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Full text of "The wonder book of engineering wonders;"

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WONDER BOOK OF 








* *iu* JJ 




THE WONDER BOOK 

OF 

ENGINEERING WONDERS 




% ' < 

\ 








/. H'/n * Son,] 



[Eastbourne. 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS. 




FORGING A PROPELLER SHAFT FOR A LARGE LINER. 



THE WONDER BOOK 

OF 




WONDERS 



"Man is a tool-making animal." 

DR. JOHNSON. 





WITH TWELVE COLOUR PLATES 
AND 300 ILLUSTRATIONS 



EDITED BY HARRY GOLDING 



WARD, LOCK & CO., LIMITED 
LONDON AND MELBOURNE 



OTHER WONDER BOOKS 

UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 

EACH WITH 12 COLOUR PLATES AND HUNDREDS OF 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

WONDER Book of Aircraft. 

The only volume on the market illustrating and describing all the 
wonderful developments in aviation since the War. With hundreds of 
unique drawings and photographs. 

WONDER Book of Motors. 

Aptly described as "the Rolls Royce of gift books." Tells of the open 
road and the countryside, as well as about cars and motor-cycles of every 
description. 

THE WONDER q-1 & N 

BOOK OF : : X I1C11 OC -^OW. 

Young and old are alike fascinated by this unique and handsome volume 
contrasting the "good old days " and now. 

WONDER Book of the Wild. 

The Romance of Exploration and Big Game Stalking. Articles by the 
most famous living explorers and wonderful pictures of wild life. 

WONDER Book of Nature. 

Every child is at heart a lover of Nature and the open air. Boys and 
girls of all ages will be delighted with this volume. 
THE WONDER W 1 & 

BOOK OF : : VV Li J (X 

Answers to children's questions on all sorts of subjects, with hundreds 
of wonderful pictures. 

WONDER Book of Wonders. 

All the most marvellous things in the world fascinatingly described 
and illustrated 

WONDER Book of Ships. 

Crowded with pictures that make an instant appeal to all who love ships 
and the sea. 

WONDER Book of Children. 

Gives glimpses of children in all parts of the world and of ths people 
with whom they dwell. 

WONDER Book of Empire. 

A story more wonderful than the "Arabian Nights " and true ! This 
beautiful book is a mine of information and interest. 

WONDER Book of Railways. 

Has scores of interesting articles about railways and locomotives in all 
parts of the world. 

WONDER Book of Animals. 

A Zoo in every home. 

WINDER Book of Pictures and Stories 

FOR BOYS AND GIRLS. 

All young people agree that there 13 no present for Christmas or the 
Birthday to equal the Wonder Book, of which an entirely new volume is 
published every autumn. 



Printed in Great Britain by Butler & Tanner Ltd.. Frome and London 




[By courtesy of Sir Wm. Beardmore <S- io, Lttt. 
A 200-TON HAMMER-HEAD CRANE IN A NAVAL SHIPYARD. 



COLOUR PLATES 

A Floating Crane. By Frank H. Mason . '. --~ . 

Forging a Propeller Shaft for a large Liner. By Frank H. Mason . 

The King of Skyscrapers. By Harry Woolley . . 

Crossing the Niagara Falls by Cable Car. By R. Allen Shuffrey 

King Steam. By W. Luker, Junr. 

Building a Lighthouse. By Frank H. Mason . 

Erecting the Girders of a huge new Store. By Harry Woollev 

A Tank. By R. Allen Shuffrey ....... 

Shipping Locomotives. By Frank H. Mason . 

A Cracker Ball. By G. H. Davis . . 

Engineers at Work on a Mountain Ropeway. By Francis E. Hiley 
Tapping a Steel Furnace. By Frank H. Mason .... 
The Young Engineer. By Francis E. Hiley . 
The Endpapers (not to be taken too seriously) by Thomas Maybank 

5 



Front Cover 

Frontispiece 

Faces p. 16 

48 




[E.N.A. 



A TRANSPORTER BRIDGE AT ROUEN. 




TWO OF A TRADE. 



[Sport & General. 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS 



The Work of the Engineer ...... 

Some Famous Bridges . . . . 

The World's Biggest Locomotives ..... 

The Eiffel Tower ....... 

The Elements of Engineering ..... 

Building the Big Dams ...... 

The Lighthouse Builders ...... 

The Engineer as Builder . . . . . 

Wonderful Waterways ....... 

Some Wonderful Docks ...... 

Locomotives for Overseas . . . 

Are You Sure ? Some Instances of Engineering Fallacies 

Railway Engineering in Great Cities .... 

The Romance of the Lifting Magnet .... 

How the Engineer Helps the Miner .... 

Ropeways in the Air . 

Cranes : The Engineers' Levers . . . . 

Wireless Wonders ....... 

Iron and Steel : The " Raw Material " of Engineering . 
Wonders of Electric Power ...... 

Long Railway Tunnels ...... 

A Giant Planing Machine ...... 

Can Sun-Power be Used ? .' . . . . 

A Visit to an Engineering Works 

Launching a Liner 

Making Water Work ....... 

A Four-Hours' Toilet for Giant Locomotives 

7 



PAGE 

9 

*7 

53 

70 

73 
81 

95 

106 

H5 

129 
144 
146 

151 

158 

163 
169 
178 

193 
205 

212 
2I 7 
223 
225 
232 
2 3 8 
245 
254 




[Sport & General. 

FLOOD WATERS RUSHING DOWN ONE OF THE SPILLWAYS AT THE GREAT 
BURRINJUCK DAM, NEW SOUTH WALES. 




BUILDING THE ZAMBESI RAILWAY BRIDGE. 

In order to save any of the workmen who might fall a large net was placed across the gorge. Later, this 
was removed at the request of the men themselves, who complained that it made them nervous to see the net 
beneath them ! The bridge is 420 feet high. 



THE WORK OF THE 
ENGINEER 

IF we take the word " engineering " in the broad sense, we shall 
find that the engineer is to-day at the back of almost every form 
of human activity. Even the pencil we use in writing is the product 
of delicately adjusted engines which shape the wood and assure an 
even thickness of the lead ; the knives and forks with which we eat 
are products of a score of engineering marvels, from the furnace which 
turns out the raw steel to the wonderful machine that polishes the 
nearly finished product. So, in every direction, the engineer is at the 
back of human activity, whether in constructing a microscope for the 
scientist or a spade for the navvy. 

The first tools in the history of the human race, probably, were 



THE WORK OF THE ENGINEER 

a cudgel broken off a dead tree by the hunter, who used it to attack 
game or to defend himself from enemies, and a pointed stick with 
which to scratch the ground when the tiller of the soil wanted to sow 
his seed. Then came a genius who discovered that by taking a length 
of tough grass or stout creeper, and tying a stone to the end of the 
cudgel, a much better weapon was available for hunting and out of 
that evolved the stone hatchet which was primitive man's chief arm 
when he went either hunting or fighting. A long while after someone 
with an engineering turn of mind thought out the first bow and arrows, 
and he was a great genius, for the bow was a mighty weapon indeed 
until gunpowder arrived to render it obsolete. 

And some thoughtful soul, in those dark days before history 
began, found that if he flattened the end of his stick a bit he could 
turn over more soil : out of that discovery was evolved the spade, 
which is still a great tool, since it enables a man to do about ten 
times as much work as he could accomplish with a mere pointed stick, 
and do it better. The plough came long after, when certain races 
had learned to train either horse or bullock to help them in their work ; 
most primitive races never learned to train animals at all, but merely 
regarded them as possible food to be hunted except that nearly 
every race took in and trained the dog as an aid in hunting. 

The world kept growing wiser, and engineer after engineer sim- 
plified human labour, and every device which could replace man's 
strength by machinery was based on the principles of the lever, the 
pulley, and the screw, until the tremendous discovery of compressing 
steam to make it replace muscular effort was made, not many more 
than a hundred years ago. And, with that discovery, the engineer 
really came into his own, occupying the position that is his to-day. 

The use of electricity followed that of steam, and, last of all 
to arrive as a " prime mover," the internal combustion engine was 
perfected. Within a century, practically, the engineer, working in 
various directions, has contrived so many aids to human muscle that 
it is estimated to-day that one man, in almost any industry, can with 
the help of machinery do work that would require forty had they 
to depend on their unaided strength. 

The calculation upon which this estimate is based is a very simple 
one. In nearly every industry the worker uses " horse-power " in 
some form or other, and when all industries are averaged, it is reckoned 
that each man, taking one with another, directs and controls four 



10 




A SWING INTO SPACE. 

Descending a mountain railway 9,600 feet up in the Bavarian Alps. 



11 



THE WORK OF THE ENGINEER 

" horse-power." One horse-power (a rather misleading term, since 
horses get tired, and engines do not unless they are badly handled) 
is about equal to the power of ten strong men, so that in con- 
trolling four horse-power a man is putting forth the energy of forty 
men, and a factory employing, say, a thousand men, is doing work 
that would have required 40,000 men a couple of centuries ago. 

Not that four horse-power represents the work done by each man, 
for some use more, some less. Two men, a driver and a fireman, 




[By courtesy of the Swiss Federal Railways. 

MEETING OF THE TWO BORING PARTIES AT THE FINAL PIERCING OF THE LftTCHBERG TUNNEL 

IN 1911. 

control an express locomotive, so that between them they are respon- 
sible for the direction of hundreds of horse-power. The two or three 
men who control a great crane while a building is being constructed 
lift and swing into place great steel girders and loads of brick and 
concrete which would need hundreds of men to move them at the 
same rate if it were not for the crane. On the other hand the brick- 
layer, or the navvy with his spade, though they are just as necessary 
as the engine-drivers or the crane-handlers, do not use one horse- 
power apiece. It averages out at four horse-power per man all round. 



12 




CRANE MEN AT WORK ON A NEW YORK SKYSCRAPER. 



[G. P. A. 



13 



THE WORK OF THE ENGINEER 

Engineering activity has developed in so many directions that 
to-day it is a matter for the specialist. A hundred years ago, it was 
possible for one man to comprehend all the various principles at the 
back of engineering processes, but that is so no longer. The man 
who can tell you all about the scientific production of iron and steel, 
who knows the principles of furnace construction, forced draught, and 
the composition of steel alloys, would be hopelessly at sea, probably, 
if he were asked to explain the principles governing the design of a 
modern locomotive. The locomotive designer would be equally puzzled 
if he had to design a blast furnace, and neither of them could " lay 




[Fleet. 



LOG-SAWING BY MOTOR POWER. 



out " on paper the design of a thermionic valve unless he happened 
to make a hobby of wireless. Yet all three are necessary to each 
other, and each of them is an equally important factor in engineering. 
The bridge-builder, calculating stresses, making allowance for 
wind-pressure, and choosing his materials with regard to atmospheric 
conditions and the possibility of corrosion, is just as much an engineer 
as the man who designs a modern railway engine. Similarly, the 
brains behind the construction of great dams for the conservation of 
water-power are those of engineers, for building a modern dam is not 
simply a matter of putting down a wall : it means putting in great 



THE WORK OF THE ENGINEER 

sluices controlled by machinery, estimating the pressure of thousands 
of tons of water on the length of the main wall, and allowing for 
seasonal variations in pressure according to rainfall, always with the 
" margin of safety " that an engineer allows in every design. 

Modern building is not merely a bricklaying job. The designer 
must be, first of all, an engineer, for the buildings that line the streets 
of our cities to-day owe their strength to massive girders and pillars 
of steel, concrete-embedded to strengthen and preserve them, and 
before the big steam shovels begin to dig for the foundations great 
foundries are busy forging the steel framework so truly that when 




A "TOOL" WHICH IS CAPABLE OF DOING THE WORK OF OVER FIVE MILLION MEN. 

A monster steam generator in an Illinois power station which it is calculated has in twenty-four hours 
an output of energy comparable with the work performed in the same period by the entire slave population of 
the United States at the time of the Civil War. 

it comes to be fitted together every rivet-hole must register accurately, 
every piece must be of exact dimensions. 

It is an old saying that " the farmer feedeth all," but the modern 
farmer, with his multitude of implements and machines, would be 
nowhere without the engineer ; similarly, navigation is dependent on 
engineering, not only in the construction of ships and the instruments 
for their guidance, but in the building of the lighthouses by which 
they find their way from port to port. On earth and sea, and in the 
mines under the earth, as well as in the air above it, the engineer 
has both the first word and the last. 



15 




[By permission of the Curtis Lighting Co. 

A NEEDLE OF LIGHT, 565 FEET HIGH. 

One of the loftiest church spires in the world, at Chicago, is flooded with light each 
evening and is visible for miles around. 124 projectors are mounted on the tower and 72 
on the spire itself. 



10 







"f -" '> " 

v 11 -j 




THE KING OF SKYSCRAPERS. 

The projected Larkin Tower, New York. It will soar to a height of 1, 208 feet, and contain 108 stories above the street and 

t 1,,.1.,,, TV,o K,,;iri;^rr ,,r;i) V^,, a -, rv^ ^^^= ^ rr^r. u/inH^uru onrl firt lifts 




[By courtesy of the Neu' South Wales Government. 

DESIGN OF THE WONDERFUL BRIDGE IN COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION OVER THE NORTH 

SHORE OF SYDNEY HARBOUR. 

The bridge will have a single arch span of 1,600 feet and measure with the approaches 3,770 feet. The head- 
way for vessels passing under will be 170 feet, to the top of the arch will be 450 feet. 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

BRIDGES are rightly regarded as being among the most wonderful 
achievements of the engineer. Whatever the difficulties, bridge 
engineers have never yet failed to build any structure they have 
been asked to undertake they have even offered to bridge the English 
Channel between Dover and Calais, a distance of over 20 miles ! 

There are several types of bridges, each being employed as occa- 
sion demands, the deciding factor generally being local conditions. 
When a river with tall banks is to be bridged, a high-level bridge is 
necessary. This may be a bridge of the cantilever type, as in the case 
of the famous bridge across the Firth of Forth, which enables the 
traffic to be carried at such a height above the river that the bridge 
will not interfere with shipping. At other times, when the river to 
be crossed has low banks on either side, and when the bridge must be 
well above the water to allow the unobstructed passage of ships up 
and down the river, a high-level bridge would prove exceedingly costly. 
Very long approaches would have to be made to bring the traffic from 
the ground level to the level of the bridge, and generally this would 
be both impracticable and uneconomical. In such cases it is better to 



W.B.E. 



17 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

use a movable bridge, so that it will open when ships require to pass 
up or down the river, as in the case of the Tower Bridge at London. 
When, as is occasionally the case, the river to be crossed is too wide 
to make an opening bridge practicable, a transporter bridge is used 
to overcome the difficulty, as at Middlesbrough and Rouen. Thus we see 
that the type of bridge chosen to span any river is governed largely 
by particular requirements and local conditions. 

The English word " bridge " is derived from the Scandinavian 




[Short 6- General. 
THE TOWER BRIDGE, LONDON. 

A good example of a double bascule bridge. The two great leaves which open to allow river traffic to pass under 
weigh 1,200 tons. The upper bridge is for pedestrians, but is rarely used. 

" BRYGG," the name for the gangway used in the Viking ships, the 
same word being still in use to-day on board ship. The ancient word 
suggests that the early bridges were of wood and shows the origin of 
the name as used in its wider sense to-day. Before wooden bridges 
were constructed, however, and before such structures received the 
narrte they bear to-day, bridges of stone had probably long been in 
use. In this connection it would seem that the Celts and Scandina- 
vians used exclusively wood for their bridges, and the Latin races stone. 

18 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

The first bridges probably consisted simply of a tree thrown across 
a river. Later, bridges of this type, known as " lintel," were con- 
structed of both timber and stone. One of the oldest bridges in exist- 



THE DELAWARE RIVER SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 




ence is the famous " clapper " bridge across the River Dart at Postbridge 
on Dartmoor. 

In later bridges the arch was used, and the arched bridge, both 
in stone and metal, is perhaps the commonest form of bridge to-day. 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

The Romans were the first to use the arch principle in bridge-building, 
one of the earliest examples being the bridge built by the Emperor 
Trajan across the Danube. It was 4,500 feet in length and 60 feet in 
width and had twenty arches, each having a span of 170 feet. The finest 
example of a stone arched bridge in England is the Grosvenor Bridge 
at Chester, which has a span of 200 feet. This is the second largest 
span of its kind in the world, the largest being the arch of the Cabin 
John Creek Bridge at Washington, in the United States, which is 20 




THE PONTE VECCHIO, FLORENCE. 
One of the most picturesque bridges in Europe. 



[E.N.A. 



feet longer. Other stone arched bridges are to be found all over the 
British Isles and many of them are of great historic interest. 

The largest bridges in the world are built on what is called the 
"cantilever," or bracket, principle, in which the weight of one side of the 
bridge is so arranged that it balances the weight of the other, the whole 
of the .weight of the bridge and of any traffic upon it being carried 
by massive supports. A cantilever bridge is really a succession of 
brackets, each arm of which is composed of a half -span. In the case 
of the Quebec Bridge, with which we shall deal presently, two such 
spans are joined by a central span, while in the Forth Bridge there 
are three cantilever spans joined by two central spans. 

20 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




THE FORTH BRIDGE IN COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION. 
Building the great cantilevers. 

Cantilever spans are built up of girders, which are of great import- 
ance in bridge-building. Girders are of several types, the use of 
which depends upon the size of the bridge and the particular require- 
ments that it is to fulfil. For spans of 125 feet or less a solid, built-up 
plate girder is used, as in short railway and road bridges. For larger 
spans an open-work girder or built-up truss is employed, for in this 
form greater strength is obtained for the weight of the material used. 

A truss depends for its strength on the fact that the metal in it is 




[Valentine & Sons, Ltd., Dundee. 



THE FORTH BRIDGE. 
21 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




constructed in the form of 
a triangle. This gives 
great rigidity, for the 
triangle is the only geo- 
metrical figure that cannot 
be distorted without alter- 
ing the length or form of 
its sides. In other words, 
the shape of the area en- 
closed by the sides can only 
be changed by actually 
breaking or separating the 
members. The triangle is 
known as a "stable 
figure " and it gives great 
rigidity to any structure 



[By courtesy of the Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Co., Ltd. 
NATIVES USING LONG-STROKE RIVETING HAMMERS 
FOR BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION IN INDIA. 

into which it is introduced. 

The simplest form of truss 
is known as the " triangular king 
truss," and it is this type that is 
generally used to support the 
roofs of barns and houses. 
Another type often used in 
bridge construction is the 
" inverted truss." In the 
truss known as the " War- 
ren truss " the bracing is 
divided into equilateral tri- 
angles, the sides acting as 
struts or ties. Two War- 
ren trusses combined form 
lattice girder," which is 



a 



a much stiffer girder than 
the simple Warren truss. 
There are many other 




[By courtesy of the Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Co., Ltd. 
A RIVETING HAMMER IN OPERATION ON THE NEW 

SYDNEY HARBOUR BRIDGE. 
22 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




varieties and combinations 
of trusses, but there is not 
space to deal with them 
* here. 

Two of the most 
famous bridges cross the 
Menai Strait and are of 
particular interest. In the 
first place, each has a 
romantic story attached to 
it, and in the second 
place, although the one 
has been erected for a 
century and the other for 
nearly three-quarters of 
that period, they are both 
in use to-day, and to all 
intents and purposes re- 



[Special Press. 

LOOKING UP A CANTILEVER ARM OF THE FORTH 
BRIDGE. 



main as good as when 
they were first built. 

Before these bridges 
were constructed a journey 
from London to Ireland 
was a considerable under- 
taking. The roads through 
England and Wales were in 
a very bad state indeed, 
they were little more than 
tracks and many travel- 
lers to Ireland preferred to 
sail from Bristol or Liver- 
pool instead of from Holy- 
head, although the last 
port is considerably nearer 
to Ireland than either of 




[Special Press. 
ANOTHER UNUSUAL VIEW OF PART OF THE FORTH 

BRIDGE. 
23 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

the former. In 1810 a great engineer, Thomas Telford, was engaged to 
make a new road between Shrewsbury and Holyhead, and he did his 
work so well that what had been a rough track became an excellent 
road, which even to-day is one of the best in the country. 

This improvement of the highway led to a demand for some 
means, other than a primitive ferry-boat, of crossing the Menai Strait. 
Telford determined to build a bridge across the Strait, and his plans 
for a suspension bridge were accepted. The bridge was to be at least 




THE IZAT BRIDGE, BENGAL AND NORTH WESTERN 
The piers are built on wells, 26 \ feet in diameter, sunk 90 feet 1 

loo feet above the water, and it was to be built at a point where the 
Strait is 800 feet in width. 

After overcoming many difficulties, Telford built his bridge, and 
we can see it to-day as he left it. A wonderful sight it is, too. It 
has a suspended span of 550 feet, the largest ever attempted before 
Telford's time. Two main piers, each 153 feet in height, stand one on 
each shore. Over them are carried massive chains, which hang 
across the waterway in a graceful curve and rest on four saddles of 



21 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

cast-iron on the top of the piers. In all there are sixteen of these sus- 
pended chains, containing over 33,000 pieces of iron and weighing 
2,187 tons. From one anchorage to another they measure 1,710 feet, 
nearly a third of a mile. The bridge, which is 30 feet in width, was 
opened on the 3oth January, 1826, and a huge crowd of people assem- 
bled to see a stage-coach make the first crossing. 

Soon after the Menai Suspension Bridge was completed, there 
came a demand for another bridge across the Strait to carry the rail- 




[By courtesy of Me 



CROSSING THE RIVER GANGES AT ALLAHABAD. 
f the river. There are forty spans, each 150 feet in length. 



way line. Robert Stephenson, the son of the man who constructed 
the Stockton and Darlington Railway, was called in and built what 
is known as the Britannia Tubular Bridge. This bridge crosses the 
Strait about a mile south of the Suspension Bridge, at a point where 
it is 900 feet in width. Fortunately, in mid-stream, there is a 
solid rock, called the Britannia Rock, which gives an excellent support 
for the central pier. 

Stephenson conceived the brilliant idea that iron tubes might 



25 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




THE MENAI STRAIT SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 
Built by Telford and opened in 1826. 



[Ellison Hauks. 



be made sufficiently rigid to support themselves and to allow trains 
to be run through them, and after many experiments he decided to 
build his bridge in this way. In all there are six tubes, two of which 
are 460 feet in length that is to say, if they were stood on end in St. 
Paul's Churchyard they would each tower 100 feet above the great 
cross on the top of the dome. There are also four shorter tubes, each 
230 feet in length, for the two land spans. All the tubes are con- 




[Valentine & Sons, Ltd. 
THE BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE. 

Built by Robert Stephenson and opened in 1850. It carries the main London Midland and Scottish line to 

Holyhead. 
26 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




[Great Western Railway. 
THE CLIFTON SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 

Designed by Brunei and opened in 1864. Has a span of 702 feet at a height of 275 feet above low water level. 
The chains came from the old Hungerford Bridge which used to cross the Thames at Charing Cross. 

structed of boiler plates, riveted together by 2,000,000 rivets and 
strengthened at the corners by angle girders. 

Over 1,500 workmen were employed in the construction of the 




[Great Western Railway. 

THE ROYAL ALBERT BRIDGE, SALTASH. 

Designed by Brunei and opened in 1859. Each of the two main spans is 445 feet long. 

27 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




(Central Press. 



TESTING A RAILWAY ERIDGE OVER THE TYNE. 



While a heavy locomotive crosses the bridge, the experts, perched on the temporary platform on the left, are 
recording the stress with delicate instruments. 

bridge and we can well imagine the scene of activity. The tubes, 
which were assembled on shore near where the bridge was to be, were 
floated into position on rafts, or " pontoons " as they are called, and 
were raised to the top of the towers by hydraulic jacks. On the 5th 
March, 1850, the bridge was completed, and was subjected to a severe 
test by sending over it three coupled locomotives and twenty-four 
loaded coal wagons. These were followed by a heavy train of several 
hundred tons, which crossed the bridge at a speed of 30 miles per hour. 

The bridge, which has a total length of 1,841 feet, is still in use 
to-day, being situated on the main London Midland and Scottish line 
to Holyhead. It carries its traffic quite safely, notwithstanding the 
great increase in the weight of modern locomotives and rolling stock. 

The Britannia Bridge remained the largest bridge in the British 
Isles for over forty years, and was only outclassed in 1890 with the 
opening of the Forth Bridge. This bridge, the most famous bridge in 
the country, held pride of place as possessing the longest span of any 
bridge in the world until its record was beaten in 1917 by the Quebec 
Bridge and in 1926 by the Delaware River Suspension Bridge referred 
to later. 



28 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

The construction of the Forth Bridge was begun in 1883, with the 
laying of the foundations in mid-river. This was accomplished by 
driving a number of heavy timber baulks, known as piles, in the form 
of a circle into the bed of the river. When the circle was complete 
the spaces between the baulks were filled with clay and the structure 
was thus made watertight. Then the water inside was pumped out, 
and workmen laid massive masonry foundations, which go down 
30 feet below high- water mark. They are covered with concrete several 
feet in thickness and on this are built heavy masonry piers 70 feet in 
diameter at the base, and tapering to the top, where the diameter is 
49 feet. These piers are arranged in three groups of four, and to each 
is bolted a huge bed-plate weighing 44 tons. 

There are six cantilever arms, each 680 feet in length, and two 
suspended spans of 350 feet each. From tower to tower, therefore, 
the main spans are each 1,710 feet in length. With the approach 
viaducts, the total length of the bridge is 8,295 feet (about ij miles). 
The towers rise to a height of 342 feet and each consists of four tubes 
12 feet in diameter, constructed from steel plates riveted together. 
The columns come towards each other over the track, being 120 feet 
apart at the base and inclining inwards so that they are only 33 feet 
apart at the top. In the construction of these towers over 6,500,000 




AN EXPRESS TRAIN CROSSING THE FORTH BRIDGE. 
29 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

rivets were used, and consequently some 13,000,000 holes had to be 
drilled. 

The construction of the bridge, which contains altogether over 
50,000 tons of steel, was begun in 1883 and required seven years to 
complete, even though some 5,000 workmen were employed in the 
work. It was opened by King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, on 
the 8th March, 1890, in a terrific gale. The bridge is capable of stand- 
ing a wind pressure of 56 Ib. to the square inch, a force unknown in 
this part of the world, though often there is so much wind that the 
gang of men who are employed day in and day out all the year in 




[Fox. 

BERWICK BRIDGE, LONDON AND NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY, WITH ITS TWENTY-EIGHT 

ARCHES. 

A good specimen of the arched type of bridge, designed by Robert Stephenson and dating from 1850. 

painting the bridge have to retire for safety inside one of the columns. 

It is an impressive experience to cross the Forth Bridge by train, 
and after the trip it is not difficult to understand how the bridge came 
to be regarded as one of the greatest engineering feats in the world. 
Looking upwards, we see a great mass of girders towering high over- 
head, as the train, with a hollow rumbling roar, dashes across. Over 
150 feet beneath, we see the waters of the Forth, perhaps with some 
great battleships anchored beneath or shipping steaming out to sea. 

We have already mentioned that as far as length of span is con- 
cerned, the Forth Bridge is exceeded by the Quebec Bridge, a bridge 
of the same type as the Forth, carrying the Canadian National Railway 




Floating the central span, 640 feet in length and weighing over 5,500 tons, up-river. 




[Chesterfield McLaren. 
The central span collapsing after it had been raised some 40 feet above the river as described in the article. 




[By courtesy of the Dept. of Trade, Ottawa. 
The completed bridge. 
THE QUEBEC BRIDGE, ACROSS THE RIVER ST. LAWRENCE. 

This famous cantilever bridge has the longest span in the world, 1,800 feet. It was completed in 1917 after 

two previous attempts had ended in disaster. 
31 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 



across the River St. Lawrence and so decreasing the distance between 
Halifax and Winnipeg by 200 miles. 

The building of this great bridge was begun in 1902, and for five 
years the work proceeded until, on the 2Qth August, 1907, a terrible 
disaster occurred. The cantilever arm that had been built out on 
the south bank suddenly collapsed under its own weight, and dragged 
with it over a hundred workmen, who were drowned in the river beneath. 

This awful tragedy 
made a profound 
impression on the 
engineerin g world 
and on the general 
public, and a Com- 
mission was ap- 
pointed to investi- 
gate the matter. As 
a result, the Canadian 
Government under- 
took to complete the 
bridge, and in 1908 
entirely new plans 
were prepared and 
work was begun 
again. 

It was arranged 
to build first the 
cantilever arms on 
the north and south 
shores, and then, 
when they were 
finished, to float the 
central' span into 

position. The central span itself was to be built on shore, at a 
place called Sillery Cove, about 3! miles below the bridge. When the 
span was ready it was placed on massive pontoons and taken up 
the river by five powerful tugs. In the meantime the two cantilever 
arms of the bridge had been built out, and everything was in readiness 
for receiving the span, which was manoeuvred into position below the 
cantilever arms. Massive steel chains were lowered and connected to 

32 





[St. Lawrence Bridge Co. 

QUEBEC BRIDGE. 

The tangled heap of wreckage after the collapse of the south cantilever 
arm, during the second attempt at building the bridge. 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 



the span, which weighed over 5,000 tons. The arrangement was that 
the span was to be lifted to the level of the cantilever arms by 
hydraulic jacks working at a pressure of 4,000 Ib. to the square inch 
until the load was taken off the pontoons and it remained suspended 
from the cantilever arms. 

Everything had worked well up to this point, and nothing remained 
but to jack up the span to its final position, but now, for a second 
time, disaster was to overtake the engineers. Four " lifts " had been 
made, and the span was raised some 30 feet above the river, when, 
with a terrible crash, it fell, shearing all its supports and causing terrific 
vibrations to the 
cantilever arms. 
Investigation 
showed that one of 
the steel castings in 
the cantilever arm 
had broken, being 
unable to stand the 
great strain imposed 
by hauling up the 
suspended span. 

Once again , 
therefore, the com- 
pletion of the great 
bridge was delayed, 
for the span could 
not be recovered 
from the river and a 

new span had to be built. This could not be ready until 1917, but then, 
on the 2oth September, it was successfully hoisted into position and the 
bridge was opened for regular traffic on the 3rd December following. 

The bridge contains over 66,480 tons of steel and has a total length 
of 3,240 feet, the length of the main span being 1,800 feet, or 90 feet 
greater than that of the Forth Bridge. The length of the suspended 
span is 640 feet. The bridge carries two railway tracks, a road for 
vehicular traffic, and two footpaths for pedestrians. 

Another wonderful engineering feat was the construction of the 
great steel arch bridge across the gorge of the Zambesi. This bridge, 
which made possible the Cape to Cairo Railway, is one of the loftiest 




[By courtesy of the Cleveland Bridge Company. 
ZAMBESI BRIDGE. 
Placing a centre girder in position. 



W.B.E. 



33 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

in the world. It is situated close to the famous Victoria Falls, 
discovered by David Livingstone, the missionary and explorer, in 
1855. Here the river rushes over a great precipice, falling 400 feet 
into a narrow canon. The bridge is so close to the Falls that trains 




[E. N. A. 

AN UNUSUAL VIEW, TAKEN FROM BELOW, OF A BRIDGE ON 
THE CAPE TO CAIRO RAILWAY. 

are often delayed by the columns of spray, which rise to a height of 300 
feet. The chasm is here 650 feet in width, and is spanned by a main 
arch 500 feet in length, and two shorter spans 62^ feet and 87^ feet in 
length. 

Naturally the building of such a bridge in so remote a district 



34 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

was a matter of great difficulty. Actually the members of the bridge 
were made in England, and were first erected at Darlington before 
being sent out to Africa. On the site itself a cable way was erected 
across the gorge, and half the materials were transported to the eastern 
bank by this means. Ledges excavated in the face of the rock provided 




[E. ft. A. 

THE ZAMBESI RIVER BRIDGE, VICTORIA FALLS, RHODESIA. 
The main arch is 500 feet long. The bridge is one of the highest in the world, 420 feet above water level. 

a " foothold " for the ends of the spans, the main girders being sup- 
ported by timber " false-work." All material was lowered by cranes 
to the erectors on the ledges, and as the work progressed the cranes 
moved out along the bridge. 

In order to save any of the workmen who might fall off the bridge, 
a large net was placed across the gorge beneath the bridge whilst it 



35 




\Valentine 6- Sons, Ltd. 
TRANSPORTER BRIDGE, NEWPORT (MONMOUTH). 

Crosses the River Usk and has a clear span between the towers of 592 feet and a height above high water level 

of 1 80 feet. 

was being constructed, as shown in the picture on page 9. This net 
was later removed, however, at the request of the men themselves, 

who complained that it made 
them nervous to see the net sus- 
pended across the gorge beneath 
them ! 




TRANSPORTER BRIDGE, RUNCORN. 
Crosses the River Mersey and the Manchester Ship Canal and has a span of 1,000 feet. 



]Valenlin4 & Sons, Ltd. 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

The two sides of the arch were connected in 1905, and the whole 
structure was then painted grey, so that should rust attack any of the 
members it would immediately show up by contrast. 

An old native chief, who had watched the building of the bridge 
with great interest, predicted that the structure was too slender to 
bear even the weight of a man. Subsequently, however, when he saw 




TRAVELLING CAR, TRANSPORTER BRIDGE, MIDDLESBROUGH. 

Crosses the River Tees. The bridge has a clear span of 571 feet and a clear height above water of 160 feet. 
The car travels at four feet above high water level. It will hold 600 people and one tramcar. 

trains pass over the bridge he reverently said that it was the finger of 
God that held up the bridge and not its own strength ! 

The bridge, which carries two tracks of rails and is 30 feet in 
breadth between the parapets, was tested by sending across it a train of 
over 600 tons at a speed of 15 miles per hour, and it was found that 
with the train on it the structure only sagged one inch a truly remark- 



37 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

able result when we remember that the height of the bridge (420 feet) 
is considerably greater than the top of the cross on St. Paul's Cathedral. 

We have already mentioned that transporter bridges are used 
when local conditions make them necessary. These bridges consist 
of towers carrying girders across the river fixed at such a height that 
they clear the tallest masts of the shipping beneath. Rails are fixed to 
these girders and on them runs a trolley from which a car is suspended 
by vertical cables. The level of the platform of the car is the same 




WILLIAMSBURG SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NEW YORK. 
Built in 1903. Has a span of 1,600 feet. 

as that of the approaches to the bridge. The car and, of course, the 
trolley from which it hangs is moved across the river by steam or 
electric power. 

As long ago as 1872 a transporter bridge was designed to cross 
the Tees at Middlesbrough, but the bridge was not built. The first 
transporter bridge was built in 1893 at Portugaleti, near Bilbao, and 
four years later a similar bridge was erected across the Seine at Rouen. 
The former has a span of 528 feet and is 148 feet above the water, the 
latter has a span of 472 feet and is 280 feet above the water. 

