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Full text of "Universal historical dictionary, or, Explanation of the names of persons and places in the departments of Biblical, political, and ecclesiastical history, mythology, heraldry, biography, bibliography, geography, and numismatics"




















VOL. 1. 






As the new Proprietor is anxious that nothing should be wanting to render complete 
a work which has already obtained such universal approbation, he 1ms arranged with the 
Author to make such additions, by way of Appendix, as shall embrace all matters of interest 
down to the present period. Among the articles in Biography, which distingnish this edition, 
are an ample account of Bonaparte, Lord Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Madame Bonaparte, 
Lord Tenterden, and others, who have died in the course of the last year and previously. 
The Heraldic part has been enlarged by an account of all who have received titles, either in the 
Pee'-ige or Baronetage, down to the end of the last year, so as to make this the completest thing 
of its kind that has ever been published on that subject. Under the head of Archaeology, Geo- 
graphy, and History, the reader will be pleased to find a short account of the old boroughs in 
England that have been disfranchised by the Reform Bill, and in every other branch of know- 
ledge, additional articles have been inserted of all such matters as are now interesting to the 

Newgate Street, Feb. 1, 1833. 


As the plan which has been pursued in the execution of the Historical Dic- 
tionary so nearly resembles that which has already met the public approbation in 
a preceding work from the pen of the same compiler, little remains for him to add 
by way of explanation. The subjects which compose the Technological Dictionary 
relate more or less to the arts and sciences, those contained in the Historical 
have all an immediate reference to the history of nations, or of particular persons 
and places. Under the general head of History, marked by the abbreviation {Hist.) 
is comprehended an account of all persons whose names occur in political history : 
under the head of Biblical History, marked (Bibl.) are classed the names of persons 
or places occurring in the Bible : a description of the heathen deities is marked by 
the abbreviation (Myth.) for Mythology : under the names of persons in their capacity 
as authors, artists, &c. distinguished by the abbreviation {Biog.) for Biography, 
may be found a succinct account of their personal history, so far at least as relates 
to their family, time and place of their birth, and time of their death, together 
with a more particular account of their works, and their several editions, &c. : the 
articles marked (Geog.) for Geography, embrace the names of such places only as are 
entitled to notice, either from their antiquity or connexion with general history ; in 
the account of which is included the ancient and modern name of the same places, 
together with a comparative view of the places themselves as to their ancient and 
modern state, and the several events of any importance which have befallen them 
at different periods : several of the fore-mentioned heads, particularly those of 
Mythology, History, and Geography, have received a farther illustration from medallic 
accounts, distinguished by the abbreviation {Numis.) for Numismatics. 

As the object of the compiler has been to give this work the most extensive 
utility that its limits woidd admit of, he has endeavoured to make a selection of such 
articles as should be of the most general interest, and the most likely to meet the 
immediate wishes and wants of those who consult a work of this nature for infor- 
mation. How far he has succeeded in the attainment of this end it is not for him 
to decide ; but he is satisfied that no material omission will be found ; and for casual 
inadvertencies in minor points, he relies on the indulgence of a candid public, which he 
has experienced on a former occasion. 


Will place all the Plntes, in their numerical Order, at the End of 

the First Volume. 




AA, Peter Van der (Biog.) a bookseller of Leyden, who com- 
piled and published, under the title of ' Galerie du Monde,' 
an immense collection of maps, &c. in 66' vols, folio. He 
also continued " Graevius' Thesaurus Antiquitatum Italia;," 
besides other works, and died about 1730. 

Aa, Charles Henri/ Fan der, a Lutheran minister at Haerlem, 
had the principal hand in establishing the Haerlem Society 
of Sciences in 1752, and died in 1795. 

Aa (Gcog-.) aa signifies, according to Hesychius, o-vcjj/ui 
vCaroc, i- e. a conflux of waters : so a in the Saxon, and aa 
in the Danish, signifies either water generally, or a river, 
whence it has become a name common to many rivers in 
Switzerland, France, Holland, &c. 

AAGARD, Nicholas (Biog.) was born at Wiburg, and died 
at the university of Sora, where he was professor in 1657- 
He wrote among other things ' A Treatise on Subterranean 
Fires.' Sao:. Onom. vol. 5. 

Aagard, Christian, a Danish poet, brother to the preceding, 
was born in 1616, and wrote " De Hommagio Frederici 
III. &c. He died in 1664, leaving a son, Severin Aagard, 
who wrote his father's life. 

AAGESEN, Sucitd (Biog.) in Latin Sueno Agonis, a Danish 
historian, and secretary to Archbishop Absalon, wrote 
1, * Compendiosa Historia Rcgum Dania> a Skioldo ad 
Canutum VI.' 2, ' Historia Legum castrensium Regis 
Canuti Magni.' 

AAIN, Charain (Geog.) a village six miles from Jerusalem, 
said to be the place where Zacharias lived, and John the 
Baptist was born. It is frequented by pilgrims, and has a con- 
vent built on the spot whereon stood the house of Zacharias. 
D'Avity Descript. de I'Asie. 

AALAM (Biog.) likewise called Ehna-la-Alam, an Arabian 
astrologer in the ninth century. Pocock. Hist. Orient. 

AALSH, Everard van (Biog.) a painter at Delft, was born 
in 1602, and died in 1658. He was most happy in painting 
fruits, and pieces of armour, &c. 

Aalsh, William van, nephew of the preceding, excelled his 
uncle in the art of painting, to which he successfully devoted 
his life, and died in 1679- 

AAMA, Cullandin (Hist.) a king of Ethiopia, in the eighth 
century. Gcnebrard. in Chron. 

AANEYA (Gcog.) a province of Scotland, now Angus. 

AARON (Bibl.) p-in«, son of Amram, of the tribe of 
Levi, was born A. M. 2430, A. C. 1547, and died 
A. M. 2552, A. C. 1452, at Mosera, on Mount Hor, 
where he was buried by Moses in a place unknown to 
the people. He was consecrated the first high priest of 
the Hebrews ; which office was continued in his fa- 
mily in the person of his two youngest sons Eleazer and 

Iphthamar. Being gifted with remarkable eloquence, Philo 
Judaeus makes Moses to be allegorical for mind, and Aaron 
for speech : Qavra yap ruvra tu> \6yo> avflfiipilKtv be act\- 
(f>6g tare Ctariiiac, Omnia hax sermoni accidunt qui frater 
menti est. Phil. Jud. lib. " Quod deterius insidiatur." 

Aaron (Hist.) there were several Arabians and Persians who 
bore this name : 

Aaron, or, according to the Arabians, Harun Arraschid, son 
of Mahdi, a Babylonian Caliph, begun to reign in the year 
170 of the Hegira, A. D. 780, and died in the year 192 
of the Hegira, A. D. 802. He was a valiant and successful 
warrior, and a distinguished patron of learning, but per- 
fidious towards the conquered, and capricious towards his 
own subjects. Presents were interchanged between him and 
Charlemagne. Thcophan. C/ironog. ann. 773 ; Paid. Diac. 
1. 24, c. 4. ; Sigcbcrt. Chron. ann. 802 ; Pocock's AbuL 
Pharaj. Hist. Orient. 

Aaron, Ainiralmummin, a king of Persia, who sent presents 
to Charlemagne. Sigebert, in his Chronographia, mentions 
the two preceding under the distinct names of Aaron Amy- 
muslin and Aaron Ammiras. liginhard in Fit. Carol. Mag. 
Annal. Franc. 802. 

Aaron, Isaac, a magician, and the particular confident of 
Manuel Comnenus. He recommended to Andronicus to put 
out the eyes and cut out the tongues of his enemies, which 
punishment was afterwards inflicted on himself, by order of 
Isaac Angelus, who had expelled Andronicus from the 
throne. Nicct. Chron. Annal. 1. 4. 

Aaron, brother of Buprastus, and governor of Baaspracan 
or Media, beat the Turks A. D. 1042. Ccdren. Comp. 
Hist. p. 286. 

Aaron, a vaivod or governor of Moldavia, in 1 59 1, took part 
with Sigismund XI. against the Turks. Thuan. Hist. 
1. 110, c. 6. 

Aaron, a king of the Bulgarians, who being elected to reign 
conjointly with his three brothers, was killed by his surviving 
brother Samuel. Ccdren. Compcnd. Hist. p. 183. 

Aaron, St. (Ecc.) a Britain, who suffered martyrdom, in 
the year 303, during the persecution under the emperor 

Aaron (Biog.) a presbyter of Alexandria, in the seventh 
century, and author of thirty books of physic in the Syriac 
tongue, which he called ' Pandects.' Freind. Hist. Med. 
p. 473. 

Aaron, Ben Ascr, a rabbi of the fifth century, to whom the 
invention of the Hebrew points is attributed. He wrote a 
Hebrew grammar. Gencbr. Chron. ann. 492. 

Aaron, a Levite of Barcelona, who wrote 613 precepts on 
Moses, published at Venice in 1523. He died 1292. 


AARON, =on of Joseph, surnamed the Caraitc, a Jew phy- 
sic inn, flourished in 1299j and left several works on the Old 
i ment. 

Aabon, Hariscon, a Jewish Rabbi, and a physician of Con- 
stantinople, towards the end of the 13th century, wrote 
Commentaries on the Old Testament, and a Treatise on 

Aaron, Hacharon or Posterior, another Caraite of the 14th 
try, wrote on the law of Moses and the customs of 

AARON, Ben Chaim, a chief of the Jewish synagogues at 
Fez and Morocco, in the 17th century; wrote ' Commen- 
taries on Joshua, the Law, the Prophets,' &c. 

AARSEN . Francis (Hist.) Lord of Smoldych and Spyck, 
tnd one of the most celebrated negotiators of the United 
Provinces, was born at the Hague in 1572, and died in 
1 641. His father, Cornelius Aarsens, was secretary of state. 
; A Journey into Spain,' historical and political, attributed 
to him by the Dictionnaire Historique, was written by a 
grandson of Lis of the same Christian as well as surname, 
who was drowned in his passage from England to Holland 
in ICj'J. Du Manner's Memoirs. Urcijuijbrt's Treatise 
on Ambassadors. 

AASEE (Geog.) 'Atreo, or Aasar, a city in the tribe of Judah, 
now shown as a great village to those going to Ascalon from 
AzotUB- F.useh. apud Ilier. de Loc. Heb.; Adricliom de 
Locis Scriptur. 

AHA (Hist.) "A, la, a daughter of Xenophanes, who obtained, 
from Antony and Cleopatra, Olbus, a town of Cilicia, as her 
"\vn, over which her father had been placed as governor. 
St rah. 1. 11. 

Aba or Abas, a king of Hungary, who was slain by his sub- 
jects, in 1 04 1. Bon/in. Rer. Ungar. 1. 2, dec. 2. 

Aba or Abas, a magician, who was put to death, by the 
Caliph Mervan's order, for persecuting the Christians. 
Theoph. Chronograph- p. 353; Paul. Diacon. Rerum Rom. 

Aba (Geog.) or Aba;, the name of several towns. 1. "AjSai, 
ending to Herodotus j or "A/Sij, according to Strabo. A 

town of Piiocis, celebrated for an oracle and temple of 
Apollo, wlio was therefore surnamed Abeus; its inhabit- 
ants, the Abantes, migrated to Euba-a after the destruction 
of their country by Xerxes. Herodot. 1. 8, c. 23 ; Strah. 
1. 10; Pans. 1. 10, c. 55. 2. "ll/3i;, a town of Italy between 
the Volsci, Sena, and Sativinia. Ptol. 1. 3, c. 1. 3. A city 
of Caria. Steph. Bi/r.. de Vrh.; Clurer. 1. 2, c. 3. 4. "Afioc, 
a mountain of Armenia Major, on which the Euphrates 

took its rise. Strah. 1. 2 ; Pan. lib. 5, c. i.'l. 

ABABA (Hist.) mother of the Roman Emperor Maximums 
//,.• elder, by Mica, a Goth of Thracian origin. Jul. Capitol, 
in Max,} Jomand. de Regn. Success, c. .si. 

ABAC.LNA (GeogO vide Abacatnum. 

AB \< ENINUS (Geog.) vide Abaeasnum. 

ABAC ENUM (Geo;.) a town of Sicily, called by Diodorus 
■mi Stephanos 'A/faKaivov, by l'tolemy 'Afiaxtuva, and sujp- 
■ i by Iionfilius to be the present Tripi. The gentile 
name i AbacsninUS, U appears from an inscription on a 
medal A.BAKAINON, which, in some coins is written 
ABAKAIN, ABAK, and even ABA. Diodor. Sic.\. 14, 
c. 01 : Plot. 1. .;, c. 1; Steph. Buz. de Vrh. ; Fazcll. de 
/,',/,. Sicul. dec l, 1. 8, c. 7; BonjU. Sictd. Rer. part l, 

lib. 1 ; CUlV. de ("oil. Antiq. 1. 2, c. 12; llardiiin. Summ. 
Antiqui 'Must. 
Aiiai.i.NtM (Smiiis.) the medals >«MEy, ^"7 , 

of Abacanum, in Sicily, [vide -^^§VV__ 
AbacaminiQ represent, on the [lifSfr-^r \ /Y>. 
Obverse, as in tlie annexed cut, 
a head of Jupiter crowned with 
laurel ; on the reverse, a boar, 
supposed to be. emblematical of the Erymanthian boar, 


with an acorn before it, and the legend ABAKAINI. 
Panda. Sicil. Deseritt.; HOrville Sicul ; Pemh. Numismal- 
Antiq. ; Hunter. Numismat. Vet. Popul. ; Pcllerin. Rccucil. 
de Med. des Peitp. 

ABACCO, Antonio (Biog.) an architect, and a scholar of 
Antonio di San Gallo, who in the year 1558 published 
' Libri d' Antonio d'Abacco appartenente a l'Arehitettura, 
con la rjuale si figurano varie notabile antichita di Roma,' 
with fine paintings engraved by himself. Tiraboschi calls 
this writer Labaceo. 

ABACEXA (Geog.) vide Abacwnum. 

ABACHES (Gt'oif.) a town of Lydia, now Hahackes. Marmol. 
1. 8, c. 1. 

ABACIVOCALLA (Gcot;.) a town in Picardy, now Abbeville. 

ABACUC (Bibl.) vide Habakkuk. 

Abaclc (Ecc.) a martyr in the time of Claudius Caesar. 

ABACUM (Geog.) a town of Germany, now Abach. 

ABADE (Geog.) or Sheck Abadc, a village of Egypt, 80 miles 
south of Cairo, supposed to be the antient Antinoe. It i? 
now the resort of pirates. 

ABADI (Biog.) or Ehn-al-Ahadi, author of a book on the 
punishments threatened to sinners in the Alcoran. 

ABAFFI, Michael (Hist.) son of a magistrate of Harman- 
stadt, was made prince of Transylvania, in lCOT, through 
the influence of the Grand Turk. 

Abaffi, Michael, son of the preceding, succeeded hLs father 
in the principality of Transylvania, which he was obliged 
to resign to the emperor Leopold. He afterwards lived in 
retirement at Vienna, and died in 1713. 

ABAGA (Hist.) a Khan of the Tartars, in 1280, who re- 
covered his kingdom from the Turks, and made himself 
formidable to the Crusaders. Gcneh. Chronog. ; Cahis- 

ABAGARUS (His/.) vide Abgants. 

ABAGATHA (Bibl.) Nruan, 'Af3ayada, a eunuch or officer, 
of king Ahasuerus. Esth. i. 10. 

ABAGES (Geog.) vide Abasci. 

ABAI-HOUSSAN (Biog.) wrote a book to reconcile the dis- 
crepancies in the Koran. 

ABAKA-KHAN (Hist.) eighth Emperor of the Moguls, of 
the race of Genghis-Khan, who succeeded his father Hulaku 
in the year of the Hegira 666, A. D. 1^7(), and died after 
a reign of seven years. 

AliAKUM (Ecc.) a priest, the leader of a sect in MoMtiw 
who was put to death for causing a seditious tumult against 
the patriarch, in 1684. 

ABALANTIUS, Leo (Hist.) a Greek, who assisted John 
Zemisces in the murder of the emperor Nicephorus, at the 
instigation of Thcophaitia. Ceilren. Compend. Hist. 

ABALITES, Sinus (Geog.) a bay of the Trogloditic sea, now 
the gtdf of Zeila. Pun. 1. ti, c 89- 

ABALLABA (Geog.) or Ahellaha, a Roman station in West- 
morland, now Ajiplcb'/- Notit. Imper. Occident.; Cambd. 
Hi it. p. <)80. 

ABA LLO (Geog.) a town of Burgundy, in France, now 
Aral/one. Anlonin. I/in. 

AliALI.o (NumtS.) a medal of 
this town, represents, on the 
obverse, a mule, with the 
legend ABALLO; on the 
reverse, a head encircled 

with a sort of diadem. Pel- 

leu, i ReeueiL de Med. ile.s 1'ciip. PI. 1, fig. 1. 
ABALPHAT (Biog.) a geometrician of Ispahan, in the Kilh 

century, from whe se version the four last books of Apol- 

Umius have been taken. 
ABALUS (GtOg.) an island in the German ocean. Pirn. 

1. 87, e. 2. 
AHANA (Bibl.) rm«, i. e. Abaneh, made of stone, a name 

for a river of Damascus, mentioned by Naaman, 2 Kings, xii. 


It is supposed by Calmet to be the river called Barrady or 

Abana (Geog.) one of the Antilles, now Havamiah. 

ABANBUS (Geog.) or Abanktu: 'As&roe, according to 
Ptolemv ; a river of yEthiopia, running into the Nile. 
Ptol. Li c. 8. 

ABANCAY (Geog.) 1. The former capital of Peru, Ion. 72° 
26' W, lat. 13° 32' S. celebrated by the victories over Gonzalo 
Pizarro, by the king's troops, in 1542 and 1548. 2. A 
river of Peru, which runs into the Uaragnon, seven leagues 
and a half above its junction with the Apurimae. 3. A town 
of Peru, on the river Abancay, and principal place of juris- 
diction, about 35 leagues in circumference. 

ABANDAZES (Hist.) 'A/3arcu£oc, a secretary to Chosroes, 
king of Persia, was sent by him on a mission to Belisarius. 
Cedren. Compend. Hist. 

ABAXO (Biog.) vide Apono. 

Abano (Geog.) a town five miles S. \Y. Padua, famous for its 
waters. It is situated in a country anciently called Apotuis. 

ABANTA (Geog.) " Afiay-a, a city near Parnassus, where was 
a temple of Apollo. Phavorinus. 

ABANTES (Geog.) 1. "Apamc, a people of Ionia, so called 
from Abas, a son of Neptune, who carried them into Phocis. 
They afterwards occupied the island of Euboea ; and had 
the reputation of being very warlike, according to Homer. 
//. 2, v. 536. 

OV£' 'Evfioiav i\nv fiivea miovrfc "ApWref. 

Herod. 1. 8, c. 33 ; Strah. 1. 10 ; raus. 1. 10, c. 55. 2. A 

river in the territory of Apolloniates. 
ABANTIAS (Hist.) or Abantiades, a patronymic given to 

the descendants of Abas, king of Argos, such as Acrisius, 

Danae, Perseus, Atalanta, cic. Ovid. Met. 4. 
ABANTIDAS (Hist.) Wparrlcac, a man who, having made 

himself master of Sicyon, murdered Clinias, the father of 

Aratus, and was himself, soon after, assassinated. Plut. in 

ABANTIS (Geog.) or Abantias, "Apairtc. 1. Another name 

for Euboea, so called from its ancient inhabitants the Abantes. 

Strab. 1. 10; Plin. 1. 4. c. 12; Dionys. Perieg. v. 510. 

2. A country of Epirus. Pans. 1. 5, c. 22. 
ABANTONIUM (Geog.) a town of Picardy, now Aubenton. 
ABANVIVARIENSIS Comitatus (Geog.) a province of Hun- 
gary, near the Carpathian mountains, now Abanvivar. 
ABARANUM (Geog.) a town of Armenia, now Abaraner. 
ABARATHA (Geog.) 'AfiapaOa, a town in the island of 

Taprobana, near Asia. Ptol. 1. 7, c 4. 
ABARAUM (Geog.) a town of Guinea, in Africa, now 

Abaraus or Aboraas. 
ABARBAREA (Myth.) 'A/3ap/3ap£7j, one of the Naiades, who 

was mother of ./Esepus and Pedasus, bv Bucolion. 

Horn. II. 1. 6, v. 23. 

Bi; c*{ /iit' A'ftivov Kai nijiaaov, «'c irori vvptn 
~Sil1r 'AtlapfSaph] rite' dfirpovt BzKoXiuivi. 

ABARBANEL (Biog.) vide Abrabanel. 

ABARCA (Hist.) a king of Arragon and Navarre, who was 
successful in his wars with the Saracens. He was killed in 
an engagement with the Castilians after a reign of twentv- 
one years, A. D. 920'. Marian, de Rcb. Hispan. 1. 7, c. 20. 

ABAREA, Peter (Biog.) a Spanish Jesuit, was born at Jacca, 
in Arragon, in 1619, and died in 1661. He wrote Latin 
treatises ' On the Knowledge and Will of God,' &c. 

ABARI (Geog.) "Apapoi or "Apapec, a tribe of Scythians, 
who being driven from their settlement on the shores of 
the Euxine, migrated to the Bosphorus. Evagr. Ecc. Hist. 
1. 5, c. 1. 

ABARICUM (Geog.) 'Afianiajy, a town of Aquitania. Mar. 
dan, ct Heracleot. in Peripl. 


ABARIM (Bibl.) a>-UK passages, the name of certain moun- 
tains beyond Jordan, where the Israelites had several in- 
campments. Num. xxvii. 12. 

ABARIMON (Geog.) a region of Scythia, near mount 
Imaus, the inhabitants of which were remarkably swift. 
Plin. 1. 7, c. 2. 

ABARIS (Myth.) "Apapic, a Scythian, and son of Scuthes, 
who is fabled to have received from Apollo a flying arrow, 
by means of which lie could transport himself to any part 
he pleased. He is represented by Plato as very skilful in 
incantations, by which he could remove or keep off diseases ; 
hence it is inferred that he was skilled in physic. He is 
also called 'AtOpoflarTis, and is supposed to have lived in or 
about the third Olympiad. Hcrodot. 1. 4, c. 35 ; Plato 
Charm, c. 28; Strab. 1. 7; Pans. 1. 3, c. 13; Jamblieh. vita 
Pi/lhag. c. 28. 

Abaris, a man whom Perseus slew. Ovid. Met. 1. 5, v. 86. 

Abaris, a Rutulian, slain by Euryalus. Firg. Mn. 1. )i 
v. 344. 

ABARITANA (Geog.) a place in Africa Propria, whence 
Pliny speaks of the Abaritana Arundo. Plin. Nut. Hist 
1. 16', c. 36 ; Viet. I'lieen. de Pers. Vandal. 1. 1. 

ABARNUS (Geog.) " Afiapvoe, a country and promontory of 
Parthia. Steph. Byz. de Urb. ; Joseph. Antiq. 1. 12, c. 14. 

ABAPRAZUS (Geog.) a town of Syria, between Cyrrha. 
ami Edessa. Anton. Iti/ier. 

ABARTUS (Hist.) "Afiuproe, a descendant of Codrus, who 
was made king of Phocsea. Pans. 1. 6. 

ABAREUM (Geog.) a town of Syria near Mount Antiliba- 
nus, now Abaro. 

ABAROON (Bibl.) the surname of Eleazer, fourth son of 
Judas Maccabsus, who was crushed by an elephant that fell 
upon him after he had pierced it. Josephus calls him 'Avpui 
Antiq. 1. 12, c. 14. 

ABARUS (Hist.) vide Abgarns. 

Abarus, a native of Numantia, who addressed Scipio Afu- 
canus in behalf of his fellow citizens. 

ABAS (Myth.)" Ajiac, a centaur, son of Ixion and Nubes, and 
a famous hunter. Ovid. Met. 1. 1 2. 

Abas, a son of Neptune and Arethusa. Apollvd. 1. 1, c. 25. 

Abas, a son of Hyppolon and Metanira, who was changed into 
a lizard bv Ceres, for railing at her sacrifices. Ovid. Met. 
1. 5, fab. C ; Interpret Nicand. in Theriacis, v. 488 ; Cat. 
Rhodig. 1. 19, c. 4. 

Abas, a Greek slain by jEneas, during the Trojan war, whose 
brazen shield the conqueror carried away, and deposited in 
the temple of Apollo, with the following inscription, accord- 
ing to Virgil, /En. 1. 3, v. 288. 

JEneaA httc de Davais lictiwibus nrma. 

Abas, a Trojan ally, son of Eurydamus, slain by Tvdidcs. 

Horn. II. 5, v. 150. 
Abas, a companion of /Eneas, who was lost in the storm. 

I'irg. .En. 1. v. 121. 
Abas, a Latin Chief, who assisted .Eneas against Turnus. 

He is called by Virgil torvus Abas. Mn. 1. 10, v. 170. 
Abas (Hist.) son of Lynceus, or, according to some, of Belus, 

reigned 23 years over Argos, A. M. 2573, A. C. 1384. His 

descendants Proetus, Acrisius, &c. were called Abantiades. 

Apollod. 1. 2, c. 2; Hygin. Fab. 170, eye. Pans. 1. 2, e. 16, eye ; 

Euseb. in Chron. lib. post. 
Abas, a king of the Tuscans, according to Manetho, A M 

Abas, a king of Hungary. Vide Aba. 
Abas, a Saracen diviner. Vide Aba. 
Abas, princes of Persia. Vide Abbas. 
Abas (Biog.) a soothsayer, to whom the Spartans erected a 

statue in the temple of Apollo, for his services to Lysander. 

Pans. 1. 10, c. 9. 
B 2 


\b.\~, a soplii<t wlin wrote historical commentaries and a 
treatise on rhetoric. Siiidas; I'oss. de Hist. Grwc. 1. 3. 

ABAS, B writer on the siege of Troy, quoted by Servius in 
lirs. Jin. 

Abas (Geog.) V""- '• A river of Armenia Major, where 
Pompey routed the Alhani. l'lui. in Pump. 2. A mountain 
of Armenia. [Vide Aba.] 

\V, ASCANTOS (Myth.) another name for the god (Eon. 
Tertull. coat. Gnosticos. c. 1. 

ABASCANTUS (Biog.) a physician of the second century, 
whose antidote is mentioned by Galen. De Antidot. 1. 2,c. 11. 

ABASCI (Geog.) or Abasgi, 'AjSamcoi; a people of Seythia, 
who, according to Procopius, were Christians. Arrinn in 
Perpl. Eux. Pont.; Prorop. de Bell. Per. 1. 2, c. 29- 

ABASCUS (Geog.) 'Aflamcoe, a river of Asiatic Sarmatia. 
Anion, in Peripl. Eux. Pont. 

ABASEXI (Geog.) 'AjSifraijvoi, a people of Arabia. £<?/>/(. 
L'y;. de Urn. 

ABASSA (Hist.) sister of Aaron Raschid, was bestowed in 
marriage by lier brother on Giafar, on condition that they 
should not cohabit together as man and wife. Having 
broken the condition, the husband was put to death by 
order of the Caliph, and the wife left to deplore her mis- 
fortune and her love, which have been described in some 
Arabic poetry. 

AbABSA, a Turkish officer, who, being unsuccessful in an ex- 
pedition against the Poles, was strangled by order of the 
Sultan Mustapha I, in 1634. 

ABASSARUS (Hist.) Wfiaooupoc, a governor who was ap- 
pointed by Cyrus to preside over the rebuilding of the temple 
at Jerusalem. Joseph. Ant. 1. 16, c. 1. 

ABASSENI (Gcog.) the gentile name for inhabitants of 
Abassus, as appears from the inscription ABACHNilN on 
a coin of the emperor Septimius Severus. Vaillant. Numis- 
mat. Grcec; Patin Xumis. Imperator. Romanor. 

ABASSON (Hint.) an impostor, who pretended to be the 
grandson of Abbas the Great, under which character he 
imposed on the court of France and the Grand Seignior, 
until he was detected and beheaded by order of the latter. 

ABASTER (Myth.) i. e. block, one of 'the three horses which 
drew the chariot of Pluto. The others, according to Boc- 
cace and Giraldus were Methcus, obscure, and Tepidus, 
warm. Claudian and others assign four horses to him, of 
which Alastor is one. 
De Raptu Proserpina', 1. 1, v. 284; 

Oqihneus crudelc micant, Agthonqui sagitta 
Uciar, el Stygii sublimit gtmia Ifyet << 
Armadi, DititJIU nota signuLus Alastor, 

Boccal. de Dear. Genealog. 1. 8, c. 6 ; Lil. Girald. de Dcor. 

Gen. Syntag. 6. 
ABATE, Andrea (Biog.) a Neapolitan painter, who executed 

the figures in the Escurial for Charles II. of Spain. He 

died about IT:;'.'. 
VBATI, Anthony {Biog.) an Italian poet, wrote, among other 

things, ' RagguagKo di Parnasso contra Poetastri e Partc- 

giani delle Nazioni:' 8vo. : and died in 1677- 
AbATI, Niccob dell', native of Modena, a painter, and 

coadjutor in the great works at Fontainbleau, died at Pans 

in 1572, aged (ill. 
ABATI, Pietro Paolo, a brother of the foimer, whose paint- 
ings arc placed in the gallery of Florence. 
Abati, Ercole, a grandson of Niceolo, a great genius for 

painting, but a dissolute character, he died in 10 13, 

aged 50. 
ABATOS (Top.) an epithet for a place erected at Rhodes by 

Artemisia, queen of (aria, to commemorate her victory over 

the Rhodians, who, to prevent all access to it, surrounded 
it with a high wall, and called it AbatOS. I'ilruv. 1. 2, C. 8; 

Qgl Rhodig. Led. Antiq. L IS, c. 33. 


ABAUCHAS (Biog.) 'A/3<<vx«e> a man mentioned by Lueinn, 
who preferred to save his friend Gyndanes before his wife 
or children. Lucian in Tot'aptc >'i *t\i'a. 

ABAUHII (Gcog.) Ahiiiri, or Abunhus, the name given by 
the inhabitants of Upper ^Ethiopia to the Nile. Marmot, 
L'Afrique, 1. 10, c. 10. 

ABAUN/A, Peter de (Biog.) a doctor of civil law, was born 
at Seville, and died in 1 649- He wrote, 1 . • Pradectionee 
ad Titul. xv. Libri v. decretalium.' 2. Commentaries in 
Spanish on some books of Martial. 

ABAUZIT Firmin (Biog.) a mathematician of Geneva, 
and correspondent of Sir Isaac Newton, wdiose miscella- 
neous works included, ' An Essay on the Apocalypse,' 
' Reflections on the Eucharist,' ' On Idolatry,' &c. He died 
in 1767. 

ABAZ-HOUSSAN (Biog.) son of Beddr, and brother of 
Abbas, died in 981 of the Hegira. He was the author of 
a book on the Alcoran, entitled ' Asfar KO Khelaf.' 

ABAZEA (Myth.) or Abazeia, vide Sabuzia. 

ABBA (Geosr.) "A/3/3a, a city of Africa near to Carthage. 
Po/yb. 1. 14; Liv.l. 30, c. 7- 

Abba Garitna, an ancient church of Abyssinia said to have 
been built in 560, 50 miles E.S.E. Sire. 

ABBADAN (Gcog-.) a citadel of Arabia Petrea, near to 
the Tigris, now Abadan, according to Gollius. Not. in 

ABBADIE, James (Biog.) a protestant divine, was born at 
Ney, in Berne, in 1658, &c. and died in 1727- His works 
were principally on divinity. Niccron, vol. 33, p. 386. 

ABB^ETORUM (Nnmis.) a people of Mysia, according to 
an inscription on a coin, ABBAITS2N MYSiiN. Haym, 
Thcs. Brit. 

ABBARUS (Hist.) 'Aftflapoc, a priest of Astarba, in Tyr, 
who succeeded Baal. Joseph. Contra Appion. 1. 1, c. 7- 

ABBAS (Hist.) or Al Abbas, a name common to several 
Saracen princes and distinguished persons. 

Princes oj' this Name. 

Abbas, Al, first caliph of the race of the Abbassides. QVide 

Abu I Abbas.'] 
Abbas, Schah, surnamed the Great, was the seventh king of 

the Persians, of the race of the Sophis. He died after a 

glorious reign of forty-four years, in 1629. Chardin, Voy. 

en Perse, torn. 1, p. 125, et scq.; Herbert, Trav. p. 115. 
Abbas Sc/iah, grandson of the preceding, succeeded his father, 

in 1642, in the thirteenth, and died in the 37th year of his 

age. Tavern. 1. 5, c. 1, &c 
Abbas Mirza, son of Hussein Shah. [Vide Mirza.] 

Distinguished Persons of this Name. 

Abbas, the uncle of Mahomet, who first opposed his nephew, 
believing him to be an impostor; but being defeated in a 
battle and taken prisoner by him, afterwards became one of 
his most active partisans. 

Abbas, Ebn Abbas Abdullah, cousin german to Mahomet, and 
one of the most considerable doctors among the mussulmen 
of the class called Sahabah, or companions of the prophet, 
was the author of a book entitled ' Targinman Alcoran,' 

i. e. an i nterp r eta tion of the Koran. 
Abbas, Ebn Sahel, a successful general employed by Abdallah, 

Ebn Zobeir. 
Abbas, Omar, B successful general against the Greeks, in the 

caliphate of Abda'lmalec, in the year of the Hegira 98, 

A. 1). 703. . 

ABBAS, governor of Kay, conspired with others against Massud, 

ninth saltan of Ivah, but failed in his attempt. 
ABBAS, Al, brother of caliph Al Mansiir, was governor of 



Abbas, Al, a vizier of Al Dhafer Beinovillah, caliph of 
Egypt, assassinated his master, but was soon after killed in 

Abbas, Al, son of the caliph Al Mamun, resigned his pre- 
tensions to the caliphate, in favour of his uncle, Al Motasem, 
by whom he was afterwards put to death. 

Abbas Al, Elm Al Abbas, succeeded as a general, in Sicily, 
against the Christians, in the caliphate of Al Motawakfcel. 

Abbas Al, Ebn Omar, a general under the caliph Al Motamed, 
was defeated by the Karmatians, with whom he afterwards 
induced his master to make peace. 

Abbas, Haiti (Biog.) or AH Ebnol Abbas, according to Abul- 
pharagius, otherwise called the Magus ; a learned Persian 
physician, who wrote his book entitled ' Almaleci,' or Royal 
Work, A. D. 9SO, which was translated into Latin by 
Stephen of Antioch, in 1127- Abulph. Hist. Dyn ; Friend. 
Hist. Med. p. 481. 

ABBASSIDES (Hist.) the second line or race of Saracen 
caliphs, descended from Abbas, the uncle of Mahomet, who 
raised themselves on the ruins of the house of Ommiah, and 
reigned over Persia, Syria, Arabia, Egypt, Africa, and Spain. 
Their empire, which was kept entire until A. D. 910, was 
completely overthrown A. D. 1258, by the irruption of 
the Tartars. 

Chronological Succession of the Abbassidcs. 

Abu'l Abbas Al Saffah, grandson of Abbas, the uncle of 

Mahomet, after the overthrow and death of Merwan, 

was acknowledged caliph in the vear of the Hegira 132, 

A. D. 742, died 136-746'. 
Abu Jaafar Almanzor, his brother, succeeded him in the year 

of the Hegira 136, and died in 158. 
Al Mohdi, his son, reigned from 158 to 169- 
Al Hadi, his son, from l6f) to 170. 

Aaron, or Hanin Al Rascl/id, his brother, from 170 to 193. 
Al Amin, his son, from 193 to 198. 
Al Mamun, his brother, from 198 to 218. 
Al Mdtasem, his brother, from 218 to 227. 
Al Walheck, son of the above, from 227 to 232. 
Al Molawakkcl, another son of Motassem, from 232 to 247. 
Al Montascr, son of Motawakkel, from 247 to 248. 
Al Mosta'in, grandson of Al Motasem, from 248 to 252 
Al Motaz, brother of Al Montaser, from 252 to 2.55. 
Al Mohtadi, son of Al Wathek, from 255 to 25C. 
Al Mo'tamed, another brother of Al Montaser, from 256 

to 279- 
Al Mo'tadcd, nephew of the above, from 279 to 289. 
Al Moctqfi, son of the above, from 289 to 295. 
Al Moctader, another son of Al Mo'taded, from 295 to 319- 
Al Kd/ier, third son of Mo'taded, from 319 to 322. 
Al Radi, son of Al Moktader, from 322 to 329. 
Al Mottak, another son of Al Moktader, from 329 to 333. 
Al Mostalifi, son of Moctafi, reigned but one year and four 

Al Moti, another son of Moktader, from 334 to 363. 
Al Taf Lilian, his son, from 363 to 381. 
Al Kader Bi'llah, grandson of Al Moktader, from 381 to 422. 
Al Caiem, his son, from 422 to 467- 
Al Moktadi, grandson of the above, from 467 to 487- 
Al Mostader, his son, from 4S7 to 512. 
Al Mostarshed, his son, from 512 to 529- 
Al Rashed, his son, from 529 to 530. 
Al Molrfqfi, second son of Mostader, from 530 to 555. 
Al Mostanged, his son, from 555 to 566. 
Al Mostadi, his son, from 566 to 575. 
Nasser, his son, from 575 to 622. 
LViaher, his son, reigned about nine months. 
Al Mostanser, his son, from 622 to 640. 
Al Mostazem, his son, the last caliph, was dethroned by the 

Tartars in the year of the Hegira 656, A. D. 1266. 


j ABBASSIOPOLIS Tebriozorum (Geog.) one part of the city 
of Ispahan, according to Golius. not. in Atfragan. 
ABBATEGIO, Marian d' (Hist.) an ecclesiastic of the four- 
teenth centurv, who was made governor of Aquila. 
ABBATI, Nico'/o (Bio?.) vide Abati. 
ABBATISCELLA (Geog.) a town of Helvetia, now Ap- 

ABBATISVILLA (Geog.) a town of France, now Abbe- 
ABBATISSA, Paul (Biog.) a Sicilian poet of Messina, was 
born in 1570. He translated the Iliad and Odyssey, and 
Ovid's Metamorphoses, into Italian verse. 
ABBATIUS, Baldus Angelas (Biog.) probably an Italian phv- 
sician, although called by King an Englishman, was the author 
of some treatises, as * De admirabili Viperoe Natura,' &c. 
ABBE, Peter V (Biog.) a Jesuit of Clermont, who wrote 
some poems in Latin, which were printed at Grenoble. 
Fol. 1664. 
Abbe, Louisa, a native of Lyons, and wife of a cordwainer, 
was distinguished by her poetical talents in the sixteenth 
century. She wrote, among other things, ' Debat de Folie 
et d' Amour,' Lyons, 1555. 
Abbe, an engraver and native of Antwerp, who published 

some prints in 1670. 
ABBEFORTIA (Geog.) a town of Norwav, now Abbe fiord. 
ABBEXDOXIA (Geog.) a town of Berkshire, now Abingdon. 

Camd. Brit. vol. 1, p. 156. 
ABBEX-TYBOX (Biog.) a celebrated Rabbi of the 14th 

century. Ge/wbr. in Chronog. 
ABBERBURY (Geog.) a village in Shropshire, seven miles 
N.W. Shrewsbury, where was an alien priory founded in the 
reign of Henry I, and granted by Henry VIII to All Souls' 
College, Oxford. 
ABBEVILLE (Geog.) a town of Ponthieu, in France, in the 
department of the Somme, 22 mOes X.W. Amiens, and 60 
S. Calais. Lob. 1 50' E, lat. 50° 37' N. It derives its 
name from the Abbey of St. Ricquier, to which it be- 
longed, and became afterwards the capital of the province. 
Nicholas Sanson, Pierre du Val, and Philip Brietius, 
were born in this city, which has manufactures for cloth, 
canvas, &c. 
Abbey Mi/Ion, or Mil/on Abbas, a village of Dorset, sup- 
posed to derive its name from an abbey founded by Athel- 
stane, in atonement for the murder of his brother, seven 
miles X T .W. Blandford, and 111 London. 
ABBIATI, Filippo (Biog.) a painter, was born at Milan in 
1640, and died in 1715, aged 75. One of his best works is 
St. John preaching in the wilderness. 
Ahbiati, Giuseppe, a Milanese engraver, who lived at the 

beginning of the 1 8th century. 
ABBO, Cernuus (Biog.) a monk of St. Germain-des-Pres, 
who wrote, among other things, ' A Poetical Relation of 
the Siege of Paris by the X'ormans and Danes, towards the 
End of the Ninth Century.' Of this siege he was an eye- 
witness. Foss. de Lat. Lin. lib. 2, c. 38 ; Cane. Hist. Lit. 
vol. ii, p. 63 ; Fubr. Bibl. Lat. Med. JElai. ; Sax. Onomast. 
vol. ii, p. 130. 
Abbo, Floriacensis, or Abbot of Fleuri, a Benedictine monk 
of the 10th century, who wrote ' Epitome de Vitis Ponti- 
ficum,' &c. He was killed in a quarrel that arose between 
the French and Gascons in 1004. Foss. de Lat. Lin. vol. ii, 
c. 41 ; Care, Lit. Hist. vol. ii, p. 63; Fabr. Bibl. Gr. lib. 6, 
c. 1, p. S7 ; Sax. Onomast. vol. ii, p. 163. 
ABBOT, Sir Mai/rice (Hist.) descended from a Devonshire 
family, and brother of Archbishop Abbot, was employed on 
various occasions as a commissioner, and on the accession of 
Charles I was the first person on whom the honour of 
Knighthood was conferred. 
Abbot, George (Ecc.) brother of Sir Maurice, was born at 
Guildford in Surry Oct. 29, 1562; was entered at Baliol 


College, Oxford, in 1 57S i took his batchelor's degree April 
Jlj 1582j and his master's degree, December 17, 1585. 
After being three times vice-chancellor of the University, he 
was promoted to the see of Coventry and Lichfield, May 
J?. lli'iH); translated from that to the see of London, Jan. 
20, lG0y-10; preferred to the see of Canterbury on the 
following year, and died on the 5th August, 1633. He was 
t L r reat opponent of Laud's, and deeply engaged in the 
troubles and disputes of the times, which formed the prin- 
■ ■ipal subject of his writings. [Vide Plate 11]. Fuller's 
Worthies, p. 83 ; Wood's Athena:, vol. i, p. 583. 

Abbot, Hubert, eldest brother of the Archbishop ; was made 
Bishop of Salisbury, Dec. 3, 1615, and died March 2, 1617- 
He wrote, ' The Mirror of Popish Subtleties,' and many 
Other similar works. Fuller's Worthies, p. 82 ; Wood's 
Athena:, vol. i, p. 5S3. 

Abbot (Her.) the name of a family, which at present enjoys 
the dignity of the peerage which was conferred in 1817, 
on the Right Honourable Charles Abbot, Speaker of the 
House of Commons, under the title of Baron Colchester, of 

Abbot, George (Bios') nephew of the Archbishop above- 
mentioned, wrote ' The whole book of Job paraphrased,' eve. 
and died Feb. 4, 1618, aged 44. 

Abbot, Robert, a clergyman, published ' Four Sermons: ' 8vo. 
Lond. 1639- It is doubtful whether he is of the same 
family as the above. 

Abbot, John, a resident in Georgia, wrote ' The Natural 
History of the rarer Lepidopterous Insects,' published in 
1797, 2 vols. fol. 

Abbot, Lemuel, an English portrait-painter, native of Lei- 
cestershire, died in 1808, aged 40. 

ABBOTS-LANGLEY (Geog.) a village in Hertfordshire, 
l mailable as the birth-place of Nicholas Breakspear, who, 
under the title of Adrian IV, was the only Englishman 
that ever became pope. 

ABBT, Thomas (Biog.) a German miscellaneous writer, was 
bom Nov. 25, 1738, at Ulm, and died Nov. 27, 1766. 

ABCHAMAZ (Myth.) one of the Anakims, a rib of whom, 
nine Spanish palms long, and two broad, was seen by Ben- 
jamin, of Tudela, hanging up in a palace at Damascus. 
/ Tudel. I liner, p. 56. 

ABD (Hist.) i. c. Abdul, an abbreviation or syllable affixed 
to several Saracen names; as, 

Abd-Celal, son of Dul Awad, succeeded Amru Tabbai, as 
king of Arabia. Ali'i/J'. apud Pocock, p. (il. 

Aud-Menaf, the son of Kosa, was declared prince of the 

Abd-Shem, i. e. servant of the Sun, a king of the Yemans 
Arabians, succeeded Yaskab. Golii Notce ad Alfragan. 
; : Pocock in mil. ml :V/j(v. Hist. Arab. p. 57. 

ABD A (Bibl.) Ntai', aubdaoi abda, a servant ox servitude, 
from 12J to serve, father of Adoniram, who was one of 
Solomon's princes. 1 Kings, iv. 6. 

ABD.EUS (Hist.) 'A, -;,%«.,«, father of Cheles, a high priest 

ABDAGASES (Hist.) 'A0Say&cn)s> or Abdageses, an officer 
of Artabanus. 

ABDAGESES (Hist.) king of Parthia, whoj with his son, 
h '1 Tiridates to dethrone his master. This attempt 
failing, Abdagases is supposed to have returned to his duty. 
Tacit. Annul. I. fi. c. 36. &c. ; Joseph. Ant. 1. IS, c. 12. 

ABD'AL (Hist.) i. e. Abit'allu, an abbreviation affixed to 
1 Saracen names ; as. 

Abd'aL, Ala, vide Atu. 

Ahd'al, l)ur, chief of the Arabians in the time of Mahomet. 

AiiDAi,, Massih, who foretold the advancement of Mahomet. 

Abd'al, Motaleb, vide Abdalmulaleb. 

AJBDALA (Hist.) vide. Abdullah. 

ABDA L AMID (Hist.) admiral of the fleet of Abd'ulrahman, 


which was shipwrecked, in the year of the Hegira 266', 
A. D. 876. El Makin. Hut. Sarac. p. 170; Rodcrie. Tolci. 
Hist. Arab. c. 29. 

ABD'ALANEZ (Hist.) vide Abdulazis. 

ABD'ALAZIZ (Hist.) vide Abdulazis. 

ABD'ALCADER (Biog.) surnamed Gluli, an illustrious sheik 
or doctor among the mussulmen. 

ABDALCAHER (Biog.) a grammarian and celebrated authoi 
of the ' Aouamcl,' translated into Latin under the title of 
the ' Centum Regentes,' that is, a hundred Arabian par- 
ticles having particular governments. 

ABD'AL-DAR (Hist.) vide Abd'al. 

ABD'ALGAFER (Biog.) author of Chronicles of the City 

ABD'ALHOKM (Biog.) Elm or Ben Abd'allvokm, an Ara- 
bian, and author of a book entitled ' Fotuh Mesr,' or the 
Conquests made in Egypt. 

ABD'ALKARIM (Hist.) a general under the caliph, Al 

ABD'ALLAH (Hist.) or, as it is variously written, Abd'iUu, 
Abd'ollah, Abd'ulla, Abdula, See., a name common to many 
Saracen princes and distinguished persons. 

Saracen Princes in Asia of this Name. 

Abd'allah, a brother of the caliph Yesid, according to 
Marmot, killed Merwan, who had been proclaimed caliph 
of Syria. He was in his turn defeated, and killed in the 
year 67 of the Hegira, A. D. 677- Marmol. 1. 2, c. 8. 

Abd'allah, Ebcn Zobeir, another competitor for the caliphate 
with Abdulmalic, was defeated and killed, after one year's 
reign, in 73 of the Hegira, A. D. 683, at the siege of Mecca. 
ElMakin. Sar. Hist. 1. 1, c. 10 ; Roder. Hist" Arab. c. 8 ; 
Marmol, L'AJ'rique, 1. 2, c. 8. 

Abd'allah, a name affixed to that of several caliphs, parti- 
cularly of Abul Abbas, the first- caliph of the house of the 
Abassides; Abu Jaafar Al Mansur, the second; Abu Musa, 
the 6th ; Al Mostacfi, the 27th, &c Entych. Annul. ; El 
Mahin. Hist. Arab. ; Abulfaraj. Dynast. 

Abd'allah, a competitor for the caliphate with Abul Abbas, 
was assassinated by him in the same year, after having 
reigned a short time in Syria. El Mahin, 1. 2, c. 2 ; Marmot, 
L'AJ'rique, 1. 2, c. 19. 

Abd'allah, son of Ibrahim, and grandson of Tamerlane, a 
caliph of Persia, was killed in battle by his successor, 
Abusaid Mirza, A. D. 1451. Mirklumd. Chronol. apud 
Texeira. Relal. 1. 2. 

Saracen Princes in Africa of this Name. 

Abd'allah, succeeded his brother, Bahamu, as king of Trc- 

mecen, in the year 0.36 of the Hegira, A. D. 1546. Marmot. 

L'AJ'rique, 1. 5, c. 11. 
Abd'allah, son of the preceding, and king of Tremecen, was 

treacherously killed in the 953d of the Hegira, A. D. 1563. 

Marmol. L'AJ'rique, 1. 5, e. 11. 
Abd'allah, surnamed Mulcy, son of Mahomet, died cheriff 

of Morocco, in 1574. Thuan. Hist- 1. 20, c 1, &c. ; Diego 

de Turr. Hist, de Cher, c 110. 
Abd'allah, Ishmael, son of Mulcy, cheriff of Morocco, was 

deposed and assassinated by a fanatic of the name of Cid 

Ilamet Ben Abdala, 1607. ' Thuan. Hist. 1. 138, c. 3. 
Abd'allah, son of Muley Ishmael, succeeded his father as 

emperor of Morocco, 1731. Braithnaile' s Hist, of Barbary, 

p. 329, ct scq. 

Saracen Princes in Europe of this Name. 

Abd'allah, Aven Mangy, a king of Arragon and Valcntia, 
recovered bis estates, by the help of Charlemagne, in 797- 
Aimonius, 1. 4, c 68 ; Dupleux Hist, de France saiti 


Abd'allah, a king of Valentia, revolted against his nephew, 
Al Hakiru, king of Cordova ; and also against Abd'alrah- 
m';n, his son and successor, until his death, in 209- Roderic. 
Told. c. 23, &c. 

Abd'allah, the son of Lopez, was king of Toledo, in the 
vear of the Hegira 267, A. D. 877. Marian, dc Reb. Hiip. 
I 7, c. 19. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Mohammed, of the race of the Ommiades, in 
Spain, was proclaimed king of Cordova, in the year of the 
Hegira 276, A. D. SS6, where he reigned 25 years. Roderic. 
Totet. Hist. Arab. c. 30; Marian, de Reb. Hisp. 1. 7, c. 19; 
Marmot, L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 25. 

Abd'allah, brother of Al Mondar, commenced his reign in 
Cordova, in the 295th year of the Hegira, A. D. 905, and 
died in the vear 300. He was succeeded by Abd'alrahmun. 

Abd'allah, king of the Arabians in Sicily, died in 986. 
Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 2S. 

Abd'allah, a general of Mahomet, king of Cordova, made 
himself king of Toledo in the year of the Hegira 399, A. D. 
1 009 ; and to strengthen his interest married Teresia, the 
sister of Alphonsus. Marmot. L'Afrique 1. 2, c. 29 ; Marian 
dc Reb. Hisp. 1. 8, c. 9. 

Abd'allah, Aben Abo, of Medina, was elected king of Gre- 
nada, by the Moors of Spain, in the year of the Hegira 960, 
A. D. 1570. Thuan. His. 1. 48, c. 1. 

Distinguished Persons of' this Home. 
Abd'allah, the father of Mahomet, who was a camel-driver 

at the end of the sixth century. 
Abd'allah, Elm Oraikat, pointed out to Mahomet the cave 

whither he and Abu Becre retired. 
Abd'allah, Elm Hajash, one of the Ansars, who being sent 

out by Mahomet to get intelligence, intercepted a caravan 

lx-longing to the Koreish. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Al Mondar, one of the infidel Koreish, was 

slain at the battle of Bedr. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Onaiv, was commissioned by Mahomet to 

assassinate Sofian Ebn Kheled, which he faithfully executed. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Raivaha, a zealous partisan of Mahomet, 

was killed at the battle of Beer. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Saad, one of the Arabians proscribed by 

Mahomet on the taking of Mecca. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Abu Kahafa, surnamed Abu Beer. Vide 

Abu Beer. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Khalal, one of the Arabians proscribed by 

Abd'allah, Ebn Zaliara, one of the proscribed for his biting 

poems against Mahomet. 
Abd'allah, Dhu'l Najadain, a zealous partisan of Mahomet, 

was buried by him with great pomp. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Obba, is said to have desired, at his death, 

that he might be buried in Mahomet's shirt. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Or/turn, secretary to Mahomet. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Masud, one of the first followers of Ma- 
homet, who was honoured with the title of Sabekah, that is, 

Abd'allah, Ebn Salam, a jew, who assisted Mahomet in 

making the Koran. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Jaafar, a general of the caliph Omar, plun- 
dered the monaster)' of Dair Abi'l Kodos. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Hoddfa, one of Omar's favourites, was 

taken prisoner by the Greeks, but released by the emperor 

Abd'allah, Ebn Nadil, one of the caliph Omar's generals, 

was successful in Persia. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Sa'ul, was made governor of Egypt by 

Abd'allah, Ebn Amer, a commander sent by Othman to 

extend the conquests of the Arabians. 
Abd'allah, Ebn Abbas, surnamed the Augur, one of Ali's 


lieutenants, is to be distinguished from another Abd allah, 
Ebn Abbas, governor of Yemen, and one of Ali's most 
faithful friends. 

Abd'allah, Ebn JVahcb, the leader of a sect of Mahometans, 
who with his party were destroyed by the caliph Ali. 

Abd'allah, Al Hadrumi, a general employed by Moawyah in 
his war with Ali. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Rqfiz, was secretary to the caliph Ali. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Amer, was appointed governor of Barra, by 
the caliph Ali. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Sabu, originally a Jew, became the leadei 
of a sect among the Mahometans. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Hazcm, was made governor of Dan, by Ali. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Omar, refused with Abd'allah Ebn Zobkr, 
to take the oath of allegiance to Moawyah. 

Abd'allah, Ebn (Jmru, was displaced from his situation as 
governor of Egypt by Moawyah. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Hazim, a strenuous partisan in favour of 
Abd'allah, Elm Zobicr, rejected the offer made by Abdul- 
melic, the caliph, and, being defeated by him, was put t< 

Abd'allah, Ebn Mot!, was set over the Koreish, by the 
people of Medina, in opposition to the caliph Yesid. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Ratal, a general under Soliman. 

Abd'allah, Elm Hantelah, was set over the Ansars. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Walt, one of the followers of Ali, embraced 
the cause of Soliman against the rival caliphs, Abd'allah ; 
Ebn Zobicr and Merman. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Yesid, was governor of Cufa. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Modmyah, aspired to the caliphate, but was 
defeated by Abd'allah, Ebn Omar, governor of Cufa under 

Abd'allah, Ebn Abut, was grandfather of the caliph Abu'l 

Abd'allah, Ebn Hosein, was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the caliphate, with Abu'l Abbas. 

Abd'allah, vide Abu'l Abbas Al Saff'ah. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Boktr, governor of Edessa, revolted against 
Abu'l Abbas. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Ali, uncle to Abd'allah Ebn Mohammed and 
Al Mansur, the two first caliphs of the house of the Abas- 
sides, was put to death by order of the latter, after an in- 
successful attempt to succeed Abd'allah Abu'l Abbas. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Ramand, a rebel, who attacked the caliph Al 
Mansur, and, with all his party, was cut to pieces. He was 
the leader of the sect of the Rawandians. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Ali, Ebn Hudij, was governor under Al 

Abd'allah, Ebn Al, Mohdi, brother of Al Raschid, was 
governor of Egypt. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Taker, was governor of Egypt under Al 

Abd'allah, Ebn Yah, was grand vizier to Al Mo'tamcd. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Raschid, Ebn Katv, a general, was taken 
prisoner in the war between the Greeks and Arabians. 

Abd'allah, Bcrebere, originally a schoolmaster and leader of 
the sect of Mohavedans or Unitarians, contrived to raise • 
rebellion against Abraham, emperor of Morocco, and to set 
Abdulmumen, of the race of Almoades, upon the throne. 
He died in the vear of the Hegira 5i3, A D, 1 153. 

Abd'allah, Alfaqui, a Mahometan preacher of the sect of the 
Almohades, "who, causing a revolt, was beheaded, by order 
of the cheriff Mahomet, in the year of the Hegira 950, 
A. D. 1560. 

Abd'allah, Beg, a native and governor of Kurdistan, ren- 
dered himself "obnoxious to Soliman, and was beheaded in 
1578. Thcophan. Chronog. ; Euti/ch. Annul; El Makin. 
Hist. Saracen. ; Greg. Abu'tfaraj. Hist. Dynast. ; Abut- 
feda. Fit. Mohammed) Roderic Totet. Hist. Arab.; Maria/, 
de Reb. Hisp. ; Pocock in vol. ad Spec Hist. Arab. ; Had. 


Belaud de Religion. Mohammed ; Pridcau.v's Life of Ma- 
hornet; Ockleu'tHitt. of the Saracens; Sale's Prelim. Pref. 

Abd'allah, Al Sagar (Biog.) was son of the preacher Abd'al- 
rahman, who converted the Christians. He became one of 
the most famous of the Al Tabei'tes, or immediate successors 
to the companions of Mahomet. 

Abd'allah, Ebn Sahel, an astronomer in the caliphate of Al 

Abd'allah, Ebn Al Hasan, an astrologer in the caliphate of 
Al MotL 

Abd'allah, Ebn Mobarek, is in great veneration among the 
Mussulnien, who visit his tomb at Hit. 

Abd'allah, Ben Henissain Bcdr Al Karob, wrote the history 
of the Abbassidcs. El Makin. Hist. Saracen, eye. vide supra. 

ABD'ALLAS (Bios;.) or Abcal, one of the Persian Magi. 

ABD'ALLATIF (Hist.) vide Abdollalif. 

ABD'AL-MA'AL (Biog.) the author of a Universal Geo- 
graphy, in Persian, entitled * the Measure of the Earth.' 

ABD'ALMAGID (Hist.) chief of the sect of the Kara- 
mians, who raised a sedition to expel the famous Doctor, 
Fakhreddin Razi. 

ABD'ALMALEK (Hist.) vide Abduhnalic. 

ABD'ALMUTALIB (Hist.) a chief of the Koreish, and 
grandfather to Mahomet, who is said to have given this 
name signifying, praised or glorified, to his grandson at 
his birth. 

ABDALONIMUS (Hist.) called by Diodorus and Plutarch 
'A\vv6uoe, one of the descendants of the kings of Sidon, 
who was reduced to the condition of a gardener; but upon 
the capture of that city by Alexander, was promoted to the 
throne of his ancestors, liiud. lib. 17; Pint, de Fort. Alex.; 
Q. Curt. lib. 4, c. 1 ; Justin, lib. 11, c. 10. 

ABD'ALRAHMAN (Hist.) or Abda'rrahmdn, Abderramen, 
Abderamc, A/iderra/imdn, Abdo' rrahnuin, Abdurrahman, as 
it is variously written, a name common to many distin- 
guished Saracens particularly of a family descended from the 
Ommiades, who being almost all destroyed in Africa repaired 
to Spain, where they reigned till the 14th century. 

Kings of Cordova of this Name. 

Abd'alrahman, surnamed Adahil, or the founder, because he- 
founded a new kingdom of the Moors, in Spain, built a 
splendid mosque at Cordova ; and, after a reign particularly 
obnoxious to the Christians, died in the year of the Hegira 
177. A. D. 787- Fat. Chron. Ann. 787; Rod. Tolet. de 
Reb. Hisp. 1. 9, c. 18; Hist. Arab.; Marian, de Reb. Hisp. 
1. 7, c. 7 ; Marmot L Afrique, 1. 2, c. 20. 

Abd'alrahman, first stamped his name on his coin. He made 
a league with Raimirus king of Castille, and died in 846 or 
85", leaving 45 sons and 42 daughters. This prince was 
employed by his father Alcahan, or, according to Mannol, 
Aliatan, to inflict a signal vengeance on the rebellious inha- 
bitants of Toledo, of whom he slew 5 or 6,000. He was 
succeeded by his son Mahomet. Fat. Ann. 839 ; Marian. 
1. 7, e. 13; Manual L' Afrique, 1. 2, c. 23. 

Abd'alrahman, surnamed the Exaltcr of the Law, succeeded 
his fattier Abdallah. He, wanting to exterminate all the 
Christians, made many martyrs during a reign of more 
than 50 years. He died in 958 or 96 1. Fat*. Ann. 918 ; 
Marian, de Reb. Hisp. 1. 7, c. 19: Mannol L' Afrique, 1. 2, 
c. 26. 

Abd'alrahman, son of Almonsor, and last of the race of the 
Abd'alrahmans of Cordova, a licentious prince, was poisoned, 
by order of his successor Mahomet, in 1062. Rod. Tolet. 
Hist. Arab. c. 32 ; Mannol. I.' Afrique, 1. 2, c 28. 

Other Princes if this Name. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Abdallah, was viceroy in Spain for nine 

months. Mannol, 1. 2, c. 13. 
Abd'alrahman, a viceroy in Spain, and one of the greatest 


captains of the age, invaded France, and fell in a desperate 
battle with Charles Martel, in the year of the Hegira 122, 
A. D. 732. Sigebert. in Chron. Ann. 732 ; Paul. JEmil. 1. 2 ; 
Roderic. Tolet. Hist. Arab. c. 14; Marian, de Reb. Hispan. 
1. 7, c. 3 ; Mannol L' Afrique, 1. 2, c. 14. 

Abd'alrahman, Alfaqui, who was the third successor of 
the preceding, governed but eighteen months. Mannol. 
U Afrique, 1. 2, c. 14. 

Abd'alrahman, king of Sane, in Morocco, was assassinated 
by Ali Ben Guecimin. Mannol. L' Afrique, 1. 6. 

Abd'alrahman, king of Guescar, in Grenada, was an ally 
with Cid, the famous captain in Spain, in the 1 1th century. 

Abd'alrahman, surnamed Al Mostada, nephew of Hassan 
king of Cordova, was elected to the throne in the year of 
the Hegira 413, A. D. 1023, but was killed soon a'fter by 
his subjects. Roderic. Tolet. Hist. Arab. c. 42. 

Distinguished Persons of this Name. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Anf, a preacher of Ismalism, whom 

Mahomet sent to convert the Christian Arabs, in which he 

was so successful at the city of Dawmat, that he converted 

Al Jandal, the prince of that city, and married his daughter. 

He was one of those styled by distinction the companions 

of the prophet, and afterwards presided at the election of a 

caliph on the death of Omar. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Abu Beer, distinguished himself at the 

siege of Bastra. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Meljem, one of the conspirators who 

assassinated Ali. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Khalid, a distinguished general under 

Moawyah, by whose instrumentality he was poisoned. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Okba, was made governor of Egypt by 

Abd'allah Ebn Zobeir. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Mohammed, a general, who carried on 

war against Al Hejaj, a khakan or governor of Irak, and 

being defeated threw himself headlong down a precipice to 

prevent falling into the hands of the enemy. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Al Mehnef, a general sent by the caliph 

Abdulmalck against the Ajarakites, by whom he was defeated 

and killed. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Khalid, was made governor of Egypt 

by the caliph Hesham, in the room of the deceased Abdul- 

malek Ebn Refia. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Mofleh, a general under the caliph 

Motamed. Thcophan. Chronograph. ; Eu/yeh. Anna/. ,- 

Cedrem. Compend. ; El Makin. His/. Saracen. ; Roderic. 

Tol. Hist. Arab. ; Marian, de Reb. Hisp. 
Abd'alrahman, Al Sufi (Bio^.) an astronomer in the time of 

the caliph Al Tay Lilian. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Omar, an astronomer, who wrote a book 

on the constellations. 
Abd'alrahman, Ebn Abdo'l Carim, an Arabian physician in 

tin' time of ,/enghis Khan. Abulfaraj. Hist. Di/nasl. 
ABD'ALUAIM, Alfeudi Meu/cvi' (Biog.) author of a book, 

entitled ' Letters Missive,' in the Arabian style. 
ABDALHASCHID (Hist.) a sultan of the race of the 

Gaznevides, was deposed and murdered by Togrol, one of 

his principal officers, in the year of the Hegira 445, A. D. 

1055. F.I Makin. Hist. Sarac. p. 271- 
ABD'ALSALEM, Ben Ccnghidest, Al Giabali (Biog.) native 

of Bagdad, a philosopher and physician under the caliph 

Nasser, whose books were burnt on suspicion of his being 

of the sect of Motazalo. 
ABDALSAMAD (Hist.) uncle of the two first caliphs of the 

house of Aliassides, who lived a long time, and died in the 

year of the Hegira 185, A. D. 795, in the caliphate of 

ABDALVAHED, Ben Abdalrazak (Biog.) surnamed Khatib 

Nessiiovi, author of a book entitled ' Sage fi Kafiet al Alage,' 

i. e. the quality of remedies of the soul. 


Abdalvahed, Ben Zeid (Biog.) was celebrated among the 
Mussulraen for his piety. 

ABDARA (Geog.) a town of Spain. [Villa Abdera.'} 

ABDARAM {Hist.) a Saracen and king of Spain mentioned 
by Luitprande, probably the same as Abd'alrahman. 

ABDARRAHMAN {Hist.) vide Abd'alrahman. 

ABDAS {Ecc.) a Persian bishop, who, in the warmth of his 
zeal, destroyed the irvpilov or holy altar, which the Persians 
dedicated to the fire as their God. He fell a victim to the 
public indignation which continued to vent itself upon the 
Christians for 30 years after. Socrat. 1. 7, c. 1 8 ; Theodorel. 
Hist. Ecc. 1. 5, c. 39; Nicephor. 1. 14, c. 19- 

ABDASTARTUS {Hist.) 'Apbavafras, a king of Tyre, who 
reigned nine years, according to Josephus. Joseph. Cont. 
Apion. 1. 1, § 18. 

ABD'CELAL (Hut.) vide Abd. 

ABDECALLAS {Ecc.) a martyr, who was beheaded by Sapor, 
king of Persia, together with Simon, bishop of Seleucia. 
Hist. Trip. 1. 3, c. 6. 

ABDECAMMAXUS {Hist.) a king of the Saracens in the 
time of Charlemagne. Blond. Hist, ab Inclin. Rom. Dec. 
2. 1. 2. 

ABDEEL (Bibl.) b»-\iv, father of Shelemiah, one of Jehoi- 
akim's princes. Jer. xxxvi. 26. 

ABDEGASUS {Hist.) vide Abdaeasits. 

ABDELARIS {Hist.) vide Abd'ollatif. 

ABDELASIS {Hist.) vide Abd'allah. 

ABDELATIF {Hist.) vide Abd'ollatif. 

ABDELCADER {Hist.) was raised to the throne of Morocco 
after the death of Ceyed, but was soon after slain by a 
usurper. MarmoL L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 28. 

ABDELCARIM (Hist.)\-ide Abd'alkarim and Abdulcarim. 

ABDELCHIT {Hist.) an Arabian Saint, who rebelled against 
the caliph Chaim Adam, and was slain by the Arabians, but 
his posterity held Bugia and Tunis till the time of the 
Almoadi. Thuan. Hist. 1. 7, c. 6'. 

ABDELI {Hist.) or Abu Abdoli. Vide Abdullah. 

ABDELMALEK {Hist.) the tenth caliph of the Persians, was 
murdered in the year of the Hegira 86', A. D. 696. 

ABDELMELECH (Hist.) vide Abdulmalic. 

ABDELMESSIAS {Ecc.) a patriarch of Egypt, who pub- 
lished a profession of faith, and sent a deputation to Clement 
VIII. Baron. Annal. 

ABDELMOMEX {Hist.) vide Abdiilmumen. 

ABDELMOX {Hist.) vide Abdiilmumen. 

ABDELMUMEN (Hist.) vide Abdiilmumen. 

ABDELQLTVER (Hist.) eldest son of the cherif Hesham, 
was killed in battle at the siege of Anega. 

ABDEMELECH (Bibl.) -firms, 'AfHtufocx, one of king 
Zedekiah's courtiers who spoke in behalf of the prophet 
Jeremiah, and helped him out of the dungeon. Jer. 
xxxviii. 8. 

Abdemelech (Hist.) or Mulct/ Moltic, king of Fez and 
Morocco, was dethroned by his nephew Mahomet, but, with 
the assistance of the Sultan Soliman, was enabled to rout 
the combined army of the usurper, and of Sebastian, king 
of Portugal. The three kings all fell in the battle, which 
was fought in 1578. Thuan. Hist. 1. 65, c. 5. 

ABDEMOX (Bibl.) 'AflSfiftmv, a boy who solved all the 
problems proposed by king Solomon. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 8, 
c. 2; Contra. App. 1. 1. 

Abdemon (Hist.) a friend of the king of Persia, who took 
possession of the throne of Cyprus, from which Evagoras 
had been driven, but was in his turn defeated by the rightful 
owner in the second year of the ninety-seventh Olympiad, 
A.C. 391. Liv. Epit. 57- 

ABDEMOXOPHES (Hist.) an Ishmaelite and a wealthy 
merchant, who bought Mahomet. At his death the impostor 
married his widow. 
ABDERA (Myth.) a sister of Diomed, who is said to have 
vol. 1. 


built Abdera, in Thrace. TheTe is a figure of her on a 
coin, with the inscription ABAHPA2 KOPA2. Mela. 1. 2, 
c. 2; Soliri. c. 1 1 ; Goltz. Num. Grcec; Harduin. Num. 
Antiq. illust. ; Spanheim. Dissert. 9- 
Abdera (Geog.) 1. Abdera ; "A/3ci/pa, according to Strabo ; 
"Apcupa, according to Ptolemy, now Almeira. A town 
of Hispania Boetica, on the shores of the Mediterranean ; 
Strab. 1. 3 ; Plin. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Ptol. 1. 2, c. 4. 2. *A/3&jpa. 
A city of Thrace, now Asperosa ; the birth-place of Demo- 
critus, Protagoras, Anaxarchus, and Hecataus. It was 
built by Temesius C'lazomenius, a Teian, according to He- 
rodotus ; or by Hercules in honour of his armour-bearer 
Abderus, according to Apollodorus : or by Diomed and his 
sister, according to Mela. The air of Abdera was very 
thick and heavy, and the Abderites, its inhabitants, were 
esteemed a stupid people ; whence Cicero calls Rome Abdera, 
on account of the absurd conduct of the senators : so like- 
wise Martial, 1. 10, Ep. 

Abderilantt pectoru plehis habes. 

Herod. 1. 1, c. 168; Apollod. 1. 2, c. 5; Cic. ad Atlicum, 
1. 4, ep. 16; Mela, 1. 2, e. 2 ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 11 ; Ptol. 1. 4, 
c. 11. 

Abdera (Numis.) both towns of this name had their medals. 

Abdera, in Spain, is known by the Latin inscription ABDERA 
on its medals, which distinguish them from those of Abdera 
in Thrace, which bear in the Greek characters the inscrip- 
ABAHPEITEilN, with the addition sometimes of the name 
of the magistrate. The Spanish town struck some medals in 
honour of Tiberius, bearing the type of fishes. Some medals of 
Vespasian, Titus, and Antoninus Pius are ascribed to Abdera, 
in Thrace, bearing the type of the grvffin. Goltz. Gra?c. Vet. 
tab. 25 ; Vaillant. Numis. Grcec. ; Patin. Numis. Impcrat. 
Roman.; Harduin. Numrn. Antiq. illust., Florez. Medal, ilc 
Espan. tab. 1 ; Gesner. tab. 1 ; Pcllcrin. Rccucil. de Med. 
des Peuples. plan. 33 ; Com. Pembroch. Numis. ; Hunt. 
Num. Vet. Pop. 

ABDERAME (Hist.) vide Abd'alrahman. 

ABDERAXES (Hist.) a king of the Saracens, who laid waste 
Barcelona in the time of Charlemagne, probably the same as 
Abd'alrahman. Blond. Hist, ab Inclin. Rom. Dec. 2, 1. 2. 

ABDERITES (Geog.) a people of Pitonia, who were driven 
from their country by the rats and vermin with which it 
was infested. Justin. 1. 15, c. 2. 

ABDERRAHMAX (Hist.) son of Mahomet, king of Morocco, 
who poisoned his father. MarmoL L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. it/I. 

ABDERUS (Mi/th.) "AfiSnpos, a Locrian, and armour-bearei 
to Hercules, who being killed by the raging mares of Diomed, 
the hero built a city near tie tomb of his friend. Apollod. 
1. 2, c. 5 ; Philostrut. Icon. 1. 2, e. 25. 

ABDI (Bibl.) Har, the son of Malluch, of the tribe of Levi, 
who waited on the priest's office. 1 Chron. vi. 44. 

ABDIAS (Ecc.) an impostor who pretended to have seen our 
Saviour, and to have been one of the seventy-two. He 
compiled a work entitled ' Historia Certaminis Apostolici.' 
Voss. Hist. Grcec. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 27 ; Du Pin. 
Hist. Eccl. Scriptor. vol. i. p. 9 ; Fab. Cod. Apoc. Nov. Test. 
torn. ii. p. 387 ," Sax. Onomast. vol. i. p. 358. 

ABDIEL (Bibl.) ^«iar, the son of Guni, of the tribe < f 
Gad. 1 Chron. v. 15. 

ABDILA (Hist.) an impious persecutor of the Christians in 
Spain under Justin. Antonin. 1. 15, c. 15. 

ABDIMOXOPHES (Hist.) vide Abdcmonophes. 

ABIRAXUS (Hist.) a king of the Saracens, who was a for- 
midable enemy to Charlemagne, probably the same as 
Abd'alrahman, the famous viceroy of Spain. Sabell. 1. 7, 
ann. 8. 

ABDISSI (Ecc.) a patriarch of Assyria, who paid homage to 
Pius IV. Thuan. Hist. 1. 32, c. 1. 


a town of Africa, now Arriana, near 
iff. 1. 7, c. 7 ; Marmot. L'Afrique, 


Tunis. Thuan 

1. 6, c. ly. 
ABDOL, Gheray {Hi si.) a Tartan general under Mohammed 

Khodabundah, defeated Arez Beg. Herbert. Per. p. 200. 
Abdol, Rakim, son of Khan Kann, was employed successfully 

as a general under the great Moguls Hemayim and Akbar. 
Abdol, Fazl, another successful general under Akbar, was 

murdered by Shak Selim, the Mogul's sou. 
Abdol, Khan, commanded the armies of the great Mogul 

Jehan Ghir, in the year of the Hegira 1020, A. D. 1630. 
Abdol, Wulid Ebn Al Hosain, revolted against the caliph Al 

Moktader, and being deserted by his troops was thrown into 

prison. Abulfaraj. I)i/n. p. 284. 
ABDOLAZIZ'(H«/.) vide Abdulaziz. 
Abdo'laziz, succeeded his father Naod Mohammed, as khan 

of Bukharia. 
ABDO'L-CARIM, vide Abdulcarim. 
ABDOL-FAZL, vide Abd'ol. 
ABDO'L-GHEHAY, vide Abd'ol. 
ABDOL-KHAN, vide Abdol. 
ABDO'LLAH {Hist.) vide Abd'allah. 
Abdo'llah, son of Isk.'mder, khan of Bukharia, succeeded his 

father, and, after an active reign, died in the year of the 

Hegira 1006, A. D. I6l6, according to Texeira ; but other 

historians place his death earlier. Tex. Relal. 1. 2, c. 58. 
Abdo'llah, Kohb Shdh, a king of Golkonda, who became 

tributary to Aureng Zib. Tavernier. Trav. p. 69, &c. ; 

Thevenat's Trav. p. 100. 
Abdo'llah, a surname of some Persian princes. QVide 

ABDO'LLATIF (Hist.) the murderer of his father Uleg 

Beg ; he was shot by his own soldiers, after a reign of six 

months, in the year of the Hegira 852, A. D. 1462. 
Abdo'llatif, Khan of great Bukharia, succeeded Abdallah, 

according to Texeira, 1. 2, c. 58. 
ABDOLLATIPH (Biog.) a Persian historian, was born at 

Bagdad in the 557th year of the Hegira, A. D. 1167- Of 

his numerous writings is preserved a treatise entitled ' Al- 

citab Alsigar or Little Book, being an Abridgment of a 

larger History of Egypt,' the MS. of which is preserved in 

the Bodleian library at Oxford. An edition of this treatise 

was published in 1800, with notes and a Latin version by 

professor White. 
ABDO'LLIS {Hist.) a tril>e of Afghans, who became tributary 

in Shab Abbas I, king of Persia. 
ABDO'LMAJLJK {Hist.) or Abddlmclec. Vide Aldulmekc. 
AliDO'LMELEC {Biog.) a geometrician of Persia, who 

translated, or rather abridged, a part of Apollonius' Conic 

ABDO'LMOMUN (Hist.) vide Abdultnumen. 
ABDCLMOTALLEB {Hut.) vide Abd'ahnutaUb. 
AliDO'L-KAKIM (Hilt.) vide Abdol. 
ABDOTL-WAHAB (Hiit.) nephew to the caliph Al Mansur, 

who made him his general. Abulfaraj. Hist. Di/n. 

p. 217- 
ABDO'LWAL {Hist.) a mussulman doctor of Samarcand had 

nr< at influence with the rabble, who favoured the interest 

of Shah Kukh in 1407- 
ABDO*L-WALID (Hilt.) vide Abdol. 
ABDON {liibl.) [i-u]>, the son of Hillel, of the tribe of 

Ephraini, tenth judge of Israel, who lift forty sons and thirty 

grand-sons, A. Si. 2840: A. C. 1165. Ju'dg. xii. 18, 15; 
I 'si. Annul. 
Abdon, the son of Jehiel, of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Citron. 

ix. 8ft 

Abdon, the son of Shaahak, of the tribe of Benjamin. 
1 C/tron. viii. 2.3, 30. 

Abdon, the son of Micah, sent by king Josiah to the pro- 
phetess Huldab, to impiire about the book of the law. 


2 Clnon. xxxiv. 20. supposed to be the same as Achbor, son 
of Micaiah. 2 Kings, xxii. 12. 

Abdon Aptw^, a city of Asher, given to the Levites of 
Gershon'a family. Josh. xxi. 30; 1 Chron. vi. 74 ; Euseb. 
Outmost. ; Hieron. de hoc. Heb. 

Abdon (Ace.) a Christian prince of Cordova, who was of 
Persian extraction. He suffered martyrdom at Home, in the 
persecution of Decius. Bolland. Acta Martii, torn. ii. 

ABDOCRBAHMAN (Hist.) vide Abd'alrahnum. 

ABDO'SSALAM (Biog.) a phvsician of Bagdad, who died in 
592 of the Hegira, A. D. 1202. Abulfaraj. Dunast. 

ABDULA (Hilt.) vide Abdullah. 

Abdula, caliph of Bagdad. Vide Mostudher. 

Abdula, a Tartar Cham of the sixteenth century, who was 
victorious over the Persians, and took thirty-two cities in 
the province of Chorasan. Relat. Dom. Johun. Vers. 

ABDULACH (Hist.) of the family of the Beni Merinis, 
made himself absolute master of Fez, in 1210. 

Abdulach, a descendent of the preceding, and son of Ahu- 
Sayd, was an effeminate prince of Fez, and was strangled 
by his own vizier. Marmol. 1. 4, c. 55. 

ABDULASIS (Hisl.) king of the Saracens, married the 
widow of King Boderic, who was an African by birth ; they 
were both killed in a mosque for having violated the law 
of Mahomet. Rod. Tolel. Hist. Arab. c. 9; Vol. in Chroh. 
Ann. 717; Marmol. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 12. 

ABDUL-AZEEM (Geog.) or Shah Abdul Azeem, a village of 
Persia, in the plain of Teheran, near to which are the ruins 
of Key, an extensive city, where Alexander the Great re- 
mained live days during his pursuit of Darius. 

ABDULAZIZ (Hist.) or Abdolaziz, a name common to the 
kings who reigned at Bugie, in Africa, till 1510, when it 
was taken by Peter, count of Navarre. Marniul. L'Afrique, 
1. 5, c. 4<). 

Abdulaziz, son of Merwan, and governor of Egypt ill the 
year of the Hegira 86, A. D. 6.96. El Makin. Hist. Sarae- 
1. I, c 12. 

Abdci.aziz, father of Omar. Vide Omar. 

ABDULCARIM, Abu Beer (Hist.) twenty-fourth caliph of 
the family of the Abassides, and sixty-fifth of the successors 
of Mahomet, began to reign in the year of the Hegira 363, 
A. D. <)73, and was deposed in 991- El Makin. Hist. Sarac. 
1. 3, c. 5 ; Abulfaraj. Hist. Dinast. p. 324. 

ABDULEDI (Hist.) a native of Seville, and a great com- 
mander, was sent by the king of Morocco to Tunis as a 
viceroy, where he governed with great prudence. Manual. 
L'Afrique, 1. 6, c. 16; Thuan. Hist. 1. 7. c. 6. 

ABD'ULMALIC (Hist.) Abd'almalic, or Abd'olmalek, the 
name of several Arabian princes. 

Princes of this Name. 
Abd'ulmalic, son of Merwan, and the seventh caliph of the 

Arabians, died in the year of the Hegira 65, A. 1). 675, 

alter a reign of twenty-one years. Rod. Tol. Hisl. Arab. 

c. 8 ; Marmol. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 9. 
Abimilmalic, Ebn Nuh Saimind, Emir of Khorasan, killed by a 

fall from his horse, in the year of the 1 legira 350, A. I). yO'O. 
Abd'ulmaLIC, a king of Cordova, who reigned two years, and 

died in the year of the Hegira 120, A. D. 730. Marmol. 

L'Afrique, Ii, c. 14. 
Abd'ULMAJUG, a warlike prince of Cordova, in Spain, who 

tools several towns in Africa, and, after taking C'arthagena 

from tin' Christians, died in the year of the Hegira 739- 

A. I). I3I9- 
Abd'ijlmalio, Ebn Almanzor, king of Cordova, died before 

be came to the throne. Bod. Tolet. Hist. Arab. c. 32.; 

Marmol L'Afrique, I 2, c 28. 
Annul. malic, a prince of the Arabians in the year of the 

1 [egira 7 12, A. 1). 1352. He died at Cordova after making 

conquests in Spain. 


Abd'ulmalic, the brother of Muley Hassan, took the city 

of Tunis from his nephew, whom he deprived of his eyes 

by means of burning sand. He reigned only thirty-six 

days. Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 6, c. 16. 
Abd'ulmalic, Muley, who succeeded his father Muley Mo- 

luch in 1630, was murdered by a Christian slave after a 

reign of four years. 
Abd'ulmalic, son of Muley Ishmael, and prince of Suz, was 

chosen emperor of Morocco in 1?2S, and strangled, by order 

of his brother, in 1 730. 

Distinguished Persons of ihis Name. 

Abd'ulmalic, Ebn Rafaa, a governor of Egypt under the 
caliph Al Walid. 

Abd'ulmalic, a viceroy, was conquered and beheaded by 
Abd'alrahman, general of Abul Haziz, his rival. 

Abd'ulmalic, Ebn Yesid, was appointed governor of Egypt, 
under the caliph Al Mansur. 

Abd'ulmalic, Ebn Saleh, governor of Egypt under the caliph 
Harum, or Aaron Al Raschid. 

Abd'ulmalic, son of Almansor, king of Cordova, after beat- 
ing Count Fernandez, died in the year of the Hcgira 388, 
A. D. 998. 

Abd'ulmalic, a son of Abulhassem, king of Fez, who being 
beaten in an engagement with the Christians in Spain, 
attempted to make his escape, but was slain in a hedge in 
the year of the Hegira 730, A. D. 1340. Eutych. Annal. ; 
El Makin. Hist. Same. ; Abu'lfaraj. Hist. Din. ; Roiler. 
Tolet. Hist. Arab. ; Marian de Reb. Hispan. ; Marmot. 

ABDULMUMEX (Hist.) a king of the Saracens, in Africa, 
who was of obscure origin, was elevated to the throne by 
help of Abdallah, the author of the sect Mohavedi. He 
strangled the heir to the crown with his own hands, and, 
after a successful reign, died in 1 1 56, as he was about to 
pass over into Spain. Leo African. 1. 3 ; Marian de Reb. 
HispA. 11, c. 1; Marmot. L'Afrique,!. 2, e. 34 ; Thuan. 
Hist. 1. 7, c. 2. 

Abdulmumen, king of Tunis, killed Yahaya, the murderer 
of Ala Bare, and reigned in his stead. Marmot. L'Afrique, 

Abdulmumen, son of Abd'allah or Abdo'llah, khan of Great 
Bukharia, succeeded his father in 1 540, and was slain by his 
own people. Mirkhond, apud Te.reira, 1. 2, c. 58. 

ABDULVATES (Hist.) an ancient people originally of 
Tremecen, from whom were, descended the race of kings 
who drove the Abd'alrahm'ms from Africa in the vear of 
the Hegira 386, A. D. 996. Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2. 
c 28, &c. 

ABDUN (Riog.) or Ebn Abdun, the same as Abdallah Al 
Adib Al Raimi, author of the book entitled ' Ekhtelaf Abou 
Hanifah,' i. e. a criticism on Abou Hanifah. 

Abdun, or Ebn Abdun Abdallah Al Hatemi. author of a book 
entitled ' Adab Al Hokamah,' or the Morals and Manners 
of Philosophers and Physicians. 

Abdun, or Ebn Abdun Abou Mohammed Abdalhamid, author 
of a poem entitled ' Abdunia.' 

ABDUS (Hist.) a Parthian eunuch, and one of the principal 
conspirators against king Artabanus. He was poisoned at a 
feast to which he was invited. Tacit. Annal. 1. 6, c. 31, 32. 

ABDY [Her.) the name of a family of Essex, which at pre- 
sent enjoys the title and dignity of a baronet, conferred in 
1641 on Sir Thomas Abdy. The arms, &c. of this family 
are as follow : 
Arms. Or, two chevronels between three trefoils slipped 

Crest. An eagle's head erased. 

ABEACUS (Hist.) 'AfieaKOQ, a king of the Sirachs, a people 
of Mount Caucasus. Strab. 1. 11. 

ABECIUS (Hist.) a rival of Abdulmalic, in the kingdom of 


Spain, was slain bv him on his return from Africa. Marmot 
L'Afrique, 1. 2, c.'l4. 

ABEDXEGO (Bibl.) uj-op, a Chaldee name for Azariah, 
who, with Shadrach and Meshech, were thrown into the 
fiery furnace. Dan. i. 7, iii- 12. 

ABEILLE, Gaspar (Riog.) a French abbe, was born at Riez, 
in Provence, in 1648, and died at Paris, the 21st of May, 
171 8. He wrote some odes, epistles, tragedies, &c. 

Abeille, Scipio, brother of the preceding, a surgeon and 
medical writer, was born at Riez, and died Nov. 9, Hi'97- 
He wrote ' Histoire des Os,' &e. 

Abeille, Lewis Paul, was born at Toulouse, June 2, 171ft 
and died at Paris, July 28, 1807- He wrote ' Corps 
d'Observations de la Societe d'Agrieulture, de Com- 
merce,' &c 

ABEL (Ribl.) bin, hebel, vanity, breath, or vapour; the 
second son of Adam and Eve, was born in the second vear 
of the world, A.M. 1. B.C. 4003. Jul. Per. 711- Gen. 
iv. 2 ; Pctav. de Doetrin. Temp. ; L'sscr Annal. 

Abel, bm, mourning, also called Abcl-bcth-maacha, 1 Kings, 
xv. 20. or Abelmaim, 2 Chron. xvi. 4. and Abila, capital of 
Abilene, Luke iii. 1 ; a town situated, according to Dr. 
Wells, in the north of the land of Israel, in the tribe of 
Xaphtali. It was taken and ravaged by Benhadad, king of 
Syria, and 200 vears after by Tiglathpilezer. 2 Kings, 
xv. 2<); Euseb. apud Hieron. de Loc 'Hcb. ; Wells, Geog. 
of the Old Test, part 3, e. 2. 

Abel of the vineyards D'm:^2«, " AfliX Wpiriktov, translated 
Plain of the vineyards ; a town six or seven miles from 
Rabbath, the capita] of the Ammonites. Jud. xi. 33. 

Abel the Great, nbnjn ^aw, great mourning; a large stone 
on which the ark was placed when it was sent back by the 
Philistines. 1 Sam. vi. 18. 

Abel, Meholah, n 1 ?inD- i ?2N, 'AfieXfi&iKcu, according to Eu- 
sebius, Abel-Mau/a, and rendered by St. Jerome, mourning of 
weakness, the birthplace of Elisha, 1 Kings xix. 16, situated, 
according to Euscbius, in a great plain, 16 miles S. Scytho- 
polis. Euseb. Onom. ; Hieron. de Loc. Heb. 

Abel Mizraim, omo-^iK, the mourning of Egypt, another 
name for the threshing floor of Atad. Gen. 1. 11. 

Abel, Shittim, O'tflti'-^N, 'Afiektrarvtlv, according to Euse- 
bius, and "AfieXa, according to Josephus ; a town in the 
plains of Moab, beyond Jordan, where Moses encamped 
before the army passed the Jordan. Numb, xxxiii. 49 ; 
Joseph. Antiq. !. 4, c. 7, &c. ; Euseb. Onom.; Hieron. de 
Loc. Heb. 

Abel (Hist.) son of Valdimir II, murdered his brother Eric, 
and took possession of his throne in 1250, two years after 
which lie was killed in an insurrection of the Friezlanders. 
Krantz. 1. 7, c. 21. 

Abel, Gaspar (Riog.) an historian and poet, was born at 
Hindenburg, and died at Westdorf in 1763. He wrote, 
' Preussische Brandenburgische Staats Historie : ' &c. 

Abel, Charles Frederick, a German musician, who was ap- 
pointed chamber-musician to her majesty in 1759, and died 
in 1787- Burncy, Hist. Mus. vol. iv. p. 67S. 

Abel, or Able, Thomas. Vide Able. 

ABE LA (Ribl.) n"?2K, a town of Persea, beyond Jordan. 
2 Sam. xx. 14. 

Abela, John Francis (Riog.) commander of the order of the 
knights of Jerusalem, is principally known by his history of 
Malta, the place of his birth, entitled ' Malta illustrate, 
ovvero della descrizione di Malta:' Malta, 1647- Sax. 
Onomast. vol. iv. p. 507- 

ABELARD (Riog.) Abailard, or Abeelard, Peter, the son of 
Berenger, of noble descent, and Abbot of St. Gildas, was 
born at Palais, near Xantes, in Bretagne, in 1079) and died 
April 21, 1142. He was early engaged in the scholastic 
philosophy of the times, and drew upon himself much oppo- 
sition bv the freedom with which he broached his heterodox 
c 2 


opinions, but he is most generally known as the lover of 
Heloisa. His works which have been published, with those 
of his mistress, consist of their letters, and his treatises 
of Theology, &c. Fab. Bibl. Lat. vol. ii. ; .SY/.r. Onoinast. 
vol. ii, p. '21'2. 

ABELE, Christopher Count a" {Hist.) son of Christopher 
Allele, whose ancestors were ennobled by Charles V, was 
employed as minister to the emperors Ferdinand III, and 
Leopold, on the most important concerns of state. He was 
likewise the author of a work on the rights of the House of 
Austria against that of Bamberg ; and died in 1()85. 

Auklk, Matthias (Biog.) brother of the preceding, was his- 
toriographer to the emperor Leopold, and author of several 

ABELIN, John Philip (Bug.) an historian, was born at Stras- 
burg, and died about 164/6. He wrote, among other things, 
' the Theatre of Europe.' 

Abelin (Gcog.) a town of Palestine, eight miles E. Acre. 
Some have conjectured this to be the ancient Zabulon which 
was sacked by the Human general Cestus. 

ABELL, John (Biog.) an English musician, published ' a Col- 
lection of Songs in several Languages,' in 1701. Hawkins, 
I J ist. qf Mus. vol. iv. p. 445. 

ABELLA (lliog.) a female medical writer of Salerno, was 
born in the reign of Charles of Anjou. She wrote, among 
other things, ' De atra Bili.' 

Abella (Geog.) a city of Campania, fruitful in nuts, called 
Nuces AvcllaiHV, now Avclla Vecehia. Virgil writes Bella 
for Abella, as is supposed. 
JEn. 1. 7, v. 740. 

F.l quus malifere despectant mania Beili£. 

Sil Hal. 1. 8, v. 544, writes it Abella. 

Sumntum tt pauper sulci Cerealit ALellu. 

The inhabitants are called Abellani. Strab. 1. 5 ; I'lin. 
]. 1.5, c. 22 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Front, ilc Colon. ; Justin. 1. 20, 
c. .5 ; Serv. in Virg. /En. 1. 7, v. 740 ; Ctuv. Ilal. Antiq. 
1. 4, e. 5. 

ABELLABA (Geog.) a town of Westmoreland, now Appleby. 

ABELLI, Louis (Fee.) grand vicar of Bayonne, and Bishop 
of Rhodes, was born in 16'03, and died in 1()!/1- His writ- 
ings are theological. Nieeron. vol. xli. 

ABILLIXLM (Geog.) 'AfiiMuvov, a town of the Hirpini, 
near the river Sabatus, now Ave/lino. Frontinus says it was 
a colony sent out agreeably to the Scmpronian law. The 
inhabitants were called Abellinates. Pint. 1. 3, e. 9; Frontin. 
r/e Colon.; Plot. 1. 3, e. 1. 

ABELLIO (Mi/lh.) the name under which the Gauls wor- 
shipped the Mm. This god was worshipped at Convenie, a 
people of Aquitania, at the foot of the Pyrennees, where 
there were monumental inscriptions of him, as DEO. 
I. eel. Auson. 1. 1, c. 9 ; loss, tie Idol. 1. 2 ; Selden. de Diis 
Si/riis, 1. 2, c. 1; Smel. Inseripl. Vet.} Gruler. Thesaur. 
lii. Tntcrwt. 

ABELTERIUM (Geog.) a town of Lusitania, between 
OlyfdppO and Emerita- Anton, in Ilin. 

ABEMERIC (Hist.) 'AfStvvhpiyoc, a king who hospitably 
ivri ivi (1 [zates, anil gave him his daughter in marriage. 
Joweph. Antiq. I. 80, c. 2. 

ABEN, a name in the Arabic answering to Ben or Belli, son, 
is applied to several princes and distinguished persons in 

history and biography. 
ABEN-BOHEN (MM.) [rrw-faK, Wfoc BeAv, the stont qf 

Bohnii or ol' strength, a boundary stone separating the 
tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Josh, xviii. 17 ; Hieron. 
de lueis lleh. 
vBl'.N( IIAMOT (Hilt.) a celebrated general in Barbary, 
rescued his wife IOttt, by a desperate act of valour, from 


the Portuguese into whose hands she had fallen. He was 
afterwards killed by the Moors of Fez, in 1524; and his 
wife starved herself. Dieg. de Torr. Hist, des Cher. 
c. 20, &c. 

ABENDANA, Jacob (Biog.) a Spanish Jew, prefect of a 
synagogue, in London, and author of a Spicelegium from 
the Hebrew Bible: fob Amsterdam. He died in 16'85. 

ABENDONIA (Geo s .) vide Abindonia. 

ABEN-EL-HASCH"" (Hist.) a king of Cordova, was placed 
on the throne of Alcataran, by the rebellious subjects of the 
latter, in the fourteenth century, and died after a reign of 
six months. Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 14. 

ABEN-EZER (Bibl.) vide Fben-Ezer. 

ABEN-EZRA (Biog.) Aven-Meger, or Benmeir Abraham, a 
celebrated Rabbi, was born at Toledo, in 10,99, and died in 
1165, or, according to some, in 1174. He wrote ' Elegautise 
Grammatirae,' &c. Sax. Onomast. vol. ii. p. 240. 

ABEN-GAMA (Hist.) a viceroy of Cordova, who was killed 
in 1147, by reason of his own treachery. Boderie. Tolet. 
dc Beb. Hisp. 1. 7, c. 8 ; Marian, de Bcb. Hispan. 1. 10, 
c. 19; Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 24. 

ABENGNEFIT (Biog.) Abhengnejit, or Albenguejit, an 
Arabian physician of the fourteenth century, who wrote 
' De Virtutibus Medieinse,' &c. 

ABENHABEL (Hist.) an Arabian who treacherously surren- 
dered the town of Badajoz, which had been entrusted to 
him by Alphonsus, king of Portugal. 

ABEN-HUMEYA (Hist.) a king of Grenada, was put to 
death by his rival Abdalla-Aben-Abo, in the year of the 
Hegira 978, A. D. 1588. Thuan. Hist. 1. 48, c. 8. 

ABEN-HUT (Hist.) a learned Moorish prince of Grenada, 
who wished to be styled ' Reformator legis.' He was slain 
by his subjects in 12.34. Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 28. 

ABEN-ISHMAEL (Hist.) a king of Grenada, who became 
tributary to the king of Castillo. His son, Abohacen, was 
the last king of the Moors, in Spain, during whose reign 
they were expelled by Ferdinand. 

ABEX-JOSEPH (Hi'st.) the first king of Fez, after the death 
of his brother, who had been its governor. Marmot. 
L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 38. 

ABEX-MAHOMET (Hist.) a king of Cordova, who opposed 
the sect of the Almohades with great vigour. Marmot. 
L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. 38. 

ABEX-MELEK (Biog.) or Abcn-Mallak, a rabbi of the 
seventh century, and a commentator on the Bible. 

ABEX-NEDDEN (Biog.) a writer on the philosophers of 
Arabia. Merscnn. Pnef. Apollon. Conic. 

ABEXSPERGA (Geog.) a town of Bavaria, now Ahens- 

AUKN-TAAMAX (Hist.) a son of Abdallah, the sixth caliph 
of the race of Ommiah, who escaped from the bauds of 
Abdulmelic, the murderer of his father, and settled in Mau- 
ritania. Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2, c. |). 

ABENTESPHIN (Hist.) vide Abw-TescMfien. 

ABEN-TIBBON (Biog.) a rabbi of the fourteenth century, 

who translated Euclid from the Arabic into the Hebrew. 
ABENVEHGA (Biog.) a rabbi and astronomer, who wrote 

astronomical tables. Vote, de Math. c. 25, § 50. 
ABEN-XAUHAR (Hut.) one of the Moiisci, in Spain, who 

renounced Christianity in order to return to Maliomctanism. 

He was the general of Aben-Hiimeya. Thuun. Hist. 

1. IS, c. 12. 
ABEN-ZOAB (Biog.) vide Aren-Zoar. 

ABEONA (Mi/lh.) a god of the Romans, who was supposed 

to give the facultv of removing from a place, in distinction 
from the god Adeona. August, de Cie. Dei, 1. 4, c. 21 ; 

Gii mid. Sunt. Dear. l. 

ABERAVONIUM (Geog.) a town of Wales, now Ahenieon. 
ABERCIUS (Ecc.) a bishop of Hierapolis. Baron. Annal. 

Ann. ni;;. 


ABERCORN (Biog.) one of the titles enjoyed by a principal 
branch of the illustrious house of Hamilton. [Vide Hamilton.] 
The titles, arms, &c. of this noble family are as follow : 
Titles. Hamilton, Marquis of Abercorn, and Viscount Ha- 
milton, in Great Britain ; Earl of Abercorn, Baron of 
Paisley, Hamilton, and Kirkpatrick, in Scotland ; Baronet 
of Nova Scotia, and Viscount Strabane, and Baron Stra- 
bane and Mountcastle, in Ireland. 
Arms. Quarterly, for Hamilton, 1st and 4th gules, three 
cinquefoils pierced argent. For Arran, 2d and 3d, argent, 
a ship with her sails furled up sable. 
Crest. In a ducal coronet or, an oak tree fructed and 
penetrated transversely with a saw proper, the frame 
gold, inscribed with the word " Through." [Vide Ha- 
Supporters. Two antelopes argent, their horns, ducal col- 
lars, chains, and hoofs or. 
Motto. " Sola nobilitat virtus." 
ABERCOVONIUM (Geog.) a town of Wales, now Aber- 

ABERCOUH (Geog.) or Aberkuh, two towns, one in Chaldea, 

or the Arabian Irak ; the other in the Persian Irak. 
ABERCROMBIE, John (Biog.) the son of a gardener, 
wrote a Gardener's Dictionary, Calender, &c. and died in 
ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph (Hist.) a general well known 
for his skill, valour, and success, was the son of George 
Abercromby, of Tullibody, Esq. who was descended from 
an ancient cadet of the family of Birkenberg, as mentioned 
under Heraldry. He was born in 1738, obtained a cornetcy 
in the second regiment of dragoon guards, in 1756, from 
which he rose, by a long and honourable service to the rank 
of lieutenant-general in 1797- In 1801, he was sent as 
commander-in-chief on the expedition into Egypt, and fell 
lighting bravely at the battle of Alexandria on the 3d of 
April of the same year. [Vide Plate 14.] 
Abercromby (Her.) a family of Scotland, which derives its 
name from the lands of Abercromby, in the county of Fife. 
The Abercrombies of that Ilk were very considerable gen- 
tlemen, of whom the most ancient cadet was Abercromby, 
of Birkenberg, from whom descended the distinguished 
general Sir Ralph Abercromby above-mentioned. 
Abercromby, Francis, of Fitternier, was created Lord Glass- 
ford for life, by James VII. From him is descended the 
present Hugh Lord Semple. 
Abercromby, Mary Ann, relict of Sir Ralph Abercrombv, 
was created, as a reward for her husband's gallant conduct, a 
baroness in 1801, with the title of Baroness Abercrombv of 
Aboukir and Tullibody. The titles, arms, &C. of this family 
are as follow : 

Titles. Abercromby, Baron of Aboukir and Tullibody. 
Arms. Argent, a fess embattled gu/cs ; in base the arms of 
Abercrombie, argent, a chevron indented gu/cs, between 
three boars' heads erased azure : out of the embattle- 
ments in chief issuant a dexter arm embowed in armour, 
encircled by a wreath of laurel, and the hand grasping a 
a stand of military colours, representing the invincible 
standard of the French taken in Egypt. 
Crest. A bee erect, proper. 

Supporters. Two greyhounds per fess argent and or, collared 
and lined gules, charged on the shoulder with a thistle. 
Abercromby, Patrick (Biog.) a physician in the 18th century 
of the above family, wrote ' The Lives of the Scotch 
Warriors/ and other historical works. 
ABERDEEN, Earl of (Her.) is descended uninterruptedly 
from the male line of the noble house of Gordon. The 
titles, arms, Sec. of this family are as follow : 
Titles. Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen; Viscount of Formar- 
tine ; Lord Haddo, Methlie, Tarves, and Kellie ; Viscount 
Gordon, and a Baronet. 


Arms. Quarterly, for Gordon, 1st and 4th, azure, three 
boars' heads couped, within a double tressure ; for 
Hamilton and Arran. 2d and 3d, as in the arms of the 
Marquis of Abercorn, within a bordure sable. [Vide 
Gordon and Hamilton.] 
Crest of Gordon. Two arms, from the shoulder naked, 

holding a bow ready to let fly an arrow. 
Crest of Hamilton (as in the Marquis of Abercorn). The 
tree charged with an escocheon argent, thereon a heart 
Supporters. Two antelopes argent, armed and unguled or, 

gorged with a collar fleury and counterfleury. 
Motto. " Fortuna sequatur." 
Aberdeen, Old (Geog.) or Aberdon, a royal burgh, and 
originally a bishop's see, one mile N. New, is known, by its 
records, from the time of William the Lyon in 1214. It 
was burnt by the fleet of Edward III. in 1333, and was 
afterwards rebuilt under the name of New Aberdeen. It 
has a college caRed King's College, which was founded in 
1494, a fort, and the remains of a castle destroyed by 
ABERDEENSHIRE (Geog.) or Aberdeen, a maritime county 
of Scotland, 90 miles long and 38 broad. 
Boundaries. Aberdeen is bounded on the N. and E. by the 
German Ocean ; on the S. by Perth, Forfar, and Kincar- 
dine ; and on the W. by BamS", Elgin, and Inverness. 
Principal Towns. Aberdeen, Old and New ; Kintore ; 

Inverary ; Peterhead ; Keith ; Huntly ; Old Meldrum. 
Rivers. Dee, Don, Ythan, Deveron, Bogie, Ury. 
Lakes. Loch Muick, Kanders, Builg, Callader. 
ABERDOMA (Geog.) a town of Scotland, now Aberdeen. 

Hector. Boeth. Scot. Hist. 
ABERDORA (Geog.) a town of Scotland, now Abcrdour. 
ABERDOUR, Lord (Her.) the title borne by the eldest son of 

the Earl of Morton. 
AHERFRAUU (Geog.) a town of Anglesea, now Abcrfraw. 
ABERGAVENNY, Earl of (Her.) one of the titles enjoyed 
by a branch of the iUustrious house of Neville. [Vide 
Neville.] The titles, arms, &c of this family are as follows : 
Titles. Neville, Earl of Abergavenny, Viscount Neville, 

and Baron Abergavenny. 
Arms. Gules, on a saltire argent, a rose of the first barbed 

and seeded proper. 
Crest. In a ducal coronet or, a buU's head ardent, pied 
sable, armed of the first, and charged on the neck with 
a rose gules. 
Supporters. Two bulls argent, pied sable, armed, unguled, 

collared, and chained or. 
Motto. " Ne vile velis." 
ABERGENNIUM (Geog.) a town of Wales, now Aber- 
ABERIDES (Myth.) a god of the heathens, otherwise called 

ABERISTYVIUM (Geog.) a town of Wales, now Aberist- 

ABERNyETHUM (Geog.) afterwards Andreanopolis, now 

St. Andrews, a town of Scotland. 
Abernvethum (Geog.) a town of Perthshire, in Scotland, six 
miles S. E. Perth, seated on the Tay, now Abernetfiy. 
Formerly the seat of the Pictish kings, and the see of a 
bishop. Its church, supposed to have been anciently a 
cathedral, has a tower 74 feet high, and 48 in circum- 
ABERNETHY, Lord (Her.) a title appended to the Frazer 
family. The ancient and noble family of Abernethy is now 
Abernethy, John (Biog.) a dissenting minister, wrote some 

sermons and controversial tracts, &c. and died in 1 740. 
ABESTA (Myth.) the name of a book which the Magi ascribe 
to the Patriarch Abraham, whom they suppose to be Zoro- 


aster. This is a commentary on their code of religions 

ABEZ (Geog.) ya«, Afar, an egg, or from ra, muddy, a 
city of Isachar. Josh. xix. 20. 

ABGARA (Hist.) a competitor for the crown of Monomotapa, 
in Africa, was killed in the sanguinary contest in 1604. 

ABGARUS (Hist.) " Afiy apoc, a name common to several 
kings of Edessa : it is otherwise spelt Abagarus, Agbarus, 
Augarus, &c. 

Abgakus, by whose perfidy Crassus was drawn into a snare 
which caused his ruin. He is called "Ak^odoc by Appian, 
'Apiafivtjs by Plutarch, and Avyapoc by Dio. Pint, in 
Crass.; Appian. de Parlh. Bell.; Dio. 1. 40; Sex. Kuf. in 

Abgarus, who, according to Eusebius, wrote a letter to our 
.Saviour, and received an answer from him. The genuine- 
ness of these letters has been the subject of much dispute 
among the learned. Dio. 1. 68 ; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. 1, 
c. 13; Evagr. 1. 4, c. 26; Procop. de Bell. Per. 1. 2, c. 12; 
Care. Lit. Hist. vol. i. p. 2 ; Lard. Cred. 1. 7, c. 22. 

Abgarus, who, in the reign of Claudius, dealt treacherously 
with Mithridates, a general of the Parthians. Tacit. Annul. 
1. 12, c. 12, &c. 

Abgarus, who by Dio is called Avyapoc, lived in the reign of 
Trajan, to whom he delayed doing homage on his conquest 
of Armenia. His son Arbande, however, afterwards obtained 
the favour of the emperor. Dio. 1. 68, &c. 

Abgarus, Arbanilus, son of the former, who lived in the reign 
of Antoninus Pius, is said to have been a religious prince. 
Capiluliu. in Anton. P.; Euseb. Prmparut. Evang. 1. 6; 
Epiphan. Hmre, 56. 

Abgarus, successor of the preceding, gave hostages for his 
fidelity to the emperor Severus, A. D. 197. Herodian, I. 3, 
c - 9 ; Spartiun. in Sever. 

Abgarus, the last king of Edessa, being convicted of trea- 
chery to the emperor Caracalla, in 216, was stripped of his 
possessions, and sent prisoner to Rome, with his two sons. 
His kingdom was then converted into a Roman province. 
Dio. 1. 77- 

Abgarus, another prince of Edessa, in the reign of Gordianus 
Pius, is knows only by some medals which he struck in 
honour of that emperor, of which a further account is given 
under Numismatics. 

Abgarus (Xumis.) the kings of this name struck several 
medals in honour of Hadrianus, M. Aurelius, L. Vents, 
Lncilla Commodus, Sept. Severus, ami, Lastly, of Gordianus 
Puis. The medals of the latter represent Abgarus in three 

attitudes, all expressive of his attachment and devotion to 
the emperor ; namely, OH fool Standing before the emperor, 

aainjfg. J, on horseback ready far war, as in fig. 2, and 
ad Kporo/iai tcalptut, en dam basic, a half length portrait. 
tain fig. :'., with a sun behind, emblematical of Persia, on 
which he turns bis back in favour of the Romans. Tristan. 
Comment. Hitter. toL i. p. ii:;?, et tea. vol. ii. p. 519 ; Vaiin. 

Sum. Impcral. Human.; Getner. Sum. I nip. Hainan, tali. 8j 

Harduin. Num. Ant. ill '« si. ; Spank. Dissert, de Utu et 
Pratt, yum. ; Bayer. Hut. Osrhoeri. Ac. ,• Havm. Tins. 
ABGILLUS (Biog.) surnamed Prester John, and son of the 
king of Fnezland, was the reputed author of a history 


of Charlemagne's expedition into the east. Sujfrid. dc 

Script. Fris. 
ABHERI (Biog.) father of Scadeddin, vizier to the sultan 

Abischah, was the best Arabian commentator on the Isagoge 

of Porphyry. 
ABI (Bibl.) ON, my father, wife of Ahaz, mother of Heze- 

kiah, 2 Ki?igs, xviii. 2 ; otherwise called Abijah. 2 Citron. 

xxix. 1. 
Abi, Arahi (Hist.) an Arabian prince who did homage to 

Charlemagne, by whom he was restored to his kingdom in 

Abi, Abdala, a king of Grenada, was poisoned by the king of 

Fez, by means of a present which the latter made to him, 

in 13()6. Marmot. L'Afrique, 1. 2. 
Abi (Biog.) surnamed de Munsor, an Arabian, and author of 

a work entitled ' Nothr Aldorr.' 
ABI A (Myth.) the daughter of Hercules and nurse of Hillus, 

gave her name to a town of Messenia. 
Abia (Geog.) "Afiia, or "Afaa ; a city of Messenia, called 

after Abia, was the ancient Ire, 'Ip/; rotheertra, one of the 

seven cities which Agamemnon promised to Achilles. Horn. 

II. 1. 9, v. 292 ; Strab. 1. 8 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 16 ; Puus. 1. 4, 

c. 30. 
ABIAH (Bibl.) n'3N, from 3«, father, and n>, Lord, i. e. 

the Lord my father, the second son of Samuel the prophet. 

1 Sam. viii. 2. 
ABI-ALBON (Bibl.) one of David's valiant men. 2 Sam. 

xxiii. 31. 
ABIATHAR (Bibl) in»a«, excellent father, from as, father 

and in', excellent, a high priest in the time of David, son 

of Abimelech, and the tenth high priest of the Jews. 

1 Sam. xxx. 7- 
ABIBALUS (Hist.) 'A/3i0oAoe, the father of Hiram, king of 

Tyre, and friend of Solomon. He is the oldest Tynan king 

of whom mention is made in history ; Josephus quotes the 

Tynan Annals, Menander, and Dio respecting him and his 

son. Joseph. Ant. 1. 8, c. 5, § 3 ; Contra Appum. 1. 1 . 
ABIBAS (Ecc.) or Abibon, son of Gamaliel, who, according 

to a priest named Lucian, was converted to Christianity. 
ABICE (Geog.) 'AfiiKn, a region of Pontus, otherwise called 

Hylea, Sleph. Byz. in 'YXt'a. 
ABIDAH (Bibl.) matt, the son of Midian. Gen. xxv. 4. 
ABIDAN (Bibl.) [T3H, 'AplSav, my father the Judge, from 

'IN, mil father, and pi, the judge, son of Gideon, of the 

tribe of Benjamin, who made his offering with the rest of 

the princes. Numb. i. 11; vii. 60. 
ABIDENUS (Biog.) vide Abydenut. 
ABIEL (Bibl.) iN-':s, God my father, from >a«, my father, 

and "?«, God, the father of Kish and Ner, and grandfather 

to Saul, first king of Israel. 1 Sam. ix. 1. 
ABIEZER (Bibl.) -np>nK, from 3N, father, and 1U', help, 

the son of Manasseh. Josh. xvii. 2. 
Abibzbr, a follower of Gideon. Judg. vi. 34. 
Abikzer, one of king David's thirty champions. 2 Sam. 

xxiii. 27- 
ABIGABAON (Bibl.) fwaa-»3K, iron)p l - ../lr„„r, father of 

Gibeon; that is, the first of the Israelites who inhabited 

Gibeon, otherwise called N'er, father of Kish, and grand- 
father of Saul. 1 Chron. viii. 29. 33 ; ix. 35 ; 1 Sam. 

xiv. . r >l. 
ABIGAIL (Bibl) tU'SK, the wife of Nabal, and afterwards 

Of David. 1 Sam. xxv. 14, &c. 
ABIGAS (Geog.) ' '.\piyar, a river of Mauritania. Procop. 

de Bell. Caudal. 1. 2, c. 19- 
ABIHAIL (Bibl.) 'j'nON, 'A/3<xa<'aA ; the father of Zurich 

A limb. iii. 85. 
AniiiAii., the father of Queen Esther. Eslh. ii. 15. 
AnniAii., daughter of Eliab, David's brother, and wife to 

king Kchobnam. 2 Chron. xi. 18. 

ABIHU (Bibl) in-aw, the father of his Lord, from 2*, father, 


and in>, his Lord, a son of Aaron, who, with his brother, 
was consumed by fire from God. Lev. x. 1. 2. 
ABI I (Geug.) "A/jioi, from a priv. and (3la, violence, because 
they lived quietly, a tribe of Scythians who submitted to 
Horn. II. 1. 13, v. 6. 

r\aKT0tpdy(i>v 'A/3cWre fitKaioraTtuV dv9pbjTro>v. 

Strab. 1. 7 ; Q- Curt. 1. 7, c. 6; Ptol. 1. 6, c. 15; Arrian. 
1. 4, e. 1 ; Sleph. Byz. de Urb. ; Boch. Phaleg. 1. 3, c. 9- 

ABIJAH (Bibl.) rvaK, signifies the same as Abiah. 

Abijaii, the son of Jeroboam, who died, according to a pro- 
phecy, A. M. 3046, B. C. 958. 1 Kings, xiv. 1. &c. 

Abijaii, king of Judah, and successor to Rehoboam, reigned 
three years, and died A. M. 3046, A. C. 958. 2 C/iron. 
xiii. 1. He is called Abijam. 1 Kings, xv. 1. 

Abijaii, mother of Hezekiah. [Vide Abi~\ 

Abijah, or Abia, a descendant of Eleazar, of whose course 
was Zachariah the father of John the Baptist. 1 Chron. 
xxiv. 10; Luke i. 5. 

Abijah (Hist.) a king of the Parthians, who made war upon 
Izates, king of the Adiabenians, because he became a con- 
vert to Judaism. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 20, c. 4. 

ABILA (Bibl.) "A/3iXa, a town of Coelosyria, now Bellinas, 
capital of Abilene, a province of which Lysanias was te- 
trarch as mentioned by St. Luke iii. 1 . It answers to the 
Leueas of the Greeks, [Vide Leucas~\ which is a translation 
of the Hebrew, Abila or Abel, white. These two names are 
to be found on a medal of Faustina, which bears the inscrip- 
tion AEYKaciwr ABIAA rAC, 236. Whether this medal 
refers to the Abila of Lysanius, or any other Abila, is a 
matter of question. The type, a bunch of grapes, denotes 
that the place abounded in grapes, which corresponds with 
what is said of this town by Eusebius and Jerome ; but on 
the other hand, the date 236 from the era of Pompey, 
would, in the opinion of some, bring this town earlier under 
the dominion of the Romans than it really came. The 
gentile name of Abila, was Abylenus, as we learn from the 
inscription ABIAHNI12N, found on a medal of Antoninus 
Britannicus. Polyb. 1. 5, c. 71 ; PBh. 1. 5, c. 18 ; Ptol. 1. 5, 
c. 15; Joseph. 1. 19, c. 5 ; Antonin. Itin. ; Euseb. apud 
Hieron. de Loc. Heb. ; Sleph. Byz. de Urb.; Gollz. Thesaur.; 
I'aill. Numm. Grose. 

ABILAMARODACHUS (Hist.) WfnXa^apwcaxoc, Erilme- 
radoch, the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. Joseph. 
Antiq. 1. 10, c. 12. 

ABILENUS (Geog.) 'AfitXifvog, an inhabitant of Abila. 

ABILLIUS (Myth.) 'Ap/XXtoc or Aollius, 'AdXAtoc, signifying 
a congregation of citizens, a son of Romulus, or according 
to some of a certain Hostilius by Hersilia the Sabine. 
Plut. in Rom. 

Abillius (Ecc.) the second bishop of the church of Alex- 
andria. Euseb. 1. 3, c. 14. 

ABILYX (Hist.) "AfiiXuli, according to Livy, Abilor, a Spanish 
nobleman, who delivered the hostages of Saguntum to the 
Romans. Polyb. 1. 3, c. 98 ; Liv. 1. 22, c. 22. 

ABIMELECH (Bibl.) ^nos, a king of Gerar, who was in 
alliance with Abraham. Gen. xxi. 27- 

Abimelech, a son of the former, with whom Isaac renewed 
the covenant. Gen. xxvi. 26. 

Abimelech, the son of Gideon, who, after murdering his 
seventy brethren, usurped the government, and was after- 
wards killed by a millstone thrown on his head. Judg. 
ix. 1, &C. 

Abimelech, a high priest in the time of Saul, who, in the 
Hebrew, is called -pD'nN, Aehimelech. 

ABINADAB (Bibl.) ani'OR, 'Afilvaiafl ; David's brother. 
1 Chron. ii. 13. 

Abinadab, vide Aminadab. 


ABINDONIA (Geog.) Abandune, i. e. Abbotts oppidum, a 
town of Berkshire, now Abingdon. Cainb. Brit. vol. i. 
p. 155. 

ABINGDON, Earl of (Her.) one of the titles enjoyed by the 
noble family of Bertie. [Vide Bertic~\ The titles, arms, &c. 
of this family are as follow : 
Titles. Bertie, Earl of Abingdon ; and Baron Norreys, of 

Arms. Argent, three battering rams barways in pale proper, 

armed, and garnished, azure. 
Crest. A Saracen's head couped at the shoulder proper, 
crowned ducally, and charged on the chest with a fret, 
Supporters. On the dexter side a friar vested in russet, 
with his stafl* and pater-noster argent. On the sinister, 
a savage wreathed about the temples and middle with 
ivy proper, on each of their chests a fret azure. 
Motto. " Virtus ariete fortior." 

Abingdon, Willoughby Bertie, Earl of (Hist.) son of William 
the third Earl of Abingdon, was born in 1740, and died in 
1799. after having distinguished himself by the violence of 
his opposition to government. He published a pamphlet 
entitled ' Thoughts on the Letter of Edmund Burke, Esq. 
to the Sherifts of Bristol, on the Affairs of America,' 8vo. 
Oxford, 1777, which went through six editions. 

ABINOAM (Bibl.) Dr:'a«, 'Afiivet ft, father of beauty, the 
father of Barak, leader of an army. Judg. iv. 6. 

ABIOLICA (Geog.) a town of Gallia Narbonensis, now sup- 
posed by Cluverius to be the village called Le Bullet. 
Cluvcr. German Antiq. 1. 2, c. 2. 

ABIOSI (Biog.) or Abiosus, a physician and mathematician, 
born at Bagnuolo in Naples, who wrote ' Dialogus in As- 
trologiiE Defensionem,' &c 

ABIOURD (Biog.) an arabian poet who boasted to be of 
royal descent. He is the author of a Divan in Arabic 

ABIRAM (Bibl.) DV2B, the father of fraud, the son of 
Eliab of the tribe of Reuben, who conspired with Korah 
and Dathan. Numb. xvi. 1, &c. 

Abiham, the eldest son of Hiel, who, according to the pro- 
phetic curse of Joshua, Josh. vi. 26, perished while his 
father was laying the foundation to rebuild Jericho. 1 Kings, 
xvi. 34. This event happened 537 years after the prophecv, 
A.M. 3090 and A. C. 914. 

ABISARES (Hist.) 'AfiurirapTie, according to Arrian and 
Strabo, 'Eju/'tVapoc, according to Diodorus ; an Indian prince 
who surrendered to Alexander. Diod. 1. 17. c. 91 ; Q. Curt. 
1. 8, c. 12 ; Arrian. Expcd. Alex. 1. 5, c. 20. 

ABISHAG (Bibl.) jtt'OK; the beautiful Shunammite, who 
cherished David in his old age, whom Adonijai, his son, 
wished to marry after his death. 1 Kings, i. 3 ; ii. 17- 

ABISHAI (Bibl.) 'ii"a« ; one of David's champions, and son 
of Zeruigh, David's sister. 2 Sam. xxi. 17. 

ABISHALOM (Bibl.) Di^ax ; the father of Maacha, who 
was mother of Abijah, king of Judah. 1 Kings, xv. 2. 

ABISHUA (Bibl.) VW2.V, 'AfSwbv ; the son of Phineas, the 
fourth high-priest of the Hebrews. 1 Chron. vi. 50. Jo- 
sephus calls him 'A/3te£cp. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 5, c. ult. 

ABISTAMENES (Hist.) an officer who was set over Cap- 
padocia by Alexander, as he was on his march to Cilicia. 
He is called Sa/Si'/o-af, by Arrian. Q. Curt. 1. 3, c. 4. 
Arrian. Alex. Exped. 1. 2, c. 4. 

ABITAL (Bibl.) WM, father of the dew, from bis, den; 
and 3«, a father, the sixth wife of David. 1 Chron. 
iii. 3. 

ABITEN (Hist.) a king of Persia. 

ABIUD (Bibl.) iirrOK, the son of Zorobabel, one of our Sa- 
viour's ancestors. Matth. i. 13. 

ABKHAS (Geog.) one of the seven nations, between the 
Black and Caspian Sea, which is tributary to the Turks. 


The Abkhas Speak a language of their own, and preserve 
some traces of Christianity among them. 

ABLABIUS (Hist.) vide .ibhnius. 

ABLAIXCOURT (Bios-) vide Bruhicr. 

ABLAXCOURT (Biog!) vide Perrot. 

ABLAVIUS (Hinl.) or Ablabiits, a consul in the reign of 
Constantine and Galerius. Cassiod. Chron. 2. 

Ablavius, Murama, a Praetorian prefect in the reign of Va- 
lerian, whose letter to him is preserved by Trebellius Pollio 
in Claud, c. 15. 

Ablavius (Ecc.) or Ablubius, a rhetorician in the time of 
Theodosius the younger, who was afterwards a bishop in 
Csesarea. Socrat. 1. 7, c. 12. 

Aet.avics, (Biog-) or Ahlandus an historian who wrote a 
history of the Goths. Jornand. Dc Reb. Get. c. 4, &c. ; 
Sabcll. dc Reb. Aquil. 1. 3; Volaterr. Anlhrop. 1. 13; 
fuss, dc Hist Lat. 1. 3. 

ABLE (Hist.) or Abel, Thomas, a divine of Oxford who be- 
came domestic chaplain to Queen Catharine, and falling 
under the displeasure of Henry VIII. for his defence of the 
Queen, was imprisoned, hanged, drawn, and quartered in 
Smithfield, July 30th, 154S. He wrote • Tractatus de 
ncn dissolvendo Henrici et Catharinse Matrimonio,' or, 
according to Tanner, a tract entitled ' Invicta Veritas.' 
Wood's Athena, vol. i- p- 54. 

ABX (Hist.) Ibn or Kbii, signifies a son, and when preceded 
by a proper name, and followed by that of the father, is 
written Ben, as Hassan Ben Mahomed, Hassan the son of 

ABX-ARRAHAB (Biog.) i. e. Son of a Monk, an author 
who wrote a work, entitled ' An Oriental Chronicle.' 
Translated into Latin, by Abraham Eclullensis : Paris, 
ABXER (Bib!.) "U2N ; the son of Xer, uncle to Saul, and 
general in his army, who was treacherously slain by Joab, 
A. M. L 2956, A. C. 1018, 2 Sam. iii. 6, &c. 
ABXEY, Sir Thomas (Hist.) son of James Abney, Esq. an 
ancient family of Wellesley, in the county of Derby, was 
torn in 1639, and died in 1721. In l6j)4, he was 
knighted by King William, and in 1700 was chosen Lord 
Mayor. He was also one of the first promoters of the Bank 
of England, and many years one of its directors. 
ABXOBA (Geog.) a mountain of Germany where the Da- 
nube takes its rise, 
Fest. Alien. Orb. Terr. Descripl. 

Abnoba mons Utro puter est, cadit AbmibtE hiatu. 

Called by Ptolemy "Avvo/ia, by Martianus Capella Ad 
Novetn, in German, Die Boar, in English Abcnow. Plin. 
1. 4, c. 12 ; Tac. de Germ. c. 1 ; Ptol. 1. 2, c. 11; 
Annn. Marcell. 1. 22, e. 2 ; Cluv. Germ. Antiq. 1. 3, c. 48. 
ABOBAS (Myth.) 'A(iw(3ae, a name given to Adonis by the 
inhabitants of Perga, in Pamphylia. This is the same as 
the Chaldee Kl'nt*, an ear of com, corresponding to what 
the Scholiast on Theocritus says, that "AcWic, signifies 
gown corn. Hcsi/ch. Eli/mol. ; I'oss. de Jdolt. 1. 2, c. 4. 
ABOBRICA (Geog.) a town of Luaitania, which Pliny calls 
■ Oppidum insigiu-,' afterwards called Adrobicum, Plin. 1. 1, 
c. 20; Mela. 1. 3, c. 1. 2. A town of Hispania Tarraco- 
nensis, now lilic de Conde. 
ABODIACUM (Geog.) 'Afiufilaicov, now Fuesscn, a town 
of Vindelicia. Ptol. 1. 2, c. 13 ; Cluv. German Aritiq. 1. 5, 
c. 8. 
ABODRITI (Geo/.'.) a people of Germany in the time of 
Charlemagne, who inhabited Pomerania Superior, near tin- 
ABGEOCRITUS (Hist.) 'A^otuKplnt, a Bo-otarch or Boeotian 
General, who was slain with a thousand men at the battle of 
Chieronea. Plut. in Aral. 


ABOLAXI (Geog.) a people of Latium, near to the Albenses- 

Plin. 1. 5, c. 2. 
ABOLLA (Geog.) 1. Vide Abella. 2. "A/3o\Xa, a town of 
Sicily, according to Suidas and Stephanus, the Gentile 
name Abollams. 
Abolla (Numis.) this town is known by the inscription 
A.BOAAAION NEilKOPilN on a medal of Vespasian. 
The NfwKcipoi of the Greeks were the same as the yEditui 
of the Romans, jEdium curatorcs, wardens of the temples. 
Goltz. Thesaur. p. 206; Harduin. Niunm. Pop. et L'rb. 
ABOMASUS (Biog.) an Arabian cosmographcr after Al- 

ABOXA (Geos.) the river Avon. Cambd. Britan. vol. i. 

p. 270. 
ABOXOTEICHOS (Geog.) hfavoretypc, a town of Paph- 
lagonia, near the Euxine, now Boli Arednio. The inha- 
bitants are called Abonotichitae, as may be learned from 
the medals which this town struck in honour of Antoninus 
Pius, L. Verus, and M. Aurelius, mostly bearing the figures 
of jEsculapius and Hygia ; but sometimes that of Bac- 
chus, with his canthar'us inscription ABilNOTEIXElTilN. 
Goltz. Thes. Vaill. Num. Graec. ; Patin. Sfc. 
ABORACA (Geog.) 'Afiopak-i), a town of Asiatic Sarmatia, 

near the Euxine. Strab. 1. 11. 
ABORAS (Geog.) 'Afwppac, Strab.; Xapopac, Ptol.; B«ppac, 
/El. ; A(7j3uipac, Zosim. ; 'A/3»poc, Isid. ; now Gieulap, a 
river of Mesopotamia. Strab. I. 16; /Elian. Hist. Animal. 
1. 12, c. 3; Ptol. 1. 5, c. 18; Amm. Marcell. 1. 14, c. 9; 
Zozim. in Jul. 1. 3 ; Theophyl. Sym. 
ABORIEXSE, Oppidum (Geog.) a town of Africa Propria. 

Plin. 1. 5, c. 4. 
ABOUGEHEL (Biog.) one of the first and most determined 
enemies to Mahomet the impostor, whom the Mussulmen 
load with all possible contempt, calling the fruit Coloquintida 
or Cucumis asininus the melon of Abougehel. 
ABOU-GIAFAR (Hist.) a Caliph. Vide Abu-Jaafar. 
Abou-giafar, Al Nahas (Biog.) an Arabian author of a com- 
mentary, who was thrown into the Xile by the inhabitants 
of Cairo. 
ABOU-H AGELAH (Biog.) author of a miscellaneous book, 

entitled ' Succardan,' or the Sugar-box. 
ABOUHAXIFAH (Biog.) or Abuanifa, surnamed Alnooman, 
the son of Shabet, was born at Cousa in the year of the 
I legira 80, and A. D. 600. He was a doctor among the 
Mussulmen, and wrote, 1. • The Mesiad, i. e. The Support.' 
2. ' Filkelam,' i. e. Scholastic Theology, cVc. 
ABOU-JOSEPH (Hist.) a learned Mussulman, appointed 
. supreme judge of Bagdad by the caliphs Hadi and Aaron 
ABOU-JESID (Hist.) a prince of Babylonian Irak, who 
built the town of Carr-ben-Hobeirah, in Chaldee, in the 
reign of the caliph Merwan. 
Abou-jesiBj surnamed Mektebdar, secretary of state in 
Egypt, revolted against Cai'em; but being defeated by the 
son of Cai'em, he was imprisoned in a cage of iron where he 
ABOUKAIS (Geog.) Abukais, a mountain, three miles from 
Mecca, where, according to B Mahometan tradition, Adam 
was interred. 
ABOUKIB (C'Vof.) Abukir, an island and bay on the coast, 
long. 31° 23' E. lat. 31° 20' X. of Egypt, where the 
French fleet was defeated and destroyed in 17i)8 by Lord 
ABOULAHAB (Hist.) an uncle of Mahomet, who was one 

of his greatest adversaries. 
ABOULAINA (Biog.) a Mussulman doctor, who escaped death 

at the hands OI the caliph Moses by a happy turn of wit. 

ABOULDEM (Biog.) author of a ' Tarikli,' or Arabian 

History, died in the year of the Hegira 652, A.D. 1262. 


ABOULFADHL, Amed Ben (Bios-) abridged a 

book of GazaR, entitled ' Ahial-Al-Oloum.' 
ABOULFARAGIUS (Biog.) vide Abul-Faragius. 
ABOULFARAH (Biog.) a Persian poet who wrote much in 

praise of the family of Sangiour, to whom he was faithfully 

ABOULFEDA (Bio S .) vide Abulfeda. 
ABOULFETAH, Ahmed (Hist.) son of Inal, third king of 

the Circassians, reigned but three months. 
Aboulfetah, Tatar, sixth king of the Circassians, reigned 

but three months. 
Aboulfetah (Biog.) an historian who wrote a book, entitled 

* Tarikh.' 
ABOULOLA, Ahmed Ben SoUman (Biog.) an Arabian poet, 

born at Maara, A. D. 973, wrote a poem entitled ' Sekth-Al- 

Zend.' He died in 1057- 
ABOU-XAVAS (Biog.) vide Abu-Xavas. 
ABOURRIHAX (B~iog.) an astrologer and cotemporary of 

Avicenna, who wrote some treatises on geography, the fixed 

stars, and the sphere. 
ABOUSAID, Ben Algiapton (Hist.) Sultan of the Moguls, 

of the race of Ghenghiskhan, succeeded his father in the 

year of the Hegira 717, A. D. 1327 ; and died in the year 

736, A.D. 1346. 
ABOYXE, Earl of (Her.) one of the titles of a branch of 

the family of Gordon. [Vide Gordon] The titles, arms, &c. 

of this family are as follow : 

Tulles. Gordon, Earl of Aboyne ; and Lord Gordon, of 
Strathaven and Glenlivet, in Scotland ; Baron Meldrum, 
in the United Kingdom. 

Arms. Azure, a chevron between three boars' head 
couped, &c. [Tide Gordon.'] 

Crest. A demi lion rampant, azure. 

Supporters. Two men armed at all points, each holding in 
his outer hand a halberd, all proper. 

Motto. " Stant castera tigno." 
ABRA (Hist.) an ancient king of Abyssinia, who reigned 

conjointlv with his brother Abza in the fourth century. 

Ludolph'. Hist. JEthiop. 1. 3, c. 33. 
ABRABAXEL (Biog.) a rabbi born at Lisbon in 1437, wrote 

Commentaries on Genesis, &c. 
ABRACES (Hist.) vide Arbaces. 
ABRADATES (Hist.) 'A/3paSonjc 3 a king of Susa, who, on 

his wife Panthea being made prisoner by Cyrus, and treated 

with humanity, surrendered himself and his troops. He 

fell soon after, in the first battle he fought for Cyrus, and 

his wife slew herseR on his corpse. Xenoph. Cyropccd. 

1. 2, c. 5, &c. 
ABRAGAXA (Geos.) 'Afipayava, a town of Serica, in Asia. 

Ptol. 1. 6, c. 16. 
ABRAHAH (Hist.) or Abou-Maseoum, was a governor of 

Temen or Arabia Felix, in the time of Abdalmothleb, the 

grandfather of Mahomet. 
ABRAHAM (Bibl.) the holv patriarch, the son of Terah, 

and father of the faithful,' was born at Ur, A. M. 2008. 

Jul. Per. 2718, A. C. 1996; Gen. xi. 26, &&j and died 

A. M. 2183, A. C. 1821, aged 175 years. Gen. xxv. 7, 8; 

Uss. Annal. Ann. 2008, &C. He was first called D-QN,"A/3pn^, 

i.e. Pater cxcelsus, from n«, father, and m, lofty; or, 

according to the Septuagint, Gen. xiv. 13, 7rfpar»;c, transi- 

tor, a passer over, from "Dp, to pass; afterwards he w 7 as 

called an-QK, 'A/3paa/i -an'/p TrXijduc idydv, i. e. father 

of a multitude, from 2K, father, VD, multitude, port, 

Tuitions ; or, according to Philo Judanis, nan'/p ikXcktoc 

?)i»c, pater electus soni. Phil. Jud. de Mat. Nom. ; Clem. 

Alex. Strom. 5 ; Origen contra Cels. 1. 5 ; Euscb. Prcep. 

Evangel. 1. 9> e. 16 ; Hicron Comment, in Galat. c. 4 ; 

Abraham (Hist.) a king of Ethiopia, who was worshipped 

as a god in his own country, on account of the revelations 

VOL. I. 


which he pretended to have had. In obedience to one of 
his dreams, he confined all his sons in a mountain, except 
the elder, whom he had chosen as his successor, which 
practice was continued by his successors. Alvar. Hist. 
Elhiop. c. 58. 

Abraham, a king of Morocco, who being overcome in battle- 
by one of his rebel subjects, and despairing to regain his 
kingdom, precipitated himself with his wife down a precipice. 
Leo. African. 1. 2, c. 45. 

Abraham, or Ibrahim, a basha, son of Ottomann, the Turkish 
emperor, having engaged in a rebeUion against his father, 
was treacherously seized and put to death. 

Abraham (Ecc.) an abbot of Auvergne in the fourth centnry, 
who leaving Syria, his native country, went to Auvergne, 
where he founded a monastery, and died in 472. Gregor. 
Tur. 1. 2, c. 21. 

Abraham, son of Zera or Zeraat, who was the sixty-second 
patriarch of Alexandria from St. Mark. 

Abraham, archbishop of Bassora, who wrote many epistles in 
the Svriac language. 

Abraham, Ben Chaila (Biog.) a rabbi and astrologer of the 
thirteenth century, who wrote ' De Xativitatibus.' Cardan 
reckons him among the number of his twelve choice spirits. 
Cardan de Subtil. 1. 16. 

Abraham, a rabbi of the fifteenth century, and author of the 
* Fasciculus Myrrhse.' 

Abraham, Nicolas, a Jesuit, was born in 1589, and died in 
1655. He wrote commentaries on Virgil and Cicero, a He- 
brew Grammar in verse, &c. Sax. Onomast. vol. iv. p. 38. 

Abraham, Ecchcllensis. Vide Ecchellensis. 

Abraham, an Egyptian hermit, who retired to a desert, and 
ordered all that he possessed to be sold and given to the 
poor. Marul. Exempt, let. 

Abraham, Zacut, a rabbi who made a collection under the 
title of ' Juhasin ' or ' Sepher Juhasin,' the book of fa- 

Abraham, James, an advocate, who died about 1643, leaving 
many curious memoirs. 

Abraham, a Senata Clara, an Augustine of Suabia, of the 
family of the Megrelins, wrote much in German, and died 
in 1709. 

ABRAHAMI, Gerard (Hist.) a Flemish captain in the Spanish 
service, who challenged and fought with Breaute, a Norman 
gentleman in the Dutch service ; each leader being attended 
by twenty-two of his men. According to the Spanish 
account both feU, but Abrahami's party gained the victory. 
Bci/erlink. Chron. Hist. 

ABRANTES (Geos-) a town of Estremadura, in Portugal, 
80 miles N. E. Lisbon. Lon. 7" 23' W. lat. 39° 13' X. ^ It 
is the Tibuci of the ancients, which was besieged to no 
effect by Aben Jacob, king of Morocco ; obtained great pri- 
vileges from Alphonsus I. king of Portugal, in 1179; was 
the birthplace of the infant Louis, son of Emanuel, in 1506; 
was erected into a county by Alphonsus V. in favour of 
Lewis d' Almeida ; and, in 1645, was erected into a duchy 
by Philip IV. of Spain, in favour of Alphonsus d'Alencastro. 
Anselme. Hist, de la Maison de France; Imhof. Regn. 

ABRAVANXUS (Geos-) Puipattavvos, a river of Britain, now 
the Rien. Ptol. 1. 2, c. 3. 

ABREXTIUS (Hist.) 'Afipivrios, a governor of Tarentum 
under Hannibal, who betrayed his trust for the sake of a 
beautiful woman, whose brother was in the Roman army. 
Poli/a-n- 1. 8, c. 24. 

ABRESCH, Frederick Louis, (Biog.) a Greek scholar, was 
born at Hamburgh, Dec. 29, 1699, and died, rector of 
the coUege of Zivol, in Overyssel, in 1782. He wrote se- 
veral critical works on the classical authors. Sax. Onomast. 
vol. vii. p. 59- 

ABRETAXUS (Myth.) 'AjSptrovos, an epithet for Jupiter, 


who wag worshipped bv the inhabitants of Abrettane or 

Mvsia. Strab. 1. IS. 
ABRETTENE {Geog.) Aim-line, or Abrettine; 'Appemjn), 

Strab. ; 'Afiperrivt), Steph ; a country of Mvsia, so called 

from the nymph Abretia. Strab. 1. 12 • Sink. Hi/-- de Urb- 
ABREU, Alexis {Biog.) a physician to the king of Portugal, 

in IfiOli; wrote ' De Septem Inlinnitatibus.' 
ABBBU, Philip, an Augustine, wrote a treatise on the Mystery 

of Jacob's Ladder. 
Abbbu, Peter a", a Spanish Franciscan, wrote several treatises 

on theological subjects. 
ABBBU, Mosinho Manuel, of Evora, wrote and published, in 

liio7, a history of the conquest of Pegu by the Portuguese. 
ABBBU, Sebastian </', a Portuguese Jesuit, who died in 1674 ; 

wrote • Parocho Perfecto," &c. 
ABRIA (GeogS) a province of Scotland, now I.och-kaber. 

Dink. tter. Scot. 1. 1. 
ABRIANI, Paul (Biog.) of Yinccnza, a Carmelite, died at 

Venice, 1 (>'<!<), in the <)2d year of his age. He published 

' Funghi, or Academical Discourses,' Poetry, Sonnets, tVc. 
ABRII. (Biog.) or Arril, Peter Simon, a Spanish grammarian 

of Alcarez, in 1580, wrote, among other grammatical works, 

' De Arte Grammatics sen Lingua Latina.' 
ABRIN'CAT.E (Geog.) a town of Gallia Celtica, now 

A e ranches. 
ABROCOMAS {Hist.) 'AppoKS/xag, a general of Artaxerxes. 

Xenoph. Anabas. 1. 2. 
ABROCOMKS (Hist) 'A(ipOK6fii}S, or 'A0poK6uas, a son of 

Darius, who accompanied Xerxes on his expedition into 

Greece, and fell fighting bravely at the streights of Ther- 

mopyhe. Herod. L 7, c 224 ; Suidas. 
ABRODL93TUS (Biog.) 'Af3poSlaiToe, an epithet for Parrha- 
- the painter so called on account of his luxurious habits. 

Plin. 1. 13, c. K); .//. Far. Hist. 1. 9, c. 11. 
ABRON (Biog.) "AJipuv, an Athenian, the son of Callius, 

who wrote, 1. Xlept eopruv nal dvtriwv, de Festis et Sacriliciis. 

2. lltfii Uapiavvfuav, de Denominativis. The titles only of 

Lis books arc preserved. Steph. Byz. Sub. foe. 'A6nvSn. 

AbBON, a Spartan, and son of Lycurgus the orator. Phil. 

fit. Orator. 
Aniiox, a Grammarian of Rhodes, and son of a slave, who 

taught rhetoric at Home. He obtained his freedom from 

Ilcrmippus, Suidas. 
AbBON, a dissolute man, who gave rise to the proverb "AfipevOQ 
Ibronis vita, for a dissolute life. Suidas. cent. 1, § 1; 

Diogenian. Proverb, cent. 1, § 2; Erasmus ex Zeno, 
ABBON, a person whose picture was taken l)y Apelles, to the 

admiration of the Samii. Plin. 1. .';.», c. 10. 

AbBON, an Argivc who saved the lives of a thousand Corin- 
thian youth, by discovering to their leader the plot which 

Pliilci, a Peloponnesian, had formed against them. Phil. 

Amuior. Narrat. 
IBRONIUS, Sib (Biog.) a poet of the Augustan age, who 

wrote some fables in verse. Snii'c. Suasor. c. 2. 
ABRONYCHUS (Hist.) 'Afipwwxot, the bob of Lysidcs, 

and colleague of Themistocles in the embassy to Sparta. 

Herod. 1. 8, C 2 1 ; Time. 1. 1, c. 91. 
ABROSI, John (Biog.) an Italian physician, who wrote a 

Dialogue on Astronomy: 4to. Venice, I i;ii. 
A 15 ROTA (Hist.) ' A fipura, the wife of Xisus, king of Mcgaris, 

daughter of Onchclris the Rieotian, and sister of Mcj.nvu 

was so remarkable for her prudence and chastity that in 

honour of her, at her death, her husband ordered the dress 

which she had worn, and which was called bA&f&puua, to be 

the mode] of fashion among the Megarcnsian women. 
I'lul. Quant, (hire. 

ABROTONUM (Hist.) 'Afrporovov, the mother of Themis- 
tocles. /'/»/. in Themistoc.; /Elian. Ear. Hist 1. 12, c, 18. 

Ajikoiom .u (GeOg.) a town of Numidia, near the Syrtc:', now 


Trijxtli, as is supposed. Scylax. in Peripl. ; Strab. 1. 17; 

Plin. 1. 5, c. 4 ; Steph. Bi/z. 'de Urb. 
ABRUZZO, Ballhasar (Biog.) a Sicilian philosopher and 

civilian, who died in l6o5. 
Abruzzo, a Neapolitan architect of the seventeenth century, 

who displayed great taste and genius in the edifices he 

erected in Italy. 
Abruzzo (Geog.) a country of Naples, anciently inhabited by 

the Sabines and Sanmites. 

Boundaries. Abruzzo is bounded on the E. by the Adriatic, 
on the N. and \V. by the states of the church, and the S. 
by Terra di Lavoro, &C. 

Division. It was divided by Alphonso I. king of Arragon, 
into Abruzzo Citra, on this side the river Pescara, and 
Abruzzo Ultra, on that side the Pescara. 

Principal towns. Cheti Lanciano, Pescara, Aquila, Atri, 
Campli, Civita di Penna, Teramo, Civita di Call. 

Rivers. Pescara Lenta, Foro Moro, Feltrino, Sangro, Asi- 
nella, Trigno, Velino, Turano, G;vrigliano, &C- 

Mininlains. The Appennines, Monta Manila and Monte 
ABRYPOLIS (Hist.) 'Afiptnrt'iXtc, an ally of the Romans, and 

probably king of the Sapai, whom Perseus expelled from 

his possessions. Diodor. Excerpt. ; Liv. I. 42, c. 13. 
ABSALOM (Bibl.) Qi^iruN ; the favourite but rebellious son 

of David, who, being defeated in an engagement against 

his father, fled, and was caught in a tliicket by the hair, 

in which situation he was killed by Joab and his men. 

2 StUn. xviii. 6, &C. 
Absalom (Hist.) uncle and father-in-law to Aristobulus, king 

of the Jews, was made prisoner by Pompey, at the siege of 

Jerusalem, A. M. 3921, A.C. 83. ' Joseph. Antiq. 1. 14, c. 8. 
Absalom (Ecc.) a bishop of Lunden, assisted Woldemar, 

king of the Danes, in the propagation of Christianity. Sax. 

Grammat. 1. 4. 
Absalom (Biog.) an Augustine monk, and author of fifty -one 

ABSALOMON (Hist.) 'AsfmKuuov, induced Manahem, son 

of Judas the Galilean, to aspire to the throne of Judaa. 

Jos. de Bell. Jud. 1. 2, c. 18. 
ABSALON (Bibl.) the ambassador of Judas Maceabieus to 

Lysias, general of -the army of Antioehus, sumamed Eupator. 

2 Mace. xi. 17. 
ABSANDKR (Hist.) archon of Athens. Vide .lpsaniler. 
ABSTEMIUS, Laurentiiis (Biug.) an Italian writer, was 

born at Maxcrata, and wrote ' Annotation! s \ariie,' Sic. 

Fabric. Bibl. Lai. 1. 2, c. 3 ; Sax. Onomast. vol. ii. p. 526. 
ABSYRTES (Geog.) Absyrtus, 'A^niprog, a river of Colchis, 

emptying itself into the Adriatic, called after Absyrtus. 

who was killed bv Medea. Luean. 1. 3, v. lJIO. 
ABSVRTIDES (Geog.) 'Ayfmprtits vvmn, 'Ayfrnprtiai, Of 

'At/fopoc, according to Ptolemy, islands in the Adriatic 

Ocean, called after Absyrtus, who was killed there, now 

called Osero and Chersu. A /ml toil. 1. 1, c. () ; Sei/mn. (It. 

Orb. Deseripl. v. 372 ; Strab. I 7 ; Diom/s. Perie^ei. v. 488 ; 

Plin. 1. 4, c. 2(i; Ptol.l 2, c. 17- 
ABSYRTUS (Myth.) "Aijwproc, the son of Oetn, king of 

Colchis, who at the desire of his father went in pursuit of 

his sister Medea, and was slain by Jason. Afollod. 1. 1, 

c. .'» ; Strab. 1. 7 ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 26. 

AbSYBTUS (Biog.) a soldier who fought under Constantino, 
and wrote a hook concerning farriery and the cure of ani- 
mals. Calcpinus asserts that this book was preserved in 
the library of Anthony, sixth count of Milan. 

ABU (Hist.) an Arabic word for father, is prefixed to the 
names of many distinguished persons. 

ABU, Abilu/u, a king of Tivnicscn, who became tributary to 
Spain in the time of Barliaros-a. 

ABU, Abdullah .11 Baradi, a governor of Bagdad, under the 
caliph Al Moktadcr. 


Abu, Abdallah Al Mohtasel, defeated the Aglabites, and made 
himself master of Kairwan in 297- He was put to death by 
the caliph Al Moktader in 29S. Euti/eh. C/iron. Alexand. 

