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I 






% 'IS 



THE UPPER PENINSULA OF 

"^ MICHIGAN 

An Inventory of 
Historic Engineering 

and Industrial Sites 



Directed by: Charles K. Hyde, PhD 

Wayne State University 



Manuscript Preparation by: Diane B. Abbott 
Photographs by: Charles K. Hyde 



Historic American Engineering Record 

Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation 

Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

1978 

For sale by the Saperlntendent of Documeott, U.S. QoTemment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20102 



r 

/y /o^ Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service 

Chris Therral Delaporte, Director 



Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation 

Jerry L Rogers, Chief 

Historic American Engineering Record 
Douglas L. Griffin, Chief 



Front Cover: Chapin Mine Pumping Engine - 1891 



Cover Design by: Isabel T. Hill 






Sponsored by: 

Michigan History Division 
Michigan Department of State 
Lansing, Michigan 48918 

Northern Michigan University 
Marquette, Michigan 49855 

Historic American Engineering 

Record 
Heritage Conservation and 

Recreation Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



CONTENTS 



ILLUSTRATIONS vii 

INTRODUCTION x? 

ABBREVIATIONS OF COMMON REFERENCES .... xiv 

MAPS OF THE UPPER PENINSULA xvi 

EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES 1 

COPPER 5 

IRON 31 

BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES kk 

UTILITIES 82 

POWER SOURCES AND PRIME MOVERS 117 

TRANSPORTATION 118 

RAILROAD ABBREVIATIONS 121 

ADDITIONAL LIGHTHOUSES 17A 

ADDITIONAL RAILROAD BUILDINGS 175 

BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 178 

GIRDER 179 

ARCHED 182 

TRUSSED 185 

MISCELLANEOUS 19^ 

ADDITIONAL BRIDGES 20A 

SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 206 

HAER INVENTORY CARD 219 

INDICES 221 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Chapin Mine Pumping Engine (I89I) Front Cover 

Allouez Mine Shaft Number Four Headframe (c.19^5) 6 

Calumet and Hecia Mining Company Drill Shop (c.l885) 9 

Calumet and Heel a Mining Company Machine Shop 

(€.1882,1907,1911) 12 

Calumet and Heel a Mining Company Man Enginehouse (c.l890) 13 

Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Pattern Shop (c.l885) 15 

Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Superior Boilerhouse 

(1880,1895) 16 



Champion M 
Champion M 
Quincy Min 
Quincy Min 
Quincy Min 
Quincy Min 
Quincy Min 



ne Machine Shop (1902) 18 

ne "E'' Shaft Headframe (1906,1908) 20 

ng Company Machine Shop (1900) 22 

ng Company Mine Office Building (1897) 23 

ng Company Shaft Number Two Headframe (1907) 2k 

ng Company Shaft Number Two Hoist (1920) 26 

ng Company Shaft Number Two Hoisthouses (1895,1920) . . 29 

Caspian Mine Headframe (1920) 32 

Cliff Shaft Mine Headframe (1919) 35 

Hiawatha Mine Shaft Number One Headframe (190^) 38 

Bay De Noc Company Wastewood Burner (1899) 48 

Bay Furnace Stack Number One (I87O) 51 

Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Dredge (1913) 52 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company Charcoal Plant (1905) 55 

Escanaba Iron Company Kloman Kiln (c.l872) 57 

Ford Motor Company Kingsford Plant, Distillation Building 

(1923) 58 

Jackson Iron Company Limekiln (1867) 61 

Jackson Iron Company Blast Furnace (I867) 62 

Marinette and Menominee Paper Company (1905) 65 



VI I 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Menominee Electrical and Mechanical Company (1905) 66 

Menominee Furnace Company Stephenson Kiln (1875) 68 

Pemberthy Cook and Company Warehouse (1897) 70 

Peninsular Iron Company Mangum Kiln (c,l878) 72 

Qulncy Mining Company Smelter, Cupola Building (I898) 75 

Soo Brewing Company (1901) 76 

White Marble Lime Company Kilns (I889) 78 

Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company IXL Plant (I889) 80 

Big Quinnesec Falls Hydroelectric Plant (191^) 85 

Escanaba Power Company Dam Number One (1907,1923) 89 

Grand Rapids Hydroelectric Plant (1908) 91 , 93 

Kingsford Hydroelectric Plant (192^) 95 

Marquette City Waterworks (1890,1937) 100 

Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Generating Plant 

(1902,1916) 102, 10^ 

Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Headgates (1902,1917) .... 105 

Saxon Falls Hydroelectric Plant (1912) IO8 

Sturgeon Falls Hydroelectric Plant (1905) 110 

Victoria Dam (1931) 113 

Victoria Hydroelectric Plant (1931) 11^ 

The Alvin Clark (18^6) 122 

Big Bay Point Lighthouse (I896) 12^ 

Big Sable [Au Sable] Light Station (1873,1909) 125 

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad: 

Menominee Station (1885) 127 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Escanaba Roundhouse (c.l869) • . 129 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Iron Mountain Station (I889) . • 130 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Ironwood Station (c.l895) ... 131 

The Chief Wawatam (1911) 132 

• • • 

VI I 1 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Copper Harbor Lighthouse (1866) ]3^ 

Houghton County Traction Company Car Barn (1900) \k2 

Iroquois Point Lighthouse (1870,1902) ]kk 

Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad: Presque Isle 

Ore Dock (1912) U6 

Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad: Presque Isle 

Station (1896) \kB 

Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad: Steam Locomotive 

Number Nineteen (1910) ]kS 

Marquette Harbor Lighthouse (1866,1906) 152 

Marquette and Southeastern Railway: Big Bay Station (1905) • . . • IS'* 

Mellon Lumber Company Locomotive Number Six (1916) 156 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad: 

Gladstone Station (188?) 157 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad: 

Rapid River Station (c.l890) 159 

Peninsula Point Lighthouse (1865) 162 

The St. Mary's (1917) 166 

St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal: Administration Building (1896) .... 167 

St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal: Davis Lock (191^) 169 

Seul Choix Point Lighthouse (1892) 171 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Ford River Bridge (1910) .... 180 

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad: 

Menominee River Bridge (1902) 182 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Black River Bridge (1891) ... 183 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Escanaba River Bridge (1892) . . 186 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad: Little Cedar River Bridge 

(1917) 187 

International Railroad Bridge: River Section (1887) 189 

Johnstone Street Bridge (1900) 190 



IX 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad: 

Escanaba River Bridge (1901) 192 

Cut River Bridge (19'»6) 19'» 

Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad: Jumbo River 

Trestle (1899) 196 

Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad: Ontonagon River 

Trestle (1900) 197 

Houghton-Hancock Bridge (1959) 198 

International Highway Bridge (1962) 200 

Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad: Dead River Trestle (1900) • • 202 

Mansfield Street Viaduct (1922) 203 

Alpha Water Tower (1915,1931) 206 

Atlantic Mining Company Redridge Dam (1894) 208 

Manistique Water Tower (1922) 210 

Redridge Steel Dam (1901) 212, 2]k 

Sault Ste. Marie Water Tower (c.1900) 216 



INTRODUCTION 



Origins of the Upper Peninsula Inventory 

The Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) is a division 
of the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park 
Service, and is responsible for documenting and thus preserving America's 
engineering and industrial heritage. As part of its program, HAER pre- 
pares inventories or lists of significant engineering and industrial sites 
in all parts of the country. The Inventory of the Lower Peninsula of 
Michigan was completed in 1975-1976 and presented in The Lower Peninsula 
of Michigan ; An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites 
"(Washington: NPS 172, 1976T7 A separate intensive inventory was con- 
ducted in the Upper Peninsula during the summer of 1977, reflecting the 
region's unique engineering, mining, and industrial history. While there 
was no previous comprehensive survey of historic engineering and indus- 
trial sites in the Upper Peninsula, several earlier broad architectural 
surveys greatly aided my efforts. These included separate surveys of 
the western and eastern sections of the Upper Peninsula, conducted in 
1975 and 1976 under the direction of Kathryn Eckert of the Michigan 
History Division and Professor Sadayoshi Omoto of Michigan State Univer- 
sity, as well as a survey conducted in 1975-1976 by David Stewart for 
the Western Upper Peninsula Planning and Development Region. Finally, 
there was an Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) inventory of 
architectural sites in the Copper Country, conducted by Kevin Harrington 
and Wendy Nichols in 1975- 



Format of the Inventory 

The Inventory includes 318 sites, with the overwhelming majority 
constructed before 1925. Each inventory card includes a brief history of 
the site, a physical description, the precise location of the site, a 
sketch-map, several photographs, and a list of historical source materials. 
The completed cards are deposited with HAER in Washington and with the 
Michigan History Division in Lansing. Space limitations have made it 
necessary to delete some of the less important sites from this volume 
and to abridge the descriptions of about one-quarter of the sites. For 
three common structures, lighthouses, railroad buildings, and bridges, 
the less important examples are simply listed. 

The sites are arranged according to the HAER Industrial Clas- 
sification System and then listed alphabetically by the name of the site. 



XI 



INTRODUCTION 



Categories which include a large number of sites, such as "Bridges and 
Trestles**, are further subdivided. In the left-hand corner of each 
entry, the reader will find the site name, the date of the structure 
now standing, its street address or location, and the city or town. 
The right-hand corner contains the name of the United States Geological 
Survey map on which the site is located and beneath it the Universal 
Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid reference. This fifteen-digit reference 
is a precise locating mechanism consisting of three elements: the zone 
number, the east-west measurement, and the north-south measurement. 
Below the UTM reference is the county in which the site is located. 
At the end of each entry are the important sources of information for 
the site and an indication if the site is listed on the National 
Register of Historic Places (NR) . Indices were also prepared listing 
county, city or town, and site names to further assist the reader. 



Acknowl edgement s 

The Upper Peninsula Inventory was a cooperative venture 
supported by several Institutions. The encouragement and advice of 
Dr. T. Allan Comp, HAER Senior Historian, were indispensable. The 
Inventory was largely financed through a generous grant from the 
Michigan History Division of the Michigan Department of State. The 
cooperation and encouragement of the History Division, particularly 
from Dr. Martha Bigelow and Kathryn Eckert, are gratefully acknow- 
ledged. The College of Engineering, Michigan State University, paid 
the salary of a student assistant who worked on the project. 

The publication of this volume was supported in part by 
generous donations from the Historical Society of Michigan, the 
Alger County Historical Society, the Douglass Houghton Chapter of 
the Michigan Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upper Penin- 
sula Branch of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 

Northern Michigan University played a pivotal role in this 
endeavor, serving as my institutional home for twelve weeks and han- 
dling the financial administration of the project. I am particularly 
indebted to Dr. Roy Heath, Dean of Graduate Studies and Director of 
Research and Development at N.M.U. The gracious cooperation of Miss 
Helvi Walkonen of Northern's Library, Professor Barry Knight, Chairman 



xii 



INTRODUCTION 



of the Department of History, and James Carter of the University News 
Bureau Is also acknowledged. 

Scores of Upper Peninsula residents supplied information on 
sites or assisted my work in other ways, but they are far too numerous 
to acknowledge individually here. However, there are several indivi- 
duals whose contributions were outstanding. They include O.R. Boll, 
Wisconsin Michigan Power Company; Burton Boyum, Cleveland-Cliffs Iron 
Company; Esther Bystrom, Marquette County Historical Society; Professor 
David Halkola, Michigan Technological University; Louis Koepel , Quincy 
Mining Company; Stewart Moran, Edison Sault Electric Company; H.L. Munch, 
Lake Superior District Power Company; and Reno Norell, Cliffs Electric 
Service Company. 

This volume is really the work of a team of individuals who 
shared the tasks of field work, research, writing, editing, and typing. 
Two diligent student assistants, Glenn Grossman and Wallace Szumny, 
completed many of the inventory cards and did research on a large 
number of sites. Sandra Jacobs typed the inventory cards, while 
Diane B. Abbott typed and edited this volume. E. Stephen Tokarchuk 
prepared the maps of the Upper Peninsula. 

The success of this work is largely the result of the 
assistance I have received from these institutions and individuals. 
Its omissions and shortcomings are my own responsibility. 



Charles K. Hyde 



XI M 



ABBREVIATIONS OF COMMON REFERENCES 



C. Harry Benedict, Lake Superior Milling Practice ; A Technical History 

of a Century of Copper Milling (Houghton, Michigan, 1955) 
TBenedict, Milling] 

C. Harry Benedict, Red Metal : The Calumet and Heel a Story (Ann Arbor, 

Michigan, 1952) [Benedict, Red Metal] 

Kenyon Boyer, Historical Highl ights . Script of Radio Programs, Marquette 

County Historical Society [Boyer] 

Cliff Power and Light Company, Power Plant Data (19^0 [CP S LC] 

Will is F. Dunbar, Al 1 Aboard ! A History of Ra i 1 roads in Michigan (Grand 

Rapids, Michigan, 19^91 [DunbarT 

Kathryn Eckert, ''Calumet and Hecla Industrial District,*' National Register 

of Historic Places Nomination, November 8, 1973 [Eckert] 

William B. Gates, Jr., Michigan Copper and Boston Dollars ; An Economic 

History of the Michigan Copper Mining Industry (Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1951) [Gates! 

Francis Ross Holland, Jr., America's Lighthouses ; Their 1 1 lust rated 

History Since 1716 (Brattleboro, Vermont, 19721 [Holland] 

Kenneth D. Lafayette, Flaming Brands ; Fifty Ygars of Iron Making in the 

Upper Peninsula of Michigan , ~8^o-1898 (Marquette, Michigan, 
1977) [Lafayettel 

Lake Superior Iron Ore Association, Lake Superior Iron Ores , Second 

Edition (Cleveland, Ohio, T952) [ LSIOT ^ 

Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad Company, History of the Lake 

Superior and Ishpeming Ra i 1 road [LS & I RRI 



XIV 



ABBREVIATIONS OF COMMON REFERENCES 



David Lewis, "Henry Ford in the U.P.," Motor News , July 1976, pp. 16-17, 

28-30 [Lewis] 

Marquette County Historical Society Pamphlet File [MCHS] 

Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation, Michigan 

Structure Inventory and Appraisal Study (Lansing, Michigan, 
1972-197*) [ MSIAT T 

Michigan History Division, Michigan Department of State, Site Files 

[MHD, Site Files] 

Proceedings of the Lake Superior Mining Institute [ PLSMI] 

T.A. Rickard, The Copper Mines of Lake Superior (New York, New York, 

19051 [RlTkard] 

Alvah Sawyer, History of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan , J_ (Chicago, 

Illinois, 1911) [Sawyer] 

"Sketch of the Property of the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company," Appendix 

to "Summary of the Operations of the Calumet and Hecla Mining 
Company for the Year Ending April 30, 1893," Submitted to the 
Directors by Alexander Agassiz, President, August 16, 1893 
["Sketch"] 

Horace J. Stevens, The Copper Handbook (Houghton, Michigan, 1900-1912/ 

1913) IStevens] 

United States Coast Guard, List of Lights and Other Marine Aids , IV , 

Great Lakes (Washington, D.C., 1975) [USCG, Light List] 

Wil 1 iam H, Weed, The Mines Handbook ; An Enlargement of the Copper 

HandbooF TNew York, New York, 1912/1913-19^ [Weed] 

Wisconsin Michigan Power Company, System Data [WMPC] 



XV 



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INTRODUCTION TO EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES 

As a condition for admission into the Union, the residents of 
the Michigan Territory agreed in 1837 to a compromise settlement of 
their border dispute with Ohio, In which Michigan gave up its claim to 
a narrow strip of land which included Toledo and in return was ceded 
the area which comprises the Upper Peninsula. Michigan residents were 
nearly unanimous in condemning this forced ''compromise", and the state 
legislature characterized the Upper Peninsula as a "sterile region on 
the shores of Lake Superior, destined by soil and climate to remain 
forever a wilderness." It was in fact a largely undeveloped area at 
the time, with fewer than 7fOOO residents, compared with roughly 80,000 
inhabitants of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan undoubtedly had the best 
of the bargain, however, because this wilderness region contained 
massive deposits of copper and iron, first discovered and exploited in 
the l840's. This section of the Inventory includes sixty-six sites, 
divided about equally between copper and iron mines. 

The development of the mineral resources of the Upper Penin- 
sula accounts for most of the region's economic development in the 
nineteenth century, so that more than half the sites in this volume are 
directly or indirectly linked to mining. Sites related to the processing 
of minerals, including copper stamping and smelting plants, iron blast 
furnaces, and charcoal kilns, are included in the Bulk Products Indus- 
tries section of the volume. Similarly, the transportation network of 
the region, including railroads and marine transport, was essentially 
developed to serve the mining industries. A significant number of 
early hydroelectric plants, included in the Utilities section of this 
volume, were developed by mining companies. While the mines are listed 
in this section, dozens of additional sites relating to the extractive 
industries appear throughout the volume. 

Native Americans had used the natural copper deposits on Isle 
Royal e centuries before the coming of the Europeans, and French and 
British explorers had discovered several deposits in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, but there was no significant exploitation until the early l840's. 
Dr. Douglass Houghton was appointed Michigan's first state geologist 
in 1837 and immediately conducted a survey of the mineral resources of 
the Upper Peninsula. His 1841 report to the state legislature, re- 
vealing the existence of extensive copper deposits in the Keweenaw 
Peninsula, touched off the great copper rush of 1843-1846, which saw 
hundreds of prospectors coming into the district. The earliest mines 
opened in this area and in Ontonagon County, including the Victoria 
Mine (1844), Cliff Mine (1845), and Minnesota Mine (1847), exploited 
deposits of mass copper, i.e. solid pieces of pure native copper. 



INTRODUCTION TO EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES 



The discoveries which proved to be far more significant, however, were 
the amygdaloid deposits, in which small specks of copper are found in 
almond-shaped cavities (amygdaloids) in the rock, and the conglomerate 
deposits, in which the rock is held together by layers of copper which 
interlace the rock in the same way that layers of fat run through a 
well-marbled steak. The large amygdaloid deposits of the Portage Lake 
area were first exploited in the early l850*s by the Quincy Mining 
Company, along with several other producers, while the great Calumet 
conglomerate deposits were first opened during the Civil War. 

Michigan's copper mines dominated the national market during 
the second half of the nineteenth century. On the eve of the Civil War, 
there were thirty-three companies, largely backed by Eastern capital, 
producing over twelve million pounds of copper and employing about 
3,700 workers. Output reached fifty million pounds by the early l880's, 
when Michigan accounted for three-quarters of the nation's copper pro- 
duction. The district's production continued to grow rapidly, doubling 
during the iBBO's and reaching a peak of 267 million pounds in 1916, 
but its share of national production declined beginning in the l880's 
as new deposits were exploited in the Far West. Michigan produced 
about one-third of national copper output over the period 1885-1904, 
but only seventeen percent of the total in 1905-1918 and less than one- 
tenth thereafter. Production declined in absolute terms as well, aver- 
aging about 160 million pounds during the 1920's, but falling to under 
fifty million pounds In the early 1930 's. There was a short-lived 
wartime revival of the industry, followed by a series of permanent 
closings of the mines as deposits were exhausted and no longer econom- 
ically valuable. A handful of mines lingered on until the mid-1960's, 
but the only active mine in the region today is the White Pine Mine, 
opened in the early 1950' s. 

Copper production became increasingly concentrated in the 
hands of a few leading firms after the Civil War. The mass mines of 
Keweenaw and Ontonagon Counties, the first to be developed in the dis- 
trict, were quickly played out, and by 1880, the Portage Lake amygdaloid 
mines, along with those on the Calumet conglomerate lode, both within 
Houghton County, accounted for eighty-nine percent of Michigan's pro- 
duction. During this period, the industry was dominated by the Calumet 
and Hecla Mining Company, which accounted for sixty percent of output 
in 1870-1900 and forty-eight percent of total production over the longer 
period 1845-19^6. The industry became more concentrated in the l890's 
as a result of a series of consolidations. Calumet and Hecla purchased 



INTRODUCTION TO EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES 



hundreds of acres of mineral lands around Calumet, while the Quincy 
Mining Company acquired the adjacent Pewabic, Mesnard, and Pontiac Mines. 
Two large-scale producers emerged during this period of consolidation — 
the group of mines controlled by Albert S. Bigelow, including the 
Osceola, Tamarack, Kearsarge, Tamarack Junior, and Iroquois, and the 
Paine-Stanton group (Copper Range Consolidated Company), including 
seven older mines, plus the Baltic, Champion, and Trimountain, deve- 
loped after the discovery of the Baltic Lode in 1897. By 1904, four 
major producers accounted for ninety-six percent of Michigan's copper 
output: the Calumet and Hecla (thirty-nine percent), the Copper Range 
Company (thirty percent), the Bigelow group of companies (eighteen 
percent), and the Quincy Mining Company (nine percent). This section 
of the Inventory is dominated by structures relating to the Calumet 
and Hecla Mining Company (fifteen sites), as well as the Quincy Mining 
Company (eleven sites). 

The second major mineral resource of the Upper Peninsula was 
iron ore, first discovered by William Burt in ]Skk in the vicinity of 
the City of Negaunee in Marquette County. The deposits of the Marquette 
Range were developed slowly before 1855, when the St. Mary's Falls Ship 
Canal (see later entry) was opened. Shipments were less than 1,500 tons 
in 1855» but then leaped to over 114,000 tons in i860, and reached 
236,000 tons by I865. The output from the Marquette Range continued 
to expand rapidly throughout the nineteenth century, and with the 
opening of the Menominee Range in 1877 and the Gogebic Range in 1884, 
Michigan quickly became the premier Iron ore producer of the Great Lakes. 
It was the leading iron ore producing state until 1900, when it was sur- 
passed by Minnesota, and it nevertheless accounted for approximately 
one-quarter of American ore output during the period 1900-1940 and 
roughly fifteen percent of the total since then. Nearly one billion 
tons of ore were extracted from Upper Peninsula iron mines between 1849 
and 1973, divided about equally between the three major iron ranges. 

The iron mining industry has experienced an uneven decline in 
the twentieth century. The Menominee and Gogebic Ranges achieved their 
peak output levels during World War I and then went through a long and 
painful period of decline as the major deposits were exhausted. The 
last mine on the Gogebic Range closed in 1967, while there are only two 
active mines in operation on the Menominee Range. The Marquette Range 
has had a more fortunate history in recent decades. The output of the 
district fluctuated around four million tons per annum during the 1920's, 
declined sharply in the early Depression years, but recovered sharply 



INTRODUCTION TO EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES 



In the late I930's, with a peak output of 5.6 million tons In 1937. 
There were several violent fluctuations ?n production during the I9^0's 
and 1950's, but the Marquette Range typically produced between k.S and 
6.0 million tons annually during that period. The district's massive 
low-grade ore deposits were first exploited In the late 1950's with the 
development of concentration and pelletizing plants, and record produc- 
tion levels of over ten million tons were achieved in the late 1960's. 
Today, the Marquette Range still accounts for about one-tenth of Ameri- 
can Iron ore production. 

The surviving buildings and structures at both the copper and 
iron mines are remarkably similar. With the exception of the two open- 
pit Iron mines in Gogebic County, all of the mines in Michigan were of 
the deep-shaft variety. A total of seven headframes (shafthouses) have 
survived, but a much larger number of other buildings are extant. The 
typical deep-shaft copper or iron mine had the following surface equip- 
ment: the headframe, which supported the cables lifting the skips or 
cages carrying ore, men, and supplies; a hoisthouse. Initially equipped 
with a steam-powered hoist, but often electrified in later years; a 
bollerhouse to supply steam to the hoist; a machine shop and/or black- 
smith shop; a dryhouse, where the miners changed and left their work 
clothes to dry out; and warehouse facilities. The largest mines, such 
as the Calumet and Hecla and the Quincy Mine, had much larger surface 
complexes with several additional special -purpose buildings. 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



AHMEEK MINE 

SHAFT NUMBER TWO (1905-1907) Ahmeek 

First St. 16. 395160. 5238100 

Ahmeek Keweenaw 

The Ahmeek Mining Company was established in I88O, and Captain John 
Daniel! of the Tamarack Mine sunk the first ifts. It ran intermit- 
tently until 1903f when the Kearsarge Lode w located, but then became 
a substantial producer. The Calumet and Heclu Mining Company gained 
control of the Ahmeek Company in 1909, and then merged with it in 1923. 
The buildings remaining include a large brick machine shop, with a 
gabled roof, measuring 58 feet by ]kk feet; an adjacent steel -framed 
warehouse, 36 feet by I60 feet; a rectangular brick dryhouse, 70 feet 
by 130 feet, with a gambrel roof; and a rectangular frame building, 30 
feet by 110 feet, probably a warehouse. 

[Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 131, 137, 156; Sawyer, p. kSk; Stevens, V, 
p. 166; Stevens, VI 1 1 (1905), p. 275; Stevens, XI (1912-1913), p. 18; 
"Report of the Directors of the Ahmeek Mining Company to the Stock- 
holders for the Year Ending December 31, 1908," (Boston, 1909), p. Ill 



AHMEEK MINE 

SHAFTS NUMBERS THREE AND FOUR Ahmeek 

On US-41, M-26 16. 396000. 5239360 

Ahmeek Keweenaw 

The Ahmeek Mining Company was established in I88O, but ran intermittently 
until the main Kearsarge Lode was discovered in 1903. The surface struc- 
tures at Shafts Numbers Three and Four were built shortly before the 
Calumet and Hecla Mining Company gained a controlling interest in the 
Ahmeek In 1909. One unusual feature of this mine is the fact that the 
two shafts, both sunk at roughly an 80 degree angle, but in different 
directions, came up into a single headframe and rockhouse. The buildings 
remaining at this site include a rectangular brick dryhouse, 39 feet by 
139 feet, with a gabled roof; a rectangular brick hoisthouse, also with 
a gabled roof, measuring 65 feet by 146 feet; and a steel -framed boiler- 
house, measuring 57 feet by Sk feet. 

[Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 131, 137, 155; Sawyer, p. k9^; Stevens, X 
(1910-1911), p. 278; Stevens, XI (1912-1913), p. 18] 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES; COPPER 



A] louez Mine Shaft Number Four Headframe (c.l9'(5)i New Allouez 
6 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



ALLOUEZ MINE 

SHAFT NUMBER FOUR (c.19^5) Ahmeek 

End of B St. 1 6. 39^2ifO. 5238625 

New Allouez Keweenaw 

The Allouez Mining Company began operations in 1 869, but was absorbed by 
the Calumet and Hecia Mining Company in 1923* This shaft was sunk during 
World War ll» and all structures including the headframe were constructed 
of wood because of the wartime shortages of steel. The headframe, pro- 
tected by a tarpaper exterior, is 30 feet square at the base and approx- 
imately 50 feet tall. The stanchions for the steel hoisting cables, as 
well as the cables, are extant. Surface buildings include the hoisthouse, 
kO feet by 50 feet, with a gabled roof and the hoisting machinery intact; 
a separate rockhouse attached to the headframe, measuring 20 feet by 100 
feet; and a third building, perhaps a dryhouse, 20 feet wide and 30 feet 
long. All three surface buildings are wood-framed, with gabled roofs and 
are covered with corrugated sheet metal. 
[Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 129, 139, 153] 

BALTIC MINE (1901,1902) South Range 

Southeast of the South Range 16. 376060.52 13360 

Baltic Houghton 

The last major new deposit opened in Houghton County was the Baltic or 
South Range Lode, discovered in 1897 and quickly developed by William A. 
Paine of the Paine-Webber investment house, along with John Stanton. The 
Baltic Mine became part of the Copper Range Consolidated Company, formed 
in 1901 and dominated by Paine and Stanton. Two rectangular rough rubble 
stone buildings with gabled steel trussed roofs remain at this site. The 
compressor building, 36 feet by 58 feet, was completed in 1901 and ori- 
ginally housed a compressor with a capacity of 4,000 cubic feet per 
minute at 70 pounds per square inch. The second building served as a 
combination machine shop and smithy, measures 50 feet wide and 132 feet 
long, and was completed in 1902. 

[Sawyer, pp. 459, 465-466; Gates, pp. 65, 71-75; Stevens, II (1902), 
p. 126; Stevens, III (1903), p. 195; ''The First Annual Report of the 
Copper Range Consolidated Company for the Year Ending December 31, 1902," 
(Boston, 1903), p. 25] 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

BLACKSMITH SHOP (1883) Laurium 

Mine St. 16.390140.5232760 

Calumet Houghton 

The Calumet and Heel a Mining Company was incorporated in I87I with a 
capitalization of $2*5 million and was a consolidation of the Calumet, 
Hecla, Portland, and Scott Mining Companies, none of which were finan- 
cially successful or well-managed. Under the direction of Alexander 
Agassiz, the Calumet and Hecla Company became the largest and by far 
the most successful copper mining firm in the Upper Peninsula. During 
its first fifty years of operation, the company paid out over $150 
million in dividends to its stockholders. The complex of buildings 
which remain in Calumet were constructed during the l880's and were the 
second generation of mine buildings at this site. The Blacksmith Shop, 
built in 1883, was originally used as a locomotive house. Built of rock 
masonry construction, it measures 5^ feet by 96 feet and has a hipped 
roof. 
[Eckert; Sawyer, p. 452; NR] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

DRILL SHOP (c.1885) Laurium 

Mine St. 16.390390.5233260 

Calumet Houghton 

Drills used in the Calumet and Hecla Company's copper mines were manu- 
factured and sharpened in this large shop. The company was using 318 
power drills in its mines in 1908, reportedly the most used in any 
American mine. The building consists of two rectangular wings, both of 
rough rubble and mortar construction. One wing is 60 feet wide and 90 
feet long, with a gabled roof with clerestory, while the other wing is 
50 feet wide and I80 feet long. 
[Sawyer, p. 452] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

DRYHOUSE NUMBER TWO (c.l885) Laurium 

Mine St. 16.390390.5233260 

Calumet Houghton 

The miners working in copper mines such as this ended their day by 

showering, exchanging their wet clothes for dry ones, and leaving the 



8 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



wet clothes to dry overnight in a building usually called either the 
Dryhouse or simply the Dry. The Dryhouse Number Two Is a stngle-story 
rectangular rock masonry building, with a slightly gabled roof, 60 feet 
wide and ItO feet long. 



Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Drill Shop {c.l885), Calumet 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

GEARHOUSE (c.l890) Laurium 

Mine St. 16. 390380. 5233060 

Ca 1 umet Houghton 

The Gearhouse was constructed in the iBBO's, but rebuilt in the early 
1890's after a serious fire. It has rough sandstone rubble and mine 
rock masonry walls, a steeply pitched hipped roof, and measures 71 feet 
by 78 feet. The original function of this building is not clear, but it 
was probably used for the fabrication or storage of the thousands of 
gears used in the mine operations. The building became the ''Electric 
Light and Power House" in the early l890's, supplying the electrical 
needs of the mine until a new central power plant was opened at Lake 
Linden in I906. 

[Eckert; PLSMI , XII (1906), p. 35; "Sketch," p. 13; Calumet and Hecla 
Mining Company, "Annual Report for the Year Ending April 30, 1907," 
p. k; Stevens, I (1900), p. 17^; NR] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

GENERAL OFFICES (c.l890) Laurium 

Red Jacket Ave. at Calumet Ave. 16.390^35.5232900 

Calumet Houghton 

The handsome General Office Building of the Calumet and Hecla Mining 
Company reflects both the success of the company and one of the reasons 
for its success. It was built in the early l890*s, with two later addi- 
tions. The original section was designed by Shaw and Hunnewell of Boston 
and the later additions by Charlton and Kuenzli, architects, Marquette 
and Milwaukee. All three segments of this three and one-half story 
masonry building have a virtually identical design, with walls of red- 
dish-brown rubble trimmed with brick over the windows and doorways. The 
East Section is 46 feet by 69 feet; the West Section is 22 feet by 30 
feet; and the North Section is 35 feet by 46 feet. This building, like 
most of the others in the Calumet and Hecla Company's complex, utilized 
inexpensive local materials, often waste rock generated by the mining 
operations. 
[Eckert; NR] 



10 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

LIBRARY (1898) Laurlum 

101 Red Jacket Ave. 16.390360.5232900 

Ca 1 ume t Houghton 

The Calumet and Hecia Mining Company Library was built in I898 to serve 
as an employee library and bathhouse. Designed by the architects Shaw 
and Hunnewell of Boston, it is two and one-half stories high, with rough 
rubble masonry walls trimmed with brick, measuring k2 feet by 62 feet, 
with a wing 32 feet by 38 feet. The employee baths, located in the 
basement, were moved to a new bathhouse in 191 1 > and the basement was 
remodeled to provide additional library space. 

[Eckert; Calumet and Hecla Mining Company, "Annual Report for the Year 
Ending April 30, 191 1/' p. 7; NR] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

MACHINE SHOP (c. 1882,1907,191 1) Laurium 

Mine St. at Depot St. 16.390210.5232760 

Calumet Houghton 

Erasmus D. Leavitt, Jr., who became Consulting Engineer to the Calumet 
and Hecla Mining Company in 1874, designed the original machine shop 
around 1882. The building has undergone several major alterations, 
including an addition made in I898, followed by a major reconstruction 
of the entire building in 1907. Finally, in 1911, an addition 92 feet 
long was made to the southernmost portion of the building and a bay was 
added to the eastern side of the structure, measuring 17 feet wide and 
230 feet long. The surviving building, probably dating entirely from 
1907 and 1911, is a two-story rectangular structure of coursed mine rock 
construction, 5^ feet wide and 416 feet long, with a clerestory to admit 
additional light. 

[Eckert; Smithsonian Institution, "Index to Leavitt Collection of Engi- 
neering Drawings"; Sawyer, p. 453; Stevens, VIII (I908), p. 462; Calumet 
and Hecla Mining Company, "Annual Report for the Year Ending April 30, 
1911," p. 7; NR] 



11 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRrES: COPPER 



Calumet and Hecia Mining Company Machine Shop (c. 1882 ,1907,191 > Calumet 

CALUMET AND HECLA MINtNG COMPANY 

MAN ENGINEHOUSE (c.l890) Laurium 

Mine St. 16-390210.5232760 

Cal umet Houghton 

This building housed the small steam-powered hoist used to raise the cages 
carrying the miners underground to the workings. At a large-scale multiple 
shaft mine like Calumet and Kecia, there were several shafts, usually 
called man-shafts, which were used only for the movement of men and sup- 
plies, while the ore was brought to the surface through larger shafts 
equipped with heavier-duty engines. This rectangular brick building Is 
30 feet wide and 'tO feet long, with a hipped roof. 
[Eckert; NR] 

12 



EXTRACT rVE INDUSTRtES: COPPER 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

PATTERN SHOP (c.l885) Laurium 

Mine St. 16.390100.5232880 

Calumet Houghton 

The Pattern Shop is a single-story rectangular rough rubble masonry 
building, 33 feet wide and 130 feet long, with a sharply pitched roof, 
and a small lean-to addition, 20 feet square, adjoining it on the north 
side. This shop was probably constructed in the mid-l880's, when the 
rest of this complex of mine buildings was completed. The wooden pat- 
terns used for setting sand for castings were made here, so the building 
is logically situated near the blacksmith shop, where castings were made. 



Calumet and Hecia Mining Company Han Englnehouse (c.l890), Calumet 
13 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

ROUNDHOUSE (1888 J 902 J 907 J 928) Laurium 

Mine St. at Depot St. 16.390280.5232760 

Calumet Houghton 

This roundhouse was constructed in 1888, with later additions in 1902, 
1907, and 1928, to service the locomotives of the Heel a and Torch Lake 
Railroad, which transported the copper ore from this area to the stamping 
and smelting works owned by the Calumet and Heel a Company on Torch Lake. 
The building is constructed of coursed mine rock masonry, a full semi- 
circle, with stalls 75 feet deep on the south end and 90 feet deep on 
the north end. There are two additions extending easterly from the semi- 
circle; a machine shop, 60 feet by 75 feet, and a general storage area, 
37 feet by 80 feet. The turntable, a center-mounted steel girder type 
60 feet long, bears the nameplate, "Wrought Iron Turntable, Built by 
Teffert S Wood, Phi 1 1 ipsburg, N.J., R. Boler, C.E." 
[Eckert; NR] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

SUPERIOR BOILERHOUSE (1880,1895) Laurium 

Mine St. 16. 390500. 52331 '♦O 

Calumet Houghton 

The Superior Boilerhouse supplied steam to the adjacent enginehouse of 
the same name (see other entry). The original building, designed by the 
engineer Erasmus D. Leavitt, Jr., is built of coursed rubble masonry, 
measuring 60 feet by 77 feet, with a steeply hipped roof and an attached 
brick smokestack, 150 feet tall, with a bore of 5 feet, 6 inches. The 
north addition, or New Boilerhouse, also designed by Leavitt in 1895* 
is a rectangular building with sandstone rubble walls and a gabled roof, 
measuring 69 feet by 15^ feet. 

[Eckert; Smithsonian Institution, "Index to Leavitt Collection of Engi- 
neering Drawings"; "Sketch," p. 10; Stevens, I (1900), p. 17^; NR] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

SUPERIOR ENGINEHOUSE (I88O) Laurium 

Mine St. 16. 390500. 5233 1'^O 

Calumet Houghton 

Erasmus D. Leavitt, Jr., Consulting Engineer for the Calumet and Hecla 
Mining Company, designed the Superior Enginehouse (Main Hoist Enginehouse), 

14 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



built in 1880. The building originally housed a A, 700 horsepower Ver- 
tical Rocker Compound Engine built by I. P. Morris of Philadelphia and 
Installed in 188I . This three-story brick building rests on a rough 
rubble foundation, has hipped roofs, and measures 62 feet by I't6 feet. 
[Smithsonian Institution, "Index to the Leavitt Collection of Engi- 
neering Drawings"; Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 78, 89; Stevens, I (1900), 
p. 17'i; "Sketch," pp. 9-10, NR1~ 



Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Pattern Shop (c.l885), Calumet 
15 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Superior Boilerhouse (1880,1895), Calumet 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

WAREHOUSE NUMBER ONE (c.l880) Laurium 

Red Jacket Ave. 16.390240.5232900 

Calumet Houghton 

This large bricic warehouse was built by the Calumet and Hecla Mining 
Company around 1880 and is the oldest warehouse remaining on this site. 
It Is a two-story rectangular brick building, with a gabled roof, mea- 
suring 53 feet wide and 204 feet long. 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



CENTENNIAL MINE HOISTS (c, 1890,1900) Ahmeek 

Vtest of US-'^l, M-26 16.391 560. 523'»760 

Centenn i a 1 Houghton 

Two mine hoists remain at the site of the Centennial Mining Company's 
Shaft Number Three. One is a steam-driven Lidgerwald Hoist dating from 
about 1890, while the second is a W.A. Box steam-driven hoist, c.1900, 
which was originally in a Colorado mine, and then served at Tamarack 
Mine Shaft Number Five before being moved to its present location. It 
has been modified so as to be driven by an electric motor, a General 
Electric 500 horsepower, 2,200 Volt, 125 Amp unit which operates at 
^'♦2 R.P.M. Nearby, there is a small wooden shafthouse for an explora- 
tory shaft, erected in the early 1950's. 
[Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 137-138; Sawyer, p. '♦62] 



CENTENNIAL MINE 

SHAFTS NUMBERS ONE AND TWO (1899) Ahmeek 

East of US-'^l, M-26 16.392'»20.523'»370 

Centenn i a 1 Houghton 

The Centennial Mining Company was organized in I896 and began working 
the Kearsarge Lode In 1899. Controlling interest in the company passed 
to the Calumet and Heel a Company in 1907> and Centennial merged with 
Calumet and Hecla In 1923* This was one of the smaller producers in 
Michigan's copper district, with an output of only 2.5 million pounds 
in 1909* Two surface buildings remain at this site, a rectangular 
blacksmith shop, of cut coursed Jacobsville sandstone, with a gabled 
roof (partially collapsed), measuring 50 feet by IO8 feet, and a dry- 
house, 25 feet by 40 feet, with a gabled roof and rough rubble masonry 
wa 1 1 s . 

[Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 128, 137; Sawyer, p. 462; Stevens, V (1905), 
p. 306] 



CHAMPION MINE (1902) South Range 

Southeast of Painesdale 16.373200.5210300 

Pa i nesda 1 e Houghton 

The Champion Mine was opened in 1899 as a result of the discovery of the 
Baltic or South Range Lode in 1897. It was Initially owned jointly by 
the St. Mary's Mineral Land Company and William A. Paine of the Palne- 
Webber investment house. The Copper Range Consolidated Company, formed 



17 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



in 1901 by wniiam Paine and John Stanton, acquired complete control of 
the Champion in 1931- This was one of the few copper mines in the Upper 
Peninsula to operate regularly during the 1930's, and it ran intermit- 
tently until 1967. The surviving structures include a steel headframe 
(see other entry) and three major surface buildings, all rectangular 
with gabled roofs and cut coursed sandstone walls. They include a 
blacksmith shop (50 feet by 128 feet), a machine shop (60 feet by \Uk 
feet), and the hoisthouse CtO feet by 73 feet). 

[Sawyer, pp. 459, 't65; Gates, pp. 72, 162; Stevens, V (1905), p. SI't; 
Stevens, VIII (I908), p. 515; J.F. Jackson, "The Mine Machine Shop," 
PLSMI , VIM (August 1902), pp. 89-92; "First Annual Report of the 
Copper Range ConsoHdated Company for the Year Ending December 31, 
1902," (Boston, 1903), p. 35] 



Champion Mine Machine Shop (1902), Palnesdale 
18 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



CHAMPION MINE 

"E" SHAFT HEADFRAME (1906,1908) South Range 

Southeast of Palnesdale 16.373200.5210300 

Pa I nesda 1 e Houghton 

The Champion Mine Headframe was constructed in 1906, and enlarged in 
1908 by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company. It is a steel-framed 
structure with a sheet metal exterior. There are two distinct segments: 
the shafthouse proper, measuring 30 feet by kO feet at the base and 
extending 60 feet high, topped by a 15 foot square portion extending an 
additional 20 feet, and an attached lean-to, '♦O feet wide and 50 feet 
long. A large reservoir of water, located deep underground now serves 
as the source of water for the cities of Houghton and Hancock and the 
headframe is still used as the entry point for these underground water- 
works. 
[Stevens, VIII (1908), p. 51^] 



MOHAWK MINE (c. 1900, 1916) Mohawk 

Fourth St. 16. 397 120. 5239600 

Mohawk Keweenaw 

The Mohawk Mining Company was organized by John Stanton in I898 with a 
capital of $2.5 million to exploit the Kearsarge Lode, and it quickly 
became a major new producer. By 1909, the Mohawk employed over 1,000 
men and produced 11.25 million pounds of copper. It was purchased by 
the Copper Range Company in 193^, by which time the deposits were nearly 
exhausted. Two surface buildings remain at this site: a rectangular 
rough rubble masonry building with a gabled roof, 20 feet wide and 30 
feet long, built around 1900, and a large concrete block structure, 60 
feet by 200 feet, constructed in 1916 and now used as offices and garage 
for the Keweenaw County Road Commission. 

[Benedict, Red Metal , p. 153; Sawyer, p. kSk; Gates, pp. 65, 71, I60, 
162] 



OSCEOLA CONSOLIDATED MINING COMPANY 

SOUTH KEARSARGE BRANCH (c.l900) Ahmeek 

East of US-41, M-26 16. 39'»l80. 5238100 

New Allouez Keweenaw 

The Osceola Consolidated Mining Company absorbed the South Kearsarge 

Mine (formerly the Iroquois), with its 1,120 acres of mineral lands in 

19 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



Champion Mine "E*' Shaft Headframe (1906,1908), Painesdale 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



1897 and renamed It the South Kearsarge Branch. The property was deve- 
loped In l899f and It was the fifth new mine opened on the Kearsarge 
Lode In the late l890's. All that remains at this site are the ruins 
of a rectangular one-story brick building, probably a dryhouse, 50 feet 
wide and approximately 70 feet long. 

[Stevens, I (1900), p. 109; Stevens, X (1910), p. 633; PLSMI , XII (1906), 
p. 37] 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

BLACKSMITH SHOP (1900) Hancock 

East of US-41 16. 380780. '♦221680 

Qulncy Houghton 

The Qulncy Mine Blacksmith Shop, built In 1900, originally contained 
twelve forges, steam hammers, grindstones, and other equipment. It Is 
constructed of cut coursed red sandstone blocks, and measures 50 feet 
by 15^ feet, with an ell measuring 50 feet by 90 feet. It has gabled 
roofs, one of which Is partially collapsed. At the time of construc- 
tion, it was called "the model smithy of the copper district". 
[Stevens, I (1900), p. 223; Stevens, II (1902), p. 2kk] 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

BOILERHOUSE NUMBER FIVE (1912) Hancock 

East of US-41 16.380720.5221220 

Qulncy Houghton 

This bollerhouse was erected In 1912 to supply steam to the adjacent 
Holsthouse Number Two (see other entry). It replaced the Bollerhouse 
Number Four, located about one thousand feet from the Holsthouse Number 
Two and was connected to It with a fourteen Inch steam line. This rec- 
tangular brick building, measuring 56 feet by 92 feet, was built by the 
Worden Allen Company at a cost of $19,^00. The complete Installation 
Included eight boilers, no longer extant, supplied by the Duluth Boiler 
Works and the Gogebic Steam Boiler Works at a cost of $10,262; a con- 
crete smokestack, eighty-four Inches in diameter at the base and l'*^ 
feet high, built by the Webber Chimney Company for $2,482; and a rail- 
road trestle leading over the coal bins, built by Qulncy employees. 
The trestle and smokestack remain, but none of the other machinery or 
equipment has survived. 



21 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



Quincy Mining Company Machine Shop (1900), Quincy 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

MACHINE SHOP 0900) Hancock 

East of US-itl 16. 380780. 522 1 680 

Quincy Houghton 

This machine shop was constructed in 1900 to replace an older shop. It 
is a two-story rectangular brick building with a gabled roof, with clere- 
story, resting on a red sandstone block foundation, measuring 62 feet 
wide and IAS feet long. 
[Stevens, I (1900), p. 223] 



EXTRACTIVE tNDUSTRIES: COPPER 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

MINE OFFICE BUILDING (1897) Hancock 

West of US-'il 16.380220.522)01(0 

Quincy Houghton 

The construction of this handsome office building began in late 1895 
when the first Jacobsvllte sandstone blocks were delivered to the site, 
and the work was completed in 1897 at a total cost of $29,2li7- It Is a 
two-story rectangular building measuring 45 feet by 56 feet, with walls 
of cut coursed sandstone blocks, windows arched with sandstone blocks, 
and a hipped roof. 



dulncy Mining Company Mine Office Building (1897), Quincy 
23 



EXTRACT rVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



Quincy Mining Company Shaft Number Two Headframe (1907) t Quincy 
2A 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

ROUNDHOUSE (1890, iSg'^, 1900) Hancock 

East of US-'^l 16. 380380. 522 lO'^O 

Quincy Houghton 

This roundhouse was begun in I89O when the Quincy Mining Company built 
the Quincy and Torch Lake Railroad to link its mines in Quincy with Its 
stamping plant on Torch Lake. It originally contained two stalls, each 
15 feet by (>k feet, with walls of rough rubble masonry and a roof pitched 
slightly to the rear of the building. A third stall, also 15 feet by 6k 
feet, was added In 1894, and a fourth, of the same dimensions, was built 
in 1900, along with additional space for a machine shop, measuring 36 
feet by '♦O feet, added on to the rear of the first three stalls. 
[Stevens, I (1900), p. 224] 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

SHAFT NUMBER TWO HEADFRAME (1907) Hancock 

East of US-41 16.380540.5221340 

Quincy Houghton 

The headframe (shafthouse) for the Quincy Mining Company Shaft Number 
Two was constructed in 1907 by the American Bridge Company and used 
until the mine ceased operations in 1931* It replaced a wooden head- 
frame (1895) which had numerous gables and was torn down. This steel - 
framed structure, covered with corrugated sheet metal siding, is 149 
feet long, and 44 feet wide at the base, and is 19 feet by 29 feet at 
the top, some 147 feet above the base. The roof on the westernmost seg- 
ment is 21 feet high, but is pitched in two distinct segments as it runs 
to the top of the headframe. It is pitched about 20 degrees for about 
60 feet measured horizontally, and then it is pitched at about 45 degrees 
for an additional 30 feet. The base of the tallest portion of the head- 
frame consists of a round riveted steel storage bin, 44 feet in diameter, 
resting on a round concrete foundation. The skips containing the copper 
ore were dumped into this bin and then loaded into railroad cars which 
could be pulled underneath the bin. Next to the headframe there are two 
skeletal steel stanchions, about 100 feet tall, which support the steel 
cables leading from the hoisthouse into the headframe. There were ori- 
ginally eight of these stanchions. The initial crushing of the ore was 
carried out inside the shafthouse by a 40 ton steam hammer. There are 
also separate chutes and bins for mass copper and poor rock, making this 
structure a preliminary processing plant. 

[Stevens, VIII (1908), p. 1152; T.C. Desollar, "Rockhouse Practice of 
Quincy Mining Company,'* PLSMI , XVII (August 1912), pp. 217-226] 

25 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



Quincy Mining Company Shaft Number Two Hoist (1920), Quincy 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

SHAFT NUMBER TWO HOIST (1920) Hancock 

East of US-'*! 16.380720.5221220 

Quincy Houghton 

The Qufncy Copper Mining Company, organized in ]BkS, mined the rich 
Pewabic Lode from I856 until 1931. Shaft Number Two began to approach 
a depth of 8,000 feet, measured on an incline, around 1910, and a new 
hoist was ordered from the Nordberg Manufacturing Company, a major 
supplier of hoisting equipment for Upper Peninsula mines. The construc- 
tion of the new hoist was delayed during World War I and was not complete 
until 1920, when it was installed in a new hoisthouse (see other entry). 
This is the largest steam-powered mine hoist ever manufactured. The 
hoist alone cost nearly $182,000 and the total costs, including the 
hoisthouse, the hoist foundation, pulley stands, and other items came 
to $371,000. The specifications of the hoist are impressive: overall, 
It measures 60 feet by 5^ feet by 60 feet high, weighs 1.765 million 
pounds, and rests on a foundation of 3,200 cubic yards of concrete; the 
hoist drum is a cylinder-conical type, 30 feet in diameter at the center 
and 16 feet in diameter at the ends, with a capacity of 13,000 feet of 
one and five-eighths inch wire rope; the engine is a Corliss cross- 
compound type, with two high pressure cylinders of 32 inch diameter, 
two low pressure cylinders of 60 inch diameter, a stroke of 66 inches, 
rated at 2,500 horsepower; it could raise a five ton skip with a ten 
ton load at a maximum speed of 3,200 feet per minute. The hoist was 
operated by a hoistman, but was also equipped with a Lilly Hoist Con- 
troller, manufactured by the Logan Engineering Company. The hoist con- 
troller was a set of automatic safety devices which would prevent acci- 
dents due to human error by stopping the hoist. 

[Ray W. Armstrong, ''Compound Steam Hoist Installation of the Quincy 
Mining Company," PLSMI , XXII (1922), pp. 39-^1; "Nordberg Compound 
Steam Hoisting Engine, Quincy Mining Company, Number Two Shaft, Hancock 
Michigan," PLSMI , XXII (1922), pp. 192-19^; "The World's Largest Com- 
pound Steam Hoisting Engine," PLSMI , XXVII (1929), pp. 18-20; "The 
Quincy Hoist," Engineering and Mining Journal , December 11, 1920, 
p. 1,126; NR] 



27 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

SHAFT NUMBER TWO HOISTHOUSE (1895) Hancock 

East of US-41 16, 380720.5221 220 

Quincy Houghton 

This holsthouse was begun in 189^ and completed the following year at a 
cost of $90,228. It was built in conjunction with a new combination 
shaft-rockhouse (headframe) at Shaft Number Two, necessitated by the 
great depths (more than 4,600 feet) achieved at that time, as well as 
the decision to replace the three ton capacity skips with new skips 
having a capacity of six tons. The building is constructed of cut 
coursed sandstone, with a gabled roof, and measures 58 feet by 9^ feet. 
The hoist, built by the E.P. All is Company of Milwaukee, was powered by 
a pair of cylinders measuring kS inches by Sk Inches, and had a drum 26 
feet in diameter and 12 feet long, with a capacity of 7f500 feet of one 
and one-half inch steel cable. None of the hoisting equipment Is ex- 
tant. This hoist served the Number Two Shaft until 1920, when it was 
replaced by a larger capacity hoist (see other entry). 
[Stevens, IV (1904), p. 604] 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

SHAFT NUMBER TWO HOISTHOUSE (1920) Hancock 

East of US-41 16.380720.5221220 

Quincy Houghton 

The Quincy Copper Mining Company, organized in 1848, began exploiting 
the rich Pewabic Lode in I856 and continued mining this deposit until 
1931 • Shaft Number Two began to approach a depth of 8,000 feet on an 
incline around 1910, and a new hoist was needed for these great depths. 
The Nordberg Manufacturing Company began work on the new hoist before 
World War I, but it was not completed and erected until 1920. The old 
hoisthouse (see other entry) was too small for the new hoist, so this 
reinforced concrete building was erected. It is 72 feet by 76 feet by 
82 feet high, with twenty load-bearing pilasters, an exterior of brick 
veneer, and a gabled roof. There is also a smaller attached building 
for the condensing equipment, measuring 23 feet by 76 feet by 32 feet 
high. It was built at a cost of $57,924. 

[Ray W. Armstrong, "Compound Steam Hoist Installation of the Quincy 
Mining Company," PLSMI , XXII (1922), pp. 39-41; "Nordberg Compound 
Steam Hoisting Engine, Quincy Mining Company, Number Two Shaft, Hancock, 
Michigan," PLSMI , XXII (1922), pp. 192-194; "The World's Largest Com- 
pound Steam Hoisting Engine," PLSMI , XXVII (1929). PP. 18-20; NR] 

28 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



Quincy Mining Company Shaft Number Two Hoisthouses {1895,1920), Quincy 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

SUPPLY BUILDING (1893) Hancock 

East of US-41 16. 38O625. 5221430 

Quincy Houghton 

This supplyhouse was begun in the spring of I893 and completed in Novem- 
ber at a cost of about $18,000. It Is a simple rectangular building, 
of cut rough coursed sandstone construction, with a gabled roof, mea- 
suring kO feet wide and 80 feet long. 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: COPPER 



TAMARACK MINE 

HEADFRAME NUMBER FOUR (c.lS^O) Ahmeek 

M-203 16, 388840.523^1 80 

Tamarack Houghton 

The Tamarack Mining Company was organized in 1882, with a capital of 
$250,000 by Bigelow and Clark of the Osceola Mine. It became a major 
producer and although its output had peaked a decade earlier, the 
Tamarack was still producing over 13 million pounds in 1909. This was 
an unusual copper mine in that all of its shafts were sunk vertically, 
while other Michigan producers used inclined shafts exclusively until 
1900. This steel headframe, with a sheet metal exterior is the only 
extant structure at this location. It is 10 feet wide, 20 feet long, 
stands kO feet tall, and was used primarily to deliver supplies to the 
underground workings. 

[Sawyer, p. ^56; Benedict, Red Metal , pp. 131, 137; Gates, pp. 66-68, 
90] 



30 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



ANVIL MINE (c.1910) Bessemer 

Tilden Rd. 15.728850.5150780 

Anvil Gogebic 

The Anvil Mine was opened in 1886 and began shipping its soft Bessemer 
ore the following year. It was owned by the Newport Mining Company until 
1917, then had several owners until Pickands Mather Company gained con- 
trol in 1931 and operated the mine until it closed in 1957* It shipped 
^, 4^7, 000 tons of iron ore during the period 1887-1950. All that re- 
mains at this site are three rectangular brick buildings: a one-story 
structure, 15 feet by 25 feet; a two-story building ^0 feet wide and 50 
feet long; and a second two-story building measuring kS feet by 75 feet. 
[LSJO, p. 53; Sawyer, p. 511] 



CARDIFF MINE (1919) Iron River 

County Rd. 653 16.371780.5107810 

Mineral Hills Iron 

The Cardiff Mine was not one of the most successful iron mines in Mich- 
igan's Menominee Range. The Wickwire Mining Company, a subsidiary of 
the Wickwire Steel Company, opened this mine in 1919f but it only 
shipped a total of 14^,000 tons of high phosphorus hematite ore in two 
years, 1922-1923 and was permanently closed in the late 1920's. The 
surviving surface buildings include the enginehouse, a rectangular brick 
building, 15 feet by 60 feet, with a gabled roof, and the dryhouse, a 
similar structure 20 feet wide and kO feet long. The headframe or 
shafthouse is essentially a steel framework designed to support the 
pulleys which in turn support the steel cables used to raise ore, men, 
and materials from the workings. This steel headframe is covered by a 
sheet metal exterior and measures 20 feet by 25 feet at the base, tapers 
to approximately 6 feet by 8 feet at the top, and is ^0 feet tall. 
[LSIO, p. }k7] 



CASPIAN MINE (1920,1923) Iron River 

Museum Rd. 16.37^310.5102750 

Caspian Iron 

The Caspian Mine was opened in 1903 by the Verona Mining Company, which 
later sold the property to the Pickands Mather Company. This was one 
of the more productive mines in Iron County, shipping over 6.6 million 



31 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



Caspian Mine Headframe (1920), Caspian 
32 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



tons of high phosphorus hematite ore In 1903-1937. The original head- 
frame or hoisthouse was replaced In 1920 with a steel structure which 
IS 106 feet high, 25 feet by 10 feet at the base, tapering to about 10 
feet square at the top. This steel -framed structure, with an exterior 
of tin sheeting, served to support the hoisting equipment and to pro- 
tect It from the elements. The steel stanchions which supported the 
steel cables leading from the powerhouse to the headframe are standing 
nearby. This Is the second oldest headframe remaining In Iron County 
and the fifth oldest In Michigan. The powerhouse, now used as a museum. 
Is a rectangular brick building, 30 feet wide and 90 feet long, with a 
gabled roof. None of the original hoisting equipment or boilers are 
extant. 
[Sawyer, p. 521; LSIO, p. 148] 



CHAP IN MINING COMPANY 

HAMILTON SHAFT (c.l900) Iron Mountain 

E. Main St. and N. Milwaukee St. 16.417^00.5075220 

Iron Mountain Dickinson 

The Hamilton Mine was discovered by John T. Jones In 1883 and was oper- 
ated by the Hamilton Ore Company until 1893 » when It was closed due to 
flooding. The mine was then purchased In 1894 by the adjacent Chapln 
Mine, linked to It by a series of new shafts, pumped out and reopened. 
The surviving surface buildings Include a two-story rectangular frame 
structure, 25 feet by 75 feet, which served as boarding house and dry- 
house (shower facility) for the miners and a single-story stone 
building, kO feet wide and 100 feet long, with a hipped roof, origi- 
nally used as a machine shop. 
[Sawyer, p. 545; PLSMI, XI (1906), pp. 44-45] 



CHAP IN MINING COMPANY 

LUDINGTON SHAFT (c.l900) Iron Mountain 

Carpenter Ave. at Kent St. 16. 4 16960.5074860 

Iron Mountain Dickinson 

The Ludlngton Mine was opened In 1879 and was operated by the Ludlngton 
Company until 1893, when It was forced to close due to massive flooding. 
It was purchased the following year by the Chapln Mining Company and 
was then linked to the nearby Chapln Mine with a series of new shafts. 
It remained an Integral part of the Chapln Mine until It closed down 



33 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 

permanently in I93'>* All that remains at this site is the Cornish 
Pumping Engine (see other entry) and a dryhouse, where the miners 
showered after work. This two-story stone building is 60 feet wide, 
100 feet long, and has a gabled roof. 
[Sawyer, pp. 287, 5'»'»-5^5; PLSMI , XI (1906), pp. kk-kS] 

CLIFF SHAFT MINE (c.l890) Ishpeming 

Euclid St. and Lake Shore Drive l6.'t't8l20.Sl'>8620 

Ishpeming Marquette 

The Cliff Shaft Mine was opened In 1879 by the Iron Cliffs Company, 
which merged with the Cleveland Iron Mining Company in 1891 to form the 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. Hard specular hematite ore was first 
taken from the mine In such quantity that it became the nation's largest 
producer of that type of iron ore, and this mine was closed only once 
(from July 1893 to November 1897) due to lack of demand. It closed in 
1967 after producing approximately 28,960,406 tons of high grade hard 
ore. Five surface buildings are still standing at the site: two con- 
crete headframes (see other entry); a boilerhouse, 120 feet by kO feet; 
an irregular "T" shaped building that housed both the enginehouse and 
the compress ionhouse, each section approximately kO feet by 100 feet; 
and the machine shop, an irregular rectangle, approximately 110 feet 
by 30 feet. 

[ Daily Mining Journal , June 20, 1939; Robert J. Goodman, **lshpeming, 
Michigan: A Functional Study of a Mining Community," Ph.D. Thesis, 
Northwestern University (19^), pp. 58-62] 



CLIFF SHAFT MINE 

HEADFRAMES (1919) Ishpeming 

Euclid St. and Lake Shore Drive 16.448120.4158620 

Ishpeming Marquette 

These two reinforced concrete headframes (shafthouses) were constructed 
in 1919 to replace two badly deteriorating wooden structures located 
280 feet apart. Concrete was selected as the building material because 
it was fireproof, cheaper than steel, and more readily available than 
steel. There was a suitable bed of hard gravel located nearby and a 
plentiful supply of cheap unskilled labor which gave concrete a clear- 
cut cost advantage over other materials. Because of the prominent loca- 
tion of the headframes in Ishpeming, W.G. Mather, President of the Cleve 
land-Cliffs Iron Company, argued that the design should be attractive 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



Cliff Shaft Mine Headframe (1919). Ishpeming 
35 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



as well as practical. The Condron Company, a structural engineering 
firm from Chicago, with George W. Maher, a Chicago architect acting as 
a consultant, submitted three designs to the Cleveland-Cliffs Company. 
An obelisk design was finally selected. Work on the two shafthouses 
began on July 21, 1919 and was completed In early December. The two 
structures, which are nearly Identical, have a rectangular base mea- 
suring 37 feet by 55 feet, from which a 37 foot square tower rises, 
tapering to 21 feet square at the eaves at a height of 88 feet 9 Inches. 
The tip of the pointed roof Is 96 feet 9 Inches above the footings. 
These remarkable structures were constructed around the existing wooden 
headframes, which were later torn down, with no Interruption In the use 
of either shaft during the entire construction period, 
[j. Ellzcy Hayden and Luclen Eaton, "Building Reinforced Concrete 
Shaf t houses, •• PLSMI, XXII (August 1922), pp. 124-13^1 



EAST NORRIE MINE 

SHAFT "D" (c.l900) Ironwood 

Mill St., north of Houk St. 15-718660.51^7900 

Norrie Location Gogebic 

The East Norrie Mine was opened In 1885 and was operated by the Oliver 
Mining Company until 1935, when It became part of Republic Steel's 
Penokee Group of mines and was closed. Several surface buildings have 
survived. Including a 20 foot square wood-framed office building, with 
a hipped roof; a machine shop, also wood-framed, measuring kS feet by 
150 feet; a rectangular wood-framed dryhouse, with a gabled roof, 30 
feet wide and 100 feet long; and three other small outbuildings. The 
complex Is now used by a ready-mix concrete producer. 
[LSIO, p. 57; Sawyer, p. 512] 



EUREKA MINE 

SHAFTS NUMBERS THREE AND FOUR (c. 1900, 1926) Wakefield 

Verona Rd. 16.269650.5150910 

Ramsay Gogebic 

The Eureka Mine, opened by the Castile Mining Company In 1890, was one 
of the mines opened In the Gogebic Range during the Initial boom which 
began In 1884. It produced nearly three million tons of ore In 1890- 
1925 and then was combined with the Asteroid Mine In 1926, and the two 
produced an additional ten million tons In 1926-1950. Shaft Number 



36 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



Three, located at the west end of the property, served as the main 
hoisting shaft until 1923» when it was discovered that the shaft was 
located on faulted ground, but there was a major untouched ore body 
that could be mined by caving the old shaft. Consequently, Shaft 
Number Four was opened further east and became the main hoisting shaft 
for the mine. All that remains at Number Three is a single-story brick 
dryhouse, 25 feet wide and 70 feet long, with a gabled roof, built 
around 1900. The major surviving buildings at Number Four were erected 
in 1923 and include a two-story brick enginehouse, 50 feet wide and 122 
feet long, which housed the hoisting engine along with two air com- 
pressors, and a one-story brick shops building, 60 feet wide and 240 
feet long, which housed the drill shop, blacksmith shop, machine shop, 
carpenter shop, and other miscellaneous operations. 

[ LSIO , pp. 5^-55; Sawyer, p. 512; W.M. Hoen, "Surface Equipment at the 
Eureka Mine of the Castile Mining Company,*' PLSMI , XXV (September 1926), 
pp. 212-218] 



FOGARTY MINE (1907) Gaastra 

North of County Rd. k2k 16.375040.5102225 

Caspian Iron 

The Fogarty Mine was opened in 1907 by the Verona Mining Company, and 
it produced nearly 1.4 million tons of high phosphorus hematite ore in 
1907"1937. A large wood-framed rectangular building, 15 feet wide and 
100 feet long, with a gabled roof, stands on the site, but is now 
covered with corrugated sheet metal siding. This was the dryhouse, 
where the miners showered after work. Nearby are the ruins of the 
enginehouse, a 25 foot square stone building. 
[LSIO, p. 147] 



GENEVA MINE (1910) Bessemer 

South of Old County Rd. 15-722250.5149340 

Bessemer Gogebic 

The Geneva Mine was opened in 1910 and shipped over 6 million tons of 
soft, non-Bessemer ore in 1910-1950. Three major surface buildings 
remain, all built in 1910. There is a two-story rectangular brick dry- 
house, 20 feet wide and I60 feet long; a two-story powerhouse, 75 feet 
square, of concrete block construction; and a rectangular concrete block 
machine shop, 45 feet wide, 130 feet long, with a gabled roof. 
[ LSIO , p. 55; Sawyer, p. 512] 

37 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES; IRON 



Hiawatha Mine Shaft Number One Headframe (1904), Stambaugh 
38 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



HIAWATHA MINE 

SHAFT NUMBER ONE (c.l900) Iron River 

Seldon Rd. (M-I89) 16.372800.5103565 

Stambaugh I ron 

The Hiawatha Mine Shaft Number One was opened in 1893, developed by 
William Selden and Findley Morrison, and after working intermittently 
in I893"l899f became one of the most productive iron mines in Iron 
County, shipping over 8.5 million tons of non-Bessemer hematite ore 
over its productive lifetime, 1893" 1950. This mine eventually went to 
2,100 feet, making it the deepest mine in Iron County as well. Along 
with the headframe (see other entry), several surface buildings stand 
at this site. They include a rectangular stone structure, 15 feet by 
kO feet, with a gabled roof, and three rectangular frame buildings, 
all with gabled roofs and covered with corrugated sheet metal, two 
measuring 20 feet by 80 feet, while the third is 25 feet wide and 50 
feet long. 
[Sawyer, pp. 518, 524; LSIO, p. 116] 



HIAWATHA MINE 

SHAFT NUMBER ONE HEADFRAME (1904) Iron River 

Seldon Rd. (M-I89) 16.372800.5103565 

Stambaugh I ron 

This headframe (hoisthouse) was built in 1904 to replace the original 
wooden headframe. It is the oldest surviving headframe in Michigan. 
It is 50 feet by 30 feet at the base, with a stepped configuration 
which reduces the structure to 10 feet square at the top, approximately 
120 feet high. The lower levels contain bins in which the ore was 
stored to be dumped into ore cars which were pulled under the bins. 
The steel framework is load-bearing, but much of the load was borne by 
a massive concrete foundation pier about 25 feet high located inside 
of the steel framework. 

[Sawyer, pp. 518, 524; LSIO , p. 154; Jack Hill, A History of Iron 
County , Michigan (Iron River, Michigan, 1955), p. 69] 



39 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



HOMER MINE (1914) Iron River 

East of County Rd. 653 16.372000.5108000 

Iron River Iron 

The Homer Mine was opened In 1914 and shipped more than 6.7 million 
tons of ore between 1915 and 1950. This mine has been owned by the 
Buffalo Iron Mining Company, then the Hanna Iron Ore Company, and the 
Homer Ore Company. All that remains at this site are two rectangular 
brick buildings with gabled roofs, both measuring kO feet by 100 feet. 
[LSIO, p. 116] 



JAMES MINE (1907) Iron River 

Forbes Rd. 16.373080.5107820 

Mineral Hills Iron 

The Mineral Mining Company, established in 1903f opened the James Mine 
In 1906 and operated It until It was acquired by the James Mining Com- 
pany In 1925. Over the period 1907"1950 this mine produced 7.7 million 
tons of high phosphorus limonite ore. The surviving surface buildings 
Include a rectangular stone dryhouse, measuring 20 feet by 60 feet, 
with a hipped roof; a rectangular stone blacksmith shop with a gabled 
roof, 15 feet wide and 75 feet long; and a rectangular stone engine- 
house, 20 feet by 80 feet. 
[Sawyer, p. 524; LSIO, p. II7] 



LAKE SHAFT MINE (c.l890) Ishpeming 

Eureka St. 16.447520.5147530 

Ishpeming Marquette 

The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company Lake Shaft Mine was opened In 1888 
on the original location of Lake Angel Ine, which had been drained. 
The mine was worked by the caving system to a depth of 555 feet and 
produced 16,232,784 tons of soft non-Bessemer hematite iron ore before 
it closed In 1927. Left at the site are three surface buildings: a 
dryhouse, 100 feet by 20 feet; a machine shop, 110 feet by 40 feet; 
and a third building, 100 feet by 20 feet, all of brick construction. 
[The Cleveland-Cl iffs I ron Company : Its Development and Resources 
(Cleveland: Clayton Co., 1920); The Iron Ores of Lake Superior 
(Cleveland: Cromwell S Murray, 191 1)1 



40 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



MORO MINE (1890) Ishpeming 

Seventh St. at Division St. • 16,449400. 5148480 

Ishpeming Marquette 

The Moro Mine was opened In I89O and the next year was purchased by the 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. The Moro was worked by the open overhand 
stoping system and achieved a total production of 1,119,854 tons of 
Scotch ore, a hard non-Bessemer iron ore, before closing In 1919. The 
mine surface buildings still standing include the machine shop (100 feet 
by 60 feet), the warehouse and office (120 feet by 20 feet), the engine- 
house (60 feet by 60 feet), and a shop (20 feet by 40 feet), all con- 
structed of stone with gabled roofs. 
[H.A. Hall, ''Map of Ishpeming'* (1946); LSIO] 



NEGAUNEE MINE (1909-1913) Negaunee 

East end of Lincoln St. 16.454460.5149750 

Negaunee Marquette 

The Negaunee Mine was opened in I887 by the Iron Cliffs Company, which 
merged with the Cleveland Iron Mining Company in I89I to form the 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. A new shaft was sunk in 1909, and a 
complete set of new surface facilities were built in 1909"1913- The 
Negaunee Mine was worked by slice method to a depth of 1,317 feet. 
Before it was exhausted in 1949, it produced a total of 22,735,470 tons 
of soft, red, non-Bessemer iron ore. At the abandoned site still stands 
the enginehouse (60 feet by 110 feet), the dryhouse (18 feet by 120 
feet), the blacksmith shop (18 feet by 100 feet), an office (40 feet 
by 20 feet with three gables), and a powerhouse (40 feet by 15 feet), 
al 1 made of brick. 

[ LSIO ; American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, The 
Handbook of Mining in the Lake Superior Region (1920), p. 69] 

NEWPORT MINE SHAFT ''D" (1910,1931) Bessemer 

Bonnie Rd. 15.721000.5148645 

Irwin Township Gogebic 

The Newport Mining Company operated this mine, discovered by John 
Burton of Milwaukee, from 1886 until 1923, when it was taken over by 
Youngstown Steel's Mines Corporation. Before it closed in 1963, this 
was one of the largest producers on the Gogebic Range. In 1910, it 



41 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



had about 1,100 workers producing over one million tons per year, and 
over the longer period 1886-1950 it shipped over 32 million tons of 
soft, non-Bessemer ore. It was also one of the deepest iron mines in 
Michigan, with one shaft extending almost 3f300 feet below the surface. 
Three major surface buildings remain: a one-story rectangular brick 
dryhouse (1910), measuring 32 feet by 187 feet, with a gabled roof; a 
two-story rectangular wood-framed pattern shop (1910), with a gabled 
roof and a corrugated tin exterior, kS feet wide and 160 feet long; 
and a two-story brick powerhouse, 55 feet wide and 162 feet long, con- 
structed in 1931 by the Worden-Allen Company. 

[ LSIO , p. 57; Sawyer, p. 512; J.C. Sullivan, ''Sinking a Mine Shaft 
Half a Mile Deep,'* PLSMI , XXX (September 1939), PP. 181-189; PLSMI , 
XV (1910), p. 18; ''The Newport Mines," Transactions of the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers , XLII (1911), p. 680] 

NORRIE MINE (c.1920) Ironwood 

Pine St. 15.717640.5147660 

I ronwood Gogeb i c 

The Norrle Mine was opened by the Metropolitan Land and Iron Company in 
1895 and shipped over 15,000 tons of ore during its first year of opera 
tion. It became one of the largest producers on the Gogebic Range and 
was the first mine in this area to produce over one million tons per 
year. It was acquired by the Oliver Iron Mining Company In 1897, was 
part of the Aurora^-Norrie Group of mines in 1905*1935, and was then 
made a part of Republic Steel's Penokee Group of mines. All that re- 
mains at this site is a single building, a rectangular concrete block 
powerhouse, 25 feet wide and 75 feet long, with a gabled roof. 
[LSIO, p. 57; Sawyer, pp. 507-508] 



PABST MINE (c.1890) Ironwood 

West St. 15.719960.5148420 

Aurora Gogebic 

This mine was discovered in 1885 by Captain Fred Pabst, the famous 
Milwaukee brewer. It shipped 2,347,000 tons in 1885-1901 and then was 
combined with the Norrie Group of mines and was operated by the Oliver 
Iron Mining Company until 1935, when it was acquired by the Repulic 
Steel Company and became part of their Penokee Group of mines. It 



42 



EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES: IRON 



closed In the late 1950's. All that remains is a two-story rectangular 
brick powerhouse, with a gabled roof, 25 feet wide and 110 feet long. 
[ LSIO , p. 57; Sawyer, pp. 508, 512] 

PLYMOUTH MINE (1915) Wakefield 

Plymouth Rd. 16. 210i»90. 5150525 

Wakefield Gogebic 

The Plymouth Mine was an open-pit mine opened in 1915 by Coates and 
Tweed, operated by the Plymouth Mining Company in 1917"1950 and then 
by the Syracuse Mining Company until it was closed in 1952. This was 
the only open-pit mine on the Gogebic Range, and it produced 16,^00,000 
tons of soft, red, non-Bessemer ore between 1916 and 1950. At the west 
end of the pit, there is a two-story rectangular brick building, 60 
feet wide and 160 feet long, which served as a machine shop, and four 
smaller brick buildings. 
[LSIO, p, 58] 



SUNDAY LAKE MINE (c.l900) Wakefield 

Castille St. 16.275115.51521^0 

Wakefield Gogebic 

George Fay discovered iron ore near Wakefield in May 1882, and this ore 
body became the Sunday Lake Mine, It was operated by the Sunday Lake 
Mining Company over the period 1885-1900, and then by the Sunday Lake 
Iron Company until it was closed in the late 1950*s. Over the period 
1885-1950, it shipped 13,725,000 tons of ore, making it one of the 
largest producers on the Gogebic Range. Two surface buildings are 
extant: a wood-framed rectangular dryhouse, with a gabled roof and a 
corrugated tin exterior, 20 feet wide and 100 feet long; and a two- 
story brick powerhouse, with a gabled roof, measuring ^0 feet wide and 
120 feet long. 
[LSIO, p. 59; Sawyer, p. 512] 



^3 



INTRODUCTION TO BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Sites relating to bulk products and manufacturing industries 
are considered together in this section* Manufacturing, other than 
that directly related to the region's extractive industries, never 
played a significant role in the economy of the Upper Peninsula. Con- 
sequently, there are few sites relating exclusively to manufacturing 
industries. In fact, several bulk products industries significant in 
the Lower Peninsula, such as chemicals, food processing, and textiles, 
are barely represented in this inventory. To the extent that industry 
was important to the economic development of the Upper Peninsula, it 
consisted primarily of plants which processed the region's major natural 
resources — copper ore, iron ore, and timber. Three-quarters of the sites 
in this section relate to these three resources, accurately reflecting 
the bias in the region's economic history. 

Shortly after the discovery and early exploitation of the 
region's copper deposits, mining companies began to construct processing 
plants. The first step in converting copper ores into marketable metal 
involved crushing the ore so that the copper could be mechanically 
separated from the surrounding rock formations. This was done by 
placing the ore on metal grates or screens and pounding or stamping 
the ore with a heavy weight. The first stamping mill in the district 
was a water-powered plant built on the Eagle River by the Lake Superior 
Copper Company in 18^5» utilizing Cornish gravity stamps. As new mines 
opened in the late 18^0's and l850's, there was a concurrent growth in 
stamping mills. The mass or fissure mines of Keweenaw County built 
several new mills while the Quincy, Pewabic, and Franklin mines all 
built individual mills on Portage Lake in the iSSO's. The steam-powered 
Ball Stamp gradually replaced the gravity stamp beginning in l855f and 
by the l870's it was the accepted technology in all of the major mills, 
with the lone exception of the Quincy Mining Company plant, which re- 
tained the gravity stamps until 1887. 

There were two significant developments in stamping during 
the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries — a geographical shift 
from Portage Lake to Torch Lake and a series of continuous improvements 
in the power and efficiency of the stamps. The opening of the Hecla 
Mining Company mill in 1868, followed by the Calumet mill in I87I, marked 
the beginning of a heavy concentration of stamping on Torch Lake. The 
other mines eventually building stamping mills in this area included 
the Osceola (I886,' 1899) , Tamarack (1887, I896), Quincy (I887, 1900), 
and Ahmeek (1910). There were nineteen stamping mills In the entire 
Copper Country in 1907, with a total of one hundred stamps and a 



kk 



INTRODUCTION TO BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



combined daily capacity of 52,300 tons of ore. The four mills on Torch 
Lake had fifty stamps and nearly half of the total capacity. The other 
significant concentration of stamping mills was in the South Range, 
where there were six mills with a total of twenty-eight stamps and a 
daily capacity of approximately 16,000 tons. The development of more 
powerful and efficient stamping machines continued through the nine- 
teenth century with the Ball Stamp (1855), the Leavitt Stamp (1880), and 
the All is Stamp (1884), culminating with the development of the compound- 
expansion steam stamp by Bruno Nordberg in 1902. In recent decades the 
wrecking ball has been merciless, and there are virtually no significant 
structures extant from the stamping branch of the copper industry. Atop 
the remains of the Ahmeek Stamp Mill on Torch Lake stands a single Nord- 
berg compound stamp, a lonely sentinel surveying the ruins of the im- 
mense mills which once dominated the landscape. 

The stamp mills produced a copper concentrate which was then 
smelted in a furnace to yield the nearly pure copper ingots sold in 
national and world markets. Prior to the l880's, most of the copper ore 
produced in the district was smelted at Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh, 
in plants operated by the Detroit and Lake Superior Copper Company, which 
also ran a smelter in Hancock. Beginning in the 1880' s, however, the 
mining companies quickly moved into smelting, thus achieving economic 
integration of all operations from the mine to the final sale of the 
finished product. This development began in 1887, when the Calumet and 
Heel a Mining Company and the Detroit and Lake Superior Copper Company 
jointly built a smelter at Hubbell on Lake Linden, adjacent to the 
Calumet and Hecla stamping mills. Calumet and Hecla gained complete 
control of this plant in 1892. In rapid succession, the Tamarack-Osceola 
Manufacturing Company established a smelter, rolling mill, and wire mill 
at Dollar Bay in 1888-1889; the Quincy Mining Company built a smelter in 
Ripley in 1898; the Paine-Stanton group of mines (the Copper Range 
Company) established the Michigan Smelting Company in 1903 and con- 
structed a large plant on Coles Creek, just west of Houghton; and the 
Bigelow group of mines gained control of the Lake Superior Smelting 
Company in 1904. There are partial remains extant from the Calumet and 
Hecla smelter and the Dollar Bay wire mill, and the Quincy Mining Company 
smelter complex (I898) is essentially intact. 