38 



/ 1 


v. ^ 







1 


f V 


s 


- 


(j 


\ 


* - i 

I] H 


f 






ffi' if|:' 

4*8 


**_* g . 




TRANSPORTER BRIDGE ACROSS THE HARBOUR AT MARSEILLES. 



. JV. A. 




TRANSPORTER BRIDGE AT ROUEN. 
89 



[E. N. A. 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 



In England there are three transporter bridges. One is at Runcorn 
and crosses the Mersey and the Manchester Ship Canal, having a span 

of 1,000 feet and a height of 82 
feet. Another, at Newport (Mon- 
mouth), crosses the Usk, and 
was built in 1903, with a span of 
592 feet and a height of 182 feet ; 
the third is at Middlesbrough, 
across the Tees, and was built in 
1911, with a span of 571 feet 
and a height of 160 feet. 

A transporter bridge is of no 
use for railway or heavy traffic. 
In these cases, if a tunnel or a 
high-level bridge is not possible, 
it is usual to employ a bridge of 
a movable type, such as a swing 
bridge. This consists of a span, 
the weight of which is either sup- 
ported at the centre on roller 
bearings or on wheels of small 
diameter. A swing bridge has 
several disadvantages the pier 
that carries it occupies a certain 
space in the centre of the river 
and consequently forms an ob- 
struction to navigation, and also 
the bridge requires a large 
amount of space when opened. 

These disadvantages do not 
arise in another type of bridge, 
called the " bascule," which is 
generally selected where a nar- 
row river is to be bridged. 

Each cable is composed of thirty-seven layers of -,-, i f ,-, i 

196 strands. The total length of wire used is 7,500 -BndgeS OI thlS type are DUt a 

modern revival of an old principle. 

In olden days no castle was complete without its moat and 
drawbridge. To-day the busy world has no time for castles or 




[Topical. 

ASSEMBLING THE CABLES OF THE PEEKS- 
KILL VEHICULAR BRIDGE ACROSS THE HUDSON 
RIVER. 



4(J 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




THE LARGEST BASCULE OR LIFTING BRIDGE IN THE WORLD. 

Carries the Canadian Pacific Railway across the Sault Ste Marie Canal, Ontario, into the United States. 
Each leaf weighs 400 tons apart from the concrete counterbalances. The bridge is fully opened or closed by 
electrical power in seventy-five seconds. 

moats, except, perhaps, as objects of historic interest. The drawbridge 
of mediaeval times remains, however, although in its modern form it 
has been re-christened. Although changed both in name and appear- 
ance, and improved beyond imagination, the principle of the bascule 
bridge is the same as that of its forerunner, the drawbridge. 

The modern bascule bridge consists of either one or two spans, or 
" leaves " as they are called, each hinged at one end and capable of 
being drawn up into an almost vertical position to allow shipping to 
pass up or down the river. Although there is no war-like use for the 
modern drawbridge, it forms an important link in everyday life. 

In the old days the drawbridge was raised by men hauling on rusty 




A DOUBLE-LEAF BASCULE BRIDGE AT TOLEDO, OHIO. 



In the background is a girder bridge. 
41 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

chains. The modern bascule bridge has a powerful elevating mechan- 
ism, consisting of electric motors driving through gearing. This 
mechanism is never allowed to go rusty it is well cared for, and is 
kept clean and well oiled. 

Bascule bridges are of two types, single and double. The former 
consists of a single leaf extending from one bank to the other, and 
hinged at one end, where the elevating mechanism is placed. A 
double bascule consists of two leaves, each of which extends half-way 
across the river, to meet in the centre. Each leaf is pivoted horizon- 
tally at the river bank and, as separate elevating mechanisms are 




[Sport & General. 



A CONCRETE BRIDGE ACROSS THE THAMES AT CAVERSHAM. 



Concrete is more and more widely used nowadays in all sorts of constructive work, including bridge-build- 
ing. The photograph shows the bridge being tested with the weight of twenty-eight traction engines and motor 
lorries, weighing 300 tons. The bridge " gave " only a quarter of an inch. 

employed, each leaf may be raised individually, or both may be raised 
together. A notable example of the double bascule type is the Tower 
Bridge across the Thames at London, which has two great leaves, each 
60 feet in length and weighing (with their counterpoises) 1,200 tons. 
This great weight is carried by a bar of solid steel 21 inches in diameter 
and 48 feet in length. The Tower Bridge is operated by hydraulic 
power, the machinery exercising a pressure of 850 Ib. to the square inch. 
The largest bascule bridge in the world is that which carries the 
Canadian Pacific trains across the Sault Ste Marie Canal, from 
Canadian to United States territory. The bridge is 356 feet long 
and has two folding leaves which open to permit of vessels passing 



42 




[Sport & General. 

AN ELECTRICALLY OPERATED SWING BRIDGE, AT BECCLES, NEAR YARMOUTH (LONDON AND 

NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY). 




[Sport & General. 



A TRAIN PASSING OVER THE BRIDGE. 
43 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

through the Canal, and close in such a manner as to form one rigid 
span from pier to pier for use of the trains. The bridge is operated 
by electricity and can be opened and closed in less than two 
minutes. 

Another form of bridge belonging to this type is the " rolling lift 
bridge," designed by an American engineer named Scherzer. In this 
bridge the place of the fixed trunnions at the land end of the girder is 
taken by segments of steel. Thus the bridge to a certain extent resem- 
bles the rockers of a rocking-chair, the segments moving over a flat 




[E. N. A. 
HAWKESBURY RIVER RAILWAY BRIDGE, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The largest bridge of its kind in Australia. Has seven spans and is 2,900 feet long between abutments. 

surface just as the rockers of the chair move over the floor. At the 
land end of the girder a counterweight is so poised as exactly to balance 
the bridge, and this considerably lightens the task of opening. 

A rolling lift bridge may carry a single or a double track, and if 
necessary several of these bridges may be placed side by side and 
operated together or independently. A double Scherzer bridge across 
the Chicago River spans 275 feet and when fully raised the span is 
many feet higher than the Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square. 

There is a rolling lift bridge over the River Towy at Carmarthen. 
Built in 1908, it has a total length of 385 feet, although the rolling lift 



44 




[Fleet. 




LOWER AND UPPER STEEL ARCH BRIDGES OVER THE NIAGARA FALLS. 
The Falls are also crossed by a cantilever railway bridge. 



[E. N. A. 




[. fr. A. 



THE DELAWARE RIVER SUSPENSION BRIDGE, U.S.A. 
Opened in 1927. Other illustrations are given on pages 19 and 49. 




[. N. A. 

LOWER MANHATTAN, VIEWED THROUGH THE NETWORK OF CABLES ON BROOKLYN 

SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 

The bridge was built in 1883 and has a span of 1,595 feet. 




[Special Press. 



CONSTRUCTION OF MANHATTAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NEW YORK. 

M 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

span itself is only 50 feet in length. The moving span is operated by 
two sets of gear-wheels, mounted on trestles at opposite sides of the 
bridge. On the outer side of each main girder there is a curved rack, 
driven by pinions, which, in turn, are driven by a train of gear-wheels 
coupled to an electric motor. The leaves are balanced by counterpoise 
weights, and as the bridge opens these weights descend into pits at the 
side of the bridge. 

The longest suspension bridge in the world, completed in 1927, 
crosses the Delaware River at Philadelphia, U.S.A., connecting that 
city with Camden, New Jersey. Although five years were required, 




AN AERIAL VIEW OF NEW YORK. 

Showing the bridges over the Hudson and East River. Three of the largest suspension bridges of the world 

are within a mile of each other. 

the bridge was completed in record time for such an undertaking. 
It is 3,450 feet in length over the cable anchorages, and has a centre 
span of 1,750 feet. 

When the erection of the bridge was being considered, the United 
States War Department, which has control over all navigable rivers, 
stipulated that no piers or obstructions were to be placed in the fair- 
way. At the point where the bridge crosses the Delaware River is 
nearly 1,800 feet in width, so that this stipulation rendered necessary 
a bridge with a centre span of record length. 

The roadway is held by suspension rods that hang from two 
cables, which are 30 inches in diameter and weigh one ton per foot 



47 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

run. Each cable is composed of 18,666 separate wires, compressed 
very tightly and enclosed in a protecting sheath. The cables, which 
are 89 feet apart, are supported at each side of the river by a tall 
steel tower and pass over the top of these towers to massive anchor- 
ages on the land behind. The towers rise from granite piers to a 
height of over 347 feet and are 40 feet in width at the base. They 
are so designed that they will bend as required to compensate for 
the expansion and contraction of the cables, due to changes in tem- 
perature. 

The deck of the bridge is 135 feet above the river and is thus 



,;; 




WHAT THE PROPOSED NEW BRIDGE ACROSS THE HUDSON WILL LOOK LIKE, 
according to a drawing published in the A rchitect's Journal. 

sufficiently high to allow ample clearance for the passage of the largest 
vessels. It carries a centre roadway 57 feet in width, with accom- 
modation for six lines of traffic, and is paved with wood blocks 
laid on a reinforced concrete base. This roadway is flanked on each 
side by an electric tramway track, whilst outside the line of cables 
are rapid transit tracks used by the electric trains of the Philadelphia 
Underground. Above these are elevated foot walks 10 feet in width 
for pedestrians. 

Before closing this article we must briefly mention two great 
bridges now in course of construction. The one is a monster suspension 
bridge, which when completed will carry two tramways, two railways, 




CROSSING THE NIAGARA FALLS BY CABLE CAR. 




THE VICTORIA JUBILEE BRIDGE. 
Crosses the St. Lawrence River just above Montreal. Rebuilt in 1898. 



[E. N. A. 




[E.N.A. 
THE SIX-TRACK WAY OF THE DELAWARE RIVER SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 

In addition to vehicular and pedestrian traffic, the bridge carries an electric tramway and the electric 
trains of the Philadelphia Underground Railway. A million people can cross it per day without straining its 
capacity in the least. Other views on pages 19 and 46. 




[E.N.A. 
A BRIDGE SEVEN MILES LONG THAT "GOES TO SEA." 

A section of the Florida East Coast Railway connecting the mainland and the long string of islands extending 

to Key West. The line is sometimes referred to as " the eighth wonder of the world." 
W B.K. 49 D 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 




ONE OF THE GREAT MASONRY 
PORTALS AND CONCRETE PIERS OF 
THE NEW SYDNEY HARBOUR 
BRIDGE. 

arrangements the bridge 
will be 6,600 feet in 
length. It will be divided 
into two shore spans, each 




and a road wider than 
Kings way . This great 
structure is to be thrown 
across the Hudson River 
at New York, and 
although it will not be the 
longest it will certainly be 
the largest bridge in the 
world. It may possibly be 
the last massive iron 
bridge to be built, for the 
cost of such heavy metal 
structures is becoming pro- 
hibitive. 

According to present 




[Central Press. 

TWO PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING CABLES BEING TESTED 
IN CONNECTION WITH BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION. 

50 



1,710 feet in length, and 
a central span of 3,240 
feet. The distance be- 
tween the anchorage on 
Manhattan Island and the 
anchorage on the mainland 
will be 7,460 feet. 

The new bridge will 
not only accommodate 
vehicles and pedestrians, 
but will also carry trams 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

and trains. It will have two decks, each 220 feet in width. The 
upper deck will be divided into two roadways, one for motors, the 
other for vehicles. On each side of this roadway will be a tramway 
track, beyond which will be two footpaths 17 feet in breadth. Access 
to the upper deck of the bridge will be gained by a central lofty 
arch, with two smaller side arches to admit the traffic to the bridge 
approach. The lower deck of the bridge will be used only by trains, 
and it will carry ten lines of railway track. 

The bridge will be of the suspension type, the two decks being 



wj^f^t^ 1 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF SYDNEY HARBOUR SHOWING POSITION OF THE GREAT BRIDGE NOW 

BEING CONSTRUCTED. 

The design of the bridge itself has been altered. It will be an arch bridge as shown on page 17. 

suspended from four steel cables, two on either side. These cables 
will consist of 80 lines of eye-bars, arranged in three banks and enclosed 
in tubular bronze casings 15 feet in diameter. 

Gigantic anchorages will be required to counteract the tremendous 
pull of the cables, which it is calculated will amount to 25,000 tons, 
and in order to obtain sufficient height to give the suspension cables 
the requisite curvature, it will be necessary for the suspending towers 
to be 840 feet in height. Each tower will measure 400 feet in breadth 
at the ground-level, tapering to 200 feet at the top, and will contain 
35,000 tons of steel. Although the towers will be constructed of steel, 



51 



SOME FAMOUS BRIDGES 

they will be faced with granite, and will thus appear to be columns 
of solid masonry. 

On each anchorage it is proposed to erect large rectangular 
buildings the accommodation provided by which will help to replace 
the property demolished to make room for the approaches. 

The second bridge to be mentioned is that now being erected across 
Sydney Harbour, the arch of which at its highest point will be 450 
feet above high-water level. The bridge will be by far the largest arch 
bridge in the world, its nearest rival (Hell Gate Bridge, New York) 
having a span of about 1,000 feet. The Sydney Harbour bridge will 
have a total width of 150 feet and will carry four lines of railway, 
a road 57 feet in width, and two footpaths, each 10 feet in width. 

The total length of the arch and bridge spans is to be 3,770 feet, 
and the central i,6oo-foot span will have a clearance of 170 feet above 
the water at mean high tides, so that practically all large ships will be 
able to pass beneath the bridge on their way to the docks. 

The masonry pylons are to be 83 feet by 50 feet at deck-level, 
tapering to 75 feet at their summit, which will reach 285 feet above 
high-water level. In all there will be over 50,000 tons of steel work, 
and the bridge will not be completed until about 1931. 

To close this article it may be convenient to set out a list of the 
world's longest bridge spans and their types and dates. The Hudson 
River and Sydney Harbour bridges are included, though far from 
complete. The last four bridges named cross the East River at New 
York and are comparatively near to each other. 

LONG-SPAN BRIDGES. 

Length of 

Type. Main Span. Date. 

Hudson River .... Suspension . . 3240 Under construction 
Quebec Bridge, Canada . . Cantilever . . 1800 . . 1917 

Delaware River Bridge, U.S.A. . Suspension .. 1750 .. 1926 

Forth Bridge, Scotland . . Cantilever (two) 1710 . . 1890 

Bear Mountain Bridge, U.S.A. . Suspension . . 1632 . . 1924 

Sydney Harbour, Australia . . Arch .. 1600 Under construct ion 

Williamsburg Bridge, U.S.A. . Suspension . . 1600 . . 1903 

Brooklyn Bridge, U.S.A. . . Suspension .. 1595s 1883 

Manhattan Bridge, U.S.A. . . Suspension - . . 1470 . . 1909 

Queensboro Bridge, U.S.A. . . Cantilever (two) 1280 and 984 1909 

The famous Tay Bridge, rebuilt in 1887, it is interesting to note, 
is over two miles long, but of its eighty-seven spans few are over 245 
feet in length. ELLISON HAWKS. 

62 




A MONSTER 4-10-2 LOCOMOTIVE ON THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY. 



THE WORLD'S BIGGEST 
LOCOMOTIVES 

ENGINES are of many types, and all are of interest to the mechanic- 
ally minded. But most of us leave the warmest place in our 
affections for the railway locomotive, and especially the big locomotive. 
Certainly no other branches of engineering make so wide an appeal as 
those concerned with railways, but we are not able to devote many 
articles to the subject in this volume because it is already fully treated 
in the companion Wonder Book of Railways, which many boys and girls 
already possess. 

No book with the title of this could be complete, however, without 
some reference to the most fascinating of all engineering wonders the 
world's biggest locomotives. 

A locomotive may be big for several reasons. It may be that it 
is required to haul very heavy loads at high speed over lines which are 
only moderately hard, so far as adverse gradients are concerned, or 
to deal with more ordinary loads over routes where inclines and other 
hindrances render it difficult to cover the ground at the required speed 
by a smaller engine. More usually, the need is to pull heavy loads 
over routes which are severely graded, and for which, otherwise, it 
would be necessary to use two or even three or four engines. 



53 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 

In many parts of the world there is no need, nor is it desirable, to 
run a large number of trains, so that if a big load can be taken by a 
single engine it is better that it should be so than that several trains 
should be operated. In other cases, particularly in the United States 
and Canada, there are mountain lines where, until very big engines were 
introduced, it was necessary to divide trains into two or three, working 
each separately over the hard stages, and combining them when the 




A GREAT WESTERN " KNIGHT 



[Topical. 

MOUNTED FOR THE INSPECTION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL BOYS 
VISITING SWINDON. 



route became easy once more. If this can be avoided by using one 
very big engine, a great deal of time is saved, and the line has to carry 
only one train instead of two or three. There are also many instances 
where a very big engine is provided to act as "pusher" or "banker," 
thus enabling a big train to be got over the troublesome section " in 
once." 

All or any of these reasons may explain why very big engines are 
now in service in many parts of the world, but it does not follow that 



54 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 

they can be used with equal advantage in other places. A big engine 
is, of necessity, a heavy one, but by increasing the length and distri- 
buting the weight over a number of axles, the amount upon each pair 
of wheels need not exceed a limit of from 17 to 23 tons per axle. But 
no amount of skill will get over the difficulty that, if bridges and tunnels 
will not allow the width to exceed about 9 feet and the height 12 feet 
6 inches or 13 feet, the engine must not exceed those limits. 

The last difficulty is of special importance in Great Britain because 
so many of the lines were built with narrow tunnels and low over- 




THE "LORD NELSON," SOUTHERN RAILWAY. 
Total weight, engine and tender, 140 tons. 

bridges in days when these limits were thought to be ample. As a 
result, although we may have many large engines, we could not run 
engines as big as those found in other parts of the world, even if there 
were need to do so. Indeed, large numbers of engines have been built 
in Great Britain for use abroad which could not run on our own lines, 
even for a trial trip, apart from the fact that, frequently, the lines are 
built to a different gauge. 

Speaking generally, therefore, British " biggest " locomotives are 
obliged to be the smallest of the world's " biggest " locomotives ; in 



55 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 




THE " KING GEORGE V " (4-6-0), GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. 

France, Germany, Australia, South America and India they can be 
bigger, but not to a very great extent ; in South Africa they can be 
very big for the 3 ft. 6-in. gauge, but by no means so big as the 
engines in use in other parts ; and it is only in the United States and 
Canada that they can be made very big indeed, sometimes twice or 
three times as big as our own largest locomotives. 

Another reason for the large dimensions of American locomotives 
is that, on many of the long journeys of 2,000 miles or so, it is practic- 
able to run freight trains a mile or even more in length ; and if one 
engine will suffice, with banking assistance over the mountain or steep- 
gradient sections, it is well worth building a sufficiently powerful loco- 
motive. In Great Britain journeys are relatively short, and signals 




A BIG FOUR-CYLINDER 4-6-4 TANK ENGINE ON THE LONDON MIDLAND AND SCOTTISH 

RAILWAY. 
66 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 






A " PACIFIC " TYPE LOCOMOTIVE (4-6-2), LONDON AND NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY. 

occur so frequently that it would be impossible to run one of those 
tremendously heavy and long trains, even if there were a demand for 
other reasons. But in parts of Europe, in India and South Africa, in 
South America, and to some extent in Australia, the American idea of 
a few very long trains worked by large engines is adopted. 

Hence, while we have some of the most efficient locomotives, even 
the biggest express passenger locomotives in Great Britain are smaller 
than those in many parts of the world, while even if the three or four 
exceptional engines which we can produce are included, they still come 
a long way down the list of the world's biggest locomotives. 




[Special Press. 

"GARRATT" LOCOMOTIVE, LONDON AND NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY. 

Some rather smaller " Garratts " are also now employed on the London Midland and Scottish Railway for 

hauling heavy freight trains. 
67 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 




A "CASTLE" CLASS LOCOMOTIVE (4-6-0), GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY, WITH LARGE 

TENDER. 

So far as express train locomotives are concerned, the largest at 
present in use on a British railway are the "Pacific," or 4-6-2, loco- 
motives used by the London and North Eastern Railway. There are 
two classes of these. The standard are the " Great Northern " class, 
but there are also five built for the late North Eastern Railway, which 
also take a share in working East Coast Express trains. The former 
engines are the lighter, 92^ tons against 97 tons, but as they have larger 




[W. Leslie Good. 
TEN-COUPLED FOUR-CYLINDER LOCOMOTIVE 

used for banking purposes on the steep Lickey Incline on the L.M. & S. line from Bristol to Birmingham. 

58 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 



tenders the combined weights become 148 tons against 143 tons. Both 
classes have three cylinders. 

These have to compare with the famous " Castles " on the Great 



WHEEL DIAGRAM. NUMERAL TYPE. 

.. 0-4-0 

. . 2-2-2 

. . 2-4-0 

.. 0-4-2 

. . 06-0 

.. 4. -2-2 

.. 440 

. . 0-4-4 

. . 2-4-2 

.. 2-6-0 (Mogul) 

. . 0-6-2 

.. 0-8-0 

.. 4-4-2 (Atlantic) 

. . 4-60 

. . 4-6-4 

. . 0-6-4 

2-8-0 (Consolidation) 

SYSTEM OF DESCRIBING LOCOMOTIVE TYPES. 

(Continued on next page.) 

It is considered that every engine has wheels of three kinds, starting from the front, or chimney, end. First, 
there are the carrying-wheels, next the driving or coupled wheels, and behind these the carrying or trailing 
wheels. For wheels that are not used a nought is put. 

Western Railway, which again, have now been put in the shade by 
a " Super-Castle," known as the " King George V." This engine has 
no less than 67^ tons on the coupled wheels, and as it has the very 
high steam pressure of 250 Ib. per square inch it is now the most powerful 

69 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

77 


\^J-^J 



- 


- 


- 





- 


" 


- 


0( q J 11' Ca ) 
VLTVZ/ 1 V, / 


-- 


rz\r^\(^\r\ 


\^s \^^/ v ./ v J 


^ 0_)^ 





Q r* 


(^)r,r. 





BIG LOCOMOTIVES 



express locomotive in the British Isles. It is not, however, quite the 
biggest, though it weighs 89 tons without the tender, or 135! tons 
with it in working order. 

On the Southern Railway the " Lord Nelson " also has four cylin- 



18 
19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 

35 



WHEEL DIAGRAM. 







& Q CO CO a 

Q COCO Q 



Q QCO 

Q 
a 







-) 



QG)QG) QQQ 
QCDQQft 







NUMERAL TYPE. 

0-8-2 

2-6-2 

4-6-2 (Pacific) 

2-6-4 

2-8-2 (Mikado] 

4-8-0 
0-10-0 
2-10-0 
2-10-2 

0-8-4 



0-6-6-0 
24-6-0 
2-6-6-0 
2-6-6-2 
0-8-8-0 
2-8-8-2 



Articulated 

Types 



SYSTEM OF DESCRIBING LOCOMOTIVE TYPES. 

(Continued from previous page.) 



ders, but weighs 83! tons, with a tender representing another 56! tons. 
It has a number of special features, and has been doing marvellous 
work with very heavy trains over steep main-line gradients, besides 
showing very fine speed capabilities. 

The biggest express engines of the London Midland and Scottish 



CO 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 

Railway are the " Claughton " and " Hughes " classes of four-cylinder 
4-6-0 's. These are not quite so big as the engines mentioned, but are 
to be followed by a new design of notable dimensions and power. 

The engines referred to are the largest and most powerful on the 
four main lines of Great Britain, so far as express passenger traffic is 
concerned. The biggest engine of all, however, is the London and 
North Eastern " Garratt " locomotive, used for assisting heavy mineral 
trains over a very steep line in Yorkshire. This is an articulated 
design, in that there are two sets of coupled wheels, each in its own 
frame, the boiler and frame being " bridged " between and connecting 




A BIG FRENCH 4-6-2 
of the type working the heavy boat expresses between Calais, Boulogne and Paris. 

the two. By this means the weight is distributed over a considerable 
length, while the two sets of coupled wheels can follow a curve inde- 
pendently. Further, as there are no wheels under the boiler itself, 
it can be made very much larger than if applied in the ordinary way. 
The engine has two sets of eight -coupled wheels, each driven by three 
cylinders. It has no separate tender, so that the whole of the 178 tons 
ranks as engine. 

A somewhat similar but slightly smaller engine is now in service 
on the London Midland and Scottish Railway, for heavy coal traffic. 
It has two sets of six-coupled wheels, but with two cylinders only to 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 




A BIG GERMAN 2-8-2 EXPRESS LOCOMOTIVE FITTED 
SMOKE-DEFLECTING WINGS. 



WITH 



each set, while the 
total weight is about 
142 tons. 

The 2-8-2 "Mi- 
kado " locomotives 
of the London and 
North Eastern Rail- 
way must also be 
mentioned. These 
have a small " boos- 
ter " engine driving 
the wheels under the 
firebox, to provide 
additional power at 

starting and on steep gradients. They weigh 100 tons without 
tender. 

Another powerful locomotive is the ten-coupled engine built a few 
years ago for assisting trains up the terrific Lickey incline, on the 
London Midland and Scottish line from Bristol to Birmingham. 
This has a gradient of I in 37 for 2 miles, and most ordinary trains of 
any weight had to be assisted by two six-coupled tank engines push- 
ing behind. The engine described does the work of such a pair by itself. 
It is of further interest as being the only engine in Great Britain with 
ten-coupled wheels. It has four cylinders and weighs without its tender 
(an ordinary and comparatively small one) 73 J tons. 

The largest example of a big tank engine for heavy passenger 




A SPANISH 4-8-2 MOUNTAIN LOCOMOTIVE, WEIGHING 156$ TONS WITH TENDER. 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 

train duty is the four-cylinder 4-6-4 main-line tank engine design in 
use on the London Midland and Scottish Railway. It weighs 100 tons 
in working order. 

Crossing the Channel to the Continent, we find on the Northern 
Railway of France many big 4-6-2 locomotives, the latest class weigh- 
ing 95 tons, to which 64 tons must be added for the tender. These 
work the heavy boat-train expresses between Calais, Boulogne and Paris. 
The Paris Lyons and Mediterranean Railway also has some very big 
locomotives of the same class, while on that line, and also on the Est, 
there are even bigger 4-8-2 express locomotives in service. 

In Germany the most up-to-date express engines are 4-6-2 and 
2-8-2 designs of the class illustrated, notable for the peculiar screens 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd. 

"GARRATT" ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVE (2-8-2-2-8-2) USED ON THE NITRATE RAILWAYS 

OF CHILI (WEIGHT i87i TONS). 

in front, designed to direct the air currents so that steam does not blow 
down over the engine cab and obstruct the driver's view. 

Quite a number of other European locomotives could be classed 
among the world's " biggest," including many ten-coupled engines 
in Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and Sweden, besides 
some big tank engines of the 0-8-8-0 and other classes. " It will be 
sufficient, however, to mention some large 4-8-2 engines in use in 
Spain, weighing ioij tons (engine) or 1564 tons with tender, besides 
some large 4-8-4 tank engines in use in the same country. 

In Africa the biggest engines have to be estimated with regard to 
the fact that the gauge is only 3 feet 6 inches, as compared with the 
British 4 feet 8J inches. Yet there are engines in use on the South 



83 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 

African Government Railways, of the 4-6-2 type, weighing 86 tons, or, 
with tender, 151^ tons, and of the 4-8-2 type weighing loij tons, with 
tender i66f tons. These particular engines were built in the United 
States, but others nearly as large were constructed in England. In 
various parts of South Africa there are also a number of " Garratt " 
articulated locomotives of large size. The largest are, however, some 
4-8-2-2-8-4 " Garratt " engines supplied to the Benguella Railway, 
in West Africa. These also run on the 3 ft. 6-in. gauge, but have 
two sets of eight-coupled wheels and weigh no less than 158 tons. 

Mention must be made, too, of some 4-6-2, 4-8-2 and 2-8-2 
engines recently built in England for the South Australian Railways. 




[By courtesy of Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth, Ltd. 
A " MOUNTAIN " CLASS LOCOMOTIVE (4-8-2) 
built for the South Australian Government lines, with 5 feet 3 inches gauge. 

The 2-8-2 's weigh 100 tons, to which must be added 72 J tons for the 
big tenders used ; while the 4-8-2*3 weigh 134! tons, with 84 tons for 
the tenders. 

In South America the biggest engines are some " Garratts " used 
by the Nitrate Railways of Chili. These have the 2-8-2-2-8-2 wheel 
arrangement, and weigh 187^ tons. They are the largest " Garratt " 
engines yet built for the 4 ft. 8|-in. gauge. 

In Canada the biggest engines of all are some 4-8-4 locomotives 
recently placed in service by the Canadian National Railways. These 
weigh no less than 173 tons without tender, and nearly 300 tons with 
their tenders. They are further notable because they use steam 
at the high pressure of 250 Ib. per square inch. On the Canadian 




KING STEAM. 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 




4-8-2 EXPRESS LOCOMOTIVE, CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS. 

Pacific Railway the biggest 4-6-2 express passenger locomotives weigh 
137 tons and the tenders 85 J tons. That line also uses some 2-10-2 
engines for pushing trains up the mountain gradients. 

When we come to the United States we find much larger dimen- 
sions than any hitherto mentioned. There are many 4-6-2 and 4-8-2 
locomotives which weigh from 150 tons upwards, not including the 
tenders, but the biggest have ten- or even twelve-coupled wheels. 
Thus, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, there are some 2-io-o's weighing 
172^ tons, with 87^ tons tender, also some on the Southern Pacific. 
The biggest of all is a three-cylinder 4-12-2 recently built for the 
Union Pacific Railway, this weighing no less than 22 if tons, or 349 
tons with the huge tender added. This engine, by the way, challenges 
honours for being the largest locomotive in the world with other 
engines to be mentioned later. 




A CANADIAN PACIFIC 2-10-2 "PUSHER 



[C. K. LMelury. 
USED FOR MOUNTAIN SERVICES 



W.B.E. 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 




A SOUTHERN PACIFIC OIL-BURNING 2-8-8-2 LOCOMOTIVE DESIGNED TO WORK WITH THE 

CAB IN FRONT. 
On the left is an early single-driver engine of the line by way of contrast. 

It is, however, the articulated designs which provide the actual 
biggest engines. Many could be mentioned, but attention must be 
restricted to three. The first of these is a 2-8-8-2 class for the 
Southern Pacific Railway, illustrated above. It is designed to work 
with the cab in front, with the tender behind the chimney, an 
arrangement which is practicable as oil is used as fuel. The view also 
shows one of the early single-driver engines of the line, affording a 
striking contrast "then and now." 

The second, illustrated below, is a double ten-coupled engine 
for the Virginian Railway, weighing no less than 305 tons, or 401 
tons including tender. 

The third (page 67) shows one of the few articulated engines with 
three sets of eight-coupled wheels. This was built for the Erie Rail- 
road, and, known as the Triplex, has ranked as the largest locomotive 




VIRGINIAN RAILWAY 2-10-10-2 

66 



'MALLET" LOCOMOTIVE. 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 




"TRIPLEX" ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE, ERIE RAILWAY, WITH THREE SETS OF 

EIGHT-COUPLED WHEELS. 

Weighs 348 tons and ranked as the world's largest locomotive, though the title is now challenged by other 
locomotives illustrated or described in this article. 

in the world for some years past, though, as mentioned above, this 
claim for distinction is now challenged by other engines mentioned. 
The Triplex weighs 348 tons, the tender being included as part of the 
engine, in that one set of coupled wheels is under it, so that it is a matter 
for argument which is actually the biggest of these engines. 

This article would be incomplete without some reference to big 
electric locomotives. Some of these now vie with steam engines for 
size, and in various parts of the world many interesting designs are in 
use. The biggest in Great Britain is the 4-6-4 express locomotive 
built some years ago by the North Eastern Railway for test purposes, 
though as there is not yet any substantial length of electrified main 
line upon which to try it, the engine remains purely experimental. 








[Fleet. 

A MOUNTAIN TYPE PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE (4-8-2) ON THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO 

RAILWAY. 
67 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 







A HUGE ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE. 



[Fleet. 



By reason of its great length, 152 feet, it is built in three sections to enable it to round curves. Each unit 
contains two motors, so that there are really six engines in one. 

In Switzerland, France and Italy, there are many notable electric 
locomotives. Some of the most powerful are used on the Lotschberg 
route and through the Simplon Tunnel in Switzerland. 

North America, too, has many large and notable electric loco- 
motives, the actual largest being those recently introduced by the 
Virginian Railways. These are intended to haul 3,ooo-ton coal trains, 
and are designed so that three engines are worked together as one. 
The three sections aggregate about 152 feet in length and weigh 570 
tons, from which facts some idea of their size will be gained. 

Finally, mention may be made of steam turbine locomotives, 
several of which have been built during recent years, and some of which 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd. 
11 LJUNGSTROM " TURBO-LOCOMOTIVE. 

This consists of a boiler-carrying vehicle and a turbine-driven condenser vehicle. 

68 



BIG LOCOMOTIVES 

are in use in Sweden, Germany and South America, though those built 
in Great Britain have been used for trial purposes only. The Ljung- 
strom engine illustrated has been tested on the London Midland and 




A LONDON AND NORTH EASTERN MIXED TRAFFIC ENGINE WITH SMOKE-BOX OPENED. 

Scottish Railway. As the tender forms part of the engine, the com- 
bined weight of 143! tons requires this locomotive to be included among 
the " world's biggest." J. F. GAIRNS, M.Inst.T., M.LLoco.E. 



69 



THE EIFFEL TOWER 




HIGH buildings have always exercised a great fascination for many 
people, and from time to time attempts are made to build to 
ever-greater heights. The Tower of Babel, the Colossus of Rhodes, 
and the Pyramids of Egypt were early examples. 

In modern times the heights of these have easily been sur- 
passed. Cologne Cathedral, for example, is 528 feet high, the 

Washington Monument 555 feet, 
and the famous Woolworth build- 
ing, New York, 792 feet. The 
last, known as " the tower built 
by nickels and dimes," has, since 
1913, been the tallest building in 
America, but will be surpassed 
by the projected Larkin Tower, 
which is planned to soar to 1,208 
feet (or, if basement and 5o-feet 
flagpole are included, to 1,308 
feet), and comprise no fewer than 
no stories. (See coloured plate 
facing page 16.) 

As regards Europe, however, 
the famous Eiffel Tower is still 
by far the tallest structure (984 
feet), and likely long to remain 
so. It is now nearly half a cen- 
tury since Gustave Eiffel proposed 
to erect for the Paris Exhibition a 
steel tower that would dwarf every 
other structure built or conceived. 
His proposal was ridiculed by 
prominent engineers, who pre- 
dicted that such a tower would 
speedily collapse. Eiffel was an 
engineer of experience, however, 
and had absolute confidence in 
success. He persevered, and in 
two years confounded his critics 
and astonished his friends by 




[Photopress. 

THE WOOLWORTH BUILDING, NEW YORK. 
The tallest building in America (792 feet). 