Abu, Abdalla Ebiw'l Hejai (Biog.) a poet in the caliphate of 
Al Ssy Li'llah. Abu'lfarag. Di/nast. p. 324. 

Abu, Abdalla Nalalensis, the preceptor of Avicenna. 

Abu, Al Hosein, succeeded his father Nasero'd Dawls, us 
prince of Al Mawsel. Abulfarag. Dynast, p. 322, 379- 

Abu, Abdala, a supreme judge under caliph Al Moktadi. 

Abu, Abdcli {Hist.) a title which all the kings of Grenada 
took. Marmol. 1. 1. 

Abu, Afar, a Moslem general in Sicily, was killed before Mes- 
sina by a sudden sortie of the enemy, in the year of the 
Hegira 430, A. D. 1 040. 

Abu, Ahmed Ebn Al Moctafi (Hist.) a competitor for the cali- 
phate with Al Kaher, was by his order nailed to a wall. 

Abu, Ahmed Al Hasan (Biog.) a logician and grammarian, 
wrote among other things ' Kitab al Manthake,' and died 
in 387- 

Abu, AH Al Hosein Abdalla Ebn Sina (Biog.) the Arabic 
name for the philosopher Avicenna. 

Abu, AH Al Mansur, succeeded his father Al Aziz as a Fate- 
mite caliph of Egypt, in 415. 

Abu, AH Mahomet Ebn Eylia (Hist.) Lord of Kerman, died 
in 356. 

Abu, All Ebn Merrran, was made governor of Aleppo, and 
assassinated by Ebn Dinina, in 380. 

Abu, Ali Ebn Simjur, having rebelled against Nuh, lord of 
Khorasan, was defeated in the combat, and reduced to sub- 
mission in 384. 

Abu, Ali Ebn Mahomet Al Mohtai, a general under the caliph 
Al Motakki. 

Abu, Al Mohdi (Hist.) the founder of the Fatemite dynasty, 
died in the year of the Hegira 331. 

Abu, Al Taleb (Hist.) was uncle to Mahomet, whom he took 
under his charge, but died without declaring his belief in 
the impostor. 

Abu, Amer Mahomet (Hist.) vizier of Al Miwayyd, king of 
Cordova, governed in his name with great wisdom, until his 
death in 393. 

Abu, Amer, a general, gained a victory over Garcia. 

Abu, Ayub (Hist.) a Mussulman who had been with Mahomet 
at the battle of Beda, and was killed at the siege of Con- 
stantinople in the year of the Hegira 48. 

ABL'BABA (Hist.) the sixteenth caliph of the Arabians in 
Syria. Marmol. 1. 2, c. 18. 

Abubaba, the vizier of Abu-Sayd, by whom he was murdered 
in 1514. Marmol. 1. 4, c. 55. 

ABU-BARC (Hist.) a king of Tunis who was assassinated by 
his nephew, Chuyah. Marmol. 1. f), c. 15. 

ABU-BECR (Hist.) the pnenomen of several Arabians of dis- 
tinction, as follow : 

Abu-becr, the first caliph and successor of Mahomet, was 
chosen unanimously on the day of the false prophet's death. 
He died in the fi3d year of his age, after a reign of onlv 
two years and three months. El Ma/.in. 1. 1, c. 2 ; Abulft da 
de Fit. Moham. c. 1 ; Abu'lfaraj. Din. p. 174; Ei/ti/ch. 
Annal. torn. ii. 

Abu-becr, Mahomet Ebn Ja'j, a governor of Egypt in 323. 

Abu-becr, Mahomet Ebn Iiai/eck, an emir under the caliph 
Al Mohtader, 324. 

Abu-becr, Mahomet Ebn Abdallah Al Majametic, a noted 
Fakir, died in 330. 

Abu-becr, surnamed Aschid, took Syria from the caliph Radi, 
where he reigned till his death in the vear of the Hegira 
335, A. D. 945. 

Abu-becr, Ben Omar Lameth, reigned over the deserts of 

Abu-becr, Schasbani, was a valiant general who gave great 
trouble to Tamerlane. 


Abu-becr, Mahomet Ebn Tag (Biog.) a poet and pliilologcr, 
died in the year 321. 

ABUBUS (Hist.) "A/3H,oor, father of Ptolemy, through whom 
his father-in-law, Simon Maccubxus, was assassinated, A. M. 
3869, B.C. 135. 

ABU-CAAB (Hist.) supplanted his brother as emir of Sicily, 
but was finallv expelled in 4-7- 

ABU-CALEM (Hist.) a king of Fez who set at liberty Abu 
la Abez, the king of Tunis. 

ABU-CALIJAR, succeeded his father Soltano'ddaula, as 
prince of Kerman, 415 ; but was soon after obliged to resign 
that principality to Abul Fawares, and to accept the sove- 
reignty of Ahwaz. 

ABU-CHEMEX was restored to the throne of Tremecen by 
Charles V, to whom he became tributary. Leo. African. 
1. 4, c. 1. ; Mann. 1. 5, c. 1. 

ABUCARAS, Theodore (J>iog.) bishop of Caria, in the eighth 
centurv, who wrote against heretics and concerning the in- 
carnation. Fabric. Bibl. Grcec. 1. 5, c. 33 ; Sax. O/tomast. 
vol. ii. p. 90. 

ABUCAUAM, Thabet (Biog.) brother of Nureddulat, an 
Arabian prince of the family of the Assadites, was for some 
time at variance with his brother, until they were united 
against the caliph Caiem. 

ABUCINTj Partus (Grog.) a town in Gallia Lugdunensis. 

ABUELAR, Al A/cadi (Hist.) a seditious Arab who continued 
to revile the caliph Othman, until he was put into prison, 
where he probably died. El Malcin. 1. 1 , c. 4. 

ABUDHAHER (Hist.) a great opposer of the religion of 
Mahommed, who plundered the temple of Mecca, and car- 
ried awav the black stone which was supposed to have fallen 
surreptitiously from heaven. 

ABUDIACUM (Geog.) the name of two towns in Vindelicia, 
one now called Abach ; the other, near Rosenheim, now 
called Happing. 

Abudiacu.m (Numis.) a medal of this town is known by its 
inscription of ABUDOS on the obverse, and ABUD on 
the reverse. Pellcr. Suppleni. Kec. de Med. des Peup. 
pi. 124, fig. 13. 

ABUDIUS, ll'ifo (Hist.) a Roman, who, wanting to bring 
about a marriage between the son of Sejanus and his 
daughter, shared the fate of the former. Tac. Annal. 1. (i. 
c. 30. 

ABL-FADI.-.TAAFAR (Biog.) a philosopher who was pa- 
tronised by Adado Dawla, emir of Bagdad, died 377- 

ABU-PARAS, a princ- of Herns, who was put to death by 
Saado Ddawla, emir of Aleppo, in 357. 

ABUFEUEZ {Hist.) the first king of Bugie, in Africa. 
Marmol. 1. 5, c. 48. 

ABUGANA (Geog.) a country of Abyssinia, where was a 
celebrated Christian church, now called Imbra Chrislos. 

ABU or ABUL-HENUN {Hist.) a king of Fez, who made 
war on his father Abulhassan, with the assistance of Peter, 
kin- of Castile, in 1343. Marmol. 1. 2, c. 88. 

ABU-HANIFA, Al Naoman Ebn Thabet (Hist.) the leader of 
a sect of Moslems, called after him Hanefites, died in prison 
under the caliphate of Al Mansur, in the year 150. 

ABU-HOMMER (Hist.) otherwise called Bahama, was re- 
stored to the kingdom of Tremecen in 1517, by the assist- 
ance of the emperor Charles V. 

ABU-HOSEIRA {Hist.} i- e. The Father of the Cat, an in- 
timate companion of the impostor Mahomet, who gave 
him this name, becaj!§e he always carried a cat about with 

ABU-.IAAFAR {Hist.) vide Al Mansur. 

Abu-.taafar, Al Taberi (Biog.) an historian who wrote a 
history from the beginning of the world down to his own 
time.' He died at Bagdad, in the year 310. The Mos- 
lems, who hold it in great esteem, call it Al Tjrikh Al 


ABU-JACOB (Hist.) another name for Jacob Alraonsor, king 
of Morocco. 

ABU-JAHL (Hist.) one of the Koreish, was slain at the 
battle of Beda. 

ABL'-JBRAHIM, Montescr, last of the race of the Alsam- 
mani, in Persia, was slain at Khorasan after an unsuccessful 
attempt to retain his government in the year 395. 

ABU-ISHAK, Ibrahim (Biog.) a Sabian notary, wrote a his- 
tory of Dcylani, and died in the year 384. 

ABU-ISAAC, Ben Assal (Biog.) a Maronite, collected the 
statutes of the church of Alexandria. 

ABUKIR (Geog.) vide Aboukir. 

ABU'L ( a Soltan of Khorazin, was slain in battle in 
the year of the Hegira 96O, A. D. 1570. 

ABULA (Geog.) 'Api\a, a town of Ilispania Tarraeonensis, 
now called Arila. 

ABU-LA-ABEZ (Hist.) a king of Tunis who was taken 
prisoner by Aim Henum, king of Fez, and set at liberty by 
Abu-Calem, his successor. MarmoL 1. 6, c. 15. 

ABUL-ABBAS (Hist.) a prsenomen of most caliphs of the 
family of Abbassida, also to other Saracens. 

AjJUL-ABBAB, Ahmed, succeeded his father as caliph under the 
title of Al Mostadher, and reigned from the year of the 
Hegira 487 to 512. 

Abul-abbas, Ebn Omar, a general of the caliphs Al Motaded, 
was defeated by the Karmatians in the vear of the Hegira 
287, A. D. 8.07. 

Abul-abba*. Mahomet Abdullah Kbit Zeid (Biog.) a. gram- 
marian who wrote many books, died in the year of the He- 
gira 286, A. D. 896. 

ABUL-AFAR (Hist.) vide Abu Afar. 

ABUL-ALI, Al Hasan Ndsero Ddatr/a (Hist.) revolted 
against the caliph of Egypt, in the vear of the Hegira 459, 
A. D. IO69. 

ABUL-DZOWAB, Ebn Al Mosayyeb (Hist.) prince of the 
Okalite Arabs, died in the year of the Hegira 387, A. D. 

ABUL-FADAYEL (Hist.) succeeded his father Saado'd- 
dawla, as prince of Aleppo, in the year of the Hegira 381, 
A. D. 991 ; and was poisoned in the vear of the Hegira 391, 
A. D. 1001. 

ABUL-FADH, .1 a afar, vizier to Cafur, caliph of Egypt, was 
an encourage! of learning. 

ABl'L-FADL, /// Hosein (Biog.) author of Al Macamat, 
died in the year of the Hegira 398, A. D. 1008. 

ABU'LFARAJj Mahomet, (flirt.) prince of Al Batiha, who 
had murdered his brother, was assassinated in his turn in 
the year of the Hegira 393, A. D. 1003. 

Abulfabaj, Gregory (Ecc.) commonly called Ibu Hakima, 
and in Europe Abulfarajiiis, the son of Aaron, a Christian, 
was born iu 1226, in Slalatia, near the source of the Eu- 
phrates, and died primate of the Jacobites in the East, in 
1286. He wrote an epitome of universal history, entitled 
' Mokhtassar Al Doual,' which he divided into ten dynasties. 
1 1 was translated into Latin by Dr. l'ocoeke, in 1663, in 

ti vols. ito. Oxford. Fair. Bibl. Grcec.1.6. c. 9; Cave, 
Hist. Lit. vol. ii. p. 33(). 

Abulfabaj, Ahdallah Al Iraki, (Biog.) a physician and philo- 
sopher, wlio explained the works of Aristotle, died in the 
year of the Hegira 437, A. I). 1047. 

Abulkahaj, Al Esfahani, composed a book of Arabic songs, 
entitled ' Kctab Ali Algani, and died in the year of the 

Hegira 356, A.I). 966. 
Ai'.ii.KAitA.i, Alt Esfahani, a native of Ispahan, wrote the 

history of tin Barmecides. 
Abulfabaj, Sangiari, a Persia]] poet in the time of Gen- 

ABU'L-FATHI, Ebn Al Amid (Hist.) vizier of Adado'd- 

dawla, was deposed with the loss of his nose and one of his 
eyes, in the year of the Hegira 366, A. D. 97". 


ABL'L-FA WARES (Hist.) a governor of Kernian, revolted 
against his brother Sultano Ddawla, the lord of Irak, in the 
year of the Hegira 408, A. D. 1018; but afterwards came 
to an accommodation with him. 

ABULFEDA, Ishmael (Hist.) an Arabian prince, geographer, 
and historian, was born at Damas in 1275, succeeded as 
emir and sheik of Hamah, in 1310, and died in 1331. He 
wrote 1. ' Tkovim Al Boldaan,' or ' Geographical Canons.' 
2. • Al Mokhtassar Fi Akhbar Albaschar,' a universal his- 
tory to his own time. Sax. Onomasl. vol. ii. p. 332. 

ABUL-FETAH (Biog.) or Fatah, otherwise called Mansitr 
Ebn Mokshar, a Christian physician of great note, died at 
Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 432, A. D. 1042. 

ABUL-GANJAR (Hist.) vide Abu Culijar. 

ABUL-GAYIR (Hist.) a Khan of the Usbeck Tartars, having 
made himself formidable to his neighbours, was slain in the 
year of the Hegira 880', A. D. 1496. 

ABULGHAZI, Bayadun (Hist.) Khan of the Tartars, and 
the historian of his nation, was born in the city of Urgens, 
capital of the country of Kharasin, in the year of the He- 
gira 1014, A. D. 1624. He wrote ' A Genealogical His- 
tory of the Tartars,' and died after a reign of twenty years, 
in the year of the Hegira 1074, A. D. 1684. 

ABU'L-HAGEZ (Hist.) a king of Granada, was assassinated 
after a reign of twenty-one vears, in the vear of the Hegira 
734, A.D. 1344. Mann. L'Afr. 1. 2, c 14. 

Abul-hagkz, another king of Grenada, son of Abel-Gualid, 
died in 1390. 

Abul-hagez, brother to Muley Abu-Sayd, succeeded to the 
throne at the moment that he was going to be put to death 
bv the order of his brother, whose death came to his relief. 
Mann. L'Afr. 1. 2, c. 38. 

ABU L-HARETH (Hist.) or Abulhares Mansur Ebn N„h, 
sovereign of Khorasan, was driven from his kingdom, and 
had his eyes put out after a reign of one year and seven 
months, iii the vear of the Hegira 398, A. D. 1008. 

ABU'L-HASAN, Ali Ebn Abdallah (Hist.) was one of the 
retinue who attended the caliph Al Mottaki, when he fled 
from Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 332, A. D. 942. 

Abu'l-hasan, Jawhar, a slave whom the caliph of Kairwan 
had made a vizier, extended the conquests of his master in 
Africa, in the year of the Hegira 343, A. D. 953. 

Abu'l-hasan, Ali Ebn Nasr, succeeded the usurper Al Mod- 
hafiii, in the principality of Al Batiha, in the year of the 
Hegira 376, A.D. 986. 

Abu'l-hasan, ///;' Abcn Abu (Biog.) a celebrated doctor of 
the Moslems, died in the year of the Hegira 330, A. D. 

Abu'l-hasan, Ali Ambari, a poet who made some beautiful 
verses on the death of the vizier of Azzo'ddawla. 

Abu'l-hasan, Ali Ebn Isa, a grammarian who wrote a large 
commentary on the Koran, died in the year of the Hegira 
384, A.D. 994. 

Abu'l-hasan, Al Salami, a poet of Bagdad, died in the year 
of the Hegira 393, A.D. 1003. 

ABUL-HASSAN (Hist.) a king of Fez, who was dethroned 
by his son Abu-Huncn. Manual. 1. 2, e. 38. 

Abul-hassan, Ben Jahia, a descendant of the family of Ali, 
was destined for the caliphate by Moezeddoula. 

ABULITES (Hilt.) 'A/JtA/rijc, governor of Susa, who, sur- 
rendering his trust to Alexander, received from him as a 
reward the government of the province ; according to Ar- 
rian, he and his son Oxathcs were afterwards put to death 
for mal-administ ration. Diod. 1. 17, c. 66 ; (.}. Curt. I. 5, 
c. 2 ; Arrian. E.rped. Alex. 1. 7, c. 4. 

ABU'L-KASEM (Hist.) son of Obeid'alla, the first Fatemitc 
cabph of Kairwan, was defeated in two several attempts 
which he made upon Egypt, in the year of the Hegira 307, 
A.D. 917. 

Abu'l-kasf.m, AH Ebn Al Hasan, was set over the Moslems 


in Sicilv, as emir, where he was slain in battle, in the year 
of the Hegira 371, A. D. 981. 
Abu'l-kasem, Abd'allah Ebn Al Moctafi, was elected khalif 
in the place of Al Mottahi, who was deposed in the year of 
the Hegira 333, A. D. 9±3. He assumed the name of 
Moctafi Billah, but did not reign more than a year when he 
was deposed. 
Abu'l-kasem, A! Fad! Ebn al Moktader, was created khalif 
in the place of the preceding, and after a reign of some- 
thing more than twenty-nine years under the title of Al 
Moti, he abdicated in favour of his son Al Tay, in the year 
of the Hegira 36'2, A. D. 972. 
Abu'l-kasem, Abdallah Ebn Mahomed Ebn Al Km/em, suc- 
ceeded his grandfather in the khalifate under the title of Al 
Moktadi, in the year of the Hegira 46", A. D. 1077) and 
died after a reign of twenty years. 

Abu'l-kasem, Ebn Abbad, surnamed Al Sahcb, i. e. the com- 
panion, vizier to Fakhro'ddawla, the lord of Hamadan, was 
one of the wisest statesmen among the Moslems. He was 
a learned man, and the encourager of learning, having col- 
lected one of the most extensive libraries. Among his 
writings are : 1. ' Al Mohith,' a philological piece. 2. ' Al 
Can," a treatise on writing letters. 3. ' Al Kitab Al 
Imamak,' i. e. ' The book treating of the office of Imaam.' 
4. A piece on the office of the vizier, besides pieces of poetry. 
He died in the year of the Hegira 3S5, A. D. 995. 

Abu'l-kasem, a kadi or judge of Demawar, commonly called 
Ebn Cajji, was murdered bv the populace in the year of the 
Hegira 40,5, A. D. 1015. 

Abu'l-kasem, Prince of Aleppo, killed in battle Samsamo'd- 
dawla, whose father Adado'ddawla had put to death his 
father Azzo'ddowla. 

Abu'l-kasem, Lord of Seville, died in the vear of the Hegira 
433, A.D. 1043. 

Abu'l-kasem, son of Bedr Al Jemal, the vizier of Al Mos- 
tanser Billah, caliph of Egypt, who succeeded his father in 
this office, in the year of the Hegira 487, A. D. 1097- 

Abu'l-kasem, Btihr (Hist.) took possession of Jorjin and 
Mazinderan on the death of his father Shah Kukh, in the 
year of the Hegira 851, A.D. 146l. 

Abu'l-kasem, (Biog.) Abdalrahnuin Al Fdrdbi, a noted gram- 
marian, died in the year of the Hegira 338, A. D. 948. 

Abu'l-kasem, Soliman Al Fabaruni, author of three lexicons, 
called by the Arabs, ( Maagem,' died in the vear of the 
Hegira 360, A. D. 970. 

ABU'L-KHAIR (Ecc.) son of Kebas Allah, archdeacon of 
the church of Antiocb, was phvsician to the caliph Nasser, 
in the year of the Hegira C00, A. D. 1210. 

ABL'L-.MAALI (Hist.) an infant prince of Batiha who was 
banished bv his treacherous guardian. 

ABL'L-MA'ALI (Hist.) Sharif Saadoddairla, was lord of 
Aleppo in the year of the Hegira 373, A. D. 983. 

Abu'l-ma'ali. succeeded his father Al Hasan Ebn Omra, as 
prince of Al Batiha, in the year of the Hegira 373, A. D. 
983 ; but was soon after banished by his guardian Al Mod- 
haffer, who seized the principality himself. 

Abu'l-ma'li, Xiihas (Bios-) a poet in the age of Malee Shah. 

ABU'L-MAHAN" (Hist.) and Abul Ghi'l Mirza, the last 
princes of the race of Tamerlane. 

ABL'L-MAIMUX, Abdol Majid (Hist.) succeeded Al Mos- 
tali, as caliph of Egypt, in the vear of the Hegira 524, 
A.D. 1134. 

ABU'L-MANAJEM, Bekr, one of Al Aziz's Mamlukes or 
purchased slaves, seized on Aleppo and ruled there, inde- 
pendent of the caliph, in the year of the Hegira 413, A. D. 
1023 ; but was soon dispossessed of his government. 

ABU'L-MANSUR, Soliman, was made governor of Aleppo 
by Al Thaher the caliph of Egypt. 

Abu'l-mansir, Ebn Hammer, vizier to the caliph Al Kavem 
Beamrillah, crowned Mahmud, youngest son of Malec Shah 


Seljukian Soltan in Irak, who was afterwards compelled to 
resign in favour of Barkiarok his eldest brother. 
ABL'L-MODHAFFER, Kasem, surnamed Barkiarok, eldest 
son of Malee Shah Soltan of the Seljuks, in Persia, suc- 
ceeded his father in opposition to the caliph Al Moktadi in 
the vear of the Hegira 4S5, A.D. 1095. 
ABL'LXAGIB, Al Bokham (Biog.) a Persian poet. 
ABU'L-SARUR (Hist.) a Christian who held a post in t!ie 
Diwan, was put to death for having poisoned the patriarch 
of Alexandria, who had reproved him for his debaucheries, 
in the year of the Hegira 30'7, A. D. 977- 
ABU-LULUA, a Persian slave, assassinated Omar, the second 
caliph, through private resentment, while he was at his de- 
votion at the mosque of Medina. Thcoplt. Chronograph. 
p. 2S4 ; Enti/ch. Annal. torn. ii. p. 320; Al Makin, p. 25 ; 
Abnlfaraj. Hist. Dynast, p. 79- 
ABU'L-NYAFI (Hist.) a general under Adado'ddawla, king 

of Persia, in the year of the Hegira 367, A. D. 977- 
ABU'L-VYASA, Mahomet Al Mohandes (Biog.) or the geo- 
metrician, died in the year of the Hegira 3S7, A. D. 997- 
ABU'L-WERD (Hist.) prince of Khalat, in Armenia, died 

in the year of the Hegira 351, A. D. 961. 
ABU-MAASHER (Biog.) vulgarly called Abumasa, an astro- 
loger, died in the year of the Hegira 279- 
ABL-MALACH (Hist.) a king of the Saracens, in Spain, 

entered into a league with Charlemagne. 
ABUMANDER (Geog.) a village of Egypt, supposed to be 
on the site of the ancient Canopus, where marble has been 
dug up, 3 miles S. Rosetta. 
ABU-MANSUR, Boar (Hist.) made an unsuccessful attempt 

for the caliphate of Egypt in the year of the Hegira 495. 
ABU-MERWAN, AbdulmaUfc, succeeded Abu Amer Merwan, 
as prime minister to Al Mowayyed, in Andalusia, in the 
vear 398. 
ABU-MESLEM (Hist.) a governor of Khorasan, who brought 
about the bloody revolution, by which the caliphate was 
transferred from the family of the Ommiades to that of the 
Abassides. He was afterwards thrown into the Tigris by 
Almansor, whose interest he had promoted. 
ABL'-MOHAMMED (Hist.) a caliph. Vide Moktqfi. 
Abu-.mohammed, Obeidallah, surnamed Al Mohdi, the founder 
of the dynasty of the Fatemites, established himself as caliph 
of Kairwan, in the year of the Hegira 297, A. D. 907. 
Abu-jiohajliiei), Al Hasan, prince of Al Mawsal, assisted 
the caliph Al Mottaki in the vear of the Hegira 330, A.D. 
Abu-mohammed, Al Asn-ad, or The Black, was set over Da- 
mascus bv Al Hahem, the Fatemite caliph of Egypt, in the 
year of the Hegira 393, A. D. 1003. 
Abu-moiiammed, Shah of Gurjestan, died in the year of the 

Hegira 406, A. D. 1016. 
Abu-.iwha.hukd,' Al Sirafi (Biog.) a grammarian, died 

in the year of the Hegira 3S5, A. D."995. 
Aiiu-muhammkd, Al Farsi, a grammarian, died in the year of 

the Hegira 347, A. D. 957. 
Abu-mohammed, Abdallah Ebn Moham, continued the history 

of Abu Jaafar. 
ABU-MOHEL, a general under the caliph Al Moti, was 

hanged in the year of the Hegira 342, A. D. 952. 
ABU-XASR (Hist.) succeeded his father Abu Mohammed, 
as prince of Gurjestan, in the year of the Hegira 406, 
A.D. 1016. 
ABU-XASR-MOHAMMED (Biog.) surnamed Al Fardbi, 
a Moslem philosopher, died in the year of the Hegira 339, 
A. D. 949. 
ABU-MOSLEM (Hist.) a general who was mainly instrumental 
in securing the caliphate for Al Mansur, but owing to some 
misunderstanding between them, was assassinated bv order 
of the latter in the year of the Hegira 137, A. D. 747. 
Abu' I Faraj. Hist. Dynast, p. 217- 


ABl -MUSA (Hist.) governor of Kufa, reluctantly joined 
Ali against Ayesha, and afterwards deposed him. El Male. 
1. 1 . c. 3. 

ABl NDANCE, John (Biog.) the assumed name of a French 
■ of the sixteenth century, who wrote ' Moralitc, 
Mysterc et figure de la passion de N. S. Jesus Christ,' also 
poems, ballads, &c 

ABUNDANTIUS (Hist.) a Roman consul, who, being ac- 
cused by Kutropius, was driven into banishment. Zosim. 
Hut. in' Arcad. 1. 5. 

ABUNDIUS (Fee.) a martyr of Seville who suffered under 
the emperor Maximian. 

ABU-NOWAS (Biog.) or Abon-Noiras, an Arabian poet who 
was born in the city of Bassora, in the year of the Hegira 
ll.i. A. 1). 755, and died in the year of the Hegira 195, 
A. D. 80.5. His poems were collected into a book called 
' The Divan/ or Volume. 

ABU-OBEIDAH (Hist.) the friend and associate of Ma- 
homet, made many conquests in Syria, under the caliphate 
of Abu Beer, and died of the plague in Syria, in the 
eighteenth year of the Hegira, A. D. 6'28. Al Mate. Hist. 
Sarac. 1. 1. 

Abu-obeidaii, Al Kasem (Biog.) a grammarian end author of 
a book, entitled ' Amthal-Ai-Sairat.' 

Abu-obeidaii, Ma mar, a grammarian and author of two 
works, entitled ' Al Moccademat.' 

ABU-OMAR, Ebn Waheb (Biog.) a Mussulman who died in 
the year of the Hegira 345, A. D. 955; leaving a reputa- 
tion for extraordinary sanctity. 

ABUPUS (Gfoa-.) the river Humber. 

ABU-RACWAH (Hist.) i. e. Father of the bottle, a nick- 
name for Al Walid, a descendant from the caliph Hesham, 
who stirred up a revolt in Egypt, and, being defeated, was 
beheaded in the year of the Hegira 395, A. D. 1005. 

ABL " III A, Gens. (Numis.) a plebeian family of Rome, some of 
whom rose to a certain distinction in the state. Qvide AburwsJ 
Several medals were struck by the Aburii, one of which, 
according to the annexed cut, 
bears on the obverse the in- 
scription of GEM. for Geminus, 
the cognomen of the family, and 
I he head of Roma with a helmet ; 
on the reverse, the figure of Sol, 
radiated, in a chariot and four, 
with a wlii]) in the right hand, and underneath M. ABUR. 
ROMA Marcus Aburiu.s Roma. This is a frequent type on 
tiie coins or medals of Roman families. Fail/ant. Numis. 
Roman. Tamil. Morel. Tkesaur. Roman. Famil. Patin. 
Roman. Famil. Pigh. Annul. 1. 10. 

M. ABUB.IUS, Geminus (Hist.) a tribune of the people 
L". ('. 5(il, and afterwards a praetor, for some time prevented 
tin a nate from granting a triumph to M. Fulvius, proconsul 
of Atolia. Of him a medal is given under Numismatics. 
[vide Al/urin Qens~\ Lit: 1. 39, c. 4. 

C. AbuBJUB, Geminus, uncle to the former, was tribune U. C. 
568, and an ambassador to Massanissa and the Carthagi- 
nians. Lie. 1. 12, c. 35. 

M. Animus, M. /•'. Gcminus, a son of the preceding, was a 
tribune l". ('. 598, and proprietor of Sardinia in 604. 

Alii S (Geog.) a river of Albion, now the Humber. Plot. 

1. 2. .-. S. 
ABl SACUS (Hist.) a sultan of Egypt, who for five years 
gave much trouble to the knights of Rhodes. 

ABU-SAHAL (I Hog.) a Christian, and the master of Avi- 
cenna, wrote a boos entitled ' .Miat,' or a Hundred Essays. 

ABU-SAID, Al llaiimtii (Hist.) a leader of the Kannatians 
insl tli' caliph Al Motadid, was assassinated in a bath in 

the year of the Efegira 801, A.I). 911. Eutych. Annul. 

At. Mai.. Sana: lli.xl. 1. 2, c. 19. 
\ 1:1 - - mi, .// Daif, a general in the caliphate of Al Moktader, 


reduced the Sicilians to subjection in the year of the Hefeira 
305, A.D. 915. b 

Abu-said, or Abu~aid. a king of Morocco and Fez, who was 
unsuccessful in Spain. He was assassinated by his vizier 
Abubaha in the year 1302. Johann. Leo AJ'ric. 1. 3; Marmot. 
1. 4, c. 55. 

Abu-said, Ebn-Aljaptu, the last of the family of Ghengis 
Khan. After his death, in 1335, the empire was torn 
with civil dissensions until the reign of Tamerlane. Tex. 
Relac. 1. 2. 

Abu-said, Mirza, who, profiting by the civil dissensions be- 
tween Uleg Beg and his sons, put himself at the head of 
an army, but was slain in an ambush in 1 His. 

Abu-said, sixth son of Cara Josef Turcoman, first sultan of 
the race of the black sheep, was killed by bis brother in the 
year of the Hegira 830, A. D. 1440. 

Abu-said, succeeded his lather Kushanji, as Khan of Great 
Bukharia, and died in the year of the Hegira 939, A. D. 
1549. Te.r. Relac. 

Abu-said, Al Hoscin (Bio;;.) a grammarian, died in the year 
of the Hegira 275, A. D. 885. 

ABU-SALAH (Biog.) an Armenian, who wrote a history of 
the churches of Egypt, &c. 

ABU-SALEM, Al Hamadani, founded the principality of 
Hamad.m, in the year of the Hegira 414, A. D. 1024. 

ABU-SCHAJA, Fatck (Hist.) a Greek slave, became emir of 
Al Favvum, in Egypt, and died in the year of the Hegira 
350, A.D. 96O. 

ABUSIACUM (Geog.) Abusacum, or Abuzaciim, a town of 
Rbetia, now Fucssen. Antonin. Itin. 

ABL^SIXA (Geog.) a town of Vindelicia, now Abensberg. 
Antonin. Itin. Lib. Notit. 

ABU-TAGLAB (Hist) having rebelled against his father 
Nasero'ddawla, was defeated and put to death in the year 
of the Hegira 369, A. D. 979- 

ABU-TALEB, Mohammed (Biog.) author of a book entitled 
' The Nourishment of Hearts;' died in the year of the 
Hegira 3S6, A. D. 996. 

ABU-TAMIN, Mn'had (Hist.) or Mo ad, succeeded his father 
Abu-Tamim in the caliphate of Kairwan, in the year of 
the Hegira 341, A.D. 951- 

Abu-tamiim, succeeded his father, Al Thaher, in the year of 
the Hegira 420, A.D. 1030. 

ABU-TECHIFIEN (Hist.) the first king in Africa of the 
race of the Almoravides, died after a reign of fifty-live years, 
leaving his son Joseph as successor, in the year of the Hegira 
1086, A.D. 1696. 

ABU-TF.MAM (Biog.) or Abou-Tamam, an Arabian poet, 
was born in the year of the Hegira 190, A.D. 800, at 
Jasem, a village near Damascus; and died at Mausel, in the 
year of the Hegira 231, A. D. 841. He published a collec- 
tion of poems. 

ABU-THAHER, Al Mansur (Hist.) a prince of the Kanna- 
tians, who made himself independent of the caliphs, died of 
the small pox in the year of the Hegira 332, A.D. 912. 

Aih'-tiiaiieh, Uirahim, a prince of Mawscl, was killed bv 
Abuldzowad Emir of the Chailite Arabs, in the year of tin 

Hegira 87 k A. I). 984. 
ABlvrilAKIF, Olvam Ebn Thamal (Hist.) was the first 

emir of Cufa, of the house of Thamal, in the vear of the 

Hegwa 874, A.D. 984. 
ABL'TKl (Geog.) Aboutig, or Abutige, a town of Egypt, and 

a bishop's see, 170 miles S. Cairo, supposed to be the anck;nt 

ABY0ENUS, Vahvplialiis (Biog.) a disciple and friend of 

Aristotle, was a grammarian and an historian, who wrote 

a history of Troy, eve. Suidas. I'oss. de Hist. Grate. 1. 1. 

c 9- 
AnvDi'M's, Abydenus, or Abtdenus, 'Apvenvos, to whom are 

ascribed two historical works, entitled ' Assyriaca,' and 


' Chaldiaca,' has been supposed by some to be the same as 
the preceding. Eu.ich. in Chron. et Evang. Pra-parat. 1. 9, 
c. 12 ; Syncell. in Chron. ; St. Cyrill. cont. Jul.; Suidas. ; 
Pass, de Hist. Grccc- 1. 3. 

Abydents (Geog.) the Gentile name for a native of Abydos, 
as on medals. [Vide Abydu.f\ 

ABYDOS (Geog.) a town and castle of Natolia, in Asiatic 
Turkev, on the strait of Gallipoli, where all ships from the 
Archipelago are searched. Lon. 37 : 36' E. lat. 40° 16' N. 
Qvide Abydus] 

ABYDUS (Geog.) "Ajivcoe; 1, a city of Troas, in Asia, built 
by the Milesians in the reign of Gyges. It is situated on 
the Hellespont, opposite to Sestus, now Avco or Abydos. 
Muswus. iii Her. ct Lcand. 

Sfjtoc ti}V Kill *A;3i'coc ivav-iov tyyvQi ttovth, 

Tt'lTOVlC, ildl TToXlJiQ. 

As it divides Asia from Europe, Xerxes here built his bridge 

of boats. 

Lucan. 1. 2, v. 6?4. 

Tales fama canit, tumidiim super trquora Xenem, 
Cmsfrurisse Bras, multum cum pontibui ausus t 

KuTOpamque Asiu; Sestonque admoiit Abg&O. 

Flaccus calls it Abydos Gemma, on account of its proximity 
to Sestus. Athenaeus and others celebrate it for the fine 
flavour of its oysters. It was destroyed by Philip, the father 
of Perseus, the inhabitants devoting themselves to a volun- 
tary destruction. Herod. 1. 7, c. 24 ; Si/clax. in Perip. Lie. 
1. 31, c. IS; tirg. Gems- 1- 1, v. 207 j Allien. 1. 3, c. 13; 
Ovid. Trist. 1. 1, el. 9 ; Vol Flac. Argon. 1. 1, v. 2S5 ; Sidon. 
Apollin. Carm. 2, v. 507. 2. A town of Egypt, famous 
for the temple of Osiris, now Abutich. The inhabitants 
were called Abydeni. Plin. 1. 5. c. !) ; Ptul. I 4, c. 5. 
S. A city of Iapygia, in Italy. Stcph. Bgz. de Urb. 

Abydus (A u in is.) the two first towns of this name struck se- 
veral medals. 

Abydcs, on the Hellespont, adopted the symbols of Medusa's 
head, the anchor and the eagle on its earlier medals ; but 
those which were struck under their archons in honour of 
the emperors, as of Anlonius Pius, I'cius, Coniniudits Severus, 
CaraeuUa, and Mamea, had many devices, bearing the 
several inscriptions of A. AB. ABY. ABYA. ABYAHN. 
ABYAH. NilN. and in many the name of the archon. The 
annexed cut represents, on the 
obverse, the head of Alexander 
Severus, adorned with laurel, 
the inscription AYT. KAIC. M. 
CEB. 'AvTOKparwp Ka7<7ap ilap- 
ko<; 'AvptjXwc Sivnput; 'A\;„i:> - 
qxir Stpaoroc. Inipcrcitor Ciesar Marcus Aurclitis Severus 
Alexander Augustus. On the reverse, Leander swimming 
to a tower on which Hero stands holding forth a torch, with 
the inscription IIP12. AEAXAPoC. ABYAH. Hero Leander 
Abydenoriiin ; in allusion to the well known tale of Leander 
and Hero, the torch being emblematical of the torch of love. 
Leander raises hLs hands and supplicates the gods in the 
words of Ovid : 

Parcite dum prirpero, mergite cum redeo. 

Goliz. Gra'c. ; l'ai/1. Xi/mis. Greec- ; Putin. Xumis. Imper. 
Roman.; Harduin. Xitmn:. Aniiq. Pop. el Urb.; Spatilieim. 
de Pra'st. et L'su Xuinis. Disseiiut. ; Pellcr. Rcc. de Med. 
Hunt. Xuiiim. J'et. Pop. et Urb. 
Abydi's, in Egypt, a medal of Severus, representing the em- 
peror under the ferm of Osiris, is referred by most antiqua- 
ries to this town. Another, which is given by Vaillant, 
bears, on the reverse, an eagle standing on thunder, with the 
inscription nTOAEMAIOY 2S1THP02 ; and in the area of 


the coin the letters AB i. e. 'Afivcyroir, Abydcnorttm. 
J 'a i /la nt. Num. Plvl. Reg. .Egypt.; Tristan. Coinm. Hist. 
torn. 2, p. 102. 
ABYLA (Geog.) 'A/l/Xr;, a mountain of Africa, called Abila 
bv Plinv, now Des-Singes. It is opposite to another moun- 
tain on the coast of Spain, called Calpe, which were toge- 
ther entitled the Pillars of Hercules. Strab. 1. 3 ; Fun. 
1. 5, c. 1 ; Mela. I. 1, c. 5 ; Marmol. 1. 4, c. 53. 
ABYSSINIA (Geog.) a large country and kingdom of Africa, 
about 300 leagues long, and 280 broad. It is indifferently 
called Abissinia, Abyssinia, Abessinia, and Abassia; but 
more properly Habessinia, from the Arabic Habesh, which 
signifies mixture or confusion, the country being inhabited 
bv a mixed race of people. The Portuguese also gave it by 
mistake the name of the country of Prester John. Prester, 
which was a corruption of Presbyter, being the ordinary 
title given to the spiritual princes of a territory in Asia, 
subject, in spirituals, to Babylon. It is bounded on the E. 
bv the Red Sea, on the X. by Xubea, on the W. by Xigritia, 
and on the S. by Caffraria. 

Division. It is divided into the provinces of Amhara, 
Dambea, Douba, Gojam, Holcaita, Magaza, X'area, Ogara. 
Saalgaad, Salacta. Somen, Xaoa, and Tigre. 
Principal Totrns. Gondar, the capital, Amhadar, Ambia- 
num, Bagarneder, Adow, Madgoga, or Fremona, as it is 
now called, Axum, and a few more which constitute the 
whole number of towns in Abyssinia ; the rest being only 
villages leading to Gondar. 
Mountains. Geshen, or Guexen, where the princes of the 
blood used to be confined ; Tadbaba Marjan, on which 
seven churches were built, besides innumerable other? 
which exceed any mountains in Europe in height. 
Hirers. The Abawi, or X T ile, wliich has its source in 
Abyssinia ; the Tacatza, supposed to be the Asia/' 
Ptolemy; the Matche Zehee, Hoax, or Hawash ; M.rcb 
Bulhilo, or Baxilo ; Guexem, Anguer, &c. 
Lakes. Zoai, or Zowaia, Dembea, &C. 

Kings and Queens cf Abyssinia. 
Slieba, queen of the east, who visited Solomon. 
Menilehech, her son, by king Solomon, reigned twenty-nine 

years, cotemporary with his father, and eighteen with his 

son Rehoboam. 
Sadgur, the son of Menilehech, from whom proceeded in a 

lineal descent twenty-four princes, the length of whose 

reigns is not given, nor any remarkable particular known ; 

except of the last named Bazen, in the eighth year of 

whose reign our Saviour was born. 
Abraham and Atzbeham, brothers, after an interval of 300 

years, who embraced Christianity. 
Atzfa, Atzfed, and Amey, successors and triumvirate kings. 
Aiado. Alabtida. and Alamid, in whose reigns many Christian 

monks arrived in Abyssinia. 
Taccno, the son of Alamid, and after him Caleb. 
Elesbaan, Iris grandson, A. D. 522, who defeated Dunavas 

the last of the Salxcan kings, and a Jew by religion, who 

was a bitter persecutor of the Christians. 
Gebra Meskel, that is, a servant of the cross, succeeded the 

Denoalda, the last of this family, reigned in 960. 
Zagma, an impious queen, succeeded him. 
Degua Michael and Xeiragi Cliristos, her successors, are 

mentioned in the Liturgia ^Ethiopia?. 
Lalibala, celebrated as a founder of temples. 
Xaacueto Laabo. was the last of this race in 1300. 
Icon Amlac, the first of Solomon's family that was restored 

in 1300, was succeeded by 
Jagbea, Jzcjon, Baharsarda, Esbraad, Cadem, Saghed, 

Zeusahed, Udunrad, Amdelzejon, Seifaarad, Udnutasfdr, 

Daeid, Theodorus, until 


Zoar- Jacob, who reigned in 143", by the name of Con- 

lioeda-Mariam, surnamed Curiacus, in 1465. 

Alexander began to reign in 1475, in whose reign the Por- 
tuguese visited Abyssinia. 

Amdaizejon, his son, died after the reign of six months. 

Noad, the son of Breda Marjam, died in 1505. 

Lebna Denghel. sunuuned David, grandson of Baida Mar- 
jam, wrote a letter to Emanuel, king of Portugal. His 
grandmother, Helena, administered the government for 
him in his minority. 

Atztvqftaghed, surnamed Claudius, succeeded his father 
David, and was slain in battle in 1559- 

Minus, surnamed Adamas Sashed, was slain in battle in 

Tzacaro, his natural son was thrown down a rock bv his 
rebellious subjects, in 1561. 

Seriza Denghel, was made king in 1562, and died in 1579. 

Jacob, his natural son, succeeded in 1589. 

Seltan-Saghed, succeeded him in 1607- 

Basi liilcs succeeded him in 1632. 

John, called Aclaf Seghad, died in 1680. 

Jairso, or Adi/an Segued, succeeded him, and was dethroned 
by his son. 

SaUimenoth, or Sella Hai/manot/i, was massacred by his 
own troops in 170.9, and Sefilis, his brother, succeeded 
him, who, being dethroned, was succeeded by David. 

Writers on Abyssinia. 
Leo African. Dcscript. Afric. ; Marmol. L'AJHque ; F. 
Alvarez. Rclat. d'Abissin.; Lobo. Relat. ' d'Abissin. ; 
Datnicn. dc Gocz. de Mor. JEthiop. ; Codinho de Abass. 
Reb. ; Tellez. Hist. d'Abissin. ; Grammat/c. Afric. Must. ; 
Ponccl. J'oi/ag.; Herbert. Trav.; Lndolph. Hist. JEthiop.; 
I'ossius. 8fC. The authors who have written of Abyssinia, 
under the name of Ethiopia, may be found under the 
head of Africa. 
ABYSTRUM (Ccog.) "Afivcpoc, a city of Magna Gnecia, 

now called Ursimuro. Plot. 1. 3, c. 1. 
ACA (Geog.) 1. A country of Numidia, containing three 
cities, in a desert bordering on Lybia. Gramm. Afric. 1. 10, 
c. 11. Marmol. 1. 7, c. 8. 
Aca, Mohammed Senear (Hist.) third prince of the dynasty of 

the Sarbedanans. 
ACABENE (Geog.) 'Ajcaffyvri, a country of Mesopotamia. 

Ptiil. 1. 5, c. 18. 
ACACALLIS (Mi/th.) •AxasaWk, a daughter of Minos, 
and mother of Cydon, by Mercury, and of Amphithcmis, 
by Apollo. Schol. in Apollon. 1. 4, c, 1493; Pans. 1. 8, 
c. 53. 
Apacai-lis, a nymph, mother of l'hylacis and Philander, by 
Apollo. Her children, who were exposed on the moun- 
tains of Crete, were said to have been nourished by a goat. 
Paul. 1. io, c. 16. 
ACACESIUM (Geog.) \WW/<7»"', a town of Arcadia, built 

by Acacus, the son of Lycaon. Pans. 1. 8, c. ,'i, &C. 
ACACESIUS (Myth.) 'Axadiatoe, an epithet of Mercury, 
From AcaCUS, his foster-father. Pans. 1. 8, e. 3(). 

ACACHUMA (Geog.) a town of Ethiopia. 
ACACIUS (Ecc.) there were several of this name who distin- 
guished themselves in the Christian church. 
Acacius, '.Woaor, Acitciiis, surnamed Luscus, pov6(p8a\uoe, 

was a disciple of Eiiscbius, bishop of CnsuTca, whom lie 
succeeded in the year SS8 or 840, and died in 865. He 
wrote, 1. 'A Life of Kuscbius,' not extant. 2. Seventeen 
volumes of Commentaries on Ecclesiastics, and six volumes 
'.( Miscellanies, lb- was the leader of a sect called after 

him Acadans, who denied the Son to be of the same sub- 
stance as tin- Father. Socrat. Hist. 1. 2, c. 4; Epiphan. 
Uteres. 72 ; Hicron. dc Script, e. 98 ; Sozomcn. 1. 3 ; Fair. 


Bibl. 1. 5, c. 19 ; Harks Edit. ; Tillem. Mem. Eccl. vol vi. ; 
Cave. vol. i. p. 206. 

Acacius, a patriarch of Constantinople, in the year 471, who 
established the superiority of his see over the eastern bishops. 
He was a great favourite with the emperor Zeno, who pro- 
tected him against the Pope. Two letters of his are extant, 
one in Greek and Latin, to Petrus Trullo ; the other in 
Latin, to Pope Simplicius. Thcodor. 1. 5, c. 23 ; Xiccph. in 
Chron.; Cave. Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 417; Tillem. Mem. Eccl. 
vol. xiv. ad lit. Ci/r. 

Acacius, a bishop of Beroea, assisted at the council of Con- 
stantinople in 381. He died about 432. Thcodoret. L 5, 
c. 32 ; Baron. Annul. Ann. 398. 

Acacius, bishop of Amida, or of Constance, is distinguished 
for his piety and charity in having sold the church plate, 
&C. to redeem 7000 Persian prisoners on the Tigris, in Me- 
sopotamia. His death is commemorated in the Latin Church 
on the 9th of April. Socrates, 1. 7, c. 21 ; Fab. Bibl. G. 
1. 5, c. 19; Harks edit. 

Acacius, bishop of Mitilene, in Armenia Minor, who was 
present at the council of Ephesus in the year 431, and has 
left in the Councils, vol. iii. a Homily of his, in Greek ami 
Latin, against Nestorius. Nicephor. 1. 16, e. 17; Suid. in 
Voce i3a<Ti\itTKos, Evagr. 1. 3, c. 4; Cave. Hist. Lit. vol i- 
p. 417 ; Tillem. vol. xvi. ad vit. 

Acacius, a patriarch of Antioch, in whose time there was a 
great earthquake. Evagr. 1. 2, c. 12. 

Acacius, a general under Adrian, and a native of Alexandria, 
was suspended from a tree by the heel, for his profession of 
Christianity. Hist. Tripart. 1. 5, c. 11. 

Acacius, another martyr, in the reign of the emperor Deeius. 

Acacius (Biog.) an orator who flourished in the time of the 
emperor Julian Suidas. 

ACADA (Geog.) a river of Natolia, now Sangari/. 

ACADEMUS "(Afy//j.) 'AxaSnuos, an Athenian, who gave his 
name to the grove Academia, in Athens. He informed 
Castor and Pollux where their sister Helen was concealed by 
Theseus, for which cause they spared the Academia in their 
attack upon the city. Pint, in Thcs. 

ACADINA (Geog.) or Acis, a fountain of Sicily, sacred to 
the Palici. It was supposed that an oath, when written on 
a tablet and thrown into the water of this fountain, would 
sink if it were false, and that otherwise it woidd swim on 
the surface. Aristol. dc Mirab. ; Si/ius Ital. 1. 14, v. 221 ; 
Macrob. 1. 5, c. 1.0. 

ACADR2E (Geog-) 'AicaBpai, a people of China, now the pro- 
vince Quicken Huquan. Ptol. 1. 7, c. 3. 

ACAFRAN (Geog.) a river of Tremissa, in Africa, formerly 
Quinalaf, now I'etxilaf. Marmol. 1. 7, c. 30. 

ACAIRI (Biog.) an Arabian author, who wrote a book en- 
titled ' Rem! Megmon,' i. e. on divination bv sand. 

ACAIUS (HtSt.) viile Achains. 

ACALANDUUM (Geog.) a river of Italy, now Salandrella, 

running into the bay of Tarentum. Strab. 1. 6 ; Plin. 1. 3, 

c. 15 ; Chtv. Ital. Antiq. 1. I, <-. 15. 
ACALANTHIS [Myth) 'AicaXavdk, a dog mentioned by 

Aristophanes. Schol. in Aristoph. Pac. v. 1078 ; t\cl. 

Rhodig.h 17, c. 27- this, an epithet of Diana. Aristoph. Arcs. v. 872. 
Acai.antiiis, a daughter of Pierus, who, with her sisters, 

having contended with the muses, were changed into birds. 

Antonin. Liberal, c. 8. 
ACALIS (Mi/lh.) vide Acacal/is. 
AC A LLP (Myth.) 'AkoMjj, the daughter of Minos and Pase- 

phae, supposed to lie the same as Acacallis. Apotiod. 1. 3, c. 1. 

•\( Al./K'A (Geog.) a fortress on Mount Caucasus, which was 
built by the Georgians, and taken by tire Turks in the six- 
teenth centurv. Chard. 'Travels. 

ACAMANTIDES (Biog.) 'AuavnMlC, a philosopher of Heli- 


ACAMANTIS (Ant.) 'Atca/mrm, one of the ten tribes of 

Athens, called after Acamas, of which Pericles was a 

member. Thucyd. 1. 4, c. IIS; Pans. I 1, c. 5; Pint, in 


ACAMAXTIUM {Geog.) ' ktauavrutv, a town of Phrvgia, 

built by Acamas, the son of Theseus. Steph. Bi/z. de Urb. 
ACAMAXTIUS (Bios.) a philosopher of Heliopolis. 
ACAMAPIXTLI [Hut.) the first king of Mexico who adorned 
the city, and, at his death, left the Mexicans the liberty of 
choosing their own king. Acost. 1. 8, c. 8, 9> &<". 
ACAMARCHIS (Myth.) 'As&fiaavig, a marine nymph said to 

be the daughter of Oceanus. Diod. 1. 6. 
ACAMAS [Hist.) 'A«i^ac, son of Theseus and Phsedra, was 
sent with Diomed on an embassy to Troy, to demand resti- 
tution of Helen, and was afterwards among the number 
of the Grecians who were shut up in the Trojan horse. 
Hygin. fab. 108; Pans. 1. 10, c. 26; Q. Calaber. 1. 13, 
v. 495 ; Tzetzes in Lycoph. v. 495 ; Schol. Enripid. in Hccub. 
v. 125. 
Acamas, a son of Antenor, distinguished for his valour in the 
Trojan war. Horn. II. 1. 2, v. 60 ; 1. 13, v. 478; 1. 18, 
v. 542; Q. Calab. 1. 10, v. 168. 
Acamas, a Thracian auxiliary in the Trojan war. Honi. II. 

1. 2. 
Acamas (Geog.) 'Amjinr, a promontory of Cyprus, now called 
Holy Epiphany. From this promontory the whole island 
was called Acamantis. Plin. 1. 5, c. 31 ; Plot. 1. 5, c. 14. 
ACAXTHIS [Myth.) 1. 'AamSks an epithet of Diana, ac- 
cording to Aristophanes. 2. A daughter of Antonous, who 
was so named by her father, because his land produced only 
thorns. Antonin. Liberal, c. 7- 
ACANTHUS (Myth.) a son of Antonous and Hippodamia, 

changed into a bird. Calphnrn. Eel. 1. 6, v. 67 
Acanthus (Biog.) "Amv&os, a victor at the Olympic Games 
in the 15th Olympiad, who, according to Dionysius Hali- 
carnassus, introduced the practice of running naked. Dion. 
Hal. 1. 7; Pans. I. 3, c 1. 
Acanthus (Geog.) 1. "AkoiOoc, a colony of Andrians, near 
Mount Athos, whom the Spartan general Brassidas attacked 
in the Peloponnesian war. From this place Xerxes cut a 
canal to communicate with the Sinus Syngiticus in order to 
avoid goinCT round Mount Athos. Herod. 1. 6, c. 44 ; 1. 7, 
c- 113 ; Thucyd. 1. 4, c. S4 ; Xenophon. Hellen. 1. 5, c. 2 ; 
Diod. 1. 12, c. 67; Mela. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 10; 
Plol. 1. 3, c. 13 ; Steph. Buz. de Urb. 2. A town of Caria, 
otherwise called Dulopolis, according to Mela, Mel. 1. 1, 
c. 26 ; Plin. 1. 5, c. 28 ; Steph. Byz. de Urb. 3. A town in 
Egypt, near Memphis, where, according to Stephanus, is the 
grove of the Theban Acantha, from which the gum is col- 
lected. Strab. 1. 1, c. 77- 4. An island in the Propontis. 
Plin. 1. 5, c. 32. 
Acanthus (Xumix.) the medals extant under this name are 
attributed, by all antiquarians, to the Acanthus in Mace- 
donia. On the obverse of the sub- 
joined cut is represented a lion 
devouring an ox, and, on the re- 
verse, a square divided into four 
smaller squares, with the inscrip- 
tion AKAXCIOX, or on some 
ARAN. The workmanship of 
these and similar medals sufficiently proves their antiquity. 
Peller. Bee. de Med.; Hunter. Num. Vet. Pop. et Urb. 
ACAPARAM (Geog.) a town of Bithynia, on the shore of the 

Euxine, now Carpi. D'Avity. Descript. Asiw. 
ACARIOX (Biog.) 'Amio/wi-, a writer referred to by the 

scholiast on Apollonius. Argonautic. 1. 2. 
ACARXAXIA (Geog.) \\Ktipiayia, a region of Epirus, near 
the bay of Ambracia, so named after Acarnas, now Carnia 
and Despotato. The Acarnanians, who were originally called 
Curates, were an effeminate and luxurious people, whence, 

VOL. I. 


according to Lucian, the proverb of Porcellus Acamanius. 
Their breed of horses, however, was so superior that 
'AxapviKei i7r7roi became proverbial for anv thing excellent. 
Thua/d.l. 2, c. 10; Polyb. 1. 5, c. 90 ; Scylax. in Perpi 
1. 2, c. 3 ; Strab. 1. 7, c. 9; Plin. 1. 4, c. 1 ; Mela. 1. 2, c. 3; 
Pans. 1. 8, c. 24; Plol. 1.3, c. 14; Lucian. Dial. Meret. ; 
Maerob. 1. 1, c. 12; Steph. Byz. de Urb.; Nig- Geog. 
Comm. 1. 11. 
Acaknania (Xumis.) the medals of Acarnania were some of 
them common to the whole country as in the subjoined cuts. 

Fig. 1. 

On the obverse of fig. 1, is a figure of Jupiter holding in 
one hand a thunderbolt : and in the other an eagle ; the 
inscription ARAI'NANiiN ; on the reverse a horned 
head of Achelous, as is supposed, who is fabled to have 
changed himself into a bull, Qvide Achelouf\ with the name 
of a magistrate, NAY2IMAX02. On the obverse of fig. 2, 
is the figure of Apollo sitting with his bow ; the inscrip- 
tion the same as the preceding ; and on the reverse the same 
head, which by some is supposed to he the head of the 
Minotaur. Goltz. Grmc. ; Patin. Num. Imperat.; Spanheim. 
de Pra?st. et Vsu Xumis. Peller. Bee. de Med. 

ACARNAS (Myth.) 'Axapvav, the son of AlemaHm and 
Calirrhoe. The former being murdered by the brothers of 
his first wife Alphisiboca, Calirrhoe obtained from Jupiter 
that her children Acarnas and Amphoterus, who were still 
infants, should suddenly grow up to revenge their father's 
murder. Ovid. Met. L 1, fab. 10 ; Pans. 1. 8, c. 24. 

Acarnas (Geog.) or Acarnan, a stony mountain of Attica. 
Senec in llipjwl. v. 20. 

Vos, qua tepidis 
Subditus aitstris, frigcra mollit 
Dunis Acuruun. 

ACARZERES, Laurenlius (Biog.) a Portuguese author of 
some poems, according to Giraldus. 

ACAS (Biog.) "AkoSj a tragic poet, according to Suidas. 

ACASIS (Myth.) the daughter of Minos, and mother of Cydon 
and Oaxes, by Apollo. Steph. Byz. de Urb. 

ACASTE (Myth.) 'Axarn, one of the Oceanides. Hesiod. 
Theos. v. 356. 

ACAST US (Myth.) 'Am-oc, the son of Pelias, king of Thes- 
saly, by Anaxibia, was put to death with his wife Hippolyte 
or Astydamia by Peleus, whom, while an exile at his court, 
he had at the instigation of his wife caused to be tied to a 
tree, and exposed to wild beasts. He was a famous hunter. 
Ovid. Met. 1. 8. 

Jaculoqut insignia Ariutus. 

Bind. Nem. Carm. 4, 5 ; Apottod. 1. 1, c. 9, &C. : Ovid. Met. 

1. 2; Horat. 1. 3, Od. 7, v. 17- 
Acastus (Hist.) "ActiTor, the second perpetual archon of the 

Albanians, A. M. 2934, reigned for thirty years. Euseb. in 

Chron. ; Petau. Doct. Tempor. vol. ii. 
ACATUS (Biog.) \\k«tov, an Argive and author of a poem 

entitled 'IXum-tpalc, the destruction of Troy, in which he 

gives the names of all who were shut up in the wooden 

horse. Allien. 1. 13, c. 9- 
ACATZIXTO (Geog.) a town of Anahual, in Mexico, where 

the Mexicans were defeated by the Spaniards in 1520. 
ACBARUS (Hist.) vide Abgarus. , 
ACCA (Mi/th.) Acca, the companion of CamelJa. 

Virg. JEn. 1. 1 1, v. 820. 

Accam, ei tr^ualibus imam, 


Acca, Lanrenlia, a goddess of the Romans, said to be the 
nurse of Romulus and Remus. She was the wife of Faus- 
tus, Numitor's shepherd, who, for her wantonness, was 
called lupa, a prostitute, or she wolf; whence the Story that 
Romulus was suckled by a wolf. Plutarch mentions another 
prostitute of the same name, to whom divine honours were 
likewise paid at the feast of the Laurentalia. Diunt/s. Hn/. 
1. 1, c. 18 ; Lie. 1. 1, c. 1- ; Van: de Lot. Lin. 1. 5 ; Aid. Gel. 

1- (>', c. 7 ; PI ut. in Ram. ct QutEst. Rom. ; Senilis iii Virg. 
JEn. 1, v. 87 ; de Idol. 1. 1, e. 12. 

Acca, Tarentia eel Taruntia, another goddess worshipped by 
the Romans. Vur. dc Lai. I. in. 1. 5. 

Acca, St. (lice.) bishop of Hagustald, or Hexham, in Nor- 
thumberland, succeeded Wreiid in the year 70J). He wrote 
' Ofticia Sue Ecclesue, &c' Bed. Hist. Eccl. Gent. Anglor. 
1. 5, c. 'JO ; Cave. Hist. Lit. vol. xvi. 6l(); Fabr. Bib/. Med. 
el Iii/ini. I .at. vol. ii. 1. 1. 

ACCABICUS murttx [Geog.) 'AKKafiiKOV rle^nc, a town near 
the pillars of Hercules, built by the Carthaginians. Steph. 
Byz. de I ;■/,. 

ACCAD (Gcog.) 13N, called by the Septuagint 'ApxaS, (Gen. 
x. 10,) was a city built by Nimrod, the situation of which 
is not ascertained. It is supposed, by Dr. Wells, to be 
Tittacene, which, according to Pliny, is the same as Ar- 
belites, in the country round Arbela. Well. Geog. of the 
Old and New Text. 

ACCEL'S [Hist.) the first king of Attica. 

ACCARISI, Albert (Biog.) a grammarian of Cento, in the 
Dutchy of Ferrara, published in the 1 6th century ' A Voca- 
bulary, Grammar, and Orthography of the vulgar Tongue.' 

Accarisi, Francis, a civilian of Ancona. He wrote comments 
on the Institutes and Pandects, and died Oct. 4, 1()22. 

ACCAROX (Gcog.) 'AKKap&iv, a town of Palestine, the Ekron 
of the Bible, now Accuron. 

ACCEPTUS (Ecc.) an ecclesiastic of Frejus, in Provence, 
who accused himself falsely of different crimes to avoid 
being elected bishop, wherefore in a council of Daupbiny, 
it was decreed that for the future such persons should be- 
held infamous on their own confession. 

ACCETTO, Reginald (Biog.) an Italian, and author of a The- 
saurus of the Italian language, died at Naples in 156'(). 

ACCHO (Gcog.) 13 j?, "Axyfui ; a town situated on the north of 
Mount Cannel, belonging to the tribe of Ashur. Judg. i. 
31. It was the seat of war in the time of the Crusades, 
and was then called Acra, now Acre. QVide Acrc~] In the 
Maccabees it is mentioned frequently under the name of 
Ptolemais. Euscb. apud Ilicron. de Sit. el Num. Loc. ; 
Heb. in Voce "Ak)(u. 

ACC I (Gcog.) 'Am, a town of Hispania Tarriconensis, now 
Guadi.v. The people were called Accitani, as appears from 
the several inscriptions and medals. [Vide Accitani^ Plol. 
1. 2, c. (') ; Vasirus in ( '/iron. 

AcCl (Numis.) this town struck medals in honour of Augustus, 

Tiberius, Germanicus, Drusus, and Caligula. The subjoined 

fig. 1, represents, on the obverse, a bead of Augustus, bare, with 

the inscription AUGustus CAESAR, on the reverse, two 

legionary eagles between two military standards, the common 
symbol of this town, the inscription Cotuiiia .In/in Gcine/la 

ACct> On the obverse of fig- '-', is a bead of Tiberius 
crowned with laurel ; the inscription, '['Ibcriits CAESAR 
DIVI AUGurfi Fifia* AUGUSTUS ; on the reverse the 
pontifical symbols, namely, the Apex, the Lituum and 


the Simpulum, legend above, Colonia Julia Gemella, below 
ACCI. Another medal of Tiberius has on the reverse 
the heads of Germanicus and Drusus. Haiduin. Num. 
Ant. illnsl.; Flore-. Med. de Espiina. tab. 51, fig. 2. 

ACCIA (Hist.) or Abia, daughter of Julia and Atius Balbus, 
was the mother of Augustus. She died about forty years 
A. C. Bio. I. 45 ; Suet. Aug. c. 4. 

Accia, Variola, a female of distinction, whose cause was ably 
defended by Pliny the younger. Sidonius Apollinaris, in his 
book to Rusticus, says that Pliny gained more credit from 
that eause than from his panegyric of Trajan. Pliny speaks 
very much of it in his Epistles, 1. 5, ep. 33. 

Accia (Gcog.) a town of Corsica, now in ruins, formerly the 
see of a bishop, which is removed to Mariana. 

ACCIAIOLI (Hist.) a noble family of Florence, which was 
fruitful in great men, and for some time held the sovereign 
authority, in Corinth, Thebes, and Athens. 

Acciaioli, Nicholas, of the above-mentioned illustrious family, 
was born in 1310, and died in 136'6, after having acted a 
very important part in the government of Naples, under 
Catherine, the widow of Philip, and her son Robert. 

Acciaioli, Rciialns, conquered Athens, Corinth, and Boeotia 
in the 15th century. At his death, having no male legi- 
timate issue, he gave Athens to the Venetians ; Corinth to 
Theodoras Pala-ologus ; and Bceotia to his natural son An- 
thony. Clialeond. Hist. Turc. 1. 4 & t). 

Acciaioli, Doniito, a statesman and scholar of the same family, 
was born in 1428, and died in 1478, after having been 
employed on several important missions for the republic. 
Dying poor he was honoured with a splendid funeral at the 
public expeiiee, and bis daughters were also portioned out at 
the expence of the state in recompence of his signal services. 
His works are, 1. ' Expositio super libros Ethicorum Aris- 
totelis, in novam traductionem Argyropili,' Fol. Florent- 
1478. 2. ' In Aristotelis libros octo Politicorum commen- 
tarii,' 8vo. Venet. 1566". 3. The lives of Aleibiades, De- 
metrius, Annibal, and Seipio, translated from Plutarch for 
the Latin collection of that author, to which he added a 
life of Charlemagne. 4. ' La Storia Florentina,' &c. trans- 
lated from the Latin of Leonard d'Arezzo, Fol. Venice, 
1473, and often reprinted. 5. An Italian translation of the 
life of his kinsman Nicholas Acciaioli, which had been 
written bv Palmerius, under the title of ' Mattluei Palmerii 
Florentini de vita et rebus gestis Nicolai Acciaioli Florentini, 
niagni Apuliir Seneschalli ab anno 1310, ad annum 1366, 
cominentarius.' The translation of this work was printed 
at Florence in 1588, with the history of the family of 
Ubaldini, but the original is inserted in Muratori's collection 
of Italian Historians. 

Acciaioli, Angela (Fee.) a cardinal and archbishop of Flo- 
rence, was created a cardinal by Urban VI, in 1384, and 
died in 1407, after having been employed by Boniface IX. 
as legate to Naples, Hungary, and elsewhere. 

Acciaioli, Nicholas, a cardinal, was elevated to that dignity 
by Clement IX, in 1 (>(><), on the score of his great merits; 
and died in 1 7 I <), at the age of 89. He was so esteemed 
by the cardinals that be hail, like the preceding, many voices 

in the conclave for his election to the Pontificate. 

Acciaioli, V.nnobio (Biog.) probably of the same family as the 
preceding, was born at Florence in 1461, and died in 151!) 
or 1520. He made a Latin oration in praise of Naples in 
1515, which he afterwards published, besides translating 
into Latin Eusebius of Cicsan a,Theodorct,01yinpiodorus, &c. 
and publishing l'olitien's Creek epigrams. Whilst acting as 
librarian to the Vatican under Leo, he undertook the labo- 
rious task of arranging the ancient public documents, of 
which he formed an index published by Montfaucon in his 
BibL Bibliothecarum MSS. vol. i. He was also reckoned a 
great poet. 

Acciaioli, John, of the above-mentioned family, who flou- 



rished in the 16th century, was the author of a work 
entitled ' Multa doctissiraorum probleraatum monumenta 
magno studio et ingenio elucubrata.' 

ACCIO, Zucco (Biog.) surnamed da Summa Campagna, an 
Italian poet of Verona, who flourished about 14-70, was the 
author of a work published under the title of ' Acci Zucchi 
Summa Campanee, X eronensis viri eruditissimi in iEsopi 
Fabulas interpretatio per rhythmos,' &c. 4to. Veron. 1479, 
in which each fable is preceded by a Latin epigram. This 
work was reprinted in 1491, 1493, and 1497- 

ACCIL'S, Tulhis (Hist.) vide Actios. 

Accius, Lucius (Biog.) a Latin tragic poet, and intimate 
friend of Junius Brutus the Consul. Of all his works not 
more than 799 verses are extant, which are to be found 
scattered in Cicero and other authors, and collected in the 
' Corpus Poetarum Latinorum.' Of him and Pacuvius, 
Quintillian says ' Tragcedi.-e scriptores Accius atque Pacu- 
vius clarissimi, gravitate sententiarum, verborumque pon- 
dere et auctoritate personaruin virium tamen Actio plus 
Hor. I. 2, Ep. 1, v. 55. 

Pacmius docli fan 

- Auferl 
Accius alti. 

Quiiitil. Instil 1. x. c. 1 ; An!. Gel/. 1. xii. c. 2, &c. 

Accius, Pisaurcnsis, a distinguished orator. Cic. Brut. ~S. 

Accius, a player mentioned by Juvenal. Sal. vi. v. 70. 

Accius, Nonius, vide Actius. 

Accius, Prisons, a painter in the time of Vespasian. Pliu. 
1. xxxv. c. '2~. 

ACCO (Mi/th.) 'Akku, the name of an old woman who fell 
mad at seeing her own deformity in a looking-glass, whence 
the word accissare, in Latin signifying to be mad ; also the 
proverb tirl role, 677X010 'AKKt^erat, speaking of one who de- 
lights to look at himself. Lucian de Merced. Sere. ; Allien. 
1. xiii. ; Zenob. Proverb. Ant. 5."; Diogcnian. Proe. Aid. S ; 
Suid. Proe. Aid. 82 ; del. Uhodig. 1. xvii. c. 2. 

AC-COIXLU (Hist.) or white sheep, a family of Turcomans, 
who reigned in Asia, so called from the ensign they bore. 
They succeeded the dynasty distinguished by the name of 
the Cara-Coinlu, or the Black Sheep. 

Chronological Succession of Ike Ac-coinlu. 

Thour Ali Beg, the first of this dynasty. 

Courlu Beg, the second son of Thour Ali. 

Cara Hug Atkman, son of the preceding, died in the year 

of the'Hegira 809, A. D. 141 9. 
Hamzag Beg, son of Cant Hug, died in the year of the 

Hegira 848, A. D. 1 158. 
Gchanghir, nephew of Hamzag, died in the year of the 

Hegira 872, A. D. 14S2. 
Hassan al Thaoial, or Ussanhassan, brother of the pre- 
ceding, died in the vear of the Hegira 883, A. D. 

Khalil Beg, son of the preceding, died in the vear of the 

Hegira 884, A. D. 1494. 
Jacob Beg, brother of Khalil. died of poison in the year of 

the Hegira 896, A. D. 1506. 
Massih Beg, brother of Khalil, or son of Jacob, reigned 

only a year and eight months. 
Roslam Mirza, grandson of L'ssancassan, reigned about five 

years and a half. 
Ahmed, son of Ogivilee, and grandson of L'ssancassan, 

reigned only a year. 
Alrcnd Mirza, a third grandson of Ussancassan. 
Morad, son of Jacob, was stripped of his kingdom bv 

Ismael Sofi, king of Persia, in the year of the Hegira 

915, A. D. 1525. The author of the Xighiaristan makes 

the number of sultans to be onlv nine. 

ACCOLTI (His/.) the name of an ancient family of Tuscany 

which produced some men of distinction ; as 
Accolti, Benedetto, son of Michael Accolti, was born at 
Arezzo in 1415, and died in 1466. He followed his 
father's profession, and filled with great credit the office 
of secretary to the republic of Florence for the last seven 
years of his life, ami, besides the extensive correspondence 
which he held, he wrote, 1. ' Do bello a Christianis contra 
Barbaros gesto, pro Christi sepulchre et Jud;ea recu- 
perandis libri quatuor,' 4to. Venet. 1532 ; which was re- 
printed several times, and once with notes by Thomas 
Dempster, 4to. Florence, 1623. 2. ' De Pnestautia virorum 
sui aevi.' Parm. I6S9, 1692. 
Accolti, Benedetto, descended from the same family, set on 
foot a conspiracy against Pope Pius IV, under pretence 
that he was not duly elected. He suffered with five others 
a capital punishment for this crime in 1564. 
Accolti, Peter (Ecc.) son of Benedict the lawyer, was bom 
in 1455, and died in 1532. He was created cardinal by 
Pope Julius II in 1511 ; successively held the bishoprics of 
Ancona, Arras, and Cremona, and in 1524 was made arch- 
bishop of Kavenna. He left some historical treatises. 
Accolti, Benedetto, nephew of the preceding, was tailed the 
Cicero of the age, on account of bis skill in the Latin 
language. He succeeded his uncle in the archbishopric of 
Ravenna, was made cardinal by Clement VII in 1527, and 
died in 1549] leaving a treatise on the Pope's right to the 
kingdom of Naples, and other works in prose and verse. 
Accolti, Bernard (Biog.) another son of Benedict the 
lawyer, was distinguished in his day by his poetry, which 
gained him universal applause. A collection of his poems 
was printed at Venice in 1519 and 155.','. 
Accolti, Francis &' Arezzo, vide Aretin. 
Accolti, Pelcr, published a book of practical perspective in 

Italian, at Arezzo, in 1625. 
ACCORDS (Biog.) vide Tabouret. 

ACCORSO (Ecc.) a missionary into Africa, was beheaded by 
order of the king of Morocco in 1220. Blonde/, lies des 
Saintes au 16 de Janvier. 
AceORSO, Francis (Biog.) a lawyer who was born at Florence 
in 1151, and died in 1229- He wrote an explanation of 
the laws, entitled the ' Great Gloss,' published at Lyons in 
6 vols, folio, 1589. 
Accohso, Francis, eldest son of the preceding, was professor 
of law at Bologna, and afterwards at Oxford in 1275. He- 
died in 1321. Fab. Bibl. Ltd. 1. iv. c. 10; Sax. Onomast. 
vol. ii. p. 293. 
Accouso, Anot, a brother of the former, published a con- 
tinuation of his father's Gloss, which is not much 
ACCOBSO, Maria Angela, a native of Aquileia in Naples, and 
an eminent critic of the 1 6th century, wrote- • Di-itribx in 
Ausonium, Solinum et Ovidium.' Fab. Bibl. Lai. 1. '■',. 
c. 1 ; Sa.r. Onomast. vol. iii. p. 1 00. 
ACE (Geog.) the name of two towns, 1. In Phoenicia, which 
was also called Aco, or Accas, and Pto/cmais, now . /. 1 
C. Xep. in Datam. c. 5. 2. "Axn, a place in Arcadia, where 
Orestes was relieved from the persecution of the Furic-, t > 
whom a temple was there erected. Penis. 1. 8, c. 34. 
Ace (Xtiinis.) one medal of the town, in Phoenicia, has been 

found with the inscription AKH. 
ACEDUM (Geog.) "AxeSov, now Ceneda, a town of Venice, 

in Italy. Nig. Geog. Com in. 
ACELA (Geog.) "A/c£,\tt, a town of Lycia, called after Acelu -. 
a son of Hercules and Malis. The gentile name is Aceletis. 
Stcph. Bi/z. de Urb. 
ACELDAMA (Bibl.) rmi-bpn, iypie aifiaros, i. e. the 
field of blood ; the field which was purchased by the priests, 
with the thirty pieces of silver that had been given to Juda* 
for betraying his master. Matt, xxvii. 8 ; Acts i. IS. 
E 2 


ACELUM (Geng.) '.WW, according to Ptolemy AclhimA 
rding to Paul Diaeonus, now Azulo; a town of \ enice. 

Plin. 1. .;. c. 1!) ; l'lol. 1. 3, c. t ; Paul. Diac. Longo/i. Ber. 

Hist. 1. 3, c. 26 ; Nig. Geog. Comm. 1. 7- 
Acei.lm (.Vubh'.v.) two medals are referred to this town, 

bearing the inscriptions AKIAIiiN and AKI. 
ACELUS {Myth.) vide Acela. 
ACEMA (Geog.) one of the Alps, from which the river Varus 

ilows. IpIm. 1. 3, c. 5. 
ACE-MANNER (Geog.) Xce-mannen Ceapten, i. e. the 

town of invalids, now Bath ; a city in Somersetshire. 
A< ENCHERIS (//('*/.) •A«r X f f nc, a kin- of the Egyptians, 

who reigned 12 years. Euseb. in Ckron. 
ACEPSIMAS (Bios.) 'Ajccifapas, an anchoret of the country 

of Cyrene, who lived 60 years in his cell, according to 

Theodorct, without speaking to any one- 
ACE1U5AS (Myth.) a priest of Hercules, and hushand of 

l)id<>, whom Virgil calls Sichieus. I'irg. /En. 1. 1, v. 34:3; 

Justin. 1. IS, c. 5. 
ACERNUM (Geog.) a town of Naples, now Acerno, 12 miles 

N. E. Salerno, Ion. 14° 50' E, lat. 40° 45' N. Lcand. 

Albert. Descripl. Ital. 
ACERNUS, Sebastian Fabian (Biog.) a poet and native of 

Poland, was born in 1551, and died in 1608, leaving, 

1 . ' Victoria Deorum,' &c. 2. ' A poem in the Polish on 

the Navigation of the Dantzikers,' 1643, &c 
ACERONEA (flirt.) or Acemmia, a handmaid of Agrippina, 

who, while on hoard a vessel, gave herself out to he Agrip- 
pina, and was in consequence slain by the crew. Tae. Ann. 

1. 14, c. 5. 

ACERRA (Geos.) an ancient town of Naples, seated on the 
Agno, 12 miles X. E. Naples, Ion. 14' 18' E, lat. 40° 56' N ; 
it was formerly called Acerrce. [Vide Acerrai}- 

ACERH-E (Geog.) 'Axiom, according to Polvbius ; 'Ax'l'f 1 ' 
according to Strabo; 'Axifipat, according to Plutarch; 
'Axipat, according to Zonaras ; 1. a town of Campania, 
now Accrrw. The inhabitants were called Acerrani. It 
was exposed to frequent inundations from the river 
Virg. Georg. 1. 2, v. 225. 

El rucius Clanius non utjuus Acerris. 

Ml. 1. 8, v. 536. 

Clank conlemta semper Acerrie. 

Slrab. 1. 5; Lie. 1. 23, c. 17; Plin. 1. 3, c. 14; Appian in 
Pun.; lib. Sequest. Catalog.; Fest. rle Sign. Veil,.; 
PrUcian. 1. 2 ; Sen. in Virg.; Clue. Ital. Antiq. 1. 4, c. 5. 

2. A town of the Insuhres, now Ghcrra, situate on the 
hank of the Addua, between the Po and Milan. The gen- 
tile name was Aehemviis, according to Stephanos. J'nli/b. 
1. 'J, r. 84; Slrab. 1. 5 ; Pint, in Mareellin ; Zonae. Annul. 

1. 2 ; Steph. Byz. de Urb. 

Ai nun.!-: (Niiinis.) two medals 
of this town, are known by 

the inscription ACERV in 
Oscan letters, as in the an- 
nexed cut. Hunt. Num. Vet. 
Pop. el Urb. Altcl. Num. 

ACERRONIA (Hist.) vide Aceronia. 

ACERSECOMES (Myth.) \W,,irn.-.i/i»;.-, an epithet for 
Apollo, fljol/3oi &Mf><7£l«S/ilJC, according to Homer, signifying 

unshorn.' SchoL Horn. Hymn, in Apoll.h 184; //. 1. 5, 

v. :;<j: Juv. Sal. 8, v. 128; Poll. Onomast. 1. 96, c.35; 

Macrob. Saturnal. 1. i, c 17- 
ACES (Geog.) "Amis, a river of Asia, in the former country 

of the Chorasmiij &c Herod. I. 3. c. 1 17- 
ACES/E (Geog.) 'Axitxat, a city of Macedonia. Steph. Byz. 

de Urb. 


ACESAMEN.E (Geog.) ' AKiaaulvai, a city of Macedonia, 
from Acesaminus, who reigned in Pieria. Steph. Buz. de 
ACESANDER (Biog.) 'AKBOavSpoe, an historian mentioned 
by Tzetzes on Lycophron and also the scholiasts on Pindar 
and Apollonius. 
ACESIA (Geog.) a name for the island of Lemnos, so called 

from Philoctctcs whose wound was there healed. 
ACESIAS (Myth.) an unskilful physician, who in attempting 
to cure the gout increased the disorder, whence the proverb 
" Acesias medicatus est." Zenub. Prue. Cent. 1, § 52; 
Erasm. Adas. Ch. 2, Cent. 6. 
ACESIMBROTL'S (Hist.) 'AKealfifiporoe, a naval commander 
of the Rhodians, was sent to the conference which took 
place between the consul T. Flaminius and Philip king of 
Macedon. Poli/b. 1. 17, c. 1. 
ACESINES (Geog.) or Acesinus, 'AkeoIvtjs, .W<tiYoc. 1. A 
river of India, flowing into the Indus. The reeds growing 
on its hanks were of such a size that rafts might be made 
from them for crossing the river. Alexander passed over it 
to the great hazard of himself and his army, where the 
current was so strong as to carrv away several of the boats 
that followed him. Diod. 1. 17, c. 97 ; Plin. 1. 6, c. 20 ; 
Arrian. 1. 5, c. 20; Q. Curt. 1. 8, c. 9; Justin. 1. 12, c. 9- 
2. Acesines, 'Aicenhnc, now Aleantara ; a river of Sicily. 
Tkucyd. 1. 4, c. 25 ; Fazell. de Reb. Sic. Decad. 1, 1. 2. 
ACESIUS (Myth.) 'Amnios, an epithet of Apollo. Pans. 

Acesius (Ecc.) a bishop of the Novatians, in the reign of the 
emperor Constantine, A. D. 325. Socrat. 1. 1, c. 7 ; Sozom. 
1. 1, c. 2: Nieeph.l. 8, c. 20. 
Acesius (Biog.) an artificer of Patara, who is said to have 
first fabricated with the assistance of Helicon and Carys- 
thius, the peplus of Minerva, whence the proverb " Acesii 
et Heliconis opera," for any fine work. Zenob. Proverb. 
Cent. 1, § 56; Erasm. Chil. 2, Cent. 6. 
ACESO (Myth.) 'Atitria, from tuKOfint, to heal, a daughter 
of jEseulapius who is fabled to have had great knowledge 
inphvsic. Suidas in Voc. 'IIttioji) ; l.e Clerc. Hist. Medio- 
1. 1, c. 19. 
ACESODORUS (Biog.) vide Acesturide.s. 
ACESSiEUS (Myth.) the name of a certain captain who 
was always deferring his voyage in order to wait for the 
moon, whence the proverb 'Aneaaalu mXfivn, Aeessiei lima. 
for tardiness. Dingen. Prov. Cent. I, § 57; Suid. Prov. 
Cent. 13, % 48; Erasm. Adag. Chil- 1, Cent. 5. 
ACESTA (Geog.) a town of Sicily, more commonly called 
JEgcsta;, or Segesta, ("vide Mgestd} but of which Virgil 
makes mention under this name. 
Mn. IS, v. 7 18. 

Urban apptltabunt pouring wwine Acatan. 

ACESTjEI (Geog.) .Wtiiihi, a people of Acesta, in Sicily. 

Vlin. 1. :;, c. s ;' Steph. Byz. de Urb. 
ACESTE (Mi/lh.) nurse to the daughters of Adrastus. Slat. 

Theb. 1. 1, v. 529- 
ACESTE (Geog.) vide Aeesla. 
ACESTES (Myth.) a king of Sicily, well known from what 

Virgil savs of him 

/En. 1. i; v. 195. 

I'i'iki, 0OMM fM dcm,l,- nulls imerlirat Acesles. 

Dionysius, Halicarnassus, and Stephanus, call him "Eyrs-os, 
Tzetzes, ' 'Aiyc7i)c. 
ACESTIUS (Hisl.) 'Akitwc, >l woman who lived to see her 
great grand-father Leon, her grand-father Sophocles, her 
father Xenocles, her brother Sophocles, ber husband The- 
mistocles, and her son Theophrastus, successively officiating 
as priests of Ceres. Paus. 1. 1, c. 37- 



Acestius (Biog.) a writer quoted by Athenaus, 1. 12, 
c. 3. 

ACESTODORL'S {Biog.) 'AKerocuipor, an historian men- 
tioned by Plutarch, in speaking of the review which Xeixes 
made of his forces at Salamis. Pint, in Themist. 

ACESTOR (Biog.) a writer concerning the city of Cyreme, 
mentioned by Apollonius. 

ACESTORIDES (Hist.) 'Awropi'cijcj an Athenian archon, in 
the year A.M. 1340. 

Acestorides, a Corinthian who was governor of Syracuse. 

Acestorides (Biog.) an historian who composed four books 
entitled ' Fabuhe de quaque Urbe,' Phot. Bibl. Coil. 19S; 
Tzctz. Chil. 7, Hist. 144. 

ACFAXI-AL-SAKHAOYI (Biog.) an Arabian author, who 
wrote a book entitled ' Erschad-Al-Meeassed.' 

ACH.EA (Myth.) 'Ax a ' a J an epithet for Pallas, in Daunia, 
where her temple was guarded by dogs, who received the 
Greeks kindly, but bit all other persons who approached. 
Aristot. de Mirab. §c. 1. 1. 

Ach-BA, an epithet for Ceres, from her a% ca > lamentations 
for the loss of Proserpine. Scho!. in Aristophan. Acharn. 
Act 2, Seen. 6.; Pint, in I sis ct Os-ir. 

ACH.E.E, petrtu (Geog.) rocks broken off from the mountain 
whence the river Jordan flows. St rub. 1. S. 

ACH.EI (Hist.) 'A\awi, Achaans, the descendants of 
Achaus, and original inhabitants of Argos, who being 
expelled from that country, established twelve cities in 
Peloponnesus, which they had taken from the Ionians ; 
namely, Pelena, TEgina, ^Eges, Bura, Tritiea, jEgion, 
Rhypae, Olenas, Helice, Patne, Dyuue, and Pharte. These 
three last established the famous Achsan league, anvuvia 
<pt\iKt), in the 124th olympiad, A. C. 284 years. This lasted 
upwards of 130 years, after which it was dissolved bv the 
Romans. Herod. 1. 1, c. 145, &c. ; Polyb. 1. 2, c. 24, &C. ; 
Liv. 1. 27, See. ; Pint, in Philos. et Orat. ; Strnh. 1. 1 1 ; 
Plin. 1. 4, c. 5 ; Stat. Theb. 1. 2, v. 164. Achtei was the 
name given to all the Greeks indiscriminately by the poets. 
Homer describes them commonly by the epithet of Lvuriipittc 
'A^aioi, well-booted Grecians. 77 passim. 

ACtEEMEXES (Myth.) 'Ajptubrqg, a son of jEgeus, who 
gave his name to Achemenia, or Persis. Steph. Byz. de 

Achejienes (Hist.) 'Avat/iEvqc, king of Persia, and pro- 
genitor of Cyrus the Great. His descendants were called 
Achaemenides. Herod. 1. 1, c. 135; 1. 3, c 65; 1. 7, 
e. 11. 

Acii.ejie.ves, son of Darius, and brother of Xerxes, was 
made governor of Egypt. Diod. 1. 11, c. 74. 

ACH7EMENIA (Geog.) part of Persia called after Achfe- 
menes, whence Horace speaks of Achcemeniiim costum, also 
Hor. Epud. 13, v. 12. 

Xunc et Achamenid 
Perfundi nardo juvat. 

ACH.EMEXIDE3 (Myth.) a companion of Ulysses, accord- 
ing to 
Virg. JEn. 3, v. 613. 

Sum putrid ex Ithacd, ernes infelieis Utiji, 
Am Achantenides. 

Ach.emenides (Hist.) 'Ayat/ievlSijc, the descendants of Acha> 

menes. Herod. 1. 3, c. 65. 
ACHvEORCM littus (Geog.) 'A-^aiwi' cucry), now Accathon, a 

town of Cvprus, called bv the Greeks Adriage. Ptol. 1. 5, 

c. 14. 
Acrr-EORUM portus, now Porto bon, a town of Troas, near the 

promontory of Sigseus. Strab. 1. 13; Plin. 1. 4, c. 12; 

Nig. Comm. Geog. 
ACH-EUM (Geog.) 'Axawv, a town of Troas opposite to 

Tenedos. Strab. 1. 13. 

ACH.EL'S (Myth.) 'A^dioc, a youth who slew Hipparinus, 

the tyrant of Syracuse, on his offering violence to him in 

the dark. Part/ten. Erot. c. 4. 
Ach-Eus (Hist.) a prince of Lydia, who, for extortion, was 

hung up by his heels, with his head in the waters of Pae- 


Ovid, in Ibiti. 

M,ve vel iutereas capti suspensvs Achtei, 
Qui miser auriferd teste pependii aqud. 

Ach^ecs, a son of Xuthus, who, having accidentally slain a 
man, fled to Laconia, and founded the nation of the 
Achsans. Strab. 1. 8 ; Pans. 1. 7, c. 1. 

Ach^us, a general of Seleucus, the son of Antiochus, who 
invaded the kingdom of the latter ; and, being taken pri- 
soner, was executed by Antiochus, and his bodv sewn up in 
the skin of an ass was hung on a gibbet. Polyb. 1. 8, c 3 ; 
Polyten. 1. 4, c. 17- 

Ach^us (Xumis.) a medal of the above-mentioned son of 
Seleucus, bears on the obverse, his head 
cloathed in a lion's skin as in the annexed 
figure ; on the reverse, an eagle with its 
claws on a crown, and the inscription BA- 
SIAEY2 AXAIOV. The spoils of a lion and \ 
the eagle were symbols used bv the kings 
of Syria. Pail/. Num. Seleuciil. 

Acasus (Biog.) a tragic poet of Eretria, who flourished a 
little a-'ter Sophocles. He wrote between 30 and 40 trage- 
dies, of which the titles onlv are extant. Athen. 1. 2, 7, &c. ; 
Fab. Bibl. Gra-e. 1.2, c. 1Q, Harle's Edit. ; Groec. c. 5; 
Voss. de Pod. ; Sax. Onomost. v. i. p. 34. 

Ach^us, a tragic poet of Syracuse, who wrote 10 tragedies. 
Diog. Laert. in Pit. 1. 2, segm. 133; Athen. 1. 1, c. 24; 

Ach^eus, an historian mentioned by the Scholiast on Pindar, 
Olymp. od. 7, supposed to be the same as the Achseus men- 
tioned by the Scholiast on Aratus, who attributes to him 
the designation of the stars called the Hyades. 

AcH.Ers (Geog.) 'Azotes, a river falling into the Euxine. 
Arrian. in Peripl. Pont. Euxin. 

ACHAIA (Geog.) 'A^oia, which Homer and Ptolemy call 
'EXAac, and the younger Pliny Grwcia, now called Liiadia; 
a country, including the whole region of Greece, which 
Homer describes as abounding in fine women, 'EAAtuti m,\- 
XtyvvatKa, Anciently it contained the districts of Attica, 
Bceotia, Doris, vEtolia, Locris, and Phocis ; but its bounda- 
ries were afterwards greatly extended. Horn. II. 1. 2, 
v. 688, &C. ; Herod. 1. 1, c. 145, &c. ; Strab. 1. 8 ; Pans'. 
1. 7 ; Plin. Episl. 1, 8, ep. 19 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 15. 

Achaia propria, as it is called by Ptolemy, now Morca. was 
either a portion of Peloponnesus, or the whole. The first 
part was also called Ionia, Jas, Olenus, and .Egialus, ac- 
cording to Diodorus, Pliny, and Pausanias ; and now, accord- 
ing to Castaldus, Romania alta. 
Ovid. Met. 1. 6. 

Finitimi proceres caeunt : urbesque propinquaz 

Oravcre suns ire ad solatia reges, 

Argosque et Sparte, Pelopeiadajue Mqcente, 

Et nondum torva Caludan invisa Diana. 

Orchomeimqaejhox, Patmque, Iiumilesque Cleans, 

Et Nelca Pylos, nee adhue Pitthe'ia Troeten ; 

Quaque Uriel alue bimari ctauduntur ab Isthino. 

Scyl. ill Peripl. ; Sci/mn. Orb. descript. v. 527 ; Plin. 1. 4, 
c 5 ; Paus. I 5, 7 ; Arrian. Peripl. Pont. Euxin. ; Briei. 
Parral. Geog. 
Achaia (Numis.) the general name for all Greece, after it 
became a Roman province, as may be learnt from their 
medals bearing the inscription AX. AXAIHX, or the two 
letters in one X'. On a medal of Adrian was inscribed 
RESTITUTORI ACHAEE, as on the subjoined cut, 


which represents the emperor as raising Achaia ; by his 
side stands B vessel having branches of olive. On a medal 
of Antinous is inscribed 
M-'.\, i. e. Achats posuk; 
and on one of L. Veins 
CTPanryS tiapn AXPeXitt 

\\ UUN, Prcetore Marcs 
Aurelio Diodoro Menophli. F. Achceorum. To the general 
name AXAI'IN was often added thai of the cities of Achaia, 
as AXAION ANTTTONEON. Jupiter was held in parti- 
cular honour by the Acheans, who gave him the name of 
homogyrius, i. c. a collector into one body. His symbol of 
thunder is frequently to be observed on their medals. Her- 
cules and Neptune had also their share of honour. Putin. 
Nwnis. Raman. ; Tristan. Comment. Histor. torn. i. p. 174 j 
I'aillant. Xumis. fmperalor Iiomanor ; Harduin. Numm. 
Pop. Vet. illuslral. ; Hai/m. Tre.i. Brit.; Gessner. tab. 14; 
Hunt. Num. Vet. Pop. et Urh. ; Peller. Recueil. de Med. 
del Pen p. plan. 14. 

ACHAIACUM mare (Geog.) that sea which was adjacent 
to Achaia, now a part of the Adriatic. 

ACHAICUS (Bi/d.) ajfatKOQ, a native of Achaia, and the 
name of a disciple of St. Paul's, who, with Stcphanus 
and Fortunatus, was the bearer of St. Paul's first epistle to 
the Corinthians, A. D. 50. 1 Cur. xvi. 17- 

ACHAICARUS (Hixt.) 'AvatYapoc, a soothsayer among the 
Bosphorani mentioned by Stralio. Geog. 1. lfi. 

ACHAIS (Geog.) "Aveuc, !• a tract of country in Lydia, 
near the river of Ma-onia. Sleph. Buz. dc Urb. in core 
MrooiiVi. 2. A town near the Hyrcanian sea, otherwise 
called Hcraclea. P/in. 1. (i, c. Hi. 

ACH AIL'S (Hist.) a king of Scotland remarkable for his wise 
policy. He entered into a league with Charlemagne, and 
died, after a rciffii of 19 vcars, in 81 9. //. Boelh. 1. 10; 
Led. Scott. I. 3. 

ACHALF.N (His/.) a British king of the sixth century, 
who, being driven from his kingdom, took refuge in 

ACHALY (Hixt.) a king of the Saracens in (j5~- 

ACHAMANTIS (Myth.) one of the daughters of Danaus, 
who slew her husband F.ehominus. Hygin. Fall. 170. 

ACHAX (Bihl.) J3J onajfj i.e. the trouble! of Israel; he 
who stole the Babylonish garment, and was stoned in the 
valley of Achor. Jos. vii. 24. 

ACHARBAS (Myth.) the husband of Dido. [Vide Skhteus} 

ACHARD (Ere.) sumamed St. Victor, bishop of Avranches, 
in Normandy, died in 1 1 ~~- He wrote various works on 

Aciiaui), Anthony (Biog.) a Prussian divine, who was born at 
Geneva in l6"<Jf), and died in 1 77~- He wrote on Free- 

Aciiard, Claude Francis, a physician of Marseilles, and 
secretary to the Academy of that city, was born 1753, 
and died in 180f). He published ' Dictionaire de la Pro- 
vence,' &c. : also a ' Description Historicpie de la Provence. 
Aix, 17«7.' &c 

ACHARDEUS (Geog.) 'Avapiioc, now Zygna or Capa ; a 
river running from Mount Caucasus into the Micotis. Strati. 
1. 11. 

ACHARDS, F.leazar Francis de la Banmc de (Fee.) a pre- 
late of an ancil nt am! noble family, was born al Avignon. 
Jan. 29) H'79> and died at Cochin, April 2, 1711, where 
he went as a missionary. 

ACHARDUS (Fee.) a bishop of Avranches, in Normandy, in 

i 162, who continued the chronicle of Sigbertus. 

ACHAHINI (Geog.) a town of Sicily mentioned by Cicero. 
Fazellus siippposcs it to lie now ('amine. Cic. in I'crr. 
1. 3, c. 43 ; Fazcll. dc Reb. Sicul. Dccadi. 1. 2. 


ACHARN./E (Geog.) or Archrana, 'A^npioi, the largest 

village in Attica belonging to the tribe of Oneis. 

Find. Nem. od. 2. 

'A\dpi'at tt TTaXdtipaTOV 

'Fh ii cud. 1. 2, c. 19; Sieph. Byz. dc Urb.; Mcurs. dc Pop. 

Alt. p. 18. 
Ai n.MiN.r. (Fit.) a title of one of Aristophanes' comedies. 
ACHARN1S (Hist.) a senator and knight, who, not saluting 

Marius as he passed, was killed by the partisans of the latter, 

to which circumstance Lucan alludes 

Luc. 1. 2, v. 1 1 4. 

Spa inui salutis 
Osruln polhltu filisse tretmaititi thitru. 

ACHARPOUR (Geog.) 1. a town of Bahar in Hindoostan, 
three miles N. E. Rotasgur. 2. A town of Oude in Hin- 
doostan, 28 miles S. E. Fyzabad. Long. 82" 21' E. lat. 
26° 28' N. 

AC HART, .SV. (Fee.) Aicard, or A/cairc, an abbot of a noble 
family of Poictou, was distinguished for his piety, and the 
prudence with which he governed the abbey of S. Jouin. 

ACHATES (Myth.) the friend and companion of ./Eneas, 
called by Virgil the Jidus Achates, which is now proverbial 
for a faithful friend. 

Achates (Fee.) a bishop of Palestine in the time of Con- 
stantine the Great. 

ACHATES (Grog-.) a river of Sicily called after Achates the 
friend of ./Eneas. 

ACHBOR (Bihl.) iu3j, the father of Baal-Hanan king 
of Edon. Gen. xxxvi. 38. 

Achbok, an officer sent by King Josiah to inquire of the pro- 
phetess Huldah respecting the book of the law recently 
found, A. M. 3380, A. C. 624. 2 Kings xxiii. 

ACHELNOTUS (Ecc.) archbishop of Canterbury in the 
1 1 th century, who was in great favour with Canute the 

ACHELOIDES (Myth.) a patronymic for the Syrens, the 
daughters of Achclous. Ovid. Mel. 1. 5, v. 553. 

ACHELOUS (Myth.) 'A^iooc, the son of Occanus and 
Tethys, who, in his engagement with Hercules for Dcjanira, 
metamorphosed himself first into a seqient, then into a bull, 
and finally into a river, which bears his name. The horn 
which Hercules broke off from the bull became afterward* 
the cornucopia;. 
Sophoc. Track, v. '.)■ 

Mi'i/-//i> yap tje fiot Trornpoc 'Ay/Ai^oi' Xf'yw 
"Of u' iv rpiaiv fioptpaariv i£jjrtv TrarpoQ. 

Grid. Fpist. 15, v. 257- 

I 'i (.tih Alcida AduUna comvafngil 
Dumpplit ampterns, Dejauira, ttws. 

Ovid. Episl. 9, v. 139- 

Cornua flens legit rapidis Achebus in undii. 

Propcrl. 1. 2, cleg. 28. 

\,im rnryiis hnt .1 loll refcrn* Achcloi 
t'hni-ril ul magno fnrtiis amort liquor. 

Slat. Theb. 1. 7, v. 41(5. 

I, ii,7 "in utroipte 
Drformtin cornu Uagtll tnfanttbat Acarnnn. 

Apoltod. 1. 1, c. 8, &c. ; Diodor. 1. 5; Hygin. Fah. r,l j 
Si Iml. in Hon,. II. 1. 21, v. I'll; Tzrlzes in Fycoph. v. 671. 
ACHELOD9 (Gag'.) 'AxeXwOCi '• il r ' ver "' Epirus. called 
alter Achclous, now Axpropotamo, or, according to Niger, 
Calochi. Il rises in Mount Pindus, and, separating Acar- 
nania from .I'.tnlia, falls into the Ionian sea. Homer calls 
it tpeiuv 'AveX&toCj Achclous the king of rivers ; Hesiod, 
'A\i\wwq apyvpucien, limpid Achclous. It was also taken 


for water in general : whence Euripides speaks of 'AxAcJa 
cpoaoc, the dew of Achelous ; and 
Virg. Geog. 1. 1, v. 9- 

Pxulaque inveiitis Acheloia mitcuit 111 is. 

Horn. II. 1. 21, v. 194; Hesiod. Theog. v. 340; Herod. 
1. 2, c. 10; Euripid. in Androm. ; Thucyd. 1. 2, c. 102; 
Po/</6. 1. 4, c. 63 ; Scylax. in Pcripl. ; Diodor. 1. 5 ; 67ra/». 
1. 10; Liv. 1. 43, c. 21 ; Mela, 1. 2, c. 4 ; S<7. Iltil. 1. 12, 
v. 34 ; Pint, de Flu/n. ; Diomjs. Perieg. v. 433 ; Plin. 1. 2, 
c. 85 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 14 ; Fib. Scquest. Catalog. ; Macrob. 
Saturn. 1. 5, c. 18; Steph. Byz. de Urb. ; Niger. Geog. 
Comm. 1. 11. 2. A river of Arcadia falling into the Alpheus. 
3. A river of Lydia flowing from Mount Sipylus. Pans. 
1. 8, c. 38. 

Achelous (Numis.) this river is represented on the medals 
of Acarnania, and its towns [vide Acarnania, Amphilochia, 
eye], with the horns of a bull, which shape the God Ache- 
lous is said to have assumed in his combat with Hercules. 
Goltzius calls this the head of Minotaur, but we have the 
authority of Strabo for believing that it was intended to re- 
present the head of the river God Achelous. 

ACHELUS {Myth.) the name of a man mentioned by 
Flaccus. Arson. 1. 3. 

ACHEMES (Hist.) a governor of Egypt, A.M. 3477- 

ACHEMON (Myth.) or Achmon, a native of Attica, was 
punished, with his brother Basilas, by Hercules, for an 
aifront offered to him while asleep. Suidas. 

ACHEN (Biog.) or Ach, John van, a painter, born at Co- 
logne in 1556, who discovered an extraordinary genius for 
this art at the age of 10. He died in 1(>'21, in the service 
of the Emperor Rudolphus. 

ACHENCHERRES (Hist.) a king of Egypt, succeeded his 
father Orus, A. M. 2873, A. C. 1131, and died after a reign 
of twelve years. 

Achencherres succeeded Athotis, the successor of the pre- 
ceding, and reigned twelve years, and some months. 

Achencherres succeeded the preceding, and reigned also 
twelve years. Euseb. in Chron.; Usser. Anna/. 

ACHENWALL, Godfrey (Biog.) a professor of Gottingen, 
was born at Elbing, in Prussia, 17U>, and died 1772. 
He wrote ' Elementa Juris Naturte,' &c. The name 
and science of statistics are said to owe their origin to 

ACHEQUI (Hist.) a king of Japan, who killed the legiti- 
mate prince Nobienanga, and seized his throne, but being 
conquered in battle, was himself slain by one of the late 
king's officers. 

ACHERDUS (Geog.) 'Ax^ocic, a part of the tribe Hippo- 
thoon. Steph. 

ACHERI, Luc d' (Biog.) a learned Benedictine, was born 
at St. Quintin, in Picardy, in 1609, and died in the abbey 
of St. Germain des Pres, in 1685. He wrote, 1. ' Epistola 
Catholica Barnabae Apostoli, Gr. et Lat. cum notis Nic. Hug. 
Menardi, &c.' 4to. Paris, 1645. 2. ' The Life and Works 
of Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury,' fol. Paris, 1648. 

3. ' Asceticorum vulgo Spiritualium Opusculorum quie inter 
Patrum Opera reperiuntur Indiculus,' 4to. Paris, 1648. 

4. ' Life and Works of Guibert, Abbot of Nogent-sous- 
Couci,' &c. fol. Paris. 5. A republication of Grimlaic's 
' Regie des Solitaires,' 12mo. Paris. 6. ' Veterum Aliquot 
Scriptorum qui in Gallia? Bibliothecis, maxime Benedie- 
tinorum latuerunt Spicelegium,' &c. 13 vols. 4to. 1653, &c. 
Du Pin. Eccl. Script, vol. xviii. p. 65. 

ACHERIUS (Biog.) an orator in the time of Augustus Caesar. 

Cat. Rliodig. 1. 15, c. 11. 
ACHERON (Myth.) a son of Ceres without a father, who, 

being sent into hell to escape from the Titans, became one of 

the rivers of hell. 
Acheron (Geog.) X.'Ayipwr, according to Strabo; "A\cpov, 


according to Ptolemy ; a river of Epirus, so called as is 
supposed from «xoe, grief; and piw, to now, i. e. a sorrowful 
stream, now I 'cliche. This was fabled to have been the 
river of hell, over which the souls of the dead were con- 
How. Od. 1. 10, v. 513. 

Av'roc 8' tt£ aidtoj iivai dojiov zvpuiivTa, 

"EvOu uiv tic 'Axipovra Uvpi<p\iyi8uv re piuat 

Kidkvtos 8'. 

Aristophan. Ran. act 2, seen. 1. 

' ' A\tpOVTlO£ Tt GKOTTlkOQ a'tpora^ayi]^. 

Various epithets are applied to it under this idea by the 

poets ; as, 

adust us by Lucan, 1. 3, v. 15. 

Prayarat innumeras pitppes AchermitU adusti 

avarus, by Virgil, Geog. 1. 2, v. 492. 

Subjecit pedibus, ttrepitumque Achermtis avari ! 

ma'stus, by Seneca in Thyes. v. 17- 

Qtnxl imESttcfl Aclwnm ptaxt. 

tri.stis, bv Silius, Mb. 13, v. 571- 

Trisliur his Acherf 

'_■ (r,isM"jH 

Horace puts it for hell itself. 
Hor. Carm. 1. 1, od. 3, v. 36. 

I'errupil Acheronta Ilemileus labor. 

Herodot. 1. 5, c. 92, &C.J Thucyd. 1. 1, c. 46; Theoc. 
Idyl 2, v. 19; Scylax. in Pcripl.; Diod. 1. 1; Liu. 1. 8, 
c. '24; Strab. 1. ()' ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 1; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 14; 
Sit. 1.2, v. SO; Macrob. in Soni. Scip. c. 10; Nig. Geog. 
Comm. 1. 11. 2. A river of the Brutii, called by Livy 
Acheros, by Justin Acherusiux amnis, now Lago della CoU 
luccia, where Alexander, king of Epirus, was slain accord- 
ing to the oracle. Liv. 1. S, c. 20 ; Strabo, 1. 6 ; Plin. 1. 'i, 
c. 5 ; Justin. 1. 12, c. 23 ; Chtv. Ital. Antiq. 1. 4, c. ) 5. 

3. A river of Elis flowing into the Alpheus. Strab. 1. S. 

4. A river flowing down the Riphean mountains. Orph. 
Argonaut, v. 1129. 5. A river of Bithynia, afterwards 
called Sunuutes, out of which Hercules is said to have 
dragged the dog of hell. Schol. in Apollon. Argon. 1. 2, 
v. 3.55 ; Tzctz. Li/coph. v. 695. 

ACHERONTIA (Geog.) a town of Apulia, situated on a 
mountain like a nest on a tree, now Accrenza. 
Hor. Carm. 1. 3, od. 4, v. 14. 

Celstc nidum AcherontUt. 

Lcand. Albert. Descript. Ital. 2. A town of the Brutii. 
near the river Acheron, from which the people were 1 ailed 
Acherontini according to Pliny. Hist. Nat. 1. 3, c. 10. 

Acherontia (Numis.) the town of the Brutii is supposed to 
be referred to in a medal bearing the inscription AXEPON- 
TAN. Goltz. Mag. Grcec. tab. 25 ; Hardiun. Numis. Yet. 
Pop. et Urb. 

ACHERRjE (Geog.) a town between the Po and the Alps. 
Qvide Acerrail 

ACHERRES (Hist.) a king of Egypt, supposed to be suc- 
cessor to the Pharoah, who, according to Holy Writ, perished 
in the Red Sea. Euseb. in Chron. 

ACHERUSIA (Geog.) 1. 'A x <f>»<r''«, a lake of Egypt, near 
Memphis, over which the bodies of the dead were supposed 
to be conveyed. Diod. 1. 1, c. 97; Pans. 1. 1, c. 17. 
2. 'Ax £ p B< »'«> a lake of Epirus, near the city Cechyrus, 
about which there was a similar fable. Ptol. 1. 3, c. 14; 
Pans. 1. 1, c. 15. 3. A lake of Compania. [vide Acheron] 


4. A lake of Chersoncsus Taurica, where Hercules is said 
to have dragged the dog Cerberus from hell. The bile 
which his anger generated is said to have produced the 
poison inherent in the herb aconite. Marcellinus says it was 
called by the inhabitants Mv^omSn-iov. Pliny mentions it 
under the name of Achcrusiiini, and Mela under that of 
Acheruskis spams. Xenopk. Anab. c. 2 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 7, 
v. 409 ; Pli"- 1- 6, <•• i ; Mela, 1. 2, c. 4. 

ACHESON, Lord (Her.) the title born by the eldest son of 
the Earl of Gosford. 

ACHESEUS (Hist.) or Ageseus-Ocaras, the twenty-first 
king of the Thebans, according to Eratosthenes. Euseb. 
in Chro/i. 

ACHIAL (Hist.) or Aquial, nephew to Herod the Great, 
and governor of one of the fortresses of Jerusalem, was 
very active in his uncle's interest. Joseph. Ant. 1. 15, c. 9- 

ACHILLAS {Hist.) "A X t^ac, a general of Ptolemy, who 
was commissioned to kill Ptolemy. He executed his com- 
mission by means of treachery, and was afterwards mur- 
dered himself by Ganymede the Eunuch, who was in the 
confidence of Arsinoe the monarch's sister. 
Luc. 1. 8, v. 538. 

Sceleri delectus Achillas. 

Cws. de Bell Civ. 1. 3, c. 104 ; Hert. de Bell. Alcxand. 
c. 4 ; riut. in Sympos. 

Achillas (Eec.) bishop of the church of Alexandria, who 
gave countenance to Arius. Euseb. Hist. 1. 7; Baron. Annul. 
ami. 110. 

Achillas (Geog.) a noble town of Gaul, which was besieged 
by the Goths." Paul. Diac. Hist. Miscell. 1. 14, c. 1. 

ACHILLEIS (Poet.) a poem of Statius on the exploits of 
Achilles. The work is imperfect owing to the premature 
death of the author. [Vide Statins'} 

Achilles (Myth.) there were many persons of this name. 

Achii.lks, the first in dignity, the son of Peleus and Thetis, 
so called as is supposed from a^oc, sorrow ; because he 
brought sorrows on the Trojans, is commonly described in 
Homer by the epithets of TroSapmjs cT»c AYiXXeuc, swift- 
footed divine Achilles ; other poets have distinguished him 
by the fiercer and bolder features of his mind. Virgil calls 
him imniitis, diinis, steins, ecc. Horace gives him the epithets 
of insolcns, pervicax, clams, animosus, etc. Ovid those of 
magmts, magnanimus, &c. Statius those of indocilis, ferus, 
fatalis, &c. ; Claudian that of atrox. 
f'irg. JEn. 1. 1, v. 30. 

Trims, reliquias Dmuiiim, atquc imniitis AclliUi. 

Hor. Cann. 1. 2, od. 4, v. 2. 

prius iiuolentem 

Sena Briscis ntn 
limit AchiUtm. 

Hor. Epod. 17, v. 14. 

(lieu ! ) pervicacis ad pedis Achilki. 

Ovid. Mel. 1. 13, v. 298. 

Stat. Achill. 1. 2. 

aledicere sentit Achilli f 

Indocilem qua. mens dctraiit Achillem. 

Claud. Epirt. I, v. 18. 

MamDUJ Ilnturit!, ntnn igtumt Achilles. 

He is also frequently distinguished by epithets in allusion 
to his origin, as Pelides, yEacidcs, nepos Nere'ius, filins 
Thetidis, LarisseeuS, Achilles, eve. lie was dipped in the 
river Styx by his mother, and his body rendered invul- 
nerable in every part except in the heel, which Apollo, in 

Vardana qui Paridii dir.-xti tela mamaqu 

( . rptu in .Kacidtc. 


the form of Paris, having pierced with his dart. 


Stat. Achill. I l. 

Strpe ipsa {nefas .') tub Mama 7)atmr, 

Ttirtara, et ad Sty^ios iterum fetv mergrre fonUt. 

Eirg. /En. 1. G, v. 57. 

Vardana qui 
(.'. rjna m & 

Olid. Met. 1. 12, v. 0'04. 

Qffea&iU sternentem Troia ferru 
Corpora Pelidert, arms obvertit in ilium .- 
CtrtaqtM letliiferu dire.iit spiculu lUitrii. 

Xenophon de Venal. ; Apollun. Arson. 1. 1, v. 55S, and 1. 4, 
v. 869 J ApoUod. 1. 3, c. 13; Diod. 1. 17; St rah. 1. 14 ; 
Hor. 1. 1, Od. S, etc. ; Jin: Sat. 7. v. 210; Ili/gin. Fah. 
96, Sec.; Catul. Epithal. Pel. v. 839 } Plin. I 35, c. IS; 
Pint, in eit. Alex. &c ; Max. Tur. Oral. 27 ; Tzetzes in 

Achilles, a son of Terra, who received Juno into his den 
when she fled from the pursuit of Jupiter. Phut. Bihliothek. ; 
Plot. Htrphrsl. 

Achilles (Hist.) the son of Lyson, who was the inventor of 
ostracism in Athens. Phot. Bib/. 

Achilles (Nun/is.) a medal of Trajan, represents Achilles 
going out armed to kill I\ nloilca, with the inscription 

Achilles (Ecc.) a missionary sent by Inrncus into Spain, to 
propagate the gospel. He was suffocated by smoke. 

Achilles, Tatius, 'AvtXXfvs Sni-ioc, according to Suidas, 
and 'A^iWtvc Titrwc, according to Photius ; an Alexan- 
drine, who, becoming a convert to Christianity, was made 
a bishop. Among other things he wrote a treatise on the 
Sphere, a fragment of which has been translated by 
Petavius, and inserted in the third volume of his works ; 
also a romance entitled ' De Amoribus Clitoplmntis ct Leu- 
cippes,' libri viii. which was published by Salmasius, with the 
Latin version of Cruceius, 12mo. 1640; and again by Bodeu. 
Gr. et Lat. 8vo. Leipzig, 177''. 

Achilles, Alexander (Biog.) a Prussian nobleman, who wrote 
in German a treatise on earthquakes, and died in 1(575. 

ACHILLEUS (Hist.) or Aquileus, a eunuch son of Domi- 
cilla, who, in the reign of Domitian, was beheaded at Tar- 

Achilleus, a relation of Zenobia, who set himself up as 
emperor in Egypt, against Dioclesian, by whom he was 
conquered and exposed to lions. Aurel. Victor, de (irsur. 
c. 39 ; Paul. Diucun. Hist. Miscell. 1. 10, c. 42 ; Joriiand. 

de Regnor. Success, c. 87- 
Achilleus (Nitmis.) the length of this usurper's reign in 
Egypt is known by the medals of him (if they arc genuine) 
bearing the inscription AtTOKp&Tap Kaurao Aamoc EJIIAioc 
\\l \'\i:<>(' l'.lC,;-/. E1fTWj>c CEBawc Imperator Caesar 

1. iic'nis Epidius Achilleus Pius Felix Augustus LF LA 

1,6 LS, i. e. anno 3. 4. 5. 6". Bandar. Numis. Imperator. 

At -ii n. leus (Ecc.) was baptized witli Xereus, by Peter, and 

suffered martyrdom for the faith under Domitian. Vincent. 

1. 10, c. 15. 
Achilleus (Biog) a writer mentioned by Atheneeus. 

ACHILLINI, Alexander (Biog.) a physician and native of 
Bologna, was born 140 3, and died 1512. He wrote, 
1. ' Annotationes Anatomies,' 4to. Venet. 1520. 2. ' De 
humani corporis Anatomia,' 4to. Venet. 1521. 3. « In 
Miiiidini anatoiniam Annotationes,' Fol. Venet. 1522. 
4. • De Bubjecto Medians},' &c. Venet 1568. 5. • De 
Chiromantis principiis et physiognomic,' Fol. 6. ' De sub- 
jecto Cliiromantiii-,' &C. Pol. Uonon. 1503. 


Achili.ini, John P/ii/othcus, a poet, and younger brother of 

the preceding, was bom at Bologna, in 1466, where he 

died in 1558. He wrote, 1. * II Viridario,' 4to. Bologna. 

2. ' II Fedele.' 3. ' Annotazioni della lingua volgare,' Bolog. 

8vo. 1536. 4. ' A Collection of Poems on the Death of 

Serayihin dalT Aquila,' 4to. Bologna, 1564. 
Achili.ini, Claude, grandson of the preceding, a poet and 

law professor, was born at Bologna in 1574, and died in 

1640, leaving, 1. ' Rime e Prose,' 12mo. Venice, 1651. 

2. * Decas Epistolarum ad Jacobum Gaufridum,' 4to. Parm, 

ACHILLINUS (Hist.) a soldier under Belisarius, who dis- 
tinguished himself at the siege of Rome against the Goths. 
ACHILMAR (Ecc.) archbishop of Vienna. [Vide AgUmar] 
ACHIM (Bibl.) 'A X £ '>> son of Zadock, father of Eliud, of 

the tribe of Judah, and family of David, in the genealogy 

of our Saviour. Matt. i. 1 4. 
ACHINNAS (Hist) a king of -Ethiopia, cotemporary with 

Pharamund king of France. 
ACHIOR (Bilil.) iiN-'nw, a general of the Ammonites, who, 

going with Holifernes on his expedition into Egypt, was, 

at the siege of Bethulia, converted to the true faith, and 

admitted among the number of the Israelites, Jud. xiii. 

27, &c. This happened A. M. 3348, A. C. 656. 
AcHlOR, a friend and relation of Tobit. 
ACHIRAM (Bibl.) or Ahiram ovnR, elevation; of the 

tribe of Benjamin, and chief of a great family. Numb. 

xxvi. S8. 
ACHISH (Bibl.) »'s«, a king of Gath, to whom David went 

when he fled from Saul, 1 .Sam. xxi. 10. &C. ; probably not 

the same as received him afterwards, as mentioned 1 Sam. 

xxvii. 2, 3. 
ACHIVI (Geog.) the same as Achat. 
ACHLADjEUS (Hist.) 'A x \<uawe, one of the Corinthian 

generals, who was surprised and killed bv Aristomenes. 

Pans. 1. 4, c. If). 
ACHMET (Hist.) the name of several sultans, and other 

distinguished persons among the Turks. 

.Sultans of this Name. 
Achmet I, son and successor of Mahomet III, died after an 

unsuccessful reign of 14 years in 1617, aged 30. 
Achjiet II, succeeded Solvman III in 16'91, and died in 

Achjiet III, son of Mahomet IV, gave an asvlum to 

Charles XII, king of Sweden, after the battle of Pultowa. 

He was deposed by his nephew, Mahomet V, whom he 

had imprisoned, and died in 1736, aged 74. Cant. 

Otlom. Hist. ; Rieaut. Hist, of the Turks. 

Distinguished Persons of this Name. 

Achmet, a governor of Egypt, in the year of the Hegira 265, 

A. D. 875, was very successful as a general. El. Maein. 

Hist. Sarae. 
Achmet, Gedne. or Acomet, a general of the Othoman em- 
pire, assisted Bajazet II in obtaining the throne in 1482, 

by whom he was afterwards put to death. 
Achmet, the eldest son of Bajazet II, was defeated and 

strangled by his youngest brother Selim, who usurped his 

throne in 1514. 
Achmet, Bacha, a general of Solvman, who revolting from 

his sovereign in 1524, was defeated by Ibrahim the favourite, 

and his head sent to Constantinople. 
Achmet (Biog.) son of Selim, was the author of an essay on 

the interpretation of dreams, in the ninth century. 
Achmet, Ebn Arabscha, a historian in the 15th centurv, 

wrote the life of Timur, or Tamerlane, with whom he was 

Achmet, Ebn Zur Alabedin, a Persian nobleman of the 17th 

century, wrote in favour of Mahometanism, and against 


Christianity, in which he was answered by Emanuel 

ACHMUNEIM (Geog.) a town of Upper Egypt, in the 
vicinity of which are ruins supposed to be those of the an- 
cient Hermopolis. 

ACHO (Hist.) a king of Norway, who took from the Scots 
Arran, and two of the Hebrides. H. Boeth. Scot. Hist. 1. 13. 

ACHOMATH (Hist.) son of Chersech, a Sclavonian prince, 
married the daughter of Bajazet II, to whom he was faith- 
fully attached. Chalcond. 1. 13. 

ACHOR (Bibl.) Tor, from -or, to trouble; the valley in the 
tribe of Benjamin, where Achan was stoned. Josh. vii. 24. 

ACHORIS (Hist.) "Ax w P ( c> king of Egypt, succeeded Ne- 
phretis in the 95th Olympiad, A. C. 3V)C} ) and died in the 
98th A.C. 387- Diod. 1. 15; Euseb. in Chron. 

ACHQLT (Hist.) or Acliequi, an usurper of the throne of 
Japan, who killed the legitimate monarch, but was after- 
wards assassinated bv the partisans of the latter. Mendoza, 
Pt. II, 1. 1, c. 9- 

ACHRIDENUS, of Basle (Biog.) published in Greek and 
Latin, in 1618, a rescript to the pope Adrian IV. 

ACHSAH (Bibl.) r\D2V, i. e. adorned; from D3i', ornaments 
for the feet ; daughter of Caleb, and wife of Othnicl, who 
obtained her as a reward for having taken Kirjath Sepher. 
Josh. xv. ]6, &c. 

ACICHORIUS (Hist.) 'A^e^uipwc, a general who joined 
Brennus, the leader of the Gauls, in an expedition against 
Pieonia. Pans. 1. 10, c. 10. 

ACIDALIA (Mi/th.) an epithet for Venus, whom Virgil 
calls Aeidalia mater, from Acidalius, a fountain of Bceotia. 
lirg. jEn. 1. 1, v. 720. 

ACIDALIL'S, J'alens (Biog.) a young man, who, though 
dying at the early age of 28, left some valuable criticisms 
on Quintius Curtius, Plautus, Tacitus, Ausonius, &C. which 
have been inserted in the respective editions of those authors 
by Gronovius, Gruter, Sec. He was born in 1567, at 
Wistock, and died at Neiss in 1595. 

ACIDINUSj L. Manlius (Hist.) a consul with Fulvius 
Flaccus, U. C. 572. From the Fasti Capitolini it appears 
that he was the brother german of Fulvius, and adopted 
into the family of the Manlii. Lie. 1. 40, c. 44; Veil. 
Paler. 1. 2, c. 8 ; Fast. Capitolin. 

Acidinus, C. Manlius, an accomplice in the conspiracy of 
Cataline. Sallust. Hist.; Cic. in Catil. Orat. 1, 2. 

ACILA (Geog.) now Ziden, a town situate on the Red Sea, 
which was the emporium of the circumjacent islands for 
their trade with India, also called Ocela by Pliny. Plin. 
1. 6, c. 28 ; Niger. Geog. Asia;. Cotnm. c. 3. 

ACI LI A, gens (Hist.) a plebeian family at Rome, which 
traced its origin to the Trojans according to Herodian, and 
was divided into the branches of the Glabriones, Balbi, 
Aviola?, &c. [Vide Acilius'J 

Acilia, gens (Numis.) a plebeian family of Rome [vide 
Acilius~2 of whom many medals are extant, bearing the in- 
scriptions Manius ACILIwi Quwstor, the name of the 
questor who struck this medal to serve as a coin during the 
scarcity of money, after the 
battle of Canna. Manias 
ACILI)«/ on the obverse 
BALBUS. Manius AClhlLS 
Monti Filius, son of the 
Acilius who conquered Anti- 
ochus. Manius. ACILIUS. 
GLABRIO. VROCQnsul, a pro-consul under Augustus. 
MANIUS. ACILIUS II. VI R. QUI. a quinquennial 
AOYIOAA ; i. e. Caium Gcrmanicum Covsarem sub Aviola, 
on medals struck in the colony of Smyrna, under the pro- 
consul Acilius Aviola. AOYIOAA. ANeYnATOS. AIX- 
MOKAH2. E<t>E, on medals of Nero, struck by the Ephesians 



in the proconsulship of Acilius Aviola. J'aillant. Kumis. 
FamiL Roman. Patin. Xumis. ; Famil. Human. Mori I. 

Thetaur. Nutnu. 

\< n.i.v. Augusta (Gen?.) a town of Vindelicia, now Azelburg. 

ACILIUS GLABRIO, P. (Geog.) a tribune of the people 
three times, i. e. U. C. 485, 489, M)~, is the first of the 
family who is mentioned ID history. 

Acilius, Q, a triumvir, for establishing a colony in the neigh- 
bourhood of Placemia. Lie. 1. 21, C. 25. 

Acilius, Man., son of Lucius, a queestor, U. C 551, whose 
coin is given under Numismatics. [Vide .Icilia, gens] 

Acilius Glabrio, M., a consul with !'• Corn. Scipio Nasica, 
U. C. 561, and the conqueror of Antiochus. Lie. 1 35, 
c. 24; 1. 86, c. If). 

Acilius Glabrio, 3/., son of the preceding, [vide .Icilia. gens] 
a decemvir, built a temple to piety, which his father had 
vowed when righting against Antiochus, and erected a golden 
statue to his father. Lie. 1. 40, c. 34 ; Val. Max. 1. 2, c. 5. 

Acilius, .1/., a consul with T. Q. Flaminius, U. C. 
603, and another consul with Portius Cato, U. C. 638, 
during whose consulship milk and blood are said to have 
fallen from heaven. Cic. ad Atlicum. 1. 12, ep. 5 ; Plin. 
1. 2, c. 56. 

Acilius Glabrio, Man., a tribune of the people in 6*52, made 
a law against bribery, and was consul in 686. 

Acilius Glabrio, Man., son of the preceding, was a praetor 
and judge in the cause of Verres. Cic. in I en: 1. 1, c. 2. 

Acilius, Man., a lieutenant under Caesar. Exs. Civ. Hell. 
1. 3, c. 15. 

Acilius, C-, a valiant soldier, distinguished himself in a naval 
engagement at the battle of Marseilles. Siielun. in Jul. 
Cms. c. 68. 

Acilius Aviola, Man., a consul in the reign of Tiberius, was 
brought out of a trance by the burning of the funeral pile 
on which he had been laid as a corpse, but could not be 
rescued from the llames. Plin. 1. 7, ft 53; Val. Max. I. 1, 
ft 8, § 12 ; Tac. Anno. 1. 3, ft 41. 

Acilius Butas, a prater in the reign of Tiberius, mentioned 
by Seneca. Sen. Epist. 122. 

Acilius Aviola, Man., a consul with Marcus Asinus Mar- 
cellus, in the reign of Claudian, 1. 3, ft 41 ; Suet, in Claud. 
c. 45. 

Acilius, was a name common to many consuls and other offi- 
cers in the reigns of Adrian, Nero, [vide Aci/ia, gens'] 
Commodus, l'ertinax, Severus, Antoninus, &ft, all doubtless 
of the family of the Acilii. Cassiodorus in C/iron. ; Oniiph. 
in Fasti. 

Acilius Aureolus, Man., is supposed not to be of the same 
family as the preceding. [Vide Auredhu\ 

Acilius Glabrio, M., a consul with M. Ulpian Trajan, after- 
wards emperor, was put to death by the order of Domitian. 
Juv. Sat. 4, v. 94 ; Sueton. in Domif. c. 10 ; Dio. c. 67- 

Acilius, CaitU (I Hog.) an historian, and writer of Roman 
annals in Greek, called Aciliani Libri, of whom but very 
little is known. Cic. tie Ofjfc. 1. 8, ft 32 ; Dioni/s. Hal. 1. 3 ; 
Phil, in Rom. ; Dralcen. in Lie. 1. 25, c. 3[). 

ACINI l'<) (Ceog.) or Acinippo, 'A«e«nr«, according to Pto- 
lemy, a town of Hispania Batica, now Honda la Viega. 
Plin. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Plol. 1. 2, c. 4. 

Acinipo (Xinnis.) this town is now known only by its 
medals, which mostly bear for its symbols, two ears of corn. 

as on the obverse of fig. 1 and 2, and a bunch of grapes, 

with one or more stars, and sometimes the moon, as on the 
reverse of fig. 2. The inscription consists mostlv of the 
name of the town ACINIP in Latin letters, as in the 
foregoing cuts, but sometimes in Greek characters. The in- 
scription on the reverse L FOLCE AEDILE, a progenitor 
as is supposed of an illustrious Spanish family, bearing the 
name of Folc. 

ACIRIS (Geog.) " Aictptc, 1. a river of Lucania, now Agri, 
falling into the bay of Tarentum at the north of Hcraclea. 
Slrab. 1. li; Mela,' 1. 2, c. 4; Plin. 1. 3, c. 11. 2. A town 
of Lucania, now Torre d'.tgri. 3. A town of the Bruttii, 
now Aeri. 

ACIS (Mi/th.) a shepherd of Sicily, and lover of Galitea, 
who, from jealousy, was slain by Polyphemus the Cyclops, 
and afterwards changed into a river. Eustath. in Horn. II. 
1. 16; Sere, in I'irg. eclog. 8. 

Acis {Geog.) a river of Catena, in Sicily, called after the 
shepherd Acis [vide Acis], and supposed to be now Jaci or 
Freddo, according to Fazellus. It rises in iEtna, and runs 
into the sea. 
Sil 1. 14, v. 221. 

QuigiM per .-Etnteos Acis petit trtpwru fines. 

Theocritus calls it ifpoc, 
Theoeril. Idyl I, v. 68. 

Ovc' AiYrac oKOTidv vi' "AkiSoq itp6i> i*£wp. 

Ovid calls it hrrliij'cr. 
Or. Fast. 1. 4, v. 460. 

Preterit et ripas, herhifer Aci, tuas. 

ACISCULUS (Biog.) one of the surnames of the Valerian 
family, as marked on an ancient coin. L. Valerius Acis- 
culus. Prudentius also makes mention of the name. Prud. 

ACISO, Oregon/ (Biog.) wrote on the organum of Aristotle. 

ACITHIUS (Geog.) 'Axidloc, a river of Sicily, now Bergi 
or Caralii.s, according to Cluverius. Ptol. 1. 3, ft 4; Fazell. 
de Reb. Sic. 1. 1 ; Cluv. 1. 1, ft 18. 

ACITODURUM (Geog.) a town of Gaul, now Ahum. 

ACK WORTH, George (Biog.) an English divine, who, in 
1560, was orator of Cambridge. He wrote ' Orationem 
Eneomiasticam,' &c 2. ' De Visibili Ronne Monar chiacontra 
Nic. Sanderi Monarchiam,' 4to. Lond. 1622. 

ACKLAN1), Sir John (Hist.) the first baronet in the family 
mentioned under Heraldry, was a zealous adherent to King 
Charles I, and suffered much for his loyalty. 

Acland, Sir Thomas, the seventh baronet, major of the 20th 
regiment of foot, and colonel in the Devonshire militia, 
served, in the campaign in Canada, under general Burgoync, 
when he was severely wounded, and taken prisoner. He 
died of his wounds in 1778. 

Acland, Lady Harriet Caroline, daughter of Stephen, first 
earl of Ilchester, and wife of the preceding, distinguished 
herself by her fortitude and devotion to her husband, whom 
she accompanied through all his trials and misfortunes. 

Aci.ani) (Her.) a family which derives its name from its an- 
cient seat in the parish of Lankey, near Barnstaple, being 
in the midst of large groves of oaks ; hence the Saxon 
ajclanb, or Oakland. In early times their arms were three 
oak-leaves on a bend between two lions rampant. The 
first baronet of this name, who lineally descended from 
Hugh de Aecalin, was created March 1, 1644. [vide 
Acland, Sir John] The arms, crest, &c. of this family are 
as follow : 

Arms. Cheeky argent and sable, a fess gules. 
Crest. A man's hand, cooped at the rist, in a glove lying 

fessways, thereon a falcon perched, all proper. 
Motto. ' Incbranlablc' 

Aclanu, Palmer, son of Arthur Acland, the second son of Sir 
Hugh Acland, was created a baronet in 1818, and quarters 


the arms of Palmer, in the second quarter, with those of 

ACLEA (Geog.) two towns in England. 1. A town in 
Durham, where a council was held under Pope Adrian I, 
now Aclea. 2. A town in Surrey, where Ethelwolf beat 
the Danes in 851. Saxon. Citron. Spelman. Concil. torn. i. 
p. 305; Cambd. Brit. vol. i. p. 185. 

ACME (Hist.) 'Ak/ij), a Jewish waiting woman to the wife 
of Julius Ctesar, who was bribed by Antipater, the son of 
Herod, to bring a false charge against Salome the sister of 
Herod, for which crime she was put to death by order of 
Ca?sar. Joseph. 1. 17, c. 7, 8, 9. 

Actus, a mistress of Septiinius mentioned by Catullus. 

ACMOD.E (Geog.) the name of different islands on the 
British coast, as, 1. The islands of the Silures, now called 
Sci/ly Isles. 2. Acmodee or jEmodre, the name for the 
northern islands which are now called Schetland Isles, ac- 
cording to Cluverius. Plin. 1. 4, c. 10'; Mela, 1. 3, c. 6; 
C/ttrer. German. Antiq. 1. 3, c. 40. 

ACMON (Myth.) 1. The name of one of the most ancient 
among the gods, who was the father of Chaos. Lactant. 
in Slat. Theb. 1. 4, v. 416; Bocae, in Dcor. Gen. 1. 1, e. 3: 
2. A native of Lyrnyssseus, who accompanied iEneas into 
Italy; his father's name was Clytus. Virg. JEn. 1. 10, 
v. 128. 

ACMONENSES (Geog.) the gentile name for the inhabitants 
of Acmonia. QVide Aemonia~\ 

ACMONIA (Geog.) 'Axuatvla, now Sevcrino ; a town of 
Phrygia Major, near Mount Sipylus, the gentile name of 
which, Acmonenses, may be learnt from the inscriptions 
given in the following article. Cic. pro Flacc. c. 15 ; Plin. 
1. 5, c. 29 ; Ptol. 1. 5, c. 2 ; Steph. Byz. ; Mar. Nig. Geo/. 
Comm. 1. 10. 

Acmonia (Numis.) from the number of medals and coins 
struck in this town, it is supposed to have been a place of 
some consequence. The magistrates were named archons 
as mav be learned from the inscriptions on the medals of 
Septimius Severus EIII. *A. ITPEICKOY APX. TO B AK- 
MONEilN sub Flavio. Prisco Archonle iterum, Acmonensium : 
a similar inscription is also to be found on a coin of Plau- 
tilla, the wife of Caracalla ; but in general the name of the 
magistrate is put without the title, as on a medal of Agrip- 
pina, the mother of Nero, Em 2EPOTINIOY KAIII 
rotinio Capilone el Julia Severa Acmonensium ; according to 
Harduin, the inscription ought to be read E1II 2SEPOY- 
IAIOY KAI nmNOS, but Havm contends that it ought 
CEOYHPAC, Serverio Capilone el Julia Severa, which he 
gives as a medal of Nero bearing on the obverse the head 
of the emperor, the inscription NEPilN CEBACTOC 
AKMONEIC. This town struck medals in honour of Ger- 
mitnicus, Caligula, Agrippina, Claudius, Nero, Hadrian, 
M. Aitrelitts, Comniodus, Sep/. Severus, Jul. Domna, Cara- 
calla, Plaulilla, Alex. Severus, Gtirdiantts Pitts, Olaeilia 
Severus, and Treboiiius Gallus. They worshipped not only 
Jupiter and Diana, but also Minerva, Hercules, Bacchus, 
Mercury and jEsculapius. The Acmonenses became Neocori 
in the reign of Philip, and are sometimes entitled I EPA 
BOYAII, sacra curia, Ik METPOITOAE ili Metropolis. 

ACMONIDES (Myth.) AKfiovlSne, the name of one of the 
Cyclops, who was the son of 'Axfitov, i. e. Hpuruc, heaven. 
Ovid. Fast. 1. 4, v. 288 ; Hesychius. 

ACO, Catulinits Philonianus (Hist.) a consul and prefect of 
the city, under Constantius. 

Aco (Geos-) or Aeon. Vide Ace. 

ACOMATES (Hist.) vide Achmet. 

ACONA (Geog.) a town of Germany, now Acken. 

ACON/E (Geog 1 .) "Akoi'oi, or Acone, a town of Bithynia, now 


ACONTES (Myth.) 'AKovrns, one of Lyeaon's fifty sons. 
Apo/lod. 1. 3, c. 8. 

ACONTEUS (Myth.) a famous hunter, said to be changed 
into a stone by the head of Medusa at the nuptials of 
Perseus and Andromeda. Ovid, Met. 1. 5, v. 201 : Stat. 
Theb. 1. 7, v. 590. 

Aconteus, a person killed in the wars of jEneas and Turnus, 
in Italy. Virg. .Fit. 1. 11, v. 615. 

ACONTIUS (Myth.) a youth of Cea, who fell in love with 
Cydippe, a beautiful virgin, as she was attending the sacri- 
fices of Diana, at Delos, and obtained her consent to marry 
him by a stratagem. He wrote these verses on an apple 
which he threw into her bosom. 

Juro tilii tancta per mystica sacra Diaiur, 

Me tibi lenturam i\»nitem, sponsamque Juturam. 

which Cydippe having read considered herself bound, by 
the oath she had inadvertently taken, to marry Acontius, 
as every oath taken in the presence of the goddess was in- 
violable. Ovid. Her. ep. 20. 

ACONTIUS (Biog.) or Aconzio, James, a divine and philo- 
sopher of the loth century, who wrote, 1. ' De Stratage- 
matibus Satanic in Religionis Negotio,' &c. Basil, 156'5. 
2. ' De Methodo recta investigandarum Tradendarum, 
allium a. e. Scientiarinn rectione,' 8vo. 1558. 3. ' De 
Studiis Instituendis,' Ultraj. 1658. 4. ' Ars Muniendorum 
Oppidorum,' Genev. 1585. He died in England in 

ACONTOBOLI (Geog.) 'Aftovrpfiokat, a people in Coele- 
Syria of Asia Minor, who were under the government of 
Hvppolyte queen of the Amazons. They were so called, 
because they were expert in using the bow. Apollou. 1. 2, 
v. 100.;. 

ACOKIS (Hist.) \\Kop\q, a king of Egypt, who assisted 
Evagoras, king of Cyprus, in his war against Persia. Diodor. 
1. 15, c. 2. 

ACORUMBONUS, Fabitts (Biog.) an Italian lawyer, who 
wrote many works on the subject of his profession, and died 
in l6l6. Paitciroll. in Juriseou. 1. 2, c. 178. 

ACOSTA (Hist.) or Zaeosla, a Castilian by birth, and Grand 
Master of the order of the Knights of Malta, raised the 
tower of St. Nicholas at the entrance of the island of 
Rhodes, where the Colossus once stood, and refused to make- 
peace with the Turks. He died in 140'7- 

Acosta, Joseph (Biog.) a Spanish Jesuit and historian, was 
born at Medina de Campo in 1539, and died rector of Sala- 
manca in UiOO, leaving, among other works, 1. • De Pro- 
mulgatione Evangelii apud Barbaros,' 8vo. Salamanc. 1588, 
&c. 2. ' De Natura Novi Orbis, libri duo,' Svo. Salamanc. 
1589- 3. ' Historia natural v moral de las Indias,' 4to. 
Hispal. 1590, 8vo. 1591 ; & Madrid 1608 and 1610. 

Acosta, Gabriel, divinity professor at Coimbra, wrote a Latin 
commentary on the Old Testament, published in folio, and 
died in l6l6. 

Acosta, Uriel, a native of Oporto, was descended from a 
Jewish family, but educated in the Romish church. He 
left his religion to embrace Judaism, and from that sunk 
into complete scepticism. He wrote his own Hie under the 
title of ' Examplar humans vita;' and, after having em- 
broiled himself with the people of his own persuasion by his 
open declarations of infidelity in the revelation of the Old 
Testament, he put an end to his turbulence and his miseries 
by shooting himself. His death is said to have happened 
in 10'40, or according to some in 16'47. 

A'COURT (Her.) a family in Somersetshire, from whom de- 
scended Sir William Pierce Ashe A'Court, who was created 
a baronet, June 23, 1795- The arms and crest of thi» 
family are as follow : 

Arms. Per fesse, in chief or, an eagle displayed sable, 
beaked and legged gtt/cs, charged on the breast with 
F 2 


two clievronels argent, in base, paly of six erminois and 
Crest. An eagle displayed, as in the arras, holding in the 
l>eak a white lily, slipped proper. 
ACR A (Geog.) the name of several small places mentioned 
by ancient writers, of which the only ones deserving of 
notice at present are, 1. a town in Magna Grsecia, now called 
Capo di Leuea ; and, 2. a town in Palestine, now called 
Acre. [A'idc Ace~\ 
ACR.E (Geog.) 'Aicpal, or Acrcece, "Axpaiai, according to 
Ptolemy ; a colony of Syracuse, now called Palozolus. The 
gentile name of the inhabitants, according to Pliny, was 
Ai reuses. Silius Italieus alludes to its elevated situation. 
SU. 1. 14, v. 207. 

Won Taptos, non e tumults, glaciatibiu Acra: 

Thueipl. 1. 6, c. r, ; Lie. 1. 24, c. 36 j Plin. 1. 3, c. 8 j Plol. 
1. 3, c. 14 j FazeU. de Reb. Sic. dec. 1, 1. 10; Cluv. Geog. 
Ant. 1. 2, c. 12. 

Acr.e (Xumis.) one medal is referred to this town, bearing, 
on the obverse, a head of Ceres crowned with an ear of 
corn ; and in the reverse, Ceres herself bearing a torch in 
each hand : the inscription AKPAIiiN, the letters K and P 
forming a ligature, or one letter. Pellet: Rec. vol. iii. p. f_)8. 

ACR35PH1A (Geog.) 'Aicpaupla, by Herodotus; 'AicpaiAvlov, 
by Pausanias ; 'Axpaubiov, by Strabn ; 'Atcpujiia, by Ptolemy, 
a town of Boeotia. Herod. 1. 8, c. 135 ; Slrab. 1. <) ; Pans. 
1. 9 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 15 ; Stcph. Byz. de Urb. 

Acr/epiiia (Xumis.) this town is known by a medal of Do- 
mitian, bearing the inscription AKPAl<l>NAI£i2N. Goltz. 
Thesaur. p. 207 ; Hani. Nit mm. Ant. illnstrat. 

ACR/EPHIUS (Myth.) 'AxpaiAios, an epithet for Apollo, 
who was worshipped at Acra-phia. 

ACR.EUS (Myth.) an epithet of Jupiter, as the guardian of 
the citadel. 

ACRAGALLID.E (Hist.) 'AKpayaKKiSai, a very wicked 
people, who formerly inhabited the neighbourhood of Athens, 
according to /Eschincs. JEcItin. contra Ctes. 

ACRAGAS (Geog.) vide Agrigcntum. 

AOBAOAS (BtOg.) a statuary who was held in great estima- 
tion according to Pliny. Nat. Hist. 1. 83, c. 12. 

ACR ASUS (Geog.) 'AxpaaOQ, according to I.eunclavius 
"AiepatHros, a town of l.ydia, mentioned in the Notitia 
El ilesitc. 

A.CHA8U8 (Xumis.) this town is known by medals of Coin- 
modus, Sept. Severus, Plautilla, Geta, Julia, Paula, and 
Alexander Severus, bearing the inscription ATtT. K. A. 
Cl-'.il. CEYHPOC. Imperator Conor Lucius Septimus 
Severus: on tin: obverse, Xsculapius' with a serpent wind- 
ing round his stall'; inscription Akl'AClSJTiJN. The 

figures of the Ephesian, Diana, Minerva, Cybele, Hercules, 

and the Other gods, which were most generally worshipped 
in the neighbouring cities, are also to be found on their 
medals. Their magistrates were prstOTS, as on a medal of 
Severus, F.IM CTPA. AAMA. ATTAACW It. irl -rparnyS 
kauaolu 'Arr&Ku bivrepov, sub Prcetore Damasia Atla/i 
Fitio secundum. Vaillant. Numis. Grate. 
.'hiiij. Must. 

Achati - (Myth.) "Agparog, the genius of the Bacchanalians 
at Athens. Pans. 1. 1, c. 1. 

AcBATUB (Hist.) a freed man, who was sent by Nero into 
Asia and Achaia for the purpose of plundering t lie temples of 

tin gods : which commission be executed readily, being, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, " Cuicumque flagitio promptus." Tac. 
I I. 15, •■. 15; I. 16, c. 2:;. 
ACRE (Geog.) <>r St. Jean aJAcre, a seaport of Syria, in Pales- 
tine, and a bishop's see j the Acchoot the Old Testament, 

and the .Ire or Plolemaii of the Greeks. It was distin- 

• oiislird by tli. sieges it underwent in the time of the Cru- 
sades. V'ertot, in his Histoire des Chevaliers, says, the 

n of Egypt ;> said to have laid siege to 1; at the head 


of lGO.000 foot, and 6000 horse, April 5, A. D. 1291, 
when it was garrisoned by the Knights of St. John, and the 
Templars. It was taken by capitulation, being the last 
place that the Christians possessed in the Holy Land. In 
17)1)) this town, aided by the British under Sir Sidney 
Smith, withstood the siege of the French under Bonaparte, 
who was driven from its walls after the twelfth assault. It 
stands on a plain at the north point of a bav, which extends 
to Mount Carmel, long. 35° 28' E. lat. 32° 33' N. 

ACREL, Olaus (Biog.) a Swedish physician, born near Stock- 
holm, in the beginning of the 18th century, and died in 
1807, leaving several treatises on surgery and physic. 

ACRIiE (Geog.) "Aicpuu, a maritime town of Laeonia, now 
Ormoas. Pans. 1. 3; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 1(>. -i. 

ACRIAS (Myth.) 'Aicplas, a Lacedaemonian, and one of tlie 
suitors of Hippodamia, who was slain. Pans. 1. 6, c. 21. 

ACRIDOPHAGI (Geog.) 'AjcpuSotpayoi, locust-eaters; a 
people of ^Ethiopia, who fed principally on locusts, wluch 
they took in the spring, and salted for the whole year. At 
the approach of old age, which is said to have come upon 
them in their fortieth year, they were devoured by insects, 
which gnawed their insides. Diod. 1. 3, c. 29; Strati. 
1. 16; PlinA. 3. 

ACRION (Biog.) a Pythagorean philosopher of Locris, who 
was cotemporary with Plato. Cic. de Fin. 1. 5, c. 24. 

ACRISCONEUS (Myth.) an epithet for the Argives who 
had accompanied Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, into 
Italy, and for whom she built the town of Ardea. 
Virg. JEn.l. 7, v. 410. 

Quam dicitur urbetn 
Acrisioneis Danae Jinidusse colanis. 

ACRISIONIADES (Myth.) a patronymic of Perseus from 

his grandfather Acrisius. Ovid. Met. 1. 5, v. 70. 
ACRISIUS (Myth.) 'AKpiaioc, a king of Argos, and father 

of Danae, the mother of Perseus by Jupiter, was slain by 

his grandson according to the oracle. 

Hor. 1. 3, od. 16. 

.Si non Acrisium virginis abdita: 
Custudem pavidum Jupiter ct Venus 

ApoUodor. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Hygin. Fab.; Pans. I. 2, c. 16'. 
ACRITAS (Geog.) now Capo di Gallo, a promontory of 
Messenia, in Peloponnesus, near to the Sinus Cyparissus. 
Plin. 1. 4, c. 5 ; Pomp. Mel. 1. 2, c. 4 ; Mar. Nig. Geog. 

( 'omm. 1. 1 1. 
ACROATHON (Geog.) called by Herodotus 'AicpdOwov ; by 

Thucvdidcs 'AxpoBSus ; by Pliny Aerothon ; and by Mela 
Acrothoos, now Cima di Monte Sanies a town on Mount 
Athos, the inhabitants of which lived to a much greater 
age than any other people. Herod. 1. 7; Tliiiei/it. 1. 4. 
C. 101); Pomp. Mel. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 10. 

ACROCERAUNIJ (Geog.) a fierce people inhabiting the 
Acroceraunian mountains, who were extirpated by the sultan 

ACROCERAUNIUM (Geog.) a promontory of Epirus, which, 
with the adjoining mountains, is called altogether Acro- 
ceraunia, now called Capo delta I.engiuta and Monti delta 
Chimera. They derived their name from &xpov s the top, 
and Kcpavvbc, thunder, because, by reason of their great 
height, they are frequently struck with thunder. 
Dionys. v. 389- 

'Ovpiuv t ij'Xt/3a'raiv rd tcepdvvia KitkijaKBtTi, 

They separated the Ionian sea from the Adriatic. 
Virg. Mn. 1. 3, v. 506. 

