lafitte, Leyite. 
(Hard) Modem German Lepert — French Leyabd. (Bart, 
warrior) Old Germ. Leibher, 8th cent. — Eng. Layeb, Labob 
—Mod. Germ. Laibeb — French Layieb, Laboub, Labobie. 
(Sam, ran, raven) Eng. Labbam — French Layibok. (£0$, 
counsel) Old Germ. Leibrat, 8th cent. — English Leyebet — 
French Leybat, Lebeet. (EiCy power) English Layebick, 
Leyebidqe — Fr. Labbic, Lebbeck. (WcUd, power) French 
Layault, Lebbault. (Ulf, wolf) Old German Laibul^ 8th 
cent. — French Lebuffe, Lebceuf. 

The sense of acquisitiveness may perhaps be 
found in the root arg, arc, ere, which Graff refers 
to Old High German arc, arac, avarus^ though 
Forstemann thinks that some older meaning may 
lie at the bottom of it. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

Old Germ. Aigo, Archo, Araho, Ercho, 9th cent Eng. ^^^J^j^^ 
Abch, TJbch, Aboue. Mod. Germ. Ebche, Ebck. French 
Aboy, Abago. 

DIMINXTTIYBa 

Old Germ. Argil% 7th cent. English Abkell, Abculus 
(Birm.J 



J 



388 WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 

OOMPOUMDB. 

(Andf life, spirit) Old Qenn. Argant, lltk oeni. — Eng: 
Abgent — ^French Aboahd. (BcUdy bold) Eng. Abghbocd, 
Abchbell. C^udy enToj) Old Germ. Axgebud, 7th oent. — 
Eng. Abchbdtt. (Ha/rdJ Old Germ. Ardhard, lOtih oent. 
— ^Eng. ABOHABDy Obchabd, Ubquhabt. (Hariy warrior) 
Old German Argar^ Erckear, 8th oent. — ^Arohere, EoR BaU. 
Abb. — ^Eng. Abchee — Mod. Germ. EsKisa — French Abohb- 
BBAU. (Bat, counsel) Old Germ. Archarat, 8ih cent. — ^Eng. 
Abxwbioht f (Mund, protection) Old German Argemund^ 
7th c«it. — English Abqvkest, 



CHAPTEE XXIL 



THE 0X7TEB MAN. 

Names derived from personal characteristics, 
such as stature, complexion, kc., must no doubt 
have in many cases been originally surnames- 
Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, gives us one 
of the earliest instances of surnames of this sort. 
There were two Hewalds, both missionaries to 
the Old Saxons, one of whom was called for the 
sake of distinction black Hewald, and the other 
white Hewald, from the different colour of their 
hair. This brings us back to the year 692. But 
such names appear also to have been often given 
baptismally, and though in some cases we may 
suppose that they were an actual description of 
the in&nt^ yet in the majority of cases I conceive 
that they were simply adopted as being names 
in use. 

The sense of personal beauty enters into a 
considerable number of names. From the Old 
High G^m. sc&ni. Mod. Germ, schan, Ang.-Sax- 
sceane, scSne, are the following. 

SDCPLB FOKMB. 

Old Qerman Soonea, 9th cent. English Skoni^ SHom^ 
SxEEN, SsDnr, Shekn, SHnnc, Shuqi. Mod. C^rm. Sohon. BtavtitaL 
French Schone. 

OOMPOUNDB. 

(Burg, protection) Old Germ. Sconiboxga, Soonborg, 10th 
cent — French Shobnbebo. (Hari, warrior) Old Qerm. Scon- 
hari, 8th cent. — English Shokeb, SmNEB, SHnrmB— Mod. 
Germ. ScHaNEB — French 9 Schensb. f^i/on^ Eng. SHsmyAir. 



390 THE OUTER MAN. 

The sense of personal beauty is in some 
instances closdy aiiied to tlmt of brightness. 
Thus the above root is related to Eng. "shine'" 
and ''sheen/' And tbe Old Norse dcsgilegr^ 
pulcher^ is probably connected mth da^ day, 
dagian^ to shine. Again^ the sense of bright- 
ness is used metaphorically to express glory ot 
£sun^ as in the root bert, bright^ p. d69. But 
though these two seoftes are natui«J^f Jiabfe to 
intwmiZ) I am inclined to think that the BkOte 
general meaning is that of |)ersonal beautj;. In 
the former editijon I took the root ^io^ day» to 
be derived from the personifioation of Nor^^^efca 
mythokigy. But Grimm {Deut$ek. Oramnn.) 
suggests whether its meania^ may not be i^at 
of brightness or beauty. The laitter sense I take 
%A the most suitable^ and iii^oduDe the groiq^ la 
thisplaca 

SIMPLE FOBMB. 

Die; T^, <M GtnnttfiL Dag, Dago, Da|[t^ 1)«»6, Tftcoo, fHQk (^ent 
M*''*^^^ Engliflh Dago, Dack, Dbck, Day, Taog, Tbgo, Tat. HoL 
^^^' Oenxum Dajlkb, JXkax^ Becjk, Tao^ Iaqk. EiwiGh Daqa, 
Ta^uo, Decq, DaoAT. 

BIMUninVBH. 

Old dennUL Dftgalo, TacHo, 7tl^ cent.— !Ekigliish t>kaLtty 
DauiT, Tackle, TACESjrr, TrfflosLii-^Mtsl 6«fitKtti IMmuc, 
Taoel — Fr. Degalle, DmolA| Dbcle, Dechillt, Deola, 
DinXY. Old G«niou Dacotontm, 7tli cent. — ^SVentsh l>At?LiK, 
DiBCLfi^ IDmlaite. Bn^Bdi Daykik. Bug. l^ATtti, IDask, 
Daisy — French Dages, Daces. 

GOaCPOUNDS. 

(in4 l^e, spirit) Old Germ. Dachanti, Sth cent. — French 
Dagand. {BM, bold) Old Oei*man Ta^^^d, Dacbold, -Sth 
cent. — Daegbald, Z$& VU, — Ibglish Daysbll — Mod. Germ. 



TH£ OUTSB HAN. 391 

Iabow {Bem, bear) Old Qanoaik Ti^p^^em, 9«h otnK-^ 
English TiLTBUBN* (iSer^ blight) Old G«nniui Pagabortt 
FrankiBh king, 7th cent— *Mod. Qermau Dabbebt — French 
Dacbebt, Degobebt. (Bing, protection) Old German Taga- 
biiga^ 9th cent — Eng. Taokababry. ("Oest, hospeB) French 
Daobst. f€Mm, fierce) Old German Dagrim, 9th cent — 
French DAGBiKy Dagbon.* (ffari, warrior) Old German 
Daiher, 9th cent — Dacher, Lib. Vii. — EngEsh Daggeb, 
DACKEBy Dateb, Dairy — Modem German Taoeb — French 
Dagxtebbe, Dagouby, Dacbsby, 1>bgory, DECKEBy Decobl 
(Hard) English Tagabt, Tbgabv — Mod. German Deckebt — 
French Tacbabd, D^crabd. fJIehnJ Old Germ. Dachelm^ 
9th cent — English Dacombb — French Deghaume. fMed^ 
rererence) French Dagqh^. (M(va) Eog. Taokvan, Day- 
man — ^Mod. German Tagmank. (ifund, protection) Old 
C^erman Dagamund, 9th cent — English Daymont, (Ram4^ 
shield) French Degbanb, Decband. {Roity counsel) Old Germ. 
DtboamA, 6th Q«Qt--->Fr9i»Qh l>Eciwr, {Wun^ fiiend) Old 
Germ. Dagoin, 8tb oent^Frencb PagoxiSi Dacquin, (U^^ 
wolf) Old Qemuui Dagaolf, Tburingiaa duke, 6tb cent-<^ 
Mod. Germ. DauIiF — French Degof, Decuye. 

p^0NEnc n^TBuaioN of n. 
{Hdurd) Old Germ. Tagenard, 9th cent Fr. Taqniabd. 

I take the 3tem glas^ gUs,\ also to bare tba 
mea^iDg of shiiung» smoothuesa^ and henGo of per« 
soual beauty. In the former edition I referred 
our name Glass to glass, vitrum^ but I now 
think it necessary to look deeper, and to take the 
root from which that word is derived. The sense 
contained is that of brightness^ smoothness, and 
polish, and the root is found in Old High Germr 

* Or thete two naniM, and espeeUJly the Utter, may be the lame m the 
Dsoghrefa of Beown]f««r|^ rsvan, beliig in Fnndh namea fiv^pMntly oontraeted 
intonm. 

t Perhapa to the iame item may be pnt Kn^IJsh Gums, Qtosi^ French 
Clossi, CiiOBS, English Clobib, French Glosiui, Ac 



392 THE OUTER MAN. 

gltzan, Mod. Germaii gleiszen, to ahine, Old Norse 
gkssa^ to polish. Old High German glas, glis, 
brightness, Engh'sh glaze, gloss, glistea 

Qlam, GUm. simple FOBMa 

BdiiitiiMi Old German Glk, lOih cent, English Glass, Glasset, 
Btfttttjr. Olaze, Class. Mod. Genn. Glass^ Gleiss, Klabs. French 
Glas, Glaise, Glaze. 

DlMINUTrVE. 

English Glaskzn. 

FHONBnO ENDING. 

English Glasbon, Glissan, Olasson. French Glabson^ 
Classen. 

OOmPOUNDS. 

(Hard J Eng. Glazabix (Eari, warrior) Old German 
Glifiiier, 81^ cent — Eng. Glazieb, Glaisher — Mod German 
GlIseb — ^French Glaeseb. (Widd, power) Bng. Cussqld. 

Again, the sense of brightness sometimes 
merges into that of whiteness. Thus the Anglo- 
Saxon blanc. Old High Germ, blanch^ white, seem 
to have their root in Old Norse blanka, to shina 
And the Ang.-Sax. bide, pale, is derived from the 
verb bltcan, to shine. Hence, as the Eng. *'fair^ 
means both light-complexioned and also beautiful, 
so I think in the above two roots there may be 
something more contained than the mere sense of 
white or pala ^ 

Blank. SIICPLB fOElfB. 

wbito^ Old Germ. Blanca, lOtii cent. English Blank, Blanch, 
B«»*>'»^' Blenkt, Bunco, Plank, Planch^, Plincke. Mod. Germ. 
Blank, Blano, Blenk, Planck. French Blanc, Blanque, 
Blanca, Blanche, Blangt, Planque, Planchb. 

FHONEnC ending. 

English BlIbnkin.* French Blanchin. 

* H«nM Blshkiksop m it loo«l name, "BtonUn't hope," (A]iff.-Su. hSp, 
i). 



THE OUTEE MAN. 393 

COMPOUNDB. 

(Si^ p. 189) EngliBh Blakohett— French BLAVQUETy 
Blahghbt, Plakquet. (Hard) Old Germ. Blancaid, Blan- 
tdiard, 11th cent. — English Blanchard — Modem German 
BtAiTCKAJUyT — French Blanoabd, Blanchabd, Blakgbard, 
Plakchabdl fffarij warrior) English Blanoker — French 
BLAJTQUiBBy PlanxiB) PLAHcaBR. (Man) Eng. Blavxmak. 
(Bonf tBUven) Eng. Blbnkiboh, Blinckhobm — French Blak* 
OHEBOK. {Ward, guardian) French Blanquart. 

From the Anglo-Saxon bltcan^ to shine. Old 
High Germ, hleih, Ang.-Sax. bide, pale, I derive 
the following stem, which is cognate with the 
laftt^ losing the nasal. There are several Old 
German names, but only one corresponding with 
ours. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Bl»ke,Bliok. 

Eng. BiildK, Bleak, Bleach, Blake, Blaket, Blaoow, pak, 
BuGH. French Blboh. fiMuttfoit 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hwriy warrior) Old German Blicker, 8th cent. — English 
BLAKftR, Bleacher — Mod. G^rm. Blecher — French Bl:^ 
KPSrXBL, {Mwn) Blaecmon, Lib. VU. — Eng. Blakemak. 

Of a similar meaning maybe the word Jlad, 
Jkst, for which Grimm supposes a Gothic ^hs. 
Old High Germ, fidt, in the sense of brightness, 
cleannesa Traces of these two senses are found 
respectively in the Mid. High German vlaetec^ 
shining, and Mod. German unjlath, filth. As a 
termination it is peculiar to the names of women, 
and in Ang^-Sax. takes the iormjled, as in Adel- 
fleda, Wynfleda, Ac. The Old Norse flidd, a 
beautiftJ or elegant woman, may be cognate. 

SIMFLEFORM& 

Bng^ FtATT, Flew, FLAtAU. Mod. German Flathe. p^f**^ 
fVench Flad, Flaud. 

X2 



394 THE OXTTBB MAK. 

DIMiNUTlVX. FHOlf SnO WSTDISQ. 

Eng. Flattklt. Eng. Flition. French Flaioh. 

OOMFOUNDfi. 

(Hart, wanior) English Flatteb, Flaitert. {Mcui^ 
En^^ Flatkan. {Bod^ gloiy) Old Qennan FUdradiSy 8th 
oenl — ^French Flatraud. 

Another word having the meanmg of beauty 
may be wan^ wen. Forstemann suggests Gothic 
v4n$, opes, or Old High Germ, wdn^ spes, opinio. 
Graff also refers to Old High Germ, wan^ deficiens^ 
imperfectum, and wdniy poverty. The most suit- 
able root, as it seems to me, in most cases^ is Old 
Norse vcmn^ formosus, elegans, to which I here 
place it. 

iir ^ Wen. StMPLS VOBMB. 

BaratifoL Old Germ. Wan, Wano, Yano, Wenni, 8th oent. Eng. 
WAins, Wenv, Yahi^ Yahn, Ybmk. Ft. Yakbt, Gui^hxav. 

DIMIMUTlVJfll 

Old Germ. Wanilo, Yenilo, 8th oent. — ^Eng. Wahhel^ 
YsznrELL— French Yanelli, Yemsllbl Old Germ. Wanioho, 
Wenniko, 9th cent— Eng. YAKinfiCK — ^Mod. Germ. WAjmncK 
— French Yaxtbgux. Old German Wannida, Wanito, 9ih 
oent — Eng. Wahhod— Frendi Yanbtti. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Wanini, 8th oent French Yanik, Yanoni. 

PATK0NYHI03. 

Old Germ. Waning, Wening, 7th oent Eng. Wennino, 
Yenniko. Mod. Germ. WENura, 

COMfOUNDB. 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Weniant^ 9th cent. — French 
Yenant. (Bald, bold) Old German Wanbald, 9th cent- 
French GutN]iiBAULT. fOer, spear) Old German Wanegar, 
8ih cent — French YANAOKkaE — ^Mod. German Wenigeb. 
(Hari, warrior) Eng. YAinnEB, Yenner — French Wanneb^ 
Yannieb. (kard) French Yanabd, Yenabd, Guenabd. 
{Lofug, laTaomm t) Old Germ. Wanlog, 8th cent — Engiiwh 
Wenlook. {Mam) English Wenhan, Wainman? {MtUh, 
courage) English Wenmoth. (RiU, counsel) Old German 



THE OUTER MAN. 395 

Waniafc, 0th cent — Eng. WAunmiGHTt — Freach GmbnouT. 
(Waldt power) Frenoh YtaxAuur, Guskault. 

The names derived from complexion or colour 
of the hair are liable to some uncertainty on 
account of the curious manner in which certain 
of the words denoting colour intermix in their 
roots. To call black white has passed into a 
proverb, yet, as Mr. Wedgwood has shown, it is 
probable that the original meaning of black was 
white or pale. Again, the two colours, blue and 
yeUow, which have stood in hostile array on so 
many hustings, can scarcely be separated in their 
roots. The Old Norse bldr Haldorsen renders 
both as flavus and csBruleus ; the Italian hiavo, 
blue, is explained by florian as pale straw- 
coloured ; the Dutch blond is applied to the livid 
hue of a bruise, as well as to the yellowish colour 
of the hair ; and the Old French hid is explained 
by Boquefort as blond, jaune, bleu, et blanc. 
Hence, as Mr. Wedgwood observes, it becomes 
difficult to separate Mid. Lat. blavt^, blue, from 
Latin ^in^, yellow. 

So far then as the root bktck appears to be 
baptismal, we cannot be sure that it does not 
intermix with the two previous roots blank and 
hlake. 

fOMFLEVOiaa. 

Blache, Blac, DometdcM/. Eng. Black, Blackik Erench 
Blaqux. 

oompoukdgl 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Blacksb — ^Fr. Blaghdeb, Blaoheb. 
(if on) BlsBoman, genealogy of the kings of Northumbiia — 
Blacheman, Domeaday — Eng. Blackmait. 



Klgwt 



396 THB 0UT9R MAK. 

Betwoea blue and yellow we have aoareely a 
choice, if we take a positive colour at all. In the 
few Old GernL names in which it oocure Fdrste- 
mami proposes the latter sense as the more natural 
But there is a wider sense which might perhapa 
be taken. The Anglo-Saxon bleOf blue, signifies 
also bloom, beauty, and the root appears to be 
found in the Old High Germ. Uuen, Ang.-SaxQu 
blewan, blowan, to blow, bloom, flourish. A, 
similar sense is found in many other names. 

Bl«e, Blow. SIMFLX FOBMB. 

Bloom! Old Germ. Blawa^ Bloa» 8th centw Eng. BuEW, Bx«RiT, 
Blow. French Bleu, BLotr, BlkL 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Hcuri, warrior) Bngliih Blewkb, Blowsb. 

There is a word hleon, found in several Old 
German names, which Grimm takes to be related 
to, and have the same meaning as Ang.-Sax. 6foo, 
bloom, colour. To this may belong the following. 

Blain. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bloom? Old Qerm. Bleon, Fleon, 8th cent Eng. Blowv, B^AQI» 
Blanet, Pladt. French Bladt, Bleik, Bluy, Pi^adt, Pi^jrvf. 
compounds. 
(Harij warrior) English Plaitnee — French Blenseb, 
Plakssr, Planeb. (RiMy powerful) French Plaxey. 

It is probable that the word hlandy hio^, 
which is found in some German forms both in 
ancient and modem names, has the same meaning 
as the ItaL biondo^ French bhnd, fair or flaxen. 
Diez suggests that this may be a nasalised fond 
of Old Norse blattdr, Danish blod, soft, weak, in 
the sense of a soft tint. Mr. Wedgwood conneots 
it with Pol. blady, pale, Ital. biado, biava^ palc^ 



TKE OUTSB MAK. 397 

straw-colouredL Forstemaon referB m the follow- 
ing names to the Aog.-Sax. Uanden-feax, which 
he raDders flayi-<K>mua But Bosworth renders 
it only grey-haired, from blanden, to mix {i.e. black 
and white). There may be an intermixture of 
these two meanings, but the former seems the 
more probable, 

SIMPLE FOSMa 

Old Qerman Bland, 10th cent. English Bland, Plant. ^'"^ 
French Blond, Blondeau, Blondi^ Blanzy, Plantt. 

DDONUnVEa 

Old Qeno, Blandila (with the yariation Brandila). Eng. 
Blxndeli^ Blondell. French Blonpel. 

PHONEUC ENDING. 

Eng. Blandhn. Fraieh Blandin, Blondxn, PLANrnr. 

cx)]fFonNDa 
(HardJ French Plantabd. {Han, warrior) French 
Plantieb. 

From the Ang.-Saz. deorc, dark, in the sense 
of oomplezion, I take to be the following. H^ice 
the name of the Maid of Orleans, commonly called 
Joan D'ArOj but properly Joan Dare. There are 
some ancient names, but not any correspondiog 
with oura 

aiMPLS FOBMS. j^l^ 

Eng. Dabx, Dabch. French Dabquj^ Dabohe, Debche. 
DiMiNirnvB. 
French Dabclon. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. Dabkot, Daboak 9 Frendi Dsbquennk 

OOlOPOUNDa 

(Eari, wanior) English DABKSBr--*Frencb DAsquiSB, 
(Man J English Da 



Of a similar meaning may be the word darrif 
tarn, which Forstemann refers to Ang.-Sax deme, 



398 THE OUTEB MAN. 

oocultus, Old High German tamjan, dissimulare^ 
&c.» supposmg as the most ancient meaning that 
of dark complexion. Here again there are no 
ancient names to correspond with ours. 

Tun. SnCPLB POBMa 

nuk Eog. DsBV, Tabk. French Dabhat, Debsi. 

DDONITTiySS. 

Eng. DABJsnsLLf Dabvlet. French Dabnul 

COMFOUND8. 

(Aud, prosperitj) French Tabnaub. (^arif warrior) 
Enj^iflh Tabvsb. 

The stem white is very difficult to separate 
from other stoma In Ang.-Sazon there are names 
b^pnning with whit or hwU, as if from white» 
albuSy and others beginning with wiht^ as if from 
wiht, a man. These sometimes seem to inter- 
change ; thus the nephew of Cerdic is called both 
Whitgar and Wihtgar. The corresponding Old 
Germ, form is generally wid or wit, as in Witgar 
and Widgar» and the probability seems to be that 
all these names are the same. Forstemann refers 
to vnt, wide, and wid, wood. The conmionness of 
our name White is I apprehend owing to its 
being in most cases a surname derived from com* 
plexion. 

So Bbown we can scarcely doubt to have 
been in most cases a sumama Tet it was by no 
means uncommon as a baptismal name, and it is 
not quite certain as to its meaning. Forstemann 
thinks that there may be an intermixture of brUn^ 
brown, and of Old High German brunno, Anglo- 
Saxon brunn, bum, Scott. ** bum," brook, (in the 



THE OTJTEB HAN. 399 

86D86 of impetuosity \) I also think, see p. 127, 
of Old Norse brUn, the eyebrow. 

But even taking the sense of "* brown/' there 
may be something more to be said The sense in 
proper names is in so many cases the deepest- 
lying one, that I am led to enquire what is the 
root of brown. Clearly, as it seems to me, that 
suggested by Mr. Wedgwood, ** the colour of 
things burnt, from Gothic brinnan, German 
brennan, to bum.'' The sense of burning seems 
to be that in the Ang.-Sax. brUtn-ecg, an appella- 
tion of a sword. This is rendered by Bosworth 
** brown-edged," but should it not be rather 
** bright or burnished edge ?" So the Mod. Germ, 
has hruntreny to burnish. The Ang.-Saz. brand, 
English brand, a sword, shews a similar sense 
from the same root. Our name then, Bbown- 
SWOBD, I take to have the meaning of '' bright- 
sword." And a similar sense, or perhaps rather 
that of fiery or impetuoTis, may at any rate inter- 
mix in the following names. 

SDiPLE F0B1C& 

Old Qerm. Bran, Bruno, Bmni, 8th cent. Ang.-Saxon 
Brtln.* Br6n, Lib. VU. Old Norse BrtaiL Eng. Browit, 
Bbukb. ^od. German Braun, Beunn, BBihro. Fr. BsuK, 
Bbttvo, BBxnnEAV, Bbunt. 

DDOMUTIVJEH. 

Old Genu. Bnmioho, 8ih oent. — ^Mod. Oerm. BBUirGK— 
Frendh Bbuhachb. Eng. Bbownbll^ Bbowhlow — ^Frenoh 

BbUNEL^ PBUinELb 

* Brftn, bgndd. In » diutor of mannmtwlon, CSmI IMp. No. 1868L BMwn, th* 
b«idl«p "whftt ft nlttatMBlh ovntnij loiiiid V ICr. Turner oddly enoui^ traiuUlOT 
it "ttM brown bwkU*." 



Wvammt 



400 THE OUTER MAN. 

PH0NB1S0 ENDUrO. 

Old QemL BnuiizL Eng. Bbuvnen, 
PATfioimacB. 
Old Geimaii Broniiig^ 8ih oent Bmningiu^ lAb. F«L 
Eng. Buowinva 

OOMPOUNDa. 

{AnA^ Hfe, qpirit) fVenoh BscHiiini {B% p. 1S9) BngUah 
BBOWsiTT^French Bsmnsr^ FltuKirr. {Emri) Old GemuoL 
Bronliard, 9tih cent — ^Modem Qennan BBummT'— Fraooh 
Bbunabd. (fhr^ spear) Old German Bmnger, 8ih cent — 
Bngliflh BBtTNKEB. {Hcuri, warrior) Old German Bninlieri, 
Branher, 9tb oent.*-»l*r. Bbukkb, BBumneB, BBCNKABnTB, 
PltUHiBB. {Eia, power) Old German Bninrio, 9tli oenl— 
Sng. BaowiTBiGa 9 

The stem dun may be either referred to Aug.- 
Sax. dunn^ brown^ or to Old Norse duna^ thunder^ 
The latter seems to me the more probable, as 
there are other names with the same meaningi 
elsewhere referred to. 

It is probable that Grey, like Brown and 
White, has been in most cases a surname. But 
it is also found in many baptismal names, and 
there is another sense, which seems to be closely 
allied, and which may perhaps intermix The 
Old Norse grdr, grey, signifies also malignus ; 
and the Germ, grauen^ to turn grey, signifies also 
to detest, and to be afraid o£ So also the Old 
High Germ, gris^ grey> seems to contain the root 
of Ang.-Sax. grisUc, Eng. grisley. The particle 
gr seems to be formed fi-om a natural expression 
of horror or aversion. There may then be con- 
tained in some of the names from this root a 
similar sense to that referred to at p. 192. 
Nevertheless, judging from the ancient names. 



Gtij. 



THB OUTER 1£AN. 401 

the meaukig in some cases is certamly nothing 
more than grey. The following may be referred 
to the Ang.-Saz. gr4g. Old Fries, gre. Old High 
German graw. 

SDIPLS roBMa 
Old GernL Grao, Grawa Gray, RoU BatL Abb. Eng. 
Ojubqo, Gbet, Gbbw, Grat, Obxw. Mod. Gennan Gbau. 
French GBifoT, Grau. 

DDilNUTlVEBi 

English GsATLora French GiiEELnn}. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ber, bear) Sng. Gbttebeb ? (Man) Old Germ. Graman, 
8th cent — Eng. Gbumican — ^Mod. Germ. Gramanv — French 
Gbaxaiv. {Wcddf power) Old German Graolt-^French 
Qraxwt. 

Another word of the same meaning is Old 
High Germ, grisy Lat. griseus, French gris. The 
Old Norse gris, porcellus, whence apparently the 
name Gris of several Northmen in the Land- 
namabok, might intermix 

gnfPT.n FOBMB. 

Old German GrisuSy CriBso, 8th cent Greasy, Greasy, ch^. 
Gracj t BoU BaU. Abb. English Gbicb^ Gbacb f Gbagbt f 
Obsbst. French Gbiess, Gbbsy, Gb^st. 
DiMiNimvEa 

English Gbissell, Gbeslet, Gbbssall— French Gbisoi^ 
QsMSLty Gbaeblb. French Gbiselin, Gbeslov. 

PHONETIC ENDIKO. 

French Gbdsssen, Gbison, Gbessok: 

OOMPOUmM. 

(JTicmQ French Gbisabd. (JETort, warrior) French GBisnsBy 
Gbbsszkb. {LcMdj French GBB8LAin>. {WM, power) Eng. 
GbisoZiD^ Gbeswold. 

A st^m which may perhaps come in here is 
more or moor, respecting which Forstemann 
remarks — ** a not imcommon but an uncer- 

Y 2 



Gfli^ 



402 THE OUTSB MAN. 

tain stem, for which I scarcely dare yenture to 
think of the Old High German vi6r, iEthiope." 
Yet if there were names derived £rom ihe Huns, 
I do not quite see why not fix>m the Moors^ whose 
name must have been familiar to most of the 
German peoples. At the same time, it will 
perhaps be safer to take the more general sense 
of dark or swarthy complexion. Though I do 
not feel quite. sure that it may not be in some 
cases a degenerate form of mord, p. 258, aa we 
find in the Diplomata of Pardessus a person 
variously called Mora and Morta. On the wholes 
however, I feel inclined to bring in the stem hera 

Mor, Moor BIlfPLB FOBMS. 

Dwk. Old German Maur, Mauri, Mor, Moio, Mora^ Moor, 6th 

cent. £ng. Mobb, Moret, Maubt, Mobrow, Moobk Mod. 
GeroL MoHB. French Maub, Maubet, Mobi^ Mobeau. 

DmiNUTIYBB. 

Old Germ. Maarilo, 8th oent. — ^English Mobell — Mod. 
GernL Mohble — French Maubel^ Mobel. Old German 
Mauroleno, Morlennay 7th cent. — English Mobung — French 
MoBOJiOK, MouBU)N. Old German Manremia* 9th cent — 
French MoeiamiI 

PfiONETIO ENDINQ. 

Old German Morino, 8th cent Morin, Ettnd BdU, 
English MoBAN, Moobhek. Mod. G^rm. Mohbik. French 
Maxtbiv. 

PATBONTMICB. 

Old German Mauring, 8th cent Mod. Germ. Mobino. 

French Maubenque. 

GOMPauNna. 
{Bwty fiunous) Old Germ. Maurbert, Morbraht, 8th cent. 
— Ebig. MoBEBBEAD f (Hardy fortis) Old German M<M:hard, 
8th cent — Mddem German Mohbhabd — French Mobabik 
(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Manrhar^ 8th oent — ^Mod. Qetm, 
Maubeb— French Maubieb. (Lac, play) Old Germ. Maur- 
lachy 8th cent — English Moblock — French Moitblaquk. 



THE OUTER UJlS. 403 

(Hdm) French MosmALM. (Man) Engliah Mobxmak, 
MooBKAN — ^Modem Qerman Mobbmaxs. (WcvrdJ English 

MOBWASD. 

Snow is I think more probably from a mytho- 
logical origin than from anything relating to com- 
plexion. It was the name of a mythical king of 
Denmark, one of whose daughters was also called 
Mioll, which signifies freshly fallen snow. The 
latter was a common female name among the 
Northmen, and hence may perhaps be our Mtatj^, 
Mttstt.^ Meat.t^ In addition to the two Old 
German names, Sneoburg and Sneward, cited by 
Forstemann as compounded with meo, snow, I 
adduce two others, Snahard and Snsedisa^ from 
the liber Vitse. The latter signifies " snow- 
nymph'' or " snow-woman,'' and may be compared 
with our Snowman (Suff. Sum.) 

There are several names which seem to be 
derived from the curling of the hair, and at the 
bottom of some of which may lie a heroic sense. 
For among the ancient German tribes the wear- 
ing of the hair long or curled was considered a 
badge of the noble or the hero. In Anglo-Saxon 
hcc-bora signified "a hair-bearer, a noble," and 
locC'ho7'e ** one entitled by her rank to wear long 
hair, a lady," (BosworthJ. The tribe of the Suevi 
was noted, according to Tacitus, for wearing their 
hair fastened up into a peculiar curl or knot. 
This peculiarity I have suggested, p. 304, as the 
origin of their name. A similar origin is sug- 
gested by Grimm and Eichthoven for the name 



J 



404 THE 0T7TBR MAK. 

of the Frisiaiis (or Frieses), viz., the Old Frieaic 
frisle^ a curl, of which the simple form is found 
in English friza^ to curl, frieze^ a rough woollen 
cloth, and the French f riser. The latter is pro- 
bably of German origin, as it is not found in the 
Italian language. Other derivations have however 
been proposed for this people's name, as that by 
Zeuss referred to at p. 312. 

From the Old Norse hrusa, to curl, may 
perhaps be the following. The NortL English 
word cruse or crowse, which has the meaning of 
forward or ** bumptious^*' may possibly be from 
this origin, preserving a trace of the heroic sense. 
A word liable to intermix is ffratise, elsewhere 
noticed in this chapter. 

^jyg^ aiMPLB fOBUa 

CniM. Engliflh Ceusx, Obubo. German Kbuss. DaiL Ebusb. 
French Obuiob, Obeusb, Cbeuz^ Obeuot, Oboubsb, Obovsi, 
Ohuz, Obubst. 

DIMIKnnTBB. 

English Crusssll. French Obvzel. 

OOMPOUND& 

(Ewrd) French Obeusabd. {Ewi\ warrior) French 
Obvbsiebel 

From the Ang.-Sax. crisp^ curled, may be the 
following. But the Latin ompt^ may have 
an equal claim, for there is nothing in any of 
these forms essentially German. 

BIMPLB FOBM& 

^^ English Obisp, Cbipps I 

DnaNunvBB. 
English Cbbsfel. French Cbbspel. 

PHONETIC XNDIKO. 

Orispina, dandier of Rollo, duke of Normandy, 10th 
cent. Eng. Obispik, GBSSPiir. French Gbispin, Obispin. 



Cintod. 



THE OUTER MAN. 405 

From the Danish hroUe, Old English "'crull,'' 
English " curl,'' may be the following. 

BIKPLBFOBM& 

Ourlj, B6U BaU. Alb. Englkh Cboll^ Oboly, Oubu.. 
Hod. Genn. Kboli^ Kbuui. 

PATBONYHia 
TBtiglit^h OUBLIKO. 

Under this head may in some cases be included 
the name Habding. As a general rule the stem 
hard is to be referred to Ang.-Sax. heard, English 
hardy. But the Hardings (in Ang.-Sax. Heard- 
ingas) are celebrated in ancient poems as a heroic 
race^ and Grimm has observed (Deutsch Myth. 
317, 321) that there was a Gothic hero race called 
Azdingi, and an Old Norse Haddingjar. He 
remarks that the Gothic zd, the Ang.-Saxon rd, 
and the Old Norse dd interchange, so that 
Heardingas^ Azdingi, and Haddingjar may all 
be different forms of the same word. And the 
root may be found in the Old Norse haddr^ a 
lock or curl, giving the sense of " crinitus, capil- 
latus, dncinnatuEf,'' which, as before observed, was 
the attribute of the hero. 

From the German grass^ great, in the sense 
of large stature, and from an extra High German 
form grausB, as noticed at p. 49, may be the 
following. Forstemann however refers this stem 
to Anglo-Saxon greosan, horrere, in the sense of 
metuendtu. 



OML 



Old Oenn. Oroeo, Ghsoso, QroBy Oxofl, 6th cent EngHsh 
Qbobe, Gbousb, Obo6& Mod. Genn. Obo6& Erench OBom^ 
Gbusss, Obossb, Obozb. 



406 THE OUTEB MAN. 

«^ DIMmUTlVJEa 

Freaoh Gbosbill^ Gbusellb. French GBOsasLm. 
ooMPomnw. 
(Hardy fortds) Eng, OBOflBRT — ^French QbobbasDj Gbos- 
BABD. (ffwi, warrior) Engliah Oeobeb, Obobxb — ^French 
GBOSBDEBy Gbozieb. (Man J Eng. GBOflSMAir, GBOSSicAir. 

Another word havmg the meaning of great is 
probably mic or muc, which Forstemann takes to 
be the simple form of Gothic mikilo, Sco. mickle 
and mticJde. 
muk miwl simple fobms. 

GxMt Old Germ. Miooa, 3rd cent Maoca, Lib. ViL Engliab 

MiOBiB, MicOy Much. Mod. Germ. MucKSy Muoco. French 
MiCHTy MiCH^, Moug£ 

OOMPOUITDB. 

(Hardy fortis) Old Germ. Michard, llih cent — ^Modern 
Germ. MiroKRRT — ^French Micabd. (Wold, power) Bn^^iah 
MucKSUF — French MiCAXwr, Michault. (Wmef friend) 
French Micounr. 

igi..H^^ XXTENDBD FOBM MICKLB, HUCKLK 

Mnokit. Eng. MiCKiJ^ MvcEXB. Mod. Germ. Mugkbl. French 

Q«at MiCOL. 

OOMPOUND& 

(Hard, fortis) French Mioquelabo. (Hari, warrior) 
French Micollieb. (Mijm) Mod. German Michelkann — 
French Mukleuan. (Jfor, famoos) Engliah Michblmobx t 
(Ealy counsel) English Migklewbight 9 Mugklbwbath f 
(MawikM^r ) 

From the Ang.-Saxon thic. Old Norse ihydor^ 
digr. Mod. Germ, dick, stout> tldck, may be the 
following. 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

nek, Thick. Old Germ. Thicho. Old Norse Thyckr, Digr CsunuMmeaJ. 
sumt English TmcK, Dick, Diceie, Tiog, Tick. Mod. German 
Dick, Tibok. 

DIMnniTIVES. 

Ang.-Sax. Dicoel (fmund m DiccelingaSy now DUMing^ 
Cod, Dip. 3U) — ^Eng. Dioole, Tickix 



THS OUTER ICAN. 407 

PHOHETIG BNDINO. 

Old Qerm. Tichhan^ 9tb cent. Eng. DiCKiN. 

OOMPOUHINS. 

(Ety p. 189^ English TmoKxr. (Hard) Mod. German 
DiCKEBT — French Diohabd, Diqabd. {HaHy warrior) Eng. 
Dicker, Digoby — French Diohabbt. (M<m) Eng. Dick- 

MAN, DlGlCAN, DiTCHMAN — ^Mod. Germ. DiKMANK. 

Of a siinilar meaning I take to be the stem 
husSy as shewn in Old Norse h'Assa, a stout woman, 
hAsaa^ a broad ship, &tm, a short, broad knife. 

SmFLB FOBMSl 

Old Gennan Bnaao, Puaso, 8th cent Siyard Bnaa, a g^^. 
Northman f (Domesday Line, J Eng, Buss, Busset; Mod« 
Germ. Boos, Buss. French Bubsb, Busst, Pusst. 

DIMINUTlVEa. 

Old German Buailo^ 8th cent English Bubsbll. Mod. 
GenoiL BdSBii. 

PATBONTMia 

English Bussoro. 

OOKPOUNDa 

(HardJ English Bubzabd — French Bussabd. (ffari^ 
warrior) fVench Busseb, Bussi^bb. (J/on) Engk Bussman — 
Mod. Germ. BussMAmr — French BuiSMAir. 

I take the stem boss (for which Forstemann 
finds no other derivation than the Old High 
German bdsiy Mod. Germ, base, wicked, which he 
admits to be an unsatisfactory one) to be the 
same as btiss. But it suggests as possible a rather 
different meaning, though from a common origin, 
viz., the Dutch bossCy busse^ a boss or knob of a 
buckler, French bosse^ a bunch, hump, or knob. 
Again, as Mr. Wedgwood observes, the words 
signifying a lump or protuberance have commonly 
also the sense of striking, knocking, of which he 
gives many examples. And we have Dutch 



408 THE OUTER MAK. 

bossen, ItaL btisMre, FroDch bausser, to knocks 
Bav. hossen, to strike so as to give a dull sound. 
Either this, or the sense of the boss of a buckler, 
are meanings which might obtain, along with 
that first mentioned. 

Boh 8IMPLS FOBMB. 

B"^> Old Qermaii Bobo, Bosbo, Pobo> 6ih cent Engliah Boas, 
BossEY. Mod. Oerman Bo8% Pose. Frendli Bos, Boess^ 

BOB8T9 POBSO. 

BDUlflUTlVJBl 

Old Oerman Boaioo, 9th cent. — French PossAa Old 
Germ. Poaailoy 8ih cent — ^Eng. Boslbt — ^French Bosblll 
French Pobsebbe, Posez. 

cuMPOirNDa 

{Hari, wiarrior) Old German Bozhar, 8th cent — English 
BosHKE — ^French Boussdebe^ Bossubot. (Hard) En^^iah 
BossABD— French Bossabd, Poussabix (Hdm) Old Germ. 
Boehelm, 11th cent — ^Eng. BossoiL {Man) Eng. Bosxav. 
(Wold, power) Old Germ. Bozolt^ 8th cent — ^Mod. German 
Bo88Ei/r— French Posselt. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. PoeBol^ 
8th cent — ^French PoussiF f 

I take the stem host, bust, to have the same 
meaning as hosa and Imss, viz., that most probably 
of bulkiness or burliness. This is shewn in our 
word ^^bust," the original meaning of which, Mr. 
Wedgwood observes, was the trunk or body of a 
man ; also in the Old Norse biHstinn, burly.* 
There are only two ancient names in which it is 
found, viz., Boster and Postfi:^ both 9th cent. 
Both these names Forstemami thinks may be cor- 
ruptions, but the evident occurrence of the word 
in the following names makes it probable that 
this is not the case. 

* Mr. Lownr, on th* aanie Bum, glTM Uie nine maaoSiiff, nf Mrlng to (Im 
Scoteh b«li^ thick Hid fion. 



THE OUTEB MAN. 409 

SIMPLB FOBM8. ^^ ^^ 

Eng. Boast, Bitbst, BmsT, Post. Franch Bost. bqxIj. 

DDIU^UTIVlfii 

Kog. BosTEi^ PosTLE — French Postel^ Eng. Bostook. 

PflONEnO BNDINO. 

English Busmr, Postok. 

OOMPOUKD& 

(Sard) English Bustabd, Pustabd. (Rie, power) Eng. 
BosTfiiDOS. {Wdd, power) French Bustault. 

From the Old Norse hortr. Old Fries, hort^ 
kurt, short, and the corresponding High Oerman 
form kurz, may be the following. The Latin 
curtiis, French courte, may intermix. 

8IMPLB FOBMB. (jort, Cchml 

Oid German Corso, 8th cent English Cobsb, Ooubsb, short. 
OuBTZE, Oobt, Coubt, Oubt. French Gouwe, Goubsy, Cobta, 
Ooubt, Ooubty, Ooubteau, Oubtt. 

DDONUTiVES. 

English Ooubgellb. — French Goubsel^ Gobtel. French 

GUBTEUN. 

PHONETIO BNBmO. 

Gorson, Gnrtenay, BoU Batt. Abb, Eng. Gobsan, Gubson, 
OuBTAnr, GouBTEBTAT. Modem German Kohbssek. French 
GoBSAnr, Goubson, Goubtebt. 

OOMPOXTVDSl 

(Hari, warrior) English Gobsab, Goubseb, Goxtbtieb — 
French GoBnEB, GouBTnosu (Band, shield) French Goubsse- 
baet. (Bat, counsel) English Goubtwbioht. 

There are many words containing the meaning 
of physical strength, though in some cases it is 
not easy to separate this meaning from that of 
courage, valour, or fiercenesa 

From the Gothic magan, posse, I take to be 
derived the following stem, with which, however, 
the Gothic mehi, sword, may, as suggested by 
Forstemann, intermix. 

z 2 



via, Bobor. 



410 THE OUTER MAK. 

8DIPLI IQBIIS. 

Old Oerauun Mago, Maooo^ Mabo^ Mmod, Megi, 6tli oent. 
Eng. Magot, Mat^ Mato, Mbgot, Mm^ Mathew 1 Mod. 
OeniL Maoi^ Mstx. French Mat, Maohu t Mj^hiu f 

VTMnrOTPfWM. 

Old German MegUo, Meilq, 8ih oent—Enj^isli Matali^ 
Mali — French Maillkt. BDg. Matlot — ^French Matlzh. 
Old OernL M^guBO, 10th cent — ^Eng. Maxo^ Maibit. 

OOMPOUNM. 

(Bart, warrior) Old Germ. Megiher, Magher, 8th cent — 
l&igliBh Maqeb, Matkb — ^Modern GennaB Maosb — ^Frenoh 
Mahder, Matxb. (Ead, war f) Old Oerman Magodiii% 11th 
oenl^-Magot, Lib. Til.— Ebgliah Maggot. ("ManJ Sng. 
Matmah. (Ron, isTen) Old Gemum Megixan, 8th oeni— 
Eoig. MxaRiH — ^French Magbov, Maobok, Matrah. (Waldf 
power) Old Oermaa Magoeld, 8th oent-*Modem German 
Maohold, MATWALD^Frenoh Mahauuf. fWme, fnend) 
Old Germ. Magwin, Macwin, 7th cent. — French Maoquot. 
{Ward, gnaidian) French Maoquaw, Maoquabt. 

From the above root mag is formed Ang.-Sax. 
mcBgin, Engliflh main, via^ robur, from which we 
may take the following. 

BIlfPLB POBm 

Old German Magan, Main, 8th cent. ESngliah MAnm 
Mod. Germ. MlCHSv, MnHm French MAGNii, Maghkt. 
ooMPOiriaMk 

(Bald, fortis) Old Gem. Meginbold, 8th cenl— Franch 
Maonabal. (Burg, protection) Old Geim. Meginboig, 8th 
cent — French MAjmouBO^ (Frtd, peace) Old Germ. Magin- 
frid, 8th cent— French MAorTBOT. (Oald) Old German 
Megingald, 10th cent. — French Maihgault. (Chr, spear) 
Old Germ. Meginger, 9th cent — ^Bnglish Makgbb. (Gaud, 
Goth) Old Germ. Megingand, 8th cent ^French Maikgov. 
(ffard, fortia, doros) Old Gennan Maginh^rd, Mainazd, 7th 
cent — English Matfabd — ^Mod. German MsiKBBT-^French 
Maokabd, Matkabd. (Htm, warrior) Old Germ. Ma g» wih a r , 
Mayner, 7th cent — Mod. Germ. MsnnER — French Magnier^ 
Matnibb. 



THB OUTER MAN. 411 

From the root mag is also formed Old High 
Qennan maht. Mod. Germ, macht^ Anglo-Saxon 
mUU^ Engliflh might. 

(Hd Oenn. Maht, 9th oent Bogliah Mioar. Mifbt 

OOHFOUNDe. 

{Hari^ wnnkir) Old Germ. Mahiheriy Maother, 8ih oent. 
— ^Engliih MiOHTBB— French Maoxdeb. {EUd, war) Old 
Qennan Mahthildii^ 8ih cent — Engliah Matilda (chrisUan 
name). 

Among the words having the meaning of 
nimbleness or activity must be included several 
which are derivedfrom simple roots signifying to 
fly, to run, to move, to go. From the Ang.-Sax. 
Jligan, flogan. Old Norse fliug, to fly, may be 
the following. Or we may perhaps take the 
active sense, to put to flight. Or again, the 
meaning of dart or arrow, as found in the Anglo- 
Saxon y{^, French ^cAe, both from this root, may 
intermix. 

SDCFLB FOBlia lUg, Fleg. 

Old Oerman Flacco, Flecco,* (ancestor of the Neaaelrode To fij- 
fiunily). Ang. -Saxon Flagg, f/ai^nd in FUggea gdncm^ Cod, 
Dip. 578). English Flaoo, Flack, Flboo, Flick, Fluck, 
Flock, Flt, Flea. Fr. Fluc^ Fleck, Fuck, Fucht, YuL 

DnflMUTiVJBBi 

Mod. Qerm. Fl5obl, Fluoel. French Flechelle. 

OOllPOXTNIW. 

(Ei^ p. 189) Eng. Flewitt — French Flachat, Fuquet, 
Floqvet. {Hard) Fr. Flicoubt, Flocabd. (RaH, warrior) 
Eng. Fltqee, Flteb, Flush. (Man) English Fleeman — 
Modem Gferman Flueiiakn. 

* The Old None jUdbr, Old High Gwm. JUccq, Old EngUih flack, • murk or 
■pot, nuj Inteimlx. It would not be vanfttiinl for « ehlld to dwlte lt« nune ftrom 
MBM pMOliar Buurk with whieh tt adght hftpptn to behom. 



412 THE OUTER MAN. 

From the Anglo-Saucon wivge. Mod. Germaa 
schtvinge, English wing, in the sense of swiftness^ 
may be the following. 

WtofeWink. SnCPLB FOEMB. 

Ain. Old German Wine, Yinoo, 9th cent. Old None Vingi, 

(messenger of Atli or Attila in the Yolsongaaaga). Ikiglish 
Wing, Wikch, Vc^oob, Vink. Modern Qennan Wingk, 
ScHWiNGB. French YmoQ, Wenk. 

OOMPOUNDSL 

(Hivriy warrior) Wingere, lAb. VU. — ^Eng. WniGSB. 

Of a similar meaning may be the word Jlass, 
Old Norse flos, plumula vestium, whence Jlosi, 
plumatus, also volans, from which Haldorsen 
derives the Old Norse name FlosL There is only 
one Old German name, Flozzolf, in which it 
appears^ and Forstemann gives no opinion on it. 

Flooi. SIMPLE FOBMB. 

PinniAiiu. Old Norse FlosL English Floss. French 1 Flobl 

From the Ang.-Sax. wadan. Old High Germ. 
watan, to go, probably in the sense of celerity, 
Forstemann derives the stem wad, wot. The 
Anglo-Saxon hwcBt, keen, bold, might intermix, 
though there does not seem any trace of it in the 
ancient names. Grimm derives the name of 
the mythical hero Wada or Wato, from his 
having, as elsewhere referred to, waded over the 
Grcenasund. 

SMFLR FOEMB. 

Wad, Wat Old Germ. Wado, Waddo, Watto, Yato^ 6th cent. Ang.- 
v«d«w. gj^x. Wada. Old Norse Yadi Eng. Wade, Wadbt, Wadd, 
Waddt, Watt, Wedd. Modem German Wai>t, Wehde. 
French Yad^ Watteau, Ybdt. 

DIMINnTIVEa 

Old Germ. Wadila, Watil, Yatili, 7th cent— Ang.-Sax. 
Weatlar—Engliflh Waddle, Wattle, Watlby, Weddell — 



THE 0X7TEB MAN. 413 

Mod. Oerm. WsDXUr— French Watel, Y atkl, Y sdsl. Old 
Qerm. Yadiko, Yeduoo, 3rd cent— Eng. Wadgs ? Wkdgs ? 
Old Qerm. Waddolenns, Watlin^ 7ih cent — Eng. Wadujuq, 
Watleng — French Waixlin, . English Wadkdt^ Watkin. 
English Watts — Pries. Watse. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

' Old Germ. Yatdn, 9th cent Eng. Wadden^ Wathsn — 
French Watdst, Yatton. 

OOHPOUNDa 

(Giif hostage) Old Qerman Watgis, 8th cent — ^English 
'WATKI8& (Gar, spear) Old German Wadegar, 8th cent — 
English Waddioab, Watker. (Hard) Old Germ. Wadard, 
8th cent — French Yatabd. (Hart, warrior) French Yatdeb. 
fZeof, dear) Eng. Waddiloye. fJIfar, &mous) Old Geiman 
Yadomarius, Prince of the Alamanni, 4th cent — ^English 
Wapm oBSy Watmobb, Whatmobb — ^Fr. Yattemabb. (Man) 
English WadmaNi Whatican^ Wetman. (yew, yonng) Old 
Germ. Yettani, Wattnj, 8th cent— English Watnet. (Bio, 
power) Old Germ. Wadirih, 9th cent — French Yatbt. 

From the Goth, thragjan, Ang.-Sax. ^regjan, 
to run, Forstemann derives the following stem, 
the sense of which, in the Ang.-Sax. thrcBc, merges 
in that of bravery or strength. A cognate Celtic 
word seems to be the Obs. Irish traig, foot. 

SIMPLE FOBMa ^^ 

Old Germ. Trago, 8th cent Eng. Dbagb, Dbaks, I>»^t,^j^^ 

Tbat. Mod. Germ. Dbet. French Dbacq, Dbaoh, Db^b, 

Db^. 

DiMmunvEB. 

Old German Dregi], 9th cent. English Tbail French 

Tb^oolle. 

phonetic endino. 
Eng. Dbaoon, Dbaik, Tbaik. French Tbaoiv, Tbajot, 

Dbaik. 

compounds. 
(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Tragant% 8th cent — French 
Tb^gont. (Hwtd) French TBiHABD. {flari, warrior) Eng. 
Tbahab, Tbaeb— Mod. German Tbeteb— French Tbaoeb, 
Tbateb. (FiiM, foot) French DbeYfus f Tbbifous f 



414 THE 0T7TER MAN. 

From the Old Noise hif, motu6» Old Saxon 
bivon, Ang.-Sax bijian. Old High German btben, 
tremere» Forstemami derives the foUowing stem. 
The sense may probably be that of nimbleness or 
activity* as in the Old Norse pipr, veloz, from 
the same root. 



Pip. Old Qonnftn Bibo^ Bobo, Ben^ Fippi, Pipis 8th cmU 

Aottvo. Aiig.-8ax. Bebba» Fyrbba Bbg, Bibb, Bibbt» Bsbb» ¥a% 
Tim. Mod. GeniL Pipm nreneh Braoi^ Burs. 

l>lMlJiUTiVnL 

An^^-Baz. Pipile (^raxid in tbe name of his giave^ Piplea 
beorh, Cod. Dip. 774). Engliah BmuB, Bxtille, Pkplok-- 
Fremdh Bibal. 

pHomnc MKPSXfo, 
Old G«rm. Bibbin, BivinuB^ Pippin, 7th oent Ang.«SaJL 
Hppenf;^mfui«nP^9MMf/«MM,Cbd2>^. 1,860). Bn^^ 
Bkfah, Beffiv, PEPOTy Pippin. Eranoh Pipnr. 

ooMPoxmns. 
(Hwrd) EngliBh Bxffobd, Peppabd— Modem German 
BipPABTi PippJE&T'^]Prenbh Bebebt, B^fobt, Bibbbt, BiVBUTy 
PiPABD, PiTBBT. {WoUy power) Franoh Pipfauia*, Bibaut, 
BirPAUT. 



Ole?tar. 



I think that English Cleveb^ Oleaveb, and 
Adhni. YxeosSti CiJVBB may be the same as our word 
"" clever/' though more probably in its original 
senses which, I take it, was that of personal 
activity. We may trace this in the Old English 
word clever^ to climb (still retained in Cumber- 
land), from the Old Norse Uifra^ Dutch Idaveren^ 
Meveren^ to clamber.* Something of the transition 
sense seems to be found in the expression of a 

* I un giftd to find this •tymologx, whleb I ragfMtod tn tlM pretiou 
•dltUm, oonflnwMl hj the tuthoiUy of Mr. Wa^T^ood. 



AMf. 



THB OUTEB MAN. 415 

horse being "* dever at his fences.'" The Kngliah 
Clevsblt might be a diminutive^ but seems more 
probably a disused adjective form. 

Prom the Old Norse klifa, to cKmb (of which '^'^• 
the above word klifra is a frequentative), may be 
the Eng. Cuve, Cuff, and Clbvsley. Perhaps 
CiJFT may be added to this group ; the Cumber- 
land dialect has cUfty, activa 

There are several words in which the sense of 
activity or sprightliness is allied to that of bud- 
ding or sprouting. Again, the sense of a sprout 
or shoot frequently merges into that of spear or 
dart, as mentioned at p. 207. Thus the Gothic 
spraiito, active, Eng. sprtice and sprightly, Aug.* 
Saxon spreoty sprout, shoot, also spear, pike. Old 
High German sprivzan, English sprout, are all 
from the same root. In the former sense I take 
the following. 

SIMPLSFOBM& BimiMi 

Old Germ. Spratbo, 8ih cent. English Sprout, Spratt, spdfiiilf . 
Bpboat, Spbitt, Spbuci^ Spucb. Mod. Germ. Spuorm 

Again, the Old Norse spr^ehr and sprahUffr, 
Prov. Eng. spragg, sprack, spry^ smart, active, 
are allied to Ang.-Sax. spree, a shoot. 

gnCPLBFOBMB. Qpiadi, 

Spraga, Lib. VU. Eng. SfbajQG, Spbaok, Spabk, Bpsbok, Bpri^tif. 
Spbiqo, Spbat, Spst. 

DDLLNUTIVKHl 

SpraolingoB, Zt&. Vii. English Spraokuh. 

Here also, probably from Old Norse sprcskUgr, 
come in Sprakal^, brother of Sweyn, King of 
Denmark, Eng. Sprecklet. Also perhaps Eng. 



416 THE OI7TEB MAN. 

Spxtbge and Spubgeon, the nearest form to which 
seems to be the Sansc. spurjy to spout^ not a bad 
etymon, by the way, for the name of the well- 
known preacher. 

Another word in which we may perhaps take 
the bursting forth of water as an emblem of live- 
liness and activity is huUy for which Forstemann 
,finds no suitable etymon, and for which I suggest 
the Old Norse hunay scaturire. 

8IMPLB FOBMSw 

lb bant ^^^ German Banno^ Btuuii, Btm, 8th oent Bi]xi% LOk 
fortiu ViL English Bunk, BxTionnr. French BouinsAir. 

PflONETIO ENBINO. 

Old Qenn. Punin, 8th cent. English Buktak. French 
BuzroK. 

PATBoimao. 
English BuNiONG. Modem German Bifmmraw 

OOMFOUKDa 

{Etj p. 189) English Bumnsir, Vxsvnsnsn — French BcnnET, 
PuFDET. (Hcu\ warrior) English BnimaL {W<M^ power) 
En^^ifih PuNXEA?. 

iVom the Old High German tZan, festinare, 
Forstemann derives the following stem. Hence, 
I take it^ the name Tlbod, quoted by Mr. Lower, 
from the records of Lewes Priory, in the sense of 
a speedy messenger. 

SIMPLE FOSM& 

Ha. Old Germ. Bo. Ylla» lAb, VU, Eng. Ilet, Eel, Elst. 

OOMPOT7in)6. 

{Hcm^ warrior) Old German mehere^ 8th cent. — English 
Ihleb. {Ma/n) English Illxan, 

From the Old High German fendo^ foot, are 
the following. 



THE OtJTEB MAN. 417 

SIMPLE F0&M8. FtaiA, Wn% 

Old Oerman Fanto, Fendio, 8th cent. Modem German ^^^ 
Fkndv. 

DIMINUTIYJSa. 

Old German Fandila, 7th cent. — Eng. Fendall. Eng. 
Feitdick. 

PHONETIO ENDING. 

English Fenton, Frenoh Fantov. 

0OMPOUND6. 

(Hard) French Fandabb. (Htirif warrior) Eng, Fendeb. 
(H^kn) Eng. Fantom^ Fentuv. (M<m) Eng. Fentdian. 

As foot in proper names has the meaning of 
nimbleness, so hand we may presume to have the 
meaning of dexterity or skilfnlness. The English 
word handy is in fact formed on just the same 
principle. A word very liable to intermix is and^ 
life, spirit. 

SIMPLE FORMa H»nd,HMil 

Old German Hanto, 9th cent. English Hand, Handet, mm»ul 
Hendy, Hentt. Mod. Germ. Handt. French Handus. 

DIMINUnVES. 

English Handel, Handley. Modem German Handel 
French Hendl4 

PHONETIC ENDINa 

Old Germ. Hantuni, 8th cent Eng. Hanton, Hendsn, 
Hxnton. 

It is difficult to say in what sense the follow- 
ing are derived. The word seems evidently to 
be, as Forstemann suggests, the Old Bigh Germ, 
and Old Sax. wamba, Ang.-Sax. wamby the belly. 
Was it by accident that Scott, in the grand story 
of Ivanhoe, gave a name like this to the jester .1 

SIMPLE F0B3C& Waml). 

Old German Wamha, king of the West Goths 7th cent, ^^- 
English Wambbt. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Odd Germ. Wambanis {Oemtim). Eng. Wampen. 
A 3 



Old. 



418 THE OUTER MAN. 

Most of the other names apparently derived 
from parts of the body, as Neck, Chin, Arm, 
Thumm, Mouth, Shin, &c., axe to be otherwise 
derived. 

There are no inconsiderable number of names 
which are derived from the period of life. From 
the Ang.-Sax. eddy ield, Old High Germ, oft, old, 
Eng. old, are the following. 

SIMPLE FOBMa 

^^ Old Germ. Aldo, Alto, 7th cent Alda, Lib ViL Eng. 
Alldat, Allt, Allty, £lt, Old, Yeld. Mod. Germ. Aur. 

DDcnrcrnvES. 
Aldhjsi, Haldisa, Lib. VU. Eng. Aldis, Oldib. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German AlHini^ Altun, 6th cent. English Aldsn, 
Alton, Elden, Elton. Mod. Germ. Alten. French AlLDon. 

PATBONYMIC& 

Old German Aiding, 8th cent Eng. OLDiNa French 

Oldino. 

compounds 
{Bert, bnght) Old Germ. Aldebert, Oldebert, Olbert, 8th 
cent — Eng. Aldebert — French Aldebert, Olbert. (Brand, 
sword) Old German Altbrand, 8th cent. — French Albranb. 
(Oan, magic) Old German Alliganus, 9th cent. — French 
Alecan, Alkan. fGar, spear) Old German Aldegar, 7th 
cent. — Eng. Old acre — French Olacher. (ffari, warrior) 
Old German Althar, 9th cent. — Aldheri, Lib, Fit. —English 
Alder — Mod. Germ. Alder, Alter. (Helm) Old German 
Althelm, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Aldhelm — English Aldham, 
Eltham. (Roc) Old German Altroch, 9th cent. — French 
Altaroche. (Man) Old Germ. .Aldman, Altman, 8th cent* 
AFdmon, Lib, Vit.— Eng. Altman, Oldman — Mod. German 
Althann. (Rod, counsel) Old German Aldrad, 8bh cent — 
English Aldred, Eldred. (Rity ride) Old Germ. Aldarit-— 
English Aldritt — French Alteriet. (RiCy power) Old 
Germ. Alderioh, Olderich, Altrih, 6th cent — ^Eng. Aldbich, 



THE OUTER MAN. 419 

ALDBmoB, Eldbidge, Oldridoe, Altbee, Oldrt — ^French 
ALTAiRAa {Thius, servant) Old Germ. Aldadeus^ 8th cent 
— English Aldebdice f 

From the Ang.-Sax. gamol. Old Norse ganial. 
Old High German kamol, old, are th§ following, 
Forstemann has twelve names from this root, but 
only one corresponding with ours. 

simple FORMa 

English Gamble, Gemtlr, Gemmux, Cammell. French ^q^l 
ChamelI 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Gambling, Gamun. French Gajcbelon. ItaL 
Oambalukoa. 

coMPouin>& 

(Hcvriy warrior) Old Germ. Kamalhere, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Gambleb, Camalaby (BosUni) — Mod. Germ. Kamler 

A not uncommon name among the Northmen 
was Eyllfr, which seems to be from Old Norse 
eyltfr^ ever-living* It was imdoubtedly bap- 
tismal, for one of the men in the Landnamabok 
is sumamed " the young." Hence may be English 
Ayliffe, perhaps French Eloffe. A similar 
name seems to be the Langlif in the Liber Vitas. 

From the Old High GermaiXijung.junc^ Ang.- 
Sax. jong^ Jung, gung, ging, English young, are 
the following. 

simple FOBMS. Yonag, 

Old Germ. Jungo, Junggi, 10th cent. English Touno. Jwag 
Mod. Germ. Jung, Junke. French Juno, YuNa JuTtnU. 

DIMINUnVEa 

English GnroELL. French Juncal, Gunckel. 

CX>MPOUNI)& 

(Aud, prosperity) French Ginaud. (Hart, warrior) Eng. 
Younger, Ginger — Mod. Germ. Jungher — Fr. Jonchebt, 

* Anothw d0riTfttioD perhAjM mlg^t howeTer be wigertcd tee p. &0t 



JWL 



420 THE OUTER MAN. 

(or all these same as English yonnker 9) (Man) Old Qfowu 
YuDgman, 9th cent — English YouNaxAN— Modem G^ennan 
JuNOMANK. Old Germ. Jungericus, Gothic king, 4th cent. — 
Mod. Germ. Jungebich. 

There is a stem jun, which Forstemann thmks 
may perhaps be the older form ofjung, supposing 
a contraction ofjuvan (Latin juvenis), 

SIMPLE FOKBfB. 

Old Germ. Juno, Junno, 8th cent Eng. JuNi^ Juno.* 

Toragr Frei^oh JUNY^ JOUITNEAUZ. 

COMPOUliDa. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Joonard, 1 1th oent.«*Erench Johvabd, 
JoNNABT. (Hari^ warrior) Eng. Juknbb — Frenoh JoiniB& 
(Wold, power) French Joukault. 

There is a stem new^ ny^ which Grimm and 
Weinhold take to be from the Old High German 
naw, niwi, Ang.-Saxon new, Dan. and Swed. ny, 
Sanscrit nava, new. The meaning they take to 
be that of " young,'" as in the Greek ; and in the 
names of women, to which as a termination, this 
root is confined, Grimm supposes a Goth, nivi^ in 
the sense of virgin. Forstemann considers that 
the form ny is more particularly a Bavarian, and 
perhaps also a Lombard form. It is, however, 
also Scandinavian. 

SIMPLE FORMa 

»lv New ^^^ German Niwo, Nivo, Nivi, Nevo, Nibo, 7th cent. 

Ky. English New, Newet, Nay, Neve, Niavi. Mod. German 

Young. i^BUE, Ney. French Neu, Ney, N^ NivE, Naep, Naveau, 

Niveau. 

DiMnrunvB& 
English Newick. English Newlikg — French Nouuk. 

PHonxnc BNonro. 
Engliah Newen, Nevin, Navin. 
— — — - '■ 



THE OUTEB MAN. 421 

ooMPomrDa 
{Cum, qufum, gaest, stranger) Neucum (Domesday) — Eng* 
Nbwoome, NswooMa (Ger, spear) French Newioeb, N^ore I 
{Hard) Old G^rm. Niviard, Nivard, 6th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Neuwert — French Niyabd^ Nivbrt, Nibart, Niaud. {HaH, 
"warrior) French NnriifBE, Navier. {Leof, dear) English 
NBinx>yB.* {Man) Eng. Newmak— Mod. Germ. Niemann 
— French Neyman. {Rait, counsel) Old Germ. Niwirat, 9th 
oent — Old Norse Nydlthr — Mod. Germ. Neurath — French 
Netret. {Reidy ride) Old Norse Nereidr — English Nerod. 
{Ricj power) Old Germ. Niwerich — French Neybby, Natbt. 
{WcUd, power) French Nibaui/p, Navault. 

There is a stem bob, bov, bop, &c., which 
Forstemann refers to Germ, bube, Dutch boef, 
boeve, boy. The word bithe is not found in the 
German language prior to the 13th cent., but 
there is no doubt about the antiquity of the root, 
which is cognate with Lat. pupus, pupiUus, &c. 
Mr. Wedgwood observes that ** the origin seems 
the root bob, bub, pop, pup, in the sense of some- 
thing protuberant, stumpy, thick, and short." If 
this, however, be the case, it suggests that the 
meaning in proper names might be akin to boss^ 
buss, &c., p. 408. 

SMPLBIWEMS. • ^^^ 

Old German Bobo, Bobbo, Boppo, Poppo, Bubo, Pupo, Boj. 
Poupo, Poapo, Popi, BoYO, Bova, Boffo, 6th oent Anglo- 
Saxon Bubba. Bofia, Lib. ViL English Boyet, Boyat, 

BOFF, BOFFET, BUBB, BuBA, PoPE, PoPPT, PoYEY, PUPP. 

Mod. German Bobbe, Bopp, Bube, Popp, Puppe. French 

BOB^E, B(EUF. 

DIMINXmVBa 

Old Gkrman Bobilo, BoyUo, Popila, Popili, 8th oent — 
Eng; BoYiLUB, Pople, Poflei; — ^Mod. Germ. Bobbl^ PopsIi 

* N«w, in tiM MEM of TOTUif, gi^M » rafflol«DU7 •x p rmdf meuilBg to tUi 
BABM, wlthoai fappoifaig • gaj Lotturio la th« obm. 



422 THE OUTER MAN. 

— French Bouvillb, Povel, Pupil, Populus. Mod. Q«niL 
PuPKE — French Bubegk. £nglish Bobkin, Popkin — Mod. 
German Popken. Old German Bobolin, 6th cent. — French 

POPELIN. Eng. POPLETT, PuPLET — Fr. BOBLET, BoUVELET. 
PUOKETIC EXDINO. 

Old German Bobin, 6th cent. Engliah Bobbik, BuffiVi 
PoupiN. French Bobin, Boffin, Bouvin, Buffok, Popoh. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) French Bobant. (Et, pi 189) Pobbidi, 
Lib, Ft<.— English Bobbitt^ French Bobot, Buffet, Popbt. 
(Hard) Buffard, Roll BaU. il66.— Eng. Bobabt, Poupard, 
PouPABT — Mod. Germ. Bobardt— Fr. Bouyabd, Popabik 
(HaH, warrior) Eng. Bouvier, Bouverie, Buffrby— French 
BoBii^RE, Bouvier, Bouvry, Buffier, Pupieb. (Ulf, wolf) 
English ? PoPOFF — French Bobceuf. (Wold, power) French 

BUFFAULT. 

From the Ang.-Saxon cnapa, German knabe, 
boy, may be the following. The suggestion of 
Mr. Wedgwood (see last page) that the origin of 
Old Germ, hube, Eng. boy, is '' the sense of some- 
thing protuberant, stumpy, thick, and short,'' is 
strongly confirmed by this root, which is cognate 
with English knob, a lump. And therefore, as in 
the case of the laat root, the meaning might pos- 
sibly be like that of boss, see p. 408. 

simple FORMa 

KiMb,Ki»ik Old German Hnabi, 8th cent English E:hafp, Nabb^ 
^^' Kkopb. Mod. German Kkabb, EInapp. French NabaI 

KaefI 

duonutivb. PATRomnaa 

Engliflh Napkih. English KHAPFiHa 

OOMPOUKD. 

(Man) English Ekapmav. 
From the Goth., Old High Germ., Old Norse 
bam, Anglo-Saxon beam, child, may be the fol* 
lowing. 



THE OTJTEB MAN. 423 

SnCPLB FOBMS. 

Englisb BABinsT. French Babkat. ^*^ 

DIMINUnVB, 

French Barnich. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old QeroL Barnard, 9th cent. — Eng. Barnard — 
Mod. Germ. Barnhard. {Et, p. 189) English Barnett — 
French Barhet. (Bari, warrior) French Barkier. (TTtfM, 
friend) Old Germ. Barnuin, 9th cent. — Fi-ench Barnouyin. 

There is a stem kim, chirriy which Forstemann 
refers to Old High German kim, chi7n, germen. 
None of the ancient names correspond with oiirs. 

