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1913 



VOL. XXXIV 

TRANSAOTIONS 

OF THE 

american 

electr^^Wmical 

SOCIETY. 




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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/transactions34elec 



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TRANSACTIONS 



or THC 



flMERICflN 
ELECTROCHEMICflL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XXXIV 



THIRTY-FOURTH GENERAL MEETING 

ATLANTIC CITY, NEW JERSEY 
SEPTEMBER 30 - OCTOBER 1 AND 2. 1015 






PUBLISHED BY 

THE AMERICAN ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY 

AT THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. 
1919 



Copyright 1919 by the American Electrochemical Society. 



Permission to reprint parts of the Transactions is hereby granted 
to current periodicals, provided due credit is given. 



This Society is not responsible for the statements and opinions 
advanced in papers or in discussion thereon. 



Prices of Volumes I to XXXIV (excepting Vols. I, II, III, VI 
and XIII), to non-members $3.00 per copy, to members $2.50, to 
public libraries, colleges, scientific societies and journals, $2.00. 
Volumes I, II, III, VI and XIII, double above prices. Prices are for 
volumes bound in cloth, and include delivery within the postal union. 

Complete sets will be sold to anybody at 25 percent discount on 
above prices ; members may obtain the volumes necessary to com- 
plete their sets at 25 percent reduction on above prices. 



TP 

E 
V.31+ 



250 
E5"3 



WARE BROS. COMP.'VNY, PRINTERS 
1010 ARCH ST., PHILA. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 



PRESIDENT 

F. J. TONE 

Term expires 1919 



PAST-PRESIDENTS 

F. A. J. FITZ GERALD C. G. FINK 

Term expires 1919 Term expires 1928 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

H. C. PARMELEE ACHESON SMITH 

F. C. FRARY H. W. GILLETT 

J. W. BECKMAN ROBERT TURNBULL 

Term expires 1919 Term expires 1920 

MANAGERS 

W. D. BANCROFT L. E. SAUNDERS C. G. SCHLUEDERBERG 
J. V. N. DORR J. A. MATHEWS E. L. CROSBY 

CARL HERING A. T. HINCKLEY C. F. BURGESS 

Term expires 1919 Term expires 1920 Term expires 1921 

TREASURER 

PEDRO G. SALOM 

Term expires 1919 
SECRETARY 

JOS. W. RICHARDS, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Term expires 1919 



COMMITTEES 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEB 

F. J. Tone, Chairman J. W. Richards, Secretary 

C. G. Fink Carl Hering A. T. Hinckley 

H. C. Parmelee C. G. Scheuederberg 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 

F. A. J. FiTzGeraed, Chairman 
F. J. Tone, Ex Officio J. W. Richards, Ex Officio 

W. D. Bancroft A. T. Hinckley 

W. C. Bray H. C. ParmeleE 

Term expires 1919 Term expires 1920 



COMMrTTEES— Contiaacd 



PUBLICITY COMMITTEE 

H. C. ParmElEE, Chairman C. F. Roth 



J. M. Mun 



COMMITTEE ON LOCAL SECTIONS 

F. J. Tone, Chairman C. G. Fink C. G. SchluedErberc 



PATENT COMMITTEE 

L. H. BAEKEI.AND, Chairman 



F. G. CoTTRBtl. 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 

F. J. Tone, Chairman L. H. Baekeland 

J. W. Richards W. H. Walker 

H. S. Carhart ' W. R. Whitnev 

W. D. Bancroet F. a. Lidbury 

Carl Hering Lawrence Addicks 

C. F. Burgess F. A. J. FitzGerald 

E. G. Acheson C. G. Fink 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

C. G. SCHLUEDERBERG, Chairman 



GEO. B. HOGABOOM, New Britain, 
Conn. 

E. L. CROSBY, Detroit. Mich. 
ACHESON SMITH, Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
P. G. SAIvOM, Philadelphia, Pa. 
t,. D. VORCE, Windsor, Ontario, Can. 
A. T. HINCKIvEY, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
H. C. FARMELEE, New York City. 
J. W. BECKMAN, San Francisco, Cal. 
H. T. DARLINGTON, Natrona. Pa. 
P. J. KRUESI, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

C. F. ROTH, New York City. 

R. E. ZIMMERMAN, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

D. L. MATHIAS, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
M. deK. THOMPSON, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
L. E. SAUNDERS, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
W. B. WALDO, New York City. 

F. C. FRARY, New Kensington. Pp. 

F. C. MATHERS, Bloomington. Ind. 

E. F. KERN, New York City. 

D. A. LYON, Washington, D. C. 

G. H. CLEVENGER, Washington, 
D. C. 

W. W. MANN, Akron, Ohio. 
O. P. WATTS, Madison, Wis. 
R. A. WITHERSPOON, Shawinigan 
Falls, Quebec, Canada. 

E. A. LOF. Schenectady. N. Y. 

H. W. GILLETT, Ithaca, N. Y. 

ROBERT TURN BULL, Welland, On- 
tario, Canada. 



W. T. TAGGART. Philadelphia. Pa. 

E. G. RIPPEL, Buffalo, N. Y. 

J. M. MUIR. New York City. 

A. STANSFIELD, Montreal. Canada. 

C. F. CARRIER, Charleston. W. Va. 

J. B. DU FAUR, Mt. Hope, New South 
Wales, Australia. 

P. M. GILLIES, Hobart, Tasmania, 
Australia. 

J. B. HENDERSON, Brisbane, Queens- 
land, Australia. 

J. FORSSELL, TroUhattan, Sweden. 

E. S. BERGLUND, TroUhattan, 
Sweden. 

P. A. GUYE, Geneva, Switzerland. 

F. V. L. HIORTH, Christiania, Norway. 
H. BONNEVIE, Rjiikan, Norway. 

K. B. QUIN.'VN, West Somerset, Cape 

Colony, Africa. 
WM. S. BARWICK, Vancouver, B. C, 

Canada. 
HAROLD JONES, Villa Nova de Lima, 

Brazil. 
C. A. KELLER, Paris, France. 
T. V. D'ORNELLAS. Lima, Peru. 

S. A. 

R. THRELFALL, Birmingham, 

England. 
CHAS. H. MERZ. London, England. 
H. LJUNGH, Stockholm, Sweden. 
R. A. HADFIELD, Sheffield. England. 
K. Y. KWANG. Lincheng, China. 
C. LANA. Madrid, Spain. 
YOGORO KATO. Tokyo, Jar.an. 



TECHNICAL COMMITTEES 



EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAI. ELECIROCHEMISTRY 

O. p. Watts, Chairman E. F. Northrup W. R. Mott 

PRIMARY BATTERIES 

C. F. Burgess, Chairman D. L. Ordway 

SECONDARY BATTERIES 

W. R. Clymer, Chairman P. G. Salom 

ELECTRO ANALYSIS 

W. T. Tacgart, Chairman G. B. Frankforter 

RADIO ACTIVITY 

S. C. LiND, Chairman H. S. Miner 

ORGANIC ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

H. W. Matheson, Chairman D. McIntosh 

CHLORINE AND CArSTIC 

A. H. Hooker, Chairman C. W. Marsh M. L. Griffin 

ELECTRIC FURNACES 

Carl Hering, Chairman H. W. GillETT 

ELECTRODES, CARBONS 

AcHESON Smith, Chairman G. K. HerzoG 

CARBIDES, ABRASIVES, REFRACTORIES 

R. A. WiTHERSPOoN, Chairman R. H. White Otis Hutchins 

FERRO ALLOYS 

Theo. Swann, Chairman D. A. Lyon G. E. Weissenburger 

FIXED NITROGEN 

W. S. Landis, Chairman C. G. Atwater Frank S. McGregor 

ELECTROPLATING 

Geo. B. Hogaboom, Chairman F. C. Mathers Alfred L. Ferguson 

INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY (Not Otherwise ProTided For) 

M. deK. Thompson 

ELECTROMETALLFRGY 

J. W. Richards, Chairman 

IRON AND STEEL 

R. TuBNBULL R. F. Flinterman R. E. Zimmerman 

COPPER SMELTING 

R. W. Deacon 

copper refining 

Chas. S. Witherell 



TECHNICAL COMMITTEES— Continaed 



ZINC 

Oliver C. Ralston 

electrolttic iron 

C. F. Burgess 

AliUMINTJM 

Philip H. Falter 

gold and silver 

H. H. Alexander 

TIN GROUP 

E. F. Kern 

MISOELLANEOTTS— Mn, Mg, Hg, Nl, Ce, etc. 

Alcan Hirsch 

auxiliary apparatus 

J. L. YardlEy, Chairman E. A. hot 

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS 

L. E. Saunders, Chairman Lawrence Addicks A. T. Hinckley 

WATER POWtElR 

F. A. LiDBURY, Chairman C. A. Winder J. W. Beckman J. A. SwiTZER 



LOCAL SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY 



Wisconsin Section (Madison, Wis.) 

C. F. Burgess, Chairman, Madison, Wis. 

O. P. Watts, Secretary, University of Wisconsin 

Philadelphia Section 
Carl Hering, Chairman, Philadelphia, Pa. 
S. S. SadtlER, Secretary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Section 

Linn Bradley, Chairman, New York City 

H. B. Coho, Secretary-Treasurer, New York City 

Pittsburgh Section 

R. E. Zimmerman, Chairman, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

H. D. BralEy, Secretary-Treasurer, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Niagara Falls Section 

L. E. Saunders, Chairman, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

F. A. J. FitzGerald, Secretary, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Photograph of the Thirty-fourth General Meeting Frontispiece 

Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth General Meeting 1 

Members and Guests Registered at the Thirty-fourth General Meeting. 3 

Directory of Members, Alphabetical 4 

Directory of Members, Geographical 48 

PAPERS. 

The Government and the Technical Man After the War — F. A. Lidbury. 67 

Research After the War— W. D. Bancroft 75 

Tariff Problems in the Electrochemical Industries — Grinnell Jones 81 

The Power Situation After the War— C. A. Winder 87 

Surplus Electric Power After the War — J. W. Beckman 97 

The War and the Nitrogen Industry — W. S. Landis 105 

The Electric Furnace After the War— F. A. J. FitzGerald 121 

The Future of Electric Steel— J. A. Mathews 131 

Electric Pig Iron After the War— Robert Turnbull 143 

The Future of Electrolytic Chlorine— A. H. Hooker 149 

Commercial Uses of Chlorine — Van R. Kokatnur 155 

Military Application of Electroplating — Wm. Blum 169 

Processes Within the Electrode WTiich Accompany the Discharge of 

Hydrogen and Oxygen — D.. P. Smith 177 

The Sign of Potentials— O. P. Watts 189 

An Apparatus for the Separation of Radium Emanation and Its 

Determination Electroscopically — J. E. Underwood and Herman 

Schlundt 203 

Notes on the Heterogeneous Equilibrium of Hydrogen and Oxygen 

Mixed with Radium Emanation — S. C. Lind 211 

Nitrogen Fixation Furnaces — E. Kilburn Scott 221 

Relative Volatilities of Refractory Materials — W. R. Mott 255 

Discharge Characteristics of a Certain Make of Dry Cell — C. A. Gil- 

lingham 297 

Hardness of Soft Iron and Copper Compared — F. C. Kelley 325 

Index 331 

vii 



Volume XXXIV 1918 

TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY 



PROCEEDINGS 

CONDENSED MINUTES AND RECORD OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH GEN- 
ERAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, HELD AT THE HOTEL TRAY- 
MORE, ATLANTIC CITY, NEW JERSEY, SEPTEMBER 30, 
OCTOBER 1, 2, 1918. 

Number of members registered, 82; number of guests regis- 
tered, 32; total, 114. 

PROCEEDINGS OF MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 30 

Registration began at the Hotel Traymore, Atlantic City, at 
9.00 A. M. 

The session was called to order in the Belvedere room by Presi- 
dent F. J. Tone, at 10 A. M. 

Reading and discussion of papers was taken up, and papers 
by the following considered : D. P. Smith, O. P. Watts, J. E. 
Underwood and Herman Schlundt, and S. C. Lind. These papers 
and their discussions are printed in full in these Transactions. 

After luncheon in the hotel, the reading and discussion of 
papers was resumed, and papers by the following considered : 
F. C. Kelley, E. Kilburn Scott, W. R. Mott and C. A. Gillingham. 
These papers and their discussions are likewise printed in full 
in these Transactions. 

In the late afternoon, the Board of Directors of the Society 
held a meeting. The 1919 spring meeting was scheduled for 
New York City and the fall meeting for Chicago, in connection 
with the Fifth National Exposition of Chemical Industries. A 
subscription of $2,000 was voted to the Fourth Liberty Loan. 



2 PROCEEDINGS. 

In the evening the assembly gathered in the Rose Room to see 
the following moving pictures : The Fixation of Atmospheric 
Nitrogen, by courtesy of the American Cyanamid Company ; 
Canadian Shawinigan Falls Power Development and Electro- 
chemical Industries, by courtesy of the Shawinigan Water and 
Power Company, and the Triplex (Bessemer Open-Hearth Elec- 
tric) Steel Processes at South Chicago, by courtesy of the U. S. 
Steel Corporation. An added attraction was the opportunity to 
see the wonderful Farre Airplane pictures, which happened to 
be on exhibition in the Rose Room. 

PROCEEDINGS OF TUESDAY, OCTOBER I 

Tuesday was devoted, morning and afternoon, to discussing 
"Electrochemistry After the War." 

The papers presented and discussed were by the following: 
F. A. J. FitzGerald, J. A. Mathews, Robert Turnbull, A. H. 
Hooker, V. R. Kokatnur, F. A. Lidbury, Grinnell Jones, W. S. 
Landis, C. A. Winder, W. D. Bancroft, J. W. Beckman and 
William Blum. These papers and their discussions are printed 
in full in these Transactions. 

Dr. Mees, of Rochester, gave an interesting talk on Co-opera- 
tive Industrial Research. 

In the evening, Dr. E. F. Northrup gave an informal account 
of how he came to devise his interesting and potentially important 
"Oscillatory Current Induction Furnace." This address was pre- 
liminary to a demonstration of the furnace the next day at the 
plant of the Pyroelectric Instrument Company, Trenton, N. J. 

PROCEEDINGS OF WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2 
This day was devoted to an excursion to Trenton, N. J., where 
Dr. Northrup, at the works of the Pyroelectric Instrument Com- 
pany, concluded his lecture by showing the furnace in operation, 
melting a charge of nickel. The afternoon was devoted to a visit 
to the plant of the Thermoid Rubber Company. The ladies visited 
one of Trenton's best known potteries, the Lenox Pottery, under 
the guidance of a committee of Princeton ladies. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



MEMBERS AND GUESTS REGISTERED AT THE THIRTY-FOURTH 
ANNUAL MEETING 



C. G. Atwater 
W. D. Bancroft 
W. Blum 
Linn Bradley 
H. D. Braley 
A. R. Bullock 
J. N. Carothers 
S. C. Carrier 
R. T. Chace 
H. B. Coho 
A. C. Cummins 
H. T. Darlington 
Harrington Emerson 
Colin G. Fink 

F. A. J. FitzGerald 
J. A. Fogarty 
Maj. F. C. Frary 

G. Fuseya 
Wm. H. Gesell 
A. E. Gibbs 
C. B. Gibson 

C. A. Gillingham 
G. C. Given 
J. Hedalen 
G. K. Herzog 



Members. 

Geo. B. Hogaboom 
R. P. Hommel 

A. H. Hooker 
Wm. F. James 
G. Jinguji 
Grinnell Jones 
L. C. Judson 

B. G. Klugh 
Rolf Knudsen 
V. R. Kokatnur 
Paul J. Kruesi 
W. S. Landis 

C. F. Lindsay 

C. P. Madsen 

D. D. Miller 
W R. Mott 
I. Murai 

P. M. Nash 
K. Nishikawa 

E. F. Northrup 
H. C. Parmelee 
N. Petinot 

Chas. F. Quaintance 
H. E. Randall, Jr. 
Jos. W. Richards 



G. A. Roush 
S. S. Sadtler 
L. E. Saunders 

C. G. Schluederberg 
E. K. Scott 

J. A. Seede 
Acheson Smith 

D. P. Smith 

E. K. Strachan 

E. M. Symmes 
Y. Tada 

Y. Takikawa 
W. L. Tanner 
L. S. Thurston 

F. J. Tone 
Robt. Turnbull 
C. H. Vom Baur 
H. Watanabe 
H. P. Wells 

A. M. Williamson 

C. A. Winder 

Wm. J. V/ooldridge 

M. Yano 

R. E. Zimmerman 



Guests. 



E. G. Acheson, Jr.. Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
Geo. K. Anderson. Philadelphia. Pa. 
R. H. Applegate, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Grant Armor, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
B. Benjamin, Sydney, Australia. 
Chas. M. Butterworth, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
Mrs. J. N. Carothers, Washington, 

D. C. 
Jas. D. Craig, Wilmington, Del. 
Mrs. Harrington Emerson, New 

York City. 
Mrs. C. G. Fink, New York City. 
Mrs. F. A. J. FitzGerald, Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
Mrs. J. A. Fogarty, Berlin, N. H. 
Mrs. Wm. H. Gesell, Montclair, 

N. J. 
W. S. Gesell, Montclair, N. J. 
Hiroshi Iwata, New York City. 
M. U. Jewell, Chicago, 111. 
K. Kajiura, Japan. 



I. Kitakaki, New York City. 
R. R. Labelle. Montreal, Canada. 
R. A. Long. Tamaqua, Pa. 

C. E. K. Mees, Rochester, N. Y. 

D. R. Miller, New York City. 
Mrs. D. R. Miller, New York City. 
Geo. P. Mills, Nazareth, Pa. 

Mrs. C. W. Moritz, Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
M. S. Northrup, Princeton, N. J. 
N. P. Onoda, New York City. 
H. W. Porth, Jersey City, N. J. 
T. W. Price, New York City. 
Mrs. J. W. Richards, Bethlehem, Pa. 
C. J. Rottmann. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Wirt S. Scott, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
W. S. Sellars, New York City. 
J. Takenshi, Japan. 
Ichuro Tamaru, Japan. 
T. Toda, New York City. 
H. C. P. Weber. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
F. S. Weiser, Waterbury, Conn. 
C. T. West, Wilmington, Del. 



AMERICAN ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS, 

January 31, 1919 

(Members of date April 3, 1902, are charter members) 

ABBE, Paul O. (Nov. 27, '09) res., 4434 18th Ave., Brooklyn, N. T. ; mailing 

address, 30 Broad St., New York City. 
ABBOTT, Franz D. (June 29, '18) Alloy Chem., Atlas Crucible Steel Co.; mailing 

address, 738 Washington Ave., Dunkirk, N. Y. 
ABBOTT, William G., Jr. (Mar. 27, '09) c/o Hillsboro Mills, Wilton, N. H. 
ACHESON, E. G. (Apr. 3, '02) Acheson Corp., Aeolian Bldg., 35 W. 42d St., New 

York City. 
ACKER, Charles E. (Apr. 3, '02) President, The Nitrogen Co., Ossining-on-Hudson, 

N. Y. 
ACTON, E. H. (Oct. 23, '14) Supt., Northern Aluminium Co., Ltd., Shawinigan 

Falls. P. Q., Canada. 
ADAMS, Lieut. James F. (May 24, '18) 268 W. 77th St.. New York City. 
ADAMS, James L., Jr. (June 2, '16) 557 Prospect Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
ADAMS, Quinton (July 28, '16) Electrical Engineer, 803 Hibbs Bldg., Washington, 

D. C. 
ADAMS, Thos. J. (Aug. 25, '16) Res. Asst., Aluminum Co. of America, Maryville, 

Tenn. 
ADAMSON, Geo. P. (Dec. 4, '02) Gen. Mgr., Baker & Adamson Chem. Co., Easton, 

Pa.; mailing address, 233 Reeder St. 
ADDICKS, Lawrence (Apr. 3, '02) Consulting Engineer, 6 Church St., New York 

City. 
ADSIT, Charles G. (Sept. 26, '08) 1 Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta, Ga, 
AHLBRANDT, G. F. (Jan. 29, '09) Asst. Gen. Sales Mgr., Amer. Rolling Mills Co.. 

Middletown, Ohio. 
AIKEN. Robert H. (Oct. 10, '03) Metallurgist, WInthrop Harbor, 111. 
AKINFIEFF, Boris (Oct. 26, '17) Inspector, Russian Artillery Commission; mailing 

address, Pine Terrace Inn, Dover, N. J. 
ALBRIGHT, Langdon (Sept. 26, '08) Vice-Pres., Lockport and Ontario Power 

Co., 1608 Marine Bank Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. ; res., 33 Oakland Place. 
ALDRICH, Chas. H. (July 25, '13) Metallurgist, Colgate, Baltimore County, Md. 
ALDRIDGE, Walter H. (Jan. 28, '08) 603 Central Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif, mail- 
ing address, 14 Wall St., New York City. 
ALEXANDER, C. M. (Sept. 27. '16) Res. Chemist, Gulf Ref. Co., Port Arthur, 

Texas. 
ALEXANDER, H. H. (July 25, '13) Mgr., American Smelt, and Ref. Co., Perth 

Amboy, N. J.; mailing address, Maurer, N. J. 
ALLEMAN, Gellert (Jan. 28, '11) Professor of Chemistry, Swarthmore College, 

Swarthmore, Pa. 
ALLEN, Dwight E. (May 24, '18) Chief Chemist, Canadian Aloxite Co., Ltd., 

Shawinigan Falls, P. Q., (ianada. 
ALLEN, Herbert I (July 25, '13) 286 State St., Portland, Me. 

ALLEN, Oliver F. (Oct. 21, '16) Sales Eng., General Elec. Co., Room 1712, 
.?0 Church St., New York City; mailing address, 129 Columbia Heights, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 
ALLYN, Robert S. (Feb. 5, '03) Patent Lawyer, 16 Exchange Place, New York 

City; res., 24 Irving Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
AMER, Henry S. (May 27, '11) Asst. in Eng. Dept., Westinghouse Lamp Co., 

Bloomfield, N. J.; mailing address, 26 Evergreen Ave. 
ANDERSON, Arthur N. (June 30, '17) Elec. Furnace Work, American Vanadium 

Co., Bridgeville, Pa. 
ANDERSON, Chas. E. (Sept. 27, '16) Gen. Mgr., Smuggler Leasing Co., Aspen, 

Colo. 
ANDREAE, Fritz V. (July 26, '18) Chief Electrician, Southern Manganese Corp.; 

mailing address, 1206 Quintard Ave., Anniston, Ala. 
ANDREWS, Joseph C. (May 26, '10) Chief Chemist, American Hardware Corp., 

New Britain. Conn.: mailing address, 123 Vine St. 
ANDREWS, John H. (May 2, '17) Foreman of Coloring Dept., Taunton Pearl 
Works, Taunton, Mass.; mailing address, 395 Cohannet St. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 5 

ANDREWS, Mrs. Mary R. (Feb. 2 4, '17) Res. Lab., General Electric Co., Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 
ANDREWS, Wm. S. (April 6, '11) Consulting^ Eng., General Electric Co., Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. ; res., 136 Park Ave. 
ANGER, Earl Maxwell (May 25, '17) Chemist, 3905 Broadway, New York City. 
ANTISELL, Frank L. (July 25, '13) Asst. Supt., Raritan Copper Works, Perth 

Amboy, N. J. 
APP, John C. (May 24, '18) City Chemist and Bacteriologist, Box 977, Charleston- 
Kanawha, W. Va. 
ARAKAWA, Eiji (Oct. 26, '17) c/o Mining and Metallurgical Dept., Imperial 

Univ., Kyoto, Japan. 
ARISON, William H. (July 31, '08) Mgr., International Acheson Graphite Co., 

Niagara Falls, Ontario. Canada. 
ARMES, Henry P. (Jan. 27, '12) Lecturer in Chemistry, University of Manitoba, 

Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. 
ARMSTRONG, L. K. (Aug. 27, '09) Mining Engineer, 720 Peyton BIdg., Spokane, 

Washington. 
ARNSTEIN, Henry (Aug. 24, '18) Chief Chem. and Supt., The Fleischmann Co. dt 

Calif., 1236 Minnesota St., San Francisco, Calif.; mailing address, 215 23d Ave. 
ARSEM, Wm. C. (Nov. 27, '09) President and Treasurer, Organic Products Corp., 

Schenectady, N. Y. ; mailing addres.s, 10 Waverly Place. 
ARTHUR, Paul (Jan. 26, "17) Mech. Eng., L. V. Estes Inc., McCormick Bldg.. 

Chicago, 111. 
ARTHUR, Walter (.^pr. 27. '12) Chief Chemist, Garford Motor Truck Co., Lima, 

Ohio. 
ASEF, Dr. Waldemar (Oct. 21, '16) Res. Chem., Penna. Salt Mfg. Co., Greenwich 

Point, Philadelphia, Pa. 
ASHCROFT, Edgar A., Esq. (May 1, '06) 65, London Wall, London, E. C, England. 
ASTON, James (Jan. 28, '08) Metallurgical Eng., A. M. Byers Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; 

mailing address, 50 Forest Ave., Ben Avon, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
ATKINSON, Frederick C. (Dec. 27, '18) Chief Chem., American Hominy Co.; 

mailing address, 1857 Gent .\ve., Indianapolis, Ind. 
ATWATER, C. G. (Oct. 22, '15) Mgr. of Agricultural Dept., The Barrett Co.; 

17 Battery Place, New York City. 
ATWOOD, F. Clarke (Sept. 27, '16) Res. Eng., c/o Kalmus, Comstock and Wescott, 

Inc., 110-114 Brookline Ave., Boston, Mass. 
AUSTIN, A. O. (Sept. 27, '16) Chief Eng., The Ohio Insulator Co.; mailing address, 

326 North Sixth St., Barberton, Ohio. 
AUSTIN. L. S. (Sept. 27, '16) 251 West 2d North St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
AVERY, Julian M. (Nov. 30, '18) 2d Lt., Chem. Warfare Service, Headquarters 

4th Battalion, Edgewood Arsenal, Edgewood, Md. 
BACHOFNER, D. K. (Mar. 26, '10) Assistant Superintendent, Irvington Smelting 

and Refining Co., Irvington, N. J. 
BACON, R. F. (Nov. 28, '13) Director, Mellon Inst., Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 
BADGER, W. L. (Feb. 24, '17) .\sst. Prof, of Chem. Eng., Univ. of Michigan; 

mailing address, 1317 Minerva Road, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
BAEKELAND, Dr. Leo H. (Jan. 6, '03) "Snug Rock," Harmony Park, Yonkers-on- 

Hudson, N. Y. 
BAILEY, Richard O. (Oct. 21, "16) Chemist, Oneida Community Ltd., Oneida, N. Y. 
BAILY, Thaddeus F. (Feb. 25, '11) Gen. Mgr., Bally Electric Furnace Co., Alli- 
ance, Ohio. 
BAIN, J. Watson (Oct. 27, 'ID Prof, of Chem. Eng., C. & M. Bldg., The University, 

Toronto, Canada. ; res., 393 Brunswick Ave. 
BAINBRIDGE, Edmund F. (Sept. 30, '18) Chem. Eng., Metal Alloy Corp.; mailing 

address, 37 So. Manning Boulevard, Albany, N. Y. 
BAJDA, Jas. J. (Sept. 27, '16) 211 Murray St., Flushing, N. Y. 
BAKER, Chas. E. (Aug. 5, '05) Metallurgist. 320 Ashland Block, Chicago, III. 
BAKER, Edwin M. (Apr. 26, '16) Dept. of Chem. Eng., University of Michigan, 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
BAKER, Herbert A. (Dec. 27, "07) Chemist, Amerioan Can Co., 447 W. 14th St., 

New York City. 
BAKER, John T. (Mar. 30, '08) Phlllipsburg, N. J. 
BAKER, Robert B. (Jan. 22, '15) Works Mgr., Keokuk Electro-metals Co.; mallinff 

address, 1008 Orleans Ave., Keokuk, Iowa. 
BALDWIN, Allen T. (Dec. 31, '15) Supervisor of Battery Factories, Manhattan 

Elec. Supply Co.; mailing address, 41-47 Morris St., Jersey City, N. J. 
BALTA DE CELA, Jos& (Oct. 25, '18) Prof, of Electrochemistry and Electro- 
metallurgy, Escula Industrial, Tarrasa, Spain. 
BALTZELL, Willie H. (May 27, '11) Canadian Steel Corp. Ltd., Ojibway, Ontario. 

Canada. 
BANCROFT, Dr. Wilder D. (Apr. 3, '0 2) Lt. Col., U. S. Army; mailing address, 

1715 Connecticut Ave.. Washington, D. C. 
BARCLAY, Earle H. (Oct. 21, '16) Ensign, U. S. N., 934 HoUaday St., Portsmouth. 
Va. 



6 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

BARFOED, Svend (Aug. 25, '17) Eng. in charge of Experiments, Nitrogen Products 

Co.; mailing address, 908 Insurance Exchange Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 
BARKER, E. R. (Apr. 3, '02) Room 1110, 79 Milk St., Boston. Mass. 
BARNES, H. Henry, Jr. (June 30, '16) District Eng., General Elec. Co., 120 Broad- 
way. New York City. 
BARNES, Walter A. (Apr. 26, '13) 576 Mills Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 
BaRNHILL, W. J. (Sept. 27, '16) Owner, Chem. Laboratories; mailing address, 

P. O. Box 306, Colton, Calif. 
BARRON, Amos N. (July 26, '18) Asst. Gen. Mgr., The National Carbon Co., Inc.; 

mailing address, 2233 Devonshire Drive, Ambler Heights, Cleveland, Ohio. 
BARROWS, Frank E. (Aug. 22, '13) Patent Attorney, 35 Nassau St., New York City. 
BARROWS, Walter S. (Apr. 26, '13) Foreman Electro-plater, Russell Motor Car 

Co.; mailing address, 62S Dovercourt Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
BARSTOW, W^. S. (Apr. 3, '02) 50 Pine St., New York City. 
BARTELL, F. E. (Apr. 26, '17) Chem. Lab., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 

Mich. 
BARTON, Charles B. (Sept. 4, '02) Brown Co., Berlin, N. H. 
BARTON, Philip P. (Feb. 2, '06) Gen. Mgr., The Niagara Falls Power Co., 352 

Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
BARTON, Willett H. (Feb. 25, 'ID Met. Chemist, Searchlight, Nev. 
BARWICK, W. S. (Dec. 31, '09) Chemist and Metallurgist, The "Vancouver Engi- 
neering Works, Vancouver, B. C, Canada; mailing address, 1589 Marpole Ave. 
BASH, Francis Edwin (Feb. 22, '18) Res. Eng., Leeds Northrup Co.; mailing 

address, 4901 Sienton Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BASKERVILLE, Dr. Chas. (Apr. 4, '03) Prof, of Chemistry, College of the City 

of New York, New York City. 
BASSETT, Harry P. (May 24, '18) Consulting Chem., 1207 Stephen Girard Bldg., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
BASSETT, Wm. H. (Nov. 26, '07) Technical Supt. and Metallurgist, The Ameri- 
can Brass Co., Waterbury. Conn.; res., Cheshire, Conn. 
BATE, Harley A. (Sept. 27, '16) 104 15th St., N. E., Washington, D. C. 
BATTLE, Herbert B. (May 24, 'IS) Pres., The Battle Laboratory, 103 S. Court St., 

Montgomery, Ala. 
BAUER, George W. (Sept. 4, '03) Vice-President and Chemist, Bauer-Schweitzer 

Hop and Malt Co., 1722 Buchanan St., San Francisco, Calif. 
BAUER, Prof. Wm. Chas. (May 27, '11) Prof, of Elec. Engineering, Northwestern 

University, Evanston, 111.; res., 2149 Sherman Ave. 
BAYARD, Robert A. (Apr. 24, '14) Resident Supt., Chippewa Plants, Norton Co., 

Ontario, Canada; mailing address, 170 Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
BEAR, S. L. (Feb. 26, '15) 4001 Northminster St., Northside, Pittsburgh. Pa. 
BEARD, C. W. (Jan. 28, '17) Chemist, Niagara Alkali Co.; mailing address, 21 

Mentz Apts., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
BECK, Dr. Erick Alfred (Apr. 29, 'ID Metallurgist, Goldschmidt Thermit Co., 120 

Broadway, New York City; res., 931 Park Ave. 
BECK, William H. (Nov. 23, '17) Elec. Eng., Crown Cork and Seal Co.; mailing 

address. 4502 Maine Ave., Montebello Park, Baltimore, Md. 
BECKET, Frederick M. (Apr. 3, '02) The El. -Met. Co. of America; mailing address, 

403 Jefferson Ave., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

BECKMAN. John Woods (May 6, '05) Beckman and Linden Engineering Corp., 

604 Balboa Bldg., San Francisco, Calif.; mailing address, 7157 Chabot Road, 

Oakland, Calif. 

BEDELL, E. H. (Oct. 22, '15) Advertising Solicitor, McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 

BEHNKEN, H. Emile (Aug. 24, '18) Teacher, New York High School; mailing 

address, 466 5th St., Biooklyn, Pulteney, N. Y. 
BELL, Wm. H. (May 24, '18) 3961 Hazel Ave., Norwood, Ohio. 
BENFIELD, Bernard (Oct. 3, '17) Consulting Engineer in Petroleum and 

Asphaltum; mailing address, 719 Rialto Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 
BENJAMIN, Edward O. (Oct. 26, '17) Chief Chem. and Eng., International Oxygren 

Co., 9 Emerson Ave., Newark, N. J. 
BENNETT, M. H. (Nov. 28, '13) Res. Engineer, 26 Linden St., Waterbury, Conn. 
BENNIE, P. McN. (July 1, '04) P. O. Box 225, Hull Quebec, Canada. 
BENOLIEL, Sol. D., B.S., E.E., A.M. (Sept. 4, '02) Gen. Mgr. International Chem 

Co., Camden, N. J.; mailing address, 4508 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BENSON, George Challoner (Jan. 25, 'IS) A.sst. Inspector of Explosives, Imperial 

Ministry of Munitions, 380 Dufferin Ave., London, Ontario, (Canada. 
BERG. Dr. Ern.st J. (Oct. 2, '02) Union Uni\ersity, Schenectady, N. Y. 
BERGEN, Raymond Chase (Oct. 22, '15) Kretschmer-Bergen Co., New Brunswick, 

N. J.; mailing address, 27-31 Albany St. 
BERGER, Edward J. (June 29, '18) 4049 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BERGLUND, Edward S. (Aug. 30, '12) Mining and Met. Eng., Djursholm, Sweden. 
BERK, P. F. (Sept. 30, 'IS) Director, F. W. Berk & Co., Chem. Mfg.; mailing 

address, 1 Frenchurch Ave., London, E. C, 3, England. 
BERRY, Edward R. (Dec. 1, '06) Chief Chem., Eng. Lab., Gen. Elec. Co., Lynn, 
Mass.; mailing address, 30 Hancock St., Maiden, Mass. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 7 

BERRY, George M. (June 29, '18) Chief Chem., Halcomb Steel Co.; mailing 

address, 661 Allen St., Syracuse, N. T. 
BERTHIER, U. H. (Sept. 27, '16) Lead and Copper Smelter, Compania Metalurgtca 

de Torreon; mailing address, Apartado 93, Torreon, Coah., Mexico. 
BETTS, Anson G. (Apr. 3, '02) c/o Anson G. Betts & Co., 519 Legal Bldg., 

Asheville, N. C. 
BIERBAUM, Christopher H. (Apr. 3, '02) Consulting Engineer, 1011 Mutual Llf« 

Bldg.. Buffalo, N. T. 
BIGELOW, S. Lawrence (May 9, '03) Prof, of General Chemistry and Phya., 

Univ. of Mich. ; mailing address, 1520 Hill St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
BIJUR, Joseph (Sept. 19, '03) Bijur Motor Lighting Co., River Front and 15th St., 

Hoboken, N J.; mailing address, Garden and loth Sts. 
BJORKSTEDT, Wm. (Apr. 6. 'U) Metallurgist, Bayonne Steel Casting Co., 

Bayonne, N. J. 
BJORNSON, Einar (Oct. 29, '10) Arblns Gt. 13, Chrlstlania, Norway. 
BLACK, James B. (June 30, '17) General Sales Mgr., Great "Western Power Co.; 

mailing address, 14 Sansome St., San Francisco, Calif. 
BLANCHARD, H. J. (Nov. 24, "16) Chemist, 115 Church St., Wallingford, Conn. 
BLANCHARD, Wm. Martin (June 28, '18) Prof of Chem., De Pauw Univ.; mailing 

address, 1008 S. College Ave., Greencastle, Ind. 
BLASIUS. Charles Essen (May 2, "17) Student, Lehigh Univ.; mailing address. 

Phi Gamma Delta House, 414 Cherokee St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
BLEEKER, W. F. (Nov. 27, '09) Boulder, Colo. 

BLISS, Wm. L. (Mar. 23, '12) Chief Engineer, U. S. Light and Heating Co.; mail- 
ing addre.'^s, 142 Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
BLOSSOM, Edward L. (Nov. 23, '17) Staff of Research Corp., 63 Wall St., New 

York City. 
BLOUGH, Earl (Apr. 29, '11) Chief Chem., Aluminum Co. of America, New Ken- 
sington, Pa. 
BLUM, William (Nov. 26, '15) Chem., Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 
BOECK, Percy A. (Feb. 28, '08) Eastern District Mgr., Celite Products Co., 11 

Broadway, New York City; mailing address, W. 227th St. and Netherland Ave., 

New York City. 
BOERICKE, Gideon (Mar. 5, '04) President, Primos Chem. Co., Primos, Delaware 

County, Pa. 
BOGUE, Chas. J. (Apr. 3, '02) Mfr. of Elec. Machinery, 213-215 Center St., New 

York City. 
BOICE, Edwin N. (June 1, '15) Treasurer, The Hanson & Van Winkle Co., 

269 Oliver St., Newark, N. J. 
BONINE, Chas. E. (Aug. 30, '12) Cons. Engineer, 610 Harrison Bldg., Philadelphia, 

Pa.; res., 4153 Leldy Ave. 
BONNEVIE, Harald (Dec. 31, '14) Chief Eng. and Mgr. of Rjukan Saltpeterverk, 

RJukan, Norway. 
BOOTH, W. K. (Aug. 25, '16) Chief Engineer, Booth-Hall Co., 2309 Archer Ave., 

Chicago, 111.; mailing address, 1451 Rosemont Ave. 
BORN, Sidney (Aug. 25, '17) Chief Chem., Cracking Dept., Empire Refineries, 

Inc.; mailing address. Drawer F, Eartlesville, Okla. 
BOST\'ELL, Walter O. (April 26, '13) Elec. Eng., Engineering Dept., Hydro-Electric 

Power Commission of Ont. ; mailing address, 25 Roxboro St., W., Toronto, Ont., 

Canada. 
BOVEE. Ben. A. (Feb. 26, '15) Instructor, Eng. Dept., School of Engineering; 

mailing address. 917 4th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
BOWLES, Richard H. (Dec. 30, '16) Asst. E. E., Sao Paulo Tramway, Light and 

Power Co., Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
BOWMAN, C. H. (Dec. 31, '09) President, Montana State School of Mines, Butte, 

Mont. 
BOWMAN, F. C. (Jan. 29, '10) Consulting Eng., 1903 West 9th Ave., Spokane, 

W^ashington. 
BOWMAN. ^Valker (Apr. 3, '02) 39 Cortland St., New York Citv. 
BOYNTON, Wm. H. (Mar. 26, '15) Analytical Chemist, Crown Cork and Seal Co., 

Baltimore, Md. ; mailing address, 1801 Linden Ave., Baltimore, Md. 
BRADFORD, Robert H, (Feb. 25, '11) Professor of Metallurgy, University of 

Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
BRADLEY, J. C. (Nov. 26, '07) Metallurgist, c/o American Brass Co., Water- 
bury, Conn.; mailing address, Fairlawn Ave. 
BRADLEY, Linn (June 30, '16) Chief Eng., Res. Corp.; mailing address, 63 Wall 

St., New York City. 
BRADLEY, Walter E. F. (June 29, '07) 366 5th Ave., New York City. 
BRADLEY, Walter M. (Apr. 3, '02) Mineralogical Lab., Sheffield Scientific School; 

mailing address, 520 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn. 
BRADSHAW, Hamilton (Jan. 26, '17) Director, Experiment Station, Henry Clay, 

Delaware. 
BRADY, William (May 29, '09) Chief Chemist, Illinois Steel Co.; mailing addresB. 

7642 Marquette Ave., Chicago, 111. 
BRAGG, Everett B. (Feb. 2-5, '11) Manager, Chicago Branch, General Chemical 

Co.; 1838 Chicago Ave., Evanston, 111. 



8 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

BRAKES, James (May 24, '18) Analytical Chem., Chateaugay Ore and Iron Co.. 

Box 83, Lyon Mountain, N. T 
BRALEY, Howard D. (May 24, '18) Gen. Eng., Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
BRALLIER, Paul S. (June 29, '18) Cliem., Niagara Smelting Corp.; mailing 

address, 468 Thirteenth St., Niagara Fails, N. Y. 
BRANDER, James (Sept. 30, '18) 62 Haverstock Road, Knowle, Bristol, England. 
BRANDT, Maurice F. (Aug. 25, '16) Lt. Jr. Grade, U. S. Navy; mailing address. 

Box 695, Trenton, New Jersey. 
BRAT, William C. (May 30, '08) Dept. of Chemistry, University of California, 

Berkeley, Cal. 
BREARL.EY, Joseph H. D. (Oct. 25, '18) Director and Chief Eng., c/o Noyes Broa. 

Ltd., 499 Bourke St., Melbourne, Victoria, S. A. 
BRECKENRIDGE, Clarence E. (Oct. 22, '15) Chief Eng.. Merck & Co., Rahway, 

N. J.; mailing address, 209 Elm Ave. 
BRECKENRIDGE, J. E. (Apr. 26, '13) Chief Chemist, Am. Agric. Chem. Co., 

Ca.rt.GrGt N J 
BRETZ, J. A. (May 24, '18) Chief Chem. and Met., The Bettendort Co., 316 Eaat 

Grant St., Bettendorf, Iowa. 
BREYER, Frank G. (May 2, '17) Chief, Res. Dept., New Jersey Zinc Co., Palmer- 
ton, Pa. 
BRIGHT, Arthur C. (July 27, '17) 7115 Chew St., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. 
BRINDLEY, Geo. F. (Apr. 3, '02) 72 University Place, New York City. 
BRISTOL, Wm. H. (Dec. 1, '06) Pres., The Bristol Co., Waterbury, Conn. 
BROCKWAY, John P. (Sept. 27, '16) 209 Equitable Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
BROOKFIELD, Wm. Bertin (May 26, '10) Superintendent, Melting Department. 

Halcomb Steel Co., Syracuse, N. Y. ; mailing address, 868 Ostrom Ave. 
BROOKS, W. C. (Mar. 23, '12) Asst. Supt., National Carbon Co.; mailing address. 

Suite 4, 1448 Highland Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
BROPHY, Oscar (Feb. 27, '14) Metallurgist, Ajax Metal Co.; mailing address, 

1523 S. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BROWN, C. J. (Oct. 22, '15) Secretary, Wilson-Maeulen Co.; mailing address, 15 

Union Ave., Mt. "Vernon, N. T. 
BROWN, Frank E., Jr. (May 24, '18) Asst. Chief Chem., American Steel Foundries; 

mailing address. Suite 3, Colonial Apartments, Alliance, Ohio. 
BROWN, Harold C. (Apr. 28, '18) Inspector, U. S. Signal Corps, 605 Sinwood Ave., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
BROWN, Harold P. (Apr. 3, '02) Elec. Eng., 120-122 Liberty St., New York City. 
BROWN, John T., Jr. (May 26, '10) Superintendent, Duquesne Reduction Co., 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: mailing address, 5448 Stanton Ave. 
BROWN, Mortimer J. (Dec. 31, '15) Chief Chemist, The Roessler & Hasslacher 

Chemical Co., Plant Lab., Perth Amboy, New Jersey. 
BROWN, Norman B. (Apr. 28, '18) Works Supt., c/o Shawinigan Electro-metals 

Co., Ltd., Shawinigan Falls, Quebec, Canada. 
BROWN, Prof. Oliver W. (Apr. 3, '02) Associate Prof, in Chemistry, Applied 

Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and C!hemical Engineering, Indiana University; 

mailing address, 817 E. Second St., Bloomington, Indiana. 
BROWN, P. Hunter (Aug. 24, '18) Elec. Eng., c/o The Morgan-Crucible Co.. Ltd., 

Ballersca Works, London, S. W., 11, England. 
BROWN, Raymond G. (Oct. 26, '17) Chem., Carborundum Co., 136 Greenwood St., 

Melrose Highlands, Mass. 
BROWN, Richard P. (Aug. 25, '16) Pres., The Brown Instrument Co., Wayne and 

Windrim Avenues, Philadelphia, Pa. 
BROWN, Prof. W. G., B.S., Ph.D. (Apr. 3, '02) Prof, of Chem., University of Mis- 
souri, Columbia, Mo. 
BROWNE, Arthur Lee (May 24, '18) Member of Firm, Penniman and Browne, 

Chemists, 215 E. Fayette St., Baltimore, Md. 
BROWNE, deCourcy B (Apr. 26, '13) Captain U. S. R., Ordnance Dept., American 

Expeditionary Forces. 
BROWNE, Prof. Wm. Hand, Jr. (Apr. 3. '02) North Carolina College of Agriculture 

and Mechanic Arts, West Raleigh, N. C. 
BRUMBAUGH, Andrew K. (Jan. 26, '17) Asst. Eng., Autocar Co., Ardmore, Psl 
BRUNT, H. H. (May 24, '18) Brunt & Co., 662 Insurance Exchange Bldg., 

Chicago, 111. 
BRYAN, John K. (Aug. 22, '13) c/o Electrolytic Zinc Co., Colgate, Baltimore 

County, Md. 
BRYN, Knud (Nov. 24, '11) Director, Kristiania, Norway. 
BRYSON, Tandy A. (Oct. 22, '15) Engineer, Tolhurst Steel Co., Troy, N. Y. ; 

mailing address, 2228 15th St., Troy. N. Y. 
BUCH, N. W. (Nov. 6, '13) Mgr. P. M. Evans Co., 3707 Ludlow St., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
BUCHANAN, Andrew E.. Jr. (Sept. 30. 'IS) Chem. Eng., Chem. Dept., E. I. duPont 

de Nemours & Co., DuPont Bldg., Wilmington, Del.; mailing address, 1102 

Jackson St. 
BUCHANAN, Leonard B. (Apr. 3, '02) Head of Chemical and Industrial Dept.. 

Stone & Webster. 147 Milk St., Boston. Mass 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 9 

BUCK, C. A. (May 29, "09) Vice-President, Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa- 
BUCK, H. W. (May 7, "04) 49 Wall St., New York City. 

BUCKIE, Robert H. (Sept. 25, '09) c/o New York & Penna. Co., Johnsonburs, Pa. 
BUHL, Wm. (May 25, '17) Elec. Eng., 1811 Washington St., Easton, Pa. 
BULLOCK, Arthur R. (Apr. 24, '14) Electrical Eng., 11913 Lake Ave., Lakewood, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
BUMGARDNER, J. W. (Aug. 25, '16) Metallurgist, and Supt. Chill Rolling Dept., 
Wheeling Mold and Foundry Co., Wheeling, W. Va. ; mailing address, 4 19t* 

St., Warwood, W. Va. 
BUNYAN, F. W. (May 24, '18) Head Chemist. Noble Electric Steel Co., Heroult. 

Shasta Co., Calif. 
BURDICK, E. C. (Oct. 21, '16) Chemist, Dow Chem. Co., Midland, Mich. 
BURGER, Dr. Alfred (Aug. 26, '10) P. O. Box 314, Newark, N. J. 
BURGESS, C. F. (Apr. 3, '02) President, C. F. Burgess Labs., 625 Williamson St., 

Madison, Wis. 
BURGESS, Louis (May 2. '17) c/o Standard Oil Co., Bayonne, N. J. 
BURKE, Wm. E. (Aug. 25, '17) Instructor in Chem., Stanford University, Cal. 
BURLAGE, Henry Matthew (June 29, '18) Air Nitrates Corporation, Muscle ShoaU, 

Ala. 
BURNS, Willis T. (Nov. 6, '03) Supt., Electrolytic Refinery, Boston and Montana 

Con. Cop. S. and Refining Co., Great Falls, Mont. 
BURT, George G. (May 2, '17) Foreman Plater, 15517 Center Ave., Harvey, 111. 
BURT, Milo C. (Oct. 3, '17) Director, Exp. Lab., c/o Atlas Powder Co., Tamaqua, 

Pa. 
BURT-GERRANS, Jas. T. (Jan. 27, '12) Lecturer in Electrochemistry, University 

of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; mailing address, 46 Dewson St. 
BURWELL, Arthur W., Ph.D. (Nov. 5, '04) Gen. Mgr. The Western Reserve Chem., 

Co., 3434 E. 93d St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
BUSTOS, Enrique (Oct. 3, '17) Engineer, Baltimore Copper Works; mailing address, 

1521 Mt. Vernon St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BUTTERS, Chas. (July 1, '05) 6272 Chabot Road, Oakland, Cal. 
BUTTFIELD, Alfred C. (Oct. 3, '17) Chem. Engr. and Chemist, Box 1, Butler, 

New Jersey. 
BUTTFIELD, W. J. (Oct. 23, '14) Pres. Vulcan Detinning Co., Sewaren. N. J. 
BUTTS, Allison (Dec. 31, '14) Asst. Editor, Mineral Industry, Box 89, Bethlehem, 

Pa. 
CADENHEAD, A. F. G. (May 24, '18) Works Chem., Canadian Electro Products 

Co.; mailing address, P. O. Box 238. Shawinigan Falls, P. Q., Canada. 
CALHANE, D. F. (June 1, '!'>> Prof. Electrochemistry, Worce.ster Polytechnic 

Inst., Worcester, Mass. 
CALLEN, Arthur S. (Apr. 24, '14) 6835 Woodland Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
CAMERON, Frank K., Ph. D. (Oct. 7, '05) Consult. Chemist and Chem. Eng., 3207 

19th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
CAMERON, Walter S. (Apr. 3, '02) 239 W. 136th St., New York City. 
CANBT, Robt. C. (July 24, '14) Consulting Metallurgist, 334 So. Main St., WalUng- 

ford. Conn. 
CANFIELD, Jos. M., Jr. (May 24, 'l.S) Supervising Chem., 916 Parri.sh St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; mailing address, 536 E. Washington Lane, Germantown, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
CANTLEY, Thomas (Mar. 27, '09) Gen. Mgr., Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co., Ltd., 

New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, Canada. 
CARDOEN, Remy (May 25, '17) P. O. Box 3463, Santiago de Chile. 
CARGO, L. M. (May 2, '17) District Mgr., Westinghouse Elec. Mfg. Co., 1052 

Gas & Elec. Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
CARHART, Prof. H. S. (Apr. 3, '02) Prof. Emeritus of Physics, Univ. of Mich., 

Ann Arbor, Mich.; mailing address, 277 N. El Molino Ave., Pasadena, Cal. 
CARLSON, Birger (Nov. 3, '04) Gen. Director of Stockholm Superfosfat Fabrik, 

Aktiebolag of Stockholm, Sweden; mailing address, Bir^-er Yarlsgatan 58. 
CARNEGIE, Ebenezer (Aug. 28, '14) Pres. and Gen. Mgr., The Electric Steel and 

Metals Co., Ltd., Welland, Ont., Canada. 
CAROTHERS, John N. (Apr. 26, '17) Electrochemist, Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. 

of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. ; mailing address, 2524 17th St., N. W. 
CARRIER, C. F., Jr. (Mar. 5, '05) Technologist, American Cyanamid Co., Warners, 

New Jersey; mailing addres.s, 528 Carlton Road, Westfield, N. J. 
CARRIER, S. C. (Sept. 27, '16) Sales Engr., Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 165 

Broadway, New York City; mailing address, 2042 Bedford St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
CARRIER, W. H. (Dec. 31, '15) Pres. and Chief Eng., Carrier Eng. Corp., 603 

Mutual Life Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
CARSE, David B. (Mar. 4, '05) President, David B. Carse & Co., 165 Broadway, 

New York City. 
CARSON, C. M. (May 24, '18) Prof, of Chem., Michigan College of Mines, Houghton, 

Mich. 
CARSON, Francis L. (Aug. 23, '17) Gen. Mgr., Pacific Carbon Mfg. Co., 2l3t and 

Chanslor Ave., Richmond, Calif. 
CARTER, Frederic E. (Aug. 25, '16) Physical Metallurgist, Baker & Co., Inc.; 

mailing address. Baker Platinum Works, Newark, N. J. 

2 



JO DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

CARUS, Edward H. (May 24, 'IS) Chem. Eng., c/o Carus Chemical Co., La Salle, 

Illinois. 
CARVETH, Hector R. (Apr. 3, '02) Works Mgr., Niagara Electrochemical Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 118 Buffalo Ave. 
CASE, Theodore W. (Dec. 30, '16) 20 Elizabeth St., Auburn, N. T. 

CASE. Willis "W., Jr. (Nov. 27, '09) Denver Athletic Club, Denver Colo. 

CASEY, G. Lewis (Mar. 22, '18) President, Smelters Steel Co., 803 White Bldg., 

Seattle, Washington; mailing address, 1710 13th Ave. 
CASSELBERRY, Harry (June 29. '07) 2118 4th Ave., Altoona, Pa. 
CASTLE, George C. (Dec. 28, '17) Elec. Furnace Mgr. and Metallurgist, Clayton 

and Shuttleworth; mailing address, Pine Dale, Grove Ave., Yoevil, Somerset, 

England. 
CASTLE, S. N. (Jan. 27, '12) c/o General Electric Co., 120 Broadway, New 

York City. 
CATANI, Dr. Remo (Aug. 31, '07) E. E., 41, Via Babuino, Rome, Italy. 
CAULKINS, E. B. (Jan. 26, '17) V. P. and Sec'y, Mich. Steel Castings Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 
CERESOLE, M. A. (June 29, 'IS) Chem. Director, Newport Chem. Works, Inc., 

Carrollville, Wis. 
CHACE, Ralph T. (Feb. 24, '17) Salesman, Westinghouse Elec. and Mfg. Co.; mail- 
ing address, 228 4th St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
CHADWICK, Lt. R. A., Jr. (July 27, '17) 1st Lieut., Ordnance Dept., U. S. A.; 

mailing address, Milwaukee Athletic Club, Milwaukee, Wis. 
CHALAS, Adolphe (May 29, '09) c/o Chalas & Sons, Finsbury Pavement House, 

Finsbury Pavement, London, E. C, England. 
CHANDLER. Dr. Chas. F. (Jan. 8, '03) Prof, of Chemistry, Columbia University, 

West 116th St., New York City. 
CHANEY, Dr. N. K. (Mar. 27, '14) Consult. Chem., The National Carbon Co., 

■ Inc., Chem., Warfare Service, U. S. A.; mailing address, 1535 Elbur Ave., 
Lakewood, Ohio. 

CHAPIN, Dr. H. C. (Apr. 22, '15) Associate Prof, of Chemistry, Lafayette College, 

Easton, Pa. 
CHAPPELL, Wm. C. (June 28, '12) Hydro-Electric Dept., Hobart, Tasmania. 
CHEDSEY, Wm. R. (Apr. 24, '09) Prof, of Mining, Penna. State College, State 

College, Pa.; mailing address, 607 West College Ave. 
CHERRY, Louis Bond (Dec. 31, '15) Consult. Eng. and Electrochemlst, C. and C. 

Developing Co., 715 Commercial Bldg., Kansas City, Mo.; mailing address, 911 

E. 41st St. 
CHIANG, Y. K. (June 29, '18) Long-tai-chang. Ango, Szechuen, China. 
CHIARAVIGLIO, Dino (Apr. 3, '02) Piassa Esquilino 23, Rome, Italy. 
CHILD, Hugh A. (Aug. 25, '16) Mgr. and Supt., Bayard Chem. Co., Woodbridge 

N. J. 
CHILLAS, Richard Burt (May 5, '11) Chemical Eng., The Barrett Co., Frankford, 

Philadelphia, Pa.; mailing address, 233 Winona Ave., Germantown, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
CITO, Camile C. (Sept. 26, '08) Consulting Engineer, Director and Gen. Mgr. of 

the Mines de Monte Zippiri Sardaigne; mailing address, 10 Rue Henri Mari- 

chae, Brussels, Belgium. 
CLAMER, G. H. (Apr. 3, '02) Ajax Metal Co., Frankford Ave. and Richmond 

St., Philadelphia, Pa. _ 

CLAPP, E. H. (Sept. 4, '03) Vice President. Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co.; 

mailing address, 49 Federal St., Boston, Mass. 
CLAPP, Joseph F. (Nov. 27, '09) Metallurgist, Rare Metals Corporation, Los 

Angeles, Calif.; mailing address, 3118 Humboldt St. 
CLARK, Walter G. (Sept. 28, '07) Consult. Eng., 149 Broadway, New York City. 
CLARK, Wm. J. (Apr. 3, '02) Gen. Mgr. Foreign Dept., Gen. Elec. Co., 44 Broad 

St., New York City. 
CLARKE, Eben B. (June 25, '09) 5201 Westminster Place, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
CLARKE, Friend E., Ph.D. (Apr. 3, '02) Prof, of Chem., Dept. of Chem., West 

Virginia Univ., Morgantown, W. Va. 
CLEMENTS, Frank O. (Apr. 29, '11) Director, Dayton Research Labs. Co.; mailing 

address, 101 Far Hills Ave., Oakwood, Dayton, Ohio. 
CLEMENTS, Thos. Hubbard (June 29, '18) Res. Chemist, Union Oil Co. of Calif.; 

mailing address. The Regent Apartments, 2401 W. 6th St., Los Angeles. Calif. 
CLEVENGER, G. H. (Aug. 27, '09) Chairman, Section in Metallurgy, National 

Research Council, 1023 Sixteenth St., Washington, D. C. 
CLINTON, Guy (May 24, '18) Teacher in Chemistry, Central High School; mailing 

address, 16 Carroll Ave., Tokoma Park, D. C. 
(JLYMER, W. R. (May 30, 'OS) Works Mgr., National Carbon Co., 42d St. Bldg., 

New York City; mailing address, 13985 Lake Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
COATES, Jesse (May 29, '09) 40 Ocean Ave., Lynn, Mass. 

COFFIN, Chas. F., Jr. (June 29, '18) Supt., The Lustron Co., 43 Irma Ave., Water- 
town, Mass. 
COFFIN, F. Parkman (May 25, '12) Elec. Eng., General Electric Co., Schenectady, 

■ N. Y. 



DIRECTORY OF ME;mBERS. H 

COGGESHALL, G. TV. (Apr. 3, '02) Chem. Eng., The Inst, of Industrial Res., 

Washington, D. C. ; mailing' address, 2229 California St. 
COHO, H. B. (Apr. 3, '02) United Lead Co., Ill Broadway, New York City. 
COHOE, Wallace P. (Oct. 28, '09) Consulting Chemist, 111 Broadway, New York 

City. 
COLBY, Ed. A. (Apr. 3, '02) Supt., Baker Platinum Works, Newark, N. J. 
COLCORD, F. F. (Oct. 7, '05) c/o U. S. Metals Refining Co., 120 Broadway, New 

York City. 
COLE, Chas. S. (Dec. 31, '15) Captain, Ordnance Dept., M. S. R. ; mailing address, 

820 Penobscot Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 
COLE, Edward R. (June 25, '09) Superintendent Plants Nos. 1 and 2, International 

Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
COLLETT, Emil (Nov. 24, '11) 9 Lokkeveien, Kristiana, Norway. 
COLLETT, Ove (Feb. 23, '12) Met. Engr., Munkedamsveien 27, Kristiana, D. 

Norway. 
COLVOCORESSES, Geo. M. (Dec. 31, '09) Gen. Mgr., Consolidated Arizona Smelt- 
ing Co., Humboldt, Arizona. 
COMEY, Arthur M. (Apr. 29, 'ID Director, Eastern Laboratory, E. I. du Pont 

de Nemours Powder Co., Chester, Pa.; res., 424 E. 13th St. 
COMSTOCK, Chas. W. (June 27, '13) Consult. Eng., 1235 First Nat. Bank Bldg., 

Denver, Colo. 
COMSTOCK, Daniel F. (Mar. 27, '14) 110-114 Brookline Ave., Boston, Mass. 
COMSTOCK, R. L. (June 30, '17) Chem. Eng., Brown Co., Berlin, New Hampshire. 
CONDIT, Brian C. (Dec. 28, '17) Chemist, Burdett Mfg. Co., 309-19 St. John's 

Court, Chicago, 111. 
CONE. E. F. (Jan. 25, '18) Associate Editor, The Iron Age, 239 W. 39th St., New 

York City. 
CONKLIN, E. B. (Oct. 21, '16) Eng., Semet Solvay Co., 236 W. Borden Ave., 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
CONNELL, H. R. (May 26, '10) Allegheny Steel Co., Brackenridge, Pa.; res., 

Tarentum, Pa. 
CONVERSE, Vernon G. (Oct. 29, '08) General Mgr. and Chief Engineer, The 

Ontario Power Co. ; mailing address, P. O. Box 496, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
CONVERSE. W. A. (Nov. 27, '09) Secretary and Chemical Director, Dearborn Drug 

and Chemical Co., Chicago, III.; mailing address, 4320 Greenwood Ave. 
COOK, Roy J. (June 30, '17) Student, Mass. Inst, of Tech.; mailing address, 940 

Albemarle Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
COOLIDGE, Wm. D. (June 27, '13) Asst. Director, Res. Lab., Gen. Elec. Co., 

Schenectady, N. Y. 
COONEY, Edwin R. (Apr. 28, 'IS) Chemist, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.; 

mailing address. Riverside Club, Penns Grove, N. J. 
COOPER, H. C. (Nov. 26, '15) Asst. Prof, of Chemistry, 5 Chem. Bldg., College 

City of New York, New York City. 
COOPER, K. F. (Feb. 27, '09) Vice-Pres., American Cyanamid Co., 511 Fifth Ave., 

New York City. 
COPE, F. T. (Jan. 25, '13) Engineer, c/o Electric Furnace Co., Alliance, Ohio. 
COPEMAN, L. G. (Aug. 25, '16) Designing Eng., Copeman Electric Stove Co., 

1715 Detroit St., Flint, Mich. 
CORBIN, J. Ross (May 26, '10) Birkinbine Engineering Offices, Parkway Bldg., 

Broad and Cherry Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
CORNING, C. R. (July 21, '11) 36 Wall St., New York City; res.. Tuxedo Park, N. Y. 
CORNTHWAITE, Haydn (Sept. 20, '11) c/o 2 The Avenue, Brimsdowne, Middle- 
sex, England. 
CORSE, Wm. M. (May 5, '10) Manufacturing Eng., The Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, 

Ohio. 
COTTRELL, Frederick G. (Dec. 2 8, '12) Chief Metallurgist, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 

Washington, D. C. 
COWAN, Robert (Feb. 22, '18) Chemist, Pacific Electro-metals Co., Box 210, 

Bay Point, Calif. 
COWAN, Wm. A. (May 5, '10) Asst. Chief Chemist, Research Labs., National Lead 

Co., 129 York St., Brooklyn, N. Y. ; res., 724 Cortelyou Road. 
COWLES, Alfred H. (Apr. 3, '02) The Elec. Smelt, and Aluminum Co., Sewaren, 

N. J.; mailing address, P. O. Box 84, Sewaren, N. J. 
COWLES, Harry D. (Dec. 28, '12) Res. Chemist, 166 N. 17th St., East Orange, N. J. 
COWPER-COLES, Sherard (Oct. 10, '03) 1 and 2 Old Pye St., Westminster, London, 

S. W., England; mailing address. The Cottage, French St., Sunbury-on-Thames, 

England. 
COWPERTHWAIT, Arthur D. (Aug. 25, '16) Chem. Eng., The Edmunds & Jones 

Corp., Detroit, Mich. 
COX, G. E. (Apr. 3, '02) Works Mgr., American Cyanamid Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
COX, Harold N. (Oct. 21, '16) Director, Edison Central Research Lab., Silver Lake, 

New Jersey. 
COX, Samuel F. (June 1, '15) c/o Mr. E. H. Hanna, Springdale, Pa. 
CRABTREE, Prof. Fred. (May 29, '09) Prof, of Metallurgy and Mining, Carnegie 

Technical Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 6214 Stewart St. 
CRAFTS, Walter N. (Aug. 25, '11) British Forgings, Ltd., Toronto, Canada. 



12 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

CRAM, Marshall P. (May 24, '18) Prof, of Chem., Bowdoln College, Braaswlok, 

Maine. 
CPvANE, F. D. (Oct. 29, '08) Res. and Mfg. Chemist, 74 N. Willow St., Montclair, 

N. J.: mailing address, 28 Hillside Ave. 
CRANSTON, John (Oct. 21, '16) Chemist, Penna. Salt Mfg. Co.; mailing address. 

725 North Blddle Ave., Wyandotte, Mich. 
CRAWFORD, C. A. (July 27, '17) Res. Asso., American Sheet and Tin Plate Co.; 

mailing address, 6709 McPherson Blvd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
CREIGHTON, Elmer E. F. (Apr. 3, '02) Consult. Eng. and Research, General 

Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. ; mailing address, 27 Wendell Ave. 
CREIGHTON, H. J. (June 2, '16) Asst. Prof, of Chemistry, Swarthmore College. 

Swarthmore, Pa. 
CRIDER, J. S. (May 9, '03) Vice-President, c/o National Carbon Co., Inc., Cleve- 
land,' Ohio. 
CROCKER, Jas. R. (Feb. 25, '11) Chief Eng., Permutlt Co., 30 E. 42d St., New 

York City; mailing address. 202 W. 79th St. 
CROSBY, Edwin L. (Dec. 28, '12) Vice President and Gen. Mgr., Detroit Electrlo 

Furnace Co., 642 Boole Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 
CROWTHER, C. W. W. (Feb. 22, '18) Chief Chem., Canada Carbide Co., Ltd., 

Shawinigan Falls, P. Q., Canada. 
CULLEN, Joseph F. (Jan. 25, '18) Res. Chem., U. S. Smelting Co., Midvale, Utah. 
CUMMINGS, Carlos E. (July 26, '18) Research Chem., Eastern Tanners Glue Co.; 

mailing address, 70 Chestnut St., Gowanda, N. Y. 
CUMMINGS, William J., C.E. (Dec. 31, '09) Chief Engineer, E. I. du Pont de N«- 

mours & Co., Haskell, N. J. 
CUMMINS, Arthur B. (June 29, '18) Asst. in Agricultural Chem., Citrus Experiment 

Station, Riverside, Calif. 
CUMMINS, Alden C. (June 29, '18) Supt., Ferro-silicon and Electrode Depts., 

Carnegie Steel Co., Duquesne, Pa. 
CUNNINGHAM, Frederick Wm. (Dec. 29, '11) Manufacturing Engineer's Staff, 

c/o Winchester Repeating Arms Co., New Haven, Conn.; mailing address, 

71 Westwood Road. 
CURTISS, John L. (Mar. 26, '15) Local Eng., Gen. Elec. Co., 10th floor. Gen. Elec. 

Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
GUSHING, H. M. (May 27, '14) Engineer, General Elec. Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; 

mailing address, 1949 Hertel Ave. 
CUSHMAN, O. E. (July 27, '17) Res. Chem., 2333 Channing Way, Berkeley. Cal. 
CUTTS, V. O. (June 27, '13) Electrometallurgist, Town Hall Chambers, 87 Fargata, 

Sbefneld, England. 
CZARNECKI, F. C. (July 25, '15) mailing address, U. S. Bureau of Mines, c/o Lona 

Star Gas Co., Fort Worth, Texas; res., SOD Samuels Ave. 
DABOLT, Newton E. (Apr. 26, '13) Sales Mgr.. 185 Church St., New Haven, Conn.; 

mailing address, 190-192 Willard St. 
DAFT, Leo (Mar. 27, '09) Consult. Electrical Eng., The Wallace, 568 W. 149th St., 

New York City. 
DAILEY, J. G. (June 29, '18) Plant Mgr., Tungsten Products Co., P. O. Box 522, 

Baltimore, Md. 
DALBEY, G. E. (Sept. 27, '16) c/o Benj. Harris & Co., Metals, Chicago Heights, III. 
DALMEIDA, J. A. (Dec. 30, '16) Chief Clerk, Electrolytic Tank House. Chile 

Exploration Co., Chuquicamata, Chile. 
DALTON, A. C. <Ma.r. 24, '16) c/o Robt. Hyde & Son, Ltd., Abbeydale Foundry, 

Woodseats, Sheffield, England. 
DALTON, N. N. (July 26. '18) Vice Pres., Peet Bros. Mfg. Co., 15th and Kansaa 

Ave.. Kansas City, Mo. 
DANTSIZEN, Christian (Apr. 26, '17) Chem., Res. Lab., Gen. Elec. Co., Schenec- 
tady. N. Y. 
DARLINGTON, H. T. (Oct. 26, '17) Metallurgical and Chemical Engineer, Peona. 

Salt Mfg. Co.. Natrona. Pa. 
DARRAH. Wm. A. (Aug. 25. '16) Heroult. Shasta County. Calif. 
DARRIN. Marc (Nov. 23. '17^ Res. Chem., H. Koppers Co.; mailing address. 

Mellon Inst., Pitt.sburgh, Pa. 
DAVIDSON, T. R. (Sept. -'7, '16) Director, The Thos. Davidson Mfg. Co., Ltd., 

P. O. Box 700, Montreal, Canada. 
DAVIS. D. L. (Aug. 7, '02) 299 Lincoln Ave., Salem. Ohio. 
DAVIS, Frank Wilson (May 24, '13) 208 S. Walnut St., Milford. Delaware. 
DAVIS, Hugh N. (Sept. 27, '16) Supt., Keokuk Electro-Metals Co.; mailing address. 

512 N. 10th St., Keokuk, Iowa, 
DAVIS, Robert W., Jr. (Feb. 27, '09) 305 Highland Ave., Jenkintown. Pa. 
DAVISON, A. W. (Mar. 24, '16) Charge of Phy. and Applied Electrochem., Dept. 

of Chemistry, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
DAVISON, George L. (Feb. 22, '18) General Mgr., Southern Ferro Alloys Co.. 

21st and Chestnut Sts., Chattanooga, Tenn. 
DEACON, Ralph W. (May 5, '10) Supt., United States Metals Ref. Co., Chronta. 

DEAGLE, Lloyd M. (Oct. 21, '16) Electrician, Cataract Elec. Co., Ltd., Orange- 
vllle, Ont.. Canadj.. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. I3 

DE BEERS, F. M. (May 29, '09) Pres. & Gen. Mgr., Swenson Evaporator Co., 945 

Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
DEDICHEN, Herman (May 24, 'IS) Hotel Ranelegh, Fenway, Boston, Mass. 
DE GEOFROT, Antolne (JaH. 25, '13) 12 rue du Bouquet, de Long Champs, Paris, 

France. 
DE GIOVELLINA, E. Colonna (Nov. 30, '18) Chief Chem., Whalen Pulp & Paper 

Mills, Ltd.; mailing address. General Delivery, Vancourer, B. C, Canada. 
DE LANDERO, Carlos F. (Jan. 25, '18) Mining Eng., 1st Alamo 4, Mexico City, 

Mexico. 
DE LUCE, Robert (Oct. 27, '11) Three Rivers. Tulare Co., Calif. 
DE MEDEIROS, Trajano (Jan. 29, '10) Rua de Sao Jose, No. 76, Rio De Janeiro, 

Brazil. 
DE MILES, Paul (Aug. 25, '17) 167 West 18th St., New Tork City. 
DEMOREST, D. J, (Aug. 25, '16) Prof, of Met., Dept. of Metallurgy, Ohio State 

Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 
DEPPE. Wm. P. (Dec. 30, '16) Pres. Deppe Motors Corp.; mailing address, 127 

Duane St., New Tork City. 
DESHLER, George O. (Oct. 24, '13) Columbia Gardens, Butte, Mont. 
DE SOUZA, Edgard (Dec. 31, '09) Chief Electrical Engineer, The S. Pauio Tram- 
way, Light and Power Co., Ltd., S. Paulo, Brazil; mailing address, Caixa 162, 
DETWILER, J. G. (Dec. 30, '16) Lieut., Co. "H," 347th Infantry, Camp Pike, 

Arkansas. 
DEVEREUX, Washington (Jan. 6, '06) Inspector, Philadelphia Fire Underwriters' 

Association; mailing address, 1625 N. 29th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
DEVERS, Philip K., Jr. (Jan. 27. '12) 254 W. York Ave., York, Pa. 
DEWEY, Bradley (Jan. 28, '11) Director, Research Laboratory, Am. Sheet and Tin 

Plate Co., 210 Semple St., Oakland. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
DEWEY, Edwin S. (Dec. 26, '13) 162 Elmwood Ave., Newark, N. J. 
DEWEY, F. P. (Apr. 2, '04) Assayer, Mint Bureau, Treas. Dept., Washington, D. C. 
DIAZ-OSSA, Prof. Belisario (June 25, '09) Prof, of Technology, University of 

Chile; mailing address, Casilla No. 962, Santiago, Chile, South America. 
DIETRICHSON, J. Gerhard (Dec. 30, '17) Chemistry Building, University of Illi- 
nois, Urbana, III. 
DINSMORE, Ray Putman (May 24, '18) Compounding Chem., c/o The Goodyear 

Tire & Rubber Co., New Toronto, Ont., Canada. 
DITTMAR, Carl (June 2, '16) Sales Mgr., Electroplating Dept., Roessler and 

Hasslacher Chem. Co.; mailing address, 2212 Union Central Bldg., Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 
DIXON. Jos. L. (Oct. 23, '14) Engineer, John A. Crowley Co., New York City; 

mailing addre.ss, 120 Liberty St. 
DODGE, W. E. (Feb. 24, '17) 415 W. Highland Ave., Shawnee, Okla. 
DODSON, Fred W. (July 27, '17) Student, Mass. Inst, of Tech.; mailing address, 

1319 N St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
DOERFLINGER, W^m. F. (July 3, '02) Perry Austin Mfg. Co., Grasmere, Staten 

Island, New York City. 
DOERSCHUK, Victor C. (Apr. 29, 'ID Massena, N. Y. 
DOLMAN, C. D. (Dec. 27, '18) Chief Chem., Northwest Magnesite Co.; mailing 

address. Box 274, Chewelah, Washington. 
r>ONY-HENAULT, Prof. O. (Feb. 27, '14) 40, Avenue de Bertaimont, Al Ecole des 

Mines, Mons, Belgium. 
DOOLITTLE, C. E. (May 9, '03) Consulting Hyd. & Elec. Engr., V.-Pres. and Gen. 

Mgr., The Roaring Fork Elec. Light and Power Co., Aspen, Col. 
DOREMUS, Dr. Chas. A. (Apr. 3, '02) 55 "W. 53d St., New York City. 
lyORNELLAS, Thomas V. (Nov. 21, '08) Cons. Eng., 22 Bajada Balta, Miraflores, 

Lima, Peru. S, A. 
DORR, John Van N. (Nov. 28, '13) Met. and Chem. Eng., President, The Dorr Co., 

Engineers, 101 Park Ave., New York City. 
DOTY, Ernest L. (Sept. 26, '08) Dist. Eng., Western Elec. & Mfg. Co., 263 Baynes 

St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; res., 546 Potomac Ave. 
DOUBLEDAY, Ralph S. (Aug. 25, '16) Chief Chemist. Marden Orth & Hastings 

Co., 564 Park Ave., East Orange, N J. 
DOUGHERTY, John W. (Feb. 27, '09) President, Pittsburgh Crucible Steel Co., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
DOW, Herbert H. (Apr. 3, '02) Midland, Mich. 
DOWNES, Arthur C. (July 30, '09) Asst. Supt., Fostoria Works, National Carbon 

Co., Fostoria, Ohio. 
DOYLE. Henry L. (Oct. 23, '14) 39 Benson St.. Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. 
DRAKE, Bryant S. (Feb. 24, '17) Chemical Eng., Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., 

San Francisco, Calif.; mailing address, 5830 Colby St., Oakland, Calif 
DHEFAHL, L. C. (Oct. 22, '15) Res. Chemist, Grasselli Chemical Co., Cleveland, 

Ohio; mailing address, 15503 Clifton Blvd., Lakewood, Ohio. 
DREYFUS, Dr. Wm. (Dec. 4, '02) Chem. and Mgr., West Disinfecting Co. B7 B 

9«th St., New York City. 
DRINKBR, Philip H. (Jan. 26, '17) 2d Lt., U. S. Aviation Corps, Res. Dept, c/o 

Chief of Aviation, A. E. F., France; mailing addrese, Lehigh University 

CampuB, Bethlehem, Pa. 



14 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

DRIVER, Wilbur B. (Aug. 25, '16) Vice Pres., Driver-Harris Co., Newark, N. J. 
DROBEGG, Dr. Gustave (Jan. 8, '03) Consulting Chem., Room 306, 38 Park Row, 

New York City. 
DRYER, Erwin (Sept. 4, '03) Peoples Gas Bldg., Cliicago, 111. 
DUDLEY, Boyd, Jr. (Nov. 28, '13) Asst. Prof, of Metallurgy, Penna. State College, 

State College, Pa. 
DU FAUR, J. B. (June 1, '07) Mt. Hope, New South Wales, Australia. 
DUNCAN, Thomas (Nov. 6, '03) c/o Burlington Apts., 9th St. and Burlington 

Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
DUNLAP, Orrin E. (July 31, '08) Sec'y, Int. Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
DUNLAP, Theodore E. (July 26, '18) 4134 Brooklyn Ave., Seattle, Washington. 
DUNN, H. Earl (Dec. 28, '17) U. S. Government Chem., Forged Steel Wheel Co., 

Butler, Pa. ; mailing address, 40 N. Emily St., Crafton Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
DUNN, J. J. (Feb. 25, '11) National Tube Co., Ellwood City, Pa. 
DUNNINGTON, Prof. F. P. (Apr. 6, '11) Professor of Analytical and Industrial 

Chemistry, University of Virginia, University, Va. 
DU PONT. Irenee (Apr. 24, '09) V. Pres., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, 

Wilmington, Dei. 
DU PONT, Lammot (May 24, '18) Vice Pres., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 

P. O. Box 303, Wilmington, Del. 
DU PONT, Pierre S. (Jan. 29, '09) Treas., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, 

Wilmington, Del. 
DUSCHAK, L. H. (June 25, '09) Chem. Eng., U S. Bureau of Mines, Mining Bldg., 

Berkeley, Cal. ; mailing address, 1301 Tamalpais St. 
DUSHMAN, Saul (June 25, '09) Res. Lab., General Elec. Co., Schenectady, N. T. 
DUTTON, W. C. (May 24, '18) Vice Pres. and Mgr., New York office, Tolhurst 

Machine Works, 111 Broadway, New York City 
DUURLOO, F. (Oct. 21, '16) Asst. Sec'y, W. R. Grace & Co., N. Y.; mailing address, 

131 Caryl Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 
DUVAL, Alexander L. (Oct. 26, '17) Chief Chem., Hazel Atlas Glass Co.; mailing 

address, 315 E. Beau St., Washington, Pa. 
DWIGHT, Arthur S. (Feb. 26, '10) Consulting. Mining and Met. Ung., 29 Broadway, 

New York City. 
DYRSSEN, Waldemar (Jan. 23, '14) Metallurgist, 71 Broadway, New York City. 
EAGLE, Henry Y. (Nov. 30, '12) Room 1227, 42 Broadway, New York City. 
BAKIN, Charles T. (Dec. 28, '17) Electric Steel Furnace Helper, Carnegie Steal 

Co.; mailing address, 201 S. 5th St., Duquesne, Pa. 
EASTMAN, Herbert C. (May 5, '10) Mgr. and Owner, The Ontario-Colorado Gold 

Mining Co. and the Colorado-Wyoming Power and Irrigation Co.; mailing 

address, 719 Equitable Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
EASTMAN, H. M. (Feb. 25, '16) U. S. Gas Plant Nos. 1 and 2, c/o Lono Star 

Gas Co., Fort Worth, Texas. 
EATON, I. C. (June 30, '17) Student, Mass. Institute of Technology; mailing 

address. Union Carbide Co. of Canada, Welland, Ont., Canada. 
EBERWEIN, Samuel J. (May 25, '17) Student, Pennsylvania State College; 

mailing address, 1049 Main St., Slatington, Pa. 
BCKER, Howard, Jr. (Oct. 21, '16) 3115 Woodburn Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
EDB, Joseph A. (Oct. 29, '10) Consulting Mining Eng., Mgr. of Min. Engineering, 

Illinois Zinc Co., La Salle, Illinois. 
EDGERTON, Chauncey T. (Aug. 24, '18) Mgr. of Spring Sales, c/o Crucible Steel 

Co. of America, P. O. Box 75, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
EDISON, Thos. A. (Apr. 4, '03) Orange, N. J. 
KDMANDS, I R. (Aug. 7, '02) Consult. Eng., Union Carbide Co., Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. ; mj ling address, 167 Buffalo Ave. 
BDSTROM, J. Sigfried (Nov. 5, '04) Managing Dir., General Electric Co. of Sweden, 

Vesteras, Sweden. 
EDWARDS, John B., Jr. (May 2, '17) Supt., Acid Works, c/o Illinois Zinc Co., 

Peru, 111. 
BGLIN, Wm. C. L. (July 1, '04) Elec. Eng., 1000 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BGLOFF, Gustav (May 24, '18) Consult. Chem. Eng., 1014 Ist National Bank 

Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
BIMER, August (Dec. 4, '02) 205-211 Third Ave., New York City. 
EKELBY, John B. (Feb. 21, '13) Prof, of Chemistry, Univ. of Colo., Boulder, Colo.; 

mailing address, 525 Highland Ave. 
BLDRIDGE, Samuel E. (Sept. 27, '15) Asst. to Vice Pres., Tha American Rollins 

Mill Co., Middletown, Ohio. 
BLLIOTT, Geo. K. (Dec. 30, '16) Chief Chem. and Met., The Lunkenheimer Co., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
BLLIS, Carleton (Jan. 23, *14) Industrial Res. Chemist, 92 Greenwood Ave., Mont- 

clalr, N. J. 
EMANUEL, Louis V. (Oct. 17, '07) c/o River Smelt. & Ret Co., Florence, Colo. 
BMERSON, Harrington (Feb. 25, '11) President, The Emerson Co., 30 Church St., 

New York City. 
EMERY, Arthur L. (Apr. 3, '02) c/o Smith, Emery & Co., Chem. and Met. Eng., 

Howard and Hawthorne St.. San Francisco, Calif. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 15 

ENGELHARD, Chas. (May 29, '09) President, American Platinum Works, Newark, 

N. J.; mailing address, Hudson Terminal Bldg., 30 Church St., New York City. 
ENGL.E, W. D. (June 29, '18) Prof, of Chem., Univ. of Denver; mailing address, 

2233 S. Columbine, Denver, Coio. 
ERHART, W. H. (Dec. 27, '07) 11 Bartlett St., Brooklyn, N. T. 
ERICSON, Eric J. (Oct. 24, '13) 5045 Cullom Ave., Chicago, 111. 
EURICH, E. F. (Nov. 27, '09) Mining and Metallurgical Engineer, 15 "William St., 

New York City; res., Montclair, N. J. 
EUSTIS, Augustus H. (Dec. 31, '09) Mining Engineer, 131 State St., Boston, Mass. 
EVANS, Charles T. (June 29, '18) Chief Met., Cydapa Steel Co., 118 E. Walnut St., 

Titusville, Pa. 
EVANS, Professor Herbert S. (Apr. 3, '02) Prof. Elec. Eng., Univ. of Col., Boulder, 

Colo. 
EVERETTE, Dr. Willis Eugene (July 30, '09) Consult. Chemical and Mining Eny., 

Tacoma, Washington; res., 3512 S. 11th St. 
FABER, Henry B. (May 24, '18) Consulting Chem., 115 Broadway, New York City. 
FAHRENWALD, Frank A. (June 2 9, '18) Consult. Met. and Res. Dir., 1706 Glen- 

mont Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 
FALTER, Philip H. (Aug. 25, '11) Gen. Mgr., Shawinigan Electro Products Co., 

Baltimore, Md. ; mailing address, 1606 Lexington St. Bldg. 
FARNHAM, Frederick F. (May 26, '10) American Bridge Co., Box 55, Ambridge, 

Penna. 
FARROW, Percival R. (June 30, '18) Power Station Supt., Kamlnistiquia Power 

Co., Ltd., Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada. 
FARUP, Dr. P. (Jan. 28, '16) Tekniske Hoiskole, Trondhjem, Norway. 
FAWCETT, Lewis H. (May 25, '12) Asst. Chem. and Met., Navy Dept., Naval 

Gun Factory; mailing address, 517 Prince St., Alexandria, Va. 
FAWCETT, Percy (Sept. 25, '09) Director, Thomas Firth & Sons, Ltd., Sheffield, 

England. 
FBATHERSTONE, Willard B. (Oct. 25, '18) Mgr., Featherstone Labs., Inc., 

30 Church St., New York City. 
FEHNEL, J. Wm. (June 26, '14) Chemist, Lehigh University; mailing address, 

703 N. Main St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
FERNBERGER, H. M. (Jan. 8, '04) 1005 Emory St., Asbury Park, N. J. 
FERGUSON, Clarence Newton (Apr. 28, '18) 246 Bedford St., Stamford. Conn. 
FERRY, Chas. (June 21, '11) Metallurgist, Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport, 

Conn. 
FICHTER-BERNOULLI, Prof. Dr. F. (Nov. 26, '07) 35 Neubadstrasse, Basel, 

Switzerland. 
FINK, Dr. Colin G. (Nov. 26, '07) Head of Labs., Chile Exploration Co., 202d St. 

and 10th Ave., New York City. 
FISCHER, Siegfried (Feb. 25, '11) Golden, Colo. 
FISH. Job, Jr. (Jan. 28, '16) 50 Hamilton Ave., Yonkers, X. Y. 
FISHER, Henry W. (May 26, '10) Chief Engineer, Standard Underground Cabls 

Co., Perth Amboy, N. J. 
FITZGERALD, F. A. J. (Apr. 3, "02) The FitzGerald Laboratories, Inc., Highland 

and Vermont Aves., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
FITZ GIBBON, R. (Apr. 3, '02) Room 212, 43 Leonard St., New York City. 
FLAGG, Frederick P. (Oct. 26, '17) Chief Chem., Waltham Watch Co., Walthara, 

Mass. 
FLANNERY, Jas. J. (May 26, '10) President, American Vanadium Co., 325 Frick 

Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
FLASHMAN, H. W. (Feb. 24, '17) The Foundation Co., 233 Broadway, New York 

City. 
FLEMING, R. (Apr. 3, '02) 419 Everson Place. Westfield, New Jersey. 
FLEMING, S. H. (Nov. 26, '10) Research Laboratory, National Carbon Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 
FLETCHER, W. E. (Aug. 25, '16) Chem. Director, Atlas Powder Co., Wilmington, 

FLINN, Elmer H. (July 27, '17) 2806 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
FLINTERMANN, Rudolph F. (Sept. 30, '18) Pres., Michigan Steel Castings Co., 

Detroit, Mich. 
FOGARTY, John A. (Oct. 21, '16) Asst. Supt., Electrolytic Plant, Brown, Co., 

166 Prospect St., Berlin, N. H. 
FONT, Dr. Gonzalo Yturrioz y (June 29, 'IS) Director Gen., Compania Nacional 

de Products Quimicos; mailing address, Composteia — 116, altos, Havana, Cuba. 
FOOTE, Arthur DeWint (Feb. 27, '09) Superintendent, North Star Mines Co., North 

Star Mines, Grass Valley, Calif. 
FORBEvS, Geo. Shannon (May 26, '15) Asst. Prof, of Chem., Harvard University, 

Boylston Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 
FORSSELL, Dr. J. (June 1, '07) Mgr., Skandlnavlska Grafitlndustri Aktiebolagat 

A. B., Trollhattan, Sweden. 
FOSTER, Chas. L. (June 30, '16) Sales Mgr., The Electric Furnace Co., 505 

Alliance Bank Bldg., Alliance, Ohio. 
FOSTER, Oscar R. (Apr. 30, 'OS) Chemistry Teacher, 203 Eighth Ave., Brooklyn, 

New York. 



l6 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

FOUST, I'hos. B. (Jan. 29, '09) c/o Bob Air Coal & Iron Corp., Aliens Creek. 

Tenn. 
FOWLER, Edw. J. (July 27, '17) Mgr., c/o Pacific Foundry Co., 18th and 

Harrison Sts., San Francisco, Cal. 
FOWLER, R. E. (Nov. 6, '03) Chemist, The National Electrolytic Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
FOWLER, Samuel S. (Apr. 3, '02) Min. Eng., P. O. Drawer 1024, Nelson, B. C, 

Canada. 
FOX. Chas. P. (June 29, '18) City Chem., Kapple Bldg., Welfare Dept., Dayton, 

Ohio; mailing address, 217 W. 5th St. 
FOX, Herbert W. (Oct. 26, '17) Chem. Eng., The Dorr Co., P. O. Box 204, West- 
port, Conn. 
FOX, William J. (Dec. 28, '17) 25 Willet Street, Fort Plain, N. T. 
FRALEY, Jos. C. (Apr. 3, '02) Attorney-at-Law; mailing address, 1815 Land Title 

Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.: res., 1833 Pine St. 
FRANCIS, Parker B. (May 24, '18) Sec'y in charge of plant operations, c/o Oxygem 

Gas Co., Kansas City, Mo. 
FRANK, John J. (Dec. 31, '15) Asst. Transformer Eng., General Electric Co.; 

mailing address, 43 George St., Plttsfield, Mass. 
FRANK, Karl G. (Feb. 27, '09) Representative, Siemens and Halske Co., A. G., 

Room 408, West St. Bldg., 90 West St., New York City. 
FRANKFORTER, G. B. (Apr. 3, '02) Prof., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
FRARY, Major Francis C. (Aug. 31, '07) Chemical Warfare Service, Edgewood 

Arsenal, Edgewood, Md. ; mailing address, Res. Chem., Aluminum Co. of 

America, New Kensington, Pa. 
FREAS, Raymond, Ph.D. (Dec. 27, '18) 1st Lt., Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army; 

mailing address, Yale Station, P. O. Box 992, New Haven, Conn. 
FREAS, Thos. B. (Oct. 29, '10) Havemeyer Hall, Columbia University, New 

York City. 
FREDERICK, Geo. E., Jr. (Jan. 29, '09) 169 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
FREDERICK, Walter A. (Jan. 26, '17) Chief Eng., Continental Motors Co., 

Detroit, Mich. 
FREEMAN, Gay N. (July 30, '09) Assayer and Analytical Chemist, Thermopolis, 

Wyoming. 
FREEMAN, John R., Jr. (Oct. 26, '17) Lab. Asst., Bureau of Standards, 1975 Bllt- 

more St., Washington, D. C. 
FRENCH. Wm. H. (July 26, '18) Vice Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Noble Electric Steel 

Co., 995 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 
FREUD, B. B. (Jan. 28, '16) Assoc. Prof, of Chem., Armour Inst, of Tech., 

Chicago, 111. 
FRICK, Frederick F. (Feb. 26, '15) Res. Eng., Anaconda Copper Min. Co., Ana- 
conda, Mont. 
FRICKEY, Royal E. (Sept. 20, '11) Elec. Eng., 1808 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
FRIES, Harold H., Ph.D. (May 1, '06) 92 Reade St., New York City. 
FRINK, Robert L. (Dec. 28, '17) Consulting Eng. in Glass, c/o Hall Brothers 

Glass Mfg. Co., Muncie, Indiana. 
FROST, Grenville B. (May 24, '18) Explosives Chem. and Inspector, c/o Inspector 

of Explosives, Transportation Bldg., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
FUKUDA, Masaru (Oct. 26, '17) Prof, of Elec. Eng., Technical College in Japan; 

mailing address, c/o Furuya & Nishimura, Front St., New York City. 
FULLER, G. Prescott (Dec. 30, '17) Chief Chemist, National Electrolytic Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
FULWEILER, W. H. (June 29, '18) Chief Chem., United Gas Improvement Co.; 

mailing address, 319 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
FtTRNESS, Radclyffe (May 29, '09) Asst. Supt., c/o Mldvale Steel & Ordnance Co., 

Nicetown Works, Philadelphia, Pa, 
FUSEYA, Giichiro (July 26, '18) c/o Mrs. Davis, 90 St. James Ave., Boston, Pa. 
GABRIEL, Geo. A. (Apr. 3, '02) 165 Marrett St., Cumberland Mills, Me. 
GABY, Frederick A. (Mar. 26, '15) Chief Eng., Hydro-Elec. Power Commission of 

Ontario, 190 University Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada. 
GAHL, Dr. Rudolf, Ph.D. (June 6, '03) Consult. Metallurgist, 1213 First National 

Bank Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
GAILEY, Andrew J. (Dec. 27, '18) Supt. and Metallurgist, Penn Electric Smelt. 

Corp.; mailing address, 5652 Willows Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
GAILEY, wralter R. (July 26, '18) 4557 12th Ave., N. E., Seattle, Washington. 
GAILLARD, Capt. David (Aug. 25, '16) Nitrate Division, Army Ordnance, 6th and 

B St., Washington< D. C. 
GAINES, Richard H. (Oct. 17, '07) Chemist, N. Y. Board of Water Supply, Room 

2222, Municipal Bldg., New York City; res., 35 W. 38th St. 
GALL, Henry (Apr. 2, '04) Soclete de Electrochimle, 2 Rue Blanche, Paris, France. 
GANDILLON, Ami (Jan. 8, '04) Case 6219, Bourg de Four, Geneva, Switzerland. 
GANN, Dr. John A. (June 29, '18) Chem., Dow Chemical Co., Box 299, Midland, 

Mich. 
GARDNER, George Norman (May 24, '18) Dept. Supt., Anaerlcan Cyanamld Co., 

10 Morrison St., Niagara Falls, Canada. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 17 

GARDNER, Henry A. (Oct. 28, '09) The Institute of Industrial Research, Wash- 

Ingrton, D. C. 
GARRATT, Frank (Feb. 21, '13) Latrobe Electric Steel Co., Latrobe, Pa. 
GATL.ORD, C. H. (June 30, '17) Salesman, Metal Lacker Co.; mailing address, 

20 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. 
GEESON, Arthur (Oct. 21, '16) Supt., Construction and Operation, Molybdenum 

Products Co.; mailing address, 1102 E. 5th St., Tucson, Ariz. 
GEGENHEIMER, R. E. (Feb. 27, '14) Chief Chemist, Mathiesen Alkali Works, 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
GELSTHARP, Frederick (Aug. 25, '11) Chief Chemist, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., 

Creighton, Pa. ; res., Tarentum, Pa. 
GEPP, Herbert Wm. (Aug. 26, '10) Gen. Mgr., Electrolytic Zinc Co., Box 206, 

Hobart, Tasmania. 
GESELL. Wm. (May 24, '18) Gen. Mgr., Hammerschlag Mfg. Co., Garfield, N. J. 
GETMAN, F. H. (Apr. 24, '14) Asso. Prof, of Chemistry, Hillside Laboratory. 

Glenbrook Road, Stamford, Conn. 
GIBBS, Arthur E. (Oct. 3, '02) Mfg. Chemist, c/o Penna. Salt Mfg. Co., Widener 

Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
GIBSON, Chas. B. (May 26, '10) Sales Dept., Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 1656 Denniston Ave., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 
GIERTSEN, Sigurd (Nov. 24, '11) North Western Cyanamide Co., Odda, Norway. 
GIFFORD, A. McK. (Feb. 23, '12) Eng. of Materials, General Electric Co., Pittsfleld, 

Mass.; mailing address, 65 William St. 
GIFFORD, Wm. E. (Apr. 3, 'U2) c/o Baker & Co., 54 Austin St., Newark, N. J. 
GILBERT, Harvey N. (Dec. 31, '15) Res. Chemist, Boulevarde, La Salle, N. T. 
GILBERTSON, H. A. (Apr. 2, '13) Mgr. and Jr. Member of Firm, Gilbertson & Son, 

111.; mailing address, 7561 Pratt Ave., Edison Park, 111. 
GILCHRIST, Peter S. (Apr. 3, '02) Chem. Eng., Charlotte, N. C. 