70 



THE EIFFEL TOWER 




THE EIFFEL TOWER. 
Europe's tallest building (984 feet). The base covers an area of z\ acres. 

completing the structure. To-day, in the Champs de Mars, and close 
by the banks of the Seine, may be seen this famous tower, an object 
of interest to all visitors and the pride of every Parisian. 

71 



THE EIFFEL TOWER 

The construction was by no means easy, and difficulties commenced 
even at the foundations. These, naturally, are most massive in char- 
acter, for the weight of the tower is enormous 6,500 tons in all. The 
foundations of the two piers that stand farthest from the river presented 
no difficulty, but the foundations of the two piers on the river side 
had to be taken down to a depth of 33 feet. These foundations are of 
masonry and rest on a mass of solid concrete, the pedestal of the tower 
being fixed to them by huge anchor bolts. 

The tower itself consists of a series of girders, braced together by 
elaborate trellis-work. Two and a half million rivets were used, and 
the total cost of the structure was over 260,000. There are three 
platforms, reached by lifts, the first 186 feet, the second 377 feet, and 
the third 924 feet above the ground. It is interesting to know that, 
until the time of his death in 1903, Eiffel maintained a flat on the third 
floor of the tower, where he would retire to think of the past and to 
plan new schemes for the future. 

During the War the tower proved to be of the greatest value as an 
anti-aircraft observation-post, enabling warnings to be sounded on the 
approach of Zeppelins or Gothas. To " listeners-in " the Eiffel Tower 
is familiar as one of the most powerful radio stations in the world, and 
its call-sign " F L " is always a welcome sound. 

E. H. 




[E. N. A. 
PARIS FROM THE AIR. 

This view was taken from an aeroplane. The views from the Eiffel Tower are of equal interest. 

72 




A DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE LEVER. 
A gigantic floating crane lifting the old landing stage at New Brighton, weighing 150 tons. 

THE ELEMENTS OF 
ENGINEERING 

SOME SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 

WE know who invented the telephone and who invented the first 
locomotive, but who invented the first machine and what was it ? 

Perhaps a wheel. We are so familiar with wheels, see so many of 
them every day, that it is difficult to realize that they had to be " in- 
vented." They seem so simple and obvious, too, that it is hard to 
regard them as " machines," but of course a machine may be anything 
from a simple lever to a complicated and powerful engine. 

One day, possibly, some primitive man of the Stone Age noticed 
that a log, or even a whole tree-trunk, could be rolled along the ground, 
especially downhill, with very little effort. Perhaps he had some spoil 
of the chase, a bear or a large deer, to take proudly home to his pre- 
historic wife or to a hungry tribe. It was heavy, too heavy to be 
lifted, and he was tired. So he tried the expedient of placing the 
trophy on a tree-trunk and rolling it along. Gradually, stage by stage, 
he brought the precious burden to his cave. He had deserved, and 



SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 




Fig. i. The Wheel and Axle. 



won, an excellent dinner, but he had done 
very much more : he had discovered the 
principle of the wheel. 

On these pages are simple sketches of a 
few elementary machines of which we all ought 
to know something, for they may be said to 
be the very " keystones " of engineering 
science, all our present-day machinery so 
wonderful, so powerful, so apparently com- 
plicated being but a development, or 



extension, of these essentially simple contrivances. 




Fig. 



Lever of the first 
order. 



b Lever of the second order. 



c Lever of the third order. 



Figure I is the wheel and axle. The axle bears the weight and 
allows the wheel to revolve freely. In Fig. 2a, the force is applied 

downward on the end of the lever farthest from 
the object, and rapid movement at that end 
the long arm is changed into slow motion at 
the other end the short arm. Fig. zb works 
on the same principle, but the movement is 
upward. Fig. 2c is an ordinary pair of tongs 
such as sugar-tongs the grip being obtained 
by pressing together the two levers. The 
arrows in Figs. 2a and 2b show where 





Fig. 3. The Rope Twist Lever. 



Fig. 4. The Inclined Plane. 



74 



SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 




Fig. 5. The Wedge. 



and how force is applied in these two 
cases. 



The rope twist (Fig. 3) shows how, by 
twisting the rope with a stick, the rope 
becomes shortened and the two parts to 
which it is attached are gradually pulled 
nearer to each other. This is another form 
of lever, often used by builders in putting 
up scaffolding. 

Fig. 4, the inclined plane, is simply a 
flat surface raised at one end. An object 
placed at the raised end will slide towards 
the low end ; in other words, we have a simple application of the 
law of gravity. 

The important feature of the wedge (Fig. 5) is that the full force 
of a blow on the broad end is brought to the point, and the object 
a tree-trunk, perhaps is gradually split in two as the wedge is 
driven in. 

The lazy-tongs (Fig. 6) close and open rapidly because all the 
small arms are so fastened that a single movement of the two end 
arms opens or closes all the others. Those who have a taste for tech- 
nical language may prefer to say that the end arms receive the sum 
of the movements which take place at each angle. One advantage of 
lazy-tongs is that all the arms fold into a small space, like a piece of 
ordinary garden trellis-work. Lazy-tongs are much used in offices for 
telephone extensions, so that the telephone can be brought close 

to the speaker's mouth, while when 
no longer required it can be pushed 
out of the way. 

Ball-bearings are ever such use- 
ful things, as every boy and girl 
who has a bicycle sooner or later 
discovers. There is hardly a machine 
which does not make use of these 





Fig. 6. The Lazy-tongs. 

The top figure shows the tongs almost closed, the bottom figure the tongs extended. 

75 



SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 





Fig. 7. Ball-bearings. Part of Ihe 
machine has been cut away. 



Fig. 8. The Rack and Pinion. 

valuable servants, only they are always 
hidden from sight. In Fig. 7 a part of the 
wheel has been cut out so that you may 
see them. To look at, they are just like 
small steel marbles, but so smooth that they 
shine like silver. As the axle revolves, they go round too, and so 
there is very little " friction " and but little power is wasted. 

The wheel with the teeth (Fig. 8) is known as a " pinion " and the 
straight piece (which also has teeth, made to fit exactly with the teeth 
belonging to the pinion) is called a " rack." Two movements are 
possible : either the pinion may go round and slide the rack along, or 
the rack may slide along and cause the pinion to rotate. 

Compare this with Fig. 9, which shows a form of rack motion ; 
this works on exactly the same principle but is rather more elaborate. 

It is used for opening and closing the sliding 
doors of valves. The pinion moves the racks 
up and down alternately. 

Fig. 10 is known as the piston and 
cylinder, and forms the most familiar part of the 
steam-engine. Steam enters the cylinder and 
pushes the piston to the farther end, from which 
it is returned by other means. The piston- 
rod is fastened to a crank by means of which 
its motion is transmitted to the mechanism out- 
side. The arrows in the diagram show where 
the steam enters and escapes. 

The grip tongs shown in Fig. n are such 
as are used for cranes. As the crane winds up 
the rope to which the tongs are suspended, the 
pull upon the chain causes the two grips to 

Fig. 9 .- A form of Rack Motion, press with great force upon any object placed 
"- The ?*,. "'- The between them. 




SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 




Fig. 10. The Piston 
and Cylinder. 



Fig. 12 is a very interesting and familiar 
mechanical device known as the fly-wheel. It 
is chiefly used on engines, such as locomotives, 
to equalize the speed of two or more wheels. 
The movements of a reciprocating piston and con- 
necting-rod would be jerky if the fly-wheel were 
not fitted. The fly-wheel corrects these variations 
in speed. 

Figs. 130, b, and 
c show how power is 
transmitted from one 
place, or from one level, 
to another. Each method 
has its advantages in cer- 
tain conditions. The first 
shows a simple form of 
belt transmission, the two 
pulleys revolving in the 
same direction. In Fig. 



136 the belt is crossed, or " fouled," in order 
that A pulley, which is shown revolving in 
an anti-clockwise direction, shall cause B 
pulley to revolve the other way. Fig. 130 
is more complicated, but if you study the 
diagram you will soon grasp the idea. Each 

of the two shafts 




Fig. ii. The Grip Tongs. 




Fig. 12. The Fly-wheel, as used for Locomotives, 
etc. 



carries two 
pulleys, a big one and a small one. 
Various results can be obtained 
from this arrangement. If the 
belt is placed at each end on 
pulleys of the same size, both 
pulleys will revolve at the same 
rate. When, however, one end 
of the belt is on the small pulley 
A, and the other end fixed on 
the large pulley B, each revolu- 
tion of the pulley B causes the 
A pulley to go round several times 
instead of once. 



77 



SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 






Figs. 130;, 136, and 130. Various methods of Belt Drives. 

The sprocket-wheel and chain (Fig. 14) are familiar to all who have 
seen a bicycle. The teeth in the sprocket-wheel are engaged by the 
holes in the chain. 

Fig. 15, the water turbine, is a development of the ordinary 
water-wheel which we can still occasionally see in the country turning 
the village mill. In the turbine, however, water is enclosed and the 
same quantity of water is made to do a much greater amount of work, 
as explained in another article. 

In Fig. 1 6 the little wheel with the " pins " in it (the pin- wheel) 
is fixed in such a way that while it can go round and round, the shaft 
which revolves it will not allow it to shift its position. As the pin- 
wheel revolves, each pin in turn enters the corresponding hole in the 
slotted pinion, thus causing it to rotate. 

Nowadays we are always hearing about clutches, especially in 
connection with motor-cars. Figs, ija and ijb show two very simple 
forms of clutch. All clutches serve a similar purpose, which is to start 
or to stop motions in a particular part of the machine without stopping 





Fig. 14. Sprocket-wheel and Chain. 



Fig. 15. The Water Turbine. 



78 



SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 




Fig. 16. Pin-wheel and Slotted 
Pinion. 



the machine itself. In the diagrams the gears 
(not shown) on the right-hand shafts drive the 
corresponding gears on the left-hand ones, but 
the right-hand gears run loosely on their shafts 
and do not turn the others until the clutches 
at the right are pushed along to make them 
engage the left-hand clutches. 

In Fig. 18 the wheels are known as 
" spiral " gearing because the teeth, instead 
of going straight across, are arranged at an 
angle. The result is that they revolve at 





Figs. I7a and 176. Two Simple Forms of Clutch. 

different angles to one another, the size of the angle depending upon 
the positions of the teeth. 

The link-belt (Fig. 19) serves a similar purpose to the sprocket- 
wheel and chain (Fig. 14). It is often used instead of leather belting, 
owing to its superior lasting qualities. 

Fig. 2oa is sometimes called a " lever of the first order," because 
there is no mechanical gain, the pull on the rope being exactly equal 
to the weight of the load lifted. It has one advantage, however, in 
that the sheaf, or " block," changes the direction of 
the motion so that the pull can be made from the 
most convenient position. Fig. 206 shows an arrange- 
ment of three blocks, which gives 
a much greater power to the 
pull, but with a decreased speed. 
The last diagram (Fig. 21) 
shows internal spur gearing, 
where the small gear the pinion 
drives the ring, which there- 
fore revolves at a much slower 
rate. 

79 





Fig. 18. Spiral 
Gearing. 



Fig. 19. Link-belt. 



SIMPLE MECHANICAL DEVICES 





Figs, 2oa and 2ob. Block Pulleys. 



Fig. 21. Internal Spur Gearing. 



When you have studied these diagrams carefully, and fully 
understand them, you will have learned a great deal about certain 
elementary engineering principles and will perhaps realize why the 
subject has such a fascination for all who like " to make " things or 
to find out how they " work." 




{By courtesy of Sir Wtn, Ami Q- Co., Ltd. 
ELECTRIC TOWER CRANES IN A SHIPYARD. 

They can take 8 to 10-ton loads at a radius of 120 feet 
80 




[Central Press. 
MAIN SLUICES OF THE GREAT MAKWAR DAM AT SENNAR ON THE BLUE NILE. 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 

IN such countries as England and Scotland, where rain falls through- 
out the year, it is almost impossible to realize the value of water ; 
there is no need to save water, for plenty is always available too much, 
in fact, for some of us. But in many parts of the world water is scarce, 
and therefore very precious, and some of the greatest of modern 
engineering feats have to do with saving the rains of the " wet season " 
for use in time of drought. 

In South Africa, for instance, practically every farm on the high 
veldt has its dam, a mud or stone wall built across the lower end of 
a valley, strong and high enough to trap and hold all the water that 
flows down the hill-sides in the rainy season. For months at a time no 
rain falls, and then the water saved in the dam keeps cattle and sheep 
alive, and, in many cases, is used to water the crops as well. 

From the earliest times, in hot, dry countries, men have built 
dams to hold the rainfall and save their crops, and even life itself, in 
the seasons when the sun blazes down pitilessly from day to day, with 
never a tiny cloud as promise of rain. It is then that the real value of 



W.BE. 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 



water is known, when perhaps a single cupful may mean the difference 
between life and death. 

In modern times men, realizing that the difference between a 
desert and a garden is just the presence or absence of water, have set 
to work to construct dams, like the great barrages of the Nile, which 
have made it possible to irrigate thousands of acres of land, transform- 
ing it from barren waste into fertile, useful soil on which crops can 
be grown, sheep and cattle kept, and towns and villages can spring up 
where, without such works, man would be unable to live. 

In the case of the Nile dams, tremendous difficulties have been 
encountered and overcome by the engineers who planned and carried 
out the work. The last and greatest of these undertakings, the mighty 

Sennar dam on the Blue 

I r* 

iL Nile, was begun in April, 

1921, and took more than 
four years to build, over a 
million tons of granite being 
used in its construction. 
Work on it was only pos- 
sible for nine months of 
each year, for during the 
other three months the 
flood- waters, sweeping 
down from Upper Sudan, 
come with such force that 
the work of placing the 
stone had to be abandoned. 

Before any of the granite blocks could be laid in place, the engineers 
had to build " suds," or earthen walls, both up-stream and down, on 
either side of the site for the granite dam itself, to protect the main 
work until it was finished. Between the two " suds " block after 
block of granite was lowered into place, and year by year the vast 
wall grew, with openings in it protected by sluice gates, which could 
be raised or lowered to control the flow of the river. The giant barrier 
was begun on both banks, and year by year the two ends neared each 
other, though in the season of flood the water came down with such 
force that it washed away the protecting suds, and, when the floods 
had ceased, these had to be built all over again before the main work 
could go on. 




[H. J. Shcpstone. 
AT WORK ON THE SENNAR DAM. 



82 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 

Over 20,000 men laboured at the task of finishing the Sennar 
barrage ; 30 miles distant, the great quarry of Segadi was a hive 
of industry, for there the massive granite blocks were hewn and 
carted down to the dam itself, where a gigantic " steam navvy " 
excavated and lifted earth at the rate of five tons a minute, in order 
to provide a safe bed .for the granite wall that should imprison the 
floods and turn them to real use. There, in the middle of the desert, 
was some of the most wonderful machinery ever constructed, steam 
navvies, canal cutters, a complete cement factory, miles of railway 
engines and trucks, gigantic cranes for handling the stone necessary 
to build a wall nearly 4,000 yards in length across the river, and to hold 
back its waters in such a way that nearly 3,000,000 acres of desert 




THE ASSIOUT DAM ON THE NILE. 



[E.N.A. 



will be turned into profitable land, on which thousands of the 
Sudanese people will grow cotton for the mills of Lancashire. 
Finished and formally opened in 1925, the Sennar dam is the greatest 
in the world, and a triumph of British engineering enterprise. 

Lower down the Nile, in Egypt itself, is the great Assouan dam, a 
wall of stone stretching from bank to bank of the historic river, storing 
up water which irrigates many thousands of acres. In the vast basin 
formed by the Assouan dam is submerged the ancient island of Philae, 
on which were built some of the most magnificent temples of ancient 
Egypt. Columns and pillars rising out of the waters alone remain 
to-day to tell of the ancient glories of Philae, but countless acres of 
fertile land, in place of empty stretches of desert, show the use of the 

83 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 




[Photopress. 

A WARNING NOTE WHEN BLASTING 
OPERATIONS ARE IN PROGRESS. 



great work, a wall of stone 
wide enough at its summit 
to carry four lines of rail- 
way, and then leave a good 
width of footway on either 
side. 

Western America, the 
land of big things, has been 
provided with some of the 



world's greatest dams in order to 
irrigate parched stretches of 
country, and also, as explained in 
the article "Making Water 
Work," to provide electric light 
and power for the inhabitants of 
those districts. Even the mighty 
Mississippi itself has been trapped 
and harnessed as it flows through 
the State of Iowa. 
The wall that holds 
back the waters is 
2j miles in length, 
with a height of 53 
feet, and it is 42 
feet thick at its base, 
sloping to 29 feet in 
thickness at the top. 
A great lock, no 
feet in width, lets 
through steamers 
and other vessels 
travelling up- or 
down-stream, and 




fPholopress. 
A BIG BANG. 

Blasting stone for the construction of the great dam in connection with 
Bradford's new water supply from the River Nidd. 
84 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 




[Keystone. 
THE WILSON DAM, AT MUSCLE SHOALS, ON THE TENNESSEE RIVER. 

It is built entirely of concrete and is 4,640 feet in length. Over half a million horse-power is provided for the 

generation of electricity. 

the " lift " of the lock is 40 feet, which is 8 feet more than the biggest 
lock in the Panama Canal, previously considered the world's triumph 
of lock-building. 

Fifteen miles of railway, 50 miles of pipe-lines, and machinery 
worth nearly a quarter of a million sterling had to be provided for the 
work of building this colossal dam, which cost well over -5,000,000 




[James. 



THE ELEPHANT BUTTE DAM. 

The great lake formed by the dam is 45 miles long and holds over 800 million gallons of water. 

86 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 




[Central News. 
THE DON PEDRO DAM, CALIFORNIA. 

A beautiful example of curved work. It is 283 feet high and 176 feet thick at the base. At the top is a wide 

road. 

before it was completed. The waters emerging through the sluices are 
made to provide power for dynamos which generate sufficient electric 
current for all the needs of towns in the vicinity of the dam. 

Farther west, in the mining district of El Paso, is the Elephant 
Butte dam, with a power-house at its base which provides electric 
light and power for many towns and mining camps, the power being 
obtained from the great force of the water flowing through the sluices. 
Here, after the water has served to generate electricity, it is let loose 
into irrigation channels which have transformed the surrounding 
district from a desert waste to smiling countryside. 

California boasts many of these dams, which are usually con- 
structed of concrete, and, in order to get additional strength for the 
containing wall, are built in a huge curve, instead of being straight 
like the Assouan and Sennar stone walls. A beautiful example of 
this curved work is the Don Pedro irrigation dam among the hills of 
California ; this concrete barrier is no less than 283 feet in height, 
and, at its base, is 176 feet in thickness, to enable it to withstand the 
force of the rushing mountain torrents. The top of the wall has been 
made into a wide road, with parapets on either side, so that it is possible 
to drive from end to end of the dam and appreciate what the storage 
of this vast volume of water means to the surrounding country. 

86 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 

Though, in the matter of beauty of surroundings, the Don Pedro 
dam challenges comparison with any in the world, that at Elephant 
Butte is a far larger construction. The water which it stores up forms 
an artificial lake 45 miles in length, and with an average width of 
6 miles, containing over two and a half million cubic feet of water, 
or more than 800,000 millions of gallons. Nearly a quarter of a million 
acres of land have been reclaimed and planted through the building 
of this dam, which distributes the surplus water of the Rio Grande 
over vast areas of Texas and New Mexico. 

In Arizona, the " sage-brush country," in which it used to be con- 
sidered that nothing but useless shrub would grow, the United States 
Government has planned and is constructing a series of great dams 
which are transforming the whole face of the land. One of the best 
known of these is the Roosevelt dam on the Salt River, which is a fine 
example of the curved concrete wall construction. Built at a cost of 
nearly a million sterling, the Roosevelt dam forms behind its wall a 




IE. N. A. 

THE ROOSEVELT DAM, ARIZONA. 

This semi-circular structure is 280 feet high, and impounds sufficient water to cover, to the depth of a 
loot, 1,284,000 acres, an area equal to the county of Lancashire. By its means extensive tracts of what was 
thorny desert have been turned into fertile land. 



87 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 

lake more than 30 miles in length, containing over 500,000 million 
gallons of water from the hills of the Tonto National Forest of Arizona. 
The curving wall of concrete is 1,125 feet in length, and rises to a height 
of 280 feet from its base. Like the Don Pedro and Elephant Butte 
dams, the top of the Roosevelt forms a wide roadway by which traffic 
can pass over the Salt River, so that the dam serves as a bridge. 

America's biggest, however, is the Wilson dam at Muscle Shoals, 
on the Tennessee River ; it is second only in size to the Sennar dam in 




[Sport & General. 



A GREAT FLOOD ON THE MISSISSIPI. 
Water breaking through a dyke. 



Egypt, and is greater than the vast work at Assouan. Built entirely 
of concrete, the Wilson dam is 4,640 feet in length, and 142 feet in 
height, and it ranks as the greatest hydro-electric power plant ever 
planned. Eighteen great turbines are driven by the harnessed waters 
of the river, providing over half a million horse-power for the genera- 
tion of electricity. Three great national highways converge to cross 
the Tennessee River by the parapet of the dam. 

Section by section the giant concrete wall was raised, openings 



being left at intervals to prevent the flood-waters of the river damaging 
the structure before it could be completed. The final stage of filling 
in the open blocks in the wall called for the greatest care, and one after 
another was " built in " until the whole vast structure was complete. 
In this case the object was not so much irrigation of unfertile land as 
the provision of electric power ; the plan was originated by the United 
States Government during the War, when every source of power was 
tapped for the manufacture of explosives, while now the electric energy 




A TOWN IN ARKANSAS SWAMPED BY THE FLOODING OF THE RIVER. 
All the inhabitants had to take refuge on neighbouring high ground. 



Iso 



is used for providing light and power to surrounding cities, and 
for making fertilizers for use on American farms. 

In the Blue Mountains of New South Wales is the great Burrinjuck 
dam, the highest in the Empire. Its erection meant the building of 
a massive wall in a deep gorge and across the bed of a river subject to 
floods, the sides of the gorge being so steep that it was impossible to 
establish workshops upon them. Furthermore, the water stored here 
had to be carried a distance of 266 miles, equal to a journey from 
London to Newcastle, and there distributed by miles of canals over a 
million acres of parched land. It was a project that called for all 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 

the resource, pluck, and determination of the engineers. It entailed 
an expenditure of 3,000,000, and demanded five years of constant 
toil on the part of an army of men, during which stern battles had to 
be waged with raging floods which frequently swamped the works. 
Such was the strength of the current that on several occasions cranes, 
heavy pieces of machinery and valuable tools were carried 50 miles and 
more down-stream, whence they were only salved with great difficulty. 
The dam is 236 feet high, or 34 feet higher than the monument 




[Sfort & General. 
A FLOOD SCENE AT THE BURRINJUCK DAM, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

commemorating the Fire of London. It is 186 feet thick at the base, 
tapering to 18 feet at the top. By holding up the waters of the Murrum- 
bidgee River, it created an artificial lake among the mountains, having 
a surface area of 12,740 acres, with a depth of 220 feet. 

Another great Australian work is the Cordeaux dam, completed 
in 1927, forming one of the three huge new reservoirs which will ensure 
the water supply of Sydney for many years to come. The capacity 
of this particular reservoir is 20,600,000 gallons. 



9U 



BUILDING THE BIG DAMS 

India, the land of great desert spaces, used to possess a large tract 
in the Deccan which was marked on the maps as the " Great Indian 
Desert," but the construction of dam after dam by the Government 
has nearly watered this desert out of existence. The last great project, 
the construction of the Lloyd barrage at Sukkur, involves a cost oi 
twelve millions sterling, and fertilizes an area as big as five English 
counties put together. Here the wall carries two bridges across the 
Indus, each of them more than five times as long as London Bridge 




[Sport S Gereral. 
MILLIONS OF TONS OF WATER BEATING AGAINST THE BURRINJUCK DAM. 

Beginning with the little mud walls which enabled a small farmer 
to save his crops and cattle in time of drought, the art of building dams 
has grown year after year, not only for conserving water supplies, but for 
the provision of power for electric current, until these vast erections of 
stone and concrete are to be seen in nearly every part of the world. 
Some are for irrigation only, some for power purposes only, while some 
serve both for irrigation and electric power, but every one of them helps 
to " make two blades of grass grow where only one grew before," and 
thus helps on the world's progress. E. C. VIVIAN. 



91 




[E. N. A. 

FIGHTING THE ZUYDER ZEE. 

The Dutch have always been great masters of the art of dam-making. Laying a brushwood foundation for a 
great stone and concrete dam in connection with the reclamation of 3,000,000 acres from the Zuyder Zee. 




IE. N A. 



A DYKE AT WESTKAPELLE, HOLLAND. 

The timber piles prevent the stones from shifting. 

08 





BUILDING THE TEMPORARY WATERLOO BRIDGE. 
Placing the 600 tons centre span in position. 



AS everyone knows, the 
dangerous state of 
Waterloo Bridge has ren- 
dered necessary the con- 
struction of a temporary 
girder bridge, in itself a 
considerable engineering 
feat. The central span, 




[Ernest Milner. 
A FINE VIEW OF WATERLOO BRIDGE AND THE TEMPORARY BRIDGE. 

weighing 600 tons, was 
built up on the old bridge 
and then moved across the 
90 feet of space to the new 
bridge by means of two 
sets of railway tracks on 
steel girders. When the 
span had been successfully 
hauled above the four great 
cylindrical caissons it was 
gently " jacked " down a 
few inches at a time and 
bolted to the ends of the PREPARING THE IRON AND CONCRETE CYLINDERS 

! TO SUPPORT THE CENTRE SPAN OF THE TEMPORARY 

lesser spans. BRIDGE. 

93 






[By courtesy of the Florida East Coast Railway. 

A TRAIN FERRY ON THE WONDERFUL FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILWAY, "THE LINE WHICH 

GOES TO SEA." 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 




/. n'eston & Son,] [Eastbourne. 

LOWERING A BLOCK OF STONE BY 
CABLE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
BEACHY HEAD LIGHTHOUSE. 



stantly washed by the 
waves and submerged at 
high tide, or inaccessible 
cliffs. The building of 
lighthouses therefore calls 
for engineering skill of the 
highest order, and we can- 
not praise too greatly the 
men to whom we owe the 
magnificent beacons in all 
parts of the world that 
enable our ships to pass to 
and fro on their " lawful 
occasions " in compara- 
tive safety. 



LIGHTHOUSES have 
been well described 
as " the sailor's signposts," 
and it is of the utmost 
importance that they 
should be placed in the 
right positions that is, 
where they are most needed 
and where they can best 
be seen. But it generally 
happens that those very 
positions are the most 
difficult to get at and the 
most difficult to build upon, 
either lonely rocks, con- 




/. Wcston & 5o,l 

PLACING STONE IN POSITION. 



[Eastlcvfite. 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 

The most famous of all English lighthouses, that on the Eddy- 
stone Rocks, is the fourth that has been built on the site. The first 
tower was built by Winstanley, who began his work in 1694 and finished 
it in 1698 ; a year later the structure had been so much damaged by 
storms that the tower was filled in to make it solid for nearly 20 feet 
above the rock itself, and also encased in a ring of masonry 4 feet 
thick. The height of this tower, which was finally completed in 1700, 
was nearly 120 feet, but it stood for only three years. In 1703 came a 
hurricane which destroyed it, taking to his death, by a strange fate, its 
builder, who happened to be visiting the lighthouse at the time. The 
chief weakness was that the tower was eight-sided, instead of being 
circular, to offer the least resistance to the waves. 

Three years later an architect and engineer named Rudyerd began 
the building of a second Eddystone lighthouse, mainly of oak, which 
was bolted to the rock itself and ballasted with stone to give the neces- 
sary weight. This lighthouse stood for forty-six years, and only came 
to an end because it was burnt owing to the lantern catching fire. 

Third in order on the ill-famed rock was Smeaton's lighthouse, 
begun in 1756 and finished in 1759. It was the first structure ever 
built to withstand the shocks of the sea in which the stones were dove- 
tailed into each other. The stones averaged a ton each in weight. 
Although there were certain weaknesses in the design, such as curved 
floors, which did not add to the strength, Smeaton's famous structure 
lasted till about 1880, when it was replaced by the present tower, 
designed by Sir James Douglass. Even then replacement was rendered 
necessary by the undermining of the rock itself by the waves rather 
than by any weakness in Smeaton's tower, the lower part of which, 
as will be seen from the photograph on page 98, still stands beside the 
newer structure. The upper part of the lighthouse was re-erected on 
Plymouth Hoe, where anyone can see it to-day. 

The Bell Rock lighthouse, another famed structure, 12 miles off 
the coast of Forfarshire, is solid up to 21 feet above high- water level, 
and hcis a total height of 100 feet. Over 2,000 tons of stone were used 
in building it, the floors being dovetailed into the walls in such a way 
that they add to the strength of the completed structure. The light 
was first shown in this tower in the year 1811. 

Noted for being the most westerly of all English lighthouses, the 
Bishop Rock light, which warns sailors of the dangerous ledges west 
of the Scilly Islands, was built of iron eighty years ago. In 1885 the 




TJTTTT TvTVrr- A T If ^ U TTjr\T TCTT 1 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 

original structure was encased in a granite shell. Like the Eddystone 
and Bell Rock lights, the " Bishop " is solid for more than a quarter 
of its height, and every stone is dovetailed to its neighbours as well as 
being held by cement. A sectional view is given on page 99. 

These, and many others, are known as " rock lights," being built 
not on high points of the coast, but on the dangerous rocks themselves, 
most of which are covered by the sea even at low tide. ' Rock 
lights " demand the greatest possible strength in their construction, 




[Tofical. 
THE LONGSHIPS LIGHTHOUSE, OFF THE COAST OF CORNWALL, DURING A STORM. 

owing to the enormous force of the waves beating against them during 
winter gales. The strength of these gales and the force of the waves 
they throw up may be judged from the fact that when the Dhu Heart- 
ach lighthouse, 14 miles off the Scottish island of Mull, was being built, 
a gale sprang up which tossed away into the depths, as if they had 
been marbles, stones weighing two tons apiece . The same thing happened 
during the construction of the Bell Rock light, where the stones were 
also of two tons weight apiece. 

In some cases it is found better to raise the light above water on 

W.B.B. 97 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 



iron piles, sunk deeply into the bed of the sea ; the openwork structure 
gives far less resistance to the waves than a column of solid stone. This 
form is adopted usually where the yielding nature of the sea floor admits 
of sinking the supports to a great depth to give stability ; it is hardly 
ever used where the bed of the sea is rocky in character. 

Many modern 
lighthouses, especi- 
ally those which 
mark shoals and 
dangerous areas of 
sand, are constructed 
of concrete. First of 
all a steel caisson, or 
huge tube, is sunk 
endwise on the spot 
on which the" light- 
house is to stand. 
The caisson is 
emptied of all its 
sand and water by 
compressed air, and 
is then filled with 
concrete, which 
solidifies into a solid 
column the diameter 
of the lighthouse's 
base. On this firm 
foundation the light- 
house is then built, 
and often the con- 
crete column below 
water is as long as 
the structure placed on it, while in some cases it is even longer. The 
Rothersand lighthouse, in the estuary of the River Weser, is an 
example of this. 

" Coast lights," so called because they are placed on the coast itself 
instead of on shoals or rocks in the sea, are most numerous, though 
somewhat less exciting either for the builders or the lighthouse men 
than are the " rock lights." Well-known examples are the Dungeness 





THE EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE. 



[Topical. 




THE BISHOP ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, SHOWN IN SECTION. 

This is the most westerly English lighthouse, and marks the dangerous ledges off the Scilly Isles. The iron 
structure built in 1847 was in 1885 encased in granite. The light (double flash every fifteen seconds) throws a 
beam equal to a million candle*, and is visible eighteen mile*. 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 



light in England, and the great lights of Ushant and Gris Nez in France. 
A specially fine example of a coast light is situated on a bold headland 
just to the north of Biarritz, warning ships to keep off the fatal ledges 
which line this part of the Biscayan coast. 

To be of any use to the sailor, the light shown by each lighthouse 
must declare what it is and where it stands, and this is done by varying 
the length and number of the flashes. By means of a clockwork appara- 






/. Weslon 6- Son,] 



CONSTRUCTION OF BEACHY HEAD LIGHTHOUSE. 
Work was generally only possible at low tide. 



tus, either the lamp itself or a screen with apertures in it is made to 
revolve, and each lighthouse has its own rate of revolution and special 
kind of flash. Thus the Wolf lighthouse, about half-way between the 
Scilly Isles and the Lizard, gives a flash of two seconds' duration every 
quarter of a minute. South Foreland flashes every two and a half 
seconds. Longstone, in the Fame Islands, gives one flash every half- 
minute. Some give alternate long and short flashes, and every one has 



100 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 

its distinctive sort of flash, so that navigators are able to tell which 
light is warning them, and, by consulting the chart, to know the nature 
of the danger. 

Harbour lights, similarly, act as beacons to guide ships along the 
channel into harbour ; the " sailing directions " tell how long one 
certain light must be kept in line with another, and where to turn to 
port or starboard by the positions of the lights, and when a certain 




/. Weston Son,] 



THE CABLE LINE FROM CLIFFS TO LIGHTHOUSE. 



[Eastbourne. 



light must be kept on either beam of the vessel. All these lights must 
either give different flashes, or else be of different colours, so that the 
pilot can distinguish one from another without difficulty. 

The real working part of a lighthouse, the lens or lamp, is a marvel 
of ingenuity. Beginning with coal and wood fires flaring to the sky, 
lighthouses were next lighted with candles, as in the early Eddystone 
constructions, and by oil burners. It is very little more than a hundred 
years ago since coal fires ceased to be used. 

101 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 

Next came reflectors, used to increase the light and throw it in a 
definite direction. The first on record was made of small pieces of 
silvered glass fitted together, and used in a light in the Mersey in 1763. 
After this came silvered metal reflectors, a number of which were 
arranged in a circle, each with its own burner, to show light all round 
the horizon. In 1810 no fewer than twenty-four of these reflectors were 
fitted in the Eddystone lighthouse. In the modern lamp, glass lenses and 
prisms are used to intensify and concentrate the light, which comes from 
a single burner in the centre of the arrangement of prisms and lenses. 

What is known as the steppsd lens was invented in 1822 by Fres- 
nel, and this was developed by several scientists, including Thomas 
Stevenson, the grandfather of the famous author of Treasure Island, 
who made many improvements. Then came James Chance, who 



Stage i. 



Stage 2. 



Stage 3. 




STAGES IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE LIGHTHOUSE LENS. 

designed the dioptric mirror in use to-day, and John Hopkinson, who 
made the important invention of flashing group lights. 

An ordinary lamp sheds its rays in all directions, lighting the area 
all round and above it ; lighthouse lenses are designed to collect all 
the rays and throw them in one direction only. Improvements in 
design have been made with a view to accurate direction of the rays 
and a reduction of the number of " optical agents " used to collect and 
direct the light in the required direction. 