Proitffiifnur pdago 1 icinfl < 'orauiri contra. 

Horace calls them infames seopulos. 

Hor. 1. 1, od. ::, v. 506. 

( t 'i/( ticcu oevMt monstra nataniia 
( v 'iir t idit nun turgidum tt 
Jnjame& seopulos Aeroceraunia. 

Strab. 1. 0; Plin. 1. 4, c. l ; Paus. 1. l ; Viol 1. '3, c. J 4. 


ACROCORIXTHUS (Geog.) 'AnpaKopivOoe, a mountain near 
the isthmus of Corinth, which was taken by Aratus, A. C. 
234. Strab. 1. 8 ; Plin. 1. 4, e. 4 ; Pint, in Aral. ; Paus. 
1. 2, c. 4. 

AC RON (Hist.) a king of the Ceninenses, whom Romulus 
slew in battle after the rape of the Sabine women. His 
spoils were dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius, and his subjects 
were incorporated with the Roman people. Propertius dis- 
tinguishes him by the epithet of Ceninus. 
Propert. 1. 4, ele'g. 10. 

Tempore quo portus Cenimun Acrona petentem 

Jlctor in eversum cuspidejundis equum. 

Also Herculeus, because he is said to have descended from 


Propert. 1. 5, eleg. 10. 

Aeron Herculeus, Cenind ductor ub ard 
Roma tuis quondam tiuibus horror erat. 

Dion. Hal. 1. 2 ; Lit: 1. 1, c. 10 ; Pint, in Rom. 

Acron (Biog.) a physician of Agrigentum, and eotemporary 
with Empedocles, who lived in the time of the plague at 
Athens, according to Plutarch, i. e. in the 84th Olympiad, 
144, A. C. He wrote a treatise on medicine, and another 
on food, neither of which is now extant. Plut. in hid ; 
Plin. 1. 29, c. 1 ; Gal. Method. 1. 2. 

Achon, a grammarian in the 7th century, well known for his 
scholia on Horace, which were published under the title of 
' Expositio in Horatii Flacci Opera.' Mediol. 1474. 

ACROXEUS (Myth.) 'Aicpoviae, a chief of the Phseaceans. 
Hon,. Odyss. 1. 8, v. 111. 

ACROXIUS, John (Biog.) a mathematician of Friezland, 
who wrote on the motion of the earth, and died at Basle 
in 1563. 

Ackonius, Ruard, a Dutch protestant, who took a part in the 
famous conference of the Hague held in Kill against the 

Acronius, John, a Dutch writer of the 17th century, who 
published a book against the Romish religion. 

Acronius (Geog.) a lake of Rhcetia, now the Lake of Con- 
stance, formed by the Rhine falling from the Alps. Clnv. 
Geog. Ant. Orb. 

ACROPATOS (Hist.) one of Alexander's officers, who ob- 
tained the greater part of Media after the king's death. 
Justin. 1. 13, c. 4. 

ACROPOLIS (Geog.) 'AxpoTcoXic, the citadel of Athens, on 
which a temple of Minerva was built. 

ACROPOLITA, George (Biog.) one of the Byzantine his- 
torians, was born at Constantinople in 1220, and died in 
12S2; leaving his ' Historia Byzantina, Gr. et Lat.' which 
has been inserted in the collection of Byzantine historians, 
entitled, ' Byzantime Historic Scriptores in unum Carpus 
redaeti, Gr. et Lat.' 27 vol. fol. Venet. 1722 to 1733. Voss. 
de Hist. Graze, vol. ii, c. 24 ; Cave. Hist. Lit. vol. ii, p. 312 ; 
Fab. Bib!. Grcec. 1. 5, c. 5 ; Sax. O/iom. vol. ii, p. 316. 

ACROTATUS (Hist.) 'Axpararoc, the eldest son of Cleo- 
menes king of Sparta, who dying before his father left a 
son named Areus, who disputed the throne with his uncle 
CJeonymus. Paus. 1. 3, c. 6. 

Acrotatus, a son of Areus, with whom Chelidenis, the wife 
of Cleonymus, fell in love; but being rejected, engaged 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to besiege Sparta. Acrotatus dis- 
played such valour during the siege as obtained him the 
applause of the whole citv. Plut. in. Purr/i. ; Paus. 
1. 3, c. 6. 

ACROVEXTUM (Geog.) a village of Venice, now Govemo, 
near the Po, where Pope Leo met king Attala. Jornand. 
de Reb. Get. c. 42. 

ACT.EA {Myth.) 'Aerah,, one of the Nereids. Horn. II. 1. 18, 
v. 40 ; Hesiod. Theog. v. 250. 

ACT^EOX (Myth.) \UraiW, son of Aristceus and Antinoe, 
the daughter of Cadmus, was a very celebrated hunter, who, 


for having inadvertently seen Diana while bathing, was 
changed by her into a stag, and devoured by his own dogs ; 
of the names of which Ovid gives a list, to the number of 
Ovid. Trist. 1. 2. 

Inscius ActiEon vidit sine veste Dianam, 
Prilda suis canibus iwu minus ilte full. 

Ibid. Met. 1. 3. 

Dilacerant falsi dominum sub imagine cervi. 

Senec. in Theb. 

Qua peragrati celer 
Per sola montis jacuit Action suis 
Nova pmda canibus. 

Claud, in Rujin. 

Sic mons Aonius rubuit, cum Penthea ferrent 
Mtcnades, aut subito mutatum Actccona cornu, 
Traderet insanis Lnlonia lisa Molossis. 

Sil. Ital. 1. 12, v. 365. 

Fama est, cum laceris Actaron jtebite membris 
Supplicium luertt specuita: in fonte Diana:, 
Attonitum novititte malifugisse parentem 
Ptr freia Aristojum. 

Apollod. 1. 2 ; Hi/gin. fab. 181 ; Paus. I. Q. 

Act.eon, the son of Melissus a Corinthian, was a youth ot 
such beauty and modesty, that Archias, one of the Hera- 
elidtc, openly attempted to carry him away. A struggle 
ensued between Archias and the father of the youth, in 
which Acteeon being killed, Archias was some time after ba- 
nished from Corinth. Plut. in Amat. Karrat. 

ACT^EUS (Hist.) 'Axraieg, the father-in-law of Cecrops, who 
married his daughter Agraulos. He is said to have reigned 
first over Attica, although Cecrops is commonly reputed to 
have been the first king. Pans. 1.1, c. 2. 

ACTAXIA (Geog.) an island in the German ocean, now He- 
lichland or Heligoland. 

ACTARD (Ecc.) or Altard, a bishop of Xantes, in 842, suf- 
fered much from the hands of the Xormans, who pillaged 
the city several times while he presided there. 

ACTE (Myth.) one of the Horse. Hi/gin. Fab. 1S3. 

Acte (Geog.) 'Akti), a country of Attica, from hern, lit/us, a 
shore from which all Attica derived its name. .Strab. 1. 7 ; 
Sen. in Virg. Eel. 2, v. 23. 

Acte (Hist.) a mistress of Xero, descended from Attains. 
Suctim. in Xer. c. 2S. 

ACTIA (Hist.) the mother of Augustus, who, as she slept in 
the temple of Apollo, dreamt that a dragon had lain with 
her; and previously to her delivery, she dreamt that her 
bowels were scattered over the world. .Suet, in Aug. c. 94. 

Actia, a sister of Julius Caesar. Plut. in Cms. 

Actia, a daughter of Actius Balbus and Julia, mother of 
Octavius, the father of Augustus. Plut. in August. 

ACTIAXUS (Geog.) or Accianus fundus, a place near Pisau- 
rus, now Fernaxzano. 

ACTIS (Myth.) 'AktIs, the son of Sol, who is said to have 
gone from Greece into Egypt, where he taught astrology 
and founded Heliopolis. Diod. 1. 5. 

ACTISAXES (Hist.) a king of the Ethiopians, who lived 
about the time of Jephtha, A. M. 2850. He expelled Ama- 
sis, a cruel prince, from the throne of Egypt, and reigned 
with great prudence. Diod. 1. 1, c. 60. 

ACT1UM (Geog.) "Aktioi; a town and promontory of Acar- 
nania, now Azio and Cabo Figo, near the bay of Ambracia, 
memorable for the temple of Apollo, built by Augustus, as 
well as for his naval victory over M. Anthony. Thucid. 
1. 1, c. 29; Cic. ad Attic. 1. 7, ep. 2 ; Strab. 1. 10; Hygin. 
Fab. Plin. 1. 4, c. 21 ; Plut. in Anton. Unci. ; in Ausust. c. 
94 ; Paus. 1. 8. 

Actium (Numis.) some of the medals of this town have the 
figure of eagles, vultures, and the head of a boar, and 
one represents in the obverse a lyre, and in the reverse 


a gryffon, which, according to Claudian, was sacred to 


Claud. Pancgt/. v. 30. 

At si Phalms adesl, etfranis gryphajugalem 
Hiphtto tripodus repetens detorsit ab axe. 

Sidon. Ajwlliittir. ; Sen), in Eclog. 8 ; Gulltz. Grccc. Vet. 
ACTIUS (Myth.) "Aicnoc, an epithet for Apollo, who had a 
temple and was particularly honoured at Actium. 
Virg. /En. 1. 8, v. 704. 

Actius hac ccrnens arcum tendehut Apollo. 

Propcrt. 1. 4, cleg. 6. 

Actius hhic tri'iit Phtzbtu numummto, quod ejus 
Una decern vicit missa sagitta rates. 

Actius, Apollo (Nitniis.) a medal of Au- 
gustus, represents on the reverse, as in the 
annexed cut, a figure of Apollo in a long 
rohe, with the inscription ACT XII 
IMP, i. e. duodecimum imperator. The 
figure is supposed to denote the arts of 
peace which had succeeded to those of 
war, to which Albinovanus alludes. 
Albin. Eleg. in Mwccnat. Obit. v. 5. 

Actias ipse lyram plectra percussit ebltTno 
Pcstquam lictrices conticuere tnhic. 

Also Propcrt ins, 1. 2, el. 31, in allusion to his long rohe. 

Actias in luitgu ciirmiim teste ennit. 

Goltx. Grate. Vet. ; Tristan. Coinm. Histor. torn. 3, p. 77 ; 
Harduin. Ni/nim. Antiq. Ilhts/rat. 

Actius (Hist.) vide Accius and Atlius. 

Actius, a centurion mentioned by Tacitus. Annal. 1. 6, c. 24. 

Actius, Cains, left Rome to settle at Este, A. D. 390. One 
of his descendants, named Forestus, defended Aquileum 
against Attila ; another, named Acharius, built the city of 
Ferrara. The race Ls supposed to have become extinct in 
Valerian, the son of Bonniface, killed in a battle between 
the French and Lombards in 5.90. Spcner. Si/llog. Genealog. 
Hist, in Fam. Guelf. 

Actius, a prince of Milan, mentioned by Paul Jovius. Paul 
Jov. Vir. Illiist. 1. 2. 

Actius, a duke of Modena, who murdered his father. Ful- 
gos. 1.9, c. 1 1 . 

Actius, Ntvvius (Biog.) an augur in the time of Tarquin, 
who, to prove his skill in augur)', cut a loadstone in two 
with a razor in the presence of the king and the Roman 
people. Liv. 1. 1, c. 36; Flor. 1. 1, c. 5. 

Actius, a surname of the poet Plautus. 

Actius, Lucius or Luscus, a poet. QVide Accius"] 

Actius, Labco, a Latin poet, cotemporary with Perseus, by 
whom he is ridiculed. He attempted to make a literal 
translation of Homer. Pert. Sal. 1. v. 4; Lit. Gi/rahl. 
Dialog. 8. 

Actius, Priscus, a painter in the time of Vespasian. Plin. 
1. 3, c. 27. 

Actius, Sinccrus Sannazarius, a poet and cotemporary of 
LUlius Gvraldus. Gyrald. De Poet. Sttor. Tcmpor. Dialog. 1. 

ACTO (Biog-) vide llallo. 

ACTON, Sir .John Francis Eilivitrd (Hist.) sixth baronet of 
the family, guilder Heraldry,'] was born in 1736', and after 
having attained the rank of commander-in-chief of all the 
land and naval forces in the king of Naples' service, and 
after having been for many years prime minister at that 
court, he died at Palermo in 1811. He was knight of 
several civil and military orders. 

Acton (Her.) a family descended from William de Acton 
Buniell, living in 1344, The first baronet, Sir Fdward 
Acton, was created in 1644. 
Arms. Gules, two lions passant argent, between nine cros- 

lets fitrhc or. 
('rest on a torse, a human leg and thigh in armour, couped 

and dropping blood, all proper, embellished or. 


Acton, Rudolphus (Biog.) an English priest and commenta- 
tor; in 1320 left some commentaries on the epistle of St. 
Paul, &c. 

Acton, an English dominican, in 1410 wrote an essay 
' De Pace Ecclesia;.' 

Acton (Gcog.) a village in Middlesex, five miles from Lon- 
don, formerly resorted to for its mineral waters. 

ACTOR (Mi/tli.) "AKTDp, the son of Myrmidon and Physidii-e. 
was the father of Menoetius, by CEgina. Patroclus, the son 
of Mencetius, was on this account called Actorides. Pinil. 
Oli/mp. ()d. {); Apo/lod. 1. 1, c. 16, 1.3, c. 25 ; Sclwl. 
Apollon. Argon, v. 72 ; Ovid. 1. 1 ; Trist. Eleg. 8. 

Actor, son of Phorbus and Hyrmione, was related to Augeus, 
on whom Hercules made war, who afterwards slew the sons 
of Actor, whom he had by Molione his wife. Apollod. 1. 2, 
c. 7 ; Pa u san. 1. 8. 

Actob, a companion of Hercules in his expedition against the 

Actor, Aruncus, a general of the Arunci, from whom Turnus 
had taken his spear as a spoil. /En. 1. 12, v. Q3. 

Actor, a friend of jEneas. JEn. 9, v. 500. 

Actor, one of the Argonauts, the son of Hippasus by Pelo- 
ponnesus. Htfgin. Fab. 14. 

ACTORIDES (Myth.) a patronymic for Patroclus, who was 
the grandson of Actor. Pind. O/ipnp. Oil. 9 ; Ovid. Met. 
1. 13; Fab. 1. 

Actorides, two sons of Actor and Molione, otherwise called 
Molionidsc, were charioteers, who had such affection for 
each other, that while one held the reins the other held the 
whip. They were said to have two heads, four hands, and 
as many feet, but one body. 

ACTORIS {Myth.) 'A/crook, a maid of Ulysses. 

ACTORIUS, M. Naso (Biog) a Roman historian, mentioned 
by Suetonius in his Life of Caesar. 

ACTUARIUS, John (Biog.) a Greek physician of Constan- 
tinople in the eleventh century, or as some suppose still later, 
who wrote a work on Therapeutics; a Latin translation 
of which was published by Mathisius, under the title of 
' Methodi Medendi Libri Sex/ 4to. Venet. 1554 ; also ' De 
LTrinis Libri Septem,' &c. The works of Actuarius were pub- 
lished bv Stephanus, in his ' Medicee Artis Principes,' fol. 
156'7 ; also separately, 8vo. Paris. 1526, and 12mo. Lugd. B. 

ACUES (Hist.) 'A(.«7)e, a king of the Arcadians, who, by a 
stratagem, slew the Lacedemonians that had got possession 
of Tegca. 

ACUINUS (Hist.) a Roman citizen, who wanted to take 
part in the murder of Cicsar. Appian. Civ. 1.2. 

ACU LA (Gcog.) or Aquila, a town of Etruria, now Accpta 

ACU LEO, C. (Biog.) a Roman knight of great acuteness and 
skill in the law. He was uncle to Cicero. 

ACUMULUM (Gcog.) a town of Aprutium in Italy, at the 
foot of the Apennines, now Acumuli. 

ACUNA, Christopher (Biog.) a Spanish Jesuit, was born at 
Burgos in 1597, and died about 1676. He published ' Nuevo 
Descubrimicnto del gran Rio de las Amazonas,' 4to. 1641 ; 
which being afterwards suppressed by order of the govern- 
ment, two copies only remained, from which a French trans- 
lation was made, under the title of ' Relation de la Riviere 
des Amazones,' 2 vols. ISmo. Paris, 1 682. 

Acuna, Fernando tie, a Spanish poet of the sixteenth century, 
who dieil in 1580, leaving translations from Ovid and other 

ACUPHIS (Hist.) an ambassador from India to Alexander. 

Pint, in Alex. 

ACUS (Hist.) a king of the Huns, who was killed by Ladis- 
laus, king Ot Hungary, on the banks of the Danube. Bon/in. 
de lleb. I 'ng. 1. 4, dec. 2. 

Ar us (Gcog.) an island in the Ethiopian sea, now called by 


the French I'Arguille, or Isle de Galls ; by the Portuguese 
ACL SI IS (Geog.)" Akhshc, or K&Kuaoc, a place in Cappudocia, 
where the emperor Basilicus was slain. Erag. Hist. Eccles. 

1. 3, c. 8; Niceph. 1. 16, c. 8; Cedren. Hist. Compend. c. 

ACUSILAUS (Biog.) 'Ai-unXaoc, a Greek historian, the son 
of Cabas, who lived, according to Josephus, before the ex- 
pedition of Darius against Greece. He wrote ' Uepl tw>- 
yiitaXoyiHy,' i.e. concerning the genealogies of the principal 
families, of which only fragments are preserved, that have 
been published with those of Phereeydes, by M. Sturz, 8vo. 
Gera, 1798. Dionys. Hal. dc Thucyd. Char.; Joseph, 
contra Apion. 1. 1 ; D. Diogcn. Laert. 1. 1, c. 40; Voss. de 
Hist. Grwc. 1. 4, c. 2. 

Acusilaus, a rhetorician of Athens, who, in the reign of 
Galba, taught rhetoric with such success as to accumulate 
great wealth. Suidas. 

Acusilaus and Damagetes, two brothers of Rhodes, who 
were conquerors at the Olympic games ; wherefore their 
father Diagoras was particularly honoured by the Greeks. 
Pans. 1. 6, c. 7. 

ACUSIORUM, Colonia (Geog.) or Aeusis Colonia, 'Axealwv, 
now Grenoble, a town of Gallia Narbonensis. Ptol. 1. 2, 
c. 5. 

ACUTIA (Hist.) the wife of P. Vitellius, who was con- 
demned for high treason in the reign of Tiberius. Jac. 
Annal. 1. 6, c. 47- 

ACUTICUS, M. (Biog.) a Latin poet who composed some 
elegant verses attributed to Plautus. I'arr. de Corned. 
Plant.; Voss. de Poet. Lai. c. 1. 

ACY LAS (Biog.) a philosopher who wrote on syllogisms. 

ACYNDINUS, Septimius (Hist.) a Roman consul with Va- 
lerius Proculus, A. D. 340. 

AD (Geog.) this preposition frequently forms a part of the 
Latin names of places, as Ad Aquas, Ad Aquilas, flee. 

ADA (Hist.) Wed, daughter of Hecatomnus, king of Caria, 
sister to Mausoleus, and wife to her brother Idryseus. At 
their death she succeeded to the throne of her father, from 
which she was expelled by her youngest brother Pixodorus, 
but afterwards restored by Alexander, whom she adopted as 
her son in the 109th Olympiad. St rah. 1. 14; Q. Curt. 1. 

2, c. 8 ; Arrian. Exped. Alc.r. 1.1, c. ~. 

Ada, the daughter of Pixadorus, the youngest son of Heca- 
tomnus, king of Caria. St rah. 1. 14. 

ADAD (BiU.) vide Hadad. 

Adad (Myth.) one of the chief deities of the Assyrians, 
supposed to be the sun. Macrob. Sat. 1. 1, c. 2.3. 

Adad (Hist.) "Acac, a name common to the kings of Syria 
for ten generations, as that of Pharoah or Ptolemy in Egypt. 

Adad, king of Ethiopia. ["Vide DavitT] 

ADADA (Geog.) mnj, from mj, an assembly; a city in 
the south of Judah. 

ADADO'DDAWLA (Mist.) son of Rucni'ddawla, succeeded 
his uncle Amado'ddawla on the Persian throne, in the year 
of the Hegira 338, A. D. 948, and died after a reign of 34 
years. Ahul. Faraf. Dynast. 

ADJEUS (Hist.) 'Aeaioq, a governor of Bubastus in Esjvpt. 
Polyh. 1. 15, c. 27. 

Ad^us, a Macedonian sent by Perseus to Gentius, king of II- 
lyria, to ask for aid against the Romans. Polyh. 1. 28, c. 8. 

Ad.eds, an Athenian general, surnamed 'AXecrpviav, i. e. a cock, 
because he wore the crest of a cock on his head. Allien. 
1. 13, c. 8. 

Ad/eus, (Biog.) a native of Mitylene who wrote on statua- 
ries, according to Athenajus. At/ten. 1. 13, c. 8. Vossius 
supposes this to be the same whose book ' Tlept ctadiirtwc,' 
i. e. concerning disposition, is quoted by the same author in 
his 11th book. Voss. de Hist. Grxc. 1. 3. 


ADAH (Bihl.) from rru*, an assembly, one of Lamech's two 
wives. Gen. iv. 19- 

Adah, the wife of Esau and mother of Eliphaz. Gen. xxxvi. 4. 

ADAIAH (Bihl.) nnp, son of Ethan and father of Zerah, of 
the tribe of Levi. 1 Chron. vi. 41. 

Adaiah, son of Shimhi, of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Chron. 
viii. 21. 

Adaiah, son of Jeroham and father of Maavi, of the priest's 
office. 1 Chron. ix. 12. 

Adaiah, a jew, who, on his return from Babylon, dismissed 
his gentile wife. Ezra x. 29- 

ADAIR, James (Biog.) a lawyer, was born in London and 
educated at Cambridge, where he took his degree of A. M. 
in 1767, and died in 1798, leaving a treatise, entitled, 
' Observations on the Power of Alienation in the Crown 
before the First of Queen Anne, supported by Precedents, 
and the Opinions of many learned Judges,' &c. 

Adair, James Makiltrick, a Scotch physician, died in 1S02, 
leaving, among other things, works on regimen, the ma- 
teria medica, &e. 

ADALA (Hist.) one of the four competitors for the throne of 

ADALARD (Biog.) or Adelard, a monk of Corbie, was the 
cousin german of Charlemagne. His principal work was 
' A Treatise on the French Monarchy.' 

ADALARIC (Hist.) a duke of Gascony, disputed with Char- 
lemagne about the dutehy of Aquitania, which he claimed 
as his right, and which was finally confirmed to him. 

ADALBERON (Ecc.) bishop of' Augsburg. [Vide Adal- 

Adalbebon, archbishop of Rheims, and chancellor of France, 
in the reigns of Lothaire and Louis V, died Jan. 988. Se- 
veral of his letters are among those of Gilbert, afterwards 
Pope Sylvester 1 1 ; and two of his discourses in Moissac's 

Adalbehon, Ascelinus, was consecrated bishop of Leon in 
the year 977, and died in 1030, leaving a satire in hexa- 
meter verse. 

ADALBERT (Ecc.) a'German divine, was sent by Otho I 
to preach the gospel to the Sclavonians. 

Adalbert, bishop of Augsburgh and preceptor to Louis IV, 
son of the emperor Arnold, died in 921. He was the au- 
thor of some lives, as that of St. Hariolphus and others. Voss. 
Hist. Lat. 1. 2, c. 3. 

Adalbert, archbishop of Mentz. [Vide A/berQ 

Adalbert, archbishop of Magdeburgh. [Vide AdelherQ 

Adalbert, archbishop of Prague, and one of the first founders 
of Christianity in Hungary, was murdered by Sego. Baron. 
Anna!. Ann. 98O. 

Adalbert (Biog.) an impostor. [Vide Aldeberf] 

Adalbert, a monk of Fleuri, and author of a history of his 
own monastery, died in 853. 

Adalbert, a monk of Vincenza in the 10th century wrote 
some chronicles. 

ADALDAGUS (Ecc.) archbishop of Hamburgh, who esta- 
blished the three sees, in Jutland, of Sleswick, Ripen, and 
Arhusen. He filled the office of chancellor to the empire 
during the reign of the three Othos. Cranlz. Saxon. 1. 4, 
c. 3 ; Metrop. 1. 3, c. 16, &c. 

ADALGARDUS (Ecc.) was archbishop of VercelJi, in Italy, 
in the reign of the emperor Charles the Bald. Sigon. de 
Begn. Ital. 1. 5. 

ADALGARIUS (Hist.) a nobleman who was given in hostage 
to Pepin by Vafarius, duke of Aquitania. Paul. JEmyl. 

Adalgarius (Ecc.) a monk in the convent of Corvey, in 
Westphalia, who established a college for missionaries to the 
northern nations ; and, after having presided over the church 
as a bishop for 24 years, died in 909- 

ADALGISUS (Hist.) or Adelgisius, son of Didier, the last 
king of the Longobards, retired to Constantinople, and 


died as a patrician in the reign of Constantine. Aimotl. 
de Gett. Franc- 1. 4, c. 7 () - SJgoniua says he was taken 
prisoner in Calabria, and tortured to death. Sigon. de 
Regn. Ital 1. 4. 

AdALGISUS, a general under Charlemagne, fell in an engage- 
ment with the Saxons. Aventin. Annul, Boiorum. 

Adalgisus, a prince of Salerno, who was bribed by the 
Greeks to deliver to them the cities of Samniuni, Leucania, 
and Campania, which he had received in trust from Lewis II, 
after which he fled to the island of Corsica. Aventin. 
Annul. Boiorum. 

ADALGOTTS (Ecc.) eleventh archbishop of Madgeburg, 
who. in the reign of the emperor Henry IV, ordered that a 
hundred poor persons should receive every day during 
Lent a loaf and a halfpenny each. Krantz. Mclropot. 
1. 5, c. 32. 

ADALIAH (Bib/.) whin, the fifth son of Hainan, who 
was hanged by the command of Ahasuerus. Eslh. ix. 8. 

ADALUALDUS (Hist.) son of Agilulfus, and king of 
the Longobards, received a draught at the hands of Euse- 
bius, a legate from the emperor Heraclius, which drove him 
mad : after which he committed such excesses towards the 
nobility that he was at length driven from the kingdom, 
t a ither with his mother Theodolinga, in 624. iSigon. de 
Regn. Ilu/. 1. 2. 

ADALULFUS (Hist) a noble Longobard, who, failing in 
his attempt upon the virtue of queen Gundeberga, caused 
her, by a false accusation to the king, to be thrown into 
prison, where she lay for three years, until her innocence 
was established by the death of her accuser in single combat 
with Pittus her champion. Sigon. de Regn. Ital. 1. 2. 

ADAM (Bib/.) DTK, which signifies red earth ; the first man 
created by God. Gen. i. 26. He died A. M. 930, Jul. 
Per. 16'40, and A. C. 3074- Joseph. Antiq. 1. 1, c. 1 ; 
I . Aimed, ami. y30. 

Adam (Geog.) a city, situated in Perea, on the banks of the 
river Jordan, opposite to Jericho. Josh. iii. Hi. It is sup- 
posed to derive its name from the colour of the soil. Jl'cll's 
Geog. Old. Test, part 2, c. 4. 

Adah, Ebn Yezid (His/.) a lieutenant of the caliph Al 
Mansur, who persecuted the Christians bitterly. 

Adam (Ecc.) surnamed Orlcton, bishop of Hereford, was 
a great intriguer, whose ambiguous expression is said to 
have cost Edward II his life. 

Adam, a Syrian monk, was engaged on a mission to Paul V 
respecting doctrinal matters. 

Adam of Bremen (Biog.) a canon of Bremen, was burn at 
Mi.snia in the eleventh century. He wrote an ecclesiastical 
history, a cli Tonography of Scandinavia, cv.c. Pots, de 

Hist. Lot. c. t7 ; Cave, vol. ii. p. 155 ; Sax. Onomast. 

vol. ii. ]>. 1!/-' 
Adam of Evesham, a benedictine monk in 11 60, left some 

una, &c- 
Adam, Scotus, a doctor of the Sorbonne, flourished in the 

12th century, and died in 1195. Among other lives which 

he wrote is that of David I, king of Scotland. Voss. de 

Hut. Eat. 1. 2, c. 27- 
Adam of Hailing, a (istertian of the 13th century, wrote on 

the Old and New Testament. I'oss. de Hist. Lot. 
Adam de Muremuth, canon of St. Paul, and a chronicler in the 

1 1th century. 

Adam de Marisco,tm English Franciscan, surnamed the Illus- 
trious Doctor, wrote mi theology, and died in 1257- 

Adam, Su.rlinghum, a Carthusian monk, who flourished about 
the year 1350, left some sermons, and some works of philo- 
sophy and theology. 

Adam, a Carthusian in the reign of Edward HI, wrote on 
theology, &c. 

Adam, a Cisteitian monk of Oxford, wrote ' De Cavendo ah 
H'Tcsi,' &e. 


Adam, or Adamant io, a great orientalist in the 14th cen- 

Adam, Franc**, published in 1592 a work in two books, ' De 
Rebus in Civitate Firmana gestis.' 

Adam, Hemlington, a earmelite of Oxford, wrote sermons, and 
died 1420. 

Adam, Melchior, a biographer of Silesia, died in 1(>22. His 
principal work was entitled ' Dignorum Laude Virorum 
quos Musa vetat mori Immortalitas.' 

Adam, William, an English pilot of Kent, the discoverer of 
Japan, died in 16T2. 

Adam, James, a translator of De Thou's history, Montecu- 
cullis' Memoirs, Athenreus, and other works, was born at 
Vendome in 1668, and died in 1735. 

Adam, Lambert Sigisbert, a sculptor, was born at Nancy in" 
1700, and died 1759- His principal works were, ' The 
Family of Lycomedes.' ' The Group of the Seine and 
Maine, &c Neptune and Amphitrite,' &-c. 

Adam, Nicholas Sebastian, brother of the preceding, and a 
sculptor, was born at Nancy in 1705, and died in 1778. 
His principal works were his * Prometheus,' and the tomb 
of the Queen of Poland, the wife of Stanislaus. 

Adam, Francis Guspurd, a younger brother of the two pre- 
ceding, excelled also as an artist, and died in 1757. Sax. 
Onomast. vol. iv. p. 379- 

Adam, Nicholas, author of some grammatical works, was 
born at Paris in 1716, and died in 17!)2. 

Adam, Robert, an architect, was born in 1728 at Kirkaldv, 
Fifeshire, and died in March 3, 1792. He wrote 'Ruins 
of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia.' He, 
in conjunction with his brother, built the street called on 
that account the Adelphi, or brothers. 

Adam, Alexander, rector of the high school at Edinburgh, 
was born of poor parents in 1741 at Raflbrd, in Moray, and 
died in 1 809- He wrote a Latin grammar, and other ele- 
mentary works. 

ADAM2EUS, Thcodoric (Biog.) wrote notes on Procopius. 

ADAMAH (Bibl.) nms, Admuh, a city of Naphthali. 
Josh. xix. 86. 

ADAMANTjEA (Myth.) the nurse of Jupiter in Crete. 
Hygin. Fab. c. 39- This is supposed to be the same as 
'Acpania mentioned by Apollodorus, and as Amalthwa by 
Laetantius. A/mllod. 1. 1 ; Lactant. 1. 1, c. 22. 

ADAMANTIUS (Biog.) a Greek physician of the 5th century, 
who dedicated a work on physiognomy to the emperor Con- 

ADAMANUS (Biog.) or Adumannns, abbot of the monastery 
of Hey or Icolmkil, in Scotland, was born in 684. He wrote, 

1. 'De Locis Terra Sanctss, Libri ties,' Ingolstadt. nil;,). 

2. 'A Life of St. Columba.' Bede. Hist. Ecelcs. Aug. 1. 5 ; 
Mutth. lies/, ami. TO 1 ; Voss. de Hist. Eut. 1. 1, c. 27; 
"Baron, Annul, aim. 701 ; Sigc/nrt. ('/mm. 

ADAMAS (Myth.) 'Aiiuat, surnamed Asiades, who was 
slain by Merion in the Trojan War. Horn. II. 1. 13, v. 56'0. 

A dam as (Hist.) 'ASafiat, a boy, who, having been emas- 
culated by Cotys king of Thrace, revenged the affront when 
he grew up, by rebelling against him. AristOt. 1'ulil. 1. 5, 
c 10. 

ADAMASTUS (Myth.) * native of Ithaca, father of Ache- 
inenides. Virg. JEn. 1. 3, v. f J 1 1. 

ADAM I (Geog.) -din, a city of Naphtali. Josh. xix. 33. 

Adami, Tobias (Hiog.) a German lawyer, wrote on philosophy, 
and died in Kil.'i. 

Adami, Annihul, an Italian Jesuit, was born in l6'2(>, and 
died in 1706. He wrote many works in prose and verse. 

Adami, John Samuel, aGerman priest, wrote several works on 
theology, and died in 1713. 

ADAMI, Lionardo (Hiog.) a native of Tuscany, was born 
Aug. 12, 1690, at Holsena, and died Jan. <), 171 .9- His 
principal work was ' Arcadicorum,' 4to. Rome 17 16. 


ADAMINUS, Mohammed (Biog.) wrote a work on animals, 
and died in the year of the Hegira 808, A. D. 1418. 

ADAMS, Sir Thomas, Bart. (His/.) citizen and Lord Mayor 
of London, was born at Wem, in Shropshire, in 15S6, and 
died 1667- He distinguished himself by his loyaltv in the 
time of the rebellion, and was for his signal services to the 
royal cause created a baronet, on the loth of June, l66l. 
The title became extinct at the death of the late Sir Thomas 
Adams, who was a captain in the navy. Ful/er's Wor. 

Adams, John, president of the United States, and one of the 
most active promoters of the American revolution, was born 
in 1735, and died in 1803. He wrote ' History of the 
Principal Republics,' 8 vols. 8vo. ITS" and 17JH. 

Adams, Fiizherbert (Biog.) a great benefactor to the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, was born in 160I, and educated at Lin- 
coln College, where he took his degree of D. D. in 1 6S5. 
He served the office of Vice-chancellor in 10'95, and died in 
1719. Wood's Athcn. 

Adams, John, provost of King's College, Cambridge, was born 
in London, took his degree of A. M. in 1686, and died in 
1719; fifteen of his sermons were printed, from l6<)5 to 

Adams, Richard, a nonconformist preacher, of a Cheshire 
family, was educated at Cambridge, ejected for non- 
conformity in 1662, and died in 16S4. His only original 
works are some sermons. Wood's Athena. 

Adams, Thomas, brother to the above, was educated at Brazen- 
nose college, made fellow in June 1652, and ejected 
from the University in 1(562. He died Dec. 11, 1670, 
leaving a few tracts ' On the Principles of Religion." 
Wood's Fasti. 

Adams, William, master of Pembroke College, Oxford, was 
born at Shrewsburv in 1707- He took his decree of A. M. 
1727, that of B. D. and D. D. in 1756, and died at his 
Prebendal house at Gloucester in 17S9- He was one of the 
oldest and most intimate friends of Dr. Johnson. His prin- 
cipal work was an ' Essay on Humes Essay on Miracles,' 
8vo. 1752 ; besides a volume of sermons. 

ADAMSOX, Patrick (Ecc.) archbishop of St. Andrew's, was 
bom in 1543, at Perth, and died in 1591. He was distin- 
guished more for the part he took in the troubles of the 
times, than for his writings, of which the principal are, 
1. A Latin Poem on the birth of James VI, of Scotland, 
and I, of England. 2. A Latin poetical version of the 
Book of Job. 3. A tragedy of Herod. 4. A Catechism in 
Latin verse. 5. The Lamentations of the prophet Jeremiah, 
in Latin verse. 

ADAXA (Xitmis.) a town of Cilicia struck manv medals, 
which are still extant. Some bear the name of their ma- 
gistrates, as on one AAANEilN AYC'AXOiMA. i. e. ddane- 
ori/m si/1) Lycanuma. Others were struck in honour of 
Julia Domna, Caracalla, Diadumenus, Gordianus Pius, 
Tranquillina, Trajan Decius, Trebonianus Gallus. Valeri- 
anus, and Gallienus. Adana was called Hadriana, Se- 
veriana, and Anton inopolis, and is also said to have borne 
the title of Maximiana, in honour of Maximums, but this 
is disputed. Adana worshipped the gods of Greece, as we 
learn from the figures of Jupiter, Minerva, &c. 

ADAXSOX, Michel (Biog.) a naturalist, was born at Aix, 
in Provence, in 1727, "and died in 1*806. He wrote, 
1. ' Histoire naturelle de Senegal.' 2. ' Families des Plantes.' 
Besides which he collected materials for an encyclopaedia, 
which was to consist of, (1.) The universal order of nature, 
in 27 vols. 8vo. (2.) The natural history of Senegal, 8 
vols. Svo. (3.) A course of natural history. (4.) An 
universal vocabulary of natural history, 1 vol. fol. of 1000 
pages, &c 

AD AQUAS (Gcog.) the name of several ancient towns, but 
particularly a town of Sicily, supposed to be now Xncca. 

AD AQUILAS (Geog.) a town of Xormandy, now Aigle. 


ADARCHIAS (Hist.) a veteran in the army of Alexander, 
who, seeing the younger officers reluctant to engage the 
enemv at Halicarnassus, led the troops on himself. Q. Curt. 

1. 5, c. 2. 

ADARSA (Bihl.) or Adasa, in theGreek Wcaaa, and according 
to Josephus 'Aoaam, a city in the tribe of Ephraim, where 
Xicanor was defeated bv Judas Maccabeus. 1 Mace- vii. 40; 
Joseph. Ant. 1. 12, c. 17. 

ADAUCTUS (Ecc.) a man of noble family, in Italy, who 
suffered martyrdom in Phrygia during the persecution of 
Diocletian. Marti/rol. Rom. Bolland. Act. Sanct. 

ADBEEL (Bihl.) bi^^lK, a provoker of God ; third son of 
Ishmael, and head of a tribe of Ishmaelites. 

AD BIVIUM {Geoe.} a town near Rome, now I'almono. 

ADBUCILLUS (Hixt.) the name of a Gaul mentioned by 
Caesar. Cws. de Bell. Cic. 1. 2, c. 6(). 

ADCAXTUAXUS (Hist.) a general of the Aquitani, men- 
tioned by Caesar. Cas. de Bell- Civ. 1. 3. 

AD CAPRAS (Gcog.) a town near Rome, now Acqualagnn. 

AD CEXTESIMUM, a place 107 miles distant from Rome, 
now Aeumi/e. 

ADDA, Ferdinand iV (Ecc.) a native of Milan, was Irani in 
1651, created cardinal bv Alexander VIII in I69O, and 
died in 1719- 

ADDAX T (Bihl.) ps», one of those who, on his return from 
Babylon, could not prove his pedigree. Ezra ii. 59- 

ADDAR (Bihl.) tin ; son of Bela, the son of Benjamin. 

ADDAS (Hist.) a king of Northumberland, in the sixth cen- 
tury. Fo/i/dor. Verg. Anglic. Hist. 1. 4. 

ADDI (Bihl.) HR, 'A<7i. the son of Cosam, and father of 
Melchi, in the genealogy of our Saviour, as given bv the 
Evangelist St. Luke. 

ADDIXGTON (Her.) the family name of Viscount Sid- 

Addingtox, Stephen (Biog.) a dissenting minister, who was 
born at Northampton in 172p, and died in 1796. He wrote 
some elementary works on arithmetic, &c. 

ADDISON", Launcelot (Biog.) son of Lancelot Addison, a 
clergyman, was born at Mauldismeaburne near Ravensworth, 
in Westmoreland, in 1632, took his degree of A. B. in 
Queen's College, Oxford, 1654; that of A.M. in 1657; 
that of B. D. and D. D. in 1675 ; and died Dean of Litch- 
field, in 1703. He wrote, 1. 'West Barbary, or a short Nar- 
rative of the Revolutions of Fez and Morocco,' 8vo. 1671. 

2. ' The Present State of the Jews, more particularly re- 
lating to those in Barbary/ Svo. 16'75. 3. 'The Primitive 
Institution, or a seasonable Discourse of Catechising.' 4. 'A 
modest Plea for the Clergy,' Svo. 1677. 5. ' The first State 
of Mahometism, ecc. or The Life and Death of Mahomet.' 
6. ' An Introduction to the Sacrament,' 1681 : reprinted in 
16S6, with the addition of ' The Communicant's Assistant.' 
7- ' A Discourse of Tangier, under the Government of the 
Earl of Tuviot,' 4to. 1685, second edition. 8. ' XPHTTOS 
A YT< 19E0-, or an Historical Account of the Heresy denving 
the Godhead of Christ." Q. ' The Christian's daily Sacri- 
fice, on Prayer,' 12mo. 16'9S. 10. ' An Account of the 
Millenium.' &c 

Addison, Joseph, son of the preceding, was born 1672, at 
Milston, near Ambrosbury, Wiltshire, where his father was 
rector. In 1687 he was entered of Queen's College, in 
Oxford, elected demy of Magdalen College in I6S9, took 
the degree of A.M. 1693, and after having acted for 
some time as Under Secretary of State, he died in 
1719, at Holland-house. His works for which he was 
most distinguished, were, 1. ' Muste Anglicans,' vol. ii. 
in which all his own Latin pieces were inserted. 2. ' Dia- 
logues on Medals.' 8. ' Letters from Italy.' 4. A poem 
on the peace of Ryswick, entitled ' Pax Gulielmi auspiciis 
Europse reddita,' 1697. 5. ' The Campaign,' 1705. 6. His 
Essays in the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian, begun in 



1705. 7. The tragedy of Cato, in 1713. 8. A political 

paper entitled ' The Freeholder,' begun in 1715; besides 

other single poems and political papers. 
AD DECIMUM (Geog.) a place ten miles distant from Rome, 

now // Borg/ietto. 
ADDUA (Geog.) a river of Cisalpine Ganl, now Adda, 

falling into the Po, near Cremona, distinguished for the 

rapidity and clearness of its stream. 

Claudian dc VI, Cons. Hon. v. 438. 

Ibid. v. 196. 

Celer Addua noitro 

SuL'utus socero. 

Polvh. calls it "Acua. Polijb. Fragment ; Slrab. 1. 4 ; 

Plin. 1. 2, c. 103. 
ADED, Al Lednillah {Hilt.) last caliph of Egypt of the 

Fatemite race, in the year of the Hegira 556, A. D. 11 6(>. 
ADEDA (Geog.) a town of Spain, now Amposta. 
ADEL ( or Adul pints ; according to Joannes Magnus, a 

son of Gothar, king of the Sneci, who was thrown from 

his horse, and killed, at the doors of the temple of Diana. 

Johannes Magn. Hist. ; Goth. Suec. 1. 4, c. 8. ; Loccen. 

Hist. Stiecor. 1. 1. 
Adel, Al, was the surname of Al Malet, caliph of Egypt. 
Adel, Aga, a general under Husseyn, sultan of Irak, made 

an unsuccessful opposition to the usurper Ahmed. 
Adel, a name common to seven kings of Visapur, in India, 

the last of whom, a minor, reigned in 1675, under the title 

of Soltan Sokodr Kawder Adel Shah. Fryer's new Account 

of' India, let. 4, c. 4. 
Adel, Shah, a conspirator against the life of Timur Bek, 

was put to death. Hist. Sim. Bek. p. 165, &c. 
Adel, Aklashi, saved the life of Timor Bek. 
Adel, Soltan, was the 22d khan of Bukharia, in the 14th 

century. Dc la Croix. Hist. Gcngh. p. 3yG, &c. 
Adel, Kerau, a khan of Tartary, was deposed in 1671- 
ADELA (llist.) vide Alice. 
ADELAIDE (Hist.) second wife of Lewis II, was the 

mother of Charles the Simple, in 898. P. Lab. Mel. Cur. 

c. !), p. 25. 
Adelaide, wife of Hugh Capet, was the mother of Robert, 

king of France. Mezer. Hist, tie la France; Du C/iesne, ike. 
Adelaide, wife of Hohert the Brave, was the mother of Elides 

and Robert, both kings of France. Saint Marl/t. Hist. 

Gcnealog. de la Maisott tie France. 
Adelaide, daughter of Rodolphus, king of Burgundy, mar- 
ried first, Lotharius II, and then Otho I, and hud for some 

time the administration of the government after the death 

of the latter ; she died in QQQ. Di/mttr. in Citron.; Baillet. 

Vies de Sainles. 
Adelaide, or Alice, daughter of Robert, of Provence, was 

wife of Richard II, duke of Normandy, and died in a 

monastery, in 107f). Gul. Poict. lit. Gitil. ; Mir. llist. 

Eccles. llelg. 
ADELAIDE, wife of Frederick, prime of Saxony, conspired 

with Lewis of Thuringia against her hushand's life, and 

married the murderer ; she died in 1055. Citron. Mcrsbtins. 

1. 2, c. 12. 
ADELAIDE, tailed also Praxetle, daughter of the king of 

Russia, and widow of Otho Margrave, of Brandenbourg, 

married Henry IV, hy whom she was imprisoned and ill- 
treated. She died in a monastery, A. D. lO.O.'J. Bertol. 

An. ioy:i; 8mm. de Reg. Ital l.'y ; Flair. I list. Eccles. 
1. (it. 

Adelaide, or Atlelttis, queen of France, was the wife of 

Lewis VI, and died A. D. 1154. 
Adelaide, or Alice, of Flanders, wife of Canute, king of 

Denmark, was the mother of Charles the Good; she died 

A. D. 1127- 

ADELA RD (Ecc.) son of count Bernard, and grandson of 
Charles Martel, was prime minister to Pepin, king of Italy. 
He was banished hy Louis le Debonnaire, and died at the 
abbey of Corbie, in the year 826. 

Adelard, a gentleman of Verona, was created cardinal bv 
Lucius III, and died in 1211. Hovedon. Hist. Engl. 

Adelard, or Alhelard (Biog.) a native of Bath, and a mathe- 
matician, wrote ' De Doctrina Abaci,' and other works on 
the same subject. He nourished in 1120. 

ADELBERO (Hist.) a prince of the Bob', was brother to the 
empress Cunegunda. 

ADEI.BERON (Ecc.) vide Adalberon. 

ADELBERT, was duke of Elsace in the eighth century. 
From his brother Hellon, according to some authors, the 
house of Austria draws its origin. 

Adelbert, Marquis (if' Lucca, attempted to dethrone Lam- 
bert, king of Italy, but was taken prisoner. Sigon. Ital. 
Reg. 1. 6. 

Adelbert, surnamed The Bear, became duke of Selavonia, 
after having conquered the rebels, who lived near the rivers 
of the Havel and the Elbe. Helmold. Chron. Sclav, c. 89. 

Adelbert, son of Berenger II, king of Italy, was defeated 
and reduced to the subjection of the empire of Germany. 
Luil pru mle De Reb. Etirop. ; Horn. Orb. Imp. 

Adelbert, marquis of Yuree, a rebel who aimed at dethroning 
Lambert, king of Italy, and was defeated by the emperor, 
Otho I. Sigon. Ital. Reg. 

Adelbert (Ecc.) or Albert, an ambitious man, who was 
made archbishop of Hamburgh and Bremen, hy the em- 
peror Henry III, but banished by a conspiracy of the nobles 
in the infancy of Henry IV. He was afterwards restored, 
and died in 1062. Crantz. Mctropol. 1. 4, &c. 

Adelbert, bishop of Jl'ormes, was a great glutton, who died 
of repletion, A. D. 1 070. 

Adei.reiit, bishop of Prague. fVide Adalbert^ 

ADELBOLD (Ecc.) bishop of Utrecht, in the 10th century, 
was born of a noble family, and died in 1027- He pro- 
moted learning and religion by founding churches in his 
diocese, hut was also sometimes engaged in the less honour- 
able employment of arms. He wrote a life of his patron 
and benefactor Henry 1 1, of which a part only is extant, 
that was published first in the ' Lives of the Saints of 
Bamberg,' by Gretser, 161 1 ; and afterwards by Leibnitz, 
in ' Scriptores Brunsv.' His treatise ' De Ratione inveniendi 
Crassitudinem Sphere/ was printed hy B. Fez, in the third 
volume of his ' Thesaurus Anecdotorum,' and other works 
of his are still in MS. 

ADELBURNER, Michael (Biog.) a mathematician and phy- 
sician, was kirn at Nuremberg in 1702, and died in 1779- 
lie wrote ' Commercium Literarium ail astronomia? Incre- 
mentum inter hujus Sciential Amatores communi Consilio 
institutum.' Sax. Onoiiiast. 

ADELER, Citrtiits (Hist.) a Danish high admiral, distin- 
guished himself in the service of the Venetians, in which 
he was for some time engaged, but died in that of 
Christiern V, king of Denmark, in 1675. 

ADELGERUS (Hut.) a king of Germany, is said to have 

succeeded his father. 

ADELGISUS (Hist.) vide ddalgisut. 

ADELGREIFF, John Albrecht {Biog.) natural son of a 
priest near Elhing, was a visionary who pretended to he 
God's vicegerent on earth. He was condemned to death for 
blasphemy in 16:16. 

ADELHELME (Ecc.) bishop of Sees, at the end of the 

ninth century, suffered much from the barbarity of the 
Normans, and died about 910. 
Adeliielme, Adeline, Aldkelme, AUhelme, ike. a bishop of 

Shcrbourne, and abbot of Malincsbury, s if Keurede, 

and brother of Ina, king of the West Saxons, was less dis- 
tinguished by his rank than by his great proficiency in 


learning, which he displayed by various works in prose and 
verse, on music, astronomy, enigmas, theology, &c. 

ADELITTI (Hist.) or Almoganeni, a people so called hy the 
Spaniards, who pretended to the art of divination, from the 
flight of birds, &c. 

ADELMAN (Ecc.) a bishop of Brescia, in the 11th century, 
who wrote on the Real Presence against Berenger. Baron. 
Annal. Ann. 1035; Cave, Lit. Hist. vol. ii. p. 134; Sax. 
Onomast. vol. ii. p. 175. 

ADELPHIUS (Hist.) a consul with the emperor Marcianus, 
U. C. 1202, A. D. 450. Cassiador. in Chron. 

Adelphius (Ecc.) bishop of Basic, who was present at the 
first council held at Orleans in 514 after the French had 
embraced Christianity. 

Adelphius (Biog.) 'AtiXtpwc, or according to Plutarch Ae'A- 
\wq ; an historian and intimate friend of Anthony, who 
wrote on the Parthian expedition, in which he had been 
present, and had had a command. St rah. 1. 11 ; Pint, in 
Fit. Anton. 

ADELPHUS ( vide Anicins Probus. 

Adelphus, a prince of the Chauci, who, being sent by 
Charlemagne into Britain with considerable forces, obtained 
great advantages over them. 

Adelphus (Ecc.) a heretic of the 3d century, who gave rise 
to the sect called Adelphians. 

ADELSTAN (Hist.) vide Ethehtan. 

ADELUARDUS (Ecc.) a missionary sent by Adclbert, arch- 
bishop of Hamburgh, into Sweden. Krantz. Melropol. 
1. 4, c. 33. 

ADELULFUS (Hist.) a king of England, who in 851 
submitted himself as a tributary to Pope Leo IV. Sigon. 
de Regno Ital. 1. 5. 

ADELUNG, John Christopher (Biog.) a German gramma- 
rian, was born Aug. 30, 1734, at Spantekow, in Pomerania, 
and died Sept. 10, 1806. He wrote, 1. ' Glossarium 
manuale ad Scriptores media? ct infimac Latinitatis,' 6 vols. 
8vo. Hal. 1772-84, an abridgement of Du Cange and 
Charpentier. 2. ' Grammatisch-Kritisches Woerterbuch der 
hoch-deutschen mundart,' &e. 5 vols. 4to. Leipsic, 1774, 
1786; and in 4 vols. 4to. 1793, 1801. 3. Three Ger- 
man Grammars, the principal of which was published in 
2 vols. 8vo. Leipsic, 1782: they have all been frequently 
reprinted. 4. * Aufsatz iiber die Deutsche Styl,' 2 vols. 
8vo. Berlin, 1785, 1788, 1790. 5. 'Supplement zu 
Joechers Dictionarie von den Gelehrten,' 2 vols. 4to. 1784 
and 1787- 5. ' Geschichte der menschlichen Thorheit 
oder die Lebenschichten der Beruhmtesten Nekromanzen 
in 7 Theilen,' Leipsic, 1785 to 1789- 6. ' Eine Cyclo- 
pedie von Allen Wissenschaften Kiinsten,' Sec. 4 Theilen, 
Leipsic, 1778, 1781, 1788. 8. 'Aufsatz iiber die Ges- 
chichte der Cultur der Menschen,' Leipsic, 1782, 1788. 
9- ' Die Geschichte der Philosophic,' 3 vols. 8vo. Leipsic, 
1786, 1787. 10. ' Aufsatz iiber die Deutsche Ortho- 
graphic,' 8vo. 1787- 11- ' Mithridates oder Allgemeine 
Sprachen Kunde,' &c. 3 vols. 8vo. Berl. 1806-12. 

ADELUS (Hist) vide Adel. 

ADEM (Geog.) vide Aden. 

ADEMAR, Robert (Ecc.) or Aimar of Limoges, was created 
a cardinal, as Auberi asserts, bv Innocent V. He died 
1553. San. Marth. Gal. Christ. Du Chene Fit. Pap.; 
Auberi. Hist, des Card. 

Abemar of Monteil, bishop of Mentz, died in 1361, after 
having been very successful in arms against bis enemies, 
particularly the Duke of Lorrain. 

Ademar (Biog.) or Aumar, a monk of St. Martial, was born 
in 988, and is principally known by his ' Chronicon Aqui- 
tanite,' from the origin of the French monarchy to 1029. 
Voss. de Hist. Lai. 1. 3, c. 5 ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. p. 129 ; 
Sax Onomast. vol. ii. p. 169. 

ADEN (Geog.) a town of Arabia Felix, which formerly 


carried on a great trade that is now enjoyed by Mocha. It 

was taken by the Turks in 1538, and by the Persians in 

1605, but has since become independent. It is now the 

capital of a district of the same name. Lon. 45° 10' E, 

lat. 12° 3CY N. 
ADENEZ le Roi (Biog.) a writer of romances in the 13th 

century, was minstrel to Henry III, duke of Brabant, and 

wrote, among other things, ' The Metrical Romance/ * The 

Romance of William of Orange,' &c. 
AD ENSEM (Geog.) a town of Umbria, now Schieggia. 
ADEODATUS (Hist.) or Godsgifl, the title of Philip 

Augustus, king of France, who had been born agreeable to 

the earnest wishes of his father Lewis. 
Adeodatus (Ecc.) a Roman bishop. 
Adeodatus, a son of Jovianus, a Roman, who succeeded 

Vitalianus as Pope, and died in 676. Baron. Annul. 

ann. 676. 
Adeodatus (Biog.) a natural son of St.wAugustin, who was 

distinguished for his learning and piety. 
ADEONA (Myth.) a goddess worshipped by the Romans 

for her supposed power in enabling men to go to any place, 

in distinction from the goddess Abeona. August, de Cic. 

Dei, 1. 4, c. 7. 
ADER (Bib/.) from iiy, a flock ; one who took the city of 

Gath. 1 I /iron. viii. 15. 
Ader, the place, according to St. Jerom, where the angels 

declared the birth of our Saviour. Luke ii. 8, 9 ; Hicron. 

epist. 27- 
Ader, William (Biog.) a physician of Toulouse, wrote 

among other things, ' De /Kgrotis et Morbis in Fvangelio,' 

tending to prove that the diseases cured by our Saviour were 

not to be remedied by human art. 
ADERCON (Numis.) a town of Iberia, is known by a medal 

of Trajan, bearing the inscription AAIIPKiiNITilN. Go/tz. 

Thesaur. ; Hardnin. Antiq. 
ADES (Myth.) vide Hades. 

ADESA (Geog.) a river of Germany, now the Etsch. 
ADESTAN (Hist.) vide Alhelstan.' 
AD FANUM MARTIS (Geog.) a place on the Alpes Cottias 

now Orsi or Ursi. 
ADFARI (Biog.) or Adferi, two Arabian authors of this 

Adferi, or Mohammed ben Ahmed, author of an essav enti- 
tled, ' Fil Taflir,' i. e. the manner of explaining the Koran. 
Adfari, or Jaafar ben Thaleb, author of a book entitled 

' Almosafer,' i. e. a guide to travellers. 
AD FINES (Geog.) the name of some towns in Italy ; namely, 

1. One on the coast of Etruria, now Torro <!i Sorracone. 

2. An inland town of Etruria, now Aviliana. 3. A town 
of Umbria, now la Stretta. 4. A town of France, now 

AD FLEXUM (Geog.) a town of the Insubres, now Bidizznli. 

AD FLUMEN (Geog.) a town of Carniola, now Finnic. 

AD FONTICULOS" (Geog.) a place in Gallia Cispadana, 
now Alia Fontana. 

AD GALLINAS (Geog.) a town on the Tibur, now Frasinetto. 

ADGANDESTRIUS (Hist.) a prince of the Catti, who 
offered to dispatch Armenius if the Roman senate would 
supply him with poison, to which lie received for answer 
that the Romans contended with their enemies openly, and 
not by artifice. Tac. Annal. 1. 2, c. 88. 

ADGlLUS (Hist.) duke of Friezland, succeeded his father 
Radbod in 71.9, and died in 737 ; he supported the cause of 
Christianity as warmly as Lis father had opposed it. 

ADHAD, Eddoulat (Hist.) vide Addadoddowla. 

Adhad, Eddim-Mateh-Jezd (Biog.) author of an essay on the 
unity of God. 

ADHADEDDIN, ben Ahmed (Biog.) author of a history, and 
other works. 

ADHELM (Biog.) vide Adelhclme. 
G 2 


ADHELM'S-HEAD, Si. (Gag.) a promontory in Dorset- 
shire, 440 feet in perpendicular height. On the very verge 
of the precipice stood a chapel, the ruins of which remain. 

ADHEMAR (Hist.) a distinguished family of Provence, ori- 
ginally of Tuscany. 

Adhemar (Ecc.) or Adimar Alamanno, a Florentine, was made 
bishop of Florence in 1400, archbishop of Tarento and 
Pisa successively in 1401, created a cardinal in 1411, and 
died in 1422, while on an embassy from the Pope John 
XXIII to Charles VI. 

Adhe.mau (Ecc.) vide Adcmar. 

Adhemar, William (Biog.) a writer of Provence, who de- 
dicated his hook on illustrious ladies to the empress Beatrice, 
wife of Frederic Barbarossa. He died about 11,00. 

ADHERBAL (Hist.) 'Arapfiat, a naval commander of the 
Carthaginians, destroyed the Roman fleet near Drepanum, 
U. C. 504. Pu/i//i. 1.2, c. 41. 

Adherbal, son of .Bocehus, king of Xumidia, was detained 
as a hostage by Liv. Drusus, with the hope of getting 
a secret ransom from the father. Aurel. Victor, e. 64. 

Adherbal, son of Micipsa, and grandson of Massanissa, 
having taken up arms in his own defence against Jugurtha, 
was at length compelled, after an unsuccessful struggle, to 
surrender to the usurper, by whom he was put to death with 
the most considerable of his adherents, U. C. 6'41, A. C. 112. in Jugurth. 

Adherbal (Biog.) a son of Bomilear, who said of Hannibal, 
after the battle of Cannae, that he knew better how to gain 
a victory than to use it. Fhr. 1. 2, c. 6. 

ADHIR (Biog.) the surname of Fakreddin Mohammed Ben 
Hassan, author of a book of Algebra. 

ADIAB (Xiimis.) AAIAB: i. e. Adiabcnicus, the surname 
of Septimius Severus, on coins and also marbles, bearing 
the inscription Lucius SEPTtmitM SEVertt* AUGu.ilu.i 
ARABicus ADIABch/cks. He was so called because he 
conquered the Arabians and the Adiabeni. This epithet of 
Adiabenicu.i is also applied to Trajan on one of his coins. 

ADIABEXE (deng.) 'Ac i<i/>ijn;, a region of Assyria, now 
called Bou/an, whose queen Helena and her son were, ac- 
cording to Josephus, converts to Judaism. Slrub. 1. 16; 
Joseph. 1. 19, &c. ; Plin. 1. 5, c. 12 ; Ptol. 1. 6', e. 1 ; Am- 
mian. Marcett. 1- 88, c 20. 

ADIABEXUS (Hist.) 'Aiiafirfvoc, a Jewish soldier, who, at 
the siege of Jerusalem by TitUB, rushed out with two of 
his companions, and, with torches in their hands, set fire to 
the engines of the enemy. 

ADIDA (Bibb) a city of Judah, at which Simon Maccabteus 
encamped. 1 Mace. xiii. IS. 

ADIEL (Bibl.) ^K'"i]>, i.e. a witness of the Lord; one of 
the posterity of Judah. 1 Chiron, iv. .'i(i. 

ADIGE (Grog.) a river rising in the Orisons, and, flowing 
through Tyrol Brixen, Trent, Verona, and Rovigo, runs 
into the gulf of Venice. It is the ancient Al/tcis or Atagis, 

and is called by the Germans the Ettch. 

ADIEBAR (Hist.) a Moorish captain and viceroy in Spain, 

who, in the reign of Walid, extended his conquests from 

India to Africa. 
ADIM, Ebn Al Adim (Bios;.) native of Aleppo, in Syria, 

and author of a history of his own country, died in the 

year of tin Hegira 660, A. I). 1270. 
ADIMANTUS (Myth.) a king of the Phlasii, who, thinking 

Jupiter unworthy of sacrifice, was struck with thunder. 

Ovid, in Ibin. 

Adimantus ( 'Aidfiavroe, a commander of the Athe- 
nian fleet taken by the Spartans, was the only one of the 
prisoners whose life was spared. Ken. Ilcllen. 1. 2, c. 2 ; 
Pans. 1. 4, i. 17- 

ADIMANTDS, one of the Spartan Ephori, who was killed in a 
sedition, b cause be favoured the Macedonians against the 
yEtolians, U. C. 534. 


Adimantus (Ecc.) an heretical writer at the latter end of the 
third century, who wrote against the authority of the Old 
Testament, and was opposed by Augustine. 

Adimantus (Biog.) a brother of Plato mentioned by Diogenes. 
Ding, in lit. 

Adimantus, a general of the Corinthians, who reproached 
Themistocles with being an exile. Suidas. 

AIM MAUI, Alexander (Biug.) an Italian poet descended 
from an ancient family of Florence, was born in 1579, and 
died in 1649, leaving a collection of sonnets, &c. 

Adimari, Lewis, a part of the same family, was born at Na- 
ples Sept. 3, 1644, and died at Florence June 22, 1708. He 
wrote, 1. ' Lectures on Chivalry/ Sonnets, &c. Florence, 
1 ()<).;. 2. ' Some Dramas,' 12mo. Florence, 167.9. 3. ' Five 
Satires.' 4. ' Prose Sacre,' 4to. Florence, 1706. 

Adimari, Raphael, was born at Rimini, and wrote a history 
of his native country, entitled ' Sito R immense.' 2 vols. 4to. 
Brescia, 1 G 1 ft". 

AD IXTERCISA (Geog.) a town of Umbria, now // Furlo. 

ADIOCHUS (Ecc.) a martyr in the reign of Flavius Clau- 
dius. Sabcll. Enncad. 1. 7- 

ADJUTUS, Joseph (Biog.) surnamed the Chaldean, was 
born in 1 602, and died in 1 668, leaving a work entitled 
' Political Maxims.' 

ADLAI (Bibl.) ''njj, father of Shaphat, who was principal 
herdsman to king David. 1 Chron. xxvii. 29- 

AD LAMIXAS (Geog.) a place of the iEcpiani, now CanUi- 

AD LAPIDEM (Geog.) a place in England, now Stonchcnge. 

ADEAVUS (Hist.) a king of the Northumbrians, who, 
while at war with king Athelstan, went into the camp of 
the enemy under the disguise of a harper, and returned home 
without being disccwered. 

ADLER, Philij) (Biog.) an engraver of the l6th century, who 
formed a style of etching which has been followed by most 
artists that have succeeded him. 

ADLERFELDT, Gustavus (Biog.) a Swedish officer and 
historian, horn near Stockholm in 1671, was killed at the 
battle of Pultowa in 170,9- He wrote memoirs of the 
campaign in which he himself engaged. 

ADLZREITER, John (Biog.) chanceUor to the elector of 
Bavaria, was born at Rosenheim in 1596, and died in 1662. 
He is principally known as the author of ' Annates Boicje 
Gentis;' containing a history of Bavaria to the year 1662, 
which was republished by Leibnitz in 1710. 

ADMAH (Bibl.) nm«, red earth; one of the live cities de- 
stroyed by (ire. Gen. xix. 24. 

AD MALUM (Geog.) a town of the Carni, now Tablonich. 

AD MEDIAS (Geog.) a place of the Insubres, now Triuo. 

ADMETA (Myth.) 'ASpflTt), the daughter of Eurysthcus, 
who, desiring to possess the girdle of Hippolyte, queen of 
the Amazons, Hercules procured it for her by the conquest 
of that kingdom. Apollod. 1. 2, c. 23. 

ADMETES (Hist.) vide Achmet. 

ADMETl.'S (Mi/I/i.) Wifiiirnr, son of Pheres and Clymene, 
and king of I'henc in Thessaly, whose cattle Apollo is said 
to have tended for nine years when banished from heaven. 

< 'allimach. Hymn, in ApoL 

tyalfiol* nai No/UOV KticXqffKO/ICV ('£ iti Kl'iVH 
'F.Sot' iV ' A fiippvaui ZcvyvifTlSas trpupii' iVn-Hc;, 
'looQin vtt' iptori Kwau/uvoc 'Atfitjrout. 

Tibul. 1. 2, el. 3. 

I'ant al .Umiii tauroi/ormoitu Apollo. 

In consequence of this he obtained from the Pares that Ad- 
nietus should never (lie if any one could he found to lay 
down his life for him ; a sacrifice which his wife Alceste is 
said to have made in bis behalf. 
Otlid. dc Ail- Am. 1. 3. 

I'ala I'heratiutltc coitjits PqgOMfl rednnit. 


Ibid. Pont. L 3. 

Si mea mors redimenda tud (quod abomiuor) esset 
Admeti conjia, quam sequereris, erat. 

Seme- in Med. 

Conjugis fatum redimens Pkfrizi. 

Stat. Silvar. 1.3. 

Ergo Tfiessalici conjux pensare mariti 
Ft, wis. 

Admetus (Hist.) a king of the Molossi, to whom Themis- 

tocles tied for protection. C. Nep. in Them. 1. S. 
Admetus, ;\n officer of Alexander, killed at the siege of Tyre. 

Diod. 1. 17, c. 45. 
Admetus (Biog.) a poet in the time of Nero, who is men- 
tioned by Lucian. Luc. in Demonact. 
ADNA (Bibl.) nj-ij?, 'Ef it, a Levite, who, on his return from 

Babvlon, dismissed his wife, married contrary to the law. 

Ezra x. 30. 
ADXAH (Bibl.) NJ'itf, Adnah, a valiant man of Manasseh. 

1 ('/iron. xii. 20. Also a general to Jehoshaphat, king of 

Judah. 2 Chron. xvii. 14. 
ADNAN (Mi/lli.) one of the descendants of Ishmael, in the 

genealogies of the Arabians. 
AD NOVAS STATUAS (Geog.) a town in Etruria, now 

ADO, St. (Ecc.) archbishop of Vienne in Dauphiny, was 

born about the year 800, and died in 875. He wrote, 

1. 'A Universal Chronicle.' 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1312, 1522. 

2. 'A Martyrology.' Fol. Ant. v. 1613. 3. ' The Lives of 
Canissius and St. Theudier.' Voss. Hist. Lot. c. 37 ; Cave, 
Hist. Litt. vol. ii. p. 51 ; Fnh. Bibl. Lat. Med. JEtat. torn. i. 
p. 42 ; Sax. Onomast. torn. ii. p. 123. 

ADOALDUS (Hist.) vide Adalualdus. 

ADOBOGIOX (Hist) 'ASofryylav, of the race of the te- 

trarchs of Galatia, was, through the favour of Ca?sar, made 

kins of the Bosphorus. Strab.l. 13. 
AD OCTAVIUM (Geog.) a place of the Alpes Cottii, now 

ADOLPHUS, Clodius (Hist.) a Roman consul, U. C. 1202, 

A. D. 451. Ai rutin. Ann. Boior. 
ADOLPHUS (Hist.) or Adet, according to Loccenius, son 

of Gothar, and 35th king of Sweden, conquered the Danes. 

Joan. Magnet. Hist. Goth. 1. 4, c 8 ; Locccn. Hist. Succor. 

1. 1, p. 38. 
Adolpiius, count of Nassau, was crowned em- 
peror of Germany in 12.92, and was killed 

in battle six years after by his rival Albert. 

His effigy is given as in the annexed figure. 

Cuspinian. in Adolpli. ; Aventin. Annul. 

Boior. 1. ~. 
Adolphus, count of Bergh, was shut up in a cage of iron, 

and exposed to the rays of the sun, in which condition he 

was left to perish without any food. This cruel death was 

inflicted upon him by Sigefrid, of Westenburg, whom he had 

before kept in prison. 
Adolphus, a count of Cleves, instituted an order of chivalry 

in 13S0. 
Adolpiius, a count of Holstein, who, in the third centurv, 

distinguished himself against the heathens in Livouia. 

Grammat. Hist. Dan. 1. 14; Krantz. Hist. Dan. 1. 7; Sjx>n- 

dan. Continual. Baron. Annul. Ann. 1239- 
Adolphus, surnamed the Simple, eldest son of Rudolphus, 

elector of the Palatinate, resigned his kingdom to his bro- 

in 1313. Aventin. Anna!. Boior. 
Adolphus, duke of Holstein, was called to the throne of 

Denmark in 1448, which he resigned on account of age to 

his nephew, Christian I, and died in 1459- 
Adolphus, brother of Christian III, king of Denmark, ac- 
companied Charles V to the siege of Mentz in 1552. 
Adolphus, Gustavus, king of Sweden. [A'ide Gustavusl 


Adolphus, Frederic, duke of Mecklenburgh Schwerin, formed 
an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus, and died in 1658. 

Adolphus, Frederic IV, duke of Mecklenburgh, was the 
brother of Charlotte, the late queen of England. 

Adolphus, Frederic II, king of Sweden, founded the aca- 
demy of inscriptions and belles lettres at Tomeo, and died 
in 1771, in the 6lst year of his age, and 21st of his reign. 

Adolphus (Ecc.) a bishop of Mersburg, first opposed the 
doctrines of Luther, which he afterwards embraced, and 
died in 1526. 

ADON (Bio S .) vide Ado. 

ADOM-BEZEK (Bibl.) pn->J-iN, lightning of the Lord, 
from JnRj a lord, and pta, lightning; king of the city of 
Besek, whose hands and toes were cut off as a retribution 
for his cruelty. He died at Jerusalem A. M. 2585, A. C. 
1415. Juds- i- 2 ; Euscb. in Befst. 

ADONUAH^ (£<&/.) n>n«, the fourth son of king David, 
who, aspiring to the throne of his father, was put to death 
at the command of king Solomon. 1 Kings i. 1,2, 3, &c 

ADONIKAM (Bibl.) mp>n«, one who returned from Baby- 
lon with 600 of his family. Ezra ii. 13. 

ADOXIRAM (Bibl.) the 'son of Abda, who was over Solo- 
mon's tribute. 1 Kings iv. 6. 

ADONIS (Myth.) "Afuiw, son of Cinyras, and favourite of 
Venus, who being killed by a wild boar was changed by 
her into a flower. 
Propcrt. 1. 2, el. 10. 

Tolls, qui uiroum quondam pcrcussit Adouem 
VenanLm Idutio vntice, durus aper. 

Bion. Epitaph. Adon. 

Kttrtti KaXoc* Acuvic eV wpttn, pijpov ocovti 
AtuKip Aeuxov oooiTl ruTTfic. 
Venus after this went herself into hell, where she obtained 
of Proserpine that Adonis might lie with her six months in 
the year. By Adonis, Macrobius and other mythologists 
understand the sun, who, during the summer signs, is with 
Venus, i. e. the earth we inhabit, and the other six months 
is hidden. 
Orpheus in Adonin. 

"Oe -rrori ptv vttieir vtto rdorapov i\ip6ivra 

'Hci TrdXw irpu^ uXrpirov dyaq eipac wploKapirov. 

He was worshipped in Egypt under the name of Osiris, and 
among the Greeks under that of Bacchus, according to Au- 

Ogygia >'ie Bacclium canit 

Oririn jEgyptus vocat 

Arabia* gem Adoneum. 

Orpheus in Adonin. 

Euf3«\£ , iroXvpopipt , rpofij irdv-wv apicijXe 
Kovpn Kai Kops , (rv Trdai OdXoc aitv " Acwvi 
^(3trvvpivt , Xdpiruiv ri KaXaic iv cucAacrur upaic. 

St. Jerom supposes him to be the same as the Tammuz, or 
* hidden one,' mentioned in Ezek. viii. 4, for whom the pro- 
phet saw the women weeping in the temple. He is entitled, 
dtpa'uir, lair ; TpKblXaroc, thrice-beloved ; poco-mpvyc, rosy 
fingered ; kuXoc, beautiful ; and repirvvc, delectable, by 
Theocritus ; formosus, by Virgil ; nivcus, by Propertius ; 
\apinr, gracious, and lp.ep6ci£, desirable, by Nonnius. Boc- 
hart derives his name from the Hebrew fm, a willow, or 
piN, lord. Theocrit. Idyl 30, &c. ; Bion. Idyll. 1 ; Apollod. 
1. 3, c. 14 ; Hi/sin. fab. 5S, &c. ; Propert. 1. 2, el. 13, v. 53; 
Ovid. Met. I. 10, fab. 10; Pint, de Defect. Orac. ; Pans. 
1. 2, c. 10; Athen. 1. 10, c. 22; Lucian. dc Dea. Syria.; 
Sen: in Ec/og. 8, v. 37 ; St. Cyril in Isaiah ; Hicron. in 
Ezek. ; Ammian. 1. 22, c. 9; Macrob. Sal. 1. 1, c. 21; 
Eiistuth. ill Horn. Odyss. 1. 11; Hesych. ; Philoslrat. 1. 7, 
c. 14 ; Bochart. ; Phaleg. 1. 4, c. 2 ; Natal. Com. 1. 5, c. 16; 
Se/dcii. de Diis Syr. 
Adonis (Geog.) 'Aiuivic, a river of Phoenicia, near Biblos, now 


Canis, or Xarracebcllc. Lucian describes its waters as being 
every year tinned into blood, so as even to discolour those of 
the sea into which it runs. Pint. 1. 5, c. 19; Slrab. 1. l(i; 
Lucian. de Ded Si/r. ; Plul. 1. 5, c. 15; Mar. Xig. Geog. 
A.iiir ('(mini. 3. 
ADONTZEDECIC (Bibl) piy-m, king of Zedck or Jeru- 
salem, who with four other kings was put to death by com- 
mand of Joshua. Josh, x. 1 , 2, &c. 
ADOItA (Bib/.) "ASwpa, or Adoraim, Dnnn, a city belong- 
ing to Judah, on the confines of Idumea. 2 Chron. xi. 9, 
2 Maccab. xiii. 20. 
ADORAM (Bibl.) othn, David's receiver-general. 2 Sam. 

\x. 24. 
Adoram, the receiver-general of Rehoboam, who being sent 

to the rebellious Israelites was stoned to death. 
ADORNO (Hist.) a Genoese family of great antiquity, but of 
plebeian extraction, was among the number of those families 
termed aggregate, in consequence of their alliance with 
that of Pinelli, which lasted for 300 years. This family 
abounded in great men, of which the following are the prin- 
cipal names mentioned in history: 
Adorno, Gabriel, of the above-mentioned family, was 
elected doge of Genoa in 136.3, and governed to the year 
Adorxo, Antonio, a doge in 1383, was three times deposed 
and re-established, and on his fourth re-election in 1 39-t, 
fearing the power of his enemies, he gave up the city to 
Charles VI of France, by whom he was made governor. 
Adorno, George, governor of Genoa in 1401, under the 
French king, was afterwards elected doge by the people, and 
abdicated in 1415. 
AD PALATIL'M (Geog.) a village between Tridentum and 

Verona, now Palazzo. 
AD PERTICAS (Geog.) a place in Italy, now 5. Maria 

delle Pertiche. 
AD PONTEM SONTII (Geog.) a place of Rhcetia, now 

AD QUERCUM (Grog.) a town of Rhcetia, now Quer. 
ADRAMIT.E (Geog.) 'ASpa/urai, a people of Arabia Felix. 
Theophrastus speaks of 'Aipafivrra, in Arabia Felix, where 
frankincense, myrrh, cinnamon, and cassia grow. Thcoph 
Hist. Plant. 1. .')', c t ; Ptol 1. 6, c. 7. 
ADRAMITI (Geog.) or Yilramil, a town of Natolia, in 
Asiatic Turkey, <m the E. coast of the gulf of Adrimiti, 
43 miles N. Smyrna, long. 44 ' 5' E. Ferro. lat. 39° 34' N. 
This is the ancient Adramyttium. 
ADRAMMELECH (liibl.) ^olin, son of Sennacherib, 
king of Assyria, who, with his brother Sharezer, slew his 
father. laiah xxxvii. 38. 
ADRAMMELECH, one of the gods worshipped by the inhabit- 
ants of Sepharvaim, settled in Samaria. 
ADRAMNA (Geog.) B town of Coelesvria, to which is ascribed 
a medal of Lucilla and M. Aurelius, beating the inscription 

TYXH AAPAMNON, i. e.fortuna Adramnorum. PtoL1.5, 

c. 15; laill. Xumis. iiricc. ; Hardiun. Xummi Antiq. Il/us- 

ADRAMYTTENUS (GeogA an inhabitant of Adramyttium. 
Viihamyt'i 'ENU8 sinus, the bay of Adramyttium, now the 

Gulf of Adramiti. 
\])ll VMYTTIUM (liibl.) 'AipVfXVTTiOV, the town mentioned 

under Geography, where St Paul emharked for Italy. Acts 


Adramyttium (Geog.) a maritime town on the coast of 

Mysia in Asia Minor, opposite to the island of Leslies, and 

n colony of the Athenians. It is called by Pliny Adramyt- 
teos, formerly Pedasus; by Strabo and Ptolemy, 'Atpa/ivr- 

7-ior ; by Tliucvdidcs, 'Arrpaairrtuv ; by Niger, Lanilru- 
miti, now Adramiti. Time. I. 5, c. 1 ; I'lili/an. 1. 7, c. 2(i ; 
Strab. 13 ; Plin. 1.5, c. 32 ; Plul. 1. 5, c.2 ; Nig. Geog. 
Com. Asia;, 1. 1 • 


Adr amyttiitm (Xnrnis.) this town struck some medals with- 
out the head of any emperor, 
as in the annexed figure, 
bearing on the obverse a 
beardless bead crowned with 
laurel ; on the reverse a cor- 
nucopia between two caps, 
crowned with stars, inscrip- 

sometimes inscribed with the names of their magistrates, 
who were pra;tors, as Kill t'l'I'A. AOYK. IOY. i.e. Sub 
Prielore Luc. Jov. probably Litcio Joviano. It also struck 
medals of Domitianus, Aurelius, Julia ( 'araralla. Elaga- 
balus, and Alexander Severus, with the name of their prator, 
and in some cases with the addition of Ntwxupoi, to that of 
the people, as on a medal of Severus Kill. CTParnyS 
Prielore Aurelio Caro Bis Xcocororum Adrami/llcnorum. 
VaUlant. Xumis. Grose; Hardiun. Xunim. Antiq. lllustral. 
Pcmhroch. Mus. ; Hunt. Xumm. Antiq. L'rb. et Popular. 
ADRANA (Geog.) 'Atipavn, or 'ASpf/vy, according to Polybius 
a town of Thrace. Launclavius places it in Rithvnia, and 
says it is called F.drenos by the Turks. Steph. Buz. de. Urb- ; 
Leuncluv. Hist. Turc. 
Adrana (Numis.) a medal of Commodus, bearing the inscrip- 
tion, AAPANiiN. AAI'IANiJN. OMONOIA. Adranensium 
et Ailrianensiinn, Concordia, is ascribed to this town. Har- 
diun. Numis. Antiq. lllustral. 
Adrana (Geog.) a town of Irak, in Persia. 
ADRANITjE (Geog.) 'Acpar'trat, the people of Adranum. 
ADRANIUS, Amnis (Geog.) a river near Adrana. 
ADRANO (Geog-.) 'ASpavoiv, a village in Sicily, now Adrag- 

710. Diod. Excerpt. Leg. 1. 23. 
ADRANTIS (Geog.) a town of Pannonia, now supposed to 

be Dragomcl. 
ADRANUM {Geog.) or Hadramim, "Alpavov, a small town 
near .(Etna, sacred to the god Adranus, who was worshipped 
by all the Sicilians. It is written by Pliny and Silius Ha- 
dranum, now Adcrno. 
SUA. 14, v. 251. 

Hadramim Ergentumqiie simul, tclaqi'.e supnba 
Lanigeri Mtlile. 

The inhabitants were called by Diodorus, Plutarch, and Ste- 
phanUS, 'AjpaWrat ; by Pliny Hadranitani ; and on medals 
AAPANIOI, or AAPANITAI. Diod. 1. 14; Stepk Buz. 
de Urb.; Plin. 1. 8, c. 8; Plul. in Timol. ; Fazell. de Be*. 
Sicul. Dread. 1 , 1. 10; Arret. Sicil. Chronograph ; Clur. 
Sir. Antiq. 1. 2, o. 8. 
ADRANUM (Numis.) the medals of this town represent on 
the obverse the cancer marinus, with a shell above and an 
eel below ; on the reverse, an engle tearing a hare, the 
common symbols of towns in Sicily. The inscription AAI'A- 
NliiN; but in other medals AAl'ANlTAN. Go/tz. Sicil. : 

Haverk. Parvt. Sicil. Discritt. 
ADRANUS (Myth.) 'AHpavoe, the god who was worshipped 
at Adranum and other parts of Sieily. Pint, in Timol. 

Adranus (Numis.) a figure of 

this deity has been preserved 
on a medal, as in the annexed 
cut, bearing on the obverse the 
head of the god ; inscription 
AAPANOl ; on the reverse a 

dog, because dogs were em- 
ployed to guard the temple; 
ascription MAMEPTIN. 

mioTi / \l ..i I. \ ' a 2 — 

ADRASTA (Myth.) 'ASpatela, a daughter of Oceanus, and 

nurse of Jupiter. Apullod. 1. 1. 
ADRASTENUS (Geog.) 'ASpatnvoc, the gentile name for 

the inhabitants of Adrastia. 
ADRASTIA (Myth.) 'A&pa*tla, a daughter of Jove and 


Necessity, airo rS cupaaKciy, as Pausanias thinks, because 
no guilty person escapes punishment : a goddess, otherwise 
called Nemesis, whose vengeance is inevitable. 
Virgil in Cic. v. 239- 

Cl scilere nffando, quad nee sinat Adrasteil 
Ladere utrumque, una studeas errorc paventem. 

Pans. 1. 7, c. 5 ; Strab. L 13; Harpocration. 

Adrastia, a nvmph, one of the daughters of Orestes. Steph. 

Adrastia (Geog.) 1. A fountain of Sicyonia. Pans. 1. 2, 
c. 15. 2. A mountain mentioned by Plutarch. Phil, in Fit. 
Lucull. 3. A country of Mysia, not far from Troas, called 
after king Adrastus, who built a temple there to Nemesis. 
Strab. 1. 13; Pans. 1. 2. 

ADRASTUS {Myth.) "Acpa^oc, son of Talaus and Eury- 
nomes, and king of Argos, was the only one of the generals 
at the siege of Thebes who was saved from the slaughter. 
He reigned first at Sicyon in Argos, according to Homer. 
II. 1. 2, v. 573. 

Kfii SiKVWv' off ap' "AtprjToc; Trptura ipf3aai\tvcriv. 
He is called Inachius by Statius, from Inachus, king of 
Argos ; and also Perseius, from Perseus, the son of Jupiter. 
Herod. 1. 5, c. 67 ; jEsckyl. Sept. ante T/ieb. ; Enripid. in 
Sup. et Pha-nis. ; Apullo'd. 1. 1, c. 9, &C.J Virg. JEn. 1. 6, v. 
480; Hi/gin. fab. 68, &c; Pans. 1. 1, c. 39, &c; Phi/os- 
trat. L 2, c. 29. 

Adrastus and Amphius, sons of Merops, the soothsayer, who, 
contrary to the warning of their father, went to the Trojan 
war, and were killed by Diomed. Horn. II. 1. 2, v. 831 ; 1. 1 1, 
v. 329. 

Adrastus, the father of Eurydice, who married Ilus the 
Trojan, by whom she had Priam. Apollod. 1. 3, c. 12. 

Adrastus, the son of Hercules, who threw himself into the 
flames. Hygin. fab. 242. 

Adrastus (Hist.) a Phrygian prince, who, having acciden- 
tally killed his brother, fled to the court of Croesus for re- 
fuge, where he had the misfortune to kill the son of the 
Lydian king. Herod. 1. 1, c. 35. 

Adrastus, a Lydian, who assisted the Greeks against the Per- 
sians, and was killed in battle. Pausan. 1. 7, c. 5. 

Adrastus (Biog.) a native of Philippopoli, and a peripatetic 
philosopher, who taught the logic of Aristotle. Thcon. 
Sinyrn. Mns . 1. 6; Porphyr. in J'it. Plotin. ; J'oss. de P/ii/os. 

ADREGIA (Geog.) a royal residence in Bernicia, or Ber- 
wick, where afterwards the town of Melniin was built. 
Bed. Hist. Eecles. Anglor. 

ADRESTE (Geog.) 'Aqii/-ii, an attendant on Helen. Horn. 
Odyss. 1. 4, v. 123. 

ADRETS, Francois de Beaumont Baron des (Hist.) of an 
eminent and ancient family in Dauphiny, was born in 1513, 
and died in 1587- He distinguished himself on the side of 
the Huguenots, for his cruelty to the opposite party when 
thev fell into his hands. 

ADREVALDUS (Hist.) vide Aduahlus. 

Adrkvaldus (Biog.) a benedietine of Fleury in the 9th cen- 
tury, who wrote on the body of St. Benedict. Cave, Hist. 
Lit. vol. ii. p. 66. 

ADRIA (Geog.) "Afpm. ' Acpiurucdy iriXayoc, Adriannm vet 
Adrialicnm marc, the gulf which separates Illyria from 
Italv, now the Gulf of Venice. It is called acris bv Horace. 
Ho'r. 1. 1, od. 33, v. 15. 

Libertina, fretis acriar Adriiz 
Curvantu Calabros sinus. 

Also inqniclus, 1. 3, od. 3, v. 5. 

Neque Auster 
Dux inquieii turbidus Adrue. 

Ventosus, by Seneca, in Thi/este, v. 362. 
Aut sarvo rapidus freto 
Ventosi tumor Adria. 


Vagus, by Lucan, 1. 5, v. 614. 

Sonat Ionia vagus Adria panto. 

Herod. I. 1, c. 163; Poli/b. 1. 2, c. 14; Lie. 1. 5, c. 33; 

Catull.EpigrA.i; Strab.l. 5 ; Plin. 1. 3, c. 16; Slat. Sylv. 

1. 2, v. 87 ; Plot. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Eustatli. in Dionys. v. 92, et seq. 
Adria (Geog.) a town of Polesino di Rovigo, in Italy, the 

ancient Adria, which was once of great note, but has been 

much reduced by frequent inundations. It is seated on the 

Tartaro, 25 miles S. S.W. Venice. 
Adria, Peter d' (Ecc.) a Dominican and bishop of Yico in 

1306, left some works on theology. 
Adria, John James (Biog.) the historian of Mazara, in Sicily, 

died in 1560. He wrote his history entitled ' Topographia 

inclytE Civitntis Mazaris,' 4to. Panorm. 1515. ' Epistola 

ad Conjugem,' a poem, besides some treatises on the plague. 

&C. Manget. 
ADRIAN (Ecc.) there were several Popes and distinguished 

persons of this name. 

Popes of' this Name. 

Adrian' I, son of Theodoras, born of a noble family, suc- 
ceeded to the papal chair, A. D. 77"-, and died 795- Anast. 
in Had. ; Fleuri. Hist. Ecc. 772 ; Baron. Annul. A. 772. 

Adrian II, born at Rome, was son of Talarus, and of the 
same family as Stephen VI, Sergius II, and Gregory I\ ■ 
He succeeded Nicholas I, A. D. 867, and died 872. Baron. 
Annul, ann. 867 ; Flenr. Hist. Eccl. ami. M>7- 

Adrian III, a Roman by birth, and son of Benedict, suc- 
ceeded Pope Marinus SSI, and died 885. Baron. Annul. 
ann. 885 ; Fleur. Hist. Eccl. 

Adrian IV, whose name was Nicholas Brekespere, was born 
about the end of the 11th century at Langley, near St. 
Alban's, in Hertfordshire, and died Sept. 1, 1159, in the 
4th year and 10th month of his pontificate. He was the 
only Englishman who ever sat in the papal chair. 

Adrian V, a Genevan, and nephew to Pope Innocent IV, 
succeeded Innocent V, A. D. 1276, and died one month and 
nine days after his election. 

Adrian VI, bishop of Torlosa, and preceptor to the emperor 
Charles V, succeeded Leo X, A. D. 1522, and died Sept. 14, 
1523. He wrote ' Qusestiones quodlibeticae,' Louvain, 
1515. In these he maintained that the Pope was not infalli- 
ble. Onuphriiis Ciaconius Buronius, &C. 

Adrian (S'umis.) there are authentic me- 
dals of the last Pope only of this name, 
which bear his effigy, as in the annexed 
cut, the inscription ADR1AXUS VI. 
PONT ifex MAXIMw; on the re- 
with a representation of his coronation. 
Bonanni, Xumis. Puntif. liomun. vol. i. 
Xinnis. Pontific. Roman. 

Distinguished Persons of this Xante. 

Adrian, a martvr in the reign of Galerius Maximian, was 
exposed to wild beasts on the 5th of March, when his an- 
niversary is kept in the Latin church. Etiscb. de Martyrib. 
Palest. ; Baillet. Vies des Saintes uu 5 Mars. 

Adrian, a martyr of Nicomedia about 307, whose anniver- 
sary is fixed on the 8th of September in the Roman niar- 
tvrologv. Tdlcniont. Ecc. Hist, torn v. ; Baillet. Vies dis 

Adrian, an African by birth, was sent into England in 669 
to settle the discipline of the church, and died in 70' ; . 
Bede. Hist. Aug/. Bollard, an 9 de Jam:; Baillet. Vies det 

Adrian, de Castcllo, of obscure parentage, was raised to the 
bishopric of Hereford in the reign of Henry VII, but re- 
sided principally at Rome, where he conspired against the 
Pope Leo X in hopes of succeeding to the pontificate ; he 

Venn I. 


was fined 12,500 ducats, and forbidden to leave Rome, but 

he contrived to make bis escape. Polydore Virgil, who 

shared his friendship, speaks in high terms of him. 
Adrian, de Corneto, a cardinal. Qvide Corneto~\ 
Adrian (Biog.) of Phoenicia, taught rhetoric at Athens, and 

was in great favour with Mark Anthony- He was the dis- 
ciple of Herod the philosopher, and tbe rival of Aristidcs. 

Sitiilus. ; Voss. de Lit. Hist. 1. S, c. 6. 
Adrian, an author of the fifth century, who composed, in 

Greek, an introduction to the Scriptures, 4to. Augsburg, 

1602. Phot. Codex. 2 ; Cure. Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 422. 
Adrian, a Carthusian monk of tbe 15th century, wrote a 

treatise entitled ' De Remediis utriusque Fortune,' &c. 
Adrian, de I cirri Busco, a Belgian monk, wrote a chronology 

from 1449 to 1483. 
Adrian, Corneillc, a Fransciscan of tbe l(7th century, wrote 

on the seven sacraments, &c. 
ADRIANI, Francis (Biog.) a native of Paris in 1384, wrote 

On the symbol of St. Athanasius. 
Adriani, Mallheir, a Spanish physician, and a Christian. 

though born of Jewish parents, left several works in Hebrew. 
Adriani, Marcel Virgil, professor of the belles lettres, and 

chancellor of tbe republic of Florence, was born in 1 Mil-, 

and died in 1521. He published a Latin translation of 

Dioscorides, ' De Materia Medica.' 
Adriani, John Baptist, son of the preceding, was born in 

1513, or 1511, according to some, and (lied at Florence in 

1579- He wrote a history of his time, &C. 
Adriani, Marcel, son of the preceding, was born in 1533, 

and died in Kink He translated Plutarch's Morals, and 

Demetrius Phalerius. 
ADRIANO (Biug.) a Spanish painter, and a lay-friar of the 

order of tbe bare-footed Carmelites, was born at Cordova, 

where he died in Ui.50. His principal work was a Crucifixion. 
ADRIANOPLE (Geog.) a city of Romana, in European 

Turkev, and an archbishop's see, is in long. 26"° 47' E. lat. 

42" 4' N. The ancient Adrianopolis or Hadrianopolis is 

called Adrana or Edrena by the Turks. 
ADRIEL (Bibl.) b«mr, son of Barcilla, married Merab, 

the daughter of Saul, who had been promised to David. 
1 Sam. xviii. 19- 
ADRIMACHID.T. (Geo S .) vide Adyrmachidce. 
ADRIMETUM (Geog.)\'ide Adrumetum. 
ADRIUS (Geog.) 'Aipute, a mountain running through the 

middle of Dalmatia. Steal,. 1. 7- 
ADROBICUM (Geog.) a town of the Callaici, in Hispania 

Tarraconensis, now Corunna. 
ADRUMETJ Sinus (Geog.) a bay on the coast of Tunis, 

now CidII'i) ili Mahometta. 
ADRUMETIUS {Geog.) the Gentile name for an inhabitant 

of Adrumetum. 
ADRUMETUM (Geog.) 'AiW/jfijc, or according to Strabo 
'AZavpn, and to Stephanos 'Aopvunc, a town of Africa Pro- 
pria, now called Mahometta or Sussa, according to Marios 

Niger, which was built by tbe Phoenicians according to 
Sallust, and called Frugifera, according to an inscription 
given by Sou-tins. COLONIA CONCORDIA UI.PIA 

A council was held here in .'.'111. Po/i/b. 1. 15, c. 5 ; Sal/us/ 
i„ Jugurth. Hell. ; Vim. 1.5, c. 4; Strab. 1. 7 ; Tacit. Hist. 
I. II, c. 12 j /'/o/. 1. 4, c. :; ; Appian. in Panic.; Steph. 

Bi/z. ill 1 t'c/i. ; Baron. Annul, ann. \',\)^ \ Sincl. ItlSCTtpt. 
Vet. J Bochoft. Geog. Sacra. 1. 1, c. 21; Mcrcalnr. Geog. : 

Mar. Nig. Geog. Aph. Comm. 1. 2. 

ADItUS (Geog.) a river of Spain mentioned by Antoninus, 

and supposed hv Ortelius to be the Anas. Ortel. Thes. Geog. 
AD SEPTEM FRATRES (Geog.) a city of Mauritania, now 

AD 8EXTEM LAPIDEM (Geog.) a town of Etruria, now 

// Boryhetto. 


AD SEXTIAS (Geog.) a place in Umbria, now Bocoa di 

ADSO, Hermerius (Biog.) or Henry, an abbot among tbe 
Benedictines, was born at St. Claude in the beginning of 
the 10th century, and died in Champagne in the year 992. 
He wrote the life of St. Mansuetus, St. Valbcrt, and some 
others, but is principally distinguished for his love of learn- 
ing and establishment of schools. Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. 
p. 107- 

ADVEN'TIUS (Ecc.) a bishop of Mentz in the 9th century, 
who was present at the council held at Mentz in 859, and 
afterwards at that of Douzi in 871, where Hincmar was 

ADULA (Geog.) 'AS6\a, or according to Strabo 'A&v&Ka, 
now Mount St. Golhard ; a mountain of the Rhuetian Alps. 
Strab. 1. 4 ; Ptol. 1. 2, c. 9. 

ADUL1CUS Sinus (Geog.) part of the Arabian gulf, now 
tbe Gulf of Arkibo. 

ADULIS (Geog.) 'AriXrj, according to Ptolemy; "A&Aif, 
according to Stephanus, now Arkibo ; a town of Upper 
Egvpt. Plin. 1. 6, c. 29 ; Ptol. 1. 4, c. 7 ; Steph. Buz. de 

ADULLAM (Bibl.) abiv, 1. a city of Judah in the southern 
part of the tribe of Judah, ten miles from Eleutheropolis, 
according to Eusebius, and eleven miles according to Jerom. 
Josh. xii. 15. 2. The cave in which David hid himself. 
1 Sam. xxii. 1. 

ADULTUS (Myth.) r(\ewc, an epithet for Jupiter. Plat, 
in Problem. 

ADUMMIM (Bibl.) D'DW, a town and mountain in tbe 
tribe of Benjamin. Josh. xiv. 7- 

ADURA (Geog.) a town of Aquitania, now Ay re. 

ADURNUM (Geog.) or Ailumi Partus, a town in Sussex, 
now Ederington. Camel. Briton. 

ADYRMACHID^E (Geog.) 'Acvpfin\uai, a people conter- 
minous to Egvpt. Herod. 1. 1, ecc; Plin. 1. 4, c. 6; Ptol. 
1. 4, c. 5. 

ADYTE (Myth.) one of the fifty daughters of Danaus, who 
murdered her husband on tbe first night of her marriage. 
A pol toil. 1. 2, e. 1. 

MA (Myth.) Ala, the name of a huntress mentioned by 
Valerius Flaccus. Argonaut. 1. 5. 

.Fa (Geog.) the name of some places; as, 1. a maritime 
town of Colchis, now Lipni mm). Plin. 1. 6', c. 4; Steph. 

Byz. lie Urb. 2. An island of Colchis, now Satabella. 

Apollon. 1. 2, v. 424. 3. A town of Thessaly, etc. 

.I'.ACIDAS (Hist.) a king of Epirus, son of Ncoptolemus, 
and brother to Olympics, was expelled by his subjects for 
carrying on war against Macedonia. l'aus. 1. 1, e. 1 1. 

.I'.ACI 1)1. S (Myth.) a patromymic for Achilles, Peleus, and 
other descendants of .'Eacus. Horn. II. 1. 9, &e. ; Virg. 
/En. 1. 1, &c. 

-FACTS (Myth.) Alamo son of Jupiter and /Egina, or, ac- 
cording to Diodorusof Europa, was the fust king of .Egina, 
and after his death was made a judge of hell. 
Horot. 1. 2, od. 18, v. 22. 

Qitiun penefiirve regno Proterpiw 
Etjudicantetn vidintui /Eaeum. 

Proper!. 1. 4, cleg. 11, v. 19. 

Aui si quit poslti juda s<-th t .i'.nnta uniii 
In iiu.i toTtitt, judicel atapili. 

Oral, in lb. v. 187- 


J'iicus in posnai ingeniotut trit. 

Pint, in Georg, ; Apollod. 1. .'!, c. 12 ; Diodor. 1. 4; Hygin. 
tab. 52 ; Pans. 1. 1, c 4, &c. ; Lucian. Ac l.uct. 
.F.I'.A (Mi/I/i.) an epithet for Circe, who was so called from 
the island .Paa, situated on the coast of Italy, which was 
fabled to be the residence of Aurora. 

zur%itis .Tas 

Horn. 1. 12, v. 3. 

"Stjoov cc 'Atainv, Jet 'Hhc tjtyiyfnirjr 
'Oicin Kai x°P°* " ffl 3 *■<*' ovroXai ijeXioio. 
The same epithet is also applied tu Calypso bv Propertius. 
Propert. 1. 3, el. 10, v. .SI. 

£'* thalamum .-Ea'iz Jkittis J'ugisse puella. 
EAXTIDES (JEfirf.) 'Atarri&iis, a Milesian, and one of the 
Spartan allies in the battle of -Egospotamos, which was 
fought between Lysander and the Athenians. 
-Eantides, a tyrant of Lampsacus, and a favourite with 
Darius, married Eurydice, the daughter of Hippias, the 
tyrant of Athens. Thuci/d. 1. 6, c. 59- 
.EAXT1S {Top.) AVai-ir, a tribe at Athens. Plut. Si/mpos. 

1. 2, c. 9, 10. 
.EAS {Gcog.) a river of Epirus, flowing into the Ionian sea. 
Lucan. 1. ()', v. 861. 

Purus in oeetaum, sed 

lonio /hut nide mari. 

Ovid, in his fable of Io, makes it flow into the Peneus, but 
this is supposed to be a geographical error. It is thought to 
be the present I'ajtissa. 

-EATUS {Myth.) "Aunos, a son of Philip, and brother of 
Polyclea, married his sister, and had by her Thessalus, who 
gave his name to Thessaly. Polyclea. by a stratagem, had 
obtained the kingdom, but on their marriage they reigned 
coniointlv. Pulucrn. Sirat. 1. S. 

.EBUD.E'(Gpo ? .) vide Ebuda. 

/EBURA {Gcog.) now Talavera, a town of Hispania Tarra- 
conensis. Liv. 1. 4-0, c. 30 ; Sleph. Bt/z. 

.EBUROBISIXGESIA {Geog.) a town of Portugal, which 
Ortelius thinks is a corruption for Ebora. 

-EBL'TIA, gens {Hist.) the family of the .Ebutii. [Vide 

-EBUTIAXUS {His/.) a prefect under Commodus, was put 
to death as the friend of Byrrhus, through the intrigues of 
Cleander the favourite. Lamprid. in Com. c. 6. 

-EBUTIUS {Hist.) or JEbutia, gens, the name of a Roman 
family, which was both patrician and plebeian : the former 
having the surname of Elva, and the latter that of Carus. 
Frequent mention is made of this family by historians, and 
on medals, as may be seen under Numismatics. 

-Ebutius, T- Elva, at first a consul, and afterwards master of 
the horse, under Posthumius the Dictator ; was at the famous 
battle of the lake Regillus, where he engaged in single 
combat with Mamilius, the Latin general, and was wounded 
in the arm, U. C. 225. Livy, 1. 2, e. 19- 

.Ebutius, L., a consul, U. C. 290, and died the same year. 
Lie. 1. 3, c. 6. 

/Ebutius, P., Elva, a consul, U. C. 312 ; afterwards master 
of the horse in 317- Lie- 1. 4, c. 11, 21. 

.Ebutius, M., Elva, was created a triumvir, for transplanting 
a colony to Ardea. Li v. 1. 1, c. 11. 

.Ebutius, B-, detected the flagrant abuses of the Baccha- 
nalians, U. C. 5t>7. Lir. 1. 39, c. 19. 

.Ebutius, T-, Carus, triumvir for transplanting a colony to 
Milan and Parma, U. C. 570. Liv. 1. 39, c. 57. 

-Ebutius, M., Elva, a prator, U.C. 583. Liv. 1. 44, c. 17. 

-Ebutius, P., Carus, a duumvir at Corinth, under Augustus. 

-Ebutius, a brave general under Vespasian, who was killed 
at the siege of Jerusalem. Joseph, de Bell. Jud. 1. 3, c. 2 ; 
1. 4, c. 4. 

/Ebutius {Xumis.) four medals were struck by the Corinthians 
in honour of Augustus and 
Anthony, during the magis- 
tracy of the /Ebutii, one of 
which bore the inscription 
on the reverse, Puhlio. /EBU- 
TIO. Caio. JULIO. HERAC/iWe II. VIRw. QUlnquen- 


nalibus. ITERhw. in a crown of laurel. The Duumviri 
Quinquennales were magistrates chosen even - five years. 
VailL Xumis. Famil. Roman. ; Morel. Xumis. Famil. Roman. 

/ECAXA {Geog.) an episcopal town of the Daunian Apulia, 
now called Troja. 

/ECHM.EAS {Biog.) 'Atx/uatas, one of the Parapotamii, 
won the prize for pugilism, at the Pythian games. Pans. 
1. 10. 

.ECHMAGOUAS (Myth.) '.\1xpay6pac, the son of Hercules, 
by Phillone, who was exposed with his mother on a moun- 
tain, by his grandfather Alcimedon. Hercules, attracted to 
the spot bv the cry of a magpie, which was imitating that 
of the child, delivered them both from their chains. Pans. 
1. 8, c. 12. 

.ECHME {Ant.), the name of a dog, which Xenophon 
recommends for its shortness. De I enat. 

-EC HMIS {Hist.) Ai'x/kc, a son of Briacus, succeeded his 
uncle Polymnestor, king of Arcadia, who died without 
issue. In his reign there was a war between the Messe- 
nians and the Lacedemonians, in which he took part as the 
ally of the former. Pans. 1. 8, c. 5. 

/ECLUS {Hist.) AtxAoc, :i man, who, according to Strabo, 
left Athens after the Trojan war, and went to live in 

.ECMETLI {Geog.) a village on the shore of the Caspian sea. 
having small lakes in the vicinity. 

.ECULAXl M {Geog.) 'AucuXavoy, a town of the Hirpini. 
now Laconiono. Appian. Civil. 1. 1 ; Plot. 1. 3, c. 1. 

/EDEMOX {Hist.) a freedman of Ptolemy, took up amis to 
revenge the death of his master, who had suffered by the 
hands of Caligula, but perished in the attempt. Plin. 1. 5, 
c. 1 ; Dio. 1. Ill 1. 

/EDEPSUM {Geog.) "\uij\lov, a town in the island of 
Eubcea. where were the hot baths of Hercules. Strab. I. 12. 

/Edepsum {Xumis.) a medal of this town bears the figure 
of the cancer, which is a frequent symbol on the medals of 
insular places ; the inscription AIAH*Iil\. Got/;. The*. 

jEDES (Topog.) a term frequently applied to the temples of 
Rome, of which the following are the principal mentioned 
by historians and topographers, namely : 

/Edes, AH Loculii, was situated at the bottom of the X'ova Via. 

-Edes, Apollini, vide Tcmplum. 

/Edes, Bellona:, near the circus. Liv. 1. 10, c. 19; Oeid. Fast. 
1. 6, v. 205. 

.Edes, Bona; Dew, was built on the top of the Aventine hill. 
Ovid. Fast. 1. 5, v. 148. 

Attend din canenda B*ma est 

Est moles nativa loco ; res nomina facit, 
Appellant saxum ; pars bona montis ea est. 

.Edes, Boni Eventus, vide Templum. 

/Edes, Camtrnarurn, was situated beyond the gate Capena. 
in the Appian Way. Plin. 1. 34, e. 5 ; Mart. 1. 2 ; Epigr. 
5, v. 15. 
.ZEdes, CarmenUe, was at the bottom of the Capitoline hill. 
.Edes. CarntE, was built on the Mons Ccellus. Macrob. 

Saturn. 1. 1, c. 12 ; Rliodig. Ant. Led. I 9, & 8. 
/Edes, Castoris et Pollucis, vide Tcmplum. 
.Edes, Ceteris, ride Tern plum. 

.Edes. Concordia?, there were three temples of this name, one 
situated near the eapitol, was built by Furius Camillus, ac- 
cording to a vow made during a popular tumult. 
Ovid. Fast. 1. 1, v. 637- 

Candida te niveo posuit lux proxima templo 
Qua fert suhlimes alta moneta gradus, 
Furius, antiquum populi populator Etrttsci, 
Vourrat, et rati solverat ille fidem. 

The second was built near the Tarpeian citadel, according 
to a vow hy L. Manlius, the Prtetor. Liv. 1. 22, c. 33. 
The third was situated in the Area Vulcani. Sallust. de 
Bell. Cat. c. 36 ; Liv. 1. 22, c. 33 ; 1. 23, c. 21, et 1. 9, c. 46 ; 


Plutarch, in Camill. p. 151; Suet. Tib. c. 20 ; Bio. 1. 56, 

p. 586; Lamprid. Alex. Sever, c. 6. 
jEdes, Cube/is, vide Tcmplum. 

jEdes, JDttii Patrix, was situated in the Circus Maximus. 
jEdes, Farini, vide Tcmplum. 
jEdes, Flora; vide Tcmplum. 
jEdes, Furtunar, vide Tcmplum. 
jEdes, Furinarum, was situated in the 14th region beyond 

the Tiber. 




/Edes, Hercu/is, vide Tcmplum. 
jEdes, Honoris et Virlulis, vide Tcmplum. 
jEdes, Jovis, vide Templum. 
jEdes, Isidis, vide Templum. 
/Edes, Isidis et Serapidis, was placed in the capitol. Tertull. 

Apolog. c. (J. 
jEdes, Junonis, vide Tcmplum. 
jEdes, Julcrna; vide Templum. 
/Edes, Juventulis, was situated in the Circus Maximus. Lui. 

1. 36", c. 36. 
/Edes, Larium, was situated in the Via Sacra, where Ancus 

Martius lived. Li'v. I. 40, c. 52 ; Macrob. Saturn. 1. 1, c. 10. 
/Edes, Li/nr/alis, vide Templum. 
^Edes, LuruB, vide Templum. 
-Edes, Murtis, vide Tcmplum. 
/Edes, Matuliv, was situated in the Forum Boarum. 

Ou/rf. /«*/. 1. (i, v. 479. 

y/nc t£M luce ft runt Matute lacra parenti 
Sceptrtyenu yervi templa dedhse mamis. 

Lie. 1. 5, c. 19; 1. 25, c. 7- 
/Edes, Mentis, two temples of this name, situated in the 

capitol. Lie. 1. 22, c. 10; 1. 23, c. SI. 
.Edes, Mephitis, at the end of the /Esquilii, not far from 

the palace of .Senilis Tullius. 
jEdes, Mercurii, was situated in the first region, called the 

gate Capena. 
.Edes, Spii, was situated in the forum. Lie. 1. 21, c. 62; 

Tacit. Annul 1. 2, c. 49. 

jEdes, Telluris, vide Tcmplum. 

.'!'.:>]:-, Tempestatig, vide Tcmplum. 

./Edes, Vejovis, was near the Asylum. 

/Edes, Veneris, vide Templum. 

/EdES, Verlumni, vide Tcmplum. 

/Edes, Tcshr, vide Templum. 

./Edes, Victoria, vide Tcmplum. Ferret. Mus. Lapid. el 
Manor.; A. "Blond. Triumph, limine el Insluur. Rom.; 

Alex. Gen. Dier. ; Boiss. Top. Urb. Rom. ; Oriel. Dear, cl 

Dear.; I'aucirnl. Dcscripl. Urb. Horn.; I'aiirin. Dcscripl. 

Urb. Hem.; Faun. Ant. Urb. Horn.; Pigh. Annul. Rom. ; 
Rosin. A 11I. Hum.; Orig. Test.; Capitol.; 
Buleng. dc ('inn ; Donat. de Urb. Rum. ; Morestell. die l\ r. 

Rum.; (lis, I. in ('nil. ; Rnrrich. Ant. Urb. Fac. ; Lips, ill 

Taciturn j Suetoniumj Marlian. Topogr. ; drier. 

This. A ill. Rum. 

/EDESIA (Biog.) an /Egyptian woman, wife of Ilermias, 
and a relation to Saunas the philosopher, is described by 
Suidaa, as a pattern of virtue and prudence. 

.1.1)1. SI1 S ( Biog.) a native of Cappadocifl, and a disciple of 

lamblichtlB, though of noble extraction, was from poverty 

obliged to open a Bchool for himself. 
.EDESS \ (Geog.) or Edessa, "Aiitaaa, or'JLietra ; a town of 
Macedonia, near Pella, now Vodena, where the kings of 

Macedonia were buried. Poli/b. 1. 3, c. l.'i ; Lie. 1. 45, 

c 29 j I'lin. 1. 6, e. ;;i- ; Justin. 1. 7, c I; Plot. 1. :;, 

e. l.'i. 

.EDITI I s Valerius (Biog.) a poel before the age of Cicero, 
of whose poetry only ten verses are preserved. 


AEDON (Myth.) 'Anfev, daughter of Pandarus, and wife of 
Xethus, killed her own son Itylus by mistake, instead of 
her sister Niobe, and Amanea, her son ; at which being 
exceedingly grieved, she attempted to kill herself, and was 
changed into a goldfinch. 
Horn. Od. 1. 19, v. 518, Sec. 

"£&£ 5' art irnvcaplH Kupi] ^Xwp?;Te dijeujv 

KaX6i> dtiCijdiv tapot; viov t^apivoio 

"Hti Qapd Tp(v7TiJ(Ta \ktt T7oXvri\ta ^wi/jjc 

llaia Xoipvpoptvij "Iri'Xov tpiXuv, ov Trori \dXKtp. 

/EDUI (Geog.) a people of Celtic Gaul, who inhabited the 
city now called Autun. Ca-s. de Bell. Gall. 1. 1, c. 4, &c. 

/EELRED (Biog.) vide Aclrid. 

/BETA (Myth.) 'An'irii, king of Colchis, and son of Sol, by 
Persa, daughter of Oceanus, was father of Medea, by 
whose assistance the Argonauts obtained the golden fleece. 
Apollod. 1. 1, c. 9; Ovid. Met. 7, fab. 1 ; Pans. 1. 2, c. 3 ; 
Fal. Place, in Argon. &c. 

/EETIAS {Myth.) a patronymic of Medea, the daughter of 
.Eeta. Ovid. Mel. 7, v. 9. 

Concipit interea validos Aetias ignes. 

jEETIS (Myth.) or JElius, both patronymics of Medea. Vol. 
Place. Argonaut. 

jEGA (Mi/lh.) a queen of the Arabians, who perished in the 
jEgcan Sea. Test. 

/Ega, "Aiyo, the daughter of Olenus, and one of Jupiter's 
nurses. After her death, she was translated into heaven, 
and became a star under the name of the goat, from uii;, 
capra. Hygin. Poet. Astron. 

/Ega (Geog.) Wiya, an island on the coast of Asia, between 
Chios and Tenedos, now Isola dcllc Capre, according to 

/EGADES (Geog.) vide jEgusx. 

jEG/E (Geog.) 'Arycu, "Aiyeua, or'Aiyeia. I. A town of Ma- 
cedonia, according to Justin, the same as Edessa. Theoph. 
de Ventis.; Plin. 1. 4, c. 10 ; Pans. 1. 1, c. 3 ; Justin. 1. 7, 
c. 1. 2. A town of Achaia, where was a temple sacred to 
Neptune, and where, according to Homer, the god placed 
his horses. 
Horn. II. 1. 13, v. 21. 

Alyas iv6a oi 01 cXvra Saftara (iivGeai \ipvnc, 

"y.l'9' 'Itttthc tni^t —iivtifaixjr. 

Herod. 1. 1, c. 145 ; Scylax. in Peri pi. ; SI rah. I. S; Plin. 
1. 5, c. 22 ; Pans. 1. 7, c. 25. 3. A town of Cilieia, ac- 
cording to I.ucian, 1. 3. 

Fallot ,1 1 rrrenu resonant navaiii 
Tacitus calls it .Egaa. Tac. Anna/. 1. 13, c. 8; Ptol. 1. 5, 
c. 8. 4. 'AiyoXat, according to Herodotus; "Aiyai, accord- 
ing to Xenophon; Alyat, according to Scylax: a town of 
1. Herod. 1. 1. c 149; Xenoph. HeUen. 1. !, c. 8; 
Poh/li. 1. 5, c. 77; Scylax. in Pcripl.; Strab.l 13; Pint. 
in Themist. ; Plin. 1. 5, c. 30; Tac. Annul. 1. 2, c. 47. 
5. A town of Eubcea, I.oeris, Lydia, and .I'.tolia, accord- 
ing to Stephanos. The gentile name was iEgaiUS, -Ega-ensis, 

or Xgeates. Steph. Byz. dc Urb. 

A'.r..r. (Xiimis.) the towns of this name had medals of an 
early date, which aie to be distinguished from each other 
not only by the mode of spelling the name, but by the 

type anil other marks. Those of Mgte iii Macedonia bear, 
on the obverse, the head of Apollo ; on the reverse, the figure 
of a goat, or sometimes a goat's head; it having assumed 

this symbol because, as is said, the town was taken by Ca- 

raiuiis, king of Macedonia, in consequence of his following 
thetracl of a herd of goats; legend \ir\r.u\. Those 

of .l'.g:r, ill Cilieia, also hear the head of a goat, in allusion, 
as is supposed, to its name, having on the Obverse a turreted 
head ; and on the reverse, besides the symbol, is tin' legend 

AirEAIQN. THS. [EPAS. KAI. VYT0N0M02, showing 

that it was a sacred and lice city. This Agio likewise 

struck medals in honour of Tiberius, Agrippina, Claudius, 
Adrian, M. Aurelius, Commodus, Severus, Julia Domna, 
Caracalla, Plautilla, Macrinus, Diadumianus, Alex. Severus, 
Pupienus, Gordianus Pius, .Emilianus, Trajan Decius, 
and Salonina. Having received several benefits from Julius 
Cffsar, it dated its epocha from the Julian rera, U. C. 707, 
and fixed it on most of its imperial coins, to some of which 
are added other titles, as Hadrians, Commodiana. Severina, 
Antoniana, Macrini Urbs, Alexandri Urbs, &C. in honour 
of Adrian, Commodus, Severus, Caracalla, Macrinus, and 
Alexander Severus, from whom they received special favours, 
as appears from the inscription KOMOAIANuiN AAPI ANwN. 
AirEIAwN. ETOY. AAC. i. e. Commodianorum Hadrian- 
orum., anno 234. Being a considerable port, it 
received the title of Xavarchis, and also the dignity of the 
Neocoria, from Alexander Severus, as appears from the in- 
scription ALTEON. NE. NAY. JEgeensvum Xcocorum Xa- 
varchidos. It is moreover to be observed, that the name of 
this town is written differently in different inscriptions, as 
mav be seen from those which follow : AirEAIiiN. ETOTC 
HUP. i. e. anno 178, A. D. 131. AAPIANON. AITEAION. 
HUP. Hadriancnsium JEgeCBOrum, anno 188, A. D. 141. 
Hadriancnsium JEgeaarum Commodianorum, anno 245, 
A. D. 168. AITAIEQN. CN. Mgmensivm, anno -250, A.D. 
AITEIAON. A^rC. Hadriancnsium Severi ano r u m Anto- 
miwnim, anno 26, A.D. 214. AirEAIEQN. MAKPE- 
INOYIIOA. CXA. JEswcnsuim Macrinojmli, anno 264, 
rtOAlC. E. O. C. Hadriancnsium JEgcearum Alexandra- 
polis, anno 275, A.D. 228 AAP. AITEAION. NEilK. 
NAYAPXIAOC. H. II. C. Hadriancnsium jF.gtvcnsium Xeo- 
cororum, Xavarchidcs, anno 228, A.D. 241." AITEAION. 
NEQK. NAYAP. 6^2. JEgeamrum Xcocororum cirilalis 
classical, anno 299, A. D. 252. The earlier medals of .Ega •, 
in jEolia, bear sometimes a turreted head of an Amazon, a 
figure of a Minerva, armed as usual ; or of a female hold- 
ing an anchor, &c. ; inscription AITAEON. This town 
struck medals in honour of Tiberius, Claudius, Agrippina, 
Vespasian, Domitian, L. Yerus, Alexander Severus, and 
Trajan Decius. Their magistrates were prstors, as ap- 
peals from inscriptions on the imperial medals. I'.iliC- 
TPAnryS EYTYXOYC AI TALLIN. Sub Pra-lorc Euti/cho 
/Egworum ; on a medal of Alexander Severus, Em. 
rAEON, i. e. Sub Preetore Marco Aurclio Paulo, Pitnwits 

-T.d.EA (Gcog.) 'AiynTn, two towns mentioned by Ptolemy, 
one in Emathia, and one in Mauritania. Plot. 1. 3, c. 13; 
1. 4, c. S. 

.EG.EOX (Mylh.) 'Aiyaloiv, another name for Briarcus, as 
he was called bv the sods, according to Homer. 
//. 1, v. 403. 

"Or Tipiapi 

• KaXtstri Bioi : 

Hesiod. T/icog. 149 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 2, v. 10; Sen. in .F.n. 
1. 10, v. 565. 

JEg.eon, one of Lycaon's 50 sons. Apollod. 1. 3, e. 8. 

-EG.EUM, mare (Geog.) a sea which separates Greece from 
Asia Minor, and contains many small islands, as the Cv- 
cladeSj Sporades, &c. It is called by Herodotus, Strabo, and 
Ptolemy, A'iyatov — i\a~, <» ; by Pliny. JEseum Mare; bv 
Mela, JEgaaan Mare ; now the Archipelago. It is sup- 
posed by Varro to be derived from the islands or rocks 
which resembled a'tyec, goats ; but, according to Plutarch, it 
takes its name from iEgeus, the father of Theseus, who 
drowned himself there ; and Hyginus derives the name 
from ^Egrea, a place in Euboea ; and Festus, from JEgwa, 


Queen of the Amazons, who perished there. It is described 
bv the poets under the name of .Egeon, or ./Egon. 
Stat Theb. 1. 5. 

Delove sonanti 

Pejor et vmunerti quas spumijer ussilit .Egcn. 

Anlhol. 1. 3. 

'Atyaitt r oifpa kclkov Tti\dyts£. 

Fal. Flacc. 1. 1. 

Quanta frcmitu se sustulit .Egon. 

Herod. 1. 4 ; Varr. de Lal. Ling. 1. 2, c. 1 ; Hugin. Fab. 

43; Strab. 1 7 i Mela, 1. 1, c. 3 ; Plin. 1. 4, c.Tl ; Pint. 

in Thcs. ; Fcst. de Verb. Signif. ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 15, &c. 
jEG/EUS {Myth.) 'Aiye'oc, an epithet for Neptune, from 

iEgie in Euboea, where he had a temple. J'irg. JEn. 1. S, 

v. 74 ; Strab. 1. 9. 
^EGAGEES (Gcog.) Aiyayene, a mountain of Asia, accord- 
ing to the scholiast on 

Ntcand. in T/icriacis, v. 215. 

*H Km tpvpvog 

Aiyayinq rrp,jij>\ 

.EGALEOS {Gcog.) .Fgalcum. .F.gialus. or JEgialeus, "Atya- 
Xtaic, a hill near Salamis, where Xerxes sat to witness the 
engagement between the Persians and the Greeks. Herod. 
1. 8, c. 90 ; Thucyd. 1. 2, c. 19 ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 7- 

-EGATES (Gcog.) or JEgusx, Aiy»<ra<, three islands on the 
coast of Sicily, opposite to Lilybaeum, namely, Pkorbantia, 
Hicra, and /Egusa, now called Levenzo, Favognana, and 
Maretana. These islands are celebrated for the defeat which 
the Carthaginians under Hanno suffered from the Romans 
under Lutatius Catullus, which put an end to the first 
Punic war, U. C. 512. A. C. 242. Silius, speaking of Han- 
nibal, savs — 
Sil. 1. 1,'v. 61. 

Atrt jlEgates a&oZerv parentum 
Dedecuf, et Sicuh demergere ponto. 

Cluverius thinks it ought to be read Mgades. Polub. I. 1 , 
c. 61 ; Lit: 1. 21, c. 10, &c. ; Mela, L 2, c. 7; F)or. 1. 2, 
c. 2 ; Clui: Sicil. Anliq. 1. 2, c. 15. 

.EGF.AS (Ecc.) a Roman proconsul of Achaia, who is said to 
have been possessed of an evil spirit after the martyrdom of 
St. Andrew. 

-EGEATES, Joltn (Biog.) a Nestorian priest, who wrote an 
ecclesiastical history, from the reign of Theodosius the 
younger to that of Zeno. Phot. Codex. 41, 55 ; I'oss. de 
Hist. Lot. ; Cat: Hist. Lit. 

.EGELEOS r Geog.) a town of Macedonia, near the jEgean 
sea, taken by Attalus. Lit: 1. 31, c. 46. 

.EGEMON (Biog.) a poet who, according to Volaterranus. 
wrote a history of the Thehan war in verse. 

/EGEOXEL'S (Myth.) Alycuvevs, one of the sons of Priam. 
Horn. ILL 3, c. 12. 

.EGERIA (Mt/th.) vide Egcria. 

jEGESTA (Geog.) vide Acesta. 

jEGEUM, mare (Gcog.) vide .F.gwum, marc. 

-EGEl'S (Myth.) Aiyfi'c, king of Athens, son of Pandion 
and father of Theseus, who, on the return of the Argo- 
nautic expedition, observing a black instead of a white sig- 
nal, and supposing his son to be dead, is said to have thrown 
himself into the sea and perished. [A'ide JEgwum, mare^ 
A/>ollod. I. 1, c. 1, &c; Pint, in Thes,.; Pans. I. 1, c. 1, &c. ; 
Hygin. Fab. 37. Sec 

jEgeus, Aiyt'wc, a hero, the son of Oiolochus, whose monu- 
ment is in Laconia. Pans. 

-EGIALE (Myth.) one of the sisters of Phaeton, who was 
changed into a poplar. 

-Egiale, a daughter of Adrastus, or iEgialeus, and wife of 
Diomed, who prostituted herself in her husband's absence. 
Stat. Silt: 1. 3. 

Questa est /EgiaU, questa est Mehlura reiinqui. 
H 2 


Dionysius Periegetes calls lar .F.gialea. 
Dionys. Perieges. 

"£>'S' ijpwr ofucavt, x"^'4"'t' ll '')i: 'AQpolirqs 
O-rrurt rpiXXfcwv fttTfKiuOtv tttl'or 'lfii)pwv 
'He «'Xo'^« ^3k.\j/T| rajcrf^pOI'OC Ai'ym\*ojc. 

Egiaj.e (Grog.) a i-ity of the island Amorgos, now Hyali. 

.EGIALKA (Geog.) AlytaXua, 1 . The ancient name of Pe- 
loponnesus, so tailed from Agialeus. Apollod. 1. 2, C. 1 ; 
Strab. 1. 8 ; Pans. 1. 2, c. . r >. 2. An island in the Cretan 
sea, called' AiyOda, by Herodotus, and JEgialia, by Pliny. 
Herod. 1. 6, c 103 ; Meto, 1. 2. c. 9; Plin. I 2. 3. AiyXmi, 
an island of the Styrians. Hood. 1. 6, c. 107. 

.EGIALEl'S (Hist.) AlyiaXevs I. the son of Adrastus and 
Demoanassa, was killed at the first Theban war of the 
Epigoni. Mis six brothers returned victorious. dpoBod. 
1. 1, c 9, &c; Puns. 1. 1. e. IS, &c : Hygin. Fab. 71. 

.EGIALIA (Hist.) Aiytdkla, daughter of Adrastus, and wife 
of Diomed. Apollod. 1. 1 , c. <). 

-EGIALUM (Geog.) a mountain of Asia Minor, according 
to Cedrenus, supposed by Orteliufl to be the same as 
EGIALUS (Hist.) AlylaAoe, son of Phoroneus, who gave 
the name of -P'.gialea to Peloponnesus. Pans. 1. 2. 

.Egiai.i s, (Geog-) a mountain with a city in Galatia, now 

Cagialia, according to Leunclavius. Horn. II. 1. 2. 
EGIAS (Hist.) a silversmith who assisted AratUS in bringing 
about a revolution in Sicyon. 

.EG IDA (Geog.) a town of Istria, now Capo d'Islria, which 
l^ing re-built by Justinian the emperor, was called Justino- 
polis. Plin. 1. .'!, c. If). 

-EGIDES (Myth.) Aiyilins, a patronymic for Theseus, son 
of JEgeus. 
Horn. II. 1. 1, v. 265. 

Sncrca t AiylLSljv IvutKtAov dQavdrmai. 

/EGIDIA (Hist.) the beautiful daughter of Robert, king of 
Scotland, whom the king of Prance sought in marriage ; 
but her father preferred giving her to Archibald Douglas, 
on account of his valour. licet. Boeth. Scut. Hist. 1. Hi. 

./EGIDIANLS (Bute.) a Flemish writer of heroic poetry. 

/EGIDIOPOLIS (Geog.) a town of Aquitania, now St. 

/EGI DIE'S (Hisl.) /Fgidius, or Gilles, as interpreted by the 
French, was made king of Prance ; but expelled after a 
reign of six years by (hilderic I, his rival. GregOt. Turon. 
1. 2, c. 12 ; P. JEmil. 1. 1, p. 5 ; Annon. de Gest. Franc. 1. 1, 
e. 7 ; Sigebert. in Chron. 

;E(;ii)its. commonly called Count Gilles, a Roman general, 
obtained many advantages over the Visigoths, to whom he 
was a bitter enemy. He at length fell into their hands, and 
was poisoned about 464. /'. Daniel. Ilist.dc Langued. torn. 
i. p. (i.jfi. 

/E(;nurs, Fontana, a native of Padua, was the first legisla- 
tor in Venice. Bernard. Scardeon. I list. Patav. 1.3, class 18. 

/EgiDIUS (Fee.) an archbishop of lihcims, was deposed and 

banished for conspiring against Childebert, in 590. Gregor. 

Turon. 1. 0, C. .'S ; Ain, uu. de Gest. Franc. 1. .'!. c. 50, &c. 
.Pi. loirs, two cardinals of this name. [Vide Giles] 

/Egidiub, Romanus, archbishop of Bourges, died in L316. 
/Emdm's (Biog.) Burnamed Atlieniensis, a Greek physician, 

and a bene dictine of the eighth century, wrote ' De Vene- 

nis,' &c- Volaterran. 1. 21 ; Vincent. 1. 28. 

/Eoinirs, Parisicnsis, a poet and historian in the reign of 

Louis VIII, wrote a history of the fust crusade. 

ASsiDIUB, John, or St. Giles, a physician, and one of the first 

Englishmen of the order of Dominicans, had a high repute 

ill jiis profession, and is said to have- written many things 
on the subject of medicine. 

Maunva de Columna, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas, was 
styled "Doctor fundatissimus," on account of his great 

.EG I 

learning which he displayed in his philosophical and theo- 
logical writings- He died in 1310'. Sabell. torn. ii. En- 

nead. 1-9; Gene/), in C/iron.; Possceinns ; Tritlicmius, Sfc. 
/Egidh's, an historian of Liege in the 18th century, wrote 

the lives of the bishops of Liege. 
/Egidius, Xiiccricnsis, a writer on proverbs, &e. in the 15th 

.Etiinirs, Miiisins, a Benedictine, composed a book of Chro- 
nicles to his own time, 448. Voss. de Hist. Fat. 1. ii. 
^Egidius, Carlerius, a native of Belgium, wrote much on 

theology, anil died in 1473. Care. Hist. Fit. vol. ii. 
JEgXSIVS dc Iloi/a, an historian, wrote Belgic annals, and 

died in 1478. Sander, de Script. Fland ; Voss. de Hisl. Lai. 

1. 3, c. 8. 
.I'.i.iDirs, Nicholas, secretary to Louis XII, wrote chronicles 

and annals of France, from the destruction of Troy to 

1 !-!,(), and died in 1503. 
/Egidius, Peter, of Albe, wrote ' De Vi et Natura Anima- 

lium,' &c. and died in 1555. Thuan. Hist. 1. 10'; San. 

Marti*, elog. 1. 1 ; Niceron. Mem. torn, xxiii. 
.Eoinirs, Delphius, a theologian, much commended by Eras- 
mus for his learning, of which he gave many proofs in 

his theological works. Erasm. ep. 148, 746 ; Vol. And. 

.Egidh's, or Giles Peter, a lawyer and disciple of Erasmus, 

was bom at Antwerp in I486, and died in 1533. Me wrote 

' Threnodia in Funus Maximiliani Csesaris,' ccc. 
„EGIL (Biog.) Jigil, or Figil, an abbot of Pulda, who, in 

the reign of Louis the Pious, wrote on ascetics. Voss. Hist. 

Lai. 1. 2, c. 33. 
/EGILA (Ant.) Alyika, a village in Laconia, where Aristo- 

menes was taken prisoner by some religious women. Pans. 

1. 4, c. 17- 
yEGILIA (Geog.) vide .Fgialia. 
JEaihiA, 'AtyoW, a tribe at Athens. Allien. 1. 14, c 18; Dc- 

mosth. in Nmrunu; Steph. 

/EG I LI PS (Geog.) A7yi,\ni, 1. a town of Acarnania. Strab. 
1. 10. 2. A place in P.pirus. 
Horn. II. 1. 2, v. 635. 

Kai KpoKvXtt, ivifiovTO Kai AiyiXtira TpTixtlav. 

Steph. l!i/~- dc I'rlj. 

.EG ILIUM (Geog.) an island of the Mediterranean, near 
the coast of Calabria, now // Oigihv. 

7EGIMIUS (Myth.) a king of Doris, whom Hercules as- 
sisted to conquer the Lapithe. Apollod. 1. 2, c. 7. 

jEgimiub (Biog.) a man who, according to Anacreon, lived 
to the age of 200. Plin. 1. 7, C. 48. 

/EG1MURUS (Geog.) or /F.gimori Aral according to Pliny, 
called by Strabo Aiylfiopoe, and I'.v Stephanos Alytpooos I 
an island, or rather rocks, between Africa and Sardinia, 
which are distinguished in Virgil by the name of Arte, now 
I. a (nihil a. 
lirg. JFn. 1. 1, v. 113. 

Son meant Itoli mtdiii que infiuctibui Ar„s. 

Lie. 1. 20, c. 27 ; Slra/i. 1. 17 ; Pfi». 1- 5, c. 7 ; Steph. Byz. 
.EGIN'A (Mi/l/t.) .Yiyica. daughter of /Ksopus, and mother 
of .Eacux by Jupiter. She was concealed by her lover in 
tin island to which .Lacus afterward gave her name. 

Ovid. Mel. 1. 7- 

Jupiter, <\ am, si t» tumfoba lojuioitur 
Dicta *nh umpitxui HEgbu liopidoi in, 1 . 

Apollod. 1. 1. <•■ !)■ c\e. ; Vans. 1. 2, C. 5. 
.Ei.ina (Geog.) an island in the .E.gean Sea. called after 
iEgina. rVMe JEgina] It was before called Oenonc, now 
Ocid. Mel. 1. 7. v. 172. 

JEacui .l^iioiiu gaistricit nomine dint. 

Diunijs. Pericg. v. 512. 

Qaivovrat EaXa^ic rt tcai lAtyivqc 7erdKit9pw. 


The JEginct.v were once a nation so powerful by sea as to 
dispute the sovereignty with the Athenians, but after sur- 
rendering themselves to the Persians in the time of Darius, 
they lost their consequence. They are also said to be the 
first who, at the suggestion of Phido, coined money for the 
purposes of commerce, lit rod. 1. 5, c. S3, ecc. ; Cic. Qffic. 
1. a, c. 11: Slcph. Buz. de Urb. ; Strab. 1. 8 ; Thucyd. 
1. 1. c. 4 ; Xenoph. Hc/lcn. 1. 2. c. 2 ; Livy, 1. 27, c. 30, &c ; 
Mela, 1. 2, c 9 : Plin. 1. 1, c. 10 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. l6; Polycen. 
1. 5, c. 14 ; Thcrct. Cosmog. Univ. 1. IS, c. 11. 
EGIXA (Xnmis.) one medal bearing the inscription 4>IAO, 
as in the annexed figure, is referred to this island, where 
Phido is said to have lirst in- 
troduced the use of stamped 
money in commerce, and also 
measures, of which the vase 
in the reverse is a symbol. 
The half ship, with the in- 
scription All'INA, on another 
figure, denotes their maritime 

power. Two medals only are extant struck by this island 
in honour of Plautilla and Heliogabalus ; the latter bearing 
the inscription AITEINHT42N. Vaillant. Xninis. GrtBC. 
Harduin. Num. Ant. Urb. Must.; Peiier. lire, de Med. des 
Peup. tab. 8f). 
JEGINETA (Biog.) the name of a man mentioned by Pliny. 

Hist. Nat. 1. 35~, c. 11. 

.Egineta, Paulus, a physician of the 7th century, was a 

native of /Egina, who travelled over the greatest part of 

the world. His works on medicine have been several time:; 

printed in Greek, the first edition was that of Aldus, 


.EGIXET.E (Geog.) hlyivrjrat, the people of .Egina, who 

first coined money, called after them vo/iur/iu Kiyivaiov, 

which was highly esteemed. Mlian. Ear. Hist. 1. 12, c. 20. 

-EGIXETES (Hist.) Alyii i)->ic, the son of Deretes, wh ■ 

was one of the ancestors of Patreus the founder of Patras. 
-Eginetes, the son of Pompus, and king of Arcadia. He 
received his name from the friendship his father bore to the 
JEGIXHARD (Biog.) a native of Germany, and secretary 
to Charlemagne, wrote a life of his master, and died 
in 840. 
/EGIXTUM (Geog.) Atyivtov, a town of Thessaly, near the 
river Achelous, according to Livy. Pliny places it in 
Pieria ; Strabo calls it Tvpyaiwv oftopov. Liv. 1. 32, c. 15 ; 
Plin. 1. 4, c. 10; St rah. 1. 7 ; Steph. Byz. de Urb. 
iEGIOCHUS (Mi/lli.) kiyliyjfpQ, an epithet of Jupiter i, n)» 
Aiyiia evwv. Horn. II. 1. 1, v. 202; Diod. 1. 5, c. 70; 
Lactant. de fids. Relig. 1. 1, c. 21. 
JEGIOX (Geog.) viAe&gium. 

iEGIPAN (Myth.) an epithet of Pan, because he had goats' 
feet. Eratosth. Catarism. ; Hygin. Poet. Astron. ; Plin. 
1. 5, c. 1. 
/EGIRA (Geog.) A'ytipa, a town of Achaia between ^Etolia 
and Peloponnesus, now Xylocastro. Herod. 1. 1, c. 145 ; 
Polijb. 1. 2, c. 41; Strab. 1. 8; Pans. 1. 7, c. 26; Mela, 
1. 2, c. 4 ; Ptol 1. 3, c. 16 ; Nig. Geog. Comtn. 1. 1 1. 
-EGIRUM (Geog.) a town of Lesbos, now Genua. Strab. 

1. 13 ; Nig. Geog. Comm. Asia?, 1. 1. 
.EGISTHLS (Myth.) Aiyardos, so called, as .Elian relates, 
because he was fostered by ol£, a goat ; was the son of 
Thyestes, king of Argos, by his daughter Pelopea. When 
Agamemnon went to the Trojan war, he was left guardian 
of his kingdoms, and his wife Clytemnestra, with whom he 
formed an intrigue, and murdering Agamemnon on his 
return, succeeded to the throne of Argos. 
Horn. Odyss. 1. 1 , v. 35. 

"Qf Kai vvv Aiyi<T0oc virip fiopov 'Arpiicao 
Vijfi' aXoyov ftvq^TJv, riv c fjcravt vo^ijiravra. 


Ovid calls him desidiosus. 
Grid, de Rented Amor. 

Qutfrftur .Egisthus. quare sit /actus adulter, 

In prompt" causa est, deaodaSUi erat. 

Orestes revenged the death of his father by killing In. 
mother and her paramour after he had reigned seven years. 
Horn. Odyss. 1. 1, v. 40. 

'Exydp Opi-ao riinQianirat ' Arpticao. 

Ibid. Odyss. 1. 3, v. 30(i. 

*H\i»9e cioc OpeVi/c 
ArJ. oV 'ASrpiauw nard <5' fcrave xarpotporija 
AiytaOtir coXoptjnv oc. oi Ttaripa k\vtov ticra. 
"Hrut o ruv crctvac, & anv TaQov Xpyamaty 
Mtirpor rt rvyspijfc Kai dvd\Ki$0£ AiyiaQoto. 

jEschylus in Agamem. Sophoc. in Elect. ; Enrip. in Oresl. 

Hygin. fab. 87"; Pans. 1. 2, c. 16; .Elian. Ear. Hist. 

1. 'l 2, c. 42. 
jEgisthus, an epithet which Pompey applied to Csesar, because 

he committed adulterv with his wife Mutia. 
JEGITHARSLS (Geog.) Alyidapoog, now Capo de S. Viio , 

a promontory of Sicily. Cluv. Antiq. Sieil. 
.EGIUM (Geog.) Alyiov, a town on the isthmus of Corinth. 

now Cos/iza. which is celebrated as the place of assembly 

for the cities which formed the Achaean league. Its name is 

derived from </<;, the goat which nursed Jupiter there. 

Pulyb. 1. 4, c. 57 ; L'u\ 1. 38, c. 30; Strab. 1-8: Pau.1. 

Achaic. c. 26. 
.Eiiic.M (Xnmis.) medals of this town are inscribed A. All'. 

Ain. aitie. AiriKiix, 

with the monogram X, i. e. 
Acluvorum. Some, as in the 
annexed figure, bore, on the 
obverse, the figure of a tor- 
toise, and on the reverse, a 
square divided into five parts, 
the distinguishing symbols of 

the whole country of Peloponnesus. The inscription All I 
shows :r to belong to this particular town, and the fish is 
supposed to be put there in honour of Neptune. Other 
medals bear the head of Juno Ilithya, inscription AIITEHX 
API2TO*ANOTf. Jupiter, who was particularly honoured 
throughout Greece, was also represented on the medals of 
-Egium. Pans. 1. 1, c. 18; Xonn. Comm. in Gollz. Greec. : 
Peller. Rec. de Med. 

..EGIUS (Myth.) Aiyior, a son of .Egyphis, who was mur- 
dered by his wife Mnestra. Ajmllod. 1. 2, c. 1. 

.EGLE (Mi/th.) A\y\ij, daughter of Sol and X'esera. Pans. 

I. 0, c. 35. 

yEgle, youngest daughter of -Esculapius and Lampetia. 
vEgle, daughter of Panopeus, for whom Theseus deserted 

Acivoc yap pn trnpev tpuQ xapoirifiSie A'tyXqc,. 

I I, sind. ex Pint, in Thcs. 

yEGLEIS (Myth.) Alykrfcc, one of the seven daughters of 

Hvacinthus, who was immolated by the Athenians. Apollod. 

1. 3, c. 15. 
.EGLES (Hist.) a wrestler, who was born dumb, but broke 

the string of his tongue in attempting to discover some 

fraud at the games, and spoke ever after. Eal. Max. 1. 1 , 

c. 8 ; Gell. 1. 5, c. 9- 
/EGLESBURGL'S (Geog.) the town now called Aylesbury. 
yEGLETES (Myth.) Aiy\i';r>(c, the name under which Apollo 

is worshipped in the island of Anaphe. 

A pollon. Orgonant. 1. 4, v. 1730. 

AtyXijrtji' 'AraC>j/£ Tiptjopov tXdiTKOPrai. 

For which Apollonius assigns the reason, v. 1716. 

XiyXtjrjjv fttv ivCKo~a t'ivtKtv atyXnc 

<!■ i lov KtKXofiivot. 
Sir, lb. 1. 10. 
iEGOBOLLS (Myth.) Aiyo/joAoe, an epithet given to Bac- 


chus in Bceotia, because he substituted a goat in the place of 
a youth, who was annually sacrificed, from oil;, a goat, and 
ftaXKw, to cast. Pans. 1. 9, c. 8. 
jEGOCEROS (Myth.) Capricornus, the animal into which 
Pan transformed himself when flying from Tryphon in 
Jupiter's war with the giants. He was placed by Jupiter 
among the constellations. 
Lucre!. 1. 5, v. 613. 

Nee ratio totis simpler, ac reeta patescit. 

Quo pacta, irstivis a partibus AZgoeerolis 

Ihumalts adeatftexus. 

Lucan. 1. 9> v - 536. 

Pur geminis Chiron, et idem quod Carcinos aniens 
llumidus .Egoceros. 

Idem. 1. 10, v. 'ill. 

Jiapidos qua Sirius ignes 
Exerit, et vara mutator circuius anni 
/Egoeeron, Cancrunnuic tenet. 

^EGOLIUS (Mi/I/i-) was changed into a bird by Jupiter. 
Anionin. Liberal. Metamorph. 

.'EGON (Myth.) A'iyior, a shepherd mentioned by Theocritus 
in his Idyls, and by Virgil in his Eclogues. 

JEgon (Hist.) first king of the Argives after the extinction 
of the race of the Heraclidie. 

/Egon (Biog.) a pugilist of Zacvnthus, who dragged a bull 
by the heel from the mountain into the city. Theoc. 
Idyl. 4, v. 35. 

.Egon (Geog.) 1. the same as JEgceon or JEgceum. 2. A 
promontory of Lemnos. 3. A river of .(Ethiopia. Arist. 
in Meteor. 

AGONES (Geog.) Atyowec, a people of Cisalpine Gaul, 
where now stands the town of J'icovenza, as Leander sup- 
poses. Poli/b. 1. 2 ; Leand. Albert. Dcxcripl. lied. 

jEGOPHAGOS (Myth.) A'ty6fayoc, the name under which 
Juno was worshipped in Lacedamion, because goats were 
offered to her there. Pans. 1. 3, c. 15 ; Athen. 1. 15 ; 
Meur.t. Lacon. Miscell. 1. 1, c. 5. 

jEGOSAGiE (Geog.) Alyoaayai, a people of Asia, who as- 
sisted Attalus in his conquests, and afterwards obtained a 
settlement from him near the Hellespont. Polyh. 1. 5. c. 77- 

iEGOSPATAMOS (Geog.) Aiyoe rrorafibc, i. 'e. a river of 
the goat ; a town of the Thracian Chersonesus, where the 
Athenian fleet was shipwrecked, and defeated by Lysatider. 
Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 2, c. 1 ; Plin. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Cor. Nep. in 
Lysand. ; Mel. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Pans. 1. 3, c. 8, &c 

jEGOSPOTAMOS (Nitmix.) this town is distinguished on 
some medals by the figure of a goat, inscription AirOSIIO. 
Pemb. Numis. Antiq.j Haipn. The.?. Brit. vol. ii. tab. 10. 

ffiGOSTHENA (Geog.) Aiydo-Oeva, a city of Megarisj the 
people were called .Wytirrtiirie, /l'.gtislhcncnses, or MgOStke- 

nienses. Xenoph. Hellen. 1. (>, c. 4 ; Stepk. Byz. de Urb. ; 

Plin. 1. ., a 7. 
.EGOSTHENIA (Geog.) AlyotrBiveta, now Egistenia, a 

town of Phocis. Plot. I. 3, c. 15. 
jEGUS ( and Roscillus, two brothers among the Allo- 

brOeeS, and sons of Abducillus, a powerful friend of ( Vsar's, 

revolted from him to Ponipcy. HtsU de Hell. Cie. 1. .", c. /"><). 
yEGUSA (Geog.) Atyoera, now Favognana, the principal 

of the three islands called /Egatex, and by Polybius after 

this one Mymrui. [Vide jEgatesl 
/EGYPIUS (Myth.) son of Antneus, was changed into a 

vulture by Jupiter. Anionin. Liberal. Metamorph. 

.'EG Y I 'ITS (Mi/lb.) tiywrroc, son of lielus, and brother of 

Danaus, was king of the country to which lie gave his name. 

His 50 80ns were married to the 50 daughters of Danaus, 

ami all murdered the first night of their marriage by their 

wives, except l.ynceus. This /Egypt lis is admit ted by his- 
torians to l«- Sesostris. Apollod. 1. 2, c. 1. 
jEoYPTUS (Hist.) a minister of Mausoleus, king of C'aria, 
who was sent on a dangerous mission. 


iEGYPTUS (Geog.) a country of Africa, part of which was 
placed by some of the ancients in Asia. It was called o»nvD 
by the Jews, from Misraim, the son of Ham, by whose 
posterity it was first inhabited ; by the Greeks it was called 
A'iyvn-Tor, from jEgyptus, the brother of Danaus ; by the 
present natives Chibili ; by the Turks Elquibet; by the 
Arabians Bardamaxser ; by the Italians and Spaniards 
L'Egilto ; and by the French L'Egyptc. It is celebrated by 
the poets for its invention of the fine arts, its fertility and 
its want of rain, which was supplied bv the overflowing of 
the Nile. 
Dionys. Perieg. v. 233. 

Oi irpiorot (iioroio currjaai'TO <Ah'0hc 

Hpulroi 5' t/ifpo'o'roc eTTeipTjuai'TO ciporpu TTropov terdvrdrng vTTtp avXeiKoc. drrXiurravro. 

lirg. Georg. I. 4. 

Itviriilem .Eguptum nigra frctindut arcnii 
Et diversa ruens septem discurrit in ora. 
Usque coloratis amnis devexus ah Indis. 

Tibullus, 1. 1, eleg. 7- 

Te, printter radios tellus tua postulat imbres, 
Arida nee pluvio suppticut herba Jovi. 

Lucan, 1. 8, v. 446. 

Terra suis contenta bonis, non indiga mercis 
Aut Jovis, in solo tanta estjiducia Nilo. 

Claudian in Nilo, v. 4. 

Mgvptos sine nube feral, imbrcsquc screws 
Sola tenet, secura poti, non indiga venli. 