GILCHRIST, Raleigh (June 29, '18) 1835 Calvert St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
GILLETT, Horace W. (Mar. 26, '10) U. S. Bureau of Mines, Morse Hall, ItUaca, 

N. T. 
GILLIES, Percy McP. (Dec. 28, '12) Metallurgist, c/o Hydro Electric Power and 

Metallurgical Co., Lombard Bldgs., 17 Queen St., Melbourne, Australia. 
GILLIGAN, Frank P. (Jan. 23. '14) Secy.-Treas., The Henry Souther Engineering 

Co., 11 Laurel St., Hartford, Conn. 
GILLINGHAM, C. A. (Oct. 21, '16) Res. Chem., National Carbon Co.; mailing 

address, 1260 Edwards Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
GIOLITTI, Federico, Ph.D. (Oct. 17, '07) Director General Steel Works, Ansaldo & 

Co., Cornigliano Llgure, near Genoa, Italy; mailing address, Regio Politecnics, 

Via dell Ospedale, Torino, Italy. 
GIVEN, Guy C. (Oct. 3, '17) Chem., Atlas Powder Co., 238 E. Broad St., Tamaqua, 

Pa. 
GLADSON, Prof. W. N. (Apr. 3, '02) Vice-Pres., University of Arkansas; mailing 

address. 820 W. Maple St., Fayetteville, Ark. 
GLAZE, John B. (June 27, '13) Norton Co., Niagara Falls, N. T. 
GLENN, Earl R. (Oct. 26, '17) Teacher of Phy.sical Science, The Lincoln School 

of Teachers College, Columbia Univ., 646 Park Ave., New York City. 
GLENNIE, Robert D. (June 2, '16) Salesman, General Electric Co., Gluck Bldg., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
GOEPEL, Carl P. (Nov. 4, '05) Patent-Counsel, 165 Broadway, New York City; 

res., 2350 Seventh Ave. 
GOLDSCHMIDT, Heinrich (Oct. 27, '11) Professor, Drammensveien 82, Kristiania, 

Norway. 
GOLDSMITH, Nathaniel J. (July 27, '17) EucUd Apartments, Berkeley, Calif. 
GOLICK, Tony F. (May 24, '18) Inspector of Ammunition, Box 245, Bethlehem, Pa. 
GOLDSTEIN, Philip (Mar. 26, '15) Prin., The Clerkenwell Plating Works, 155-7-9 

Roseberg Ave., London, E. C, England. 
GOODALE, Stephen L., A.M., E.M., (May 26, '10) Prof, of Metallurgy, University 

of Pittsburgh, School of Mines, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
GOODRICH, Robert Rhea (Jan. 23, '14) 618 Alder St., Anaconda, Mont. 
GOODSPEED, George M. (May 26, '10) Metallurgist, National Wks., National Tube 

Co., McKeesport, Pa. 
GOODWIN, H. M., Ph.D. (Apr. 3, '02) Mass. Inst, of Tech., Cambridge, Mass. 
GOODWIN, Joseph H. (Jan. 6, '06) Asst. Supt., National Carbon Co., Fremont, 

Ohio; mailing address, 1501 McPherson Ave. 
GOODWIN, Dr. Leo Frank (Oct. 29, '08) 151 Earl St., Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 
(JOODWIN, W. L., D.Sc. (Apr. 3, '02) Director, School of Mining, Kingston, Ont., 

Canada.. 
GORDON, Prof. C. McC. (Apr. 3, '02) Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. 
GOTOH, Issaku (May 2, '17) 45 Minamlmachi Takanawa, Shiba-ku, Tokyo, Japan 
GOTTLIEB, M. Baruchoff (July 26, '18) Asst. Chief of Tests, Metallurgical' Section 

Insp. Div., War Dept., 6th aad B Sts., Washington, D. C. 
GOTTSCH.\LK, Victor Hugo (Apr. 28, '18) 6039 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, 111. 
GOULD, David F. (Aug. 25, '16) Chem., Res. Dept., Mexican Petroleum Corp., 

Destrehan, La. 



1 8 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

GRAF, August v.- (June 29, 'IS) Chief Chem., 34 E. Grand Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
GRASTY, John S. (June 29, 'IS) Mining Geologist, Charlottesville, Va. 
GRAVELY, Julian S. (May 25, '12) 66 Elmwood Road, New Haven, Conn. 
GRAVES, Walter G. (Mar. 5, '03) Supt., Grasselli Chem. Co.; mailing address, 

1950 E. 90th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
GRAY, Jas. H. (Apr. 6, '11) Metallurgical Engr., U. S. Steel Corporation, 71 

Broadway, New York City. 
GREEN, H. M. (Oct. 23, '14) Supt. of Tankhouse, U. S. Metal Ref. Co., Chrome, 

N. J.; mailing address. Bos 6S. 
GREENLEE, Wm. B. (Nov. 26, '10) Secretary, Greenlee Foundry Co., Chicaso, 

111.; mailing address, S5o Buena Ave. 
GREENWOOD, H. D. (Oct. 23, '14) Chief Chemist, c/o U. S. Metals Ref. Co., 

Chrome, N. J.; res., SS3 Colonia Road, Elizabeth, N. J. 
GRELCK, William (July 26, '18) Pres. and Mgr., Grelck Hovey & Co., 893 Port- 
land Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 
GRIFFIN, Martin L. (Oct. 1, '04) Manager of Chemical & Electrochemical Depts., 

The Oxford Paper Co., Rumford, Me. 
GRIFFITH, John R. (Feb. 23, '12) Res. Eng., c/o Norton Co., Niagara Palls, N. Y. 
GRONWALL, Assar (July 29, '10) Engineer, Vasagatan 17, Stockholm, Sweden. 
GRONNINGSATER, Anton (Oct. 21, '16) Gen. Mgr., Kristlansand Nikkelraffiner- 

Ingsverk, Kristiansanct S, Norway. 
GROSSMANN, M. A. (Nov. 27, '14) Bureau of Standards, Div. VIII, Washington, 

D. C. 
GROSVENOR, Dr. Wm. M. (June 1, '07) Chemists Bldg., 50 East 41st St., N«w 

York City. 
GROTZINGER, John (July 27, '17) c/o U. S. Alloys Corp., Station B, Buffalo, N. T. 
GROWER, Geo. G. (Nov. 5, '04) Coe Brass Mfg. Co., 15 Colony St., Ansonia, Conn. 
GRuBNAU, G. Malpass (Oct. 21, '16) Chemist, Los Cerrillos, Santa Fe County, 

New Mexico. 
GRUMBLING, J. Stewart (June 30, '17) Student, Univ. of Pittsburgh; mailing 

address, 4S07 Baum Blvd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
GRUSE, Wm. A. (June 29, '18) Mellon Institute, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, 

Pa. 
GRTMES, Elmer S. (Oct. 23, '14) Asst. Chief Chemist, U. S. Metals Ref. Co., 

Chrome, N. J.; mailing address, 116 E. 7th .A_ve. Roselle, N. J. 
GUDEMAN, Edward (Feb. 27, '09) Consult. Chemist and Scientific Expert, 903 

Postal Telegraph Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
GUERBER, Arnold K. (July 31, 'OS) Technologist, The Tungsten Products Co., 

Boulder, Colo.; mailing address, 505 Concord St. 
GUESS, George A. (Aug. 5, '05) Professor of Metallurgy, Toronto University, 

Toronto, Canada. 
GUINTHER, John (May 25, '17) Chem., Union Carbon Co. of Canada Ltd.; mailing 

address. Box 389, Welland, Ontario, Canada. 
GUITERMAN, Kenneth S. (June 28, '12) Box 452, Lawrence, Long Island, N. Y. 
GUYE, Prof. P. A. (Dec. 4, '02) 3 Chemin Bizot, Florrissant, Geneva, Switzerland. 
HAANEL, Dr. Eugene (July 31, '07) Director of Mines, Dept. of Mines, Ottawa, 

Canada. 
HAAS, S. Ward (June 29, '18) Asst. Chief Draftsman, Union Miniere du Haut- 

Katanga; mailing address. Room 1227, 42 Broadway, New York City. 
HADFIELD, R. A. (July 6, '06) Managing Director, Hadfield Steel Foundry Co., 

Ltd., 22 Carlton House Terrace, London, S. W., England, also Parkhead 

House, Sheffield, England. 
HAGGEN, E. A. (June 29, '18) Editor, Mining and Engineering Record, The Mines 

Bldg.. 426 Homer St., Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 
H.\IG. John E. (July 26, 'IS) Head Chemist, c/o Pyrites Co., Ltd., Roanoke, Va. 
HALCOMB, Chas. H. (May 5, '10) Halcomb & Davidson, Inc., Singer Bldg., 149 

Broadway, New York City. 
HALE, E. W. (Nov. 30, '18) Chem., Chile Exploration Co.; mailing address, 170 

W. 7Sth St., New York City. 
HALL, Arthur E. (April 29, '11) Gen. Supt., Am. Smelt. & Ref. Co., Omaha, Neb. 
HALL, C. A. (July 25, '15) 18 McPherson St., Mount Airy, Pa. 
HALL, E. L. (Oct. 21, '18) Chief Eng., Portland Gas and Coke Co., 294 Yamhill 

St., Portland, Oregon. 
HALL, Henry Monroe (Feb. 25, '11) c/o Calco Chem. Co., Bound Brook, N. J.; 

mailing address, 102 West End Ave., Somerville, N. J. 
HALL, John H. (July 27, '17) Met. Eng., Taylor-Wharton Iron & Steel Co., High 

Bridge, N. J. 
HALL, Mortimer Louis (May 24, '13) 1592 Park Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 
HALTER, Georges (May 22, '14) Elec. Eng., 21 Rue Balagny, Paris, France. 
HAMANN, A. M. (June 1, "15) Elec. Eng., Niagara Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 212 Sixth Street. 
HAMBLY, Frederick John (May 27, '11) Works Mgr., Electric Reduction Co., Ltd., 

Buckingham, Quebec, Canada. 
HAMBUECHEN, Carl, E. E. (Apr. 3, '02) Sec'y and Asst. Gen. Mgr., American 

Carbon and Battery Co., East St. Louis, 111.; mailing address, 4 Pennsylvania 

Ave., Belleville^ 111. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 1 9 

HAMILTON, E. H. (Oct. 22. '15) U. S. Smelter Co., Midvale, Utah. 
HAMISTER, Victor C. H. (Apr. 27. '12) 2136 West Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio. 
HAMOR. Wm. A. (Aug. 25, '17) Asst. Director. Mellon Inst.; mailing address, 1030 

Victoria Ave., New Kensington, Pa. 
HANCOCK, H. Llpson (Mar. 26, '10) General Mjrr.. The Wallaroo & Moonta Mining 

& Smelting Co., Ltd., Wallaroo, South Australia. 
HANDY, Bryan H. (June 29, '18) Chemist, The Solvay Process Co., 128 Dewltt St., 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
HANKS. Albot A. (July 27, '17) Employing Chem. and Met., 630 Sacramento St., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
HANLEY. Herbert R. (Apr. 26, '17) Supt. Electrolytic Zinc Plant. U. S. Smelting, 

Refining and Mining Co., Kennett. Calif. 
HANSCOM. Wm. W. (May 27. '11) Consulting Elec. Engr., 84S Clayton St., San 

Francisco, Calif. 
HANSEN, C. A. (May 6, "05) 183 J St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

HANSON, Hugo H. (May 22. '14) Director. Eastern Mfg. Co., South Brewer. Me. 
HARDCASTLE. Yellott F. (Oct. 22, '15) Supt. Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co., Wyan- 
dotte, Mich. 
HARDIE, Charles G. (Nov. 26, '15) c/o Oldbury Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
HARIG, Fred C. (July 27, '17) 271 Field Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
HARPER. Dr. H. W. (Apr. 3. '02) Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas; mailing address, 

2216 Rio Grande St. 
HARPER. John L. (Apr. 6, '07) Chief Eng., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
HARRIS, James R. (Oct. 25, '18) Chief Chem., Tenn. Coal, Iron and R. R. Co.; 

mailing address. 1230 S. 17th St., Birmingham. Ala. 
HARRIS. Jonathan W. (Sept. 26, 'OS) Res. Chemist. Western Electric Co., 463 

West St., New York City; res., 235 State St., Hackensack, N. J. 
HARRIS, Joseph W. (Apr. 3, '02) Patent Lawyer, 3105 ISth St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C. 
HART, Dr. Edward, Ph.D. (Aug. 7, '02) Prof, of Chemical Engineering, Lafayette 

College, Easton, Pa. 
HART, Leon O. (Nov. 27, '09) 2d Vice Pres., Driver Harris Co., P. O. Box 206, 

Newark, N. J. 
HARTER. Wickham (Apr. 28, '18) Sales Mgr., Pyroelectric Instrument Co.; 

mailing address, 610 Brunswick Ave., Trenton, N. J. 
HARTLEY, Robt. H. (Dec. 27, '07) Chemist, Hartley Bldg., Fourth Ave. and 

Smithfield St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
HARTMANN, M. L. (Sept. 30, '18) Director, Research Lab., The Carborundum Co.; 

mailing address, 3006 McKoon Ave., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
HARTWICK, Frank A. (Oct. 21, '16) 3476 Boulevard, Jersey City, N. J. 
HARVEY, Frederic A. (Apr. 22, '15) Physicist, Solvay Process Co., c/o Labora- 
tory, Syracuse, N. Y 
HASKINS, Frank D. (Apr. 28, '18) Eusch Hall, Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. 
HASLWANTER, Chas. (Apr. 3, '02) 447 Spruce St., Richmond Hill, L. I., N. T. 
HASSLACHER, Jacob (Nov. 26, '07) Pres., Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co.. 

100 William St., New York City; mailing address, P. O. Box 1999. 
HATCH, Israel (Oct. 28, '09) Aist. Superintendent, Elgin National Watch Co., 

Elgin, 111. 
HATZEL, J. C. (Apr. 3, '02) Pres. Hatzel & Buehler, Inc., 373 Fourth Ave., New 

York City. 
HAWKINS, Laurence A. (Apr. 27, '12) Electrical Engineer, Research Laboratories, 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
HAYES, Geo. W. (Mar. 26, '10) c/o Marconi Wireless Tel. Co. of American, Aldeno, 

N. J. 
HAYES, Junius J. (Sept. 27, '16) Principal of Kane County High School; mailing 

address. Pleasant Grove, Utah Co., Utah. 
HAYNES, Justin H. (Mar. 24, '16) Metallurgical Eng., Vindicator Con. Co., Inde- 
pendence, Colo. 
HATWARD. Robert F. (Jan. 29. '10) General Manager, Western Canada Power 

Co., Ltd., Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 
HAZELETT, C. W. (May 2. '17) Storage Battery Eng., National Carbon Co.; 

mailing address, 12816 Franklin Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
HEATH, Roy F., D.Sc. (Oct. 21, '16) Consult. Chem., MItauko Metals Co., Ltd., 

459 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 
HEDALEN, John (Aug. 24, '18) Supt. of Electrolytic Bleach Plants; mailing 

address, Riordon Pulp & Paper Co., Merritton. Ontario, Canada. 
HEJDDEN, Stanley E. (Feb. 24, '17) Foreman, Electroplater and Chem. Enameled 

Metals Co.; mailing address, 216 Fifth St., Aspinwall, Pa. 
HBDIN, Joseph E. (Apr. 22, '15) General Supt., North American Pulp and Paper 

Co., Chandler, P. Q., Canada. 
HEDSTROM, E. S. (Jan. 26, '17) Elec. Eng., with Kerry & Chase, Cons. Engineers, 

Confederation Life Bldg., Toronto, Ontario, Canada; mailing address, 497 

Ontario St. 
HEISIG, G. B. (May 24, '18) Instructor in Chem., Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 



20 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

HELFKECHT, A. J. (Mar. 24, '16) Burgess Laboratories, Madison, Wis. 
HEMINGWAY, Frank (Nov. 26, 07) Pres. Hemingway & Co., Inc., No. 6, East 

Union Ave., Bound Brook, N. J. 
HENDERSON, C. T. (Mar. 24, '16) Chief Eng., Submarine Boat Corp., Newark, 

N. J.: mailing address, 684 Highland Ave. 
HENDERSON, Ernest G. (June 1, 15) Pres., c/o The Canadian Salt Co., Windsor, 

Ont., Canada. 
HENDERSON, John B. (Dec. 26, '13) Government Analyst, Brisbane, Queensland, 

Australia. 
HENDRIE, Geo. A. (Nov. 27, '14) c/o American Cy&namld Co., 511 Fifth Ave., 

New York City. 
HENDRY, W. Ferris (Nov. 26, '07) Engineer, 463 West St., New York City. 
HENSEN, Emil (May 26, '10) 1200 State Ave., Coraopolis, Pa. 
HENST, John Vander (Oct. 25, '18) Chem., Gulf Pipe Line Co.; mailing address, 

1544 Tulane St., Houston, Texas. 
BERING, Carl, D.Sc. (Apr. 3, '02) Consult. Elec. Eng., 210 S. Thirteenth St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
HBRRON, James H. (June 29, '18) Met. Eng., 1364 W. 3d St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
HERRESHOFF, James B., Jr. (May 27, '14) Consult. Eng.. 524 Beech St., Rich- 
mond Hill, Long Island, N. Y. 
HERTY, Chas. H. (Oct. 22, '15) Editor, The Journal of Industrial & Engineering 

Chem., 35 East 41st St., New York City. 
HERZ, Alfred (Feb. 27, '14) Testing Eng., Public Service Co. of N. 111., 72 W. 

Adams St., Chicago, 111.; mailing address, 1842 Morse Ave. 
HERZOG, G. K. (Feb. 27, '09) Electrometallurgical Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; 

mailing address, 229 5th St. 
HESS, Frederick M. (Nov. 27, '09) President and General Manager, Inyo Tele- 
phone Co., Bishop, Cal. 
HESS, Henry (Feb. 25, '11) 308 Bailey Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
HESSOM, B. F., Jr. (May 26, '10) General Inspector, Duquesne Light Co., 435 

Sixth Ave.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 136 Fifth St., Aspinwall, Pa. 
HIBBARD, Henry D. (May 30, '08) Consult. Eng., 144 E. Seventh St., Plalnfleld. 

N. J. 
HIBBERT, Harold (Apr. 22, '15) Research Chemist, c/o Ralph L. Fuller Co., 

2 Rector St., New York City. 
HICKS, Edwin F. (May 26, '10) Chief Chemist, Victor Talking Machine Co., 

Camden, N. J.; mailing address, 4837 Fairmount Ave., Philadelphia, Pa, 
HIGASHI, Sentaro (Sept. 15, '15) Met. & Elmet. Eng., Mitsubishi Kogyo Kenkiusho, 

Gongendai, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. 
HIGGINS, Aldus C. (Sept. 4, '02) Sec'y and Gen. Counsel, Norton Co., Worcester, 

Mass. 
HIGGINS, Chas. H. (Nov. 30, *18) Instructor in Chem.. Bates College, Lewlston, 

Maine; mailing address, 43 Winter St., Auburn, Maine. 
HIGGINS, Dana F. (Aug. 24, '18) Railway Dlv. Eng., Westinghouse Elec. and 

Mfg. Co.; mailing address, 903 Center St., Wllkinsburg. Pa. 
HIGGINS, E. C, Jr. (June 30, '16) c/o Cosden & Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
HILDEBRAND, Joel H. (Oct. 1, '12) 306 N. 35th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
HILL, Nicholas S., Jr. (Nov. 27, '09) Consult. Eng., 100 William St., New Tork 

City; res., 381 William St., East Orange, N. J. 
HILL, Roland H. (Oct. 25, '18) Director Technlco. Sagarra Baja No. 61, Santiago 

de Cuba. 
HILL, Stafford (Jan. 27, '12) Electrician, No. 1, Bridge St., Stafford, England. 
HILLEBRAND, W. A. (July 27, '17) E. E., Pacific Gas and Elec. Co.; mailing 

address, 445 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 
HILLIARD, John D. (Sept. 26, '08) 345 Kellogg Ave., Palo Alto, Calif. 
HILLS, Leander H. (June 30, '17) Student, Mass. Inst, of Tech.; mailing address, 

30 Elm St., Gloucester, Mass. 
HINCKLEY, Arthur T. (May 25, '12) Chemist, National Carbon Co., 2 C Street, 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
HINTON, Geo. B. (Nov. 24, '16) Consult. Met., 31 Balderas, Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 
HIORTH, Albert (Dec. 31, '10) Josefinegade 13, Chrlstlania, Norway. 
HIORTH, Frederick V. L. (Dec. 26, '07) Electrochem. Eng., Josefinegade 19, I, 

ChrlBtiania, Norway. 
HIRSCH, Alcan (June 29, '07) Consulting Chemical Engineer, 50 B. 41st St., New 

York City; res., 244 Riverside Drive. 
HIRSCHLAND, Dr. Franz H. (Dec. 27, '07) Mgr., Goldechmldt Chem. Co., 60 Wall 

St., New York City. 
HIRSHFELD, C. F. (May 25, '17) Inspection Div., Ordnance Dept., U. S. A., 6th 
and B St., N. W., Washington, D. C. ; mailing address, 18 Washington Ave., 
Detroit, Mich. 
HITCH, A. R. (Feb. 22, '18) Chemist, National Carbon Co., Inc.; mailing addresa, 

1554 Orchard Grove Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
HITCHCOCK, Miss Fanny R. M. (May 1, '06) 4038 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
HITCHCOCK, Halbert K. (Oct. 2, '02) 5710 Bartlett St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
HITE, B. H. (Apr. 4, '03) W. Va. Bxp Station, Morgantown, W. Va. 



DIRECTORY OP MEMBERS. 21 

HITNBR, Harry F. (July 27. '17) Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.; mailing address, 

515 4th St., Oakmont, Pa. 
HOBSBAWN, I. B. (July 27, '17) Consult. Tech. Chem., Messrs. Glbbs & Co., 

Valparaiso, Chile. 
HOEFT, Eliot (July 27, '17) Efficiency Eng., American Chem. Products C*., 2J 

Liberty St., New York City. 
HOFF, John D. (July 26, '18) Owner, Hoff Price Co., 333 Monadnock Bldg., Saa 

Francisco, Calif. 
HOFFMANN, John (Mar. 26, '15) Supt. of Copper Rennery, .^^alback Smelt, & Ref. 

Co.; mailing address, 193 Smith St., Newark, N. J. 
HOGABOOM, Geo. B. (Feb. 25, '11) Res. Electroplater, c/o Scovlll Mfg. C'}., 

Waterbury, Conn.; mailing address, 557 Stanley St., New Britain, Conn. 
HOGAN, F. W. (May 24, '18) Asst. Prof, of Chem., Ward Belmont School, Brent- 
wood, Tenn. 
HOGB, J. F. (Apr. 6, 'ID Eng., Western Elec. Co., 463 West St., New York City. 
HOLE, Ivar (Nov. 26, '15) Asst. Supt., Evje Smelter, Evje per Kristianssand 3, 

Norway. 
HOLLAND, Walter E. (Aug. 5, '05) Res. Eng., Philadelphia Storage Battery Co., 

Ontario and C St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
HOLLANDER, Chas. S. (Aug. 24, '18) Vice Pres., C. O. Roehm Haas Co., Bristol, 

Pa. 
HOLLER, H. D. (Nov. 26, '15) Asst. Chemist, Bureau of Standards, Washiagtoa. 

D. C. 
HOLMES, Fletcher B. (June 29. '18) Director, Jackson Lab., E. I. duPont da 

Nemours & Co.; mailing address. Box 525, Wilmington, Del. 
HOLMES, Major E. (Oct. 23. '14) Chemical Eng., Nat. Carbon Co.; mailing address, 

1459 Arthur Ave., Cleveland. Ohio. 
HOLSTEIN, Leon S. (Sept. 28, '12) The New Jersey Zinc Co. of Pa., Palmerton, 

Pa,; mailing address, 362 Delaware Ave. 
HOLTON, Frederick A. (April 2, '04) Chem. in Patent Causes, 700 10th St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 
HOMAN, C. H. (Dec. 30, '16) Civil Eng., Sogaden 12, Krlstiania, Norway. 
HOMMEL, Rudolf P. (June 2, '16) Asst. Sec'y, American Electrochemical Society, 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. 
HOOD, B. B. (July 23, '15) Asst. to the Supt., U. S. Metals Rettning Co., Chroma, 

New Jersey. 
HOOD, Harrison P. (June 29, "18) 164 Church St., Berlin, New Hampshire. 
HOOKER, Albert H. (Feb. 27, '09) Technical Director, Hooker Electrochemical 

Co., Niagara Falls, N. T. 
HOPKINS, Geo. A. (Feb. 25, '11) Metallurgist, Carnegie Steel Co., Munhall, Pa.; 

res., 464 Swlssvale Ave., Wilklnsburg, Pa. 
HORI, Shigekata (Sept. 30. '18) Chief Eng., Tokio Oriental Elec. Co.; mailinff 

address, 18 Hakusan-cho, Nagoya, Japan. 
HORNSEY, John W. (May 5, "10) Consulting Engineer, Summit, N. J. 
HORSCH, Wm. Grenville (Apr. 26, '13) 1st Lt.. Chem. Warfare Service, U. S. A., 

American Univ. Experiment Sta.. Washington, D. C. ; mailing address, 11 

Summit Place, Newburyport, Mass. 
HOSFORD, Wm. F. (Oct. 22, '15) Eng. of Methods, Western Electric Co., Haw- 
thorne Works, Chicago, 111. 
HOSKINS, Wm. (Apr. 3, '02) Suite 2009, Harris Trust Bldg., Ill W. Monroe St., 

Chicago, 111. 
HOUGH, Arthur (May 1, '06) Short Hills, New Jersey. 
HOWARD. Geo. M. (Apr. 3. '02) Chief Chem., The Electric Storage Battery Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa.; mailing address, 19th St. and Allegheny Ave. 
HOWARD, Henry (Apr. 3, '02) 36 Amory St., Brookllne, Mass. 
HOWARD, L. E. (May 29, '09) Metallurgist, Simonds Mfg. Co., Lockport, N. T. ; 

mailing address, 493 East Ave. 
HOWARD, Prof. S. Francis (Apr. 3, '02) Prof, of Chem., Norwich Univ., North- 
field, Vermont. 
HOWARD, W. D. M. (Sept. 27, '16) 815 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
HOWE, Prof. Henry M. (Aug. 7, ■02) Professor of Metallurgy, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City; res.. Broad Biook Road, Bedford Hills, N. Y. 
HUBLEY, Warren F. (May 2 4, '13 > Pres. and Gen. Mgr,, American Transformer 

Co., Nev\ ark. N. J.; mailing- address, 145 Miller St. 
HUGHES, Horatio (May 24, '18) Prof, of Chem. and Physics. Presbyterian College 

of S. C. ; mailing address. 15 Logan St., Charleston, S. C. 
HULETT, Geo. A. (Apr. 2. '04) Princeton Univ.. Princeton. N. J. 
HUMBERT, Erne.-it P. fMar. 27, '09) Box 26, Welland, Ontario, Canada. 
HUMISTON, Burr (Aug. 24, '18) Chemist, Jackson Laboratories, Deep Water 

Point, N. J. 
HUMMERT, R. H. (May 24. '18) Chem. Eng., S. H. Thomson Mfg. Co.; malUn« 

address, 4th and St. Clair St., Dayton, Ohio. 
HUND, Walter J. (Mar. 22, '18) Chemist, Ross, Calif. 

HUNT, A. M. (Apr. 3, '02) Consult. Eng.. 55 Liberty St., New York City. 
HUNTER, J. Vincent (Jan. 28. 'ID Western Editor, American Machini.st. 15T» 

Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, III.: mailing address, 4750 Dover St. 



22 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

HUNTER, M. A. (Apr. 29, '11) 74 Highland Ave., Greenfield, Mass. 
HUNTOON, Louis D. (May 27, '14) 115 Broadway, New York City. 
HURUM, Frederick (Nov. 26, '15) Mass. Inst, of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.; mailing 

address, Westmoreley Court. 
HUTCHINGS, Chas. F. (June 27, '13) Gen. Mgr. North American Chemical Co., 

Bay City, Mich. 
HUTCHINS, Otis (Jan. 28, '11) Mentz Apartments, Niagara Falls, N. T. 
HTDE, Edward P. (Oct. 29, 'OS) Director, Nela Res. Lab., National Lamp Wks. of 

General Electric Co., Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 
IKEDA, Kenzo (July 26, '18) Mining Metallurgical Eng., c/o Fujita & Co., Osaka, 

Japan. 
IMLAY, Lorin E. (Dec. 31, '09) Superintendent, The Niagara Falls Power Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
INGALLS, Walter Renton (June 29, '07) 10th Ave. at 36th St., New York City. 
INUI, Kyujiro (Oct. 26, '17) Electrochemist, Japan-China Oil Refining Co., No. 1 

Yaesucho I-chome, Kojimachl, Tokyo, Japan. 
lONIDES, A. S. (Apr. 26, '17) Metallurgical and Chem. Eng., 601 Marion St., 

Denver, Colo. 
ISHIKAWA, Dr. Ichiro (Oct. 22, '15) 357 Ni.shigahara, Takinogawa, Tokyo, Japan. 
ISBELL, Wm. T. (May 24, 'IS) Chief Chem., American Smelting and Ref. Co.; 

mailing address, 430 "W. 12th St., Pueblo, Colo. 
ISOBE, Fusanobu (Apr. 2S, 'IS) Chief Eng., Oil Dept., 3 Chome-Nozaki-Dori, 

Kobe, Japan. 
ITOH, Ichiro (May 2, '17) Mitsubishi, Osaka Metallurgical Works, Kitaku, Osaka, 

Japan. 
IWAI, Kycsuke (May 26, '16) Gen. Supt., Yusenji Copper Mine Branch Office, 

Komatsu-machi, Nomigun-Ichikawa-ken, Japan. 
IWATA, Hiroshi (Oct. 25, 'IS) Elec. Eng., Mitsubishi Co., 120 Broadway, New 

York City. 

JACK. Geo. B., Jr. (Oct. 21, '16) Metallurgist, Wright-Martin Aircraft Corp., 

Long Island City, N. Y. ; mailing address, 148-150 W. 43d St., Gates Hotel, 

New York City. 

JACKSON, Alf. Geo. (July 30, '09) Manager, Synchronome Electrical Co. of 

Au.stralasia, Ltd.; mailing address, 65 Ann St., Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 

JACKSON, Frank F. (Oct. 21, '16) Vice Pres., De Witt Lukens Surgical Mfg. Co.; 

mailing address, 45S4 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
JACOB, Arthur (Dec. 30, '16) Director, London Aluminium Co., Ltd., Sterndale, 

Hatch End, Middlesex, England. 
JACOBSON, B. H. (Mar. 24, '16) Research Elmet., c/o Hooker Electrochemical Co., 

Niagara Falls. N. Y. ; mailing address, 620 Ferry Ave. 
JACOBY, Henry E. (Oct. 21, '16) Mech. Eng., 95 Liberty St., New York City. 
JAMES, Dr. J. H. (Apr. 3, '02) Prof, of Chem. Eng., Chem. Dept., Carnegie Inst. 

of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
JAMES. Wm F. (Oct. 21, '16) Sales Eng., Westinghouse Elec. and Mfg. Co.; 

mailing address, 227 W. Mt. Pleasant Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
JAR VIS, Ernest G. (Sept. 27, '16) Chemist and Met., c/o McNab & Harlin Mfg. 

Co., Paterson, N. J. 
JENISTA, Prof. George John (Sept. 24, '10) Instructor, Army Radio School, North- 
western Univ., Evanston, 111.; mailing address, 3160 Abbott Court, Chicago, 111. 
JENNISON, Herbert C. (Feb. 29, '08) with the American Brass Co., Ansonia, 

Conn.; mailing address, P. O. Box 600. 
JEPPSON, Geo. N. (Sept. 4, '02) Norton Co., Worcester, Mass. 
JESPERSON, C. M. (Aug. 25, '16) Sec'y-Treas., c/o Southern Manganese Corp., 

Anniston, Ala. 
JICHA, John (May 24, 'IS) Chemist, with Dr. Lucius Picken; mailing address, 

322 East 71st St., New York City. 
JINGUJI, Genjiro (May 25, '17) Consulting Eng., 15-21 Park Row, New York City. 
JOHANSEN, G. H. (Aug. 27, '09) Civil Eng., Gen. Sec'y of Norwegian Water Power 

Co. ; mailing address, Dronningensgt. 16, Kritiania, Norway. 
JOHNS, Morgan J. (June 25, '09) c/o Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Mount 

Morgan, (Queensland, Australia. 
JOHNSON, Arden R. (June 2, '06) Director of Arden Johnson Labs., Rooms 718-720, 

9 S. Clinton St., Chicago, 111. 
JOHNSON, Jesse (Nov. 30, '18) Asst. Supt., Electric Reduction Co.; mailing 

address, Y. M. C. A., Washington, Pa. 
JOHNSON, Joseph Allen (May 25, '12) Electrical Eng., Ontario Power Co., Box 

333, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
JOHNSON, W. McA. (Apr. 3, '02) 2129 N. 22d St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
JOHNSTON, Frederick A. (Apr. 24, '09) Supt. Assay and Metallurgical Division, 

The S. S. White Dental Mfg. Co., Prince Bay, N. Y. 
JOHNSTON, Wm. Armour (Oct. 10, '03) Supt. of S. S. White Dental Mfg. Co., 

Prince Bay, S. I., N. Y. 
JONES, Abner C. (May 25, '17) Chemist and Metallurgist, 2S59 Warren Ave., 

Chicago, 111. 
JONES, George H. (Oct. 29, '10) Power Engineer, Commonwealth Edison Co., 
Chicago, 111.; res., 279 Keystone Ave., River Forest, 111. (Oak Park, P. O.) 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 23 

JONES, Geo. W. (Nov. 23, '17) Chemist, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 603 Wilmot St., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
JONES, Grinnell (Nov. 26, '10) Chemist, U. S. Tariff Com., 1322 New York Ave., 

Washington, D. C. ; mailing address, 712 Allison St., N. W. 
JONES, Harold (May 29, '09) Asst. Reduction Officer, Metallurgist, The St. John 

del Rey Gold Mining Co., "Villa Nova de Lima, Minas Geraes, Brazil. 
JONES, H. A. (Dec. 27, '18) Eng., Hadfield, Ltd., Sheffield; mailing address, 

St. Kilda, Buckhurst Hill, Essex, England. 
JORGENSEN, E. L. (Aug. 25, '16) Met. Eng. Guggenheim Bros.; mailing address, 

care of Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata, Chile. 
JOSELOWITZ, Goodwin (June 29, '18) Chemist, Chemical Battalion, Edgewood 

Plant, Edgewood, Maryland; mailing address, 917 Lyndale Ave. N., Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 
JUDSON, Lyman Collins (May 24, 'IS) Sales Eng., Acheson Graphite Co.; mailing 

address, 436 10th St., Niagara Falls, N. T. 
KAHLENBERG, Dr. Louis, Ph.D. (Apr. 3, '02) 234 Lathrop St., University Heights, 

Madison, Wis. 
KAKU, Juroku (May 25, '17) Nikko Copper Refining Plant, Nikko, Japan. 
KALMUS, Dr. Herbert T. (May 25, '12) Vice-Pres. and Treas., The Exolon Co., 

Cambridge, Mass.; also Kalmus, Comstock & Westcott, Inc., 156 Sixth St., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
KAMETAMA, Naoto (Dec. 31, '15) 10 Nishikatamachi, Hongo, Tokyo. Japan. 
KAMMERHOPP, H. H. M. (Sept. 27, '16) Mgr., Coal Tar Products Div. of Thos. 

A. Edison, Inc., Bloomfield, N. J.; mailing address, 159 Cleveland St., Orange, 

N. J. 
KANEKO, Kiosuke (Sept. 27, '13) Prof, of Met., College of Engineering, Imperial 

Univ. of Kyushu, Fuknoka, Japan. 
KAO, Takang (Dec. 30, '16) Mech. Eng., American Whaley Engine Co., 136 Fed- 
eral Bldg., Boston, Mass. 
KATO, Yogoro (Mar. 22, '18) Nakamura Gumi Kogyobu, Ltd., 12 Idzumocho, 

Kyobashiku, Tokyo, Japan. 
KATSURA, Prof. Benzo (May 29, '09) Professor of Metallurgy, The Imperial 

Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan; mailing address, 58 Sendaki-Machi, Hongo- 

ku, Tokyo, Japan. 
KAUPMANN, F. A. (Aug. 25, '16) Chemist, The Roessler and Hasslacher Chem. 

Co.; mailing address, 160 High St., Perth Amboy, N. J. 
KAWAMURA, Takeshi (June 28, '12) Kenjiko Iron Works, Mitsubishi Goshl Kalhsa, 

Kenjiho, Koshu-gun, Kokai-do, Korea, Japan. 
KAWIN, Chas. C. (Nov. 26, '10) Pres., Chas. C. Kawin Company; mailing address, 

431 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 
KAY, Morton J. (Nov. 23, '17) Student, Lehigh University; mailing address, 201 E. 

Market St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
KEEN, Wm. Herbert (Aug. 25, '16) Factory Mgr., U. S. Copper Products Corp.; 

mailing address, 618 Guardian Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 
KEENAN, Thos. J. (May 24, '18) Editor of "Paper," Paper, Inc., 117 E. 24th St., 

New York City; mailing address, 751 E. 19th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
KEENEY, Robert M. (Nov. 24, '11) Gen. Mgr. Iron Mountain Alloy Co., P. O. 

Box 186, Denver, Colo.; mailing address, 1125 York St. 
KEFFER, Frederick (Feb. 27, '09) Cons. Eng. and Geologist, 610 Hutton Bldg., 

Spokane, Wash. 
KEITH, Dr. N. S. (April 3, '02) 350 Bullitt Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
KELLEHER, James (Feb. 24, '17) Asst. Eng., with R. Turnbull; mailing address, 

care of R. Turnbull, Esq., Welland, Ont., Canada. 
KELLER, Ch. A. (June 25, '09) Gen'l Mgr., Keller-Leleux Cie. ; mailing address, 

3 Rue Vignon, Paris, France. 
KELLER, Ed. (Apr. 3, '02) 365 West 56th St., New York City. 
KELLER, Oran (Oct. 23, '14) Chemist, U. S. Metals Ref. Co.; mailing address, 

253 George St., New Brunswick, N. J. 
KELLY, Dr. John F. (Apr. 3, '02) Stanley Elec. Mfg. Co.; mailing address, 284 

W. Housatonic St., Pittsfield, Mass. 
KELLOGG, Alfred O. (May 24, '18) Mgr., Chem. Dept., Allied Industries Corp.; 

mailing address, 151 5th Ave., New York City. 
KELLOGG, Harry W. (Jan. 29, '09) Gen'l Mgr., National Electrolytic Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
KEMERY, Philo (May 29, '09) Metallurgical Engineer, Crescent Works, Crucible 

Steel Co. of America, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
KEMMER, Frank Raymond (Feb. 25, '11) Gen. Mgr., Republic Carbon Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 734 Main St. 
KEMPER, David A. (Oct. 21, '16) Chemist, Marden, Orth & Hastings, Newark, 

N. J.; mailing address, 1144 President St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
KENAN, Wm. R., Jr. (Apr. 3, '02) 433 Locust St., Lockport, N. Y. 
KENNEDY, A. M. (Sept. 27, '16) Personnel Dept., c/o Air Nitrates Corp., Muscle 

Shoals, Ala. 
KENNEDY, J. J. (May 9, '03) Engineer, 52 Broadway, New York City. 
KENDRICK, Frank B. (Apr. 26, '13) Associate Prof, of Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, 

Canada; mailing address, 77 Lonsdale Road, Toronto, Canada. 



24 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

KENT, James M. (Sept. 4, "03) Consult. Eng. and Teacher of Applied Steam and 

Electricity, Manual Training High School, 2726 Holmes St., Kansas City, M«. ; 

mailing address, 2446 Harrison St. 
KENT, Samuel L. (Apr. 28, '18) Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Philadelphia Hydro Electric 

Co.; mailing address, 731 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
KERN, Dr. Ed. F. (Apr. 4, '03) c/o Dept. of Metallurgy, Columbia Univ., New 

York City. 
KERN, Philip Elmer (Nov. 24, '11) 4048 Congress St., Chicago, 111. 
KETES, Donald B. (Oct. 3, '17) Chem. Eng., U. S. Industrial Alcohol, 27 William 

St., New York City. 
KIER, Samuel M. (Oct. 29, '08) Pies., Kier Firebrick Co., 2243 Oliver Bldg., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
KING, John A. (Feb. 22, '18) Research Chem., Carborundum Co.; mailing address, 

631 Main St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
KINGSLEY, Edw. D. (Oct. 26, '17) Pres. Electro Bleaching Gas Co. and Niagara 

Alkali Co.; mailing address, 18 E, 41st St., New York City. 
KINNEAR, H. B. (Aug. 25, '16) Metallurgist, Whitaker-Glessner Co., 1918 Summit 

St., Portsmouth, Ohio. 
KINNEY, S. P. (May 24, '18) c/o American University Experiment Station, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
KINTER, Geo. R. (Mar. 24, '16) 1403 State St., Harrlsburg, Pa. 
KISHI, Keljiro (Nov. 21, '08) Chief Eng., Elec. Dept., Shlbaura Eng. Wks., Tokyo, 

Japan; mailing address. No. 1, Shinhamacho, Kanasugl, Shibaku, Tokyo, Japan. 
KISSOCK, Alan (Sept. 20, '11) 63 Wall St.. New York City. 
KITAWAKI, Ichitaro (May 24, '18) Member, Japanese Industrial Chemical Society; 

mailing address, c/o Japanese Consulate General, 165 Broadway, New York 

City. 
KLEIN, Otto H. (May 24, '18) Director, Central Testing Lab.; mailing address, 

125 Worth St., New York City. 
KLEINFELDT, Henry F. (Apr. 22, '15) Sec'y, Abbe Engineering Co.; mailing 

address, 5 Arlington Ave., Bloomfleld, N. J. 
KLEMM, Henry F. (July 26, '18) Chemist, 1627 N. Robey St., Chicago, 111. 
KLIPSTEIN, Ernest C. (Apr. 3, '02) 122 Pearl St., New York City; res., 116 Pros- 
pect St., East Orange, N. J. 
KLOWMAN, Hennlng (Oct. 3, '17) Mgr., Electric Steel Plant, Messrs. Hadfleld, 

Ltd., 19 Ladysmlth Ave., Nether Edge, Sheffield, England. 
KLUGH, B. G. (Apr. 7, '06) P. O. Box 21, Anniston, Ala. 
KNAPP, Geo. O. (Nov. 6, '02) 42d St. Bldg., New York CMty. 
KNIFFIN, L. M. (Aug. 25, '16) Eng., U. S. Smelting, Refining and Mining Co., 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass.; mailing address, P. O. Box 385. 
KNIGHT, Frank P. H. (Feb. 25, 'ID Electrician, Chemist, Inventor, Knight Ecker 

Co. Labs.; mailing address, 1015 Blondeau St., Keokuk, Iowa. 
KNIGHT, Maurice A. (June 29, '18) Owner and Operator, Maurice A. Knight 

Acid Proof Chem. Stoneware, Kelly Ave., East Akron, Ohio. 
KNOBEL. Max (Sept. 30, '18) Student, Mass. Inst, of Tech.; mailing address, 

75 Allen St., Walpole, Mass. 
KNOEDLER, E. L. (Dec. 30, '16) Gen. Supt., Welsbach Co.; mailing address, lit 

Brown St., Gloucester City, N. J. 
KNOX, Lester B. (Mar. 24, '16) Latrobe Elec. Steel Co., Latrobe, Pa. 
KNUDSEN, Rolf (May 24, '18) 32 Van Deventer Ave., Princeton, N. J. 
KOEHLER, Wm. (Nov. 5, '04) E. 792 Lakeview Road, N. E., Cleveland, Ohio. 
KOEPPING, Emil D. (May 24, '18) Radium Luminous Material Corp.; mailing 

address, 66 S. Parkway, East Orange, N. J. 
KOERING, Bruno K. (Sept. 27, '16) 325 J St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
KOERNER, Walter E. (May 27, '14) Electrochemist and Metallurgist, Genera! 

Elec. Co.; mailing address, 255 Amherst St., East Orange, N. J. 
KOETHEN, Frederick L. (Jan. 29. '10) Sales Eng. and Supt., Lubricant Works, 

International Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 

1960 Whitney Ave. 
KOHLER, Hy. L. (.\ug. 31, '07) Chem. Eng., Scullin Steel Co., St. Louis, Mo.; 

mailing address, 3322 Holliday Ave. 
KOHN, Milton M. (May 29, '09) Mgr., Multiple Unit Elec. Co., 32 Broadway, 

New York City. 
KOKATNUR, V. R. (Oct. 26, '17) Research Chemist, c/o Niagara Alkali Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
KOONTZ, John A., Jr. (Sept. 27, '16) E. E., Great Western Power Co.; mailias 

address, 221 Bryant St., Palo Alto, Cal. 
KOPPITZ, C. G. (Oct. 26, '17) Chief Eng., Ry. & Industrial Eng. Co., Greensburg, 

Pa. 
KOWALKE, O. L. (Aug. 3, '08) Prof, of Chem. Engineering, Chem. Eng. Bldg.. 

Univ. of Wis., Madison, Wis. 
KRAMER, Lewis B. (Mar. 24, '16) 109 Carsonia Ave., Mt. Penn, Pa. 
KRANZ, Wm. G. (Apr. 29, '11) Vlce-Pres., charge of Manufacturing, National 

Malleable Castings Co.; mailing address, 7706 Piatt Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
KRAUS, Ernest (Sept. 27, '13) Res. Chemist, 433 Gregory Ave., Weehauken, N. J. 
KRAUSE, Walter B. (Apr. 21. '14) c/o American Steel Foundries. Chester. Pa- 



4 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 25 

KREJCI, Milo W. (May 27, '09) Supt., International Lead Kefining Co.. Badt 

Chicago, Ind. ; mailing address, 6517 Kimbark Ave., Chicago, 111. 
KREMERS, J. G. (July 31, '07) y06 Shepherd Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
KRING, Oskar (Sept. 30. 'IS) Partner and Chief Eng.. Stalhane, Kriug & Co., 

Djursholm, Sweden. 
KROEMER, F. W. (May 2 4, '18) Chemist, Wood Preservation, Santa Fe Ry., 

Box 296, Somerville, Texas. 
KROG, Karl M. (June 30, '16) Shift Supt., Electrolytic Tank House, Chile Explora- 
tion Co., Chuquicamata, via Antofagasta, Chile. 
KROLL, Cornelius (May 24, '18) Mgr. and Gen. Supt. of Refineries. Mid-Co. 

Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla. 
KRUE.SI. Paul J. (Jan. 25, '18) Pre.';.. Southern Ferro Alloys Co.; mailing address, 

510 Fort Wood Place, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
KRYZANOWSKY, C. J. (Apr. 2S, '18) Pre.-;., The Tungsten Products Co.; mailing 

address, Hill Top Park, Mt. Wa.'^hington, Mo. 
KUNZ, Geo. F., Ph.D. (Sept. 28, '07) Vice-Pres. Tiffany & Co., 405 Fifth Ave., 

New York City. 
KURAHASHI, Tojiro (May 24, 'IS) P. O. Terasho, Shigaken, Japan. 
KUTZ, Milton (June 1, '15) Mgr., The Roessler and Hasslacher Chem. Co., 941 

Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
KWANG. K\\ ong Yuncr, D. Eng. (Feb. 24, '09) Engineer and Director, Ijincheng 

Mines, Lincheng. Chihli Province, Kin-Han Railway, via Pekin, N. China. 
LACROIX. Henry (Mar. 3, '06) Eng.. Usine de Degrossissage d'or. Geneva, 

Switzerland. 
LAFORE, J. A. (Apr. 3, '02) Merion Paper Co., Bellevue Court Bldg., Philadelphia, 

Pa.; res., Wister Road, Ardmore. Pa. 
LAIB, Walter (May 22, '14) Supt. and Chief Chem., The Ohio Salt Co., Rittman, 

Ohio; mailing address, Rittman, AVayne Co., Ohio. 
LAIRD, Clinton N. (Oct. 25. 'IS) Prof, of Chemistry, c/o Trustees of Canton 

Christian College, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
LAISE, Clemens A. (Dec. 30, "16) Chem. Eng., Independent Lamp and Wire Co.; 

mailing address, 37 Duer Place, Weehawken, N. J. 
LAMB, Arthur B. (Dec. 27, '07) Chemical Lab., Harvard College, Cambrldire, Ma.sa. 
LAMOUREUX, Ernest (Apr. 26, '17) Sales Representative, Munning-Loeb Co.; 

mailing address, 844 Aldine Ave., Chicago, 111. 
LANA, Casimiro (Jan. 25, '18) Atenes de Madrid, Spain. 
LANDAU, Alfred (Apr. 22, '15) Pres., United Battery Corp. of N. Y., Woolworth 

Bldg., New York City. 
LANDIS, Walter S., Met E., M. S. (Dec. 4, '02) Metallurgical Eng. Chief Tech- 
nologist, American Cyanamid Co., 511 Fifth Ave., New York City; mailing 

address. East 31st St., Beechurst, Long Island, N. Y. 
L.ANDOLT, Dr. Hans (Feb. 5, '03) Turgi, Switzerland. 
LANDOLT, Percy E. (Nov. 27, '14) Captain, U. S. A. Nitrate Division, 3214 13th 

St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
LANE. Henry M. (May 29, '09) Trussed Concrete Bldg., Detroit, Mich.; res., 20S 

Highland Ave., Highland Par^, Detroit, Mich. 
LANGMUIR, A. C. (May 24, '18)' Works Mgr., Marx and Ravvolle, 9 Van Brunt 

St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
LANGMUIR, Irving (June 29, '07) Research Lab., Gen'l Elec. Co., Schenectady, 

N. Y. 
LANGTON, John (Apr. 3, '02) Consult. Eng., 233 Broadway. New York City. 
LANSING, C. N. (Nov. 26, '15) Eng. on Cells, Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
LARCH AR, Arthur B. (Apr. 3. '02) Penobscot Chem. Fibre Co., Great Works, Me. 
LASS, W. P. (Jlar. 27. '09) Speel River Electrochemical Co., Juneau, Alaska 
LANGFORD, Frank (May 29, '09) 1112 J St., Eurekn, Humboldt County, Cal. 
LAUGHLIN, H. Hughart (May 29, '09) Elec. Eng., Jones & Laughlin Steel Co.; 

306 Jones & Laughlin Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
LAVENE, H. A. (Nov. 26, '15) Chemist, International Acheson Graphite Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 170 Buffalo Ave. 
LAVINO, Edward J. (Nov. 26, '07) E. J. Lavino & Co., Bullitt Bldg., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 
LAWRENCE, James Nelson (Feb. 23, '12) Captain, Chem. Warfare Service, 

U. S. A., National Aniline and Chem. Co., Edgewood Arsenal, N. A. C, 

Buffalo, N. Y. ; mailing address, 344 West Ave. 
LAY, J. Tracy (Nov. 26. '10) Graduate Student, University of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, Pa.; res., 4015 Pine St. 
LEA, John (Oct. 21, '16) Chem. and Met., with H. B. Rowland; mailing addre-ss. 

5410 Normandie Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 
LEACH. Edwin R. (Feb. 25, '11) Mgr. Island Copper Co., 716 Security Building, 

Oakland, Cal.; mailing address, 217 Hillside Ave., Piedmont Cal 
LEAVITT, Wm. E. F. (Mar. 26, '10) C. W. Leavitt & Co., 30 Church St New 

York City. 
LE BOUTILLIER, Clement (July 31, '08) Chem. and Met., High Bridge N J 
LEDOUX, Albert R. (July 25, '13) Eng. and Chemist. Pres. Ledoux Co Inc 

»9 John St., New York City. 

3 



26 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

LEE, Harry Riley (Dec. 2, '05) Electro Metallurgical Co., Anniston, Ala.; mailing 

address, Room 1S24-30E, 42d St., New York City. 
LEE, I. E., Ph.D. (Mar. 24, '16) Res. Chem., E. J. duPont de Nemours & Co., 

Box 52.T, Jackson Lab., Wilmington, Del.; mailing address, Woodstown, N. J. 
LEFFLER. Johan A. (Sept. 24, '10) Prof, of Mec, Royal Technical Univ., Stock- 
holm, .Sweden: mailing address, Vastmannagatan 12, Stockholm, Sweden. 
LEGRAND. Charles (Mar. 24, 'Itij Consult. Eng., Phelps Dodge Co., P. O. Box 

EE, Douglas, Arizona. 
LEHR, Harold D. (Nov. 23, '17) Student in Electrochemistry, Lehigh University; 

mailing addres.«. 1520 W. Market St., Bethlehem, Pa 
LEMBERG, Max (Apr. 6, "11) Chief Engr., Vulcan Detinning Co., Sewaren, N. J.; 

res., Woodbridge, N. J. 
LENSCHOW, Han.s H. (May 25, '17) Chem., Kristianssand's Nikkelraffineringsverke, 

Norway. 
LEON.A.RD, Grover M. (Sept. 27, '16) Store Keeper, The Jeffrey Mfg. Co.; mailing 

address, 1225 Wesley Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 
LESLIE. E. H. (Sept. 27, '10) :;7 William St., New York City. 
LEVY, Gaston J. (Aug. 25, '17) Chem. Eng., Leslie Salt Ref. Co.; mailing address, 

619 Laurel Ave., San Mateo, Cal. 
LEWIS, Jonathan D. (May 29, '09) Metallurgist, Edgar Thompson Works, Car- 
negie Steel Co., Bes.semer, Pa.; mailing address, 2115 Delaware Ave., Swissvale, 

Pa. 
LICHTHARDT, G. (Apr. 3, '02) Cor. 18th and M Sts., Sacramento, Calif. 
LIDBURY, F. A4istin (Aug. 7, '03) Works Mgr., Oldbury Electrochem. Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 33 Sugar St., Echota, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
LIEEMANN, Dr. A. J. (Aug. 26, '10) 203 W. 81st St., New York City. 
LIEBSCHUTZ, Morton (Jan. 28, '11) Analytical Chemist, The Balbach Smelt. 

and Kof. Co., Newar!<. N. J.: mailing address, 719 De Graw .\ve. 
LIHME. C. B. (Nov. 27, '09) Pre;-ident, Matthiessen & Hegeler Zinc Co., La Salle, 

111.; mailing address, 1200 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 
LILJA, S. G. (Oct. 21, *16) Eng., Hamilton & Hansell; mailing address, Drottning- 

holmsvagen I a, Stockholm, Sweden. 
LILJENROTH, F. G. (Dec. 31, '15) Consult. Eng., Engineering Dept., E. L du Pont 

de Neniour.s & Co., Wilmington, Del. 
LINCOL.X, Dr. A. T. (Nov. 6, '02) Prof, of Physical Chemistry. Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute, Troy, N. Y. ; mailing address, 1625 Tibbitts Ave. 
LINCOLN, Edwin S. (Sept. 26, "08) Consult. Eng., 534 Congress St., Portland, Maine. 
LINCOLN. P. M. (Apr. 3, '02) We<tinghouse Elec. and Mfg. Co.; mailing address, 

t)83U Thomas St., Pitt.'^burgh, Pa. 
LIND, S. G. (July 30,. '09) Chem. in Radioactivity, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Golden, 

Colo. 
LINDBERG, Sien C. son (Sept. 27. '13) Consulting Eng., A. B. Emissions Inst., 

Stockholm, Sweden. 
LINDEN, H. E. (May 2, '17) Hydro-Elec. Eng., Sec'y-Treas., Beckman and Linden 

Eng. Corp., 004 Balboa Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 
LINDSAY, Dr. Chas. F. (June 1. '07) c/o The Crown Cork & Seal Co., Technical 

Supt., Caitridge Division, Baltimore, Md. 
LISCOMB. Frert. J. (Feb. 25. ' lb I Salesman, 'Hanson & Van Winkle Co.; mailing 

adiJiess. liotii! Ni'kerson Ave, Chicago, 111. 
LITTLE, Arthur D. (Apr. 1, '05) Chem. Eng. and Expert, 30 Charles River Road, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
LIT'l'I.R. William T. I Mar. li. '10) Research Dept.. Aluminum Co. of America; 

mailing address, 4 Loomis St.. Little Falls, N. Y. 
LJUNGH, Hjalmar (Mar. 27, '09) Florogatan 21, Stockholm 5, Sweden. 
LLOYD, M. G., Ph.D. (Apr. 3, '02) Elec. Eng., Bureau of Standards, Washington, 

D. C. 
LLOYD, Sherman C. (Sept. 26, '08) 1402 Gilpin Ave., Wilmington, Del. 
LLOYD, Stewart J. (Oct. 2S, '09) Res. Chem., Chem. Warfare Service, Research 

Division: mailing address, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 
LOEBELL, Henry O. (Aug. 28, '14) Industrial Heating Expert, Henry L. Doherty 

& Co.. 60 Wall St., New York City. 
LOEFFLER, Geo. O. (Mar. 24, '16) Gen. Supt., Carbon Steel Co., 32d St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.: mailing address, Bellefield Dwellings. 
LOP, E. A. (Feb. 24, '17) Elec. Eng., Power and Mining Eng. Dept., General 

Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
LOHR. J. M. (May 24, '13) .\lloy Chemist, 1592 W. Grand Boulevard, Detroit, 

Mich. 
LOKBN, Rikard (Nov. 26, '15) Chemist, A/S Kristianssand NlkkelraflRnerings- 

verk. Avdellng Ringerike, Nakkerud St., Norway. 
LONG, George E. (Jan. 28, '08) Chem., The Empire Gas & Fuel Co., Box 892, 

Bartlesville, Okla. 
LOVE, Edward G. (May 29, '09) Chief Chemist, Consolidated Gas Co., 130 E. lB«.h 

St., New York City. 
LOVEJOY, D. R. (Apr. 3, '02) U. S. B. M. Co., 221 W. 33d St., New York City. 
LOVELACE, B. F. (Oct. 27, '11) .Associate Prof, of Chemi.stry, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 27 

LOVKMAN, W. R. (Apr. 2S. "18) Factory Mgr., U^ona Mfg. Co.; mailing address, 

2457 North Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 
LOW, Frank S. (Apr. 2ti, "lu) Ohem. Kng., Niagara Alkali Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
LOWE, Russell E. (Jan. 26, '17) Chemist, Hotel Rumford, Rumford, Maine. 
LOWER. John R. (May 24. 'ISJ Chiel Chem., Burgess & Long, Columbus, Ohio; 

mailing address, 57 E. Maynard Ave. 
LUBOWSKY, Simon J. (Apr. 26, '17) Head, Chem. Dept., Goldschmidt Thermit 

Co., 92 Bishop St., Jersey City, N. J. 
LUKENS, Hiram S. (Feb. :iV, 14; Asst. Prof, of Chem., Univ. of Pa., John Har- 
rison Lab. of Chemi.'itry. Philadelphia, Pa. 
LUNDGREN, Harald (Aug. 25, '11) 7742 Marquette Ave., Chicago, 111. 
LU.NN, Ernest (Jan. 29, '09) Chief Electrician, The Pullman Co., 701 Pullman 

Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
LUTZ, George A. (May 25, '17> Elec. Eng. & M. E., c/o American Circular Loom 

Co., Kenilworth, N. J. 
LYMAN. James (Apr. 3, '02) Firm of Sargent & Lundy, 1412 Edison Bldg., Chicago, 

111. 
LYON, Dois.y A. (Feb. 27, '09) U. S. Bureau of Mines, 4S00 Forbes St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 
LYONS, Henry N. (Oct. 21, '16) c/o Hercules Club, Kenvil, N. J. 
LYSTER, T. L. B. (Nov. 26, '15) Eng., Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls. N. Y. 
LYTLE, Lloyd E. (June 30, '17) E. E., with Consolidated Min. and Smelt. Co. of 
Canada, Ltd.; mailing address, Box 18, Trail, B. C, Canada. 
' MAC DONALD, Jas. A. (Aug. 7, '03) Vice-Pres., United Verde Copper Co., 26 
Exchange Place, New York City. 
MAC DOUGALL, Archibald J. (Oct. 26, '17) Mech. Eng., Toronto Power Co.; mail- 
ing address, 12 Adelaide St., East, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
MAC FARLAND, A. F. (Mar. 24, '18) Metallurgist, Consumers Steel Corp., Chicago, 

HI.; mailing address, 1125 N. Pine Ave. 
MAC GREGOR, Frank S. (Sept. 28, '07) Development Dept., Room 452, Du Pont 

Bldg., Wilmington, Del. 
MAC GREGOR, Walter (Jan. 29, '10) 125 12th St., Northwest, Canton. Ohio. 
MAC INNES, Duncan A. (Jan. 25, '13) Chemical Research Lab., Mass. Inst, of 

Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 
MACK, E. L. (Dec. 31, '15) Graduate Student, Cornell Univ., Mor.se Hall, Ithaca, 

N. Y. 
MAC MAHON, Jas. (Aug. 7, '02) Bleaching Powder Supt., Castner Electrolytic 

Alkali Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
MAC MAHON, J. Douglas (Aug. 25, '16) A?st. in Res. Dept.. Norton Co.; mailing 

address, 15 Ericsson Place, Niagara Falls, N. Y 
MAC MILL.\N. J. R. (Oct. 23, '14) Chemist, Niagara Falls Alkali Co.; mailing 

address, 714 Townsend Place, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
MAC NUTT, Barry, E.E., M.S. (Apr. 3, '02) Phys. Lab., Lehigh University, Beth- 
lehem, Pa. 
MACPHERSON, A. R. (June 29, 'IS) Chem., Sunrise Bakery; mailing address. 

922 S. L St., Tacoma, Washington. 
MAC RAE, Duncan (Oct. 26, '17) Chief Chem.. Ch. in. Lab., Westinghouse Lamp 

Co., Bloomfleld, N. J. 
MADSEN, Chas. P. (Oct. 22, '15) Consult. Engineer, 44 Walnut St.. Newark, N. J. 
MAGNUS, Ben.iamin (Apr. 3, '02) Consulting Eng., c/o H. M. Toch. 320 5th Ave., 

New York City. 
MAGNUSSEN, C. Edward (May 24, '18) Prof, of E. E.. University of Washington; 

mailing address, 4521 19th Ave., N. E., Seattle, Washington. 
MAHLMAN, Lieut. Osboine L. (Jan. 26, '17) c/o Astoria Light, Heat and Power 

Co., Lawrencir Point, Astoria, Long Island, N. Y. 
MAHONEY, Joseph N. (Apr. 28, '18) Elec. Eng., 615 77th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
HAIER, Chas. G. (Dec. 31. '14) Res. Chemist, care of Phelps, Dodge Co., 99 John 

St., New York City. 
MAILLOUX, C. O., D.Sc. (Apr. 3, '02) Consult. Elec. Eng., 20 Nassau St., New 

York City. 
MAINWARING, Wm. D. (Apr. 24, '14) Production Engineer, 866-70 Rockefeller 

Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 
MALINOVSZKY, Andrew (Oct. 21, '16) Chem. Eng., Malinite Co., 22 N. Douglas 

Ave., Belleville, 111. 
MALM, John L. (Aug. 0, '05) Electrochemical Eng., 323 1st Nat. Bank Bldg., 

Denver, Colo. 
MANAHAN, Paul R. (Apr. 30, '08) Rubber Insulated Metals Corp., Plainfleld, N. J. 
MANN, Chas. A., Ph.D. (Feb. 24, '17) Prof, of Chem. Eng.; mailing address, 

Chem. Eng. Dept, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 
MANN, W^allace W. (May 5, '10) Foreman, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; mailing 

address, 34 Oakdale .Vve., Akron, Ohio. 
MANNING, Paul DeVrie<! (Oct. 25, '18) Chem., Nitrate Division, c/o Geophysical 

Lab., Upton St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
MANTIUS, Otto (Jan. 28, '08) Consult. Eng., Woolworth Bldg.. New York Citv. 
MARBLE, John Putnam (June 29, "18) 28 Cedar St., Worcester, Mass. 



28 DIRECTORY OF MfCMBERS. 

MARBLE, J. Russel (May 24, '18) Head of J. Russel Marble & Co., Worcester, 

Mass. 
MARDEN, John W. (Nov. 30, "18) Chem., U. S. Bureau of Mines, Golden, Colo. 
MARIK, Charles, Dr. des Sciences (Jan. 8, '04) 9 rue de Bagneux, Paris, VI, France. 
MARSH, A. L. (May 29, '09) Chief Engineer, Hoskin.s Mfg. Co., Detroit, Mich. 
MARSH, Clarence W. (Dec. 26, 'OS) Consulting Eng., 101 Park Ave., New York 

City. 
MARSH, R J. (Sept. 27, '16) Chemist and Asst. Supt., care of R. Wallace & Son 

Mfg. Co., Wallingford, Conn. 
MARSHALL, G. G. (May 24, '18) Vice Pres., The Marshall Drug Co., Marshall 

Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 
MARSHALL. Jad. G. (Sept. 2, '04) A.s.st. Supt. Union Carbide Co., 1115 Niagara 

St,, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
MARSHALL, Stuart B. (June 29, '18) Con.suUing Eng., Chem. and Metallurgint, 

922 Commercial St., S. W., Roanoke, Va. 
MARTENS, Paul (Aug. 25, '17) Consult. Chem., 1 Beechwood Place, Elizabeth, N. J. 
MARTIN, James W., Jr. (June 29, '18) Capt., Ordnance N. A., U. S. A.; malH»g 

address, 612 Locust Grove, Charlottesville. Va. 
MARTIN, R. M. (June 29, '18) Supt., Ocala Light & Water Dept, Ocala, Florida. 
MARTIN, Thos C. (Feb. 26, '10) 42 Mornlngside Ave., New York City. 
MARVIN, Arba B., Jr. (Apr. 3, '02) c/o J. C. Pennie, 35 Nassau St.. New York 

City. 
MASON, Frederic S. (July 21, '11) 92 Beekman St., New York City. 
MASON, Wm. D. (Aug. 25, '11) Chief Electrician, care of Standard Oil Co.. Point 

Richmond, Calif.; mailing address, Box ^94, Pt. Rlclimond, Calif. 
MASTICK, Seabury C. (Feb. 27, '09) Mastlck & Lucke, 52 Vanderbllt Ave., New 

York City. 
MATHERS, Frank C. (Feb. 6, '04) 419 N. Indiana Ave., Bloomington, Ind. 
MATHESON, Howard W. (May 24, '18) Gen. Mgr. and Chem. Director. Canadlaa 

Electro Products Co., Shawinigan Falls, P. Q., Canada. 
MATHEWS, Dr. John A. (May 29, '09) Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Halcomb Steel Co.. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
MATHEWSON, E. P. (May 27, '14) Director and Consulting Metallurgist, c/o 

American Smelting and Ref. Co., 120 Broadway, New York City. 
MATHIAS, D. L. (Jan. 28, 'IC) Metallurgi.st, care of Mackiritosh-Hemphlll & Co., 

803 Manufacturers Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
MATTERN. Guy G. (Aug. 20, '16) Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 7S0 ElUcott 

Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
MAUELEN, Frederick (June 25, '09) Baker & Co., Inc., Newark, N. J.; muilinig 

addres.s, 79 W. Hazelwood Ave., Railway. N. J. 
MAUKAN, Max (Nov. C, '02) Eng. and Asst. Mgr., Castner Electrolytic Alkali 

Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
MAYNARD. Thcs. Poole, Ph.D. (June 29, '18) Geological and Industrial Eag.. 

Atlanta, Georgia. 
MAYS, S. Warren (Apr. 22, '15) Asst. Gen'l Mgr., American Cyanamid Co^ 511 

Fifth Ave., New York City. 
MAYWALD, Frederick J. (Apr. 3, '02) Consulting Chemist, 133 Water St., New 

York City. 
McADAM, D. J., Jr., Ph.D. (Jan. 29, '10) Melallographlst, Engineering Experiment 

Station, Annapolis, Md. 
McBERTY, Ford H. (Aug. 25. '16) Student In E. E., Cornell Univ.; mailing 

addre.ss, Bandhu, The Knoll, Ithaca, N. Y. 
McBERTY, F. R. (Sept. 25, *09) 1814 Grasmere St., East Cleveland, Ohio. 
McCLENAHAN, J. S. (June 30, '16) Asst. Supt., Electrolytic Tank House. Chile 

Exploration Co., Cliuquicamata, Chile, via Antofaga.sta. 
McCONNELL, J. Y. (Apr. 3. '02) 500 N. Broad St., Philadelphia. Pa.; res.. 

Colwyn, Pa. 
McCORMACK, Harry (June 29. '07) Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Armour 

Inst., Chicago, 111. 
McCOY, Herbert N. (Sept. 4, '03) Pres., Carnotlte Reduction Co., Chicago, 111.; 

6030 Kenwood Ave. 
McCULLOUGH, H. Falconer (Apr. 29, 'ID Supt., Fuse Plants, Ordnance Dept.. 

Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa.; mailing address, 29 S. 13th St., Allen- 
town, Pa. 
McDonald, Frank (Apr. 29, '11) Supt., Electrolytic Plant, D. M. Bare Paper Co.. 

Roaring Springs, Pa. 
McDonald, Robert A. (June 25, '10) Manager, Crescent Steel Co., Crucible Steel 

Co. of America, Pittsburgh, Pa.; res., 304 S. Fairmount Ave. 
Mcintosh, D. (Dec. 4. '02) The University of British Columbia. Vancouver. B. C, 

Canada. 
McKAIG. W. Wallace (Oct. 3, '17) Director and Mgr.. McKalg Mach. Foundry a»4 

Supply Works, Cumberland, Md. 
McKELVY, Ernest C. (Aug. 27, '09) Associate Chemist. Bureau of Standards, 

Washington, D. C. 
Mckinley, Joseph (May 26, '10) Power Salesman. The Allegheny County Light 

Co., 435 Sixth Ave., Plttsburgb. Pa. 



f 



DIRECTORY OK MEMBERS. 29 

MeKNlGHT, W. A. (Apr. 22, 'IB) Works Supt., Aluminum Co. of America, 

Niagara Falls, N. T. 
Mclaughlin, Dorsey E. (May 27, '11) 904 Union Oil Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
ICcMAHON, Geo. F. (Apr. 26. '17) Electrochemi.<!t, Western Electric Co., Inc. 

Hawthorne Station, Chicago, III.; mailing address, 3425 Franklin Blvd. 
McMANUS, Joseph D. (June 30, '17) Student, Mass. Inst, of Tech.; mailing address, 

75 Warren Ave., Marlboro, Mass. 
McMILLEN, Herbert (July 26, '18) Chemist, Star Electrode Works of National 

Carbon Co.. 501 7th St., Niagara Fall.s. N. Y. 
McMILLEN, Russell Hennen (Apr. -'6, 'J7> Min. Eng.. 134 Virginia Ave., A.-pin- 

wall, Pa. 
McMURTRIE, D. H. (May 2, '17) Chem. Eng., Bureau of Mines Gas Investigation, 

Washington, D. C. ; mailing address, 36 Lawn Ave., Woodfords, Portland, Me. 
McNEILL, Ralph (Feb. 5, '03) 79 Orange St., Newark, N. J. 
McNIFF, Gilbert P. (June 25. '10) Metallu.gical Eng., National Tube Co., 1715 

Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
McNITT, Robt. J. (Mar. 24, '16) Assl. Vice-Prts., The Roes.sler and Hasslacher 

Chem. Co., Perth Amboy, N. J. 
McQU.^ID, Howard S. (June 30, '17) rare of Atlas Club, Tamaqu.i, Pa. 
MEAKER, Guy L. (July 24, '14) Consulting Eng., 2 Knapp Bldg., Joliet, 111. 
MEARS, Brainerd (Apr. 26, "17) Prof, of Chem., Thompson Chem. Labs., Williams 

College, Williamstown, Mass. 
MEDBURY, Chas. F. (Oct. 22. '15) Mgr. Montreal Office, Canadian Westinghouse 

Co.. J" ontveal, Quibfc. Cana<lr.. 
MEGROOT, John P. (Nov. 24, '16) Ekctrochem. Eng., Firestone Rubber Co. of 

Akron; mailing address, 2127 W. 48th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
MEIGS, Curtis C. (May 24, '18) Electrochemical Supply & Eng. Co., 1207 Stephen 

Giraid Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
MEINEKE, Otto H. (Sept. 27, '16) Construction Electrician, 422 Park Road, 

Ambridge, Pa. 
MEREDITH, William F. (May 29, '09) Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co., Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
MEREEN, John D. (May 2, '17) 2959 Russell St., Berkeley, Calif. 
MERRILL, Chas. W. (Feb. 27, '14) Pres., Merrill Metallurgical Co., 121 Second 

St., San Francisco, Cal. 
MERRILL, Geo. S. (Apr. 26, '17) Asst. to Chief Eng., National Lamp Works; 

Nela Park, Cleveland, <3hio. 
MERRILL, Millard W. (.Apr. 26, '13) Salisbury, Mass. 
MERSHON, Ralph D. (July 1, '05) Consulting Eng., 80 Maiden Lane. New York 

City; mailing address, 65 W. 54th St. 
MERZ, Charles H. (Apr. 3, '02) Collingswood Bldgs., Newcastle upon Tyne, 

England; mailing address, 32 Victoria St.. Westminster, London, S. "W., 
MERZ,BACHKR, Aaron (June 25, '09) Chief Chem. and Met., Steel Works Dept., 

Henry Dis.ston & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa.; mailing address, 6622 Torresdale 

Ave., Tacony, Philadelphia, Pa. 
METSON, W. H. (May 25. '17) 2398 Broadway, San Francisco, Cal. 
METZ. Gustave P. (Apr. 6. '11) 440 West End Ave., New York City; res., 95 Elm 

St., Montclair, New Jersey. 
METZ. H. A. (Apr. 3, '02) 122 Hudson St., Nt w York City. 
MEYER, John (Oct. 7, '05) Asst. Mgr. Sales Dept., Philadelphia Blec. Co., 1000 

Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.; res., 6420 Woodland Ave. 
MEYER, Richard (Aug. 25, '16) Foreman. The Massillon Aluminum Co.; mailing 

address. 532 Cherry Ave., S. E., Canton, Oliio. 
MEYERS, Herbert H. (June 26, '14) Res. Chemist, Mellon Inst, for Industrial 

Res., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
MILLER, Alvin A. (Feb. 24, '17) Mgr. Railway and Lighting Division, AVesting- 

house Elec. and Mfg. Co., 1400 Alaska Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 
MILLER, Alan B. (Oct. 25, '18) Private in Chem. Warfare Service, Co. 4, Lock 

Drawer 426, Cleveland, Ohio; mailing address, 115 Catherine St., .Elizabeth, 

N. J. 
MILLER, Daniel (Feb. 25, '16) Asst. Chief ChemlEt, Barber Asphalt Paving Co., 

Maurer. N. J. ; mailing address, 7 Bryant Terrace, Rahway, N. J. 
MILLER, Dwi.ght D. (Oct. 26, '17) Engineer, 15 Park Row, New York City. 
MILLER, D. R. (Oct. 25, '18) Secretary-Treas., c/o FitzGerald Labs., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
MILLER, Ernest B. (June 29. '18) Operating Vice Pres., Davison Chem. Co.; 

mailing address, 1100 (Jarrett Bldg., Baltimore. Md. 
MILLER. Levi B. (Jan. 29, '09) Electrochemist. R. F. D. No. 2, Lancaster, Pa. 
MILLER, L. F (Aug. 22, '13) Room 18, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Minnesota, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
MILLER, Waller (Jan. 26. 'IT) 1624 South Madison Blvd., Tulsa, Okla. 
MILLER, Dr. W. Lash (Apr. 3, '02) 50 St. Albans St., Toronto, Canada. 
MILLS, J. E., Ph.D. (Apr. 16, '03) Science Hall, University of South Carolina, 

Columbia, S. C. 
MINDELEFF, C) as. (Aug. 26, *10) Chief Chemlui and Assayer, American Smelting 

and Refining Co., Maurer, N. J ; res., Perth Amboy, N. J. 



30 DIRKCTORY OF MEMBERS. 

MINE, Sfiryo (Feb. 22, 'IS) Consulting Eng-., c/o Oana Engineering Woi-ks, 

Asakusa-Ku, Tokyo, Japan. 
MIXER, Harlan S. (May 1, '07) Chief Chemist, Welsbach Light Co., Gloucester 

City, N. J. 
MITCHELL., Wm. E. (July 26, '18) Asst. Gen. Mgr., Alabama Power Co., Birming- 
ham, Ala.; mailing address, 1501 S. 16th Ave. 
MITMAN, Wm. T. (May 2, '17) 401 W. Broad St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
MIYASAKI, Seiichi (Nov. 24, '16) 1698 Post St., San Francisco, Cal. 
MOERK, Frank N. (Apr. 22, '15) Chem. Eng., 4729 N. 1.5th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
MOFFAT, Jas. W. (Apr. 2(i. 'ID President, Moffat-Irving Electric Smelters. Ltd., 

366 Sackvllle St., Toronto, Canada. 
JIOHN, Arnold (.\ug. 25, '16) Electrochemist, Hotel Rigi, Adams & Clinton St., 

Chicago, 111. 
MOHR, Louis (Oct. 29, '10) Pres., John Mohr & Sons, Chicago, 111.; mailing 

address, 349 West Illinois St. 
MOLDENKB, Richard (Jan. 29, '09) Consult. Metallurgist, Watchung, N. J. 
MOI-TKEHANSEN, Ivar J. (Jan. 6, '03) Gen. Mgr., Fredriksstad Electrochemisko 

Fabriksatad, Norway. 
MOODY, Dr. Herbert R. (June 29, '07) Prof.. College of the City of New York, 

Convent Ave. and 140th St., New York City. 
MOORE, Chas. W. (Sept. 30, '18) Chief Chem. at Erie, The Kalbflei.^ch Corp.; 

mailing address, 20S Lighthouse St., Erie, Pa. 
MOORE, Hugh K. (Feb. 20. '16) Chem. Eng., Brown Co.: mailing address, 93 

Prospect St., Berlin, N. H. 
MOORE, J. R. (Jan. 28, '16) Electrometallurgist, Oakmont, Pa. 
MOORE, P.. W. E. (June 29, '18) Gen. Eng., Westinghouse Elec. and Mfg. Co., 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
MOORE, Wm. C. (Feb. 27. '14) Res. Chemist, National Carbon Co.; mailing 

address. l.'>81 Clorence .-Wt^., Lakewood, Ohio. 
:mOORE, W. E. (Sept. 27, 'IC) Pres., W. E. Moore & Co., Engrs., 70G Union 

Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
MOORHOUSE. L. B. (May 24, '18) Industrial Heating Eng., H. L. Doherty & Co.; 

mailing address, 327 S. Erie St., Toledo, Ohio. 
MOORMANN, Thos. A. (Nov. 30. '18) Chem., Carbon & Aluminum Plant. Tallasee 

Power Co., P. O. Box 241, Badin, North Carolina. 
MORANI. Fau.-^to (Dec. 4, '03) 66 Via Due Macelli, Romo. Italy. 
MOREHE.\D, J. M. (Feb. 5, '03) Engineer of Tests, Peoples Gas Bldg., Chicago 

111. 
MOREL.XND. Watt L. (.^pr. 26, '16) Gen. Mgr., Moreland Motor Truck Co., 1701 

N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
MOREY, .'Stephen R. (Apr. 29, 'ID c/o Mr. F. M. Waltz, Jr., 4241 Broadway, New 

York City. 
MORGAN, Harry J. (Sept. 27, 'IG) Metallurgist, c/o Big Indian Co., La Sal, 

Utah. 
MORiiAN. Di-. J. Livingstone R. (.^pr. S, '02) Columbia Univ., New York City. 
MORIN, Henry A. (June 30, '17) Mgr., Nlcu Steel Co., Sudbury, Ont., Canada. 
MORITZ, C. H. (Apr. 4, '03) care of Aluminum Co. of America, Niagara Falls, N. T 
MORLEY, M. Howard (June 29, '18) Chemist, Metallurgical Dept., International 

Paper Co.. Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
MORRIS. Albert W. (Jan. 26, '17) Chief Eng., Harley Co. & Morris Engineering 

Co.; mailing address, 54 Buckingham St., Springfield, Mass. 
MORRISON, Geo. O. (Junt 20, '14) Metallurgist, 324 Guardian Bldg., Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
MORRISON, Merlin E. (June 1, '15) 847 E. Colfax Ave., Apartment 34, Denver, 

Colo. 
MORRISON, Walter L. (Feb. 26, '10) Mgr., Western Reduction Co.: mailing 

address, Box 300, Portland, Oregon. 
MORROW, John T. (Feb. 27, '09) care of Factory Products Export Corp., 61 Broad- 
way. New York City. 
MORSE, Willard S. (Jan. 29, '09) Director and Member, Ex. Comm., American 

Smelting and Refining Co., 120 Broadway, New York City. 
MORTIMER. James D. (Dec. 30, '16) Pres., The North American Co., 30 Broad St., 

New York City. 
MOTT, W. R., B.S. (Mar. 5, '03) Nat. Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio; mailing address, 

1586 Cohasset Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
MOTTINGER, Byron T. (Apr. 24, '14) Chief Eng. and Master Mechanic, c/o The 

Quaker City Rubber Co., Wissinoming, Philadelphia, Pa. 
MOULTON, Seth A. (Apr. 29, '11; Pres., Moulton Engineering Corp., 534 Congress 

St., Portland, Maine. 
MOYER. Grant C. (Jan. 29, '09) Lab. Asst., FitzGerald Labs., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
MUENCH, Relnbold K. (Nov. 24, '16) P. O. Box 293, Goldfield, Colo. 
MUESER, Emil E. (Feb. 25. 'IG) Supt., Carbon Electrode Plant, Tallassee Power 

Co., Badin, North Carolina. 
MUIR, J. Malcolm (Mar. 26, '10) Mgr. Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, 

McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 10th Ave. and 36th St., New York City. 
MULLIGAN. J. J. (Oct. •_':!, '14) .Met. U. S. Metals Ref. Co., East Chicago. Ind. 



DIkECTORV OF MEMBERS. 3 1 

MUNCH, James C. (May 24. 'isi Student. National Army, U. S. A., Medical 

School, 524 Taylor St., Washington, D. C. 
MURAHASHI, Sokichi (Nov. 24. '11) Metallurgical Eng. and Director, Nippon 
Metal Co., Kobe, Japan; mailing address, Nishinada-Kawara, Muko-gun, 
Hyogo-ken, Japan. 
MURAI, Ichiro (Oct. 2.5, "18) Elmet, Student at Lehigh University; mailing 

address, 229 Warren Square, Bethlehem, Pa, 
MURPHY, Edwin J. (Oct. 2, '02) 38 Rav St., R. F D. No. 1, Schenectady, N. T. 
MURPHY, Dr. Robt. K. (May 22, '14) Technical College, Sydney, Australia. 
MURRAY, Benjamin L. (Nov. 27, '09) Chemist, Merck & Co., Rahway, N. J.; 

mailing address, 148 Bryant St. 
MUSCHENHEIM, Frederick A. (Nov. 21, 'OS) Vlce-Pres., Hotel Astor, New York 

City; res., 218 W. 45th St. 
MYERS, Wm. S. (Feb. 25, '16) Director, Chilean Nitrate Committee; mailing 

address, 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 
NAGEL, Wm. G. (Jan. 26, '17) Pres. and Mgr., W. G. Nagel Elec. Co.; mailing 

address. 28 St. Clair St., Toledo. Ohio. 
NAGELVOORT, Adriaan (Oct. 22. "15) Chemist, 52 E. 41st St., New York City. 
XAIDEN, Jame.s H. (May 24, '18) Res. Eng., The Prest-o-Lite Co., Inc.: mailing 

address, 1501 W. 2.Tth St., Indianapolis, Ind. 
NAKAHARA, Seizo (May 24. '18) Chem. Eng., The Asahi Glass Co.; mailing 

address. Mitsubi.^hi Co., 120 Broadway, New York City. 
NAKAMURA, Yushichiro (Nov. 23, '17) Res. Chem., The Nippon Oil Co., Ltd.; 

mailing address, Nippon Oil Co., Kashiwazaki, Echigo, Japan. 
NAKASAWA, Yoshio (July 27, '17) Prof., Dept. of Tech., Imperial-Kioto Univ.; 

mailing address, Demachi-Masugata, Kioto, .Japan. 
NAKASHIMA. Shigemaro (Nov. 23, '17) Eng., Japan Chem. Industry, Hirota, 

Kanuniagun. Fukushiina-Ken, .Japan. 
NAMBA, M. (Nov. 6, '03) Kyoto Imp. Univ., Kyoto. Japan. 
NASH, Clarence A. (Jan. 25, '13) 240 14th St., Milwaukee, W^is. 

NASH, Preston M. (June 29, '18) Chemist, 217 First St., N. E., Washington, D. C. 
NAYLON, John T. (Aug. 24, 'IS) Nitrate Division, 1st Lieut. Ordnance N. A., 

Washington, D. C. 
XEAL, John R. H. (Apr. 26, '17) Member of Firm, Neal & Co.: 685 Front Ave., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
NBEDHAM, Harry H. (Mar. 26, '15) En,?ineer, General Elec. Co., Harrison, N. J.; 

mailing address, 48 Telford St., East Orange, N. J. 
NESS, A. R. (Oct. 22. '15) Res. Chem., c'o Res. Labs., Great Western Sugar Co., 

21st and Blake St., Denver, Colo. 
NEFF, Andrew M. (June 29. '18) Chemist, Ordnance Corps, Co. M, Chemical 

Battalion No. 3, Edgewood Arsenal, Edgewood, Md. 
NESTLER, G. A. (Nov. 24, '16) Mill Foreman, Baker Mine Co., Cornucopia, Oregon. 
NESTOR, John F. (Apr. 26, '17) Plater, Gen. Elec. Co.; mailing address, 31 Water- 
hill St., Lynn, Mass. 
NEVILLE, Neil (Oct. 25. '18) Met., Electric Furnace Construction Co., 401 Finance 

Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
XEWKIRK, Edgar D. (June 30, '17) Treasurer, c/o Onondaga Steel Co., Inc., 

Syracuse, N. Y'. 
NICHOLS, Wm. H., D.Sc. LL.D. (Mar. 3, '06) Pres., Nichols Copper Co., General 
Chem. '"o., 25 Broad St., New York: res., 355 Clinton Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
NICHOLS, W. Standish (Apr. 3, '02) Consulting Engineer, 100 Broadway, New 

York City. 
NICHOLSON, Kenneth C. (May 24, '18) Chief Chemist, Standard Chem. Co.; 

mailing address, 240 N. Central Ave., Canonsburg, Pa. 
NICKERSON, William E. (May 29. '09) Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Gillette 
Safety Razor Co., Boston. .Mass.; mailing address, 1722 Massachusetts Ave., 
Cambridge, Mass. 
KILSSEN, Bjarne (Feb. 24. '17) Chief Electrical Eng., Rjukan Saltpeterfabriker, 

Rjukan, Norway. 
NISHIDA, Hirotaro (Oct. 26, '17) 64 Takehaya-cho, Koishikawa, Tokyo, Japan. 
NISHIKAWA, Kikei (Jan. 29, '10) c/o Koike, 8 Kaguraoka, Yoshida St., Kyoto, 

Japan. 
NISWONGER, E. E. (.'Xpr. 29, '11) The Electro Chemical Co.. Dayton, Ohio. 
NIVISON, Robert (June 29, 'IS) Mill Mgr., Hallingsworth & Whitney Co., Water- 

viUe, Maine. 
NOGEL, Wm. G. (Jan. 26. '17) Pres, and Mgr., The W. G. Nogel Elec. Co.; mailing 

address, 2S-32 St. Clair St., Toledo, Ohio. 
NOHARA, Dr. Tsuneo (Apr. 6, '11) Engr., 2, lida-machl 4 Chome, Kojimachi-Ku, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
NORMAN, Geo. M. (Apr. 3, '02) Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del. 
NORTHRUP, Edwin F. (Oct. 17, '07) Palmer Physical Laboratory, Princeton, N. J. 
NOYES, Harry L. (Feb. 25. '16) Chief Eng.. Union Carbide Co., Niagara Falls. 

N. Y. 
NUTTING, E. G. (Dec. 20, '16) Chemist, The Carborundum Co.; mailing address, 

722 7th St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
OAKDEN, William E. (Oct. 29. '10) 11 Lonsdale Road, Barnes, London, S. W., 
England. 



32 DIKECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

'OBBR, Julius E. (Apr. 24. '09) Co West Pf-nn Steel Co., Brackenridge, Pa. 
O'BRIEN, Alfred I>. (May 24, '18) Chief Chem., Anaconda Copper Mining Co., 

Anaconda, Mont. 
OFFUTT, .1. W. (June 27. '131 Supt., Shelby Steel Co., Ellwood City, Pa. 
OGDEN, John (Sept. 27, '16) Mgr., Ogden Laboratories, 230 Chancellor St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
OLDACH. Friderifk Wm. (June 29, '18) Teacher of Chem., Reading High School; 

200S N. Marvine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
OLDPIELD, Lee W. (Feb. 24, '17) Pres. and Eng., Oldfleld Motors Corp.; mailing 

addre.ss, 506-7 Sellwood Bldg., Duluth, Minn. 
OLDRIGUT, G. L. (June 30, '16; Shift Supt., Leaching Plant, c/o Chile Explora- 
tion Co., Chuquicamata, via Antofagasta, Chile. 
OLSEN, T. S. (Xov. 26, '15) Det Norske A/S for EUktiokemisk Industrl, Bygdo 

Alle 1111, Kristiania, Norway. 
OLSSON, Henning (July 26, '12) Mgi-. Director, Aiitiebolaget, Jarnbruksfornoden- 

heter, Hammgatan 1 A, Stockholm, Sweden. 
O'NEIL, Robert Ley (Aug. 25, '17) Supt., Republic Chem. Co., P. O. Box 94*. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
O'NEILL, Wm. J. (July 26, "18) Elec. Eng., Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 

East Pittsburgh. Pa.; mailing address, 1300 Wood St., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
ONODA, Nao.ji P. (Oct. 26, '18) Met. Eng., Tsuda & Co., Osaka, Japan; c/o Mrs. 

Crother. 600 W. 169th St., New York City. 
ORDWAY, Daniel L. (May 5, "ID) Asst. Director, Research Laboratory, National 

Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio; res., 1428 Ridgewood .•We., Lakewood, CJhio. 
O'REILLEY, F. Jos. (June 29, '18) Chemist, Miami Copper Co., P. O. Box 100, 

Miami, Ariz. 
ORR, Chester A. (Jan. 28, '16) Mgr., The Cleveland Metal Products Co., Cleveland, 

Ohio; mailing address, c/o Mrs. C. G. Knapp, Box 64, Station E. 
OSBORNE, Loyall A. (Apr. 3, '02) Vice-Pres., Westinghouse Elec. and Mfg. Co.. 

165 Broadway, New York City. 
OSBORNE, Sidney E. (Jan. 28, '16) Asst. Eng., Hooker Electrochemical Co.; 

mailing address, 170 Buffalo Ave., Niagara Pails, N. Y. 
OSHIM.\. YoiUiikiyo, Dr. Ing. (July 30, '09) Engineering College, Tokyo Imperial 

Univ., Tokyo, Japan. 
OSTHEIMER, John W. (June 25, '09) Ingenieur des Arts and Manufactures, 3 rue 

Rabelais, Paris, France. 
OWENS, Ernost W. (Feb. 24, '17) Chem., Pittsburgh Steel Co.; mailing address, 

1161 Maple .\ve., Moncs.sen, Pa. 
PACK, Charles (June 29, 'IS) Chief Chem. and Met., c/o Doehler Die Casting Co., 

Court and Huulington Sts.. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
PAGE, George S. (May 29, '09) Mgr., Park Works, Crucible Steel Co. of America; 

mailing addre.ss, 7212 Thomas Blvd., PittKburgh, Pa. 
PALMER, Chas. S. (Oct. 26, '17) Fellow, Mellon Inst., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
PALMER, Wm. U. (May 29, '09) Pres., The Hartford Eltctric Steel Corp., Rocky 

Hill, Conn.; mailing address, No. 33 Sherman St., Hartford, Conn. 
PARISH, Ralph R. (Oct. 24, '13) Rome Brass & Copper Co., Rome, N. Y. 
PARKER, James H. (Nov. 26, '10) Metallurgiet, Carpenter Steel Co., Reading, Pa.; 

mailing address, Wyomisslng, Pa. 
PARKHURST, C. W. (Sept. 26, 'OS) Cynwyd, Pa. 
PARKHURRT, I. P. (Oct. 21, '16) Kinsley. Kan.-^as. 
PARKINSON, Jo.s. C. (Fib. 2."., '11) 704 Third Ave., Tarentum, Pa. 
PARKS, R. E. (May 22, '14) Tallassee Power Co., Badin, North Carolina. 
PARMELEB, Howard C. (June 28, '12) Editor, Chem and Met. Engineering, 

McGraw-Hill Co. Bldg., lOih Ave. and 36th St., New York City. 
PARR. Samuel W. (January 7, '05) Prof, of Applied Chemistry, University of 

Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
PARSONS, Prof. Charles L. Oct. 29, '08) Prof, of Inorganic Chtmittry, Box 

505, Washington, D. C. 
PARSONS, Prof. Louis A. (.^pr. 3, '02) Prof, of Physics, Pennsylvania College, 

Gettysburg, Pa. 
PASCOE, Chas. F. (Nov. 24, '11) Metallurgist, P. O. Box 305 H, Montreal, Canada. 
PASTERNAK, Morris (Apr. 28, '18) Research Chem., Chile Exploration Co., 

202d St. and 10th Ave., New York City. 
PATCH. Nathaniel K. B. (Jan. 23, '14) Factory Engineer, Lumen Bearing Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
PATTERSON, C. Thomas (Oct. 3, '17) Metallurgist, Standard Chem. Co.; mailing 

address, 334% West Pike St., Canonsburg, Pa. 
PATTERSON, Lloyd George (June 29, '18) Furnace Supt., American Cyanamid 

Co.; mailing address, 2116 13th St., Niagara F'alls, N. Y. 
PATTERSON, T. A. (Sept. 27, '16) Supt., Elizabeth Plant, Morris Herrmann & Co., 

ad and Trumbull Sts., Elizabeth, N. J. 
PATTON, David C. (Oct. 22, '15) Works Representative, Tolhurst Machine Works, 

Troy, N. Y. 
PAUL, Henry N., Jr. (Apr. 3, '02) 1815 Land Title Bldg.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
PAULSON, Axel (June 30. '17) Met. Eng.. c/o Hamilton & Hansell, 1419 Park 

Row Bldg., 13-21 Park Row, New York City. 



DlkECTORY OF MEMBERS. 33 

PEARCE, J. Newton (Apr. 29, "ID Assistant Professor of Chemistry. The State 

University of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa; mailing address, 714 Iowa Ave. 
PECK, Eugene C. (May 5, '10) Gen. Supt., The Cleveland Tavist Drill Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio; res., 6719 Euclid Ave. 
PECK, Edgar Lyle (Sept. SO, "LS'i Private, Chem. Warfare Service, U. S. A.; 

mailing addiess, S019 Dumbarton Ave., Wa.-^hington, D. C. 
PEDDER, John (Apr. 27, '12) Chemist, West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co., Luke, Md. 
PEDERSEN, .A.rthur Z. (Aug. 25, '16) Chemist, Edison Storage Battery Co., 

mailing address, SS Mt. PKasant Ave., West Orange, N. J. 
PEILER, Karl E. (Apr. 27, '12) Mech. Engineer, W. A. Lorenz, Hartford, Conn.; 

res.. 56 Allen Place, Hartford, Conn. 
PEIRCE, Wm. H. \.Apr. 6, 'ID Vice-President and General Mgr., Baltimore 

Copper Smelt, and Roll. Co., P. O. Station J, Baltimore, Md. 
PEIRSON. Christopher I.,. (May 24, '18) Chem., Mitchell & Peirson, 36th and Reed 

St.'!., Philadelphia, Pa. 
PENCE, Melvin F. (May 24, "18) Chief Chem., The American Steel & Machinery 

Co.. Mansfield, Ohio. 
PENNIE. John C. (May 29, '09) Attorney-at-Law, 35 Nassau St , New York City; 

res.. The Porterfield, 612 W. 112th St. 
PENNOCK, John D., A.B. (Apr. 2, "04) Chief Chemist, c/o Solvay Process Co., 

Syracuse. N. Y. 
PERLEY, George A. (Apr. 26, '13) Asst. Prof, of Physical Chemistry, New Hamp- 
shire College, Durham, New Hampshire; mailing address, c/o Nitrate Division, 

Ordnance Dept, 6th and B St., Washington, D. C. 
PETERS, Frazier F. (Oct. 21, '16) The Dorr Co.. 227 West 99th St., New York City. 
PETERSON, F. H. (May 24, '18) Chem., Heller Bros. Co., 445 Mt. Prospect Ave., 

Newark, N. J. 
PETINOT, Napoleon (Apr. 24, '09) Eleclrometalluigical Eng., c/o U. S. Alloys 

Corp., 30 E. 4 2d St., New York City. 
PETTEE, C. L. W. (Aug. 25, '16) Owner and Mgr., The Hartford Laboratory Co., 

P. O. Drawer 9, Hartford, Conn. 
PFA.NSTIEHL, Carl (Sept. 27, '16) Pres. Pansteel Products Co., No. Chicago, 111.; 

mailing addre.ss. Wood Path, Highland Park, 111 
PHILIPPS, Herbert (Sow 6, '03) Chem. Eng. and Electrochem., 421 Washington 

St., Hackettstown, N. J. 
PHILLIPS, Ross (Nov. 6, '03) Mgr., Western Alkali Ref Co., E. Omaha, Neb.; 

mailing address, 3416 Slierman Ave. 
PICK.^RD, Greenleaf Whittier (July 26, '18) Vice Pres. and Tech. Director, Wire- 
less Specialty Apparatus Co.; mailing address, 59 Dalton Road, Newton Center, 

Mass. 
PICKENS, Rufus H. (Jan. 27. '12) Southern Public Utilities Co., Clemmons, N. C. 
PICKERING, Oscar W. (Oct. 2, '02) 76 Bennett Ave., Arlington. N J. 
PIERCE, James B., Jr. (May 25, '17) Chief Chem.. Rollin Chem. Co., Inc.; mailing 

address, P. O. Box 932, Charleston, W. Va. 
PIKE, Robt. D. (Dec. 30, '16) Chem. Eng., 22 Battery St., San Francisco, Cal. 
PINKERTON, Andrew (Apr. 3. '03) Box 427, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
PITCHER, .Mbert M. (.\pr. 28, '18) Asst. Supervisor of Chlorine Area, Dye Works, 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.; mailing address. Riverside Club. Pennsgrove, 

N. J. 
PITMA.N'. Earle Carver (Apr. 28, 'IS) Supt., The Lustron Co.. 44 K St., Boston, 

Mas.s. ; mailing address, 260 I.,afayette St., Salem, Mass. 
PLATTS, John C. (Dec. 28. '17) Chem. and Met., Armstrong. Whltworth of Canada, 

Ltd.; mailing address, 64 St. James St., Longueuil, P. Q., Canada. 
PLEISS, Paul (Nov. 28, '13) Captain, U. S. A., 17:17 H St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C, also Secretary Burdett Oxygen Co., 309-319 St. Johns Court. Chicago, IlL 
PLOCK, Albert F. (Apr. 26. '17) Pres. Pittsburgh Met. Co..; mailing address, 

818 Park Bldg.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
PLUMB, A. M. (Mar. 24, '16) Western Representative. American Zinc Ore Separ- 
ating Co., 737 Detroit St., Denver. Coio. 
POMPEIA. Jonas (Mar. 22, '18) Rua General Jardin S7, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
POND, G. G., Ph.D. (July 3. '02) Prof, of Chem., The Penna. State College, State 

College, Pa. 
POPE, Chas. E. (Feb. 25, 'ID President. Coal and Coke By-Products Co.; mailing 

address, 421 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
POPE, Ralph W. (Apr. 26, '16) Sec'y and Treas., Aluminum Plated Ware Co.; 

mailing address, 397 Market St., Newark, N. J. 
PORRO, Thomas J. (Jan. 26, '17) Pharmacist and ("hem., Moore Drug Co.; mailing 

address, 3716 N. 26th St., Tacoma, Washington. 
PORTER, Harry F. (Apr. 28, '18) Sec'y, c/o Pyroelectric Instrument Co., Trenton, 

N. J. 
PRANKE. Edward J. (June 29, '18) Mgr., Service Bureau, c/o .American Cyanamid 

Co., 511 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
pRATT. E. Bruce (Dec. 26, '13) Director, The Electric Process Steel Co.. 908-18 

Hippodrome Bldg, Cleveland, Ohio. 
PBATT. Fred. S. (Apr. 3, '02) Stone & Webster, 147 Milk St., Boston. Mass. 