The last major technological advance in the processing of copper 
was the development of methods for reclaiming the copper previously lost 
in the tailings (waste sands) from the stamp mills, notably those located 
on Torch Lake. The Calumet and Hecla Mining Company erected an immense 



1*5 



INTRODUCTION TO BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

reclamation plant In 1913-1919 adjacent to their Torch Lake stamping 
plants, and the company recovered k23 million pounds of copper from their 
old tailings before this complex closed in 1952. A few of these buildings 
are extant, including the 1913 dredge which recovered the tailings. The 
last major reclamation plant, built in Mason in 19^3 by the Qulncy Mining 
Company, operated until 1967. The equipment, much of it dating from an 
earlier period, and the buildings, are essentially intact. 

The experience of the Iron mining Industry was notably different 
from that of the copper Industry. Because the Upper Peninsula has no 
significant coal deposits, virtually all of its iron ore has been smelted 
outside of the region. A relatively small and mostly unsuccessful char- 
coal iron industry did develop, however. In the second half of the nine- 
teenth century. There was a total of twenty-nine blast furnaces con- 
structed on twenty-five sites between 1858 and I896, but most of these 
were short-lived and few significant remains are extant. The Jackson 
Iron Company furnace complex at Fayette Is a significant exception. The 
charcoal iron Industry produced about two million tons of pig Iron during 
Its entire history, with three Ironworks accounting for more than half 
of the total. The blast furnaces may have consumed as much as six 
million tons of Iron ore, less than one percent of the region's ore 
output. The charcoal Iron Industry nevertheless had a significant im- 
pact In the Upper Peninsula, particularly in a few individual districts, 
like Marquette County, where employment was considerable. The production 
of charcoal probably generated more employment than the furnaces proper, 
and the Inventory Includes a reasonably representative sample of nine- 
teenth century charcoal kilns, with nine sites containing a total of 
twenty kilns. It should be pointed out, however, that there may have 
been as many as two hundred charcoal kilns operating In the Upper Penin- 
sula In the I880*s and l890's. 

The exploitation of the region's timber resources began In the 
early l820*s with the construction of sawmills In the eastern counties, 
but the major growth In lumbering began In the l880's, centered around 
the Menominee, Manlstlque, and Escanaba River Valleys. Upper Peninsula 
forests yielded nearly twenty-five billion board-feet of pine between 
183^ and 1897, with output falling off rapidly In the early twentieth 
century. Nearly half of the total came from the Menominee River Valley, 
and the City of Menominee was the most Important lumbering center In 
Michigan In the l880's and l890's. The major sawmill towns such as 
Escanaba, Menominee, and Manlstlque made a transition to papermaking 
during the period I89O-I9IO, and they still contain important paper mills 



46 



INTRODUCTION TO BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



today. At the peak of the lumbering era there were nearly one hundred 
major sawmills operating in the region, but virtually all of these have 
since disappeared, with fires taking a major toll. The Inventory in- 
cludes the remains of only six lumbermills and three paper mills. 

Finally, this section includes buildings and structures re- 
lating to a small number of other manufacturing operations, including 
the manufacture of such diverse products as mining machinery, sawmill 
equipment, wooden automobile bodies, wicker furniture, and telephone 
equipment. It also includes two breweries and a gristmill. The exist- 
ence of diverse industries in the Upper Peninsula does not, however, 
alter the predominance of the copper, iron, and lumbering industries in 
the region's economic history. 



^7 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Bay De Noc Company Wastewood Burner (1899), Nahma Township 
<|8 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



ALBERTA SAWMILL (193^) Herman 

US-41 16. 386070. 51 66035 

Alberta Baraga 

The town of Alberta, with Its steam-driven sawmill, was constructed In 
193^ by Henry Ford as one of his numerous efforts to create experimental 
self-sustaining communities. The sawmill ran until 195^, after closing 
down during part of World War II. The village of Alberta was then 
donated to Michigan Technological University, which now utilizes the 
mill and village as a forest products research center. The original 
steam-powered equipment is no longer extant, but the sawmill, a rectan- 
gular building, 25 feet by 100 feet, with a gabled roof and a frame of 
local Norway pine, remains standing. 
[Lewis, pp. 28-29] 



BAY DE NOC COMPANY 

WASTEWOOD BURNER (1899) Garden 

End of County Rd. 497 16. 526040. 5075065 

Nahma Township Delta 

The Bay De Noc Company was established in 1881 by George Farnsworth and 
almost immediately built a sawmill in Nahma on the Lake Michigan coast. 
The sawmills built at this location have been destroyed by fires in 
1889, 1899, and 1922. This wastewood burner, which is located on a 
small island and is equipped with mesh screening to prevent the escape 
of embers, was probably constructed after one of the major fires men- 
tioned above, perhaps the one of 1899. It is a round brick tower 
sheathed in cast iron plates, -25 feet in diameter, resting on a stone 
foundation 6 feet high. Overall, it stands approximately 80 feet high, 
with a dome of wire mesh in a wire framework, topped off by a weather 
vane with the inscription, "B. De. N. Co.** 
[Sawyer, p. 378; Escanaba Daily Press , July I, 1976, p. 5] 



BAY FURNACE 

STACK NUMBER ONE (I87O) Muni sing 

County Rd. 2491 16.522065.5143000 

Christmas Alger 

The Bay Furnace Company was incorporated in 1869 with a capital of 

$150,000 and immediately began erecting a charcoal blast furnace built 

of stone. It went into blast on March 5, I87O and produced roughly 

49 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



3,500 tons In I87O and again In I87I. The company constructed an Iron- 
shetted second stack as well » and this was put Into operation in December 
of 1871. By 1875, the two furnaces were producing over. 9, 200 tons. 
Then on May 31, 1877, a teamster was bringing a load of hot charcoal 
through the town of Onota to the furnace and high winds began to ignite 
the charcoal and threaten nearby buildings. The teamster unhitched his 
frightened team so as not to endanger the horses, but In doing so, he 
insured a conflagration which destroyed both the town and the two fur- 
naces. The ironworks stood idle for many years, and any hopes that It 
might be rebuilt were lost when the Iron River Furnace Company salvaged 
all the usable machinery including hot blast stoves and horsts in I883 
and moved the equipment to its furnace at Stambaugh. The square stone 
furnace is all that remains. It Is k7 feet square at the base, 35 feet 
square at the top, and kS feet high. 

[Sawyer, p. 388; ''Historical Highlights of Alger County*' (Munlsing, 
1975); Lafayette, pp. 15, 23, 31, 3^; NR] 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

DREDGE (1913) Laurium 

On Torch Lake 16. 3895^0. 5222 li»0 

Quincy Mill Houghton 

This dredge was purchased by the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company in 
1913 for use in their Lake Linden Reclamation Plant (see other entry), 
built In 1913"1919 to recover the tailings from their Lake Linden 
stamping plants, accumulated since 1866. In 1915-1951, it dredged 48 
million tons of waste sands, which resulted in the recovery of k23 
million pounds of copper. The QuIncy Mining Company then purchased the 
dredge in 1951 for their Reclamation Plant (see other entry), and it 
remained in service until 1967. It was designed by the Bucyrus Company 
of Milwaukee, has a hull 56 feet wide and 110 feet long, and is equipped 
with a suction pipe 1^1 feet long, supported by a steel girder frame- 
work, giving It an effective dredging depth of 115 feet below water. 
The dredge pump had a 20 inch inlet and outlet, a 55 inch impeller 
which operated at 360 R.P.M., and was driven by a 1,250 horsepower 
electric motor. The dredge had a designed capacity of 10,000 tons of 
sand per day. 

[Benedict, Mil 1 ing , pp. 84, 86; C.H. Benedict, "Calumet and Hecla 
Reclamation Plant," PLSMI, XXIV (August 1925), pp. 72-78] 



50 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Bay Furnace Stack Number One (I87O), Christmas 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

HUBBELL SMELTER (1886,1913) Laurium 

East of M-26, on Torch Lake 16. 392l80. 5225580 

Hubbell Houghton 

In 1886, the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company and the Detroit and Lake 
Superior Copper Company jointly constructed this smelter. The contrac- 
tor was the firm of Hoar and Shelden of Houghton, and smelting began on 
June 1, 1887. Calumet and Hecla gained complete control of this plant 
in 1892. There are four interconnected buildings, all of cut coursed 
red sandstone construction with gabled roofs, probably dating from 1886. 
They include a blister furnace building, 50 feet by 70 feet; a storeroom. 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



16 feet by Sk feet; and two additional segments, 33 feet by 81 feet and 
32 feet by 40 feet, the cooper's shop and carpenter shop respectively. 
In addition, there are two large buildings built much later: a two-story, 
steel-framed mineral house, 70 feet by 250 feet, and the electrolytic 
plant, a brick-walied and steel-framed rectangular building, with a 
roof with two clerestory levels, 155 feet wide and 270 feet long, com- 
pleted in 1913- There is no equipment extant In any of these buildings. 
[Sawyer, p. 455; Stevens, XI (1912-1913), PP- 178, 204; Benedict, Red 
Metal , pp. 98-99; "Sketch," p. 18; Donald Chaput, Hubbell : A Copper 
Country Village (Lansing, 1969), p. 7] 



Calumet and Hecia Mining Company Dredge (1913), Quincy Mill 
52 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

RECLAMATION PLANT (1913-1919) Laurium 

East of M-26, on Torch Lake 16.392900.52265^0 

Lake Linden Houghton 

The Calumet and Heel a Mining Company operated stamping mills at Lake 
Linden since 1866, and by 1913 the waste sands or tailings from these 
plants, dumped into Torch Lake, covered an area of about 150 acres, to 
a depth of about 120 feet in some parts. The massive plant built here 
in 1913-1919 ran until 1952 and recovered a total of 423 million pounds 
of copper from kS million tons of tailings. This mill complex originally 
included the Calumet and Hecla Stamping Mills (1907) and the Reclamation 
Plant buildings, including two regrinding plants, a flotation plant, and 
a leaching plant, along with more than a dozen ancillary buildings. 
Virtually all of this complex has been scrapped. The surviving struc- 
tures include the electric power plant, a steel-framed building appro- 
ximately 60 feet wide and 36O feet long; the laboratory, 35 feet square 
with a hipped roof; the fire hall, 30 feet by 90 feet, with a gabled 
roof; and the mill office, a three-story rectangular brick building 
which now serves as the Houghton County Historical Museum. 
[Gates, p. 73; Benedict, Mill ing , pp. 82-89; CH. Benedict, "Calumet 
and Hecla Reclamation Plant," PLSMI, XXIV (August 1925), pp. 68-88] 



CARP RIVER IRON COMPANY 

BARKVILLE KILNS (1879) Bark River 

On Two Mile Hill 16.^76014.5063000 

Bark River Delta 

The charcoal kilns at Barkville (now Bark River) were built by Hiram 
Burt of the Carp River Forge Company to help supply his newly-acquired 
Peat Furnace in Ishpeming. There were six kilns at this location, but 
only the ruins of three remain. They are conical stone structures, 
about 25 feet in diameter, and were probably about 20 feet tall. They 
are badly overgrown with trees and other vegetation and are located in 
an almost inaccessible, heavy-wooded, and insect-infested area. 
[Bark River Centennial, 1871-1971 , p. 25; Lafayette, p. 27] 



53 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



CHAMPION BLAST FURNACE (1867,1873) Champion 

Main St. 16.426000.5151065 

Champion Marquette 

The Morgan Iron Company built this charcoal blast furnace in 1867, and 
it was blown in on December kth of that year. It was originally 20 feet 
square, with a 9 foot bosh, but was reconstructed in 1873, when the 
height was increased to 46 feet and a closed top was added. On April 9, 
1874, there was a major fire at the Champion Ironworks destroying all 
of the buildings, but not harming the furnace itself. The Morgan Iron 
Company never put this furnace back into operation, although it had pro- 
duced over 31,000 tons of high quality charcoal pig iron during its 
brief lifetime. The furnace suffered a direct hit by lightning in 1975, 
leaving only one wall of the structure intact. 
[Lafayette, pp. 9, 22, kS] 



CHATFIELD BRASS AND IRON WORKS (1910,1929) Gladstone 

718 Stephenson Ave. 16.494086. 5066062 

Escanaba Delta 

The Chatfield Brass and Iron Works originally consisted of two buildings, 
a one-story rectangular white brick machine shop, 75 feet wide and 150 
feet long, and an adjacent foundry, originally wooden, measuring approx- 
imately 50 feet by 150 feet. The foundry was destroyed by fire in 1929 
and replaced by a steel-framed concrete foundry building of similar 
dimensions. The white brick machine shop now has a stucco facing over 
the brick. 
[Sawyer, p. 373; Escanaba Daily Press , October 3, 1929, p* 1] 

CLEVELAND-CLIFFS IRON COMPANY 

CHARCOAL PLANT (1905) Gladstone 

N, Lake Shore Drive 16.499035-5079055 

Kipling Delta 

The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company built the Gladstone Pioneer Furnace 
in 1896, with an adjacent chemical plant producing charcoal for the 
furnace and wood alcohol as a byproduct. This furnace was located just 
north of the Gladstone city limits and was the last new furnace erected 
in the Upper Peninsula. The chemical plant was destroyed by fire in 
1904, but was rebuilt and ran until 1922, when the furnace was perma- 
nently shut down. The furnace was dismantled and sold for scrap in 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



I933» but the two major reinforced concrete buildings housing the chem- 
ical plant remain. Both have cornerstones bearing the name of W.G. 
Mather, the President of the company. The smaller building is a single- 
story structure, 'tO feet wide and 80 feet long, while the larger one is 
kO feet wide and ]kO feet long. Both have gabled roofs supported by 
massive timber Fink trusses. However, the roof on the smaller building 
has completely collapsed, and it is slated for demolition in the near 
future. The larger building is in excellent condition, 
[Lafayette, pp. 38-39, '*S] 



Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company Charcoal Plant (1905), Kipling 
55 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



CLEVELAND-CLIFFS IRON COMPANY 

PIONEER FURNACE NUMBER TWO (1903) Marquette 

Between Lake Shore Blvd. and Fourth St. 16.469950.5156700 

Marquette Marquette 

The Pioneer Furnace Number Two complex In Marquette Is a descendant of 
the original Pioneer Furnace that operated In 1857-1893 In Negaunee. 
The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company acquired control of that furnace In 
1890 and built another In Kipling in I896 (see other entry). In 1900, 
the Marquette County Agricultural Society sold 119 acres of swampland 
to the company for $5,000, and that is where they built their Pioneer 
Furnace Number Two. The plant opened in 1903 with five buildings: a 
casthouse, stockhouse, enginehouse, boilerhouse, and a hoist engine- 
house, all built of brick and steel with concrete foundations. The 
complex was constructed by the Philadelphia branch of the American 
Bridge Company at a cost of $1,000,000. There had been 93 charcoal 
kilns which were replaced in 1916 by steel ovens, and a modern refinery 
was built after an explosion in the first one in I9I8. The complex 
produced charcoal and chemical byproducts from wood, as well as pig 
iron. The furnace went out of blast in 1933, and the entire operation 
closed down in 1965. Since then most of the over twenty-five buildings 
and miles of railroad track have been removed. Presently the only ori- 
ginal buildings left are the casthouse, a brick barrelhouse used to 
store any cargo shipped in barrels, and a brick building used to gran- 
ulate and size charcoal for steel treating. 

[ The Northeast Logger , Vol. 6, No. 8, February 1958, pp. 28-29; MCHS, 
No. 335T 



COCHRANE ROLLER MILLS (I889) Gladstone 

Stephenson Ave. 16.49^035.5066018 

Escanaba Delta 

W.F. Cochrane Invented and patented a new system of teaming up to forty 
chilled cast rolls so that they could be driven by a single belt, an 
Invention which proved extremely valuable to operators of grist and 
flour mills. In order to exploit his Invention, he erected a complex 
Including a foundry and machine shop at a cost of $175,000, but Cochrane 
died In a train wreck Irhmedlately before the plant was scheduled to open, 
and the venture was never a success. The machine shop, a rectangular 
one-story brick structure 60 feet wide and 175 feet long, remains, but 
It Is surrounded by additions of a more recent vintage. 
[Walter R. Nursey, The City of Escanaba , Michigan : The Iron Port of the 
World (Escanaba, I890T, pp. 75-71^] 

56 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Escanaba Iron Company Kloman Kiln {c.l872), Wilson 



ESCANABA IRON COMPANY 

KLOHAN KILNS (c.l872) Bark River ' 

Old US Rte. 2 16. tteso??. 5061030 

Wilson Delta 

The Escanaba Iron Company was established In 1869 and built a charcoal 
blast furnace on Bay De Noc about one and one-half miles north of 
Escanaba. The furnace was put into blast in 1872, was shut down in 
I87'i, and dismantled in 1879. There was a considerable number of char- 
coal kilns built to supply this furnace during its short lifetime. In 
May I87'i, the company operated a total of kS kilns located along the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad line between Escanaba and Powers. 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



At Kloman (now WMson), they had ten kilns, each with a capacity of 50 
cords of hardwood. Seven of these are still standing in various states 
of deterioration. They are stone conical structures, 20 feet In dia- 
meter and approximately 25 feet tall. All have three or four rows of 
vent holes cut into the bottom courses of stone, to facilitate the 
burning of the wood. 
[ Bark River Centennial , 1871-1971 . p. 25; Lafayette, p. 19] 



Ford Motor Company Klngsford Plant, Distillation Building 
(1923), Klngsford 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



FORD MOTOR COMPANY 

KINGSFORD MANUFACTURING COMPLEX (1921-1925) Iron Mountain 

West of M-95 16.415710.5072220 

Ki ngs f ord D I ck i nson 

Henry Ford, as part of his lifelong effort to manufacture automobiles 
with total independence from outside suppliers, purchased 350,000 acres 
of timberland in Dickinson County in 1920. Each Model T used about 250 
board feet of lumber, and Ford proceeded to build a massive manufacturing 
complex at Kingsford, south of Iron Mountain, to become self-reliant in 
wood. Beginning in 1921, he built a sawmill, a battery of fifty-two dry 
kilns, a wood fabricating plant, a hydroelectric plant (see other entry), 
an immense power plant, and a chemical plant producing charcoal briquets, 
ethyl acetate, and methanol. By 1925 Ford had literally created a 
manufacturing complex out of wilderness, employing 7,600 workers. The 
sawmill and woodworking complex was temporarily closed in 19^2, but 
then reopened to produce gliders for the war effort. Employment during 
the war was only about 3,500, with most of these working on gliders. 
With Henry Ford's retirement in 19^5, the chemical plant was closed, 
but the wood manufacturing operation continued, with this plant pro- 
ducing wooden bodies for station wagons. The entire plant was closed 
down by Henry Ford II in 1951 and sold to the Kingsford Chemical Company, 
which ran it until 1961, when they too shut down this complex. Since 
then, most of the original buildings have been razed, including the 
powerhouse (except for the twin smokestacks 190 feet tall), sawmill, 
chemical plant, and distillation building. The remains include the 
twin powerhouse stacks, part of the distillation building, twenty of 
the original battery of fifty-two dry kilns, and three body plants, 
simply designated Body Plants Numbers One, Two, and Three. All three 
are approximately 100 feet wide and 300 feet long, of single-story 
construction. One is a wood-framed building, while the other two are 
steel-framed with immense glass exteriors. 
[Lewis, pp. 16-17, 28-3O; Iron Mountain News, July 1, 1976] 



HEBARD AND THURBER COMPANY 

SAWMILL (1878,1922) Keweenaw Bay 

On the Keweenaw Bay 16.393000.5189045 

Pequaming Baraga 

Charles and Edward Hebard and H.C. Thurber established the Hebard and 
Thurber Company in I878, capitalized at $200,000 and proceeded to acquire 
timberlands and to construct a sawmill at Pequaming. The mill had 240 

59 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



workers by the early l890*s and was producing 25 million board feet of 
lumber and about 25 million shingles annually at that time. As the 
timberlands became exhausted around 1910, the mill greatly reduced its 
production and employment. Then In September 1922, Henry Ford purchased 
the entire town of Pequaming, including the sawmill and 40,000 acres of 
hardwood. Ford revived the old mill and built a new powerhouse next to 
it. Rough lumber sawed at Pequaming was shipped to Ford's Kingsford 
plant (see other entry) for further processing and finishing. The 
plant was closed in 19^2 because of wartime supply difficulties and the 
declining need for wood for automobiles, and the Ford Motor Company sold 
the entire property in 1952. The original sawmill, a rectangular four- 
story frame building with a sheet metal exterior, measuring 50 feet by 
150 feet, as well as a one-story warehouse, kO feet by 120 feet, both 
with gabled roofs, remain standing. Next to the sawmill is the 1922 
brick powerhouse, 36 feet by 55 feet by 50 feet tall, with twin smoke- 
stacks. 

[Lewis, p. 28; John Cummings, "The Timber Era," One Hundred Years of 
History ; L'Anse , Skanee Centennial (Ishpeming, 1971) > pp. 32, 35] 

HOSKIN-MORAINVILLE PAPER COMPANY (1921) Marinette 

]kk First St. 16.453010.4993083 

Menom i nee Menom I nee 

The Hoskin-Morainvi 1 le Paper Company, incorporated in February 1921, 
opened this plant in 1921. It was leased to the Marathon Company of 
Menasha, Wisconsin and then purchased outright by Marathon in 1954. 
The original buildings, plus numerous additions, have survived. The 
main manufacturing building is a rectangular brick structure, 80 feet 
wide and 400 feet long, with an attached powerhouse and a concrete 
smokestack 201 feet in height. 
[Menominee Herald-Leader, May 5, 1922, p. 2] 



HUBBARD COMPANY 

WASTEWOOD BURNER (188?) Rapid River 

End of Main St. 16. 502075-5084065 

Rapid River Delta 

The Hubbard Company erected a shingle and tie mill In Rapid River in 
1887» and this mill has changed hands several times since, passing to 
the Madden Shingle Company and then to Store Anderson, whose descendants 



60 



BULK PRODUCTS AND HANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



still own the property. All that Is left of the mill is this wastewood 
burner, a cylindrical brick structure sheathed in cast iron plates, 
resting on a stone foundation, measuring 25 feet in diameter and approx- 
imately 150 feet high. It is topped off by a conical wire mesh screen 
resting on a wire frame, built to prevent burning pieces of wood from 
escaping. 

[ Souvenir of Delta County , Michigan (Iron Mountain, no date), p. 12; 
E scan aba Dai ly Press , January 1 1 , I960] 



Jackson Iron Company Limekiln (1867), Fayette Township 
61 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Jackson Iron Company Blast Furnace (1867), Fayette Township 
62 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



JACKSON IRON COMPANY 

FAYETTE IRONWORKS COMPLEX ( 1867" 1886) Falrport 

County Rte. 483 16. 525070. 5062080 

Fayette Township Delta 

The Jackson Iron Company was established in Jackson , Michigan in 1845 
and began to work iron mines in Negaunee in Marquette County shortly 
after the company was formed. The ironworks complex located on the 
Garden Peninsula on Lake Michigan was begun in 1866 and was named after 
Fayette S. Brown, the company agent. The first charcoal blast furnace 
went into production on December 25, 1867, while a second furnace was 
built alongside it in 1870. The two furnaces were originally 42 feet 
high, but were raised to 53 feet in 1881. The two furnaces, producing 
charcoal hot-blast pig iron, were in operation steadily until 1884 and 
then ran only occasionally between 1885 and their permanent shut-down 
in 1890. Peak production was almost 17,000 tons in 1884, while total 
production between I867 and I89O was 229,000 tons. This site is a 
complex of both original and some restored structures. The furnaces 
are approximately 25 feet square at the base, 56 feet high, and have a 
nine and one-half foot bosh. Next to the furnaces there were originally 
eleven beehive charcoal furnaces, 14 feet in diameter and 18 feet high. 
None of these have survived, but a replica of one of them has been 
produced. Nearby stands the original limekiln, measuring 20 feet 
square at the base and 20 feet high. Surrounding the furnaces are 
the walls of the original casting rooms, each 25 feet by 70 feet, the 
hoistinghouse between the two furnaces, the buildings housing the 
boilers and blowing apparatus, and the hot blast stoves. This site 
also includes a stone and brick machine shop, a warehouse and company 
store, and numerous residences in this company-built town. The entire 
complex is now a state park. 

[Lafayette, pp. 14, 32-33, 49; Marquette Mining Journal , November 15, 
1963, pp. 1-3; NR] 



JACKSON TYNDALL SAWMILL (c.1910) Muni sing 

Munising Ave. (M-28) 16. 525085. 5140045 

Munising Alger 

This was one of three major sawmills operating In Munising In the first 
two decades of the twentieth century. Henry Ford came to Munising in 
1944 to view a 1,000 horsepower engine that the mill was trying to sell, 
and he decided to buy the mill as well. Ford rebuilt the mill and began 



63 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



construction of a powerhouse, but wartime shortages caused delays, and 
he abandoned the project. Two large rectangular wooden buildings have 
survived, both two stories high, one 70 feet by 175 feet and the other 
50 feet by 250 feet. There are also ruins of extensive wooden docks 
nearby. 
[Lewis, p. 29] 



LAKE SHORE ENGINE WORKS (1907) Marquette 

Fair St. and Wright St. 16.47^800.5155^80 

Marquette Marquette 

The Lake Shore Engine Works was established by Charles T. Harvey in I858. 
The company started this complex on a 12 acre plot in 1907f originally 
making mining machinery, including diamond drills and mine hoists. The 
buildings at this site include a machine shop, a grey iron and brass 
foundry, a plate shop, an engineering and office building, a steel fabri- 
cating shop, and a power plant, all of brick construction with concrete 
floors. 

[ Marquette Mining Journal , February 13, 19^1; Lake Shore News , Vol. 5, 
No. 1, 1958T 



LLOYD MANUFACTURING COMPANY (1908,1920,1923) Marinette 

3010 Tenth St. 16.451090.4997000 

Menom i nee Menom i nee 

The inventor Marshall B. Lloyd moved from Minneapolis to Menominee in 
1907 and quickly associated with Lewis Larsen to perfect two new inven- 
tions which are rather disparate. They invented an automatic loom to 
weave reeds for the manufacture of wicker furniture, baby carriages, 
and toys, as well as the Oxy-Acetylene method of producing thin-gauged 
steel tubing. The firm merged with the Heywood-Wakef ield Company of 
Massachusetts in 1921. There are three main buildings in this firm's 
manufacturing complex: a two and three-story brick segment, 400 feet 
long and I60 feet wide, built in 1908; a four-story building (1920), 
60 feet wide and 250 feet long; and a three-story reinforced concrete 
building (1923), 100 feet wide and 400 feet in length. 
[Menominee Herald-Leader, November 13, 1922, p. 2; Sawyer, p. 588] 



64 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Marinette and Menominee Paper Company (?905), Menominee 



MARINETTE AND MENOMINEE PAPER COMPANY (1905) Marinette 

Hattie St., at the Menominee River I6.'i't9090.499't080 

Menominee Menominee 

The Marinette and Menominee Paper Company was established In the early 
1890's and began operating a pulp mill on the Michigan side of the 
Menominee River and a paper mill on the Wisconsin side. The pulp mill 
in Michigan, built in I89I . was a series of wooden buildings which were 
replaced by the present brick building erected in 1905. The plant was 
owned and operated by the International Paper Company during the 1920's, 
shut down in 1931, and was then reopened in \3U] when the Scott Paper 
Company purchased the plant. The dam at this site (see other entry) 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



was originally constructed to provide power for the plant's pulp grinding 
operations, housed in a rectangular brick building, 30 feet by 120 feet, 
stilt extant. It originally had three pairs of 62 inch Samson turbines, 
no longer extant. Next to the grinder room stands the machine shop, 65 
feet by 87 feet, the machine room, a two-story brick building k6 feet 
wide and 2112 feet long, and a single-story finishing room, hS feet by 
81 feet. An additional two-story building serving as a wood room and 
wetmachine room is 50 feet wide and 102 feet long. 



Menominee Electrical and Mechanical Company (1905), Menominee 
66 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



MENOMINEE ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL COMPANY 

[SIGNAL ELECTRIC] (1905) Marinette 

1821 Thirteenth St. 16.451032.4995083 

Menominee Menominee 

Charles Hammond established the Menominee Electrical and Mechanical 
Company and operated a manufacturing plant on this site since 1892. 
The original wooden plant burned in 1904 and was replaced with the pre- 
sent building. Under H.G. Tideman, longtime general manager, this com- 
pany produced a variety of electrical components for radios, telephones, 
and telegraphs. The owners boasted that the plant could produce 525 
telephones per day in 1911* The plant was owned by the Signal Electric 
Manufacturing Company in 1919-1952, the King-Seeley Corporation in 1952- 
1964, and by the Vernco Corporation since then. The two-story brick 
buildings erected in 1905 have survived, with several more recent addi- 
tions. The main portion is 62 feet wide and 320 feet long, with two 
wings, both 57 feet wide, measuring 176 feet and 209 feet in length. 
[ Menominee Herald-Leader , April 21, 1922, p. 2; Menominee Herald-Leader , 
June 1, 1964, p. 1; Sawyer, pp. 587-588] 



MENOMINEE FURNACE COMPANY 

STEPHENSON KILNS (1875) Stephenson 

County Rte. 352, east of US-41 16.455024.5028023 

Stephenson Menominee 

The Menominee Furnace Company erected a charcoal blast furnace just 
north of Menominee in 1872 and had hoped to supply its charcoal needs 
from the wastewood produced at the sawmills located in the city. When 
this supply proved insufficient, the company erected a battery of char- 
coal kilns in Stephenson, about twenty miles to the north, on the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad line. The Menominee Furnace operated 
from 1872 until I883, when it was permanently shut down. There are 
five kilns standing at this site, plus the ruins of a sixth. These 
stone kilns are conical in form, measuring 25 feet in diameter and 20 
feet high. They are in remarkably good condition considering the length 
of time they have been exposed to the elements. 
[Sawyer, p. 58O; Lafayette, pp. 20, 49] 



67 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Menominee Furnace Company Stephenson Kiln (1875), Stephenson 



MUNISiNG PAPER COMPANY OSOk) Munlsing 

601 E. Munising Ave. 16.527030.5139030 

Hunising Alger 

This plant was constructed by the Munising Paper Company in 1902-I90'i 
and consisted of a sulphite fiber mill, paper mill, and powerhouse. In 
1911, it was producing about 70 tons per day and employed 200 men. The 
plant was later purchased by Kimberly-Clark in 1952. Most of the ori- 
ginal plant and equipment remains, but is well hidden by more recent 
additions and the extensive use of sheet metal siding to Improve insula- 
tion. The main buildings are of standard mill construction of the 
period, three and four-story brick buildings 75 feet to 100 feet wide 



68 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



and 150 feet to 200 feet long. The complex includes separate buildings 
housing the beater room, machine room, and finishing room, the original 
brick powerhouse, hidden from view by a concrete powerhouse built in 
the 1930's, and the digester building, a massive brick structure approx 
imately six stories high. 
[Sawyer, p. 391] 



NORDBERG COMPOUND STAMP (1910) Laurium 

East of M-26, on Torch Lake 16.391240.5224640 

Tamarack City Houghton 

This steam-powered stamping machine, used to crush the copper-bearing 
ores to enable the extraction of the metal, was one of four similar 
stamps installed by the Ahmeek Mining Company in their new stamping 
mill erected in 1910. Invented by Bruno V. Nordberg of the Nordberg 
Company of Milwaukee, this compound-expansion steam stamping machine 
was an important improvement in the technology of copper ore processing 
in the early part of the century. It continued a trend towards more 
powerful and efficient stamping machines that had begun with the Ball 
Stamp (1855), the Leavitt Stamp (I88O), and the All is Stamp (1884). 
This compound stamp used the steam twice, in a 15 and one-half inch 
high-pressure cylinder and then in a 32 inch low-pressure cylinder, 
mounted below the high-pressure one. The Nordberg compound stamp, 
with 7,800 pounds of moving parts, brought an efficiency improvement 
of twenty percent over the simple expansion stamps. 
[Benedict, Milling, pp. 43-45, 52, 55-62; Weed, pp. 18-19] 



PEMBERTHY COOK AND COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1897) Marinette 

145 First St. 16.452087.4994000 

Menominee Menominee 

In 1891 Joseph Somerville, Frank Pemberthy, and Charles I. Cook formed 
the firm of Somerville, Pemberthy, and Cook to engage in the wholesale 
food trade in Menominee, mainly to supply the company stores operated 
by the numerous logging and sawmill firms in the Menominee area. The 
firm became the Pemberthy Cook and Company in 1892, and then the Car- 
penter Cook Company in 1901 when Pemberthy died. This four-story 
brick warehouse, resting on a stone foundation, measuring 120 feet by 
152 feet, was built in 1897- It features 15 inch square columns. 



69 



BULK PRODUCTS AND HANUFACTURING rNDUSTRIES 



steel horizontal floor beams, and windows equipped with steel shutters 
as Insurance against the fires that periodically swept through this 
lumber town. 
[Sawyer, pp. 585-586; Menominee Herald-Leader , April 16, IS^tl , pp. l-^t] 



Pemberthy Cook and Company Warehouse (1897), Menominee 



PENINSULAR IRON COMPANY 

CARP RIVER KILN (c.1890) Marquette 

US-ltl, south of the Carp River 16. 470580. SISI'tOO 

Marquette Marquette 

John Burt began building the Carp River Furnace at the mouth of the 
Carp River In 1872, and his Carp River Iron Company merged with the 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Peninsular Iron Company In early 187^. The furnace operated sporadically 
between 18?^ and 1882, when it shut down after a major fire. It was idle 
until Noah Gray and Charles Schaffer, the Alger County "charcoal king", 
gained controlling interest in the furnace in 1889, rebuilt it, and 
returned it to production for a brief stint In 1891. It remained out 
of blast until 1899, but then ran regularly until 1907, when it was per- 
manently shut down. The surviving charcoal kiln was probably built 
around 1890, when Schaffer signed a contract with the State of Michigan 
to remove 1,000 cord of hardwood for charcoal -making from the newly- 
opened Marquette State Prison property. There were 36 kilns at this 
site, all of similar size and design. The lone survivor is a sandstone, 
beehive-shaped structure, 25 feet in diameter at the base, tapering to 
a height of 20 feet at the cap of the dome. 
[Lafayette, pp. 20, 28, 3^-35] 



PENINSULAR IRON COMPANY 

MANGUM KILN (c.l878) Gwinn 

Greenfield Rd. at Mangum Rd. 16. 480080. 51^^080 

Mangum Marquette 

John Burt built a furnace at the mouth of the Carp River, south of 
Marquette, in 1872 and then established the Carp River Iron Company in 
1873- It became the Peninsular Iron Company in 187^ and operated this 
furnace sporadically in 1872-1884. It was reported that in 1878 there 
were sixteen charcoal kilns operating in an area south of Harvey, all 
supplying the Carp River Furnace. This kiln was probably one of these 
sixteen. It is 20 feet in diameter at the base and 20 feet high, of 
rough coursed stone construction, built against a hill, with two 
openings arched with stone, each five feet high. One opening is at 
ground level, while the second is located on the side abutting the hill 
and is at the top of the kiln. 
[Lafayette, pp. 19-20, kS] 



PICKFORD ELEVATOR (c.l920) Pickford 

Pleasant St. 16.703825.511^855 

Pickford Chippewa 

The Pickford Elevator and Feed Mill was built around 1920 by Fred J. 
Smith, who also owned a nearby flour mill, no longer extant. It is a 
three-story frame building, kO feet wide and 70 feet long, resting on 



71 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



a stone foundation, with a gambrel roof. The only historic equipment 
extant is a grain cleaner manufactured by the A.T. Ferrelli Company, 
patented in ISZlt. The building is still in use as an elevator. 
[A History of Pickford Pioneer Families , Third Edition (Pickford, 1972), 
pp. IO8-IO9T* 



Peninsular Iron Company Mangum Kiln (c.l878), Mangum 

PRESCOTT COMPANY (1899) Marinette 

1720 Fifteenth St. 1 6. it5 1 033. '•995067 

Menom i nee Menom i nee 

D. Clint Prescott began manufacturing sawmill machinery in Marinette in 
1867 and operated several machine shops there until he moved to Menominee 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



In 1899. This large firm, valued at $450,000 In 1911, was a major pro- 
ducer of savffnill machinery and Is credited with Introducing the modern 
bandsaw. This large manufacturing complex Includes more than a dozen 
buildings, the largest of which are the foundry, a rectangular brick 
and steel building 120 feet wide and 500 feet long, and a building used 
as a machine shop and erecting floor, a single-story wood-framed struc- 
ture 100 feet wide and approximately 8OO feet long. 
[Menominee Herald-Leader, November 13, 1922, p. 2; Sawyer, p. 587] 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

RECLAMATION PLANT (19^3) Laurlum 

East of M-26 16,388940.5221580 

Mason Houghton 

This plant was constructed In 19^3 to recover copper from the waste 
sands deposited In Torch Lake from the Quincy Mining Company's stamp 
mills. The Metal Reserves Company of the War Production Board granted 
a loan of $1.2 million for this plant, which was built for $1.2^3 mil- 
lion. The Quincy Mining Company became sole owner In 19^7, after re- 
paying this loan, and operated the plant until May 1967. In Its first 
decade of operation, the plant recovered 53 million pounds of copper 
from 10.5 million tons of sand. The main building, a rectangular steel 
framed structure, 124 feet by 255 feet, with a clerestory, was equipped 
with six Harding ball mills, for regrlnding the sands, Wllfley Tables, 
and flotation machines. Five of the ball mills are still In place. 
The waste sands were first dredged and brought to the shore plant, 
equipped with a stationary dredging pump, from which they moved on a 
belt conveyor to the nearby Main Building. The shore plant, measuring 
60 feet by 80 feet overall, along with the elevated wooden conveyor 
housing, are extant. 

[Benedict, Mill Ing , pp. 90-95; C. Harry Benedict, "Reclaiming Quincy 
Tailings from Torch Lake," Engineering and Mining Journal , CXXXXV 
(April 1944), pp. 74-78] 



QUINCY MINING COMPANY 

RIPLEY SMELTER (I898-I9IO) Chassell 

Royce Rd. 16.382840.4219840 

Ripley Houghton 

The Quincy Mining Company smelter at Ripley was planned by James Cooper 
and blown on December 1, I898. It smelted copper ores until 1967, when 

73 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



the company's Reclamation Plant (see other entry) closed, but then re- 
melted scrap copper until 1971* The original installation included 
four reverberatory furnaces, each with a hearth of 12 feet by 18 feet, 
which treated 18 tons of a mixture of mass, mineral, and black copper 
(with a content of 70-80 percent copper) per 2k hours, yielding 13 tons 
of refined metal. The process included 16 hours of fusion and removal 
of slag, followed by fining or rabbling (2 hours), refining or poling 
(2 hours), and then casting the molten metal (2 hours). The slag pro- 
duced in this process was then treated in a blast furnace and included 
in a future reverberatory furnace charge. The blast furnace charge con- 
sisted of 20 tons of slag, 8 tons of limestone, and k tons of coal. The 
cupola or blast furnace building (I898) is constructed of cut coursed 
red sandstone, 30 feet by 100 feet, with an ell measuring kO feet by 
50 feet. The furnace building, a red sandstone structure, 84 feet by 
]kk feet, with a steel -framed addition made in 1904, housed a 60 ton 
reverberatory furnace, along with a 120 ton reverberatory furnace which 
was installed in 1910, at which time an automatic casting machine was 
added as well. The furnaces and casting machine are extant. In addi- 
tion, there is a mineral warehouse (1904), also built of sandstone, 
40 feet wide and 95 feet long, reached by a trestle 460 feet in length. 
Other buildings at this site include three large rectangular frame 
warehouses, all with gabled roofs; a concrete block briquetting plant 
(1906); three small warehouses; and other miscellaneous buildings in- 
cluding a powerhouse, castinghouse, carpenter shop, machine shop, and 
laboratory. 