Metal reflectors had to be abandoned, since they tarnish in sea 
atmosphere and get scratched in cleaning. Glass prisms succeeded 
them, since glass will neither tarnish nor scratch if properly cleaned. 

There are two main classes of lenses, the fixed and the revolving. 
Since the fixed type has to shed light all round, the problem in making 
it is that of deflecting or bending all the rays which would normally 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 

shine upward or downward, and forcing them in the direction of the 
horizon. Fresnel's lens accomplished this to a certain extent, and was 
designed in " steps " by breaking up the solid form of lens (since a solid 
lens big enough for lighthouse work was almost impossible to make) 
into a series of rings, each larger than the one inside it, so as to get the 
effect of a solid lens and permit one light only to be used, with the 




[Special Press. 

A LIGHTHOUSE LANTERN WITH GROUP FLASHING LENSES. 
The lantern revolves on a mercury float. 

lenses disposed round it, instead of having a series of burners each with 
its own reflector. 

Fresnel's first invention only refracted the rays, to catch the light 
which would otherwise have been lost upward and downward. Next, 
however, he invented reflecting prisms of glass, which caught far more 
of the light from the burner, and practically doubled the value of the 



103 



THE LIGHTHOUSE BUILDERS 

original lamp. All these were for fixed lights, and it was left to Thomas 
Stevenson to design the first really powerful revolving lights. By 
means of his " dioptric mirror," which was altered and perfected by 
James Chance, it became possible to catch all the light from the burner 
and send it in one direction, as is done with modern revolving lights. 
Although the mirror is of perfectly clear glass, no light at all comes 
through it from the burner if you stand at the back and look through, 
since it is designed to catch all the rays and send them in the one 
required direction. 

Then came Dr. Hopkinson's invention of the group flashing system, 
in which lenses are arranged in groups to give flashes varying in inter- 
vals between light and darkness. By this means far more difference 
of character is given to each light, so that it is easier to distinguish 
between them, and navigating officers can tell at once, even on dark 
and stormy nights, what part of the coast they are passing. 

Then came the invention of the mercury float, to be used in place 
of the metal rollers on which revolving lights had previously been set 
for turning. A good example of the mercury-floated light is that at 
Fastnet. Although the revolving weight of lenses and their framing 
is no less than six tons, with three-quarters of a million candle-power, 
yet the revolution is swift enough to give a flash every five seconds. 
This could never have been done with the old metal roller form of mount- 
ing for the revolving portion of the lamp. 

As regards the burners used, oil burners with incandescent mantles 
are the principal type to-day, this form having superseded the old wick 
burner. There is also a special lighthouse type of gas-filled electric- 
burner ; and a 4-kilowatt lamp, working at 80 volts and giving 8,000 
candle-power, has been adopted. Since the diameter of the flame is 
far less than that of older types of burner, fresh sets of calculations 
have to be made to determine the angles at which lenses and prisms 
must be set for these new types of burner. 

A good practical instance of the power of lighthouse beams was 
given by one of the keepers of the South Foreland light, near Dover. 
This keeper had a long beard, and on clear nights he found that the 
beam from Gris Nez light, about 25 miles distant on the French coast, 
threw such a clear shadow of the beard on the white wall of the keeper's 
house as he stood in front of it that he could count the hairs in the 
beard ! And yet Gris Nez is not so powerful as some of the English 
lights. 

104 





[IHustraticns Bureau. 

THE STATUE OF LIBERTY, WITH UPLIFTED TORCHLIGHT, NEW YORK 

HARBOUR. 



106 




THE NEW BANK OF ENGLAND. 




WHEN you look at any of the great buildings that line the streets 
of London and other large cities, and study the grey or white 
stone frontage, you get the impression that those layers of stone were 
placed one on another until the whole building had risen skyward, 
and that it was just like building an ordinary house on a larger scale, 
with great blocks of stone in place of bricks. But when you see 
and study the erection of an office " block," a huge "Store," or the 
headquarters of some great company, you discover that the stone 
or concrete front is only a shell, and that the real strength of the 
structure is in the network of mighty steel girders which are entirely 
hidden from sight when the building is finished. In fact, a big build- 
ing of to-day presents as many problems to the engineer as to the 
architect, especially when you remember that it has to be equipped with 
lifts and radiators and probably miles of electric cables and water-pipes. 
Moreover, the wind-pressure on the walls has to be very carefully 
calculated, as well as the stress which every beam and girder will have 
to bear under all conditions. 



106 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 

First, of course, the site must be cleared and the foundations sunk 
deeply enough to assure the steadiness of the completed structure, and 
also to prevent any subsidence, or sinking of the walls into the ground, 
under the huge weight of steel and stone. Sometimes it is necessary to 
sink foundations to a very great depth, in order to find solid rock on 
which to rest the weight ; in other cases, after reaching a certain depth, 
great blocks of granite or concrete are set under the earth before the 
actual building is begun, and, in nearly every case, the giant building of 




REGENT STREET REBUILT. 



fTofical. 



to-day has several storeys underground, which help to keep rigid the 
floors above them. 

With the clearing away of old buildings on the site, place is made 
for the cranes and derricks that will swing great steel girders into their 
places as easily as you would lift a stick and turn it in the air. The 
older form, a three-legged structure rising as high as the intended build- 
ing, and carrying a crane and engine on the platform at its top, is still 
largely used ; builders know it as a " Scotchman," for some mysterious 
reason. But the newer form, consisting of a central steadying girder, 



107 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 




[Pholopress. 
THE SKELETON OF THE NEW BUILDING FOR LLOYDS, LONDON. 



with the arm that 
does the work 
anchored at its base, 
takes up far less 
room than a "Scotch- 
man," and, set down 
in the basement of 
the building when 
work is begun, 
travels up from floor 
to floor as the steel 
girders are swung 
into place, thus tak- 
ing up no room inside 
the building itself. As you may see from the picture below of a big 
bank under construction, the " Scotchman " has to stop exactly 
where it was first erected, until it is no longer needed. But the newer 
form, going up floor by floor with the building, gets out of the way 
and allows everything to be finished off under it. Two or more of 
these central-pillar lifters are used in the construction of a building, 
and each of them is lifted, a floor at a time, by the others, until they 
are all on the top storey, swinging masses of stone or giant buckets of 
concrete, or great steel 
beams or loads of bricks, 
into the required positions. 
Once the cranes are in 
place, steel girders begin to 
arrive for the first, and in 
some ways the most import- 
ant, stage of building oper- 
ations. Before ever the 
cranes began their work, 
some foundry began the 
task of casting and drilling 
the steelwork of the build- 
ing, of which every beam 
and support has to be 
calculated to the utmost 

[By courtesy of Messrs. Tiollope & Colls, Ltd. 

exactness as regards "SCOTCHMAN "CRANES AT WORK ON A BANK BUILDING. 

108 




THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 

length and other dimensions, and even the rivet holes bored at 
points where one section joins on to another. And, when you look at 
a finished building, and think that every steel girder had to be shaped 
to the fiftieth part of an inch and less, so that the rivet holes would 
come exactly opposite each other, you will understand a little of the 
exactness of this stage of the work. 

Possibly, in spite of the care taken in the foundry, two holes will 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Holland & Hannen, Ltd. 

AN IMPOSING ARRAY OF CRANES WHEN THE LONDON COUNTY HALL WAS UNDER 

CONSTRUCTION. 

not be exactly opposite each other when the business of riveting is in 
progress. In that case a tapering tool is inserted and driven through 
until the beams are forced into their correct position, after which the 
riveter gets to work with the pneumatic hammer, with which he finishes 
off the joints. You may see him at his work, if you watch the steel- 
work of a modern building going up ; standing in rnid-air, in a position 
where a step or slip to either side would send him hurtling to the ground, 

109 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 




[Pliotopress. 
THE HEIGHT OF FAME. 

A workman calmly demolishing a church 
column. 



he proceeds calmly with his work, while 
with a pair of tongs his mate slips the 
red-hot rivets into place, ready for the 
hammer to clinch them. The third 
man of the riveting gang holds the rivet 
up against the hammer with what is 
known as a " dollie," a tool which keeps 
the red-hot bolt pushed as far as it will 
go through its hole until the pneumatic 
hammer has formed a second " head " 
on it and made it practically a part of 
the girders which it helps to hold 
together. 

In nearly every great city these 
networks of steel are constantly rising 
from the earth, as modern buildings 
displace older structures to give more 
room and more convenience. But, when 
the work is finished, it is hardly ever 
possible to see a line of the steelwork 
which forms the main support of the 
structure, for stone and concrete cover 
every line of it, and, to all appearances, 
there is no more steel in the walls than 
there is in, say, St. Paul's Cathedral or 
the Pyramids. 

In order to give light to as many 
rooms as possible, many modern office 
blocks are hollow squares, or formed to 
cover three sides of a square, with a 
central " well " on to which the inner 
walls with their windows face. Usually, 
instead of concrete or stone, highly 
glazed white bricks are used for the walls 
of the " well," so that as much light as 
possible may be reflected into the rooms 
from the opposite wall. 

Where ground is very valuable, 
or (as in New York) the area for 



110 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 



building is restricted, as many storeys 
as possible are piled one on another, in 
order to make the best use of the space 
available. London, and many other 
large cities, restrict the height to which 
buildings may rise, lest the streets 
should be deprived of too much light, 
and also because very high buildings, 
holding so many people, cause traffic 
congestion. In this connection it has 
been shown that if all the people em- 
ployed in the buildings at the lower 
end of Fifth Avenue in New York 
tried to get out into the street at once 
there would not be room for them, 
though Fifth Avenue is by no means a 
narrow street. But New York, built 
as it is on a peninsula with water on 
cither side, must either raise its buildings 
higher and higher or else stop growing. 
London can spread in all directions, 
while New York cannot. 

The colour plate facing page 16 
shows New York's latest project in 
" skyscrapers." It is to be known as 
the Larkin Tower Building, and is 
planned to rise to a height of 1,208 
feet, or considerably more than three 
times the height of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
With no storeys and no fewer than 
sixty " elevators," it will proudly claim 
to be " the tallest structure built by 
man . " For nearly fifty years the Eiffel 
Tower, in Paris, has held that distinction 
with its height of 984 feet. Some idea 
of the engineering problems involved 
can be gained from the fact that 55,000 
tons of steel will be required for the 
frame and 8,000,000 bricks. There will 




AT WORK ON THE 



\Photopte-s. 
STANCHION OF 



A GRAND STAND FOR A FAMOUS RACE- 
COURSE. 



Ill 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 

be 4,500 windows, all outside, and if you indulged in a " joy ride " on 
all the elevators you would be " whizzed " a distance of 10 miles. 

American buildings of this type are constructed on a different 
principle from the British office block, in which the steel girder work 
is so planned that the outer walls support the floors, and the whole 
structure is "in one piece," as it may be called. But in the American 
mammoth building the inner structure is not dependent in any way 
on the outer walls, which form a separate shell, inside which the floors 




Ltd. 



[By courtesy of Messrs. Holland & H 
A NETWORK OF BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 
The Council Chamber of the Lont'on County Hall i.i course of construction. 

are built one on another. In the case of very high buildings like the 
Larkin Tower, the upper storeys are arranged in a series of " setbacks," 
or steps, without which hardly any light at all would reach down to 
the street level enclosed between such towering walls. The wisdom 
of keeping London roofs from rising higher is shown by the compar- 
ative lightness of the apartments at street level, which in some New 
York streets have to be illuminated by artificial light at midday nearly 
every day of the year, as they are so shadowed by the buildings around. 
A problem that has to be borne in mind is the chemical action of 



112 




ERECTING THE GIRDERS OF A HUGE NEW STORE. 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 

the atmosphere on the building materials used. Cities add great quan- 
tities of smoke to the air, which alters its character ; the coming of 
petrol-driven vehicles has altered the character of the fumes let loose, 
and it has been found that some kinds of stone are definitely corroded, 
and in the end rendered useless, by the action of city air. Reinforced 
concrete is not easily affected, but the stone of which the Houses of 
Parliament are composed has suffered so badly that constant repairs 
and replacements are necessary and much of the carved work has 



11 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Holland & Hannen. L'd. 
THE NEW DEVONSHIRE HOUSE IN PICCADILLY. 

lost its original beauty. Westminster Abbey not long ago reached 
such a state that fears were felt lest it should be altogether spoilt 
before it could be put in a condition to resist the ravages of modern 
city air, and many thousands of pounds had to be raised for the 
purpose by urgent appeals to the public. 

Again, some stone is not resistant enough to sea air to be used for 
buildings on the coast, while another kind of stone is useless because 
a dry air causes it to crumble. Each kind has its own properties, and 



\\.B.E. 



113 



THE ENGINEER AS BUILDER 



even marble, hard though it seems, will crumble in an atmosphere in 
which certain kinds of acid are present, while granite will give way in 
time under the influence of gases in the air of some cities. Lately, 
many structures, including large bridges, have been built entirely of 
concrete. All these little things make problems which architects 
and engineers have to solve in determining the materials of which 
buildings shall be contructed. 

Wherever iron or steel work is exposed, instead of being covered 

in by stone or concrete, it has to 
be specially painted to withstand 
the action of the air. For instance, 
a little army of painters is con- 
stantly at work on the Forth 
Bridge ; when they have painted 
the bridge from end to end, they 
go back to the starting-point and 
begin all over again, or else the 
bridge would never have lasted 
until to-day, since it is exposed 
to the corrosive air of the North 
Sea. 

Even stone frontages require 
to be cleaned and " dressed " at 
intervals, for without such atten- 
tion the stone would eventually 
crumble and require replacing. 

From the setting up of the 
first crane for swinging materials 
into place, to the last coat of 
varnish on a stair rail, every detail 
of a modern building is planned 
with the minutest care, and 
represents a problem for the 
engineer, the architect, and the 
chemist, each of whom has his 
part to play in rendering the 

[Central Netcs. r r J 

MODEL OF ONE OF AMERICA'S LATEST. finished structure as efficient as 

The new " Cathedral of Learning " at Pittsburg. Science Can make it. 

E. C. VIVIAN. 




114 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 

WHEN Tutankhamen's tomb was opened pictures were found 
representing the ancient Egyptians engaged in canal build- 
ing. Marco Polo, who visited China in the thirteenth century, dis- 
covered one of the wonders of the world, the Grand Canal of China, 
which is said to have been begun in the seventh century but was not 




H.M.S. "RENOWN 



[Central News. 

PASSING THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL WITH THE DUKE AND 
DUCHESS OF YORK ON BOARD. 



completed until six centuries later. The Greeks and Romans were 
familiar with such waterways ; indeed, in flat countries the art of 
canal construction is almost as old as history. 

The great difference between the canal builders of history and 
those of to-day is that, whereas the ancients had to rely on slave labour 
and the simplest of tools, modern engineers have all the advantages of 
powerful machinery and scientific appliances ; drag-line excavators 
to do the digging, dynamite and rock-drills to blast the rocky strata, 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 

huge locomotives to carry away the earth and rock as it is excavated, 
mighty cranes to transport heavy weights, reinforced concrete, steel 
capable of bearing enormous stresses, and, most wonderful of all, 
electricity. 

A contrast indeed to the slaves and whips of antiquity. 

Canals may be regarded as rivers made by man, in contrast to 
rivers made by nature. This is not at all an exaggerated view, because 
canals in their way are as grand and almost as inspiring as the finest 
of nature's work. Often they are much more useful because, while 
rivers flow where the fall of the land carries them, canals can be built 
just where they are wanted. 

There are various kinds of canals, and it is convenient to class 
them according to the purpose they serve : (i) Ordinary inland 
canals, connecting centres of population where no navigable rivers 
exist, and suitable only for small vessels, barges, etc. ; (2) Lateral 
canals, which either connect two places in the same valley, or two 
adjoining river systems, or provide a waterway in place of a portion 
of a river, where, owing to waterfalls, cataracts, shallows or tidal 
currents, navigation is difficult or impossible ; (3) Ship canals, pro- 
viding an inexpensive 
means of transportation 
between ocean and ocean, 
or between the ocean and 
some inland centre. Canals 
of this class are capable of 
taking the largest liners 
and battleships. During 
the recent tour of the 
Duke and Duchess of York, 
H.M.S. Renown passed 
through the Panama Canal, 
and H.M.S. Hood, the 
largest warship ever built, 
has also been through. 

Ship canals are by far 
the most interesting from 
an engineering point of 

, r ,i [Topical. 

V1GW> A STEAM NAVVY WITH CATERPILLAR WHEELS 

problems Which arise crossing & desert in the Sudan to take part in canal construction. 

lie 




WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 



t 




[By courtesy of High Commissioner for Canada. 

A GIANT SHOVEL AT WORK ON THE WELLAND SHIP 
CANAL. 



from construction on so 
large a scale. Sometimes 
they are reasonably 
straightforward ; often 
they are very complicated. 
The Suez Canal is a simple 
channel at sea-level, with- 
out locks, open at both 
ends to the sea, and freely 
supplied with sea-water. 
The Panama Canal, on 
the other hand, consists of 
an intricate series of small 
canals joining a number of 
lakes, built at various 

heights above sea-level and connected by locks. Every ship that 
goes through this canal has, in effect, to climb a mountain. 

A canal channel is constructed with a flat bottom and sloping 
sides, which usually have a stonework or concrete " facing." The 
breadth at the bottom of the channel should be more than twice that 
of the largest boats that are to navigate the canal ; the depth requires 
to be at least a few feet greater than the draught of the heaviest boat . 
Huge excavators, worked by electricity, are employed to do the dig- 
ging. A series of scoops are mounted on an endless chain, and work 
on a gradually deepening slope. Going empty on the downward 
journey, they collect their fill on the upward journey, usually two to 
three hundredweights of material to each scoop. Having reached the 
upper end of the journey, each scoop in turn is automatically turned 
upside down and empties its load into railway trucks waiting underneath. 
As each truck is filled the locomotive draws it clear and brings the next 
empty truck into place, and when all the trucks are full the train moves off. 

Where the soil is not retentive the bottom and sides of the canal 
have to be " puddled " with clay, tempered and well mixed with sand 
and gravel, the aim being to prevent the percolation of water and the 
burrowing of animals. 

Canals which consist of a number of sections, each on a different 
level, like steps up the side of a hill, must necessarily possess some 
means of raising or lowering a vessel from one section to the adjoining 
section. This is accomplished by locks, inclines, or lifts. 

117 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 




[. N. A . 
THE REAL CONQUEROR OF PANAMA. 

A drip barrel which automatically spreads 
oil over pools in Panama and prevents 
mosquitoes from breeding in the water. It 
was impossible to make headway with the 
work until means had been found of deal- 
ing with the mosquito plague. 



The lock is a water-tight enclosure 
of masonry of sufficient dimensions to 
contain the largest vessels that navigate 
the canal, and is placed at the ter- 
mination of the lower level, its top 
reaching slightly above the surface of 
the water in the upper level. Each 
end of the lock is closed by heavy 
swinging gates, in pairs, which open in 
the centre against the direction of the 
current. These double gates are con- 
structed somewhat wider than the lock in 
order that they may meet before they 
form a straight line. The pressure of 
the water against them thus causes 
them to be the more completely water- 
tight. Sluices, which are controlled 
from above, are inserted in the gates 
near the bottom, and when opened 
allow the passage of water, though the gates remain shut. When a 
boat in ascending a canal arrives at a lock, the upper gates are 
first closed, then the lower ones opened to allow the boat to 
come in, and closed again when it has entered. Water is allowed 
to flow through the sluices in the upper gates, and sometimes also 
a side culvert discharges from the upper level into the lock. As 
the lock fills, the water-level rises to equal that of the upper section of 
the canal. Whereupon the upper gates are opened and the boat is 
able to pass out of the 
lock on the higher level. 
The lift of a single lock 
ranges from 2 to 12 feet, 
and is usually about 9 feet. 
Anyone who takes a trip 
up the Thames by launch 
or rowing-boat soon be- 
comes familiar with locks 
and their manner of 
working. 

[E.N.A. 

On some canals A 95-TON STEAM SHOVEL HANDLING ROCK IN PANAMA. 

118 





A GIANT CRANE AND CONVEYER AT WORK ON THE PANAMA CANAL. 



[Fleet. 




THE GREAT GUARD GATES OF PEDRO MIGUEL DOCKS, PANAMA CANAL. 



[. N. A. 



118 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 

inclined planes are used instead of locks to transfer boats from 
one level to another, the boats being placed upon wheeled cradles or 
carriages which run on rails and are hauled up by cables. The use 
of these is confined to the smaller canals. 

Other canals employ what are known as inclined lifts. These 
consist of two counterbalancing troughs or caissons, each holding 
enough water to float a boat. Two lines of rails are employed, one 




GATUN LOCKS, PANAMA CANAL. 
The locks are arranged in pairs so that one vessel may descend as another ascenc's. 



[E N A. 



caisson running on each line of rails ; and the caissons are so connected 
by ropes or chains running on guide-pulleys that when one ascends 
the other descends. Caissons are water-tight boxes, built usually of 
sheet-iron, and constructed in such a manner that they may be floated 
or sunk at will. 

Let us now chat about some of the more important of the ship 
canals. The chief and most famous is, of course, the Panama Canal, 
which is over 50 miles long, cost more than 75,000,000 to construct, 



120 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 

and unites the two greatest oceans, the Pacific and the Atlantic. It 
has conferred immense benefits upon civilization. 

The history of the canal is well known. First, a French company, 
with the famous builder of the Suez Canal at its head, started an 
ambitious project for a sea-level canal across the Isthmus of Panama. 
Work was begun, but the mismanagement of the company's funds 
and those terrible plagues, yellow fever and malaria, soon called a halt. 

Then America took the lead, bought the canal site the narrow 
strip of land across the Isthmus and started the work anew. The 
French had planned a sea-level canal such as the Suez, which would 




[E. A T . A. 

AN "ELECTRIC MULE," USED FOR TOWING VESSELS THROUGH THE LOCKS OF THE 

PANAMA CANAL. 

have necessitated the cutting of a channel, some hundred feet deep. 
in places, across a chain of hills ; the Americans, to save enormous 
excavation work, contented themselves with a lock canal, the upper 
level of which is over 80 feet above the sea. 

The excavation alone was a huge problem. 360,000,000 tons of 
material had to be excavated and moved an average distance of a 
mile. But this was only one problem ; there were hundreds of others. 
Well might Panama be referred to as " the greatest engineerirg enter- 
prise ever carried out by man." 

Another well-known canal about which much has been written 



121 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 



MEDITERRANEAN SEA 



is the Suez. Like the Panama, it will always be regarded as an out- 
standing achievement. Anyone looking at the map will see how a 
narrow neck of land joins West Asia to Egypt. Small as it is, that 
strip of land compelled ships travelling from Europe to Asia to 
sail round almost the entire continent of Africa, so that a journey of 

several thousand miles 
was rendered necessary 
by a neck of land less 
than a hundred miles 
across. In 1859 work 
was begun on a canal 
across the Isthmus, to 
the designs of a 
Frenchman, Ferdinand 
de Lesseps. Ten years 
later the canal was 
opened and it has since 
been much improved. 
It is 100 miles long 
and has no locks ; it 
is cut to sea-level, so 
that ocean-going liners 
can steam straight 
through from the 
Mediterranean to the 
Red Sea. The canal 
has, of course, sloping 
sides ; across the top 
it is about 300 feet 
wide and at the bot- 
tom the maximum 
width is 260 feet. In 
the construction 80,000,000 cubic yards of material were excavated. 
The present depth of the canal is 30 feet, but recently a proposal has 
been brought forward to increase the depth in order that it may take 
vessels having a draught of 36 feet. The Panama Canal can deal 
with vessels of this draught. About 5,000 ships pass through the 
Suez Canal a year, or more than a dozen a day. 

The Welland Canal in Canada was opened in 1829, and is now 




A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE SUEZ CANAL. 



[E.N.A. 



122 




STEAMERS PASSING IN THE SUEZ CANAL. 
A strict speed limit is imposed to prevent damage to the sand banks by the wash of large vessels. 




[E. N. A. 



ON THE SAULT STE MARIE CANAL. 
123 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 



LAKE ERIE 




ux*.t LAKE 

LOCK, ONTARIO 



a *, 



DIAGRAM SHOWING LOCKS ON THE WELLAND SHIP CANAL. 

being reconstructed for the third time. This reconstruction is perhaps 
the most important piece of engineering endeavour now in hand. The 
canal crosses the Niagara peninsula, runs almost parallel to the Niagara 
River, and joins Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. It forms a vital link 
on the shipping route between the ports on the Great Lakes and the 
Atlantic. When certain sections on the St. Lawrence River have been 
enlarged, quite large ocean-going vessels will be able to journey direct 
to Duluth, the grain port at the head of Lake Superior, the most 
westward of the Great Lakes. This will save transferring cargo from 
small ships to big ones and will reduce considerably the cost of trans- 
porting grain from Western Canada to Europe. Lake Erie is 572 
feet above sea-level, whereas Lake Ontario is but 242 feet. This 
means that there is a rise of 330 feet between the various sections of 
the canal, and this includes the equivalent of the Niagara Falls. In 

effect, liners using the canal will 
climb these famous Falls in their 
journey. Instead of the forty 
locks which were thought necessary 
to enable them to do this in the 
original canal, the reconstructed 
canal will possess only seven. 

These locks will be all of the 
lift variety ; each possessing a 
usable length of 800 feet and a 
usable width of 80 feet, they 
will be able to lift a vessel 
nearly 47 feet. The height of 
the lock walls will be 82 feet. 
Powerful machinery will pump 
water into the locks at such a 
rate as to raise the level 5-7 feet per 
minute. Each lock will therefore 
take but some ten minutes to fill. 




Fleet. 



A HUGE STEAM SHOVEL. 



Some idea of the size of modern steam shovels is 
conveyed by the fact that this " Bucyrus ' ' holds thirty- 
four men. Its working capacity is 15 cubic yards and 
it scoops up a whole truck-load at each " go." 



124 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 

The various sections of the canal will rise one above the other, 
in the same manner as the Panama Canal. Everyone will be inter- 
ested in the following facts about this magnificent all-British canal 
as it will be when completed : Length 25 miles, width at bottom 200 
feet, at water-level 310 feet. The depth will be 25 feet and vessels 
having a draught up to 23 feet will be able to use it. 

To reconstruct the canal as many as 3,000 men have been employed 
at one time at certain seasons ; 60,000,000 dollars have so far been 
spent ; 41,000,000 cubic yards of earth and 8,000,000 cubic yards of 




[By courtesy of the High Ccrr.tnissicnerfor Canada. 
CONSTRUCTING TWIN LOCKS FOR THE WELLAND SHIP CANAL, ONTARIO. 

rock will have to be excavated ; and 3,160,000 cubic yards of concrete 
will be required. Ships will pass from one lake to another in about 
eight hours. This canal will compare quite favourably with the Panama 
and will be one which the British race may well regard with pride. 

We have seen that ships will in future be able to pass from Lake 
Superior to the Atlantic. To go from Lake Superior to Lake Huron, 
the adjoining lake, they will need to use one of the two Sault Ste 
Marie Canals. These twin canals lie one in Canadian and one in 
American territory. Their builders had many engineering difficulties 
to overcome, and overcame them in a most ingenious manner. 

126 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 




[E. N. A. 



A CANAL IN A TUNNEL. 



The Great Rove Underground Canal, Marseilles. The tunnel is five miles long and is perfectly straight. 
Along each side, supported by the tall arches, are paths for the use of foot passengers and the horses which 
draw the barges. 

Europe contains no very large canals. The Kiel Canal, in spite 
of its importance and the part it played in the War, is a small 
affair from a constructional point of view. It is, however, second only 
to the Suez in length. Another long canal is that known as the Elbe 
and Trave, in Germany, which is 42 miles long, but only 10 feet deep. 
It is really only a barge canal. 

A remarkable French canal which, though short, is one of the 
world's greatest engineering feats, is that known as the Rove Tunnel, 
carrying a waterway beneath the Rove Hills, near Marseilles, to con- 
nect that port with the Rhone Canal system. It is the longest canal 
tunnel in the world, being five miles from end to end, and took 
fifteen years to complete, at a cost of 25,000,000. Our picture gives 
a fair idea of its appearance when faintly illuminated. How many 
of us would really enjoy a journey on its dark waters ? 

In Great Britain, with plenty of navigable rivers and with the sea- 
coast comparatively close to all parts, we are not so familiar with canals 
as we should be if we lived in Holland or Belgium, or even in France. 
Here and there we come across a little waterway and christen it a 
canal, but on the whole we have greatly neglected the making of canals. 



120 



WONDERFUL WATERWAYS 



It is tiue that we have the Caledonian Canal across the middle of 
Scotland, and the Manchester Ship Canal which allows ships to proceed 
via the Mersey direct to Manchester. Before the construction of the 
Manchester Canal, ships bearing raw cotton for Manchester had to 
unload at Liverpool and railways conveyed the material from there 
to Manchester, causing much extra expense and delay. 

The following table will enable you to compare some of the more 
famous canals of the world. 



Canal. 


Length 
in Miles. 


Width at 
the Bottom 
in Feet. 


Depth 
in Feet. 


Cost 


Sault Ste Marie (U.S.A.) . ' . . 


U 


IOO 


22 


2,OOO,OOO 


,, ,, (Canada) . 


I 


142 


20J 


56o,000 


Suez 


IOO 


260 


2Ql 


2Q,72^,OOO 


Amsterdam 




88 


2-1 


2 6OO OOO 


Welland 


25 


200 


25 


2O;OOO,OOO 










[To date] 


Corinth 


4 


72 


2^1 


1,000,000 


Manchester 


35 1 


I2O 


26 


15,500,000 


Kiel 


61 


150 


30 


19,000,000 


Elbe and Trave 


42 


72 


IO 


I 170 OOO 


Panama 




"3OO 


36 


75 ooo ooo 














A STEAMER ON A WATERWAY IN TENNESSEE LADEN WITH 4,000 BALES OF COTTON TO BE 

SHIPPED TO ENGLAND. 
127 



A FLOATING FIRE-ENGINE 



EVERYONE who lives in a large town has felt a thrill of excitement 
as the fire-engines dash through the streets whilst the traffic is 
held that they may reach the scene of the fire without the loss of a 
minute. Not everyone is aware, however, that the London Fire 
Brigade uses floating fire-engines in order to protect the valuable con- 
tents of the Thames warehouses, and also the river-side buildings. 
The use of these fire-floats enables firemen to attack the flames 
from the water-side of the building a position that, of course, is 
inaccessible to the ordinary fire-engine. 

One of the most 
recent of these fire- 
floats is a twin- 
screw vessel 70 feet 
in length, and 3 feet 
9 inches in extreme 
draught, fitted with 
two six-cylinder 
internal -combustion 
engines. These 
engines are started 
by compressed air, 
and then run on 
petrol for some five minutes until thoroughly warmed up. The petrol 
is then cut off and paraffin supplied, and on this fuel they develop and 
maintain their full power. 

Each engine develops no horse-power, and by means of special 
clutches the engines may be used either for propelling the vessel or for 
driving the machinery 7 used to pump water on to the fire. There are 
two pumps, each capable of discharging 1,350 gallons per minute. 
Should occasion arise they can deliver even over 2,000 gallons per 
minute by altering the pressure at which they work. 

When the vessel was tested at Charing Cross a short time ago she 
gave a remarkable display of pumping. At one time eight powerful 
jets were at work together, but an even more impressive sight was a 
single 3j-inch jet which rose to an enormous height and seemed to reach 
half-way across the river. The pumping tests were continued for four 
hours without a hitch of any kind. 





[By c-mtlesy of Messrs. Mcrryreatker & Sons, Ltd. 
A FIRE-FLOAT BEING TESTED ON THE THAMES. 



HI 







A TANK. 




[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board. 

LINERS DISCHARGING GRAIN AT A LIVERPOOL DOCK BY MEANS OF PNEUMATIC SUCTION 

ELEVATORS. 



SOME WONDERFUL DOCKS 

AMONG the most important engineering wonders must certainly 
be included the great docks that play so large a part in the life 
and work of the world. They are an essential feature of every country 
with a seaboard, for without them it would be impossible to feed the 
vast populations of modern cities or to conduct any extensive foreign 
commerce. Yet docks are so frequently situated in obscure and 
unattractive quarters that many boys and girls scarcely ever see them, 
and know little either of the romance of their work or of the difficulties 
involved in their construction and maintenance. 

Roughly speaking, there are two classes of docks, wet docks and 
dry docks. Wet docks are chiefly used for loading and unloading 
ships, dry docks for the repair or examination of vessels that have been 
damaged in collision or that require reconditioning. 

Pages could be given to a description of the docks at such great 
ports as London, Liverpool, Southampton and Hull to mention only 
four of the best-known British ports. At Liverpool, for instance, there 
are over seven miles of docks and a marvellous floating Ian ding-stage by 



W.B.B. 



129 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 

which the traffic is brought to the river-edge, for the stage enables 
liners and other ships of the deepest draught to come- safely alongside, 
even at low water, to discharge their passengers and mails. From these 
docks vessels sail to the four corners of the earth, returning with valu- 
able cargoes of cotton, wool, bacon, sugar, grain, tobacco, and hundreds 
of other necessaries. 

Liverpool's first dock, the " Old Dock," completed in 1715, was 
the first enclosed, or wet dock, in the world. It was filled in in 1826, 
when the construction of the present docks along the riverside was 
begun. The most recently completed dock is the new Gladstone 




[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board. 
THE GREAT FLOATING LANDING-STAGE AT LIVERPOOL. 

Dock, opened by the King and Queen in July, 1927. It is 1,100 feet 
in length and is the largest dock of its kind in Europe. 

It was many years before dock authorities realized the advantages 
offered by the employment of such mechanical sources of power as 
steam, water and electricity as a substitute for the labour of men 
and horses. Nowadays, however, every appliance that ingenuity can 
provide is used to expedite the handling of dockside cargo, for the speed 
of unloading and loading, or " turning a ship round," is a vital 
factor in other words " time is money." 

A dry dock, or " graving dock " as it is called, may well be termed 



130 




-,^-J .%/ 

[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board. 
OVERHAULING A LARGE LINER IN A GRAVING DOCK AT LIVERPOOL. 



181 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 




[Sport & General. 

ROOF CRANES ABOVE THE TREBLE-STOREY STORE SHEDS AT THE NEW GLADSTONE 

DOCK, LIVERPOOL. 

a ship's hospital, for not only does it deal with the result of accidents 
at sea, but also with such ailments as affect a ship. Sometimes con- 
siderable damage is caused to a ship by collision, and it is wonderful 
what can be done by way of repair and patching. In these days " ship 
surgery " has reached a high stage of perfection, due to some extent 
to the wide and varied experience obtained during the War in repairing 
the ravages of submarines and mines. One of the chief ailments of a 
ship is due to the fact that after she has been at sea for a few months 
her hull becomes covered with barnacles and marine weeds. As these 
growths retard progress by creating additional friction with the water 
and also add to the fuel bill, it is periodically necessary for a ship to go 
into hospital and have them scraped off. 