The superstition of the Egyptians is noticed both by profane, 
as well as sacred writers. 
Juven. Sat. 15, v. 1. 

Quis nrseit Volusi Bithunice, qualia dement 
JEgyptut pertenta colat ? Crocodilon adorat 
Pars hue, ilia pavet saturum serpentibus ibim. 

Description of Ancient Egypt. 

Extent and Divixion. Ancient writers are not agreed about 
the precise extent of Egypt ; some, as Herodotus, circum- 
scribing it within the country called Delta, and others, as 
Strabo, extending it to the country of Cyrenia ; but its gene- 
ral boundaries were the Mediterranean on the N., Arabia 
on the E., /Ethiopia on the S., and Lybia on the W. It 
was divided by Ptolemy into three parts, namely, the 
Delta, Heptanomis, and Thebais ; by Strabo, and other 
writers, into two, EgyptUS Inferior, comprehending the 
Delta, &C. and those parts which are washed by the Medi- 
terranean, and Egyptus Superior, consisting of the Hep- 
tanomis and Thebais. 

Principal Ttnrnx. According to Diodorus, Egypt contained 
nearly 20,000 towns, the principal of which were 

Ancient. Modem. Ancient. Modern. 

Abydus Abuticlt Memphis MeST 

Alexandria Scandcria Sais Sakid or liosetta 

Arsinoe Syene Asna 

Bubustis Pibcxclh Thcba- Thevcs. 

The modern geography of Egypt may be found under its 
modern name. [Vide Egypt] 

History of Ancient Egypt. 

The kingdom of Egypt was founded by Mizraim, the son 
of Ham, whose successors, known in Scripture by the 
name of Pharaoh, wire divided into different dynasties. 

Chronological Succession of the Kings of Egypt, according 

to Usher. 

First Dynasty. 

Ki„ gt , A. M. A. C. 

Misraim 1816 .... 2188 


Second Dynasty of Shepherd Kings. 

Kings* A. M. 

Solaris 1920 

Boeon 1939 

Apachnas 1983 

Apophis 2020 . . . . 

Janias 2081 

Assis 2131 

Fifth Dynasty of the Theban Kings. 

Thethmosis, or Amasis 2179 . . . . 

Chebron 2205 

Amenophis 2218 . . . . 

Amessis, sister of Amenophis .... 2239 

Mepres 2261 

Mephramuthosis 2273 

Thmosis 2299 

Amenophis 2309 

Orus 2340 

Acencheres, daughter of Orus. . . . 2376 . . . . 

Rathosis, brother of Acencheres . . 23S8 

Acencheres I 2397 

Acencheres II 2410 

Armais 2422 

Ramesses 2426 .... 

Ramesses Miamun 2427 

Amenophis III, or Belus 2494 

Sethosis and Armais together .... 2513 ... . 

Sixth Dynasty of the Theban Kings. 

Sethosis alone 2522 .... 

Rhampses 25S 1 .... 

Ammenephetes 2647 .... 

Ramesses 2667 .... 

Ammenemes 2727 .... 

Thuoris 2734 .... 

Seventh Dynasty of the Theban Kings. 

Nechesos 2733 .... 

Psammutis 2754 .... 


Athotis 2820 


Dynasty of the Tanites. 

Smerdes 2913 .... 

Psusennes 2.Q40 .... 

Neperchetoes 2991 ■ ■ • ■ 

Amenophis III 2995 . . . 

./Esoehoris 3004 .... 

Spinaches 3010 

Susennes II 301 9 ... 

Dynasty of the Bubsestians. 

Sesonchis or Sesac 3026 .... 

Osorthon I 3047 .... 


Dynasty of the Tanites restored. 

Petubastes 3146 .... 

Osorthon II 3186 .... 

Psammis 3194 .... 

Zet 3204 .... 

A. C. 









Dynasty of the Saites. 

Kings. A. M. A. C. 

Bocchoris 3233 771 

Dynasty of the Ethiopians. 

Sabacon 3277 .... 727 

Sebichus 3285 719 

Tarachus 3299 705 

Anarchy for two years 3317 .... 687 

3319 685 

Dynasty of the Saites restored. 

Psammitichus 3334 670 

Nechao 3388 6l6 

Psammis 3404 600 

Apries 3410 594 

Amasis 3435 569 

Psammenitus 3479 .... 525 

After this Egypt fell into the hands of the Persians, to 
whom it remained subject till the 11th year of the reign 
of Darius, A. M. 3581, when the Saites were restored 
under Amystheus, who was succeeded by another dynasty 
formed at Mendes, which were as follow : 

Kings. A. M. A. C. 

Nepherites I 
Nepherites II 
Artaxerxes Mnemon 3600 .... 36l 

Dynasty of the Sebennites. 
Nectanebis I 
Tachos, the Assassin 
Nectanebis II 

He having been expelled by Artaxerxes Ochus, the govern- 
ment remained in the hands of the Persians till after the 
death of Alexander the Great, A. M. 3643, when the 
Ptolemies began to reign. 

Succession of the Ptolemies. 

Engl. A. M. A. C. 

Alexander 367+ .... 330 

Ptolemy Soter 8681 .... 323 

Ptolemy Philadelphus 3721 283 

Ptolemy Evergetes 3758 .... 246 

Ptolemy Philopater 3783 221 

Ptolemy Epiphanes 3800 .... 204 

Ptolemy Philopator 3824 180 

Ptolemy Phvsion, or Evergetes II 385.9 .... 145 

Ptolemy I.athurus 3888 117 

Ptolemy Alexander 3903 101 

Ptolemy Lathurus 3913 91 

Cleopatra I 3923 81 

Ptolemy Alexander II 3924 80 

Ptolemy Auletes 3Q3Q 6a 

Ptolemv Dionyssius and Cleopatra 3Q53 .... 51 

Cleopatra II 3957 57 

On the death of Cleopatra Egypt became a Roman province, 
and remained so till it fell into the hands of the Turks, 
of which a farther account may be found in its place. 
QVide Egi)pt~\ 

Writers on the Geography of Ancient Egypt. 
Scvlax in Perip. ; Agatharcis dfi Rub. Mar.; Strabo; Pom- 
pon. Mela ; Solinus ; Pliny ; Ptolemv ; Arrian ; Merca- 
tor; Ortclius; Merula ; Maginus ; Cluverius ; Bertius; 


Writers on the History of Ancient Egypt. 

Aristides; Aristophanes; Aristotle; Mancthus; Berosus ; 
Theophrastus ; Lycophron ; Apollonius; Plautus; Apollo- 
doiUSj I lirtius lie Bell. Alex. ; Cicero; C. Ncpos ; Hygi- 
nus;Ovid; Philo JudteUS ; Q. Cuttius ; Suetonius; Plu- 
tarch ; Lucian ; Festus ; Clemens Alexandrinus ; Dio- 
genes Laertes ; Herodian ; Yopiscus ; Maerobius; Isidor ; 
Proclus ; Eustathius ; Scaliger ; Rieciolus ; Calvisins ; 
Vussius ; Petavius ; Usher; Boehart ; Markham. 

VV inters on the Geography and History of Ancient Egypt. 

Homer; Herodotus; Theocritus; Appian ; Polybius; Dio- 

dorus ; Sallust ; Josephus; Florus ; -Elian; Justin; 

Julius Africanus; Eusebius; Heliodorus; Sozomenes; 

Procopius; Georgius Syncellus; Suidas; and C'oiistantine 

Man asses. 
F.oyptis (Numis.) no medals are extant which are supposed 
to have been struck by the Egyptians before the reign of 
Alexander the Great, although they probably had coined 
money much earlier, after the manner of the Phoenicians. 
From the commencement of the reign of the Lagides, Pto- 
lemy Sotcr I, and his successors, struck medals or coins of 
gold, silver, or bronze, and after this country fell under the 
power of the Romans, many medals were struck in honour 
hi' the emperors ; on a medal of Augustus a crocodile was 
painted as one of the symbols of Egypt as in fig. 1, the 

inscription AEGYPTO C'APTA, commemorative of his 

victory over Anthony, and conquest of Egypt ; on several 
medals of Augustus is the figure of the sphinx, either alone or 
with an ear of corn, and the systrum, and other symbols of this 
country, as in fig. 2. On one medal of Adrian, Egypt is re- 
presented as in fig. 3, under the form of a female holding the 
sistrum, or musical instrument used in the rites sacred to 
Isis. She rests on an urn full of fruits, emblematical of the 
fertility of the country ; and an Ibis, a bird sacred in Egypt, 
is standing near her. On another medal of Adrian, it is 
represented, as in fig. 4, by the figure of the Nile, under 
the form of an old man lying with a cornucopia in his right 
lend, and resting with bis hit elbow on an urn, pouring 
out water, a hippopotamus before him, and a crocodile by 
his side. Very few medals of Egypt are extant without 

the head of an emperor. Gotiz. Numis. August. Famil. ,• 
I'/iill. Numis. Roman. Imperat.; Putin. Num. Imperat. 
Roman; Ilttrtliiin. Num. Antiq.; Pratt, et Usu. 


AELFRED (Hist.) the same as Alfred. 

VELFRIC (Biog.) son of an Earl of Kent, and archbishop 

of Canterbury, assumed the habit of the Benedictine order 
of monks in the monastery of Abingdon, in 955, and 
died in 1005. He wrote, I. ' A Latin Saxon Vocabulary,' 
published by Sumner, under the title of a ' Glossary,' Oxen. 
ifi'.V). 2. 'Latin Colloquies.' ::. 'The Historical Hooks 
of the Old Testament,' translated into Saxon, Oxford, 
Mi;)'--, i. A charge entitled 'Canons,' preserved in Spel- 
man's Councils in 980-7- ■">• ' Homilies translated from the 
Latin Fathers.' (>. ' A Grammar.' 7- ' A Supplement to 

his Homilies.' 

.El. I A, gent (Hist.) a patrician family of Rome. [Vide 

/ {Hint.) the wife of Sylla. /'/«/. in Syll. 

jEj.IA, Velum, the wife of Claudius Cesar, whom he rcpu- 

diatcd to make wav for Messalina. Suet, in Claud, c. 2(5; 
Tacit. Annul. 1. 12, c. 1, 2. 

.Ei.ia, Catulla, a noble and rich matron, who, at the age of 80, 
danced at the games instituted by Nero. Dio. 1. 01. 

jElia, vide Eudoxia, Euphemia, Flacilla, Pulcheria, and 
/ erina. 

.Ei.ia, gent (Xnmix.) different branches of this family are dis- 
tinguished in medals, as the Path Lamia?, Tuherones, 
Can, eve. Tlie annexed cut 
represents on the obverse the 
civic crown between two 
branches of laurel, with the 
inscription OB. CIVIS. SER- 
\ A.TOS. in honour of Au- 
gustus, to whom the senate 

alluded in these words ; on the reverse, the words circum- 
scribed Quintus MELIUS Utcii Fitiut LAMIA III. VIR. 
here Argento Auro FeriundoFIando; at the bottom Senalut 
Consulto. The iElius here referred to, who is supposed to 
be the grandson of Cicero's friend, was a monetal triumvir, 
i. e. an officer of the mint, who coined the copper money by 
order of the senate, whence the medals of this family bear 
the figures of the scorpion, gryflbn, and beetle, the customary 
marks on monetal coins, and supposed to be mint marks, as 
also those of the Dioscuri and Jupiter, Lucina, &c. ; which 
are so frequently to he met with on consular medals, or the 
medals of the Roman families. In the inscriptions the 
name is sometimes spelt ALLIUS. and sometimes AELIUS, 
AELIUS CATUS II. VIR. A. A. A. F. F. &c. Gollz. 
in Fast. ; l'ai/1. Num. Famil. ; Morel. Num. Font. (.ye. 

jElia, Capitolina (Geog.) a name given to Jerusalem by the 
emperor Adrian, who sent a Roman colony thither. It was 
called zElia, after his own family, and Capitolina, from 
Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom it was consecrated. Dion. 
Cass. 1. 69, in Hadr. j Spartian. in Hsod. ; I it. Adrian. ; 
I Heron, ail Pai/lin. ep. 13. 

.Ei.ia, Capitolina (Xnmix.) this town is known by the medals 
of different emperors, as Adrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus 
Aurelius, and Verus. A medal of Adrian 
represents on the reverse, as in the an- 
nexed cut, a temple in which Jupiter is 
sitting between two figures that are stand- 
ing : the inscription, COLonM AELia 
CAPitotina. Vaillant. Numis. Colon.; 
Palin. Numis. Imperat. Roman. ; Harilnin. 
Numis. ; let. Pop. el I'rh. ; Mcdcoharh. 
Numis. Roman. Imperat. 

jELIANUS (Hist.') the name of some consuls. 

.Ei.ianus, Ambius, I.-, consul with L. Antistius Vetus, U. C. 

.F.i.iants, Pnpiriiix, M-, consul with Junius Pastor, U. C. 

Hi 1 v\rs, Papiriux, M., consul with M. Marcelius, U. C. 

-Ei.iam's, I'apirinx, twice consul, i. c. U. C. J)K>, and 976. 

.F.mani's, A., Piimpiminx,:n\ usurper in Germany in the reign 
of Gallienus, who seized the empire A. 1). -'1)7, and was 
killed by his own soldiers after less than a year's reign. He 
has been called by some Lielianus, or Lollianus. ["Vide 
.'I'.lianiix, under Numismatics"] Aurel Vict. c. 32. 

.Ei.iAM'si, /.., one of the thirty tyrants, who, in the reign of 
Gallienus, assumed the name of emperor, but was killed 
after a very short reign ; Patinus givc^ a medal of this em- 
peror, who is, however, generally supposed to be the same 

as LollianUB, mentioned b\ Trebellius Pollio. Treh. Poll- 
in Trig. Tyrant.; Aurel. Victor, de Caesar, c. 82 ; Onuphr. 

Fast.; Putin. Numis. Roman. Imperaliir. 
.F.i.iants (Numis.) some medals or coins are extant which 
are referred to A. Poinponius .F.liauus, the usurper 



abovementioned, bearing his effigy, as in the 
annexed figure ; but the inscriptions are 
IMP. C. A. /ELIANUS, &c.; or IMP. C. 
A. POMPON. 2ELIANUS, &c. Gollz. 
T/ies.; Trist. Comment. His/.; Path). Tlies.; 
Mcdiob. Imp. Rom. S;c. 
/Elianus, Claudius (Biog.) an historian and rhetorician of 
Pncneste, in the reign of Adrian, was surnamed MeA/'y- 
Xwtctoc, honey-tongued ; from the sweetness of his style. 
His works are, 1. ' Variae Historian' 2. ' De Natura Ani- 
malium.' The best editions of which collected together 
are that of Gessner, folio, Tiguri, 1556*: and of Kuhnuis, 
2 vols. 8vo. Lips. 1780. A Treatise on Tactics is attributed 
to another /Eban, the first edition of which was published 
by Robcrtellus, 2 vols. 4to. Gr. and Lat. 1552; but the best 
edition is that of Elzevir, 4to. Gr. and I. at. Hi'.'.'. 
.Elianus, Meccius, a physician in the reign of Adrian, and 
one of the oldest masters of Galen, was the first who cm- 
ployed the Theriaca in the plague, both as a remedy and 
preservative. Gal. de Usu Theriac. in Princip. ei de 
Muscul. Dissect, in Proem: ; Lc Clere, Hist, de la Med. 
pt. 3, 1. 2, c. 3. 
/ELIUS (Hist.) the name of a family remarkable no less for 
its poverty, than for the distinction to which many of its 
members rose in the branches of the Publii, Paiti, Tube- 
rones, &c. 
/Elius, PubUus, one of the first qusstors chosen from among 

the plebeians at Rome, U. C. 346. Lie. 1. 4, c. 54. 
/Elius, PaHus, praetor and son of Sextus, or Publius, was 
distinguished for his piety and patriotism. All the youth 
of his family were killed at the battle of Canna:. Vol. Max. 
1. 5, c. 6. 
.Elius, Pevtus, P., was made consul U. C. 550. 
/Elius, Tubero, P., was created scdile and pretar about the 

same time. 
/Elius, Catus Sextus, was censor with M. Cethegus, and 
consul U. C. 554. He it was whom Cicero called " Juris 
Civilis omnium Peritissimus." Cic. Brut. 20. He wrote 
much on law, and interpreted the Twelve Tables. Cic. 
Oral. 1. 3, c. 33 ; de Leg. 1. 2, c. 23. 
jElius, L., surnamed Lamia, the friend and defender of 
Cicero, was driven out of the city by Piso and Gabinius. 
Cic. in Piso, c. 27, &c. 
/Elius, Manila, the accuser of L. Libo, whom Pompey de- 
fended. Vol Max. 1. 6, c. 2. 
jElius, Tubero Catus, Q., served under his father L. /Emilius 
Paullus, in the Macedonian war, in which Perseus was 
taken. He had the charge of this king, and distinguished 
himself bv his moderation. Lie. 1. 45 ; Val. Max. 1. 4 ; 
Plin. 1. 33. 
jElius, Tubero, Q., son of the preceding, grandson of L. 
Paullus, was accused before Ceesar, and ably defended by 
Cicero. Cic. Epist. ad Brut. 
jElius, Callus, a knight, and the friend of Strabo, to whom 
Virgil addressed his 10th eclogue. He first subdued Arabia. 
Plin. 1. 6, c. 38 ; Strab. 1. 2. 
/Elius, Sejanvs, vide Sejanus. 
/Elius, Gracilis, or Gracchus, a lieutenant set over Belgium 

in the reign of Nero. Tacit. 1. 13, c. 50. 
jElius, a frcedman of Nero. 

/Elius, Lamia, a governor of Syria, whom Tiberius retained 
at Rome out of fear. He died in the consulship of Ser. 
Galba and L. Sylla. Tac. Ann. 1. 6, c. 7- 
jElius, Lamia, the first husband of Domitia Longina, was 
put to death by Domitian, who had debauched his wife. 
Suet, in Domit. \. 10. 
/Elius, Hadrianus, the grandfather of the emperor Adrian. 
jElius, Hadrianus, vide Hadrianus. 
/Elius, Cwsar, L. or L. C. Commodus Vents, was adopted by 

VOL. I. 


Adrian the emperor as his successor, but died before the 
emperor; several medals were struck in honour of him. Q\ ide 
/Elius under Numismatics'] 
jElius, J'erus, vide Verus. 
jElius, Pertinax, vide Pertinax. 
/Elius, Celsus, a senator who was put to death by Severus. 

Spartian. in Sever. 
/Elius, Cordiienus, a general under the emperor Commodus. 

Spartian. in Pisccn. Xig. 
/Elius, Xijidius, a treasurer of the exchequer, to whom the 

emperor Aurelian wrote. Vopisc. in Aurdian. 
.Elius, Gordianus, a profound lawyer, who was in the councils 

of Alexander Severus. Lamprid. in Sever. 
/Elius, Serenianus, another of the counsellors of Severus, 
whom Lampridius calls Omnium oir saiictissimus. Baronius 
supposes him to be the governor of Cappadocia referred 
to by Firmilianus, bishop of Csesarea, in Cappadocia, in his 
epistle to St. Cyprian. Lamprid. in Sever.; Baron. Annal. 
/Elius, Cestianus, a Roman prefect under the emperor Ta- 
citus. Vopisc. in Tacit. 
jElius, Scorpianus, a consul in the reign of Probus. Vopisc. 

in Prob. 
/Elius, L- (Xumis.) medals were struck in honour of the 
abovementioned prince by Alexandria, Amisus, Berhcea, 
Ephesus, Pannonia, &c bearing his effigy, as 
in the annexed figure ; the inscriptions L. 
AELIUS CAESAR, or in the Greek AOY- 
KIOC AIAIOC KAICAP, sometimes with 
the addition of his dignity TR. P. or POT. 
COS. II. or PONT. MAX. ; on the obverse, 


AELIUS. HADR. ANTONINUS. Vaillant. Grcec.Numis., 
Latin. Numis. Rom. Impcrat. ; Tristan. Com. Hist. vol. i. 
p. 551. 
jElius, Stilo (Biog.) a grammarian of Lanuvium, was pre- 
ceptor to Varro, and author of several treatises. Cic. ad 
Her. 1. 4, c. 12. 
.Elius, Gallus, a lawyer, wrote ' De Significatione Verborum 

ad Jus pertinentium.' 
/Elius, Gallus, a physician mentioned by Galen. Gal. de 

Antidot. 1. 2. 
/Elius, Promolus, a disciple of Otanes, the Persian, who ac- 
companied Xerxes into Greece. 
/Elius, Promotus, a physician of Alexandria in the time of 
Pompey, who wrote ' iltpt 'loftoXwv cai A?;X?;r»;fM'wi' <t>ui>- 
fiaKiav,' which is said to be in some libraries of Italy, and 
according to Mercurialis in that of the Vatican. Mercurial. 
I'ar. Led. 1. 3, c. 4; Possevin. Hist. Medic, c. 17; Le Clerc, 
Hist, dc la Medic, pt. 2, 1. 2, c. 12. 
jElius, Saturniniis, a satyric poet, was thrown from the Tar- 
peian rock for writing verses against Tiberius. Dio. 
1. 58. 
/Elius, Mourns, a freedman who wrote an account of Severus. 

Spartian. in Sever. 
/Elius, Sabinus, a writer in the reigns of Pupienus and Bal- 

binus. Capitolin. in Max. Juv. 
.Elius, Martianus, a lawyer who fled from Didius Julianu-. 

the emperor to save his life. 
/Elius, Sparlianus, an historian. [Vide Spartianus"] 
jElius, Melissus, a grammarian of distinction in the time 
of Aulus Gellius, who wrote, among other things, a book 
entitled 'De Loquendi Proprietate.' Aul. Gell. 1. 4, c. IS. 
/Elius, Donatus, a grammarian. [Vide Donatus~J 
jElius, Lampridius, an historian. [""Vide Lampridius"] 
AELIUS, pons (Gcog.) abridge in the city of Rome that lead-. 

to the Vatican, now Ponte di S. Angela. 
AELLO (Myth.) 'At'AXw, inro r>;c uiWnc, i. e. a procel/a. 
from a storm ; one of the harpies, so called from the celerity 


of its course, in which it resembled a stormv wind. Ilcsiod. 
Theog. v. 287 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 13, v. 710. 
Aello, one of Actseon's dogs. 
Ovid. Met. 1. 3, v. 220. 

l 3 r<i validtisque Lacon et cursufiirtis Aello. 

AELLOPUS (Mi/t/i.) 'AtWomr, one of the haqrics. Apollod. 
1. l, c. 9- 

AELMEB (Biog.) vide Ayhner. 

AELST (Biog.) Evert, or Everhard Van, a Dutcli painter, 
was born at Delft in 1G02, and died in 1658. He was re- 
markable for bis skill in painting fruit and game., William Fan, nephew of the preceding, was born at 
Delft in 1620, and died in 1(579- His pictures were higldy 
valued for their delicacy and resemblance to real life. 

ELURI (Geog.) a people inhabiting the Alps, by which they 
were separated from the Gauls. They had many fortresses 
which were garrisoned in the time of the Goths. 

ELURUS (Myth.) A'lXxpoc, the cat which was sacred among 
the Egyptians, and buried with divine honours. Herod. 
1. 2, c. 66; Diod. 1. 1 ; Cic. dc Nat. Deor. 1. 1 ; Aul. Cell. 
1. 20, c. 7 ; Vlut. in Prcec. 
KM ARORUM, moiis (Geog.) a lown of Gallia Narboncnsis, 
now Montlimar. 

EMATHION (Hist.) a king of the Ethiopians conquered 
by Hercules in war. 

-EMILIA, gens (Hist.) a patrician family of Rome, which 
was distinguished in the different branches of the Mamer- 
cini, Paulli, Lepidi, Scauri, Sec QVide JEmilia and MmUius~] 

.Emilia (His/.) a vestal who rekindled the fire of Vesta by 
putting her veil over it. Dionys. Hal. 1. 2 ; Fa/. Ma.r. 
1. 1, c. 1. 

.Ejiilia, the wife of P. Scipio Africanus, was distinguished 
by her forbearance towards her husband, whom she suspected 
of infidelity. At his death she gave in marriage to one of 
her freednien the maid who had been the favorite of Scipio. 
Lie. 1. 38, c. 57 ; Ful. Max. 1. 6, c. 7. 

Ejiilia, Lepida, daughter of Lepidus, who married Drusus 
the younger, was infamous for her wantonness. She killed 
herself on being accused of adultery with a slave. Tacit. 
Annul. 1. 6, c. 40. 

.Emilia, a vestal virgin, was condemned to death for incest. 
Lie. Epit. 1. 6'3. 

Ejiilia, the daughter of M. /Emilius Scaurus, and daughter- 
in-law to Scylla, was married to Pompey, and died in child- 
lied, l'lul. in Si/I. el Voniji. 

.Ejiilia, gens (Numis.) different branches of this family, as 
those of the Lepidi, Paulli, Scauri, Bucie, Rcgilli, Barbula.and 
Puppi, are distinguished on medals. A medal of L. Paullus 
the conqueror of Perseus, king of Macedonia, represents, on 
the obverse, as in fig. 1, a figure of the goddess Concordia, 
with the inscription PAULLUS LEPIDUS, emblematical 
of the harmony which had been restored between Paullus 
and his adopted brother Lepidus ; the consul dedicating a 
trophy ; Perseus standing opposite with his hands bound 
behind him ; and near him, his two sons, who were led in 

triumph with their Gather. The inscription TER. is sup- 
posed to refer to the treble victory of this Emilius. A 

medal of M. Emilius Lepidus represents, on the oh verse, as 

in fig. 2, the head of Venus Vidrix crowned witli laurel, 
and the inscription ROMA, behind a civic crown, emblema- 
tical of the honour which he received in his youth ; before 
is an earthen chalice, the emblem of his office, as Pon- 


tifex Maximus: on the reverse, an equestrian statue of him 
Qvide .Emilius~\, as a youth of 15, dressed in his pra;texta, 
bearing a trophy to mark his triumph over the Gauls and 

Ligurians. Marcus LEPIDUS ANaorum XV. PRwtextatui 

Husiem Oceidit Civem Servavit. Another medal struck 
by Alexandria in Egypt bears, on the obverse, as in fig. 3, 

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

the turreted head of a female to designate the town, legend 
AAEXANDPEA; on the reverse, the same consul present- 
ing the royal crown to the youth, king Ptolemy, to whom 
he was nominated guardian ; the young king is painted in 
a toga as an emblem of his being a Roman citizen, holding 
in his right-hand a spear surmounted with an eagle to in- 
dicate that he invoked the military power of the Romans to 
his aid against his enemies. A fourth medal represents, as 
in fig. 4, Aretas, king of Arabia, bending on his knee, and 
presenting an olive branch, as a token of submission, to his 
conqueror Scaurus the C'urule Edile ; on his left-hand 
stands a camel, the inscription at the top Marcus SCAURm* 
AEDifo CURulis, at the bottom REX ARETAS, across 
EX Senalus Consii/lo: on the reverse a figure of Jupiter, 
with his thunder-bolt, in a chariot and four, inscription 

Vuhlius HYPSAEb* AEDtfis CURbB* Caius HYPSAEw 
COnSul PREIVERnum CAPTUmy a scorpion for the mint- 
Ejiilia, 7,c.r (Hist.) the name given to two laws enacted by 
the Emilii ; namely, one by Emilius the dictator, U. C. 309, 
to limit the censorship to a year and a half; and a sumptuary 
law in (>7o by M. Emilius Lepidus, or, according to Pliny, 
of M. Emilius Scaurus in 638. Lie. I. 4. c. 24, &C. : /'////. 

1. 8, c. 57 ; Aurcl. Fid. de Fir. illust. c. 72 ; Aul. Gel. 1. 2, 
c. 24; Macro/). Saturn. 1. 2, c. 13; August, de leg. in 
/Emilia y Hulnian. Antiq. Hum. ; Vig/i. Annul. Roman. ; 
Vanviii. Faslor. Rosin. Antiq. Roman.; Gra'v. Tlies. Antiq, 
Roman, vol. viii. &C 

Ejiilia (Geog.) that part of Italy through which the Emi- 
lian road runs to Ariminus, which received its name from 
the emperor Augustus. 
Marl. 1. (>', ep. (it. 

Fund? tit,) Lichriinuis, oiiata Bmumia, liufo 

Ft MKKMf totii jilitnctus in 

Ejiilia, Iribus (Top.) one of the Roman tribes, so called 
from the illustrious family of the Emilii, who transplanted 
themselves into it. Cic. ad Altie. 1. 2, ep. 14 ; Lie. 1. :;h. 
c. :;(i. 

Ejiilia, por/irtis, the name of two porticoes erected by the 
Ediles, M. Emilius Lepidus and L. Emilius Paulus, One 
without the Porta Trigemina, and the other from the l'orta 
Lontinalis to the Ara Martii. Lie. 1. 35, c. 10 ; Martian. 
Topog. Rom. Fcl. 1. 5, c. 13. 

Emilia, via, the name of two roads ; namely, 1. A road made 
by M. .'Emilius M. F. Lepidus, hading from Ariminus to 
Aquilcia, of which Martial speaks, 1. 3, ep. .'>'. 

Ui'lnu 1 ltd?, Id'i i\ si I > nil / . Iilidi 1 , ijim-rt 

A'-mil'uf dt- rtgims 1 k - 

2. A road made by Emilius Scaurus leading through Pisa. 

Sini/i. I. ', ; Lie. 1. 29, e.2; Panvin. Descript. Urb. Rom. 
amid GraiC. Tlies. torn. iii. p. 262. 
EM1LIANA (Gear.) a town of the Oretani, in Spain. Viol. 

EMILIANI, SI. Jerome (Fee.) a nobleman of Venice, WW 
born in 1481, and died in l/i.37. He laid the foundation of 
the regular clerks of St. Maieul, called also the Fathers of 
Tomasquo, and enrolled in the calendar by Benedict XIV. 


.EMILIANUS {Hist) the name of Africanus Minor, the 
son of P. jEmilius. In him the families of the jErnilii and 
Scipios were united. There were several of the same name 
according to Juvenal. 
Sat. L 8^ c. 3. 

Stantes in cvrribus JEmiliatim. 

/Emilianus, a general under Niger, who rebelled against 

Severus. Dio. c. 74; Spartian. in Sever* 
jEmilianus Julius, C, a native of Mauri- 
tania, who was proclaimed emperor after 

the death of Decius, hut was soon after 

put to death. Trcbell. Pollin. Galien. 
jEmilianus Fulvius, three times consul, 

U. C. 959, 997, and 1029- 
/EM I LI US {Myth.) a beautiful youth of 

Sibaris, and a great hunter, whose wife, 

going into the woods after him out of jealousy, was torn to 

pieces by dogs, in consequence of which the husband stabbed 

himself. Phil, in Parallel. 
jEmilius {Hist.) the second son of Ascanius, to whom some 

ascribe the origin of the family of the jErnilii. Fest. de 

Sign, Verb. 
jEmilius Censorinus, a cruel tyrant of Sicily, from whom 

the family of the /Emilii are said to be descended. QVide 

.Emilius, an ancient patrician family of Rome, supposed to be 

descended from Mamercus, the son of Pythagoras, or, as 

some will have it, from ./Emilius Censorinus. The name 

was illustrious in the branches of the Lepidi, Mamerei, 

Paulli, Scauri, &c. Plut. in Num. ct sEmyl. 
jEmilius, L., three times consul, and the conqueror of the 

Volsci, U. C. 273- Liv. 1. 2, c. 42. 
.•Emilius, Ti, twice consul, and once quinquevir mensarius. 

Lit'. 1. 2, &c. 
.Emilius, Mam., once consul, and three times dictator, ob- 
tained a triumph over the Fidenates, U. C. 329 ; Liv. 1. 4, 

c 16, &c. 
jE.milius, C, twice a military tribune, with consular power, 

was successful against the iEqui and Volsci, U. C .Hit). 

Liv. 1. 5, c. 26. 
.Emilius, L., five times military tribune with consular power. 

Liv. 1. 6, c. 1, &c. 
jEmilius, L., fourteen times interrex. 
jEmilius Mamercinus, M., three times consular tribune. 
.Emilius Mamercinus, L-, twice consul, and twice dictator. 

Liv. 1. 7, c. 1. 
.Emilius Mamercinus, Ti-, a consul U. C. 415, engaged as 

a partisan in broils with the senate. Liv. 1. 8, c. 12. 
.Emilius Pappus, M., was created dictator after the defeat of 

the Romans at Fume Caudinse. Liv. 1. 9> c. 7. 
Emilius Barbula, Q., twice consul. Liv. 1. Q. 
.Emilius Paullus, AT, a master of the horse to M. Valerius, 

dictator, was defeated with much loss in an affair with the 

Etruscans. Liv. 1. 10, c. 3. 
.Emilius Pappus, L., a consul, triumvir, pra-tor, and decemvir. 

Liv. 1. 20, 23, 28, 42. 
.Emilius Paullus, L., a man of singular prudence and valour, 

who fell at the battle of Cann<£. Liv. 1. 23, c. 49 ; Plut. 

in JEmijl. 
Emilius Regilius, L., a pnetor, obtained a naval triumph 

over Antiochus. Liv. 1. 37, c. 31. 
Emilius Paullus Macedonicus, L., twice consul, triumphed 

over Perseus, king of Macedonia. Liv. 1. 34 ; Pint, in 

.Emilius Lepidus, M., was twice consul and augur. At his 

death his three sons exhibited funeral games in honour of 

him for three days, during which 22 couple of gladiators 

were engaged. Liv. 1. 23, c. 30. 
jEmilius Regillus, M., a flamen quirinaiis, and flamen mar- 


tialis, was also proposed as consul, but not finally elected. 
Liv. 1. 24, &c 

tEmilius Numida, M., a decemvir of the sacred rites, U. C. 
541, died within the period of his office. Liv. 1. 26, c. 23. 

jE.milius Pappus, M., died when he was chief curio, U. C. 

-Emilius Scaurus, M., was of a noble family, but so poor 
that they were obliged to maintain themselves by selling 
coals. He rose, however, by his eloquence, to be twice 
consul, and once princeps senatus, after which he was sent 
against Jugurtha, from whom he was accused of receiving 
a bribe, but acquitted of the charge. Sallust, however, 
describes him to be " Homo nobilis, impiger, factiosus, 
audax, sed vitia sua callide occultans, cum esset vir consu- 
laris, et in senatu princeps, ab eo mittitur ad Jugurtham 
orator, ut cum ab oppugnatione Certa-, et obsidione Adher- 
balis amoveret." Sallust. in Jugurth. ; Vic. in Brut. c. 5 ; 
Ascon. in Cic. pro Scaur. ; Plin. 1. 36, c. 15 ; Val. Max. 
1. 4, c. 4 ; Aurcl. Vict, de Illust. Vir. 

jEmilius Scaurus, M., an orator who flourished about 100 
years B. C. and wrote orations, three books to L. Fufidius, 
and an account of his life, which Cicero describes as " sane 
utiles quos nemo legit." 

jEmilius Scaurus, M., son of the preceding, and son-in-law 
to Sylla, built a splendid theatre. A farther account of 
him is given under Numismatics. £Vide /Emilia gens} 
Ascon. in Cic. Orat. pro Scaur. Plin. 1. 33, c. 15, &c. 

jE.milius Lepidus, M., twice consul, once censor and pon- 
tifex maximus six times, princeps senatus, and guardian 
to Ptolemy Epiphanes, in the name of the Roman people ; 
was. according to Valerius Maximus, one of the most dis- 
tinguished of the family of the jEmilii. He it was to whom 
a statue was erected when a youth of 15, for having saved 
the life of a citizen, and to which allusion is made in the 
medals of this jEmilius. [Vide /Emilia gens under Numis- 
matics'} Liv. 1.41, c. 22; Epit. 1. 48. 

jEmilius Pappus, a censor with Fabricius Lucinus, and as 
consul, U. C. 528, triumphed over the Gauls. 

jEmilius Lepidus, M., a consul three times, i.e. U. C. 617, 
628, 677, in which latter year he diod in Sicily, after 
having made war upon his country, and been defeated by 
Pompey. Cic. in Verr. 1. 3, c. 91 ; A pp. Epit. 80. 

jEmilius Paulus, L., a consul with C. Claudius Marcellus. 
U. C. 704. 

jEmilius Lepidus, Q., a consul with M. Lollius, U. C. 733. 

jEmilius Lepidus, M., the triumvir. [Vide Lepidus} 
Emilius Sex, or rather -Elius Q. F. Catus, a consul, 757- 

-Emilius, L. M. F. Lepidus, IS.., was consul with L. Ar- 
runtius, U. C. 759, and with T. Statilius Taurus, in 764. 

jE.milius Rectus, a governor of Egypt, was reproved liv 
Tiberius for extortion. Dio. 1. 57- 

-Emilius Scaurus, M., a senator of distinction, was put to 
death by Tiberius, for writing a tragedy entitled, ' Atreus.' 
Dio. 1. 58. 

jEmilius Pacensis, a general under Otho, was killed by his 
own soldiers. Sac- Hist. 1. 1, c. 4. 

jEmilius Longinus, a deserter from the first legion, who 
hastened the death of the lieutenant Vocula, was himself 
killed bv the soldiers of the Byzantine wing. Tac. Hist. 
1. 4, c. 59, 72. 

jEmilius Junctus, or Juncus, a consul, was sent with his 
colleague Attilio Severus into exile, by Commodus. Lam- 
prid. in Commod. 

jEmilius Pampinianus, P., a prefect under Severus. [Vide 

jEmilius Ljetus, a consul. [Vide Laztus} 

-Emilius, Maeer {Biog.) a poet. [Vide Macer} 

jEmilius, Pauleus, an historian of Verona, who died in 1.529, 
was the author of a history of the French monarchy, from 
the rei'jn of Pharamond, to the fifth year of Charles \ III, 


1 180 ; entitled • De Gestis Francorum Lifari x.' &e. 2 vols. 

f'ol. first printed in 15,'ili, and afterwards in 1543, 1548, 

I576j iGOl, and 1644; but the edition of 157*' is reckoned 

the best. 
.Emimts, Anthony, professor of history at Utrecht, was born 

Dec. 20, 1589, at Aix-la-chapelle, and died Nov. 10, I6'(i0. 

He wrote only a collection of Latin orations and poems, 

I'Jmn. 1(351. 
ZEmursB, pons {Top.') a bridge at Rome. [Vide Sublicius} 
EMIXES {Geog.) now Cassis, a sea-port of Gallia Narbo- 

-EMINIUM (Geog.) Aifiiviov, or Eminium, a town of Por- 
tugal, supposed by Vasseus to be the present Agueda. Plot. 

1. 2, c 5 ; I 'us. Chron. Ver. Hisp. 
.EM I XI US (Geog.) a river of Spain, as Pliny asserts after 

Vano. Plm. L4>, c. 21. 
.EMXESTUS (Hist.) 'AeiuvJi*os, tyrant of Enna, a city of 

Syracuse, who was deposed by Dionysius the elder. Diod. 1. 1 1. 
55MONIA (Geos.-) vide Hannonia. 
.EMOMDES (Myth.) a priest of Apollo, killed by .Eneas, 

in Italy. 

I'irg. /En. 1. 10, v. 537- 

Non procul ffimomdet PAofri TrhAequs saeerdos. 

EMUXDUS (Biog.) an historian of the lfith century, who 

wrote the lives of the Dukes of Burgundy, from the Trojan 

war to the time of the emperor diaries V. 
.EMUS (Geog.) vide Hwmus. 
-ENARIA (Geog.) an island in the bay of Puteoli, called by 

the poets Inarime, now Ischia, was famous for its hot baths. 

Liv. 1. 8, c. 22 ; Mela, 1. 2, c. 9 ; PU»- 1- 3, c. 6 ; Ovid. 

Met. 1- 14, v. 88 ; Sil. Iltil. 1. 8, v. 511 ; Appian. Bell. Civ. 

i 5 ; Sylv. 1. 3 ; Sever. Desc. JEl. ; Serv. in Mn. 1. y, 

v. 7 Hi. ' 
.EXARIUM (Top.) 'Aivaplov, a grove sacred to Jupiter, near 

to Olenos in Achaia, where the Achscans met to consult on 

affairs of state. Strab. 1. 8. 
EXEA (Med.) an epithet for the Catheta. 
/Enka (Geog.) -Enia, or JEneia, a town of Macedonia, 14 

miles from Thessalonica, now Moncastro. It was called 

after /Eneas, by whom it was founded. The gentile name 

'Aotanic, in the plural Aineates, according to Livv. Herod. 

1. 7, c. 123 ; Liv. 1. 40, c. 4 ; Slep/i. Byz de Uib. 
/ENEAD;E (Aid.) the companion of iEneas, so called by 


Virg. Mn. 1. 1, v. 1.58. 

Defesii JEneadtr, qua: proximo, lit/tra cunu 
Contendunt petere, 

.EXEADES (Geog.) a town of Chersonesus, built by /Eneas, 

which was destroyed by Cassander. Dionys. Hal. 1. 1. 
I'.XKAS (Mi/lli.) 'Aiveiat, the son of Venus and Anchiscs, 
celebrated as one of the Trojan heroes, whose travels and 
adventures form the subject of Virgil's poem. Tin- Romans 
trace their origin from his settlement in Italy. Virgil gives 
him the epithet of Pius. Dionyss. Hal. 1. 1, c. 1 1 ; Liv. 
1. 1, C 1 ; Pint- in Roinnl. 

.Eneas, Sylvias, the son of /Eneas and Lavinia, who suc- 
ceeded Ascanius in Italy. Liv. 1. 1, c. I ; Serv. in .Eneid. 
1. (i, v. 770. 

/Eneah (Numis.) medals of Julius 
Cn;sar represent ./Eneas, as on the 
annexed cut, bearing his father 
on Ins ihoulders, and Julius fol- 
lowing, non passibtU dijiiis : in 
allusion (o the origin 01 Rome, 
and the Julian family. Aiirel. 
I'ii lor. de Orig. Roman.; Lie. 
1. I, c. 1, &c. ; Vaill. Xnmis. Imp. 

JEnBAB (Hist.) son of Ocytas, was one of the plenipotentiaries 


in the treaty of peace between the Athenians and Lace- 
demonians, in the eighth year of the Peloponnesian war- 
Time. 1. 4, c. \\[). 

Xneas, Stymphalius, an Arcadian general, subverted the go- 
vernment of Euphrones, ruler of Sicyon. Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 7- 

JEsKAB, Tactions (Biog.) a writer who lived about the time 
of Aristotle, from whose work entitled ' Srparayijrucoic/ or 
tile art of a commander, there remains a treatise entitled 
4 Tai.To.or Kai UoXiopxtyriKdv,' on tactics and sieges. /Elian 
mentions an epitome of this treatise made by (yneas, the 
minister Pvrrhus, king of Epirus. Voss. de Math. c. 48, 
§ 3, 4; De Hist. Grac 1. 4, c. 11. 

/Eneas, Gazetis, a native of Gaza, who from a Platonic phi- 
losopher became a Christian, A. D. 485. He wrote a dia- 
logue on the immortality of the soul, entitled ' Theo- 
phrastus,' a Latin translation of which, with the notes of 
Gaspard Barthius, was published in 4to. Lips. 1655. A 
Latin translation was also published in Gessner's ' Libri 
Grseci Theologorum Gnccorum,' fol. Tigur, 1559. 

•Eneas, or Mngus, an Irish abbot of the eighth century, sur- 
named Hagiagraphus, from bis having written the lives of 
the saints, died as is supposed about the year 81(). He 
wrote, 1. ' De Sanctis Hiberniie.' 2. ' Litanies and Invo- 
cations of the Saints,' &c. 3. ' The History of the Old 
Testament, in verse.' 4. • A Psalter concerning the Affair* 
of Ireland.' 

.Eneas, Sylvius (Eee.) a pope, who assumed the name of 
Pius II. [Vide Pius 77] 

/EXEOS (Geog.) a town of Thrace. 

.EXESIAS (Hist.) Aivjjff/ae, one of the Ephori at Sparta, at 
the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, mentioned 
bv Thucvdides. Thiicyd. Bell. Pclop. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Xenophon 
Hellen. 1. 2. 

/EXESIDEMUS (Hist.) a brave general of Argos, who pre- 
ferred to die tighting in defence of the city, than to accept 
the terms proposed by the enemy. Lie. 1. 32. c. 25. 

/Enesidemus (Biog.) a native of Alexandria in Egypt, lived a 
little before the time of Aristocles. He wrote eight books 
on the doctrine of Pvrrho. of which extracts are to be found 
in Photius, Phot. Bibl Codex. 212. 

.EXESIUS (My l/i.) an epithet for Jupiter, from mount 

.EX KIT'S (Hist.) Wtyiiroc, a governor of Ephesus, under 
Demetrius, who lost the city through the stratagems of 
LyCUS and Andron. Polycen. 1. 5, c. If). 

.Enetus (Biog.) a victor at the Olympic games, who died from 
excess of joy at the moment of receiving the crown. Paus. 

1. 3, c. IS. ' 

/ENIUS (Myth.) the father of Cyzicus, hence called /Enides 

by Valerius Flam is. Elac. 1. 3. 
7EXIA (Geog.) 1. A town of Macedonia, now Moncastro. 

2. 'Atvla, a town of l'erncbia, the gentile name 'Amavcr, 
or 'An uie; and probably they are the same people as the 
following. Steph. Byz. de I i/t. 

.Enia (Xinnis.) the medals of this people, which are of rude 
fabrick and great antiquity, bear the head of Minerva, and 
sometimes that of Jupiter, bearded : and Mercury with his 
caducous in the attitude of a combatant ; and inscription, 

.EXTAXES (Geog.) a people of Thessaly, near the bay of 
MeliaCUS, between the .l'.toli and the Molossi ; Scylax calls 
them, 'Ainiiii'', Sirabo Aiviavcc, of 'Aii-iuc, Pliny /Enienses. 
Scylax. in Peripl. ; Strab. 1. <) ; Plin. 1. 2, c. 2 ; Pint, in 
(}ikcM. Grtre. 

iEXICUS (Biog.) a comic writer at Athens, whose comedies 
are mentioned by Pollux and others. 

.E.XOBAKBUS {Hist.) vide Ahenobarbus. 

/EXOS (Geog.) ATvoft a town of Thrace, so called after 
jEneas, its founder, now In. or Eno. Polyb.1.5, c. 34 j 
Mela, 1. 2, ft 2 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 11; Step*. Byz. de Urb. 


JEnos (Xinnis.) there are several medals of this town extant., 
which bear a head covered with a bonnet, which has been 
ascribed by some to -Eneas, as the founder of this town, 
by Beger, to /Eneas, a companion of Ulysses, but by Pel- 
lerin, with greater probability to Mercury, who was honoured 
here, and is represented with his symbol, the caduceus, the 
inscription AINION, or sometimes AIM A I Mil, and in a 
medal of Adrian AEIXH1N ENGPAKH. I'aillant. Num. 
Grivc. ; Beg. vol. iii. p. 56 ; Harduin. Num. Ant. Pop. 
Illustrat. ; Teller. Rec vol. i. p. 193. 

.ENOTHERUS (Hist.) a giant of the Swedish nation, in the 
armv of Charlemagne. Aventin. AnnaL Boior. 1. 4. 

JEN I IS (Geog.) a river of Germany, now the Inus. 

.EOLES (Geog.) the people of .Eolis, so called from .Eolus, 
the son of Hellenus, who passed over from Greece into the 
country of Asia, to which they gave the name of -Eolis, 
about 1124 years before the Christian Era. 

/EOLIA (Poet.) an epithet applied to Sappho by Horace, who 
calls her the Malta puclla, because she was a native of 
Lesbos, in /Eolia. 
Hor. 1. 4, od. 9, v. 10. 

Spiral adhuc amor, 
Vivuutque commissi catores 
.£oiiu JuHbus paellie. 

/Eolta (Geog.) or Molis, A.oX.r, a country of Asia Minor, 
near the /Egean Sea, so called from Molis [Vide Moles'], 
now the country of the Hellespont, or Sarctim, according to 
Diog. Perieges. v. 820. 

T:i>< ce air' AioXicoe irapani-XTaTai ijBea yahjQ 
Aiyaia irapd xt.Xoc vrrio piyav 'E\\i}*tkovtov. 

Tlie principal towns in .Eolis are Larissa, Cyme, Marina, 
which are maritime, and -Eg;e, Attalia, Posidea, Neontichos, 
Temnos, which are inland. 

-Eolia, another name for the JEufue. 

.EOLI.E (Geog.) Molides, or MoUdce, seven islands between 
Sicily and Italy called Lipara, Hiera, Strongyle, Didyme, 
Eriensa, Phoenicusa, and Euonymos, which were called 
Vulcanise on account of their eruptions, now the Lipari 
Isles. Virgil denominates them JEolia, the kingdom of 
.Eolus, and the country of the winds. 
Tirg. Mn. 1. 1, v. 51. ' 

Nimborum inpatriam, leva ftetafitrmtibut Austris 
JEoHam oemt. Hie vasto nx /Eolus antro. 

According to Dionysius they were called Plota; v. 46' 1, 465. 
Ttjv ?e per' Aio'Xb ini Trtpicpopot liv d\i I'ijaoi 

'E-Trrd £. oi rat y' utjiv imSw/un avtpdai H\wrai 

Poh/b. 1. 5 ; Diodor. 1. 4 ; Strab. 1. (i ; Mel I 2 ; Plin. 1. 3 ; 

Appian. de Bell. Civ. 1. 5 ; Ptol. 1. :;. 
/EOLIDES (Myth.) a patronymic of Ulysses, from /Eolus, 

the father of Sisyphus, by whom Antkiea was said to be 

pregnant with Ulysses before her marriage with Laertes. 
iEoLiDES (Geog.) ride Moliat. 

/SOLIUM (Geog.) a town of the Thracian Chersonesus. 
JEolium, marc, a part of the /Egean Sea, now the Gulf of 

-EOLUS (Myth.) A'loXoc, from a'io\or, nanus, so called on 

account of the changeable nature of the winds. He was 

the son of Hippotas, and king of -Eolia, the country of 

the winds. He is frequently called Hippotades. 

Appollon. Argon. 1. I, v. 77S. 

A'toXov 'iTT—uTttti nji' ("e iraiia kKvtov. 

Dionysius describes his hospitality. Perieges. v. 462. 

Aio'Xb 'itnroTacao £uXo->iVb fiatriXijoc,, 
Ato'Xa oc Ontjrd per' dvCpdmv (XXa^-c Ctopa, 
Koiparitir di'tptov kKjoveovtoiv tf' \~apivotv re. 


Plutarch calls him Oiuij>i\i*a-nr, most dear to the Gods. 

Horace speaks of him as vcnlorum patrem, father of the 


Od. 1. 1, od. 3, v. 3. 

I aUorumqut Ttgat pal r 

Obstrictis atiif, prteter Jupyga. 

He is most commonly described as the ruler of the winds on 
account of his skill in astronomy and navigation. 
Horn. Odyss. 1. 10, v. 31. 

K.u'ov ydp rapiijv dl'tpiov Troiijm KpoWwi'. 

Apotton. 1. 4, v. 765. 

A-oXov ofi dvipotc aidpijytvitTfftv dvdoau. 

J'irg. Mn. 1. 1, v. 52. 

Hie vatto rti .T. 1 
Luctantes centos, tempestatesque sonoras 
Impcrio premit. 

J'irg. Mn. 1. 1, v. 56. 

Cttea tedet JEoUti arce 
1 tenens, moWtque animos, et temperal iras. 

Ovid. Met. 1. 11, v. 7 is. 

m fallal animam sententia tangat, 
QmV socer Hippbtudet libi sit ; qui eareereforles 
Conlineal in nzos. 

Vol. Flacc. 1. 1, v. 5S7, speaking of the storms, 
X. ■ e 1 m ti . 1 obu illis 
Rector ervt, Libya cum rumperet adcena Caipcn 

Stat. St/lv. 1. 1. 

Et pater .'Eelius quifrangjii careen ventp*. 

Polyb. 1. 34, c. 2 ; Diodor. 1. 4 ; Strab. 1. 1 ; Plin. 1. 7, c. 56. 

/Eolus, son of Hellenus, who is often confounded with the 
preceding. He had seven sons and five daughters. 

.Eolus, a king of Etruria. and father to Macareus and Canace. 

.EON (Myth.) the first formed woman who instructed her 
cl.ildren to feed on the fruits of trees. Sanctlion. apud Euseb. 
Prcep. Etang. 

.EPA1.1US (Hist.) Ai-.iXtoc, a king of Greece, who was 
expelled from his kingdom, and afterwards restored by Her- 
cuLs. Strab. 1. 9. 

.EPEA (Geog.) Ai-an, a town in the island of Cyprus, 
which the king Philocyprus called Soles in honour of Solon. 
Pint, in Solon. 

.Epea (Xumis.) of Messenia, had its medals, with the in- 
scription AlLTEAiaN. Hunt. Num. I'et. Pop. et. Urb. 

/faPlNUS, John (Biog.) a friend and companion of Luther's, 
who was a zealous protestant, and contended by preaching 
and writing against the Interim proposed by Charles X. 

-Epini's, Francis Marie Ulrick. Theodore, a German physi- 
cian, who was born at Rostock in 1724, and died in 1802. He 
wrote, 1. ' Tentamen Theorise Electricitatis et Magnetismi,' 
4to. Petrop. 2. ' Reflections on the Distribution of Heat on 
the Surface of the Earth.' 

-E.PIUS (Biog.) Aiirelosi a pugilist, whose boasting and 
vanity is condemned by Plutarch. Pint. Uipi rS iavrbv 

.EPULO (Hist.) a king of the Istrians, who, according to 
I. ivy, killed himself that he might not fall into the hands of 
the Roman consul Manlius ; but Florus makes him to have 
been taken alive in a state of intoxication. Liv. 1. 41, c. 1 1 ; 
Floms, 1. 2, c. 10. 

.EPY (Geog.) Al-v, a town in the territories of Nestor, 
which, according to Stephanus, was in Messenia. Homer 
calls it evKrvrov, the well-built .Epv. Horn. II. 1. 2, 
v. 592 ; Strab. 1. 9 ; Stat. The!,. 1. 4 ; Steph. Buz. 

.EPYTUS (Hist.) A/-1TO-, son of Cresphontes and Meropes, 
king of Messenia, from whom the kings of Messenia were 
afterwards called .Epvtida-. Ajmllod. 1. 2, c. (); Pans. 
1. 4, c. 8. 


iEPYTUS, a king of Arcadia, son of Elatus. 

IBmVB, another king of Arcadia, and son of Hippothous, 

who was struck blind as ho was forcing himself into the 

temple of Neptune at Mantinea. Pans. 1. 8, c. 4, 5. 
jEQUAXA (Gcog.) a town of the Pieentes, near to Surrentum, 

now Montagna ili Sorrento. 
.*EQUI (Hi.iL) a people of Latium, near Rome, who inhabited 

the country now called Pulextrina. Virgil calls them .T.qui- 

colw. JEn. 1. 7, v. 7 Hi. 

Uorritlu prifeipui- OUI MM, asmeta>]ne multo 
Vemitu nemonim, duris JEquicola gldiis. 

So also Silius. Ilal. 1. 8. 

Quiijue Ammit hnheitt ripas, gdidoque irgantur 
Simhnuw, nutriuue dbmonf TEyuxola ruro. 

The /Equi were conquered by the dictator Cincinnatus, and 
after repeated conquests were finally subdued by the dictator 
C. Junius, U. C. 451, A. C. 301. Ovid calls them JEquieoli. 
Fasti, 1. 3, v. 93. 

Quintan Eantentif, his quintum JEquicolus ucer. 

By Pliny they are called Mquiadani, by Dionysius Hali- 
carnassus, and Stephanos AiYciroi. Dtonys. Hal. 1. 'J, c. 1<); 
Lie. 1. 1, c. 32, &c. ; 1. 10, c. 1 ; Plin. h 3, c. 12 ; Flams, 
1. 1, c. 11 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 1. 

AERIA (Grog-.) a town of Gallia Narbonensis, now Vinson. 

AERIL'S (Hist.) a king of Cyprus, who founded the first 
temple at Paphos to Venus. Tac. Annul. 1. 3, c. 62. 

Aerius (Biog.) the leader of the Aerians in the 14th century, 
who, having been disappointed in a bishopric, set forth the 
doctrine that there was no real distinction between a bishop 
and a presbyter : a doctrine that has since been maintained 
by the sect called prcsbytcrians. Epiphan. liar. 1. .'!, c 75 ; 
August. Ilirr. 58; Onuph. in ('/iron. ann. 3, 40; Sander. 
Hares. 69; Prated, lit. Havel. ; Tillemont. Hist. En-lex. 

torn. lx. 
AEROPE (Myth.) the wife of Atr~us, who committed 
adultery with her brother-in-law Thyestes. Two twins, the 
fruit of this connexion, were dressed by Atrcus, and set 
before the father. Sol is said to have hidden himself that 
be might not be polluted with the sight. 
Ovid. ' 1. 2, cleg. 1, v. 391. 

Si rum Aeropenfrater sceleratiis anuUset, 
Convene Sutis non legeremus smaw. 

AEROPUS (Myth.) .Vinoiror, the son of Mars by Aerope. 

Pan*. 1. .s, c. 1 1. 
Aeropus ( the son of Cepheus, and father of Echemus, 

who came to the throne of Arcadia. Herod. 1. <(, c. 26. 
Aeropus, AepotfTOCj or Europus, a king of Macedonia, who 
succeeded Philip the First, lleroil. 1. ,S, c. 137 ; Diod. 1. 1 1, 
. . 88 ; Polyan. 1. 2, c. 1 ; Justin. 1. 7, c. 2. 

AerOIH's and DamasippUS, two leaders in the army of Philip, 
king of Macedonia, who were banished for introducing an 
itinerant singer into the camp. I'uli/n-ii. 1. 1, c. 2. 

\KI'i)i'i;s, a pra-tnr of the Kpimtr, ami one of the ambas- 
sadors appointed to make peace with Philip, king of Mace- 

AERTGEX (Biog.) or Aargen, son of a woolcomber, and a 
painter of Loydcii, was born in 1 4!)8, and drowned in [564. 

He became so distinguished that Francis Moris, a gnat 
painter in that day, recognized him by a painting of St. 
Luke on a wall. 

AER'J'S, Richard (Biog.) son of a fisherman, and a painter, 

was born at Wye k, in N. Holland, in 1 182. lie was the 
disciple of John Moestart, and one of the first artists in bis 
time. He died at the age of <).">. 

AERTSKN, Peter (Biog.) son of a stocking-manufacturer, ami 
a distinguished painter, was born at Amsterdam in loi.O, 

and died in 1578. One of his must esteemed works was an 

altar-piece for the clinivh of our lady at Amsterdam. 

ESAPUS (Geog.) or /Esepiis, Ai<n/7roc, a river of Mysia, 


flowing down Mount Ida into the Hellespont, now Spiga. 
Plin. 1. 5, c. 22 ; Ptol. 1. 5, c. 2. 

2ESARE-US (Geog.) belonging to the river iEsarus, an epithet 
employed by Ovid. Met. 1. 15, v. 54. 

/ESARUS (Geog.) A'irrapoc, now E.iaro ; a river flowing 
into the sea near Crotona, which Ovid describes as lapidosas 
Ae.iari.i nncla.i. Strab. 1. 5 ; Oriel. Mel. 1. 15, v. 22. 

yESCHIXES (Hist.) A<V x <V»jr, a chief of the Etrctrians, who 
laid open to the Athenians the treacherous designs of his 
countrymen. Herod. 1. 6, c. 100. Plutarch mentions an 
Machines, a general of the Lamprensian tribe, who lived at 
the same time, anil was obliged to fly from the Grecian 
camp to escape the sentence passed upon him by Aristides. 
Pint, in Aristid. 

iEscHiNES, the rival of Demosthenes, flourished about 432 years 
A. C, and died in exile at Rhodes, or, according to some, at 
Samos. He wrote the orations called after the Graces; and 
nine, or, according to some, twelve epistles. The orations 
only are extant, which are generally to be found with those 
of Lvsias. Cic. 1. 2, c. 23 ; 1. 3, c. 56 ; Pint, in Demosth. ; 
Plin'. 1. 7, c. 30. 

/Eschines (Biog.) an empyrie of Athens, who cured many 
disorders with the dust of excrement, which he called 
Botryon. Plin. 1. 2S, c. 4. 

./Eschines, an empyrie of Chios, who gained great reputation 
by the restoration of Eunapius, who was at the point of death. 

./Eschines of Elis, who gained two victories at the games of 
the quinquertii. Pans. 1. 6*. 

/Eschines, Diogenes Laertius mentions eight of this name. 

.•Eschines, a Socratic, and son of Charius, a sausage-maker, 
wrote dialogues entitled Miltiades, Callias, 
Axiochus, Aspasia, Alcibiadcs, Tolauges, Rhi- 
non, &C, which he professed to have received / 
from Xantippe, the wife of Socrates. The \ 
best editions of his works are that of Leovard, 
1718, and that of Fisher, 8vo. Lip. 1766. 
His effigy is given, as in the annexed figure. 
1. 2 ; Ili. Msch. ; Pint, tie Adiilal. 

.Eschines, an Arcadian, was a disciple of Socrates. 

j^Escuines, a Mitylenean, who was called the scourge of 

/Eschines, a Neapolitan, and an academic, who, with Car- 

neades, founded an academy. (7c. de Oral. 1. 1, c. 11. 
-Eschines, a Milesian, and an orator, whose style of oratory 

was followed by Cicero. Cie. Brut. e. 95. 
.Eschines, a Statuary. Diog. I.aerl. 1. 2, § (i0, &C. : Allien. 

1. 5, c. 20. 
.ESCHRECS (Hist.) .VnT Xl n„r. father of Lycomedes the 

Athenian. Herodot. 1. 8, c. 11. 
.'i'.Sl 1 1 1! I( >\ (Hist.) Aitrxpiui; a Samian, from whom the 

tribus .Eschrionia received its name. Herod. 1. 8, C. 26. 
,Ks< iiiiioN, an Acarnanian, who favoured the Romans. Poli/li. 

1. 28, e. 5. 
/EsCHRION, a lieutenant of Arehagathus, who was killed by 

I [anno. Diod. 1. 20. 

.EscHKION (Biog.) a poel of Mitylcne, and friend of Aris- 
totle, who accompanied Alexander on his expedition into 

Asia. Poet. Grac. 
T'.scnnioN, 'lapfioirotbs, an Iambic poet of Samos, quoted by 

Alhemcus, 1. 7, c. 12; 1. 8, c. 3; Tze/z. in I.i/eop/i. 

v. 117- 
/KsriimoN, an empiric physician, who was master to Galen, 

by whom he is commended. Gal. de Simpl. Medieam. 

Facultat. 1. 11, c. 84. 
.ESC'IIYEIDES (Biog.) AttrvyX/dqc, a writer on agriculture, 

quoted by .'Elian. Hist. Anvm. 1. Hi, c. 82. 
AESCHYLUS (Hist.) the twelfth perpetual archon of Athens, 

i: Igni d 28 yi ars, A. ('. 7.01. 

.Esciiyu's, a Corinthian, was brother-in-law to Tiniouhancs, 

the friend of Timoleon. Phil, in Timol. 

Dio". Laert. 


JEschylus, a Rhodian, who was set over Egypt by Alex- 
ander. Quint. Curl. 1. 4, c. 8. 
jEschvlus (Biog.) Aiirjp/Xos, son of Euphormion, a soldier, 
and a tragic writer, wrote ninety tragedies, seven only of 
which are extant ; namely, ' Prometheus Vinctus,' ' Septem 
Duces apud Thebas,' * Persae,' * Agamemnon,' ' Choephori,' 
' Eumenides,' and ' Supplices.' He died in the 69th year 
of his age, 456 A. C. from a stone which a tortoise let fall 
on his head. Horace makes him the inventor of tragedy. 
Hot. Ars. Poet. 

Pwt liitnc, persoruE pailieque repcrtor honestts, 

JEschnlus et modicis mstravit pulptia liguis 

Et cUxuil magnoque loqui, nitique Cothurno. 
Propertius calls tragedy the JEschyleam Cuthurnum. 
Prop. 2, eleg. 8. 

Desine et .-Esch jjlev comptmere verba Cothurtuh 

Quintilian maintains the same, 1. 10, c. 1. 

Tragediai primus in lucem JEschyhu protidit. 

The best editions of his works are those of Stanley, fol. 

London, 1663 ; Robertellus, 8vo. 1552 ; Vietorius, Paris, 

4to. 1557. Herod. 1. 2, c. 156; Plin. 1. 10, c. 3; Val. 

Max. 1. 9, c. 12; .Elian. V. H. 1. 5, e. 1.0; Hist. Anon. 

1. 7, c. 10'; Pans. 1. 1, c. 14 ; Allien. 1. 1, c. 18. 
^Eschvlus, a native of Cnidus, and a rhetorician, instructed 

by Cicero. Cic, Brut. c. 91 ; de Oral. c. 175, &C. 
^ESCULAPIDES (Myth.) a patronymic for the descendants 

of ^sculapius, of whom Hippocrates was the most distin- 
jESCULAPIUS (Myth.) AitrxKiptiae } according to Cicero 

there were three of this name. 
JEsculapius, son of Apollo by Coronis of Phlegias, who was 

the god of medicine. 

Horn. Hymn, in JEsculap. 

'lijrijpa votrtvv Al<7K\t]7rwi' dp\op' diicttv 
"Ytov 'AttoWuh'oc, rov iyelvaero cla KopwWc. 

He is surnamed $t\d\aoc, Philolaus, or a lover of the 
people, from his healing art ; Voprvvios from being wor- 
shipped particularly at Gortyna ; KoruXf'wc, Cotyleus, from 
the cure he effected on the thigh of Hercules. His mother 
was killed by Apollo out of jealousy, but the child was 
taken alive from the womb. 
Pind. in Pi/th. od. 3. 

Ilato' ik viKpS 
' Apiraai. 

Jupiter afterwards killed him by a thunderbolt. 

Ilrg. .En. 1. 7, v. 772. 

Ipse repertorem tnedicina talis et arlis 

Fulmiue Phoebiginam Stugias detrusit ad undas. 

A further account of him may be found under Numismatics. 

Plato in Phwdor. ; Polyb. 1. 1, c. IS, Sec ; Apollad, 1. 3,c. 10 ; 

Diod. 1. 4; Pahephat'. c. 27 ; Cic. de Nat. Dcor. 1. 3, c. 22; 

Hygin. fab. 14, 49, &c; Plin. 1. 29, c. 1 ; Grid. Met. 1. 2, 

fab. 8 j Pint, in Sijmp. 1. 9, c. 14; Lucian. de Saltat. ; 

Puns. 1. 32, c. 14, &c. ; Lactant. de fids. Rclig. 1. 1, e. 10; 

Eralosth. c. 6; de Signif. Verb.} Clemens, Alex- 
andria. Strom.; Tcrlul. Apt/1, c. 23 ; Tzet. Chit. 10, Hist. 

349 ; Serv. in Mneid. ; Schol. in Eurip. ad Alcest. v. 1 ; 

Gyrald. Si/ntag. Dcor.; Zcnob. Proverb, cent- 1, c. 18; 

Natal. Coin. 1. 4, c. 11. 
vEsculapius, a brother of Mercury, who, according to Cicero, 

was killed by a thunderbolt, and buried at Cynosura. 

Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 3, c. 22. 
iEscULAPius, son of Arsippus and Arsinoe, who improved 

the art of medicine. Ibid. 
^Esculapius, author of a mathematical work mentioned by 

Vossius. I'oss. Hist. Math, part 2, c. 50, § 10. 
.EiscLi.APiis (Numis.) is represented mostly, as in fig. 1, 

under the farm of an old man, with a beard, holding a 

■staff round which a serpent is entwined. Sometimes like a 


beardless youth, as in fig. 2, on a medal of Caracalla, where 
an ox is offering him his foot, the inscription above DEO. 
JESCulapio SUBVENIENTI, i. e. the god .-Esculapius 
assisting; underneath Colonia Gcinella Juliana Hadriana 
Porta. Sometimes he is represented under the form of the 
serpent twined round a staff without the man, as in a 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

medal of Augustus, fig. 3, bearing the inscription 20- 
*OKAII2. KiililN. In a medal of Antoninus Pius, fig. 4, 
the serpent is seen rearing itself out of a ship, emblematical 
of the arrival of JEsculapius at Rome, under that figure from 
Epidaurus, whence he had been fetched to stay a plague, 
U. C. 547, B. C. 206'. jEsculapiits is represented not only 
in these but other forms on medals struck by the following 
towns: — Aerasus, Adramythium, jEnos, .Ezena, Agragen- 
tum, Amastria, Asine, Byzantium, Cscsarea, Chios, Claudo- 
polis, Cos, Cotys, Cyme, Hypsepse, Laodicea, Mantinea, Mes- 
senia, Midaaeum, Neapolis, Nica;a, Nicomedia, Odessa, Pan- 
talia, Pergamos, Pvlos, Sicyon, Smyrna, Tei'os, Tiani, 
&C. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 3, c. 35 ; Liv. 1. 29, c. 1 1 ; 
Ovid. Mel. 1. 15, v. 670; Valer. Patcrcitl. 1. 1, c. 8 ; Val. 
Max. 1. 1, c. 2; Plutarch. Qua'st. Roman.; Sueton. in 
Claud, c. 59 ; Apulcius Met. 1. 1 ; Tertull. de Pall, c 4 ; 
Aurcl. Vict, de lir. Must.; Vaillant. Numis. Imp. Roman.; 
Tristan. Comm. Hist. ; Putin. Numis. Imp. ; Morell. The- 
saur. ; Spaiihcim. Disscrlat. vol. i. p. 217- 

jESEPUS (Myth.) A'imiTToc, a son of Bucolion. Horn. II. 
1. 6, 7.31. 

TEsepus (Geog.) vide JEsapus. 

vESERNIA (Geog.) a town of the Samnites, at the foot of 
the Apennines, now Iscrnia. 
Sil. Hal. 1. 8, v. 567. 

Ft quos aut liufra\ aut quos .Esernia, quosie 
Obscura iucultis Herdonia misit abagris. 

The inhabitants were all called JEserniiii. Lie. 1. 27, c. 12. 
iEsERNiA (Numis.) is known by several medals exhibiting 

the heads of Apollo, of victory, Vulcan, &c. ; the inscription 

AISEPN'INO, or AISNIN'O, with sometimes the letters NI. 

for NE0II0AITH2, according to Beger, because, as he 

supposes, it was a colony of Naples. 
2ESERNINUS (Hist.) the cognomen of Marcus Claudius. 

Marcellus. Cic. Brut. c. 36. 
jEserninus (Biog.) a gladiator, so called probably from 

TEsemia, his native place. Cic. de Opt. Gen. Oral. c. 6. 
jE!SIA (Geog.) a river of France, now Oyse. 
iESIAS (Hist.) a magistrate of Sicyon at the time when 

Corinth was taken by Aratus. Po/ipen. 1. 6, c. 5. 
jESICA (Geog.) a village of Cumberland, now Netherbt/. 

Camb. Brilaii. 
JESIMIDES (Hist.) kitnpifois, son of .^Eschylus, and second 

decennial archon of Athens in the 1 1th Olympiad, A. C. 742. 

Paus. 1. 1, 4 ; Euscb. in Chron. 
/Esijiides, a naval commander of the Corcyrians. Thucud. 

1. 1, c. 47. 
yESIXATES (Geog.) inhabitants of .Esis. 
jEISION (Biog.) an Athenian, who pronounced Demosthenes 

to be above all Athenian orators. Pint, in Demoslh. 
IESIS (Geog.) .\lair, ]. a river of Italy which separates 

Umbria from Picenum, so called from a king of that name. 

Sil. 1. 8, v. 444. 

Ante (utfama dncet) tellus possessa Pebisgis 
Queis u-Esis regnator erat ; Jiuvioque rdinquit 
Nomen : et a sese pcpufoi turn dixit Asisns, 

1 1 is called by Mela Em, by Plutarch aptrtc, by Appian 

aia'ituc, now EsitlO. Shah. 1. .". : /'/;'//. 1. :;, c. 1 ,'! ; Mela, 

1. 2, c. 4 ; Pint, iii Pomp. ; Viol. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Appian. de 

Civil. Bell. 1. 1. S. A town of tJmbria, and a Roman colony, 

according to an inscription given by Grutcrus. P. C. 

\! SISTET MUNIC NUMANAT. It is railed AUu>v, 
■ rabo ; \iT(Tn.r, by Ptolemy ; now Ascisi, according 

tn Leander ; the inhabitants Msinates, according to Pliny. 

Strab. 1. ."> ; Plin. 1. :;. c 14; 1. 11, e, IS ; PtotT 3, c I ; 

Leand. Albert. Descript. ItaL; Gruter. Thes. I'd. Inscript. 

p. W6. 
/EMSIL'M (G«<g.) Moieiov, vide ./.'.v/.v. 
.ESIT.E (Geqg.) AtV/rat, a people of Arabia Descrta. Plol. 

1. .".. c I. 'i. 
ffiSIUM (Gag.) vide .<£«*. 
.I-.SON (Myth.) A'iiriitv, the s >n of Cretheus, and father of 

Jason, is said to have killed himself by drinking bullock's 

blood to avoid the persecution of his brother Pelias. 

Horn. Odyss. 1. 11, v. 257- 

Thc 5' irifiHQ KpijOij'i TtKt fiatri\tta yvvaiK&v 
Alaova r' ijit yipiiT Apv9dova9' i7nrioxtipp.>ir. 

Apollod. 1. 1, c. <) ; 7)(W. 1. 4; Oi «/. J/V/. 1. 7, v. 285 ; 

Hi/gin. fab. 12 ; ApoUon. Argon. 1. 1, &c. ; /'«/. Ffacc. 1. 1, 

&c. ; .SVW. PfiiA od /V/'- 1 : Lactant. nil Tkeb. 1. 8, 

v. 516; 1. 5, v. 8*5 ; rzefe. tn Lye. v. 175. 
.I.son (Hist.) an ambassador sent by the Argives to make 

peace with the Spartans. Thucyd. 1. 5, c. 40. 
mBON (Gog.) a river and town of Thessaly. Steph. Bi/z. de 

l'r/}. Also a town of Magnesia. Schol. ApoUon. ad lib. i. 
/ESOXIDES (Myth.) Aitjuiiiijc, a patromymic for Jason, 

thc son of .Eson. Apollon. 1. 1, v. ">:'>. 
ESONIUS (Geog.) an inhabitant of /Eson. 
/ESOPLS (Jiiog.) Xivfi-ur • there were several of this name. 
.-Ekopi-s, jEsop, a Phrygian slave in the time of Crasus, kin<; 

of Lydia, who procured bis freedom by the power of his 

genius. To him is ascribed the invention of fables, although 

Qiiinrilifln observes that Hesiod first adopted that mode of 

instruction. Pint, in Solon. ; Aid. Gell. 1. 2, c. 29; Quintil. 

1. 1 . c. 9. 
vEsorus, Claudius, a tragedian, was very intimate with Cicero, 

whom he instructed in the art of elocution. 

Horat. 1. 2, Epist. 1, calls him grant*. 

Qiuegravu JEmput, quadoctiu Rotetin egit. 

His son was distinguished for his extravagance. 
Horat. 1. 2, sat. 3, v. 239. 

Filius ./.'.s,.;i/ ilflrur'iun in ttnrr llfr//./. 

// ei loftd im extorbertt, oceto 
Oihtii i tlign* '" baccam. 

Cic. ad Tamil 1. 7, ep. I ; Offic. 1. 1, c. 31 ; Divin. 1. 1, 

c. 37 ; ail Attic. 1. 1 I, ep. I.'.', 15 ; P/ut. in Cie. ; Plin. 1. <), 
c. 3.5. 
". 90FT/8, a secretary to kiujr Mithridates, who wrote an culo- 
gium on him and Helen. Suid. 

cots, a comic actor mentioned by Aristophanes. 
i sofus, an orator, cotemporary with the philosopher Cbilo. 

Dug. Laert. in Chilo, 1. i. ■ 69. 
• SQI [LINUS, mons (Topog.) ride Esquiliee. 
ES'J'II (Geog.) or jl'.stiai. a people of Sarmatia inhabiting 

the country now called Esthania. Tacit. Germ, c 45. 
I - ■ MM. Tl S (Myth.) Vitrv/iv^rnc, a surname of Bacchus. 

l'n us. 1. 7, 1 . 'I 
ESYMMIM {Hist.) .Wi' 7 ,,,or, the name of the tomb which 

was raised by the Megarensians to their departed heroes, so 
called after rEsymnus, by whom ii was recommended. Pans. 
1. 1, c. VS. 
ffiSYMNUS (Hist.) \;... ,,,„,, a chief of Megara, who wenl 
to consult the oracle of Apollo on the best manner of go- 
verning his country. Pans: I. I. 


If 11 (Geog.) AiYattoc, or Ayaioi, a people of Arabia 

Felix. Piol. 1. <>', c. 7. 
.ETEKXIl'S, Fronto {Hist.) was master of the two legions 

of Alexandria, in the Jewish war. Joseph, de Bill. Jud. 

1. 7, c. 9. 
/ETETA (Myth.) MYi/n,, a woman of Laodicea, who is said 

to have been changed into a man. Phlcs- Trallian. de 

Mini/,, c. 8. 
.ETH.EA (Geog.) Kldaia, a town of Laconia : the gentile 

name AlBeeic, .Ktheenses, or according to Stephanus Atftatn/c- 

Thucyd. 1. 1, c. 101. 
yETHALIA (Geog.) AiOaXta, or KlBayn, 1- the ancient name 

for the islands of Lemnos and Chios. Plin. 1. 5, c. 31 ; 

Etymolog. Magn. i. An island in the Mediterranean, near 

Etruria, the gentile name is AiOioWi/r, .F./halita. Arixlot. 

in Mirab.; Diodor. 1. 5; Strat*. 1. 5; Lie. 1.37, c. 13; 

Plin. 1. 3, c. 6; Steph. Byz. ,lc Urb. 
.ETHALID.E (Geog.) AWaXlSat, or AWiXelSai, part of the 

tribe of Leontis. Harpocration ; Steph. Byz. de Urb.; 

.E'l'HALIDES (Myth.) AlOaKiSnc, a crier, the son of Mer- 
cury, who was permitted at different times to he among the 

living and the dead. 

Apollon. Argon. 1. 1. 

"A\\ci(f v^roxOoviotg ivapiQptot;, d\\or' t't; aicyeir 
'UtAc* Zmoiui ptr cii'dpafTtv. 

The soul of Pvthagoras is said to have entered his bodv. 

Diog. Laert. i .s, § 4. 
.ETHER (Myth.) AxBttp, that subtle part of the air which 

was taken by the heathens for Jupiter, and which being 

easily inflammable, was the fittest for producing the thunder 

and lightning ascribed to him, whence it was supposed to 

come from euf)w, to burn. 
35THES (Hist.) AtOijc, a general of Dromichetes, king of 

Thrace, who went over to Lysimachus in the character of 

a deserter, and having lulled thc Macedonians into a state 

of security, Dromichetes attacked and routed them with 

great slaughter. Polywn. 1. 7- 
jETHICIA (Geog.) AWnia, a city and country of Thessaly: 

the people were called Steph. Byz.; Hesychius. 
ZETHICDS (Myth.) AtOucoc, a Paphlagonian, who distin- 
guished himself in the Trojan war. Quint. Smyrn. 1. 6, 

v. 318. 
.E/rincus, l.ster (Biog.) a geographer mentioned by Cassio- 

<lc crcis, Orosins, and Flodoard. To him is ascribed the 

Notitia Imperii. Cassiod. in ('/iron.; Oros. 1. 1, c. 2; 

Flodoard. Hist. Ilhiin. EccleS. 1. 1, C. 1 ; Isidor. Oris- 1. 14, 

C. 10 ; VOSS. lie 1 1 i*l. Lai. 1. 3, c. 1. 
.ETHIOI'IA (Geog.) so called from AlOunrla, i. e. incendinm. 

burning; because it was supposed to lie under the torrid 

zone. Homer describes the inhabitants as to their situation, 

ttrxarot dvipZy, the remotest of men ; and as to their man- 
ners Aidunrqai &fibfu>vac, the blameless .Ethiopians. Ac- 
cording to Isidor, they derive their origin from Cush, the 
son of Ham tro, chush, signifying blackness; by Bochart 
they derive t heir name from laid. Ethiopia was divided 

into two parts, viz. /I'.ilmipia tub Egypto, according to 

Ptolemy, lying between the Nile and the Gulf of Arabia; 
and Ethiopia ultra JEquatorem, which was almost unknown 
to thc ancients. The chief towns of Ethiopia were Ptole- 
mais. Adule, Meroe, Morvlon, c.\;e. Horn. Odyss. 1. 1, v. 23; 
//. 1. i, v. |..'t : Herodot. 1. •-.', c. 801 ; Apollon. Argon. 1. .•;, 

v. 119; Sei/la.i: in Peripl. : Diodor. Sir. 1. |. ; lltinno. in 

Periplo.; Steph. Urb.; Plin. 1. <>', c. 29; Dionys. 

Perteg. v. 179 ; Virg. Pel. u. v. (is ; Jvv. Sat. v. ■.!:>•; Stat. 
Theb. I. ".. v. 1'Jli; Pans. 1. I, e. ;;::. 
ETHLIUS (Myth.) A.W\lut, a son of Jupiter, by Proto- 
genia, or, according to I'ansanias, of /Eolus ; was the father 
of l''.iiclvmion, and the first king of Klis. Apollod. 1. 1, c. 7; 
Paus. 1. 5, c. 1. 


AETHLIUS (Biog.) an historian of Samos, mentioned by 

Athenceus. Deipnos. 1. 14, c. 19- 
Aethlius, the same as Ethedius, mentioned by Arnobius. 
Vethi.ius, the father of the physician Chrysippus, mentioned 

bv Diogenes Laertes. Diog. 1. 8, § 89- 
.ET HON {Myth.) AlSuy, a horse of Hector. 

//. 1. 8, v. 185. 

ZZavOe Tl icai crv Uotapyf icai XlQaii' La'/iTTf rt tit. 

,Ethon, one of the horses of Pallas, who wept for the death 
of his master. 
Virg. JEn. 1. 11, v. 89. 

Past bellatur equus, pnsitis insignibus, .Eth.m 
It lachrymans. 

jEtiiox, one of the horses of the sun. 
Grid. Met. 2, fab. 1. 

Interea oahtcns, Pyroeis, Eous, et .Ethon 
Soiis equi. 

One of Pluto's horses. 

Claud, de Rapt. Proserp. 1. 1, v. 284. 

Orphhtzus crudele micans, jEthonque sagittA 

.ETHRA (Myth.) A'idpn, the daughter of Pittheus, the wife 

of .E^eus, and mother of Theseus. Horn. II. 1. 3, v. 144; 

Paus.L 2, c. 31, &c. ; Ovid. Her. 1. 10, v. 131 ; Hygin. 

fab. 37, &c. ; Plul. in Thcs.; Tzetzes. in Lycoph. v. 447; 

Schol. in Apollon. 1. 1, v. 101 ; Schol. in Eurip. Hccub. 

v. 125. 
vEthra, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, otherwise called 

iETHUSA (Myth.) AWacm, a daughter of Neptune, by Am- 

phitrite. Apollod. 1. 3 ; Pans. 1. 9, c. 20. 
jEthusa (Geog.) vide Mgusa. 
jETIOX {Myth.) vide Eetion. 
AETION (Biog.) a painter, whose painting of Alexander at 

his nuptials with Roxana was so much admired at the 

Olympic games, that the president gave him his daughter 

in marriage. Cic. Brut, c. 18 ; Lucian. in Imagin. ; Jun. 

in Catal. Piclor. <$-c. 
Aetion, vide Eetion. 
AETIUS {Myth.) 'Actios, son of Anthas, and grandson of 

Neptune, succeeded his father in the kingdom of Trcezene. 

Pans. 1. 2, c. 50. 
jETIUS (Hist.) one of the most distinguished generals of his 

age, who, by his skill and valour, contributed principally 

to uphold the empire against the barbarians who attacked it 

on all sides, particularly against the Huns under Attala, 

whom he defeated in a signal engagement in France in 451. 

He fell at length under the displeasure of Valentinian the 

emperor, who is said to have killed him with his own hand. 

Euscbitis, Prosper., Jdatius et Marcellinus in Chron.; Chron. 

Alexand. ; Greg. Tur. 1. 2, c. 7, &c. ; Procop. de Reb. 

Goth. 1. 5; Jornandcs de Regn. Success, c. 19; Paul. 

Diacon. Hist. Miscell. 1. 19, c. 16; Cassiodor. in Chron. 

Ann. 454; Vict. Eutic. 1. 1, c. 5. 
AETIUS, a chief of the eunuchs in the palace of the empress 

Irene, whose intrigues and arrogance occasioned his downfal. 

Theophan. in Ckronog. ; Eginhard. Annal. Fit. Carol. 

/ETIUS (Ecc.) At-ioc, surnamed the Impious, was a phy- 
sician and an heresiarch of Antioch in the fourth century, 

who was a zealous defender of Arianism in its worst form. 

S. Athanas. de Synod. ; S. Gregor. Nyssen. contra Eunom. 

Philostorg. 1. 3, &c. ; Epiphan. "Hares. 76 ; August. Hcvr. 

74; Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 1. 1, c. 28; SozonienA. 3, &c. ; 

Theodoret. 1. 2, &c. ; Baron. Annal. Ann. 356, Sec. ; Tille- 

mant. Hist. Eccles. torn 6. ; Du Pin. Bibl. des Ant. Eccles. 

iv. Sice. 
jEtius, an archdeacon of Paris, who boldly defended Pre- 

textatus, bishop of Rouen, in the council of Paris, in 577, 

VOL. I. 


where he was cited on a charge of high treason. Gregor. 
Tur. 1. 5, c. 19; Concil. torn. v. 

AETIUS, Sicanius (Biog.) a physician, from whose writings 
the book ascribed to Galen, De Atra Bile, is said to have 
been collected. 

Aetits, the heresiarch, who was also a physician. £\ ide 
Aetius, under Ecclesiastical History} 

JETIUS, a physician of Amida, who flourished about the 
beginning of the fifth century, and wrote, among other 
things, a work on medicine entitled, ' Tetrabiblos,' the first 
eight books of which, in Greek, were printed at Venice by 
the heirs of Aldus Manutius, fol. 1534; the remainder is 
still preserved in MS. in the libraries of Vienna and Paris. 
Of Latin editions there have been several, namely, one the 
translation of Janus Cornarius, under the title of ' Con- 
tracts ex veteribus Medicince Tetrabiblos,' 8vo. Venice, 
1543; fol. Bas. 1542, 1549; another translated by J. B. 
Montanus, fol. Bas. 1543 ; two at Lyons, fol. 1549 ; and 
four vols. 12mo. 1560; with the notes of Hugo de Solerus. 
and one at Paris, fol. 156'7, among the ' Medics Artis 

iETNA (Geog.) a mountain of Sicily, now Monte Gibelh. 
famed for its volcanic eruptions, which Pindar calls, on ac- 
count of its great height, ttiuv ipavia, a celestial pillar. It 
derives its name from the Hebrew, KJinX, fornax, a fur- 
nace ; and A'irya, from a$u, to burn ; to which Virgil and 
Ovid allude, 
Virg. Georg. 1. 1, v. 47*-. 

Qiwties Cuclopum efferven in agros, 
Vidimus itmiantcm ruptis fornacibus Aetnam, 
Ftammarumque globus, liquefaetaque volvere sola. 

Ovid. Met. 1. 15, v. 340. 

Nee qua: sulfure'ts ardet fttrnacibits Aetna 
Ifrnea semper exit, neque enim fuit ignea semper : 
Nam sive est animal teltus, et viiit habetque 
Spirame'ita locis Jiammam eshalantia multis. 

The first eruption mentioned in history is that which-, ac- 
cording to Diodorus, happened before the Trojan war ; 
those which have been repeated at intervals for upwards of 
2000 years have been the theme of the poets from the time 
of Pindar to that of Cornelius Severus, who wrote an 
entire poem on the subject. 
Find. Pyth. OtL l. 

Tag tpevyovrai fttv air\d- 
th -Kvpoq dyvorarat 
'Ek iiv\uJv Trayai — 

Virg. JEn. 1. 3, v. 571- 

Horrijicis jtuta tonat JEtna minis; 
Jnterdumqne alram prarumpit ad ttthera nubem, 
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla ; 
Attollitque globos Jlamniarum, et sidera lambit. 

Ovid. Pont. 1. 2, el. 10. 

Vidimus JEtnad calum splendescere fiammA 
Suppositus monti quam vomit m-e Glgas, 

Catull. Poem. 68, v. 53. 

Quum tantum arderem, quanlum Trinacria rupes. 

Petron. Arbit. in Sal. 

Armorum strepitu ccelum furit : et tuba Marfan 
Sideribus tremefacta ciet, jamque /Etna voratur 
Ignibus intolitts, et in athera fulmina mittit. 

Sil. Ital. 1. 14, v. 59- 

Ast Aetna eructat tremefactis cautibus. igneis. 
Claud. Marian. Vict. Comment, in Genes. 1. 2, v. 128. 

Non aliter quam dum ruptis stEVa .Etna Camilla 
Egenl immistis str'utentia sulfura fiammis. 

Lucrct. 1. 6. 

Funditque ardorem hngi , lateqve favillam 
Differt, et craisd volvit caligine J'umum. 


Com. Sever, in Poem. 

Sed omnis 
In vtro mild cura ; canam quo fervida motu 
.Cj/itrt .-Etna, uovosque rapax sibi congeret igneis. 

The Origin of these Eruptions according to the Poets. 
The origin of these eruptions is ascribed by the poets to 
the rebellious war waged by the giant Typho, or Enceladus 
and his companions, against Jupiter, who thrust them down 
into Tartarus, and placed Mount jEtna over them. 
Pind. Pi/th. Od. 1. 

"Oc t if awa raprdpip ke\- 
rai Stulv TroXifiioc. 
Ti'tpwi; UuTOVTUKapavoc.. 

Orpheus, in Argonaut. 

Avrdp iml AiXvfinov iiriirxopiv n\iva TropBpov 
Tpiy\u>x<w rl vijtrov iiritrxoptv 'EyKiXdcoio 
Airvain <p\6% ff0ii/ dp' ip>)Tvii pipauirac,. 

Callimach. Hymn, in Del. 

'Qc 8' ottot 'Airvaitt opeog irvpi rv<popii'oto 
SWiUTai pvxa icdvra, Kamtaioio yiyavroc. 
E<'r iripnv Bpiapijoc, tirupiSa Kwopivoio. 

Virg. /En. 1. 3, v. 579- 

Fama est, Enceladi semiustum fulmim corpus 
Urgeri mole hoc ; ingentemque insuper Aetuam 
Impositam, ruptis Jtammam exspirare caminis. 

Ovid. Fast. 1. 4. 

Aha jacet vasti super ora Typhoios Aetna 
Cujus anbehtis ignibit s ardet humus. 

Sil. Jtal. 1. 14, v. 196. 

Turn Catane nimium ardatti licina Typhao. 

Slat. Theb. 1. 3. 

It clamor ad auras : 
Quantus Tyrrbcni gemitus sulis, aut ubi tentat 
Enceladus mutare latus, procttl igneus antris 
Mimt ionat. 

Quint. Sinyrn. Tpwucuf, 1. 13. 

Eur* irdnoe peydXoto tear' 'EyiceKdcoio Cauppwv 
IlaXXae dupaph'n SiiaXiji/ tjriied/3/3aXf vijaov. 

Claudian. de Raph. Proscrp. 1. 1, v. 154. 

In medio scojntlis se porrigit AZtna perusln 
AZtna Giganteos nunquam tacitura triumphos. 

There was a temple sacred to Vulcan, on Mount jEtna, 
where he is feigned by the poets to have had his forge, and 
the Cyclops as his workmen. 
Virg. /En. 1. 8, v. 416. 

Insula Sicanium juitu latus AZoliamque 

I'rigitnr I.ipnren, Jumantibus ardua saxis : 

Quam subter specus et Cycbipum exesa earning 

Antra A^'.tniLa tonant. 

Eurijiid. in Troad. 

Kal rdv Airvaiav 'tttyaicH 
tpoiviicut di'rqpn x^P av 
SueiXuv dfituiv partp' iikhui 


Thucyd. 1. 3, c. lift; Aristot. in MiraL; Diod. 1. 5; 

.lpoliod. 1. 1 ; Lie. 1. 26, c. 29 ; St, ah. 1. (i ; P/in. 1. 3, c. 8; 

Mel 1. 2, c. 7 ; Appian. Civ. Bell 1. :> ; Mart. 1. 7, ep. 68 ; 

Plot. 1. .'!, c. 4 ; Justin. 1. 4, C. 1 ; Suetiin. in Calig. ; Aid. 
del. 1. 17, c. 10; /Elian, de Animal. 1. 1 1, c. 3 ; Pans. 1. 3 ; 
Apid. Melnm. 1. 1 ; I'hiluslral. in lil. Apollon.J Maeroh. 
1. 5, c. 17; Cedren. Compend, Hist.; Oros. 1. 2, c. IS; 

Jul. Obtequent. de Prodig., Spc. ; Sew. JBn, 1. 3 ; Isidor. 

1. 13, c. 8; Natal. Cum. 1. % c. 1, &&j Jieinb. Dialog, de 
Mont. /Elu.; Fazcll. Sic. Her. Dccad., 1. 2, c. 4; Chiv. Sictt. 
Antia. 1. 1, c. H. 
.Etna (Geog.) Alirvtf, a town at the foot of Mount ./Etna, 
which was lirst called ('alalia, but Micro having expelled 
the Catanenses from that part, gave the name of /Etna to 
it, or, as it was sometimes called, according to Diodorus, 


'E>> i|<ria, and to Strabo "Iiiija-a. It is now named MascaJi. 
The inhabitants were called by Thueydides litjiranlui, by 
Cicero and Plinv, JEtnenaea Thuei/d. 1. (i ; Cie. in Verr. 
act iii. c. 8 ; Di'odor. 1. 1 1 ; Strab. L 6 ; Plin. 1. 3, c. 8. 

jEtna (Numis:) some medals struck by the /Etnenses re- 
present a cornucopia:, as symbolical of the fertility of the 
country ; others represent a head of Apollo radiated, or of 
Ceres, with the inscription AITNAION, or AITNAilN. 
Haverkamp. Paruta. Sicil. Discritt. Tab. 133; Hanluin. 
Numis. Vet. Pop.; Pellerin. Recueil. de Med. desPeup. <yc.; 
Hunter Numis. Vet. Pop. §c. 

jETNjEUS {Myth.) Ainai'or, son of Prometheus, and one of 
the Cabiri mentioned by Pans. 1. 9. 

/ETXENSES (Geog.) the inhabitants of /Etna. 

/ETOLI (Geog.) Atolians; the inhabitants of /Etolia. [Vide 

jEtoli, campi (Geog.) another name for Apulia, so called 
after Diomed, who was called the /Etolius heros. Sil. Ital. 
1. 1, v. 125. 

vEtolia (Geog.) At-uiXia, a country in the middle of Greece, 
which takes its name from iEtolus ; Stephanus derives the 
word a7ro ra aireTiv oXor, from seeking every thing, because 
the /Etolians were a covetous narrow-minded people. Their 
chief towns were as follow : 

Chief Towns of /Elolia. 
Chalcis, Ephyri, 

Arachthe, Dolopes, 

Olena:, Temphtei, 

Calydon, ^Enienses, 

Majares, Athamanes, &c. 

They were formidable enemies to the Romans, till con- 
quered by Fulvius. Poh/b. 1. 4, &c. ; Liv. 1. 26, c. 24, &c. ; 
Strabo, L 7; Plin. 1. 4, e. 2; Mela, 1. 2, c. 3 ; Pint, in Flam. 
Flor. 1. 2, c. 9; Pans. 1. 5, c. 1, && 
/Etoi.ia (Numis.) had medals which were common to the 
whole country, independently of those struck by its several 
towns. On its earlier medals are represented Hercules 
killing a centaur; and the head of Hercules in a lion's skin. 
The boar is also frequently represented, emblematical of the 
Calydonian boar ; and frequently a head of Apollo, with the 
lyre; the legends AITilA. AlTiiAON. sometimes with the 
name of the magistrate. 
/ETOLUS (Mi/th.) .\ino\nc, son of Endymion and [phiasiasa, 
who, having accidentally killed Apis, fled and settled in 
jEtolia, to which he gave his name. Apollod. 1. 1, c. 7, &f. 
[Vide /Elolia'] 
/Etolus, son of Oxvlus, and king of F.lis, died while young. 

/EVTTEIINI (Mi/th.) the gods so called by the heathens, 
because they existed for ever ; to whom, according to Pliny, 
they sacrificed red oxen. Apul. de Deo Soeral. 
2EVOLUS, Ca:sar (Iliog.) a Neapolitan writer on the causes 

cif sympathy and antipathy, in the Kith century. 
.EX (Myth.) Aii, a goat. 1. The name of Jupiter's nurse. 
2. A young man mentioned by Plutarch. GrCBC, QflOSSt. IS. 
JEx (Geog.) 1. An island in the £gean sea. /'//';;. 1. 4, c. 11. 

2. A town of the Marsi. Plul. 1. 3, c. 1. 
.EXONE (Geog.) 'Aijwvt), an Athenian tribe of Cccrops. 

Strab. 1. 9 ; Steph. Hi/;, de Urb. ; Harpoeratiun. Suidas. 
iEXONKNSIS (Geog.) 'Aitwnvc, an inhabitant of /F.xonia. 
.EXONEA (Gang-) 'At&uvla, a town of Magnesia. Steph. 

Byz. de I eh. 
.EZULA (Geog.) AlfdtXa, a town of Armenia Major. Ptol. 

1. 5, c. 14. 
.E/.ANIS (Geog.) kl(avts, a town of Phrvgia Major. Plot. 

1. , r ), c. 2. 
vEzanis (Numis.) the medals of this town are very nu- 
merous, including those which were struck while they were 
under their own laws, and the imperial medals struck in 


honour of Germanicus, Agrippina, Caligula, Claudius, 
Adrian, Sabina, M. Aurelius, Commodus, Caracalla, Gordi- 
anus, and Volusianus. The names of the magistrates are 
frequently given without any titles. Some medals are in- 
T02 I EPOS. AHM02 ; with the name of the people AZI. 
AZAXE1TQN. AIZAMTQN ; or as in other medals AIZAN. 
AIZANH. AIZAMTAI. Jupiter appears to have been the 
deitv most honoured by the .Eginatse, if we may judge 
from the frequent recurrence of his image on their medals ; 
but those of Neptune and Diana are also to be met with. 
I'aillanl. Xitmis. Grccc. ; Harduin. Num. Ant. Pop. el 
Vrb.j Pcller. Rec. vol. iii. p. 27; Eckel. Num. Vet. 
tab. 14, f. 1. 

AFCASBI (Biog.) a surname of Ahmed Ben Omad, author 
of an explication or correction of the book of animals, com- 
posed by Demiri. 

AFER (Hist.) the surname of the emperor Adrian's father, 
i. e. .Elius Adrian Afer. 

Afer, Domitius, an orator, and public accuser in the reign of 
Tiberius, and the three succeeding emperors, died in the 
reign of Nero, after having distinguished himself in his 
profession during a long life. He was the accuser of P. 
Claudia Pulchra, cousin to Agrippina, and the preceptor 
of Quintilian. Tac. Annal. L 4, c. 52, &a 1. It, c. 19; 
Quintil. Instit. 1. 5, c. 7 ; Dio. 1. 5,Q ; Euseb. in Chron. 

AFESA, Pietro (Biog.) a painter of Naples, who flourished 
about the year 1650. His works are preserved in the 
churches and chapels of Naples. 

AFFAN (Hist.) father of Osman, or Othman, the third suc- 
cessor of Mahomet, was an Arabian bv birth. 

AFFLECK, Sir Edward (Hist.) tenth son of Gilbert Affleck, 
of the family mentioned under Heraldry, distinguished 
himself by his gallant conduct as commander of the centre 
division in the memorable engagement of the 12th of April, 
between Admiral Sir George Rodney, K. B. and the French 
squadron, under the command of Comte de Grasse, which 
terminated so honourably to the British flag, and to the 
officer in particular who is the subject of this article. 

Affleck (Her.) the name of a family of Dalham Hall, in 
Suffolk, which enjoys the dignity and title of a Baronet, 
conferred on Admiral Affleck, abovementioned. The arms, &c. 
of this family, are as follow : 
Anns. Argent, three bars, sable. 
Crest. A stalk, and ear of wheat, proper. 

AFFLITTO, Matthew (Biog.) an eminent lawyer and coun- 
sellor of state under Ferdinand I, was employed in public 
transactions of the greatest importance, under five suc- 
cessive kings of Naples. He lived to the age of SO, and 
died in 1510, leaving many works on law and juris- 

Afklitto, John, of the same family, a distinguished mathe- 
matician and engineer, was employed by John of Austria, 
in some of his wars. He wrote on the art of fortification, 
and a book of miscellanies. 

AFFO, Iretueus (Biog.) an historian of Italy, wrote, 1. ' His- 
toria di Guastalla,' 4 vols. 4to. GuastaUa, 17<>'S. 2. ' Historia 
di Parma,' 2 vols. 4to. Parma ; besides a history in MS. of 
Peter Louis Farnize, which the Infant would not suffer to 
be published. He died about the beginning of the present 

AFRANIA (Biog.) a wife of Licinius Buccio, a senator, who, 
forgetting the modesty required from her sex, pleaded her 
own cause before the prator, whence the name Afrania 
became proverbial for an impudent woman, f'al. Majc. 1. 8, 
c. 3 ; Erasm. Adas. 

AFRANILS, C. SteUia (Hist.) a pnetor, I". C. 566, A. C. 
186. Liv. 1. 39, c. 43. 

Afranius, Lucius, one of Pompey's generals, defeated in 
Spain by Gesar, and slain by Titius in Africa. Cces. de 


Bell. Civ. 1. 1, c. 8 ; Cic. ad Attic. 1. 1, ep. 18, &c. ; Strab. 
1. 3 ; Plut. in Pomp. ; Sucton. in Jul. Caes. c. 34 ; Floras. 
1. 4, c. 2 ; Appian. de Bell. Cic. 1. 1 ; Dio. 1. 37- 

Afranius, Potitus, a plebeian, who, having protested with an 
oath that he would gladly die, if Caligula did but recover, 
was put to death by that emperor that he might not break 
his word. Dio. 1. 59- 

Afranius, Quinli/ianus, a great debauchee, who, piqued at u 
satire which the emperor Nero wrote against him, entered 
into the conspiracy with Piso, and was condemned to death- 
Tacit. Annal. 1. 4, c. 34. 

Afranius, Burrus. Vide Burrus. 

Afranius (Biog.) a Latin comic poet, flourished in the age of 
Terence, 100 years A.C.J of all his works only 266 verses 
remain to be found in the ' Corpus Poetarum Latinorum.' 
Horace compares him to Menander, 1. 2, ep. 1, v. 57- 
Dicitur At'rani t,>ga convemsx Mejiuiulro. 

Ausonius likewise commends him. 
Auson. epigr. 70. 

Quam toga facumli scenis agitaiit Afrdni. 
The titles of some of his plays are preserved, as ' The 
Augur,' ' Cinerarius Consobrinus,' ' Compitalia,' ' F ratios,' 
Sec Cic. in Brutus, c. 24; I'clt. Pat. 1. 1, c. 17 : Quintil. 
1. 10, c. 11 ; Suet, in Xcr. c 11 : Aid. Gell. 1. 13, c. 8 ; 
Vote, de Pod. Eat. e. 1 ; de Hist. Lot. 1. 3, c. 11. 

AFRASIAB (Hist.) the first king of the Persians, of the 
dynasty called the Pischdadians. 

AFRICA (Geog.) one of the three quarters of the ancient 
world, and of the four quarters of the modern world, is 
called L</3i»;, by Herodotus and others ; 'AipptKn, by Jose- 
phus and Ptolemy; I.'Afrioue, by the French ; Alkebulan, 
by the Arabs ; Besecalh, by the Indians. Josephus derives 
the name from Ophir, the grandson of Abraham ; but Bo- 
chart supposes it to be derived from the Hebrew, nHE, 
pheric, an ear of corn ; on account of its fertility. It is 
noted by the poets for being a hot and sandy country. 
Dioni/s. Peri eg. v. 182. 

'H ycip cuptjpiirt Kai a\<xiiit]fGtTa rtTVKrai. 

I'irg. Eel. 1, v. 65. 

At nos hinc alii sitientes ibimus Afra. 

Sil. Hal. 1. 1. 

EsUfem Libya torquetur subdita Cancro. 

Monti, Astron. poet. 1. 4. 

Ptjtnus oranorii Afronm pulvere teiris 

ll Jh'puloS. 

In like manner Appian calls it teiiie yaia, -oXvcrJ-ioc ala, 

m v< uorara X^P"' 

Boundaries. Africa is bounded on the N. by the mare 
Afrieuni seu Libvcum, now the Mediterranean Sea; on 
the S. bv the mare .Ethiopieum, or the South Atlantic; 
on the E. by the mare Rubrum, now the Red Sea ; and 
on the W. by the mare Atlanticum, or Xorth Atlantic. 

Division. Africa is divided into -Egvptus Egi/pt; Cyrenaica, 
now half the eastern province of Barca ; Africa minor, 
now the kingdom of Tunis ; Troglodytte, now the desert 
Berdoa ; Garamantes, now Bornou ; Numidia, now Tre- 
mcccn ; Mauritania, comprehending the provinces of 
Daria, Fez, and Morocco; Ga;tulia, now Bilcdulgerid ; 
Lvbia Interior, now the desert of Zahara; Arabia Trog- 
lodytica, now Nubia ; .Ethiopia, now Abyssinia ; and 
Thebte, now Theves. 

To these may be added the countries of modern Africa since 
discovered, viz. Guinea, Benin, Cashna, Sennaar, Abex, 
Loango, Congo, Angola, Bengucla, Mataman, Zanguebar, 
Mocarango, Monoemugi, Sofola, Caflraria, and the country 
of the Hottentots. 

Ton-ns. The principal towns are Alexandria, now called 
by the Turks and Italians Alessandria, in Egypt ; Bere- 
nice, now Bcrnich ; Arsinoe, now Aladich ; Carthago, 
k 2 


now a small village ; Adrumetum. now Mahometa; I'tica. 
where CatO died, now Biscrta, in Africa minor; Hippo 
in Numidia, now Borna ; Sida in Numidia; Julia Ceesa- 
riensis, supposed to be now Algiers ; Salde, in Csesari- 
ensis, now called Bugia ; Tingi, in Tingitana ; Zilis, in 
Tingitana, now called Arzila ; to these may be added the 
modern towns, Fez, Tripoli, Mourzook, Gondar, Mosam- 
liique, Monomotapa, Angola, St. Salvador, Loango, 
Benin, Tombuctoo, Tunis, Morocco, Cairo, &c. 

Rivers. The principal rivers are Nilus, the Nile, with its 
seven mouths; the Niger; Amsager, now Suf Gemar ; 
Rubricates in Numidia; Malva, now Malaga, in Gcsa- 
riensis, to which may be added the Zaire, Congo, or Nile, 
the Senegal, and the Gambia. 

Lakes, Bays, and Straits. The principal lakes, eic. are the 
Palus Maris, now Buchaira ; the Palus Sirbonis, now 
Golfo di Damietta ; the Paludes Nili, now the lakes 
Zaire and Zembre; the Palus Nigrites, which receives 
the present rivers Senegal and Gambia ; Arabicus Sinus, 
now the Gulf of Arabia; Fretum Herculeum, the Straits 
of Gibraltar ; to which may be added in modem Africa, 
the lake Bornou, in Bornou, the Straits of Babelmandel, 
and the Straits of Mozambique. 

Mountains and Capes. The principal mountains are Mons 
Atlas, now Mount Atlas ; Lun;e Montes, now Mountains 
of the Moon ; Aromata Promontorium, now Cape Gua- 
dafur ; to which may he added in modern Africa, the 
mountains Sierra Leone, Cape Verd, and the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Islands. The principal islands are Meroe, which by later 
geographers is called a peninsula, formed by the branches 
• I' the Nile ; Ceme, in the Indian Ocean, supposed by 
some to be Madagascar; to which may he added, the 
Isle of France, Isle Bourbon, Socotra Isle, and Admirante 
Isle, in the Indian Ocean ; Sardinia, in the Mediterranean 
Sea ; Madeira, Canary Isle, and Cape Verd Isles in the 
North Atlantic Ocean ; Ascension and St. Helena Isles, in 
the South Atlantic Ocean. 

History of Africa. 

The history of Africa will be found under the head of 
-Egyptus, Egypt, and Abyssinia. 

Writers on Africa. 

Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, Ptolemy, 
Dion, Cassius, Florus, Appian, (}. Curtius, Procopius, 
Abulfaragius, Victor Uticensis, Johannes Leo, Mamml 
L'Afrique, Isaac Vossius de Originc Nili, Alvarez His- 
toria .Ethiopia, Diego de Torrez Histoire des Chcrifs, 
Grammay Africa illustrata, Herbert's Travels, Shaw's 
Travels, &C. 
AFRICA (Sninis.) is represented by the different symbols of the 

elephant, Pegasus, scorpion, lion, &C. as on a medal of 

Adrian, bearing on the obverse the head of the emperor HA- 

DRIANUS AUG C( >nSul III. Pater Patriae, on the reverse 
the figure of a female crowned with the 

proboscis, &C of an elephant, and hold- 
ing a scorpion in her hand; from the 
abundance of those animals in that 

country, inscription AFRICA. The 

female has also a cornueopi e in her 
anus, and a basket with ears of corn at 
her feet, emblematical of its fertility. 

A medal of Sevenis bears on the obverse 
the bead of Sevenis crowned with laurel, 

inscription SEVERUS PIUS AUG.; on 

the reverse a figure of Africa standing, 
having ears of corn in her right hand, and a 

lion at her feit; inscripti m Ponlifex Maximus 
TRtouniM Poputi COnSul ill. P. I'. 
Among the imperial medals are several ex- 


tant of Adrian, Antoninus Pius, Commodus, Septimius 
Sevenis, Alexander Sevenis, Maximinus, and Maxentiu.s. 
There are also several consular medals. Goltz. Fast. Con- 
sular ; Vaillnnt. Snmis. Impcral. ; I'alin. Xnniis. linperat. 
Tristan. Comment. Hist. ; Bcgrr. Thesaitr. Brand. 

AFSCHIN 'Hist.) a slave of the Turkish nation, who rose 
by his merit to the command of an army. 

AGABO (Hist.) a king of Ethiopia, who was a fratricide. 

AGABL'S (Bibl.) " \yapoe, a prophet, and, according to the 
Greeks, one of the 72 disciples, whose festival as a martvr 
they celebrate on the 8th of March. Ads xi. 28. 

AGACLYTUS (Hist.) a freedman of the emperor Verus, 
who gained a great ascendancy over his mind. Capitolin. in 
M. Antonin. c. 15 ; ct in J'cr. c. 9- 

AGADES (Geog.) a town of Cassina, a province in the Ne- 
groland, from which 1000 camels go annuallv to fetch salt 
for the supply of the whole empire from the lakes in the 
desert. Lon. 13 3 0' E. lat. 20° 5' N. 

AGAETES (Hist.) a king of the Scythians. 

AGAG (Bibl.) jjn, king of the Amalekites, who was slain 
by Samuel. 1 Sam. xv. 32, A.M. 2971, A. C. 1064. Joseph. 
Ant. 1. 6, c. 8, 9 ; Uss. Annal. Ann. 

AGALLA (Geog.) "AyaWa, a city of the tribe of Reuben 
taken by Alexander Jannsus from Aretas, king of the 
Arabians. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 14, c. 2. 

AGALLIANUS (Hist.) a general of Leo emperor of Isauria, 
who, having engaged in an unsuccessful revolt against his 
master, threw himself into the sea to escape being taken 

AGALLIAS (Biog.) an author mentioned in the scholia on 

AGALLIS (Biog.) 'Ay«XXic, a woman of Corcyra, who 
wrote a treatise on grammar. Allien. I. 1, c. 12 ; Stridas. 
Cxi. Rhodig. 1. 8, c. 1 ; Voss. de Philol, c. 2, § 3 ; Meurt. 
de Lud. Gr.; Soprani g/i Scritt. delta Ligur. 

AGAMEDES (Myth.) Wyapi'ienc, son of Erginus, king of 
Orchomenos, or, according to some, of Apollo, built the 
entrance to the temple of Delphos, assisted by his bro- 
ther Trophonion. The third day they were found dead in 
their bed. Cic. Tusc. 1. 1, c. 47 ; Strab. 1. 9; Pint, de 
Consol. ad Strab. 1. 9 ; Pans. 1. 9, c. 11, &c. 

Agamedes, a son of Stvmphalus mentioned bv Pausanias. 

AGAMEMNON {Myth.) 'Aya/iifivuv, son of Atreus by 
JErope, king of Mycense, and generalissimo of the Grecian 
forces at the Trojan war, was treacherously murdered on 
his return from Troy by his wife Clytemnestra, and her 
paramour vEgisthus. Homer commonly styles him Kpdwv, 
or aval avenue. Horn. II. passim. Odi/ss. 1. 4, &c. ; Mschyl. 
in Agamem.; Sophocl. in Elect.; F.urip. in Orestes; Thuci/d. 
1. 1, e. 9; Apollod. I. 3; Virg. JF.n. 1. 6 ; Dioni/s. Hal. ; 
Mela, 1. 2, c. :i : Senec. in Agamem.; Hi/gin. fab. SS, &c. ; 
Ovid de Bern. Am. v. 777 ; Strab. 1. 8 ; I'/ut. in l.ncull. et 
de Fort. Alex.; Mian. V. II. 1. 4, c. 26'; Pans. 1. 2, 
C. (), &c. 

AGAMEMNONIA (Geog.) a harbour in Attica, where the 
(Kit assembled that was to sail on the expedition against 
Troy. Mela, 1. 2, c. i. 

AGASIKMXOXII'S (Myth.) belonging to Agamemnon, an 
epithet applied by Virgil to Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, 
to Mycente the kingdom of Agamemnon, &c Virg. JEn. 1. 4, 
v. 47] ; 1. (i, v. 838. 

AG WIKSTOK (Hist.) 'Ayaufciop, the 11th perpetual archon 

of Athens, who governed for 20 years. F.uscb. in Chron. 
AGAMETOR (Biog.) 'Ayautirup, a victor at the Olympic 

mentioned by Pausanias, Pans. 1. 6, c. 10. 

AGAMIA (Geog.) 'Aya/tcla, a maritime town, and promon- 
tory of Troas. Steph. Byz.; Suid. 

AGAMIDIDES (Myth.) 'Aya/uitSnQ, a descendant from 
Hercules, who reigned in Greece. 

AGAMNESTOR (Hist.) vide Agamestor. 


AGAXDURC, Rodcric Moriz (Kcc.) a Spanish monk of the 
order of bare-footed Augustins, who, in the reign oi 
Philip III, was a successful missionary in Japan. He wrote, 
1. ' Conversion de las Filipinos y Japan/ &c. 2. ' Historia 
general de las Islas Filipinas y Molucas,' both of which are 
preserved in MS. 

AGANICE (Mi/t/i.) vide Aglaonice. 

AGANIPPE (Myth.) 'AyaviTdrn, daughter of the river 

Aganippe (Geog.) a fountain, near Mount Helicon, sacred 
to the muses. 
Claud, in Paneg. Mall. T/icocl. v. 272. 

Concinvitfelix Helicon ; Jiuiitaue Aganippe 

Ovid calls it likewise Aganippis. 
Ovid. Fast. 1. 5, v. ;. 

Dkite , qua fontes Agahippidos Hippocrenes 
Grata Mcdutui signa tei ■ 

Hence Aganippeus, according to Propertius. 
Prop. 1. 2, eleg. 2, v. 50. 

Par Aganipptztz ludere ti,<ct 

AGANON {Etc.) a bishop of Autun in the 11th century, 
who presided at a council in which king Philip the emperor 
and the anti-pope Gilbert were excommunicated. 

Aganon (Bios-) or Haganon, a canon of Chatillon sur Seine, 
known onlv bv his work entitled ' Homilia et Libellus de 
Miraeulis B. Veroli ab Aganone, Vim Schulastissirno.' 

AGAPE (Ecc.) a Spanish lady of great family, who gave 
in to the errors of the gnostics, and was the leader of a 

AGAPENOR (Myth.) 'Ayairqvwp, the commander of Aga- 
memnon's fleet. II. 1. 2, v. 6oy. 

Agapenor, son of Ancseus, and grandson of Lycurgus, after 
the taking of Troy was driven by a tempest to Cyprus, 
where he built the city of Paphos. Horn. II. 1. 2 ; Apollod. 
1. 3, c. 15 ; Hi/gin. fab. 97 ; Pans. 1. 8, c. 5. 

AGAPETUS (Hist.) a colleague of the emperor Anastasius in 
the consulship, U. C. 1270, A. D. 518. Cassiodor. in Chrun. 

Agapbtus (Ecc.) the name of two popes, &C. 

Agapetus I, successor to John II, in 535, in the reign of 
Justinian, died in the eleventh month of his pontificate. 
Niceph. 1. 17, c. 9; Baron. Anna!, ann. 535; Du Pin. 
Bibl. dcs Auteins. ecclcs. du vi. Siec. 

Agapetus II succeeded Marinus in 9*6, and died in 955. 
Baron. Anna!. &c. 

Agapetus, a boy of Praeneste, 13 years old, who suffered 
martyrdom in the reign of Aurelian. I'olatcrran. Comm. 
Urban. 1. 13. 

Agapetus, a bishop of Synadus, in Phrygia, at one time in- 
clined to the Macedonian heresy, but afterwards returned 
to the true faith. Socrat. 1. 7, c. 3. 

Agapetus (Biog.) a deacon in the church of Constantinople, 
who wrote a letter to the emperor Justinian, consisting of 72 
chapters, on the duties of a prince. Mirceus. in Bi/il. Eccl. ; 
Baron. Aimed, ann. 527 ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 509 ; 
Sax. Onom. vol. ii. 

Agapetus, de duro Coriiu, an abbot of Campidon, whose ex- 
cellent library was, through negligence, set fire to by a 
lighted candle and consumed. The abbot died of grief at 
the accident in SI 7- 

AGAPIS (Ecc.) bishop of Csesarea, in Palestine. 

AGAPITUS (Ecc.) vide Agapetus. 

AGAPIUS (Ecc.) 'Aya-we, a manichean of the 4th century, 
who wrote in favour of his heresy. Phot. Cod. 197- 

Agapios (Biog.) 'A-yuirwc, an Athenian philosopher, and 
disciple of Marinus. Suidas. 

Agapius, an orator of Alexandria, who opened a school at 
Byzantium. Suidas. 

Agapius, a Greek monk of Mount Athos, who wrote a work 


on transubstantiation entitled ' ApapOuXav Swr>;pi'a, Venet. 

AGAPTOLEMUS (Myth.) 'Aya-roXf^wc, a son of .Egyptus 
and Phcenissa, who was murdered by his wife Pirene. 
Apo/lod. 1. 2. 

AGAR, Ellis (Her.) the name of a family which derives its 
descent from Charles Agar, of the city of York, Esq. whose 
son Charles, archbishop of Dublin, was created a peer in 
1795, by the title of Baron Somerton, Co. Kildare ; 
Viscount Somerton in 1 800 ; and Earl of Normanton, Co. 
Kilkenny, 180(3. []Vide Normanion] 

AGARACES (Gcog.) a town of Armenia, according to Aetius, 
where bol axmoniac is found. 

AGARD, Arthur (Biog.) an English antiquary, was born at 
Toston, in Derbyshire, in 1510, and died Aug. 22, 1615. 
He was one of the first members of the society of antiquaries 
instituted by archbishop Parker in 1 572, which consisted of 
Camden, Stow, Spelmen, Bouchier, Carcw, Dodderidge, &e. 
His works consisted of, 1. ' Discourses on Antiquarian Sub- 
jects,' read before the above society, and published by Hearne 
in his Collection of Curious Discourses. 2. ' De Usu et 
Obscurioribus Verbis.' 3. ' A Catalogue of all such Records 
as were in the Four Treasuries belonging to His Majesty, 
&c.' which was deposited with the officers of His Majesty's 
receipt, besides MS. collections, exceeding 20 volumes, be- 
queathed to Sir Robert Cotton. 

AGARENT (Geog.) a people of Arabia said to be descended 
from Hagar, Abraham's hand-maid. They revolted from 
the emperor Trajan, who laid waste their chief town Agarum. 
Dio. 1. 68. 

AGARISTA (Biog.) 'AynpiVi/, the beautiful daughter of 
Clisthenes, for whom many suitors strove at the games and 
contests given by her father on the occasion. Megacles was 
the successful candidate. Herod. 1. 6', c. 126; JEL Ear. 
Hist. 1. 12, c. 24. 

Agabista, a daughter of Hippocrates, wife of Xantippus, 
and mother of Pericles, of whom, when she was pregnant, 
she dreamt that she brought forth a lion. Herod. 1. 6, c. 31 ; 
Pint, in Ptricl. 

AGARRAT, Anthony (Biog.) a disciple of Gassendi, who 
distinguished himself by his astronomical observations. 

AGARL S (Geog.) "Ayapoc, 1- a river of European Sarmatia, 
which empties itself into the Bosphorus. Ovid calls it 
Sagarin ; according to Mercator it is now Skiret. Ptol. 
1. 3, c. 6. 2. A town and a river where the agaric grows. 
Plin. 1. 25, c. 9 ; Cad. Rhod. 1. 18, c. 8. 

AGASIA (Hist.) daughter of a king of the Britons, who 
married Durston the Scotch king, but was soon after repu- 
diated on false suspicions. 11. Boeth. 1. 2. 

AGASIAS (Hist.) 'Ayaalaei one of the Grecian generals in 
the expedition of the younger Cyrus, and the friend of 
Xenophon. Xei/op/t. Cyropmd. 1. 3, c. 6. 

Agasias (Biog.) a sculptor of Ephesus, son of Dositheus, to 
whom the Borghese gladiator is ascribed, according to an in- 
scription in the villa Borgh -sa under the statue of a gla- 
diator. ATA2IA2 AS12It)EOY E*ESI02 EIIOIEI, i. e. 
Agasias Dosithci Jilius Ephesius fecit. Span. Mis-eel. Enid. 
Ant. Secti. 

Agasias, the son of Menophilus, an Ephesian statuary, is 
known bv the inscription which Gronovius has given in his 
A2EN. Caium Billienum Can /ilium Legatum Roma- 
norum, ii qui in Delo operant ur, Benefactorum causa in eos 
collocatoruin hoc slalud venerati sunt, Agasias Menopkili 
Jilius fecit Aristander Scopce Jilius Partus curam habuit. 
Gronoc. in Plin. ; Span. Miscell. Enid. sect. 4. 



AG ASIC I. ES (Hist.) 'AyaaucXijQ, an Halicarnassian, who 
violated the law of Apollo. Herod. 1. 1, c. \a. 

Agasiclks, ' Ay atrtxKijs, son of Archidanuis, and king of La- 
ceda;mon, is noted by Plutarch for hi> apothegm that a king 
ought to govern his subjects as a father does his children. 
Vlul. in .Ipnl/i. Liieon. c. -IS ; Pans. 1. ,'J, c. 7- 

AGASSAMENES (Hist.) a king of the Thracians, who 
settled in the isle of \axos. 

AGASTES {Hist.) 'AyuTi/c, the second perpetual archon of 
Athens, A. M. 2087- 

AGASTHEXES (Ilisl.) 'Aya<;8£vne, king of the Eleans, 
and father of Polyxenus, who went on the Trojan expedi- 
tion. Horn. II. 2, v. 624. 

Tiuv ci TtrapTm* $px' Ho\v$euiO£ Btotiiiji 
'Velr ' AyirOtntic 'Avyijidtiao uyaKroc;. 

AGASTHUS (Hist.) rifeAcastus. 

AGASTROPHUS (Hist.) 'Aya-fmfuc, a Trojan warrior slain 
by Diomed. Horn. II. 1. 11, v. 338. 

AGASUS (Geog.) now Porto Greco, a maritime town in the 
Daunian Apulia. I'lin. 1. 3, c. 11. 

AGATHA, St. (Ecc.) a beautiful maid of Catana, of a noble 
family, who was martyred in the reign of Decius, A. D. 251, 
by Quintianus, governor of Sicily, who is said to have had 
a passion for her which she refused to gratify. Her death 
is commemorated by the Romish church on the 5th of Feb. 
Volatcrranus calls her a Carthaginian. 

Agatha (Grim-) 'AyaBn, a town of Gallia Narbonenscs, now 
Agde. Strab. 1. i ; I'lin. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Steph, Bi/z. tic Urb. 

AGATHANGELL'.S (Biog.) an Armenian historian of the 
1th century, who wrote a history of the introduction of 
Christianity into Armenia, with a life of king Tiridates. 

AGATHARCIDAS (Hist.) 'AyaBapidSae, a general of the 
Corinthians in the Peloponnesian war. Thuci/d. 1. 2, c. 83. 

Aoatharcides (Biog.) 'AyadapKtSvt, an historian of Samos, 
quoted by Diodorus, Josephus, Plutarch, Strabo, Athenaeus, 
and Photius. He is called by some a native of C'nidus, 
and supposed to have flourished 177 years A. C. The works 
ascribed to Agatharcidcs are, ' On the Red Sea,' a geogra- 
phical work ; ' On Asia,' an historical work ; ' On Europe;' 
■ A History of the Persian State;' and also of Phrygia, of 
all which, however, only fragments remain as quoted by 
the above-mentioned authors. Diod. 1. 3; Joseph, contra 
A pp.; Vlul. Parallel. 1. 2, &c; Allien. 1. 2, c. 22, &C.J Phot. 
Iii/,1. Coil. 213, &c. ; Voss. His/. Grcec 1. 1, c. 20, Sec 
VGATHARCHUS (Hist.) 'AyaOafrxpe, an officer in the 
Svracusan fleet. Thiii-i/tl. 1. 7, c. 25. 

AGATHARCUS (Biogi) a painter, who boasted to Zeuxis 
of the celerity with which he could execute his pieces: the 
latter replied that lie prided himself on doing them slowly. 
Phil, in Pcric. 

AgATHABCUS, a vieior at the Olympic games in the time of 

Heraclius, archon at Athens. 
V.GATHEMERUS (Biog.) 'AyaOq/upoc, a geographer 

posterior to Ptolemy, whose only work by which he is 
Known, entitled ' I I ypotnposcs Geographic^,' was edited 

by Isaac Vossius, and inserted in ( Ironin ius's ' Geographia 

Antiipia,' and lastly in Hudson's ' Geographic Veteris 

Scriptores Graci Minores,' 4 vols. 8vo. Oxon, 1 698. 

\f \ 1 I 1 1 . \ > (/:..;.) r IE he -alls himself in tin I pi grains 
AgathitlS, a poet and historian, was born at Merina, anil 
lived in the reign of .Instinian. He is siirnamcd SchoUwticUS, 
or advocate; and by Suidas i;x" A " T "-"'-' S/M/pvcuoc- His 
works are, I. ' I Japlmiaca,' a collection of poems. 2. ' A 

Collection of Epigrams' extant in the Greek Anthologia. 
8. • A I listory of Justinian's Reign,' which is a contii 
of Procopius. Suidas. Antholog. 

AGATHINUS (Hist.) 'Ayaffivoc, B commander of the Co- 
rinthian lleei. Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. 

VGATHO (Hist.) viisAgathon. 

Voatho (Biog.) vide Agathon, 

AGATHOCLEA (Hist.) or Agathoclia, ' Ay ad6 K \ua; a 
courtesan who became the wife of Ptolemy Philopater, and 
governed the kingdom with absolute dominion, until the 
death of the king, when, being detected in an attempt on 
the life of his son, she and her brother Agathoeles were 
torn in pieces by the people, A. C. 204. Poli/b. L 15 j Plut. 
in Claim.; Just. 1. 30, c. 1. 

AGATHOCLES (Hist.) 'Ayatf^AiJc, son of a potter, who 
became tyrant of Syracuse, and reigned 28 years, A. C. 

280., son of Lysimachus, a king of Thrace, who 
married I.ysandra, daughter of Ptolemy Lagus, and was 
put to death by Arsinoe, the widow of the latter, A. C. 283. 
Strab. 1. 13; Pint, in Pijrrh. ct Dcmclr. ; Pans. 1. 1, c. <), 
&c. ; Anson, ep. 8., an Athenian archon. 

AoATiion.Ks, who nearly forfeited his life for lamenting the 
death of Hepha;stion. Q. Curl. 1. i). (Numis.) Haym, in his Tresoro Britannico, gives 
a coin, with the head on the obverse, which he ascribes to 
Agathoeles, the son of Lysimachus. 

Agathoci.ks, the above-mentioned tyrant of Syracuse, struck 
several medals, not with his 
effigy lest he should excite 
the jealousy of the Syra- 
cusans, but simply with his 
name ; some of which re- 
present, as in the annexed 
cut, on the obverse, a female 
head crowned with ears of 

corn; the legend KOPA2, for Proserpine: on the reverse, a 
figure of victory fixing a trophy ; inscription, ATAQOKXtoj. 
Haverkamp. Parul. Sicih Descripl. (Biog.) an historian of Rabylon, quoted by 
Atheneus, Cicero, &-c. from his work nepl Kv£Un ' de Cyzico.' 
Cic. de Die. 1. 1, c. 24 ; Allien. 1. {), c. 3 ; Feslus. de Sign. 
Verb. of Chios, who composed a treatise on rural affairs. 
Farm, 1. 10, c. 10 ; Plin. 1. 22, c. 22 ; Colinnel. 1. I.e. 1., the name of three other writers mentioned by 
Vossius, one of Atracc, who wrote on fishes ; a Samian, 
who wrote on the republic of the Pessinuntii ; and a Mile- 
sian, who wrote on rivers. Voss. ilc Hist. Grose. 1. 3. 

AGATHOD./EMON (Myth.) 'AyaOfo balfmv, the name 
given by the ^Egyptians and Phoenicians to the serpents and 
dragons which they held sacred. I.ampriil. in Heliogab. 
c. 28 ; Hieron. in Isaiah xiii. v. 22 ; V.uscb. tie Vnep. 

EvangL 1. 1, c. 7; Serv. in Virg. Georg. 1. 3, v. 417; 
Bochart. Hieroz. Pars. Post. 1. 3, c. II, &c. 

Agathod.icmon (Numis.) is represented on the /Egyptian 
medals of the emperors Nero, Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, 
Antoninus Pius, under the form of a crowned dragon. 

AGATHON (Myth,) 'AyaBuiv, a son of Priam, 'who was 
sent to recover the body of his brother Hector. Horn. II. 
1. 2 I-, v. 2 1!) ; Apollod. L 3. 

AGATHON (Hist.) a governor of Babylon under Alexander. 

Diod. 1. 17; Q. Curt. 1. 5, c. 1 ; 1. io, c. 1. 

Agathon, brother of Cassander, was delivered as a hostage 
to Antigonus, from whom he made his escape. Diod. 1. If). 

AGATHON (Ecc.) an Alexandrine soldier, who suffered as a 

AGATHON, an abbot, who having kept pebbles in his mouth fin- 
three years that he might preserve silence, was afterwards 
altogether deprived Of bis speech. 

AGATHON, St., a Sicilian by birth, was raised to the papal 
chair in (>7!), and died in 682. Baron. Annul, ann. 678, 
68 !. 

AGATHON, a deacon of Constantinople, who, in 715, wrote 
the acts of the council. Du. Pin. Jul- Pedes, tin viii. 


Agathon (Biog.) the favourite of Aleibiades, whom Plato 

introduces into his dialogues. 
Agathon, a tragic poet, who wrote, among other pieces, 

Telephus and Thyestes, quoted by Athenaus. He was 

the friend of Pausanias, with whom he lived at the court 

of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, A. C. 406. 
Agathon, a comic poet mentioned by Plutarch, is supposed 

to be the same as the preceding. Plat, in Convic. ; Aristot. 

dc Et/iic. 1. 4, c. 2 ; JElian. J'ar. Hist. 1. 2, c 21 ; SchoL in 

Aristoph. Ran. v. S3 ; Athcn. 1. 10, c. 6. 
Agathon, a Samian historian, whose works, -ept 'SiKvBik&v, 

irtp'i Tlo-afiwy, &c. are mentioned by Plutarch. Lib. dc 

F/um. See. 
Agathon, an Athenian youth beloved by Plato. Diog. Lacrt. 

1. 3, c. 32 j Aid. GellA. 19, c. 11 ; Macrob. Sat. L 2, c. 2. 
Agathon, a charming singer, who first introduced songs into 

tragedies ; from him came the proverb Agathonica Cantio for 

what is agreeable. Arist. Poet. Erasm. Adag. 
Agathon, an Athenian of prodigious strength and stature in 

the time of the emperor Adrian. Philosirat. Icon. 
AGATHOXIS (Gcog.) an island of the Arabian gulf. Plo!. 
AGATHONYMUS (Biog.) 'Ayadi^yv/uos, a writer on Persia. 

Pint, dc Fliimi/i. 
AGATHOPOLIS (Geog.) WyaOo^dXic, a town of Gaul, 

now Montpclicr. 
AGATHOSTHEXES (Biog.) a writer quoted bv Ttzetzes. 

Tzctz. C7iil. 7- Hist. 144. 
AGATHOSTRATUS (Hist ) 'Aya&Wparoc, a Rhodian, who 

obtained a signal victory over the general of Ptolemy. 

Pol yarn. 1. 5, c. 18. 
AGATHUS, Diemon. (Biog.) an Alexandrine, who wrote an 

account of the world from Ptolemv's geography. 
AGATHYLLUS (Biog.) 'AyadvXXoc, a writer of Greek 

elegies commended bv Dionvsius Halicarnassus. 
AGATHYRXUM (Gcog.) 'AyaBipvov, 'AyaMpva, 'Aya- 

Bvpaoi; 'Ayadvpwi; or Agaturna ; a town of Sicily, now 

•SV. Marco, which Silius distinguishes under the name of 

Agathyma as one of the principal towns. 

Sil. Ital. 1. 14. 

Gztera E/i&ris aderat gens Sicaiia volis 

Mille Agathurna dedit, perflataque Strwgylos austris ; 

Mitte Tbcantear sedes Fascelina Diana, 

Tergemino venit numero farcunda Pan 

Polyb. 1. 8 ; Diodor. 1. 3 ; Lie. 1. 26, c. 40 ; Strab. 1. 6 ; 

Pirn. 1. 3, c. 8; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 4; Fazell. Decad. 1, 1. 8, 

c. 3 ; Cluver. Antiq. Sicil. 1. 2, c. 5. 
AGATHYRXUM (Xumis.) one medal is referred by Golt- 

zius to this town, bearing the inscription Ar.\9YPZ£2N ; 

but the Agathyrsi were a people of Scythia. Gol/z. Magn. 

GrcEC. tab. 28. 
AGATHYRXUS {Myth.) 'Aya8vpvoc, a son of .Solus, who 

reigned over the country called Agathymis, and built the 

town Agathyrnum, both called after him. Diod. 1. 4. 
AGATHYRSI (Geog.) ' ' Ayafjiipaoi, an effeminate nation of 

Sarmatia, who inhabited the country now called J'ologhda. 

[Vide Agalhynwtn] Virgil calls them picti. .En. L 4, 

v. 146. 

Cretesque, Dry t *pe$qite fremunt, pictique Agathvrsi/ 

Juvenal calls them immanes. Sat. 15, v. 125. 

SaUTomataqlie truces, aut immanes Jgathijrti. 

They are supposed to derive their name from Agathi/rsus, 

the son of Hercules, or, according to Suidas, aVu rCiv Ovpcrwy 

r« Aioiwb. Herod. 1. 4, c 102. 
AGATHYRSUS {Myth.) -AyaQvpaoc, a son of Hercules. 

Herod. 1. 4, c. 102. 
AGAVE (Myth.) ' Ayava, daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, 

and one of the Bacchanals, who tore her son Pentheus to 

pieces for despising the Bacchanalian rites. Horace calls 

her dement, furiosa. 


Hor. I. 2, sat. 3, v. 303. 

Quid caput abscunm demens cum portut Agave 
Xati in/elicit, sibi turn furiosa videtur? 

Lucan styles her the Thcbana mater. 
Luc. 1. 1, v. 574. 

Thebanom quatis Agaien 

Impulit, aut stlvi contorsit tela Lucurgi 

Seneca gives her the name of the Cadmea mater. 
Sen. Her. act 2. 

QuaUt atttmita etfurens 

Cadmea mater abstulit nato caput. 

Statius calls her the Panthcia mater, 1. 1 1, v. 3 IS. 

AGAVUS (Myth.) "Ayavoc, a son of Priam. 

AGBALUS (Hist.) 'AyfiaXoe, a native of Aradus, whose son 
Merbalus was a commander in the fleet of Xerxes. Herod. 
1- 7, c. 98. 

AGBARUS {Hist.) vide Abgarus. 

AGBATAX'A (Gcog.) vide Ecbatana. 

AGBUS (Hut.) asking of Ethiopia, A. D. 100. Gencb. 

AGDAMIA (Gcog.) 'Ayhtpta, a town of Phrygia, whose 
bishop, Optimus, is mentioned by Socrates. Sue. Hist. 
Eccles. 1. 12, c. 8. 

AGDE (Gcog.) formerly Agatha, a town of Languedoc, in 
France, in the department of Herault, and on the river He- 
rault, 198 leagues S. Paris, 7 X. E. Xarbonne. Long. 3 37' 
E. lat. 43 19' X. 

AGDISTIS (Myth.) ' Aytt-tc, a monster of doubtful sex en- 
gendered by Jupiter, from which sprung the almond-tree. 
Pans. 1. 7, c. 17. 

Agdistis, the sirname of Cybele the mother of the gods. 

Agdistis (Gcog.) a mountain of Phrygia, near Pessinus, 
where Attis was buried, according to Pausanias. Pans. 
1. 1, c. 4. 

AGDUAXI (Biog.) surname of Abdal Khaleh, a doctor of the 

AGEDUX'UM (Geog.) a town of Gaul, now Ahun. 

AGEE (Bibl.) tax, from K'j, a valley ; father of Shammah, 
a gallant man in David's army. 2 Sam. xxiii. 1 1 . 

AGELADAS (Biog.) ' Ay cXaSae, or Agelades, a statuary, 
whose works are highly commended by Pliny, Columella, 
and Pausanias. Pli'n. I. 34, c. 8; Cohtm. 1. 10, c. 29; 
Paus. 1. 6, c. 8. 

AGELAS (Hist.) a king of Corinth. [Vide Agelaus} 

AGELASTUS (Myth.) 'AyiXaroc, from a priv. and yeXaui ; 
a certain rock in Salamis, according to the scholiast on Aris- 
tophanes, or according to others in Attica, so called because 
Ceres sat lamenting the loss of Proserpine, or because 
Theseus there commenced his descent into hell. 

Agelastus (Hist.) 'AytAciToc, a king of Corinth. [Vide 

Agelastus, a sirname of Crassus, who never laughed but once 
in his life ; from a privative, and ytXaui, to laugh, tic. 
dc Fin. Bon. et Mai. 1. 5, c. 30. 

AGELAUS (Myth.) 'AycXanc, a Trojan, and son of Phrad- 
mon, was killed by Diomed. Horn. II. 1. 8, v. 257. 

Agelaus, the son of Damastor, and one of Penelope's suitors. 
Horn. Odyss. 1. 20, v. 322. 

Agalaus, a servant of Priam, who preserved Paris when ex- 
posed on Mount Ida. ApoUod. 1. 3, c. 12. 

Agelaus, a son of Hercules and Omphale, from whom 
Croesus was descended. 

Agelaus (Hist.) 'AytXcioe, or Agelas, third king of Corinth, 
of the race of Heraclida>, succeeded his father Ixion, A. M. 
2977. Euseb. in Chron. 

Agelaus II, or Agelastus, second king of Corinth of the race 


of the Bacchidc, succeeded his father Bacchjs, A. M. 3076. 
Euseb. in Ckron. (lliri!,'.) a native of Tegea, was crowned victor at 

the Pythian games. Pans. 1. 10, 7. 
AGELIUS (l'.cc.) a bishop of the Novations, was at the 

council assembled in the reign of Theodosius in 883, which 

decided in favour of those who were of that sect. Socrat. 

1. 5, c. 10; Sozom. 1. 7, e. 12 ; Baron. Annul, ami. 383. 
Agelius, or Agelli, Anthony (Biog.) a monk of Sorrento, in 

Naples, of the Kith century, and inspector of the Vatican, 

wrote ' Commentaries on the Psalms,' ecc. besides preparing 

a Greek edition of the Bible in 1587. 
AGELNOTH (Ecc.) Mthelnoth, Egelnoth, or in Latin Achel- 

nothus; archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of Canute 

the Great, refused, at the death of the latter, to crown his 

son Harold. After holding the see of Canterbury 17 years, he 

died in 1038. To him are ascribed the works entitled, 1. ' A 

Panegyric on the Blessed Virgin Mary,' 2. ' A Letter to 

Earl Leofric concerning St. Augustine.' 3. ' Letters to 

several Persons.' 
AGEMACHUS (Hist.) 'Ayiipayps, a leader of the Messe- 

nians, who took the pirate X'icon by stratagem. Polyccn. 

1. 2, e. 35. 
AGEMYTHA (Geog.) a town of India without the Ganges. 
AGEX (Geog.) the ancient Agennum, is now the capital of 

the department of the Lot and Garonne. Long. 0. 36. E. 

lat. 44 12. X. [Vide Againum. - ] 
AGENDICUM (Geog.) a principal town of the Senones in 

Gaul, now Sens. 
AGEXXUM (Gaw.) 'Ayivvbv, Aginnum or Agium, a town 

of Aquitania, near the river Garonne, now Agen. 

Anson, ep. 2 V. 

Santonin utsibi Thtrdigalam moxjungal Aghiwn. 

It was the birth-place of Joseph Scaliger. Plin. 1. 4, c. 19; 

Sidon. Apollin. 1. 8, ep. 11 ; Gregor. Turon. 
AGENOIS (Geog.) a district of Guienne, where the Nito- 

brigi of Citsar lived. Its capital is Agen, and it is now 

in the department of Lot et Garonne. 

OK (Myth.) 'Ay?/ vip, king of Phoenicia, was the son 

1 f Neptune, and father of Cadmus. Virgil speaks of him 
1 lie founder of Carthage. 

Virg. JEn. 1. 1, v. 338. 

1 ides, Tyrios, et Agenorii urbem. 

Silius calls him gloria gentis. 
Sil 1. 1, v. 17- " 

Stat gloria •^■■xtis Agenor. 

Apollod. 1. 2, c. 1, &c ; Hygm. Fab. <i. Sleph. Byz. 

OB, a Trojan, and son of Anterior, mentioned bv Homer. 
limn. II. 1. 21 , v. 579- 

Q| iVTtjVO) '<"< . " nn ,'h)r Ayrjl'Uin 

"rV illf\w Qtvyav TT[>if TTttfiijiraiT' A^tXjjoc. 

According to Pausanias he was killed by Xeoptolemus, 1. 10, 
( . 27- 

in. the son of Amphion and N'iobe. Apollod. 1. 3, c. 4. 

AOENOB, a son of .Egypt us by Arabia. Apollod. 1. 2, c. I. 

Aoknor, a son ofJasUS, ami father of ArgUS, according to 
Apollodorus; but Pausanias speaks of an Agenor the great- 
grandson of Argus, and brother of JavUS, whom hi' succeeded 
in the kingdom of Argos. Apollod. 1. 2, c. 10 ; Pans. 1. 2. 

\i.v\nn, a son of Pleuron, and father of Parthaon. 

AOENOB (Biog.) a Mitvhncan who wrote on music, according 
in Ari toxenes. Aristae. Music. 1. 2. 

AGENORIA (Myth.) or Ageronia, a goddess among the 
Romans who presided over industry, and had a temple in 
Mount Aventine. August. tie Civ. Dei. 1. !■, c. II. 

AGER (Biog.) or Agerim Nicholas, a botanist and physi- 
cian of Strasbourg, in the 1 7lh century, who was intimate 
with, and assisted the brothers .John and Gaspar Bankin in 


their botanical researches. He wrote, 1. ' Disputatio de 
Zoophytis,' Ho. Argentorat, 1625. 2. ' De Anuria Vege- 
tativa,' -Ho. Argentorat, Ki'Jf). .;. A thesis ' De Homine 
sano et Dysenteria,' 4to. 1593, according to MangetL 

AGERINUS (Hist.) a frccdman of Agrippina, who being 
sent by her to Nero, her son, was, by the contrivance of 
Anicetus, charged with attempting the life of the prince, 
and committed to prison. Tac. Annul. 1. 14, e. 7. 

AGESAXDKK (Hist.) 'Ayticravbpoe, one of the Lacedemo- 
nian ambassadors to Athens previous to the Pcloponncsian 
war. Thucyd. 1. 1, c. 139. 

AgeBANDEB (Biorr.) a sculptor of Rhodes in the time of Ves- 
pasian, who, with the assistance of Polydorus and Atheno- 
dorus, produced his group of Laocoon, and Lis two chil- 
dren entwined by the serpents, which was found at the end 
of the 16th century in the ruins of Vespasian's palace. Plin. 
1. 36, c. 5. 

AGESIAXAX (Biog.) a commentator on Aratus. Foss. de 
Mathem. c. S3, § 21. 

AGESIAS (Hist.) an archon of Athens in the first year of 
the 1 1 4th Olympiad. 

Agesias (Biog.) vide Hegesias. 

Agesias, son of Sostrates, a victor at the Olympic games. 

AGESIDAMUS (Biog.) a Locrensian and distinguished pu- 
gilist at the Olympic games, celebrated by Pindar. 

AGESIDES (Hist.) a king of the Lacedscmonians. 

AGESILAUS (Myth.) 'AyfiroXaoc, a sirname of Pluto. 
CalMmachus in Pa/lad. Lavac. 

*f»oira'tm [itydX'ii ri/uoc 'Avfffi'X^r. 

Agesilaus (Hist.) 'Ayi)m\aoc, the fifth king of Lacedicmon 
after Eurysthenes, was the son of Doryssus, of the Agida?, 
and father of Archelaus. According to Pausanias he was 
cotemporary with Lycurgus tlie law-giver; but Eusehius 
differs in iiis account of this prince. Herod. 1. 7, c. 204 ; 
Pa us. 1. 3, c. 2 ; Eusch. in Ckron. 

Agesilaus, a son of Hippocratides, mentioned by Herodotus 
in the genealogy of this family. Herod. 1. S, c. 131. 

Agesilaus, son of Archidamus, succeeded his brother Agis, 
and died after a reign of 43 years A. C. about 362. Although 
lame and diminutive in stature, he distinguished himself as 
a prudent, valiant, and successful general against the Per- 
sians, Athenians, and other enemies of the republic. Xenoph. 
Oral, de Agesil. Beg., Diod. 1. 14 ; Cornel. Ne/ios. in lit. ; 
Pint, in lit.; Justin. 1. (i, c. 1 ; Pans. 1. 3, c. <), eve. 

Agesilaus, surnanied the Athenian, brother of Themistocles, 
was sent as a spy into the Persian army, and having reached 
the camp of Xerxes in disguise, he killed one of his favour- 
ites by mistake for that prince. Upon which being brought 
before Xerxes as he was going to sacrifice to the sun, Age- 
silaus thrust his band into the fire, and informed Xerxes that 
all his countrymen were prepared to do the same. Which 
incident is cited by Plutarch, on the authority of Agathar- 
cides in his Parallels, 'KAAi/i'ituir KoJ Puipa'iKwv. 

AGESILAUS, one of the Ephori, and uncle of Agis, king of 
Sparta, persuaded the latter to renew the laws of Lycurgus 
in order to indulge his avarice. Pint, in Agis ft ("Awn. 

AGESILAUS, an ambassador in the service of Antigonus, king 
of Macedonia, was sent on a mission to Cyprus. Diotlor. 
1. 1!). 

AGESILAUS (Biog.) a Greek historian who wrote on Italy. 
Phil, in PareU c 29- 

AGESILAUS, an Arcadian, gained a prize at the Pythian games, 
according to Puns, in Arcml. 

AGESIPOLIS (Hist.) 'AynalmlUt' There were three kings 

of Sparta of this name. 
AGESIPOLIS I. son of Pausanias of the family of the Eurys- 
thenides, who died after a reign of 14 years, in the 100th 
Olympiad, A.C. 380, and was succeeded by Cleonibrotus. 
I Ie gained a great victory over the Mantineans. Xenoph. 