[Stevens, I (1900), p. 226; Stevens, III (1903), p. 464; Stevens, V 
(1905), pp. 678-679; Stevens, VIM (1908), p. 1,156; Stevens, XI 
(1912-1913), pp. 736-737; Rickard, pp. 142-146; Houghton Gazette , 
May 27, 19671 



RICHTER BREWING COMPANY 

[DELTA BUILDING] (1900) Escanaba 

I6I5 Ludington Ave. 16. 494050.5065083 

Escanaba Delta 

The Richter Brewing Company constructed this building when the company 
was organized by John Richter in I9OO. The original equipment included 
an ammonia-type refrigeration system and an artesian well, and the plant 
had a capacity of about 30,000 barrels per year. The beers produced 
here included brand names such as Richter's Select and Richter's Special 
Brew. After some efforts to make soft drinks in the 1920's, the building 



74 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



was sold to the Delta Brewing Company in 1933- Delta sold beer under 
the labels Peninsula Pride, Buckingham Ale, and Arctic Club, but finally 
closed all brewing operations in the early IS'tO's. The four-story brick 
brewhouse 80 feet wide and ISO feet long Is extant, but none of the 
original equipment has survived. 
[Sawyer, p. 373; Iron Port, February 16, 1901] 



Quincy Mining Company Smelter, Cupola Building (I898), Ripley 
75 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Soo Brewing Company (1901), Sault Ste. Harie 
76 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



SOO BREWING COMPANY (1901) Sault Ste. Marie 

9^9 E. Portage Ave. 16.705790.5151935 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

The VII ter Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee erected this brewhouse in 
1901 for the Soo Brewing Company. After producing carbonated soft drinks 
during Prohibition, the plant was used to produce "Soo Brew" in 1937" 
19^1 > but this beer was not very popular, so the plant was permanently 
closed. It is now used as a freight depot by a trucking firm. This 
four-story rectangular brick building rests on a stone foundation and 
measures 75 feet by 105 feet. It features two towers with the inscrip- 
tion, "Brew House" and "Stock House." 
[ Sault Ste . Marie City Directory , 1900-19^2, passim .] 

TAMARACK-OSCEOLA COPPER MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

WIRE MILL (1888, c.1920) Point Mills 

South end of Fourth St. 16. 386260. 5218780 

Dollar Bay Houghton 

The Tamarack-Osceola Copper Manufacturing Company was established in 
1888 by the two mining companies of the same names, both properties con- 
trolled by Albert S. Bigelow. The company built a rolling and wire mill 
on Dollar Bay in 1888 and later built a smelter nearby. The buildings 
which have survived, all from the wire mill, include a rectangular rough 
rubble masonry structure 50 feet wide and 200 feet long, with an ell mea- 
suring kS feet by 60 feet, both with gabled roofs; a smaller building, 
50 feet by 60 feet, of similar construction; a 50 foot square brick 
building, with a gabled roof; and a concrete building resting on a brick 
foundation, with a gabled roof, measuring 50 feet by 220 feet. The first 
three buildings were probably erected when the plant was built in 1888, 
while the last is of much later vintage, perhaps built around 1920. 
[Stevens, I (1900), p. 189; Gates, p. 73; Engineering and Mining Journal , 
August 4, 1888, p. 89] 



TRAP ROCK VALLEY [MICHAELSON'S] 

GRISTMILL (c.1900) Laurium 

West of Trap Rock Rd. 16.395860.5232660 

Trap Rock Houghton 

This gristmill was built around 1900 by Emil Michaelson, who was pro- 
ducing 25 barrels of flour per day in 1918. Beginning in 19^^» Wiljo 

77 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Wtljoinen operated the mill until it ceased operation in 1973. It ori- 
ginally was driven by a two cylinder Eagle gasoline engine with eight 
inch pistons, no longer extant. It is a simple two-story frame building, 
approximately 20 feet by 'lO feet, with a gabled roof. Equipment still 
intact includes a line shaft from which belts extended to the machinery, 
storage bins, the conveyor system, and a grain sifter. 
[Clarence J. Monette, The History of Lake Linden , Michigan (1975), 
pp. 2-k] 



White Marble Lime Company Kilns (1889), Gulliver 
78 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



UNION FUEL COMPANY 

KILN (1881) Au Train 

County Rd. G-2 16.500050.51^6045 

Onota Township Alger 

The Union Fuel Company operated a series of charcoal kilns in Alger 
County to supply several area blast furnaces. This kiln» built in I88I, 
was acquired by Charles Schaffer when he leased the Union Fuel Company's 
properties in 1884 and then purchased them outright in 1886. Schaffer, 
known as the **charcoal king** entered into a partnership with J.W. 
Belknap in I89O, and they operated forty kilns in Alger County alone. 
There is one kiln at this site, the ruins of a second, and the walls of 
a rectangular stone building, 15 feet wide and 25 feet long, nearby. 
The structure which is still standing is 25 feet in diameter at the 
base and approximately 25 feet in height, built of stone, and conical 
in form. 

[•'Historical Highlights of Alger County" (Munising, 1975); Lafayette, 
p. 34] 



WHITE MARBLE LIME COMPANY 

KILNS (1889) Not Available 

Duck Inn Rd. 

Qui 1 iver Schoolcraft 

The White Marble Lime Company was established in I889 by George Nichol- 
son, Jr. to produce quicklime, utilizing dolomite and waste wood pro- 
duced by the extensive lumber industry located in the Manistique area. 
The company was reorganized as the Manistique Lime and Stone Company 
in 1925 and continued production until 1929* There are two stone 
kilns still standing, each 20 feet square at the base and 40 feet high. 
West of the kilns, there are the remains of ten stone piers, each 5 
feet long, and spaced 12 feet apart. The piers probably supported an 
elevated ramp, 140 feet long, leading from a nearby hill to the throats 
of the two ki Ins. 
[Sawyer, p. 352] 



79 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company IXL Plant (188$), Hermansville 



WISCONSIN LAND AND LUMBER COMPANY 

IXL PLANT (1889) Powers 

Main St. 16. 1(52030. 5061050 

Hermansvr I )e Menominee 

C.L.J. Meyer, who operated a sash, door, and blind factory in Fond du 
Lac, Wisconsin, established the Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company which 
bought 50,000 acres of pine forest, mostly In Menominee County, in I878. 
He established the company town of Hermansville in that year and began 
construction of a sawmill, initially to supply his Fond du Lac plant. 
Anticipating the eventual depletion of his softwood holdings, Meyer 
then constructed a hardwood sawmill in 1882. At this time, factory- 



BULK PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



produced hardwood flooring was full of defects which had to be cut out 
by the consumer before the flooring could be laid. Meyer developed new 
sawing and planing machinery which enabled him to cut hardrock maple 
Into standard, clear, undefectlve sheets and this new product was called 
IXL Maple Flooring. He built a new plant to produce this flooring In 
1885-1889, simply calling It the "IXL Plant". While the product was 
ultimately successful, Meyer was financially embarrassed In I889 and 
forced to assign the assets of the Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company 
to his son-in-law. Dr. George Washington Earle, who, along with his 
descendants, ran the mill successfully until the early 1930's. During 
the most prosperous years between 1910 and 1930, this plant shipped ten 
railroad cars of finished products per day. Virtually all of the ori- 
ginal plant, consisting of massive wood-framed buildings, is extant. 
There are three rectangular buildings, all three-story, all 90 feet 
wide, measuring 120 feet, ]kO feet, and 250 feet long; a barn, kO 
feet by 100 feet; a two-story frame office building, 60 feet square; 
a kiln dryer, 25 feet by 60 feet; and several additional smaller 
buildings. 

[ Menominee County ; A Gl impse Backward (Menominee County Historical 
Society), p. 6; Sawye r , pp . 606-608] 



81 



INTRODUCTION TO UTILITIES 



This section includes structures and systems used to manufac- 
ture, store, or distribute water, sewage, steam, gas, electricity, and 
compressed air. There are several excellent examples of early small- 
town waterworks at Negaunee (1882), Menominee (1884), Calumet (I889, 
1899), and Marquette (1890), Water towers are in the Specialized Struc- 
tures section of the volume. There are also two significant hydraulic 
air compressor plants built by mining companies at Quinnesec Falls (I883) 
and Victoria (1906). Virtually none of the original machinery in these 
facilities has survived. More than three-quarters of the sites, however, 
are from the electrical utility industry, with a predominance of hydro- 
electric plants. 

The development of electrical power in the Upper Peninsula was 
closely linked to the major extractive industries such as copper, iron, 
and lumber. There is a total of twenty-seven hydroelectric plants re- 
corded, and half of these were constructed by mining or paper companies. 
Of the remaining fourteen plants, municipalities built six and street- 
car companies three. The bulk of these plants were not built to serve 
a general market for electricity, but were designed for specific con- 
sumers like mines, mills, and streetcar lines. It is not surprising 
that there was little speculative investment in generating plants, given 
the small scattered population of the Upper Peninsula in the late nine- 
teenth and early twentieth centuries. 

The hydroelectric plants range in age from the Marquette City 
Plant (1890) to the facilities at Victoria and Prickett Lake, both com- 
pleted in 1931. There is a total of six built prior to 1910, eleven 
constructed during the next decade, and eight completed in the 1920's. 
The small size of most of the region's rivers, with the exception of 
the Menominee, Escanaba, and St. Mary's, operating in conjunction with 
low demand levels, helped produce relatively small-scale plants, with 
a typical capacity of 4,000-6,000 KW. The Michigan Lake Superior Power 
Company (36,000 KW) and the Victoria Plant (15,000 KW) are the exceptions 

The massive hydroelectric plant of the Michigan Lake Superior 
Power Company at Sault Ste. Marie is the most significant site in this 
section in terms of its age, size, extant equipment, and engineering 
design. It was the longest hydroelectric plant in the world and the 
second largest in the United States in terms of capacity when it opened 
in 1902. The headgates and power canal bringing water to the powerhouse 
are treated as separate sites in this section. One engineering design 
feature which distinguishes the hydroelectric plants of this region 



82 



INTRODUCTION TO UTILITIES 



from those of the Lower Peninsula is the extensive use of long penstocks 
fitted with surge tanks to increase the effective operating head, an 
important design variation to compensate for the small flow of its rivers. 
This design results in an effective head of 608 feet at the Carp River 
Plant (1912), kZk feet at the McClure Plant (1919), and 215 feet at 
Victoria. 



83 



UTILITIES 



AU TRAIN FALLS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1910) Au Train 

At Au Train Falls 16.5110^5.5131050 

Forest Lake Alger 

« 

This was the first hydroelectric plant built by the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron 
Company to supply the electrical power needs of Its mines. In 1922 the 
Cliffs Electric Company was established as a public utility^ and It 
operated this plant until 193^ when It merged with Cliffs Power and 
Light Company. Then in 1953» Cliffs Power and Light sold its transmis- 
sion facilities to the Upper Peninsula Power Company, while the generating 
facilities reverted to the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, which still 
operates them today. This plant consists of a concrete dam 90 feet long 
and approximately 60 feet high, with ten steel vertical gates, each 9 
feet wide. This plant utilizes a hydraulic head of 137 feet, largely 
because the powerhouse is located about one-half mile downstream from 
the dam. The rectangular brick powerhouse, 32 feet by 37 feet, contains 
two 560 KW generators, 2,300 Volts, operating at 600 R.P.M. Water 
reaches the turbines through a penstock which Is 66 inches In diameter 
and 2,628 feet long overall. There are two distinct sections of penstock, 
one of wood, 1,375 feet long and a second of steel construction 1,253 feet 
long. 
[Cliffs News, April 1963, pp. 12-13; CP & LC] 



BIG QUINNESEC FALLS 

HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (191^) Iron htountain 

At Big Qulnnesec Falls 16.419085.5070845 

Qu I nnesec D I ck i nson 

Big Quinnesec Falls had been harnessed to produce compressed air by the 
Hydraulic Company In 1883 (see other entry), but this was the first 
hydroelectric plant at this site. It was built In 1914 by the Peninsula 
Power Company after Its Twin Falls plant was opened. It was acquired 
by the newly-formed Wisconsin Michigan Power Company in 1927. The ori- 
ginal concrete dam at this site was 56 feet high and created a head of 
61 feet. However, In 1949 a new dam 75 feet In height was built slightly 
downstream to serve a new powerhouse, and the old dam was completely 
submerged as a result. The only portions remaining are the intake canal 
and headworks leading Into the old powerhouse. The 1914 powerhouse, 
with Its original equipment, is extant. The two-story powerhouse, 54 
feet by 60 feet, housed the generators on the lower level and the trans- 
formers on the upper level. The equipment Includes two vertical Francis 



84 



turbines manufactured by A) 1 ]s-Cha1mers, and two General Electric gen- 
erators, each 2,205 KW, 2,300 Volts, operating at 257 R.P.M. 
{"Preliminary Report on the Old Qulnnesec Falls Plant of the Oliver 
Mining Company" (1933), pp. 1-3; WMPC, p. 36] 



Big Qulnnesec Falls Hydroelectric Plant (I91'i), Qulnnesec 



BONEY FALLS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1919) Schaffer 

On the Escanaba River 16. '(79015. 5091073 

Cornell Township Delta 

The fourth dam built on the Escanaba River by the Escanaba Power Company 
was completed in 1919 at Boney Falls. It includes a brick powerhouse. 



85 



UTILITIES 



measuring 30 feet by 70 feet by 50 feet high, equipped with three gen- 
erators with a total capacity of 4,400 KVA. There are six steel tainter 
gates adjacent to the powerhouse, each gate 20 feet wide, and a concrete 
spillway section of the dam 200 feet long. The Boney Falls Dam develops 
a head of 50 feet. 



BRULE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1919) Florence East 

On the Menominee River 16.405550.5088750 

Crystal Falls Township Iron 

The Brule Hydroelectric Plant, constructed in 1919, includes a dam which 
is 571 feet long overall, creates a head of 63 feet, and a pond of 774 
acres. Proceeding from the Wisconsin shore to the Michigan shore of 
the Brule River, there Is an earth-filled segment with a concrete core 
wall, the rectangular concrete powerhouse, measuring 48 feet by 73 feet, 
a closed concrete dam segment, and a concrete segment equipped with 
steel radial gates. The original powerhouse installation, still extant, 
consists of three Francis vertical turbines built by the Leffel Company 
and three generators, two rated at 2,500 KW, the third at 1,660 KW. All 
three generators produce 6,600 Volts at 240 R.P.M. and were manufactured 
by Westinghouse. 
[WMPC, p. 171 



CALUMET AND HECLA MINING COMPANY 

LAKE SUPERIOR WATERWORKS (1889) Muggin Creek 

Waterworks Rd. 16.384540.5236760 

Calumet Township Houghton 

The Lake Superior Waterworks was built in 1889 by the Calumet and Hecla 
Mining Company to supply their mines in the Calumet area, as well as the 
residential needs of the population of Calumet, most of which were 
working for the company and living in company-owned housing. The water- 
works was designed by Erasmus Leavitt and had a capacity of four million 
gallons per day, double the capacity actually utilized. There was an 
18 inch intake pipe extending 1,200 feet into Lake Superior and a 12 
inch pipe four and one-half miles long leading from the pumps to the 
mine. The plant was originally steam-powered, but was electrified in 
1908. Two rectangular wood-framed buildings remain, both with gabled 
roofs and both now covered with corrugated sheet metal exteriors, 



86 



UTILITIES 



measuring kO feet by 100 feet and 30 feet by 60 feet. They served as 
the pumphouse and boiterhouse, respectively. The original pumps are no 
longer extant. 

[Sawyer, p. 5^3; Smithsonian Institution, "Index to the Leavitt Collec- 
tion of Engineering Drawings"; Benedict, Red Metal , p. 89] 



CALUMET WATERWORKS (c.l899) Ahmeek 

North end of Waterworks St. 16.3905^0.523^080 

Calumet Houghton 

Erasmus Leavitt designed the Calumet Waterworks In I88I for the Calumet 
and Hecia Mining Company. A new boilerhouse was constructed there In 
1899> and only this later building has survived. It is a two-story 
rectangular brick building with a gabled roof, kO feet wide and 75 feet 
long. It is now used for the storage of antique car parts. 
[Smithsonian Institution, "Index to the Leavitt Collection of Engineering 
Drawings"] 

CARP RIVER HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1912) Marquette 

On the Carp River 16.^70040.5150720 

Marquette Marquette 

This hydroelectric plant, completed in 1912, was the second generating 
facility built by the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. The powerhouse 
is a brick building with a concrete floor and measures 87 feet long, 
k7 feet wide, and kS feet high. It has a total rated capacity of 5f600 
KVA produced by two A1 1 is-Chalmers horizontal generators operating at 
2,300 Volts, 3 phase, 60 cycle, 702 Amps, 720 R.P.M, The maximum head 
of water provided by the plant is 6O8 feet obtained by a 21,930 foot 
long penstock with a 200 foot tall surge tower connected to a storage 
dam. The penstock consists of a wooden segment 5 feet in diameter and 
10,000 feet long, and a steel segment 66 inches in diameter and 11,270 
feet long. 

[CP S LC; Cliff News , April 1963» pp. 12-13; Marquette Mining Journal , 
February 3, 19671 



87 



UTILITIES 

CHALK HILL HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1927) Pembine 

On Menominee River 16.437035.5040017 

Holmes Township Menominee 

The Chalk Hill Hydroelectric Plant was constructed In 1927, and then 
sold In 1937 by the Northern Electric Company to the Wisconsin Michigan 
Power Company, the present owners. The brick powerhouse, measuring 36 
feet by 133 feet, features ornamental stonework and stained glass 
windows. The original equipment, still Intact, consists of three S. 
Morgan Smith, Francis vertical turbines driving three Al 1 Is-Chalmers 
generators, each with a rated capacity of 3,250 KW, 2,300 Volts, oper- 
ating at 150 R.P.M. Six pivot leaf headgates control the flow of water 
to the turbines. The earth gravity dam, which creates a head of 28 
feet and a pond of 882 acres, is 1,936 feet in length and includes a 
concrete spillway segment with eleven steel radial gates. 
[WMPC, p. 26; Iron Mountain News , July 1, 1976, p. 17l 

ESCANABA HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1929) Ishpeming 

Middle branch of the Escanaba River 16.461033.5129020 

Gwinn Marquette 

This small hydroelectric plant on the Escanaba River consists of a 
brick powerhouse, 39 feet wide and 57 feet long, housing a single gen- 
erator rated at 2,500 KW, 2,300 Volts, operating at 257 R.P.M. The 
concrete dam, approximately 250 feet long, is located more than one-half 
mile from the powerhouse. Water reaches the powerhouse through a pen- 
stock which is 8 feet in diameter and 3,050 feet long, giving the plant 
an operating head of 67.5 feet. The penstock is composed of two distinct 
segments, a tunnel cut through stone measuring 1,700 feet in length, and 
a riveted steel tube segment, 1,350 feet long. 
[ Cliffs News , April 1963, p. 12; CP & LC] 

ESCANABA POWER COMPANY (1892) Escanaba 

120 N. Eighth St. 16.495047.5065070 

Escanaba Delta 

The Escanaba Power Company was established in 1892 to provide electri- 
city, mostly for lighting, to the Escanaba area. The company merged 
with the Escanaba Street Railway Company in 1909 to form the Escanaba 
Traction Company, later the Escanaba Power Company. This building 



88 



housed the company's original generating plant, powered by steam engines, 
but none of the original equipment is extant. It is an ell-shaped two- 
story bricic building, with the portion facing the street measuring 45 
feet by 75 feet, with a wing (now used as a garage) measuring 25 feet 
by 35 feet. 
(Sawyer, p. 3671 



Escanaba Power Company Dam Number One ()907,1923}, Escanaba 
89 



UTILITIES 



ESCANABA POWER COMPANY 

DAM NUMBER ONE (1907 J923) Gladstone 

On the Escanaba River 16,493086. 5071017 

Escanaba Delta 

The Escanaba Street Railway Company was established in 1891 and initially 
ran a power plant on Ludington Street in the city. The Escanaba Power 
Company, founded in 1892, merged with the Street Railway Company to form 
the Escanaba Traction Company in 1909. This dam and hydroelectric plant 
were built at a cost of $200,000 and were initially equipped with D.C. 
generators linked to the streetcar system. The original powerhouse, 
a concrete building, 25 feet square, with a gabled roof, is still extant, 
but none of the original equipment remains. In 1923f a larger power- 
house was built, a brick building 20 feet wide and 100 feet long, 
equipped with three Leffel turbines and three generators, all vert leal - 
type, produced by the Electrical Machinery Manufacturing Company. Two 
are rated at 700 KVA, operating at 164 R.P.M., while the third is rated 
at 550 KVA and operates at 150 R.P.M. The dam, which produces a head 
of 25 feet, is a reinforced concrete design, 2k feet high, 2k feet thick 
at the base, and 600 feet long. The original dam is nearly all extant, 
except for a steel radial gate forty feet from the powerhouse. This 
was probably installed in 1923 for better control over water flow because 
the remainder of the dam is a simple spillway, with flashboards. 
[Sawyer, p. 367; Clint Dunathan, The Century Book : Escanaba 1863-1963 
(Escanaba, 1963), pp. 236-237] 



ESCANABA POWER COMPANY 

DAM NUMBER THREE (1915) Gladstone 

On the Escanaba River 16.492078.5075035 

Cornell Township Delta 

This is the third dam constructed on the Escanaba River by the Escanaba 
Power Company and its predecessors. It includes a concrete powerhouse, 
40 feet by 80 feet, with two Al 1 is-Chalmers generators, each rated at 
1,200 KVA and operated at 120 R.P.M, The reinforced concrete dam, 
which develops a head of 31 feet, is 195 feet long and consists of 
three steel radial gates, each 15 feet wide, and a concrete spillway 
segment, 150 feet long. 



90 



Grand Rapids Hydroelectric Plant (I908), Holmes 
9» 



UTILITIES 



GRAND RAPIDS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1908) Stephenson 

On the Menominee River 16.449020.5022035 

Holmes Menominee 

In 1903, two similar companies providing electric service and street- 
cars in the twin cities of Marinette, Wisconsin and Menominee, Michigan 
merged to form the Menominee and Marinette Light and Traction Company, 
with a capital of $560,000, later enlarged to $1 million in 1909. This 
hydroelectric plant at the Grand Rapids was designed by Jacobson and 
De Guere, architects, while T.R. Hasley served as the superintendent of 
construction. The rectangular powerhouse, 25 feet wide and 120 feet 
long, is a concrete and steel building with brick walls. The dam created 
by the powerhouse, plus a larger dam located about one-quarter of a mile 
upstream, creates a head of 29 feet. The upstream dam, of concrete 
construction, is about 300 feet long, with a 100 foot spillway portion 
and 15 steel radial gates, each 12 feet wide. The equipment in the 
powerhouse includes two 100 KW D.C. generators and five larger genera- 
tors ranging in capacity from 1,100 KW to 1,800 KW, with a combined 
capacity of 6,900 KW, manufactured by Westinghouse, General Electric, 
and Al 1 is-Chalmers. 
[Sawyer, p. 589] 



HOIST HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1916,1925,19^1) Negaunee 

County Rte. 510, at the Dead River 16.456420.5156560 

Negaunee Township Marquette 

The Hoist Hydroelectric station received its name from the steam hoist 
that the men had to use to lower materials and equipment down a steep 
slope to the site of the building. The brick powerhouse is 107 feet 
long, 25 feet wide, and 30 feet high. The surviving equipment includes 
a I9I6 Westinghouse generator rated at 1,250 KW, a 1925 Al 1 is-Chalmers 
unit rated at 2,500 KW, and a 1941 Al 1 is-Chalmers unit rated at 1,750 
KW. The penstock, which enables this plant to enjoy an effective head 
of 130 feet, consists of a tunnel segment 400 feet long connected to a 
steel tube 383 feet long and 7 feet in diameter. 

[CP & LC; CI iffs News , April 1963, pp. 12-13; Marquette Mining Journal , 
February 3, 1967] 



92 



Grand Rapids Hydroelectric Plant (1908), Holmes 

HOUGHTON COUNTY ELECTRIC COMPANY (c.l902) Chassell 

Memorial Ave. and Bridge St. 1 6. 380580.52 1 9720 

Houghton Houghton 

The Houghton County Electric Light Company was formed in 1902 when the 
older Peninsula Light and Power Company (established in I88't) enlarged 
its generating capacity in order to serve the needs of the recently- 
formed Houghton County Traction Company (see other entry). This power- 
house, built at the turn of the century, was later acquired by the Upper 
Peninsula Power Company in 19^*7 and remained in service until 1959. 
None of the generating equipment remains. The building has coursed 



UTILITIES 



finished Jacobsvllle sandstone walls, a gabled roof, and measures kS 
feet by 75 feet, with an addition, 20 feet by 25 feet at the east end 
of the building, 
[ Houghton , Michigan : 1861-1961 (Houghton, 1961), p. k]] 

HYDRAULIC COMPANY QUINNESEC FALLS 

COMPRESSOR BUILDING (1883) Iron Mountain 

At Big Quinnesec Falls 16 ,419085.5070845 

Quinnesec Dickinson 

Two major Iron Mountain mining companies, the Oliver Iron Mining Company 
and the Ludington Company, formed the Hydraulic Company to utilize the 
water power at Big Quinnesec Falls to produce compressed air for their 
underground mine operations. This part of the Menominee River is still 
known as "Hydraulic Falls" by local residents. This plant was built in 
1883 at a cost of $400,000 and transmitted compressed air along a line 
3 and one-half miles long and 5 feet in diameter. The original turbines, 
compressors, and the transmission line have been scrapped and the intake 
and outflow areas around the building have been filled in. The compres- 
sor building itself has survived, a one-story rectangular stone building, 
60 feet wide and 146 feet long, with a gabled roof, steel roof trussing, 
and no interior columns. 

["Preliminary Report on the Old Quinnesec Falls Plant of the Oliver 
Mining Company" (1933), pp.. 1-3; Walter Nursey, The Menominee Iron Range 
(Milwaukee, I89I), p. 104; American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineers, Handbook of Mining in the Lake Superior Region (1920), p. 84] 

IRON MOUNTAIN FILTRATION PLANT (1924) Iron Mountain 

N. Stephenson St, 16.417800.5075780 

Iron Mountain Dickinson 

This water filtration plant was designed by Hoad, Decker, Schoolcraft, 
and Drury, consulting engineers, during the administration of E,A. Croll, 
Superintendent of Waterworks of Iron Mountain. The plant's original 
capacity was three million gallons per day. It is housed In a T-shaped 
brick building with hipped roofs, with sections measuring 30 feet by 90 
feet and 20 feet by 60 feet. 



94 



IRON RIVER DIESEL PLANT (1923) Iron River 

River St. 16. 373370. 510it920 

Iron River Iron 

This diesel generating plant was originally equipped with two Westing- 
house generators, rated at 1,070 KW each, operating at 6,600 Volts, 
t80 R.P.M. The equipment has been removed, and the plant now serves as 
a district office for the Wisconsin Michigan Power Company. It consists 
of two distinct, but connected rectangular brick buildings: the diese) 
room, measuring hS feet by 68 feet and the turbine room, k\ feet wide 
and 89 feet long. 
[WHPC, p. 22] 



Kingsford Hydroelectric Plant (192*1), Kingsford 
95 



UTILITIES 



KINGSFORD HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1924) Iron Mountain 

Woodward Ave., at the Menominee River 16.412600.5073125 

Kingsford Dickinson 

The Kingsford Hydroelectric Plant was part of Henry Ford's industrial 
development of Kingsford which began In the early 1920 's (see other 
entry). Ford closed Its Kingsford operations In December 1951, and 
this plant was purchased by the Wisconsin Michigan Power Company in 
1953. The dam is 849 feet long overall, creates a hydraulic head of 30 
feet and a pond of 595 acres, and is a gravity dam with concrete core 
walls. It Includes a concrete section containing ten steel radial gates, 
each 20 feet wide and 14 feet high. The concrete powerhouse, 69 feet 
wide and 119 feet long, contains the original equipment, which includes 
three Francis vertical turbines manufactured by the Wei Iman-Seaver- 
Morgan Company, and three Al 1 Is-Chalmers generators, each producing 
3,000 KW, 13,200 Volts, operating at 120 R.P.M. 
[WMPC, p. 25; Lewis] 



L'ANSE POWER STATION (1908) Herman 

Two miles south of L'Anse 16.389065.5176070 

L'Anse Baraga 

The village of L'Anse constructed a small municipal hydroelectric plant 
in 1908, including a concrete dam and powerhouse equipped with a Leffel 
horizontal turbine with a Woodward governor and a 120 KW generator. In 
addition, the plant had a small steam engine driving a 50 KW direct 
current generator. As the electrical demands of the community Increased, 
the village added a series of seven diesel generators In 1923-1949, 
ranging In capacity from 90 KW to 398 KW, manufactured by Fairbanks- 
Morse and Ceterpillar. This plant remained in continuous service be- 
tween 1908 and 1966, except for the period 1929-1940, when the village 
purchased power from the Houghton County Power Company. The concrete 
dam across the Falls River, 120 feet long and 18 feet high, remains, as 
well as the powerhouse, with none of Its equipment extant. The power- 
house is a two-story concrete and concrete block building with a gabled 
roof, 45 feet wide and 70 feet long. 

[Michigan Municipal Utilities Association, Newsletter , IX (Nunberg, 
July 1955), pp. 1-5] 



96 



UTILITIES 



MARINETTE AND MENOMINEE PAPER COMPANY 

HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1922,1924) Marinette 

Hattie St., at the Menominee River 16.449090.499^075 

Menom i nee Menom I nee 

When the Marinette and Menominee Paper Company first established a pulp 
mill on this site In I89I, they erected a wooden crib dam across the 
Menominee River, The dam provided power for the plant's pulp grinding 
machines, but in 1922, electrical generation was added with the con- 
struction of a powerhouse at the south end of the grinding room. This 
building, 31 feet wide and 67 feet long, was equipped with two Allls- 
Chalmers 500 KW generators, operating at I38 R.P.M. The dam, which 
creates a head of 12 feet, was rebuilt in 1922 with fifteen steel radial 
gates, each 46 feet 6 inches wide. The three gates next to the power- 
house were removed In 1924 and replaced by three open spillways of the 
same width. Most of the concrete dam reconstructed in 1922 was left 
intact. 



MARQUETTE CITY 

DIESEL PLANT NUMBER FOUR (1926) Marquette 

County Rte. 550 16.469100.5157940 

Marquette Marquette 

This plant was built in 1926 after a severe two year drought had strained 
the city's municipally-owned power system, consisting of three hydro- 
electric plants (see other entries). The original structure was built 
of brick 50 feet by 60 feet with two Nordberg diesel engines, each 5 
cylinder, 2 stroke, I80 R.P.M., rated at ),250 break horsepower. In 
1947, a 70 foot by 50 foot addition to the building was equipped with 
two more Nordbergs, 7 cylinder, 2 stroke, to power one Westinghouse and 
one Electronic Machinery generators. Again In 1957, the building 
received a 60 foot by 100 foot addition and two 10 cylinder, 2 stroke 
Nordbergs, and I963 saw the addition of a 7 cylinder, 2 stroke Nordberg 
to the same room. These engines all power General Electric generators, 
and all seven diesels are operational. The five newer engines have a 
21.5 Inch bore and a 31 Inch stroke. The plant produces 15,800 KW and 
has a 500,000 gallon fuel storage tank to supply the diesels. 
[MCHS, No. 49.6] 



97 



UTILITIES 



MARQUETTE CITY HYDROELECTRIC PLANT 

NUMBER ONE (1890,1902,1916) Marquette 

Wright St., at the Dead River 16.465900.5156780 

Marquette Marquette 

Marquette's first generating plant was constructed In 1890 at a cost 
of $13fl25 on a 400 acre parcel of land purchased for $10,000. The 
original dam Is not extant, and the powerhouse, a concrete structure 
measuring 82 feet by 100 feet by 25 feet high, has not been used since 
1972. Extant equipment Includes a General Electric horizontal generator, 
rated at 1,250 KW, 2,400 Volts, operating at 600 R.P.M., and a Westing- 
house horizontal generator rated at 550 KW, 2,400 Volts, operating at 
514 R.P.M., both Installed In 1902. There is also a Lombard governor 
built in Ashland, Massachusetts in 1909* In 1916, when Dam Number Two 
was completed, the older dam was bypassed by linking this plant to the 
new dam with a wooden penstock 72 inches in diameter and 2,700 feet 
long, equipped with a concrete "Y'* junction, with one line leading to 
Plant Number One and the other to Plant Number Two, opened further 
upstream in 1920. 
[MCHS, No. 49.6] 



MARQUETTE CITY HYDROELECTRIC PLANT 

NUMBER TWO (1919,1920,1937) • Marquette 

Wright St., at the Dead River 16.466420.5157060 

Marquette Marquette 

Provisions for this plant were made in 1916 when the city constructed 
a concrete **Y" junction at the site of the city Hydroelectric Plant 
Number One on the twin wooden penstocks which are 2,700 feet long, one 
90 inches and the other 72 Inches in diameter, and ran from the city 
Dam Number Two. A concrete surge tank measuring 42 feet by 42 feet by 
60 feet was built In 1919, and the 'T* junction was abandoned when Plant 
Number Two opened and two 440 foot, 72 inch diameter steel penstocks had 
been added running from the surge tank to the plant. The powerhouse Is 
brick with concrete window ornamentation, designed by Orbison and 
Orbison of Appleton, Wisconsin and cost $41,750. Extant equipment in- 
cludes an S. Morgan Smith horizontal turbine developing 2,400 horse- 
power at 400 R.P.M. and two General Electric generators, each rated at 
1,600 KW, 6,600 Volts, operating at 400 R.P.M. The original dam is no 
longer extant, because it was replaced by the present dam In 1937- 
[MCHS, No. 49.6] 



98 



UTILITIES 



MARQUETTE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT 

NUMBER THREE (1924) Marquette 

County Rte. 550, at the Dead River 16.468560.5157^20 

Marquette Marquette 

The city of Marquette's Hydroelectric Plant Number Three is located on 
the Dead River at the site of the former Hercules Powder Company Mill. 
The city purchased 384.1 acres from the company for $25,000 in 1920 and 
constructed a brick power plant designed by Orbison and Orbison of 
Appleton, Wisconsin at a cost of $21,250. The plant is 25 feet by 50 
feet by 35 feet high and is equipped with an S. Morgan Smith turbine, 
45 inch reaction type in a concrete pressure case, developing 1,000 
horsepower at 180 R.P.M. and driving a General Electric generator, pro- 
ducing 750 KW, 2,400 Volts. The concrete dam is 106 feet long, 21 feet 
high, with two radial gates and a steel penstock, 8 feet in diameter 
and 134 feet long, built in 1953. 

[MCHS, No. 49.6; Mining Journal Printshop, Reports of the City of 
Marquette (Marquette, 1920)] 

MARQUETTE CITY WATERWORKS (1890,1937) Marquette 

Lake St. 16.470930.5154530 

Marquette Marquette 

This water pumping plant was completed in I89O and located on the site 
of the city's first waterworks building. It was designed by D.F. 
Charlton and constructed by C.T. Dehaas. The Romanesque red Marquette 
sandstone building measures 44 feet by 86 feet by 42 feet high, with 
a hipped roof and 60 foot smokestack. The original steam-driven pumping 
equipment was removed in 1937 and replaced with three electrically- 
driven centrifugal pumps. 
[ Weekly Mining Journal , October I89O, p. 1; Boyer, Program 307] 

MCCLURE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1919) Marquette 

On the Dead River 16.463500.5157450 

Negaunee Township Marquette 

This hydroelectric plant was named after O.D. McClure, the master me- 
chanic of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company in the early 1900* s. The 
brick powerhouse, measuring 40 feet by 92 feet by 45 feet high, holds 
two General Electric horizontal generators, each rated at 4,000 KW, 



99 



2,300 Volts, operating at 600 R.P.M. The dam is located more than two 
miles upstream from the powerhouse and is linked to it by a penstocic, 
enabling the plant to enjoy an effective head of k2k feet. The penstock 
has a total length of 13t302 feet and consists of two distinct segments: 
a wooden section 7 feet in diameter and 9,700 feet long and a steel 
section 7 feet in diameter and 3,602 feet long. 

ICP & LC; Cliff News , April 1963, pp. 12-13; Marquette Mining Journal , 
February 3, 1967T 



Marquette City Waterworks (1890,1937), Marquette 



UTILITIES 



MENOMINEE WATERWORKS (1884) 
1000 First St. 
Henom I nee 



Marinette 

16.452037.499*094 
Menominee 



Menominee became a city in 1883, and the following year a Boston firm 
built the waterworks and operated the system as a private concern until 
the city purchased the system in 1915 for $185,000. The waterworks was 
originally simply a pumping plant, utilizing a pair of Corliss steam 
engines to pump Lake Michigan water into the system. The city began 
chlorination in 1916 and then built a filtration plant and a 300,000 
gallon clear well in 1917. An additional clear well of 450,000 gallons 
was built in 1924, and the original pumps, built by the Deane Steam 
Pump Company of Hoi yoke, Massachusetts were removed, along with the 
steam engines, and replaced with electrically-powered centrifugal pumps. 
The original pumphouse is a one-story rectangular brick building, 65 
feet by 75 feet, with a hipped roof. Adjacent to It is the 1917 fil- 
tration plant, surrounded on three sides by later additions. The oldest 
extant equipment includes two low- level (intake) pumps of 1 and 3 M.G.D. 
capacity, both electrically-driven centrifugal pumps built by Allis- 
Chalmers in 1917; two high service finished water pumps, each elec- 
trically-driven centrifugal pumps of 1.5 M.G.D. capacity built in 1924; 
and an emergency backup system, also built in 1924, consisting of a 
single 3 M.G.D. Delaval pump driven by a 222 horsepower Sterling gaso- 
line engine. 
[Anonymous, "History of Menominee Water Department"] 



MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY 
GENERATING PLANT (1902,1916) 
On the St. Mary's River 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.704740.5152550 

Chippewa 



The citizens living in the area of Sault Ste. Marie had long recognized 
the power potential of the St. Mary's River, which drops 20 feet there 
and in effect draws on Lake Superior as its mi 11 pond. Some of the 
prominent area businessmen organized the St. Mary's Falls Water Power 
Company in 1885, acquired land holdings, and began constructing a power 
canal on the American side of the Rapids. The project ran into finan- 
cial difficulties and was abandoned in 1887* The unfinished canal was 
later purchased from the people of Sault Ste. Marie for $265,000, the 
amount of bonded indebtedness, by the newly organized Michigan Lake 
Superior Power Company, established in 1894 by Frances H. Clergue. The 



101 



Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Generating Plant 
(1902,1916), Sault Ste. Harle 



UTILITIES 



new company developed water power on the Canadian side of the river 
first, but finally developed the American side by constructing a power 
canal (see other entries) leading to a large hydroelectric plant in 
1898-1902, The entire project was supervised by the company's chief 
engineer, H. von Schon and cost approximately $k million. The project 
officially opened on October 25, 1902, and Clergue spent $50,000 for a 
celebration featuring parades, fireworks, and a massive banquet with 
tables running the entire length of the powerhouse. The building is 
1,400 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 75 feet high. The red sandstone 
masonry walls of the powerhouse were built with stone excavated from the 
canal. It rests on a foundation of 10,000 twenty-foot piles. There are 
81 turbine pit walls, each 100 feet long, 20 feet high, and 3 feet thick, 
constructed of concrete blocks. Above them are 81 penstock partitions, 
each 20 feet high, kO feet long, and 17 inches thick. The dynamo room, 
which is the lower level of the building, is kO feet wide. The upper 
level, usually called the mill floor or furnace room, is 75 feet wide 
and 1,400 feet long. Clergue intended that this upper floor be occupied 
by an industrial tenant who would use the available power. In fact, the 
Union Carbide Company moved into the second floor of the building in 1903 
to produce calcium carbide, bought the powerhouse in 191 3 » and remained 
in it until 1963» when it was sold to Edison Sault Electric Company. 
Although 81 penstocks were built, only 78 were equipped with turbines 
and generators, with penstocks Numbers One, Forty-Three, and Eighty-One 
vacant. The plant was not fully equipped with 78 sets of turbines and 
generators until 1916, after the Union Carbide takeover. Today, there 
are k] turbines installed in 1902 and 37 installed in 1915-1916. The 
original installation consisted of four 33 inch American turbines oper- 
ating in tandem in each penstock. The oldest generators in place were 
either rebuilt or newly installed in 1916. 