When a ship is ready for treatment it enters the dock, carefully 
guided by tug-boats. Having passed through the massive gates, it is 
made fast to the wharf, the gates are closed and the water is pumped 
out of the dock. As the level of the water gradually decreases, wooden 
props, or " shores," are inserted between the ship and the sides of the 



132 




CRANES AND MORE CRANES AT THE GLADSTONE DOCK. 



[Sport & General. 



dock. These keep the vessel vertical, and as she settles down her keel 
comes to rest on special blocks set in the bottom of the dock. When 
all the water has been pumped out and the ship stands high and dry 
it is possible to examine her without difficulty. 

The size of docks has grown to keep pace with the rapid increase 
in the dimensions of ships. Amongst the largest docks are those 
at Belfast (850 feet in length) ; Tilbury (873 feet) ; Glasgow (880 
feet) ; Southampton (1,700 feet) ; and Liverpool (1,100 feet). With the 
exception of the last named, the breadth of these docks is about 100 
feet, and the depth from 50 to 60 feet. 

It might be supposed that the construction of a dry dock is an 
easy matter, just digging " a hole in the earth." It is far from being 
simple, however, and often presents problems of great engineering 
difficulty. In the first place, a large quantity of earth has to be exca- 
vated, then strong watertight walls have to be built to keep out the 
water that is found in nearly all ground close to the sea, As the work 



133 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 



proceeds, the earth behind the walls exerts a tremendous and increasing 
pressure upon them, and if they have not been strongly constructed 
they will bulge and perhaps collapse, and all the work will have 
to be done again. 

Then again, the masonry must be massive for the reason that 
an empty dry dock is, after all, but a huge tank, and as such it has a 
tendency to float. There is considerable upward pressure on the floor, 
which must be built in the form of an inverted arch to resist it, and also 
to counteract the thrust on the walls of the earth behind them. If 
the dock is not carefully planned and due precautions taken disaster 
will certainly result, as was the case at Aberdeen, where a dry dock 

after being in use 
for eleven years 
cracked, and cost 
68,000 to repair. 
More recently the 
floor of a dock on 
the Tyne was found 
to be unable to with- 
stand the pressures 
exerted upon it and 
30,000 had to be 
expended to make 
it right. 

Although the 
graving dock has its 
uses it has several 
disadvantages, and 

in recent years docks of another type have been largely used. These are 
floating docks, the idea of which is by no means new, for a patent was 
taken out for one so long ago as 1795. In its earliest form the floating 
dock was merely an old ship's hull with the stern cut off and the decks 
removed. The ship to be docked was steered carefully inside the 
hull as it lay submerged. A gate in the stern of the hull was next 
closed and the water inside pumped out. These early floating docks, 
of course, were only able to deal with small craft, but they were 
the forerunners of the great floating docks of to-day. Not until the 
latter half of the nineteenth century were the great advantages of 
floating docks fully realized. 





[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board. 
A LEAF THAT IS NOT LIGHT. 

Moving into position one leaf, weighing 500 tons, of the three pairs of 
steel gates at the river entrance lock to the Gladstone Dock. 



134 




ALBERT DOCK EXTENSION, PORT OF LONDON. 



(Alfieri. 




[Sport & General. 



CONSTRUCTING A DRY DOCK AT SWANSEA. 
135 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 

Modern floating docks are built of steel pontoons or hollow cham- 
bers, which when filled with water cause the dock to sink below the 
vessel to be lifted. The water is then pumped out of the pontoons 
and their buoyancy reasserts itself. Docks of this type have a great 
lifting power and are capable of raising the largest warships and liners. 




THE GLADSTONE SYSTEM OF E 
The construction of this great system of docks, considered the finest in the world, occupied many years and cost about 7,51 

There are at least ten floating docks in different parts of the world that 
have lifting capacities of 20,000 tons or more. 

Floating docks may be divided into two classes, known as " L " 
shape and " U " shape. The former are also called " off-shore " 
docks, for the upright wall of the pontoon (corresponding to the down- 

136 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 

stroke of the letter L) must be attached to an anchorage on shore 
when a vessel is being lifted, otherwise the dock would heel over. 

The U-shaped docks are of two types : (i) box-docks that are 
not self-docking, and (2) those that are self -docking. The former 
type must be placed in a graving dock when it is desired to repaint or 




[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks & Harlcur Board. 
rERPOOL BEFORE FLOODING, 
ter area is 55^ acres and the floor area of the sheds 57 acres. The treble-storey sheds are shown and Branch Docks Nos. i and 2. 

repair the underwater parts. The largest dock of this type is the 
floating dock in the Medway, which is designed to lift battleships of 
up to 33,000 tons displacement. 

The second or self-docking type are divided into sections, each 
being self-contained. Any of these sections may be detached from 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 



the main dock and lifted on to the other sections constituting the 
dock itself for painting or repairs. 

One of the great advantages of floating docks is that they can 
be constructed more quickly than graving docks. In the construction 
of the latter type a great deal of time is occupied by the excavation 
of the site, but with a floating dock this is saved. A firm of ship- 
owners once required at short notice a dock 510 feet in length with 

a lif tin g 
capacity of 
11,000 tons. 
The working 
drawings and 
specifications 
were prepared 
within eight 
days and a 
week later 
construct ion 
had begun. 
Within seven 
and a half 
months the 
dock was 
launched, and 
a month later 
(eight and a 
half months 
from the first 
mention o f 
the subject) 
the dock, 

complete with machinery and fittings, was on its way across the North 
Sea to its destination. In another case a floating dock with a lifting 
capacity of 11,000 tons was built and towed to Havana, a distance 
of 6,500 miles, within eleven months of the order being received. 
A dock for Lagos was built and delivered at its destination, 4,500 
miles distant, within five and a half months. Had graving docks 
been constructed, several years at least would have been necessary to 
complete each of them. 

138 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Stotherl & Pitt, Ltd. 

GIANT DOCKSIDE CRANES AT THE PORT OF LONDON. 
They look strangely like the birds from which their name is taken. 




[Stffln, Hunter & Wigham Richardson. 
BRITISH ADMIRALTY 32,ooo-TON FLOATING DOCK BEING TOWED FROM THE TYNE. 




[Stt-an, Hunter & Wigham Richardson. 

LIFTING THE OLD BATTLESHIP " SANSPAREIL " (10,000 TONS) IN THE BERMUDA FLOATING 

DOCK. 
139 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 

Floating docks have other advantages, the chief of which is the 
fact that should it be desired to lengthen them, this can be done by 
the addition of a new section, and meanwhile the dock may be kept 
at work. In the case of a graving dock, lengthening would mean 
either that it had to be temporarily put out of use or that a costly 
dam would have to be built across it. 

Then again, a floating dock has the great advantage over a graving 
dock that it is open at both ends, and can accommodate a ship even 
longer than itself by the bow and stern of the ship being allowed to 
project beyond the ends of the dock. A floating dock has been known 
to lift a ship with an overhang of no less than 107 feet at each end. A 
graving dock, of course, could not accommodate a ship exceeding its 
length by even a few inches. A floating dock, too, can be towed to 
any part of the coast and so follow the ocean traffic to the favourite 
harbours. This advantage enables a floating dock to be used in con- 
junction with a fleet, for if a crippled warship is unable to reach its 
base, the dock can be towed to it and repairs carried out to an extent 
sufficient to enable it to be taken to a convenient place for a more 
thorough overhaul. 




[By courtesy of the White Star Line. 

LIFTING THE " MAJESTIC " (56,551 TONS) IN THE FLOATING DOCK AT SOUTHAMPTON. 
The photograph was taken from one of the decks of the " Olympic." 

140 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 



is 



As there 
no port 




[By courtesy of the White Star Line. 
THE "MAJESTIC" ENTERING DRY DOCK HAULED BY TUGS. 



within a 
thousand 
miles of Ber- 
muda where 
a damaged 
vessel could 
be repaired, 
and as it was 
considered 
import ant 
that Britain 
should have 
dock accom- 
modation in 
the West 
Indies , a 
floating dock 
381 feet in 
length and 84 

feet in width was towed out from England in 1869. This dock is 
able to lift vessels of 10,000 tons, and when it was constructed it 
was believed that it would be large enough to lift any ship that 
might be built in the future. The dimensions of warships increased 
so rapidly, however, that the dock was soon out of date, and it was 
replaced with a new one, 545 feet in length and 100 feet in breadth, at 
a cost of 250,000. The dock, which has a lifting capacity of 17,000 
tons, was built in England and towed nearly 4,000 miles to its 
destination. When the dock is being used it is submerged until only 
2| feet of its walls remain above water. The vessel to be lifted is 
then manoeuvred into position and when exactly over the dock the 
eight 1 6-inch centrifugal pumps discharge the water at such a rate 
that within three and a half hours the ship is lifted out of the water. 
The dock is composed of three pontoons, which may be separated 
from each other and dry-docked themselves for cleaning and repair. 

Before being towed to Bermuda the dock was tested in the Med- 
way, when it was required to lift a battleship of over 10,000 tons 
displacement. She was moored above Sheerness and at 11.30 a.m. 

141 



WONDERFUL DOCKS 



was taken in charge by three tugs and brought to the entrance of 
the dock. The battleship was then centred on the keel blocks and 
by 2 o'clock was judged to be in a favourable position. Pumping 
out the water from the dock then began and in fifty minutes the 
dock and the ship had been raised 13 feet. By the end of the 
afternoon the great ship was high and dry. 

The largest floating dock in the world is that at Southampton 
belonging to the Southern Railway Company. It is 960 feet in length 
and has a lifting power of 60,000 tons. It contains 16,000 tons of steel 
plates, held together by 4,000,000 rivets, and cost over 1,000,000. It 
is able to accommodate the largest vessels afloat and has already been 
employed to lift the White Star Majestic, the world's heaviest liner 

(56,551 tons). On 
this occasion the 
dock was said to 
have performed the 
"world's greatest 
weight-lifting feat." 
The news that the 
Majestic was to be 
lifted drew thou- 
sands of spectators. 
They saw the great 
ship leave her berth 
at 11.30 a.m. one 
fine day, in charge 
of nine powerful 
tugs, which appeared 
to be mere dwarfs 
under her towering 
sides. They saw 
the busy tugs 
speedily swing the 
great liner into posi- 
tion and within 
thirty minutes of 
leaving her berth 

[By courtesy of the While Star Li,v. , , , Pntprpd thp 

VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE OF THE "MAJESTIC" AS SHE 

ENTERED THE FLOATING DRY DOCK. dock Walls. She 

142 




WONDERFUL DOCKS 

was then made fast and was drawing 35 feet 6 inches of water ; 
the keel blocks at the bottom of the dock were 39 feet below water. 
Little groups of men were clustered along the walls of the dock, and 
occasionally a foreman moved quickly from one group to another, 
or ran nimbly up the short round stairway into the Valve House 
situated at the top of the dock. When the ship had been truly centred 
over the keel blocks, the pumps were set to work and the dock began 
to rise, gently lifting with it the great vessel. The process of pumping 
out the 19,000 tons of water began at 1.25, and by seven o'clock in 
the evening the spectators saw the world's largest liner standing high 
and dry above the water, having been raised 40 feet into the air in 
less than five hours. A truly marvellous feat of engineering ! 

ELLISON HAWKS. 




THE 



MAURETANIA ' 
143 



[H. Aslm. 



IN DRY DOCK. 




A SHIPMENT OF LOCOMOTIVES FOR INDIAN RAILWAYS. 



LOCOMOTIVES FOR OVERSEAS 

BOYS and girls who see the many fine locomotives running on our 
home railways must not suppose that these are the only ones 
made by British firms. Large numbers are sent abroad, and on many 
of the railways of the world you will find British engines hard at work, 
and even the railways themselves may have been laid out by British 
engineers. 

The export of locomotives has now become so frequent that a fleet 
of ships has been specially built for their accommodation. One of 
these vessels is the motorship Beldis, built by Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whit worth & Co. Ltd. This vessel, 303 feet in length and 45 feet in 
breadth, is able to carry a dead weight of 3,440 tons. She has a single 
deck, with two large holds for cargo, the hatchways being specially 
arranged so as to be clear of all obstructions. There are six three-ton 
derrick cranes, each operated by a steam winch. 

On a recent occasion seventeen locomotives and tenders were 
loaded on to the Beldis at Birkenhead to be exported to India. Her- 
cules, the large crane belonging to the Mersey Docks and Harbour 
Board, made light work of the job, however, and although each loco- 
motive weighed about 70 tons, they were slung aboard with ease and 
speed. 

The locomotives and tenders had been brought in parts from the 
Vulcan Foundry at Newton-le- Willows, where they had been made, 



144 




SHIPPING LOCOMOTIVES. 

Great Britain builds many fine locomotives, not only for herself, but for service abroad. The picture shows the method of 

t .1 i 



LOCOMOTIVES FOR OVERSEAS 

and before being loaded were assembled on the quay on a special track. 
Thirteen of the locomotives were then loaded on deck, and four 
others and the tenders for the whole seventeen stowed below. The 
ship safely reached her destination, and the locomotives are now all at 
work on the important network of lines known as the East Indian 
Railway. 

More recently a sister-ship, the s.s. Belray, has taken twenty-five 
4-8-0 locomotives from the Tyne to Queensland. The order for these 
locomotives was obtained in the face of severe competition, and it was 
stipulated that they should be dispatched within seven months. They 
were built by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd., and despite 
the handicap of the coal strike of 1926 and the consequent shortage of 
material, the locomotives were completed, fully assembled in readiness 
for running and shipped, within the stipulated period, a truly remark- 
able performance. 

So complete are the arrangements under which locomotives are 
shipped overseas to-day that it is only necessary to lift the engines from 
the deck of the carrying-ship on to the quay for them to be immediately 
available for service. 

E. H. 




[Fox. 

A ROYAL ENGINE DRIVER. 

H.R.H. the Duke of York driving a miniature " Pacific " on the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Light Railway. 
W.B.E. 145 K 




* [Sport & Genera'.. 

TESTING WIRELESS RECEPTION IN THE STEEL-LINED HUDSON 
TUNNEL, 90 FEET BELOW THE SURFACE OF THE RIVER. 



ARE YOU SURE ? 

SOME INSTANCES OF ENGINEERING 
FALLACIES 

TO possess wrong information about any subject is far worse than 
to be entirely ignorant of that subject. If you are entirely 
ignorant, there is a chance of your gaining correct information, but if 
you already have information which you think is correct, but which 
in fact is not, you will not seek for practically the same information, 
and will naturally use the (wrong) information you possess. Now it 
unfortunately happens that a considerable amount of wrong informa- 
ticn is in circulation, and it often has such a semblance of truth that 
we are unlikely to question it, especially if it is of long standing and 
believed by many people. An excellent example is the revolution of 
the Earth about the Sun. For centuries it was thought that our 
Earth was all-important in the solar system, and that the Sun, planets, 
and stars all revolved about the Earth as centre. This was very 
natural, and in those days difficult to disprove. All the appearances 
were in its favour. But then Copernicus and Newton dealt with the 
matter. What caused the former to doubt the long-believed explana- 
tion I do not know, but the result was that we now know our Earth 



140 



ARE YOU SURE? 

is merely a small planet of the Sun, and that we are mere specks on 
that small planet. Moreover, we know that the Sun itself is merely 
one of myriads of stars, many of them far larger. There is nothing 
like astronomy to make one feel small and to realize the stupendous 
magnitude and splendour of the universe. The total eclipse of the 
Sun in June, 1927, must have impressed on millions of people the 
wonderful regularity of the motions of our solar system, and the 
triumph of human knowledge and skill which enabled astronomers to 
calculate the time (to within two or three seconds) of the passage 
of the edge of the shadow over any particular point in England. 

The rotation of the Earth on its axis gives us the division of Time, 
which we measure in solar days or stellar days, the latter being slightly 
shorter than the former. For recording the subdivisions of this period of 
day^we use clocks and watches, and in connection with the latter there 
is one of those widely believed errors to which I have referred. It is 
thought by many that watches lose time in summer because their 
balance-wheels expand then owing to the higher temperature. A 
perfectly natural idea, which is true as far as it goes. The balance- 
wheel does expand with a rise of temperature, but this is not the whole 
story. The oscillating motion of the balance-wheel is controlled by 
the hair-spring, which is usually made of steel, which is elastic. Steel 
becomes less elastic as its temperature rises; consequently, when the 




[By courtesy of the London Underground Railways. 

CONSTRUCTING ESCALATORS AT THE BANK STATION, LONDON. 

147 



ARE YOU SURE? 



hair-spring is warmed its elasticity is reduced, and this causes it to 
have a weakened effect on the balance-wheel, whereupon the latter 
oscillates more slowly, and causes the watch to lose time. Professor 
C. V. Boys, F.R.S., tells me that this slowing effect due to the change 

of elasticity of the 
hair-spring is eleven 
times as great as that 
due to the expan- 
sion of the balance- 
wheel. 

To overcome the 
difficulty, M. C. E. 
Guillaume invented 
an alloy (a mixture 
of metals) called 
elinvar, the elasticity 
of which is very 
little affected by a 
moderate change of 
temperature. S o 
effective is this when 
hair-springs are 
made of it that it 
is now found better 
not to make what 
are known as com- 
pensated balance- 
wheels for watches. 
As new dis- 
coveries or new in- 
ventions are made, 
so, alas ! new mis- 
takes in understand- 
ing them occur. 

For example, escalators or moving stairs are comparatively new in this 
country, and some people think, of those who think at all about 
such matters ! that if you walk up a moving escalator you cause 
the electric motor that drives it to do more work than when you 
stand still on one stair, because in walking up it is thought that you 




[Fox. 



FELLING A 200 FEET CHIMNEY STACK. 



148 



ARE YOU SURE? 

tread harder on the stairs, and in this way put more work on the 
motor. When you wish to step up from one stair to the next it is 
true you do have to press harder on the foot which temporarily remains 
behind. This extra pressure is necessary to give upward motion to 
your body, but while this is happening, your leading foot does not 
press so hard on the upper stair as on the lower when you were 
standing still. The result is that while you are walking at a uniform 
speed up the escalator, the average pressure of your feet on the stairs 
is the same as when you were standing still that pressure of course 
being exactly equal to your weight. 

The power (i.e. rate of doing work) of the motor is thus unaffected 
by your walking up or standing still, but the total work done by the 
motor is its power multiplied by the time it is exerting such power, 
and when you walk up the escalator you are on it for a shorter time 
than when you stand still. Hence, the work done by the motor when 
you walk up is less than when you stand still, and it can be shown 
that the decrease is exactly equal to the work you do when you 
walk up. 

As another example, I wonder whether you know why some chim- 
neys are made very tall, even 400 feet ? Some think that it is to carry 
the smoke or fumes high into the air so as to cause as little nuisance 
as possible to people in the neighbourhood. Fortunately, a tall 
chimney may have this effect, and possibly on rare occasions it may 
have been made tall for this reason, but the usual reason for building 
a tall chimney is to produce the necessary draught. A column of hot 
flue gases weighs less than a similar column of cold air. Consequently, 
the cold air pushes itself through the boiler fire to get to the place (in 
the chimney) where the pressure is less. This difference of pressure is 
the difference between the weights of the equal columns, as regard 
dimensions, of cold and hot columns of air and flue gases respectively, 
and the taller these columns, the greater their difference of weight, and 
consequently the greater the draught. 

A. S. E. ACKERMANN, B.Sc. (Engineering), F.C.G.I., 

A.M.I.C.E., M.Cons.E. 



149 





[By courtesy of the Engineer -in-Chief , G.P.O. 
MECHANICAL CONVEYERS FOR PARCEL MAILS. 

The upper photograph shows the central sorting fitting, a nest of twelve apertures leading to chutes below. 
These chutes open on to conveyer bands which radiate to different points in the hall beneath, where they dis- 
charge their loads for further sorting and despatch. A number of such conveyers are installed in London and 
the Provinces. 

150 




V 



TUBE TUNNEL EXCAVATION BY MEANS OF GREATHEAD BORING SHIELD. 

Showing the miners (in the chamber within the shield) breaking down the face of the earth in front of the 
shield, and men hand-shovelling the " spoil " to the rear. Around the shield may be seen the hydraulic rams 
which force the shield forward, and, to the left of the chamber, the gear by which the rams are controlled. 




(Photographs not otherwise acknowledged are reproduced by courtesy of the London 

Underground Railways.) 

MANY railway lines were built when our cities and towns were 
much smaller than now, and in numerous cases the stations 
were placed well away from the central areas. The engineering prob- 
lems involved were therefore not nearly so difficult as would be the 
case to-day, though many of the works undertaken even then were by 
no means easy. To take a London example, when the Metropolitan 
and Metropolitan District Railways were built, in the 'sixties and 'seven- 
ties, most of the tunnels were made by opening up the roadways, con- 
structing the tunnels, and then building the roads again above them ; 
to pass under buildings often meant having to purchase and partially 

151 



DIFFICULT RAILWAY ENGINEERING 




FRONT VIEW OF TWO ROTARY EXCAVATORS, SHOWING CUTTING 

DEVICES. 



rebuild them. To 
construct such a 
line as the exten- 
sion of the Great 
Eastern Railway 
from Bishopsgate 
to Liverpool Street, 
passing under the 
passenger and 
goods stations then 
in use, was another 
formidable and 
expensive under- 
taking. 

Speaking generally, however, most of the earlier " great " engineer- 
ing works associated with railways, notably big bridges and long 
tunnels, were in country districts. Others, such as the Newcastle High 
Level Bridge, were much simpler propositions than they would be to- 
day, so far as complications are concerned, though the appliances 
available were fewer, and, 
in that sense, the engineer- 
ing work demanded was of 
a higher order. 

But it is a very differ- 
ent thing to-day to carry 
out big engineering works 
within the limits of great 
cities. Thus it was a very 
complicated and expensive 
business to build the 
present Victoria Station 
(Brighton section) in Lon- 
don, and the new Waterloo 
Station, the former about 
a quarter of a century 
ago, the latter quite re- 
cently. To bring the Great 
Central Railway (now part 
of the London and North REAR VIEW OF A ROTARY EXCAVATOR. 

152 




DIFFICULT RAILWAY ENGINEERING 

Eastern) into London in 1899 meant, among other things, passing under 
part of Lord's Cricket Ground, this being done by digging out the 
tunnel and then replacing the surface. Another great undertaking 
was the construction of the marvellous system of under and over 
connections outside Euston Station, for dealing with empty carriage 
trains, engines, etc., and at Chalk Farm. The wonderful system of 
underground lines in Glasgow may also be mentioned. 

The London " Tube " railways are, however, the best example of 




[Special Press. 

ROTARY CUTTER AT WORK IN THE ENLARGED TUBE OF THE CITY AND SOUTH LONDON 

RAILWAY LINE. 

the difficulties and complications associated with railway construction 
in a* great city. The " tube " method enables the lines to pass under 
buildings at a considerable depth, so that foundations and sewers, 
water-mains, etc., can be avoided, but the construction itself, made 
up of rings of metal bolted together, after a way has been made by 
boring-shields and other appliances, is by no means simple. The char- 
acter of the material passed through is an important consideration, and 
frequently serious difficulties due to water and to insecure and 
treacherous material must be overcome. The effects upon buildings 



153 



DIFFICULT RAILWAY ENGINEERING 




above, and of vibration, 
have also to be taken into 
account, and where the 
Thames is passed under 
there is often only a rela- 
tively small thickness of 
earth between the top of 
the tube and the bed of 
the river. 

Some of these tube 
lines have marvellous 
systems of connections and 
inter-connections, particu- 
larly those at Camden 
Town and at Kennington, 
while at Charing Cross, 
the Bank, Tottenham 
Court Road, Oxford Circus 
and Piccadilly Circus the 
situation is pretty com- 
plicated, though the various 
lines do not make actual 

connections. At Camden Town and Kennington the tubes themselves 
connect and inter-connect, involving special designs for junctions, and 
combinations of large and small and straight and angular tubes. 

It is, however, 
at the stations that 
the chief problems 
are encountered. 
There, connection is 
made with the sur- 
face, and escalator 
tunnels (necessarily 
at an angle), lift- 
shafts, etc., are also 
involved. These 
interfere with sewers, 
water-mains , g a s - 
pipes, electric con- JUNCTION OF SMALL RUNNING TUBE AND LARGE STATION TUBE. 

154 



PNEUMATIC SHOVELS PREPARING FACE FOR GREAT- 
HEAD SHIELD. 




DIFFICULT RAILWAY ENGINEERING 



duits, etc., not to mention 
the foundations of build- 
ings, so that at every step 
something has to be taken 
into account. If building 
foundations are affected, 
they must be partially 
rebuilt and arrangements 
made to provide support 
not only after the work is 
finished but also while it is 
in progress. Sewers and 
mains must be shifted and 
sometimes entirely rebuilt, 
and all the time measures 
must be taken to allow existing traffic to go on safely and without 
interference. 




[Special Press. 

ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE AND TRAIN ON NARROW 
GAUGE LINES FOR CONVEYING "SPOIL" FROM THE 
CUTTERS TO LIFTS. 




[Sport & General. 



AT WORK ON THE NEW MERSEY TUNNEL. 

Pneumatic hammers and picks save much heavy manual labour. 

155 



DIFFICULT RAILWAY ENGINEERING 



It will be remem- 
bered that, while the City 
and South London Tube 
railway was being enlarged, 
and also in making new 
connections at Kennington, 
it was necessary to build 
a new tube outside the old 
one and to carry the lines 
on special supports while 
the old tube was being 
taken out and before the 
track could be carried by 
the new tube. Moreover, 
while some of the work 
could only be done when 

no trains were running, in many cases the men were actually working 
round or over the running-lines while trains were moving. 




[G. P. A. 

BORING THE NEW TUNNEL UNDER THE HUDSON 
RIVER. 

The cutting shield is over 30 feet wide. The thirty hydraulic 
jacks exert a pressure of 6,000 tons. 




A TUNNEL INTERSECTION IN THE CHICAGO FREIGHT RAILWAY. 



[E.N.A. 



Chicago believes in conveying heavy freight between stations, warehouses, etc., under ground rather than along 

the streets. The tunnels are about 50 feet below street level. 

156 



DIFFICULT RAILWAY ENGINEERING 




In connection with the 
construction of the new 
station at Piccadilly Circus, 
where also public subways 
and stairways to the sur- 
face are being made, one 
of the first jobs was to 
build a tunnel solely for 
water - mains, gas - pipes, 
electric cables, etc., and at 
every stage, if part of a 
public passage-way, a lift- 
shaft, or a section of the 
station was interfered with, 
a temporary alternative 
had to be provided. In 
fact, in many of these 

1 -i 1 ,J [Sport & General. 

works as mucn is involved BEGINNING TO DRILL A SHAFT FOR THE NEW 
in preparation and inciden- MERSEY TUNNEL. 

. . . The tunnel will connect Liverpool and Birkenhead and will 

tal Operations aS in Carry- be one of the largest in the world, taking two lines of traffic each 

way. Over a million tons of rock will 
have to be hewn. 

ing out the actual work. 
Of other great engineer- 
ing reconstruction mention 
may be made of the New 
York Central and Philadel- 
phia terminals in New York, 
with their double-storey 
below-ground stations and 
their under-river tunnels. 
But enough has been said 
to show that, while railway 
engineering everywhere in- 
volves difficulties the prob- 
lems become most extreme, 
and the costs greatest, when 
the work has to be carried 

[SporiS- General. OUt within the limits of 

SOMETHING LIKE A WRENCH ! , fown^ anrl ritipcj 

Tightening the huge nuts in the tunnel beneath the Hudson River. "gC LUWIlb dlKl CILlCb. 

J. F. GAIRNS, M.Inst..T., M.I.Loco.E. 

157 





[By courtesy of Igr.inic Elec'ric Co., Ltl. 
LIFTING A HEAVY STEEL CASTING. 



A TOY THAT HAS BECOME 

A TOOL 

THE ROMANCE OF THE LIFTING MAGNET 

EVERY boy has played at some time or other with a small magnet 
and watched the antics of nails, keys, iron filings, and other 
oddments under its influence. We have all tried to see just how 
many objects we could dangle from it, and piled on article after article, 
regardless of the poor thing's feelings. 

One day an engineer watched a gang of men unloading great 
chunks of scrap iron from a railway truck. It was heavy, laborious, 
time-consuming work, and often it was dangerous, for quite a small 
piece of metal can smash a respectable toe or break an elbow. The 
engineer had an idea. Why should not a magnet be made to do this 
work ? 

To-day in every progressive iron and steel works lifting magnets 

158 



LIFTING MAGNETS 



are in constant use. One firm in Scotland has over sixty of them, 
and they do with ease disagreeable tasks that formerly required scores 
of brawny, hefty labourers who could be much better employed on 
other jobs. 

The lifting magnet is simply a bundle of copper wire enclosed in 
steel housing and suspended from a crane or hoist, but a study of its 
many uses is almost 
like a fa;ry story. 

Sometimes the 
pieces of scrap metal 
which are brought to 
works to be melted 
down are too large to 
be charged into the 
furnace and have 
first to be broken. 
A most convenient 
way of doing this is 
to drop a large steel 
ball, called a " skull 
cracker/', on to the 
pieces. The skull 
cracker ball may 
weigh up to twenty 
tons. An overhead 
magnet is used to 
lift it to a sufficient 
height, and the ball 

ic then released bV [By courtesy of Messrs. Dorm.in, Long 6- Co., Ltd. 

MASSIVE STEEL PLATES, OF WHATEVER LENGTH, ARE 

cutting on the cur- EASILY HANDLED BY TWO OR MORE RECTANGULAR MAGNETS 

, c ,1 SUSPENDED FROM A SPREADER BEAM. 

rent from the mag- 
net. Down comes the ball and the broken metal flies in all directions. 
Our colour plate facing page 160 gives a good idea of this very useful 
form of " cracker," which is as different as possible from the Christ- 
mas variety. 

Magnets are also used to handle hot billets and " crop ends " 
(bits which have been cut off the end of billets). These hot pieces 
would be awkward to handle in any other way. The products of a 
steel works, as described in another article, may be in the form ol 

159 




LIFTING MAGNETS 



plates, sheet sections, or rails, or billets only may be produced, and 
these are sent to other steel works to be rolled into wire, hoop iron, or 
small bar iron. 

Any of these forms of steel can easily be handled by magnets. 
They are also used by dock and harbour authorities to load and unload 
iron cargoes from ships. They have even been employed to lift iron 
from the bottom of a river. A barge carrying a cargo of nails in casks 
was sunk. The nails were only nails, but they were wanted, and no- 
body knew quite how to get them 
up. A magnet was sent for and 
all the nails were raised without 
unpacking the casks, and without 
even using chains to sling them. 
As such magnets are absolutely 
waterproof no harm is done by 
their submersion. 

Irregular-shaped castings, 
which would be difficult to " sling," 
are easily handled. For handling 
long plates and steel pipes two 
and sometimes three rectangular 
magnets fixed to a spreader beam 
are used. 

A magnet may be made to 
drop its load instantly, or by a 
special controller it may be 
demagnetized slowly so that the 
load is dropped gradually. This 
is particularly useful in loading 
plates, when six may be picked 
up at once and put one by one into different trucks. 

To perform their arduous duties the magnets must be very strongly 
constructed. There are two distinct types, the circular for lifting 
pig iron, scrap, etc., and the rectangular for lifting plates, pipes, rails, 
and so on. The circular magnet consists of a coil of strap copper 
insulated with asbestos ribbon wound on to a steel bobbin which forms 
part of the magnetic circuit. This coil is clamped between the magnet 
body and the bottom plate or coil shield. After the coil has been 
fixed within, the magnet body is connected to an impregnating system, 




[Ellison Hawks. 

AN OVERHEAD ELECTRIC CRANE LIFTING A 
HEAVY CASTING BY MAGNET. 



180 




A CRACKER BALL. 

Used for breaking bulky scrap metal. When the current is switched off the magnet releases the ball. Its weight is 
such that the ball descends with terrific force, reducing the most solid " junk " to fragments. 



LIFTING MAGNETS 




A FIVE-TON MAGNET REMOVING LIGHT 
FROM A RAILWAY TRUCK. 



dropped from a height on 
to stacks of pig iron or 
other metal. The pig iron 
will, if the magnet is 
excited before it touches 
the pile, actually leap into 
the air and strike the 
magnet a heavy blow. 

Magnets have other 
uses. Where foodstuff, 
such as rice, oats, etc., is 
shipped from abroad it is 
not always possible to pre- 
vent scraps of iron or other 
metal from getting in, but 
the magnet will get them 
out. Sometimes, too, 
pieces of iron, such as nails, 
bolts, etc., find their way 

W.B.E. 



current is put on the coil, and is 
maintained at such a strength 
that a temperature of 200 Cen- 
tigrade is produced. At the same 
time a high vacuum is kept up so 
as to extract all the moisture. 

After three hours a pipe is 
opened, which allows hot com- 
pound to flow into the magnet, 
and a pressure of 100 Ib. per 
square inch is then applied to 
force the compound into every 
part of the interior, leaving no 
room for moisture to enter. The 
reason for all this care is that 
magnets are in the hands of rough 
manual labourers and are left 
out in the rain and snow. More- 
over, they are subjected to heavy 
mechanical shocks when being 




LIFTING PIG IRON IN AN ENGINEERING WORKS. 
101 L 



LIFTING MAGNETS 




[By courtesy of the General Electric Co. 
HANDLING STACKS OF PIG IRON AT 
A RAILWAY SIDING. 

ator " extracting all the 
tin and other metal. This, 
as can be imagined, means 
an enormous saving of 
labour at municipal salvage 
works and destructors, to 
say nothing of chance 
" finds " of considerable 
value. For the magnet has 
the " nose " of a detective 
for articles of metal which 
would never otherwise be 
brought to light but by a 
prolonged and costly pro- 
cess of sifting and sorting. 
There is, in fact, scarcely 
any end to the uses of this 
tool that was once a toy. 



into raw material which is 
to be worked up in various 
forms. If they are not re- 
moved in time they will 
perhaps damage machinery 
worth thousands of pounds. 
The magnets are suspended 
above a conveyer, which 
passes the material under 
the magnet, and any pieces 
of iron adhere to the mag- 
net and are safely removed. 
The same process is often 
applied to household refuse, 
an electro-magnetic "separ- 




[By courtesy of Messrs. E. G. Appleby & Co., Ltd. 
A 30-INCH DIAMETER MAGNET HANDLING FIVE HEAVY 

" ROUNDS." 
162 




[Keystone. 



UNDERCUTTING" A SEAM OF COAL BY MEANS OF COMPRESSED AIR. 
Note the electric lamps carried on the men's caps. 