SmPLB FORMS. Kim, Ghlm. 

Engluh EuoL French Chikat. Oman. 

DmiMUTlVJfiB. 

French Ghimel. English CmMLEBr. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(yew, ny, young) English Ohihnet — French GHndbnE. 
(Hart, warrior) French Ghemert. 

Another stem of somewhat similar meaning 
may be saby sap, saf, sav. Forstemann refers to 
a supposed Goth, safjarty adduced by Grimm, in 
the sense of the Lat. sapere. It is not, however, 
easy to see any suitable meaning for proper names 
in that root, and I would rather, in the absence 
of any better explanation, take the Ang.-Sax. sap. 
Old High Germ, saf, Eng. " sap,'' in tlie sense of 
youth, growth, viridity. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Sabas, a Goth, 4th cent Saba,* also called Saebeorht, Sftb, s*t, 
an Anglo-Saxon prince {Bede's Ecc Hist ) English Sabet, ^^ 
Sapp, Safe. French Sapy» Sapia, Savt, Sauve I Sauv^ ? ^j^. 
Sauvey? 



424 THE OUTER MAN. 

DDfnruTzm. 
Old Qerman Sftbulo, Sayalo, 7di oent — ^English Sablb, 
Saffell, Satell, Sayealii — Fr. Sautel. Eng. Sabbaob^ 
Sayidge, Sayaoe — French Sapicha, Saxjpique^ Sauyaqk 
Eng. Sapldt— French Sablok, Sayelon. 

PHOmiTlO ENDIKG. 

Eng. SAfiiNEy Saphut . French Sabbini, Sapot, Bayiowt, 
Sayiv. 

OOMPOUND& 

(Aud, proeperitj) Old Germ. Sapandus, 9th oenl — ^Fr. 
Babaud. Perhaps also to this Old German Sapato— French 
Sabot, Sayit. (Hard J Engluh Sapford — ^Mod. €^muui 
Sayebt — Fr. Sabart, Sayard, Sayaet. (Hari, warrior) 
Eng. Sapper — Mod. Germ. Saphir (see p. 4) — Fr. Sauphab^ 
Sauyier, Sauyeur? (Bon, rayen) Eng. Safrak — French 
Sabran, Sayarik, Souyerain ) (Rie, power) Old German 
Sabaricus, Sayarich, Safrach (Gothic leader, 4th cent), Saf- 
£mus — Sayari, Lib, VU. — Eng. Sayeeick, Sayory, Saffert 
— French Say art, Saffray, Savffrot. 

Probably to the above group may be placed 
Eng. Saptb, which shews the Old Norse, Danish, 
and Mod. Germ, form safl^ taking a t 

The folloYYing stem may be referred to the 
Mod. Germ, grab, Dan. grov, coarse, clumsy. But 
I think that the original meaning may probably 
have only been that of large stature. Compare 
English gross, in a similarly changed sense — also 
Eng. plump, which in German and Danish means 
coarse. Forstemann has only one Old German 
name Griubinc, which he does not explain. 

«n*. Qrof. SIMPLE FORBC& 

gtoQir Anglo-Saxon Qrobb, /found in Qrobbea den, Cod. Dip. 
1066). £ng. Grobb, Groyb, Grubb, Grubt, Oropp 9 Mod. 

*lir. K«mbl«eoiiildBnBia»tob«<ml7ftteinl]l«r or abbml^ focmtC 



THE OUTER MAN. 425 

Gernuui Ob&be, Gbobr. French Gbub, Gbubt, Obobet, 

OBOPFit 

DDOinTTrVES. 

Mod. Germ. Gbobel. French Gbouyblle. 

OOlfPOITNDfl. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Gboyeb, Cboppeb 9 (Man) Eng. 
GBonvAir. 



b3 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



THB INN£R MAV. 

As the baptismal name was conferred b^ the 
fond parent, and the surname by the impartial 
world — ^so there is more truth in the latter than 
in the former. They represent the honest opinion 
which a man's neighbour had of him, and are 
complimentary or otherwise, as the case may be. 
There are forty-two men in the Landnamabok 
of Iceland having Helgi (holy), as a baptismal 
name, but only three that had acquired it as a 
surname. And of the former there was one who 
had the surname of Gudlaus — ^"Holy the Godlesa'* 
What a bitter satire 1 

Seeing then, as will be manifest from the 
following, how great is the preponderance of 
baptismal names, we cannot in any degree admit 
the evidence of proper names as a test even of the 
accredited virtue of ancient times. 

Beginning with the name of " Hoi/' already 
referred to — so easy to assume and so difficult to 
deserve — we have the following. This word 
however is liable to intermix with two others, 
Ang.-Sax. hM, sound, hale, and haUy hero. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

^^ Old German Halicho, Halec, 8th cent. Bng. Hollick, 

H0I7. H ALLEY. Mod. Germ. Hallich, Heh^ig. French Haiuo, 
Hallet, Hallu, H^lt. 

DIBCINUTIVB. 

English Hallilby, Hollalet. French Alslt. 



TU£ INKfiR MAN. 427 

OOMPOUKD0. 

{Berif bright) Old OemL Halacbeii, Helibpret, 8th cent. 
— ^Halgeberot, Lib. ViL — Eng. Hallowbread, HalbebtI 
(Dag, day) Old €^niL Halegdag, 9th cent. — Eng. Halliday, 
HoLUDAT. (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Heligher, 9th cent. — 
Eng. HoLKBR — French Holaoheb. (Mem) Eng. Holetxan, 
HoLUXAN — Mod. Germ. H!eilighann. (Hat, red, counsel) 
Old Germ.Halegred« 9th cent. — French Aligrot. (Wig, tffiy 
war) Old Germ. Heilagwih, 9th cent — English Hallowat, 
HoLLOWAT — French Halett. 

From the Ang.-Sax. dugan^ Old High Grerm. 
tugan^ to be virtuous, good, honourable ; Anglo- 
Saxon theaWy Old High German dau^ morals, 
behaviour, are probably the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Tugus, Tukko, Dooca, Toooa, Dauo, 8th cent '^^^ 
Old Norse Toni Ang.-Sax. Tnk, tf» a grani to the numoHery 
ofCroyUmd, A,D. 1,051. Tocca^ Lib. VU. English Tuogt, 
TuoKi Tnxi^ TuoKET, I>ugk, Dose, Dock, Duke, Tow, Toe, 
Dow, DowET, DoE» Dew, Dbwet. Modem German Tock, 
TuoH, DucKE, Dau, DEWBi Frendli Toons, Doche, Due, 
Doui^, DuEU. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Dauwila, Dewila, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Dowell, 
Dewell, Duly, Towell — Fr. Ducel, Duoelat, Douelle, 
DouiLLT. Old Germ. Dugilin, 8th cent. — Eng. Duckunq, 
DowuKG— French Dulono. Eng. Dewick — French Duick. 

FHOmsnC ENDINQ. 

Old Germ. Dawin, 8th cent Eng. DuooiN, Dubgeoe, 
Dewen. French Duqennb, Duquut. 

PATEOITTMIOB. 

English Docking, Dewing. French Duconro. 

00HP0UND& 

(£t, p. 189 J English Duckxtt, Doggett— Fr. Duquet, 
DouET, TuGOT. (Hard) Eng. Dugabd, Towabt, Tewart — 
French Dugabd, Tougabt, Toucabt. (Eart, warrior) Eng. 
Duckeb, Dockbb, Tuckbb, Tokeb, Dower, Dbwab, Toweb 
— Mod. German Dctkhbb, Tucher — Fr. Ducher, Duoorot, 



428 THE INKER MAN. 

DouABE. (Land) Eng. Dowland— Fr. Duoland. (Mem) 
Old Germ. Dagiman, Tugeman, 9th cent. — ^Eng. Tuomah, 
DucKUAK — French Dewahin, Dumain. (Jfor, fjeunons) Old 
German Daumerus, 6th cent. — Eng. Duqhore. {Ulf^ wolf) 
Old Genn. Tugolf, Touwolf; Daulf, 7th cent.— Fr. Dewulp. 
{Wald, power) Eng. Dugald — French Tugault, Douault. 
{WeaLhy stranger) Eng. Duo well, Tugwbll, Tuck well. 

DOUBTFUL NAMEa 

Eng. DuGOODy TooGOOD, TowGOOD. Periiaps fix)m Ang.- 
Sax. duguthj virtuouB, honourable. 

From the Ang.-Sax. dafariy Gothic gadabattj 
convenire, Ang.-Sax. dSfCy fit, proper, Forstemann 
derives the stem dab, daf, dap^ to which also I 
place daVy referred by him to the preceding root. 
The scriptural name David may probably inter- 
mix in some of the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

'^L^* Old Germ. Davo, 9th cent Eng. Dabb, Dapp, Dapty, 
Tapp, Tappt, Davy, Devey. Fr. Dabeau, Dab^ Dappe, 
Dapy, Daffy, Davy, Devy, Devay, Taveau. 

DIMTNUnVES. 

Old German Dafila, Davila, 7th cent.— English Davall, 
Deffell — French Daval, Deville, Tavel. Eng. Taplih, 
Devlin — French Dablin. Old Germ. Tabuke, 11th cent 
Eng. Davock, Davidge, Device — Fr. Davach, Devioqub. 
phonetic ending. 

English Daven, Devon, Tappin. Fr. Davin, Devenne^ 

Taffin, Tapin. 

compounds. 
(Hard) Eng, Daffobd — Fr. Dabbrt, Dbvert, Tavabo. 
(Ram, rem, raven) Eng. Tabram, Daviron — French Dabrih, 
Daveron. (Ric, power) Old GernL Daperich, 10th cent — 
French Dafrique. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Tavold, 10th 
cent — French Da vault. 

From the Gothic triggws. Old Norse iriggr, 
Ang.-Sax. treowe. Old High German driuy Mod. 



Seemlj. 



THE INNEB MAN. 429 

Germ, treuy Eng. "true" may be the following. 
But this stem is very apt to intermix with driuqan^ 
militari, p. 195. 

SIMPLE FOBM& -. „^ 

Trigg, T17. 

Old Qenn. DriwsL Old Norse Tryggo, King of Norway, thm. 
English Trioo, Tbicket, Tbee, Troy, Try, Dry. Frenoh 
Trich)^ Triau, Try, Driou. 

OOMFOUNDa 

{Bertf bright) French Triebkrt, Trubert. {Et^ p. 189) 
Eng. TRIC5KETT, Drbwett— French Triquet, Tricot. (Eard) 
French Tricard. {ffarif warrior) Eng. Trigoer, Tricker, 
Dryer — French Triger, Drier. CLeof, dear) Eng. True- 
love. (Wald, power) French Druault. 

DOUBTFUL NAMEa 

English Truefitt. French Triefus, Dreyfus Perhaps 
from. Ang,-QstJL /6t, Old High QeTm,JuaZt Mod. GernuJfiWf 
English foot. 

There is a word jiist, found in some Grerman 
compounds, which Forstemann seems to think 
may be from the Latin. However, tho^ French 
jouste, tilt, tournament, of which the Old Flemish 
justy impetus (whence also Eng. "jostle'*), seems 
to be the origin, may be mentioned. None of the 
ancient names correspond with the following. 

simple FOBJia 

English Just, Justey. French Juste, Jost. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Aftmd, protection) English Justamond (wrang^ 1750). 
(Waldy power) French Justault. 

There is a stem^, which Forstemann thinks, 
unless the few ancient names be corruptions either 
of /rid, peace, or of /aid, hostility, may be from 
the Latin Jidus, faithful. The following names 



Jiui 



430 THE INNrai MAN. 

go to shew that there is Buch a stem, but the 
Ang.-Sazon Jktan^ to coDg. also to diipiste» might 
also be proposed. 
^g^ smpoFosin. 

FaiiiifiiL Old German Fidia, 11th oent Eni^uh FnoNETy Fidob^ 
Fur. Freach Fimt^ Fitt. 

DIMINUTIVB& 

Old Qenn. Fidolus^ 6th cent — Eng. Fidell — Mod Germ. 
FiDALL — French Fidele ? Eng. Fitkin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

fSariy WBmar) Eng. Fitter — French Fudebt. (Man) 
BngHflh FiDDAKAK, FiTMAK. (Mtmd, protection) EbgMi 

FiBDAMEIIT. 

From the Ang.-Sax. s6th, true, Eng. " sooth," 
of which the Gothic form would be smiths^ and 
the Old High Qermaa sand, {though neither of 
these are preserved,) Forstemann derives the stem 
sa/nd, scmts. The Anglo-Saxon sand, messenger, 
seems a word which might intermix, and which 
indeed iq^ some cases I have taken in preference. 
Forstemann includes also sod as a Saxon, and sad 
as a West Frankish and Lombard form. 

^^ Old Qerman Sando, Sadi, 8th cent. Engliah Sanbob, 

Sandt, Saiit, Santt, Sadd, Bono, Soddt. Mod. German 
Saed, Sanht. French Saebeau, Sahti. 
DmnnTTTVES. 
Old Grerman Sanaso, 9th cent. — English Sans, Saebb, 
Saedts — Mod. Germ. Saetz — Frendb Saecb, Saedoz. Bng. 
Saebbll^ Saetlet — French Saezel. French Saedelioe. 

COXPOUNDe. 

(ffari, wsRior) Old German Sandheri, Bonther, 8ih cent. 
— 'Eikg. Saedbb,* Saeteb — ^Mod. Germ. Saedbb, Saetba — 
French Saedb^ Saetebbb. (M<m) English Saedicak. 

* l£o«t of th« EDgUah wiltan, and ■omo of th« Gonauii, m Pott, mako 
fltadAr % oontnetton of Aloxaadtr 



THE INNER MAN. 431 



{Big, power) Old Oerm. Sandrili, 9th oenL-^Freni^ Baktrt. 
(War, dfifenee) EngUah Sanpweb. (Uff^ volf) Old Qennaxi 
Sandolf— Mod. Germ. Sahdhoff. 

FHONBTIG BNmNO. 

Eng. Sajidbn, Sookii. Mod. Oem. SdOnwr. 
PHomETio nffntusioN op r. 
(Harif warrior) Old Qerm. Sandrehar, 8th cent — French 
Sandbdeb. 

From the Ang.-Saz. sidu. Old High German 
situ. Mod. German sitte, maimers, morals, may be 
the following. The sense, according to the usual 
rule in proper names, must be that of good 
manners or morals. 

SIKPLE VOBMS. Sid, Bit 

Old German Sito, Sita, 9th cent. Sido, king of Suevia 
in Tacitus. English Sms, SmsY, Oitt. Modem German 
SrrrB. Datoh Sbtdb. IVanch Sm. 

DixiNxrrnnttL 
Old German Situli, 8th cent— Ang.-Sax. Sidel f/cfund 
in SideUskam, God, Dip, 464^ — Eng. SmDELL — Mod. Germ. 
Betdel — French Smou, Sittell, SedUiLB. Old German 
Bitilin, 8th cent. — French Ssdillok. English BmDomk 

PHONETIC KNPINO. 

Eng. Su>DEN, SiTroK» Sidney. French Bu>net. 

coupouirD. 
(QtTy spear) English fliiMiEAil. 

Of somewhat similar meaning may be the 
following, which Forstemann refers to Old Norse 
skicka, ordinare, and the noun S(^icky used in 
many Low German dialects in the sense of order. 

BDCPUB FOBM& 

Old Germ. Scih, 11th cent English Shiok» Skt. Mod. 
Germ. ScmoK. 

DIMUIUTIVE. 

English Shioxus. 



Older, 



432 THE INNER HAN. 

From the Old High Grerm. ercan, Ang.-Sax. 
eorcen* genuine, pure, Forstemann derives the 
following stem. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Pan. Old German Ercan, 10th oeut. Mod Qerman Houoar. 

French AitQunr. 

OOMFOUNDS. 

(Bald^ bold) Old G^erm. Ercanbald, Aroambald, Archam- 
bald, 8th cent — ^Eng. Abcham^aud — ^French AncHAMBAUiff 
— ^ItaL Abcimboldi (of Milan). (Hard) Old Germ. Eroan- 
hart, 8th cent — ^French Abohinabd. (Heid, state, condition) 
Old Germ. Ercanheid, 9th cent. — "Eng, Habkneit. (iTor^ 
warrior) Old German Erkanher, 8th cent. — Mod. German 
Hebkher — ^French Ebgkenisb. 

There axe several words having the meaning 
of life, zeal, spirit, though the sense is often difficult 
to separate from that of bodily activity. From 
the Old High Grerm. ando, zelus, Forstemann 
derives the following stem, which is, however, 
very liable to intermix with two others^ hand, 
manus, and Ang.-Sax. ent, giant. 

8IMPLBF0BMB. 

m^ML ^^^ German Ando, Anto, 7th cent. Ang.-Saxon Anta, 
(found in Anton Udw, Cod. Dip. 150). Eng. Ain>, Andox. 
Mod. Geim. Ende. French Aimr. 

. DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Anteoho, 10th cent — ^French Airnq. Old 
German Andala, 5th cent — ^English Astill, Ajxtust. Old 

Germ. Andolenus, 8th cent — English Autdlak. 
ooMPouin>s. 
(Hdm) English Anthem — French Antheaumb. C^ari, 
warrior) Old German Antheii, Anter, 9th cent — French 
Antieb. (Rod, counsel) Old German Andrad, 8th cent — 
Eng. Andbade, Handbight. (Ric, dominion) Old German 
Andarich, 5th cent — En^^ish Antbidge — ^Mod. German 
Entbicel 

* Perii»iw the etem ore, p. 887, may be a ilmple f onn of (he aborv. 



ZmL 



TH£ IKNSB MAN. 433 

From the Old High German zila, English 
zeal^ are the following. 

SDCPLB fOBMB. 

Old German ZSlo, Zello, Stb cent. Eng. Zeall, Zbalet. 
Mod. QenoL Zishlb. French f Zellb. 
ooMPOinn)& 

(&er, spear) Old German Oilger, 10th cent — French 
Zelobb. {Harif warrior) French ZBnxBB, Zelleb. (Man) 
Old G^erman Ciliman, 8th cent — ^Ebgliah Siuoman f— Mod. 
Carman Zillmakv. 

From the Old High German gem, eager, are 
probably the following. 

Old German GhexBo, Kerne. Gnmay, Sdl BaU. Abb.^^^^^ 
English GuBHET, Ohibhet, Oubno, Oobnet. Mod. German 
Gebn, Ejebjt. French Joubn^ Oobnat. 
nnaMUTivjB. 

English GuBiTELi^ Oobitbll — French Gobnblt, Oobnii.- 
UBAv. Eng. OuBinoB;, Oobkiok. French OoauriOHOzr. Mod. 
Qena, Gxbiojun — French Cobvuxok. 

PATBONYMIOB. 

English OoBNnro. Mod. Qerm. GEBNiNa 
ooMPoinrDa 
(Bwi, &mona) French Oobhibebu {Hatrd, Ibrtis) Eng. 
GuBNABD— Mod. Germ. GBBSBABDTi. (HoH, warrior) Eng. 
GuBNEB, EoBNEBy OoBaiSBr^Mod. GemL Gebkeb, Kobneb — 
French OuBimEa (Mcmi Old Germ. Gememan, 9th cent. 
— Eng. GoBinuN^Mod. Germ. KBBNicAiar. (ITo^ power) 
Old Germ. Gemolt^ 9th cent — French JouBtf AUi/r. 

There are several words which have the mean- 
ing of joy, mirth, cheerfulness. From the Old 
High G^rm. rMUodym, gaudere> m&adi, gaudiimi, 
Forstemann derives the following stem. As a 
termination it is very liable to intermix with 
man, homa The form mcmce, mence, seems to 
be High German. 

c 3 



434 THE INNER MAN.. 

BIMnjBfOBM& 

Old German Manto, Manzo, Manso, 8th oent. English 
J07- Maitt, Maxdy, Mendat, Manhsb, Mkngb. Mod. German 
Makdt, Mbndb^ Maitz, Mensb. Fr. Mantbau^ MAirciAUy 

Maksst. 

DDLLNUTlVEl 

Mantel, Dometday — Mauntel, Manoel, Hwnd. ScXU. — 
Eng. Maudlb, Mantlb — Mod. Germ. MentzeLi Menzel — 
— Fr. Mahdell, Mentel^ Makcel. Eng. Mendbb — French 
Mandouge, Mkhdez, Mahboz — Spanish Mendez, MjamozA. 

PHONETIC ENBmO. 

Old Germ. Mantoni {g&Mtwe), 9th cent Eng. Mastoit. 
French Makdon, Mantion, MENnoK, Mansoe f Mahbigh f 

OOMPOUNDB. 

' {Hard) French Makbabd. (iTort^ warrior) Eng. Makbeb^ 
Manceb, Mensee. 

The word apil is not quite certaiiL Forste- 
mann gives it the meaning of joy (which it had 
in Old Norse), in preference to that of play, as in 
the German spiden. The Gothic spillon. Old 
Norse spicUa, to relate, discourse, is also suitable. 

SIMPLE POBMB. 

j^^ Eng. Spill. Mod. Ghrm. Spiel. French 9 Spill. 

PATBONYiaa 

English Spilliko. 

COMPOUNDB. 

(ffard) Old Germ. Spilihard, Spilhard, 8th cent — Eng. 
Spillabd. {Hari, warrior) Eng. Spilleb, Spellab — ^Mod. 
Germ. Spieleb — French 9 Spilleb. (Man J Eng. SpoucAir, 
Speucan— Mod. Germ. Spieucabit. 

The stem glad also seems to me rather un- 
certain. It might be fix)m glad, tetus, or it 
might be from Old Norse gledia^ to polish. Mod. 
German glatt, Danish gkU, Dutch glad, smooth, 
polished. In that case the sense might probably 



THE INNEB MAN. 435 

be that of personal beauty, as referred to in 
chapter 22. 

8IMFLB FORMS. 

Old Germ. Cletto, 8th cent Eng. Glad, Clad, Glide, <»^ 
Gleed. Mod. German Glad& 

DnaNTTTivBa 

English Gladdeli^ Gleadall. Eng. Gladdish — ^Mod 
German Gladisgh. 

PHONBnO SNDINO. 

Engliah Gladden, Gliddon. French Glatiokt. 

PATBONTMJGB. 

Engliah Gladdikq. French Gladuno, Claduno. 

OOMPOUKDe. 

(Sard) French Glatabd. (ManJ Engliah Gladkak. 
(Wine, Mend) Gladewinns, DomeMbi^— English Gladwik. 
(Wii, sapiens) Gledewis, Lib. VU. — Eng. Gladwibh ? 

There is a stem fag, which Forstemann takes 

to be the simple form of Ang.-Sax. fcBgen, Eng. 

fiedn, as shewn in Goth. fahSds, jojfulness. 

simple fOBna 
Old German Faooo, 9th cent Feg, Fech, Dome$day. /*f\ 
Fag, ffund. Bolls. English Fago, Fake, Fay, Fahet. 
Mod. German Face, Fbgke. French Faoe, FioE, FicHB, 
Fate, Faht. 

DDiiNUTlVEa. 

Old German Fachilo, Fagala, 11th cent. English Fail. 
French Faoel, Fatollb, Faille. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Et, p. 189) Eng. Fagoots*— French Faget, Faquet, 
Fatbt. (Hard) French Fagard, Fatard. (Hart, warrior) 
Old Germ. Fagher — Eng. Faker — French Faguer. 

extbkded formsEng. fain. 
Eng. Fagan, Fachi^t, Fehon. French Fajon, Fa^^. ^J^ 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard J French Feinert. (Hart, warrior) French Fag- 

KIER, FeGHNER, FEINEa 

•Maj ponlblj repnMiit ttw Qothlo /oMdi, jojiaJami ' 



JoyfoL 



FidBL 



436 THE INKBR MAN. 

From the Ang.-Saxon gamUtn^ to play, w^rt, 
English '* game," may be the following. Or the 
meaning may rather be that of jojrfiilneRS, as in 
Old High German gaman, Anglo-Saxon gamen^ 
gaiidium. 

SnCFLB rOBHB. 

GMdirar O^^ German Oammo, Oammo, 7th cent. Gam, Game^ 
{DcmMday), English Game, Camm. Mod. German Gamm, 
Kajhc. fVench Gakb, Gaihe, Gam, Jam, Jamb, Jambau. 

DliaNTTTrVEB. 

Eng. Gammaob, Gammeoh — French Gamachb. French 
Gamichos. 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Hard) Old German Gamard, 7th cent — ^Mod. German 
Gammebt — French Gamabd, Gaimabd, Camabd. (Hofri, 
warrior) Old German G«mer, 9th cent — ^Eng. Gambb (17th 
cent.) — ^Mod. Germ. Kammeb— French Camibil {BU^ ride) 
Old Germ. Gamarit, 8th cent— French Oamabbt. (WmH 
power) French Jamault. 

EXTENDED FOBMsA]fO.-8AX. GAMBB. 

QftBIML 

Gftudium. ^^^ Germain Gaman. EngUah Gammob; Mod. Gennan 
Gamabk. French GImbb, Jamin, Oamib. 

From the Old Norse gaila^ exhilirare. Old 
High German geU^ elatus, Anglo-Saxon gcdom, to 
sing,* may be the following. 

aOCFLB fOBM& 

^ Old German Gailo, Gdo, Geli, Oailo, 8tfa cent. Gala, 

Calle, Hwnd. BoHU. English Gale, Galet, Gall, Gallt, 
Gallow, Cale, Oalet, Callow, Gblx^ Jell, Jellet, Keli^ 
Kellt, Kbllow. Modem German Gatl, Gsm., Keel. 
French Gallb^ Gall^, Gallt, Gblle, Gell^ Jal, Jalet, 
Caillx^ Oailleau. 

• fQntemAiui MpAntM tiie two itamB, yob tad 0all» wUok, homm; m 
b«liic. I take It, from tho aMM not, and nonoTeir In modam uamm Imp oari M i to 
Mpanta, I pot togitlMr. 



THE INNER MAN. 437 

Old Germ. Geliko, Jeliko, 10th oent^^fiiigliah Jeluoob, 
Kellook — ^MocL Qerm. Okojob. Engliah Jsllis, JEAU>uii^ 
Gallows 1 Kxlsst— Eranoh Galissb, Gkllbz, Oaillibz. 
TBng- ciAtMVK — Vreneti Qalumom. Ea^ Galojei — Rraiieh 
Oaillelau — Ital. Galileo 9 

PHOITETIO BNBIKO. 

Old OernL Gdlin, dfch cent. GftLun, Bund. RoOb. Eng. 

GALLOVy GeLLAV. Ft. GaLOTO, GaLOV, JAILLOir, GAILbOVy 

Oallok. 

patbonymigb. 
French Gelltkgk — ^ItaL Gallenoa. 
ooHPomnM. 
(And, life, apirit) Galaimt, Sund. iZoSt.— Eng. Gaixahj), 
Gallaitt, Kelland — French Galaep, Galaet, Jajllanti 
Caillakt. {Beri, bri^) French Gaxajhebi; Jalubebt. 
(Bot. envoy) Eng, Galbov — French Gailbabaui), Oaillb- 
botte, Gallebaut. (Burg, protection) Old Genu* Cheilpnrc^ 
9th cent — French GALLiBOtnty Galxboubg. (Drud, dear) 
Old Germ. E[aaldmd, 61^ cent — French Gaildbaud. (Fred, 
peace) Old Germ. Gakfired, 0th cent — Ang.-Saxon GalMd, 
Gaufiid — English Geoffbt — ^French Galoffbe, Jwowfboy, 
Gaulofbet. (Ger, spear) EngHsh Gallaqeb — Mod Germ. 
Gallxgeb — ^French Galicheb. (Hard) Gallaidy Eund. 
R6U$. — English Gatleabd, Qkvlaxd, Gellabd^ Kellobo — 
Mod. Germ. Kahlebt — French Gauxabd, Jaillabd^ Cail- 
LABD. (Hariy warrior) Eng. Gatleb, Gallebt, Gelleb — 
Mod. Ckrm. KsHLBB-^French Calldeb, OAiLLEBy Cailueb, 
Oallebt. (Lmd, mild) Old German Geilindis, 8th cent — 
Eng.GALiNDO. (Saty counsel) Old Germ. Gkulrat, Kejlrat^ 
8th cent — Fr. Jallebat, Calabet. (Sind, via) Old Germ. 
Geilsind, 8th cent — French Gallissant. (Wold, power) 
French Caillault. (Wig, taiy war) Old German G^wih, 
Keilwih, 8th cent — Galewej, Galaway, HuiuL BoUi. — ^Eng. 
Galloway, Oallawat, Keuuawat — Fr. Jalvt, Gaillou]^ 

From the Ang.-Saxon singan, to sing, sang, 
sane, song, may be the foDowing. F^-stemann 
mentions also Ang.-Sax« sine; treasure. 



438 THE INNER MAN. 

Suf, Slnf . SDIFLB fOBMB. 

OutaitL Old QerBL Suioho, 8th oent English Sajtg, Sahket, 
Shaitk t Shakkst f Mod Qerm. Basoke, 8ksk& 
DiMiKunvifia 
Eng. SnroLB — French BsiraxL, SnroLT. Fr. SANcmBE, 



CMd. 
OuiUm 



ooMPOtrNDa. 
(Hart, warrior) Old German Singar, 8th oenti — Tgnglia^i 
81NOBB, SiKKEB — ^Fr. SmoEBy SxNGXBT. (Ward, guardian) 
French Sangouabd. (Wine, friend) Eng. Sakgwut — ^French 
Sangouih. 

Another stem of similar meaning seems to be 
gid, Ang.-Saz. gidd, a poem, giddian, to sing. 

SIMPLE FORMa 

Old OernL Giddo, 9th oent Oyda^ Lib. VU, English 
GmDT^ Kiddy, Kidd, EIitt, Kittt, Kuto, Cmrrr t Fr. 

GiDEy GiTBAlJ. 

DDONUnYES. 

Old Genn. Ghitell ? — English Gidlet, Gmu>w, Eoddle, 
KiTTUB, OHmELL ? Chittle ? — French Gidxl. English 
Ghtttock. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. Gidden, Kidney. French Gitton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Get, spear) English Kidgeb. {Hard) French GnTABix 
{Man) Eng. Gidman, Kidman. (VTtfM, friend) Old German 
Gydoin, 11th cent — French GiDonr. {Ward^ guardian) Fr. 

GiDOUABT. 

There is a word nun, non, found in several 
ancient names, on which Forstemann gives no 
opinion, and for which I think of Old Norse 
nunna, to sing, or perhaps rather, to hum. I 
take it that both this, and the preceding stems 
have something of the meaning of the Scotch 
lilt, which, as rendered by Jamieson, is ^'to sing 
cheerfully." More particularly, I think, to sing 



THE INNER MAN. 439 

without words, an especial mark of gaiety and 
light-heartedness. So in the fine Old Scotch 
ballad of "The Flowers of the Forest/' the sense 
of the desolation that had come upon the land is 
expressed by a contrast not easily surpassed in 
its simple pathos. 

" IVe heard a lilting at our ewe milking — 
Laaaee a' lilting before tiie break of day, 
Bnt now there's a moaning in ilka green loaning, 
For onr braw foresters are a' wed awa." 

It would be difficult in the compass of a line 
to bring out a more perfect picture of rural happi- 
ness and content than the '' lasses d lilting/' and 
before the break of day too, when man is 
generally more disposed to go about his work 
in grim silence. 

SIMPLE rOBMS. KiUL 

Old German Nunno, Nonno, Nunni, 7th cent. Nun, Ointaiank 
kinsman of Ina, king of Wessez. English Nunk, NuHNETy 
NooH. Mod. C^erm. Nonkb. French Nont. 
DiMnnrrrvKB. 
Old Q«rman NunniL English NuiaJET. 

PATBONTMia COMPOITND. 

Eng. Nooning, {flariy warrior) Eng. Nunnbrt. 
From the Ang.-Sax. pUgan^ to play, appear to ?* 
be formed a number of names in our own early 
annals. There was a Plegmund, 19th Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and in the Liher Vtt(e are a Plecga^ 
Plegheri, Plegheard, Pleghelm, Plegbrecht, and 
PleguinL This stem in the AUdeutsches Namerir 
huch mixes up with another, 6foc, which Grimm 
and Forstemann refer to hlic^ ftdmen. But 
whatever might be the original meaning of the 
stem, I think it is clear that the Anglo-Saxons in 



BiTflML 



440 TH£ INNER MAN. 

their names thou^t of it in the above sense. 
Corresponding with the two first names in the 
hher Vita are our Plat and Platjbk. Possibly, 
however, the sense may be taken to be that of 
the play of battle^ so often dwelt on by the Ang.- 
Saxon poet& 

From the Old High Germ, hlide, Ang.-Saz. 
hHiht^ Eng. blytbe, Forstemann derives a number 
of name& But another root^ Uod^ Uat» p. 876, is 
Hable to intermix. 

UMPLB fOBlCBL 

Old Qenn. Bledaa, BlidA, Flid% 5ih mqI Bog. Bltth, 
BuoHTy Blsdt. Mod* (leniian Blbdi^ Blbdow. Fruich 
Bled f Blet t 

PIMINlfriVEBL 

Old Qerm. Blidilo, IHih oent Eng. Plhtdul. French 

BuSTELf 

FHOITBTIO ENDIHISk 

Old GemL Blidiius 8th o«ai. Eng. BurrHn, Puudee. 
French Bletoh. 

OOMPOUNDa 

{fhiud^ Goth) Old Oerman Blidgand, 8th cent— Engilish 
Bloodgood. (fi'ar, spear) Old Germ. Blidegari Plidger, 7th 
oent — Eng. Pledgsb. (J^wr^ famouB) Old Qerm. Blidnuyr, 
Blimmar, 8th oent — ^Eng. Plimiieb. 

From the Anglo-Saxon Hm^ joy» llissianj to 
xejoice, exult^ may be the gtem &jis«, with which 
we may also put &2e^ But the Ang.-SasL &2be» 
a blaae, is a word liable to iatenmx. 

aOIPLB FOBMa. 

Bleaio, apparently Oerman, fonnd on an andent inaorip- 
^^^ tion in the Netherlands. English Bli8& French Bless, 

BLEBBEA.U. 

DI MINU T IVE PATBONTHIC. 

E^. BunsiiBT. Mod. Germ. Plbssikq. — Fr. Blessutq. 



THE IKNEB MAN. 441 

OOMPOUNM." 

(1%, p. 189) Engliflh Blisset, Blessed. (Hard) English 
BuzzABD. (Hariy warrior) French Blesseb, Plessieb. 

Of an opposite meaning may be the following, 
which seem to be from Gothic saurga, saurja, 
Ang.-Saxon sorg^ sorh, Dutch zorg, Eng. sorrow. 
Though possibly the original sense may have been 
rather that of anger. 

SIMPLE FORMa 

English StTBOET, Soubk, Scab, Soub. Mod. Qerm. Sobq. 
French Soxtbo, Sibouet, Zoboo, Sobeau, Soubt. 

OOMPOtrNDB. 

(Ety p. 189) Eng. SuBOETT^ Sibkett, CrBcuir. (HaH^ 
warrior) French Zibcheb, Zubcheb. (Ulf^ wolf) Old Germ. 
Sergul^ 10th cent — French Subcouf. 

From the Old Norse driiUpr, Mod. Germ, trilbe, 
sorrowful, may be the following. But as the root- 
meaning seems to be that rather of " overcast/' 
possibly the sense in proper names might be that 
of dark complexion. Forstemann gives no opinion 
upon it. 

SIMPLE FOBICB. 

Old Genu. Truba Eng. Tbuby, Tboup, Dboop. Mod 
Oerm. Tbaub, Tbubb. French Tbaub^, Tboupeau, Tbouyi^, 
Tbuft, Dbubat, Dbuyeau. 

DIMINTTTITEa 

French Tbouble, Tbupel. French Tboupldj, Tboplono. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Eari, warrior) French Tboupieb, Tbuffieb 

Then there are a few names which seem to be 
derived from joke or facetiousness. From the 
Old Norse skop. Old High German scopf, jocus, 
English scoff, Forstemann derives the following. 

d3 



Sorrow ? 



1 



442 THE INNER ICAK. 

Soop, Scof. sniPUE fOBllS. 

JocuB. Old German Soopo, Sooppo, 9ih oent Scapi, Lib. VU. 

Scope, Lard Mcuyoir of London, A.D. 1403. Eng. S&opp» 
Shoppee, Soobib. Mod Germ. Sghoppe, 8ch5pf. 
DiMnnjnvBs. 
Old Germ. Scopiliua. Engliah Soobkll, Shotsll. 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Har% warrior) English Shoyer, Shoppebie* — French 

SCOFFIER. 

From the Ang.-Sax. kusc^ hues, irony, " chafl^'' 
whence probably English hoax, I take to be the 
following names, with which I find nothing to 
correspond in the AUdevisches Namenbuch. 

HUM. SIMPLE FOBMB. 

iroDj. Engliah Husk, Hux. Mod. German Hoske. French t 

HuBCH, Hux. 

PATBONTMICS 

English HosKiKQ. English Huskisson. 

PHONETIC ENDmO. 

English HosKur, HuxEir. French HusQunr. 

OOMPOUND& 

{ffarij warrior) English Husheb, Usheb. 

From the Ang.-Sax. gilp, strepitus, jactantia» 
may be the following. 

Otlp. simple F0BM& 

jftctantia Eng. GiLBT, KiLBT. French Gilb^ Gelpy, Kilb& 

DIMINUnVBa. 

Mod. Germ. Gelpke. French Gu<BLADr. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Gilpin, Kilpin. 

soimpb. From the Old High German sdmph, jocus, 

joeoi. Forstemann derives the name Scemphio, 8th 

cent. Hence may be English Scamp, quoted by 

Lower. May not the above be the origin of our 

word scamp ? 

There is a word salt, saJz, of which I find no 

* A Boston inmame— EBfUfh r 



THE INNER MAN. 443 

trace in ancient names, but to which Pott, in the 
Modern German name Salz, gives the meaning of 
salaz. I also think of Old Norse sak, the sea, as 
a possible word. 

SIMPLE FORMS. g^^ g,^ 

Eng. Salt, Sault, Soltau. Mod. Qerm. Salz. French g^]|^ 
Sault, Soult, Salzb. 

DIMINUTIVEa 

French Salsac, Salzac 

COMPOUND& 

{Ho/rd) Frenofa Salzard. {Haai^ warrior) Eng. Salter 
— French Seltier, Selzer. (Mom) Mod. Germ. Saltzmakk. 

Perhaps of a similar meaning may be the root 

hrass^ Old Norse brass, salax ; unless, as seems 

to be the case in some instances, it is to be referred 

to the metal 

SIMPLB FORMS. btbm. 

English Brass, Brasset. French Brasa, Brazt. SiOazr 

diminutives. 
French BRASSAa English Brassell, Brazill? 
oompounus. 
{Hoard) French Brassart. {Hcvriy warrior) Eng. Brasise, 
BRAmEEr— French Brassieb, Brasserie. 

From the Old Norse ginna, to seduce, gan, 
magic, are ptobably the following. A large pro- 
portion of the ancient names from ihia root seem 
to have been those of women, and the general 
flense is probably only that of seductiveness or 
fascination. But in one case, where we find Ganna 
as the name of a fortune-teller or witch, we must 
take the direct sense of magic.^ A stem liable 
to intermix is gagan, gain, p. 1 75. . 

* PerhApi to this stem we maj put tha fratul* name G«noTefift, 6fh o«ni. 
Mid th« pnae&t GhilatUn name QwopnU in Qwmaaxj and Qk^MUm In FranMi 
If the name be Oennan, it might mean " weaTer of ipeUa." Miss Yonge, howerer, 
•igaes for a Ctltio origin, as also do Lao and Mono. Bat Oilnun (Oeidk. d, 
Dwitth. Spr. ) aanunes the Oennanhood of the name, which eompara with otheim 
having the same tenninatioa. 



444 THE INNER MAN. 

Gan. 8IMFLK FOBMB. 

^^H^ Old G«rm. Ganna, 1st oent. Ganio, Lib. VU. Engliah 

'Gank, Gannow, Gakn, CxNineY, GEsn^A, Gink, GmsBAU. 
French Ganne, Ganneau, Gaiti^ Jan, Jakitt, Gek, Gknt^ 
Geneau, Gin. 

DIMINUTITSB. 

Eng. Oannel — French Ganil, Genellb, Canal. Eng. 
Jenkin — Mod. Germ. Jenichen — French Janquin, Gehve- 
QUiN, Jennequin. French G^ique, Janaa French Janun. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Ginnana, 8th cent Eng. Gannon, Cannon. 
French Genin, Janin, Canon. 

PATB0NTMIG8. 

Old Germ. Gening, 8th cent Eng. Janninos, Jennings, 
Canning. 

COMPOUNDflL 

{Bert, famous) Old German Gimbert, 8th cent — English 
GiMBEBT — French Gimbert. f^Bod, bot, messenger) Old 
Germ. Genobaud, Frankish prince, 3rd cent — Fr. Jeanpot. 
(Had, war) Old German Genad, 8th cent — Eng. Jennott — 
Mod. Germ. Genet — French Genette. (Sard) Old Germ. 
Ganhart, Genard, 7th cent. — French Ganard, Gbnabd, 
Canabd. (Hart, warrior) Old German Genear, Ginheri, 8th 
cent — Eng. Gennee, Jenner, Jennebt, Cannab, Canabt — 
Modem German Geneb — French Ganieb, Jannaib, Gotieb, 
Canieb. (Man) English Ginhan. (Bid, ride) Old German 
Generid, 8th cent — English Jeannebet — French G^ni^bat. 
(Bio, power) English Jenbick — Mod. German Gennerxoh — 
French Jeanbay. (Wig, wi, war) Eng. Gannawat, Jaha- 
WAT, Gintey, Jenvey — French GeneyeI (Wdd, power) 
French Canault. 

Of a similar meaning is probably the word 
span, spen, &c., Anglo-Saxan spanan, spenan, to 
allure, spdn, allured, spdnere^ enticer, allurer. As 
in the former case, the Old German names (of 
which one only corresponds with ours) seem to 
be all or mostly those of women. 



THE INNER MAN. 445 

smPLS FOBMS. Spu, Spon. 

Speinn, Sp^en, lAb. Vit. Eng. Spain, Spon, SpiNinET f Anionv. 
Mod. OeruL Spohn. French Sponi^ Spink 9 

DDOKUnYEa 

Old Germ. Spenneol i 9th cent. — ^Eng. Spaniel 9 

GOMPOUNDa 

(Hart, warrior) Eng. Spooneb* — Mod. Oerm. Spanish 1 
— French Spenneb? (Leo/, dear) Eng. Spenloye, Spendlove. 

From the Ang.-Sax* masc, max. Mod. Germ. 
masch, Engliflh *' mesh/' a noose, may be the fol- 
lowing, perhaps in something of a similar sense 
to the foregoing. 

BIMPLB F0BM8. Ifaih, iff« , 

Old Germ. Masca, 8th cent, Maza% 9th cent. English AOicmt 
Mabh, Mazse, Mazet, Mozey. Modem German Maske, 
Masgh, Mesee. 

DIMINUTIVE. 
PHONETIC ENDING. 

Engliflh MAcmNEy Maxon^ Mozon. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Mesheb — ^French Mascab. (Man) 
English Mabhman. 

There is a stem gog, cog, coc, which may 
perhaps, though very uncertainly, come in here. 
The sense may be that of English cog, Spanish 
cocar, to cajole, Danish kogU, Dutch hokden, to 
juggle. The root of this seems to be found in 
German hv^ely Dutch hogel, a ball, the simple 
form of which is seen in North. English cog, a 
roundish lump. But there are several other 
derivations which might be proposed, as — 1^, 
cock, the bird — 2nd, the cuckoo, in Persian kohi, 
Indian huka, Welsh cog. Old High Grerm. gang, 

* Or from Anflo-Baioii JipdtMre, mfciotr, Mdaotr. 



446 THE INNSB UAS. 

Swed. gok, and that there are names irom the 
cuckoo is shewn at p. 105 — 3rd, the Ang.-Saxon 
gedc, courage, p. 244. 

SDCPLS FOftHa. 

T^«S Old Germ. Gogo, Cogo, Oooo, 6tli cent Cuga, Lib. ViL 
Gaogy, RM BaU. Ahb, Eng. Gooat, €k>CK. Hod. German 
KooB. French Oo^ Coqiteau, Goohs. 

DnOMUTlVJIB. 

En& CocKLE| CooHniL — Mod. G^rm. Gooel, Gogkel — 
French Gochel^ CoQcniLE. Eng. OoGuir, Oocklin— Mod. 
German KdcBUir — ^Frwch Qoolxs, CoquBLor, CocaoELUf. 
Eng. GoGOB, Cocks — French Cogez, Oogcoz. 

RATficmnacB. 
Enf^ab OocKiso. Mod. Germ. OdCKniOK. 

COMPOimDB. 

{Ety p. 189) Eng. CocKETT— French Coquet. (HotyI) 
Mod. G^rm. K5ckert — French Cooabd, Cochabd. (iJoK, 
warrior) Eng. Coooeb, Cockeb — ^Mod. German K5cheb — 
French Cochebt. {MarC) Eng. Cockxak, Coaghmait % 

PHONEHG ENDING. 
Eng. GOGOUT} COGGIN, COGKIN. FrOBCh CoQUIKj COCHDT, 
COGKY. 

PHONETIC ZNTBUSION OF n.* 

(Hard) Old Germ. Guginhait, 11th cent Fr. Cognabiv 

COCHXNABT. 

From the Old Norse locka, to seduce, beguile, 
may be the following. Hence seems to be the 
name of Loki, the mischief-maker among the gods 
in Northern mythology. The Ang.-Sax. locc, a 
curl, might also be proposed in the sense referred 
to at p. 403. 

Look. SIMPLE FORMS. 

TotMgnUftr Loodhi, Lib. ViL Eng. Lock, Logxie. Fronoh LooQCi^ 

LOGBB. 

• Po«riM7limot«]Mlh«8wl«G«M|MMU.(foraiif|eatNadr) 



THE INNER MAN. 447 

OOHPOUKBCL 

(Ha/rd) Old Q«rm. Lokard, Lochard, 9tli cent. — Eng. 
LocKHABT — Ft. Locabd, Loohart. {HaHy warrior) Ang.- 
Saz. Locar, God. Dip. 819— English Looker. {Et, p. 189) 
English LocKErr — French Looqttbt. {Raty ooonsel) French 
LooBET. (Mem) Eng. Loceman — Mod. Germ. Loghmann. 

From the Ang.-Sax. pir&ty proud, may be the 
following. But in Old Norse pr&dr seems rather 
to have meant courteous or polite, which is pro- 
bably a preferable sense for men's names. 

SIMPLE FOSBIB. PzotuL 

Tom, Bomamed Frada, a Northman at the Court of roUtof 
Canute. English Prudat, Fboud, Pbout, Fbowbe. Mod* 
Germ. Pbutz 1 French Pbuede, Pbout, Pbouteau, Pbugbl 

PATBOKYHia 

English PBOunira. 

UNOEBTAIN NAME& 

English Pbudenoel 
There was an Ang.-Sax. priest called Prudens, Cod, Dip. 
971. This name seems most probably Latin. 
Eng. Pboitdfoot. 
Finding another name Puddefoot, I think the r may be 
only intrusive. Puddefoot seems to be fix>m hud^ a mes* 
senger. 

From the Ang.-Saxon, Old High Germ. WW, 
ferus, silvaticus, are probably the following. The 
stem, however, is very apt to mix up with wcdd 
and wUl. 

simple forms. Yfi^ 

Old German Wilto, 9th centw English Wilt, Wild, Fons. 
WiLDEY, WiLDAY, GwiLT. Modem German Wild, Wildt. 
French Y ild^ 

DIMINTJnVE. PATBONYJOO. 

Eng. WiLDisH. Eng. Wilding. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Yiltard, Villetard. (Hariy warrior) 
Old Germ. Wildehar, 8th cent — English Wilder, Quilteb. 
(Man) Eng. Wildmak. 



448 THE INNER MAN. 

From the Ang.-Saz. haest, hot, hafity, Forste- 
mann derives the following stem, which is however 
liable to intermix with dsty p. 216. 

- OlfPLB FOBMB. 

^*^' Eog. Hast, Hastie. French Hesteau. 

DIMIKUnVE. 

English Hastilow. 

OOMFOUNDS. 

{Harif warrior) French Hasheb — ^Eng. Hsstbb. {Rie^ 
power) Eng. Hastriok. {Wold, power) Old Germ. Heistald 
— ^French Haibtault. 

From the Old High Germ, rasti, Mod. Germ. 
rast, Anglo-Saxon resty English rest, reqnies, 
Forstemann derives the stem rast, rest. I am also 
inclined to add the forms rost and ruM, found in 
Fries, rost, Dutch and Low German rust. Mod. 
Germ. rUst, English roost. Though for the form 
ntst the German riisten, to arm, may also be 
proposed. Forstemann has only the three fol- 
lowing names. In the Liber ViUs I find also a 
Bestoldus. 

BMt SIMPLE FOBMH. 

Bnni«>- Old German Busto, Bust, 9th cent. Eng. Bosr, Bust. 
Mod. Germ. Bosr, Bust. French Bost, Bobtt, Bobteau. 

DIMINUTIVKS. 

Eng. Bastall, Bbbtell — ^Mod. Germ. B58TEL. English 
BusnoH. French Bostolan. 

PHONETIC EKDIKO. 

Eng. BusTOK. French Bebtok, Bostan. 
patbonymios. 
Old German Besting, 8th cent — Mod. Germ. Bustdto. 
French Bostajtq. 

COMPOUNDa 

(Bie, power) Eng. Bastbick, Bbstobick. 
From the Ang.-Saxon fersc, Jresc, Old High 
German yrwc, Mod. German ^rwcA, we may take 



THE INNER MAN. 449 

the following. But whether in the sense of 
innocence or purity, or in the sense of spirit and 
liveliness, or thirdly, in the sense of novtis or 
juvenis, I must leave undetermined. The stem 
does not appear in the AUdeutsches Namenhuch, 
and curiously enough, it is in the name of the 
Italian family of the Frescobaldi that it appears 
most distinctly in a German form. I find, how- 
ever, that Mr, Taylor has got Freshings in his 
table of Teutonic settlements in France and 
England. 

BIMPLB FOEMS. FnM. 

Ferae,* Dameadai/. Engliah Fresh, Fbiskst, Fubzb. vtmh. 
Mod. Germ. Fbisch. French Frbboo. 

DIlOKUTrVlK. 

French Fbbscal. Modem (German Fbisceojh — French 
Fbbsloh. 

00MP0UND8. 

{Bald, forfciB) ItaL Frescobaldi. (Htm^ warrior) Old 
German Friskaer,t 9th cent. — Tgn gliah Fbesheb, Furzer. 
(Hard) French FresAard, Froissakd. 

From the Old Norse tdja, to labour, Fdrste- 
mann derives the following stem. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ido, Ito, Hiddo, Hitto, 8th cent Ang.-Sax. ^ ^^' 
Ida» king of Bemicia Eng. Hidi^ Hut. Mod. German 

IDE. 

DIMDilUTiVJ&S. 

Old German Idala^ 8th cent. — ^Engliah Idle. French 
Itaque. French Itabse, Ytasse (or to idia, Uia, nymph, 
woman 9) 

PHONETIC Ein)ING. 

Old German Idinus, 8th cent. Tgngligli Iden, Hiddev. 
French Iteney. 

* The Axig.-Sax foim ftne. I am not 9ai% howerar, tlut tlii% •■ well ee 
BngUih Fdbzs and Fubzsb, should not be pat to Frieee, ik 81S. 

t FOntenuim makes this Fxls-kaer, pladng It to Frtsee, p. ni AoconUog 
to toj plaoliif , It wonld be Frisk-aersBFriskhar. 

£ 3 



450 THE INNER MAN. 

00MP0Uin3S. 

(J7ari» warrior) Old German Ithar, Iter, Hither, 7th oent. 
Eng. HiDEB. Mod. Oerm. Ittbb. French Hitieb, Ytibb. 

In this chapter may be included the stem ccct^ 
which Forstemann refers to Old High Qerman 
ahtdn, Old Norse aktay to think. But I should 
rather take the sense to esteem^ respect, which 
this root also has. 

Act Eoi. BIMPLIB fOBM& 

To Mtaon. ^^ German Hecto, 9th cent Mod. Germ. Hbcht. 



OOMPOUKDfi. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Aecther, 7th cent — ^Ecther, 
Lib. VU, — English Hbctob — French EEbctob. {BtCy power) 
Old German Huctrich, king of the Alamanni— Engliah 
TJTTRmasf 

From the Gothic 9vSrs, honoratus, Old High 
Germ, sudrty gravis, Forstemann derives a stem 
found in a few ancient namea^ The connection 
between the two senses is found in our own 
expression, " a man of weight.* 

8IMPLB FORMS. 

Honomtaf Bug. SWBABS, SWIBE, SQtTABB^ SqUABST. 

PATBOMTiaca 

Old Germ. Snaring, 8th cent English SwsABnra 

OOlfPOlTNDB. 

(Hcmf warrior) English SwBABEsf 

• On« of tliMe Is Swaniagal (heav7 nail) « nuae f oond la tlie 8tb ouil la Am 
Ferbrfl<lmM||«(«dt fw»;91 Peter MSaIi5«f0. TUi saomi to miggeit ui oUflr oiIcIb 
lor tiM ouiou da* of dmbm «t p. SM Hbaxi I htkf Umm fopfOMd. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



THE STATION IN LIPB. 

Though a larger proportion of the names in 
this chapter have been originally surnames than 
in any of the preceding, yet even in this depart- 
ment of the subject there are not a few that are 
baptismal 

The first place is naturally due to the most 
ancient of all occupations, that of the tiller of the 
soiL There is an Old German word sass. Mod. 
German sasz, signifying settler, inhabitant, from 
which, in the opinion of Adelung, the Saxons 
derive their name. Hence may be the following, 
but of course the stem sax, p. 200, may intermix. 
A Saxon or Low Germ, form may be scU. 

BIUPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Saaso, Sasso, 9th cent Engliah Sass, Satow. ®^ ^^ 
Mod. Germ. Sass. French Sasse, Sasst. 

COMPOtTNDa 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Satteb* — French Sassieb, Sass^be, 
Sbzerob, Satoby. (Rai, counsel) Eng. Setrioht — French 
Bazkbat. (Ric, power) French Sazebac, 

From the Old High German buur, bouer, 
pawer. Mod. Germ, bauer, Ang.-Sax. bure, Dutch 
buur, boer, fiowti^er,. English "boor," countryman, 
seem to be the following. But the stem burg, 
p. 279, is liable to intermix. 

* Or from Ang.-Sai. tctien, Mdttc«r, wh«noe Scetar, the god who gave the lutm* 
toflfttopdftj. 



452 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

Boirar. SIMPLI WOBMB. 

Power, BcU BaU. Abb. English fiooBB, BowEB^ PooBi^ 
PowEB. Modem German Baueb. Frenoh Boub, Boubj^ 

BOUBSAU, POUBE, POUBREAU. 

DIMIKUnVES. 

English BuBBELL — French Boubbel^ Boubla. Ign gHfh 
BuBUKG — Frenoh Boubbillon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(H<»rd) French Bourabd. (Man) English Boobxav, 
BowEBXAK, PooBiCAK — ^Mod. German Bauebmaiiv. 

Of the ancient occupation of the hunter we 

find considerable trace in baptismal names. From 

the Old High Germ, yagron, Mod. German yogren. 

Old Norse and Swedish jaga^ to hunt, I take 

to be the following names, many of which have 

variously been derived by English and German 

writers from the scriptural names John, Jacob, 

and Joachim. Can our word ** jockey^' be derived 

firom this root 1 

, , ^ bibiple fobmb. 

g^^ Old Germ. Jaooo, 1 1th cent, Joco, 9th cent. Eng. Jack, 

jAoa Modem German Jock. French Jaoque, Jaoqui^ 

Jacqueau. . 

DIMINUTIVKS. 

Jachelinus, Jagelinus (Dameaday) — Eng. Jagkiin — ^Mod. 
Germ. Jecklik — Fr. Jaoquelik. Eng. Jagkall, Jekyll — 
Mod. Germ. Jacket Jeckel — Fr. Jekel. Eng. Jookisch» 
Jacbb, Jax — French Jacoaz, Jaoqz. 

PUONETIG ENDING. 

French Jaquin, Jbgon. Mod. Germ. Jochen. French 
Jaquin, Jokik. 

compounds. 

(Hard) English Jagoabd— French Jaoquart. (Eari^ 
warrior) Old Germ. Jager, Jahheri, 9th cent — Eog. Jaggbb 
~ Mod. Germ. Jaeoer, Jqcher — French Jaoer, Jaoquibb, 
Jaquiebt, Jahteb, Jatb. fJSty p. 189) Engliah Jaobubit, 



'rmfi STATION IK LIFE. 453 

Jaooxd^ Jaget. (Man) English Jackxak — Mod. Qermaii 
Jaobicaiik — Fr. Jaoquemain, Jaoquemin. {McuTy fEunoas) 
Frenoh Jacquemab, Jaoquemieb. {Wdd^ power) French 
Jaoquaui/t. 

From the Old Dutch perssen, to hunt, Mr. 
Talbot derives the name Percival. The root 
may also mean to constrain, compel, being the 
same as English '^ press/' Hence it is liable to 
intermix with the stem hrisy p. 186. There is 
only one Old Germ, name, on which Forstemann 
gives no opinioa 

SIMPLE FOBM& 

Old German Purso, 8th cent. English Fbabse^ Fbbot, j^^i, 
PuBSB, PuBSET, Pbess 9 Pbessey 1 French Pbbs. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Percelay (Roll BaU, -466.)— English Puboell. Pubslow, 
Pabcell^ Pabslet — French Pebsil. Eng. PEBSAa French 
Pbbsoz. 

COMPOXTNBa 

(Hard) Eng. Pubssobd. (Sari, warrior) Eng. Pubseb. 
(Leo/, dear) "Eng. Pubseloye, and probably as a corruption, 
PuBSEGLOYE. (I^ew, joung) English Pbessnet — Fr. Pbesnx. 
(Wealh, stranger) English PeboiyalI PBESSWEixf — ^French 
Pabseyal f Pebseyal 9 (or local from vUle, towfkj 

One of the most common stems is bod, bud, 
pot, put, which I take to be from Ang.-Sax. boda. 
Old Norse bodi. Mod. German bode, Danish bud, 
envoy or messenger. The older Grerman writers 
gave it the meaning of ruler or leader, and Forste- 
mann doubts whether it is to be explained in the * 
sense of prsebere, offerre, or of jubere, as both are 
to be found in the root from which it is derived. 
I am inclined to think, from the nature of the 



454 THE STATION JI9 UFB. 

oompounds in which it is fotmdy that its general 
sense is that which I have mentioned. It ia 
rather apt in some cases to mix up with bald, 
fortia 

SmPLX f09M/L 

Bod. Bud, Old 0«rman Bodi, Boddo^ Botto, Budo, Buddo, Butta» 
-^^ Poto, PotJio, 8th cent AIbo probably Baudo, Bouduv 
BoatOB^ 4ih cent Ang.-Saz. Putta. Eng. Bodda, Body, 
BoTT, Boot, Booty, Booth, Budd, Bubdo, Butt, Pubdy, 
Ptttt, Pott, Potto, (Alderman qf Oambridffe, I7tk omL} 
Mod. GetBL BoDB, Botiv Both, Booth, Btrm^ Poir, Potb* 
Danish Buddie. French Bodo, Bodeau, Bom, Botbsy, 

BOUDEAU, BOUTHBY, BOUTY, BoUT, BUTTI, BuTHEAU, POTEAU, 
POTEY, POTH^ PUTEAU. 

DIMJLMUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Bodilo, Potilo, Pedal, Patilo, Tth oent— OM 
Norse BudU— Ang.-Sax. Pottel (fownd m FottOeitre&w, Cod. 
Dip. 441) — ^En^^ish Bodble^ Bodley, Bodu.y, Boadklla, 

BOXTLE, BOTLY, BUDDLE, BOODLB, BUTTEL, POTTUS, POODZ* 

— Modem Qerman Buddel — French Boutel, Poteu Old 
Germ. Poticho, Putioo, 8th cent— -Ang.-Sax. Puttoc — Eng. 
PuDDiOK, PuTTiGK, BuDGB — Mod. Germ. Bodecx, Budigh, 
Budsb, Budob — French Potaoe 9 Old Gemip Bodekin, Uth 
cent — ^Eng. Bodkik — Fr. Bodichon. Old G^rm. Bodolenufl, 
Butilin, Budelin, Bodalung, 6th cent — English Bdtun, 
BuTLiNO, BuDLovG-^-Modem Gennan Bohtunok — French 
BoTTEUN, BouTELON, BuDiLLON. French Bodabsb, Buttes, 

PHOITBTIO ENDIKO. 

Old Germ. Baudin, 6th cent Ang.-Saz. Potten (fimnd 

in PattenHreoWy Cod. Dip, 1,283). Boden, EoR Batt Abb. 

. English Boden, Botten, Budden, Button, Potten. Mod. 

German Boden. French Bodin, Bottin, Budin, Bumv, 

POTIN. 

patbonymigb. 
Old German Poting. Anglo-SflKon Buttingc (/owndin 
DuUingo ffrdf, Cod Dip, 126, &c. Pudding, Lib. Vii. Eng. 
BoTTiNO, BuDDiNO, PuDDmow Mod. Gom. Boding, Burriira 
French Boutuno. 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 455 

OOMPOnND& 

fOum, guest, stranger) Eng. Buddigombb^ Puddioombb — 
French f Buddiooil (Fer, travel) Eng. Pudditeb, Potiphjsb, 
BosTEFEnB* — French Potefeb. ('Foot, pedes) Eng. Pudds- 
FOOT, Proubfoot f (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Bandachar, 7th 
oent — ^£kig. Bodickeb, Bodgsr, Podgsb, Potioabt t — Mod. 
Genn. Botiobb. (Hard J Old Oerman Podard, 5th cent- 
French BoDABDy BODABT, BoTTDABD, BOUTABD, PoTABO* 

(ffari, warrior) Old German Botthar, 7th cent. — Boteros, 
Dameadw^ — English Butteb, Buttebt, Potteb, Pottieb — 
Modem €(erman Budeb, Butter, Puiteb — ^FVench Bodeb, 
Bodibb, Boubieb, Bottieb, BormBB, Pothieb, Potieb, 
PoTEBiE. (Gi8, hostage) Old Germ. Boutgis, Boggis, Duke 
of Aquitania, 6th oent. — English Bogois. (Mem) English 

BODMAlf, BUTIHAK, BEATJTYMAir, PomCAV, PUTKAK — Mod. 

G«rm. BoDEMAinf, Puttmaiih . {Me^^ fiunous) Old German 
Baudomir, 7th cent — Eng. Bodioeb, Budkobe, Buttemeb, 
PoDMOBE — Modern German BoTHioBBy Bodemeteb — French 
Bottemeb. {Mimd^ protection) Old Germ. Baudemund, 7th 
cent. — French Potemont. (Rady counsel) Old German 
Boderad, 9th cent. — French Poitbat. (New, young) Old 
(German Baudonivia, 7th cent. — English Pudney — ^French 
PoTONi^ (RiCy power) Old German Buttericus, Bauderich, 
Poterichy 7th cent. — ^English Buttebiok, Buddrich — Mod 
German Bodbioh — ^French BouTABia (Rid, rit, ride) Old 
German Bodirid, Buotrit, 7th cent.— English Botwbight, 
Boatwriqht) (Wald, power) Old German Baudowald — 
French Boudault. (Rtm, companion) Old Germ. Baude- 
runa, 7th cent-— French Boutbon, Potboh. (Wine, friend) 
Old (German Butwin, 8th cent — ^English Potwine — French 

BoDEYHr, BOUDBVIN, PoDEVIN, PoTEVIH, POTVIH. 
UKCEBTAIN KAMSa 

English BpTTBESS^ Pewtbess. French Boutbais. 

There is a stem rw, for which Fdrst^nann suggests Old 

Norse rdeck, to ruui Eng. " race." This, though not found 

as the termination of any ancient names, seems likely to 

obtain in the above. And an Old German Hraspod, 9th 

* Alio BOVTFLOWXR ttUl BUTTSBIXT M OOmipttOIIlt 



456 THE STATION IN LIFIL 

cent, XDBj be the oonyen& Pomdbly Huhtrbss (FoOsa of 
ShiMs) may be fix)m tJie same ending, with hfwnd^ dog, or 
hufUa^ hunter. 

Of a similar meaning may be the root siifid, 
sifdy which Forstemann refers to Old High Germ. 
sindy way, observing that the sense may rather 
be that of the derivative gisindi, comitatus, 
sateUitea This stem is apt to mix up with Old 
High Germ, smnd, Ang.-Sax. stvi^, vehement^ 
but I think that it is too strongly defined to be 
entirely merged. 

8DCFLI FOBVa 

ibiw^ Old German Sindo, Senda, 8th cent Bindi, Dcmeiday* 
Eng. SxMT. Mod Qerm. Suit. French Gsrt. 

DIMINX7TIVE8b 

Old Qerman Sindioo, 8th cent — French STKDia Old 
Germ. Sindila, 6th cent — Eng. Sendall. Old Germ. Sinzo, 
11th cent — ^Mod. Germ. Snrz — French Snra. 

PHONXnC ENDIKO. 

Old Germ. Sinduni, 8th cent Eng. Sno>BN, SniTOV. 
coMPoxrNDa 

(Bert^ bright) Old Germ. Sindbert, Simpert, 8th cent — 
Eng. SiMBEBD. {Hard) Old German Sindard^ 7th cent — 
French Suvtard. {Bergj protection) Old Germ. Sindebeiga^ 
7th cent — French Sentubebt. {Haai^ warrior) Old Germ. 
Sinthar, Sintar^ 7th cent — ^Eng. Sn^DBET, SonoEB, Gxntbb — 
French Cendbe. {RaJt^ oounsel) Old German Sindarat^ 7th 
cent — French CnrrBAT. 

From the Old High German scalc^ servant^ 
seem to be the following. This stem was most 
common among the Alamanni and Bavarians, less 
so among the Franks and Saxons. 

gl,^^ simple FOBMa 

jteTMii Old German Scalco, Sca]h, 8th cent. English Shawket, 
Shallow, Shallet. Modem German Sohalk, Sohelck. 
French 1 Sohall. 



THE STATION IN UWE. 457 

ooMPOuin)& 
(Man) Old Qerm. Soalooman — Eng. Bhawxah 1 

And from the Old High Germ. scuUa, servant* 

may be. 

amPLs VOB1I& 
Old Germaix Sculd, 9th cent. EngUah Shoult, Sholto. 
Mod. Germ. Sghxtldt. 

00MP0UKD8. 

(Hariy warrior) Eng. Shothjueb 9 — French 1 Scholdeb t 

Another stem of the same meaning, more 
common as a termination, is GotL thiiLS, Anglo- 
Saxon theow. Old High GeroL dio, whence may 
be the following. 

Old GeniL Dio, 9th cent. Ikig. Dn» Dn; Ttas, TBxw. Bwnak 
Mod. Germ. Tms. French Dm, Dii^ Daioa 

DIMlMUTlVn. 

Eng. DiAOK. French Diaohe, THiAa 

OOMPOUlfBa 

{ff(»rd) French Diasd. (Ear% warrior) fingliah Dtxb, 
Thter. {Lohy grorve) Old German Thioloh, 9th cent — ^Eog. 
DiALoouB. (Madf met, reverence) Old Germ. Deomad, 9th 
cent. — English DsiCAn) — French Dbhait, Dhoicet. (M<m) 
Old Germ. Dioman— Eng. Dekov — ^Mod. Germ. DiEMAim 
— French DsMAinnB. {Hfcmd, daring) French Dianahb. 
{Mund, protection) Old Germ. Thiomonty 9th cent.**Eng. 
DtAMOHD — ^Frendi Demaxtcb, 

From the Old High German gisal,^ hostage^ 
are probably the following, though the Old Norse 
gisli, dart., may intermix. I do not feel sure, 
however, that the sense of the Mod. Germ, gesell, 
companion, is not the prevailing one. In modern 

* In Anglo-flazon luanes It frequently Appean tn the form <p:u, and hence I 
into t» be the oluUtUii nuae OUee, moet oddlj, ecoordlng to my view, deriTed 
ftom JSgldlna, reipecting which Mlaa Tonge Meme to be the flrrt to hint » donbt 
Pott'i Alt«infttlT« fnggeftion of the Latin Jnllni ia not much better. 

f3 



458 THE STATION IN UFB. 

names it is generally contracted into gil, as we 
find also to have been sometimes the case in 
ancient names. 

8IMPLB FORM& 

^;^ Old Germ. Giaal, Kiaal, 7th cent, Gfflo, Gilla, 10th cent. 
Eng. KiBSELL, Chisel, Gill, Gilley, Gillow, EIili^ Killet. 
Mod. Germ. Geisel^ Kissel, Gill, Eillb. French Gesel, 
Gills, Gillt. 

DnnNTJTIVBB. 

Old Germ. Gislin, 7th cent — French Ghisladt, Gebldt. 
Eng. GiLLOCH, EnxiCK. French Gilquin. 

PHONsno EKDnra. 
Old Germ. Gillin, 9th cent Eng. Gillek. Mod. Germ* 
KiLLDff. French Gilan. 

PATBOKTMIOBw 

(Md Germ. Gisolong, 9ih cent Anglo-Saxon Gyselmgy 
fj<mnd in GyiMngham, now Oidmgham^ Sf/^oOLJ Eng. 
GiLUNO. Mod. Germ. ElissLuro. 