[ Electrical World and Engineer , XL, pp. 483-485; Scientific American , 
May 26, 1900, pp. 32^-329; Engineering Record , XXXVIII, July 23, 1898, 
pp. 160-161; Engineering News , August 4, 1898, pp. 68-70; Engineering 
News , XLVIII, September 25, 1902, pp. 226-227; Joseph E. and Mary L. 
Bayliss, River of Destiny : The St . Mary's (Detroit, 1955), pp. 142-146] 



MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY 
HEADGATES (1902,1917) 
At the head of the Power Canal 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702130.5152565 
Ch i ppewa 



The headgates for the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Canal (see 
other entry) are located 2,900 feet south of the canal entrance. They 



103 



consist of three masonry piers supporting four steel Stoney sluice gates, 
each kB feet wide and 26 feet 8 inches high. They were originally raised 
by hand, through a geared-down racic and pinion system utilizing counter- 
weights and were designed by Ralph Hodjeski , civil engineer. In 1917, 
two five horsepower electric motors were connected to each gate and en- 
closed by housings which were built on top of the 35 foot steel towers 
and frameworic which were part of the original installation. A concrete 
apron approximately ^tO feet wide and 200 feet long was also added in 1917. 
[ Engineering News , XLVIl, September 25, 1902, p. 227; Electrical World 
and Engineer, XL, September 27, 1902, p. ^8*1] 



Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Generating Plant 
(1902,1916), Sault Ste. Marie 



Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Headgates 
{1902,1917). SauU Ste. Harle 



MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY 

POWER CANAL (1902) Sault Ste. Harie South 

Around the St. Mary's Falls 16.701560.5152760 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

This impressive power canal, more than two miles long, is one of the 
most significant engineering features of the Michigan Lake Superior 
Power Company complex constructed in 1898-1902 (see other entries). The 
intake section, built by H.W. Hubbel I and Company of West Bay City. Mich- 
igan, is 950 feet wide at Lake Superior, but then narrows to 250 feet 
wide after about 1,000 feet, and is 2,900 feet long overall, ending at 



UTILITIES 

the headgates (see other entry). It was dug through stone, with about 
500,000 cubic yards excavated. The second segment, extending for 3,000 
feet In a straight line easterly, was cut through sand, clay, and gravel. 
In section, this portion has a trapezoidal configuration, 218 feet wide 
at the water surface, 17^* feet wide at the bed, and 22 feet deep. The 
canal was originally to be straight, but its route was changed when quick- 
sand was discovered. The third segment extends northerly with a three 
degree curvature for 3,000 feet, thus avoiding the area of quicksand. 
It has a configuration similar to that of the second segment. Since the 
canal was dug through soft materials in the second and third segments, 
the canal walls and bottom had to be designed to avoid erosion. Both 
the bed and slopes of the canal have log timber sills resting on bearing 
piles, and are floored with deck planking. This design is one of the 
more interesting features of the canal. The second and third segments 
were built by the E.D. Smith Company of Philadelphia. Finally, the 
fourth segment is the forebay leading to the powerhouse. Here, the 
canal widens to a width of 1,400 feet at the powerhouse. The Mason and 
Hodge Company of Frankfort, Kentucky built the forebay segment and the 
powerhouse. The canal was designed to deliver about 30,000 cubic feet 
of water per second. The water moves at about k and one-half M.P.H. and 
loses approximately 3 feet of head over the length of the canal. 
[ Electrical World and Engineer , XL, September 27, 1902, p. 483; Scientific 
American , May 26, 1900, p. 328; Engineering Record , XXXVMI, July 23, 1898, 
p. 162; Engineering News , XL, August 4, 1898, p. 68; Engineering News , 
XLVIII, September 25, 1902, pp. 226-227; Joseph E. and Mary L. Bayliss, 
River of Destiny : The St^. Mary's (Detroit, 1955), PP. 142-144] 

NEGAUNEE CITY WATERWORKS (1882, c.1930) Negaunee 

US-41 and Baldwin St. 16.452970.5150380 

Negaunee Marquette 

The Negaunee Waterworks was completed in 1882 by L.F. Pierce and the 
Negaunee Constructing Company at a cost of $25,000. The sandstone 
building housing the pumping equipment is extant and measures 50 feet 
by 60 feet by 25 feet high. The original boilers manufactur'ed by the 
Iron Bay Manufacturing Company and the pumps, manufactured by T.S. and 
A.J. Kirkwood, were replaced in the early 1930's by three electrically- 
driven pumps. 

[J.R. Whitaker, **Negaunee, Michigan: An Urban Center Dominated by the 
Iron Industry,** Ph.D. Thesis, Northwestern University (1931), P- 951 



106 



UTILITIES 



PINTSCH COMPRESSING COMPANY (c-1900) 
657 Ridge St. 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16,702335. 5152775 
Ch i ppewa 



This two-story rectangular brick building, 2k feet wide and 30 feet long, 
with a gabled roof, was built around 1900 and served as the home for the 
Pintsch Compressing Company, a coal gas manufacturer, until 1938, It 
has had several occupants since and is now owned by an oil company. 
[ Sault Ste . Marie Directory , 1910-19^0, passim .] 



PRICKETT HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1931) 
PrIckett Dam Rd. 
Baraga Township 



Sidnaw 

16.372105.5175085 
Baraga 



The PrIckett Hydroelectric Plant was completed In November 1931, after 
the Victoria Hydroelectric Plant (see other entry) was also built by 
the Price Brothers Company for the Copper Range Company. It consists 
of an earth gravity dam 500 feet long, developing a head of Sk feet. 
With a concrete spillway segment containing three steel radial gates, 
each 13 and one-half feet long and 2k feet high. Two penstocks, each 
8 feet in diameter and 77 feet long, lead from the dam to the powerhouse, 
a rectangular brick building, 20 feet by kS feet, resting on a concrete 
foundation. The original penstocks were replaced In 1966 with new ones 
built of Douglas fir staves. The original installation is intact and 
includes two Al 1 is-Chalmers horizontal Francis turbines and two 1,375 KW 
Al 1 is-Chalmers generators. 



ST. IGNACE ELECTRIC AND WATER 

COMPANY (1889) 

Foot of Bert rand St. 

St. Ignace 



St. Ignace 

16.678070.5080690 

Mackinac 



St. Ignace built a water supply system in I889 at a cost of $48,000 and 
then erected a municipal electric power plant in 1892 for $9,000. The 
first engineer to manage this combined plant was Richard Boulton, who 
was appointed in 1892 with a monthly salary of $75. None of the ori- 
ginal equipment, which included a steam engine, and later diesel engines, 
has survived. The plant was sold to Edison Sault Electric Company in 
the early 1930's, and the original building housing this equipment was 
converted to office space in 1962. It is a single-story brick and 



107 



stucco building, 70 feet square, with a hipped roof. Attached to It Is 
a two-story concrete addition built in the early I920's, measuring 45 
feet by 'tO feet, with a gabled roof, and a cinder bIocl< addition built 
in the I950's. 

[Emerson R. Smith, Before the Br jd ge : A HJsto^ry of St. Ignace (St. Ignace, 
1957). p. gJt] 



Saxon Falls Hydroelectric Plant (1912), Ironwood Township 



UTILITIES 



SAXON FALLS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1912) Little Girls Point 

Saxon Falls Rd., at the Montreal River 15.701000.5156085 

Ironwood Township Gogebic 

The hydroelectric plant at Saxon Falls was built in 1912 by the Ironwood 
and Bessemer Light, Power , and Street Railway Company and then sold in 
1922 to the Lake Superior District Power Company, the present owners. 
It consists of a rectangular concrete powerhouse, 30 feet by 53 feet, 
housing two horizontal Al 1 is-Chalmers turbines and two General Electric 
generators, each rated at 625 KW, 2,300 Volts, operating at 600 R.P.M. 
Twin steel penstocks, each 52 inches in diameter, run from the power- 
house to the dam which is located approximately 1,500 feet upstream and 
provides this plant with a hydraulic head of 135 feet. There is a steel 
surge tank located at the powerhouse to absorb any sudden changes in 
water pressure in the penstocks. 



STURGEON FALLS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1905) Pembine 

At Sturgeon Falls, on the Menominee River 16.432090.5065050 

Norway Township Dickinson 

This Menominee River hydroelectric plant was built in 1905 by the Penn 
Iron Company, which ran the plant until 19^6, when the City of Norway 
bought it. The finished stone powerhouse has a curved configuration, 
concave against the flow of the Menominee River. The original equip- 
ment, still extant, includes one Westinghouse 2,000 KW generator and a 
General Electric 1,500 KW generator, both operated at 180 R.P.M. , and 
driven by a pair of Leffel vertical turbines. Flanking both sides of 
the powerhouse are two sets of ten vertical lift sluice gates atop the 
concrete arch dam. 
[ Vulcan ; Michigan Centennial , 1872-1972 , pp. 91-92] 

STURGEON HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1923) Vulcan 

On the Sturgeon River 16.439210.50707^0 

Waucedah Township Dickinson 

This plant consists of a concrete arch dam, a small brick powerhouse 
located downstream, and a tunnel, 7 feet in diameter and 252 feet long, 
carrying water from the dam to the turbines. The dam is 310 feet long, 
53 feet high, and creates a pond of 248 acres. It consists of an open 



109 



spillway segment 217 feet long, a trash gate, and a headgate. The brick 
powerhouse, measuring 21 feet by 3k feet, houses the single Uestinghouse 
generator, a 1,000 KW unit operated at 2,300 Volts, 400 R.P.M. 
[WHPC, p. 20] 



Sturgeon Falls Hydroelectric Plant {1905), Norway Township 



SUPERIOR FALLS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1917) Little Girls Point 

Wisconsin Rte. 122, at the Montreal River 1 5. 698000. 5 159080 

Ironwood Township Gogebic 

The Ironwood and Bessemer Light, Power, and Street Railway Company built 
this plant !n 1917 and then sold it to the Lake Superior District Power 



UTILITIES 



Company, the current owners. The plant was designed by the L.E. Meyers 
Company of Chicago and consists of a reinforced concrete gravity type 
dam, 240 feet long and 28 feet high, located 2,000 feet upstream from 
the powerhouse and connected to it by a penstock, originally constructed 
of hemlock, then replaced in 1935 by one built of redwood, which was in 
turn replaced by the present concrete and steel penstock. The power- 
house, 33 feet by 63 feet overall, houses two Al 1 is-Chalmers horizontal 
turbines which drive two General Electric generators, each 950 KW, 
2,300 Volts, operating at 600 R.P.M. 



TWIN CITY GENERAL ELECTRIC 

COMPANY (1890,1927) Ironwood 

Pine St., at Balsam St. 15.717185.51^7500 

Ironwood Gogebic 

This building originally housed the steam-powered central power plant 
of the Twin City General Electric Company. It was converted into an 
electrical substation in 1927* and the original gabled roof was replaced 
with a flat roof. This rectangular building, 20 feet by 132 feet, has 
rubble masonry footings and walls. None of the original equipment is 
extant. 

[Lake Superior District Power Company, Souvenir of Gogebic County , 
Michigan (Iron Mountain, c. 1905)1 

TWIN FALLS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1912) Iron Mountain 

At Twin Falls, on the Menominee River 16.417000.5080260 

Breitung Township Dickinson 

The Twin Falls Hydroelectric Plant is one of the oldest remaining on 
the Menominee River. The plant was built by the Peninsular Power Com- 
pany, organized in 191 1» with O.C. Davidson of the Oliver Mining Company 
as its first president. Peninsular sold its plants at Twin Falls and 
Big Quinnesec Falls (see other entry) in 1924 to North American Invest- 
ment, which also owned the Wisconsin Traction, Light, Heat, and Power 
Company. The two companies merged in 1927 to form the Wisconsin 
Michigan Power Company. The earth gravity dam, which has concrete 
core walls, is 924 feet long overall, kO feet high, and produces a 
hydraulic head of kk feet and a pond of 1,120 acres. It has two con- 
crete spillway sections, one with three steel radial gates, the second 
with four. The powerhouse consists of a generator room, kS feet wide 



111 



UTILITIES 



and 123 feet long, and an adjoining switchhouse, 21 feet by 75 feet. The 
original equipment, all extant, includes five Francis horizontal turbines 
manufactured by the Leffel Company in Springfield, Ohio; two generators 
rated at 1,370 KW and three generators rated at 1,250 KW, all manufactured 
by Westinghouse and producing 6,600 Volts at 257 R.P.M. 
[WMPC, p. 13; Iron Mountain News , July 1, 1976, p. 17l 

VICTORIA DAM (1930 Rockland 

Victoria Dam Rd. 16,329050-5172083 

V i c tor i a On tonagon 

This concrete multiple-arch dam was erected by the Price Brothers Com- 
pany, general contractors, in 1929*1930 and was dedicated on New Years 
Day 1931* It was designed by the engineering firm of Holland, Ackerman, 
and Holland for the Copper Range Company's hydroelectric development at 
this site. The complex cost $4.5 million and included this dam, the 
powerhouse (see other entry) located downstream, and a 10 foot diameter 
penstock constructed of California redwood staves, 6,050 feet in length. 
This penstock was replaced in 1959 with one of the same dimensions, but 
constructed of Douglas fir, utilizing the original concrete saddles. 
The entire complex was acquired by the present owners, the Upper Penin- 
sula Power Company, In 19^*7. The dam consists of four large concrete 
arches extending across a deep gorge, and a concrete ta inter gate 
section with the largest arch measuring 115 feet tall. The arches, 
which are Inclined at a kS degree angle to the downstream side, are k 
feet thick at the toe and 2 feet thick at the crest. The arches have 
a diameter of 68 feet and a circumference of 107 feet. While the dam 
itself creates a head of 115 feet, the penstock gives the plant an 
additional operating head of 100 feet, for a total of 215 feet. 
[Harry S. Price, Build for Tomorrow (Dayton, I960), pp. 106-125] 

VICTORIA HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1931) Rockland 

Victoria Dam Rd. 16.331000.5173080 

V i c tor i a On tonagon 

The Victoria Hydroelectric Plant was constructed in 1929-1930 and dedi- 
cated on New Years Day 1931* It was designed by the engineering firm 
of Holland, Ackerman, and Holland for the Copper Range Company and was 
built by the Price Brothers Company, general contractors, at a cost of 
$4.5 million. The plant includes a multiple-arch concrete dam and a 



112 



Victoria Dam (1931), Victoria 
113 



6,050 foot penstock (see other entry), along with this powerhouse located 
downstream from the dam. This rectangular brick powerhouse, 25 feet by 
70 feet, rests on a concrete foundation. It houses the original instal- 
lation, which Includes two S. Morgan Smith vertical Francis turbines and 
two 7,500 KW Al 1 is-Chalmers generators. 
[Harry S. Price, B ui l d for Tomorrow (Dayton, I960), pp. 106-125] 



Victoria Hydroelectric Plant (1931), Victoria 
l|l| 



UTILITIES 



VICTORIA MINING COMPANY 

AIR COMPRESSOR (1906) Rockland 

South of Victoria Dam 16, 329050.51 72083 

Victoria Ontonagon 

Copper mining in Victoria commenced in the l850*s, but a major forest 
fire and flood in I858 stopped mining operations here for nearly a half 
century. The Victoria Copper Mining Company was reorganized in 1899, 
reopened the Victoria Mine, and ran it until 1921, when it closed 
permanently. This hydraulic compressed air plant was designed and built 
by C.H. Taylor of Montreal for the Victoria Mining Company. Opened in 
1906, this plant uses the power of falling water from the Ontonagon 
River to produce compressed air, at a pressure of 117 pounds per square 
Inch, without utilizing any moving parts. A concrete dam 300 feet long 
and 10 feet high was built across the river, along with a 6,000 foot 
long canal with a sectional area of 350 square feet. The dam was re- 
placed by the Victoria Dam in 1931 (see other entry) and only a few 
remnants of the canal remain. At the end of the canal, the water 
entered three vertical shafts 3^*2 feet deep leading to an underground 
air storage chamber 282 feet long, varying in width from 57 feet to 18 
feet, and measuring between 22 and 25 feet in height. This underground 
air chamber has a total capacity of 80,264 cubic feet. On the end of 
the chamber opposite the entrance pipes, there is a tunnel, 18 feet by 
10 feet by kO feet long, leading to an inclined shaft which carries the 
water back to the river, a point 71 feet below the entrance point, thus 
giving the plant an effective hydraulic head of 71 feet. Two pipes 
lead from the underground chamber, a 2k inch air pipe carrying the 
compressed air to the mine, and a 12 inch blow-off pipe which serves 
as an automatic governor for the plant. The plant operated in the 
following manner: the water falling through the entrance shafts passed 
over a series of three-eighths inch air tubes, thus enclosing small 
bubbles of air in the descending water, and gradually compressing this 
air during the descent. Upon reaching the underground chamber, the air 
would rise to the top of the chamber and the water was forced out of the 
inclined shaft to the surface. The 12 inch blow-off pipe served as a 
governor because when the air pressure in the chamber was too low, the 
water level rose and closed the blow-off pipe, thus preventing any 
escape of air. On the other hand, when the air pressure in the chamber 
was too high, i.e., above 117 P.S.I., the water level was forced down, 
exposing the end of the blow-off pipe, and sending a mixture of com- 
pressed air and water to the surface, where it creates a geyser effect. 



115 



UTILITIES 



This air compressor plant was last used in 1929-1931 » when the Victoria 
Dam was built and all that remains in terms of visible surface struc- 
tures are the three intakes enclosed by a steel framework, all of which 
were originally enclosed by a small building. 

[Sawyer, p. 502; "The Hydraulic Compressed Air Plant at the Victoria 
Mine," Engineering and Mining Journal , LXXXIII, January 19, 1907, 
pp. 125-130; Mines Handbook and Copper Handbook , XII (1916), p. 1,193; 
PLSMI, XII (August 1906), ppTTS, U8-lT?9l 



WHITE RAPIDS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1927) Wausaukee 

On the Menominee River 16.437030.5036060 

Holmes Township Menominee 

The White Rapids Hydroelectric Plant was constructed in 1927 and then 
sold in 1937 by Northern Electric Company to the Wisconsin Michigan 
Power Company, the present owners. It includes a rectangular brick 
powerhouse, 36 feet wide and 133 feet long, featuring ornamental stone- 
work and stained glass windows. This plant has the original equipment 
intact, including three S. Morgan Smith, Francis vertical turbines, two 
generators rated at 3,720 KW and a third rated at 2,500 KW, all operating 
at 2,300 Volts. The earth gravity dam, which is 1,236 feet long, creates 
a hydraulic head of 29 feet, and was constructed with steel sheet pilings 
It includes a concrete spillway section with nine steel radial gates. 
[WMPC, p. 31; Iron Mountain News, July 1, 1976, p. 17l 



116 



POWER SOURCES AND PRIME MOVERS 



CORLISS STEAM ENGINE (1912) Watersmeet 

Abbott Fox Community Park 16.3^^045.5^9017 

Trout Creek Ontonagon 

This engine was built by the A1 1 is-Chalmers Company in 1912 for use in 
a Minneapolis flour mill. In 1921, it was purchased by the Weideman 
Lumber Company for their Trout Creek sawmill, which was later owned by 
the Abbott Fox Lumber Company. It was retired in 1968 and has since 
been restored and is now displayed in a community park. This 500 horse- 
power engine has a 28 inch bore, 48 inch stroke, a flywheel measuring 
16 feet in diameter and 46 inches wide, and operated at a pressure of 
90 pounds per square inch. 

CHAPIN MINE PUMPING ENGINE (I89I) Iron Mountain 

Kent St., at Carpenter Ave. 16.416960.5074860 

Iron Mountain Dickinson 

This steam pumping engine was built by the E.P. All is Company of Mil- 
waukee in 1891 and was designed by the company's chief engineer, Edwin 
Reynolds, and was installed in 1892 at the Chapin Mine (see other 
entries) at a cost of $25,000 and first operated on January 3» 1893. 
This pumping engine was first situated at the Chapin Mine site in 1893~ 
1896 and was then disassembled and moved to its present location at the 
"C" Ludington Shaft, where it continued in operation until 1914, when it 
was replaced with electric pumps. The engine's capacity of 3»400 gallons 
per minute was sufficient to handle the Chapin Mine's normal flow of 
about 3f000 gallons per minute. The Chapin Mine was permanently closed 
in 1934, and the building housing this engine was demolished, but the 
engine was donated to the City of Iron Mountain. It is a vertical tan- 
dem compound steam engine with a high pressure cylinder 50 inches in 
diameter, a low pressure cylinder 100 inches in diameter, and a piston 
stroke of 120 inches. It stands 54 feet tall and has a flywheel 40 feet 
in diameter. The engine weighed I60 tons and according to its builders, 
was the largest of its type ever constructed. Underground, there were 
ten pumps in a vertical shaft, eight set at intervals of 192 feet and 
two at intervals of 170 feet on the pump rod, extending a total of 1,500 
feet below the surface. 

[ Iron Mountain News , July 1, 1976; Sawyer, p. 545; David Ski 1 lings, 
"Chapin Pump . . . Mechanical Wonder," Skil 1 ings ' Mining Review ; Paul 
C. Ziemke, "Old Pumping Engine Preserved for Posterity," Compressed Air 
Magazine , November 1947, pp. 276-277] 



117 



INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION 



The transportation category includes all structures and equip- 
ment associated with inland navigation, marine transportation, railroad 
networks, highways, and air transport. This section is comprised mainly 
of sites relating to marine transportation and railroads, historically 
the most significant means of transportation in the Upper Peninsula. 
Not surprisingly, the early development of transportation networks in 
this region was closely linked to the exploitation of its principal 
natural resources — iron, copper, and timber. 

The development of Great Lakes navigation in the nineteenth 
century was vital to the exploitation of the region's mineral resources. 
Once the navigation canal around the St. Mary's Falls at Sault Ste. Harie 
was opened in 1855, there were no major barriers to trade with the lower 
Great Lakes. The subsequent increase in marine traffic prompted the 
first major boom in lighthouse construction, which continued into the 
twentieth century as shipping patterns changed, and the major lanes 
became increasingly clogged. The Inventory includes fourteen light- 
houses constructed in 1855-1869, nine built in the l870's, and an addi- 
tional fourteen erected between I88O and 1920. Nine isolated light- 
houses, mostly offshore, were not visited during the survey and are 
simply listed on a separate page at the end of this section. The Inven- 
tory also contains a variety of extant ships ranging from the wooden 
schooner, the Alvin Clark (1846) to the 550 foot ore carrier, the 
Louis W. Hill (1917)> 

A few ports controlled the shipment of ores during the nine- 
teenth century, with Marquette and Escanaba serving the iron mines, and 
the twin cities of Houghton-Hancock on Portage Lake dominating the trade 
in copper. Marquette was the exclusive shipping point for iron ore in 
1846-1864, and it remained the leading port until the early l870's, when 
it was surpassed by Escanaba. The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 
constructed its first line in I865 to link the Marquette Range mines 
with the warmer water port of Escanaba on Lake Michigan. After the deve- 
lopment of the Menominee Range mines in the late l870's and l880's, 
Escanaba became the premier iron port of the Upper Peninsula, with more 
than a dozen major docks by the turn of the century. Ashland, Wisconsin 
served the Gogebic Range mines throughout their productive history. All 
the ore docks were constructed of massive timbers prior to 1912, when 
the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad completed the second reinforced 
concrete dock in the United States at Presque Isle, north of Marquette. 
It is still standing, along with the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic 
Railroad dock (1932) in Marquette. None of the earlier wooden struc- 
tures have survived. 

118 



INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION 



There were significant Improvements in the marine transpor- 
tation system throughout the nineteenth century, particularly as shippers 
developed larger bulk carriers. Enlarged locks were completed at the 
St. Mary's Falls in I88I, I896, 191^, and 1919, with accompanying en- 
largement and deepening of the approach channels. With numerous subse- 
quent alterations at this site, the Davis Lock (191^) is the oldest one 
remaining. There are also two historic breakwaters in this section, at 
Marquette Harbor (189^) and at Presque Isle Harbor (1926). Two major 
developments in the Copper Country should be mentioned as well, although 
there are no clearly-identifiable remains from either. The Portage Lake 
Ship Canal, offering a short-cut through the Keweenaw Peninsula, was 
completed in 1873, and several mining companies jointly built a channel 
connecting Torch Lake and Portage Lake, completed In 1875. 

The railroad network began with a series of short specialized 
lines built to connect the mines with the ports. The earliest were the 
Iron Mountain Railroad, built in 1855*1857 to link Negaunee and Marquette, 
the Peninsula Railroad between Marquette and Escanaba (1864), and the 
Harquette and Ontonagon Railroad, which reached Champion in I865 and 
L'Anse in 1872. In the Copper Country, the Calumet and Hecla Mining 
Company built a four mile line from Calumet to Lake Linden in I866, and 
the Mineral Range Railroad opened a line connecting Hancock and Calumet 
in 1873* Other significant mining railroads included the Lake Superior 
and Ishpeming (I896) and the Copper Range Railroad (1900) linking Mass 
City and Houghton. 

General -purpose railroads serving the entire region did not 
emerge until the l880's. The Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic absorbed 
several smaller railroads in I886 and opened its main line between 
Duluth and Sault Ste. Marie in I887* At the same time, the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad, more commonly called the "Soo 
Une", also constructed a line between Minneapolis and Sault Ste. Marie 
in 1884-1887. The construction of an international railroad bridge at 
Sault Ste. Marie in I887 (see Bridges section) completed a rail system 
linking the upper Midwest with the East Coast of the United States. 
These two major systems merged in I96I to form the Soo Line Railroad 
Company. Electric interurban systems were rare in this sparsely popu- 
lated region, with the extensive Houghton County Traction Company 
system, begun in 1900, and the Escanaba Street Railway Company (1911) 
the two most notable exceptions. 



119 



INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION 



The passenger and freight stations, as well as the repair 
facilities in this survey, are generally less impressive than those 
encountered in the Lower Peninsula because the cities of the Upper Pen in 
sula were much smaller. Of a total of thirty-eight passenger stations, 
twenty-four were built of wood and only fourteen are either stone or 
brick. The oldest dates from 187^, but the overwhelming majority were 
built between 1880 and 1900. The surviving repair facilities include 
twelve roundhouses in this section and two additional ones built by 
mining companies and listed in the Extractive Industries section of 
the volume. The most noteworthy are the Chicago and Northwestern 
Roundhouse in Escanaba (1869) and the extensive Copper Range Railroad 
repair facilities (1899) in Houghton. There are also more than a dozen 
railroad locomotives at seven sites, ranging in age from 1868 to 1916. 

The Upper Peninsula's transportation network is distinctive 
because most of it was constructed to serve the mining or lumbering 
industries. In the case of railroads, the mining companies often built 
and operated the lines as an integral part of their overall operations. 
This was the case for the Heel a and Torch Lake, Quincy and Torch Lake, 
Copper Range, and the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroads. Other 
major lines like the Chicago and Northwestern relied heavily on the 
traffic generated by the mines. The railroad system and the transpor- 
tation network in general tended to promote heavy specialization in the 
extractive industries, but did not foster a more general economic deve- 
lopment of the region. Even the two cross-peninsula railroads were 
originally built to provide a through route between the upper Midwest 
and the East Coast for food grains and flour. The transportation 
system both reflected and contributed to the unbalanced economic deve- 
lopment of the region. 



120 



RAILROAD ABBREVIATIONS 



C, M, SP S P RR 



Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific 
Ra i 1 road 



C & NW RR 



Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 



CR RR 



Copper Range Railroad 



D, SS & A RR 



Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad 



LS S I RR 



Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad 



M, H & RR 



Marquette, Houghton, and Ontonagon Railroad 



M S RR 



Marquette and Ontonagon Railroad 



M S SE RW 



Marquette and Southeastern Railway 



M, SP S SSM RR 



Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie 
Ra i 1 road 



N S N RW 



Nahma and Northern Railway 



Q S TL RR 



Quincy and Torch Lake Railroad 



121 



TRANSPORTATION 



The Alvln Clark (1846), Henomina 



TRANSPORTATION 



THE ALVIN CLARK (1846) Marinette 

Mystery Ship Seaport 16.451025.499^044 

Menom i nee Menom i nee 

The Alvin Clark Is a single-deck, two-masted, square-sterned wooden 
sailing ship, 113 feet long, 24 feet wide, and 14 feet deep from rail 
to keel. She was built mostly of white oak, had a main mast of 110 feet, 
outer planking 2 and one-half inches thick with 10 inch ribs, and inner 
planking 2 and one-half inches thick. The ship was built in 1846 at 
Truago, Michigan, probably by John Clark, who had a son named Alvin. 
In 1864, she capsized and sank in a storm off Chambers Island in Green 
Bay, about 15 miles from Menominee. In November 1967, a commercial 
fishing vessel caught its nets on the Alvin Clark 's masts and divers 
sent down to free the nets discovered the schooner lying on the bottom 
intact. After seyeral unsuccessful efforts to raise the ship in 1968, 
she was brought to the surface on July 29, 1969 and Is now the center- 
piece for a maritime museum in Menominee. 



BETE GRIS [MENDOTA] LIGHTHOUSE (c.l870) Point Isabel le 

On Mendota Point 16.427000.5246960 

Point Mendota Keweenaw 

The Bete Gris (Mendota) Lighthouse guides shipping into the Mendota Ship 
Canal and consists of a brick 1 ightkeeper's house and an attached brick 
light tower. The house is a simple rectangular structure, 20 feet by 
25 feet, with a gabled roof, while the tower is 8 feet square and 40 
feet high. 



BIG BAY POINT LIGHTHOUSE (I896) Big Bay 

On Big Bay Point 16.448015.5187055 

Big Bay Marquette 

The Big Bay Point Lighthouse was authorized by an act of Congress in 
1893 and was completed at a cost of $25,000 in I896. The lighthouse Is 
a two-story brick dwelling, 52 feet by 52 feet with 18 rooms, with the 
light atop a tower rising from the middle of the house and standing 105 
feet above the lake. There Is also a small brick building, 20 feet by 
15 feet that housed a steam-powered foghorn which was replaced In 1928 
by a modern air diaphone. The lighthouse is no longer maintained by 
the Coast Guard, having been sold In 1961. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 119; MCHS, No. 49.6] 

123 



TRANSPORTATION 



Big Bay Point Lighthouse (I896), Big Bay 

BIG SABLE [AU SABLE] 

LIGHT STATION {1873.1909) Au Sable Point 

On Au Sable Point 16.565850.5168940 

Grand Marais Alger 

The segment of the Lake Superior coast that this lighthouse was intended 
to illuminate, between Hunising and Grand Marais, was cominonly called 
the "Graveyard Coast" because of the large number of shipwrecks it pro- 
duced. The Big Sable Light Station, renamed the Au Sable Light Station 
in 1910, was constructed at an isolated site west of Grand Marais. The 
conical brick tower, resting on a foundation of cut stone, is 16 feet 6 
inches in diameter at the base, tapers to a diameter of 12 feet 8 inches 



TRANSPORTATIOH 



at the top, and is 87 feet high. The attached brick I Ightkeeper 's house 
was originally a single-story building, but was enlarged to two stories 
in 1909. There is another keeper's dwelling west of the tower, a two- 
story brick structure, with a hipped roof, also built In 1909- There 
is also a brick oil house and a privy, both built In 1873- The United 
States Coast Guard took this facility out of service in 1958 and trans- 
ferred the property to the National Park Service for Inclusion in the 
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. 
[USC6, Light List , p. 117; Holland, p. 186; NR] 



Big Sable [Au Sable] Light Station (1873.1909), Grand Harals 
125 



TRANSPORTATION 



C, M, SP S P RR: IRON MOUNTAIN 

STATION (c.1910) Iron Mountain 

East B St. 16.417180.5074065 

Iron Mountain Dickinson 

This brick passenger station was built around 1910 and permitted the 
conversion of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad's 
first station into a freight facility (see other entry). This rectan- 
gular building is 25 feet wide and 100 feet long, with a hipped roof 
and an adjoining covered passenger platform 25 feet wide and 30 feet 
long. 



C, M, SP S P RR: MENOMINEE 

FREIGHTHOUSE (1885) Marinette 

Fourth Ave., at Third St. 16.452045.4994020 

Menominee Menominee 

The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad built a spur from 
its main line in Wisconsin to Menominee in 1885, and this freighthouse 
was built at that time. It is a simple wood-framed rectangular one-story 
building with a gabled roof, 30 feet wide and 90 feet long, with six 
loading doors, each 15 feet wide, facing the tracks. 



C, M, SP & P RR: MENOMINEE 

STATION (1885) Marinette 

219 Third St. 16.452070.4994020 

Menominee Menominee 

This attractive wooden passenger station was built when the Chicago, 
Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad reached Menominee in 1885. 
Measuring 20 feet wide and 80 feet long, it features a hipped roof with 
wide overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. There is a covered 
passenger waiting platform, 25 feet by 30 feet, at the east end of the 
station. 



126 



TRANSPORTATION 




C, M, SP & P RR: Menominee Station (1885), Menominee 



C & NW RR: ESCANABA REPAIR 
SHOPS {c.1869-1890) 
East of Third Ave. 
Escanaba 



Escanaba 

16.495047.5065080 

Delta 



TKe Chicago and Northwestern Railroad toolc over a line built by the 
Peninsula Railroad between Marquette and Escanaba in I865 and In the 
same year opened a second line between Negaunee and Escanaba. This port 
city on Lake Michigan quickly became the premier ore shipping point of 
the Upper Peninsula, and the railroad built a major repair facility and 
tie-treating plant here, complementing its important ore docks. Esca- 
naba became the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad's divisional head- 
quarters, employing about 750 men in the late nineteenth century. The 



127 



TRANSPORTATION 



roundhouse was described in 1869 as just completed, with fifteen fire- 
proof stalls. By I89O, the roundhouse had nineteen additional stalls, 
probably built before iBBl, when a bird's-eye view of the city showed 
an enlarged building. Also by I89O, in addition to the roundhouse, 
this repair facility included a brick machine shop, 30 feet by 300 
feet, and a blacksmith shop, 60 feet by 300 feet. This complex Is 
greatly diminished from its previous size. The roundhouse was reduced 
in size in 1952 and again in 1961, leaving only six stalls standing. 
The building has an inside diameter of 60 feet, an outside diameter of 
200 feet, and is 90 feet deep. It is a wood-framed structure, with 
the exception of one exterior wall which was originally an interior 
fire wall between portions of the roundhouse. Nearby there is a 
center-mounted steel girder turntable, 12 feet wide and 95 feet long. 
The blacksmith shop is still standing, as well as a small portion of 
the machine shop. 

[Dunbar, p. 117; Sawyer, p. 371; Walter Nursey, The City of Escanaba , 
Michigan : Iron Port of the World (Escanaba, I89O), p. Sk; J.J. Stoner, 
Bird's-Eye View of Escanaba , Michigan iBBl : History of the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan (Chicago: Western Historical Company, loBT) , 
pp. 238-239; Escanaba Tribune, December 9, I869] 



C S NW RR: IRON MOUNTAIN 

STATION (1889) Iron Mountain 

310 Stephenson Ave. 16.417240.507^410 

Iron Mountain Dickinson 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad extended its line westward from 
Powers into the newly-discovered iron districts in the Menominee Range 
in the late l870's, reaching Quinnesec in 1877 and Iron Mountain in 
1880. This passenger station was opened on December 22, 1889* It is 
a single-story rectangular brick building resting on a finished ashlar 
foundation, and is 20 feet wide and 75 feet long, with a gabled roof 
with wide overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. 
[ Iron Mountain News , July 1, 1976, p. 2; PLSMI , XI (1906), p. 48; 
Dun ba r, p. 117] 



128 



TRANSPORTATION 



C & NW RR: Escanaba Roundhouse (c.)869), Escanaba 



C 8 NW RR: IRONWOOD STATION {c.l895) I ronwood 

Between Ayer St. and Frederick St. I5.7I7320.5I't83'tO 

Ironwood Gogebic 

This brick passenger station, built in the Romanesque style, consists 
of two separate buildings connected by a covered passenger platform. 
Both structures rest on sandstone foundations 5 feet high and have 
hipped roofs, with overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. 
Beginning at the northeast end of the station, there is a covered pas- 
senger platform, 20 feet by 27 feet; the passenger station, 27 feet 
wide and 90 feet long, with a towerlike two-story portion approximately 
25 feet long; a second covered passenger platform, 27 feet wide and 25 
feet long; and the brick baggage station, 27 feet wide and 30 feet long. 

129 



TRANSPORTATION 



C & HW RR: STAGER STATION (I89O) Iron River 

Museum Rd., at Museum Park 16.374310.5102750 

Caspian Iron 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad was extended from Florence, Wis- 
consin into Iron County in the early l880's as a result of the iron ore 
discoveries made at that time. The Stager Station, built in I89O, was 
preserved in 1971 by moving it to the Iron County Museum in Caspian. 
It is a simple rectangular frame building, 20 feet by 60 feet, with a 
gabled roof and wide overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. 



C & NW RR: Iron Mountain Station (1889), Iron Mountain 
130 



TRANSPORTATION 



C 5. NW RR: Ironwood Station (c.l895), 1 ronwood 



C S NW RR: WATERSMEET ROUNDHOUSE {c.lSgO) Watersmeet 

Roundhouse Rd. 16.3320)0.5126050 

Watersmeet Gogebic 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad built a line through Watersmeet 
in iSS^l, and this small town soon became a regional center for the rail- 
road. The roundhouse, constructed of tile bloclcs, has nine stalls, a 
roof pitched to the rear of the building, and an interior frame of mas- 
sive oalc beams. It has an inside circumference of 1)0 feet, an outside 
circumference of 230 feet, and is 80 feet deep. It is In a badly dete- 
riorating state, suffering the ravages of vandalism, fire, and the 
elements. The turntable is not extant. 
[Knox Jamison, Ewen and the South End Towns (1967), p. 5] 



TRANSPORTATION 



The Chief Wawatam (1911), St. Ignace 

THE CHIEF WAWATAM (1911) St. Ignace 

S. State St. 16. 677355. 508l'(80 

St . I gnace Hack i nac 

The Chief is a combination railroad car ferry and icebreaker, built by 
the Toledo Shipbuilding Company for the Mackinac Transportation Company. 
She was named after a Chippewa chief who lived in the vicinity of St. 
Ignace and befriended an English trader in the I760's. Designed by the 
naval architect Frank E, Kirby, the Chief Is a steel -hul led ship mea- 
suring 338.8 feet by 62 feet by 20.7 feet, equipped with six Scotch 
boilers and three triple expansion engines, 21 inches, 22 inches, and 
52 inches by kO inches, each developing 4,500 horsepower. She has triple 



132 



TRANSPORTATION 



screws, one fore and two aft, and four tracks with a total capacity of 
26 cars. The Chief has served as the only railroad connection between 
the two peninsulas of Michigan and was used for numerous icebreaking 
missions during the 1940's, as well as for transporting supplies and 
automobiles across the Straits of Mackinac prior to the opening of the 
Mackinac Straits Bridge in 1957. In the early 1950*s, the Chief was 
moving more than 30,000 railroad cars per year across the Straits, 
but this volume had fallen to about 4,000 by 1969. She continues to 
make one trip per week, with a large subsidy provided by the State of 
Michigan. 