Helen. 1. 4, c. 2, &C.J Diodur. 1. 15 ; Paws. 1. 3, c. 5, &c. ; 
Poli/cean. 1. 2, c. 25. 
Agesipolis II, son of Cleombrotus, who died after a reign of 
one vear, A. C. 370. He was succeeded by Cleomenes II. 
Diodor. 1. 15 ; Pans. 1. 3, c. 5, &c. ; Euseb. in Ckron. 
Agesipolis III, took the title of king after the death of Cleo- 
menes, who was killed by Alexander in the 140th Olym- 
piad, A. C. 219. 
AGESISTRATA (Hist.) 'Ayijarrepara, mother of Agis, king 

of Sparta, was illustrious for her virtues. Pint, in Ag. 
AGESISTRATUS (Hist) 'Aynahparog, one of the Spartan 

Ephori during the Peloponnesian war. Xenoph. 1. 2. 
Agesistratus, a man who wrote, according to Vitruvius, ' De 

Arte Machinali.' 1'itruv. Praf. lib. vii. 
AGESIUS, Thaddaus (Bias-) a native of Bohemia, who 
wrote, ' De Metoposcopia sive Frontis Picina.' 2. ' Me 
toposeopic Aphorisms.' 3. ' On Beer.' 
AGETL'S (Hist.) "Aytfros, the son of Alcidis, who was 
compelled by fraud to give up his wife to his friend Ariston 
Herod. 1. fi, c. 1. 
AGGAS, Ralph (Biog.) a surveyor and engraver of the 1 6th 
century. He drew plans of London, Oxford, and Cam- 
bridge ; and is supposed to have written a book, entitled 
' A Preparative to platting of Landes and Tenements for 
Surveigh,' &c 

AGGENLS, L'rbicus (Biog.) a writer on lands and their 
limits, whose book was published by Turncbus, with those 
of Siculus Flaccus, Julius Frontinus, &c Voss. de Mathem 
c. 27, § 10. 
AGGRAMMES (Hist.) called by Diodorus Xandrames, son 
of a hair-dresser, became king of the Pharrasians through 
the intrigues of the queen, who killed the king's sons that 
he might succeed to the throne, A. C. 327- Diod. 1 
Q. Curt. 1. 9, c. 2. 
AGHON (Myth.) the name of a god worshipped by the Bi- 
gorrenes, in Gasconv, according to an inscription, AGH 
AGHRIM, Viscount (Her.) the title commonly borne by the 

eldest son of the earl of Athlone. 

AG IAS (Hist.) ' Ay iac, an Arcadian, and one of the officers 

in the army of the 10,000 Greeks who was treacherously 

seized by Tissaphernes. Polyaenus calls him "Ay if. Xcnopli. 

Anab. 1. 2 j Polyxn. 1. 7, c. 18. 

Agias (Biog.) a prophet who is said to have foretold the vic- 

torv which Lysander obtained at yEgospotamos. Paus. 1. 3, 

c. 11. 

Agias, a noted glutton, mentioned by Plutarch. Pint. Sym- 

pos.l 2, Qua-st. 10. 
AGIATIS (Hist.) 'Ayiarig, the wife of Agis, king of Sparta, 
who was murdered by his subjects. At his death she was 
compelled to mam 1 Cleomenes, the son of L«onidas. Pint. 
in Agid. ct Cleom. 
AGIDAS (Biog.) 'Ayi'cac, a native of Elis, and victor at 
the Olvmpie games, for whom a statue was erected. Paus. 
1. 3. 
AGID.E (Hist.) 'A yilai, a patronymic for the descendants of 
Agis, son of Euristhenes, who shared the throne of Sparta 
with the Proclidae. This family became extinct in the person 
of Cleomenes, the son of Leonidas. Pint, in Agid. 
AGIDOS (Geog.) "AyiSoc, a town of the island of Cyprus, 
now le Bourg du Temple, according to Lusignan. Strab. 
L 15 J Lusignan. C/iorog. et Hist, dell I sol de Cypr. 
AGILA (Hist.) or Agouilane, a vicious king 
of the Visigoths in Spain, who succeeded 
Theodosillus, and was assassinated in 554, 
after a reign of five years. His effigy is 
given as in the annexed figure. 
AGILMAR (Ecc.) Aglimar or Egilmar, arch- 
bishop of Yienne, in Dauphiny, presided at 
the council of Valence in 855. 


AGILULPHUS (Hist.) duke of Turin, obtained by his mar- 
riage with Theudelinda the kingdom of the Longobards, or 
Lombardy, in 6"l(>, and died after a successful reign of 25 
years, in which he brought all Italy under subjection to him. 
Aimon. I. 3, c. 43 ; Paul. Diacon. 1. 3, c. 14 ; Baron. Anna/. 
Ann. 606. 

AGIMEXES (Hist.) 'Ayiftit );c, a native of Sicyon, and one 
of the Lacedtemonian allies at the battle of .Egospotamos. 
Pans. 1. 10. 

AGIXCOURT (Geog.) a village of Artois, in the French 
Netherlands, in the present department of Pas de Calais, 
celebrated in history by the victor} 7 of Henry V over the 
French in 1415. 

AGIS (Myth.) "Ayic, a Lycian, who accompanied /Eneas to 
Italy, where he was killed. 

Agis (Hist.) a name common to several Spartan kings, and 
other distinguished persons. 

Spartan Kings of this Name. 

Agis I, succeeded his father Eurysthenes, A. M. 3004, A. C. 
1000. According to Pausanias he was the founder of the 
family of the Agidte. Herod. 1. 6, c. 65 ; Paus. 1. 3, c. 2. 

Agis II, succeeded his father Archidamus, and did much mis- 
chief to the Athenians in the Peloponnesian war. He died 
A. C. 397, and was succeeded by Agesilaus the Great. Thu- 
cyd. 1. 3, c. 89 ; Xenoph. Helien. 1. 3 • Diodor. 1. 12; Justin. 
I. 5, c. 2. 

Agis III, son of Archidamus, who was killed in Italy, suc- 
ceeded his father, and after a reign of nine years was killed 
in battle by Antipater, one of Alexander's generals, A. C. 
394. Diod. 1. 17; Q. Curt. 1. 6, c. 1 ; Justin. 1. 12, c. 1. 

Agis IV, of the family of the Eurypontides, succeeded his 
father Eudamidas; but after a short reign, in which he 
made an attempt to restore the laws of Lycurgus, he was 
murdered by his rebellious subjects. Plut. in Agis. 

Other distinguished Persons. 

Agis, an officer in the army of the 10,000. [Vide Agios'] 

Agis, a king of the Pseonians. Diod. 1. \6. 

Agis, a general of Ptolemv, who conquered the Cyrenians. 

Diod. 1. 19. - 
Agis (Biog.) a poet of Argos, who attended Alexander in his 

Asiatic expedition, and loaded him with fulsome flattery- 

Q. Curt. 1. 8, c. 5. 
Agis, a poet who wrote on the art of cookery, mentioned bv 

Athenaeus. At ken. 1. 12, c 13, &c 
AGLAB (Hist.) or Ibrahim Ben Aglab, was a governor of 

Africa, under Aaron Raschid, A. D. 800. His descendants. 

named Aglabites, succeeded to the government till<K>8, when 

they were deprived of it by Abou Abdullah. 
AGLAIA (Myth.) 'AyXairj, one of the Graces, called also 

Pasiphae. Hesiod. Theogn. v. <)0S : Apollod. 1. 1, c. 6 : 

Hygin. Prcef. Fab. ; Paus. 1. 9, c. 35. 
AGLAOXICE (Biog.) 'AyXoop/ioj, a daughter of Hegemon, 

or Hegetor, the Thessalian, who was skilled in the science 

of astronomy, and boasted she could draw the moon from 

heaven, whence the proverb of rnv StXiivnt' rarnir-d, ' She 

draws down the moon,' for vain-boasting. The Scholiast on 

Apollonius and Plutarch call her likewise 'AyavlKn, 

AGI.AOPE (Myth.) one of the Syrens. 
AGLAOPES (Myth.) 'Ay\ac7n]c, the name of /Eseulapius, 

among the Lacedemonians. Hesi/chius. 
AGLAOPHOX (Biog.) -AyXawpdr, a painter of Thapsus. 

Plat, in Gang. ; Plhi. 1. 35, c. 9 ; Quintil. 1. 12, c. 10 ; Pau- 

san. 1. 10 ; Dio. Chrysostom. Oral. 55 ; Suidas. Hesychuis. 

Jun. Catalog. Artif. 
AGLAOSTHEXES (Biog.) according to Pollux 'AiyXw^ei^c, 

JEglosthenes, an historian of Xaxos. Hygin. Poet. Astro- 


pom.; Plin.l 4, c. 12 j Poll- 1. 9, S»8j Lartanl. 1. 1, 
c. 11. 

AGLAURUS {yi *ith.) ' \y\avpor, or, according to Apollo- 

dorus. \ \os, Agraulos, the daughter of Actaus, the 

first king of Attica, who married Cecrops. 

Am.Ainrs, the daughter of the preceding, was changed by 
Mercury into a stone. Herodotus and Pausahias both speak 
of her temple in Attica. Herod. 1. 8, c. 53; Apollo,/. 1. 3, 
... js; Ovid. Met. 1. 2, fab. 12; Hygin. Fab. 166; Paus. 
1. 1, c. 18. 

AGLAUS (Hist) 'AyXaos, the poorest man in Arcadia, pro- 
nounced by the oracle more happy than Gyges, king of 
Lvdia, or. according to Pausanias, than Croesus. Plin. 1. ?, 
c. 17 : Vat Max. 1. 7, c 1 ; Paw*. 1. 8. 

AGLIO {Geog.) or In Cum dell Aglio, the ruins of ancient 
Algidum, near Frescati. 

AGLIONBY, John (Biog.) a divine, the son of Edward 
Aglionby, of Cumberland, was admitted a student of Queen's 
I, Oxford, in 1588, and died in lfiOO. Wood mentions 
his name among the translators of the New Testament. 

AGLIONBY, George, son of the preceding, was appointed eighth 
dean of Canterbury, but never installed, by Charles I, who 
was prevented by the rebellion, during which time he died. 

AGLIONBY, William, a gentleman of polite learning, and en- 
voy from Queen Anne to the Swiss, was the author of a 
book, entitled, ' Painting illustrated in three Dialogues, 
with the Lives of the most eminent Painters, from Cimahue 
to Raphael,' 4to. London, lb'85. He is likewise supposed 
to have written the letters published under the name Dr. 
William Agtfjonby, F.R.S. 

AGLOMACHU turris (Top.) 'A.y\ulua\u Trltpyoe, a tower 
in the city of Cvrene, which was burnt by Arcesilaus. 
Herod. 1. 4, c. lO'i. 

U.MI'.T (Geog.) a town of Agmat in Mauretania, supposed 
to be the ancient Bocanum Hemerum of Ptolemy. It stands 
on the declivity of Mount Atlas, and was made the seat of 
empire by Ebll Tomroun, who founded the family of the 
Altnoades. Manual. 1. .", c. 4. 

AGNANUS, St (Ere) bishop of Orleans in the time of 
Attila, and distinguished for his piety. Cassiodorus, Pros- 
per., and Itidor. in Chron. ; Gregor. Turon. 1. 2, c. 7- 

AGNELLI, Andrew (Eee.) bishop of Ravenna in the ninth 
century, wrote the lives of the bishops of that see, which 
was first published in 1708, by father Bacchini, under the 
title of ' Agnelli qui et Andreas, Abbatis, S. Maria ad Bla- 
chernas, Liber Pontificatis/ 6Vc. 2 vols. 4to. 

Agnelli, Joseph {Biog.) a Jesuit of Naples in 1621, died in 
1706. He wrote, I. ' Settimana Consecrata/ &c 2. ' Ca- 
techigme Annuale.' 8. ' II Parrochiano Instruttore,' 2 vols. 
itn. Rome, Hi77- l- ' Arte di Goder I'Ottimo,' &c. 5.' Arte 
il' Eleeger I'Ottimo,' &c. 6. ' Arte di Stabilire I'Elezzione 
dell' Ottimo,' &C 7- ' Arte Facile di Pratticare I'Elezzione 
Stabilita dell' Ottimo,' &c. 

AGNELLUS (Ecc.) a bishop of Ravenna in the sixth een- 

tury, and author of a letter in the Bibliothccfi Patrum ' De 

Rati : Fidei ad Armeniam.' 

AGNES {Hist.) a name common to several empresses, queens, 

duchesses, and countesses. 

Empresses of this Name. 

3, wife of Henry III, suniamed the Black, and mother 
of Henry IV, died in 1077- Bertho/d. Chron. Harm,. 
Aonbs, of Trance, daughter of Lewis the younger, and wile 

of Alexis Comnenes, was afterwards married to Andronicus 
the Usurp r. 
AgnSS, daughter of Gui I, was first married to Peter II, 
emperor of Constantinople, afterwards to Philip of France, 
ton of Lewis VIII, and lastly to Guy of (haiitillon. An- 
sehne. //"'• Genealog. 


Queens of this Name. 

A'iNES, daughter of Berthohlus, the fourth duke of M crania, 
was married to Philip Augustus, king of France ; but being 
soon after repudiated by him through the interference of the 
church, she died of mortification in 1201. 

Acnes, of Poitiers, queen of Arragon. was married first to a 
viscount de Thomar, and afterwards to Ramirez, king of 

Agnes, the wife of Alfonsus VI, king of Spain, was married 
a second time to Elias, the first count of Mans. 

Agnes, daughter of the emperor Albert, and wife of Andrew, 
king of Hungary, was often a mediator between her bro- 
ther Albert and the Swiss, with whom she resided a long 

Duchesses of this Name. 

Agnes, of France, duchess of Bourbon, and wife of Robert 
II, duke of Bourbon, died in 1827- 

Agnes, of Burgundy, duchess of Bourbon, wile of Charles I 
of Bourbon, died in 1470. 

Agnes, of Vermandois, duchess of Lorrain, was married to 
Charles I, duke of Lorrain, and being taken prisoner at the 
same time with her husband, remained with him in prison. 

Countesses of this Name. 
Agnes, of Bourbon, was married first to John of Burgundy, 

and afterwards to Robert II, count of Artois. 
Agnes, of Navarre', wife of Gaston Phcebus III, count of 

Foye, was the mother of the famous Gaston of Foye. 
Agnes, of Savoye, wife of Francis I, count of Orleans, died 

in 1508. 
AGNES, daughter of Othocarus, king of Bohemia, rejected the 

offer of marriage with the emperor, Frederic II, and retired 

to a convent. Spondan. Chron. Ann. 1284. 
Agnes, Astorgo (Ecc.) a Neapolitan of noble birth, was 

created cardinal by Nicholas V, and died in 1450. 
Agnes, Son/ {Biog.) or the fair Agnes. [Vide Soreft 
AGNESI, Maria Cage/ana (Biog.) an authoress of Milan, 

was born in 1718, and died a nun in 17, ( )i). She wrote, 

1. 'A Discourse, tending to prove that the Study Of the 

Liberal Arts is not incompatible with the Understandings of 

Women.' 2. ■ Propositiones Philosophies.' 3. ' Institu- 

zioni Analitiche,' 2 vols. 4to. 1748. 
AGNESIO (Biog.) Agnes or Aiges John Baptist, a monk of 

Valence, died in 1558. He wrote many works on piety 

and literature. Nicot An/on. 
AGNESLUS, or Agnellus (Eec.) a bishop of Fez, A. D. 

AGXI, Thomas (Eee.) patriarch of Jerusalem and bishop of 

Acre, dkd in 1277. leaving among other works a life of 

St. Peter. 
AGNIFILO, Amino (Eee.) bishop of Aquilea, was created 

cardinal by Paul II, and died in 1427. 
AGNIO (Ceng.) the river Aa in Belgium. 
AGNITES (Myth.) 'AyWnjc>a surname of 32sculapius among 

the Lacedemonians, because they represented him under the 

figure of the plant called the agnus. Paus. 1. .:. 

AGNODICE (Hist.) an Athenian lady, who disguised her 
six in order to study medicine. llygiiius. 

AGNOLO, Michael (Eee.) a priest of Florence, who em- 
braced the reformation in the Kith century. He wrote a 
work entitled, ' Apologia nella quale si tratta della vera 
e falsa Chiesa,' &C. 

AGNOLO, Baeeio </' (Biog.) a sculptor and architect of 
Florence, was boni in 14fi0, and died in 154.'!. The best 
specimen of Ids skill is in the Bartolini palace and garden at 

AGNON (Hist) "Ayvwv, a son of Nidas, and a colleague 0? 

Pericles in the pra-toi'ship, during the Peloponnesian war ; 
was the founder of Amphipolis, which afterwards took part 


with Brassidas, upon whom it conferred the honours due to 
the real founder. Thucyd. 1. 2, c. 58 ; 1. 4, c. 102. 

Agnon, a governor of Alexander the Great, who fell under his 
master's displeasure. Plin. 1. 33, c. 3 ; Pint. Quomod. Adul. 

Agnon (Biog.) an academician who wrote on the lives of the 
Spartans in Iris time. Allien. 1. 13, c. 8. 

Agnon (Gcog.) a town of Sicily, near the river Jaretta. 

AGXONIDES (Hist.) a rhetorician of Athens, who accused 
Phocion of having delivered up the Piraeus to Nicanor ; but 
the charge not being admitted by the people, the accuser was 
put to death. 

AGNUSIUS (Hist.) "Ayvbtrwc, a herald who betrayed the 
designs of the Pallantidre to Theseus. Pint, in T/ics. 

AGOBARDUS (Biog.) Agobard, or Agobcrt, archbishop of 
Lyons in the 9th century, took an active part in the affairs 
of his time, both civil and ecclesiastical. He fell under the 
displeasure of Louis le Debonnaire, but was afterwards re- 
stored to favour, and died in that prince's service in 340. He 
wrote very many treatises against the worship of images, 
in the defence of sacerdotal rights, against the Jews, against 
the error of Felix D'Urgel, who maintained that Jesus 
Christ was the adopted son of God, ecc. See. 

AGOBEL (Geog.) Two towns in Africa. 1. Of Tremecen, 
called by the ancients Victoria, according to Marmol. 
Marmol. L'Aj'rique. 1. 5, c. 15. 2. Of Hea, in Morocco. 
Marmol. 1. 3, c. 4. 

AGOCE (Geog.) a town of /Ethiopia, in the /Egvptian ter- 
ritory. Plin. 

AGONAC (Biog.) the preceptor of Zoroaster, whom Pliny 
calls Ajonan. Plin. 1. 30, e. 1. 

AGONALIS, Circus (Topog.) a spacious place in Rome, now 
called Piazza Novnnu, which was adorned with splendid 
buildings by Innocent X. 

AGONENSIS, Porta (Topog.) a gate in Rome, afterwards 
called Collina and Quirinalls, now Porta Salara. 

AGONES (Geog.) 'Aywvtc, a people of Insubria, who inha- 
bited the country now called La Vol di Gogna. Polyb. 1. 2. 

AGONIS (Myth.) a woman who served in the temple of 
Venus, on mount Eryx. Cic. in Cavil, c. 17- 

AGONIUS (Myth.) the god who presided over the actions of 
men, whence the feasts called Agonuliu are said by some to 
derive their name. Fest. de Signif. Verb. 

AGORA (Geog.) a town of the Thracian Chersonesus, now 
Melagra, according to Leunclavius. Herod. 1. 7> c. 50. 

AGORACRITUS (Biog.) 'AyopaKpiroe, a sculptor of Athens, 
and disciple of Phidias, flourished about 448 years A. C. 
He contested with Alcamenes the honour of making a 
Venus for the Athenians; which being adjudged against 
him, he in disgust sold his statue, on condition that it 
should never be taken to Athens. This statue, which he 
named Nemesis, was placed at Rhamnus, a village of Attica, 
and was esteemed by Varro to be superior to all others. 
Plin.1. 34, c. 5; St'rab. 1. 9; Pans. 1. 1, c. 1 ; S nidus. ; 
Tzctz. Chil. Hist. 154. 

AGOILEL'S (Myth.) 'Ayopaloc, an epithet for Jupiter and 
Mercury among the Athenians, who was supposed to preside 
over markets. 

AGORIUS (Hist.) 'Ayuipioc, the son of Damosius, and great 
grandson of Orestes, was chosen by Ocylus to share with 
him the kingdom of Elis. Pans. 1. 5. 

AGOSTINI, Stephen (Ecc.) a native of Forli in Romania, 
and archbishop of Heraclea, was made cardinal by Pope 
Innocent XI, and died in 16S3. 

Agostini, Leonardo (Biog.) an antiquary of the 17th cen- 
tury, flourished under the pontificate of Urban VIII and 
Alexander VII, and published, 1. ' La Sicilia di Filippo 
Paruta Descritta con Medaglie, con la Giunta di Leonardo 
Agostini,' fol. Rome, l64<). 2. ' Le Gemme Antiche Figu- 
rate di Leonardo Agostini con le Annotazioni del Sig. Gio. 
Pietro Bellori,' 2 vol's. 4to. Rome, lo'36, 1657, 1670, 1686. 


AGOSTINO, Paul (Biog.) a musician of Valerano, was 
born in 1593, and died in 1629- He was distinguished as 
a scientific composer in every species of music. 

AGOTIUS (Geog.) a river of Gallia Aquitania, now Agout. 

AGOULT, IVil/ium d' (Biog.) a gentleman and poet of Pro- 
vence, who died about 1181, leaving many verses, none of 
which have been published. 

AGRA (Topog.) or Agra; "Aypai, a place in Athens, near 
the river Ilyssus, where the Eleusynian mysteries were cele- 
brated. Pans. 1. 1, c. 19- 

AGR/EUS (Hist.) 'Aypaioc, the youngest son of Temenus, 
who did not unite with his brothers in their designs against 
Deiphon. Pans. 1. 2. 

AGRAGAS (Gcog.) 1. A town of Sicily. [Vide Agrigentum~\ 
2. A river of Agrigentum, now Finnic di Gcrgenti, or di 
AW Fazcll. de Reb. Sim/. Ike. 1, 1. 6. 

AGRAGIAN/E, Porta' (Topog.) the gates of Syracuse, which 
lead to Agriscentum. Cic. Tusc. Qftcest. 1. 5, e. 23. 

AGRAULE (Topon.) a tribe of Athens. 

AGRAULOS (Myth.) vide Aglauras. 

AGREDA, Maria d' (Biog.) daughter of Francis Coronel, and 
superior of the convent built by her parents, was born at 
Agreda in 1602, and died in lC()5, leaving a Life of the 
Blessed Virgin, which she pretended to have received by a 
revelation from heaven. It was condemned by the Doctors 
of the Sorbonne, but admitted as genuine in Spain, where it 
was published under the title of ' Mistica Cieldad di Dios,' &c. 

AGRESPHON (Biog.) an ancient author who wrote Uepl 
'( tpwrvnuiv, i. e. concerning illustrious men who bore the same 
name. Suidas. 

AGRESTI, Livio (Biog.) a painter of Forli, in the Roman 
territory, was employed by Gregory XIII to execute the 
works which he projected in the Vatican. His best perform- 
ance is said to be the Last Supper, in the chapel of the cathe- 
dral at Forli. 

AGRESTIN (Ecc.) a monk who gave trouble to the church 
in the seventh century. Baron. Annul. .Inn. 617- 

AGRICIUS, Matthew' (Biog.) a scholar of the 16th century, 
who wrote the lives of several saints. 

AGRICOLA, Cneius Julius (Hist.) the father-in-law of the 
historian Tacitus, and a governor of Britain, whose life was 
written by Tacitus himself. 

Agricola, a consul and colleague of Clementinus. 

Aghicola, another consul and colleague of Eustathius in the 
reign of Constantine. 

Agricola, Rudolphus (Biog.) a poet, an orator, and a scholar, 
was born in 1442, and died in 1485, leaving two works of 
his, which are extant, namely, an ' Abridgment of Ancient 
History,' and a treatise ' De Inventione Dialectica,' which 
were printed together at Cologne, in 1539, under the title 
of ' R. Lucubrationes,' 2 vols. 4to. 

Agricola, George, a German physician, was born in 1494, 
and died in 1555. He wrote different treatises on metals, 
medicine, weights, measures, &c. His work ' De Re Me- 
tallica,' was printed at Basil four times in folio in 1554, 
1556, 1558, and 1561; that ' De Ortu et Causis Subter- 
ranearum,' was printed in folio at Basil, in 1583. His 
principal work, ' De Peste/ was printed at Basil in 1554. 

Agricola, John, a minister of the Lutheran church, and a 
eotemporary with Luther, set forth the doctrine which has 
since been known by the name of Antinomianism. He died 
in 1556. Among his literary labours may be distinguished 
the share which he took in drawing up, at the command of 
Charles V, the formulary of faith well known by the name 
of the Interim, by which it was proposed to unite the con- 
tending parties. 

Agricola, Nicholas, a commentator on Cicero in 1555. 

Agricola, Melchior, a poet in 1581. 

Agricola, Christian, a theological writer in 1582. 

Agricola, John George, a medical writer in 1603. 


AgricolAj Wolfang, wrote on marriage in 1609. 
\oitiroi..\, Conrad, was author of a concordance in Kilo. 

A'iuu'oi.a, Francis, a priest of Lconcn, in the dutchy of Ju- 
lier, died in 1621, leaving ' Commentarium de Verbo Dei 
Scripto et non Scripto/ and other theological works. 

IGRICOLUS, St. (/'.'(,•.) or Agriculus, bishop of Chalons 
sur Saone, from 580 to 580, was present at three councils, 
namely, one of Orleans, one of Paris, and one of Lyons. 
He built several churches, and distinguished himself Q0 less 
by his talents than his piety, Gri gor. Turon, de Glor. Confess, 

AGRIGENTUM (Geog.) 'Axp&yae, a considerable town in 
Sicily, distinguished no less for its opulence and the magni- 
ficence of its buildings, than for the luxury of its inha- 
bitants. It was built by a colony from Gela, on the river 
from which it derived its name, and was the second city in 
the island next to Syracuse, with which at different times 
it contended for the superiority. 
Marciam. Heine!, in HeptirXp. 

HeyapetQ SeXivsVr 1 oi rcXwoi E/crurav 

Empedocles apud. Diogen. Laerl. 1. 8, in lit. 

'Q tpiXoi oi piya &™ Kara ZavQuv 'Atcpdyavrog 
Naicr' di>' dicpa TroKetoe. 

The government of the Agrigentines was for tlie most part 
democratical ; but they at one time fell under the tyranny of 
Phalaris, from which they were relieved by Thcron, who 
presided over the state until his death. To these circum- 

es Pindar alludes. 
I'iml. Olymp. Od. 2. 

Bijpwva t'e rsrpaopiaQ 
"Ei'tKa I'lKatpopu 

YtyiOVl}Tt()V OTTt 

AiKia"!' %ivav 
"EpfiT/t' ' AKpdyavrog 

RvtoVVfilOV Tt iraTipiov 

' 'Atorov, opQoirohtv 
Kapdvres oi iruWd Ovpip 
lipov i x ov oUnua 



They became afterwards successively subject to the Syracu- 
sans, Carthaginians, and Romans. The name of this town 
commonly written in Latin Agrigentum ; but Virgil, 
and after him, Silius, call it Agraga.s. 
Virg. Mn. 1.3, v. 703. 

Arduui ande Agragat ostendii maxime long 
Motnia ; magnanimum quondam generator eouorum. 

1 1 is now known by the name of Girgenli, where many 
noble ruins of its temples and other edifices are still to be 

[Tide Girgentn Thucyd. 1. (>, c. V; Poh/b. 1.8; 
Diodor. 1. 13 ; Cic. in Verr. Art. \ ; Lie. 1. 25, C. 23 ; Strab. 

I. (i ; Ovid. Fast. 1. 4; I'lin. 1. 3, C. 8 ; Sulin. c. 1 1 ; I'lul. 
1. 3, c. 4. 
VOBIGENTUU (Numis.) the eagle, the emblem of Jupiter, and 

the cancer marinus, were adopted as the symbols of Agri- 

B ntum, to denote their power and maritime situation. The 
eagle is sometimes represented in the act of pouncing on a 
Ban, as in fig. 1, oron a dove, as in fig. 2 ; but more frc- 

Fig. v. 


of fig. 3 the cancer with a water serpent underneath de- 
vouring it. The attitudes of these animals are intended, in 
all probability, to denote their power or successes over their 
enemies, particularly the Carthaginians. One of their me- 

Fig. 3. Fig. I. 

quently on a hare, as in fig. :; ; on the obverse of fig. 1 is 
the cancel alone, with the inscription of the town ; on that 
of fig. 2 the cancer with two dolphins underneath ; on that 

dais bears on the obverse, as in fig. 4, two eagles standing 
on a bare, one with its head erect, and the other in the act 
of attacking it ; on the reverse a man in a chariot and four, 
whom the goddess Victoria is flying towards with a tri- 
umphal crown, to commemorate a victory obtained by Gelo 
the tyrant of Syracuse over the Carthaginians, by the 
assistance of Theron, his father-in-law, and ruler of Agri- 
gentum. The inhabitants of this city honoured on their 
medals Jupiter, Apollo, Minerva, Hercules, and /Escula- 
pius ; but more particularly Ceres and Proserpine, whom 
they commonly represented crowned with ears of corn, to 
denote the fertility of the island. They likewise repre- 
sented their river Agragas under the form of a youth, whom 
they worshipped as the son of Jupiter, by Asterope, the 
daughter of Oceanus. The inscriptions on the medals of 
Agrigentum were sometimes an abbreviation of the names of 
the town, as A.K. as in fig. 3, AKPA. AKPAT. AM'.UWN, 
as in fig. 1, AKPANTI, as in fig. 4, ATPATANT02, asm 
fig. 1; but most commonly at full length ATPATANTINQN, 
or ATPArANTINON ; and in those which represent the 
river Agragas, APATAS, or in most others ATPArAS. 
(it/It-. Magn. Gnve. ; Ptirul. Sicil. Descrit. cunt Haverkamp. 

AGRIOPAS (Bit)*;.) a writer on the Olympic games, and 
those who were the victors at those games. I'lin. 1. 8, 
c. 22. 

Agriopas, the father of Cynaras, who invented tiles, 
metals, &c. PUn. 1. 7, c. 56. 

AGRIOPE (Mt/lh.) 'Aypidirn, the wife of Agenor, who is 
otherwise called Telepbesa. 

AGRIPPA (Bibl.) a king of the Jews, before whom the 
apostle Paul preached, and the second king of that name 
mentioned under History. Acts xxv. &c. 

Agrippa (Hist.) a name common to several princes and dis- 
tinguished persons. The name is supposed to be derived 
from /Egro partn, because those who came into the world 
with their feet foremost were called Agrippa-. I'/in. 1. 7. 
c. 8; Gett. 1. 16, c. 10'; Non. MarceUtn. c. 19; Salmat 
Exercit. Plinear. 631. 

Princes (if this Name. 

Agrippa, Silvias, king of the Latins, succeeded Tiberius, 
A.M. 3133, A.C. 902, and reigned forty years. Dionys 

Italic. 1. 1. 
AtntirPA, Herod, the first of this name, son of Aristobulus, 
and grandson of I Icrod the Great, obtained the kingdom of 
I | ! a from Caligula, and died by the visitation of God, a 
miserable death, after a reign of seven years, A.D. 18 
.Ids xii. 22. Juvenal refers to his incestuous connexion 
with his sister Berenice. 

Jtirc/i. Sat. 0', v. 156. 

Veindtadamai ruritsrimuj el Berenieei 

In digitoJvctuiprdiaioT, hunededUoUm 
Barbanu ineetU , dedit hunc Igrippa lororU, 
Obut mini "'" feeta, men !>■'!<■ s<ii>i'.aa rtges, 
it ttttui induiget senibus dementia pmU. 

Joseph. Jnd. Antiq. 1. 2, c. 8 ; Dio. 1. 5J). 


Agrippa II, son of the preceding, and last king of the Jews, 
was at the siege of Jerusalem with Titus. He it was before 
whom Paul pleaded. Joseph. Antiq. I. 19, 20; de Bell. 
Jud. 1. 2 ; Tac. Annul. Hist. 1. 5, e. 1 ; Dio. 1. 66. 

Agrippa, another son of Agrippa Herod, was consumed with 
his wife, by the fire of Mount Vesuvius. 

Distinguished Pcrsojis of this Name. 

Agrippa, Menenius, a consul. [[Vide Menenius-] 

Agrippa, Furius, a consul with T. Quinctius Capitolinus, 
U. C. 310, A. C. 444. Liv. 1. 3, c. 66. 

Agrippa, Menenius Lanalus, a consul. [[Vide Menenius'] 

Agrippa, M. Vipsanius, the favourite and son-in-law of Au- 
gustus, was three times consul, as many times tribune, and 
once censor with Augustus. After having achieved many 
exploits by sea, and written an account of his own life, 
which is not now extant, he died twelve years before the 
birth of our Saviour. A farther account of this Agrippa is 
given under Numismatics. Veil. Tacit. AnnaL 1. 1, c. 1, &c. 
Pater. Hist. 1. 2; Sueton. in August, c. 63; Dio. 1. 49, &c; 
Plin. 1. 34, &c. ; Joseph. Antiq. 

Agrippa, Posthumus, son of the preceding, was born after the 
decease of his father, adopted by Augustus, U. C. 756 ; 
banished shortly after on account of his vicious courses, and 
put to death bv Tiberius, on his coming to the empire, 
A. D. 14. Tac'. Anna!. 1. 1 ; Sueton. in Tiber, c. 22; Dio. 

Agrippa, or the false Agrippa, a slave of the preceding, 
whose real name was Cleoment, gave himself out to be 
Agrippa Posthumus, whom Tiberius had put to death. The 
emperor found means to get him into his power, when he 
caused him to be secretly despatched. Tac. Annal. 1. 2, 
c. 39 ; Dio. 1. 57- 

Agrippa, D. Haterius, a relation of Germanicus, was suc- 
cessively a tribune of the people, a pra>tor, and a consul ; 
Tacitus describes him as a great debauchee. Tac. Annal. 
1. 1, c. 57- 

Agrippa. Sf. Asinius, was consul with Cassus Cornelius, 
A. D. 25. Tac. Annal. 1. 4, c 34. 

Agrippa, J'ibulanus, a Roman knight, poisoned himself in 
the presence of his judges, from whom he was taken to 
prison, and there strangled, in the reign of Tiberius. Tac. 
Annal. 1. 6, c. 40 ; Dio. 1. 58. 

Agrippa. Fonteius, an accuser of Scribonius Libo, in the 
reign of Tiberius. Tacit. Annal. 1. 2, c. 30. 

Agrippa, Fonteius, probably the same as the preceding, was 
killed by the Sarmatians, while he was governor of Sar- 
matia, during the civil war between Vitellius and Vespasian. 
Tac. Hist. 1. 3, c 46; Joseph. 

Agrippa (Numis.) the two kings of of this name 
struck medals in honour of the emperors by whom they 
were befriended. 

Agrippa I, struck some medals bearing on the obverse the heads 
of Caligula and Claudius, with a suitable inscription ; on the 
CcEsarcce Asyli, Agrippa Rex, or EIII. BASIAE. ArPIlin A. 
TIBE1'1E£2N T . sub rege Agrippa, Tibcricnsium. A few of his 
medals are also said to bear on the obverse the head of 
Agrippa crowned with a diadem, inscription BA2IAEY2. 
Agrippes Philoclaudius ; on the reverse, MUX. KAI2APIA. 
or KAI2APEIA. Several medals are stamped with the year 
of this king's reign, as BA2I A. ArPIIUIA. T. anno tertio ; 
others are marked L. E. <r. Z. anno 5. 6. 

Agrippa II, struck medals, bearing on the obverse the heads 
of Nero, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, mostly with the 
Greek title ; on the reverse, the name and title, but not the 
head of the king, as BA. ArPinilA. or EIII BA. ArPinilA. 
to which is added the year of his reign. On one medal of 
Domitian, this serves to define the precise period of time, 


bearing on the obverse the inscription IMP. CA. D. VES. 
F. DOM. AV. GER. COS. XII.; Imperator Caesar Diet 
Vespasian* Filius Domitianus Augustus Germanicus Consul 
duodecimum ; and on the reverse, SAI^ TI. A\ G\ STI. 
S. C. and EHI. BA. ArPI. ET. K. r. sub Rege Agrippa. 
anno 9.6. J'aill. Num. Grmc. ; Pal in. Imp. ; Spanham de 
PrtBStant. et Us. Numm- ; Harduin. Herodiad. ; Froehlich. 

Agrippa, some distinguished persons of this name had also 
their medals; namely, Agrippa, of the Caninea gens, < 
duumvir of Corinth, as appears from the inscription on the 
reverse of a medal of Augustus Ca;sar. huceo CANINI. 
AGRIPPA. II, VIR. COMnlhi. Also a triumvir of the 
Luria gens, as M. LURIUS. AGRIPPA. III. VIR. AAA. 
FF. i."e. Marco Agrippa Triumviro (monelali) Auro, Ar- 
sento, Acre, Flando, Fcreundo : but the most distinguished 
individual in whose honour medals were struck as for a 
prince, was the Marcus Agrippa, of the gens Vipsania, who 
has been noticed under the bend of History. 
He is commonly represented as in the an- 
nexed figure, with a crown made of the 
beaks of ships, to commemorate his naval 
victories; inscription Marcus AGRIPPA. 
hucii Filius COnSul III. ; on the reverse, a 
figure of Neptune, holding in his right hand 
a dolphin, and in his left a trident. On 
another medal, his consulship with his father-in-law Au- 
gustus is commemorated ; bearing on the obverse the head 
of Cesar crowned with laurel; inscription, AUGUSTUS 
COnSul XL; on the reverse, the head of Agrippa adorned with 
a mural and rostral crown, the former in commemoration of 
his appeasing a popular tumult. [Vide PL XIV.] On a medal 
struck by the Alabandenses, be 
is represented, as in the annexed 
figure, crowned as usual, with 
the heads of his two sons, Caius 
and Lucius, opposed ; inscription 
AAABANAEiiN; on the reverse, 
the head of Augustus crowned 
with laurel, and that of Livia opposed. On a medal struck 
at Corinth, the head of Agrippa, surnamed Posthumus, his 
third son, is given ; inscription, AGRIPPA CESAR; on 
the reverse, within a crown of parsley, Com HEJO 
Numis. Gra-c. ; Colon, ct Impcrat. ; Morell. Font. ; Pcmb. 
Mus. p. iii. tab. 47- 

Agrippa {Bios-) a mathematician in the time of Domitian. 
Ptol. Almag. 1. 7, c 8. 

Agrippa, a sceptic philosopher, who invented five additional 
arguments for disputing every thing. Diogen. Lacrt. 1. 9 ; 
Segm. 88. 

Agbippa, surnamed Castor, wrote against the Basilides, in 
the second century. Euseb. Hist. 1. 4, c. 7 ; Hieron. de 
Scriptor. Eccles. ; Dit Pin. Bibl. Des. Ant. Eccles. 

Agrippa, Henry Cornei/lc, of an illustrious family at Cologne, 
was born in' 148(>, and died in 1535. He distinguished 
himself both as a soldier and writer, and left many works 
on divinity, medicine, and philosophy. Paul. Joe. in Eulog. 
Doct. Fir'.; Mclch. Adam, in Fit. Germ. Medic; Du Pin. 
Bibl. Ant. Eccles. du XVI Siec. 

AGRIPPIAS (Numis.) a town of Judtea, which was so 
culled by Herod, in honour of M- Agrippa, and is known 
I ry s medal bearing on the obverse the head of Livia, the 
wife of Augustus, or Julia, his daughter ; on th reverse 
the prow of a ship, inscription, ATPinnEilN. 

AGRIPPINA (Hist.) surnamed Vipsania, the daughter of 
Agrippa, and grand-daughter of Atticus, the friend of 
Cicero, was the wife of Tiberius, whom he repudiated, 
in order to marry Julia. Tac. Annal. 1. 1, c. 12, &c ; 
Sueton. in Tib. c. 7 ; Dio. 1. 54, 57- 


Agbippina, Julia, the daughter of M. Agrippa, grand- 
daughter to Augustus, mother of Caligula, and wife of 
Germanieus, brought the ashes of her murdered husband to 
Rome, and placed them in the tomb of the Julian family. 
She was afterwards banished by the order of Tiberius to 
the island of Pandataria, where she starved herself to death, 
A. D. 37- Pliu. 1. 7, c. 8, &c ; Tac. 1. 1 , e. 22, &c ; 
Suet. i/> Tib. e. .">:;. 

Agrippina. daughter of Germanicus, by the preceding, was 
the mother of Xcro by Domitius JEnobarbus. After a life 
of much cruelty and debauchery, she was stabbed by her 
own son Nero, A. D. 59. Pliu. 1. 7, &c. ; Tac. 1. 4, 
c. 75, &c. ; Siui. in Claud, ct in Neron. Dion. 1. 62. 

Agrippina (Xumis.) medals are extant of the two last prin- 
(rf this name, bearing their effigies. Those of Agrip- 
pina, sen. are inscribed AGRIPPINA Marc;' Filia GER- 

rpinniNAN beam my- 

TI, &C. Medals were 
struck in honour of this 
empress by the people of Mytilene, Miletos, Alexan- 
dria, Ephcsus, Iona, 6cc. The medals of Agrippina, jun. 
are mseribed, AGRIPPINA AUGusta GERMANICI 
■•laud. NERONTS CVF.S. MAT. — ArPirimxA. 

This last Agrippina is represented on the reverse of a medal 
of Caligula, with her sisters, Drusilla and Julia, under the 
forms of Constancy, Concord, and Fortune; but it is doubted 
by most antiquaries whether tins be genuine. Vail. Prmst. 
torn. 1 ; Pattn. Impp. Beg. Thes. Brand, torn ii. ; Harduin. 
Opt r. : Mi diob. Imp. Rom. 

Agbippina, Colonia (Geagt) or Agrijrpinensis colonia, a colony 
on the river Rhine, called after Agrippina, the mother of 
Nero, now Cologne. Tac. Hist. 1. 1, c. 56. 

Agbippina, Colonia (Numis.) is known also by the inscription 
A. AGRIPPINA COLonta on a medal of Nero and Clau- 
dius. Gcittz. Thesaur. p. 237- 

VGRIPPINUS (Hist.) was the son of Demetrius Alaharch, of 
Alexandria, and of Mariamna, daughter of Herod the 

pinub (Ecc.) bishop of Cartilage, preceded St. Cyprian, 
but at what time is not known. He was present at a 
council which decreed the rebaptization of heretics who re- 
il into the church. 

Agbippinus, succeeded Celadion as bishop of Alexandria, in 
1(>7, and died in 179, leaving Julian as his successor. Du 

I ii Bibl. Eccles. 

VgbippiNDS, I'anwiiis (lliog.) a stoic philosopher mentioned 
with commendation by EpictetUB and Arrian. He was ba- 
nished from Rome by Nero, and retired with great com- 
posure. Air. 1. I . e. 1 . 

\GRIPPUS (Hist.) a famous juggler, whom the emperor 
\ : rua brought with him from Asia. 

AGRIRETH {Hist.) brother of Afrasiab, king of Turkistan, 
and conqueror of Persia, was reckon d i( prophet 

imong the Turks. 

V ( '. 1 : 1 s 1 1 ' s (Hist.) ride Acusms. 

tGRISOPE {Myth.) another name for Agriope, or Argiriope, 

th' mol bei- of < ad 
VGRIUS ( Myth ) ' iypioc, the son of Parthaon, who drove 
bis bri krone, but being afterwards 

expelled by Diomed, be killed himself, limn. II. 1. i i, 
v. ll(i; Apotlod. 1. I. c. 7 : Ovid. Heroid. 1. [), v. 153 ; 
IhjL'in. Full. 17."', &C. : Anion. Li/i. 7- 


Agbics, 1. A centaur killed by Hercules. Apollud. 1. 2, o. 5. 

2. A son of Ulysses, by Circe. Hcsiod. in Tkeogon. v. 

AGROETAS (Biog.) 'Aypoirac, a writer on Scythia, men- 
tioned by the scholiast on Apolloneus, 1. 2, 3, 4; and also 
by Stephanus, under the word "AfurtXoc. 

AGROLA.S {Hist.) constructed all the walls round the 
citadel of Athens, except that part which was afterwards 
fortified by C'imon, son of Miltiades. 

AGRON {Hist.) ' Aypwi/, the son of Ninus, the first of the 
Heraclids, who reigned at Sardis. JJcrod. 1. 1, c. ~. 

Agron, son of Pleuratus, and king of Illyria, was so elated 
with his success over the /Etolians, that he killed himself 
with immoderate drinking. Polyb. 1. 2, c. 4. 

Agron (Biog.) a celebrated physician who stopped the plague 
of Atbens, by causing fires to be lighted. Ca'l. H/iod. 1. 24, 
e. 22. 

AGROPOLIS (Gcog.) a fortified place in Naples, near the 
Gulf of Salernum, which is the ancient Acropolis. 

AGUADO, Francis (Biog.) a Spanish Jesuit, who was born 
at Torrejou, near Madrid, in 1566, and died at Madrid in 
1 654, leaving several theological works, comprised in six 
volumes folio. 

AGUAZZARI, Alfonsus (Ecc.) a Jesuit of Tuscany, who was 
governor of the college of English at Rome, and died in 

AGUCCHIO, Jerome (Ecc) made cardinal by Clement VIII 
after 30 years' service, and died soon after in l6<>4. He 
was the instructor and brother of the Agucchio in the next 

Aoi'CCHio, John Baptist, archbishop of Amasia, in Natalia, 
was born at Bologna in 1570, and died in 1632. His works 
were, 1. ' A Treatise on Comets and Meteors.' 2. ' The 
Life of Cardinal Sega, and Jerom Agucchio his Brother.' 

3. ' L'Antica Fondazione e Dominio della Citta di Bologna.' 
1688, 4to. 

AGUESSEAU, Henry Francis d' (Hist.) a French states- 
man, was horn at Limoges in UiO'S; after having been twice 
chancellor of France, and twice banished, he resigned the 
seals which had been offered to him and accepted a third 
time; and died at the age of eighty, in 1751. He was a 
poet and a man of general science, whose works are com- 
prised in 13 volumes 4to. 

AGUI (Hist.) or Sultan Agui, king of Bantam, in the island 
of Java, was the son of sultan Ajoum, who had resigned 
in his favour: but finding him cruel and tyrannical in his 
proceedings, he attempted to regain his kingdom, in which 
lie failed, and being made prisoner, was kept in confine- 
ment by Ids son. 

AGUILAR, Alonzii (Ecc) or Aguilar, a cardinal, and grand 

inquisitor of Spain. 
AGUILIONUM (deog.) a town of Gallia Acjuitania, now 


AM'ILLONIUS, Francis (Biog.) or Aguclon, a Jesuit of 
Brussels, and professor of philosophy at Dowas, was the 
first that introduced mathematical studies at Antwerp. He 
wrote, 1. ' Oplicorum Lib. (i, 1'hilosophieis juxt.i ac Matlu- 
maticis utiles.' Fol. Antwerp, Kii:;. 2. 'Of Projections 
of the Sphere,' 3. ' Catoptrics and Dioptrics,' which he 
bad not finished when be died in Kil7- 

AGUIRRE (Biog-) there were several Spanish writers of 
this name who were descended from the same family, of 
whom an account has been given by Nicholas Antonio. The 
two principal are, 

AOUIHBE, Michael, an eminent lawyer of Pampeluna, who 
in I. INS. He wrote in favour of the pretensions of 
Philip II to the crown of Portugal. 

AourKBE, Joseph. S/t ens d', a benedictine of Logrogno, was 
born in f'630, and made cardinal by Innocent \I in 16'86, 

and died in 1 690. He wrote, 1. ' Ludi Salmanticcnscs, sivc 


Theologia Florulenta.' fol. 1688. 2. ' On Philosophy/ 
3 vols. 1671. 3. ' A Commentary on the Ethics of Aris- 
totle,' 1675. 4. ' A Treatise upon Virtues and Vices.' 
5. < The Theology of St. Anselm/ 3 vols. fol. 1680. 6. A 
large work against the declaration of the assembly of the 
French clergy in 16S2 ; entitled, ' Defensio Cathedra Sancti 
Petri.' "• ' Collection of the Councils of Spain.' Du Pin. 
Bibl. Eceles. 

AGUXTUM (Geog.) a town of Xoricus, now Doblach, or 
Innaken, according to Lazius. Plin. 1. 3, c. 23 ; Ptol. 1. 2, 
c. 14; Anton. Bin.; Lax. Comment. Iieip. Rom. 1, 12, c 6; 
Clue. German. Antiq. 1. 2. 

AGUR (Bibl.) the name of a person mentioned in the Pro- 
verbs, and supposed by many of the fathers to be Solomon 

AGY.EUS (Biog.) an Hyperborean, who, in company with 
Pegasus, dedicated an oracle to Apollo. Pans. 1. 10, c. 5. 

AGYIEUS (Myth.) Wyvttvc, an epithet for Apollo among 
the Greeks, because they sacrificed to hhn in the streets. 
quasi jiran iis jwsitus urbanis : illi enini lias qua: intra pomo- 
crium sunt dymac appellant. Macrob. Sat. 1. 1, c. 2. 
Sapkoe. a pud Harpocrat. 

Adpira. V 'Ayt'ifvc fiuipoc; drpiZutv -rrvpi 
Sjivpvns TaXay/iotc t3ap t 3apiiii> evorjfiiag. 

Arisloph. in Vesp. 

Q ieffvor' dra$ yetrov Ajvuv r« 'fi& 
flpoSvpa ~pdc ~i'\ag 

Ai$ai TiXer'jv Katvqv <J 'ra? iy*' r^j rarpi ra*- 

Hot. Carm. lib. 4, od. 6, v. 26. 

Phabe, qui Xantho lavis amve ennes, 
Duuniie defendc decus Cumwn&, 

AGYL..EUS. Henri/ (Biog.) a lawyer and classic scholar of 

Bois-le-duc, was born about 1533, and died in 1595. He 

wrote, 1. ' Xovells Justiniani Imp. Constitutiones,' 4to. 

Paris, 1500. 2. ' Justiniani Edicta/ &c. 8vo. Paris, 1560. 

3. ' A Latin Translation of the Xomo Canon of Photius,' fol. 

Basle, 1561. 4. ' Inauguratio Philippi II, Hisp. Regis,' &e. 

8vo. Ultraj. 1620. 
AGYLAUS (Hist.) vide Agdaus. 
AGYLLA (Geog.) 'AyiiWa, a city of Tuscany, called after 

its founder. 

Pirg. /En. 1. 8, v. *7g. 

Haud procul hinc sajo cvlitur fumhta Vftusto 
I'rbis AgUtimtt seties: uln Lydia qiumdam 
Gens BeUopr£clara,jugis insalit Etrmds. 

EVionysius Halicamassus calls it etidalpav ce voKvayBpunroe, 
wealthy and populous; Livy, oppidum opulentum ; and Lv- 
cophron speaks of its xoXuftpffnis rci-oc, groves, much cele- 
brated. Lycopli. in Cassand. ; Dionys. Halicar. L 3 • 
AGYLLEUS (Myth.) a wrestler of Cleons, scarcelv inferior 
in stature to Hercules, from whom he was said to be de- 
Stat. Thcb. 1. 6, v. 837- 

— — Lemt ardua amtra 
Membra CZeoiuBtf stirpis jactator AgyUeus 
Herculea non mote minirr. 

AG\RILM (Geog.) 'Ayvpiov, 'Aydpior, 'Ayiipnva, AngU- 
rium, a town of Sicily, the birth-place of Diodorus Siculus, 
now S. P/iilippo in Agirone. The inhabitants were called 
by Cicero, Auvrinensis ; by Plinv, Agirini. Diod. L 4, &c; 
Cie. in J'errA. 2, c. 9, &c ; Plin. 1. 3, c 8 ; Ptol 1. 3, c. 4 : 
Anton. Itin. ; Steph. Byz. de Urb. 

Agybr-m (Numis.) this town represented on some of their 


medals the figure of Hercules killing the serpent Hydra. 

Sometimes the figure of a hound seizing the chamois, 

or mountain goat, as in the 

annexed figure, emblematical 

of the lofty situation of the 

town, and its fitness for the 

chace ; on other medals, or 

other parts of their medals, 

they represented the head of 

Jupiter, of Hercules, Minerva, 

and the Minotaur. The inscriptions ATYPINAI. ATTPI- 

NAKiN. Agrinensiuin, sometimes with the name of the 

magistrate, as ETII. 20ILVTP0Y. Sub Sopairo, $e. 
AGYRIUS (Hist.) an Athenian general, who succeeded 

Thrasybulus after he was slain. Diod. 
AGYRTES (Myth.) a man who killed his father. 

Oeid. Met. 1. 5, v. 148. 

Et casa genitr-re in/amis Agyrtis. 

AHA (Biog.) a rabbi of the seventh century, author of a 
work entitled, ' Seelloth, or Questions on the Command- 
ments of the Law.' 

AHAB (Bib/.) 3KnK, from nns, brother, and a«, father, a 
wicked king of Israel, who was killed alter a reign of 22 
years in a battle against the Assvrians. 1 Kjnus xxii. 34. 
A.M. 8109. A. C. 897. 

An.VB, son of Kolaiah, one of the two false prophets who 
seduced the Israelites at Babylon. Jer. xxix. 21, 22. 

AHALA (Hist.) the surname of the Servilii. [Vide SeniHus~\ 

AHARAH (Bibl.) mnN, third son of Benjamin. 1 Chron. 
viii. 1. 

AHARHEL (Bibl.) Vmns, son of Harum. 1 Chron. iv. 8. 

AHASBAI (Bib/.) >aDn«j 'A^aj/Jii, the father of Eliphelet, 
one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. xxiii. 3 l. 

AHASUERUS (Bibl.) t&lTltPrm, which is supposed to be a 
Persian word, signifying prince. A scripture name for the 
Persian king who took Esther to wife, who is mentioned in 
the book of Esther passim, and in Dan. ix. 1. is c;dled the 
son of Darius. Who that prince was, has been the subject 
of much dispute among the learned. Usher and Calmet 
suppose it to have been Darius, the son of Hystaspes, but 
Prideaux maintains that it was Artaxerxcs Longimanus. 
Scaliger conjectures that it was Xerxes, and the authors of 
the Universal History are of opinion that it was Cambyses. 
In the Septuagint Ahasuerus is rendered 'AprraH/kpfyji : and 
Josephus expressly mentions Artaxerxcs as the husband of 
Esther. Joseph. Antiq. L 11, c.6; Seal. Emcndat. Temp. 
1. 9 ; Prid. Connect. 

AHAVA (Bibl.) tsirm, signifying essence or generation: a 
river near Babylon, where Esdras assembled the Jews. Ezra 
viii. 15. 

AHAZ (Bibl.) triN, an idolatrous king of Judah, the son and 
successor of Jotham. 2 Ki/igs xviii. 1. He was succeeded 
by his son Hezekiah. 

Ahaz, father of Jehoadah. 1 Chron. viii. 36. 

AHAZI (Bibl.) vide Ahaz. 

AHAZIAH (Bibl.) SvrnK, vision of the Lord, from TnK, 
achaz, andn'jah, Lord; king of Judah, a son and succes- 
sor of Jehoram, and Athaliah, who was slain by Jehu. 
2 Kings ix. 21. 

Aiiaziah, son of Ahab, who reigned with his father one year, 
and after his death one vear. He died Jul. Per. 3818, A. M. 
31 OS, A. C. S96; 1 Kings xxii. 40; 2 Chron. xx. 37- 

AHER (Bibl.) "in**, a man of the tribe of Benjamin. 
1 Chron. vii. 12. 

AHI (Bibl.) <rm, son of Shamer, of the tribe of Benjamin. 
1 Chron. vii. 34. 

AHIAH (Bibl.) rvnN, Ahiah, son and successor to the high 
priest Aliitub. 1 Sam. xiv. 13; called Ahinielech. 1 Sam. 
sxii. 9- 


Ahi.mi. son of Shisha, and Solomon's secretary. 1 Kings 

iv. .;. 
Ahiaii. son of Naaman, of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 C/iron. 

viii. 7. 
AH I HAM (MM.) o.s'rm, an officer in David's army. 2 Sam. 

xxiii. 83. 
AH] \X (/!//,/.) j> n «, son of Shcmida. I Chron. vii. 19. 
Mill ZEB (Hilil.) -iip->nH, son of Annnishaddui, and a chief 

of the tribe of Dan. Numb. vii. 66, 67. 
AHIHt 1) (BibL) trpriK, 'A^i-r, son of Xaaman, and brother 

of Ahoah, of Benjamin. 1 Chron. viii. 7. 
A HI. I AH (Bi/il.) nvrm, son of Esrom, of the tribe of Judah. 

1 ( hron. ii. 25. 
.'vhu.ui, keeper of the temple treasury under David. 1 C/troii. 

xxw. SO. 
Ahijah, son of l'elon, an officer in David's armv. 1 Chron. 

Aiii.iah, a prophet of the Lord, who dwelt at Shilo, and 

ti the life of Solomon. 2 Chron. ix. 29. 
Ahijah, son of Baasha, king of Israel. 1 Kings xv. 27. 
AHIKA.M (BibL) op»n«, son of Shaphan, "and father of 

Gedaliah, was sent to Huldah, the prophetess, by king 

AHILUD {BibL) yfrntn, '.U,,W, the father of Jehoshaphat, 

who was David's secretary. 2 Sam. viii. 16. 
AHIMAAZ (BibL) yrn'rm, son of Zadok the high priest, 

ded bis father. -J Sam. xvii. 17. 
AHIMAN (BibL) fD'n«, "Axeiftav, a giant of the race of 
Anak, who dwelt at Hebron when the spies visited the land 
of Canaan. Numb. xiii. 22. 
AH1MELECH (Hi/,/.) ^a-nx, a son of Ahitub, and brother 
. Iiiah. whom he succeeded in the priesthood. He was 
aids slain by order of Saul for having shown favour 
t'i David. 1 Sam. xxi. 1. 
AHIMOTH (lli/,1.) ni»>n«, brother of death, from n«, 
In-other, and niD, death; son of Elkanah. 1 Chron. vi. 

AHINADAB (BibL) nj-nR, son of Iddo, and governor of 
the district of Manahaim. 1 Kings iv. 14. 

AHINOAJM (lli/>/.) aj;j'n«, 'A^evaii/i, Ahinoam, daughter 

of Abimaaz, and wife to Saul. 1 Sam. xiv. 50. 
Ahinoam, David's second wife, and mother of Amnon. 1 Sam. 

All K) (BibL) |»n«, the man who, with his brother Uzzah, 
was charged with the removal of the ark from the house of 
Abinadab to Jerusalem 1 Chron. xiii. 7. 

Ahio, vr, look, eve, or fountain: son of Abigebeon and Maa- 
chah. 1 Chron. viii, 31. 

AHIRA (BibL) i'Tnt<, son of Enan, and chief of the tribe 
I t Xaphtliali. Numb. ii. 2'). 

AHISAMACH (BibL) TOD'rm, 'Ayyaiuuc, father of Aholiab, 
the famous architect [Vide Ahousfi] 

AHISHAHAR (BibL) inw'rw, son of Bilham, of the tribe 
1 f Benjamin. I Chron. vii. 10. ' 

AHISHAB (BibL) nexntf, high steward of Solomon's house- 
hold. 1 Kings iv. (!. 

AHITOPHEL (B»ll bsin-ns, a native of Gillo, and a 

COUnseUei to king David, who joined in the rebellion of 

■ log it likely to fail, he hanged himself to 

av 'ill falling into David's hands. 2 Sam. xvii. 2,3. 
AHITUB (BibL) aiB'rm, son of Phineas, and grandson to 
EH the high priest, succeeded his grandfather. 1 Sam. iv. 

11: :■ 

Ahitub, son of Amariah, and father of Zadock the high 

:. 1 ( 'hron. vi. 8. 
AHIIIi D (BibL) -lirvn*, 'A%iiil, son of Shelomi, of the 

tribe of Ash' r. appoint! d a commissioner by Moses. Numb. 

xxxiv. 27. 

AHLAB (BibL) zbrm, WxXUfi, a city in the tribe of Asher, 

not now known. Judg. L 31. 


AHLAI (BibL) >^rm, 'OuXai, son of Shesham. 1 Chron. 
xi. 81. 

Ahlai, a captain in David's army. 1 Chron. xi. 41. 

AHLE, John Rudolpkus (Biog.) a composer of music in 
Mulilhausan, in the 17th century, composed 1. ' Sacred 
Dialogues, for two, three, four, or even more Voices.' 
2. ' Compendium pro Tenellis.' 3- ■ Symphonies, Ballets,' 
Erfort, Ki'50. 4. ' The Garden of Pleasure at Thuringia,' 
1(>.~<7. 5. 'Devotions for all the great Festivals in the 
Year,' &c, foL Muhlhausen, 1664. 6. ' De Progressioni- 
bus Consonantium,' 1698. • 

Ahle, John George, son of the preceding, a poet and mu- 
sician, published 1. ' A Theoretical Treatise on Music,' 1687- 
2. ' A Dialogue on the Spring,' 1695 ; ' On the Autumn,' 
16.09; ' On the Winter," 8vo. 1701. 3. ' An Introduction 
to Vocal Music,' written bv his father and edited by him- 
self, 1704. 

AIII.EN (Gcog.) a little town of Suabia, which was taken 
by the emperor Charles IV, in 1350, and made one of the 
imperial cities. It retains its privileges although almost 

AHLWARDT, Peter (Biog.) professor of Logic at Gricss- 
wald, where he was born in 1710, and died in 1791 ; 
wrote 1. ' Brontotheologie, or pious Meditations on the 
Phenomena of Thunder and Lightning,' Svo., Griefswald, 
1745. 2. ' Reflections on the Augsburgh Confession,' 3 vols. 
4to. 1742-50. 3. ' Some Sermons and Philosophical Disser- 

AHMED Ben Abi Khaled (Hist.) vizier to the caliphs Ma- 
mon and Motassem, was discharged from his office for not 
knowing how to interpret the Arabic word Kala, which was 
used in a dispatch to the government. 

Ahmed, Ben Ismael at Soman*, succeeded his father, the 
founder of the dynasty of the Samanides, and reigned over 
the greater part of Persia, besides the Khorasan. He was 
assassinated after a reign of about six years by his own 
slaves, in the year of the Hegira 311, A. D. 921. 

Ahmed, Ben Avis. Vide Avis. 

Ahmed, Ben Mahomed Khan. Vide Achmet. 

Ahmed, Khan, a prince of Samarcand, was strangled by 
virtue of a decree of the doctors, for denying the Mussulman 
faith, in the year of the Hegira 4S8, A.'D. 1098. 

Ahmed, Khan, son of Holagu, and brother of Abaka, whom 
he succeeded, was the ninth emperor of the Moguls, of the 
race of Genghis Khan. He was put to death after a reign 
of two yean by bis mother-in-law, Kongurtai, in the year 
of the Hegira 683, A. D. 1293. 

Ahmed, sirnamed Gheduc, was raised by the Sultan Ma- 
homet II, from the rank of a common soldier to be prime- 
minister : but was afterwards, from jealousy, killed by Baja- 
zet, with his own hand, at an entertainment, in the year 
of the Hegira 885, A. D. II. 05. 

Ahmed, son of Mobarezeddin, fourth prince of the dynasty 
of the Modhafferians. 

Ahmed (Biog.) there were many Arabian authors of this 
name, as follow : 

Ahmed, At Kareb, a geographer, quoted by Abulfeda. 

Ahmed, sirnamed Adhcrhiani, author of an Arabian gram- 
mar, entitled, ' Eksir a] Saadet.' 

Ahmed, Ben Ann al Confi, author of the ' Tarikh Fotough,' 
or History of the first Conquests of the Mossiilmen. 

Ahmed, Ben Ali, an astronomer, and author of the ' Beian 

an Tarikh sem al Zainain,' or Demonstration of the Chro- 
nological Characters of the Year. 
Ahmed, Ben Araschah, author of the ' Merat al Adab,' or 

Mirror of good Manners, and ' Agiaib al Macdurfi Akhbar 
Timur.'orthe Wonders of Providence displayed in the Reign 
of Tamerlane. 
Ahmed, Ben Cassem al Andalousi, a moor of Grenada, wrote 
a work in which he quotes, an Arabian MS. of St. Cscilius, 


archbishop of Grenada, which was afterwards found to be 
full of fables respecting our Saviour. 

Ahmed, Ben Fares Ben Zakaria, author of an Arabic dic- 

Ahmed, Ben Hassan al Khatib, author of a poem on medi- 

Ahmed, Ben Josef Abul Abbas, author of the ' Akhbar al 
Doval,' &c, or Universal History. 

Ahmed, Ben Israel, an astrologer of great reputation in the 
caliphate of Yathek Billah. 

Ahmed. Ben Nasser, a Mussulman doctor, whom the caliph 
Vathek Billah put to death for having conspired against bis 

AHMEDI (Biog.) surnamed Abutbaka Mahommed, author 
of an Arabic grammar, entitled ' Aarab.' 

Aiimedi, Kermani, a Persian poet of Caramania. 

AHNAF, Ben Cais Ben Moaviah (Biog.) a Mussulman 
doctor of the second class, culled Tabein, or successor, be- 
cause they immediately succeeded the sahabah, or first class, 
who had the privilege of seeing or hearing the prophet in 

AHORAX (Bib!) or Ahban, son of Abishur and Abihail. 

AHOHE (Bibl.) rnriR, third son of Bela, and grandson of 
Benjamin. 1 C/iron. viii. 4. 

AHOHITES (Bibl.) -nn», the descendants of Ahohe. 

AHOLAH (Bibl.) nVris, a symbolical name for Samaria. 
rYide Ahokbahl 

AHOLIAB (Bibl.) ns'^ns, son of Ahisamach, and a skilful 
workman, appointed with Bezaleel to construct the taber- 
nacle. Exod. xxxv. 34. 

AHOLIBAH (Bibl.) m'Vrm, a symbolical name adopted by 
Ezekiel for Jerusalem ; as Aholah for Samaria. Eze/c. 
xxiii. 4. 

AHOLIBAMAH (Bibl.) noa^rm, 'OXi/fyoc, one of Esau's 

AHUMAI (Bibl.) 'Oins, son of Judah, of the tribe of Judah. 
1 Chrun. iv. 2. 

AHUZAM (Bill.) otnn, '0;<V, son of Naarah, of the tribe 
of Judah. 1 C/iron. iv. 6. 

AHUZZATH (Bibl) the friend of Abimelech, the king of 
Gerar, who accompanied him when he went to make an 
alliance with Isaac. Gen. xxvi. 26. 

Al (Bibl.) '2, a city near Bethel, westward. It was taken by 
Joshua by stratagem, after having made an unsuccessful 
attack. Josh. vii. 8. 

AIA, Mam Sarai (Topog.) a palace of the sultan, in Con- 
stantinople, which originally belonged to the Greek em- 
perors ; it is distinct from the seraglio. 

AlA, Sofia Saint Sophia, a celebrated church or temple in 
Constantinople, which it has been pretended was built by 
the emperor Constantine. It is now a mosque. 

Aia Golog (Geog.) a town of Caria, so called by the Turks, 
as a corruption from the Greek &yia 8io\6yoc. 

Aia (Geog.) a river of Italy running into the Tiber ; it is the 
Allia of the ancients. 

AIADH, Ben Muussa al Jahassi (Biog.) a native of Sebta, 
or, as it is now called, Ceuta, in Africa, was born in the 
year of the Hegira 470, A. D. 1080, and died in 544. He 
wrote, 1 . ' A History of Cordova.' 2. A book of devotion, 
entitled, ' The Spiritual Meadow.' 3. ' Schafa fi Taarif 
hokauk al Mostafa,' or a Treatise on the Prerogatives of 

AIAH (Bill.) «'r, a vulture, as rendered by Jerome and the 
English version of Job xxviii. 7- The mother of Rispah, 
who was Saul's concubine. 2 Sa?n. xxi. 8. 

AJAH (Bill.) rt'N, the son of Zibeon, of the race of Esau. 
Gen. xxxvi. 24. 

AIALA, Martin Perez (Ece.) or Ayala, archbishop of Ya- 
lentia, was born in 1504, at Heiste, a village in the diocese 
of Carthagena, and died in 1566. He wrote, 1. ' De Divi- 

VOL. I. 


nis Traditionibus.' 2. ' Commentaria in L'niversalia Por- 
phyria ' &c 3. ' De Recta in Deum Fide ; ' besides many 
other works, particularly against heretics. 

Aiala, Balthasar (Biog.) native of Antwerp, counsellor of 
state under the duke of Parma, died at the age of 36, 
in 1584. He left a treatise ' De Jure et Officiis Bel- 
licis,' &c. 

Aiala, Galriel, a physician and poet of Antwerp in the l6th 
century, wrote, ' Popularia Epigrammata Medica de Lue 
Pestilenti.' His poems were printed at Antwerp in 1562. 

Aiala, Luc Fernandez, a Dominican monk of Murcia, wrote, 
1. ' A Life and Death of Antichrist,' 1635, 1649. 2. ' On 
the exalted Nature of the Holy Virgin.' 

AJALON (Bill.) pV'K, the name of four cities, namely, 

I . In the tribe of Dan, between Timnah and Bethshemesh. 
Josh. x. 12 ; 2 Chron. xxviii. 18. It is sometimes called 
Elon. Josh. xix. 42. 2. In the tribe of Benjamin, east of 
Bethel. 2 Chron. xi. 10. 3. In that of Ephraim, not far 
from Shechem. Hieron. 4. In that of Zebulon, the situa- 
tion of which is not known. Judg. xii. 12. 

AJAX (Myth.) .Viae, there were two Grecian heroes of this 
name, who distinguished themselves at the siege of Troy. 

Ajax, the son of Telamon, was inferior in valour and skill to 
Achilles only. Homer calls him by distinction TeAapuvws 
A'tac, and at the games in honour of Patroclus makes him 
to be invulnerable except in the neck, at which Diomed in 
his contest with him always aimed. 
77. 1. 23, v. 820. 

Tvuicnc, 8 1 dp tTTiiTa virip vaKtog p.eyd\oio 
Ativ ear' av\ivi Kvpi tpatii'H SapO£ aKwKtj 
K«t Tort li] p' A'tavri vepiSiiSavres 'Axawi. 

At the death of Achilles he disputed with Ulysses for the 
honour of that hero's arms, which being given to the latter, 
he is said in his fun- to have slain a flock of sheep, which 
he supposed to be Agamemnon and his friends, and then 
stabbed himself. Some say that he was killed by Paris, and 
others bv Ulvsses. 
Find. Nem. Od. ;. 

idv d XdBttav Itifitv 

« Ktv ottXuiv xo\w9eiG 

6 Kaprtpoc Aiae i—uZe <id Qptvuiv 

\fvpov £i'£oc* ov Kpdri- 

tov, 'AgiAcoc drip, pdxf 

ZavOif ilevika IdpapTa KOfiiaat Soatg 

iv %'avvi Troptvaav iv9v- 


npoc*I\« TrdXty. 
Horat. 1. '2, sat. 3, v. 193. 

Consul*. Cur Ajax heros ah Achille secundus 
Putretcit, toties senutts elanu .-lchitis ; 
Caudeat ut populus Priami Prinmusque iuhumuto, 
Per quern totjavettes patrio caruere sepulcro? 
ilille avium insanusmorti dedit, inclytum Utyssem 
Et Menelui'nn uiui meeum se tveidere clamam. 

SophocL in Ajac- ; Apollodor. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Diodor. 1. 1 7, c. 
17 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 13, &c. ; Quint. Calab. 1. 1, &c. ; Hygin. 
Fab. 107, &c; Pans. 1. 1, e. 35. 
Ajax, the son of Oileus, and king of the Locrians, being one 
of Helen's suitors, went to the Trojan war. Homer de- 
scribes him as -a^ys, swift, but not equal to the Telamonian 

II. 1. 2, v. 527- 

Aonpuv qytfioptviv OiXifoc 5-«x l 'c Aiac 
MaW, an roVoc yc 6'croe 'TtXapiuvioc Atac 
'AWd tto\v /itioiv. 

Having offered violence to Cassandra in the temple of Mi- 
nerva on the night when Troy was taken, he was struck 
dead by the goddess with a thunderbolt. 

Ftrg. JEn. 1. 1, v. 45. 

PaUatnt ■ 

Argiv&m, atwte ipsos potuit tubmtrgen ponto, 
i'luui sh nosam stfy/ria : 

• • • • « 

Ilium eipiraulem tramjiio jleetorf flananas, 

Turi'ilu connphit, seopulo infixii aaito 

Herat. Epod. 10, v. IS. 

C7i;/i Patioi uito nertil irom *if> Mo 
//i impiam . I/ncks ratefll. 

A different account has been given of his death by & in ca. 
Horn. L 2, && ; O/y.v.v. 1. 1- ; Apollod. 1. a, c 21 ; Jfygtn. 
Fad.; Seneca in Agamenu; Paus.l. 10, c. 26; Philostrat. 

Icon. 1. 2, e. IS. 

Ajax (Ecc.) a bishop of Botolium in the fourth century, who 
was distinguished by his zeal in defence of the Christian 
faith. Sozom. 1. 7, c 18. 

A I BAN, Sarai (To/iog.) an ancient palace of the emperors of 
Constantinople, situated near the 12th gate of that city. 

AIBERT (Biog.) a Spanish monk, who wrote the lives of 
illustrious men of his order. 

AICHARD (Ecc.) or Eccard, a Saxon monk of the order of 
Dominicans, who, in the warmth of his zeal, published 
some opinions that were condemned by Pope John XXII. 

AICHER, Ot/io (Biog.) a benedictine father of Salzburgh, 
died in 1705. He wrote, 1. ' Theatrum Funebre, exhibens 
Epitaphia nova et antiqua,' &C 4 vols. 4to. 10'75. 2. ' Hor- 
tus Variarum Inscriptionum veterum et novarum,' 8vo. 16'70". 
3. ' De Comitiis veterum Romanorum,' 8vo. 16'78. 4. ' Iter 
Oratoriuni,' 1675. 5. ' Iter Pocticum,' 1674. 6. ' De 
Principiis Cosmographia:,' 16'78. 7- ' Ephemeridis ab Anno 
1687 usque ad 1699.' 

AICHINGER, Oregon/ (Biog.) an ecclesiastic, and an or- 
ganist of Wcissenhom, wrote very many works on music, a 
list of which is to be found in the Dictionnaire Historique. 

AIDAN (Hist.) son of Gontran, or Gorane, 
king of Scotland, reigned with great prudence, 
and died in 604 or 006". He was succeeded 
by Kennet. His effigy is given, as in the an- 
nexed figure. Bcde Hist. 1. 3. 

Anus (Ecc.) a native of Ireland, and arch- 
bishop of Lindisfarne or Holy Island, was in- 
vited over to England by Oswald, king of Northumberland, 
to instruct his subjects in the Christian religion, which he 
performed successfully, and died in 651. Bade Hist, Angl. 
1. 3, c. 1 ; Baron. Aiuial. arm. 634 — 651. 

A I DEM, Ben Ali (Biog.) surnamed Al-Giraldcki, on account 
of his corpulence, was the author of a treatise on philosophy, 
consisting of four volumes, entitled, ' Borham fi Asrar elm 
Almizan;' also of a book on prayer, entitled, ' Boghiat al 
Khabir.' He died in the year of the Hegira 740, A. D. 

AIDI (Biog.) or Schehabeddin Jahia Ben Aid*, an author 

who translated many works from the Syrian into Arabic ; 
among others, the Poetics of Aristotle, and the Isagoge of 

AIDIN ( a Turkish governor under Ottoman I, who 
gave his name to that part of Asia Minor comprehending 
Caria and Lydia. 

AIDINGIK (Geog.) or the little Aidin, a province compre- 
hending the ancient Troaa, in the vicinity of Abydos. 

AIDMERIN (Biog.) Ali Al Gialdeki, author of a bdol on 
chemistry, entitled, ' Badr Almonir fi Rhovas :d Eksir,' 
where he treats of the properties of the philosopher's stone. 

AIDON (Geog.) a castle in Northumberland, where a Roman 
station under Julius Cicsar wis Supposed to have been. 

AIDONEUS (Myth.) 'Aifwvtvc, a surname of Pluto. 

Aidonki's, a king of the Molossi, who detained Theseus pri- 
soner, and delivered his companion Perithous to the dog 
Cerberus to be torn in pieces, because they attempted to 
carry away his daughter. Plut. in The*. 


AlDONBtrs (Geog.) a river near Troy. Pans. 1. 10, c. 12. 
AIDOS (Geog.) a Turkish corruption of the word Abydos, 

the town on the Dardanelles. 

AIGNEAUX, Rolierl and Anthony Sieurs d' (Biog.) two bro- 
thers, and joint poets in the age of Francis I, translated 
\ irgil and Horace into French verse. The former died at 
the age of 42, and the second two or three years after. 

AIGREFELTLLE (Ecc.) an ancient and noble family of 
Aigrefeuille, in Languedoc, which could reckon three car- 
dinals besides other prelates among its members. 

AlGREFEUILLE, William, the first of this name, a relation of 
Clement VI, was made cardinal in 1350, and died in 1369. 

Aigkk:'kuille, William, the younger, and nephew of the 
preceding, was made a cardinal by Urban V at the age of 
28, sent as a legate into Germany, and died in 1401. 

Aigrefeuille, Faydit, brother of the first William, was 
first bishop of Rhodes, then of Avignon, and afterwards a 

Aigrefeuille, Charles d' (Biog.) a descendant of the 
aliiivementioned family, and a canon of Montpelier in the 
ISth century, wrote, 1. ' Histoire de la Ville de Montpelier 
depuis son Origine,' fol. 1737- 2. ' Histoire Ecclesias- 
tique de Montpelier.' 

AIGUILLON, Francis (Biog.) a Jesuit of Brussels in the 
Kith century, who wrote ' On Optics,' fol. Antwcqi, 1613. 
* On the Projections of the Sphere;' and was engaged in a 
work on Dioptrics, when he died in 1()17- 

Aiguillon (Geog.) a town of Guienne, in France, situated 
at the conflux of the Lot and Garonne, 12 miles N. W. 
A gen, 585 E. Bourdeaux. Lat. 44. 15. N., long. 0. 12. E. 

AIGULFUS, St. (Ecc.) archbishop of Bourges, was present 
at the council of Toulouse in 835, and was one of those 
whom Ebon, archbishop of Rheims, chose for his judge. 

AlGULPHUS, St. (Ecc.) abbot of Lerino, provoked the resent- 
ment of some rebellious monks in the abbey, who, forming 
a conspiracy against him, threw him into prison ; after which 
he was deprived of his tongue and his eyes, and finally his 
head was cut off, with that of 33 others, who suffered in 
the same cause. 

AIRMAN, William (Biog.) a Scotch painter and poet, who 
was born in 1682, and died in 1731. Several of his por- 
traits are in the possession of the duke of Argyle, Hamilton, 
and others. 

AII.AKI (Biog.) a disciple of Avieenna, and author of a 
boob in Arabic, ' On the Causes and Prognostics of Diseases.' 

AII.ERAN (Biog.) or Aireran, surnamed the Wise, a bio- 
grapher, who died in 665. He wrote the lives of St. Bri- 
gida of Kildare, St. Patrick, and others. 

AITJESBURY {Hist.) vide Aylesbury. 

AILESFORD, Heneage Finch, Earl of (Her.) second son 
of Heneage Finch, earl of Nottingham, was educated at 
Christ Church, and entered in the Middle Temple for the 
study of the law, in which he gained such a proficiency as 
to be appointed his majesty's solicitor general in I678. He 
was removed from this office by James II, in 1 686, and 
afterwards acted as the principal counsel in behalf of the 
seven bishops, who were tried for refusing to authorize the 
reading of king James's declaration for the abrogation of 
the test laws. He died in 171.0, after having been raised 
to the dignity of a peer in the reigns of queen Anne and 
king George I. [Vide Ailesford, under Heraldry] 

AlIiESFORD, Earl of (Her.) one of the titles at present en- 
joyed by a brantli of the Finch family, descended from 
Hincage Finch, before mentioned, who was created baron 
of Guernsey in 1702, and earl of Ailesford in 1714. The 
anus, vVc. of this family are as follow: 
Arms. Argent, a chevron between three gryphons passant 

Crest. On a wreath a gryphon passant table. 
Supporters. On the dexter side, u gryphon sable, gorged 


with a ducal collar or ; and on the sinister, a lion of the 
second, dueally gorged azure. 
Motto. " Aperto vivere voto." 

Ailesfobd (Geog.) eajle)-pof^, Saxon, i. e. Eagle's Ford, 
a town in Kent, noted for a great overthrow given to Hen- 
gist and his Saxon army, by Vnrtimer, the British king. 

AILLY, Peter a" (Ecc.) a cardinal and bishop of Cambray, 
was born of an obscure family at Compiegne in 1350, and 
died in 1419 or 1420, after having passed through even- 
gradation of preferment with credit to himself, and taken 
an active part in the councils of Constance. 

Ailly (Geog.) the name of several places in France, which 
has been taken as a title bv different noble families. 

AILRED (Biog.) or Ethelred JEelred, or Ealred, abbot of 
Reverby, in Lincolnshire, in the reigns of Stephen and 
Henry II, died in 11 6*1 at the age of 57- He wrote. 
1. ' De Bello Standardii Tempore Stephani Regis Anno 
1 138.' 2. ' Genealogia Regum Anglorum.' 3. ' Historia 
de Vita et Miraculis S. Edwardi Regis et Confessoris.' 
4. ' Historia de Sanctimoniali de Watthun.' 5. ' A Life of 
St. Edward in elegiac Verse.' 6. ' Sermones de Tempore 
et de Sanctis.' 7- ' In Isaiam Prophetam Sermones XXXI.' 
8. 'Speculum Charitatis Libri III? Q. ' Tractatus de puero 
Jesu duodocenni in illud Luc II, cum F actus esset Jesus.' 
Q. ' De Spirituali Amicitia.' 10. • RcguLe ad Inciusas seu 
Moniales,' erroneously ascribed to St. Augustine. 11. 'Trac- 
tatus de Dominica,' &C. ascribed to St. Bernard. The last 
seven of these books are to be found in the ' Bibliotheca 

AILSA, Baron of (Her.) a title conferred by patent in 1806 
on the Earl of Cassilis, Lord Kennedy, of the family of 
Kennedy. QVide Cassilis and Kennedu'J 

Ailsa (Geog.) a rocky island near the island of Bute, in 
Scotland, whereon stands a ruinous castle said to have been 
built by Philip II of Spain. Lon. 5 D 8' W. lat. .35" 18' X. 

AIMAR-VERNAI, James (Bing.) a French peasant, who 
made himself famous by the use of the divining-rod, with 
which he professed to be able to discover subterraneous 
waters or metals in the earth. 

AIMER (Biog.) or Elmer, an English benedictine of the 
12th century, wrote ' De Inquisitione Dei,' Sec. 

AIMERI (Hist.) a Lombard captain of Pavia, who, being 
appointed governor of Calais in 1348, pretended to listen to 
some Frenchmen who wanted him to surrender the place 
in order to get them more effectually into king Edward's 
power. He was afterwards punished for this stratagem, 
when, falling into the hands of some who had been taken pri- 
soners, he was drawn and quartered. 

AIMERIC (Ecc.) succeeded Rudolphus in 1142 as patriarch 
of Antioch. He was legate to the holy see in the pontifi- 
cate of Alexander III, when, in order to protect the pilgrims 
from the outrages to which they were exposed, he collected 
them together on Mount Caraiel, which is supposed to have 
given rise to the Carmelites. 

Aimebic (Biog.) a grammarian of the 11th century, who 
wrote ' Ars Lectoria de Quantitate Syllabarum.' 

AIMOXIUS (Biog.) a benedictine, the friend and companion 
of Abbon, abbot of Fleury, wrote ' De Gestis Francorum 
Libri quinque,' fol. Paris, 1602 ; to which was added ' De 
Inventione et Translatione S. Vincentii ; ' ' Abbonis Libri 
duo de Obsessa a Xortmannis Lutetia,' &c. 

AIX (Bibl.) yv, a city in the eastern boundary of Juda?a, 
which was given to the Levites. Numb, xxxiv. 1 1 ; Josh. 
xxi. 16. 

AIXARD (Biog.) or Enard, a German abbot of the eleventh 
century, is said to have composed verses on the life of St. 
Kilian, and on the Holy Virgin. 

AIXSLIE (Her.) the family of this name, which at present 
enjoys the dignity of the baronetage, is descended from 
Thomas de Ainslie, who lived in 1214. The first baronet 


of this family was Sir Robert Ainslie, created in 1804, 

after having been 20 years ambassador to the Sublime Porte. 

The arms, Sec. of this family are as follow : 

Arms. Or, a cross flory sable, with a mullet for difference. 

Crest. A dexter-hand and arm grasping a scimitar. 

Mi it to. " Pro Rege et Patria." 

AIXSWORTH, Henru (Biog.) a commentator on the scrip- 
tures, and a Brownist by profession, lived in the reign of 
queen Elizabeth, and died about! 622. He wrote, l.'A 
Counterpoison against Bernard and Crashaw,' 4to. 160S. 
2. 'Annotations on the Psalms,' 4tO. 1(>12; 'On the Penta- 
teuch,' 2 vols. 4to. 1621 ; and on ' the Song of Solomon,' 
4 to. 1623. 3. 'An Animadversion on Mr. Richard Clifton's 
Advertisement.' &c. ko. Amsterdam, l6'13. 4. 'A Treatise 
on the Communion of Saints.' 5. ' A Treatise on the 
Fellowship that the Faithful have with Clod,' &c. 8vo. 1614. 
6. ' The Prying out of the Truth between John Ainsworth 
and Henry Ainsworth ;' the one pleading for, and the other 
against popery. Ito. ~. ' An Arrow against Idolatry.' 
8. ' Certain Notes of .Mr. Ainsworth's last Sermon on 1 Pet. 
ii. 4, 5,' 8vo. 1630. 

Ainsworth, Robert, a philologist and antiquarian, was born 
at Woodsale, near Manchester, in Kllio, and died in 171,;. 
He wrote, 1. ' Monumenta vetustatis Kempiana,' Svo. 1720. 
2. ' 'laCior, sive ex veteris Monument! Isiaci Descriptione 
Isidis Delubrum reseratum,' 4to. 1729- 3. ' De Clypeo 
Camilla antiquo,' 1734. 4. ' Thesaurus, or an English and 
Latin Dictionary,' which has acquired for its author a last- 
ing reputation, and is now become a standard work with all 
lovers of classical learning. 

Ainsworth, William, a clergyman of Chester, who published 
in 1650 ' Triplex Menioriale, or the Substance of threi 
Commemoration Sermons preached at Halifax, in Remem- 
brance of Mr. Nathaniel Watehouse, deceased.' 

AINT LPHUS (Biog.) an Englishman of royal extraction, 
who, being disgusted with the world, retired from the court, 
and led the life of a recluse ; but at what time he lived 1^ 
not known. 

AJOMA (Geog.) Ajomania, or Ajiomania, a town of Mao 
donia, situated on the Archipelago, 40 miles S. E. Salonichi. 
Long. 23° 30' E. lat. 40° 12' N. 

AIOMAMA (Geog.) a gulf of the Archipelago called after 
the town of Ajoma ; it was the ancient Sinus Toronaicus. 

AION (Hist.) duke of Brescia, and father of Rotharis, win 
succeeded Ariovaldus as king of Lombardy in 60S. Paul 
Diacon. de Gesi. Longob. 1. 4, c. 45. 

Aiox, son of Arichia. duke of Benevento, to whom this 
same Rotharis administered slow poison. 

Aion (Biog.) an English monk of the 10th century, who 
wrote a history of the Abbev of Crovland. Voss. de Hist. 
Lat. 1. 3, c. 5. 

AIRAED (Ecc.) /Erard, or Arrard. c\-c. a bishop of Nantes 
in the pontificate of Leo IX, was deprived of his bishopric 
to make way for a brother of Hoel II, count of Nantes, &c. 

AIRAY, Henru (Biog.) provost of Queen's College, Oxford. 
was born in 1559, and died in 16'lG. He was vice-chan- 
cellor in l606, and being a puritan in his principles, he- 
wrote, among other things, a treatise against bowing at the 
name of Jesus, ecc. 

Airy, Christopher, native of Westmorland, and fellow of 
Queen's College, died in 1670, aged 69. He wrote, ' Fas- 
ciculus Preceptorum Logicalium in Gratiam Juventutis Aca- 
demics compositus.' 

Airy, Christopher, nephew of Dr. Adam Airy, principal of 
Edmund Hall, contributed to enlarge the buildings of old 
Queen's college. 

AISCHAH (Hist.) the daughter of Aboubecre, and third 
wife of Mahomet, survived the impostor many years, and 
was honoured :i- a Nebrah, or prophetess, by the Mussulmen. 

Aischah, al Scheikhah ben Joseph Alidemesch Kiah, was tfu 


daughter of Joseph a Mussulman doctor, and authoress of 
a work entitled ' Eseharat al Khasiah lil Menan al Alitah,' 
the fear we ought to have respecting the graces given us by 

Aischaii. Ben Mahommed, Sec. author of a book entitled ' Al 
Akham Alaoram.' 

AISNE (Geog.) a department of France, including the pro- 
vinces of Soissonnois and Yermandois, the capital of which 
is Laons. It takes its name from a river which runs by 
Soissons, and enters the Oise above Compiegne, which is the 
ancient Axona, mentioned frequently by Ctesar. [[Vide Axona~\ 

AISTULPHUS (Hist.) a king of the Longobards, who laid 
siege to Rome, but was brought to terms by Pepin, king of 
France, who, through the entreaties of Pope Stephen, took 
up arms, and compelled him to retire. He was killed by a 
fall from his horse, after a reign of not quite seven years, 
in 756. 

AITHRIE, Viscount (Her.) the title commonly borne by the 
eldest son of the Earl of Hopetown. 

AITON, IVilliam (Biog.) a botanist, was born in 1731 at 
Hamilton, in Lanarkshire, and died in 1793. He super- 
intended the gardens at Kew, in which situation he published 
the ' Hortus Kewensis,' 3 vols. 8vo. 1789- 

AITZEMA (Hist.) baron of Lipperode and Alsheim, was 
sent about 1635 as envoy from the States General of the 
Low Countries to Vienna, where he became so much the 
favourite of the emperor that he gave great umbrage to his 
own court. He died in the Romish faith at Vienna, and 
was buried in the Dominican church., Leo d' (Biog.) nephew of the preceding, was 
born at Doccum, in Friezland, in 1600, and died as resident 
from the Hanseatic towns to the Hague in 1669- He wrote 
' Zaken van Staat en Oorlog,' or a History of the United 
States ; the second edition of which carries the Dutch affairs 
to 1651. 

AITZINGER, Michael (Biog.) author of a description of the 
land of promise, in 1485. 

AIUB (Hist.) or Job, the son of Schaddi, was the father of 
Salaheddin, the founder of the Aiubites, who succeeded the 
race of the Fatemites on the throne of Egypt in the follow- 
ing order : 

Aiub, Salaheddin or Saladin, the son of Aiub, succeeded 
Adhed, the last of the Fatemites, in the year of the Hegira 
567, A- D. 1177, and died in 589. 

Aiub, NouredaHn AH, surnamed Malek Al Afdhal, the eldest 

son of Saladin, succeeded his father in Syria, after the death 
of his brothel Malek Al Aziz in Egypt. He died in 621, 
A. D. 1281. 

AlUB, Malek id Adel, son of Malek, the brother of Saladin, 
succeeded in 625 of the Hegira, and died in 63. r >. 

AtDB, Malelc Suleh, succeeded his father, and died in 6 47- 

Aiub, Malek al Moaddem, his son and successor, was killed 
by the Mamelukes in 648. 

Aiub, Malek al Nasser, nephew of the preceding, was the 
last of tin- nice who reigned in Egypt or Syria. He was 
killed in 660, A. D. 1270, by Ilolagu, emperor of the 
Moguls, who bad taken Ragdad, and conquered Syria. 

AlUB, Selim (Biog.) Ben Aiuli al Kan, was author of instruc- 
tions on the rights of Musselmcn. 

AIX (Geog.) one of the most ancient cities of France, which 
is said to have been founded by Caius Sextius Calvinus, a 
Roman general, A.C. 120, when it received the name of 
Aqua SextiB, on account of its famous springs which were 
accidentally discovered in 1704. It was formerly the capital 

of Provence, and now I he chief town of an arrondissement 

in the department of the mouth of the Rhone. 
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (Geog.) called in Latin Aquisgranum, 

derives its modern name from the chapel built there by 
Charlemagne, who made it die seat of liis government; 
whence it became customary for the emperors of Germany to 


be crowned there until the time of Ferdinand I, who was the 
last emperor that was crowned in this place. It has, how- 
ever, since been distinguished by the conclusion of two 
treaties within its walls ; namely, one between France and 
Spain in 16()8 ; and the second between the different powers 
engaged in the war of the Austrian succession in 17LS. 
This town originally held the second rank among the im- 
perial towns of the circle of Westphalia, but in the revolu- 
tionary war it fell into the hands of the French, and on the 
downfal of Bonaparte it was assigned to Prussia. It is 
25 miles N. E. of Liege, 36 S. W. of Cologne. Long. 5° 
54' E. lat. 50° 52' N. 

AIZAR (Hist.) a king of Ethiopia, who was deceived by an 
artful woman named Sabata, who, by her intrigues, got 
possession of the throne. 

AIZO (Hist.) a chieftain among the Goths, who rebelled 
against Louis le Debonnaire, and gave him much trouble. 
Mezer. Hist, de la France, 1. 10. 

AKAKIA (Biog.) there were several of this name who dis- 
tinguished themselves as physicians. 

Akakia, Martin, who was second physician to Henry III, 
and died in 1558. He wrote, 1. ' De Morbis Mulierum.' 
2. ' Consilia Medica.' 3. A translation of Galen, ' De Ra- 
tione Curandi, et Ars Medica qua? est Ars parva.' 

Akakia, Martin, son of the preceding, to whom have been 
attributed the two first works of his father's. He died 1 605. 

Akakia, Jo/in, brother of the preceding, and physician to 
Louis XIII, died in 1605. 

Akakia, Roger, son of John, was secretary to the embassy 
to Poland, where he died. He contributed much towards 
the peace of Oliva. 

Akakia, Martin, another son of John, was professor royal 
in surgery, as many of his family had been before him, hut 
resigned in consequence of his disagreement with the rest of 
the faculty, and died of grief in l(i?7. 

AKBAR (Hist.) or Alher, an emperor of the Moguls, 
surnamed Jaldlo'ddin Mohammed, succeeded his father 
Hemayun in 1556, and died, after a successful reign, of a 
poisoned pill which he took by mistake, in 1 (>'<>.">. 

AKENSIDE, Marl; (Biog.) an English poet and physician, 
was born at Newcastle upon Tyne, in 1721, and died in 1770. 
He w r rote, 1. 'The Pleasures of the Imagination,' 1744. 
2. ' A Collection of Odes,' 1745. 3. ' Hymn to the Naiads,' 
together with some inscriptions. 4. ' Dissertatio de Dysen- 
teria,' 1 764. 5. ' Observations on the Origin and Use of 
the Lymphatic Vessels,' and ' An Account of a Blow on 
the Heart and its Effects,' in the Philosophical Transactions. 
6. ' Oratio Harvciana,' 4to. 1760; and three papers in the 
first volume of the Medical Transactions. 7. ' The History 
of the Revival of Learning,' in three lectures. 8. In 
Dodsley's Museum, ' On Correctness,' ' Table of Modern 
Fame,' and ' Letter from a Swiss Gentleman.' QVide 
Plate XXVIin 

AKHFASCII (Biog.) a grammarian of Arabia, whose disciple 
Siboviah was the most distinguished of all grammarians. 

AKIIIGIUK (Hist.) a prince of Adherbergian, or Media, 
was conquered by the Sultan Aris, who, having surprised 
and taken him in Tauris, his capital, cut off Ins head in the 
year of the Hegira 759, A. D. I869. 

AKIBA (Hist.) a famous rabbi of great credit among the 
Jews, took part with the impostor Barrhoclicbas, who gave 
himself out for the Messiah, and being taken by the troops 
of the emperor Adrian, was cruelly put to death, A. D. 
135. Hieron. in Esau viii. and Zaeh. iii. iv. ; Geneh. ('/iron. 
see. 2 ; Huron. Annal. aim. 137. 

AKLE (Hisl.) a king of /Ethiopia in the second century, who 
was addicted to sloth, and many other vices. 

ALABA (Geog.) a countrv of Spain, now called Alava. 

ALABANDA (Geog.) 'AXafiavba, 'Ateal&yta, now Eblanda, 
a city of Caria, near the Micandrus, so called from Ala- 


bandus, its founder, who was worshipped there as a god, 
and represented on their medals. Herod. 1. 7, c. 135 ; de- 
ad Fam. I. 13, ep. 56; Juven. Sat. 3, v. "0; Strab. 1. 14; 
Pint. 1. 37, e. 7- 

Ai.abanda (Nnmis.) this town struck medals in honour of 
Augustus, Britannicus, Nero, Domitianus, Caracalla, Maxi- 
mus, and the empresses Livia and Domna. 
A medal of Britannicus bears on the reverse, 
as in the annexed cut, a figure of Alabandus, 
their founder, naked, holding in his right hand 
a precious stone ; in his left a staff, and having v fe, 1 cii^l c 
a horse before him. On other medals they re- n^.«£££ 
presented Diana, Jupiter, and Apollo, &c. The 
inscription for the town was generally as above, AAABAN- 
AESiX, or abbreviated AAA]!. 

ALABANDUS (Myth.) a son of Caris, who built the city of 
Alabanda, and was honoured by the Alabandenses as a god. 

ALABASTER, William (Biog.) a divine and poet, was a 
native of Hadleigh, in Suffolk, and took the degree of A. M 
at Cambridge, but became a member of the University of 
Oxford in 1592. He wrote, 1. ' Seven Motives for his 
Conversion,' published on his attaching himself to the 
Romish faith, which, however, he soon after left in order 
to return to the church of England. 2. ' Apparatus in Re- 
velationem Jesu Christi.' 3. ' Spiraculum Tubarum seu 
fors Spiritualium Expositionum,' &c. both of which works 
contained much of eabalistical learning. 4. ' Commentarius 
de Bestia Apocalyptiea.' 5. ' Lexicon Pentaglotton,' fol. 
1637- 6. ' Roxana,' a Latin tragedy. 7- ' Elisaeis,' a 
Latin poem on the reign of queen Elizabeth, which he left 

ALABASTRUM (Geog.) a town of Egypt, where alabaster, 
a soft marble, was dug. 

ALABUS (Geog.) 'A\a/5oc, a river of Sicily, now Cantara. 
Silius calls it Alabis. 
Sil Ital 1. 13. 

Na mm qui potant Hinisumque Alabiiique sonoros. 

Plol. 1. 4, c. 3 j Fazett. de Reb. Sic. Deo: 1. 1, c. 8. 

ALADIN (Hist.) or Alaeddin Ben Kkaikosrotv, surnamed 
Kaicohad, was sultan of Xatolia, and tenth prince of the 
branch of the Selguicides, who, after baring been frequently 
victorious over otber powers, was himself conquered by the 
Moguls, and died of poison, in the year of the Hegira 630', 
A.D. 1246. 

Aladin, or Alaeddin Kiiginh, fourteenth king of Egypt, of 
the dynasty of the Mamlucks named Barbarites, was dis- 
possessed of his power after a reign of five months, in the 
year of the Hegira 742, A.D. 1352. 

Aladin, or Alaeddin Mohammed, was the seventh prince of 
the Ismalians of Irak or Persia. 

Aladin (Biog.) or Alaeddin Giovini, was the author of a 
history in Persian, entitled, ' Gihan Khusrah,' or the Dis- 
covery of the World. 

ALAEDDIX, Match Tcrmcdi, leader of a schism among the 

Alaeddin, Mahomed Ben Mahomed, who pretended to be 
of the race of the sultans of Khouaresm, abridged a book 
entitled, Fakhreddin Bagi, which he called ' Ekhitarat al 
Nogioumioh,' or Astronomical Judgments and Predictions. 

ALADULIA (Geog.) a province of Xatolia, in Asiatic 
Turkey, between Caramania and the Euphrates, the capital 
of which is Marasch. The sultan Selim I, gained posses- 
sion of it after having beheaded their last king, who was 
betrayed into his hands. 

ALAE'DDOULAT, Mirza (Hist.) the son of Baisancor, 
and great grandson of Tamerlane, got possession of the citv 
of Herat, capital of Khorasan, from which Uleg Beg, son 
of his uncle Scharokh, could not expel him. 

Alae'ddoulat, a Turcoman prince, who in the reign of 


Bajazet gave his name to the province which he governed : 
Cappadocia being called by the Turks Aladoulat Ili, or the 
country of Alaeddoulat. 

AL^!SA (Geog.) 'AXitra, 'A.Wixu, Halesa or Alesa, a city 
of Sicily, the inhabitants of which, according to Pliny, are 
called Halesini. Diod. 1. 14; Cie. in J'err. 1. 2, c. 7 ; Anton. 
Itin. Ptol. 1. 3, c. 3. 

AL.EUS (Myth.) '.\,Woc, the father of Auge, who married 

ALAF (Hist.) a Saracen prince, who took Edessa, an opulent 
town, from the Christians, A. D. 1145. He is supposed to 
be the same Alaf or Alaph as Baldwin II took prisoner 
and detained three years, A.D. 1121. Marmot. 1. 2, c 34; 
Baron. Anna!. Ann. 1146. 

AL AFTEKIX (Hist.) a general of the Turkish troops, who 
lost the city of Bagdad whilst he had the command, and 
being afterwards conquered and taken prisoner by Al Aziz, 
the Fatemite caliph of Egypt, he ended his days in that 

ALAGOX (Hist.) or Claude Alagon de Merargue, a Provencal 
gentleman, was descended from the kings of Xaples, and 
fancying himself to be allied to the royal family of Arragon, 
formed a conspiracy for delivering Marseilles into the hands 
of the Spaniards. The conspiracy was, however, detected, 
and he himself beheaded in 1605. 

ALAGUS (Biog.) a canon of Auxerre, wrote an account of 
the bishops of Auxerre to the year 875, when he died. 

ALAHAMER (Hist.) otherwise called Mahomet Abbas, was 
the first king of Grenada, who founded, in the year of the 
Hegira 635, A. D. 1245, the dynasty of the Alahamares, 
which reigned for 250 years, till they were dispossessed of 
their power by Ferdinand and Isabella, A. D. 1495. Marian. 
1. 13, c. 19; Marmol. 1. 2, c. 3S. 

ALAHAX" (Geog.) a town of Arabia Felix, situated between 
Sanaa and Zebid. 

ALAHIS (Hist.) one of the thirty-six administrators during 
the interregnum in the kingdom of Lombardy. He after- 
wards rebelled against his sovereign, and was killed. 

ALAIX (Hist.) or Alanus, the name of three dukes of Bri- 
tanny, who reigned in 560, 660, and 874; also of four 
counts of Britanny, who reigned in the 10th, 11th, and 12th 

Alain (Ecc.) sixteenth abbot of the abbey of Farfa, held this 
dignity for nine years, and died in 770. He wrote a col- 
lection of homilies suited to the fasts and feasts of the year. 

Alain, ride Alan. 

Alain, Benclif (Biog.) vide Alan. 

Alain, Chart ier, secretary to Charles VII of France, was 
born in 1386. He distinguished himself by his writings, 
particularly his Chronicle of Charles VII. 

Alain, de Lisle, a divine of Paris, was surnamed the Uni- 
versal Doctor, on account of his universal learning. He is 
supposed to have died at the end of the thirteenth centurv ; 
but his works, which are principally theological, were not 
published before 1653. 

ALAIS (Geog.) a town of France, formerly the capital of 
the district of the Cevennes, in Lower Languedoe, and now 
the chief place in the department of the Gard, is situated 
on the left bank of the Gardin, thirteen leagues and a half 
X. Montpellier ; Ion. 4° E. lat. 44° N. It is the Adesia of 
the Latins, and was a bishop's see, suffragan of the arch- 
bishopric of Xarbonne, erected in 1694 bv Pope Innocent 

ALALA (Myth.) 'AXaXa, the goddess of war, and sister to 
Mars. Pint, in Fratarn. Amor. 

ALALCOMEN/E (Geog.) 'WaXKu^itvat, a town of Bceotia, 
near Coronea, so called from Alalcomenes, the supposed 
foster-father of Minerva, who had a temple dedicated there. 
Whence she was called by Homer, 
'AXaXico^m'jjic 'AOrjpij. 


Slat. Theb. 1. 7, v. 330, applies the same epithet. 
. HRfliuca Mvuruc 

Sfrao. L 7, 9; P/h/. Quart. Grtec 43 ; P<i;/i. 1. 9, c. 19. 

ALALCOMENEIS {Myth.) vide Alalcomenas. 

ALALCOMENIA {Myth.) 'AKaXxofuvla, daughter of 
Oxygus, was said by some to have been the nurse of 
Minerva, instead of Alalcomencs. 

ALALIA {Geog.) 'AXoXiij, a town of Corsica, built by the 
Phoceans, and destroyed by Scipio 526 A. C. but rebuilt by 
SyRa. Herod. 1. 1, c. 165; Floras, 1. 2, c. 2. 

ALAM, Ebn Al Alum (Him;.) a great mathematician, who 
lived in the reign of the sultan Adhaeddoulat. 

ALAMAIL Ebn Alamah Ben Aston, a physician, who wrote 
a book on simple remedies, entitled, ' Escharat Almors- 

ALAMANNA, Baptist and Nicholas, two sons of the pre- 
ceding, were employed in the court of France. 

ALAM ANN I, JJutgi or Lents {Hist.) an Italian poet, of a 
noble family at Florence, was born in 147.'), and died in 
1556' He took great part in the troubles of his country ; 
and being compelled to seek his safety in flight, he repaired 
to the court of Francis I, by whom he was kindly received, 
and sent as ambassador to Charles V, from whom he re- 
ceived great attentions. His principal works are, 1. ' Opere 
Toscane/ a collection of poems, and ' Antigone,' a tragedy 
printed at different times at Lyons and Florence, but pro- 
hibited by Clement VII. 2. ' La Coltivazione,' an imita- 
tion of the Georgia of Virgil, Paris, 1546; and among 
other reprints, a correct and fine edition in 4to. by Cameno 
Padua, 17 18. 3. ' Girone il Cortese,' an heroic poem in 
2 1 cantos. 4to. Paris, 1548; Venice, 1549- 4. ' La Avar- 
chide,' or the Siege of Bourges, the Avaricum of Caesar, 
an epic poem in 24 cantos, 4to. Florence, 1570. 5. ' Flora,' 
a comedy in live acts, Svo. Florence, 1556 and Jfiol. 

Alamanni, Lewis, was the name of two persons, natives of 
Florence, who were distinguished in the republic of letters. 

Alamanni, Nicooh, vide Alemanni. 

ALAMLTH (Bil>l.) nob, 'A.V.^eO, the son of Becer, the 
of Benjamin. 1 Chiron, vii. 8. 

Alamf.tii, the son of Jehoadah, who was of the family of 
Kiah, the father of Saul. 1 Chron. viii. 36. 

ALAMINOS (Hist.) first pilot in the squadron commanded 
by Francis Fernandez, of Cordova, who in 1517 discovered 
Yucatan. He afterwards served under Cortez, and on 
many occasions displayed his nautical skill in those strange 

AT. AM IR (Hist.) an impious Saracen prince of the ninth 
Century, who was defeated, taken, and beheaded, by An- 
drew, the Scythian governor of the Levant. MarmoL 1. 2, 
c. 26. 

M. AMI\ (Hist.) the eldest of Aaron Al Raschid's three 
vms; succeeded bis father in the caliphate of Bagdad, in the 
year of the Hegira 198, A. I). SO:-'; but having engaged in 
a war with his brother Al Maniun, and being deserted by 

his troops, be was assassinated by Thaher Ebn rlosem, the 

ral of Al Mann'm, after a reign of four years and a 

Theopkan. Chronograph.; El Makin. Hist. Saracen ; 
Greg. Abu'ffarag. Hist. Dynast 
ALAMOS, BaUhasar {Sim.) advocate general in criminal 

I .. was a native of Medina del Campo, in Castillc, and 

died at the age "f 88, in the middle of tin- 17th century. 
He published a translation of Tacitus, with aphorisms in 
the margin. 
V] \\I( NDAB (Ecc.) a king of the Saracen-, who Uinim 

o Christianity, bul rejected with contempt the 

efforts which the heretical followers of Scvcrus made to 
draw him to their party. 

■ , \ \ {Hist.) vide Alain, Alan. 
Alan (/•><•) bishop of Auxerrc in the 12th century, obtained 


permission from Pope Alexander III to retire, and died in 
1182. He composed a life of St. Bernard. 

Alan, abbot of the monaster)' of Tewksbury, was the friend 
of Thomas a IScckct, an account of whose exile he com- 
posed, besides ' Acta Clarcdonensia,' sermons, epistles, &c. 
He died in 1201. 

Alan, William, cardinal of England, as he was called, studied 
at Oriel College, Oxford, and afterwards distinguished him- 
self by his zeal, in opposition to the reformation in the 
lime of queen Elizabeth, on which account he was obliged 
to fly the kingdom, and died at Home in 1594. He wrote, 
1 . ' A Treatise on Purgatory.' 2. ' Three books on the 
Priesthood, on Indulgences, and on the Infallible Truth of 
the Catholic Faith.' 3. ' An Apology for the English Ca- 
tholics.' He also assisted Bellarmin in the revision of the 
Bible, and was engaged in revising the works of St. Au- 
gustin when he died. 

Alan (Biog.) or Alaniis, surnamed Benclif BettocUvus, or 
Beco/lcs, was a native of Suffolk, and member of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford in 1223, where he distinguished himself 
as one of the most learned theologians of his day. 

Alan, or Alanus de Insulis, vide Alain tic I'lsle. 

Alan, a Carmelite of Lynn, in Norfolk, died about 1420. He 
wrote, 1. ' Elucidarium Sacra? Scripturse.' 2. ' Moralia 
Bibliorum.' 3. ' De vario Scripture Sensu.' 4. ' Pradec- 
tiones Theologica?,' &c. 

Alan, John, or Alanus Johannes, a Dane, was born in 156'3, 
and died in 1 630. He wrote several treatises on the Origin 
of the Cimhri ; On Natural and Artificial Logic ; On the 
Pronunciation of the Greek Language ; An Apology for 
Saxo Grammaticus, &C. 

ALAND, Fortescue, John, Lord, (Hist.) son of Edmund For- 
tescue, Esq., by Sarah, daughter of Henry Aland, of Wa- 
terford, Esq., was born in 1(>70, and died in 1746". He was 
educated at Oxford, and afterwards became a member of 
the Inner Temple, where he was chosen reader in 1716. 
He was successively appointed solicitor general, baron of 
the exchequer, and puisne judge of the King's Bench and 
Common Pleas ; and alter having sat in the superior courts 
for upwards of 30 years, he was created a peer of Ireland. 
His works were, 1. ' Sir John Fortescue's difference between 
an Absolute and Limited Monarchy, as it more particularly 
regards the English Constitution ; being a Treatise written 
by Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Lord Chief Justice, and 
Lord High Chancellor of England under King Henry VI, 
faithfully transcribed from the MS. Copy in the Bodleian 
Library, and collated with three other MSS. published with 
some Remarks by John Fortescue Aland, of the Inner 
Temple. Esq. I". It. s. 8vo. London, 1711, 1 7 1 <>-* 2. ' Reports 

of select Cases ill all the Courts of Westminster Hall. Tem- 
pore William and Anne,' &C. fol. London, 17 IS. '1' his is a 

posthumous publication. 
Alans, Fortescue (Her.) the name of a family allied to that 

of the Fortescues, which once enjoyed the dignity of the 

peerage. [Vide Fortescue} 
ALAM {Geog.) a people of Sarmada, near the lake of Meeotis, 

who invaded the Roman empire with the Huns and Vandals 

in the fifth century : they inhabited the country now called 


Claud. Ruf. 1. l, v. .'ill. 

Pa kfieotii Alanus. 

Lucan calls them hardy and warlike, 1. 8. 
it MOtMMT durol iU'-ii'i uiartis Alalia. 

Diony&ius speaks of their numerous horses. 
Dionys. Perieges. 

Twv ' i'-in ixTtrarat TTuXvimrtoj' tpvXov 'AXa'rutr. 

Martial refers to the same circumstance. 
Epigram. 1- 7- 

Nee le SatrmatiCO transit .litmus e<ju<>. 


ALANKAVA (Hist.) or Alancova, wife of Dojoun, emperor 
of the Moguls, governed the kingdom after his death during 
the infancy of her children, whom she educated with much 
care. By the Turks and Tartars this princess has been 
made the subject of a marvellous story respecting her pre- 
ternatural conception, which is doubtless taken from the 
Scripture history of the Virgin Man's miraculous con- 

ALANS (Geog.) inhabitants of Mount Caucasus, who arc- 
supposed to be descended from the Alani. 

ALANUS (Hint- and Bios-) vide Alain and Alan. 

ALAODDAWLET (Hist.) grandson of Timur, contended 
for some time with his brother, the Soltan Babr, for the 
sovereignty of Khorasan. 

ALARCON, Barthelemi/ (Biog.) chaplain to the Infanta 
of Spain, in the Low Countries, wrote, 1. ' Phoenix The- 
nensis e Ceneribus Redivivus.' 2. ' Christus Dominus in 
Cathedra Cruris docens et patiens,' and many other 

Alarcon, John Bitiz d\ a Spanish comedian, wrote, among 
other things, ' Los Favoras del Mundo,' ' La Industrie y 
la Fuerte.' 

Alarcon, John Ruiz a", a colonel in India, wrote a history 
of the war in Chili. 

Alarcon, John d', count of Torresvedras, wrote the gene- 
alogy of his own house. 

ALARD (Biog.) or Adelard of Amsterdam, as he was styled, 
was the author of many works, the principal of which are, 
1. ' Selects? Similitudines,' 3 vols, consisting of parallel 
passages from the scriptures and the fathers. 2. ' Disser- 
tatiuncula adversus Haereticos.' 3. ' De Eueharistae Sa- 
cramento.' 4. ' De Peccato Original!,' <S:e. 

Alarii, Francis, of a noble family at Brussels, and a zealous 
convert to Lutheranism, died in 1578. His works are, 
1. ' The Confession of Antwerp.' 2. ' Exhortation of the 
Ministers of Antwerp.' 3. ' Agenda,' or Discipline of 
Antwerp. 4. • A Catechism.' 5. ' A Treatise on Original 
Sin,' fee. 

Alard, William, son of the preceding, was born in 1572, and 
died in 1644. He wrote, 1. ' Christianus; hoc est, de Nomine, 
Oitu, &c. Christianorum,' Leipzig, 10'37, 1G40. 2. ' Pericopa 
Pentateuchi Biblica, Triglossometrica,' &e. 4to. 1618. 

5. ' De Diversis Ministrorum Gradibus contra Bezam.' 
4. ' Defensio Tractationis de Diversis Ministrorum Evan- 
gelii,' &c. Franc. 16'00. 

Alard, Lambert, son of the preceding, was born at Krempen, 
in Holstein, in 1600, and died in 1672. He wrote, 1. ' De- 
lias Attica;,' 12mo. Leip. 1624. 2. ' Hcraclius Saxonicus 
in Deorum Concilio,' &c. 12mo. ibid. 1624. 3. ' Gra?eia in 
Nuce ; seu Lexicon novum omnium Gracsc Linguae Primo- 
geniarum,' 12mo. ibid. 1028. 4. ' Promptuarium Patho- 
logicum Novi Testamenti,' cce. 12mo. 5. ' Nordalbingia ; 
seu Historia Rerum Praecipuarum in Nordalbingia,' &C. 

6. ' A Commentary on Valerius Flaccus,' not much esteemed. 

7. Laurifolia; sive Poematum Juvenilium Apparatus, 12mo. 
1627- S. ' Amorum Libri duo,' 12mo. Lips. 1636'. 
9. ' Poema Regium Davidis,' &c. with many others, of 
which a list is to be found in the Dictionnaire Historique, 
Amsterdam edition. 

ALARICUS (Hist.) or Alaric, the name of two kings of the 

Alaricus I, the most formidable enemy to the Romans, took 

Rome in the reign of Honorius, A. D. 409, and died the 

year after. 

Claud, de Bell. Ger. 

Rumpe omnes Alarice moras ; "hie impiger anno 
Alpibus ItaluE ruptis, penetrans ad tnbem. 

Prosper, in Chron. ; Zosim. 1. 5, c. 8, &c. ; Oros. Hist. 1. 7 ; 
Baron, in Annal. Ann. 395. 


Alaricus II, the son of Euric, succeeded his father on the 
throne of the Visigoths, in Gaul and Spain, 
in 484, and was killed in battle by Clovis 
himself, after a reign of thirteen years. His 
effigy is given as in the annexed figure. 
Gregor. Titron. 1. 2, c. 35, &c. ; Jornand. de M 
Reb. Gcst. Goth. c. 44, &c ; Procop. de 
Bell. Goth. 1. 1 ; Isidor. Hist. Goth. ; Id. 

ALASCO, John (Ecc.) A Lasco, or A Laski, usually styled 
the Polish Reformer, from the active part which he took in 
promoting the Reformation, is said to have been uncle to 
Sigismund, King of Poland. He was born in 1499) and 
died in 156'0, after having suffered much for his zeal in the 
Protestant cause. His principal works, of which a cata- 
logue is given by Melchior Adam, were as follow: 1. ' Brevis 
et Dilucida de Sacramentis Ecclesiae Christi Tractatio,' &e. 
8vo. London, 1552. 2. ' Confessio de nostra cum Christo 
Domino Communione et Corporis item sui,' &c. 3. ' Epis- 
tola ad Bremensis Ecclesiae Ministros.' 4. • Contra Mem- 
nonem Catabaptistarum Principem.' 5. ' De Recta Eccle- 
siarum Instituendarum Ratione Epistola? tres.' 6. ' Epistola 
ad Regem Polonis Sigismundum,' &c. 7- ' Purgatio Minis- 
trorum in Ecclesiis Peregrinis Franckfurtii,' etc. 8. ' Re- 
sponsio ad Virulentam Calumniisque et Mendaciis Consar- 
cinatam Joachimi Westphali Epistolam,' &c. 9. ' Fonna 
ac Ratio totius Ecclesiastic! Ministerii Edwardi VI, in Pere- 
grinorum maxime Germanorum Ecclesia. 10. A Form of 
Prayer for his Church at London, 155b'. 

Alasco, Albertns, descended from the same family, was mag- 
nificentlv entertained by the University of Oxford in 1583, 
being, as Wood says, one tarn Marti quam Mercurio, " A 
very good soldier and a very good scholar, an able linguist, 
philosopher, and mathematician." 

ALASTOR (Myth.) 'AXavap, one of Sarpedon's armour- 
bearers, slain by Ulysses. 
Horn. II. 1. 5, v. 6'77. 

°EvG oy£ Koipavov ilXtv 'A\«Top« re Xpoptov Tt. 

Odd. Met. 1. 13, v. 257- 
Alastor, the son of Neleus, and brother of Nestor. Apollod. 

1. 1, c. 9. 
Alastor, one of Pluto's horses, which he used in carrying 

away Proserpina. 

Claud, de Raph. Proserp. 1. 1, v. 280'. 

Orphuu i^ ci i.ii; I, !,:w>uis, .T.thonqtie sa-gittd 
Oi-i/or el Stugii crvdetis gloria Nyeteus 
Armenti, Ditisque nota rignatus Aiastor. 

ALASTORES (Myth.) 'AXa^opet, daemons who scattered 
evils on the earth. Pint, in Cic. 

ALATA, Castra (Geog.) the capital of Scotland, now Edin- 

ALATRI (Geog.) or Alatro, the ancient Alatrum. an old 
town in the Campagna di Roma, standing on a hill 
40 m. S. E. Rome; and a bishop's see dependant on the 
Pope alone. 

ALATRUM (Geog.) Aletrium, or Aletntm, 'AUrputv, or 
'.Witrpioy, now Alatri ; a town of the Hernici. The people 
were called bv Livv, Alatrinates ; by Pliny, Aletrinates. 
Plaid, in Cap't. ; Strab. 1. 7 ; Plin. 1. 3, c. 5 ; Front, dc 
( 'tilon. 

ALAVA, or Alaba, Esquivet Diego d' (Ecc.) a bishop ol 
Astorga, died in 156*2. He wrote ' De Conciliis universa- 
libus,' &c. Fol. Granada, 1582. Anton. Bibl. Hisp. 

Alava (Biog.) there were two writers of this name, of the 
same family as the preceding. 

Alava, de Beaumont Diego d', master of the ordnance, who 
wrote ' El Perfecto Capitan,' &c. Fol. Madrid, 15.90. 

Alava, de Vergara Francis Ruts y, who wrote the history of 


the college of St. Bartholomew, and by orders of Philip 
revised an edition of the statutes of the order of the knights 
of St. James, foL 1655. 

ALAVINUS (Hist.) a chief of the Goths, who obtained per- 
mission of the emperor Valcns for his tribe to inhabit the 
banks of the Danube. After which they revolted and beat 
Licinus, a general of Valens, and then the emperor 

ALAUNA (Geog.) 'AKavva, or Alone, now Alavay, a town 
of the Damuii, or Westmoreland. Plol. 1. 2, c. 3 ; Anion. 

ALAUNI (Grog.) 'AXavvol, a people of Sarmatia, who in- 
habited the country now called Stiria. Plol. 1. 3, c. 5. 

ALAL'NIl'M (Geog.) a town of Gallia Narbonensis. Anton. 

ALAUNUS (Geog.) 'AXavvos, a river of Northumberland, 
now the Alne. Ftol. 1. 2, c. 3. 

ALAVONA (Grog.) now A/agon, a town of the Vasconcs in 
Spain. Anion. Ilin. 

ALAVMO, M. Anthony, (Biog.) a physician of Sicily, was 
l>orn in 15.90 at Ragulbuto, and died in 1662. He wrote, 
1. ' Diseorso Intcmo alia Preservazione del Morbo contagioso 
e Mortale che regna al presente in Palermo,' 4to. Palermo, 
1625. 2. ' Consultatio pro Ulceris Syriaci nunc vagantis 
Curatione,' 4to. Palermo, 1632. 3. ' De Succedaneis Medi- 
camentis,' 4to. Palermo, 16'37- 4. ' Consigli Medico- Poli- 
tic!,' &c. relating to the plague, 4to. 1652. 

AL AZIZ, Billah (Hist.) succeeded his father as Fatemite 
caliph of Egypt, in the year of the Hegira 365, A. D. 975, 
and died in the year of the Hegira 386. 

ALBA, Sylvius (Hist.) succeeded his father Latihus Sylvius 
on the throne of Latium, and reigned 36" years. Diont/s. 
Hal 1. 1 ; Liv. 1. 1, c. 3 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 14, 'v. Cl4. 

Alba (Geog.) a name common to many towns. 

Alba, a part of the Dutchy of Wirtemburg, now Alb. 

Alba, a town of Spain, now JElva. 

Alba, a town of Portugal, now Elvas. 

Alba Fucentis, a town of the Marsi, near the lake Fucinum, 
now Albi. A plain lay between the town and lake, by 
which it was overflowed. To this Silius refers. 
80. 1. 8. 

interiorque per udos 

Alba sedet campos. 

The inhabitants were called Albcnsrs, in distinction from 

the Albani, who inhabited Alba Longa. Cic. ad A/tie. 

1. 8, ep. 17 ; Parr. 1. 7 ; Cass. Civ. Bell. 1. 1 ; Liv. 1. 26, 

c. 11; Strab. 1. 5; r/in. 1. 3, c. 12; Appian. Civ. Bell. 

1. 1 ; Sosipat. Instil. Griiiiimiit. 
Alba Graxa, or Alba Bulgarica, a town of Hungary, now 

Alba Helviorum, a town in France, now Fiviers. 
Alba Julia, a town of Transylvania, now ll'rissanbiirg. 
Alba Longa, a town of Latium built by Ascanius, A. C. 1152, 

now supposed t» be Albano. 
Tihiill. 1. 2, el. 5, v. 50. 

Atbtujue ah Ascatiut condita Longa dure. 

It received the name of Alba, from the alba jmrca found on 
the spot where, according to the prediction, it was said to 
lie built, to which the poets refer. 
Virg. JEn. 1. 3, v. 390. 

tngmj untiita sub ilicibut «u. 

Intuitu ca/ntiim futtti eniia, jacebit, 

Ufoj tola rtcubant, albictrcum libera i\ati , 
1> Ittrtis nr/'U erit. 

Juven. Satyr. 12, v. 70. 

Turn /-rat us Iuh, 
Atque novercali tedei prt&ata Lavino, 
Contpicitui ubtinni opts, cui Candida nomeii 
Serofa dedit. 


It was called Longa because it extended along the hill 
Albanns, and the inhabitants were denominated Albani, 
[[Vide Alba Fnrenlisli On the ruins of this town, or on its 
vicinity was built a town called Albanum, now Albano. 
[Vide Albano~\ Dionys. Hal. 1. 1 ; Varr. de lie Bust. 1. 2, 
c. 4; Cic. de Die. 1. 1, c 44; Liv. 1. 1, c. 3 ; Strab. 1. 5 ; 
Plin. 1. 3, c. 12 ; Eusrb. Cliron. 

Alba Mala, a town of France, now Aumale. 

Alba, now Alba Pompeia, a town of Liguria. Plin. 1. 3, c. 5. 

Alba Longa (Xuniis.) to this city 
are referred medals representing, 
as in the annexed figure, the gates 
of a town, and iEneag bearing his 
father on his shoulders, followed 
by lulus. It is assigned to this 
place from the Ilex, or oak, and 
the sow witli her young, which 
are also to be seen. Other medals 
have the inscription ALBA, but to 
which town of this name it be- 
longed is uncertain. 

ALBALATE, Andrew d' (Ecc.) a Dominican of Arragon in 
1240, was made bishop of Valencia, where he discharged 
his duty with exemplary diligence. He was at the council 
of Lyons in 1274, and died in 1277- 

ALBAN, St. (Ecc.) styled the Protomartyr of Britain, be- 
cause he was the first that suffered martyrdom in this 
island, flourished in the reign of Severus and Probus in the 
3d century, and suffered in the persecution of Diocletian 
in 286, or, according to Usher, 303. A monastery was 
erected in honour of him by Otfa, king of Mercia, at his 
birth-place Verulam, which afterwards received the name 
of St. Alban's. 

ALBANACTE (Hist.) a king of Scotland, who is said to 
have been the first king in the time of David. Geneb. 

ALBANEL, Garccran de (Ecc.) a native of Barcelona, who, 
after having been preceptor to Philip IV, was made arch- 
bishop of Grenada, and died in 1626, leaving, 1. ' Panegy- 
ricum in Philippi IV Hispaniarum Principis et Serenissimse 
Isabella; Borbonia; Nuptias.' 2. ' Un Compcndio de la His- 
toria General de Espana.' 

ALBANESIUS, Gin/ Anthony (Biog.) was the author of Ob- 
servations on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates. 

ALBANI (Geog.) 1. The inhabitants of Alba Longa, in dis- 
tinction from the Albenses, or the inhabitants of Alba, a 
town of the Marsi. [Vide Alba~\ 2. 'AXfiavol, the inha- 
bitants of Albania, who are said to have sprung from Jason. 
Strab. 1. J l ; Plin. 

Albani Fanum, the town now called Si. Albans, according 
to the venerable Bede. 

ALBANI Pat res (Hist.) the chiefs of the Albani [vide Al- 
bani~\, who were chosen as Roman senators ; whence it is 
put for the Roman senate itself. 
Virg. /En. 1. 1, v. <;. 

I" till unde Latimm, 

Albunitpie patrcs, ahjitf ultu mania luumr. 

Albani (Hist.) the name of a Roman family which was ori- 
ginally of Urbino, and gave birth to Pope Clement XI, be- 
sides several princes and prelates. 

Albani, John Jerom (Ere.) son of Count Albani, was created 
a cardinal in 1570 by Pope Pius V, and died in I.V)1. He 
wrote, 1. ' De Immunitate Eeclesiarum,' dedicated to 
Julian III, 1553. 2. ' De Potcstate Papa; et Concilii,' 
Lyons, 1558. 3. ' De Donatione Constantini.' 4. ' De 
Cardinalibus,' &c 

A.LBANI, Francis, a pope under the name of Clement XI. 
[Vide Clement A7] 

Albani, Annibal, nephew of the preceding, was made cardinal 
by his uncle in 1711, and was member of the conclave 


which elected Clement XII. He edited the works of his 
uncle, and wrote an epistle dedicator)' to the cardinals. 

Albani, Alexander, another nephew of the pope, was born 
in 16*92, sent as extraordinary nuncio to the emperor 
Charles V, made cardinal by Innocent XIII in 1721, and 
died in 1779- He was a great virtuoso, and made a collec- 
tion of drawings consisting of three hundred volumes, which 
were sold to his majesty George III for 14,000 crowns. 
He also wrote some historical and literary pieces. 

Albani, John Francis, nephew to the preceding, was born 
in 1720, advanced to the purple in 1747, and died in 1803. 
He was a great patron of learning and learned men, and 
increased the library of his uncle to nearly 30,000 volumes. 
The latter part of his life was embittered by the loss of his 
villa, and all his valuable possessions, which were either 
taken or destroyed by the republican plunderers. 

Albani, Barthelemy (Biog.) an Italian physician of Bergamo, 
wrote a treatise ' De Balneis Transherii.' 

Albani, John, a physician of Bologne in the 17th century, 
was the author of a book entitled ' De Syllogismo Aristote- 
lico,' and a treatise entitled ' De Convalescentibus.' 

ALBANIA (Gcug.) 'AXfiavla, a country on the shore of the 
Caspian Sea, in Asia, which was so called from the colour 
of the people's hair; it is now known by the name of 
Chippiehe, which is a part of Georgia. 

Albania, a province of European Turkey, situated on the 
Adriatic Sea, comprehending the ancient Illyria and Epirus. 
The principal towns of Albania are as follow : 

Principal Towns of Albania. 





La Valeria 













ALBANII (Gcog.) a nation who pretended to be descended 
from the Greeks, who have occupied Egypt since the time 
of Alexander. They have no fixed place of abode, but 
live by ravaging the country of the Nubians and Abvssinians. 

ALBANO, Francesco (Biog.) or Francis, a painter of Bo- 
logna, was born in 1660, and died in 1758. Among his 
works, which were much admired, are ' The Three Marys at 
the Sepulchre.' ' A Holy Family with Angels.' ' The 
Four Elements,' &c. 

Albano, John, the brother and scholar of the preceding, 
followed bis style of painting in general, but excelled in 

Albano, Nepi de, a lawyer, wrote a treatise on evidence. 

Albano (Gcog.) an old town of Latium, which is situated 
in the Campagna di Roma, and was anciently called Al- 
banian, being built either on the ruins of Alba Longa, or 
in their vicinity. It has an aqueduct still in good preserva- 
tion, which is said to have been erected 398 years before 
the Christian a;ra. The town is at present small. 

ALBANOPOLIS (Geog.) the former capital of Albania, now 
Albano/Hjli, a poor mean place. 

ALBANS, St, Duke of (Her.) a title conferred by Charles II 

on his natural son, whom he had by Eleanor Gwynn. He 

gave him the name of Beauclerk, and created him baron 

Heddington, and earl of Burford, Dec. 27, 16'76; duke 

of St. Albans, Jan. 10, 1684; and baron Vere, March 

28, 1750. The arms, &c. of this family are follow : 

Anns. Those of king Charles II, with a baton sinister, 

gules charged with three roses argent, seeded and barbed 


Cresl. On a chapeau gules, turned up ermine, a lion 

statant guardant or, crowned with a ducal coronet per 

VOL. J. 


pale argent and gules, and gorged with a collar gules, 
charged with three roses argent, seeded and barbed proper. 
Supporters. On the dexter-side, an antelope argent, gorged 
as the crest, armed and ungulcd, or ; on the sinister, a 
greyhound argent, gorged and ungulcd as the other. 
Motto. " Auspicium melioris avi." 

Albans, St. (Geog.) a borough in Hertfordshire, the ancient 
Verulam of the Romans, which received its modern name 
from a magnificent monastery founded by Offa in the eighth 
century in honour of St. Alban, the protomartyr of Britain. 
["Aide Alban~\ Besides the remains of that saint, those of 
Ofla, and Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, the youngest son 
of Henry IV, were buried here, with many others. Offa pro- 
vided the monastery with about 100 monks, which was richly 
endowed by Pope Adrian IV. It is 1 3 miles W. S.W. of Hert- 
ford, 21 N. N.W. London. Lat. 51° 46" N. long. 0° 21' W. 

ALBANUM (Geog.) a town of Latium, built either on the 
ruins of Alba Longa, or in their vicinity, now Albano. 

ALBANUS (Geog.) a mountain and lake of Latium, near 
Albanum, now called Monte Albano, and the lake Lago di 
Caxhll Gango/fo. The Latins Feris were celebrated with 
great solemnity on this mountain, which Horace makes the 
seat of the Muses, 1. 2, ep. 1, v. 27. 

Dictitet Albano musas in mmte bxuUa. 
Numa is also said to have received here communications 
from the goddess Egeria. Diouys. Hal. 1. 1 ; Lie. 1. 1, c. 3 ; 
Strab. 1. 5 ; F/ut. in Sum. 

ALBANY, Robert, Duke of (Hist.) son of Robert II, was 
appointed regent of Scotland in 1389 in consequence of the 
age and infirmities of the king ; and again on the death of 
king Robert III, his nephew, king James, being a prisoner 
in England. He died in 1419, at the age of SO, after an 
active life, which had been principally employed in admi- 
nistering the government of the kingdom. 

Albanv, Murdoch, second duke of, and son of the preceding, 
succeeded his father in his title, and also in his dignity of 
regent, when he procured the release of his cousin, king 
James I, from captivity, in 1424; but, being tried in 142.". 
on a charge of high treason, together with his two sons 
and his father-in-law, the earl of Lennox, they were all 
found guilty, and beheaded. 

Albany, Alexander, Duke of, son of king James II, was im- 
prisoned by his brother, James III ; but, escaping from his 
prison, he went first to France, and afterwards to England, 
where he entered into a treasonable agreement with king Ed- 
ward IV, that if he would place him on the Scottish throne, 
he would pay him homage, and give him up some places. 
A temporary reconciliation between the brothers prevented 
the execution of this project ; but Albany having after- 
wards renewed his treasonable agreement with Edward. 
retired into England, and was at length killed at Paris in 
1485 by the splinter of a lance at the tournament between 
the Duke of Orleans and another knight. 

Albany, John, Duke of, son of the preceding, was invited 
in 1514 to assume the regency of Scotland during the 
minority of king James V, after being restored to the 
honours and estates which his father bad forfeited, but he 
retained this dignity not more than eight years, during 
which period he entirely lost his popularity in Scotland, and 
retiring to France, he attended Francis I in his expedition 
into Italy, and died in 1536. 

Albany, Duke of (Her.) a Scotch royal title enjoyed at present 
by his royal highness the duke of York, and first conferred 
on the regent Robert, earl of Fife, son of Robert II above- 

ALBATEGNI (Biog.) or in Latin Albalenius, whose proper 
name was Mahommed Ben Gebcr, sumamed Albatani, was, 
according to Abulpharagius, a native of Harran, and, as 
an astronomer, deserved to be called the Ptolemy of Arabia. 
He wrote in Arabic a work entitled ' De Scientia Stellarum 


Liber/ Mo. Bonon. 1645, which was translated with addi- 
tions and demonstrations by Regiomantanus from the ori- 
ginal, which is in the Vatican. 
VLBEMARLE, Arnold Joost, Earl of, (Hist.) of the family 

mi -ntiuncd under Heraldry, attended kin}; William into 
England, in KiSS. as page of honour, and after distinguish- 
ing himself by his courage and fidelity during several cam- 
paigns, lie was honoured by the special eonlidence and 
favour of his sovereign during his life. At his death he 
retired to his native Country, Holland, where he enjoyed 
high posts in the state, and after serving with distinction 
under Marlborough, he died in 1713, in the 48th year of 
his age. 

Albemarle, Jl'illiam Ainu; second Eurl of, was early en- 
gaged in the military service, and being invested with the 
command of the troops sent to the Netherlands, he behaved 
with great gallantry at the battle of Dettingen. He after- 
wards served in the campaign of 1744, and in 1745 was 
wounded at the battle of Fontenoy. In 1746 he had the 
command of the right wing at the battle of Culloden, after 
which he was left as commander-in-chief of all his majesty's 
forces in the north. On the conclusion of peace, he was 
sent as ambassador and plenipotentiary to the French Court, 
where he died in 1754. 

Albemarle, George, third Earl of, and son of the preced- 
ing, was born in 1724, and died in 1772, after having dis- 
tinguished himself in the military service, particularly in 
the reduction of the Havannah, where he was commander- 

Albemarle, Duke of (Her.) the title granted to general 
Monks by Charles II, July 7, 16'fiO, in consideration of his 
services in bringing about the restoration. It became ex- 
tinct at the death of his son Christopher, second duke. 

Albemarle, Earl of, one of the titles enjoyed by the family 
of Keppel, of whom honourable mention is made under 
History. QVidc Albemarle and Keppef] The titles, arms, 
fife of this family, are as follow : 

'ill lea. Keppel, earl of Albemarle, in Normandy, vis- 
count Bury, in the county of Lancashire, and baron 
Ashford, of Ashford, in the county of Kent. The title 
commonly borne by the eldest son is viscount Bury. 
Arms. Gules, three escallop shells argent. 
Crest. In a ducal coronet or, a swan's neck proper. 
Supporters. Two lions ducally crowned or. 
Motto. " Ne cede malis." 

ALBENAS, John I'allio d' (Biog.) a lawyer and antiquary 
of Nismes, and son of James Alhcnas, also an antiquary, 
and the first consul of that city, was born in 1524, and died 
in 1563, leaving ' Discours Historial de 1' Antique et Illus- 
tre Cite de Nismes,' fol. Lyons, 1567 i besides a translation 
into French of the work of Julian, archbishop of Toledo, 
entitled, ' I'rognosticoruin, sivc de Originc Mortis Hu- 
mana.',' &c. ; and of jEncas Sylvius' s ' Histoire des Tabo- 

ALBERGATI, Nicholas (Ere.) a cardinal, with the title of 
the holy cross, was born at Bologna, in 1375, was made car- 
dinal by Martin V, sent as a legate into Germany into 1431, 
and died in 1 I t '). 

A I. iu-. k<;a ri , l-'ahiii (Biog.) a native of Bologna in the Hith 
century, was the author of, 1. ' I'd Cardinale,' 4to. Hologua, 
1599. 2. ' Trattato del Modi di redurre a Pace I'lnimicizie 

Private,' svo. Venice, Hill. In 1578 Zanetti published at 
Home six volumes of Albergati's moral works. 

ALBEBGOTTI, MarccHinus (Ecc.) bishop of Arczzo, ren- 
dered great services to pope Innocent IV, as legate to the 
Marcpiisate of Aucona, against the emperor, Frederic II. 

Albkuootti, John, another bishop of Arczzo, whom (ire- 
gory XI employed against Galeae \ isconti, duke of Milan. 
These are of the same family as those which follow under 
the article of Bioirrnji/n/. 


Albergotti, Franeis (Biog.) a lawyer, and son of Alberic 
Rosiati, a celebrated lawyer, was born at Arezzo, and died 
at Florence in 1370'- He wrote, ' Commentaries on the 
Digest,' &c, and on some books of the civil code, flte. His 
son was also distinguished in the profession of the law ; and 
others, of the same name, obtained an honourable distinction, 
as is mentioned above. 

ALBERIC (Hist.) marquis of Tuscany, and a powerful patri- 
cian at Rome in the 10th century, revolted and stood a siege 
against Hugh Capet, with whom he was afterwards recon- 
ciled. He died about 590. 

Alberic (Ecc.) a bishop of Langres, was present at the 
assembly of Aix la Chapclle in the ninth century, as one of 
the envoys of the prince. 

Albeiuc, a cardinal of the 11th century, was employed in 
the synod held at Rome under Gregory IX, to dispute 
against the heretic Berenger. He wrote, among other things, 
1. ' Liber Dictaminum et Salutationum.' 2. ' De Musica 
Dialogue:' 3. • Hymni de Paschate,' &C. &c. 

Alberic, abbot of the monastery of Cistertian monks, died 
in 1109, so distinguished for his piety that he was enrolled 
among the number of the saints. 

Alberic, archbishop of Rourges, died in 1110, after having 
taken an active part in the affairs of his time. 

Alberic, a cardinal and bishop of Ostia, was present as 
legate from Innocent II, in a council held at London in 
1138: after which he was sent as legate, by Eugene III, 
to Sicilv, to the East, and finally to France. He died in 

Alberic, archbishop of Rheims, distinguished himself for his 
zeal against the Saracens, Albigenses, and all infidels and 
heretics. He was taken prisoner in Portugal, but rescued 
by the knights of Calatrava, ami died at Pavia in 1218. 

Alberic (Biog.) vide Albert. 

Alberic, or Albriee, a native of London, flourished about 
1217, and was the author of many works, as ' Virtutes 
Antiquorum ; ' ' Canones Speculativi ; ' ' De Originc Deo- 
ruin ; ' 6ce. 

Alberic, a Cistertian monk of Trois-Fontaines, in the dio- 
cese of Chalons, in Champagne, was a poet and historian. 
He wrote Chronicles from the Commencement of the World 
to 1241. The time in which he lived is unknown. 

Alberic, Fear, a regular of the order of Augustins, and of 
the family of the earl of Oxford, in 1250 wrote 'A Trea- 
tise on the Eucharist ; ' ' The Life of St. Ositha ; ' 'A 
History of the Antiquities of his Monastery,' which bore 
the name of this saint. 

Alberic, suniamed Thosanus, a Cistertian monk of Thosan, 
in Flanders, lived in 1272, and was the author of Chroni- 
cles, containing the History of the Crusade of Lewis the 
Younger, entitled, ' Vox de ( 'o-lo,' &C. 

Alberic, suniamed de Rosata, or Hoxiati, was a distinguished 
lawyer in 1350, and wrote on the sixth book of the Decre- 
tals. To him also is attributed a dictionary of law, and a 
treatise ' De Statutis.' 

Alberic, James, a hermit of the order of Augustins, and a 
native of Bergamo, published, in l(i()5, ' A Catalogue of the 

Illustrious Min of Venice.' 

ALBERIZZI, Peter Joseph (Biog.) a physician of Milan, 
died in 1722, at the age "I ■'■'■'■■ lie was the author of a 
posthumous work, entitled, ' Critologia Medica de Causis 
I aiis Pcstifenc,' &c 

ALBEHMONT, Frederic (Biog.) published, in ld'75, a trea- 
tise, entitled, ' Svinmctria Juridica Austriaca.' 

ALBERONI, .Infills (Hist.) the son of a gardener, of Pla- 
ccntn we: born ill 1<:N: :nd I . bis intrc.ic and be; 
talents to be a cardinal and prime minister of Spain. He 

projected the match between the king of Spain and the 

daughter of the duke of Parma, which, through his in- 
trigues, was put into execution. He then attempted to em- 

The effigies of this 


broil Spain with France, England, Naples, and Sicily, in 
which he partly succeeded, but at length brought himself 
into disgrace, was banished from the kingdom, and after 
being made legate of Romana by Clement XII, died at Pla- 
centia in 1752. 
ALBERT {Hist.) a name common to many princes and illus- 
trious persons. 

Emperors nf this Name. 

Albert I, sumamed the Triumphant, son of Rudolphus I, 
was elected emperor of Germany on the 
deposition and death of Adolphus, 
whom he killed in battle with his own 
hand, in 1298. He was assassinated 
in 1308, by his nephew, John, duke 
of Suabia, and other conspirators, and 
was succeeded by Henry VI I. It was 
during the reign of this emperor that 
the Swiss regained their independence, 
and laid the foundation of the Hel- 
vetic League. Bon. Fin. 1. 3, dec. 4. 
and the following emperor are given, as in the annexed 

Albert II, sumamed the Grarc and the 
Magnanimous, the son of Albert IV, 
duke of Austria, was elected emperor 
in 1438, as also king of Hungary and 
Bohemia, and died after a short but 
useful reign of a year and seven months. 
Aventin. Ann. Boior. 1. 7; ?En. Silv. 
Hist. Bohem. c. 56 ; Krantz. Sax. 1. 1, 
c. 41 ; Spondan. Anna!, ann. 1437, Sec- 
Kings of Poland and Sweden. 

Albert, vide John Albert. 

Albert, second duke of Mecklenburg, and son of Albert, was 
chosen king of Sweden in 1363, on the deposition of Mag- 
nus II ; but falling under the displeasure of the nobilitv, by 
whom he had been raised to the throne, they supported 
Margaret, daughter of Waldemar, king of Denmark, who 
conquered him in battle, and taking him prisoner, refused 
to set him at liberty till he renounced all pretensions to the 
crown for himself and his son. Albert died in 1412, after 
a reign of 23 years. Joh. Magn. 1. 21. 

Dukes of Austria. 

Albert I, who was afterwards emperor, was first invested by 
his father, Rudolphus, with the duchy of Austria. 

Albert II, sumamed the Wise, died in 1358, after having 
governed his people with much prudence, notwithstanding 
his bodily infirmities. 

Albert III, was sumamed the Astrologer, because he was 
addicted to that studv. He rebuilt the University of Vienna, 
and died in 1390. 

Albert IV. sumamed the Patient, succeeded his father in 
1390, and died of poison in 1404, leaving the reputation of 
a merciful and pious prince. 

Albert V was the second emperor of this name. 

Albert VI, sumamed the Prodigal, son of Ernest, prince of 
Stiria, and a descendant of Leopold, the son of Albert the 
Wise, had great contention with his brother Frederic, the 
emperor, respecting the succession to the dutchy of Austria, 
which was claimed by the latter. The war continued at 
intervals between them for the space of six years, and was 
only terminated by the death of Albert, which happened in 
1463, occasioned, as was suspected, by poison. 

Albert, archduke of Austria, and governor of the Low 
Countries, was the sixth son of the emperor Maximilian II. 
He was at first destined for the church, and made cardinal 
and archbishop ; but renouncing his ecclesiastical dignities, 
he married Elizabeth Clare Eugenia, daughter of Philip II, 


from whom he received in dowry the Low Countries and 
Franche- Comte. He was engaged in an unsuccessful war 
with Maurice of Nassau, during which the memorable siege 
of Ostend was carried on. The capture of this town was 
followed by a treaty of peace, and shortly after that by the 
death of the archduke, in 16*04, greatly beloved by his sul>- 
jects. Krantz. Sax. 1. 11, c. 33 ; Thuan. Hist. c. 42, &c ; 
Grot, de Bell. Belg. ; Spend, in Anntil. Eccles. ; P. Dan- 
Hist, de France. 

Dukes of Bavaria. 

Albert I, Count of Hainault, Holland, Zealand, &c. go- 
verned those countries with much wisdom and humanity in 
the place of his brother William III, who was not of sound 
mind. He died in 1404. 

Albert II, son of the preceding, died before his father, with- 
out issue. 

Albert III, sumamed the Devout, the son of Emcst, was 
bom in 1396, and died in 1460, much beloved by all Ger- 

Albert IV, sumamed the Wise, although the third and 
youngest son of Albert III, was left possessor of his domi- 
nions, his eldest brother, John, having made him a sharer 
in the government during his lifetime, and after his death 
he retained them through the countenance of the emperor] 
in spite of the efforts made by his brother Christopher. He 
died in 1508. 

Albert V, son of William III, was born in 1528, succeeded 
his father in 1550, and died in 1579, after having distin- 
guished himself by his zeal in behalf of the Romish church. 

Albert, the eldest son of William, and brother of Maximi- 
lian, commenced the electoral branch. He was bom in 1584, 
and administered the government for his nephew, Ferdinand 
Maria. Sansmin. Chron.; Gems. Arh. Gcncal. Dum. Aust. 

Dukes and Electors of Sa.m/11/. 

Albert I, sumamed the Proud, the son of Otho, presumed 
to make war on his father, in order to obtain what he sup- 
posed to be his right, but was cut off in the midst of his 
wicked career. 

Albert II, succeeded his father Henry, in 12S8, but dis- 
graced himself by his vices, particularly by his conduct to- 
wards his wife, who, flying from him to escape his violence, 
died in a monastery. He also ended his days in a monastery, 
after having been engaged in unsuccessful wars with his 

Albert III, who was the first elector of Saxony, was the 
son of Bernard, of the family of Anhalt. He succeeded his 
father in 1212, and after governing with much wisdom, 
died in 1260. 

Albert IV succeeded his father, Albert III, and although of 
a peaceable temper, he was engaged on the side of his bro- 
ther-in-law the emperor, Albert, against Adolphus. At 
the coronation of the former, the concourse assembled on 
that occasion was so great, that Albert, with several other 
persons, were squeezed to death in the crowd. 