34 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

PRATT, H. A. (Sept. 27, 'IG) Mgr., Industrial Div., N. Y. Office. Westlnglioiwe 

Blec & Mfg. Co.; mailing address. 138 Debacy Ave., N. Plainfleld. N. J. 
PRICE, Edgar F. (July 3, '02) 42d St. Bldg., Cor. 42d and Madison Ave., New 

York City. 
PRICE, Wm. B. (Mar. 27, '14) Chief Chemist, ScovlU Mfg. Co.; mailing address, 

111 Euclid Ave., Waterbury, Conn. 
PRINDLE, Edwin J. (Jan. 8, '04) Prindle. Wright & Small, Patent Lawyers, The 

Trinity Bldg., Ill Broadway, New York City. 
PKING, John N. (Nov. 3, '06) Lecturer on Blectrochem., Victoria Univ., Man- 
Chester, England. 
PRITZ, Lawrence G. (Oct. 23, '14) Supt. of Special Steels, c/o Illinois Steel Co., 

So. Chicago, 111. 
PRITZ, Wesley B. (May 5. '10) A.sst. Supt., c/o The American Carbon and 

Battery Co., East St. Louis, 111. 
PROCHAZKA, J. Albert (July 26, 'IS) Chem., Central Dyestuff & Chem. Co., 

Newark, N. J.; mailing address, 12S William St., East Orange, N. J. 
PROCTOR, Charles H. (Apr. 29, '11) Expert in Electrodeposition of Metals, 

Roessler and Hasslacher Chem. Co., 100 William St.. New York City. 
PROSSER, H. A. (Dec. 2, '05) Director and Member of Executive Committee, 

American Smelt, and Ref. Co., 120 Broadway, New York City. 
PUGH, A. H., Jr. (May 24, '18) Pres., A. H. Pugh Co., 4th and Pike Sts., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 
PULMAN, Oscar S. (May 26, '10) Asst. Superintendent, National Carbon Co., 

Cleveland. Ohio; mailing address, 1507 Cohasset Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
PULSIPER, H. B. (Nov. 24, '16) Prof, of Met., School of Mines, Butte, Mont. 
PUTNAM, Wm. R. (Oct. 21. 'It;) Sales Mgr.. Utah Power & Light Co.; mailing 

addre.ss, 515 Keams Bldg.. Salt Lake City, Utah. 
PYNE, Francis R. cDec. 2, '051 U. S. Metals Ref. Co., Chrome, N. J.; mailing 

address, 29 Scotland Road. Elizabeth. N. J. 
QUAINTANCE, Chas. F. (May 24, '18) The Herold China & Pottery Co., Golden, 

Colo. 
QUAYLE, W. O. (May 24, 'IS) Division Head of Chem. Dept.. E. I. du Pont de 

Nemours & Co.; mailing address. 2306 Delaware Ave., Wilmington, Del. 
QUEENY, John F. (June 1, '07) President, Monsanto Chem. Co., ISOO S. 2d St., 

St. Louis, Mo. 
QUENE.\U, A L. J. (May 1, '06) Jemeppe s/Meuse, Belgium. 
QUINAN, Kenneth B. (Jan. S. 'nit Chief Chemist, deBeer's Explosive Works, 

Dynamite Factory, Somerset West, Cape Colony, Africa. 
R.VEDER, Bjorn (Jan. 23. '14) rhief of Experimental Dept., Comp. de Meteax, 

Overpelt-Lammel, Neerpelt. Belgium. 
RAETH, Frederick C. (Dec. 23. 'ID Instructor In Chem. and Electrochemistry, 

School of Engineering of Milwaukee, 373 Broadway, Milwaukee, Wis. 
RAIBOURN, Paul A. (Oct. 25. '18) Elec. Eng., We-stern Electric Co.; mailing 

address, 65 Central Park West, New York City. 
RAIMONDO, Sebastiano (June 30, '17) Room 521, 80 Maiden Lane, New York City. 
RALSTON, Oliver C. (July 23, '15) Asst. Met., Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
RAMAGE, A. S. (May 6, '05) International Color and Chemical Co., Inc., Detroit, 

Mich. 
RAM.cAY, Andrew (Feb. 22, '18) President, Andrew Ramsay Co., Mount Savage, 

Md. 
R.OISEY, Frank H. (Jan. 23. '14) Babcock & Wilcox Co., Bayonne. N. J. 
R.\ND.\LL, A. G. (Sept. 27, '16) Supt., Hydrogeneration Dept., Cudahy Packing 

Co.; mailing address, 4256 Wirt St., Omaha, Nebraska. 
RANDALL, J. W. H. (Jan. 29. '09) Chem. Eng, West Va. Pulp & Paper Co., 
200 Fifth Ave., New Y'ork City; mailing address, West Va. Pulp & Paper Co., 
Piedmont, W. Va. 
RANDALL, Merle fNov. 27, 'O'J) As^t. Prof, of Chem.. Chemistry Bldg., Univ. of 

Cal., Berkeley, Cal. 
RAS51U.SSEN, F. J. (Oct. 25, 'IS) Student, Mass. Inst, of Tech.; mailing address, 

125 Greenleaf St.. Quincy, Mass. 
RAUTH, John W. (Sept. 27, '16) Prof, of Chem., Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmits- 

burg, Md. 
RAT. Horatio C. (June 27, '13) Prof, of Met. and Prof, of Ore Dressing; mailing 

.iddress, 5853 Doupla.ss Ave.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
READETTB, John (Apr. 26. '17) Electroplater, Rockford Silver Plate Co., 312 

Soper Ave., Rockford. 111. 
REBER, Col. Samuel, U. S. A. (Apr. 3, '02) Army Bldg.. 39 Whitehall St., New 

York City. 
REDFIELD, C. S. (Apr. 26. '16) Chief Chem., Ajax Rubber Co., Inc., Trenton, 

N. J.; mailing addie!->. B'<k 50l'. 
REED, A. C. (June 29, '181 Navy Dept., Asst. Materials Eng.; mailing address, 

1829 F St., N. W., Washington. D C. 
REED, Avery H. (Apr. 6, '11) Supt. of Mines, Rosiclare Lead and Fluorspar Mines, 

Marion, Ky. 
REED. C. J. (Apr. 3. '021 507 Brannan St.. San Franci.ico. Cai: 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 35 

REED, John C. (Apr. 29, 'ID Electrical Engr., Bethlehem Steel Co., Steeltori, Pa. 
REED, S. Albert (June 1, '15) 113 E. 55th St., New York City. 
REKSE, P. P. (May 29. '09) Hamburg, Pa. 

REEVE, Amos G. (Nov. 26, '07) Research Dept., Oneida Community, Ltd., Ken- 
wood, N. T. 
REEVE,, H. T. Mar. 24, 'IS) Chief Scientist, American Optical Co.. Southbridge, 

Mass. 
REICH, J. Sydney (Aupr- 2r>. '16> Asst. Supt. and Chemist, Harrison Chemical Co.; 

mailing address, 681 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N. T. 
REID, R. R. (May 25, '17) with GrasselU Chem. Co.; mailing address, 1496 Arthur 

Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 
REINBOLD, Dr. Herman (Oct. 21, '16) Vice-Pres., Potash Reduction Co., 502 

Omaha National Bank Bldg., Omaha, Neb. 
REIST, Henry G. (Sept. 2fi, '08) Designing Eng., General Electric Co., Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 
RENTON, W. L. (Oct. 26, '17) Vice-Pres. and Wks. Mgr., Electric Halogens & 

Metals, Welland, Ontario. Canada. 
RHOADS, Albert E. (June 29, '18) Metallurgist, c/o Detroit Electric Furnace Co., 

642 Book Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 
RHODIN, B. E. P. (Nov. 26. '15) River.=ide Club. Pennsgrove. N. J. 
RICH, William J. (May 26, '10) Principal Examiner, U. S. Patent Office, Room 175, 

Washington, D. C. 
RICHARD, Louis M., E.M. (May 24, '18) Consulting Geologist, 919 Venezia Ave., 

Venice, Calif. 
RICHARDS, Dr. Jos. W. (Apr. S. '02^ Prof, of Metallurgy, Lthigh University, 

Bethlehem, Pa.; re.s., Univei'sity Park, Bethlehem, Pa. 
RICHARDS, Percy J. (Nov. 24, '16) Chemist, with J. W. Richards, Assayer and 

Chemist, lllS 19th St., Denver, Colo. 
RICHARDS, Dr. T. W. (June 3, '05) Prof, of Chem.. W. Glbbs Mem. Lab., Harvard 

Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 
RICHARDSON. C. N. (Dec. 30. '17) Private, Sanitary Corps, N. A., American Univ. 
Experiment Station, Washington, D. C. ; mailing address, 2709 Wisconsin Ave., 
Washington, D. C. 
RICHARDSON, Elwood A. (Apr. 6, 'ID Chemist. 13917 Woodworth Ave., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 
RICHARDSON. E. H. (Sept. 27, '16) Secretary, Edison Elec. Appliance Co., Ontario, 

Cal. 
RICHARDSON. Henrv K. (May 29, '09) 105 Clowes Terrace, Waterbury, Conn. 
RICHARDSON, L. T. (Apr. 6, 'ID Chemical Eiig., Turtle Lake, Wi.s. 
P.ICHARDSON. W. D. (Sept. 24, '101 Chief Chemist, Swift & Co., Chicago, 111.; 

res., 4215 Praiiie Ave. 
RICHTER, Geo. A. (Feb. 25. '161 Research Chem. Eng., Brown Co.. Berlin, N. H. 
RICKETTS, Louis D (Apr. 24, '14) Consulting Engineer, 42 Broadway, New York 

City. 
RIGLANDER, Moses M. (Apr. B. 'ID President. Multiple Unit Electrical Co., New 

York City; mailing address, 47 Maiden Lane. 
RIKER, John J. (Mar. 5, '03i Merchant. 19 Cedar St., New York City; mailing 

address. Box 93, Wall St. Station. Ntw York City. 
RILEY, L. A., 2d (Aug. 25, '16) Practicing Eng., Room 607, Terminal Bldg., 103 

Park Ave., New York City. 
RIPPEL, Ernest G. (Oct. 23, '14) Consulting Met., Buffalo Foundry & Machine 

Co.; mailing address. 941 West Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
RITTENHOUSE, Edward (Aug. 25, '16) Chemist, The Viscose Co.; mailing address, 

2561 N. Front St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
ROBB, Chas. D. (Nov. 27, '09) Essex Falls. New Jersey. 
ROBERTS, C. H. M. (June 30, '17) The Cordova, Washington, D. C. 
ROBERTS, G. I. (Feb. 24, '17) 930 St. Nicholas Ave., New York City. 
ROBINSON, Almon (Apr. 3, '02) Webster Road, Lewiston, Me. 
ROBINSON. Frederic W. (May 25, '12) Chemist, The Hanovla Chem. & Mfg. Co.. 

Newark, N. J. ; res., 1011 Broad St. 
RODMAN, Hugh (Apr. 3, '02) c/o Rodman Chemical Co., Verona, Pa. 
ROESSLER, Dr Franz (.July 31. '071 Vice Pres. and Supt., Roessler and Hrtss- 

lacher Chemical Co., Perth Amboy, N. J. 
ROLLER, F. W. (Apr. 3. '02) Elec. Instruments (Machado & Roller), 203 Broad- 
way, New York City. 
ROLL-HANSEN. Cay (Sept. 27, '16) Metallurgist. Heftye Terrace B. Kristiania, 

Norway. 
ROLLIN, Hugh (Mar. 24. '16) Pres.. Rollin Chem. Co., Inc.. Charleston, W. Va. 
ROMANELLI, Emilio (Jan. 28. 'H) 21 Willard Ave., Bloomfleld, N. J. 
ROSENFELD, Joseph R. (Nov. 30, '18) Student, Pa. State Collece, 609 Porter St., 

Philadelphia. Pa. 
ROSENGARTEN, Geo. D. (Apr. 29, 'ID Vice-President, Powers-Weightman- 

Rosengarten Co., P. O. Box 1625, Philadelphia; res., Malvern, Pa. 
ROSS, Bennett B. (Feb. 27, '14) Alabama Polytechnic Inst.. Auburn, Ala. 
ROSS, Edgar S. (Oct. 25, 'IS) Chief Chem., c/o Charlotte Ciiemical Laboratories, 

Inc., Charlotte, N. C. 
ROSSI, A. J. (Apr. 3, '02) Electrometallurgist, Box 745, Niagara Falls. N. Y. 



36 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

ROSSI, Dottcr Carlo (Mar. 23, '12) Legnano (Milan). Italy. 

ROSSI, Loui.s M. (Jan. 29, '10) Chemist, Wks. Mgr., General Bakellte Co.; mailing 

addres.s, 135 Rector St., Perth Amboj-, N. J 
ROTH, Charles F. (Oct. 22, '15) Mgr. National Exposition of Chem. Industries, 
Grand Central Palace, New York City; mailing address. 609 West 178th St. 
ROTTMANN, C. J. (July 26, '18) Res. Chem., Westinghouse Res. Lab., Bast 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 
ROUSE. Edwin W., Jr. (Feb. 27, '09) Asst. Supt.. Baltimore Copper Smelting and 

Rolling Co., Baltimore, Md;. mailing address, 2.30S Reistustown Road. 
ROUSH, Gar A. (Feb. 6, '04) As.st. Prof.. Dept. of Metallurgy, Lehigh University, 

Bethlehem, Pa. 
RO'W'^AND, Lewis G. (Apr. 3, '02) c/o New Jersey Zinc Co., 160 Front St, New 

York City. 
ROWL.AND. JAPER M. (Nov. 26. 'l.S) Construction Eng., Hooker Electrochemical 

Co.: mailing address. 331 Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls. N. Y. 
ROWLAND.S, Thos. (Feb. 27, '09) Windsor Works, North Church St., Sheffield, 

England. 
RUBY, Chas. E. (Nov. 24, '16) 403 E. Che.- tnut St.. Louisville. Ky. 
RUFFNER, Chas. S. (Jan. l>fi. '17 i Vice- Pres., Union Elec. Light & Power Co., 

12th and Locu«:t Sts., St. Loui.<, Mo. 
RUHL, Louis (Dec. 2, '05) Asst. Sec. T) .; Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co., 100 

William St.: mailing addre5;s, P. O. Box lliffl. Xew York City. 
RUHM, H. D. (June 29, '18> Vice Pres., Calco Chemical Co., 136 Liberty St., 

New York City: mailing address, 20S W. S9th St., New York City. 
RUHOFF. O. E. (Oct. 21, '16) Eng., French Battery *: Carbon Co., Madi-son. Wis. 
RUPPEL, Henry E. K. (May 29, '09) Chemist, Gillette Razor Co.; mailing address, 

66 Willow St.. Wollaston. Mass. 
RUSHMORE, David B. (Apr. 3, '02) Eng. Power & Min. Dept., General Electric Co., 

Schenectady, N. Y. 
RUSSELL, Chas. J. (Apr. 3. '02) District Manager, The Phlla. Electric Co., 4522 

Frankford Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
RUSSELL, Christopher A. (May 27, '11) 1914 N St., N. W., Washington. D. C. 
RUSSELL, David A. (May 24. '18) Chief Chem., The Youngstown Sheet & Tube 

Co.: mailing addres<, 11 .'i W. Glenaven Ave.. Youngstown, Pa. 
RUSSELL. L. K. (June 29. 'IS) Prof, of Chemistry. Clarkson College of Tech.; 

mailing address, 6 Lawrence Ave.. Potsdam, N. Y. 
RUTHENBURG, Marcus (Apr. 3, '02) MetaHurgical Eng., 401 Jer.sey St., Buffalo. 

N. Y. 
RYAN, Frederick J. (July 20. '18) Gen. Mgr. and Sec.-Tiea.s., American Metal- 
lurgical Corp.. 4th floor, Franklin Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
RYAN. Harris J. (Nov. 30, '12) Prof. Electrical Eng., Leiand Stanford University, 

Stanford Univ P. O.. Cnlif. 
RYKENBOER, Edward A. (Apr. 28, "18) Res. Chem., Roessler and Hasslacher 

Chem. Co.. 19 Mentz Apartments, Niagara Palls, N. Y. 
SACHS, Albi-rt Parsons (May 24, '18) Chief Chem., Stuhnrr Chem. Works, Inc., 

Ififi.-, Weeks Ave., New York City. 
SADTLER, Dr. Samuel P. (Apr. 3, '02) Consulting Chemist, S. P. Sadtler & Son, 

210 S. 13th St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
SADTLER, Pamup] S. (Apr, 3. '02) 210 S. 13th St., Philadelphia. Pa. 
SAETER. Hallvard B. (June 29, '18) Eng., Mellemveien 7. Trondhjem. Norway. 
SAKLATWALLA, B. D. (May 26, '10) General Superintendent, American Vanad- 
ium Co.. Bridgeville, Pa.: res., 47 McMunn Ave. Crofton. Pa. 
SALISBURY. E. F. W. (Oct. 26, '17) Electrical Contractor, 49 Wellington St., 

East, Toronto. Canada. 
8ALOM. Pedro G. (Apr. 3, '02) Commonwealth Trust Bldg., 12th and Chestnut 

Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
SAMUELS, Wm. P. (May 5. '10) 120 Smithfield St., New Ca-^tle, Pa. 
SANDS. H. S. (May 2. '17> Mgr.. Industrial Division, Westinghouse Electric * 

Mf.g. Co., 1052 Gas and Electric Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
SARGENT, Frank C. (Jan. 29, '09) 201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
SARGENT. Geo. J. (June 29. '181 Res. Chem., The Conn. Metal K- Chem. Co.; 

mailing address, 4'> Lenox Place. New Britain. Conn. 
SARGENT. Geo. W. (Apr. 29, '11) Metallurgist and Chemist. Electric Reduction 

Co., Washington, Penna. 
SARGENT. Ralph N, (Oct. L'7. 'ID Works Mgr., Roessler & Ha.sslacher Chem. 

Co., St, Alban.s. W. Va. 
8ATTMS. Harry L. (Apr. 2S, '18) Electrical Instrument Maker, Pyroelectric Instrn- 

ment Co.: mailing address, 907 Pennington Ave., Trenton, N. J. 
SAUNDERS, Prof. A. P. (Apr. 3. '02) Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 
SAUNDERS, Harold F. (May 24, '18) Chemist, c/o Frank Hemingwav, Inc., 

Bound Brook, N. J. 
SAUNDERS, Lewis E. (Dec. 26, '07) Mgr., Abrasive Plants. Norton Co.. 114 Buffalo 

Ave., Niagara Falls. N. Y. 
SAUNDERS, Walter M. (Mar. 27, '09) Saunders & Franklin, Providence. R. I.; 
mailing address. 20 Dewey St. 



UlkECTORV OF MEMBERS. 37 

SAVAGE, Peicy O. (Apr. 28. '18) Chem. Eng , Norton Co.; mailing addren8. 

University Club, New York City. 
SCHAAF, Downs (June 30. '17) Metallurgist, Buckeye Steel Castings Co., South 

Parsons Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 
SCHABACKER, H. Eric (Oct. 26, '17) Research Chemist, 550 W. 10th St., Erie, Pa. 
SCHAMBERG, Meyer (Dec. 27, '07) Chemist and Min. Engr., 1841 N. 17th St.. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
SCHAPIRO, Hugo (Oct. -li, •i:>'> Chief Chemist, The Ohio Match Co., Wadswortk, 

Ohio. 
SCHENCK, Garret, Jr. (May 24, '18) 60 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 
SCHILDHAUER, Edward (Dec. 26, '08) c/o Stenotype Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 
SCHI.EEDER, L. Bertram (Apr. 29, '11) Chemist, 317 North 2d St., Keokuk, low*. 
SCHLOSS, Joseph A. (Jan. 29, '09) Ore Buyer, 42 Broadway, New York City. 
SCHLUEDERBERG, Carl G. (Feb. 2, '06) Asst. to Mgr., Supply Dept., Westing- 
house Elt c. <^ Mlg. Co., East tMllsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 210 N. Craig 

St., Pittsburg-h, Pa. 
SCHLUNDT, Prof. Herman (Nov. 5, '04) Prof, of Physical Chemistry, University 

of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.; mailing address, 303 Hicks Ave. 
SCHMELZ, Ernest M. (July 24, '14) Consult. Eng., 611 Moftat BIdg., Detroit, Mich. 
SCHMIDT, Jay H. (Dec. 30, '17) Chem. Eng., Publicity Dept., Nat Carbon Co., 

Cleveland, Ohio; mailing addres.s, 11426 Clifton Road. 
SCHMIDT, Walter A. (Aug. 25, '17) Gen. Mgr., Western Precipitation Co., 1016 

West Ninth St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
SCHOCH, Dr. Eugene P. (Oct. 1, '04) Prof, of Chem., Univ. of Texas; res., 2212 

Nueces St., Austin, Texas. 
SCHOELLKOPF, Jacob F., Jr. (Dec. 31, '15) Chfmist, Marine Bank Bldg., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
SCHOELLKOPF, Paul A. (Dec. 31, '15) Vice Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Niagara Falls 

Power Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
SCHOEPF, Theodore H. (June 30, '16) c/o Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., East 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
SCHOLL, Guilford D. (May 25, '17) Supt., River Smelting and Refining Co.. 

Keokuk, Iowa; mailing address, 929 N. 12th St. 
SCHOTT, John Edw. (June 29, '18) Research Chem., K'envil Club, Kenvil, N. J. 
SCHRAMM, Edward (Oct. 21, '16) Asst. Chemist, Bureau of Standards; mailing 

address, 16 W. Kirke St., Chevy Chase, Md. 
SCHRANTZ, Todd L. (July -'S, '16) Mgr., Supply Division, Westinghouse Elec. 

& Mfg. Co.; mailing address, 7S0 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. i'. 
SCHROEDER, C. M. Edward (May 29, '09) Consulting Chem. and Chem. Eng., 

235 Wood St., Rutherford, N. J. 
SCHUBERT, Bruno H. (Aug. 25, '16) Inspector and Chemist, R. W. Hunt & Co.; 

mailing address, 224 Jane St., Weehawken, N. J. 
SCHUELER, Julian L. (Sept. 27, '16) Chemist and Met., Keystone Steel & Wire 

Co., Peoria, HI. 
SCHUETZ, Fred. F. (Oct. 1, '04) Patent Attorney, Room 1352, Hudson Terminal 

Bldg. ; 50 Church St., New York, City. 
SCHULTE, Walter B. (Oct. 29, '10) Treasurer, C. F. Burgess Laboratories, S2S 

Williamson St., Madison, Wis. 
SCHULTZ, Fred H. (May 24, '18) Sub-Inspector of Ordnance, Crucible Steel Co.; 

mailing address, 167 Waverly Ave., Brooklyn, N- Y. 
SCHULTZ, Louis Claude (Oct. 22. '15) Chem. Eng., c/o The Tungsten Products 

Co., 2031 12th St., Boulder, Colo. 
SCHULZE, Paul (Oct. 26, '17) Res. Chem., 5 Spencer Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SCHUYLER, Arent H. (June 2, '16) Metallurgist, International Nickel Co., 

Bayonne, N. J. 
SCHWARZ, Edward (Nov. 30, '18) Chem. Eng., Walter Kldde & Co., Box J45, 

Keyport, N. J. 
SCHWARTZ, Hyam (May 24. 'ISi P. O. Box 96, Chemical Laboratory, U. S. A. 

N. P. No. 2, Muscle Shoals, Ala. 
SCHWARZ, Ralph C. (May 5. '10) Electrical Engineer, Taylor Instrument Co., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
SCOTT, Professor Chas. F. (Aug. 27, '09) 284 Orange St., New Haven, Conn. 
SCOTT, E. KUburn (May 24, '18) Consulting Eng., 74 Wall St., New York CJty. 
SCOTT, Lester C. (Oct. 21, '16) 186 Prospect Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SCOTT, Wm. M. (Oct. 25, '18) Elec. Eng. and Gen. Mgr., The Cutter Elec. & Mfg. 

Co., 19th and Hamilton Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
SCOTT, Wirt S. (Aug. 25, '16) Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.. East Pittsburgh, 

Pa.; mailing address, 121 Linden Ave., Edgewood Park, Pa. 
SEEDE, John A. (May 29, '09) Elec. Eng., General Electric Co., Schenectady, 

N. Y. ; mailing address, 30 Ballston Road. 
SEFING, Frederic G. (Oct. 25, '18) Student, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.; 

mailing address, 625 Walnut St., AUentown, Pa. 
SEIFERT, Edgar F. (May 24, '18) Analytical Chem., c/o Essex Aniline Works, 

Inc., So. Middleton, Mass. 
SERGEANT, Elllcot M. (Oct. 1. '04) Box 54. Niagara Palls. N. Y. 



38 



DIRECTOKY OF MEMBERS. 



SERVIS, Oscar E. (Feb. 24, '17) Foreman Electroplater, Felt & Tarrant Co.; 

mailing address, 5305 Warner Ave., Chicago, 111. 
SEWARD, Geo. O. (Apr. 3, '02) The Va. Electrolytic Co.; mailing address, 99 

Cedar St., New York City. 
SEYFERT, Stanley S. (Oct. 29, '08) Assoc. Prof., Elec. Eng., Lehigh Univ., So. 
Bethlehem, Pa.; mailing address, 456 Chestnut St. » 

SHARP, Clayton H., Ph.D. (Nov. 26, '07) Electrical Te.^ting Laboratories, 80th 

St. and East End Ave., New York City; res.. White Plains, New York. 
SHATTUCK, A. F. (Apr. 3, '02) Chief Chem., The Solvay Process Co., Detroit, 

Mich.; mailing address, 615 Canon Drive, Beverly Hills, Cal. 
SHAW, E. C. (Apr. 3, '02) B. F. Goodrich Co.; mailing address, North Portage 

Path, Akron, Ohio. 
SHEEAN. J. Lyman (Nov. 30, *18) Chem., United Lead Co., Keokuk, Iowa. 
SHEFFIELD, Wesley T. (Aug. 25, '17) Chemist, Plattsburg Allovs Corp., Platts- 

burg, N. Y. 
SHELDON, Dr. Samuel (Apr. 3, '02) Polytechnic Inst., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SHEPHERD, F. R. (Sept. 25, '14) Chief Electrical Inspector, P. O. Box 361, Dune- 
din, New Zealand. 
SHERK, Harold C. (July 27, '17) Mgr.. c/o Hudson Reduction Co., Latrobe, Pa. 
SHIELDS, Dr. John (Dec. 4, '02) Minas de Rio Ticito, Provincia de Huelva, Spain. 
SHIELDS, James E. (June 30, '17) Asst. Chem., National Carbon Co.; mailing 

address, 81 Duane Ave., La Salle, N. T. 
SHIMER, Edward B. (Jan. 2S, '11) Asst. in Chemical Lab. of Porter W. Shimer, 

Easton, Pa.; res., Paxinosa .-We. 
SHINDELL, Harry F. (Jan. 26, '17) Supt. T. A. Willson & Co., Inc., 925 McKnight 

St., Reading, Pa. 
SHIVERICK, Myron D. (Nov. 21, '08) 731 N. James St., Rome, N. T. 
SHOLES, Chas. E. (May 24, 'IS) Mgr., The Grasselli Chem. Co.; mailing address, 

347 Madison Ave., New York City. 
SICARD, Hugh C. (June 30, '17) Eiectrometallurgical Eng., United States Alloy 

Corp.; mailing address, Hotel Touraine, Buffalo, N. Y. 
SIEGER, Geo. N. (Apr. 27, '12) Asst. to Mgr., Electrolytic Dept., Davis-Bournon- 

ville Co., Marion Station, Jersey City, N. J. 
SIEVERING, Philip (Apr. 26, '13) Electroplater, Philip Sievering Co.; mailing 

address, 54 Nairn Place, Newark. N. J. 
SIMMERS, A. L. (May 29, '09) Eng. Hooker Electrochemical Co, Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. ; mailing address, 19 Sugar St. 
SIMON, Clarence K. (May 21, '(iS) Pre.s. and Works Mgr., c/o Dye Products & 

Chemical Co., 187 Porneer St., Newark, N. J. 
SIMPSON, Louis (May 29, '09) 172 O'Connor St., Ottawa, Canada. 
SIMS, C. E. (June 1, '15) 426 N. We.stern Ave., Chicago, HI. 
SISCO, Frank T. (May 24, '18) Chief Chem,, C/O The Hess Steel Corp., Baltimore, 

Md. 
SKILLMAN, V. (Mar. 26, '10) 182 Farrand Park, Detroit, Mich. 
SKINNER, C. E. (Dec. 31, '09) Engineer, Re.search Division, Westinghouse Elec. 

and Mfg. Co., E. Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 1309 Singer Place, Wilklns- 

burg. Pa. 
SKINNER, Hervey J. (Apr. 3. '02) Vice Pres., c/o A. D. Little, Inc., 30 Charles 

River Road, Cambridge, Mass. 
SKINNER, Lewis B. (Oct. 23, '14) Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Western Chem. Mfg. 

Co., Denver, Colo. 
SKOWRONSKI, Stanislaus (June 1, '07) c 'o Raritan Copper Works, Perth 

Amboy, New Jersey. 
SLATER, Wm. A. (Feb. 25, 'ID Supt., Gulf Refining Co., Port Arthur, Texas. 
SLOCUM, Frank L., Ph.D. (Dec. 4, '03) Pres., Technical Service Corp., Empire 

Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing addres.=, 401 S. Linden Ave., E. E. 
SMALL, J. O. (May 24, '18) Chem., Hercules Powder Co., Parlin, N. J. 
SMITH, Acheson (Aug. 31, '07) Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Acheson Graphite Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. ; mailing addre.ss, 113 Jefferson Ave. 
SMITH, Andrew Thos. (Dee. 4, '03) Gen. Mgr., c/o Castner-Kellner Alkali Co.; 

mailing address, 257 Royal Liver Bldg., Liverpool, England. 
SMITH. Prof. A. W. (Apr. 3. '02) 11333 Bellflower Road. Cleveland. Ohio. 
SMITH, Donald P. (Aug. 21, 'IS) Asst. Prof. Chem., Princeton Univ., Princeton, 

N. J. 
SMITH, Dyer (June 28, '12) Patent Lawyer, 32 Liberty St., New York City; 

mailing address, 9 Wilde Place, Montclair, N. J. 
SMITH, E. A. Cappelen (May 9, '03) Vice Pres., Chile Exploration Co., 120 Broad- 
way, New York City. 
SMITH, Dr. Edgar F. (June 3, '05) Prof, of Chemistry, Univ. of Penna., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
SMITH, Edward S. C. (May 24, '18) 58 South St., Biddeford, Maine. 
SMITH, Edmund S. (Apr. 3, '02) Chemist, The Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
SMITH, Edward W. (Apr. 3, '02) 74 E. Penn St., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 
SMITH, Frank T. (Dec. 30, '16) Chem., Chile Exploration Co., Chuqulcamata, Chile. 
SMITH, Frank Warren (May 9, '03) Provo City, Utah. 



DlKIiCTORY OF MEMBERS 39 

SMITH. Geo. S. (May 24, '18) Chem. and Inspector, British M. of M. of War; 

mailing address, 103 Erie Ave., St. Marys, Pa, 
SMITH, Horace F., Jr. (Aug. 2.5, '16) Eng., E. W. Clark & Co., 321 Chestnut St., 

Philadelphia, Pa, 
SMITH, Harold H. (Jan. 27, '12) Edison Storage Battery Co., Orange, N. J. 
SMITH, Irving B. (Jan. 25, '18) Head of Res. Dept., c/o Leeds & Northrup Co.; 

mailing addres.s, 4901 Stenton Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
SMITH, John Hays (Jan. 26, '17) Consulting Eng., 503 Franklin Bldg., Harris- 

barg, Pa. 
SMITH, Lyon (Apr. 28, '18) Metallurgist, Iron Mountain Alloy Co., Utah Junction, 

Colo.; mailing address, 1370 Race St., Denver, Colo. 
SMITH, T. W. (June 29, '18) Consulting Chem., The Republic Creosoting Co., 

5th floor, Marion Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 
SMITH, Walter C. (Oct. 23, "14) Supi. Silver Bldg., U. S. Metals Ref. Co.. Chrome, 

N. J. 
SMULL, Judson G. (Nov. 26, '07) Res. Chem., New Jersey Zinc Co. (of Penna.), 

Palmerton. Pa. 
SMYTHE, Edwin H. (May 29, '09) Electrical Engineer, 738 Monadnock Bldg., 

Chicago, 111. 
SNOOK, H. Clyde, A.M. (Nov. 26, '07) c/o Western Electric Co.. 463 West St., 

New York City. 
SNOWDON, R. C. (Feb. 3, '06) Operation Expert, Hooker Electrochemical Co.; 

mailing address, 21 C St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
SNYDER, Chas. G. (June 30, '17) Chief Chem., Duquesne Reduction Co.; mailing 

address, 5212 Harriet St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
SNYDER, Fred. T. (June 6, '03) Vice-Pres., Industrial Elec. Furnace Co., Chicago, 

111.; mailing address. Room 1405, 53 W. Jackson Blvd. 
SOLVAY, Armand (Jan. 8, '04) Mgr., The Solvay Co. of Brussels, 33 Rue du 

Prince Albert, Brussels, Belgium. 
SOMUAL, John A. (Jan. 22, '15) Chief Chem. and Asst. Supt., A/S Hoyangfaldene, 

Norsk Aluminium Co., Hoyanger. Norway. 
SOWERS, Ossa (June 29, '18) Analytical and Consulting Chem., 104 John St., 

New York City. 
SPANDOW, Wm. E. (Aug. 24, '18) 1C24 Grant St., Denver, Colo. 
SPARRE, Fin (Oct. 26, '12) Experimental Station, E. I. du Pont de Nemours 

Powder Co., Henry Clay P. O., Delaware; res., 606 W. 20th St.. Wilmington, 

Del. 
SPAULDING, Harris W. (Dec. 28, '17) Owner, National Copper Wks. ; mailing 

address, 140 N. Washington St., Boston, Mass. 
SPEED, Buckner (Dec. 31, '14) Head of Physical Lab., Western Electric Co., 

151 5th Ave., New York City. 
SPEIDEN, Clement C. (Nov. 6, '02) 46 Cliff St., New York City. 
SPEIDEN, Eben C. (Feb. 2, '06) Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Isco Chem. Co., Inc., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
SPELLER, F. N. (Jan. 29, '10) Metallurgical Eng., National Tube Co., 1824 Frick 

Bldg., Pitt.sburgh, Pa.; res., 1624 Wygtman St. 
SPENCER, A. Gordon (Sept. 27, '16) Consulting Chem. and Metallurgist, 375 

Grosvenor Ave., Westmount, Montreal, P. Q., Canada. 
SPERRY, E. A. (Apr. 3, '02) lUO Marlborough Road, Prospect Park, South, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SPERRY, Roger .Sherman (June 1, '15) Res. Eng., S>;ovin Mfg. Co., Waterbury, 

Conn. 
SPICER, C. W. (Aug. 25, '16) Vlce-Pres. and Chief Eng., Spicer Mfg. Co.. Plain- 
field, N. J.; mailing address, 417 Central Ave. 
SPICER, H. N. (Feb. 22, '18) Managing Eng., The Dorr Co., 101 Park Ave., New 

York City. 
SPILSBURY. Edmund G. (Jan. 28, '11) Consulting Engr., 29 Broadway. New York 

City. 
SPRAGUE, Edmund C. (July 31, '08) Chemist, c/o E. G. Achenon, Ltd., 5 Chan- 
cery Lane, London, W. C, England. 
STAFFORD, Samuel G. (May 26, '10) Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Vulcan Crucible 

Steel Co., Aliquippa, Pa.; res.. State St., Coraopolis, Pa. 
STAHL, Nicholas (Aug. 25, '16) General Eng., Narragansett Electric Lighting Co., 

Providence, R. I. 
STAMPS, F. A. (June 2, '06) Chem., c/o Phosphorus Compounds Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
STANSFIELD, Prof. Alfred, D.Sc, A.R., S.M. (Jan. 8, '03) Prof, of Metallurgy, 

McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada. 
STARK, Edgar E. (Jan. 29, '09) City Electrician, Box 526, Christ Church, New 

Zealand. 
STARK, Paul A. (July 27, '17) Res. Chem., 2655 Dwlght Way, Berkeley, Cal. 



40 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

STATHAM, Noel <^Oct. 17, '07) Mgr., Chemical Pept., W. Va. Pulp & Paper Co., 

200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
STEIN, Jerome D. {June 29, '18) Chem. Supervisor, Boi 96, U. S. Nitrate Pl«Mt 

No. 2, Muscle Shoals, Ala. 
STEINMETZ, CHARLES P. (Aug. 7, '02) Chief Consult. Eng.. Gin. Elec. Co.. 

Schenectady, N. Y. 
STEPHENSON, H. L. (July 28, '16) Salesman, Westinghou.se Elec. & Mfg. Co., 

780 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
STEVENS, J. Franklin (Sept. 26, '08) Engr., 1326 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Pa 
STEVENS, W. L. (Sept. 15, '15) Metallurgical Accountant, Braden Copper Co., 

Rancagua, Chile. 
STEVENSON, Reston (Apr. 22, '15) Asst. Prof, of Chemistry, The College of the 

City of N. T., New York City. 
STEWART, Harry M. (Sept. 27, '16) Supt. of Blast Furnaces. Carnegie Steel Co.. 

Duquesne, Pa. 
STEWART, Marshall E. (Oct. 21, '16) Works Mgr., Plant 3, Roessler & Hasslacher 

Chemical Co. ; mailing address, 45 Woodruff Place, Perth Amboy, N. J. 
STEWART, Robert Stuart (Sept. 26, '08) Consult. Elec. Eng., 530 St. Paul Ave., 

Detroit, Mich. 
STICHT, Robert C. (May 29, '09) General Mgr., Ml. Lyell M. & R. Co., Ltd., 

Queenstown, Tasmania, Australia. 
STILLESEN, Job M. A. (May 25, '17) Vice Consulate of Norway, Niagara Falls. 

N. Y. 
ST. JOHN, H. M. (Mar. 24, '16) Captain, U. S. A., Chemical Warfare Service. 

Lock Drawer 426, Cleveland, Ohio. 
STOCKELBACH, F. E. (Sept. 30, "18) Gen. Mgr., Commonwealth Chem. Co., 

Room 2531, 15 Park Row, New York City. 
STOCKTON-ABBOTT, Lyle (July 28 '16) 300 Willow Ave., River Edge, New 

Jersey: mailing address. Hotel Plaza, Port Arthur, Texas. 
STODDARD. John T. (June 29, '18) Prof, of Chem., Smith College; mailing 

address, 57 Crescent St., Northampton. Mass. 
STOLL, Clarence G. (Mar. 27, '09) Tech. Supt., We>tern Elec. Co., Hawthorne 

Station, Chicago. 111. 
STONE. Chas. A. (Apr. 3, '02) Stone & Webster, 147 Milk St.. Boston, Mass. 
STONE, Edmund C. (Dec. 30, '17) System Operator. Duquesne Light Co.. 435 6th 

Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
STONE. George W. (Mar. 27, '09) c 'o Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara Palls, 

N. Y. 
STONE, I. F. (Jan. 29, '09) Pres., National Aniline & Chemical Co.; malliag 

address, 550 Park Ave.. New York City. 
STONE. Joseph P. (Nov. 21, '08) Purchasing Engineer, care of Lindfteva-<-Stokvl8 

11 Broadway. New York City. 
STONE. John Stone (Jan. 29. '09) Consult. Elec. Eng.. 153 East 18th St., New 

York City. 
STONE, Wm. H. (June 29, '18) Editorial Dept., Manufacturers' Record, Baltimore. 

Md. 
STOREY, Oliver Wendell (Feb. 25, '11) Met. Eng., c/o C F. Burgess Lab.'*.. 

Madison, Wis. 
STOUGHTOX. Bradley (Dec. 31, '09) Sec'y American Institute of Mining and 

Metallurgical Engineers, 29 W. 39th St., New York City. 
STRACHAN, E. K. (Oct. 3, '17) Research Chem., National Aniline & Chemical Co.; 

mailing address, 244 Vorhees Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
8TRATTON, W. G. (Apr. 26, '17) Electroplater. R. N. Bassett Co., Derby, Coivn.; 

mailing address, 153 Elm St., Bridgeport, (ionn. 
STRAUSS, Frank A. (Mar. 26, '15) 30 W. 71st St.. New York City. 
STRONG. Ralph K. (Nov. 30. '18) Prof, of Industrial Chem., Oregon State Agri- 
cultural College; mailing address, 146 N. 12th St., Corvalli.s, Oregon. 
STUPAKOFF, S. H. (Feb. 27, '14) Manufacturer, 401-431 Amberson Ave., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa- 
STURBELLE, Lucien C. (Dec. 28, '17) Chief Eng.. A/S Elektro-Zink, Drammen. 

Norway. 
STURDEVANT. Earl G. (Apr. 28, '18) Teaching Asst. Univ. of Mich.. Ann Arbor. 

Mich.; mailing address, 912 Monroe St. 
STYRI. Haakon (Feb. 25, "11) Asst. Prof, of Met., Carnegie Inst, of Technology. 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 
SULLIVAN, Alan P. (June 30, '17) 38 Russel St.. Arlington. Mass. 
SULLIVAN, E. C. (May 24, '18) Chief Chem., Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. T. 
SUMAN, Robert G. (Apr. 26, '17) Electroplater, 66 Notre Dame Ave.. Dayton. Ohio. 
SUMMERS. Leland L. (Sept. 26, '08) L. L. Summers & Co. First NafI Bank Bldg.. 

Chicago, 111 
SWANN, Theodore (May 2, '17) Pres., Southern Manganese Corp, Brown-Marx 

Bldg.. Birmingham. Ala. 



DfRECTORV OF MEMBERS. 4^ 

8WARTL.EY, Henry P. Jr. (June 1, '15) Sales Engineer, c/o Davis Bournonvlll* 

Co., Marion Station, Jersey City, N. J. 
SWENARTON, W. Hastings (Apr. 27, '12) Partner, Firm of Merwin & Swenartoa, 

2 Rector St., New York City; res., 169 Union St., Montclalr, N. J. 
SWITZER, John Albert (June 29, '18) Prof. Hyd. and Sanitary Eng., also Corn- 
suiting Eng., University of Tenn., Knoxvllle, Tenn. 
SYMMES. Ernest U. (June 29. '18) Chem. Eng., c/o Hercules Powder Co., Wilming- 
ton, Del. 
SYMMES, Whitman (Dec. 4, '03) Mln. Eng., Virginia City, Nev. 
TABATA, Kozo (Apr. 28, '18) Eng., Nippon Electrochemical Works, Ltd.; mailing 

address, Choshi-cho, Chiba-Ken, Japan. 
TABER, Geo. H., Jr. (Dec. 30, '16) Chemical Eng., Gulf Refining Co.: mailing 

address, 325 W. 12th St., Tulsa, Okla. 
TACHIHARA. Jin (Mar. 27. '14) Electrical Engineer, Mitsu Bishi Dockyard <fe 

Engine Wks., Kobe, Japan. 
TADA, Kozo (July -'8, '16) Supt. Power House, Inawashire Hydro-Elect. Power Co., 

Bandai Post Office. Fukushiiiiakf n. Japan. 
TADA, Commander S. (Sept. 4, '03) Naval Inspector's Office, Kawasaki Dockyard, 

Kobe, Japan. 
TADA, Yoshlichi (July 26, '18) c/o Takata & Co., 50 Church St., New York City. 
TAFEL, Theodore, Jr. (Oct. 21, '16) 316 W. Lee St., Louisville, Kentucky. 
TAGGART, Walter T. (Nov. 6, '02) University of Pennsylvania, Dept. of Chem.. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
TAKAHASHI, Taketaro (July 30, '09) Shinano Elec Co., Yoshida, Nagano, Japan. 
TAKAMINE, Joklchl (Feb. 27, '09) Research Chemist, Parke, Davis & Co.. 550 

W. 173d St., New York City. 
TAKAMINE, Joklchl, Jr. (May 24, '18) Gen. Mgr., c/o Takamine Lab.. Inc., 

Clifton, New Jersey. 
TAKIKAWA, Tasuo (Oct. 21, "16) Member, Association Chem. Industry, Tokyo, 

Japan: mailing address, 7132 Mt. Vernon St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
TALBOT, Prof. H. P. (Jan. 8, '04) Prof, of Inorganic Chem., Mass. Inst, of Tech.; 

Cambridge, Mass.: res., 27:i Otio St., West Newton, Mass. 
TANNER, W. Lee (Sept. 27, '16) Chem. Eng., 140 West Main St., Zanesville, Ohio. 
TATSUMI. Eiichi (Mar. 2 4. '16) Gen. Mgr. Miike Chemicals & Dye Works, 

Omuta-shi, Fukuoka-ken. Japan. 
TAYLERSON, Ewart S. (.Apr. 28, '18) Res. Associate (Physics) American Sheet 

& Tin Plate Co.. Res. Lab., 210 Semple St., Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 

1430 Kelton Ave., Dormont, Pa. 
TAYLOR, Chas. E., Ph.D. fMay 29, '09) Taylor Chem. Co., Penn Yan. N. Y. 
TAYLOR, Floyd D. (Dec. 31, '09) 85 Ives St., Waterbury, Conn. 
TAYLOR, Hollinshead N. (Nov. 24, '16) Pres., N. & G. Taylor Co.: mailing address, 

300 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
TAYLOR, Hugh S. (June 1, '15) Instructor in Physical Chem., Graduate College, 

Princeton, N. J. 
TAYLOR, John B. (June 21, 'ID Consulting Elec. Engr., 100 Broadway. New 

York City; mailing address, 23 Lowell Road, Schenectady, N. Y. 
TEEPLE, Dr. J. E. (May 1, '06) Consulting and Mfg. Chemist, 50 E. 41st St., 

New York City; res.. Montclalr, N. J. 
TEEPLE, Oliver J. (Feb. 26, '15) Tech. Asst. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 

953 du Pont Bldg., Wilmington, Del. 
TEETERS, W. R. (May 24, '18) Instructor In Chem., Soldan High School, St. 

Louis, Mo.; mailing address, 1312 Temple Place. 
TEMPLE, Sterling (Sept. 27, '16) Major, U. S. A., Chemical Section, Edgewood 

Arsenal, Edgewood, Md. 
THEURER. Geo. A. (May 25, '17) Met. Chem., 286 Mills St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
THOMAS, B. (June 2S, '12) Consulting Engineer, 3909 E. Howell St., Seattle, 

Washington. 
THOMAS, Geo. E. (June 30, '16) Chemist and Electroplater, Factory H, Inter- 
national Silver (io. ; mailing address, 759 Broad St., Meriden, Conn. 
THOMPSON, Prof. Elihu (Sept. 17, '03) Elec, Gen. Elec. Co.; mailing address, 

22 Monument Ave., Swampscott, Mass. 
THOMPSON, Hugh L. (June 29, '18) Conducting Consulting Engineering Office, 

Waterbury, Conn. 
THOMPSON, J. G. (Feb. 25, '16) 148 Newton St., Eau Claire, Wis. 
THOMPSON, M. deK., Jr. (Nov. 6, '03) Associate Prof, of Electrochem., Mass 

Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Mass. 
THOMPSON, Maurice R. (Dec. 30, '16) c/o Baltimore Copper Smelting & Refining 

Co.. P. O. Highlandtown Branch. Baltimore, Md. 
THOMSON, John (Feb. 27, '09) Civil and Mech. Eng., 253 Broadway, New York 

City. 
THORDARSEN. Chester, H. (.\pr. 6, '11) President, Thordarsen Elec. Mfg. Co., 

21S-220 S. Jefferson St., Chicago, III.; res., 1416 Leland Ave. 



42 DIRECTORY OF MKMDKKS. 

THOPvNE, Christian A. (May 22, '14) Consult. Engr., Ovre Slotsgale 5, Kristiania, 

Norway. 
THRELiFAT^L, Richard (Apr. 4, '03) Oakhurst, Church Road. Goghaston, Birming- 
ham, England. 
THUM, E. E. (July 27, '17) Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
THUM, Wm. (Dec. 31, '14) Supt. of Electrolytic Lead Refinery, U. S. Metals Kef. 

Co.; mailing address, 44 Webb St., Hammond. Ind. 
TKURBER, John H. (Oct. 21, '16) Chemist and Assayer, Gorham Mfg. Co.; mailing 

addre.s.-j, 210 Ltxington Ave., Providence, R. I. 
THURSTOX. Louis S. (Oct. 3, '17) Engr. and Salesman, c/c General Elec. Co., 

P. & M. Depi., Schenectady, N. Y 
THWING, Dr. Charles Burton (Xov. 27, '09) Pres., Thwing Instrument Co., 3S39-41 

Lancaster Ave.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
TILLBERG, Erik AV. (Nov. (J. '02) Chemist, Westervik, Sweden. 
TILLMAN. Richard H. (Aug. 25, '16) Mgr., New Business Dept., Consolidated Ga.". 

Electric Light and Power Co., Lexington and Liberty Sts., Baltimore, Md. 
TINGBERG. Otto (July 20, '10) Editor of Jern-Kontorets Annaler. Jernkontoret, 

Stockholm. Sweden. 
TOCH, Maximilian (Nov. 6, '03) 320 Fifth .We., New York City. 

TONE. F. J. (Apr. ?,, '02) Works Mgr.. The Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
TOOMER, James E. (Jan. 26. '17) Chief Chem., American Zinc Co. of Tenn. ; 

mailing address. Box 63, Mascot, Tenn. 
TORELL, T. F. (Aug. 28, '14) Mgr., Aktiebolaget Elektrolytverken, Vasteras, 

Sweden. 
TOWER, O. P. (Doc. 31, '14) Prof, of Chemistry, Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio. 
TOWLE, Norman L. (July 26, '18) Gen. Eng., Westinghouse EUc. & Mfg. Co., 

E. Pittsburgh, Pa. ; mailing address, 1300 Wood St., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
TOWNSEND, C. P. (Apr. 3, '02) 918 F St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
TRANTIN, Jacob. Jr. (Feb. 25, '16) Inspector of Ordnance, U. S. Navy, Gosb 

Printing Pross Co.: mailing address, 1535 S. Paulina St., Chicago, 111. 
TREACY, Cyril S. (Feb. 24, '17) Res. Chemist, 1306 30th St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C. 
TREADWELL. John C. (Feb. 24. '17) Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Dryoxide Chem. Co.; 

mailing address. .56-58 Pine St., New York City. 
IX'CKER, Samuel A. (Mar. 3, '06) Major, Chem. Warfare Service, 1327 S St., 

Washington, D. C. 
TUDHOPE, Hu.s;h R. (Oct. 2R, '17) Tudhope Electro Metals, Ltd.. Georgia Viaduct, 

False Creek, \'uncou\ er, B. C, Canada. 
TXTRNBULL. Robert (Feb. 27, '09) Box 416, Welland, Ont., Canada. 
TL'RNER, M. R. (Oct. 27. 'ID Manager and Chem., A/S Stangf.iordeng Elektro- 

niiske Fahi ikei , G.iorde, Stangf.iorden pr. Brrgen. Norway 
TURNOCK, E. Hill. .)r. (July 27, '17) 417 Prospect St., Elkhart, Indiana, 
TURNOCK, L. C. (Nov. 26, '10) Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Institut* 

of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa, 
TWINING, Fredericke (Feb. 24, '17) Mgr., The Twining Labs., Fresno, Cal. 
TYLER. Walter S. (July 28, '16) 125 Carleton Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 
TYSLAND, George (Dec. 28, '17) Met. Eng., Minde pr. Bergen, Norway. 
UHLE.NHAUT, F., Jr. (May 26, '10) Chief Engineer. Allegheny County Light Co. 

and Pittsburgh Railways Co., 435 Sixth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
UNDERWOOD, C. W. (Aug. 25, '16) District Mgr., Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. 

Co., 814 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
UNGER, John S. (May 26, "10) Manager, Central Research Bureau, Carnegie Steel 

Co., 1053-l(iri7 Frick Annex Bldg., Pittsburgh. Pa. 
UNGER. M. (Nov. 27, '09) Elec. Eng., The General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass.; 

mailing address, .''■l Lincoln Terrace. 
UPTEGRAFF, Thomas M. (Feb. 22, '18) Secretary and Mgr., Defiance Paper Co., 

3d and Walnut Sts., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
VALENTIN, John E. C. (May 24, "18) Res. Chem. and Chem. Eng., Florida Wood 

Products Co.; mailing address, 1638 East Duval St., Jacksonville, Florida. 
VALENTINE, Irving R. (July 21, 'ID Chemist, Erie Plant, General Electric Co., 

Erie, Pa. 
VALENTINE, Wm. (Sept. 17, '03) 22 Mitchell Ave., Waterbury, Conn. 
VAN ARSDALE. Geo. D. (June 21, "ID Consulting Chemist. Phelps Dodge Co, 

99 John St., New York City. 
VAN BRUNT, Chas. (Feb. 27, '09) Chemist, Research Laboratory, General Elec- 
tric Co., Schenectady. N. Y. 
VANDERWAART, Peter T. (Oct. 25, '18) Elec. Eng., The New Jersey Zinc Co., 

Palmerton, Pa. 
VAN DEVENTER, Harry R. (Feb. 27, '09) Elec. Engr., Sumter Tel. Mfg. Co., 

Sumtei, S. C. 
VAN KEUREN, Wm. L. (Dec. 31, 'IS) Eng., Edison Lamp Works, General Electric 

Co., 7S Daniels'in St., North Bergt n. N. J. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBEUS. 43 

VAM SICliLEN, Wm. J. (Oct. 22, '15) 455 Minna St., San Francisco, Cal. 
VASSAR, H. S. (Oct. 22, '15) Lab. Ens'.. Public Service Elec. Co.; mailing address, 

3y Wiliaid Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 
YAUGHN, Chas. F. (Nov. 6, '02) Supt. Castner Electrolytic Alkali Co.: mailing 

address. University Club, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
VIOL, Chas. H. (Dec. 31, '15) Director, ftadium Bes. Lab., Standard Cheni. Co.; 

mailing- address. Box 22, Oakland Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
VOGELER. Willy R. (Feb. 24, '17) Export Mgr.. King Motor Car Co.,; mailing 

addrej-s, SG Harrison Ave., Baldwin, Long Island, N. Y. 
VOGT. Louis Fenn (Oct. 3, '17) Wks. Mgr., e/o Standard Chemical Co., Canons- 
burg, Pa, 
VOM BAUR, Carl H. (Oct. 26, '12) Consulting Eng., T. W. Price Engineering Co., 

Room 1350 Woolworth Bldg., New York City. 
VON KROGH, Johan (Dec. 30, '17) District Mgr., A/S Bjolvefossen, Indre, Aalinth, 

Hardanger, Norway. 
VOORHEES, Louis A. (Apr. 3, '02) 111 Carroll Place, New Brunswick, N. .T. 
VdRCE. L. D. (July 31, '07) Works Mgr., c/o Canadian Salt Co., Wind^^or, Ont., 

Canada. 
VO;s.«. William (June 30, '17^ Chemist, Navy Yard, New York City: mailing 

address, 524 125th St., Richmond Hill, Long Island, N. Y. 
WADDELL, Montgomery (Mar. 27, '09) Consulting Engr., 30 Church Si.. New 

York City. 
WAG.NER, A. A. (May 24. '18) Asst. Chem., Naval Proving Ground and Powder 

Factory, Indian Head, Md. 
WALDO, Wm. B. (June 21, 'ID Consulting Eng., Camp A. A. Humphreys, Va. 
WALDO, WilUs G. (Oct. 26, "17) c/o Sheffield Co., Sheffield, Ala. 
WALKER, Arthur L. (Feb. 27, "09) Prof, of Metallurgy, Columbia University, 

New York City. 
W.\LKER, Edw. C, 3d (Oct. 22, '15) Genessee Chemical Co., Batavia, N. Y. 
WALKER, Geo. E. (Sept. 30, '18) Chief Army Inspector, U. S. Inspection Office, 

Plant 1, Carneys Point, N. J. 
WALKER, Geo. H. P. (Aug. 25, '16) Chief Chemist, Canadian Salt <"o.. Ltd.; 

mailing address. Box 248, Sandwich, Ontario. Canada. 
Walker, James W. (July 26, '12) Managing Director, Alexander Walker & Co., 

Marine Lodge, Irvine, Scotland. 
W.\LKER. Thomas B. (July 26, '18) Mgr.. Walker Refining Co., 301 E. 9th St., 

Austin, Texas. 
WAIiKER. Dr. W. H. (Aug. 7, '02) Prof. Chem. Eng., Mass. Inst, of Tech.. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
WALLACE, W^alter (Jan. 29, '09) Assistant Works Mgr., Oldbury El. Che n. Co., 

Niagara Falls, N. T. 
WALLOWER, Frank C. (Nov. 24, '16) 112 Sergeant Ave., Joplin, Mo. 
WAL.MSLEY, Walter M. (Sept. 24, '10) Alabama Power Co., Brown-Mar.x Bldg., 

Birmingham, Ala. 
WALSH, Philip C, Jr. (Apr. 7, '06) Member Walsh's Sons & Co., Metal and 

Machinery Merchant.-;: mailing addre.ss, 19 Grant St., Newark, N. J. 
WALTER, Herbert W. (May 24, 'IS) Asst. Gen. Supt., International Nickel Co., 

133 Tyson St., New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y. 
WALTER, R. J. (Sept. 27, '16) Consulting Mining and Met. Eng., Kittnias Mines 

Co.; mailing address, 2130 Downing St., Denver, Colo. 
WALTERS, George (July 28, '16) Mgr., Plating Dept., Columbia Graphophone Co., 

•.'19 Magdalen Road, Earlefield, Loudon, S. W., England. 
WALTERS, Joseph (Nov. 27, '14) Foreman Elect roplater. The Southern Stove 

Works; mailing address, 2019 Park Ave., Richmond, Va. 
WARD, A. T. (Apr. 26, '13) Experimental Eng.. Bcllefonte, Pa^ 
WARD, H. Lee (Dec. 30, '16) National Aniline & Chem. Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
WARD, Henry L. (June 30. '16) Chem. Eng., Western Elec. Co., Chicago, 111.; 

mailing address, 146 S. Hamlin Ave. 
WARD. Louis E. (Mar. 25, '08) Box 94, Midland Mich. 
WARING, Tracy D. (Apr. 6, "07) Supt., c/o Standard Underground Cable Co., 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 
WARNER. Franklin H. (May 24, '18) Treas. and Sec'y, The Warner Chem. Co.; 

mailing address, 52 V^anderbilt Ave., New York City. 
WASHBURN, Frank S. (Oct. 29, '08) Pres., American Cyananiid Co., 511 Fifth 

Ave., New York City. 
WATANABE, H. (May 2, '17) Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha, Intelligence Dept., Tokyo, 

Japan. 
WATERMAN, Frank N. (Apr. 3, '02) 100 Broadway, New York City. 
WATKINS, Joel H. (Mar. 22, '18) Consulting Mining Geologist, Room 1364, 

200 5th Ave., New York City. 



44 DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 

WATSON, Philip B. (July 26, '18) Asst. Chem. Bag., American University Hiperi- 
ment Station, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. ; mailing addrASs, 
3607 Lowell St. 
WATTS, Oliver P., Ph.D. (Mar. 5. '04) Assoc. Prof. Chem. Eng.. Unlver.slty at 

Wis.; mailing address, 114 Spooner St., Madison, Wis. 
WEAVER, W. D. (Apr. 3, '02) Charlottesville, Va. 
WEBB, L. W. (Sept. 26, '08) Master Elec, Const, and Rep. Dept., Navy TardU 

Norfolk, Va. 
WEBER, Dr. Max G. (Apr. 29, '11) 311 Mount Prospect Ave., Newark, N. J. 
WEBERT, Louis P. (Feb. 23, '12) Engineeiing Experiment Station, Annapolis, Md. 
WEBSTER, Edwin S. (Apr. 3, '02) Stone & Webster, 147 Milk St., Boston. Mass. 
WEEKS, Chas. A. (Nov. 27. '09) 1830 Diamond St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
WEEKS, F. D. (May 27, '11) 90 Howell St., Canandaigua, N. T. 
WEIDLEIN, Edw. R. (Aug. 25, '17) As.so. Director, Mellon Inst.: mailing addreaa. 

5500 Bartlett St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
WEIMER, Edgar A. (Jan. 29, "09) Pres. and Supt., Weimer Machine Co.. Lebanon. 

Pa. 
WEINTRAUB. Ezechiel (Oct. 29, '08) Consult. Eng., 240 Riverside Drive, New 

York City. 
WEISENBURG, Andrew (Feb. 23, '12) Mln. Eng., Pres. and Gen. Mgr. of Standard 

Crown Co.; mailing address, Hope and Palmer Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 
WEISSENBURGER, G. E. (Dec. 31, '15) Pres., Keokuk Electro-Metals Co.. 

Keokuk, Iowa. 
WEISER, Franklin S. (Oct. 25, '18) Asst. to Supt., Elec. Trans. Dept., Scovlll 

Mfg. Co.; mailing addres.s, 270 W. Main St., Waterbury, Conn. 
WEISER, Harry B. (Sept. 27, '16) Instructor in Chem., The Rice Institute. 

Houston, Texas. 
WEITZENKORN, Jos. Weil (Apr. 28, '18) Mgr., El.:ctrlc Reduction Co., WMh- 

ington. Pa. 
WELLM.\N, S. T. (Apr. 6, 'ID Chairman, Wellman, Seaver, Morgan Co.; mailing 

address, 1878 E. 90th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
WELLS, Howard P. (Oct. 26, '17) Res. Chem., Penna Salt Mfg. Co., Greenwleh 

Point, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WENDT, Gerald L. (Sept. 27, '16) Asst. Prof, of Chem., Kent Chemical Lab., 

Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
WENTWORTH. H. A. (Jan. 23, '14) .Vmerican Zinc, Lead and Smelting Co., 

Room 620, 55 Congre.-:s St.. Boston, Mass. 
WESCOTT. E. W. (May 25, '17) Asst. Prof., Chem Eng., Mass. Inst, of Tech.; 

mailing address, 103 Sixth St., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
WEST, Paul A. (May 24, '18) Instructor, Scott High School, Toledo, Ohio. 
WESTERVELT, Wm. Y. (July 27, '17) Consult. Eng., 17 Madison Ave., New York 

City. 
WESTON, Edward, Sc.D., LL.D. (Apr. 3, '02) Pres., Weston Electrical Instrumeat 

Co., Waverly Park, Newark, N. J. 
WETTSTEIN, Thos. F. (Oct. 22, '15) Research Dept., United Lead Co., Keokuk. 

Iowa; res., 311 N. 5th St. 
WHALEY, Edward (June 3u, '17) Mgr., Northern California Power Co., Cona., 

995 Market St., San Francisco, Calif. 
WHEELEY, Archer E. (Feb. 6, '04) Room 1227, 42 Broadway, New York City. 
WHEELER, Fred B. (Apr. 24, '09) Consult. Engineer, Stepney Depot. Conn 
WHITAKER, Albert W., Jr. (Feb. 25, '16) Electric Carbon Co., Massena, N. T. 
WHITAKER, M. C. (May 22, '14) Vice-Pres., U. S. Industrial Alcohol Co., 27 

William St., New York City. 
WHITE, Albert Ray (Jan. 28, '11) Michigan Electrochemical Co., Menominee, 

Mich. 
WHITE, Edmond A. (July 31, '08) Constr. Eng., The Electrolytic Ref. and Smelt 

Co., Port Kembla, N. S. W., .\ustralla. 
WHITE, Harold E. (Aug. 25, '16) Asst. in Res. Dept., The Norton Co.; mailing 

address, 516 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
WHITE, John F. (May 24. '18) Director, Chem. Eng. Dept., Ralph L. Fuller Co., 

2 Rector St., New York City. 
WHITE, J. G. (Sept. 4, '03) Pres.. J. G. White & Co., 43-49 Exchange Place, 

New York City; res., 440 West End Ave. 
WHITE, John Hillyer (Nov. 23, '17) Metallurgist, Western Elec. Co., 463 West St., 

New York City; mailing address, 20 Burchfteld Ave., Cranford, N. J. 
WHITE, R. H. (Oct. 2. '02) Research Eng., c/o Norton Co., Niagara Falls, N. T. 
WHITLOCK, Ma.1. E. H. (May 9. '03) 11200 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Okio. 
WHITNEY, Dr. W. R. (Apr. 3, '02) General Elec. Co., Schenectady, New York. 
WHITTEN, Wm. M., Jr. (Apr. 3, '02) 2604 W. 17th St., Wilmington, Del. 
WICKES, C. S. (May 26. '10) Superintendent, Record Factory, Victor Talking 
Machine Co.. Camden. N. J.; res. 28 Franklin Ave., Merchantville. N. J. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 45 

W1GGT.ESWORTH, Henry (June 6. 03) Mfg. Cbem., General Chem. Co.. 25 Broad 

WILCOX^^Norman T.^' (May 24, '18) Sales Mgr.. Mississippi River Power Co., 

Keokuk, Iowa. , ^ , .,-, . j 

WILCOX W. G. (Sept. 28, "12) Vice President, Powdered Coal Engineering and 

Equipment Co., 2401 West Washington Blvd., Chicago, III. 
WILDER, Frederick L. (Feb. 6, '04) Morro Velho, Villa Nova de Lima. Minas 

Geraes, Brazil. . t^, „ ■,,, /-, . 

WILEY Brent (May 29, '09) Commercial Eng., Westmghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 

mailing address," 704 S. Negley Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
WILKE. William (Feb. 27, '09) Chem. Eng., 86 Norwood Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
WILKINS E M. (Sept. 26, '08) Apartado 42, Orizaba, Ver Mexico. 
WILKINSON, W. N. (Oct. 22, '15) As.st. Sec'y, Mgr. of Sales, Union Sulphur Co.; 

mailing address, 17 Battery Place, New York City. 
WILL, Roland T. (July 27, '17) Capt., Chem. Warfare Service, U. S. A Defense 

Dlv Long Island Lab.; mailing address, 17 Oliver St.. Rochester, N. T. 
WILLA.RD Dr. H. H. (Feb. 6, '04) Assoc. Prof, of Analytical Chemistry, Univer- 
sity of' Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. : mailing address, 802 Monroe St. 
WILLCOX, Dudley (Apr. 28, '18) Treasurer, Pyroelectric Instrument Co., Trenton, 

N J.; mailing address, Lawrenceville, N. J. 
WILLEY Leland M. (June 29, '07) Chemist, Gen. Elec. Co., Schenectady, N. T. 
WILLIAMS, Arthur (Sept. 26, '08) New York Edison Co., 55 Duane St., New 

York City. , „ 

WILLIAMS, Clyde E. (Nov. 24, '16) Chem., Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. 
WILLIAMS, Egbert R. (Nov. 30, '12) Torktown, \a. T.r„iiir. Rt 

WILLIAMS F. M. (June 28, '12) Consulting Chemical Engr,, 177 MuUin SU 

Watertown N Y. ; mailing addre.ss. 43-44 Sherman Bldg.. Watertown, N. Y. 
WILLIAMS h' J (Mar. 3, '06) 1102 Herbert St., Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WILLIAMS,' Harry M. (Nov. 23, '17) Eng. of Tests, 767 Laurel A^■e., Bridgeport. 

WILLIAMS, Louis W. (Jan. 26, '17) Mgr. Union Drawn Steel Co.: mailing address. 

460 Washington St., New York City. „,„„„ 

WILLIAMS, Roger (Aug. 24, '18) Chem., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.. mailing 

address. 1205 W. Thirteenth St.. Wilmington, Del. 
WILLIAMSON, A. M. (Nov. 26, '07) Gen. Supl., Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara 

Falls N Y 
WILLIAMSON," C. S., Jr. (Nov. 23, '17) Prof, of Industrial Chem., Tulane Univ.. 

New Orleans, La. , ,^ „ „ „/>, 

WILLIEN, Leon J., Jr. (June 29, '18) Chem. Eng.. Chas. H. Tenney & Co., 201 

Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
WILLS Wm. H, Jr. (Apr. 22, '15) Foreman, Electric Furnace Dept., Heppenstall 

Forgr& Knife Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa.; mailing address, 437 South Ave.. Wilkins- 

WILLSON, ^dwin L. (July 27, '17) Pres.. Conn. Elec. Steel Co., Inc., Hartford. 

WILSON, Chas. H. (Oct. 22, '15) Pres., Wilson-Maeulen Co.; mailing address, 66 

Second Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
WILSON, Gardiner C. (Mar. 22, '18) Eng. Chem., Stackpole Carbon Co.. St. Marys, 

Pa. -mailing address, 220 Brusselles St. 
WILSON, Irving W. (Jan. 28, "11) Chem. Warfare Service. U. S. A., Astoria Light. 

Heat' & Power Co., Astoria, Long Island, N. Y. 
WILSON, J. Rattray (Jan. 29, '09) El. Eng.. Electric Smelting Co., Box 22B, 

Hull, P. Q-. Canada. 
WILSON N A (Oct. 22, '15) 2438 Niagara Ave., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
WILSON,' Thomas E. (Jan. 26, '17) Edwards Apartments, 1332 Spruce St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. „ , ,, „ ^ ^ = 
WILSON Wm K (Feb. 24, '17) Plant Foreman, Union Carbide Co. of Canada. 

Ltd.;' mailing address. Box 861, Welland, Ontario, Canada. 
WINDER, C. A. (May 22, '14) Gen. Electric Co., Building No. 33, Schenectady. 

N. Y.' 
WINNINGHOFF, W. J. (Dec. 31, '15) Cooper Hewitt Elec. Co., 730 Grand SL, 

Hoboken, N.' J. _,^ 

WINSHIP. Dr. Walter E. (Aug. 5, '05) Gen. Mgr., Whitney Central Bldg.. New 

Orleans, La. 
WINSHIP William W. (Oct. 25, '18) Mgr., The Thermal Syndicate, Ltd., Chemists 

Bldg.,' 50 E. 41st St., New York City. 
WINSLOW Fred. E. (Feb. 27, '09) 151 N. Central Ave., Chicago, 111. 
WINTER E J (Apr. 22, '15) Res. Lab.. U. S. Industrial Alcohol Co So. BalU- 

more' Md.;' mailing address. 4006 Forest Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. 
WIRT Chas (July 26, '12) Wirt Co.,. Philadelphia, Pa.; mailing addresa 508 E. 

Washington Lane, Germantown. Philadelphia, Pa. 



46 



DiRECTOkv OF mi:mbers. 



WISE, John B. (Feb. 24, '17) 3417 Clairmount Ave., Highlandtown, Baltimore, Md. 
WISSLER, W. A. (May 24, '18) Chief Metallurgi.st, Haynes Stellite Co.; mailing 

address, 615 South Indiana Ave., Kokomo, Ind. 
WITHERELL, Chas. S. (July 25. ' Vi ) Met. Eng., Chile Exploration Co., 120 Broad- 
way, New York City. 
WITHERSPOON, R. A. (Oct. 2, '02) Shawinigan Carbide Co., Shawinigan Falls. 

Quebec, Canada. 
WITHERSPOON, T. A. (Apr. 3, '02) Nat. Union BIdg., 918 P St., Wa.shington, D. C. 
WITHROW, Prof. James R. (May 29, '09) Prof. Industrial Chemistry, Ohio State 

University, Columbus, Ohio. 
WOLF, Harry J. (Sept. 7, '06) Min. Eng., First National Bank Bldg., Denver, Colo.; 

mailing address, 1510 Washington Ave., Golden, Colo. 
WONG, Kei T. (May 24, '18) Works Mgr., Tai Shing Paper Mfg. Co., Hongkong, 
China; mailing address, c/o Kwong Mow Tai Co., Bonham Strand West, 
Hongkong, China. 
WOOD, Bertram (Oct. 3, '17) Elec. Eng., Electrolytic Zinc Co. of Australia, Ltd., 

Collins House, Collins St., Melbourne, Victoria. 
WOOD, Elvin M. (Apr. 28, "18) Supt. of Power Div., Zinc Plant, Consolidated 
Mining and Smelting Co.; mailing address, P. O. Box 92, Trail, B. C, Canada. 
WOOD, Charles D. (Jan. 25, '18) Asst. Supt., Pacific Electro Metals Co., Baj 

Point, Calif. 
WOOD, E. F. (Apr. 3, '02) Int. Nickel Co., 43 Exchange PI., New York City. 
WOOD, Prof. Harry P. (Jan. 5, '07) Georgia Technical School, Atlanta, Ga. 
WOODBRIDGE, Walter B. (Oct. 25, '18) Supt., Electrolytic Bleach and Soda Plant, 
W. Va. Pulp & Paper Co. ; mailing address, 1357 Lincoln Ave., Tyrone, Pa. 
WOODRUFF, John C. (June 30, '17) Ress. Chem., Western Electric Co., 151 Fifth 

Ave., New York City. 
WOODSIDE, F. C. (Apr. 26, '13) Production Eng., General Elec. Co., Pittsfield. 

Mass.; mailing address, S31 North St. 
WOODWARD. J. M. (May 6, '05) Nela Park, Cleveland. Ohio. 
WOODWORTH, S. E. (Oct. 22, '15) Metallurgist, with Chas. Butters, 419 Embar- 

cadeso, San Francisco, Cal. 
WOOLDRIDGB, Wm. J. (Nov. 21, '08) Gen. Elec. Co., 134 Appleton Ave.. Pitts- 
field, Mass. 
WORTH, B. G., Jr. (May 26, '10) Vice Pres., Walter Kidde & Co., Inc., Engineers 
and Constructors, 140 Cedar St., New York City; mailing address, 422 Gregory 
Ave.. West Orange, N. J. 
WRIGHT, Arthur (Apr. 27, '12) Member, Firm of Prindle & Wright, 111 Broad- 
way, New York City; res., 454 Fort Washington Ave. 
WRIGHT, Howard V. (May 24, '18) Graduate Student, Chem. Eng.. Iowa State 

College, Station A, Box 523, Ames, Iowa. 
WRIGHT, J. C. (Sept. 15, '15) 48 West 94th St., New York City. 
WRINKLE, Noah (Sept. 27, "16) 2.'i99 Sacramento St., San Francisco. Calif. 
WURSTER. Oscar Herman (May 27, '11) Works Mgr., Louisville Soap Co., Louis- 
ville. Ky. 
WYMAN, Walter S. (Mar. 27, '14) Treasurer and Gen. Mgr., Central Maine Power 

Co.; mailing address. 49 Western A\e., AuRUsta. Maine. 
YABE, Chu.1i (Sept. 30, '18) c/o Sumitomo Besshi Kogyosho. Sobiraki, Ehimeken, 

Japan. 
YAGER, John J. (Dec. 31, '15) Sec'y of Goergen-Mackwirth Co., Inc.; mailing 

addres.s, 268 Carlton St., Buffalo, N Y. 
YAMASAKI, Dr. Jingoro (Apr. 29, 'ID The Imperial Industrial Lab., Yetchiu- 

shima, Tokyo, Japan. 
YANO, Masayoshi (Oct. 25, 'IS) Graduate Student of Electrometallurgy; mailing 

address, 532 Brodhead Ave., Bethlehem, Pa 
Y.VRDLEY, John L. McK. (Aug. 25, '17) Gen. Eng., Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. 

Co.; mailing address, 1263 Denniston Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
YNGSTROM, Lars (Dec. 31, '10) Owner of Sandsta Eletriska Smaltverk, Haggo, 

Sweden. 
YNGVE, Victor (Mar. 22, '18) Res. Chem., Oldbury Electrochemical Co., Niagara 

Falls, N. Y. : mailing address, 513 Jefferson Ave. 
YOSHIKAWA, Prof. Kame.iiro (Dec. 27, '07) Nakasuji Ishujakushi, Kyoto. Japan. 
YOUNG, Hayes W. (.Tuly 25, '13) Asst. Prof, of Met.. Stanford Univ.. Stanford 

University P. O.. Cal. 
YOUNG, John (Oct. 26, 'IT) Mgr. and Partner, Volta Mfg. Co., Box 858, Welland, 

Ontario, Canada. 
YOUNT, Andrew S. (June 1, '15) Supervisor, Explosive Mfg., Operating Dept., 
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Deepwater Point, N. J.; mailing address, 1022 
Jackson St., Wilmington, Del. 
YUNCK, Carl I. (Oct. 21, '16) Supt., Republic Elec. Co.; mailing address, 422 
Meeker St., South Orange, N. J. 



DIRECTOKV OF MEMBERS. 47 

TUNCK, John A. (Apr. 30, 'OS) Electrometallurgist, 375 Ogden St., Newark, N. J.; 

mailing address, 422 Meeker St., South Orange, N. J. 
ZAMORA, Manuel (Sept. 30, 'IS) R. Hidalgo 913-915, Manila, Philippine Islands. 
ZAREMBA, Edward (Jan. 28, 'OS) 707 D. S. Morgan Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
ZEISBERG, Fred C. (May 24, 'IS) Chem. Eng., E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.; 

mailing address, 1018 Rodney St., Wilmington, Del. 
ZELLER, Richard (Apr. 24, '14) Factory Mgr., Egyptian Lacquer Mfg. Co., Rah- 

way. New Jer.sey; mailing address, 595 West End Ave., New Tork City. 
ZIMMERMAN, J. G. (Nov. G, '02) Elec. Eng., 1145 Kinnickinnic Ave., Milwaukee, 

Wis.; mailing address, Jefferson Elec. Mfg. Co., 426-430 S. Green St., Chicago, 

111. 
ZIMMERMAN, R. E. (Jan. 26, '17) Acting Director, Res. Lab., American Sheet 

& Tin Plate Co., 210 Senipie St.. Pittsbuigh. Pa. 
ZISCHKAU, O. C. (June 29, 'IS) Chief Chem., Tacoma Smelting Co.; mailing 

address, 4120 N. Ferdinand St., Tacoma, Washington. 
ZONS, Frederick W., Ph.D. (Aug. 24, '18) Chem. and Mgr., New Process Gaa 

Mantle Co., Camden, N. J.; mailing address, 505 W. 164th St., New York City. 
ZWINGENBERGER, Dr. Otto K. (Jan. 27, '12) Chemist, Roessler and Hasslacher 

Chem. Co., Pecth Amboy, N. J.; res., 255 High St. 



AMERICAN ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY. 



Geographical Distribtrtion of Members. 



UNITED STATES. 



ALABAMA 

Aimi8t«ii — 

Andreae, F. V. 

Jesperson, C. M. 

Klugh, B. G. 
Anbnm — 

Ross, B. B. 
Birming^bain — 

Harris, J. R. 

Mitchell, W. E. 

Swann, Theodore 

Walmsley, W. N. 
•lorence — 

Callen, A. S. 
Montgomery — 

Battle, H. B. 
Maecle-Shoals — 

Burla;?e, H. H 

Kennedy, A. M. 

Schwartz, Hyam 

Stein, J. D. 



Sbefiield— 

Wald. 



W. G. 



ALASKA 
Jimesii — 

Lass, W. P. 

ARIZONA 

Legrand, Chas. 

Homboldt — 

Colvocoresses, G. . M. 

Miami — 

C'RelUey. P. I. 

Tsceoo — 

Geeson, Arthur 

AKKXSSAa 

Camp Pike — 

Detwiler, J. G. 

Fayetteville— 

Gladson. W. N. 

CALLFOBNLA 

Bay Point — 

Cowan, Robt. 
Wood, Chas. D. 

Berkeley — 

Bray, "Wm. C. 
Clements, T. H. 
Cushman, O. E. 
Duschak, L. H. 
Goldsmith, N. J. 
Mereen, John D. 
Randall, Merle 
Stark, Paul A. 



CALIFORNIA— Continned 

Beverly Hills — 

Shattuck, A. F. 
Bishop — 

Hess. F. M. 
Colton— 

Barnhill, W. J. 
Enreka^ 

Langford, F. 
Fresno^ 

Twining, Frederlcke 
Gra6» Valley — 

Foote, Arthur De Wlnt 
Heron It — 

Bunyan, F. W. 

Darrah, Wm. A. 
Hennet — 

Hanley, H. R. 
Los Angeles — 

Clapp, J. F. 

Lea, iohn 

McLaughlin, D. E. 

Moreland, W. L. 

Schmidt, Walter A. 
Oakland — 

Beckman, J. W. 

Butters, Chas. 

Drake, B. S. 
Ontario — 

Richardson, B. H. 
Pal« Alto— 

Hilliard, John D. 

Koontz, J. A., Jr. 
Pasadena — 

Carhart, H. S. 
Piedmont — 

Leach, £. R. 
Ft. Richmond — 

Carson, F. Lt 

Ma.son, Wm. D. 
RiTerside — 

Cummins, A. B. 
Ross — 

Hund, Walter J. 
Sacramento— 

Lichthardt, G. 

San Francisco— 

Arnsteln, Dr. Henry 
Barfoed, Svend 
Barnes, W. A. 
Bauer, G. W. 
Benfield, Bernard 
Black, J. B. 
Emery, A. L. 
Fowler, Edw. J. 
French, Wm. H. 
Hanks, A. A. 
Hanscom, W. W. 



DIRECTORY Of MEMBERS. 



49 



CAUFOBNIA — Cflntinned 
ftiKi lirancisco — Continued 

Heath, R. F. 

Hillebrand, W. A. 

Hoff, J. D. 

Linden, H. E. 

Merrill, Chas. W. 

Metson, W. H. 

Miyasaki, Selichi 

Pike, R. D. 

Heed, C. J. 

Van Sicklen, Wm. S. 

"Wagner, H. L. 

Whaley, Edw. 

Woodworth, S. E. 

Wrinkle, Noah 
Sikn Mateo- 
Levy, G. J. 
Stanford University — 

Burke, Wm. E. 

Ryan, H. J. 

Young, H. W. 
Tlvee Kivere — 

DeLuce, Robt. 
▼eniee— 

Richard, L. M. 



COLORADO 
AsiKtn — 

Anderson, C. E. 
Doolittle, C. B. 



Benvei 



Bleecker, W. F. 
Ekeley. J. B. 
Evans, H. S. 
Goerber, A. J. 
Bchultz, L. C. 

Brockway, J. P. 
Cargo, L. M. 
Case, W. W., Jr. 
Comstock, C. W. 
Eastman, H. C. 
EBgle, W. D. 
Gahl, Rudolf 
lonides, S. A. 
Keeney, R. M. 
Malm, J. L. 
Morrison, M. E. 
Nees, A. R. 
Plumb, A. M. 
Richards, P. J. 
Sand^ H. S. 
Skinner, L. B. 
Smith, Lyon 
Spandow, Wm 
Walter, R. J. 



E. 



Flarenoe — 

Emanuel, L. V. 

eolden— 

Fischer, Siegfried 

Llnd, S. C. 

Marden, J. W. 

Quaintance, C. F. 

Wolf, H. J. 
Goldfleld— 

Muench, R. K. 
lndei»«ndence— 

Haynes, J. H. 
PmMo— 

Jebell, Wm. T. 



CONNECTICUT 
An«oma — 

Grower, G. G. 
Jennieon, H. 0. 
Bridgeport — 

Ferry, Chas. 

Hall, M. L. 

Loveman, W. R. 

Stratton, W. G. 

Tyler, W. S. 

Williams, H. M. 
Hartford — 

Gllligan, Frank P. 

Palmer, W. R. 

Peiler, Karl B. 

Pettee, C. L. W. 

Willson, E. L. 
Meriden — 

Thomas, Geo. E. 
New Britain — 

Andrews, J. C. 

Hogaboom, Geo. B. 

Sargent, Geo. J. 
New Haven — 

Bradley, W. M. 

Cunningham, F. W. 

Dabolt, N. E. 

Preas, Raymond 

Gravely, J. S. 

Scott, Chas. F. 
Stamford — 

Ferguson, C. N. 

Getman, F. H. 
Stepney Depot — 

Wheeler, Fred B. 
Wallln grf ord — 

Blanchard, H. J. 

Canby, Robt. C. 

Marsh, R. J. 
Waterbnry — 

Bassett, W. H. 

Bennett, M. H. 

Bradley, J. C. 

Bristol, W. H. 

Price, Wm. B. 

Richardson, H. K. 

Sperry, R. S. 

Taylor, F. D. 

Thompson, H. L. 

Valentine, Wm. 

Weiser, F. S. 

Westport— 

Fox, H. W. 

DBXAWARE 
Heary Clay — 

Bradshaw, H. 
Milford — 

Davis, F. W. 
WllmlngiMn — 

Buchanan, A. E., Jr. 
DuPont, Irenee 
DuFont, Lammot 
DuPont, Pierre S. 
Fletcher, W. B. 
Holmes, F. B. 
Liljenroth, F. G. 
Lloyd, S. C. 
MacGregor, F. S. 
Moody, H. R. 
Norman, Geo. M. 
Quayle, W. O. 
Sparre, Fin 



50 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



l>]eJL.AV^ AKK— Ci»atiiiiied 

Wilmingrton — Continued 

Symmes, E. M. 
Teeple, O. J., Ji'- 
Whitten, Wm. M., Jr. 
Williams, Roger 
Tount, A. S. 
Zeisberg, F. C. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

WasbiiiKton — 

Adams, Quinton 
Bancroft, W. D. 
Bate, H. A. 
Blum, William 
Cameron, F. K. 
Carothers, J. N. 
Casey, J. L. 
Clevenger, G. H. 
Clinton, Guy 
Coggeshall, G. W. 
Cottrell, F. G. 
Dewey, F. P. 
Dodson, F. W. 
Freeman, J. R., Jr. 
Gaillard, D. St. Pierre 
Gardner, H. A. 
Gilchrist, Raleigh 
Gottlieb, M. B. 
Groesmann, M. A. 
Harris, Jos. W. 
Holler, H. D. 
Helton, F. A. 
Jones, Grinneil 
Kinney, S. P. 
Landolt, P. E. 
Lloyd. M. G. 
Manning, P. D- 
McKelvy, Ernest C. 
Munch, J. C. 
Na-sh, P. M. 
Naylon, J. T. 

Parsons, C. L.. 

Peck, E. L. 

Pleiss, Paul 

Reed, A. C. 

Rich, Wm. J. 

Richardson, C. N. 

Roberts, C. H. M. 

Russell, C. A. 

Townsend, C. P. 

Treacy. C. S. 

Tucker, S. A. 

Turrentine, J. W. 

Watson, P. B. 

Wltherspoon, T. A. 

FLORIDA 

Jacksonville — 

Valentin, J. E. C. 

Oca la — 

Martin, R. M. 

GEORGIA 

Atlanta^ — 

Adsit, C. G. 
Maynard, T. P. 
Wood, H. P. 

ILIJNOIS 

Belle ville^- 

Hamhuechen, C- 
Mal1nov.szky, Andrew 



ILLINOIS — Continued 

Chicago— 

Arthur, Paul 
Baker, Chas. E. 
Booth, W. K. 
Brady, W. 
Brunt, H. H. 
Condit, B. C. 
Converse, W. A. 
Dalbey, G. E. 
deBeers, F. M. 
Dryer, E. 
Egloff, Gustav 
Ericson, E. J. 
Freud, B. B. 
Gaylord, C. H. 
Gottschalk, V. H. 
Greenlee, W. B. 
Gudeman, E. 
Herz, Alfred 
Hosford, Wm. F. 
Hoakina, W. 
Hunter, J. V. 
Jenista, Geo. J. 
Johnson, A. R. 
Jones, A. C. 
Kawln, Chas. C. 
Kern P. E. 
Klemm, H. F. 
Krejcl, M. W. 
Lamoureux, Ernest 
Lihme, C. B. 
Uscomb, F. J. 
Lundgren, H. 
Lunn, E. 
Lyman, J. 
MacFarland, A. F. 
McCormack, H. 
McCoy, H. N. 
McMahon, G. F. 
Mohn, Arnold 
Mohr, Louis 
Morehead, J. M. 
Richardson, W. D. 
Servls, O. E. 
Sims, C. E. 
Smythe, E. H, 
Snyder, F. T. 
Stoll, C. G. 
Summers, L. L. 
Thordarsen, C. H. 
Trantin, Jacob, Jr. 
Ward, Henry L. 
Wendt, G. L. 
Wilcox, W. G. 
Winslow, F. E. 

Ea«t St. Louis — 

Pritz, W. B. 

Fdiaon Park — 

Gilbertson, H. A. 

Elein— 

Hatch, I. 
Evanston — 

Bauer, Wm. Chas. 

Bragg, E. B. 
Hui've.v — 

Burt, G. G. 

Hieltland Park — 

Pfanstlehl. Carl 

Joliet — 

Meaker, G. L. 

La Salle — 

Carus, Edw. H. 
Ede, Joseph A. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



51 



ILIilNOIS — Continued 

Peoria — 

Schueler, J. L. 

Peru — 

Edwards, J. B., Jr. 

KiTer Forest — 

Jones, Geo. H. 

Bockford — 

Readette, John 

So. Chicaso — 

Pritz, L. G. 

Urbana — 

Dietrichson, J. G. 
Parr, S. W. 
Winthrop Harbor — 

Aiken, R. H. 

INDIANA 

Bloomingrton — 

Brown, O. W. 
Mathers, F. C. 

East Chicago — 

Mulligan, J. J. 

Kikbart — 

Turnock, E. H., Jr. 

G reencastle — 

Blanchard. W. M. 

Hanunond — 

Thum, Wm. 

Indianapolis — 

Atkinson, F. C. 
Naiden, J. H. 
Schildhauer, Edw. 
Smith, T. W. 
Kokomo— 

Wlssler, W. A. 

Lafayette- 
Duncan, T. 

Muncie — 

Frink, R. L. 



IOWA 



Mann, C. A. 
Wright, H. V. 
Bettendorf — 

Bretz, J. A. 

Iowa City — 

Pearce, J. N. 
KetAuk — 

Baker, R, E. 
Davis, H. N. 
Knight. P. P. H. 
Schleeder, L- B. 
SchoU. G. D. 
Sheean, J. L. 
Weissenburger, G. E. 
Wettsteln. T. F. 
Wilcox, N. T. 



Kinsley 



KANSAS 

Parkhurst, I. P. 

KENTUCKY 



IrfHusrilie — 

Ruby, C. E. 

Tafel, Theodore, Jr. 

Wurster, O. H. 



KENTUCKY— Continued 

Marion — 

Reed, A. H. 

LOUISIANA 

De«treban — 

Gould, D. F. 

New Orleans — 

Williamson. C. S., Jr. 
Wlnship, W. E. 



MAINE 

Auburn — 

Higgins, C. H. 

Aog-asta — 

Wyman, W. S. 

Btddeford — 

Smith, E. S. C. 
Brunswick — 

Cram, M. P. 
Cumberland Mills — 

Gabriel, G. A. 
Great Works — 

Larchar, A. B. 

Lewiston — 

Robinson, A. 

Portland — 

Allen, H. I. 
Lincoln, E. S. 
McMurtrle, D. H. 
Moulton. S. A. 

Knmford — 

Griffin, Martin L. 
Lowe, R. E. 

South Brewer — 

Hanson, H. H. 

WaterWlle — 

Nivison, Robt. 



MARYLAND 

Aimapolia — 

McAdam, D. J., Jr. 
Webert, L. P. 
Baltimore- 
Beck, Wm. H. 
Boynton, W. H. 
Browne, A. L. 
Bryan, J. K. 
Dailev, J. G. 
Falter, P. H. 
Lindsay, C. F. 
Lloyd, S. J. 
Lovelace, B. P. 
Miller, E. B. 
Pelrce, W. H. 
Rouse, E. W., Jr. 
Sisco, F. T. 
Stone, W. H. 
Thompson, M. R. 
Tillman, R. H. 
Winter. E. J. 
Wise, J. B. 

Chevy Chase — 

Schramm, Edw. 

Colgate — 

Aldrlch, C. H. 
Cumberland— 

McKale, W. W. 



52 



DIRBCTORY OF MEMBERS. 



MARTLAND — C)oiitii»«ed 

Edgewood — 

Avery, J. M. 
NefE, A. M. 
Temple, Sterling 

Eiminltsbnrg: — 

Rautb, J. W. 

Indian Head — 

Wagner, A. A. 

liitke — 

Pedder, John 

Momt Savage — 

Ramsay, Andrew 

MASSACHUSETTS 
Arlington — 

Sullivan, A. P. 

Boston — 

Atwood, F. C. 
Barker, E. R. 
Buchanan, L. B. 
Clapp, E. H. 
Comstock, D. F. 
Dedichen, Herman 
Eustis, A. H. 
Howard, W. D. M. 
Kao, T. 
Knlffin, L. M. 
Pratt, F. S. 
Sargent, F. C. 
Schenck, Garrett, Jr. 
Spauldlng, H. W. 
Stone, C. A. 
Webster, E. S. 
Wentworth, H. A. 
Willien, Leon J., Jr. 

Brookline — 

Howard, H. 
Cambridge — 

Forbes, Geo. S. 

Goodwin, H. M. 

Hurum, Fredrik 

Kalmus, H. T. 

Lamb, A. B. 

Little, A. D. 

Maclnnes, D. A. 

Nickerson, W. E. 

Richards, T. W. 

Skinner, H. J. 

Talbot, H. P. 

Thompson, M. deK. 

Walker, Wm. H. 
Gloucester — 

Hills. L. H. 
Greenfield — 

Hunter, M. A. 

LO''nn — 

Coates, Jesse 
Nestor, J. F. 
llalden — 

Berry, BJ. R, 

Uarlboro — 

McManus, Jos. D. 

Melrose Highlands — 

Brown, R. G. 

N e wbnryport — 

Horsch, W. G. 

Newton Centre — 

Pickard, G. W. 
Mortbampton — 

Stoddard, J. T. 



MASSACHUSKTTS— Contianed 

Plttsfield— 

Prank, J. J. 

Glffiord, A. McK. 

Kelly, J. F. 

Unger, M. 

Woodslde, F. C. 

Wooldridge, "W. J. 
Qniney — 

Rasmussen, F. J. ' 

Salem — 

Pitman, E. C. 
Sallsbnry — 

Merrill, M. W. 
Sonthbridge — 

Reeve, H. T. 
So. MiddletoB — 

Seifert, E. P. 
Springfield — 

Morris, A W. 
Swampseott — 

Thomson, B. 
Tannton — 

Andrews, J. H. 

Walpole — 

Knobel, Max 
Waltbam — 

Flagg, F. P. 
Watertown — 

Coffin. C. F., Jr. 
WilliamKtown — 

Mears, Brainerd 
WoUaston — 

Ruppel, H. E. K. 
Woreester — 

Calhane, D. F. 