COMPOUNDa 

(Bald, bold) Old German Gisalbald, 8th cent— French 
GiLBAULT. (Berif bright) Old German Gisalbert, 7th cent, 
Gilbert, 8th cent. — ^English GiLBEBr — ^Mod. German Gissel- 
BBBCHT, GnAERT — ^French Gilbebt. (Bod, envoy) English 
GiLBODT. (Brand, sword) Old Germ. Gislebrand, 8th cent— 
Eng. GiLLiBBAin). (Fred, x>eaoe) Old German Gisalfirid, 9th 
cent — Eng. Gilfobo, Gilfbed (christian ncme). (ffitrd) 
Old Germ. Giselhard, 8th cent — Eng. Gillaed — ^French 
GiLLABD— Italian Gilabdi. (Hari, warrior) Old German 
Gisilhar, Eisalheri, 8th cent — Eng. Gilleb, Eilleb — ^Mod. 
German Gessleb, Eessleb — French Gieseleb, Gillieb. 
(Had, war) Old German Gislehad, Eisalot, 9th cent — 
English Chislett, Gillett — French Gmmer. (Hdm) Old 
German Gisalhelm, 8th cent — English Gillihok, Gilliax. 
(Ban, rayen) Old Germ. Gislaran, 8th cent — Fr. Gillebon. 
(Mem) Old German Gisleman, 9th cent — ^English Gillxan^ 
Ktllmaw. (Mar, famoxa) Gisalmar, 7th cent, Gilmar, 8th 
cent — ^English Gilxobh — Mod. German Eillmeb— French 

GiLMEB. 



THE STATION IN UFR 459 

Then there is a stem gi$y which Forstemann 
takes to be the simple form of the above word 
gisal. Besides the High German form his^ there 
is also a Lombard form chis. 

BIMPLB P0BM8. ^^ ^^ 

Old German Giao, Gizo, Kiso, Cisao, 7th cent Perhaps jjogtuge^ 
Geeso, 6th oent. Anglo-Saxon Giss% King of the South 
SaxonBy 6th cent Chese, Hvaid. BoUa. Eng. Kiss, OheesbI 
Mod. Germ. Geiss, Gibse^ Kiss, Tsjisse {Friedo). French 
Ghts, Gies4 Guizot 9 Chess^ ) Chiezb 9 

DIMJLNUTlVKa 

Gtesecg, genealogy of the kings of the East Saxone — Eng. 
ElissiCK. — ^Mod. Germ. Gisbckb. Old German Gisoma^ 9th 
cent — Eng. Jbssmat. 

PHONinO Ein>INO. 

English CHESSEir, Oheshet. French Gissnor, Ohbsnet^ 
Ghesnbau. 

PATBONTMICa 

Old German Gising. English Gissiko. Mod. German 
GiEsiNa 

OOMPOUKBS. 

Old German Gisbert, 8th cent — Mod. Germ. Gisbbecht 
— French Gesbbbt, Gisbebt. {Helm) French Gessiaulmb, 
Gessiommb — ^Eng. Chisholm? (Man) Old Germ. Guesmanf 
8th oent — English OmsKAK, Ohebman, Cheesemak \ — Mod. 
Germ. Giesemaitn. 

Names derived from trade were naturally of 
rare occurrence in ancient times. There is an Old 
German Coufman, 9th cent., which may be from 
Old High German koufman^ Modem German 
haujmann^ merchant. I do not think, however, 
(see p. 248) that this is altogether certain, though 
it is in its favour that the corresponding Anglo- 
Saxon cedpman and cdpeman are also I'epresented 
by English Chapman and Copbman, the latter 
corresponding with a Copaman in the Liber Vit(e^ 



460 . THE STATION IN LIFE. 

In the name of a grave (CMpan JUdwX we 
find an Ang.-Saz. Cee^ia^ which seems to be from 
cedpa, a merchant^ and with which corresponds 
Eng. Cheafb. 

Names derived from handicraft, as a general 
rule, are of more recent origin, and have been 
well explained by Mr. Lower, to whose work the 
reader may be referred for further information 
respecting them. At the same time I hold to 
the opinion that a great number of the names 
apparently so derived are nothing more than aoci* 
dental coincidencea Such are many ending in er, 
such as Angleb^ Gabteb, Collier, Clothieb, 
Harper, Mariner, Marker, Binger, Slateb» 
Stoker^ Tasker, Turner, Walker, &c., most 
of which are referred to elsewhere. Nevertheless, 
I will not dispute that in some cases two different 
origins may obtain for the same name. Thus 
it is very probable that the common name of 
Walker is sometimes from Ang.*Sax. weaiceref 
aftdler. 

So also I take it that many of the names end- 
ing in wrighty as Arkwright, Allwbight, Boat- 
WRiGHT, Cartwright, Chbesewright, Qood- 
WRiGHT, Habtwright, Sievbwbight, Wain- 
WBiGHT, Woolwbioht, are compounds either of 
rat, counsel, or of n<, ride, both common as 
ancient terminations. In some of these cases 
again two different origins may obtain, but we 
must be guided very much by the probabilities 
of the case. Thus Boatwbight, Cartwright, 



THE STATIOK IN UFB. 461 

and Waikwbigbt would be natural enough as 
names derived from trade. But the term 
" wrighf would I think hardly be properly 
applied to makers of cheeses^ or manu&cturers 
of wooL Again^ Akkwriqht has been explained 
as a maker of meal chests. But it would not be 
reasonable to suppose that a division of labour 
such as does not even obtain at present, prevailed 
in the more primitive days of old, so that any one 
man was exclusively employed in making chesta 

So also many of the names ending in ttmu^ aa 

AliEMAN, BSLLMAN, ClOUTMAN, CoLEHAN, GiK- 

MAN, Habtkan, Henman, Honeyman, Potman, 
Saleman, &c., I do not conceive to be derived 
from trade or occupation. 

The commonness of the name of 'Smith is to 
be accounted for by the fact that anciently the 
term was not confined to iron work, but was 
applied to everything which required " smiting/' 
Thus the poet was a " verse-smith," though he 
had only to "" cudgel his brains/' Though no 
doubt generally a surname, it may be in some 
few cases baptismal There was an Old German 
Smido, 9th cent., and we have the names Smithy 
and Smytha — here we seem to have the three 
endings a, i, and o, the characteristics of bap- 
tismal namea Perhaps £ng. Smitheb^ Smiteb, 
French SMYTTiRE, Mod. Germ. Sohmiedeb, may 
be a compound, hari^ warrior. The names of 
Germany shew some further signs of connection 
with an ancient name-stem in the diminutives 



462 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

Sghmiedbckb, ScfHMiEDBL^ and Sghmidlin, and 
in the apparently patronymic form Schmedpino. 
In the case of these names the meaniDg may 
simply be that of smitiDg, and most probably in 
a warlike sense. 

Our name Bbownsmtth^ is, I take it, the 
opposite to blacksmith, and signifies the smith 
who did the bright or burnished work. Shear- 
smith might have the same meaning, from Aug.- 
Saxon sctr^ bright^ but is more probably the 
same as the German Sghaabschmidt (Anglo- 
Saxon seer, plough-share). Soottsmith I have 
referred to at p. 317 as similar to Abbowbmith. 
Gbossmith I should be inclined to explain as the 
opposite to the German Ueinsckvudt, ** small 
smith,'' Le., maker of locks, &o. Our Wildshith 
seems to be the same as the German Wald- 
SCHMIDT, which appears to be from toald, forests 
For other Smiths, English and German, see Lower 
and Pott. 

As Aldebman, p. 338, is most probably to 
be explained in its ancient and higher sense, so 
also Constable, if we refer it to an office at all, 
must be looked upon (see Lower) in a similar 
light. But, as I have elsewhere shewn, it may 
also be derived from a name of christian import 
not uncommon among the early Frankish converts. 

* Bo alao Bbowksword, p. 899. But what the meaning of Grkkksmith ii, 
alio of GunyswoRD and of Grithrxbbk (green iron), the latter name, I take it, of 
German origin, I do not knew. . Dr. Doran ("Names and NlcknameB" in the 
Univenal Beriew) mentloni an Irlah chieftain called Eoohod '* of the sharp green. 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 463 

Bishop is a name about the origin of which 
there is some difficulty. We first find it in the 
name of a heathen (Biscop) in the genealogy of 
the kings of the Lindisfari, and I have suggested 
a possible explanation at p. 182. It occurs more 
commonly among the Anglo-Saxons in christian 
times, and oddly enough, all the men so called in 
the Liber Vitts are ecclesiastica Possibly, for a 
young man intended for the chtux^h, it might be 
thought to be rather an auspicious name. It is 
possible then that Bishop may have been a 
heathen name, continued in christian times, but 
doubtless in a changed sense. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 

Something akin to the above sentinient lies 
at the root of a number of our names. Grass 
itself (Old High Qerm. gras^ eras, Ang.-Sax. grisSy 
by transposition gofrs,) is adduoed by Forstemann 
as the root of several ancient names. He sug- 
gests however as probable a lost verb grasan, 
virere, crescere. 

Qiaaf, Qm. SIMFLE F0BM8. 

Oiui«n. Old Gernum Oareiay Sth cent Engliflh Gbass, Gbassie. 
Mod. German Grabssb. French Gbass, Gkabsi, GbassOi 
Qabce, Gabcbau, Gabcia« 

ddhnutivjegl 
Eng. Grassick. French Gbassal. 

OOMPOUNDft. 

(J^ p. 189) English Grassbt— French Grasskt. (Hard) 
French Gbabsabt. (Man) English Gbaseman— Mod. Germ. 
Grassmanv. 

Of a similar meaning I take to be the stem 
green, which, though in most English names it is 
probably local, is undoubtedly in some cases 
baptismal The various forms of the annexed 
are found in Old High Germ, gruon, Ang.-Saxon 
groen, gr&n, Eng. "green." The Grerman kron^ 
English "crown," might intermix, though this 
does not seem to be the case as far as the ancient 
names are concerned. 



ALL tliESfi IS AS GBA8S. 465 

8IMPLK FORMS. Oroiie, 

Old Germaa Gran, Grana, Craan, Ghron% (dcvaghter of <*»~"- 
the Bwrgundujm king CkUperich, 5th cent. J Greno, Domeschy, ™"'™™*« 
English Gbonow, Gbeek^ Gbeeitt, Cbbak, OBOJXBrr, Crown f 
Mod. German Grohn, Gruv, Grun, Kr6n. French Gruke> 
Grbikn, Cron, Gronbau. 

DDCINUnVBa. 

Eng. Grenell — French Grunrlle. Grensy, RoU BatL 
Abb. — Eng. Greenish, Greenhouse — French Grenuz. 

PATRONTiaGB. 

Grenesnne (Dameaday). — English Greenson. English 
GRSENXNGy Gruning — Mod. Germ. Gronino, Gruning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Cronhart, Cruanhart, 9th cent. — Mod. 
German Grohnert, Grttnert, Grunert — French Grenard. 
(Hari, wamor) English Greener, Gruner — Mod. German 
Gruner, Groner, EIroner — French Gronier, Gronisr, 
Grenier, Orenier. (Man J Eng. Greenman. 

From the Old High German bl6ma. Modem 
German hlume, flower, Forstemann derives the 
following stem ; though we may perhaps take 
the wider sense of blooming or flourishing. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Bloom, 

Old Grerman Pluoma. English Bloom, Bloomy, Plumx^ piuma. 
Plxtm. Mod. German Blume;, Blum. Mod. Danish Blom. fioww. 
French Blomb, Blum. 

DDONUnyESu 

Eng. Blomelet, Plumlet — Mod. Germ. Blumel. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(JETorcQ Mod. Germ. Blumhabdt — Dutch Blommaert — 
French Blomard, Plumartin (Dimin. f) (JIariy warrior) 
English Bloomer, Plumer, Plomer — Mod. Germ. Blumer — 
French Plumber, Plumerat. fBic, power) English Plum- 

RmOE? PLUMBRmOE? 

From the Ang.-Sax. hhsm^ blossom or flower, 
is our name Blossom. The root-meaning, as re- 

G 3 



466 ALL FLESH 18 AA GRABa 

marked by Mr. Wedgwood, is to shine, to glow, 
as shewn in Old Norse blassd, to flame, &c. Hence 
Eng. Bloss and Blossbtt. 

The Latin Jlos, floris, French Jleur, appears, 
like some other Bomanic words, to have been 
adopted to a certain extent into the TeutcHiic 
name-sjstem, particularly among the Franks. 
Whether our name Flowbrday may be referred 
to such origin and derived firom the common 
ending dag, day, brightness, beauty, I should not 
like to assume in the absence of any correspond- 
ing ancient name. 

Grimm, in his Frauennaraev arts blumen, read 
before the Academy at Berlin, discourses with 
his usual ftdness of learning on the names derived 
from flowers and plants among various nations. 
The Hebrews, whose national career gave a cast 
of sternness and gloom to their sentiment, exhibit 
only two — Tamar, signifying a palm-tree, and 
Susannah, signifying a lily. The hieroglyphics 
of ancient Egypt reveal to us three — the lotus 
as a man's name, the ivy and the palm as names 
of women. The nomenclature of the Romans 
was somewhat wanting in names of this class, 
while that of the fanciful and elegant-minded 
Greeks was richer than any other. 

The ancient German tribes, AiU of rude and 
fierce energy, despised the gentle associations of 
trees and flowers. If they thought of the lime- 
tree or the ash, it was not of their beauty or their 
pleasant shade, but of the spear and the shield 



ALL FLSBH IS AS GRASB. 467 

which their wood was good to make. Their idea 
of woman was not as the angel to smooth the 
stem side of hfe, hut as the muustering spirit of 
the war-god to incite the warrior on his course. 
Hence the objects of comparison which seem to 
us so natural*— the ivy and the clematis as the 
emblems of endearing dependance — the violet 
** half hidden to the eye" as the emblem of modest 
sweetness — ^had no place in their imaginations* 
And as a general rule, the names of women were 
as fierce and ungentle as those of men. 

But with the Minnesingers of the middle ages 
a softer feeling arose, and names derived firom 
flowers began to be in use. It is probably from 
this period that names such as the following, 
more common in German than in English, date 
their origin. Eng. Boseblade, German Bosen- 
BLATT and BosENBLCT (rosc-leaf) — ^Eng. Bosin- 
bloom (rose-flower) — Germ. Bosenqarten (rose- 
garden), BosENBAGEN (rose-hedge), Bobenzweio 
(rose-branch), Bosenstiel, Bosenstock, Bosen- 
81'EKGEL (rose-stem), Bosenkranz (rose-croWn), 
Bosenwebeb (weaver of rosea, i. e., into garlands). 
Perhaps also such as English Bosethorn, Bos- 
TERNE ; English Hawthorn, Hagdorn, Germ. 
Hagedorm ; Eng. Prjmerosb, English Sweet- 
apple, German Goldenapfel, Ac. But such as 
the English Pepfebcx)RN, Mod. Germ. Pfeffer- 
KORN, and German Haberkorn, ElDvekorn, 
&c., must be from some different origin, perhapa 
feudal tenure or custom. 



468 ALL FLESH IS AS GRASa 

From the Romanic tongues, probably about 
the period of the middle ages, come such names 
as French Hyacinthe; Eng. Violbtt, Modem 
Germ. Violet, French Violete ; Eng. Blanch- 
flower, &c. A pretty poem of the middle ages 
celebrates the loves of two children called Bose 
and Blanchefleur, who, dying, were buried in one 
grave, from which sprimg the mingled lily and 
sweet-briar. 

There are, however, a few names of the earlier 
period which seem to be derived from trees or 
plants. In some cases, as that of the ash and the 
lime-tree, a particular reason may obtain, apart 
from any sylvan associations. In other cases it 
is not so easy to see the reason why. Thus the 
Old Norse name Humbl, whence probably Eng- 
Humble,^ and perhaps French Hummel, seems 
to be from humaUy the hop-plant, though as to 
the reason for its adoption we are quite in the 
dark. It is not difficult to accoimt for such a 
name as Thorne, which seems to be ancient. As 
an Anglo-Saxon name it occurs in the name of a 
place — ^Thominga byra, "the hillock of the Thom- 
ings,'' i. e., descendants of Thorn. As a Scan- 
dinavian name Thorny occurs in Saxo.t The 
sense might be that of spear, as in many other 
names of the same class aJready referred to. 

Thystell, which occurs as the surname of a 

• Might, howeTW, alio be from UoxillMld, HumlMad, p. S14. 

t The f enuJe BAme Thorny in the TAndnamaholr li not, m I before thought, 
from ikom, bnt more probably a oomponnd of Thor and my, young, whieh as a tei^ 
mination leeme ezdnilTely feminine. 



ALL FLESH IB AS GRASS. 469 

Northman in the Landnamabok, may prohahly 
be explained on something of the same principle 
as that of the Scotch motto " NoU me tangere/' 
Thistle is an English name, though not common. 

To the other words signifying shoot or branch 
— ^in most cases probably in the sense of spear — 
may be added the root stoffy stufy stiihy from Old • 
Norse stufr, stuhhry Anglo-Saxon styhy branch or 
shoot. We have the word stove in this sense in 
Cumberland ; Leicestershire has stovin. Forste- 
mann has no trace of this stem. 

SIMPLE FOKMS. Stof, Btnf, 

Aiig.-Saz. Stuf, nephew of Cerdic. Old None Stufr, a ^*°^' 
poet in the Lazd»la-8ag& English Btubbe, Stobus, Stobo, 
Stop, Stiff. Mod. German Stofp, Stuvk. French Stouf, 
Stoffe, Sruvi, Stuppy. 

dimikutiybs. 

Eng. Stotel, Stoffbll, Btiffel. Mod. Qerm. Stibbel. 
French Stoffeli^ Stiyal. 

PATJsomrMics. 

Ang.-Saz. Stopping, f/onnd in StoppingoB, Cod. Dip. 83 J 
Eng. SruBBiNa, STEBBma. 

OOHPOUNDe. 

{Hard) Eng. Stobabt, Stubbebt, Stupabt, Stibbabd — 
French Stevabt. {H<m% warrior) English Stubeb, Stubber, 
Stopher, Stoveb — Mod. Genn. SriJBEB — French Stoffbb. 

extended F0RM=AN0.-BAX. STOVN, LEICE8T. STOVIUf. 

English Stoyin, Stiffin. French Stobik, Steuben, 
Steffek. 

Another word having the meaning of shoot 
or branch — and in this case probably in nothing 
more than its simple sense — is quiMy which 
Professor Leo, in a communication to Notes and 
QuerieSy refers to Swed. quisty branch. The Old 



470 ALL FLBSH 18 AS ORASa 

Koroe quistr, and the Dutdi qtta^ have also the 
same seDse ; the Mod. Gennau qua^e ineaim tuft 
or tassel Henoe Eoghsh Hasselquist, Iokd- < 

QUiST, and Zsttsbquist. signifying respeetivelj 
" hazel-branch," " lime-branch," and " aspen- 
branch." It seems probable that these names do j 
. not date beyond the middle agea 1 

Then there are some other names which seem^ i 

to say the leasty doubtful As for instance the ) 

Old German Balsimia — English Balsam, French | 

Balsem(ine) — which Grimm takes to be from • 

tlie balsam-plant. But Forstemann, in his work 
published subsequently, plaoes in appo8iti(»i the 
names Baldisma and Baltisma, and it seems pro- 
bable that the whole are only diminutives from 
the root baldy fortis. 

Another doubtftd name is Lily. There is an 
Old German Liula, 8th cent., and a later Liela, 
which Grimm takes to be from the vitis cdba or 
clematis. Then there is also an Ang.-Sax. T.illfl^ 
but while the Old German names are those of 
women, the Anglo-Saxon is that of a man. The 
question then is in the first place whether these 
various names are the same ; and in the second ^ 

place whether in any case the above is the right 
meaning. Or might the Ang.-Sax. lili€, English 
*' lily," obtain in any of these names ^ , 

T.m anCPLB FQBHa 

LUj f Old German Liula, Liela^ 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon Lilla. 

Eng. Lxll, LiLiiO, Lily, Lsly. French Liixo, Lellt, Lelt. 

GOMPOITNDS. 
Englivh LXLLTMAK, LiLLlKAK, 



JLLL FLESH IS JLS QBASS. 471 

The English Olivb, Cuff, and the French 
Olive, Oliva, Ouffe, might be from the olive 
tree. The names Oiiva and Olefia occur in the 
" Polytyque de YAhh6 Irminon'' in the 8th cent 
But the Scandinavian name Olaf, borne by several 
kings of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and 
with whiah corre^)ond Old German names Ola^ 
Ole^ and Olof, 8th c^at, might intermix. The 
word also appears in some German compounds^ 
as Olevildif^ 9th cent, {hild^ war). To these 
might be put the Olifard in the BoU Bolt. Abb. 
and in the Liber VUcb^ preseait French Oltvbet, 
It is hard to say whether all or any of these 
latter names are from the olive. 

Doubtfiil also are English Oake, Oakey, 
AiKiN, AiXMAN. There are Old German names 
Aiko, Oiko, Occo, Eckan, and Eckeman, for which 
Graff and Forstemann propose akiy disciplina, 
ekka, edge, Ac, see p. 209. Nevertheless, the oak, 
as the emblem of stability and strength, would 
be very natural for men's names^ and it does not 
seem to me at aJl certain that the above ax^ not 
so derived 

I do not think that Maple is from the tree ; 
neither does the derivation from ma beUe seem a 
sufficient one. The names Mabilia and Mabic in 
the Lib. Vit appear to be diminutives, and the 
stem-name is also foimd there as Map. Hence 
English Mabb, Mabbutt, &c., and the French 
Mabillon, another diminutive. As to the etymo- 
logy, I can give no opinion. If the name Mabilia 



472 ALL FLESH 18 AS GRASS. 

may be disseyered from the others, I should be 
indined to refer it to the Latin amabilia 

Our name Bowntbee (the mountain ash) is 
probably derived from some of the superstitions 
connected with that tree. RoiNTRtr is also 
a French name, derived, it may be, from some 
of the many Scotch settlers who have left 
traces of their nationality in the names of that 
coimtry. Whether our Rowen is from the same 
origin or from a Saxon Eodwin, (whence in the 
female form Bowena), may be uncertain* Miss 
Yonge is surely in error in saying that there is 
" nothing Teutonic"' about Bowena : it would be 
derived from Bodwina as naturally as Bobert 
aod Boland from Bodbert and Bodland. The 
female form Bodwina does not, however, occur in 
the AUdeutsches Namenhuch, though the man's 
name Bodwin is common. 

Ivy, Mr. Lower thinks, may be derived from 
the old hoHday games, in which Ivy was a female 
character. Ivymey, which may be "ivy-maiden," 
may perhaps be from this source, as also Ivyle^f. 
But Ivy itself, along with Ive and Ifb, and a 
Mod. Germ. Ive, seems to be from an Old Grerm. 
Ivo, Ang-Sax. IflS, the probable etymon of which 
if it be not from the root oft, p. 60, is Old Norse 
^, to rage. Indeed, Ivymey itself may be taken 
to be a diminutive form from this stem, corres- 
ponding with an Old Germ. Ivamus, 11th cent. 

Our name Jessamine seems to be a corrup- 
tion of another name, Jessiman, which again may 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 473 

be the same as an Old Germ. Gezzeman, the root 
of which is doubtfiil. Our name Nxjtt I take to 
be the same as Enut, which we incorrectly make 
a dissyllable in Canute. So Almond, "Filbisrt, 
Medlae^ Pofft, Gabuck, &c., I take to be 
ancient names. I even doubt the old song which 
says 

'* Johnny Figg was a grooer, white and red," 

80 &r as it may be adduced for the explanation 
of our name, which I refer, as at p. 249, to an 
ancient stem. 



H3 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 

Though the gentle associations of trees and 
flowers seem to have been but little in favour 
among our fierce ancestors, yet there is another 
class of names derived from metals, which, as 
more in accordance with the character of their 
ideas, hold a larger place in their nomenclature. 
Among these iron, as the symbol of hardness and 
strength, was naturally the most common, and 
probably the most ancient. There are three 
forms, 1st, the Gothic eisarn^ Old High German 
isarn^ Anglo-Saxon isem. This is the original 
form from which are derived respectively the 
later forms isan and iren in Old High German 
and Anglo-Saxon. The first in some names might 
also be the adjective. Old High German isem^ 
Mod. Germ, eisem, ferreus. So in the Chron. of 
Limhurch there is a Heinrich der Isem, Henry 
the Iron. 

I«,n, Urn. 8»^"» ^^^^ 

Iron. Old German Ismus^ 8th cent, Isam, 10th oent, Isama, 

one of the Anses in Jomandes. English laoir, Izok, Iboh, 

IsEBH. Mod. Germ. Eisen. French Eysen. 

COMFOUNDa. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Isanbert, Isambert, 8th cent. 
Mod. German Isanbabt — ^French Izambbbt. {Bwrg, pro- 
tection) Old German iBanbnrg, Irinbriq, 8th cent — English 
iBOKBRmaB — ^Mod. Genn. Isbnbebo. (Hard) Old German 
Isanhard, Isnard, 6th cent — ^English Isvard— Mod. German 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 475 

EinDrHABDT — French Isnabd. (Mem) Old Germ. Isanman, 
9th cent. — Engliflh Ibonhan. {Wold, power) Old German 
lainolt, 9th cent— French Esnault. (Ulf, wolf) French 
Ebnouf.* 

BUBNAMK 

Ironside was the mimame both of our own Edmund and 
also of Bjom, king of Sweden. Ibokside is a present English 
name. 

Then there is another form is, which if we take 
it to be, on the principle which I have assumed 
throughout this work, the older form of isam 
and ison, must represent the Sansc. ayas, Gothic 
aizy which at first probably meant copper, but 
on the discovery of iron was transferred to that 
metal.t But in a few names, as Isbobn, p. 326, 
is, glacies, may probably intermix. 

8IMPLB FORSiS. Iio- 

Old Germ. Iso, Isi, 8th cent Eng. Eyes, Icb. ^"^^ 

DIHINUTrVES. 

Old Germ. Islo, Isula, 8th cent. — English Icely — Mod. 
Germ. Eisele — French Eis£l£ Eng. Iselik — Mod Germ, 
EiSELN — French Iselik, Ysldt. 

OOMPOUNOa 

{Bert, bright) Old German Isabert, Isbert, 7th cent. — 
French Isbert. (Burg, protection) Old German Hisburg — 
Eng. IsBUEG. {Hard) English Isard, Izard — ^Mod. Germ. 
Isert — French Izard, Yzard. (H<vr%, warrior) Old Germ. 
Isheri, Iser, 8th cent — Eng. ? Heiser — ^Mod. Germ. Eiser — 
French Isar. {Mem) Old German Isman — Ang.-Sax. Hyse- 
man (fownd m Eyaemannea thorn, God, Dip. 714)— En^ish 
Heasman? — Mod. Germ. Eisehakn. iMcvr, famous) Old 
Germ. Ismar, 9th cent— Eng. Ismer. {Odd, dart) Old None 
Isodd — Eng. Izod. {Ward, goardian) Old German Iseyard, 
Isoard, 10th cent — French Isoard. 

* Ft^tanuum hM only the f ona Imlf . The fonn Isamnnlf ooenn in the 
liber Vitoi 

t Max MQller, Lectures on the Science of Langnage. Second wtIm. 



476 THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 

From the Old High German ^taAa2» Modem 
German stoM, Ang.-Sax. ^^2, English "* steel," are 
the following. 

8IMPLB FOBMB. 

^^' Old Gennan Stahal, Stal, 8th cent Old None StiOi, 
(somame). English Steel, Steal, Stalet. Mod. German 
Stahl. French Stau 

OOlfPplTKDB. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Stahelhart, Stalkrd, 8th cent— Eng. 
Stallabd. (ManJ Eng. Steblxan, Stalmak — ^Mod. Germ. 
Stahljcakn. 

phonetic ending. 

English SrEALm, Stalok, Staluon. Modem German 
StXhelin. French Staldt. 

DOUBTFUL NAME& 

English Steelfox, Stelfoz. Most probably a oorraption 
of Steelfaz, from the colour of the hair. The traces of Fox 
as an ancient name-stem are not such as to warrant us in 
thinking of a compound like the Old Germ. Stahalolf (steel 
wolf). 

Brass and Copper seem both somewhat 
doubtful. The former, as at p. 443, might be 
referred to Old Norse br<i8S, salax ; the latter 
might be a corruption of Cowper, (Old Norse 
kaupariy North. English " couper," dealer) ; or a 
compound from the stem cop, p. 248. The cor- 
respondence of a Mod. Germ. Kxjpfer is however 
so far in favour of the metal 

As iron and steel seem to have been synonyms 
of hardiness and strength, so gold may probably 
have been a sjmonym of affection. Thus in an 
Old Friesic song quoted by Halbertsma, a lover 
addresses his mistress as ** goime Swobke," 
"golden Swobke." Thus babies are said to be 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OP. 477 

••as good as gold." A similar expresaion occurs 
in a Modem Greek lullaby (Fauriel, "* Chants 
poptdaires de la Grice Modeme'')^ where a child 
is addressed as ** a golden little boy.'' There was 
an Alfgar, or Wulfgar, bishop of Lichfield, sur- 
named se gyldenay "the golden'' — ^perhaps^ Mr. 
Kemble suggests, fix>m his munificence, or as I 
think equally probable, from his goodnesa Old 
High German forms of gold, as found in the 
annexed, are goU, hold, koU. 

BUIFIJS FOBMa 

Ang.-Sax. Golde (woman's name). Eng. Gold, Ooldub, 
Gould, Goult, Goulty, Gold, Oour, French Gattut. 

PHONETIG XNDING. 

Old G^mum Coldin, 9th cent English Goldkn (or an 

adjective 9) 

PATBONTiaoa. 

English Golddto, Gk>LDiiroAT. 

00MP0UND8. 

{Birin, pirin, bear) Old German Goldpirin, 9th cent. — 
English €k>LDBonBir. (Ber, bear) French Goldber. (Kard) 
English OoLTHABD. (Hari, wanrior) English Goldxb, 
Oolteb — French GAimriBa. (Man) Eng. Goldicak, Oold- 
MAK, CoLTXAK-^Mod. Germ. GfoLDMAmr. (iTey, young) Old 
(^ennan Gobii f 10th cent — Eng. Goldkst. (Red, counsel) 
Old German Goltered, 10th cent. — Eng. Ooitlthbed. fBie 
power) Old Germ. Goldericus, 9th cent — English Goldrigk^ 
GoLDBmoE, Goldbick. (Bun, companion) Old German 
Goldrun, Goldran, 10th cent — Goldron, Lib. Fi^— English 
Galdxbok — French Caudbon — Span. Galdebok. (Wine, 
friend) English GoLDwm. 

To the same stem Forstemann places the 
following, suggesting, however, the Old High 
German geUan, reddere, valere. Whether of the 
two is the root-meaning is difiGicult to decide, but 
it is not improbable that there may be a mixture. 



Gold. . 
AnnuB. 



0«L 
Odd. 



478 THE STUFF A HAN IS MADE OF. 

fimPLBfOBMa 
Old Gennan Gildo, Come$ Afiriook, 5ih cent — GUdia, a 
OoA, 6ih oent— Qeldifl, 9th cent Ulf Oilt^ DameBday. 
Engliflh Guild, Gilt, Kildat, Kn.T, Kilto, Kiltt. Span. 
GiLoa* 

PATBONTMTG8. 

Old German Gelding, Gilting, 8tk cent. I^ Oildiko, 
Gelddto, Ksltiho. 

OOXPOUNDS. 

{Hard, forfda) Old Genn. Gildaid, Ghelthaxd, 6ih cent— 
Eng. GiLDEBT, Geldebt. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Gelther 
— English Gilder, KiLDEBBT.t {Man) Mod. Germ. Giltb- 
MASH. {Ulff wolf) Old Germ. Geldul^ Keltolf; 7ih cent.— 
Eng. EliLDUVF.t {WtQy war) Old German Geltwi — ^English 

GiLDAWIEL 

From the Old Norse form guU^ gold, may 
perhaps be the following. The Old Norse gvU, 
gold, is sometimes prefixed to Scandinavian 
names, as in Gull-Thorir, Gull-Haraldr, "Gold- 
Thorir,''** Gold-Harold.'' I thought before, that— 
Ivar being a Scandinavian name— our Gulliver 
might be Gull-Ivar, "Gold Ivar/' a name like 
these. But as the name does not stand alone in 
that form, I now think the above scarcely pro- 
bable. 

fiIMPLBrOBM& 

Eng. Gull, Gully, Ouu^ Cullbt. Mod. Germ. G&ll. 
French Goulat. 

DIMIMUTIVEB. 

English GuLLiGK. Mod. Germ. Gulich. 

PHONETIO ENDnrO. 

Engliah Gullen, Oullebt. 

* TIm SpuilAidi li*T« tlio HaBmNsoiLDo, txwn. the Old a«muB iuuim 
HenniiiigOd, fooi&d In th* Mh eent In th« umim of a son of tht Watt-Oothlo Idnff 
LtaTlgUd, of » blflhop of Oriedo In tha 9th oenl, * Spuilah abbot In the lOtb. 
The prefix ie Arrnln or Ekinin, p. IM. 

t KiLBUBT and EliLDtnnr are Boitoo nunamea. and leem to be EDgliBb. 
Ther may oome in here, though they hare rather a CUtle tonnd, 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 479 

00MPOUND& 

(Bert, bright) English Gulbbbt. {Et, p. 189} Engliah 
Gullet — French Goulette. {Fred, peace) Gulfered, Gnlfer^ 
Damesdc^ — Eng. Gulliford, Guluteb. 

We do not find any trace of silver in ancient 
names. There is an Old Germ. Selphar 8th cent., 
and an Old Norse Solvar, but perhaps these, 
along with English Silver^ Mod. Germ. Silbeb^ 
may be placed to the stem salv, self, p. 346. 
Another derivation may however be traced in the 
Silebnhr in the Liber VtUe, which points to a 
stem sil, referred to, but not explained by Forste- 
mann. At the same time, the present German 
names Silbbrabd, Silbekman, &c., rather seem 
to point to an ancient name-stem. 

From the Old High German stain. Old Korse 
steinn, Ang.-Sax. ««(Jn, Dutch ^een, Eng. ** stone,'' 
in the sense of hardness and firmness, are the fol- 
lowing. The stem is more common in Old Norse 
names than in Old German. 

SIMPLE F0B1I& 1^^ 

Old Germ. Steina^ IQih cent Old Norse Steinn, SteinL gtona 
English Stain, Steeet, Stone, Stont, Stonah, Stannah — 
French Stedt. 

DIMlNUTlVESb 

English Stenbcx — ^Mod. German Steinboks, English 
Stennell, Stonel. 

PATBONTHIGa 

Old Germ. Steining, 10th cent. Eng. SrENNnra. 

001iP0UND& 

{Biom, bear) Old Norse Steinbiom — English Stainbubn. 
(Burg, protection) Old (German Sfcemburga, for Steinborga — 
English Steaicbubo, SrEMBBmoB, Stonebbu)o& (G&r, spear) 
Old Germ. Staniger, 9th cent. — French Steinacher. (Sard) 
Old German Stainhard, Sianard, 8th cent— Stannard, 



480 THE STUFF A MAN IS MADS OF. 

Dametdojf—EDg, BtAKNASD, Sfohabd, SranHXAsr — ^ModL 
Qenn. Stbohabt. {Hari^ WBirior) Old G«nn. Steinker, Sth 
cent — Old None SteinliAr^Eng. Stainkb, BronB, SfiomsB 
— ^Mod. Qeim Stbihsb. (Man) Eng. Stonekan — ^Mod. Genu. 
SxmmiAni. (Wold, power) Old Germ. Stainold, 8th oeat. 
— EngUflh Stohhold. 

Mifis YoDge, who considers the names deriyed 
from iron, steel, stone, Ac, as weapon names, takes 
in also the following Old Norse names as derived 
from haUr, stona But the Old Norse hair, yir 
liber et liberalis, may perhi^ intenniz. 

SIMPLBIOBMB. 

Old Germ. Halo, 8th cant Old None HjJlr. Ihgliah 

Haii^ Hallbt. Mod. GeniL Hahi^ HAUk French HauJ^ 

Hallkt. 

ooMFOtnn)e. 

(Burg, protection) Old Norse Hallbiorg — English Hall- 

Bowia— French Hallkbiw. (Orim, fierce) Old Norse Hall- 

grimr— Eng. HALLOSSDr— French HATiLiflRAfii. (SUmn, 

stone) Old Norse HaUsteinn — ^Eng. HAmBaovB. 

From the Old High Germ, proz, gemma, may 
be the following. 

BIMPIJB FOBUB. 

Old Germ. Broeo, 9th cent Eng. Bbos. Mod. German 
Bbossl French Bbobsb. 

DDOinTnVRB. 

Old Gennan ProEila, 9th cent.— Mod. German Bbosel — 
French Bbosskl. 

CX)MP0Tn!nM. 

(Hard J French Bbossabd. (Hart, warrior) Bngliah 
Pbossek— French Bbossdeb. 

Wood can hardly be included among names 
of this class. K the meaning be not, as I have 
previously suggested, in some cases that of spear, 
the sense of sylva is more suitable than that of 
liffnum. 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 481 

In what sense Cork, which appears in several 
English names, as Cokking, Cobkunq, Corkeb, 
CoRKERY, CoRKMAN, &c., all seemingly in Teu- 
tonic forms, is to be taken I cannot say, nor can 
I find any other etymon, if the stem be German, 
as it seems, than English cork. Unless possibly 
we may take it to be the same as Cark and 
Karker (Carker, Lib. Vit.)^ and think of Ang.- 
Sax, cearciwi, to chirp, in a sense similar to that 
of many names in chapter 23. Core was an Old 
Celtic name, but such an origin would not account 
for the above forma 

Though Iron, Steel, Gold, Stone, &c., seem 
natural for the names of men, as indicating, in a 
sense more or less metaphorical, the stuff they 
were made of, yet even the proverbial partiality 
of a shoemaker would hardly accoimt in this way 
for the name of Leather. And at p. 195 I have 
indicated another origin for this name ; while the 
names Leatherbt, Leathsrhead, Leather- 
dale, Leatherbarrow, are local, derived as I 
think from the personal name. The last name, 
Leatherbarrow, is probably from a hill so called 
on the banks of Windermere. 



t 3 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

I do not propose here to referto that large class 
of names taken from the holy men of Scripture or 
from the saints of the church, which followed on 
the introduction of Christianity, forther than so 
far aa in the case of some of them a differeDt 
origin may, more or less strongly, be suggested 

Thus such names as Boa2, Enoch, Lot, 
might be referred to the Old German names 
Boezzo, Enneco, Lotto, from roots referred to 
respectively at pages 408, 289, 377. And the 
names Eve, ECagab, and Ruth, to the Old 
Germ, names Ivo, Hahger, and Buth, all names 
of men. So Judb, Make, Saul, Job, are capable, 
as elsewhere noticed, of a different interpretatioa 
Something depends on the character of the name, 
and the probability of its adoption. For instance 
— such names as BoAZ, Saul, Lot, scarcely seem 
to have any particular claim on the sympathies 
of a convert. 

But the doubt becomes much stronger in the 
case of names upon which a Christian would 
naturally be disposed to look with horror or 
contempt. Who — for instance — ^would be called 
Herod, after the child-slayer — or Phabaoh, 
after the stiff-necked king — or Judas, after the 
arch apostate — or Cain, after the first murderer 
— or Ogg, after the king of Basan — or Balaam, 



THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 483 

after the temporizing prophet ? Esau, the reck- 
less yet open-hearted, may excite our sympathy* 
but scarcely our admiration. The name of 
Pilate recalls the most melancholy story in the 
history of a man. And scarcely even the strong 
patriotism of a Saxon mother would seek for its 
type in the impitying Jael. While other names 
there are, such as Potiphar, which have nothing 
to kindle reverence, and nothing to excite aversion^ 

Yet the whole of the above are family names 
in England or in France. And I have elsewhere 
suggested a different origin for all of them except 
Esau, Judas, and JaeL The first corresponds 
with an Old German Eso, firom the root ans, as, 
divus> p. 119, the second, a French name, may 
perhaps^ along with Jupice and JuDissfi, be a 
diminutive from the stem Jud, p. 305 — the last 
may be the same as Gale, p. 436. 

But though such names might not be volun- 
tarily assumed — ^yet there are no doubt cases — 
though I hold them to be rare — ^in which a name 
has been thrust upon a man against. his will. 
And there is in Paris a J. Iscariot (the first 
name for aught I know may be Judas), which 
can scarcely be derived otherwise than from the 
traitor.* 

* Coiionfllj enough— while theie ihaeta are pMdng through the prew an 
Mrttde In the Athensnm offen a probable explanation of thie name. "Th* 
MarqneM (Michael Impeilale of Genoa) wrote a book to prove that Jndaa had been 
▼err uBf alrlj dealt with bj hla oontemporariei and poeterltj ; and dying, Imperlale 
kft a sun to be expended In maaies for the benefit of the lonl of Iicariol Thoao- 
who ilded with him named their boji Michael, and aome wonld have called theirs 
br the name of the traitor, had not the Church anthoritlee stepped In and stopped 
the seandaL" So then the name after all does seem to have been vohmtarUj 
aanmed, and all that we can saj Is that "there Is no aoooontlng for tastes." 



484 THE CHB18T1AN ERA. 

Though it ifi certain that we have as fiunily 
names the Scriptural John, Thomas, Benjamin, 
Daniel, Simon, &c., I strongly doubt Jack, Tom, 
Ben» Syme» or Simm being, at least in all cases^ 
the corresponding diminutives. I include also 
in my objection the supposed diminutives of 
Teutonic names, as Bjll^ Bobby, Dick, ELabbt, 
&c. And I not only doubt the supposed diminu- 
tives of female Scriptural names^ as Nannt, 
Bettt, Sallt, and Moll ; but in some instances 
the names themselves. 

It does not seem at all probable that we 
should have names taken from the three sacred 
persons of the Trinity. There are indeed English 
names God and Godhead, the former that of a 
writer about the 17th century. But these belong 
to an ancient root, whether god, deus, or good, 
bonus, is not altogether certain, but at any rate 
anterior to Christianity. In like manner, and 
not originally in a Christian sense (though a 
Christian sense might afterwards come to be 
attached to them), I take Eng. Lovbgod, Lovb- 
OOOD, Mod. German Libbegott, Gottlier So 
also the French names DiBU and Lbdieu I explain 
differently pp. 427, 194. 

The name Chbist, which is English, French^ 
and German, might, according to the opinion of 
Forstemaon, be from the second person of the 
Trinity. However, I have made a suggestion 
respecting it^ p. 133. The Gothic h'iustan, to 
gnash, may also be suggested. But, whatever 



THE CHBI811AN ISBJL. 485 

might be the original meaning of the word, I 
cannot but admit that the Frankish converts 
must have looked upon it as referring to Christ. 
In the London Directory for 1832, I find the 
name Messiah, which, along with a French 
Mbzia, I place to a root of uncertain meaning 
quoted elsewhere. 

The following names apparently must be re- 
ferred to the Ang.-Saxon lob, Jove, bat whether 
in a heathen or a Christian sense I cannot say. 
Forstemann gives no explanation of the ancient 
names. 

SniFLB FORMS. Job. 

Old German Joppo, 9th cent. English JoB^ Jove, Jopp, Jo?«. 
JuBB. Mod. Qerman Juppel French Job, Jobb^ Jouys, 
JuBk. 

DDilNUTlVKU. 

Old Oerman JoTila, 7th cent. — French Joykl, JuvniLiL 
English JoBLDTG, JoPLiNG — French Jubblin, Jublih. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Jovart. {Hariy warrior) Eng. Jobber, 

JUBBER. 

There was an Ang.-Sax. priest called Spiritus, 
Cod. Dip. 762, which I before took to be from 
the third person of the Trinity, and to be perhaps 
the origin of Eng. Spirit. But I now take the 
Saxon Spiritus to be only a slight corruption of 
a Gothic Spirithius. We find the name in the 
corresponding Old High Germ, form of Spiridio 
{dio, ihius, servant). So also an Anglo-Saxon 
Electus, Cod. Dip. 98» which I before took to be 
from the Latin, and to signify '' elect'' as a name 
of Christian impoi't, may only be the same as a 
Goth. Electeus, and an Old High Germ. Electee, 



486 TH£ CHRISTIAN KBJL. 

from the stem referred to at p. 142. But it is very 
possible in both these cases also that the heathen 
idea may have been superseded by a Christiaa 
one. There is a present German name Hbilio- 
GBIST^ but I am much inclined to think that it is 
only a corruption of some ancient name ending in 
gast (hospes), as perhaps Haldegast(ee), which 
we find in the 3rd cent. 

In this place, and as a name of Christian 
import, I think that we may in many, if not 
in most cases, class Constable. In the two 
Frankish registers whose titles I have elsewhere 
quoted, the names Constabulus, Constabulis, Con- 
stabula, Constabila^ occur rather frequently both 
among men and women. I take the word to be 
derived from the Latin constahitlire, and, like 
another name Firmatus found along with them, 
to signify "established in the faith.*' 

In the Traditiones Corbejenses occurs in the 
9th cent, the Old Saxon name HoroboUa, which 
Grimm (Gesch. d. Deutsch. Sprach.) conjectures 
to have the meaning of " earthen vesseV in refer- 
ence to a common Christian simile. Whatever 
may be the meaning of the name (which Forste- 
mann takes to be that of a woman, though this 
is not certain), it may possibly be suggested as the 
origin of our Ababella, for which no sufficient 
etymon has as yet been proposed — Miss Tonge's 
suggestion of a corruption of the Old Norse female 
name Amhildur not having even the ordinary 
recommendation of verbal resemblance. 



THE CHBI8TIAN ERA. 487 

Names probably dating from crusading times 
are French Jekubalem and Nazabbth. More 
uncertain are Eng. and French Sabasin, Germ. 
Sabbazin ; the name Sarzinus occurs in the 
Pol. Kk, Saladin, Mr. Lower observes, was an 
English surname temp. Ed. 1st. It is not an 
uncommon name in France at present. Perhaps 
English TuBK, French Tubc, Germ. Tcbk, may 
be a name of the same clasa It would rather 
seem, however, from names of places in the Cod. 
Dip., that Turca was an Ang.-Saxon name. Mr. 
Lower conjectures Turk to be an abbreviation of 
Turketil, which derives some confirmation from 
the name Turk' {sic) in the liber Vitse. 

While the Eng. Christmas and Pentecost, 
and the French Noel are probably derived irom 
nothing more than persons having been bom at 
the time of these Christian festivals^ the names 
Pask, Pash, &c., seem, at least in some cases, to 
have a deeper root. The word occurs in German 
compoimds in some names of the 8th and 9th 
cents. ; Forstemann refers it to the Hebrew 
pascha, and indeed I do not know of anything 
else from which it can be derived. At the same 
time, seeing the remote origia of names^ any 
argument based on this groimd is necessarily in- 
conclusive. 

BIMPLB VOBMB. Pi^j^ 

Old Oenn. Pasoa Eng. Pabooe, Pask, Pash. French Paoom. 
Paschs. 

OOMPOUNDa 

{Hofrd) French Pasoabd. (Mem) English Paxhan ? 
{Wtdd, power) French Pascault. 



488 THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

Our namee Tiffin and Tiffany, French 
TiEFFiN and Tifhaine, corresponding with a 
Tephonia in the lib. Vit, seem to be from the 
Old French ti^haine, the feast of the Epiphanj, 
{Pott, 699). 

Though the English Devoll is I think to be 
otherwise accounted for, yet the Germans have 
both Teufel itself, and also many names formed 
fifom it, as Teufelskind (Devil^s chQd) ; Teufel- 
SKOPF (Devil's head) ; Schlagenteufel (Fight- 
ing devil) ; Jagenteufel (Hunting devil) ; and 
the most curious of all, Dusendteufel (Thousand 
devils). 

The French have DieudonnI, Dieuiafait, 
DiEULByEUT, and Dieutegarde. The last would 
seenr to bring before us a pious mother, watching^ 
over her new-bom babe, and looking forward, 
perhaps in a troublous time, to the dangers and 
trials of the days to coma So at first I took it, 
till I was compelled to yield the pleasing theory 
to the claims of an Old Frankish name Teut- 
gaTd(is). 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



THEY CALL THEIB LANDS AFTER THEIR OWN 
NAMES. 

A large proportion of the names of persons 
are derived from the names of places. Again — a 
large proportion of the names of places are derived 
from the names of persons — Dodd acquires a 
property, and it is called " Dodd's worth " — Grim 
builds a village, and it is called "Grim's by." 
Then Doddsworth and Grimsby give surnames 
to other men in after times — ^it may be to the 
very descendants of the original owners. 

So that the nomenclature to some extent runs 
in a circle, and we have names, such as Mont- 
gomery, in which we are able to trace at least 
four distinct revolutions of the wheel First — 
Gomerie,* the man, fixes his dwelling on the hill, 
and the place is called after him Mont-Gomerie. 
Secondly — Mont-Gomerie, the place, gives name 
to Roger de Montgomery the man. Thirdly — 
Montgomery the man, following the fortimes of 
the Conqueror, founds and calls after his own 
name, Montgomery, in Wales. Fourthly — ^Mont- 
gomery the place, again in its turn gives sur- 
names to men. And if we could suppose that 
some of the places called Montgomery, in America^ 
are named aflier a man and not after a town, we 
should be able to add a fifth. 

* The Old German Gomerih, p. 50 

j3 



490 THEY CALL THEIB LANDS 

In many instanoes we find the original name 
still hovering round the locality called after it. 
Thus, when I find that Winder is not an un- 
common name in Westmorlcmd, it confirms me 
in the opinion that Windermere may be the lake 
or '^mere*' of a man called Winder. Walking 
through Handsworth, in Staffordshire, and seeing 
the name of Hand upon the shops, I ssdd to 
myself '' Handsworth is the toorth or estate of a 
man called Hand, and these may be the descen- 
dants of that man.'' 

It is a very characteristic nomenclature — 
that of the Teutonic settler. Thoroughly matter- 
of-fact — he plants his dwelling in the cleft of the 
moimtain, with the towering peak above, and the 
rushing torrent below, and he calls it — ** Eagle's 
nest r — not a bit of it — " Brown's seat," or 
" Dobb's cot." It is characteristic of individuality 
and independence — individuality of right — in- 
dependence of charaxjter. The map of Englaiid, 
dotted over with the possessive case, is a standing 
protest against communism. And there are many 
names of places, formed fi'om a single name, which 
show where one man has held his own in solitary 
eelf-rehance among the lonely valleys and dreary 
mountains. 

The chapter of local surnames must always 
be a large one, though the tendency of my theories 
is very considerably to reduce it. 

In the first place, there are many simple 
names, such as Bank, Beck, Bower, Cross, 



aitsr thbir own names. 491 

Daub; Fbith, Gill, Hsdqe; Hill^ Iko, Moss, 
Orchakd, Pitt, Pool^ Bidge, Slade, Streibt, 
Wall^ &c., which I take, more or less certainly, 
to be from ancient baptismal names of altogether 
different meaning. 

In the second place, there are no small number 
of names which, though their apparent meaning 
is the real one, are yet from ancient baptismal 
names, and whatever may have been the original 
sense, are certainly not from locality. Such is 
House, of which the meaning can hardly be 
anything else than house, domua Some of thd 
ancient compoiinds, as Huseburg, Husimimt, 
Husward, aU signifying " protection (or pro- 
tector) of the house,'^ are intelligible enough, 
though it is not very clear as to the sense of the 
simple form. 

SIMPLE FOSMS. 

Old Germ. HtuB, Hnsi, Huozo, 8tb cent Eng. HouSE^ 
HussET ? Mod. GemL Hause. French Housss, Houbeau, 

HOUZB, HOUZEAU. 

DiMmui ' ivj a. 
Old Germ. Hnsicho^ Wx cent — Eng. HusfflfiK, Housmkx 
Eng. HussELL — French Houbel. French Hoitibez. OkL 
Genn. Htusito, 8th cent — French Houbbet. 

PATEONTMIGS. 

Old Qerm. HnsinC; 8th cent. Mod. Germ. HuBtmo. 

OOMPOUKBS. 

(Bur^, protection) Old Germ. Hoseburg — French Ht»- 
BttOOQ. (Hard) Eng. HouflSABfr— French Hoitbabd. (Mem) 
(M Genttv Huozman, 11th cent — Eng. HotreBtfAN — Mod. 
Germ. Haubbxank — French Houbbemaihe. 

A similar word appears to be inn, which 
Forstemann refers to Ang.-Sax. inn, domua But 



492 THBY CALL THSIR LANDS 

the verb innian, to entertain, may be suggested. 
To the ancient names in the AUdeutsch/es Namen- 
bicch may be added an Inuald in the Liber ViUe. 

Inn. aiMPLB FOSlia 

'^^^^ Old Qerman Inno, 9th cent An^o-Saxon Ina^ king of 

Weflsex. Hjni, Lib. ViL Eng. Hine ? Mod Oerm. Imr. 
French VLoxt 9 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Frid, peace) Old Oerm. iDfrid, 9th cent— Infrith, Lib. 
VU, — French Ikfboit. {Man) Eng. Inxak, HnmAK. {Mar, 
fiunoos) French Insmer. (Ward, guardian) Eng. LsrvABD. 

The Gothic haims, Ang.-Saxon hdm, English 
** home/' is found in a number of ancient names, 
but it is difficult to separate from another stem 
Jiam, which seems to be of a different meaning, 
though perhaps related. 

SIMPLE FOBMB. 

Old Oerm. Haimo, Aymo, 7th oentw Ang.-Sax. H&ma. 
English Home, Amet 1 Mod. Qenn. Heim. French Haim, 
Amey ? AlMjg ) 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Heimezo, 11th cent. — Eng. Hatmes, Ames — 
French Atmes. Old Germ. Haimelin, lOih cent — ^English 
Hamlin — French Hamelin. 

OOMFOUNDS. 

{Gar, spear) Old German Heimger, 9th cent. — French 
Hamger. {Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Heimard, Aimard^ Sth 
cent. — French Aimard. {ffari, warrior) Old Noise Heimir t 
— English Hameb, Homeb, Omeb— French H^ifAHj Atmeb, 
Omeb. {Mtmd, protection) Old German Haimund, Hem- 
mund, 8th cent — Eng. Hemmsnt — French Aymont, Omonb. 
{Bad, counsel) Old Ckrman Haimrad, 8th cent — French 
Amubat. (Bie, power) Old German Haimirich, Heinrich, 
Heinrih, 8th cent — Eng. Henhy — Mod. Germ. Hbinrich — 



Hooul 



AFTER l^HEIR OWN NAMES. 493 

French Henbl (Ward, gaaxdian) Old Qennan Heimwart, 
9th cent. — English Hohxwasd. (Wid, wood) Old German 
Haimoidis, 10th cent — Eng. Homewood f (Helm) French 
Amiaume. 

There are also several ancient names derived 
from wood, perhaps in the sense of a sacred grove. 
Though as before suggested, the sense of spear 
may in some cases obtain. The following seem 
to be from Goth, vidus. Old High German witu, 
Ang.-Sax. urudu, English " wood." But Old High 
German vrit, amplus^ is liable to intermix ; also 
Anglo-Saxon vrikt, a man, hwit, white, and vnt, 
knowledge, understanding. 

aOIPLB FOBMS. Wld, Wood. 

Old German Wido, Wieda, Witto, Guido, Quido, 6th ^'^ 
cent. Ang.-Sax. Wudda, A.D. 688. Gwido, Lib. VU. Eng. 
Wmow, Weed, Vn)Y, Wrrar, With, Wrprr, Woodey, 
Wood. Modem German Webde, With, Witte. French 
ViDBAu, Ymty ViTKAu, Vm^ Vittb, Vnru, Vrous (OotkicX), 
Gnm^ Gumou. ItaL Guido, Guidl 

DDCLNLITIVES. • 

Old German Widucho, Wituch, Widego, 8th cent — 
XJiduc, Lib. Fit— Eng. Whttock, Wedge, Vetch— Mod. 
German Wittich— French Vidooq. Old German Widilo, 
Witili, Wital, 8th cent —English Whtteli^ WnrPLEY, 
WooDALL — Mod. German Wetoel — French Videi^ Vitel. 
Old German Widulin, Witalinc, 8th cent — Eng. Whitlino, 
WooDLiN — Modem German Wittung — French VmALON, 
ViDALENa Old Germ. Widomi% 9th cent — Eng. Whiticee. 
Old German Witiza, West Gothic king, 8th cent — English 
Whitsey — French Vimz, Guipez. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Widen, Wittin, 6th cent English Witton, 
Weedin, Wooden. Mod. Germ. Witten. French Vidon, 
Viton, Guidon, Guitton. 



494 THKT CALL THEI& LAND0 

Old Oerm. WiBdiog* Eng. Wksdoo, WHrmro, Woop- 
uia Mod. 0«rm. Wkddjmo^ Wuxisq. 

OOMPOUinML 

(fiock, p. 27) Eng. Woodoock— Frenoh Yroooq. (Bert, 
bright) Old German Witbert, Witpietr— TVitbied (Eundi 
JMUy-Eng. Whitbbkad t (Bern, bear) Old Germ. Wita- 
bern^ 9th cent. — ^Eng. WHiTBOiur. (Gar, sp^U') Old Germaa 
Witgar, Widger, Witker, 9th oent— Ajig.-Sazon WihftgHr, 
Nephew of Cerdio — ^Engliah Widcueb, WooDOXBy Whttbcab, 
Whittakbb 9 (HaU, '* hood") Old German Withaidia, 9th 
cent — Eng. Whitehead, Whitbheat, Woodhead. (ffard, 
fortis) Old Germ. Withard, Witard, 8th cent— Eng. Whitb- 
HABT, WooDABD — FreDoh YmABD, GuiTABD. (Bon^ imwexk) 
Old Germ. Widrannus, 8th cent. — ^Eog. WiXHEBoar, Whedb- 
HOBK 9 — ^Mod Germ. Wisthobn — French Yidbok. (Eari, 
warrior) Old German Withar, Witar, 8th cent.— Wither 
(Domesday) — Eng. Whiter^ Whiteab, Witheb, Gwttheb, 
WooPTEB, Woodeb(80n) — Mod German Witteb — French 
YrmEB, WiTiER, GuiTTEB. (Bing, combat) Old German 
Witering, 8th cent. — Engliah WiTTEBmG, WESTSWBOiia 
(Haue, house) Old Germ. Withaus, 8th cent — Eng. White- 
house f WiDEHosE 9 WooDHOusE 9 — Mod Germ. Witthaus. 
(Lag, law) Old Germ. Witlaglus, Witleg, 9th cent. — Ang.- 
Saxon Wihtlaeg — Eng. Whitelego, Whitlaw. (Laicy pby) 
Old Germ. Widolaio, 8th cent. — Eng. Wedlake, Wedlock, 
Whitelock f — Mod German Wedlich — IVench I Witlich. 
(Lei$, learned) Old German Witleis, 8th cent — French 
YiTALUL* (Man J Old German Widiman, Witman, 9th 
cent — Eng. Wideman, Whiteman, Woodmak — Mod Germ. 
WiDMANN, Wefthakk — French t Widbmak. (Mctr, fianona) 
Widiomar (Gothic king, 4th cent), Widmar, Witmar — 
TJitmer, Lib. Ft^.— Eng. Whitmobb— Mod Germ. Widmkb 
— ^French 1 Widxeb. (Bai, counsel) Old German Widerad, 
Witerati 6th cent — English Withbbbd, Whitethbead, 
Whitebod, WHirEWEiGHT. (Bic, power) Old German 

* Tlili ■Mnu mort nstanUy fromipM. viadon. 



OroT*. 



AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES. 495 

Witirieh (OoUi. king, 4th cent) Witirih — Eng. Withbbigk, 
Whitbu)ob— Modem German Wittbich— French Vitrao, 

VlTBT, GUTTBY. 

The Old Norse lundr, grove, seems to enter o^ 
into some ancient names. Hence may be Eng. 
Lund, Lundy, Lound, Ltjnt, and French Luond, 
LuNDY, perhaps Luneteatj. But there is but 
small evidence in these of a baptismal origin. 

Another word also found in some ancient ^^ff^' 
names is Old Norse skdgr, Dan. skov. North Eng. 
«• shaw," a wood. From this appear to be Eng. 
Soow, Shaw, and Shoe, as simple forms — Skog- 
GIN and Scawen as an extended form — and per- 
haps Shoobert and Shoobrick as compounds. 

In the third place, the coincidence or the 
resemblance between some of the endings of 
ancient names and local terminations must be 
reckoned in diminution of the names apparently 
derived from places. Thus the ending hurg, 
bury, brook, brick, may be sometimes from btrg, 
birc, protection, very common as the termination 
of ancient names, and not from the local bury or 
borough. I am inclined to think that bridge, in 
a few names such as Drawbridge, Ironbridge, 
Brassbridgb, is also from the same origin. 
Though the name Woodbridge would be de- 
rived naturally enough from a locality, yet there 
were no iron bridges in the days when surnames 
were given, and I doubt whether a brass bridge 
exists even in the brain of Dr. Fairbairn. 

So bum is sometimes from bem, a bear, and 



496 



TH£Y CALL THEIB LANDS 



not from burn, a brook. Head is sometiined 
from haid, state, condition, and not fix>m the local 
word. Ing I take as a general rule to be the 
patronymic, and not fix>m ing, a meadow. So 
gate, gill, house, cot, lake, land, more, waU, wick, 
with, wood, in certain cases I have throughout 
these pages taken to be fit)m ancient terminations. 

In like manner I take it that present German 
names ending in hof are in some cases from the 
ancient endings elf, vlf, wol^ and not always from 
the local hof, court. That this is so, will I think 
be clear from the following comparative Hst of 
ancient German and present German names, all 
of which latter are classed by Pott as local But 
it must be remembered that Pott's work was 
written before the Altdeutsches Namenbuch had 
brought many of these ancient names to hght. 



(MQwm. 


Mod.Chrm. 


OdOtrm. 


Mod. Germ. 


Botolf 


Fottnon 


Jungolf 


Junghoff 


Baigolf 


Berghoff 


Lindolf 


Lindhof 


Duomolf 


Dumhoff 


Moiolf 


Aiorlioi 


Kklnilf 


Eckhoff 


Sandolf 


Sandlioff 


Eadolf 


Uhthoff 


Steinolf 


Steinhoff 


Ksodf 


FLaohhof 


Sundarolf 


Sundrahof 


Geldnlf 


Kalthoff 


Thiholf 


Teiohhof 


Oraaolf 


Grashoff 







In the fourth place, a very considerable 
number of the names of places are simply the 
names of men, unqualified by any geographical 
term whatever. Mr. Kemble {Saxons in England) 
was the first in this country to point out that 



AFTEE THSIB OWN NAMES. 497 

manj names of places^ as HaUing aad Cooling in 
Kent, Patching in Surrey, Brightling in Sussex, 
were in Anglo-Saxon a nominative plural — Hael- 
Imgae, CHilbgaa, Peaocbgaa, Byrhtli^ 
ing respectively, " the Hallings,'' " the Coolings,*' 
** the Packings/' " the Brightlings/' These then 
are the names of family commiuiities, being, as 
Latham observes, '' political or social, rather than 
geographical terma'' 

In the names of places in Germany, especially 
in Bavaria^ the nominative phiral in ingajs is com- 
paratively rare, and we have most commonly a 
form in ingen or ingwniy which, according to 
Forstemann, is a dative plural, but according to 
Max Mtliller,* an old genitive plural. Hence 
Gottingen, Tubingen, Leiningen, Grilningen, Har- 
lingen, from the femilies of the Gottings, Ttibings, 
Leinings, Grtlnings, and Harlings. Also very 
commonly a form in inga or inge^ which may be 
either a dative singular or a genitive plural ; in 
the opinion of Forstemann sometimes the one and 
sometimes the other. In Anglo-Saxon names of 
places the form ingum also occurs, though not 
frequently. Thus Godalming in Surrey was 
anciently Godelmingum, a settlement of the sons 
or descendants of Godhelm. Sometimes the same 
place in various charters appears in both the 
forms ingas and ingwm. Thus Mailing in Kent 
was in Anglo-Saxon variously Meallingas and 

* Lictuw on thf SolMMe oi Lanciuce. EtoooMd Striw. 
K 3 



498 THEY GAIX THEIB LANDB 

Mallingum. Mr. Taylor, in ** Words and Places,'^ 
has carried this subject still further, and instituted 
a comparison, of the highest interest and import- 
ance, between the Teutonic settlements as indi- 
cated by these forms in England, Germany, and 
France. 

In the last-named country there appears to 
be found a different — perhaps a later fonn. We 
have Les Henrys, Les Bernards^ Les Boberts, 
Les Guillets, L^ Guillemottes, Les Girards^ Les 
Amaudsy &c., all of which, like the forgoing, 
seem to contain the names of fSunily conununities. 

But I go Airther than this, and take the 
ground that many names of places, both in France 
and England, are nothing more than the name of 
a single man. When we find in France some- 
thing like 6,000 places called after saints, without 
any geograpliical term whatever, as St. Omer, 
St. Leonard, &c., it natinraJly occurs to us that 
just on the same principle places might be called 
after men who were not saints. No one I think 
would doubt that the places called Fitz James, 
Robinson, David, Taillefer, are simply from the 
names of men. And as certainly do I take to 
be from the same origin Angelard, Audembert, 
Amoult, Audiracq, Bertric, Bertrand, Blanchard, 
Brunembert, Folcarde, Folckling, Francillon, Fer- 
ando, Gandolphe, Guillaume, Guiscard, Godisson» 
Girouard, Godinand, Jacque, Jacquelin, Josse, 
Josselin, Jossenard, Uimibert, Lambert, M^ro- 



APTER THEIB OWN NAMES. 499 

bert, Willeman. These, which I have selected 
from DucW "* Dictionnaire gSnSrcd des villes, 
hourgs, villages^ hameaux etferTnes de la France," 
{ire all simply Teutonic names of men. In some 
cases there is a 2e or 2a prefixed, as Le Frank, Le 
Guidault, Le Bernard, Le Guildo, La Godefroy, 
La Caroline. There is one place caUed FiQe- 
Gu6c61ard, while we have also Gu6c61ard by 
itself. Some names, however, as Les Allemands, 
Les Juife, Les Innocents, Les Boutilliers, Les 
deux freres, Le Bras-de-fer, Le Grenadier, may 
perhaps only be derived from the signs of taverns. 

So also in England, many names of parishes 
and places, such as Landulph in Cornwall, Bid- 
dulph in Staffordshire, Goodrich in Hereford- 
shire, Haytor in Devon, Hicks in Gloucestershire, 
Bumard, Guthrie, Jellybrands, Lockhart, Osbum, 
Sibbald, and Thorbrand in Scotland, I take to be 
simply from the names of men. In some cases 
as that of Coldred in Kent, and Catmere in Berks^ 
we can perceive one of the principles upon which 
such names have arisen. Thus the former place 
was in Anglo-Saxon Colredinga gema^re, "the 
boundary of the descendants of Cobed," and the 
latter was Catm6res gemaere, ** Catmere's bound- 
ary." The inconvenient length of these titles has 
caused the whole to be dropped except the name 
of the individual. Thus then, even if our names 
Catomore and Catmore are directly from the 
place, yet the place itself is simply the name of 
an Anglo-Saxon. And as such, it furnishes the 



500 THET CAUi THEIB LANI>S 

link between our names and the Gatumerus of 
Tacitus. 

Many of the local terminations, such as ton, 
ham, bury, kc., speak for themselyes — ^I subjoin 
a list of those most commonly occurring which 
seem to require an explanation. 

Bj. Dan. by, a Tillage or small collection of lioaaea^ This 
is the word which, more than any other, distingiushes 
the Danish settlements fiom the Baxon. 

Den. Ang.-Saz. den, a Tslley. Leo thinks the wofrd adoptoi 

from the Celtic. 
Foica Old None /ar$, a waterfi^L Hence WuLBsaromaE, 

probahlj from the name Williber or Williberg, ihe 

latter andentl j rathmr oommcm. 

Qarth. Ang.-Baxon geard, Old Korse gardr, a plaoe guarded 
bj a fence, a fann-stead. liable to intennix with 
gard as an andent ending of peraonal names. 

Gate. In the South of England an opening, Ang.-fiax. g^ 
but in the North also a road or waj, Old Nonie ^o^ 
liable to intermix with an ancient termination go^ 
or gat, which Forstemann takes to mean Qoth. 

GilL Old Norse gU, a small ravine, not necessarily, as some' 
times stated, containing water. Liable to intermix 
with an ancient termination gtt, which is probably a 
contraotion of giicd, hostage. 

Holt Ang.-Sax. and Old Norse hoU, a groye. Though ito 
word is sometimes found in ancient names, see p. 281« 
yet as a termination there is no reason to think it ia 
any case other than looaL 

Hope, Op. Anglo-Saxon hopu, a mound. Or sometimes in 
the Danish districts probably from Old Norse hSp, & 



How. Old Norse haugr, a mound, in particular a grare- 
mound. 



AFTfiB TfiEIB OWN NAMSB. 501 

BmxbL Aa^o-Gtaxm h^$t» 4 grove. 

Oms. An^^D-Sanm i/er, afaorey border. 

ShttW. Old Norse jM^, DMiiflh skov, a wood. Henoe 
Bbadiha.WsBboadwooik Though ihis word is 
found in a few fincient personal namea^ yet as a 
termination we may take it to be in all cases locaL 

Sted. Ang.-Sax. atede, Danish tUd, a fixed place^ a ^' fsffm- 
stead," a <' house^rtead." 

Stow. Ang.-Saz. stoto, a place. 

Ster. Old Norse stadr, same as sted above, confined to the 
Norwegian districts of the North of Scotland. 