Albert V, son of Venceslas, succeeded his brother, Rudol- 
phus III, in 1419, and died in 1422, in consequence of being 
driven out at night by a fire, that had caught a shepherd's 
hut, where he had taken refuge after the chase. 

Albert, the sixth duke of Saxony of this name, and son of 
Frederic II, was made governor of Friezland ; notwithstand- 
ing his valour and prudence he was engaged in frequent 
warfare with his subjects till his death in 1 491 . 

Marquisses and Electors of Brandcnburgh, and Dukes of 
Albert I, sumamed the Bear, son of Otho, prince of Anhalt. 
converted his principality from a forest into a cultivated and 
populous country, and died in 11 68. 


Albert II, brother of the preceding, succeeded his brother, 
Otho II, in 1200', and died in 1221. 

Albert III, surnamed Achilles and Ulysses, son of Frederic I, 
was born in 1 41 l, and died in I486, after having taken 
part in many wars, and engaged in many single combats. 
He was remarkable no less for courage than adroitness and 

Albert IV, first duke of Prussia, and grandson of the pre- 
ceding, was burn in 1 1-90. He succeeded Frederic, of 
Saxony, as grand master of the Teutonic Order, but com- 
promised the interests of the order for the dutchy of Prussia, 
with which he was invested in 1525. He embraced the 
cause of the reformers, and took part in all the wars and 
divisions which at that time distracted Germany. 

Albert, Frederic, of Brandenburg, and duke of Prussia, 
succeeded his father, Albert IV, in 15G8, but becoming a 
lunatic shortly after, his cousin, George Frederic, adminis- 
tered the government in his name. He died in lCOS. 

Albert, marquis of Brandenburg, surnamed the Alcibiades 
of Germany, son of Casimir, marquis of Cullenbacb, was 
distinguished by the active part he took in the opposition to 
Charles V, and died in 15.57, of diseases occasioned by in- 
temperance. Thuan. Hisl.l. I, lo, &c. 

Dukes of Brunswick. 

Albert I, surnamed the Great, the son of Otho I, built Har- 
burg, Ottenburg, and other towns, and died in 1279, hav- 
ing the reputation of a valiant enterprising prince. 

Albert the Fat, succeeded his brother William, and after a 
peaceful reign died in 1818. KrantZ. MetrojKil. Bert. Kcr. 
German. Htst. 1. 2. 

Dukes of Mecklenburgh. 

Albert I, son of Heniy, the I. inn, was created with his bro- 
ther a duke, by the emperor Charles IV, in 134-8, in con- 
sideration of the services he had rendered him in carrying 
on a war against Lewis, duke of Brandenburg, and other 

Albert II, son of the preceding, was chosen king of Sweden 
in liis father's lifetime. 

Albert III, son of the preceding, became a partner in the 
government with his brother, duke John, and died in 1428. 

Albert IV, son of Henry the Fat, succeeded his father in 
l 1' 7. but died in the same year without issue. 

Albert V, surnamed the Handsome, .son of Magnus II, made 
an unsuccessful attempt to reinstate Christ icrn II, the de- 
posed king of Denmark, and died in 1547- 

Alb'ert, John, vide John Albert. 

( 'mints of Nassau. 

\ i.i'.ek'i , son of George and Anne Amelia, of Sarbruck, his 
first wife, was born in 1. '■).')'>, and was killed by the blow of 
a musket in 1 626, in the service of the United Provinces. 

Albert, the son of Philip, count of Wcilbourg, and Anne, 
daughter of Albert, count of Mansfield, re-united the 
seignory of Sarbruck with that of Weilbourg, and died in 

('(•nuts ill' Vermandois. 

Albert I, succeeded Herbert, his father, in !)!•;;, and after 

having contributed to tin- deposition "!' Charles the Simple, 

died in 988. 
Albert II, son of Herbert III, founded tie- abbey of Bu- 

(olli, and died in 1035, Fliiitiinrit. ('/iron. Saint Martk. 

I fist. GeneaU de France Le /'■ Anselme. 

Distinguished Persons. 

''iir, nr Alberti de I. nines, an ancient and illustrious 

family, was a branch of the house of Vlberti, of Florence, 

which settled at Vcnaison, in Frame. Many members of 


this family distinguished themselves in the service of the 
French kings, of which the following are the principal : 
Albert, Thomas, was the son of Lewis, who left Florence. 
He was in the service of Charles VII, from whom he re- 
ceived many honours and estates, and died in 1455. 

Albert, Leo, great grandson of the preceding, was in the 
wars in Italy, and was killed in the battle of Cerisolles, 
gained by the count d'Enghien over the marquis del Vasto. 
He became lord of Luines by his marriage with Antonia 
de Segur. 

Albert, llonore d', sieur de Luines et de Cadenet, gave 
early proofs of his valour and good conduct, for which he- 
received many favours from Charles IX. One of his greatest 
exploits was bis combat at Vincennes, in the presence of the 
king and court, with captain Panier, of the Scotch corps, in 
which he came off victorious, having slain his adversary- 
He died in 1592. 

Albert, Charles d', due de Luines, and son of the preceding, 
was born in 1578, and rose to the highest posts of govern- 
ment under Henry IV and Louis XIII ; but drew upon 
himself many enemies by the active part which be took in 
the troubles of the times, particularly in repressing the 
turbulence of the nobles, and supporting the royal autho- 
rity. He died in 1621 of the scarlet fever, or, as some say, 
of poison. 

Albert, Honori d', third son of Honore Seigneur de Cade- 
net, and due de Chaulnes, acquired and preserved the esteem 
of Louis XIII and XIV, and after filling the highest posts, 
particularly that of ambassador to England, in 16'20, he 
died in 16'ip. In consequence of his alliance with the house 
of Ailly, in Piccardie, he and his posterity engaged to take 
that name, and bear their arms. 

Albert, d' Ailly Charles, third son of the preceding, who in- 
herited his father's titles by the death of his two elder bro- 
thers, was three times ambassador at the court of Home, 
and died in 1698. 

Albert, Louis Charles d', due de Luines, and third son of 
Charles d'Albcrt, due de Luines, was no less high in office 
than his father, but led a more retired life, and died in 
10'<)(>, leaving some religious works; among others, ' Be- 
eueil de Sentences tirce des S. S. Peres,' Paris, Ki.SO. 

Albert, Charles llonore d', duke of Luines, son of the pre- 
ceding, and known under the name of due de Chcvrciiso, 
was born in 1646, and died in 171'-', after having been en- 
gaged in the active service of the king against the Turks, 
and in the war with Spain. 

Albert, Louis Joseph d', ninth son of Louis Charles, known 
in his youth under the name of chevalier and comtc d'Al- 
bert, was born in 1672, and after having distinguished 
himself in all the memorable battles of that day, in which 
he w:ts dangerously wounded, he attached himself to the 
court nf Bavaria, the elector of which becoming emperor, 
In- was made field-marshal of the empire, and sent BS am- 
bassador extraordinary to the king nf France. 
Albert, Charles llonure d'. count of Tours, and BOB I t 
Charles HonortJ, was born in Kid';), and after serving ill 
several campaigns, was killed near Bellifcejm, regretted by 
the whole army for his valour ami capacity. 

ALBERT, Maria-Charles Louis d' , doc de Chevreuse, and 
prince de Neiifchatel, &C., was at the escalade of Prague, 
and at every important action which took place during t lie 

war that was terminated by the peace of Aix-la-Chapeue. 

Albert {Fee.) a name common to several prelates. 

Albert, archbishop of Hamburgh. [Vide Adelhcrt~] 

Albert, or Adalbert, archbishop of Mcntz, a turbulent 
prelate in the reign of Henry \, who was imprisoned on 
account of a conspiracy which he formed against the em- 
peror, butbehtg released soon after, died in 1137' Otho. 
Frisingen. 1. 7. ft 14, &c. 

Albert, de Louvain, cardinal, bishop of Liege, and brother 


of Henry, due de Lorraine, having been elected bishop, and 
his election confirmed by the pope Celestin III, in spite of 
the opposition of the emperor, Henry VI, he was assassinated 
in 1193. Bailkt. lies des Saints. ' 

Albert, who was born at Castro di Guallester, in Italy, was 
raised from a canonry to the bishopric of Verceil ; and after 
being employed on several missions by popes Clement III 
and Innocent III, was appointed patriarch of Jerusalem ; 
but took up his residence at Acre, where he was assassinated 
in 1214. Genebr. et Onuph. in Chron. ; Possevin. in Ap- 
par. sacr. ; Spondan. Annul, ann. 1203. 

Albkrt, of Parma, was legate to the Holy See in the 13th 
century, being sent by Innocent IV into England, and from 
thence into France. Le P. Dan. Hist, de France. 

Albert, bishop of Frisingen, assisted Albert, of Austria, at 
the siege of Zurich, and died in 1359. Bert, de Urh. 
German. I. 3. 

Albert, a descendant from the barons Von Wintz, an ancient 
and illustrious family of Austria, was made bishop of Pa-sau, 
the inhabitants of which place having revolted against him, 
and being defeated in a bloody battle, were fined by the 
emperor 3000 marks for their revolt. He died in 1380. 

Albert I, son of Ernest, elector of Saxony, was chosen arch- 
bishop of Mentz, and died two years after, in 1480. 

Albert II, cardinal and archbishop of Mentz, was a man of 
talent and a lover of learning, who gave much encourage- 
ment to the Jesuits. 

Albert (Biog.) or Albcric, a canon of the church of Aix, in 
Provence, composed a history of the first crusade from 1095, 
when it commenced, to 1120, when it terminated, in the 
second year of the reign of Baldwin : it was published by 
BeSnechu, in 2 vols. 4to. Helmstadt, 1584, under the title 
of ■ Chronicon Hierosolymitanum de Bello Sacro.' It was 
also inserted in the collection of the historians of the cru- 
sades, published in 1611, under the title ' Gesta Dei per 

Albert, abbot of Staden in the 13th century, composed a 
Chronicle from the commencement of the world to the year 
1250, at which time he tlourished. I'oss. de Hist. Lot. 1. 2 ; 
Da Pin. Bill Eccl. 

Albert, the Great. QVide Albcrtiis Magmts] 

Albert, of Padua, who was distinguished for his talents, 
particularly his eloquence, was born in 1293, and died in 
1588. He left many theological works, and was honoured 
with a statue, which was erected in Padua, his native place. 
Trithcm. de Script. Eccles. 

Albert, surname d Argentina, lived in the 14th century, and 
composed a History or Chronicle of what passed in the em- 
pire from Rudolphus I to Charles IV. I'oss. de Hist. Lat. 

Albert, of Saxony, flourished about the middle of the 14-tli 
century, and wrote a commentary on the tables of Alphonso, 
besides eight books on physics, three books on the heavens 
and the universe, and other works on similar subjects. 

Albert, Erasmus, a pupil of Luther, and an active partisan 
in favour of the reformation, died in 1551, leaving a sati- 
rical account of St. Francis, which at that period produced 
the desired end of bringing the Romish church into con- 

ALBERTANO, of Brescia (Biog.) an Italian writer of the 
13th century, wrote, 1. ' De Dileetione Dei et Prnximi.' 
2. ' De Formula Vita? Honesta 1 .' 3. * De Consolatione et 
Consilio.' 4. ' De Doctrina Lotpiendi et Tacendi.' 

ALBERTAS (Hist.) or A/beriazzo, a noble family of Pro- 
vence, was of Italian extraction, and in the person of An- 
thony Albertas became domiciliated in France in 1360, 
during the pontificate of Innocent VI, at Avignon. This 
Anthony left Italy to escape the fury of the contending 
factions of the Guelphs and Gibelins. which were inces- 
santly at war with each other at that time. 

Albertas, Anthony a", descended from the same family, was 


first consul of Marseilles in 1511 ; and his son, Peter 
d'Albertas, attained to the same dignity in 1542, both of 
whom being high in the confidence of their respective sove- 
reigns, Louis XII and Charles IX, they were entrusted 
with the government of the city in its most important con- 

Albertas, Anthony Nicholas a", son of the preceding, was 
early initiated in arms, and by his skill and valour acquired, 
not only the confidence of his prince, but was a considerable 
favourite at the court of Henry IV. 

ALBERTET (Biog.) a mathematician and poet of Provence, 
lived about 1290. He wrote some mathematical pieces, and 
some poems in honour of the marchioness de Misalpine. 
which, after his death, were published by Faber d'Uzes as 
his own. The plagiarist, however, suffered the punishment 
of whipping for this offence. Xostradam. lies des Poetes 

ALBERTI (Hist.) the name of a noble family of Florence, 
which at one time was at the head of the government ; but 
at length they experienced a reverse of fortune, and were 
driven into exile, and otherwise much persecuted. From 
this family sprung the Alberts of France, of whom mention 
is made under the head of Albert. 

Alberti (Ecc.) of Limosin, was made cardinal by pope In- 
nocent VI in 1361, and died in 1369- Onuphr. in Inn. II ; 
Auber. Hist. Card. 

Alberti, James (Biog.) of Boulogne, in Italy, lived in the 
14th century, and wrote ' A Treatise on Civil Law,' &c. 

Alberti, Aristotle, otherwise called Ridolfo Fioraventi, a 
mechanic, was born at Bologna in the 15th century, and 
distinguished himself, among other things, as an artist. In 
1455 he transported the campanile of St. Mary del Tcmpis 
of Bologna, with all its bells, &C. to the distance of 35 paces. 

Alberti, Leon Baplista, of the Florentine family of Alberti, 
an artist and a scholar, left many specimens of his skill in 
architecture, but is principally known by his work ' De 
Be .Edificatoria,' which was translated into Italian by Peter 
Lauro, Venet. 1549; and by Bartoli in 1550. A beautiful 
edition was published in England in 3 vols. fol. in Italian 
and English, by James Leoni, with fine copper-plates, 1726. 
The last edition, that of Bologna, fol. 1782, contains also 
a treatise on painting, ' De Picture praestantissima et iiun- 
quam satis laudata Arte,' &c. which had been separately 
published at Basle in 1540, and at Leyden in 1649. He 
died about 1485, leaving many writings on philosophy, ma- 
thematics, perspective, and antiquities. 

Alberti, Leander, of Bologna, in Italy, a Dominican, was 
bom in 1479, and died in 1552. He wrote, 1. ' Istoria 
di Bologna deca prima e Libro primo, deca secunda Sino 
all. anno 1253.' 4to. Bologna, 1541. The second and third 
books were published afterwards with supplements, 4to. 
1590, 1591. 2. ' Cronica delle Principali Famiglie Bo- 
lognesi,' &C. 4to. Vineenza, 1592. 3. ' Descrizione di tutta 
l'ltalia,' fol. Bologna, 1550, Venice, 1551, 1553, 156l, &C. 
also translated into Latin. 4. ' De Viris Illustribus Ordinis 
pnedicatorum, Libri sex in unum congesti,' fol. Bologna, 
1517. 5. ' Diatriba de Incrementis Dominii Venetae,' and 
' De Claris Viris Reipubliete Venetse,' Venet. Lugd. and 
Bat. l62S. I'oss. de Hist. Lat. 1. 3 ; Mirceus in Auct. de 
Script. Eccles. eye. 

Alberti, John, a German lawyer of Widmandstat, flourished 
in the 16th century, and wrote -An Abridgement of the Al- 
coran, with Notes ;' ( The New Testament,' in Syriac; ' A 
Grammar of the Syriac Language.' Mir. de Script, sec. xvi. 

Alberti, Cherubino Borghegiatio, a painter and engraver, 
was born in 1552 at Borgo S. Sepulchro. His engravings 
exceeded a thousand in number. 

Alberti, Gioranni, brother of the preceding, was born near 
Florence in 1558. He also distinguished himself as a 
painter, but was particularly eminent in perspective. 


Alberti, Nicholas, a Jesuit of Germany, was a writer on 
philosophy, and died in 1 641. 

Alberti, Valentine, was born at Lehna, in Silesia, in 1635, 
and died 1697. Among las writings, which are principally 
controversial, are, 1. 'Compendium Juris Nature.' 2. ' In- 
feros'. Pnecipuarum Religionum Christianarum.' 

Alberti, Andrew, was author of ' A Treatise on Perspective,' 

Alberti, Michael, a German physician, was born at Nurem- 
berg in 1682, and died in 1757- Among; his numerous 
writings given by Haller are, 1. ' Introductin in Universal!! 
Mediciuam,' 3 vols. 4to. Halle, 1718, &c. 2. 'Systems 
Jurisprudential Mediae,' 6 vols. 4to. 1725 — 1747- 3. 'Spe- 
cimen Medico Theologies.-,' 2 vols. 4to. 1726. 4. ' Tcntamcii 
Lexiei Medici realis.' 2 vols. 4to. 1727 — 1731. 5. ' De 
Sectarum in Medicina noxia Instauratione,' 4to. 1780. 
6. ' Commentatio ad Constitutionem Criminalem Caroli \ ,' 
4to. 1739- 

Alberti, George William, a divine of Hanover, was born in 
1725, and died 17. r >8. He wrote, 1. ' Thoughts on Hume's 
Essays on Natural Religion.' 2. ' Letters on the State of 
Religion and the Sciences in Great Britain/ Hanover, 
1752 — 1754. 3. ' An Essay on the Religion, Worship, 
Manners, and Customs of the Quakers.' 

Alberti, di ViUanova Francis <f, was born at Nice in 1737, 
and died 1800; was the author of a French and Italian, 
and Italian and French dictionary, published at Lucca in 
1797, improved by Abbe Francis Federighi, and published 
in 6 vols. 4to. Lucca, 1803. 

ALBERT I NT, Nicholas (Ecc.) was born at Prato, in Tus- 
cany, about 1250, and died 1321. He was sent as nuncio 
into France and England in 12,0,'), was made cardinal 
in 1303 bv pope Benedict XI, and took an active part 
in all the affairs of his time. Echard. dc Script. Ord. 

Albertini, Paul {Hist.) a monk of the order of Servites, was 
born at Venice in 1430, and died in 1475, leaving so high 
a reputation for his piety and zeal that a medal was struck 
in honour of him ; he was employed by the republic of 
Venice in many affairs of state, and sent as ambassador to 

Albertini. Francis (Biog.) an antiquary of Florence in the 
lfith centurv. published, 1. ' Dc Mirabilibus nova- ct vetcris 
liliis Rome,' It... Home, 1505, 1510, 1515, 1519, 1520. 
2. ' Tractatus brevis de Laudibus Florentine et Saona-/ 
printed in the third edition of the preceding. 3. ' Me- 
moriale di Moltc Statue e Pitture che sono nelT inclita citta 
di Firenze per mano di Scultori e Pittori excellenti Moderni 
ticmV Wo. Florence, 1510. 

Albkiitim, Mussato, vide Muss ato. 

ALBERTI S (Fee.) a native of Florence, was created car- 
dinal by Eugene tV in 1489, and died in 1445. He was 
employed in different important negotiations. Blond. Hist. 
'Dec. j Ughel. Ital. Sacr. ; Auberi. I list. Cardin. 

Alberti*-. Albert dc (Biog.) of Trente, was author of, 
1. ' Vindicie adversus Gasp. Scioppium,' 1 649- 2. ' The- 

iis I'.loquentia- Sacra- et Prophana-,' 1669. .'>. ' Paradoxa 
Moralia de Omatu Mulierum." 1650. 

ALBERTISTUS, Marius Salomomus, of Rome, a lawyer, 
who died in 1530, wrote a commentary 'De Probationibus.' 
RTI C< 1. des Borsettes Jerome {Ecc.) of Bologna, in 
Italy, a Dominican of the 15th century, wrote Chronicles 
from th. commencement of the world to the year 1 1«> 1 , anil 
died I IT. 

ALBERTUS (Hist.) vide Alhcrt. 

Alberti - - (Ecc.) vide Alhcrt. 

At. inn 1 1 Btog. I ride Alhcrt. 

At/BEBTUB, Magnus, otherwise called Alhciins '/'eii/tniirttx, 

/■'rater A/hrrlns dc Cohflia, Alhciins l{ali.\honcnsi\, or 

\, . GrotUS, of the family of the counts of Bollsticdt, 


was bom in 1193, or 1205, at Lavingen, in Swabia, and 
died in 1280. His works, which were very numerous, 
principally consisted of commenta rie s on Aristotle. 
ALBETEGXI (Biog.) vide Alhutcg,,,. 

ALBI, Barnard </' (Ecc.) native of Pamiers, in Languedoc, 
was created cardinal by Benedict XII in 1337, and sent by 
Clement VI as legate apostolic into Spain. He died about 

Albi, or dc Alha John, a Spanish monk of the Carthusian 
order, was distinguished for his piety and learning, which 
he displayed in commentaries on the Scriptures. He died 
in 1591. 

Albi, Henry (Biog.) a Jesuit of Provence, was born at Bou- 
logne in 1590, and died at Aries in Ki59- He wrote ' The 
Lives of St. Gabin, St. Peter of Luxembourg,' &C, Lyons, 
1624, 16*32, ecc. ' Eloges Historiques des Canlinaux 
Francois et Etrangers mis en parallele,' 4to. Paris, 1644. 
' L'Anti-Theophile paroissial,' &c ; ' Grammaire Franroise 
avec des Observations,' 8vo. Lyons, 1657 ; together with 
many religious pieces mentioned by Niceron. 

ALBIA, Tarcntia (Hist.) the wife of Otho, and mother of 
Lucius and Marcus Titianus, as also of a daughter betrothed 
to Drusus, the son of Germanicus. 

ALBIIS, Thomas de (Biog.) or Thomas de White, a friend 
of Hobbes, and a sceptical writer, was the author of, 
1. 'Sonus Buccinae.' 2. ' De terminandis Fidei Litibus.' 
3. ' Statcra Morum,' &c. 

ALBIMA (Hist.) vide Alhanin. 

ALBI N A (Biog.) a noble Roman lady, the mother of Marcellus, 
lived in the 4th century, when she consulted St. Jerome with 
regard to the Christian faith. Hieron. Pra^f. in F.p. ad 

Albina, daughter of Rufius Ceronius, devoted herself, with 
her daughter Melania, anil son-in-law Pinicnus, to a life 
of religion. Pallad. Hist. Lausiac- 

ALBINACTUS (Hist.) the son of Brutus, the supposed 
founder of the kingdom of Britain, received Albania, or 
the present Scotland, as his share. 

ALBINJEUS (Ecc.) the French Jesuit to whom Ravaillac 
confessed his purpose of assassinating Henry IV. When 
inteiTogated why he did not disclose the information, he 
replied that he received from God the gift of forgetting all 
sins confessed to him after absolution had been given. 

ALBINEUS, Nathaniel (Biog.) a physician of Geneva, 
published in 1655 a chemical work entitled ' Bibliotheca 
Chymica contractu;' also a poem entitled ' Carmen Aureum 
et ./Enigma.' 

ALBINI, or Auhin Philip (Biog.) an English mathematician 
of the 16th century, was the author of ' Canones Tabu- 

ALBINIACUM (Geog.) a town of Gaul, now Auhigni/. 

ALBINIUS, /.. (Hist.) a plebeian of distinguished piety, who 

took the Vestal virgins into his carriage in preference to his 
own family when they weri' (lying from Rome to escape the 
fury of the Gauls. Lie. 1. 5, e. 40; Vol. Max. 1. 1, c. 1 ; 
Flor. 1. 1, c. IS. 

Albinius, or Alhinns, .">/., one of the first six military tri- 
bunes of the plebeian order, who veri' chosen for a time in 
the place of consuls, U. C. 375, A. C. 378. Lie. 1. fi, 
c. 30. 

ALBINOVANUS, P. (Hist.) an haruspex minor mentioned 
by Ciicro in Harnsp. Kcspims. c. 7. 

Albinov a.m's, Bf. Tnllms, tin' plaintiff in a charge of as- 
sault against l'ublius Sextius, whom Cicero defended. Cic. 

Ai.binovams. Palo (Biog.) a Latin poet of the Augustan 
age, who wrote no the voyage of ( 'crmaniciis, an elegy on 
the death of Drusus, and another on the death of MecaeBBS, 
which is supposed by some not to be his, besides some other 
pieces. The two elegies are all that remain of his works, 


which have been edited by Joseph Scaliger. Ovid calls him 
side reus, or heavenly. 
Olid, de Ponto, 1. 4, ep. 16. 

IRaeusqM Macer, Sidereusque Pedo. 
He likewise addresses the whole of another epistle to him 
as his friend. Oi'id. de Punt. 1. 4, ep. 10; Senec. Suasor. 
1. 1, ep. 128 ; Mart. 1. 2, ep. 77, &c 
ALBIXUS (Hist.) the surname of a branch of the Gens 

Albinus, L., one of the first tribunes of the people, was 

created, with C. Licinius, U. C. 26'0, A. C. 493. 
Albinus, M., one of the six military tribunes who were sub- 
stituted in the place of consuls, U. C. 377, A. C. 376. 
Albinus, A-, one of the quaestors, U. C. 563, A. C. 190. It 
is supposed to be the same person whose name is stamped on 
ancient coins, bearing the figure of three knights riding 
Albinus, A. Posthumius, a colleague in the consulship with 
Lucullus, U. C. 603. He wrote a history of Rome in Greek. 
Cic. Brutus, c. 21, &c. ; Aid. Cell. 1. 11, c. 8. 
Albinus, a Praetorian, who, being sent by the senate on a 
mission to Sylla, was slain by the soldiers of the latter. Plul. 
in Syll. 
Albinus, a governor of Judaea, who succeeded Festus, A. D. 

60. Tacit. Hist. 1. 13; Joseph. Antiq. c. 3. 
Albinus, D. Clodivs, son of Ceionius Posthumius Albinus, 
was a native of Adrumetum, and successor to Pertinax, 
A. D. 193, in partnership with Septimus Severus. The 
latter, after having conquered his other rivals, turned his 
arms against Albinus, whom he completely defeated in 
battle, and compelled to kill himself in order to avoid falling 
into his hands. Severus had his head cut oft", and treated 
his body in other respects with the greatest indignity. Ca- 
pilo/in. in Alhin. Clod. ; Sparlian. in Sept. Sera: S. 
Albinus (Xu/nis.) the medals of the emperor abovementioned 
bear his effigy, as in the annexed figure, in- 
scriptions D.'CL., or CLOD. SEPT. AL- 

BINb* ass— imp. ces. d. clodius 

SEPT. ALBIX. AUG.; on the reverse, 
TORIA AUG. Vaill. Prwst. ; Med. Imp. Row. 

Albinus (Ecc.) high priest of the heathens, was converted 
to Christianity by the force of those virtues which he saw 
practised by his own daughter, who was married to a 
Christian. Hieron. ep. 7- 

Albinus (Biog.) a Latin poet and historian, who flourished 
44 years A. C. is quoted by Priscian, 1. 7- 

Albinus, archdeacon of Thoulouse, and a famous preacher, 
died in 1566. He wrote a controversial work entitled ' Du 
Sacrement de l'Autel pour la Confirmation du Peuple 

Albinus, Peter, an historian of the 1 6th century, was born 
at Schneeberg, in Misnia, and died in 1598. He wrote, 
among other things, 1. A Chronicle of Misnia, entitled 
■ Meisnische Land und Berg-Chronica,' fol. Wittemberg, 
1580. 2. ' Scriptores varii de Russorum Religione,' 1582, 
Spire. 3. ' Genealogical Tables of the House of Saxony,' 
1602. 4. ' Historic Thuringorum novae Specimen.' 5. ' Latin 
Poems,' 8vo. Franckfort, 1612. 

Albinus, Bernard, a physician, and the friend of Boerhaave, 
was born at Dessau in 1653, and died in 1721. He wrote 
1. ' De Corpusculis in Sanguine contends.' 2. ' De Taran- 
tula Mira.' 3. ■ De Sacro Freyenwaldensium Fonte,' &c. be- 
side other works, to the number of twenty, mentioned by 
Carrere in his Bibliotheque de Medicine. 


Albinus, Bernard Siegfried, son of the preceding, and pro- 
fessor of anatomy at Leyden for nearly 50 years, was born 
in 1697, and died in 1770. He wrote, 1. ' Index Supellec- 
tilis Anatomies Ravianae,' 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1725. 2. ' De 
Ossdbus Corporis Humani/ Svo. Lugd. Bat. 1726; an im- 
proved edition with plates in 1762. 3. ' Historia Mus- 
culorum Hominis,' 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1734. 4. ' Annctationes 
Academics,' 4 vols. 4to. : besides treatises on the Vascular 
System of the Intestines, &c. and revised editions of Harvey, 
Vusalius, Fabricius, and Eustaehius. 
Albinus, Christian Bernard, brother of the preceding, died 
in 1752. He wrote, 1. ' Specimen Anatomicum exhibens 
novam tenuium Hominis Intestinorum Descriptionem,' 4to. 
Lugd. Bat. 1"22. 2. ' De Anatomia Errores detegente in 
Medicina,' 4to. Ultraj. 1723. 
ALBIOX (Myth.) the son of Xeptune by Amphitrite, was 
said to have founded the kingdom of Great Britain. Mela. 
1. 2, c. 5. 
Albion (Geog.) the greatest island of Europe, now called 
('•real Britain. It derived its name either from Albion, 
who is said to have reigned there first, or a/bis riipibus, 
from its chalky white cliffs. Plin. 1.4, c. 16; Tacit, in 
Albion, New (Geog.) a country on the W. coast of X. Ame- 
rica, to the X. of California, extending from lat. 33° to 
40° X. and from 30 to 40 m. in breadth. It received its 
name from Sir Francis Drake in 1578, whose harbour is in 
Ion. 116° 45' W.j lat. 37 3 58' X. The Spaniards, who first 
settled here in 1769, divided the country into four juris- 
dictions, named from their chief towns, St. Diego, St. 
Barbara, Monterey, and St. Francisco. The capital is 
ALBIS (Gcos-) or Alia, "AXfjte; a river of the Chauci, now 
the Elbe. 
Lac. 1. 2, v. 52. 

Fuudut "h ciiremo jlavos AquiUme Suevos 
Albis, el iiidomUum Rheni caput. 

Senec. Medea, v. 371. 

Mtt, 71m fuerat, sede reliquit 
Permits Orbit. Indus gtiidum 
Potat Araxem : Albim Persa, 
Rheuuniijue bibunt. 

Fell. Pater. 1. 2, c. 106: Slrab. 1. 7; PUn. 1. 3, c. 14; 

Tacit. Anna!. 1. 1, c. 59; German, c. 41 ; f'opisc. in Pruli. 

c. 13. 
ALBISTAVERATI (Geog.) a village of Anatolia, at the 

foot of Mount Taurus, originally a town called Olbaxa. 
ALBISTRUM (Geog.) a town of the Bruttii, at the foot of 

the Apennines, now Ursomarso. 
ALBIUS (Biog.) the surname of the poet Tibullus, men- 
tioned by Horace. 

Ilor. 1. 1 ; oil. 33. v. 1. 

AIM noslrorum lermmam candide judex. 

ALBIZZI (Hist.) or Albici, a noble family of Florence, that 
were rivals for power with the Albertis. 

Albizzi, or .llbiei Francis (Ecc.) a lawyer and native of 
Cezena, a town of Romana in Italy, was made a cardinal 
by Innocent X in 1654, and died in 1684, at the age of 91. 
He drew up the bull against the Aiigustiniis of Jansenius, 
under Urban VIII, in the famous affair of the five propo- 
sitions, and wrote likewise a treatise ' On the Jurisdiction 
of the Cardinals in the Titular Church of Rome.' 

Albizzi, Barthelemy (Biog.) otherwise called Bartholomew, 
of Pisa, a Franciscan of Rivano, in Tuscany, in the 14th 
century, distinguished himself by an act of indiscreet zeal 
in venturing to compare St. Francis to our Saviour, an ex- 
travagance which did not escape the censure of many, even 
among his own fraternity. 

Albizzi, or Albici Anthony, abbot of St. Saviour de Septici, 
of a noble family in Florence, flourished in the pontificate 


of Leo X, and wrote commentaries on Euclid, and other 
mathematical productions, which were never published. 
Albizzi, or Alhiei Anthony, a gentleman of Florence, was 
horn in 1547, and died in lfefi. He became a convert to 
the Protestant religion after having been long in the employ 
of the archduke Andrew. His works are, 1. ' The Gene- 
alogies of Kings and Princes.' 2. ' Exercitationes Theo- 
logies.' 3. ' De Principiis Doctrine ChristianiE.' 
ALBLAS (Geog.) an ancient town of Batavia, between the 
Meuse and the Lech. 

ALBO, Joseph (Biog.) a Spanish rabbi of Soria, in Old Cas- 
tille, wlio assisted in 1412 at a famous dispute on religion 
between the Christiana and Jews, held in the presence of 
the antipope Benedict XIII, and in 1425 wrote a work on 
the same subject entitled, ' Sepher Hikkarim.' 

ALBOFLEDA (Hist.) or Blanchefleur, sister of the king 
CloviSj was baptised with her brother in 4<H>, and died 
soon after having taken the veil. 

ALBOHAZEM (Biog.) or Albohazen Hid,, son of Abenrajel, 
the Arabian, wrote a work on astronomy entitled, ' Judg- 
ments to be formed of the Stars,' which was translated into 
Spanish bv order of Alphonsus X, kirn; of Castille. Voss. 
de Mat. c. 35, § 27, fee. 

ALBOINUS (Hist.) king of the Lombards, subdued the 
Gepidtp, after having killed Cunimond their king. He 
was assassinated in his turn in 574 by Rosimond, the 
daughter of Cunimond, whom he had taken to wife. He 
reigned 30 years, contracted alliances with Clotarius, king 
of the French, with the Huns, with the Bulgarians, Sar- 
matians, &c. ; and rendered himself very formidable to all 
Lis neighbours. 

ALBON (Hist.) the name of an ancient and illustrious house 
in France, some of whom are entitled to particular notice. 

Albox, Humbert <V, seigneur de Pouillenai, was at the 
battle of 1'oictier, and that of Brignac, and at the taking of 
the city of Ance, on all which occasions he was taken 

Albon, John d', surnamed de I'Espinasse, and Seigneur 
de St. Andre, fought in the service of the king against the 
English and Burgundians, and was taken prisoner in 1417- 

Albon, Gvichard d', grandson of the preceding seigneur de 
St. Andre, &c. was also in the king's service, and reduced 
many places to submission, which favoured the partv of the 
duke of Orleans. He died in 1480. 

Albox, John d', the son of the preceding seigneur de St. 
Andre, chevalier by order of the king, and gentleman of his 

bed-chamber, defended the city of St. Quentin against the 
attacks of the English, for which he was made governor, 
with the collar of the order. He died in 1 /5 .5 0. 
Alison, James d', sun of the preceding, marquis of Fronsac, 

and seigneur de St. Andre, chevalier of the order of St. 

Michael, known by the appellation of the mareschal de St. 

Andre, was born in 1374, and was killed by one Babiguy 

de Mezieres with a pistol, far some persona] offence at the 
battle of Dreux, in 1562. He was at the battle of Ceri- 

. the liege of Boulogne, and many other engagements, 
in which he invariably distinguished himself as a brave 
soldier and a great captain, 

Albon, Berirand d', seigneur de St. Forgeux, and son of 

the fourth William d'Albon, gentleman in ordinary of the 

king's bed-chamber, took part with the king against the 
I ague, and contributed much to the reduction of Lyons in 
1 59 1 • 
Albon, Anthony </', (Ecc.) the eldest son of the fourth Wil- 
liam d'Albon of the family abovementioned, was born in 

|507, and died in 1574, alter having served the Ling as 

governor of Lyons and the church in the character of 
its archbishop, in both of which capacities he defended this 

city against the Huguenots, lie wrote souk Latin verses, 
and edited AlUOniuSi 


Albox, Claude d', (Biog.) an advocate of the parliament of 
Dauphiny, published in 1575, an historical and political 
work, in which he treats of the royal dignity of the creation 
of emperors, and the institution of electors, &c. 
Albox II, Claude CamiUe Fra?i(ois, was born in 1753, and 
died in 1789. He wrote, 1. ' Dialogue entre Alexandre 
et Titus,' 8vo. 2. ' Observations d'un Citoyen.' 3. ' (Euvres 
Diverses.' 4. ' Eloge de Quesnoy,' 8vo. Lyons, 1775. 
5. ' Eloge de Chamousset,' 8vo. 1776- 6. * La Parcsse,' a 
poem, 7. ' CEuvres Diverses,' 12mo. 1778. 8. ' Discours 
Politique* et Historiques,' &c. 3 vols. 8vo. 1779, besides some 
other smaller works. 
ALBONENSES (Geo S .) a people of Illvria. Plin. 1. 3. 
ALBONESIUS, Theseus Amhrosius (Biog.) a lawyer of 
Pavia, who died in 1540; was the author of an introduction 
to the Chaldee, Syriac, Armenian, and ten other languages, 
besides some musical compositions. 
ALBOXICIS (Hisl.) vide Aba. 

ALBOR (Geog.) a mountain of Algarva, in Portugal, where 
are the remains of an old castle in which John II king of 
Portugal died. 
ALBORAC (Myth.) the name of the white horse which, as 
the Arabians pretend, carried Mahomet from Mecca to Je- 
rusalem in the tenth part of a night. Boch. Hieroz. part ii. 
1. (i. 
ALBORIUM (Geos;.) a mountain of Portugal, now Albor. 
ALBORNOS, Gilles Alvares Carillo (Hist.) a Spanish car- 
dinal and statesman of royal descent, from the kings of 
Leon, was born at Cuenza, and died in 1367- He was 
almoner to Alphonsus XI, whose life he saved at the battle 
of Tarifa, and on the death of that prince, having fallen 
under the displeasure of Peter the Cruel, he fled to Avignon, 
where he served Clement VI, who made him cardinal, and 
also his successors Innocent VI and Urban V, by contri- 
buting in a great measure to establish the power of the 
popes in that part of Italy which is now known by th< 
name of the Ecclesiastical States. 
AlbornOB, Barthelemi/ Frias (Biog.) a Portuguese lawyer 
of Talaga, was the author of a work in 1573 entitled, 
' Arte de los Contratos,' also a treatise entitled ' De la 
Conversion y Debellation de las Indias.' 
ALBOUN1 (Biog.) the surname of Aboul Abbas Ahmed Ben 
Ali Ben Josef, a mussulman doctor, who wrote, 1. • On the 
Mysteries of the Letters of the Arabic Alphabet.' 2. ' An 
Explication of the Names of God.' 3. ' Accordances be - 
tween the Significations of Letters and Words.' 4. ' On 
Talismans,' &C 
ALBRECHT, Andrew (Biog.) a mathematician of Nurem- 

liurg, wrote on mechanics and perspective, 
ALBBECHT, John William, a physician, was born in 1703 

and died in 173(), leaving some works on medicine. 
ALBRET (Hist.) one of the most noble and illustrious fa- 
milies of France, of whom mention is made as early as 
1050, when Amanieu Sieur d' Albret flourished, from whoa, 

this family deduces its origin. 

Albret, Arcaudd', the eighth of this name of the above- 
mentioned family, viscount de Tartas, and grand cham- 
berlain of France, was in the service of Edward III for 
some time, but attached himself afterwards to the court of 
Charles V, on his marriage with the queen's sister. 

Albret, Charles d', the first of this name, and son of the 
preceding count de Dreux, viscount de Tartas, and con- 
stable of France, « ;|V killed at the battle of Agincourt u 

ALBRET, John d', the second of this name, became king of 
Navarre and count de Foix, on his marriage with Catharine 
de Foix, queen of Navarre. 

ALBRET, Charlotte </', daughter of Alain d'Albret, and 

duchess de Valentinois, was distinguished as much for her 
prudence and piety as for her beauty and wit. She was 


married to Csesar Borgia, and after having shared in the 
misfortunes of her husband, though not in his faults, she 
died in 1514. 

Albret, Joan a", grand-daughter of the preceding queen of 
Navarre, and wife of Anthony of Bourbon, was the mother 
of Henry IV. She embraced the Protestant faith, and 
died in 1572, in her 44th year, as is suspected, of poison. 

Albret, Louis d' (Ecc.) son of Charles d'Albret, the second 
of this name, was born in 1422, and died in 14C5 ; having 
been created cardinal in 146l, by Pope Pius II. 

Albret, Amanieu, was the brother of Charlotte d'Albret, 
above mentioned, and by the marriage contract of his sister 
with Ciusar Borgia, he was made cardinal by Alexander VI 
in 1498, but through the intrigues of this pope's enemies he 
was not put in quiet possession of his dignity till the pon- 
tificate of Leo X. soon after which he died in 1.520. Suinlc 
Marthc Hist, Genealog. de la Maison de France; Aubcr. 
Hist, ties Cardinaux ; Du Chene Hist, des Cardinaux. 

ALBRICUS (Ecc.) bishop of L T trecht in the eighth century, 
died after governing the see for 18 years, in 784. A small 
treatise * De Deorum Imaginibus,' 8vo. Basil. 1578, is 
attributed to him. 

Albricus (Biog.) or Albricius, an English physician and 
scholar of the 11th century, was born in London, and 
wrote, 1. ' De Origine Deorum.' 2. ' De Ratione Veneni.' 
3. ' Virtutes Antiquorum.' 4. ' Canones Speculative' 
Other works have been attributed to him, which belong, as 
is supposed, to the bishop above mentioned. 

ALBUINUS (Biog.) a priest of the 10th century, made a 
selection of passages from the scriptures and the fathers. 

ALBULA (Geos-) 1. The ancient name of the Tiber. 
Virg. JEn. 1. 8, v. 33. 

Turn reges, asptrque immani corpore Tibris 
A quopost Itali Jluiium cognomine Tybrin 
Diximus ; amisit lerum vetus Albula nomen. 

Varr. de Lai. Lins- 1- 4; Liv. 1. 1, c. 3; Oeid. Fast. 1. 2, &c; 
Plin. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Sil. ltal. 1. 8, v. 458 ; Fest. de Signif. Verb. 
2. A river of Picenum, called by Pliny Albulates, and now 
Liberata, according to Blondus and Leander. Plin. 1. 3, 
c 13; Leand. Albert. Descript. Ital. 3. A fountain in the 
Tiburtine country, the waters of which were reckoned effi- 
cacious in healing wounds. 
Martial. 1. 1, epig. 13. 

Itur ad Herculei gelidas qua Tiburis arces, 
Canaque sulfureis Atbula fumat aquis. 

Martial also calls the waters Albuke. 
Mart. 1. 4, epig. 4. 

Quod sicca redolet palus henna, 

Crudarum nebula quod Albularum. 

Strab. 1. 5 ; Plin. 1. 31, c. 2. 4. [Vide Albunca~] 
ALBUNEA (Myth.) a goddess who was worshipped in the 
country of the Tibur, who was supposed by some to be Ino, 
the wife of Athamas ; bv others, to be the sibyl of the Tibur. 
Plin. 1. 31, c. 2 ; Lacta'ni. 1. 1, c. 5. 
Albunea (Gcog.) a fountain and wood near the river Anio, 
so called from the sibyl Albunea, to whom a temple was 
there dedicated. Its waters had a sulphureous smell and 
taste, on which account Virgil calls it mephitic. 
Virg. JEn. 1. 7, v. 82. 

Lucosque sub aha 
CatauUt Albunea, nemorum qua masima sacro 
Fonte sonat, savamque ejhalat opaca mephitim. 

Tibullus calls it Albuna, 1. 2, el. 5, v. 69. 

Quosqve Albuna sacras Tiberis per Jlumina sortes 
Portarit, sicco perlueritque sinu. 

Horace calls the grove damns Albuna: rcsonantis, 1. 1. 
ALBUQUERQUE, Alphonso d' (Hist.) surnamed the Great, 
was born at Lisbon in 1452, and died in 1515, after having 
in the character of governor of India raised the power of 

VOL. I. 


the Portuguese to its utmost height in that quarter, under 
Emanuel, king of Portugal. [Vide Plate XIII.] 

Albuquerque, Blasins, son of the preceding, who took the 
name of Alphonso by desire of Emanuel, that he might be re- 
minded of his father's glory, was born at Alveira in 1 500, and 
died in 1580. He was raised to the highest posts of honour, 
and wrote memoirs of his father entitled, ' Commentaries 
de Grando Alfonso de Albuquerque, Capitan General de 

Albuquerque, Andrew d', a noble Portuguese, was born at 
Cintra, and died from the blow of a musket in 1659, while 
displaying his valour at the siege of Elvas. He wrote a 
description of the battle which he gained over the Spaniards 
between Arronche and Assumar, in 16'53. 

Albuquerque, Coelho Edward a", Marquis of Basto, Seig- 
neur de Pernamhuco, Knight of the Order of Christ, in 
Portugal, &c. distinguished himself during the war with 
the Dutch in Bahia, and wrote a journal of the Brazil war 
entitled, ' Memorias Diarias de la Guerra de Brazil par 
Discurso de Nueve ano Empezando desde el ano des 1630,' 
4to. Madrid, 1654. He died at Madrid in 1658. 

ALBURGIUS, John (Biog.) a Dane, published in 1572, 
Notes on Cicero ' De Senectute.' 

ALBURNIL S (Biog.) or Eburnins Valcns, called by Julius 
Capitolinus, Salvius Valens, a lawyer of the second century, 
who wrote ' De Fidei Commissis,' &c. Jul. Capitolin. in 
Anton. Pio. c. 2. 

ALBURNUS (Myth.) a god of the Romans, mentioned by 
Tertullian. Tert. Apolog. adv. Gent. c. 5. 

Alburnus (Biog.) the name of a distinguished declaimer, 
mentioned by Seneca. 

Alburnus (Geog.) a lofty mountain of Lucania, near the 
river Silarus, now Alborna, or Albanclla. 

ALBUTIUS (Hist.) a prince of the Celteberi, whose wife 
being taken prisoner, was restored to him by Scipio. Plu- 
tarch calls him Lucceius, and Valerius Maximus, Indibilis. 
Val. Max. 1. 1, c. 4; Pint, in Scipio. 

Albutius, T. (Biog.) an epicurean philosopher, who, accord- 
ing to Varro, wrote satires in the Lucilian style. 

Albutius, C. Situs, a rhetorician of Navarre in the age of 
Augustus, who starved himself to death. Sueton. de Illust. 

Albutius, or Albucius, the father of Canidia, mentioned by 
Horace for his singular avarice and moroseness. Hor. 1. 2 ; 
Sat. 2, v. 67- 

Albutius, a physician mentioned by Pliny, I. 29, c. 1. 

ALCAEA, Peter d' (Biog.) a Spaniard, composed an Arabic 
and Spanish dictionary, which is in the libiary of Vienna. 

ALGOUS (Myth.) 'AXku'wc, a son of Perseus and Andromeda, 
from whom Hercules took the name of Alcides. 

AlcjEUS, a son of Hercules and Omphale. 

Alceus, a son of Andrqjeus, who went with Hercules into 

Alcsus (Biog.) a lyric poet of Mitylcne, in the island of 
Lesbos, flourished according to Eusebius in the second year 
of the 44th Olympiad, or about (500 years A. C, and of 
course was cotemporary- with his country-woman Sappho. 
Horace alludes to the bitterness of his verses. 
Hor. 1. 4, od. 9, v. 7- 

Et Atca-i minaces, 
Stesichorique graves Cu: 

But Quintilian passes the highest eulogium on his poetry, 
of which nothing remains but a few fragments in Athenaus 
and others. Tliis Alcsus was the inventor of the verse 
called Alcaic. [Vide Plate XXVII.] Herod. 1. 5, c. 95 ; 
Aristot. Rhct. 1. 1, c. 9 ; Cic. 1. 4 ; Tusc. Quast. ; Dionus. 
Hal. injudic. Poet.; Quintil. Inst. Orat. 1. 10, c. 1 ; Athen. 
1. 2, &c. ; Euseb. in Ckron. 
Alc«us, a comic poet in the 94th Olympiad, cotemporary witji 


Aristophanes, whose comedies are cited by Athenaus and 

Alceus, a poet, who, according to Plutarch, lived in the 
145th Olympiad, and wrote some verses upon Philip king 
of Macedonia, who lost a battle in Thcssalv. 

Alcjevs, a poet of Messena, who lived in the age of Vespa- 
sian and Titus, whose epigrams are in the ' Anthologia.' 

AlcjEUs, a dissolute philosopher mentioned by -Elian, who 
was banished from Rome for corrupting the youth. There 
was also another Alcieus, whether the same or not is un- 
certain, who suffered a species of impalement as a punish- 
ment for his adulteries. /F.lian. Far. His/. 1. .'I, c. 12. 

ALCAFORADO, Francis (Hist.) equerry to Henry the son 
of John I, of Portugal, accompanied him in the voyage bi 
which he discovered Madeira, of which he gave an exact 

ALCAI (Geog.) a lofty mountain of Fez, so fortified that the 
inhabitants could never be reduced to submission. Manual. 
1. 4, c. 22. 

ALCALA, Herrara Alplionso d' (Biog.) a poet of Lisbon, 
was born in 1599, and died in 16S2. He wrote, 1. ' Viri- 
darium Anagrammaticum,' &e. 2. ' Psalterium Anagram- 
maticum,' &c. 

Alcala, de Henarez (Geog.) a town of New Castille, 15 m. 
E. by N. Madrid, called by the Latins Complnlitm, where 
John I, king of Castille, died in 1390, and the emperor 
Ferdinand was born in 1503. It was first called Alcala de 
S. Just., from the martyrdom which that saint underwent 
near its walls. It has a university founded by cardinal 
Ximenes in 1517- 

ALCAMAH (Hist.) an Arabian prince, the grandfather of 
Merwan, one of the successors of Mahomet. 

ALCAMENES (Hist.) ninth king of Sparta, and one of the 
Agidie, succeeded his father A. M. 3235, A. C. 749, and 
reigned 37 years, in which time there was a rebellion of 
the Hell)t8< Plutarch cites some of his apophthegms. Pint, 
in Apopth. LdCOn. c. 32 ; Pans. 1. 3, c. 2, &c. ; Euseb. in 

Chrun. ; Meuriku de reg. Lacon. c. 9. 

Alcamknes, son of Sthenelus, a commander of a Lacediemo- 
nian fleet, who was killed in a naval engagement with the 
Athenians. Thncyd. 1. 4, c. 5. 

Alcamknes, a general of the Lacedaemonians, also mentioned 
by Thucydides. Thuct/d. 1. 8, c. 3. 

Alca.mknks, a general of the Ac-beans in their war with the 
Romans. Vint, in Apophth. Achate. 

Alcajiknks (Biog.) a statuary of Athens, who flourished in 
the 88th Olympiad, A. C. 428. He obtained the prize 
against Agaracritus by bis statue of Venus, and disputed 
even with bis master Phidias. Vim. 34, c. 8, 1. 36, c. 5; 
Pans. 1. I, c. 19, &C.J Quint. 1. 1, c. 10; Tzetz. Hist. 
Chiliad. 8, ft 193. 

AI.C VMUS (Geog.) a town of Sicily, now Alcamo. 

ALCAMO (Geog?) a town of Val di Mazara, in Sicily, at 
the font i.l' Mount Bonifacio, 34 m. W.S.W. Palermo, an- 
ciently Alcinnns. 

ALCANDEB (Mi/t/i.) an attendant of Sarpedon, killed bv 
Ulysses. Orid.'Md. 1. 13, v. 257. 

Ai.candku, a Trojan killed by Turnus. Virg. AEn. 1. 9, 
v. 7<)'7- 

Alcanhkii (Hist.) a Spartan youth, who put out the eves of 
Lycurgus, in a sedition which had been raised against tlii^ 

lawgiver. Lycurgus generously forgave him, by which 

he so attached the youth to him, that lie became one 
of his wannest admirers. Vint, in Tjt/CUrg. Vans. I. 3, 
c. 18. 
AlcaNDSB (Biog.) a writer mentioned by St. Clement, of 

Alexandria, who says that he calls the Muses the daughters 
of Jupiter Stnd Mnemosyne. ('Inn. .Ilc.r. in I'riilr. 

\l.( \ \ IDRINUS (Biog.) an Arabian astrologer. 
ALCANDRL' (Myth.) 'AXxaySpj], the wife of Polybius, the 


Theban, a very rich man mentioned by Homer. Odust 
1. 4, v. 672. J 

ALCANITIUM (Geog.) a town of Arragon, in Spain, now 

ALCANIZ (Geog.) a town of Arragon, the ancient Alca- 
nitium, in Spain, on the Guadaloupe; from which is a canal 
to the Ebro, made by the Moors. It is 15 111. S. S. E. Sara- 
gossa. Lon. 0° 8' W., lat. 41° Iff N. 

ALCANOR (Myth.) a Trojan of Mount Ida, whose sons, 
Pandarua and Bitias, followed jEneas into Italy. Vire. 
/En. 9, v. 672. 

Alcanor, a son of Phorus, killed bv /Eneas. Ibid. 1. 10, 
v. 33S. 

ALCANTARA, S. Peter, d' (Biog.) vide Peter d' Alcantara. 

Alcantara, Francis d', a Spaniard, who wrote a book on 
Prayer and Meditations, in I0O7. 

Alcantara (Geog.) a fortified town of Estremadura, in Spain, 
called by the Romans Norba Ca'sarca, or Pont Trajani. 
baring a celebrated stone bridge over the Tajo, built in the 
time of Trajan. It was taken from the Moors in 1212, bv 
Alphonso IX, king of Castille, who entrusted it to the 
charge of the Knights of Calatrava. It is 42 m. N. \V. 
Seville. Lon. (i° 12' W., lat. 39 s 20' N. 

ALCARATIUM (Geog-.) a town of New Castille, now 

ALCARATIUS, mons (Geog.) a chain of mountains in New 
Castille, now Alcaraz. 

ALCARAZ (Geog.) a town with a strong castle in La Mancha, 
of Spain, formerly called Alcaralinm. Lon. 2° 48' W., 
lat. 38° 38' N. 

ALCATARAN (Hist.) a king of Cordova, who was placed 
on the throne of Cordova in the 14th century, at the death 
of Abdulmalic, by the Arabians of that city, but after- 
wards having displeased them by his attachment to foreigners, 
they rebelled against him and besieged him in the fortress 
of Cordova, which they soon after took, and hung him up 
on one of its turrets. Marmol. 1. 2, c. 14. 

ALCATHEA (Hist.) the wife of Cleombrotus, king of Sparta. 
and mother of Pausanias bis successor, who was suspected 
of holding a traitorous correspondence with the Persians. 
Scholiast, in Aristoph. 

ALCATHOE (Geog.) another name for Megara, in Attica. 

A 1, (ATI IOCS (Myth.) 'AXjcoflooc, a son of Pelops, who. 
being suspected of having killed his brother Chrysippus. 
took refuge with the Megarians, married the daughter of 
the king, and afterwards reigned in the city, which was 
called after him Alcathoe. Apollod. 1. 3, c. 25 ; Pint, in 
Varcll. c. 27; Pans. 1. 1, c. 41, &a 

Ai.i'ATiiors. a Trojan who married I lippodamia, the daughter 
of Anchises, and was killed by Idoineneus. Horn. II. 1. 12, 
v. 98. 

Alcatiious, a son of Parthaon, killed by Tydeus. Apollod. 
1. 1 , ft 7- 

AxcATHOUS, the father of Automcdusa, the first wife of 
Iphicles, king of Pbylacc, in Phthiotis. Apollod. 1. 2, 
c. 13. 

Ai.i athoi's, a friend of TKneas, killed in the Rutiliau war. 
Vire. JEn. 1. 10, v. 747- 

ALCEXOR (Hist.) '.\,W|> mo, an Argive, who came off" vic- 
torious in a combat between a hundred of his countrymen 
and as many on the side of the Lacedemonians. 

ALCENSIA (Biog.) or d' AUcnsia Nicolas, a carmelite of 

the 15th century, who wrote, 1. ' Commentaries on Exodus 
and the Revelations.' 2. ' Scrmones de Tempore.' .'.'. ' De 
Officio Missic,' &C. 

ALCES (Geog.) a river of Rithynia. Plin. I. 5, c. uit. 

ALCESTE (Myth.) 'AAcrjyi?, or Alceslis, daughter of Pelias, 
and wife of Admctus, king of Thcssalv, submitted to die 
that her husband might, according to the oracle, recover 
from a sickness into which he had fallen. 

Juven. Sat. 6, v. 651. 

Spectant subeuntem fata mariti 
Alcestem: et similis si permutatio detur 
Merle i-iri cupianC animam servare catellz. 

St nee. in Medea. 

Conjugis fatum redimens Pheriti. 
She is called Pegassea by Ovid, from Pegasis, a city of 

Fata Pkerelimlic conjiix Pegasxa redemit 
Proque viri est ujor J'unere lata sui. 

By Claudian she is called Thessala. 
Claud, de Land. Seren. 

Ctmsorte redempto 

Casta mnritali successit Thessala fato, 
hique sues migrare virum non ubnuit annos. 

Eurip. in Alcest. ; Apollod. 1. 1, c. 9," Pans. 1. 5, c. 17. 

ALCETAS (Hist.) 'AX/ctVac, king of Macedonia, son of 
Eropus, and father of Amyntas, reigned 29 years, and died 
A. M. 3479, A. C. 505. Euseb. in Chron. 

Alcetas, 'AXk-Erac, a king of the Molossi, descended from 
Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, was driven from his kingdom 
by his rebellious subjects, but reinstated by Dionysius the 
tyrant of Svracuse, in the fourth year of the 97th Olympiad, 
A. C. 386. Diodor. 1. 5. 

Alcestas, a violent king of the Epiroti, was killed by his 
own subjects in the second year of the 121st Olympiad, 
A. C. 295. Paus. 1. 1 . 

ALCHABITIUS (Biog.) an Arabian astrologer of the 12th 
century, as is supposed, wrote, 1. .' An Introduction to the 
Knowledge of Celestial Influences.' 2. ' A Treatise on the 
Conjunctions of the Planets.' 3. ' A Treatise on Optics.' 

ALCHIDAS (Biog.) a Rhodian who fell in love with a 
statue of Cupid by Praxiteles. Plin. 1. 36, c. 5. 

ALCHIMACHUS (Biog.) a painter mentioned by Pliny. 
Plin. Nat. Hist. 1. 35, c. 11. 

ALCIAMUS (Hist.) third king of Lydia, of the race of Ni- 
niades, or the descendants of Ninus. 

ALCIATI (Biog.) or Alciato Andrew, a lawyer, was born at 
Milan in 1492^ and died in 1551. He wrote, 1. ' Paradoxes 
on the Civil Law,' or an explanation of the Greek terms 
used in the digest. 2. ' Notes on Tacitus.' 3. ' A Treatise 
on Weights and Measures.' 4. ' Responsa nunquam antehac 
edita,' fol. Lugd. 1561. 5. ' De Formula Romani Imperii,' 
8vo. Basil. 1559- 6. ' Epigrammata Selecta ex Anthologia 
Latine Versa.' 8vo. Basil. 1529- 7- ' Rerum Patriee, seu 
Historic Mediolanensis Libri quatuor,' 8vo. 1625. 8. 'De 
Plautinorum Carminum Ratione,' and ' De Plautinis Vo- 
cabulis Lexicon,' in an edition of Plautus, 8vo. Basil, 1568. 

9. ' Judicium de Legum Interpretibus Parendis,' 8vo. 1566. 

10. ' Encomium Histories,' 4to. 1530. 11. ' Palma.' 12. ' Ju- 
diciarii Processus Compendium,' 8vo. 1566. 13. 'Contra 
Vitam Monasticam,' 8vo. 1695. 14. ' Notse in Epistolas 
Familiares Ciceronis,' fol. Paris, 1557. 15. Twenty-seven 
letters in ' Gudii Epistolse,' 4to. 16. ' Emblemata,' 4to. 
Padua, 1661. 

Alciati, Francis, nephew and heir to the preceding, was 
born at Milan in 1522, and died in 1580. He was a lawyer 
by profession, and created a cardinal by Pius VI. He left 
several works which have never been printed. 

Alciati, John Paul, a native of Milan in the 16th century, 
who became a protestant and a Socinian, wrote letters to 
Gregorio Pauli in defence of his heresy. 

Alciati, Terence, a Jesuit of Rome, -died in 1651, leaving 
materials for a history of the council of Trente, which was 
completed by Cardinal Pallavacino. He also wrote the 
life of Taber, a Jesuit. 

Alciati, Melchior, a lawyer, was the author of some legal 
works ; as, 1 . ' De acquirenda Possessionem 2. ' De novi 
Operis Nuntiatione.' 3. ' In Csesareas Constitutiones Status 


ALCIBIADES (Hist-) 'AXtctfttacns, the father of Clinias, 
distinguished himself at the battle of Salamis. Herod- 
1. 8, c. 17. 

Alcibiades, an Athenian general, son of Clinias, and nephew 
of Pericles, was lineally descended from Ajax. He twice 
fled from Athens to escape the resentment of his country- 
men, and was afterwards killed in the 46th year of his age, 
and the 94th Olympiad, A. C. 404, by order of Pharnabazus 
the Persian satrap, with whom he sought protection. 
Thucyd. 1. 5, 6, 7 ; Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1, &c. ; Plat, in 
Sympos. ; DiodA. 12 ; Plut. et Corn. Nepos. in Fit.; Cic. 
Or. 1. 2, &C. ; Falcr. Max. 1. 1, c. 8, &c. ; Justin. 1. 4, c. 4. 

ALCID.E (Myth.) 'AKxetStu, gods so called by the Lacedae- 
monians. Hesi/chius. 

ALCIDAMAS (Myth) a man of Cos, and father of Ctesilla, 
who was changed into a dove, according to Ovid. Ovid. 
Met. 1. 7, fab. 12. 

Alcidamas (Biog.) a disciple of Gorgias Leontinus, who 
lived in the 89th Olympiad, A. C. 424, and composed a 
treatise on music. He is supposed to be the same as the 
rhetorician mentioned by Cicero, some of whose orations are 
preserved in the collection of Aldus : who also wrote an 
eulogium on death. Cic. Tuscul. Quwst. 1. 1, c. 48; Plut. 
de Oral. ; Quintil. Instit. Orat. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Diog. Laert. 

Alcidamas, a wrestler mentioned by Statius. 
Stat. Theb. 1. 10. 

Tuque spectate paluestris 
Omnilms, et nuper iSemacoin puherefelix 

ALCIDAMIDAS (Hist.) •A\ K icapicng, a general of the Mes- 
senians, who abandoned Ithome to the Lacedamonians, and 
retired to Reggio, in Sicily, in the 14th Olympiad, A. C. 
723. Paus. 1. 4. 

ALCIDAMUS (Biog.) a rhetorician, probably the same as 
Alcidamas. £Vide Alcidamas] 

ACIDAS (Hist.) 'A\Ki?ae, a commander sent by the Lace- 
demonians, with a fleet of 23 gallics, against the Corcy- 
rians. Thucyd. 1. 3, c. 16, &c. ; Diod. 1. 15. 

ALCIDES (Myth.) 'AXkISijc, a patronymic of Hercules, 
from his grandfather Alcaeus. 

Alcides, a surname of Minerva, in Macedonia, according to 
Livy, 1. 42, c. 51. 

Alcides (Hist.) the son of Agetus, mentioned by Herodotus. 
Herod. 1. 6, c. 61. 

ALCIDICE (Myth.) 'AXmS/mj, the mother of Tyro by Sal- 
moneus. Apollod. 1. 1, c. 9- 

ALCIMACHUS (Biog.) a painter spoken of with commenda- 
tion bv Pliny. Plin. 1. 35, c. 11. 

ALCIMEDE (Myth.) 'AXxiuiSri, the mother of Jason, and 
daughter of PhUacus by Clymene, the daughter of Minyas. 
Apollon. Argon. 1. 1, v. 232. 

'Qc $i Kai avTov 'lijffova yelvaro fiijTijp 
'A\Kip.i£ii K.\vp.iv)}c MtvvtiidoQ tKyeyavla. 

Flacc Argon. 1. 1, v. 296. 

Hunc gravis Mson 
Et pariter vigil Atcimede, sjxetantque tenentqiie. 

Hugin. fab. 14. 
ALCfMEDES (Biog.) 'AXjapfijc, a tragic poet of Megara, 

according to Suidas. 
ALCIMEDON (Myth.) 'AXxijut'owi', a plain in Arcadia with 

a cave, the residence of Alcimedon, whose daughter was 

ravished by Hercules, and bore Ecmagoras. Horn. II. 1. 1 6, 

v. 197 ; Paus. 1. 8, c. 12. 
Alcimedon (Biog.) a carver celebrated by Virgil. Eel. 3. 

Pocula ponam 
Fagina, coelatum divini opus Alcimedontis. 

ALCIMENES (Biog.) 'AXAi^t'cijc, a tragic poet of Megara, 
and also a comic writer of Athens, mentioned by Suidas and 


Alcimenes, a companion of Demetrius, noted for his bold- 
ness. Plutarch in Demet. 

Alcimenes, a chief of the Achseans, mentioned by Plutarch. 
Vlut. in Dion. 

Alcimenes, a Grecian general, mentioned by Xenophon. 
Hclkn. 1. 4. 

ALCIMOENNIS (Geog.) a city of Germany, now Uhn. 
Plot. 1. 2. 

ALCIMUS (Hut.) "AXxifioci a high priest, who, though not 
of the priest's office, got himself chosen by the assistance 
of Demetrius, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, but died by a 
stroke of the palsy after enjoying the pontificate three or 
four years, A.M. 3844, A.C. lO'O. Maccab. vii. eye. ; 
Joseph. Antiq. 1. 12, &c. 

Alcimus (Hist.) a king of Lydia, remarkable for his piety 
and meekness. 

Alcimus, Aeilns (Ecc.) archbishop of Vienna in 500, who 
wrote against the Nestorian and other heresies : and also 
the history of Genesis and Exodus in verse. Gregor. Tur. 
1. 2, c. 34 ; Duron. Annul, ann. 1J)4, &c. 

Alcimus (Biog.) a Sicilian, who wrote a history of Italy. 
Allien. 1. 10. 

Alcimus, a Gracian orator, mentioned by Diogenes Laertius in 
his life of Stilpo of Mcgara, and another in the life of 

Alcimus, an orator of Bourdeaux. QVidc Aleth'uis~\ 

ALCINOE (Myth.) '.U/.um,, a daughter of Sthcnclus, son 
of Perseus, and a sister of Eurystheus. Apollod. 1. 2, c. 4. 

Alcinoe, a nurse of Jupiter, who was honoured with a statue 
in the temple of Minerva at Tegea. 

ALCINOUS (Myth.) 'AXkIvooq, the son of Nausithous and 
Perib(ra, and king of Phxacia, who entertained Ulysses on 
his island. Orpheus distinguishes him for his justice in his 

'A\ku'oo£ Kpaivtani diKai6raT0Q jSamXtyoitr. 

He was exceedingly addicted to agriculture, and is celebrated 
by many of the poets on account of the fertility of his 
gardens, and the richness of their productions. 
Virg. Gcog. 1. 2, v. NT- 

Pomaque lleino'i lilve ■ 
Ovid. Amor. 1. 1, el. 10, v. 56. 

Prtzbeal J/ri.i. ipoma btmgmit agar. 

Propert. I ". cleg. I, v. 51. 

- pomaria tUvtu. 
The long and fabulous tales which were related by Ulysses 
at the table of Alcinous have given rise to the proverb Al- 
riimi apologUS, for an old woman's tale. ApoUod. 1. 1, c. <) ; 

Plato ile Hep. 1. io; Stat. 1. l, svlv. :;, v. ( si ; Juven. 
Sat 5 ; .li'l- V»ll- I- 6. 

Al.CINOl's, a son of Mippoconn. Apollod. I. :i, c. 10. 
Alcinous (Bug.) a man of Elis, mentioned by l'ausanias. 
Vans. 1. (i. 

Alcinous, a platonic philosopher rpioted by Eusobitis, who 
wrote a book ' De Doctrina Platonis, ' of which the Oxford 

edition, l.'mo. n>'h'7, is the best 

\l.( IOM.I S (Myth.) a man killed by Perseus, according 

to Ovid. Met. L 5, fab. 1. 

A.LCIPHRON (Biog.) a philosopher of Magnesia in the age 
of Alexander. The epistles which bear his name, contain- 
ing a description of Grecian manners, are supposed to have 
i M h [, the production of some writer in the fourth century. 
The best edition of this work is that of Leipaic, LSmo. 1715, 
cum notis Bergleri. Suidat. 

\I.( ll'l'l. (Myth.) 'AXx/mrif, daughter of Agkureby Mars, 
who, having lolled Halirrhoti . the son of Neptune, for 

offering her violence, was summoned before twelve gods 
on the place which was afterwards made the famous seat 

of judgment in Athens, called after the god the Areopagus, 
tpollod. 1. 8, c I I ; Vans. 1. I, c. 21. 


Alcippe, the wife of Motion, and mother of Eupahvmus- 

Apollod. 1. 3, c. 16. 
Alcippe, the daughter of CEnomaus, and mother of Marpessa 

by her husband Evenus. Phil. Parallel c. 40. 
Alcitpe, an attendant on Helen. Horn. Odyss. 1. 4, v. 124. 
Alcippe, a woman said to have brought forth an elephant. 

Plin. 1. 7, c. 3. 
Alcippe, a countrywoman mentioned by Virgil. Eel. 7- 
Alcitpe, a daughter of the giant Alcion. Snidns ; Cocl. 

R/iodig. 1. 4, c. 11. 
ALCIPPUS (Hist.) a reputed citizen of Sparta, who was 

banished by his enemies, according to Plutarch. Pint, in 

Ereit. c. 5. 
ALCIS (Myth.) '.War, a son of TEgyptus. Apollod. 1. 2. 
Alcis, a name of Minerva, among the Lacedemonians. 
Alcis, a deity worshipped by some of the Germans. Tucit. 

Ger. c. 43. 
ALCISTHENE (Biog.) a Gnccian woman, who is celebrated 

as a painter bv Pliny. Plin. 1. 35, c. 1 1 . 
ALCISTHENES (Hist.) 'AXKtrOivyc, an Athenian archon 

in the 103d Olympiad. Diod. 1. 15. 
ALCITHOE (Myth.) a Theban woman, who, ridiculing 

the orgies of Bacchus, was changed into a bat, ami the 

spindle and yarn with which she was working into a vine 

and ivy. Oi'id. Met. 1. 4, fab. 1. 
ALCLUITH (Gcoir.) a town of Scotland, now Dumbarton. 

Hcct. Boeth. 
ALCMJEON (Myth.) 'Akxpalav, son of the prophet Amphi- 

araus and Eriphyle, who slew his mother, according to the 

command given him by his father to revenge his death. For 

this offence he was afterwards persecuted by the furies 

till Phlcgius purified him, and gave him his daughter 

Alphesiboca in marriage. He was at length murdered by 

her brothers, for having put her away to marry Callirhoe, 

the daughter of Achelous. 

Virg. Mn. 1. 6', v. 115. 

Mtestamqw Briphylm 

t'nulclis nuii monstrantem tnUnara osrntt. 

Proper!. 1. 3, eleg. 4. 

Aut Alcnuiaiiia fuv'ui uutjrjunia Phinei. 

He is frequently called Amphirai'des. 
Oeid. Fust. 1. 2,' v. I 1, 

dmpturdidei Naupactto Aehelio 

Solve uijtn, tlilit : solvit it llle lir/us. 

Apollod. 1. :;, c. 7 ; Hymn. Fab. 78. 245 ; Vlul. de Exil. ; 

Vans. 1. 5, c. 17, &C. ; ' Eitse/i. Clirim. A. M. '-'7 kS. 
Ai.iMi.T.iiN, son of /Egyptus and husband of Hippoincdusa.^jon (I list.) the founder of an illustrious family at 

Athens, called after him Alcmeonide, was the son of Sillus 

and the great grandson of Nestor, who being driven from 
Messenia with the rest of Nestor's family, by the Heraclidic. 

settled at Athens. Pans. 1. 1, c. 10. 

Alcm/eon, last of the perpetual archons of Athens, was suc- 
Ceeded by Charops, the son of .Eschvlus, as a decennial 
archon. He was of the same family as the preceding, and 
is supposed by some to have given to it the name of Aicma'o- 

Alcm/eon, a son of Megaclcs, was high in favour with Croc- 
sus, king of Lydia, from whom he received rich presents of 
gold: his son, who was also called Megaclcs, took great part 
in the expulsion of the Pisistratida-. Herodotus, however, 
makes the founder of this family to be the son of Megaclcs, 

whom Croesus presented with rich gifts. Herod. 1. (>', c. 12. 

\i.< ii BON (BtOg.) of Crotona, son of Perithus, a disciple of 
Pythagoras, wrote on physics, and first dissected animals, 
for the purpose of studying comparative anatomy. (7c. de 

Nat. Deo. I- l, c. 11; thog. Laert. in 1'it. Clem. Alex. 

Slnmutl. 1. 1. 
Au m.kon, a historian mentioned hy Plutarch. Pint, in Solon. 


ALCMjEONIDjE (Hist.) 'AXk/ku&viScu, a noble family of 
Athens, descended from Alemteon, [vide Alcnueoti] who 
undertook to rebuild the temple of Delphos, and afterwards 
bore an active part in the expulsion of the Pisistratidse. 
Herodot. 1. 6, c. 125, &c. ; Thucyd. 1. 6, c. 59 ; Pint, in 

ALCMAER (Gcog.) or Alkmaar, a strong city of Holland, 
capital of the department of the Texel. The environs pro- 
duce excellent butter and cheese and fine tulips. This city 
was unsuccessfully besieged by the Spaniards, but opened 
its gates to the British troops in 1799- It is situate among 
groves of tall trees, near Schermeer, one of the largest 
lakes in Holland, 18 miles N. E. Harlem, long. 4° 38' E., 
lat. 52° 58' N. 

ALCMAN (Biog.) 'AXk/uw, a lyric poet, and one of the 
most ancient authors of Greece, who was bom at Sardis, 
lived at Lacedsemon in the 27th Olympiad, in the reign of 
Manassah, king of Judah, A. C. 672, and died of the 
lousy disease. He wrote love verses in the Doric dialect in 
honour of his mistress, Megalostrata, of which about sixty 
in number have been preserved by Athcnams and others, 
called Alcmanic verse. Arislot. Hist. Anim. 1. 5, e. 31 ; Fell. 
Paterc; Plbi. 1. 11, c. 33; JElian. Far. Hist. 1. 1, c. 27, 
&C. ; Pans. 1. 1 ; Athen. 1. 2, c. 2, ecc. ; Eitseb. Citron. ; 
Suidas. ; Voss. de Poet. Grcec. 

ALCMARIA (Geog.) a town of Holland, now Alcmaer. 

ALCMENA (Myth.) 'AAjtp/vTj, the daughter of Electryon, 
king of Argos, was the wife of Amphitryon, and mother of 
Hercules, by Jupiter. Herod- 1. 2, c. 43 ; Apollodor. 1. 2, 
c. 24 ; Plant, in Amph'd. Diodor. 1. 4 ; Hygtn. Fab. 29 ; 
Ovid. Met. fab. 5,6; Lucian. Dial. Deor. ; Penis. 1. 1, &c. ; 
Schol. in Horn. II. 1. 14, &c. ; Sent, in JEn. 

ALCOBACA (Geog-.) a town of Estremadura, in Portugal, two 
leagues from the sea coast, and five S. of Leiria. It con- 
tains a monastery, built by Alphonsus I, which was formerly 
the cemetery of the kings of Portugal. It is called Alcobaca, 
because it is situated near the streams of Alco and Baca. 

ALCOCK, John (Ecc.) successively bishop of Rochester, 
Worcester, and Ely, was bom at Beverly, in Yorkshire, and 
died in 1500. He was twice lord high chancellor of Eng- 
land, besides filling other offices under Edward IV and 
Henry VII, and is distinguished as the founder of Jesus 
College, Cambridge, for a master, six fellows, and as many 
scholars ; as also of a school at Kingston-upon-Hull. QVide 
PI. XVI.] He wrote, 1. * Mons Perfectionis ad Carthusianos,' 
4to. Lond. 1501. 2. ' Galli Cantus ad Confratres suos Cu- 
ratosin Synodo apud Barnwell,' Lond. 148S. 3. ' Abbatiu 
Spiritus Saneti in pura Conscientia fundata,' 4to. Lond. 
1531. 4. 'In Psalmos Penitentiales.' 5. ' HomiliiE Vul- 
gares.' 6. ' Meditationes Pise.' 7- ' Spousage of a Virgin 
to Christ,' 4to. I486. 

Alcock, Simon (Biog.) a divine of the 14th century, about 
the reign of Richard II, wrote many theological works, as 

1. ' De Modo Dividend! Thema pro Materia Sermonis.' 

2. ' Expositiones in Magistrum Sententiorum, &C.' 
Alcock, Nathan, a physician, was born at Runcorn, in 

Cheshire, in 1707, and died in 1779- He studied under 
Boerhaave, Albinus, and the great anatomists of that day 
at Leyden, and is principally known for the anatomical lec- 
tures which he delivered at Oxford in 1741. He was en- 
gaged in writing some things connected witli his profession, 
but did not live to complete them for publication. 

ALCON (Myth.) a son of Euryctheus, who was so skilful an 
archer, that when he saw his son attacked by a dragon, he 
shot the animal without hurting his son. Serv. in Firg. 
eel. 5. 

Alcon, a son of Amycus, who with his father was present at 
the chase of the Calydonian boar. 

Alcon (Biog.) a surgeon in the time of Claudian, who was 
skilful in curing hernias. 


ALCUINUS (Biog.) or Albinus Flaccns, styled by the French 
The Reviver of Learning, was born at York, and died at 
Tours, where he was abbot, May 19, 804. He spent much 
of his life at the court of Charlemagne, who benefited by 
his instructions and advice on every occasion ; and after he 
was made abbot of the abbey of St. Martin's, at Tours, he 
continued to correspond with the emperor, and to employ al! 
his time for the advancement of literature. He wrote many 
tilings, consisting of homilies, commentaries, treatises, let- 
ters, poems, &c, which were collected and published by 
Andrew Duchesne, fol. Paris ; and afterwards by M. Froben, 
2 vols. fol. Ratisbon, 1777- The real name of Alcuin was 
Alewin, which he changed after the fashion of the times to 
Alcuinus and Albinus; but lie must not be confounded with 
Alcuinus or Albinus, abbot of Canterbury. 
ALCYONE (Myth.) vide Halcyone. 

ALCYONEUS (Myth.) 'AXmovsve, a giant, and brother to 
Porphyrion, was slain by Hercules. His daughters threw 
themselves into the sea, from grief of his death, and were 
changed into birds of the same name. Apollod. 1. 1, c. 6; 
Claud, de Rapt. Proscrp. ; Suidas.; Natal. Com. 1. 7, c. 1 ; 
Cad. Rhodig. 1. 14, c. II. 
Alcvoneus (Hist.) a son of Antigonus, whose virtue is cele- 
brated by Plutarch. Pint, in Pyrrh. 
ALCYONIUS, Petrus (Biog.) a writer of the l6th century, 
who, from a corrector of the press for Aldus Manutius, be- 
came professor of Greek at Florence. He translated several 
treatises of Aristotle, which are not much esteemed, and a 
treatise ' De Exilio,' which was suspected to be taken in 
part from a treatise of Cicero's ' De Gloria,' which is now lost. 
ALDANA, Bernard (Hist.) a Spanish captain and governor 
of Lippa, on the frontiers of Transylvania, who being seized 
with a sudden but unfounded alarm that the Turks were 
coming to attack the town, set fire to the arsenal, castle, and 
whole place, for which he was condemned to death, but 
obtained a pardon through the intercession of Maria queen 
of Bohemia. Thuan. 1. 9. 
Aldana, Francis, another Spanish captain, was killed at the 
battle of Alcacar, in Africa, where lie fought under Sebas- 
tian, king of Portugal, in 1572. Several pieces of his were 
published, under the title of ' Las Obras que se an podido 
hallar del Capital] Francisco de Aldana.' 
ALDAR, John (Biog.) an English historian, of what age i< 
not known, who left an historical essay on Ireland and 
ALDBOROUGH, Earl of (Her.) one of the titles of the 
Stratford family, which traces its origin beyond the con- 
quest. Robert Stratford, a younger branch of the house of 
Merevale, settled in Ireland in 1660, and was the ancestor 
to John, the first earl ; who was created baron of Baiting- 
glass, in 1763 ; then advanced to the title of viscount Aldbo- 
rough, of Belan, in 1776; and, finally, to the dignities of 
viscount Amiens and earl of Aldborough, in 1777- The 
arms of this family are as follow : 
Arms. Argent, barruly of ten azure, charged with a lion 

rampant or. 
Crest. On a wreath a dexter arm, embowed at the elbow 
coupled ; the hand naked, holding a scymetar proper, 
studs and hilt or. 
Supporters. The dexter, Fame blowing a trumpet proper, 
attired argent and sable, trumpet in dexter hand or, a palm 
branch in the sinister hand, vest, sword and wings or, 
belt gules ; the sinister, Mars armed proper, helmet and 
armour sable, studded or, plume of ostrich feathers ar- 
gent, spears, sword, and target in dexter hand, and spear 
in the sinister or, belt gules. 
Motto. " Virtuti nihil obstat et armis." 
ALDEA (Geog.) Aldea Muri, Aldca El Muro, or Aldea del 
Poeo, a town of Old Castillo, between Soria and Tarraconu. 
It is supposed by some to be the ancient Augustobriga. 


ALDEBALD (Biog.) a monk of Cluni, who made additions 
to the life of S. Mareul, composed by Byrtu- 

AI.DEBERT (Ecc.) or Adelhert, an impostor of the eighth 
century, who, by an affected piety and a pretension to 
miraculous visions, obtained for a time sufficient credit to lie 
nude a bishop ; but was afterwards deposed, and his errors 
condemned by the council of Soissons, assembled by Pepin, 
duke of the French, in 744. Baron. Anna/, aim. 748. 

Aloebert, a bishop of Augsburg. [Vide AdcllicrQ 

ALDEGBOURG, John (Biog.) a Flemish Carmelite of the 
llirh century, left some treatises on philosophy. 

ALDEGISE (Hist.) son of Didier, king of the Lombards. 
fV ide Addgue} 

AL.DEGONDA, .S7. (Ecc.) daughter of Walbert, or Gual- 
bert, prince of the blood royal in France, was born in Hai- 
nault in 630, and died in 684. She took the veil in 66l, 
and founded a monastery in the place where now stands 
Maubeuge, of which she was the first abbess. 

Aluegonda, Philippa Marni.r de Sainte. fVide Marni.r'] 

Al.DKGRAF. Albert or Henri/ (Biog.) distinguished him- 
self as a painter and engraver, particularly of portraits, in 
which he excelled. A collection of his pieces have been 
made by Mariette, to the number of 390. He died at Soest 
in 1558, in very poor circumstances. 

ALDENACHIUS, daspard (Biog.) a lawyer, who was the 
author of ' Pru-lectiones in Institutiones Juris,' 4to. l606. 

ALDFPHONSUS (Biog.) vide Alphonsiu. 

ALDEPRAND (Hut) ride Hildebrand. 

ALDERETE, Diego (iratiuh de (Hist.) son of Diego Garcia, 
one of the great officers in the household of Ferdinand and 
1-abclla, died at the age of 90, in the service of Philip. He 
translated Xenophon, Plutarch, Isocratcs, Dio Chrysostom, 
Agapetus the deacon, and Thueydides, into the Spanish, 
which were printed at Salamanca, in foL in 1552 — 1554. 
He also wrote the ' History of the Taking of Africa,' a sea- 
port on the coast of Barbery ; and left behind him several 
military treatises, translated from the Greek, Latin, and 

Ai.derete, Bernard d' (Biog.) a Jesuit of Zamora, was born 
in 1594, and died in 16j~. He wrote, ' De Visione el .Vi- 
enna Dei,' See 

Ai.iikrkte, Joseph, a native of Malaga, and a Jesuit, died in 
I6l6, leaving a work on the exemption of the regulars, and 
mother, entitled, ' De Rcligiusa Disciplina tuenda,' Ho. 
Hispal, Kilo. Moreri supposes this to be the same as the 

Bernard Alderete, mentioned by Nicholas Antonio; others 

imagine them to be brothers. To the latter are ascribed, 
1. ' Origcn de la Langua Castellana,' Ho. Rome, l(i:;(i ; foL 
1 G82. 2. ' Varias Antigiiedadas de Espane Africa y otras 
Pi ovineias.' 8. ' ibaivSfuva, Ave de [nventione Martvmm.' 
4. ' Eucharistica Symbola,' &cj besides the Antiipiities of 
1, which are lost, to the great regret of Spanish anti- 
AL DHAHER BILLAH (Hist.) succeeded his father Al 
v . ICT l.edini'llab, 01 caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the 
I! giro 624, A. D. 1289, and (lied the next year, when he 

ncceeded by his son Al Mostanser Billah. 

A.LDHELM (Ecc.) or Adelm, a bishop of Shin burn, in the 

time of the Saxon heptarchy, was tin- son of Kenred, bro- 

tl t to Ilia, king of the V\'ist S;i\ons. lie died in 7(1)), 
living the following works: 1. ' De OctO Vitiig Prindpali- 

cxtant in the ' ISihlintheca I'atrmu.' 'J. • ,'F.iiigiiiatiiin 
I rsus mille,' with oilier poems, 8vo. Mogunt. Midi. :;. A 
! i\. addressed, ' Alf'rid, King of Northumberland,' 011 vari- 

■uhjects, 4. ' De Vita Menachorum.' 6. ' De Laude 

Sanctorum.' 6. ' De Arithmetic;!.' 7. ' De Aslrologia.' 
8. ' On the Mistake of (he liiitons concerning the Celebra- 
tion of Faster,' printed by Sonius, 1576. !). ' De Laude Vir- 
gj-iitatis,' published aniline; Bedis Opusculaj besides mauv 
rcistles, sonnets, and homilies, in the Saxon language. 


ALDHUN (Ecc.) Alf harms, or Aldivinus, the first bishop of 
Durham, in the year 990, and in the reign of king Ethel- 
redj died in 1019, after having enjoyed the prelacy about 
29 years. He was first bishop of Lindisfarne, or Holy 
Island, in Northumberland ; but that island being much 
exposed to the inroads of the Danes, he removed with the 
monks and all the people to Dunelm, or Durham, as it is 
now called, where he founded the present city and cathedral 

ALDOBRANDINI, Silvester (Hist.) father of John and 
I lippolytus, mentioned underneath, was professor of law at 
Pisfi ; but having taken part against the Medici, was ba- 
nished and repaired to Rome, where Paul HI appointed 
him advocate of the treasury and apostolic chamber. He 
left several works on jurisprudence. 

Ai.dobrandini, Thomas, sun of the above, was born at Rome, 
and promoted to be secretary of the briefs after the death of 
Poggio, in 15,'SS. He died in the prime of life, leaving a 
translation of Diogenes Laertius, and a commentary on 
Aristotle's treatise de Auscultatione, which were published 
at the expense of his nephew the cardinal, Peter Ahlobran- 
dini, and have been commended by Casaubon. 

Ai.dobkandini, John (Ecc.) a native of Florence, and son 
of Silvester Aldobrandini, above-mentioned, was created 
cardinal by Pius V, in 1570, and died in 1573. He was 
engaged in forming a league against the Turks, and held 
several offices under the pope. 

Ai.jmmiANiMNi, Hippoli/tus, brother of the preceding, was 
elected pope, under the title of Urban VIII. 

AxdOBRANBINI, Alexander, was born at Florence in 1(574, 
and created cardinal in 1780, by Clement XII. He was 
appointed apostolic nuncio at Naples) Venice, and Madrid, 
and afterwards legate at Ferrara. 

ALDRED (Ecc.) archbishop of York, was in favour with 
Edward the Confessor, Harold, and William the Conqueror, 
the two last of whom were crowned by him. He died of 
grief, 011 account of the invasion of the Danes, in 106'8. 

ALDRIC, St. (Ecc.) archbishop of Sens, was born in 77."< 
of a noble family, and died in 886, after having discharged 
many important offices conscientiously, and remained faith- 
ful to his sovereign, Louis lc Debonnaire, in all his troubles. 

Ai.iikic, St., bishop of Mans, and son of Sion, a Saxon gen- 
tleman, and Ocraldine, of Bavaria, both of royal descent, 
was in great favour with Charlemagne and Louis le Debon- 
naire ; but fell under the displeasure of Lotharios, the 
eldest son of the emperor Louis, who deprived him of Lis 
bishopric-. He was, however, reinstated soon after by 
Charles II, and after attending faithfully to the discharge 
of his episcopal functions, died in 856. He compiled, 
■ A Collection of Canons,' for the use of his clergy, but his 
' Capitularies ' are lost. 

A 1. nine (Biog.) an English lawyer, wrote several works which 
are not extant, bill he is often quoted bv Accursius. 

ALDRICH, Robert (Ecc.) or Aldridge, bishop of Carlisle in 

the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, and queen Mary, 
was born at Buniham, in Buckinghamshire, elected a 
scholar of King's College, Cambridge, in 1507, and after 
taking his A. M. degree, retired to Oxford in 15S9, and 
passed B. 1). In 1584 he was installed canon of Wind- 
sor, in 1587 consecrated bishop of Carlisle, and in 1555 
be died at Horncaslle, in Lincolnshire. His writings are, 
1. ' Fpistola ad Guliclmum I Iormannum.' 2. 'Epigram- 
mata Varia." .'!• 'Several Resolutions concerning the Sacra- 
ments.' 4. ' Answers to certain Queries concerning the 
Abuses of the Mass.' 5. ' Resolutions of some Questions 
relating to Bishops and Priests, connected with the Reform- 
at inn set on Foot by Henry VIII.' 
Ai.iikic 11, Henri/, dean of Christ Church, Oxford, was the son 
of I Ic-nry Ahirich, a gentleman of Westminster, where he 
was bom in 1647. lie was elected student of Christ Church 


Oxford, in 1662, took his degree of A. M. in April, I669, 
was installed canon of Christ Church, Feb, 1681, and in May 
accumulated the degrees of B. and D. D. In June, 1689, he 
was installed in the deanry, and died Dec. 14*, 1710. His 
works are, 1. ' Artis Logics Conipendium,' which super- 
seded Wallis's treatise on the same subject, and remains still 
the text book in the University. 2. Two Tracts ' Upon the 
Adoration of our Saviour in the Eucharist.' .'!. Editions of 
Xenophontis Memorabilium, 1. 4 ; Xenophontis Sernio do 
Agesilao ; Aristese Historic 72 Interprctum ; Xenophon do 
Re Equestri; Epictetus ; Theophrastus ; Platonis, Xeno- 
phontis, Plutarchi, et Luciani Symposia. 4-. ' Elements of 
Architecture.' 5. Anthems, to the number of 20, besides 
other musical compositions. 

ALDRINGER (Hist.) a native of Luxembourg, rose from a 
mean condition to be a general under Ferdinand II, and a 
count of the empire. He was killed fighting bravely near 
Landshut in Bavaria, in 1632. 

ALDROVANDUS, Ulysses (Biog.) a professor of medicine 
and philosophy at Bologna, and one of the most distin- 
guished naturalists, was bom of a noble family in that city 
in 1527. He spent his time, his talents, and his fortune 
in the study of natural history, and died blind in an hos- 
pital of his native place, May 4, 1605. What he collected, 
or what has been printed under his name, consists of several 
folio volumes. His ' Ornithology,' he published himself, in 
3 vols, folio, 1599, and another volume of 'Insects;' but the 
volume of ' Serpents,' was published by Bartholonueus Am- 
brosinus, after his death. Three volumes of ' Quadrupeds 
which divide the Hoof,' were digested by John Cornelius 
Uterverius, afterwards by Thomas Demster, and published 
by Marcus Antonius Bernia and Jerome Tamburini. That 
of ' Quadrupeds which do not divide the Hoof,' and that of 
• Fishes,' were digested by Uterverius, and published by 
Tamburini. That of ■ Quadrupeds with Toes or Claws,' 
was compiled by Ambrosinus. The ' Histoiy of Monsters,' 
and the supplements, were collected by the same author, 
and published at the expense of Bernia. The ' Dendro- 
logy ' was executed by Ovidius Montalbanus. 

ALDUINUS (Hist.) a king of the West Saxons in the fifth 
century, who was dispossessed of his kingdom by Ina. 

Alduinus, a governor of Angouleme under Charles the Sim- 
ple, made himself a sovereign prince of the country, which 
his descendants afterwards retained as counts, until the time 
of Aimar, who had an only daughter married to the count of 

Alduinus (Ecc.) an abbot of St. Jean d'Angeli, in Sain- 
tonge, was supposed to have found, in 102.5, the head of 
John the Baptist, which proved however, on farther exami- 
nation, to be that of John of Edessa. 

ALDULF (Hist.) king of the East-Angles, succeeded his 
uncle Ethehvald in 6'6'4. 

ALEA (Myth.) 'A\ia, a surname of Minerva, from the temple 
dedicated to her by Aleus, the son of Iphidas, at Tegea, in 

Alea (Geog.) 'AXt'o, a city of Arcadia, founded, according 
to Pausauias, by Aleus, son of Iphidas ; according to Dio- 
dorus by Aleos, king of Arcadia. It had a temple sacred 
to Diana of Ephesus, another to the Alean Minerva, and a 
third to Bacchus, whose festival was celebrated there once 
a year. On this occasion women were whipped in the 
temple, as boys were at Sparta on a similar festival. Diod. 
1. 4 ; Pans. 1. 8, c. 23. 

ALEAXDER, Jerome (Ecc.) the son of Francis Alexander, 
a physician, was sent by Leo X as nuncio into Germany. 
Being afterwards chosen archbishop of Brindes, he was sent 
first as nuncio into France, and then into Germany, by 
Clement VII ; was created cardinal in 153(j by Paul III ; 
and, after acting a third time as legate in Germany, he died 
in 1542. He was distinguished no less for his learning 


and abilities than for his determined opposition to Luther 
and his doctrines. 

Aleander, Jerome, the younger, in distinction from the car- 
dinal, his grand-uncle, was born in 1574, and died in 1631, 
after having accompanied the cardinal Francis Barberin, his 
nephew, into France in the character of legate a latere. He 
wrote, 1. ' Psalmi Poenitentiales, Versibus Elegiacis ex- 
pressi,' 4to. 1593. 2. ' Caii, Veteris Jurisconsulti, Institu- 
tionum Fragmenta cum Commentario,' 4to. 1600, Venet. 
3. ' Explicatio Antique Tabula; Marmoreal,' &c. 4to. Venet. 
1627. 4. ' Carmina Varia.' 5. ' Le Lagrime di Penitcnza, 
ad Imitazione di sette Salmi Penitenziali,' 8vo. Rom. 
1623. 6. ' Difesa dell' Adone, Poema del Cavalier Marino.' 
pt. i. 12mo. Venet. 1629; pt. ii. 1630: besides other 
smaUer works mentioned by Mazzuchelli. 

ALEAUME, 67. (Ecc.) in Spanish S. Elesmo, abbot of S. 
Jean de Burgos, in Spain, was the son of a gentleman of 
Loudun, in Poitou, in the 1 1 th century, who, on the death 
of his father, distributed his patrimony among the poor, and 
went a pilgrimage bare-footed to Rome. He was the first 
abbot of the monastery at Burgos, which Constance, the 
wife of Alphonsus VI, had built, and died there in 1100. 

Aleaume, Louis (Biog.) son of a gentleman of Verneuil in 
the 16th century, and a lieutenant-general at the Presidial 
in Orleans, died in 1594, leaving some poems which were 
afterwards published by his sou. 

ALEBECERII (Geog.) a people of Gallia Narbonensis, men- 
tioned by Pliny. Plin. 1. 3, c. 4. 

ALEBION (Myth.) 'AXefilmy, a son of Neptune, who, with 
his brother Dercynus, was killed by Hercules for stealing 
his sheep in Africa. Apollod. 1. 2, c. 5. 

ALECTO (Myth.) 'AAijvrw, from a priv. and Xi'/yw, to cease, 
that is, incessant, because desire is never satiated ; one of 
the three furies, the sister of Tysophone and Megara. fVide 
Eumenidcs~\ Virgil calls her luctijica. JEn. 1. 7, v. S24. 

Luctijicam Alecto dirarum ab sede sorOTUm 
XnfermupiB ciet tettebris ; cut Crista bella, 
lficque, insiditique, et crimina noxia cordi. 

Ovid describes her as encircled with serpents. Ep. 1 . 

Ajjuit Alecto breeding ttiruuata colubris. 

Claudian designates her by the epithet alrojc. Claud, in 
Ruf. 1. 1, v. 25. 

Iiniditf ijtwmhim Itjmufil incaiiditit utroi 
Alecto, plucidas late cum cerneret urbes. 

ALECTOR (Hist.) 'AXt'ivruip, the son of Anaxagoras, and 
father of Iphis and Cassaneus, succeeded his father hi the 
kingdom of Argos. 

ALECTRYON (Myth.) "AWpwSiv, a youth, whom Mars, 
during his amours with Venus, is said to have stationed as 
centinal to watch the approach of the sun ; but he, having 
fallen asleep, left the lovers to be exposed : upon which 
Mars was so incensed that he changed Alectryon into a cock, 
the bird which bears his own name, and which, from its 
being mindful of its former negligence, is supposed still to 
announce the approach of the sun. Luc. in Alect. 

ALECTUS (Hist.) a military prefect, who slew Carausius, 
the usurper of Armories, but was, in his turn, slain by 
Constantius Asclepiodotus, military praefect under Diocletian. 

ALEDOSI, Francis (Ecc.) surnamed Cardinal of Pavia, 
was born at Caste] del Rio, in Romana, where his ancestor 
Louis Aledosi held the seignory of Imola. He was created 
cardinal in 1505 by Julius II, and employed by him on 
many important missions : on the last occasion, which was a 
military expedition against the Venetians, he was kiUed by 
the Duke of Urbino in consequence of a quarrel after the 
taking of Bologna in 1511. Paul. Jov. in Elog. 

ALEGAMBE, Philip (Biog.) a Jesuit, was born at Brussels 
in 1592, and died in 1652, leaving, 1. ' Bibliotheca Scrip- 
torum Societatis Jesu,' fol. Ant v. 1643. 2. ' Vita P. 
Joannis Cardin Lusitani ex Societate Jesu/ 12mo. Rom. 


1640. S. 'Heroes et Victim* Charitatis Societatis Jesu,' 
4to. Rom. 1658. 1. • Mortes Illustrcs et Gesta eorum de 
Societate Jesu, qui in Odium Fidei ab Hseretieis vel aliis 

oceisi sunt,' fol. Rom. 1657- 

ALEGRE (Hist.) an ancient and illustrious house of Au- 
vcrgne, which produced many great men, particularly the 

Alkgre, James, baron d', who accompanied Charles VIII to 
the conquest of Naples. 

Ai.EiiitK, Yves, baron a*, the second of this name, son of the 
preceding, accompanied the duke of Demours into Italy 
against Julius II. 

Alegbe, Yves, baron a™, in whose favour the barony was 
erected into a marquisate in 157(> as a recompense for his 
services rendered under the kings Henry II, Charles IX, 
and Henry III ; was killed in 1577 by his private enemies. 

A LEGES, Yves, the fourth of this name, and the son of 
Emanuel, viscount d'Alegre, was marshal of France, chevalier 
of the order of the king, titulary prince of Orange. He 
was at the battles of Fleurus, SteinMrck, and Nimeguen, 
on which latter occasion he was taken prisoner by the Eng- 
lish. After having received the highest honours for his 
services, he died in 1733. 

Alegrk, de Cassanate Mark Anthony (Biog.) a Spanish Car- 
melite, wrote a work entitled * Paradisus Carmelitanus,' 
which is said to contain much that is fabulous. 

ALEGKIN, John (Ecc.) a cardinal, native of Picardv, and 
of a noble family, was created cardinal by Gregory IX in 
1227, and patriarch of Constantinople by Honorius III. 
After having, as legate a latere, preached the crusades in 
Spain and Portugal with much success, and concluded a 
treaty with Frederic II, he died in 1237, leaving some 
works. Onuphrtts; Craoonius, Sfc. 

ALEIUS, Campus (Myth.) a place in Lycia, where Bellero- 

. phon fell from the horse Pegasus, and wandered over the 
countrv till the time of his death, so called &iro rS iXaaOai, 
(il> errando. 
Horn. It. 6, v. 201. 

'll-oi 6 Kamriciov to 'AXijiov oloc a'Xaro. 

Dionys. Perieg. v. 872. 

Ktl9t ci to TTtciov to dXijiov a Karri rura 
'AvVpwTrutv uirdl'tvOtv a:\tjJfitvoi; ivSldaVKC. 

ALEMAN, Nicholas (Hist.') seigneur de Chatelet of the 
illustrious house of the Almans, in Tourainc, was sent by 
Francis I as embassador into Italy, where he continued for 
• i ars. 

Alkjjan, Louis (I'.tc.) archbishop of Aries and Cardinal, was 
raised to this dignity by Martin V, and served him on 
several important missions ; but, having entangled himself 
in a dispute with Eugene IV, be was degraded from the 
Cardmalship, and declared unworthy of all his ecclesiastical 
functions. He was however reinstated in 1 449 by Ni- 
cholas V, the successor of Eugene, and sent as legate into 
Germany. He died in 1450 at the age of CO. 

Alkman, Matthew (Biog.) a native of ."Seville, in Spain, 
was author of a once popular romance entitled ' Gusman 
d'Alfarache,' which has been translated into Italian, Ger- 
man, French, and English. 

ALEMANI), J.tmis Augustin {Biog.) was born at Grenoble 

in l(i.",.;, and educated in the protcstant religion, which he 
abjured in 1(>7'>- lie (Rote. 1. ' Guerre Civile des Francois 

sur la League/ l2mo. 1688 j an attempt at a dictionary. 

2. ' Histoire Monastiipie d'lreland,' ISmo. .'!. 'Journal 

Historique de I'Europe pour l'Armee,' 1 694, ISmo, iii;i.">. 
He is said to have diii! at Grenoble in 1728. 
ALEMANNI (Grog.) or Alamanni, 'AXa/tavol, a people of 
Sannatia, who, according to some, give their name to all the 
inhabitants of Germany, and to the country itself that of 


Alamannia. Others suppose the name to be derived from 
the two German words at and man, i. e. all men, meaning 
all descriptions of the people blended into one nation. 
Others, on the contrary, derive it from a king called Ale- 
mannus. They are mentioned first in the reign of Cara- 
calla, who was surnamed Alcmannicus, from a victory ob- 
tained over them. 

Ai.k.manni, Louis (Ecc.) a heretic, who first embraced the 
doctrines of Calvin, which he afterwards exchanged for those 
of Zuinglius, and wrote against the former on the doctrine 
of the Eucharist. 

Ai.k.manni, Gilbert (Biog.) a writer of the 11th century, 
who, among other things, composed a history of the holv 

Ai.k.manni, Nicholas, an antiquary of Greek parents, was 
born in 1(526. He published, 1. ' Procopii Historhe Arcana 
Gr. et Lat. Nic Alemanno Interprete cum ejus et Maltreti 
Notis,' fol. Paris. 1663. 2. ' A Description of St. John 
de Lateran,' 1665. 

ALEMANNTA (Geog.) the ancient name of Germany, from 
its inhabitants the Alemanni. 
Claud, de Laud. StiUcon. 1. 1. 

Oravitjiuigique tttis Alemannia signis. 

ALEMANNICUS (Hist.) the surname of Caracolla. [Vide 

ALEMANNUS (Myth.) a fabulous king of the Germans, 
who, on account of his prodigious strength and size, was 
called the German Hercules. The ancient Germans wor- 
shipped him as a God, and to him is attributed the name of 
Alemanni, which was once universal, and is still used by the 

Alemannus (Geog.) a river of Germany, now Allmuhl. 

ALEMBERT, John le Bond d' (Biog.) a mathematician, was 
born in 1717, and died in 1783, leaving, among other 
writings, his famous ' Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences,' 
the mischievous effects of which have been felt ever since its 

ALEMOX (Hist.) a native of Argolis, wdio built Crotona in 
.Magna Gnecia. He was the father of Mycellus, who, on 
that account, is called Alemonides, according to Ovid. 

ALEX, Edmond (Biog.) or Allen, a native of Norfolk, was 
elected fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1536, 
proceeded A.M. in 1539, and died in 1559, at the time of 
bis being appointed bishop of Rochester. He published a 
translation of Alex. Alesius * De Auctoritate Vertri Dei,' 
12mo. of ' Phil. Melancthon de utraque Sacrament] Specie 
et Auctoritate Episcoporum,' and of Conrad Pelicanus 
' Super Apocalypsin ;' besides which he wrote 'A Christian 
Introduction for Youth, containing the Principles of our 
Faith and Religion,' 12mo. 1548, 1550. 

ALENCON (Geog.) capital of Orne, a department of France, 
seated ,m the Salle. Lon. 0° 1' E. lat. 48° 26' N. It suf- 
ferred much during the civil wars in the l6th century ; but Martignon. afterwards marshal of France, prevented the 
massacre of the proteslants on St Bartholomew, wdiich would 
otherwise have taken place there as well as in other parts 
of France. Alencon had the title of a duchy and a county, 
which was conferred at different times on different families. 

Alencon, Charles II, d' (Hist.) surnamed the Magnani- 
mous, count of Valois, Alencon, tee. and grandson of 
Philip HI, was among the number of French nobility who 
fell at the battle of Cressy in 1346. 
Alencon, John d', the first duke of this name, and snr- 
named the Wise, was born in 1385, and killed at the 
battle of Agincourt. 
AXENCON, John II, d', surnamed the Fair, was born in 1409, 
and died in 147')'- He plotted to deliver Normandy again 
into the hands of the English, but the treason being dis- 
covered, lie was condemned to death ; but the punishment 
being commuted by Charles VII for perpetual imprison- 


ment, he was afterwards set at liberty by Lewis XI, his 

Alencon, due <f, the title given to Hercules, the fifth son 
of Henry II by Catherine de Medicis. He afterwards re- 
ceived the titles of duke of Anjou and Brabant. [Wide 
Anjou~\ He was of a turbulent temper, and, as duke of 
Alencon, was the leader of a faction. 

Akencon, Charles a" (Ecc.) eldest son of the above named 
Charles II, count d' Alencon, took the habit of a Dominican 
notwithstanding the opposition of his mother, and was ap- 
pointed to the archbishopric of Lyons in 1365, in which 
situation he died in 13 75. 

Alencon, Philip </', brother of the preceding, was created 
cardinal and archbishop of Rouen by Urban VI in 1378, and, 
after having filled many important posts during his pontifi- 
cate, as well as that of his predecessor Gregory XI, and of his 
successor Boniface IX, died in 1397. This prelate refused 
to nominate as a prebend one whom he considered as not 
deserving the post, although recommended by Charles V. 
The emperor, who was at first displeased at the refusal, was 
afterward reconciled to it. 

ALEXIO, Julio (Ecc.) a Jesuit of Brescia, in the state of 
Venice, was the first who introduced the Christian faith 
into Xanfi, a province of China, where he continued a mis- 
sionary for 36 years, and died in 1 649, leaving behind him, 
in the Chinese language, The Life of Jesus Christ, 8 vols. ; 
The Incarnation of Jesus Christ ; Of the Sacrifice of the 
Mass ; The Sacrament of Penitence ; The Original of the 
World ; Proof of the Existence of a Deity ; Dialogues ; 
The Dialogue of St. Bernard betwixt the Soul and Body, 
in Chinese verse ; a Treatise on the Sciences of Europe ; 
Practical Geometry, in four Books ; The Life of P. Mat- 
thew Ricci ; The Life of Dr. Michael Yam, a Chinese Con- 
vert ; The Theatre of the World, or Cosmography. 

ALEXTEGO (Geog.) a province of Portugal between the 
Tagus and the province of Algarve, which produces the most 
excellent oranges. Its principal towns are Evora, the an- 
cient seat of their kings, Elvas, Portalegre, Baja, &C. In 
this province Alphonso I, king of Portugal, gained the 
celebrated battle of Orique over five Moorish kings or gene- 
rals in 1139- J'asconcelJos, Hist, dc Poring.; Marian. Hist. 

ALEO (Myth.) a son of Atreus, mentioned by Cicero. De 
Nat. Deor. 1. 3, c. 3, c. 21. 

ALEPPO (Geog.) an old town of Syria, which is supposed 
by some to be the ancient Beroe, by others Hicrojx/li.s. and 
by others Chalybon. It is reckoned the fourth city in the Ot- 
tamon empire, being exceeded only by Constantinople, Cairo, 
and Damascus. It has nine gates, and numerous churches 
for different sects of Christians ; namely, Roman Catholics, 
Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites, &c. Being a place of great 
trade, it likewise contains upwards of 40 caravanseras, or 
inns for travellers. Aleppo was taken by Abu Obeidah, the 
Moslem general, A.D. 638, after a long siege which the 
citadel sustained under the command of Youkinna, a go- 
vernor of the emperor Heraclius. It was afterwards subject 
to frequent captures from different mahometan princes. 

ALER, Paul (Biog.) a French Jesuit, was born in 1656 at 
St. Guy, in Luxemburgh, and died in 1727- He wrote, 

1. ' Tractatus de Artibus Humanis,' 4to. Trevir, 1717- 

2. ■ Philosophic Tripartitae, Pars I, sive Logica,' Colon. 
1710; ' Pars II, sive Physica,' 1715; ' Pars III, seu Anima 
et Metaphysica,' 1724. 3. ' Gradus ad Paniassum ;' a book 
well known in schools. 4. Some Latin tragedies, as Joseph, 
Tobias, &c 

ALERAX (Hist.) nephew of Otho I, was created by him 
first marquis of Saluzzo. 

ALERIO, or Alcrlo, John de (Ecc.) general of the order of 
the Carmelites, who, after having governed for nine years 
with great credit, obtained permission to resign his post, 


and died in the monastery of Toulouse in 1340- He wrote 

Commentaries on the Proverbs and the Book of Ecclesiastes. 
ALES, Alexander de (Biog.) or Hales, vide Alexander de 

Ales, Alexander, a divine of the confession of Augsburg, was 

born at Edinburgh in 1500, and died in 1565. He wrote, 

1. ' De Necessitate et Merito Bonorum Operum, Disputatio 
proposita in Celebri Academia Lipsica ad 29 Nov. 1560.' 

2. ' Commentarii in Evangelium Joannis,' &e. 3. ' Expo- 
sitio in Psalmos Davidis.' 4. ' De Justificatione contra 
Osiandrum.' 5. ' De Sancta Trinitate, cum Confutatione 
Erroris Valentini.' 6. ' Responsio ad Triginta-et-duos Arti- 
culos Theologorum Lovaniensium.' 

ALESIA (Geog.) 'AXnoia, 'AXtaia, or 'IXXncria ; Alescia, or 
Halosia, a town of the Mandubii, in Celtic Gaul, now 
called Alise, or Alois, according to Brietius and others. was 
built, according to Diodorus, by Hercules. It was besieged 
bv C»sar; and if Florus be correct, it was burnt to the 
ground. Diodor. 1. 5 ; Cms. de Bell. Gall. 1. 7, c. 68 ; Fell. 
Paterc. 1. 2, c. 47 ; Strab. 1. 4 ; Plin. 1. 34, c 17 ; Pint, in 
Cars.; Flor. 1. 3, c 10; Dion. Cass. 1. 40. 

ALESIO, Matthew Perez d' (Biog.) a painter and engraver 
of Rome, died in 1600. He was the pupil of Michael 
Angelo, of whose sublimity he was supposed to have caught 
no small portion. His St. Christopher, which he painted in 
fresco in the great church of Seville, is reckoned to be his 
best production. 

ALESSAXDRA (Geog.) vide Alexandria. 

ALESSI, Galcas (Biog.) an architect of Perusia, was born in 
1500, and died in 1572. His reputation extended throughout 
Europe, having furnished plans for France, Spain, and Ger- 
many, besides the several cities in Italy which were deco- 
rated by edifices of his construction. The performance which 
did him most honour was the monastery and church of the 

ALESSIO (Geog.) a town of Albania, the ancient Lyssus, 
on the coast of the Gulf of Venice, near the river Drin, 
12 m. X. Durazzo, and 96 S. E. Ragusa. Lon. 19° 36' E. 
lat, 42° 12' N. It contains the sepulchre of Scandeberg, 
the famous king of Albania, who died there in 1467; after 
which it came into the possession of the Turks. 

ALETIUM (Geog.) now Lecci, a town of Apulia. Strab. 
1. 6 ; Plin. 1. 3 ;. Ptol. 1. 2. 

ALETRIUM (Geog.) a town of Latium, now Alatri, the 
inhabitants of which were called Alatrinates, according to 
Cicero and Pliny; Livy speaks of a town Alatrium, and 
people Alatrinates, among the Hernici. Cic. pro Clueut. 
c. 16; Lie. 1. 9, c. 42 ; Strab. 1. 5; Plin. 1. 3, c. 5. 

ALEUADJE (Hist.) 'AXevtuai, a royal family of Larissa, so 
called from Aleuas, a king of that country ; whence the 
name is given indiscriminately to all the Thessalians. They 
surrendered themselves to Xerxes. Herod. 1. 7, c. 6, &c. ; 
Plat, in Men.; Diod. Sie. 1. 16; Paus. 1. 3, c. S, &c. ; 
Mian. Aninu 1. S, c. 1 1 ; Atheif. L 12 j Pint, jrepi zopy>)c. 

ALEUAS (Hist.) 'AXevac, a king of Thessaly, who obtained 
the succession to the throne in opposition to his father's 
wishes, by means of an oracle of Delphos, which his uncle 
procured in his favour. His descendants were called 

ALEUS (Hist.) 'AXe'oc, son of Aphidas, and king of Arcadia, 
obtained great fame by the building of temples. Apollod. 
L 3 ; Paus. 1. 8. 

ALEX (Geog.) a river in the country of the Bruttii, sepa- 
rating it from Magna Gnecia. Dionys. Perieg. v. 367. 

ALEXAMEXUS (Hist.) an ^tolian, who killed Xabis, the 
tyrant of Lacedaemon, and soon after fell a sacrifice to the 
fury of the Spartan people. Lit: 1. 35, c. 34. 

ALEXANDER (Bibl.) 'AXefrvcpoc, son of Simon, who was 
compelled to bear the cross for our Saviour. Mark xv. 21. 

Alexander, a Jew of Ephesus, who attempted to address 


the multitude in behalf of Paul, but they knowing him to 

be a Jew, drowned hi* voice in the clamour of ' Great is 

Diana of the Ephesians.' Acts xxix. 
Alexander, surnamed Lysimachus, alabarch of Alexandria, 

was at the assembly of the Jews who interrogated Peter and 

the other apostles, in whose name they preached. He was 

imprisoned by Caligula, and released by Claudius. Acts 

IV. 6; Joseph. Antiq. 1. 19- 
Alexander, a coppersmith, who was excommunicated with 

Hvmenams, by the apostle Paul, for blaspheming against the 

truth. 1 Tim, i. 19, 20. 
Alexander (Hist.) a name common to some emperors, and 

many kings, princes, and other distinguished persons. 

Emperors of this Name. 
Alexander, vide Severus. 
Alexander, a Phrygian, was elected emperor at Carthage 

in 311, and was strangled by the generals of Maxentius in 

,'(12. QVide Alexander under Numismatics] 
Alexander, son of the emperor Basilius, succeeded his brother 

Leo in 911, and died 912. 
Alexander, emperor of Russia, succeeded his father Paul 

in 1801. 

Kings of Macedonia. 

Alexander, succeeded his father Amyntas I, in the 6Sth 
Olympiad, A. C. 506, and died in the 79th Olympiad, when 
he was succeeded by his son Perdiceas II. He killed the 
Persian ambassadors for their insults to the ladies of the 

Alexander, son of Amyntas II, was murdered after a reign 
of one year, by his brother Ptolemy, surnamed the Alorite, 
in the 103d Olympiad, A. C. 36'8. 

Alexander, surnamed the Great, son of Philip and Olympias, 
was bom in the first year of the 106th Olympiad, A.C. 356, 
in the month called Boedromion by the Athenians, and on 
the same night as the temple at Ephesus was burnt ; he 
conquered Thrace, Illyria, Greece, Persia, India, and died 
at the age of 32, after a reign of 12 years. He is known 
not only as a great conqueror, but as the patron of Aristotle, 
and the lover of science. As his birth was ambiguous, he 
wished to pass for the son of Jupiter Amnion. [Aide Plate 
III, and Alexander under Numismatics'] Diodor. 1. 17, 18 ; 
Arrian. de Exped. Alcxand. ; Plut. in Alex. ; Q. Curt. Hist. 
Alexand. fyc. 

Alexander, the son of Alexander the Great, was assassinated 
in the 117th Olympiad, A.C. 811, with his mother Roxana, 
by Cassander, who usurped the crown. Justin. 1. 15, c. 2. 

Alexander, son of Cassander, was killed by Demetrius, 
alter a reign of 27 years, with his brother Antipater, in the 
131st Olympiad, A.C. 294. Justin. 1. 1, c. 1. 

Kings of Egypt. 

Alexander, Ptolemy, three kings of this name. [Tide 

Kings qf Epirus. 

Alexander I, surnamed Molossus, eotemporary and uncle of 
Alexander the Great, was son of Neoptolemus, who after 
a reign of 50 years was slain on the banks of the lake 
Arlurusia, in Calabria, A.C. 331. Diod. 1. 16; Liv. I. 8, 
c. 17, &c; .S7r«6. 1. 16; Justin. 1. 17, c. 3. 

Alexander II, succeeded Pyrrhus his father, in the 127th 
Olympiad, A.C. 272, and conquered Macedonia, from 
which he was expelled by Demetrius. He recovered it by 
the assistance of the Acamanians. Justin. 1. 26, c. 3; 
VI11I. in Pyrrh. 

Kings of Syria. 

Alexander I, surnamed Pain, an impostor, who pretended 
that he was the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, succeeded 


him, and was killed by one Zebel, or Diodes, an Arabian 
prince, A.C. 146. Maccab. xvii ; Strah. 1. 17; Joseph. 
Antiq. 1. 13; Justin. 1. 35; Appian. in Syriac. ; Euscuiit.s, 
Sulpilius Severus, $c. 
Alexander II, surnamed Zcbin, was killed by Antiochus 
Egyptus, after a reign of four years, in the l64th Olympiad, 
A.C. 122. Josephus, Justin, eye. 

Kings and Princes of Judah. 
Alexander, surnamed Jannaus, succeeded his brother Ajis- 

tobulus, and died after a reign of 27 years, A. C. 78. 

Joseph. Antiq. 1. 13. 
Alexander, succeeded his father Aristobulus II, and was 

killed by Gabinius at the desire of Pompey, A. M. 3955, 

A.C. 49; Joseph. Aniiq. 1. 13, c. 18. 
Alexander, son of Herod the Great, was strangled by order 

of his father. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 16, c 1, &c 
Alexander, an impostor, who assumed the name of the pre- 
ceding, but being discovered, was sent by Augustus to the 

gallies. Joseplu Antiq. 1. 17, c. 14. 

Kings qf Scotland. 

Alexander I, surnamed the Strong, succeed- 
ed his brother, Edgar IV, and died 1114. 
The effigies of this and the two following 
kings are given, as in the annexed figures. 

Alexander II, son of William, surnamed the 
Lion, succeeded him in 1214, and died in 
1249- He took the city of Carlisle from 
the English. 

Alexander III, succeeded his father Alex- 
ander II, made peace with Henry III king 
of England, and married his daughter Mar- 
garet. He died in 1327, after a reign of 
37 years, and left the kingdom to be dis- 
tracted by divisions between John Baliol 
and Robert Bruce. 

Alexander, duke of Albania, was made re- 
gent, but in the end obliged to fly into 
England to escape the resentment of his brother James III- 
Buchan. Hist. Scot. 

Kings qf Poland. 
Alexander, son of Casimir II, succeeded his brother, John 
Albert, in the year 1501. 

Other Princes and Distinguished Persons qf this Name. 

Alexander, son of Jason, and tyrant of Phera> in Thessaly, 
was hated for his cruelties, and assassinated by his wife 
Thisbe, in the 104th Olympiad, A.C. 364. Diodor. 1. 15, 
16; Cic. de Invent. 1. 2, c. Q; C. Nep. in Pelop.; Val. Max. 
1.9, c. 13; Ovid, in lb. v. 321 ; Mian. far. Hist. 1. 11, 
c. 9 ; Plut. Pans. 1. 6, c. 5. 

Alexander, surnamed Spartiatcs, a Spartan leader, was 
killed with 200 of his countrymen by the Argives, whose 
passage through Tegsca he wished to prevent. Diod. 1. 15. 

Alexander, a son of Eropus, surnamed Lyncestes, whom 
Alexander the Great pat to death on suspicion of his hold- 
ing correspondence with Darius, against himself. Arrian. 
de Exped, Alex. 1. 2. 

Alexander, a governor of Lyeia, who brought a reinforce- 
ment of troops to Alexander the Great, probably the same 
as was afterwards kdled in attempting to scale the rock of 
Aornus. Q. CI. 8, c. 11. 

Alexander, son of Polvperchon, one of Alexander's generals, 
made himself sovereign of Sicyon, and was assassinated by 
Alexion, one of his courtiers, at the head of his army, in 
the ll6th Olympiad, A.C. 315. His wife Cratesipolis 
reigned after his death with great prudence. Diod. I. 
18, 19- 


Alexander, surnamed Helios, son of Mark Antony and 
Cleopatra, was taken to Rome before Augustus, after the 
battle of Actiura. Pint, in Anion. 

Alexander, an impostor, who called himself the son of 
Perseus, king of Macedonia, and raised an army to support 
his pretensions, but was forced to rly into Durdania. Zonar. 
ex Dion.; Uss. in Anna I. 

Alexander, third king of Emesus, son of Sampa:us Seramus, 
was carried in triumph by Augustus. 

Alexander, a son of Lysimachus, mentioned by Polysenus. 
Polycen. 1. 6, c. 12. 

Alexander, a Thessalian, who in a naval battle provided 
his soldiers with missile weapons to annoy the enemy. 
Polycen. 1. 6, c. 27- 

Alexander, son of Jason, was sent to Rome by Hyrcanus, 
the high priest of the Jews, to renew his alliance with the 

Alexander, son of Theodore, was sent to Rome on a mission 
to get the Jews released from the necessity of going to war 
on the sabbatical year. Joseph. Anliq. 1. 18, c. 7- 

Alexander, son of Phazael, by Salampso, daughter of Herod 
the Great. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 18, c- 7- 

Alexander, the son of Alexander, and grandson of Herod 
the Great, by Glaphira, the daughter of Archelaus, king 
of Cappadocia. Joseph- 1. 18, c. 7- 

Alexander, son of Tigranes, grandson of Alexander, and 
great grandson of Herod the Great, was made king of Esis, 
in Cilicia, by Vespasian. His descendants became Christians. 
Joseph. Antiq. 1. 1 8, c. 7- 

Alexander, a rich man of Cyrene, was condemned to death 
with his wife Berenice, on a charge of rebellion made by 
Jonathan, chief of the Sicarii, A. D. 41. Joseph, de Bell. 
Jud. 1. 7, c. 81. 

Alexander, surnamed Neoskoi, grand duke of Russia in 
1218, was a distinguished warrior, as well as a saint of the 
Russian church, in whose honour Peter the Great created, 
in 1722, an order of knighthood called the order of St. 
Alexander Neoskoi. 

Alexander, natural son of John I, duke of Bourbon, left 
the church for the army, but falling under the displeasure 
of Charles VII, was put to death by his order in 1440. 

Alexander, a cruel prince of Wallachia, who was deposed 
by Albert Laski, in favour of one James, who was con- 
tinued in the principality in 1561, by Soliman II. 

Alexander, duke of Lithuania, celebrated for his victories. 
He took Novogorod in the commencement of the 17th 

Alexander, Lord Viscount Canada, and Earl of Stirling, a 
poet and a statesman, descended from the ancient family of 
Macdonald, was born in 15S0, and died in 1640. He made 
an unsuccessful attempt by the assistance of Charles I, to 
form a settlement in Nova Scotia, but notwithstanding his 
failure, he was created a peer in \6S0. The peerage became 
extinct at the death of his grandson Henry, in 1739. His 
works as an author consist of tragedies and poems. 

Alexander (Ecc.) the name of several popes, cardinals, and 
other distinguished persons. 

Popes of Ikis Name. 

Alexander I, is said to have suffered martvrdom under the 
emperor Adrian, in the year 131, and the 10th year of his 

Alexander II, otherwise called Anselme of Milan, suc- 
ceeded Nicholas II in 106l, and died 1073. He favoured 
the pretensions of William the Conqueror. 

Alexander III, native of Sienne, succeeded Adrian IV, and 
was opposed by the antipope Victor III. He died in 1181, 
in the 12th year of his pontificate. 

Alexander IV, succeeded Innocent III, and died in 126l, 


in the sixth year of his pontificate, during which the 
Guelphs and Ghibellines distracted Italy. 

Alexander V, of the isle of Crete, succeeded Gregory IX, 
and died in 1410, in the first year of his pontificate. On 
account of his liberality, he was said to be a rich bishop, a 
poor cardinal, and a mendicant pope. 

Alexander VI, surnamed Borgia, of a noble family of Va- 
lentia, succeeded Innocent VIII, and died by the poison 
which he had intended for some of the cardinals in 1503, 
and in the 12 th year of his pontificate. He was a prince oi 
great talents, but of the most abandoned character. 

Alexander VII, surnamed Fabius Chigi, succeeded Inno- 
cent X, in 1655, and died in 1656. 

Alexander VIII, named Peter Ottoboni, of Venice, suc- 
ceeded Innocent XI, in 1689, and died in I69I. 

Saints, Dignitaries, and other distinguished Persons. 

Alexander, St., bishop of Jerusalem, distinguished for his 
sufferings and his piety, died in 253, during the persecution 
of Decius. Euseb. Hist. 1. 6, c. 8, &c. 

Alexander, St., bishop of Comana, died a martyr in the 
persecution of Decius. Gregor. Nyssen. in Fit. S. Gregor. 

Alexander, St., bishop of Alexandria, a zealous opposer of 
Arius, died in 325, leaving St. Athanasius for his successor. 
S. Epiplian. Hxr. 69 ; Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 1. 1 ; Sozomen. 
Hist. Eccles. 1. 1, &c. ; Theodoret. 1. 1. 

Alexander, St., first patriarch of Constantinople, succeeded 
Metrophanus in 313, and died in 340. He was also an 
opposer of Arius, who died in his time ; but the precise 
period of this bishop's government has been a matter of dis- 
pute. S. Athanas. ad Solit. eye. ; Gregor. Nazian. 
Orat. 27 ; St. Epiphan. 69 ', Socrat. S,-c. 

Alexander, St., a patriarch of Antioeh after the death 1 1 
Porphyry, restored peace to the church, and died in 408. 
Theodoret. 1. 5, &c. 

Alexander, bishop of Hierapolis, chief of the Nestorians in 
the council of Ephesus, was deposed and banished to the 
mines of Fanotis, a town of Egypt, in 435. He was the 
author of 24 letters. Hist, du Cone. d'Ephes. 

Alexander, a patriarch of Aquila, was created cardinal by 
the antipope Felix V, in 1440. Auber. Hist, des Cardin. 

Alexander, bishop of Liege, obtained a victory over God- 
frey, duke of Lorrain ; but was afterwards deposed by In- 
nocent II, and died in 1135. Gnill. Gaz. Hist. Eccles. des 
Bas. Pays. 

Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, died in 1147, after having 
been a benefactor to the see which he governed for 24 years. 

Distinguished Persons of this Name. 

Alexander, a martyr, was killed in the valley of the Alps, 
by the pagans whom he was endeavouring to convert, in 
397. St. August. Epist. 139; Paulin. in Fit. Ambros. 

Alexander, founder of the monks called Acoemetes, died in 
430. Bulteau, Hist. Monast. d'Orient. 

Alexander, a martyr and companion of Epipodus in 178. 
Gregor. Turon. de Gloria Confess. 

Alexander, a martyr of Lyons, a physician by profession, 
who was exposed to wild beasts. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 
1. 5. 

Alexander, a Jew, who, becoming a convert to Christianity 
in 315, was thrown into the river Cydnus, but escaped with 
his life, and afterwards built a church in Judea. 

Alexander, a heretic and disciple of Valens. Tertulluiii. de 
Carn. Jes. Christ. ; Baron. Annal. ; Bolland, Act. Martyn. ; 
Baillet, Fies des Saints ; Tillcmont, Hist. Eccles. ; Du 
Pin. Bibl. 

Alexander, Magus, of Abonoteichos, an impostor and dis- 
ciple of Apollonius Thvanieus, who, in the reign of Anto- 
p 2 


uiuus, protended to be jEsculapius, and to work miracles by 
B Serpent, which ho carried about with him. His life has 
been written by Lueian. Luc. in lit.; Baron. Annul, ann. 
1 i:> ; S/xni. Recherch. Cur. 
Alexander (Numis.) the king of Macedonia, and the most 
distinguished prince of this name, is represented on medals, 
Kerns, &C. having his head adorned with a diadem, and 
mostly a rain's horn on his head, QVidc Plate III,] to de- 
note his descent from Jupiter Amnion, sometimes with the 
spoils of a lion. The inscriptions, ALEXANDER MAG- 
the addition sometimes of KOINON MAKEAONBN. The 
types on the reverse of his medals are the figure of Jupiter 
sitting and holding an eagle, or the rape of the Sabines, or 
of Alexander himself taming the horse Bucephalus, &c. ; 
hut those which bear the figure of a lion, or of a cupid 
riding on a lion, are supposed 

to represent the most correct Fig. U Fig. 2. 

effigy of this prince ; but an- 
tiquaries are by no means 
agreed on what medals ought 
to be assigned to him, in dis- 
tinction from princes of the 
same name ; thus most me- 
dalists assign fig. 1 to Alex- 
ander, the son of Cassander; some to Alexander, king of 
Epirus ; but Beger, with some others, assigns it to Alexander 
the Great. In fig. 2 he is represented less questionably with 
hi- face elevated; and the annexed figure 
represents him as he is depicted on a gem, 
with his mother Olympias and his reputed 
father Jupiter. The earliest medals of Alex- 
ander are supposed to have been struck in the 
reign of Caracalla. One medal is given by 
Peuerin, bearing the inscription, AAE3AN- 
AI'OY, and having for its type the figure of 
.' : ian with a horse, and on the reverse a square, which is 
commonly assigned to Alexander I, king of Macedon. Goltz. 
(,, cec. ; Spanheim. Dissert.; Haverkamp. Num. Cont. ; Beg. 
Tkesaur. Brand. ; PeUerin. Rec. de Med. des Hois, §c. $c. 
Alexander I and II, the two kings of Syria, are represented 
on medals, as in the annexed figures 1 and 2; inscriptions, 

Far, 1. Fig. S, 

TOY 1'iSI', i- e. Regit Alexandri Theopatoris Benefici Ann. 
KJ2. — BA2IAEQZ AAESANAPOY. The former of these 
princes has frequently the head of his queen Cleopatra, 

coupled with his own, as in fig. 3. The most frequent types 

on the reverse of the medals of these two princes are the 
figure of Jupiter sitting with a victory in his hand, of Nep- 
tune sitting and holding his trident, or of Apollo sitting on 

n tripod) or prophetic stool, &c Vaillant. Hist Selene. ; 

Ilui/ni. Tins. liritun. 

Ai.KXANDKit I and II, vide Plolemy IX and X. 

Alexander, vide Srvcnis. 

Ai.kxandkh, tlie usurper, above-mentioned, is represented as 
In the annexed figure; inscriptions, IMP. 
('. ALEXANDER P. I'. AUG.—A. K Alt'. .,,. ut 
AAEANAPOC EYC ETC. CEB, i. e. Impe~ /ffgW9\*% 
rotor Casar Alexander Piut Felix Augustus ; flpf <$•$?■{ ?,?' 
on the reverse, [NVICTA ROMA FELIX 


Trlst. Comment. Hist. vol. iii. ; Med. Num. Impp. ; Bandur. 
Num. Rom. Imp. 
Alexander, a medal, is ascribed to the son of Basilius, bear- 
ing the inscription, ALEXANDER AUGUSTUS. 
Alexander VI, VII, and VIII, popes of this name, of 

whom several medals are extant. 
Alexander VI, besides his effigv, [Vide Plate X,] bears the 
inscription ALESSANDRO VI. PONT. MAX. j on the 
reverse his family name, RODERICO LORENZUOLA 
D. BORGIA S. P. M.CD.XCIL, i. e. Roderico Lenzuola 
del Borgia Sommo Pont e flee, 14°/2, struck on his election ; 
CORONAT on his ' coronation ; RESERVAVIT et 
CLAUSIT ANN. JUB. M. D. on keeping the jubilee, Set. 
Alexander VII, besides his effigy, QVide Piute X,] his me- 
dals hear on the obverse the inscription ALEXANDER VII. 
PONT. MAX. ; on the reverse they commemorate the 
buildings which were completed under his auspices, &c, as 
SANCTO ANDREW APOSTOLO, on the completion 
SANCTO NTCOLAO, on repairing and beautifying St. 
Nicholas' church; NAVALE CENTUM CELLARUM, 
on the building a dockvard near to the harbour of Trajan, 
called the Centum Cellos; FUNDAMENTA EJUS IN 
MONTIBUS SANCTIS, on the construction of the por- 
tico in the forum of the Vatican, &c. &c. 
Alexander VIII is represented, as in the annexed figure, on 
a medal, which, according to the inscription, 
was struck on his election, ALEXANDER 
the reverse of some medals are the inscrip- 
II, on a public rejoicing for the election of 
this pope; NOiN PREVALEBUNT, in 
allusion to the wars against the Turks and heretics, repre- 
sented by the beast with seven heads; NOSTRA FELI- 
CITAS, in allusion to his bounty and prudence; S. PE- 
TRI'S APOSTOLUS, with the effigy of that apostle, such 
as it is, offering the key to the pope, &c 
Alexander (Her.) the name of a family, of which William 
Alexander, earl of Stirling, mentioned under History, was 
an elder branch. His title is now extinct, but James 
Alexander, of a junior branch, was created in 17JJ0 baron 
Caledon, viscount Alexander in 1797, and earl of Caledon 
in 1800. 
Alexander, Viscount, the title commonly borne by the eldest. 

son of the earl of Caledon. 
Alexander (Biog.) a poet and grammarian of iEtolia in the 
UOth Olympiad, A. C. 260, was reckoned among the num- 
ber of the poets who were called the Pleiades. Partlu n. m 
Erotig. ; Suldus. 
Alexander, an Epicurean mentioned by Plutarch. Pint 

Sympos. 1. 2 ; Qucest. :> ; Cassend. I'll, l-'.pic. 1. 2, c 6. 
Alexander, surnamed Polyhistor, a grammarian and histo- 
rian in the I72d Olympiad, A.C. 85, of whose innumer- 
able works fragments only are preserved in Plutarch, Pliny, 
Athenauis, and Eusebius. 
Alexander, of Ephesus, an orator, poet, historian, and 

geographer, mentioned by Strabo and cithers. 
Alexander, of Myndus, quoted by Plutarch, supposed to be 

the same as Alexon, of Diogenes Lcartius. 
Alexander, qfJEgeue, a peripatetic and preceptor of Nero, 
wrote a commentary on the ' Meteorologies' of Aristotle, 
wherefore he has been confounded with, the subject of the 
following article. 
Alexander, surnamed Aphrodlsiu.t, native of Aphrodisin, in 
('aria, and a distinguished commentator on Aristotle in the 
reign of Marcus Aureliua ; wrote, 1. ' Do Eato,' etc. which 

was printed in the Greek original at the Aldine press, foL 

1583, at the end of the works of Theniistius ; translated 


into Latin by Grotius, and published in his * Veterum 
Philosophorum Sententite de Fato.' 4to. Paris. 1648. An 
edition in Greek and Latin was published at London in 
12mo. 1688. 2. ' Commentarium in Primum Libnim Prio- 
rum Analyticorura Aristotelis,' Gr. fol. Venet. 1489; 4to. 
Florent- 1521, translated into Latin by Jos. Bern. Felici- 
anus, fol. Venet. 1542, 1546, and 1560. S. ' Commen- 
tarius in viii Topieorum Libros,' fol. Venet. 1513; trans- 
lated into Latin by Gul. Dorotheus, Venet. 1526 and 1541, 
Paris, 1542 ; and by Rasarius, Venet. 1563, 15 ~3. 4. 'Com- 
mentarii in Elenchos Sophisticos,' Gr. fol. Venet. 1520, with 
the ' Commentarius in Primum Librum,' &c. 4to. Florent. 
1552; translated into Latin by Rasarius, Venet. 1557- 
5. * In Libros xii Metaphysieorum ex Versione Jos. Genesii 
Sepulvedae,' fol. Rom. 1527, Paris, 1536, Venet. 1544 and 
1561. The Greek text has never been printed, although 
there are many MS. copies in the Imperial Library at Paris, 
and other libraries. 6. ' In Librum de Sensu,' ccc. Gr. at the 
end of Simplicius; ' Commentary on the Books respecting 
the Soul,' fol. Venet. 1527; and in the Latin, 'Lucilius 
Philothseus,' fol. 1544, 1549, 1554, 1559, 1573. 7- ' In 
Aristotelis Meteorologica,' Gr. fol. Venet. 1527; and in the 
Latin of Alex. Picalomini, fol. 1540, 154S, 1575. 8. ' De 
Mistione," Gr. with the preceding. 9. ' De Anima Libri 
Duo,' Gr. at the end of Themistius; and in Latin by 
Jerome Donato, fol. 1532, 1534. 10. ' Physica Scholia,' 
&c Gr. fol. Venet. 1536; and in Latin by Bagolinus, 
Venet. 1541, 1549, 1555, 1589- 11. ' Problematorum Me 
dicorum,' &C. the best Greek edition of which is in Sylbur- 
gius's works of Aristotle ; this is attributed by some to 
Alexander Trallianus ; as also ' Libellus de Febribus La- 
tine Georgio Valla Interprete," in a collection of various 
works, translated by Valla, Venet. 1488; this has not been 
printed in Greek- Other works in Arabic, as well as in 
Greek, are attributed to Alexander Aphrodisius. Porphi/r. 
in Vit. Plotin. ; S. Hieron. Epist. ad Dom. ; St. Cyrill. adv. 

Alexander, Trallianus, a physician of the sixth century, as 
is supposed, wrote treatises on medicine, some of which are 
extant and have been published at different times, namely, 
a Greek edition, fol. Paris. 1548; a Latin edition, among 
the ' Medics Artis Principes,' fol. Paris. 1567. 

Alexander, an abbot of Celesinus in the 13th century, wrote 
a history of Roger, king of Sicily. 

Alexander, an English abbot of the Benedictine order in 
the 13th century, wrote different treatises. 

Alexander, Neckham, vide Neckham. 

Alexander, of Somerset, an Augustine of the 13th century, 
made an abridgment of scripture history. 

Alexander, Menus, i. e. of Ales, or Hales, surnamed the 
Irrefragable Doctor, or the Fountain of Life, an English- 
man by birth, of the order of Franciscans in the 13th cen- 
tury, was the preceptor of Thomas Aquinas, and the author 
of several works, of which only his ' Summa Theologian ' 

Alexander, surnamed of Paris, a French poet of the 12th 
century, wrote, * Le Roman d' Alexandre,' and other works. 

Alexander, Dolensis, a Dominican of the 13th century, 
wrote, ' Doctrinale Puerorum,' 1212; ' De Sphsra;' ' De 
Computo Ecclesiastico.' 

Alexander, D'Imola, vide Tartagni. 

Alexander, Ab Alexandra, a lawyer of Naples, died in 1523, 
leaving ' Dierum Genialium,' the first edition nf which was 
printed at Rome, under the title of ' Alexandri de Alex- 
andre Dies Geniales,' fol. 1522, and several times since ; but 
the edition of Leyden, in 2 vols. 8vo. 1675, is the most 
esteemed. He also wrote, ' Dissertationes IV de Rebus Ad- 
mirandis qua: in Italia nuper contigerunt,' which have been 
incorporated with the preceding. 

Alexander, le Charpenlier, son of an English carpenter of 


the 15th century, wrote a book, entitled, 'The Destruction 
of Vices.' 

Alexander, Natalis, or Noel, a writer of the 17th century, 
was born in 1639, and died in 1724. His works are, 
1. ' Summa S. Thomae Vindicata,' &c. Paris. 1675. 2. ' Se- 
lecta Historic Ecclesiastics Capita,' 26 vols. 8vo. 1686-89 ; 
a new edition enlarged and entitled, ' Historia Ecclesiastica 
Veteris Novique Testamenti,' 8 vols. fol. 1699- 3. ' Theo- 
logia Dogmatica,' 10 vols. 8vo. Paris. 1693. 4. ' A Com- 
mentary on the Four Gospels.' 5. ' Statuta Facultatis 
Artium Thomistics Collegio Parisiensi Fratrum Prsdica- 
torum Instituta,' Paris. 12mo. 1683. 

Alexander, Trallian, wrote a history of the Turks in mo- 
dern Greek. 

Alexander, a Benedictine, was born in 1654, and died in 
1728. He wrote, 1. 'La Medicine et la Chirurgie des 
Pauvres,' 12mo. Paris, 1738. 2. ' Dictionnaire Botanique 
et Pharmaceutique,' 8vo. 

Alexander, of St. Theresa, a Carmelite, wrote in 1684, 
' Hydra Prophanarum Novitatum,' &c. 

Alexander, Wendoc, vide Wendoc. 

Alexander, John, a dissenting teacher, was born in 1736, 
and died in 1765, leaving, among other things, ' A Para- 
phrase upon the Fifteenth Chapter of the First Epistle to 
the Corinthians.' 

ALEXANDRA (Myth.) 'AXe^arcpa, a name given sometimes 
to Cassandra. 

Alexandra (Hist.) the name of four princesses, mentioned 
by Josephus. 

Alexandra, 'AXi'iaiCpa, or noVty, Salome, which signifies 
nearly the same thing, i. e. peace, pacifier, or helper ; wife 
of Alexander Jannaeus, was regent at his death, and died 
A. M. 3935, A. C. 69- 

Alexandra, the daughter of Aristobulus, wife of Philippion, 
who was killed by Ptolemy Mennreus, his father, in order 
that he might marry his widow, with whom he had fallen 
in love. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 14, c. 15. 

Alexandra, daughter of Hyrcanus, wife of Alexander, son 
of Aristobulus II, was the mother of Mariamne, wife of 
Herod, bv whom she was put to death. A. M. 3976, 
A. C. 28. ' Joseph. I 15, c. 11. 

Alexandra, daughter of Phazael, the son of that Phazael 
who killed himself when taken prisoner by the Parthians- 
She was the wife of Timius, a Cyprian prince. 

Alexandra, the nurse of Nero. Suet, in Ner. c. 50. 

ALEXANDRIA (Bibl.) 'AXcfrrcpeia, the town in Egypt de- 
scribed under Geography, of which Apollos was a native. 
Acts xviii. 24. St. Paul was placed in a ship of this city 
when carried to Rome. Acts xxvii. 6. 

Alexandria (Geog.) 'AXefcvcpeia, a name given to several 
places which were built by Alexander in the course of his 
conquests ; but the one which is supereminent over all the 
rest is the once illustrious city of Egypt, now an inconsider- 
able place, known among the inhabitants by the name of 
Scanderia. [A'ide Scanderia~] 

History of Alexandria. 
Alexandria was built by its founder 332 years A. C, who 
intended it, not only for the capital of Egypt, but of all 
his conquests. From its commodious situation for com- 
merce, it became the great mart of the eastern world, 
and increased in opulence and luxury so as to vie with 
Rome in grandeur. It was the residence of the Egyptian 
kings, and under the Ptolemies was the seat of learning 
as well as wealth. Its library, which had been collected 
at a vast expense from all parts of the earth, was of such 
an extent, that when consumed by the order of the caliph 
Omar, it is said to have supplied fuel for six months for 
400 baths that the city contained. After a siege of 13 
months this city was taken by Amry, in the name of the 


caliph, and treated with such rigour, that it lias since 
gradually declined to its present state. It does not now 
contain more than 4000 inhabitants ; hut there are still 
very many remains of its ancient grandeur, which render 
it particularly interesting to travellers ; among the num- 
ber of those that are most remarkable, are Pompey's pillar 
and two obelisks, called Cleopatra's Needles. In our own 
time this city has acquired an additional interest, by hav- 
ing been the theatre of two victories gained by the Eng- 
lish over the French in 1801, which led to the evacuation 
of Egypt by the latter. 

Ecclesiastical History of Alexandria. 

On the introduction of Christianity into Alexandria, a 
church was founded there by St. Mark, A. D. 52, which 
was afterwards erected into a patriarchate that held the 
second rank in ecclesiastical dignity next to that of Rome. 
The following is a list in chronological order of the patri- 
archs of Alexandria : — 

Patriarchs. Began to govern. Governed. 

Anianus 62 .... 22 years. 

Abilius, or Melianus 85 ... . 13 

Cerdon 98 9 

Primus 107 12 

Justus 120 11 

Eumenes 131 .... 12 

Marc, or Marcianus 144 ... , 10 

Celadion 153 14 

Agrippinus 16*7 ... . 12 

Julianus 180 9 

Demetrius 189 43 

Heraclas 231 16 

Dionysius 248 ... . 17 

Maximus 265 .... 17 

Theonas 282 19 

St. Peter the Martyr 300 11 

S. Achillas 312 .... some months. 

S.Alexander 312 .... 14 years. 

S. Athanasius 326 47 

George, a usurper 356 .... 

Peter II 373 8 

Timothy 380.... 5 

Theophilus 385 27 

S.Cyril 412 32 

Dioscorus 444 .... 7 

Proterus 452 15 

Timothy Elurus 457 20 

Peterlll 477 13 

Athanasius II 490 .... 7 

John Mela 497 9 

John Macrotta 507 .... 9 

DioscorusII 517.... 2 

Timothy III 519 16 

Theodosius 535 .... 28 

Peter IV 567 2 

Damianus 5 69 .... 24 

Anastasius 593 12 

Andronicus 604 .... 6 

? e "' amin ) 610 {•• ••■; 

John J I.. 10 

George C20 

Cyrus 630 10 

Benjamin restored. 

Peter 640 9 

Agathon 649 .... 19 

John 668 9 

Isaac 677 3 

Simon 680 23 

Alexander 703 24 


Patriarchs. Began to govern. Governed. 

Cosmus , 727 .... 1 

Theodoret 728 .... 11 

Chailus 739 .... 23 

Minas 762 .... 9 

John 772 25 

Mark 798 


Simon 836 .... 7 months. 

Joseph 836 .... 14 vears. 

Michael 850 1 

Cosmus II 851.... 8 

Sanutus 859 21 

Chuilus II 880 .... 27 

See vacant. 

Gabriel 913 11 

Cosmus III 924 10 

Macarius 934 .... 24 

Theophanes 958 .... 4 

Minas II 962 18 

Ephrami 980 2 

Philothteus 982 .... 22 

Zachariah 1005 2S 

Sanutius 1032 15 

Christodulus 1047 30 

Cyril 1078 14 

Michael 1092 9 

Mairus 1102 26 

Gabriel 1129 14 

Michael 1 146 ... . 9 mouths. 

John , 1 146 .... 20 years. 

Marc 1 167 22 

John 1189 17 

See vacant. 

Cyril 1 235 .... 7 months. 

See vacant. 

Athanasius 126l.... 11 

Gabriel 1252 1 

John 1262 .... 29 years. 