[Frances D. Burgtorf, Chief Wawatam (Petoskey, 1976), pp. 203-207, 
272-279; George W. Hilton, The Great Lakes Car Ferries, pp. 61, 259] 



COPPER HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE (1866) Fort Wilkins 

E Point of Harbor Entrance 16.435200.5258000 

Copper Harbor Keweenaw 

The first lighthouse at Copper Harbor was erected in 1848-1849, but was 
unsound structurally and was replaced with the present structure in 
1866. It was manned until the retirement of lightkeeper Henry Corgan 
in 1919> when the light was converted to acetylene gas. Then, in 1927> 
It was replaced with a new light mounted on a 60 foot steel tower in 
front of the old house. It is now part of Fort Wilkins State Park and 
has been converted into a small lighthouse museum. The brick light 
tower, 22 feet high, is an integral part of the rectangular brick 
keeper's dwelling, 10 feet by 18 feet, with a gabled roof, 
[usee. Light List , p. 123; "Historical Material for the Interpretation 
of the Copper Harbor Lighthouse, Fort Wilkins State Park," pp. 4-5; NR] 



CR RR: HOUGHTON REPAIR SHOPS (1899) Chassell 

Memorial Ave. 16.379820.5219540 

Houghton Houghton 

These locomotive repair shops were constructed in 1899 when the Copper 
Range Railroad completed its original 27 mile line linking Houghton 
with Winona. The roundhouse has ten stalls remaining out of fifteen 
originally built. It is a brick building with an Inside circumference 
of 100 feet, an outside circumference of 300 feet, with the stalls each 
60 feet deep. Attached to the roundhouse, there Is a rectangular brick 
machine shop, 60 feet wide and 110 feet long. There are also two 



133 



TRANSPORTATION 



adjoining rectangular brick buildings, 20 feet by 100 feet and 30 feet 
by 60 feet, of different heights, each with Its roof pitched to the 
outside wail. These buildings each have a single large pair of doors 
and were probably used for repairing rolling stock other than locomo- 
tives. The turntable which originally served the roundhouse is no 
longer extant. 

["When the Copper Range Built a Railroad," Copper Range Hews , IV 
(January ISS't), pp. 1-5] 



Copper Harbor Lighthouse (1866), Copper Harbor 



TRANSPORTATION 



CR RR: HOUGHTON STATION (1899) Chassell 

Memorial Ave. 16.380580.5219720 

Houghton Houghton 

The Copper Range Company opened a series of new copper mines in the late 
1890's at Baltic, Champion, and Trimountain, all south of Houghton, and 
constructed the Copper Range Railroad from Houghton to Winona, ^dis- 
tance of 27 miles, to serve these new mines. The Houghton Station is 
an imposing two-story brick building with Jacobsville sandstone used on 
the corners and over the windows for decoration. It is 30 feet wide, 
100 feet long, and has a hipped roof with wide overhanging eaves sup- 
ported by wooden brackets. 

["When the Copper Range Built a Railroad,** Copper Range News , IV 
(January, 1964), pp. 1-5] 



D, SS e A RR: CALUMET STATION (c.l910) Laurium 

Oak St. 16. 389680. 523^100 

Calumet Houghton 

This rectangular brick passenger station was built around 1910 by the 
Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad. It is 33 feet wide and 110 
feet long, with hipped roofs and overhanging eaves supported by wooden 
brackets. The center section of the station, kS feet long, is two 
stories, while the rest of the building is one story tall. 



D, SS & A RR: HOUGHTON STATION (c.l890) Chassell 

Lake St. and Huron St. 16. 38I 100.5219810 

Houghton Houghton 

Houghton depended on water connections with the outside world until 
1883, when the L'Anse to Houghton segment of the Marquette, Houghton, 
and Ontonagon Railroad was completed. The Marquette, Houghton, and 
Ontonagon Railroad then merged in 1886 with the Detroit, Mackinac, and 
Marquette Railway to form the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad 
This handsome passenger station, constructed around I89O, is a rectan- 
gular building, measuring 18 feet by 90 feet, with walls of coursed 
finished sandstone masonry, with a hipped roof and wide overhanging 
eaves supported by wooden brackets. 
[Dunbar, pp. 1 18-119] 



135 



TRANSPORTATION 



D, SS S A RR: L'ANSE STATION (c.l890) Keweenaw Bay 

South of US-41 16.388070.5178025 

L'Anse Baraga 

This rectangular wood-framed passenger station is 15 feet wide and 85 
feet long, with a hipped roof and wide overhanging eaves supported by 

wooden brackets. It includes a two-story segment 60 feet long and a 
single-story segment 25 feet in length. 



D, SS S A RR: MARQUETTE ORE DOCK (1932) Marquette 

Lake St. 16.470120.515*000 

Marquette Marquette 

This ore dock was built by the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Rail- 
road to replace a timber dock built in 1905. The single-track approach 
is a 3,5*6 foot long steel trestle, most of it at a 1.22 percent grade. 
The alignment of the approach has two 6 degree curves, the first 368 
feet to the right, the second 38O feet to the left, and then one 7 
degree curve, 252 feet long to the right. The dock proper is of rein- 
forced concrete construction on a pile foundation and measures 969 feet 
long, 85 feet 7 inches high, and 67 feet * inches wide. There are 150 
ore pockets with chutes 36 feet long and *3 feet 3 inches from the hinge 
hole to the water. This dock has a total storage capacity of 40,000 
tons, but has not been used since 1971* 

["Historical Sketch of the Marquette Iron Range," compiled by William 
F. Armstrong, January 25, 1932, Marquette County Historical Society] 



D, SS S A RR: MARQUETTE PASSENGER 

STATION (1902) Marquette 

Main St. 16.469850.515*190 

Marquette Marquette 

This passenger station was completed on January 11, 1902 and replaced 
an earlier passenger station only a few blocks away, surpassing it not 
only in size but in modern conveniences. The building was steam heated, 
had electric lights, and was provided with water and sewage connections. 
The two-story building, 105 feet long and 35 feet wide, was constructed 
of Port Washington brown sandstone with cut stone trim and a gabled 
roof covered with slate. The first floor was one large waiting room 
with four entrances, two on the south and two on the north sides, a 



136 



TRANSPORTATION 



baggage room on the west side, and a ladies retiring room and toilet on 
the east side. Upstairs were the departments for the superintendent, 
train dispatcher, and purchasing agent and two rooms set aside for the 
purchasing agent to live in. For maximum comfort the building supported 
an 8 foot wide awning around its first floor circumference which pro- 
tected passengers from inclement weather. 

[ Marquette Mining Journal , December 28, 1901; MCHS, File on Duluth, 
South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad; Detroit Free Press, October 5, 1967] 



D, SS e A RR: MARQUETTE REPAIR 

SHOPS (c. 1900, 1953) Marquette 

Spring St. 16.468820.515*3^0 

Marquette Marquette 

Marquette became a major repair center for the Duluth, South Shore, and 
Atlantic Railroad, and there was originally an extensive shop complex 
at this site, including two roundhouses and numerous other buildings. 
Most of these were torn down in the early 1960's, and all that remains 
is part of one roundhouse. This wood-framed structure containing 
fourteen stalls is 80 feet deep, with an inside circumference of approx 
imately 120 feet, and an outside circumference of roughly 350 feet. 
There is an attached brick stall built in 1953 for dieset locomotives, 
measuring 66 feet by 72 feet. A steel beam, center-mounted turntable, 
75 feet long, resting in a concrete pit, is also extant. 



D, SS e A RR: NEWBERRY STATION (1907) Not Available 

Newberry Ave. 

Newberry Luce 

Newberry lies on the main line of the Detroit, Mackinac, and Marquette 
Railway connecting Marquette with St. Ignace, completed in 1881 and 
then acquired by the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad in 
1886. This small town depot measures 20 feet by 60 feet, with a hipped 
roof and overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. It is con- 
structed of red sandstone and rests on a stone foundation, a rare design 
for a small station in the Upper Peninsula, where wood-framed stations 
predominate. 
[Dunbar, pp. 118-119] 



137 



TRANSPORTATION 



D, SS S A RR: ST. IGNACE 
STATION (c.1890) 
S. State St. 
St. Ignace 



St. Ignace 
16.677090. 5081 360 
Mackinac 



The first rail service into St. Ignace was a line opened by the Detroit, 
Mackinac, and Marquette Railway in I88I between St. Ignace and Marquette. 
The original passenger station built by this line is no longer extant. 
In 1886, the Detroit, Mackinac, and Marquette Railway merged with the 
Marquette, Houghton, and Ontonagon Railroad to form the Duluth, South 
Shore, and Atlantic Railroad, which built this station around I89O. 
It is a simple rectangular, wood-framed building with a hipped roof, 
with wide overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. It is 20 
feet wide and ISO feet long, with the building divided equally into a 
passenger section and a freighthouse. 

[Dunbar, pp. 118-119; Emerson R. Smith, Before the Bridge : A History 
of St . Ignace (St. Ignace, 1957), p. 66] 



D, SS S A RR: SAULT STE. MARIE 
ROUNDHOUSE (I888, c.1920) 
Eureka St. 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702780.5152090 

Chippewa 



This roundhouse was built by the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Rail- 
road shortly after it completed its line from Duluth to Sault Ste. Marie 
in 1887. The roundhouse originally contained forty-five bays and ex- 
tended a full 180 degrees. There are now only five stalls extant, each 
80 feet deep. The remaining portion of the structure has an inside 
circumference of 75 feet and an outside circumference of approximately 
2^0 feet. It is a wood-framed building, with a roof pitched slightly 
to the rear. One wall, originally an interior fire wall, is of brick 
construction. The surviving turntable, 65 feet long, is center-mounted 
and rests in a concrete- 1 ined pit 5 feet deep. It bears a nameplate 
which reads, "Philadelphia Turntable Company, No. 330*' and probably was 
built around 1920. 
[Dunbar, p. 159] 



138 



TRANSPORTATION 



D, SS e A RR: TROUT LAKE STATION (1907) Trout Lake 

Main St. 16.652675.5117300 

Trout Lake Chippewa 

The Duluth» South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad reached Trout Lake in 
)887» so this is probably the second passenger station in town. It is 
a large wood-framed structure which served as a passenger station, 
freighthouse, and hotel. It consists of four adjoining segments, in- 
cluding two single-story segments, each 35 feet long and 20 feet wide, 
a two-story section 20 feet square, and another single-story segment, 
20 feet by 15 feet. 

[Trout Lake Women's Club, A History of the Trout Lake Area (1976), 
pp. 20-25; Dunbar, pp. 118-119] 



EAGLE HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE (I87I) Eagle Harbor 

West end of Eagle Harbor 16. iil2630. 5256710 

Eagle Harbor Keweenaw 

The Eagle Harbor Lighthouse, built in I87I , consists of an octagonal 
brick light tower, kO feet tall and 8 feet in diameter, built into the 
northeast corner of the 1 ightkeeper 's dwelling, a rectangular brick 
building with a gabled roof, I8 feet wide and 30 feet long. A white 
stucco facing was added to the tower in 1925 to provide a better day 
mark. 

[USCG, Light List, p. 123; Annual Report of the Lake Carriers ' 
Association (T925) , p. 85] 



EAGLE RIVER LIGHTHOUSE (1855) Phoenix 

South bank of the Eagle River 16.402090.5251760 

Eagle River Keweenaw 

This lighthouse was constructed in 1855, remained in service until 1908, 
and now serves as a private residence. The keeper's house is a rectan- 
gular brick building with a stucco exterior, 15 feet wide and kO feet 
long, with a gabled roof. The brick light tower, approximately kO feet 
high, is located on the northwest corner of the keeper's dwelling. 
[Bessie Phillips and Clarice Strombeck, "Historical Eagle River," p. 3l 



139 



TRANSPORTATION 



THE FAVORITE (1919) Sault Ste. Marie South 

Park Place 16.70*300.5152800 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

This steam tug was constructed by the Great Lakes Towing Company in 1919 
and replaced an earlier wooden wrecking tug of the same name. She is 
173 feet long, kO feet wide, weighs 393 tons, and has a 1,400 horsepower 
engine. She was reputed to have been the largest steam tug ever used on 
the Great Lakes and remained in service until the early 1960's, when she 
was retired. The Great Lakes Towing Company gave the tug to a non-profit 
historical corporation hi Sault Ste. Marie in 1972, and she will become 
part of a marine museum when restoration is completed. 
[ The Ship's Bell , Le Sault de Sainte Marie Historic Sites, p. 3l 

GRAND ISLAND EAST CHANNEL 

LIGHTHOUSE (1867) Muni sing 

South end of Grand Island 16.529000.51**070 

Grand Island Alger 

The East Channel Lighthouse was built in 1867 to guide ships entering 
Muni sing Bay. It was abandoned in 1913 and has badly deteriorated 
since. It consists of a wooden tower, 5 feet square and approximately 
*5 feet high, and an adjoining rectangular frame building 20 feet by 
25 feet, with a gabled roof, both resting on a stone foundation. 
[Beatrice H. Castle, The Grand Island Story (Marquette, 197*), p. 106] 

GRAND ISLAND NORTH LIGHTHOUSE (1867) Wood Island 

North end of Grand Island 16.52*057.5156000 

Grand Island Alger 

There has been a lighthouse at the north end of Grand Island since I856, 
when Reuben Smith was appointed keeper. The present structure, built 
in 1867, consists of a brick light tower, 5 feet square and 25 feet high, 
and an adjoining rectangular brick keeper's residence with a gabled roof. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 117; Beatrice H. Castle, The Grand Island Story 
(Marquette, 19757, pp. 38, 60, 105; Holland, p.'TBfe; NR] 



1*0 



TRANSPORTATION 



GRANITE ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (1869,1902,1906) Marquette Northwest 

Eight miles north of Marquette 16.468520.517*000 

Castle Island Marquette 

The Granite Island Lighthouse was built in I869 at a cost of $20,000. 
Constructed of grey granite blocks, it is a large two-story structure 
with 3 foot thick walls and a square light tower rising 89 feet above 
the lake level. The lightkeepers used the first floor of the building 
for their living quarters, while the second floor contained their 
sleeping quarters. In addition, the site includes a boathouse (1902), 
oil house and seawall (I906), concrete dock, and fog whiistle house. At 
the time this facility was constructed, a large volume of traffic passed 
between the lighthouse and the shore, but that route was largely aban- 
doned during the 1920"s, and the light lost most of its significance 
for Great Lakes shipping. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 119; Daily Mining Journal , September 2, 1926, 
p. 2; Holland, p. 186] 



HOUGHTON COUNTY TRACTION COMPANY 

CAR BARN (1900) Hancock 

Ash St. and Park St. 16.378620.5221000 

Hancock Houghton 

The Houghton County Traction Company was incorporated in 1900 with a 
capital of $750,000 and opened its first electric interurban trolley 
line between Hancock and Wolverine in 1901. This line was later ex- 
tended to Mohawk, with a spur built between Calumet and Lake Linden. 
It was reputed to have been the fastest interurban line in the United 
States when it opened. The service was discontinued in 1935 because of 
increased use of private automobiles. This large wood-framed car barn 
consists of three distinct but connected segments: the easternmost 
segment, fronting on Ethel Avenue, is single-story, with a gabled roof, 
kO feet by 75 feet; a middle segment, two stories high, resting on a 
stone foundation, 75 feet wide and 120 feet long; and the westernmost 
section, also two-story, 50 feet wide and 100 feet long. 
[Sawyer, p. 485; Dunbar, p. 237] 



141 



TRANSPORTATION 



Houghton County Traction Company Car Barn {1900), Hancock 



HURON ISLANDS LIGHTHOUSE {I868,I877) Huron Mountain 

Northeast side of West Huron Island 16. '(24010. 5201035 

Huron Islands Marquette 

This lighthouse was constructed because of increased traffic between 
Marquette and the Copper Country during the I860's. The Lighthouse 
Board reported at the time that the Huron Islands "are a constant source 
of anxiety to the navigators, wrecks having frequently occurred at this 
point." It was built on the highest point of the west island and was 
lit for the first time on October 28, 1868. The grey granite block 
keeper's house was the home for three keepers and their families. A 



TRANSPORTATION 



square granite light tower was constructed in 1877, raising the light 
to 197 feet above the lake level. The original light was a 20,000 
candlepower kerosene model which was replaced in 1963 by a 45,000 can- 
dlepower electric oscillator light. This facility became fully automated 
in 1963. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 119; Holland, p. 186; NR] 

IROQUOIS POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1870,1902) Brimley 

On Iroquois Point 16.681067.5150030 

Bay Mills Chippewa 

At Iroquois Point, ship traffic passing from Lake Superior to the St. 
Mary's Falls Ship Canal (see other entry) had to pass through narrow 
straits with shoals on the American side and rocky reefs on the Cana- 
dian side. The first lighthouse at this point was built in 1855 when 
the navigation canal at Sault Ste. Marie was opened. This original 
wooden lighthouse tower was replaced in 1870 by the present brick tower, 
65 feet high, 16 feet in diameter at the base, and tapered to 10 feet 
In diameter at the lantern deck, which is 51 feet high. The attached 
two-story brick dwelling, with a gabled roof, was built in 1870 and 
measures 2k feet by 30 feet. An attached addition for an assistant 
lightkeeper, 12 feet wide and 30 feet long, with a gabled roof, was 
constructed in 1902. The lighthouse was taken out of service in 1965 
and transferred to the United States Forest Service. 
[NR] 



ISLE ROYALE LIGHTHOUSE (1875) Isle Royal e 

On Managerie Island 16.368050.5311090 

Isle Royal e Keweenaw 

The Isle Royale Lighthouse, constructed in 1875, consists of a white 

octagonal brick light tower, 61 feet high, and a rectangular coursed 

sandstone keeper's house approximately 20 feet by 30 feet, with a gabled 

roof. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 13^; Holland, p. 186] 



143 



TRANSPORTATION 



Iroquois Point Lighthouse (1870,1902), Bay Mills 

JACKSON MINING COMPANY: YANKEE 

HAULAGE LOCOMOTIVE (1868) Ishpeming 

Seventh St. and M-28 16. ^'(9^00.51^8290 

Ishpeming Marquette 

This vertical boiler steam locomotive was used in the Jackson Mine In 
Negaunee in 1868-1893 to move the ore cars away from the pithead. It 
measures 5 feet wide and ]k feet long, with a single boiler k feet in 
diameter and 7 feet high. The upper portion of the boiler Is encased 
In wood and has an attached Iron tender box mounted on a wooden plat- 
form. 



TRANSPORTATION 



JACOBSVILLE LIGHTHOUSE (1869) Keweenaw Bay 

One mile east of Portage Entry 16.3920^5.5203045 

Jacobsv i 1 1 e Houghton 

The Jacobsville Lighthouse, completed In 1869, consists of a light tower 
and an adjoining keeper's dwelling. The round light tower is 65 feet 
in height and 10 feet in diameter at the base, tapering to approximately 
6 feet in diameter at the top. The keeper's house Is a simple one-story 
rectangular brick building, 25 feet wide and kO feet long, with a gabled 
roof. 



LS S I RR: ISHPEMING STATION (I898) Ishpeming 

Johnson St. and Lake St. 16. ii48510. 51*8140 

Ishpeming Marquette 

This station was constructed by the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Rail- 
road shortly after It was incorporated, and the building remained in 
service until 1964. It Is a frame structure measuring 2k feet wide and 
51 feet long, with a sharply hipped roof and eaves overhanging 6 feet 
on all sides. There is a passenger platform on the north facade, 
measuring 13 feet by I38 feet. The interior of the station was divided 
into three main segments: the ticket office, 9 feet by 25 feet; the 
men's waiting room, 20 feet by 2k feet; and the women's waiting room, 
also 20 feet by 2k feet. 

LS e I RR: MARQUETTE REPAIR 

SHOPS (1918-1922) Marquette 

Lake Shore Blvd., at Presque Isle 16.469740.5158450 

Marquette Marquette 

The repair complex at this site originally included over twenty buildings, 
including a twenty stall roundhouse, facilities for thawing frozen iron 
ore, and elaborate flower beds. The entire complex was designed and 
built by the Arnold Construction Company of Chicago, with virtually all 
construction completed in 1918-1922. Most of the complex has been torn 
down, and the remainder Is slated for demolition In the near future. 
The surviving buildings include the car repair shop, 69 feet wide and 
301 feet long; the machine and erecting shop, 115 feet by 142 feet; and 
a powerhouse, 50 feet by 83 feet by 15 feet high, all of brick construc- 
tion. In addition, there Is a wood-framed sandhouse, 16 feet by 53 feet 



\i*s 



TRANSPORTATION 



by 13 feet tall, and an electric-powered steel turntable, 1^ feet wide 
and 85 feet long, resting in a concrete pit. 
[MCHS, No. 385] 



LS 6 I RR: Presque Isle Ore Dock (1912), Marquette 



LS & I RR: PRESQUE ISLE ORE DOCK (1912) Marquette 

Presque Isle, at Lake Shore Blvd. 16.^70300-5158280 

Marquette Marquette 

This reinforced concrete and steel dock replaced a timber dock built 
in 1896 and located nearby. The railroad decided in favor of this 
design because the estimated maintenance savings over a wooden dock 



TRANSPORTATION 



outweighed the higher initial construction costs. The structure was 
designed by J.F. Jackson, vice president of the Wisconsin Bridge and 
Iron Company of Milwaukee. His firm erected the steel superstructure, 
while the reinforced concrete substructure, designed by R.C. Young, the 
chief engineer of the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad, was built 
by the Raymond Concrete Pile Company. This was the second reinforced 
concrete dock built in the United States, completed a year after a 
similar dock was buiTt by the Great Northern Railway at Superior, Wis- 
consin. Overall, it is 1,200 feet long, 5^ feet wide, and rises 75 
feet above the water. There are 200 ore pockets of 250 ton capacity, 
yielding a total storage capacity of 50,000 tons. Each pocket has a 
12 foot center and is equipped with a pair of doors, each 5 feet tall 
and 3 feet 8 inches wide, opening into a steel chute 35 feet long and 
weighing 8,200 pounds. The chutes utilized a novel design intended to 
prevent the ore from sticking to the chute or overflowing its confines. 
They were designed with curved bottoms and were tapered from 8 feet 6 
inches wide at the upper end to k feet 6 inches at the lower end, which 
was inserted into the bulk ore carrier. 
["Reinforced Concrete Ore Docks," Engineering News , LXIX (January 1913) » 

pp. 8-13; LS e I RR] 



LS S I RR: PRESQUE ISLE ORE DOCK 

APPROACH (1912) Marquette 

Presque Isle, at Lake Shore Blvd. 16.469825.5158610 

Marquette Marquette 

The approach to the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad Ore Dock (see 
other entry) was designed by the railroad's chief engineer, R.C. Young, 
with virtually all work carried out by railroad employees. It consists 
of an earth embankment one mile long, with a one and one-half percent 
grade, connected to the dock by a steel trestle 600 feet long and 70 
feet in height. The base of the embankment was constructed by the 
Zenith Dredge Company of Duluth, Minnesota, using the material dredged 
from the harbor to form the slips for the dock. This base utilized 
approximately 100,000 cubic yards of hydraul ical ly-f i 1 led dredgings. 
Work on the embanknf)ent proper began on April 3> 1911 and was completed 
on January 15, 1912. Crews moved a total of 503,000 cubic yards of 
sand from a pit one and one-half miles away, using trains of 25 side- 
dump cars. 
["Building a Large Railway Embankment," Engineering News , LXIX (February 

1913), p. 299; LS e I RR] 



147 



TRANSPORTATION 



LS 6 I RR: PRESQUE ISLE STATION (I896) Marquette 

Lake Shore Blvd. 16.1(70290.5158630 

Marquette Marquette 

This attractive passenger station was opened In I896 and has served as 
an Important transfer point between the railroad and the trolley system 
of Marquette, particularly for Marquette residents who worked in the 
mines In Ishpeming. This one-story frame structure Is 25 feet wide and 
50 feet long, with a sharply pitched hipped roof. The station was moved 
approximately 200 feet to its present site in I963> when it was sold to 
the Marquette and Huron Mountain Railroad, which operates the station as 
a restaurant. 
[LS 5 I RR; Boyer, Program 377] 



LS 6 I RR: Presque Isle Station (I896), Marquette 



TRANSPORTATrON 



LS & I RR: Steam Locomotive Number Nineteen (}9)0), Marquette 



LS £ I RR: STEAM LOCOMOTIVES (1906,1910,1916) Marquette 

Two miles west of Presque Isle 1 6. '(67860.51581(80 

Marquette Marquette 

This set of eight vintage steam locomotives was used by the Lake Supe- 
rior and Ishpeming Railroad for its lucrative Ishpeming-Presque Isle 
route linking the iron mines of the Marquette Range with the railroad's 
dock facilities. They were retired after World War M when diesels were 
placed into service and were sold to the Marquette and Huron Mountain 
Railroad, essentially a tourist operation, in 1963> The oldest was 
built in 1906 by the American Locomotive Works and is a 2-8-0 locomotive, 
class SC-3, measures 69 feet long with tender, 10 and one-half feet wide. 



149 



TRANSPORTATION 



and weighs 218 tons. Another six were built in 1910 by the American 
Locomotive Works and also have 2-8-0 wheel configurations. These all 
weigh 168 tons when fully loaded and are 66 feet long and 10 feet wide. 
Finally, there is another 2-8-0 locomotive, class SC-1, 72 feet long 
and 10 and one-half feet wide, weighing 221 tons, constructed in 1916 
by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 



THE LOUIS W. HILL [S.S. VALLEY CAMP] (1917) 
Park Place 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.704420.5152800 

Chippewa 



This Great Lakes bulk carrier was built by the American Shipbul IdlTig"^ 
Corporation in Lorain, Ohio. She was originally named after the rail- 
road magnate Louis W. Hill of the Great Northern Railroad, but she was 
renamed the Val ley Camp in 1955. She was owned by the Hanna Mining Com 
pany, then the Wilson Marine Transit Company, and finally, the Republic 
Steel Corporation, which retired the ship In 1968 and then sold her in 
1970 for use as a marine museum by a Sault Ste. Marie historical cor- 
poration. During her career, the Louis W. Hill carried over 16.5 
million tons of cargo, traveling more than three million miles on the 
Great Lakes. Overall, she is 550 feet long, 58 feet wide, with a 
carrying capacity of 7,030 tons gross, and 5»648 tons net. She has a 
keel of 525 feet, a draft of 31 feet, and a water draft of 19-7 feet. 
A triple expansion steam engine developing 1,800 horsepower and fired 
by Scotch boilers operating at 180 pounds drove a four-bladed propeller 
The normal service speed was 10 knots, and she carried a crew of 32 
officers and men. 
[NR] 



MAN I ST I QUE EAST BREAKWATER 

LIGHTHOUSE (1915) 

End of East Breakwater 

Manistlque 



Not Aval lable 



Schoolcraft 



This is a brick lighthouse sheathed with riveted cast iron plates, 12 
feet square at the base, tapered to approximately 8 feet square at the 
top, and standing 35 feet high. The tower rests on a square concrete 
crib rising 15 feet above the water level, placing the light 50 feet 
above the Lake Michigan water level. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 174] 



150 



TRANSPORTATION 



MARQUETTE HARBOR BREAKWATER (1894) Marquette 

Marquette Harbor 16. 471000. SISS'^SO 

Marquette Marquette 

Marquette was the shipping point for about half of the iron ore produced 
on the Marquette Range during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, 
making Marquette Harbor one of the busiest ports on Lake Superior. The 
Army Corps of Engineers initially planned to build a breakwater 2,000 
feet long in 1890, but they completed a 3,000 foot structure in 1894 at 
a cost of $232,936. After an addition of 1,500 feet was made in 1910, 
this breakwater gave the harbor a protected area of 360 acres. The 
design of the structure was considered a radical departure from past 
practice. This concrete wall drops vertically on the harbor side, but 
on the lake side it has a stepped configuration, with two parallel 
slopes at a 45 degree angle to the water, with a banquette 8 feet wide 
and elevated 6 feet above the mean lake level, and a parapet 6 feet 
wide, with an elevation of 10 feet above the water level. 
[Sawyer, p. 417; Boyer, Program 90; Annual Report of the Chief of 
Engineers on Civi 1 Works Activities , United States Army Corps of 
Engineers, St. Paul District, pp. 27-29] 



MARQUETTE HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE (1866,1906) Marquette 

E. Arch St. 16.471265-5154630 

Marquette Marquette 

The first permanent lighthouse at Marquette was built in 1855, when na- 
vigation increased significantly as a result of the opening of the St. 
Mary's Falls Ship Canal (see other entry) at Sault Ste. Marie. The pre- 
sent brick lighthouse was constructed in 1866, with a second story added 
to the 1 ightkeeper 's dwelling in 1906. This rectangular brick building 
measures 30 feet by 55 feet, with a square brick light tower 40 feet 
high, and the light 77 feet above the lake level. It was originally 
equipped with a kerosene lamp which was turned by a system of weights 
suspended on chains in the light tower, much like the system of weights 
used in a wall clock. This light was replaced in I9O8 by a second order 
incandescent oil vapor lamp approximately ten times brighter than the 
previous light. A fog signal was also installed at that time. Today, 
the lighthouse is equipped with a modern 300,000 candlepower electric 
light. 

[USC6, Light List , p. 118; Daily Mining Journal , May 22, 1965, p. 6; 
Holland, p. 186; Annual Report of the Lake Carriers ' Association , 1908, 
pp. 70, 74] 

151 



TRANSPORTATION 



Marquette Harbor Lighthouse (1866,1906), Marquette 



H, H & RR: NEGAUNEE STATION (I88O) Palmer 

Gold St. I6.453080.5I'i9350 

Negaunee Marquette 

This building replaced an earlier passenger station which burned in 
October 1879. It is a rectangular frame building, 22 feet wide and 90 
feet long, with a gabled roof and wide overhanging eaves. This combi- 
nation passenger and freight facility contained an American Express 
office, an agent's office, as well as a passenger waiting room and a 
freight storage area. 

[ Marquette Weekly Mining Journal , November 22, 1879, p. 8; Marquette 
Weekly Mining Journal , January 3, I88O; Dunbar, p. 119] 



152 



TRANSPORTATION 



M S RR: DOCK OFFICE (1872) Marquette 

120 E. Main St. 16.4699'»0,515'»160 

Marquette Marquette 

This building was constructed in 1872 as a dock office for the Marquette 
and Ontonagon Railroad Company, which was eventually absorbed by the 
Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad in 1890. Since 19^1 » the 
structure has housed offices for various business concerns. The building 
is constructed of stone with a gabled iron roof and measures 30 feet by 
kO feet by 16 feet high. 

[MCHS, No. 49.6; "William T. Armstrong Pamphlet," Marquette County 
Historical Society; Duluth , South Shore , and Atlantic Railroad Company 
Valuation Book 1911, Marquette County Historical Society! 



M S SE RW: BIG BAY STATION (1905) Big Bay 

County Rte. 550 16. 444045. 5184090 

Big Bay Marquette 

The Marquette and Southeastern Railway built a line from Big Bay to 
Lawson in 1905 and constructed this station then. The firm merged with 
the Munising Railway Company in 191 1» and this line was in turn acquired 
by the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad in 1923* The building was 
moved about 200 feet during the 1940's to provide additional space for 
Henry Ford's Thunderbay Inn. The station was in service sporadically 
until 1963 and now serves as a private residence. It is a two-story 
frame structure with a hipped roof, 76 feet long and 17 feet wide. The 
second floor originally served as the living quarters for the agent, 
while the first floor contained the waiting rooms and an office. 
[LS S I RR] 



M S SE RW: MARQUETTE FREIGHT 

STATION (1900) Marquette 

205 N. Lake St. 16.470100.5154380 

Marquette Marquette 

This freight station was built by the Marquette and Southeastern Rail- 
way in 1900 and remained in service until 1965, when the Lake Superior 
and Ishpeming Railroad, the owner since 1923, discontinued freight 
service. This building is still used for general storage. It is a 
single-story frame structure, with a gabled roof and eaves which 



153 



TRANSPORTATION 



overhang 8 feet, and is fitted with eight sliding doors, each \5 and 
one-half feet wide and 7 and one-half feet high. Overall, it is 'tO 
feet wide. 128 feet long, and 12 feet high. 
[LS & I RR] 



M 6 SE RU: Big Bay Station (1905), Big Bay 

M & SE RW; MARQUETTE STATION (I87'i,l886) Marquette 

S. Lake St. 16.470000.5I5'(260 

Marquette Marquette 

The Lake Shore Engineering Company constructed this building in I87'i. 
with an addition made in 1886, and used it for the manufacture of mining 



ISii 



TRANSPORTATION 



machinery until 1907> when they moved to a new location (see other 
entry). The Marquette and Southeastern Railway acquired the property 
In 1908, converting it into a passenger station and general offices. 
This two-story brick building has two wings, one measuring 46 feet by 
338 feet and the other 46 feet by 104 feet. 

[LS S I RR; Marquette Mining Journal , January 11, 1908, pp. 1, 5; 
Beyer, Program 



m 



MELLON LUMBER COMPANY 

LOCOMOTIVE NUMBER SIX (1916) Ontonagon 

Lakeshore Rd. 16.323047.5193020 

Ontonagon Ontonagon 

This 2-6-2 Baldwin steam locomotive has had a long and colorful asso- 
ciation with the logging and paper industries of Wisconsin and the 
Ontonagon region in upper Michigan. It was originally used in logging 
and lumber operations in the Mellon, Wisconsin area by the Mellon Lumber 
Company. A series of successor companies gradually moved their opera- 
tions and this locomotive into Michigan, until the Northern Logging 
Company moved it to Ontonagon in 1935. The National Container Company 
bought it from the Northern Logging Company in 1948 and converted it 
into a switch engine for the plant railroad yards in Ontonagon. It 
served in this capacity until 1953, when this plant closed. Finally, 
it was restored and repainted in 1964 and has been displayed in front 
of the plant since then. 
[ Ontonagon Herald , November 21, I963] 



MENOMINEE NORTH PIERHEAD 

LIGHTHOUSE (1877, 192?) Marinette 

At the end of the North Pier .16.453092.4993073 

Menominee Menominee 

This lighthouse consists of an octagonal tower 25 feet high and 15 feet 
wide, sheathed with riveted cast iron plates, added in 1927. It rests 
on a rectangular concrete base, 20 feet by 25 feet, and 12 feet high, 
which in turn rests on a circular concrete crib 40 feet in diameter. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 179] 



155 



TRANSPORTATION 



Hellon Lumber Company Locomotive Number Six (1916), Ontonagon 



H, SP 6 SSH RR: GLADSTONE 

ROUNDHOUSE (c.l890) Gladstone 

Railway Ave. 1 6. it97067. 5077000 

Gladstone Delta 

The Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad built its main 
line linking Minneapolis and Sault Ste. Marie in 188^-1887, arriving 
In Gladstone in 1887. This roundhouse, built shortly thereafter, ori- 
ginally had twenty-two stalls, but twenty of these were torn down in 
the mid-1960'5. Two stalls remain, each 90 feet deep, with 12 foot 
wide doors. Overall, this brick building measures 24 feet by 90 feet 



156 



TRANSPORTATION 



by kB feet, and has a roof pitched to the rear. Nearby there Is a turn- 
table, of the center-mounted type, 12 feet wide and 90 feet long, 
[Dunbar, p. 159] 



M. SP & SSM RR: Gladstone Station (1887). Gladstone 



M. SP & SSM RR: GLADSTONE 

STATION (1887) Gladstone 

Railway Ave. 16.1(97055.5076056 

Gladstone Delta 

This passenger station was built when the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and 
Sault Ste. Marie Railroad reached Gladstone in 1887. it is a two-story 



157 



TRANSPORTATION 



rectangular wood-framed building with a gambrel roof, 30 feet wide and 
100 feet long, 
[Dunbar, p. 159] 



M, SP & SSM RR: LOCOMOTIVE 

NUMBER 730 (1911) Gladstone 

Railway Ave. 16.497067.5077000 

Gladstone Delta 

This locomotive was built by the American Locomotive Company of Sche- 
nectady, New York in 1911 and was used exclusively for passenger trains 
operated by the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad 
until i960, when it was retired and donated to the city of Gladstone. 
It traveled approximately 3.6 million miles during its career. It is 
a 4-6-2 locomotive, kS feet long, weighing IkJ tons, with 25 inch by 
26 inch cylinders and 75 inch drivers. 



M, SP S SSM RR: RAPID RIVER 

STATION (c.1890) Rapid River 

Ackley St. 16.502035.5085000 

Rapid River Delta 

The Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad completed most 
of its line to Sault Ste. Marie between 1884 and 1887, and this small 
passenger-freight station was probably built shortly thereafter. It 
is a simple rectangular frame building, with a bay window, a hipped 
roof with overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets, and measures 
25 feet wide and 60 feet long. 
[Dunbar, p. 152] 



MUNI SING RANGE FRONT 

LIGHTHOUSE (1909) Muni sing 

604 W. Muni sing St. 16.526000.5140000 

Munising Alger 

This conical brick tower, sheathed in riveted cast iron plates, was 
built in 1909. It is 12 feet in diameter at the base, tapered to about 
10 feet in diameter at the top, and stands 58 feet high, with the light 
79 feet above the lake level. The construction of this range light. 



158 



TRANSPORTATION 



along with the rear range light (see other entry), permitted large 
vessels to use Munlslng Harbor as a place of refuge during northerly 
storms on Lake Superior. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 117; Annual Report of the Great Lakes Carriers ' 
Association , TsoF, pp. 69-70T 



M, SP 5 SSM RR: Rapid River Station (c.l890), Rapid Rrver 
159 



TRANSPORTATION 



MUNI SING RANGE REAR 

LIGHTHOUSE (1909) Muni sing 

End of Hemlock St- 16.525085.5139075 

Muni sing Alger 

This light, along with the Munising Range Front Light, assists ships 
on Lake Superior to fix their positions. It stands 1,150 feet from the 
front light. It is a conical tower 8 feet in diameter at the base, 
standing 33 feet above the ground, but 107 feet above the Lake Superior 
water level. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 117] 

N S N RW: LOCOMOTIVE NUMBER 388^6 (1912) Garden 

County Rte. 497 16.526010.5075010 

Nahme Township Delta 

This steam locomotive was owned by the Nahma and Northern Railway, a 
line built in 1902 between Nahma and the main line of the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad, some twenty miles away. This 
tiny railroad was owned and operated by the Bay De Noc Company, a 
logging and sawmill business (see other entry). This locomotive was 
built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia and is a 2-6-2 
coal burner. Along with its tender, it now rests near the site of the 
Bay De Noc Company mills. 
[Sawyer, p. 378] 



NEGAUNEE UNION STATION (1910) Palmer 

Gold St. and Rail St. 16.^53000.51^9350 

Negaunee Marquette 

This station was built in 1910 by the Hood Contracting Company and opened 
in December of that year. It is a one-story pressed brick building with 
a hipped asbestos shingle roof resting on a concrete foundation. Inside 
was the general waiting room, 53 feet by 15 feet, a baggage room, 21 feet 
by 20 feet. Western Express and American Express offices each 17 feet by 
11 feet, and a women's waiting room, 15 feet 6 inches by 21 feet. It 
served the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad and the Chicago 
and Northwestern Railroad until its closing in 1965. 

[ Daily Mining Journal , July 16, 1965; Daily Mining Journal , December 23, 
1910] 



160 



TRANSPORTATION 



ONTONAGON LIGHTHOUSE (1866,1890) Ontonagon 

South bank of the Ontonagon River 16. 323030, 51 93050 

Ontonagon Ontonagon 

The Ontonagon Lighthouse was originally built in 1855 and was the second 
lighthouse on the southern shore of Lake Superior, The present light- 
house, built in 1866, was moved 865 feet in 188^ from the shoreline to 
the end of the west pier extension at the mouth of the Ontonagon River. 
It remained in service until 1964, at which time the light was removed 
and presented to the Ontonagon County Historical Society. The light- 
house is a rectangular brick building with a square tower 26 feet high 
at its west facade. In I89O, an 18 foot square one-story brick kitchen 
was added to the east facade of the building. 
[NR] 



PASSAGE ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (1882) Isle Royale 

Passage Island 16.398050.5241075 

Isle Royale Keweenaw 

This light marking the passage between Isle Royale and Passage Island 
was begun in 1881 and first lit on July 1, 1882. It consists of an 
octagonal light tower, 8 feet in diameter at the base and kk feet tall, 
and a rectangular 1 ightkeeper's dwelling, with coursed rubble masonry 
walls, a gabled roof, and red sandstone corner quoins, window sills, 
and window arches. The light was built by Barbier, Bernard, and 
Turenne in Paris in I88O. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 135; Holland, p. 187] 

PENINSULA POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1865) Peninsula Point 

Peninsula Point 16.502060.5057000 

Peninsula Township Delta 

The Peninsula Point Lighthouse was originally built in 1865 and con- 
sisted of a one and one-half story residence, measuring 29 feet by 27 
feet, at the south end of which stood a kO foot tall light tower. The 
dwelling was destroyed by fire in 1959. Three years later, the light 
tower was repaired when the brick work on its north side (where the 
intense heat of the fire had damaged the mortar) was pointed and faced 
with new brick. The structure originally contained an oil lamp which 
was replaced by an automatic acetylene light in 1922. The light 



161 



TRANSPORTATION 



Peninsula Point Lightiiouse (1865), Peninsula Township 
162 



TRANSPORTATION 



continued to function until 1936 when the Minneapolis Shoal Lighthouse 
was placed in operation. The tower is all that remains, with its cast 
iron spiral staircase leading to the lantern deck. 