Thorp. Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse Morp, OetmBSidar/, a 
I village. Frequently, both in England, Germany, and 

Denmaxk, corrupted into drttp or $rtip, 

Thwaite. Norwegian thoeU, Dan. tved, a dearing in a forest, 
i Ang.-Sax. thunUm, to out. Most common in Oumber- 

\ land and Westmorland. 

TofL Ang.-Sax. iqft^ Old Norse t6/L Its present meaning 
i seems to be a small home fidd. But the original 

I sense appears to have been that of a spot where a 

I decayed messuage has stood, ''area domus vacua," 

Haldorsen has it. The Norwegian and Swedish form 
I 0mi, ^sMi idmr, empty, seems to point to this. 

Wick. Ang.-Sax. u^, a dwelling-place. Also a bay, which 
^ is the usual, if not the invariable Scandinavian sense. 

Apt to intermix with wig, wic, war, a oonunon ending 
of ancient names. 

With. Old Norse vidr^ a wood. It is confined to the 
Danish part of England, and corresponds with wood 
in the Saxon. Sometimes confounded with vxyrth, 
an altogether different word. WUh or foood is also a 
conmioQ termination of ancient personal names. 

Worth, Worthy. Ang.-Sax. worthy warthig, an estate, farm, 
field. 



502 THEY CALL THEIR LAKI>S 

The names of France do not appear, as far as 
I can judge, to contain such a variety of locaj 
terminations as those of England. The most 
common are vtUe and cour — also iSre, the etymo- 
logy of which I cannot explain. It is very fie- 
quently formed from a personal name. Thus from 
Robert, Bernard, Josserand, we have as names of 
places Roberti6re, Bemardi6re, Josserandi^re. 

As a prefix hois and mont are very common, 
and very fi^uently combined with a personal 
name. Thus in the Anniuitre de Paris we 
have BoiSGARNiEB, Boisgaultier, Boisgelin, 

BoiSGONTIEBj BOISGUILBERT, BoiSGUYON, BoiS- 

renaud ; and in the same volume we have 
Garnieb, Gaultieb, Gelin, Gontier^ Gxnir 
BERT, GuYON, Renaud, from which the above 
local names have been formed. So we have Mont- 

GERARD, MONTGOLFIER, MONTGOBERT, MoNTAU- 
FRAY, MONTANGERAND, MONTMORENCY, MONT- 

AURIOL, MoNTALEMBEBT — and the corresponding 
Gebard, Golfier, Gobebt, Aufbay, Angebanp, 
MoBENZO, AuBiOL, and Elambebt, most, if not 
all, of which, as well as the foregoing, are of 
Teutonic origin. 

There are some names, such as Eng. Water- 
fall, German Wassebfall, which it is difficult 
to know whether to ascribe to a local origin or 
not. They might belong to a class of nnmes like 
the Eng Drinkwateb, Dbawwatbb (both of 
which Mr. Lower finds in the Hundred Bolls), 
and the Germ. EIaltwasseb^ Gutwasseb, Spab- 



AFTER THBIB OWN NAMBS. 503 

WASSEB (Coldwater, Goodwater, Savewater). But 
another German name Stobwasser (Dustwater), 
reminding us of the Staubbach, seems to point 
more to a local name. 

The number of English names derived from 
places has in my opinion been greatly overrated. 
As an approximation, I should be disposed to 
estimate them at about one third of the whole. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



OLD BAXOKS AlTD ANaLO-aAJLONa 

It may seem a curious &ct that we have 
more of Old Saxon than we have of Ang.-Saxon 
names. I use the word Old Saxon in its wide 
sense, and I mean to say that we have at the 
present day more of those names such as the early 
invaders — Angles, Saxons, Jutes, or Frisians- 
brought over with them to this country, than we 
have of those regular compound names which 
were current in the height of the Anglo-Saxon 
power. And fiirther — ^that if we txim to the 
ancient seats from which those early settlers 
came, we shall find that still the same names are 
current there. There is a people— or rather a 
remnant of a people — who once owned a large 
portion of the German sea-board — ^now much 
broken up and intermixed, but still in some in- 
sulated places holding their nationality with little 
change — ^very near relatives of ours — ^thou^h fe^ 
know more of them than the name. Of all th« 
ancient dialects none has a more close connection 
with the Anglo-Saxon than the Old Friesic— of 
all the modem dialects perhaps none has such 
strong points of resemblance to the English as 
the New Friesic. On all the wide continent of 
Europe they alone use the word " woman" like 



OIJ> SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 505 

ourselves. '^ It is generally/' observes Mr. Latham, 
'' the first instance given of the peculiarity of the 
Frisian language. * Why can't they speak pro- 
perly, and say kone f qbjb the Dane. * Wetb is 
the right word,' says the German. * Who ever 
says woman ? cry both." (Ethnology of the Bf'Uish 
Islands.) 

Mr. Halbertsma» in the article written by him 
in Bosworth's "* Origin of the English and Oer* 
manic languages," observes that there are few of 
the early Saxon names which are not in use 
among the present Frisians, though by time a 
little corrupted or abbreviated. The same writer 
remarks upon the connection between Friesic 
names^ and those in use in England, quoting a 
few examples, which might be greatly increased 
by a reference to Outzen's Glossary, and to Was- 
senberg's '' Eigennaamen der Friesen." 

How then is the fact to be accounted for that 
while we have so many of these names which 
were common to all the Germanic races^ and 
which are still found so numerously on the shores 
£rom which our early settlers came, we have com- 
paratively very few of the regular Anglo-Saxon 
compound names, such as Athelstan, Atbelhard, 
EthelbaJd, Ethelred, &c.'i It occurs to me as 
rather probable that the pure Ang.-Saxon system 
of compound names might be somewhat of a 
fashion, confined for the most part to the nobler 
classes (whose names of course it is that appear 

* 8110I1 M WaUt, JUtM, HodB«, OiblM, *« 
L 3 



506 OLD aAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXOMS. 

chiefly before us in history), and not pervading 
the mass of the people, who still held on mairJy 
to the old names to which they had been accus- 
tomed Hence, the Saxon nobiUty being in part 
extinguished, and in part Normanized at the 
Conquest, a reason may be found for the scanti- 
ness of names of this class at the present day. 

But in fact we find, all through Anglo-Saxon 
times^ many names which were German but not 
Anglo-Saxon, and Mr. Kemble, in his valuable 
treatise on ""The Names, Surnames, and Nio- 
names of the Anglo-Saxons^^ has, I think, dealt 
with them from rather too exclusive a point of 
view. Some of these names he thinks caOn only 
be explained by reference to Cymric or Picti^ 
roots — such, for instance, as Puch, Fadda^ Uel- 
hisc, Theabul, Pechthelm, and Pehthat. The two 
former are only variations of German forms, 
pp. 378, 166 — the third compares with a Willis- 
cus, p. 123 — the fourth seems only a corruption 
of Theobald — ^and the two last^ though probably 
from the name of the Picts» are yet formed on a 
common Teutonic principle as noticed in chap. 16. 

Others, such as Podda, Dudda^ Bubba, Tudda^ 
Odda» Obei, OSbl, Ibe, Beda^ Becca, Beonna, Acca, 
Hecca» Lulla^ he thinks were probably nicnames. 
But, as I have shewn throughout these pages, 
names of this class pervade the whole system of 
Teutonic nomenclature, and they are just the sort 
that are especially common in Friesland at the 
present day. The remarks of Mr. Haig upon 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 507 

this subject are so much in accordance with my 
own views that I re-prodace them here. "I 
believe that these simple names are the most 
ancient, that they belong originally to periods 
beyond the reach of history. They prevail in the 
dawn of our annals, as the compounds do in their 
noon ; and it seems to me quite as probable that 
many of them were given from motives of associa- 
tion with the memory of persons who had gone 
before, as that they were given on account of 
personal peculiarities. Thus in the 8th century^ 
when almost all the sovereigns in the Heptarchy 
bore compounded names» one of these simple 
names appears almost alone, and that belonging 
to the most illustrious prince of his time, Offa. 
His name had been originally Winifrid, but he 
received that of 08k, in memory of one who had 
ruled over the Angles, his ancestors, before their 
coming into Britain ; a name which had already 
been borne by a King of the East Saxons, and 
perhaps for a similar reason, for he also coimted 
an Offa among his ancestors.^^ 

It occurs to me, then, as possible, in the case 
of some of these personages who appear before 
us with a regular compound name and also with 
a simple name — the latter being in Mr. Kemble's 
opinion a nicname — that it may have been in 
&ct the real original name, and the former only 
assumed in accordance with the prevailing fiushion. 
Instances of these double names are Athelwold, 
also called Mol, king of Northiunbria ; Aldwine^ 



508 OLD SAXONS AND ANOLO-SAXONS. 

also called Wor, bishop of Mercia ; Hrotbwaru. 
also called Bucge ; and Addberga^ also callad 
Tata. 

There is another class of names to which 
someihing of a similar principle may apply. Wa 
find an archbishop of Canterbury whose name 
was Eadsige, but who was also called Mth ^^ 
signs by that name. So there was a bishop of 
Selsey who was generally called SicggSL, bat 
whose name seems to have been properly Sige- 
firith. And there was an i£li^!nne» bishop of 
Lichfield, who was also called MUe — ^a Torht^ 
helm, bishop of Leicester, who is called by nearly 
every contemporary authority Totta — ^an Ead- 
wine, duke of the Northumbrians, who abo 
appears as Eda. Mr. Kemble considers all these 
short names to be merely contractions, answering 
in feet to our Tom, Bob, Bill I do not doubt 
that this may in some instances have been the 
case, but seeing that these short names are in 
reality older Teutonic names than the others, I 
would just suggest the possibility of a simple 
name being in some cases — a3 for instance, when 
a man had received an accession of dignity^ 
lengthened out to correepond with his increased 
importance. The folloinng remarks by Dr. Doran 
bear upon this point. " Lengthy too, is suppos^ 
to have added dignity to a name. Diocles, ^^ 
man, expanded into Diocletian, the emperor ; & 
parvenu, on acquiring wealth, developed ^^ 

* ** KofeM OB VtvaoM and mcBunes." UnlTWsal Berlew, llftj, 18^ 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO*SAXONS. 509 

Simon into Simonides ; and when the lady, whose 
name signified Brown (Bnina), became Queen of 
France, she added a train to that cognomen as 
ladies at court do to their dresses^ and thenceforth 
swept loftily across records and registers as Queen 
Brunehault/' In such a maimer might perhaps 
Sicgga become Sigefirith, and £ada Eadwine. 
This is a theory^ however, that must be stated 
with caution and'reserve. 



CHAPTER XXX. 



THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINQS. 

It must already have been made apparent to 
the reader, of how high importance, in the ex- 
planation of TefUtonic names^ are the languages of 
the Scandinavian NortL We find manj names, 
borne by Germans, which cannot be explained by 
a reference to any Grerman dialect, and of which 
we find the etymons in the Old Norse, The 
reason of this is two-fold. In the first place, it 
cannot fail to be the case that any ancient lan- 
guage, with a scanty literature, must have had 
many words which have not come down to modem 
timea This is the case with all the ancient 
German dialects ; and the Old Norse, which 
amid the stem and desolate rocks of Iceland h^ 
preserved a treasure of ancient lore more abundant 
than the rest, being a language closely cognate, 
then comes in to their assistance. 

In the second place, foUowing out iihe theory 
which I have already laid down, that anciently 
names were bestowed, at least to a considerable 
extent, not with any reference to their meaning* 
but simply as having been borne by men who 
had gone before, it follows that in many cases 
they have survived dialects, and may often be 
carried back to a time when the two great 
branches of the German and the Scandinavian 
were as yet imsevered. 



THB SCANDINAVIAN VIKINQS. 511 

In any case it will be apparent that etymo- 
logy alone would cause us vastly to over-rate the 
amount of the Scandinavian element in our nomen- 
clature, and that we must take other circum- 
stances into consideration in attempting to form 
even an approximate estimate. 

In the year 787, according to the Ang.-Saxon 
Chronicle, the first three ships of the Northmen 
visited our shores. And the reeve of the shire, 
little knowing what manner of men they were, 
rode over to take them, and there they slew him. 
** These were the first ships of Danish men which 
sought the land of the English nation.'^ But the 
Icelandic records take notice of earlier Scandina- 
vian invasions of Britain, and the opinion of some 
of our ablest ethnologists is in favour of this 
belief Mr. Latham, referring to the statements 
of the Ang.-Saxon Chronicle, makes the following 
remarks: — "For the fact of Danes having wintered 
in England a.d. 787, they are unexceptionable. 
For the fact of their never having done so before, 
they only supply the imsatisfactory assertion of a 

negative The present writer believes 

that there were Norsemen in Britain anterior to 
787, and also that these Norsemen may have 
beien the Picta^' 

The extent of the Scandinavian colonization 
of England, and the characteristic features which 
distinguish it, have been described by Mr. Wor- 
saa* in his work on the Danes and Norwegians 
in England. Its head-quarters were in Lincoln- 



612 1HS aCANDnfATIAN TIKINCNl 

shire, and that part of Yarkshire round the estuary 
of the Humber. It extended across the island to 
CSxester, and as far north as Comberland^ where 
it might probably be met by a more porelj Nor- 
wegian stream from the Irie of Man — Oomberland 
and Westmorland being more Soandinayian ihm 
Northumberland and Durham. The Watiing 
Street f(»med a boundary to the south-west, 
which it rarely passed. To some — ^though, as it 
seems to me^ not to any very marked extent— 
names of Scandinavian origin are more prevalent 
in this district than in the rest of England. 

There are two classes of names which we may 
ikirly ascribe to the influence of the Northem in- 
vasions. The fiiBt class conaistBofnames which are 
in themselves Scandinavian rather than German 
— ^that IB, names which we find to have been 
borne by Northmen and not by Qermana. The 
second class consists of names which though in 
themselves as much German as Scandinavian, 
yet do in point of fiict appear to have been intro- 
duced into this countiy by the Northmen. Neither 
of these two dasses are numerous, and there 
remains a much larger class in which we cannot 
attempt to draw any distincticm. 

In the first class are to be included many of 
the compounds of Thor, as noticed at p. 128. 
Also KeteU and its compounds, as EngTish Thitb- 
KETTLE and AsHKBTTLE, and French TubqxtetiI' 
and Anqxjbtil. Likewise English Tdbkle ftid 
BosRELL, from the Old Norse Thorkell and 



THB SCANDINAVIAN VIKING& 513 

Hrofiflkel, oontracticmfi, as Grimm thinks, of Tlxor- 
ketell and HrossketeL And Kngliflh Blxtnkhli^ 
which seems to be a similar contraction of the 
Old Norse BlundketelL XJlph and Obme» as 
contrasted with Wolf and WoBic, exhibit the 
Scandinavian form as compared with the German. 
Thongh the elision of t<^ in the final syllable of 
names was common in some German dialects^ it 
was not so at the b^inning. The well-known 
Danish name Swqni (English Swain and Swain« 
80n)» is one not found among the Germans. 
Among other names which may be ascribed 
to the Northmen are English Otteb^ Oliff, 
ELaoon, Gunnbb^ Bbothsb» Haveloce; Dol^ 
FmN» Stubla, Schooisy,* all of which appear 
in our early history. 

In the second dass of names are such aa 
Haikold, which, though in itself as much German 
as Scandinavian^yety as Mr. Kemble has observed, 
does not make its appearance in our annals until 
introduced by the Northmen. I include also 
HowAKD, which also then first makes its appear- 
anoe. So that there may be a foundation of strict 
truth for Lord Dufferin's remark in a lecture on 
the Northmen, that ^ some sturdy Haayard, the 
proprietor of a sixty-acre &rm, but sprung fix)m 
that stock the nobility of whose blood has become 
proverbial, may be successfully opposing a trifling 
tax at Drontheim, while an illustrious kinsman 
of his house is the representation of England's 
majesty at Dublin." 

• Th« OU Foiw MrtH, htm thfta, to protoot 
M 3 



514 THK SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 

Among OUT Irish names are also to be fonnd 
some trace of the Scandinavian colonizatioiL 
We have McAuliffe (Olaf), McGart (Gerri), 
McOsGAB (Asgeir), McVicab (Vikar), Ma 
SwiNEY (Sweyn), Mo.Caskill (Askell). •* Even 
to the present day/' observes Mr. Worsaae, *^ we 
can follow, particularly in Leinstar, the last traces 
of the Ostmen through a similar series of peculiar 
&mily names^ which are by no means Irish, but 
clearly original Norwegian names ; for instance, 
Mac HmEBic or SmTERio (son of Sigtryg), 
O'Bbuadaib (son of Broder), Mac Kagnaix 
(son of Bagnvald), Boaill (Bolf) * Auijxf 
(Olaf), Manub (Magnus), and others. It is even 
asserted that among the &milies of the Dublin 
merchants are still to be found descendants of the 
old Norwegian merchants formerly so numerous 
in that city. The names of families adduced in 
confirmation of this, as Habbold (Harald), Iveb 
(Ivar), CkXTTEB or Mac Otter (Ottar), and others 
which are genuine Norwegian names, corroborate 
the assertion.'^ 

It does not seem probable that we have many 
Scandinavian names derived indirectly through 
the Normans. For even in Normandy names of 
Scandinavian origin seem to be much less common 
than they are with U8» though it may be owing 
in part to the greater tendency of the language 
to disguise or corrupt them. A notable instance 
is the name of the first duke of Normandy, 
changed firom Hrolf into BoUo. 

* B»tii« HroaMr 



THE SGANDINAVIAK VIKINOa 515 

In Norway and Denmark at the present day 
the ancient names are more commonly used as 
christian than as surnames. They have Oluf, 
Haruld, Enud, Iyeb^ Steen, Eskild, Eias, 
Abnold, Gundb, TTn.TiK, Tekkei^ and Tobben, 
some of which are more corrupted from their 
original forms than th^ are with us. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



A CHAFTEB OF FEAGMENTS. 

There are several groups which I have found 
it difficult to biiug in under any of the heads 
into which I have divided this work. And there 
are some others, overlooked in their proper places, 
which, along with the first-named, will be intro- 
duced here. 

There is a class of words which seem to have 
the force of an intensitive, such as oZZ, omnis, 
which is common as a prefix. But though we 
can account for such names as compounds, there 
is an evident difficulty with regard to the simple 
forms, and unless we can suppose the word to 
have had the sense of the Celtic aU^ magnua, 
celsus, eximius, we must, I think, assume such 
forms in the first instance to have been con- 
tractions of compoimd names. 

jjl SIMPLE FOBM& 

Onuiii. Old German Alio, Alia, 5th cent. English Allo, A]X)e, 

Alle7, Awl. Mod Germ. Alle. French AlA, Allzi^. 

COMPOtrNDS. 

(Bert, illnsfcrioiifl) Old Germ. Alabert, 9th cent — ^Anglo- 
Saxon Aluberht — Eng. Albebt, Allbsight — ^Mod. German 
Albbecht — French Alabeet, Albebt. {Frid, peace) Old 
German AlaMd, 8th cent. — English Allfbet. (&0r, spear) 
Old German Alager, 10th cent.;->Ang.-Sax. Algar — English 
Aloeb — Modem German Alkeb — French Alqieb, Al&gbb. 
(H<»rd, fortis) Ang.-Saz. Ealhard — English Allabi>— Mod. 
German Alebt — French Allabd— Ital ALABDa (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Alaher, 8th cent. — Ang.-Saz. Ealhere 



A CHAPlfiB OF FBAGMENTS. 517 

— French ALLATBit. {Mag, might*) Eng. Allmack. (Man J 
Old Genn. Alaman, 11th cent. — Eng. Allmak — Mod. Qenn. 
AHLMAim. (Mar, famous) Old Germ. Alamar, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Almab — Mod. Germ. Allmeb. (Moth, moz, courage) 
Old Germ. Alamoth^ 6th cent. — French Allbmoz. (Mtmd, 
protection) Old Germ. Alamunt — English Almond. (NoQ^, 
bold) Ang.-Sax. .ZEUnoth — Eng. Allkutt — French Alinot. 
(Bid, power) Old German Alaric (Gothic king, 5th cent), 
Alarih — French AlbioQ) Allert. (Rwh, companion) Old 
German Alanin, 8th cent. — French Allebon. (Woff^ 
guardian) Old Gkrm. Aloard, 8th cent. — Eng. Allwab]>— - 
Mod Germ, Ahlwabdt— French Allouabd. (ITm^ wood) 
Old German Aluid, 9th cent. — Eng. Allwoob. {Wig^ war) 
Old Germ. Alawig, Alawih, 8th cent. — Ang.-Saz. Alewih — 
Eng. Allaway, Allyet — French Alleyt. (Wina, Mend) 
Old German Allowin, 7th cent — English Alwik — French 
Alayoine. 

Of the same meaning I take to heJU, which 
Forstemann calls '* a yet tmexplained root, in 
which we can scarcely venture to think of JUu 
(multus)/*t There does not appear to me to be 
any difficulty other than that which exists in the 
previous case. The Saxon form fvl intermixes 
in a few instances. 

SIMPLE FOBMS. 

Old Germ. Filla, 8th cent English Fill, Filley, File, "» ™- 
Full. Mod. Germ. Full. French Phily, Flala, Feuille. 

DIMINUnYE9u 

Eng. Fulleck — French Filocque. Eng. Filkin. 

PATBONYMICS. 

Old German Filing. English FiLLiirG. 

* We onlj find one Old Germ, luune In which thla appean m % tennlnatloB. 
Of eoone there iomj be othen, which hsve not come down to xu, end of which the 
aboye eeeme -nacj probebly to be one. See elao Tallxmaoh, p. 870. 

t In the name Feologild, of the leth archUihop of Oentertnur, it appean ec 
if from /eolo, reUow, and it is Teiy probable tliat the Anglo-Sazons did take it in 
^ %\ fffnitf 



518 ▲ GHAFTKB OF F&^QMKNTa 

OOMPOUBDeL 

(Bimd, hU, poi, menenger) Old GemMn FbiKbmd, 7«h 
oent-^-Bng. Yjufoi^ — French PeiLiPFOTy IteLiFPOfxicx 
(B&ri, illofltrioas) Old Qermaii Fmbert^ 7th oeat.— &i{^ 
Fhabbt — ^Mod. Qetm. Filbkbt — ^French Pheubkbt. (ffttrd, 
fiyrtu) Eng. Fuujeb]>— French Fxlaxd, FroiiiLABa (Han, 
warrior) Eng. Fuss, Fillabt — Fr. Fbiliby. (Limb, dear) 
Old Qenn. Filulinb, 9th cent— Eng. Fullalotx. (Man) Old 
Genn. Flliman, 9(h cent — ^Eogiiah FiuacAN — ^Mod. Gennia 
Fixucakn — French Filldoh. (Mar^ fiunoiu) Old Gennan 
FUonuuTi 6ih oenl — Iki^ VauoMt FAuimobii^ FuLumt— 
Mod Germ. Filuoul (JHo, tkauf, ikm$, seryant) Old Genu 
Feletheofl, king of the Rngii, 5th cent — ^Enj^iah Fi£LDIW, 
Fbiaoi^ FiiiTirs, FKurHOunf FoLDHOusBt COiar, apm) 
English FuLLAOAB. 

Perhaps of a similar meaning may be gans, 
(German ganz^ totuB, integer.) Or it may be^ as 
Forstemann thinks not improbable, only another 
form of gand, p. 74. The name of the Vandal 
king Oenserich, Grimm derives from gibiserich, 
a gander. It may, however, only be from this 
stem, with the common termination no, power. 
There is, however, uncertainty about the correct 
form, see p. 204. 

8IMFLX rOBMB. 

TdtaA Old Germ. Genza Mod. Germ. Gentz^ Gabs. French 

Oabcb, Oabct. 

DDLLNUTIVBH. 

Old German Ganaalin— Mod. German Gikzlbb— IVenck 
Oaboalob. 

C01CP0UNI)& 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Gentear, 9th cent— Frenoh 
GABTzisB. ('Man J English Gabsmaw. 

•G«iimUja«iiiiMdtolMftdiiiii]nittT«of PUUp-^wfalflfa may be tte ctf»- 
Um rnaeh havtiif Mniml dmllMr foniii» m Bobbbtkt Mid Bwnaqvma^ 



A GHAPTBB OF FBAGMBNTS. 519 

Possibly to the above may belong the Cauncy 
or Chauncy in the Boll of Battle Abbey, Engliah 
Caxtnoe, Chaxcb» Chanoby, French Ghanceau. 

I have referred, p. 66, to the ending heit, 
English Jiood^ as in Adalheid, &c. This, as an 
ending, may be reasonably explained, but when 
we find apparently the same word as a prefix 
and even as a simple form, it becomes dijBS.cult to 
say in what manner we should interpret it. Wein- 
hold (Deutschen Frauen) refers to Old High 
Germ, haitar, serenua 

BIMPLB FOBMfiL 

Old Germ. Haito^ Haido, Haida, Eid, 8th cent. "Wngl^iih Bait 
HmoHT, Hatdat, Ade, Adie. Mod. Genn. Haid, Hsnyr. ^^*^' 
l!reiich Aide, 

DDHNUnVEB. 

Old Germ. Heidilo, AitJa, 8th cent — Engliah Hatblt — 
Mod. Oermu HEmEL — ^French OhItel. Engliah Hatdook. 
PHONBno Bin>ma. 

Old Qerm. Heidin, 9th oeut English Hatdon. Mod. 
Germ. Hsysen, Hatdv. French Addt. 

0OMPOUND8. 

(ffari, warrior) Old German Haitar, 9th oent« — Engliwh 
Hattbb — ^Mod. German Hetteb — French Heidsb. (Bad, 
counael) Old Germ. Aitraday 9th cent. — ^Eng. Hatbxd.* 

What the meaning of ham is in men's names 
seems very doubtfiiL If firom horn, comu, there 
are two senses of which we might think — ^first^ 
that of a sharp point, like so many of the names 
in chapter 13 — secondly, that of those feats of the 
drinking-horn on which the Northmen especially 
so much prided themselves. But Forstemann, in 
the name Homung, (he has not the simple form 

« If U be iwoDoanoed UIm oiit word hatrtd. 



520 A OBAPIKB OF SBAOICXNTa 

Honi») refers to ADg.-Sax. hcrwung^ spmiitf^ filius 
oatmalifiL I am incUned to think, however, that 
Honrang is nothing more than the -psAxcfapsan 
of Horn ; the form in which it is found in A^lo- 
Sax. names of places, as Homingaden and Horo- 
ingamseie^ ''the valley of the Homings*" and ''the 
boundaiy of the Homings^" seems inconsistent 
with any other supposition. Unless^ therefoie, 
Horn itself may be taken to mean illegitunate^ 
that meaning ought not to be given to the patro- 
nymic Homing. Horn was the hero of oiie of 
the most popular of the early romances. 

BtHPLK VOSM& 

flan. Angto-SfeODit Vxmk^ fofwnd fi» HvnmAwtk^ CM Dif» 

OnmmT 1309. Aldwin Horn, a UfnaaA befire Domesde^. IB^ijoA 
HoBHT. Mod OemL Hobn; French Hobnb. 

DDliNUTiVJUL 

Bngtish HomnDGS— Hod. German Hobhbck; HoBSia 
MocL Germ. HdBNLEnr. 

PATB0KT1CK& 

Old Geiman Hormmg, Sdi oent. A2ig.-Sazi(iii Honusfr 
fiwnd in ffamingeahaih, now Hamingtheaih in SuuesG, 
Kn^isb HoBHora. Mod. <}erm. HoBznrKro. 

COMFOtTNSB. 

("Bard J Hod. Germ. Hchohakix (Baf% wanior) Bng^ 
HoiiKEBt (Jfa»JEQg.HoBiiiiAH,HoB]incA»---M]od.aenD* 

SOBJOMAJSOL 

If the word horn may be taken to have tlie 
»M»i>wig of illegitimate^ there is another woid^ 
beUs, afaso ocouiring in men's names^ which woootir 
ing to Grinmi^ has the opposite meaning. It is 
found in the name of Belisariua^ Ute Qotbic 
general under the emperor Justmian, and thera 

* The nniaai HManr ii b«B ft rialte odgU (DHL ^K vllliffe). 



A CHAPTER OF FBAGMENTa 521 

are eight other instances of the same name, with 
some unimportant variations, in the Altdeutsches 
Namenbuch. Grimm (Gesch. d. Deutsc. apr.) 
refers to Gothic valis, legitimate, and makes 
Belisar«=a Gothic Valishar {Jiari, warrior). The 
following modem names are with some diffidence 
introduced here. 

SIMFLB FOBMfl. 

English Beluss,* Bellies, Bellows, Pallacb. Mod. 
Germ. Pallas. French Pelossb, Pausse. 

OOMPOUNDa 

(iTort, warrior) Old German Belesar, 6th cent. English 
Beijeteb, Palliseb. French Bellisgsb, Belseub, Pelissieb. 
ItaL Belisabio. 

I doubt very much the explanation of our 
name Lovechild as meaning an illegitimate 
person. Luuecild is an eaxly name in the Liber 
Vit(B — ^it seems to be more probably an epithet 
of affection. 

The Eng. Twiss, Twice, corresponding with 
an Old Germ. Zuizo, 9th cent., (High Germ. »« 
Ang.-Sax. t,) appears to have the meaning of 
geminus, twin. So also English Tway, Twinb, 
whence the patronymic TwiNma. Perhaps also 
TwiGfG, with which appears to correspond an 
Anglo-Saxon Tuica^ found in Tuicanham, now 
Twickenham. Or the last may have the sense 
of spear, like many other words of the same class 
elsewhere referred to. Twyman, however, I 
should rather compare with the Old Norse tweg- 
gtamald, a double man, Le., of twice the ordinary 
size or strength. 

* Bm alio p. 869. 
N 3 



Bella. 



522 A CHAFTinEt OF FBAQinSKTa 

Our name Lammas might be supposed to be 
derived from the season, like GnaiSTMLAs, 'Son, 
Ac. But Lammasse occurs in the Hundred Bolls 
without prefix ; Lamas is also a French name ; 
and there was a king of Lombardj in the 5th 
cent, called Lamisso or Lamissio— -the name, 
according to the old chroniclers, being dmred 
from lama, water, on account of his having in 
childhood been rescued from a pond. 

The following stem seems somewhat obscure 
— Forstemann refers to Old High German m^ 
modus, or maz, cibus. 

SnCFLIFOBMS. 

Old OenxL Masszo, Maaso, 8th cent Ang.-Saz. MeflBB) 
found m Mceasami/fffih, Cod. Dip. 721. English Massib, 
MsfisiAH. Mod. Qena. Mass, Me8& Fra&oh Mabsk, Habs^ 
Masseau. 

DDCmUTlVKS. 

Old Oerm. Maasila^ father oflfaldra or Masdra, 1^^ 
the Suevi, 5th cent, Mezli, 9th oent— MassUift, lib. Ft^- 
English Massall, Measket— Mod. Ckrm. Massl, Mxssfi^ 
Old Germ. Mazelin, bishop of Wnrzbuig, llthceut—EDg^ 
Maslin — French Massilloh, Mazeldt. 

FHONEnO JSftiDJLNO. 

Old Oerm. Massana, wife oftheLombard king CM> ^^ 
cent. English Massuta, Mbsseena, Masson. Mod. Oerm- 
Massxn. French MAS8ENA,t Masson. 

PATRONTiaOB. 

Old Qerm. Messine. Eng. Msssnra. French HssK^ 

OOMPOUNDa. 

(Hard) French Massabt. (Hart, warrior) Eng. Mas- 
sure, Measure — Mod. German Messer — French Ma^o^ 

* And MnasizigB, found In m «»— iy>g%ti ^w* ^ now Mftii!rfw ghiv*w 
t **Mr. DlsneU (Ooningibr, 8, 203} Baiys that MMseuk •• ipbD a*^^ 
French nwnhaJa, wu a Hebrew, and that his real name was Mannsiwh He «*" 
natlre of Nice. Now in the Piedmqnteae dialect, maamet rignlfles a ctafld- '' 
Is there anj foundation for Mr. DTnaeli's statements B. O, B. in V^ ^ 
querin. Vol. 10, p. 147. 



A CHAPTEB OF FRAQMBKTS. 528 

MiWffiTTCB, MwgfftaiK. (Man) Engliah Mabhman — Mod. Germ. 
Massman<— French MAflSEinv. 

PHONxno nrrBusioN of n. 
(B$fij famous) Eng. Massikgbebd — French Masihbebt.* 

The stem wag, way, is difficult to separate 
from the stem wa^, p. 362. But it seems to me 
that there is a separate word, probably having 
the meaniDg of waving or brandishing, as in the 
WsBgbrand (Wave-sword) in the genealogy of 
the kings of Northumbria. 

SIMPLE F0B3C& ^ ^^ 

Old Germ. Wago, Waggo, 9th cent. Waga, second &om wato, 
Woden in the genealogy of the Merdan kings. Wege bnndidL 
{Domesday), English Wago, Wego, Yaoue, Wat. Mod. 
GemL Wage, Weob. French VAom, V^i6, Vei^, Wet. 

jyatjsTJTrrBA. 
Engliah Watleht. French WEGELnr. 

PHONEno Ein>ni'a. 
Old Germ. Yagan, 8th cent Old Norse Yagen. English 
Wajk. French Yagnet, Yaoanat, Wetmt. 

00MP0Uin)s. 
(Oaud, Ooth) English Watgood. (Hari, warrior) Old 
Oerm. Wagher, 8th cent^English Wagsb — Mod. Qerman 
Wageb, Wbgeb. (Jfon) English Wagmak, Wathan — 
Mod. Oerm. Wetmaiot — French 1 Wbgman. (Beriy famous) 
Old Germ. Wagpraht, 9th cent. — English Wetbbet. 

Bespecting the root aus, aur, I quote the 
following remarks of Forstemann. "We must 
assume such a German root with the meaning of 
light, brightness ; and see it in the German form 
of the Sanscrit root usch, as we also find it in the 
Latin aurv/m, aurora^ uro ; in the Greek i/if, and 

* There U an Old FxtnUah name llHembold, 8th cent, dmllarly formed 
from this Item. 



Am, Aur. 



524 A GHAFTEB OF FBAGMENTa 

in the Ang.-Saz. edrendel, a star. Here appears 
the simple form of the root, of which we have an 
extension in atist, aiister (oriens)/' 

BDfPLB FOSMB. 

Englisli Obb, Ouskt. French Aubxau, Attrat, Ausr, 
OuBT, Obt, Ai78st, TJsssl 

DmiNunvES. 
Old Germ. AasUaa^ €th oent. — ^English AuBiot^ Oriel— 
French Auzollb, AuBina^ Obiolle. Old German OivKh 
10th cent — ^English Obbi8& 

PHONETio ENDnra. 
Old Qerman Oreuii 11th cent English Obbdt. French 

AUZQET. 

OOMPOirNDS. 

(Beri, fiunous) Old German Auripert, 7th cent— Freach 
AuSBEBT. fGcmy magic) Englinh Oboak — French Aube<2A5. 
(Qcbr, spear) English Obgeb — French Aubioeb. (Sarh 
■warrior) Old German Ansari, 9th cent. — French Aus8ii3» 
(Wald, power) Old German Ansvold, Ansold, 9thceat- 
English Household t 

In the Haupts zeitschrifi of Weinhold he 
refers to the name Ochon, of a king of the Heroli, 
6th cent., deriving it from the Goth, auhns, oven, 
in the older meaning of fire. Should this deriva- 
tion obtain, the English Oven, as well as the 
Modem German Oken, and the French OcHiN, 
may be similarly explained. 

A stem of uncertain meaning is gad^ which 
Forstemann refers to a lost verb gadan^ in the 
sense of uniting. But various other words are 
so liable to intermix that I will not attempt to 
give any general meaning to the group. 

* HtBOt, I pnram^ the Mod. Gtnn. goKcis to unlta, folk, qpoiiM» *& 



A GHAFTEB OF FBAOMENTS. 525 

Probably the form cat would come in more 
properly here than as introduced at p. 168. 

eOlCPLB FOBHB. CM. 

Old OeniL Gaddo, Gatto, Geddo, Getto, 7th oent. Eng. 
Oadd, Gaity, Gsdd, Gst, Gettt, Caddt. Mod. Gexnian 
Gape, Gede, Kapk French Gadt^ Gad^ Gateau, Gatbd^ 
GEiTBy Oadbau. 

DDlLMUTiVJWL 

English Caddick— Modem German Gasdckb. Engliah 
Oadell. French Gatillon, Cadilhon. 

OOMFOTTNnS. 

{H<uriy warrior) Engliah Gbiteb — ^French Oabieb. {Leof^ 
dear) English Gatxjffb, Getlttel (Jfon) Anglo-Saxon 
Gflsdmon — ^English Cadxak, Gettmak. (Niw, young) Old 
Germ. Gatani, 8th oent — ^Eng. Gedhet. (Watah^ stranger) 
Old German Eladnwalah, Oadnalns, 8th cent. — Oeadwalha^* 
king of Wflssez — ^En^^iish Oadwell. 

PHONBnO INTRUSION OF ^f 

{Ha/rty warrior) Old Gezman Gadelher^ 11th cent— Mod. 
QenxL "KjBPnxR — ^French Gatellieb. 

• Oofht^ perittn nChtt to bo toonght in h«rt than tloog with haXh^ wir, 

t Ai wdl aa the f om gadA, than is alao a f ocm gadttt which mig^t aooooni 
for iooh namfli aa Sni^iih Oaxsbbooop^ (in the Uth oani found aa Gadzagod}. 



CHAPTER XXXn. 



00KCLU8I0N. 



I might— ere taking leave of the subject- 
amuse the reader by many instances of the curious 
relation in which names sometimes stand to 
avocations. Thus of nine Mash's in the London 
directory, five are dealers in potatoes. Fobce, 
CuLBET, and Oeuimpagne are wine-merchants in 
Paris, Yebjus is a doctor, and Viboius keq)s ibe 
hotd Byron. On the other hand CjjOVTS and 
Odin axe taolors, Salabin is a hair-dresser, 
MxLOBD is a grocer, and Minebvb sells lemonade. 
Madame Thais watches over the morals of a 
religious order ; Madame Mizbby keeps an hotel, 
and I dare say makes people very comfortable. 

Again — as I have throughout these pages 
advocated the opinion that many curious-soimdiBg 
names are only corruptions of ancient names, so 
I may give a few instances of others which we 
might have had. We have many which seem 
to be fi*om beverages — ^we might also have had 
ICE-Ain>-CBEAM — ^the Old Germ. Isancrim (Iron- 
fierce.) We have Goodbnough, and I have taken 
it to be from an Old Frankish name Goderndf— 
so we might have had Badenough, fi*om an Old 
German Badanulf. The termination wif, woman, 
common in ancient female names, might have 



CONCLUSION. 527 

given us, withotit any corruption, Eochwirai, 
Angel-wepb, SiLLY-wrPB, and Cold-wtpk The 
Old Germ, names Austrigosa and Wisegoz (Ostro- 
goth and Visigoth) would naturally have become 
Easteh-gooss and Wissgoose. 

Many other examples I might introduce, but 
I prefer to close the subject with a more serious 
tram of thought. My aim has been to vindicate 
the antiquity, and to assert the nobility, of our 
common English names. I have endeavoured to 
show that very many of those which seem the 
meanest and the most vulgar, are in reality the 
most ancient — ^that^ philologically speaking, the 
Norman territorial seigneurs are the parvenus— 
the Babbs and the Bubbs and the Dadds, the 
Raggs, the Ruggs, and the Wiggs, the Potts, the 
Juggs, and the Tubbs, the grand old nobility. 
And in the names of our great rivals by sea and 
land, I have sought to trace the forgotten rela- 
tionship of two thousand years. 

An eminent modem scholar, the late Dr. 
Donaldson, has remarked of English names^ that 
" though generally very much corrupted in ortho- 
graphy and pronunciation, they often preserve 
forms of words which have been lost in the ver- 
nacular language of the country, and so constitute 
a sort of living glossary/' This is true, but it is 
not the whole trutL They contain words which 
have been lost in the whole cycle of Teutonic 
languages — they contain senses which have 
perished, though the words are still extant — 



528 ODNGLUSIOK. 

they contain aU forms of andeat dialects, and all 
forms of transition between one dialect and 
another. 

Nor is their value less as a record of past 
modes of thought. There is not one of them but 
had a meaning once — they are a reflex of a l^e- 
gone age— a commentary on the life of our foie- 
fiithera 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



P. 14. The ending ma in Ftim.0 names, wftioh I have 
taken to be a diminutiye, is oonitdei^ by Pott and 
Bupteoht to be the same w mofk In that cftse it 
would not be the same as the ending ma, fnia, ico,, 
in Old Frankisb namee with which I haTe compared 
itj as many of thteee names are feminina 

P. 26. The name Erasmos I have taken to be a latinized 
f(Nrm of a Frieaio Erasma. But in de&olt of finding 
it in any case in the latter form^ the derivation of 
Pott from the Greek Eraanuoa must perhaps be pre- 
ferred. 

P. 105. HouLET, MvLBFr, fte.| might also be the same as a 
Hugolot in the liber Yitaa^ a diminutire or com* 
pound of hug, pw 357. 

P. 125. I have to apologise lor the name CioMSOir. I 
found it in Mr. Bowditch's index^ and concluded 
that there was such a nam& Subsequently, refer- 
ring to the text, I found that it ran — " we hare no 
Crimson r* 

P. 135. The name Albruna, of the wise woman of the old 
Germans, (from a{/^ §1/, and rUn, wisdom or mystery, 
p. 364) was probably derived £com her supposed 
character of soothsayer. From the same origin 
comes Oberon, the name of the fidiy king. We 
have AtTBEROK as a Christian name, but I do not 
know it as a &mily name. 

P. 151. Nefflen is, I think, a German, not an English 
name. 

P. 256. Nestle, Nestlino, dnx Grimm, (Oeach. d. Deuisch^ 
Sprach,) refers, in the case of an Old German name 
Nestica, to neH, torques, neaHla, fibula. 

P. 261. FfiiDAY might also be derived from an Ang.-Sazon 
Frigedseg, (found in Frigedsges trtow, Cod. Dip. 
1221). So Fbsbout, also Freebody, might be the 
o 3 



530 ADDITIONS AND OOBBECmONa 

same as an Old Qennan FriobaadeSy 6th oentw, from 
JH, liber. Henoe alao Friab and Fbiakt, Modem 
German Fbehb, from an Old German Friliery 8tii 
cent And Fbebkah, oonresponding with a Frimikoa 
in the liber Y itn. 

P. 262. SfETEWBiGHT would be better jJaoed akmg with 
Sbabioht, to an Old German Seaerit, p. 322, frtim 
GotL MMW, Ang.-Sax. mm, mare. 

P. 263. The introdaction of the name Gwnm here maj be 
liable to miaoonstraction. I merely mean to aak 
the question whether — comparing it with an Old 
German Gonine— a Tentonic name can in any case 
be mixed ap with the Celtia 

P. 310. Dandelton. The frmily of this name became 
extinct in tJie reign of Edward lY. 

P. 313. The name Pictube might be from Pictor as a 
latinization of painter. 

P. 317. The most certain instance of Soot as a baptismal, 
and not as a descriptiye name, is a Scot Agomdea- 
sone (for Agemimdessune ?) in the liber Yitn. 

P. 349. Our name Rbcknell is more probably the same as 
the German Reckkagel, p. 221. 

P. 382. The Ang.-Sax. XJhtred ought not, I think, to come 
in here ; the stem ctcty p. 450, is more suitable. 

P. 397. The authority for the statement that the name of 
the Maid of Orleans was properly Daro^ not lyAro^ 
is her latest French biographer, whose name I do 
not at present remember, and whose information 
was derived from an examination of ancient docu- 
ments. 

P. 425. Pott has Gboye and Gboyekank as Low German 
namea 

P. 464. Our name Grassiok corresponds with a Gbraic in 
the Liber Yitie, Ang.-Saxon gcersy another form of 
grms. 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMEa 



AlMolt, 61 
AbftTid,61 
Abbadie, 61 
Abb^60 
Abbette,61 
Abert,61 
Abit,61 
Aoar, 210 
Acaii,S210 
Aooanlt, 210 
Adooque, 210 
Adde, 287 
Ad^, 287 
Adeline, 337 
Adelo]i,337 
AdhemAT, 288 
Adm,519 
Admant. 288 
Adolpbe, 72, 288 
Adoiil,d37 
Adour, 288 
Aeaohimann, 217 
A«aue,193 
Agenet, 210 
Agii,ld3 
Agmand. 210 
Agon, 211 
Agoalt,210 
Agn]n,210 
Agron, 210 
AM6,619 
Aigle,94 
Aigoin, 210 
AigailU,H 154 
AifiaTd,164 
Amerei,154 
AiUy, 154 



Aim6, 

154 

» 

,516 
AlAgre,516 
Alayoine, 617 
Albaiet,135 
Albenque, 135 
Albert, 516 
Albin,134 
Albo, 134 
Albiand, 299, 418 
Alby, 134 
Aldebert, 418 
Aldon, 418 
A1^516 

,418 



Alel7,426 
Alfred, 135 
Algier, 516 
Al^ot, 427 
Alinot, 517 
Aliz,142 
Alkan,418 



A]lard,516 
Allaire, 517 
Allaii^300 
Allaume, 38 
Alleaume, 38 
Allemojs, 517 
Allengi7,239 
Aileron, 517 
AUery, 517 
Allevy, 517 
Ami,516 
Amen,238 
Allonier, 239 
AUouard, 517 
AlphonM, 338 
Alquier, 142 
Alnoq,517 
AItairao,419 
Altaroohe, 418 
Alteriet, 418 
Amade, 284 
Amadeof, 284 
Amblard, 143 
Aniail,143 
Am^dte, 284 
Amelin, 143 
Ameling, 143 
Amette, 284 
Amey, 492 
AmiB,284 
Amianme, 493 
Amor^, 130 
Ampaire, 312 
Amurat, 492 
Anoeau, 119 
Anoeaume, 119 
Anoel, 119 
Anoelin, 119 
Ancement, 120 
Andraud, 300 
Andro, 300 
Andry, 300 
Anery, 289 
Anfray, 289 
Ang6. 212 
Angel, 213 
Angelier, 213 



Angeraadf 502 
Angevin, 212 
Angibert, 292 
Angiboui, 292 
Anglement, 213 
Anglade, 213 
Ang]ard,213 
Angonard, 293 
* — ly, 212 



Anjnbanli, 292 
Anne, 289 
Ann6, 289 
Ann6e,289 
AnquetiL 52, 512 
Anflart,119 
Annelin, 119 
AnBehne, 119 

Anain^T tn^ 120 

Anamant, 120 
Anael, 119 
Antheaume, 432 
Antier, 432 
Antiq, 432 
Antraygue^ 300 
Anty, 432 
Appay, 60 
Appert, 61 
Aran, 95 
Arago, 387 
Arbogaat, 50, 386 
Arbeau,^ 
Axbey, 386 
Arbomont, 386 
ATbre,386 

Arcbambaolt, 12, 432 
Arohereau, 388 
Arohinard, 432 
Ardier, 250 
Ardouin, 251 
Arfort,386 
Aigand,388 
Aiiy, 387 
Ar^li,95 
Arlomn. 340 
Armandeaa, 147 
Armandet, 147 
Armengaud, 50 146 
Armenia, 147 
Armeny, 146 
Armet, 147 
Armez, 147 
Arnault, 95 
Arnold, 95 
Amou, 95 



532 



INDSX OF FRENCH NAMEa 



iLiiioiild,M 
▲rondfll, 168 
Arpm,386 
Arqain, 432 
An»uH,96 
Amnger, 96 
Aniy«ts,96 
ArrondeaiL 96 
Artaiat.2ffl 
ArteO,260 
Artua,250 
Arveuf, 380 
ArTier,3d6 
AmoU, 216 
Aiperti,119 
ABtel,216 
ABtier, 216 
AitorgiB,303 
Aftnio, 216 
Aiae, 89, 119 
Auegond, 119 
Aiaeliii, 119 
Abm11,119 
AMueruB, 120 
Atloff, 288 
AtyB,288 
Anbard, 135 
Aub6,134 
Aab€l,134 
Aubery, 135 
Aabez,134 
Aubier, 135 
Anbigny, 134 
Aubin, 134 
Aubineau, 134 
Aubouer, 135 
Aubouin, 135 
Aubriet, 136 
Aabnui.135 
AnohArd, 142 
Aude, 381 
Audeorand, 382 
Andeman, 382 
Aadevard, 62, 282 
Andibert, 62, 381 
Audier, 382 
AudifEred, 382 
Andiffret, 382 
Aadiganne, 382 
Aadjgaier, 62, 382 
Andififi,381 
Aiidin,381 
AadiB,381 
Aadiquei, 381 
Audouard, 52, 382 
Audoin, 382 
Audoain, 62 
Audouy, 382 
Audnn, 382 
Andy, 381 
Auer, 290 
Attfray, 502 
Auger, 382 



Auny, 624 

Annan, 624 
AarttraiL6a4 

AiirdlK624 
Aoriger, 624 
Ausbert, 524 
Atundre, 624 
Auapert, 119 
Autenxdie, 388 
Aathelandl 382 
Aathier, 382 
Aati6, 381 
Antin, 381 
Aatier, 382 
Autraii,382 
Autrique, 382 
Aiuolle, 524 
Aiuson, 524 
Avare, 290 
ATart,290 
Ayeline, 290 
Avi,290 
Avisaeaa, 290 
Avisse, 290 
Ayuard,290 
Avizart, 290 
Avizeau, 290 
Aycard, 210 
Aye], 154 
Aymer, 210, 492 
AymoB, 492 
Aymont, 210, 492 
Ayxault, 95 
A2anl,169 
Azan, 169 
A2e,169 
Azema, 169 
Az^mar, 169 
Azibert, 169 
AziUe, 169 
Azimon, 169 

Babault, 291 
Bab6,291 
Babeau, 291 
Babeuf, 291 
Babin, 291 
Bablui,291 
Babonneau, 291 
Babouard, 291 
Babouldne, 291 
Babaleau, 291 
Bao,172 
Baocaud, 172 
Bach, 172 
Bacfaiment, 172 
Bacqua, 172 
Booquart, 172 
Bacque, 172 
Bacquet, 172 
Badel, IGO 
Bader, 166 
Badier, 166 



Bftdoii,166 
Bady, 166 

Bagard,l72 
Bagaiy, 172 
Bagier, 172 
Baglan,l72 
Bague, 172 
Ban,l92 
^^192 
Bailliard, 198 
Bailiire,192 
BaiUiea,192 
BaiUy, 172, 192 
BaiiuB, 181 
Balay, 192 
Balooq, 27 
Bald^241 
Baldeveek, 242 
Baleiy, 192 
Baldi, 241 
Ballard, 192 
BaUe,192 
Ballerei, 192 
Balloobe, 198 
Bally, 192 
Ballii,192 
BalBaii,242 
BalBemiva, 241 
Baltar, 131, 241 
Baltard,241 
Baltazard, 241 
Balzac, 241 
Banc, 182 



Banoelin, 235 
Bani6, 175 
BannieUe, 175 
Bannier, 175 
Banonard, 175 
Bangy, 182 
Bansard, 236 
Baiaban,70 
Barault,61 
Baraohin, 61 
Bard, 222! 
Bard6, 2^ 
Bardeau, 222 
Bardelle, 222 
Bardillon, 222 
Bardon,222 
Bardonneaii, 282 
Bardy, 222 
Bai«&e,61 
Bamay, 423 
Baniet,423 
Bamich, 423 
Baniier, 423 
Bamoavin, 423 
Baroin,62 
Barratte,62 
Barre, 61 
Ban^61 



IltPBX 09 FBBKCH N^JOS. 



538 



Bureui,^ 


Beluse&t,270 . 


BeiTet,02 


Bellamy, 24, m 


Bum, 61 


Bellart,260 


Berteaii.222 
Bertel,222 


BellaToine, 270 
Bellean,l92 


Bairy, 61 


BeUee,192 


BeMaget,m 


BeUemar^m 


Basse, 181 


Bellemain, 280 
BellemanLS^ 
5ellenot,2aO 


Ba8Be6,181 
BaMo,18| 


Baata,183 


Belletre, 219 


Bartard,W 


Bellhommek Wi 


Baster,183 


Belli, 102 


Bartie,183 


Bellioard. 260 


Baetler, 133 


Bemer,260 


BataiUe,iaft 


Belligaid, 260 


Batard,167 


BelliMer,6aft 


Bataolt, 167 


BelU)o,260 


Batel,166 


BeUii,192 


BathSS^]^ 
Batt6,166 


Belment,260 

Belnoi,269 

BelBeiir.621 


BaUo, 166 


Bel<,260 


Baud, 241 
Baudeao, 241 

Baudenf , 2U 


Bena,176 
Benazd,177 
Bence, 177, 23& 
Benedi, 176 


Baadier, 241 


Benecke, 176 
Benda,236 


Baudm,243 


Bender, 296 


Baudouin, 249 


Bengel,182 


Baadrand,241 
Baudzii,241 


Benier, 177 
Benz, 177, 7» 


Baadn>,242 


Ber,68 


Baiidron,241 
Baudi7,24X 


Beniid,60 
Beral,60 


Bauduer, 241 
Bavaid,2»l 


Beianger, 70 
Bennlt,60 


BebeiVtt4 
Beo, WZ 
Bicbade,222 


Beroher. 69 
Beer, 68 
Beige, 270 


Beohman, 292 


Bergeaii,270 
Berger, 60,270 
Bergeiat,270 


Becker, 222. 


Beokl6,222 
Beoquemiej^22l( 
Beoquet, 222 


Bezgaeian4 270 
Berheaome, 60 


Bench, 60 


Beoqney, 222 


BeiiUe,60 


Bedard,167 


Berillon, 60 


Bed6, 166 


Beringer, 70 


Bedeaii,166 
Bedel,166 


sr^*-^' 


Bedier, 167 


Berl7,60 


Bedmar, 167 
Bedneo,166 


Bermard. 60 
Bennond,60 


Bedouin, 167 
Bedn,l26 


Bennont,60 


Bernard, 26, 71 
Bemardeft,26 


B6fort,414 


Belac,269 


Beinardm,26 


Belaue,260 
Beleft,^ 
Belhomme, ase 


Bemanlt,71 
Berne. 70 
Bern3le,70 


Be]in,270 


Benie7,70 



Bemier, 71 
BerDt,60 
Berqnier, 2r0 
Berqmn, 60 
Benyer. 60 

370 
370 

It, 370 
Berte»370 
Bertean. 370 
Bertel,370 
Bertey, 370 
Beriheaiune, OfO 
Berthdin, 370 
Berthier^O 
Berfder, 370 
Bertin,370 
Bertomier, 370 
Bertrand, 370 
B ertra nt,370 
Berferay, 3f^ 
Bertron, 370 
Betianl^l83 
Bert, 183 
Berte],183 
Befliard,181 
Beoay, 181 
BeBBe,181 
Beelay, 181 
Benon, 181 
Befliona,181 
Beason 



Bethery, 167 

Beton,166 

Bette,166 

Bevaire,01 

Bibal,414 

Bibant, 414 

Biber,Ol 

Bibert,414 

Bilyas,414 

Bioa],177 

Bichard, 170 

Bioheron, 170 

Bidanlt, W 

Bled, 166 

Bi6ro,68 

Biff ant, 414 

Biffe,414 

Big6,177 

Bigeard,178 

Bigey, 177 

Bigle,177 

Bigot, 178 

Bim,178 

^fii^200 

Billanlt, 270 

Bilbaiilt,200 

Bileo, 260 

Bilhet,260 

Bilken,260 

BillejlOO 



534 



ENDBX OF FRENCH KAMEa 



BiU0qiu%9e9 

BUlei^aOd 

BiDuid,260 

Bim6n,269 

BUi]iig,260 

Billion, 270 

Baiatea%219 

Biiusl76 

Bi]uuit,177 

BiiiMd,177 

BuidA»23S 

Binder, 236 

Binmn,176 

Bin67, 176 

JT, 177 

Binneoher: 177 

BinoQhfl76 

Bi]u,177 

Biron,70 

Biau9,181 

BiicM,181 

Bi«a7,181 

BiflMn«181 

Bitoher, 178 

BiTert,414 

Blaolier,396 

BlMddar, 386 

Bkd.376 

Sadler. 376 * 

BlAin,396 

BlAiye,184 

BUno,a92 

BlAnca,392 

BIenoud,393 

BLmohazd, 393 

B]Anehe,392 

Bbncheron, 383 

Bluiehet,393 

Blannhin, 392 

Blendin,397 



BLangy, ; 
Blenqnert, 383 
Blenque,392 
Blanqnet, 393 
Blanquiw,393 
Blancy, 397 
Bleqne,386 
nftan,376 
BUtte,376 
Blatter, 376 
Blavier, 184 
Blavin,184 
Bleoh,393 
Bled, 376, 440 
Ble6,396 
Blem,396 
Blenner, 396 



»«ri^»3 



.440 

BtoMer,441 

BleMinff.440 

Blet,3r6.440 

Bletel, ^6, 440 

Bleteiy, 376 

Bleton,376.440 

B14qmer, 393 

Bleu, 396 

BleTanui,184 

BldTe,184 

Blin,396 

Bloc, 214 

Blooaille,216 

Bloinaid,466 

Home, 466 

Blond, 397 

Blond4, 397 

Blondeaiv887 

BlondeI,397 

Blondin,397 

Bloquel, 215 

Bloqniire, 215 

Blon, 386 

Bliim,465 

Bobant,422 

Bob4e,421 

Boblet,422 

Bobi4re,422 

BolnB,422 

BobcBoff, 422 

Bobot,422 

Booh, 224 

Boohard, 225 

Booliin,225 

Bochmer, 225 

Bodard,465 

Boclart,456 

BodaMe,464 

Bodeau,454 

Boder,455 

Bodeyin,465 

Bodiohon, 454 

Bodler,455 

Bodin,454 

Bodo,454 

BoiBn,422 

Boeuf, 421 

Bognard,225 

Bognier, 225 

Bohard, 225 

Bohn6,225 

Boimer, 225 

Boin,225 

Boiron, 314 

Boiflganiier, 502 

Boi^gaoltier, 502 

Boiflgelin^ 502 

BoiBgontier, 602 

Boii^uilbert, 602 

Boingoyon, 502 



BoMmaiftdg 808 
Bola,281 
Boler, 281 
Bol],2Sl 
BoUadk,281 
Bo]1^281 
BoUqr, 281 
Bompart, 176 
Bon, 175 
Bonnaf oofl, 176 
Bonald,176 
Bonamy, 24, 177 
Bonaparte, 66, 176 
Bonacdi, 176 

175 



Bondy, 1.. 
BonfiIsl76 
Bonhear, 176 
Boniehon, 175 
Boni£Me, 176 
Bonier, 176 
Bonine, 175 
Bonnaire, 176 
Bonnaid, 176 
Bonnardet, 176 
Bonnand, 175 
Bonnay, 175 
Bonne, 175 
Bonnean, 175 
Bonnef one, 176 
Bonnell,175 
Bonnelare, 176 
P^"«**»"", 176 
Bonnement, 176 
Bonnety, 176 
Bonni, 1/5 
Bonningne, 175 
Bonniaaeni 176 
Bonno, 175 
Bonny, 175 
Bonnyaod, 176 
Bonom4, 177 
Bonpard, 176 
Bont6,^ 
Bonya, 175 
Bona6, 175, 236 
Borda,229 
Borde,229 
Boideiy, 229 
Bordier, 229 
Bordmum, 229 
Boa, 408 
Boaelli,408 
BoBiaid,408 
Bo(Me,408 
BoasuroT, 406 
Boaay, 408 
Bo8t,409 
Bottelin,454 
Bottemer, 455 
Bothey . 454 
Botti,454 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMEa 



535 



Bottiflr,4S6 
Bottm,454 
Boucard, 379 
Boaoart,379 
BouoaMML379 
Booohard, 379 
Bouohi, 378 
Boaehen7j^9 
Boucher. 379 
Bonehene, 379 
Boaoheron, 379 
Bouoherot, 379 
Bonohet, 379 
Boaohes, 379 
Bouohoii^9 
Boady, 379 
Bonoon, 379 
Bouory, 379 
Boadurd, 456 
Boadaolt, 466 
Boudeao, 454 
Boudeyin, 456 
Boadier, 456 
BoTigault, 379 
Bougie, 379 
Bonglon, 379 
BongooL 379 
Bougnin, 379 
Bo\ifimt,279 
Boobier, 379 
BonillAO, 281 
BoaillArd, 281 
BomU6, 281 
BoniUerie, 281 
Bonillien, 281 
Boiiil]i0r,281 
Baoilly, 281 
Boiilui,281 
Boiilas,281 
Boulay, 281 
Boii]igaadL281 
Boulier, 281 
BouUiizd,281 
BonUerr, 281 
BonUoohe, 281 
Bonlmier, 281 
Bonlo,281 
Boiila,281 
Boonean, 416 
Bonqaerot|379 
Bonquei, 379 
Bouqnillon, 379 
Boor, 452 
Boiirard,4^ 
Bouidean 



Bonrdelande, 330 

Bmudelon, 329 

Boiiidet,330 

Boadier, 330 

Boiudiii,329 

BoiuM62 

BoiirMa,452 



Bonrg, 279 
Boiizgef,279 
Bouigeiy, 279 
BoiirIa,452 
BoiirreL452 
BoorrOIon, 452 
Boiirqiurd, 279 
Bounere, 408 
Bout, 464 
Boatud,466 
Bontario,465 
Boatel,454 
Bontelon, 464 
Boathey, 454 
Boutier, 456 
Boutnda, 466 
Boatron, 456 
Bontmig, 454 
BontyTiM 
BoQyajrd,422 
BoaYelet,422 
Boadier, 422 
Bouyme,422 
BoQTiii,422 
BouTry, 422 
Boy, 313 
Boyard,313 
Boy^dl3 
Boyer, 313 
Boyreao, 313 
Boyron, 314 
Braohard, 186 
Branher, 186 
Brack, 186 
Braoq, 184 
Bnw, 130 
BraEy, 184 
Braiime, 186 
Bzaine,371 
Bramma, 371 
Brand, 198 
Brandao, 198 
Brandan, 198 
Biandely, 198 
Brandd«,199 
Brandy. 198 
Braqnelonne, 186 
Braqaemin. 186 
Braaa,443 
BnuMac,443 
BraaHurt, 443 
Braaaeiie, 443 
Branier, 443 
Brand, 218 
Branltl86 
Bray, 184 
Brayer, 186 
Brayoud, 185 
Bia&er, 53 
Braiy,443 
Br6ard,186 
Bi«an,184 
Bi«oluurd, 186 



Bredhflniln, 185 
Breek,184 
Br^l84 
Bregand, 186 
Br6geard,186 
Br^ere,186 
Br^evin, 186 
Breht, 370 
Bremard. 371 
Bremond, 371 
Bremont, 371 
BreBiUon,186 
Brefliand,186 
Breaae,186 
Breaaean, 186 
Breaael,186 
Breaaer, 186 
Breaay. 186 
Bret, 186 
Bretar, 186 
Breteaa,186 
Bretel,186 
Bretooq, 185 
Brenoq, 193 
Breyer, 185 
Br^raae,186 
Breiol,186 
Briant,186 
Briard, 186 
Bricaiie,186 
Brioard, 186 
Briohaid,186 
Bricon,185 
Bride, 186 
Bridean, 186 
Brigand, 186 
Brimenr, 371 
Brimont^ 371 
Brionde, 185 
Briqne, 184 
Briaao,186 
Briae,186 
Bria8ard,186 
Briaaand,186 
Briaay.186 
Briaard,186 
Broc,193 
Broca, 90 



218 
Brodn, 218 
Broet. 218 
Brondel, 198 
Bronder. 199 
Broaaard,480 
Broaae,480 
BroBaei,480 
Broader, 480 
Brot,218 

186 



Bmoy, xov 
Brueitor, 186 



ft3« 



INDBX OF FRBKCH NAMBa. 



Bnm, dw 
Braiiaohe,M 

BkrvnArd, 400 



Brunei,; 
Bnuker, 40Q 
Bonnet, 4d0 
BkvniMriaV^OO 
Bnmnar^iOO 
Bnino, 999 
Bninj, 999 
Bnuelin, 100 
Babeok,42a 
BiiMme,379 
Booker, 379 
BadkU,379 
Badd]«nn,45ft 
BiidiIlaD,4M 
Biidi]i,4M 
BiifEMat,49t 
Buffet, 422 
Baffler, 422 
Biiffoii,422 
- ,40^ 



BnUe,! 
Biine,281 



Burner. 281 
Biil]j,281 
Biiloe,281 
~ ,416 
,416 



BaroL 279 

BorokeL^d 

BQrde,329 

Biirdet,39Q 

Biirdiii9 329 

Biiisal,279 

BaigMrd,279 

Barq, 279 

BnridrO 

Bartard,370 

Barth6, 329 

Biirai0,S29 

Borty, 870 

BtUTerin, 279 

Biueiid,407 

Bum, 407 



r,40r 

BaMUre,40f 

Bnaij, 407_ 

BiuUiUt,^ 

Ba«heMi,4M 

Battel, 464 

Battl,404 

Battiii,464 



Oeb4,286 
CftdeMi,^l 
Oedier, 5w 
Oadilhoii, 526 
Oeffort,248 
Oi«iii,l74 
Gitfiierd, 174 
OaKen,l74 
CUIl»nt,437 
CbUlenl,43r 
CMlUalt,437 
OuUe,436 
Oa]Ueaa,496 
CUUebotte, 487 
Ca]UeUa,4S7 
OaiUer,437 
OuIHer, 437 
Oeimes,437 
Caillon, 437_ 
Camoaee,43f 
Gain, 174 
CWM«t,437_ 
OaUebMit,48f 
Gallery, 437 
GeUier,437 
Gallon, 437 
Galyo,83 
Gam, 486 
Gainaid,436 
Gamaret,486 
Gamier, 436 
Gamin, 430 
Gampy, 171 
Gana],444 
Ganard, 101, 444 
Gananlt,444 
Ganoalon, 616 
Ganoe, 618 
GanoY, 618 
GandA,74 
Ganddle,74 
Gandre, 74 
Gandy, 74 
Ganier, 444 
Ganivet, 201 
GanneyiL 201 
GaQon,444 
Gantel,74 
Gantier, 74 
Gantillon, 74 



Gaidon, i 

GareaxL 202 

Gaiel,2(» 

Garey, 202 

Garlm,2Q2 

Garment, 203 

Gamot,203 

G^rDd,203 

Gaiol,69 

Ganas,202 

GaiT«,202 

GaRette,339 



Gbzn6ra,906 

Gart,276 

GartMilt,2r7 

Oarteaa,276 

Outeret,Srr 

Garthery, 377 

Garfeier, ^trr 

Oarton,277 

Gaiqoin, 209 

GMitaing,a96 

Gaeteld^296 

Ga>tan,296 

Gastel,296 

GMterat,290 

Gtatier, 296 

Gaatriqae, 296 

Gkety,^ 

Gat, 168 

Gatal,168 

Gatala,168 

Gataa,168 

GatOlAn, 168 

Gatty, 168 

Gata,168 

Gaiiohai:dj367 

Oaache,307 

Gauehy, 30? 