Theodosius 1293 6 

John 1300 20 

John 1320 6 

Benjamin 1327 11 

Peter. 1340.... 8 


John 1365 

And others to the present time, of whom exact dates have not 
been preserved, their office being now little more than no- 
minal. Diodor. Sicul. 1. 17; Strab. 17; Joseph, de Bell. 
Jud. ; Plin. 1. 5 ; Ptol. 1. 4 ; Pint, in Alc.raitd. ; Arrian. 
Alexand. Expcd. ; Q. Curt. Hist. ; Hirodian. 1. 4, cce. ; 
Ammian. Marcellin. 1. 22 ; S. Athanas. A/xil. ; .V. E/tiphtm. 
Htcrcs. 68 ; Chron. Alexandrin. ; Leo African. Descripl. 
Afric. ; Marmol. L'AJ'riquc Scaligcr, Pctavius, Mic- 
cioli, fyc. 
Alexandria, or Alessandria, a town in the duchy of Milan, 
and a bishop's see, was built in 1 170, and called after pope 
Alexander III. It has a strong castle, which was frequently 
taken during the wars in Italy. It is seated on the Tanaao, 
40 miles E. Turin, and 50 S. S.W. Milan. Lon. 8° 30' E. 
lat. 44° 50' N. 
Alexandria (Ntunis.) the capital of Egypt, struck medals 
in honour of Antony ; Augustus ; Livia, or Julia ; Drusus, 
junior; Claudius; Antonia ; Messalina ; Agrippina ; Nero; 
( htavia Posmea ; Galba ; Otho ; Vitellius ; Vespasian ; 
Domitilla ; Titus; Julia, daughter of Titus; Domitian ; 
Nerva ; Adrian ; Sabina ; Antinous; L. jElius Ctcsar; An- 
toninus Pius; M. Aurelius Ca;sar ; M. Aurelius Antoninus; 
Faustina, junior; L. Venis; Lucilla; Commodus; Crispina ; 


Pertinax ; Septimius Severus ; Caracalla; Geta; Heliogaba- 
lus ; Julia Paula ; Julia Aquilia ; Annia Faustina ; Julia 
Scemia; Julia Maesa; Alexander Caesar; Alexander Severus ; 
Maximums ; Gordianus Africanus ; Balbinus ; Pupienus ; 
Gordianus Pius ; Tranquillina ; Philippus, senior ; Otacilia 
Severa ; Philippus, junior ; Trajanus Decius, &c. ; to the 
reign of Alexander the usurper under Maxentius. The in- 
scriptions AA. AE. AAE3. Air. AAESANAPEA, AAEE- 
ANAPEQN, AAESANAPINiiN ; but the greater part of the 
imperial medals of Alexandria are without the name ; in- 
stead of which they have the letters A, B, T, A, &c. to 
mark the year of the prince's reign. The symbols employed 
by the Alexandrians on their medals were the Ibis, Hippo- 
potamus, ears of corn, the lion, and others, which were 
common to the whole country, or to Africa. 
A medal of Adrian represents, as in the 
annexed figure, Alexandria in the form of 
a woman sitting on the ground having, on 
her right, and at her feet, ears of corn, and 
resting on a basket full of fruits, indicative 
of plenty. Gollz. Numm. Imperat. ; VaiU 
lant. Num. Grcec. et Num. Imperat. Roman. : 
Putin. Numis. Imperat. ; Morcll. Thesaur. Imperat.; Begcr. 
Thes. Braid. ; Froel. Adpendic. ; Peller. Rec. des Med. «c 

Alexandria, a town in Troas, is distinguished on medals 
by the inscriptions COL. ALE. TROA, or COL. ALEX. 
TRO. &c. It struck medals of Trajan, Adrian, Antoninus 
Pius, M. Aurelius, Verus, Commodus, Crispina, Severus, 
Julia Domna, Caracalla, Geta, Heliogabalus, Julia Paula, 
Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Msesa, Alexander Severus, 
Manila, Maximianus, Maximus, Gordianus Pius, Philippus 
senior, Trajanus Decius, &c They also struck some medals 
as an independent state, bearing the inscriptions AAE. 
APON ALTOAAQNOS 2MIN9E02 SrE ; this last inscrip- 
tion defines its situation near the river Scamander, and the 
epocha is supposed to be dated from its foundation by Alex- 
ander the Great. Apollo Smintheus, whose name is given 
in the two last inscriptions, and who was the tutelary deity 
of the place, is most frequently represented on its medals, 
where Apollo stands with his bow bent. Vaill. Num. Col. ; 
Patin. Nu?n. Imp. Rom. ; Mus. Pcmbrok. ; Freeh. Not. 
Eleni. ; Eckel. Num. Vet. 

Alexandria, a town of Cilicia, near the Issus, is distin- 
guished on its medals by the inscription AAESANAPEiiN 
KAT. ICCON ETOYC ALTP ; i. e. Alexandrinorum ad 
Issum anno 181. The epocha is here reckoned from the 
period of its foundation by Pompey, U. C. 686, A. C. 67. 
Vaill. Num. Grate. 

ALEXANDRINI, de Neustain Julius (Biog.) successively 
physician to the emperors Charles V, Ferdinand I, and 
Maximilian II, was bom in the 16th century, and died at 
the age of 84 in 1590, leaving commentaries on the works 
of Galen. 

ALEXANOR (Myth.) 'AXttavwp, a son of Machaon, who 
built a temple in Sicyon to his grandfather jEsculapius, and 
received divine honours after his death. Pans. 1. 2, c. 11. 

ALEXANUM (Geog.) a town of the Salenti, now Ales- 

ALEXARCHUS (Biog.) 'A\da PX oc, a Greek historian, 
mentioned by Plutarch and Servius. Pint, in Parall. c. 7 ; 
Scrv. in JEneid. 1. 3, v. 334. 

ALEXAS (Hist.) "AXc^ac, the minion of Mark Antony, who 
caused his divorce with Octavia that he might marry Cleo- 
patra. He is supposed to be the same as the Alexander 
mentioned by Josephus, whom Augustus put to death. Plut. 
in Vit. Anton.; Joseph, de Bell. Jud. 1. 1, c. 15. 

Alexas, a favourite with Herod the Great, whom he com- 


pelled his sister Salome to marry. Joseph. Antiq. Jud 
1. 17- 
ALEXIA (Geog.) vide Alesia. 

ALEXIARES (Myth.) 'AXefaipne, a son of Hercules by Hebe. 

Alexiares (Geog.) a place in Boeotia, mentioned by" Pausa- 
nias, 1. 9, c. 25. 

ALEXIBIOS (Biog.) 'AXc£z/3i'oc, an Arcadian, and a victor 
at the Olympic games, mentioned by Pausanias. 

ALEXICACUS (Myth.) 'AAffrWoc, depulsor malorum, what 
the Latins call averruncus, the averter of evils. 1. A sur- 
name given to Apollo by the Athenians, because he delivered 
them from the plague that raged at Athens during the 
Peloponnesian war. Pans. 1. 1, c. 2. 2. A surname given 
to Hercules for the assistance he afforded to his votaries 
who were afflicted with diseases. Varr. Tie hat. Ling. 1. 6, 
c 5 ; Lactant. 1. 5 ; Ccel. Rhodig. 1. 16, c. 19- 

ALEXINUS (Biog.) 'AXtflroe, a native of Elis, and disciple 
of Eubulides, was remarkable for his great strength, as also 
for his opposition to Aristotle and Zeno the Cynick. He 
died from the prick of a reed, which he received as he was 
swimming across the Alpheus. Diog. Laert. in Vit. Euclid. 

ALEXION (Biog.) a physician, the intimate friend of Cicero. 
Cic. ad Attic. L 13, ep. 25. 

ALEXIS (Hist.) vide Alexius. 

Alexis, Michacloivitz, succeeded his father, Michael Theodo- 
rowitz, as czar of Russia in 1546, and died after a useful 
reign of thirty years. He was the father of Peter tin- 

Alexis (Biog.) a statuary, and disciple of Polvcletes in the 
87th Olympiad. Plin. 1. 34, c. 8. 

Alexis, a comic poet, the uncle of Menander, flourished in 
the time of Alexander the Great, who composed several 
pieces quoted by the ancients. Gi/ruld. de P. Hist. 1. 7 ; 
Voss. de Poet. Gr. 1. 8. 

Alexis, an historian, mentioned by Athenaeus. At hen. 1. .;, 
9, &c. 

Alexis, the slave of Asinius Pollio, whom Virgil reproaches 
for his indifference to him. 
Virg. Eclog. 2, v. 6. 

O crudelis Aleii, nihil mea carmina curas. 
Martial also speaks of him as in the service of Maecenas, 
the favourite of Augustus, who is addressing Virgil in allu- 
sion to the loss of his estate. 
Mart. 1. 8, epig. 56. 

Risit Tuscus eques, paupertatemque malignam 
Reppulit, et celerijiissit abirefuga. 
Accipe divitias, et vatum maximus esto ; 
Tu licet et nostrum, dixit, AUxin, antes. 

Serv. in Virg. 

Alexis, a Piedmontese, is the reputed author of a work en- 
titled ' Secrets,' 8vo. Basle, 1536. 

Alexis, William, a benedictine monk of the 15th century, 
left various pieces of poetry which were highly esteemed in 
his day ; as ' Le Grand Blazon des Fausses Amours,' 1 6mo. 
and 4to. Paris, 1493, &c. 

ALEXIUS (Hist.) the name of five Greek emperors, and 
other princes. 

Greek Emperors of this Name. 

Alexius, Comnenus, succeeded Isaac his father, and died iii 
1118, in the 37th year of his reign. His life was written 
by his daughter Anna Comnenus, and others. Anna Com- 
nen. in Vit. ; Zonaras. et Glycas. apud Scriptor. Hist. 

Alexius, succeeded his father Manuel Comnenus, surnamed 
Porpkyrogenitus, in 1180, and was strangled by Andronicus 
Comnenus in 1183. Nicetas apud Script. Hist. Byz. Qui. 

Alexius, surnamed Comnenus and Pc-rphyrogcniius, which 


names he substituted for Angelus, deprived his brother Isaac 
of bis kingdom, and his eyes in 1195, and was expelled to 
make way for the legitimate emperor in the eighth year of 
his reign. Nicelns, <ye. 

Alexius, sumamcd the Younger, shared the empire with his 
father Isaac in 120.'J, but was strangled after a few months' 
reign by Alexius Murtznphlus. Nicetas, Gregoras, 8fC. 

Alexius,' surnamed Murtzuphlus, on account of his being the 
murderer of the preceding, was precipitated, by order of his 
successor Baldwin, from a lofty pillar into a square at Con- 
stantinople called the Bull, after a few months' reign in 
1204. Nicelas, Gregoras, &e. a pud Script. His!. Byzanl. ; 
Baron. Annul. ; Spondan. Conlin. Baron. 

Other Princes of this Name. 

Alexius, a Sicilian, who wanted to make himself emperor in 
1204, but was seized and punished. Nicetas, SfC. 

Alexius, surnamed Ibancus, another unsuccessful pretender 
to the throne at the same time as the preceding was put to 
death. Nicelns, §c. 

Alexius, Petrowitz-Czarowitz, son of Peter the Great, was 
found guilty of a conspiracy against his father, and con- 
demned to death ; but the sentence was remitted, and he 
died of apoplexy in 1718. 

Alexius, Aristinus (Ecc.) a deacon of Constantinople, was 
present at the council of 1166', which cited Nicephorus, a 
patriarch of the Jews. He wrote ' Annotations on a Col- 
lection of Canons.' 

ALEXIUS, bishop of Melfi, in Naples, of the l6th century, 
delivered a discourse to the fathers of the council of Lateran 
previous to the third sitting. ' De Ratione Synodarum Ha- 
bendarum Optima, et Concordia? Necessitate.' 

Alexius, a metropolitan of Nice, composed canticles on the 
martyr Demetrius. 

Alexius, St., a Roman of noble extraction in the fourth 
century, of whom many wonderful things are related by 
ecclesiastical writers. 

Alexius, a patriarch of Constantinople, was elected after 
Eustachius in 1025, and retained his seat in spite of all op- 
position till 1043. 

Alexius, Vincent (Biog.) a lawyer of Perouse, left some 
lectures and decisions at his death in 16] I. 

Alexius, a dominican and inquisitor of Perouse, wrote, 1. ' A 
Poem on the Plague,' in Latin. 2. ' A History of the 
Kings of Judah and Israel.' 3. ' Treatises on the Holy 
Trinity,' &c. 

ALEXOX (Biog.) of Mt/ndus, was the author of fabulous 
narratives, whom Diogenes Lacrtius quotes in iivaru uvdlKuy, 

Ding, in lit. ThaletA. 1. 
ALEXOWITZ, Theodore (Hist.) the son of Alexis Michacl- 
owitz, succeeded his father in 1<>76, and died, to th*e inex- 
pressible grief of his subjects, in lfiK2. 

ALEYN, Charles (Biog.) an English poet in the reign of 
Charles I, died about 1 040. His works are, 1. ' Two Poems 
on the famous Victories of Crcssi and Poietiers.' 2. * A 
Poem in Honour of King Henry VII.' 8. 'The History 
i f Eufialus and Lueretia,' translated from the Latin of 
OS Sylvius ; besides some smaller pieces. 

ALFARO, i/ Gamon Juan d' (Biog.) a Spanish painter of 

Cordova, was horn in 1640, and died in l680- lie painted 

much in the style of Van Dyke. Of his paintings there are 
' Madrid an ' Incarnation,' a ' Guardian Angel,' and ' A 
1'nrtrait of Don Pedro Calderona.' Cumberland, Span. 

Paint, vol. ii. 
ALFATERNA (Geog.) or Nuceria, 'AXi^artpfq »'} Nuttpia, 

according to Diodorua a town of Campania, beyond mount 

Vesuvius; the people are called Alfaterni. Diod. 1. 9 ; 

/"in. ]. ::. c. 5. 
AI.FI'.X, William Van (Biog.) secretary at the court of Hol- 


land in 1631, collected a vast quantity of formulas, which 
he published under the title of ' Papegay.' 
Alpen (Geog.) or Alphenus, formerly called Alfenus, where, 
in 1464, Jacoba, countess of Holland, gave battle to Philip, 
of Burgundy, and beat him. 
ALFENUS (Hist.) or Alphenus Sext, one of those who were 
proscribed by Sylla, according to Cicero. Cic. pro Quint. 
c. 5. 
Alfenus, Varus, a native of Cremona, rose from the condi- 
tion of a cobler to be first consul at Rome, A. D. 2. He is 
the same as Horace calls the Vafer Alfetius. 
Hor. 1. i, sat. 3, v. 130. 

Hi Alfenus infer omni 

Ahjecto inslrumatto artis, ctausaaue taoerna 
Sutor erat ; sapiens operil sic optimus omuls 
Est opifej solus ; sic rex. 

Catull. Epigramm. 

Atfeue immemor utque unanimis false sodalibus. 
He was a distinguished lawyer, having studied under Sul- 
pitius Severus, and left some works on that subject, which 
were the first of the kind called digests. Aid. Cell. 1. 6, c. 5. 

Alfenus, Varus, vide Alphenus. 

Alfenus (Geog.) a town of Holland, now called Alfen, 
which is supposed to derive its name from Alfenus, or 
more probably from Claudius Albinus, who was sent by the 
emperor Commodus into France. 

ALF1ERI, Victor, or Vittorio (Biog.) an Italian poet of 
Piedmont, was born in 1740, and died in 1803. He wrote 
' Cleopatra,' a sort of tragedy ; and ' The Poets,' a farce ; 
' Philip II;' ' Polinice;' 'Antigone;' ' Agamemnon,' &c. 
to the number of fourteen tragedies ; ' A Translation of 
Sallust;' besides 13 volumes of posthumous works, consist- 
ing of translations and dramas. 

ALFINGER, Nicholas (Hist.) a merchant adventurer, was 
sent out by a trading company of Venice, in 1529, to make 
a settlement in Venezuela, of which they obtained a grant 
from Charles V ; but he committed such cruelties on the na- 
tives that he was killed, and the expedition failed. 

ALFIUS, C. (Hist.) a prator mentioned by Cicero, as quaes- 
tor in the affair of Plancus. Cic. pro Plane, c. 1 7- 

ALFORD, Viscount (Her.) the title commonly borne by the 
eldest son of the earl of Brownlow. 

Alfokd, Michael (Biog.) properly called Griffith, an English 
Jesuit, was born in London in 1587, and died in l6.52. 
He wrote, 1. ' Britanniea lllustrata,' 4to. Antv. Ki41. 
2. ' Annales Eeelesiastici Britannorum, Saxonum, et Anglo- 
rum,' &c. 

ALF It AG AN (Biog.) m Alfergaui, surnamed Muhamed, or 
Ahmed Ben Colhair, flourished, according to Abulfarajius, 
about the time of Al-Mamon, i. e. A. D. 825. He wrote 
' Rudimcnta Astronomic,' translations of which were print- 
ed in 4to. in 1493, 1537, 1590, and I669, the two latter 
under the eye, first of Christman, and second of Golius ; 
besides other works on solar horaries, astrolabes, and sine'. 

AbuU'arag. Hist. Dinatt. 9 ; Golius. Pre/', in Alfergan.j Hist. 

des Mall). 
ALFRED, the Great (Hist.) the youngest son of Ethel wolf, 
king of the West Saxons, was born in 849, :lt Wannating 
or Wanading, supposed to be Wantage, in Berkshire, and 
died after a glorious reign of 28 years, in 900, as is generally 
supposed. To represent the life and character of this 
prince, as he is universally described, would be to give a 
catalogue of all human virtues. Among his public acts he 
is most distinguished as the complete restorer, if not the 
original founder of the University of Oxford, which is 
happy to owe its origin to such a prince ; and is acknow- 
ledged to be the repairer or rebuilder of all the monasteries 
in the kingdom, to which he also added Others of his own 
founding ; and lastly, as the framer of a complete system of 
legislation, comprehending in it, among other peculiarities, 


the trial bv jury, which is attributed to him by some as an 
ori<rinal invention ; but he is supposed by others to have 
only adopted it from the ancient Saxons, into his system of 
jurisprudence. His works, as an author, are exceedingly 
numerous, as the following list sufficiently testifies : 1 . ' Bre- 
viarum quoddam Collectum ex Legibus Trojanorum,' 1. 1. 
2. ' Visisaxonum Leges,' 1.1. 3. ' Instituta Quaedam,' 
1.1. 4. ' Contra Judices Iniquos.' 5. ■ Acta Magistratum 
Suorum,' 1.1. 6. ' Regum Fortuna? Varite.' 7- ' Dicta 
Sapientum,' 1.1. 8. ' Parabohe et Sales,' 1.1. 9- ' Collec- 
tiones Chronicorum.' 10. ' Epistohe ad Wulfsigium,' 1. 1. 
11. ' Manuale Meditationum.' Besides numerous transla 
tions, of which the following are the principal : 12. ' Dia- 
logus D. Gregorii.' 13. ' Pastorale Ejusdem Gregorii.' 
14. ' Hormestam Pauli Orosi,' 1. 1. 15. ' Bcetius de Conso- 
latione,' 1. 5. 16. ' Asserii Sententise,' 1. 1. 17- ' Martina 
Leges,' 1. 1. 18. ' Malmutinae Leges,' 1. 1. 19- 'Gestae 
Anglorum Beda>,' 1. 5. 20. < iEsopi Fabulse.' 21. ' Psal- 
terium Davidicum,' 1. 1. 
Alfred, surnamed the Bastard, began to reign as king of 
Northumberland in 6S5, and died in 705. He was a lover 
and patron of learning. 
Alfred (Ecc.) an English bishop of the 10th century, 
wrote a treatise, 1. ' De Xatura Rerum.' 2. ' A Life of 
St. Adeline.' 3. ' A History of his Monastery at Malms- 
Alfred, (Biog.) a canon of York, of the 12th century, wrote, 
' Deflorationes Galfredi;' ' De Gestis Regum Britannia?;' 
• De Gestis Regum Angliae,' &c. 
Alfred, surnamed the Philosopher of the 13th Century, 
wrote A Translation of Five Books from Boetius, ' On 
the Consolations of Philosophy;' A Translation of four 
Books of Aristotle on Meteors, and one on Vegetables ; ' De 
Xaturis Rerum;' ' De Educatione Accipitrum;' ' De 
Motu seu Vita Cordis.' 
ALFRIC (Ecc.) of St. Albans, as he was called, was abbot 
of a monastery of that name, and wrote a liturgy and other 
treatises, not now extant. 
ALFWOLD (Hist.) king of Northumberland, succeeded 

Eardulf, and reigned only two years. 
ALGAROTTI, Francis (Bios;.) an Italian writer of Venice, 
was bom in 1712, and died in 1764. His writings, accord- 
ing to the last and most correct edition of Venice, 1790 — 
17.94, form 17 vols. 8vo., and consist of ' Memoirs of his 
Life and Writings;' 'An Analysis of the Newtonian Sys- 
tem;' 'Pieces on Architecture,' &c. ; ' Travels in Russia ;' 
' Letters on Painting,' &c. ecc. 
ALGAZELI, Altott-Hamed-Mithammed (Biog.) an Arabian 
philosopher, was born at Thous in 1058, and died in 1111, 
leaving, among other things, 1. ' A Treatise on Religious 
Sciences.' 2. ' Philosophica et Logica Algazeli.' 
ALGER (Biog.) or Algerus, a learned priest of the church 
of Liege in the 12th century, died in 1131, leaving among 
his works, 1. ' A Treatise on Mercy and Justice,' published 
by Martenne, in the fifth volume of his ' Anecdotes.' 2. ' A 
Treatise on the Sacraments.' 
ALGERIA (Gcog.) a town and province of Africa, now 

ALGERUS, Pomponius (Ecc.) a native of Nola in Italy, 
who, having embraced the protestant religion, which he 
zealously taught, was condemned to be burnt by Paul IV, 
and suffered this punishment in the 24th year of his age. 
ALGEZIRA (Gcog.) a province of Turkey, in Asia, now 

usually called Diarbek. 
ALGEZIRAS (Geog.) a town of Andalusia, in Spain, on 
the Straits of Gibraltar, with an ancient citadel in ruins ; 
seven miles \V. of Gibraltar. This town was taken by Al- 
phonso XI, in 1344, after the memorable battle which he 
gained over the infidels in Spain. 
ALGHIZIj Galeazzo (Biog.) an architect and mathematician 

VOL. I. 


of the l6th century, was employed by the duke of Ferrara, 
and also wrote a work, entitled, ' Delle Fortificazioni,' Ve- 
nice, 1570. 

Alghizi, Thomas, a lithotomist of Florence, was born in 
1669, and died in 1713, in consequence of an accident from 
the bursting of his gun. He was a successful operator, par- 
ticularly in the case of pope Clement XI ; besides which he 
wrote a work on the subject, entitled, ' Lithotomia Overo 
del Cavar la Pietra,' fol. Firenzi, 1707- 

ALGIAPTU (Hist.) Aljatu, O/giaptu, or Olgiaitu, the son 
of Argoun, succeeded his brother Gazan on the throne of 
the Moguls in Iran, in the year of the Hegira 703, A. D. 
1313, and died in 716 of the Hegira, A. D. 1326, after a 
just and prosperous reign of 12 years, in which he showed 
great zeal for the Mahometan faith, particularly according 
to the sect of Ali. He was the eighth successor of Jenghiz 
Khan. Khond. Hist. Per. 

ALGIDUM (Geug.) a town of Latium, or as is mostly be- 
lieved of the vEqui, near Tusculum, and 12 miles from 
Rome, now Rocca del Papa. There is a mountain of the 
same name near it, now Silva del Aglio, which Horace calls 
Horace, 1. 1, od. 21, v. 5. 

Vos Utam funis, et nemorum coma 
Quticunque aut gelido prominel Algida. 

In another place he calls it nivalis, 1. 3, od. 23. 

Nam qine nivali pasritur Algido, 
Deoota querats inter et ilices. 

Also fertilis, 1. 4, od. 4. 

Duris ut ilex toiisa hipennibus 
Nigra feraci frondis in Algido. 

Hence the epithet Algida, Ovid. Fast. 1. 2. 
\ iderat in catnpis Algida terra Riic. 
ALGIERS (Gcog.) a country of Barbary, which formed a 
considerable part of the Mauritania Ccesaricnsis of the an- 
cients, is bounded on the X. by the Mediterranean, on the 
E. by the river Zaine, which divides it from Tunis ; on the 
YV. by the Mulvya and the mountains of Trava, which part 
it from Morocco ; and on the S. by the Sahara or Xumidian 
desert. Its four principal provinces are Tremecen, formerly 
a kingdom ; Algiers Proper ; Bujeyah, or Bugia ; and Ten- 
nez, or Tenes ; to which may be added Oran, Bona, Con- 
stantina, Couco, Labez, &c. 8rc. Besides Algiers, the capi- 
tal, the principal towns, with their ancient names, are as 
fellow : 








Constantina, or 

Cirta Julia, or 


Tclensen, or 


Ciiia Xumidicc 


Gigeri, or Jigel 









Algiers, the capital of Algiers, or the Algerine state, is built 
on the side of a mountain next the harbour, which is washed 
by the Mediterranean. It is 30 miles W. of Tunis, long. 
3" 48' E., lat. 36° 40' X. Its present name, Algezair, or Al- 
Jezair, corrupted into Algiers, is an Arabic word signifying 
" The Island," because there was an island before the city, 
to which it has since been joined by a mole. 

Hislori/ of Algiers. 

Algiers is said to have teen called Julia Ccesarea, in honour 
of Julius Ca?sar, by the Romans, who greatly embellished 
it, since which it has been considerably enriched by its 
Turkish inhabitants ; but, according to Paul Diaconus, 
it was totally demolished by the Vandals, who wrested 
this kingdom from the Romans. It afterwards fell into 
the hands of the Greeks, till about the year 663, when 
the Mahommedan Arabs overrunning all this part of 



Africa, continued to govern it for some centuries with 
little interruption ; but after the expulsion of the Moors 
from Spain, Algiers and other kingdoms of Barbary 
formed themselves into piratical states, which became very 
formidable to the neighbouring kingdoms of Europe. 
The Algerine state is a military despotism, which, from 
the time of Barbarossa, has been governed either by 
Turkish bashas or viceroys sent from Constantinople, or 
by deys of their own choosing. The town of Algiers has 
been exposed to several sieges and bombardments, but not 
in all cases with equal success. The emperor Charles V 
lost a fine fleet and army in an expedition against it in 
1541. The English burnt their vessels in the harbour in 
1635 and 1670. In 1688 it was bombarded and almost 
destroyed by the French; and in 1755 the Spaniards 
made a descent near the city with a formidable army, but 
were defeated with great slaughter. In 1784 they again 
sent a powerful fleet to attack the forts, but they were re- 
pelled by the Algerines, although they made eight suc- 
cessive attacks with great bravery. To England has been 
reserved the honour of putting a period to the outrages 
which have so long afflicted Europe. An expedition was 
sent out in 18 lG under lord Exmouth, which, after a 
desperate conflict, reduced the Algerine fleet to ashes, and 
entirely destroyed the batteries by which the harbour was 
defended, so that the dey, having no other resource left, 
submitted to the humiliating terms imposed, namely, of 
restoring all his present captives without ransom, and 
abolishing Christian slavery for ever, a treaty which, in all 
probability, he will never be able materially to violate. 
ALGOT I. (Hist.) a fabulous king of Sweden, succeeded 

Adolphus, long before the birth of our Saviour. 
Algot II, son of Tordus III, reigned from 582 to 606, dur- 
ing which time he rendered the Russians tributary. 
ALHACA {Hist.) or Alharam, king of the Moors in Spain, 
reigned 26 years, 10 months, and 15 days, and died in the 
year of the Hegira 206, A. D. 81 6, leaving his son Abde- 
niman his successor. Marian. Hist. Hispnn. 
Alhaca, king of Cordova, reigned 1 6 years, and died in the 
year of the Hegira 366, A. D. 976, leaving his son Hissen 
in the tutelage of Mahomet Almansor. Rodcric. Toled. 
Hist. Rer. gest. in Hispan. 
AL HADI (Hist.) second son of Al Mohdi, succeeded his 
father, and died after a reign of little more than a year of 
poison, administered, as some historians maintain, by his 
own mother, in the year of the Hegira 170, A. D. 780. 
AL HAKEM {Hist.) Ebn Abd'alrahman Al, lord of 
Andalusia, died iii the year of the Hegira 366, A. D. 976, 
after a reign of 15 years and upwards, during which he had 
gained the love of his subjects. 
A 1, Hakem, caliph of Syria and Egypt, was murdered at the 
instigation of his own sister, after a reign of 25 years, in 
the year of the Hegira 410, A. D. 1020. 
ALHANSA {Geog.) a town of Grenada, supposed by some 
to have been built bv tin' Moors, hut lev Others to be the 
ancient Attigi*. Lon. 2° 46' W. lat. 37° N. 
ALHARAM {Hist.) vide Alhaca. 

ALHA1UTZ (Hist.) son of Moavias, was the first who exer- 
cised the art of fowling by the means of a little bird of prey, 

called the Sacre, which is in the Arabic Salzara, and sig- 
uilii s to see quickly. 
ALHAZEN (Biag.) AUacen, or Abd-Uazum, a mathematician 
of Arabia, but of what age is not known. He wrote, 

1. ' Optica; Thesaurus,' Bas. 1572, translated by Rimer. 

2. ' A Treatise cm Twilights.' 

ALI (Hist.) a name common to several princes and distin- 
guished persons among the Arabs. 

AMj son of Alxm-Thalcb, the cousin and son-in-law of Ma- 
homet, by his marriage with Mahomet's daughter Fatema, 
elected the caliph, or fourth successor of Mahomet ; 

but a strong party was formed against him, at the head of 
which was Ayesha, the widow of Mahomet, backed by 
Moawyah, governor of Syria, who disputed the caliphate 
with him. Their dispute being referred to the arbitration 
of two persons, who gave it against Ali, he was accordingly 
deposed, and was some time after killed by an assassin in a 
mosque, in the year 40 of the Hegira, A. D. 650, having 
reigned not more than four years and a half. Marmot. 
I'AJ'rique, 1. 2. 

Ali, the son of Hosein and grandson of the preceding, dis- 
tinguished himself at the battle of Kerbela, where he and 
his father were killed. 

Ali, another son of Hosein, surnamed Zein al Abcddin, i. e. 
the Ornament of the Religious, enjoyed the dignity of iman, 
and died in the year of the Hegira 75, A. D. 685. 

Ali, Ebn Musa, was declared by Al Mamun his successor, but 
died before him, in the year of the Hegira 204, A. D. 814. 

Ali, Ben Mohammed Al Giaovad, surnamed Askeri, the 10th 
or 12th iman of the race of Ali, died of poison, as is sus- 
pected, in the reign of Motavakel. 

Ali, Ebn Homed, killed Soliman, the 11th caliph in Spain, 
of the house of Ommayah, and ascended the Moslem throne 
in his place ; but having broken his word with Hayran, by 
whose assistance he effected his purpose, was dethroned and 
murdered in the same year, namely 407 of the Hegira, 
A. D. 1017. 

Ali, Ben Josef, the third king of Morocco, of the line of the 
Almoravides, ascended the throne in the year of the Hegira 
505, A. D. 1115, and was killed in a battle fought between 
him and Alphonso II, after a reign of five years. 

Ali, Curdi, a prince of the Curds in the time of Tamerlane, 
who gave great trouble to that conqueror as he approached 
their country. 

Ali, Thaheri, a prince who reigned in Jemen, or Arabia 
Felix, and was, as is said, of the race of the Ajubites. 

Ali, So/tan, was the 17th successor of Jenghiz Khan, in 
Great Buckaria. He died about the year of the Hegira 733, 
A. D. 1343. 

Ali, Bey, a prince of Kelat, revolted against Timur Bek, 
and after committing many acts of treachery, was put to 

Ali, Pasha, one of the greatest captains in the Ottoman em- 
pire, served under Amurath IV, Ibrahim, and Mahomet IV, 
and died in 1663. 

Ali, Bey, an adventurer and a formidable opponent to the 
Ottoman empire, was born in 1728. His father being a 
Greek priest, he was intended for that profession, but was 
one day surprised by robbers and carried to Grand Cairo, 
where he was sold to Ibrahim, a lieutenant of the Jani- 
saries, and from that condition rose to be bey, or governor of 
Egypt. He assisted the Russians against the Turks, and 
being engaged in a desperate conflict with Abou Dahab, one 
of his own generals and friends who had turned against 
him, he died in 1773, of the wounds he received, eight days 
after the battle, in the 45th year of his age. He had go- 
verned Egypt with so much wisdom and humanity, that 
the Egyptians deplored his death as a public calamity. 

Ali, Bey, first interpreter at the Ottoman court in the 17th 
eenturv, spoke 17 languages. He was a Pole by birth, and 
his real name was Albert-Bo-Bouski ; but being carried 
away bv the Tartars, and sold to the Turks, lie was brought 
up in their religion, notwithstanding he did not lose his 
regard for the Christian religion, and would in all proba- 
bility have come to England and entered the church if he 
had not died in 1675. He translated the catechism of the 
church of England, and the whole Bible, into the Turkish 
language, the latter of which remains in MS. in the library 
of Leyden ; besides which he composed a grammar and 
lexicon of the Turkish language, also ' Tractatus Alberti 
Bobovii, &c. de Turcarum Liturgia, Percgrinatione Meccana, 


Cireumcisione, jEgrotorum Visitatione, &c. cum Notis T. 
Hvde,' Oxon. 16£)1 ; and • Dialogi Turcici.' 
ALIACMON (Geog.) or Haliacnwn, a river of Macedonia 
flowing into the JEgean sea, now Pelecas. Claudian gives 
it the epithet of rapidus. 
BelL Get. v. 179- 

Et frustra rapidum damnant Aliacmona Bessi, 

Ca>s. Civ. Bell. 1. 3, c. 36 ; Lie. 1. 42, c. 53 ; Plin. I 4, 
c. 10. 

ALIAMET, James (Biog.) a French engraver, was born in 
1728, and died in 1788. Among his best engravings are 
six large plates, which represent the battle of the Chinese 
with the Tartars. 

Aliamet, Francis Germain, a brother of the preceding, is 
known in England by some engravings executed for Messrs. 

ALIATAN (Hist.) a king of the Arabians, in Spain, who 
took Lisbon, in conjunction with Alphonso II, king of 
Castille, and died in the year of the Hegira 20+, A. D. 814, 
while at the head of his army, which was going to attack 

ALICANT (Geog.) a sea-port of Valencia, in Spain, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Alone of Ptolemy and Mela, 
was taken from the Moors in 1264, by James I, king of 
Arragon. Its castle, which had been previously reckoned 
impregnable, was taken by the English in 1706, and again 
by the French and Spaniards, after a siege of almost two 
years, when part of the rock was blown up. It is seated 
on the Mediterranean, on a bay of the same name, 
85 miles S. Valencia, Ion. 0^ 32' W., lat. 38° 16' N. 

ALICE (Hist.) daughter of Theobald IV, count of Cham- 
pagne, married Louis VII king of France, by whom she 
had in 1165, a son called Philip Augustus. During her 
son's absence in the Holy Land she acted as queen regent, 
and died after a prudent government in 1206'. 

ALIGERNE (Ecc.) an abbot of Mont Cassin in 949, was 
famous for the discipline which he preserved in his abbey, 
and the zeal with which he defended the rights of his 

ALIGHIERI, Louis (Biog.) a lawyer of Verona, in the I6th 
century, whose family produced many distinguished men, 
among others the celebrated Dante. 

ALIGRE (Hist.) formerly written Haligrc, the name of an 
illustrious house, who held the seignory of Riviere for many 
years, and produced several great men, of whom the fol- 
lowing are the principal : 

Aligre, Stephen a", the first of that name, and the first 
chancellor of France, after having filled several important 
offices of state under Henry IV and Lewis XIII died in 

Aligre, Stephen d', son of the preceding, after filling many 
high offices, rose to the dignity of chancellor under Louis 
XIV in 1674, which he retained till his death, in 1677- 

Aligre, Francis d' (Ecc.) third son of the preceding, and a 
monk of the order of St. Augustin, was distinguished for 
his zeal and fidelity in the discharge of all his functions, 
ecclesiastical and civil. He died in 1712, aged 92. 

Aligre, Charles d', brother of the preceding, and abbot of 
S. Riquier, in Ponthieu, gave up his revenues to the value 
of 2000 livres, for the benefit of the monks of his abbey, 
and died in 1695. 

ALIMENTUS, L. Cincius (Biog.) an historian, who wrote 
an account of the second Punic war, in which he says he 
■was himself taken by Annibal. Livy quotes him on dif- 
ferent occasions. Livy, 1. 21, c. 38, &c. 

ALINDA (Geos.) "AXivca, a town of Caria, whose queen 
Ada adopted Alexander the Great as her son. Arrian. de 
Exped. Alex. 

Alinda (Numis.) a medal of this town represents a club, with 


the skin, &c. of a lion, within a crown of laurel, emblema- 
tical of Hercules ; inscription AAINAEiiN. 

ALIOXE (Geog.) a town of the Brigantes in Britain, now 

ALIPHERUS (Hist.) 'AXi^iypoc, the son of Lycaon, and 
founder of Aliphera, according to Pausanias. 

ALIPIUS (Ecc.) bishop of Tagasta, was the disciple and 
friend of St. Augustin, with whom he was baptized in 387, 
and lived the greater part of his life. 

Alipius (Hist.) a geographer of Antioch, who is supposed to 
be the same as was made governor of Britain, by the em- 
peror Julian, to whom he dedicated his work on geography. 
He was afterwards exiled for following magical divinations. 

ALIPRANDI, Bonamcntc (Biog.) an historian, or antiquary 
of Italv, died in 1417, leaving, among other things, a Me- 
trical Chronicle, or History of Mantua, which Muratori 
has published in the fifth volume of his ' Antiquitates Italic 
Mediae /Evi.' 

ALIRROTHIUS (Myth.) 'AX^eietoe, a son of Neptune, who 
was killed bv Mars for offering violence to Alcippe, his 
daughter. Mars was brought to trial by Neptune for this 
offence on the hill at Athens, which on that account is called 
Areopagus. Servius, however, gives a different account of 
Alirrothius's death. Apollodor. 1. 3 ; Pans. 1. 1, c. 21 ; Sen: 
J'irg. Georg. 1. 1, v. 18. 

ALISCHET( Hist.) a vizier of Algiaptu and Abusaid, pro- 
cured the death of his learned colleague Raschideddin. 

ALISCHIR (Hist.) a general of the sultan Hassan, who 
shared the government of Samarcaud with him, and in the 
end became absolute master of it by himself. 

Alischir, a prince or emir of Khorasan, in the year of the 
Hegira 904, A. D. 1514, had a rich library in the city of 
Heret, of which he allowed the inspection to the historian 

ALISE (Geos.) a village of Burgundy, in France, which is 
the ancient Alexia. [Vide Alesia.~] 

ALISO (Gcog.) 'EXiVwi', a river of Germany, flowing into 
the Lippe, near Paderbon, now Alme. Ptolemy mentions 
a place near the Rhine, which he calls "AXaaov. Fell. Pat. 

1. 2, c. 120 ; Tac Annul. 1. 2, c. 7 ; Dio. 1. 54. 
ALISONTA (Geog.) a river of Germany, which runs into 

the Maese, supposed to be the present Alsitz. Ausonius 
applies the epithet of f dux to it. 
Auson. Mosell. v. 370. 

Kec mini>r /ior, taciturn qui per sola phiguia labens 
Stringit Jrugiferus felix Alisontia ripas. 

ALITTA (Myth.) vide Alilat. 

ALIX, Peter (Biog.) abbot of St. Paill, in Besancon, in 
1632 ; wrote, 1. ' Dialogue entre Porte Noire et la Pillori.' 

2. ' Eponge pour effacer la Censure du P. Dom. Vernerey.' 

3. ' History of the Abby of St. Paul,' which has been at- 
tributed to him by Le Long, in his historical library of 

AL KADER, Billah (Hist.) was chosen to succeed Al T.iy 
in the caliphate, in the year of the Hegira 381, A. D. yyi, 
and died after a reign of upwards of 41 years. 

AL KAHER (Hist.) succeeded his brother Al Moktader on 
the Moslem throne, but was deposed, his eyes put out, and 
himself imprisoned, after a reign of not more than a year 
and seven months. Being released from prison by A] 
Mottaki, he was reduced to such poverty as to be obliged to 
beg his bread ; in which condition he died, in the year 1 f 
the Hegira 338 or 339, A. D. 948 or 949- 

AL KASEM, Ebn Hamuda (Hist.) a caliph of Andalusia, 
was more than once deposed and restored to the throne, and 
at length died, as is supposed, in prison, about the year of 
the Hegira 413, A.D. 1023. 

AL KAYED (Hist.) succeeded his father Hamed, the founder 
of a new dynasty in Africa, in the year of the Hegira 419? 
A. D. 1029, and died after a short reign. 
Q 2 


Al. KAYEM, Abul Kasem Mohammed (Hist.) succeeded his 
father Obeidallah, the first of the Fatemite caliphs (if 
Kairwan, in the year of the Hegira 821, A. D. (fit, and 

died in the year of the Hegira 335. 

Al kaye.m son of Aim Mohammed Oheidallah, suc- 
ceeded his father as second of the Fatemite caliphs of 

A I. kav km, Beamri'llah, succeeded his father Al Kadcr, as 
caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 422, A. D. 1032, 
and died after a reign of 44 years and nine months. 

ALKEMADE, Cornelius Can (Biog.) a Dutch antiquary, was 

• born in 1654, and died in 1737, leaving, 1. ' Dissertation 
on Tournaments.' 2. ' A Metrical Chronicle of Melis 
Stoke,' fol. I699 ; containing a history of Holland to 1337- 
3. ■ Muntspiegel der Graven van Holland.' 4. < A Treatise 
on Modes of Burial,' 8vo. Delft, 1713. 5. ' Kederlandsche 
Displechtigheden,' 3 vols. 8vo. 6. ' A Description of the 
Town of Brille,' besides some pieces of less importance. 

ALKIXDUS (Biog.) a mathematician of the 13th century, 
who left among other works, a treatise, ' De Radiis Stel- 

ALKINUM (Geog.) formerly a considerable town, now a 
village of Arabia Felix, called Alkhi. 

ALKMAR (Biog.) or Alkmaar Henry, a writer of the 15th 
century, who was the author of an old German work, en- 
titled ' Reineke de Voss,' or Reynard the Fox, a satire ; 
the earliest edition of which that has been yet discovered 
was printed by Gerard Leew in 1479. 

ALLA (Hist.) or EM, the first king of Sussex, landed in 
England with an army of Saxons in 477, and having made 
himself master of that part of the country, erected it into 
a kingdom, and died in 514, after a reign of 23 years. 
1'olyd. I 'erg. 

Ali.a, king of Northumberland, in England, succeeded Ida 
in the sixth century, and reigned with great glory for 30 
years. It was in his reign that Augustin came into England 
to convert the natives. 

ALLAD1US (Hist.) 'AXKaine, called by Cassiodorus Are- 
tmtlus, Remus, or Romulus, was the 13th king of the Latins, 
who succeeded his father Agrippa. 

ALLAINVAL, Leonor Jean Christine Suit/as a", (Biog.) a 
French dramatic and miscellaneous writer, who was born at 
Paris in 1 753, was the author of ' L'Embarras des Richesses;' 
' Tour de Carnaval ; ' ' Ecole des Bourgeois; ' ' Les Bigar- 
rures Calotines,' Sir. 

ALLAM, Andrea (Biog.) an English divine, who was born 
in [656, and died in 16"85; wrote, 'The Epistle,' con- 
taining an account of Dr. Cosin's life, prefixed to the doc- 
tor's book, entitled ' Ecclesite Anglicans Politeia in Tabulas 
Digests,' fol. Oxford. 1684; Additions and corrections to 
:i book entitled, ' Angliie Notitia,' or the Present State of 
England, besides the assistance he rendered Wood in his 

ALLAN', David (Biog.) an historical painter of Edinburgh, 
who died in 1 ~yf>- There are several engravings from his 
pictures, one of which was entitled ' The Origin of faint- 
ing,' or the Corinthian Maid drawing the Shadow of her 
Lover ; besides which there are four in aqua-tinta, by 
Paul Sandby, from drawings made by Allan when at 
I. irrki 

Allan, George, an attorney and antiquary of Darlington, in 
the county of Durham, wrote among other things, 1. ' A 
Sketch of the Life and Character of Bishop Trevor,' 1770'. 
.* ■ The Life "I' St. Cuthbert.' 3. • Collections relating to 
9b rborne 1 [ospital,' &c. 

ALLAKI), Claudius, a monk of the order of St. Antony, 
at Viennois, who died in 1 658; wrote, I. ' Le Crayon des 

Grandeur! de S. Etienne de Viennois.' 2. ' Mirroir des 
Ames Keligicuscs,' or the Life of Charlotte Flandrine. 
Allard, Guy, a native of Dauphiny, and counsellor to the 


king, died in 17 1 G, leaving among the number of his works 
1. ' Bibliotheque de Dauphine,' 12mo. 1680, a new edition 
of which was published in 1797- 2. ' Inscriptions de Gre- 
noble,' 4to. 1683. 3. ' Nobiliare du Dauphine,' 12mo. 
1671, 16'97- 4. ' Histoire Genealogique du Dauphine,' 
4 vols. 4to. 5. ' Les Gouvcrneurs et Lieutenants au Gou- 
vernement du Dauphine,' 12mo. 1704. 

ALLATIUS, or Alazzi Leo (Biog.) keeper of the Vatican at 
Rome, was born at Chios in 1586, and died in I669. He 
was a strenuous advocate of the see of Rome, in his works, 
of which the following are the principal, 1. ' De Ecclesise 
Occidentals et Orientalis Perpetua Consensione,' 4to. Colonn. 
1648. 2. ' De Utriusque Ecclesiae, &c. in Dogmate de 
Purgatorio Consensione,' 8vo. Rom. 16.55. 3. ' De Libris 
Ecclesiasticis Gracorum,' 8vo. Paris, 1645. 4. ■ De Templis 
Gnecorum Recentioribus,' 8vo. Colonn. 1645. 5. ' Greecse 
Orthodox* Scriptores,' 2 vols. 4to. Rom. 1652 and 1657- 
6. ' Symmiehta et Symmiha, sive Opuseulorum Gra?corum 
ac Latinorum,' &c. fol. Colonn. 1653. 7- ' De Mensura 
Temporum Antiquorum et proecipue Grsecorum,' 8vo. 
Colonn. 1645. 8. ' Apes Urban*,' 8vo. Rom. 1633. 
9- ' Dramaturgia,' &c. 

ALLECTUS (Hist.) a pretorian prefect, who slew Carausius 
in England, and took possession of his throne for three 
years, from 294 to 297, when Constantius Ciesar landing in 
Britain with an army, an engagement ensued, in which 
Allectus was killed, and his forces routed. Aurel. Fict. 

Ai.i.Ecrrs (Xumis.) medals are extant bearing 
the effigv of this usurper, as in the annexed 
figure, inscription, IMP. C. ALLECTUS 
I'ius Fit AUG.; on the reverse LiETITIA 
AUG. Comment. Trist. Hist.; Med. Num. 

ALLEGRI, Alexander (Biog.) an Italian bur- 
lesque poet of Florence, wrote among other 
things, ' Rime Piacevoli,' in four separate parts, 4to. Ve- 
rona, 1605, 1607, and 1613, also at Florence in 1608. 

Alleuri, vide Corregio. 

Allegri, Gregorio, an ecclesiastic and musical composer, was 
admitted in 16*29 as a singer into the Pope's chapel, and 
died in 1640. His principal piece of composition was his 
' Miserere.' 

ALLEIX, Richard (Biog.) son of a puritan clergyman of 
Ditchet, in Somersetshire, was born in 1611, and died in 
16*81. His writings consisted mostly of tracts, except his 
• Vindiciie Pietatis,' or a Vindication of Godliness, 1664-6. 

Allein, Joseph, a non-conformist preacher, was born in 
1633, and died in 1668, leaving many religious works. 

ALLEN, John ( archbishop of Dublin in the reign of 
Henry VIII, was barbarously murdered in an insurrection 
set on foot by Thomas Fitzgerald, eldest son of the earl of 
Kildare, in 1534. He wrote some treatises which remain 
in MS. 

Allen (Her.) the name of a family, which, after having been 
Icing seated in England, passed over into Holland, and thence 
into Ireland, when John Allen, Esq. who l>ore a captain's 
commission in the reign of king William, and was sworn of 
the privy council of his majesty George I, was advanced in 
1717 to the dignities of baron Allen, of Stillorgan, and 
viscount Allen. The arms, &C of this family arc as 
follow : 
Arms. Argent, two bars wavy, and a chief azure, on the 

latter an etoil between two escallops or. 
Crest. On a wreath, a bezant charged witli a talbot's head 

erased sable. 
Supporter!. Two talbota table. 
Motto. " Triumpho morte tarn vita." 

Allen, Thomas (Biog.) a descendant from Henry Alen, or 
Alan, lord of the manor of Buckenhall, in Staffordshire ; 
was, in 1542, admitted scholar of Trinity college, Oxford, in 


1561, and fellow in 1565 ; took his master's degree in 1567, 
and died in 1 632. He was a great mathematician, but is known 
principally as an antiquary, on which subject he made a 
collection of MSS. of which a catalogue is given in An- 
thony Wood's papers in the Ashmolean Museum. 

Allen, Thomas, a divine, who entered Brazennoze college, 
Oxford, in 1589, was elected a probationer fellow of Merton 
college in 1503, and died in 1638. He wrote ' Obser- 
vationes in Libellum Chrysostomi in Esaiam.' 

Allen, Thomas, a non-conformist, educated at Cambridge, 
was born in 1608, and died in 1673, leaving among his 
other works one on chronology, entitled ' Chain of Scripture 
Chronology, from the Creation to the Death of Christ, in 
Seven Periods,' 4to. 1639. 

Allen, Anthony, a lawyer and antiquary of Great Hadham, 
in Hertfordshire, took his bachelor's degree in King's col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1707, and his master's in 1711, and 
died in 1754. He collected a biographical account of the 
members of Eton college, which by his will he ordered to 
be placed in the library of the two colleges, and a third 
copy to be given to his patron, Mr. Speaker Onslow. He 
also made a collection of words in the English language, 
which have changed their original meaning, as villain, 
knave, &c. which was never printed. 

ALLEOX, Delac John Lewis (Biog.) a lawyer of Lyons, 
died at St. Etienne in 176S. He wrote, 1. ' Memoires pour 
servir a 1'Histoire Naturelle du Lyonnois, Forez et Beau- 
golais,' 2 vols. 12mo. 1765. 2. ' Melanges d'Histoire Na- 
turelle,' first in 2 vols. 12mo. 1763; afterwards a new edi- 
tion in 6 vols. 

ALLESTRY, Richard, a divine and provost of Eton, was 
born in 1619 at Uppington, in Shropshire, entered a com- 
moner of Christ Church in 1636, and after having done and 
suffered much in the royal cause, he died full of honour in 
1680. Besides some sermons of his which are extant, he 
wrote a small tract entitled ' The Privileges of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, in point of Visitation.' 

Allestry, Jacob, of the same family as the preceding, was 
entered at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1671, was elected stu- 
dent in 1672, took his degree in arts in l679> and died in 
1686. He published ' Examen Poeticum,' containing verses 
and pastorals, spoken in the theatre at Oxford in 1681, 
before James, duke of York, his duchess, and the lady 

ALLETZ, Pons Angiislin {Biog.) a French advocate of 
Montpellier, died at Paris in 1785, aged 82. He wrote on 
a variety of subjects, but his principal works are ' Les 
Princes celebres qui ont regne dans le Monde,' 4 vols. 12mo. ; 
and ' L'Histoire des Papes,' 2 vols. 12mo. ; ' LesOrnamens 
de la Memoire,' &c. 

ALLEY (Ecc.) or Allcigh, William, bishop of Exeter, was 
bom at Great Wycomb, in Buckinghamshire, in 1528, edu- 
cated at Eton and Oxford, and died in 1570 or 1571, ac- 
cording to Tanner; and 1576, according to Fuller. He 
wrote, 1. ' The Poor Man's Library,' 2 vols. fol. 1571- 
2. ' A Hebrew Grammar,' but whether published or not is 
uncertain. 3. * A Translation of the Pentateuch in the 
Version of the Bible,' undertaken by command of queen 
Elizabeth. 4. Three Epistles to Matthew Parker, in Latin, 
which are preserved in MS. in Corpus Christi college, Cam- 
bridge. 5. ' Judgment concerning the Doctrine and Dis- 
cipline of the Church,' in Strype's Annals. 

Alley, Peter, a great-grandson of the preceding, rector of 
Donamow, in Queen's county, Dublin, for 73 years, died in 
1763, at the great age of 110. 

ALLEYX, Edward (Biog.) a celebrated comedian in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James, but still better known as 
the founder of Dulwich college, was born in 1566, and 
died in 1626. He is said to have expended 10,000/. on the 
building of the college, which was endowed with 800/. per 


annum for the maintenance of one master, one warden, and 
four fellows ; also six poor men, and as many women, besides 
12 poor boys till the age of 14 or 16, when they were to 
be put out apprentice. 
ALLIA (Geog.) a river of Italy, flowing into the Tiber, now 
A/a. The Romans were defeated with great slaughter on 
its banks by the Gauls under Brennus, A. C. 390. 
Virgil alludes to this disaster. /En. 7, v. 717- 
Quosque secans infaustum interluil Allia nomen. 

Also Silius. 

Hsrrificis sese eitulit Allia ripis. 

The day called Alliensis Dies, on which this event took 
place, was reckoned among the infaitsti, or unlucky days. 
Ovid in Ibin. v. 47- 

Mac est in Fastis, cut dat gravis Allia nomen. 

Lucan. 1. 7, v. 409. 

Et dumnata diu Romanis Allia Fastis. 
Cic. ad Attic. 1. 1, ep. 4; Lie. 1. 5, c. 37; Val. Max. 1. 9, 
c. 11; Phtt. in Camill. ; Suet, in Vitcll. c. 7; Flor. 1. 1, 
c. 13. 

ALLIBOXD, Peter (Biog.) of an ancient family in Oxford- 
shire, was born in 1560, and died in 1628-9- He studied 
at Magdalen-hall, Oxford, and wrote principally translations 
from foreign religious works. 

Allibond, John, son of the preceding, is known as the author 
of a satire against the parliamentary visitors, and their party, 
entitled ' Rustica Academic Oxoniensis nuper Reformats; 
Descriptio, una cum Comitiis ibidem 1648 habitis.' 

ALLIEXI Forum (Geog.) a town of Italy, near Petavium, 
supposed to be now Ferrara. Tacit. Hist. 1. 3, c. 4 ; Cluv. 
Ital. Antiq. 

ALLIENA, gens (Nuniis.) a Roman family, which is known 
by some medals struck by Allienus, the proconsul, in the 
time of Julius Caesar, whose cause he espoused. Goltz. in 
Jul. Ca:sar. 

ALLIFiE (Geog.) 'AXktyai, or"A\\i^a, a town of the Sam- 
nites, near the river V ulturnus, famous for the making of 
cups ; whence the Pocula Atlifana of Horace. Silius calls 
it Allipe. 
Sil. 1. 8, v. 536. 

Allipe. et Ctanis conlemta semper Acerrtz. 

It is now Allifi. The inhabitants were called Allifani. Diod. 
1. 20, c. 35 ; Cic. Agrar. 1. 2, c. 25 ; Liv. 1. 8, c. 25, &c. ; 
Plin. 1. 3, c. 5 ; Frontin. de Colon. 

ALLIFAXUS ager (Geog.) the circumjacent country of Al- 
lifse. QVide Allifce~} Cicero calls it simply Allifanus. Cic. 
pro Plane, c. 9- 

ALLIOXI, Charles (Biog.) a physician and botanist of Pied- 
mont, was born in 1725, and died in 1804, leaving mam- 
works on botany and medicine, of which the following are 
the principal : 1. ' Pedemontii Stirpium Rariorum Specimen 
Primum,' 4to. Taurin, 1755. 2. ' Oryctographise Pede- 
montana; Specimen,' 8vo. Paris, 1757- 3. ' Enumeratio 
Stirpium Xicteensis,' Svo. Paris, 1757- 4- 'Synopsis Me- 
thodica Horti Taurinensis,' 4to. Taurin. 1762. 5. ■ Flora 
Pedemontana,' 3 vols. fol. Taurin. 1785. 6. « Auctuarium 
ad Flora Pedemontana," Taurin. 1789- 

ALLIX, Peter (Biog.) a divine of the church of England 
although a native of France, was born at Alencon in 1641, 
and died in 1717, leaving behind him many testimonies of 
his literarv abilities, and his theological zeal. Among the 
number of his writings are, 1. ' Dissertatio de Sanguine D. 
X. I. Christi.' 2. ' Dissertatio de Tertulliani Vita et Scriptis.' 
3. ' Les Maximes du Vrai Chretien,' joined with • Bonnes 
et Saintes Pensees pour tous les Jours du Mois,' Amsterdam, 
1687. 4. ' Reflections upon the Books of the Holy Scrip- 
ture, to establish the Truth of the Christian Religion,' re- 
published by Bishop Watson in his ' Tracts.' 5. ' Some 
Remarks upon the Ecclesiastical History of the Ancient 


Churches of Piedmont,' 4to. London, I69O. 6. ' Remarks 
upon the Ecclesiastical History of the Ancient Churches of 
the Albigenses,' 4to. Lond. 1692. 7- ' The Judgment of 
the Ancient Jewish Church against the Unitarians,' &c. 
ALLOBROGES (Geog.) a warlike nation of Gaul, near the 
Rhone, who inhabited that part of the country now called 
Sawn, Dauphine, and Vivarais. Having taken part with 
Annibal against the Romans, they were conquered by 
Fabius, who, on that account, received the surname of Alla- 
brogicus : but their ambassadors discovered Cataline's con- 
spiracy, in which they were solicited to take a part ; and, 
on that account, are commended for their fidelity by Cicero ; 
but Horace ascribes it to their fickleness. 
Epod. 16, v. 6. 

Kovisqu£ rebus iiifidelis Allobrox. 
Poli/b. 1. 3; Cms. de Bell. Call. 1. 1, &c.; Cic. in Catilin. 
Oral. 3; Sallust. in Jugurth. ; Liv. 1. 21, c. 31, &c. ; Veil. 
Pater. 1. 2, c. 10; Strab. 1. 4; Mela, 1. 2, c. 5 : Juven. Sat. 
7, v. 214; Floras, 1. 3, c. 10; Dio. 1. 37; PHn. 1. 3, 
c. 4, &c; Tacit. Hist. 1. 1, c. 66'; Ptol. 1. 2, c. 10; Plut. 
in Annib. 

ALLOBROX {Hist.) a name given by Berosus to the 
fifteenth king of the Gauls ; whence some have derived 
the name of the Allobroges. Dnpleix, Mem. des Guides, 
1. 2, c. 16. 

ALLOISI, Balthazar (Biog.) an historical and portrait 
painter, was born at Bologna in 1578, and died in 1638. 
He studied under the Caracci, and has been compared to 

ALLORl, Alexander (Biog.) called Bronzino, a painter of 
Florence, who successfully followed Michael Angelo, and 
died in 16*07, after having gained a great reputation. 

Allori, Christophano, son and disciple of the preceding, was 
born in 1577, and died at the age of 42, leaving many me- 
morials of his skill in the art of painting, particularly small 
pictures, wherein he introduced a number of minute figures 
executed with remarkable correctness and delicacy. 

ALLOTRIGES (Geog.) 'AMorptyte, or, as Casaubon will 
have it, 'AXrpiydvte ; an obscure people in the south of 
Spain. Strab. 1. 3. 

ALLOUETTE, Francis dc V (Biog.) who is styled Presi- 
dent de l' Allottelte, published in 1577 a work on the Nobility 
of France, a second edition of which was printed at Metz 
in 1597. A Treatise on the Origin of the French is also 
attributed to him. 

ALLUCIUS (Hist.) a prince of the Celtiberi, to whom Scipio 
Africanus restored his beautiful bride, who had fallen into 
his hands in the course of the war, U. C. 544, A. C. 210. 
Plutarch calls this prince Lucceius, Valerius Maximus, In- 
dibilis. Lie. 1. 26, c. 50 ; Pint, in Scip. Afric. ; Val. Max. 
I. 4, c. 3 ; Aid. Cell. 1. 6, c. 8. 

ALLUS (Hist.) a freedman of Augustus, who lent to Agrippa 
the Great a million pieces of silver. 

ALMACHARARIA (Geog.) or Ahmuharama, a town of 
Mocha, in Arabia Felix, supposed to be the ancient citv of 
Suphar, which was the most considerable in all Arabia. 

ALMACHIUS, Si. (Ecc.) a Christian who suffered martyr- 
dom in the prefecture of Alypius, and reign of Thcodosius. 
Baron. Annul. 

ALMADA, Andrew d' (Biog.) son of Anthony d'Almada, 
the second of that name, devoted himself to the study of 
theology, regardless of all the dignities to which he was enti- 
tled by his birth. He died in 16'42, leaving, as is said, a 
Treatise on the Incarnation. 

ALMAGRO, Diego (Hist.) one of the conquerors of Peru, 
and the rival of Pizarro, was of such obscure origin that 
he died not knowing his parents. By the assassinai ion of 
Pizarro, he gained the ascendancy for a time, but was after- 
wards defeated, and condemned to be strangled. 
Ai.MAGHO, Diego, son of the preceding, being vanquished in 


an attempt to vindicate his father's cause, was, with 40 of 
his adherents, beheaded in 1542. 

ALMAIN, James (Biog.) a professor of divinity in the col- 
lege of Navarre at Paris, was a native of Sens, and died 
young in 1515. He wrote, 1. ' De Auctoritate Ecclesue,' 
ecc. 4to. Paris, 1512. 2. ' De Potestate Ecclesiastica et 
Laica contra Ockam.' 

AL MAMUN (Hist.) or Abdallah III, otherwise called Ma- 
mun, Almaon, &c ; the son of Harun-al-Raschid, succeeded 
his brother Alamin in 814, and died in 833 in the 4Sth 
year of his age. He was an astronomer, and the patron of 
learning, having caused Ptolemy's Almagest to be translated 
into Arabic. E/-Macin. Hist. Saracen. 1. 2, c. 8 ; Abul- 
farag. Hist. Dynast.; Leo. African, de Illust. Arab. 

ALMANSOR (Hist.) or Almanzor, king of Cordova, suc- 
cessor to Alhaca in the year 975, made frequent wars on the 
Christians, and died in the year of the Hegira 293, A. C. 
1003. Roder. Hist. 1. 5, c. 16 ; Vas. Chron. ann. 975. 

Almansor, Joseph, king of Morocco, died from the shot of 
an arrow while besieging Santaren, a town of Portugal, in 
1158. Marmol. 1. 2, c. 35. 

Almansor, Jacob, a powerful king of Morocco, obtained the 
celebrated victory of Alcaros in Castille. Marmol. 1. 2, 
c. 36. 

Almansor, surnamed the Victorious, second caliph of the race 
of the Abassides, obtained the empire in the year of the 
Hegira 143, A. D. 753, and died after a reign of about 
22 years, during which time the city of Bagdad was rawed 
from the foundation, and became the residence of him and 
the future caliphs. Dioni/s. Telmarens. apud Jos. Sim. 
Assouan. ; Thcophan. Chronograph. ; El. Makin. Hist. 
Saracen, p. 104, &c. 

ALMANZA (Geog.) a small town of Murcia, in Spain, dis- 
tinguished by a victory which was gained by the French 
over the allies in 1707. It is situated on the frontiers of 
Valencia. Lon. 1° 10' W. lat. 38° 48' N. 

ALMARUS (Ecc.) JElmerus, Elmarus, or Elmeriis, abbot of 
St. Austin, in Canterbury, was made bishop of Sherborne, 
in Dorsetshire, in 1022; but after his sight failed him that 
he coidd not discharge the duties of his station, he returned 
to his abbey where he died. 

ALMEIDA (Hist.) one of the most illustrious houses in Por- 
tugal, the origin of which has been traced to Pelayo Amada, 
who lived in the time of Henry of Burgundy, count of 
Portugal, and died in 1112. He was of the family of 
Coelho, and assumed the name of Almeida after having 
taken the castle of Almeida in the time of Sancho I, king 
of Portugal, in 1190. The greater part of his descendants 
have held high offices at court, of whom the following are 
entitled to particular notice : 

Almeida, Loup d', the third in descent of the above family, 
was created first count d'Abrantes by Alphonsus V. 

Almkiua, Francis d\ fourth son of the preceding, and the 
first viceroy of India, was sent thither by king Emanuel ; 
and after distinguishing himself by his military exploits, 
was killed, on his return in 1509, at a place near the Cape, 
in an affray between his men and the natives. 

Almeida, Lawrence d', son of the former, and a brave com- 
mander, was killed off Chaul in an engagement with the 
fleet of the sultan of Egypt. 

Almeida, George d', nephew of the abovemantioned Francis, 
was the conqueror of Ceylon in 1632, and died soon after. 
Tliuitn. Hist. 1. 1, &C. ; Jer, Osor. Hist. Email. 

Almeida, Casper d' (Ecc.) son of Loup d'Almeida, and a 
priest, came to England for the puqiose of exhorting 
Henry VIII to return into the bosom of the church, upon 
which Henry sent him 400 angels with the command to 
leave the kingdom immediately, recommending him at the 
same time to be more discreet in his zeal lest he should fall 
into worse hands. 


Almeida, Apollinarhis d', a Jesuit, and a missionary to 
Ethiopia, was stoned to death by the natives in 1538. 

Almeida, George d', son of Loup d' Almeida, of the branch 
of the Avintes, was archbishop of Lisbonne, inquisitor- 
general of Portugal, and one of the regency when king 
isebastian went into Africa. He died in 1585. 

Almeida, Manuel or Emmanuel a", a Jesuit, and missionary 
to Ethiopia, was born at Vizen, in Portugal, in 1580, and 
died at Goa in 1646, leaving, 1. 'A History of Upper 
Ethiopia,' fol. Coimbra, 1660. 2. ' Historical Letters,' in 
Italian, 8vo. Rome, 1 629. 

Almeida (Geog.) one of the strongest fortresses of Portugal, 
in the province of Beira, on the river Coa, near the borders 
of Spain. It was taken after an obstinate resistance, and 
mucli bloodshed, by the Spaniards in 1762, and it fell into 
the hands of the French in IS 10, but was retaken by the 
British in the following spring. 

ALMELOVEEN, Thomas Jansen d' (Biog.) a Dutch phy- 
sician, was author of the Hortus Malubaricus, and Flora 
Malabarica, 13 vols. fol. 1678, et seq. 

Almeloveex, Theodore Jansen Van, a physician, was bom 
in 1657 at Medrecht, near Utrecht, and died in 1712, 
leaving, among his works, 1. ■ Hippocratis Aphorismi, Gr. 
et Lat.' 12mo. Amst. 16'85. 2. ' Aurelius Celsus de Medi- 
cina,' 12mo. Amst. 1687; 8vo. 1713; 8vo. Patav. 1722. 
3. • Apicii Caelii de Obsoniis et Condimentis, sive de Arte 
Coquinaria Libri x.' 8vo. Amst. I7O9. 4. < Aurelianus de 
Morbis Acutis et Chronicis,' 4to. Amst. 1709. 5. ' Biblio- 
theca Promissa et Latens,' 8vo. 1688, 1698, 12mo. 1692 ; 
8vo. Nuremberg, 1 699- 6. ' The Anatomy of the Muscle,' 
Svo. Amst. 1684. 7- 'Onomasticon Rerum Inventarum et 
InventaNova et Antiqua, id est Brevis EnarratioOrtus et Pro- 
gressus Artis Mediae,' 8vo. ibid. 1684. 8. ' Fasti Con- 
sulares,' 8vo. Amstel. 1705. 9- A beautiful but not very 
correct edition of Strabo, &c. 

ALMENDARIS, Henriquez Alphonso d' (Ecc.) a native of 
Seville, and bishop of Cuba, died in 1623, leaving an ac- 
count of the diocese over which he had presided. 

ALMENSCHES (Geog.) an abbey of Normandy, in France. 

ALMENSA, Jerome {Ecc.) a native of Naples, and of the 
order of preaching friars, was employed on several import- 
ant negotiations by the king of Naples, and died at Rome 
in 1493, while on a mission to the pope Alexander VI. 

ALMEON (Biog.) an Arabian prince and mathematician 
of the 11th century. 

Almeon, surnamed Almansor, who wrote ' Astrological Ob- 
servations respecting the Sun;' 'Astrological Aphorisms." 
J r oss. de Scienl. Math. c. 35, § 3, 19. 

ALMERIA (Geog.) a city in Grenada, of Spain, and a 
bishop's see. Lon. 2° 0' W. lat. 36° 51' N. When the 
Saracens were in Spain, it was so powerful as to have a 
king named Aben-Hut. It was taken from the infidels by 
Alphonsus VIII, king of Castille, in 1147. Some have 
taken it for the Porlus viagnus of the ancients. 

ALMERICUS (Hist.) in French Aumery ; the brother of 
Baldwin, and king of Jerusalem, conquered Egypt, and 
died in 1174. 

Almericus II, brother of Guido, was at first king of Cyprus ; 
and, after the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, king of 
Juda;a, and died in 1239. 

Almericus (Ecc.) archbishop of Tours, presided with Hincmar 
at the council of Rheims in 853. 

Almericus, bishop of Senlis, died in 1161, after having ob- 
tained means to rebuild the cathedral of that city. 

Almericus, a patriarch of Jerusalem, died in 11 SO, after 
having compelled Almericus I to put away his wife Agnes, 
because she was his relation in the fourth degree, on con- 
dition, however, that the two children which he had by her 
should be considered as legitimate. 

Almericus, a heretic, who was burnt bv order of Inno- 


cent III, for maintaining that ideas in the divine mind 
created and were created. 

Almericus, Arnoldus, archbishop of Narbonne, and first 
grand inquisitor against the Albigenses. 

ALMERINUM (Geog.) a town of Estremadura, situated on 
the Tagus opposite to Santarin : it was formerly the re- 
sidence of the Portuguese kings. 

ALM I CI, Peter Camille (Biog.) a priest who was born of a 
noble family at Brescia in 1714, and died in 1779- He 
wrote • Critical Reflections on Febronius' Work,' entitled 
• De Statu Ecclesise;' besides dissertations on various sub- 

ALMISSA (Geog.) a town of Dalmatia, in European Turkey, 
called by the Sclavonians Omisk, and supposed to be the 
Omseum of the ancients, but not Delminium, which was a 
maritime town. It is situated at the foot of a very high 
rock. Lon. 16° 58' E. lat. 43° 18' N. In the 13th and 
14th centuries, this town distinguished itself by its piracies 
until it was sacked by the Venetians, and reduced to a state 
of poverty. 

ALMO (Geog.) a small river near Rome, running from the 
Appian way into the Tiber, now called Rio d'Appio. On the 
25th of March, the image of Cybele, and whatever was con- 
secrated to her, was washed in this river, according to Ovid. 
Fast. 1. 4, v. 387- 

Est locus in Tiberim quo lubricus influit Almo, 
Et nomen magno perriit ab amne minor ; 
lllic purpurea canus cum rate saceidos 
Almonis domvam, sucraque taut aquis. 

Lucan. 1. 1, v. 600. 

Et totam parvo revocant Alnwne CubeUm. 

I'al. Flac. 1. 8, v. 239; Stat. Syh. 1. 5; Martial, 1. 3. 
ep. 47 ; Claud, de Bell. Gild. ; A'mmian. Marc. 1. 23. 

ALMODOVAR, Duke d' (Biog.) an ambassador from the 
court of Spain to the courts of Petersburgh, Lisbon, and 
St. James, died in 1792 at Madrid. He wrote a Journal 
entitled ' Decada Epistolen ;' and a Translation of the Abbe 
Ravnals' History. 

ALMOGANENS (Hist.) ride Adelines. 

ALMOHADES (Hist.) a name of the fourth race of the 
kings of Fez and Morocco, of whom the following are en- 
titled to notice : — 

Abdullah, surnamed Mohavcdin, a schoolmaster, was the 
first of the race, who seated himself on the throne in 543 
of the Hegira, A. D. 1153. 
Abul-Mumcn, his successor, who made great conquests in 

Africa and Spain. 
James Almansor the Third, who pushed his conquests 

Mahommed-Enazir, who, losing a great battle in Spain, died 
in 607 of the Hegira, A. D. 1217- After which his 10 
sons disputed for his empire until it fell into the hands of 
the Merini. 

AL MOCTAFY, B'illah (Hist.) a caliph of Bagdad, who 
died, after a reign of 24 years, in the 555th year of the 
Hesrira, A. D. 11 65. 

AL MOEZ, Ledina'llah (Hist.) the first Fatemite caliph of 
Egypt, succeeded his father Abu Thaher in the year of the 
Hegira 341, A. D. 961, and died after a reign of 24 years, 
in which he conquered all Syria and Egypt. 

AL MOHDI (Hist.) the son of Al Mansur, succeeded his 
father as caliph of Bagdad in the year of the Hegira 159, 
A. D. 769, and died from eating a poisoned pear which 
accidentally fell in his way, after a reign of 10 years and 
one month. 

Al Mohdi, the surname of Abu Mohammed Obeid'allah, the 
caliph of Kairwan, and founder of the dynasty of the Fate- 
mites, greatly extended his conquests in Africa, and, dying 
after a reign of 24 years, was succeeded by his son in tin: 
vcar of the Hegira 321, A. D. 931. 


Al Mohdi, of the race of Ommayah, deposed Al Mowayah, 
and caused himself to be proclaimed caliph of Andalusia ; 
but his rival having succeeded in regaining the throne, put 
him to death, in the vear of the Hegira 400. 

AL MOHTADI, BtUah (Hist.) succeeded Al Mo'tazz on 
the Moslem throne, in the year of the Hegira 255, A. D. 
865, hut was deposed ami slain by the Turkish soldiery be- 
fore he had completed the first vear of his reign. 

AL MOKTADER (Hist.) succeeded his brother Moctafi on 
the Moslem throne, in the year of the Hegira 295, A. D. 
905, and was killed in battle by Munes, one of his gene- 
rals, who rebelled against him, after a reign of 25 years. 

AL MOKTADI, Beamri'Uah (Hist.) succeeded his grand- 
father Al Kayem Beamri'Uah, as caliph of Bagdad, in the 
year of the Hegira 467, A. D. 1077, and died after a reign 
of 20 years. 

AL MOKTAFI, Beamri'Uah (Hist.) was elected caliph of 
Bagdad on the deposition of Al Bashed, in the year of the 
Hegira 530, and died after a reign of 24 years. 

ALMON (BibL) the same probably as Aleiiieth or Almeth. 

ALMON (Myth.) the eldest son of Tyrrhus, was the first 
Rutulian killed by the Trojans. Virg. JEn. 1. 7, v. 532. 

Almon, John (Biog.) a bookseller and a writer, was born in 
1788, and died in 1805. He edited, or wrote, many poli- 
tical pamphlets. 

ALMONACID (Geog.) a town of New Castillo, in Spain, 
four leagues from Toledo, which was built on the ruins of 
the ancient Riccopolis. 

ALMONACIR, Jerome (Ecc.) a Dominican in the convent 
of Ciudad-Rodrigo, was a professor of theology for more than 
40 years at Burgos and Alcala, and had the reputation of 
being one of the ablest theologians. He onlv published ' A 
Commentary on the Canticles,' 4to. Alcala, 1588, and died 
in Kiiil-. 

AL MONTASER, Bi'llah (Hist.) son of the caliph Al 
Motawakkel, succeeded his father, whom he caused to be 
assassinated in the year of the Hegira 247, A. D. 857, and 
died the next vear. 

AL MOSTACFI, Bi'llah (Hist.) succeeded Al Mottaki, as 
caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 33.3, A. D. 
943, and was deposed after a reign of little more than a 
vear, when he had his eves put out. 

AL MOSTADER, Bi'llah (Hist.) son of Al Moktadi, suc- 
ceeded his father on the Moslem throne, in the year of the 
Hegira 487, and died after a reign of 25 years. 

AL MOSTADI, Beamri'Uah (Ilisl.) succeeded his father Al 
Mostanjed, as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 
566, A. D. 1170', and died alter a reign of nine years. 

AL MOSTA'IN (Hist.) succeeded Al Montaser as caliph of 
Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 249, A. D. 859, and 
was obliged to abdicate after a reign of two vears. 

AL MOSTA'LI, Hit/ah (Btist.) succeeded fads father Al 
Mustanscr in the caliphate of Egypt, in the year of the 
Hegira 487, A. D. 1097, and died after a reign of seven 

At MOSTANJED, BtUah (Hist.) succeeded his father Al 
Moktafi as caliph of Bagdad, and was assassinated after a 
reign of 1 1 vears. 

AL MOSTANSEK, BtUah (Hist.) succeeded his father Al 

Thaher as PStemite caliph nf Egypt, in the year of the 
I hgira 420, A. D. 1030, and died after a reign of upwards 
of <il> years. 
A I, MOBTANBBR, BtUah, SOD of Al Dhahcr Bi'llah, stireecdei! 
his father as, caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 
(I.;;*, A. I). I'-'lfl, anil died after a reign of about 17 vears. 

Al. MOSTARSHED, BtUah (Hist.). succeeded his father 
\ I ttiostadher Bi'llah as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the 

Ibgira 512, A. D. 622, and was assassinated by the Bata- 
iii-'t^ alii r a reign of 17 years and 7 months. 

AL MOSTA'SEM, BtUah (Hist.) succeeded his father Mos- 


tanser Bi'llah as caliph of Bagdad, and at his death, which 
was barbarously effected by the Mogul general Hulacu, the 

caliphate ended in the vear of the Hegira 6'55, A. D. 1265. 
AL MOTADED, Bi'llah (Hist) succeeded his father Al 

Motamed as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 

279> A. D. 889, and died after a reign of nine years and 

nine months. 
AL MOTAMED, Alallah (Hist.) succeeded Al Mohtadi 

as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 256, A. D. 

866, and died after a reign of 23 vears. 
AL MOTASEM (Hist.) "succeeded his brother Al Mamum 

as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 218, A. D. 

828, and died after a reign of nine years. 
AL MOTAWAKEL, Alallah (Hist.) succeeded his brother 

Al Watek as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 

232, A. D. 842, and was assassinated after a reign of 14 

AL MOTAZZ (Hist.) was elected caliph of Bagdad on the 

deposition of Al Mostain, but was deposed and starved to 

death by the Turkish soldiers. 
AL MOTl, Li' Hah (Hist.) was created caliph of Bagdad on 

the deposition of Al Mostacfi, in the year of the Hegira 

334, A. D. 944, and abdicated after a reign of 29 years. 
AL MOTTAKI (Hist.) was elected caliph of Bagdad on the 

death of Al Kadi, in the year of the Hegira 829, and was 

deposed after a reign of less than four vears. 
AL MOWAYYAD (Hist.) caliph of Andalusia, was for a 

time stripped of his dominions by Al Mohdi, but regained 

them a short lime after. 
ALMUS (Hist.) nephew to Ladislaus, king of Hungary, 

attempted to get the throne from his brother Coloman, but 

being defeated, he was imprisoned and his eyes put out in 

AL NASER, Lcdi/ie'llah (Hist.) succeeded his father Al 

Mosthadi as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 

574, A. D. 1184, and died after a reign of eight years. 
ALOEUS (Myth.) 'AXqj/os, the son of Titan and Terra, mar- 
ried Iphionidia, and having adopted her two sons Othus and 

Ephialtes, whom she had by Neptune, they were called 

after him Aloida 1 . 

Virg. /En. 1. 6, v. 582. 

Hk et Alridas gemiuns, immaiiia vidi 
Corpora, §c. 

Lilt: 1. 6, v. 419. 

Impius hinc proton supsrii immhit Atoms, 
Horn. II. 1. 5 ; Srhol. Apollon. 1. 1. 

ALOID/E (Myth.) vide Aloeus. 

ALONE (Grog.) the name of several ancient places. 1. Alona. 
"AXuivai, or Alon, now Alicatit, a town of Hispania Tarra- 
eonensis. Mela, 1. 2, c. 8 ; J'lin. 1. 2, c. 6. 2. An island of 
jEolis, in Asia Minor, between Lebedos and Teios. PU11. 
1. 2, c. 87. 3. A town of Great Britain, now Lancaster. 
Caiii/i. Brit. 4. A town of Old Castille, now Aillon, which 
is a village. 

ALONSO (Hist.) vide Alphonso. 

ALONTIl'M (Geog.) or Aluniium, 'A\6vrtov, a town on the 
north coast of Sicily, HOW FUadeipho. Dionys. Halic. 1. 1 : 
Cic. in Verr. act. 3, c. 43 ; 1'lin. 1. 3, e. 8 ; Viol. 1. 3, c. 4 : 
Fazeti. dec. 1 . 1. <), c. 4. 

Alontiitm (Niiviis.) medals of the Sicilian town of this nana 
bear the head of Apollo, Jupiter, and Hercules, with the in- 
scription AAONTlNilN. I'anil. Sicil. I h:\rrit. ; Hunter. 
Sum. Urb. ; PeUerin. lire, des Mai. vol. iii. 

ALONZO, Jphtl (Hiog.) an architect, of whose skill the 
church of the llieronomitcs at Guadeloupe, in Estre- 
madura, remains a monument. 

ALOPE (M)/lh.) '.\X('nr, h daughter of Ccrcyron, king of 

Eleusis, and mother of Hippothoon, by Neptune, was put 
to death by her father's order for having exposed her child 


on a mountain. She was afterwards changed by Neptune 
into a fountain. Hygin. fab. 187; Pans. 1. I. 
Alope (Geog.) or Halope, the name of six towns, namely, 
of Thessalv ; of Attica ; of Pontus, whence Penthesilea 
came ; of Eubcea, near Delphos ; and of Locris. Slrab. 1. 9 ," 
Plin. 1. 4, c. 7 ; Eustath. II. 1. 2, v. 682 ; Liv. 1. 42, c. 56 ; 
Sleph. Byz. de Urb. 
ALOPECE (Geog.) the name of several islands. 1. 'AXw- 
7T£C('ai, an island in the Palus Maeotis, opposite to Tanais, 
now L'isledes Rcnards. Slrab. 1. 11. 2. In the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus. Plin. 1. 4, c. 12. 3. In the /Egean sea, near 
to Smyrna. Plin. 1. 5, c. 3. 4. 'AXwirtKi), a village of 
Attica, very near to Athens on the east side. It was the 
birth-place of Socrates and Arisrides. Diogen. Lacrt. in 
Vit. Socrat. 

ALOPIUS (Myth.) 'AXottihc, a son of Hercules and Antiope. 
Apollod. 1. 2, c. 36. 

ALORUS (Geog.) or Halorus," AXwpoc, now Dianmv, a town 
of Pseonia. Plin. 1. 4, c. 10 ; Ptol. 1. 3, c. 13. 

ALPAGO, Andrew (Biog.) a physician, who died at Venice 
in 1555, is known as the translator and annotator of Avi- 
cenna, Averroes, and Serapion. 

ALPAIDE (Biog.) or Allhaide, the beautiful wife of Pepin 
Heristel, was the mother of Charles Martel, who retired to 
a convent after her husband's death. Dupleix in Childeberl. 

Alpaide, daughter of Louis le Debonnaire, and wife of 
Begon, count of Paris, was the mother of Letard and 

ALP, Arslan (Hist.) second sultan of the race of the Sel- 
juks, and a great conqueror, was assassinated in 1072, by a 
Carizmian, whom he had condemned to death, in the year 
of the Hegira 465, A. D. 1075. 

ALPATRAGIUS (Biog.) an Arabian mathematician, who 
composed astrological commentaries, supposed to be the same 
as Alpetrege. Voss. de Scient. Math. c. 64, § 3. 

ALPENACUM (Geog.) a village in Helvetia, famous for the 
slaughter of the Austrians, now Alpenack. 

ALPENOR (Myth.) a soothsayer, killed by Ulysses. 

ALPENUS (Geog.) 'AXvnvos, the capital of Locris, north of 
Thermopylae. Herod. 1. 7, c 177, 216. 

ALPERT (Biog.) a monk and writer of Metz in the 11th 
century, wrote a history of his own times. 

ALPES (Geog.) the Alps or mountains which separate Italy 
from Gaul, Spain, Rhaetia, &c which are celebrated by the 
poets for their loftiness. 
Virg. Georg. 1. 3, v. 474. 

Turn sciat, acrias Alpes, et Xorica si quis 
Castella in tumulis, et Iapydis arva Timavi, 

Ovid. Metamorph. 1. 2, v. 226. 

Acr'urque Alpes, et nubifer Apenninus. 
Sil. Hal. 1. 4. 

Tama per Ausonia turbatas spargitur urbes, 

Xubiferos mantes, et saia minantia ccdo 

Aecepisse jugum, Pcenosque per invia vectos. 
Cat ill. el. 11. 

Sive trans okas gradietur Alpes. 

They are variously denominated according to their situa- 
tion, as 
Alpes Maritime?, on the coast of the Mediterranean, called 

by the Italians Montague di Tenda, by the French Col de 

Tende, in Provence. 
Alpes Coitice, or Cottiance, part of the Piedmontese through 

which the Po runs, now Mount Cenis and Genevre. 
Alpes Graioe, or Grains Mons, begun where the Cottiae 

ended, and separated the Allobroges from the Alassi, now 

Little St. Bernard. Part of these was Mount Sem- 

Alpes Penniua, or Penince, separated a part of Insubria 

and Piedmont from the Allobroges, now Great St. 



Alpes Summw, the loftiest of the Alps, according to most 
authors, but according to Caesar the smallest, in the ter- 
ritory of Helvetia and Insubria, now <S7. Gothard. 
Alpes Lepontio?, near to the Lepontiae or Grisons, forming 
part of the Rhaeticae, otherwise Rhaetiae, which separated 
the Rhaeti from the Insubres, in the country of Tyrol, 
now Monte Bernina Tridentina. 
Alpes Noricw, or Mons Taurus, in the district of Tyrol, 

Salzburg, and Carinthia, now Tarn. 
Alpes Julias, or Carnica;, according to Ptolemy, lay between 
the Carni and the Norici, now Zughe and Alpes de Car- 
Alpes Vindelicia, the Alps separating Tyrol from Bavaria. 
Polyb. 1. 3 ; Slrab. 1. 4 ; Liv. 1. 21, &c. ; Plin. 1. 3, &c. ; 
Tacit. Annal. I. 15, &c. ; Appian. in Civil. Bell. 1. 1; 
Solin. c. 8 ; Ptol. 1. 3, &c. ; Aurel. Vict, de Imperatoribus ; 
Euseb. in Chron. ; Ammian. Marcellin. 1. 15, &c. ; Cas- 
siodor. Far. ; Procop. de Goth. Reb. 1. 1 ; Isidor. Orig. 
1. 13, c. 8 ; Paul. Diacon. de Reb. Longobard. 
ALPHA (Geog.) a river of Germany, now Aa. 
ALPHABUCELIS (Geog.) 'AX^a/fe^X.c, now Avezzano, 

a town of the Marsi. Ptol. 1. 3, c. 1. 
ALPHiEUS (Bibl.) 'AX^dioc, the name of two persons men- 
tioned in the New Testament. 
AlphjEUs, the father of St. James the minor. Matt. x. 3 ; 

Luke vi. 15. 
Alph*us, the father of Levi, or Matthew the apostle and 

ALPHANUS, Benedict (Ecc.) archbishop of Palermo, was 
the author of the lives of some saints, in verse, &c. He 
died in 1086. 
Alphanus, Bernardin (Biog.) a lawyer of Perouse, who 
wrote ' Collectanea, seu Reportata Juris Civilis in Centurias 
Decern,' Venet. 1605. He died in 1590. 
Alphanus, John Baptist, of the same family as the above, 

wrote ' De Arbitris Compromissis.' 
Alphanus, Tindarus, son of the preceding, was the author 

of a work, ' De Testibus.' 
Alphanus, Accursius, a brother of the above, left a volume 

of ' Councils.' 
Alphanus, Vincent, a Neapolitan, doctor of civil law, wrote, 
' De Vera Substantia Dotis ad Llpianum,' &c. 4to. Neapol. 
ALPHARABUS (Biog.) an Arabian philosopher and astro- 
nomer. Genebr. in Sylvest. Blancanus Chron. Malhemat. 
ALPHEIA (Myth.) "AXipaa, an epithet for Diana in Elis, 
where she deceived Alphaeus, who was pursuing her. Pans. 
1. 6, c. 22. 
Alpheia, a name for the nymph Arethusa, because she was 

beloved by the god Alphaeus. Ovid. Met. 1. 5, v. 487. 
ALPHENOR (Myth.) one of Niobe's sons, according to 

Ovid. Ovid. Met. 1. 6, fab. 6. 
ALPHENUS (Hist.) a skilful lawyer mentioned by Lam- 

pridius. Lamprid. in Vit. Sever. 
Alphenus (Biog.) ride Alfenus. 

ALPHERY (Biog.) Nikephor, or Nicephonis, a Russian 
prince, who, during the troubles in his country in the latter 
end of the 16th century, was sent into England for his 
education, and having taken orders was appointed rector of 
Woolley, in Huntingdonshire, where he continued till the 
rebellion, soon after which, being incapacitated by age from 
performing his duty, he retired to Hammersmith, and died 
at the age of 80. 
ALPHESIBCEA (Myth.) 'AX^mftoia, daughter of Phlegeus, 
and wife of Alcmaeon, the son of Amphiareus, was aban- 
doned by her husband for Calirrhoe, the daughter of Ache- 
lous. He afterwards attempted to obtain a necklace from 
her which she had received as a bridal present, and was 
killed by the brothers of Alphesibcea in revenge for the 
affront offered their sister. 


Proper!. 1. 1, eleg. 15. 

Alphesibaa suos ulta est pro conjitge fratres. 
Sanguinis et chari tincnla rupit amor. 

ALPHESIBCEUS (Myth.) a shepherd, mentioned frequently 

in Virgil's Eclogues. 
ALPHEUS (Geog.) 'AXotadc, a river of Elis, a city of Ar- 
cadia, now Orfea. It is fabled by the poets to run under 
the sea and to mix with Arethusa, a fountain in the island 
of Ortygia, near Syracuse. 
Pind. Xcm. od. 1, v. 1. 

" Xjxirvivpa trifivov 'AX^fin 

K\iti'dv £i'paKo<7<rdv 0a\oc 'Oprvyia 

94/IVWV 'Aprtpuvc. 

Vvg. jEiiA. 3, v. 694- 

Alphtzumfama at hue Elidis amnem 
Occulta* egisse eias mhter mare ; uui nunc 
( In , Arethusa, tuo Sicults ami nudum- uudis. 

Mosch. Idyll. ; Strab. 1. {>; Mela, 1. 2, c. 7 ; Lucan. 1. 3, 
v. 176; Sil. Hal. 1.3; Plin. 1. 2, c. 102, &c. ; Stat. Theb. 
1. 1, 8k. ; Plol. 1. 3, c. 1C; Pans. 1. 5, c 71 ; Amman. Mor- 
al/. 1. 15 ; Cloud, de Gel.; Sidon. Apoll. ('arm. ad Felieem. 

ALPHIUS (Biog.) or At/ins, a. usurer whom Horace plea- 
santly describes as commending the rustic life, while he is 
grasping at his usurious gains. Horal. epod. 2, v. 67- 

ALPHIUS, Avilus, a poet in the reign of Severus, who wrote 
the lives of illustrious men, of whom his cotemporary, Te- 
rentius Maurus, says, 

Vt pridSn Avitus AlphuM 
lAbro) pnetn pi 

Conscripsil eict'llentiunu 

Pris. 1. 8 : Voss. de Hist. Lai. 1. 3. 

ALPHONSUS (llixl.) or Alphonso, a name common to seve- 
ral kings of Spain, Arragon, Portugal, and Naples. The 
name is of German origin, Hellius, i. e. Help US ; the 
family being descended from the Goths, kings of Spain of 
this name. 

Alphonsus I, Burnamed the Catholic, gained many victories 
over the Moors, and died in 759, alter a reign of 18 years. 
Marian, de Heb. Hispan. 1. 7. c. 1 ; Baron. Annal. arm. 738, 
711. The effigies of this and the following kings are given, 
as in the subjoined figures. 

Alphonsus II, surnamed the Chaste, reigned 1 1 years, and 
■■..1). 887. Marmot. L'Afrique, t 2, c. 81. 

ALPHONSUS III, Burnamed the ('real, succeeded his father 
Ordogno, and after having abdicated ill favour of his son 

Garcia died A. D. 912. Marian. 1. 7, c. 17, 18. 
Alpbonbdb IV, Burnamed the Monk, after having shut him- 

!ii a monastery, emhavour.d to regain his throne, and 

had his eyes put out. Ambros. Moral 1. 16, c 7. Sec; 

Mai mil. Hilt. llispan. I. S, r. 5. 
Alphonsus V, was slain by an arrow while I 

Marian. 1. 8, c. 10; Qeneb. Chron. 
Ann. 1000. 
Ai.i-iio I i the Bold, reigned IS years, in 

which time be took Toledo and many ciiit s from the Moors. 
(id an<l Rodrigo lived during his reign. He died at Toledo, 
aged 70, A.I). L109 Roder. it Toll. 6, c 21, etseq.; 
Marian. I. 9, •■■ 1 1 , et seq. 

\j.pno- I \ II grandson of the former, was first king of 
1 d emperor of Spain. He took many 


towns from the Moors, and was killed in battle A. D. 1137, 
after a reign of 30 years. Marmul. 1. 2, c. 33; Marian. 1. 10, 
c. 8, et seq. ; Gencb. Chron. Ann. 1 11<). 

Alphonsus VIII, surnamed the Good, the son of Raimond 
count of Burgundy, was crowned emperor by the archbishop 
of Toledo. He died in an expedition against the Moors, 
A. I). 1157- Manmil. L'Afrioue, c. 3.'>"; Marian. Hist. 
llispan. 1. 10, c. 12, et seq. ; Cene/i. Chron. 11 'J2. 

Alphonsus IX, surnamed the Noble, was successful against 
the Saracens. He died A. D. 1214, aged 5<), after a 
reign of 54 years. Marian. Marniol. Geneb. I'asaus 

Alphonsus X, surnamed the Wise, succeeded his father Fer- 
dinand III, A. D. 1252. He was the author of the Al- 
phonsine tables, and died after a reign of 32 years. QVide 
Plate X .~\ Roderic. Mariana. Genebrard. cjc. 

Alphonsus XI, succeeded his father Ferdinand IV, A. D. 
1340; and after having killed no less than 200,000 Moors 
in different battles, he died of the plague A. D. 1350. 
He was succeeded by Peter the Cruel, lioder. Marian. 
Gencb. Sec. 

Kings of Arragon of this Xante. 

ALPHONSUS I, was Alphonsus VII of Spain. 

Alphonsus II, son of Raymond Berenger, count of Bar- 
celona, succeeded, in right of his mother Donna Petronilla, 
to the throne of Arragon, in 1 1 62 ; the government of 
which was at first administered by his mother, until he was 
12 years of age, when she resigned the kingdom into his 
hands. He died after a glorious reign in II <)(>'. I.ue- 
Tiidens. Chron.; Roder. Toll I. de Reli. Hisp.J Vas. Chron. ; 
Marian. ; Indie. Rer. alt. Arragon. Reg. (lest, cjc. 

Alphonsus III, surnamed the Benevolent, succeeded his 
father Peter III, A. 1). 1285, and died without issue, A. D. 

Alphonsus IV, surnamed the Pious, succeeded his father 
James, and died A. D. 1 357, after a reign of eight 

Alphonsus V, surnamed l/ie Magnanimous, 
was a great patron of literature. He suc- 
ceeded his father Ferdinand, A. D. 1416, 
and died A. I). 1 158. His elligy is given as 
in the annexed figure. 

Kings of Portugal. 

ALPHONSUS I, son of Henry of Burgundy, defeated five 

Moorish kings near the Tagus, A. 1). HSft the year he 

began to reign, and died in 1185. He instituted the order 

of the Avis. 
Alphonsus II, surnamed the Fat. succeeded his (other 

Sancho in 1211, and died 1228, aged 88. 
Alphonsus III, succeeded his brother Sancho II, in 12 IS, 

and after manv dissensions with the clergy and the pope, 

died in 12711, aged 69. 
Ai.imionsus IV, surnamed I lie Bold, succeeded his father 

Dcnys in 1325, and assisted Alphonso XI, against the 

Moors, and died May 38, 1857, Bged 66. 
Alphonsus V, surnamed the African, succeeded his father 

Edward in 1488, and died of the plague in 1481, aged 

4<). He was engaged in a quarrel with Ferdinand and 

Alphonsus VI, succeeded his father John, but being of weak 


intellect was deposed by his brother Don Pedro. He died 
in 1683, aged 41. Marian, de Reb. Hisp. ; Roder. Tolet- 
dc Reb. Hisp. ; Marmol. L' Afrique ; I'asceus. Hisp. Chron. 
Geneb. Chron. 

Kings of Naples. 

Alphonsus I, the same as Alphonsus V of Arragon. 

Alphonsus II, succeeded his father Ferdi- 
nand I, in 1494, but abdicating his throne 
in favour of his son Ferdinand II, in 14-95, 
he died soon after. His effigy is given as 
in the annexed figure. Philip, de Canon. 

1. 7, c. 11 ; Paul. Joe. Elog. Cuichard, <yc. 

Other Princes and Distinguished Persons of this Name. 

Alphonsus, of France, count of Poictiers and Toulouse, son 
of Louis VIII, was engaged in the crusades with his brother 
St. Louis, and was taken prisoner, but being ransomed, he 
returned home and died in 1271- 

Alphonsus of Spain, son of Ferdinand the Infanta of Cas- 
tille, and grandson of Alphonsus X, was dispossessed of the 
crown by his grandfather in favour of his uncle Sancho, 
and retiring into France died in 1284. He made an un- 
successful attempt to recover the throne which Sancho had 
violently wrested from his father. 

Alphonsus, the first count of Provence, was the second king 
of Arragon of that name. 

Alphonsus, the second count of Provence, was the second 
son of Alphonsus, the second king of Arragon of this name. 

Alphonsus was also the name of four different dukes of 
Ferrara and Modena. 

Alphonsus of Portugal, the 12th grand-master of the order 
of St. John of Jerusalem, was the natural son of Al- 
phonsus I of Portugal. It is said that he was put to death 
by his brother Sancho I, in 1207. 

Alphonsus, Infanta of Castille, and younger son of John II, 
king of Spain, was called to the throne of his father by the 
grandees, after they had deposed his elder brother Henry IV ; 
but a war ensuing between the two brothers, Alphonsus died 
in the interval, in 1468, before its termination. 

AlphgnsCS (Ecc.) son of Emanuel, king of Portugal, and 
archbishop of Lisbon, was created a cardinal by Leo X. 
He was born in 1509, and died in 1540, leaving a reputa- 
tion for distinguished piety and attachment to letters. He 
wrote many things both in prose and verse, but they are 
for the most part lost. 

Alphonsus, a Spanish Jew of Burgos, became a Christian 
convert, and bishop of that city ; he wrote, among other 
things, an abridged history of Spain, entitled ' Anacepha- 
leosis Regum Hispaniae.' Fas. in Chronic. ; Marian. Hist. 
Hispan. eye. 

Alphonsus, Chacon, an historian of Seville, and patriarch of 
Alexandria under Gregory XIII, wrote ' Vitas Gestaque 
omnia Pontificum Romanorum ab D. Petro usque ad Cle- 
mentem VIII, &c.' 

Alphonsus, Peter (Biog.) a Spanish Jew of the 12th century, 
became a Christian convert, and wrote, 1. A treatise ' De 
Scientia et Philosophia.' 2. ' A Dialogue between a Jew 
and a Christian,' Cologne, 1536. 

Alphonsus, de Zamora, a rabbi of Zamora, in the 15th cen- 
tury, became a convert to Christianity, and wrote, among 
other things, 1. ' Vocabularium Hebraicum et Chaldaicum.' 

2. • Catalogus eorum qua? in utroque Testamento aliter 
scripta sunt vitio scriptorum, quam in Hebneo et Graco.' 

Alphonsus, de Barros, a poet of Segovia in the reigns of 
Philip II and III, wrote ■ Perla de Proverbias Morales,' &c. 

Alphonsus, de Barzana, a Jesuit, wrote in five languages of 
the Indians, * Lexica,' ' Prtccepta/ ' Grammatica,' ' Dcc- 
trina? Christians Catechismus,' &c. 

'Alphonsus, de Garcias, a Jesuit of Cordova, wrote, 1. ' Hk- 


toria de la Ciudad de Cordova,' 2 vols. 2. ' Historia Moral 
y Natural de las Isles de Canaria.' 

ALPIXI, Prospero (Biog.) a physician and botanist of Venice, 
was born in 1553, and died in 1617 ; leaving, amongst his 
works, 1. ' De Medicina iF.gyptiorum Libri IV,' 4to. Venet. 
1591 ; Paris. 1645 ; and Lugd. Bat. 1735. 2. ' De Balsamo 
Dialogus,' 4to. Venet. 1591 ; Patav. 1640. 3. ' De 
Plantis JEgyptii Liber,' 4to. Venet. 1592; Patav. 1640. 
4. ' De Plantis Exoticis Libri II,' 4to. Venet. 1627. 5. ' His- 
toric Naturalis iEgypti Libri IV,' 2 vols. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 
1735. 6. ' De prsesagienda Vita et Morte jEgrotantium 
Libri VII,' 4to. Patav. 1710. 7- ' De Medicina Methodica 
Libri XIII,' fol. Patav. 1611 ; 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1719- 
8. ' Dissertatio de Rhapontico,' 4to. Patav. 1612. 

ALPINUS, Julius (Hist.) one of the Helvetic princes, who, 
being active in stirring up the war against the Romans, was 
put to death by Carina. Tacit. Hist. 1. 1, c. 68. 

Alpinus, Montamis, was sent by Antonius Primus with let- 
ters to Civilis, a prefect of the Vitellian cohort, on a treaty 
of peace. Tacit. Hist. 1. 4, c. 31, &-c. 

Alpinus, son of Achaius, a king of Scotland, 
succeeded Dougal V in SI 9, and being taken 
prisoner by Brudus, king of the Picts, was put 
to death in 834. His effigy is given as in the 
annexed figure. 

Alpinus, Cornelius (Biog.) a dramatic writer, 

whom Horace describes by the epithet turgidus- Herat. 
1.1, sat. 10, v. 8ft 

ALPS (Gcog.) a chain of mountains, extending from the Gulf 
of Genoato that of Venice, a distance of upwards of 60D 
miles. rVide Atpcs~] 

ALPTEGHIN (Hist.) a Turkish slave of Achmet, son of 
Ismael II, sultan of the Samanides, having obtained his 
freedom by his address and talents, rose gradually to the 
highest offices of state ; and on the death of this prince, 
succeeded by force of arms in getting possession of the city of 
Gazna, where he reigned as a sovereign for 1 6 years, and 
at his death was succeeded by his son-in-law Seliecteghin, 
who was the father of Mahmnd, the founder of the great 
Gaznian monarchv, in the vear 353 of the Hegira, A. D. 

ALPUXARES (Gcog.) in Spanish Los Alpuxarras, high 
mountains in Grenada, of Spain, near the Mediterranean. 
Thev are so called, as is said, from Alpuxar, a Moorish cap- 
tain who settled in that part. 

AL RADI, Billah (Hist.) was proclaimed caliph of Bagdad, 
after his uncle Al Kaher had been deposed in the year of 
the Hegira 322, A. D. 932, and died after a reign of six 
years and ten months. 

AL RASCHID (Hist.) Harun 01 Aaron al Raschid, a caliph 
of Bagdad. £Vide Aarotf\ 

AL RASHED, Billah (Hist.) succeeded his father Al Mo- 
starshed, as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 
529, A. D. 1139; but was shortly after deposed. 

ALREDUS (Biog.) Alfredus or Alurcdits, an historian, was 
born at Beverlev, in Yorkshire, and died about the year 

ALRIC (Hist.) a king of Kent, in the Sth century, the son 
of Withred, and brother of Elbert and Edilbert, who had 
successively worn the crown, was a brave prince, but un- 
fortunate at the close of his life in losing a battle against 
the king of Mercia. 

Alric (Ecc.) a hermit of Cumberland, who passed his life in 
a wood near Carlisle, and died in 1107. 

Alric, Moses (Biog.) a rabbi and commentator on the Bible, 
in the last century, whose works were printed in folio at 
Venice and Constantinople. 

ALSACE (Geog.) called by the Germans Elsass ; a province 
of Germany, "bordering the Rhine, which has been at dif- 
ferent times in the hands of the French and the Germans. 
r 2 


ALSATIA (Geog.) that province of Germany which is now 
called Alsace. It was the country of the Tribocci, who re- 
tained it till the time of Otho I, in the 10th century. 

AL.SIUM (Geos-) now Palo, a maritime town of Etruria. 
Cic. 1. 9,c. 6; Plin. 1. 3, c. 3 ; Sil. 1. 8, v. 47(i. 

ALSOP, Anthony (Biog.) a poet and miscellaneous writer, 
was elected from VYestminster school to Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, where he took the degree of A. M. in 16'96", and of 
B. D. in 1706, and died in 1726. His writings are, 

1. ' Fabularum iEsopicarum Delectus,' 8vo. Oxon. I69S. 

2. A book of poems, entitled ' Antonii Alsopi, /Edis Christi 
olim alumni Odarum Libri duo,' besides several pieces in 
Dodsley's collection, &c. 

Alsop, Vincent, a non-conformist minister, was a native of 
Northamptonsliire, educated at Cambridge, and died in 
1703. He wrote, 1. ' Antisozzo,' against Dr. Sherlock, 
]6'75. 2. ' Melius Inquirendum,' in an answer to Dr. 
Goodman's Compassionate Inquiry, 8vo. 1679- 3. ' The 
Mischief of Impositions,' in answer to Stillingfleet's ' Mis- 
chief of Separation,' lo'85. 4. ' Duty and Interest united 
in Praise and Prayer for Kings.' 5. ' Practical Godli- 
ness the Ornament of Religion,' 1 696 ; besides several ser- 

ALSTEDIUS, John Henry (Biog.) a German divine, and a 
voluminous writer, was born at Herborn, in the county of 
Nassau, and died in 16.38, aged 50. He wrote, 1. ' An 
Encyclopa;dia.' 2. ' Triumphus Bibliorum Sacrorum, seu 
Encyclopaedia Biblica,' 12mo. 1620, &c. 

ALSTON, Charles (Biog.) a physician and botanist, was 
born in 1683, and died in 1760; leaving, 1. ' Index Plan- 
tarum praecipue Ofricinalium, quae in Horto Medico Edin- 
burgensi, Studiosis demonstrantur,' 8vo. 2. ' Index Medi- 
camentorum Simplicium Triplex,' 1752. 3. ' Tirocinium 
Botanicum Edinburgense,' 1753. 4. ' Lectures on the 
Materia Mcdica,' published after his death : besides single 
papers in the Edinburgh Medical Essays. 

ALSTROEMER, Jonas (Biog.) the reviver of manufactures 
in Sweden, was born in 1685, at Alingsas, a small town of 
Sweden, and died in 1 7<Jl . He was of poor extraction, 
but rose to wealth and honour by his industry and talent. 

Alstroemer, Claude, the eldest son of the preceding, and 
pupil of LinnsUBj was born in 1736', and died in 1794. He 
was addicted to the study of botany in particular, and in 
correspondence with several societies. 

ALT, Francis Joseph Baron d' (Biog.) the descendant of an 
ancient patrician family of Friburg, in Switzerland, was 
born in 1689, and died in 1771 ; leaving an ' Histoire de 
la Suisse,' 10 vols. 8vo. 1750 to 1753. 

ALTAMONT, Earl (Her.) the title commonly borne by the 
eldest son of the marquis oligo. 

ALTAMURA (Geog.) a town of Terra di Bam, in Naples, 

at the foot of the Apennines, supposed by some to be the 

ancient l'etilia. 
AL TAY, Lillah (Hist.) succeeded his father Al Moti, as 

caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Hegira 3(i3, A. D. 

97-; ; and was deposed by Baha'oddawla, the F.niir al Oram, 

after a reign of alxmt IS years. 
ALTER, Francis Charles (I Hog.) a German critic, was born 

at Engloslicrg, in Silesia, in 1 7 1'9, and died in 1804. He 

is said to have published 250 volumes and dissertations. 

His principal works arc, 1. ' Novum Testamcntum ad Co- 

dicem Viudoboncnsciii Griecc expressum,' &c. 2 vols. Bvo. 

17M1-7. M. A German Translation of llarwood's (lassies, 

Svo. Vienna, 1778: Lysias ; Ciccronis Quest. Acad. Tusc. ; 

Lucretius; Homer's Iliad; with various readings from the 

MSS. in the Imperial Library, and Homer's Odyssey, &C. ; 

with various readings from the Palatine library, .Svo. 

1785-94. 8. Some of Plato's Dialogues, Svo. 1784. 4. Thu- 

cydides, 8vo. 1785. 5. The Greek Chronicle of George 

Phranza, or PhraiLzcs, not before printed ; Vienna, fol. 


1796. 6. Notices on the Literary History of Georgia, in 
German, 8vo. 1798. 

ALTFRIDE (Ecc.) the third bishop of Munster in the 9th 
century, who succeeded Gerfride in 839, and died in 849. 
He wrote a Life of S. Ludver, the first bishop of Munster. 

ALTHAEA {Myth.) 'A\8ala, daughter of Thestius and Eury- 
themis, and mother of Meleager, being enraged with her 
son for killing his two uncles, threw the log into the fire, 
which, according to the oracle, caused his immediate death, 
after which she killed herself for grief at the loss of him. 
Senec. in Med. 

Puc sorflris. imp'ue nuitrisfacem 
Vltricis Atthau- xides. 

Ovid. Trist. 1.1. 

I'tijiie cremalse suum fertur sub stipite nation 
Tkestias, el melwr matre fuisse smror. 

Horn. II. 1. 9, v. 551 ; Apollod. 1.1, c. 8; Ovid. Met. 1. 8, 
fab. 4 ; Fans. 1. 8, c. 45. 

ALTH.EMENES (Myth.) •AXOatuivne, or 'A\8 nl iivr)c; a 
son of Creteus, king of Crete, who fled to Rhodes that he 
might not, according to an oracle, be bis father's murderer ; 
but the father going some years after in pursuit of his son, 
the latter taking him for an enemy killed him on his first 
landing, and afterwards, by his own entreaty, was swallowed 
up in the earth that opened upon him. Apollod. 1. 3, c. 2 ; 
Dioilor. 1. 5, c. 9- 

AL THAHER {Hist.) the fourth Fatemitc caliph of Egypt, 
succeeded his father in the year of the Hegira 411, and died 
after a reign of 15 years. 

ALTHAMERUS, Andrew (Biog.) a Lutheran divine, was a 
native of Brentz, in Suabia, and died about 1540. He wrote, 

1. ' Conciliations Locorum Script ura?,' Svo. Lips. 1528. 

2. « Annotationes in Jacobi Epistolam.' 3. ' De Peccato Ori- 
ginali.' 4. ' De Sacramento Altaris.' 5. ' Sylva Biblicorum 
Nominum,' Basil, 1 , r >:i5. 6. ' Notes upon Tacitus de Situ, 
Moribus et Populis Germanhe.' 

ALTHEPIUS (Myth.) son of Neptune and Leis, succeeded 
his father-in-law Orus in the kingdom of Trcczen, in Pe- 
loponnesus, which received the name of Altbepia from him. 
Pans. 1. 2, c. 30. 

ALTHORPE, Viscount (Her.) the title commonly borne by 
the eldest son of the earl Spencer. 

ALTHUSEN (Biog.) or Althusius, John, a German lawyer 
of the l6th century, wrote, among other things, ' De Juris- 
prudentia Romana,' &c. 

ALTIEMPI, Mark (Ecc.) son of Wolfgang, count of the 
empire, and a sister of Pins V, was created a cardinal in 
156l. He presided at the council of Trent in the cha- 
racter of legate, from which he was called to oppose the 
Lutherans, who threatened Rome in 1595, and died soon 

Al.TiEMPi, John Angela Duke d' (Biog.) was distinguished by 
his love of learning, and died in 16\!7- 

Ai.tiempi, Ganilcntiiis, who died in 16'77, was the author of 
' The Life of St. Cbrysostoin,' and 'Sanctity Persecuted and 

ALTIEHI (llisl.) a noble family of Rome, which originally 
bore the name of Parraluci till the year 1431, when Lau- 
rentius, conservator of the Roman people, took the surname 
of Allied. The principal members of this family are, 

Ai/riKRi, Jerome, grandson of the preceding, who, in 1556", 
was governor of I'ivoli, and many times conservator of the 
Roman people. 

Altiebi, Jerome, another brother of Laurentius, was viceroy 
of Naples. 

Ai.tiehi, John Baptist (Ecc.) grandson of the preceding, 
who was a nuncio at Florence, and created cardinal by 
Urban VIII in 1643, died in llil:;. 

AiiTiBSi, jJuiiilius, brother of the preceding, bishop of Came- 
rino, nuncio at Naples, secretary to the congregation of 


bishops, &c. was created cardinal by Clement IX, and suc- 
ceeded him in the papal chair under the name of Cle- 
ment X. 

Altieri, Paluzzo-Paluzzi, who was adopted by the preced- 
ing, and in consequence assumed the name of Altieri for his 
former one of Albertoni ; he had been already created car- 
dinal by Alexander VII ; and, after enjoying very many 
ecclesiastical dignities, died in 1699- 

Altieri, Laurentius, grand-nephew of the preceding, was 
created a cardinal by Alexander VIII in 1696. 

Altieri, John Baptist, was created a cardinal by Bene- 
dict XIII. 

ALTILIO, Gabriel (Biog.) a Latin poet of the 15th century, 
was born at Basilicata, in Naples, and died bishop of Po- 
licastro in 1501. His principal poem is the ' Epithala- 

ALTIXG, Menso (Biog.) a German divine of Fleda, in West 
Friezland, wrote in defence of Calvin, and against Luthur. 

Alting, Henri/, son of the former, a German divine, was 
born at Embden, Feb. 17, 1583, and died Aug. 25, l6ii, 
leaving, as his works, 1. ' Xotse in Decadem Problematum 
Joannis Behm de Glorioso Dei et Beatorum Coelo,' Heidel- 
berg. l6l 8. 2. ' Loci Communes,' 3 vols. Amst. 1646". 
3. * Exegesis Augustanae Confessionis,' Amst. 1647- *■ ' Me- 
thodus Theologiae,' 4to. Amst. 1654. 5. • Historia Eccle- 
siastics Palatinae,' 4to. Amst. 1644. 6. ' Explicatio Cata- 
cheseos Palatinse,' 4to. Amst. 1646. 

Alting, James, son of the above, was born at Heidelberg, 
Sept. 27, 1618, and died Aug. 20, 1679- He was Hebrew 
Professorat Groningen, and wrote, 1 . Dissertations on Oriental 
Antiquities. 2. Commentaries on many Books of the Bible. 
3. A Syrio-Chaldaic Grammar. 4. A Treatise on Hebrew 
Punctuation ; making together 5 vols. fol. Amst. 1687- 

Alting, Menso, probably of the same family, and a burgo- 
master of Groningen, was born in 16*36, and died 1713. 
His works are, 1. ' Notitia Germanise Inferioris,' fol. Amst. 
1697. 2. 'Deseriptio Fusise inter Scaldis portum Veterem 
et Amisiam,' fol. Amst. 1701. 

ALTIXUS, Julius (Hist.) was one who fell under the suspi- 
cion of being concerned in the conspiracy of Piso against 
Nero, for which he was banished to the „Egaean island. 

ALTIS (Myth.) from uXitoq, a grove ; a place in Olympia, 
which has a grove and a temple sacred to Jupiter. In this 
temple were placed the statues of the Olympic victors. Pans. 
1. 5, c. 20, &c 

ALTISSIMO (Biog.) a poet of the 15th century, who was in 
such high repute that his name was changed from Christo- 
pher to that of Altissimo. Of his poems, there remains only 
a translation of the first book of the romance, entitled ' I 
Riali di Francia,' 4to. Venice, 1534. 

ALTMAN (Etc.) a bishop of Padua, and legate of the holy 
see to Germany in the 11th century, suffered much for de- 
fending the rights of the church against the emperor 
Henry IV under the pontificate of Oregon' VII, Victor III, 
aud Urban II. Baron. Annal. ann. 1081. 

Altjian (Biog.) a monk of Hautvilliers, in the diocese of 
Rheims, in the 9th century, wrote a Life of St. Memme, 
first bishop of Chalons ; a Lamentation on the Ravages of 
France by the Normans ; the Lives of Sindulphus, a 
Hermit, and the Empress St. Helena ; and a History of 
the Translation of her Relics to the Abbey of Hautvilliers, &c. 

ALTMANX, John George (Biog.) a Swiss historian and 
divine, was born in 1697, and died in 1758. He wrote, 
1. ' Tempe Helvetica,' 6 vols. 8vo. 1735-43. 2. ' Versuch 
einer Historisch-und Physischen Beschreibung der Helve- 
tischen Eisberg,' Svo. Zurich. 1751. 3. ' Metelemata Phi- 
lologica-critica, quibus Difficilioribus N. Test. Locis ex 
Antiquitate Lux affunditur,' 3 vols. 4to. 1 753. 4. ' Prin- 
cipia Ethica ex Monitis Legis Naturae et Prseeeptis Reli- 
gionis Christianae deducta,' 2 vols. Svo. Tigur. 1754. 


ALTON (Hist.) or Althunckham, a king of Cathay, who, 
being defeated by Oktai Khan, the son of Genghiskhan, 
burnt himself, and all that he had, that he might not fall 
into the hands of the victor. 

ALTOXA (Geog.) a sea-port of Holstein, in Lower Saxony, 
which was burnt bv the Swedes in 1712. It is situated on 
the Elbe, 2 miles \V. Hamburg. Lon. 9° 58' E. lat. 53= 
34' X. 

ALTOXIUM (Geog.) a town of Hampshire, now Alton. 

ALTORF (Geog.) the capital of Uri, a canton of Switzer- 
land, where Tell is said to have shot the apple from his 
son's head. Lon. 8° 40' E. lat. 46 3 48' X. 

ALTORFER (Biog.) or Altdorfer, Albrecht,_ or Albert ; an 
architect, painter, and engraver of AltdorfF, in Bavaria, was 
born in 14SS, and died in 1578. His cuts of ' The Pas- 
sion,' ' Jael and Siserah,' ' Pyramus and Thisbe,' ' Judah 
and Thamar,' are reckoned among the best of his perform- 

ALVA, Ferdinand Alvarez Duke d' (Hist.) a famous general, 
descended from an ancient family in Spain, was employed 
bv Charles V against the pope, whom he compelled to sue 
for peace; and by Philip II against the insurgents in the 
Low Countries, where he rendered himself very unpopular 
by the rigour with which he executed his commission. He 
was afterwards employed in Portugal against Don Antonis, 
whom he expelled from the throne, and died in 1582, aged 
74, fuU of military glory. [Vide Plate XIII"] 

Alva (Biog.) or Petrus d'Aca and Astorga, a Franciscan, 
who died in 1667, leaving not less than 40 folio volumes 
on matters touching the foundation of his order and the 

ALVAXD (Hist.) or Aluend Mirza, son of Joseph Beg, and 
12th sultan of the Turcomans, was dispossessed of his king- 
dom bv his brother Mohammed Mirza, and died in the year 
of the'Hegira 910, A. D. 1520. 

ALUAXI (Hist.) the father of Zohak, king of Persia, of the 
first dynasty. 

Aluani (Biog.) surname of Sherfeddin Abdallah Ben Mo- 
hammed, author of a Commentary on the Arbains, or the 
Forty Chosen Traditions. 

ALVAXLEY (Her.) or Baron Alranlet/, of Alvanley, in the 
county of Cheshire ; a title conferred on Richard Pepper 
Arden, who is descended from the Hardens, or Ardernes, an 
ancient family of Cheshire. This gentleman, being bred to 
the law, and succeeding lord Eldon as lord chief justice 
of the Common Pleas in 1801, was elevated to the peerage 
by the above title. The arms, &c. of tliis family are as 
follow : 
Arms. Gules three cross crosslets fitchy argent, a chief or, 

a crescent for difference. 
Crest. A plume of feathers issuing out of a ducal coronet. 
Motto. " Patientia vinces." 

ALVAR, Dom (Biog.) an Augustin, who was chosen pre- 
ceptor to the children of the Infanta Peter, and followed 
them into Flanders when they went to seek the protection 
of their aunt Elizabeth. 

ALUARDI (Biog.) author of a poem entitled ' Moeaddenut 
Al Vardiat,' or an Explication of Dreams. 

Aluardi, Ebn Aluardi, author of a geography entitled 
' Kheridat al Algiaib.' 

ALVAREZ (Hist.) the name of some Christian kings of 
Congo, who, on their conversion to Christianity, took the 
names of the Portuguese, by whom they were discovered, 
and with whom they entered into a strict alliance. 

Alvarez I, son of don Henriquez, succeeded his father in 
the time of don Sebastian, king of Portugal. He was .1 
wise and brave prince, and a zealous Christian, and dying 
after a long and thorny reign of 40 years, was succeeded by 
his son Alvarez II. 

Alvarez II, the son and successor of the preceding, was no 


loss zealous than his father in the cause of Christianity, 
which, having fallen into decay in consequence of the 
troubles of the former reign, was, by the assistance of 
Philip 1 1 of Spain, re-established. He died after a peaceful 
reign of 27 years, leaving his crown to his eldest sun Ber- 

Alvarez III, the second son of Alvarez II, succeeded his 
brother in Mi 15, and died after a reign of seven years, 
leaving the reputation of a wise and generous prince, and 
a zealous promoter of Christianity. 

Ai.varkz IV, succeeded don Amhrosio in 1631, and died 
after a live years' reign. 

Alvarez V, successor of the preceding, was killed in a battle 
which he fought against the duke of Bamba, his brother, by 
whom he was succeeded. 

ALVAREZ VI, brother of the preceding, and the fourteenth 
Christian king of Congo, was murdered by his brother 

Alvarez VII, seized on the crown at the death of don An- 
tonio, but was dethroned by his own subjects for his cruelty 
and wickedness. 

Alvarez VIII, the nineteenth Christian king, was a wise 
and promising prince, but began his reign at a time when 
the kingdom was torn with civil dissensions. He was de- 
throned bv the marquis of l'emba, a prince of the royal 
family, after a reign of four years. 

Alvarez, Capral Peter, commander of a fleet sent by Ema- 
nuel, king of Portugal, two years after the voyages of Co- 
lumbus, discovered Brazil in 1500, and wrote a Narrative 
of the Discover)'. 

Alvarez, dc Luna (Biog.) ride Luna. 

Alvarez, dc Cordova, in the ninth century, wrote the Life 
of St. Eulogius, who was put to death by Abderames, king 
of the Moors. 

Alvarez, John, a priest, wrote Memoirs of Don Ferdinand, 
the son of John I, king of Portugal, whose secretary he had 

Alvarez, Francis, a Portuguese priest of the 15th century, 
was born at Coimbra, and died in 1 540, leaving behind him 
an Account of his Embassy from Emanuel, King of Por- 
tugal, to David, King of Ethiopia. 

Ai.varkz, Balthasar, a Jesuit, was horn in 153,1, and died 
1580, leaving, among other things, ' Tractatus de Modo et 
Uatione Loqucndi de Rebus Spiritualibus.' 

Alvarez, Emanuel, a grammarian, was born at Madeira in 
1526, and died in 1582- He wrote, l.'Dc Institutione 
(haminatica.' 2. ' De Mensuris Ponderibus et Numeris.' 

Alvarez, Antony, a physician of Alcala, wrote ' Epistolarum,' 
Sec. 1585. 

AI.VIANO, Bartholomew (Hist.) a general in the service of 
Venice, who obtained some signal advantages over the 
armies of the emperor Maximilian. I le died in 1515, at 
the age of 60, so poor that his children were supported at 
the public expense. 

AL WALAD I, (Hist.) the son of Abdalmalek, succeeded his 
father in the caliphate of Bagdad in the year of the Hcgira 
85, A. D. ()'<).), and died after a reign of nine years and 
eight months. 

Al, II, son of Yezid, succeeded his uncle Ik-sham , in 
the year of the Hcgira 125, A. D. 735, and died the fol- 
lowing year. 

AI. WATHEK, BiUdk (Hist.) succeeded his father Al 
Mo'tasem, as caliph of Bagdad, in the year of the Ikgiia 
227j A. D. 837, and died alter a reign of four years, leaving 
the reputation of an enlightened prince, and a patron of 

AI.YATTE (Gcog.) WXwirri), a country of Bithynia, so 
called from 'AXvdrn;o, their king. Steph. 

ALYATTES (Hist.) 'AXwAmjc, fourth king of Lydia, of 
the family of Mermnadic, and descended from the Ilcra- 


elide, was the father of Croesus. He succeeded Sardyattcs 
his father, A.M. 3421, A. C. ()14, and reigned 57 years. 
Herod. 1. ]. 
ALYCUS (Hist.) "AXt/coc, the son of Sciron, who was slain 
by Theseus near Aphidnie. Pint, in Thes. 

ALYPIUS, Falconiu.t Prohus (Hist.) a Roman prefect in the 
reign of the emperor Theodosius, in whose prefecture S. 
Almachius is said to have been killed by gladiators. 

Alypius (Ecc.) or Alipius, surnamed the Cionite or Stilite, 
was born at Adrianople, in the reign of Heraclius the 
emperor. He retired to a mountain, and spent the remainder 
of his life on a pillar which stood there. 

Alypius, the friend of St. Augustine, was baptized with him 
at Milan in 388, and was made bishop of Tagasta in 394, 
dying, as is supposed, in 430. 

Alypius (Biog.) or Alipius, of Antioch, of the fourth century, 
was an architect under Julian the apostate. He was 
banished on a charge of magic. 

Alypius, the subtlest dialectician of his day, eclipsed his 
cotemporary Iamblichus, who notwithstanding wrote his 
life with much commendation. 

AMABLE, St. (Ecc.) a priest in the fifth century, built two 
churches, and performed many other acts of piety, which 
obtained him a place in the calendar. 

AMADEUS (Hist.) or Ame, a name common to several 
counts of Savoy, &C. 

Amadeus, surnamed the Queue, because when he accompanied 
the emperor, Henry III, on his journey to Rome, he would 
not enter the emperor's palace at Verona without his suite, 
which he called his queue. He died in 1047- 

Amadeus I, succeeded his father Odo in 1060, and accom- 
panied Henry IV into Italy, after which he died in 1095. 

Amadeus II, succeeded his father, Humbert II, accompanied 
Henry V to Rome, crusaded with Louis the Younger, and 
died on his return at Nicosia, in the island of Cvprus, in 

Amadeus III, succeeded his father, Thomas, in 1233, and 
was made vicar-general of the emperor Frederic II, for 
whom he negotiated with Innocent IV, and died in 1253. 

Amadeus V, surnamed I lie (heat, was born 
in 1249, and succeeded his uncle, Philip, in 
1285. He was present at 32 sieges, and de- 
fended Rhodes against the Turks, on which 
account he took the device of F. E. R. T. 
" Fortitudo Ejus Rhodum Tenuit." He died 
in 1323. His effigy is given, as in the an- 
nexed figure. 

Amadeus VI, surnamed the le Com/e J'erd, because he went 
to a tournament in green armour, succeeded his father 
Anion in 1 343, and after a successful and warlike reign of 
40 years, died in 1888. 

Amadeus VII, surnamed le Rouge, a warlike prince, was 
killed by a fall from his horse in chasing a wild hoar, in 

Amadeus VIII, the Pacific, first duke of Savoy, suc- 
ceeded his father, Amadeus VII, in 1392, 
and after having erected his principality 
into a dukedom, in 1416, retired to a hermit- 
age, which he left to take the papal chair, 
under the name of Felix V, in opposition 
to Eugene IV ; but quitting it soon after, 
in favour of Nicholas V, be died in 1451. 
His elfigv is given, as in the annexed figure. 

Amadeus IX, surnamed the Happy, on ac- 
count of his goodness, succeeded his father, 
Louis, in 1435, and died after an excellent 
reign in 1436. His effigy is given, as in the 
annexed figure. 

Amadeus, a descendant from Thomas I, of 
Savoy, succeeded his father, James, as count 


of Piedmont, in 1366, under the tutelage of Amadeus VI, 
and died in 1402. 

Amadeus, Victor, vide Victor. 

Amadeus (Ecc) lord of Hauterive, and related to the em- 
peror, Henry V, retired to the convent of Carthusians, near 

Amadeus, son of the preceding, followed his father's course, 
and taking the habit of the order was made bishop of Lau- 
sanne, and died in 1158, leaving eight Homilies on the 
Blessed Virgin. 

A.madeus, a noble Portuguese, who fought with distinguished 
valour against the Moors, entered afterwards into the order 
of Franciscans, and became confessor to Sextus IV. He 
died in 1482, leaving, as is said, a Book of Mystical Revela- 

AMADOCUS (Hist.) 'Apaconog, a king of Thrace, who was 
defeated by Seuthes, his antagonist, according to Aristotle. 
Arisl. de Repub. 1. 5, c. 10. 

AMAD'ODDAWLA (Hist.) founder of the dynasty of the 
Buijians, obtained possession of Persia, where he reigned 
16 years, having fixed his residence at Schiraz. He died in 
the year of the Hegira 338, A. D. 948, leaving his domi- 
nions to his nephew Adado'ddawla. 

AMADO'DDIN, Zenki (Hist.) founded the Atabek dynasty 
in Irak, in the year of the Hegira 521, A. D. 1131 ; and 
after extending his conquests throughout Syria, was assassi- 
nated by his own slaves in the year of the Hegira 540. 

AMAFINIUS (Hist.) or Amafanius, a Roman and an Epi- 
curean, who was active in disseminating the doctrines of 
Epicurus. He wrote a work, entitled, ' Physica Epicurea.' 
Cic. ad. Fam. 1. 15, ep. 19 ; Acad. 1. 1, c. 2 ; Lusciil. 1. 4, 
c. 3. 

AMAIA, Francis (Biog.) a native of Antiquera, and pro- 
fessor of law at Ossuna and Salamanca, wrote, 1 . ' Obser- 
vations Juris,' Salamanca, 1626. 2. ' Commentaria in Pos- 
teriores Libros Codicis Justiniani,' Lugd. 1639, Genev. 1655. 

AMAK (Biog.) or Abuhwgib al Bokharie, because he was a 
native of Bokhara, was styled L stud al Schoara, that i< to 
say, Master of the Poets. He flourished in the reign of 
Kheder Khan, the great patron of learning, and died at the 
age of 100. His principal work is the ' Loves of Joseph 
and Zoleiskhah,' a romance in Persian verse, besides his 
Elegies, of which the most distinguished is that on the 
death of Mamuk, the sister of the Sultan Mahmoud. 

AMALABERQUE (Hist.) niece of Theodoric, king of the 
Goths, in Italy, wife of Hennenfroi, king of I huringia, 
instigated her husband to kill his two brothers, Bandi and 
Berthier, who were partners with him in the kingdom ; in 
consequence of which he was afterwards precipitated from a 
tower, by the order of Thierri, king of Metz, and the prin- 
cess retiring to Athalaric, king of the Ostrogoths, spent the 
remainder of her life in privacv. Paul. /Emit. 

AMALAFRIDA (Hist.) daughter of Valamer, and sister of 
Theodoric, king of the Goths, had bv her husband two 
children, Theodat, or Theodathade, and the above-named 
Amalaherque. She was afterwards married to Thrasimond, 
king of the Vandals, in Africa, who, dying childless, was 
succeeded in 523 by Hilderic, who sent Amalafrida to pri- 
son, where she died in 526. 

AMALARIC (Hist.) or Amauri, the son of Alaric the Second, 
succeeded his father on the throne of the 
\ isigoths, in Spain, in 5S3, and married 
Clotilda, the daughter of Clovis ; but treat- 
ing her with great cruelty on account of her 
adherence to the Catholic religion, he was 
engaged in a war with Childebert, king of 
France, and was slain in a church, where 
he had taken refuge, or, as some say, was 
assassinated by his own subjects, in 521. His effigy is given, 
as in the annexed figure. 


Amai.aric (Biog.) vide Almericus. 

AMALARIUS, Fortunatus (Ecc.) an archbishop of Treves, 
died in 813. He wrote only a ' Treatise on Baptism.' 

Amaj.arius, Si/mphosius, abbot of Hornbac, wrote, A Trea- 
tise on the Offices ; The Order of the Antiphonal ; The Office 
of the Mass ; and Letters ; which are preserved in D'Achery's 
Specilegium, and Martenne's Anecdotes. 

AMALASONTE (Hist.) or Amalasunte, daughter of Theo- 
doric, king of the Ostrogoths, and wife of Eutharie, go- 
verned during the minority of her son Athalaric with great 
prudence, and at his death placed the crown on the head of 
Theodat, her cousin german, and son of Amalafride, who 
in return for her kindness exiled her, and afterwards put 
her to death in 534. 

AMALEK (Bibl.) pbav, son of Eliphaz and Timna his con- 
cubine, and grandson of Esau. He succeeded Galam in the 
government of Edom, south of Judah. Gen. xxxvi. 12, Hi : 
1 Chron. i. 36. 

Ajialek, a mountain in the land of Ephraim, where Abdon, 
son of Hillel, the judge of Israel, was buried. Judg. xii. 
14, 15. 

AMALFI (Geog.) ox-Amalphi, a small town of Naples, in 
the principality of Salerno. 10 miles S. W. Salerno. Lon. 
14° 20' E., lat. 40° 35' N. 

History of Amal/i. 
This town, which in the Latin of the middle ages was called 
Melphis, was taken by the emperor Lotharius II, in ] 133, 
when the place was given up to pillage ; but the emperor 
would have no other share of the booty than a volume of 
the ' Pandects of Justinian,' which were preserved there. 
It was afterwards famous as the birth-place of Flavio 
Goia, the reputed inventor of the magnetic needle. This 
city belonged at first to the house of St. Severin, after- 
wards to that of Picolomini, and in the 17th centtirv it 
was erected into a duchy in favour of Octavio Picolomini. 
Amalfi is an archbishop's see, having Capri, Scala, Me- 
nori, Lettere, and Ravello, for suffragans. Pope Nicho- 
las II assembled a council here in 1059, for the purpose 
of better regulating the election of popes, and preventing 
the schisms which had so frequently been produced by 
setting up of antipopes. Sgon. de Regit, Itat. 1. 2 ; Blond. 
Hist. 1. 15; Leand. Albert. Descript. Ital. 
AMALON (Hist.) a duke of Champaign, who was killed by 
a girl in his sleep, to whom he offered violence. Greg. Tur. 
1. 4, c. 27. 
AMALRIC (Ecc.) or Amauri, archbishop of Tours, presided 

at the council of Soissons in 853. 
Ama_LRIC, bishop of Senlis, was very zealous in the repair of 

bis cathedral. He died in 1161. 
Amai.uic, Arnaud, archbishop of Xarbonne, was appointed 
inquisitor against the Albigenses, and employed in uniting 
Christian princes against the Moors. After being at the 
council of Montpelier, he died in 1225. 
Amalric, Augeri (Biog.) a biographer of the 14th century, 
who wrote a history of the popes, entitled, ' Chronicum 
AMALTH.EA (Myth.) W/jaXSela, the nurse of Jupiter, 
whom she fed with goats' milk, was, according to Lactan- 
tius, said to be the daughter of Melissus, king of Crete, 
but, according to Diodorus, the name of a goat, whom 
Jupiter afterwards placed in heaven as a constellation. Ju- 
piter is said to have given one of her horns to the nymphs 
who brought him up, by which they had the power of ob- 
taining what they wished : whence the proverb of Amal- 
thsese cornu, to signify plenty ; but as to this horn, and other 
circumstances respecting Amalthsa, authors differ widely. 
Diodorus, 1. 4, c. 5 ; Ovid. Fast. 1. 5, v. 113 ; Slrab. 1. lo'; 
Hi/gin. ; Pans. 1. 7, c. 26 ; Lactam, contra Gent. 1. 1, c. 22 ; 
Suidas ; Erasm. Adag. chil. 1, cent. 6. 


AjULLTHSAj Dcmophilus, or Hierop/iylus, the Sibyl, who 
tarried the nine books of Prophecies to Tarquin the Proud. 
Tibull. 1. 2, el. 5, v. 67. 

Qtiifijuui .Ima/tftea, quicqiiid Marpesia dixit. 

Varr. de Ling. Lat. 

AMALTHEI (Biog.) Jerome, John Baptist, and Cornelius, 
were brothers and poets of the 16th century, who were born 
at Odenxo in the state of Venice. 

Ajialthei, Jerome, who died in 1744, wrote several Latin 
pieces, which were collected and published at Venice in 
1(J27, and afterwards by Grsevius in 16'SJ). 

Amalthei, John, who died at the age of 47, wrote poems in 
Italian as well as Latin. 

Ajialthei, Cornelius, the youngest, left some few Latin 
poems of the same cast as those of his brothers', which were 
much admired in their day. He died probably in the prime 
of life. 

AMALTHEUM {Ant.) 'ApakQiiov, a Gymnasium, founded 
by Atticus, in Epirus, called after Amalthaea, because learn- 
ing is supposed to nourish the mind as she nourished Jupiter 
with her milk. 

AM AM A, Suctions (Biog.) a professor of the Hebrew, was 
born in 1593, and died in 1629- He wrote, 1. * Censura 
Vulgata: Latina; Editionis Pentateuchi,' 4to. Francken. 1620. 
2. ' Bybelsche Conference,' or a Collation of the Dutch Ver- 
sion with the Originals. 3. ' Antibarbarus* Biblicus.' 
4. ' De Nomine Tetragrammato.' 

AM ANA (Bibl.) Apava, a mountain, mentioned Cant. iv. 8, 
supposed by some to be mount Amanus. 

AM AND, St. (Ecc.) a bishop of Bourdeaux in the fifth cen- 
tury, who wrote many letters to his catechist, S. Paulinus. 
Gregor. Turon.dc Confess, c. 45 ; Baill. Vies de Saintcs, 
au Juin. 

A.mand, S7., a bishop of Maestricht, who founded an abbey 
near Tournay, and died in 679- 

A.mand, John St., unnamed Fuye, or Fayela, persuaded Cle- 
ment VII to exterminate a sect of heretics, called Flagel- 
lants, and died in 1.394. He wrote ' De Esu Camium ; ' 
' Manipulum Exemplorum ; ' ' Quscstiones super Sententias,' 

A.mand, surnamed Du Chastcl, or de Caslel/o, abbot of Mar- 
ehiennes, in Arras, lived about 1113, and wrote, besides 
several treatises, a life of St. Odin, bishop of Cambray. 

Amand, de Liriczcc, a Franciscan, so called from his native 
place in Zealand, died in 1534. He wrote ' De LXX Heb- 
domadibus Danielis ;' ' Cnmmentaria in Genesim, Jobum, 
et Ecclesiasten ;' • De XL Mansionibus;' ' De S. Anna; 
( njugio.' 

AMANDUS, Cneus Salrius, (Hist.) an usuqier, and a colleague 
in the command with Aulus Pomponius jElianus, in Gaul, 
under Diocletian, took the title of Augustus U. C. 1038, 
A. D. 285, and was killed the year following in battle, by 
Maximianus Herculius. 

Amanih 18 (Xinnis.) one medal of this usurper, if it be genu- 

" ine, bean the inscription IMP. C. C. AMANDUS, P. F. 
\ug. or IMP. C. CN. SAL. AMANDUS, &c. Goltz. 


AM.WK'.'E Pylai (Geog.) 'Apavtxai iriiXni, narrow defiles 
in the mountain Amanus, through which Darius passed into 

Cilicia. They are called by Strabo 'Apariicr ; by Pliny, 

Amani Porta; by Curtiua, Amanias PyUv ; hy Ptolemy, 

( 'Uicice 11I Syria Porta, now Sin tin di Scanderona. Poh/b. 

1.2; SI rah. I. 14 ; Plin. 1. 5 ; Ptnl. 1. 5. 

AMANITA {Geog.) a seaport of Calabria, on the Mediter- 

.111. Lon. 10 ICE., bit. :;i> IS ' N. It lias a strong 

1 . and (luring the wars of Charles VIII and Louis XII, 
in Italv, it displayed its fidelity to the house of Arragon. 
AMANTIA (Geog.) a town on the coast of lllyria, to the 
south of Apollonia ; the inhabitants of which were called 


Amantes, or Amantini, or Amantiani. Cic. Phil. 1. 11, 
c. 1 1 ; Cms. Bell. Civ. 1. 3, c. 40 ; Plin. 1. 3, c. 23, 24. 

AMANTIUS (Hist.) grand chamberlain to the emperor Ar- 
cadius, introduced Porphyry, bishop of Gaza, to this prince, 
hy whom he was persuaded to destroy the heathen temple in 
that city. Baron. Anna!, ann. 401. 

Amantius, a prefect under the emperor Anastasius, who 
aimed at placing his friend Theocritus on the throne, but 
being supplanted by Justin, was put to death with his 
friend in 518. Evagr. 1. 4, c. 1. 

Amantius, Bartholomew (Biog.) a lawyer of Lansberg in 
the 16th century, wrote ' Flores Celebrarum Sententiarum 
Grsecarum et Latinarum.' 

AMANUS (Myth.) 'Apaiic, the god of the Persians ; the 
word ainanits signifying, as is supposed, the sun of the Per- 
sian language. 

Amanus (Geog.) 'Apavov, a mountain of Cilicia, branching 
off from the Taurus, the straits of which are called Ama- 
nictv Pyla:, [Vide Amaniew Pylaf\ and, according to Lucan, 
reaching as far as Cappadocia. 
Luc. 1. 3, v. 244. 

Cappadoces, duri papnhis nunc cultor Amani, 

It is celebrated as the retreat of wild beasts. 
Appian. Kvvny, 1. 3. 

KlXirag re jra'y«e Kai irpiovac. 'Apdvu. 
Val. Flacc. Argon. 1. I. 

Mater in adverse catulis venatur Amano. 
Cic. ad Famil. 1. 2, ep. 10; Cic. ad Attic. 1. 5, ep. 20; Pint, 
in Cicer. ; Arrian. 1. 2, &c. fJVide Amaniew Py/a'~] 

AMARA Sing/ia (Biog.) a Hindoo in the first century, was 
the author of a Sanscrit dictionary, entitled, ' Amara Kocha,' 
not written in alphabetical order, but divided into sections, 
including the names of stars, elements, &c. The first part 
of this dictionary was published by Father Paulin, in 1798, 
at Rome, entitled, ' Amara Singha, Sectio Prima de Coelo 
Ex tribus ineditis Codicibus Manuscriptis,' 4to. A MS. of 
the whole is preserved in the Royal Library at Paris. 

AMARACUS (Myth.) an officer of Cinyras, who was changed 
into sweet marjoram, whence the poetical and botanical 
name of Amaracus for that plant. Scrv. in JEn. 1. 1, 
v. fi97- 

AMARAH, Ben Alicmieni (Hist.) a poet, who was pro- 
claimed caliph by the Alides after the death of Adhed, last 
caliph of the Fatimites in Egypt, but was deposed by 

Amarah (Biog.) the surname of Nagmeddin al Jcmicni, who 
was the author of a history of the caliphs of Cairo, entitled, 
* Nokt al Asarth.' 

AMARAL, Andrew d' (Hist.) a Portuguese nobleman, grand 
chancellor, and grand cross of the order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, being offended with Philip, of the Isle Adam, 
grand master of this order, betrayed the island of Rhodes 
to the sultan Soliman II, for which act of treachery he was 
degraded and beheaded. 

Amaral, Don Louis a" (Ecc.) bishop of Vizeu, in Portugal, 
assisted at the council of Basle in 1433, which deposed 
Eugene IV, and elected Felix V, by whom he was made 
cardinal, and died in 1444. 

Amaral, Peter d' (Biog.) a Portuguese Jesuit of Coimbra, 
died in 1711, leaving a discourse in honour of the Virgin, 
entitled, 'Canticum Mnrianum,' Evor. 1709- 

Amaral, Prudence d', a Portuguese Jesuit, died in 1715- He 
wrote, 1. * Os Feitos dos Bispos y Arcebispos da Bahia,' fol. 
Lisbon. 1710. 2. ' Elegiaruni Liber de Pietate erga Bca- 
tam Mariam Virginem.' 3. ' Molse Saccharic Poetica De- 

AMARAMUS (Hist.) 'Apap/ipor, an inhabitant of Mya, be- 
yond Jordan, who, with Annibas and Eleazer, caused a 
sedition ; but being taken by Fadus, governor of Judica, 


was sent into exile, with his companion Eleazer. Joseph. 

Antitj. 1. 20, c. 1 . 
AMAH I AH {Bib).) nnnK, eldest son of Meraioth, and 

father of the high priest Ahitub. He exercised the office 

of high priest in the time of the judges. 1 Chron. vi. 7- 11- 
Amakiah, one who separated from his strange wife. Ezra 

x. 42. 
Amabiah, grandfather to the prophet Zephaniah, and father 

of Gedaliah. Zep/i. i. 1 . 
AMARICON, John (Hist.) on advocate in the parliament of 

Paris, and a descendant from a respectable family in Au- 

vergne, served the king against the leaguers, by whom he 

was imprisoned, and died before the murder of Henry III, 

in 1500. He left Commentaries on Cicero and Horace. 
AMARSIAS {Myth.) 'Afiaptrtag, the pilot who conducted 

Theseus into Crete to the Minotaur. Pint, in J it. The*. 
AMARYXTHUS {(hog.) 'AuapivBas, a village of Eubcea, 

where Diana was worshipped under the title of Aniarysia, 

and her festivals there are called Amarvnthia. Paus. 1. 1, 

c. 31. 
AMARYSIA {Myth.) 'Afiapvvia, a surname of Diana in 

AM ASA {Bibl.) Ktrnp, son of Jether and Abigail, David's 

sister, was treacherously slain by Joab, A. M. 2981. 2 Sam. 

xvii. 25. 
Amasa, son of Hadlai, opposed the admission into Samaria of 

such captives as were taken from the kingdom of Judah in 

the reign of Ahaz. 2 Chron. xxviii. 12. 
AMASAI (Bibl.) 'trni', the son of Elkanah. 1 Chron. vi. 25. 
Asiasai. a Levite, and one of king David's thirty gallant men, 

supposed to be the same as the first Amasai. 1 Chron. xii. 17- 
AMASEXUS {Geog.) a river of the Privernates, running 

into the Mediterranean. 

I'irg. .En. 1. 7, v. 685. 

quo.*, dives Anagnia, pascis, 

Quos, Amasene Pater. 

Serv. in I'irg. ; Vib. Sequest. 

AMASEO, Romulus {Biog.) a scholar of Udina in Italy, was 
born in 1489, and died in 1552. He wrote, 1. Latin 
Translations of Xenophon's Cyropsedia, fol. Bonon. 1533, 
and of Pausanias, 4to. Rom. 1547. 2. ' Orationes," con- 
sisting of 1 8 Latin speeches, delivered on different occasions. 
4to. Bonon. 1580. 

Amaseo, Pompitio, son of the former, and a Greek professor, 
translated part of Polybius, and wrote a History of his own 
Times, which was never published. 

AMASIA {Geog.) 'Auaaia, or Aunotia, a town of Pontus, 
and birth-place of Mithridates the Great, and Strabo the 
geographer, by which the river Iris flows. It is still a con- 
siderable place under the same name, but is called by the 
Turks Amnaesan. It was formerly an archbishop's sec, where 
St. Basil, one of its bishops, suffered martvrdom in 31 9. 
Sfrab. 1. 12; Plin. 1. 6, c. 3. 

Am ASIA, a town of Germany, now Marburg. Ptol. 1. 2. 

Astasia, capital of Xatolia, in Asiatic Turkey. Lon. 35° 4' E., 
lat. 40" 25' X., is the ancient Amasia. ["Vide Amasia} 

Amasia {Numis.) some medals of this town are extant while 
it was an independent state, but a still greater number under 
the emperors Trajan, Plotina, Antoninus Pius, M. Aure- 
lius, Faustina jun., Commodus, Sept. Severus, Julia Domira, 
Caracalla, Geta, Alexander Severus, and Mamea. It re- 
ceived different names from the emperors, as Hadriana, on 
account of the favours which it received from Adrian ; Seve- 
rina, from Septimus Severus ; Antoninianu, from his son 
Caracalla; Alexandriana, from Alexander Severus. It was 
made a metropolis by Adrian, and afterwards declared to be 
the first, in distinction from Xeoca?sarea and Tomorus, which 
were also metropolcs of Pontus. Amasia was likewise con- 
stituted Xeocora by the same emperor ; wherefore several of 
the inscriptions contain all its titles, as AAP. CEY. ANT. 
vol. 1. 



Hadriana, Secerina, Alexandrina, Amasia, Metropolis, Neo- 

cori, Prima Ponti, Anno 234. The epocha is dated from 

the time of Augustus, U. C. 743. The name itself of this 

town is abridged in inscriptions, as AM. AMA. AMAC. 

AM AC I. &c Vaill. Groec. 
AMASIS {Hist.) "Afiairis, a subject of Apries, king of Egypt, 

who having rebelled against Ins master took him prisoner, 

and got possession of his throne. He died during the reign 

of Cambyses. Apries, whom he succeeded, is called Hophra 

in scripture. Herod. 1. 1,2, 3. 
Amasis, a general of Darius, who was sent against the Cyre- 

nians, 1. 4, c. 201, &c 
AMASIUS {Geog.) vide Amisia. 
AMASTRIS {Hist.) "ApaTp.c. [Vide Amestrii] 
Amastris, wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heradea, and daughter 

of Oxvathris, the brother of that Darius whom Alexander 

conquered. Slrab. 1. 12. 
Amastris {Numis.) a medal of 

the abovementioned queen 

bears on the obverse her head, f j? { (\f«f> |— 8!H&^J&% ^ 

as in the annexed cut ; and 

on the reverse, the turreted 

head of a female sitting and 

holding a victory in her hand; 

inscription, AMA2TPI2 BA2IAISSH2. Whence the epi- 
thet Amastriacus. 

Olid- in I bin. v. 331. 