[ Escanaba Daily Press ; August 1, 1931; December 31, 19W; May 10, 19^9; 
August 7, "19^59; November l^f, 19^9; September 19, 1962; NR] 



PORTAGE LAKE LOWER ENTRANCE LIGHT (1930) Keweenaw Bay 

End of the breakwater 16.391015.5202050 

White City Houghton 

There has been a lighthouse at the entrance to Portage Lake since 1856, 
but this structure was constructed in 1930. It consists of an octagonal 
steel tower 31 feet tall and 8 feet in diameter, resting on a 20 foot 
square concrete base 15 feet high, which in turn rests on a 30 foot 
square concrete base 15 feet tall set on a concrete crib extending be- 
low the water level. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 119; Annual Report of the Lake Carriers ' Asso- 
ciation, 1930, p. 182] 



PRESQUE ISLE HARBOR BREAKWATER (1926,1935) Marquette 

Presque Isle Harbor 16. if71000. 5158200 

Marquette Marquette 

The first breakwater in Presque Isle Harbor was built in 1896, when the 
Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad constructed its first iron ore dock 
there (see other entry). It was constructed of timber cribwork filled 
with stones and extended 1,000 feet into the harbor. In 1902, a shore 
extension 216 feet long was added. The present structure was built in 
1926 to replace the original breakwater, and it consists of a series of 
concrete slabs, all k feet thick, forming a foundation 17 feet wide, 
topped by a wall with two sloping sides with a parapet k feet wide. 
The breakwater was extended an additional 1,600 feet in 1935 with the 
construction of a rubble wall resting on a concrete slab foundation. 
The Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad moved 214,000 tons of rock 
from their Big Bay Road Quarry a mile away for this extension. 
[Boyer, Program 295; United States Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul 
District, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers on Civil Works 
Activities , 1976, p. 27; USCG, Light List , p. 118] 



163 



TRANSPORTATION 



Q S TL RR: LOCOMOTIVES NUMBERS 

ONE AND FIVE (1889,1891) Hancock 

East of US-ifl 16.380720.5221220 

Quincy Houghton 

These two steam locomotives were used on the Quincy and Torch Lake Rail- 
road, built In 1890 by the Quincy Mining Company to link their mines with 
their stamping mill on Torch Lake. Locomotive Number One is a 2-6-0, 
with k2 inch drive and 15 inch by 20 inch cylinders, built by the Brooks 
Locomotive Works in I889 (Number 1535) and named the "Thomas F. Mason" 
when it went into service on the Quincy and Torch Lake Railroad. The 
second locomotive at this site is Baldwin Locomotive Number 1153^, a 
2-8-0 with 37 inch drive and 16 inch by 20 Inch cylinders, built in I89I 
for the Hancock and Calumet Railroad, but acquired in I908 by the Quincy 
and Torch Lake Railroad. It became their Locomotive Number Five. 
[Stevens, I (1900), p. 224; John Campbell, "Locomotives of the Quincy 
and Torch Lake Railroad," Narrow Gauge and Short Line Gazette , May 1976, 
pp. 22-27] 



ROCK OF AGES LIGHTHOUSE (I908) Isle Royal e 

West end of Isle Royal e 16.326085.5303090 

Isle Royal e Keweenaw 

This lighthouse was built to help guide ships which travel north of 
Isle Royal e, In the lee of the island, where the passage is considerably 
smoother in rough weather. Construction began in June 1907 and was com- 
pleted in the autumn of I908. The lighthouse went into service on 
October 22nd, with a temporarily fixed third order red light in place, 
along with a first class 6 inch siren driven by compressed air. A per- 
manent second order light, which flashed every ten seconds and had a 
normal range of twenty-one miles, was installed in 1910. This light- 
house is the most powerful on the Great Lakes, with lights rated at k.S 
million candlepower. The brick light tower is 87 feet tall, 30 feet in 
diameter at the base, and tapered to about 15 feet in diameter at the 
lantern deck. It rests on a cylindrical steel foundation pier 50 feet 
in diameter and 30 feet high, placing the light 117 feet above the lake 
level . 

[USCG, Light List , p. 133; Holland, p. 187; Annual Report of the Lake 
Carriers' Association, I908, p. 71] 



164 



TRANSPORTATION 



ROCK HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE (1855) Isle Royale 

Middle Islands Passage I6.3820if5.5327015 

Isle Royale Keweenaw 

The Rock Harbor Lighthouse was constructed in 1855 at a cost of $5,000, 
but was used only until 1858. It lay abandoned until Congress appro- 
priated an additional $5,000 in the early iSyO's. It was used again in 
187^-1879 and then permanently taken out of service. Camping parties 
from Duluth used it for several years, and it was occupied periodically 
until 1939. The tower began to tilt noticeably in the early 1950's, 
but was stabilized through an emergency National Park Service restora- 
tion project begun in 1962, which included pumping cement under pressure 
into the decaying gravel foundation. The round brick light tower is 10 
feet in diameter at the base and 50 feet high, while the nearby light- 
keeper's house is a rubble masonry building, two stories high and 29 
feet square, with a gabled roof. 
[Holland, p. 186; NR] 



ROUND ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (1895) Round Island 

Northwest corner of Round Island 16.685080.5078520 

Round Island Mackinac 

This lighthouse was constructed in 1895 to help guide ships passing 
through the northern channel of the Straits of Mackinac between Round 
Island and Mackinac Island. When the light was automated in 1924, the 
number of keepers was reduced from three to one. It was unmanned from 
19^7 until its abandonment in 1958. It is a three-story brick struc- 
ture, 31 feet by 30 feet, with a 12 foot square tower in the northeast 
corner rising to a height of 53 feet. The entire structure rests on a 
concrete crib, kO feet square, faced with brick. There has been exten- 
sive damage to both the interior of the building and to the breakwater 
since its abandonment, but efforts are now underway to stabilize and 
ultimately restore the structure. 
[NR] 



165 



TRANSPORTATION 

THE ST. MARY'S (1917) Sault Ste. Marie South 

Park Place 16.70^300.5)52800 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

This boat was used by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as quar- 
ters for its employees while they were working at isolated work sites. 
She has been stationed at Sault Ste. Marie during her entire history. 
She consists of a two-story wood-framed house with a flat roof resting 
on a steel barge, which is 100 feet long and 30 feet wide. This boat 
was acquired by a non-profit historical corporation In 1972 and will be 
restored and made part of a marine museum. 
[ The Ship's Bell , Le Sault de Sainte Marie Historic Sites, p. 3l 



"■"^le St^. Mary's {1917), Sault Ste. Marie 
166 



TRANSPORTATION 



St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal: Administration Building 
(1896), Sault Ste. Marie 



167 



TRANSPORTATION 

ST. MARY'S FALLS SHIP CANAL 

[SOD LOCKS] (1855-1968) Sault Ste. Marie South 

On the St. Mary's River 16.703^55.5153150 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

The St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal, more commonly called the "Soo Locks," 
enables shipping to pass around the St. Mary's Rapids and thus travel 
between Lake Superior and the other Great Lakes. There has been a 
navigation lock at this general location since 1797, when the Northwest 
Fur Company built a 38 foot lock on the Canadian side of the river. 
That lock was destroyed during the War of 1812 by American troops, and 
there was no navigation canal until 1855, when the State of Michigan, 
with Congressional assistance, opened up the State Lock, which was 350 
feet long, 70 feet wide, and had two lock chambers, each with a lift of 
18 feet. In I88I, the State of Michigan transferred ownership of the 
canal to the United States Government, which placed it under the control 
of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, which still administers 
the canal today. A second lock, the Weitzel, measuring 515 feet long 
and 80 feet wide, was built in I87O-I88I. As the size of ships has 
increased, the locks have undergone numerous changes. In 1887"1896, 
the original State Lock was removed and replaced by the Poe Lock, 8OO 
feet long and 100 feet wide. The next major change took place when two 
new locks, the Davis (1907-191^) and the Sabin (1911-1919) were added, 
bringing the total number of operating locks to four. The Davis and 
Sabin Locks, the oldest remaining on this site, are identical, measuring 
1,350 feet long, 80 feet wide, and 23.1 feet deep. More recently, the 
Weitzel Lock (I88I) was replaced in 19^3 by the MacArthur Lock, 8OO feet 
long, 80 feet wide, and 31 feet deep, and the Poe Lock (I896) was re- 
placed by the New Poe Lock measuring 1,200 feet by 110 feet by 32 feet 
deep in I968. The oldest structure remaining on the site is the Admini- 
stration Building (I896), an 80 foot square, three-story stone building, 
with a hipped roof and an observation and control tower on its southwest 
corner. 

[Otto Fowle, Sault Ste . Marie and Its Great Waterway (New York, 1925), 
pp. 431-446; Charles Moore, The Si^. Mary's Falls Canal (Detroit, 1907), 
passim.] 



168 



TRANSPORTATION 



St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal: Davis Lock (I9)'>), Sault Ste. Marie 



SAND HILLS LIGHTHOUSE (1919) Phoenix 

Five Mile Point 16. 396580. 52lt9'HO 

Sand Hills Keweenaw 

The shoals located off Eagle River had caused many shipwrecks, but the 
Eagle River Lighthouse (see other entry) was located too far from the 
beach to offer adequate warning, and it was discontinued in 1908. Then, 
in 1910, the ore carrier WJ 1 1 iam C. More land was stranded on these 
shoals. The Sand Hilts Light and Fog Signal Station, located at Five 
Mile Point, was built in 1917-1919 at a cost of $100,000 and with great 
difficulty, since all materials had to be brought to the site by barge. 
It originally had an oil vapor lamp mounted in a fourth order bulls-eye 



169 



TRANSPORTATION 



lens and was visible for eleven miles. William Richard Bennetts was the 
keeper during the entire period that this station was manned, from 1919 
until 1939* The station had an automatic acetylene gas beacon operating 
from 1939 until 195^, when it was taken out of service. The bright light 
tower, 10 feet square, is approximately 50 feet in height, while the 
light stands 91 feet above the water level. The tower is located in the 
middle of a large, two-story apartment building which served as the re- 
sidence for three lightkeepers and their families. 
[H. Donald Bliss, "The Story of Sand Hills Light," (I960), p. 1] 



SAND POINT LIGHTHOUSE (I878) 

On Sand Point 

Baraga 



Keweenaw Bay 

16. 388010. 5181097 
Baraga 



The lighthouse at Sand Point was built in I878 after the Lighthouse 

Board had appropriated $10,000 for its construction. It consists of a 

square brick light tower approximately 30 feet high, located at the west 

end of the keeper's house, a 20 foot square brick building, with a gabled 

roof. 

[Sawyer, p. kk3; USCG, Light List , p. 119] 



SAULT STE. MARIE UNION 
STATION (c.1890) 
566 W. Portage Ave. 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16. 702800. 5152955 
Chippewa 



The Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad and the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad both reached Sault Ste. Marie 
in 1887 and jointly built this passenger station shortly thereafter. 
It is a rectangular building constructed of finished, coursed cut red 
sandstone. The center section is two stories high with a gabled roof, 
and measures kO feet by 50 feet, while there are two single-story wings 
with hipped roofs, each kO feet wide and 66 feet long. 
[Dunbar, p. 159] 



170 



TRANSPORTATION 



Seul Choix Point Lighthouse (1892), Gulliver Township 
171 



TRANSPORTATION 



SEUL CHOIX POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1892) Not Available 

Seul Choix Point 

Gulliver Township Schoolcraft 

This lighthouse was built in 1892 and equipped with a light of if50,000 
candlepower. The conical light tower rests on a finished ashlar foun- 
dation, stands 80 feet high, and is 20 feet in diameter at the base, 
tapering to about 15 feet in diameter at the top. The keeper's house 
is a two-story rectangular brick building, 30 feet by 32 feet, with a 
hipped roof. 
[Holland, p. 185; USCG, Light List , p. 175] 

SEVENTH STREET (1906) Laurium 

Between Pine St. and Scott St. 16.389800.523^100 

Calumet Houghton 

In 1906, the R.S. Blome Company of Chicago paved twenty blocks of streets 
in Calumet with grooved granitoid concrete, at a cost of $200,000. There 
are a few segments of this paving on adjoining streets, but virtually 
all of it is on one segment of Seventh Street. This is the oldest con- 
crete pavement in Michigan and has stood the test of over seventy years 
of use and the harsh climate of this area. 
[ Daily Mining Gazette , May 16, 1966, p. 14] 

STANNARD ROCK LIGHTHOUSE (1882) Not Available 

Forty miles northeast of Marquette 

Stannard Rock Marquette 

The Stannard Rock Lighthouse Is one of the engineering marvels in the 
Upper Peninsula. The rock, named after Captain Stannard who discovered 
it in 1835, is 5 feet above the water level and about 50 feet long. It 
rests on a mile-long sandstone shoal which became a serious threat to 
ships and men as traffic increased in this area. In 1877, Congress appro- 
priated $50,000 for the construction of the light, and that year the steam* 
ship Warrington floated a cofferdam to the rock where it was scuttled and 
filled with 3,000 tons of rock. Numbered, dressed stones were assembled 
on the foundation after a trial assembly without mortar on shore, and 
the light was ready on July 4, 1882, after a total expenditure of 
$300,000. The structure rests on a foundation of broken rock and ce- 
ment, covered with wrought iron, built up to 23 feet above the lake. 



172 



TRANSPORTATION 



The tower extends 110 feet above the water with walls 10 feet thick at 
the base, tapering to 3 feet thick at the top, protecting ten rooms on 
seven successive levels. The light, originally a small acetylene gas 
lamp, reflected through hundreds of light polished lenses with a focal 
point 102 feet above the water. Is now electric. The light was made 
fully automatic in 1962 following a disastrous explosion and fire the 
summer before. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 119; Holland, p. 18?; NR] 

VERMILION LIFE STATION (I876) Vermilion 

Vermilion Point 16.641100.5180270 

Vermi 1 ion Chippewa 

The Vermilion Life Station was built by the United States Coast Guard 

In 1876 slightly west of Whitefish Point, In an area known for numerous 

shipwrecks. The buildings from the original life station are mostly 

in ruins, having fallen victim to vandalism and weathering. One building 

standing is a two-story, frame structure 20 feet wide and kO feet long, 

probably built in I876. 

[ History of the Great Lakes (Chicago: J.H. Beers, 1899), I, p. 379] 

WHITEFISH POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1861,1902) Whitefish Point 

On Whitefish Point 16.656200.5181500 

Whitefish Township Chippewa 

The first lighthouse at Whitefish Point was approved by Congress on 
March 3, 18^7, and a stone building was completed in 18^9. It was re- 
built in 1861, but later replaced by the present 80 foot steel tower in 
1902. The earliest light had a whale sperm oil lamp, used until 1913 
when it was replaced with the present incandescent oil vapor lamp, a 
1,000 watt Aladdin mantle lamp, of 600,000 luminous range intensity, 
with a maximum range of twenty-five miles. Next to the skeletal steel 
light tower stands a two-story frame 1 ightkeeper *s house, 20 feet wide 
and 60 feet long, with a gabled roof. This facility was manned until 
1970, when it was automated. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 117; History of the Great Lakes (Chicago: J.H. 
Beers, 1899), pp. 365, 375; Holland, p. 186; James M. Ripley, "White- 
fish Point Light," Inland Seas, XXIV (Winter 1968), pp. 279-284; NR] 



173 



ADDITIONAL LIGHTHOUSES 



CRISP POINT LIGHTHOUSE (ISO^f) 
Fourteen miles west of Whiteflsh Point 
Whitefish Township 



Betsy Lake North 

16.633115.5179000 

Chippewa 



DETOUR POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1861) 

Detour Point 

Detour 



Detour Point 

17.270000.5092270 

Chippewa 



FOURTEEN MILE POINT LIGHTHOUSE (189^) 
At Fourteen Mile Point 
Ontonagon Township 



Greenland 

16. 338037. 52060ifO 

Ontonagon 



GULL ROCK LIGHTHOUSE (1867) 
West of Manitou Island 
Grant Township 



Manitou Island 
16. if if9910. 52515^0 
Keweenaw 



MANITOU ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (I85O) 
East Point of Manitou Island 
Grant Township 



Manitou Island 

16.455700.5251780 

Keweenaw 



POVERTY ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (187^*) 
Southeast end of Poverty Island 
Fairbanks Township 



Fair port 

16.526010.5040085 
Delta 



ST. MARTIN'S ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (1905) 
Northeast end of St. Martin's Island 
Fairbanks Township 



Peninsula Point 
16. 51 8094. 5038072 
Delta 



174 



ADDITIONAL RAILROAD BUILDINGS 



C, M, SP & P RR: AMASA STATION (1893) 

Pine St. 

Amasa 



Amasa 

16.388200.5120840 

Iron 



C, M, SP S P RR: CHANNING 
ROUNDHOUSE (1888) 
West of M-95 
Channing 



Channing 

16. i»15400. 5110270 

Dickinson 



C, M, SP & P RR: CHANNING STATION (1888) 

West of M-95 

Channing 



Channing 

16. i»15520. 5110070 

Dickinson 



C, M, SP & P RR: IRON MOUNTAIN 
FREIGHTHOUSE (c.l890) 
East C St. 
Iron Mountain 



Iron Mountain 
16. i»17l85. 5073960 
Dickinson 



C, M, SP & P RR: ONTONAGON 
ROUNDHOUSE (c.1900) 
Steel St. 
Ontonagon 



Ontonagon 

16. 323080. 51930if5 
Ontonagon 



C, M, SP S P RR: ONTONAGON 
STATION (c.1900) 
South of US-45 
Ontonagon 



Ontonagon 

16.323080.5193045 
Ontonagon 



C S NW RR: BESSEMER STATION (c.l890) 

US-2 and Sophie St. 

Bessemer 



Bessemer 

15.726460.5151560 
Gogeb i c 



C S NW RR: IRON RIVER STATION (c.1910) 
Selden St. 
Iron River 



Iron River 

16.373080.5105060 

Iron 



175 



ADDITIONAL RAILROAD BUILDINGS 



C S NW RR: IRONWOOD ROUNDHOUSE (c.1900) 
Curry St. 
I ronwood 



Ironwood 

15. 7179^5. 51W840 

Gogebic 



C & NW RR: STEPHENSON STATION (c.l900) 
Menominee St. and Mill St. 
Stephenson 



Stephenson 

16.425025.5029015 
Menominee 



D, SS S A RR: BRUCE CROSSING 
STATION (c.1890) 
East of US-45 
Bruce Crossing 



Rockland 

16.333000.5155065 
Ontonagon 



D, SS S A RR: CHATHAM STATION (c.l900) 

Rocky River Rd. 

Chatham 



Au Train 

16.505055.5132050 

Alger 



D, SS S A RR: EWEN STATION (c.l890) 

Main St. 

Ewen 



Matchwood 

16.325010.5155057 
Ontonagon 



D, SS S A RR: HANCOCK 
FREIGHTHOUSE (c.l920) 
Depot St. 
Hancock 



Chassel 1 

16.379520.5220000 

Houghton 



D, SS & A RR: HANCOCK 
STATION (c.1920) 
Depot St. 
Hancock 



Chassel 1 

16.379520.5220000 

Houghton 



D, SS S A RR: MARQUETTE 
WAREHOUSE (I88I) 
121 E. Baraga St. 
Marquette 



Marquette 

16. if 69890. 5 15^000 

Marquette 



176 



ADDITIONAL RAILROAD BUILDINGS 



D, SS & A RR: NESTORIA STATION (c.l890) 

Main St. 

Nestoria 



Herman 

16. i»03033. 5157075 
Baraga 



D, SS S A RR: ST. IGNACE 
ROUNDHOUSE (c.l890) 
Ellsworth St. and Marquette St 
St. Ignace 



St. Ignace 

16. 676000. 508 1970 

Mackinac 



D, SS S A RR: SAULT STE. MARIE 
FREIGHT STATION (c.l890) 
Eureka St. 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702030.5152320 

Chippewa 



D, SS & A RR: SENEY STATION (c.l890) 

Railroad St. 

Seney 



Not Available 



Luce 



D, SS & A RR: TROUT CREEK STATION (c.l890) 
Garner St. 
Trout Creek 



Watersmeet 

I6.3^5060.51^90if5 
Ontonagon 



LS S I RR: GWINN FREIGHTHOUSE (c.l900) 

Railroad St. 

Gwinn 



Gwinn 

I6.if66i»00.512i»760 

Marquette 



M, SP S SSM RR: MANISTIQUE 

STATION (c.1920) 

Vfolf St. and Mackinac St. 

Manistique 



Cooks 

16.557050.5090020 

Schoolcraft 



M, SP & SSM RR: RUDYARD 
STATION (c.1890) 
West St. 
Rudyard 



Rudyard 

16.685140.5122500 

Chippewa 



177 



INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 



The Upper Peninsula does not have the great number or variety 
of bridges found in the Lower Peninsula, but it nevertheless has many 
significant examples in terms of age, size, and engineering design. 
Historically, the region's relatively small population was concentrated 
in the copper districts, the iron ranges, and in a few coastal cities 
like Sault Ste. Marie, Escanaba, and Menominee. Not surprisingly, the 
bulk of the historic bridges are also located in these areas. Because 
the region has few wide rivers, multi-span bridges of great length are 
uncommon. Rivers such as the Menominee, Escanaba, and Manistique were 
vital to the logging industry, but have never served as major avenues 
for other inland trade, so the region has very few moveable bridges. 

Twelve of the surviving structures were built in the nine- 
teenth century, twenty-eight were constructed between 1900 and 1920, 
and the remaining eleven are of more recent vintage. Half of these are 
iron or steel trusses, while the rest are a mixture of various styles, 
including stone or concrete arches, steel or concrete girders, steel 
cantilevered spans, trestles of timber or steel, and steel vertical lift 
bridges. They range in size from the parallel railroad and highway 
bridges across the St. Mary's River at Sault Ste. Marie, with river sec- 
tions totaling nearly three thousand feet, to several examples of fifty 
foot stone arch or iron truss bridges. 

There are several clusters of historic bridges that deserve 
particular attention. The most interesting concentration is at Sault 
Ste. Marie, where the visitor can view the evolution of American bridge 
design from a single vantage point. This cluster includes the Interna- 
tional Railroad Bridge, with fixed truss spans built in I887 and move- 
able spans dating from 1913 and 19^5; a series of bridges across the 
power canal of the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company (see other 
entries), including a steel girder span and three trusses, all built 
in 1900, a steel arch span (1935), and other bridges of more recent 
vintage; and the International Highway Bridge (1962), an immense struc- 
ture with two steel cantilevered spans, nearly three miles long in- 
cluding approaches. There is also a series of four multi-span railroad 
bridges built in I898-I9II on the upper Menominee River, as well as 
individual railroad bridges on the Escanaba and Manistique Rivers. 
This section includes several significant structures built in recent 
decades, including the Cut River Bridge (19^6) and the Houghton-Hancock 
Bridge (1959). The Mackinac Straits Bridge, completed in 1958, is not 
listed in this section because it was included in the Lower Peninsula 
Inventory. 



178 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



C, M, SP S P RR: MINE STREET 
BRIDGE (1899) 
Over Mine St. 
Bessemer 



Bessemer 

15.726140.5151130 

Gogebic 



The Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company constructed this three-span rail- 
road bridge in 1899- It is 10 feet wide and 100 feet long overall, 
resting on two steel piers and concrete abutments. There are two steel 
deck girder approach spans, each 25 feet long, and a single steel 
through-plate girder span 50 feet long. 



C & NW RR: FORD RIVER BRIDGE (1910) 

Over the Ford River 

Hyde 



Escanaba 

16.484100.5064075 
Delta 



The American Bridge Company of New York erected this two-span through- 
plate girder bridge across the Ford River for the Chicago and North- 
western Railroad in 1910. It rests on finished ashlar piers and abut- 
ments and measures 38 feet wide and 215 feet long. 



COUNTY ROUTE 517 BRIDGE (1911) 
Over the Escanaba River 
Wells 



Gladstone 

16.494064.5069080 

Delta 



This massive concrete girder bridge across the Escanaba River, built in 
191 1» is now in ruins, with the southernmost spans removed. The portion 
of the bridge still standing is 20 feet wide and 630 feet long, con- 
sisting of sixteen spans resting on concrete piers. 



D, SS & A RR: POWER CANAL BRIDGE (1900) 
Over the Power Canal 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 
16.702215.5152560 
Ch i ppewa 



This bridge was built at the time that the Michigan Lake Superior Power 
Company was constructing its massive power canal (see other entry) through 
Sault Ste. Marie. It is a four-span steel girder bridge, 15 feet wide and 
225 feet long, resting on piers and abutments constructed of brick, with 
stone facings. It was built by the Lassac Branch of the American Bridge 
Company of Chicago. 



179 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



D. SS & A RR: STURGEON RIVER 

BRIDGE (1913) Chassell 

Over the Sturgeon River 16. SSS'iOO. 5207520 

Chassell Houghton 

This railroad bridge was constructed in 1913 by the Wisconsin Bridge 
and Iron Works for the Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad. It 
consists of three steel through-plate girder spans resting on steel 
piers and concrete abutments. The two approach spans are 40 feet long, 
while the center span is 65 feet In length. 



C & NW RR: Ford River Bridge (1910), Hyde 
)80 






BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



M, SP S SSM RR: MANISTIQUE RIVER 

BRIDGE (1899) Not Available 

Over the Manistlque River 

Man I St 1 que Schoolcraft 

This is a seven-span steel girder bridge, 10 feet wide and 280 feet 
long, resting on finished ashlar piers and abutments. It was designed 
by C.F. Lowete and constructed in 1899 at a cost of $50,000 by the 
Gil lette-Herzog Manufacturing Company. The chief engineer of the rail- 
road at the time was Thomas Greene. The nameplate proudly proclaims, 
"2-160 Ton Loco's," which is presumably the weight capacity of the 
bridge. 
[ Escanaba Daily Press , March 2, 1957, p. 63 

SIPHON BRIDGE (1919) Cooks 

Deer St., over the Manistlque River 16.599000.5090000 

Han i St i que Schoolcraft 

United States Route Two was built through Manistlque after the Manistlque 
Paper Company had constructed a concrete flume (see other entry) which 
parallels the river and is 28 feet high and 160 feet wide. The highway 
bridge was built through the upper part of the flume so that the roadway 
is actually k feet below the water level, prompting local residents to 
call this structure the "Siphon Bridge." It is a reinforced concrete 
girder bridge, 66 feet wide and 300 feet long. 
[Escanaba Daily Press , 1936 Progress Edition , Industry Section] 



181 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



C. M, SP & P RR: MENOMINEE RIVER 

BRIDGE (1902) Iron Mountain 

Over the Menominee River 16. '07830.5070000 

East KIngsford Dickinson 

The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad reached Iron 
Mountain In I886, so this Is probably the second bridge built at this 
site. Overall, It Is 330 feet in length, consisting of two sets of 
two steel deck girder approach spans, each set 75 feet in length, plus 
a single steel arch span 180 feet long, all resting on concrete piers 
and abutments. 



C, H, SP & P RR: Menominee River Bridge (1902), East KIngsford 
182 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



C S NW RR: Black River Bridge (i890> Ramsay 



C & NW RR: BU^CK RIVER [KEYSTONE] 

BRIDGE (1891) Bessemer 

Over the Black River 15.730200.5150885 

Ramsay Gogebic 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad built this stone arch bridge, 
known locally as the "Keystone Bridge," in 1891 at a cost of $48,322, 
utilizing limestone quarried at Kaukauna, Wisconsin. It Is kS feet 
long, k^i feet wide, stands 57 feet high, and has wing walls 50 feet 



183 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



long. At the top of the arch, the cut coursed limestone blocks are 
about 5 feet thick, giving this bridge a graceful appearance not nor- 
mally seen in stone arch construction. 

[ Pickands Mather Iron News , April 3, 1968; Ironwood Daily Globe , 
November 20, 1969, p. 11] 



C S NW RR: FUME CREEK BRIDGE (1888) Norway 

Over the Fume Creek 16.423920.5072600 

Qu i nnesec D i ck i nson 

This stone arch bridge was built a decade after the Chicago and North- 
western Railroad was built into Quinnesec, so this bridge probably re- 
placed an earlier wooden structure. It is a stone arch bridge 25 feet 
high, 30 feet wide with wing walls extending another 20 feet, and 
approximately 60 feet long. The arch opening is 20 feet wide and 25 
feet high at the center. 
[PLSMI, XI (1906), p. 48; Dunbar, p. 117] 



184 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



C, M, SP S P RR: FIRST STREET 

BRIDGE (1896) Bessemer 

Over First St. 15.726000.5151060 

Bessemer Gogebic 

This bridge was constructed in I896 by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron 
Company and is 8 feet wide and 195 feet long overall. It consists of 
three spans resting on two steel piers and concrete abutments. The two 
approach spans, 45 feet and 60 feet in length, are steel deck girders, 
while the main span, 90 feet in length, is a steel Pratt pony truss. 



C, M, SP S P RR: ONTONAGON RIVER 

BRIDGE (1899) Ontonagon 

Over the Ontonagon River 16.323100.5192090 

Ontonagon Ontonagon 

This railroad bridge over the Ontonagon River was fabricated in 1899 
by the Lassig Bridge and Iron Works of Chicago. It is 15 feet wide and 
kyo feet long overall. There are four distinct segments: a southern 
approach, 130 feet long, consisting of five steel deck girder spans; a 
northern approach timber trestle 150 feet long; and two steel Pratt 
through trusses, each 100 feet long, resting on concrete piers. 



C & NW RR: BIG CEDAR RIVER 

BRIDGE (c.1917) Powers 

Over the Big Cedar River 16.^59090.5060010 

Spau 1 d i ng Menomi nee 

This is a single-span riveted steel triple-intersection Warren truss, 
12 feet wide and 120 feet long, resting on concrete abutments. Since 
the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad line went through this part of 
Menominee County in 1877, this is probably the second bridge at this 
location. It is virtually identical to a 1917 bridge built for the 
same railroad in nearby Stephenson (see other entry). 
[Dunbar, p. 117] 



185 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



C & NW RR: Escanaba River Bridge (1892). Wells 

C S NW RR: ESCANABA RIVER BRIDGE (1892) Gladstone 

Over the Escanaba River 16.49't061t.5069080 

Wells Delta 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad took over the Peninsula Railroad 
line between Harquette and Escanaba in 1865( only a year after it was 
completed. This bridge, constructed by the Lasslg Bridge and Iron Works 
of Chicago in 1892, is the second bridge across the Escanaba River at 
this approximate location. The remains of stone piers from an earlier 
structure can be seen nearby. It consists of ten riveted steel triple- 
intersection Pratt through trusses, each 60 feet long. They rest on 
finished ashlar abutments, four ashlar piers, and five steel piers. 
[Dunbar, p. 117] 

186 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



C & NW RR: LITTLE CEDAR RIVER BRIDGE (1917) Stephenson 

Over the Little Cedar River 16.452025.5028077 

Stephenson Menominee 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad extended its line from Menominee 
to Powers in 1877. passing through Stephenson, making this at least the 
second bridge at this location. It was built In 1917 by the Wisconsin 
Bridge and Iron Company of Milwaukee. It is a single-span steel riveted 
triple-intersection Warren through truss, 12 feet wide, 120 feet long, 
resting on concrete abutments. 
(Dunbar, p. 1I7l 



C S NW RR: Little Cedar River Bridge (1917). Stephenson 
187 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



C & NW RR: MENOMINEE RIVER 

BRIDGE (1898) 

Over the Menominee River 

Quinnesec 



Norway 

16.4233^0.5069290 

Dickinson 



This bridge is located on a Chicago and Northwestern Railroad spur built 
to serve the large Kimberly-Clark paper mill in Niagara » Wisconsin. 
Overall, it is 18 feet wide and 320 feet long, and consists of two steel 
through trusses resting on concrete piers and abutments. One span is 
a pin-connected Pratt truss 200 feet long, while the other is a pin- 
connected triple-intersection Warren truss 120 feet in length. 



C & NW RR: MENOMINEE RIVER 
BRIDGE (1911) 
Over the Menominee River 
Breitung Township 



Iron Mountain 

16.415860.5079210 

Dickinson 



This steel bridge over the Menominee River was erected by the American 
Bridge Company in 1911. It consists of four spans resting on finished 
ashlar piers and abutments and is 375 feet long. The two approach 
spans, 60 feet and 75 feet in length, are steel deck girders, while 
the two main spans, each 120 feet long, are riveted double-intersection 
Warren deck trusses. 



FORT STREET BRIDGE (1902) 
Over the Power Canal 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702770.5124700 

Chippewa 



The Fort Street Bridge is a single-span, pin-connected, steel Parker 
through truss with sub-ties (Pennsylvania truss), resting on concrete 
abutments. It is 33 feet wide, 215 feet long, and crosses the power 
canal of the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company. It was built by the 
New Castle Bridge Company of Indianapolis, Indiana. It is virtually 
identical to the Spruce Street and Johnstone Street bridges (see other 
entries) in the same city. 



188 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



International Railroad Bridge: River Section 
(1887), Sault Ste. Marie 



INTERNATIONAL RAILROAD BRIDGE: 

RIVER SECTION (188?) Sault Ste. Marie South 

Over the St. Mary's River 16.702360.5153200 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

The International Railroad Bridge across the St. Mary's River was a 
cooperative venture involving four railroads: the Duluth, South Shore, 
and Atlantic; the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie; the 
Grand Trunk Western; and the Canadian Pacific. The substructure was 
built by a well-known bridge contractor, J. Reid, while the contract 
for the superstructure went to the Dominion Bridge Company of Lachine, 



189 



BRrOGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



Quebec. This company was able to outbid al) of the American companies 
because It was able to Import cheap duty-free Scottish stee) and then 
fabricate the structural members in Canada. The rest of the bridge, 
crossing the American Navigation Canal (see other entry), was built by 
the Detroit Bridge and Iron Works. This section consisted of ten stee) 
camelback through trusses, each 239 feet long, resting on finished 
ashlar piers, with each pier anchored In the bedrock of the river bottom. 
One of these trusses was removed In 1913 to enable construction of a new 
moveable bridge over the American Locks, but nine of the original spans 
rema i n . 

(Joseph E. and Estelle L. Bayliss, River of Destiny : The St . Mary's 
(Detroit, 1955). p. 190; Illustrated Atlas of the Twin Cities Sault 
Ste . Marie (Detroit, 1888), p. 6l; Dunbar, p. 159; Boyer, Program 386] 



Johnstone Street Bridge (1900), Sault Ste. Marie 
190 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



JOHNSTONE STREET BRIDGE (1900) Sault Ste. Marie South 

Over the Power Canal 16.704070. 51 52060 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

The Johnstone Street Bridge is a single-span, pin-connected, steel 
Parker through truss with sub-ties (Pennsylvania truss) resting on con- 
crete abutments. It is 33 feet wide, 280 feet long, and was built by 
the New Castle Bridge Company of New Castle, Indiana in 1900 to provide 
a crossing over the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company's power canal. 
It is virtually identical to the Spruce Street and Fort Street bridges 
(see other entries) in the same city. 



M, SP & SSM RR: ESCANABA RIVER 

BRIDGE (1901) Gladstone 

Over the Escanaba River 16.^93070.5071060 

Wells Township Delta 

This railroad bridge was constructed by the American Bridge Company's 
Chicago plant in 1901 and has an overall length of 680 feet. There are 
a total of nine spans, all resting on concrete piers and abutments. 
Five of these are steel Pratt deck truss spans, with verticals, each 
loo feet long, while the remaining four spans are steel deck girders, 
^ach k5 feet long. 



M, SP S SSM RR: MENOMINEE RIVER 

BRIDGE (1899) Pembine 

Over the Menominee River 16.^39025.5058025 

Holmes Township Menominee 

The Gil lette-Herzog Manufacturing Company built this bridge, with C.F. 
Loweth serving as the designer. Thomas Greene is listed on the name- 
plate as "Chief Engineer," presumably of the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and 
Sault Ste. Marie Railroad. The nameplate also proclaims, "2-160 Ton 
Loco's" as the bridge's load capacity. It consists of two riveted 
Pratt through trusses of 120 feet, resting on concrete abutments, and 
a double-intersection Pratt truss, 150 feet long, giving the bridge a 
total length of 390 feet. 



191 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 

SPRUCE STREET BRIDGE {I9OO) Sault Ste. Marie South 

Over the Power Canal I6.70't380.5I52175 

Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa 

The Spruce Street Bridge is a single-span, pin-connected steel Parker 
through truss with sub-ties (Pennsylvania truss), resting on concrete 
abutments. It is 33 feet wide, 265 feet long, and was built in 1900 by 
the New Castle Bridge Company of New Castle, Indiana. It crosses the 
power canal of the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company and Is nearly 
identical to the Fort Street and Johnstone Street bridges (see other 
entries) in the same city. 



M, SP & SSM RR: Escanaba River Bridge (I9OI), Wells Township 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



VICTORIA ROAD BRIDGE (c.1910) Rockland 

Over the Ontonagon River 16.331035.5176030 

V i ctor I a Ontonagon 

The Victoria Road Bridge was built by WInthrop and McGormley, "Con- 
tracting Agents for the Toledo Masslllon Bridge Company". It was ori- 
ginally located in Ewen, but was moved to its present location in 19^5 
to replace an older bridge washed out by a flood. It is 16 feet wide, 
251 feet long, and consists of three steel pony truss spans, with a 
main span of 151 feet. It is now being replaced by a new bridge and 
will soon be scrapped. 



193 



RIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



Cut River Bridge (1946), Horan 
I9I1 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELUNEOUS 



CUT RIVER BRIDGE (1946) Epoufette 

US-2, over the Cut River 16.645085.5100450 

Moran Mackinac 

This deck steel canti levered bridge was constructed in 1941-1946 by 
W.J. Meager and Sons, Contractors, with the R.C. Mahon Company erecting 
the structural steel. It carries U.S. Route 2 over the deep gorge 
created by the Cut River. The bridge is 40 feet wide, 641 feet long, 
with its 888 tons of structural steel resting on finished ashlar abut- 
ments. The massive single canti levered span carries the roadway 147 
feet above the level of the river. 
[MS IAS] 



D, SS & A RR: BALTIMORE RIVER 

TRESTLE (1899) Rockland 

Over the Baltimore River 16.331007-5155055 

Stannard Township Ontonagon 

A thirteen-span steel trestle, this structure was built by the Lassig 
Bridge and Ironworks Company of Chicago in 1899* It is 8 feet wide, 
435 feet long, rests on concrete abutments and steel piers ranging 
from 20 feet to approximately 125 feet in height, and consists of 
thirteen steel deck girder spans. 



D, SS & A RR: JUMBO RIVER 

TRESTLE (1899) Kenton 

Over the Jumbo River 16. 352035. 5149080 

Kenton Houghton 

The Jumbo River Trestle is 8 feet wide and 200 feet long and consists 
of three distinct sections. There are two timber trestle approach sec 
tions, each 75 feet long, and a single steel deck girder span resting 
on steel piers, 50 feet in length. 



195 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



D. SS & A RR: ONTONAGON RIVER 

TRESTLE (1900) Watersmect 

Over the Ontonagon River 16. 339055. SI'tSOSS 

Interior Township Ontonagon 

This steel trestle, over the middle branch of the Ontonagon River, was 
constructed in 1900 by the American Bridge Company's Lasslg Branch, 
located in Chicago. It is 8 feet wide, '(20 feet long, and consists of 
eight steel deck girder spans resting on concrete abutments and steel 
piers ranging in height from 20 feet to 110 feet. 