GandroiLjIKTf 

Ganain,309 

GaoBoade, 309 

GaaMat,809 

Gaane,309 

Gannid,309 

Gaudqae, 309 

Gayel,286 

Gaadong, 908 

Gase,2» 

Gani,205 

Ge]lard,306 

Gellerin,306 

Gellier, 306 

Gel6flM,306 

Gala, 308 

Gendre,466 

Gent, 466 

G6r6monie, 280 

OeMO,272 

GeyMon, 272 

Gesaid,272 

Ge&lle,272 

GhAbault, 168 

Ghabot,168 

Ohabrand, 199 

Ghadinet,l68 

Ghadirao,168 

Ghaft,219 

Ghamel,419 

Ghampagtte, 598 

Ghampean, 171 

Ghamplon, 171 

Ghampy, 171 

G]ianoean,5l9 

Ghandel,74 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



537 



Chanteau, 74 
Cbanterao, 76 
Ohantier, 74 
Chanirot, 74 
Chapt, 219 
Chatayay, 233 
Charey, 231 
Chaif 6,356 
Charier, 232 
Chario, 231 
Charle, 59 
Charmond, 50, 233 
Charmont, 50. 233 
Channotte, 233 
Charoin, 233 
Charot,339 
Charpin, 357 
Charpy, 356 
Chartder, 250 
Chartoii,251 
Charae,231 
Charvey, 233 
Charym,233 
Chanard, 307 
Chastamg, 296 
CMtel, 519 
Chatelin, 168 
Chaumer, 60 
Chaun^e,307 
Chaussier, 307 
Chauasy, 307 
Chefter, 219 
Chely, 322 
Chemery, 423 
Cheneveau, 201 
Cherean. 223 
Cheri,223 
Cheaneau, 459 
Chesney, 459 
Chess^, 459 
Chevy, 285 
Chicard, 358 
Chi^ze, 459 
Chilman, 163 
Chimay, 423 
Chimel, 423 
Chimdne, 423 
Chipier, 286 
Chippard,286 
Chiauet, 358 
Chobillon, 227 
Chocart,341 
Chochon, 340 
Chocquet, 341 
Chomeau, 69 
Chon, 327 
Chonez, 327 
Chonneanx, 327 
Ohopard, 227 
Choqier, 307 
Choquart, 341 
Choque, 307, 340 
Choquet, 341 



Choqaier. 341 
Chorey, 223 
Chottard, 360 
ChotteavLdOO 
Chonpe, 227 
Christ, 133, 484 
Chriatel, 133 
Christy, 133 
Cioeri, 272 
Cinna, 327 
Cinquin, 327 
Cintntt,466 
CuBa,272 
Clabaut, 183 
Clabbeeok, 183 
Cladung, 435 
Clareno, 374 
Claret, 526 
Clarey, 374 
Clair, 374 
Clairin, 374 
Clapar6de, 183 
ClapeyroD. 183 
Clapier, 183 
Clapisson, 183 
Clariat, 374 
Classen, 392 
Claude, 377 
Claudel, 377 
Claudin, 377 
CUt6, 183 
Claveaa, 183 
Clavel, 183 
Claverie, 183 
Clavey^ 183 
Clavier, 183 
Clavrot, 183 
Claye, 352 
Chiyette, 352 
Cleoh, 352 
Clenchard, 199 
Cler, 374 
C16rambault, 374 
Clerambourg, 374 
Cleret, 374 
Clerin, 374 
C16risse, 374 
Clermont, 374 
Clery, 374 
Cliver, 414 
Clodomir, 46, 50, 377 
Cloquemin, 352 
Cloquet, 352 
Clottlde, 46, 377 
Clouet, 352 
Clovis. 46, 378, 626 
Cocard, 446 
Coooos, 446 
Cochard, 446 
Coche, 446 
Cochelin, 446 
Cochery, 446 
Cochin, 446 

P 3 



Cochinart, 446 
Cootin, 446 
Coderet, 116 
Codmi,116 
Codron, 116 
Coffard, 248 
Coffin, 249 
Coffineau, 249 
Coffy, 248 
Coges, 446 
Cognard, 446 
Cogny, 446 
Coiffard, 248 
Coindret, 328 
Colbert, 226 
Colore, 226 
Coli,226 
Colinard, 226 
Collange, 226 
Collud,226 
Colle, 226 
Colleau, 226 
CoUery, 226 
Collichon, 226 
Collier, 53, 226 
CoUman, 226 
Colombert, 226 
Com, 59 
Cdme, 296 
Comont, 60 
Commeny, 297 
Commun, 297 
Conard, 328 
Conchan, 327 
Congs, 329 
Congy, 329 
Conil,327 
Conillean, 327 
Coninz, 329 
Conneau, 327 
Connerat, 328 
Conn£s, 327 
Connier, 328 
Conord, 328 
Conort, 328 
Conrad, 328 
Conseil, 163 
Cont^, 163 
Conti, 163 
Conter, 164 
Continant, 164 
Contour, 164 
Copeau, 248 
Copel, 248 
Coppes, 248 
Coq, 446 
Coqueau, 446 
Coquelin, 446 
Coquet, 446 
Coquille, 446 
Coquin, 446 
Cora, 202 
Coralli, 202 



538 



UiDXX OF FBBMCH NAIUB. 



Gorioli,2(» 
CornftT, 433 
GomelT, 433 
Cornichon, 483 
Gornibert, 433 
Cornillflau, 433 
Common, 433 

" ' ,4oe 



,409 
Cortier, 400 
Oora,2Q2 
CkMmdne, 310 
Come, 310 
Cooiiiaa, 310 
Gosqnin, 309 
C(Mae,309 
Gosi6,300 
CoMerei. 310 
Gouin,309 
Costa, 360 
Coetard,3G0 
CostaB,360 
Coite,360 
Costel,360 
CotteB,360 
Co«tey, 360 
Coitme,360 
Cot6, 116 
Coteau, 116 
Cotel, 116 
Coteret, 116 
Cotlutme, 116 
Cotta, 116 
Cottanoe, 116 
Cottard, 116 
Cotte, 116 
Coitej, 116 
Conard, 336 
Couardeau, 336 
Coabart,336 
Couder, 116 
Coudert, 116 
Coadoin, 117 
Coudy, 116 
Coa6, 336 
Couenne, 336 
CoumoivSS? 
Coune, 327 
Course. 409 
Course!, 409 
Courson, 409 
Coursserant) 409 
Coursy, 409 
Court, 409 
Courteau, 409 
Courtier, 409 
Courtiii,400 
Courty, 409 
Cousin, 309 
Coussy, 309 
Coustard,360 
Cou8teau,360 



Coutanoe, 115 
Coutanseau, 115 
Coutatd,116 
Couteau, 61 115 
Coutain, 116 
Coutier, 116 
Coutin, 117 
Cotttray, 116 
Coutioi, 116 
Gouty, 116 
Gouts, 116 
Goucineau, 100 
CoviUe, 248 
Cose, 309 
Cosio,309 
GosEi,309 
Gnoam, 97 
Grenier, 465 
Grep6, 188 
Grepeau, 188 
Crepelle, 188 
Crepy, 188 
Grespin,404 
Crespel,404 
Cresson, 401 
Creuoy, 404 
Greuaard,404 
Ci«use,404 
Greus6,404 
Cria,170 
Crihier, 188 
Crispin, 404 
Crooo, 263 
Crobey, 426 
Groofaard, 268 • 
Crochet, 263 
Cron,466 
Croneau, 466 
Gronier, 466 
CToppi,426 
Croquart, 363 
Grossard,406 
Crosse, 405 
Grott6,371 
Crou6, 263 
Crousse, 404 
Crousi, 404 
Groutelle, 372 
Grouts, 372 
Croutsch, 372 
Groae,406 
Crosier, 4M 
Cmice, 404 
Cruq, 263 
Grussi^re, 404 
Grassy, 404 
Grus,404 
Cnuel,404 
Gucii,105 
Cudey, 115 
Gufay, 248 
Cuit, 116 
Cumenge, 297 



OiiBKm,297 



Ouny, i 
Cuqn,105 
Cnniier, 433 
Gnrteliii, 409 
Oarty,400 

Dabeaii,^8 
t>ab^428 
Dab6rt,428 
0aUili,4aO 
Dabrin, 420 
Dacbert, 00^ » 
DaeeB,300 
Dmohery.SOl 
Daolin, 390 
Daoqu— *^^ 



Daffy, 428 

l>a£nque,428 

Daga,380 

Dagaod^390 

Dages,390 

Dagesi,301 

Dsg]n,338 



Dagoin, 381 
Dagomet, 301 
Dagoury. 301 
Dagziii,391 
I>agron,391 



Dalbert,075 
Dalerao, 375 
Dalgar, 376 
DaHbon,d75 
Dall6,376 
Dallemagne, 87B 
DaUary. 375 
Ds]liar<L375 
Dallos, 375 
Dally, 376 
Dalon,376 
DalTi,376 
Damas,365 
Damay, 364 
Damasy, 360 
Dame, 364 
Dam6,d64 
Danid,365 
Damelon, 366 
Darner, 366 
Dameron, 966 
Da]net,365 
Dames, 366 
Damm, 364 
Damotte,365 
Damour, 365 
Dan, 311 
Daaooilie, 380 
Danoourt, 300 



IKDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



539 



DMMlft,859 

Daiidoii,810 

DtneLdU 

Dftiiey, 311 
Dsn^SQO 
DugoneUe, a09 
DangiUL 369 

DaimeLdll 
Dumeberg, 311 
Duiqii]n,369 
DtiUMrd, 310 
Duifle,310 
Bantiflr, 310 
Banton, 310 
Dan^, 310 
]>anVixi,310 
Duisq1,310 
I>ftpp6,428 
Dftpj,428 
Durohe, 397 
Dardon, 307 
I>aTd,200 
Dard«iui0, 2Q0 
DudtoTsOO 
Dudi«r.209 
Diuniid,206 
DazvenM. 206 

Dariar,d06 

Damay, 386 

Daniet,lM)6 

Dani]a,388 

Darqii6,387 

Darquier, 307 

DaRalde.a06 

Dami,206 

Darte,209 

Dar7,a06 

I>aaMt,365 

Dairiar, 385 

Dav7.386 

DavMh,428 

Davaolt, 4S8 

DaTal,228 

Daveron, 428 

DaTui,428 

Dav.428 

D6ohard,391 

Deohamna. 301 

Dookar, 301 

Deda,390 

DeQle,300 

Dedine, 390 

Deoori,301 

I>eoq,390 

Deonnd^l 

I>eerei,391 

Deoave,d91 

Dedroii,339 



I>egan«,300 
Degay, 390 
Deg]ane,300 
Degoberk, 50, 391 
Degof, 381 
DegoU,390 
Degory, 391 
l>wrand,301 
Delabaad, 375 
De]aire,375 
Delamothe, 376 
Delamotte, S76 
Ddamarre, 376 
Ddan, 376 
Ddanneau. 375 
Delay, 375 
Deleau, 375 
Delemer, 376 
Delery, 375 
I>elflMe,375 
Delimier, 376 
Delinge, 375 
Dellao,375 
DeUe, 375 
Delmer, 376 
Delmon, 376 
DelmoHe, 376 
Deloffre, 375 
Delocre, 375 
Deloger, 375 
Delouanl, 376 
Delrooq, 376 
Demait, 457 
Demanne, 457 
Demar, 366 
Deinart,365 
Demante, 457 
DemaT, 364 
Demeiiui. 365 
Demey, 364 
Dernier, 365 
Demo]in,365 
Demolle, 365 
Demoisy, 365 
Demoque, 365 
Demotta, 365 
Demoiy. 365 
Demoimn, 365 
Denaigre, 311, 338 
Deiiaiffe,312 
Denani, 311 
Deiiard,311 
Denechan, 311 
Den6chaa<L 311 
Deneoher, 311 
Denore, 311, 338 
Deneff, 312 
Denert^Sll 
Denier, 311 
Denin, 311 
Dennery, 311 
Denta. 310 
Denvlleixi, 310 



Derdhe,397 

Demi, 398 
Derquenne, 397 
Deaai]it,385 
DeMri,385 
Deirat,385 
Denani, 385 
DeaBoUe,386 
Detang, 332 
Detoncg. 332 
Devay, ^ 
Deyenne, 428 
Devert,428 
Devicque, 428 
DeviUe,428 
DeTy, 428 
De¥ 



Dhioa,457 
Dhomet, 467 
Diaehe,457 
Dianand, 457 
Diard, 457 
Diohaid,407 
XHchaziy, 407 
Dida,3^ 
I>idard,333 
DideUe,332 
Didier, 333 
Didron,333 
Di6,457 
Dieboli,332 
Diegot,333 
Di^rickii, 333 
Dieach, 229 
Dietrich. 333 
Diette, 332 
Diea,427 
Dieudonn^, 488 
Dieulaf ait, 488 
DieuleTent, 488 
Dieutegard, 333 
Dieat^arde, 488 
Diey, W 
Dinrd,407 
DiBia€,189 
1)016,189 
Dillery, 189 
Dillet, 189 
Dillon, 190 
DiUy, 189 
Dim6, 364 
Dimey, 364 
Dimier.365 
Dingnel, 367 
DiBand,352 
Diiant,352 
Diaery, 229 
Disnrd,352 
Ditte,332 
Dittmer.333 
Dicain. 352 
Dili, 351 



540 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Dixy, 351 
Dobb6, 103 
Dobel,103 
DobeUn,103 
Doohe, 427 
Dodard, 273 
Dod6, 273 
Dodeman, 273 
Dodin, 273 
Dodo, 273 
Doermer, 208 
DomAiron. 364 
Domard, 364 
Domart, 364 
Dombey, 363 
Dome, 363 
Domeoq, 364 
Domer, 364 
Domez, 364 
Dommel, 364 
Dommey, 363 
Domioile, 364 
Donay, 129 
Doncker, 130 
Donne, 129 
Donn6, 129 
Donnellan, 130 
Dor, 208 
Dorchies, 208 
Dor6, 208 
Doreau, 208 
Dorel, 208 
Dorin, 208 
Dorvault, 208 
Dory, 208 
Dothde, 273 
Dotin, 273 
DoTiare, 428 
Doaaalt,428 
Donbey, 103 
Doudau, 274 
Doudeau, 273 
DoudeUe, 274 
Dou6, 427 
Douet, 427 
Douelle, 427 
DouiUy, 427 
Douoiet, 364 
Doumio, 364 
Doumel, 190 
Doussamy, 26 
Douaaan, 274 
DouBsarnr, 332 
DouBse, 273 
DooMOulin, 274 
Doutey, 273 
Doridre, 273 
DoEon, 273 
Drach, 413 
Drache, 100 
Dracq, 100, 413 
Drain, 413 
Drdge, 413 



Di«o,413 
Dreyn,242 
Drevault, 196 
Dreyf lu, 413, 429 
Drier, 429 
Drion, 429 
Dromery, 243 
Droa, 195 
Drouard, 196 
Dronen, 1&6 
Droulin, 195 
Drouyn, 196 
Droz, 249 
Druault, 429 
Dnibay, 441 
Draoquer, 196 
Dnide, 270 
Druey, 195 
Dnigeon, 196 
Drumond (note), 243 
Dniveau, 441 
Dubeau, 103 
Due, 427 
Ducel,427 
Ducber, 427 
Ducoing, 427 
Ducoroy, 427 
Dugard,427 
Dugelay, 427 
Dugenne, 427 
Dugland, 428 
Duhomme, 363 
Duick, 427 
Dulong, 427 
Dumain, 428 
Dumaire, 364 
Dumas, 364 
Dumay, 363 
Dumery, 364 
Dumes, 364 
Dumolin,364 
Dumoulin, 364 
Duquet, 427 
Duquin, 427 
Durand, 197 
Duiandard, 197 
Durandeau, 197 
Durant, 197 
Duroau, 208 
Durel, 208 
Durey, 208 
Durney, 190 
Durr, 208 
Duru, 208 
Dutaeq, 332 
Dutard, 333 
Dut6, 332 
Duthy, 332 
Dutil,332 
Duveau, 103 

Eberli, 76 
Eberlin, 76 



Ebert,61 
Ebrard,76 
Eehanbwd,211 
Ecbemeni, 210 
Echinatd, 211 
Ecbiyaid, 210 
£dard,288 
Edel,337 
£delin,337 
£dmond,382 
Edouaid, 382 
E^lui,209 
^alon, 154 
EgaaM, 193 
Egaae, 193 
Egle,154 
Egly, 154 
Egon, 211 
Egrot,210 
^le, 475 
Elambert, 239. SOS 
Elck6, 142 
£UieB,300 
Elmerick, 143 
Eamire, 299 
EUouin, 299 
EUuia, 299 
Eloffe, 419 
Embry, 312 
Erne, 253 
Emelin, 143 
Emerifx, 254 
Emerioque, 254 
Emmel, 143 
Emmery, 254 
Emmon, 254 
Empaire, 312 
Emy, 253 
EDault,289 
Enard,289 
Enoehdn, 213 
Enfr6, 289 
Eng, 292 
Engel, 213 
Enguehard, 292 
Enique. *"*" 



Ettouf , 289 
Enilen, 119 
Entntgaea, 300 
Erambert,95 
Erard,95 
Erokener, 432 
Ernie, 95 
Emouf , a5 
EmouIt,95 
Erouard, 95 
Erouaii, 95 
Eecatin, 216 
£0car6,217 
EBoayrac, 217 
Esnault, 475 
Esnouf, 475 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



'<-^.,4s. 



541 



BMuille, 216 
Buer, U9 
EMiqae, 119 
EBtavard, 216 
Este, 216 
EateUe, 216 
Estooq, 216 
Et6y,287 
Eth66,287 
Ettling, 337 
Eude.282 
Eudeline, 282 
Eve, 366 
Eveq^ue, 366 
Evenokz, 76 
EvTard,76 
Evratt, 76 
Eychenne, 211 
Eymond, 210 
Eynud, 210 
^Beii,474 

Fagard,435 
Fage,436 
Fagel, 435 
Paget, 436 
Fagider, 435 
Faguer, 435 
FaLy, 435 
Fain, 435 
FaUle, 307, 435 
FaioB,435 
FaloiiDaigne, 334 
FaUoii,307 
Fandard,417 
Faa6,234 
Fannidre, 234 
Fannon, 234 
Fano, 234 
Fanton, 417 
Faquet, 435 
Faraohon, 323 
Faragaet,324 
Fara^aS 
Farau, 323 
Farou,324 
Faroot,324 
Far«,323 
Fareno, 323 
Farme,323 
Fame, 324 
Fana]i,323 
Fary, 323 
Fastier, 252 
Fastott, 251 
Fastr6, 252 
Fath, 62 
Faab6rt,333 
Fauohe, 333 
Fauchille, 333 
FaadUe, 333 
Faucillon, 333 
Fauleau, 307 



FaiiUe,d07 
Faiiloii,307 
Fauque, 333 
Fayard, 435 
Faye, 435 
Fayet, 435 
Fayolle, 435 
Feche, 435 
Fechner, 435 
Fdffe, 435 
Feiner, 435 
Feinert, 435 
Fenaille, 234 
Fenelon, 234 
F6rafiat,323 
Feragut,324 
F6rant,323 
Feray, 323 
Ferdinand, 325 
Ferdman, 325 
Fennent,50,324 
Fermeiy, 215 
Fennin, 215 
Fermond, 50, 324 
Fernie, 324 
Fernier, 324 
Fernil,324 
Feraing, 324 
Fernique, 324 
Feion, 323 
Ferouelle, 324 
Ferrand, 323 
Ferrer, 324 
Fenier, 324 
Ferry, 323 
Fert, 325 
Fert6,325 
Feflaard,247 
Feasy, 246 
Festo,251 
Fester, 252 
Festii,251 
Feuillard, 518 
Feuille, 517 
Feydeao, 256 
Feytou, 266 
Fiala,517 
Fioatier, 267 
Ficher, 249 
Fidele,430 
Fidery. 430 
FiefloM,247 
Figeau, 249 
Figuier, 249 
Filard,518 
Fillemiu, 518 
Filooque, 517 
Finbert, 315 
Fink, 104 
Firmin,324 
FiBsart, 247 
Fisteberg, 251 
Fi8q,247 



Fitte,490 
Fity, 430 
Fix, 247 
Fixon, 247 
Fizary, 247 
Ficeaa,246 
Fi2el,247 
Flad,393 
ilaohat,4U 
Flambert, 220 
Flammgar, 220 
Flan, 220 
Flannean, 220 
F]aton,394 
Flatraa(Ld94 
FUud, m 
F16, 411 
FleoheUe, 411 
Fleck, 4U 
FIeig,411 
Fli^y, 411 
Flick, 4U 
FUoourt,411 
Fliqaet,411 
Flocaid,411 
Flohn,220 
Floquet, 411 
Floo,412 
FodUon,93 
FoiMao,246 
Foin^, 246 
Fonmer, 246 
Foiget,324 
Forme, 215 
Fomaohon, 324 
Forney, 324 
Fort, 325 
Forteau,325 
Fortel,325 
Fortier, 325 
Fortin, 325 
Fortune, 325 
Fortune, 325 
FoMard,246 
FoMe,246 
FoMier, 246 
FoBsy, 246 
Foacajrt,334 
Fouoanlt. 334 
Fouehe, 333 
Foach6, 333 
Foucher, 334 
Foaohet, 334 
Fouchez, 333 
Fouchy, 333 
Foucron, 334 
Foaorot, 334 
Fonlley, 93 
Fouque, 333 
Fouquerfi, 334 
Fouquet, 334 
Fouqnier, 334 
Foamel,324 



542 



IMDKX OF IBKNCB NAUKS. 



FaiMMid,M6 
FoiiMe,94S 
FoDMi^ Stf 
FhombMlt, SU 
Fmia»306 

Fnaoej, 306 

¥nadmf906 

FniMi]M»S06 

F^ruMO, 306 

FkankMrkW 

Fhoiqiu, 306 

FrMiqiidiM.3Q6 

nrAaqnin, 906 

Fimni, 306 

Fniejr, 31S 

Fh«Mr,313(iuilt) 

FnTMe,312 

Fi«bralt,261 

Freoia,449 

FhM»iilt,UI . 

Frooh,132 

FMtoML26I 

SM«riiok,26l 

Fk«di^2ai 

Fredoi]]0,a61 

VMkm,961 

Fraiiumooii]vSI6 

FranMAiizJaA 

n«mM7, SOB 

Franiar, 216 

Frendn, 216 

FreminaMi, 216 

FMmoni, 216 

Fkenraiunr; 216 

Fr6my, 216 

FreiMk^261 

Ft«Md,449 

FrMoo,449 

Frener, 313 (nota) 

FrMloii,446 

FnMiad,446 

F^«Mon,313 

F^eM,261 

Fr0iMii,261 

Fiund,263 

FriAnl263 

FtiMaiiLl38 



Fri^e, 261 
Friker, 132 
Frioad, 360 
FHMr3l2 
Fiuoii,313 
Fritel,261 
FttM«r,360 
]^d,360 
Fhxidare, 360 
SMdeviJ, 360 

F^nudn, 206 



FhMiMnti'SlA 

F^0Blfll0IL,2U 

F^ommi, 96 

fmT^ 

Ftoit«r,360 

VMtiii,360 

FMLSeO 

Fniitiflr, 360 

Fiikhiioii,3M 

Fnkmi. 334 

FluehfW 

Fiia«r,246 

Fiufl,246 

Fii«7,346 

0«lMadA,286 

QwhtmL 286 

Gab6,Sfi6 

Oabin, 266 

G«d6,626 

Oflul7,626 

Cki^ 174 

Gk«iiMd,174 

Gi«ii«»m 

Gi«ii4,174 

GiigneM, 174 

Qtiner, 174 

QmgDocj, 174 

GagnBie,174 

GMny, 174 

Giude,206 

GMffiiAad,174 

ChdOiAlMtad, 497 

G«ldniid,4Sr 

Gai]]junL437 

Gftuiutfd,496 

Gume,436 

Gmii,174 

GuziAnL 174 

Gtax«l,202 

GidaMid.206 

Quite, aw 

QfJab6rt,487 

Gft]Mid,437 

Gft]M>t,437 

GaUe,4d6 

QaU6,436 

GaUibour,4Sr 

GidiboiuY, 437 

GflJioher, 437 

Gttliohon, 437 

OaliBO,437 

OallimntJUF 

G«]iMe,437 

Gttloffn. 437 

G«lon,437 

G«l]7,436 

GftmaehA, 436 

Gainard,436 

Gambelon, 416 

Qune,436 

G4]nen,436 

Gftiniohoii, 436 



G«iid,74 

G«idfll],74 

OMidmoii.r6 

G«idiflr,74 

OttdolplM, ?i; 79 

G«idaiB,76 



Ottii4,444 

GMii«r,444 

G«iiil,444 

GttiiTeL 201 

QwiM»44i 

G«ii]ieML444 

QMiter,74 

GAxmnd, 208 

QtfuiltJfM 

Gm«t, 202 

G«M,464 

G«oeuL,464 

G«ou,464 

G«id,276 

Gard^, 276 

GttnUre, 277 

GArdiii,277 

GftreMi,209 

QMcil]%2Q2 

Gun^T, 202 

G«ri3bl,20S 

G«iel.att 

G«in,204 

GMlm,a03 

Guniflr, 602 

Gfnot.206 

Gmi4,202 

Giai^203 

Gurelon, 208 

Gtmer,203 

Gwvin,204 

Gunnd,2M 

G«o,206 

298 

GMMrt,r 

Gmm1xil298 

GMtal,l06 

GMt4,296 

GMtier,206 

GMtiiie,296 

Gm^%296 

Gftt«tM,636 

Gftteehair, 206 

GftteUier, 626 

G«ti]lon,626 

G«ti^MB6 

G«ttobo]i,206 

GaudeiuiMi. 20. 117 

Gftadibeii, 116 

GMidiv««»U6 

GsudiiohoQ, lU 

GftiilofreL4S7 

GftQlt,477 




UN DSX OF FRENCH NAJCfiS. 



543 



GMatLar, 477, 008 
Gttiuieii, 900 
GMunnik, aiO 
QMtrotrilO 
GMiieir,000 

<HTaiilt,286 
Omni, 29$ 
GftTeMi,806 
CkTeL285 
GftVf^280 

GMei,200 

GaMUnit206 

Gebel,^ 

Oelin, 603 

Ge]]«,486 

QeU^4a6 

Gelles,43r 

G«U7nok,437 

G«lp7.l3,44S 

Oen,444 

Q«iiwdl,444 

Gendroi, 74 

Oendiy, 76 

Genean, 444 

Geiieae,444 

G4n6rat, 444 

Geiietto,444 

Geneye^ 444 

Geniii, 414 

O^nique, 444 

Qeinequin, 444 

Geiiie.74 

Gen1^74 

GeatOloD. 74 

Genty, 74 

Geny, 444 

G«r«nde,203 

Gmrd, M. 208» 602 

G6ranlt.204 

Geny, 202 

Gerbaiid,203 

GerbMdt, 30, 203 

Gerbaut,203 

Gerbei,203 

G6rbert,203 

Gerdolle,276 

Gerdy, 276 

Gereiite,203 

G4ies,202 

GenDAin, 208 

German, 208 

Germond, 208 

Gerrier, 208 

Gery, 202 

Gervaiie,20« 

G«ibert,460 

GeMl,468 

Gediii,468 

GeHuvlme, 460 

Genioinme, 460 



G6rte,21 

Geiidli, 



206 
200 



Gette,] 

Gheerbrant, 100, 1 

GhiUet,460 

Ghk]aan,468 

GhyB,466 

Gibaiilt,286 

Gibert,286 

Gib]iii,286 

Giboi]i,280 

Giboii,286 

Gibory, 286 

Gibou, 286 

Giboi,286 

Gibiia,286 

Gide,438 

Gid^438 

Gidoiii,438 

Gidouut, 488 

Giet6.468 

OieMler, 468 

Gif, 286 

Giflaid,286 

Gi]a]i,468 

GUbault, 468 

Gilb4,442 

Gilb«rt,468 

GilUain, 442 

Gmaid,46B 

GiUe,468 

Gia6roii,468 

GilUer, 468 

Gmy,468 

Gilmer, 468 

Gaqaiii,468 

Gimbert,444 

Gin, 444 

Ginand, 410 

Ginier. 444 

Girard,203 

Girardin, 26, 208 

Giraiild,204 

Gizbal,203 

Girier, 203 

Girod,203 

Giroa,202 

Girouard, 204 



Gisbert,46e 
Givien, 460 
Giteaii,438 
Gittard,438 
Gitton,438 
Giveme, 286 
Givemy, 286 
Gladong, 435 
GlaeMr, 63» 802 



Glai,; 
Glanon, 382 
G1atard,436 



Glatigny,488 
Glaae, »« 
Gloohet.362 
Gloax, 362 
Gluok, 362 
Gobert,602 
Goohel,446 
Godde,115 
Godean, 116 
Godefroid, 116 
Godefroy, 116 
GodeL U6 
God^er, 28. 117 
Godfrin, 116 
GodiUon^ 115 
Godin,U7 
Godinean, 117 
Godqnin, 116 
Godry, 116 
G«er, 202 
Goibaolt, 336 
Goldber, 477 
Goiaer, 602 
Gom, 60 
Gomant, 60 
Gombaolt, 60^ 161 
Gombiiohj 60 
Gomer, 60 
Gomme, 60 
Gon,163 
Gonda],163 
Gonde,163 
Gondhard,164 
Gondolo, 163 
Gondonin, 164 
Gondret, 164 
Gone]le,163 
GoDMe, 163 
Gontard,164 
Gonthier, 164 
Gontier, 164^ 808 
Goraad.203 
Gores, 202 
Gorre, 202 
Gorrine,2Q2 
GoMard,300 
Oo««u^. 300 
GoflM,300 
Goesdin. 100,800 
GoeMV300 
Goflain,300 
Gowiome, 310 
Goeteaii,360 
Gottnng. llff 
Gouay, 336 
Gmida],116 
Goudard,116 
Goadohaa, 115 
Goodean, nff 
GoademUkiK 116 
Goodoin, 117 



Gavel, 388 



544 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAME8. 



CkmeUuiijJde 
Goaem, 396 
Goaet,396 
Oonlder, 396 
GouiUon, 336 
Qooilly, 336 
Goiiiii,336 
QooUt, 478 
Qouletto, 479 
Qoumain, 337 
GoaMe,99, 309 
Gounerr, 309 
Gout, 116 
Goat6, 116 
Oonihierre, 116 
Goutmaim, 116 
Gout, 336 
Goy, 336 
Goyard, 336 
Goyer, 336 
Goyet,336 
Goyoii,336 
GnMwl6,401 
Gramain, 401 
Grua,464 
GnuMal,464 
GnBnrt,464 
Gnuet, 464 
Gra8si,464 
Grauo, 464 
Gnu, 401 
GTanlt,401 
GTeel,196 
Grallier, 196 
Grtcr. 401 
Grahier, 170 
Greiling, 401 
Greinn, 465 
Gi«m6, 125 
Gremean, 125 
Grenard,465 
Grenier, 465 
Grenua, 465 
Gresland, 401 
GresI6, 401 
Gredon, 401 
GroBider, 401 
Greay, 401 
Gr^, 401 
Gridre, 170 
GrieM,401 
Griessen, 401 
Griganit, 170 
Grui,170 
Grifi,196 
GriUy, 196 
Glim, 125 
Grimal, 125 
Grimar, 125 
Grimault, 50, 125 
Grimbert, 126 
Grimblot. 125 
Grimoard, 125 



Grimoin, 125 
Grimont^ 125 
Griaard, 77, 401 
Griaeliii, 401 
Griner, 401 
Giuol, 77, 401 
Griaon, 401 
Gronier, 465 
Gronaitl,406 
Grosae. 405 
GroBaelin, 406 
Groseille, 406 
Grossier, 406 
Grouvelle, 425 
Grub, 425 
Gruby, 425 
Gmmay, 59 
Grune, 465 
Gninelle, 465 
GniBse, 405 
GruaeUe, 406 
Giiala,298 
Gude, 115 
Gudin, 117 
Guenard, :394 
Guenaalt, 264, 395 
Gueneau, 263 
Ga6neau, 394 
Gu6n6bault, 394 
Guen6e, 263 
Gu^nerat, 264, 396 
Guenu, 263 
Guenln, 264 
Gu6rand, 203 
Gu6rard, 203 
Guerbet, 203 
Guerico, 202 
Guerin, 204 
Gu^rin, 305 
Guerineau, 204 
Guermont, 203 
Gueme, 305 
Guemet, 203 
Guemier, 305 
Gueroult, 204 
Guerre, 202 
Guenier, 203 
Guerry, 202 
Guersani, 204 
GuBBBard, 244 
Guestier, 296 
Gueurel, 202 
Guiard, 166 
Guibald, 165 
Guibaud, 165 
Guibert, 165 
Guichard, 165 
Guiche, 164 
Guichot, 166 
Guid£, 493 
Guidex, 493 
Guidon, 493 
Guidou, 493 



Gaiet, 166 
Guieu, 164 
Guilaine, 123 
Guilbaut, 123 
Gmlbert, 123, 602 
GoUer, 124 
Guilet,124 
Guilhem, 124 
Guilhenny, 124 
Guilheiy, 124 
Guillard,124 
Guillamne, 124 
GuiUe, 123 
Guillemain, 124 
GuiUemaDt, 124 
GaiUemont, 124 
Guillemot, 124 
GuiUeB,123 
Guimd,123 
GuiUoohin, 123 
GuillonTlZS 
Guillot, 26 
GuiUotiii,26 
Guimbal,264 
Guindre, 316 
Guinery, 264 
Guiuier, 264 
Guitard, 494 
Guitter, 494 
Guitton, 493 
Guitry, 494 
Guizot, 47, 459 
GunckeL 419 
Gutel, 116 
Gutman, 116 
Guttin, 117 
Gutron, 116 
Guy, 336 
Guyard,336 
Guybert336 
Guyon, 936» 502 

Habay, 60 
Habert, 61 
Habdey, 61 
Habez, 61 
Habich, 60 
Habit, 61 
Haby, 60 
Hache,209 
Haoq, 209 
Hacquart,210 
Hacquin, 211 
Hadamar, 168 
Hadingue, 168 
Hadol, 168, 337 
Hadrot, 168 
Hagard, 210 
Hage, 209 
Hagene, 211 
Haguenoer, 211 
Uailig, 426 
Haim, 492 



INDEX OF FBBNOU NANSS. 



64$ 



Hun, 211 
Hainfray, 211 

HaiBtanlt, 448 
HalevT, 427 
HaUnboorg, 289 
HaUberg, 480 
HaU6, ^ 
HaUegrain, 480 
HaUe7,l^, 480 
HaUa,426 
Hamger, 492 
Hamfllin, 4S9 
Hamoir, 190 
Handuf, 417 
Haime.289 
Hanneberi, 289 
Hannequiii, 289 



Hamiier, 
Hanno, 289 
Hannong, 289 
Hanna, 119 
Haiifl,119 
Hany, 289 
Happe, 60 
Happert,61 

Happioh, 60 
Harand,232 
Harang, 232 
Harbei,386 
HarblY, 386 
Haidel6, 260 
Hardi,250 
Hardier, 250 
Hardoin, 251 
Hardon, 251 
Hardoum, 251 
Hard7v260 
Hai^231 
Hariel, 231 
Harlay, 231 
Harl6,231 
Harlet,232 
HarleE,340 
Harmaiid, 232 
Harmani, 232 
Harmier, 2Si 
Hamault, 95 
Hazt>,231 
Hart, 260 
Hartaid,250 
Hartmann, 251 
Han7,231 
HaaBaxi,d07 
Hafl0e,3O7 
Hastier, 448 
Hatt6,168 
Handebonrg, 280 
Haadibert. 289 
Haiilt,2^ 
Ha7e,209 
Hanid,169 



Hebeirt,61 
Heckl6, 209 
Hector, 460 
Hedelin, 168 
Hedoo, 168 
Hedouin, 169 
HeUion, 238 
H6I7, 426 
H^mar, 492 
Heiiard,289 
Hexuiult, 289 
Hendle, 417 
Henique, 289 
Henne, 289 
Hennebert, 289 
Hennecart, 289 
Hennecy, 289 
Hennel, 289 
Hennequin, 289 
Hennixig, 289 
Henno, 289 
Henoo,289 
Henrequet, 518 (note) 
Henri, 493 
Henriot, 26 
Henriquet, 26 
Herard,232 
Herbault, 39, 232 
Herbeoq, 386 
Herbel, 386 
Herbelin, 386 
Herber,232 
Herbert, 232 
Herbette, 232 
Herbin, 386 
Herbut, 232 
Heroe, 79 
Herosegy, 339 
Herdevin, 251 
H6reau, 231 
HereL231 
H6rioh6, 231 
Heriez,231 
Herincq, 232 
Hering, 232 
Herlan, 231 
Hermagia, 147 
Hermun, 232 
Herman, 232 
Hermand, 232 
Herm6. 147 
Hermel, 147 
Hermeline, 147 
Hermea, 147 
Hermet, 233 
Hermier, 147, 232 
Hermy, 147 
Hemy, 95 
Herody, 339 
Herold, 233 
H6rot,339 
Heron, 231 
Heronard,233 

Q3 



Heronin, 233 
Heroalt,233 
Herpin,386 
Herr, 231 
Herrincq, 232 
Herrias^, 231 
Herry, 231 
HerBe,79 
Hersent, 233 
Herteriob, 251 • 
Hervier, 386 
Hervien, 233 
Hervy,233 
Hes8e,307 
Heatean, 216, 448 
Hesa, 307 
Hetier, 619 
Heud6, 282 
Headebert, 282 
Heudel, 282 
Heudier, 282 
Heudin, 282 
Henr^, 83 
Hevre,76 
Heymen, 210 
Hibert.61 
Hickell, 367 
Hieokmaim. 368 
Hienne, 367 
Higlin,367 
Hilaire, 162 
Hilber, 162 
Hildebrand, 162, 199 
Hilger, 162 
Hillairet, 163 
HiUer, 162 
Hilpert,162 
Himely, 140 
Hine, 492 
Hingne, 292 
Hinqne, 292 
Hitier, 460 
Hipp, 60 
Hiver, 76 
Hocart,341 
Hood^, 341 
HoGed6, 341 
Hochard, 341 
Hoohart,341 
Hoche,340 
Hocher, 341 
Hooheid, 341 
Hooq, 340 
Hocqnart, 341 
Hodlquet, 341 
Hocquigny, 340 
Hogan,36r 
Hognet, 368 
Horn, 367 
Holacber, 282, 427 
Hole, 282 
HoUande, 282 
HoUier, 282 



546 



INDEX OF FRfiNCH NAMBa 



BoDMlie, 314 
fionfimy, 314 
HoDgre,314 
Honaoker, 314 
HoimArd,314 
Honont, 315 
Hontong, 84 
Hordequin, 217 
Horli%D,340 
Home, 620 
Horteloap, 218 
Hortiu. 217 
HooMd, 341 
Hoabe, 227 
HoadaiUe, 280 
Houdtft. 280 
Hoade, 280 
Hoaddin, 334 
HoudemanL^O 
Houdonin, z80 
Houellear, 63 
HoalAid^ioe 
Houlet, 105 
HouU6, 106 
Hoollier, 106 
Hoaplon, 227 
Houppe, 227 
Hour. 83 
Hoorlier, 340 
HoQMund, 491 
HoQMaa, 491 
Housel, 491 
HouMe, 491 
HouBsemaine, 491 
Houaaet, 491 
HouMes, 491 
Hoiue, 491 
Hoiueau, 491 
Hosdei, 217 
Hu,367 
Hiia,367 
HuAn, 367 
HaArd,357 
HoArt, 367 
Huault, 358 
Hubao,227 
Hubud, 227 
HubAolt, 367 
Habel,227 
Hnbeit,367 
Hablin, 227 
Huo.357 
Haohard,367 
Huohery, 368 
Hnohette, 368 
Hadault, 280 
Had6,2»0 
Hadelo, 280 
Hndibert,280 
Hue, 367 
Hiiel,367 
Haet,368 
Hug, 367 



Hnnrd, 357 
Hag6,357 
Hugelixi. 367 
Hugla,367 
Hugiiot,368 
Hugo, 387 
Hugon, 367 
Httgot, 358 
Huguelin, 357 
Huguee, 357 
Hun»eri, 105 
Hulek,358 
Huloi, 106 
Hunuuin, 358 
Humbert, 314 
Humbloi, 314 
Hummel, 468 
HunaulV315 

Uunuxl, o9 
Hunult, 83 
Hureau,83 
Hur6, 83 
Hural,83 
Hurey, 83 
HureK, 83 
Hurier, 83 
Huibrocq, 491 
HuBcb,442 
HuBquin, 412 
Hutteau,280 
Hux,442 
Hyadnthe, 468 

Ibert,61 
IgnArd,211 
Igouf , 210 
Imard, 264 
Imbault, 264 
Imbert,264 
Imba,254 
Imer, 264 
Inemer, 492 
Infroii, 492 
Ingil,292 
Ingei,213 
Inger, 292 
Inghelbrecht, 213 
Ingisoh, 292 
Ingold,293 
Ingouf , 293 
Ingrain, 292 
Ingray, 292 
Irle, 339 
Iaambert,60 
Isar, 476 
Isbert, 475 
Isoariot, 483 
Iselin, 476 
Iniai^475 
Iaoard,476 
Itaque, 449 
Itaase, 449 



It6iie7,449 
Ivorel, 76 
Ivry, 76 
Inmbert, 474 
Inrd,475 

Jaooas,452 
Jacquart, 452 
Jaequault, 453 
Jaoque, 452 
Jacqute, 452 
Jaoqueau, 462 
Jaoquelin, 45S 
Jaoquemain, 453 
Jacquemar, 4fi3 
Jacquemier, 453 
Jaoquemin, 453 
Jaoquier, 452 
Jaoqx, 452 
Jaffa, 285 
Jager, 452 
Jabjer, 452 
Jafllant,437 
Jaillard, 437 
JaiUon,437 
Jal,436 
Jaley,436 
Janeiat,437 
JaUiberi,437 
Jalvy,437 
Jam, 436 
Jamault, 436 
Jame, 436 
Jameau, 436 
Jamin, 436 
Jan, 444 
Janao,444 
Jaoin, 444 
Jaalin, 444 
Jumair, 444 
Janny, 444 
Janquin, 444 
Janus, 143 
Japy, 286 
Jaquieiy, 452 
Jaquin, 462 
Jtidiimd,203 
Jarrier, 203 
Jairy, 202 
Jauge,244 
Jaugeard,245 
Jaugey, 244 
Javel,285 
Jayr, 202, 452 
JaB6raud,206 
Jeanpot,444 
Jeaniay, 444 
Jegon,452 
jSel,452 
Jennequin, 444 
Jeoff ry, 437 
Jenualem, 487 
Jdie,205 



INDEX OF FBENCH NAMES. 



547 



Job, 485 

JobU,485 

Jokm,452 

Jonohery, 419 

Jom6i«,420 

JozuutfO, 420 

Joniuurt, 420 

Jordenr, 139 

Jordy, 139 

Joflae, 309 

JoMeaii,d09 

JoMeaume, 310 

Jo8Mliii,309 

JoMerand, 310 

JoMet,309 

Joflder, 309 

Jo8ra,309 

Jotrat, 306 

Joualt.367 

Joaard,245 

JouAult, 245 

Joiibert.245 

Jouet,Z46 

Jongand, 245 

Joiih*u(L245 

Joiiiise»244 

Joumar, 245 

Joonault, 420 

Jouimeaax, 420 

Jourdan, 140 

Jouide,139 

Jourdier, 130 

Jouidy, 139 

JouinaolL 438 

Joiiin6,433 

JoiiMe.309 

JouMlin, 309 

Jounerand, 310 

J<mye,485 

Joavin,d06 

JoTaii,485 

Joyel,485 

Joan, 309 

JojEeau, 309 

JaM.485 

Jabdin,485 

JiiUin,485 

JudeTsOS 

Jadean, 305 

Jadioe,483 

JadiM6,483 

Jud]im305 

Jae,244 

Jii6,244 

Ju^,245 

Jiige,244 

Jii8ier,245 

Jiicla,244 

Jur244 

Jiiigii6,245 

Jiiin,245 

Julia, 244 

Jv]ifla],419 



Jung, 419 
Jimy, 420 
Jnqiuii,245 
Justaolt, 429 
Jujrte, 429 
Jateam305 
Jutier, 306 
Juttel,306 
JaTiUe,485 

Kennebert, 328 
Kilb6,442 
Kleber, 183 
Erier, 53, 170 
Eanemann, 328 
Kunrath,328 
KnntzU, 163 
Kunai, 163 

Lab6,387 
Labelle, 387 
Labiohe, 387 
Labie, 387 
Lafaitte,387 
Laborie,387 
Labour, 387 
• • • 387 



^366 

Lack, 366 
Lacquel 366 
Lade, 196 
Ladret,196 
Ladmon, 196 
Laedeiiob, 195 
Lafitte,387 
Lafon,387 
Lage8M,366 
La«ei,366 
La«;ier,366 
LagneaQ,366 
La«ny,366 
Lagae,366 
LagueiTe,366 
Laine,366 
Lam6,366 
Laiti^, 194 
Laity, 194 
Lamart, 26 
Lamartine, 26 
l4auballe,86 
Lambelin, 86 
Lambert, 335 
Lambie, 86 
Lambla,86 
Lamblin, 86 
Lambret,335 
Lamfroy, 86 
Ijunpy, 86 
Lamquin, 86 
Lamy, 86 
Lance, 335 
Laiioel,335 



885 



Laxidard,835 
LandeUe, 335 



liBuuvjuuhr, oao 

Landier, 335 
Landon, 335 
Landron, 335 
Landry, 336 
Lanfray, 335 
Lanier, 335 
Lanie8ae,335 
Lanne,335 
Lanneao, 335 
LanBanl,3S5 
Lantat,335 
Lant4,335 
Lantheanme, 835 
Luitier, 335 
Lantiec,335 
Lantin, 335 
Lanty, 335 
Lanyin,336 
TflHiaifr 335 
TAniauick, 336 
Lansbexg, 835 
Lanai, 335 
Lariyay, 366 
Lazmier, 366 
Laroque, 366 
Laroay,866 
Lana,366 
Lan^356 
Laziien, 866 
Lara, 366 
Lame, 366 
Laraeile,866 
Laa,368 
LaMqae,d58 
Laane,353 
Laasaigne, 868 
Lflualle,353 
LaMaiat,35S 



Lasaav, 353 
Lauelve,358 
Laiaenay, 358 
Laaaeray,853 
' •,358 



Laaiimonne, 3K 
Laaaadre,363 
Laateyrie, 365 
Lastret,d65 
Latard,195 
Laterrade, 195 
Latonr, U5 
Latry, 195 
Latte,195 
Laade,377 
Laudier, 377 
LaodoD, 377 
Landy, 877 
Laiilb«,284 
LaiiU,284 



548 



INDBX OF FRBNOH NAMES. 



fjWTnain, 906 
Lanr, 36d 
LMireau, 366 
Laorey, 356 
lAutenunn, 378 
lAutier, 377 
Lantten, 377 
lATaUe,387 
LavaUey, 387 
Lavault,387 
Layenay, 387 
Laveme, 387 
Lavier, 387 
Laviioii, 387 
Laaid,3S3 
Lase,353 
Leban,387 
Lebeaii,387 
Lebeaiai,387 
Lebel,387 
Lebey, 387 
Lebies, 387 
Lebooq.387 
LeboBtif , 387 
Lebreck, 387 
Lebret,387 
Lebuffe,387 
Ledagre,ld6 
Led6, 194 
Ledier, 196 
Ledieu, 194, 484 
Ledo,194 
Ledoax,194 
Ledao,194 
Leflon, 387 
Legal, 366 
Legai,366 
Legaiilt,366 
Legay,366 
Leg6,366 
Iiegeley,366 
Legier, 366 
Lehman, 366 
LeUy, 470 
Lely, 470 
Lender, 110 
Lendormi, 100, 110 
Len6, 274 
Lendgre, 874 
Lenique, 274 
LenM, 110 
Leo, 87 
Leonard, 87 
Leotard. 331 
Leppe,a66 
Leppich, 266 
Lereiu,366 
Lenir366 
Lenoq, 363 
LflBaeo^ 353 
Lesenne, 363 
Lesne,363 
Leeide, 366 



leitear, 366 
Lestienne, 366 
Lestoing, 366 
Lestrade,369 
Letao,194 
LetaiUe, 194 
L6taUe, 194 
Letang, 194 
Le^ii«,196 
Letho, 194 
Letooq,194 
Leioile,194 
Letteron, 196 
Lettii,194 
Leatorfe, 831 
Levard, 387 
Levi, 387 
liereao, 387 
LeTteue,266 



LeTier, 266 
Levite, 387 
Levnt,387 
Lewy, 87 
Leyi,363 
Leyiard,363 
Lezard,363 
Lert, 363 
Lexer, 353 
Leaeiei,d63 
Libault. 266 
Libec,266 
Libert, 266 
LLboa,266 
liebherre, 266 
liefqain, 266 
lieppe, 266 
lieutaut, 331 
LiUo, 470 
Linard, 274 
Lindemann, HO 
Linder, 110 
Linet,104 
Linge, 109 
Lmg6,109 
Linget, 109 
link, 9! 
Linnie, 274 
Linotte, 104^ 274 
lion, 8/ 
Iionti,87 
liot, 330 
Liotard,331 
Loittet, 331 
Loittier^SSl 
Lionlt, 87 

Lu«,366 
Li88e,363 
LUter,366 
Litteao, 330 
LiTio,966 



IiaK363 
Lia6,363 
linray, 383 
Iiaon,363 
Looaid. 446 
LoQh,m 
Loohart,i46 
Loehe,446 
Looque, 131, 446 
Looqaet,4d 
Locrat,446 
Lodd^377 
Loeder, 377 
LoUy,284 
Loque, 131 
LQra,366 
Lor«,366 
Loi«al,366 
Lorean,356 
Loreil]e,356 
Loreniy, 366 
Lores, 366 
Loriohon, 356 
Lorimier, 366 
Loriqua, 366 
Lomuer, 366 
LorM,356 
Lory, 366 
Loiiaald#87 
Lou6,87 
Loudon, 377 
Looin, 87 
Louis, 331 
Loup, 265 
Louya,265 
LouveaUj^265 
Louve], 266 
Louyier, 266 
Levy, 266 
LoyseL385 
Lubae,965 
LuMrd, 331 
Luoaa,33i 
Luce, 331 
Luoy, 331 
Ludet,331 
Ludger, 331 
Ludon,330 
LudoYic, 331 
Ludwig, 331 
Lues, 331 
Luling, 284 
Lully,284 
Lunardi, 139 
Lunaud, 139 
Lundy, 495 
Lunean,130 
Lunel,l2» 
Luneteau, 496 
Luona» 496 
Lupp6,265 
Luiquin, 331 
LoMqr, 331 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAJtfES. 



549 



Lathe, 330 
Luton, 330 
Lutteroth, 331 
Luts,331 
Luyt, 330 
Luxier, 331 

MabiUon, 471 
Macho, 410 
Mftcquard, 410 
MftcquArt,410 
Maoqoin, 410 
ICaoron, 410 
Maotier, 411 
Madamon, 342 
Madin, 341 
Madoolaud, 361 
Madron, 342 
Mad7,341 
Magnabal, 410 
Magnard, 410 
Magn6, 410 
Magney, 410 
Magnier, 410 
Magion,410 
Mahault,410 
Maheo, 410 
Mahier, 410 
MaiUey, 410 
liainboorg, 410 
Mainfroy, 410 
Maingault, 410 
Maingot, 410 
Malamy, 179 
Malapert, 179 
Malaquin, 178 
Malaret, 179 
Malbot, 179 
Maleoo, 178 
Malingne, 178 
Mallao,178 
Mallard, 179 
Malle,178 
Mall6, 178 
Malo, 178 
Malory, 179 
Malralt,179 
Malaang, 180 
Maltaire,180 
Malteauz,180 
Malzao,180 
Malcar, 180 
Manalt,68 
Manoeaii,4d4 
Mancel,434 
MandeU, 434 
Mandon, 434 
Mandouoe, 434 
.58 



Manean, 58 
lfaneo,58 
Manftay, 68 
Man|(al,58 



Manley, 68 
Mann, 68 
Mannier, 58 
Mansard, 434 
Manaey, 434 
ManAon,434 
MaoBon, 434 
Mansoz, 434 
Manteaa,434 
Mantion,434 
Many, 68 
Marbot,369 
Marc, 80 
March6, 80 
Marchire, 80 
Maroillon. 80 
Marcol, 80 
Marioot,369 
Maicq,80 
Marcuard, 80 
Marcus, 80 
Maivot, 369 
MarieUe, 368 
Marin, 369 
Marini6, 369 
Maiinier, 369 
Marion, 369 
Maris, 368 
Maricy, 368 
Marland,369 
Marl6,368 
Marlin,368 
Mame, 369 
Mameuf, 369 
Marnier, 369 
Maroger, 369 
Marolla, 368 
Marquery, 80 
Mara, 143 
Mairy, 369 
Masoar, 448 
Miuimbert, 48, 523 
MaaBart,622 
Masse, 622 
MaB86, 622 
Maaseau, i 



Massena, i 
Maasillon, 622 
Masson, 622 
Matagrin, 342 
Mateme, 342 
Mathan,342 
M*th6, 341 
Matheret, 342 
Matheron,342 
Mathey, 341 
Mathil, 341 
Mathis,341 
Mathlin, 341, 361 
Matisse, 341 
Maton,342 
Matraud,342 



Matre,342 
M*trod,342 
Matry,342 
Mats, 341 
Mattar, 342 
Matte, 341 
Mattelain, 341 
Mattr»tr342 
Maturin,342 
Maty, 341 
Maubert, 180 
Maudemain, 181 
Mauduit, 181 
Mauger, 181 
Maulde, 180 
Maull,178 
Maur, 402 
Maurel, 402 
Maurenque, 402 
Maurey, 402 
Maurier, 402 
Maurin, 402 
May, 410 
MAyer, 410 
MAy]in,410 
Mftynard, 410 
Maynier, 410 
Mayran, 410 
Maselin, 622 
Mader, 622 
MMiurd,342 
Meder, 342 
Melaye, 179 
MeUck, 179 
MeUer, 180 
M^lique, 179 
Melll, 179 
Menault, 68 
Mendei, 434 
Meneau, 68 
Menel,68 
Menier, 68 
Menne, 68 
Mentd,434 
Mention. 434 
Meny, 68 
M6ra,368 
Menurd,369 
Merault,309 
M6reau,368 
M«ielle,368 
Merey, 368 
Merger, 369 
M6r^t,309 
M6iigout, 369 
M6riq,368 
Merland, 309 
Merly,368 
Merman, 369 
Meeenge) SSO 



M6tay, 341 
Metge,341 



550 



INDEX OF FBENGH NAHE& 



IfrtUiii, 381 

Meihoii6,342 

MetiuMi,342 

lUtUm,342 

Meaa,486 

If ea^ 623 

Mu)ud,406 

MioMdt406 

MiobAiilt, 406 

Miohr, 406 
l[iodL406 
imodlier, 406 
MioquelMd, 406 
Ifiooiiiii, 406 

MidiTsrs 

Midi6ra,380 

Midooq,379 

MidQl,379 

Mi«toB,380 

Ifiette, 379 

Mad6,283 

Miley, 179 

Biilhomme, 179 

l[mMh,179 

lfiill,179 

HilLm£e,179 

MiUMd,179 

Mi]]Aiiz,179 

Milleri79 

MiUer, 53, 180 

MiUeiy, 180 

MiUy, 179 

Milord, 180, 626 

Milaeni, 180 

Ifiinaohon, 266 

lfiiuurd,266 

BCinart. 266 

Mm6,266 

Mmei,266 

Minerve, 143» 144, 626 

Mmeret,266 

Hmenr, 266 

lCimeh,266 

Mimer, 266 

MiB]ie,266 

Mixmette, 266 

MinunbMit. 369 

Minmoii,360 

Biuard,»M) 

HiBiier, 380 

llit<m,380 

Muenr, 380, 626 

Modefonde, 237 

MoUy, 178 

Moiti6,237 

Moitier, 237 

Moitry, 237 

ICole, 92, 178 

MoUque, 178 

Moll, 92, 178 

MoUard, 179 

lCo]U,178 



llaii«id,68 
Monde, 276 
Moiideluu!d2276 
Monditee, 276 
Hondin, 276 
Hondo, 276 
Monfrai,68 
Monnaau, 68 
Monnier, 68 
Moimy, 68 
Montagne, 276 
MontMny, 276 
MontiktomJbert, 602 
Montansennd, 602 
Montan&ay, 502 
Montault,%6 
Montamiol, 602 
Mont^ 276 
Montel, 276 
Montg«sr«id, 602 
Montgobert, 502 
Mont£ol6er. 602 
Montier, 276 
Montmorency, 502 
Morard,402 
Morda,258 
Mordaqne, 268 
Mordret,268 
Mor«,402 
Moreau, 408 
Morel, 402 
Morenxo, 602 
Moriuni, 402 
Morifaalm, 403 
Morillon, 402 
Mormline,268 
Mort,268 
Mortemard, 269 
Mortemart, 269 
Mortier, 268 
Mortieo, 268 
Morci6re,268 
Moflaon,238 
Mofl0y,237 
Motard,237 
Moteaii,237 
MoteUe,237 
Motheron, 287 
Mothii,Sm 
Motte,237 
Mott6,237 
Mon^,406 
MonSlaid, 179 
Monnie, 359 
Mounier, 369 
Monraeao, 268 
Mourlaque, 402 
Monrlon, 402 
MoiinelaajJ58 
Mouaao, 237 
Motuon, 238 
Moiuae, 92, 237 
Mownd,!^ 



237 



Monai^, 



Monsty, 238 
Moata^237 
Moutie, 237 
Montier, 237 
Moutiy, 237 
MoQxard,237 
Moan, 238 
Mnkleman. 406 
Miindel,276 
Mixm^360 
Mnnier, 359 
Miuani,237 
Mnaaey, 237 
Mnaaon, 238 
Miutel,238 
Mutel,237 

Naba,422 
Nad*ad,276 
NadAiilt,275 
Naef , 420, 422 
Nagel,220 
Na]berfe,220 
Nallaid, 22a 
Nan<7, 239 
Nant,239 
Nanta,239 
Nanteaa,289 
Nanteoil, 239 
Nantier, 239 
Nantiei, 275 
Natier, 275 
Natte,275 
Natter, 276 
NaQd,240 
Naudean, 240 
Nandier, 240 
Naody, 240 
Naury, 300 
Nayanit, 421 
Narean, 420 
Navier, 421 
NaTiy, 421 
Nebout, 256 
N6e,420 
Ne^220 
Ntoe,421 
N^,220 
Kenard,239 
Kenning, 239 
N6oUier, 220 
Ne8aeler.266 
Neftl6,256 
Nettlen,256 
Netter, 265 
Nen,420 
Neve, 420 
Newigar, 421 



INDE^ OF FRENCH NAMES. 



551 



Neyman, 297, 4211 
Ne7ret,421 
KeyreT, 421 
ITiard, 266, 421 
Niburt, 25S, 421 
KiUnlt, 266, 421 
KibeUe, 151 
NioMie,126 
Nioard,126 
Nioaad, 126 
Miok,126 
Nioour, 126 
NideUj, 266 
Ki6djr6,266 
NiMid,2&5 
Nitot,266 
Nivard,421 
Niyeaa,420 
NiTeUean, 161 
NiTert,m 
Nmere, 421 
Ninrd,266 
Nue7,266 
Ni»>Ue,266 
Nod6,240 
Nodier,240 
Nodler, 240 
Noel, 487 
Nony, 4d9 
Norberi, 301 
Nonit,901 
NouigatJOl 
Nortier, 301 
N017, 300 
Notaue, 64, 240 
Notre,24M> 
NoH6,240 
KotteUe, 240 
Noi]]iii,420 
Novel, 161 
Noiidre,240 

01)erU,76 
Obr7776 
Oohin,624 
Ode, 381 
Odeiiii,334 
Odigier,382 
OdiCii,334 
OdiIlard,334 
Odin, 62, 121, 626 
OdoiU, 334 
Ofin,386 
Oilman, 386 
OfiPny, 386 

Og,id3 
Og4, 193 
Oger, 193 
Oner, 193 
Okeher, 418 
OIbert,418 
Olding, 418 



01efia,47l 
Olifle, 471 
OUTm,471 
Olive, 471 
OUvert,471 
Omer, 492 
Omond, 492 
OrioUe, 624 
OnaT, 79 
OneI,79 
Orth,217 
Orticiiier, 217 
Ortolan, 217 
Onnont, 120 
OHelin,119 
O*tard,302 
Ooaohee, 362 
OnaUe,298 
Onamier, 306 
Ondard, 382 
Oadin,381 
OaeUard,383 
Oolif, n 
Otdman. 106 
0017,83 
Oiutna,302 
Oati,Sl 
Oavrard, 76 
Oavr6,76 
Oaonf, 120 

Paoaad,172 
Paoanlt, 172 
FAocard, 172 
Padllj, 172 
Paoqnement, 172 
Paoqnier, 63, 172 
Fader, 166 
Pkgelle,172 
PlSlard,192 
Faille, 192 
Faillerie, 192 
Flullenr, 192 
FAilley, 192 
Failliart, 192 
Faline, 621 
Fallanqne, 192 
PaUii,192 
Pahmer, 192 
Fanari,176 
Panav, 176 
Panohaud, 182 
Panckooke, 182 
Panel, 175 
Panhard,176 
PaniBM, 176 
Pannier, 176 
Paniin,236 



Pkpaii,291 
Pftpault, 291 
Pape,291 
Fkper, 291 
Papillon, 291 
Pttpin,291 
Pftppert,291 
Papy, 291 
Paqnel, 172 
Parade, 62 



Pkintel,236 
Puithoa, 236 
Puitiohe2236 
Panton,236 



Pardon, i 

FariieaQ, 61 
PariMe,61 
Parly, 61 
Paixa, 61 
Parrette, 62 
PtowyaL463 
Party,^ 
Paacaitl,48r 
PMoaalt,48r 
Pa«)he.487 
PaMard, 181 
PaaM, 181 
PaMT, 181 
Paati, 183 
Paateau, 183 
Pastier, 183 
Pastr«,183 
Patty, 183 
Patame, 166 
Patard,167 
Pktay, 166 
Pat6, 166 
Pathe, 166 
Pathi, 166 
Fttthier, 167 
Patoohe,166 
Patry, 167 
Patte,166 
Patta,166 
Paty, 166 
Faaltre,241 
Pautrat, 241 
Pavanl,291 
Payin,29l 
Pavy, 291 
Pech,222 
Peoquery, 222 
Peoqaei, 222 
Pelabon, 219 
Peloot,269 
Pelei,269 
P61igri,260 
Peliirier, 621 
PeUagot,260 
Pel]ard,269 
PeUe, 192 
Pell^l92 
Pelleoai,26e 
PeUegrin,260 
PeUencri92 



552 



INDEX OF FRKNCH KAHEa 



Pd]0teret.Slf 
Pel]m,270 
Pellier, 209 
Pena,192 
Pelmiai, 269 
PeloHe,521 
Pelte, 219 
Peltier, 219 
Peltret, 219 
Peliaer, 219 
Pelver, 270 
PeiiAbert.177 
Penant, 177 
Penaad, 177 
Penci, 177 
Penel, 177 
Penicaad, 177 
Peniiie, 177 
Penigoi,177 
Penne^uin. 177 
Penqmer, 182 
Pennrd,296 
PeiiB6,235 
Peny, 176 
Pe^,414 
Pei«rd,69 
Peraiili69 
P6re,aB 
Periohe, 69 
Periohon, 69 
Perigaalt, 69 
PeriBA,69 
Peiieftux. 279 
Perlin,69 
Pernelle, 70 
Pemy, 70 
Peroohean, 69 
Perody, 69 
Perol, 69 
PeiTeaii,68 
PerreUe,69 
Perrier, 69 
Perrin, 70 
Penronixi, Of 
Pem>t,69 
Pen, 453 
Peneyal,453 
Penil,453 
PenM>2,463 
Pertel,183 
Pe«tre,183 
Peaty, 183 
Pertat, 370 
Petard, 167 
Petel,167 
Petry, 167 
Pettex, 166 
Pettier, 167 
Peuvrelle, 91 
Peyre,68 
Peyredien, 69 
PUHbert, MB 
Pliilet7,516 



PhJlippot, SIB 
Philippoteaox, 618 
Phily. 517 
Picid,177 
Picaud, 178 
Pioanlt, 178 
Picbard, 178 
Pichaud, 178 
richer, 178 
Pichery, 178 
Piohi,177 
Piohou, 177 
Pick, 177 
Piokard, 178 
Pioory, 178 
Pioque, 177 
Pioquet, 178 
Pidaolt, 167 
Pief er, 91 
Pielard, 291 
Piella, 219 
PieUe, 219 
Piffaalt, 414 
Pigaolt, 178 
Pigeard,178 
Pigeat, 178 
Pigeau, 178 
Pigeory, 178 
Pigeron, 178 
Pilate,269 
Pillard,269 
PLllas,269 
PiUe, 269 
Pillette,2a9 
Pilley, 269 
PillieiL270 
PUot,269 
Piol6, 219 
Pioleno, 219 
Pilte, 219 
Pin, 176 
Pinau, 176 
Pinaud, 177 
Pinault, 177 
Pinchon, 178 
Pineao, 176 
Pinel, 177 
Pingard, 178 
Pingeon, 178 
Pinhard, 177 
Pinaard, 236 
Pinaeau, 177, 235 
Pinaonneaci, 236 
Pinaon, 236 
Pipard,414 
Pipre,91 
Pimier, 71 
Piron, 70 
Pia8ard,181 
Piaaiii,181 
Piver, 91 
Pi7ert,4U 
Plaidear, 376 



Plain, 396 
Plait, 976 
Planchard, 808 
Flanche, 392 
Planoher, 393 
Planer, 306 
Planier, 396 
Planker, 393 
Planque, 392 
Planqnet, 39S 
Plamy, 396 
Plantard,397 
Plantier, 397 
Plantin,397 
Platret, 376 
PUnty, 397 
Planua, 396 
P]atard,376 
Plateau, 376 
Platel,376 
PUtret, 376 
Platte, 376 
Plattel, 376 
Pleaaier, 441 
Plet,376 
PUTaid,184 
Plooque, 214 
Floquin, 215 
Plon, 214 
Ploagoulm, 215 
Plouin, 215 
Plouvier, 184 
Ployer, 215 
Plamartin, 466 
Plomeray, 465 
Plunder, 465 
Pluquin, 215 
Pochard, 225 
Podeyin, 465 



Poignard, 225 
Pol, 281 
Polac, 281 
Polart,281 
Fold, 241 
Polif er, 281 
PoUeau, 281 
Polliaae,281 
Poly, ^1 
Pon, 175 
Ponceav.236 
Ponoel,235 
Pond, 235 
Ponnelle, 375 
Ponaard,236 
Ponaery, 236 
Ponaon, 236 
Pont, 236 
Ponteau, 235 
Ponthieu, 231 
Ponti,235 
Pontier, 236 



INDEX OF FBBNOH NAMES. 