HOW THE ENGINEER 
HELPS THE MINER 

MANY people have an idea that coal is obtained from the 
depths of the earth by men working with pick and shovel, 
guided by the dim light of safety lamps. This may be true of some 
of the older and badly equipped mines, but is far from giving a correct 
idea of the conditions under which much of our coal is obtained at the 
present time. At a large modern colliery you will find that a great deal 
of the work is now done by the kindly aid of electricity and that all 
manner of clever machinery is employed both underground and at 
the surface. This is all to the good, for coal-mining is a difficult and 
often a dangerous occupation and anything that tends to make the 
work less irksome is deserving of encouragement. 

Let us endeavour to follow from the beginning the process of 
obtaining coal from a large well-equipped modern colliery. We will 



163 



ENGINEERING IN THE MINES 

suppose that we have arrived at the coal face after having descended 
the pit shaft and traversed one of the many " roads " which spread 
in all directions from the bottom of the shaft, for distances perhaps of 
several miles. We shall- find that the men, instead of being armed 
with pickaxes, are provided with various forms of coal-cutting machines, 
by means of which a thin layer of coal at the bottom of the seam 
is cut away for, it may be, a distance of 6 feet or more. This is called 
" undercutting." After the operation has been carried out for a 
certain distance the weight of the coal above is often sufficient to 
loosen it from the body of the seam. Or, if the coal is of a particularly 
hard nature, after " undercutting," shot holes will be drilled in the 
face of the seam. When the hole is of a sufficient depth, a " shot," 
or charge, of blasting powder is placed within and exploded from a 
safe distance, the force of the explosion being sufficient to bring down 
large masses of the coal. 

A mechanical conveyer is then placed in position and the loosened 
coal is shovelled on to an endless belt, whence it is conveyed to the 
" tubs." These are little trucks mounted on wheels and running on 
roughly laid railway lines, the tubs being hauled either by small 
locomotives or by means of a wire rope to the foot of the shaft. The 
tubs with their loads are then placed in the cage and raised to the 
surface, where the coal is tipped out and the tubs sent down to receive 
other loads. We shah 1 , perhaps, find in the smallest seams men work- 
ing with pick and shovel, although even in seams not more than 
1 8 inches wide coal-cutting machinery can now be employed. In some 
of the older and poorer mines, where it would not pay to install expen- 
sive machinery, small ponies are still used to pull the little trains of 
tubs from the coal face to the foot of the shaft, but in all modern and 
up-to-date mines cutting and hauling machinery is extensively em- 
ployed. 

The atmosphere in a coal mine is often highly explosive, owing 
to fire damp and other gases given off by the coal. Hence a naked 
light or flame is strictly prohibited underground, and a locomotive 
burning coal to produce steam, such as you see on the railway, could 
not possibly be used. Instead, we shall find that the locomotives used 
in coal mines are driven either by electricity or by compressed air. 
Electricity is rather liable to produce a spark, and consequently in 
very dangerous mines compressed air is preferred, at least at the coal 
face. It is used not only for driving the conveyers, but for operating 

164 



ENGINEERING IN THE MINES 

pneumatic picks and drills, just as you see men using them in the streets 
of large towns when breaking up the concrete foundation preparatory 
to laying a new roadway. The men who use these machines under- 
ground are rather fond of them, because after the compressed air has 
done its work in the machine it issues as a cool stream of pure air, which 
the workers are pleased to breathe in the warm and often noxious atmos- 
phere of the mine. Compressed air is also largely employed for driving 
the motors which work the various coal-cutting machines. 




[Fleet. 
COMPRESSED AIR LOCOMOTIVE HAULING THE " TUBS " FROM THE COAL FACE TO THE 

BOTTOM OF THE SHAFT. 
In this case the compressed air is contained in the four cylinders carried on the locomotive. 

The air required is compressed in what is called an "air compressor," 
situated either at the surface of the mine or at the bottom of the shaft, 
the pressure employed being about 100 Ib. to the square inch. In 
the former case a large pipe is fitted down the side of the shaft, in 
which the compressed air is led below. In both cases a system of 
pipes radiates from the bottom of the shaft in all directions, carrying 
the air to the remotest parts of the mine. At the ends of these pipes, 
as well as at various other points, valves are provided to which long 
lengths of flexible hose can be attached, so that the machines can be 

165 



ENGINEERING IN THE MINES 

used at any desired position. When air compressors are installed at 
the bottom of the shaft the compressors are driven by large electric 
motors, the electric current for these, as well as for all other require- 
ments underground, being led to the bottom of the mine by a cable 
passing down the shaft. 

Electricity is extensively used underground as a source both of 
light and power. Numerous forms of coal-cutting machines and con- 
veyers are operated by means of small electric motors, and the haulage 
of the coal from the distant workings to the bottom of the shaft is often 
performed by electric motors. If we could examine carefully the 
various forms of locomotive employed for the purpose, we should 

probably find that those 
operating farthest from the 
shaft were worked by means 
of storage batteries, while 
the larger ones near the 
shaft receive their current 
from an overhead trolley 
wire in much the same way 
as a tramcar. This is, of 
course, due to the fact that 
the nearer the shaft the 
bigger the roads, so that it 
is possible to lay the electric 

A PNEUMATIC PICK. ,, 

trolley wire in a position 

where it is unlikely to prove a source of danger. When cables are laid 
along the various roads underground to provide electric current for 
the motors it is a simple matter to arrange that these roads and 
workings shall also be lighted electrically, and in many collieries 
the miners' hand lamps are themselves worked by means of small 
electric batteries. 

Before ascending to the light of day again, let us take another 
look round. We shall find that elaborate arrangements are made for 
dealing quickly with the placing of the full tubs in the cage and remov- 
ing the empty ones. In one colliery known to the writer the shaft is 
3,000 feet deep and 300 tons of coal are raised every hour, the weight 
of coal lifted during each " wind " being 7^ tons. The time of a com- 
plete wind is only ninety seconds, one set of full tubs being raised while 
another set of empty ones is lowered. Then we should probably find 




166 



ENGINEERING IN THE MINES 

a number of powerful pumps ; these, like the air compressors and the 
haulage gear, being driven by electric motors. It is often necessary 
to install a very complete pumping equipment, as, owing to their 
depth, the mines would soon become flooded with the water which 
trickles through the earth into the workings. These pumps deliver 
the water through pipes passing right up the shaft to the surface, 
where, before being discharged into the nearest stream or river, the 
water is used for various purposes, including the washing of the coal. 
Let us now step into the cage and allow ourselves to be lifted to 




[Topical. 

A MACHINE INSTALLED AT THE BOTTOM OF A COAL MINE FOR COMPRESSING THE 

AIR. 

The air, at a pressure of about 100 Ib. to the square inch, is led by pipes to all parts of the mine, where it is used 
for operating the picks, cutters, conveyers, and other machinery. 

the surface, in order to discover some of the uses of machinery above 
ground. As we step from the gloom of the cage into the welcome 
light of day, we shall find ourselves near the winder house, inside 
which is the powerful machinery for working the cages up and down 
the shaft. This machinery will probably be worked by means of 
powerful electric motors : in a large mine these motors exceed 2,000 
horse-power. 

We shall find near by an elaborate arrangement of machinery 
for screening the coal as it is delivered from the tubs at the pit -head. 

107 



ENGINEERING IN THE MINES 

As raised from below, the coal is in all manner of sizes, from large lumps 
to small dust, and it may be mixed with a large quantity of earthy 
matter of little or no value. The process of " screening " is to separate 
the larger lumps from the middle-sized and the small, and also to 
remove all the earthy matter, the latter process being performed by 
washing. 

The various grades of coal are then transferred to trucks by means 
of conveyers. We can thus purchase high-grade coal for the drawing- 
room fire, while the small and low-grade material is sold for use in 
boiler furnaces and so on. The earthy matter and the very low-grade 
coal, being generally unsaleable, gradually accumulates at the pit- 
head, and we shall probably see not far from the screening machinery 
a huge and ever-increasing heap to which the waste is being auto- 
matically conveyed. 

To supply electricity for driving all these various machines there 
will be a large power house, with steam boilers, turbines and electric 
generators complete. In many cases electricity can be generated so 
cheaply, owing to the low cost of coal at the pit-head, that current 
is supplied not only to the mine but to the villages and towns around 
where the miners live with their wives and families. 

A mile or so from the pit -head we shall find another shaft, at the 
head of which is a system of huge fans. These fans, which will prob- 
ably be electrically driven, are used to suck as much as possible of the 
impure air out of the mine. They are therefore arranged at the top 
of a ventilating shaft communicating with the bottom of the mine at 
a point as far as possible from the main shaft. As the impure air is 
drawn up through the ventilating shaft, pure air passes down the main 
shaft and through the workings. Thus the miners, while cut off from 
the light of day, do at least obtain a supply of fresh air, without which, 
indeed, life below ground would be impossible. 

These remarkable appliances and many more which there is not 
space to describe have multiplied a thousandfold the power of man 
working deep down in the bowels of the earth, enabling him to obtain 
with the maximum of safety and the minimum of effort the 250,000,000 
tons of coal which are brought to the surface from the mines of the 
British Isles alone every year. 

ALFRED REGNAULD, 
B.Sc. (Eng. Lond.), A.R.C.Sc., M.I.E.E. 



188 




[By courtesy of Ropeways, Ltd. 

A MONO-CABLE ROPEWAY IN THE REPUBLIC OF 
COLOMBIA. 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 

A USEFUL NEW MODE OF TRANSPORT 

LITTLE more than half a century age aerial ropeways, as they are 
usually called, were unknown, for it was not until 1868 that the 
possibilities of twisting steel wire into ropes or cables were discovered. 
The first aerial ropeways, due to the inventive genius of a British 
engineer named Charles Hodgson, were built on what is now known as 
the Mono-Cable system, for carrying tin and other ores from the mines 
of Northern Spain to railways and even to the ports themselves. In 
the Mono-Cable system one endless wire rope is constantly moving 
down one side of a line of supports, and up the other side, so that it 
carries the full trucks to the unloading-point and returns the empties 
to be loaded again. 

With these first wire ropeways the trucks were simply hung on 
the cables by a single clip, which meant that all the weight was sus- 
pended from a single point for each truck, and also that the trucks were 
liable to slip on the rope that conveyed them. But, about sixteen 
years after the first aerial ropeways were constructed, a Mr. J. P. Roe 
invented a clip which would prevent a truck from slipping on a greasy 
rope, even on gradients of as much as one foot rise in two of travel ; 
he also invented a method of grouping the supporting wheels on the 
trestles which carried the wire rope so that the load was evenly dis- 
tributed, instead of being thrown all on one point. 

This latter invention was the more important, for it rendered 



169 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 



possible an increase in the length of the span between two trestles to 
three or four times what it had been before. It also became possible 
to tackle far more difficult gradients with the new truck-clip. The 
trestle system could be so arranged as to be far less complicated and 
expensive than the early ropeways, and great gulfs and ravines, which 
before had been impassable, could be spanned at a bound by the wire 

rope carrying its trucks of 
mineral ores or other goods. 

About the time of this 

/ 

invention, experiments were 
being made with what is 
now known as the Bi-Cable 
system, in which the sup- 
porting wire cable is not 
moving and carrying the 
trucks, but is fixed to its 
trestles, while a separate 
hauling rope is used for 
drawing the loads from 
station to station. In the 
early stages it was pos- 
sible for the Bi-Cable 
system to carry heavier 
loads than the Mono-Cable 
type of ropeway, and it 
is probably for this reason 




[Ropeways, Ltd. 

A MODERN MONO-CABLE ROPEWAY CONVEYING IRON 
ORE FROM A MINE IN SPAIN. 



that Continental makers of 
ropeways have developed 
the Bi-Cable rather than 
the earlier type. 

Now, however, the 
Mono-Cable system is 
capable of carrying 150 
tons an hour and more, and can be set up with spans of 1,000 yards or 
more between its trestles. With special construction, loads up to even 
500 tons an hour are carried on some ropeways, but this is with shorter 
spans of rope, since the trucks have to travel fairly close together. 
Picture to yourself the rough mountain ranges of India or America, 
with their deep valleys and high cliffs. In the sunlight two thin lines 



170 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 

of shining steel can be seen stretching from peak to peak, spanning in 
leaps of hundreds of feet the rushing rivers, or hugging the steep ascents 
of the snowclad mountain-caps. On these steel tracks one can faintly 
discern the tiny dots which are moving cars, one rope moving down 
towards us laden with ore or stone and causing a deep sag in the mighty 
span of wire, the other rope moving upward empty to a mine or quarry 
in the distance. 




[By courtesy of Adolf BleicJiert & Co. 

IN SUCH A SITUATION THE TRUCKS CAN BE RUN BY GRAVITY. 
Note the long span. 

Near us in the valley below runs the main railway track to the 
coast. These huge mountains present an impassable barrier to the 
railway line, which, winding in and out over bridges and embankments, 
through tunnels and cuttings, can be seen disappearing in a neighbour- 
ing gorge. The steel rope, however, takes a straight line from mine to 
railway. No steep gradient need deflect its path, no bridges are needed, 
no tunnels, cuttings, or embankments, and yet that endless procession 

of loaded and empty cars continues. We can see those loaded cars 

in 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 



discharging their contents into the railway wagons below and returning 
empty to the mine, and we can see the loaded train of railway wagons 
disappear en route for the coast for shipment to another country or 

for use in home mills. 

Such wire rope tram- 
ways or railways are 
working in all parts of the 
world, and the distances 
covered amount occasion- 
ally to between 40 and 
50 miles. In such long 
lines, with the Mono-Cable 
system, the travelling rope- 
way is not continuous for 
the whole distance, being 
divided into lengths of 3 
to 5 miles, but the ropes 
are so arranged that the 
cars pass through from one 
section to another without 
pausing at the junctions. 
All kinds of material are 
carried on systems of this 
kind ores, stone, timber, 
coal, sand, gravel, tea, 
sugar-cane, and general 
merchandise of every sort 
are dealt with, and single 
loads of four tons per truck 
are successfully handled. 

One of the chief essen- 
tials in production costs is 
cheapness in handling and 
conveying material, and in 
broken or mountainous 
country aerial ropeways 

have been found more economical than any other means of trans- 
port. Their use has opened up fields of commerce which had to remain 
untouched before ropeways were known, since the rugged country 




[Adolf Bleicheii & Co. 

PASSENGER CABLE ROPEWAY UP THE FAMOUS ZUG 
SPITZ IN THE BAVARIAN ALPS. 



172 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 



between the point of production and the nearest market rendered 
it not worth while to tackle the problem. But, once the ropeway 
came into existence, the problem of transport was easily solved. 

When a ropeway has 
been decided on, the first 
important point to be 
settled is the capacity of 
the line, either in tons per 
hour, if the material is 
capable of being broken up 
into truckloads of any size, 
as in the case of ores, coal, 
etc., or the number of logs, 
cases, or packages, in the 
case of timber or general 
goods. Then a general 
survey of the route is 
made, ascertaining the 
length of the line, the rise 
and fall between terminal 
stations, and the interme- 
diate points where hills or 
gorges have to be crossed. 
With these points of the 
strength and length of rope 
needed, and a detailed plan 
of the route, work can be 
begun. 

Electric, steam, and oil 
power are all used to drive 
the trucks on the rope 
where necessary, though in 
many cases, where it is 
simply a matter of trans- 
porting material downhill 
and returning the empty 
trucks to the top of the line, the weight of the loaded trucks supplies 
the power, and hauls the empties back to their starting-point. On 
steep grades there is enough surplus energy developed by the loads 




[British Ropeway Engineering Co., Ltd. 

PASSENGER-CARRYING ROPEWAY AT A HOLIDAY 
RESORT IN THE TYROL. 



173 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 



moving downhill to run a 
dynamo which provides 
light or power, and in one 
case the machinery of a 
mine is run entirely by the 
surplus of power derived 
from running the loads of 
ore down the ropeway. 

A recent development 
is that of passenger trans- 
port, especially in moun- 
tainous districts. The 
earlier lines were all built 
on the ground, with either 
cable haulage or toothed 
wheel and rack in addition 
to the carrying rails, but 
the modern passenger rope- 
way is as safe and efficient 
as the finest railway service, 
while it can be constructed 
at a fraction of the cost cf 
a railway. Many notable 

mountain peaks, including Mont Blanc, from which wonderful views 
can be obtained, are now served by passenger ropeways, and are 
working with great success. It has even been suggested that the 
problem of traffic congestion in great cities might be solved by rope- 
ways running from railway termini to busy points, thus lessening the 
need for a multitude of vehicles on the streets themselves. 

The Republic of Colombia, in South America, was one of the first 
countries to apply itself seriously to the construction of aerial rope- 
ways, for there the principal means of transport are two rivers, the 
Magdalena and the Cauca, while there are very few railways, owing to 
the enormous difficulties of construction in such mountainous regions. 
The first ropeway installation of importance which was constructed 
in Colombia was the Dorada Railway Ropeway Extension, which 
linked up the valley of the Cauca River with Mariquita, on the 
Dorada railway. This line has a length of 47 miles, and crosses over 
two distinct ranges of the Andes in its course, traversing country 




[British Ropeway Engineering Co. , Ltd. 

TRESTLES SUPPORTING A PASSENGER-CARRYING 
ROPEWAY AT BOZEN KOHLERN. 



174 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 

in which it would never pay to lay down an ordinary railway 
line. 

The Dorada Ropeway line was so successful that the Colombian 
Government decided to adopt aerial ropeways for joining up centres 
of production in the Republic with the nearest points on the waterways 
or main railway lines. Two great ropeways in the country, at present 
under construction, will be respectively 75 and 55 miles long when 
completed, and will rank among the longest ropeways in the world. 

A good example of the saving effected by this form of transport 
.is the line set up for the Asturiana Mines, Ltd., in North Spain. Here 
a mountain road winds and twists across the valleys and up the hill-sides 
for a distance of 8J miles from the nearest railway to the mine among 
the mountains, and, until the ropeway engineers came, this was the 
only possible means of transport between mine and railway. Now, 
crossing the same country, there is a ropeway which, cutting straight 
across the hills and valleys, is only 4 miles in length altogether, since it 
goes as the crow flies, over valleys and hills alike. It needs no cuttings, 
bridges, or embankments, no shunting, lighting, or complicated sig- 
nalling apparatus, no attendance at points between the terminal 
stations. Its service can go on, unaffected by floods, snow, or fog, 
night and day alike, and, apart from periodical inspections of the trestles 
and carrying rope, there is no cost of upkeep for the " track." 

Since the mine is 2,600 feet higher than the railway at the other 




WHERE THE ROPEWAY CROSSES A ROAD OR RAILWAY "PROTECTION SCREENS" ARE 
PUT UP TO PROTECT THE FREIGHT FROM DROPPING AND CAUSING INJURY. 

175 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 

end of the rope line, the construction of a railway between the two 
points would have involved laying a track of not less than 24 miles, 
in order to make the gradients possible, with enormous cost in embank- 
ing, constructing bridges and excavating cuttings, while the possi- 
bility of making the full trucks pull the empties back, as can be done 
with the ropeway, would have been out of the question altogether. 
Moreover, the provision of fuel for railway engines, together with their 
maintenance, would have involved such cost that it would not have 
paid to lay the line. 

Ropeways, both on the Mono-Cable and Bi-Cable systems, have 
been brought to such perfection now that there is hardly any form of 
regular transport to which they cannot be adapted. Often it is more 
convenient to erect a mill or factory at some distance from a railway 




[By courtesy of British Ropeway Engineering Co. , Ltd. 
DIAGRAM SHOWING COURSE OF A ROPEWAY IN INDIA CARRYING TEA-CHESTS. 
Note the long span of 4,200 feet, including a river. 

or port, and in these cases a ropeway solves the problem of transporting 
raw material to be used in the mill or factory, and carrying the finished 
products on the first stage of their journey to the markets. Where the 
ropeway crosses a road or railway " protection screens " are put up, 
to prevent anything from dropping and causing injury either to the 
road beneath or to people using it. 

Among the special installations, apart from regular lines erected 
for permanent service, an important branch of use is that of conveying 
material for buildings round the coast, where the descent of high cliffs 
has to be negotiated and rail or road transport is practically impossible. 
The building of the lighthouse under Beachy Head, illustrated by the 
photographs in our article on " The Lighthouse Builders," was a 
case in point, for here the tides prevented any road being built under 
the cliffs, while there was often not enough depth of water to bring 



178 




ENGINEERS AT WORK ON A MOUNTAIN ROPEWAY. 



ROPEWAYS IN THE AIR 

materials for the lighthouse by sea. A ropeway from the summit 
of the cliff, down to the site on which the lighthouse was to be con- 
structed, solved the problem, and the materials were swung down, 
load by load, on the wire rope, while the workmen travelled to and from 
their task by the same method. 

Ordinary lines have the advantage of taking up only the room 
required for the trestle standards, thus causing practically no inter- 
ference with cultivation or with traffic, while in tropical countries very 
little clearing need be done, as the path of the trucks or buckets on the 
line can be lifted well above the height of trees and vegetation on the 
ground. Intermediate stations can be made altogether automatic on 
long lines, so that the trucks require no attention after leaving the 
loading station until they arrive at the unloading-point, and the power 
required is never so great as that required for a land line, while, where 
the gradient admits of the loaded trucks providing power enough to 
pull the empties back, cost of running is reduced to the mere main- 
tenance of rolling stock and of the ropeway and its supporting trestles. 

E. C. VIVIAN. 




W.B.E. 



^Topical. 

AN ELECTRICALLY-DRIVEN TRUCK TIP BEING EMPTIED. 
One man can empty a coal truck in about a minute. 
The machine grips the truck bodily and turns it over, releasing 
the coal on to an endless chain feed, thus saving an enormous 
amount of labour. 

177 




[Photo Werf Gusto : A. F. Smulders. 
A FLOATING CRANE READY FOR A VOYAGE FROM HOLLAND. 

For the journey the jib has been specially strengthened by the two braced girders connecting it with the 

pontoon. 



CRANES 



THE ENGINEERS' LEVERS 

A LARGE crane at work is always a centre of attraction, for there 
is something very impressive in watching it hoist a heavy load 
high into the air and then manoeuvre it into the desired position. It 
seems to work so easily, obeying the slightest wish of the man in 
charge, that nearly all boys and girls too wish they could be a crane 
man ! 

In these busy days cranes may be seen high up on buildings under 
construction in almost any city, and in all engineering work they 
play a very important part. They are adaptations of the principle 
of the lever, as explained in the article, " The Elements of Engineer- 
ing," enabling great forces to be exerted with comparatively little 
effort. 

Curiously enough, cranes are so called because of their resemblance 
to the long neck of the bird of that name, the Crane. There are many 
types, each suited to some particular purpose, ranging from the simple 

178 



CRANES 

hand crane used in a builder's yard to the giant hammer-head crane 
of the naval shipyard. They may be broadly divided, however, into 
two classes : (i) Jib cranes, and (2) Bridge or girder cranes. 

In its simple form the jib crane is supported on a post fixed firmly 
in the ground ; in the revolving type it pivots on a pin embedded in 
this post. Another form, which is in general use at dock-sides, is the 




A FINE EXAMPLE OF A DERRICK CRANE. 
It is assisting at the construction of a large travelling crane. 
179 



CRANES 



portable jib crane, specially designed for lifting goods from the hatch- 
ways of ships and depositing them on the quay. For this purpose a 
very tall jib is necessary to enable the crane easily to negotiate high- 
sided vessels. These dockside cranes may be operated by electricity, 
but often hydraulic power is used. The hydraulic cylinder is contained 
in the revolving steel mast, water being conveyed to the crane by 
means of a flexible hose connected with a hydrant on the quay-side. 
Dockside cranes are designed to occupy as little space as possible, 
for it is of the first importance that the quays should be left clear for 

the accommodation 
of material unloaded 
from the ships. 
Sometimes, in order 
to economize space, 
the crane is mounted 
on the roof of the 
dockside warehouse, 
and runs along from 
one end to the other 
on rails as in the illus- 
trations on pp. 132-3. 
One of the prob- 
lems that has to be 
dealt with in the 
construction of dock- 
side cranes is that 
of preventing the 
load from being 
lifted or lowered 

whenever the jib is moved up or down to alter the radius. The 
difficulty has been overcome in a form known as the Luffing Crane, by 
the introduction of an automatic device coupling the jib and the load- 
lifting mechanism. By this means the height of the load is kept con- 
stant, no matter how the jib may be raised or lowered when getting 
the load into position. 

Another form of the dockside crane consists of two inclined legs, 
hinged at their bases and joined at their tops by a pivoted bolt. In 
appearance they are not unlike a camera tripod, except that they are 
not vertical. Known as " Sheer Legs," they are generally used at 




[By courtesy of Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd. 
DOCKSIDE CRANES. 
Designed to occupy as little space as possible. 



180 



CRANES 

the quay-side for unloading ships or for lifting heavy weights, such as 
ships' boilers. The front pair of legs lean over the water, the rear 
leg being furnished with a thread that works on a rotating wormshaft. 
When this is operated, it draws in the rear leg and so the sheers are 
pulled in to allow the load that has been hoisted from the hold of a 
vessel to be deposited on the quay. In some types of sheers a steel 
cable and a drum are employed in place of the rear leg. 

Cranes of the derrick type are developments of the jib crane, and 
may range from light hand cranes, constructed of timber and suitable 
for lifting loads of one ton weight, to the heavy cranes of steel that 




HUGE CRANES AT A DUTCH SHIPYARD. 



[Shepstont. 



lift loads up to 150 or 200 tons and are largely used in ship-building. 
Derrick cranes are often employed in building construction. As they 
cannot turn through a complete circle, owing to the presence of the 
beams that support the mast from which the jib is suspended by wire 
ropes, it is generally necessary to use two or more such cranes on a build- 
ing. The movements and capacities of the jib are always the subject 
of careful calculation and arrangement before their erection is proceeded 
with. In all cranes the jib is a very important part, and is generally 
built up of braced girders thickening in the middle, for it is here that 
the stresses are greatest, just as is the case at the middle of a bridge. 



181 



CRANES 

The giant derrick cranes employed in the erection of high build- 
ings generally stand on great triangular platforms of timber. These 
platforms have to be carefully designed beforehand, and their erection 
and removal, after the building has been built up around them, must 
also be planned well in advance. 

A humorous story is told of the men at work on one of these 
cranes, to whom their workmates wished to convey the news that a 
horse named " Captain Cuttle " had won the Derby. The crane men 
were much too high up for a voice to carry from the street, and in spite 
of the fact that several of their mates joined together and shouted 
" Cuttle " as loudly as possible, the men above signified that they 
were still without the desired information. Then someone had a 
brain wave and from one of the neighbouring offices brought a coal 
s-cuttle, which was waved in the air, but still without the desired effect. 
It was not until the assistance of the great derrick crane itself was 
obtained, and its bucket lowered to the ground to pick up a special 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Holland & Hannen, Lid. 

CRANES AT WORK ON THE LONDON COUNTY HALL. 
182 



CRANES 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Stothert & Pitt, Ltd. 

A BLOCK-SETTING CRANE PLACING A HUGE CONCRETE BLOCK IN POSITION ON A BREAK- 
WATER. 

paper, that the workmen on the crane knew the result of the race ! 

Cranes may be operated by hand, by steam, or by hydraulic or 
electric power. It may be mentioned that the effective work in lifting 
that a man is capable of performing by turning a handle is calculated 
to be about 5,000 foot-lb. per minute. In other words, four men could 
raise I ton through 9 feet in one minute or 9 tons through I foot in 
one minute. We thus see that manual power can only be used for 
lifting loads of moderate weight. The steam crane is largely used 
where a portable crane is required, for it can be moved by its own 
power if necessary and works very satisfactorily. 

The largest cranes are found among the block-setting cranes em- 
ployed in harbour construction. They have been designed for handling 
the great blocks of concrete used in the construction of breakwaters and 
harbour walls. Such cranes are of two types, the " Titan " and the 
" Goliath," and both types possess an advantage over the ordinary 
type of jib-crane in that they may be moved out of reach of the waves 
in stormy weather. 

A Titan crane has a large carriage mounted on wheels running 



183 



CRANES 




on a wide-gauge railway, the 
track being laid on the break- 
water as the work proceeds. The 
wheels are generally sprung so as 
to minimize any inequalities of 
the track. Two huge girders, 
braced together and placed hori- 
zontally, are mounted across the 
carriage and pivoted on a pin. 
This pivot pin is placed at the 
centre of a circular " table-top " 
mounting, supported by a similar 
but inverted circular mounting, 
the two being divided by roller- 
bearings to ensure smooth and 
easy movement. The double 
girder is mounted unequally, that 
is to say it has one arm of greater 
length than the other. The 
" overhang," as it is called, is 
measured from the centre of the 
pin to the extreme limit to which 
the hoisting carriage can be moved 
outwards along the longer arm. 
It varies according to the design of the crane, a large Titan having 
an overhang of 100 feet. 

On the short arm of the girder is placed a movable counterweight 
with which the load is balanced. Here, too, is situated the steam boiler 
and the engine supplying the motive power for swinging the arm around 
and operating the hoisting tackle. It also moves the crane bodily 
backwards or forwards along the breakwater, through gearing con- 
nected to the track wheels. 

A large Titan, with an overhang of 100 feet, is able to lift a load 
of 50 tons and deposit it at any point except the centre within a 
circle of 200 feet. A crane with such a reach is of the greatest assist- 
ance to engineers, for a breakwater is constructed by laying the blocks 
in " steps," and in deep water the bottom " step " is situated farther 
from the line of the top of the finished breakwater than is the case in 
shallow water. Thus, if a Titan were not able to handle its full load 

184 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Stotheri & Pitt, Ltd. 
"FIDDLER'S GEAR." 

A special form of hoisting gear for lifting the huge 
concrete blocks used in harbour construction. 



CRANES 



of, say, 50 tons, to such a range, 
it would necessitate smaller blocks 
being used, and these are not as 
satisfactory as large blocks, no 
matter how carefully they may 
be joined. 

One of our illustrations shows 
a Titan crane capable of lifting 
blocks up to 35 tons at a radius of 
50 feet. It is fitted with slewing 
and jib-derricking motions, and is 
self-propelling, all the machinery 
being operated by one pair of 
engines. The crane is mounted 
on a massive truck built of steel 
sections, and runs on ten flanged 
wheels, on rails 19 feet 3j inches 
apart. On top of the truck is 
mounted a steel circular roller 
path, the crane slewing on four 
rollers arranged in a ring. The 
superstructure consists of two 
main beams built up of steel 
sections and connected by cross 
stretchers. The jib is built up of 
lattice bracing and has a derrick- 
ing range of 25 to 50 feet. The 
crane lifts its load at a speed of 
10 feet per minute and slews 
through a complete circle in 
3j minutes. The load is lifted by steel wire rope and sufficient coil- 
age is provided on the drum for the hook to descend 80 feet below the 
level of the rails. Hydraulic brakes control the lowering of the load. 

The second type of crane employed on harbour work, the 
" Goliath," is of the type called " travelling gantry." It consists 
mainly of two vertical columns, with a horizontal connecting girder 
across the top, in the form of an inverted " U." The hoisting blocks 
and tackle are located on the horizontal girder and are free to move 
laterally upon it. The tracks for this crane may be laid upon rows of 




SNATCH 



[Sir Wm. Arrol & Co., Ltd. 
BLOCK FOR 200 TONS OVERHEAD 
TRAVELLING CRANE. 



185 



CRANES 




I 

[Sport & General. 

PERCHED ON THE APEX OF A DERRICK 
CRANE FAR ABOVE THE STREET. 

advantages over the Titan, not 
least of which is that it may be 
employed in the preliminary oper- 
ations, such as levelling the sur- 
face to form the bed for the 
blocks. Also it is possible to lay 
a considerable portion of the 
breakwater to a certain height 
before putting on the upper 
layers, or " courses," of blocks. 
This is itself a matter of some 
importance, for when a short work- 
ing length is employed as is gener- 
ally the case with a Titan cracks 
sometimes occur, or the breakwater 
may " settle " on its foundations. 



piles driven in on either side of 
the site of the proposed break- 
water. The crane thus spans the 
area where the blocks are to be 
laid and moves directly over its 
work. 

Gantries may weigh as much 
as 100 tons each unladen, and as 
they may carry a load of 50 tons 
in addition, they require strong 
support. In the case of the Dover 
Harbour Works, in which gantries 
were employed, great iron-shod 
piles 100 feet in length, and 20 
inches square, were used. These 
piles were arranged in groups of 
six, at a distance of 50 feet and 
70 feet apart laterally, and over 
one and a half million cubic feet 
of timber were used in all. 

The gantry crane has several 




[Sport & General. 

THE FOREMAN DIRECTS BUILDING OPERA- 
TIONS FROM A CRANE 200 FEET HIGH. 



186 



CRANES 



Cranes are employed at all large seaports, not only for unloading 
ships but for many other purposes, including the maintenance of the 
docks themselves and their equipment. At Liverpool, the Port author- 
ities possess a splendid range of modern equipment that renders possible 
the quick unloading of ships, the rapid transport of cargoes and the 
efficient warehousing of imports. Owing to the necessity for a high- 
capacity crane to deal with the heavy loads that have to be handled 
from time to time, the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board have installed 
a large self-propelling floating crane that goes by the name of the 
" Mammoth/' It is able to deal with loads up to 200 tons, which it 
can hoist to a height of 
170 feet above water-line. 
The crane, built on a self- 
propelling pontoon, can 
slew through a complete 
circle with the full load of 
200 tons without any 
special counterweight being 
added or removed, and the 
jib thus loaded can be der- 
ricked through an angle of 
nearly 40 degrees. It is 
clear that the successful 
construction of such a 
crane calls for high tech- 
nical skill and consider- 
able experience. 

The " Mammoth " is of the derricking jib type and is of huge 
dimensions. It rests entirely on a tower about 66 feet in height and is 
strongly secured to the deck of the pontoon. This tower is in the 
shape of a truncated cone and is provided with a bearing on the upper 
portion. The framework consists of an upper platform resting on the 
top bearing and a lower platform in which the centre rollers of the 
tower are placed, the two platforms being connected by a substantial 
structure. The jib is fixed to the framework at the front of the upper 
platform by means of two horizontal pins, and to the rear by two links 
connected to the movable counterweight on vertical wormshafts, 
When this counterweight is lowered by rotating the wormshafts the 
jib rises and vice versa. 

187 




[Sir Wm. Arrol & Co., Lid. 
A HAMMER-HEAD CRANE, 

designed for a working load of 250 tons at a radius of 100 feet. 
The crane is being tested with a load of 312 tons. 



CRANES 




FLOATING CRANE "MAMMOTH 



[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 

LIFTING THE NEW BRIGHTON LANDING-STAGE, WEIGHING 
152 TONS. 