Aut ut Amastriacis quondam Lemrus ab pru 
Xitdtis Achdtua destituaris humt}. 

Asiastris {Geog.) "Aparpic, a town of Pontus, formerly 
called Sesamis, now Semastro. It derived its name from 
Amastris, the wife of Dionvsius, who was its founder. 
Strab. 1. 12 ; Plin. 1. 6, c. 2. ' 
Amastris {Numis.) this town struck many medals of Domitia, 
Xcrva, Plotina, Adrian, Antoninus Pius, Faustina sen., M. 
Aurelius, Faustina jun., L. Verus, Crispina, Caracalla. 
Jul. Mccsa, Gordianus Pius; the inscriptions AMACTPIC 
AMACTPIANiiN. Some medals bear the head of Homer, 
inscription, OMIIPOC; because he was supposed to be a 
native of Smyrna, in which this town was in alliance. 
Amastris also represented on its coins its tutelary deities, 
Juno, Jupiter, ./Esculapius, Hvgia, &c. ; with the inscrip- 
tions, ZEYC CTPATHPOC AMACTPIANiiN, l e. Jupiter 
Jmperator Amastrianorum. HPA AMACTPIANiiN, &c. 
Juno; ACKAHIIIOC, Aesculapius, &-c. [Vide Amisus~\ 
J'aill. Num. Graze; Palin. Imp. Rom.; Tristan. Con/men'. 
AMASTRUS {Myth.) an auxiliary in the war of Perses with 
jEetes, king of Colchis. He was killed bv Argus, son of 
Phryxus. Flacc. 1. 6, v. 544. 
AM ATA {Myth.) the wife of king Latinus, who favoured 
Turnus and opposed .Eneas, as the lover of her daughter. 
Upon the success of the latter she hung herself. 
I'irg. jEii. 1. 12, v. 600. 

5c causam clamat. rnmenqne, caputque malorum ; 

Mldtaque per mastvm aemens ejtata furorem, 

Purpureos nwritura inanu durindit amictus, 

Et nodum injvrmis leti trabe nectit ab attd. 

Amata {Hist.) the first virgin who devoted herself to the 
goddess Vesta, whence the name was given in honour of 
her to the superior Vestal, according to Aulus Gellius, 1. 1, 
c. 12. 

Amata, Anlonia Felix {Biog.) a noble lady of Palermo, sister 
to the Jesuit John Maria Amatus, [vide Amatus~\ died as a 
nun in 1701, leaving a collection of pious pieces, entitled 
' Ghirlande Celeste rli Orationi Devote per Coronarne tutte 
le Opere Buone de Giorno,' &c. l6mo. Genoa, 1692. 

AMATH {Bibl.) vide Ematk. 


AMATHEANS (Bibl.) descendants of Amatb, the son of 

AMATHOESA (Geog.) 'AuoBAuq, tlie name of Pylus, so 

called from the river Amathus, which runs through it. 
AMATHUS (Bibl.) 'AumBoq, a city beyond Jordan, which 

Euscbius places 21 miles from Pella, southwards. It was 

taken and destroyed bv Alexander Jannsus. Joseph. Anl'uj. 

1. 14, c. 10, &C ; DeBell. 1. 1, c. 6. 
Amatjius (Geog.) now Limlsso, a town on the south side 

of Cyprus, where Adonis was worshipped. It was sacred 

to Venus. 

Virg. .En. 1. 10, v. 51. 

Est Amathus, est oelta mihi Paphus, atque Cylhera, 
Idaliaque damns. 

And the inhabitants were said to be changed into bulls by 
Venus. Ovid speaks of its metals, 
Met. 1. 10, v. 530. 

Piicosumijiie Cnidon, gravidamve Amathunta metalli. 

Sci/lac. Peripl.; Strab. 1. 14; Plin. 1. 5, c. 31; Tac. Annul. 
L 3, c. 62 ; Paus. 1. 9, c. ult.; Ptol 1. 5, c. 14. 

AMATO, Michel d' (Biog.) a prothonotary apostolic of Naples, 
died in 1 729- He wrote in Latin, 1 . A Dissertation, His- 
torical, Dogmatical, and Moral, on the Sort of Balm which 
ought to be employed in the Holy Unction, 8vo. Naples, 
1722. 2. A Dissertation, Historical, Physiological, and 
Moral, on the Custom of Eating Birds as well as Fish during 
Lent, 8vo. Naples, 1723. 3. Four Dissertations on other 
Usages of the Church, &c. 4to. Naples, 1728. 

AMATUS (Ecc.) Aimable or Ainie, archbishop of Sens, in 
the seventh century, was banished to Peronne by king 
Thierri, and died in the monastery of Merville, in C90. 

Amatus, Aimable (Ecc.) or Ainu'; archbishop of Bourdeaux, 
was employed by Gregory VII on many important nego- 
ciations, particularly in regard to the dissolution of the mar- 
riage of William VII, count de Poitou, with a daughter of 
Audebert, count de Perigord, to whom he was too near a 
kin. He died in 1101. 

Amatus (Biog.) or Amato, a monk of Mount Cassin, who 
wrote four books on the acts of St. Peter and St. Paul, de- 
dicated to Gregory VII, and eight books on the History of 
the Normans. 

Amatus, or Amato, John Roderigo, a Portuguese physician 
and a Jew, was born at Castel Blanco, in 151 1. He wrote, 
' Exegemata in priores duos Dioscoridis de Materia Mcdica 
Libros,' 4to. Ant v. 1536. 

Amatus, Avcllus, a fiscal advocate of Naples, wrote, 1. ' Pro- 
logemina Feudalia,' 4to. Neapol. 2. ' Responsum in Causis 
Jurisdictionalibus.' 3. ' Consilionim seu Responsorum Cen- 
tum,' fol. Neapol. ]6lC. 

tati.1 us, John Maria, a Jesuit of Palermo, was born of noble 
parents in l66'0, and wrote, 1. ' Oratio Prima in Litcrarii 
Anni Renascentis,' &c. 2. ' Oratio Secunda, in Solemni Stn- 
diorum Lustratione," &c. 3. ' La Conca d'Oro in Tripudio 
per l'Anno Vcntesimo del Catolico Re delle Spagne,' &c. 
4. ' Elogio di D. Francisco Schafani,' &ft 5. ' Concilium 
Provinciale Panormitanum anno 1388,' &fc 

AMAl'KI ( count of Jaflii, and king of .Jerusalem, 
succeeded Baldwin III, in 1163; and died after an unsuc- 
cessful attempt against Egypt in 1172. 

Amauhi, king of Jerusalem, succeeded his brother Guy, and 
died in 1205. He was unsuccessful against the Saracens. 

Amauiii, king of the Visigoths. ["Vide Amttlaric~] 

Amaiiii, count of Muntfort. [Vide Moiilforl~] 

Amauiii (Ecc.) a patriarch of Jerusalem, who refused to 
crown Ainauri I, unless lie put away bis wife Agnes, his 
relation in the fourth degree. He died in 1 1 80. 

Amauiii (Biog.) or Amalric de, Charlrrs, professor of phi- 
losophy, was born near Chartres, in the 13th century. He 
wanted to form a new system of religion on the metaphysics 
of Aristotle, but was prevented by Eugene IV, who con- 


denined his doctrines. Although he was obliged to recant, 
yet he is supposed to have retained his opinions, to which 
he left many adherents after his death. 

AMAXIA (Geog.) 'Afiai,ia, a town situated on a hill in Cilicia, 
on which grew wood that was fit for the building of ships. 
Strab. 1. 14. 

AMAXITUS (Geog.) 'Aiialtrog, a town of Troas, where was 
the temple of Apollo, of which Chryses was the high priest. 
Strab. 1. 13; Plin. 1. 5, c. 3Q. 

AMAZENES (Hist.) or Mazenes, MaZi'ivnc, a prince of the 
island Oaractus, who for some time accompanied Alexander's 
expedition to India. Arrian. 

AMAZIAH (Bibl.) n>YDK, eighth king of Judah, succeeded 
his father Joash, and after a reign of 52 years was assas- 
sinated A. M. 3194, A. C. 810. 2 Kings xiv. &c. 

Amaziah, a priest of the golden calves at Bethel, who pro- 
cured from Jeroboam the banishment of the prophet Amos, 
because he prophesied the destruction of the high places con- 
secrated to idolatry, about A.M. 3215, A. C. 789- Amos 
vii. 10, 11. 

AMAZON (Geog.) a river rising in Peru, of South America, 
the greatest in the world, being at its mouth 150 miles 
broad, receiving in its course, which is 3300 miles, nearly 
200 rivers, some of them not inferior to the Danube or the 

AMAZONES (Geog.) 'A/xai^oycc, a celebrated nation of war- 
like women, who inhabited the country of Thermodon, in 
Cappadocia, and extended themselves even to Lybia, accord- 
ing to some. They are said to have cut otf their right 
breast for greater convenience in managing the bow, from 
which circumstance they derive their name ; i. e. from a 
priv. and fia(oe, a breast. Virgil, speaking of their queen 
Penthesilea, calls them Amazonides. 
Virg. JEn. 1. 1, v. 4<)0. 

Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 
Penthesilea forms, mediisque in miilibus ardet, 
Aurea sutmectens exertit cingula niammif. 

Homer designates them by the epithet i. e. men- 
haters ; and other poets have described their mode of equip- 
ping for war, and their military habits. Martial speaks of 
the Pelts. 
Marl. 1. 9, epig. 1 04. 

Peltatam Scyth&DO discinxit Amazona nodo. 

Claudian. de Rapt. Proscrpin. 1. 2, v. 62. 

Qualis Amazonidum peltis eiuttot aduncis 
1'utchra cohort, qiti'ties Arcton populate virago 
Ilippolyte niveas ducit post pralia tunnas. 

Stat. Syh. 1. 5. 

Amazonia latus intercludere peltas. 

Horace speaks of their axes. 
Hor. 1. 4, od. 4. 

hfhl unde deductus per omne 

Tempui Amazomimeuri 
De-itras obarntet, qua:rerc diHuli. 

Seneca Agamo/i. act. ii. 

Xon j'icto pharttmt, el ttevrigera nam 

Pettata Amazon. 
Propertius speaks of their bared breasts. 
Propert. 1. 3, cleg. 12, v. 15. 

Qualis Ainazontdiim nihlatis btlUoa moMSIM 
'I'herinotloonteis turba luoatnr aqius. 
Their mode of cohabiting occasionally with the male sex, 
and their treatment of their male offspring, has been vari- 
ously stated by different writers; and Strabo questions their 
existence altogether, as a nation ; but Diodorus, Justin, and 
others, specify their queens by name, of which the follow- 
ing arc the principal : 

Queens of the Amazons. 
Marlhr.sia or Marpesia, tHapnrtfaffln and Lampedo, reigned 


conjointly in the time of JEgeus. The? are said to have 
built Ephesus, and other cities of Asia Minor. 
Antiope and Orelhya, were conquered by Hercules and 
Theseus. Apollodorus calls Antiope, Hippolyte ; and 
Apollonius calls Orethya, Otrere. 
Penthesilea, went as an auxiliary to Priam, to the Trojan 

war, where she is said to have been killed by Achilles. 
Minithi/a or Thalestris, their last queen, paid a visit to 
Alexander the Great, that she might have offspring from 
so warlike a prince. Horn. II. 1. 3, &c. c^- Eustath. m 11.; 
Herod. 1. 4, c. 1 10 ; Apollod. 1. 2, c. 3 ; Dionus. Hal. 1. 4; 
Diodor. 1. 2 ; Strab. 1. 1 1 ; Hygin. Fab. 14 ; P/in. 1. 6, 
c 7, &c. ; Pluf. in Thes. ; Justin. 1. 2, c. 4 ; Quint. Curt. 
c 5 ; Ptol. 1. 5, c. 10 ; Pans. 1. 7, c. 2 ; Palcvphat. de 

Amazones (Xumis.) were represented on medals mostly with 
a battle-axe, of which an example is given under the head 
of Amisus. rVide Amisus] 

AMAZONIA {Hist.) a mistress of the emperor Commodus, 
on whose account he descended into the arena to tight as a 
common gladiator. He took the name of Amazonius, and 
gave it also to the month of December in honour of her. 
Lamp, in Fit. 

Amazonia (Geog.) a country of South America, so called by its 
discoverer Francisco Orellana, who, sailing down the river 
Amazon for the first time in 1580, observed on its banks 
numbers of women in arms, wherefore he designated the 
country and the river by the names which they now bear. 
Amazonia is 1400 miles long, and 1 96O broad, being bounded 
on the X. by Terra Firma and Guayana ; on the E. by the 
Atlantic ocean and Brazil ; on the S. by Paraguay ; and on 
the W. by Peru. The Spaniards have made many unsuc- 
cessful attempts to settle there, but the Portuguese have 
some settlements between Cape North and the mouth of the 

AMAZONTL'M (Geog.) •ApaZoveiov, a place in Attica, 
where Theseus defeated the Amazons. Plut. in Thes. Also 
a town of CumuD, where the Amazons lived. Steph. Byz. 

AMAZONIUS (Myth.) 'A/ja£ovmc, an epithet of Apollo in 
Laconia, from the defeat of the Amazons bv Theseus. 
Pans. 1. 3. 

Amazonits (Hisl.) the title which the emperor Commodus 
took, and gave to the month of December in honour of his 
mistress. [Aide Amazonia] 

Amazonius Moris (Geog.) or Amazonicus Mons, a part of 
Mount Taurus called after the Amazons. 

AMAZONS (Geog.) vide Amazon. 

AMBACIA (Geog.) a town of Touraine, in France, now 

AMBARVI (Geog.) a people of Celtic Gaul, who inhabited 
the country now called Chalois. Cws. de Bell. Gall. 1. 7 ; 
Lit: 1. 5, c. 34. 

AMBERGER, Christopher (Biog.) a painter of Nuremberg, 
of the l6th century, is known by his History of Joseph in 
18 pictures. He also painted a portrait of Charles V, and 
died in 1550. 

AMBERKELET (Hist.) a king of Scotland, who succeeded 
Eugene VI in &J~, and was killed whilst on an expedition. 

AMBIALITES (Geog.) a people of GaUia Celtica, who in- 
habited the counrrv now called L'Amballe. Merul. in Cats, 
de Bell. Gall. I. 3,' c. 9. 

AMBIANI (Geog.) a people of Belgium, who took up arms 
against Caesar. Thev inhabited what is now called Picardy. 
Cccs. de Bell. Gall. L 8, c. 4; Lie. Epit. lit; Strab. 1. 4.' 

AMBTANUM (Geog.) capital of the Ambiani, now Amiens, 
is celebrated as the theatre of Caesar's exploits. It was after- 
wards embellished by the emperors Antoninus Pius and Mar- 
cus Aurelius, and chosen as a place of residence by Con- 
stantine, Constantius, Julian, Yalentinian, Valens, Gratian, 
and Theodosius; but suffered much from the barbarians, 


particularly the Normans, by whom it was almost entirely 
burnt down in 925. Its earliest bishop was St. Fermin, 
whose successors Fermin the Martyr, Fermin the Confessor, 
Honorius, Berchaud, Sylvius, and Godefroi, were enrolled 
in the calendar of saints. Its cardinals were Jean de la 
Grange, Jean le Jeune, Charles Hemand, Claude de Longue, 
Nicolas de Pelleve. It likewise reckons among its distin- 
guished natives the celebrated antiquarian Du Cange. 
[Vide Amiens'] 

AMBIATINUM (Geog.) or Ambiatinus vicus, a village of 
the Treveri, in Germany, now Capelle, at the confluence 
of the Rhine and Maese. Caligula is said to have been born 
there. >S'Ke7. in Cal. c. 8. 

AMBIBARETI (Gcos-) vide Ambivarcti. 

AMBIGATUS (Hist.) a king of the Celts, who, finding the 
population of his country to be excessive, sent out colonies 
under his two nephews, Bellovesus and Sigovesus. The 
auguries decreed the Hyrcanian woods to the latter, and 
Italy to the former. Lie. 1. 5, c. 34, et seq. 

AMBIORIX (Hist.) a king of the Eburones, in Gaul, and a 
formidable enemy to the Romans, was at last totally routed 
by Caesar, with the loss of his whole army, and himself 
obliged to seek safety by flight. Cws. de Bell. Gall. 1. 5, 
c. 1 1 ; 1. 6, c. 30, et seq. 

AMBIVARETI (Geog.) or Ambibarcti, a people of Celtic 
Gaul, who occupied the country now called Xiveruois. Cks. 
de Bell. Gall. 1. 7- 

AMBIVARITI (Geog.) a people of Belgic Gaul, supposed by 
Ortellius and others to have inhabited Brabant. Cws. de 
Bell. Gall. 1. 4. 

AMBIYIUS, Marcus (Hist.) succeeded Coponius in the go- 
vernment of Judaea, whose successor was Annius Rufus, 
A. D. 53. Joseph. Antiq. 1. IS, c. 3. 

A.mbivius, Turpio (Biog.) a comic actor, who performed some 
of the plays of Terence. 

AMBLETEUSE (Geog.) Ambletosa, a seaport of Picardy, in 
the department of Pas de Calais, defended by a battery, 
4 miles S. Boulogne. Lon. 1° 40' E. lat. 50° 40' N. Its 
harbour was destroyed by the English in the 17th century, 
and rebuilt by Louis XIV. It is situated on the English 
channel, 8 miles N. Boulogne, and remarkable for being 
the place where king James II landed on his leaving Eng- 
land in 1688. 

AMBOISE (Geog.) Ambacia, a town of Touraine, in the de- 
partment of Indre and Loire, 5 leagues E. Tours. Lon. 
0° 34' E. lat. 47° 21' N. Charles YIII, who greatly en- 
larged its royal chateau, was born and died here ; Foul- 
ques III, count of Anjou, founded the collegiate church of 
the Florentines ; and Lewis XI here instituted the order of 
St. Michael in 14G6*. Amboise is an ancient town frequently 
mentioned in history, particularly by Gregory of Tours, 
who informs us that Clovis and Alaric had an interview in 
the island near St. Amboise. The seignory of Amboise was 
in the possession of the house of Berrie for many centuries. 

Amboise (Hist.) an ancient and illustrious house, which de- 
rived its name from the seignory of Amboise, in France, 
which came into the possession of the house of Berrie in 
1100. £Vide Amboise] The most distinguished of its 
members are as follow : 

Amboise, Louis d', viscount de Thouan, prince de Talmond, 
&c. having taken part with the English, was made prisoner 
bv order of Charles VII, and his estates confiscated, but 
restored to him some time after. He died in 1469- 

Amboise, Frances d\ wife of Peter II, duke of Britanny, 
was born in 1427, and contributed much to the refinement 
of manners among the Bretons. Although exposed to much 
ill treatment from her father, she refused to marry the duke 
of Savoy at the death of her husband, and died in a con- 
vent in 1485. 

Amboise, Aimezi d', grand prior of France, and fortieth grand 


master of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, gained a 
victory over the sultan of Egypt, and died in 1512. 

Amboise, (.'harks a", marshal and admiral of France, com- 
manded the army of Louis XII at the hattle of Aignadel 
in 150.1), and died at Correggio in 1511. 

Amboise, James d", lord of Bussi, was killed at the hattle of 
Marignarj in 1515. 

Amboise, Hughe* d\ was made lieutenant-general, in Tus- 
cany, for his valour at the engagement of Fornone in 1-1-95. 
He was killed at the hattle of Marignan in 1515. 

Amboise, James d', haron d'Ambijoux, died at the siege of 
Marseilles, which he defended against Charles V in 1530'. 

Amboise, George a" (Ecc.) brother of Aimezi d' Amboise of 
the above-mentioned house of Amboise, a cardinal and arch- 
bishop of Rouen, and prime minister of Lewis XII ; was born 
in 1460, and died in 1510, to the universal regret of all 
France, to the benefit of which he devoted his talents and 
his property. 

Amboise, Francis a" {Biog.) a writer of the Kith and 17th 
centuries, died about 1620. He wrote, 1. 'Notable Dis- 
cours en Forme de Dialogue, touchant la Vraie et I'arfaite 
Amitie,' Kimo. Lyons, 157 7- -• 'Dialogue et Devis des 
Demoiselles pour les rendre Vertueuses et Bienheureuses 
en la Vraye et I'arfaite Amitie,' Kimo. 1581-3. 3. ' Re- 
grets Facctieux et Plaisantes, Harangues Funebres sur la 
Mart de divers Animaux,' Paris, 1583. 4. 'Les Xapoli- 
taines,' a Comedy, Kimo. Paris, 1584. 5. An Edition of 
the works of Abelard, l6l6. 6. ' Desperades ou Eglogues 
Amoureuses,' 8vo. Paris. K>72. 

Amboise, Adrian d' , younger brothel of the preceding, was 
born at Paris in 1551, and died bishop of Treguier in Kilt). 
He wrote ' Holophemes,' a sacred drama. 

Amboise, James d', brother of the preceding, obtained a 
doctor's degree in 1594, and died of the plague in 1606, 
He wrote, 1. ' Orationes Dmc,' against the Jesuits, 8vo. 
Paris, 1595. 2. ' Questioned Medicinales.' 

Amboise, Michael </'. a poet, was born at Xaples at the be- 
ginning of the lfith century, and died in 1547. N Huron 
has given a list of his poetical pieces. 

AMBOVXA {Geog.) the chief of the Molucca islands in the 
eastern seas, the capital of which of the same name is 
Ion. 128° 15' E. lat. 3° 40' S. This island was discovered 
by the Portuguese in 1516, who made a settlement there 
in 15 Mi, and built Fort Vittoria on the S. E. coast. The 
Dutch expelled the Portuguese in 1605, and the English 
made an unsuccessful attempt to form a settlement upon the 
island in Kilo, hut subsequently established a factory there, 
the members of which were all treacherously murdered by the 

Dutch governor in 1622. Amboyna fell into the hands of 
the English in 1796) was restored in 1801, recaptured in 
1810, and delivered up again by the treaty of Paris in 
AMBRACIA {Geog.)' \fi($paicia, or 'Auirpaicla ; a city of Thes- 
protia, now l.arla, in Ppirus, and the residence of king 
Pvrrhus, was originally called I'.puia, I'eralia, and after the 
victory of Augustus Nicopolis, according to Strabo; but 
Ptolemy makes Ainbracia and Nicopolis to be distinct. Ilc- 
, odot. 1. 9, c. 28 ; Thucyd. L 2, c. 80 &c. ; Polyb. 1. 1, c. (i;; ; 
liv. 1. 88, c. I ; Pomp. Mela, I. 2, c 8 ; Str'ab. 1. 7 ; Plin. 
1. 4, e. 1 ; Plol 1. :;, c. ) I ; Paus. 1. 1, c. 23; Flor. !. 2 ; 

Stepk. Hi/:- ilc I 1I1. 

Ambracu {Numis.) being a colony of the Corinthians, or 

the Cretans, represented most frequently the Pegasus or 
Minotaur on their medals, hut sometimes the head of 
Jupiter, or the figure of Apollo; the inscriptions \- \\lli- 
limit. Num. 1,1,. ; Pellerin. Her. dee Med. %c. 
AMBRACIUS, Sinus {Geog.) a part of the Adriatic adjacent 

to Fpirus, now the Gulf of which, according to 
Polybius, was 100 stadia in length, and the same in breadth ; 


but Strabo has assigned much greater dimensions to it. 
["Vide Ambrada~\ 
AMBROGI, Antotne Marie (Biog.) a scholar, was born at 
Florence in 1713, and died at Rome in 17S8. He wrote, 
1. A Translation of Virgil into Blank Verse,' 3 vols. fol. 
Rome, 176'3. 2. Translations of some of Voltaire's Trage- 
dies, and Cicero's Epistles. 3. A Latin Oration on the Elec- 
tion of Joseph II to be King of the Romans. 4. ' Museum 
Kircheranum.' 2 vols. fol. 1765. 5. A Latin Poem on the 
Cultivation of the Lemon-tree in MS. (i. A Translation 
of Jesuit Xoceti's two Poems on the Iris and the Aurora 

AMBBOGIO {Bk)g.) or Auibrosius Theseus, an Italian 
orientalist, was horn in 1 M>9, and died in 1539- He wrote 
his Introduction to the Chaldean, Syrian, Armenian, and 
ten other tongues, with the alphabetical characters of about 
forty different languages, 4to. 

AMBRONES {Hist.) a people of Gaul, who, after being 
driven from their country by inundations, became plunder- 
ers ; whence the word ambro was used for a robber or 
vagrant. They were subdued by Marius. Lie. Epitom. 
1. 68 ; Strab. I 4 ; Phil, in Mar. ' 

AMBROSE (Ecc.) in Latin Ambrosias, deacon of Alex- 
ander about the year 25(1, was converted from the Valcnu- 
nian heresy by the eloquence of Origen, whose disciple he 
was. According to St. Jerome, he left some 'Epistles,' 
which are not now extant. 

AMBROSE, St., son of Ambrosius, a pretorian prefect in Gaul, 
was horn at Treves about 333, and died at the age of 57, 
in the reign of Valentinian. He was elevated to the dig- 
nity of archbishop of Milan, which post he filled with 
honour to himself and benefit to the church. The works of 
this distinguished father, which consist of numerous trea- 
tises, have been frequently reprinted; but the best edition is 
that of the Benedictines,' 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1686 — H>9<>. 

Ambrose, St., bishop of Cahors in 752, died in 770, having 
resigned his bishopric to become a hermit. 

Ambrose, a dominican of Sienne, in Tuscany, was employed 

on different missions to the popes Clement IV and Gregory X, 
in behalf of Ins native place. He died in 1287- 

AMBROSE, a monk and genera] of the monks of Camalduli. 
was born in 1878, and died in 1439. He was a distinguished 
Greek scholar, and employed by pope Eugene IV to main- 
tain the rights of the Holy See at the councils of Basle, 
Ferrara, and Florence. His works, besides lives of several of 
the fathers, and his letters in 25 books, were an itinerary 
entitled ' Hodoe'poricon,' containing an account of some 
convents that he visited. Mo. Florent. 143] ; a Translation 
of Diogenes I.acrtius, &C. 

AMBROSE, Isaac, a presbyterian teacher in the times of the 
rebellion, left several treatises of a religious nature, which 
were collected in one volume, fol. 1 674, &C. 

AMBROSINI {Biog.) the name of two brothels, who were 

both botanists and physicians at Bologna. 

AMBROSINI, Bartholomew, died in Hi57. He wrote, 1. ' Modo. 
e Facile Prescrva, e Cura ili Peste, a Benelicio del Popolo di 

Bologna,' 4to. lti.M. 2. 'Theories Medians in TabuJas di- 

gesta,' Mo. Bonoti. 1632. 3. ' De Pulsibus,' Mo. [645. 

4. ' De Extends Malis Opusculum,' 1 656. 5. ' De Urinis,' &c. 

Ambrobini, Hyacinth, died in 1 666. He wrote, I. 'Hortus 

Bononia Shidiosorum consitus,' 4to. Bonon. 1654-7. 

2. ' Pbvtologia. hoc est. de Plantis, Partis Prime, Tomus 

Primus,' &C. fol. Milili. 
AMELEK (Bibl.) ^on, father of Joash, whom king Ahab 

ordered to keep Micaiab, the prophet, in custody. 2 Chron. 

xviii. 25. 
AMELES (Mi/lli.) '.\m.\i',c, a river of hell, the waters of 

which no vessel COuld contain. Plain de Ixejiub. 1. 10. 
AMELIA {Geog.) the ancient Anuria; a town of .Sjioleto, 

in Italy, with a bishop's see, dependant immediately on the 


Holy See. It is situated on a mountain between the Tiber 
and the Mera, 8 miles S. S. W. Spoleto. Lon. 12° 19' E. 
lat. 42° 25' V 

AMELIN", John d' (Biog.) a gentleman of Sarlat, translated 
some parts of Livy into French, and wrote other things which 
are not now known. 

AMELIXE. Claude (Biog.) an ecclesiastic, was born at Paris 
about 1()2<). He wrote, 1. ' Traite de la Volonte,' 12mo. 
Paris, 16S4. 2. 'Traite de 1' Amour de Souverain Bien,' 
12mo. Paris, 1699. 

AMELIUS (Biog.) a philosopher of the third century, the 
cotemporary of Porphyry, and disciple of Plotinus, wrote 
above a hundred treatises, none of which are extant. Por- 
phur. in I it. Plot. Eunap. Tlicod ; Ions. 1. 3, c. 16. 

Amelius, or Amelia, Peter, an Augustine, accompanied St. 
Gregory XI from Avignon to Rome, an account of which 
removal he wrote in Latin verse, and died bishop of Seniga- 
glia in 1365. 

Ameius, George (Biog.) a celebrated lawyer of Friburg. 
addressed a letter to Frederic Nausea, bishop of \ ienna. 

Ameihs, Martin, son of the preceding, was in the service 
of the marquis of Baden, by whom he was sent on a mis- 
sion to the emperor Ferdinand, and was well received at 
the court of Vienna. 

AMELONGUS (Hist.) a soldier under Remoald, king of the 
Lombards, of such prodigious strength that, with a blow 
of his staff, he could knock a rider off his horse, and whirl 
him over his head. 

AMELOT (Hist.) a family originally from Orleans, which 
produced a great number of magistrates, who held high 
offices in the state, of which the following are entitled to 
particular notice. 

Amki.ot. James, lord of Carnetin, was the first who went 
from Orleans to Paris, and became advocate to the Parlia- 
ment in the reign of Francis I : in which capacity 
tinguLshed himself, and died in 1630. 

Amelot, Michael, marquis de Gournay, and baron de 
Brunelles, filled all the highest offices of state, and was em- 
ployed on the most important negotiations at Venice, in 
Switzerland, Portugal, and Spain ; all which he executed 
with the greatest ability and integrity. He died in 17- 1. 
after having assisted at the consecration of Louis XV. 

Amelot, de la Housai/e, Nicholas (Biog.) an historian and 
scholar, was born Feb. 1<>.!4 at Orleans, and died at Paris. 
Dec- 8, 1706'. He wrote, 1. ' Histoire du Government de 
Venise,' &c. Paris, 1676. 2. ' La Morale de Tacite,' 1686. 
S. A Translation of Palafox's Theological and Moral Homi- 
lies upon the Passion of our Lord ; besides Translations 
into French of Machiavel's Prince ; Father Paul's History 
of the Council of Trent ; Balthasar Crucian's ■ Oraculo 
Manual ;' and the first six books of Tacitus's Annals. Xi- 
ceron also gives a list of some other pieces. 

AMELOTTE, Denis (Biog.) a French writer, was born at 
Saintonge in 1606, and died in 10'78. His works are. 
1. ' La Vie du P. de Gondren,' 4to. Paris, 1643. 2. A 
French Translation of the New Testament, in 4- vols. 8vo. 
1666-8. 3. ' Abrege de la Thcologie,' 4to. Pans. I67S. 
4. ' Leg Epitres et les Evangiles de toute l'Anuee,' &c. 

AMEXAXUS (Geog.) 'Aptvavag, ariverof Sicily, now Ju- 
dieello, that has its source in Mount Etna, and sometimes 
runs in a very small stream, to which Ovid alludes. 
Ovid- Fast. 1. 4, v. M>7- 

Secnon Sksanua voltens Ainenanus arenas 
jVunc/bitf ; interdum suppressisjonttbus ant. 

.Steal, 1. 5. 
Amenanis (Numis.) some medals of Catana commemorate 
this river which watered its country, by the i - 

AMENIDES (Hist.) secretary to Darius, whom Alexander 
set over the Arimaspi. Quint. Curt. 1. 7, c. 3. 


AMEXOCLES (Hist.) a native of Corinth, and the first 
Grecian, as it is said, who built a three-oared galley at 
Corinth and Samos. Thucyd. 1. 1. 

AMEXOPHIS (Hist.) 'A/iivofic, the name of three kings 
of Egypt. 

Amenophis I, succeeded Chebron, A.M. 2218, Julian period 
2928, A. C. 1786. He reigned 20 years and 7 months, 
or 24 years and 7 months according to Julius Africanus. 

Amenophis II, or Memnon, succeeded Thetmosis Jul. per. 
3504, A. C. 1210, and reigned 30 years and 10 months. 

Amenophis III, or Belus, surnamed Harnesses, began to 
reign Jul. per. 3689, A. C. 1025, and reigned nine years 
and six months. He was succeeded by Sethosis, or Sesostris. 

AMENTA, Nicholas (Biog.) a lawyer and miscellaneous 
writer, was born at Naples in 1659, and died in 1719- His 
writings are, 1. Seven prose Comedies, ' La Costa,' ' 11 
Forea,' ccc. 2. ' Rapport i di Parnasso,' 4to. Naples, 1710. 

3. ' II Torto e il Diritto del non si puo,' &c. 8vo. Naples, 1717. 

4. 'Delia Lingua Xobile d'ltalia,' &c. 4to. Naples, 1723. 

5. The Lives of Scipio, Pasquali, and Lionardo, a Neapo- 
litan poet. 6. Twenty-four ' Capitoli,' i. e. Satirical Pieces. 

AMERBACH, John (Biog.) a printer of Suabia, who edited the 
works of St. Augustan, and began those of St. Jerome in 1515, 
but was prevented by death from completing them, which 
task devolved upon his sons. 

Akbbbach, Boniface, the eldest son of the former, and law 
professor at Basle, wrote, in conjunction with his brother 
Erasmus, ' the Bibliotheca Amerbachiana,' 4to. Basil. 1659. 

Amerbach, Basil, son of Boniface, founded a new professor- 
ship in the university of Basle called the Amerbachian pro- 

Amekbai 11. Vitus, a native of Suabia in the 16th century, at 
first embraced the doctrines of Luther, but afterwards re- 
turned to the Romish church. He died in 155", leaving 
the Orations of Isocrates and Demosthenes translated ; also 
translations of the Treatises of St. Chrysostoin on Provi- 
dence, and Epiphanius on the Catholic Faith, etc. 

AMERIA (Geog.) 'Afitpla, 'A'ftipiov, or 'Apfipiov, now Amelia. 
a city of Umbria, the inhabitants of which were called 
Ameriui. It was built, according to Pliny, on the autho- 
rity of Cato, 960 years before the Persian war. i. e. 583 
years before the building of Rome, A. M. 2900, A. C. 1 135, 
and, according to Festus, had one Amerius for its founder. 
It is distinguished as the birth-place of Sextus Ros ins, so 
ably defended by Cicero ; and its oziers, Amerime saliees, are 
celebrated for their use in training the vine. 
Virg. Georg. 1. 1, v. 265. 

Atque .luerina parant lentil retiiiacnta liti. 

The gentile name is Amerinus. Cic. pro Sex. Rose. c. 7 ; 

Strab. 1. 5 ; P/in. 1. 3, c. 1 4. 
AMEHIAS (Biog.) or Amerius, a grammarian of Macedon, 

often quoted by Athenseus. Allien. 1. 1, c. 12, &c. 
AMERICA (Geog.) the largest of the four grand divisions 

of the world. 

Extent and Division. America is of such a length as to 
comprehend the whole of the torrid, besides a consider- 
able part of the temperate and frigid zones, to the extent 
altogether of not less than 10,000 miles, being in breadth 
from 1800 to 2000 miles. It is naturally divided into two 
great continents, namely. North and South America, which 
are separated from each other Ly the isthmus of Darien. 

Xorth America comprehends 

1. The British provinces of Canada, Upper and Low , 
New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, to which are added 
Xew Britain and the island of Cape Bretain. 

2. The United Provinces, known" under the name of tf e 
United States, namely, Massachusets, X T ew Hampshire, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Xew York, Xew Jersej 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, &c. 


3. The viceroyalty of New Spain, comprehending Mexico, 

Vera Cruz, Merida, &c. 
South America contains Brazil, the Caraccas, Chili, Guiana, 
Terra Firma, New Grenada, Amazonia, Peru, Chili, 
Paraguay, and Patagonia. 
The principal towns in North and South America are as 
follow : 

Principal Towns in North America. 

Quebec in Lower Canada. 

Halifax in Nova Scotia. 

Boston in New England. 

Philadelphia . . in Pennsylvania. 

New York .... in New York. 

Halifax in Virginia. 

Savanna in Georgia. 

Charleston .... in S. Carolina. 

New Orleans . . in West Florida. 

Mexico in Mexico. 

Principal Tonus in South America. 

Carthagena . . in Terra Firma. 

Rio Janeiro . . in Brazil. 

St. Salvador . . in Brazil. 

Quito in Quito. 

Lima in Peru. 

Truxillo in Peru. 

Buenos Ayres. . in Paraguay. 

Jago in Chili. 

Mountains, Capes, Isthmuses, $c. The most considerable 
chains of mountains are the Andes, in South America, 
and the Alleghanv mountains in the North, which form 
immense ranges, that are also reckoned to be the loftiest 
in the world. Among these the mountain Potosi, in Peru, 
Ls the richest. The principal capes, isthmuses, &c. are Cape 
Horn, Cape St. Maria, Cape St. Lucas, Cape Breton, 
Isthmus of Darien, &c. 
Rivers, Lakes, Gulfs, Straits, SfC. The rivers of America 
are the grandest in the world, the principal of which are 
the river St. Lawrence, the Mississippi, the Amazons, the 
Oronoco, the river dc la Plata, &e. The lakes are Lake 
Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario, Maracaibo, 
Valencia, &c. The principal gulfs are the Gulf of 
Mexico, of Florida, of California, of St. Lawrence, &c. ; 
and the bays are the Bay of Honduras, Hudson's Bay, 
Baffin's Bay, Sec. The straits are the Straits of Magellan, 
Davis's Strait, Hudson's Strait, &c. 
Islands. The principal islands are those which are known 
under the name of the West Indies, or West India Islands, 
a, Jamaica, St. Domingo, Cuba, the Bahamas, the Ca- 
ribbecs, Barbadoes, Trinidad, Tobago, &c. 
'History- America is generally supposed to have been first 
discovered by Christopher Columbus, in 1492, although 
it received its name from Amcricus Vespucius, who, hav- 
ing three yean after drawn up a particular account of this 
newly-discovered country, obtained the credit of being 
considered as its discoverer. Whether any part of this 
continent were known to the ancients or not is a matter of 
some uncertainty ; but it may be collected from different 
writers that they looked upon the three continents, Eu- 
rope, Asia, and Africa, not to be the extent of the habitable 
globe. Plato, in his ' Timsrus,' makes mention of an 
island called Atlantis, which, according to the account 

■.riven by the Egyptian priests to Solon, exceeded any oi 

the three continents in extent ; and this narrative, though 

considered by some as fabulous, is confirmed by Proclus, 
Porphvrv, and others- Aristotle, in the booh attributed 
to him, ' De Mundo,' intimates that there are other 
islands besides Europe, Africa, and Asia, which were then 
known; and Diodorus expressly states that the (artlia- 


ginians discovered a large island beyond the Pillars of 
Hercules, which, for reasons of state, they would not 
suffer to become known to the Europeans. Pint, in Tim.; 
Aristot. de Mund. ; Diod. Sic. 1. 2 ; Plin. 1. 2, c. 92 ; 
Tcrtull. de Pall. c. 2, el Apolog. c. 40 ; Arnoh. adv. Gent. 
1. 1 ; Turnel. Adv. 1. 20, c. 11 ; Voss. de Mat hem. c. 42. 
Among the number of those who contributed to the disco- 
very of America were Alonzo de Ojeda, Nunez de Bal- 
boa, Ferdinand Cortez, and Francis Pizarro, by which 
two last adventurers Mexico and Peru were discovered 
and conquered. At the time when the Spaniards arrived 
in those countries, Motezuma was the king of the Mexi- 
cans, and Ahatualpa the inca of the Peruvians. The 
following is a list of the princes who reigned in these 
countries from the foundation of the two monarchies to 
their conquest by the Spaniards. 

Succession of the Kings of Mexico. 

Acamapixtli, who died after a useful reign of more than 40 
years, during which he did much towards the improve- 
ment of the country, and was succeeded by 

J'iJzilocuthj, his son, who was unanimously elected to the 
throne, but died after a short reign. 

Chiluajx>poca, his son, although only ten years of age, was 
elected ; but being treacherously murdered by the Tepea- 
cans, a neighbouring people, he was succeeded by his 

Izcoalt, who, among other wise regulations, confided the 
election of the Mexican princes to six electors, who were 
to be themselves princes. Izcoalt died after a prosperous 
reign of 12 years. 

Motezuma I, a warlike prince, who died after a reign of 2S 
years, leaving the reputation of an experienced general 
and a wise monarch. 

Tezazic, son of the preceding, a weak prince, was poisoned 
after an inglorious reign of four years. 

Axauaca, brother of the preceding, reigned prosperously and 
wisely for 1 1 years. 

Autzal died after a reign of 1 1 years, deeply regretted by his 

Motezuma II, a magnanimous but unfortunate prince, was 
killed by his own subjects in a seditious tumult, which was 
occasioned by the invasion of the Spaniards. 

Qui/aia, who, dying in the first year of his reign, was suc- 
ceeded by 

Guatimozin, nephew and son-in-law to Motezuma, who 
made the last desperate effort to rescue his country from 
the Spaniards ; but being taken prisoner in the struggle, 
and afterwards convicted of conspiring against his ene- 
mies, was hanged, with some of his adherents, by order 
of Cortes in 1521. With him terminated the Mexi- 
can monarchy, and the existence of his nation. 

Succession of the Incas of Peru. 

Maneo Capac, the founder of the Peruvian monarchy, was 
fabled to be the oll'spring of the sun and moon; and his 
wife, who was also his sister, was named Cava Mama 
They arc said to have been sent by their parents among 
the Peruvians to refine their morals, introduce religion, 
and establish gooil government. Manco Capac reigned 
between 80 and 10 years, after which, as he informed his 
subjects, he returned to his father- He was succeeded by 
his sun, 

Sim hi RoCtl, who improved and enlarged the institutions of 
his pare&t, during a long and prosperous reign. 

Uogue Yuponqui, succeeded his father ; and alter a reign of 
some yean, IB which he was devoted no less to arms than 
to the arts, he died, with the reputation of being the 
greatest captain and statesman that had yet filled the 
Peruvian throne. 


Mayta Capac, son of the preceding, died in the 30th year 
of his reign, full of honour and glory, acquired hoth in 
peace and war. 

Capac Yupanqiti, succeeded his father, and displayed, dur- 
ing a reign of many years, all the qualities of a prudent, 
politic, and brave monarch. 

Roca imitated the virtues of his father during a reign of 
50 years. 

Yahitarhuac was a less wise and happy prince than any of 
his predecessors, being compelled by the rebellion of his 
subjects to resign the government to his son. 

Virachoa, who rendered a long reign illustrious by the splen- 
dour of his conquests and the wisdom of his government. 

Pachacatec, who died after a long and glorious reign, and 
was succeeded by 

Yupanqui, who had rendered himself popular by his mili- 
tary exploits during his father's life-time, distinguished 
his reign by the conquest of Chili. 

Tupac Yupanqui, the son and successor of the preceding, 
extended the boundaries of the Peruvian empire by his 

Huana Capac, liis son and successor, completed the con- 
quest of Quito, which he left at his death to his natural 
son Atahualpa, and thereby laid the foundation for the 
civil war which raged in Peru on the arrival of the 

Huascar, the 13th inca of the Peruvians, was engaged at 
the period of the Spanish invasion in a civil war with his 
brother Ahatualpa, who, after three successful battles, 
took him prisoner, and mounted the throne in his place. 
He was soon afterwards put to death by his brother's 
order, to prevent him from obtaining his liberty by the 
help of the Spaniards. 

Atahualpa, the usurper of his brother's throne, was soon 
compelled to defend his ill-gotten kingdom against the 
Spaniards, by whom he was taken prisoner and beheaded. 

Manco Capac II, brother of Huascar, succeeded to the tot- 
tering throne of his ancestors, and endeavoured, in vain, 
to regain his independence. After having escaped from 
the hands by whom he was taken prisoner, he was acci- 
dentally killed by a refugee Spaniard, who had sought his 
protection. After his death the Indians chose Sayri Tapac, 
the nearest akin to Manco Capac, to preserve the dignitv 
and title of an inca ; and on his death, which happened 
soon after, he was succeeded by Tapac A mm, whose vio- 
lent death on the scaffold, by order of Francisco de 
Toledo, put an end to the male race of the blood royal, 
and to the empire of the Peruvians. This happened in 
1541, since which time Mexico, Peru, and other parts of 
South America, have been in the hands of the Spaniards 
and Portuguese ; whilst the Northern parts of this con- 
tinent were colonized by Great Britain, and remained 
subject to the British crown till the period when thev 
asserted their own independence, and established a repub- 
lic, under the name of the United States of North Ame- 
rica, in 1776, which, after a seven years' war, was finallv 
ratified bv the peace with England in 1783. 
AMERICUS (Biog.) vide I'espucius. 
AMERINUS (Geog.) a gentile name for what belongs to 

Ameria. Cic. pro Sext. Rose. ; Plin. 1. 15, c. 15. 
AMERSBURY (Geo*.) vide Amesbun/. 
AMERSFORT (Geog.) a town of Utrecht, in Holland, on 

the river Ems, 10 m. E. N. E. Utrecht. Mention is made 

of this place as early as 100(i, in the reign of Henry II, 

while Ansfrid, count de Teysterband, was 18th bishop of 

Utrecht. It was taken by the Spaniards in 1624, and by 

the French in 1672. 
AMERSHAMUM (Geog.) or Agmundeshamum, a town of 

England, now Amersham. 
AMES, William (Biog.) a polemical writer in the reign of 


James I and Charles I, was born of an ancient Norfolk family 
in 1576, and died at Rotterdam in 1633. His works are 
mostly controversial, and but little known at present. 

Ames, Joseph, a typographer, was born at Yarmouth in 
1668-9, and in 1759 he wrote, 1. • Typographical Antiqui- 
ties ; being an Historical Account of Printing in England, 
with some Memoirs of our Ancient Printers, and a Register 
of Books printed by them from the Year 1471 to 1600; with 
an Appendix, concerning Printing in Scotland and Ireland 
to the same Time,' 4to. 1749- 2. ' A Catalogue of English 
Printers, from 1471 to 1700,' 4to. 3. ' An Index to Lord 
Pembroke's Coins.' 4. ' A Catalogue of English Heads ;' 
or, An Account of about 2000 Prints, describing what is 
peculiar on each, as the Name, Title, or Office of the Per- 
son ; the Habit, Posture, Age, or Time when done ; the 
Name of the Painter, Graver, Scraper, &c. ; and some re- 
markable Particulars relating to their Lives, 8vo. 1748. 
5. * The Parentalia,' or Memoirs of the Family of Wren, 
fol. 1750. 

AMESIUS, William (Biog.) an English protestant, professor 
of theology at Franeker in the 1 7th century, who wrote 
against Bellarmin ; also against the Socinians, Armenians, 

AMESSIS (Hist.) the sister of Amenopliis I, succeeded her 
brother on the throne of Egypt, A.M. 2239, B.C. 1765, 
and reigned 21 years 7 months, or, according to Eusebius, 
48 years. Joseph. Antic, contra Appion. 1. 1, c. 5 ; Euseb. 
in Chron. ; User. Annul, ann. 2239- 

AMESTRATUS (Geog.) 'Ap-nTparoe, or Amcstra, a town of 
Sicily, now Mistretto, near the Halesus, besieged by the 
Romans three different times, and taken in the third siege, 
when the inhabitants were sold as slaves. 
Silius, 1. 14, v. 267, calls this Amastra. 
Comtaia Konmis 
Venit Amastrj viris. 

It is called MurfcfHzroc, by Polybius ; M»rt<?pdn»', by Zona- 
ras ; and the inhabitants Mutustrutini. Polyb. 1. 1, c, 24; 
Plin 1. 3, c. 8 ; Zonar. Annul. 

Amestratus (Xumis.) some medals of this town are known 
by the inscription, AMH^TPATINiiN. Hunt. Numm. Vet. 
Popul. S)-c. 

AMESTRIS (Hist.) 'Ap;rpic, the queen of Persia, and wife 
of Xerxes, who barbarously maimed the mother of Artiante, 
her husband's mistress, by cutting off her ears and nose. 
She likewise caused 14 noble youths of Persia to be buried 
alive, as an expiatory sacrifice to the deities. Herod. 1. 6, 
c. 61 ,• 1. 9, c. 11 1 . 

Amestris, a daughter of Oxyartes, wife to Lysimachus- 
DM. 1. 20. 

AMEYDEN, Theodore d' (Biog.) a priest of Bois-le-duc, in 
great favour with Innocent X. He wrote, 1. ' De Pietate 
Romana,' Svo. Rom. 1625. 2. ' Traetatus de Officio et Ju- 
risdictione Datarii,' &c. fol. Rom. 1645. 3. ' II Can dell' 
Ortolano: Comedia tradotto del Spagnuolo,' 12mo. Viterbo. 

AMHARA (Geog.) a province of Abyssinia, bounded by the 
Nile on the west. It is famous for its mountains of Ghesghea 
and Ambacel, where the king's sons are shut up until his 
death, when the eldest is allowed to come out to succeed to 
the throne. Amhara is divided into 36 counties, the names 
of which are given bv Ludolph. 

AMHERST, Richard' (Hist.) the son of Richard Amherst, 
Esq. of the family mentioned under Heraldry, was made 
sergeant at law to queen Elizabeth, and was founder of the 
alms-houses at Pembury. He died about 1632. 

Amherst, Jeffry, first lord Amherst, of Montreal, in Kent, 
and the second son of Jeffry Amherst, Esq. of Riverhead, in 
Kent, was born in 1717, and died in 1797, after a life of 
active service for the benefit of his country, and his own 
honour. He engaged early in the profession of arms, and 


bj ins distinguished exploits, during a war of six years in 
North America, he was appointed governor and commander- 
in-chief of all the British forces; after which he was made 
commander-in-chief of all his Majesty's land forces in Great 
Britain, raised to the rank of a field-marshal, and elevated 
to the dignity of the peerage. [Vide Amherst, under 
Amherst (Her.) the name of an ancient family, which is of 
.Saxon original, and is said to have been originally written 
Ham de Hurst. In the 22d year of the reign of Richard II, 
John Amherst was living at Amherst, in the parish of Pe- 
denburv, or Pembury, in the county of Kent. Descended 
from this family was Jeffrey Amherst, above mentioned, 
who was elevated to the peerage in 1 7Ttf by the style and 
title of baron Amherst, of Holmesdide, in the county of 
Kent, and in 1788 was created lord Amherst, of Montreal, 
in Kent. The arms, &e. of this family are as follow : 
Arms. Gules, three tilting spears erect or, headed argent, 
confirmed to Richard Amherst, Esq. by William Camb- 
den, in 1607- 
Crest. On a wreath or and gules, a mount vert; and on 
it three tilting spears, the middle one erect, the others 
saltierwise or, headed urgent, encircled round their mid- 
dle with a chaplet Bert. 
Supporter*. On the dexter a Canadian war Indian, his ex- 
terior arm embowed, holding a war axe proper, rings 
through bis nose and ears, and bracelets on his aims and 
wrists argent ; over his shoulders two buff belts in saltier, 
one with his powder horn, the other holding his scalping 
knife ; about his waist a small apron azure, stringed gules, 
having gaiters on his legs azure, stringed gules, .seamed 
or ; the legs fettered and fastened with a chain, to the 
bracelet on the exterior wrist. On the sinister a like- 
Canadian, holding in his exterior hand a stall' argent, 
thereon a human scalp proper. 
Motto. " Constantia et virtute." 
Avrf.rst, Nicholas (Biog.') a poet and miscellaneous writer 
of the same family, and the son of a clergyman, was born 
about 1706, and died in 1742. He wrote, 1. ' Terra? Fi- 
lms.' 2. ' Oculus Britannia?.' 8. ' The Craftsman,' a poli- 
tical paper, in conjunction with Lord Bnlingbrnke, Mr. 
Pulteney, and other leaders of the opposition, who, on their 
coalition, with the ministry, abandoned him to bis fate. 
AMICI, Vlnmanil (Ere.) a patriarch of Jerusalem, and suc- 
cessor to Stephen, died in 1146. 
AXICI, Hilliam, a native of Limoges, and bishop of Chartres, 

died, as is said, in I860. 
Amici, Francis d' (Biog.) a Neapolitan doctor of law, wrote 

• De Usibus Feudorum,' &c. 
AMICI A (Hist.) countess d'Artois was married to Robert II, 
count d'Artois, grandson of Louis VIII, by the dispensa- 
tion of Urban IV in 1262, and was the mother of Philip 
AMICO, Antonine d' (Biog.) historiographer to Philip IV, 
king of Spain, died in HiU. His works are, 1. ' Trium 

Orientalium LatinorumOrdinum, post captama DuceGotho- 

fredo Hierusalem, See. Notithu et Tahularia,' fol. Panorm. 

Ifi.iri. 2. ' Dissertatio Historica et Chronologies de antiquo 

Urbis Syracusarum Archiepiscopatu,' 4to. NeapoL Hi 10. 

3. ' Series Ammiratorum Insula SicUiffi, ,ib anno 842 ad 1 640.' 
4tO. Panorm. 1 640. 4. ' De Mcssancnsis, prioratus Sacra' 
Hospitalitatis Domus Militum Sancli Joan. I liernsolvinitani 
Origins,' 4to. Panorm, 1640. , r >. ' Chronologia de los Vir- 

■ >, &C. de Si (ili ,i,' Ho. l'anorm. 1640. 

Am 100, Bartholomew, a Jesuit of Aneo, in Lucania, was born 

in 1'56S, and died in l(iV'). He wrote a work on Aristotle's 

writings, entitled, ' In Universam Aristotelis Philosophiam 
\. • . 1 1 Disputationes, &c. 
\Mir:o, l.aunntius, a gentleman of Milazzo, liecame a Fran- 
ifccail in Kit8, and afterwards a teacher of canon law. He 


wrote, 1. ' Dissertationes Epistolares.' 2. ' Liber Ceremo- 
niarum Ecdesiasticarum.' 3. ' Vita de Papino Martyre.' 
4. ' Panegyrici,' &c 

Amico, Philip, was born at Milazzo, of a noble family, in 
1654. He wrote, ' Riflessi Historici sopra quello che scrive 
ed attesta della Citta di Melazzo,' &c. 4to. Catan. 1700. 

Amico, Bernardine, an artist and Franciscan of Gallipoli, in 
Naples, wrote a work, entitled, • Trattato delie Pitture 
ed Imagini dei Sacri Edifizi della Terra Santa,' fol. Fir- 

Amico, I'ito Maria, a professor of theology at Catania, in 
Sicily, was born of a noble family in 169,',, and is principally 
known by two of his publications on the antiquities of his 
country, namely, 1. Sicilia Sacra, Disquisitionibus et Noti- 
titiis Illustra,' 2 vols. fol. Panorm. 173,'i ; which was re- 
printed in the same year under the title of ' Sieilite Sacrse 
Libri IV, integra Pars Secunda,' 2 vols. fol. 2. ' Catania 
Illustrata,' Catan. 4 vols. fol. 1741—1746. 

AM ICON I, Giacomo (Biog.) a painter of Venice, who died 
in 1752, painter to the king of Spain. His style of paint- 
ing is condemned by lord Orford. 

AMID (Hist.) Ahoulfadhi Mohammed Ben Houssain, sur- 
named Alkareb, i. e. the writer, was the vizier of the sultan 
Rokneddulat : but still more known as an orator and poet. 
He brought the Arabic characters to perfection, and died in 
1 he year of the Hegira 360, A. D. 970. 

Amid, Amolh, vizier of Togrul Begh, first sultan of the Sel- 
giucides, was put to death by his successor Alp-Arslan. 

AMIDA (Myth.) a god of the Japanese, whom they honour 
very much, having a temple erected to him in most of their 

Amiiia (Hist.) or Amities, son of Mulei-Hassen, took pos- 
session of his father's throne in <)~> L 2 of the Hegira, A. D. 
156?; but was defeated and deposed by Selim II, emperor 
of Constantinople. 

Amida (Geog.) "AfttSa, a town of Mesopotamia, was taken 
several times by the barbarians ; but once in particular, after 
a long and valiant resistance by Sapor, king of Persia. It 
was enlarged and beautified by Constantine, who gave it 
the name of Constantinus ; but afterwards it fell into the 
hands of the Turks, from whom it received its present name 
of Diarbec, or Caramit. [Vide Diarbecl It was formerly 
a see, of which St. Agatius was bishop in the fifth cen- 
tury, in the time of the emperor Theodosius. Ammian. 

Marcell. 1. is, c 22 ; Hieron. (7mm. ann. 11 ; Procop. <tc 
litll. Per*. 1.1, c. 8; Salmas. Exercitat. ; Plin. p. 488; 
Baillel. Topog. tics Saintes. 
AMIENS (Grog.) Am/iianum, or Samobriva Ambianorum, 

capital of the province of Picardy, and the department of 
the Somme, in France, is a town illustrious for its antiquity, 
[Vide Amt>iunum~} the bishop of which is a suffragan of the 
archbishop of Kheims. It was taken by the Spaniards in 
l. r )<)7, and retaken by Henry IV. A treaty of peace was 
concluded here between England and France in 1802. 
Amiens is situated on the river Somnie, which traverses it 
with three of its branches, 20 m. S. E. Abbeville, 75 N. 
Paris. Lon. 2° 18' Iv, lat. 19° 54,' N. 

AMII CAR (Hist.) 'AptXxap, a name common to several noble 
Carthaginian commanders. 

Amii.cah, a son of llanno, went against Celon, at the |ht- 
Suasion of Xerxes, and was killed near Himera, in the 75th 
Olympiad, A.C. 180; and, according to Herodotus, on the 
same day that Xerxes was defeated at Salamis, he burnt 
himself, that his body might not be found among the slain. 
Ilem.l. 1. 7, c. 16.-., &C. 

AuiLOAR, surnamed Hlmtlanus, was in such favour with Alex- 
ander the Great, that his countrymen put him to death on 
his return, in the 112th Olympiad, A.C. 832. Justin. 
1. 21, c. (i. 

Amii.cau, a Carthaginian general, entered into a league with 


Agathocles, on which account he was condemned by the 
seriate, and escaped punishment by a timely death. Justin. 
1. 22, c. 2., son of Giseon, commanded the Carthaginians against 
Agathocles, and was killed at Syracuse, in the 117th Olym- 
| Lad, A.C. 309. Diodor. 1. 20; Justin. 1. 22, c. 3, &c. 

Amilcar, surnamed Barcas, father of Annibal, the bitterest 
enemy of the Romans, after fighting with success against 
even - cnemv but Rome, was killed in Spain, U. C. 52(>, 
A. C. 228. 'Polyb. 1. 2 ; Liv. 1. 21, c. 1 ; Corn. Nep. in Fit; 
Phil, ill Aunib., a general who put himself at the head of the In- 
subri, and was taken prisoner bv the consul Cn. Cornelius, 
U.C. 554, A.C. 190. Justin. 1. 44, c. 5 ; Eutrop. 1. 4; 
Oros. 1. 4, c. 19. 

AMILCON {Hist.) vide Imilco. 

AMILIA, Michael (Biog.) grand vicar of M. Caulet, bishop 
of Pamiers, had a turn for poetry, which he employed in 
recommending the doctrines of Christianity. 

AM I LOS (Geog.) or Amilus, a river of Mauritania, where 
the elephants are said to have gone in companies at stated 
periods to wash themselves by moonlight. Plin. 1. 8, c. 1. 

AMIMOXE {Myth.') or Ami/mone, a daughter of Danaus, is 
said to have been changed into a fountain near Argos. Ovid. 
Met. I. 2 ; Pttn. 1. 4, c. 5. 

AM IX, Ben Haroun {Hist.) named Mohammed, and surnamed 
Amin or FailhJ'ul, was sixth caliph of the Abassides. He 
succeeded his father Haroun Al Raschid in the year of the 
Hegira 193, A. D. 803 ; and was killed by Thaher, a general 
under his brother Mamoun, who rebelled against him, in 
the year of the Hegira 198, A. D. 808. 

Amin, Mohammed Amin Ben ObedaUah Al Moumin Al Abadi 
Al Bohhari {Biog.) author of a book entitled, ' Amliat Fil 
Forofi,' which was a commentary on the Mussulman's law. 

Amin, Al Doulat, or Amin Eddoulal, a christian physician, 
so called by the caliphs who employed him, signifying 
faithful to the princes and stole. 

AMINADAB {Bihl.) aif'OK, otherwise called Aminadab of 
Jndah, was the son of Aram, and the father of Elisheba, 
the wife of Aaron the high priest. Exod. vi. 23. 

Aminadab, whose chariots are mentioned, Cant. vi. 12. 

Aminadab, son of Koath, a brother of Korah. 1 Chron. 
vi. 22. 

Aminadab, or Abinadab, son of Saul, was killed with him in 
th3 battle of Gilboa, A.M. 2949, A.C. 1055. 1 Sam. 
xxx!. 2 ; 1 Chron. viii. 33, x. 2. 

Aminadab, or Abinadab, a levite of Kirjath-jearim, with 
whom the sacred ark was deposited, after it was brought 
back from the Philistines. 1 Sam. vii. 1 ; Joseph. Antiq. 
1. 6, c. 2. 

AMIXAXDER {Hist.) king of the Athemenes, joined the Ro- 
min> against Philip, the king of Macedonia. Liv. 1. 31, c. 28. 

AMINEA {Geog.) 'Afitvala, or Amminca, a country of Cam- 
pania, famous for its vines. 
Virg. Georg. 1. 2, v. 97. 

Sunt etiam Am'm<zt£ viles, Jirmisshm r'ttta. 

The people are called Aminei. Cato. de Re. Rust, c 6; 

Varro. 1. 1, c. 25 ; Gal. cara renr ; Macrob. Sal. 1. 2, c. 16; 

Scalig. in Fest. 
AMINIAS {Hist.) 'Afieivttjg, son of Pronapus, archon of 

Aminias, an Athenian, distinguished himself above all others 

at the battle of Salamis. 
Aminias, a pirate, was employed by Antigonus against Apol- 

lodorus, tyrant of Cassandrea. Poluam. 1. 4, c 18. 
AMINIUS, Rebius {Biog.) a distinguished lawyer at Rome, 

during the consulship of Q. Volusius, and P. Scipio, who 

after a life of debauchery, opened his veins and bled to 

death, that he might escape the pains of old age. 
Aminius {Geog.) 'A/unos, a river of Arcadia, flowing into 

vol. r. 


the Elvssus, a little before the confluence of the latter with 
the Al'pheus. Pans. 1. 8, c. 30. 

AMINOCLES {Hist.) 'Apiradiic, son of Cratinus, a native 
of Magnesia, and a farmer of Sepias, enriched himself by 
the gold and silver which he found after the shipwreck of 
the Persian fleet under Xerxes. Herod. 1. 7, c. 190. 

AMIOT, Father {Ecc.) a Chinese missionary, was born at 
Toulon, in 1718, and died in 1794) aged 77- He published 
a Chinese poem in praise of the city of Monkden, by the 
emperor Kien Long translated into French, 8vo. Paris, 
1770. ' The Chinese Military Art,' 4to. Paris, 1772. 
' Letters on the Chinese Characters.' •' On the Music of 
the Chinese.' ' The Life of Confucius.' ' Dictionnaire Tartar 
Mantcheon Francois,' 3 vols. 4to. Paris, 1789- 

AMIOUS {Hist.) the proper name of Pharoah, who was 
drowned in the Red Sea. 

AMIPSIAS {Biog.) Wftie^iac, a comic poet, who, as the 
scholiast of Aristophanes says, wrote a comedy against 
Socrates. F)iog. Laert. in vit. Socral. 

AM IRAS {Hist.) a Saracen prince, who conquered Hormisdas, 
king of the Persians, took Jerusalem, and made himself 
master of Egypt and all Syria, in C32. 

AMIRUTZES {Ecc.) a great philosopher of Trebizonde, who 
was at the council of Florence, and afterwards turned Ma- 
hometan. Du Pin. Bibliotk. 

AMISIUS {Geog.) or Amisia, 'A/iao-in, 'A patriae, now the 
Ems, a river of Germany, running through Friezland 
into the ocean. Mel. 1. 3, e. 3 ; Slrab. 1. 7 ; P&n. 1. •! , 
c. 14 ; Too. Annul 1. 1, 6'0 ; Ptol. 1. 2, c. 1 1 ; Cluv. Antiq. 

AMISODARUS {Myth.) companion to the pirate Chinnera, 
killed by Bellerophon. Pint, de Fist. Fern. c. 14. 

AMISSUS {Hist.) one of Alexander's officers, who was em- 
ployed with two others to bring about a reconciliation be- 
tween Meleager and Perdiccas, after the death of Alexander. 
Quint Curt. 1. 10, c. 8. 

AMISTRATUS {Geog.) vide Amestraius. 

AMISUS {Geog.) 'A/hotoc, a maritime town of Pontus, now 
called by the Greeks Simsoni, or Samsoun ; and by the 
Turks Amid, or Hemid ; which Strabo designates alio 
Xoyoc, illustrious ; was built by the Milesians, colonized 
by the Athenians, subjected by the kings of Persia, li- 
berated by Alexander the Great, and after falling into 
the hands of the kings of Pontus, was taken from 
Mithridates, and restored to its liberty by Lucullus. 
Pharnaces afterwards gained possession of it, and Ca:sar 
liberated it ; but Anthony having subjected it to regal power, 
it was governed by Strato the tyrant, from whom it re- 
gained its liberty, and was confirmed as a free city by Au- 
gustus. Cic. pro Man. Leg. c. 8; Slrab. 1. 12; Plin. 1. (>' ; 
Pint, in Lucull. ; Polyam. 1. 7. 

Amisus {Numis.) this town struck several medals of Adrian, 
Sabina, ^Elius Caesar, Antoninus Pius, Commodus, Caracalla, 
Diadumenianus, and Maximinianus; and dated its epocha 
from its liberation from the tyranny of Strato, U.C. 721, 
as appears from the inscription on a medal of ^Elius Csesar ; 
Libera; suis legibus Fiventis, anno 202. Some of its inscrip- 
tions show itsalliance with the Milesians, as AMlCHNilN 
MIAHCION, Amiscnorum Milcsiorum, i. e. Concordia; 
also with the town of Amastris, a medal of 
which, as in the annexed cut, represents two 
Amazons turreted, and standing by an altar 
with their right hands joined, one bearing 
an axe, and the other a spear ; to denote 
that these two towns, which deduced their 
origin from two Amazons named Amisus and 
Amastris, entered into an alliance with each other. 
AMITERXIXUS {Geog.) the gentile name for the people or 
country of Amiternum, contracted into Amitemus by the 


I terna eoiora of Virgil; Amiternus ager of 
Martial. ["Vide Amtemvm\ 
AMITERNUM (Grog.) 'Afuripirns or 'Afurepvov, a tuwn of 
the Salaries, according to Strain); or of the Yestini, accord- 
ing to Ptolemy ; illustrious as the birth-place of SalhlSt, 
was situated near the fountain of Alernus. Amitemo was 
once a bishop's sec, and near its ruins, in Abruzzo, have 
been erected a burg called Vittorino, after St. Victorinus, 
its first bishop, who suffered martyrdom. The gentile name 
was Amitcrninus, which Virgil has contracted for the sake 
of the verse into Amiternus, when speaking of the people; 
whom he savs assisted Turnus against /Eneas. 
JEn. 1. 7, v. 710. 

Una ingsnx Amiterna cohors, prhciijue Qp&rites. 

Dionys. Ital. 1. 1, c. 1 1 ; Liv. I 20', c. 11, &c ; Slrab. 1. 5 ; 
SUius, 1. 8, v. US ; Mart. 1. IS, epig. 20; Plin. 1. 3, c. 12; 
Paul. Diarmi. Longob. Iter. 1. 2, e. 20; Lcand. Albert. 
Desrript. Ital. ; Cluv. I/at. Antiq. 8jc. 

AMITHAOX (Myth.) or Amythaon, father to Melampus the 
prophet. Stat. Theb. 1. 3, v. 451. 

AMLINCUS, Wolfgang (Biog.) a protestant divine of Mu- 
nerstad, in Franconia, who died in 16'06, leaving many 
controversial works. 

AMMAN, .lush or Justus (Biog.) a painter and engrave?, was 
born at Zurich in 153;), and died in 1591- He was distin- 
guished for the prints which were at that time used in 
adorning the printed books, particularly the classics. He 
also drew portraits of the kings of France, which were 
printed with short memoirs, in 1586; but his principal per- 
formance was his ' Panoplia omnium Libcralium Mecha- 
nicarum et Sedentiarium Artium Genera continens,' con- 
taining 1 15 plates of the various artificers at work, F'ranck- 
fort, 1564. 

Amman, Paul, otherwise called Dn/ander, a physician and 
botanist, was born at Breslau in 1364, and died in 1691. 
He wrote, 1. ' A Critical Extract from the different Deci- 
sions in the Registers of the Faculty of Leipzig.' 2. ' Pa- 
is ad Docentes occupata circa Institutionum Medicarum 
Emendationem,' ISmo. Kudulst, 1673. 3. ' Arclueas Syn- 
copticus, Eccardi Leichneri, &e. oppositus,' 12mo. 1674- 
4. ' Irenicuni Num;c Pompilii cum Hippocratc, quo Veterum 
Medicorum et l'hilosophorum Hypotheses,' i\:c. 8vo. Francof. 
ld'90. 5. ' Praxis Vulnenru Letlialiuin,' Svo. Francof. 16"90. 
6. ' Character Naturalis Plantarum,' 1676. 

AMMAN, John Conrad) a Swiss physician, was bom at Schaff- 
hausenin 166'.'), and died in 172 1. He applied himself to 
teaching the deaf and dumb to speak, and wrote on this 
subject ' Surdus Loquens, 1 8vo. Harl. 1O92. ' De Loquela,' 
12iuo. Amst. 1700. He also published an edition of < Ccelius 
A 111. lianas, with Janson d'Abneloveen's Notes,' 4tO. 170(). 

Amman, John, sun of the preceding, and a physician, was 

bom in 1 7"7, and died in 17I'>- He published ' Stirpium 

I'nrioruni in [mperio liuthcno sponto Provenientium Icones 

-: Pescriptiones,' 4to. Petrop. 1739- 
AMMANATI, Bartholomew {Biog.) an architect and sculptor, 

was born at Florence in 1511, and died in 1592. Among 
other works he made the colossal statue of Neptune, in St. 
M u ! ' | lai eat Vi nice ; and the statue of Hercules, in the 
Montava palace of Padua; and erected the tomb of cardinal 
de Monti, at Rome; and in addition to which lie published 

an architecture] work entitled, ' La Cita.' His wife, the 
daughter of John Antony Balliferi, was also distinguished 

as a poet, particularly as the author of the poems, ' 1,'Opere 
Toscane,' 1500. She died in I. IS;). 

.MMAIi, Ben Jatser (Biog.) one of tin- first followers of 

>l:i!ioinet, of whom the Mussulmcn tell many wonderful 

Bi n Miiiisur, a Sheikh of great repute among the 
i linen. 
AMMED1 K\ (Geog.) a colony of Numidia, and a bishop's 


see, suffragan to the archbishop of Carthage. Goljzius 
makes mention of a medal of Domitian, with the inscription 
supposed to refer to this place. Antonin. Itiii. ; Collat. 
Carlhag. c. 125, 207 ; Coltz. Thesaur. p. 207 ; Harduin. 
Num. Anliij. Il/ustrat. 

AMMEREN (Geog.) a town of Juliers, in Germany, en the 
river Swalrn ; supposed to be the ancient MederiacutH. 

AMMIANUS (Biog.) vide MareelHriur. 

AMMIEL (Bib/.) or Amial, Vn'di; ; son of Genial, of Dan, 
one of the twelve sent to examine the land of Canaan. 
Numb. xiii. 12. 

Ammikl, native of Lodebar, a city of Simeon. Ammiel was 
father of Machir and of Bathsheba, who married Uriah, and 
was seduced by David. 1 Chron. iii. 5 ; 2 Sam. ix. 4, 5. 

Ammiel, son of Obededom, a levite, was made porter of the 
temple under David. 1 Chron. xxvi. 5. 

AMMIHUD (Bibl.) Tin'OP, 'AfuaS; people of praise, from 
at, a people ; and iin, praise; son of Ephxaim, and father 
of Elishama. Numb, i. 10; 1 Chron. vii. 26. 

Ammiiiud, of Simeon, father of Shemuel or Samuel. A 
very different person from the prophet Samuel. Numb. 
xxxiv. 20. 

Ammiiiui), of Naphthali, father of Pedahcl. Numb, xxxiv. 88. 

Ammihud, father of Talmai, king of Geshur. 2 Sa7ii. 
xiii. 27. 

AMMIKATO (Biog.) or Ammirali, Scipio, an historian of 
Lucca, was born in Naples, in 1531, and died in lO'Ol. His 
works are, 1. ' Arguments,' in Italian verse, 4to. Venice. 
1548. 2. * II Decalione Dialogo del Pocta,' 8vo. Naples, 
1500. 3. ' Istorie Florentine dopo la F"ondatione di Fie- 
renze insino all' anno 1574.' 

AMMON (Bibl.) par, or Ben-amni, son of Lot, by his 
younger daughter ; was the father of the Ammonites, the 
enemies of Israel. Gen. xix. 38. He was born A. M 
Jul. per. 381 8, B. C. I896. Usser. Annal. Ann. 210S. 

AmmON (MiiI/i.) '.\/.if.uor, W/ifiHi-, or Mammon; the title under 
which Jupiter was worshipped, in Libya, where a temple 
was erected to him, from which oracles were delivered for 
many ages, but had almost entirely ceased in the time of 

Ovid. Met. 1. 4, v. 671. 

Aridi. . Inmon. 

They had been consulted by Hercules, Persi us, and 
ander the Great ; the latter of whom they pronounced '.■ 
be the son of Jupiter. This flattery tended greatly to bring 
them into discredit, until they finally ceased altogether, in 
tlu reign of Theodosius. Amnion is supposed to be a dei- 
fication of Ham, whose posterity peopled Africa. Then 
was also another oracle of Amnion, in jFthii nia. Herod 
1. I, c 0, 1. 2, c. ;), &c, ; Diotl. Sic. 1. 17 ; Bugin. Fab. ,.; . 
Slrab. 1. 1, 11, 17; Plin. 1. 6, c. 39; Plui. air Orarula 
edi desierant. et in Isid.; Quint Curt. 1. f. c 7; 1. 0. 
e. 10, &C. ; Pans. 1. 3, c. IS; Justin. 1. 1, c. 9, &e.j Arrian, 
1. 8, c. 2. 
Am .11 on, a king of l.vbia, who gave bis name t I the temple 
of Amnion. He is reputed to have been the father of Bac- 
chus. Diorl. 1. 3, e. lis ; Pans. 1. 4; Eweb. Prepn 

/ aang, 1- 9, c. 27. 
AmmON, a pugilist, who with his brother Brothas is celebrated 

by Ovid. Met. 1. 5, v. 107. 
A.m.mon {Geog.) a town, according to I'tolcmy ; and a country, 

according to Arrian ; where was the temple and oracle of 

Jupiter Amman. 

Lucas, 1. in. • 

.... buitU Anawa. 

According t« Ovid and Other writers, there was a fountain 
near it. whose waters wire cold at noon and midnight, and 
warm in the morning and evening. 


Olid. M.I. 1. 15, v. S09. 

Medio tua, corniger Amman, 
I'nda diegelida est; ortuque, Mtuqtie calescit. 

Lucret. 1. 6, v. S47- 

vpad AmmonU fanum fons, luce diurna 
Frigidus, at adidus iwcturno tempore fertur. 

Claud. <lc Laud. Stil. 1. 1. 

Li. Btte Garamas, nee ciiamvis trhtibus Ammcn 
Diod. 1. 17, c. 50; Plb,. 1. 2, c. 103; 1. 5, c. 9 ; Q. Curt. 
1. 6, c. 10. 

Ammon (Xumis.) one of the distinguishing epithets of Jupiter, 
who was worshipped under that name, not 
only in Africa, but in different parts of Asia 
and Greece. His head is represented Kpw 
-pcirunroc, or adorned with rams' horns on 
the medals of Alexandria, Aphyta. in Ma- 
cedonia ; Bostra, in Arabia ; Csesarea, Cas- 
Bandria, in Macedonia ; Catana, in Sicily, 
Cleonte, &c. in Africa ; Laodicea, in Caria, 
&c. ; also of Mytilene, in Lesbos. [Vide Jupiter~] Inscrip- 
tion, GEOC AMMON. Pembroh: Mils. ; Spenhcim, vol. i. 
p. 297- 

AMMONIA (Mi/t/i.) 'Afiftovla, a name given to Juno, in 
Elis, as the wife of Jupiter Ammon. Paus. 1. 5, c. 15. 

AMMONITES (Bib/.) a'Jinu, the descendants of Ammon, 
the son of Lot, and long the enemies of the Israelites, until 
they were subdued by David, A.M. '2977, A. C. 1037. 
2 Sam. x. 1 ; 1 Chron. six. ; Usser. Aloud. Ann. 2977- 

AMMONIUS (Hist.) a Carthagenian general, surnamed 
Barcas, who assisted Ptolemy Philopater against Antiochus 
the Great. Polyb. 1. '•■ 

Am jioxi ts. a general under Alexander Balas, and governor 
of Antioch, was taken prisoner and put to death by Ptolemy 
Philometer, A. M. 3S56, A. C. 14S. Lit'. 1. 50, epist. 

Ammonius, an Egyptian ambassador, sent to Rome by Pto- 
lemy Auletes, to obtain assistance against his rebellious 
subjects. Gift ad Fam. 1. 1, epist. 1. 

Ammonius (Ecc.) surnamed Saccas, an Alexandrine philo- 
sopher of the third century ; who, according to Porphyry, 
left the Christian faith, in which he was bred, to follow 
philosophy ; Eusebius and Jerom, however, maintain that 
he was a steady believer to the end of his life. He had 
Plotinus for one of his scholars, and wrote among other 
things, ' The Conformity of Moses with Jesus,' and ' Dia- 
tessaron,' or ' Monotessaron,' explaining the harmony of the 
four gospels. Porpliyr. in J'it. Plotin. ; Euseb. Hist. Ecclcs. 
1. 6, c. 11; Socrat. Hist. Ecchs. ; Hist. Ecclcs. 1. 6, e. 6 ; 
Hieron. in Caial. ; Ammian. Marccllin. 1. 22 ; Cave, Hist. 
Lit. vol. i. ; T'dlcmont, Mem- pour I' Hist. Ecclcs. ; Du Pin, 
Bibl. Eccles. 

Ammonius, and Ammonaria, two martyrs in the reign of 

Ammonius, an eastern monk, who cut off one of his ears, 
that he might be disqualified for the office of a bishop, but 
notwithstanding was elected. 

Ammonius (Biog.) 'A^i™?, a native of Lampria, and suc- 
cessor of the celebrated Aristarchus, in the school of Alex- 
andria ; lived, as is supposed, a little before the Augustan 
age. To him is attributed a work on Sacrifices, and an- 
other on the Harlots of Athens. Athen. 1. 1 1 , c. 7 ; Suidas. 

Ammon us. a philosopher of Potamon, and preceptor to Plu- 
tarch, flourished about A. D. 54. riut. in Fit. Thcmist. 

Ammon us, a surgeon, surnamed the Lit/wlomist, because he 
invented the operation of cutting for the stone. Le Clcrc, 
Hist, dc la Mcdcc. 

Ammonius, a poet and historian in the reign of Arcadius and 
Theodosius the younger, wrote a History, in verse, of the 
War against Gainas the Goth. Neccpli. Hist. 1. 3 ; Voss. 
dc Hist. hat. 1. 1, c. IS. 


Ammonius, a grammarian of the fourth century, who applied 
himself particularly to the Greek, and is supposed to be the 
author of the Greek synonymes, the best edition of which 
is that by Valknaer, 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1739- But others 
attribute this work to the Ammonius that follows. Voss. dc 
Sect. Pkilos. c. 1, §18. 

Ammonius, son of Herniias, a peripatetic philosopher of the 
sixth century, and disciple of Proclus, wrote commentaries 
on Aristotle, and as some suppose on the Greek synonymes. 
Phot. Biblioth. sect. 242. 

Ammonius, one of the Greek fathers, who wrote on the gospel 
of St. John, and other parts of Scripture. Anastas. in Praf. 
Analog. Quwst. 

Ammonius, Andrew, of Lucca, born in 1477, and died in 
1517. He was secretary to Henry VIII, and author of, 

1. ' Scotici Conflictus Historise,' according to Gessner, 1. 1. 

2. ' Bucolica seu Ecloga?.' 3. ' De Rebus NiMH.' 4. ' Pa- 
negyricus Quidam.' 5. ' Epigrammata.' 6. ' Poemata 

Ammonius, Levatus, vulgarly called 1'andcr Maud; a Car- 
thusian monk and friend of Erasmus, wrote a Life of Wil- 
liam Bibauc, general of the Carthusians ; ' Tractatus in 
Parabolam de Filio Minore Natu.' 

AMXER, Richard (Biog.) a dissenting minister, was born in 
1736, and died in 1803. He wrote, 1. ' An Account of 
the Occasion and Design of the Positive Institutions of 
Christianity, extracted from the Scriptures only,' Svo. 1771 
2. ' An Essay towards an Interpretation of the Prophecies, 
with occasional Remarks upon some of the most celebrated 
Commentaries on them,' Svo. 1776. 3. ' Considerations on 
the Doctrine of a Future State and the Resurrection, as 
revealed, or supposed to be so, in the Scriptures ; on the In- 
spiration and Authority of the Scripture itself; on some 
Peculiarities in St. Paul's Epistles; on the Prophecies of 
Daniel and St. John, &c. ; to which are added some Stric- 
tures on the Prophecies of Isaiah,' Svo. 179S- 

AMNISUS (Geog.) 'A/mous, a river and town of Crete, 
where was a cave of Lucina. Strab. 1. 10; Pans. 
1. 1. 

AMXOX (Bibl.) pjDN, the eldest son of David, by Ahinoam, 
who was slain bv his brother Absalom, to avenge the cause 
of his sister Tamar, A. M. 2974 ; Jul. per. 3684 ; A. C. 
1030. 2 Sam. xiii. 26; Usscr. Annal. Ann. 2974. 

Amnon, the son of Shinion. 1 Chron. iv. 20. 

Amnon (Bios-) a Jew of Mentz, in 1242, who was condemned 
to death for Judaism, but instead of suffering the punish- 
ment of death, he had his fingers and toes cut off, which 
he salted and laid up in the synagogue. The Jews give a 
marvellous account of this man. 

AMOEBEUS (Biog.) 'A/«k0cos, a player of Athens, who 
performed at the" nuptials of Demetrius and Niaea. JEl. 
Far. Hist. 1. 3, c 39 ; Hist. Anim. 1. 6, c. 1. 

AMOX (Bibl.) pax, a governor of Samaria, kept the pro- 
phet Mieaiah in custody, by king Ahab's order. 1 Kings 
xxii. 26. 

Amon. fourteenth king of Judah, son of Manasseh and Me- 
shullemeth, the daughter of Haruz ; died after a wicked 
reurn of two years, A.M. 3361, Jul. per. 4071, B. C. 643. 
2 Kings xxi. 18, 19. Clemens Alexandrinus calls him 'Apoic. 
Clem. Alex. Strom. 1. 

AMOXD (Hist.) a king of Sweden. [Tide Amvnd] 

AMOXTOXS, William (Biog.) a French mechanic, was born 
in Xormandy in 1663, and died in 1705. He studied the 
nature of barometers and thermometers, invented a hygro- 
scope, and contrived a sort of telegraph ; besides which he 
wrote ' Remarques et Experiences Physiques sur la Con- 
struction d'une nouvelle Clepsydre, sur les Barometres, Ther- 
mometres, et Hygrometres ; ' and several contributions to the 
Journal des Scavans. 

AMORGIXUS' (Biog.) 'AfiSpywos, the surname of Sinio- 
T 2 


Hides the poet, from his birth-place Amorgus. [Vide 
AMI tREUS (Hist.) a king of Derbice, who was slain in a 
battle with Amorges, the ally of Cyrus Ctesias. 

AMORGES (Hisl.) 'Ap6pyqs> a king of the Sacse, who was 

at first the opponent of Cyrus, but became afterwards his 
faithful ally. Ctes. 

AltORGESj a Persian general, who was killed in Caria, in the 
reign of Xerxes. Herod. 1. . r >, c. 121. 

AMORGUS (Geog.) A.popyos, one of the Sporades, celebrated 
as the birth-place of Simonides the poet. Pliny says it was 
once called Hypere and Patage, or Platage ; Stephanos as- 
signs to it the names of Panculc and Psycliittm ; to which 
may be added that of Tripulis, because it contained the 
three cities, Arcesine, Minna, and Psychia. It is now called 
Morgo, or MurgO. The red stuff from which the Greeks 
made a part of their dress, 'Afiipyiva luana, was manufac- 
tured in this island, to which also condemned persons were 
banished, as Tacitus relates was the case with Vibius 
Serenus. The gentile name is Amorginus. StrabA. 10; 
Plin. 1. 4, c. 12 ; Tacit. Annul. 1. 4, c. JO; Jul. Pull. Sleph. 
Buz. ; Stud. HarpocraL Pkavorin. 

Amorgi's (X/tmis.) two medals 
of this island represent, as in 
figs. 1 & 2, a globe on a tripod, 
or a globe over a pair of com- 
passes; inscriptions AMOPFI- 
NON and AM. 

AMORITE (Bib/.) n»K, '-V'r- 

fi'tioc ; a people descended from Amorrhams, the fourth king 
of Canaan. Thev were conquered by Moses (Xnmb. xiii. 20), 
A. M. 2558, Jul. per. 3262, A. C. 1452. Usser. Annul. 
ann. 2:55.3. 

AMORIUM (Geog.) ' \u<';>ti,i\'.\fiiopiov, or Amurium, in the 
Peutingeriana Tabula, a town of l'hrygia Major, and an 
archbishop's see. In the 0th century, about the year 840, 
it was almost totally ruined by the sultan Motassem. Strab. 
1. 10. 

AmOBIUM (Xitmis.) this town is known by several medals of 
Trajan, Julia Domna, Antoninus, Geta, and others, bearin 
the gentile name AMOPIANGN. 

AMORT, Eusebius (Biog.) a canon regular of the order of 
St. Augustine, who died in 1 775 at the age of 82, wrote, 
1. ' Philosopbia I'ollingana,' fol. August! 1730. 2. 'A 
Theological History of Indulgences.' .'J. ' A Supplement to 
Pontes' Dictionary of Caves of Conscience/ &c. 

AMORY, Thomas (Biog.) a dissenting minister, was born at 
Taunton in 1701, and died in 1774. I lis works consist 

principally of sermons, besides 'A Dialogue on Devotion,' 
and ' Forms of Devotion for the Closet.' 
AMOS ( BibL) didj?, the fourth of the minor prophets in the 

ii i:"i ' i Jeroboam, was, it i-. supposed, a native of the little 
town of Tekoah, in Judah, four leagues south of Jerusalem ; 
!>ecausc hither he retired when driven from Bethel, A. M. 
,.'117, Jul per. .",'117. B.C. 707- Amos viL 10, &c; Q. 
Epiphan. de Vit. Prophet. Amos, c. xii. ; Ttid. de lit. ei Mori.; 

I er. A until, ann. 8197. 

Amos, the father of the- prophet Isaiah, was, it is said, son of 
king Joash, and brother to Amaziah. Some have supposed 
him to be the prophet before spolcen of, bu1 the names are 
differently written ; namely, on\A, Amos, the prophet, and 
\'\nv, Ornutz, tin' father of Isaiah. Isaiah xxxvii. 21 ; Clem. 
Alex. Strom. 1. ill : St. Hieron. in Teat, et Amos. : St. Au- 
gust, de ("nil. Dri. 1. 18, c. 27; 'V- Basil, in cup. i. Isai.j 
Bellarnan. de Script. Eccles.; Usser. Annul. 

Amos, sun nf Nahun, and fath t of Mattathias, in the genea- 
logy of our Saviour. l.nLi- iii. 85. 

Amos (Hist.) vide Amiisis. 

Amos (/'.<<•) or Hamas, an Egyptian, and father of the Clino- 
monks, whom lie ordered to 'it tit table with their mouth 

Ampdon intonsun, Satyro, nvmpho 
Fertur in Jmaris, Bacchus , 


open, that their virtue of abstinence might not be made too 

Amos, a patriarch of Jerusalem, who succeeded John V in 

AMOSIS (Hist.) vide Anmsis. 

AMOUR, milium de Si. (Biog.) native of St. Amour, 
in Burgundy, and doctor of the Sorbonne, died in 1272. 
He wrote ' De Pharisaeo et Pnblicano;' ' De l'ericulis No- 
vissimorum Temporum,' which was condemned by Alex- 
ander IV, and the author banished to his native place ; also 
' Colleetiones Scripture Sacra-,' &c. 

Aiiiourt, hams Goritt tic Si., another doctor of the Surlxinne, 
was born at Paris in 10'iy, and died in 16'87- He took a 
great part in all the theological questions of the day, parti- 
cularly the live propositions, on which he wrote a journal 
and other things. 

AMOUREUX, A T . L. (Biog.) a sculptor, who was drowned 
in the Soane in the 19th century. His works are preserved 
at Lyons. 

AMPELUS (Myth.) a favourite of Bacchus, who, whilst gather- 
ing the fruit of the vine, fell down and was killed. He 
was afterwards honoured as a god, and enrolled among the 
Ovid. Fust. ]. 3, v. 407. 


Ampklus (Geog.)" A^nrtXor, now Ampela, a town and promon- 
tory of Crete. 

AMPELUSIA (Gcog.) otherwise called Cole, now Lc Cup tie 
Spartello, a promontory near Tangiers, in Mauritania, oppo- 
site to Andalusia. Pump. Mela, 1. 1, c. 5, &c. ; Strab. 1. 17; 
Plin, 1. 5, c. 1 ; Plot. 1. I, 

AMPEZO (Geog.) a town of Tirol at the foot of the Alps, 
which was ceded to Austria in 1505 by a treaty between the 
emperor Maximilian and the republic of Venice. 

AMPHARES (Hist.) 'Aafaprie, one of the Epliori in the 
reign of Agis, who was his bitterest enemy, and put to death 
both Agis, himself, his mother, and his grandmother. Pint. 
in Vit. Agis: 

AMPHAX1S (Grog.) "A/«pa£ic, a town of Macedonia, in a 
district of Thessalonica, called 'AfitpaZtrte, Amphaxitis, whi- 
ther Cicero was banished. The town is mentioned by Ste- 
phanos, and the country by Polybius. The inhabitants are 
called Ainpha.rila: 

AM PHI ALUS (Myth.) 'AfiAlakos, a dancer of the Phoeacians 
noted by Homer. Hum. Odyss. 1. 8, v. S. 

AMPHIANAX (Myth.) 'Auft&vat, a king of Lycia, eotcm- 
porarv witli Acrisius and Proetus. 

AMPHIARAUS (Myth.) 'A/i^iopaoc, son of Oicleus, a Gre- 
cian prophet, concealed himself in order to escape going on 

the expedition against Thebes, but being betrayed by his 
wife Eryphyle, who had been bribed to this act of perfidy 

by a golden necklace, he went to assist Adrastus, king of 
Argos, and was swallowed up the first day. 

Pind. Nem, 

•'• •_' dpfidptji 
trxtvev tupavvql ira/i^ff 
gttic ruv /3a9v*epvov x^"*". 

Horn. Odyss: 1. 15, v. 2 1,'.'. 

'Avri^a'rtjc piv Itiktcv OVcXqfa /xiydBvpov, 

'A iTiiji OihAm/ji; \aOGffOOV Afl'jmtpaul', 

"Ov Ttfji ki](h tyiXtt 7avc t Alyio\oc tint Ajto'XXwj' 
]\tivToi>ii> tjnXiWiiT' mi"' ixero yijpttoc n£6v 
'AXX' u\it' i'v Qtjj3ti<ri, yvvaiutv civcca tiuptov. 

He was honoured as a god after his death, and had a temple 

erected to him, where his oracle was consulted. aSschyl. 

Sept. Ante. 'Pitch.; Diuil. L 4; Apullod. 1. 1, c. 8, &C. ; 

Apollon. 1. 2, c. 11 ; OV. dc Dio. 1. 1, e. 40, &c.j Hygin. 
Pub. 70, &c. ; Pint, dc Orac. 


AMPHIARAIDES {Myth.) a patronymic of Alcmieon, the 
son of Amphiaraus. Olid. Fast. I. 2, c. 43. 

A M PHI B ALUS (Ecc.) a monk, who is said to have converted 
our protomartyr St. Alban, and to have suffered with him 
in the tentli persecution of Dioclesian. A work entitled 
'Ad Instituendam Vitam Christianam ;' and also several 
homilies are attributed to him. Boeth. Hist. Scut. 1. (i. 

AMPHICLES (Hist.) 'Afuj>u:\jte> the son of A gis, a king of 
Sparta, spoken of bv Pausanias. Pans. 1. 3, e. If). 

AMPHICLUS {Myth.) "AuquicKoc, a Trojan, who was killed 
by Phylides in battle. Horn. II. 1. 16, v. 313. 

AMPHICRATES {Biog.) 'ApipiKpirtis, a biographer who, 
according to Diogenes Laertius, was condemned to die by 
poison. Athen. 1. 13, c. 5 ; Diog. in Fit. Aristip. 

Amphicrates, an Athenian orator, who, being banished from 
his country, retired to Seleucia beyond the Tigris, and 
starved himself to death. Jonsius thinks this is the same as 
the preceding. Plut. in Lucull. ; Jonsius dc Script. Hist. 
Phil. 1. 2, c. 15. 

AMPHICT YON (Hist.) 'A/t^ucrviiv, the son of Deucalion and 
Pyrrba, and third king of Athens from Cecrops, first de- 
dicated the city to Minerva, and gave it the name of Athens. 
Pausanias says that he expelled his father-in-law Cranaus 
from the throne, and was himself in his turn expelled by 
Erycthion. Justin. 1. 2, c. 6. 

Ampiiictyon, a son of Helen, whom Dionysius Haliearnassus 
makes to be the founder of the Amphictionic council, al- 
though Pausanias and others ascribe this work to the pre- 
ceding. Dionys. Ha!. 1. 4; Diuclur. 1. lo" ; Slrab. 1 8; 
Pans, in Achaic. ; Eusc'i. in Chron. ; Mann. Arundel. 

AMPHIDAMAS {Myth.) 'ApifilSauae, a son of Aleus, who 
was of the family of the Inachidtc, and one of the Argo- 
nauts. According to Orpheus, he is called Iphidamus. 
Pans. 1. 8, c. 5; Flacc. 1. 1, v. 876. 

Amphidamas, a Trojan leader, whose son was slain bv Patro- 
clus. Horn. II. 1. 28, v. 87- 

Amphidamas, a son of /Egeus and Cleobule, who was among 
the Argonauts. Hygin. Fab. 14. 

Amphidamas {Hist.) Apijiicafiag, an illustrious citizen of 
Chalcidis, and general of the armies of his country, died 
fighting against the Ervthreans. Plut. Sympos. 1. 5. 

AMPHIDICUS (Hist.) 'A[upiSuaK, one of the sons of As- 
tacus, who distinguished himself at the Theban war. Apol/od. 
1. 3. 

AMPHIGENIA (Geog.) 'Apfiyivtia, a town of Messenia, 
in Peloponnesus. Strab. 1. 8. 

AMPHlLOCHI {Gcng.) a people of Epirus, in Acarnania, 
of which Amphilochia was its capital. QVide Amphilochia^ 

AMPHILOCHIA {Geog.) •AuftAovia, A^h\» x <™>' "Apyos, 
Amphi/oc/ticuni Argot, now Anjilochia ; a town of Acarnania 
called after its founder Amphilochus, the son of Amphia- 
raus. Time. 1. 2 ; Scula.v in Perip. ; Hippocrat. de Morb. 
Pop. 1. 4; Cic. in Pis. c. 40; Poli/b. Lcsut. 2S ; Liv. 1. 38, 
c. 10, &c. ; Mela, 1. 2, c. 3 ; Strab. 1. 10 ; Pirn. 1. 4, c. 1 ; 
Pans. 1. 2. 

Amphilochia {Kumis.) medals of this town are known 
by the inscriptions AM4>I. AM<I>IAOXIi2N ; the common 
types of which are a Pegasus, or a head of Hereules, &c. 

AMPHILOCHIUS {Ecc.) a native of Cappadocia, and bishop 
of Iconium, was the friend of St. Gregory, Nazianzen, and 
St. Basil. He died about the year 394. St. Jerome men- 
tions one work of his concerning the divinity of the Holy 
Spirit. An Iambic poem likewise is ascribed to him by some 
containing a catalogue of the books of the Old and New 
Testament. Socrat. Hist. Ecclcs. 1. 5 ; Hieron. in Catalog. 
Theodor. Ecc. 1. 5, c. lb'; Baron. Anna!.; Du Pin. Bi- 
htiolhek, gps. 

AMPHILOCHUS (Myth.) 'Ap<pi\o X <'C, the son of Amphia- 
raus and Eryphele, who distinguished himself in the Theban 
war. Horn. Odys. 1. 15, v. 248 ; Apollod. 1. 3. 


Amphilochus, son of Alcmieon, went into Epirus after the 

Trojan war, and built Amphilochia. QVide Amphilochia^ 
Amphilochus, one of Helen's suitors, called also Am phi ma- 

Amphilochus (Biog.) an Athenian who wrote on agriculture. 
AMPHILYSSUS (Geog.) a river that takes its rise in As- 

sarus, a mountain of Samos. 
AMPHILYTUS (Biog.) the father of Eumelus, the poet 

and historian of Corinth, was of the family of the Bacchida?. 

Pans. 1. 2, c. 1. 
Amphilytus (Hist.) 'Apfikvroe, a soothsayer, who encouraged 

Pisistratus to endeavour after the supreme power in Athens. 

Herod. 1. 1, c. 62. 
AMPHIMACHUS (Hist.) 'A^iftuxoQ, an officer, who was 

made satrap or governor of Mesopotamia by Antipater. Diod. 

1. 18. 
Amphimaciius (Myth.) 'A^ipixoc, the son of Cteachis, and 

one of Helen's suitors, went to the Trojan war. Ajmllod. 

1. 3, c. 10 ; Hygin. Fab. 97- 
Amphimachus, a son of Nomion, who was leader of the Ca- 

rians in the Trojan war. Horn. II. 1. 2. 
Amphimachus, a son of Actor and Theronice. Pans. 1. 5, c. 3. 
Amphimachus, a son of Polyxenus. Pans. 1. 5, c. 3. 
AMPHIMALLA (Geog.) 'ApfipeXa, 'AfiaupaXije, 'AtujHp&K- 

X(oi', 'Ap<j>ipaK\a ; a town and bay in Crete, the latter of 

which is supposed to be now Golfo delta Su da ; Diacarch. 

Stat. Gra-c. ; Plin. 1. 4, c. 12 ; Ptol. 1. 3 ; Stcpli. Bi/z. 
AMPHIMEDON (Myth.) 'A/jcpufiW, the son of Melan- 

theus, one of Penelope's suitors, who was killed by Telema- 

chus. Horn. Odyss. 1. 22, v. 285. 
AMrniMEDON, a native of Lybia, who was killed by Perseus 

at the court of Cephcus. Ovid. Met. 1. 5, v. 75. 
AMPHINOMUS (Myth.) 'Apropos, a son of Nisus, and 

one of Penelope's suitors, who was killed by Telemachus 

himself. Horn. Odyss. 1. 22, v. 95. 
Amphinomus, who, with his brother Anapius, was sumamed 

Pii Fralrcs, because they carried their father and mother 

on their shoulders safely through the flames which were 

raging from jEtna in the country round about. For which 

action they received divine honours after their death. They 

are called by jElian <lh\d>'o/<oe and KnMfac ; and Anapius 

is written Anaphius in Claudian. 

Sti. ltd. 1. 14, v. 198. 

Turn Cutting nimium ardenti vidua Typhtrp. 
Fa geuerasse pin qiuymhim etUberrhnajratres. 

Cornel. Sever, in Mtna. 

Amphinomus, fraterque, pari sub inumre fortes, 
Cum jam licinis streperent mcendia tectis, 
Accipittnt , pigrumipie putrem, matremque seniles. 

Valerius Max. 1. 5, c. 4 ; Strab. 1. C ; Senec. de Bene/iciis, 

1. 3; Sil. Ital. 1. 14, v. 197. 
Amphinomus (Kumis.) some medals of Catana commemorate 

the pious deed above-mentioned by the representation of the 

two brothers bearing their parents. [Vide Catana~\ 
Amphinomus (Biog.) a geometrician, who is commended by 

Proclus in. Euclid. 1. 1 ; Voss. de Math. c. 54, § 7- 
AMPHION (Myth.) 'Apfiuir, the son of Antiope by Jupiter, 

and brother of Zethus, who were the founders of Thebes. 

Horn. Odyss. 1. 11, v. 259- 

Kai p irtKtv ?vo Tratfi' 'Aptpiovd T( ZijQoiTt 
Ot jrpuiroi Qijfiip; tooc iKTiaav tTrrairvXoio. 

He is said to have learnt music from Mercury, and to have 
moved the stones by his lyre. 
Hot. 1. 3, od. 11, v. 1. 

Mercuri nam te docilis magistro 

Mavit Amphion lupides canetido. 
Euripid. in Pha-niss. 

'Apfioviag Si nor' tic r'ptvaing 

'HXtfni- BpaviSm, <poppiyyt St TH\ta 9;//3rrr 

'Ids Apfioviag Ti Xvpac i'nro, Trvpyac, dvi-a. 


Apeflai. Artsoiianl. 

tv 3* vrri m XP vtT *V ( >".'' 
"Hit ("(._■ rtfwnj i*i /ifr' i\i'ttx I'tcffffcro irirptj. 

i ... Eclcg. 2, v. j.;. 

Ctfttt, «/ti*r s.'ii(»s, si quando armenta D I 
4fnpAum Diroeui i" dcfreo drogynf&a. 

Proper!. 1. :>, edog. 2. 

'i ■. '.'id wart Thebas agitata per arttir. 
■ f'erunt. 

Slat. Tkeb. 1. 1, v. 10. 

/', i ' fuo canning murw 

Imp >' I accafcrti nwmtes. 

Apollod. 1. 3, c. 5j Puhvph. de Incrcd. ; Pans. 1. C, c. 6; 
.1. 12. 

A.mphmx, the son of Jasus by Persephone, the daughter of 
.Mitis. He had by his wife Niohe, according to Homer, 
twelve children, six of each sex. ./Elian speaks of twenty, 
and l Kid of fourteen. His wife Niobe being turned into a 
. and all his children, except his daughter Chloris, he 
killed himself in a lit of despair. 

Amphion, one of the Grecian leaders, who went with Me- 
ns to the Trajan war. Horn. II. 1. 13, v. 692. 

Amphion, one of the Argonauts, son of Hypcrasius, and king 
oi Pallene, in Arcadia. Hi/gin. fah. 14; Flaccl. l,v. 867 ; 
Apoll. 1. I, v. 17<). 

Amphion (Ecc.) bishop of Ephiphania, in Cilicia, in the 
fourth century, was present at the councils of Ancyra, Neo- 
cesaria, and Nice. 

Amphion (Biog.) a Grecian painter, whom Pliny highly 
praises. Plin.1.36, c. 10. 

Amphion. a Greek sculptor, and son of Aeestor, of whom 
Pausanias makes mention. Pans. 1. 10, c. 15. 

Amphion, a freedman of Quintus Catullus, who was learned 
and distinguished in his time. Plin. 1. 36, c. IS. 

AMPHIPOLIS (Bib!.) 'A/^*oX»c the town described under 
Geography, is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. Acts 

Amphipolis (Geog.) a town built by an Athenian colony, in 
the country between Macedonia and Thrace, from which the 
original inhabitants, the Edonians, were expelled. The 
colonists who succeeded the 111 having taken part with the 
Laceda'inonians against the, were engaged in 
frequent wars from the time of Philip, and Amphipolis was 
taken by Perdiceaa II, in the 89th Olympiad, A.C. 424. It 
was thus called because it was surrounded by the river 
Strvmon, or, according to Suidas, because it was entirely 
surrounded by habitations. Its original names, however, 
were 'Evrtn !,<m, according to Herodotus; Vrbs Marlis, ac- 
cording to Suidas; and Myrira, ovc. according toStephanus; 
but afterwards called fay the Greeks ('hri/xliipolis, and the 
Turks Emboli, at Chrywpali, by which it is now known. It 
was formerly an archbishop's see. Herod. 1. 7, C. 114 ; 
Thucyd. L 4, c. 102, &c ; Mod. 1. 11, 12, &c. ; Liv. 44, 
1 1./; Plin. 1. 4, c. 10; Stcph. liyz. ; Suidas, tyc. (Nutnis.) medals were struck either by the 
■llll*M lllllllllllld town ot that of Syria, as an inde]>endent 
state, and in honour of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Do- 
mitia, M. Aurclius Fau liiu, jun., Com- 
modntj Si vertis, Cotaoalla, Geta, Macrinus, 

Alex. Severus, Maximinus, and Yalcriaiiu ... 
sin. Their original types were tlie goat, 
an car of corn, or the prow of a ship as in 
the annexed figure. On the imperial mi. dais 

the most frequent type was that of Europe 

silting mi a hull. They also honoured .lu- 

piter, Minerva, and Bacchus, on their medals. The inscrip- 
tions AM<I>I. \M<I'11III(» Ml, WI.MIIO \[ IUN, \M<1>1 1 1 ( )- 

ABITOHi AllMov AM*inOAITQN. Go//;, in Augusti, 


GraJC. cyr. ; Mas. Pemb. Tab. Hunt. ; Num. Pop. Pet. SfC. ; 

Peller. Rec. da Med. Sgc 
AMPHIS (Biog.) "Anient, a comic poet of Athens, the son of 

Amphicratcs. He was cotemporary with Plato, and wrou 

many comedies, and other pieces, of which nothing now 

remains hut quotations in Athenams, Stobicus, and the 

Scholiast of Aratus, &c. Diog. Lacrt. in J'il. Pint. ; 

Allien. $c. 
AMPHISSA (Myth.) "Aptyioaa, a daughter of Macereus, 

beloved by Apollo. She gave her name to a town of the 

Locri. r_\ ide AtttphitsdJ 
Amphissa (Geog.) a town of the Locri, now Lambina, or, 

according to some, Aujila, at the extremity of the plain 

of Criss.cus, which contained a monument of Araphissa, and 

a temple of Minerva. 

Lucan. 1. 3, v. 172. 

Plwcaicas Amjihisia mantis, scvpulosaque Cyrrhu 
PofRd tUUUS jugo nisil dtsertui utroque. 

It was destroyed by a decree of the Amphictyons. Strab. 
1. !) ; Pans. 1. 10, c.38 ; Liv. 1. 3, c. 5. 

Amphissa, now Roccella, a town of the Bruttii, between 
Caulon and Locri. Ovid. Met. 1. 15, v. 703. 

AMPHISTIDES {Biog.) 'AfieW5B& a man of so bad a 
memory that he almost forgot that he had a father, and 
could never learn above the figure 4 in arithmetic. Aristot. 
prob. 4 ; Suidas. 

AMPHISTRATUS (Myth.) 'A/^Vparoc, one who, with 
Rhecas, was charioteer to Castor and Pollux. They are 
called Frudius and Amphistratus by Justin, Amphius and 
Telchius by Ammianus. Strab. 1. 11; Justin. I. 42, c 3; 
Solin. c. 20 ; Amm. Marccll. 1. 22, c. 15. 

Amphistuatus (Biog.) a statuary, whose statue of Calis- 
thenes, the historian, is mentioned by Pliny. Plin. 1. 86 
c. 5. 

AMPHITHEA (Myth.) 'ApftBin, the wife of Autolycus, by 
whom she had Antic-lea, the wife of Laertes, and mother 
of Ulysses. Horn. Odyss. I. 19, v. 416. 

Amphithea, the mother of ./Egialeus, by Cyanippus, and of 
three daughters, Argia, Deipyle, and /Pgialea, by AdrastUS, 
king of Argos. Apollod. 1. 1. 

AMPIIITHEMIS (Hist.) 'Apfieipic, a Tbeban, who was 
bribed by the Persians, with others, to raise a war in Greece 
against the Lacedemonians. Plut. in Lysand. ; Pans. 1. 3, 
c. 9- 

AMPHITHEUS (Myth.) a priest of Ceres, at Athens, whom 
Aristophanes introduces, deriving his origin from that god- 
dess j which the Scholiast supposes to he a satire against 
Euripides, Ariitoph. hi Achern. 

AMPHITHOE (Myth.) one of the Nereides. Ilygin. in 
V11I1. P01I. ; (li/rnld. Hist. Dcor. 

AMPHITUITE (Myth.) 'Afi^rph,,, a daughter of Nereus, 
or Oceanus, and i'hetys, and mother to Triton, by Nep- 
Heriod. Theog. v. 930. 

'Bjc t" ' A^tpirfiiTTic kcu ipiKTVirv 'Evvoffiyain. 

Claudian. de Rapt. Proserp. L 1. 

Xcrria glaUiCO 

Xrjiiitinim gremh emnphetkur Ami'luti-ite. 
Whence Ani]ihitrite is put hv the poets for the sea. 
( )nd. Mil. 1. 1, v. 14. 

I\Vf braehia longo 

Margins ttmrum pomxgrat Amphifritt. 

Catull. Carm. 68. 

Ilia rittlrm eurtu prima Imbuit AmphitriUn. 

Dionys. Perieg. v. 5.'J. 

' Kvria BUunrlqc Ttrpappiviic 'ApQlTpirnc. 
Hcsiod. Theog. v. 241 ; A/ml/od. 1. 1 ; Parr, de Ling. La 
1. 4'; Hygin, Poefc Attron. fyc. 
AMPHITRYION (Myth.) 'XpvpiTpiuv, a Tbeban prince, sou 


of Alexus and Hippononie, who, having revenged the death 
of Electryon's sons on the Teloboeans, received his daughter 
to wife as the reward of his valour. He was the reputed 
father of Hercules, of whom however Alcmena is said to 
have become pregnant by Jupiter, previous to her marriage 
with Amphitryon, whence Hercules, under the patronymic 
of Amphitrvoniades, is designated falsiparens. 
Catull. Carm. 67, v. 112. 

Quod quondam cirsis mantis fadisse medullis 
Audet J'ulsiparens AmphitryvniadfS. 

Hcsiod. in. Scut. Hercul. ; Apollod. 2, c. 4 ; Hysin. fab. 20 ; 

Paus. 1. 8, c. 14. 
AMPHITRYONIADES {Myth.) a surname of Hercules, from 

Amphitryon, his reputed father. Virg. JEn.l. 8, v. 213; 

Luc. 1. 9, v. 641 ; Val. Flac. 1. 1, v. 371. 
AMPHITL'S (Myth.) vide Amphistratus. 
Ami>hitus, a priest of Ceres, at the court of Cepheus. Ovid. 

Met. I. 5. 
AMPHIUS (Myth.) "Aftijuae, one of the sons of Merops, the 

soothsayer, who, in spite of his father's predictions, went 

to the Trojan war, at the head of the Peloponnesians. Horn. 

II. 1. 2, v. S30. 
AMPHOTERUS (Myth.) W^rcpoe, the son of Alcmfeon, 

by Callirrhoa- Paus. 1. 8, c. 24. 
A.MPHOTEitus (Hist.) a commander of Alexander's fleet on 

the coast of the Hellespont. Q. Curt. 1. 4, c. 5. 
AMPHRYSUS (Myth.) a river of Thessaly, on the banks of 

which Apollo, when banished from heaven, fed the flocks of 

king Admetus. 

Callimach. Hymn, in A pull. v. 4S. 

'E£uV iir' 'Apcjpvmp Zlvyijrtcug irpltyiv «7r4T8£. 

Apollon. Argon. 1. 1, v. 54. 

— — £7r' Afl6pv(T(TOW poijfflV. 

Whence Apollo was designated by the epithet of Ampkrys- 
sius, and his priestess, the Sibyl, by that of the Amphrysia 
vales, firs. Gears- 1. 2, v. 1,' ct JEit. 1. 6, v. 398; Olid. 
Met. 1. 1, v. 580 ; L<,c. 1. 6, v. 367- 

AMPIA (Hist.) a daughter of Titus Ampius Balbus, men- 
tioned by Cicero. Epist. ad Fam. 1. 6, epist. 12. 

AMPIGLIONE (Geoff.) a place between Tivoli and Cecili- 
ano, which was ruined in 1257, and of which nothing but 
the ruins now remain. 

AMPLIAS (Bibl.) W/jTrXias, a disciple mentioned by St. Paul 
in terms of affection Rom. xvi. 8. According to the account 
of the Greeks, he was ordained bishop of Odyssopolis, in 
Mu-sia, by St. Andrew, and afterwards suffered martyrdom. 
Martyrol. Rom. 31 Octub. 

AMPYCIDES (Mi/th.) a patronymic of Mopsus, the son of 
Ampyx. Ovid. Met. 1. 8, v. 310. 

AMPYX (Myth.) ".\fj-7Tvl, a son of Pelias, mentioned by Pau- 
sanias. Paus. 1. 7, c. 10. 

A.iipyx, the son of Titanor, and the father of Mopsus, the 
soothsayer. Or ph. in Argun.; Ovid. Met. 1. 5, 185. 

AMRAM (Bibl.) didj, "A[i/3pafi, the son of Kohath, the 
son of Levi, and father of Moses, by Jochebed, died in 
Egypt, aged 137. Exod. vi. 20. 

Aim am, son of Bam, who, on his return from Babylon, sepa- 
rated from his wife whom he had married contrary to the 
law. Ezra x. 34. 

AMRAPHEL (Bibl) hs-mx, a king of Shinar, who, with 
his confederates, plundered Sodom, and carried away Lot 
anil his family prisoners, A. M. 2802, Jul. per. 2802, A. C. 
1<}12. GVw.'xiv. 

AMIU-AL-CAIS (Biog.) or Amriolcais, son of Hagre, or 
Hogre, king of the Arabs, of the tribe of Kindale, a poet, 
who lived in the time of Mahomet. He did not join his 
party, but made satires on him and them. 

AMROU, Ben-Al-As (Hist.) one of the great captains among 


the Mussulmen, died in the vear of the Hesrira 0'.), A. u. 

Amrou, Ben Harcth, captain of the Giorhamides, made war 

against the Coraischites, the principal inhabitants of Mecca, 

and sacked the city. 
Aiurou, Ben Laith, second sultan of the dynasty of the Sof- 

farides, succeeded his father Jacob in the year of the Hegiru 

267, A. D. S77, and died in the year of the Hesjh 

A. D. 8.99. 
Amuou, Ben Ca/thoum (Biog.) the seventh and last poet. 

whose poems are suspended in the temple of Mecca. 
AMSANCTUS (Gcug.) or Ampsanctus, a lake of the Hdr- 

pini, in the middle of Italy, celebrated for the mephitir 

odour which issues from it, now called Mnjiti, from the god 

Mephitis, who had a temple there. Virgil makes the Bury 

Alecto to descend down to hell bv this lake. 

sEn. 1. 7, v. 565. 

Est locus Itol'ue medio sub maotihus aftll 
Kobilis, et Jama mollis memorutus in oris, 
Amsancti callus. 

Claud, dc Rapt. Proserp. 1. 2, sub fincui. 

Tunc et pestiferi pacatum limen Auriu, 
Innocucc tonmsuth ares, Jiatumipie rcpresstt 
Cic. de Div. 1. 1, c. 36; Plin. 1. 2, c. 93 ; Sidun. 1. 3, ep. U. 

AMSDORF, Nicholas (Biog.) an associate witli Luther, was 
born in 1483, and died in 1565. He wrote on the Lord's 
Supper, and other things, mentioned bv Melchior Adam. 

AMSTELRODAMUxM (Geug.) the town of Anutei 
£Vide Amsterdam"] 

AMSTERDAM (Geog.) the capital of Holland, situate a 
the conflux of the Amsel and Wye. Lon. 4" 52' E., lat. 
52° 22' N. This town, which in the Latin of the middle 
ages was called Amslelrodamum, derived its name from its 
situation near the river Amstel. It consisted in fonm 
of a few fishermen's huts, and first acquired the nan!. ■■•< i 
commercial town in the 14th century. ' It was encom] 
with walls in 1482, and lias since that period been increas- 
ing in wealth and importance, so as to entitle it to the firs) 
rank among the trading cities of Europe, which it : ^ 
to preserve, notwithstanding the shock it received during 
the revolutionary government of France. It surrendered to 
the king of Prussia in 17S7; received the French troops, 
without resistance, in 1795 ; and declared first for the re- 
storation of the house of Orange in 1813. 

AMULIUS (Hist.) son of Procas, and youngest brother b 
Numitor, dispossessed the latter of his kingdom of <. .'■ 
and was afterwards dethroned by Romulus and Hen 
children of his daughter Rhea Silvia, who reinstated their 
grandfather Numitor, and put the usurper to death. 
Ovid. Met. 1. 14, v. 772. 

Prviimus Auumiai injtuti miles Amull 
Jlexit apes ; Xumitoique sent* atKSSO. nep 
Munere reguu cupit. 

Ovid. Fast. 1. 3, v. 67- 

llomuleoque cadit trajectus Amui ■ 

Dionys. Hal. 1. 1 ; Liv. 1. 1, c. 3; Pint, in Rom.; Fieri 

Eiilropius, t\-e. 
Amulitjs, Screnus, a primipilaris, or captain in the praeto- 
rian cohorts, mentioned by Tacitus. Tac. Hist. 1. 1, c. 31. 
Amulius, a painter, mentioned with commendation by Plinv. 

Nat Hist. 1. 35, c. 10. 
AMULON (Biog.) Amolon, or Amolo, archbishop of Eyons, 

wrote several pieces, mentioned in the ' Bibliotheca Patrum.' 

He died in 854. 
AMUN1) (Hist.) Asmund, or Amond, a fabulous king of 

Sweden, said to have lived long before Christ, and died 

A. M. 2891- 
Amund II, son of Ragwald, succeeded his father in 220. and 

died after a reign of five years. 


AMUNDISHAM, John (Biog.) an English Benedictine of 
the 14th century, was the author of many works. 

AMURATH (Hut.) the name of some sultans. 

Amukath, suroamed Gassis, i.e. the Hero, one of the great- 
est minces of the Ottoman throne, succeeded his father 
' . . m in the year of the Hegira 761, A. D. 1371, and 
died after a reign of 30 years, during which he gained 37 

A.vcr.yth, succeeded Mahomet in the year of the Hegira 824, 
A. D. 1434, and died in 1451, after having twice retired 
from government, and returned to it again in order to de- 
feat the Hungarians, and the famous Scandeberg. He was 
the first who used cannon. 

Amurath, succeeded his father Selim II, in 1574, and died 
in 151)3, leaving Mahomet, his son, to be his successor. 

Amurath, son of Achmet, succeeded his uncle Mustapha in 
1623, and died in 1640. He besieged Bagdad, and put to 
the sword all its inhabitants, to whom he had promised pro- 
: ion. 

AM US (Biog.) an ancient Egyptian author, quoted by Plu- 
tarch and Synesius. Pint, dc I six. et Osir. ; Syncs, in Dion.; 
Du Pin. Bibi dex Ant. Profanes. 

AMYCI Porius (Gcog.) a place in Pontus, remarkable for 
the death of Amycus, king of the Bebryces, who is said to 
have been slain there ; it is supposed to be the place now 
called Lamia. Plin. 1. 6, c. 44. 

AMYCLA {Myth.) 'A^u«.\a, one of the daughters of Niobe, 

who, with her sister Melibocea, was spared by Diana when 

the rest perished. Homer, however, says, that they were 

1 I i ed. Horn. II. 1. 24 ; Ajwllod. L. 3 ; Pans. I. 2, &c. 

Amyci.a (Hist.) the nurse of Alcibiades, a native of Laconia. 
! ', i 1 Fit. Alcib. 

Amycla (Geog.) 'AfiiitcXai, a town of Laconia, now J'or- 
v a. built by Amyclas, and is celebrated as the birth- 
place of Helen. From the splendid temple dedicated there 
1 Apollo, this god had the epithet of Amychvus, and the 
place is called for the same reason bv Statius Apollinew. 
Theb. 1. 4, v. 223. 

Httjus Apoltivea- currum comitantur AmycUr. 

Ii was distinguished by other epithets among the poets, as 
Arniiferce, by Ovid, dc Art. Am. 1. 2, v. 5. 

Tula «'< amiferii Priamrius Imspes Amycl'a, 
Candida cum rapta. coning*' it'la dahut. 

Antique, by Ovid. Met. 1. 8. 

Et quot, [IippiKi>un ttntipM nu'sit Amyclis. 
Lcdece, by Statins, Theb. 1. 7, v. 162. 

Parrhasiumcpie 7iemns t Ledeasque ibis Amyclas. 
J 1, Tetrica-, Therajmeae, Sec. Horn. II. 1. 2, v. 586; Po- 
/,' I..-., c. 19; lAv. 1. 34, c. 28; Mela, 1. 2, c. 3 ; Strab. 
1. 8 ; Sd. Hal. 1. 2, v. 43 4 ; Plin. 1. 34; Pans. 1. 3, c. 18 ; 
rt Miscell. Lacon. 
AMYCLA, a town of Italy, now Sperunga, between Caieta 
aiul Tarracina, built by the companions of Castor and Pol- 
lux. It was destroyed by serpents, and afterwards taken by 
surprise, the inhabitants being prohibited by a law from 
rim ig any alarm on the approach of an enemy. 
SH. 1. 8, v. 530. 

, Quaupie ei'ertcTC silenria, Amyd<r. 

Whence the proverb, Loqui volo, nam scio Amyclas tacendo 

]><■: n 

I'irg. /En. 1. 10, v. 564. 


Ausonius vises Amyclas virar, for keei Plin. 

I I, . . .. ; I. 8, C 2<) ; Tacit. 1. 4, c. 59 ; Solin. de Hal. c. 2; 
Sidon. 1. 8, (p. (i 
AMYCL.EUS (Hist) 'A/ivxXatoc, a surname of Apollo, from 
the magnificent temple which lie had built at Amyclx'. Pans. 
1. :;, c. 18. 


Amycx;eus (Biog.) a statuary, whose works are mentioned 
by Pausanias. Pans. 1. 10, c. 13. 

AMYCLAS (Myth.) 'AjuvieXac, son of Lacedsemon and Sparta, 
was the founder of AmycLc. Apollod. 1. 1, c. 23 ; 1. 3, c. 19 ; 
Pans. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Tzclzcx. in I.ycoph., the master of a ship who carried Gtsar in disguise 
when he was going to Brundusium to hasten his troops into 
Greece. Amyclas wishing to put back to avoid a storm that 
was coming on, Ca-sar threw oil' his disguise, and exclaimed, 
" Csesarc-m vehis, Cssarisque fortunas." Lucan. 1. 5, v. 520. 

AMYCUS (Myth.) 'Auvkos, son of Neptune, by Melia, or, 
according to some, of Bithynis, was king of the Bebryces, 
who, being well skilled in the use of the Cestus, challenged 
all strangers to a trial, but was at length killed by Pollux, 
one of the Argonauts, who accepted the challenge. Theo- 
cril. Idyll. 2 L 2 : ApolUm. in Argon. 1. i ; Apollod. 1. 1, c. 9," 
Lactant. in Theb. 1. 3. 

Amycus, one of the companions of /Eneas, who escaped the 
storm, and was afterwards killed bv Turnus. I irg. /En. 
1. 1, v.225; 1.9, v. 373. 

Amycus, another of vEneas's followers, who was killed bv 
Turnus. Ibid. 1. 12, v. 509- 

Amycus, a centaur, and son of Ixion and Nephele. Met. 
1. 12, v. 245. 

AMYDON (Gcog.) 'Afiviiur, a city of Paconia, in Macedonia, 
which sent auxiliaries to Priam during the Trojan war. 
Hum, II. 1. 2 ; Juv. Sat. 3, v. 69- 

AMYMONE (Myth.) 'Auy/iuvn, a daughter of Dan.Tu>, 
murdered her husband Eneeladus, and became afterwards 
the mistress of Neptune. Apollod. 1. 2 ; Proper!. 1.2, el. 18; 
Pans. 1. 2, c. 37. 

AMYMONE (Gcog.) a river of Peloponnesus, running into the 
lake of Leona, called after Amvmone, the daughter of Da- 
naus. 5 <•'■ I. 8 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 2, v. 240. 

AMYN Ahmed Razy (Biog.) native of the city of Rev, in 
Azerbaidjan, a Persian geographer, flourished about the 
1 1th century of the Hegira, and 17th of the Christian iera. 
His work, entitled, ' Hefticlym,' i. e. The Seven Climates, 
contains short biographical notices of the most eminent au- 
thors, concluding with the year of the Hegira 1002. A 
fine copy of it is to be seen in the Library of Paris. 

AMYNTAS (Myth.) a shepherd, mentioned by Virgil. 

Amyntas (Hist.) 'Apivrac, there were several kings of Ma- 
cedonia of this name, besides private individuals. 

Kings of Macedonia. 
Amyntas I, succeeded his father Alceta. His son Alexander 

murdered the ambassadors of Mcgabyzus, for their atrocious 

behaviour towards the females of his father's court. Herod. 

1. 5, c. 1 9, &c ; Justin. 1. 7, c 3. 
Amyntas II, the son of Menalaus, was father of Philip, the 

father of Alexander the Great. He murdered Pausanias in 

order to ascend the throne of Macedonia. Diod. 1. 14 ; C. 

Sep. et Pint, in fit. 
Amyntas, a name which has been given by some authors to 

other kings of Macedonia, of whom little is known. 

Other Princes and Distinguished Persons. 

Amyntas, an ambassador of Philip the Great to Thebes, who 
was sent to defeat the efforts of Demosthenes. Pint, in fit. 

Amyntas, a son of Andromencs, and an officer under Alex- 
ander the Great, is probably the same as was made a satrap. 
Curt. 1. 5, c. 9. 

Amyntas, another officer of Alexander's, who deserted to Da- 
rius, and was killed in Egypt. Q. Curl. 1. 4, c. 1 3. 

AMYNTAS, an officer of the Macedonian cavalry, who cleared 
himself from the charge of having joined the conspiracy of 
Philotas, and wan afterwards made governor of Sogdiana. 
(I Curt. 1. 8, c. 12 


Amyntas, a son of Arrhibseus, who was sent to reconnoitre 
the enemy. 

Amyntas, a son of Antiochus, left Macedonia out of hatred 
to Alexander. 

Amyntas (Numis.) some ancient medals are ascribed to the 
Macedonian kings of this name, one of which is inscribed, 
B. AMIMToY M. i. e. Bao-iXe'wc 'Aftipra t/IuKtioiuiv, Regis 
Amimti Macedonum ; but for the most part they are inscrib- 
ed A. M., which is attributed to the first king of this name: 
those of his successors are inscribed AMYNTA AMYNTAS, 

Amyntas (Biog.) a Greek historian, and author of a work, 
entitled, ZraO/UHc, i. e. The Encampments of Alexander 
the Great ; a book quoted frequently by Athenseus and 
./Elian. Athen. 1. 10, &c. ; JElian. Far.' Hist. 1. 17, c. 17, &c. 

Amyntas, son of Ellanicus, a pancratiast, whose statue was 
made by Polycles. Pans. 1. 6. 

Amyntas, king of Galatia, who succeeded Dejotarus. After 
his death it became a Roman province. Strab. 1. 12 ; Pint, 
in Fit. Anion. 

AMYNTIANUS (Biog.) an historian in the time of M. An- 
tonius, who wrote an eulogium on Philip Olympias and 
Alexander. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 131 ; Foss. Hist. Gr. 1. 2, 
c. 14. 

AMYNTOR (Myth.) one of the 50 sons of ^Egyptus, who 
was murdered by his wife Damone. Hygin. fab. 17- 

Amyntor (Hist.) 'AfivvTiiip, son of Phrastor, and king of 
Argos, who deprived his son Phoenix of his eyes for having 
offered violence to his concubine. 
Horn. II. 1. 9- 

Qtov oti TTpStrov X'nrov 'EXXa'oa KaWiyvvaiKa 
tytvyutv vt'iKta Trarpot; ' A^ivvropoQ 'Opptvidao. 

Ovid. Met. 1. 12, v. 364. 

Quail Dohpum reetiv bello superatu$ Amyntor. 

Amyntor, a Macedonian, and father of Hepluestion, the 
friend of Alexander the Great. 

AMYOT, James (Ecc.) bishop of Auxerre, and grand 
almoner of France, was born of an obscure family at Me- 
lun, in 1514, and died in 1593. His works are, 1. A 
translation of ' Heliodorus,' fol. 1547; of • Diodorus Sicu- 
lus,' fol. Paris, 1554 ; of ' Plutarch's Lives and Morals,' 
2 vols. fol. 1559. 2. ' Lettre a M. de Morvillier,' contain- 
ing the Author's Journey to Trente. 3. • CEuvres Melees,' 
Svo. l6ll. 4. 'Projet de l'Eloquence Royale compose pour 
Henry III, Roi de France," 8vo. 1805. 

AMYRAUT, Moses (Biog.) a Calvinistic Protestant of 
France, and a famous controversialist in his day, died in 
1664, leaving many theological works not now much in 

AMYRT.EUS (Hist.) ' AjxvpTuioc, a king of Egypt, accord- 
ing to Ctesias, at the time of the invasion of Cambyses. 

AMYRUTZES (Biog.) a peripatetic philosopher of Trebe- 
zond in the 15th century, was carried to Constantinople by 
Mahomet II, when his native place was taken, after which 
he became a convert to Mahometanism. 

AMYTHAON (Myth.) 'Apvdawy, a son of Hippasus, and 
an ally of Priam, was killed in battle by Lycomedes. He 
is frequently called Apisaon. Horn. II. 1. 17- 

Amythaon (Hist.) son of Cretheus, king of Iolchos, became 
king of Messenia, and re-established the Olympic games. 
Horn. Odyss. 1. 11, v. 257; Apollod. 1. 1 ; Diodor. 1. 4; 
Pans. 1. 5. 

AMYTIS (Hist.) a daughter of Astyages, whom, according 
to Ctesias, Cyrus married. 

Amytis, a daughter of Xerxes, who disgraced herself by her 

ANACHARSIS (Biog.) 'Ai-uvapo'ic, a Scythian philosopher, 
and one of the seven wise men, flourished 592 years before 
the Christian ara, and was slain by his brother Saulius, king 
vol. 1. 


of the Scythians, on his return from Greece to his native 
country, on account of his attachment to foreign customs. 
Two letters of his to Croesus and Hanno are said to be still 
extant, but this is a matter of some question. The name of 
Anacharsis has been rendered familiar to the modern ear by 
the pleasant fiction of the Abbe Barthelemi, entitled, the 
' Travels of Anacharsis.' Herod. 1. 4, c. 40, et seq. ; Cic. 
Tusc. 1. 5, c.32 ; Strab. I 7; Pint, in Sympos. 
ANACLETUS (Ecc.) a pope who succeeded St. Linus in 78, 
and is said by some to have been a martyr. S. Iren. 1. 3, 
c. 3 ; Euseb. Hist.l. 3; S. August in. Epist. 165; Rujin. 
Anacxetus, otherwise called Peter, antipope in opposition to 
Innocent II, died in 1138. S. Bernard, ep. 124; Pet. 
Diaeon. Chron. 1. 2, c. 98., &c; Baron. Anna!, ann. 1130, &c. 
ANACOANA (Hist.) a queen of Maguana, in Hispaniola, 
who succeeded her brother Behechio in 1503, gave the Spa- 
niards under Bartholomew Columbus a cordial reception ; 
but, hostilities afterwards ensuing, Ovando, the governor- 
general, invaded her territory, and having seized her person, 
hanged her up under the pretence of being a rebel. 
ANACREON (Biog.) 'AvaKpitov, a lyric poet of Teos, in 
Ionia, who flourished about the 62d Olympiad, in the time 
of Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius, that is, A. C. about 532, 
according to Eusebius; or the 52d Olympiad, A. C. 572, ac- 
cording to Suidas. He was a lover of pleasure, as his poems 
denote, and died, as it is said, from a grape-stone, with 
which he was choked, in the 85th year of his age. 
Hor. Epod. od. 14, v. 9- 

Nee atiter Samiet iticwit arsisse Bathyllo 
Anarreonta Te'ium. 

Herod. 1. 3, c. 121 ; Cic. Tusc. 1. 4, c. 33; Strab. 1. 14; 
Plhi. 1. 7, c. 7; Mian. Far. Hist. 1. 9, e. 4 ; Max. 
Tyr. 1. 2. 

ANACTES (Myth.) "Avciktic;, or Anaces, "Arawe ; the name 
common to the three gods who were fabled to be born at 
Athens of Jupiter and Proserpine, i. e. according to Cicero, 
Tritopatreus, Eubuleus, and Dionysius, who were likewise 
called Dioscuri, and according to Pausanias, Curetes and 
Cabires ; but it is more generally understood to refer to 
Castor and Pollux, who were honoured as the tutelary 
deities of Athens. The origin of the name has been vari- 
ously derived: according to Plutarch, either from avctKvc;, 
carefully, <uox';, a treaty, in allusion to the treaty between 
Theseus and the Tyndaridse ; or dVw, above, that is, above 
the horizon, in allusion to the stars of Castor and Pollux ; 
but the general supposition is that it is derived from acu£, a 
king, i. e. a guardian, although Vossius thinks that it is a 
Phoenician word signifying the descendants of Enach. Cic. 
de Nat. Deor. 1. 3, c. 21 ; Plut. in Thes. ; Pans. 1. 10, 
c. ult; Tzelz. in Lycopk. ; Foss. de Orig. Idol. 1. 1, 
c. 13. 

ANACTORIUM (Geog.) 'AvaKTopiov, Anactoria, a town 
of Acarnania at the mouth of the bay of Ambracia, which 
belonged in common to the Corynthians and the Cor- 
cyraans, whence it was the cause of frequent wars among 
the Greeks. The Athenians becoming masters of it, gave 
it into the possession of the Acarnanians ; but, according to 
Pausanias, Augustus planted a colony of Corinthians at Ni- 
copolis, near Actium, of which Anactorium was the em- 
porium. Thucyd. 1. 1, c. 55; Scyl. Peripl. ; Strab. 1. 10; 
Plin. 1. 4, c 1 ; Pans. 1. 5. 

Anactorium (Numis.) this town is known by the inscription 
ANARTOPIilN on some medals which represent the head 
of Achelous, the symbol of Acarnania ; as also the figures 
of Pallas, the Pegasus, and other types. 

ANAETIS (Myth.) vide Anaitis. 

ANjETIUS (Hist.) 'A)<a<Y<oe, oneof the 30 tyrants of Athens 
established by Pausanias after the conquest of the country 
They were expelled by Thrasybulus. Xenoph. 1. 2. 

ANAFA (Geog.) or Anfa, a town of Tremecen, in the king- 


dom of Fez, which was humt to the ground by Alphonso, 
king of Portugal, in 14()8. 

ANAGNI (Geog.) the ancient Anagnia [vide Anagnia~\ ; a 
town in the Campagna di Roma, and a bishop's see depend- 
ant on the pope, 28 miles S. E. Rome. 

ANAGNIA (Geog.) a town of the Hernici, now Antigni, 
where Anthony caused a medal to be struck commemorative 
of his marriage with Cleopatra, for whom he had repu- 
diated the sister of Augustus. Its fertility is celebrated by 
the poets. 
Virg. JEn. L 7, v. 683. 

— — qui roscida rivis 
Hernica sola colunt ; quos, dives .-lnagnia, puscis. 

Cic. ad Atlic. 1. 16, ep. 8; Strab. 1. 5; Plin. 1. 3, c. 5 ; 
Macrub. Saturn. 1. 5, c. 18. 
ANAGYRASIUS, Damon (Myth.) a name given to a certain 
hero or god of Agyrus, who, in revenge for an affront 
offered to his grove by an old man, inflamed his concubine 
with a passion for his son, whose eyes he put out from jea- 
lousv, after which he hung himself, and the woman who 
had accused the youth falsely threw herself into a well. 
ANAH (Bibl.) ruj?, son of Zibeon the Hivite, and father of 

Aholibamah, Esau's wife. Gen. xxxvi. 24. 
ANAHARATH (Bibl.) mmy, a city of Issachar. Josh. 

xix. 19- 
ANAITICUS laais (Geog.) a lake of Armenia, where the 

papyrus grows. Plin. 1. 16, c. 36. 
ANAITIS (Myth.) 'Avatris, a goddess worshipped by the 
Lydians, Armenians, and Persians, whose festival was cele- 
brated by the grossest debaucheries, for which the most 
beautiful of their women were selected as priestesses. It is 
said that this festival, which was called Saca, was instituted 
by Cyrus to commemorate his victory over the Saca?. Strab. 
1. 11 j Plin. 1. 33; Paus. 1. 3, c. 4; Ctvl. Rhodig. 1. 18, c. 29. 
Anaitis, the name under which Diana is worshipped in Lydia, 

according to Pausanias, 1. 3. 
ANAK (Bibl.) pjjfj was the son of Arba, who gave name to 
Kirjath-Arba, or Hebron. From his three sons, Speshai, 
Aheman, and Talmas, were descended the Anakims. Jush. 
xv. 14; Jnd. i. 20. 
ANAKIMS (Bibl.) the descendants of Anak, and men of ex- 
traordinary stature, who inhabited the land of Canaan. 
Num. xiii. 33 j Dent. i. 28, &c. 
ANAMIM (Bibl.) d'djp, the son of Mizraim. Gen. x. 13. 
ANAMMELECH (Bibl.) r\bn:x, an idol of Samaria, which 
was represented under the figure of a horse, a symbol of 
Mars. Kirch. (Edip. torn. ii. 
ANANCE (Mi/th.) 'Av&ynjj i.e. necessity; the name of a 
goddess, to whom a temple was erected in Attica. To show 
the power of this goddess, the Greeks had the proverb 
'Av6.yKn H<"t Oevl uavovrai, not even the gods resist neces- 
sity. Pans. 1. 2 ; Suidas ; Erasm. Adag. chil. 2, cent. 4. 
ANANEL (Hist.) a Jew of mean birth, who was set up to 
be high priest by Herod, to the detriment of Aristobulus, to 
whom the dignity belonged. Joseph. 1. 15, c. 2. 
■WANT (Bibl.) 'OJP, seventh SOn of Kliocnai. 1 (.'/iron. iii. 21. 
ANANTA (Biog.) or Anagny, John d', a lawyer of Bologna, 
who died in 1458, wrote, 1. ' Commentaries on the fifth Hunk 
of the Decretals.' 2. • Consultationcs.' :i. ' De Iicvocatione 
Feudi Alienati,' 4to. Lugd. Hat. 1510'. 4. ' De Magia et 
\I;, Minis,' 4to. Ludg. Bat. l(i(i<). 
Anania, John Lorenzo d', of Tuverna, in Calabria, of the 
15th century, wrote, 1. ' Cosmographia, Ovvcro lT'nivcrsalc 
Fabrica del Mondo,' 4to. Venice, 1576'- 2. ' De Nature 
Dicmonum,' 8vo. Venet. 1582. 
ANANIAS (Bibl.) D'JJtf, the name which the angel Raphael 
gives to his father in the history of Tobit, whom he oilers 
to bear company to Rages, calling himself Azarias. Tub. 
v. 12. 


Ananias, or Ananiah, of the tribe of Benjamin, returned from 
the Babylonish captivity, and built part of the walls of 
Jerusalem. Kehem. xi. "2. 
Ananias, a disciple, who, with his wife Sapphira, lied to the 

Holy Ghost, and was struck dead, A. D. 33. Acts ix. 10. 
Ananias, a disciple at Damascus, whom the Lord commanded 
to go to Paul on his conversion, A. D. 35. 

Ananias (Hist.) a merchant, who, according to Josephus, 
converted Izates to Judaism, or, according to Orosius, to 
Christianity, A. D. 41. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 20, c. 1; Oras. 
1. 7, c. 6. 

Ananias, son of Nebedseus, and his successor, A. M. 4050, 
A. D. 47, was the O'Sth high priest of the Jews, and the 
17th from the birth of our Saviour. It was this Ananias 
whose death St. Paul prophesied for his wickedness. He 
was killed in the first vear of the Jewish war. Joseph, (k 
Bell. Jud. c. 38. 

Ananias, surnamed the Sadducce, was the most active par- 
tisan in the rebellion of the Jews against the Romans. He 
was employed on the mission to the Roman general Metilius, 
and also to the Idumnans. Joseph, de Bell. Jud. 1. 2, e. 18. 

Ananias, son of Mashbal, of the priestly race originally of 
Emmaus, was put to death by Simon, the head of a party 
of malcontents, with 15 other principal Jews of the city. 
during the last siege of Jerusalem by the Romans. Joseph, 
dc Bell. J nd. 1. 6, e. 15. 

Ananias (Ecc.) bishop of Alexandria. [Vide St. Aniarf\ 

Ananias (Biog.) or Ananius, a Greek poet, who wrote Iambic 
verses, quoted by Athensus. 

ANANUS (Bibl.) "Avavoc, son of Seth, and father-in-law to 
Caiaphas, called Annas by St. Luke, succeeded Joazar, sun 
of Simon, as high priest, and enjoyed the priesthood 1 1 
years. Luke iii. 2; John xviii. 13; Joseph. Antiq. 1. IS, 
c. 3 ; 1. 20, c. 8. 

Ananus, (Hist.) of Lyddfl, a captain, was sent to Rome before 
Quadratus, with Ananias, to answer the charges made against 
him before Claudius. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 20, c. 5. 

Ananus, son of Ananus the high priest, was made high 
priest A. D. 62 ; but was deposed by Agrippa, after holding 
the priesthood only three months. In that time he con- 
demned James, the brother or relation of Christ, to be 
stoned. Joseph. Antiq. 1. 20, c. 8. 

Ananus, a countryman and father of one Jesus, who pro- 
phesied the destruction of Jerusalem four years before the 
Jewish ara. Joseph, de Bell. Jud. 1. 7, c. 12. 

Ananus, son of Jonathan, who was adverse to the rebellion 
against the Romans, and made a fruitless attempt to intro- 
duce Cestius into the city. Joseph, de Bell. Jud. 1. '.', c. 24. 

Ananus, a high priest, who, in attempting to stop the fury 
of the people, was killed, with 12,000 nobles, by the Idu- 
miKins, whom the rebels had called to their assistance, A. D. 

<>7. Some have supposed him to be the Ananus who was the 

high priest before mentioned fur three months. Joseph. d< 
Bell. J ml. 1. 4, c. 17, 18. 

Ananus, of Emmaus, and one of the guards of Simon, who 
commanded the rebels, surrendered himself to Titus, and 
received bis pardon. Joseph, de Bell. Jud. 1. 7, c. 7- 

ANAPHE (Geog.) 'Ani</>i), an island that rose out of the 
Cretan sea, now .Wni/iil, where Apollo was worshipped. 
The Argonauts gave it this name, from lirafiniw-, to ap- 
pear, because the moon, which had 1" 1 :i darkened by an 
eclipse, suddenly appeared and prevented them from run- 
ning against the rocks. 

dpouon. 1. 4, v. 1717- 

' Ai'dtyrfv Ci ti Xurtrdtia eijrto 

Some have BUpposed it to come from the Phoenician rtEJr, 
dark, because ApolloniuS and others Call it 1!.<<i/ >'))<ror. 

CalUmach. apud Strut,.; Ovid. Met. 1. 7, v. 4Gl ; Strap. 1. 


10; Plin. 1. 2, c. 8"; Slephan. Bi/z. de Urb. ; Phawrinus ; 
Phot. Cod. 186. 

ANAPHES (Hist.) 'Avafqs, was the leader of the Cissi, in 
the expedition of Xerxes into Greece. Herod. 1. 7, c. 62. 

ANAPUS (Geog.) * Arams, a river of Epirus, near the town 
of Stratos, mentioned by Thucydides. Time. 1. 2, c. 82. 
Also a river of Sicily, near Syracuse, now called Alfeo. It 
is said not to have a large stream. 
Tkeocrit. Id. I, v. 68. 

'Ou yap ?i) irorapoio fiiyav poov e"x fr ' 'Aran's. 
Wherefore by the poets it is feigned to have fallen in love 
with Cvane, who was changed into a fountain. 
Ovid. Pont. 1. 2, ep. 10, v. 26. 

Quaqiie suis Citanen miscet Anapus aquis. 
Thucud. 1. 6 ; Liv. 1. 24, c. 36 ; Ovid. Met. 1. 5, fab. 5 ; Dion. ; Si!. ltd. L 14 ; JElian. J'ar. Hist. 1. 2, c. 33. 

AXAQUITO (Geog.) a province of Quito, in America, cele- 
brated by the battle fought between the Spaniards, under 
Almagro, and those under Pizarro, in 15-16. 

ANASSUM (Geog.) a river of the Carni, in the territory of 
Venice, now la Piave, according to Leander. Plin. 1. 3, c. 18. 

ANASTASIA (Ecc.) or Resurrection, the name of a chapel 
where Gregory Nazianzene assembled the Catholics, and re- 
suscitated, as he himself expresses it, the word of charity 
among his Catholic brethren. It was afterwards converted 
into a superb temple, by Mareian Economicus, of the church 
of Constantinople. 

Anastasia, another church of the Novatians, so called because 
it was rebuilt by permission of Julian, after having been de- 
stroyed by the Arians, in the reign of Constantius. 

Anastasia, a noble Roman lady, daughter of Pretextatus, 
was married to a heathen husband, and suffered martyrdom 
in the reign of Dioclesian. Her remains were deposited in 
the church of Anastasia, in Constantinople, in the reign of 
the emperor Leo. Theodore/. Led. 1. 2 ; Tillcnionl. Mem. 
pour I'Hist. Eceles. 

Anastasia (Hist.) a daughter of Conslantius Chlorus, and 
sister of Cnnstantine the Great, is said to have built the 
public baths at Constantinople, which she called after her 
name. Ammian. Marcellin. 1. 26, &c. 

Anastasia, a sister of the emperor Yalens and Valentinian, 
who is supposed by some to have built the above-mentioned 
baths. Socrat. Ecc. Hist. 1. 4, c. 19; Sozom. Hist. Eceles. 
I 6, c. 9. 

Anastasia, wife of the emperor Tiberius, died in 594. She 
was the mother of all those children who were so cruelly 
murdered by Phocas. 

Anastasia, wife of Constantine Pogonatus, was the mother of 
Justinian Rhinothmet, who fell a victim to the fury of the 
s 'Idiery, her grandson Tiberius also shared the same fate. 

Anastasia (Geog.) a city of Mesopotamia, built by the em- 
peror Anastasius, called before Daras, according to Marcel- 
linus ; and Daria, according to Procopius. 

ANASTASIUS (Hist.) there were two emperors of this 

Anastasius, surnamed Silentarius or Dicorus, succeeded Zeno 
in 491, and was killed by a thunderbolt in 51S. Evag. 
Hist. Eceles. 1. 3 ; Procop. de Reg. et Temp. Success. ; 
Cassiod. in Chron. ; Paul. Diacon. de Gest. Roman. 

Anastasius, otherwise called Arlemius, secretary to the em- 
peror Philip Bardanes, succeeded him after his death in 713, 
but was deposed by Theodosius, and put to death by Leo, 
in 719. 

Anastasius (Xumis.) many medals are extant 
of the first emperor of this name, bearing 
his effigv, as in the annexed figure, and in- 
scribed, D. N. ANASTASIUS P. F. AUG. 
I— XXVII. COS. I.— IV : on the reverse, 



and the like, as on the medals of the earlier 
emperors. Some few medals are also extant i; 
of the second Anastasius, bearing his effigy, ^ t 
as in the annexed figure ; and the inscription, 
AUG. Goltz. Num. Imp..; Du Cange Fam. Byz.; Bandur. 
Imp. Roman. 
Anastasius (Ecc.) there were several popes and patri- 
archs, Sec. of this name. 

Popes of this Name. 

Anastasius I, succeeded Siricus in 398, and died in 402, 
having Innocent I for his successor. Socrat. Hist. Eceles. 
1. 7, e. 9; Sozom. 1. S, c. 24; S. August. Epist. 165; S. 
Hieron. Ep. 1 6 ; Baron. Annal. Ann. 398, &c. 

Anastasius II, succeeded Gelasius in 496, and died in 498. 
He wrote a letter to the emperor Anastasius, to request that 
the name of Acacius might be struck out of the dyptics; and 
a congratulatory epistle to Clovis I, king of France. Theo- 
doret. Led. 1. 2. 

Anastasius III, a Roman, son of Lucian, succeeded Ser- 
gius III in 910, and died two years after Sigebert. Gene* 
brard et Onuphrius in Chron. ; Baron. Annal. ann. 91 1,912. 

Anastasius IV, a Roman, named Conrad, succeeded Eu- 
gene III in 1153, and died in 1154. He distinguished 
himself by his cha