553 



Popard, 422 
Pqpelui, 422 
Popei,422 
Popon, 422 
Populns, 422 
Port, 229 
Porta, 229 
Porte, 526 
Porteyin, 229 

POMB,406 

Pome, 408 
PoMelt,408 
Po«eHe,406 
Pouo.408 
Portei,409 
Poitrat, 456 
Pota«e,454 
Potard,455 
Poteau,454 
Potef er, 455 
Potel,454 
Potemont, 455 
Poterie, 54, 455 
Potevin, 455 
Potej, 454 
Poth6, 454 
Pothier, 455 
Potier, 465 
Potm,464 
Potoni«, 455 
Potroii,466 
Pottier, 53, 54 
Potvin,465 
PoQoha, 378 
PouchanL379 
Pouchet, 379 
PoQgeaalt 379 
Pougin, 379 
PoQsny, 379 
Poiilam,281 
Ponlin, 281 
PonUard, 281 
PouUe, 281 
Poiire,462 
Pouireau, 452 
Poiu8aM,408 
Pouflof, 408 
PoyeL422 
PoyTsiS 
Poyard, 318 
Poyart,313 
P076, 313 
Poyer, 318 
Prand, 198 
Pray, 184 
Prax, 185 
Pt«aii,184 
Preadt, 185 
Pr6c]ixi,186 

Premier, 371 
Premy, 371 
Preaie,463 



Pi«tard,185 
Pret6, 185 
Pretra, 185 
Preyer, 185 
Primard, 371 
Primaidt, 371 
Prodin, 218 
Prot,218 
Protean, 218 
Prothaut, 218 
Prout,447 
Pnmteau, 447 
Pnioe,447 
Pmede, 447 
Pmnel, 399 
Pnmet, 400 
Pnmier, 400 
Pnuifelle, 186 
Pulin, 281 
PnUe, 281 
Poniet, 416 
Pupier, 422 
Pupil, 422 
Puny, 407 
Putean,454 

Qnandelle, 317 
Quantier, 316 
Quantin, 316 
Qneok, 164 
Qaeiutfd,264 
Qnenanlt. 264 
Qaenay, 263 
Qneneau, 263 
Quenelle, 263 
Quenemer, 264 
Qneneuen, 268 
Quentin, 316 
Qnerrey, 278 
Quetil, 128 (note) 
Quedn,244 
Quiokerat, 166 
Quierot, 165 
Qui]lao,123 
Quillard, 124 
Quill6, 123 
luillier, 124 
luilleret, 124 

imeri,124 

iillet,124 
,jin,268 
Quinard,264 
Quinault, 264 
Quinoey, 263 
'^ ' Ban, 263 
[er, 264 
ity, 316 
ro, 164 

Bal)a,187 
Baban,97 
Babean, 187 
Babeuf, 187 

R 3 



B4bier,187 
Balrigot,187 
Babi&on, 187 
BabineaiL 97 
Babon, 97 
itabot,89 
Ilabotte,89 
Babou, 187 
Babonin, 187 
Baby, 187 
Bacfe,362 
Baocurt,363 
Badanne,348 
Bad6, 347 
Bad^348 
Badet,d48 
Bades,348 
Badi,347 
Badigue, 347 
Badouan, 349 
Badonlt, 348 
Badulphe, 340 
Baffaid.187 
Baffin, 97 
Bafflin, 187 
Bafford, 187 
Baftier, 228 
Baffy, 187 
Began, 349 
Bagaiie.363 
Bager, 363 
Bagneau, 349 
Bi«oin,363 
Bagon,349 
Bagonneau, 349 



„_inal, 349 
Bainaud, 350 
Bainbeaux, 137 
Baine, 349 
Bainfray, 349 
Baingo, 349 
Bainot, 350 
Bambert, 97 
Bandier, 228 
Bandouin, 228 
Bangheard, 330 
Banoe, 189 
Baoul, 52 
Bap6, 187 
Baphel, 187 
Bapilly, 187 
Bapin, 97 
Bapineau, 97 

W^ 

BatabouL348 
Bateau,347 



Batbean, 347 
Bathery, 348 
I Bathier, 348 
) Bati6, 347 



554 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Raton, 348 
IUtott,348 
lUtomii, 349 
KAtoiiU,349 
Ratte, 92, 347 
Ratter, 348 
Rattier, 348 
Rattisaeau, 348 
Raacour, 253 
Ravanne, 97 
Rarard, 187 
Ravaalt, 187 
Raveau, 187 
Rareaud, 187 
Ravel, 187 
Raveneau, 97 
Ravier, 187 
Ravon, 97 
Ravou, 187 
Ray, 362 
Rayard,363 
Raybaad, 362 
Rayer, 363 
Raymbault, 349 
Raymond, 363 
Rayna,349 
Raynard, 349 
Rayner, 350 
Read, 347 
Rebard, 188 
Rebel, 188 
RebiUon, 188 
Rebold, 188 
Recamier, 344 
Reclu, 344 
Recurat,344 
Redaai,254 
Reder, 348 
Redet,348 
Redier, 348 
Redmer, 348 
Redon, 348 
Regimbeau, 137 
Regnard, 349 
Regnart,349 
Regnanld, 350 
Regnault, 350 
Regner, 360 
Regni^, 349 
Reenier, 350 
Reme,349 
Reinert, 349 
Renard, 349 
Renanld, 360 
Renault, 360 
Ren6, 104, 189 
Reneanme, 360 
Renel,189 
Renesson, 189 
Rennecon, 189 
Renny, 189 
Renom, 360 
Renonard, 360 



Renoaf, 360 
Re«ton,448 
Rety. 347 
ReTeil, 188 
Revel, 188 
Revelin, 188 
Reverd, 188 
Revu, 188 
Reynier, 350 
Reyneval, 360 
Ribail,188 
Ribaolt, 188 
Ribier, 188 
Ribi^re, 188 
Rible, 188 
Riboni, 188 
Ribon, 188 
Ribun, 188 
Ricard,343 
Ricci, 343 
Richard, 343 
Richault, 344 
Riche, 343 
Riche. 343 
Richebours, 343 
Rich«me, 343 
Richemont, 344 
Richer, 343 
Richez, 343 
Richier, 343 
Richin, 343 
Riohomme, 343 
Rjchy, 343 
Rioque,343 
Ricquier, 343 
Ridde, 254 
Ridean, 254 
Ridel, 254 
Rididre, 254 
Riette, 254 
Riedle, 354 
Riedling, 254 
Rif, 188 
Riffaud, 188 
Riffault, 188 
Rigal, 343 
Rigaubert, 343 
Rigault, 344 
Ringard, 230 
Ringel, 230 
Ringier, 53. 230 
Ripard,188 
Ripault, 188 
Ripaut, 188 
Riquet, 343 
Riqnies, 343 
RiBt,193 
Ritaad,254 
Rivain, 188 
Rivard, 188 
Riyau,188 
Rivaud, 188 
Rivay. 188 



Riv6. 188 
Rivelin, 188 
Riviere, 188 
Robbe, 187 
Robert, 372 
Robertet, 518 (note) 
RobcTge, 372 
Robi, 187 
Robichon, 187 
Robier, 187 
Robiquet, 187 
Roblin, 187 
Robquin, 187 
Rocaold, 253 
RoGaiilt,253 
Rochard,253 
Roche, 252 
Rocher, 253 
Rocque, 253 
Rocquelin, 253 
Rode, 371 
Rodde, 371 
Rodel, 372 
Rodier, 373 
Rodies, 372 
Rodin, 372 
Rodolphe, 373 
Rodron, 373 
Roduwart, 373 
Rog«, 253 
Rogeau, 253 
Roger, 372 
R<^t,253 
Rogez,253 
R4^e,253 
RogueUn, 253 
Rohard,253, 372 
Rohart, 372 
Rohault, 253 
Roland, 373 
Rollin, 372 
Rom6o, 373 
Romeuf, 374 
Romieu. 373 
Rommel, 374 
Rommy, 373 
Ronce, 228 
Ronceray, 228 
Rond, 2^ 
Rondeau, 228 
Rondelle, 228 
Rondy, 228 
Ronae,228 
Ronzier, 228 
Roquebert, 263 
Roqnes, 253 
Roquette, 253 
Roscber, 79 
Ros^mon, 79 
Roilin, 79 
Ro8ly,79 
RoB8eL79 
Ro88elin,79 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



655 



Bower, 79 
Rossi, 79 
RoBls448 
Bostan, 448 
Kostang, 448 
Rosteau, 440 
Kostolan, 448 
Rosty, 448 
Rota, 371 
Roth, 371 
Rotta,371 
Rott6, 371 
Rotti, 371 
Rotival, 373 
Roualt, 373 
Roubaud, 372 
RouooUe, 262 
Rouchon, 372 
Roudi^re, 373 
RoudiL 372 
Roudillon, 372 
Roullm, 372 
Roomier, 374 
Romnilly, 374 
Rouvier, 187 
Roubo, 187 
Rouffe, 187 
Rouber, 253 
Rouleau, 187 
Rourel, 187 
RoviUain, 187 
Rub6, 187 
RubeUe, 187 
Rubier, 187 
Rubio, 187 
Ruby, 187 
Rudder, 373 
Rude, 371 
Rudeau, 371 
RudeUe, 372 
Rudeioare, 373 
Rnmmel, 374 
Rupp, 187 
Ruprich, 187 
Rnteau, 371 
Rutten, 372 
Ratter, 373 

Sabart,424 
Sabaud, 424 
Sabbiiii,424 
Sablon, 424 
Sabot, 424 
Sabiaii,424 
Sacareau, 171 
Saoquin, 171 
Sacre, 171 
Saffray, 424 
BaiUard,308 
SaiUenf est, 308 
SaiUof est, 308 
Sailly.306 
Sa]a,308 



Saladin, 526 
Salard,308 
Salathe, 308 
Sale8se,308. 
Sail ray, 308 
Saligny, 308 
Saligot, 308 
SaUu, dC^ 
SaUe, 308 
SaU6, 308 
Salleron, 308 
SaUier, 308 
Salmon, 308 
SaUao,443 
Salvaing. 346 
Salvan, 346 
Salverte,346 
Salvy, 346 
Sal2aiT,443 
Salsard,443 
Sal2e,443 
Sance, 430 
Sanchez, 438 
Saudeau, 430 
Sandelion, 430 
Sandoz,430 
Sandr6, 430 
Sandrier, 431 
Sanegon, 170 
Sangouard, 438 
Sangouin, 438 
Sannier, 170 
Santeire, 430 
Santi,430 
Santry, 431 
Sanzel, 430 
Sapia,423 
Sapicha, 424 
Sapin, 424 
Sapy, 423 
Saqui, 171 
Sar, 230 
Saramon, 230 
Sarasin, 487 
Saiger, 230 
S«i%230 
Sarra, 230 
Sarrault, 230 
Sarre,230 
Sarrette, 230 
Sarrion, 230 
Sasse, 451 
Sa8s6re,451 
Sassier, 451 
Sassy, 451 
Satory, 461 
Sauffroy, 424 
Saul, 138 
Sault, 443 
Saunao, 99 
Sauphar, 424 
Saupique, 424 
Sauvage, 424 



Sauve, 423 
Sauv6, 423 
Sauvel, 424 
Sauveur, 424 
Sauvey, 423 
Sauvier, 424 
Savard, 424 
Savart,424 
Savarin, 424 
Savary, 424 
Savelon, 424 
Savigny, 424 
Savin, 424 
Savit,424 
Savy, 423 
Sax, 200 
Say, 171 
Sayer, 171 
SajEerao, 451 
Sazerat, 451 
Scat, 191 
Scatti, 191 
Scellier, 361 
Sohall,456 
Schefter, 219 
Schener, 389 
Schilte, 227 
Scholder, 457 
Schone, 389 
Scoffier, 442 
Sebault, 172 
Sebillon — 



Sebron, 321 
Secret, 173 
SediUe, 431 
SediUon,431 
See. 172 
Seeber, 321 
Seeger, 173 
Segard, 173 
Segaut, 172 
Sdge,172 
Seguier, 173 
S^uin, 173 
Segur, 173 
S^guret, 173 
SektbeUe, 308 
Selin,308 
SeUe, 308 
Sellerin,308 
Sellier, 308 
Seltier, 443 
Selzer, 443 
Sem, 262 
Sem6, 75, 262 
Semel,262 
Semel^, 262 
Semey, 75, 262 
Semichon, 75, 262 
Senac, 170 
Senard, 170 
Sen6, 170 



556 



INDBZ OF FRENCH NAMEa 



, 170 

SeneUa, 170 
SeiiMl,438 
8^illoii,170 
BennegoD, 170 
Senooq, 170 
Sentab«nr, 400 
S6niL230 
Beni3,230 
Serdon, 190 
Ser€, 230 
8eriea,230 
Seroin,290 
8eiTa,230 
Bern, 230 
Serri«r,230 
Seii,106 
8ei7,230 
Setter, 293 
Settler, 29S 
8eimot,d82 
berelinget (De), 268 
BeTi]]A,262 
Sevnr, 262 
Seylfert, 178 
Se7itel,272 
iSeierie, 451 
bhoenbei)^ 380 
bibert» 17^ 821 
biboi, 173 
Sibouro, 322 
Sioard,178 
»iobel,172 
Siohel, 172 
bidnej, 431 
Sidoli, 431 
Siegel, 172 
Siegritt, 173 
Siemert, 178 
Siett,272 
Slayer, 282 
Sigl4, 172 
Signet, 173 
Siiv»,346 
SiWe, 346 
SUtj, 346 
Simard,262 
Simart,262 
Simier, 262 
Bimil, 262 
Simond, 173 
Simut, 262 
Singer, 438 
Hingery, 438 
Singet,438 
Singly, 438 
Sine, 456 
Sintard, 456 
Sipi^ie, 362 
Sirgner, 441 
Siteo, '272 
Sinter, 293 
8itt,431 



8ittelL431 
StreTddl 
Six, 200 
Smyttire, 481 
8obbel,304 
SoinM:d,99 
Soinouiy, 90 
Sol, 138 
SQlAzd,138 
Sole, 138 
Soleret, 138 
SoUer, 138 
Sombert,99 
Bomnuure, 141 
Sommerard, 141 
SommerroMl, 94 
Bonder, 308 
Sorbet, 230 
Soraau,441 
8oiel,230 
Soiieu,230 
Son^ 230 
Soto, 266 
SouAlle, 328 
Souohard, 267 
Sonobay, 267 
Souobentd. 287 
Soucbenurd, 268 
Soucberet, 267 
Souoberre, 268 
Souday, 301 
Souden, 301 
Bondier, 301 
Bougdre.268 
Soagit,207 
Sooin, 99 
Boole, 138 
Soul6,138 
Soulery, 188 
Soalt,443 
Soupault. 304 
Soupe,304 
Soap6,304 
Soupean, 304 
Soupir, 304 
Souply, 304 
Soui d, 196 
Sourdeao, 108 
SomdeTtl, 198 
Soordidre, 198 
Sooig, 441 
Soury, 441 
Soutti,266 
Soutif , 301 
Souty, 301 
SouYerain, 424 
Spada,190 
Spenner, 446 
Spioq, 207 
Spill, 434 
Spiller, 434 
Spinn, 445 
Spire, 206 



208 

Spool, 446 
Staar, 246 
8taob,213 
StaL476 
8iiJin,8L476 
Steiren,#6 
Stein, 479 
Stetnaober, 439 
M5 



Stevart,409 

8Uy«l,469 

8tofaui,460 

Stooq,213 

Stoffe,409 

Stoffeil,40O 

Stoif er, 469 

Stobter,345 

Stoi«lli,34ff 

Stoiei,346 

Stoiif,469 

Stour»,34ft 

Strieker, 246 

Stnppy, 460 

Stnrbant, 345 

Stay^ 409 

Suatso,26i 

Suard,322 

Suooaud, 267 

SuobeL]MI7 

Sue, 267 

Saet,266 

Sttin,99 

Sammer|14l 

Supply, 304 

SuquetL 267 

Soroouf, 441 

Sntie,2e6 

Sybille,262 

SyWert, 840 

Syndic, 4S8 

Syttermann, 293 

Taobard, 381 
Taffin,428 
Tagniard,301 
Tkiifer, 375 
Tailiefer, 376 
Tainne, 311, 838 
Taint, 338 
Tii]abot,378 
Talbert, 376 
Talbot. 375 
TaUaid,3r5 
Tallon,375 
TaUe,375 
Talleman, 878 
Talleyiand, 878 
Tabna,24,375 
Tama, 304 
Tkini,364 
Tan4S,360 



WD£X OF FBENCfi NAMK. 



557 



I 



Ttmdon, 310 
l^uidou, 310 
Tanm, 311 
TUu^Sll 
Taalay, 311 
Ttoneur, 311 
Tkimiere, 53,311 
TuinMle,311 
Tuitoii,310 
Tapin, 428 
TAqao,390 
Tanibon,206 
Tangon,906 
IWatre, 200 
TMd,209 
Tteda,200 
Tardj.200 

Tamnt,208 
T»nde,200 
Tarlay, 206 
T^unaad, 206, 308 
Tumtte,20O 
TmrtTj, 200 
Tartter, 200 
TMoher.03,386 
TaMeL386 
Tkiielin,385 
TaM«ii,386 
TMdlv, 385 
TMMt,385 
Tma>7, 386 
Tat6,2n 
TayMil,428 
Tayean, 428 
Tavel, 428 
Taie,201 
Teigne,338 
Teiumy, 338 
Teiljut,3r6 
Tel, 376 
Tellier. 375 
TenaiUon, 310 
Tenard, 311 
Teno6, 310 
Tenneson; 311 
Tennevin, 310 
Tenret, 312 
Terray, 208 
Tern, 206 
Terreur, 206 
Terrier, 208 
Terwnr, 248 
* Tetard,201 
TMe,271 
Thaia,626 
Thenadey, 338 
Th6iiard,330 
Thenier, 330 
Theodor, 383 
Th6oi,332 
Thiao,457 
Thibaiat,38ai 



TliibMit»88S 
Thibeisei 383 
Thiberi» 332 
Thi^Uoi^ai 
Thiedy, 332 
Thiteon, 382 
Tfaiarr6,268 
ThierTT,268 
Thimel, 866 
Thiodon, 332 
TUranlt, 268 
Thironin, 268 
Thiryilfe 
Thii, 361 
Thiiie,3SI 
Thorn, 863 
Thorns, 363 
Thom^364 
Thomei,364 
Thommeret, 364 
TieiBn,488 
Ti]14,180 
TUliard, 180 
Tillier, 180 
Ti]maii,190 
TUmant. 180 
TiUo]i,190 
TiUot, 100 
Tilly, 180 
Timel,366 
Tin6,120 
Tiii^l30 
Tingay, 367 
l^huiie,488 
Tireao^ 
Tiwn, 220 
TiKm,362 
Tinaire,35a 
TiiM]i]i,362 
Tinerand, 363 
Tiider, 362 
Titard,333 
Tittel,332 
Tizier, 220 
Toohe, 427 
Tombe,d63 
Tomb^364 
Tonne, 128 
TonndU. 130 
Torin, 208 
Toty, 273 
Tonoari, 427 
Toiigart,427 
Tonrauli, 120 
Tomnaohon, 100 
ToamaHIon. 100 
Toamaire. 100 
Tomnal, 100 
Toumay, 190 
T(mme,190 
Tonnieiir, 100 
Toumery, 100 
ToiiMO,3r4 



Toat,278 

Toateii,274 

Tontay, 878 

Tottvee, 108 

Touyy, 103 

Tooaeav, 278 

T61I16.273 

ToaML274 

Toaidin.874 

Toosin. 274 

TtAM, 106 

TnM7,242 

T^n«er,428 

TiMim418 

Tii$n;413 

Ttappe,196 

Tnaard,248 

Traab4,441 

Trayer, 413 

Traya,242 

Trebovl,106 

Tr4oQlle,418 

TrefflTlM 

Tr%ont»418 

TrSaid,413 

Trelf ona, €18 

Trena,242 

TreM,242 

Treiaan,243 

Tr«aaard,248 

Triaii,^ 

TTibou.186 

TiiMrd,420 

Trioh6,420 

Tri«ot,420 

Triebert,420 

Triefiia,420 

Triger, 420 

TMqiieL420 

Tioly, 141 

Troplong, 441 

Tioai,240 

Tn>te,270 

TiotM, 270 

Trottier, 271 

Trotn>t/271 

TroQ, lv6 

Troable,441 

TrDiide,270 

Troupeaa, 441 

Tronpier, 441 

TKmp]in,441 

TrouMan, 2M0 

Trowel, 240 

Troa7e»4a 

Tmberl 106k 480 

TnM,]36 

Tnidoii,271 

Traella,106 

Tnilller,441 

Truly. 441 

TraiMl,441 

Tniaion,240 



558 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMEa 



Tnit0j,37O 
Trutm, 271 
Ti7,4» 
Tudey, 332 
Tndor, 333 
Tag»oli,428 
Tiigot,427 
TiiAiias 129 
Tangnand, 362 
Tui«,487 
Tiu^206 
Tiugu,206 
TnrqaetiL 129 
Tutgot, 128 
Tatony, 332 
T7tgat,333 

Ude,282 
Ulliac,106 
Ulnuoi, 106 
Uri«r, 83 
UMe, 524 

Vaohy, 362 
Vad6, 412 
Vannay, 523 
Vaghi,523 
Yacnej, 523 
VaLmt, 298 
Yald, 298 
yald,344 
Valdeiroii, 345 
VAldin,345 
Yalerand, 298 
Valerant, 298 
Valet, 298 
yalfort,88 
Valfroy, 298 
Valhere,298 
Valid, 298 
Valine, 296 
Valleran,298 
Vallery, 296 
VaUez,298 
Valuer, 296 
VallB, 298 
Valmer, 298 
Valtat,345 
Valton,345 
Vanackdre, 394 
Vanard,394 
Vanoy, 316 
VancUJe, 317 
Vanden, 316 
VuiQgae, 394 
Vane!]L394 
Vaiietti,394 
Vaney,394 
Vaimi,394 
Vannier, 394 
Vanoni, 394 
Vanthielen, 317 
Vantier 316 



VantiUaRl, S17 
Vannielle, 317 
Vaques, 362 
Vaqiiier, 362 
Vaimche,278 
Varagniac, 305 
Vanaike,279 
Varangot, 306 
Varangae, 278 
Varay, 278 
Varf,278 
Varichon, 278 
Variii,305 
Varinay, 305 
Varinont, 278 
Varnier, 305 
Vamll,278 
Vart,277 
Vaaaa],244 
VaMard,244 
VasM, 244 
Va8Mli2i,244 
Vasseor, 244 
VasMD, 244 
VaMy, 244 
Vatard, 413 
Vatel, 413 
Vattemare, 413 
Vatier, 413 
Vatton, 413 
Vatiy, 413 
Vaude, 344 
Vaudeacal, 345 
Vaudin, 345 
Vaudrand, 345 
Vaudron, 345 
Vaudiy, 345 
Vaultier, 345 
Vaury, 325 
Vaate,344 
Vauthier, 345 
Vautrot, 345 
Vedel, 413 
Vedy, 412 
Vee,523 
V6g6, 623 
va,383 
VeillArd,383 
Veiller, 383 
Veillon, 383 
Velic, 383 
Ve]lard,383 
VeUy, 383 



Velter, { 
VeltDian, 345 
Venant, 394 
Venard,394 
Venauli, 395 
VeneUe, 394 
Vendrin, 316 
Ventre, 316 
Verbrugg6, 278 



VflKh«ra,74 
Verdel, 277 
Verdery, 277 
Veidi^277 
Verdier, 277 
Veige,73 
Veig^73 
Veigeon, 74 
Vexgnand, 74 
Vergne, 74 
Veisnot, 74 
Ventre, 278 
Verillon, 278 
V^rit^257 
VerjuB, 526 
Vermon, 278 
Vemaad, 305 
Veniay, 306 
Vemac, 306 
Vemeaa,305 



Vemerei, 306 
yemert,306 
Vemet, 306 
Vemey, 305 
Vernier, 305 
V6ro,278 
Verry, 278 
Vertu,257 
Veuier, 244 
Vestier, 303 
Veatraete, 303 
Viaid,165 
Viareingne, 278 
Vianlt, 165 
Vibcrt, 165 
ViGart,165 
Vicaire, 165 
Vioel,165 
Viohard, 165 
Vioherat, 165 
Vidin, 165 
Vioq. 164 
Vidaleno, 493 
Vidalon, 493 
Vidaxd,494 . 
Videoooq, 27 
Vid6, 493 
Videau, 493 
Videl, 493 
Vidocq, 493 
Vidon, 493 
Vidion,494 
Vidn ^^ 



Vient, 316 
Viette, 165 
Viey, 164 
Vig6,164 
VJgerie,165 
Vigier, 165 
VigLa,165 
Vilbaut,123 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



559 



VilodiAl23 


Yitooooa, 494 
Viton, 493 


Weldell, 344 


Viloocq, 27 


Weldon, 345 


VOdo, 447 


Vitrao,494 


Welling, 383 
Welhoff, 383 


ViUaohon, 123 
Villiun, 123 


Vitry, 496 


Vitte, 493 


Wenk, 412 


Villftrd, 124 


Vittier, 494 


Werl6, 326 


ViUe, 123 


Vittiz, 493 


WemW, 306 


Vm6, 123 


Vittu, 493 


Wey, 523 


Villegri,123 


Voilin,384 


Weyn, 523 


ViUemain, 124 


VoiUemier, 384 


Wiart,165 
WibaiUe, 63 


ymemont, 124 


YoiUemont, 384 


ViUemot, 124 
Vaier, 124 


VoUquin, 384 


Wieart, 166 


Voiry, 325 


Wicot, 165 


ViUene, 124 


Vol, 383 


Wideman, 494 


ViUerm, 124 


Volf , 71 


Widmer, 494 


ViUeret, 124 


VoU6e, 383 


Wicy, 164 
WiKrod,123 


ViUette, 124 


VoUet, 384 


ViUetard, 447 


VoUier, 384 


Willard, 124 


Villiwne,124 


Voltier, 378 


Willanme, 124 


Villutxmie, 124 


Voulquin, 93 


Willerme, 124 


ViUmar. 124 
Vflly, 123 


VuiUaume, 384 


Willemin, 124 


VuiUefroy, 384 


Willemot, 124 


VUtard, 447 


Vnillemot, 384 


Winnen, 264 


Vimar, 165 




Wiasooq, 351 


Vinay, 263 


Wa],298 


Witier, 494 
WitUch, 494 
Wizemann, 351 


Vinboorg, 264 
Vinoey, m 


Walder, 346 
Walferdin, 88 


Vinche, 263 


Wallart,298 


Woillaume, 72, 384 


Vinoke, 263 


WaUe8,298 


Woillez, 384 


Vinoq, 412 


Walter. 345 
Walx,298 


Woillot, 72 


Vinit, 316 


Wolter, 378 


Vinson, 263 


Wanner, 394 
Waree, 278 


Wulveryok, 72 


Vintin, 316 




Tints, 316 


Warengue, 278 


Yonf, 367 


Violard,383 


Warin,305 


Yalin, 476 


Violete, 468 


Warinier, 305 
Warm6, 108 


TtaB«e,449 


VioUeau, 383 


Ytier, 450 


VioUier, 383 


Wamet,305 


Yunc, 419 


VirgiUe, 526 


Waro, 278 


Yve,366 


Vlrot, 257 


Waroquier, 278 
Warre,278 


Yvoee,366 


Virqnin, 74 


Yvert, 367 


Viaier, 351 


Watel, 413 


Yzard,476 


ViBonneau, 361 
yiaaac,351 


Watolin, 413 




Watin, 413 


Zeiller, 433 


Via8e,361 


Watteau, 412 


Zelger,433 
Zeire,433 


Visaer, 351 


Wauthier, 435 


Yiamer, 361 


Wegclin, 523 


Zeller, 433 


ViBto, 303 


Wegman, 523 
WeiB86, 361 


Zircher, 441 


VitaliB, 494 


Zorgo, 441 


Vit6, 493 


Weil, 383 


Zurcher, 441 


Viteau, 493 


Wei, 383 




Vit^493 


Weld, 344 





INDBX OF ENGLISH NAMB8. 



Abba,eO 
Abbey, 60 

AbbiM,«l 

Abbott, ei 

Abd7»»,ei 

Ab«m,61 

Aohud,90» 

Aeh«,909 

Aehliii,200 

Aoken,SU 

AooriLSlO 

An«,2l0 

Aaon, 210 

Aoroyd, 8M[ 



AddT,887 
Addkhflftd, W 
Ada, 619 
Adie,fflO 
Adier, 288 



Adlam, 337 
AdIftiLSSr 
AdUia,837 
Aai6r,96 
AdmMii, 288 
Adolph, 72; 28S 
AdolpboB, 388 
A«M^2U 
Aftr, 210 
A^, 200 

154 
- '^211 
Acae.200 

ABdn,21I,471 

Aikmtn, 210^ tfl 

Al]8«r,i54 

AllnumlM 

Air, 80, 94 

Ain7,94 

Airy, 80 

AWIOS 

AlraTm 

Ak6y,200 

Alban,134 

Albuiy, 184 

Albert, 616 

Albery,136 

Aldebert.418 

iJden,»L418 

Alder, 4li 



Alderdioe, 419 
Aldermen, 338, 462 
Aldhem, 418 
A]dii,410 
Aldin,64,60 
Aldnd,^8 
Aldrioh, 41, 418 
Aldridge, 41, 410 
Aldritt,418 
Ale, 164 

Alemen, 164, 4a 
Alfred, 41, 1» 
A]cer,616 
A]S)e,300 
Alker, 142 



Allan. 238 

A]]ftra,616 

Allawsy, 617 

A]lbrigbt,U6 

Allbat.»0 

Alleud,142 

Allohin,290 

A]lday,418 

AUey, 516 

Allf ny. 616 

Angaod,290 

AlHok,142 

Amei,300 

AIUx,142 

AUinaok,517 

AUmAn,617 

Allnutt,S17 

Alio, 616 

Allt,418 

Allty,418 

Allvey, 617 

AUwud,5I7 

Allwood,517 

Allwxight, 400 

Aimer, 517 

Almjger, 143, 226 

Almond, 473^ 517 

Aloe, 516 

Alp, 134 

Alpenny, 184 

Alpha, 134 

AlM«er,300 

Altmen,418 

AltonTilO 

Altre^410 

Alyexy, 136 

A1^136 

AlTey, 184 

Alvia,134 

Alwin,517 



Amber, 312 
Amblemen, 14S 
Ambler, 143 



Amett,284 
Amey, 492 



Amor, 130 
Amoiy, 130 
Amplemen, 143 
Anonim,280 
And, 100, 432 
AnderMm, 32 



100, 43t 
Andnide,4S2 
Aug, 212 
Angel, 213 
Angelo, 213 

An|rlAm>ii^ 212 

Angler, 213, 4M 
Angley, 213 
■ • 213 



Anffwin, 212 
Anbaiilt, 289 



AnuL 119 
Anaell,119 
Aniefane, 119 
Anier, U9 
Aadow, 119 
Aneter, 274 
Anstey, 274 
Anthem, 432 
Antill,432 
Antley, 432 
Antrid£e,432 
App, 60 
Appeoh,60 
Applin, 61 
Appold, 61 
Apaey, 61 
Arabe]U,486 
Arber, 386 
Arbery, 386 
Arbon, 386 
Ai«h,387 
AxehambMid, 11« ^ 
Ai«haid,388 
Ax«hb^388 
AnhbQld,388 
Aidibatt,S88 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAME& 



561 



Aroher, 388 
ArmiluB, 387 
Ard6ni251 
Aiding, 260 
Aidomn, 251 
Argent, 868 
Algae, 387 
Axgnment, 27^ 388 
AnelLdS 
Arkdl, 387 

Arkwright,41,388^40d 
Arle, 95, ^9 
Ar]JMs340 
Arm, 418 
Ann»t,147 
ArmenT, 146 
Armgold, 147 
Anmger, 147 
Arminger, 8, 146 
Aiiniiia,146 
Armory, 147 
Armour, 147 
ArmB,147 
Am, 96 
AmamAn, 96 
Amey, 95 
Amo, 95 
AmoicL 96 
Amulpne, 96 
Amttni, 95 
Arpm,386 
Arrend,96 
Arrowsmith, 462 
Artor, 260 
Anmdel, 162 
Any, 119 
Aiberry, 119 
Aibridge, 119 
Aiooiigh,217 
Aah, 142, 216 
A^bold,217 
Aiher, 217 
Ashkettle, IL 12& 

(note,) 612 
ABh]in,216 

Jl^limMi^ 217 

Aihrnore, 217 
Aahp«rt,217 
Aihwin, 217 
ABhwitlL217 
Aahwood, 217 
AB]in,119 
Adock,120 
Aik, 142, 216 
Aakey, 216 
Aakwith,42 

Aspem, 119 
Aipeme, 39 
Aaqwith, 37, 217, 223 
Am, 89, 119 
AMey, 119 
Ajte,216 



Aitle, 216 
Astor, 216 
Aatray, 216 
AstwoocL 216, 22 
Atftck, ^ 
Atkey, 288 
Atkin,288 
Atkias, 40, 288 
Atley,288 
Atmore,288 
Attey, 19 
Attle,288 
Attoe,287 
Attride, 288 
Attridge,288 
Atta,289 
Attwood, 288 
Atty, 287 
Aubeiy, 136 
Aadiiti 382 
Auger, 3^2 
Aught, 381 
Aughtie, 381 
AiikwArd,142 
Auleef, 614 
AurioL 624 
AuBteU,302 
Auth, 381 
Auther, 382 
Anton, 381 
Autram, 382 
Aveline, 290 
Aveling, 290 
Aver, 290 
Avery, 290 
Avi]is290 
ATiU,290 
Ayii,290 
Avix,290 
Awl, 616 
Ayer, 210 
Aylard,164 
Ayle, 154 
Ayley, 164 
Ayl^e, 210, 419 
Ayling, 154 
Aylmer, 164 
Aylward,164 
Aylwin, 164 
Aytoongh, 39 

Babb, 291 
Babbege,291 
Baber291 
Bab^291 
Baber, 291 
Babin,291 
Baby, 291 
BaoohoB, 143 
Back, 172 
Backer, 172 
Baokboufe, 144 
Bad, 166 

S3 



Badder, 166 
Baddeley, 166 
Badge, 378 
Badger, 89 
Badgery, 90 
Badock, 166 
Badkin,166 
Badman, 167 
Bagg, 172 
Baggett, 172 
Bagley, 48. 172 
Baglin,172 

Bailey, 48, 172, 192 
Balaam, 192, 482 
Balchin,241 
Balder, 131, 241 
Baldey, 240 
Baldhead,241 • 
Baldick,241 
Baldridge, 241 
Baldry, 41, 241 
Baldwin. 42, 242 
Balfe, 73, 379 
Ball, 192 
Ballard, 192 
Bailer, 192 
Bailey, 192 
Balling, 192 
BaUock,192 
Balk, 241 
Balmer, 192 
Balsam, 26, 241, 470 
Baltic, 241 
Balyer, 192 
Bance,235 
Bancker, 182 
Band, 23^ 
Bander, 236 
Banderet, 236 
Bang, 1^ 
Banger, 176 
Banghart, 182 
Bimk,l£^490 
Bankart, 182 
Bankier, 182 
Bann, 176 
Banner, 176, 234 
Bannick, 176 
Banny, 176 
Banter, 87 
Banting, 236 
Bantock,236 
Banton,236 
Banyard, 176 
Bard, 222 
BardeUe,222 



Barding, 1 
Barddf, 72 
Bardolph, 222 
lean, 222 



BardolpJ 
I Bardoul< 



562 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



BudT, 222 
Bu«boiie,70 
Bu«£oot,168 
BftrahArd,69 
BtflM,364 
B«rlMi,.d63 
Barley, 22, A 
Burling, 61 
Burbw, 22, 61 
Buniora, 69 
Bamaole, 158 
Barnard, 423 
Banieti,428 
BanMT.423 
Baarr, 2Z, 61 
Barran,61 
Barrell, 22 
Barrett, 61, 62 
Bamyman, 62 
Barrow, 22, 61 
Bany, 22,61 
Barter, 222 
Bartie,222 
Bartlett, 222 (note) 
Bartman, ^^^ 
Bartram, 222 (note) 
BarwiM, 68, 6», 366 
Ba8eke,181 
Basil, 181 
Bann,181 
Bask, 181 
Bass, 181 
Bastard, 12, 183 
Baste, 183 
Bastiok,183 
Basting, 183 
Baster, 183 
Bastow, 188 
BaBtraT.183 
Bath, 166 
Batho, 166 
Bather, 166 
Batkin,166 
Batley, 166 
Batt,166 
Batting, 166 
BatUe,166 
Batty, 166 
BanlaiO 
Bai2gh,291 
Bavarian, 314 
Bavin, 291 



Beaoh,222 
Beaohman, 222 
Beadle, 166 
Beadman, 167 
Beaffle,48 
Beakem, 222 
Beale,48 
Bear, 68 
Bearoenn, 70 
Beater, 166 



Beath,166 
Beatley, 166 
Beatty, 166 
Beau, 224 
Beantymaa, 40S 
Beaver, 90, 91 
Bebb, 414 
Beck,22i«0 
Beekett,222 



Bed, 166 
Beddard, 167 
Bedding, 166 
Beddoe,166 
Bede,166 
Bee, 47, 378 
Beeeher, 222 



Beer, €8 

Begg, 47, 64, 222 
Beetle, 166 
Befford, 414 
Beldam, 241 
Be]67,269 
Bell, 192 
Bellamy, 192 
Beller,269 
Bellett,269 
BeUew, 192 
Beme8,621 
Belliss, 269, 621 
Bellman, 26^461 
Bellmain,269 
Bellment, 269 
Bellmore, 192, 269 
Belly, 192 
Bellord,269 
BeUow, 192 
Bellow]L621 
Belser, 621 
Be]sey,269 
Belt, 240 
Beltram,241 
Belward, 270 
Ben, 484 
Benoe, 235 
Bench, 182 
Bender, 236 
Bendelow, 236 
Bending, 236 
Bendle, 235 
Bendy, 235 
Benffer, 177 
Benjamin, 484 
Benkin,a,m 
Benmore, 177 
Benn, 21, 22, 176 
Bennell, SO. 176 
Benner, 177 
Benney, 176 
Bennioke, 176 
Benning, 177 
Bennooh, 176 



177 
177 



Bent, 236 



BentiB(dLSI9 « 
Benton, 236 

— biger, 70 
BeraHd,4a,70 
Beniliaid,«0 
B enMJd Tn 
Benett, 69 
BerTidgCL60 
Berrier, 69 
Benin, 69 
Befringer, 70 
Beriham, 370 
Bertie, 370 
Bertin,370 
Bertram, 41, S70 
Bertnmd, 0,670 
Bennrd,69 
Beale7,181 
BessetlSl 
Bessemer, 181 
Bessett,181 
Best, 183 
Betfaell, 166 
Bethiay, 167 
Betkin,166 
Betteler, 166 
Bettell,166 
Betteridge, U7 
Betty, ^ 166^ ^M 
Bengo, 378 
BevB]i,414 
Bev]]le,414 
Bew, 47, 376 
Bewley, 48 
Bewiy,879 
B«feirmaii,S15 
Bibb, 414 
Bibby, 414 
Biber, 91 
Bible, 414 
Bick, 77, 8i, 177 
Bioker, 178 
Biokle,177 
Biokley, 177 
Biddioi4 IM 
Biddulpiu ^ 7^ 167 
Bidgood,40 
Bi£^414 
Bigelow, 177 
Bigg, 47. 64. 77. 177 
~* r, 178 
178 

^l77d69, 4S4 
Billamore, 269 
Billet, 13, 269 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



563 



Bmeter,219 
BQlham, 2» 
BUliarcL 13, 360 
Billm,270 
Billing, 90» 
BiUingftT, 269 

BiUnum, 269 
Billow, 13, 17, 269 
Billj, 17. 269 

BillTeald.^^ 
Bincloii, 29d 

Binder, 286 

Bingey, 178 

Binney, 176 

BinnB, 177 

Biroh,106 

BircL92,319 

BirdIook,S70 

Biidmore, 970 

BiTdBmL370 

Bime,70 

Bimer, 70 

Birner, 70 

BuLm 

Birtle,370 

BiraM,370 

BiMoe,181 

BiBg;ood,181 

g2op, 188, 463 

Biiney, 181 

BiMel],181 
BiHmii«,181 
Bitoh, 8i, 177 
Bithrey, 167 
BlMk, 30S 
BIaeker,d86 
BUokie,d96 
BlaokmMi.390 
BlBoow, 393 
Bkde, 376 
Blain,396 
Bkke,393 
Blakenum, 393 
Bkker,393 
BlAke7,393 
Blaiioh,392 
BUnohaTd, 893 
Bbmohett, 393 
Bluiohflower. 468 
Blaook«r, 398 
Bland, 396 
Bluiden,397 
Blaney, 396 
BlMik,392 
Blankman, 398 
Bute, 376 
Bleiai,r"" 



Bleak, ab 

BlM7,896 
Bled7,440 



Blenkv, 392 
BlenkiD,S92 
Blenkinsop, 892 (noU) 
Blenkiran,393 
Blessed, 441 
Blesdey, 440 
Blethyn, 440 
Blevin, 184 
Blew739iB 
Blewer. 396 
BUok,393 
Bligh,393 
Blight. 440 
BUnckhom, 898 
Blinoo,392 
Blindell,397 
Bliss, 440 
BlisBett,441 
BIicard,441 
Block, 214 
Blockey, 214 
Blogg, 214 
Blomeley, 466 
BlondeU, 397 
Bloodgood, 440 
Bloom, 465 
Bloomer, 466 
Bloomy, 466 
Bloss,466 
Blossett,466 
Blossom, 465 
Blow, 214, 396 
Blowen, 215, 896 
Blower, 215, 396 
Black, 214 
Blunkell, 513 
Blyth,440 
BoftdellA,454 
Boi«,224 
Board, 229 
Boarder, 229 
Boardman,229 
Boardwine, 289 
Boast, 409 
Boatwright, 466^ 460 
Boas, 482 
Bobart,422 
Bobbin, 422 
BobUtt, 422 
Bobby, 484 
Bobtin,422 
Bock, 224 
Bodda,454 
Bodell,454 
Boden, 464 
Bodgener, 225 
Bodger, 455 
BodSy, 454 
Bodioker, 455 
Bodkin, 454 
Bodl^, 454 
Bodman, 456 
Bodmer, 465 



Body, 454 
Boetef eiur, 455 
Boff, 421 
Boffey, 421 
Bogard,225 
Bogg,224 
Boggis, 455 

Bogle, 224 
Bogman,226 

B^^240 
Bolden, 29, 20 
Boldero, 131, 242 
Boldery, 241 
Bolding, 241 
Boling, 281 
Bollin,281 
Bollman,281 
Bolt, 240 
Bolter, 241 
Boltwood,242 
Bomgarson, 176 
Bonar, 176 
Bonbnght, 176 
Bond,225 
Boney, 175 
Boniger, 37, 170 
Bonken, 175 
Bonnell, 175 
Bonner, 176 
Bonnick, 176 
Bonning, 176 
Bonny, 175 
Bonnyman, 176 
Bonser, 236 
Bonsey, 175, 235 
Bonter, 236 
Boodle, 454 
Bookless, 363, 854 
Bool,^ 
Booie,458 
Boonnan, 458 
Bootr454 
Booth, 454 
Booty, 454 
Border, 229 
Bosher, 406 
Bosley, 408 
Bosman, 408 
Boss, 408 
Bossard,408 
Bossey,408 
Bossom,406 
Bostel,409 
Bostock,409 
Bostridge, 409 
Bothyr224 
Boay,454 
Bott,454 
Botten,454 
Botting, 454 



564 



INDEX OF KMGUSH NAKSa 



Botfle,464 
BotwT]gfat,465 
Boach,378 
Boiifib07, 378 
Boucher, 379 
Boucherett, 379 
Boudrow. 242 
Boughtwhore, 241 
BottS^,280 
Bonl&iff, 241 
Boutflower, 466 (note) 
BouTerie, 422 
Bonvier, 422 
BoTsy, 421 
Borey^ 421 
BoYme,421 
Bow, 224 
Bowd]7,2a 
Boire,47 
Bowell,224 
Bowen,226 
Bower, 462, 490 
Bowemuui, 462 
Bowker, 379 
Bowketi, 379 
Bowl, 280 
Bowler, 281 
Bowman, 226 
Bowmer, 226 
Box, 32 
Boy, 313 
Boyer, 313 
Boyman, 313 
Bnusher, 186 
Brack, 184 
Bradnell, 221 
BradBhaw, 601 
Bngan, 186 
Bragg, 130 
Bntfgw, 130 
Braham, 371 
Brain, 186 
Brunard, 186 
Brake, 184 
Brakenuui, 186 
Bramble, 371 
Brame,371 
Bramer, 371 
Bramley, 371 
Brammell, 371 
Brand, 196 
Brandard, 199 
Brander, 199 
Bzandu.199 
Bra]i^l99 
Brandle,198 
Brandling, 199 
Brandzam, 199 
Brandreth, 199 
Brandiiok, 199 
Brandy, 19, 198 
Brant, 198 
Braner,.443 



Bta«L44S^476 
Braeidiridge, 496 
BraMell,)43 
BxaiMy,443 
Bray, 184 
Brayer, 186 
Brayman, 186 
Braner, 63. 443 
Biasill,443 
BraBiell,221 
Breach, 184 
Breakell,186 
Bnsaker, 186 
Bream, 106 
Breazard,186 
Breeoher, 186 
Breem,371 
Breeie,186 
Bremer, 371 
Bremond, 371 
Brwnridge, 371 
Brent, 198- 
Brealin,186 
Breney, 186 
Brett, 186 
Brettell,186 
Brew, 193 
Brewer, 194 
Brewee, 186 
Breyiio, 186 
Biiand,186 
Briant,186 
Briok,184 
Briokell,186 
Bricker, 186 
Brickman, 186 
Bridge, 184 
Bridgeman, 186 
Bridgen, 186 
Bridger, 186 
Bridgea,186 
Brier, 185 
Brigg, 184 
Brign,186 
Bri^t. 106, 870 
Blighting, 370 
Brightlaod, 370 
Brightly, 370 
Biightman, 370 
Brightmore, 370 
Brightwine, 42 
Brighty, 370 
Brigman, 186 
Brim, 371 
Brimble, 371 
Brimelow, 371 
Brinuley,371 
Briaoo,186 
BriM,186 
BridE,186 
Briidey, 186 
Briiman, 186 
BriMey, 186 



186 



BHtter,186 
Brix,186 
Brixey, 23, 186 

Broad, 21d 
Broadwood, 601 



Broek,9firi93 
Brockntann, 194 
Bkoderick, 218 
Brodie,218 
Bkodhead,21S 
Broke,!^ 
Broker,*194 
Broad, 198 
Brook, 198 
BitM>ker,194 
BrookJng, 198 
Brookman,194 
BrookBon,193 

Brother, 218, 293, 513 
Brothenon, 293 
Brown, 126. 396» 400 
Browne]l,399 
Browning, 400 
Brownlow, 399 
Brownett, 400 
Brownrigp, 400 
Brownuniih, 4W 
Brown8WOPd,468(n««) 
Biiioe, 186 
Brtine, 399 
Bnmker, 400 
Brunner, 400 
Bniaand, 186 
Bmsand, 186 
Baba,421 
Babh,421 
Back,8fiL378 
Backet, 879 
Buckie, 378 
Buckle, 379 
Buckley, 379 
Buoklin, 379 
Buckney, 379 
Buokiidgv^ 
Buckley, 379 
Budd,464 
Budden,464 
Buddioombe, 466 
Budding, 464 
Buddl«,464 
Bnddo.464 



Budge, 45 
Bttdlong, 464 
Budmore, 466 
Ba£3n, 422 
Bnffn7»422 ^ 
Bugg,47,UJ,8^ 
Buggeln,379 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMB& 



565 



3ea,48,379 
Builder, 219 
Buirt, 408 (note), 409 
Balok,281 
Bulfinoh,104 



,82,280 
BullAker, 281 
Bii]]ajd,281 
BiiUeii,281 
Biil]er,281 
Bulky, 280 
Balling, 281 
Bullion, 281 
Ba]liM,281 
Biillmore,281 



Bnllitrodfi, 3 
Bnlman, 281 
Bolmer, 281 
Bnlwer, 281 
Bundle, 236 
Bondook, 235 
Bandy, 236 
Bonn, 416 
Bannett,416 
Bonney, 416 
Banning, 416 
BanBall,236 
Banfle,236 
Bdnaen, 236 (note) 
Bant, 102 
Banten,236 
Banter, 236 
Banting, 102, 236 
Banyan, 416 
Bonyer, 416 
Barohard, 279 
BaioheU,279 
Bold, 239 
Bardekin,93 
Bardell,329 
Borden, 329 
Barder, 830 
Bardett,330 
BardoolL329 
Boige,279 
Baiger, 279 
BargeM,279 
Barewin, 279 
BarlEe,279 
Barley, 69 
Barling, 452 
Bam, 70 
Bame]l,70 
BameM, 70 
Barmdge,70 
Baming, 70 
Bamia£,24,70 



Barrel], ^ 
Bart»106,370 



407 

BaMell,407 
Bouey, 407 
BoMing, 407 
BaBsman, 407 
Bant, 409 
Boctard, 102, 409 
Baisaid,407 
Batiman, 465 
Batlin,454 
Bailing, 1^ 454 
BatolpL72 
Butt,V54 
Battel, 454 
Battemer, 456 
Batter, 456 
Batterfly, 466 (note) 
Batteriok,465 
Battery, 465 
Batton,464 
Battreii,465 
Ba22ard,102 
Byaid,313 
Bye, 47, 318 
I^er, 313 
Bynner, 177 
Byron, 70 

Cable, 286 
Oaddiok, 525 
Oaddy^ 
Oade,206 
Oadell,525 
Oadmaa, 525 
OadwelL 169, 625 
OaliaJ^l74 
SSri74,482 
Oaint,174 
Oalderon, 42, 477 
Gale, 436 
Oaley.436 
Oalf, 83 
Oalkin,437 
OalUing, 307 
Callaway, 437 
OaUow,436 
Chonalanr. 41d 
Camel, W 
Camm,436 
Cammegh, 436 
CammejL419 
Gamp, 171 
CampJdn,171 
Camplin, 171 
Campling, 171 
Cani£^l44 
CandalL74 



74 

Candy, 74 
Cto^,174 
Cum, 444 
Cannar,444 



Oannel,444 
Oanney, 444 
Canniffe,201 
Canning, 444 
Cannon, 444 
Cant, 74 
Canty. 74 
Canteio,74 
Cantle, 74 
Cantor, 74 
Caprtiok,227 
Can^r7203 
CaraTim.a04 
Card,27o 
Garden, 277 
Carder, 277 
CardwelL277 
Carew,202 
Carey, 202 
Cark,481 
Gail, 69 
Garland, 203 
CarleM,69 
Carley,59 
Car]in,202 
Carling,202 
CarloBB, 59 
Carman, 203 
Gazr,202 
Canrett, 329 
Ganiok,202 
Carrier, 203 
GaiTo]l,69 
GaiToway, 204 
Cart, 276 
Garte]l,276 
Garter, 53/277, 460 
Garthewt277 
Carton, 277 
Cartridge, 277 
Gartwright, 277, 460 
Carty, 276 
Case, 205 
Cawment, 205 
Caaey, 206 
Caah,205 
Caahman,206 
Caaho^r205 
Cask, 205 

e-kyr" 



Caatang,296 
CaateIlo,296 
Caster, 296 
Castle, 296 
Ca8tl«y,296 
Gaston, 296 
Gate, 206 
Cater, 206 
Catmore,499 
Catmor, 168 
Cato,ld8,206 
Ottomore, 168» 489 



56« 



INDSX or BMGUSB NAMB8L 



0Ute7,lA 



Cktto,] 

Obalk, 907 
OmTlrTng, 90r 
OMiiie«,519 
auiM.909 



OUMT, 300 

CkQMj, 309 
ORyaer, a06 
Qnfe3r,206 
Oentn, 400 
and. 168 
Qhadbom, IM 
OliAdboi.168 
Ohaddoflk, IW 
Ohadman, 168 
OhAdwi6k,169 
Oluidiri]i,160 
OhidBnefa, 104 
Oh«lk,907 
Chalkar, 307 
Ohalkey, 307 
Chalk]«n,307 
Oluak]iiic,807 
Ohamp, In 
Chance, (09 
Ohaao^a9 
Oha]it,74 
01uater,74 
Ohaatr^, 74 
Ohumiaii, 469 
Ohard,260 
Ohari«,231 
OhAritj, 339 
Charker, 232 
Charles, 59 
Channan, 46. 28i 
ChaiTott, 839 
Charts 200 
Charter, 200 
Chatawaj, 169 
ChatweU,169 
Chanoer, 307 
Cheape,460 
Cheek, 867 
Cheeie,409 ^ 
CheeMman. 459 
Cheeeewi^ti 400 
Cheerer, % 
Chexming, 329 
Cheqaer, 368 
CheiTill,202 
Cheny, 231 
Cheaman, 409 
Chemej, 469 
Chetaen, 409 
Chick, 367 
Chioken, 307 
Chid^438 



CUld,l§l 
CfafldnB,4&40,l» 

CauD, 162 
Chflly, 108 
Chmmaid, 46, Ifi 
ChiDmaB, 4& lO 
ChiinkD,428 
Chinmej, 40 
Chill, 4liB 
Chine, 387 
Ching, 329 
Chinneiy, 388 
Chlptnan, 289 
^9»p,46JB5 
Chq)pen,285 
Chqiper, 285 
Chiraey, 438 
Chiael,468 
Chiahotan, 409 
Chialefei,408 
Chiamaii, 469 
ChitUe,438 
Chittoek,4S8 
ChittT,438 
Ch<»t,360 
Choote,360 
Chriai, 133» 134, 484 
Chzirtmaa2487, 622 
Christo,ld8 
Chriaty, 133 
CkmtaL133 
Chabback,227 
Chuck, 367 
Chnnn, 327 
Chuter, 360 
Chatter, 369 
Cirooit,441 
Citj, 481 
Clack, 362 
Clad, 436 



CLap]in,lB3 
C]ftpp,183 
Clapper, 183 
CUpM>n,183 
Cli^374 
ClaremoniL 374 
Claret, 374 
Claridge, 374 
ClariDgbold, 39, 374 
daringbull, 39, 374 
Claria,374 
Clarvia,374 
durviae, 874 
Chiry, 374 
Chaa,392 
Claaaon, 392 
Clav^, 183 
Clay, 362 
Clear, 374 
Cleary, 374 
Cleaver, 414 



oieaet*>aB 

Claieb,199 

Gl0Mkj,«lft 

CleTer,414 
Gleveilj, 419 
Clewett,36B 
Cliff, 415 
Glift,415 
Cliiieh,198 
ding, 199 
dingo, 190 
C^,15I0 
dinkaxd, 190 
diaMiId,399 
dive, 415 
dMk,358 
dode,377 



dooe, 391 (note) 
doeer, 391 (noU> 
dothier, 377, 4fflO 
doad,4S,3nr 
doudman, 378 

doiitiBg,377 
dontman, 378; 461 
dow, 3S2 
duer, 362 
datton,377 
Coachman, 448 
Cob, 248 
Co^446 
Cocker, 446 
Cockett,446 
CoekiB,446 
Cocking, 449 
Cockle, 446 
Cocklin,4l6 
Cockman,446 
Cocka,446 

CodTlW 
Codd,116 
Codle7,17 
Codling, 115 
Cody, 115 



^ey,248 
Coffman,248 
Coffin, 249 
Cogger, 446 
Coggm,446 
Coghi]]C446 
Coglin,446 
Co^336 
CoIbnui,226 
Colbreath,2a6 
CoIbQin,286 
Cold, 477 
Coldinaik, ffl, 477 



Cole,: 
Colenaoi 94» 226 



INDBX OF BN0U8H NAMBS. 



567 



Ooley, 2&6 
OoIVlZ 

oo]]»» 17, 10, m 

OoillAmore, 896 
OoDar, ^ 
Oo]]ard,226 
OoUege,2a6 
OoUeT, 226 
Oomok,226 
OoUier, 53^ SML 400 
OoI]ing,226 
Clo]lmB,24.S26 
Oolman, 226 
Oolmer, 226 
Odlt, ai, 477 
Ooltart,81 
Colter, 81, m 
Oolthard, 477 
Ooltmann, 8LC7 

r Oombe, 59, 296 

I Ck>mlnid^, 69 

I Corner, 60 

Cornier, 60 
Comimn, 63, 107 
Comont, 60 
Comiie, 60 

I Conder, 164 

Oondion, 164 
Condiy, 164 
Condy, 163 
Cone, 327 
CoDffer, 328 
Conker, 328 
Conlan, 327 
Conne. 327 
ConneiI,32r 
Conneryj^id 
Conny. 327 
Conoff, 328 
Conqnert, 328 
Conrath, 388 
ConieII,163 
Const, 360 
Constable, 462; 486 
Conybear, 328 
Conyer, S28 
Coode, 101, 115 
Coolbreath^ 286 
Coote, 52, 101, m 
Cooie,309 
Copeman. 248; 459 
Copelin,^ 
Copeftake, 287 
Copley. 248 
Copp, 248 
Coppttrd,248 
Copper, 476 
CoppemolL281 
Coppin, 249 
Coppock. 248 
Copsey, 23L 848 
Corbett,98 



Corbin.98 
Corboioad, 208 
Corby, 98 
Core, 202 
Corker, 481 
Corkery, 481 
Corking, 481 
Corkling, 481 
Corkman, 481 
Cornell, 433 
Comer, 433 
Comey, 433 
Comick, 488 
Coming, 438 
Comman, 433 
Conan,409 . 
Corur, 409 
Cone, 409 
Cort,409 
Cory, 202 
Cofle,309 
Coder, 309 
Conaok, 300 
Coflaart,309 
Coisey, 309 
Coa8on,309 
Cost, 360 
Costall,360 
Costeker, 360 
CosteUo, 360 
Coster, 360 
Costiff, 360 
Costlow, 360 
Costly, 360 
Cotnian, 116 
Cott,116 
Cottam, 115 
Cotter, 116, 514 
Cottle, 115 
Cotton, 117 
Conlthred, 477 
Connd, 163 
ConnseU, 168 
Count, 163 
Connltr, 164 
Connty, 163 
Conntse, 163 
Courage, 887 
Couroelle, 409 
Ceurridge, 887 
Course, 409 
Courser, 409 
Court, 409 
Courtenay. 409 
Courtier, m 
CourtneU, 221 
Courtwriffht, 409 
Cousin, 296, 309 
Coutts, 115 
Cove]l,248 
Coveny, 249 
Covert, 248 
Corey, 848 



Cow, 836 
CowaB.330 
Coirud,12,886 
Cowell,336 
Cowie,336 
Cowing, 336 
Cow]and,336 
Cowman, 337 
Cowper, 476 
Craig, 97 
Craigie, 97 



Crake, 97 
CrakdL97 
Cram, 97 
Cray. 401 
Crash, 170 
Creak, 170 
Creaker, 170 
Crealey, 196 
Cream, 125 
Creamer, 125 
Crean,465 
Ciee,170 
Creech, 170 
Creelman, 196 
Creer, 170 
CrespNsl, 404 
Crespin, 404 
Ciessa]l,401 . 
Cressy, 401 
Crew, 401 
Cribb, 188 
Criokinay, 85, 170 
Crilly, ld6 
Crimson, 125 
Criper, 188 
Crippen, 188 
Cripps,404 
Crisp, 404 
Crispin, 404 
Croad,46,d71 
Croager. 46k 872 
Crook, 252 
Crocker, 258 
Crockett. 858 
Croker, 253 
Croll,405 
Croly,406 
Crome, 372 
Cromey, 372 
Cromley, 374 
Cron^, 465 
Crook, 46 
Croon, 373 
Cropp, 424 
Cropper, 425 
Croser, 406 
Cross, 405,490 
Crossn«B,406 
Orotoh746 
Crothers^2 
Croton, 378 



568 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



OrotW, 371 
Crowden, 373 
OrowdjjSTl 
Orowe, 97 
down, 466 
Oiowioii, 97 
GraeknaQ, 8XL 
Omm, 373 
Oniae»404 
Cnuo,404 
OnuM]L404 
OratwalL373 
Otjer, 63, 170 
CiyiiiB, 126 
OaU^age,248 
Cabby, 248 
Cabiti, 144, 248 
Oablej, 248 
Caokoo, 106 
Oiidd,116 
Oaddon, 117 
Onddy, 116 
OafBuui, 248 
Ciiffr248 
Oa£re7,248 
Oaffl^,248 
CuiBiii, 248 
Oa]l,4^8 
Oa]len,478 
CnUey, 478 
Oomber. 234 
OumbertMttch, 234 
OomberbeMh, 234 
Oiunberpat^234 
Ciuniiiiiig, 297 
Onmper, 234 
Oirnaid, 328 
OandeU,163 
Oamdy, 163 
Ciiiufle,d28 
Ciimo,327 
Oimlev, 327 
Oonliffe, 328 
Ommell, 327 
Oonnew, 328 
Oanninfli, 329 
Ou]m^328 
Cupid, 143» 144 
Capit, 1H248 

CiirlL%6 
Cai2ok,433 
Cnmo, 433 
Canon, 409 
Cart, 409 
Curtail, 409 
Cartae,409 
Carwen,204 
Cuit,d60 
CoBtanm, 24, 360 
Cnstaid,360 
CuiIoTe,40 
Cntmore, 116 



Cutright,116 
Cattan,116 
Cutting, 116 
Cutto/lO 

Dd>b,428 
DMk,390 
Daoker. 391 
Daoombe, 391 
D*dd,291 
Daddy, 291 
Dade, 291 
Dadmun,292 
Dafford,428 
Daily, 428 
Dasan,338 

5W.390 
391 

390 



Dainty, 310 
Daily, 391 
Daisy, 390 
Daldy, 376 
Dale, 376, 491 
DaUaa,376 
Dallen, 376 
Dallimore, 376 
Dalling, 375 
Dallor, 376 
Dallow, 376 
Dalloway, 376 
Dally, 376 
Dalman, 376 
Damer, 366 
Damei,366 
Damm, 364 
Damoxy, 366 
Dana, 311 
Dance, 310 
Danoer, 310 
Danoey. 310 
Dand,dlO 
Dandelyon, 12, 310 
Dando, 310 
Dandy, 46, 310 
Dane, 311. 338 
Danes, 338 
Danford,311 
Danger, 311, 338 
Di^el,484 
Danki,359 
Dann, 311 
Dannan, 311 
Dannell,3U 
Danner, 311 
Danflon, 310 
Dapp, 428 
Daraoott,208 
Daroh,397 
Dardy,208 
Daigan, 208, 397 



Daik,397 
Darker, 307 
Darkiea,'206 
Darkin,397 
Darkman, 397 
Darl^, 208 
Daly, 48 
Damen, 398 
DamlOT, 398 
Darr, 208 
Darren, 208 
Darrigon, 206 
Darrow, 208 
Dart, 209 
Darter, 209 
Dartaell, 221 
Darwin, 208 
Daaeiit,386 
Daewtt, 385 
Dauy, 385 
Date, 291 
Datt,291 
Daunt, 310 
DaTall,428 
Daven, 428 
Davidge,428 
Davizon, 428 
DaToek,428 
Davy, 428 
Day, 390 
Daybell,390 
Dayer, 391 
Dayea, 390 
Daykin, 390 
Dayman, 391 
Daymont, 391 
Daie,291,390 
Daaey, 291 
Deal, 101 
Dean, 311 
Dear, 268 
Deeibizd,268 
DearloTe,268 
Dearman, 268 
Dearth, 209 
Deary, 27, 268 
DeQk,390 
Dederick,333 
I>ednuui,333 
Dedridge, 333 
Deed,^ 
Deedy, 332 
Deer, 86 
Deffe]l,428 
Deighen, 338 
Delay, 376 
Delhier, 375 
Dell, 376 
DeUamoie, 376 
Deller, 376 
DeUow, 376 
Delmar, 376 
Demaid, 467 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAHEa 



569 



Demon, 407 

Dempfl0T, 366 
DenoL, 106, 359 
Dend J, 319 
Denhanl, 311 
DeniaoD, 46,311 
Dexunan. 312 
Deim,3ll 
Dennell, 311 
i>eimi]ig, 311 
Denny, 311 
Denob, 312 
Demon, 311 
Denye^Sll 
Denif 398 
Denvin, 268 
De«ert,386 
DeUman, 333 
Dettmer, 333 
Devej, 428 
Deyick,428 
Devlin, 428 
DevQll,488 
Devon, 428 
Dew, 427 
Dewar. 427 
Dewell,427 
Dewen, 427 
Dewey, 427 
Dewiok, 427 
Dewing, 427 
Dey,lS7 
Diabogne, 467 
Diaok,467 
Diamond, 467 
D]a8,361 
Dicey, 361 
Diok,406,484 
Dicker, iff! 
Dickie, 406 
Dickin,407 
Dickman, 407 



Diggle,' 
Digman, 407 
Digory, 407 



Dilke, 189 
Dili, 189 
Diller, 189 
IMlley, 189 
DiUicar, 189 
Dimok,189 
Dillimore, 190 
Dillman, 190 
Dillme(,190 
Dillon, 190 
Dillow, 189 
Dillwyn,190 
Dilnat,41 
I>ime^366 
Dinimett,366 



Dimmiok,366 

Dimmook, 366 

Dine. 31 

Dineiey, 130 

Ding. 367 

Dingle, 367 

Dingley, 367 

Dingman, 367 

DingwelL_367 

Dingy, 367 

Dining, 31, 130 

Dinn, 129 

Dinning, 130 

Diiher, 229 

Dishman, 229 

Diamore, 362 

Diaa, 64, 66, 361 

Ditohman, 407 

Dix, 229 

Dixie. 229 

DobeiCl03 

Dobie, 103 

Doblin,103 
Dock, 427 

Docker, 427 

Docking, 427 

Dodd746,273 

Doddridge, 273, 333 

Dodman, 273 
Doe, 427 
Donreti, 84, 427 
Doke, 427 
Doll, 63 
Dolland, 40 
Dolling, 63 
Dolphm, 184, 51S 
Domxnett, 364 
Donelan. 130 
Donn, 129 
Donnell, 129 
Donney, 129 
Donno, 129 
Donnor, 128 
Doody, 273 
Door, 208 
Doran,208 
Dorbon, 208 
Dorey, 208 
Donnan, 208 
Dormer, 208 
I>orrell,208 
I>orton,209 
Dotchin, 273 
Dotiy, 273 
Dottridge, 273, 333 
Doubt, 273 
Donbty, 273 
Doudney, 274 
Dove, 103 
Dovey, 103 
Dow, 427 
Dowd, 273 
Dowden, 274 

T 3 



Dowdle, 274 

Dowdiken, 274 

Dowding, 274 

Dowdy, 273 

DoweU, 427 

Dower, 427 

Dowey, 427 

Dowland, 428 

Dowling. 22, 427 

Dowae, 273 

Dowsing, 274 

Dowson, 274 

Doaell,273 

Do«y, 273 

Drabble, 196 

Drage, 100, 413 

Dragon, 413 

Dram, 413 

Drake, 100, 413 

Drawbridge, 496 

DrawBword, 236 

Drawwater, 602 

Dray, 413 

Draysey, 242 
Dreuer, 242 
Drew, 195 
Drewell, 195 
Drewery, 196 
Drewett, 429 
Drinkwater, 602 
Droop, 441 
Drought, 270 
Drowdy, 270 
Drown, 196 
Druoe,249 
Druggan, 196 
Drum, 243 
Drummer, 243 
Drummey, 243 
Drummond, 243 (note) 
Drury, 196 
Dry, 429 
Dryer, 429 
Dubbina, 103 
Duck. 100. 427 
Ducker, 427 
Duckett, 427 
Duckling, 10(K 427 
Duckinau,428 
Duddle, 273, 332 
Daddy, 273, 332 
Dudgeon. 427 
Dudui,3d2 
Duga, 100 
I>ugald,428 
Dugard, 427 
Duggin, 100, 427 
Dugmore, 428 • 
' 428 
428 




Duly, 427 
Dumbell, 364 



670 



INDKX OF St^aUaH NAJUHL 



DuiiiA, 363 
Dnnilm. 364 
Dommelow, 364 
Dnmmer, 364 
Dummert, 364 
Domplin, 364 
DonaTiii, 130 
Danger, 130 
,361 



Dunn, 21, 22, 129 
Donndl, 21, 120 
Duimiiig, 130 
Dttxtfioae, 130 
Donuid, 1$^ 
I>urell,208 
Durley, 208 
Darman, 208 
Dane, 206 
Duthie, 332 
Dutt, 273, 332 
Dyoe, 361 
Dye, 457 
Dyer, 457 
Dyeii,332 
Dyw>n,352 
Dyte,332 

Bade, 381 
Eadie,381 
EAdoii,381 
Eager, 210 
Eagle, 94, 154 
Eagliag, 164 
Eames, 264 
Earee, 94 
Earheart,96 
Earl, 339 
Early, 339 
Eamey> 96 
Earwig, 94 
Earwaker, 112 (note) 
Earratt,94 
Earth, 139 
Earthy, 139 
East, 302 
Easter. 302 
Eaaterbrook, 303 
Eaaterday, 303 
Eastman, 302 
Eastmure, 302 
Eaato, 3(^ 
Eaaty. 302 
Eat, 381 
EatwelL 382 
Eaye8,l66 
Ehbetti, 61 
Ebbidge, 60 
Eber,7B 
Ebert,61 
EbonilL76 
Edbrook, 382 
EddiB,381 



i, 337 
Edelsten, 338 
Edgar, 40, 382 
Ed(re, 209 
Bd3cer,382 
Edkiiia,381 
Edlo — 



Edlow,337 
Edmead, 382 



Edolph,382 
Ediidge, 382 
Edward, 382 
EdweII,382 
Edwick, 382 
Edwin, 382 
Eel, 416 
Ere, 209 
^ey, 154 
Ego, 209 
rabow, 134 
Elden, 418 
Eldred,418 
£ldridge,419 
Element, 276, 299 
Eley, 416 
Elgar, 299 



142 
EUdn,299 
£11,17,299 
Ella, 17, 19, 299 
Ellaoot, 299 
EUard, 299 
Ellen, 238 
Ellenor, 239 
Ellery, 299 
Elley, 17. 299 
EUioe, 300 
EUiker, 299 



Ellmaker, 143 
EUwood,299 
Elmore, 299 
Elphee, 134 
Mphick, 134 
Else, 300 
ElMgood, 300 
Elsey, 300 
Bit, 418 
Eltham, 418 
Elton74l8 
Elve,134 
ElTory, 135 
Elves, 134 
Elvidge,134 
Elyii,134 



BUtj, 134 
Blwiii,299 
&nbcr,954,a2 
Rmblem, 143 
Bmblin, 143 
BmUow. 14S 
Bmeler, 143 
Bnieny, 254 
BmeiML254 
EmeiyT^ 
Smly, 143 
Bm]yn,143 

Ua»S84 



Emua, 284 
Bngal],213 
len gUit*!^ 213 
En|^ebiirtt» 213 
Engleheart, 213 
EngUsh, 319 
Enniw, 289 
Enoch, 289, 482 
Enoek,289 



li, 289 
Snsooe, 119 
Bn8ell,119 
Bnaer, 119 
Bnaer, U9 
Epp,60 
Erasmus, 26 
Brickson, 32 
Eriiuiie,146 
EETatt,94 
Enkine,79 
Esan,^ 
E8lin,119 
E88el,119 
Este,216 
EBtie,216 
Bsty,216 
Ethel, 337 
Ether, 282 
Etheridge, 282 
Ef — 



Ere. 366. 482 
Erelyn, 22, 290 
Ever, 76 
BTetaU,76 
Everard, 76 
Evered, 76 
Everett, 76 
Every, 76 
Eveaffd,290 
Ev]ll,366 
Ewa]d,367 
Ewart,366 
Ewe. 86, 36S 
Ew^366 
Ewer, 366 
Ewi]]g,366 
EyeTSOO 



IKDBX OF SKOUSH NAM£S. 



571 



B7em475 

Faohnev, 435 
Faddy, 62 
Ffu>d,256 
Fagui,436 
Fagg,436 
Faffg^435 
FiXoy, 436 
Fail, 307, 435 
Fair. 323 
F^beard, 323 
Faiiey, 9Sa 
Fairday, 326 
Faiifootk323 
Faixfoal,83 
Fairlan, 32$ 
Fairleu, 363, 354 
FairUe, 467 
Faixman, 324 
Faiine,324 
Fairweather, 139 
Faith, 266 
Fkithy, 266 
Fake, 435 
Faker, 435 
FaIL3(y7 
FiJUniglit, 333 
Fallon, 307 
Fallow, 307 
Fanline, 234 
Faun, 64. 284 
Fanner, 234 
Fanning, 64 
Fannon, 234 
IVurny, 64, 234 
Fantom, 417 
Faraday, 326 
Faitie]l,326 
Farden, 326 
Fardo, 325 
Farefowl, 93 
Farewell, 324 
Faigo, 323 
Farmont,324 
F^mie]],324 
Faira, 323 
Famgat, 324 
Farrand,323 
FazTe]l,323 
Farren, 328 
Fairer, 324 
Fanier, 324 
Farrimond, 324 
Farrow, 323 
Farthing, 325 
Fart,2^ 
Faitafl, 72. 262 
Falter, 262 
Fagtin,261 
Fartolf , 72 
Father, 203 
Fatman,62 



Fatt,62 4 
Fat^, 62 
Faullon, 03 
FaultleM,365 
Faunoe,246 
Fay, 436 
Fearon, 323 
Feaaal,247 
Feaat,261 
Feaster, 252 
Feohter, 267 
Feddon, 266 
Feei,246 
Fehon,436 
FeUow, 307 
FelthoQM, 518 
Feltoe, 618 
Feltno, 618 
FeltiuB,42 
FendaU,417 
Fender. 417 
Fendiok, 417 
Fenlon, 234 
Fenton,417 
Fenn,64,234 
Fennell,234 
Fenner, 234 
Penning, 64 
Fentiman, 417 
Fentum, 417 
Ferdinand. 325 
Feriner, 324 
Feimin, 216 
Fern, 324 
Femald, 324 
Femer, 324 
Femie,324 
Femilow, 324 
Femyoughj^ 324 
Ferrand,323 
FerTe]l,323 
Ferrier, 324 
Ferriman, 324 
Feny, 323 
Feiter, 252 
Fetman, 62 
Fett,^ 
Fetter, 293 
Fetterman, 293 
Flcker, 249 
Ficklin,249 
Fiokling, 249 
Fiddaman,430 
Fiddament, 430 
Fiddey, 4^ 
Fidell,430 
Fidge,249 
Fidoe, 430 
Fieldhonse, 618 



473, 618 
Fae,6l7 
Fileman, 618 



Filer, 518 

Fllkin, 617 

Fill, 617 

Fillaiy, 618 

Filldew, 618 

Filley, 617 

Filling, 617 

Fillmer, 618 

Filpot» 618 

Finbow, 316 

Finoh,104 

Fineweather, 139 

Finger, 316 

link, 104 

Finn, 316 

Finney, 315 

Finnimore, 315 

Firing, 323 

Firkin, 323 

Fiiminger, 216 

Fi8^106,247 

Fiahline,247 - 

Flak, 106, 247 

Fiaken,247 

FiBt,^l 

Filter, 262 

Fitkin,4d0 

Fitman,430 

Fitt,430 

Fitter, 430 

Fix, 247 
FixBon, 247 
Fiz, 21 (note), 246 
FLBe,246 
Fiakrd,247 
Flaok,411 
Flagg,411 
FlambanL220 
Plane, 220 
Flataa,303 
F]atman,394 
Flatt,393 
Flattely, 394 
Flatter, 394 
Flattezy, 12, 394 
Flawn, 220 
Flea, 411 
Fle^411 
Fleeman, 411 
Flegg,411 
Flett, 393 
Flewitt, 411 
Flint, 131 
Flltton, 394 
Flook, 411 
FloM, 412 
ilowerday, 46& 
Fluck, 411 
Finer, 411 
Jly,411 
Flyer, 411 
Flyger, 411 
Fog, 136 



572 



INBBX OF ENGLISH NAMBS. 