Higgins, A. C. 

Jeppson, G. N. 

Marble, J. P. 

Marble, J. Russel 



MICHIGAN 

Ann Arbor — 

Badger, W. L. 
Baker, E. M. 
Bartell, F. E. 
Blgelow, S. L. 
Sturdevant, E. G. 
Willard, H. H. 

Bay City — 

Hutchings, C. F. 

Detroit — 

Caulkins, SS. B. 
Cole, C. S. 

Cowperthwalt, A. D. 
Crosby, E. L. 
Flintermann, R. F. 
Frederick, W. A. 
Harig, Fred. C. 
Hirshfeld, C. F. 
Lane, H. M. 
Lohr, J. M. 
Marsh, A L. 
Ramage, A. S. 
Rhoads, A. E. 
Schmelz, E. M. 
Skillman, Verne 
Stewart, R. S. 

FUgg*— 

Oopeman, Ix G. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



53 



MICHIGAN— Contlnu»4 

Hoosbton — 

Carson, C. M. 

Menominee — 

White, A. R. 

Burdlck. E. C. 
Dow, H. H. 
Gann, J. A. 
Ward, L. E. 

Wyandotte — 

Cranston, John 
Hardeastle, Y. F. 

IDNNKSOTA 

Dalatb — ,„ 

Oldfleld, Lee W. 

Bftlimeiipolis — 

Frankforter. G. B. 
Heisig, G. B. 
Joselowitz, Goodwin 
Miller, U F. 

St. PaiiJ— 

Grelck. Wm. 

UIS80UBI 

Columbia — 

Brown, W. G. 
Schlundt, Herman 

Joptin — „ ^ 

WaJlower, F. *-. 

Kaosas City — 

Cherry, L- B. 

Dalton, N. N. 

Francis, P. B. 

Kent. J. M. 
Mt. Washington — 

Kryzanowsky, C. J. 

St. L.o.ii8 — 

Graf, A. V. 
Haskins, F. D. 
Jackson, F. F. 
Kohler, H. L. 
Queeny, J. F. 
Ruffner, C. S. 
Teeters, W. R. 

MONTANA 

AoAoonda — 

Frlclf, F. F. 
Goodrich, R. R- 
O'Brien, A. L. 

Butte — ^ „ 

Bowman, C. ti. 
Deshler, G. O. 
Pulslfer, H. B. 

Great Falls- 
Burns, W. T. 

NKBKASKA 

Oaiaba — 

Hall, A. E. 
Phillips, Ross 
Randall, A. G. 
Reinbold, Herman 

NKVA0A 

Searchlight — 

Barton, W. H. 

Virginia City— 

Symmes, W. 



pfBW HAMPSHIBE 

Beriln — _ 

Barton, C. B. 
Comstock, R. I* 
Pogarty, J- A.. 
Hood, H. P. 
Moore, H. K. 
Rlchter, G. A. 

Durfaam — 

Perley, G. A. 



WUt«i 



Abbott. Wm. G.. Jr. 



NKW JERSEY 

Aldene — 

Hayes, G. W. 

ArUn«iwn — 

Calvert, R- P- 
Pickering, O. W. 

Asbury Park— 

Fernberger, H. M. 

Bayonne — 

Bjorkstedt, Wm. 
Burgess, Louis 
Ramsey, F. H. 
Schuyler, A. H. 

Bloomtleld — 

Amer, H. S. 
Kleinfeldt, H. F. 
MacRae, Duncan 
Romanelll. E. 
Vassar, H. S. 

B«and Brook — 

Hemingway, F. 
Saunders, H. F. 

Butler — 

Buttfleld, A. C. 

Cameys Point — 

Walker, G. E. 

Carteret — 

Breckenrldge, J. is»- 

Chrome- 
Deacon, R. W. 
Green. H. M. 
Greenwood, H. D. 
Hood, B B. 
Smith, W. C. 

Clifton — 

Takamine, J.. J''- 

C ran ford — 

White, J. H. 

Oeepwater Point — 

Humiston, Burr 

Dover — „ , 

Akinfleff. Boris 

East Orange— 

Cowles, Harry D. 
Doubleday, R- =. 
Koepplng. E. D. 
Koerner, W. E. 
Needham, H. H. 
Prochazta, J. A. 

Elizabeth — 

Martens, Paul 
Miller, A. B. 
Patterson, T. A. 
Pyne, F. R- 

BeiMK rail*— 

Robb. Gbas D. 



•54 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



KBW JER8£T — Condsacd 
Garfield — 

'jesell, Wm. H. 

Glomeenter City — 

Knoedler, E. L. 
Miner, H. S. 

Hajrrison — 

Hart, L. O. 
M :t €• kettstown — 

Philipp, Herbert 

Haskell — 

Cummings, Wm. J. 
Migh Bridge — 

Hall, John H. 

Le Boutillier, Clement 
Moboken — 

Bijur, Jos. 

WinninghofC, "W. J. 

Irvinjrtoii — 

Bachofner, D. K. 
Jersey City — 

Baldwin, A. T. 
Hartwick, Frank A. 
Lubowsky, Simon J. 
I>yons, H. N. 
Schott. J. E. 
Sieger, G. N. 
Swartley, H. R., Jr. 
Kenilwortti — 

Lutz, G. A. 
Key port — 

Schwarz, Edw. 
I.awrenreTille — 

Willcox. Dudley 
Manrer — 

Alexander, H. H. 
Mindeleff, Chas. 
M«Hr«hantville — 

Wicke.s, C. S. 
Mti'Dtclair — 

Crane, F. D. 
Ellis, Carleton 
Smith, Dyer 
Newark — 

Benjamin, E. O. 
Bergen, R. C. 
Boice, E. N. 
Burger, Alfred 
Carter, F. E. 
Colby, E. A. 
Dewey, E. S. 
Driver, W. B. 
Gifford, W. E. 
Hart, L. O. 
Henderson, C. T. 
EolTmann, John 
Hubley, W. F. 
Liebsehutz, M. 
Madsen, C. P. 
McNeill, Ralph 
Peter.son, F. H. 
Pope, R. W. 
Robinson, P. W. 
Sievering, Philip 
Simon, C. K. 
Walsh, P. C, Jr. 
Weber, M. G. 
Weston, E. 
Nrw BrwMwick — 
Keller, Oran 
Voorhees, L. A. 



NEW JERSEY — Continued 
Nortli Bergen — 

Van Keuren, W. L.. 

Orange — 

Edison, T. A. 
Kammerhoff, H. H. 
Smith, H. H. 
Parlin — 

Small, J. O. 

Paterson — 

Jarvls, E. G. 
PenuK Grove — 

Cooney, E. R. 
Pitcher, A. M. 
Rhodin, B. E. F. 

Perth Amboy — 

Antisell, F. L. 

Brown, M. J. 

Fisher, H W. 

Kaufmann, F. A. 

McNitt, R. J. 

Roessler, F. 

Ro.ssi, Louis M. 

Skowronski, S. 

Stewart, M. E. 

Waring, T. D. 

Zwingenberger, O. K. 
Pbillipsburg — 

Baker, John T. 
Plainfleld— 

Hlbbard, H. D. 

Manahan, Paul R. 

Pratt, H. A. 

Spicer, C. W. 
Princeton — 

Hulett. G. A. 

Knudsen, Rolf 

Northrup, E. F. 

.Smith, D. P. 

Taylor, H. S. 

Rjibway — 

Breckenridge, C. E. 
Maeulen, Frederick 
Miller, Daniel 
Murray, B. L. 

Roeelle — 

Grymes, E. S. 

Rotherford — 

Schroeder, C. M. B. 
SewfM-en — 

Buttneld, W. J. 

Cowles, A. H. 

Lemberg, M. 
Short Hills — 

Hough, Arthur 

Silver Lake — 

Cox, H. N. 
Somerville — 

Hall, H. M. 

South Orange — 

Yunck, Carl I. 
Yunck, J. A. 

Siunmit — 

Hornsey, J. W. 

Trenton — 

Brandt, M. F. 
Harter, Wickham 
Porter, H. F. 
Redfleld, C. S. 
Saums, H. 1>. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS 



.55 



NEW JERSEY— ContiBued 

Watcbung — 

Moldenke, Rlcnarfl 

We«tu»w ken — 

Kraus, Ernest 
Laise, C. A. 
Schubert, B. H. 

Westfleld — 

Carrier, C. F., Jr. 
Fleming, R- 

Vfwt Orange — 

Pedersen, A. Z. 
Worth, B. G., Jr. 

VToodbridge — 

Child, H. A. 

Woodstown — 

Lee, I. E. 



NEW MEXMO 



Santa 



Grubnau, G. M. 



NEW YORK 

Albaiiy — 

Bainbridge, E. F. 

ABtorU (I: I.) — 

Wilson, I. W. 

Aubnm — 

Case, T. W. 

Baldwin (L. I.) — 

Vogeler, W. K. 

Batavia — 

Walker, E. C, 3d 

Bedford Hlll»— 

Howe, H. M. 

B«ecbarBt (L. I.) — 

Landis, W. S. 

Brooklyn- 
Allen. O. F. 
Behnken, H. E. 
Carrier, S. C. 
Cook, R. J. 
Cowan, Wm. A. 
Erhart, W. H. 
Foster. O. R. 
Frederick, G. E., Jr. 
Keenan, Thos. J. 
Kemper, D. A. 
Langmuir, A. C. 
Mahoney, J. 
Pack, Chas. 
Reich. J. S. 
Schultz, F. H. 
Schultz, Paul 
Scott, L,. C. 
Sheldon, S. 
Sperry, E, A. 

Buffalo — 

Albright. Lu 
Blerbaum, C. H. 
Brown, H. C. 
Carrier, W. H. 
Curtiss. John L. 
Cushing, H. M. 
Doty, E. L. 
Orotzins-er, John 
Lawrence, J. N. 
Mattern, G. G. 
Neal, J. R- H 
Patch. N. K. B. 
Rlppel, E. G. 



NEW YORK — Gontlaued 

Buffalo — Continued 

Ruthenburg-, Mar.'u^ 
Schoellkopf, J. F.. Jr. 
Schranz, T. L. 
Slcard, H. C. 
Stephen.son, H. L 
Strachan, E. K. 
Theurer, G. A. 
Underwood, C. W. 
AVard, H. Lee 
White, H. E. 
Wllke, Wm. 
Yager, .J. J- 
Zaremba. Edwaro. 

Canandaignar— 

Weeks, F. D. 

Clinton — 

Saunders, A. P. 

Corning — 

Sullivan. E. C. 

Donkirk — 

Abbott, F. D. 

Flnehing (L. I.) — 

Bajda, J. J. 
Eort Plain — 

Fox. W. J. 

Gowanda — 

Cumming!=, C. E. 

Ithaca — 

GUlett, H. W. 
Mack, E. L. 
McBerty, F. H. 

Kenwood — 

Reeve, A. G. 

LaSalle— 

Gilbert, H. N. 
Shields. J. E. 

Lawrence (L. I.) — 

Guiterinan, K. S. 

Little Falls- 
Little, W. T. 

Lockport — 

Howard. L. E. 
Kenan, W. R., Jr 
Lyon Jlountain — 

Brakes, James 

Maesena — 

Doerschuk, V. C 
Whitaker, A. W., Jr. 

Mt. Vernon — 

Brown, C. J. 
Wilson, C. H. 
New Brighton, S. I. — 

Walter, H. W. 

New York City— 

Abb6, F. O. 
Acheson, E. G. 
Adams. J. F. 
Addicks, L. 
Allyn, R. S. 
Aldrldge, W. H. 
Anger, E. M. 
Atwater, C. Q. 
Baker, H. A. 
Barnes, H. H., J'-' 
Barrows, F. E. 
Barstow, W. S. 
Baskerville, C. 
Beck, E. A. 



56 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



NBW YORE — Continued 
New York City — Continued 

Bedell. E. H. 
Blossom, E. L. 
Boeck, P. A. 
Bogue, C J. 
Bowman, W. 
Bradley, Linn 
Bradley, W. E. F. 
Brindley, Geo. F. 
Brown, H. P. 
Browne, deC. B. 
Buck, H. W. 
Cameron, W. S. 
Carse, D. B. 
Castle, S. N. 
Chandler, C. F. 
Clark, W. G. 
Clark, W. J. 
Coho, H. B. 
Cohoe, W. P. 
Colcord, F. F. 
Cone, E. F. 
Cooper, K. P. 
Corning, C. R. 
Crocker, J. R. 
Daft, Leo 
De Miles, Paul 
Deppe, W. P. 
Dixon, Jos. L. 
Doerfllnger, W. F. 
Doremus, C. A. 
Dorr, J. V. N. 
Dreyfus, W. 
Drobegg, Gustave 
Dutton, W. C. 
Dwlght, A. S. 
Dyrssen, Waldemar 
Eagle. H. T. 
Elmer, A. 
Emerson, H. 
Englehard, C. 
Eurlch. E. F. 
Faber, H. B. 
Featherstone, W. B. 
Fink, C. G. 
FltzGlbbon, R. 
Flaahman, H. W. 
Prank. K. G. 
Freas, Thos. B. 
Fries, H. H. 
Fukuda, Ma.saru 
Gaines, R. H. 
Glenn, E. R 
Goepel, C. P. 
Gray, J. H. 
Grosvenor, W. M. 
Haas, S. W. 
Halcomb. C. H. 
Hall, E. W. 
Harris, J. W. 
Hasslacher, J. 
Hatzel. J. C. 
Hendrie, G. A. 
Hendry, W. P. 
Herty, C. H. 
Hibbert, Harold 
Hill, N. S., Jr. 
Hirsch, Alcan 
Hirschland. P. H. 
Hoeft, G. Eliot 
Hoge, J. F. D. 
Hunt, A. M. , 
Huntoon, L. D. 
Ingalls, W. R. 
Iwata, Hiroshi 
Jack, Geo. B.. Jr. 



KKW YORK — CoDtinaed 
New York City — Contlnaed 

Jacoby, H. E. 

Jicha, John 

Jinguji, Genjlro 

Keller, Edw. 

Kellogg, A. O. 

Kennedy, J. J. 

Kern. E. F. 

Keyea, D. B. 

Kingsley, E. D. 

KisBOck, Alan 

Kitawakl. I. 

Klein, O. H. 

Klipsteln, E. C. 

Knapp, Geo. O. 

Kohn, M. M. 

Kuns. G. F. 

Laird, C. N. 

Landau, Alfred 

Langton, J. 

Leavltt. Wm. F. B. 

Ledoux, A. R, 

Lee, H. R. 

Leslie, E. H. 

Liebmann, A. J. 

Loebell, H. O. 

Love, E. G. 

Lovejoy, D. R. 

MacDonald, J. A. 

Magnus, Benjamin 

Maier, C. G. 

Mailloux, C. O. 
Mantius, Otto 

Marsh, C. W. 
Martin, T. C. 
Marvin. A. B. 
Mason, F. S. 
Mastlck, S. C. 
Mathewson. E. P. 
Mays. S. W. 
Maywald. P. J. 
Mershon, R. D. 
Metz, G. P. 
Uetx. H. A. 
Miller, D. D. 
Moody, H. R. 
Morey, S. R. 
Morgan. J. L. R. 
Morrow, J. T. 
Morse, W. S. 
Mortimer, J. D. 
Muir, J. M. 
Muscbenhelm, F. A. 
Myers, W. S. 
Nagelvoort. Adrlaan 
Nakahara, Seizo 
Nichols, W. H. 
Nichols. W. S. 
Onoda, N. P. 
Osborne. L. A.. 
Parmelee. H. C 
Pasternak, Morris 
Paulsson, Axel 
Pennle, J. C. 
Peters, F. F. 
Petinot, N. 
Pranke, Edw. J. 
Price. B. F. 
Prindle. E. J. 
Proctor, C. H. 
Prosser, H. A 
Ralboum, P. A. 
Raimondo, Sebastlano 
Reber, Samuel 
Reed. S. A. 
Ricketts. L. D. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



57 



NEW YORK— Continued 
New York City — Continued 

Rlglander. M. M. 
Rlker, J. J. 
Riley, L. A., 2d 
Roberts, G. J. 
Roller, F. W. 
Roth, C. F. 
Rowand, L. G. 
Ruhl, L. 
Rulim, H. D. 
Sachs, A. P. 
Schloss, J. A. 
Schuetz, F. F 
Scott, E. K. 
Seward, G. O. 
Sharp, C. H. 
Sholes, C. E. 
Smith, E. A. Cappeien 
Snook, H. C. 
Sowers. Ossa 
Speed, Buckner 
Speiden, C. C. 
Spicer, H. N. 
Spilsbury, E. G. 
Statham, Noel 
Stevenson, Reston 
Stockelbach. F. E. 
Stone, I. F. 
Stone, Jos. P. 
Stone, J. S. 
Stoughton, Bradley 
-Strau.s.^, F. A. 
Swenarton, W. H. 
Tada. Y. 
Takamine, J. 
Teeple, J. E. 
Thompson, J. 
Toch, M. 
Treadwell, J. C. 
Van Arsdale, G. D. 
Vom Baur, C. H 
Waddell, M. 
"Walker, A. L. 
Warner, F. H. 
Washburn, F. S. 
W.-iterman, F. N. 
Watkins. J. H. 
Weintraub, Ezechiel 
Westervelt, W. T. 
Wheeler, A. E. 
Whitaker, M. C. 
White, John F. 
White, J. G. 
Wiggleaworth. H. 
Wilkinson, W. N. 
■^^^ilIiams, A. » 

"^''illiams, L.. W. 
Winship, W. W. 
Witherell, C. S. 
Wood, E. F. 
Woodruff, J. C. 
W'rlght, Arthur 
Wright. J. C. 
Zeller, R. 
Zons. F. W. 

Niag:ara Falls- 
Barton, P. p. 
Bayard, R. A. 
Beard, C. W. 

Becket, F. M. 
Bliss. Wm. Lord 
Brallier, P. S. 
Carveth, H. R. 
Chace, R. t. 
Cole, a R. 



NEW VORK— Continued 
Niagara Falls — Continued 

Converse, V. G. 
Cox, G. E. 
Dunlap, O. E. 
Edmands, I. R. 
FitzGerald, F. A. J. 
Fowler, R. E. 
Fuller, G. P. 
Gegenheimer, R. E. 
Glaze, John B. 
Glennie, R. D. 
Griffith, J. R. 
Hamann, A. M. 
Hardie, C. G. 
Harper, J. L. 
Hartmann. M. L,. 
Herzog, G. K. 
Hinckley, A. T. 
Hooker, A. H. 
Hutchins, Otis 
Imlay, L. E. 
Jacobson, B. H. 
Johnson, J. A. 
.IulI!^on, L. C. 
Kellogg. H. W. 
Kemmer. F. R. 
King. J. A. 
Koethen. F. L. 
Kokatnur, V. R. 
Lansing, C. N. 
]-.avene, H. A. 
Lidbury, F. A. 
Low, F. S. 
Lyster, T. L. B. 
MacMahon, J. D. 
MacMahon, J. 
MacMiUan, J. R. 
Maishall, J. G. 
Mauran, M. 
AIcKnight, W. A. 
JicMillen, Herbert 
Meredith, W. F. 
Miller, D. R. 
Moritz, C. H. 
Morley. M. H. 
Moyer, G. C. 
Noyes, H. L. 
Nutting, E. G. 
Osborne, S. E. 
Patterson. L,. G. 
Ralston, O. C. 
Rossi, A. J. 
Rowland, J. M. 
Rykenboer, E. A. 
Saunders, L. E. 
Savage, P. G. 
Schoellkopf, P. a. 
Sergeant, E. M. 
Simmers, a L. 
Smith, A. 
Smith, E. S. 
Snowdon, R. c. 
Sneiden, E. C. 
Stamp.s, F. A. 
Stillesen, J. m. A 
Stone, G. W. 
Tone, P. J. 
Uptegraff, T. M. 
Vaughn, C. P. 
Wallace, W. 
Wescott, E. W 
White, R. H. 
Williams, C. E. 
Williamson, A. M 
Wilson, N. A. 
Tngve, Victor 



58 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



NEW TOHK— Continaed 

Oneida — 

Bailey, R. O. 

Oseining — 

Acker, Ch&6. B. 

Peim Tan — 

Taylor, C. K. 

Plattsiiurg — 

Sheffield, W. T. 

Potedam — 

Russell, L. K. 

Prince Bay (L. I.) — 

Johnston, F. A. 
Johnston, W. A, 

Bicbmond HUl (L.. I.)— 
Haslwanter, C. 
Herreshoff, J. B., Jr. 
Voss, Wm. 

Rochester — 

Schwarz, R. C. 
Will, R. T. 



Parish, R. R. 
Shlverick, M. D. 

Schenectady — 

Andrews, Mary R. 
Andrews, W. S. 
Arsem, W. C. 
Be -p, B. J. 
Coffin, F. P. 
Coolldge, Wm. D. 
Creighton, E. E. 
DantEizen, Christian 
Dushman, Paul 
Hawkins, L. A. 
Langmulr, I. 
Lof, E. A. 
Murphy, E. J. 
ReJst. H. G. 
Rushmore, D. B. 
Seede, J. A. 
Stelnmetz, C. P. 
Taylor, J B. 
Thurston, L. S. 
Van Brunt, C. 
Whitney. W. R. 
Wllley, L. M. 
Winder, C. A. 



Syracnee 



Berry, G. M. 
Brookfleld, W. B. 
Conklin, E. B. 
Handy, B. H. 
Harvey, F. A. 
Mathews, J. A. 
Newklrk, EI. D. 
Pennock, J. D. 



Troy — 



Bryeon, T. A. 
Lincoln, A. T. 
Pa ton, D. C. 



Vonkere 



Baekeland, L.. H. 
Daurloo, F 
Pleh, Job, Jr, 



NORTH CAROLINA 

AiihevUle — 

BettB, A. G. 
Bsdin— 

Moormann, T. A. 
Mueser, Emil 
Parks, R. E. 

Charlotte — 

Gilchrist, P. S. 
Ross, E. S. 

Clemmons — 

Pickens, Rufus H. 
We»t Kaleigrh — 

Browne, W. H. 



OHIO 

Akron — 

Knight, M. A. 
Mann, W. W. 
Shaw, E. C. 

AMetnce — 

Bally, T. F. 
Brown, F. E., Jr. 
Cope, F. T. 
Foster, C. L. 

Barberton — 

Austin, A. O. 

Canton — 

MacGregor, Walter 
Meyer, R. 

Cincinnati — 

Davison, A. W. 
Uittmar, Carl 
Ecker, Howard, Jr. 
Elliott, Geo. K. 
Pugh, A. H., Jr. 

Olevelacd — 

Barron, A. N. 
Burwell, A. W. 
Chillas, R. B., Jr. 
Clymer, W. R. 
Crider, J. S. 
Fahrenwald, F. A. 
Fleming, S. H. 
Graves, W. G. 
Hamlster, V. C. H. 
Herron, J. H. 
Holmes, M. E. 
Hyde, E. P. 
Keen, Wm. H. 
Koehler, W. 
Kranz, W. G. 
Malnwaring, Wm. D. 
Marshall, G. G. 
McBerty, F. R. 
Megroot, J. P. 
Merrill, G. S. 
Morrison, G. O. 
Orr, C. A. 
Pratt, E. B. 
Richardson, E. A. 
Schmidt, J. H. 
Smith, A. W. 
St. John, H. M. 
Tower, O. F. 
Wellman, S. T. 
Whlllock, E. H. 
Woodward, J. M. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



59 



OHIO — ContliMed 

Oolwiabas — 

Dexnorest, D. J. 
Leonard, G. it. 
Lower, J. R. 
Schaaf, Downs 
Wlthrow, J. R. 

Day ton — 

Clements, P. O. 
Fox, C. P. 
Hummert, R. H. 
Niswonger, E. E. 
Suman, R. G. 

Foetoria — 

Downes, A. C 

Fr^nont — 

Goodwin, J. H. 

Lake wood — 

Brooks, W. C. 
Bullock, A. R. 
Chaney, N. K. 
Drefahl, L. C. 
GUlingham, C. A. 
Hazelett. C. W. 
Hitch, A. R. 
Moore, Wm. C. 
Mott, W. R. 
Orcway, D. L. 
Pulnian, O. S. 
Reid, R. R. 



Lima 



Arthur, Walter 



Mansfleld — 

Corse, W. M. 
Pence. M. F. 

Middletown — 

Ahlbrandt, G. F. 
Eldridge, 8. E. 

Norwood — 

Bell, Wm. H. 

Portsmouth — 

Kinnear, H. B. 

Rittman — 

I-alb. Walter 

Salem — 

Davis, D. li. 

Toledo — 

Moorhouse, L. E. 

Nagel, W. G. 

West. P. A. 
Wadsworth — 

Shapiro, H. 
Zanesville — 

Tanner, W. L. 



OKLAHOMA 

Bartle«ville — 

Born, Sidney 
Long, G. E. 

Shawnee — 

Dodge, W. E. 

Tvhsa — 

Hlgglns, E. C, Jr. 
Kroll, Cornelius 
Uiller, Walter 
Taber, G. H., Jr. 



OREGON 
Comacopia — 

Nestler. G. A. 
CorTallid — 

Strong, R. K. 
Portland — 

Hall, B. L. 

Morrison, W. L. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Allentown — 

McCullough, H. P. 

Sefing, P G. 
Altoona — 

Casselberry, H. 
Ambridge — 

Farnham, F. F. 

Meineke, O. H. 
Ardmore — 

Brumbaugh, A. K. 
Aspinwall — 

Hedden, S. E. 

Hessom, B. F., Jr. 

McMillen, R. H. 
Bellefonte — 

Ward. A. T. 
BetMehem — 

Blasius, C. E. 

Buck, C. A. 

Butts, Allison 

Drinker, P. H. 

Pehnel, J. Wm. 

Golick, T. F. 

Hommel, R. P. 

Kay, M. J. 

Lehr, H. D. 

MacNutt, Barry 

Hitman, W. T. 

Mural, Ichiro 

Richards, J. W. 

Roush, G. A- 

Seyfert, S. S. 

Yano, M. 

Boston — 

Fuseya, G. 
Braekenridge — 

Connell, H. R. 

Ober. J. E. 
Bridgevllle — 

Anderson, A. N. 

Saklatwalla, B. D. 
BTi»<tol — 

Hollander, C. S. 
Canonsbnrg — 

Nicholson, K. C. 

Patterson, C. Thos. 

Vogt, L. P. 
Chester — 

Comey, A. M. 

Krause, W. B. 
Coraopolis — 

Bensen, Bmll 

Stafford. & G. 
Otelffhton — 

Gelstharp, P. 
Cynwyd — 

Parkhurst. a W. 

D«rBM»Bt — 

Taylercon, G. & 



6o 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



PENNSYLVANIA— Continued 



Duqaesne — 

^■ummin3, A. C. 
Eakin. C. T. 
Stewart. H. M. 

Eaaton — 

Adanxson. G. P- 
Buhl, Wm. 
Chapin, H. C. 
Gordon, C. McC. 
Hart, E. 
Shlmer, E. B. 

Edgewood Park — 

Scott. W. S. 

Ellwood City- 
Dunn, J- J- 
Offutt. J. W. 

Emporiiini — 

Walker, G. E. 



Erie 



Moore, C. W. 
Schabacker, H. E. 
Valentine, I. R- 



Gettysburg:— 

Parsons, !-'• a.. 

Greensbnrg— 

Koppitz. c *J- 

Hamburg — 

Reese, P- "• 

Harrisburg — 

Klnter, G. R- 
Smith. J. H. 

Jenkintown— 

Davis, R. W., .ir. 

Johnsonbnrgr — 

Buckie, H. H. 

Lancaster — 

MUler, L. B. 

Latrobe — 

Garratt, Frank 
Knox, L.. B. 
Sessions, R- L. 
Sherk, H. C 

Lebanon — 

Welmer, E. A. 

McKeesport— , ^ m 
Goodspeed, G. M-. 

Monessen — 

Owens, E. W. 

Mount Airy — 

Hall, C. A. 

Mount Penn— 

Kramer, L- t>- 

Munball— 

Hopkins, G. A. 

Natrona — »„„ w t 

Darlington, ii- -i- 

>'ew Castle— 

Samuels, Wm. J:". 

New Kensingrton— 

Blough, Earl 
Frary. F. C. 
Hamor, W. A. 

Oakmont — • 

Hitner, H. 1?. 
Moore, J. B- 



PENNSYLVANIA— Continued 

Palmerton — 

Breyer, F. G. 
Holsteln, L. S. 
Smull. J. G. 
Vanderwaart, P. T. 

Philadelphia — 

Asef, Waldemar 
Bash, F. E. 
Bassett, H. P. 
Benoliel, S. D. 
Berger, E. J. 
Bonine, Chas. E. 
Bright. A. C. 
Brophy, O. 
Brown, R- P- 
Buch. N. W. 
Bustos, Enrique 
Canfleld, J. M., Jr. 
Chillas, R. B. 
Clamer, G. H. 
Corbin. J. Ross 
Devereux, W. 
Eglin, W. C. L. 
Flinn. E. H. 
Fraley, J- C. 
Frlckey. R- E. 
Fulweiler. W. H. 
Fu ness, R. 
Gailey, A. J. 
Glbbs. A. B. 
Gruse, W. A. 
Herlng, C. 
Hess. H. 

Hicks. Edwin F. 
Higgins. D. F. 
Hildebrand, J. H. 
Hitchcock, F. R. M- 
Holland, W. E. 
Howard, G. M. 
James, W. F. 
Johnson, W. McA. 
Keith. N. S. 
Kent. S. L- 
Kutz. Milton 
Lafore, J. A. 
Lavlno, E. J. 
Lay, J. Tracy 
Lukens. H. S. 
Mahlman. O. L. 
McConnell, J. Y. 
Meigs, C. C. 
Merzbaclier. Aaron 
Meyer, J. 
Moerk. F. N. 
Mottinger. B. T. 
Neville, Neil 
Ogden, John 
Oldach. F. W. 
Paul. H. N. 
Peirson, C. L. 
RUtenhouse, E. 
Rosenfeld, J. R- 
Rosengarten, G. D. 
Russell, C. J. 
Ryan. F. J. 
Sadtler. S. P. 
Sadtler. S. S. 
Salom, P. G. 
Schamberg, M. 
Scott, W. M. 
Smith. E. F. 
Smith, E. W. 
Smith, H. F., Jr. 
Smith. I. B. 
Stevens. J. F. 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



61 



PEN N8 YL.VAN1A— Continned 

Philikdelpbia — Continned 

TaKgart, W. T. 
Taylor, H. N. 
Thwing, C. B. 
Weeks. C. A. 
Weisenburg, Andrew 
Wells, H. P. 
Williams, H. J 
Wilson. T. E. 
Wirt, Chas. 

PlttsbDrirh — 

Aston, James 
Bacon, R. P. 
Braley, H. D. 
Brown, John T., Jr. 
Clarke, E. B. 
Crabtree, F. 
Crawford, C. A. 
Darrjn, Marc 
Dewey, B. 
Dougherty, J. W. 
Dunn, H. E. 
Edgerton, C. T. 
nannery, Jas. J. 
Gibson, C. B. 
Goodale, S. L. 
Grumbling, J. S. 
Hartley, R. H. 
Hitchcock. H. K. 
James, J. H. 
Jones, G. W. 
Kemery, P. 
Kler, S. M. 
Laughlin, H. H. 
Lincoln, P. M. 
Lioeffler, Geo. O. 
Lyon, D. A. 
Mathias, D. L. 
McDonald, R. A. 
McKjnley, Jos. 
McNiff. G. P. 
Meyers, H. H. 
Moore, R. W. E. 
Moore, W. E. 
O'Neil, R. D. 
Page, G. S. 
Palmer, C. S. 
Pinkerton, A. 
Plock, A. F. 
Pope, Chas. E. 
Ray, H. C. 
Rodman, H. 
Schluederberg, C. G. 
Schoppf. T. H. 
Skinner, C. E. 
Slocum, F. L. 
Snyder, C. G. 
Speller, P. N. 
Stone, E. C. 
Stupakoff, S. H. 
Styri, Haakon 
Takikawa, T. 
Turnock, L. C. 
Uhlenhaut. F., Jr. 
Unger, J. S. 
Viol, C. H. 
"Weidlein, E. R. 
Wiley, B. 

Tardley, J. L. McK. 
Zimmerman, R. E. 

Frimos — 

Boericke, G. 

Readlnsr — 

Shindell, H. F. 



PENNSYLVANIA— Continued 
Roaring: Spring^g^ 

McDonald, F. 
Slatington — 

Eberwein, S. J. 
Sprlngdale — 

Cox, S. F. 
State College — 

Chedsey, W. R. 

Dudley, Boyd, Jr. 

Pond, G. G. 
Steelton — 

Reed, J. C. 
St. Mar.vs— 

Smith, G. S. 

Wilson, G. C. 
Swarthniore — 

Alleman, G. 

Creighton, H. J. 
Stvlssvale — 

Lewis, J. D. 
Tamaqua — 

Burt, M. C. 

Given, G. C. 

McQuaid, H. S. 

Tarentum — 

Parkinson, J. C. 
Titu8Tille — 

Evans, C. T. 

Tyrone — 

Woodbridge, W. E, 

Verona — 

Rodman, Hugh 

Washington — 

Duval, A. L. 
Johnson, Jesse 
Sargent, G. W. 
Weitzenkorn, J. W. 

Wilkin sbnrg — 

Higgins, D. F. 

O'Neill, W. J. 

Parker, J. H. 

Towle. N. L. 
York— 

Devers. P. K. 
Youngrstown — 

Russell, D. A. 



RHODE ISLAND 
Newport — 

Richards, E. 
ProTidence — 

Saunders, W. M. 
Stahl, N. 
Thurber, J. H. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston — 

Hughes, H. 
Colombia — 

Mills, J. E. 
Sumter — 

Van Deventer, H. R. 



62 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBEiJS. 



TENNE8SKB 

Aliens Creek — 

Foust, T. B. 
Brentwood — 

Hogan, F. W. 
Chattanooga — 

Davison, G. L. 
Kruesi, P. J. 

Knoxvllle— 

Swltzer, J. A. 

Marj-ville— 

Adams, T. J. 

Mascot — 

Toomer, J. E. 

TKXAS 

Aostio — 

Harper, H. W. 
Schoch, E. P. 
Walker, T. B. 

Fort Worth— 

Czarnecki, F. C. 
Eastman, H. M. 

Houston — 

Henst, J. V. 
Weiser, H. B. 

Port Arthur — 

Alexander, C. M. 
Slater, W. A. 
Stockton-Abbott, L.. 

Sonierville — 

Kroemer, F. W. 

UTAH 

La Sal — 

Morgan, H. J. 
Midvale — 

Cullen, J. F. 
Hamilton, E. H. 

Pleasant Grove — 

Hayes, J. J. 

Provo City — 

Smith. F. W. 
Salt L^ke City — 

Austin, L.. S. 
Bradford, R, H. 
Hansen, C. A. 
Koerlng, B. K. 
Putnam. W. R. 
Thum, E. E. 

VERMONT 

Northfleld — 

Howard, S. F. 

VIRGINIA 

Alexandria — 

Fawcett, L.. H. 
Camp A. A. Humphreys — 

Waldo, W. B. 

Charlottebville — 

Grasty, J. S. 
Martin, J. W., Jr. 
Weaver, W. D. 

Norfolk- 
Webb, L. W. 

Portsmocth — 

Barclay, E. H 



VIRGINIA — Conttnu«d 

Kkilunond — 

Walters, Jos. 

Roanoke — 

Haig, J. E. 
Marshall, S. B. 

University — 

Dunnlngton, F. P. 

Yorktown — 

Williams, E. R. 

VTASHINGTON 

Seattle — 

Dunlap, T. E. 
Galley, W. R. 
Magnussen, C. E. 
Miller, A. A. 
Thomas, B. 

SpokAue— 

Armstrong, L. K. 
Bowman, F. C. 
Keffer, Frederick 

Tacoma — 

Everette. W. B. 
MacPnerson, .^. R. 
Porro. T. J. 
Zischkau, O. C. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston — 

App, J. C. 

Pierce, J. B.. Jr. 

RolUn, Hugh 
Morgantown — 

Clark, F. E. 

Hite, B. H. 
Piedmont — 

Randall, J. W. H. 

St. Albans — 

Sargent, R. N. 

Warwood — 

Bumgardner, J. W. 

WISCONSIN 

Ciirrollville — 

Ccre.'iole, M. A. 

Emu Claire — 

Thompson, J. G. 

MadlMin — 

Burgess. C. F. 
Helfrecht, A. J. 
Kahlenberg, L. 
Kowaike, O. L. 
Ruhoff, O. E. 
Schulte, W. B. 
Storey, O. W. 
Watts, O. P. 
Milwaukee — 

Adams, J. I^-. Jr. 
Bovee, B. A. 
Chadwick, R. A., Jr. 
Kremers, J. G. 
Nash, C. A. 
Raeth, F. C. 
Zlmmermann, J. G. 

Turtle Lake — 

Richardson, U T. 

WYOMING 

Tbaraiopolls — 

Freeman, G. N. 



DrRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



63 



BRITISH COLCOtBIA 
Nelson — 

Fowler, S. S. 
Tp»U— 

Lytle, L. B. 

Wood, E. M. 
TaaeoHver — 

Barwlek, W. S. 

Haggen, E. a. 

Eayward, R. F. 

Mcintosh, D. 

Tudhope, H. R 



MANITOBA 
Winnipeg — 

Armes, H. P. 



NOVA SCOTIA 

New Glassrow— 

Cant3ey, T. 



ONTARIO 

Kakabeka Falls — 

Parrow, P. R, 
Kingston — 

Goodwin, L. p. 
Goodwin, W. L. 
London — 

Benson, G. C. 
Merritton — 

Hedalen, John 
Niagara Falls — 

Doyle, H. L. 
Gardner, G. N. 
OJlbway — 

BaUk,ell, W. H. 
Orangeville — 

Deagle, L. m. 
Ottawa — 

Frost, G. B. 
Sandwich — 

Walker, G H. P. 
Sadbory — 

Morln, H. A. 
Toronto- 
Bain, J. W. 
Barrows, W. S. 
Boewell, W. O. 
Buit-Gerrans, J. T. 



CANADA. 



ONTARIO— tontlnaed 
Toronto — Continued 

Crafts, W. N. 

DInsmore, R. p 

Cfaby, P. A. 

GuoBS, G. A. 

Hedatrom, E. S. 

Kenrlck, F. B. 

MacDougall, A. J. 

MUIer, W. L 

Moffat. J. w. 

Salisbury, E. F. W. 
Trenton — 

Benson, G. C. 
Welland — 

Carnegie, E. 
Eaton, I. C. 
Gulnther, John 
Humbert, E. P. 
Kelleher, James 
Renton, W. L. 
Turnbull, R. 
Wilson, W. K. 
Young, John 
Windsor — 

Henderson, E. G. 
Vorce. U. D. 

QUEBEC 
Buckingham — 

Hambley, F. J. 
Chandler — 

Hedin. Jos. E. 
HoU— 

Bennie, P. McN. 
Wilson, J. R. 
LonguevU — 

Platts, J. c. 
Montreal — 

Davidson, T. R. 
Medbury, C. F. 
Pascoe, C. P. 
Stansfield, A. 
Ottawa — 

Haanel, E. 
Simpson, Louis 
Shawinigan Falls — 
Acton, E. H. 
Allen, D. E. 
Brown, N. B. 
Cadenhead, A. P. G. 
Crowther, C. W. W. 
Matheson, H. W. 
Wither-spoon, R. A. 
Westiuoont — 

Spencer, A. G. 



Havana — 

Y Pont, G. Y. 



CUBA. 



Santiaigo— 

Hill, R. H. 



Mexico City — 



DeLandero, C. P. 
Hlnton, G. B. 



MEXICO. 



Orizaba — 

WUkins. E. M. 
Torreon — 

Berthfer. U. H. 



64 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



SOUTH AMERICA. 



BRAZIL 

Bio de Janeiro — 

De Medelros, T. S. V. 

8. Paulo — 

Bowles, R. H. 
De Souza, E. 
Pompeia, Jonas 

Villa Nova de Lima — 

Jones, H. 
Wilder, F. L. 

CHILE 

Chnquicamata — 

Dalmeida, J. A. 
Jorgensen, E. L. 
Krog, Karl M. 
McClenahan, J. S. 
Oldrlght. G. L. 
Smith. F. T. 



CHILE — Continned 
Iquique — 

Boesch, J. E. 

Rancagua — 

Stevens, W. L. 

Santiago — 

Cardoen, Remy 
Diaz-Ossa, B. 

Valparaiso — 

Hobsbawn, I. B. 



PERU 



Lima — 



D'Ornellas, T. V. 



AUSTRALASIA. 



NEW SOUTH WALE8 

Mt. Hope— 

Du Faur, J. B. 

Port Kembla — 

White, E. A. 

Uoonta Mines — 

Hancock, H. L. 

Sydney — 

Murphy, R. K. 

Wallaroo — 

Hancock, H. L. 

NEW ZEALAND 

Christ Churcli — 

Starlc. E. E. 
Daaedin — 

Shepherd, F. R. 



QUEENSLAND 
Brisbane — 

Henderson, J. B 
Jackson, A. G. 
Mt. Morgan — 

Johns, M. J. 

VICTORIA 
Melbourne — 

Gillies, P. M. 
Wood, Bertram 

TASMANIA 

Hobart — 

Chappell, Wm. C. 
Gepp, H. W. 

Queenstown — 

Stlcht, R. C. 



ASIA. 



CHINA 

Lincheng — 

Kwang, K. T. 
Szecbnen — 

Chiang, Y. K. 

JAPAN 

Cliiba-l(en — 

Tabata, Kozo 

Eclilgo— 

Nakamura, Tushichlro 

Eliimeken — 

Yabe, C. 
Fnknolia — 

Kaneko, K. 

Tatsumi, Eliichl 
FnliUBhimalien — 

Nakashlma, Shigemaro 

Tad a, Kozo 
Hongkong — 

Wong, K. T. 
Hyogo-ken — 

Murahashi, S. 



J A PAN — Continued 
Isbikatvaken — 

Iwai, Kyosuke 
Kawasald — 

Matsushita, N. 

Kobe — 

Isobe, F. 
Tachihara, Jin 
Tada, S. 

Korea — 

Kawamura, Takeshi 

Kyoto — 

Arakawa, Eijl 
Nalcasawa, Tosbio 
Namba, M. 
Nishlkawa, Klkel 
Yoshlkawa, K. 

Nagano — 

Takabashl, Taketaro 

Nagoya — 

Horl, S. 

Nikk*— 

Kaku. Juroka 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



65 



ASIA — Contintjed. 



JAPAN— Continued 
Oeak» — 

Ikeda, Kenzo 
Itoh, Ichiio 
Shigaken — 

Kuiahashi, T. 

Tajima — 

Higashi, S. 

Tobye — 

Gotoh, Issaku 
Higashi, Sentaro 
Inui, K. 



JAPAN — Continued 



Tokyo — Continued 

Ishikawa, Ichiro 
Kanieyama, Naoto 
Katsura, B. 
Kato, T. 
Kishi, K. 
Mine, S. 

Nishida, Hirotaro 
Nohara, T. 
Oshima, Y. 
Watanabe, H. 
Yamasaki, J. 



AFRICA. 

CAPE COLONY 
Somerfeet. Weet — Quinan, K. B. 



EUROPE. 



BIXGICM 



Brnesele 



Cito, C. C. 
Solvay, A. 



Jemeppe — 

Queneau, A. L. J. 

Mons — 

Henault, O-Dony. 

Neerpalt — 

Raeder, Bjoin 

FRANCE 

Paris — 

deGecfroy, A. 
Gall, H. 
Halter, Georges 
Keller, C. A. 
Marie, C. 
Osthelmer, J. W. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

BirmlBsrliam — 

Threlfall, R. 

Essex — 

Jones, H. A. 

Irvine (Scotland) — 

Walker, J. W. 

Liverpool — 

Smith, A. T. 

Lendon — 

Ash croft, E. A. 

Berk, P. F. 

Brown, P. Hunter 

Chalas, A. 

Cornthwaite, Haydn 

Cowper-Coles, S. 

Goldstein, P. 

Hadfield, R. A. 

Merz, C. H. 

Oakden, W. E. 

Sprague, E. C. 

Walters, George 
Manahester — 

Pring, J. N. 
Middlesex — 

Jacob, Arthur 



GREAT BRITAIN— Continued 

Slieffield — 

Cutts, V. O. 
Dalton, A. C. 
Pawcett, P. 
Klowman, Hennlng 
Rowland, T. 
Somerset — 

Castle, G. C. 

Stafford — 

Hill, Stafford 

Waltbamstow — 

Wilder, F. L. 
Widner — 

Pritchard, D. A. 



Lignre 



MUan- 



ITALY 

Giolittl, F. 

Rossi, C. 

Catanl, Remo 
Chiaravlglio, D. 
Morani, Fausto 



NORWAY 

Bergren — 

Turner, M. R. 
Tysland, Geo. 

Cbristiania — 

Bjornson, E. 
Bryn, K. 
Collett, E. 
Collett, Ove 
Goldschmidt, Heinrich 
Gronningsater, Anton 
Hlorth, A. 
Hlorth, P. V. L. 
Hole, Ivar 
Homan, C. H. 
Johansen, G. H. 
]L.enschow, H. H. 
Olsen, T. S. 
RoU-Hansen, C. 
Thorne, C. A. 



66 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS. 



EUROPE— Continued. 



NORWAY— Contlnaed 
Dnunmen — 

Sturbelle, L. C. 
Fredriksstad — 

Moltkehansen, I. J. 
Ha.r clanger — 

vonKrogh, JohaH 
Hoyanser — 

Somdal, J. A. 
Nakkerud — 

Loken, R. 
Odda — 

Glersten, S. 
RJvkan — 

Bonnevle, H. 

Nil.'-aen, Bjarne 
Trundhjem — 

Farup, P. 

Saeter, H. B. 

RUSSIA 
Ab« dflnland) — 

Aminoft'. G. 

SPAIN 
Unelva — 

Shields, John 
Madrid— 

Lana, Casiiniro 
Tarraaa — 

Balta de Cela, Jose 



8WBDBX 

DJursholm — 

Berglund, E. S. 

KrinR, Oskar 
Falun — 

Yngatrom, I^ 
Stockholm — 

CarlsoH, Blrger 

Groenwall, Assar 

Leffler, J. A. 

LUja, S. G. 

L.jungh, Hjalmar 

Olsson, H. 

Tingberg, Otto 
TroUhattan — 

Forssell, J. 

Cddeholm — 

Lindberg. S. C. 
Vesteras — 

Edstrom, .1. S. 

Torell, T. F. 
Westervik — 

TlUberg, E W. 

SWITZERLAND 

Basel — 

Flchtei-Bei-noulll, F. 
Geneva — 

GandiUon, A. 

Guye, P. A. 

Ijacroiz. H. 
Turgi — 

Liadolt. H. 



Presented as part of a Syi'<t^ostnm on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 1918, Presi 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



THE GOVERNMENT AND THE TECHNICAL iVIAN AFTER THE WAR. 

By F. A. LiD8u«Y.i 

The title of this paper is a compromise. What our president 
asked me to talk on was "The participation of technical men in 
the affairs of the Government after the war." I replied that what 
I was interested in was the participation of the Government in 
the affairs of technical men after the war — which is quite a dif- 
ferent matter ; and the modified title he has assigned to me seems 
to be broad enough to cover both phases of the matter. 

I suppose it is the sardonic and mephistophelian temperament 
of our president which has induced him, with a view to the sub- 
sequent enjoyment of quiet and scornful laughter, to place in 
the way of the participants in this symposium the temptation to 
indulge in prophecy. I, at any rate, shall dodge, and shall attempt 
to remember that the only way to judge the future is by the past, 
and that, as regards the future post-war conditions, there never 
has been any past worth speaking of. This self-denying ordi- 
nance will obviously limit me to some observations and reflections 
on the relations between the Government and the technical man 
during the war, and since both personal and national considera- 
tions demand that such matters should be treated in a general 
and hazy rather than in a specific manner they will be susceptible 
neither of proof nor of disproof, though this will leave them all 
the more open to violent discussion and controversy, even of the 
shorter and uglier kind. 

For the past year and a half the Government has had not only 
at its call but under its control all the scientific and technical men 
in the country ; and not only the personnel, but also the whole 
fabric of the industrial structure of the country. In regard to 

1 Works Manager, Oldtiurj' Kleclrochemical Co., Niagara Falls. N. Y. 

6- 



68 F. A. LIDEURY. 

the relations which have been estabHshcd, inquiry is pertinent on 
two points ; how have they worked and how do we like them ? 
And in discussing these matters of results and of taste, let us 
remember that we are discussing them with reference to post-war 
conditions and therefore leave out of consideration the emergency 
conditions under which these relations have been established and 
the unanswerable question whether the objects desired could have 
been attained better, or at all, by other means. 

It would of course be more in keeping with the original scheme 
of this symposium if I could deal with the relations between the 
Government and the technical man apart from the far wider 
question of the interference of the Government with the affairs 
of everyday Hfe and of industry. But this is obviously impos- 
sible. If there is no such interference, there need be no such 
relations; and the extent of the latter will depend upon the re- 
quirements of the former. That such interference must, in many 
respects, continue for some time after the war is obvious ; the 
question is, have the results of the Government ownership of the 
technical man been so desirable as to make us hanker after its 
continuance ? Before considering this question it should be made 
clear that the characteristics to be noted are in no way those of 
such government organizations and bureaus as were functioning 
in pre-war days ; in many instances indeed these have proved 
their worth by taking upon themselves promptly war-time duties 
of prime importance, and executing these with thoroughness and 
dispatch prior to the time when the rather unwieldy organization 
of the general government began to take cognizance of these 
duties. 

The first characteristic in the relations between the Govern- 
ment and the technical man which has struck me is the frequency 
with which a man, expert in his line, is selected for duties in which 
to say the least he is anything but expert. Of course this is not 
confined to technical men, but has been rather a general charac- 
teristic of governmental activities, to such an extent, indeed, as 
to inspire Senator Brandegee's remark in answer to a question 
in the Senate as to whether Mr. Gutzon Borglum knew anything 
about aeroplanes, to the effect that he did not know, but that as 



THE GOVERNMENT AND THE TECHNICAL MAN. 69 

Mr. Borglum had been selected by the administration to investi- 
gate the subject he presumed not. Probably the most frequent 
example of the misfit of the technical man in government service 
which the members of this Society will have encountered is he 
who, brought from academic life, is faced with the consideration 
of and decision on questions of industrial import of the essential 
features of which he has no experience whatever. I have more 
than once heard eminent gentlemen, for instance, solemnly esti- 
mate the cost of chemical materials new as articles of manufac- 
ture by adding together the value of the equivalent weights of 
component materials and neglecting all other items. Of course, 
greenness is characteristic of the scientific man on his first intro- 
duction to technical and industrial problems ; and it does not take 
him long, owing to his training, to obtain a reasonable orientation. 
This condition is common to private and governmental service. 
What is not common to both is the laxity 01 organization which 
permits important matters to be handled by persons not vet 
trained and experienced in them. This is not possible in private 
enterprise, as no enterprise could continue to exist under such 
conditions. 

It is not intended to suggest that the mis-employment of the 
scientific and technical man in government service is general. 
On the contrary, and fortunately, just the right men for a given 
purpose have, surprisingly often under the circumstances, been 
selected. As far as my observation has gone, however, I doubt 
whether anything like maximum utilization of their services has 
been made. Of the three main branches of work of the technical 
man, investigation, development, production, the first has been 
largely in fields which in any event pertain solely to the govern- 
ment service. In these fields publicity is out of the question, 
and no method exists by which the effectiveness of the work can 
be measured. It is certain, however, that the Government has 
commanded the services of a far more brilliant scientific personnel 
than could ever be obtained for the technical problems of normal 
times. Perhaps I should say, could ever have been obtained ; 
for one result of the present conditions has been to bring about 
that close contact between the highest exponents of pure science 



^O F. A. UDBURY. 

and the fields of application of chemistry and engineering the 
absence of which has been the subject of so many regretfully 
worded theses. What effects of this will remain in post-war 
days belong again to the realms of prophecy ; but one may feel 
quite certain in hazarding the conviction that the two fields will 
never fall so far apart as before, and that industry will be the 
gainer to the extent that it permanently receives the originality 
of view and boldness of conception of the pure scientist. It can- 
not, hov/ever, be claimed that in the branches of development and 
production the role of the technical man has been improved by 
his contact with the Government. Of development, indeed, little 
has been done by direct government agencies, which must neces- 
sarily have been the case owing to the absence of facilities. 
Where development has been necessary, the facilities and per- 
sonnel of industry have been called into action ; and the interesting 
thing is the extent to which the origin of such development work- 
as well as the enthusiasm for its execution has been found to 
spring from the industries themselves rather than from the gov- 
ernmental agencies principally concerned. These agencies have in 
this respect confined themselves largely to the work of collation 
and co-ordination, work which at first was done very largely 
without tact, discrimination, or knowledge, but which has during 
the present year been vastly improved. I must say that in the 
whole field of technical work, the phase of development is the 
one which is most neglected by almost all branches of the Govern- 
ment. In hitherto untried matters they step from the drawing 
board, or the test tube, to a stage of unheard-of production ; 
obsessed with the idea of doing it big, instead of doing it right. 
The aeroplane situation shows more clearly than anything else 
the inevitable result of such procedure forty-nine times out of 
fifty; the fiftieth of course is a brilliant success. It cannot be 
said that the technical man has been guiltless in this matter. He 
has been freely consulted, in many cases he has been placed in 
control ; and he cannot be acquitted of having failed to insist that 
cerebration, however intense, cannot be substituted for trial and 
experiment, and that the latter course, apparently slow, gives the 
quickest results in the end. Here, however, is another difference 



THE GOVERNMENT AND THE TECHNICAL MAN. 7 1 

between the technical man in private and in governmental service : 
radical error or incompetence in the former case, where he cannot 
"pass the buck," leads to him "getting it in the neck," in the latter 
case leads to someone else getting it in the neck. In chemical 
lines, at any rate, little of the important development work that 
has been done in various fields all the way from potash to dyes 
has received much stimulation at the hands of the Government, 
and though there are now fields in which the Government is taking 
a very direct hand in development, the success of its activities is 
closely bound up with the close co-operation which it has gradually 
succeeded in establishing with the industries affected. 

In regard to production, the Government's relations with the 
technical man are exercised largely through its present control 
of industry. The industrial man has had to contend with a great 
many unnecessary hindrances to production. Happy he whose 
only hindrances are the inescapable deluge of questionnaires and 
the equally inescapable swarm of visiting officers ! Undefined 
or ill-defined requirements, frequent changes of these without 
notice, the inevitable red-tape, lack of departmental co-ordination 
— these are some of the things that the chemical and electrochem- 
ical industries have had to contend with, though fortunately only 
to a comparatively slight extent. In general it seems as though 
the Government furnished an extraordinary proof of the general 
law that the efficiency of an organization, in some important re- 
spects, varies inversely as its size. We have a national habit of 
believing that when there is a job to be done, all we have to do 
is to sit down and draw what I believe is known as an organiza- 
tion chart ; and that, this done, the job will then proceed to take 
care of itself, and the more complex the chart the better the 
organization will function. I have become convinced, on the 
contrary, that the larger and more complex an organization is, 
the more difficult it is to obtain that co-ordination between parts 
which leads to a harmonious operation of the whole. The opera- 
tion of natural laws, and the survival of the most effective, force 
the same type of devolution in industrial as in political affairs; 
it is under normal conditions just as ridiculous to set up a Peace 
Industries Board to regulate the thickness and price of hairpins 



72 F. A. UDBURY. 

as it would be for Congress to deal with such questions as the 
regulation of bathing costumes at Atlantic City. 

1 have therefore Httle doubt, both as a matter of national effec- 
tiveness and because we will not tolerate in post-war times what 
we accept at present willingly and without demur, that the rela- 
tions of the Government to industry, and consequently to the 
technical man, will resume their former aspect without any radical 
modification. Many of the technical men now in government 
service will no doubt continue in such service, as it is incon- 
ceivable that we should again leave our scientific and technical 
preparation for war to be improvised, after the lesson we have 
had. There will remain with these that knowledge of and touch 
with the industries of the country which they have acquired in 
the present crisis ; in other words, we shall have at our disposal, 
if we care to continue it, an imexcelled machine for military 
invention and industrial organization. The technical men of the 
peace-time government bureaus will have acquired a breadth of 
vision and experience through the extension of their activities 
in these times which will be for the permanent benefit of all. 
But the majority will resume their industrial or academic pursuits, 
though there is likely to be a heavy transfer of the previous 
university teachers to industry, since a return to academic life 
would be too mild for many ! The industries will therefore have 
at their disposal a technical personnel richer than ever before, 
if only because of the wndth and intensity of experience acquired 
in government service under the present strenuous conditions. 
And such services will be needed to the full to enable the indus- 
tries to adapt themselves to the enormous and unimaginable re- 
adjustment which the end of the war will bring with it. For 
war is not only destructive, but suspensive ; and not a great per- 
centage of the technical advance which it has brought will be 
adaptable to times of peace. We shall still be short many thou- 
sand men-years in the advancement of technical applications to 
peace-time industries, and, as I see it, governmental relations wall 
have little to do with the making up of lost time in these respects, 
which will be the principal duty and object of the technical man 
after the war. 



THE GOVERNMENT AND THE TECHNICAL MAN. 73 



DISCUSSION. 

H. B. CoHO^ : Mr. President, when you requested me to discuss 
Mr. Lidbury's paper, I was somewhat loath to depart from my 
usual rule of silence, but upon reading the paper it occurs to me 
that a thought is involved which appeals to us all, not only as 
technical men, but as citizens and voters of the U. S. A. When 
Mr. Lidbury refers to the Government, he refers to each and 
every one of us, and, therefore, it is fit and proper that we should 
get from meetings such as this, and from Mr. Lidbury's remarks, 
a realization of our own responsibilities, and an aspiration to 
make ourselves equal to democracy. When Mr. Wilson says, 
"We are fighting to make the world safe for democracy," he 
might add : "and to demonstrate whether we are equal to democ- 
racy." Are we as trained men prepared to give up good positions 
and paying business at the call of the Government, and work 
unselfishly for the good and progress of our fellow citizens, or 
are we going to flinch when the call comes? Manifestly the 
Government must get the best there is in us. Just as the prepa- 
ration of our food has been largely left to take care of itself, so 
have mediocre men been allowed to handle our political destiny, 
because we and all like us lack the necessary fighting qualities 
which are required to see that only men honest enough to grasp 
the fundamental principle of right for the sake of right are voted 
into ofiice. Now I hope that we shall from this paper and this 
meeting get an inspiration which will make us realize as our para- 
mount duty the necessity of understanding democratic govern- 
ment, and our personal responsibilities. 

Mr. Lidbury refers to the questionnaire, and I want to tell 
you that it has been my privilege to watch the working out of this 
system. You would be amazed to see how often the right man 
is found for the right job. I see in the questionnaire the answer 
to "Know thyself" ; the Personnel Division takes you on your 
own rating, merely asking you to state what you can do, what 
you have done, and who knows you have done it, and many men 
have been drawn into the limelight who would otherwise never 

2 Uni.ted Lead Co., New York City. 

6 



74 DISCUSSION. 

have been heard from. Gentlemen, I am for the questionnaire ; 
it means self-examination, it means substantiation by our refer- 
ences, and it means a chance if we are worthy. 

While it is undoubtedly true that many men do over-rate them- 
selves, it is equally true that far more men under-rate themselves, 
and the point which I am endeavoring to put over, as a message 
and an inspiration from our Society, is that we must study the 
doctrine of self-government, and realize our responsibilities to 
the Government, and that in seeing the great things which have 
been done, we must not stumble or quibble at a few mistakes. 
If we will all, in our various activities, resolve each day to grow 
big enough for democracy, we will eventually have the greatest 
country and the greatest world that history has thus far seen. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on " Elec- 
trochemistry After the War." held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Eiectrocheniiral Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1. IVIH f'resi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AFTER THE WAR 

By Wilder D. Banckofi.i 

It has been said recently that a man who prophesies a great 
deal will be right occasionally. Be that as it may, it seems certain 
that there is to be a great develoijment of scientific research in 
organic chemistry after the war. All those who are not organic 
chemists are agreed that organic clicmistry has been in a bad 
way, especially in this country. Organic chemists have been inter- 
ested in making new compounds and in determining their consti- 
tution ; but they have cared relatively little about yields and con- 
sequently they have not been interested in the conditions afifecting 
the reactions. The organic chemists have not known enough 
physical chemistry and consequently have not recognized the 
really important possibilities. The physical chemists have not 
known enough organic chemistry to be able to do more than talk 
in generalities to their misguided colleagues, and it has looked 
like a hopeless deadlock. 

The situation has been changed completely by the war. The 
organic chemist has been forced to deal with hundreds and thou- 
sands of tons instead of with hundreds and thousands of milh- 
grams. On the large scale the question of yields is all-imijortant, 
and the university organic chemist has risen nobly to the emer- 
gency. In so doing he has acquired a new point of view and he 
will not lose this after the war. He has also had his eyes opened 
to gaps in his knowledge of which he was entirely unconscious. 
It is not enough to be able to make a given product ; it may also 
be necessary to make it from a given raw material. The inter- 
relation and the inter-conversion of the simpler carbon compounds 
has not been a problem which has aj^pealed strongly to anybody 
in the past, but it will be one of the very important problems 
of the immediate future. 

^ Lieut. Colonel, Chemical Warfare Service, U. S. A. 

75 



76 WII^DER D. BANCROFT. 

In the war work, any number of interesting problems have 
come up which are of distinct scientific interest, but which have 
no obvious military value and which consequently cannot be fol- 
lowed up now. These will be studied after the war. Another 
question which will come up will be that of possible uses of the 
war gases. The agriculturists now use hydrocyanic acid and some 
of the arsenic compounds. Phosgene will undoubtedly be an 
important reagent after the war, and it is not impossible that 
somebody will be able to make use of the so-called mustard gas 
in a legitimate way. 

The physiological peculiarities of the war gases have not been 
cleared up in a satisfactory manner as yet. We know that most 
toxic gases contain chlorine and that most of the lachrymators 
contain bromine ; but we do not know at all why some special 
chlorine compound may be as good a lachrymator as any bromine 
compound and we do not know why a given mono-brom com- 
pound should be a good lachrymator and the corresponding 
di-brom compound should be much less satisfactory. Some of 
these questions may be answered before the war is over, but there 
will be many left to be worked out later. 

Another subject which will receive a great deal of attention 
after the war is that of catalysis. In spite of the work of Sabatier 
and others, catalytic agents have been used relatively sparingly 
in organic chemistry, and some otherwise able chemists have 
looked very much askance at them. The war has changed this. 
We are now using platinum, nickel, charcoal, alumina, thoria, 
other oxides, etc., as catalytic agents, and we are beginning to 
recognize more clearly than ever before the scientific and com- 
mercial possibilities of catalytic agents in producing chlorination, 
hydrogenation, oxidation, substitution, condensation, dissociation, 
and synthesis. At present we use catalytic agents more or less 
blindly and empirically ; but there will be a systematic study of 
these substances after the war which will lead to all sorts of inter- 
esting results. As I see it now, the thing to do is to take all 
possible substances in a porous form and to try them on all sorts 
of reactions until one finds out just what a given catalytic agent 
can or cannot do. The development of the gas mask to be used 
against carbon monoxide is an extraordinarily satisfactory illus- 
tration of what can be accomplished by intelligent application to 
details. 



SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AFTER THE WAR. 77 

The members of this Society are keenly ahve to the importance 
of electrochemistry in furnishing many of the materials used in 
warfare. In addition, several applications of electrochemistry 
have been developed since the war began, and, while these cannot 
be discussed now, at least one entirely new field of scientific 
research has been opened up. 

What will be the conditions of research after the war? Every- 
body recognizes now that ten men working in a group can accom- 
plish more than ten men working singly. The Research Division 
of the Chemical Warfare Service has made good ; and very valu- 
able war work has been done by the Research Laboratories of 
the General Electric Co. and the National Carbon Co., to mention 
two out of a considerable number. The National Research Coun- 
cil is now trying to interest people in co-operative industrial 
research laboratories after the war, one for each industry. In 
addition to the industrial research laboratories there should be 
scientific research laboratories in connection with the universities. 
It is always more interesting to get down to actual cases, so I 
will tell you what I should like to do, though I see no prospect 
of the dream coming true. I should like to be the head of a 
large and well-equipped university research laboratory to work 
out the scientific basis for many of the empirical industries, such 
as those dealing with pigments, paper, photography, rubber, 
leather, celluloid, clay, dyeing, etc. There is an enormous field 
here and one where a great deal of progress could be made. 



DISCUSSION. 



W. S. Landis- : I think here and now is the time we ought 
to start in on the very question Dr. Bancroft brought up, and 
that is this question of yield. These hand books which tell us 
to mix A and B and get C ought to be required to put down how 
much A and B to mix and how much C we get. We should not 
accept mere qualitative facts in our literature. Somebody will 
have to make some such editorial ruling one of these days, and 
it might be a good thing to start it right here in the Society; 

* Chief Technologist, American Cyanamid Co., New York City. 



yS DISCUSSION. 

don't talk and write qualitatively : it does not make dollars for 
your company, as most of us have found. 

J. W. Richards^ : I commend the form of research which 
Professor Bancroft mentioned, namely, that of the trade associa- 
tions. I think we will find that there are two kinds of research ; 
Dr. Bancroft has pointed out one, that dealing with the funda- 
mental bases of the industry ; the other deals with the technique 
of the industry. There is a field for both classes of laboratories. 
The research laboratory, dealing with the fundamental facts and 
principles of the industry, should be undertaken and subsidized 
by the separate industries as a group ; they should club together 
and subsidize laboratories for the investigation of the general 
principles upon which their industry rests ; the results are pub- 
lished for the benefit of every one in the industry. But there arc 
certain technical details, the technique of the industry, which will 
always rest on individual initiative, and which will be the field 
for the individual company to exploit in its works laboratory ; 
research by which it may put itself ahead of its competitors. This 
kind of research is primarily of technique, and its possession is 
the valuable property of the company that pays for it ; the results 
will not pass freely into the literature like that of the first kind 
of research. We should distinguish between those two classes. 
I do not think the fact that an individual firm has a works re- 
search laboratory for improvement of technique should prevent 
a group of industries from having their own group laboratory, 
to deal with their common fundamental problems. 

C. G. ScHLUKDERBERG* : Dr. Bancroft touched on the question 
of co-ordination of the research laboratory with the university. 
Would it not be possible, after the war, for such co-ordination 
and co-operation between the research laboratories and the various 
universities to be established perhaps through a national university 
council which would ultimately result in better and more exhaus- 
tive work upon fundamentals? Do you think that is feasible? 

W. D. Bancroft : It is very desirable, but I do not know 
whether it is feasible, because we all hate our fellow-men and 
no two of us look at things the same way. Just how closely we 

» Professor of Metallurgy. Lehigh University. 

* Electrical Engineer. Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh. 



SCIICNTIFIC RESEARCH AFTER THE WAR. 79 

could co-operate if we wanted to, 1 do not know! I have never 
been able to get anybody to co-operate with me, I do not know 
whether it is his fault or mine ; of course. I have my own opinion. 

W. R. MoTT" : The amoimt and extent of information hidden 
in the literature is a big subject for research. If you took all 
the information given on any one subject in all the languages of 
the world, and in all the books and papers on physics, chemistry 
and engineering, the probability is that any average bit of infor- 
mation, that was considered new in a given country, had been 
duplicated seven or eight times in the world as a whole. In 
studying the literature on aluminum anodes this proved true. 
Hence it seems to me a crying need is that we ought to go after 
the making of good hand books on every subject of technical 
importance and then j)ut a good index (usually lacking in German 
books) in them and make them more comprehensive and concise 
than the clumsy German hand book. 1 believe it a good plan, 
for the sake of comprehensiveness, to put in poor material, but 
with suitable criticism. The Germans have an enormous number 
of hand books which we all seek because of their containing a 
fund of information, not because they are good, for they are 
really very poorly arranged. 

' Research Laboratory, National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 1918, Presi-- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



TARIFF PROBLEMS IN THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 

By Gkinnell Jones.' 

At this time of effort and sacrifice to win the war, it is worth 
while to give some thought to problems which must be faced 
when victory is won. The reorganization of the world will bring 
new problems in international and social relations, and in com- 
mercial industry. War, the destroyer, will leave wounds which 
will not heal for generations. We must salvage as much as pos- 
sible from the wreck. Advances in technical knowledge and new 
plants erected to supply war demands must be utilized as much 
as possible for peaceful purposes. The Tariff Commission is 
endeavoring to collect information which will be helpful to Con- 
gress in determining the part which the tariff is to play in read- 
justments that must come when peace is restored. 

Chlorine and Caustic Soda: It is a remarkable fact that chlorine 
has played a part in poison-gas warfare comparable with the role 
of nitric acid in the manufacture of explosives. Nearly all of the 
noxious substances used in warfare require chlorine for their 
manufacture. The American chlorine industry has thus been 
called on to meet a wholly unexpected demand of large propor- 
tions. 

The beginning of the electrolytic chlorine and caustic soda 
industry in the United States quickly followed the passage of the 
Tariff Act of 1897, which removed bleaching powder (the prin- 
cipal form in which chlorine is marketed) from the free list and 
imposed upon it a duty of 0.2 cent per pound (0.44 c. per kilo), 
and which, at the same time, raised the duty on caustic soda from 
0.5 cent per pound (1.1 c. per kilo) to 0.75 cent per pound (1.65 c. 
per kilo). The growth of the industry has been rapid in spite of 
a reduction of duty in each succeeding tariff law. The Tariff Act 
of 1909 reduced the duty on caustic soda to 0.5 cent per pound 

' United States Tariff Commission, Washington, D. C. 



82 GRlNxXELL JONES. 

(1.1 c. per kilo), but made no change in the duty on bleaching 
powder. The act of 1913 cut in half the duty on lx)th caustic 
soda and bleaching powder. 

The electrolytic process necessarily produces caustic soda and 
chlorine in chemically equivalent amounts ; the demand for caustic 
soda, however, far exceeds the demand for chlorine and its deriva- 
tives, such as bleaching powder. As a consequence, most of the 
caustic soda on the market has been and probably will continue 
to be made by other methods. The growth of the electrolytic 
industry has been limited by the amount of chlorine which could 
be disposed of. For the past decade imports of caustic soda have 
been only a few hundred tons, and negligible in comparison with 
the American production. In the case of bleaching powder, how- 
ever, the situation has been qviite different. For the four years 
during which the Tariff Act of 1909 was in force, imports aver- 
aged about 40,000 tons (chiefly from England but partly from 
Germany), in spite of a duty of 0.2 cent per pound (0.44 c. per 
kilo). According to the Census of Manufactures the American 
production was about 58,000 tons (52,000 metric tons) in 1909 
and 155,000 tons (139,500 metric tons) in 1914. 

The outbreak of the European war and especially the introduc- 
tion of poisonous gases in warfare has changed this situation 
greatly. European nations could no longer spare bleaching 
powder for shijiment to the United States ; imports dropped to 
1,600 tons (1,440 metric tons) for the 1916 fiscal year, to 33 tons 
(30 metric tons) in 1917, and finally to 2 tons (1,815 kilos) in 
the last fiscal year. Bleaching powder, which has been selling 
for less than 1.5 cents per pound (3.3 c. per kilo) before the out- 
break of the war. rose to 14 cents per pound (30.8 c. per kilo) 
early in 1916. The American industry expanded to meet the 
increased demand. The official export figures rej)ort bleaching 
powder for the first time for the 1918 fi.scal year, when the 
exports were 6,500 tons (5.850 metric tons). It is an open secret 
that exports of poison-gases manufactured with the aid of chlor- 
ine will soon dwarf these figures. 

Owing to the many forms in which chlorine is marketed, the 
growth of the industry in the United States can best be shown 
by the figures on electrolytic caustic soda. According to the 
census, the output of electrolytic caustic soda and caustic potash 



TARU-'l' Pi^OULEMS IX THti tUX iKOCillvMlCAL INDUSTRIES. 83 

ill 1914 was 48,663 tons (44,088 metric tons). A recent report 
of the Geological Survey gives the output of electrolytic caustic 
soda in 1917 as 126,570 tons (114,672 metric tons) or more than 
two and one-half times as great as the output in 1914. It is well 
known that the erection of new plants has been going on during 
1918. At the end of the war the productive capacity for electro- 
lytic chlorine and caustic soda will probably be at least four times 
as great as it was at the beginning of the war. Although no 
statistics are available, it is a fair inference from the recent mili- 
tary history that there has been a similar growth in England and 
Germany. It is evident that competition in this industry through- 
out the world will be intensified when peace comes. 

A study of the import records fails to show any chemical made 
by the aid of chlorine, except bleaching powder, which was for- 
merly imported in amounts large enough to utilize more than a 
few percent of the increased capacity. Our new dye industry 
will use chlorine to make indigo, sulphur black, and many other 
dyes. However, vmless the American industry can capture the 
world's markets, either directly or indirectly through the exporta- 
tion of dyed goods, the amount of chlorine utilized will be quan- 
titatively of little importance as an outlet for chlorine. Carbon 
tetrachloride was imported regularly before the war, but the 
amount was only a few hundred tons. Unless old uses can be 
greatly expanded or large new uses found, a considerable frac- 
tion of the productive capacity will have to remain idle, when the 
demand for poison-gas disappears. We desire to learn of the 
plans of manufacturers to meet this situation, in order to be able 
to present to Congress facts likely to be helpful in framing tariff 
legislation. We shall undertake to keep such information confi- 
dential until the plans have been converted into achievement, or 
imtil we are released from this obligation of secrecy. 

Abraswes: The pre-eminence of the United States in the manu- 
facture of machinery makes the abrasive industry of vital impor- 
tance. The discovery and development of artificial abrasives by 
Americans have not only made us the world's leader in abrasives, 
but have contributed appreciably to the success of our metal- 
working industries. 

The abrasive industry presents two quite distinct problems : 
first the relationship between the two duties on the artificial and 



84 GRINNELL JONES. 

natural abrasives and on the finished manufactured articles made 
therefrom, and second, the relationship between tariff policy and 
water-power policy. 

In the present tariff law we find crude artificial abrasives on 
the free list along with emery ore and corundum, rottenstone and 
tripoli, flints and flintstones. Unmanufactured pumice stone, 
which is very similar to tripoli, carries a duty of 5 percent. 
Diamond dust and bort, which are used only for abrasive pur- 
poses, carry a duty of 10 percent. Steel wool and steel shavings 
are dutiable at 20 percent, and grit shot and sand made of iron 
or steel that can be used as abrasives are dutiable at 25 percent. 

When we come to the finished article, such as wheels or stones, 
we find some curious distinctions. In the first place no distinc- 
tion is made between grind-stones cut from natural rock and those 
manufactured from artificial abrasives, but "emery wheels, emery 
files, and manufactures of which emery is the component of chief 
value" are put in a class by themselves and made dutiable at 25 
percent. 

Grind-stones, finished or unfinished, are dutiable at $1.50 per 
ton. Burr-stones similar to grind-stones in origin, manufacture, 
and use, whether rough or unmanufactured, or manufactured and 
bound up into millstones, are on the free list. Hones and whet- 
stones are also on the free list. No distinction is made between 
varieties of these articles which are cut from natural stone and 
those manufactured from artificial abrasives, but emery wheels, 
emery files and manufactures of which emery is the component 
of chief value are put in a class by themselves and made dutiable 
at 25 percent. There appears to be an opportunity here for a 
better classification of these articles, and the Tariff Commission 
will welcome information or suggestions which will be helpful 
in this task. 

Another tariff problem which arises in connection with the 
abrasives industry is a more fundamental one. Two important 
and different artificial abrasives having virtues not possessed by 
natural abrasives were discovered by Americans and developed 
at Niagara Falls. The demand for these new products has grown 
so great that the developed power available to these industries at 
Niagara Falls has been fully utilized. Legal restrictions have 
prevented the development of additional power at Niagara, with 



TARIFF PROBLEMS IN THE ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. 85 

the result that the companies making these products have been 
compelled to build plants in Canada and in Europe to supply the 
demand. A large fraction of the artificial abrasives used in the 
United States is now imported from Canada and made up into 
the finished articles here. If this country desires to retain this 
industry, which is of such basic importance to our metal-working 
industries, it is evident that we must either have water-power 
legislation to put power at the disposal of the industry at prices 
which will compete with Canada, or remove crude artificial abra- 
sives from the free list. 

Other Products: Other branches of the electrochemical and 
electric furnace industries present similar problems. We have 
a large increase in productive capacity for phosphorus. The 
treatment of chlorate of potash and caustic potash is a part of 
the larger and difficult problem of the potash industry. Our new 
nitrogen fixation industry presents some unique tariff problems 
on account of Government ownership and operation of the plants. 
There are interesting problems in connection with aluminum, 
magnesium, ferro-alloys, and pyrophoric alloys. The metallur- 
gist on the staff of the Commission, Mr. G. C. Riddell, is in charge 
of the study of these industries. 

I cannot take time to discuss these other branches of the indus- 
try in detail, but these examples show the sort of problems in 
which we are interested. Our task is not to determine the policy 
to be adopted, but to collect and present to Congress, in a clear 
and impartial manner, the facts needed to determine the best 
policy to be pursued. Your co-operation in this task is invited. 



DISCUSSION 



L. E. Saunders- : Incidental reference has been made to the 
abrasive industry, and while it has been incidental and has been 
made as an example, I would like. to correct what might be a 
false impression conveyed by Mr. Jones' remarks. In the first 
place, the shortage of natural abrasives has been fully met by the 
manufacturers of artificial abrasives. If that is not true com- 

* Manager, Abrasive Plants, Norton Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



*6 DiSCUSSION. 

pletely, it is due to the fact that the manufacturers of artificial 
abrasives have not been notified of the needs of the industry ; but 
so far as the manufacture of grinding wheels and other grinding 
materials is concerned, there has been no case of failure to meet 
the demands of the trade which was formerly supplied by natural 
abrasives, if the manufacturers knew what they were required 
to do. So far as quantity is concerned, there is at present even 
an over-production of artificial abrasives, and if Mr. Jones desires 
confirmation of this, I think President Tone or myself can give it. 

Grinnell Jones: 1 did not mean to imply that there has been 
a serious shortage of abrasives in the United States, but that the 
svipplies have come in substantial part from outside the territory 
of the United States and are therefore liable to be cut off by 
exix)rt embargoes or other means not under the control of the 
United States Government. 



Presented as part of a Sywfosium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-foMrih General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 191S. Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



THE POWER SITUATION AFTER THE WAR. 

By C. A. Winder.' 

The purpose of this paper is not so much to indulge in the 
luxury of prophecy as to indicate in some way the trend of elec- 
tric power development. To arrive at any conclusion regarding 
the trend of any economic development in this country, it is but 
necessary to study the trend of public opinion. As far as electric 
power development is concerned, particularly water power de- 
velopment, public opinion is definitely formed in favor of such 
action and this opinion is exerting itself in Washington to a degree 
hitherto unknown. Inasmuch as electric power enters so largely 
into the production of electrochemical products, the question is 
fraught with great interest for us. 

We have too long looked upon power production as a simple 
problem, an economic factor, that would gyrate nimbly to the 
tune of "supply and demand." Indeed there have been but few 
who have had a broad comprehensive idea of the power question 
from every standpoint, from the producing as well as the con- 
suming angle. No definite action has been obtained in Washing- 
ton simply because no comprehensive demand has been made upon 
the legislative bodies there. There have been demands ; yes, in- 
numerable demands, but practically all of them have been from 
a more or less selfish viewpoint. If the interested parties had 
co-ordinated their efforts, this problem, as far as the legislative 
side is concerned, would have been solved prior to our entrance 
into the war. 

The efforts of engineers and economists to increase the power 
resources of this country have shown the public that we are at 
present consuming our power resources in a most uneconomical 

' Repre5.entaiive, General Electric Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

87 



88 C. A. WINDER. 

way. This educational propaganda, which has been going on for 
several years, has shown to the public mind that our power re- 
sources, as far as coal and oil are concerned, are not inexhaustible. 
In order to properly judge the situation a table showing the 
relative efficiencies of the various methods of producing power 
is inserted here : 

Efficiency, 
Percent 

Reciprocating engines approximately 8 

Gas engines " 17 

Steam turbines " 21 

Oil engines " 34 

Water turbines " 90 

The above table purposely omits a new development, the mer- 
cury turbine, which has an efficiency of approximately 40 percent, 
simply because this machine has not yet been put into commercial 
operation. One glance at this table should be sufficient to con- 
vince the most skeptical that we are rapidly consuming our energy 
in the most inefficient manner possible, wasting those resources 
from which power can be developed at a maximum efficiency. 
While these factors have been well known to engineers for some 
time, they have never given the general public much concern nor 
would they, at the present time, ofifer an inducement to a change 
of policy unless a secondary factor had presented itself at this 
time. The coal shortage is in reality the factor that brought this 
situation home to the general public and led them to demand some 
remedial action at Washington. 

While the prophecies of the visionary and enthusiast have led 
to the belief that water power is the panacea for all our power 
ills. Congress, seemingly overshadowed by a fretful anxiety lest 
the water-power industry get something to which it is not entitled, 
has held in check any legislation that would benefit it. Now that 
a country-wide howl has arisen demanding the full development 
of water power resources, mainly through a fear of coal shortage 
and not through any comprehensive idea of the more efficient 
development of our natural resources. Congress seems ready to 
go the limit on water-power development, and a reaction seems 
about to take place which will carry with it vast developments 



THE rONVEK SITUATION AFTER THE WAR. 89 

that are now idle. Such developments are Muscle Shoals, 200,000 
H.P., Niagara Falls, approximately 1,000,000 H.P., and many 
western power-sites aggregating several million horsepower, to 
say nothing of a number of eastern and southern developments 
aggregating almost as much. We can readily visualize a situation 
after the war when we will have an abundance of water power 
under development. 

This same power idea is now exhibiting itself in a new form. 
There are those who are advocating what are known as super- 
steam stations or steam-driven power plants of approximately 
half a million horsepower, located at the coal mines. Their fond 
hope is to supersede the shipment of coal and transport energy 
over interconnected transmission systems. While the super-steam 
station idea is as fanciful and extravagant as a caliph's dream, 
nevertheless it is indicative of the obsession that has taken hold 
of the public mind for increased power production. A steam 
station of such size is practically impossible from an engineering 
standpoint. Steam turbines require from 60 to 70 pounds (60-70 
kg.) of water per pound (kg), of steam condensed, and under 
these conditions a steam plant of a half million horsepower would 
require something like 55,000 cubic feet (1,500 cu. meters) of 
water per second, or about one-quarter the flow of the Niagara 
River or considerably more than the entire Ohio River during its 
normal period. 

There are very few coal mines located on bodies of water of 
sufilicient size to furnish the cooling water for the condenser 
equipment of this size, in fact, it is almost invariably true that 
the water in streams near coal mines is so acid that it cannot be 
used for this purpose at all. Nevertheless, while this may be 
true, there will undoubtedly be a number of small plants so 
located, and it is not unreasonable to expect considerable addi- 
tion to the available power through this medium. In fact, the 
Federal Government is endeavoring to put through a bill now 
to permit the expenditure by the Government of $200,000,000 for 
building such plants. Whether they will be located at the mines 
or not remains to be seen. If they are, cooling water limits their 
capacity ; if they are not, coal shipping facilities will limit their 

7 



90 C. A. WINDER. 

capacity, though it is barely possible that some other industry will 
have its coal receipts reduced in favor of these plants. 

It may not be ovit of the way to call attention here to the fact 
that should this bill pass both houses and such a program be car- 
ried out, it will form a magnificent wedge for the introduction 
of Government ownership of our public utilities, which seems to 
be the thinly-veiled ambition of the present administration. We 
need only direct our attention to the workings of the Hydro- 
Commission of Ontario, Canada, to bring to our minds the reali- 
zation of the seriousness of this step. If such an organization 
should be added to our already growing institutional menagerie 
we may see a time when "political economy" will revert to 
"economical politics." There is too great a temptation to use 
such a mechanism to retain a party in power. 

While all these factors show a condition of rapid power devel- 
opment, let us look to the development of the power-consuming 
industry. This country up until the last two years has been 
mainly a producer of raw materials in the economic fabric of the 
world. Shipload upon shipload of raw cotton, copper, raw oils, 
iron, lumber, coal, etc., have gone to Europe for fabrication. 
This and other natural factors have drawn large quantities of 
common labor from European countries, but seldom any skilled 
labor, which is exactly the situation we would expect, as the 
market for skilled labor was mainly in Europe and the demand 
for common labor in this country. This situation is now changing 
and a demand for common labor will exist in Europe for a long 
time, until rehabilitation has been completed. Furthermore, a 
general shortage in labor there will lead to a concerted effort on 
the part of the European countries to attract this class of labor 
from this country as well as placing an embargo on emigration. 
On the other hand, in this country we have a condition brought 
about by the war which requires enormous increase in the quan- 
tity of skilled labor and which is being met among other means 
by the Government commandeering colleges throughout the entire 
country and placing our men, subject to draft, in them for a 
period of intensive education along these lines. All of these fac- 
tors tend to decrease our supply of common labor and increase 
the supply of skilled labor. 



THE POWER SITUATION AFTER THE WAR. 9I 

While this is going on, we are sending troops along with our 
allies to Siberia where we are learning the wonderful oppor- 
tunities that exist there in the nature of raw materials, in vastly 
greater quantities than eA'er existed in this country. Fortunately 
that country has not alone these wonderful stores of raw mate- 
rials, but is blessed also with an enormous supply of common 
labor ; situated as it is, at the side door of China, there is no ques- 
tion that a supply of common labor in inexhaustible quantities 
is available. 

Fortunately, exigencies of war necessitated the building up of 
an enormous merchant marine, together with its personnel, and 
at the present rate of growth our merchant marine will be second 
to none in the world. 

These conditions are cited simply to show their effect upon the 
trend of development of the industries of which power is an 
integral part. It seems reasonable to conclude that this country 
is slowly graduating from a producer of strictly raw materials 
to one of highly fabricated materials, but this step cannot be 
taken in a day, and to reach this condition we must naturally pass 
through that period of development where we produce a pre- 
ponderance of semi-manufactured raw materials. It does not 
seem unreasonable to expect that the period directly following the 
war will be one of this character, and that we will be called upon 
to furnish large quantities of semi-manufactured raw materials. 
It is in this field that the electrochemist is particularly interested, 
since practically the entire industry is devoted to the manufacture 
of materials which are considered raw materials for other indus- 
tries, yet contain a certain element of skilled labor in them. 

Assuming this to be the case and assuming that the power de- 
velopment will go forward rapidly with the present impetus, it 
would seem that it would be highly desirable to use this period 
to prepare a definite program for a large increase in production 
of those semi-manufactured raw materials which will be in great 
demand in Europe during its reconstruction period. 

Parallel with this, of course, must proceed the installation of 
banking facilities in Asia and other foreign countries that are 
prolific in raw materials, in order that the pioneers who go forth 



92 DISCUSSION. 

in these countries to aid in their development may not be ham- 
pered in this respect. 

In conclusion, it might seem advisable to point out that with 
the natural trend of power development now before us, with the 
natural impetus that will come to the electrochemical industry as 
pointed out above, there is no reason why this industry should 
not develop quickly to a size and importance far beyond the 
fondest dreams of the present-day pioneer. Particularly should 
great advances be made in such new fields as electrically-made 
refractories, derivatives of acetylene, electric zinc refining and 
melting, alloy and electric steel, as well as electrolytic iron for use 
in alloy steels and general metallurgy. 



DISCUSSION. 



H. E. Randall' : 1 have been interested for the past year or 
two in the power situation after the war, but I do not think it 
is a serious matter for the power companies, or the Government, 
if it took over the power companies, or for the users of power. 
We heard this morning how the Union Carbide Company was 
using power that nobody else could use, to the tune of, I think 
they said, 40,000 H.P. That is taking place pretty much through- 
out the country. The power companies have never before real- 
ized the importance of picking up the small losses or getting a 
better control of the power factor, and, in general, cleaning up 
the odds and ends of the business so that it would become a 
cleaner-cut affair. That, with the use of off-peak power, has 
resulted in a much higher general load- factor on every power 
station in the country, and has made it possible to deliver a lot 
more power from present existing plants than anybody would 
have thought possible three or four years ago. It is true that a 
very considerable amount of additional power is being put into 
use, but the major portion of this has to be steam power. I 
believe I am right when I say that there is about 26,000,000 H.P. 

■ General Manager, Ludlum Electric Furnace Corporation, New York City. (Died 
October 21, 1918.) 



THE POWER SITUATION AFTER THE WAR. 93 

available in the United States whicli could be developed as 
hydraulic power, of which perhaps 10 percent is developed today, 
but the total use of power in the United States, that is mechanical 
and electrical power, what we might call industrial power, now 
amounts to something less than 30,000,000 H.P., and the railways 
use something like the same amount. Even if all the hydraulic 
power in the country were developed, it would not be sufficient to 
handle the present-day power situation, by any manner or means. 
If the development of power by the agency of this Government 
or by other agencies should increase largely during the next year 
or two, it might be reasonable to suppose that there would be a 
large surplus of power after the war. That might exist, but we 
only have to look around to see how easy it is to get a large 
number of electric furnace processes which will use very large 
blocks of power with a very small capital investment, relatively 
speaking. But there is a bigger use than that, in fact the biggest 
use of power in the country today. If somebody should produce 
— and somebody will produce — a storage battery that has any- 
thing like, say, twice the watt-efficiency of the present storage 
battery, it opens up a field to the power producer of about eighty 
million horsepower ; that is. there is more installed power capacity 
in motor cars in the United States today than in everything else 
combined. If a storage battery can be produced which will make 
that available from electric power-generating stations, it opens 
the biggest market for any surplus power which can show up. 

J. W. Richards- : Referring to Mr. Winder's statement that 
the super-steam station of 500,000 H.P. is practically impossible 
because of the amount of cooling water needed, permit me to 
say I do not agree with that statement. I think it will be very 
soon that we will have these super-steam stations of that size in 
the coal regions, and possibly before we have held half-a-dozen 
more meetings of our Society. The lack of cooling water can be 
met in several different ways. One is that there is usually plenty 
of water being pumped out of the deep mines. It is of acid 
reaction, to be sure, but present improvements in alloys to with- 
stand acid resistances would lead us to hope, and I think with 

' Professor of Metallurgy, Lehigh University. 



94 DISCUSSION. 

some reasonable assurance, that condensers will be made which 
can use that acid water. The simple device of finding an alloy 
which will stand the corroding effect of the acid water would 
solve the water supply question, I think, almost completely. 

H. E. Randall: I would like very much to agree with Dr. 
Richards' observations, but I think that the most potent reason 
why the construction of super-steam plants at the coal mines is 
held back is for the want of a market for that amount of power, 
and through lack of ability to deliver it at a market which already 
exists. The transmission of electricity over distances greater than 
150 miles is not an easy task to do successfully, commercially. 

C. G. ScHLUEDERBERG^ : I am rather inclined to agree with 
Dr. Richards that we will see some fair-sized power plants at 
the coal mines in the neighborhood of Philadelphia. There is 
a very good industrial market at the present time and it will be 
better in the near future. As regards the use of surplus power 
after the war, surveys show that there is a tremendous amount 
of electrification still to be done, and besides that we all know 
that the steam railways will undoubtedly use a considerable 
amount of power in electrifying their heavier grades. Were it not 
for the war, I should be inclined to say that some of that work 
would be quite well along now, even further than it is, so I think 
there will be rather a fair market for a considerable amount of 
excess power after the war, entirely outside of electrochemical 
industries. 

C. A. Winder : The point regarding the "super-steam station" 
is made rather pointed to bring out discussion regarding the ability 
to handle the waste energy of a steam plant which, as I have 
shown, is approximately 80 percent of the energy contained in the 
fuel. The handling of that energy is a problem equal to the trans- 
mission of the useful power itself, and is one of the few cases 
where the useless by-product is several times the magnitude of 
the useful energy. This problem is one that is of extreme impor- 
tance to all industries and should be the basis of discussion in 
many of our technical societies. 

I also took occasion to make a rather pointed remark about 

' Electrical Engineer, Westinghouse Elec. Sc Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgk, Fa. 



THE POWER SITUATION AFTER THE WAR. 95 

water-power development by the Government, which I hoped 
would bring out some discussion, particularly of those favoring it, 
but I got no reaction. Points that have been brought out in favor 
of water-power development by the Government are numerous, 
but one of the most important is the cost of capital, as it is one 
of the prime factors in the case. The cry has been that as long 
as the Government can obtain money cheaper for the develop- 
ment of water power than private ownership, why not let the 
money be raised by whatever institution can get it the cheapest? 
In answering this question I will state that the reason that the 
Government can obtain money cheaper than private ownership 
on the question of water power is that, in the past, legislation has 
been against water power, and has created an unfavorable senti- 
ment among financial interests and made it extremely difficult for 
water-power developments to obtain money at any reasonable 
cost ; whereas if the Government were to legislate in their favor, 
or at least be neutral, the situation would be sufficiently favorable 
from a financial standpoint so that private interests might obtain 
money almost as cheaply as the Government, at least with a dif- 
ferential that might be small enough to be overcome by more 
effective management, such as might be expected in private 
ownership. 

C. G. ScHLUEDERBERG (Communicated Dec. 7 , 1918) : Mr. 
Winder made the statement that "the super-steam station idea, 
locating power plants of a half million horsepower at the coal 
mines, is as fanciful and extravagant as a caliph's dream. A 
half million horsepower plant would require 55,000 cubic feet of 
water per second, or considerably more than the entire Ohio River 
during its normal period." 

In this connection, it may be interesting to the members of the 
Society to know that one of the larger power companies in west- 
ern Pennsylvania has laid out definite plans for a power-gener- 
ating station of 300,000 ultimate K.V.-A, located at the coal mines 
on one of the tributaries of the Ohio River. Almost adjoining 
this plant, another power company is already building a station 
of 40,000 K.V.-A capacity. 

The above facts would seem to indicate that once in a while 
even caliphs' dreams come true. 



96 



DISCUSSION. 



C. A. Winder (Couuniinicated) : Replying to Mr. Schlueder- 
berg's discussion, I must still point out that while there may be 
isolated cases (and 1 believe they are extremely few) where 
stations as large as 300,000 K.V.-A may ultimately be projected, 
and even installed, this does not by any means indicate that sta- 
tions of the capacity mentioned in the substance of my paper will 
ever become a realization until the development of electric power 
through the medium of steam has reached a higher stage than 
the condition of the art at present seems to indicate. These con- 
ditions, I quite agree, are to be earnestly hoped for but not too 
confidently anticipated. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 1918, Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



SURPLUS ELECTRIC POWER AFTER THE WAR. 

By J. W. Beckman.i 

It may be the case that we will have a surplus of developed 
electric power after the world has settled down to a normal stride, 
this power having been developed in this emergency for the sup- 
plying of munitions to us and our allies. It is, therefore, impor- 
tant to face this fact now and consider how it may be avoided 
or overcome. 

It would be an economic waste of the very gravest magnitude 
if this energy available on the bus-bars should be permitted to be 
idle, a waste from two points of view, (1) from the point of 
invested capital in the plant and equipment, and (2) perhaps a 
still graver waste, from the point of products that could be pro- 
duced, thus creating values and giving occupation to labor skilled 
and otherwise helping to supply work to the millions of men who 
will return to us after the war is won. 

It is very apparent that many of the industries which are now 
operating in connection with the war will have to let up some, 
and equally certain it is that the power which they thus release 
will not be absorbed readily by any other industry. This certainly 
will be the case if we do not as a nation and as individual groups 
co-operate to extend our foreign markets, i. e., to tap new market 
possibilities. 

As a race we are individualistic, and it is extremely hard for 
us to submerge our individviality in co-operative undertakings. 
We should follow the example of many of the European 
nations, where through co-operation of many groups of interests 
a net-work of commercial houses has grown up covering the 
world, and through intercommunication between these a true 
knowledge of the world's commercial demands is obtainable over 
night, and markets discovered or extended for manufactured 
materials. 

1 Beckman & L,inden Engineering Corp., San Francisco, Cal. 

97 



98 J. W. BECKMAN. 

It is, therefore, a question of great import how to increase our 
commercial activities all over the world. We cannot depend upon 
U. S. Consular Service to give us material assistance. It works 
too slowly and in many cases the occupants of the consulates 
apparently have slight, if any, prior experience making them fitted 
for the positions they hold. We have to develop them in co-oper- 
ation, forming new foreign trade combines, or making connec- 
tions of a most permanent kind with some of the business houses 
recently formed. The intensive commercial development of new 
markets is a laborious one, but by this means the electrochemical 
industries can be kept going and the power developed can be kept 
working. 

Another way of taking care of surplus power in the future is 
by stimulating new industries — the development of new processes 
that will take much power and which will produce basic, essential 
products. This, of course, does not preclude the stimulation of 
industries already developed, making products which should have 
a more general use. 