D, SS 8 A RR: Jumbo River Trestle (1899), Kenton 
196 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



D, SS & A RR: Ontonagon River Trestle (1900), Interior Township 
I 197 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



Hough ton -Hancock Bridge (1959), Houghton 

HOUGHTON-HANCOCK BRIDGE (1959) Chassell 

Over Portage Lake I6.38O65O.52I988O 

Houghton Houghton 

This vertical lift bridge replaced a 1905 steel swing bridge, which had 
In turn replaced an earlier wooden swing bridge. It was constructed by 
the State of Michigan, with the two railroads which use the bridge, the 
Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic and the Copper Range, sharing in the 
costs, which amounted to over $13 million. The chief engineer was 
Martin McGrath, while George Jacobson was the bridge engineer. The Al 
Johnson Construction Company was the general contractor, the American 
Bridge Company erected the superstructure, and the Bethlehem Steel 



198 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



Company supplied the structural steel. The bridge has an overall length 
of 1,310 feet, with a lift span 260 feet long, and twin steel towers 
180 feet high. When fully raised, the lift span provides a clearance 
of 104 feet for shipping on Portage Lake, part of the Keweenaw Waterway. 
It is a two-level bridge, with four highway lanes on the upper segment 
and a railroad track on the lower level. 

[ Hancock , Michigan Centennial ; 1863"1963 (Hancock, 1963), p. 19; Claire 
Moyer, Ke-Wee-Naw (Denver, I966), pp. 69-70] 



INTERNATIONAL HIGHWAY BRIDGE (1962) 
Over the St. Mary's River 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702400.5153200 

Chippewa 



The twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie in Michigan and Ontario were linked 
by a railroad bridge in I887 (see other entry), but automobile traffic 
between the cities was carried by ferry until this bridge was opened 
in 1962. An International Bridge Authority was created by the Michigan 
State Legislature and the Government of Ontario in 1935 to plan and 
finance a highway bridge here, but more than two decades passed before 
construction was begun. It was designed by the firm of Steinman, 
Boynton, Gronquist, and London of New York and cost $20 million. Over- 
all, the structure is 2.76 miles long, including approaches, and pro- 
vides a two lane roadway 28 feet wide. It consists of the American 
approach 2,471 feet long, a Canadian approach of 2,942 feet, and the 
river section 9,280 feet long resting on sixty-two reinforced concrete 
piers. Altogether, some 114,000 tons of concrete and 11,000 tons of 
structural steel were used. Over the American Navigation Canal, there 
is a four-span cantilevered truss 1,260 feet long. So that navigation 
was not impaired, it was erected without falsework through the balanced 
addition of steel members in assembling the two main spans of 540 feet 
each. The Canadian crossing was simpler because it consists of a 
single main span of 430 feet and two side spans of 200 feet each. 
[ Detroit News , October 28, 1962, p. 7; Engineering Report of Steinman , 
Boynton , Gronquist , and London , June 30, I960] 



199 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



International Highway Bridge (1962), Sault Ste. Marie 
200 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELUNEOUS 



INTERNATIONAL RAILROAD BRIDGE: 
AMERICAN LOCKS SECTION (1913,19^5) 
Over the American Locks 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702360.5153200 

Chippewa 



The International Railroad Bridge linking the twin cities of Sault Ste. 
Marie was opened in 1887« Proceeding from south to north, the bridge 
originally consisted of a single swing span 398 feet long over the two 
American Locks; two lattice truss spans, each 104 feet long over the 
North Channel; and ten camelback truss spans, each 239 feet long, 
crossing the St. Mary's River. In 1913f when two new locks were under 
construction, the Davis (opened in 1914) and the Sabin (opened in 1919) » 
the two lattice truss spans and one of the truss spans were removed and 
replaced with a Straus Trunnion Bascule Bridge, designed by the Straus 
Bascule Bridge Company of Chicago and built by the Pennsylvania Steel 
Company. This trunnion bridge, commonly called the "Jackknife Bridge," 
is 23 feet wide and 336 feet long. The swing span was replaced in 19^5 
by a vertical lift bridge, 21 feet wide, 369 feet long, with steel 
towers 175 feet in height, equipped with 70 ton counterweights. 
[Joseph E. and Estelle L. Bayliss, River of Destiny : The St . Mary's 
(Detroit, 1955), p. 190; Dunbar, p. 159; Illustrated Atlas of the 
Twin Cities Sault Ste. Marie (Detroit, I888), p. 81] 



LS & I RR: DEAD RIVER 
TRESTLE (1916) 
Over the Dead River 
Negaunee Township 



Negaunee 

16.461120.5155570 

Marquette 



The increased weight of locomotives and cars made the timber trestle 
built in 1896 at this location increasingly unsafe and it was replaced 
In 1916 by this steel girder structure. It is 565 feet long, stands 
104 feet above the base of the center pier, and consists of nine steel 
girder spans and one reinforced concrete girder span resting on eight 
steel piers, two concrete piers, and concrete abutments. The spans 
vary in length from 30 feet to 116 feet. 



201 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MISCELLANEOUS 



LS & I RR: Dead River Trestle (1916), Negaunee Township 

MANSFIELD STREET VIADUCT (1922) lronv«x>d 

Over the Soo Line Railroad 15. 717780. STiStSO 

I ronwood Gogeb I c 

This viaduct carrying Mansfield Street over several rail lines, Including 
the Soo tine and the Chicago and Northwestern, was Jointly built in 1922 
by the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and 
Sault Ste. Marie Railroad, and the city of (ronwood. It was designed 
by I.F. Stern, consulting engineer, who estimated construction costs 
of $200,000. However, the Alblnson Construction Company of Minneapolis 
submitted a surprisingly low bid of $93,732, which the parties accepted. 
The Alblnson Company suffered bankruptcy as a result of this contract. 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: HrSCELLANEOUS 



The viaduct, which provides a clear roadway of 24 feet, a sidewalk 6 
feet wide, and a (ninlmum clearance of 22 feet over the tracks, is a 
reinforced concrete structure with a T-conf iguration. The main segment 
over the railroad lines Is 615 feet long and consists of twelve spans of 
varying lengths. At the north end of the main section, there are two 
Inclined approachs which are perpendicular to the main section. One Is 
435 feet long, while the other is 445 feet In length. 

[City of Ironwood, Record of Proceedings , VI 11 (1920-1924), pp. 21, 41, 
2491 



Mansfield Street Viaduct (1922), Ironwood 
203 



ADDITIONAL BRIDGES 



ASHMUN STREET BRIDGE (1935) 
Over the Power Canal 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.703^00.5152255 
Ch i ppewa 



BALDWIN TOWNSHIP BRIDGE (c.l910) 
County Rd. G-3, over the Rapid Rfver 
Baldwin Township 



Trenary 

16. 500020. 5098O6O 

Delta 



BAY STREET BRIDGE (1903) 
Over the Waiska River 
Brimley 



Brimley 

16.686060.5142025 

Chippewa 



C, M, SP S P RR: AMASA BRIDGE (c.l920) 

West of Maple St. 

Amasa 



Amasa 

16. 388200. 51 20690 

Iron 



CORNELL BRIDGE (1915) 

County Rte. 51 9 > over the Escanaba River 

Cornell Township 



Gladstone 

16. 493013. 5076015 
Delta 



COUNTY ROAD 510 BRIDGE (1921) 
Over the Dead River 
Negaunee Township 



Negaunee 

16.458420.5156310 

Marquette 



COUNTY ROAD 601 BRIDGE (1911) 
Over the Michlgamme River 
Republ ic 



Republ ic 

16.424075.5136090 

Marquette 



ELM STREET BRIDGE (1909) 
Over the Eagle River 
Eagle River 



Phoenix 

16. 402090. 5251760 

Keweenaw 



FROBERG ROAD BRIDGE (1922) 
Over the Sturgeon River 
Pelkie 



Pe 1 k i e 

16. 378070. 5I88OO5 
Baraga 



204 



ADDITIONAL BRIDGES 



KYRO ROAD [COUNTY ROAD 227] BRIDGE (1911) 

Over the Sturgeon River 

Pelkie 



Pelkie 

16.376015.5184010 

Baraga 



LAKESHORE DRIVE BRIDGE (1915) 
Over the Eagle River 
Eagle River 



Phoenix 

16.402180.5251580 

Keweenaw 



MASONVILLE TOWNSHIP BRIDGE (1916) 
County Rd. 1-39, over the Rapid River 
Masonville Township 



Trenary 

16.501065.5096030 

Delta 



MENOMINEE STREET BRIDGE (1921) 
Over the Little Cedar River 
Stephenson 



Stephenson 

16.452025.5028077 
Menominee 



SCENIC DRIVE BRIDGE (1920) 
Over the Charlotte River 
Bruce 



Oak Ridge 

16.712640.5133175 
Chippewa 



STURGEON RIVER BRIDGE (1917) 

County Rte. 497, over the Sturgeon River 

Nahma Township 



Garden 

16.525075.5077675 
Delta 



STURGEON RIVER ROAD BRIDGE (1907) 
Over the Sturgeon River 
Chassell 



Pelkie 

16.384025.5205045 
Houghton 



WELLS TOWNSHIP BRIDGE (1915) 

County Rte. 537, over the Ford River 

Wei Is Township 



Gladstone 

16.484025.5066088 

Delta 



205 



SPECrALIZED STRUCTURES 



Alpha Water Tower (1915,1931), Alpha 
206 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



ALPHA WATER TOWER (1915,1931) Fortune Lakes 

Mine Rd. 16.3937^0.5099900 

Alpha Iron 

The Alpha Water Tower Is an Interesting example of "adaptive use" of 
an existing structure while a new replacement was built. The original 
water tower » built in 191 5, rested atop a wooden tower 10 feet square 
and approximately kS feet high. When a new, larger water tank was 
built on the same site in 1931, the original wooden tower was left 
standing, and the new steel tank, 20 feet in diameter and 15 feet high, 
was simply built over the old tower, with its steel supports well away 
from the old tower. During this new construction, the water supply 
for this small town was not interrupted. 



ATLANTIC MINING COMPANY 

REDRIDGE DAM (1894) Beacon Hill 

Across the Salmon Trout River 16.366260.5223000 

Red ridge Houghton 

The Atlantic Mining Company constructed this log dam across the Salmon 
Trout River to supply water to their stamping plant at nearby Redridge, 
on the shores of Lake Superior. It was completed in 189^, constructed 
entirely from local materials by a workforce of three hundred men 
housed In temporary shacks in this remote area. It consists of a 
timber framework filled with rock and earth. Overall, the dam is 51 
feet long at the base and 228 feet long at the crest. It stands 50 
feet high, 53 feet thick at the base, and 28 feet thick at the top. 
The flow of water was controlled through three channels: the supply 
launder leading to the mill, constructed of wood planking and measuring 
18 inches by 36 inches by 2,050 feet long, with a run of 5 inches per 
100 feet of length; two 2k inch diameter cast iron waste pipes located 
at the base of the dam; and a spillway located at the crest of the 
center of the dam, 30 feet wide, double-planked, and equipped with 
wooden flashboards. The dam itself is extant, but the waste pipes and 
supply launder are not. When the Baltic Mining Company erected a stamp 
mill west of the Salmon Trout River, this dam was not large enough to 
supply the needs of both mills, so it was replaced in 1901 by a higher 
steel dam (see other entry) built slightly downstream. This log dam 
was then submerged to a depth of 20 feet until recently, when the 



207 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



water level behind the steel dam was dropped, thus exposing the older 

structure. 

[ Houghton Dallv Mining Gazette , October 7, 1967, pp. 1, 9; Stevens, 

ri (1902), p. t27; Engineering and Mining Journal , LVII (May 189^), 

p. 494; Engineering and Mining Journal , LIX (March 1895), P- 2461 



Atlantic Mining Company Redridge Dam (1894), Redrldge 
208 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



COMPENSATING WORKS (191^) 
Across the St. Mary's River 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702400.5153640 

Chippewa 



There has been a dam at the head of the St. Mary's River since the late 
1890's, when the hydroelectric potential of the river was harnessed on 
both the American and Canadian sides. The present dam was built in 
1914 when the third and fourth locks on the American Canal (the Davis 
and the Sabin) were under construction. It serves to regulate the flow 
of the St. Mary's River and thus the level of Lake Superior. The dam 
is over 850 feet long, with cut stone piers and abutments, and has six- 
teen steel sluice gates, each 53 feet 7 inches wide and 13 feet high. 
The gates are raised by a rack and pinion mechanism which is hand- 
operated. Eight gates are in the United States, and eight are in 
Canada. 



ESCANABA PAPER COMPANY 
DAM NUMBER TWO (1911) 
Across the Escanaba River 
Escanaba Township 



Gladstone 

16.492010.5073047 
Delta 



The Escanaba Pulp and Paper Company, established in 1911, built this 
dam about one mile north of the location of the Escanaba Power Company 
Dam Number One (see other entry). The company changed its name to the 
Escanaba Paper Company In 1919. The plant and dams under the company's 
control were leased to the G.H. Mead Company in 1922, and Mead bought 
a controlling interest in 1942. This dam was built to supply the paper 
mill with water and has never been the site of a hydroelectric plant. 
Proceeding from south to north, the dam consists of a set of twelve 
vertical lift headgates, each 6 feet wide, raised by a manually- 
operated rack and pinion mechanism; two tainter gates, each 20 feet 
wide and built in the 1940's; and finally, the main dam section, a 
reinforced concrete spillway, approximately 10 feet high and 200 feet 
long. 

[Clint Dunathan, The Century Book ; Escanaba 1 863-1963 (Escanaba, 1963), 
pp. 236-237] 



209 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



Hanistique Water Tower (1922), Hanistique 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



LAKE INDEPENDENCE DAM (1912) Big Bay 

Lake Independence Drive 16. 44801 0.51 84035 

Big Bay Marquette 

This concrete dam was built in 1912 to replace a pole dam which washed 
out in the spring of that year. The Lake Independence Lumber Company 
commissioned Gust Anderson, concrete contractor of Marquette, to do all 
the concrete work. The present dam, placed within 100 feet of the old 
one, is 35 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 10 feet high. 



MAN I ST I QUE PAPER COMPANY 

DAM AND FLUME (1919) Cooks 

On the Man i St i que River 16.559000.5090000 

Man i St i que Schoolcraft 

William J. Murphy of the Minneapolis Tribune purchased the riparian 
rights to the Manistique River in 1916 and built a pulp and paper mill, 
along with a dam and flume to bring water into the plant. Rather than 
raise the level of the entire river, he had a flume built which paral- 
leled the river. It was erected in 1918-1920, with H.F. Storrer as the 
engineer of construction and C.A.P. Turner of Minneapolis serving as the 
consulting engineer. The reinforced concrete flume is 160 feet wide, 
28 feet high, and 3,300 feet long, with a capacity of 8,000 cubic feet 
of water per second. At the head of the flume is a concrete dam, with 
five radial gates controlling the flow of water into the flume and six 
radial gates controlling the river flow. 
[Escanaba Daily Press, 1936 Progress Edition, Industry Section; 



? ress to 
Manisti 



Manistique Centennial Magazine (Manistique, I960)] 



MANISTIQUE WATER TOWER (1922) Cooks 

Deer St. (US-2) 16.559000.5090000 

Man i St i que School craft 

This water system was begun in 1920, after the city had floated $97,000 
in bonds to finance it. A new pumping plant was erected nearby at the 
same time. It was constructed by Fridolf Daniel son, a local contractor 
who finished it in 1922. It is an octagonal brick structure, 25 feet in 
diameter, stands 200 feet high, and has a steel tank with a capacity of 
200,000 gallons. 

[ Manistique Pioneer Tribune , July 4, 1968; Manistique Centennial 
Souven i r Book (1960)1 

211 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



Redrtdge Steel Dam (1901) > Redrldge 



REORIDGE STEEL DAM (1901) Beacon Hill 

Across the Salmon Trout River 16.366260.5223000 

Redrldge Houghton 

The water supply impounded by the tog dam, built- by the Atlantic Mining 
Company across the Salmon Trout River In 189^ (see other entry), proved 
inadequate when the Baltic Mining Company built a stamp mill on Lake 
Superior just west of the river. Accordingly, the two mining companies 
decided to jointly build a new dam and share the larger water supply. 
Because of the lack of suitable stone in this region, they decided to 
build a steel gravity dam, making this structure only the second dam of 
that design In the United States and the first of any significant size. 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



It was preceded by a 46 foot high, 184 foot long dam near Ash Fork, 
Arizona constructed by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company in 1897" 
1898. The Redridge Dam was designed by J.F. Jackson, engineer for the 
Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company, with F. Foster Cromwell, hydraulic 
engineer from New York, serving as the consulting engineer. The entire 
project cost $150,000, with the foundations accounting for $90,000 of 
the total. The excavation work was performed by Atlantic Mining Company 
employees under the direction of F.G. Coggin, Jr., superintendent of the 
company's stamp mill. The contracting firm of Prendergast and Clarkson 
of Chicago did the concrete work, while the steel was fabricated and 
erected by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company. Overall, the struc- 
ture is 1,006 feet long, consisting of a center steel and concrete sec- 
tion 464 feet long and two earth embankment wings with concrete core 
walls. The center portion of the dam required 8,000 cubic yards of 
concrete, while another 2,000 cubic yards was used in the core walls, 
and 500 tons of steel plates and girders were used. The main dam 
rests on a solid concrete foundation 64 feet thick, varying in height 
from 14 feet to 38 feet, resting on bedrock. It is comprised of five 
main sections, with the tallest or center section standing 74 feet high. 
The dam consists of steel boilerplates, 8 feet by 16 feet, riveted and 
caulked, with a concave shape on the upstream side. In the lower sec- 
tion of the dam, these plates are three-sixteenths of an inch thick and 
rest directly against the concrete base, while in the upper portion they 
are three-eighths of an inch thick and are supported by parallel inclined 
steel I-beams 2 feet deep, which in turn are supported by heavy trian- 
gular frameworks of inclined steel columns and struts. The upper portion 
of the dam is inclined at an angle of 45 degrees from the water. The 
flow of water from the dam to the two mills was controlled by three 
24 inch intakes, with the two on the west end of the dam connected to 
a 38 inch riveted steel pipeline leading to the Baltic mill some 2,200 
feet away. In addition, there are four 24 inch discharge pipes in the 
center of the concrete base, each fitted with a sliding external gate 
and a gate valve. Finally, there was a waste weir built approximately 
350 feet west of the end of the west wing wall. The mouth of the weir 
is 30 feet long, tapering in width from 50 feet to JO feet, leading to 
a timber flume, 30 feet wide, 4 feet deep, and 400 feet long, dis- 
charging back into the river. This remarkable structure created a 
reservoir of 6OO million gallons, ample storage for the two mills, 
which used an average of 25*5 million gallons daily. 

[F.H. Bainbridge, "'Structural Steel Dams," Engineering News , LIV (1905), 
pp. 323-324; F.H. Bainbridge, "Structural Steel Dams," Journal of the 
Western Society of Engineers , X (1905), pp. 615-63I; Houghton Daily 



213 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



Redridge Steel Dam (1901). Redridge 
2|1| 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



Mining Gazette , October 7» 1967, pp. 1, 9; J.F. Jackson, "Copper Mining 
in Upper Michigan,** Journal of the Western Society of Engineers , VI 1 1 
(February 1903), pp. 15"16; J.F, Jackson, "Four Steel Dams: Their 
Design and History," Engineering News-Record , CIV (1930), p. 281; James 
DIx Schuyler, Reservoirs for Irrigation , Water Power , and Domestic 
Water Supply (New York, 1912), ppT A56-459; Stevens, I "71900 ) , pp. 254- 
256; C. Maxwell Stanley, "Why Not Steel Dams?", Engineering News-Record , 
CIX (1932), pp. 652, 658; "The Redridge Dam," Engineering News , XXXXVI 
(1901), pp. 101-102] 



REISS COAL COMPANY LOADER (1925) 

Reiss Coal Dock 

Escanaba 



Gladstone 

1 6.495079.5066027 
Delta 



The C. Reiss Coal Company acquired Its first dock for loading coal In 
Escanaba In 1899, but this Meade-Morrison loading bridge was built and 
installed In 1925. This loader, a structural steel framework, sits on 
a base 60 feet wide, with the base moving along tracks which run the 
length of the dock. The loader is approximately 300 feet wide between 
the two parallel tracks. It has an unloading capacity of 4,000 tons 
per day. 

[Clint Dunathan, The Century Book ; Escanaba 1863*1963 (Escanaba, 1963), 
p. 235; Souvenir of Delta County , Michigan (Iron Mountain, n.d.), p. 5; 
Escanaba Daily Press , 1936 Progress Edition , Transportation Section] 



SAULT STE. MARIE WATER TOWER (c.l900) 
Ryan St. and Easterly St. 
Sault Ste. Marie 



Sault Ste. Marie South 

16.702750.5151800 

Chippewa 



This water tower was constructed around 1900 and was In use until re- 
cently when It was replaced by a new water tower. Overall, this masonry 
structure Is 45 feet In diameter at the base and 78 feet high, and Is 
topped with a conical roof. The lower half of the tower Is built of cut 
coursed stone, while the upper half is brick. It houses a 370,000 gallon 
steel tank which Is 40 feet In diameter. 

[McNamee, Porter, and Seeley, Consulting Engineers, "Report on Water 
Storage, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, 1964," p. 5] 



215 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



Sault Ste. Marie Water Tower (c.t900), SauU Ste. Marie 
216 



NOTES 



217 



NOTES 



218 



219 



INDEX OF COUNTIES 



Alger, ^9-51, 63, 68, 79, Sk, 124, 125, 1^0, 158, 160, 176 

Baraga, A9, 59, 96, 107, 136, 170, 177, 20A, 205 

Chippewa, 71, 76, 77, 101-107, 138-lAO, 1^3, lAA, 150, 166-170, 173, 
174, 177, 179, 188-192, 199-201, 204, 205, 209, 215 

Delta, 48, 49, 53-57, 60-63, 74, 85, 88-90, 127-129, 158-162, 174, 179, 
186, 191, 204, 205, 209, 215 

Dickinson, 33, 58-60, 84, 85, 94-96, 109-111, 117, 126, 128, 130, 175, 
182, 184, 188 

Gogebic, 31, 37, 41-43, 108-111, 129-131, 175, 176, 179, 183, 185, 202 

Houghton, 7-30, 50-53, 69, 73-75, 77, 86, 87, 93, 133-135, 141, 142, 
145, 163, 164, 172, 176, 180, 195, 196, 198, 205, 207, 208, 212-214 

Iron, 31-33, 37-40, 86, 95, 130, 175, 204, 207 

Keweenaw, 5-7, 19, 123, 133, 134, 139, 143, 161, 164, 165, 169, 174, 
204, 205 

Luce, 137, 177 

Mackinac, 107, 132, 138, 177, 194, 195 

Marquette, 34-36, 40, 41, 54, 56, 64, 70-72, 87, 88, 92, 97-100, 106, 
123, 124, 136, 137, 141, 142, 144-149, 151-154, 160, 163, 172, 176, 
177, 201, 204, 211 

Menominee, 60, 64-70, 72, 80, 88, 91-93, 97, 101, 116, 122, 123, 126, 
127, 155, 176, 185, 187, 191, 205 

Ontonagon, 112-117, 155, 161, 174-177, 185, 193, 195-197 

Schoolcraft, 78, 79, 150, 172, 177, 181, 211 



221 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Ahmeek, 5 
Alberta, k9 
Alpha, 206, 207 
Amasa, 175, 204 
Anvil, 31 
Aurora, k2 

Baldwin Township, 204 

Baltic, 7 

Baraga Township, 107 

Bark River, 53 

Bay Mills, 143, 144 

Bessemer, 37, 175, 179, 185 

Big Bay, 123, 124, 153, 154, 211 

Breitung Township, 111, 188 

Brimley, 204 

Bruce, 205 

Bruce Crossing, 176 

Calumet, 8-16, 87, 135, 172 
Calumet Township, 86 
Caspian, 31, 32, 37, 130 
Castle Island, l4l 
Centennial, 17 
Champion, 54 
Channing, 175 
Chassell, 180, 205 
Chatham, 176 
Christmas, 49, 51 
Copper Harbor, 133, 134 
Cornell Township, 84, 90, 204 
Crystal Falls Township, 86 

Detour, 174 
Dollar Bay, 77 

Eagle Harbor, 139 

Eagle River, 139, 204, 205 

East Kingsford, 182 

Escanaba, 54, 56, 74, 88-90, 127-129, 215 

Escanaba Township, 209 

Ewen , 1 76 



222 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Fairbanks Townshtp, 174 
Fayette Townshfp, 61 -63 
Forest Lake, 84 

Gladstone, 1 56- 158 

Grand Island, 140 

Grand Mara is, 124, 125 

Grant Township, 174 

Gulliver, 78, 79 

Gulliver Township, 171, 172 

Gwinn, 88, 177 

Hancock, 141, 142, I76 

Hermansville, 80 

Holmes Township, 88, 91, 92, 116, 191 

Houghton, 93, 133, 135, 198 

Hubbell, 51 

Huron Islands, 142 

Hyde, 179, I80 

Interior Township, I96, 197 

Iron Mountain, 33, 94, 117, 126, 128, I30, 175 

Iron River, 40, 95, 175 

Ironwood, 42, 111, 129, 131, 176, 202, 203 

Ironwood Township, 108-110 

Irwin Township, 4l 

Ishpeming, 34, 35, 40, 41, 144, 145 

Isle Royale, 143, 161, 164, 165 

Jacobsville, 145 

Kenton, 195, 196 
Kingsford, 58, 59, 95, 96 
Kipling, 54, 55 

Lake Linden, 53 
L'Anse, 96, I36, 170 

Mangum, 71 , 72 

Manistique, 150, 177, I8I, 210, 211 

Marquette, 56, 64, 70, 87, 97-100, I36, 137, 145-149, 151-154, I63, 176 



223 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Mason, 73 

Masonville Township, 205 

Menominee, 60, 64-6?, 69, 70, 72, 97, 101, 122, 123, 126, 127, 155 

Mineral Hills, 31, 40 

Mohawk, 19 

Moran, 19*, 195 

Munising, 63, 68, 158, 160 

Nahma Township, 48, 49, 160, 205 

Negaunee, 41, 106, 152, 160 

Negaunee Township, 92, 99, 201, 202, 204 

Nestoria, 177 

New Al louez, 6, 7, 19 

Newberry, 137 

Norrie Location, 36 

Norway Township, 109, HO 

Onota Township, 79 

Ontonagon, 155, 156, 161, 175, 185 

Ontonagon Township, 174 

Painesdale, 17-20 

Pelkie, 204, 205 

Peninsula Township, 161, 162 

Pequaming, 59 

Pickford, 71 

Point Mendora, 123 

Quincy, 21-29, 164 

Quincy Mill, 50, 52 

Quinnesec, 84, 85, 94, 184, 188 

Ramsay, 36, I83 

Rapid River, 60, I58, 159 

Redridge, 207, 208, 212-215 

Republic, 204 

Ripley, 73-75 

Round Island, 165 

Rudyard, 177 

St. Ignace, 107, 132, I38, 177 
Sand Hills, 169 

224 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Sault Ste. Marie, 76, 77, 101-107, 138, HO, 150, 166-170, 177, 179, 

188-192, 199-201, 20l», 209, 215, 216 
Seney, 177 
Spaulding, 185 
Stambaugh, 38, 39 
Stannard Rock, 172 
Stannard Township, 195 
Stephenson, 67, 68, 176, 187, 205 

Tamarack, 30 
Tamarack City, 69 
Trap Rock, 77 
Trout Creek, 117, 177 
Trout Lake, 139 

Vermilion, 173 
Victoria, 112-115, 193 

Wakefield, 43 

Watersmeet, 131 

Waucedah Township, 109 

Wells, 179. 186 

Wells Township, 191, 192, 205 

White City, 163 

Whiteflsh Township, 173, 17'» 

Wilson, 57 



225 



INDEX OF SITES 



Ahmeek Mine 

Shaft Number Two, 5 

Shafts Numbers Three and Four, 5 
Ahmeek Mining Company Nordberg Compound Stamp, 69 
Alberta Sawmill , kS 
Allouez Mine Shaft Number Four, 6, 7 
Alpha Water Tower, 206, 207 
The Alvin Clark , 122, 123 
Anvil Mine, 31 
Ashmun Street Bridge, 204 

Atlantic Mining Company Red ridge Dam, 2079 208 
Au Sable [Big Sable] Light Station, 124, 125 
Au Train Falls Hydroelectric Plant, 84 

Baldwin Township Bridge, 204 

Baltic Mine, 7 

Bay De Noc Company Wastewood Burner, 48, 49 

Bay Furnace Stack Number One, 49, 51 

Bay Street Bridge, 204 

Bete Gris [Mendota] Lighthouse, 123 

Big Bay Point Lighthouse, 123, 124 

Big Quinnesec Falls Hydroelectric Plant, 84, 85 

Big Sable [Au Sable] Light Station, 124, 125 

Boney Falls Hydroelectric Plant, 85 

Brule Hydroelectric Plant, 86 

Calumet and Heel a Mining Company 
Blacksmith Shop, 8 
Calumet Waterworks, 87 
Dredge, 50, 52 
Drill Shop, 8, 9 
Dryhouse Number Two, 8 
Gearhouse, 10 
General Offices, 10 
Hubbell Smelter, 51 
Lake Superior Waterworks, 86 
Library, 11 
Machine Shop, 11 , 12 
Man Enginehouse, 12, 13 
Pattern Shop, 13, 15 
Reclamation Plant, 53 



226 



INDEX OF SITES 



Calumet and Heel a Mining Company (con't.) 

Roundhouse, ]k 

Superior Boilerhouse, 14, 16 

Superior Enginehouse, ]k 

Warehouse Number One, 16 
Calumet Waterworks, 87 
Cardiff Mine, 31 

Carp River Hydroelectric Plant, 87 
Carp River Iron Company Barkville Kilns, 53 
Caspian Mine, 31 » 32 
Centennial Mine 

Hoists, 17 

Shafts Numbers One and Two, 17 
Chalk Hill Hydroelectric Plant, 88 
Champion Blast Furnace, 5^ 
Champion Mine, 17-20 
Chap in Mining Company 

Pumping Engine, 1 17 

Hamilton Shaft, 33 

Ludington Shaft, 33 
Chatfield Brass and Iron Works, 5^ 
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Railroad 

Amasa Bridge, 204 

Amasa Station, 175 

Channing Roundhouse, 175 

Channing Station, 175 

First Street Bridge, 185 

Iron Mountain Freighthouse, 175 

Iron Mountain Station, 126 

Menominee Freighthouse, 126 

Menominee River Bridge, 182 

Menominee Station, 126, 127 

Mine Street Bridge, 179 

Ontonagon River Bridge, 185 

Ontonagon Roundhouse, 175 

Ontonagon Station, 175 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 

Bessemer Station, 175 

Big Cedar River Bridge, 185 

Black River [Keystone] Bridge, 183 

Escanaba Repair Shops, 127, 129 



227 



INDEX OF SITES 



Chicago and Northwestern Railroad (con't.) 

Escanaba River Bridge, 186 

Ford River Bridge, 179, 180 

Fume Creek Bridge, 184 

Iron Mountain Station, 128, 130 

Iron River Station, 175 

Ironwood Roundhouse, 176 

Ironwood Station, 129, 131 

Little Cedar River Bridge, 187 

Menominee River Bridge, 188 

Stager Station, 130 

Stephenson Station, 176 

Watersmeet Roundhouse, 131 
The Chief Wawatam , 1 32 
Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company 

Au Train Falls Hydroelectric Plant, 84 

Carp River Hydroelectric Plant, 87 

Charcoal Plant, 54, 55 

Cliff Shaft Mine, 34-36 

Escanaba Hydroelectric Plant, 88 

Gladstone Pioneer Furnace, 54 

Hoist Hydroelectric Plant, 92 

Lake Shaft Mine, 40 

McClure Hydroelectric Plant, 99 

Moro Mine, 41 

Negaunee Mine, 41 

Pioneer Furnace Number Two, 54 
Cliff Shaft Mine, 34-36 
Cochrane Roller Mills, 56 
Compensating Works, 209 
Copper Harbor Lighthouse, 133, 134 
Copper Range Consolidated Company 

Baltic Mine, 7 

Champion Mine, 17-20 

Copper Range Railroad, 133, 135 
Copper Range Railroad 

Houghton Repair Shops, 133 

Houghton Station, 135 
Corliss Steam Engine, 117 
Cornell Bridge, 204 
Cornish Pumping Engine, 117 



228 



INDEX OF SITES 



County Road 227 [Kyro Road] Bridge, 205 

County Road 510 Bridge, 204 

County Road 517 Bridge, 179 

County Road 601 Bridge, 204 

Crisp Point Lighthouse, 174 

Cut River Bridge, 194, 195 

Delta Building [Richter Brewing Company], 74 

Detour Point Lighthouse, 174 

Duluth, South Shore, and Atlantic Railroad 

Baltimore River Trestle, 195 

Bruce Crossing Station, 176 

Calumet Station, 135 

Chatham Station, 176 

Ewen Station, 176 

Hancock Freight house, 176 

Hancock Station, 176 

Houghton Station, 135 

Jumbo River Trestle, 196, 197 

L'Anse Station, 136 

Marquette Ore Dock, 136 

Marquette Passenger Station, 136 

Marquette Repair Shops, 137 

Marquette Warehouse, 176 

Nestoria Station, 177 

Newberry Station, 137 

Ontonagon River Trestle, 196, 197 

Power Canal Bridge, 179 

St. Ignace Roundhouse, 177 

St. Ignace Station, 138 

Sault Ste. Marie Freight Station, 177 

Sault Ste. Marie Roundhouse, 138 

Seney Station, 177 

Sturgeon River Bridge, 180 

Trout Creek Station, 177 

Trout Lake Station, 139 

Eagle Harbor Lighthouse, 139 
Eagle River Lighthouse, 139 
East Norrie Mine Shaft ''D**, 36 
Elm Street Bridge, 204 



229 



INDEX OF SITES 



Escanaba Hydroelectric Plant, 88 
Escanaba Iron Company Kloman Kilns, 57 
Escanaba Paper Company Dam Number Two, 209 
Escanaba Power Company 

Dam Number One, 89, 90 

Dam Number Three, 90 

Generating Plant, 88 
Eureka Mine Shafts Numbers Three and Four, 36 

The Favorite , \kO 

Fogarty Mine, 37 

Ford Motor Company KIngsford Manufacturing Complex, 58, 59 

Fort Street Bridge, 188 

Fourteen Mile Point Lighthouse, 17^ 

Froberg Road Bridge, 204 

Geneva Mine, 37 

Grand Island East Channel Lighthouse, ]kO 

Grand Island North Lighthouse, ]kO 

Grand Rapids Hydroelectric Plant, 91-93 

Granite Island Lighthouse, l4l 

Gull Rock Lighthouse, 17^ 

Hebard and Thurber Company Sawmill, 59 
Henry Ford 

Alberta Sawmil 1 , 49 

Hebard and Thurber Sawmill, 59 

Jackson Tyndall Sawmill, 63 

Kingsford Hydroelectric Plant, 95, 96 

KIngsford Manufacturing Complex, 58, 59 
Hiawatha Mine Shaft Number One, 38, 39 
Hoist Hydroelectric Plant, 92 
Homer Mine, kO 

Hoskin-Morainvil le Paper Company, 60 
Houghton County Electric Company, 93 
Houghton County Traction Company Car Barn, 141, 142 
Houghton-Hancock Bridge, 198 
Hubbard Company Wastewood Burner, 60 
Huron Islands Lighthouse, 142 
Hydraulic Company Quinnesec Falls Compressor Building, 94 



230 



INDEX OF SITES 



International Highway Bridge, 199, 200 
International Railroad Bridge 

American Locks Section, 201 

River Section, 189 
Iron Mountain Filtration Plant, 9^ 
Iron River Diesel Plant, 95 
Iroquois Point Lighthouse, 1^3, \kk 
Isle Royale Lighthouse, 143 

"Jackknife Bridge'' [International Railroad Bridge], 201 

Jackson Iron Company Fayette Ironworks Complex, 61-63 

Jackson Mining Company Yankee Haulage Locomotive, ]kk 

Jackson Tyndal 1 Sawmi 1 1 , 63 

Jacobsville Lighthouse, ]k5 

James Mine, kO 

Johnstone Street Bridge, 190, 191 

Keystone Bridge, 183 

Kingsford Hydroelectric Plant, 95, 96 

Kyro Road [County Road 227] Bridge, 205 

Lake Independence Dam, 211 

Lakeshore Drive Bridge, 205 

Lake Shore Engine Works, 6k 

Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad 

Dead River Trestle, 201, 202 

Gwinn Freighthouse, 177 

Ishpeming Station, 145 

Marquette Repair Shops, 145 

Presque Isle Ore Dock, 146 

Presque Isle Ore Dock Approach, 147 

Presque Isle Station, 148 

Steam Locomotives, 149 
L'Anse Power Station, 96 
Lloyd Manufacturing Company, 64 
The Louis W, Hill [S.S. Valley Camp ], 150 

Man i St i que East Breakwater Lighthouse, 150 
Man i St i que Paper Company Dam and Flume, 211 
Manistique Water Tower, 210, 211 
Manitou Island Lighthouse, 174 



231 



INDEX OF SITES 



Mansfield Street Viaduct, 202, 203 

Marinette and Menominee Paper Company, 65 

Marinette and Menominee Paper Company Hydroelectric Plant, 97 

Marquette City 

Diesel Plant Number Four, 97 

Hydroelectric Plant Number One, 98 

Hydroelectric Plant Number Two, 98 

Hydroelectric Plant Number Three, 99 

Waterworks, 99, 100 
Marquette Harbor Breakwater, 151 
Marquette Harbor Lighthouse, 151, 152 
Marquette, Houghton, and Ontonagon Railroad 

Negaunee Station, 152 
Marquette and Ontonagon Railroad 

Dock Office, 153 
Marquette and Southeastern Railway 

Big Bay Station, 153, 15* 

Marquette Freight Station, 153 

Marquette Station, 15* 
Masonville Township Bridge, 205 
McClure Hydroelectric Plant, 99 

Mellon Lumber Company Locomotive Number Six, 155, 156 
Mendota [Bete Gris] Lighthouse, 123 

Menominee Electrical and Mechanical Company [Signal Electric], 66, 67 
Menominee Furnace Company Stephenson Kilns, 67, 68 
Menominee and Marinette Light and Traction Company 

Grand Rapids Hydroelectric Plant, 91-93 
Menominee North Pierhead Lighthouse, 155 
Menominee Street Bridge, 205 
Menominee Waterworks, 101 

Michael son's [Trap Rock Valley] Gristmill, 77 
Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, 101-106 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad 

Escanaba River Bridge, 191, 192 

Gladstone Roundhouse, 156 

Gladstone Station, 157 

Locomotive Number 730, 158 

Manistique River Bridge, l8l 

Manistique Station, 177 

Menominee River Bridge, 191 

Rapid River Station, 158, 159 

Rudyard Station, 177 

232 



INDEX OF SITES 



Mohawk Mine, 19 

Moro Mine, k\ 

Muni sing Paper Company, 68 

Muni sing Range Front Lighthouse, 158 

Muni sing Range Rear Lighthouse, 160 

Nahma and Northern Railway 

Locomotive Number 38846, 160 
Negaunee City Waterworks, 106 
Negaunee Mine, 41 
Negaunee Union Station, 160 
Newport Mine Shaft ''D*', k] 
Nordberg Compound Stamp, 69 
Norrie Mine, k2 

Ontonagon Lighthouse, 161 

Osceola Consolidated Mining Company South Kearsarge Branch, 19» 21 

Pabst Mine, kZ 

Passage Island Lighthouse, 161 

Pemberthy Cook and Company Warehouse, 69 i 70 

Peninsula Point Lighthouse, 161, 162 

Peninsular Iron Company 

Carp River Kiln, 70 

Mangum Kiln, 71, 72 
Pickford Elevator, 71 
Pintsch Compressing Company, 107 
Pioneer Furnace Number Two, 56 
Plymouth Mine, k3 

Portage Lake Lower Entrance Light, 163 
Poverty Island Lighthouse, 174 
Prescott Company, 72 
Presque Isle Harbor Breakwater, 163 
Prickett Hydroelectric Plant, 107 

Quincy Mining Company 

Blacksmith Shop, 21 

Boilerhouse Number Five, 21 

Locomotives Numbers One and Five, 164 

Machine Shop, 22 

Mine Office Building, 23 



233