Folk, 333 
FoUaurd,334 
Folker, 334 
Folkitt, 334 
Ford, 325 
Folder, 325 
Fordred,325 
ForKet,324 
Forlknd, 324 
FonieT, 324 
Fort, 325 
Fortm,325 
Fortane, 326 
Forty, 325 
Fortynuoi, 325 
Forward, 324 
Foakey, 247 
FoM,246 
Fowey, 246 
FoMiok, 246 
FoQke,333 
Fowell, 10, 93 
Fowkes,3aa 
Fowle, 10, 03 
Fox, 247 
Foxell, 247 
Foxen, 2tf 
FoMiy, 247 
Frame, 215 
France, 306 
Franco, 306 
Francoiirt, 306 
Frank, 306 
Frankel,306 
Franklin, 306 
Frad,312 
Fraser, 313 (note) 
Fiead,261 
Freak, 132 
Freck, 132 
Fred, 261 
Frederick, 4L 261 
Freebody, 261 
Freeborn, 261 
Freeborough, 261 
Freebout, 261 
Freebridge, 261 
Freeland, 261 
Freeling, 261 
Freelove, 261 
Freem, 215 
Freertone, 42, 261 
Freeth,26l 
Freese. 312 
Freeaor, 313 (note) 
Fremlin,205 
Fremont, 215 
French, 306 
Freah, 449 
Freaher, 449 
Frethy, 261 
Frentel, 360 



Fri<^i» 

Fkicker, IS 
FMekey, 132 
Frid,26L 
Friday, 261 
FHend,263 
Friendahm, 263,351 
Friaian, 313 
Friakey,449 
Frith, 261. 481 
Froger, 350 
Fromnnt. 216 
Frood, 350 
Froat,135 
Froatick,136 
Fruetman, 136 
Fronde, 350 
Fkt>wd,350 
Fmdd. 350 
Fnel, 10, 93 
Fnggel,93 
Fngsle, 10 
Filler, 334 



Fnll,517 
Fnllalo^e, 518 
Fulleck,517 
Fallerd,518 
Fnllmer, 518 
Furlong, 323 
Famd^324 
Fnne,449 
Farcer, 449 
Fofls, 246 
Faaaell,246 
Fuaaey, 246 
Fa8card,246 
Fox, 247 

Qabb, 285 
Qable, 285 
Gadban, 208 (note) 
Gadd,525 
Oade,206 
Gadlan,206 
GfSTafe 
Gaffery, 286 
Gaffln,285 
Gagan,174 
Oahan,174 
Gain, 174 
Gainer, 174 
Gainey, 174 
Gains, 174 
Gaiter, 206 
Galbot,437 
Gale, 436, 483 
Galey,436 
Galilee, 437 
Ga]indo,437 
Gall, 436 
Gal]ager,437 
Galland,437 



Galktd,437 
GaJlflfj, 437 
Gallon, 437 
Gallow, 436 
GaDowmy, 437 
Oa]]0WB,437 
Gaily, 436 
Gait, 76 
GamUe,419 
GamUer,419 
Gainlin,419 
Gambling, 419 
GameTiSs 
Gamer, 436 
.Gammage, 436 
Gammon, 436 
Gande,74 
Gande]l,74 
Gander, 74^ 100 
Gandy, 74 
Gann,444 
Gannaway, 318^ 441 
Gannon, 444 
Gannow, 444 
Ganaman, 518 
Gant,74 
Ganter, 74 
Gwp.285 
GuSett, 203 
Garbraiid,903 
Gazbntt, 39, 203 
Gaid,276 
Garden, 276 
Gardie,276 
Gair20, 202 
Gax^202 
Gai^, 202 _ 
Garf orth, 39, SOS 
Garing, 202 ^ ^^ 
Garland, 40, 203.276 
Garliok, 203, 473 
Garliiig,202 
Garman,203 _^ 
Garment, 41, 203 
Ganiett,203 
Garrard, 203 
Garra8,202 
Garraway, 204 
Garrett, 41 
Garriok, ja 202 



Gant>ld,204 
GaiTow, 202 
Gantin,42 
Garter, 277 
Gwvey, 204 ^ 

Garwood, 37, 204,^ 
GaBh,906 
Gashry, 206 
Gaakell,205 
Gaat,aM 
Gaiter, 296 



INDEX OF ENQUSH NAMES. 



673 



GwtiD, 203» 296 

t GMtinean, 296 

f Gastmg, 296 

[ Gataker, 206 

Gate, 206 
I Gatheicood, 625 (note) 

r Oatliffe, 526 

[ Qfttty, 525 

Gftoawn, 309 

Gaye]le,286 
I Gavey, 285 

I Oaylaord, 437 

Gayler, 437 
{ Gattrd,205 

GaM,206 

GaiieUe,205 
I Gearixig, 202 

I Geaiy, 202 

Geany, 205 

Gebhard,aB6 
I Gedd,525 

Gedney, 525 

G6ere,»)2 
t Gelderi, 478 

^ Gelding, 478 

GellTiSo 

Gel]axL437 

G^ard,437 

GeUer.437 

Gemble, 419 

Gemi^419 

Gender, /4 
I Genna, 444 

' Genner; 444 

Gent, 74 

Gentery, 75 

Gentle, 74 

Gentry, 75 

GeofEiy, 437 
, Gerard,203 

' Gerduok, 276 

Gerhold, 204 

Gerich,202 

Geriih,202 

Gerkin,202 

Gerloff, 203 

German, 203 

Germany, 203 

Get, 625 

GeSer, 525 

GetUTe,525 



Gtotty, 

Gibb,44,285 

Gibbaid,286 

Gibeme,286 

Gib]en,285 

Gibbon, 285 

Gibbe, 286 

Gibby,285 

Gidden,438 

Giddy, 438 

Gidley,438 



Gidlow, 438 
Gidman, 439 
Gieve, 44, 285 
Giffard,285 
Giffin,285 
Gilbert, 458 
Gilbody, 458 
GUby, 442 
Gildawie, 478 
Gilder, 478 
Gildert, 478 
Gilding, 478 
Gilf^458 
Gilfied.468 
Gill, 458, 491 
Gillard,468 
Gillen,458 
Giller, 458 
Gillett, 458 
Gilley, 468 
Gilliam, 468 
GiUibrand, 39, 199, 468 
Gillihom, 458 
GiUing, 458 
Gillman, 458 
Gilloch,458 
Gillow, 458 
Gilmore, 468 
Gilpin, 442 
Gilt, 478 
Gimber, 148 
Gimbert,444 
Gingell,419 
Ginger, 419 
Ginman, 444, 461 
Ginn,444 
Ginnean, 444 
Ginvey, 444 
Gipp,44 



Gipps, ___ 
Gipsy. 286 
Girl, 202 
Girling, 202 
Giaaing, 459 
GiBt,296 
Given, 285 
Glad, 435 
Gladdell,435 
Gladden, 436 
Gladding, 435 
GUddiBh,436 
Gladman,436 
Gladwin, 435 
Gladwii£,435 
Glaidier, 395 
Gladdn,392 
Glass, 392 
Glassey, 392 
Glaason,392 
Glase,392 
Glasard, 392 
Glaiier, 53^ 392 



GleadaJL435 

Gleed,4te 

Gleig, 362 

Glew, 362 

Gtiddon, 436 

GUde,435 

Glis8an,392 

Gloag, 362 

GlodE,352 

Gloss, 391 (note) 

Gluer, 352 

Goad, 115 (note) 

Goat, 85 

Goater, 116 

God, 106, 115, 484 

Godi>old, 115 

Godbolt, 116 

Goddam, 115 

Goddard,116 

Godden,28,116(note), 

117 
Godding, 49, 115 
Goddy, 116 
Godfrey, 116 
Godbead, 116» 484 
Godkin,116 
Godier, 116 
Godliman, 30, 117 
Godman, 49, 116 
Godmnnd, 116 
Godrich, 49 
Godrick, 116 
God8duai,116 
God8elLU6 
God8k^ll6 
Godso, 114 
Godsoe, 23, U4, 115 
Godward, 117 
Godwin, 49, 117 



Gogay, 446 
Gogran, 446 
Gosg8,446 
Going, 336 
Gold, 81, 477 
Goldboom, 477 
Golden, 477 
Golder, 477 
Goldfinch, 104 
Goldie,^ 
Golding, 477 
Goldingay, 477 
Goldman, 81, 477 
Goldney, 41, 477 
Goldiiok^477 
Goldridge, 477 
Goldwin, 477 
GKunery, 68 

Q^&. 163 
Good, Itfl, 115 
Goodaore, 116 
Goodair, 116 



674 



INDBX OF ENGUaH KA1U9S. 



Qood«Il,115 
Qooddax,115 
OoodMT, U6 
Oooden,U7 
Goodenou^ S9i 117, 

626 
OoodBr«,116 
OoodeE«d,116 
QoodMi,115 
Qoodey, 115 
Goodheui»116 
Oooding, ^, 115 
Ooodlile, U0, 164 
CkxMUand, U6 
CkxxUiire» 116 
Ooodlufik, 11, 164 
Goodnum, 49C 116 
Goodnow, 116 
Goodimm, 116 
Goodriek,40 
Goodriok,U6 
Goodridg^ 116 
GoodMlLll6 
Goodwill, 117 
Goodwin, 49, 117 
Goodwright, 116, 460 
GoodTMT, 116 
Gook,106 
GooM,98,a09 
GooMmiivSlO 

Gooi^, ado 

" ,309 

»20S 

.203 
Gonw 202 

GoMtown, 391203 
Gorel^204 
Goring, 202 
Gorman, 293 
Gorway, 204 
Go8bdl,309 
Goshawk, 96 
Gotheron, 310 
Gotland, 310 
Godee,310 
Godin,309 
Goding, 100, 309 
Goamer, 310 
GoanelL296 
GoapelLSOO 
Goal^909 
GoHeH,309 
Go8telow,860 
Goatling, 360 
Go8welL310 

Goth, 308 

Gothaid,116 

Gott,115 

Gotto,116 

Gongoo, 105 

Gonb,477 

GoiUt,477 



Qoiil^VjJ77 
Gow, 336 
Gowa,336 
Gowan,336 
Gowm3,336 
Oower, 336 
Gowing,336 
Gowland, 336 
Gowk, 105 
Goy.136 
Goaar, 309 
Goanrd,309 
Gf«oe,401 
Giaoey, 401 
Graaeman, 464 
GnM,464 
GtaaMrt,464 
GnMiQk,464 
GiaaBie,464 
GraTfooae, 100 
Giayfing, 401 
Gream,125 
Gioek,170 
Grede, 196 
Greely, 196 
Greer, 170 
Green, 465 
Greener, 465 
Greenhonae. 465 



465 

465 

Oreenamith, 462 (note) 
Greenaon, 465 
Gieenaword, 462 (noie) 
Greeny, 465 
Gregg, 170. 461 
OrenSl,«S5 
Grealey. 401 
Greawold, ASA 
Grew, 401 
Gray, 401 
GTioe,77. 401 
Grier, 170 
Grias, 170 
GM&,196 

Grimaldi, 125 (note) 
Grimb(dd,125 
Giimble.125 



Grime,: 
Grimily, 125 
Grimm, 125 
Glimmer, 126 
Grimmet, 125 
Grimmond, 125 
Grimaon, 125 
GriaQld,401 
Griaiell, 77, 401 
Gnat, 134 
Globe, 424 
Gronow, 465 
Groom, 10, 59 
Groombriclge» 41, 59 



Groae, 45^ 48^ Mi^ 405 

Groaer, 406 

Groaert,4O0 

Groaamith, 469 

Grate, 45, 48, 49 

Gfonae, 49, 10^ 405 

Grover, 425 

Groaamaa, 400 

GioTe.424 

GralMH424 

arufay,424 

Gnteber, 401 

GrumUe, VLf 

Gramley, 60 

Grumman, 401 

Gnmmiant, 00 

Qnimmer, 60 

Groner, 465 

Qnineiaen,«l(iiois) 

Gnumg, 465 

Giiehia,68 

Giieliih,46 

0«ealL296 

QnestlinftJM 

Giu]an,l23 
Guild, 478 
GuiUanme, IM 
Qville, IS 
Golbot, 479 
Qn]],478 
Gii]len,478 
G«Ilet,479 
Gulliok, 478 
Gnllif Old, 479 
GnUiTer, 478^ 4719 
Golly, 478 
Gum. 10 

GumboO, 11, 50^ 104 
Gnmm, 59 
Gumma, 59 
Gnmmoe, 59 
Gnndey, 163 
Gundiok, 163 
Gondiy, 164 
Gimn,163 
Gnnnell, 163 
Gunner, 165^ 104^ OlS 
Gunnery, 39,164 
Gunning, 163 
Guns, 163 
Gunaon, 311163 

Gunter, 166, 164 
Gunther, 165, 164 
Gurnard, 433 
Gumell,433 
Gumer, 433 
Gumey, 433 
Gurr,202 
Gunrood,42, 204 
Guataid,360 
Gut, 115 



INDEX OF BNOLISH NAM£a 



675 



Guthrie, 164 
GntmAD, 116 
Guttennui, 117 
Guy, 336 
Ga7att,836 
Gayer, 336 
Gwalter, 47, 346 
GwiUAm,47 
Gwi]]Aii,47 
Gwilt, 344, 447 
Gwyer, 166 
Gwynn, 263 
Gwyther, 484 
G7e,336 

HMk,209 
Hactaday, 39 
Hftckman, 210 
Haooii,2ll, 513 
Hiadaway, 160 
Haddo, 19 
Haddock, 106. 161 
Hadkua,4q,168 
Hadley, 168 
Hadlow, 168 
Hadnutt, 168 
Hadow, 19, 168 
Hadrot,168 
HadwenulOe 
HaedyTl68 

Hagar, 210. 482 
Hagdoni,4j67 
Hagel,20e 
Hagen,211 
Haggard. 200 
Haggle, 20O 

^,aoo 



g, 200 

Hailatone, 480 
Hain,211 
Halbert,427 
Haldane,318 
Half acre, 135 
Halfhead,135 
Halfman, 136 
Halfpenny, 134 
Halfyazd,!! 
HalL480 
]^aibower, 480 
Halley, 426, 480 
Hallgreen,480 
Halliday, 427 
HallUey, 426 
Hallingman, 239 
HaIlow^eiid2427 
Halloway, 427 
Hambliiikl43 
Hamer, 402 
Hamlet, 40 

TTamKii^ 402 

Hamling, 143 



130 

TTiLmmni^ 143 

Hammond, 210 
Hamper, 312 
Hance, 119 
Hancock, 27 
Hand, 417, 490 
Handel, 417 
Handey, 417 
Handley, 417 
Handright* 432 
Hang,lL2 
Hanger, 289 
Hankey, 280 
Hankin, 289 
Hanlon,289 



Hanmer, 289 
Hann, 17, 101, 289 
Hanna, 17, 101, 289 
Hannay, 19 
Hann^ 101, 289 
Hanney, 17, 289 
Hanny, 101 
Hanrott,280 
Hanianl,119 
Hansom, 119 
Haoaon, 32 
Happey, 60 
Haradon,339 
Harbar,232 
Harber, 232 
Harbert,232 
Harboaitl, 232 
Harbord,232 
Harbour, 232 
Harbad,232 
Hard, 250 
Hardaore,260 
Hardaway, 251 
Harden, 251 
Harder, 260 
Haiding, 260, 406 

TTaiviliatn^ 250 

Hardiment, 25L 276 
Hardoff, 251 
Hardman, 261 
Hardwick,261 
Hardwidge, 261 
Hardy, 250 
Hardyear, 250 
Haro,89, 231 
Haigill, 40, 232 
Hargood, 40, 232 
Harker, 40, 232 
Harknett, 432 
Harland, 232, 318 
Harle, 157, 231 
Harley, 231 
Harling, 157, 231 
Harlot, 40, 232 
Hailott,l2 
Harlow, 281 



Haiman, 40^ 40k 238 

Hanne,147 

Hamer, 147, 232 

Hannoiid,233 

Haimony, 146 

Haniard,95 

Haniett,41 

Harney, 95 

Hamor, 95 

Haniott,41 

HaroUL 833. 513 

Hazp77,^4ieO 

Haiper, 386 

HarTal,231 

Harre,89, 231 

Harridan, 339 

Hanridge,281 

HarrieiH231 

HarriB,231 

Hanitt,339 

Hanod,339 

HaRold,614 

Harrow, 89, 231 

Hany, 89,^484 

Haixyman, 232 

Hart,8M60 

Harte]l,260 

Harter, 250 

Hartie,250 

Harting,260 

Hart]and,261 

Hartman,461 

Hartnall,251 

Hartnell, 221 

Hartnett,251 

Harton, 251 

Hartridge, 251 

Hartry,251 

Hartetonge, 250 (note) 

Hartwright, 251, 460 

Harvest, 95 

Hanrey, 42, 283 

Harvig, 42 

Harward, 233 

Harwin,233 

Harwood,233 

Haae,21,89 

HaaeiL21,169 

Haskdl,216 

Ha8laok,120 

Haas, 89, 307 

Haaian,307 

Haaselqust, 470 

m!tie,448 
HaatUow,448 
Hastriok,448 
Hately, 519 
Hathaway, 169 
Hathway, 42, 160 
Hatley, 168 
Hatred, 519 
Hatriek, 168 



576 



INDEX OF ESrOUSH NAMSa 



i[iM»14p]A 

Haitemorap I6B 

Haiten,88 

HATard,290 

HftTeloek, 40,160; 103 

Hftvaand, 290 

Haw, 300 

Ha«aid,156 

Hawke,96 

Hawkim, 06 

Hawt]Mm,46r 

Ha7,900 

HaydAT. 10, 610 

Ha7doek,510 

Haydon, 610 

HA7iiian,210 

Hajiiiei,402 

Hajmiaii, 160 

Ha7ter,610 

HaTien,160 

Haaud,160 

Haie,160 

Head, 168 

Hfladaehe, 168 (note) 

Heading, 168 

Headlam, 337 

Headriok, 168 

Heariiiff;232 

Hearl,!^ 

Heady, ^ 

Heano, 70 

Heart, 260 

Hearty, 260 

Heaai^ui.476 



HeaTen, 140 
Heayer, 76 
HeaTennaa, 76 
Hebb, 60 
Hebb«rt,61 
Heber, 76 
Hebeon, 32; 61 
Heok,200 
HeoUe,200 
Heetor,460 
Heddy, 168 
Hedge, 209, 401 
Hedgman, 210 
Hedley, 168 
Hegne,200 
Holer, 76 
Height, 610 
HeiMsr, 476 
Helfrioh,275 
HellxnoTe, 168 



Helper, 276 
Helpa,276 
Hembeig, 226 
Hembery, 226 
Hembrow, 226 
" nt, 402 
fr, 130 



417 
300 
Handy, 417 



Henneaiy, 280 



,280 
Himman, 280,461 



Heoiy, 402 
Hentoii,417 
Henty, 417 

lSE!S^38,l 



Herd,: 
Herdnian, 261 
Herepath,232 
Heringand, 232 (ante) 



Heme, 1 
Hem]man^06 
Herod, 330, 482 
Herp, 386 
Herper, 386 
Herriek,231 
Herridgej231 
Herriea,231 
Hening, 106, 232 
Henant, 42, 233 
Heney. 70 
Hertoeks, 330 
Hene, 307 
Heasey, 307 
HeMion,307 
Hea«OD,307 
Heater, 448 
Hetley, 168 
Hett,168 
Hettioh,l68 
He ward, 367 
Hewer, 368 
Hewuh,367 
Hewit,368 
Hewland, 368 
Hewry, 368 
HeMl,169 
Hibbert,61 
Hibbitt, 61 
Hibeoii.6X 
Hiok, 167, 210, 867 
Hickiey, 867 
Hioklin, 367 
HioUing, 167, 367 
mckmiA,368 
Hiokmott, 41, 368 
Hiokook, 210 
Hioki, 367 
Hidden, 440 
Hide, 440 



Hider,450 
367 



Hlglmti^Sa 
Highmora, 341* 308 

Hucman, 966 
mber, 162 _ 

Hfla«fan>id,39,miff 
Hilder, 162 
HiMJng, 162 
Hildratib, 163 
HOdnqx 163 
Kld7mid,162 
Hi]gera,162 
Kd,ieSL4»l 
wiumw^ 38 
HiQaiy, 30, 162 
Hi]]iniii.38 
EGIluupd, 162 

•tllllwUMl^ 163 

HQloek,368 
HDlaoii, 162 
Hfllj, 162 
Hil^«r, 162 
Klmer, 163 
H]]iidge,163 
HUt,lS 
Hmcka,3,78 
Hinge. 202 
Hlngestoo.78 
Hineh, 282 
Hinehej. 292 
Hinob]iiL292 
HmelMl3,292 
Hine, 492 

TTwwn^^n^ 492 

Hinrman, 78, 80 
Hipkin, 61 
Hipp, 60 
Hipaon, 32 
Hipwood,61 
Hitt,440 
Hoadley, 168 
Hobart,3a 
Hoblin,227 
HobnuuD, 227 
Hockaday, 3a 
Hooken, 340 
Hockett,341 
Hookey, 340 
Hocking, 340 
Hookman,341 
HookneIl,221 
Hodd,168l 
Hodge, 367 
Hodgea,S67 
Hodgkin,267 
HodgkiM,368 
Hodgman,368 
Hoe, 340 
Ho^, 340 
Hogan, 867 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAME& 



577 



Hogg, 76^ 867 



HdLdenied, 283 



Holding, 2 
HoUT^ 
Holeman, 282 
HolmnBum* 427 

Holl,282 
Hol]ft]07,42S 
Holknd,282 
HoUer.282 
Homok,426 
HoDida>7, 427 
Hofliniuij 427 
Honing, 282 (note) 
Hollingsworih, 2 

(note) 
Hollowmy, 427 
Holt,^ 
Holter, 282 
Hblfcman, 283 
Holy, 227 
HomAn,58,841 
Home, 402 
Homer, 492 
Homewurd, 498 
Homewood, 493 
Hon^y, 814 
HoneytaU, 814 
Honeyman, 814^ 481 
Honia, 314 
Honnflr2314 
Hoo£,227 
Hoofnun, 227 



Hoole, id.. 
Hoop, 227 
Hope, 227 
Hopldn,227 
Hopman, 227 
HOTd,217 
Holder, 218 
Horn, 520 
Homer, 520 
Homidge, 520 
Horniman, 520 
Homing, 520 
Homman, 620 
Homalnr, 520 (noto) 
HoiToeka, 341 
HoraeMO 
Horaenail, 221 

HdnUna, 70 
Honman, 70 
Hdrfc,2l/ 

Hoaking,443 

Hoiile«,105 
Hoiiae»491 



491 
,624 
Honaeman, 491 
HoaMart,491 
Howard, 42, 155^ 341, 

513 
Howie, 105 
Howley, 105 
Howman, 290 
HoyleTsiO 
Habbaok, 227 
Habbardl^ 
Hnbble, 227, 367 
Habe,227 
Habwi.367 
Hiiolc,d57 
HiiokeU,367 
Hiioken,367 
Haekett.368 
Haoki,867 
Hadd, 280 
Hiiddert,280 
Huddle, 280 
Hnddy, 280 
Hndlm^ 280 
Hiielina,357 
Hog, 357 
HQga]I,S67 
Haggard, 367 
HQgsett,358 
Hyi^357 
Hnghea, 357 
Hi " "* 



Hqm,L.. 
Hnlbert, 106 
Halett,105 
Hiillkh,282 
Hn]lock,S68 
Human, 358 
Hamble, 468 
Homphroy, 40^ 814 
Himd,84 
Hnndy, 84 
Hiingate,314 
Hunger, 314 
Hnnhold, 314 
Hnnibal,314 
Honking. 314 
Hnnn, 314 
HQnnard,314 
Hnnnex^l4 
Hiinn8,314 
Hunt. 84 
Hunting, 84 
HiintraM,468 
Hurdle, 217 
HnrlUt, 340 
Hnrlbnrt, 340 
Hurler, 310 
Hurlook, 340 

U3 



HniTeU,83 
Huixy, 83 
Huaher, 442 
Husk, 442 
HuiStion.442 
HuMell,491 
HuaMy, 491 
Huauok, 491 
Hutt,^ 
Hutting, 280 
Hnttman,280 
Butty, 260 
Hux,442 
Huxen,442 
Hymea,264 

Ibbett,61 
IbiBon,61 
Ioe.«^5 
loely, 475 
Iden,449 
Idle, 449 
If e, 472 
ko,210 
Sler, 416 
Hey, 416 
niman, 163, 416 
Image, 254 
Imber, 312 
Imbert,254 
Inch, 292 



Inchboard, 11, 298 
InQhe8,292 
Ing,^491 
Ingelow, 213 
Ingle, 213 
Ingledew, 39, 218 
Ingleaent, 213 
Ingli8,318 
Ingoe,292 
Ingold, ! 



.292 
Ingram, 41. 3 
Ingrey, 29Z 
428 



Ji^ mi^n 492 
Inward, 492 
Ireland, 318 
Iremonger, 146 
Iron. ^4 

Ironbridge. 474^ 49 
Ironman, 475 
Ironaide/158, 476 
Irrin, 233 
Irwin, 233 
Inrd,475 
labom, 326, 475 
laburg, 475 
lMaiiot,483 
l8elin,475 
lMm,474 
475 



578 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMS& 



hmtd^4n 



.474 
lT«,47S 
Itw,614 
ItchoilSS 
Iwy,76 
Ivy. 473 
lT7W,47a 

Ind,476 

- .474 



jMik,4S8,4» 

jMlnn,462 

jMkeit,46a 

JieUin,4S3 

jMkmaii,4fi8 

JMki^462 

Jm1,483 

Jacat,453 

Jaggud,4SS 

Jagged, 403 

Jigger, 462 

Jii^462 

Janawmj, 444 

Jane, 174 

Je]iei,174 

jMiewmy, 818 

Jannlngi, 444 

Jeaiuay, 174 

Jamuui, 203 

Jurold,204 

Jarvie,2(M 

JU77202 

Jaz,462 

Jeiaoai,437 

Jeaimeret. 444 

Jear7,202 

JeblH 44 285 

JefE,^ 

Jek7ll,tf2 

JeU,436 

JeUe7,4S8 

Jelliooe, 21, 437 

JeUiM,2L437 

Jenkin,444 

Jenner, 444 

Jenneiy, 444 

Jenninge, 444 

Jennotl, 444 

Jeimok,444 

Jenvey, 444 

Jephson, 32 

Jeriold,204 

JeiTii,2M 

Jerwood,204 

JeHunine, 472 

Jenimao, 472 

Jeannay, 24, 469 

Jeaaon, 32 

JeiiUs244 



Jew, 244 

Jewell, 2i4 

JewerT,245 

Jewett,246 

JewiQ,246 

JewiaiL244 

Jol^48at486 

JoU>er,485 

Jobling, 485 

JookiaolL452 

Jodwm,306 

John, 484 

Jooth, 9K 

Jopliiig,485 

Jopp,486 

Jor£ii,140 

Jorti]i,140 

Joakyn. 300 

Joaland, 310 

Jove, 4^ 

Jowett,245 

Jubli,485 

Jabber, 485 

Judaa, 482, 483 

Jndd.306 

Jiide,482 

Judge, 244 

JadSS^306 

JudaoD;,306 

Jadwine, 306 

Jagg, 344 

Juggi]ia.2i4 

Jiiggo,244 

jQkea,244 

Jane, 420 

Junio, 420 

Junner, 420 

Jao,244 

Jard,139 

Jiut,429 

Juatamond, 429 

Juatey, 429 

Jataon,d06 

Jutting, 306 

Kftlkman, 307 
EaIto, 83 
Karker, 481 
Kay, 336 
Kaya, 206 
Keaat,296 
Kebel,286 
KeeL322 
KeelingjS22 
Keely, 322 
Kell,436 
KeUand,437 
KeDaway, 437 
Kellooh,437 
Kell(»d,437 
Kenow, 436 
KeUy, 436 



/•4sr 



Suendray, 75 
Kendrick, 75 

Keona, 987 
Kennard, 328 
Keniiaway2329 

329 



Kenny, vmt 
Kennok.328 
KenwaKd«329 
Keroel, 286 
Kfliley, 202 
Kannan, 203 
Keir, 202 
Keml],9Q2 
- •■ 202 



Kettle, 128 (note) 
Key, 336 
Kibb,286 
Kibbe,45 
Kibbey,286 
Kidd.438 
Kiddie, 438 
Kiddy, 438 
Kidger, 438 
irMtwa.w 438 
Kidney, 438 
Kilby,442 
Kilday, 478 
Kildenry, 478 
Kill, 468 
Kilidaff,478 
Killer, 468 
Kiney,458 
Kil]iok,468 
KiUman, 468 
Kilpin,442 
Kilt, 478 
Kilto,478 
KUty, 478 

JTiwim^ 423 



Kindred, 828 
Kine, 327 



Kinipple, 328 

Kinkee,327 

Kinlooh,328 

TTmmfn ^ 328 

Kinmoath, 328 
Kinnaird, 328 
Kinnear, 328 
Kinnebroc^ 328 
KinneU, 327 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



57& 



Kinner, 328 
Kiimey, 327 
EJmnibiui^ 328 

KInaey, 2SL 327 

Kipp,4<l85 

KipIiDg, 286 

Kinier,433 

Kin, 459 

Kiasel],458 

KiMiok,469 

KitUe,438 
Kitio»438 
Kitty, 438 
~ .422 



Knappu 422 

Kiiipe,2Ql 
KidU,256 
Knope,422 
Xoyretfc, 2(0, 224 

Likben,387 
lAbor,387 



Li^366 
LMkay,36& 
Laok^,d66 
fAftkman, 306 
LMnr.363 
LftctcClOS 
Ladj.lM 
Ladyman, 196 
Liagon,366 
Li£Se,366 
Laid, 194 
Liidnun, 196 
Lunb,86 
Lambert, 336 
Lambev, 88 
Lambofl,86 
I^mbrook, 836 
Lame]in,86 
Lamert,86 
Tffnmair, 622 
Lamp, 86 
Lampee, 86 
Lamping, 86 
Lampldn,86 
Lamprey, 86 
Lampaon, 86 
Lanaway. 336 
Lanoe, 336 
Lanoey, 336 
Land, 336 
Laiidell,336 
Landen, 336 
Lander, 336 
Landfear,336 
LandkM, 363, 364 



La&dlord,336 
LandoxL 28, 336 
Landridge, 336 
l4mdy,336 
Lane, 366 
Lanf ear, 336 
Lankm,836 
Lanning, 336 
Lent, 3^ 
Lanwer, 336 
LanK356 
Laraid,356 
Larey, 356 
IiarUn,366 
TArmnTi, 366 
Larmer, 366 
Laxmatti.366 
Laronx, 356 
Lairey. 36& 
LaridU,366 
LaMeL363 
Lart,to 
Late, 194 
Later, 196 
Latewaid,196 
Lath, 196 
Latha]l,194 
Lathangne, 194 
Lathy, 104 
Latimer, 196 
Lat]ife,196 
Latta,196 
Latter, 196 

Land, 377 
Lanrel,356 
Laurie, 366 
Lavel],387 
Layer, 387 
Laren6k,387 
Lavey, 387 
Lavin, 387 
LayiB,387 
Law, 366 
Lawea,366 
Lawley, 366 
Lawle«^ 363. 364, ; 
Lawman, 366 
Lawyer, 366 
Lay, 366 
Layaid,366 
Layman, 366 
Layie]l,363 
LaEaid,363 
Leader. 196 
Leah, 366 
Lean. 274 
Leaning, 274 
Leap, 266 
Lear, 366 
Learmonth, 366 
LeaiTa,366 
Leaiy, 366 



363 

Leasore, 363 
Leath, 194 
Leathart,196 
Leather, 196, 481 
Leatherby, 481 
Leatherbarrow, 481 
Leatherdale, 481 
Leatherhead, 481 
Leathley, 194 
Leddy, ^ 
Ledgard, 331 
Ledger, 330 
Ledward,331 
Ledwith,331 
Lee, 366 
Leediog, 19i 
Leete,194 
Lefroy,266 
Legett,366 
Legg,366 

Lm^i, 363, 364, 366 
My, 470 
Lender, 336 
Lennaid, 87 
Lent, 110 
Leo, 87 
Leonard, 87 
Leopard, 87, 266 
Leowolf, 87 
Lepper, 266 
Lerew,366 
Lerigo, 366 
Lerway, 366 
Le Sonef, 363 
Leaser, 363 
Lewware, 363i 
Le8ay,363 
Lester, 366 
Lesty,366 
Lethead,331 
Letley,194 
Lenty, 330 
LeveU, 266, 387 
Lever, 266 
Leveret, 387 



Levett, i 
Levey, 387 

Levin, 387 



Levis,: 
Lew, 87 
Lewen, 87 
Lewey, 87 
Leyser, 363 
Le2ard,363 
libbis, 266 
Liberty, 266 
Liddud, 331 
Liddelow, 330 
Lief, 264 



580 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAME& 



life, 264 
LOL 470 

1010,470 
Lilbrman. 470 
Lily. 470 
lindpUO 
lindegnan, 100 
lindemui, 110 
Linder, UO 
Undo, 110 
Lrndquift, 470 
line, 274 
linej, 274 
ling, 109 
lingard, 109 
linden, 109 
lingo, 100 
Iinuig,274 
Link, 87 
linn, 274 
linnwar, 274 
Iinn^274 
linnet, 104. 274 
linney, 274 
Lion, 87 
Iipp,266 
Iiptrot,265 
Lisney, 363 
liinmore, 3B3 
list, 356 
Liiter,366 
Ii>ton,365 
litolfl, 331 
Iitt,330 
liTemore, 265 
liyesey, 265 
Iive7,31 
LiTiok,266 
living, 31,265 
Loaden, 377 
Loeder, 377 
Loedman, 378 
Loat,377 
Look, 446 
Locke, 2, 131 
Looker, 447 
Lookett,447 
Lookie, 19, 13L 446 
Lockhui, 4, 447 
Looknum, 447 
Loft, 131 
Lol]Aid,284 
Loon^, 139 
Loose. 831 
Loosely, 331 
Loosemore, 331 
Lorey,366 
Loiimer, 366 
Lorkin,366 
LonimMi, 366 
Los]i,88 
Lot, 482 



.877 
Lots, 377 
Loton, 377 
Lott.377 
Loud, 46 
London, 377 
Lonnd,495 
Lonp,264 
LoTe,20,265 
LoTeehild,621 

JL4>vegodL 4o4 
LoTegood,484 
LoTdcin,265 
LoTeUo^364 
Loveland, 266 
Lovelefls, 353, 354 
LoTell,265 
Lovemsn, 265 
Lover. 266 
Lovendge, 265 
LoTesey,265 
Loresy, 23 
Loveys, 265 
LoYiok, 20, 265 
Loving, 266 
Lowanoe, 87 
LowdeIl,377 
Lowder, 377 
Lowe, 87 
Lowen, 87 
Loidess.366 
Lowlyr366 
LoinnAn,d66 
LowBon, 32 
Lowy, 87 
Labbo(dc,265 
Lnby, 266 
Luosr, 330 
Lnou,331 
Laoe,331 
Luore, 331 
Lnoy, 65, 331 
Lndbiook, 330 
Laden, 330 
Ladkin,330 
Lngsr, 330 
Lolman, 284 
Loll, 284 
LaUy,284 
Lamb, 86 (note) 
Lamp. 86 (note) 
Lnmpkin, 86 (note) 

Landy, 495 
Lone, 139 
Lant,496 
Lash, 88 
La8k,88 
Lather, 331 
Latman, 331 
Laton,330 




]labb,471 

llaUmtt,471 

Machine, 445 

Madda]n,3tt 

Bladd0n,342 

Maddem,3a 

lladdook,341 

]faddy,341 

Mader,342 

Hadle,361 

liadlin,3Sl 

Mager,410 

Maggot. ^0 

Maggy, 410 

£Sood,66 

Maiden, 3tf 

Maine, 410 
Maisey, 410 
Maiie,410 
Mala^, 180 
Male,410 
Ma]^179 
Malk]n,178 
Mall, 1^8 
Mallard, 108, 179 
Malley, 178 
MfcliiTig, 178 
Mallool^lTS 
MaUonr.lTO 
Malt. 180 
Maltboose, 179 
Maltboi, 42, 179 
MaltmaD,181 
MaltwooLm 
Manoer,434 
Manohee,68 
Maaeh]n,58 
Mander,434 
Mandle,434 
Mandy,434 
Manfred, 40^ 58 
Manger, 58. 410 
Ma gles,58 
Manhood, 66 
Manigaalt.68 
Manlove,40^58 
Manly, 58 
Mann, 21, 07, 68 
Mannakay, XL, 68 
Mannell, SB 
iCa.w«i<wfc^ 2I9 58 



INDBX OF ENOUSH NAJiB& 



581 



Manirfng, 58 
llaimix,58 
llumie,434 
Ifianship, 66 
liaiit,& 

lCanion,434 
lfAnuB,514 

Man. 79 
Biai^80 
ICarcher, 80 
UajroQiLSO 
Harer79 
lfu«yt,a69 
lfai&a,d68 
Marig^d,l%880 
Marine, 369 
MariiMr, 869, 460 
Marii,d68 
Mark, 80L 482 
Matker, 80, 460 
Markcfv,80 
Marme,80 
Marklove, 80 
Markwiok,80 
Marlii>,d68 
MarUiig,d68 
Marman, 360 
Mamer, 969« 
Mamumt. 909 
Mamar, oS& 
MaiT,368 
Mazramore, 80 
Mam, 368 
Marriaii,369 
Marrow, 868 
lfaR7,368 
Man, 143^ 144 
Marvin, 369 
Marv7,369 
Marw]ok,369 
Maiy, 79 
MaiTSian, 80 
Bfaih, 4^626 
Maahman, 445^ fl28 
Maakell,446 
Maa]in,622 
MMaa]l,628 



MaMina.622 

MaMdng\)erd,48 

MaH(m,32,522 



48,683 



Maasare, i _ 
Matohin,341 
liathamL342 
Mather, 342 
Matilda, 4U 
Matkin,341 
Matland,342 
Mattam,342 
Matthewman, 842 



Matthie,341 
Mattook,841 
Matta,341 
Manle, 178 
Bianiy, 402 
Mawnej, 138 
Maxe7,,445 
Maxon, 445 
MaxBe,440 
May, 410 
Ma7all,410 
Mayer, 410 
Mayhew, 410 
Maylin,410 
Mayman, 410 
Maynard, 48, 410 
B£ayne,48 
Mayo, 410 
MaAnliffe. 614 
MaOambzidge,'" 
MaOaakiriroU 
Mo.Qary, 514 
McHitteriok, 514 
McOaoar, 614 
Mo.Ottor,514 
McBagDaU,514 
M&^itteriok, 514 
McSwrneyTMi 
MaVioar, 514 
Mead, 341,379 
Meaden,342 
Meader,342 
Meadway,342 



Mealing, 79 
Meaael,522 
Measare,522 
Meatman, 3tt 
Medal, 361 
Medaiy, 342 
Medd,341 
Medden,342 
342 



MedlandTdiS 
Medlar, 361, 473 
Medlen,361 
Medley. 361 
Medlook,342 
Medlioott, 361 
Medwin,d^ 
Mee,410 
Meeoh,200 
Meek, 200 
Meeker, 200 
Meekey,200 
Meekinff,200 
Meen,79 
Mogen, 47 
Megg3r,410 

MeUar, 180 

Memaitl,180 

Me]liB,179 



MeIliah,S4 
Mello,l79 



24,179 



Mellodew, 180 
Mellow, 179 
Mellowday, 180 
Melody, 12, 189 
Menoe, 434 
Menday, 434 
Mende8,434 
Menne, 58 
Mennie, 58 
Mennow, 58 
Menaer,434 
Meii7,368 
Merle, 368 
MerreU,368 
Memok,368 
Merrunan, 80^ 869 
Metxin, 3d9 
Meny, 3 68 
MenynMolL 809 
Meahe^lS 



Meniah, 486, 022 

MfMnriiiff 522 

Bfethd£3,342 

Methley,861 

Methii&,342 

Metman,342 

2Cettam,342 

Mettee,341 

MetTm 

MiaS408 

Miohie.406 

Mioo,406 

Michehnore, 406 

Mlekle, 346, 406 

Mioklewri^t, 406 

Middle, 879 

Miette,379 
Might, 4U 
Mighter, 4U 

Mildmay, 25w 282 
Mildn£^ 
Mae, 17 
Miley, 17, 179 
Milk, 179 
Millard, 180 
Miller, 53. 180 
Millie, 179 
Millieent 42, 180 
Millige,179 

MiHitin 179 

Milliiige, 179 
MiSia, 23, 179 
lfi]la,23 
Milo, 17, 179 
Minaid,266 
lGnoe,266 
M|n«h^n 999 

Miner, 266 



582 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 






IfimiAj, 27t 986 
Ifiiiiiaw, 106^ S6e 
MmuMfiM 
IGnooli, 266 
IGadng 880 
Milt, 136 
Mistanl36 
lfittdl,879 
liitton,380 
— ,380 



Mode, 237 
lfod^23r 
Moder,237 
Modmto.237 

Mole, 92, 178 
Moll, 65^ 92, 178, 484 
Molltfd, 179 
MoU^, 178 
MoUing, 178 
Monour, 68 
Monger, 68 
Monej, 68, 360 
Moiitgomet7^486 
Monwnent, 276^ 360 
Mood, 237 
Moody, 237 
Moon, 8, 138 
Moonej, 3» 138 
MoothaiiL237 
Monn, 402 
Morda7,268 
Moide,268 
Moidae,258 
More, 402 
Morelnwd,402 
Moi8ll,402 
- ,403 



More7,402 
Morliiiff,4Q2 
MorlooL402 
Moorer402 
Moorh«B, 402 
MoomiAii, 403 
Morrow, 402 
Mono, 268 
Mokm1,268 
Monman, 269 
Mort,26^ 
MQrtid,268 
Morter,268 
Mortnm,268 
Morwiid.403 
Mom, 237 
Moier, 237 
MoMT, 237 
Modiii.237 
MoMr237, 491 
" 237 



^237 



MMtna.! 
Mote, 110,23 
Moth, 110, 2i 
Mother, 293 
Motion, 238 
Motley, 237 
Mott,237 
Mottow, 237 
Mottnyn,237 
Moaei,237 
Mould, 180 
Moulder. 180 
Mouldiok, 180 
Moulding, 180 
MonlTlSo 
Mound, 276 
Mount, 276 
Monntun. 276 
Monae, 92,237 
Moiuell,237 
Moneer, 237 
Month, 237, 418 
Moutrie, 237 
Montt«d],237 
Monson,238 
Moza7» 446 
Moxon, 446 
Maoh,406 
Mnokelt, 406 
Mnokle,406 
Muoklewnth, 406 
Maddimuv^ 
Maddock, 237 
Maddle,237 
Mudlin,237 
MadridgeJI37 
Monday, 276 
Mnndefi, 276 
Mnnden, 276 
Mnndy, 276 
Mnnn,369 
Mnnnew, 369 
Mannings, 369 
Mnnting, 276 
MiiidooL268 
Mnnel,258 
Mart, 258 
Marta,268 
Mortud, 268 
Martha, 268 
Manok,237 
MaspraU,237 
MaiMard, 237 
Manell,237 
Most, 238 
Maetard,238 
Matter, 238 
Ma«till,238 
Maito,238 
Maitolph, 42 
Martoph,238 
MaBty,238 
Matimer, 41 



Mntlow,237 
Matter, 237 
Mattoii,23a 
Masiy, 237 
Mynn, 966 
Myrtle, 258 

Nabli,422 
Nada]L256 
Na^tald,275 
Na^ 10, 220 
Nfi£LlO,290 
Nalder, 266 
Naldrett,2S» 
Nance, 239 
Nann,239 
Nannenr, 239 
Nanny, 239, 484 
Nana, 239 
Nanaon, 32, 239 
NH»kin,422 
Nairoweoat, 301 
NatkinB,276 
Natt,276 
NaTin,420 
Nay, 420 
Naylor, 220 
Neate,255 
Neck, 126, 418 
Need, 258 
Needle, 25(» 
Needier, 256 
Nefflen, 151 
NegaB,255 
Nenner, 239 
Nerod,421j 
Nestle, 256 
Nestling, 256 
NettK256 
Neve, 420 
Neville, 151 
NeTin,420 
New, 420 
Newey,420 
Newoome, 297, 421 
Newoomlv421 
Newen, 420 
Newiok,420 
Newling, 420 
NewloTe, 421 
Newman, 297, 421 
Nex,126 
Niavi,420 
Nibbs,8 
Nibbett,265 
Nibloe, 151 
Nice, 255 
Nick, 126 
Niokerson, 126 
Nioklen, 126 
Niess.^^ 
(btingale, 104 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAJiEa 



583 



Kivolex, 151 
Nix, 126 
Nme,126 
N<Md,240 
Nobbt,8 
Noble, 151 
Noddle, 240 
Nodder, 240 
NodiDg,240 
No5r522 
Noon, 439 
Nooning, 438 
Non»tt, 301 
Norf or, 301 
Noigate, 301 
NorLm,301 
Norman, 301 
Norqueeib, 301 
Norramore, 301 
Nome, 300 
North, 300 
NorthArd,240 
NorthooU, 301 
Northeaat, 301 
Nortlioy,2i),300 
Northmore, 301 
Noeer, 240 
Notman, 240 
Nott,240 
Notter, 54 
Nottidge,240 
NoTeU,151 
Nnnley, 439 
Niinn,439 
Nonnery, 439 
Nunney, 439 
Natt, 240, 473 
Nnttall,240 
Natter, 240 
Nutting, 240 
Nattman,240 
Nuwr, 240 

Oake,4n 
Oakey, 471 
Obom,156 
O'Bmadair, 514 
Odam,381 
Oddy, 217 
OdeD,334 
Oden,120 
Odieme, 382 
Od]am,334 
Od]in,334 
Odling,334 
Off en, 385 
0£fer, 385 
Offer, 385 



Qffey, 

cm,', 



OfBey, 385 
Offiow, 385 
Offoid,385 
Ogbom, 193 



Ogff,193,482 
O^er, 193 
OUey, 154 
01daere,418 
Old, 418 
01d]fl,418 
Olding, 418 
Oldman, 418 
01diidge,419 
Oldry, 419 
Olifl, 471, 513 
OUphant, 88 
OUve, 471 
Oman, 341 
Omer, 492 
Ondow, 119 
Orchard, 388, 491 
Ord,217 
OrdiAh,217 
OTdward,218 
Ordway, 218 
Ore, 624 
Organ, 524 
Oigar, 217 
Oiger, 524 
Onel,524 
Orman, 59 
Orme, 108 
Ormerod,148 
Orridge, 341 
Orrin,524 
Orrias,524 
Onock, 341 
Orth,217 
Oebom, 119 
Osbom, 39 
Osgood, 119 
Osman, 120 
Oimer, 120 
Otmond, 120 
Ost, 302 
O8t6ll,302 
Oitermoor, 303 
Ostrich, 102, 303 
Oswald, 42,120 
Oswin, 120 
Osyer, 119 
Ott,194 

Otter, 91, 513» 194 
Ottey, 194 
Ottiwe]L382 
Otway, 194 
Oagh,385 
Ought, 381 



Ousey, I 
Outing, 381 
Outlaw, U, 381 
Outram, 41382 
Outred, 382 
Outridge,382 
Ouvry, 76 
OTen,524 



Over, 76 

Oreraore, 76, 112 (note) 

Overall, 76 

Overed,76 

OTerett,76 

Overmore, 76 

Overy, 76 

Ovey, 290 

Ower, 290 

Owle,106 

Owler, 106 

Owley, 105 

Ow8t,302 

Oyster, 302 

(^sterman, 303 

Pack, 172 
Packard, 172 
PMker,53,172 
Pfeckett, 172 
Packman, 172 
Paddick, 166 
Paddle, 166 
Padley, 166 
Paddy, 166 
Padman, 167 
Padmore, 167 
PaiL192 
pldUard, 192 
Pairo,68 
Painter, 87 
Pa]airet,192 
Paler, 192 
Paley, 192 
Palfrey, 81, 192 
Palfriman,81 
Paling, 192 
PaI]aoe,521 
Palliser,521 
Palmer, 192 
Palsy, 241 
Pan, 143 
Pander. 87 
Pann, 175 
Pannell, 176 
Pannier, 176 
Pant, 31 
Panter, 87, 236 
Panther, 87, 236 
Panting, 31, 236 
Pantlin,235 
Panton,236 
Pftntry, 236 
Pape, 291 
Ptepillon, 201 
Paraday, 61 
Paradise, 62 
Paragreen, 69 
Paragren, 69 
Panunour, 12,69 
Paroell,453 
Paidar, 222 
Pitfdew, 62 



584 



INDBX OF BNOLISH KAMB9. 




Put, to, (a 
Funiiiore,0O 
PuTeIl,61 
PUTOi,ia 
Puiy, 61 
PtoMj, 61 

Puti 3GCS 
Phrter, 222 
Piwtriiok, 370 
PartriidgcLliOa; 870 
Pteooe.487 
Pkali,487 
Puk,487 

PMi,iai 

PsMBum, 181 
PiMmer. 181 
PMM3r,i81 
Pule, 183 
Pikimore, 187 
Pfttrid««Lier 
Paltry, 187 
P»tte,188 
Pfttti0,188 
PftttlA,188 
PMkttmML 187 
P»iimori86 

PMidi]iff.aa 

Pftvej, af 1 
PaWer, 221 
Pazmaa, 487 
Paj, 101 
Pea. 101 
P3»djj9 
Peaeh,^ 
Peaohy. 222 
Peaoo%^101 
Peak, 222 
Pear. 68 
Pearl, 89 
Peaniiaii,89 
Peane,4B3 
Peariiee,370 
PeaMod,181 
Peat, 168 
PeaSe, 168 
PeoheU,223 
Peoker, 222 
Peoketi,222 
Pedder, 166 
Pedle7,166 
Peede,168 
Ped^dlO 



PeevOT, 01 
Peffer,91 
Pen 64, 66 
PdEam,20O 
Pell, 192 
Pellett,269 
Pellew,192 
Pelly, 192 
Pendall, 236 
Pender, 236 
Pandered, 236 
Penk,lS 
Penkeit, 182 
Penman, 177 
Penn, 176 
Pennant, 4L 177 
PenneII,177 
Penner, 177 
Penniok, 176 
Penny, 178 
Pennjead, 177 
Pennymora, 177 



Penteooet, 487 
Pentelow, 236 
Pentin,236 
Pepin, 414 
Peploe,414 
Peppard,414 
Pepperoom, 4Si 
PereiTal,4S3 
Pereh, 106 
Peroher, 89 
Peroy,453 
Perdae, 69 
Peregrine. 89 
PerSnToi 
Perlej, 89 
Pemer. 69 
Pero,68 
Perown,69 
Penam, 69 
Pemam,69 
Pecrigo, 89 
Perrin, 70 
Perrott, 89 
Penao,453 
Pert, 370 
Perton«870 
Perwort, 69 
Peat, 183 
Pester, 183 
Pether, 166 
Pethiek, 166 
Pete, 166 
Petley, 166 
Patrick, 167 
Petrie,167 
Pett,l66 
Petter, 166 
Petty, 166 
Peirwa]l,91 
Perrell, 91 



Phair, 323 
Fliaraoh, 323^48 
Phillibiown, 39 
PliiI]iiiioce,41,613 
PhyncSlf 

Phy , 

Pmk,77, 177 
Piokaid, 178^ 318 
Piokel],177 
Picker, 178 
PSokett, 178 
Piokman, 178 
Piddnok, 166 
Kgg, 64, 77, 177 
Pig8att,178 
Pigram,178 
Klktv, 483 
Pabeam, 819 
Pflf ard, 969 
Pflnim, 12, 269 
raT 13, 17,269 
Pflley, 17, 289 
PUlman,269 
Pilloir, 13, 17t 2« 
Pikm,370 
PQot, 289 
Pinard,238 
Pinoh, 178 
Pinoheoii, 178 
Pinder, 236 
Pingo, 178 
Pink, 178 
Pinkert,178 
Pinkey, 178 
Pinn,176 
Pinnock, 178 
Pinny, 176 
Pino, 176 
Pipe, 414 
Piper, 91 
Pippin, 414 
Pippy, 414 
Pit&er, 178 
Pitt, 491 
Pittook,166 
Plain, 396 



Plank, ; 
Planner, 396 
Plant, 396 
Plater, 376 
Platen, 376 
Piatt, 376 
Platten,376 
PUy,440 
Player, 440 
Pleaden, 440 
Pledger, 440 
PleiriD,184 
Fleydell,440 
Plimmer, 440 
Flineke,392 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



585 



Plomer, 465 
Plough, 214 
Ploughman, 215 
PlnclE, 214 
PlaokneH,215 
Plugg,214 
Plain,465 
Plumbridge, 465 
Plume, 466 
Plumer, 465 
Plumlej, 465 
Plumridge, 465 
Plunkett, 215 (note) 
Pooook, 101 
Podger, 455 
Podmore, 455 
Poo, 101 
Pofley, 421 
Pogmore. 225 
P(»gnar^225 
Polden,242 
Pole, 281 
Poleman, 281 
Pollard, 281 
Polley, 281 
PoUo, 281 
PoUook, 281 
Polwin, 281 
Pond7235 
Ponder, 236 
PonM>n.2d6 
Ponv, 175 
Poodle, 454 
Pool, 491 
Poole, 280 
Pooley, 281 
Poore,452 
Poonnan,452 
PopeT^ 
Popkm,422 
Pople, 421 
Popleti, 422 
Popoff, 422 

Portman, 229 
Poriwine,229 
Port, 409 
Poiitte,409 
Porton,409 
Potioary, 455 
Potiphar, 483 
Potipher, 455 
Potman, 461 
Pott,4M 
Potten,454 
Potter, 53, 54, 455 
Pettier, 455 
Pottle, 454 
Pottman, 455 
Potto. 454 
Potwme, 455 
Poulter, 241 



Poupard,422 
Poupart, 422 
Poupin, 422 
Povey, 421 
Power, 12, 452 
Powter, 241 
Powder, 241 
Prain, 185 
Pram, 371 
Prangndl,221 
Pratt, 2 
Pray, 184 
Preacher, 185 
Pretdin, 186 
Preais453 
Preasey, 453 
Preesney, 453 
PreBeweU, 453 
Preter, 185 
Pretty, 185 
Prettyman, 185 
Prickle, 185 
Priddy, 185 
Pride, 185 
Prigg, 184 
Prime, 371 
Primeroae, 467 
Primmer, 371 
Priiley, 186 
Priaeman, 186 
PriBBey, 186 
Priwiok,186 
Pritt, 185 
Proaaer, 480 
Protheroe, 218 
Protyn, 218 
Proud, 447 
Proudf oot, 447, 455 
Prout,447 
Prouting, 447 
ProwBe,447 
Pruday, 447 
Prudence, 447 
Pruae, 186 
Pucket, 379 
Puokle,d79 
Puokridge, 379 
Puddefoot, 447, 465 
Puddick, 454 
Pubdicombe, 455 
Puddif er, 465 
Pudding, 464 
Puddy, 454 
Pudney, 455 
Pugin, 379 
PuBr281 
Pulkn, 281 
Pullar, 281 
Pulley, 281 
Pulling, 281 
Pulman,281 
Punelt,416 
Punnett,416 

V 3 



Punter, 236 
Puplet,422 
Pupp, 421 
Puicell,453 
Purohaae, 12, 69 
PuroheB,69 
Purdie, 39 
Purgold, 69, 279 
PurkiB,69 
Purhuid, 69 
Purling, 69 
PumeU, 70 
Pumey, 70 
Punier, 69 
Purse, 453 
Purser, 453 
PursM^loTe, 3, 453 
Pundfoye, 453 
Pursey, 453 
Purselow, 453 
PurHozd,453 
Purt, 370 
Purtell,370 
Punria, 69 
Puatard,409 
Purtin,409 
Putmui,455 
Putt, 4^ 
Puttiok.464 
Pye,S3 
Pyeman, 313 

Quail, 102, 296 
Qualey, 298 
Quallet,296 
Quantock,316 
Quaritch, 47 
Quarman, 278 
Quarrell, 47, 278 
•,47^,278 
,278 
244 
_ _ 63, 263 
QuennelL 263 
Quick,164 
ly, 165 
T, 165 
le,164 

3,123 

Quill, 47, 122 
47 

47,63,124 
^ 41, 47, 124 
123 
124 
447 





586 



IMDKX OF KNOUSH NAMBS. 



few***"' 

Babbit, 89 
Baboiie,97 
Bftlnr, ISr 
Back, 982 
BMkei,»3 

BMUiia,a6S 

Baddiffe,348 



S48 
IUddielc,347 
Baduh,348 
BadiM»d,348 
Badmora,S48 
Badwmj, 348 
BaffdL187 
Baff^l87 
Baft6r,228 
Baftenr, 228 
Ba gg,3Q 2 
Basxettk do3 
Ba^349 
Ba^kM, 3S4(]i0le) 
Bacon, 349 
Bf3n,85,349 
Ba^ird,349 
Bambold,349 
Bainbow, 137 
Bainey, 319 
Bamfoi^349 
Bainforth,349 
Baini, 3^ 
Balph,72,963 
Bam, 85 
Bamm, 97 
Bampling, 228 
Bamridge, 97 
Banaker, 349 
Baiioe,.2M 
Banoour. 830 



42,72,228 
189,349 

Bairn, ' — 

Baimie,189 

BMunm,228 

Banteni,228 

Baper, 187 

Bapkm,187 

Bh»P»187 

B2iqr,863 

Ba«talL448 

Bas^i^448 

Bat, 347 

Batdiff, 40 

Bather, 348 

Batheram, 348 




Be.: 
Bait,» 
Batter, 348 
Battham,348 
Batti«al,348 
B»ta^347 
Batten, 348 
Batfcra7.d48 
Batt7,347 
BaTen, 97 
Bavener, 97 
BaTenahear, 97 
Bavej, 187 
Bay, 382 
Ba7faankl,3G2 
BaymenL 363 
Baymond, 363 
Bayner, 48, 350 
Baynham, 360 
Beader,348 
Beading, 348 
Readman, 348 
Beadirin,348 
Beady. 347 
BeaYen,188 
BeeUeo, 344, 854 
BeoknelL3^ 
Reoord, 343 
Bedband,348 
Beddall, 347 
Beddaway, 348 
Bedden,348 
Beddelein, 348 
Bedding, 348 
Reddish, 348 
Bedgell,348 
Bedhead, 348 
Red]]ne,348 
Redman, 40, 348 
Redmayne,348 
Redmond, 348 
Redmore,348 
Redmonll41 
Redoat,254 
Redwar,348 
Redwood, 349 
Bedje^348 

Re£i,188 
Regal, 362 
Regan, 349 
Regans, 349 
Re8Md,360 
Regnart,349 
Reidy, 347 
Rein, 349 
Reinman, 350 
ReinwdL350 
Relph,l63 
Remnant, 41 



Renau 
Rendel,'228 



Bmm, io«,18» 
- -,189 



104, 
BcnniaoB, 189 
104,189 



Rentle,a28 
Rentmon^ 288 
Rcnnke, 188 
Ileatttll,448 
Bes*orick,448 
Beti^it048 
BeYere,188 
BeWIL188 
B«yud,349 
Beynafd,349 
B^ynold8,350 
Rhodes, to 
Bibb, 188 
Bibbeek,188 
Bibiead,343 
Rich, 343 
Richan,343 
Ri^ud, 343 
RiohbeIL343 
Richer, 343 
Riches, 23, 343 
Richley, 343 
Richman,344 
Richmond, 3i4 
Riohold, 344 
RickaKl,343 
Riekett,343 
Rickman, 344 
Ricks, 23, 343 
RiddeI]r2S4 
Riddick,254 
Ridding, 254 
Ridei^ 
Rideoat,254 
Rider, 254 
Ridey, 254 
Ridge, 343^ 491 
Ridger,254 
Ridges, 343 
Ridgeway, 344 
Ridgwdl^344 
Ridgyaid,343 
RiSaEd,254 
Riding, 254 
Ridlon,254 
Riekie, 343 
Riff, 188 
RiggalL343 
Rignanlt,380 
Rind, 140 
Rinder, 140 
Rindle,140 

?^' ^- «-. ^ 
230^460 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMEB. 



587 



Riper, 188 
Bipeie,188 
Bipk^, 188 
Biplc^, 188 
Bippin, 188 
But. 133, 134 
Bitoiiie,343 
BitchW348 
Biver, 188 
Biven, 188 
Biyi6re,188 
Boaoh,252 
Boaf. 187 
Boaiil,5H 
Boak^252 
Bobb, 187 
Bobbie, 187 
Bobert,372 
Bobley, 187 
Boblow, 187 
Bobo]i]i,187 
BocheB,2S3 



Bockey, 252 
Bockett,253 
Bodaway, 373 
Bodber, 372 
Bodbonrn, 372 
Bodd,371 
Bodduii,372 
Boddu, 372 
Bode, 46 
Boden, 372 
Bodgard,372 
Bodger, 40, 372 
Bo^371 
Bodman, 373 
Bodney, 41, 373 
Bodriok,373 
Bodway, 373 
Bodwe&,373 
Bodyud^372 
Boff,187 
Boffie, 187 
Boger, 46 
Boget,253 
Boker, 253 
Bolf, 72 
Bolfe,263 
BoUand, 373 
Boman, 318 
Borne, 373 
Bomer, 374 
Bomilly, 374 
BondeatL 228 
Boof, 187 
Book, 46, 262 
Booke,98 
Booker, 263 
Boom, 373 
Boope,187 
Booper, 187 
Boot, 371 



Booth, 371 
Booti, 372 
Bootsey, 372 
Bope,187 
Boper, 187 
Bosbert,79 
BoMoe,79 
Boaeblade, 407 



BoeeiT, ' 
Boeetnom, 407 
Boner, 79 
Bonnbloom, 407 
BoekeIl,79 
Boding, 79 
Bosoman, 79 
Boe8,79 
BoBBcr, 79 
Bost,448 
Bo«teme,467 
BotQh,^ 
Both, 371 
Bothe — 



Bothon, 372 
Bothney, 373 
Bothwell, 373 
Bottenfysohe, 107 
BottenheiyDg, 107 
Bottoii,3A 
Bough, 187 
Bound, 228 
Boupell, 187 
Bout. 371 
Bouth, 371 
Boutley, 372 
Boutledge, 373 
Bowen, 472 
Bowntree, 472 
Bubb, 187 
Buby, 187 
Bubery, 187 
Rubidge, 187 
Buck, 252 
Buoker, 263 
Budd, 371 
Buddell, 372 
Budder. 372 
Buddick, 372 
Buddiman, 373 
Budding, 372 
Budgard, 372 
Budkin, 372 
Budman, 373 
Budolph, 373 
Budwiok, 373 
Bue,252 
Buff. 187 
Buffle, 187 
Bufl^, 187 
Bugg, 252 
Bugman, 253 
Bum, 373 
BumtMJL38 



Bumbelow, 374 
Bumble, 38 
BumbcOd, 38, 874 
Burnley, 374 
Bummer, 374 
Bummey, 373 
Bundle, 228 



Bust, ^x«v 
BuBtioh,448 
BujBton.448 
Buth, 371, 482 
Butledge, 373 
Butleyj372 
Butt, 371 
Butter, 372 
Butty, 371 
Bybauld,343 
Bye, 343 
Byman,344 
Bymer, 344 

Sabbage,424 
Sabey, 423 
Sabine, 424 
Sable, 424 
Sack, 171 
Sackelld, 171 
Sacker, 171 
Sackman, 171 
Sadd,430 
Safe, 423 
Saffell,424 
Saffeiy, 424 
Saffoid, 424 
Safian, 424 
Sager, 171 
Sago, 171 
SaHor, 308 
Sala,308 
Sa]amon,308 
Sale, 308 
SiUeman, 308, 461 
Salkeld, 171 (note) 
Sail, 65 
Sallaway, 308 
Salle8,308 
Sally, 484 
Sahnon,d08 
Salt, 46, 443 
Salter, 443 
Salve, 346 
Salvin, 346 
Sam, 75 
Sampkin, 75 
Sande]l,430 
Sanden,431 
Sander, 430 
Sandman, 430 
Sandoe, 430 
Sands, 430 
Sandwer, 431 
Sandy, 430 



588 



INDEX OF ENQUSH NAMES. 