Two industries, both of them basic and both of them making 
products essential to mankind, suggest themselves as being suit- 
able life-savers to the electric developm.ents after the war. One 
is the iron and steel industry and the second is the fertilizer in- 
dustry. When I refer to the iron and steel industry, I do not 
refer either to the electric shaft furnaces in Sweden nor to the 
electric steel furnaces distributed all through the country. 

I think the direct manufacture of steel from iron ore is not out 
of the realm of the possible, and is one of the important electro- 
metallurgical developments awaiting a successful solution. 

We have already progressed some toward this goal. In the 
electric shaft furnace low-carbon pig iron is now produced, known 
as steel pig iron or pig steel. The next step will be the finished 
steel, suitable for the manufacture of the finished steel product 
in the shape of ingots and castings. It may be a long step metal- 
lurgically to take, but it is one that we should bend all our efforts 
upon to achieve. If we once accomplish it, we will find the iron 
industry gradually changing into an electrometallurgical one, 
consuming enormous amounts of power and stimulating inci- 
dentally other industries to activities of very great proportions. 

The other industry which would help to consume power is the 



SURPLUS ELECTRIC POWER AFTER THE WAR. 99 

iertilizer industry. The ingredients necessary in a fertilizer which 
would be most available for improved manufacture would be 
nitrogen in some bound form, and phosphoric acid. 

The Government's stupendous work now going on for the pro- 
duction of nitrogen in fixed form, and this work in conjunction 
with the research work going on for the improving of efficiencies, 
etc., should bring results which should foster the nitrogen fixation 
industry as one of the large potential electrochemical industries, 
that will take care of surplus power at the end of the war. The 
Government having acquired the right to these should encourage 
in all ways the further development of this essential industry, 
essential in times of peace as well as in war. 

The large amount of phosphate rock distributed through many 
of our States is available as fertilizers only through its treatment 
with sulphuric acid and even then only a limited amount of the 
phosphoric acid present is made completely available, or in other 
words, only a small percent of the phosphoric acid is made water 
soluble by sulphuric acid, while this small percent is readily re- 
converted into an insoluble form by the action of ingredients 
present in the mixed phosphates. 

By means of electric power all this phosphoric acid can be made 
water soluble and in addition the phosphoric acid obtained can 
be absorbed by various bases forming salts, which in themselves 
will form complete fertilizers, such as possibly a double ammo- 
nium-potassium phosphate, or ammonium phosphates and potas- 
sium phosphates. 

The obtaining of the free acid is readily accomplished by means 
of the electric current. The details of the operation are simple 
and apparent. 

It may be said that some of the suggestions made above are 
doubtful as to their practicability. It may seem so at the present 
time, but with intelligent research and operating extensively in 
trial plants the technique of the processes will be worked out in 
such a way that large economies may be effected. 

The processes which are suggested herewith as being able to 
take care of the surplus power deal with basic products, products 
that are essential to the well-being of mankind and are also in 
such a way important to the growth of the nation and its well- 
being. 



lOO DISCUSSION. 

There are many complex economic questions which arise in this 
connection — questions in which pohtical economists have to be 
called upon for advice and co-operation. Should industries of 
this kind be subsidized by the Government, which practically 
amounts to Government ownership, or should they depend upon 
private capital and private perseverance to become established ? 
Again, can they exist under such conditions ; can they make re- 
turns on the capital so attractive that investors will place their 
money in them ? Again, who will do the necessary research work 
to develop the processes? Is it not one of those activities that 
should be done at public expense and the results obtained be avail- 
able to the public without discrimination? 

The electrochemists and electrometallurgists, who are perhaps 
better able to look into the future as to the ultimate over-supply 
of power, should for our national well-being, start now a careful 
study and form a definite policy which should be broadly dis- 
cussed and finally submitted to our Government, making definite 
recommendations, that we may be fully prepared w^hen our war 
is over and we return to what will then be normal conditions to 
immediately put the surplus power to work along predetermined 
lines. 



DISCUSSION. 



W. S. Landis^: Mr. Beckman has touched upon the border 
line of a very interesting question that I am surprised has not 
been brought up before. That is what we may call the surplus 
productions, whether it is of power, fertilizer, steel, or something 
else. Nobody seems, so far today, to have touched upon this 
phase of the subject, which I think demands some attention. I 
do not believe that we are going back to the old individual effort 
in industry that characterized our ten or fifteen years' develop- 
ment before the war. I think the idea of a league of nations 
which is so prominently before us now is merely along similar 
governmental lines ; I believe we are going to have a league of 
industry, and the little individual is not going to collect a few 
people around him, either with brains or with money or with 

'Chief Technologist, American Cyanamid Co., New York City. 



SURPLUS ELIiCTRIC POWER AFTER THE WAR. lOI 

both, and start up a small industry because somebody has a little 
surplus power that ought to be made use of. I feel that through- 
out the world there is going to be some sort of a control organi- 
zation which is going to distribute activities, assigning them to 
various companies or various groups or various nations to be 
taken care of. I believe that in our own line, the nitrogen indus- 
try, where we know that foreign governments are already at 
work on the problem, a development will arise that is going to 
spread over other industries. For instance, I have it on very good 
authority from some of the technical representatives abroad, that 
with their shortage of man power and their shortage of food, 
governments are going to require a farmer to use fertilizer. It 
is not going to be a question of whether he wants to or whether 
it is profitable, but he will be forced to use so many hundred 
pounds of fertilizer per acre of cultivated ground in order to 
make up for this shortage of food and shortage of labor, and he 
is going to be assured that he can get that fertilizer at prices 
which will make it attractive or profitable to him in comparison 
with the prices of the food that he will raise with it. I believe 
that is going to be the case with our power situation. As a matter 
of fact I do not believe there is any surplus power in this country 
or that there is going to be any surplus power in this country for 
a long time. I am a lot more worried about the nitrogen situa- 
tion, where we are making twice as much as we know what to 
do with, but we are going to eventually come out of that diffi- 
culty all right. I do not believe there is a man in this room who 
believes that the railroads are ever going to pass back to the old 
system that we had before the war, nor do I believe that the Gov- 
ernment is going to continue to run them, but we will develop 
some sort of supervision and control that, if it works to the 
benefit of railroads, will work to the benefit of industry generally. 

L. E. Saunders^: The rosy picture Mr. Landis draws of the 
development exampled by the efficient operation of the railroads 
at the present time and the high cost of railroad travel, is attrac- 
tive ; but when you get down to concrete things like the cost of 
water power, or at least the cost of electric power developed from 
water power, I am afraid I do not agree with him. Our develop- 

• Manager, Abrasive Plants, Norton Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



102 DISCUSSION. 

ment at Niagara Falls now, which, just before I came away from 
home, was announced to be completed — the joining of the various 
private interests in one — is, 1 think, the greatest chance for cheap 
electric power that we have ever seen in this country ; if it does 
not develop that way, I am sure we will all be greatly disappointed. 

W. S. Landis : I do not wish to be misunderstood as saying 
that I am in favor of the Government control of railroads. I am 
entirely opposed to that idea, but I do believe that a wise super- 
vision can be exercised over the whole situation without actual 
control, and the same liberal and broad control will be exercised 
over other private industries. 

L. E. Saunders : I agree with you — wise supervision. 

AcHESON Smith* : I do not know much about nitrogen, but 
it occurs to me that in selling any product, there are two general 
fields into which it may enter : one is an elastic field, the other 
is inelastic. Nearly all commodities are divided into those two 
fields, and in the case of fertilizers, it seems to me that we have 
a very elastic field, that is, a field that can be developed tremen- 
dously by advertising and education, and this coincides with a 
very strong economic tendency. This economic tendency, it seems 
to me, is something like this: if the prices of foodstuffs remain 
high, as I think they probably will, the farmers throughout this 
country will continue to have very large incomes, and if that is 
the case they will probably invest a portion of their incomes in 
tractors, fertilizers and other things that will enable them to 
increase their production ; in fact, the shortage of labor and the 
disinclination of laborers to do farming work will probably accen- 
tuate this. Now, if the price of foodstuffs declines, owing to 
conditions following the war, I think that the farmers will then 
find themselves in a position where it will be necessary for them 
to cultivate a larger acreage or increase their productiveness per 
acre in order to keep up their incomes. When a man is accus- 
tomed to a certain income, he finds it very difficult, of course, to 
live on less and he makes a great effort to keep it up. It seems 
to me that that would be the case with the farmer ; so if he finds 
himself in that position he will resort to tractors and to fertilizers. 
It might be argued that at that time, owing to the lower price 

* General Managrer, Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



SURPLUS ELECTRIC POWER AFTER THE WAR. I03 

of foodstuffs, his income would be low and he would not have 
the money with which to buy these things, but it seems to me 
that there are two factors which will help him out, one will be 
the very large quantity of gold which is in this country and will 
probably not flow out for certainly a great many years and pos- 
sibly not at all, which will make credit comparatively easy, that 
is, will make interest rates low, and the second factor is the estab- 
lishment of the farm loan banks, which give the farmer credit 
at a very low rate of interest. I therefore think that whether 
foodstuffs remain high in price or fall in price the farmer will 
be driven to use more fertilizer. 

J. W. Beckman : Mr. Landis' future outlook as to the indus- 
trial developments is somewhat disconcerting. Who is going to 
determine who is the "Httle individual," that is "not going to col- 
lect a few people around him and Vv^ith brains or with money, or 
with both, and start up a small industry because somebody has a 
little surplus power that ought to be made use of ?" The system 
which prevents individual initiative creating new values, even on 
a small scale, cannot be otherwise than vicious and reactionary. 
If the same measurement had been placed on the company which 
Mr. Landis represents ten years or more ago where would the 
cyanamid industry have been today? If the same measures had 
been applied to any of the electrochemical or electrometallur- 
gical industries ten or twenty years ago, where would we have 
been today in the electrochemical field? It is the hard knocks, 
the close shaves, which have developed the electrochemical indus- 
tries to the strength they now have, and the contrary, I believe, 
would have been the case if a paternal hand had said : "You are 
a little individual, you may have brains, you may have money, 
but you are a little individual, therefore you cannot progress with 
your work." 

It is no wonder that Mr. Landis, having the viewpoint which 
he has expressed, worries over the nitrogen situation, since nearly 
all the consumers of nitrogen fertilizer are most likely "little indi- 
viduals." Personally, I would not have any fear of the nitrogen 
situation or its over-production. We have to eat bread, and just 
as certainly as we need bread do we need nitrogen to give us 
bread. A company which produces large quantities of fixed 



i04 



DISCUSSION. 



nitrogen and cannot dispose of it these days either has a process 
which is commercially unworthy, due to its producing fixed nitro- 
gen at too high a price for the farmer to be able to purchase it, 
or there is something lacking in the organization of such a com- 
pany. The over-production of nitrogen seems incredible in view 
of the fact that Chilean nitrate deposits have been kept out of 
the world markets during the years of the war. Salesmanship 
should save the day for an industry with an apparent over-pro- 
duction of a fertilizer. 



tresei.ted as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. ]., October I, 19l>i, Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. 

By W. S. Landis.i 

Just sixteen years ago the writer had the good fortune to see 
in operation at Niagara Falls the first large-scale unit for the 
fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. This costly experiment of 
Bradley and Love joy did not prove the commercial success antici- 
pated, but in its two years of operation served to attract the atten- 
tion of the world to the nitrate phase of the industry. The prin- 
ciples so well demonstrated at Niagara, when carried to Europe 
with its more favorable natural advantages and economic condi- 
tions, started a development that has commercially survived to 
the present time. Had Bradley and Lovejoy enjoyed the advan- 
tages of Norway, we might today find their names as prominent 
in the industry as Pauling and Schonherr, if not Birkeland and 
Eyde. 

The fixation of nitrogen has developed along three divergent 
lines with many secondary outgrowths. The oldest process dates 
back to Cavendish, who in 1785 undoubtedly produced some nitric 
acid by passing the electric spark through air. Bradley and Love- 
joy in 1901 attempted to do the same thing on a commercial scale 
and had their apparatus in operation in 1902. Just about the 
time the Niagara work was abandoned, Birkeland began his ex- 
periments in Norway, using a somewhat different style furnace. 
Schonherr followed with his furnace, and still later Pauling. The 
product of all of these processes was nitric acid or derivatives 
of the same. ISIany others have since entered the field, but have 
made little progress in a commercial way. 

A second school, and I am including here only those processes 
which have survived in one form or another, is that which con- 
cerned itself with the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in the form 
of cyanides and cyanamids. Frank and Caro for many years 
attempted to produce cyanide through the direct fixation of atmos- 
pheric nitrogen. Commercially unsuccessful in this attempt they, 

* Chief Technologist, American Cyanatnid Co., New York City. 
8 105 



Io6 W. S. LANDIS. 

however, succeeded in a small way in producing cyanamid from 
atmospheric nitrogen and calcium carbide, about 1900, or just 
prior to the nitric acid work of Bradley and Love joy. They did 
not, however, make much progress in the development of their 
process in the early days, and it was not until 1906 that a com- 
mercial installation followed. Later followed the conversion of 
cyanamid to ammonia and quite recently the oxidation of this 
ammonia to nitric acid. 

The third school, following the production of ammonia syn- 
thetically, from its elements, nitrogen and hydrogen, is repre- 
sented in the work of Haber, and was carried out almost simul- 
taneously with Birkeland's developments in Norway. 

These three systems of fixation which have survived to the 
present time are none of them twenty years old and in fact essen- 
tially had no producing capacity even twelve years ago. Ten 
years will actually cover the commercial history of the industry. 

Before the advent of the fixation process, the world's require- 
ments of nitrogen were met by the nitrate beds of Chile, the 
recovery of ammonia in the coking of coal and the production of 
illuminating gas, and from various vegetable meals and animal 
by-products. We will consider only the chemical nitrogen product 
in our further discussion. 

According to the best available statistics, ten years ago, in 
1908, the world's production of nitrogen in the form of Chilean 
nitrate and of sulphate of ammonia was equivalent to only 503,000 
short tons of nitrogen. The fertilizer industry was the larger 
consumer of this nitrogen, and since the capacity of the cultivated 
acreage of the world for absorption of this nitrogen was fifty or 
one hundred times the above production, there was ample in- 
centive for the development of an air-fixation process. 

In 1914, at the outbreak of the European war, the producing 
rate of the world in short tons of chemical nitrogen, according to 
the best available statistics, was as given in the following table: 

Short Tons Metric 

Material Nitr^pe'. Tons 

Nitrate of soda 425,000 386,400 

Sulphate of ammonia 285,000 259,100 

Arc process products 1 1,000 10,000 

Cyanamid products 31,000 28,200 

Synthetic ammonia and misc 12,000 10,900 

Total 764,000 694.600 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. 107 

In 1919, say five years later, the producing capacity of the 
world including the United States Government nitrate plants now 
under construction, is estimated to be as follows : 

Short Tons Metric 

Material Nitrogen Tona 

Nitrate of soda 520,000 472,700 

Sulphate of ammonia 330,000 300,000 

Arc process products 15,000 13,600 

Cyanamid products 360,000 327,300 

Synthetic ammonia and misc 116,000 105,500 

Total 1,341,000 1,219,100 

An analysis of the production statistics of the world for ten 
years prior to the outbreak of the war shows a very uniform 
rate of increase. The curve is almost exactly a straight line. If 
we carry this rate of increase forward into the future it indicates 
a producing rate for 1919 of 1,330,000 short tons (1,209,000 
metric tons) of nitrogen, or essentially the same as our figure 
given above. Such a system of analysis seems to be justified in 
view of the very uniform rate of increase noted for years prior 
to the war, and we are forced to the single conclusion that as 
relates to the world as a whole, there has not been the great over- 
expansion of producing capacity most of us have believed. The 
available nitrogen supply expanded under the influence of the war 
only to the point anyone would have predicted in the spring of 
1914 from a study of its past statistics. 

In this connection it might be here added that about 1911 the 
world's production of nitrogen began to catch up with market 
demands as limited by the comparatively unexpanded trade chan- 
nels, which had not kept up with the increase of production. 
Prices slumped as a result, reaching the lowest point in the his- 
tory of the industry in 1914, and only the outbreak of the war 
with its insistent demands saved the industry from a financial 
disaster. 

It is a question if a problem is confronting the world's nitrogen 
industry at the close of the war. Undoubtedly the demand will 
drop off somewhat with the advent of peace, but with the antici- 
pated high food prices continuing for some time afterwards, this 
drop in nitrogen should not be excessive. On the other hand, 
many plants erected under the war-time emergency are so located 
geographically and economically that operation after the emer- 



io8 



W. S. LANDIS. 



gency is past will be impossible. We may, therefore, expect a 
material reduction in producing capacity. That the decrease in 
demand and in production will be somewhat of the same order 
is at least a plausible assumption, and we see no real reason for 
altering our earlier conclusion as to the existence of a real primary 
problem, as concerns supply and demand. 

Of secondary interest, there is bound to be much readjustment 
of prices, markets, distribution, etc., for the new plants are located 
in many cases in consumption centers formerly drawing from a 
distance for their supplies. Former importers may become ex- 
porters and new products must supplant older varieties of mate- 
rials. Legislation may even play an important part in affecting 
consumption, not alone of nitrogen but even of the specific variety 
containing it. The influence of these phases, secondary in a sense 
to supply and demand, cannot be foretold. A recurrence of the 
1914 condition may ultimately occur again, particularly as there 
has been no expansion of propaganda and educational methods 
and sales organizations since 1914. 

In the case of the United States the statistics, however, partake 
of a very difficult character. 

In 1914 the United States possessed no commercial fixation 
plants, and the consumption was as follows : 



U. S. Consuyyiption of Nitrogen in 1914. 

Short Tons Metric 

Material Nitrogen Tons 

Nitrate of soda (import) 94,300 85.700 

Equiv. sulphate of ammonia (domestic) 36,600 33,300 

Equiv. sulphate of ammonia (import) 17,800 16,200 

Cyanamid products (import) 5,400 4,900 

Total 154,100 140,000 



It is extremely difficult to estimate for 1919 a similar consump- 
tion rate. I am, however, reproducing here some figures which 
are at least representative of the magnitude to which the indus- 
try has grown, having included the best information on anticipated 
outputs of coke ovens and on the new Government nitrate plants 
now under construction and which will be in operation very early 
in the spring. 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. IO9 

Estimated Production Rate 1919, U . S. 

Short Tons Metric 

Material Nitrogen Tons 

Nitrate of soda 300,000 272,800 

Equivalent sulphate of ammonia 100,000 90,900 

Cyanamid products (import) 13,000 11,900 

Cyanamid products (domestic) 86,000 78,200 

Synthetic ammonia 10,000 9,100 



Total 509,000 462,900 

The producing rate in the early part of 1919 will, therefore, 
be approximately three times that at the outbreak of the war. 
Before the war half the chemical nitrogen entered into the fer- 
tilizer industry, which for a considerable period of time has shown 
an increase of only about 10 percent from year to year. Assum- 
ing this increase, applied to the whole industry, would have con- 
tinued for the duration of the war, it is hardly to be expected 
that the consuming capacity at the beginning of 1919 should ex- 
ceed 225,000 tons of nitrogen per year, had there been no war. 

Judging from past history, our only guidance, we can expect 
at the close of the war a more or less disturbed state of affairs 
lasting over an indefinite time. We have no reason for assuming 
an enormously increased market for nitrogen to develop with 
peace, and in fact the chances are greatly in favor of a decline 
below the estimated 225,000 tons. With a production capacity of 
over 500,000 tons and a maximum consumption of less than half 
that tonnage, the industry in the States faces an unusual problem. 

Importation of nitrate of soda makes up over half the available 
tonnage. Undoubtedly a material reduction of this import will 
follow peace, possibly sufficient to balance supplies and demands. 
There will always be some demand for nitrate of soda in agricul- 
ture, and the oxidation of ammonia will make only slow headway 
in the already equipped and amortized chemical plants, so we 
cannot hope for a complete cessation of nitrate imports. Certain 
fixation plants erected as war emergency plants will undoubtedly 
close down with the declaration of peace, or at least suspend 
during a period of removal to more favorable peace-market 
localities. Exportation of surplus production is not excluded 
from contemplation. 



no VV. S. LANDIS. 

The nitrogen industry of the States must undergo a complete 
change, we must all admit. This enforced change, I believe, need 
not seriously affect the great producing intertests of this country, 
but the distribution agencies are certain to be influenced. The 
changes of methods and materials will affect the consumer. Out 
of the whole can come much good. 

For example, prior to the war agriculture consumed about 50 
percent of the chemical nitrogen of the whole country in the form 
of mixed fertilizers. The ingredients, mostly low in content of 
plant food and collected from many places, were assembled at 
the seaboard and compounded there. This low plant-food content, 
varying from 12 to 20 percent of the whole, means high cost of 
assembling, mixing, bagging and transportation per unit of plant 
food. By the time the fertilizer had been transported 200 to 300 
miles inland and distributed under an expensive system of credit 
the nitrogen cost the farmer about double its wholesale price at 
the ports. As a result eighty-tive percent of the fertilizer con- 
sumed in the country was used in a narrow strip of territory 
near the coast, and the enormous acreage of middle western cul- 
tivated lands went unfertilized. The high cost of the dilute fer- 
tilizer when transported to these States made its use either im- 
possible or at least unattractive to the farmer from the standpoint 
of profitable return. The great cereal crop growing regions must 
have cheaper nitrogen to make available the vast market they 
present. 

Now neither the producer of the raw materials nor the com- 
pounder of the mixed fertilizer were profiteers. A careful study 
of the situation (statistics are available in ample quantity) shows 
that neither profited to more than a very moderate return on his 
invested capital. The difficulty lies in the enormous friction losses 
in handling a material averaging only between 12 and 20 percent 
of valuable plant food and 80 to 88 percent inert material. The 
labor, bags, freight and haulage applied to the inert material 
is lost. If it could be eliminated the cost of fertilizer could be 
reduced without either the producer of the raw materials or the 
compounder and distributor of the same suffering. With reduced 
cost to the farmer and more general distribution the cost of credits 
will be lowered. Half the price paid by the farmer went to the 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. Ill 

wholesaler of the raw materials and the other half for distribu- 
tion. As this second half is largely proportional to the bulk 
handled, any means of reducing the inert material content should 
result in a lowering of these costs of mixing, bagging and dis- 
tributing. The solution of the problem of a lowered cost of fer- 
tilizer is therefore logically one involving the production of a 
more concentrated material. And following the lowered cost will 
come the newer and larger markets with increased demand. 

The nitrogen industry of the United States, if it is to market 
its great production at the close of the war, must face these facts 
and be prepared to meet the issue. One of the youthful fixation 
processes has appreciated the situation and prepared itself through 
development of a concentrated fertilizer containing some 65 per- 
cent of plant food, over four times as concentrated as an average 
mixed fertilizer. The cost of handling, mixing, bagging, freight 
and haulage will be cut in equal proportion to the concentration, 
and it will be enabled to reach hitherto inaccessible markets, miles 
beyond the limit of the present dilute materials. The new fer- 
tilizer awaits only the close of the war and release of the ammonia 
supplies to enter the field, crop tests having been carried out for 
some four to five years. 

When fertilizer can be profitably put into the great Middle 
West the consumption will be enormous. Our apparently largely 
increased nitrogen production will not suffice to meet the demand. 
It would take the stimulating effect of several wars to build suffi- 
cient fixation plants to over-produce in such a market. 

Thus the ten-year-old fixation industry with its freedom of 
action, absence of prejudice, and broad appreciation of funda- 
mental conditions has not only come to the assistance of the 
Government in the war emergency, but has prepared itself to meet 
what might have been a serious national problem with the advent 
of peace. A closing of the plants with the world's shortage of 
food stocks is unthinkable and yet such would appear on the facts 
of statistics to have been the outcome had the problem not been 
attacked from its fundamentals. At least some of us do not look 
into the future with fear in spite of the figures. 

New York City, 

September 25, 1918. 



112 DISCUSSION. 

DISCUSSION. 

W. S. Landis: In connection with the statement that the de- 
mand for nitrogen will fall off after the war, I might say that 
information from abroad is that the use of nitrogen fertilizer is 
likely to be enforced by law to make up for the deficiency in food 
supplies and labor. 

C. G. Atwater^ : Mr. Landis has given us a very able and 
thoughtful discussion of the conditions that attended upbringing 
of our native nitrogen fixation industry, based upon his intimate 
acquaintance with it from its earliest beginnings. It is so young 
a development that, as he intimates, it is quite possible for a man 
to have seen it all, and yet be, apparently, well within the draft 
age. 

I think it is perhaps fair to amplify his reference to the Haber 
type of process a little, more especially as the General Chemical 
Company, who are building the only commercial plant of this type 
in this country, state that the process is not properly called a 
"Haber" or "Modified Haber" process, but has distinct character- 
istics of its own, so that it should be called the "General Chemical 
Company's Synthetic Ammonia Process" or the "De Jahn Pro- 
cess." 1 had hoped to have a paper to present at this meeting, 
in which perhaps the inventor himself would have explained the 
points of difference, as well as other details, but this we will have 
to look forward to at another time and place. 

Mr. Landis' discussion of the probable conditions after the war 
is most interesting, though we must recognize, as he does, that 
prophecy is always a difficult and often an unremunerative art. 
His statistics, when they partake of that nature, are open also to 
this objection, but until we get the actual figures, his guess is 
as good as anybody's. As to the demand after the war, he is cor- 
rect in saying that sales organizations have not increased, but he 
overlooks the effects of some other agencies that have been in 
action far and wide. Every war gardener — and they are every- 
where — has heard of fertilizer, and most of them have used it in 
some form, and he or she has learned that it will do the work. 
The experiment stations, extension men, and county agents have, 
for the most part, been advising the liberal use of fertilizer, and. 

• Manager of Agricultural Dept, Barrett Co., New York City. 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. 1 13 

the press of the country has been a unit in the insistent call for 
bigger and better crops and better cultural methods. These are 
all justified by the higher prices that now prevail for farm prod- 
ucts. I think that, after the war, districts will call for fertilizer 
that never did before and that the demand for commercial plant 
food will be on the increase as long as the farmer has the money 
to pay for it, as he seems likely to have. 

Mr. Landis' further suggestion as to the cheapening of fertilizer 
by putting it in a more concentrated form is, of course, along the 
line of proper development. The fertilizer men of the country 
have been preaching higher analyses and lower freights for years 
past, and they have not succeeded in getting the farmer up to the 
limit that the usual material will admit, by a considerable dis- 
tance. How it will be possible to jump the conservative farm 
methods and existing farm machinery up to a 65 percent ferti- 
lizer is rather a problem. Perhaps, however, that will be one of 
the by-products of the awakening influence of the war. 

E. KiLBURN ScoTT^ : I notc that Mr. Landis says that all the 
arc-process plants in the world give only 15,000 tons of fixed 
nitrogen, so it will be interesting to see if the figure is correct. 
We can do this by approximating the total power used by arc- 
process plants. For example, Norway has three plants, at Notod- 
den, Rjukan I and Rjukan II, which total about 350,000 H. P. 
France has two plants, in the Haute Alps and at St. Pierre on the 
Pyrenees, which take over 30,000 H. P. Italy has a plant at 
Legnano, which before the war took over 15,000 H. P., and it has 
been extended since. Germany and Austria have several plants 
which are said to aggregate over 80,000 H.P. There is a plant 
at Seattle, and there are others. 

It may be fairly assumed therefore that about 400,000 kilowatts 
are being used in fixing nitrogen by the arc process in various 
parts of the world. An easy calculation shows that so low a 
yield as 52 grams of nitric acid per kilowatt-hour gives half a ton 
per kilowatt-year, which happens to be a round figure easy to 
remember : 

52 grams X 1 K.W. X 8,760 hours X 2.2 

— — = Vz short ton. 

1,000 X 2,000 lb. ^ 

^ Electric Furnace Engineer, New York City. 



114 DISCUSSION. 

Therefore a year's production reckoned as 100 percent acid 
should be 200,000 tons, of which about 45,000 tons is nitrogen; 
that is -to say, three times the figure stated by Mr. Landis. It is 
probably an even greater amount. 

Mr. Landis: There seems to be some question about the 
accuracy of my figures. I do not object to their being criticised 
in the least, because it is almost impossible to obtain accurate fig- 
ures. In regard to the Italian plant, an Italian representative in 
this country expressly told me that this plant is only running 
part time at 15,000 kilowatts. Therefore, if you will discount 
the Italian plant from 50 to 15 and others in the same ratio, you 
will have figures approximating mine. Also, a DuPont repre- 
sentative expressly told me at the Exposition of Chemical Indus- 
tries, in discussing these figures, that the power going into the 
arc process of nitrogen fixation could not exceed in the world at 
this time 300,000 horsepower. If we accept the figure, 55 grams 
of acid per kilowatt-hour, which is only a furnace output on test 
scale, you will obtain from the above power about 22,000 tons of 
nitrogen as theoretically fixed at the furnace. The 15,000 tons I 
give represents the 75 to 85 percent recovery of those gases that 
the acid maker obtains after passing the washing system, in which 
a few leaks do occur at times. But whether the figures are 15,000 
or 20,000 does not matter, because the difference is less than one- 
half percent of the total figures we are concerned with, anyway. 

In connection with this subject of nitrogen fixation there 
recently appeared a lengthy paper on a comparison of the cyan- 
amid process and the Kilburn Scott arc process. It was one of 
those "deadly-parallel" kind of papers, where in opposed columns 
the complete list of steps in the cyanamid process, beginning with 
putting the office cat out in the morning to letting it in at night, 
was compared to about one-tenth the number of steps for the 
Scott process. The listing was incomplete in that the tonnage of 
nitrogen fixed throughout the world by the two processes was 
omitted from each column, probably because it was nothing for 
the arc process in question. 

E. Kilburn Scott: The suggestion has been made that the 
efficiency of the absorption end of the arc process is 75 percent. 

Mr. Landis : 75 to 85 percent. 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. II5 

E. Kii^BURN Scott: Well, the absorption end of any process 
is the same, and simply consists of towers for acid and alkali, so 
presumably the efficiency of absorption is also 75 percent with 
the cyanamid process. 

Mr. Landis : That is not quite true. The arc process furnishes 
a furnace gas claimed to possess at a maximum 2 percent of nitric 
oxide, and actually, according to my measurements, from 0.8 to 
1.2 percent. The gases from the ammonia oxidation average 
from 8 to 12 percent nitric oxide. To one familiar with the sub- 
ject of recovering nitric acid from nitric oxide gases, this great 
difference in concentration makes all the difference in the world, 
and furnishes direct contradiction to the above statement of 
Mr. E. Kilburn Scott. 

E. Kilburn Scott : The efficiency of the absorption end of the 
arc process is nearer 95 percent than 75 percent. On the other 
hand, experience in Europe with the oxidation of ammonia to 
nitric acid has shown that the efficiency of that part of the cyan- 
amid process is nearer 75 percent than 95 percent. 

In my opinion all processes of fixing atmospheric nitrogen 
should have been put into operation as soon as possible, directly 
the war began. Instead of that there was great delay both in 
England and this country, and when a start was made the arc 
process, which is the only one that has been consistently success- 
ful both commercially and technically, in Norway, was deliber- 
ately shelved. In this country the authorities have practically 
banked on the cyanamid process, for it has been adopted for 
Nitrate Plants II, III and IV. 

After all the talk and the rushing into print regarding the ex- 
cellences of the cyanamid and other processes of fixing nitrogen, 
the fact remains that the only nitrate plant built since the war 
which is now working successfully is an arc-process plant at 
Seattle. On latest information, all the other plants are shut down 
and millions of dollars have been irretrievably lost. 

Linn Bradley' : Until recently it has been a universal custom 
for teachers of chemistry to impress upon their students the im- 
portance and even the necessity of sulphur and its compound, sul- 
phuric acid, as the basis of all chemical industry. It has often 

• Chief Engineer, Research Corporation, New York City. 



Il6 DISCUSSION. 

been stated that civilization depends upon sulphuric acid, that if 
we should suddently lose the secret of its manufacture mankind 
would retrogress and again become barbarian. 

Electrochemistry has greatly changed the old order and routine. 
There was a time when sulphuric acid was necessary for the pro- 
duction of nitric acid from niter, hydrochloric acid from salt, and 
phosphoric acid from phosphate rock, these being the most im- 
portant acids in commerce and industry. 

The electrochemist now makes nitric acid from the air in sev- 
eral ways, direct, by the arc, or indirect by the cyanamid method, 
by the production of ammonia and its subsequent oxidation. 
Hydrochloric acid may be produced by chemically combining the 
hydrogen and the chlorine obtained during the electrolysis of 
sodium chloride brine. Phosphoric acid may be obtained directly 
from phosphate rock by treatment in an electric furnace. 

The foregoing remarks deal generally with the acid side. On 
the other side we have the alkalies which are produced by elec- 
trolysis and subsequent operations, none of which require sulphur 
or its compounds. 

By the time the war is over, we will probably have obtained 
independence in nitric acid, and with good prospects of national 
independence in potash, these two items together with phosphoric 
acid representing the necessary ingredients in commercial ferti- 
lizers. As to the necessity of these ingredients, there can be no 
dispute since their importance is universally recognized. 

There are practical difficulties in the complete recovery and 
condensation of nitric acid produced by the arc method, or by the 
oxidation of ammonia. One needs only to visit the Newark, 
N. J., meadows to appreciate the losses of nitrogen compounds 
in nitrating operations. These losses increase our nitrate prob- 
lem by just that amount. We are not careful to conserve our 
nitrates after bringing the sodium nitrate all the way from Chile, 
and had German naval power met with success, our national 
security would have been at stake. Fortunately we will have 
plans, knowledge, and experience with nitric acid production 
which will render us secure in the future even if we do not con- 
tinue during peace times to produce nitric acid electrically. This 
security must be credited to electrochemistry. As for losses in 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. II7 

gases, I might add that at one small plant about $100,000 worth 
of nitric acid per annum is now being recovered from gases given 
off in the nitration of cellulose. 

Production of phosphoric acid in the electric furnace has not 
yet been commercially established on a large scale. However, 
it has possibilities which should not be overlooked. 

Recently a company which makes calcium carbide in electric 
furnaces has been giving consideration to the use of an electric 
furnace for producing potash from silicates. Even now, when 
coke and lime or other raw materials are charged into such fur- 
naces the potash is volatilized, and if the raw materials carry a 
sufficient quantity of potash its recovery as a by-product (along 
with lime, for instance, in the production of calcium carbide) 
seems advisable. This summer, several acres of farm land were 
treated with such material, and this resulted in practically 
doubling the yield of barley and oats. Comparisons were made 
with untreated ground ; the very finely divided lime and the pot- 
ash were beneficial to the soil. 

In making ferro-manganese in electric furnaces, considerable 
manganese is given off and carried away in the gases, and most 
manganese ores carry relatively high percentages of potash. 
Probably there is sufficient potash present to warrant recovery 
along with the manganese. Figures may be available soon, as 
tests are now being made. 

The importance of electrochemistry in connection with fertilizer 
ingredients and especially potash as a by-product is such that it 
seems to me that the first steps in the formation of the American 
Potash Alliance should be taken by this Society, and there appears 
to be no better place and time than here and now, and I therefore 
respectfully suggest that this meeting authorize our president to 
appoint a committee of two or three members as he deems best, 
for the purpose of preparing a constitution and by-laws and for 
bringing this movement to the attention of other societies and 
arranging for their co-operation. It would be fitting for this 
Society to take a decisive step toward the protection and fostering 
of American chemical industries, conducting a vigorous and con- 
tinuous fight against Germany on what Dr. A. D. Little so aptly 
described as the "Economic Front." 



Il8 DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Landis (Communicated) : Mr. Scott's information on 
oxidation of ammonia and the nitric acid recovery therefrom is 
naturally subject to error, as he is unfamiHar with the process. 
But he seems to be also quite as much in error in connection with 
information on the arc process. I do not agree that the arc pro- 
cess anywhere in large-scale work has shown an efficiency of 
absorption of nitric oxide to dilute nitric acid of anything hke 95 
percent, as he claims. Even where soda towers are used, and 
including other recovered products than nitric acid, the figure 
95 percent has not been obtained on continuous large-scale work- 
ing of the arc process. 

On the other hand, this absorption of nitric oxide to nitric acid 
alone in a cyanamid-nitric acid plant has been 98 percent, on long- 
time tests of full-sized units, under independent control. The 
complete transformation of ammonia to recovered nitric acid has 
averaged 87-88 percent efficiency. The independent control con- 
ducting these tests outnumbered several times the actual operating 
force employed in the plant, and their figures are above dispute. 

Mr. Scott, from his limited viewpoint, takes the old stand that 
all processes should have been adopted in the recent emergency. 
The best talent of all nations discussed the problem and their 
conclusion that the arc process had no place was based on sound 
reasoning. Its enormous power requirements is a war-time han- 
dicap that decided its fate. Water power could not be developed 
even under the most favorable circumstances because of shortage 
of time and equipment. Steam units could not be obtained on 
the scale needed because of shipping and naval demands for this 
equipment, not to mention the fuel shortage existing throughout 
the world. The enormous absorption towers required to handle 
the dilute gases placed a demand on a single industry that the acid- 
proof construction forces could not meet. The dilute acid ob- 
tained as its final product is a difficult handicap. 

Further, Mr. Scott is misinformed as to "consistent" technical 
and economical success of the arc process in Norway. It is a 
pretty well-known fact that the advent of the war was the only 
thing that saved the Norwegian nitrate development from finan- 
cial collapse. As to meeting an agricultural demand, the arc 
process has been a complete failure. 

That our own country's confidence placed in the cyanamid pro- 



THE WAR AND THE NITROGEN INDUSTRY. II9 

cess was well founded is indicated by the fact that in approxi- 
mately seven months after placing the first concrete in the first 
plant, it was in operation to the extent of the power furnished it, 
and to the extent to which its limited power supply enabled it to 
operate it fulfilled all promises of capacity and efficiency. 

Mr. Scott's argument based on the small Seattle plant is about 
as sound as one based on the closing down of the poison-gas 
plants indicating failure of our chemists to match up to gas pro- 
duction, the closing down of the large powder plants as indicative 
of the failure of our large powder companies to make smokeless 
powder or high explosives, or that of our gas-mask factories be- 
cause of failure of our carbonization and rubber plants to match 
up to commercial requirements. It is not pertinent to the case 
under discussion. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 191S, Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



THE ELECrRIC FURNACE AFTER THE WAR 

By Francis A. J. FitzGerald.* 

The following remarks on the electric furnace after the war do 
not pretend to be anything more than, first, some observations on 
the status of the electric furnace today in certain industries, with 
an attempt to deduce what is likely to result therefrom after the 
war, and, second, a note on the profound effect certain social 
tendencies which are strongly affected by the war are apt to have 
on electric-furnace development. 

War conditions have enormously increased the use of the elec- 
tric furnace, not only in work where is was already used, but 
where, before the war, it was not used at all or had been only 
tentatively adopted. As examples of the increased use of fur- 
naces in work where they were previously used, we have the ferro- 
alloys, steels, abrasives, amorphous carbon and graphite elec- 
trodes, and in the case of work where their use was not important 
before the war we have ferro-manganese, pig iron, brass and 
bronze melting, heat treatment of metals, forging, etc. 

In the ferro-alloy work the increase in electric furnaces is 
found not only in the factories of those who previously were 
engaged in this industry, but all sorts and conditions of men, who 
would never have thought of doing such a thing but for the war, 
have taken up this class of work. The condition as regards the 
manufacture of abrasive materials is similar. It is safe to say 
that some of these activities will cease after the war, for even 
at this time, in spite of favorable conditions, some have stumbled 
if not fallen by the wayside. 

The use of electric furnaces for steel has been greatly stimu- 
lated by the war. This is well illustrated by the number of elec- 
tric steel furnaces with patented features of various kinds which 
apparently are prospering sufficiently to advertise widely. It is 

* FitzGerald Laboratories, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



122 FRANCIS A. J. FITZGERALD. 

probable that the use of steel furnaces would be even greater 
were it not for the difficulty of getting electrodes and materials 
for furnace construction. 

An obvious hindrance to an even more rapid growth in the use 
of the electric furnace than actually exists is the relatively small 
number of experienced electric-furnace workers. The electric 
furnace is too new an apparatus to have provided numerous men 
trained in its working. The consequence is that there is not, as 
yet, any standard practice such as is found in other kinds of fur- 
naces which have been in use for many years. Electric furnace 
practice varies enormously, and until there is more experience 
and more exchange thereof among workers nothing approaching 
standard practice will be reached. Probably the more severe con- 
ditions which will be experienced after the war will bring about 
this standardization more rapidly. 

There is one development of the electric steel furnace which 
might have been expected as a result of war conditions, but which 
apparently has not come. This is the use of the induction furnace 
or its modified form the Rochling-Rodenhauser furnace. These, 
not requiring electrodes, would apparently offer a means of get- 
ting round the electrode shortage and the very high price of elec- 
trodes even when they can be obtained. That the induction 
furnace has good points besides elimination of electrodes, there 
can be no doubt. For example, its thermal efficiency might be 
made higher than that of any other steel furnace. But it does not 
seem to have gone ahead, in spite of conditions that appeared 
favorable, one reason being that a satisfactory refractory lining 
has not been worked out. The lack of men in this country who 
are experienced in the peculiarities of the induction furnace natu- 
rally hinders attempts at working on the problem, particularly 
under war conditions which do not encourage spending much time 
on experiments. 

Although it looks as though an excellent opening for the induc- 
tion steel furnace has been missed during the war, I am convinced 
that interest in it will revive later, because the principle, at least, 
has apparently been used successfully in the modification of the 
Hering furnace for the melting of bronze and brass. Ten or 
twelve years ago, when attempts were made to introduce the in- 
duction furnace into this country, a great deal of experimenting 



THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER THE WAR. 1 23 

was carried on with a view to its use for brass and copper melt- 
ing. This was not successful owing largely to the troublesome 
pinch effect. Dr. Hering, however, utilized the pinch effect in 
his furnace and showed me, when we were looking at his furnace 
at the Ajax works in Philadelphia, how the pinch effect could be 
combined with the induction furnace. Since then a furnace work- 
ing on that principle has been successfully developed. 

Owing largely to the shortage of graphite crucibles and th^ 
consequent high expense involved, the development of the elec- 
tric furnace for brass has been greatly stimulated and now there 
can be no question that electric brass furnaces will be largely 
employed. 

It would be tedious to catalogue all the ways in which the 
electric furnace is developing, but it is my belief that after the 
war there will be a still further development for various reasons. 
One of these is that a large number of people are now being 
educated in the use and possibilities of the electric furnace. An- 
other reason is that many plants now turning out electric- furnace 
products are only able to do so because of the high prices they 
get under war conditions. It is almost certain that with the ter- 
mination of the war a lessened demand or lower prices for many 
electric-furnace products will follow, and this will inevitably make 
some furnace plants apparently useless. This in turn will stimu- 
late the search for other uses to which the idle plants can be put. 
Many years ago something of the same kind happened in Europe, 
at the time of the Acetylene Crisis, when many plants making 
calcium carbide were shut down owing to patent litigation. This 
had a marked effect in developing the use of the electric furnace 
in the manufacture of ferro-alloys, steel, etc. 

So far, therefore, as the extensive use of the electric furnace 
is concerned, it has been greatly increased by war conditions, and 
for the reasons given it is bound to be still further extended after 
the war. But when we come to consider the use of electric fur- 
naces in ways that will demand great quantities of power, such 
as the manufacture of nitrates, pig iron, etc., we must take into 
account certain social tendencies which will have perhaps a con- 
trolling influence on their development. 

For the successful development of those industries using large 
quantities of electric energy , water-power developments are 



124 FRANCIS A. J. FITZGERAI^D. 

necessary, and no one who is interested in these can have failed 
to observe the growing popularity of the idea of putting them 
under government ownership. This is almost certain to interfere 
with the growth of the electric furnace in the industries con- 
sidered. 

Under an autocratic government State ownership has some pos- 
sibility of success. Assuming that competent men who take a 
keen interest in their work are in charge of a government hydro- 
electric development, there is no reason why it should not be 
worked on good principles so long as that is the desire of the gov- 
ernment. Those in charge must satisfy their employer very much 
as though they were in charge of a privately-owned enterprise 
and had to satisfy their employers, the stockholders. The case, 
however, is very different under a democratic government. Here 
the people are the employers, taking the place of the stockholders 
in the privately-owned enterprise, and the government must 
satisfy them or rather the majority of the voters. Now in the 
case of the privately-owned enterprise the stockholders have a 
very simple measure of the efficiency of their managers — divi- 
dends. If these are not satisfactory the stockholders will demand 
reasons. In the case of government-owned hydro-electric plants 
there is no measure of this kind. The man who does not use 
electric current will probably not consider the matter at all, but 
the man who does use current will measure the efficiency of the 
management by the price he pays for it. The consequence is that 
the managers of the government-owned hydro-electric plant must, 
if they would hold their jobs, see to it that the majority of the 
plant's customers get their current at the lowest price possible. 
Usually the majority of the plant's customers will be small users, 
the householder, the farmer, etc., and it is evident that these must 
be satisfied even at the expense of the small number of customers 
of the plant who are large users. This is what is bound to happen 
in the case of government ownership of hydro-electric plants, for 
the small users, the majority of the voters, will by no means be 
willing to trust the government in the matter of just rates, they 
will put in that government which will give them low rates how- 
ever inequitable and actually injurious these may be. Government 
ownership of hydro-electric systems is, therefore, the most serious 
menace to the future of the electric furnace so far as the larger 



the; e;i.e;ctric furnace after the war. 125 

developments are concerned. It will take years to teach the 
farmer and small householder that the actual cost of supplying 
them with electric current is enormously greater than that of sup- 
plying the factory using thousands of horsepower, and that when 
they get low-priced current at the expense of the large user it is 
no real benefit to them, since they more than pay for what they 
save in current by the increased cost of other things just as essen- 
tial to their lives. 

The government ownership of water powers is only one of 
many kindred problems which we must face immediately. There 
is probably yet time to avert the disastrous results which would 
follow such a policy, and fortunately we have in the Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Commission a large-scale experiment in govern- 
ment ownership well worthy of study. 

We are fighting in a great war between two principles of 
government : that in which the people exist for the State and that 
in which the State exists for the people. We have no doubt which 
side will win; but if as a result of that victory we destroy a 
Socialistic autocracy in order to set up for ourselves a Bolshevik 
bureaucracy the last state of humanity may be worse than the first. 



DISCUSSION. 



R. TuRNBUEL^ : Being one of the victims of the Ontario provi- 
sion of the Hydro-Electric Commission, I can heartily endorse 
what Mr. FitzGerald has just said. This commission, as you are no 
doubt aware, was formed to help out the public of Ontario, which 
it has done to some extent ; it has helped out the small user, the 
man who lights his house gets his light very cheap today, and so 
far as that goes, it has been a success. However, our Society 
is interested from a power point of view, from the large con- 
sumer's standpoint, and that is where we got hit. When the 
Hydro-Electric Commission was formed, they gave us power at 
around $12 or $13, and we were led to believe that this was going 
to drop very soon to $10. Of course we believed them. Today, 
to get any power from the Hydro-Electric Commission — and it 

' Electric Furnace Engineer, Welland, Ont., Canada. 



126 DISCUSSION. 

is almost impossible to get any — we have to pay anywhere from 
$20 to $25. They will sell us a block of, we will say, a thousand 
horsepower; we will probably get 250 of it, taken over the year; 
that is, they will close us down when they want to, without any 
warning, and we have absolutely no redress. When we have a con- 
tract with a company, a limited company or whatever it might be, 
we have some redress in that company ; we take means generally, 
in making a contract, so that if something is taken from us, we 
get something back for it, but with the government, that is abso- 
lutely impossible. Take the Union Carbide Company, of Wel- 
land. They are using about 40,000 horsepower, but only at night 
and on Sundays; the rest of the time they are shut down. If 
anything happens at Niagara Falls, the Carbide Company is cut 
clean off, all its furnaces are shut down. You know what that 
means. I have said this to warn all you people, especially Ameri- 
cans, to keep away from government ownership ; it's no good. 

C. H. voM Baur^ : In discussing some of the parts of Mr. 
FitzGerald's paper on the future of the electric furnace, I was 
going to say a few things in regard to where the electric furnace 
fits into the iron and steel industry, and in so far I am reminded 
of a letter Prof. Richards wrote some five years ago, saying that 
the time was rapidly approaching when an electric furnace would 
be in practically every steel plant and also every iron foundry in 
the United States. Since then the electric furnace has received 
so much advertising for many reasons, not necessarily on account 
of the high quality of the material which it produces, but even 
before the war some people saw that it was largely an economic 
feature, and that is where I think the electric furnace will spread 
after the war is over. In other words, the field is tremendous, 
and in many places it has been practically untouched. For in- 
stance, after the war I think a great many plants will add electric 
furnaces to their Bessemer process, making it a duplex process. 
A second use is for the melting of ferro-manganese, so that it may 
be put into the open-hearth and Bessemer, saving anywhere from 
20 to 40 percent of the ferro used. Third, the introduction of 
the electric furnace into the iron foundry in the melting of cast- 
iron borings and the like, and cheap scrap, instead of using pig 
and coke. That process was cheaper, with electricity at about 

' Consulting Eiifintier, New York City. 



THE rxECTRIC FURNACE AFTER THE WAR. 1 27 

three-quarters of a cent or a cent per kw. hour, by $2.50 a ton 
before the war, and now it is about $10 a ton cheaper. It has 
been shown that this last question is a purely economic one, and 
I think a great many foundrymen in the iron industry will put 
in these electric furnaces, even though they cost so much more 
than does an ordinary cupola. The electric furnace, of course, 
will be more largely used in the brass foundry, and now that the 
induction furnace has been brought out for brass it will have a 
far-reaching effect in the yellow brass industry in the saving of 
zinc, which is a conservation movement in which the government 
is very much interested. So, all in all, there are features of the 
electric furnace which, although they are being used now to a 
certain extent, will be used to a much greater extent after the 
war, because the conditions will then be so much changed. 

C. G. Atwater' : Can Mr. FitzGerald give us a notion of the 
ratio between the price per kw. hr. charged the large consumer 
and the small consumer? I bring that out because it would be 
a beautiful political device to charge them the same rate without 
regard to the size of their consumption. I wondered how far they 
had gone in equalizing or unequalizing that factor. 

P. J. KruESI* : While Mr. FitzGerald is on his feet, may I ask 
him to go further into another point ; he said the collapse of the 
carbide business in Europe was due to the patent situation. I 
wonder whether it was really patent litigation or a diminution 
in the use of acetylene for household lighting that checked the 
use of calcium carbide in France? 

F. A. J. FitzGerald : Replying to the question as regards price 
per kilowatt hour charged for household lighting and for power 
to the large consumer, in Niagara Falls, Ontario, there is first 
a charge at the rate of 2 cents per kilowatt hour for the first 3 
kilowatt hours per 100 square feet of floor area, finally all addi- 
tional energy is charged at 1 cent per kilowatt hour. According 
to the commission's report for the year 1917 this made a net cost 
to the consumer of 2.6 cents per kilowatt hour. What the rate 
would be to a large user taking several thousand horsepower I 
do not know, but probably about $11.50 per horsepower year or 
approximately 0.18 cent per kilowatt hour. 

' Manager, Agricultural Dept., The Barrett Co., New York City. 
* President, Southern Ferro-Alloy Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. 



128 DISCUSSION. 

One of the mysteries connected with the rates is that those for 
domestic hghting in Toronto are the same as for Niagara Falls, 
although Toronto is 80 miles away from the source of power. 

As regards the collapse of the carbide business in Europe, I 
may be wrong in my explanation of it, but I always understood 
that the trouble was due, at least in great part, to the upholding 
by the courts of the validity of the Bullier patents. 

E. KiivBURN ScoTT* : Since coming here I have been surprised 
to note a tendency towards municipal trading of electric power 
supply. Such municipal ownership of electric plants in England 
has been largely responsible for retarding power supply on a large 
and efficient scale. 

I take it that the movement here is due to certain American 
companies not having done the square thing by some of their 
consumers, but surely the situation could be taken care of by the 
commissions allowing two companies to supply a particular area, 
so using the effect of competition. 

Municipal ownership in England resulted in a multitude of 
small power stations having relatively expensive buildings, deco- 
rated with the names of the shop-keepers, lawyers, etc., who hap- 
pened to form the electric light committees at the time. However 
well organized at first, friends and relatives of the councillors got 
onto the staff, and the chief engineer was often a good deal occu- 
pied in holding his job, in an atmosphere of local political intrigue. 

The inefficiency of the small tin-pot plants has been known to 
electrical engineers for years, and after the war it became ordi- 
nary newspaper comment. As a result, the authorities decided 
that the country had had enough of wasted coal and man-power 
and the present policy is to build super power houses equipped 
with units of 25,000 kilowatts, or larger, which will serve whole 
counties and large industrial areas. Also the coal is to be prop- 
erly utilized and its valuable by-products recovered. 

H. E. Randall®: I have spent a little time on this question 
of municipal or government ownership, and I would like to bring 
to this meeting an idea a little bit different. The feeling that I 
get from listening to this discussion is that it is all wrong. Well, 

'Consulting Engineer, New York City (formerly of England). 

• General Manager, Ludlura Electric Furnace Corporation, New York City. (Died 
October 21, 1918.) 



THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER THE WAR. I29 

may be it is, I am not going to discuss that ; but there are some 
features in it which I think, if we kept them in mind, would be 
of advantage to us in getting what we really do want. Let us 
say that at a central station in a certain city the power is worth 
0.5 cent per kilowatt hour for the average load factor that exists. 
We sell that in most cities for from 10 cents as a maximum down 
to 5 cents as a minimum. Here is where the difficulty comes in ; 
any public utility is up against the proposition of selling some- 
thing which, measured by itself, only costs 0.5 cent, and trying 
to make the selling price carry with it 95 percent of the cost, 
which is almost fixed independently of the amount used. The 
result is that if we should plot a curve of net income, and cents 
per kilowatt hour then if you sold current for 1 cent per kilowatt 
hour you certainly would not have much net income, and if you 
sold it for 20 cents you would not have much net income, because 
you would require a big distributing system and would not have 
much business done over it. At some place between the two, 1 
cent and 20 cents, you must get the maximum net income. That 
net income will vary with the amount of use. The Hydro-Electric 
System of Ontario, which is chosen for the purpose of compari- 
son, has selected a rate which is very interesting from a rate view- 
point, and which works out to between 2 and 5 cents to the aver- 
age consumer. It is camouflaged to make it look like 0.5 cent, 
but it works out between 2 and 5 cents; that is what you pay. 
The result is that the energy consumption per capita is about two 
and a half times what it is in any other district in the country, or 
in any other State. Each house is using two to three times as 
many kilowatt hours as are used elsewhere, and if that result 
follows, the system can stand on its feet and make money. H you 
could make every householder throughout the country a user of 
electric current and supply him with two and a half times as many 
kilowatt hours a year as he is now using, you could cut the price 
almost in half and break even. That is the fundamental idea 
which has governed the Hydro-Electric System of Ontario. I 
simply mention this rate as something we should not condemn 
without serious consideration. I think Sir Adam Beck said some- 
thing like this : "The income of the Province of Ontario derived 
from power and light may be divided this way : consumers of 
power, $700,000—1,000 votes; consumers of light, $300,000— 



130 



DISCUSSION. 



1,000,000 votes. Now then, if I cut my light price in half, I will 
not cut my net income in half, but I will probably reduce my net 
income to something like $250,000. Then we will add on, say, 
20 percent to the price of power, and so I will get a gross income 
which is greater than before." There's the mathematics of the 
thing ; and if we intelligently remember that we can deliver cheap 
house lighting and make it pay, we can either fight for or against 
government ownership and get what we want at the same time. 

F. A. J. FitzGerald (Communicated) : Mr. Randall's re- 
marks apparently bear out my contention that under government 
ownership the largest individual users, the electrochemists, are 
apt to pay a higher price for electric energy than they ought to, 
in order that the small consumer, the householder, may get 
cheaper light. Under a benevolent autocracy this may not happen, 
under a democracy, at least in the present state of ethical and 
mental development, it is bound to happen. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Blec- 
trochemistry After tJie War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 1918. Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



THE FUTURE OF ELECTRIC STEEL. 

By John A. Mathews.' 

In judging of the future of any process we mvist be guided 
more or less by its past. The electric furnace in steel manufac- 
ture has not a very long history ; in fact, as a practical invention it 
may be considered as running concurrently with this century, 
while as a commercial factor in the production of steel it can 
scarcely be considered more than ten years old, and its period of 
greatest progress has been since the beginning of the European 
war. We are in our thirteenth year of the manufacture of electric 
steel, which is a very long time as far as this branch of the in- 
dustry is concerned. 

The writer has, on various occasions, described the uses and 
the advantages which it seems to possess. In his paper before 
the American Iron and Steel Institute, May, 1916, entitled "The 
Electric Furnace in Steel Manufacture," the writer recounted the 
early history of the industry and its development up to that time. 
In comparing it with the crucible process, especially in reference 
to the possibility of its replacing crucible steel, the writer stated, 

"The point is that each process has its peculiar field, and while 
some crucible tonnage may be diverted to electric steel, yet it is 
more likely that electric steel will find its market in the most 
exacting requirements of steel for structural and tensile purposes, 
such as have come about almost simultaneously with the processes 
themselves, namely for automobile and airplane parts. Crucible 
steels for these purposes are scarcely commercial because of the 
difficulties attending upon making very low or medium carbon 
alloy steels by that method, and the tonnage demanded is far 
beyond what could be met by crucible steels. However, expe- 
rience has shown that the electric furnace was apparently invented 
to meet a new demand rather than to replace an old process." 

' President, Halcomb Steel Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 



132 JOHN A. mathe;ws. 

I also discussed the same subject in a paper presented at the 
thirty-first general meeting of this Society. At the last meeting 
of the American Iron and Steel Institute, Mr. T. W. Robinson 
presented a most interesting paper on "The Triplex Process of 
Producing Electric Steel at South Chicago." This represents 
the largest tonnage installation of electric steel in the world. In 
this paper Mr. Robinson said: 

"The luxury of today is the necessity of tomorrow. Safety 
cannot be measured by price, and public opinion will more and 
more insistently call for the highest excellence in the automobile 
and airplane and other forms of fabricated material." 

During the years that our firm was alone in the electric furnace 
business in this country, it was very hard to convince users of 
its superior quality, and still harder to get makers of open-hearth 
steels to admit it, and it was therefore refreshing to hear a man 
of Mr. Robinson's calibre state so frankly what we have been con- 
tending for many years. Mr. Robinson's paper was also dis- 
cussed by Prof. Henry M. Howe, who apparently confirms what 
Mr. Robinson had stated. He said : 

"We never had a very clear and satisfactory explanation of 
why crucible steel was better than open-hearth and Bessemer, 
but the evidence was cumulative, and whether with or without 
a reason we came to accept it as a conclusion which could not be 
contradicted or doubted, that crucible steel was very much supe- 
rior to Bessemer or open-hearth. We might speculate as to why 
that was. Perhaps it was because the atmospheric conditions 
were better and you had better control over the conditions. You 
can make the conditions more uniform in the crucible process 
than you can in the Bessemer or open-hearth. When you come 
to the electric process you find you are of the same mind and 
you do not see immediately why the electric steel should be better 
than open-hearth, but then you remember that the conditions in 
the electric furnace are almost identical with those in the crucible, 
and whatever it is that makes crucible steel better than open- 
hearth steel, I think we have good rea'son to believe also makes 
electric steel better than open-hearth steel. At any rate it grows 
very much easier for us to believe and to accept the evidence of 
experience that electric steel is better than open-hearth steel, from 
the fact that the electric furnace reproduces very closely the con- 



THE FUTURE OF ELECTRIC STEEL. 133 

ditions of the crucible, particularly in that it has very much 
closer control over conditions. You can get in the electric process 
much closer control over the conditions than you can get in the 
open-hearth, and very much closer than in the Bessemer. For 
instance, in the open-hearth you have such an atmosphere as you 
can get and such slag as you can get. In the crucible you have 
such atmosphere as you wish and you might say, such slag as you 
wish. Such would naturally be the advantage in the electric fur- 
nace, and it will continue to have an important part in the treating 
of readily oxidizing materials and alloys and it will play a great 
part in the production of alloy steels." 

Continuing he said — 

"We have come to a point where we may give some little rein 
to our imagination. You turn in many directions and will find 
that cost is becoming more and more a secondary matter, and the 
highest possible quality is becoming an absolute necessity. For 
instance in the case of body armor. If we are going to arm our 
soldiers we must give them the very best possible protection which 
a unit weight of material will give them, and so with the armor 
of ships. We must give the highest possible unit ballistic strength 
in its armor. And so with rails. We are going to put on rails 
the greatest locomotive which it is possible for a rail to carry, 
that is to say, low freight rates and cheap transportation are 
going to depend on enormous and hea\y locomotives, and the 
rails which are to carry these locomotives must have the greatest 
possible resistance, and that, it seems to me, we are going to get 
in the electric process." 

Some time before we actually entered the war I said that not 
only in automobiles and airplanes but in many other ways the 
electric steel would give a good account of itself for military and 
naval purposes. I can now say that it has done so. From fol- 
lowing the development of electric steel and the important part 
it has played in vital construction, I think there is no question 
but that it has more than made good. It might, in fact, be called 
"Super-Steel." Its merits have called for some revision of our 
ideas as to what may be done with various alloy steels. It has 
had the indirect effect of stimulating better production on the 
part of open-hearth and Bessemer steel makers, and thus it may 
be considered as a beneficial acquisition to the entire steel industry. 



134 JOHN A. MATHEWS. 

When Sir William Siemens stated over forty years ago that 
the function of electric melting is "to effect such reactions and 
decompositions as require for their accomplishment an intense 
degree of heat coupled with freedom from such disturbing in- 
fluences as are inseparable from a furnace worked by the com- 
bustion of carbonaceous materials," he only stated a part of the 
conditions essential to the production of the highest grade quality. 
As in the conduct of the war so with electric steel — it is man 
power that counts, but with electric steel it is qualitatively con- 
sidered and not quantitatively. The electric furnace requires for 
successful operation less labor per ton than is necessary for 
crucible steel, but it calls for a higher grade of metallurgical skill 
in order to produce the best results. The furnace itself and the 
conditions of electric melting are not enough in themselves but 
must be supplemented by skilled handling. Such skilled men are 
only developed by experience and training and are not too plen- 
tiful at the present time. It seems from the authorities quoted 
that the relative merits of the electric process as compared with 
other processes have been fully established and are generally 
admitted. A process, then, which is giving such an excellent 
product will doubtless grow and thrive after the war as it has 
done during the war. Whether there will be a temporary reces- 
sion of the growth of this branch of the industry and whether 
or not there may be too many or too few furnaces in the country 
at the time the war stops it is not possible to say, but when we 
consider the advantages of the process coupled with the actual 
results obtained in its relatively short history, we cannot doubt 
that it will have an established place in the steel industry. 

Let me recall briefly some of its advantages ; easily oxidizing 
metals like vanadium, chromium, and manganese are readily 
handled in the electric furnace, and hence less of them need be 
added to give the final minimum content in the steel. There 
will be less of the oxides of these metals produced in the steel 
and to be removed from the steel. Sulphur and phosphorus can 
be readily eliminated, and it is obvious that if they are essentially 
absent they cannot segregate. We all know the difficulties that 
makers of open-hearth steel are having in maintaining low sulphur 
in steel, due to the character of the metallurgical coke and to 
the gradual failure of natural gas as a fuel in many of the larger 



THE FUTURE OF EIvECTRIC STEEL. 135 

Steel-producing districts. In fact, for several years now there 
have been general increases asked for, and for the most part 
granted, in the standard specifications so far as sulphur and phos- 
phorus are concerned. However, if sulphur and phosphorus can 
be readily controlled and reduced to negligible quantities, it is 
obvious that the cropping of ingots may be reduced and the yield 
of sound steel increased. 

With the electric furnace, alloy steels are made in the furnace 
itself rather than in the ladle, and in this way there is better 
opportunity for increasing solution, diffusion, and homogeneity 
in the product. All of these things make for high quality, and 
quality is the first consideration. In addition to this, the electric 
furnace performs an economic function because of its adaptability 
for handling and recovering alloy values contained in scrap. This 
is of especial importance during the war, when alloys of all kinds 
must be conserved, and this is especially true with regard to 
chromium, manganese, and vanadium. The alloy content of these 
elements in scrap used in the open-hearth is only recovered to a 
very small extent, and not only is the alloy value lost but the 
oxides formed are frequently a source of trouble in the final 
product. 

We therefore consider the field for electric steel in the future 
a very promising one, and that when its merits are fully recog- 
nized new uses for it will be found and that the difference in 
price between electric steel and open-hearth steel will not be con- 
sidered of such serious moment. If designing engineers have full 
and complete confidence in the steel they are using they can design 
accordingly, so as to use more highly stressed parts and lighter 
construction, with attending advantages. This feature would be 
of special interest in the construction of airplane engines. 



DISCUSSION. 

J. W. Richards^ : Dr. Mathews speaks, in his concluding para- 
graph, of the saving of the rarer elements made practicable by 
using the electric furnace. A very good illustration of this is 
seen in making armor plate. About 50 percent of the steel cast 

' Professor of Metallurgy, Eehigh University. 



136 DISCUSSION. 

from the furnace gets into the finished armor plate and about 
50 percent is scrap, which has to go back to the furnace to be 
remelted. In this remelting all the chromium in the metal is lost ; 
and this is not only a loss of chromium, but it makes a slag that 
is very pasty, infusible and hard to handle, so that you have 
difficulty with the slag because of its content of chromium oxide. 
If the armor-plate scrap were remelted in electric furnaces, the 
whole of the chromium would be saved and the metallurgical 
difficulties with the slag would-be obviated. I believe they have 
started to do that in England, and it has been suggested to the 
Government here ; I placed its advantages before our Navy De- 
partment, but no steps have yet been taken to make the change. 

I do not agree entirely with the statement of Dr. Mathews that 
the electric furnace requires very expert handling. Perhaps he 
said "for the obtaining of the best results," but it is certain that 
satisfactory commercial results with electric furnaces are obtained 
without any better or more expert workmen than are used on 
open-hearth furnaces. I think it can even be stated safely that 
for making certain lines of steel castings, less expert workmen 
can be used in running the electric furnace than are necessary to 
make good steel castings in the open-hearth furnace. I have 
known a man given charge of an electric furnace who was a 
mechanic and knew nothing about melting steel, but he was 
trained to use the electric furnace ; I was told that in several 
months' running he had never made a bad heat of steel in that 
furnace, running castings which passed Government tests. I 
think it can be safely said that for many purposes the electric 
furnace does not require any higher skill than is required to run 
the open-hearth furnace, and in some cases perhaps less. 

Dr. Mathews, quoting from Professor Howe, said, comparing 
the crucible and the electric furnace, that in the crucible you had 
such conditions as you wished and such slag as you wished. This 
statement is, in my opinion, entirely wrong. You cannot get in 
the crucible such a slag as you wish, you can get only an acid slag 
and you cannot make a refining slag. No one has yet used a basic 
crucible that I know of ; the crucible is essentially an acid vessel, 
and therefore you are limited to putting in the crucible, so far 
as sulphur and phosphorus are concerned, as pure material as 
you want to get out ; whereas, in the electric furnace you may 



THE future: op electric steel. 137 

have a basic lining and put in material of far inferior quality, 
which could perhaps not be considered at all for the crucible, and 
making a basic slag produce steel substantially equal in quality 
to that produced in the crucible from much better material. For 
such purposes the electric furnace is of the highest commercial 
importance, and is not duplicated at all by the crucible. 

H. Emerson^: Dr. Mathews has stated that very heavy loco- 
motives make for low freight rates. This seems obvious, but is 
a delusion. Mr. J. J. Hill told me years ago that railroad ex- 
penses were by the train mile and railroad receipts were by the 
ton mile. He gave me twenty years to better that formula. 

Mr. Hill was one of the greatest transportation geniuses who 
ever lived, but to some extent he overlooked the enormous in- 
crease in operating expense due to partial use of equipment. A 
pipe-line is economical for two reasons : The container is not 
transported and the equipment is used continuously. 

Big locomotives add to freight costs, firstly because their 
monthly mileage is exceedingly low. The average hours in a day 
a locomotive during its life pulls a train ought to satisfy even a 
Bolshevik. It is between two and three hours. The average 
time the track is occupied by a moving train is about 1 percent 
of the day. 

If it is economical to transport oil continuously in pipe lines, 
then it is not economical to increase the weight of locomotives 
(thus causing an increase of rail and bridge weights, and an 
increase in cost of branch lines) until rails and cars are more 
used than they are today. 

If I were planning a transportation system for Alaska, for 
Japan, for New Zealand, or any other new country not directly 
connected with existing systems, I would not go beyond 3 ft. 
(0.9 m.) gauge. In the New York subway, where trains prob- 
ably occupy the tracks 15 percent of the time, I would have used 
a 6 ft. (1.8 m.) gauge. 

Because they use their equipment continuously, the big packers 
make big dividends on 2 to 3 percent profit. Because railroad 
investment is four to five times annual revenues, railroad profits 
have to be from 25 percent to 40 percent, and then the returns 

» Efficiency Engineer, New York City. 
10 



138 



DISCUSSION. 



are only 5 to 6 percent. Big locomotives and heavy steel cars have 
increased costs of operation, if we include capital expenses. 

In nearly all American industries we run into the fault of over- 
equipment and under-supervision, and in no line of activity has 
that been more demonstrated than in railroad operations and in 
railroad building. This comes very largely from the false method 
of keeping accounts, through the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, which emphasizes to superintendents merely the cost of oper- 
ation and not of capital charges. A railroad wishing to make a 
show ran off into the woods some thirty locomotives that needed 
new fire boxes, and bought thirty new locomotives, thus showing 
good operation. If they had had to repair the locomotives they 
already had, the operating ratio would have been high, but by buy- 
ing new locomotives and charging them over to capital instead of 
to operation, they made a beavitiful showing and floated a large 
issue of bonds. 

C. G. ScHLUEDERBKRG^ : I think one point brought out by Dr. 
Mathews, that the electric furnace product has created its own 
market, is of particular interest. It is practically the history of 
every new invention, that it always creates a new market instead 
of seriously interfering with an old one. 

J. W. Richards : I think that if Mr. Schluederberg would in- 
spect a list of the numerous manufacturers of crucible steel who 
have closed down their crucible steel plants and put in electric 
furnaces, he would find his statement not to hold for that industry. 

C. G. ScHLUEDF.RBERG : I do not know of any that have closed 
down. 

J. W. Richards : They continue to make high quality steel, 
but they make it with the electric furnace and have closed down 
the crucible part of their plants, any number of them. 

DwiGHT D. Miller*: Before leaving this whole subject of 
electric furnaces, I would like to bring out one point which I 
think has been overlooked. We have been talking about the 
manufacture of steel and the melting of it. I would like to em- 
phasize the great importance and the rapid growth in the use of 
the electric furnace for the heat-treatment of steel. By the use 

» Electrical Engineer, Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
* Electro-Metallurgist, New York City. 



THD FUTURE OF ELECTRIC STEEL. 139, 

of the arc furnace for the melting of steel, we know that we can 
work closer to specifications in making our alloy steel ; that is 
due to closer control of conditions, temperature and atmosphere ; 
but it is a well-known and recognized fact today that no matter 
what the benefits of alloying the steel may be, those benefits are 
much enhanced and brought out by proper heat treatment. In 
other words, take the raw alloy steel as it comes from the ladle 
and heat-treat it properly, and you will develop the physical quali- 
ties in that steel to the highest degree. The company that I 
happen to represent have a great many heat-treating steel furnaces 
in use, notably one at the Ingalls-Shepard plant at Chicago. 
There we are heating the forged axles for aeroplane motors. 
That equipment is a 900 K, W. furnace in two sections, the heat- 
treatment is done in the first section, the quench is between them, 
and the drawing is done in the second section. The action is en- 
tirely automatic. The only manual labor that is performed is to 
simply place the forgings on the operating platform of the fur- 
nace. The pyrometer control does the rest. We have points 
running down into the furnace which probably are within half 
an inch of the metal as it is treated. When the metal reaches 
a certain predetermined tem.perature, it actuates a contact pyrom- 
eter, which in turn, through relays, actuates the rachet solenoid 
switch of the master controller, and that in turn governs the entire 
operation of the furnace. Thus the steel is in the heating furnace 
exactly the right length of time, and each piece is in the quench 
the same length of time, so that if one piece is good all must be 
good. 

The use of the electric heat-treating furnace is being extended 
very fast to many munition plants. For instance, Cleveland has 
just put in three of those big furnaces for heat-treating the steel 
anchor-chain we hear so much about, for the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation. 

Coming briefly to the brass situation, which Mr. FitzGerald re- 
ferred to, the induction furnace, I think nobody will dispute it, 
is theoretically the best furnace we can get. We know, theo- 
retically, that we can put the heat right into the material and 
nowhere else. If that could be worked out practically, there 
would be a tremendous demand along that line. That would 
apply just as well in the steel industry. The induction furnace 



I40 DISCUSSION. 

has been developed in the brass industry and for non-ferrous 
metals, in small sizes only. The main trouble seems to be the 
low power-factor which you encounter when you run into larger 
sizes. The pinch effect in induction furnaces has been taken care 
of more or less by the hydraulic head used to keep the metal from 
breaking, and if this furnace could be developed further it would 
probably be a good thing; but up to the present time, the limit 
in size, I believe, is the 60 K. W. furnace, which holds about 600 
lb. (275 kg.). Well, that is not going to pay unless you produce 
metal in larger quantities. But there are on the market other 
furnaces in which there is no limitation to handling metal in quan- 
tities; in fact, we have furnaces that have a hearth capacity of 
12,000 lb. (5,500 kg.) and melt two tons an hour. 

This type of furnace is operating very well and it is giving great 
satisfaction. The electric furnace is here to stay, for the reason 
that the metallurgical people today are interested in the quantity 
production of high-quality steel. 

The U. S. Steel Corporation has already adopted its use on a 
large scale, as you can see by their triplex process, pictures of 
which you witnessed last night. Their idea is simply, as I under- 
stand it, to take the open-hearth steel, refine it, and make the 
higher grades of better steel by the electric process. 

E. Kii^BURN ScoTT^ : The labor cost of electric furnaces is 
lower than with any other form of furnace. In several steel 
works in Sheffield, England, girls regulate the electrodes of the 
furnaces. They are more conscientious in chasing the ammeter 
needle and seem to know instinctively vv^hich way it is going to 
jump. 

In one works, I noticed an electric furnace near a row of pots 
making crucible steel. To work the pots about ten men were 
required, all specially exempted from war service and highly paid, 
whereas the electric furnace which made more steel and better 
steel was being handled by only three men and a girl. 

The making of crucible steel originated in Sheffield and the 
city is very proud of that fact, and yet steel manufacturers are 
tumbling over each other to buy electric furnaces to take the place 
of the old crucibles. 

' Consulting Engineer, New York City (formerly of England.) 



THE FUTURE OF ELECTRIC STEEL. 14I 

A good many electric furnaces make chrome steel for the manu- 
facture of rustless cutlery, and chrome and other alloy steels 
are made in large quantities for parts of aeroplanes. The electric 
furnace may be said to have been one of the main factors in 
developing safe aeroplanes. 

One interesting thing in connection with the electric furnace 
in England is that it is causing the center of gravity of steel 
making to move away from recognized steel centers. At one 
time it was common to see train loads of iron and steel scrap being 
sent from the south and other parts of England to Sheffield and 
the north, but after the war railway transport became so diffi- 
cult that it was found necessary to melt the scrap in electric fur- 
naces in centers remote from the usual steel-making centers. 

For example, at Chelmsford in Essex, which is the agricul- 
tural district, steel wheels, etc., for the London Steam Omnibuses 
are made by electric furnaces, and at one time steel billets were 
being sent from Chelmsford to the north of England. Luton 
in Bedfordshire, which is near London, has also become famous 
for its ferro-alloys. 

J. A. Mathews (Communicated) : The very liberal discussion 
which my paper brought forth is gratifying, and indicative of the 
general interest in the subject of electric steel. 

Prof. Richards takes issue with me as to the degree of skill 
required for handling an electric furnace. This all depends upon 
what kind of results you are trying to get in the electric furnace. 
If you are only trying to beat open-hearth steel in quality, possibly 
it does not require a great deal of skill, but I have had no expe- 
rience in that particular direction. When you get into the other 
class of trying to equal crucible steel, you not only require very 
skilled handling, but in the end you do not quite accomplish your 
purpose. In other words, with the most skilled handling the elec- 
tric furnace will not quite equal, for tool steel purposes, the 
product of the crucible, and so far the writer is aware of only 
one concern in this country that actually discarded crucibles be- 
cause of the introduction of electric furnaces in connection with 
the manufacture of tool steel. In the steel castings field the 
situation is probably different. Furthermore, I will say that I 
do not think the electric furnace will displace the crucible for the 



142 DISCUSSION. 

manufacture of this grade, for a long while to come, notwith- 
standing the lower costs of manufacture and some apparent 
advantages, and of course during the war period these advantages 
have been much greater than at normal times. 

If Prof. Richards had read carefully the quotation from Prof. 
Howe, contained in my paper, he would not have made the com- 
:ments he did in regard to the comparison between crucible, elec- 
tric, and open-hearth conditions. 

Mr. Scott rather takes a fling at crucible steel as made in Shef- 
field, and seems to anticipate that the electric furnace wnll replace 
this venerable process. However, he will find the same old cru- 
cible process in operation successfully in Sheffteld in the far 
distant future, and to the man who is looking for high-quality 
jnaterial for tools, they will not have to apologize for their mate- 
rial ih competition with electric steel. Unscientific as it seems, 
and old fashioned as it is, the crucible process more and more 
■appeals to me as the ideal method of producing quality when 
<iuality is desired, and the longer I am connected with that indus- 
try the more highly I respect it. 

As stated at the outset of my paper, each process has its pecu- 
liar field, and the primary use for electric steel is in the manu- 
facture of low-carbon alloy steels of various types. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City. N. J., October 1, 1918. Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



ELECTRIC PIG IRON AFTER THE WAR. 

By Robert Turnbull.^ 

At the meeting of this Society held in Pittsburgh in October 
of last year, I read a short paper on "The Manufacture of Low- 
Phosphorus Pig-iron from Scrap Shell Turnings in the Electric 
Furnace." At the time this paper was read this industry 
was only in its infancy, the total output in Canada being only 
about 900 tons per month. Today this output in Canada has at- 
tained over 2,500 tons, and by the latter part of November the 
production will be 4,000 to 4,500 tons per month. Furnaces are 
operating at Orillia, Ont., St. Catharines, Ont., Collingwood, Ont., 
Belleville, Ont., Hull, Que., and Shawinigan Falls, Que., the two 
largest producers being St. Catharines and Orillia, where the out- 
put per furnace is about 700 tons per month. Furnaces are build- 
ing in Lakefield, Ont., Shawinigan Falls, Que., and Vancouver, 
B. C, the iron produced in all these furnaces to be used for Cana- 
dian consumption with the exception of the Vancouver plant, 
where part of the iron produced will be exported. Canada, at 
the present time, is almost entirely dependent for its supply of 
low-phosphorus iron upon electric furnaces, its usual supply of 
blast-furnace iron from the United States being shut off. 

A number of improvements have taken place in the manufac- 
ture of this iron since I read my last paper. The consumption of 
electrode has been reduced, some months showing only 21 lb. 
(9.5 kg.) to the gross ton of iron. Kilowatt-hours have also been 
reduced, the average practice showing slightly over 500 to the 
gross ton. Ferro-silicon has been replaced by another product 
which reduces the cost and helps the carbon contents. The carbon 
in the iron is seldom below 3 percent, and in quite a number of 

' Electric Furnace IJngineer, Welland, Ontario, Canada. 

143 



144 



ROBERT TURNBUI^L. 



heats 33^ percent is attained. The cost of producing the iron 
has gone up, mainly owing to higher labor and a general increase 
on all raw materials, including shell scrap; these items, with the 
exception of scrap, have increased over 50 percent since the fall 
of last year. 

The following table of 25 consecutive heats shows very clearly 
the quality of pig iron being produced today, also the great im- 
provement in the carbon contents. 

Analysis of Twenty-five Consecutive Heats. 



Heat No. 


Silicon 


Sulphur 


Phos. 


Man. 


Carbon 


254 


1.02 




0.016 




3.42 


255 


1.10 




.019 


0.70 




256 


1.15 


0.023 


.017 





2.77 


257 


1.40 


• • • • 


.015 


.... 


• • • • 


258 


1.18 




.019 


0.70 


3.21 


259 


1.10 


0.626 


.013 







260 


1.10 


0.016 


.021 


.... 


3.32 


261 


1.06 




.018 


0.70 




262 


1.00 


o.6i9 


.016 




3.i7 


263 


1.07 




.013 


0.74 




264 


1.20 


6.612 


.015 




3.48 


265 


1.28 




.017 


0.75 




266 


1.12 


6.6ii 


.021 


• • • • 


3.07 


267 


1.00 




.014 


0.74 


• • ■ • 


268 


1.02 


6.6i6 


.014 




3.09 


269 


1.02 


0.011 


.039 




3.18 


270 


1.28 




.032 


0.69 


3.36 


271 


1.07 




.032 




3.05 


272 


1.10 


0.669 


.021 




3.10 


273 


1.20 




.030 


0.68 


2.93 


274 


1.72 




.022 




3.21 


275 


1.12 


0.612 


.028 


0.66 


3.40 


276 


1.02 




.027 




3.22 


277 


1.25 


d.oio 


.013 


• • • • 


3.18 


278 


1.42 




.014 


0.66 


.... 


Average Analysis 


1.16 


0.014 


0.020 


0.70 


3.19 



Having been asked to give my views on what will be the prob- 
able use of furnaces at present engaged in the production of low- 
phosphorus iron in after-the-war problems, I will endeavor to 
do so, although I consider any statements made at the present 
will be in themselves problematic, as they will depend entirely on 
the state of trade after the war, which, at the present time, no 
one can foresee. 



ElyECTRIC PIG IRON AFTER THE WAR. 145 

First of all, the class of iron produced in these furnaces today 
has not been considered, by the consumer, to be equal to the grade 
of iron formerly received from blast furnaces. If this is correct, 
the tendency of the consumer would be to return to blast-furnace 
iron when he can obtain it. My answer to this is, that the iron 
produced today in the electric furnace is now so close in quality 
to blast-furnace iron — it now being possible to attain from 3 
to 3^ percent carbon in this iron — that by the time the consumer 
will again be able to import iron from the United States he will 
have become so accustomed to using electric- furnace iron that 
the deciding factor will be the question of price. 

The next question is: Will specifications on steel produced 
after the war, which at the present time allow very high limits for 
phosphorus and sulphur, be reduced to their former strict limits, 
which are 0.04 for both ? This issue will have an important bear- 
ing on the manufacture of iron in the electric furnace, as should 
these limits be reduced to their former level, it will be impossible 
for the steel manufacturer to use the Bessemer grade of iron, 
which he mixes with the low-phosphorus pig, to such an extent 
as he is doing today, and he will be obliged to use a very much 
larger quantity of low-phosphorus pig, possibly 100 percent more. 
As it is not likely that this extra tonnage can be obtained for years 
to come from the United States, the only source of supply would 
be the present electric furnace product. Should, on the contrary, 
the present high limits be retained, the question of price between 
the two classes of iron would be the determining factor to the 
consumer, provided the States will be in a position to supply Can- 
ada with its requirements in this grade of iron. 

The next question, and what may be considered the most im- 
portant one, is : Where will the electric furnaces obtain their 
supply of low-phosphorus scrap turnings when the present source 
no longer exists? This brings up another question which will 
be quite a determining- factor in solving the problem, viz. : Will 
the open-hearth furnace continue the use of turnings in the charge 
as at present ? I think we are safe in considering that the open- 
hearth will discontinue the use of turnings as soon as it can obtain 
its supply in heavy melting scrap, as the use of turnings in this 



146 ROBERT TURNBULIv. 

furnace involves a greater use of pig iron, and there is a much 
higher melting loss when turnings are used as compared with 
heavy melting scrap. This loss is not taken into consideration 
so much at present, owing to the high prices obtained for the 
finished product and the impossibility of getting enough heavy- 
melting scrap, but more attention will be paid to this when normal 
competition again sets in. Before the war, a considerable tonnage 
of steel turnings was available, and, as the production of steel in 
Canada is now at least 100 percent more than before the war, 
we may consider that a very much larger quantity will be pro- 
duced after the war. Eliminating the open-hearth as a consumer, 
this scrap will become, so to speak, a drug on the market, as it 
was formerly, and the electric furnace, as a low-phosphorus iron 
producer, will be the natural customer for this scrap. By paying 
a small bonus on low-phosphorus turnings, machine shops would 
no doubt be willing to grade their scrap, as they are doing at 
present with shell turnings, and this would be a complete answer 
to our question, provided such conditions could be realized. We 
must, however, consider the possibility of an insufficient supply 
of such turnings and what we could expect to do in such a con- 
dition. This would bring us back to the old question of smelting 
ore in the electric furnace, as this would be the only other source 
of supply left, if the present furnaces were to be used for the 
production of low-phosphorus iron. Former experiments have 
shown that iron ore and steel turnings mixed in certain propor- 
tions give a production very favorable in proportion to the amount 
of power used, and smelting operations are very easy to handle. 
The furnace which would be used to smelt such a mixture would 
be of the continuous type, with a load factor approaching 100 
percent, and, as electric steel furnaces have a very low load factor, 
in some cases not over 50 percent, the amount of extra power 
necessary to produce the same quantity of iron from a mixture 
of ore and steel turnings, as compared with our present type of 
furnace melting scrap alone, would not be considerable. About 
1,400 kilowatt-hours are required to produce one gross ton of iron 
from a mixture of 50 percent metallic turnings and 50 percent 
iron ore, so that our present furnaces, which are of 1,200 K.W. 



ElvECTRIC PIG IRON AFTER THE) WAR. 1 47 

capacity, could produce 20 tons of iron per day, as compared with 
from 25 to 30 tons using steel turnings alone. I am not prepared 
to say how cost of the iron would compare in the case of the mix- 
ture as compared with steel turnings alone, but as no ferro-silicon 
or fluorspar would be required, and the return in metallic contents 
charged would be 100 percent as against 90 percent with turnings 
alone, besides a great saving in furnace repairs, this would prob- 
ably more than compensate for the extra power, electrodes, and 
carbon necessary for the reduction of the ore. A mixture of this 
kind permits the use of iron ore concentrates, the charge being 
kept porous enough by the presence of the turnings, and as these 
concentrates can be obtained very low in phosphorus, they could 
be used to advantage in the production of low-phosphorus iron 
and permit the use of turnings with higher phosphorus contents. 
As the operation would be conducted in a reducing atmosphere, 
the resulting carbon in the iron would be perfectly comparable 
to the blast-furnace product. 

Another use which the present furnaces could be put to would 
be the melting of iron for foundry purposes. The war having 
eliminated the exportation of English iron, and also iron from 
the United States, foundries have faced the necessity of confining 
themselves entirely to Canadian iron, mixed with a very high per- 
centage of scrap cast iron, and, it must be confessed, with good 
success. As most of the plants which are producing low phos- 
phorus iron would be suitable for foundry purposes, and as the 
grade of iron can be controlled very closely and silicon added at 
Httle cost, there should be an excellent opening for these furnaces 
to replace the cupola for melting purposes, using nothing but the 
cheapest cast-iron scrap, including borings, etc., without the use 
of any pig iron whatever, and the metal used direct from furnace 
to moulds. 

You will have noted that I have confined this paper entirely to 
Canada, because I think there is only one plant in the United 
States today producing this class of pig iron by this process. How- 
ever, the United States Government today is facing a very serious 
shortage in low-phosphorus iron. They have already appealed 
to Ottawa to help them out. We, in Ottawa, of course, cannot 



148 



ROBERT TURNBULIv. 



help them out, because we have not sufficient of this iron our- 
selves, and I think there is an opening novi^ for people in this 
country to get some of those furnaces started making pig iron by 
this process. One thing must be taken into consideration, that 
in the States it will be a war business ; after the war, I do not 
think they can compete with the blast-furnace iron, and if they 
are able to compete, it will only be in case the present supply of 
low-phosphorus ore is not sufficient for the furnaces. That I 
cannot predict, but we might be able to get an answer from the 
blast-furnace users of that class of ore. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American, Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J.. October I, 1918, Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



THE FUTURE OF ELECTROLYTIC CHLORINE. 

By A. H. Hooker.' 

Not until well after this war started, and we were able to 
grasp the magnitude of the operations in Europe, were we im- 
pressed with the plodding thoroughness with which Germany had 
developed her chemical industry as a preparation for war. Her 
dye industry with its fundamental acid and nitration plants was 
but a camouflage powder plant, and a training school for makers 
of explosives. Her intensive adaptation and work on the fixation 
of nitrogen, so ably started by Bradley of Niagara Falls, was 
subsidized and carried forward by German capital, using cheap 
Norwegian water power to prepare an industry that might at any 
time be transferred to German soil and supply Germany internally 
with the necessary nitrates for explosives. 

Eventualities have shown the wisdom of developing these 
chemical and electrochemical industries as measures of prepared- 
ness for a country that wishes to be self-sufficient in the event of 
war. The United States is now building huge plants for the 
fixation of nitrogen and the manufacture of nitrates ; plants which 
we expect to stand as bulwarks of defense in case of necessity, 
and which we expect to operate and maintain as efficient units, by 
the production of fertilizers and chemicals. Germany, treating the 
conventions as a scrap of paper, to the horror of the world, intro- 
duced poison gas as a most potent factor in this war. There could 
be but one answer : to meet gas with gas, equally deadly, handled 
as efficiently and in larger quantities. The Germans will get their 
fill of this, and then some, before the Allies get through with 
them. To speed on present successes to overwhelming victory, the 
crying need of our forces abroad is for gas-shells, bombs and 
aeroplanes. These are coming, but the quantity must be increased 

' Technical Director, Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

149 



150 A. H. HOOKER. 

and back of this increase is chlorine and more chlorine. Chlorine 
for phosgene, chlorine for chlor-picrin, chlorine for mustard gas, 
chlorine for bleach to neutralize mustard gas, chlorine as a cloud 
gas, chlorine for smoke screens, chlorine as a disinfectant and 
sterilizer, chlorine for chlor-benzol explosives — picric acid and 
parazol, for aeroplane dope, and for fire extinguishers. The list 
could be greatly extended, but this only indicates some of the 
necessities. 

Where is this chlorine to come from? True, we have, to a 
material extent, increased the chlorine producing capacity of this 
country, since this war, and to a large extent diverted from the 
paper and textile industries to war uses what chlorine we had, still 
the ultimate necessity for much greater quantities than are avail- 
able today has been obvious ever since we entered the war to those 
who have studied the question. Material additions to our existing 
plants, even with all the aid the Government can give, cannot be 
made at a moment's notice. They require months for construction. 
A still longer time is required for the complete construction of 
Government-owned and operated plants, which are then con- 
fronted with the further difficulty of even greater moment, the 
building-up of the personnel and operating forces for a com- 
plicated industry like this. 

It would seem the part of wisdom to make these additions as 
far as possible around the efficient, existing plants. If this is 
done, and should the necessities of the war demand a great ex- 
pansion of our chlorine production, we will naturally face the 
question: "What is the future of electrolytic chlorine?" — since 
England, France, Italy and Japan, to say nothing of Germany, 
have all increased their chlorine output during the war. 

It should be borne in mind that a chlorine-producing plant, to 
be maintained in any degree of operating efficiency, must operate 
continuously, twenty-four hours a day, three hundred and sixty- 
five and one-quarter days in the year. This makes it particularly 
desirable to operate in connection with the uniform water power, 
but also requires a constant and not a fluctuating market. While 
the electrolytic decomposition of salt furnishes two products, 
chlorine and caustic soda, it should be kept in mind that the heavy 
investment cost of such a plant and the necessity for constant 
operation make the chlorine the primary object of the operation 



the: future of flectrolytic chlorine. 151 

and the caustic soda the secondary product. Therefore, the per- 
manent use to which chlorine is put must be such that the chlorine 
can bear the burden of this operation. This is well illustrated by 
a review of the past history of the chlorine industry. 

In England, a past generation saw a great chemical industry 
built up around the LeBlanc process soda plants of the United 
Alkali Company. The output of these plants grew until they sup- 
plied the market of the world with soda ash and caustic soda 
produced by the decomposition of salt with sulphuric acid. The 
chlorine released in the form of hydrochloric acid more than 
flooded the English acid market and was at first allowed to escape 
from the chimneys until the vegetation was killed for miles around. 
A halt was called and it was allowed to flow into the rivers and 
dumped into the sea until the destruction of fish called for other 
disposition. Chlorine, at this time, was worse than a by-product ; 
it was an expense and a nightmare to the producers. 

The Mond and Deacon processes were evolved for converting 
this waste acid into a new article of commerce, "chloride of lime" 
or bleaching powder. The main consideration was to get rid of 
this chlorine at a price which would pay for the lime, packages and 
labor involved in disposing of it. Truly, at this time, chlorine and 
hydrochloric acid were by-products and a drug on the market. 

With the advent of bleaching powder, several new industries 
were built up ; plants were constructed and expanded for the 
bleaching of textiles and paper, using this new type bleaching 
material as a fundamental chemical. The consumption spread to 
other countries, grew in volume and demanded increased produc- 
tion. The United States became one of these important markets. 

At that time, the price received for soda ash, by our present 
standards, was very high ; the price for bleach very low. The net 
result, however, was a real profit to the United Alkali Company. 

Then came the advent of the Solvay process for making soda 
ash cheaply and with the chlorine combined harmlessly as calcium 
chloride. The merry war was on. The price received for soda 
ash and caustic soda was cut to a point where the LeBlanc plants 
suffered serious financial losses and began closing down, while the 
Solvay plants grew in importance and number and were in a fair 
way to supply the needs of the world at new prices. 

Then came another factor. The paper and textile industries 



152 A. H. HOOKER. 

which had developed to large proportions through the use of the 
despised by-product, chlorine, found themselves without bleach, 
since this was not supplied by the Solvay process. The result 
was a demand for chlorine at any price to keep their plants going. 
The net result was that the LeBlanc plants were again started up 
to a sufficient extent to meet the high-priced demand for chlorine 
in the form of bleach and hydrochloric acid, with their soda ash 
and caustic soda sold at a price fixed by the competition of the 
Solvay process. Thus the market for chlorine at a profitable 
price became the mainstay as well as the limiting factor as to the 
output which could be produced economically by LeBlanc plants. 

About the time a balance between the LeBlanc and Solvay pro- 
cesses was reached there came a new development, the electrolytic 
process for the production of caustic soda and chlorine. 

The chlorine industry of the United States has developed en- 
tirely along electrolytic lines and has always been limited to the 
demand for chlorine at a profitable price — it bids fair to remain 
so limited for the future. 

The old uses for chlorine are well developed and can sustain 
a living price for a limited production of chlorine. What is really 
needed is new uses for chlorine, against which the chlorine can be 
charged at a fair operating price. 

In the organic field we have synthetic indigo, sulphur colors, 
picric acid, benzoic acid, etc., all pointing to a gradually increasing 
consumption of chlorine in a field but hardly touched as yet. The 
use of aluminum chloride for the cracking of petroleum oils opens 
another field. The use of chlorine in the treatment of ores bids 
fair to affect a great saving of metal values, and bring about a 
number of radical changes from established metallurgy, where 
we can look with confidence for the largest tonnage use of chlorine. 

Our Research Departments and Universities should give every 
encouragement to a larger development of our permanent chlorine 
industry, since the maintenance of these chlorine-producing plants 
with a constant market is as important to the Government as the 
maintenance of reserve plants for the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid, the fixation of nitrogen, or any other basic munitions. 

Rather a vivid picture sometimes presents itself to me, these 
days, when I recall in the early months of 1914, standing beside 
Herr Geheimrat Professor Duisberg in the furnace room of one 



THE FUTURE OE ELECTROLYTIC CHLORINE. 153 

of the largest German Chemical Works on the Rhine. Surround- 
ing me was a large group of American Wedge furnaces fed by the 
latest American ore-handling equipment, all introduced to save 
man-power. He pointed out with pride to the largest sulphuric 
and nitric acid plant in the world, and said that the entire output 
was consumed within the plant producing pharmaceuticals, dyes 
and photographic chemicals, to be distributed at high prices to the 
markets of the world ; that their chief raw materials were pyrites 
from Spain, saltpeter from ChiH, coal-tar crudes from the coke 
ovens of Belgium, salt and coal from Germany. We visited a 
new liquid air unit just being erected, which I was told would, 
during the summer, supply the nitrogen to combine with hydrogen 
from the electrolytic chlorine plant, to cut down, in part, their 
dependence on foreign nitrate. For days I devoted myself to 
perfecting them in the use of our larger and more efficient Ameri- 
can Townsend cells for the production of chlorine — chlorine which 
they were using in part to chlorinate benzol received from Belgium 
and convert it into monochlorbenzol to liquify and pass on to other 
departments. 

Little did I think then, or as I returned home on the Lusitania, 
what a few short months would bring forth or that now my son, 
then but a boy at school, would be on the fighting front in Flanders 
as Brigade Gas Officer using his best endeavors to protect Ameri- 
can troops from the frightful effects of mustard gas and phosgene, 
produced perhaps from chlorine made in the very plant whose 
efficiency in chlorine production I had endeavored to improve by 
introducing American methods. 