The links enable the jib to be derricked from the lowest to the 
highest positions, the distance from the extreme end of the jib to the 
centre line of the crane in the former being 200 feet and in the latter 
240 feet above water-level. The total weight of the jib is about 280 
tons, and the placing of such a structure on the crane framework was 
itself an operation of some magnitude, requiring the services of three 
other floating cranes 

There are two 
sets of blocks and 
hooks, each of which 
is capable of lifting 
100 tons and of 
being operated inde- 
pendently. One of 
the sets is fixed, but 
the other is capable 
of being traversed 
throughout the full 



length 
When 



of the jib. 
it is desired 



to lift the maximum 
load of 200 tons 




THE "MAMMOTH 



188 



[By courtesy of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 
LIFTING SANDON HALF-TIDE DOCK GATE, 
WEIGHING 200 TONS. 



CRANES 




BUILDING 



THE HUGE FLOATING 
SHOWN ON p. 191. 



CRANE 



the two hooks are connected. 
The whole of the movements 

are controlled from a central 

cabin situated at the top of the 

framework and just below the jib 

hinge-pins. As the operator has 

a clear view of the load with which 

he is dealing, as well as of the 

deck of the pontoon, the handling 

of the load is a comparatively 

simple matter and only one man 

is required to handle even the 

heaviest load. 

Although the "Mammoth" 

is a splendid specimen of the 

pontoon type of crane, it is not 

the largest example of its class. 
Another fine floating crane is 

" Crane Lighter No.4," the property 

of the British Admiralty. Capable of lifting a maximum load of 250 

tons over a radius of 100 feet and to a height of 77^ feet above the 

level of the water, this crane has been tested to lift a load of 312 tons. 

The crane is mounted slightly 
forward of amidship, the pontoon 
being 242 feet in length and 86J 
feet in breadth. These great 
dimensions make it possible to lift 
heavy loads with a minimum of 
tipping of the pontoon's deck. 
By raising or lowering the jib, 
the reach of the crane is altered, 
thus enabling loads to be picked 
up from the deck of the pontoon 
at, say, a reach of 70 feet, whence 
they can be swung round at a right 
angle and lowered into place at a 
reach of 100 feet. The crane, as 
erect as possible, picks up its 
load, swings round in line with 

180 




[By courtesy of " The Engineer," Ltd. 
THE FINAL STAGES. 



CRANES 




ADMIRALTY FLOATING CRANE LIGHTER NO. 4. 

The largest floating crane in Great Britain. It is capable of lifting a load of 250 tons over a radius of 100 feet 

to a height of 77$ feet 

the place where the load is being dropped, and the jib is then lowered, 
extending the reach of the load as it hangs, until it comes immediately 
over the spot where it is finally deposited. 

The largest floating crane is one built in this country and sent out 
to Japan a short time ago. This crane, which is designed to lift 350 
tons at a radius of 100 feet, was partially erected at the makers' works 
at Carlisle, being re-erected later in Japan, under the supervision of 
engineers sent from this country. The jib is capable of being derricked 
from the maximum radius of 121 feet to a minimum radius of 50 feet, 
and when in this condition the height to the top of the crane is approx- 
imately 240 feet. The crane motions are operated by nine sets of 
double -cylinder engines, which are fitted with link motion reversing 
gear, a similar type of reversing gear to that used on locomotives. The 
jib is raised and lowered by two large steel screws 49 feet in length, and 
in our illustration these are to be seen at the back of the crane. They 
are driven from the engines through a train of gearing and engage with 
nuts in the crosshead. 

The lowering of the loads is controlled by specially-designed 
hydraulic brakes, and the whole of the working of the crane is con- 
trolled by one operator from a cabin situated immediately beneath the 
jib foot and clearly seen in the illustration. The crane is mounted 
on a large pontoon which has plenty of deck space and is able to carry 



190 



CRANES 

a deck load of about 300 tons. The propelling machinery is placed 
amidship. 

It was not an easy matter to build such a large crane as this, 
owing to the enormous size of the structure and the weight of the 
various members. The difficulty was increased by the fact that the 
crane had to be assembled on a floating base. However, another float- 
ing crane came to the assistance of the builders and by its aid the work 
was successfully completed and its big brother came into existence. 

The world's largest crane is situated at Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
and is the property of the United States Navy. Costing over 200,000 
and containing some 2,000 tons of steel and 1,000 tons of machinery, 
this giant stands on a pier extending out towards the Delaware and 
is thus able to operate over two docks. Its height to the top of the 
observation tower is 250 feet and an electric passenger lift is provided 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Cowans, Sheldon & Co., Ltd. 
A SELF-PROPELLED 350-TON FLOATING CRANE BUILT IN ENGLAND AND SENT OUT TO 

JAPAN. 

The crane will revolve through a complete circle with a load of 350 tons at 100 feet radius or 300 tons 
at 121 feet radius. When the jib is fully raised (it is not so in the picture) the overall height to the top of 
the crane is 240 feet. 

191 



CRANES 

to reach the upper part of the structure. No photograph can give any 
true idea of the tremendous size of this crane, beside which a battle- 
ship is completely dwarfed. The immensity of the great framework 
of steel can only be adequately understood when one stands beneath it, 
or climbs the steps of the central stairway to the platform 200 feet above. 

The crane is of the hammer-head type and its total weight with 
load (about 4,000 tons) is carried on an elaborate pile foundation, driven 
well down in the gravel below the overlying mud. 

The reason for building this great crane was the increased size of 
the various parts of modern battleships. It was desired to handle such 
elements as a whole rather than have to dis-assemble them in order 
to lift them into position. The crane makes it possible to place on 
board, as a complete unit, such heavy equipment as gun-turrets, which 
before the crane was built had to be assembled on board ship. 

ELLISON HAWKS. 




[McMyler Inter State Co. 
A HUGE HAMMER-HEAD CRANE AT PHILADELPHIA NAVY YARD. 

It is the world's " largest " and dwarfs a battleship. The tower is 250 feet high and there is an electric 

passenger lift to the top. 

102 




[Topical. 
TRANSMITTING PLANT AT THE GREAT G.P.O. STATION 

AT HILLMORTON, NEAR RUGBY, 
used in the wireless telephony service to New York. 



WIRELESS WONDERS 

EVERYONE to-day is familiar with broadcasting, but wireless 
serves many other purposes, and the engineer plays a very 
important part in some of them. As you know, wireless is freely used 
for communications between ships at sea, and between ships and shore, 
and a number of coastal stations have been established for giving 
ships their position in foggy weather. This branch of wireless is 
called Direction Finding (D.F. " for short ") and most big liners and 
many smaller ones are now fitted with D.F. gear with which in a 
minute or two they can get their " bearings " from the nearest 
coastal station. Rotating frame aerials are usually employed in 
ships for D.F. purposes, the system being based on the well-known 
fact that the strength of wireless signals varies according to the angle 
at which such an aerial points to the source of the signals. 

Now that so many ships are fitted with wireless all sorts of things 
are possible which when the twentieth century began were hardly 
dreamt of. On the great liners daily papers are published containing 
the latest news, which has been received by wireless from one or other 
of the news broadcasting stations. Passengers dance to music wire- 
lessed from London or New York. Business men keep in touch with 



W.B.B. 



103 



WIRELESS WONDERS 




[Central Press. 

LEAD-IN FROM THE TOP OF ONE OF THE GREAT 
AERIAL MASTS AT HILLMORTON. 
Note the giant insulators. 



the Post Office or by the 
Marconi Company, both of 
whom keep large staffs of 
highly trained and skilful 
operators. The most im- 
portant Post Office stations 
are those at Hillmorton, 
near Rugby, Leafield in 
Oxfordshire, and Northolt, 
near Harrow, and all three 
are equipped with power- 
ful apparatus capable of 
sending messages which 
can be picked up thou- 
sands of miles away. The 
Rugby station is much the 
largest, and has indeed the 
finest and most efficient 
installation in the world. 
A few details may be 
interesting, especially to 
those who have not 
realized what immense 
power is required to main- 



their offices by wireless, and 
travellers in lonely seas are 
" called up " by the same 
agency. Even ships in the 
Arctic regions have managed 
to keep in touch with home 
under conditions which 
formerly meant year-long 
spells of dreary isolation. 

What may be called 
" business wireless " is car- 
ried on in Great Britain 
chiefly by a few great 
stations worked either by 




[Photopress, 

LOOKING UP ONE OF THE 820 FEET MASTS, 
a 94 



WIRELESS WONDERS 



tain what is called a commercial 
service, one, that is to say, which 
enables communication to be car- 
ried on not only under favour- 
able conditions such as those 
under which amateurs often hear 
signals from America and even 
Australia but at all hours of the 
day or night and all seasons of the 
year. 

In connection with broad- 
casting, the amateur's aerial is 
restricted to a length of 100 feet, 
and his mast, or masts, seldom 
exceed 40 feet in height. For 
"earth," if he does not use a 
waterpipe or a copper tube driven 
into the ground, he may lay down 
perhaps 50 yards of wire as a 
" counterpoise." At Rugby there 
are 12 masts, placed a quarter of 
a mile apart, each 820 feet high, 
and the earth wires are about 
100 miles in length ! The masts 
are triangular in shape, the three 
vertical posts being spaced 10 feet 
apart, and the base of each mast 
terminates in a tripod, the lower 
portion of which forms a socket. 
This gives the mast, which 
weighs about 200 tons, a certain 
amount of " play " at its lower 
extremity. It goes without say- 
ing that the question of " stresses " 

in connection with these tremendously tall structures has been 
carefully studied, and it is calculated that the Rugby masts will 
withstand wind pressure of 140 miles per hour and a horizontal pull 
of 10 tons at the top. 

Accidents have happened to tall aerial masts in the past, causing 

106 




LOOKING UP A 500 FEET MAST 



[Topical. 
AT THE 



B.B.C. HIGH-POWER STATION AT DAVENTRY. 



WIRELESS WONDERS 

damage which it has been difficult to repair. At Rugby each mast 
has an electric lift which will carry three persons and so makes it 
comparatively easy both to carry out mending operations and to 
keep a watchful eye on all parts of the structure. 

The power used by this wonderful station is gigantic. Some idea 
of it may be gathered from a comparison with that at which the high- 
power broadcasting station at Daventry sends out its transmission, 
namely, 25 kilowatts. The generators at Rugby can be linked up to 
yieM a supply of 1,500 kilowatts for the transmitting valves ! 



. 




[Sport & General. 

"BEAM" RECEIVING STATION AT BRIDGWATER, SOMERSET. 
On the left are five masts for receiving from Canada, on the right five masts for receiving from South Africa. 

Nearly everything else at Rugby is on the same scale. An ama- 
teur's fixed condensers measure a square inch or two and weigh about 
an ounce ; those at Rugby are as tall as a man and their weight is 
measured in tons. But there is one very important gadget at this 
monster station which is quite absurdly small, a little tuning-fork 
which oscillates at a regular speed of about 2,000 vibrations per second 
and serves as a " master oscillator," keeping the wave-length (18,740 
metres) to its exact dimensions whatever the atmospheric disturbances 
may be. 

100 



WIRELESS WONDERS 



And what does this colossal in- 
stallation do to justify all the care . 
and thought and the half-million 
or so of money which have been 
expended on it ? In the first place 
it is. the wireless hub of the British 
Empire, and by its means the Mother 
Country and the great Overseas 
Dominions are kept in touch night 
and day, winter and summer, year 
in and year out. Rugby is specially 
useful for broadcasting messages in 
peace or war which it is desirable 
that all parts of the Empire should 
receive simultaneously. Twice a 
day, too, it broadcasts a news ser- 
vice which can be picked up in 
every corner of the world. Think 
what a boon this is to British 
colonists in comparatively small and 
out-of-the-way places, who in the 
ordinary way would have to wait 
for their news till the arrival of 
papers several weeks old. Then, 
too, Rugby accepts messages for 
transmission not only to Australia 
and New Zealand, but also to any 
ship fitted with wireless apparatus, 
wherever it may happen to be. 

There is also a very complete 
equipment for Trans-Atlantic wire- 
less telephony between England and 
America, which is proving a huge 
success. Four of the aerial masts at 
Rugby are set aside for the purpose, 
together with a transmitter which 
is about 400 times more powerful 
than that used at an ordinary B.B.C. 
station. While the sending station 

197 




[Sport & General. 
THE B.B-C. STATION AT &AVENTRY, 



WIRELESS WONDERS 




CONTROL BOARD AT HILLMORTON 
STATION. 



he wished to talk 
with a friend in 
Manchester or Bris- 
tol. 

To some it may 
seem odd that, since 
it is possible to tele- 
phone by wire to 
the Continent, it 
should not be a 
simple matter to do 
so by submarine 
cable to America. 
The reason is that 
with telephony by 
cable a limit is soon 
reached, owing to the 
resistance of the wire. 
This can be over- 
come on land by 
means of what are 
called relays, but 
you cannot have re- 
lays in mid- Atlantic. 



[Central Press. 
(RUGBY) WIRELESS 



is at Rugby, the receiving 
station is at Wroughton, 
near Swindon, both stations 
being linked by land-line 
with the Trunk Telephone 
Exchange in London, a 
similar arrangement being 
carried out in America. 
This means that a telephone 
subscriber in Glasgow can 
ring up and talk with one 
at some important centre 
in the United States with 
not much more trouble and 
delay than would occur if 




[Central Press, 
SWITCHBOARD AT BODMIN STATION, 

used in connection with the " Beam " system of wireless. 
198 



WIRELESS WONDERS 




[central News. 
RADI TELEPHONE RECEIVING STATION AT HOULTON, 

On the right is the receiving unit, on the left tha telephone test- 
board and amplifier for the wire circuit to New York. 



It is here, and in some 
other cases of trans- 
marine communication - 
and of telegraphy and tele- 
phony over large inter- 
vening spaces of marshy 
ground in which poles can- 
not be fixed or cables laid 
that wireless steps in 
and solves the problem 
neatly and completely. 

A recent application 
of wireless is the " Beam " 
system of transmission 

developed by S e n a t O r e 
-. .- . , . , i . 

Marconi, which has im- 
portant advantages as compared with the method of sending 
out signals that are " radiated " like the spokes of a wheel. The 
" beam " system is a sort of wireless searchlight which depends 
for its operation on a number of aerials arranged in a curve so as 
to act as a reflector. The latter focuses the transmission just as 

the reflector of a search- 
light brings to a focus the 
rays emitted by an electric 
arc lamp, and sends them 
forth in a narrow and 
more or less concentrated 
beam. Concentrated, that 
is to say, for a certain 
distance, for, of course, 
after a time the beam, as 
it were, splays out and 
gradually loses its strength. 
It has been found, how- 
ever, that by making the 
aerials of sufficient height 
it is possible to send wire- 

[Keystone. , , _ 

LONDON NEW YORK TELEPHONE SERVICE. Deam signals irom 

Putting through the first call to New York. England which Can be 

109 




WIRELESS WONDERS 



read in Australia, and the great 
value of the system lies in the fact 
that this can be done on a much 
smaller power than is needed for 
transmission to a similar distance 
from a radiating aerial such as 
that at Rugby. Very short waves 
are employed, only about 30 
metres as compared with Rugby's 
18,700, and experience has shown 
that messages on these waves can 
be transmitted almost if not quite 
as effectively by day as by night, 





A MAST AT BODMIN "BEAM 



[Central Press. 
" STATION. 



ONE OF THE 33 VALVES USED IN TRANS- 
MITTING TO NEW YORK COMPARED WITH AN 
ORDINARY VALVE. 

which is not the case with long- 
wave signals. 

If the beam system can do all 
this, and do it cheaply and well, 
what, it may be asked, is the 
use of Rugby ? The answer is 
easily conveyed in a comparison 
between a searchlight and a light- 
house, more especially one like 
the Eddystone, which lights up the 
sea all round it. The beam sys- 
tem is of no use in broadcasting, 
and sometimes, quite apart from 
the music and speech transmissions 
from B.B.C. stations, broadcasting 



200 



WIRELESS WONDERS 

is a wireless possibility of tremendous advantage. Let us suppose, 
for instance, that it is desired to send out to the whole British Empire 




[Sport & General. 



WIRELESS PHOTO-TELEGRAPHY. 



A racing picture taken at Newmarket compared with the wirelessed 
copy reproduced at New York shortly afterwards. 

a Message from the King. The Message is handed to an operator in 
London, who transmits it by land -line to Rugby, where it is automatically 
relayed, and in a fraction of a second it has gone to all the four corners, 

201 



WIRELESS WONDERS 




[Sport & General. 
PHOTOS BY WIRELESS TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING APPARATUS. 

of the earth. Again, unless you know pretty accurately the position 
of a ship and unless, which is much more unlikely, your aerials are 
arranged to send in that direction you cannot communicate with that 
ship by " beam," as you can with an ordinary radiating system of 
sufficient power. 

Other recent wireless developments to which brief reference 
must be made are Photo-telegraphy, Television, and Wireless trans- 
mission and control of Power. Wireless Photo-telegraphy, and the 
transmission of photographs or of line drawings over considerable 
distances, has been brought to a point at which it becomes prac- 
tical to some extent even for the daily newspapers, and photo- 
graphs have been wirelessed across the Atlantic and reproduced in 
the Press the next morning on several interesting occasions. The 
process is a rather complicated one, but it is gradually being 
simplified and some of the latest achievements in this direction are 
very striking. 

Television, or seeing by wireless, is distinct from photo -telegraphy 
because you see at the receiving end what is happening near the trans- 
mitter, not as the result of a deliberate process such as the gradual 
revolving of a cylinder, but simultaneously with the actual happening. 
Thu5 televisionary reproduction of a race would mean that at the 



202 



WIRELESS WONDERS 

receiving end it would be shown on a screen just as it was being run, 
only a fraction of a second being occupied in the transmission. Tele- 
vision has been shown to be possible by a Scottish inventor, Mr. 
J. L. Baird, but it is immensely difficult owing to the enormous 
number of light changes which have to be dealt with in lightning-like 
succession. 

Wireless Power transmission and control have also yet to be fully 
developed, but here, too, some important work has been done by the 
Admiralty in moving vessels by wireless worked from a considerable 
distance. On a smaller scale striking demonstrations of wireless con- 
trol have been given by Major Raymond Phillips, who has specially 
studied this subject, and has produced some very effective apparatus 
with which guns can be fired and toy trains stopped, reversed, and moved 
forward at the will of the controller of a small transmitter. He has 
even succeeded in applying his system of control by means of a micro- 
phone to the human voice, so that a little train will respond instantly to 
such spoken commands as " Stop," " Back/' and " Ahead." 

OWEN WHEELER. 




[Sport S- General. 

HIGH TENSION SWITCHBOARD IN THE LARGE POWER 
STATION, AT BRONX, NEW YORK. 



203 



WATER IN MOTION: A CONTRAST 




THE AMERICAN FALLS, NIAGARA, ILLUMINATED AT NIGHT. 



[H. J. SJtepitone. 



The lighting installation consists of twenty-four specially designed scintillators of 36-inch diameter, 
mounted on a parapet opposite the Falls. The combined output of the lamps is, approximately, 1,320,000,000 
candle-power. Each lamp is provided with a set of ten colour screens. When the Falls are illuminated, it 
is usual to play the white lights for half an hour, and then to change to red, yellow, amber, magenta, and so 
on, a thrilling panorama of moving light. 




[E. N. A. 

WATER POURING THROUGH THE OPEN SLUICES OF THE GREAT ASSOUAN DAM, ON THE 

NILE. 

One of the great dams on the Nile to which Egypt owes so much of her fertility. The force of the 
water at certain seasons is stupendous, 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Dorman, Long & Co., Ltd. 
CASTING PIG-IRON. 
The molten metal is run into sand moulds to cool into ingots. 



IRON AND STEEL 

THE "RAW MATERIAL" OF ENGINEERING 

WE are all familiar with the story of the king who had the gift of 
turning everything he touched into gold and with his unhappy 
fate. The story reminds us in a striking way that gold owes its value 
mainly to its rarity, and that were it to become plentiful the so-called 
" precious metal " would hardly be worth having. The real value of a 
mineral depends upon the uses to which it can be put, and Man has 
few uses for gold except as plate, jewellery and coinage. There are 
" common " minerals, on the other hand, which have an almost endless 
variety of uses ; they are cheap and lightly esteemed only because, 
fortunately for civilization, they are plentiful. 

One of the most useful and probably the most important mineral 
of all is iron. 

Imagine, if you can, what the world would be like without it, 
and with how many useful things we should have to learn to dispense. 



205 



IRON AND STEEL 



Now let us see how we get iron, which may almost be described as 
the " raw material " of all our mighty engineering appliances. 

Iron is not found in a pure state but is mined as an " ore/' a 
natural mineral substance found in large or small quantities at varying 
depths below the earth's surface. The quantity of pure iron may be 
anything up to 50 per cent, rarely more. The iron must first be sepa- 
rated from the material in which it is contained, and for this purpose it 
is taken to the iron- works. 

An iron-works 
needs plenty of coal 
for its furnaces, and 
in England coal and 
iron-ore are fortu- 
nately found close 
together, so that the 
cost of smelting is 
less than in most 
parts of the world. 
This and the superior 
skill of British work- 
men have given Eng- 
land a leading 
position in the iron 
and steel industry. 
In normal conditions, 
this country pro- 
duces annually some- 
thing like 8,000,000 
tons of pig-iron, in 
addition to between 
eight and nine 
million tons of the best steel in the world. 

When the iron-ore reaches the works a number of " blast fur- 
naces " are ready to receive it ; they are so called because of the fierce 
currents of air which are forced through them from the bottom 
by mechanical pressure. The oxygen in the air causes the iron-oxide 
to decompose. To separate the iron from the earthy substances 
which contain it, a " flux " is required. The flux varies according .to 
the nature of the earthy substance, limestone being often used for the 




A SET OF MODERN BLAST FURNACES SHOWN IN SECTION. 

In the centre background is the stove for heating the blast. Note 
the passage-way at top leading from one furnace to the other and to the 
stove. 



200 



IRON AND STEEL 

purpose. A load of ore mixed with flux is brought to the top of the 
furnace and shot in ; then comes a layer of fuel (a special kind of coke 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Dorman, Long & Co., Ltd. 
WARM WORK! 
Running off molten iron for transfer direct to the steel plant. 

being the usual fuel), then another load of ore and flux, and so on 
alternately. 

207 



IRON AND STEEL 




[By courtesy of Messrs. David Cohille & Sons, Lid. 

A WHITE-HOT INGOT IN THE ACT OF PASSING THROUGH 
ROLLERS TO BE ROLLED INTO BARS. 



On page 206 is 
a picture of a section 
through a blast fur- 
nace. Furnaces such 
as this have deep 
basins ; at the widest 
part they may 
measure up to 25 
feet across, they 
often rise to a 
height of 100 feet, 
and can produce 700 
tons of pig-iron a 

day. In the centre of the illustration, behind the right-hand furnace, 

is the stove which heats the blast, using for the purpose the waste 

gases from the furnace itself. 

Notice the pipe for the waste gases leading from the top of the 

right-hand furnace to the stove. The top of the furnace is called the 

throat, the part below is the body proper, while beneath it is the 

melting zone, and at the very bottom the crucible. In the front are 

the rows of moulds into which the molten iron flows to form " pigs." 
At the- very bottom of the furnace, in the crucible, a tempera- 
ture of about i, 800 centigrade is reached. The heat is so fierce that 

there is introduced into 

the iron not only carbon, 

but also silicon and other 

harmful substances. On 

this account pig-iron cannot 

be used directly from the 

blast furnace, but must 

be re-heated in another 

furnace in order to remove 

the impurities. 

Iron and "slag" the 

earthy part of the ore 

both collect in a liquid 

state in the crucible, which A BESSEMER "CONVERTER." 

. _ The Converter tips up to pour its contents of freshly-made 

haS tWO Openings. I lie steel into a travelling ladle, which in turn will empty into moulds. 

, . _ . , , Sometimes the moulds are arranged in a chain travelling under 

Slag, being lighter than the mouth of the converter, which then empties into them direct. 

208 





TAPPING A STEEL FURNACE. 

Fireclay plugs are removed from the bottom of the ladle by means of levers at the side, and the molten steel runs into 

thp infrrit mrnilHc rtirprtlv VipnpptVi Thf larllp i r-arriprl alrincr phnv-p them hv an nvfrVifpH r-ranp 



IRON AND STEEL 

iron, rises to the top of the liquid mass and is drawn off at frequent 
intervals from the upper opening. The lower opening, the tap-hole, 
is closed by a clay plug and is only opened for running off the 
iron, which then flows, white-hot and glowing, along grooves in the 
ground and thence into sand moulds, where it cools and is presently 
removed in solid bars. 

The impurities are removed by what is called the " puddling " 
process, invented by Henry Cort in 1784. The iron is taken from the 
blast furnace to a furnace of a different kind (called a reverberatory 
furnace), where it is brought to melting-point. The "puddler" this 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Dorman, Long & Co., Ltd. 
TAPPING A STEEL FURNACE. 

The travelling ladle is suspended by steel ropes from an overhead crane. The "slag," being much lighter 
than the metal, overflows into the basin on the right. 

very hard work is usually done by a man, but sometimes by machinery 
stirs with an iron rod, causing the iron to collect, while the impurities 
flow away. The remainder, the good part, when almost solid, is run 
through powerful rolling mills which squeeze out of it any remaining 
liquid impurities. 

So much for iron : we have now to meet the magician who converts 
iron into steel. 

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, with the phosphorus found in 
pig-iron removed. Steel, unlike iron, is malleable and tough, and is 
put to a large variety of uses for which iron is unsuitable. 



W.B.E. 



209 



IRON AND STEEL 



The famous Bessemer process of making steel was invented in 
1860 and the steel industry really dates from its introduction. In this 
process bars of pig-iron are melted in a cupola furnace and then run 
directly into a Bessemer "converter," which is tipped horizontally to 
receive it. Or, an alternative method when a blast furnace is close at 
hand, is for the iron to be conveyed, in its liquid state, directly from the 
blast furnace to the converter in a ladle, transported by means of a 

bogie, or overhead travelling- 
crane. 

A converter able to deal with 
15 tons of metal at a time is 
about 25 feet high and will weigh 
from 60 to 70 tons. It is a large 
retort made of thick sheet-iron, 
lined inside with refractory brick- 
work. The capacity of a con- 
verter must, of course, be much 
greater than the volume of metal 
with which it has to deal, because 
of the bubbling and the ejections 
which take place within it. 

The converter, having been 
charged with liquid pig-iron, is 
turned to the vertical and a fierce 
blast of air, in many small jets, 
is forced through the molten mass. 
For about twenty minutes there 
is a grand sight a huge, blinding 
flame of varying hues roars from 
the open mouth of the con- 
verter. The - magician is at 
work ! 

Carbon is now added and the monster egg is made to pour its con- 
tents into a ladle on a travelling-crane. From this ladle the steel is 
poured into heavy steel boxes about 18 inches square and 4 feet deep 
(these are inside measurements) and allowed to cool into solid ingots. 
The moulds, as the steel boxes are called, are removed and the 
ingots are taken to the " soaking pits," small, gas-fired furnaces sunk in 
the ground, where they are heated to a bright redness and to an even 




170-TON STEEL INGOT. 



210 



IRON AND STEEL 

temperature. This done, an overhead crane with an automatic grab 
picks up the ingot and lays it on top of a sloping plane having loose 
rollers in it, down which the ingot runs to the rolling mills. 

A rolling mill looks like a huge mangle made entirely of steel and 
having grooves cut in the rolls so as to present apertures of different 
sizes and shapes along the line where the rolls touch one another. Along 
comes an ingot, guided straight to the widest aperture ; the rolls seize 
it and force it through, and up go great clouds of steam from the cool- 
ing-water, all lit up by the glowing ingot. Clang ! The mill is stopped, 
reversed, and the ingot comes back, already appreciably thinner and 
longer. Steel arms rise out of the floor and turn the ingot over on 
its side, and through the mill it goes again, and so on until it has 
been rolled out into a bar about 4 inches square and perhaps 20 feet 
long. By this time the ingot has reached a " three-high " mill a mill 
having three rolls, one above the other and all geared together. The 
bar, still red-hot, goes in through the lower pair of rolls, and as soon 
as it is all through the end is caught by a steel arm, lifted up, and 
forced in again, this time through the upper pair of rolls, which feed 
it back the way it came, without any reversing of the mill. The bar 
now travels through very rapidly, writhing and twisting along the 
floor like some serpent from the nether regions. 

Sometimes the steel ingots are hammered into " billets " by means 
of a Nasmyth hammer, and often they are flattened into steel plates, 
to be used, perhaps, for armour-plating a big battleship. 




[Sport & General. 
SHOP TALK ! 
211 




[English Electric Co., Ltd. 

THE STATOR OF AN ELECTRIC GENERATOR, 

through which a motor is being driven, with headroom above 

for another car. 

WONDERS OF ELECTRIC 

POWER 

MARVELLOUS as were the powers which the old-world story- 
tellers placed in the hands of their fairies and magicians, they 
were puny indeed compared with the power placed in our hands by 
electricity. 

The use of current obtained from a dynamo generator driven by 
some form of engine may be said to date back only to 1870, when the 
first really practicable form of dynamo was introduced. Electricity 
itself was, of course, known long before that date, the voltaic cell or 
battery having been in use for many years. But the currents thus 
obtained were comparatively small and were of little more than scien- 
tific interest. 

The invention of the " filament " lamp or " glow " lamp as it 
was originally called in 1879 rendered possible the use of electric 
light on a general scale. Except that the carbon filament at first used 
is replaced by one of metal, the lamp is substantially the same to-day 
as when first introduced. 



212 



WONDERS OF ELECTRIC POWER 

From the small beginnings of the latter years of the last century, 
the use of electricity has increased by leaps and bounds, not only for 
lighting, heating and cooking, but for operating railways, tramways, and 
all manner of machinery and for innumerable other purposes. In Great 
Britain alone there are nearly 600 generating stations, producing some 
8,000,000,000 units of electricity every year, and this amount is rapidly 
growing. Such figures, however, fail to give a real idea of the enor- 
mous quantity of electricity that is being used to-day ; it will be better 
understood if we state that it is equivalent to the current required to 
operate 25 electric lamps, each of 40 candle-power, for three hours 
every evening throughout the year, summer and winter, for every 
family in the country. Of course, a great proportion of this electricity 
is not used for lighting purposes but for the production of power by 
electric motors. We may put things in another way by saying that 




[Sport & General. 

CONSTRUCTING THE STATOR OF A HUGE ELECTRIC GENERATOR FOR OBTAINING POWER FROM 

THE NIAGARA FALLS. 

It weighs 700 tons, is 26 feet high, and has an output equivalent to 87,000 horse-power. 

213 



WONDERS OF ELECTRIC POWER 




[central ,vw. 

A LARGE "CROSS-COMPOUND" ELECTRIC GENERATOR AT A 
POWER STATION IN NEW YORK. 

It is estimated that this machine does the work in 24 hours of 3,000,000 
men working in three shifts of a million men each. 



the 8,000,000,000 
units a year would 
be sufficient to drive 
100,000 motors, each 
of 35 horse-power, 
for 10 hours a day, 
300 days a year. 

How is this vast 
quantity of elec- 
tricity produced ? 
Much depends on the 

C i 7 ^ r>f tVA 
MMJ . L11C 

the Kind Of fuel 

* -, -, , j ,-, 

cheaply obtained, the 
proximity to waterfalls, and so on. Of the six hundred generating 
stations referred to, possibly no two have exactly the same type of 
machinery in every detail. In every case, however, we have what is 
termed a " generator," driven by some form of steam, gas or oil engine, 
though in other countries water-power is frequently available for the 
purpose. The electricity is produced by causing copper conductors 
mounted upon what is termed an "armature "to rotate at high speed 
in the "field" produced by a number of powerful electro- magnets, 
although why this should result in the generation of electricity is not 
easy to explain. Indeed, even to-day we are bound to confess that 
we know little about what electricity really is. But we do know that 
considerable force is required to move the conductors through the 
magnetic " field," hence engines of great power are employed to drive 
the generators, the power of the engine depending upon the size and 
output of the generator it serves. 

Electric generators are made in various sizes, from the tiny little 
units you may see in a motor-car, producing just enough current to 
light the electric lamps on the car and requiring only a fraction of a 
horse-power to drive them, to huge monsters which have engines deve- 
loping nearly one-quarter of a million horse-power. An enormous 
electric generator of this size has recently been designed for one of the 
electric power stations in New York City, where, owing to the small 
space available and the enormous cost of land in the vicinity, it was 
necessary to install the largest possible unit that could be fitted into a 
space of only 67 feet by 39 feet. The machine is of what is called the 

214 



WONDERS OF ELECTRIC POWER 



" cross-compound " type, the steam first doing a portion of its work 
in a high-pressure turbine of 100,000 horse-power, after which it passes 
to a low-pressure turbine, where it generates a further 115,000 horse- 
power. You will gather some idea of the size of these two turbines 
when it is added that the weight of steam passing through them is 
about 60 tons per hour. 

A somewhat similar turbo-generator, and the biggest unit ever 
built in Great Britain, is the 70,000 horse-power set constructed by 
a world-famous British firm for the Crawford Avenue Power Station, 
Chicago. In this set, a view of which, taken from the travelling- 
crane in the power station, is shown below, the high-pressure turbine 
(the little fellow nearer the wall) develops about 21,000 horse-power, 
and the steam, after doing its work in this casing, crosses over to 
the intermediate and low-pressure turbines, which are mounted on the 
same shaft and in which a further 46,000 horse-power is developed. 

If you could watch this turbine working, you would not be 
likely to see any steam escaping or puffing into the atmosphere, 
there being no resemblance between a turbine and a locomotive 
in this respect. A locomotive developing about 2,000 horse-power 
puffs its steam into the atmosphere when it has done its work in 
the engine, hence the clouds of steam which billow from its chimney 
as it rushes along. The turbines in a power station are, however, 
provided with 
"condensers," 
in which the 
steam is con- 
verted back into 
water, being 
then pumped 
back into the 
boiler, and thus 
used over and 
over again. To 
deal with the 
enormous vol- 
ume of steam 

,-, -i CBy courtesy of Messrs. C. A. Parsons & Co., Ltd. 

passing tnrougn LOOKING DOWNW ARD ON A 70,000 HORSE-POWER TURBO-GENERATOR. 

these large tur- A bird's-eye view taken from an overhead crane of turbines and alternators on 

the floor of a Chicago power station. Some idea of the size of the unit can be 
tWO COn- gained by observing the figure of a man in the bottom right-hand corner. 

215 




WONDERS OF ELECTRIC POWER 

densers are often employed, each dealing with one-half of the steam. The 
condensers for the Crawford Avenue set are shown to the right of the 
low-pressure turbine in the picture. Each of them receives about 36,000 
cubic feet of steam every second, cooling it until it is ultimately con- 
densed into water. The electric generators are directly connected with 
the turbines and will be seen to the left of the turbines in the picture. 