8Mid7i,430 

fikner, 170 

SMig,438 

8uiran,438 

8uike7,438 

8uiB,4aO 

Sant,430 

Suiter, 430 

SAnOey, 430 

Banty, 430 

8apfain,424 

Sai»li]i,4a4 

S»pp,423 

Sapper, 424 

Sapt^424 

SerAh, 230 

8arum,487 

Sure, 230 
8arei,230 
SarKOod,230 
8arraU,230 
Sub, 451 
SatehelLin 
Satow7451 
Satter, 131, 451 
Saaoe, 266 
Saul, 138. 482 
Sault,443 
Sayage, 424 
8aTeaU,424 
8aTell,424 
Saveriok, 424 
8avidge,424 

Saward, 322 
8aze,200 
8azl,201 
Say, 171 
Bayer. IH 
8cad<Un,l91 
Boadlook, 191 
Scaffold, 219 
Scamp, 442 
Scarf e, 366 
Soarman, 223 
SoanielL221 
Scarr, 223 
Soarrow, 223 
Soharb, 366 
Sohooley, 513 
Soobell,442 
Soobie,442 
Scolding, 148, 228 
Score, 223 



Scotchmer. 317 
Scotland, 317 
Scott, 317 
Scottock,ai7 
Scotting, 317 
Soottoh, 19 
Soottsmith, 317, 462 
Scow, 496 



12 



Sonny, 
Sea, 172 
8eaber,321 
Seaborn, 321 
Seabright, 321 
Seabrook,322 
Seabiiry,322 
Seage,172 
Seaffo, 172 
Sea£orM,323 
Seaman, 322 
Seamark, 323 
Beamer, 173 
Sear, 230 
Search, 231 
Seara, 173 
8earight,322 
Sea?y, 261 
SeaindL322 
Seawanl,322 
Seawen, 495 
Seawood,323 
Seeker, 173 
Sedger, 173 
Sedgwick, 173 
Seffert, 173 
Sef owl, 94, 322 
Segar, 173 
Seguin, 173 
Se&, 346 
Sell, 308 
Sellar, 308 
Selley, 308 
SelUok,308 
Semng,d08 
Se]lia,308 
SeUon,308 
Selman, 308 
SeWei,346 
SeWey, 346 
Selway, 308 
Semy, 75 
SendaU, 456 
Senlo, 170 
Sent, 466 
Seppings, 262 
Serbntt, 230 
Serle, 230 
Sermon, 230 
SerTell,230 
Setiight, 451 
Sew, 267 
Seward, 42, 322 
8ewell,322 
Sewey, 267 
Sex, 200 
Sexey, 200 
Sexmer, 201 
Seybam, 321 
Seyfried, 173 
Seymour, 7, 173 
Shadbolt, 168 



Shaddock, 168 
Shade, 191 
Shadiaka,168 
Shadwell^m 
Shaft, 219 
8hafter,219 
8hafto,219 
Shakeahtft, 236 
Shakeapere, 236 
BhaHey, 456 
Shallow, 456 
Shank, 438 
Shankey, 438 
Shark, ^1 
Sharkey, 231 
Sharkley, 231 
Sharp, 356 
Shaxpey, 366 
Sharpin, 357 
Sharmu, 366 
Shaipleo, 354, 367 
Shaipley, 357 
Shaw, 495 
Shawkey, 466 
ShAwman, 223, 451 
Sheaf7l48 
Shearsmith, 462 
Sheath, 191 
Sheather, 191 
Shebeare,321 
Sheen, 389 
Sheer, 223 
Sheniman, 389 
Sherman, 223 
SherTeU,223 
Sheny, 223 
Shether, 191 
Shick, 431 
ShicUe,4ai 
Shield, 148, 227 _^ 
Shierbrand. 199, 223 
SbiUibeer, 361 
Shilling, 360 
ShiUito, 361 
Shin, 418 
Shine, 389 
Shiner, 389 
Shinn,389 
Shinner, 389 
Shipman, 322 
Shirk, 231 
Shirkey, 231 
Shiveiick, 262 
Shlange, 108 
Shoe, 496 
Sholto, 457 
Shone, 389 
Shoner, 389 
Shoob^ 495 
Shoobrick. 496 
Shopp, 442 
Shoppee, 442 
Shopperie, 442 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



589 



Shore, 223 
Shorey, 223 
Shonnan, 223 
Shotbolt, 317 
Shoulder, 457 
Shoult, 466, 457 
8hoy<di,4^ 
Shover, 442 
Shorev, 223 
Sibbeld, 172 
8ibfaiok,262 
8ibel,262 
Sibert,173 
Sibei7,262 
Sibley, 262 
Sib«>n,262 
Sibthorp, 262 
Siekena, 172 
Sickle, 172 
SicUemore, 30, 173 
Sioklen, 172 
Siokling, 172 
Bickmao, 173 
Siddell,431 
Bidden, 431 
Siddoiu(,431 
Side, 431 
Sidey, 431 
Sidgear, 431 
Sidiie7,431 
Sier, 173 

Sierewri^ht, 262, 460 
Sieyier, 262 
8ifacen,262 
173 
172 
^ fey, 172 
Sigmimd, 7, 173 
Sigonnuiy, 173 
Sigoumey, 30 
Siirirt,173 
Bike, 172 
flinirnim, 433 
8ilTa,346 
SUve, 346 
Silver,479 
Sim, ZL 
Simco, 21, 262 
Simberd, 466 
Simkin, 262 



Simm, 262, 484 
Bimmell, 262 
Simmondfl, 173 
SimmoDB, 7 
Simon, 484 
Sindr^, 466 
Sinden, 466 
Binder, 466 
Singer, 438 
Single, 438 
Sinker, 438 
Sinton, 466 



Sipleu,262 



Sipp, ] 
Sipthorp, 262 
SirkeU, 441 
Sidey, 272 
SiBtenon, 293 
Sitton, m 
Sivxao,262 
Six, 200 
SiM. 272 
Si2eland,272 
Sixen, 272 
Sizer, 272 
Skate. 191 
SkatUff, 191 
Skeen, 389 
Skeet, 191 
Skelding, 148, 22 
SkeltT^ 
Skill, 360 
Skiller, 361 
Skillett, 361 
Skiney, 389 
Skipper, 322 
Skipwith, 37 
Skoggin, 496 
Skone, 389 
Skonlding, 148, i 
Sky, 431 
Slack, 267 
Blade, 201, 491 
Bladen, 201 
Slader, 201 
Slagg, 257 
SUte,201 
Slater, 201, 460 
Slay, 267 
Slee,267 
Sleeman,268 
Slegg, 267 
Slewey, 257 
Slewman, 258 
SlightilOl, 257 
Slow, 267 
Slowey, 257 
Slowman, 268 
Sly, 257 
Slybody, 257 
Slyman,268 
Slyoff, 268 
Smelt, 106, 270 
Smith, 461 
Snuther, 461 
Smiter, 461 
Smithy, 461 
Smytha,461 
Snagg, 108 
Snake, 108 
Snare, 246 
Snarey, 246 
Snipe, 102 
Sneezy, 266 



Snelgar, 246 
SndL246 
SndUng, 245 
Snook, 108 
Snow, 136 
Snowball, 137 
Snowman, 4QS 
Snngg, 108 
Soane,99 
Soar, 441 
Sodden, 431 
Soddy, 430 
Sodo, 430 
Solberry, 138 
Sole,l^ 
Soley, 138 
Solly, 230 
Soltau,443 
SorHe, 230 
Sorter, 198 
SortwelL 198 
Soal,138 
Sonper, 304 
Sour, 441 
Boark,441 
South, 301 
Southard, 301 
Souther, 302 
Southey, 301 
Southon, 301 
Southwajrd, 301 (note) 
Spade, 200 ' 
Spademan, 200 
Spader, 200 
Spadey, 200 
Spain, 317, 445 
Spaniel, 445 
Spar, 104 
Spark, 415 
Sparling, 104 
Sparrow, 104 
Sparrowhawk, 96 
Speak, 207 
Speakman, 207 
Spear, 206 
Spearing, 206 
Spearman, 206 



Speed, 207 
Speight, 200 
SpelLr, 434 
Spelman,434 
Spendlove, 445 
Spenlove, 445 
Sperling, 104 
Sperwin, 206 
Spice, 207 
Spike, 207 
Spikeman, 207 
Spill, 434 
SpiUard, 434 
Spiller, 434 
Spilling, 434 



590 



INDEX OF ENOUGH NAMES. 



BpOlmaa, 484 
^inney, 446 
Spiring, 206 
Bpirit,486 
Spite, 207 
8pitta,207 
Spitty, 207 
Spon, 446 
Spooner, 446 
Sporne, 321 
Spnok. 416 
Spnoklin, 416 
Spngg, 416 
Spratt,207 
Spray. 416 
Bpreok. 416 
Spreokley,416 
Sprioe,4l5 

opntt, 416 
Sproat, 207, 416 
Sproat, 207, 416 
Spruoe, 416 
Spiy, 4L6 
SpaIg^ 416 
,416 



Square, 460 
Squarey, 460 
Stack, 213 
Staokaid, 213 
Stackler, 213 
Stackman, 213 
Stag, 213 
Staggall,214 
Stagg, 86 
StagDoan, 213 
Steui2 479 
Stainborn, 479 
Stainer, 480 
Staker, 213 
Staley, 476 
Stalon, 476 
Btallard, 476 
StaUion, 81, 476 
StaliDan,476 
Stand, 262 
Standing, 262 
Stanger, 214 
Sti^, 214 
Stannah, 479 
Stannard,480 
Stark, 246 
Starker, 246 
Starkey, 246 
Starkman, 246 
State, 262 
Stead, 262 
Steady, 252 
SteaL476 
SteaUn,476 
Steambnig, 479 
Stebbing, 469 



8tedman,252 
Steed, 252 
Steedman, 252 
Steel, 476 
SteeUoz, 476 
Steelman. 476 
Steen,479 
SteasaU, 214 
St^z, 476 
Stembridge, 479 
Steneck, 479 
Stennell, 479 
Stenning, 479 
Stent. 2^2 
Sterckeman, 246 
Stericker, 246 
Stibbaid, 469 
Stick, 213 
Sticker, 213 
Stickle, 214 
Stickler, 214 
Sticknuoi, 213 
Stidolph, 72, 252 
Stiff, 1^ 
Stiffel,469 
Stiffin,469 • 
Stinchman, 214 
Sting, 214 
Stinger, 214 
Stirk,246 
Stith,252 
Stitt,252 
Stobart,469 
Stobie, 469 
Stobo,469 
Stock, 213 
Stocker, 213 
Stockill,213 
Stockman, 213 
Stooqueler, 214 
Stoffell, 469 
Stoker, 213, 400 
Stonah, 479 
Stonard, 480 
Stone. 479 
Stonebridge, 479 
Stoneheart, 480 
Stonel, 479 
Stoneman, 480 
Stoner, 480 
Stonhold, 480 
Stonier, 480 
Stony, 479 
Stop. 469 
Stopher, 469 
Storali,346 
Stoie, 345 
Storer, 346 
Stork, 246 
Starr, 346 
Storron, 346 
Storrow, 346 
Storrs,346 



Story, 346 
Sto^469 
Storer, 469 
8tovin,469 
Stovold, 366 
Stow, 365 
Stowe]l,366 
Stower, 365 
Straker,245 
Street, 171, 491 
Streeten,171 
Streeter, 171 
StretteD, 171 
Stride, in 
Stmde, 190 
Stmdwick, 191 
Stmtheri, 191 
Strutt, 48, 190 
Stubbe,^ 
Stiibber,469 
Stabbert,469 
Stabbing, 469 
Stnber, 469 
Stack. 213 
Staokey, 213 
&tapart,469 
Staige, 106, 246 
Staxgeon, 106 
StarL, 345, SIZ 
Staiiock,345 
Snob, 267 
Sack, 267 
Sackey, 267 
Sacker, 268 
Sackennore, 268 
Sackley, 267 
Suckling, 267 
SuckniaxL267 
Sudden, 301 
Suett, 266 
Sugar, 268 
Su 



Suggett,267 
Suit, 266 
Summer, 140 
Summendl, 94 
Sumpter, Zul 
Sun, 8, 138 
Sunday, 301 
Sunrise, 139 
Sunshine, 139 
Sunter, 301 
Supple, 304 
Suigett,441 
Surgey, 441 
Surpbce, 357 
Susans, 46 
Su8e.45,266 
Sutcliff, 267 
SutheiT, 301 
SutlifF, 267 
Swaap,d04 



IKDEX OF ENQUSH NAMBa 



591 



8wabls304 
Bwabey.dOi 
Swain, 513 
Swainson, 613 
Swale, 104 
SwaUow, 104 
Swanbenr. 99 
Swaim,99 
Swannaok, 99 
SwanneU, 99 
Bwanwiok, 99 
Swearer, 450 
Swearing, 450 
Swean,450 
Sweat, 266 
Sweden, 318 
Sweeby, 304 
Sweet, 4& 266 
Sweetapple, 467 
Sweeten, 45 
Sweeting, 207 
SweetloTe, 267 
Sweetman, 267 
Sweetsur, 318 
Swenwright, 99 
Swiie,4»> 
SwonnelL 99 
Swoid, 198 
Swoider, 198 
Sycamore, 30^ 173 
Sykes, 172 
Syme,262,484 
Syster,^ 

Tabiam,428 
Taokabarry, 301 
Ttakle,390 
Taokl^, 390 
Taokmftn,391 
l^d,2Sl 
Taddy,291 
TW]loo,291 



Tawt391 

Tagg.^ 

0^271 

Talbert,375 

TUbot, 39, 375 

Tialf onrd, 375 

Talker, 375 

TaD,375 

Tbllaek,375 

Tallemaob, 376 

Ty]iM,375 

aMlman,376 

Tal]on,375 

TiOmage, 376 

Tamborine, 365 

T^une,364 

TUniet,365 

TWm]yn,365 

Tammage, 365 

Taniplin,365 



Tanored, 41, 369 
T^mdy, 46, 310 
Tank, 359 
Tknkaid,359 
Tanker, 359 
a^mklin,359 
Tann,311 
Tanner. 53, 311 
T&nnook,311 
Tanqneray, 359 
Tanse]l,310 
Tanaey, 310 
Tant, 310 
Tanton, 310 
Taplin,428 
Tapp, 428 
Tappin,428 
Tappy, 428 
Tbrgett,128 
Tarn, 398 
Tbmer, 398 
TaiT, 208 
TurTatt,209 
Tarry, 208 
Tanyer, 208 
Tart, 209 
Tarter, 209 
Tasker, 53, 386^ 460 
Tasman, 386 
Ta8sell,385 
Tassiker, 385 
Tate, 271 
Tatlook,292 
Tattle, 291 
Tatnin,292 
TayT^ 
Taybom, 391 
Teale, 101, 376 
Tear, 268 
Teaiey, 268 
Teat, 271 
Teatker, 292 
Tedd,291 
Tedder, 292 
Tedman, 292 
Teeling, 376 
Tegart.391 
Tegg.d90 
Tee^338 
Tekell,390 
Telbin, 375 
Telf er, 376 
Telford, 376 
Teller, 376 
Telling. 376 
Ten,m 
Tenob, 106, 359 
Tendi3l,310 
Tennant, 311 
Tennelly, 311 
Tenneman, 812 
Tennywn, 4ff» 311 
Ttot,310 



Temonth, 208 
Ttfrier, 208 
TeiTy,208 
Tetlow, 291 
Tenten, 332 
Tewart, 42, 427 
Thaokeray, 359 
Thaokwdl,359 
Thain,338 
Thane, 338 
Theed,332 
Theobald, 332 
Theodore, 333 
Teuthom, 333 
Thew, 467 
Thick, 406 
Thicket, 407 
Thiatle,469 
Thoden,332 
Thody, 332 
ThoniaB,484 
Thorbnm, 128 
Thoigate, 128 
Thorold, 129 
Thoronghgat^ 128 
ThoronghgoocL 11*128 
Thoroughwood, u9 
Thotmui, 129 
ThioBBelL 103 
Throah, 103 
Thunun, 363. 41B 
Thunder, 128 
Thurber, 128 
Thorgar, 128 
Thnraood, 11,128 
ThurketUe.129,512 
Thnrkle, m 
Thnrmott, 129 
Thurston, 129 
Thyer, 457 
Tick, 406 
Tickle, 406 
Tidball,332 
Tidd,332 
Tiddeman,J^ 
Tidemon 




Tidy 

Tiffany, 488 

TifBn,488 

Tiffg,406 

TUeman,190 

Tilgman,190 

■meTiSo 

Till, 189 
TiUeaid, 189 
Tiller, 189 
TiUey,189 
Tilliok,189 
Tillier, 189 
TiUing, 189 
Ti]]nuuD,190 
Ti]lott,189 



592 



INDEX OF ENOUSH KAMfiS. 



Timet, 966 
Timlin, 966 
Timperon, 966 
Timi,966 
Tingey, 907 
- • ,967 



Tinker, 967 
Tinkling, 967 
Tinier, 190 
Tinliiig,190 
Tinney, 129 
Tinning, 190 
Titoe, 361 
Titohen,392 
Titoomb,297 
Tite,271,932 
Titmnf,104 
Tinrd,362 
Toby, 103 
Todd,4M79 
Toddy, 273 
Todman. 273 



Toe, *. 
Toker, 427 
Toloher, 184 
Tolken,184 
Tolkien, 184 
Tom, 363 
Tomb, 363, 484 
Tombs, 364 
Tomey, 963 
TomMea,364 
Tomldn, 364 
Tomlin,2^964 
Tommell,964 
T6mMnr, 964 



Tonge, 961 
Tongmfto. 962 
Tongae, 961 
Tonner, 128 
Toodle,274 
Toogo<M],428 
Toomer, 964 
Toot, 273 
Tootal,274 
Toothaker, 274 
Tooirey, 109 
Torr, 127 
Tony, 1272208 
Totman, 273 
Totte]l,273 
Totien,273 
Tottey, 273 
Toomay, 190 
Tovey, 103 
Tow, 427 
Towart,427 
ToweIl,427 
Tower, 427 



Towgood,428 
Toder, 273 
Tnoe,242 
Tracy, 242 
Traer,413 
Tiabar,413 
Tndea,242 
Trail, 141,;419 
Train, 41^ 
TraiMT, 242 
Trapp, 196 
Tra«,242 
Travel, 196 
Tray, 413 
Trearare,242 
Trebl<^196 
Tree, 429 
Tremble, 11, 943 
Traaa,242 
Tricker, 429 
Triokett,429 
Triokey, 429 
Trigg, 429 
Trigger. 429 
Tripp, 196 
Triii,249 
Trirter, 249 
Tristram, 249 
Trodden, 271 
Troke, 196 
TiolL141 
Trood,270 
Trott,270 
Trotter, 271 
Trottman, 271 
TroQj^ton, 271 
Troup, 441 
Tront, 106, 270 
Trow, 196 
Trowell,196 
Trower, 196 
Trowse, 249 
Troy, 429 
Truby.itt 
Tnioe,249 
True, 196 
Tniefitt,429 
TmeloTe, 429 
Traeman,196 
TrambQll, 243 
Trump, 243 
Trumper, 243 
Tmmpy, 243 
Trash, 103 
Truss, 249 



M&), 



Tubb, 103 
Tubby, 103 
Tuck, 100^427 
Tuoker, 427 
Tuckey, 427 
TuckweU, 428 



Tudor, 333 
TuAkell, 230 
Tuggy, 427 
Tubman, 428 
Tuke,427 
Tuita, 332 
Tulk, 184 
Tun, 129 
Tunaley, 19D 
Tungay, 361 
Tunn, 106 
Tunnar, 129 
TunneU, 130 
Tunno, 129 
Tunny, 106), 129 
Tunstan, 190 

TurAu]l,3.M3 
TumelL 190 
Turner, 190, 4fiO 
Turaey, 190 
Turnley, 190 
TurTeIJ^208 
Turtle, 103 
Tutofa^ig;332 
Tuting,^»2 
TutrS32 
Tut3e,333 
Tntty, 332 
Tway, 621 
Twioe, 621 
Twigg, 621 
Twine, 621 
Twining, 821 
TwiBS,rai 
Twyman, 621 

TyBer,352 
l^n, 362 
Tyus, 131 

Udall,334 
Udy.282 
Uffyi,386 
niier. 106 
Unook,368 
UUmer, 166 
TTlmaEL 106 

Ul^Tl 
Unele, 294 
Undea, 364 (note) 
Undey, 322 
UngleH.364 

nnna,286 

Unwin^^ 

Urch,d87 

XTre,83 

nrie,83 

Urling, 940 



INDEX OF EITOLISH NAMB8. 



593 



Urlwln, 340 
Urqnhart, 888 
nrwiok,83 
t7rwiii,83 
Uih«r.442 

Yaff!iQ,a23 
YaEler, 346 
Valiant, 296 
yaner,2d8 
Val]il7,2d8 
yaniB,298 

yaiioe,316 
Vandeleiir, 317 
Yandy, 316 
Yane,394 
Yum, 394 
Yanneok, 394 
YauDfir, 394 
Yani2 316 
YaxuBllBr, 317 
Yariok, 278 
Yarned, 305 
Yamuh,24,806 
Yarrell,278 
Ya8BaU,244 
YaMer. 12,244 
Yandelin, 344 
Yeale, 383 
Yenn,394 
Yenne]l,394 
Yenner, 394 
Yenning, 394 
Yension, 316 
Yent,il6 
Yenns, 143 
Yeroo, 73 
Yerge, 65, 73 
Yerger, 74 
YergooB6,278 
Yenty, 7, 257 
Yerling,278 
Yennon, 278 
Yemer, 306 
Yerner, 305 
Ye8t,303 
Ye0tal,3O3 
Yeatennan, 308 
Yeaty, 303 
Yetoh, 154, 493 
Yiberi,166 
Yick,l64 
Yioaiy, 166 
Yioe,351 
Yiokridge, 166 
Yidy,498 
Yigor, 165 
Yinall,263 
Yindin, 316 
Yine,263 
Yinegar, 12, 264 



Ylnra,264 

Yin^,263 

Yingoe,412 

Yink,412 

Yint,316 

Yinier, 316 

Yiolett, 468 

Yiigin, 65, 78* 74 

Yiigo, 6SL73 

Yirtae.267 

Yi80ord.361 

T^i8e,35l 

YiBiok,351 

Yizaid,351 

Yiaer, 351 

Yoak,333 

Yolokman, 334 

Yollam,3^ 

YoUer, 384 

YoUet,384 

YoUum,384 

Yowell, 93 

Yowlea, 98 

YullianiT, 71 

Y7ae,3XL 

Waok, 362 
Wadd, 162, 412 
Wadden, 413 
Waddicar, 413 
Waddilore, 413 
Waddle, 412 
Waddy, 412 
Wade, 152» 412 
Wadey, 412 
Wadge,413 
Wad£in,413 
Wad]ing,413 
Wadman,413 
Wadmore,413 
Wageman, 362 
Wager, 623 
Wagg, 47, 623 
Wagnian,528 
WaSi,523 
Wainman, 394 
Wainwrigki, 396, 461 
Wake,3& 
Wakdin,362 
Wakem, 24, 362 
Wakeman,362 
Waker,362 
Wakley, 362 
Waland,298 
Walden, 2& 346 
Waldie,344 
Waldman.346 
Waldo,3fo 
Waldron, 42L 346 
Waldnok, 341 
Waldwin,346 
Wale, 102, 298 
Waley, 298 

w 3 



Wa]f<nd.88 
Walk, 298 
Walker, 298. 460 
Walkey, 296 
Walking, 298 
Walkley,298 
Wa]klin,298 
Walkman, 298 
Walko, 298 
Wall, 298, 491 
Wallaoe,298 
Wallack,298 
Waller, 298 
Wallet, 298 
Wallfree, 298 
Walliker,298- 
Wallis,23 
WallisB, 298 
Wallower, 298 
WaUraven, 298 
Walla, 23, 298 
Walrond, 41, 296 
Walter, 477346 
Wambey, 417 
Wampen. 417 
Wand, 316 
Wander, 316 
Wanding, 316 
Wane, ^ 
Wanle8a,364 
Wannell,394 
Wannod,394 
Wanaey, 316 
Want, 316 
Wantman,316 
Wanton, 12, 316 
WarbollL 278 
Warbrick, 278 
Ward, 277 
Warden, 277 
Warder, 277" 
Wardnian,277 
Wardy, 277 
Ware, 278 
Waring, 278 
Warland, 278 
Warlock, 278 
Warman, 278 
Warmer, 39, 278 
Wame,306 
Warner, 306 
Wamett,306 
Waniook,306 
Warraker, 278 
Warre, 278 
Warrell, 47, 278 
Warren. 278, 306 
Warrenbuxv, 305 
Warrener, 306 
Warner, 47, 278 
Warring,278 
Warry, 278 
Warter, 277 



594 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NA](B& 



WarwMker, 278 


Wellow, 383 


Wad^244 


Welp,88 
Welplqr, 88 


Wadier,244 


WaehiDaQ,244 


Welton,346 
Wendelken. 317 
Wendon, 316 


Wa>maD,244 
Wasp, 107 


WaM,244 


Wenlock, 394 


WaMelL244 

WMtr244 

Waitfl3],244 


Wenman,394 
Wenmoth,394 
Wenn,394 
Wenning, 394 
Went, 316 


Wart]iiiir,22 
Wata«iS,602 


Wathen, 413 


Weige,73 
Werk,73 


Watker, 413 


Watkin, 413 


Warner, 305 


Watkiu,*40, 413 


Wenett,257 


Watley, 412 


Werritt, 7 


Watling, 413 


We8aon,244 


Watmore, 413 


Wert, 303 


Watney.413 
Watt, 32, 162, 412 
Wattier412 


Westa]l,303 
Weeter,303 
Westerday, 303 


Watts, 32, 413 


Weatennan, 303 


Wand, 344 


Wertfa]l,303 


Way, 10, 47, 523 
Wayland, 152, 383 


Wetman, 303, 413 


Weybnt, 523 
WhalebAy, 107 
Whatman, 413 


Wayman, 523 
Weakley, 362 


Whatmare.413 
Wheelan, 383 


Weaklin, 362 


Wheeler, 63, 383 
Wheeley, 383 


Weale,383 


Wearey, 278 


Wheeling, 383 
Wheelook, 383 


Wearg, 73 


WeblSig, 63 
Weddr412 


Wheelwright, 383 
Wheen, 263 


Weddell, 412 


Whellock, 383 


Weddon, 120 


Whenman,264 

Whenn.263 

Whewai,367 


Wedge, 154, 413, 4d3 
Wedlake, 40, 224, 494 


Wedlocl^ 12, 224, 494 


Whibley, 63 
Whiohelo, 166 


W^m,493 


Whigam,165 


Weeding, 494 


Whinoopp, 39 


Weekly, 362 


Whipday, 63 


Weeki, 362 


Whipp, 62 


WesK, 10, 623 
WeiHe,63 
Weir, 278 


^r« 


Whiaker, 122 


Weland, 152, 383 


Whiskered, 351 


Welcome, 123, 297 


Wluskin, 351 


Weld, 344 


Whiskyman, 122 
WhisaeTssl 


Welder, 345 


Welding, 345 


Whitbread, 494 


Weldon, 346 
Welf ord, 88 
We]land,383 


Whitburn, 494 


White, 398, 400 
Whitear, 494 


Wellajrd,383 


Whitecar, 494 


Weller, 383 


Whitehart, 494 
Whitehead, 494 


WeMin,88 


Welling, 383 


Whiteheat, 494 


Wellman, 383 


Whitehom, 494 


WeUook, 383 


Whitehouse, 494 



Whitelaw, Sn, 494 
Whitdegi, 366. 494 
WhiteII,^3 
Whiteloek, 494 
Whiteman, 494 
Whiter, 4^ 
Whiterod,494 
WhitethitMd, 494 
Whitewxi^i, 494 
Whitheron,494 
Whiting, 106, 494 
Whitley, 493 
Whitling, 493 
Whitmee,24L«8 
Whitmore,494 
Whitridge,496 
Whitsey, 493 
Whittaker, 494 
Whittoek.154 
Wholey, 383 
Wholework, 384 
Whorlow, 325 
Whytock,4a3 
Wibby, 62 
Wiche, 164 
Wiohett,165 
Wiok, 164 
Wioker, 165 
Wiokey, 164 
Wiokson, 166 
Wioking, 165 
Wiokman,165 
Widehose,494 
Wideman,494 
Widger, 494 
Widow, 47, 493 
Wigg, 164 
W]ffiett,165 
Wi?e,164 
Wigmaa,165 
Wigmore, 166 
Wi^;ram, 166 
Wigson, 165 
Wilberforce, 600 
Wilbonn, 123 
Wilbraham, 123 
WUbur. 123 
Wiloook,27 
Wiloomb, 123 
WUd,447 
WUday, 447 
Wilder, 447 
Wadey, 447 
Wildgoose, 100 
Wdd5ig,447 
Wlldish.447 
Wildman,447 
WildsmitL 462 
Wilfonl,l23 
Wilfred, 123 
Wi]goas,123 

wakeTm 

Wilkie, 21, 123 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



595 



Wilkin, 22 
WaiTS, 31, 47, 122 
' Willain,38 

WiUunent, 124 
Willan, 47, 123 
I Wmiii3,124 

WiUer, 124 
Wfflett, 124 
f WiUey, 21, 122 

> William, 38, 47 

\ Williama, 47, 124 

r Wmiment, 276 

Wi]lin,m 
Willing, 31, 123 
\ Wmin£,123 

Willis, 23» 32, 123 
Willmer, 124 
Willmot, 41 
Willmott, 124 
"Willock, 123 
Wllloe,122 
I Willi, 23, 123 

Wilt,^ 
Willihew, 42 
Wimble, 48, 264 
Wiiibolt,264 
Winbridge, 264 
WinohrS3,412 
Wiii0aiv^264 
Wind, 316 
Windeler,317 
Winder, 316, 480 
Windle, 817 
Window, 316 
Windram, 316 
Windred,264 
Wine, 263 
Winegar, 264 
Wineman, 264 
Winer, 264 
Wing, 412 
Wingaie,264 
Winger, 412 
~ \264 



Winlook,264 
Winmen,264 
Winn, 47, 263 
Winney, 263 
Winning, 263 
Winahip, 263 
Winson,263 
Winston, 264 
Wint,316 
Winter, 140, 816 
Wintle, 317 
Wipkin.63 
WippelL 7, 63 
Wue, l35 



Wixgman, 74 
Wisdom, 361 
Wise, 351 
Wiseman, 351 
Wisewould, 351 
Wish, 121 
Wishart, 121 
Wisher, 122 
Wishman,122 
Wiss.351 
Witcher, 166 
With,*3 
Wither, 494 
Withered, 494 
Witherick, 496 
Withy, 493 
Wittering, 494 
Wittewrong, 494 
Wittioh,154 
Witton, 493 
Witty, 493 
Woledge,384 
Wolf, n, 613 
Wolfem, 71 
Wolfram, 72 
Woli,iS 
WoUatt, 72, 384 
WoUen,384 
Wolley, 383 
Wolper, 72 
Wolrige, 384 
Wolsey, 71 
Wolter, 378 
Woodall,493 
WoodanL494 
Woodbridge, 495 
Woodcock, 494 
Wooden, 493 
Wooderson, 494 
Woodey, 493 
Woodger, 494 
Woodhead,494 
Woodhonse, 494 
Wooding, 494 
Woodlin, 493 
Woodman, 494 
Woodyer, 494 
Woolbert, 71 
Wooloott, 71 
Wooldridge, 378 
Woolfolk, 71 
Woolfreys, 71 
Woolgar, 71 
Woolger, 71 
Woolheaa, 71 
WooUams, 72 
Woollard,71 
WooUey, 72 
Woolmer, 72 



Woolnoth, 72 
Wooli7ch,72 
Woolston. 72 
Woolwright, 460 
Worry, 325 
Workey, 73 
Workman, 74 
Worknot, 74 
Worin,513 
World, 326 
Wormiad,108 
Wormbolt, 108 
Worme. 108 
Worrell, 325 
Worrow, 325 
Wren, 104, 189 
Wrentmore, 228 
Wrinkle, 230 
Write, 254 
Writt,254 
Wright, 254 
Writer, 254 
Wroth, 371 
Wurr, 325 
Wyard,165 
Wyatt,165 
Wyberg, 165 
Wybyow, 166 
Wye, 164 
Wyf olde, 63 
Wyman, 165 
Wymer, 165 

Tea, 366 
Yaafe, 367 
Teaman, 367 
Teatman, 306 
Tdd, 418 
Tern, 253 
Teo, 366 
Teoman, 367 
Teoward, 367 
Testerday, 303 
Tett,305 
Tewd,282 
Torick, 367 
Tost, 302 
Toad, 282 
Tonng, 419 
Tonnger, 419 
Tonngman, 420 
Tonngmay, 25 
Tonring, 83 
Towden, 282 

Zealey, 433 
Zeall,433 
Zetterquist, 470 



r- 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



AAr,94 
Abbe, 60 
Abendrot, 130 
Abendrtern, 138 
AbiGh,60 
Aoke,209 
Acker, 210 
Ada], 337 
Ado, 297 
Addhart, 337 
Adelung, 337 
AdlerTsdS 
Adolf, 288 
Adolph, 72 
AhlTnann, S17 
AMwaidt, 517 
Alu-,94 
Aioher, 210 
Albel,134 
Albreobt, 616 
Alder, 418 
Alert, 516 
Alf, 134 
Alker, 516 
AUe,516 
Alldm,238 
Allmer, 517 
Allner, 238 
Alt, 418 
Alteii,418 
Alter, 418 
Altmann, 418 
Ameis, 284 
Amelung, 143 
Anderbiug. 300 
Angele, 213 
Anke, 212 

AubaItw^ 119 

Aiiser, 118 
Anaheim, 227 (note) 
Appe, 60 
Amhold, 85 
Arnold, 85 
Artelt,261 
Ar7e,386 
Asche, 216 
Aaoher, 217 
ABel,lld 
Asser, 119 
Avemann, 280 

Babe, 281 
Baoke, 172 
Bade, 166 
Bader, 166 
raider, 166 



172 



Bald, 241 
Baldauf, 242 
Baldenioa, 242 
Balding, 241 
Baliri82 
Baits, 241 
Balt»ir,241 
Bals,241 
Banck, 182 
Bandel,235 
Bandke, 235 
Bang, 182 
Banger, 175 
Bannwart, 175 



Baide.222 
Bardel, 222 
Barecke,68 
Bamhanl, 423 
Bart, 222 
Barten, 222 
Barth, 222 
Barther, 222 
Barthmann, 222 
Baach, 181 
B&sel, 181 
Baake,181 
Ban, 181 
Banmann, 181 
Bath, 166 
Baadi,378 
Bauoke, 378 
Bauer, 452 
Banermann, 458 
Beokel,222 
Beckh,222 
Beede, 166 
Beer, 68 
Beerin, 70 
Behl,192 
Behn,176 
Behrens, 70 
Belke,2e8 
Bellin,270 
Benokert, 182 



Bender, 286 
Beneken, 177 
Benicke, 176 
Bennemann, 177 
Bennert, 177 
Bennin^, 177 
Bennold, 177 



Bente, 235 
Bentingck, 898 



Ber, ( 
Beiger, 69 
Berghoff,496 
Bermaan, 69 
Bernard, TV 
Bemer, 71 
Bemioke, 70 
Beming, 70 
Berringer, 70 
BertT^O 
Berth, 370 
Bertin,370 
Bertong, $fO 
Bertram, 370 
Bertrand,370 
Beae,181 
Be8te,183 
Bethe,166 
Bethke,166 
Bettack,l66 
Bette,166 
Bever, 81 
Bieber, 81 
Bieck,177 
Biercher, 69 
Bigge,177 
Bihn,176 
Bila,268 
Bilger, 269 
Bilhttdt,209 
Bilke,268 
BiUe,2ed 
Biller, 268 
Billing, 268 
BUmer, 268 
Binder. 236 
Binnecke, 176 
Bippart, 414 
Blanckardi^ 393 
BUng, 392 
Blank, 382 
BlankennageL ^wry 
Bleoher, 393 
Blede,M 
Bledow,440 
Blenk,3^ 
Block, 214 
Blookmann, Slg 
Blum, 465 
Blnme,465 
Bliimd,465 
Bhuner, 466 



INPXX OF GERMAN NAlfllS. 



597 



Blnmhttdt, 466 
Bobttrdt.422 
Bobbe,i21 
Bobel,421 
Boohmanxi, 236 
Book, 224 
Bode, 454 
Bodeok,454 
Bodemann, 455 
Bodemeyer, 456 
Boden,454 
Boding, 454 
Bodrich,465 
Boehner, 176 
Bdg8,224 
BogenhAidt, 226 
Bdgert,225 
Bogner, 225 
BohL281 
BoU]iig,281 
Boh^75,226 
Boh^iardi, 176 
BdhtUngk, 454 
Boldt,m 
BdUoke. 281 
Bolke,281 
Boll, 281 
BoUeri,281 
Bollnuum, 281 
Boltche,^ 
Bonn, 175 
Bonne, 175 
Bonneoke, 176 
Booe,407 
Bootti,454 
Bopn,421 
Bee2,407 
Bdeewetter, lae 
Boos, 408 
Boiselt,40i 
Bote, 454 
Both, 454 
Bothmer, 466 
Bottger,455 
Bo7e,313 
Brad, 184 
Braokmuin, 186 
Brftmer. 371 
Brandeu, 199 
Brandel,]08 
Brttndlein, 198 
Bnndrath,190 
Bnuidt,198 
Braim,399 
Breoht,370 
BrechteL370 
Brehm, 371 
Breis,186 
BreM,186 
Brooke, 103 
Blocker, 194 
Brookmann, 194 
Broookmann, 194 



BroM.480 
&oflel,480 

Bnu^kaidt, 1j94 
Braokmann, 194 
Briickmann, 186 
Bmder. 218, 893 
Bruderlein, 298 
Bnmck,399 
Bninn,d99 
Bmnnert, 400 
Bruno, 399 
Brv, 184 
Bul»B,421 
Buck, 378 
Buddel, 464 
Buder, 465 
Budge, 454 
Budioh,454 
Budke,454 
Bugg^378 
BuH281 
Buhler, 281 
Buhlmann, 281 
Bull, 281 
Bund, 236 
Banning, 416 
Bunaen, 236 
Bunte, 235 
Bunting, 236 
BuoL^l 
Burokhardt, 279 
Buide,329 
Burger, 279 
Bikger, 279 
Buxsho]d,279 
Burke, 279 
Burth,329 
Bufla,407 
Buaamann, 107 
Butte, 454 
Butter, 466 
B&tting,464 

Galm,174 
Campe, 171 
Ohiiat,138 
Ohrirtel,133 
Ck>niad,328 
Ooppel,248 
Ooemar, 310 
Ooetia,d60 
Ouno, 327 

Daake,d90 
DabberLSOl 
Dftge,^ 
375 
^.376 
Dahlmann, 376 
Damm,364 
Dammer, 365 
Dammert, 366 



Danokel, 369 



SIX 

Dankert,369 

Dann, 311 

Dannecker, SU. 

Darold,208 

I>a8Be,385 

Daaa3.385 

Daly^dl 

Dau,427 

Daulf , 391 

DftunJin,364 

J>eck,390 

Deokert 391 

I>ederich,338 

Degel,390 



311 
I>ein,338 
Demme, 364 
Denoker, 369 
Denk,369 
Detsman, 386 
Detmann, 383 
Dette,291 
Dettmer, 333 



Dewe, * 
Dick, 406 
Dickert,407 
Didtchen,332 
Diebold. 332 
Diede,332 
Diehr, 268 
Diemann, 467 
Dieme,364 
Dieter, 333 
Dietert,333 
Dikmann, 407 
Dill, 189 
Dillemann, 190 
Di]lert,189 
Dilling, 189 
Dinger, 367 
DiBoh, 229 
Ditt,332 
Dittmer, 333 ' 



Dode, 273 
Dohm,36S 
Dohmeyer, 364 
D»Ier,^6 
Ddmioh,364 
Donn, 129 
Dooer, 208 
Doraad,197 
Donnann, 208 
Donneier, 208 
D5rwald,268 
I>roge,196 
Drey, 413 
Dnide,270 



598 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMEB. 



DnMlnr;196 
I>nie,196 
Dnunann, 196 
I>nite,270 
I>aoke,427 
mUi«r,427 
Dalekan, 184 
Dii]k,184 
Dumboff, 406 
Dunioheii, 964 
DaiiiHiig.964 
Dmnm, 9SS 
Dikmmel, d64 
Dnimnd, 197 
DoMiidieaf d, 488 
I>aHln,332 

St>beQke,60 

Bblireoht, 61 

Bber. 76 

Bberhftid, 76 

Bbetmum, 76 

BokardlZlO 

Ebke,2S» 

Eokhoff. 4M 

Bokholdt, 210 

Edel,^ 

Sde]er,338 

Bdi]ing,S37 

Bgel,l54 

%«r,210 

^ge,a09 

KMle»475 

RiMlxL476 

. 476 

' dt,476 
Bijer,476 
Elbe, 134 
Slben, 134 
EUenbeK,239 
EUeri,^ 
Emele,148 
Bmerioli,254 
Bmmel,143 
BinmeriL254 

TBn^A^ 432 

Ender, 300 
292 
213 
i213 

Engtobreeht, 213 
BnglemaniL 213 
Bnglen, 21^ 
Englar, 213 
Enger, 292 
EDgertj 292 
Biigwald,292 
Bnde, 119 
Biitiioh,432 



387 



lBrelc,387 
Bid, 130 
ErdiDiim, 251 
Brlurdt,96 
Brker^jM 
Bile, 339 
Erieoke,340 
Brier, 340 
Brm6l,147 
BrmezL 146 
Bnniaoh,147 
BrpdTiK 
Enrf, 386 
EBoh,216 
BMsher, 217 
- • 217 



BsdiriofafZ 



216 



BverL76 

Bwaldt,367 

Bweri,367 

Bwioh,366 

E7l,164 

F^Ma^436 
Fahl,d07 
Fahnd,234 
Fahr,323 
Fuenkdi, 324 
FiUter, 262 
Feohier. 267 
Feoke,435 
Feder, 203 
Fehr, 323 
Fehrleii,323 
Fehmumn, 324 
Fendi, 417" 
Ferradi, 323 
Fert,251 
Fetter, 293 
Fiohte. 257 
Fick,240 
Fidi3l,430 
Fi^e,249 
Fidmaim, 518 
Fabert,518 
Fillmer. 518 
FiMh,247 
FiBoh«rt247 
Fiaohliof , 247, 496 
Fix, 247 
FUthe,393 
Flogel,411 
Fluemann, 411 
Flugel,411 
Foike, 333 
Fdlkcl333 
FortmamL 325 
Francke, ^ 
Frank, 306 
Fru]din,306 



Freolie,132 
Frede, 261 
Fr«itag, 261 
Fretter, 261 
Freund, 263 
FreateL 360 
Ftiek, 132 
Frioker, 132 
Fridexioh, 261 
Fried, 261 
Friedel,261 
Frie«^312 
Friech,440 
Friii^lin,449 
FQch8eL247 
FQ]l,m 

tl&be,285 
GAbei,286 
Gebold,286 
Gade, 625 
Geedcke,525 
Geide,206 
GelUger, 437 
Guneim, 496 
Gemm,436 
Gemmert, 436 
Gens, 618 
Gente,74 
Genter, 74 
Gftmlen, 518 

^k 

Geo, 336 
GMue,300 
Gavel, 285 
G*vL436 
Gebd,285 
Geber, 285 
GeUuttdt.285 
Gede,!^ 
Gehl,436 
Gehr, 202 
Gehrer, 203 
Gei]ioh,4d7 
Geuel,458 
GeiBa,469 
Gelpke,442 
Geiiedl,74 
GenderidL 75 
Gener, 444 
Genet, 444 
Gennerich, 444 
Gent, 74 
Gentc, 518 
Gepp, 285 
Gevbert,203 
Gerboth,203 
Gerhard, 203 
Gerhold, 204 
Gericke, 202 
Gering, 202 
Ger]aS^203 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



599 



Ocnnann. 208 
Gem, 433 
Oemer, 433 
Geinluurdt, 433 
Geraing, 433 
Gemlein,433 
Qer6id~20i 
G6rwiI^204 
Gender. 458 
Geu,336 
Gey, 336 
Gherken, 202 
Gieae,£9 
Giesemami, 460 
Giedng, 459 
Gilbert, 458 
Gill, 458 
GiltemAnn, 478 
GiBbreoht, 450 
Giaeoke,469 
Ginelhieoht, 458 
Glade, 436 
Gladiflch,436 
Gltt8err§92 
GliiH,392 
Gleiss,392 
Gookel,446 
Gdokingk, 446 
GddeTlS 
G<ideoke,116 
Godel, 116 
Godehard, 116 
Goemann, 337 
G<iethe,300 
Goffe],446 
G«hr,202 
Goldmann, 477 
Gomm, 50 
Gdren,204 
Gdrich,2Q2 
Gdring, 202 
G<techeii,300 
Gofle,309 
Goflekeii,300 
GoiliDg,300 

Gosonan, 310 
GotheTdOO 
Gottel,116 
Goiter, 116 
Gottfried, 116 
Gotthazdt, 116 
Gotting, 116 
Gottl^ll6 
GottUel>,484 
GdtM,U5 
GraeMe,464 
Granuum, 401 
Gruhoff , 496 
Graaunann, 464 
Gran, 401 
Grimm, 125 
Grimmel,125 



(jhrimmer. 126 
Globe, 425 
Globe, 426 
Giiibd, 426 
Grohii,466 
Grohnert, 465 
Groner, 466 
Groning, 465 
GroMr405 
Gnm,466 
Griin,466 
Grttner, 466 
Gnmert, 465 
Gri&nert, 465 
Griining, 466 
Gude, U6 
Guibert,166 
Goldenapf el, 467 
Gulich, 478 
Gull,478 
Gummricb, 60 
Gundel, 163 
Gilnther, 164 
Gu]UB,163 
Giin2el,163 
Guter, U6 
Giitermaim, 117 
Gutie, 115 
Giittd, 116 
Gattman, 116 
Guttwein, 117 
Gutwaaser, 502 

Haberkom, 467 

Haohmann, 210 

Haoke,209 

mok^209 

Hiickert,210 

Hadank, 168 

mdeL168 

Hadicke, 168 

Haertel,260 

Hagart,210 

Hagedom, 467 

Hl&geleii,209 

Hagen, 211 

Hager, 210 

Hagner, 211 

HtS],480 

Haid,619 

HalL480 

Hf^cb,426 

Halm,226 

Hamelmann, 143 

Hammer, 130 

Handel, 417 

Handt,417 

Hibielt,289 

Hane 



Hanke, 212 
Haime.289 
Hanneken, 2 



Hamdoke, !__ 
Harder, 260 
Hardt,260 
Hardweok,261 
H&ricke,231 
Harke,231 
H&rle, 231 
mrUn,231 
Harleaa,340 
Haimami, 232 
Harpe,386 
Harpreoht, 232 
Hairing, 232 
Hartmann, 251 
"" ' 221, 261 



^ 251 

Hartong, 260 
HartzjSsO 
Harward,233 
Haa8,d07 
Hatt, 168 
Hanbe, 227 
Hauae, 491 
Hanamnann, 491 
Haydn, 519 
Hayer, 210 
Haymann, 210 
Heb,60 
Heoht,460 
Heokmann. 210 
Hedde, 168 
Hedriob, 168 
Heer, 231 
Heering, 232 
Hebr, 231 
Heidel, 519 
Heilig,426 
Heili^iai, 486 
Heiligmann, 427 
Heim,492 
Heinbardt, 211 
Heinriob,492 
Helter.519 
Helf,276 
Helfricb,276 
Helxn,225 
Helmar, 163 
Hemmen 130 
Heune,^ 
Hennert, 289 



Henmoke,289 
Henningj^^ 
Herber, 232 
Herbert, 232 



Herde,! 
Herden,261 
Hereir231 
Heiger, 232 
Herken, 432 



600 



unnx ov qsbmav k 



4» 

Hemi, 147 

Heniiuin22n 

Herold,2fil 

Herpfer.SSS 

Herr, 231 

Hemng, 282 

Herrie,231 

Herrmnih, 288 

H«rth,290 

Hertrioh,251 

5*"^ 33? 
Henog, 339 

HeiOOr 

Hets,160 

Hetiel,ie9 

Hejden, 619 

Heydt, 519 

He7e,209 

He7ne,211 

Hilberi, 162 

mid, 162 

Hildebnnd, 162 

Hilger, 162 

HiUer, 162 
HOlmaim. 168 
Hillmer, 168 
Hilt, 162 

JTilfana^niv 168 

HUtnip. 163 
HimmeL 140 
Hmok,292 
Hobreoht,841 
Hooh,340 
Hook, 340 
Hik}kel,340 
H5oker,341 
Hoffnuum, 227 
Horn, 367 
HoEznAn.341 
Hold,28K 
Holder, 289 
Holle,282 
Holler, 282 
HoOmaim, 282 
Holt, 282 
Hoiiiftn,34l 
Honor, 314 
Hdnioke, 314 
Honigmum, 814 
H9iike, 814 
H9pke, 227 
H9pken,227 
Hdrder, 260 
Honi,520 
Homeok, 520 
HonieiiiAnii« 690 
Honi]ia]iL620 
Homlg, 520 
Hdmlem, 690 
Homnng, (90 



814 



HMke,44S 
Hubert, 367 
Hiioke,367 
HodemuuLM 
Hiifnagd,221 
Huge, ^67 
HM«367 
Hugo, 367 
Huhn,314 
HQlinert, 314 
Hiilde,282 
Humbert, 314 
Humboldt, 814 
Huneoken, 314 
Honger, 314 
Hum, 314 
HunnemAiiB, 
Hnnold, 315 
Hupe,227 
Himmg, 491 
Hiith^280 
Hatte,280 

Ibe,60 
Ioke,210 
Ide,449 
no, 416 
Ible,416 
Ibm,253 
Dm, 492 
Im]n,253 
Immicb, 264 
ImM, 254 
Iagel,218 
laanbart, 474 
Itenberg, 474 
Inert, 475 
Itter,460 
Ire, 472 
Iwe,366 

Jebkel, 462 
Jaeger, 462 
Jagemann, 468 
Jagenteaf el, 488 
j60Um,462 
Jeokel,452 
Jenioben, 444 
Jocben, 462 
Jodher, 452 
Jock, 462 
Jordan, 140 
JiideTdOe 
Jung, 419 
Jiingerioh, 420 
Jungber, 419 
Jongboff, 496 
Jungmano, 4S0 
Jiinke, 419 
Juppe, 486 
Jutte,d06 

KM)e,286 



KaUert 437 
KaIh,S 
Kalf>,83 
Kalker,30r 
KalthofE,496 
KaltwaMer, 001 
Kamler, 419 
Kamm, 486 
Kammer, 436 
Kant, 74 
Kanter, 74 
Kail, 69 
Karmaon, 909 
KartbiQ,277 
KaM>b,206 
Kaake,206 
Kaat,296 
Katt,168 

TTanwiaaiii^ 887 

Kaup,9«6 
Kaupert, 336 
Keber, 286 
Kebl,436 
Kebler, 437 
Kebr, 202 
Kebrer, 208 
Kemp, 171 
Kend^ 74 
Kerble,20B 
Kern, 433 
Kemmana, 489 
Kerwin, 204 
KeMLer,458 
Kettler, 626 
Kiebl, 322 
KieMl,468 
Kille,468 
Ki}lin,468 
KiUmer, 459 
Kinreiok, 829 
KiBa.459 
Kisding, 458 
KUber, 188 
Klapp, 183 
K]a«,392 
Klenoke, 199 
KUng, 199 
Klink, 199 
KlinkWdt,199 
Klocke,362 
Klockmann, 399 
Klode, 377 
Klotb, 377 
KloTerkom, 4j67 
Klaok,362 
Kluge,352 
Knabb,429 
Knapp,4ffl 
Kniep,201 
Kooh,446 
K5cber, 446 
Kdob]in,446 



INDBX OF OBBMAN NAMES. 



601 



K6o]Mrt,446 

Kohlmum, S25 
KoUJg, 226 
Kdhlmg,a26 
Kohnfiri,828 
Kohzil6,327 
KohnMn,400 
Kol],226 
KoUer, 226 
KoDmeyar, 226 
,69 



Koner; 328 
K9meke,8a7 
Konter. 164 
KopiMh,248 
Kopp,248 
Kfimer, 433 
Kon,809 
Ko«t»360 
Kott,116 
Kot&g, 116 
Krieger, 170 
Kri«8^170 
Krimmer, 126 
Krol],406 
Kxdn,466 
Kroner, 466 

ErnM,404 
Kabbe,248 
Knokkaok, 106 
Kiid«,116 
Kahn, 327 
Ktthnel,327 
Kuhneii, 328 
KnhnhAidt, 328 
KiUmh«ULJ28 
Kiihiikd, 327 
KYimin, 60 

Kttnemnndf 328 
Knner, 328 
Kflnioke, 827 
KliiiMl,163 
Kimt6,163 
Kmifh,163 
Kuntke, 168 
Kiiiii,163 
Kmpf er, 478 
KapfenutteL 221 
KnttmTm 

jMihynnif 366 
Uolier,366 
Laiber, 387 
lAinbert, 316 
IiambenL836 
Laink,66 
- .86 



Landnerr, 338 
LAiidt,336 
Landwehr, 886 
Landwig, 336 
Laiifried,336 
Laos, 336 
Lame, 87 
Iiebiii,387 
Leder, 196 
Lediii9.194 
Leff, 3B7 
liCge, 366 
L^366 
Leine, 274 
Leiter, 196 
Lende, 110 
Lenhard, 87 
Leonliard287 
Lepert,387 
Leppoo, 266 
LmLna, 266 
Leaie,363 
Leanng, 368 
Lethe, 194 
Lette,194 
Leucha, 88 
Lena 87 
Leutnold, 381 
Leutiger, 331 
Leoae, 331 
Lewa]d,87 
Le3rde.l94 
Lieb7266 
liebesoti, 484 
Liebe(266 
Lieber,266 
Llebert,266 
liebetnit. 266 
Liebioh,266 
Liebig, 266 



Linok, 87 

Lind^llO 

Iindhof,496 

Liiiii,174 

Iipbazd,266 

Lippe, 266 

Lii^266 

lip 



J. 866 
LoohiDAim, 447 
Lode, 377 
L6hle,284 
Loth, 377 
Lother, 377 
Lott,377 
Loiter, 377 
Lubbe,266 
L1lbbeek^ 266 
Lade, 330 

X 3 



Lttdecking, 380 
Ludol^l 
Ladtmann. 331 
Ladwig, 331 
Luth,330 
Luthardt,331 
Lather, 331 
Lattkaa, 331 
Lata, 331 
Las, 331 

]fftoheiL410 
Maohold, 410 
Mack, 410 
Mftd3)en,341 
Madel,361 
Mader, 342 
Madioke,341 
Madler, 361 
MAdler, 361 
Mager,410 
1^178 
Mahr,368 
Maldt, 180 
MaUe, 178 
Mandt.434 
Manecke, 68 
Manfried, 68 



MaDbaxdt,68 
68 



.68 
Manneck, 68 
Maimel,68 
Manneii, 68 
Mannikiii, 68 
lfaiis.4S4 
Maieh,80 
Mirell,d68 
Mark, 80 
Mttrker, 80 
MarUoff, 80 
Markwaidt,80 
Mazr, 368 
Martrrt, 268 
Maaob,446 
"- • 446 



622 



M&ther, ; 
Matticke, 341 
Maorer. 402 
Ma7wald,410 
Meeder.342 
Meer^^ 
Meerbott, 300 
Meerwein, 369 
Mehiie,410 
Mehrle, 968 
Mehrwald, 860 



60S 



INDBX OF GKRMAM NAMES. 



Meiiier, 410 


MatterldB, 296 


Octel,817 


Mdnart, 410 
Meiid6.434 


Mikti,237 
MfitMU,237 


Qrteln,2l7 
QriHeb.a8 


lI«nM,434 


Nide]in,206 


Ort,dQ8 


MflniMl,4S4 


Naaell,266 


Ostermann, 303 


lf«niel,434 


NMUer,266 


Oetenneier, 9(0 


Me«er, 622 


Na«el,220 

N^CfflO 
Niiiiiig,239 


Orten»ih,dQB 
Oetariag, 308 
Ostmaim, 302 


Mette,341 


Neii]ie,239 


Ott,381 


Metto.da 


N■lll^239 




Meje,4iO 


PMike, 172 




Nath,275 
Neb3,161 


PadeU166 


Mielfloke, 179 


Pahl,192 


llielert,180 


Neidl,266 


PiJdLnaa,S41 


Mierake,a68 
Miloh, 179 


Nendel, 239 


PaDaa, 143, 621 


Neime,239 


PanM,235 


Milek^l79 


NeMel,266 


Puitktt,235 
Ripe,291 


M0de,283 


NeMelnth,266 

Meider,266 

Neae,420 


Millflr, 180 
Mirieh,d68 


PikteK,166 


Mode. 237 
Mod3,237 


Neanth,421 


Neawert,421 


Paihe, 166 


Moder,237 


NSel,151 


P&tfae,166 


Mohl, 178 


Pattke,l66 


Mo]ir,402 

Hohriiud,402 

Mohiiii,402 


Niek,126 


Pltack,378 


Nied,265 
Nieder, 255 


Peek, 222 
Ped^l66 


M51irle,402 


ITiedhttdt. 265 
Nied]iiig,256 
Niemann, 297, 421 


Peel, 219 


M5brmum,403 
Mordt,^ 


Pelegaaid, 269 
PelUbBm,241 


S!:^v 


Penn, 176 
Pennioke, 176 
Peee],m 
Pethke,166 
Potter, 166 
P&nner,234 


Mocvenrott 139 
Momiutem, 139 
Morhof , 496 
Moling, 402 


Nit«ert,266 
Nine, 255 


M5rtB,258 


Nonne,439 


Pfaa,101 
Pfeffe^om,467 


Mortaohko, 258 


Noid,300 


Mo«t,238 


Nordmum, 301 


Pieh,177 


Morter,288 


Nordmeyer, 301 
Normenn, 301 
North, 300 


Pick, 177 


Moiihid, 238 
Moth, 237 


Pickel,177 
Piokhaidt» 178 


Mo«»rt»237 


N9tel,240 


Piehl,219 


Mnoke, 406 
MtiokS, 406 


Noth,240 


Pielert,219 


Notter, 240 


Pielke,269 


Maokert,406 
Mudd6r.203 
M&del,237 


Nading, 240 
Natt,240 


Piper, 91 
Pippe,414 


Nataer,240 


Pippert,4a4 


MiigaQ,406 
M^276 
MimSng,276 
Mimdtr276 


Ob6rl]n,76 
Odebreoht, 381 


Planok,392 
Plening, 440 
Pl6ger,215 


Odemenn, 382 


Placker, 215 


Mnnti,276 


Oeffele, 386 


PlQ8ge,214 


MiuhMke, 237 


Oertling.217 
Oeeter, 302 


P<^224 
Pood, 224 

PohI^281 


Maihaid,237 


MiiMleiiv237 
MumT^ 


Off,385 


Math, 237 
Mnthieioh, 237 
Matter, 237 


Oken,524 


PohlmajuL 2ffl. 
Polgar, 28i 
Polte, 241 



INDEX OF GEBMAN NAMES. 



603 



P«lteii,242 
Popel, 421 
Popken, 422 
Popp, 421 
Pose, 408 
Poth, 464 
Pott, 464 
Potthoff, 496 
Preohtel, 370 
Preim, ^1 
Prain, 186 
Prats, 447 
Paohe, 378 
Pupke, 422 
Puppe, 421 
Patter, 466 
Pttttmum, 466 




Babeii,97 
Babener, 97 
Back, 362 
B&ok,362 
Bade, 347 
Badd,348 
B&del,348 
Bader, 3i8 
Bademann, 348 
Badioke, 347 
Badle£E, 348 
Baffel,187 
Bahazdt,362 
Bahii,ld9 
Baimnnd, 363 
Balfs,363 
BalphB,72 
Bampf, 228 
Band, 228 
Bandolff, 228 
Banke, 230 
Banter. 228 
Bath, 347 
Bathen,348 
Batter, 348 
Batti,347 
Batting, 348 
Bauoh, 263 
Banmer, 374 
Beanmnr, 374 
BecknageL 221 
Bedder347 
Beden,348 
Beder,348 
Bedmann, 348 
Bedmer, 348 
Beede,d47 
Begel,362 
Begenbogen, 137 
Begner, 360 



Beibe,187 
Beiber, 188 
Beioh,343 
Beiohaidt. 343 
Beiohen, 343 
Bdchheim, 343 
Beichmann, 344 
Beifir,187 
Bein,349 
Beincke, 349 
Beiner, 360 
Beinhard,349 
Bemhart,349 
Beinhold, 360 
Beiniger, 349 
Beinmann, 360 
Benoker, 230 
Benter. 228 
Benz,349 
Beyger, 363 
Beyher, 363 
Beyne, 349 
Be7noid^360 
Bhode, 371 
Biohard, 343 
Biek,343 
Bickert,343 
Bickher, 343 
Biokman, 344 
Bidder, 254 
Bieok, 343 
BiedL264 
Biegd,343 
Blekelt, 344 
Biemann, 344 
Biemar, 344 
Biffel,188 
Binok,230 
Binge, 230 
Bingel,230 
Binger, 230 
Bingert. 230 
Bingwald,230 
Bitt,254 
Bitter, 264 
Bobert, 372 
Bocke,263 
Bodde. 371 
Bodeck, 372 
Bddel,3^ 
Bodemann, 373 
Boder, 373 
Bodewig, 373 
Badger, 372 
Boc£ig,372 
Bodnuel,221 
Bodwidd, 373 
Boger, 372 
Boffge,253 
Bohloff, 263 
Bohm,373 
Bdhm.373 
Bo]f,72 



Bol]aBd,373 
Bom, 373 
Bomer, 374 
Rommel, 374 
Bosenblatt, 467 
Boeenbiat, 467 
Boiengarten, 467 
Boaennagen, 467 
Boienkranz, 467 
BoeenBtengeL467 

Bosenitook, 467 
Boeenweber, 467 
Boeenzweig, 467 



Bost,' 
BJMel,448 
Both, 371 
Bothardt, 372 
Bothachild, 227 (note) 
Rott,371 
Biibe,187 
Biicke, 263 
Biicker, 263 
Buckert, 263 
BndeL 372 
Badelo£P, 373 
Buder, 373 
Badolph, 373 
Budon, 372 
Bndrich, 373 
Biihe,263 
Bnmmel, 374 
BundnageL 221 
Buppell,188 
Bnppreoht, 372 
BiiBt,448 
Busting, 448 
Buth,371 
Butte, 371 

Saannann, 230 
Saoh, in 
Saoh8,200 
Saeke, 171 
Sa«er,171 
Si£l,306 
Sahm,76 
Sahr, 230 
Sallmann, 308 
Saltonann, 443 
Sak,46, 443 
Sancke, 438 
Sand, 430 
Sanden,431 
Sander, 430 
Sandhoff. 431, 496 
Sandt,430 
Sann, 170 
Santer, 430 
Santa, 430 
Baphir. 424 
Sarraiin, 487 



604 



INDKX OF OXBMAN KAlO&a. 



.451 
SftOM, 206 
8ftTeri,424 
Sue, 200 
Boar, 223 

SohMTwdunldt, 462 
8ohAde,191 
8oliaIk,466 
Sohar, 223 
Sehftrf, 366 
SehArpfl, 366 
Sehai, 191 
Beheer. 223 
8ohelek,466 
Soheorbrand, 223 
8ohiok,431 
Sohiexnuuin, 228 
Soliildt.227 
8ehm,d60 
8ohill8r,361 
SohiUing, 360 
Sehinna^ 221 
SehlAg«nteiif«l, 488 
Sohlaaoh, 267 
Bohleoh,267 
Bohmedding, 462 
Sohmidlin, 462 
Bohmieder, 461 
Bohmiedeoke, 468 
Bohmiedel, 462 
BohiukQber, 326 
Sohnebern, 326 
8bhiieU,245 
Bohon,380 
Bob5iier,389 
Boh5nwetter, 139 
Sohttpf , 442 
Bohoppe, 442 
BohQMt,4ff7 
Bohanuann, 223 
Bohurr, 223 
Soliwab«,304 
Bohw&ble, 304 
Sohwaim, 99 
Bohwaneoke, 99 
Sohweppe, 304 
Bohwerdt, 196 
Bohwinge, 412 
Bebert,m 
Bebode, 173 
Beeborg, 322 
Beemann, 322 
Seewald,322 
Behr, 230 
Belke,306 
B6Ue,308 
SeUo,306 
Semm, 75 
Benke,438 
Senne, 170 
Senner, 170 
Senneri. 170 
Seppe, 261 



SflR«,280 
S67dd,431 
Beyer, 173 
Se7frid,173 
Seymer, 173 
Sieher, 173 
SiobOTt, 178 
3i«k,l72 
Siokd, 172 
Sieba, 261 
Siebeoke, 262 
Siebert, 173 
SiebQld,172 
Sieg, 172 
Siegfried, 173 
Sieger, 173 
Siegfaardt, 173 
Siegmaim, 179 
Siegmund, 173 
Siekflu 172 
Sievekiiig, 282 
SigelTlTS 
Bigg, 172 
^e,172 
Siglen, 172 
SiKer, 479 
SUberard,479 
Silbermaim, 4119 
Simirnd, 173 
Sint,466 
Sins, 456 
Sitte,431 
Sob], 138 
Soig,441 
Spaeth, 200 
Spanier, 445 
Sparwaaaer, 508 
3pAi,200 
Spe^207 
Speokmann, 207 
Speer, 206 
Spiel, 434 
Spieler, 434 
Spielmaim, 434 
SpieM,207 
Spohn,445 
Sparing, 206 
3pit>tte,415 
Staoke, 213 
Staokemaim, 213 
Siade,252 
St&helin, 476 
Stahl,476 
Stablmann, 476 
Stang, 214 
Stark, 245 
Stacker, 213 
Steckert, 213 
Steding, 252 
Stedmann, 252 
Stegemaim, 213 
Stetkeoke, 479 
Sterner, 480 



SleiBhart* 480 
Sieinhoff, 486 



Sterk»245 
Sterker, 245 
213 



StiGkel, 214 
Stiebel,4«9 
Stiflgler, 214 
Stobwaaaer, 506 
StoQk,213 
8tdekel,214 
StSekhardt, SIS 
Stockmann, 21S 
Stolf,469 
StraiuB, 48» 190 
Strait, 171 
Streiter, 171 
Staoke, 213 
Staber, 469 
Stave, 469 
Saokard,267 
Summer, 141 
SandeUn, 301 (iifl*^ 
Sondrehoff, 496 
SiindrehofE, 302 
Siippe,304 
auaman, 267 
S<ias,266 
S7bel,262 

Tkbold,391 
TaokTsgO 
Tade,291 
Taddel,291 
Tag, 390 
Ty«el,390 
Tllger,391 
Tigmann, 391 
Tkmie,311 
Taube,103 
Teiohbo£j496 
Tegen,338 
TSr375 
Temm,364 
Teeamaim, 386 
Tei]fel,488 
Teufelakind, 486 
Teofelakopf, 486 
Thai, 375 
Thaler, 375 
ThaUuAuneKv 379 
Thahnann, 376 
Thalmeier, 376 
Thamm, 364 
Them, 33S 
Theiner, 339 
Theinert. 330 
Theobald, 332 
Thenar, 268 
Thie,457 
Thiedt,332 



UNDKX OF OBBMAN NAMI& 



60fi 



Tni a nncg L «nD 
Thisr, 268 
TUm,361 
Thimm, 364 
Thoma, 363 
Thunutfel, 221 
TieoVl06 
Tiede, 332 
Tiedemann, 333 
TLedt,332 
Tieler, 376 
Till, 189 
TUmuuin, 190 
TUo, 189 
Timm,364 
TiMchar, 229 
Tite],332 
Took, 427 
Tode,273 
Todi,273 
Tddtmaim. 273 
Tonne, 129 
Tott,273 
Trappe, 196 
TrMwiiit,242 
Tmab,441 
Traiim,243 
Trantman, 271 
Trayer, 413 
Troche, 195 
Trader, 271 
Trabe,441 
Truger, 196 
Tniinmer,243 
Ttjine, 459 
Tnoh, 427 
Tnoher, 427 
Tu]nmel,364 
Tnrhold, 206 
Tttrk, 487 
Tttte],332 

nUe,105 
Uhr, 83 
Uhihoir, 496 
Ulbriolit, 105 
Ullmann, 106 

Vater, 293 
Veiter, 293 
Vetteriein, 293 
Violet, 468 
Vogel,93 
y^iardt,334 
Yolk, 333 
Yolker, 334 
y olkmann, 334 

Waoh,362 
Waoker, 362 
WackemageL 221 
Wadi, 412 
Wage, 522 



Wager, 623 

WaEl,298 

Wahler, 298 

Wahleri,296 

Wahlman,298 

Wahlmar, 298 

Waliren,305 

Waloker, 298 

Wald, 344 

Waldmann, 346 

Waldaohmidti 402 

Walke,298 

Wall,298 

WaU6r.298 

WaUiok,298' 

Walther, 345 

WaQde.316 

Wandel, 317 

Wandt, 316 

Wandtke, 316 

Waaniok,394 

Warbnig, 278 

Warlick.278 

Wainedke,306 

Waniergd06 

WarLar 

Warth,277 

Wartinan, 277 

Waas,244 

WasMif all, 502 

WaMmann,244 

Wedding, 494 

WedelL413 

Wedu3i,494 

Weede,493 

Wege,523 

Wegel,165 

Wegelein.165 

Weger, 523 

Wegenoh,165 

wSde,412 

Wehling,383 

Wehr, 278 

Wehrien, 278 

Wehrmann, 278 

Weidel,493 

Weiger, 165 

Wdh,i64 

Weiher, 165 

WeUert,d83 

WeiUer, 383 

Wein.263 

Wyinbeig, 264 

Weinen,%4 

Weinger, 264 

W^Lutlt,264 

Weinhold, 264 

Weinkopf, 264 

Weinmann, 264 

WeiM,351 

Weiiwald,351 

Weitmann, 494 

Welde,344 



WeldMi,845 
WelTS 
WeUmann, 383 
Welte,344 
Welten,346 
Wend, 316 
Wendel, 317 
Wendeler, 817 
Wendling, 317 
Weniger, 394 
Waning, 394 
Went. 316 
Werok,73 
Worker, 74 
Weme,305 
Werner, 305 
Wemert, 305 
Wenel,244 
Westeimann, 308 
Westphal, 3to 
We7ffold,166 
^^eyland. 




Wil 

Wioh, 

Wiohman, 165 

Wiok,164 

W]akanlt»166 

Widmann,494 

Widmer, 494 

Wiebe,62 

Wiegd,165 

Wi^383 

Wieland,383 

Wiemann, 165 

Wleme^65 

Wieeel,351 

Wiethonu 494 

Wieting, 494 

Wiggele,165 

Wiggert,165 

WiEt447 

Wildt.447 

W]Uieiin,124 

Wilkeim 

WiUberg,123 

Willoomm,297 

Wil]e,123 

Wilier, 124 

Willert,124 

WiUetl24 

Wi]lioh,123 

W]lliei,123 

Willing, 123 

Wmijioh, 123 

Willkomm, 123 

Willmann, 124 

Wilmar. 124 

Will, 123 

Winok,412 

Wind, 316 

Winder, 316 



606 



INDBX OF OEBMAN KAJifiSL 



Wine6k»,263 

Wmhe6r,264 

Wmke,263 

-Wlnne, 263 

Wiiiiiiiig,26S 

Winter, 316 

Wippel,63 

WiaamADLSSl 

Wiih,4dd 

Witte,493 

Witten,4»3 

Witter, 494 



WltthMU,4lM 
-Wittioh, 493 
Wittiinff, 493 
Witiri^496 
Wolil,383 
Wolf. 71 
Wolfer.72 
Wo]l,383 
Wollmer, 884 
Worle, 325 
Wnlf«rk,71 



WfkDMher, 122 
Wum, 108 

ZaiMT. 272 
Zeis, 272 
2SehXe,433 

KillTOttMTt^ 433 

Zudc, 2IG7 
Zucker, 268 
Zndcert. 267 



FRENCH NAMES 
Occurring in NoieSf and ofmUed in (heir proper places 



AnquetO, 128 
CfhaateoUiire, 74 
ChMitftiwem, 74 
Gloei,391 



doder, 391 
CloMe.391 
DietMh,229 



Dromond, 243 
FtMier, 313 
I^ener, 313 



PBOrTKD BT B. AND J. BTEKi, 67, XVOLIBH BIBIBT.