Much as we detest the Germans for introducing the barbarous 
weapon of poison gas into this war, it so nearly ac«omplished their 
ends on several occasions and has met with such wide use and 
proved such a powerful weapon that it must always be reckoned 
with in the future. 

In considering imited action for the prevention of future wars, 
due consideration must be given to gas warfare and the control 
of chlorine supplies which form the base of most of these gases. 

It seems to me that President Wilson, in his wonderful speech 
of last Friday, has clearly pointed the way to action on the matter 
of chlorine, which will meet the hearty approval of all. 

He says : "Fourth, and more specifically, there can be no special 
11 



154 ^- H- HOOKER. 

selfish economic combination within the league and no emplo3rment 
of any form of economic boycott or exclusion except as the power 
of economic penalty by exclusion from the markets of the world 
may be vested in the League of Nations itself as a means of 
discipline and control." 

When the terms of peace are decided upon, what more fitting 
than that as one of these conditions, Germany not as a matter of 
economic boycott, but as a matter of discipline and control, should 
be compelled to dismantle all of her chlorine plants and receive 
her supplies from the outlying plants of England, France and 
Italy. Should this not suffice, some of her equipment could be 
removed and used to rehabilitate Belgium, chlorinating on the 
spot the benzol formerly sent to Germany. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, K. J., October 1, 1918, Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



COMMERCIAL USES OF CHLORINE 

By V. R. KoKATNUH.* 

The electrolytic manufacture of caustic soda during the last 
decade or so has brought many new problems to the fore, which 
if not solved immediately seem to threaten the very life of the 
industry that has given them birth. The electrolysis of brine 
produces caustic soda, hydrogen and chlorine. Caustic soda pro- 
duced by the Solvay process is decidedly cheaper than electrolytic 
caustic, while electrolytic chlorine can be made cheaper than 
chlorine made by other methods. 

Thus it is easy to see that the success of the electrolytic alkali 
industry depends not so much upon the profits obtained from 
caustic as upon those from chlorine. Though the main object in 
the electrolysis of brine is caustic soda, chlorine thus assumes a 
greater importance in the electrolytic alkali industry. In other 
words, the evaluation of the products of electrolysis of brine 
depends not so much on our motive of electrolysis as on the prac- 
tical side of the question. Hence chlorine becomes important 
as a primary-product, since among the products of electrolysis 
it is at the same time the most important and the cheapest. 

After all, the question whether a product should be called a 
primary-product or a by-product is settled by its cheapness of 
manufacture and its utility, and from this standpoint chlorine 
can be called a primary-product and not a by-product. While 
hydrogen can be thrown away without much detriment to the 
neighboring community, chlorine cannot be so dealt with, even 
if it was so desired, on account of the damage suits such a step 
might involve. In addition we cannot afford to throw it away, 
since electrolytic caustic cannot successfully compete with Solvay 
caustic unless its allies, hydrogen and especially chlorine, reinforce 
and strengthen its production. 

We are thus confronted with the double necessity of utilizing 
chlorine, first because we cannot afford to throw it away, and 

> Research Chemist, Niagara Alkali Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

155 



156 



V. R. KOKATNUR. 



secondly because we cannot throw it away, even if we wanted to, 
without serious trouble. The unprecedented stimulus given to 
the chemical industry as a whole by the present war, and its cer- 
tain growth after the war, will undoubtedly expand the electro- 
lytic alkali industry far beyond its present confines. 

Such a growth will result in an enormous production of 
chlorine. The present consumption of chlorine in the production 
of bleaching powder or hydrochloric acid cannot further be ex- 
tended without seriously overflooding the world's markets. Be- 
sides, it is not profitable. Thus we are confronted with a problem 
most vital to the life of the alkali industry, a problem which is 
fraught with grave consequences and pregnant with possibilities: 
the problem of finding new and profitable uses for chlorine ; and 
if this problem is not solved, it will mean slow but sure death 
to the industry. 

This paper does not claim any originality in its contents. Its 
main object is to present a systematic treatment of the possible 
ways of utilizing chlorine, showing the avenues and by-paths. 
Some of these by-paths show signs of considerable traffic, while 
others are hardly used and show but few footprints. The known 
roads afe the ones that are followed by many as they offer the 
least resistance. None but the daring explore the new roads lest 
they may lead them astray, to be lost in the wilderness. As in 
everything else, it is the new road that opens up fields of profit- 
able endeavor and the chlorine industry is no exception. 

Uses of Chlorine 



Direct 



Indirect 



I2 13 I5 14 |i 

Ores Poisonous Organic Inorganic Independent 

Gases Compounds Chlorides Uses 

and 
Chlorates 



1(a) 

Coal-tar 
Intermediates 



Kb) 
Pharmaceutical 
Chemicals 



(c) 

Solvents 



1(d) 

Synthetic 
Intermediates 



COMMERCIAL USES OE CHLORINE. 157 

This table shows the classification of the different ways of pos- 
sibly utilizing chlorine. Some of these look like footpaths and 
have a small and limited application, while others appear like beau- 
tiful and broad avenues- on which one can travel far and wide. 

DIRECT USES OE CHLORINE. 

(1) Independent Uses: — 

Among these may be mentioned its use as a bleaching agent 
in water solution in the textile and paper industries. 

It finds use as a disinfectant and sterilizer of potable water, 
whereby typhoid, cholera and other epidemic diseases are com- 
pletely eliminated from cities wherever it has been used. 

Recently it has been used in the treatment of wounds and their 
asepsis through what is known as Dakin-Carrel solution. 

Liquid chlorine is known to have been used in gas warfare in 
producing smoke-screens or clouds. 

It can be used in fumigating houses, thus destroying the 
microbes of plague and other diseases. 

It is used in sewage treatment and also in sterilizing rawhides. 

(2) Chlorination of Ores: — 

There have been many patents on the chlorination of ores for 
specific purposes in metallurgy. Here seems to be a vast field, as 
a large tonnage of chlorine will be consumed, if in any such line 
it may find application. 

It has been used for the separation of gold or silver from base 
metals, and thus finds an indirect application in the metallurgy 
of gold and silver. 

It is also used in separating copper from nickel, i.e., in the 
metallurgy of both copper and nickel. 

It is used in separating tin as tin-tetrachloride from tinned 
iron-scrap, by what is known as Goldschmidt's detinning process. 

It finds application in the treatment of valueless ore residues, 
which could not be profitably worked out except by the use of 
chlorine. Thus a low-percent ore can be worked successfully to 
advantage by its use, and its valuable metal contents be made 
available for our use. 

The chlorination of ores can be extended ad infinitum to newer 
fields, taking advantage of the volatility of certain chlorides and 



158 V. R. KOKATNUR. 

the action of chlorine on different metals and metallic oxides. 
Thus, perhaps, iron-pyrites may be used for iron manufacture, 
and feldspars may some day give us our potash and aluminum. 

(3) Poisonous Gases: — 

Gas warfare is perhaps the most unforeseen development of 
the present war, and opens up interesting fields. It is interesting 
to note that more than fifty percent of the gases known to be used 
in the present war are chlorine compounds. 

Silicon-tetrachloride (SiCl^) and titanium-tetrachloride 
(TiClj) are used in producing smoke-screens. Chlorosulphonic 
acid (SO3HCI) is used in hand-grenades and smoke-pots. Phos- 
gene (COCI2) is used in shells as an offensive gas. Chloraceton 
(CH2CICOCH5) and trichloro-methyl-chloroformate (Cl- 
COOCCI3), known as superpalite, are used in shells as lachryma- 
tors. Benzyl-chloride (CeHj-CHjCl) is used as a tear-gas in 
shells; chloropicrin or nitrochloroform (C(N02)Cl3) also as a 
tear-gas in shells ; mustard gas, i.e., dichlorodiethylsulphide 
((€211401)28) in shells for both offensive and neutrahzation ; 
diphenylchlorarsene ( (C6H5)2ASC1) in shells as a "sneezing gas" ; 
phenyl-carbylamine-chloride (CeH5NCCl2) in shells as a lach- 
rymator; dichlermethylether ((CH2C1)20) in shells; and methyl- 
chloro-sulphonate (CH3CISO3) in hand-grenades. 

Other so-called gases are benzyl-bromide (C6H5CH2Br) used 
in shells; bromaceton (CH2BrCOCH3) in hand-grenades; bromo 
and dibromoketones like CH2BrCOC2H5 and CH.COCHBrCH.Br 
in shells; xylylbromide (CHgCcH^CHoBr) in shells; allylisothio- 
cyanate (C3H5NCS) in shells; dimethylsulphate ((CH3)2SOJ 
in hand-grenades; and sulphur trioxide (SO3) in hand-grenades 
and shells. It has recently been found that cyanogen chloride 
(CNCl) and butyl-mercaptan (C4H9SH) are also used. 

It will be noticed here that many of these non-chlorine gases 
are capable of being produced from chloro-compounds, i. e., using 
chlorine in intermediate steps. For example, allylisothiocyanate 
can be prepared from allylchloride and potassium sulphocyanate 
(KCNS) ; methylsulphate from methyl-alcohol and sulphuryl- 
chloride; benzyl-bromide from benzyl-chloride and potassium 
bromide (KBr). Hence it would not be far from truth to say 
that more than 95 percent of the poisonous gases can be made 
directly or indirectly by the use of chlorine. 



COMMERCIAIv USES OF CHLORINE. I59 

It is to be regretted that these gases should have been used for 
incapacitating or destroying human beings, when if intelligently 
directed they might well serve a useful purpose. There is no 
reason why they could not be made to save us and our crops from 
the ravages of microbes and insects, as they are saving us today 
from the ravages of Prussian militarism. We must not forget 
that our worst enemies turn out to be our best friends when 
properly controlled and directed just as some of the worst poisons, 
like strychnine and morphine have proven to be. 

(4) Inorganic Chlorine Compounds: — 

There are many metallic and non-metallic chlorides that have 
found an extensive application in arts and industries. Chloride 
of lime, or bleaching powder, as it is sometimes called, is used 
extensively in bleaching, aS its name indicates. It is used also 
in purifying water, as a disinfectant, and in many cases as an 
oxidizing agent. It is also used advantageously in chlorination 
of basic substances, like amines, to produce chloramines, and often 
gives quite different results from ordinary chlorination. 

Sulphur-mono-chloride (SaCL) is used extensively in vulcan- 
izing rubber, making rubber substitutes from oils and fats and 
preparing the surface of thousands of useful articles. It is also 
used in defecating cane-juice (sugar refining). It can be advan- 
tageously used in the preparation of chlorides free from oxy- 
chlorides. It may also find application in preparing organic sul- 
phides. 

Sulphuryl-chloride (SO2CI2) and thionyl-chloride (SOCI2) can 
be used in the preparation of acid chlorides from acid salts and 
as chlorinating agents. Sulphuryl-chloride can be used in the 
manufacture of acetic anhydride from sodium acetate, an invalu- 
able ingredient in the manufacture of dyes, cellulose acetate and 
many drugs. (4CH3 — COONa + 2SO2CI2 = 2{CR^CO)S^ -\- 
2NaCl -f Na^SOJ. 

Phosphorus chlorides, such as phosphorus trichloride (PCI3), 
phosphorus pentachloride (PCI5), and phosphoryl or phosphorus 
oxychloride (POCI3) are all used as chlorinating agents, particu- 
larly valuable for the substitution of hydroxyl or oxygen by 
chlorine. Thus they can be used to prepare ethyl-chloride from 
alcohol or ether, and acid chlorides from fatty acids. 



l6o V. R. KOKATNUR. 

Antimony trichloride or butter of antimony (SbCls) is used as a 
caustic in medicine, in the preparation of tartar-emetic and as a 
"bronzing" solution for gun barrels and other instruments. An- 
timony-pentachloride is often used as a chlorinating agent to serve 
the purpose of phosphorus chlorides. 

Anhydrous aluminum chloride is used extensively in organic 
synthesis, and recently has found application in the "cracking" 
of petroleum oils to obtain gasoline. Ferric chloride can be used 
for similar purposes. 

Tin-tetrachloride (SnCl^) is used in cotton printing and silk 
dyeing, while stannous chloride (SnClj) has extensive use as a 
reducing agent. Zinc chloride is used for the impregnation of 
telegraph poles and railway ties to prevent rot, and also in vul- 
canizing fiber goods. Zinc oxychloride is used as a cement in 
dentistry. 

Mercuric chloride (HgClg) and calomel (HgaClg) are both 
used as antiseptics and in medicine. Silver-chloride in its col- 
loidal form is used extensively in photography. Other chlorides 
have not yet found industrial application. 

Sodium hypochlorite is used extensively in solution, for bleach- 
ing and as an antiseptic, but if solid sodium-hypochlorite could 
be produced it would be extremely valuable. So far no attempt 
seems to have been made in this direction, but the day is not far 
distant when it will be manufactured in large quantities. 

Different chlorates, like those of sodium, potassium, calcium and 
barium, are used in the manufacture of matches, cartridges, fire- 
works, dyes, and as lozenges for sore throat. 

Perchlorates also are being used more and more. Ammonium 
perchlorate is perhaps the most economic and at the same time 
the most terrific of explosives. It is destined to play, in the near 
future, an important part in industries like mining, especially as 
there is a great shortage of animal fats, glycerin from which goes 
to make our dynamites. It is surprising that our government 
should not have taken any steps in this direction. 

(5) Organic Compounds: — 

Chlorine finds extensive use in various organic compounds, as 
tabulated below under various sub-headings. 



COMMERCIAIv USES OE CHI.ORINE. l6l 

(a) Coal-tar Intermediates: 

Among the most important coal-tar intermediates may be men- 
tioned a derivative of benzene called chlor-benzene, or, as it is 
sometimes wrongly called, chlor-benzol. It finds extensive use in 
the dye industry and in the manufacture of picric acid. Dichlor- 
benzenes have not so far found any industrial application. It is 
needless to say that the still higher chlorobenzenes are worse off 
in this respect. It seems that mono-chlor-benzene may find 
application as a solvent, as it can be manufactured cheaply, and 
as it is a more stable compound than aliphatic chlorides, which 
generally decompose in the presence of moisture and light. 

Chlor-toluenes Hke benzyl-chloride (CgHgCHjCl) can be used 
to make benzyl-alcohol, which is in good demand in the essential oil 
industry. Benzyl-chloride (CgHgCHCla) is used to manufacture 
synthetic "oil of bitter almonds" or benzyldehyde, which is also 
used in vast quantities in the perfume industry, Benzotrichlor- 
ide or phenylchloroform (CgHg-CClj) is used to manufacture ben- 
zoic acid. Chloro-benzoic and salicylic acids have a limited appli- 
cation. 

Chlorphenols and cresols are used in synthetic work. Recently 
some chlor-naphthalenes have been used as solvents and in making 
waxy condensation products for insulation purposes. Chlor- 
naphthalenes may open up new fields for the dyes of naphthalene 
series. Chloranilines have a limited application in the dye indvis- 
try, while chloranil or tetrachlorobenzoquinone is in great de- 
mand. The chlorination of anthracene may also open up new 
fields in the dye industry. 

Chlor-acetic acids also are extensively used in dye manufac- 
turing. Monochlor-acetic acid plays an important part in the 
synthesis of indigo. Dichloracetic acid is used in the synthesis 
of isatin. Trichloracetic acid is used extensively in medicine. 
Phosgene (COCI2) is used in triphenylmethane dyes and in the 
synthesis of acids and ketones, especially Michaeler's Ketone. 

(h) Pharmaceutical Chemicals: 

Very little attempt has been made to bring chlorine compounds 
of pharmaceutical value on the market. In this line chloroform 
must be mentioned as one extensively used as an anesthetic. It 



1 62 V. R. KOKATNUR. 

is also used as an antiseptic and is even used internally in medi- 
cine. It is also used in dentistry. 

Chloral (CCI3CHO) finds application as a hypnotic or soporific. 
Both chloral and chloroform are at present very expensive, and 
a cheaper method of manufacture would be a boon to humanity. 

Methylene-chloride finds some use as a local anesthetic. Ethyl- 
chloride is used also as a local anesthetic, and in conjunction with 
others in somnoform as a hypnotic. Isopral or trichlorisopropyl- 
alcohol (CCI3CHOH CH3), chloramide or chloralformamide 
(CCI3CHOH NH CHO), chloralimide (CCI3CHNH) and dor- 
miol (CCl3CH(0H)0 C(CH3)2aH5) are used in various ways 
in pharmacy. Ethylene-chloride (CoH^Cla), or "Dutch Liquid," 
as it is called, is used as an inhalant and local anesthetic. 

Chloretone or acetone-chloroform (CCl3(CH3)2COH) is used 
as a local anesthetic in conjunction with cocaine and adrenalin. 
Chlor-phenols and cresols are antiseptics of great value, being 
several times stronger than phenols and cresols, and yet are free 
from their toxic effects. Some chlorinated oils have been tried 
in Europe for their medicinal value. 

Many chlorine compounds like hexachlor-ethane and hexachlor- 
benzene are likely to be useful either as antiseptics or vermicides, 
or in both. They may find extensive application in the washing 
and sterilization of milk cans, as chlorine solvents are good fat 
extractors and antiseptics at the same time. 

Dichloramine-T or p-toluene-sulphon-chloramide has been re- 
cently used by Drs. Dakin and Carrel in the asepsis of wounds. 
It is a non-irritating, synthetic germicide and corresponds to the 
antiseptic chloramine substances that are formed when hypo- 
chlorous chlorine is brought in contact with the exudate of sup- 
purating wounds. It can be used in doses twenty to forty times 
stronger than in hypochlorite solution. It has absolutely no de- 
structive effect on tissue cells like tincture of iodine. It is used 
also as a nasal antiseptic. It has been found to be better than 
bleaching powder for the purification of water, because of its 
stability in solution, non-toxicity, absence of corrosive action and 
non-production or unpleasant taste. 
(c) Solvents: 

The most extensively used chloro-solvent is carbon-tetrachloride 
(CCI4), a compound which is made by the action of chlorine or 



COMMERCIAL USES OE CHLORINE. 163 

sulphur-monochloride on carbon bisulphide (CSg). It is used 
as a solvent in the rubber industry and for the extraction of fats. 
It is also used in dry-cleaning and in fire-extinguishing mixtures 
like "Pyrene." 

Chloroform (CHCI3) is used to a limited extent as a solvent 
in electro-technics, in the rubber industry, and in photography. 
Methylene-chloride, though a good solvent, has not yet been 
widely used. 

Ethylene-chloride or "Dutch Liquid" (CsH^Cl,) is a solvent 
of great value. It resembles carbon-tetrachloride in most respects 
and is a good solvent for cellulose acetate. It can be made 
cheaply by chlorinating ethylene gas obtained by either "crack- 
ing" oil gas or by limited hydrogenation of acetylene. Besides 
being a solvent of great value, it is very useful in the synthesis 
of commercially useful chemicals like glycol, a lower homologue 
of glycerol and malonic acid, which in turn is a reagent of great 
importance in the synthesis of higher fatty acids by what is known 
as "malonic acid synthesis." 

Glycol-chlorhydrin (CHjOH-CHoCl), another derivative, is a 
good solvent of both cellulose-acetate and nitrate, and is used 
considerably in the explosives industry. From chlor-hydrins can 

be prepared solvents called olefin oxides p^zz- > O which are 

solvents resembling ether. Taurene (CH2NH0CH2SO2OH), a 
protenoid substance occurring in ox-bile, can be also synthesized 
from it. 

In recent years chlor-ethanes and ethylenes have been exten- 
sively used in Europe as solvents in various arts. Among this 
series of solvents is one made from acetylene and chlorine, called 
acetylene-tetrachloride, or sym-tetrachlorethane. It is the parent 
substance of the series of six shown in the diagram below, and 
is perhaps the best known solvent for cellulose-acetate. As such 
it is used in making the non-inflammable and non-explosive pho- 
tographic and motion picture films, and also in the manufacture 
of "aeroplane dope," i.e., varnish for aeroplane wings. 

Pentachlorethane, its higher chlorine derivative, has special 
properties as a solvent for cellulose-acetate. It plays toward cel- 
lulose esters the part that camphor does towards nitro-cellulose. 
Non-inflammable photographic films of cellulose-acetate contain- 



164 



V. R. KOKATNUR. 



ing as high as twelve (12) percent of acetylene-tetrachloride hav6 
been prepared at Rochester. It is known to give certain resilient 
qualities to the plastic cellulose-acetate that no other solvent is 
known to give. 

(.^2^2 ~r ^l2 



CoH. 



i 



CI 2 (b.p. 55°) 







^-r ^^2 




C12 + 


C12 + 


C 2 H- 2 d 4 

(b.p. 147°) 

-HCl ^ 


— 2H 

i 



(m.p. 187°) 



C2HCI5 

(b.p. 159°) 



C 2 HCl 3 

(b.p. 85°) 



C2CI4 
(b.p. 121°) 



Sulphur mixes in all proportions with tetra-chlor-ethane at an 
elevated temperature and crystallizes out from solution on cool- 
ing. Thus it can be used to extract sulphur in various arts. 

All of this series are good solvents for rubber. Particularly 
so is dichloro-ethylene, which was found by Emil Fischer to be 
the best solvent for crude caoutchouc. It is thus used in making 
insulating varnishes and also in the extraction of perfumes from 
flowers. No better solvent than trichloro-ethylene can be found 
for the extraction of fat. It extracts fat from dry or moist mate- 
rial and whether in a liquid or a vapor form. It is just as efficient 
as ether and entails but little loss by evaporation. It has the 
advantage over carbon-tetrachloride that it boils about twelve 
degrees higher ; has a lower specific gravity and consequently re- 
quires less alcohol and leaves smaller amounts of the solvent on 
the filter. Further, while carbon-tetrachloride in the presence 
of moisture attacks iron vessels, trichloro-ethylene does so veiy 
little. With its freezing point as low as — 79° C, its boiling point 
a little higher, and being less corrosive on metals, it forms an 
ideal fire-extinguisher. 

Tetra-chloro-ethylene is an ideal dry-cleaning solvent. The 
solvent power of tetra-chlor-ethane in the case of fats, resins and 
waxes, is believed to be superior to that of carbon-tetrachloride. 
Thus it has been used in the manufacture of paints and varnishes, 
in boot and metal polishes, in furniture cream, as a paint remover 
and in cleaning printing rollers and lithographic stones. It does 



COMMERCIAL USES OF CHLORINE. 165 

not affect even the most delicate shades, and thus can be used in 
the manufacture of white enamels and paints. 

These solvents offer great advantages over other known solvents, 
as they have a wide range of boiling points and solvent powers^ 
They are non-combustible, non-inflammable and non-explosive 
substances. They have a sweet aromatic odor, and have no offen- 
sive odor of sulphur or other impurities. They are uniform 
compounds and not mixtures. They have particularly great 
solvent power for sulphur at elevated temperatures. 

They dissolve phosphorus, iodine, thirty volumes of chlorine, 
all hydrocarbons, waxes, resins (like kauri, copal, sandarac, damar 
and shellac), alcohols, fats and oils, fatty acids, dyes and purine 
derivatives. They have found great application in analytical work, 
such as in the separation of dyes, fatty acids from hydroxyfatty 
acids, phenols from polyhydroxy-phenols, caffeine from other 
purine derivatives, and so on. 

Besides being useful for such a variety of purposes, they open 
up an extensive field in the synthesis of valuable products. 
Dichloro-ethylene can be used to synthesize thioindigo from thio- 
salicylic acid thus : 

C <|o> ^eH^ + 2 HCL + 2 H2O 

Trichloro-ethylene can be used to synthesize ethyl-chloro-acetate 
(CHjClCOOCgHg), dichloro-acetic acid and phenylglycinester 
(CeHBNHCHoCOOCjHj), which forms the basis of the synthesis 
of indigo. It is important to note that acetylene is very much 
cheaper than acetic acid as a starting point in the synthesis of 
indigo. Tetra-chloro-ethylene can be used to synthesize trichloro- 
acetic acid. Hexachlorethane can be used to make oxalic acid. 

Chlor-compounds of the higher homologues of ethane will not 
be cheaply available on account of the scarcity of raw material, 
and can only be made as by-products of coal-gas and oil-gas 
chlorination. When we reach as high as hexane, their chlorine 
compounds are either solids or liquids of very high boiling points 
and consequently will not be of much use as solvents. The un- 
saturated chloro-compounds of higher hydrocarbons, however. 



1 66 V. R. KOKATNUR. 

may find some application as they have a lower boiling point than 
the corresponding saturated chloro-compounds. It is safe to say 
that chloro-compounds as solvents v^ill never find an extensive 
application when made from hydrocarbons higher than pentane. 
Compounds like chlorinated stearic acid are used as solvents in 
the manufacture of phonographic records and also in paint to 
prevent metallic corrosion. Chlorinated eucalyptol is used as a 
solvent for dichloramine-T. Other chlorine compounds like 
chloro-ethers, chloro-aldehydes, chloro-alcohols, etc., have not 
found any application as solvents. 

(d) Synthetic Intermediates: 

There are many organic chlorine compounds, which though 
incapable of being used as such in arts and industries, are never- 
theless very useful as intermediate products in the manufacture 
of other commercial products. Most chloro-hydrocarbons can be 
used to make unsaturated hydrocarbons of value. Organo-metal- 
lic compounds like zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2, and magnesium- 
methyl-chloride are useful for preparing synthetic hydrocarbons 
secondary and tertiary alcohols and fatty acids. 

Trichloropropane or trichlorohydrin (CH^CICHCI CHgCl) 
(b.p. 158°), though in itself not very useful, forms the basis of the 
synthesis of glycerol, a product of immense value in arts. Amyl- 
chloride and dichloropentane are useful in the synthesis of amyl- 
alcohol, amylacetate and isoprene 

Ch'^^ - CH = CHj. 

Both amylalcohol and amylacetate are used extensively in the 
celluloid industry, while isoprene forms the parent substance of 
rubber, a substance which has entered into many phases of human 
needs. 

Chloro-acetons can be used for the synthesis of citric acid or of 
glycerol. Monochloralkyls or chloro-hydrocarbons can be used 
to build up higher hydrocarbons or for the introduction of alkyl 
groups in other organic compounds. Various acid chlorides like 
acetyl chloride or benzoyl chloride are used to make acid anhy- 
drides or for the introduction of acetyl or benzoyl radicals. 

The chlorine compounds are so vital in organic chemistry that 
but for their help directly or indirectly very few organic com- 



COMMERCIAL USES OF CHIvORINE. 1 67 

pounds could be prepared. Neither the amino group NH2, nor 
the hydroxyl group OH, neither the sulphite radical SO3, nor the 
sulphonic acid radical HSO3, neither the nitro group NO2, nor 
the nitrite radical CN, neither the acetyl radical CH3CO nor the 
carboxyl group COOH, neither the alkyl nor the alkoxy group, 
can be substituted without their help. In fact, if any process is 
most useful, far-reaching and universal in application in organic 
chemistry, it is chlorination. The halogens are the most intimate 
friends of the hydrocarbons and without their consent and co- 
operation no work of any kind is undertaken by the hydrocarbons 
themselves. 

If I may here be permitted to mention a personal experience in 
teaching, I would like to relate my experience in explaining the 
behavior of various hydrocarbons in organic chemistry. 

To remove the confusion regarding the behavior of saturated 
and unsaturated hydrocarbons, I compared the saturated hydro- 
carbons to wealthy and completely self-satisfied people, while I 
called the unsaturated hydrocarbons needy beggars. Now beggars 
accept gifts but do not give anything in return. Saturated hydro- 
carbons on the other hand being "rich" are always ready, if they 
need anything, to give something in return. But the trouble is 
that they already have everything and need nothing. Hence they 
are the hardest to be induced to do anything. The only way to 
make them act as you desire is to approach them, not directly, but 
through their most intimate friends, the halogens, just as you have 
to have a "pull" to get a politician to do you a favor. If you can 
reach them through a friend they will do anything for you. 

INDIRECT USES. 

Among the indirect uses of chlorine can be mentioned its value 
as an oxidizing agent. Thus it can be used to make potassium 
permanganate from potassium manganate (2K2Mn04 + CI2 = 
2K MnO^ -f 2K-C1). It can be used in the manufacture of potas- 
sium ferri-cyanide from potassium ferro-cyanide (2K4Fe(CN), 
-f CI2 := 2K3Fe(CN)g + 2K-C1). A similar appHcation can be 
found in making lead peroxide from litharge or lead acetate 
(sugar of lead) (PbO + MgO -f, CI2 = PbO, + MgCl2 or 
Pb(OOCCH3)2 -f 2HOC1 = PbO, -{- 2CH3C60H + CI2). 
Similarly superphosphate can be made from phosphate. (Ca, 



1 68 V. R. KOKATNUR. 

(POJ3 +, 2SO2CI0 + 4H,0 = 2CaSO, + CaCH^PO,)^ + 
4HC1). It can be used in making artificial camphor from iso- 
borneol, which in turn can be made from turpentine or pinene: 

Isoborneol Camphor 

aOH„ OH + CL = CioHieO + 2HC1 

By its use pure cellulose can be obtained from wood pulp. 

Dr. Wintlein mentions an experiment whereby 100 parts, by 
weight, of dried pine wood, treated by lime and chlorine, gave 
50 parts, by weight, of pure cellulose. Bleaching powder can be 
used to produce pure oxygen gas from what is technically known 
as lavosite. 

Thus it can be seen that chlorine has an extensively wide appli- 
cation in both inorganic and organic industries and supplies many 
human wants. It bleaches our linen, purifies our water, protects 
us from epidemic diseases, and helps us in making dentistry and 
surgery painless. It is our companion at home, companion in 
camp, companion in peace and companion in war. 

The end of this war will find an enormous excess of chlorine 
in this country, and the problem of turning this vast otherwise 
nuisant material into useful channels will be before us. The 
electrolytic alkali manufacturers of this country will do well to 
think of this problem seriously, while there is time to think, and 
not wait until they are face to face with it. We must remember 
that a stitch in time saves nine. A little foresight and a fore- 
thought will go a long way in helping to solve this problem. 

Some manufacturers think that if they seek today new appli- 
cations for their by-products they would be trespassing on the 
field of their present customers who are buying chlorine. But 
it should be remembered that a customer buys chlorine only when 
he can make money for himself. He makes only such chlorine 
products as are in demand and command a good price. He is 
not interested in buying chlorine to find new uses for it. Con- 
sequently he is not the man to experiment. As a matter of fact 
it is the manufacturer who lives or dies, and who is the one most 
concerned ; it is up to him to sound the depth of this unexplored 
region. 



Presented as part of a Symposium on "Elec- 
trochemistry After the War," held at the 
Thirty-fourth General Meeting of the 
American Electrochemical Society at At- 
lantic City, N. J., October 1, 1918, Presi- 
dent Tone in the Chair. 



MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROPLATING 

By William Blwm.* 

In the past, electroplating has been considered chiefly as an 
art, both with respect to its methods of operation and to its ex- 
tended use for decorative purposes. Only within recent years has 
the importance and usefulness of electroplating as a protection 
against corrosion received serious consideration. In general, the 
application and relative value of rust protective coatings has 
received all too little thought from manufacturers, who have fre- 
quently given greater consideration to appearance than to lasting 
qualities. This condition, together with the necessity of deciding 
first upon questions of design and materials of construction to be 
used on military supplies, accounts for the slight consideration 
given by military officials in the early part of the war to the sub- 
ject of protective coatings, including electroplating. 

More recently, however, the subject has assumed increased 
importance, and numerous questions upon metal finish are arising, 
the correct solution of which may at times be very important and 
urgent. In general, the necessity of adapting the finish to the 
use or exposure of the particular parts is now recognized. In 
this connection, the following tentative classification of protective 
coatings has been suggested by the Bureau of Standards. While 
not formally adopted by the military departments, it has in several 
cases served as a guide in the specification and inspection of 
finishes. 

SUGGESTED CLASSIFICATION OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS ON METAL 
PARTS OF MILITARY SUPPLIES. 

I. For Steel or brass which requires protection only during 
storage or transportation. 

Examples: Parts of hand and rifle grenades, stoves, etc. 

^ Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 
12 169 



lyo WILLIAM BLUM, 

Finish: Grease, slushing oil, or similar compounds. 

Requirements: Suitable consistency to insure complete cover- 
ing, and proper adherence ; freedom from acid or other con- 
stituents that will stain or corrode the metal. 

II. For steel or brass for indoor use, or for mild exposure, 
or which does not require handling except during the process of 
manufacture or assembly, or which can be frequently cleaned and 
oiled. 

Examples: Trench implements, shell bodies, scabbard parts, 
rifle parts, revolver parts, saddlery hardware, etc. 

Finish: Any protective coating that will produce the desired 
color, appearance and resistance to abrasion. Subject to these 
limitations, the following finishes may be employed: 

(a) Electroplated Deposits: Nickel, black nickel, cop- 
per, brass, zinc, and silver. 

(b) Chemically Applied Finishes: Oxide finish, such as 
Bauer-Barlf, Bontempi, Bradley, Carbonia, Anchorite, 
sodium nitrate dip, blueing, browning; copper oxide by 
the copper nitrate process ; phosphate finishes, such as the 
Parker Process. 

(c) Mechanically Applied Coatings: Paint, lacquer, 
enamel, etc. 

Requirements: For this class of material it does not appear prac- 
ticable to apply any corrosion or service test, other than use under 
service conditions. The degree of protection required or that 
afforded by most of these processes is not sufficient to be meas- 
ured even approximately by such a test as the salt spray test. 
It is therefore suggested that visual inspection for completeness 
and uniformity of coating be the basis of acceptance. 

III. For steel subject to moderate outdoor exposure, or which 
it is desired to salvage. 

Examples: Belt fittings, magazines, cartridge clips, boosters, 
adapters, fuse parts. 

Finish: Zinc plating should be given preference. When a black 
finish is required, zinc plating may be followed by a suitable black 
finish, e. g., black nickel plating, chemical finishes such as Anchor- 
ite, or mechanical finishes such as black enamel, lacquer or japan. 



MIUTARY APPIvICATlONS 01^ EI^ECTROPIvATING. 171 

Certain of the finishes hsted under II may meet the require- 
ments, e. g., the iron oxide or phosphate finishes. 

Requirements: If any fair degree of protection against corro- 
sion is desired, the articles should be required to withstand a 
24-hour salt-spray test. In certain cases the 24-hour moist- 
atmosphere test may be sufficient, though such a test is not rigid 
or strictly reliable. 

IV. For steel exposed to severe outdoor or marine conditions. 
Examples: Hardware on ammunition boxes, steel cartridge 

cases, tent equipment, field office equipment, etc. 

Finish: Zinc coatings only should be employed. They may be 
applied by hot dipping, sherardizing, or zinc plating. 

Requirements: Such parts should be required to withstand at 
least 48 hours salt-spray test, and in extreme cases 72 hours or 
more. 

V. For steel requiring special protection against acids or other 
corrosive liquids. 

Examples: Parts of gas shells, chemical apparatus, etc. 
Finish: Lead plating. 

Requirements: A minimum average thickness of lead, and 
freedom from porosity. 

VI. For metal to be used in contact with foods. 
Examples: Table ware, cooking utensils, water pails, emergency 

ration cans, etc. 

Finish: Nickel or silver plating, tinning, or silicate enamels. 

Requirements: The metal coatings should have a certain mini- 
mum thickness or weight of metal and be uniform and continuous. 
Enamel coatings should be required to withstand suitable heating 
and mechanical tests for chipping, and tests for solubility, and 
be free from poisonous constituents. 

General Remarks. 

In general it is not believed to be practicable or desirable to 
specify the exact conditions of operation in the application of 
metal finishes. In order, however, to insure a uniform product 
and to prevent reduction in quality due to a change in or elimina- 



172 WILLIAM BLUM. 

tion of essential steps, each manufacturer should be required to 
file with the inspection officials a "process record," including the 
essential steps of the process to be followed. After the process 
is accepted by the inspection officials, no essential changes should 
be permitted without their consent. Such a record will be a 
valuable check in all cases, and an essential one for such finishes 
as those in class II for which it is not at present feasible to apply 
any specific corrosion test for quality. 

In the proposed classification, numerous electroplating processes 
are included. In fact, at the present time the great majority of 
commercial electroplaters are engaged upon military supplies of 
the most varied nature. In order to obtain an interchange of 
views upon this subject, a conference upon the electroplating of 
military supplies was held at the Bureau of Standards in March, 
1918. The principal recommendations of this conference were 
as follows : 

1. For protection of iron and steel against corrosion, only zinc 
coatings should be employed. 

2. Where a black finish upon metal is required, a black nickel 
finish should be specified. 

3. It is not practicable to specify the composition of solutions 
or conditions of operation to be employed for plating. 

4. In the preparation of steel and iron for plating, sand blast- 
ing should be given preference to pickling. 

5. Some form of corrosion test, e. g., the salt-spray test, should 
form the primary specification for the quality of zinc plating ; the 
quantity of coating to be suggested only as a secondary specifi- 
cation. 

6. Where the quantity of zinc coating is to be suggested or 
specified, it should be expressed in terms of weight per unit area 
(or piece) as determined by some stripping test. 

7. If possible, some arrangement should be made for the em- 
ployment of one or more experienced platers to serve as general 
plating advisors on military supplies. 

In order to furnish information and assistance to the military 
authorities in connection with the specification and inspection of 
plating and to the manufacturers upon the methods of producing 
the desired results, the Bureau of Standards has secured the 



MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROPLATING. 1 73 

services of two experienced electroplaters, Messrs. George B. 
Hogaboom and F. J. Liscomb. These and other members of the 
staff are engaged in investigations at the Bureau, and in visiting 
plants to advise and assist in the plating operations. 

At the present time, the principal applications of plating upon 
military supplies are zinc, black nickel, and lead. A considerable 
amount of copper and nickel plating, and some tin plating, is still 
required, though in general these methods are being largely super- 
seded by zinc plating. In addition to what may be considered 
as regular plating operations, numerous special applications of 
plating to meet new or unusual requirements frequently arise. 
The scope of the work on these subjects may be seen from the 
following illustrations : 

Zinc Plating: Although the value of zinc coatings for protec- 
tion of steel against corrosion has been pointed out by numerous 
investigators, the commercial application of zinc plating, or "elec- 
trogalvanizing," has been rather limited. Its usefulness is now 
appreciated, however, and it is being frequently specified, e. g., 
on naval airplane parts, materials used in shipbuilding, hardware 
for ammunition boxes, and parts of the fuse mechanism for high 
explosive shells. There is good reason to believe that its use may 
be further extended to cover practically all steel parts for which 
any considerable protection against atmospheric or marine cor- 
rosion is required. For this purpose, entirely satisfactory deposits 
may be produced in either the sulphate or cyanide solutions. The 
exact advantages of each and the best composition and conditions 
of operation are now being investigated. In this, as in other 
plating of military supplies, it is unwise if not impossible, to 
specify the exact solution to be used. In general it is more 
desirable to adopt such tests as will insure that the requirements 
are met, while leaving to the manufacturers the greatest possible 
option in the conditions of operation to be employed. In this 
way more rapid production is assured and initiative and ingenuity 
are encouraged. At the same time, it is frequently necessary to 
assist the manufacturers to meet the requirements, in order that 
delays and rejections may be avoided. 

Lead Plating: Except for a few plants engaged in the manu- 
facture of storage battery fittings, lead plating was until recently 



174 WII.UAM BI.UM. 

almost a scientific curiosity. In connection with gas shells, the 
demand for lead linings has brought about an increased use of 
lead plating, which is now being conducted on an extensive scale. 
Boosters and adaptors for gas shells and also certain of the gas 
shells are now being lead plated in large quantities. Another 
important application of lead plating is on the inside of under- 
weight shells, whereby thousands of otherwise rejected shells are 
now being salvaged. For these purposes, the fluosilicate and fluo- 
borate solutions are employed, though the indications are that the 
fluoborate solutions give better results, as well as being simpler 
to prepare and operate. A preliminary circular on these applica- 
tions of lead plating has been prepared by the Bureau of Stand- 
ards. Other applications of lead plating are being investigated, 
e. g., for lining chemical apparatus, coating threads of points 
required to withstand high pressure, etc. 

Black Nickel Plating: A large amount of hardware, harness 
fittings, and equipment used by the Government is required to 
have a black or gray-black finish, the so-called "government 
bronze." This is usually produced by the process known as black 
nickel plating, which may be applied to brass directly or after 
copper plating, and to steel which has been previously plated with 
copper or zinc. Two types of solutions are in general use, one 
consisting of nickel and zinc sulphates and sodium sulphocyanate ; 
the other of nickel and zinc sulphates with the addition of cyanide, 
arsenic trioxide, sodium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate, and 
possibly other constituents. The first solution usually produces 
too deep a black color, and in consequence the latter type is mostly 
used on government work. Many of the formulas for such solu- 
tions are wonderfully and fearfully constructed. Needless to 
say, the maintenance of such a solution, in an even approximately 
uniform composition, would require the services of more chemists 
than platers ! In spite of this fact, fairly satisfactory results are 
obtained by commercial platers. Efforts to simplify the operation 
of black nickel baths have thus far not yielded entirely satisfac- 
tory results, though it is hoped soon to improve conditions. 

Among the special problems investigated at the Bureau of 
Standards is that of producing very heavy nickel deposits by elec- 
troplating. A process devised by Mr. C. P. Madsen was investi- 



MILITARY APPU CATIONS OF El^ECTROPI^ATlNG. 175 

gated jointly by the Bureau of Standards and Bureau of Mines. 
By this process, the use of which has been furnished to the Gov- 
ernment for mihtary purposes, it has been found possible to pro- 
duce deposits of nickel up to Ys inch (0.3 cm.) or more in thick- 
ness, and of most complicated shapes. The application of this 
process to the manufacture of seamless nickel tubes and other 
industrial uses is now being developed on a commercial scale. 

In general it is believed that through such investigations and 
tests of plating as are now being made, incomplete and hasty as 
they must frequently be, the importance of this industry and the 
possibilities of new and improved methods will be emphasized, 
to the mutual benefit of the Government and the industries! 
Throughout this work the Bureau has received the active and 
hearty co-operation of the members of the American Electro- 
platers' Society, who have given freely of their time and expe- 
rience. 



A paper presented at the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



PROCESSES WITHIN THE ELECTRODE WHICH ACCOMPANY THE 
DISCHARGE OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN.* 

By Donald P. Smith.! 

Abstract. 

Measurements of the changes in electrical resistivity and in 
length, caused by using wires of palladium, platinum, tantalum 
and iron as electrodes, generating hydrogen or oxygen. Using 
high current densities, platinum cathode wires, saturated with 
hydrogen, decrease in resistivity. Traces of this effect are found 
with palladium, tantalum and iron. Corresponding changes in 
volume accompany the electrical changes. Some theoretical ex- 
planations of these phenomena are advanced. [J. W. R.] 



Since the processes represented in their total effect by the 
equation 2H + 2e ^ H2 have formed the subject of discussion 
at a recent meeting of this Society,^ a brief account of some re- 
sults obtained upon the closely-related question of occlusion by 
electrodes may not be out of place. The experiments, have, for 
the most part, been described elsewhere,^ so that it will not be 
necessary to enter at length into the empirical details, but will 
suffice to say that small wires of palladium, platinum, tantalum 
or iron formed the electrodes, and that the principal quantities 
observed were the electrical resistance and the length of the wire. 

increase; of resistance upon occeusion. 

It is well known that when palladium occludes hydrogen, either 
electrolytically or from exposure to the gas, a marked increase 
in the electrical resistance of the metal results. The effect is en- 

* Manuscript received July 31, 1918. 

t Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Princeton University. 

* See references at end of paper. 

177 



178 



DONALD P. SMITH. 



tirely analogous to the increase of resistivity which occurs when 
two metals unite to form an alloy of the solid-solution type ; and 
if oxygen is excluded this effect is permanent, as has been shown 
in the present experiments. When the occlusion is effected 
electrolytically the reaction is irreversible, no loss of resistance 
occurring if electrolysis is interrupted. Attempts by previous 
experimenters to produce a similar increase in the resistance of 
platinum, either electrolytically^ or by exposure to gaseous hydro- 
gen,* have been without result.^ 




Fig. 1. Effect of Hydrogen in Depressing Resistance of Palladium and Platinum. 



DECREASE OF RESISTANCE UPON OCCEUSION. 

If, however, as in the present experiments, the electrode wires 
selected are of small diameter, (0.1 or 0.05 mm.), with the re- 
sult that cathode current densities of 0.3 amp. per sq. dcm. or 
more are obtained, a wholly different phenomenon becomes evi- 
dent. Under these conditions the resistance of a platinum wire 
decreases during occlusion of hydrogen, until it reaches a 
steady value. The effect is not only opposite to the one referred 
to above, but differs also in being transient, the resistance return- 
ing gradually to its original value after electrolysis is interrupted, 



proce;sse;s within elSctrodi;s. 179 

while the steady vahie reached during electrolysis is dependent 
upon the current density, responding inversely to every change 
in the latter. 

If hydrogen is evolved upon a palladium wire, at sufficiently 
high current density, the transient effect just described for plati- 
num is again observed; but in this case it is accompanied by the 
much more pronounced increase of resistance, to which refer- 
ence was first made. The transient effect is observable, in the 
case of this metal, only when the current is altered or reversed. 
Curves typical of the results with both platinum and palladium 
are shown in Fig. 1. 

The two superimposed effects have been studied in consider- 
able detail for palladium, and have been shown to occur also in 
two other metals which are known to take up much hydrogen, 
viz., tantalum and iron. It has also been found with palladium 
that oxygen, electrolytically occluded, produces a transient dimi- 
nution of resistance, similar to that caused by hydrogen, although 
of smaller magnitude. Hence it may be said that both hydrogen 
and oxygen first enter an electrode in a transitional condition in 
which they possess a conductance of their own, which is added 
to that of the metal, or else in some way modify the latter. 

EI.ONGATION AND CONTRACTION, 

That the condition of the hydrogen when in this transient state 
is not that of a component in any ordinary alloy appears to follow 
from a consideration of the changes of length which the palladium 
wires undergo, and a comparison of these with the simultaneous 
changes of resistance. 

It was found by Thoma^ that when a palladium wire cathode 
is charged to a steady state with a given applied voltage the elon- 
gation produced by the last portions of hydrogen occluded is 
proportionally larger than that caused by the earlier portions. 
This was confirmed by Fischer,^ who also observed that the par- 
ticularly marked elongation produced by the last increments, so 
far from being accompanied by a correspondingly large increase 
of resistance, took place without any change of resistance what- 
ever. Had he em.ployed somewhat higher current densities, he 
would undoubtedly have observed an actual diminution of re- 
sistance just before the steady value was reached, as has repeat- 



i8o 



DONALD P. SMITH. 



edly been done in the present experiments. He would also have 
found, at these higher current densities, that when electrolysis is 
interrupted the wire immediately contracts, while the resistance 
increases ; and that similar opposed changes of resistance and of 
length are also to be noted whenever the intensity of the current 
is altered after a steady state has been attained. From all of 
the facts just enumerated it seems safe to conclude that the por- 
tions of hydrogen last taken up do not go to increase the quantity 
held in the more permanent condition, which is responsible for 
an increase of resistance, but serve only to add to a mobile con- 





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Tig. 2. Discontinuous Stretching. Brass Under Tension (de Forest). 
Palladium During Occlusion. 



ducting form, and possibly to other equally loosely-held forms 
the concentrations of which immediately adjust themselves to that 
of the conducting form. It also seems evident that the more 
permanently held form of hydrogen, which behaves like the solute 
in a solid solution, cannot be responsible for any great part of 
the change of dimensions of the palladium. 

An additional indication that the conducting form of hydrogen 
is not intimately united to the solvent metal, but exists in a state 
which resembles rather one of mere mechanical enclosure, is per- 
haps to be seen in the manner in which the wires stretch during 
occlusion. The changes of length proceed discontinuously, in 
a way resembling that sometimes observed when wires are 



PROCESSES WITHIN ElvECTRODES. l8l 

Stretched by the apphcation of tension. This may be seen from 
Fig. 2, in which curves representing length as a function of time, 
for palladium wires during occlusion, are compared with stress- 
strain curves recently obtained by de Forest/ in a study of the 
plastic deformation of wires of various materials. Although the 
curves are not wholly comparable, both show "saw-toothing," or 
stretching by jerks. This makes it probable that the stretching 
of palladium is a purely mechanical effect; and the deduction is 
strongly supported by the fact that when the wires have been 
repeatedly elongated by occlusion, and again freed from hydrogen 
by gradual annealing in an atmosphere of nitrogen, they still pos- 
sess almost exactly their original resistivity. Since the consider- 
ations of the preceding paragraph, and others which might be 
advanced, accord in indicating that expansion and contraction 
accompany, respectively, the increase and decrease of the con- 
ducting form, the influence is natural that this form is "free," 
and capable of exerting upon the enclosing metal something akin 
to the expansive force of a gas. There remains, of course, the 
possibility that the conducting form of hydrogen and the expan- 
sive form are not identical, but merely maintain equilibrium with 
each other. 

SOME POSSIBEE REEATIONS. 

There is also evidence as to the relation between these forms 
and the permanent form, or solid solution. 

When palladium is electrolytically charged to saturation with 
hydrogen, and the current is then interrupted, both the resistance 
and the length of the wire assume gradually a steady state, which 
persists indefinitely if oxygen is wholly excluded. In the type 
of apparatus which must be employed when length is to be meas- 
ured there is a slow diffusion of air to the electrode, and a corre- 
sponding falling off in resistance and length. If the electrolyte 
is drawn off and replaced by an atmosphere of nitrogen, the rate 
of change in both of the quantities named remains small and 
nearly constant. When the wire is gently warmed by passing 
through it an electric current for a brief period, length and re- 
sistance are of course altered ; but after the lapse of half an hour 
or more, both have recovered the values which they would have 
possessed if no heat had been applied. This may be repeated 



l82 DONALD P. SMITH. 

with successively higher heating currents, without producing any 
lasting change until a certain critical current is reached. At this 
point hydrogen begins to be evolved rapidly from the palladium, 
and the resistance and length of the wire decrease accordingly. 
For a wire of given dimensions the critical current is definite 
within the limits of observational error. Hence, although no 
determination of the temperature has yet been made, it appears 
that there is a transformation point at which the solid sok^ion 
breaks down. This is probably not very far from 300°, since the 
current required is about one-third of that necessary to bring the 
wire to a dull red heat. 

The outstanding fact with regard to these annealing experi- 
ments is this : that when the solid solution breaks down, as shown 
by the rapid decrease of resistance, the wire contracts. Since, 
as has already been inferred, the length is probably determined 
by a separate expansive form of hydrogen, the only conclusion 
seems to be that the quantity of expansive hydrogen does not fall 
below a value corresponding to the quantity of solid solution 
present, although capable, during electrolysis, of rising above this 
value. The simplest assumption consistent with all the observa- 
tions yet made is that the solid solution maintains equilibrium 
with the form, or forms, of hydrogen which have the conductance 
and the expansive force, but increases in quantity extremely little, 
if at all, when the concentrations of the free forms rise above a 
certain value. 

A few other indications have been obtained with regard to the 
changes occurring within the electrodes. While they are not so 
well supported by experimental evidence as those hitherto dis- 
cussed, some of them seem to warrant brief mention. 

In the first place, the decay, after the interruption of elec- 
trolysis, in the supplementary conductance which we have attrib- 
uted to a conducting form of hydrogen, is much slower in the 
case of platinum than in those of palladium, tantalum or iron. 
Stated somewhat differently, the passage of conducting hydrogen 
into the molecular form, which is doubtless the form escaping 
from the metal, appears to be most rapid in the metals which form 
solid solutions in greatest amount. If this is confirmed, the sim- 
plest conclusion would be that the formation of solid solution is 
an intermediate step, and that either the rate of formation or the 



PROCESSES WITHIN ELECTRODES. 1 83 

rate of breakdown of the solution is slowest in the cases in which 
least is formed. 

In the second place, the amount of supplementary conductance, 
and hence presumably of conducting hydrogen, which is produced 
under given conditions of electrolysis, is larger for the highly 
occlusive metals than for platinum, which occludes little. There 
thus appears to be a relation between the amount of solid solution 
which a metal can form, and the amount of conducting hydrogen 
produced under given conditions. This suggests that the occlusive 
capacity of the different metals is parallel to the rate of formation 
of solid solution from the conducting form. But it is difficult to 
interpret these observations in harmony with those of the pre- 
ceding paragraph ; and similar difficulties are presented by the 
results of preliminary experiments upon copper wires, in which 
no changes of resistance whatever were detected, even at moder- 
atly high current densities. 

The results mentioned in the last two paragraphs are therefore 
of interest at present merely as showing that further experiments 
in the same direction may confidently be expected to give greater 
insight into the mechanism of the processes which we have been 
discussing. 

Indications of another type were obtained from measurements 
of the potential difference between electrode and electrolyte, made 
simultaneously with observations of the resistance of the former. 
In these experiments the potential was found to undergo very 
striking changes upon the interruption of electrolysis, of which 
the most interesting was a sudden recovery after some minutes 
of falling values. When a wire was repeatedly charged to con- 
stant resistance, this recovery of potential became less pronounced 
with each succeeding interruption, and after seven or eight repe- 
titions it had faded out entirely. Since no rise of conductivity 
accompanied the increase of potential, the important conclusion 
would seem to follow that the form of hydrogen which exhibits 
electromotive activity is not identical with the conducting form. 
The similarity of the effect to "overstepping phenomena," such 
as undercooling, also suggests the occurrence of supersaturation. 
Like those immediately preceding, these results must be taken 
with reserve, owing to the well-known uncertainties which attach 
to measurements of electrode potential. But the fact that copper 



184 DONALD P. SMITH. 

electrodes, under the same conditions, fail to show the recovery 
of potential makes it highly probable that this effect is really due 
to changes within the palladium wire, and will repay study. 

BEHAVIOR OF TANTALUM AND IRON. 

The evidences of the existence of a conducting form of hydro- 
gen, momentarily present within the cathode metal, are supported 
by the observations which have been made with wires of tantalum 
and of iron. Although the great embrittlement which these metals 
suffer upon occlusion of hydrogen renders it impossible to carry 
experiments of this kind to complete saturation, the two super- 
imposed resistance effects found with palladium, may readily be 
shown to occur, and the supplementary gain of resistance, when 
electrolysis is interrupted, is of large magnitude. 

BEHAVIOR OE OXYGEN. 

With regard to oxygen, experiments have thus far been made 
only upon palladium anodes. The supplementary conductance, 
from which a conducting form may be inferred, is, however, un- 
mistakable. A small irreversible effect is also produced, which 
finds no parallel in the case of hydrogen, and which is readily 
accounted for as being due to a very gradual formation of oxide. 

SUMMARY. 

We may summarize the results of these experiments as follows : 

1. They show the existence of an eft'ect not previously recog- 
nized, which consists in a diminution of the resistance of the 
electrode metal, during the discharge of hydrogen or oxygen 
upon it. 

2. They make it probable that this is due to the formation of 
a transient form of the occluded element, which is less closely 
combined with the solvent metal than is the solute in a solid solu- 
tion. 

3. They show that the changes of volume which palladium 
undergoes during occlusion and subsequent evolution of hydrogen 
proceed in parallel with the above-mentioned gain and loss of 
supplementary couductance. 



PROCESSES WITHIN ELECTRODES. 1 85 

4. They make it probable that these changes of volume are 
due, at least in greater part, to the expansive force exerted by 
hydrogen in a form distinct from that v^^hich produces the com- 
monly-observed increase of resistance during occlusion, and pos- 
sibly identical with that which is responsible for the effect de- 
scribed in 1. 

5. They give several indications as to the reactions which 
occur within the electrode, during the discharge of hydrogen, and 
suggest other experiments which may be expected to throw fur- 
ther light upon these processes. 

REFERENCES : 

(1) Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. (1916), 29, 269. 

(2) D. P. Smith and F. H. Martin, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. (1916), 38, 2577. 
E. A. Harding and D. P. Smith, ibid, (1918), 40, 1508. 

(3) F. Fischer: Dissertation, Leipsic, 1906; Drude's Ann. (1906), 20, 503. 

(4) A. Sieverts: Internat. Zeit. Metallog. (1913), 3, 45. 

(5) The statement of J. Monckman, Pro. Roy. Soc, London (1888), 44, 
220, that a platinum wire, made cathode in dilute sulphuric acid, in- 
creased in resistance by 0.1 percent, is in conflict with the findings 
of Fischer (loc. cit.), and with the results of the present experiments, 
and may be presumed to have been due to error. 

(6) M. Thoma: Zeit. phys. Chem. (1889), 3, 69. 

(7) A. V. de Forest: Pro. Am. Soc. Test. Mat. (1916), 18, 11. 

Chemical Laboratories, 
Princeton University, 
July,. 1918. 



DISCUSSION. 
Colin G. Fink^ : I want to ask Mr. Smith a question regard- 
ing the removal of hydrogen. Is 300° C. sufficient to bring back 
the wire to its original state? 

D. P. Smith : I cannot say definitely what that temperature 
was, because we had no means of measuring it. We only know 
that the direct current we passed through was about one-third 
of what was necessary to produce visible reddening, and repre- 
sented a temperature not very far from 300° C. That tempera- 

* Head of Laboratories, Chile Exploration Co., New York City. 

13 



1 86 DISCUSSION. 

ture is sufficient to restore the palladium in the wire to its original 
resistance within one or two parts in a thousand. Whether that 
means that we really expelled the last traces of hydrogen, I should 
hardly like to say, but it must nearly all be gone. 

C. G. Fink : I was wondering whether you did not get a com- 
bination of hydrogen and palladium which is comparatively stable, 
and which would require temperatures considerably higher than 
300° C. to decompose it and bring the wire back to its original 
state. 

D. P. Smith : I cannot say that our experiments give any direct 
evidence of that. I suspect there may be a trace of hydrogen 
which is more permanently contained. 

C. G. Fink: My reason for mentioning this is that in the case 
of tungsten filaments, the question is often brought up whether 
or not, during the last treatment of the tungsten filaments in a 
hydrogen atmosphere, there was any combination of the hydrogen 
with the tungsten. We noticed that after the filament is mounted 
in the lamp bulb there is a decided contraction during the first 
few hours of the life of the lamp, and we have always attributed 
that to the formation of new crystals, or a different structure, 
which microphotographs would reveal, but we always hesitated 
in assuming that we were dealing with a hydrogen-tungsten com- 
pound or solution. I was interested therefore in hearing whether 
you had found any hydrogen residue in your palladium, which 
would require a decidedly higher temperature than 300° C. to 
remove. 

D. P. Smith : We have not any direct evidence on that. I 
rather suspect there is a little there, but it must be very little, 
because the resistance returns to practically its original value. 
After putting the wire through this entire series of operations, 
which requires about two weeks in the case of some experiments, 
electrolyzing it and then letting the hydrogen escape and electro- 
lyzing it again, etc., at the end of a couple of weeks, if you anneal 
it very gradually, being very careful not to subject the wire too 
suddenly to an evolution of hydrogen, you can bring its resistivity 
back to within one or two parts in a thousand of its original value, 
which I think indicates not only that that wire has suffered very 



PROCESSES WITHIN ELECTRODES. 1 87 

little physical change, but that if any hydrogen remains perma- 
nently, it must be in exceedingly small quantity. 

J. W. Richards" : Some time ago there was a law-suit concern- 
ing pyroforic alloys, in which the owners of the Welsbach pat- 
ent on pyroforic alloys were suing other parties for infringe- 
ment. The defendants were manufacturing a cerium alloy for 
pyroforic purposes and treating it with hydrogen in order to 
increase the pyroforic powers. The defense made the claim that 
after treatment with hydrogen their material was no longer an 
alloy but was a compound of cerium with hydrogen, and therefore 
no longer came under the description of the patent which claimed 
a cerium alloy. I made some electric measurements on the re- 
sistivity of the alloy before and after it had been treated with 
hydrogen, the treatment with hydrogen consisting in heating it 
to about three or four hundred degrees C. and passing hydrogen 
gas over it. I found that the hydrogen-treated alloy had less 
resistivity than the untreated alloy ; that is, it was a better con- 
ductor. It is perhaps needless to say that this result was used 
in furthering the argument that it was still a metallic alloy. This 
behavior coincides with the phenomenon which Professor Smith 
has brought up in his paper as to the behavior of platinum, and 
seems to point to the fact that the hydrogen which is thus occluded 
is possibly in the form which Graham calls hydrogenium, that is, 
something analogous to the metallic state. I do not remember 
the exact figure, but my best remembrance is that the resistivity 
of the alloy was about 150 micro-ohms per centimeter cube, and 
that of the hydrogen-treated alloy was about 100. 

W. R. MoTT^ : An interesting question is whether hydrogen 
is a metal or a non-metal. The older chemists said that hydrogen 
came in the periodic system above lithium and sodium. Recently 
hydrogen has been placed above fluorine and chlorine, with which 
it has the common properties of being bimolecular in the gaseous 
state (alkali metals are monatomic), and forming hydrides quite 
similar to halogen salts. It seems a very curious property of cer- 
tain non-metallic halogen elements to form compound band spec- 
trums with alkaline-earth elements which give unique compound 

' Professor of Metallurgy, Lehigh University. 

' Research Laboratory, National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 



l88 DISCUSSION. 

spectra. Calcium fluoride has a spectrum of its own in the flame 
arc, with bright bands in the red and green regions. It has been 
found that calcium hydride has a band spectrum in the sun's 
atmosphere. Hence from the spectrum standpoint, hydrogen 
could belong in the non-metallic class. I think these two opposing 
views can be reconciled by saying that if you could by any means 
make hydrogen monatomic it would become metallic and conduct- 
ing, but with a diatomic molecule it is non-conducting as a solid, 
and gives with carbon electrodes the shortest arc of all elements 
forced into the carbon arc. 

D. P. Smith : Mr. Mott's question seems to be extremely inter- 
esting. There is another possibility that is rather speculative, 
and that is that the hydrogen, when it is first driven into the elec- 
trode, is nothing else than hydrogen ions which have been pushed 
in by the potential gradient and have not yet been discharged. 
To make it altogether speculative, let us suppose that the hydrogen 
is driven into the interstices of the metal. I do not know whether 
there should be supposed to be intercrystalline spaces of something 
within the crystals, but if the hydrogen still undischarged, or, if 
for that matter discharged hydrogen in any free atomic form, 
which can be readily charged and discharged, is driven in there, 
and if between different points in this metal there is a difference 
of potential, then it might be supposed that these free atoms of 
hydrogen serve as carriers of charges ; that they go to one point 
and take up a charge and that the mobility of the hydrogen en- 
ables it to carry this charge to the other points. That is wild 
guesswork, but it will entirely account for the thing in a sense. 

F. C. Frary* : I would like to ask whether the elongation due 
to the absorption of the hydrogen goes beyond the elastic limit, 
or whether the wire recovers again ? 

D. P. Smith : With the current densities we have employed with 
palladium, the elastic limit is not exceeded, the wire recovers 
entirely. On the other hand, if you employ iron wires, the wires 
give way before the occlusion has gone very far; the character 
of the metal has changed so greatly that I think it would be safe 
to say that you completely alter the elastic limit. 

* Director of Research, Aluminum Co. of America, New Kensington, Pa. 



A paper presented at the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



THE SIGN OF POTENTIALS. ^ 

By Oliver P. Watts.^ 

Abstract. 

A historical retrospect is given concerning the usage of electro- 
chemists in designating the signs of potentials, and the plea made 
for continuing the present conventions. It is pointed out that if 
the present conceptions of electric current being a flov^ of (so- 
called) negative electrons be correct, that negative electrons would 
flow only to material of relatively higher (more positive) poten- 
tial, and that the present usage of designating potentials would 
fit the facts in this case, while the proposed inversion of signs 
would contradict the facts. [J. W. R.] 



At the meeting of this Society held at Detroit in May, 1917, 
a committee was appointed, of which the writer is a member, to 
consider and report upon the sign of the potentials of the metals, 
concerning which there are two different usages. The commit- 
tee has held several meetings, has indulged in a voluminous cor- 
respondence, and has circulated among its members several 
tentative reports, but no definite recommendation has yet been 
made to the Society so far as the writer is aware,^ although at 
the last meeting a member of the committee presented a paper 
on "the Sign of the Zinc Electrode." In this paper Dr. Bancroft 
distinguishes two kinds of potential, chemical and electrical, and 
concludes that the minus sign should be used for the electrical 
potential of zinc. 

It may seem at first sight a matter of purely academic interest 
whether the positive or negative sign be prefixed to the potential 

^ Manuscript received August 8, 1918. 

2 Associate Professor of Applied Electrochemistry, University of Wisconsin. 

'Notice of the presentation of reports by the committee at the last meeting came 
after this paper had been sent in for publication. 



190 OLIVER P. WATTS. 

of zinc; it is the purpose of this paper to show that the sign 
adopted for the potential of a metal is of importance to the 
progress of electrochemistry, and to present reasons for continuing 
the long-established use of the plus sign for the potential of zinc. 

A phenomenon which attracted much attention from the early 
electrochemists was the displacement of metals from solution by 
other metals. The relative displacing power of many of the 
elements was thus measured, and when they were arranged in 
the order of their power of precipitating other metals, this con- 
stituted the electrochemical series. In the early electrochemical 
series the list began with oxygen, sulphur, etc., and ended with 
sodium and potassium, but later the order was reversed, potas- 
sium, sodium, etc., being placed at the beginning or positive end 
of the series, while chlorine, oxygen, etc., constituted the rear- 
guard, and were called electro-negative. The sequence was the 
same in both arrangements, and if this series were an isolated 
thing to be considered only by itself, it would make little ditYerence 
which order were adopted, provided that one arrangement were 
adhered to by all. Electrochemists, however, have not been satis- 
fied with a mere order, but have measured and expressed in volts 
the distances between different metals, so that the old electro- 
chemical series has been converted into the modern table of poten- 
tials. 

For many years such tables of potentials have been available, 
and in spite of their inaccuracy and the very limited number of 
electrolytes in which the potentials of metallic conductors are 
as yet known, these tables have proved of the greatest value in 
explaining the phenomena encountered in electrolysis, and in suc- 
cessfully predicting what will happen when certain electrodes 
are employed in a particular electrolyte. With the single excep- 
tion of the table of electrochemical equivalents based on Faraday's 
law, the writer has found even the present incomplete tables of 
potentials to constitute the most valuable and most frequently 
consulted data in the whole field of electrochemistry. The com- 
plete and more accurate tables which will some day be available 
should prove of far greater value. 

Some of the practical uses of tables of potentials are as follows : 

1. They give the relative stability of compounds of the metals 
in solution. 



THE SIGN OF POTENTIAI^S. I9I 

2. The E. M. F. of voltaic cells can be computed from them 
by a simple subtraction. 

3. They enable one to predict the direction of current flow 
in voltaic cells. 

4. They tell what metals will precipitate others from solution. 

5. They foretell the corrosion or protection of one metal by 
contact with another. 

6. They give the order in which metals are deposited from a 
solution of mixed salts by electrolysis. 

7. They tell what electrolytes must be neutral or nearly so, 
and what ones may be acidified in the electro-plating and refining 
of metals. 

8. Potential is the determining factor in the deposition of 
alloys : the deposition of an alloy is easy if the potentials of the 
two metals are close together, difficult if they are far apart, and 
probably impossible if they are far apart and hydrogen comes 
between. 

9. In the electrolytic separation of metals potentials are im- 
portant : separation is easy if the potentials of the metals are far 
apart and hydrogen comes between. 

10. A knowledge of potentials enables the plater to tell what 
metals may be plated directly with any desired metal, and which 
must first be given a preliminary coating of some other metal in 
order to prevent "deposition by immersion." 

Many electrochemists have not yet recognized the great value 
of tables of potentials in electrochemical work, and their useful- 
ness in the future is certain to be much greater than in the past, 
if the value of such tables is not impaired by the use of different 
standards and different signs. An abbreviated table of poten- 
tials in chloride solutions according to Neumann, taking the value 
of the normal calomel electrode as — 0.56 volts, is as follows : 

Mg +1.23 

Zn +0.50 

Cd +0.17 

Fe +0.09 

Ni —0.02 

Pb —0.09 

H —0.25 

Pt —1.14 

Au —1.35 



192 ouve;r p. watts. 

According to this table magnesium, zinc, etc., are electro-posi- 
tive metals, while platinum and gold are highly negative. If a 
voltaic cell be formed by using two of the above metals as elec- 
trodes in a chloride solution the flow of current through the elec- 
trolyte will be from the metal of higher to that of lower potential, 
and the E. M. F. of the cell will be equal to the difference of 
potential between the metals. 

For many years the above convention regarding the use of signs 
was unanimous. A few of many references are appended, in 
which writers on electrochemical subjects either give a table simi- 
lar to that above, or refer to sodium, zinc, etc., as electro-positive, 
thus indicating their adherence to this method of designating 
potentials : 

1890. Gore. Electrolytic Separation of Metals, p. 51. 

1894. Neumann. Z. f. phys. Chem., 14, 193-230. 

1902. S. B. Christy. Amer. Chem. J., 21, 354-420. 

1904. Kahlenberg. Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc, 6, 57. 

1905. Neuberger. Kalender f. Elektrochemiker, p. 250-254. 
1905. G. McP. Smith. J. Amer. Chem. S., 27, 541. 

1908. C. F. Burgess. Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc, 13, 21. 

1910. Cushman & Gardner. Corrosion and Preservation of Iron and Steel, 

p. 122. 

1911. Friend. Corrosion of Iron and Steel, p. 265. 

1915. McGraw-Hill. Handbook for Electrical Eng., p. 1565, 1567. 

1915. Kahlenberg. Outlines of Chemistry, p. 457. 

1916. Liddell. Metallurgists and Chemists Handbook, p. 299, 300. 

In reading recently several thousand pages on the corrosion of 
iron, in books dating from 1822 to 1918, wherever stimulation of 
rusting by local action was mentioned, the iron was said to be 
positive to the copper, graphite, or whatever constituted the other 
electrode of the cell. Similarly the protective action of zinc was 
ascribed to its being electro-positive to iron. 

In the gravity cell, shown in Fig. 1, we consider that mysterious 
something, which for want of a better name, is called an electric 
current, as passing from the positive zinc plate through the electro- 
lyte to the negative copper ; and, because electricity flows only in 
closed circuits, it must return to the zinc through the wires, etc., 



the; sign of pote;ntials. 



193 



which constitute the remainder of the circuit. That terminal of 
an ammeter, voltmeter, or other D. C. electrical instrument, by 
which current should enter is marked by a plus sign, and there- 
fore must be connected to the copper plate to receive' the current 
that passes through the electrolyte to this electrode. The futility 
of attempting to represent completely the electrical conditions in 
a voltaic circuit by attaching a single sign to either electrode was 
recognized by the early electrochemists when they spoke of the 




Fig. 1. 



zinc as "the positive plate (we should now say electrode), but the 
negative pole of the cell." There is yet to be found a simpler 
way of designating the relation of the zinc electrode to the whole 
electrical circuit; for current will flow from the zinc into the 
electrolyte provided that it be permitted to return to the zinc again 
from that portion of the circuit which lies outside of the cell; 
yet the driving force resides within the cell. 

Faraday gives us the terms anode (up or entering way) and 
cathode (down or leaving way), and we designate the anode of 
the electrolytic cell, from which current enters the solution, by a 



194 OIvIVER P. WATTS. 

plus sign, and the cathode by which it leaves by the minus sign. 
The use of signs is the same in the electrolytic as in the voltaic 
cell — a simple and easily understood arrangement, which is in 
harmony with the use of the minus sign on thermometers, and as 
applied to the flow of heat between bodies of unequal tempera- 
tures, the flow always being from the place or body of higher to 
that of lower temperature. If, however, zinc be considered as 
electro-negative and copper as positive there will no longer be 
harmony in the use of signs in the voltaic and electrolytic cells, 
but we will be compelled to say that current flows in the electro- 
lyte from the positive to the negative electrode in the electrolytic 
cell, but from the negative to the positive electrode in the voltaic 
cell — in the latter case outraging our fundamental conception of 
the terms positive and negative as used everywhere else in science 
and industry. This is indicated in Fig. 2. 

The table of potentials as previously quoted consists, in accord- 
ance with the ionic theory, of "the potential of tlie solution minus 
the potentials of the metals" ; the table as re-written by those who 
contend for a change of sign consists of "the potentials of the 
metals minus the potential of the solution." So far as the phrase- 
ology goes there is little to choose between them. Since ions of 
the metals are usually considered to be charged positively, when 
a strip of zinc, for example, is thrust into an electrolyte, zinc ions 
go into solution carrying positive charges, therefore lowering the 
potential of the zinc and raising that of the solution, so that the 
zinc should be negative to the solution. It would thus appear 
that the advocates of the minus sign for the potential of zinc are 
contending for the truth, as opposed to error ; but the physicists, 
who have been the most ardent advocates of this change of sign, 
tell us that we have the whole matter of sign wrong in electricity, 
that Avhat we call a positively charged ion has less than the normal 
number of electrons, and that our negatively charged ions have 
an excess of electrons, and that the "flow of electric current" is 
really in the opposite direction to that which is now accepted. 

It follows that if the proposed change of sign in potentials be 
adopted, carrying with it all the confusion which will result in 



THE SIGN OF POTENTIALS. 



195 



electrochemical literature and the inconsistencies which have been 
pointed out, we shall still fail to express the truth regarding the 
potentials of metals, for the latest theory of the nature of elec- 
tricity leads us to believe that the zinc electrode is really at a 
higher potential than the electrolyte, and consequently the plus 
and not the minus sign correctly indicates its potential. It there- 
fore seems for the best interests of electrochemistry, that until 






Caih^rff 



^h»dz 



CathoJi 











: 








, 


■f 


> 


: 



yo\Ui, C€|K,,^ rUd^J'.l^'C cell 

Old System . 









f}tio4i 



Ca^h'di. 



- 







~1 


-*- 


> 


" 



VolTai'c c%\\ 



•EWctWIyTrc eel/ 



A/ew Syit9,rri, 



Fig. 2. 



such time as the scientific world is ready to revise the entire 
terminology of the electric circuit, the time-honored custom in 
regard to writing the electrochemical series and tables of poten- 
tials should be followed. The writer hopes that the members of 
the world's greatest electrochemical society will throw the weight 
of their influence, individually and collectively, toward the use 
of that sign for the potentials of the metals which is in harmony 



196 DISCUSSION. 

with electrochemical literature for a century past, and which will 
tend to promote the widest understanding and most extended use 
of tables of potentials by practical workers in electrochemistry, 
for by this means the advancement of electrochemistry will be 
best assured. 

Chemical Engineering Laboratories, 
University of Wisconsin. 



DISCUSSION. 

F. C. Frary^ : The society has heard about this matter before. 
I am very sorry that Dr. Hering, the chairman of the committee 
to which Dr. Watts referred, was not able to be present at this 
meeting and explain what appears to be a misunderstanding on 
the part of Dr. Watts. My understanding is that the paper by 
Dr. Bancroft, to which Dr. Hering refers, is the majority report 
of the committee, signed by all the members of that committee 
with the exception of Dr. Watts, and that this paper is a minority 
report, which is of course always in order. The only point I 
would like to make in this connection is that on page 194 Dr. 
Watts agrees to our saying that in the electrolytic cells, by which 
I judge he means a cell like a chlorine cell or storage battery into 
which we are putting energy, current flows from the positive, or 
anode, to the negative electrode ; that is, he is defining the flow 
of current as the direction of the flow of positive charges in the 
solution. But in the voltaic cell, he objects to our saying that the 
current flows from the negative pole (zinc) to the positive pole 
(copper), which of course is exactly what it does do, because 
the positive charges are given off, as he himself states, from the 
zinc pole. The thing that seems to worry him is that we are trying 
to get something out of nothing, we are trying to get a positive 
charge out of a negative pole, but he forgets that in the first case 
we are doing work upon the solution and in the second case the 
work is being done by the solution, the case being exactly analo- 

' Director of Research, Aluminum Co. of America, New Kensington, Pa. 



THE SIGN 0^ POTENTIALS. 197 

gous to the motor and dynamo. In direct-current practice we 
know that if a machine is running as a motor, the current in the 
armature is from the direction of the positive brush to the nega- 
tive brush. If, on the other hand, we speed up and make it func- 
tion as a dynamo, the armature current is reversed but the polarity 
of the machine does not change. The same thing of course holds 
here in the distinction between the voltaic and the electrolytic 
cell. As far as the phraseology of the potential of the solution 
minus the potential of the metals, and vice versa, is concerned, 
the committee felt that if we talk about electrode potentials, we 
necessarily talk about the potential of the electrode as the positive 
thing, and therefore talked about the potential of the electrode 
minus the potential of the solution, and not the reverse. The 
confusion of which he speaks I think is largely confined to a very 
narrow circle, because, as the committee found, and its report 
showed, the recommendations of the committee are in harmony 
with the practice of most of the electrochemists of this country 
and of practically all foreign societies. 

F. A. J. FitzGkrald^ : There is a rather interesting historical 
parallel to this dispute about the sign of potentials which occurred 
to me the other day, and sometimes these historical parallels are 
of some use in arriving at decisions about these matters. You 
will remember that when Dr. Lemuel Gulliver was released by the 
Lilliputians he had a long interview with Reldresal, the principal 
Secretary of Private Afifairs. On that occasion Reldresal de- 
scribed a dispute between the two great empires of Lilliput and 
Blefuscu as to which was the best way of breaking an egg. "It 
began upon the following occasion : It is allowed on all hands 
that the primitive way of breaking eggs before we ate them was 
upon the larger end ; but his present Majesty's grandfather while 
» he was a boy going to eat an egg, and breaking it according to the 
ancient practice, happened to cut one of his fingers. Whereupon 
the Emperor, his father, published an edict, commanding all his 
subjects, upon great penalties, to break the smaller end of their 
eggs. The people so highly resented this law, that our histories 
tell us there have been six rebellions raised on that account. . . . 
. . . Many hundred large volumes have been published upon 

' Electric Furnace Expert, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 



198 DISCUSSION. 

this controversy. The emperors of Blefuscu did frequently ex- 
postulate by their ambassadors, accusing us of making a schism 
in religion by offending against a fundamental doctrine of our 
great Prophet Lustrog in the fifty-fourth chapter of the Blunde- 
cral. . . . This, however, is thought to be a mere strain upon 
the text ; for the words are these : That all true believers break 
their eggs at the convenient end, — and which is the convenient 
end seems, in my humble opinion, to be left to every man's 
conscience, or at least in the power of the chief magistrate to 
determine."* 

W. R. MoTT* : I would suggest that people who give these 
single potential measurements by all means state the single poten- 
tial of zinc in the system vised. It is a matter of indiiierence to 
many of us which system is used, only we hope that one system 
will be adopted by everybody, because there is otherwise a great 
loss of efficiency. 

J. W. Richards'^ : I think, seriously, that there are good rea- 
sons why we should not quickly or lightly change from the pres- 
ent system of designating the positive and negative electrode, and 
I should be sorry to see our Society take any action which would 
tend to force a change upon electrochemists. Speaking from a 
very general standpoint, we find that metals displace each other 
chemically from solutions in a certain order. We arrange the 
metals in this order, with the strongest on top and the weaker 
beneath, and I think we naturally think of the stronger metals 
towards the top as the more positive, which coincides with 
the ordinary use of the sign, such, for instance, as the positive 
and negative signs on a thermometer scale. Again, we find that 
the order in which they replace each other is the order of their 
thermochemical heats of combination, so that the stronger metals 
have larger heats of combination with other elements, and the 
weaker metals have smaller. If we arrange the thermochemical 
constants of these elements in order, putting the strongest at the 
top, from -\- 81,240 per chemical equivalent for caesium down 
to — 30,300 for gold, this series represents the heat which the 
chemical equivalent gives out when it goes into combination. 

» "Gulliver's Travels, Part I, Chap. IV. 

* Research I,aboratory, National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

* Professor of Metallurgy, lyehigh University. 



THE SIGN Olf POTENTIALS. 199 

These are a set of definite quantitative data, which run from 
large positive amounts of heat down to small positive amounts, 
and even to the negative. That again is the same order in which 
they replace each other, but expressed quantitatively from definite 
positive to definite negative quantities. This is also the order 
which Prof. Watts pleads for in this paper as the historical order. 
I feel that until we are very, very certain that the current does 
run in the opposite direction, or that the signs absolutely must be 
changed, that we leave them as they are, for practical purposes 
and for the w-riting of papers. Where anyone feels that his con- 
science will not let him use that order and the corresponding 
signs, let him state the signs which he prefers in connection with 
his paper. 

Colin G. Fink^ : I know that I am responsible for a good part 
of this trouble, because our Mr. Koerner used signs in his paper 
which were not the same signs which Prof. Watts used ; but I 
do not believe we will ever come to a final decision on this ques- 
tion of signs of the potential by long-winded debating. I would 
suggest, therefore, that not the Society, but the Transactions of 
the Society, adopt either one sign or the other. Let it be under- 
stood that all papers appearing in the Transactions assume the 
zinc electrode to be negative or assume it to be positive and have 
all papers appearing in the Transactions use the same sign. It 
is very annoying indeed to pick up the Transactions and read one 
paper in which the sign of the potentials are equivalent to zinc as 
negative, and the next paper in which all the signs are reversed 
and zinc is positive. Why not adopt either one or the other as a 
temporary measure until such time as we can better decide which 
is the proper sign to use? I think much confusion is caused by 
allowing both signs to stand in our Transactions. 

F. J. Tone" : Do I understand that this committee, which was 
mentioned this morning as a regularly appointed committee of the 
Society, has reported? 

C. G. Fink: The committee has reported in favor of the 
Society using the negative sign for the zinc electrode ; that is in 
accordance with the majority report. 

' Head of Laboratories, Chile Exploration Co., New York City. 
' Works Manager, Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls. 



200 DISCUSSION. 

J. W. Richards : I think it would be more practical if we put 
before the members a statement that now they have had the 
majority report and the minority report, and ask them to vote, 
if they wish, as to which one of the three ways they would choose 
— either to keep the old, to go to the new, or to have the papers 
state decisively in each case what sign they adopt. I hardly think 
that the number of members present at a meeting would be com- 
petent to decide a thing in which the whole Society is interested. 

F. J. Tone: If there is no objection, we will act on that sug- 
gestion. 

J. W. Richards : I move that the membership be canvassed as 
to their opinion regarding this matter, as to accepting or rejecting 
the report of the committee ; and that the matter be brought up 
for action at the next general meeting of the Society. 

(The motion was carried.) 

O. P. Watts {Communicated) : As expressing my views, Mr. 
Frary says : "But in the voltaic cell, he objects to our saying that 
the current flows from the negative pole (zinc) to the positive 
pole (copper), which of course is exactly what it does do." I 
have never at any time, in any place, or under any circumstances, 
stated that the direction of flow of current in the primary cell is 
other than from zinc to copper through the electrolyte ; will Mr. 
Frary cite his authority for the accusation that I object to his 
saying that the flow of current is from zinc to copper. What I 
do object to is the designation of the anode of the primary cell, 
be it made of zinc or any other metal, as the negative electrode. 
Faraday gave us the term anode for that electrode by which cur- 
rent enters the electrolyte, and neither he nor anyone else has 
attempted to restrict its use to the electrolytic;, in distinction from 
the volatic cell. Mr. Frary is in agreement with general usage 
when he says of the electrolytic cell that "current flows from the 
positive, or anode, to the negative electrode," but is going con- 
trary to long established practice when he calls the anode (zinc) 
of the voltaic cell the negative electrode. To this designation of' 
the anode as positive in those particular combinations of 
two electrodes and an electrolyte which function as an electro- 



the; sign of potentials. 20I 

lytic cell, but as negative in similar combinations of elec- 
trodes and electrolyte that constitute a primary cell, I emphati- 
cally object. 

Given an electrochemical system consisting of two particular 
electrodes in an electrolyte, the products liberated at anode and 
cathode, the chemical changes that occur in the electrolyte, the 
change in temperature, etc., all depend solely upon the current 
flowing, and are entirely independent of the circumstance that 
the cell happens at that moment to be functioning as an electro- 
lytic or as a voltaic cell. With a certain current flowing between 
two electrodes in an electrolyte, the cell shows an utter ignorance 
of and indifference to the source or magnitude of the E.M.F. 
which causes current to flow ; whether the source of E.M.F. is 
a dynamo, a storage battery, a thermo-element, or lies within the 
cell itself. For any particular current a constant weight of metal 
dissolves from the anode ; the amount and kind of substances 
deposited at the cathode, and the changes in the electrolyte are 
the same. Nature declares that there is uniformity of action, 
but Mr. Frary w^ould have us make a distinction between the elec- 
trolytic and voltaic cells by calling the anode of the latter negative. 

The motor and dynamo, which Mr. Frary cites as "being ex- 
actly analogous'' to the relations between the electrolytic and 
voltaic cells, is not at all a parallel case ; for, as Mr. Frary himself 
points out, when a motor acts as a dynamo, "the armature current 
is reversed," but in both the electrolytic and voltaic cells the direc- 
tion of flow of current in the cell is always from anode to cathode. 
Therefore whatever sign is used for the anode of the electrolytic 
cell should be used for that of the voltaic cell also, if we are to be 
consistent. 

I infer from Mr. FitzGerald's interesting historical( ?) parallel 
that he considers the question of the signs attached to anode and 
cathode a matter of no importance to electrochemistry. With 
this view I cannot agree. The basis of science is uniformity : 
Nature's uniformity of action under like conditions, and man's 
uniformity in the use of terms. Lacking uniformity, science 
would become chaos. Any loose, confusing, or contradictory use 
of electrochemical terms is detrimental to progress, and therefore 
worthy of serious consideration by our Society. 

14 



A paper presented at the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



AN APPARATUS FOR THE SEPARATION OF RADIUM EMANATION 
AND ITS DETERMINATION ELECTROSCOPICALLY.i 

Ey J. E. Underwood" and Herman Schlundt.' 

Abstract. 

Description of an apparatus and method of determining radium 
in various ores and concentrates, the material being treated with 
concentrated sulphuric acid or fused with alkali carbonate mix- 
ture or with alkaline bisulphate in one part of the apparatus and 
the emanation stored in another part, where the thorium emana- 
tion is first allowed to decay before the radium emanation is trans- 
ferred to an electroscope for measurement. [J. W. R.] 



The accurate determination of radium by the emanation method 
generally resolves itself into the problem of separating quantita- 
tively the emanation from the radio-active substance being anal- 
yzed. A variety of forms of apparatus, and a number of different 
methods have been developed for different radio-active products.* 
The apparatus to be described has shown itself to be very service- 
able for determining the radium content of monazite sand and 
the concentrates obtained therefrom in the extraction of meso- 
thorium from this ore. 

The mineral monazite is readily decomposed by hot concentrated 
sulphuric acid. The very close chemical similarity between meso- 
thorium and barium enables the chemist to separate the extremely 
minute quantities of mesothorium present in monazite by adding 
thereto barium compounds soluble in sulphuric acid, and later 

' Manuscript received August 8, 1918. 

^Research Chemist, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Golden, Colorado. 
' Professor of Chemistry, University of Missouri. 

* The forms of apparatus used by Boltwood, McCoy, Strutt, Schlundt and Moore 
are illustrated and described by Randall, Trans. Am. Electrochem, Soc. (1912), 21, 
463. See also Toly. Phil. Mag. (1911). 22, 134. 

Lind and Whittemore, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. (1914), 36, 2080. 
Barker, Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem. (1918), 10, 525. 

203 



204 J. E. unde;rwood and hi;rman schlundt. 

isolating the barium from the other substances. The mesothorium 
and radium accompany the barium throughout the process until 
the barium is finally separated as the sulphate. Barium sulphate 
is quite soluble in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, hence this 
reagent is the logical one to use for removing the emanation from 
the concentrates of crude barium sulphate bearing radium and 
mesothorium. Since radium and mesothorium^ have identical 
chemical properties and consequently are non-separable by chemi- 
cal methods, quantitative determinations of radium in monazite 
and in the concentrates of crude barium sulphate afford a con- 
venient method of ascertaining the recovery of mesothorium in 
plant operations, and in locating losses of radio-active values 
during the process of separating thorium from monazite. 

The main parts of the apparatus are shown in the accompanying 
figure. The emanation is separated from the substances being 
analyzed by boiling with concentrated sulphuric acid in the flask 
A, and is collected over mercury in the gas burette F. A flask 
of 150 cub. cm. capacity is a convenient size for most determina- 
tions. It is fitted with a two-hole rubber stopper carrying an 
outlet and inlet tube. The outlet tube from the flask is attached 
to the rest of the apparatus by a short piece of rubber tubing 
securely wired. The outlet tube should extend about a centimeter 
below the rubber stopper to allow for the swelling of the rubber 
during boiling. The other joints of the gas train are glass seals. 
The trap B contains concentrated sulphuric acid to absorb most 
of the steam and sulphur trioxide vapors that pass over during 
boiling. The glass stop-cock on the trap is a convenience for the 
removal and renewal of acid. Occasionally a few drops of acid 
are carried over from the trap and collect at the bend, Y. The 
liquid that gradually accumulates here may be removed at any 
time through the stop-cock at the lower end of the bend. The 
widened portion of the gas train B contains a little glass wool 
soaked with concentrated sulphuric acid, and a layer of cotton 
above this which can be renewed by way of the rubber stopper 
at the upper end. The gas burette has a capacity of 200 to 300 
cub. cm., and has a three-way stop-cock at the upper end. At 
its lower end it connects by means of pressure tubing to a level- 

' Marckwald, Ber. (1910). 43, 3420. 
Soddy, Jour. Chem. Soc. (Ivondon), (1911), 99, 72. 



SEPARATION OF RADIUM EMANATION. 



205 



ing reservoir of mercury G, whose height may be regulated by 
means of the counterpoise H. The outlet tube of the burette 
leading to the electroscope has fastened to it a short piece of glass 
tubing I, containing a small plug of cotton to check a bit of mer- 
cury that sometimes gets past the stop-cock. The zigzag of glass 




^^y/Jj/J)J///ll //////^r^y^/^ 



Fig. 1. 



tubing gives the required flexibility. The spring coil D and a 
rubber strap at the trap B hold the gas train against a supporting 
rod clamped to a heavy iron ring stand, which also supports the 
other parts of the apparatus. 

To conduct a determination of radium, in monazite for example, 
the mercury is run to the top of the burette and its stop-cock 
closed. To the flask containing a weighed sample of monazite 



2o6 J. E. UNDERWOOD AND HERMAN SCHLUNDT. 

about 75 cub. cm. of cold concentrated sulphuric acid is added 
and the flask is then attached quickly to the apparatus, as shown 
in the figure. The stop-cock of the burette is then turned to con- 
nect with the flask, and as the outer tip of tube C is sealed the 
boiling is conducted under somewhat reduced pressure by adjust- 
ing the height of the leveling reservoir. When decomposition of 
the ore is complete and the air from the flask has been expelled, 
the flame is removed, and soon after the tip of the inlet C broken, 
admitting air which sweeps forward with it completely into the 
burette the emanation left in the flask and the connecting train. 
As the inlet tube C runs below the surface of the Hquid, the 
bubbles act as indicators of the rate of the admitted air. This 
rate may be regulated either by the manipulation of the reservoir 
G, or by lowering G considerably below the surface of the mer- 
cury in the burette and admitting the air through a stop-cock se- 
curely attached to the open inlet tube C. After allowing about 
ten minutes for thorium emanation to decay, the gas is transferred 
to an ionization chamber previously exhausted. The gas left in 
the connecting tubes to the electroscope is swept into the chamber 
by fresh portions of air drawn into the burette through the inlet 
tube C. As a matter of "safety first," we place a fair-sized piece 
of plate glass in front of the flask of boiling sulphuric acid. 

After standing three hours, the ionization current in the elec- 
troscope is measured, and knowing the calibration constant of 
the instrument, the quantity of emanation is deduced by a simple 
computation. To the value thus obtained must be added that 
fraction of the emanation continuously emitted at ordinary tem- 
peratures. This quantity must be determined on a separate sam- 
ple. Since the fraction of the emanation continuously lost in the 
cold rarely exceeds 2 percent, and the radium content of mona- 
zite being very low, a sample of 50 to 100 g. should be taken for 
this determination. This sample should be sealed for a month, 
when equilibrium will have been established between radium and 
its products. Then the emanation is drawn into a calibrated elec- 
troscope and the quantity determined gives the amount of emana- 
tion being continuously lost by that amount of material. 

The total quantity of radium may, however, be obtained in one 
determination by first decomposing a weighed sample in the flask 
and allowing the emanation to escape, a little barium salt being 



SEPARATION O-P RADIUM EMANATION. 



207 



added to protect the radium during subsequent storing. After 
cooling a little, the rubber stopper carrying the two glass tubes, 
previously sealed, is inserted and covered with wax.® After allow- 
ing a few days for the emanation to accumulate, the radium de- 
termination is made by attaching to the apparatus, the tip of the 
exit tube is broken off, and the gases expelled from the flask by 
boiling. 

The equilibrium quantity of emanation is computed from the 
ionization measured by applying the well-known formula, 



^, 



E (I — ^-^') 



where E, represents the quantity found after t hours of storage; 
B,, the equilibrium quantity ; e, the base of the natural logarithms ; 
and A the radio-active constant of radium emanation, 0.0075 hr.'^ 
Since most of the radio-active products obtained in plant opera- 
tions come in for analysis before radio-active equilibrium has been 
reached, we have generally followed the second method of deter- 
mination, involving storage of the sulphuric acid solution for a 
definite period after complete de-emanation by boiling. 



No. 


Amount of 


Sample 


la 


10.0 g. 


lb 


10.0 g. 


Ic 


10.0 g. 


1 


10.0 g. 


2a 


10.0 g. 


2b 


10.0 g. 


3 


2.0 g. 


3 


2.0 g. 


4 


200.0 mg. 


4 


100.0 mg. 


5 


2.0 g. 


5 


2.0 g. 


6 


50.0 mg. 


6 


50.0 mg. 


7a 


1.0 cm. 


7b 


1.0 cm. 


8a 


1.0 cm. 


8b 


1.0 cm. 


9a 


1.0 cm. 


9b 


1.0 cm. 


10a 


1.0 cm. 


10b 


1.0 cm. 



Description of Sample 



Monazite sand from Brazil 

Monazite sand from Brazil 

Monazite sand from Brazil 

Monazite sand from Brazil 

Monazite sand from India 

Monazite sand from India 

Mesothorium Residue 

Mesothorium Residue 

Mesothorium Concentrate 

Mesothorium Concentrate 

Residue after removal of mesothorium. . 
Residue after removal of mesothorium. . 

First Sulphate from Carnotite 

First Sulphate from Carnotite 

Solubility in 25% sulphuric acid at 25° C. 
Solubility in 25% sulphuric acid at 25° C. 
Solubility in 25% sulphuric acid at 35° C. 
Solubility in 25% sulphuric acid at 35° C. 
Solubility in 25% sulphuric acid at 45° C. 
Solubility in 25% sulphuric acid at 45° C. 
Solubility in 307o sulphuric acid at 25° C. 
Solubility in 30% sulphuric acid at 25° C. 



Grams Radium 
I per Gram 
xlO"» 



0.794 

0.803 

0.788 

0.812* 

0.1025 

0.1017 

2.41 

2.38* 

182.1 
178.2* 
6.39 
6.18* 
1146.0 
1080.0* 

15.30 

15.90 

23.43 

22.62 

34.70 

35.30 

15.59 

15.36 



• This precaution should not be omitted, as rubber stoppers shrink a little upon 
anding near sulphuric acid. 



2o8 J. E. UNDERWOOD AND HERMAN SCHLUNDT, 

The table on the preceding page gives values obtained for the 
radium content of several types of radio-active products, analyzed 
by the use of the apparatus described. 

The first three values refer to the same stock sample ; 2a and 2b 
are also values of duplicate determinations. These results are 
fairly representative check values. The other values are averages 
of duplicate determinations with the exception of values 7a to 
lOh inclusive, which are duplicate determinations of the solubility 
of pure radium sulphate in sulphuric acid at different concentra- 
tions and at different temperatures as designated. These were 
all stored in concentrated sulphuric acid so as to avoid the possi- 
bility of any re-precipitation of the radium.'^ The values starred 
(*) were obtained by an entirely different method, namely fusion 
of the substance, (with the addition of a little barium salt when 
only a trace of barium is present in the product being analyzed), 
with mixed alkali carbonates, followed by leaching the melt with 
water. The insoluble residue was then digested with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, and from the acid solution the barium was precipi- 
tated as sulphate. The refined barium sulphate was then fused 
with mixed carbonates in a platinum boat. After storage of this 
product for a definite period extending over several days the 
accumulated emanation was separated quantitatively by decom- 
posing the contents of the boat with nitric acid.^ 

With the exception of the radium determinations of monazite, 
it is seen that the values obtained by removing the emanation 
directly from the products with the concentrated sulphuric acid 
are a few percent higher than the value obtained by the fusion 
with NagCOg'KsCOg mixture and subsequent solution of the resi- 
dues in dilute acids. The slightly higher value for the radium 
content of monazite obtained with the mixed carbonates may 
represent the radium present in the ingredients of monazite sand 
which are not attacked by hot concentrated sulphuric acid. Nearly 
10 percent of the impurities in monazite sand are not decomposed 
by sulphuric acid. 

We have had success with this apparatus in removing radium 
emanation from mesothorium and radium-bearing products by 

^ For details see Lind, Underwood and Whittemore, Tour. Am. Chem. See. (1918). 
40, 465. 

' For details see Lind and Whittemore, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. (1914), 36, 2062. 
Lind, Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem. (1915), 7, 406; (1915), 7. 1024. 



SEPARATION OF RADIUM EMANATION. 209 

fusing with sodium or potassium bisulphates in a hard-glass test 
tube in the manner described by Barker.* With our apparatus, 
where the separated gas can be stored for the decay of thorium 
emanation, the quantitative determination of radium in substances 
also containing members of the thorium series can be conducted. 
In Barker's procedure the gases upon removal from the substance 
being analyzed pass directly into the exhausted electroscope. 

We are extending these experiments to a study of the conditions 
required for determining radium quantitatively in sulphuric acid 
solutions wthout boiling the acid. 

U. S. Bureati of Mines, Golden, Colo., 
and University of Missouri. 

•Barker, Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem. (1918), 10, 525. 



A paper presented at the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



NOTES ON THE HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIUM OF HYDROGEN 
AND OXYGEN MIXED WITH RADIUM EMANATION.' 

By S. C. LiND.= 

[Abstract.] 

A discussion of the effect of radium emanation on causing 
hydrogen and oxygen to combine. It is shown experimen- 
tally that 99 percent will combine at ordinary temperatures 
before equilibrium is reached. Equilibrium theory indicates 50 
percent. The discrepancy is explained by the fact that as the 
condensed water formed collects into drops, the decomposing 
effect of the alpha rays on the liquid water decreases as the drops 
increase in size. When all the water is in one hemi-spherical 
globule, the equilibrium calculates out 95.5 percent. Moist radium 
salt, enclosed in a glass tube, has its residual moisture decom- 
posed, producing a high pressure before equilibrium is attained. 
[J. W. R.] 



A determination of the homogeneous equilibrium between 
hydrogen and oxygen in the presence of radium emanation would 
have to be carried out at a temperature above the condensation 
point of water vapor. The determination has not been directly 
made, but since we know that hydrogen and oxygen in the pres- 
ence of radium emanation readily combine at ordinary tempera- 
ture to form water, and since both Cameron and Ramsay^ and 
Duane and Scheuer* agree that the decomposition of steam by 
emanation is extremely small, the homogeneous equilibrium in the 
neighborhood of 100° C. must lie decidedly in the region of com- 
plete combination. 

^ Manuscript received August 3, 1918. Published by permission of the Director of 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

^ Radio Chemist, Bureau of Mines, Golden, Colorado. 
3 T. Chem. Soc. Lond. (1908), 93, 990. 
*La Radium (1913), 10, 45. 

211 



212 S. C. UND. 

Unlike steam, the decomposition of liquid water by the alpha 
particles from emanation takes place readily at ordinary tem- 
perature, and a considerable pressure of hydrogen and oxygen 
gases is developed above an aqueous solution of a radium salt, 
or of emanation alone. If, however, the quantity of water in the 
system is small — such a quantity as might result from the com- 
bination of hydrogen and oxygen initially at ordinary pressures 
— other conditions present themselves for consideration. 

In general, the heterogeneous equilibrium between hydrogen 
and oxygen would involve one of the following systems : 

1. Gas — liquid (water). 

2. Gas — solid (ice). 

3. Gas — solid (water of crystallization). 

In the present discussion the system involving ice will not be 
considered. 

According to the measurements of Scheuer^ 5.5 molecules of 
hydrogen and oxygen are caused to combine by radium emanation 
mixed with the gases for each pair of ions produced in the gaseous 
mixture by the alpha particles emitted. Reducing this value to 
terms of water molecules formed would give about 3.6 HoO 
molecules formed per pair of ions. This value agrees closely with 
the one more recently obtained by the writer^ under somewhat 
different experimental conditions, and may be regarded as accu- 
rate in vessels not exceeding 6 cm. in diameter. As regards the 
efficiency of alpha rays in decomposing liquid water, Duane and 
Scheuer^ showed that about one molecule of water is decomposed 
per one pair of ions formed. Since the alpha radiation was com- 
pletely absorbed in the water, it is practically indifferent whether 
the ionization produced is calculated for air or water. What one 
may term the ionic-chemical efficiency of alpha rays will thus be 

seen to be 3.6 ^ for the formation of water from the gases and 

1 ^ for the decomposition of liquid water, where M represents 

the number of molecules of water and N the number of pairs 
of ions. 

If one could realize a system of heterogeneous equilibrium be- 

"Comps. rends. (1914). 159, 423-426. 
6 J. Am. Chem. Soc, April, 1919. 
' Loc. cit. 



EQUILIBRIUM OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. 213 

tween hydrogen and oxygen and liquid water, such that the oppor- 
tunity for absorption of the alpha particles from emanation were 
the same, both in the liquid and the gaseous phases, the equilibrium 
of such a system would then be 1/3.6, that is 27.8 percent of the 
hydrogen and oxygen free and 72.2 percent combined. Such a 
system would be realized if a small very thin-walled alpha ray 
bulb containing radium emanation were placed at the center of 
a spherical container, not exceeding a few centimeters in diameter, 
filled initially with hydrogen and oxygen gases. In such a system, 
combination of hydrogen and oxygen would take place, owing to 
the action of the alpha particles passing from the inner bulb com- 
pletely through the gases, to the outer glass wall, where they 
would be absorbed. The water vapor thus produced would first 
saturate the gases at a given temperature and would then condense 
on the wall of the glass container. If this condensation took place 
in such a way that the water were evenly distributed in a film en- 
tirely covering the inner wall of the glass container, we should have 
an ideal system, like that just presupposed; every alpha particle 
would be passing completely through the layer of gas and the layer 
of water. When combination of hydrogen and oxygen had taken 
place to the extent of 72.2 percent, the ionization produced in the 
liquid water would be 72.2 compared with 27.8, taking placce in 
the gaseous phase. That is to say, the ionization would be pro- 
portional to the quantity of hydrogen and oxygen encountered 
independent of their state, whether elemental or combined.^ But 
since the proportionality factor between the chemical effect and 
ionization is 3.6 times as great in producing combination of the 
gases as that in producing decomposition of water, we would 
have, under conditions just mentioned, the same quantity of water 
being decomposed as being formed; and, therefore, would have 
a state of heterogeneous equilibrium controlled by the radiant 
energy of the alpha particles. 

The following table contains the results of the combination of 
hydrogen and oxygen under the influence of radium emanation 
at ordinary temperature, where the emanation is mixed with the 
gases instead of being contained in an alpha ray bulb. 

The apparatus, experimental details, and all kinetic considera- 
tions have been treated in a recent paper.* 

'Bragg, "Studies in Radioactivity" (1912), Chapter V. 
" Loc. cit. 



214 



S. C. LIND. 



Table I. 

Rate and Extent of Combination of Electrolytic Hydrogen and 
Oxygen Gases Mixed With Radium Emanation. 

t constant volume =; 3.375 cm.^ 
Spherical reaction bulb -j diameter = 1.861 cm. 

(. initial emanation = 186.8 millicuries 



Time 










Percent Km. 


Pressure 


Days 


Hours 


Remaining 


mm. Hg. 








100.00 


982.9 





0.50 


99.63 


959.2 





1.13 


99.15 


941.6 





1.72 


98.73 


924.8 





2.53 


98.12 


903.4 





3.43 


97.46 


869.0 





4.37 


96.78 


844.8 





5.32 


96.09 


813.0 





20.67 


85.64 


521.2 


1 


0.16 


83.42 


469.1 


1 


4.17 


80.96 


391.4 


1 


20.67 


71.53 


259.3 


2 


20.67 


59.75 


156.7 


3 


20.67 


49.91 


92.1 


4 


20.67 


41.69 


52.0 


6 


21.00 


29.01 


16.3 


8 


4.67 


22.88 


12.7 


12 


0.67 


11.48 


11.4 



The course of the reaction may be followed by the change of 
pressure indicated in the last column. The vessel was a spherical 
one of glass of about 2 cm. in diameter, in which the electrolytic 
gases were confined over a mercury column connecting with a 
manometer by means of which the changing pressure coiild be 
determined. The volume could be maintained constant by closing 
a stopcock connecting with the manometer, after setting the mer- 
cury on the volume index. As v/ill be seen, the reaction instead 
of proceeding to 72.2 percent of combination has gone to nearly 
99 percent, which must mean that the relative opportunities for 
the gaseous and the liquid systems to absorb alpha radiation were 
not nearly equal. 

The system just studied differs from the ideal one first as 
regards the position of the emanation. Instead of being concen- 
trated at the center of the gaseous mixture, it was uniformly 
mixed with the gas. This change in position of the emanation 



EQUILIBRIUM OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. 215 

would produce no effect with respect to the hquid phase, for, as- 
suming that the water were distributed evenly over the surface, 
every alpha particle would still traverse its full depth, no matter 
from what point within the sphere it originated. On the other 
hand, the average path of all the alpha particles through the 
gaseous phase would be about 0.7 of the radius of the containing 
sphere, as previously shown by the writer.^" This change would 
result in shifting the equilibrium, therefore, still farther away 
from complete combination. Multiplying 72.2 percent by 0.7, the 
equilibrium under the actual experimental conditions should be 
50.5 percent combination ; whereas, we have just seen that it is 
about 99 percent. 

The explanation of this difference must then lie in the localized 
condensation of water, as would be expected from the principle 
of the lower vapor pressure of large drops as compared with 
smaller ones. 

Let us proceed to examine this more minutely. If the film of 
water covered just one-half of the inner wall of the sphere instead 
of the whole, it would then be struck by just half so many alpha 
particles, but each would have doubled its path in water. The 
thickness of water film over the whole wall in the experiment 
reported in Table I Avov^ld be 0.002 mm., but the layer of liquid 
water which an alpha particle can penetrate is about 0.07 mm. 
It is evident that the alpha particle can penetrate entirely through 
the water film until the latter has been redoubled in thickness 
many times by local condensation. Localization of the water 
film will, therefore, produce no diminution in the amount of energy 
absorbed from the alpha particle, and, consequently, no shift in 
equilibrium until the thickness of the film exceeds 0.07 mm., the 
range of an alpha particle in water. The area of such a film from 
the above data can be calculated to be 31 sq. mm. For evident 
reasons, further diminishing the area of the water film will now 
reduce the energy absorbed in proportion to the reduction in sur- 
face. The limit of this process will be reached when all the water 
is condensed in a single drop. Let us assume the drop to be semi- 
spherical in shape ; the area of its base would then be 2.88 sq. mm., 
which would mean approximately that the amount of energy re- 
ceived from alpha particles striking such a drop would be just 

"Jour. Phys. Chem. (1912), 16, 570. 



2l6 S. C. LIND. 

9 percent of that expended when the area was 31 sq. mm., corre- 
sponding to the limit of the range in water. This condensation 
process would, therefore, result in shifting the equilibrium to 95.5 
percent of complete combination of the gases, which lies not far 
from the extent actually reached by experiment, 98.8 percent. 

That the effect on the equilibrium of the change of volume of 
the vessel for a given initial pressure of gases should be zero, can 
be readily predicted from the fact that both the surface of the 
water formed and the surface of the vessel vary with the square 
of its radius. This statement is limited to vessels and pressures 
for which the range of the alpha ray is not exceeded. 

The solubility of gaseous radium emanation in the water formed 
has been neglected in the foregoing calculation. This is entirely 
justified, owing to the very small quantity of water present ; but 
in systems where the quantity of water is relatively large — as for 
example in the case of radium solutions, or solutions with emana- 
tion distributed between a liquid water phase and a gas phase — 
the solubility of emanation in the water plays a very considerable 
role. At 16°, the quantity of emanation in a given volume of 
water is nearly exactly one-half that contained in the same volume 
of gas in contact with the liquid. Of course, the alpha particles 
of that part of the emanation and its decomposition products 
actually dissolved in the water are completely absorbed, while, of 
the alpha particles coming from emanation in the gaseous phase, 
or from induced activity on the walls of the gaseous phase, only 
that fraction is efficient in decomposing the water, which strikes 
the water surface. The equilibrium attained would, therefore, be 
dependent in each case, not only upon the size and shape of the 
containing vessel, but upon the relative volumes of the liquid and 

gaseous phases. On the basis of a ^^ ratio — 3.6 times as great 

for the reaction 2H2 + O2 -^ 2H2O, as for the reverse reaction 
2H2O -^ 2H2 + O.y — one would estimate the equilibrium at 
16° in a sphere just half filled with water to be attained when 
the pressure of hydrogen and oxygen above the water reached 
a very high value, perhaps 140 to 150 atmospheres, which, ex- 
pressed as above in terms of percentage of total hydrogen and 
oxygen in the system, would be about 12 to 15 percent in the 
free state. 



EQUILIBRIUM OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. 217 

Nothing has been mentioned in regard to the quantity of 
emanation involved in the equihbria under consideration. Prac- 
tically, the examination of equilibria by means of emanation is 
very difficult on account of its rapid rate of decomposition, but 
from the foregoing discussion it appears that equilibrium once 
having been reached for a given set of conditions, change in quan- 
tity of emanation ought not to disturb it. This has never been 
experimentally demonstrated, and should prove a very interesting 
experiment that might be attempted with sufficiently large quan- 
tities of emanation. 

Before leaving the case of liquid-gas equilibrium under alpha 
radiation, it should be pointed out that it differs in a marked way 
from ordinary chemical equilibria in which the quantity of 
any phase present plays no role. As has just been shown, the 
equilibrium reached with a small quantity of water present results 
in a very low gaseous pressure, but with a large quantity of water, 
a very high pressure would be attained ; the percentage of total 
combination, however, would not be greatly different in the two 
cases. 

Another case of heterogeneous apparent equilibrium in- 
volving hydrogen and oxygen and radium emanation has much 
practical interest. A preparation of radium chloride, or bromide, 
completely sealed in a small glass tube, as is generally the prac- 
tice, if imperfectly dried, will develop high pressure. Although 
both the chloride and bromide of radium appear to lose most of 
their water of crystallization very readily at 105° to 110°, a small 
quantity of water is retained within the crystal unless dehydration 
be carried on for some time at a much higher temperature. Salts 
dried even for an hour at 250° C. sometimes retain a not incon- 
siderable quantity of water. On sealing salts thus dried in small 
glass containers, the alpha radiation within the salt produces de- 
composition of the residual water of crystallization. This mani- 
fests itself by a more or less marked increase in the gaseous 
pressure in the small tube, depending on the degree of dehydration. 
On account of the very limited volume of the gas space, this 
pressure may attain very high values (undoubtedly many atmos- 
pheres). This pressure has been, in some cases, sufficient to blow 
up the container, and has resulted in serious losses of radium. 
Usually the greatest danger comes on attempting to open a tube 
15 



2l8 S. C, LIND. 

with a high gas pressure. At the moment of scratching, the tube 
flies into many pieces, scattering its contents broadcast, if un- 
protected. 

Even when tubes containing a radium salt show no sign of 
pressure on being opened, the salt contained, if brought into solu- 
tion in water, will invariably show a marked evolution of gas 
which remained occluded within the crystal structure, and which 
must have resulted from the decomposition of water. In accord- 
ance with this, it has been noted that dangerous pressures are 
more likely to be developed if the radium salts are finely ground 
than when the crystals are left in coarse condition. It has also 
been observed on transferring radium salt from one tube in which 
it had been sealed for a long time into a new tube that even though 
no pressure was exhibited on opening the old tube, if any heat 
were allowed to travel back to the salt on attempting to seal the 
new tube, a considerable pressure, due to liberation of gases from 
the crystals by heat, at once develops. These phenomena are 
rather well known to most of those who have had occasion to 
handle radium salts extensively. The best practice consists in 
bringing the salt actually to a red glow for several minutes before 
initial sealing ; though there may be some objections to this prac- 
tice, it is undoubtedly the safest. The opening of radium tubes 
of unknown history without the observance of the greatest pre- 
cautions is extremely inadvisable. 

The very interesting question naturally presents itself as to how 
the development of this high pressure in a limited volume is pos- 
sible in view of what we have seen about the equilibrium between 
hydrogen and oxygen under alpha radiation in the earlier part 
of this paper. If the equilibrium in the gaseous phase really lies 
so far in favor of combination, how is it possible to develop these 
high pressures ? This is a very interesting question which merits 
direct experimentation. In its absence, however, the writer will 
venture the following explanation. Although the alpha radiation 
is non-penetrating, yet the intimate relationship between radium 
atoms and molecules of water of crystallization furnish abundant 
opportunity for the water to be decomposed within the crystal 
into hydrogen and oxygen. This oxygen is probably in a very 
active state and besides recombining with the hydrogen in part 
to form water again, may combine with the halide salt present 



i 



HQUILIBRIUM OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. 219 

to form chlorates, or bromates, or some other oxy-halides. The 
excess of hydrogen thus left free accumulates within the crystal, 
and, provided its quantity does not become too great and the 
crystals are sufficiently large, may be largely retained within the 
crystal and exert no external pressure. In the absence of these 
latter conditions, it diffuses more or less rapidly outside the crys- 
tal, and pressure rises until practically all of the available water 
is decomposed. It will be noticed on this theory that the pressure 
is produced entirely by hydrogen gas, and the oxygen remains 
behind in a state of combination within the crystal, and no real 
equilibrium between hydrogen and oxygen gases is represented 
at all. Even when the hydrogen pressure becomes quite consider- 
able, owing to the very confined free volume in small radium tubes, 
the amount of oxy-halide produced might escape chemical detec- 
tion. On the other hand, the odor of chlorine dioxide is some- 
times noticeable on opening radium preparations, and it has been 
rather generally assumed that oxy-halide salts are present. In 
fact, the well-known phenomenon of radium gradually passing 
out of a neutral solution in an insoluble form has been attributed 
to the gradual formation of basic salts. 

SUMMARY. 

1. Experimentally shown that an electrolytic mixture of hy- 
drogen and oxygen gases, when mixed with radium emanation 
in a spherical bulb of 2 cm. diameter, will combine at ordinary 
temperature to an extent of nearly 99 percent of completion, 
before equilibrium is reached. 

2. Through comparison of the known relative efficiencies of 
alpha rays in bringing about (1) the combination of hydrogen 
and oxygen, and (2) the decomposition of water, equilibrium 
would be expected at about 50 percent of complete combination, 
if the HjO vapor were condensed evenly over the whole inner 
surface of the reaction bulb. 

3. Localized condensation of water will not affect its rate of 
decomposition until the depth of the layer exceeds the range of 
the alpha ray in water. This takes place when its area is about 
1/35 of the total area. 

4. Further localization results in diminishing the opportunity 
for the decomposition of water and a consequent shifting of the 



220 S. C. LIND. 

equilibrium toward recombination. The limit would be reached 
with all the water condensed in a single semi-spherical drop. The 
equilibrium is then calculated to be 95.5 percent of total combi- 
nation. 

5. When the quantity of water in the system is large, very 
high gaseous pressures would be produced before equilibrium 
results, 

6. A theory is advanced that the high pressure produced when 
an imperfectly dried radium chloride, or bromide, is sealed in a 
small tube, is due to hydrogen alone, not to a mixture of hydrogen 
and oxygen ; the oxygen having been bound chemically as a basic 
salt. 

Golden, Colorado. 
July, 1918. 



A paper presented at the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 

By E- KiLBURN Scott.* 

Abstract. 

The various types of electric arc furnaces for fixing nitrogen 
are first reviewed and compared. The Kilburn Scott three-phase 
furnace is then described in detail, and a thorough discussion is 
entered into of various details (comparing them with other fur- 
naces) such as the balance of the current phases, starting the 
furnace, size of furnace, radiation and cooling-water losses, elec- 
trodes, stabilizing the arc, power factor, reactance, air supply, 
air compressor, pre-heated air, effect of increasing oxygen in the 
gas, effect of increasing pressure, absorption of the products, 
cooling the gases, raising steam in boilers, and theory of the 
reaction and its reversibility. [J. W. R.] 



Arc furnaces for fixing atmospheric nitrogen differ from arc 
furnaces for making alloys, carbide, etc., in that instead of the 
electrodes being of carbon they are made of special metal, which 
wears away very slowly. Ako, the potential used is several thou- 
sand volts, which necessitates better insulation. Another differ- 
ence is, that air only is used or charged ; the internal construction 
is therefore simpler, as regards the refractory lining, for there is 
no melted metal or flux to re-act with or to cut the brickwork. 

The furnaces are especially suited for intermittent working with 
off-peak power, because they can be started and stopped at any 
moment with almost the same facility as an ordinary arc lamp, 
and there is no fused material to be run off or to freeze in case 
the electricity fails; also, after starting up again, full yields are 
obtained very quickly. The furnaces may therefore be advan- 

* Electrochemical Engineer. Manuscript received May 16, 1918. 



222 



K. KILBURN SCOTT. 



tageously installed wherever cheap three-phase power is available 
for say 16 or 20 hours a day ; the arc process is the only method 
for fixing atmospheric nitrogen that can be so used. 

A convenient size of air nitrate factory is one to take about 
10,000 kw., but of course the larger the factory the lower the 
cost per kilowatt of plant installed, and the lower the working 
cost and of overhead charges per unit of finished product. 

7 CcJS oaf/ef 




Ajr /n/ef" 



Fig. 1. The Island furnace, with mechanically rotated arc. 

The ordinary standard voltages of 5500 and 6600, and period- 
icities of 25 and 60 per second, are suitable, so it is not necessary 
to install special generating machinery. The energy can be tapped 
from a general transmission network, although there are advan- 
tages in having the factory near to the power house. 

To combine nitrogen and oxygen efficiently by electricity, it is 
necessary to obtain as intimate contact as possible between the 
gases and the arcs, and various features which more closely 
approximate to this requirement are discussed in this paper; 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 223 

further, in order to emphasize certain points, comparisons are 
made of types of furnaces, especially those which produce the 
arcs in different ways. For the purpose of discussing types of 
furnaces, they can be classified as follows : 

(A) Designs having mechanically movable parts. 

(B) Designs employing a magnetic field to direct the arcs. 
(C) Designs depending on air currents only to direct the arc. 

(A) Designs Having Mechanically Movable Parts 

The Bradley and Lovejoy apparatus as it was installed at 
Niagara Falls is historical but nevertheless interesting, because 
it is a distinctive type. It depended on the formation, prolonga- 
tion, and interruption of many thousands of sparks or arcs per 
second, each one separate from the rest. The arcs were produced 
by rotating an iron cylinder fitted with platinum points inside a 
fixed enclosing cylinder having an equal number of points. Direct 
current at 10,000 volts was employed, partly because the apparatus 
was built at a time when that form of current was generally in use. 
It was afterwards appreciated that it would have been better to 
work with alternating current. 

MacDougall and Howies, who were working on the problem in 
England about the same time, employed alternating current, and 
the writer gave them assistance, especially in showing how the 
arcs could be stabilized by reactance. 

Another design depending on mechanical movement is that of 
J. S. Island of Toronto. (Fig. 1.) 

As will be seen from Fig. 1, there are in this furnace four 
V-shaped rings, two of which rotate, and the electric arc which 
would normally remain stationary at the shortest gap is drawn 
around. To the eye it looks like a ring of flame, but in reality 
it is a single arc rotating rapidly round the annulus. Air passes 
through perforations in the apices of the stationary rings, and at 
first sight this would appear to be a good plan. The writer's 
experience, however, is that such holes are subject to excessive 
burning. 

The Rankin furnace, to which T. H. Norton draws attention 
in an article in Scientific American, Sept., 1917, has been tried in 



224 



E. KIIyBURN SCOTT. 



California. It is a distinctive type because the arcs are mechanic- 
ally caused to move through the air, instead of the air being blown 
through the arcs. The sparking points are fitted in a sort of piston 
which reciprocates in a cylinder and at the same time is rotated 
to and fro by a thread on the spindle. Current is led to the spark- 
ing points by wires through the hollow spindle. 






y/et^m 




Mt9fnef 

CO//. 



—Pfr 



Fig. 2. Moscicki single-phase furnace having magnet coil to give rotation of arc. 



As general comment on the above, the writer considers that 
designs depending on a number of electric sparks or arcs which 
are at relatively large intervals apart, must necessarily allow con- 
siderable quantities of air to pass without contact. Further, 
designs which require constant mechanical movement of parts are 
obviously at a disadvantage when compared with those referred 
to below, which do not require moving parts. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 



225 



(B) Designs Employing a Magnetic Field. 

The Moscicki furnace, used in Switzerland, has a magnetic 
field which causes the arc to rotate round an annular opening. 
Referring to Fig. 2, there is a reaction chamber with an air 
chamber below, both of which are surrounded by water. The 
annular opening is formed between a high tension electrode and 
the lower edge of the reaction chamber, which latter is earthed. 
Magnet coil D, acting in conjunction with the steel construction 
of the furnace, sets up a magnetic field across the annular opening 




Fig. 3. Alternating arc flame of Birkeland-Eyde furnace. 

which causes the arc to rotate. It can, however, only be at one 
point at any one moment, whereas air passes through the whole 
opening all the time ; it therefore follows that a large proportion 
cannot contact with the revolving arc. 

The Birkeland-Eyde furnace used in Norway, France, and 
Spain, has also a magnetic field, but in this case it forces the arc 
into two half discs of flame, which alternately rise and break in 
the top half and in the bottom half of the reaction chamber. The 
electrodes, see Fig. 3, are of copper tubes supported on ball insu- 
lators, and they project into a circular reaction chamber, the side 
walls of which are pierced by a large number of small holes. Air 
passing through these holes strikes into the flame at right angles, 



226 E. KILBURN SCOTT. 

and obviously at any moment only half the volume enters on 
the side on which there is an arc. 

The arc constantly rises and breaks, and, further, many of the 
holes are near to the periphery of the chamber. A large pro- 
portion of the air, therefore, fails to make contact with the arcs. 

As further general comment on those furnaces which depend 
on a magnetic field to direct the arc, the writer is of opinion 
that they are at a disadvantage compared with those mentioned 
below, which use air only. This is because of the magnet steel 
construction which interferes with accessibility, the cost of copper 
magnet coils, and the cost of dynamo electric machinery necessary 
to provide direct current to excite the coils. Another reason is 
that an extra circuit is required, with instruments and regulating 
switches, etc., in order to adjust the strength of the magnetic field 
to suit the velocity of the air. 






<fclS, tfX// 

Fig. 4. Cross section of reaction chamber and annular preheater tubes 
of Schoenherr furnace. 

(C) Designs Depending on Air Currents. 

In the Schoenherr furnace, as used in Norway, air is blown 
tangentially into the bottom of a vertical reaction tube made of 
steel, and in passing upward with a whirling motion it maintains 
a rod-like arc in the center. To distinguish this arc from those 
of other furnaces, the writer calls it a "standing arc." The cross 
section of the reaction tube, see Fig. 4, is about 30 sq. inches 
(190 sq. cm.), whereas the section of the arc is only a small frac- 
tion of an inch ; therefore much of the air whirls past without 
coming into intimate contact with the standing arc. 




NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACEIS. 



227 



A point of interest in this design is that it has a special 
air preheater combined with it. This takes the form of annular 
tubes, as shown in section in Fig. 4, through which the hot gases 
and the air pass in contra-flow directions. 

The Wielgolski furnace, used by the American Nitrogen Prod- 
ucts Co. of Seattle, Wash., has also a standing arc, but instead of 
being similar to a single straight rod it is in the form of a "bight" 
having its ends springing from electrodes at the bottom. For a 
given voltage, the height of the arc is therefore considerably less 




Aiy \ 




/S/r 

Fig. S. Arc flow in relation to the arc of a Pauling furnace. 



than in a Schoenherr furnace. Each electrode is a water-cooled 
pipe bent into a ring and air passes up through the ring. 

The Pauling furnace, used in Italy, Austria and Germany, has 
a fan-shaped arc flame which forms between horn-shaped castings. 
Below the electrodes there is an air pipe having a narrow slot, the 
idea being to get as much air as possible into the flame, but as a 
matter of fact it spreads out in all directions as indicated in Fig. 5. 
Fig. 6 shows a modification installed at Nitrolee, S. C, and due 
to R. Phaehler and I. Heckenbleckner. Each electrode is supported 
at the bottom only, and the cooling water enters and leaves at 



228 



E. KILBURN SCOTT. 



that point, experience having shown that an upper connection 
causes short circuits and is difficult to insulate. Air is blown 
through two nozzles, the inner one passing a relatively small quan- 
tity at high pressure so as to cool the kindling blades. The bulk 




'i/sf/Tjefif 

1 1 1 /}/r)c/e 



/Asu/<9/or 



/Pressure \ pressuyf 



Fig. 6. Modification of Pauling design due to Pfaehler and Heckenbleckner. 



of the air which is preheated passes through the outer nozzle at 
low pressure. The power is therefore less than would be the case 
if all the air were at high pressure. Each side wall between the 
electrodes and just above the zone of maximum heating has a 
duct through which gases from the furnace, which have been 
cooled down, are blown. The object is to cool the highly-heated 



nitroge:n fixation furnaces. 



229 



nitric oxide below the critical temperature of dissociation, and 
as the return gases contain practically the same percentage of 
nitric oxide gas as the freshly treated gas, there is no dilution. 
Furnaces which work with single-phase alternating current 
have to be used in sets of three on a 3-phase supply, whereas the 
Kilburn Scott type now to be described in greater detail uses 
all 3 phases in a single reaction chamber. 



(^<9S oc///ef 



CooA 



CAoke cot/s 

>3njMS)— f-i 




A/O^ SitltA <iyi/^M^S 



Fig. 7. Diagram of Kilburn Scott 3-phase furnace. 




^e/nctory 



£'/eefrod6 . 



THE KILBURN SCOTT FURNACE. 

As shown diagramatically in Fig. 7, it has three wedge-shaped 
electrodes arranged with intervening refractory material so as to 
enclose a six-sided conical space, having its apex at the bottom. 
Three-phase current supplied to the electrodes produces a com- 
bined arc which is flared out by the air, and with 60 periods gives 
360 flames per second. 

By drawing three sine curves with a phase displacement of 120 
degrees, as in Fig. 8, it is seen that current is always flowing in 
the reaction chamber, and it can be shown mathematically that the 



230 t. KILBURN SCOTT. 

electric energy varies between 0.86 and 1.0. On the other hand, 
with the single phase the electric energy varies from zero to maxi- 
mum, and twice in each cycle there is no current. 

The flame appears to the eye like a double cone having one apex 
at the bottom, where the electrodes are nearest together, and the 
other at the top, where the flame tapers off. The flames flicker 
about with great rapidity in different planes, and so are constantly 
intercepting fresh particles of air. Fig. 9 indicates how it revolves, 
the speed of revolution corresponding to the frequency. If we 
assume 60 periods per second, then as it takes longer than 1/60 
second for air to pass up the reaction chamber, it follows that 
practically every particle must come into the arc field. 




Sf^^/e /b/t^se . , ^ 




Fig. 8. Comparative curves of 3-phase and single phase. 

Balance of Phases. 

From the point of view of the supply of electric energy, it is 
desirable to have all three phases balanced, and this is especially 
necessary when current is purchased from a public supply com- 
pany, for the general supply must not be affected by low power 
factor and unbalanced and variable loads. 

When single-phase furnaces are connected to a three-phase 
supply, there may be considerable lack of balance due to one 
furnace dropping out of circuit ; also at starting up, unless all the 
furnaces are switched in together. If one arc fails, there is a 
possibility that the circuit breakers of the other furnaces may trip, 
with the result that a heavy load is suddenly thrown off, and a 
surge may set up. 



nitroge;n fixation furnacijs. 231 

The three-phase furnace gives no trouble in this way, for it 
functions as a single unit and the phases balance automatically. 
Even if deliberately set so that they do not balance, they tend to 
equalize by burning at those points where current is greatest. 
There is very little chance of a three-phase furnace failing alto- 
gether, because the three phases help to maintain one another. 

Starting Up the Furnace. 

As the electrodes of nitrogen fixation furnaces are of metal and 
work at high voltage, they must not be brought into contact. Start- 
ing is usually effected by carefully moving the electrodes until they 
are near enough for current to jump across. After running until 
the interior has become heated, the electrodes are withdrawn to 





Fig. 9. Diagram showing rotation of 3-phase arc. 

the regular working distance. Adjustment must be made care- 
fully to minimize rush of current, and as this depends on the 
furnace attendant, the amount of reactance in circuit has to be 
sufficient to allow for the contingency of careless operation. 

The Schoenherr furnace is started by means of a lever which is 
moved by hand, until it is near enough to the lower electrode for 
the current to jump across. The lever is then withdrawn and the 
whirling air carries the arc to the top of the reaction tube. In case 
the arc fails, which is fairly frequent, it has to be re-kindled by 
hand, so considerable attention is necessary. 

Pauling uses the device shown in Fig. 10, which shows two 
furnaces connected in series in each leg of the three-phase supply, 
and an auxiliary transformer connected across one pair of elec- 



232 



T,. KILBURN SCOTT. 



trodes on each series. The high tension coil of this transformer 
gives a voltage several times greater than the main supply, so that 
current is shunted through the primary coil and the arcs are kept 
going by the higher voltage set up. 

While experimenting with an early model of the Kilburn Scott 
(K. S.) three-phase furnace, it was found possible to use pilot or 
trigger sparks to break down the air dielectric and thus dispense 
with movement of the electrodes for starting. This is a simple 
solution of the problem, and does away with uncertainty of opera- 
tion by an attendant. A wire, placed midway between the three 



/'/t.fSS / 




Fig. 10. Pauling furnaces in series on each phzise and starting transformers. 

electrodes just above the central air nozzle is connected to an 
extra high tension supply, which causes sparks to jump from the 
wire to the electrodes, thus ionizing the air and causing the, main 
current to flow. The more pilot sparks there are in a given time 
the better the effect ; also, the higher the frequency the less the air 
resistance. The two circuits work together in much the same 
way when telephone and telegraph messages are carried at the 
same moment through one set of conductors. 

With pilot sparks to break down the air dielectric between the 
three electrodes, the full value of the current wave is utilized and 
the curve approximates to a sine wave. On the other hand, with 
single phase the voltage has to rise to a certain amount to over- 
come resistance and cause current to flow. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 233 

Size of Furnace. 

A 3-phase furnace is better than three single-phase furnaces 
aggregating the same power, because there is only one piece of 
apparatus to attend to and the cost is at least halved; the space 
occupied, inclusive of passage way round the furnaces, is less. 

As a 3-phase arc flame increases in three dimensions with in- 
crease of power, it follows that kilowatt capacity goes up very 
rapidly with increase in size. Usually in machine design doubling 
the linear dimensions will theoretically increase the capacity eight 
times, but a 3-phase furnace for nitrogen fixation increases in 
much greater ratio. 

Speaking generally, the larger a furnace the more accessible 
are the interior parts and the easier it is to adjust and renew the 
electrodes. Radiation losses are also relatively smaller, and the 
percentage of energy absorbed by the reactance coils being less, 
the power factor tends to be higher. 

The Schoenherr design is limited to about 1,000 K.W., because 
the length of the reaction tube is governed by the voltage, and 
at the same time the current that can be dealt with from a single 
electrode is limited. Again, the amount of air that can be passed 
through a reaction tube at a given velocity is limited, so in order 
to increase output a larger diameter tube would have to be used, 
thus giving greater clearance around the arc. 

Birkeland-Eyde furnaces are now built with a capacity of 4,000 
K.W., which is about 20 times larger than those made some twelve 
years ago. They are essentially a single-phase design. During 
the same period, carbon-arc furnaces for making alloys and for 
carbide have increased in a much greater ratio, and they are all 
now made for multi-phase working. 

Radiation and Cooling-Water Losses. 

In the Schoenherr furnace, radiation accounts for 17 percent, 
and the electrode cooling-water about 30 percent. It is therefore 
desirable to design electric furnaces with as small radiation sur- 
face as possible and with a minimum of electrodes through which 
heat can pass to the outside air. 

Radiation loss varies directly as the wall area of the furnace, 
and cooling-water loss may be said to vary with the number and 
the size of the electrodes. Two electrodes being the least that 
16 



234 ^- KILBURN SCOTT. 

can be used for any one furnace, it follows that three single-phase 
furnaces must have six electrodes whilst a 3-phase furnace of 
the same total power has only three. 

Three electric arc flames acting together in one closed space 
will give a higher average temperature than the same arcs each 
at some distance apart and within separate walls each radiating 
heat. That is to say, a 3-phase furnace of 3,000 K.W. will have 
less wall area and therefore less radiation than three 1,000 K.W. 
single-phase furnaces ; also the heat absorbed in cooling three elec- 
trodes of one furnace will be less than for cooling six electrodes 
of three separate single-phase furnaces. 

Doubling the number of electrodes means doubling the pipe 
connections and fittings, also electric cables, etc. ; and as the water 
connections must necessarily be connected to the high tension 
supply, it is an advantage on this account to have as few as pos- 
sible. 

In furnaces with diverging electrodes, heat is principally gen- 
erated about one-third the way from the bottom, so the cold water 
should impinge at about that point in order to keep the metal 
from being worn too rapidly. At the same time, in order not to 
reduce the temperature of the reaction chamber too much, it is 
necessary to carefully adjust the amount of cooling water. 

Electrodes. 

The writer's conception of a blown-arc flame is that it consists 
of arc threads or streamers, which strike across the bottom of 
the electrodes, and then acting like flexible conductors are carried 
up by the air current. The ends move rapidly over the surface 
of the electrodes until the arcs have reached the maximum length 
at which the voltage will sustain them, when they snap suddenly 
and new arcs are started. 

If the formations and extinctions of the arc threads synchronize 
exactly with the alternations of the electric current, then the fur- 
nace is working smoothly and it is easy for those accustomed to 
such furnaces to know this by the sound. 

Round each arc-thread there is a flame of burning nitrogen, 
and as nitric oxid forms it diffuses away into surrounding air 
and in so doing becomes cooled. Probably the quickest chilling 
takes place at the moment when each arc-thread breaks. 



nitroge;n fixation furnaces. 235 

The arc also tears particles of metal from the electrodes, and 
these becoming incandescent and oxidized may play some part in 
expediting or retarding the reaction, for it is known that some 
metals are better than others, from the point of view of yield of 
nitric oxid. 

With diverging electrodes, the ends of the arcs travel along the 
surfaces in leaps, which is possibly due to softening of the metal, 
and the arc is momentarily held at each point until pressure of 
air (or the magnetism in the Birkeland-Eyde furnace) overcomes 
the adhesive tendency. 

When the surfaces of electrodes are large, the wear is rela- 
tively slow and the electrodes only need renewal at long intervals. 
On the other hand, when the arcs spring from the end of an elec- 
trode, as in a Schoenherr furnace, burning is intensive and the 
electrode has to be fed forward regularly. 

The electrodes must be of a dense metal having a high melting 
point and is not readily oxidized, also it should be a good heat 
conductor so as to pass heat quickly to the cooling water. 

Steel is used in the Schoenherr and Moscicki furnaces, but it 
is not a good metal because the magnetic oxide of iron to which 
it burns may be carried over to the absorption towers and stain 
the acid. Steel begins to oxidize at about 370° C, and oxidizes 
rapidly at about 500° C. 

Nickel has an ignition temperature of about 650° C, but it is 
too expensive to use, and this remark also applies to many metals 
and materials which have high melting points, platinum for in- 
stance. Those working on the nitrogen fixation problem are 
always on the lookout for better electrodes. 

In this connection, the process called "Calorizing" is of inter- 
est, because it raises the oxidizing temperature. The process 
depends on the fact that at high temperature and in a neutral 
atmosphere powdered aluminum will enter into combination with 
a metal and form a homogeneous alloy which cannot be destroyed 
except as part of the mass of which it is part. Depth of the im- 
pregnation depends on the length of time of treatment, and by it 
the oxidizing temperature of steel can be raised to over 1,000° C. 

Copper is a good metal to use for electrodes, because it is easily 
made to the required shape and wears away smoothly without 
releasing troublesome vapors. After a run with some copper 



236 E. KILBURN SCOTT. 

electrodes which were fixed by steel screws, having their counter- 
sunk heads in line with the path of the flame, it was noted that 
the steel was considerably burnt, whereas the surrounding copper 
had only slight surface marks. 

It is important to minimize the oxidation, because when a con- 
siderable amount of electric energy is employed in vaporizing 
metal then there is so much less energy for exciting the gas mole- 
cules and bringing about the nitric oxid reaction. 

Birkeland-Eyde furnaces use tubes of pure electrolytic copper 
about 2 inches (5 cm.) in diameter and 3/16 inch (5 mm.) thick, 
bent into the form of a U, each leg of which is about 8 feet 
(2.4 m.) long. 

Electrodes of copper alloyed with other metals have been used 
to advantage, and those metals which show good nitrogen bands 
in the arc spectrum are obviously the better ones to employ. 

There is some reason to suppose that the presence of metals 
or oxids of metals act in a catalytic way in increasing the velocity 
of the reaction. The action of a catalyst is supposed to be such 
as to make it unnecessary to use higher temperature to get a 
workable velocity. 

Stabilising the Arc. 

For smooth electrical operation it is important to have the arc 
stabilized, and this is the condition which gives good yields of 
nitric oxid. Further, it is important to have the furnace working 
easily, because of the effect of an unstabilized arc on the supply 
circuit. 

An ordinary arc lamp works well because the carbons are auto- 
matically moved so that the distance between them increases with 
current, to effect which an electro-mechanical device is used. This 
is possible because the parts to be moved are small and of light 
weight, but obviously the heavy metal electrodes of large electric 
furnaces, and the large power involved, present a much more 
difficult problem. 

The resistance of an alternating arc varies with current in such 
a way that when the voltage between the electrodes decreases the 
current then increases. In other words the characteristic of the 
arc is a falling one, as shown by curve aa of Fig 11. If the 
voltage of supply can be made to fall in accordance with the arc 
characteristic, then complete stability of the arc is obtained, but 



II 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 



237 



the only way to do this is to design the ahernator for a large 
voltage drop, as shown by curve bb. [The writer has used such 
an alternator with good effect and it is of interest to note that 
the latest installation in Norway, at Rjukan II, has alternators 
with large voltage drop, each supplying a group of three single- 
phase furnaces of 4,000 K.W.] 

When an air nitrate factory receives energy from a transmis- 
sion line so that step-down transformers are required to reduce 
the voltage to that required by the furnaces, then reactance may 
be embodied in the transformer. The transmission line itself 
and the various connections, etc., also give some reactance, which 
goes toward reducing that necessary in the separate reactor. 



>^//^ 




P^/s 




Ci/r'ren/'- 



Fig. 11. Characteristics of arc and 
alternator. 



Fig. 12. Falling and rising character- 
istics of electric arcs. 



It is obviously desirable to design a furnace so as to work with 
as little reactance as possible, and one way is so to design the 
electrodes that they require little or no adjustment, for obviously 
reactance must be larger if the contingency of inexpert adjust- 
ment has to be met. 

Stabilizing an arc against what may be called abnormal con- 
ditions may be done by automatically varying the force of the 
air in accordance with current in the arc, for increased air pres- 
sure increases the arc voltage. With varying air pressures the 
arc characteristic will move out parallel to itself, as shown in 
curves bb and cc of Fig. 12. An automatic device may be em- 
ployed to do this, so giving the equivalent of a rising character- 
istic, as shown by the curve a, b, and c. 



238 



S. KIIvBURN SCOTT. 



F. G. Lilienroth has suggested such a device, and for a Birke- 
land-Eyde furnace (see Fig. 13) he provides a regulating switch 
in the field-magnet circuit, which switch is varied by a solenoid 
through which passes the current of the electrodes. 

Power Factor. 

The expanding arcs of electric furnaces give a capacity or lead- 
ing-current effect, and but for the large amount of reactance used 
to steady the furnace the power factor would be high. With 
diverging electrodes the arc at the commencement of each half 



J^/r^pc/ cc/rren/^ 







Cho/ce Co// 



Arc 



/9//-pf/i^T//7ip> ccr^re/?/' 




Fig. 13. Device for stabilizing the arcs of Birkeland-Dyde furnace. 

period is small and gradually lengthens until it breaks, so the re- 
sistance may be represented by the rising line of Fig. 14. 

The low resistance causes the current at the beginning to be 
large as indicated by the exaggerated current wave of Fig. 14. 
When compared with the voltage wave the effect is as if the cur- 
rent were leading, and in practice such is found to be the case. 

Diverging electrodes also act, with the air between, as a sort 
of condenser, and a feeble spark is sometimes noticed between 
the tips of the electrodes where they approach nearest together, 
which is due to the condenser action. 

In the Birkeland-Eyde furnace the interaction of the mag- 
netic field with the alternating current passing between the elec- 
trodes is also said to cause the current to lead. The power- 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 239 

factor is certainly higher than with the Schoenherr furnace, and 
this may be due to the latter having a steel tube around the long 
arc, which gives an inductive effect such as would be the case 
if armor were placed around a single conductor carrying alter- 
nating current. Dr. C. P. Steinmetz considers that the "standing 
arc" of the Schoenherr furnace acts in the opposite way to the 
expanding arcs of other furnaces, and the resistance of the arc 
being high at the start, causes a current wave distortion which is 
equivalent to a lagging current. 







Fig. 14. Showing the effect of arcs which increase in resistance. 



Reactances. 

Small choke coils or reactances can be made with adjustable 
iron cores ; also the regulation of series arc lighting can be effected 
by an apparatus having movable coils. It would be useful to have 
such readily-adjustable reactances for electric furnace working, 
but as the power required for furnaces is very considerable, it is 
difficult to keep a movable core or movable coils steady enough, 
and probably also the core would become too hot. 

It is inconvenient to alter the amount of reactance by changing 
the number of turns of a choke coil, because the one connected 
to the switch contacts would act for the time being as a short 
circuited secondary, and the large currents which would be in- 
duced are difficult to switch. 

One way to alter reactance while the furnace is running is to 
change the connections of the coils from series to parallel ; another 
is to have a number of reactances in parallel and change the 
number of them in circuit. This latter method is employed for 
the 4,000 K.W. Birkeland-Eyde furnaces. When starting such 
a furnace that has been re-lined, the method is to switch in only 



240 



:e. KILBURN SCOTT. 



one of three reactors, which allows about 1,400 K.W. to pass. 
As the lining dries out the other reactors are switched in one after 
the other until the furnace receives the full 4,000 K.W. 

During early experiments with a K. S. 3-phase furnace it was 
considered desirable to interpose transformers of one-to-one ratio 
between the furnace and the alternating current supply, so that 
in case any abnormal condition occiirred, a magnetic link between 
the two circuits would act as a protection to the alternator. By 





S r> 


I '^ 


■) 


( 




i 


5 


c 


r ) 




f 




> 


^ r 







Pig. 15. Reactor made by the General Electric Co. 



suitably adjusting the sectional area of the core and the disposi- 
tion of the coils, the magnetic leakage varied with the current 
and regulation was very good. 

The writer understands that reactors on this principle are now 
used in Norway, the core being built on the lines of a Berry trans- 
former, with groups of plates radiating from a central core 
round which are coils of circular shape. The magnetic forces 
are thus balanced, and the coils always retain their position. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 24I 

Although many reactors are built with iron cores, there is a 
tendency to dispense with the iron because reactors without it 
are more accessible, and as the conductors are of bare copper 
supported in cement concrete they are fire-proof. They have to 
be placed away from structural steelwork. 

One form of coil known as a "toroid" has the advantage of 
giving the greatest amount of self-induction with least amount 
of electrical resistance. It consists of bare copper strip wound 
concentrically into a flat coil with the turns spaced well apart 
and set in cement concrete. 

A neat form of reactor made by the General Electric Company 
is shown in Fig. 15. The conductor is bare copper wire, wound 
in slightly conical layers, the turns of the first layer progressing 
from outside to inside and of the second layer from the inside 
to outside, and so on. The layers converge where the voltage is 
a minimum, the clearance between turns being about an inch 
(2.5 cm.) for 6,600 volts. The concrete is freed from metallic 
particles and cured in the presence of high pressure steam, and 
the whole is supported from the ground by porcelain post in- 
sulators. 

Air Supply. 

The yield of a furnace depends to some extent on the con- 
dition of the air blown through the arc, for if charged with dust 
particles, moisture or oil, or the acid vapors of large industrial 
centers, results are not so good as when the air is clean and dry. 
Whilst working an experimental plant in Manchester, England, 
it was found that the yields on moist days were lower than when 
the atmosphere was comparatively dry. 

The air should have an easy flow from the blower to the fur- 
nace, that is to say, pipes should be as short and straight as pos- 
sible, and the branches of similar length, so that each furnace 
may receive the same pressure. 

Expanding nozzles have been recommended for delivering air 
to the flame, but the writer has found them liable to set up throb- 
bings in the air flow. To get even flow, the pressure at discharge 
has to be about half the initial pressure, and this condition is not 
easy to meet with air at low pressure and high velocity, because 
the expanding portion has to be excessively long. 



242 



K. KILBURN SCOTT. 



Air compressors of the reciprocating type are not suitable for 
the supply of air to nitrogen fixation furnaces, because the air 
must flow in an absolutely steady stream and be free from oil, 
etc., also such compressors are only efficient for pressures above 
15 lb. per sq. in. (1 atmosphere). 

Pressure blowers such as the Root type may be used, but as 
they also work by pocketing air and carrying it over to the 
delivery side, the pressure is somewhat uneven. They work 
efficiently with pressures up to about 8 lb. per sq. in. (0.5 atmos- 
phere) . 




Fig. 16. Curve giving theoretical horsepower to compress air. 

Fans give steady flow, but are inefficient because they do not 
use the velocity energy of the air at the impeller exit. Also they 
are only efficient for pressures below 1 lb. or so per sq. in. (0.07 
atmosphere). 

Centrifugal compressors are a good type because they are 
efficient and dehver a steady stream of air at pressures necessary 
for the furnaces. They resemble a centrifugal pump in having a 
rapidly rotating impeller surrounded by a stationary set of dis- 
charge vanes supported by the casing. For pressures up to 4 lb. 
per sq. in. (0.25 atmosphere) one impeller is used, and higher 
pressures are obtained by merely multiplying the number of im- 
pellers. The speeds are suitable for coupling them direct to either 
steam turbines or 60-cycle induction motors. With 25 cycles the 
motor speeds are lower and gearing has to be used. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 243 

Power for Centrifugal Compressor. 

The amount of power required to blow the air through the 
furnaces depends on the pressure, but it is usually less than 3 
percent of the energy which is supplied to the furnaces. The 
theoretical horse power required to compress adiabatically 100 
cubic feet of air (3 cub. meters) at atmospheric pressure is given 
by the curve Fig. 16. It will be noted that it is not a straight line. 

Assuming that a 10,000 K.W. factory requires 700,000 cubic 
feet (20,000 cub. meters) of air per hour, or 11,660 cubic feet 
(333 cub. meters) per minute, then for a pressure of 5 lb. per 
sq. inch (0.33 atmosphere) the power is 

ll>660x2 
— = laZ theoretical horsepower. 

A centrifugal compressor for this duty w^ould have two stages, 
and run at about 3,450 rev. per minute with an efficiency of 70 
percent, so about 400 shaft horsepower would be required. 

Allowing for efficiency of the motor, about 200 K.W. would 
be supplied, and it will be seen that even at 5 lb. pressure the 
energy taken by the centrifugal blower is only about 2 percent 
of the energy put into the furnaces. 

The high speed of the centrifugal compressor makes it suitable 
for being driven by a steam turbine, and if the turbine is supplied 
wnth steam at 120 lb. per sq. inch (8 atmospheres) the consump- 
tion of steam may be assumed at about 

200 X 18 r= 3,600 lb. (1,630 kg.) per hour. 

Preheater. 

For a given production of nitric acid, the electric energy used 
is rather lower with highly preheated air. 

Preheating the air before it enters the furnace is advantageous 
because it raises the average temperature of the arc, and elec- 
trical operation is improved owing to the air being already in an 
ionized condition. With preheat the velocity of the air can also 
be lower than when the air is cold. 

The Schoenherr furnace has a preheater combined with it, 
which takes the form of several annular tubes of steel around a 



244 E- KII<BURN SCOTT. 

central reaction chamber, and the entering cold air and the exit 
gases pass through these tubes in counter-current directions. As 
the gases leave the reaction chambers at over 1,000° C. it is pos- 
sible to give a very high preheat to the entering air. At Saaheim, 
in Norway, there are 96 of these furnaces of 1,000 K.W., each 
one with its own preheater. 

The Birkeland-Eyde furnace has also a preheater, because the 
air passes into the reaction chamber through a large number of 
small holes in the refractory chammotte lining. As the electric 
arc keeps this lining at red heat, the entering air is preheated 
somewhat before it strikes the arc. This lining constitutes one 
of the objections to this furnace, because it is expensive to build 
and takes several days to dry out. 

In several ways it is an advantage to employ a separate pre- 
heater, to serve a number of furnaces, one reason being that it 
can be designed efficiently to give the heat exchange. Also, hot 
air is always available in starting a new furnace, for when a fur- 
nace has its own preheater, some time must obviously elapse 
before heat is available to warm up the incoming air. 

It is usual to employ boilers to utilize the bulk of the heat from 
the furnace gases in raising steam. If the gases leave the boiler 
at 250° C. and a further 150° C. is absorbed in the preheater, 
then the preheater may be made of steel. At the same time it is 
advisable to have it in several units so as to take care of the ex- 
pansion due to difference in temperature at the two ends. Thin 
steel tubes may be used, and the air should pass aroimd them. 

Effect of Adding Oxygen. 

By weight air consists of 23 percent oxygen and 77 percent 
nitrogen ; or by volume 20.7 percent oxygen and 79.3 percent 
nitrogen. One pound at 62° F. and barometer at 30 inches occu- 
pies 13 cubic feet (1 kg. = 0.81 cub. meter). One pound of 
oxygen at 62° F. occupies 12 cubic feet (1 kg. = 0.75 cub. m.), 
and is contained in 56 cubic feet of air (3.5 cub. m.). 

It is an advantage to add oxygen to the air passing through the 
furnace, because the concentration of nitric oxid is a maximum 
when the product of oxygen and nitrogen is also a maximum. 
It can be shown that it is directly proportional to the square root 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 245 

of the product; thus the equation for air is: 0.21 x 0.79 = 0.16. 
And for equal parts of oxygen and nitrogen 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.25. 
The increased yield is therefore 20 percent, as shown by the ratio 

V16 : ^/2S :: 100 : 120 

Commercially it is only possible to add oxygen when the pro- 
cess is worked in a closed cycle, the amount required continuously 
being then only that which the nitric oxid takes up. 

If we assume that a factory utilizing 10,000 K.W. requires 
700,000 cubic feet of air (20,000 cub. m.) per hour then 21 per- 
cent of this equal to 145,000 cubic feet (4,140 cub. m.) represents 
the oxygen. After passing through the furnace the air contained 
about 1.5 percent nitric oxid, of which about half is oxygen. 

The oxygen does not have to be pure, and if the oxygen-pro- 
ducing apparatus makes a mixture of 75 percent oxygen and 25 
percent nitrogen, then about 1 percent of the 145,000 cubic feet 
(4,140 cub. m.), or say 1,450 cvibic feet (41.4 cub. m.) per hour 
will have to be added continuously. 

Addition of oxygen (to the air) is equivalent to increasing its 
pressure, for in air it occupies only one-fifth of the volume, 
whereas when it is equal with the nitrogen it occupies half of 
the volume. The effect is, therefore, the same as increasing 
pressure 2^^ times, because much more oxygen is passed through 
the furnace. This is equivalent to 14.7 x 2.5 = 35 lb. per sq. inch 
(2.4 atmospheres), yet at the same time the furnace walls do not 
have to withstand any extra pressure. 

Pure oxygen and hydrogen can be made by electrolysis, but it 
requires a great deal of direct current. Also pure oxygen and 
nitrogen can be made from liquid air, but this requires much 
machinery and power. In some cases, however, oxygen made by 
these methods is a by-product of other manufacturing processes. 
Thus oxygen is a by-product of plant making hydrogen for fat 
hardening; also it is a by-product in the manufacture of cal- 
cium cyanamid, because that process only requires pure nitrogen. 
Where it can be obtained such by-product oxygen should be cheap. 

Hitherto the manufacture of oxygen has been practically a 
monopoly and in consequence prices have been kept at a high 
level and little improvement made in methods of manufacture. 

In the near future there is every possibility of oxygen being 



246 t. KILBURN SCOTT, 

produced in larger quantity and much cheaper. The Jefferies- 
Norton process for air separation makes use of hquification and 
distillation, but it has new features in the method of heat exchange 
and in the still. In general appearance the apparatus is very similar 
to the Claude system, but an essential difference is that the major 
part of the nitrogen is not expanded but issues at its original pres- 
sure. The nitrogen is heated and then expanded in a gas engine 
to furnish power to drive the plant, thus no outside power is 
required, as the heat applied to the nitrogen develops all that is 
necessary to drive the compressors. 

It is possible also that the centrifugal method of separating the 
gases of air may be made a commercial success. This acts on 
the difference in weights of oxygen and nitrogen. It should be 
noted that a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen will do so long as 
the oxygen is in excess. 

Effect of Increasmg Pressure. 

It is known that increased yields can be obtained by increasing 
pressure in the reaction chambers of arc furnaces, but hitherto 
the pressures used have been sufficient only to move the air 
quickly through the arc. 

Extra pressure means more power to drive the centrifugal com- 
pressor, and the question is whether a larger plant requiring more 
power to work it would be justified by the increased yields ob- 
tained. Concentration is about doubled at 100 lb. pressure. 

In any case there is no need to use such "heroic" high pressures 
as 1,500-2,000 lb. per square inch (100-135 atmospheres) which 
are necessary for the Haber process of making synthetic ammonia. 
Such pressures can be dealt with on a laboratory scale, with small 
tubes and apparatus, but they are troublesome on a large scale. 
It is difficult to retain hydrogen and to prevent it forming an 
explosive mixture with oxygen ; also it occludes into the steel 
casing and makes it brittle. 

Air at high pressure has a greater insulating value than air at 
low pressure, as shown by the fact that sparking between the 
metal quadrants of an electrostatic voltmeter may be stopped by 
merely increasing the ajr pressure. Owing to lower pressure at 
high altitudes the corona effect on transmission lines is also more 
pronounced. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 247 

It should be noted that a small pressure is caused by the explo- 
sions from the arcs in the furnace. When a furnace is first started 
up, these are very pronounced and of varying intensities, but 
after the furnace is heated up the explosions become less intense 
and more numerous. 

Absorption. 

Fig. 17 is a diagram indicating the approximate temperature of 
the gases as they pass through the system, when it is desired to 
make nitric acid. Boilers reduce the temperature from about 
1,000° C. to about 250° C, and a heat exchanger then reduces 
the gases to 100°. Finally a water cooler brings them down 
to 40° C. or lower, the final temperature obviously depending on 
the temperature of the cooling water, it would probably be pos- 
sible in winter to reduce the temperature to about 20° C. The 
lower the temperature of the gases in the absorption towers, the 
better is the absorption, and that is the reason why stronger acid 
is obtained in winter than in summer. 

As the gases leave the furnace they are at high temperature 
and must be carried in ducts lined with firebrick. Between 250° 
C. and 100° C. steel may be used, but below 100° C. it is well to 
use aluminum or acid-proof stoneware or silicon-iron. The water 
cooler should also have aluminum pipes, as acid may form. 

Before the gas enters the towers it is necessary to facilitate the 
oxidation of all the nitric oxid to nitrogen dioxid, and for this 
purpose large open spaces are necessary through which the gases 
can flow sluggishly. 

It is of some assistance to have connecting pipes of large cross- 
section. At Rjukan II, Norway, the furnaces are about 3,000 
feet (0.9 kilometer) from the absorption towers and the gases 
are carried through an aluminum pipe about 3 ft. (0.9 m.) diam- 
eter. The gases enter the pipe at about 200° C, and are cooled 
down considerably while passing through it. 

With gases at 40° C. and 1.5 percent nitric oxid concentration, 
the nitric acid can be easily made to about 33 percent, which is 
correct strength for a manufacture of ammonium nitrate and 
calcium nitrate. 

When sodium nitrite is required, the gases must enter the 
absorption towers at about 250° C, because at this temperature 



248 



t. KIIvBURN SCOTT. 

s6sor/tf/on focvers 

)Va/er//oiv A 

t 






/s^c 




/^i/rnace 



460' 



Fig. 17. Showing flow of gas and air and approximate temperatures. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 249 

only about half the nitric oxid has been changed to nitrogen di- 
oxid and this mixture when absorbed by sodium carbonate or 
caustic soda gives sodium nitrite without any nitrate. For this 
product the absorption towers can be much smaller than those 
for making nitric acid, and they are also cheaper because they 
can be made of steel plate instead of acid-proof brickwork. Con- 
siderable quantities of sodium nitrite are required for the aniline 
dye industry, and it is also used for drugs, the pickling of meat, etc. 

Cooling the Gas. 

The chemical reaction of nitrogen and oxygen is reversible, but 
the tendency for nitric oxid gas to dissociate is only slight at 
below 1,500° C. The problem is therefore to jerk the nitric oxid 
from arc temperature to below 1,500° C. To a certain extent this 
is performed automatically by the air which surrounds the arc 
streamers, and it is probably most effective just at the moment 
when the arc breaks. Passing the air at high velocity through 
the flame is also advantageous, and at the same time the fixed 
gas and air should be withdrawn from the top of the furnace by 
an exhaust fan. 

Several ways have been employed for expediting the cooling; 
for example, in the Pauling type of furnace some of the cooled 
gases are re-introduced again at a point just above the zone of 
maximum temperature. 

Another method is to impinge the top of the arc flame onto a 
cooler, which may take the form of a steam boiler. During ex- 
periments with an early model of the K.S. 3-phase furnace, a 
boiler was set low enough for the electric arc flames to play against 
the tubes, when it was noted that they flickered about the surface 
much the same as do the flames of ordinary coal gas, and the 
boiler was not detrimentally affected. This plan takes advantage 
of the latent heat of steam, and the cooling is just as good in 
a large furnace as a small one. The boiler or cooler is connected 
to earth, but as the center of the flame is the neutral point of the 
3-phase system no current passes, as the phases are in balance. 
As a matter of fact, the bulk of the electrical energy delivered to 
a furnace passes between the electrodes near the bottom of the 
flame. 
17 



250 E. KILBURN SCOTT. 

Steam From Boilers. 

The most economical way to cool furnace gases is to pass them 
through boilers and to employ the steam so produced for various 
purposes in the factory, such as evaporating water for the end 
products, etc. ; also, as indicated below, the steam may be used 
to generate electric energy and so work regeneratively. 

In order to show how much steam can be raised by the heat of 
furnace gases, it may be of interest to give some figures for a 
plant equipped with furnaces to utilize 10,000 K.W. and supplied 
with about 700,000 cubic feet of air (19,000 cub. m.) per hour. 

At atmospheric pressure, the volume of air containing 1.5 
percent of nitric oxid gas would be about 12.5 cubic feet per 
pound, and therefore 700,000 cubic feet (19,000 cub. m.) will 
weigh 

^^f^ = 56,000 lb. (25,500 kg.). 

Assuming that the air and nitric oxid enter the boiler at about 
1,000° C. (1,800° F.) and leave at 250° C. (450° F.) then the 
difference of temperature is 750° C. (1,350° F.). 

The specific heat of air is about 0.24, so the total heat in 
B. T. U. will be 

1,350 X 0.24 X 56,000 = 18,000,000 (4,500,000 cal.) 

Assuming that about 970 B. T. U. are required to evaporate a 
pound of water into a pound of steam at atmospheric pressure, 
the steam will amount to 

18,000,000 ,Qcnr^^u u /q xtnni n 
— 18,500 lb. per hour (8,400 kg.). 

Allowing for loss by radiation through the brickwork setting 
and the steam drum, the total steam may be assumed at 18,000 
lb. (8,200 kg.) per hour. 

Steam at 125 lb. per sq. inch (8.5 atmospheres) is suitable for 
evaporating purposes, and if the steam has to be carried some 
distance it is well to add about 50° F. of superheat, making a 
total temperature of about 

350 + 50 = 400° F.~ (200° C). 

In a very large installation, more steam may be generated than 



nitroge:n fixation furnace;s. 251 

is required for evaporation of end products, and in that case 
it can be used for generating electric energy. In the latest instal- 
lation at Rjukan II, in Norway, there are three 4,000 K.W. steam 
turbine alternators supplied with steam by the hot furnace gases. 

It is very significant that in an installation having practically 
u^ilimited water power, steam turbines should have been installed, 
and indicates the saving there would be by combining an air nitrate 
factory with a power house equipped with steam turbines. 

If all the steam from a 10,000 K.W. plant was to be used in 
turbo generators having a steam consumption of say 18 lb. (8.2 
kg.) per K.W. hour, then the energy would be 

^«'°°0 = 1,000 K.W. 



18 

That is to say, about 10 percent of the energy put into the fur- 
naces can be regenerated. 

The boilers may be of any pattern so long as they are gas tight, 
and they may form part of the furnace, or be separate, as in 
Norwegian installations. The feed water should be hot so that 
moisture may not be deposited on the tubes, and for this purpose 
the water used for cooling electrodes can be employed, thus giving 
a further saving of heat. 

Theory of the Reaction. 

In many discussions on the subject of nitrogen fixation in arc 
furnaces it has been assumed that the sole factor bringing about 
formation of nitric oxid is a thermal one. This is very doubtful, 
however, because all data relating to the laws of thermo-dynamic 
equilibrium have been obtained at temperatures very much lower 
than those commonly met with in electric furnaces; therefore it 
does not follow that the same laws hold good for arc temperatures. 

Dr. Maxted states, in the proceedings of the Society of Chemi- 
cal Industry for April 15, 1918, that: 

"Purely thermic interpretation of the nitrogen oxid reaction 
depends on a large extrapolation from lower to higher tempera- 
tures, and assumes that no latent factors cause increase or de- 
crease in the observed temperature coefficients." 

Some experiments by Mr. J. L. R. Hayden (see Trans. A. I. 
E. E., 34, 613) lead him to the conclusion that in fixing nitrogen 



252 DISCUSSION. 

by the electric arc the conditions of thermo-dynamic equihbrium 
are of secondary, if of any, moment. In other words, the pro- 
cess is essentially an electric one. 

His experiments were made with electrodes of various material 
which gave different temperatures, and the order of their nitric 
acid production was as follows : 

Boiling Point 
Concentration (Arc Temperature) 

Iron— Highest 2450° C. 

Titanium 2700° C. 

Carbon 3600° C. 

Copper — Lowest 2310° C. 

It will be seen that although carbon gives the highest arc tem- 
perature it is relatively inefficient in producing nitric oxid. Also 
the iron and copper which give approximately the same arc tem- 
perature are at opposite ends of the scale in producing oxid. 

Another experiment made with the mercury arc, which has 
a much lower temperature than the above, showed that it was 
easily possible to get concentrations above those representing 
thermo-dynamic equilibrium. In electric furnaces there are other 
phenomena besides that of heat, for example, ionization, which 
appears to have the effect of disrupting the nitrogen molecules 
and so facilitating their combination with surrounding oxygen. 
It is conceivable also that the electric stress due to the high voltage 
and the magnetic field set up by the currents may have some effect. 

Mr. Cramp, of Manchester, found that there was an increase 
of nitric oxid when ozone was added to the air passing into the 
arc flame, and it may be that O3 and the corresponding polymer 
of nitrogen, which Sir J. J. Thompson calls N3, are formed 
momentarily, and then, dissociating, the nascent atoms of oxygen 
and nitrogen combine. 



DISCUSSION. 

C. G. FiNK^ : I should like to ask Mr. Scott how many grams 
per kw. hour he is getting? 

E. KiLBURN Scott : Arc furnaces give usually 50 to 60 grams 
per kw. hour, but I have had 90, with a small three-phase furnace. 

* Head of I<aboratories, Chile Exploration Co., New York City. 



NITROGEN FIXATION FURNACES. 253 

I hope to get as good figures with large ones, but until these are 
built I do not wish to say what can be done, except that I see no 
reason why large furnaces should not give as good yields. 

W. S. IvANDis- : I should like to ask Mr. Scott something about 
the concentration of nitric oxide in the furnace gases. He gives 
us a very interesting description of the effect of various kinds of 
arcs, his arc of the three-phase type eliminating the by-passing 
of the air, and I should suppose that he would get some very, 
remarkable concentration of gases thereby. 

E. Kii^BURN Scott : Concentrations vary from 1 percent to 2 
percent, but I doubt whether 2 percent can be readily obtained, 
although it is said to be obtained from the Schoenherr furnace. 
Usual concentrations are around one and one-third to one and a 
half percent. 

W. S. Landis: That is the concentration obtained by some of 
the single-phase furnaces. What have you gotten with your three- 
phase furnace which eliminates the by-passing? 

E. KiLBURN Scott : About one and a half percent. 

W. S. Landis: Apparently it does not work then according to 
the description, for half of the air that passes the single-phase arc 
should be actually not effected. 

E. Kii^BURN Scott: It is clear I think from my discussion of 
the various types, that there will in some types be more by-passing 
of air than in others, and the type which is likely to have the least 
by-passing is the three-phase arc. 

W. R. MoTT^ : I would like to ask Mr. Scott what he thinks is 
the temperature of the flame? 

E. KiLBURN Scott: It depends on whereabouts in the flame. 
The flame of the three-phase arc and also of the Pauling runs up 
to more or less of a point and the flame does not stay in one place 
but jumps about a good deal. If the flame stayed at one position 
I should hesitate to place a boiler on it. After the gases leave 
the flame they are about 1,100° C. 

W. R. Mott: What are they in the arc itself.^ 

' Chief Technologist, American Cyanamid Co., New York City. 
* Research Laboratory, National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 



254 DISCUSSION. 

E. KiLBURN Scott : I suppose it is a little over 3,000° C. in 
each arc streamer. 

W. R. MoTT : I might say in this connection that the tempera- 
ture of a mercury arc is subject to a great deal of debate. Some 
people think it is as high as 6,000° C. and some think it is as low 
as 300° C. 

I notice you have on the last page of your paper the tempera- 
ture of the boiling point of metals indicated as arc temperatures. 
This would probably apply only to a very large arc where you 
have currents above two or three amperes. Iron probably has a 
temperature of 3,000° C. at the boiling point. 

In the case of carbon there is a good reason for its being in- 
efficient because it is such a good reducing agent. A number of 
refractory materials with high current could give arc temperatures 
far beyond that of the present carbon arc. 

E. KiLBURN Scott : The figures on the last page were given 
to me by Mr. Hayden, an assistant to Dr. Steinmetz, and I have 
quoted them to show that the idea that nitrogen fixation is a ther- 
mal effect is not correct. It is not a purely thermal effect. 



A paper presented at tlie Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



RELATIVE VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERLALS 

By Wm. Roy MoTT.* 

Abstract. 

A study of the order in which substances volatilize in the elec- 
tric arc, and the distances at which their vapors condense from 
the arc. Also of the time to volatilize equal atomic quantities of 
elements or molecular quantities of compounds. After discussing 
at length the experimental data and the conclusions to be drawn 
therefrom, some theoretical considerations are advanced concern- 
ing the ratios of absolute boiling points to melting points, and 
upon a universal vapor pressure curve applicable to all sub- 
stances. [J. W. R.] 



outline;. 

1. Introduction and Apparatus. 

2. Ten Methods of Measuring Volatilities. 

3. Crater Distance Data on Oxides and Nitrides. 

4. Smoke Time of Lowers with Metals, Oxides and Halogen 

Salts. 

5. Relative Volatilities of Refractories Mixed with Iron. 

6. Curves of Volatilities on Atomic Basis. 

7. Order of Precipitation in Reference to Negative Crater. 

8. Fractional Distillation Series. 

9. Conclusions. 

10. References. 

11. Appendix — Ratios of Boiling Points Divided by Melting 

Points. 

' Research Laboratory, National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Manuscript received 
March 29, 1918. 

255 



256 WM. ROY MOTT. 

FIGURES. 

Fig. 1. Ten Arc Methods of Approximating Boiling Points. 

Fig. 2. Boiling Points Calculated from Crater Distance. 

Fig. 3. Smoke Curves, WO3 and M0O3. 

Fig. 4. Cooling Curve. 

Fig. 5. Time Curves of Volatilization from Iron. 

Fig. 6. Time Curves on Atomic Basis. 

TABLES 

Table 1. Crater Distance and Boiling Points. 

Table 2. Cooling Temperatures of Lovi^er Cup. 

Table 3. Smoke Time and Boiling Points of Metals, Oxides, Sul- 
phides and Chlorides. 

Table 4. Boiling Points of Alkali Salts. 

Table 5. Time to Volatilize Refractory Residue. 

Table 6. Universal Vapor Pressure Curve Data. 

Table 7. Estimation of Boiling Points by Means of Deposition 
Position at Negative. 

Table 8. Appendix, Ratios of Boiling Points Divided by Melting 
Points for Most Elements. 

1. INTRODUCTION AND APPARATUS. 

Materials placed in a carbon cup are volatilized by an arc of 
25 amperes, so that their vapors always travel from the positive 
electrode to the negative electrode. In volatilizing mixtures of 
materials, it is apparent that the least volatile part will tend to 
remain in the lower positive cup. The most volatile part will come 
off first, of course, and the coatings on the negative carbon will 
have a time order, bearing a relation to volatility order. The place 
of the deposit on the negative will also have a close relation to 
volatility order. Less obvious is the observation that the distances 
in the arc image from the craters to the materials should be 
greater with the more volatile materials. With materials which 
are less volatile than carbon, actual plating out can take place in 
the very center of the negative crater. If this deposition is con- 
tinued sufficiently, then large dim negative craters are formed 
in marked contrast with the usual small bright carbon crater. 
In the following paper, a series of relations of volatility order are 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 257 

attempted. The results have to be standardized against materials 
of known boiling points. As reference boiling points for inter- 
preting the data, tungsten is taken as having a boiling point of 
6000° C. Iron saturated with carbon is taken as having a boiling 
point of 3500° C. The temperature of the positive crater of a 
carbon arc is taken as 3700° C. These points are discussed in 
detail later in this paper and its bibliography. 

With materials boiling below 2000° C, a very noticeable vapor- 
ization period can be seen on stopping the current and 
then carefully watching the lower white-hot cup as to the duration 
of this visible vaporization. This period of visible vaporization 
is called "smoke time" in this paper. It bears a convenient rela- 
tion to the boiling point of the material in the lower cup. 

Long steady arcs are usually given by materials boiling under 
2500° C, unsteady arcs result from materials boiling from 
2500° C. to 4000° C, due to variable cratering. The flame arc 
colors are held steadily ; but with materials much less volatile than 
carbon, the arc intermittently loses its flaming colors in a charac- 
teristic manner. This appears especially v/ith materials boiling 
above 4000° C, and hence these have rather low vapor pressures 
at carbon arc temperatures. These phenomena are suitable only 
for general classification purposes. 

The apparatus used in these tests was fully described in 
my previous paper before this Society on "Chemistry of the 
Flaming Arc in Relation to Luminescence."- A Helios photo- 
engraving lamp was provided with a metal case having a pin hole 
\y2 in. from the arc, allowing the image to be projected on a 
suitable screen in a dark room. This magnified the arc image 
twenty diameters, enabling accurate measurements to be made 
of small distances near the arc. The arc was operated at 25 
amperes, with 50 volts at the arc, from a 110 volt direct current 
line. The lower positive carbon, J^^ x 12 in. (13 x 305 mm.) 
had a suitable cup hole in its end. The cup was drilled out y% in. 
(10 mm.) to a depth of ^ in. (10 mm.). The carbons were 
ordinary ^ x 12 in. high-grade solid enclosed arc carbons, of 
which millions a year are sold for illuminating purposes. The 
ash of these is very low, being about one-tenth to one-twentieth 
percent and consisting chiefly of iron, silica, alumina and a lesser 

* Transactions American Electrochemical Society (1917), 31, 365. 



258 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



amount of calcium material. The iron and silica give a sharply 
defined circle of outer red and inner white around the negative 
crater. Measurements are easily made from this circle to any 
other deposit. In some cases, sharply pointed uppers can be used 
to insure a steady position of negative crater. The rapidity 
of heat movement at these high temperatures, 
allows quite close average duplication even 
with flat uppers. 



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Fig. 1. 



2. TEN METHODS OF MEASURING VOLATIUTIES. 

Ten methods of measuring relative volatilities by arc phenomena 
are discussed below. There is considerable similarity of principle, 
namely, that of fractional distillation or condensation order; but 
owing to chemical conditions and other factors, each method has 
its own special field of usefulness, as shown graphically in Fig. 1. 
There is very limited data on known boiling points of refractories 
by the more fundamental methods (see references at end), but 
these data in combination with these arc methods can be used to 
determine approximate boiling points of unknown materials. The 



VOIvATlI^lTlES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 259 

chief merit is the quick determination of serial position. For 
example, the distillation order of metals not uniting with carbon 
is easily found to be cadmium, zinc, thallium, lead-bismuth, anti- 
mony, silver, tin-copper, and gold. The lead and bismuth and 
tin and copper distil together. Otherwise this order is very clearly 
observed. In a mix of all the above ten materials, taken in equal 
parts at the same time, this same order was preserved except that 
antimony went into a triple combination with tin and copper. 
Excepting manganese, the metals of the iron group form non- 
separating mixes : For example, nickel, iron, cobalt and chromium 
all mixed together do not separate well by distillation in a carbon 
cup with an arc. 

1. Distillation of Mixes. 

Relative volatility order of two materials can be easily observed 
by the fractional distillation of their mixes in several proportions 
from the lower positive carbon cup. If only one of the materials 
remains as the final residue, it is the least volatile and of the 
highest boiling point. No case of minimum boiling mix was found 
at high temperatures in my tests, but several cases of maximum 
boiling mixes were found. These were pairs of mate- 
rials of boiling points rather close together. 
They do not separate by fractional distillation any more than 
water and hydrochloric acid at ordinary temperatures. Typical 
examples are the following pairs, lead with bismuth, tin with 
copper, and nickel with iron. Hence, chemical analysis of the 
final residues is necessary to show which material is left behind 
and to find the special case of constant boiling residue mixes. 
This chemical analysis of the final residue can be made, as by 
Moissan, by ordinary analytical methods, or more conveniently 
by the arc-image methods which I have used considerably. (These 
arc-image methods of analysis I expect to describe fully in a 
future paper.) The best proportions for proving which is the 
higher boiling constituent are combinations of a little of the 
high boiling material with much of the low boiling material. The 
method applies especially well to metals not dissolving carbon. 
It is less satisfactory with those dissolving carbon. Halogen 
salts, sulphides, nitrides, and carbides can be satisfactorily 



26o WM. ROY MOTT. 

examined as to relative volatility by this method. With oxides, 
the experiments usually resolve themselves into a study of the 
order of reduction by hot carbon. 

Even in the cases of constant boiling mixes, the constituent in 
greatest amount is nearly always the one of highest boiling point. 

2. Ring Distance at Negative With Single Material. 

The position of condensation of arc vapors at the negative 
electrode is closer to the negative crater for the less volatile mate- 
rials. The materials plate out in very regular concentric rings 
around the negative crater. The distances between 
these rings afford a semi-quantitative rela- 
tionship to the relative volatilities of the 
materials plated out. These distances can be easily 
measured on the cold carbons with a suitable scale, and averaged 
results check surprisingly closely. The favorable materials which 
plated out are carbides in the crater with oxide surface outside 
due to the oxidizing atmosphere near the arc at the negative. 
Halogen salts all deposit beyond the usual reference ring of red 
color with white edge. This reference ring is due to iron and 
silica which occur in very small amounts in the carbons. 

A small amount of a single material can be used in the positive 
cup, from which the action of the arc carries the material to the 
negative. A good procedure for materials less volatile than carbon 
is to use 10 milligrams in a very shallow lower positive carbon 
cup and volatilize for three minutes. So small an amount of mate- 
rial does not materially disturb the arc character as would a much 
larger amount. 

2. Rings at Negative with Mixes. 

This method is the same as method 2 except that observations 
are made on the order of precipitation at the negative by mixes 
of two refractories volatilized at the same time from the positive. 
Their order of simultaneous precipitation at the negative may 
show very small differences of volatility not given conveniently 
by other means. For instance, such simultaneous colored rings 
show clearly that chromium is more volatile than vanadium and 
that vanadium is more volatile than titanium. 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 261 

4. Time For Volatilisation. 

The times to volatilize similar amovmts of material from the 
positive cup can be compared with materials of known boiling 
points. The method is merely suggestive because of the com- 
plexity of the factors due to variation in extent of cratering. (See 
later sections of paper for further discussion). 

5. Arc Image Crater Distance at Negative. 

This consists in measuring the distance in the arc image from 
the edge of the negative crater to the ring of beads deposited in 
a circle around this crater. The principle is the same as measuring 
the ring distances on the cold negative, but the reference edge is 
different. Its special advantage relates to beryllium oxide and 
chromium oxide, where the material is easily lost on stopping 
the arc, so that the distance on the cold electrodes is then mis- 
leading. The beryllium oxide beads do not adhere firmly to the 
cold carbon, because of the difficulty of a carbide base forming. 
With chromium a clear ring around the negative forms in the arc 
image of oxide resting on chromium metal and chromium carbide 
on carbon. This ring loses its distinctness on stopping the arc. 

Osmium metal is the only high boiling metal showing marked 
dropping metal beads at the negative. Of the oxides, beryllium 
has the most tendency to drop beads at the negative, with alum- 
inum oxide and zirconium oxide next in order. 

6. Arc Image Crater Distance at Positive. 

■ This method consists in measuring the arc image distance at the 
positive, or the distance from the material to the positive crater. 
It cannot be used on materials that allow cratering. It is good for 
getting approximate order for fluorides, sulphides and non-crater- 
ing oxides. With low boiling metals if the beads are very small, 
the cratering can be stopped, and crater distance measured. 
Results with approximately similar sized beads should be com- 
pared. 

7. Crater Brightness. 

A very dim positive crater goes with low boiling point materials. 
By measuring crater brightness and emissivity with metal arcs, 
the boiling points of the metals could be estimated. Silicon, silver. 



262 WM. ROY MOTT. 

copper, gold, carborundum, manganese, nickel, cobalt, iron and 
chromium give dim craters in roughly the above order of bright- 
ness. The positive crater on silicon was very dim. 

8. Heating Coated Carbons. 

A well coated upper negative is first formed. Then this is taken 
out of the upper holder and placed in the lower positive holder. 
The current is then turned on for two minutes. Then the new 
distance down the side of the carbon to the deposit is noted, and 
hence the extent of volatilization. This method has fair value for 
certain materials boiling below 2000° C. 

When a metal is volatilized from the lower positive carbon, its 
vapor oxidizes at the arc edges and so the coat on the upper carbon 
sides is always oxide except for silver, gold, and the platinum 
metals. Near the negative crater the reducing action of carbon 
gives metal and carbides next to the carbon, with oxide coat on 
top of this. On breaking the arc, nickel is the only metal except 
the precious metals to resist complete oxidation at high tempera- 
tures at the negative. The cold negative with nickel shows char- 
acteristic metal bead rings. 

9. Time of "Smoking" of Uppers on Stopping Current. 

The time of "smoking" of the hot upper carborts on stopping 
the current increases as the volatility of the deposit on the upper 
is greater. The deposit continues to volatilize because of the heat 
of the hot end traveling up the electrode after stopping the current. 
Hence the storage of heat is a variable factor of the time of 
running the arc. Also the position of deposit of the very volatile 
materials is a variable which is overcome in the lower by having 
all the material confined in a cup. More uniform results are 
therefore obtained by observing the lower positive cup on stopping 
the current as to the length of time that the cup material continues 
to volatilize. 

10. Time of "Smoking" of Lowers on Stopping Current. 

The time of "smoking" of the hot lower carbon cup on stopping 
the current is a valuable aid on materials boiling below 2000° C. 
The carbon cup cools too rapidly to show an appreciable vapori- 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 



263 



zation or "smoke" for materials boiling above 2000° C. The time 
of "smoking" is a function of the amount of heat stored in the 
carbon end and the rate of loss by radiation, conduction, etc. 
The material in the cup may itself volatilize a long time or in 
several cases an oxide more volatile than the metal is formed. 
This is very striking with molybdenum metal, which oxidizes for 
a long time to a very volatile oxide. For this reason, the volatility 
of a number of oxides, too easily reduced to be determined by 
the other methods, can yet be approximately determined by this 
method. 




By testing the cup material with a sharp-pointed carbon rod, 
approximate melting points can also be observed by getting the 
exact time of cooling to solidification. This time is interpreted in 
terms of a curve obtained with materials of known melting points. 
It is necessary with all of these methods to standardize the quan- 
tity measured against results of materials of known boiling points. 
We will now proceed to the specific data on the more satisfactory 
of these several methods. 



264 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



3. CRATER DISTANCE DATA ON OXIDES,AND NITRIDES. 

In observing the arc image, it is easy to see that with non- 
cratering materials the positive craters and negative craters keep 
(on the average) certain distances from the molten bead at the 
positive and from the ring of deposited material surrounding the. 
negative crater. 

Table I gives the average of a number of tests under nearly- 
similar conditions. The results are shown graphically in Fig. 2. 
The negative crater distance is greater than the positive crater 
distance because at the negative there is an outward rush of hot 
gases (inward at positive) and reduced vapor concentration of 
material to be condensed from the gases (greatly diluted with air 
entering the arc). 

The dilution of the vapors appears to be the largest factor in 
making the distance at the negative greater than at the positive. 
This makes a far lower temperature necessary at the negative in 
order to secure condensation. 

The results in the table marked "Ref." were used for calcu- 
lating the other boiling points with regard to plotted results. The 
sublimation point of carbon is taken as 3700° C. at 760 mm. 
pressure. 

Table I. 
Crater Distances and Boiling Points. 



I 



Material 



Boron Carbide 
Zirconium Oxide ZrOj 
Beryllium Oxide BeO 
Aluminum Oxide AI2O3 
Magnesium Oxide MgO 
Silica SiOo 
Calcium Oxide CaO 
Boron Nitride BN 
Chromium Oxide CrjOs 
Erbium Oxide ErsOs 
Strontium Oxide SrO 
Titanium Oxide TiOj 
Barium Oxide BaO 
Boric Oxide B.Os 
Barium Fluoride BaFj 
Potassium Chloride KCl 
Sodium Chloride Na CI 



Positive 
Crater Distance 



j 0.000 Craters 
i 0.000 Craters 
: 0.002 in. (0.05 mm.) 
0.005 in. (0.1mm.) 
0.013 in. (0.3 mm.) 
1 0.015 in. (0.4 mm.) 
1 0.018 in. (0.45 mm.) 
0.020 in. (0.5 mm.) 
0.020 in. (0.5 mm.) 
1 Reduces rapidly 
'0.020 in. (0.5 mm') 
0.04 in. (1.0 mm.) 
0.04 in. (1.0 mm.) 
0.05 in. (1.3 mm.) 
0.07 in. (1.8 mm.) 
0.08 in. (2.0 mm.) 
0.10 in. (2.5 mm.) 



Negative 
Crater Distance 



0.000 Black Ring 
0.005 in. or less 
0.007 in. (0.2 mm.) 
0.015 in. (0.4 mm.) 
0.03 in. (0.8 mm.) 
0.045 in. (1.1mm.) 

Diffused Neg. 
0.060 in. (1.5 mm.) 
0.060 in. (1.5 mm.) 
0.060 in. (1.5 mm.) 

Diffused Neg. 
0.065 (Ti^Oa?) (1.6 mm. 

Very Diffused Neg. 
0.12 in. (3.0 mm.) 

Beyond image 

Beyond image 

Beyond image 



Eetimated 
Boiling Point »C 

I Above Carbon 
I Above Carbon 
13900 
13800 

3600 

! 3500 Ref. 
[3400 

1 3000 Sublimes 
13000 

3000 
13000 

Below 30OO 

2000 
!l500 
I 1400 Ref. 

;i3oo 

1200 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 265 

4. SMOKE TIME OF LOWERS WITH METALS, OXIDES, SULPHIDES AND 

HALOGEN SALTS. 

Using carbon cups as described in a previous paper (Ref. 12) 
on running the arc one minute and observing the fumes from full 
lower cup on breaking current, gives time periods related to the 
boiling points of the cup materials. A stop watch was used to get 
the exact time of "smoking." This time of "smoking" increases 
very rapidly with materials of low boiling points. The rate of 
cooling of the cup is approximately logarithmic. The point of 
solidification of liquids was easily determined by using a sharp- 
pointed small carbon rod. The temperature of the cup center, 
calculated from many observations with materials of known boil- 
ing and melting points, is as follows with a ^ inch carbon heated 
by a carbon arc of 25 A. for one minute. This is shown in 
Table II. 

Table II. 

Cooling Temperature of Lower Cup. 



Temperature 


Time After Breaking Current 


2000° C. 


H sec. 


1800° C. 


1 sec. 


1600° C. 


IJ^sec. 


1400° C. 


3 sec. 


1200° C. 


6 sec. 


1000° C. 


12 sec. 


800° C. 


25 sec. 


600° C. 


50 sec. 



This curious logarithmic curve is a partial result of temperature 
radiation of energy varying as absolute temperature to the fourth 
power (Stephans' Law). Observation on crater temperatures 
with alternating current shows fairly rapid temperature drop in a 
few hundredths of a second as the current passes through zero.* 

The time of heating after reaching one minute gives fairly 
duplicating results and was selected as suitable after inspection 
of curves shown in Fig. 3. These represent "smoking" time with 
different periods of heating of ^ in. carbon as lower positive with 
25 ampere current. It is noted that the curves get quite flat, so 
that thermal factors are well balanced after one minute. Table 
III summarizes average data. 

' See Child's Book on the Electric Art, page 137. 

18 



266 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



Table III. 
Smoke Time and Boiling Points. 



Metals 


Smoke Time 


Calculated Boiling Points 


Aluminum 


1 sec. 
1+ sec. 

2 sec. 

12 sec. 
20 sec. 

Solidify 190 sec. 
180 sec. 

None as Oxides 

9 sec. 
9H sec. 

13 sec. 
15 sec. 
42 sec. 
55 sec. 
75 sec. 
75 sec. 

Pos. C. D. 0.02 in. (0.5 mm.) 

No smoke 
Pos. C D. 0.025 in. (0.6 
mm.) Smoke J/2 sec. 
Pos. C D. 0.04 in. (1.0 mm.) 
Pos. CD. 0.04 in. (1.0 mm.) 
Smoke ZYi sec. 
Smoke Ay2 sec. 
Pos. CD. 13 in. (4.2 mm.) 
Ef. Smoke 3 sec. 

3 sec. 
AYi sec. 

8 sec. 

9 sec. 

10 sec. 
VA sec. 


1800° 
1700° 
1600° 
930] 
778 
404 
232 


C. 


Calcium 


c 


Silicon 


c 


Zinc 


Ref. (boiling pt.) 


Cadmium 


Ref. (boiling pt.) 


Cadmium 


Ref. (melting pt.) 


Tin 


Ref. (melting pt.) 


Oxides 

K.are Earth Oxides 


Very high 

1000° C 

1000° c 

900° C 

870° C. 


Stannous Oxide SnO 

Tungstic Oxide WO3 

Bismuth Oxide BizOa 

Lead Oxide PbO 


Molybdenum Oxide M0O3. . 

Antimony Oxide SbzOa 

Thallous Oxide TUO 

Arsenous Oxide AsjOa 

Sulphides 
Barium Sulphide 


630° C. 
570° C. 
500° C 
500° C. 


Calcium Sulphide 


3000° C 

2500° C 
2000° C 


Lithium Sulphide 


1800° C 


Sodium Sulphide 


1400° C 


Potassium Sulphide 

Chlorides 

Barium Chloride BaCU 

Strontium Chloride SrCU. . 

Calcium Chloride CaCl 

Potassium Chloride KCl... 

Sodium Chloride NaCl 

Barium Fluochloride BaFCl 


1300° C. 
1300° C. 

1400° C 
1300° C. 
1150° C 
1150° C* 
1100° C* 
1600° C 



(C D. = Crater Distance) 



See discussion below on alkali salts. 



The "smoke" time of the oxides is time by oxidation of the 
metal. 

The "smoke" time of silicon was such as to indicate a boiling 
point of about 1,600° C, but this must be regarded as a lower 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 



267 



limit because some temporary more volatile compound, perhaps 
silicon monoxide (SiO), could have affected this result. An upper 
limit of 1,955° C. (boiling point of silver) was indicated by 
observations on mixes of silicon and silver. From such mixes, 
silicon appeared to vaporize before silver. As a compromise, the 
boiling point of silicon will be called 1,800° C. 

Those who have used large amounts of silicon, and avoided 
the effect of very non- volatile silicon nitrides, have agreed that 




100 

geoonde hosting «f lov.er. 



Fig. 3. 



the boiling point of silicon is not far above its melting point. (See 
Wartenberg, Z. anorg. Chemie, 79, 71.) Silicon undoubtedly has 
a boiling point below the decomposition point of carborundum 
(2,240° C, Saunders). 

Barium fluochloride is interesting as being far less volatile than 
either barium fluoride or barium chloride. 

Potassium chloride and sodium chloride are abnormal in giving 
a low temperature positive crater, so results were 100 to 150° C. 
below those in Table I, which are nearer correct in this case. 
The following data (Table IV) for alkali salts probably requires 



268 WM. ROY MOTT. 

a like correction factor for the same reason. The relative order 
is probably more reliable in comparing the different alkali salts 
with each other. 

Tablb IV. 
Alkali Salts and Boiling Points. 



Alkali Salts 



Estimated 
Smoke Time Boilins 

i Points 



6 sec. I 1200° C. 

7 sec. 1180° C. 



9 sec. 1150° C. 

12 sec. I 1000' C. 

16 sec. i 950° C. 

18 sec. I 900° C. 

3 sec. 1400° C. 

10 sec. 1100° C. 



Potassium fluoride 

Potassium cyanide 

Potassium chloride 

Potassium bromide 

Potassium iodide 

Potassium sulphocyanide 

Sodium fluoride 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium bromide I 18 sec. | 950° C 

Sodium iodide More volatile than bromidel 

The alkali salts are out of line because of their giving very 
large dim low-temperature positive craters and because of their 
marked power to wet carbon. The composite ejffect is to 
prolong the vaporization period unduly, and hence the calculated 
boiling points are decidedly low. 

Borgstrom*, from thermo-couple tests, gives the following boil- 
ing points for alkali salts : LiCl 1,360°, NaCl 1,490°, NaBr 1,455°, 
Nal 1,350°, KCl 1,500°, KBr 1,435°, and KI 1,420°. These 
results are probably as much too high as the above "smoke time" 
results on alkalies are too low. 

Typical results are plotted between boiling point and "smoke" 
time after arcing just one minute, in Fig. 4. The results have 
to be interpreted in terms of tests on materials of known boiling 
points and with regard to the most volatile oxide that can form 
where the metals are considered. If the oxide is less volatile than 
the metal, then the metal alone determines the result. This con- 
dition applies to zinc, cadmium, and calcium. 

5. RELATIVE VOIvATlIvlTlES OF REFRACTORIES MIXED WITH IRON. 

Iron alloy mixes distilled in the arc allow of application of 
method 1. They are of interest also as bearing on what materials 

♦Chemical Abstracts, ;91S, 2366, from Med. Fisiska Kemists-Amfundet. 1915, 24. 



VOLATIUTIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 



269 



can be expected to contribute to the strength of iron alloys because 
of the formation of very refractory carbides, etc. At least, the 
best materials for raising the strength of iron alloys fall into the 
class of being less volatile than iron. Again the curves show a 
new method of semi-quantitative analysis, as well as a very simple 
sensitive qualitative analysis. 

In each test exactly 0.500 gram of iron was used. In separate 
experiments, additions of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 milligrams of 




element under test were added to the 0.500 gram of iron. These 
materials were weighed on an assay balance sensitive to 1/50 mg. 
The materials were then placed in the lower positive cup, made 
as noted before. The arc image was watched in the dark room. 
A stop-watch was used for timing changes. 

It was easy to see when the iron arc changed over to the re- 
fractory element of the residue. Iron gives an arc with a blue 
core and yellow shell. The metal wets the carbon, which is dis- 
solved decidedly. The positive crater on the iron is far dimmer 
than on the carbon. The arc tends to be unsteady as the arc flue- 



270 WM. ROY MOTT. 

tuates in extent of cratering on the wedge-shaped pool of iron 
creeping into the crater field. The iron arc is rich in scintillating 
sparks above the arc. Iron is the only material that continues 
for several seconds after stopping the arc to give scintillating 
sparks from upper and lower electrode ends. The upper carbons 
are coated with a deposit dark when hot but turning on cooling 
to a brilliant red ring shading off into yellow. Hence, the end 
of the iron arc is easily noted from the several changes in arc 
color, cratering action, no scintillating sparks on hot uppers and 
lowers just after turning off the arc, and by the absence of red 
and yellow side deposit on upper, so characteristic of iron. The 
change in arc is fairly sharp except when the two materials are 
rather close in boiling point, in which case the arc phenomena are 
mixed and a record can be made of overlapping period. Except 
for a few cases, only one of the materials essentially remains at 
the end. Tests showed that a fraction of a milligram of iron with 
one-half a gram of tungsten gave good tests for iron. This 
proved that a good separation could be made. The end of the 
test can be followed by examining the positive crater and cup in 
the arc images for any material which may form as a dim 
bluish- white pool in carbon crater. The emis- 
sivity of this pool at the end is less than that of carbon. 

The following table gives average total times (exclusive 
of iron period) for the complete removal of the refrac- 
tory material from its first marked appearance in the arc or other 
phenomena, especially crater phenomena. The time is plotted 
against the weights of material in curve sheet 5. The lower 
scale doubles per unit to agree with the logarithmic factors. The 
lower electrodes were carefully inspected every three minutes and 
uppers replaced to differentiate the changes in deposit on the 
upper. A small pocket microscope was often used to examine 
the upper and lower tips. The choice of three minutes was made 
after a series of tests showing much shorter interruptions pro- 
duced slightly unsatisfactory losses by oxidation effects. 

The results are given below in Table V. In the case of much 
osmium and iron, there was an explosive scattering action, prob- 
ably due to the sudden release of dissolved gases when 32 or more 
milligrams of osmium were heated by the arc in the cup with 



VOIvATlIvlTlES OF REFRACTORY MATFRIAI^S. 




Milligrams of Eefractory iietal added to 

Fig. S. 



16 
5 gram of Iron 



0.500 gram of iron ; 64 mg. of osmium with no iron took 22 min- 
utes, and 32 mg. of osmium alone took 12 minutes. 

In the case of columbium, the results at low weights are de- 
cidedly high, due to a marked delaying effect of a very little tan- 
talum impurity in the columbium metal. At 1/16 mg. of tantalum 



272 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



with 0.5 gr. of iron, the tantakim residue lasted 6 minutes after 
all the iron was volatilized. In large amounts the molybdenum 
curve crossed the tantalum curve, but this is easily explained by 
an increased cratering temperature, as easily seen in the arc image. 
Tests by other means proved that the order of relative volatility 
was in the same order (except for the impure columbium) if 
near 1 mg. quantities were considered. The results are plotted 
in curves on Fig. 5. 

Tabi^E V. 
Minutes Time to Volatilise Refractory Residue. 



Element 



Mr. 


w 

95 


Ta 
22 


Cb 


Mo 


Os 
12 


Ir 
15 


Ru 

7/2 


Pt 
8 


Ur 


V 


Rh 


Pd 


64 


17 


27 


6 


6 


3 


2 


32 


461^ 


1534 


12 


16 


10^4 


11 


6 


6 


5 


5 


2 


Vi 


16 


24 


loy, 


9y-, 


9 


8 


7 


4 


4 


3^/2 


3 


Wa 


Va 


8 


17 


8 


SVa 


8 


6 


4/2 


3 


3 


2 


Wa 


Va 


None 


4 


15 


8 


8 


SV, 


4 


31/2 


3 


1 


'/2 


Va 


Va 


None 


2 


12 


7 


7V^ 


AV, 


2/3 


21/2 


2 


V2 


Va 


Flash 


None 


None 


1 


10/2 


61^ 


6 


ZV?. 


2V2 


2 


Wa 


V?, 


None 


None 


None 


None 


^ 


8 


61/2 





















.... 


^ 


4 


SVs 
















.... 


.... 


.... 






(In all cases 0.5 gram iron added and volatilized first). 

6. CURVES OF VOLATILITIES ON ATOMIC BASIS. 

In Fig. 6 there is given the same data of Table V and Fig. 5 
adjusted to an abscissa of equal atoms volatiHzed. The curves 
are nearly in the same order as before. The position of colum- 
bium below tantalum, and vanadium below uranium is made more 
marked. In any case the results are remarkably closely checked 
by the more conclusive method of fractional successive distilla- 
tion (see section 8). 

7. ORDER OF PRECIPITATION IN REFERENCE TO NEGATIVE CRATER. 

The order of precipitation in reference to the negative crater 
is a remarkably accurate index of relative volatility of refractory 
materials, especially if only 10 mg. of material is used and the 
upper electrode is changed every three minutes. (A long volatili- 
zation on same upper gives superimposed spots.) With ordinary 



VOIvATlLlTlES 01^ REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 



273 




Atoms (on Satis of UlYligrgim Wei^tit }- adiS 

Fig. 6. 

good high-grade carbons there are formed always a few rings 
around a black center spot which was the negative crater. The 
outermost ring has an inner white edge and red outer part. The 
red outer part is produced by very minute traces of iron in the 
carbons. This outer ring averaged 0.12 in. (3 mm.) from the 
edge of the negative crater which was about 0.11 in. (2.8 mm.) 



274 ^'^- ^OY MOTT. 

diameter with 25-amp. arc. The most refractory materials such 
as tungsten and tantalum deposit only in the very center of the 
negative crater, while the more volatile materials such as titanium 
carbide or vanadium carbide deposit most at the outer edge of 
the negative crater. This discussion refers only to the circular 
tip deposits and not at all to the side of the upper carbon. 

The distances by averages of five uppers in duplicate, often 
checked to 0.01 in. (0.25 mm.), a rather remarkably close dupli- 
cation of results. Table VII in the next section gives the average 
distance from the outer white-red ring to the first part of the 
inner ring or spot of the material under test. 

If a pointed negative upper is used, the negative spot can be 
held fixed at its end, and this gives graded rings (on conical 
points) with greater distances than obtained with flat uppers 
which were used for results given in Table VII. 

For the materials plating outside of the negative crater, the 
inner edge (instead of outer edge, as above) can be measured to 
advantage on the upper tip or direct in the arc image. In the 
latter case, the point of reference is the edge of the negative crater 
to the ring of material which is often in bead form. As the arc 
image is magnified 20 diameters, careful measurements can easily 
be made. The average results reduced to real distances were as 
follows, as given in Table I, discussed section 3. Only distances 
on same reference system should be compared. 

The order of distances at positive and negative is nearly the 
same. The formation of dim diffused negative craters with alka- 
line earths limits observation here on these oxides and carbides. 

At the negative crater, when two closely boiling refractories are 
both distilling, two separate ring depositions can be obtained 
showing closely what material is more volatile. For example, the 
vanadium blue ring comes inside of the beryllium oxide white 
ring. This proves that the vanadium is decidedly less volatile 
than beryllium oxide. This method is especially useful with the 
difficult case of two materials with closely placed boiling points. 
The arc shell colors with mixes of two elements also tend to give 
the color of the more volatile one out further in the arc shell than 
the less volatile. For instance, the green shell of zirconium metal 
goes beyond the yellow-white shell of zirconium oxide. 



VOIvATlI^lTlES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 275 

8. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SERIFS. 

From a rigidly logical standpoint, this has the least defects. 
It is laborious but sound. If space permitted, it would be inter- 
esting to give the detailed phenomena and extent of overlapping 
due to alloy distillation. If one material, especially 
if in less amount than the other, remains 
behind without the other, then it is to be 
concluded that the residual material is less 
volatile and has a higher boiling point than 
the other metal and all its alloys with the 
metal under test. 

Tungsten is left as a final residue when distilled with any known 
element or any mixture of all refractory elements. For example, 
tungsten mixed with tantalum, zirconium carbide, thorium oxide, 
zirconium oxide, molybdenum, osmium, etc., is left as the final 
least volatile residue. The affinity of tungsten for carbon does 
not prevent the carbon distilling first and rapidly through the 
tungsten material. Tungsten carbide decomposes giving far more 
volatile carbon than tungsten. The energy of union of tungsten 
and carbon is small. The longest overlapping time for any tung- 
sten alloy was for the tungsten-tantalum combination, indicating 
that tantalum is a close second to tungsten in the matter of highest 
boiling point. 

Tantalum is the final residue from mixes with zirconium, 
thorium, or molybdenum, etc., and hence is next after tungsten. 

Zirconium carbide forms in rough plates with suggestions of 
square corners. It volatilizes first from a tantalum mi:jv, but is 
left as a final residue from a zirconium-thorium mixture. It is 
also left as a final residue from a molybdenum mixture with zir- 
conium material. 

Thorium carbide forms in rough plates with obtuse and acute 
corners. Thorium carbide falls below zirconium carbide in vola- 
tility but above molybdenum carbide. A mixture of molybdenum 
and thorium material leaves a final residue with no molybdenum. 

Yttrium carbide is left to a slight extent after molybdenum in 
a mix. Yttrium carbide forms in needle or pointed star shapes 
which rapidly disintegrate in moist air, whereas thorium carbide 



276 WM. ROY MOTT, 

is very slow to disintegrate and zirconium carbide is altogether 
stable. 

Molybdenum is easily shown to remain as the final residue from 
its mixes with osmium, iridium, ruthenium, uranium, vana- 
dium, chromium, or palladium. At even less than 2 percent molyb- 
denum, it is easily found as a final residue from mixes with alumi- 
num, silicon, manganese, cobalt, nickel, iron or chromium. 

Osmium with iridium was difficult to follow, as their boiHng 
points are rather close together. Osmium is probably the higher 
boiling because it takes longer to distill equal atomic amounts and 
because osmium with a pointed upper plates as a bead in the very 
center of the negative crater, whereas iridium, with a sharp 
pointed upper, plates as a metallic ring. The fact that osmium 
has been commercially used in preference to iridium for incan- 
descent lamp manufacture is also an indication in the direction 
of higher melting and boiling points. Moissan's work indicates 
that osmium is the least volatile of the platinum metals. Osmium 
is left as a final residue from a mix with titanium carbide. 

Titanium Carbide is left as a final residue from mixes with 
ruthenium, uranium, vanadium, chromium, or the iron group of 
elements. (Titanium metal is decidedly more volatile than tita- 
nium carbide.) 

Ruthenium is left as a final residue from mixes with ura- 
nium, vanadium or chromium. 

Uranium Carbide is left as a final residue from mixes with 
vanadium,, chromium or iron. 

Vanadium Carbide is left last when mixed with chromium, 
palladium, or iron. 

Chromium Carbide distills last from a mixture with palla- 
dium. 

Palladium distilled last from a mix with iron. All the 
above series of materials distill last from mixes with iron. 

Hence, by fractional distillation of contiguous members, we 
arrive at the following series as the correct order of volatility in 
a carbon cup, beginning with the most volatile material : iron, pal- 
ladium, chromium carbide, vanadium carbide, uranium carbide. 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 277 

ruthenium, titanium carbide, osmium, molybdenum carbide, zir- 
conium carbide, tantalum (carbide?) and tungsten (carbide?). 

By interpreting, the residual time curves with iron, the position 
of deposit at the negative craters, and fractional distillation of 
contiguous members of series, we arrive at the following estimate 
of boiling points. The temperature of the positive crater of a 
carbon arc is taken as 3,700° C. and the boihng point of tungsten 
is taken as 6,000° C. 

Langmuir (Ref. 8) estimates the boiling point of tungsten as 
5200° abs., but lately (Ref. 16) the melting point of tungsten has 
been found to be 135° higher than the value given by Langmuir. 
This probably means a revision of his calculated boiling point 
upward some few hundred degrees. 

With many elements, except alkalies and the easily reduced 
heaviest elements, the ratio between absolute melting point and 
absolute boiling point is close to 1 to 1.8 (see appendix for fur- 
ther discussion). If this ratio should be preserved for tungsten 
its calculated boiling point would be 6,342° C. As a compromise 
of the various factors, I believe it is fair to take the boiling point 
of tungsten as 6,000° C. 

Table VI. 
Universal Vapor Pressure Curve Data. 



Vapor Pressure 


Abs. Temperature as Percent of Abs. 




Boiling Point Temperature 


10* mm. 


48.4 


10-' 


52.4 


10-^ 


58.0 


1 


65.0 


10 


73.6 


100 


86.0 


760 


100 



Another check on estimated boiling point of tungsten is obtained 
by using an average curve of vapor pressure in terms of percent 
of absolute temperature of boihng point at 760 mm. where this 
is called 100 percent. This Table VI is the average results on 
vapor pressures of cadmium, zinc thallium, bismuth, lead and 
silver. 

Using these data and Langmuir's vapor pressure of tungsten at 



278 WM. ROY MOTT. 

its melting point gives a calculated boiling point of tungsten again 
a little above 6,000° C. 

The boiling point of iron (free of carbon) is taken as 3,000° C. 
(Ref. 1) and not 2,450° C. as given by Greenwood (Ref. 4). At 
even 30 mm. Ruff (Ref. 11) showed that the boiling point of iron 
is 2,450° C. If the proportional rise of 25 percent on absolute 
scale given by Mn in having a boiling point at 30 mm. of 1,500° 
C. (Ref. 11) and a boiling point at 760 mm. of 1,900° C. (Ref. 4) 
is also maintained for iron, then its calculated boiling point is 
3,200° C. At 30 mm. iron saturated with 7.5 percent carbon 
gave 200° C. higher boiling point than carbon free iron. Allow- 
ing for the greater solubility of carbon in iron at over 3,200° C, 
a further increase in boiling point of iron saturated with carbon 
would be obtained. Hence, I estimate the boiling point, at 760 
mm., of iron saturated with carbon, as about 3,500° C. Certain 
arc image phenomena also indicate iron saturated with carbon has 
a boiling point only very slightly below that of carbon crater 
temperature. The metal creeps into the crater in a thin wedge- 
shape manner. 

It is important to note that the saturation of the iron group of 
metals (Ref. 11) with carbon has not changed the general order 
of volatihty of Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe (Ref. 11). With chromium, 
the carbide formation materially raises the boiling point, so that 
with chromium-iron mixes chromium carbide is the final residue. 
Metals (W, Ta) with boiling points very much higher than car- 
bon seem to allow their carbides to decompose and volatilize large 
amounts of the carbon. Hence, with platinum metals, tungsten, 
tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, the order of relative vola- 
tilities in mixes is probably only slightly affected by the presence 
of carbon. The boiling points are raised probably 300 to 600° 
by the dissolved carbon except for the cases of Ta and W. 

The case is very different with the elements of greatest heat 
of formation of their oxides and other compounds, especially 
those forming most stable nitrides. The greatest rise in boihng 
points of oxides and carbides above the metals themselves is given 
with zirconium, thorium, titanium, rare earths and alkaline earths. 
The oxide or carbide formation in nearly all these cases raises 
the distillation points 1,000 to 2,000° C. above that of the metal. 
For instance, aluminum metal boils at 1,800° C, but aluminum 



1lj 

j2 






s 
o 



o 

a. 









VOLATILITIES OE" REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 



o 

o. 
o 

;-■ 



279 



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ni 



w 



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V 



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> o ^ o V 






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>>ii 



ii -^ _ . 






•^ > - 

Qj o rt 

•-j:: Cj= rt — ^ — 

^ ^ o >^ •- ."^ ^ .^ 



fciO C c 

•r <-> « 

. '-' J-. 

±i ''^ "" — - ; • 

^ I K> w o w — . 

1^ J, rt i2 =* 

.-a .3 be-" . = 

I- o <u >- ° 2 



(< 



O K 



« C 



^f 



. bo 



ESSSeeSSSSEESSSEESESEEESSE 

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o\cc^!poqoco\OfoOO^^.^^.lJ^lJ^^J^c^oooou^ooc>o 

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n c c c c 



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^^^^^^r_,_oooooooooooooppopo 
ooooooooocJoooooooooooooooo 



Si? c 

P bco 
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■S = f^ 



o 

CCOOOQOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOLOOOOOOOOiOOVOioOOOOOOOO 
Oi-ci— lO^Ou^■^■*■^cocococo(^J^H^HOOC^C^OOt^ t^OioiO 
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13 -a 




28o WM. ROY MOTT. 

oxide at 3,700° C. or 1,900° C. higher. Oxides of elements of 
groups II, III and IV, of high heat of formation, (BeO, MgO, 
CaO, SrO, BaO, rare earths) have boiling points 1,000° to 2,000° 
C. above that of the pure elements. 

The highest boiling point of all known stable carbides 
are those of zirconium and thorium, which, formed in an iron 
melt, appeared at times as rough plates in the lower cup. The 
platinum metals tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum and columbium 
leave only rounded pool spots or round beads in the lower 
cup. In the positive crater, a molten pool of a bluish color is easily 
seen in the arc image of the positive crater. This pool spot enables 
very minute amounts of material to be detected satisfactorily. 
Certain analytical features are also given in Table VII. 

The Table VII also shows the distance from the outer edge of 
the inner spot or ring to the inner edge of the large circle due 
to traces of iron and silica. This reference circle has a thin inner 
white edge followed by the red of iron oxide resting on the iron 
beneath. By scraping the deposit with thorium, the end of the 
carbide formation is easily located. The color changes give good 
analytical helps. This Table VII also gives the estimated boiling 
points with reference to the three methods of measuring relative 
volatilities for materials less volatile than carbon. 

7. CONCIvUSIONS. 

1. Ten arc methods of arriving at relative volatilities of metals, 
carbides, oxides, nitrides, fluorides, chlorides, and sulphides have 
been suggested and partly developed. 

2. The most rigid method depends on the least volatile material 
remaining as final residue in distilling mixtures. 

3. For materials boiling above iron saturated with carbon 
(3,500° C), a series of boihng points have been estimated on a 
triple basis of reference to the curves with iron for equal (atomic) 
amounts of material, fractional distillation series and position of 
deposition at negative crater. 

4. The boiling points of this series are as follows : Iron satu- 
rated with carbon 3,500° C. ; silica 3,500°; palladium 3,600°; 
carbon 3,700° ; aluminum oxide 3,700° ; chromium carbide 3,800° ; 
vanadium carbide 3,900° ; rhodium 4,000° ; platinum 4,050° ; ura- 



VOLATII^ITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 28 1 

nium carbide 4,100° ; ruthenium 4,150° ; lanthanum oxide 4,200° ; 
titanium carbide 4,300° ; yttrium oxide 4,300° ; columbium car- 
bide 4,300° ; zirconium oxide 4,300° ; thorium oxide 4,400° ; 
iridium 4,400° ; osmium 4,450° ; molybdenum carbide 4,500° ; 
yttrium carbide 4,600° ; thorium carbide 5,000° ; zirconium car- 
bide 5,100° ; tantalum (carbide?) 5,500° ; and tungsten (carbide?) 
6,000°. The metals in the above series were, of course, satu- 
rated with carbon, which would tend to raise boiling points in 
most cases. 

5. Tungsten allows carbon to distill rapidly through it , molten 
carbide, which probably surrenders carbon vapor exactly as cop- 
per oxides would surrender oxygen. The boiling point of tung- 
.sten is estimated as about 6,000° C. Tantalum comes next at 
5,500° C. 

6. Zirconium carbide (B. P. 5,100° C.) is the least volatile 
carbide, with thorium carbide a close second. 

7. Thorium oxide (B. P. 4,400° C.) is the least volatile oxide, 
with the zirconium oxides, white ZrOg and yellow ZrjOg, nearly 
as non-volatile. 

8. The least volatile non-cratering oxide is beryllium oxide 
(B. P. 3,900° C.) which is left as a final residue in fractional 
distillation of mixes with barium oxide, strontium oxide, calcium 
oxide, magnesium oxide, silica and aluminum oxide. 

9. By crater distances at positive and negative, the boiling 
points of the more common refractory oxides are estimated as 
follows : Barium oxide 2,000° C. ; titanium oxide below 3,000° ; 
chromium oxide (Cr^Oa) 3,000° ; calcium oxide 3,400° ; silica 
3,500° ; magnesium oxide 3,600° ; aluminum oxide 3,800° ; and 
beryllium oxide 3,900°. 

10. "Smoke time" estimates of boiling points are given for 
several oxides, sulphides, halogen salts, etc. The results are only 
roughly approximate. 

11. The volatility of oxides takes the following approximate 
order: K^O, Na^O, Li^O, V^O,, B^Og, BaO, SrO, MnO, FeO, 
CoO, NiO, Cr^Os, TiO^ V,0„ SiO„ CaO, MgO, (x CaO SiOJ, 
(x BaOyALOa), AI3O3, Ti^O,, V,03, Er^Og, CeO„ Nd^Oa, 
La^Os, (xBeOyYt.03) ZrO„, ThOa last. 

12. Boron nitride sublimes at near 3,000° C. 
19 



282 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



8. REFERENCES ON VAPORIZATION OE REFRACTORY MATERIAI^S. 

The following references especially relate to data bearing on 
volatilities of materials used for interpreting the data : 

1. Goldschmidt, Phys. Zeitschrift (1902), 4, 166. 

Liquid iron produced by the thermit mix attains a temperature 
of 2,900-3,000° C. measured optically, and hence the boiling point 
of iron must not be below this. Further, this refers to carbon- 
free iron. 

2. Watts, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. (1907), 12, 141. 
This is a review of Moissan's excellent work. Unfortunately 

the assumption was made that the boiling point of tungsten was 
near that of the carbon arc — causing an error of over 2,000° C, 
so that the calculated results are misleading. The actual experi- 
ments can be abstracted as follows : Metals near iron in atomic 
weight volatilized 80 gr. Mn, 56 Ni, 33 Cr, 14 Fe, 9 Ti from 
a charge of 150 grams in 5 min. under 500 ampere arc on 110 
volts. The Pt metals, for equal atoms volatilized below 
iron. In 5 min., Ur, Mo, W did not materially volatilize, but 
by using 700 amp. for 5 min. there volatiHzed 29 gr. Os, 15 Ur, 
no Mo, and in 20 min. there volatilized 56 gr. Mo, but only 25 
gr. W even with 800 amperes. Hence, order of volatility indi- 
cated is Mn, Ni, Cr, Fe, Ti, Pt metals, Os, Ur, Mo and W last. 

3. KrafTt and Knacke, Ber. (1909), 42, 202-210. 

With a good vacuum furnace, lowest temperatures of vapori- 
zation were: Ca 398°, Sr 375°, Ba 355°, Mg 415°, Pt 540°, 
Ir 660°, Pd 735° and Os 800°. Pd appears out of line Their 
idea was that boiling at lowest vacuum pressures takes place at 
half the absolute boiling point obtained at atmospheric pressure. 

4. Greenwood, Proc. Roy. Soc. London (1909), (A) 83, 483. 

Zeit. Elektrochem. (1912), 18, 319. 

Boiling Points at Atmospheric Pressure. 



Fe* 


Cu 


Sn 


Cr* 

2200 


Ag 

1955 


Mn 


Al 


Pb 


2450 


2310 


2270 


1900 


1800 


1525°C. 



* Moissan and others have observed a violent "bubbling" of iron at this temperature 
due to escaping dissolved gases. For like reason, the chromium result is probably also 
in error. The data on the other metals is very good. 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 283 

5. Crookes, Proc. Roy. Soc. (1912), 86, 461. 

Heating in air at 1,300° for 30 hours gave the following 
losses, Rh 0.1 percent, Pt 0.2 percent, Pd 0.6 percent, while be- 
cause of oxidation Ir lost 4.8 percent in 10 hours and Ru lost 
25 percent in 8 hours. 

6. Rufif, Seiferheld and Suda. Z. anorg. Chem. (1913), 82, 
373-400. 

Melting points of oxides were : MgO 2,500° C. ; BeO 2,525° ; 
Yt^Os 2,415°; ZrO, 2,585°; ThOs 2,400°; CeO^ 1,930°; Al^O, 
2,010°; Nb^O^ 1,520°; Ti^d^ 1,640°; SnO^ 1,625°; and Ta^O^ 
1,875°. Vaporization and decomposition discussed. The vapori- 
zation of ZrOa at M. P. is small, while SiOa distills completely 
from it at 2,000° (under reduced pressure). YtgO, 
gave lively vaporization at 2,350° at 15 mm. BeO gave lively 
vaporization at 2,190° (?), while lime and magnesia gave lively 
vaporization still lower. 

7. Wartenberg, Zeit. Anorg. Chem. (1912), 79, 76. 

Zeit. Electrochem. (1913), 19, 482. 

Vapor pressures of Si, Pb, Ag, Tl in pressure range 10"' to 
10"^ atmospheres. See also Howe, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. (1914), 
36, 234. 

Oxygen increases vaporization of Ag and Ru. 

8. Langmuir. Am. Inst, of Elect. Eng. (1913), 32, 1927. 

Phy. Rev. N. S. (1913), 2, 324. 
Important vapor pressure data on tungsten. Melting point 
3,540° abs. (3,267° C). Boiling point estimated at 5,200° abs. 
at 760 mm. 

9. Langmuir and Mackey. Phy. Rev. Ser. II (1914), 4, 372. 
The boiling point of platinum is calculated as 4,180° abs. and 

of molybdenum as 3,890° abs. Within the experi- 
mental regions, the vapor pressure of 
molybdenum was considerabl}' below that 
of platinum. 

10. Tiede and Birnbrauer. Zeit. F. Anorg. Chem. (May, 1914), 
87, 129-169. 

Vacuum vaporization and melting of elements and compounds. 
Here Ta started to vaporize 200° C. below W, BeO vaporized at 



284 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



2,400°, MgO vaporized strongly at 1,900°, CaO at 1,700, SrO at 
1,600, AI2O3 at 1,750, CeO^ at 1,875, and SiO^ at 1,800° C. 

By using Tiede and Birnbrauer's results on the basis that at 
760 mm. pressure, the absolute boiling points would be increased 
66 percent, I calculate the following roughly approximate boiling 
points at atmospheric pressures and usual centigrade scale, BeO 
4,100° C, MgO 3,500° C, ALO3 3,500° C, SiO^ 3,400° C, CaO 
3,100° C, and SrO 2,900° C. 

11. Ruff, Borman, Keilig. Zeit. Anorg. Chem. (Sept. IS, 
1914), 88, 365-423. 

Boiling points at about 30 mm. pressure. 





Pure Metal 


Metal Satu- 
rated with 
Carbon 


Percent 


Mn 


1500° C. 
2375° C. 
2400° C. 
2450° C. 


1525° C. 
2415° C. 
2490° C. 
2650° C. 


7.12 percent carbon 


Co 

Ni 


7.3 " 
6.3 


Fe 


7.5 



12. W. R. Mott. Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. (1917), 31, 365. 
Chemistry of the Flaming Arc in Relation to Luminescence. 

Some data on volatilities by arc experiments with carbon cups. 
Boiling points of the refractory fluorides were measured. LiF 
1,300° C, BaF^ 1,400° C, CaF, 1,800° C, SrF^ 1,900° C, rare 
earth fluorides below copper, and suggestive data on other 
fluorides. 

13. Ruff and Lauschke. Zeit. Anorg. Chem. (Sept., 1916), 
97, 73-112. 

In a Ruff vacuum electric furnace the following data were 
obtained: ZrO, (98.75 percent) melted 2,563°, SiO^ 1,850°, BeO 
2,410° (no vapor), MgO evaporated above 2,000°, AUOg 2,005° 
(no vapors). ThOj white mists above 2,400°, not melted at 
2,780°, and Yt.Og 2,410° (vapors above 2,350° C). 

The melting point of zirconium oxide was lower in hydrogen 
at high pressure. (The above data indicate the formation of 
ZrjOs of lower melting point than ZrOg.) The combustion in 
air of zirconium hydride is said to give T^r^O^. 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 



285 



14. Podszus. Z. Angew. Chem. (1917), 30, 17-19. 

The melting point (in oxidizing atmosphere at atmospheric 
pressure) of pure zirconium oxide, temperature determined with 
a Lummer-Kurlbaum pyrometer, is between 2,950° and 3,000° C, 
but 0.5 percent impurity reduces this by 100°. 

15. John Johnston. Jour, of Ind. and Eng. Chem. (Sept., 
1917), 9, 873-875. 

A review with curves and formula for vapor pressures at differ- 
ent temperatures for As, Cd, Zn, Mg, Bi, Sb, Pb, Mn, Ag, Cr, 
Sn, Cu, Ni, and Fe. Many references on vacuum distillation of 
metals and alloys. 

16. A. G. Worthing. Physical Review (Oct., 1917), 10, 177. 

Melting point of tungsten 3,675° absolute (3,402° C.) de- 
termined with probable accuracy of within 10 degrees. This is 
the most accurate data known at this temperature, where ordi- 
narily the error has been of the order of 200° C. 

17. J. J. Van Laar. Proc. Acad. Sci. Amsterdam (1918), 20, 
492. See also 18, 1220, and 20, 138. 

A series of interesting papers have covered extensive calcula- 
tions on critical temperatures and pressures. Calculated results 
on the elements of the carbon group are given below: 



Element 



Carbon .... 
Silicon .... 
Germanium 

Tin 

Lead 

Titanium . . 
Zirconium . 
Cerium .... 
Thorium . . 









Boiling Point or 


Critical 


Critical 


Sublimation at 


Temperature 


Pressure 


Atmospheric 








Pressure 


6470" 


Abs. 


2970 Atm. 


4040° C. 


4920 




1450 


3070 


4170 




910 


2610 


3730 




650 


2440 


3000 




370 


1870 


4490 




1130 


2800 


3920 




760 


2420 


3580 




560 


2240 


2940 




330 


1840 



The third column on boiling point at atmospheric pressure the 
abstractor has calculated using Laar's value of 1.60 as the ratio 
obtained by dividing absolute critical temperature by absolute 
boiling point at atmospheric pressure. The abstractor believes 
the results for silicon and cerium are altogether too high. 

18. Zay Jeffries. The Metallography of Tungsten. Bull, of 
the Am. Inst, of Min. Eng. (June, 1918), 1037. 



286 WM. ROY MOTT. 

On page 1044, the conclusion is drawn that tungsten with addi- 
tions of silica has the silica almost completely vaporized at tung- 
sten sintering temperature (3,200° C.)- Alumina vaporizes more 
slowly, and thoria very little. 

Finally, it gives me special pleasure to thank Mr. C. F. Fellows, 
Mr. D. R. Krumhar, and especially Mr. H. T. Albers for their 
efficient assistance and care in carrying out my experiments. I 
also cordially thank Dr. W. C. Moore and Mr. H. D. Batchelor 
for suggestions in writing this paper. 

12. APPENDIX, 

Ratio of Boiling Point Divided by Melting Point. 

An important ratio is obtained by dividing the boiling point 
temperature by the melting point temperature. These tempera- 
tures must be calculated on the absolute scale (t + 273 == T abs.). 
These ratios have a great similarity for similar elements in the 
periodic table. This similarity has been discussed on a score of 
elements by Herz (J. F. anorg. Chemie (1916), 94, 1). The fol- 
lowing table is extended far beyond the data given by Herz. 
Also, in a large number of cases boiling points have been calcu- 
lated on the 1.8 ratio, which is characteristic of all elements ex- 
cept alkalies, the heaviest easily reduced elements and the non- 
metallic elements. The only other metals of a marked low ratio 
are magnesium, manganese, chromium and silicon. With some 
of these, nitride formation with nitrogen atmosphere has prob- 
ably been a source of misleading data as published in the litera- 
ture. High ratios are given by the alkali metals, which average 
3.3. The heaviest easily reduced metal of each valence column 
is also high. This applies to gold, mercury, thallium, lead, bis- 
muth, tellurium and platinum. Some very high ratios are given 
by tin and the closely related gallium, indium, and perhaps ger- 
manium. The lowest ratios are given by the non-metallic elements 
which are known to have vapor molecules of two or more atoms. 
This applies to nitrogen, chlorine, bromine and iodine. The ele- 
ments that sublime have very dense polyatomic vapors. These 
are arsenic, red phosphorus, carbon, and boron. Silicon also has 
a low ratio. Silicon has a polyatomic vapor according to Warten- 
berg. 



VOIvATlLlTlES OF REFRACTORY MATFRIAI^. 



287 



Table VIII. 
Ratios Boiling Points Divided by Melting Points. 



Element 



Group I. 

Lithium . . 
Sodium . . 
Potassium 
Rubidium 
Caesium . . 



Copper 
Silver . 
Gold .. 



Group II. 

Beryllium . 
Magnesium 
Calcium . . . 
Strontium . 
Barium . . . 
Radium . . . 



Zinc .... 
Cadmium 
Mercury 



Group III. 

Boron 

Aluminum . 
Scandium . . 
Yttrium .... 
Lanthanum . 



Gallium . 
Indium . 
Thallium 



Group IV. 

Carbon 

Silicon 

Titanium . . . 
Zirconium . . 
Cerium .... 
Thorium . . . 



Germanium 

Tin 

Lead 



180 
97.6 
62.5 
30.5 
26.5 



1084.1 

961.5 

1062.4 



1280 
650 
780 
800 
850 
700 

419.4 

321.7 

—38.85 



2500? 

657.3 
1200 
1250 

810 

30.1 
155.0 
303.7 



4200 
1430 
1795 
1500 
645 
1450 

958 

231.8 

327.4 



Boiling Point "C. 



1400 
877.5 
757.5 
696 
670 

Average Ratio 

2310 
1955 
2530 



2500 
1120 
1700 
1600 
1500 
1478 Calc. 

918 
782 

+357 



2300 
1800 

2400 Calc. 
2500 " 
1800 " 

1700 

1450+ 

1280 



3700 
1800 

3400 Calc. 
2900 " 
1400 " 
2800 " 

1900 " 

2270 

1525 



Ratio Abs. Scale 



3.6 Calc. 

3.1 " 

3.4 " 

32 " 

3.1 " 

3.3 " 

1.9 " 

1.8 " 

2.1 " 



1.8 
1.5 
1.9 
1.8 
1.7 
1.8 

1.7 
1.8 
2.7 



0.9 
2.2 
1.8 
1.8 
1.8 

6.5 

4+ 
2.7 



0.9 " 
1.2 " 
1.8 " 
1.8 
1.8 
1.8 

1.8 

5.0 Calc. 

3.0 " 



WM. ROY MOTT. 



Element 


Melting Point "C. 


Boiling Point "C. 


Ratio Abs. Scale 


Group V. 


—210.5 

44.2 

610 

1750 

1950 

2850 

800 

630.7 

268 

—227 
112.8 
1520 
2500 
3402 
1900 

217 
452 

—233 
—101.5 
—7.3 
+113.0 

1207 
1207 

1507 

1452.3 

1489.8 

2400 

1950 

1549 

2700 

2400 

1755 


—195.7 
290 

350? 

3400 Calc. 
3700 " 
5300 " 

616 

1440 
1420 

—182.7 
444 5 

3000' Calc. 
4700 " 
6300 " 
3500 " 

688 
1390 

—187 

—337 

+59 
+188 

1900 
2400 Calc. 

3000 

2700 Calc. 
2900 " 
4500 " 
3700 " 
3000 " 
5100 " 
4500 " 
3907 " 


1.25 Calc. 


Phosphorus, yellow 

Phosphorus, black 


1.8 " 
0.7 " 
1.8 


Columbium 


1.8 


Tantalum 


1.8 


Arsenic 


0.8 " 


Antimony 


1.9 " 


Bismuth 


3.1 " 


Group VI. 
Oxygen 


1.9 " 


Sulphur 


1.8 " 


Chromium 


1.8 


Molybdenum 


1.8 


Tungsten 


1.8 


Uranium 


1.8 


Selenium 


2.0 " 


Tellurium 


2.3 " 


Group VII. 
Fluorine 


2.15 " 


Chlorine 


1.34 " 


Bromine 


1.25 " 


Iodine 


1.20 " 


Manganese 


1.5 " 


Manganese 


1.8 


Group VIII. 
Iron 


1.8 " 


Nickel 


1.8 


Cobalt 


1.8 


Ruthenium 


1.8 


Rhodium 


1.8 


Palladium 


1.8 


Osmium 


1.8 


Iridium 


1.8 


Platinum 


2.06 " 







The arc image results are as a rule higher than the above calculated 
results. 



VOLATILITIES or REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 289 

DISCUSSION. 

Colin G. Fink^ : I believe this is one of the finest papers we 
have had for a long while ; the only trouble with it is that it has 
too much in it to discuss in the short time at our disposal. On 
page 261 Mr. Mott says, "The time to volatilize similar amounts 
of material from the positive cup can be compared with the mate- 
rials of known boiling points." What do you mean by "Similar 
amounts" ; atomic proportions ? 

W. R. Mott: If the amount of material which is used is about 
one milligram, best results are given by using atomic proportions 
(especially with materials less volatile than carbon). At 0.2 
gram of material (especially for those more volatile than carbon) 
equal actual mass gives often as good or better comparisons than 
atomic (or molecular) proportions, because of increasing impor- 
tance of area for heat conduction and numerous other factors such 
as extent of wetting action and especially extent of cratering. 
(See earlier paper showing curve. Trans. Am. Electrochemical 
See. (1917) XXXI, 385). It is certainly true that vapor density 
is important, but the complexity of the other factors leaves the 
use of time to volatilize as of only suggestive value. 
Volatilization of mixes gives more conclu- 
sive data. 

C. G. Fink : Another question : You always talk about the posi- 
tive cup. I should imagine there would be some compounds that 
prefer to go the other way. 

W. R. Mott: The negative crater seeks the position of mini- 
mum heat conductivity (i. e. the hottest spot with maximum elec- 
tron emission) and does not necessarily seek the 
flame material. With a sharply pointed carbon the nega- 
tive crater always sits exactly on the sharp point. This is where 
the solid angle behind the negative crater is the smallest, and 
hence there is least heat conduction. With the negative crater on 
the lower cup, the volatilization of material is slow and often very 
irregular and flame material does not reach the positive crater 

* Head of Laboratories, Chile Exploration Co., New York City. 



290 DISCUSSION. 

because of the strong movement of material at 25 amperes away 
from the positive. The volatiHzation from the negative is most 
marked with materials wetting carbon, or of a highly conducting 
nature, or boiling below 2,000° C. An exception to the rule that 
the positive crater gives best concentration was found in rare- 
earth oxides containing thorium oxide, where use of the negative 
crater on the lower cup gave a better final residue of thorium 
oxide residue than the use of the positive crater, although here, 
too, the thorium oxide and carbide were last. 

In general, the positive crater on the cup gives best results be- 
cause the positive crater always seeks the flame material closely, 
due to the conducting vapor produced. The flame mate- 
rial in a carbon cup always moves at 25 am- 
peres from the positive to the negative with 
no exception at all. (With very refractory materials 
that plate out in the negative crater, the same can be carried back 
and forth through the arc from positive to negative several times 
by reversing the direction of current after complete volatiHzation 
at the positive each time). This uniformity of flow of carbon-arc 
vapors from the positive to the negative is maintained until cur- 
rents of 75 to 150 amperes are used, as in the high-intensity 
flame searchlights, where a negative stream flows away from the 
negative and prevents the positive flame materials reaching the 
negative crater. At low currents the flame materials always travel 
to the negative. At 6 and 1 amperes very delicate arc-image tests 
can be made by observing the deposits on the negatives. Tests 
sensitive to 0.1 milligram are easily made. 

C. G. Fink : On page 279, you refer to the zirconium compound 
as zirconium carbide, and to the thorium compound as thorium 
oxide ; isn't it possible that you get thorium carbide here and not 
oxide ? Are you sure that in a carbon arc you can boil thorium 
oxide ? 

W. R. MoTT : Thorium oxide can be volatilized as thorium 
oxide by the positive crater moving entirely on top of the 
thorium oxide bead, and giving a brighter crater than that given 
on carbon. The arcs change considerably in character between 
oxide and carbide. In the case of zirconium, unusual differences 
are shown between metal, oxide, and carbide. 



VOLATILITIES Oe REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 291 

C. G. Fink : Is it not possible that you are volatilizing a lower 
carbide of zirconium which subsequently gives rise to your white 
deposit? I have never been able to maintain zirconium oxide in 
a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures ; it tends to reduce 
not only to the metal but to form the hydride or carbide. 

W. R. MoTT : Zirconium metal gives a very long dim 
arc which flames continuously and steadily. The arc has a dim 
core — a tendency to an inner dark space and a green arc- 
shell. The positive crater is often large and dim. The nega- 
tive crater keeps its normal brightness and black center with white 
ring until the metal has partly changed to oxide, which easily 
takes place in the carbon cup. Unlike all other elements, the arc 
changes greatly with change from metal to oxide. The zirco- 
nium oxide gives a much shorter arc than the metal, as is 
characteristic of the difference between many refractory oxides 
and the metals. Unlike the metal, the oxide develops an arc-shell 
of a bright yellow-white color inside the green outer shell char- 
acteristic of the metal. The green outer shell is not 
given when the oxide alone is used. Unlike the 
metal arc, the oxide gives intense bright 
cratering, often of an irregular shap e — a unique 
characteristic of zirconium oxide ; cratering on oxide-melts with 
other elements is usually circular in shape. The arc has a bright 
blue core and a bright yellow arc-shell. There is a marked oxide 
precipitation in the negative crater, and in the arc image beads 
can be seen forming at the edge of the negative crater. These 
easily drop, as seen in the magnified arc image. The arc changes 
again as the zirconium carbide accumulates at the end. The arc 
becomes much shorter with the much less volatile carbide, and 
develops considerable intermittent flaming to non-flaming arc. 
The bright yellow arc-shell continues when flaming. This is very 
rich in continuous spectrum light, probably due to incandescent 
carbide, liquid and solid, oxidizing to a liquid and solid oxide dust. 
There are very bright small craters in the crater pools in the posi- 
tive. Zirconium carbide is the best of all zirconium compounds 
for giving quickly very dim diffused negative craters and depo- 
sition on the negative crater surface of zirconium carbide. On 
breaking the arc the carbide will be observed partly oxidized at 



292 DISCUSSION. 

the negative to a very white oxide, which Hke tantalum is white 
when hot or cold. With titanium, cerium, and columbium the 
negative deposit is yellow when hot and may be white when cold. 
The cold upper with zirconium has a yellow ring around the white 
spot due probably to the lower oxide (Zr.O.) with the usual oxide 
(ZrO,). 

The extent of reduction of zirconium by carbon and other mate- 
rials is quite important. There is no doubt that in the case of 
hydrogen it can go to the hydride. However, with pure zirconium 
oxide (melting near 3,000° C.) and solid carbon, reduction can 
only take place slowly at the line of contact of the two solids, 
which would then be separated by the zirconium carbide which 
also is solid up to high temperatures. The bright craters on the 
zirconium oxide are very marked and different from the craters 
given by zirconium carbide. 

In the case of thorium carbide, there were times when a far 
shorter arc than given by carbon was obtained for like arc cur- 
rents and voltages. Thorium oxide gave a medium arc length 
on bright cratering. 

W. D. Bancroft^ : In one of the tables there was a red deposit 
near the end of the electrode becoming yellow as you got further 
away from the crater. I suppose that yellow is anhydrous oxide 
and not hydrated, and I should like to ask whether the red or 
yellow differ on account of difference in the coarseness, or what 
the difference is ? 

W. R. MoTT : My conclusion has been that it is simply coarse- 
ness. The deposit is red only on the part closer to the arc, and 
yellow the further from the arc. (Other tests show finest deposit 
in general comes furthest from the arc in a flaming arc lamp.) 
The deposit can be made of absolutely wonderful fineness and 
easily carried by the air especially by great dilution of the vapors 
and then reducing the temperature quickly below their melting 
point. The arc is certainly one of the best ways of getting ultra- 
fine powders. The deposits are anhydrous. 

W. D. Bancroft : I should like to ask whether Mr. Mott has 
ever succeeded in making a copper oxide dust which was so fine 
that it was bright blue? 

' Professor of Physical Chemistry, Cornell University. 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 293 

W. R. MoTT : Yes, I have succeeded in making a copper oxide 
combination with manganese that was bright blue, a very brilliant 
blue; it was from a mixture of the two in equal parts in the 
positive cup. (Either copper or manganese alone give the light 
brown uppers.) 

F. C. Frary^ : I would call Mr. Mott's attention to the fact, 
in connection with this discussion of thorium oxide, that it is not 
necessary for the oxide to melt in order to react with carbon, and 
refer him to the similar case of magnesium oxide. It is well 
known that when graphite crucibles lined with magnesia are 
heated to temperatures far below the melting point of magnesia, 
a reaction takes place between the magnesia and the graphite, 
resulting in the volatilization of a large amount of the magnesia. 
You might very well have the same thing here with thorium oxide 
and carbon. 

W. R. Mott: That is perfectly correct ; that carbon dust seems 
to have a habit of jumping around at high temperatures to a 
remarkable degree. The magnesia case differs greatly from thoria 
or zirconia because of the extraordinary refractoriness of zirco- 
nium carbide and thorium carbide. 

F. C. Frary : No sir, I differ with you, I think it is the oxide ; 
it vaporizes and acts on the carbon. 

W. R. Mott: That would simply go to confirm the extreme 
refractoriness of thorium oxide, because that is simply operating 
in the direction of causing it to go off. 

W. R. Mott: The attached figure illustrates what the writer 
calls a universal vapor pressure curve. Curve 1 is for liquids 
and curve 2 for subliming solids. At the solidifying point, curve 

1 takes a sharper gradient. The curves for the vapor pressures 
of zinc, cadmium, silver and others check on this curve to within 

2 percent. If the absolute boiling point is 1,000° then 2 percent 
corresponds to 20°. J. W. Richards has pointed out how certain 
logarithmic equations of vapor pressure have a common point of 
intersection for liquids, but different point for solids. The plotted 
curves contain similar ideas, which are variations of the theorem 
of corresponding states. 

' Director of Research, Aluminiun Co. of America, New Kensington, Pa. 



294 



DISCUSSION. 













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7G0 mn. 
500 

250 

100 

50 

25 

10 g 
< 
o 

2.5 I 

LOO I 

o 

0.50 S 

(J 
0.25 ? 

0. 
05 

0.10 S 

Q- 

0.05 g 
0.025 > 
.0.010 

0.005 
0.0025 

0.0010 



^0 50 60 70 80 90 100^ 

TEMPERATURE IN TERMS OF PER CENT OF BOILINQ 
POmT AT 780 (l A) MU. ABSOLUTE SCALE 



Universal Vapor Pressure Curves. 

(Calculated from data on Cd. Zn, Tl, Bi, 



Fig. 1 

Curve 1. Vapor Pressure of Liquids 
Pb. Ag.) 

Curve 2. Vapor Pressure of Subliming Solids. (Calculated from data on As.) 

Ordinates — Vapor Pressure on Logarithmic Scale. 

Abscissa — Ratio in percent obtained by dividing temperature on absolute scale 
(at a given vapwr pressure) by boiling point at 760 mm. on absolute scale. The boiling 
point at 760 mm. is called 100 percent. Absolute temperature equals Deg. C + 273". 



of Boiling Point 


Vapor Pressure 


100% 


760. mm. 


S6.0 


100. 


73.6 


10. 


65.0 


1. 


58.0 


0.1 


52.4 


0.01 


48.4 


0.001 



VOLATILITIES OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 295 

Since writing this paper, I have talked with Dr. Mean Hirsch, 
who mentioned that cerium metal has a normal boiling point of 
about 1,400° C., which checks closely the calculated result in the 
table. This is a rather interesting confirmation. I am indebted 
to Dr. Hirsch for permission to give here this interesting datum 
on the boiling point of cerium metal. 

In conclusion arc-image studies can be used for rapid investi- 
gations of many refractory properties, for rapid chemical anal- 
ysis, as a very great aid to improved spectrum studies, and espe- 
cially as a means of improving light production. It is hoped the 
data will be of aid in the further development of electric furnace 
apparatus and the use of refractory elements. It should be of 
value in astronomy as regards solar atmosphere layers, and in 
geology as regards what could be the oldest materials and their 
relations at high temperatures. There is an infinite variety of 
phenomena concerning the action of various materials in the arc 
that should be a pleasing and profitable field of further research, 
by the magnified arc-image method. A fertile field for practical 
application is that of rapid chemical analysis, on which subject 
I hope to write a report at some future time. 



A paper presented at the Thiity-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 191S, President Tone in the Chair. 



DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CERTAIN MAKE 
OF DRY CELL. 

By C. A. GiLUNGHAM.* 

Abstract, 

A careful study of the discharge characteristics of a 6 x 15 cm. 
dry cell made by a well-known firm. The tests were made by 
discharging to given end-point voltages (I) through constant 
resistances, (II) at constant current through varying resistances, 
(III) through Mazda lamps. In each case, the cells were dis- 
charged either continuously, or half, quarter, eighth, etc., of the 
time. The results are given and discussed in extenso. [J. W. R.] 



There has been heretofore very little published on the subject 
of the discharge characteristics of the common No. 6 2^ x 6 in. 
(6 X 15 cm.) dry cell. Such information as has been published 
has dealt almost exclusively with continuous discharges, and left 
in the dark by far the greatest portion of the field of dry cell uses. 
In view of the dearth of information on this subject and of the 
fact that many millions of the No. 6 dry cell are put into service 
in this country each year, a more complete examination of their 
characteristics seems appropriate. 

With this in view arrangements were made by which a lot of 
300 cells of a well-known brand was secured under conditions 
which insured the individual cells throughout the lot being as 
uniform as present highly-controlled methods of manufacture 
could make them. Upon receipt of the ceils, careful voltage and 
amperage readings were made on the entire lot and any cells which 
varied materially from the average were eliminated. The cells 
were manufactured in November 1916 and the tests were started 

* Research Laborato; v. Xational Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Manuscript received 
Augrust IS, 1918. 

20 297 



298 



C. A. GILLINGHAM. 



within three weeks after the date of manufacture. The batteries 
used averaged 1.53 volts and 34.2 in amperage. 

As the tests were made on only one brand of cells, the results 
cannot be taken to apply universally to all 2^^ x 6 in. (6x15 cm.) 
dry cells. Also, since the cells were used when fresher than those 
usually obtainable, and as they are slightly higher in amperage than 
normal for the brand tested, the results will probably be slightly 
higher than would be secured from cells as usually purchased 
from dealers. 

The tests made consisted of both continuous and intermittent 
discharges through various external resistances as indicated in 
the table below: 



Nature of Discharge 



Range of Resistance Covered 



Continuous J,s ohin 

30 minutes every hour 1 

15 " " " ] 

5 " " " ] 

2 " " " 



'A 



'A 



5 minutes every 10 minutes A 

30 " " 6 hours 1 

5 " " 6 " A 



to 512 ohms. 

" 64 

" 64 

" 32 

" 32 

" 8 

" 128 

" 32 

" 4 



The resistances chosen were in geometrical series, with a multi- 
plier of 2. 

Besides these tests through constant resistances, which repre- 
sent the majority of uses to which dry cells are put, some con- 
tinous discharges were carried out at constant current drains, and 
also through miniature Mazda lamps of various current con- 
sumption. An approximate method of correlating these constant 
current and lamp discharges was then worked out so that for 
estimating purposes the entire field covered in the constant resist- 
ance tests may be utilized in the other two types of service. 

On each individual test two cells were run, and the results 
reported in the tables are averages of two results unless one of the 
two was obviously in error. In all the curves presented the data 
have been carefully rationalized and smooth curves drawn. 

The readings taken during the tests consisted only of the closed 
circuit working voltage across the terminals of the cell. In the 



characte;ristics of a dry cell. 



299 



case of intermittent discharges the readings were taken at the end 
of the period of discharge just before the circuit was broken. 

All results are reported as the hours of life to a definite working 
voltage or end point. Those used are 1.2, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 volt. 
Probably the most commonly used is the 0.8 volt end point. No 
data have been presented in the ampere-hour or watt-hour form, as 




Ohms ffe'sis ^'or?ce. 



Fig. 1. Showing hours life on continuous discharge through various resistances to 
end points as indicated on the curves. 



these quantities are of less practical value than the length of 
service to a definite end point. 

The tests were made through carefully adjusted coils of 
"Advance" resistance wire. Intermittent discharges were operated 
by clock, for the most part thro . h mercury contacts. 

The data will be considered unaer the three heads of : 

I. Discharge through Constant Resistances. 

II. Discharge at Constant Current. 

III. Discharge through Mazda Lamps. 

The field of course was most elaborately covered in the constant 
resistance series, and most of the dry cell discharge characteristics 
will be considered under this head. 



300 C. A. GILLINGHAM. 

I. Discharge Through Constant Resistances. 
1. Initial Working Voltage. 

It is important to know what working voltage can be expected 
from the cell at the beginning of its service life under various 
discharge conditions. This of course is lower than the initial open 
circuit E. M. F. of the cell because of what is usually assumed 
to be the internal resistance of the cell. It varies with the current 
being drawn from the cell or with the resistance of the external 
circuit according to the figures in the following table : 

Initial Working Voltage of No. 6 Dry Cell. 



Ohms Resistance 


Corresponding 


Initial Working 


of Circuit 


Amperes Drain 


Voltage 


0.00 


*42.9 


*0.00 


0.01 


*32.0 


*0.32 


0.02 


*26.5 


*0.53 


0.04 


*18.5 


*0.74 


0.08 


*12.0 


*0.96 


V% 


8.8 


1.10 


% 


5.1 


1.28 


V2 


2.76 


1.38 


1 


1.45 


1.45 


2 


0.735 


1.47 


4 


0.370 


1.48 


8 


0.185 


1.48 


16 


0.092 


1.48 


32 


0.046 


1.48 


64 


0.023 


1.49 


128 


0.0117 


1.50 


256 


0.0059 


1.52 


512 


0.0030 


1.52 


Infinity 


0.0000 


1.53 



• Estimated by exterpolation. 

With circuits of greater than 1 ohm the initial working voltage 
is but slightly lower than the open circuit E. M. F. The difference 
between open and closed circuit voltage is not readily calculated 
from the value for the internal resistance of the cell because the 
latter is not a constant quantity but may vary with the current 
being drawn from the cell, from about 0.04 ohm at heavy drains 
up to several ohms at light drains. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 



301 



2. Continuous Discharges. 
In the first section of Table II will be found the life in hours 
to various end points for cells discharged through various resist- 
ances. The cells secured for this experiment supplied the results 
up to 512 ohms, but the value for the 1024 and 1792 ohm tests 
shown in table were obtained with cells made prior to these. We 
have considered them legitimate for inclusion because the 256 and 
512 ohm tests on these cells checked the results obtained with the 
cells used for the main series. 



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Pig. 2. Service efficiency curves for continuous discharges through various resistances. 

A number of curves have been drawn based on the figures in 
the table, from which the characteristics of the cell can be studied 
more readily than from the table of figures. 

In Plot 1 will be found life in hours to the various end points 
plotted against ohms resistance. In order to cover the great range 
of the ngures in the table, logarithmic co-ordinate paper has been 
resorted to. The data extend to roughly 2000 ohms, to which 
point we have drawn the solid line curves. Beyond this point, it 
is possible to extend the curve with at least a fair degree of 
accuracy. This extension is useful in estimating very long drawn 
out service, both continuous and intermittent, as will be shown 
later. 

If the cell discharged at the same efficiency through all resist- 
ances, the curves in Plot 1 would be straight lines parallel to a 



302 



C. A. GILLINGHAM. 



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CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 



303 



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304 



C. A. GILI.INGHAM. 



diagonal through the intersections of the co-ordinates. In other 
words, a cell giving 100 hrs. through 10 ohms, at the same service 
efificiency should give 10 hrs. through 1 ohm, and 1,000 hrs. 
through 100 ohms, etc. The curves here plotted rise more rapidly 
than this equal efficiency curve, up to about 60 ohms, above which 
rise is slower than for equal efficiency. It follows, therefore, that 
up to about 60 ohms, the efficiency is increasing, and above 60 
ohms is decreasing. Therefore, the maximum efficiency lies in 
the vicinity of 60 ohms. 



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Ohms. 



Fig. 3. Service efficiency curves to the 0.8 volt end-point for various periods of discharge. 
Numbers on curves refer to minutes of discharge per hour. 

This matter of relative efficiency is much better shown by curves 
such as are drawn in Plot 2 between ohms resistance and hours 
of service per ohm. 

The term "hours per ohm" is an expression of service efficiency. 
In the case of 100 hrs. with 10 ohms, 10 hrs. with 1 ohm and 1000 
hrs. with 100 ohms as previously mentioned, the service efficiency 
would be equal. The "hrs. per ohm" also is seen to be equal in 
all three cases. 

This method of expressing the service by the "hrs. per ohm" 
has a number of advantages so far as plotting and interpolating 
are concerned over the straight hours of life method, and results 
are easily converted as follows: 



Hours life := (hrs. per ohm) x (ohms resistance) 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 



305 



In Plot 2, by using the "hrs. per ohm" method, we can eliminate 
the logarithmic scale in one direction. This plot shows the follow- 
ing characteristics of continuous dry cell discharge : 

(a) No matter what the end point, the efficiency rises to a maxi- 
mum as the ohms resistance increase, and then rather sharply 
begins to drop off. 

(b) The m.aximum point lies further to the right the higher 
the cut off voltage. 



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O S 10 !5 20 

Hours per Ohm. 



25 



30 3S -^o 



Fig. 4. 



Continuous discharges through various resistances as indicated by numbers 
on each curve. 



The reason for the increasing efficiency as the ohms resistance 
becomes greater (and hence the service lighter), is no doubt due 
to the increasing completeness of the depolarization. It becomes 
practically complete at 64 ohms. 

The reason for the dropping off in efficiency at lighter services 
than about 64 ohms is found in the effect of shelf-life, which 
consumes the zinc of the can as well as does the service, so that 
the can is eaten through after less and less output as the service 
is extended, giving the "shelf-life" greater opportunity to act. In 
other words, the longer the duration of the test, the more zinc 
is consumed by shelf-life corrosion, and the less remains for ser- 



3o6 



C. A. GILLINGHAM. 



vice consumption. Besides the zinc, shelf -life reactions alifect the 
electrolyte -of the cell, reducing the amount of ammonium chloride 
available for service reactions. 

It will be apparent also from examination of Plot 2 that the 
shape of discharge curve for low resistances must be quite differ- 
ent from that for high resistances. The relative distances between 
the various end points show this. In Plot 4 this is shown more 
clearly. In this plot the actual discharge curves are shown, by 



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Hours p,er Ohm. 



25 30 35 -^O 



Fig. S. Discharges for 2 minutes every hour through vaxioua resistances. 
Numbers on curves refer to resistance. 



plotting working voltage against life expressed as hours per ohm. 
The advantage of this type of plot is that it shows both efficiency 
and shape of curve. 

The low resistances show what may be called the "heavy 
service" type of curve, which drops off most rapidly at the 
beginning, falling at a decreasingly rapid rate as the lower voltages 
are reached. This presumably is due to polarization, which natur- 
ally is proportional to the current flowing. As the current flowing 
is reduced by the polarization, the polarization itself becomes less 
rapid, reducing the rate of drop in voltage. 



CHARACTERISTICS OP A DRY CELI,. 



307 



As the resistances increase the curves change their shape gradu- 
ally until at 64 or 128 ohms we reach the "light service" type, in 
which, after a small preliminary drop, the fall in voltage is com- 
paratively slight till the "knee" is reached, when it falls off rapidly 
to the end. In this type the depolarization can be considered 
perfect, and the final drop is due to practical exhaustion of the 
essential elements of the cell, either zinc, or electrolyte, or 
depolarizer. 




O 5 10 15 20 

Hour^ per Ohm. 

Fig. 6. Showing discharge through 1 ohm for various periods per hour. 
Numbers on curves refer to minutes of discharge each hour. 



In certain cases, discharges of the intermediate shapes of 8 to 
32 ohms will develop an actual rise in voltage. This may take 
place when the test has fallen to less than 0.8 volt after the can 
begins to eat through. It is due to reoxidation by the air allowed 
access to the interior of the cell through the perforations in the 
can. The rise, if given the ideal opportunity, will go to about 0.8 
volt, where it may remain for various lengths of time prior to the 
final drop. This rise in voltage, however, depends in time and 
amount upon so many variable factors, including the tightness of 
the paper jacket, etc., that it has been omitted from our plots 
because it cannot be depended upon. 



?o8 



C. A. GILUNGHAM. 



3. Intermittent Discharge. 

The results of the various intermittent tests are shown in Table 
II, from the second division down. It will be noted thnt the first 
five of these together with the continuous division form a series 
of various length discharges in hourly cycles as follows : 

60 minutes per hour (Continuous) 

30 

15 

5 

2 



f £. 














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O 5 lO 15 ZO 

Hour's per Ohm. 



2S 



30 3S -W? 



Fig. 7. 



Discharges through 32 ohms for various periods ver hour. Number on curves 
refer to minutes of discbarge each hour. 



For the time being, we will consider these six divisions together, 
and postpone consideration of the remaining divisions. 

In Plot 3 are shown the efficiency curves to the 0.8 volt end point 
for the various periods of hourly discharge. The maximum 
efficiency points move to the left toward the lower resistances 
as the period of discharge becomes lower, just as in Plot 2 they 
move to the left as the cut-off voltage is lowered. The latter is 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 



309 



true regarding the cut-off voltage for any given period of discharge 
less than 60 minutes, just as it is for the continuous tests. 

In Plot 5 are shown the discharge curves for the 2 min. dis- 
charge. Its similarity to Plot 4 is very obvious. It will be noted 
that the curves for the low resistances progress to the high resist- 
ance type in an analogous manner. The difference lies in the fact 
that the "light service" type is reached at 4 or 8 ohms in the 2 min. 
discharge, while in the continuous discharge it is reached at 64 or 
128 ohms. In other words, there appears to be a change of type 
from the 4 ohms continuous, for instance, to the 4 ohm 2 min. 















® 


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r 










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Fig. 8. 



.00/ .0/ J I /O J 00 /90O 

Severity of K5ery/ce. 

Relation between hours per ohm and severity of service for various periods of 
discharge, shown to the 0.8 volt end-point. Numbers on curves 
refer to minutes per hour. 



per hour, of the same nature as the change from the 4 ohm con- 
tinuous to the 128 ohm continuous. 

This latter progression is shown in Plots 6 and 7. In Plot 6 the 
1 ohm curves are shown to go through the change as far as the 
Yi minute per hour discharge permits. The change to the "light 
service" type is not quite complete at this point, however, so in 
Plot 7 we show the 32 ohm curves. These begin with the type 
at which the 1 ohm curves left off and progress to the full "light 
service" curve. The conclusion is that the same change in shape 
of curve results either from increasing the resistance or decreasing 
the period of discharge. 



3IO 



C. A. GILUNGHAM. 



This leads us to a consideration of what we call "severity of 
service." Severity of service decreases with increased resistance 
and decreased period of closure. In other words, severity of 
service is analogous to average rate of output. Two cells would 
be working at the same average rate of output. If for instance 
one discharged at one ampere continuously and the other at ten 
amperes for one-tenth of an hour each hour, each would deliver 
one ampere hour per hour. Two cells would discharge at the same 
"severity of service" if one does so through 20 ohms continuously 




Fig. 9. Chart for estimating service life at low severities. 



and the other through 2 ohms one-tenth of an hour every hour. 
Let us define "severity of service" as equal to the percentage of 
the total time during which the cell is actually discharging, divided 
by the resistance of the circuit. 

In Plot 8 we have drawn curves for the severity of service 
against hours per ohm (or efficiency) for various periods of dis- 
charge. The important point here is that for low severities all 
the curves coincide. While this plot shows this fact only for the 
0.8 volt cut-off, it is equally true for other useful end points. 
This means that for light services the efficiency and shape of the 
curve are approximately the same for the same "severity" irre- 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 



3" 



spective of whether the discharge is continuous or intermittent or 
what the period of discharge may be. This apphes to any service 
through a resistance of 16 ohms or more. 

Based on the dotted hne extension of the curve in Plot 1, we 
can now calculate an extension for this section of the curve in 
Plot 8 which, while it is drawn for continuous discharges, can be 
used to estimate results for intermittent discharges of the same 















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JZ 64- /SB Xf6 S-/t 102* tola 



Ohms. 



Fig. 10. Hours of service per ohm to 1.2 volt end-point for continuous and inter- 
mittent discharges through various resistances. 



severities. Thus our range is increased greatly beyond the field 
covered by our experimental data. 

In Plot 9 this feature has been made use of in a chart for cal- 
culation of very light services. By taking the intersection of the 
horizontal line representing minutes of discharge per hour, with 
the diagonal line representing the ohms resistance, and projecting 
vertically upward to the curve above, we find the hours per ohm 
to the 0.8 volt end point. If other end points are to be used the 
results for them may be found by multiplying by the factors in 



C. A. GILLINGHAM. 



312 



the table at the right of the plot. These are applicable at these low 
severities because the shape of curve is practically uniform. 

We have thus far based all our conclusions regarding the inter- 
mittent characteristics upon the series in which one cycle occurs 
every hour, the period of discharge varying betw^een Yz and 60 




/Z9 tS€ S/Z /Ot.A iO*6 



Fig. 11. Same as Fig. 10 to 1.0 volt end-point. 

minutes. In order to ascertain the effect of cycles longer and 
shorter than one hour we ran tests as follows : 

5 minutes every 10 minutes 
30 minutes every 6 hours 
5 minutes every 6 hours 

The figures for these tests are shown in the 7th, 8th and 9th 
divisions of Table II. 

Tests run 5 minutes every 10 minutes are discharging the same 
percentage of the total time as those run 30 minutes per hour. 
By comparing the results for these two tests (divisions 2 and 7 of 
Table II) it will be found that the two are identical (within the 



CHARACTERISTICS 01" A DRY CELIv. 



313 



limit of error), except in the very low resistances where a con- 
siderable difference is found, particularly at the higher cut-offs. 
The results are of course lower for the longer 30 minutes discharge 
period than for the shorter 5 minute period. The same will appear 
by a comparison of the 30 minutes every 6 hours with the 5 minute 
per hour tests (divisions 4 and 8, Table 11.) . And further, a 
comparison of the 5 min. every 6 hrs. with the interpolated results 
for 5/6 minute per hour shows the same. Appreciable discrep- 





Z 


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ZO ZZ 24 V. 


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"♦i — 4 / 2 4 a /6 32 6* JZB ZSb Stl IO%4 20^96 

Fig. 12. Same as Fig. 10 to 0.8 volt end-point 



ancies occur only when the resistance is below one ohm. In most 
cases, therefore, we may assume that any discharge cycle will 
give the same results as the one-hour cycle with the discharge 
covering the same proportion of the time. This statement, of 
course, must be applied with discretion especially in cases of dis- 
charge periods of considerable length and moderate resistances. 
No rule of general application to all cases can be given and data 
to cover all possible conditions would be limitless. Individual 
cases must be considered separately. We recommend a com- 

21 



314 



C. A. GILIvINGHAM. 



promise between the one-hour cycles having the same proportion 
of discharge and the same period of discharge. Where the period 
of discharge is over 60 minutes the continuous test should be used 
as the second item in the compromise. 

In Plots 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 we have presented the data from 
Table II, covering the series of one-hour cycle tests. From these 
plots, estimates of life may be made directly for the great majority 
of cases. For very light services Plot 9 is better. 



per 
Hour. 



so 

4-0 
30 

20 


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a lo iz 


14- It. 


10 


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82 


ZA 


Hours 


per Ohm. 

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•9"^ X ^ / , 2 ■* 8 /6 . JZ 64 /ZS zrc .f/2 /0t4 ■i.0*0 

Ohms. 

Fig. 13. Same as Fig. 10 to 0.6 vcit end-point. 



Plots 10 to 14 are arranged so that the contour lines indicate 
the hours of life per ohm resistance for any combination of resist- 
ances and discharge period within the range covered by our data. 
The particular combination desired is represented by the point at 
the intersection of the line representing the resistance (bottom 
scale) and that representing the period of discharge (left hand 
scale). Each of the five plots covers the data to one of the end 
points 1.2, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 or 0.4 volt. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 

II. Constant Current Discharge. 

Table IV. 
Hours of Continuous Constant Current Discharge. 



315 



Cut-off 
Voltage 


— Amperes — 


















8 


4 


2 


1 
0.7 


0.5 


0.2 


0.1 


1.2 




0.015 


0.12 


4.0 


20 


78 


1.0 


• • • • 


0.24 


0.82 


3.6 


13.5 


49 


140 


0.8 


0.047 


0.43 


1.9 


6.3 


21.0 


66 


183 


0.6 


0.137 


0.82 


3.1 


9.2 


27.5 


80 


220 


0.4 


0.240 


1.29 


4.3 


12.0 


36.0 


92 


237 





/♦ 


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Hour J />«/- Ohno. 
24 26 2a SO jatatbt*ttt»iai6i4 >t 


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t ;t T f ^ * ^ /e S2 64- IZB 2S6 S/t lOZM. 2040 

Ohms- 

Fig. 14. Same as Fig. 10 to 0.4 volt end-point. 

In Table IV are shown the results of a number of tests in 
which the resistance of the circuit was varied as the cell ran down 
so that the current drain remained constant in value throughout 
the test. In the constant resistance discharges, of course, the 
current drain decreases in direct proportion as the working voltage 
of the cell decreases. The cell, therefore, delivers current at a 



3i6 



C. A. GIIwIvINGHAM. 



slower and slov/er rate as it becomes exhausted. In the constant 
current test, however, the cell is forced to deliver current at the 
same rate when nearly exhausted as at the beginning of the test. 
We would, therefore, expect to see the discharge curve dropping 
less rapidly at the beginning and more rapidly at the end than 
for a constant resistance test of about the same average drain. 
This will appear to be the case by a comparison of Plot 15 with 
Plot 4. 




O S lO 15 20 25 30 

Hr6. per Ohm - a /- one - vo It, 

Fig. is. Continuous constant current discharge. 

In Plot 15 will be found the term "Ohms at 1 volt." This has 
been used in order to keep to the resistance basis for our data as 
we did in the constant resistance tests. As the resistance is pur- 
posely varied to keep the current constant, it becomes necessary 
to select a voltage at which to specify the resistance. As 1 volt 
is not far from the average voltage during many of the tests and 
as the ohms at 1 volt is expressed by the reciprocal of the current, 
this seems the logical voltage to select. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CELL. 



317 



In Plot 16 are shown the efficiency curves for the constant 
current tests. Compare these with Plot 2 for the constant 
resistance. 

The range covered by these tests does not extend to the light 
services for two reasons. First, it is a difficult task to follow 
long tests closely enough to maintain the current constant; and 
secondly, the light services constant current discharges approxi- 




e le 
0hm6 re^hiance at one volt 

FiC. 16. Service efficiency curves for continuous constant current discharge. 



mate constant resistance discharges because as in all light service 
the voltage remains nearly constant till almost the close of the 
test. If we assume a discharge through very high resistance we 
would have a working voltage of about 1.45 (See Plot 4) till the 
end of the test, then a comparatively sudden drop to zero. This 
would approximate closely a test at a current equal to 1 .45 divided 
by the resistance. Vice versa, the resistance would be equal to 
1.45 times the "ohms at 1 volt." 



3i8 



C. A. GILUNGHAM. 



This suggests a method of correlating our constant current and 
constant resistance tests. The relation between the two, of course, 
differs in severe tests where the working voltage averages low 
and light tests where the average voltage is much higher. Shape 
of curve, therefore, is the factor determining the relation between 
the two. 

An approximate numerical measure of the shape of a discharge 
curve may be obtained by using the ratio of life to 1.0 volt divided 
by life to 0.8 volt. We call this the "curve index." For severe 




Fig. 17. 



Z0% ^0% 

Curve /ncfex, 



eofo 



100% 



Factors for converting ohms-at-one-volt for lamp service to equivalent ohms 
for a constant rtsistance discharge. 



service, whether continuous or intermittent, this index is low, in- 
creasing as the service becomes lighter, and approaching 100 per- 
cent at infinite resistance. 

Now for any constant current test to a definite end point, we 
can find a constant resistance test giving the same life to the same 
end point. For instance a >^ ampere test (2 ohms-at-1-volt) 
gives 26 hrs. life to 0.6 volt. A constant resistance of 1.65 also 
gives a life of 26 hrs. to 0.6 volt. We call 1.65 the "equivalent 
ohms" to correspond to 3^ ampere to 0.6 volt. The ratio of 1.65 
ohms (constant resistance) to 2.0 ohms-at-1-volt (for con- 



characte;ristics of a dry celi.. 



319 



stant current) we call the "Conversion factor." In this case, 
it is found to be 0.83. By multiplying the ohms at 1 volt by this 
conversion factor we get the equivalent ohms. The conversion 
factor should be approximately the same for all services, con- 



1.5 

14. 


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II 
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o £0% ^Q^o eo% ao% 100% 
Curiae Index. 

Fig. 18. Factors for converting ohms-at-one-volt for a constant current service to 
equivalent ohms for a constant resistance discharge. 



tinuous or intermittent, having the same shape curve. These 
conversion factors are plotted against curve index in Plot 18. 

A procedure then for approximating the results for any con- 
stant current service from the constant resistance data may be 
illustrated by the following example : 

"Find the life to 0.6 volt end point for a constant current con- 
tinuous discharge of 0.05 ampere." 



320 



C. A. GILUNGHAM. 



(i) Find the corresponding ohms at 1 volt = 



1 



0.05 



r=20. 



(2) In Plot 2 find life for 20 ohms to 1.0 volt and to 0.8 volt, 
to be 16 and 20 hours per ohm respectively. 

f{3) Curve index is then x 100 = 80 percent. 

20 
' (4) In Plot 18 find the corresponding conversion factor to 

0.6 volt to be 1.12. 
(5) Find "equivalent ohms" equal to 1.12 x 20 = 22.4 ohms. 







f ^' 


1- 


¥ 


i 


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# 








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If 




1 


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Ohms. 

Fic. 19. Chart for determining the curve index for discharges through various 
resistances and for various periods per hour. 

(d) In Plot 2 find corresponding life to 0.6 volt to be 25 hrs. 

per ohm, or 25 x 22.4 =: 560 hours life. 
Steps (2) and (i) have for their purpose the finding of the 
*'curve index," and may be eliminated by the use of Plot 19 in 
which are shown the curve indices for the entire field of continu- 
ous and intermittent tests. It is similar in arrangement to Plots 
10 to 14. 

Ill, Lamp Discharge. 

In Table V are given figures showing results of continuous dis- 
charge through lamps of various current drains. In obtaining 



CHARACTERISTICS O^ A DRY C^hh. 32 1 

this information 2.9 volt lamps were used with two cells in series, 
but data are presented as in all other cases in this report as applied 
to a single cell. The current drain is given at the rated voltage 
per cell or 1.45 volt. 

Table V. 
Hours of Continuous Lamp Discharge. 



Cut-ofT 
Voltage 


Current Drain at 1.4S Volt per Cell 


1.36 


0.68 


0.34 


0.17 


1.2 
1.0 
0.8 
0.6 
0.4 


0.5 
3.0 
6.0 
9.0 
11.2 


2.2 

10.0 
16.5 
25.5 
34 


9.3 
28 
43 
63 
75 


38 
82 

116 
117 
182 



Plots 20 and 21 cover this set of figures and compare with 
plots 4 and 2 for constant resistance discharges and with plots 
15 and 16 for constant current. As in the case of constant cur- 
rent these tests are shown on a basis of ohms-at-1-volt. A lamp 
discharge is neither a constant current nor a constant resistance 
proposition as b o t h vary in the lamp as the temperature of the 
filament varies. The characteristics of a miniature Mazda lamp 
such as commonly used with dry cells are shown in the table below • 




Impressed Voltage* 



0.50 
0.75 
1.00 
1.25 
1.50 



Based on one cell only, 



It Will be seen that for the lower voltages the resistance is 
lower (as in the case of constant current test) and also the cur- 
rent drain is lower (as in a constant resistance test). The lamp 
discharge, therefore, is a compromise between constant resistances 
and current. 

In order to find the "ohms-at-1-volt" for a lamp for which we 



322 



C. A. GILLINGHAM. 



know the current drain at a given rated voltage, the insert in 
Plot 21 will be found convenient. From it can be found the cur- 
rent at 1 volt, and the reciprocal of this will be the "ohms-at- 
1-volt." 

As in the constant current tests, we did not run our series into 
the light service region because we can assume a lamp and a 
constant resistance to give identical results where the voltage 




O 5 lO 15 20 25 30 

Hrs.per Ohm-of-one-vo/t 

Fig. 20. Continuous lamp discharges. 

remains nearly constant, as in the light service type of curve. 
Assuming as before for an extremely high resistance the voltage 
to be about 1.45 a lamp of the same resistance at this voltage 
would have 0.83 times this resistance at 1 volt. Hence this lam.p 
would have an "equivalent resistance" in this case of 1, or 1.20 
times its resistance at 1 volt. The maximum conversion factor 
for lamps, therefore, is 1.20. Conversion factors are plotted 
against the curve index for lamp discharge in Plot 17, 



CHARACTERISTICS OF A DRY CEI,!,. 



323 



The life for a given lamp discharge is approximated from the 
constant resistance data exactly as in the case of constant current 
life. (See above.) The one additional feature is to use the 
insert in Plot 21 to figure first the drain at 1 volt and from this 
the "ohms-at-1-volt" are found. 




Tbconi/ert current 
drain at rated volt- 
aqe to cfrain at one 
volt, multiply ty 



1.00 




^ I Z 4- & 16 



i Ohms resistance at one volt 

Fig. 21. Service efficiency curves for lamp discharges. Insert shows factors for 
converting current drain of lamps at rated voltage to drain at one volt. 

Application to Batteries of More Than One Cell. 

As we have already said all results given in the foregoing tables 
are based on a single cell. Single cells, of course, are seldom used 
in practice, a battery usually being made up of at least two cells 
in series. In referring to batteries of various types we will use 
the notation of our Multiple Batteries. 



Cells in Series. 

It is obvious that two cells in series through 2 ohms will not 
be the same service as one cell through 2 ohms, as the two cells 
will have double the voltage, hence will deliver twice the current. 
Two cells in series through 2 ohms will therefore be equivalent 
to one cell through 1 ohm. Likewise as to end points. If two 
cells discharge to 0.8 volt end points this is equivalent to one cell 
to 0.4 volt cut off. 



324 C. A, GILUNGHAM. 

For equal service conditions then: 

Ohms for N Cells in series. 
Ohms for single cell = 



Cut oflf for single cell =- 



N 
Cut off for N Cells in series. 



N 



Where current drain is given the question of cells in series 
does not enter except as it applies to end point. 

Cells in Multiple. 

Two cells in multiple through 2 ohms would give the same cur- 
rent through the coil as one cell through 2 ohms, but the drain 
for each cell is half as great as for the two cells. The two cells 
in multiple through 2 ohms will therefore be equivalent to one cell 
through 4 ohms. Where current drawn from a battery is given, 
the drain per cell is, the total drain divided by the number of cells 
in multiple. End point is, of course, independent of number in 
multiple. For equivalent service, then: 

Ohms for single cell = ilf x Ohms for M cells in multiple. 

^ J • r • 1 11 Current output of M cells in multiple. 
Current dram for smgle cell = ^ jj — 

Cells in Multiple Series. 

By combining the formulae in the two previous paragraphs we 
obtain the following general formulae : 

Ohms for one cell =: - - x Ohms given for the battery. 

N 

Current drain for one cell —-^^^ Current drain for the battery. 

M 

End point for one cell =— - x End point for the battery. 



A paper presented at the Thirty-fourth Gen- 
eral Meeting of the American Electro- 
chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J., 
Sept. 30, 1918, President Tone in the Chair. 



HARDNESS OF SOFT IRON AND COPPER COMPARED. ^ 
By F. C. KellEt.' 

Abstract. 

Samples of American "Ingot Iron" and ordinary commercial 
cold-rolled copper were given similar treatments in an electrically- 
heated vacuum furnace, and then carefully tested for hardness by 
the Brinell methods. The treatment consisted in annealing several 
hours at 770° to 950°, annealing in hydrogen and in a vacuum. 
Commercial copper ranged from hardness 80, as received, down 
to 40; ingot iron from 95 down to 60. The dead-soft iron can 
be whittled with a knife, and may find uses in place of pure soft 
copper. [J. W. R.] 



The experiments which I am about to describe were undertaken 
to determine how soft the purest grade of commercial iron pro- 
duced in this country could be made after annealing, and how 
its hardness compared with that of copper. 

The material used for these experiments was American ingot 
iron from two different manufacturers. The sheet bar material 
was 5/32 inch (4 mm.) thick. The copper was ordinarily cold- 
rolled copper from our stock room. Two different thicknesses, 
^ in and ^ in. (19 and 16 mm.), were used in these experiments. 

The hardness tests were all made by the standard Brinell 
method. The load applied in all tests was 500 kilograms, and 
the diameter of the ball used was 10 millimeters. Two different 
impressions were made upon each sample, so that we could have 
a check upon all tests. 

The hydrogen annealing described below, under methods 3 and 
4, which produced the best results, was done in a resistance fur- 

* Manuscript received August 12, 1918. 

' Research Physicist, Research Laboratory, General E^lectric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

325 



326 F. C. KELLEY. 

nace consisting of a porcelain tube wound with platinum ribbon. 
The wound tube was enclosed by a steel casing containing alumi- 
num oxide for insulation. The hydrogen was dried and highly 
purified. 

The vacuum anneal which gave the next best results was done 
in the Arsem vacuum furnace, which consists of a water- and 
air-tight casing containing a graphite grid or helix, gripped in 
water-cooled copper terminals, and enclosed by a graphite screen. 
The results of this anneal are given below under method 5. 

Our factory anneal, given under method 2, below, is a treat- 
ment at 765° C. for 8 hours in a furnace heated by oil. The 
sixth method of treatment described below consisted of inclosing 
the iron samples in a copper tube, closed at each end by a copper 
plug, and then inserting the copper tube into the porcelain tube 
furnace wound with platinum described above. This porcelain 
tube was also stoppered at each end. 

The iron was subjected to eight different treatments, which 
are outlined below : 

1. A sample of the iron as it came to us in the sheet bar un- 
annealed was first tested. 

2. A commercial factory anneal was given to another where 
the temperature is held at 765°-775° C. for about 8 hours. 

3. The factory-annealed sample, after being tested, was re- 
annealed in hydrogen at 900°-950° C. for three hours. 

4. Another set of samples was annealed in hydrogen at 900°- 
950° C. for three hours, without a previous factory anneal. 

5. The iron subjected to vacuum treatment was annealed at 
1,000° C. for about two hours. 

6. Samples were enclosed in a copper tube stoppered at each 
end with a copper plug so as to make it nearly air-tight. This 
tube was placed in a closed electric tube furnace and annealed at 
950° C. for three and one-half hours. 

7. A hydrogen annealed sample from the fourth experiment 
was rolled from 0.312 in. to 0.208 in. (8 to 5 mm.) or reduced to 
two-thirds of its original thickness. 

8. A piece of the original sheet bar as received was given the 
same treatment as samples in experiment number seven. 



HARDNESS OF IRON AND COPPER. 327 

The following are the Brinell hardness tests together with the 
treatments. Two tests are given on each sample: 

, Brinell Hardness ^ 

No. 1 No. 2 

1. (Jnannealed as it comes in sheet bars 97.6 95.2 

2. Factory annealed 79 4 3Q q 

3. Factory annealed sample reannealed in hydrogen 57.8 63.0 

4. Hydrogen annealed 62.2 61.0 

5. Vacuum annealed 62.2 65.8 

6. Annealed in closed copper tube 66.6 66.0 

7. Cold rolled to ^ of its original thickness after a 

hydrogen anneal 95.7 95 7 

8. Cold rolled as received to ?^ of its original thickness 110.5 112.5 

It is of interest to know that this hydrogen- or vacuum-treated 
iron may be whittled with a jack-knife as easily as our commer- 
cial copper. 

The following are the analyses of the two makes of American 
ingot iron used in these tests, the iron having been determined by 
difference : 

1 2 

Iron by difference 99.915 99.908 

Carbon 0.05 0.06 

Manganese 0.02 0.02 

Silicon trace none 

Sulphur, gravimetric 0.010 0.010 

Phosphorus 0.005 0.002 

Four different experiments were tried on the copper, which are 
given below : 

1. Commercial copper bar as it comes to us was tested without 
any treatment. 

2. Commercial copper bar ^ inch (16 mm.) in thickness was 
hammered cold to two-thirds of its original thickness. 

3. A piece of copper bar % inch (19 mm.) in thickness was 
annealed in a commercial gas furnace to about 600° C, so that 
it was dead soft. 

4. A piece of the same bar after receiving commercial anneal 
was rolled to two-thirds of its original thickness. 



32 8 F. C. KELI^^Y. 

The following are the results of the above tests : 

I Brinell Hardsess , 

No. 1 No. 2 

1. Unannealed copper bar 82.2 792 

2. Unannealed copper hammered to ^ of its original 

thickness 87.4 96.8 

3. Commercial annealed copper 40.6 40.2 

4. Commercial annealed copper rolled to Yz of its 

thickness 89.4 92.6 

The sample which was hammered was hit with a steam hammer, 
and shows that it received a little more working in one sopt than 
another, due to the fact that the face of the hammer was not 
parallel with the block upon which the copper was hammered. To 
check the result, I rolled a piece of copper so that the reduction 
would be uniform, and the results are nearly the same. 

The following conclusions may be drawn from these experi- 
ments : 

American ingot iron subjected to a hydrogen anneal gives iron 
with a hardness about 20 points higher than that of dead-soft 
copper, while a vacuum anneal is nearly as good. 

If annealed copper and annealed iron are each worked to pro- 
duce a one-third reduction in thickness, the hardness of the copper 
increases over 100 percent of its original hardness, while iron in- 
creases only about 60 percent. 

The range of hardness between dead-soft copper and commer- 
cial copper as we receive it is between 40 and 80, while the range 
of hardness between hydrogen-annealed ingot iron and the com- 
mercial material ranges between 60 and 95. 

Carefully annealed ingot iron could be used in many places 
where copper is now used because of its softness. 

Research Laboratory, 

General Electric Co., , 

Schenectady, N. Y. 



HARDNESS OF IRON AND COPPER. 329 

DISCUSSION. 

Colin G. Fink^ :. Some years ago, in our search for a substi- 
tute for platinum, we came across this same problem. We found 
that the metal which is wet by glass most readily and to which 
glass will adhere most readily is copper. Unfortunately, copper 
has a co-efficient of expansion of almost twice that of platinum 
or glass, and accordingly we could not make an air-tight seal 
with solid copper. It then occurred to me that if we could in 
some way modify the co-efficient of expansion of copper, we 
would have an ideal leading-in wire on account of the high con- 
ductivity of the copper and its "affinity" for glass. The way we 
went about it was this : We took a copper tube which has a co- 
efficient of expansion about 1.8 that of glass, and inserted inside 
the tube a rod composed of nickel-steel alloy which had a co-effi- 
cient of expansion of about 0.6 that of glass, so that the mean co- 
efficient of the compound copper-clad rod was equal to that of 
glass. I then attempted to roll and draw the composite rod. But 
the difficulty then encountered was that the copper, being so much 
softer than the nickel-steel core, would work down and the core 
would hardly change in dimensions. Well, to make a long story 
short, what finally made a success of this composite wire was 
hydrogen treatment of the nickel-iron core so as to bring its hard- 
ness down to a point comparable with that of copper, in order 
that the composite rod would work down evenly to the very finest 
sizes (0.004 inch (0.1 mm.) diam.). There was no difference in 
the ratio of copper to core from start to finish, and this result 
was absolutely impossible without this hydrogen treatment. 

F. C. Kelley : In answer to Mr. Fink's discussion of hydrogen 
annealing of nickel-steel alloy, used as the core of a copper-cov- 
ered wire, I would say that his statements are correct. I have 
never tested the Brinnell hardness of nickel-steel with the com- 
position used in this wire, but I know that such steel, after a 
hydrogen anneal, can be worked inside of a copper sheath to the 
dimensions which he gave. I have examined under the micro- 
scope samples of this wire, and found the sheath to be of quite 
uniform thickness. 

*Head of Laboratories, Chile Exploration Co., New York City. 
22 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Alphabetical Directory of Members 4 

An Apparatus for the Separation of Radium Emanation and Its Deter- 
mination Electroscopically — J. E. Underwood and Herman 

Schlundt 203 

Apparatus for the Separation of Radium Emanation and Its Determina- 
tion Electroscopically — J. E. Underwood and Herman Schlundt. .203 

Applications, Military, of Electroplating — Wm. Blum 169 

Atwater, C. G. — Discussion 112, 127 

Bancroft, W. D.— Discussion 78, 292 

Bancroft, W. D. — Scientific Research After the War 75 

Beckman, J. W. — Discussion 103 

Beckman, J. W. — Surplus Electric Power After the War 97 

Blum, Wm. — Military Applications of Electroplating 169 

Bradley, Linn — Discussion 115 

Cell, Dry, Discharge Characteristics of a Certain Make of — C. A. 

Gillingham 297 

Characteristics, Discharge, of a Certain Make of Dry Cell — C. A. 

Gillingham 297 

Chlorine, Commercial Uses of — V. R. Kokatnur 155 

Chlorine, Electrolytic, The Future of— A. H. Hooker 149 

Coho, H. B. — Discussion 73 

Commercial Uses of Chlorine — V. R. Kokatnur 155 

Copper, Hardness of, and Soft Iron Compared — F. C. Kelley 325 

Determination Electroscopically, of Radium Emanation, An Apparatus 

for the Separation of — J. E. Underwood and Herman Schlundt. .203 

Directory of Members, Alphabetical 4 

Directory of Members, Geographical 48 

Discharge Characteristics of a Certain Make of Dry Cell — C. A. 

Gillingham 297 

Dry Cell, Discharge Characteristics of a Certain Make of — C. A. 

Gillingham 297 

Electric Furnace After the War— F. A. J. FitzGerald 121 

Electric Pig Iron After the War— Robert Turnbull 143 

Electric Power, Surplus, After the War — J. W. Beckman 97 

Electric Steel, The Future of— J. A. Mathews 131 

Electrochemical Industries, Tariff Problems in the — Grinnell Jones 81 

Electrochemistry After the War, Symposium on 67-175 

331 



332 INDEX. 

PAGE 
Electrode, Processes Within the, Which Accompany the Discharge of 

Hydrogen and Oxygen— D. P. Smith 177 

Electrolytic Chlorine, The Future of— A. H. Hooker 149 

Electroplating, Military AppHcations of— Wm. Blum 169 

Electroscopical Determination of Radium Emanation and an Apparatus 
for the Separation of the Same — J. E. Underwood and Herman 

Schlundt 203 

Emanation of Radium and Its Determination Electroscopically. — J. E. 

Underwood and Herman Schlundt 203 

Emanation of Radium, Notes on the Heterogeneous Equilibrium of 

Hydrogen and Oxygen Mixed with — S. C. Lind 211 

Emerson, H. — Discussion 137 

Equilibrium, Heterogeneous, of Hydrogen and Oxygen Mixed with 

Radium Emanation — S. C. Lind 211 

Fink, CoHn G.— Discussion 185 et seq., 199, 252, 289 et seq., 329 

FitzGerald, F. A. ].— Discussion 127 et seq., 197 

FitzGerald, F. A. J.— The Electric Furnace After the War 121 

Frary, F. C— Discussion 188, 196, 293 

Furnaces, Nitrogen Fixation — E. Kilburn Scott 221 

Furnace, The Electric, After the War— F. A. J. FitzGerald 121 

Future of Electric Steel— J. A. Mathews 131 

Future of Electrolytic Chlorine— A. H. Hooker 149 

Geographical Directory of Members 48 

Gillingham, C. A. — Discharge Characteristics of a Certain Make of 

Dry Cell 297 

Government and the Technical Man After the War— F. A. Lidbury 67 

Guests and Members Registered at the Thirty-fourth General Meeting. . 3 

Hardness of Soft Iron and Copper Compared— F. C. Kelley 325 

Heterogeneous Equilibrium of Hydrogen and Oxygen Mixed with 

Radium Emanation — S. C. Lind 211 

Hooker, A. H.— The Future of Electrolytic Chlorine 149 

Hydrogen and Oxygen Mixed with Radium Emanation, Notes on the 

Heterogeneous Equilibrium of — S. C. Lind 211 

Hydrogen and Oxygen, Processes Within the Electrode which Accom- 
pany the Discharge of — D. P. Smith 177 

Iron, Electric Pig, After the War— Robert Turnbull 143 

Iron, Soft, Hardness of, and Copper Compared — F. C. Kelley 325 

Jones, Grinnell — Discussion 86 

Jones, Grinnell— Tariff Problems in the Electrochemical Industries 81 

Kelley, F. C. — Discussion 329 

Kelley, F. C— Hardness of Soft Iron and Copper Compared 325 

Kokatnur, V. R. — Commercial Uses of Chlorine 155 



INDEX. 333 

PAGE 

Kruesi, P. J. — Discussion 127 

Landis, W. S. — Discussion 77, 100 et seq., 112 et seq., 253 

Landis, W. S. — The War and the Nitrogen Industry 105 

Lidbury, F. A. — The Government and the Technical Man After the 

War 67 

Lind, S. C. — Notes on the Heterogeneous Equilibrium of Hydrogen and 

Oxygen Mixed with Radium Emanation 211 

Mathews, J. A. — Discussion 141 

Mathews, J. A.— The Future of Electric Steel 131 

Members and Guests Registered at the Thirty-fourth General Meeting. . 3 

Military Applications of Electroplating — Wm. Blum 169 

Miller, Dwight D. — Discussion 138 

Mott, W. R.— Discussion 79, 187, 198, 253 et seq., 289 et seq. 

Mott, W. R. — Relative Volatilities of Refractory Materials 255 

Nitrogen Fixation Furnaces — E. Kilburn Scott 221 

Nitrogen Industry and the War — W. S. Landis 105 

Notes on the Heterogeneous Equilibrium of Hydrogen and Oxygen 

Mixed with Radium Emanation — S. C. Lind 211 

Oxygen and Hydrogen, Mixed with Radium Emanation, the Heterogen- 
eous Equilibrium of — S. C. Lind 211 

Oxygen and Hydrogen, Processes Within the Electrode Wliich Accom- 
pany the Discharge of — D. P. Smith 177 

Pig Iron, Electric, After the War — Robert TurnbuU 143 

Potentials, The Sign of— O. P. Watts 189 

Power Situation After the War— C. A. Winder 87 

Power, Surplus, Electric, After the War — J. W. Beckman 97 

Problems of Tariff in the Electrochemical Industries — Grinnell Jones.. 81 

Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth General Meeting 1 

Processes Within the Electrode Which Accompany the Discharge of 

Hydrogen and Oxygen — D. P. Smith 177 

Radium Emanation, An Apparatus for the Separation of, and Its Deter- 
mination Electroscopically. — J. E. Underwood and Herman 

Schlundt 203 

Radium Emanation, Notes on the Heterogeneous EquiUbrium of 

Hydrogen and Oxygen Mixed With — S. C. Lind 211 

Randall, H. E. — Discussion 92 et seq., 128 

Refractory Materials, Relative Volatilities of — W. R. Mott 255 

Relative Volatilities of Refractory Materials — W. R. Mott 255 

Research, Scientific, After the War — W. D. Bancroft 75 

Richards, J. W.— Discussion 78, 93, 135 ^^ seq., 187, 198 et seq. 

Saunders, L. E. — Discussion 85, 101 et seq. 

Schluederberg, C. G. — Discussion 78, 94 et seq., 138 



334 INDEX. 

PACK 

Schlundt, Herman, and Underwood, J. E. — An Apparatus for the Sep- 
aration of Radium Emanation and Its Determination Electro- 

scopically 203 

Scientific Research After the War — W. D. Bancroft 75 

Scott, E. Kilburn — Discussion 113 et seq., 128, 140, 252 et seq. 

Scott, E. Kilburn — Nitrogen Fixation Furnaces 221 

Separation of Radium Emanation, An Apparatus for, and Its Deter- 
mination Electroscopically — J. E. Underwood and Herman 

Schlundt 203 

Sign of Potentials— O. P. Watts 189 

Smith, Acheson — Discussion 102 

Smith, D. P. — Discussion 185 et seq. 

Smith, D. P. — Processes Within the Electrode Which Accompany the 

Discharge of Hydrogen and Oxygen 177 

Soft Iron, Hardness of, and Copper Compared — F. C. Kelley 325 

Steel, Electric, The Future of— J. A. Mathews 131 

Surplus Electric Power After the War — J. W. Beckman 97 

Symposium on Electrochemistry After the War 67-175 

Tariff Problems in the Electrochemical Industries — Grinnell Jones.... 81 
Technical Man, and the Government After the War — F. A. Lidbury. ... 67 

The Electric Furnace After the War— F. A. J. FitzGerald 121 

The Future of Electric Steel— J. A. Mathews 131 

The Future of Electrolytic Chlorine— A. H. Hooker 149 

The Government and the Technical Man After the War — F. A. Lidbury 67 

The Power Situation After the War— C. A. Winder 87 

The Sign of Potentials— O. P. Watts 189 

The War and the Nitrogen Industry — W. S. Landis 105 

Tone, F. ].— Discussion 199 et seq. 

Turnbull, R. — Discussion 125 

Turnbull, Robert— Electric Pig Iron After the War 143 

Underwood, J. E., and Schlundt, Herman — An Apparatus for the Sep- 
aration of Radium Emanation and Its Determination Electro- 
scopically 203 

Volatilities, Relative, of ' Refractory Materials— W. R. Mott 255 

Vom Baur, C. H. — Discussion 126 

War and the Nitrogen Industry — W. S. Landis 105 

War, Electrochemistry After the. Symposium on 67-175 

Watts, O. P.— Discussion 200 

Watts, O. P.— The Sign of Potentials 189 

Winder, C. A.— Discussion 94 et seq. 

Winder, C. A.— The Power Situation After the War 87 




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