You will be wondering what is the connection between the power 
of the turbines and the " amount " of electricity produced by the gen- 
erators. The big unit of 215,000 horse-power to which we have referred 
is said to have an output of 160,000 kilowatts, the kilowatt being 
the unit of electrical energy. If all this electricity were fed to electric 
motors, the power developed would, of course, aggregate 215,000 horse- 
power, if we leave out of account any losses which might occur in trans- 
mitting the current from the power station to the motors. Expressed 
in terms of lighting, if all the current were fed to electric lamps, each of 
40 candle-power (that is, the average power of lamps used in lighting 
a household) the total number of lamps it would be possible to light 
would be 4,000,000, and if the light were concentrated in a small area 
it would produce a brilliance equivalent to that of 160,000,000 candles. 

Generators of this size are the exception rather than the rule, and 
in the super-power stations that are now being erected in various parts 
of Great Britain, turbo-generators of 30,000 to 40,000 kilowatts are 
installed. ALFRED REGNAULD, B.Sc., A.R.C.Sc., M.I.E.E. 




[Sport & General. 

A 30-TON CONDENSER FOR A STEAM TURBINE-DRIVEN 

ELECTRIC GENERATOR BEING HAULED INTO POSITION. 

Note the ends of the small tubes through which the water that 

condenses the steam is pumped. 

216 




[Great Western Railway. 
LEAVING THE SEVERN TUNNEL ON THE ENGLISH SIDE. 

LONG RAILWAY TUNNELS 

MOST boys, and many girls, consider a ride through a long tunnel 
the most thrilling part of a railway journey. You would be 
more thrilled, perhaps, if you knew or remembered all the care 
and thought and danger, and possibly loss of life, that went to the 
making of that tunnel. 

There were tunnels before there were railways, just as bridges 
were erected to carry roads long before the " steel highway " was 
dreamt of, but, whereas there are many notable bridges besides those 
built for railway purposes, almost all the very long tunnels of the world 
are traversed by railway trains. Indeed, many of the most important 
links in railway communication have been made possible only by the 
building of tunnels, and their construction ranks among the greatest 
of engineering achievements. 

It is, of course, in mountainous countries, or in crossing mountain 
ranges, that the greatest amount of tunnelling has been called for, 
though even in the comparatively small British Isles there are about 
fifty railway tunnels a mile or more in length, the longest being the 
Severn, 4 miles 624 yards. Switzerland, Austria and Italy, in the 
Alpine areas, have, however, most of the world's longest tunnels, though 
there are a few others of notable length elsewhere, including several 
in the United States and Canada, one in New Zealand, and one or two 
in other lands, all longer than our own longest. 

217 



LONG RAILWAY TUNNELS 



Until the day comes when a tunnel is built under the Straits of 
Dover, it seems unlikely that the Simplon Tunnel, connecting Swit- 
zerland with Italy, will lose its place as the longest railway tunnel 
in the world. This is I2j miles long and was completed in February, 
1905. It was constructed for a single line, but a second tunnel was 
completed in 1921. Unlike some of the older Alpine tunnels, it was 
constructed with the aid of modern appliances. Even then, however, it 
was a troublesome and expensive undertaking, and many difficulties had 
to be surmounted. For example, hot as well as cold springs were 
encountered in the heart of the mountain, in places 7,000 feet above 
the tunnel, and at times the men could only work when sprayed with 
cool water. This tunnel, like a number of others, involved the con- 
struction of many miles of 
new approach railways, 
calling for expensive rock 
cuttings and the erection 
of many bridges and shorter 
tunnels. 

Compared with the 
Simplon, the St. Gotthard 
Tunnel is old, though it 
comes next in length, 9^ 
miles. A start was made 
in 1872, but the tunnel was 
not pierced right through 
until 1880, and another 
two years elapsed before 

it was actually completed for trains to pass. It cost several 
millions, and had to be constructed, through hard rock and with 
constant interruptions due to subterranean springs, with the aid 
only of compressed-air machinery, this being long before the 
invention of the wonderful appliances which are used for such work 
to-day. All sorts of associated works had also to be constructed, in- 
cluding reservoirs and viaducts, and 172 miles of connecting railway 
(including the famous " spirals "), which themselves called for expensive 
viaducts and many short tunnels. The engineer responsible, M. Faure, 
died before the work was finished ; it is said as a result of the financial 
and political worries experienced and the difficulties that had to be 
overcome. For many years this route was operated by steam trains. 




[By courtesy of the Swiss Federal Railways- 
AN INRUSH OF HOT WATER DURING THE CON- 
STRUCTION OF THE SIMPLON TUNNEL. 



218 



LONG RAILWAY TUNNELS 




[Swiss Federal Railways. 

PLACING SUPPORTING TIMBERS IN BAD ROCK, 
SIMPLON TUNNEL. 

While the old tunnel is relatively 
short, it is reached by very severe 
gradients on either side, and is 
itself on a steep incline. The 
difficulties are, indeed, so great 
that electric traction was intro- 
duced through the tunnel as long 
ago as 1909, because of the diffi- 
culties due to smoke and steam 
when steam engines were hauling 
heavy loads through it. 

The new line leaves the old 
route for about 20 miles, but at 
the expense of a very long tunnel 
reaches an altitude about 500 feet 
less, besides easing the route con- 
siderably and reducing the troubles 
from snow in winter. 



Next comes the Lotschberg 
Tunnel, 9 miles, opened in 1913. 
It connects with the Simplon route 
to Italy. Here, also, there are 
expensive connecting lines, though 
the tunnel itself was constructed 
with the aid of modern appli- 
ances. 

For the next longest tunnel it 
is necessary to cross to North 
America, where a tunnel is being 
constructed, to a length of 7! 
miles, by the Great Northern 
Railway of U.S.A. This is 
through the Cascade Mountains, 
and is intended to displace the 
old Cascade Tunnel, 2j miles in 
length, built many years ago. 




[Swiss Federal 
A SECTION OF THE ORIGINAL SIMPLON 



Railways. 
TUNNEL. 



219 



LONG RAILWAY TUNNELS 



Not much shorter, we have the oldest of all the Alpine tunnels, 
the Mont Cenis, barely 7^ miles. It was first proposed in 1857, but 
was not completed until 1870, and was opened for traffic in September, 

1871. Here, also, the difficulties 
were very great, while it was the 
first tunnel in the world to be 
built to a greater length than 
about 3 miles. 

On the Arlberg route, through 
the Tyrolean Alps (Austria), is the 
Arlberg Tunnel, 6| miles in 
length, while in the same area are 
to be found the Tauern (5j miles), 
Karawanken (5 miles), and Woch- 
ner (4 miles) Tunnels, besides 
many shorter ones. 

In the mountains of Color- 
ado, U.S.A., another very long 
tunnel has been constructed, the 
Moffat, over 6 miles in length. 
It lessens the distance between 
Denver and Salt Lake City by 
173 miles. The bore pierces James 
Peak at a height of more than 
9,000 feet. 

The Otira Tunnel in New 
Zealand has a length of 5^ miles 
and cost 1,500,000. It is on a 
line connecting the main route oi 
the South Island railways with 
the Greymouth section on the 
west coast. It is single line, on a 
gradient of I in 33, and could only 
be worked with the aid of electric 
traction. On the approach lines 
there are seventeen other tunnels 
in 9 miles, and three steel viaducts, one 236 feet in height. 

On the Canadian Pacific Railway a notable tunnel was completed 
in 1916, at Rogers Pass, to ease the gradient difficulties through the 

220 




[E.N.A. 

A CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY EXPRESS 
EMERGING FROM CONNAUGHT TUNNEL IN THE 
SELKIRKS. 



II II II I II I 




[E. N. A. 

ENTRANCE TO THE SIMPLON TUNNEL (12^ MILES LONG) CONNECTING SWITZERLAND 

AND ITALY. 

On the left is the old mountain road. 




ENTRANCE TO THE ST. GOTTHARD TUNNEL, 9* MILES LONG. 
Another and older link between Switzerland and Italy. 



[. N. A. 



821 



LONG RAILWAY TUNNELS 

Selkirk range. It is 5 miles in length and replaces the older route, which 
was more circuitous and much harder, besides saving about 4 miles of 
snow sheds and having easier curves . It passes under Mount Macdonald . 

In the United States the Hoosac Tunnel is 4j miles in length. 

This brings us to the longest tunnel in Great Britain, the Severn, 
already mentioned. This passes under the Severn estuary, and its 
construction enables Great Western trains to reach South Wales from 
London direct instead of going a long way round via Gloucester. 
Construction was begun in 1873, but the workings were several times 
flooded out and for the next ten years water was a continual and 
expensive source of trouble. Eventually the difficulty was surmounted, 
though even to-day a pumping-plant is continually at work. In Sep- 
tember, 1886, goods trains began to work through, and three months later 
the tunnel was included in a standard main-line express train route. 

There is no need to consider the hundreds of shorter tunnels in 
detail, but a list of those 3 miles and more in length may be given : 

Great Britain : Totley (London Midland and Scottish Railway), 
3 miles 950 yards ; Standedge (3 tunnels) (London Midland and 
Scottish Railway), 3 miles 57 and 60 yards; Woodhead (London 
and North Eastern Railway), 3 miles 13 yards. 

Abroad: Gravehals, Norway, 3 miles 520 yards; Albula, 
Switzerland, 3 miles 671 yards ; Sassago, Japan, 3 miles 293 yards. 

J. F. GAIRNS, MJnst.T., M.I.Loco.E. 




AN ELECTRIC TRAIN EMERGING FROM THE FAMOUS 
OTIRA TUNNEL, NEW ZEALAND. 

The tunnel has a length of si miles. 
222 



A GIANT PLANING 
MACHINE 

IN the article dealing with "Famous Bridges" something is said 
of what will be the largest bridge in the world at Sydney, New 
South Wales. The total length of this bridge and of the approach 
spans will be 3,770 feet and for the greater part the bridge is being 
built of steel plates and girders of massive proportions. In order 
to produce these accurately and at as low a cost as possible, special 
machines have been designed and one of these is here illustrated. 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Smith Bros. & Co., Lid. 
A GIANT PLANING MACHINE 
constructed for work in connection with the nsw bridge across Sydney Harbour. 

This, a giant Planing Machine, planes steel plates up to 66 feet in 
length and over 2 inches in thickness as easily as a joiner planes wood. 
It is really a development of the lathe, one of the most useful machine 
tools of modern times. Whilst the lathe is used to make a cylindrical 
surface true, a planing machine is employed to make perfectly true a 
flat surface, laborious work that previously could only be accomplished 
by hand-chipping and filing, and even then the results were not alto- 
gether satisfactory. It is largely due to the introduction of such 
machine tools as these planing machines, together with large drills and 
giant riveting-machines, that it is possible to construct bridges of steel. 



223 



A GIANT PLANING MACHINE 

This planing machine is driven by a direct-coupled electric 
motor of 40 horse-power which is fixed to the "saddle" of the machine, 
or that part which carries the tool. The saddle is the portion in the 
centre of the photograph, on the right of where the man is standing. 
This saddle travels along the machine, and with it travels a special 
platform from which the operator controls the machine, being able to 
start, or stop, or reverse the motor in either direction. The tool is 
carried in a special mounting or " box," which is tilted by hand hori- 
zontally at each end of the plate, so that the tool, which has two cutting 
edges, is able to cut on the forward as well as on the backward stroke. 

Current for the motor is supplied by wires that run along the top 
front side of the girder, with which rollers make a running contact, some- 
thing like the wheel of overhead electric tramcars. The motor drives 
through three trains of gear-wheels on to a large pinion, which meshes 
with a rack fixed to the underside and runs practically the full length of 
the table. 

By an ingenious arrangement, there is no danger of the machine 
smashing should the motor overrun its length, for a special trip gear 
operates as soon as the saddle nears the end of its run. 

The girder to be planed is held down by twenty-two hydraulic 
cylinders, shown in the photograph, which are housed on top of the 
main member of the machine. This member is in the form of a girder 
and is 7 feet 2 inches in depth. E. H. 




A PICTURESQUE SUSPENSION BRIDGE AT HAMBURG. 

224 



[Undencood. 




THE YOUNG ENGINEER. 




A SUN-POWER PLANT OF 1878 DRIVING A SMALL 
PRINTING PRESS. 

The boiler had a capacity of n gallons : a hundred square 
feet of sunshine were collected. The reflector had a diameter 
of ii feet 6 inches. 

CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 

AN ENGINEERING PROBLEM THAT WILL 
ONE DAY BE OF VITAL IMPORTANCE 

(With photographs by the Author) 

HAVE you ever thought what would happen to most of the people 
of this earth if all supplies of coal were suddenly stopped and 
were never again available? Perhaps, to make the effect complete, 
we ought to include oil and natural gas. There would be no steam- 
engines, and hence no steam trains or steamers. Most factories for the 
making of materials for our clothing and bricks for our houses would 
have to shut down. Our houses would be cold in winter, and there 
would be only a little electric power for lighting a few houses and offices 
and for driving a few factories and electric trains. 

Some people think that if there were no coal we could do everything 
by electricity, but I am sure you know the answer to that most elec- 
tricity is produced by the burning of coal. It is true that a large 
amount of electric energy is derived from waterfalls, as explained 
in the article " Making Water Work," and that still larger amounts 
are available, but, even if all the water-power in the world were in 
use, it would probably not satisfy our present need for power, and 
this need is increasing daily, because of the rapid growth of population 
and the rate at which we are increasing our use of mechanical power. 



W.B.B. 



CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 




A SUN-POWER PLANT OF 1883. 

The boiler had a diameter of 6J inches and was n feet long. 
163 square feet of sunshine were collected. 



There are difficulties, 
at present at any rate, 
which prevent our making 
use of some of the largest 
waterfalls. For example, 
a very large amount of 
water-power could be ob- 
tained from the Victoria 
Falls on the Zambesi River 
in Africa, and many years 
ago the Victoria Falls 
Power Company was 
formed to use some of 
this supply and transmit 
it in the form of high- 
pressure electricity to the 
gold mines of the Rand, 
at Johannesburg, a dis- 
tance of about 600 miles south. But though the Company is still 
at work supplying the Rand with power, this power is not obtained 
from the Victoria Falls, but from coal burned at the Rand ! It 
was found to be impracticable to transmit electric energy for so great 
a distance as 600 miles. Physically, it could be done, of course, but 
to be practical engineering schemes must pay, that is, the cost of the 
article made or of the power supplied must not be greater than that 
obtained by other means. One day, one or more of the readers of this 
article may be able to devise cheaper means of transmitting power to 
great distances, possibly by " wireless " ; then more of the great water- 
falls will be of use to us. An alternative, in the event of our coal sup- 
plies being exhausted, would be for the peoples of the world to gather 
round places where water-power may be had. By no means all such 
places are at present healthy for the white races, so there would be 
other problems to solve. Some people foolishly think that everything 
has been discovered and done that can be ; but you need not have the 
least fear, there will be plenty for you to discover, invent, devise, and 
do, when you come to take your part in the work of the world. 

Let me tell you something concerning one of the possible sources 
of energy which you may help to make of use to mankind, namely 
Sun-power. When we use waterfalls, we are really using Sun-power 



220 



CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 



even coal is bottled sunshine ! for there would not be any waterfalls 
if there were no rain, and there would not be any rain if there were no 
heat from the Sun to evaporate water from the oceans and lakes. This 
evaporated water rises (thus gaining potential energy), forms clouds, 
then rain or snow, and some of this rain or snow ultimately goes to 
make the waterfalls. 

At intervals, for many years, attempts have been made to use the 
energy of the Sun for power purposes, and some years ago I was for- 
tunate in being professionally engaged for four years on this interesting 
and important matter. But before giving a brief history of the sub- 
ject, it will be well to learn how much energy it would be possible to 
get from the Sun, for the quantity might not be worth obtaining. 
We shall soon see that this is very far indeed from being the case. 

The diameter of the Sun is 863,600 miles, or about a hundred times 
the diameter of the Earth. Hence the volume of the Sun is about a 
million times that of the Earth. (Note : A million is roughly 3,000 a 
day for a year.) The temperature of the Sun's surface is about 6,000 
centigrade, and the glowing surface which it presents to us has the 
enormous area of over half 
a million million square 
miles. Each square foot of 
this surface (and there are 
nearly two million square 
feet in a square mile !) 
emits about 10,000 horse- 
power (a horse-power, as 
most of you will know, is 
denned as a weight of 550 
pounds lifted one foot in 
one second, or roughly ij 
tons lifted 10 feet in one 
minute). Thus we see 
that a shortage of coal, 
oil, or natural gas will not 
bother us much when we 
can utilize even a small 
fraction of this enormous 




energy. 

Herschel, the great 



THE PASADENA SUN-POWER PLANT OF 1901. 
Maximum diameter, 33 feet 6 inches. The boiler had a 
capacity of 83 gallons. Maximum output, 4^ horse-power. 
150 square feet of radiation were required per horse-power. 

227 



CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 



astronomer, thought of a novel way of making us realize what an 
amount of radiant heat the Sun is continually sending out. You 
know that if you have a lump of ice and wish to melt it you 
must put it into something warm, even if that something is only 
your hand. Suppose your lump of ice were in the form of a long 
cylindrical ruler, and that you pushed one end of this into a bright coal 
fire. It would melt at a certain rate, and you would move your hand 
forward at that rate in order to keep on melting the rod of ice. Now 
make your rod not an inch but 45 J miles in diameter, and not a couple 
of feet long but a few millions of miles long, and push it not slowly 
into your small chilly fire, but into the Sun at the speed of light (186,000 
miles per second) and what would happen ? It would melt as fast as 
it was pushed in without lowering the temperature of the Sun in the 
least ! The expression " into the Sun " has been used, but actually 
the ice would be melted by the radiant heat leaving the Sun before 
the ice got into the Sun. That is why the temperature of the Sun 
itself would not be lowered any more than it is now by the radiant 
heat leaving it. 

Owing to the distance of the Earth from the Sun (about 93,000,000 
miles) and the fact that its rays of light and heat radiate in all direc- 
tions, less than one-fifth of a horse-power per square foot reaches the 
outer surface of the Earth's atmosphere, but as there are 43,560 square 
feet in an acre, the power available at the outer surface of the atmo- 
sphere is the large amount of about 6,000 horse-power per acre. At 
noon on a clear day, about 
70 per cent of the heat 
passes through the atmo- 
sphere and arrives at the 
surface of the Earth, so we 
may say that about 4,000 
horse-power per acre is 
available. In passing, it 
will help you to visualize 
an acre if I say that a 
square whose sides are one 
cricket pitch long is exactly 

one-tenth of an acre. THE 'SHUMAN SUN-POWER PLANT AT TACONY, U.S.A. 
Consequently, the heat 19". 

rvf fhp QiinQhinP ThU plant P roduced 8l6 Pounds of steam per hour : enough 

01 tne sunsnine f or near i y 40 horse-power. 

223 




CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 




THE SHUMAN-BOYS SUN-POWER PLANT AT MEADI, 
EGYPT, 1913. 

The boiler, encased in glass, is at the axis of the reflector 
and just above the pith helmet. Above that, in the foreground, 
is the steam main. In front of the man is the gear for keeping 
the reflector facing the Sun. 



falling on such a square is 
no less than 400 horse- 
power. 

Here, therefore, is the 
problem for some of you to 
solve. How are we to 
convert this source of 
energy into a form which 
will be of use to us for 
power purposes ? The 
main difficulty is that the 
heat-fall is a small one. 

"What is a heat-fall?" 
some of you will be asking. 
A waterfall may be a high 
one with comparatively 
little water falling, yet its 
energy can easily be used 
by an engineer. Or, it may have a large volume of water falling 
only one or two feet : this type is more difficult to use. Similarly 
in the case of heat : if the source of the heat is at a high tem- 
perature, the problem is easy, but if the temperature is comparatively 
low, the problem is more difficult and costly. Now, though the temper- 
ature of the Sun is so high, the temperature of anything exposed to 
sunshine on the Earth is low compared with the heat of a coal-fire. 
Hence we need a large quantity of sunshine (comparable to the large 
quantity of water) to make up for its lack of temperature. 

Nearly all the devices for using solar energy have taken the form of 
sun-heated boilers, and once the steam has been made it may be used 
for any purpose. One of the early workers at the subject was August 
Mouchot, who took out his first patent in 1861. In 1866 Napoleon III 
saw Mouchot 's first solar engine at work in Paris. The sunshine collector 
was like a gigantic lamp-shade, inverted, measuring 8 feet 6 inches 
in diameter at its larger end. Its inside surface was lined with silvered 
copper, which reflected the sunshine on to a cylindrical boiler at its axis. 

In 1878 W. Adams was at work on the subject in India. His 
second boiler was of copper J inch thick and held 12 gallons of water, 
producing enough steam at a pressure of 10 pounds per square inch 
to yield about 2j horse-power. He used glass mirrors for the reflectors, 

829 



CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 




ANOTHER VIEW OF THE SUN-POWER PLANT SHOWN ON p. 229. 

Adams also made a sun-cooker, not for cooking the Sun, but food. 

In 1880 Abel Pifre claimed an efficiency of 80 per cent for his 
boiler. In 1883 Ericsson, that great engineer and designer of the Monitor 
(the prototype of turret battleships), constructed his second' solar engine. 

A. G. Eneas, an American, was at work on the subject between 
1898 and 1901. His boiler was erected at Pasadena, and produced 
enough steam for about a 4 horse-power engine. It collected 700 square 
feet of sunshine, and the capacity of its boiler was 83^ gallons. 

Frank Shuman, another American, started on the problem in 
1906, and it was with his work that I was associated from 1910 to 1913 
inclusive. For the purpose I visited the United States twice, and 
Egypt once. The photograph (p. 228) shows the plant erected in 1911 
at Tacony, near Philadelphia, U.S.A., which I tested. This plant col- 
lected 10,300 square feet of sunshine. The boiler-unit consisted of a 
" hot-box," having a mirror at its top edge and another at its bottom 
edge (the hot-box is the bottom part of the troughs seen in the illustra- 
tions). The " hot-box " was a large flat wooden box, with a double 
glass top having an air-space of one inch between the two sheets of glass. 
The bottom of the box was wood, the inside of which was covered with 
heat-insulating material. Then an air space, and then the lamellar 
boiler of thin copper, with a space of only J inch between the back and 
front for the water. There was also an air-space of one inch between 
the upper surface of the boiler and the lower sheet of glass. This 
plant produced 816 pounds of steam, at atmospheric pressure, per 
hour ; enough for nearly 40 horse-power. 



230 



CAN SUN-POWER BE USED? 

Of another plant erected at Meadi, 7 miles south of Cairo, in 1913, 
I made thirty-five trials. It collected 13,270 square feet of sunshine, 
and produced 1,442 pounds of steam during the best run of one hour, 
i.e. enough for 55! horse-power. The boiler of this plant was placed on 
edge, at the suggestion of Professor C. V. Boys, and the parabolic glass 
mirrors reflected the sunshine on to both sides of it. Each reflector 
was 14 feet across and 200 feet long, and there were five such units. 

By an automatic arrangement, which worked admirably, the 
reflectors, which ran north and south, were kept always facing the Sun. 
The maximum steam pressure was only 8J pounds per square inch. 

This plant was only an experimental one (though obviously of 
full size), but it pumped water from the Nile, some of which was 
used for irrigating crops near the plant. 

Well, that is a brief story of attempts to avail ourselves of Sun- 
power : now carry on, for it is almost certain we shall have to use it 
some day. 

A. S. E. ACKERMANN, B.Sc. (Engineering), F.C.G.I., A.M.I.C.E., 

M.Cons.E. 




MOVING A HOUSE BODILY. 



[Fox. 



The house was removed from one town to another without 
dismantling a timber. The photograph shows the house at the 
beginning of the lowering operations. 
231 




[William Beardmore * Co., Ltd. 
CUTTING STEEL PLATES. 

An operation technically known as " shearing." The queer 
arrangement of inverted castors allows the plates to be moved 
very easily. 



A VISIT TO AN 
ENGINEERING WORKS 

MOST engineering works are situated, not in the centre of a town, 
but on the outskirts near a railway ; indeed, in most cases 
the railway runs right into the works. 

Long before we reach the place, whether by rail or road, we shall 
probably see the great buildings in the distance, the glass roofs arranged 
in methodical, parallel lines, and the tall chimneys pouring out smoke. 

High above the trees of the countryside it stands, surrounded by 
houses where the workmen live, skilled engineers and labourers alike. 
A great engineering works is a very different place from a big office in 
the City or elsewhere. The building is usually a single storey high, 
with a huge saw-toothed, glass roof, supported at intervals by tall, 
steel pillars. You look in vain for an imposing entrance hall or a clean 
white marble staircase. Every object is intended for use. There is 
no decoration anywhere, everything is plain, workmanlike and dirty. 
The very glass in the roofs is often the colour of slate. The hands, 
faces and tattered overalls of the engineers and their assistants are 
smeared with dirt and grease. No boy who is afraid of dirt and broken 
finger-nails should think of becoming a working engineer. 

The golden rule of all works is that every machine made must 
cost as small a sum as possible, and to ensure this every detail is care- 



232 



ROUND AN ENGINEERING WORKS 

fully thought out so that there is no waste. The works we are visiting 
employs, let us say, some six hundred men, and their wages bill is 
a heavy one. Therefore every minute of the men's time must be 
accounted for. 

We are reminded of this as we wait with the crowd at the entrance. 
Punctual to the tick goes a shrill blast and the crowd streams inside. 
Each man has a card bearing his name, his trade, and particulars of 
the job, or piece of work, on which he is engaged. The card has also a 
space for each day of the week. As he enters and passes through the 
turnstile each man places his card in an opening at the side of a large 
clock. He then pulls a lever and the time as shown on the clock face 
is stamped on the card in the day space. The worker must also stamp 
the card with the time at which he leaves. The process is known as 
" clocking on " or " clocking off." 

The works will be divided into several departments, technically 
known as " shops," each undertaking special duties. They are con- 
nected with each other, and the raw material passes through them in 
a prearranged order, a stage of manufacture taking place in each, until 
the finished articles at last reach the warehouse, ready for the customer. 

Let us first visit the foundry. This occupies a large area. Stretch- 
ing along the whole of one side is a series of furnaces for re-melting 
the ingots similar to those described in the article on " Iron and 
Steel." Castings of all kinds and of all sizes ships' propellers, iron 
rudders as tall as a three-storied house to guide liners across the 
ocean, gun mountings, parts of locomotives, small castings measuring 
only a few inches all are made in this foundry. 

As we enter, we see suspended in the air what seems at first a 
monster carrot of peculiar shape. It radiates an intense heat and 
lights up the foundry like a second sun. It is a 10-inch gun casting, 
.weighing many tons. Not long ago it came from the moulds and the 
crane is going to place it on the cooling beds, where it will remain 
until it is cool enough to be handled. Castings are always made too 
large, as they shrink considerably in cooling. Steel such as is used in 
gun castings shrinks one-fourth of an inch to every foot. This casting 
will therefore be about 6 inches shorter when it has cooled. Series of 
rollers form the cooling beds. As the casting shrinks, so the rollers 
revolve in sympathy, thus lessening the risk of the casting cracking. 
Many castings are made from moulds of very fine sand, and we see both 
moulds and castings lying about on all sides. 

233 



ROUND AN ENGINEERING WORKS 

The next section is the erecting shop. The various parts of 
machines made in scattered " shops " are here brought to be assem- 
bled. In one corner men are busy putting hundreds of rivets into 
locomotive boilers, while over there on rails are more than a dozen 
complete locomotives, ready for shipment to India. They are all 
alike, but you will notice little passage-ways beneath the ground and 
between the rails. These are to enable the engineers to examine the 
locomotives from underneath, and even now men are engaged in 




[By courtesy of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whiiworth & Co., Ltd. 
IN THE ERECTING SHOP. 
A pair of overhead cranes moving a completed locomotive out of the way. 

tightening a nut on this one and adjusting a brake on another. Above 
us are rails on which mammoth overhead cranes can travel from one end 
of the shop to the other. They pick up a heavy locomotive and move 
it from one part of the shop to another as easily as you carry a book. 

Another interesting object is the large turbine blading over there. 
Fifteen feet high and perhaps 24 feet long, it contains many tens of 
thousands of " teeth " and will form the chief feature of the engines 
employed to take a 2O,ooo-ton liner across the thousands of miles of the 
Atlantic. 

234 



ROUND AN ENGINEERING WORKS 

Of course, no machine is allowed to leave the works until it has 
been carefully examined for faults. Many human lives depend upon 
the smooth and satisfactory working of the machines which leave 
these works in large numbers every day. So a section is set apart 
as a testing shop. All around us testing and examining is going on, 
many very delicate and ingenious instruments being employed. All 
machines are tested beyond the limits of the work they will have to 
do. For example, a crane which is guaranteed to lift up to 10 tons, 




[By courtesy of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitjforth & Co., Ltd. 
LOCOMOTIVES READY FOR SHIPMENT OVERSEAS. 
Part of a consignment of 200 which were shipped in running order. 

will be tested for 12-ton weights, and cannot be passed unless it per- 
forms this work in a satisfactory way. 

Another interesting section is the laboratory, where experiments 
are continually being made. Here stresses are worked out, metals 
are analysed, models of new inventions are prepared, and so on. 

Passing on, we come to the machine shop, a maze of whirling 
wheels and leather. Everything seems in hopeless confusion, wheels 
revolving one way and wheels revolving in the opposite way, belting 
flying round and round so quickly that the eye cannot follow the 
movements. Above all, noise ! 



235 




[By courtesy of Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd. 
A HUGE TURBINE READY TO LEAVE THE WORKS. 
Low pressure ahead and astern turbine for a great liner, with upper part of casing raised. 

In the machine shop all the miscellaneous small work is done. 
Screws, nuts, bolts, wheels, ball-bearings, small tools and parts of all 
descriptions are turned out. The floor is littered with rough lumps of 
metal, and by the side of each machine is an ordered pile of finished 
articles, the smaller ones, such as screws, being stored in boxes. The 
whole floor is carpeted with chips and shavings of metal. These, by 
the way, will be carefully swept up and melted down with the scrap. 
As we have said, nothing is wasted. 

It is also important that there should be as few accidents as 
possible. You will notice that the revolving belts and wheels are 
protected by wire screens wherever necessary. 

As we watch, along come electric trucks to remove the partly- 
finished articles to the finishing shop, and the finished ones to the 
warehouse. Now we see what the " white lines " we have noticed all 
over the works are for. They indicate the roads through the different 
" shops," for the works is a large place, covering perhaps several acres. 
In order that the vehicles which use these roads (trucks and small 
travelling cranes in the main) may travel quickly from place to place, 
the space between the white lines must not on any account be ob- 
structed. Woe betide the unthinking man who dumps a pile of small 
parts in between the white lines. 



236 



ROUND AN ENGINEERING WORKS 

Our eyes and ears tired of the whirling wheels and the noise of 
the machine shop, we gladly move on to the calm of the drawing office. 

This is the designing department, the brain of the works, where 
the thinking is done. The whole space of the department is occupied 
with row upon row of sloping desks, which are littered with drawings 
and blueprints, rules, bottles of ink, and so on. Many draughtsmen 
are busy here designing new machines or suggesting improvements to 
old ones. When the plans are completed they will be sent to the 
experimental department and a sample machine will be constructed for 
testing. Or perhaps the plans will go to the laboratory for a model to 
be built. If the model or the sample machine gives the results the 
drawing office expect, the machines will be placed on the market. Of 
course the drawing-office ideas have often to be much modified. 

Specimens of the machines which the works turn out are in- 
stalled in the demonstration department. Customers come here to 
test the machines they propose to buy and to learn whether they are 
capable of the results which they require. 

Then there are the warehouses, where the products of the works 
are stored until customers can be found. 

There is a great deal more to be seen if we had time, but we have 
learnt that, grime and noise notwithstanding, a modern engineering 
works is a place of very great interest and gives employment to some 
very clever brains and many skilful hands. 




[By courtesy of Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd. 

THE TURBINE BLADING WITHOUT CASING. 
237 




[Central News. 
MOTOR LINER "ALCANTARA," BELONGING TO THE ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET CO. 



LAUNCHING A LINER 

A DELICATE OPERATION 

WE often see in the newspapers paragraphs describing the launch 
of a liner, but they mention little more than the final act, 
usually performed by a lady, of pressing a button, breaking a bottle of 
wine on the bows, and giving the ship her name as she slides gracefully 
down the ways. Little is generally known or understood of the many 
preparations and careful forethought necessary before this apparently 
simple act can be performed. Even before the keel is laid the depth 
and breadth of the river, the rise and fall of the tide, and the estimated 
launching weight of the ship, have to be carefully considered. Only 
then can the declivity of the keel blocks and the positions of the 
stem and stern on the slip be decided. 

The keel declivity is usually J inch per foot of length, but this is 
generally an insufficient slope for the launching ways if the vessel is 
to have the necessary rapid run down to the river. The ground or 
fixed " ways " on which the vessel slides, are therefore often given a 
declivity of f inch per foot at the forward end, and are laid with a 
slightly convex curvature, or "camber," increasing the declivity to 
about f inch per foot for the last 100 feet. 

The next point to be decided is the distance of the ways from the 
centre line of the ship. As the whole weight of the ship is concentrated 



238 




[By courtesy of Messrs. Harland & Wolff Ltd 
MOTOR LINER "CARNARVON CASTLE," 
belonging to the Union Castle Line, leaving the launchways. 



230 



LAUNCHING A LINER 

on these ways just before and during the launching period, there is 
danger of them damaging or straining the shell. It is consequently 
essential that they should be arranged directly below some strong 
part of the ship's structure, such as a girder, and this usually necessi- 
tates them being placed well under the bottom of the ship. At the 
same time they must not be placed too near the centre, or there will be 
danger of the ship falling over when she is partially in the water. If 
there are no girders in a suitable position for the purpose, it is necessary 
to stiffen up the hull with internal shoring. 

Another important point to be kept in view is the weight of the 
ship relative to the area of the launchways. There is a tendency for 
the timber supporting the latter to crush if overloaded, and a danger 
of the ways " firing," owing to excessive friction as the top way slides 
over the fixed way. 

When these points have been decided, the fixed or ground ways 
are built up to the required height on baulks of timber, and the slid- 
ing ways are placed alongside, ready to receive their coating of 
lubricant. 

If the weather is temperate the greasing of the ways may be per- 
formed from four to six weeks before the launch, but in very warm 
or very cold weather the longer this process is delayed the better, as 
in hot weather the grease melts and runs out from between the sur- 
faces of the ways, while in very cold weather it freezes the two surfaces 
together, with the result that the vessel may refuse to move when the 
time comes for launching. The lubricant used for greasing the ways 
is tallow, train oil and soft soap. First, the pure tallow is applied 
hot, with brushes ; when this has set hard a further coating of a mixture 
of tallow and train oil is smeared over, and finally coated with a layer 
of soft soap. To give some impression of the magnitude of the task 
of greasing the ways, it may be said that for a large liner a quantity 
of about 15 tons of tallow, 5 tons of tallow and train oil mixture, and 
3 tons of soft soap are required. 

The top or sliding ways are then laid on the fixed ways ; the lubri- 
cated surfaces together, and the spaces between the sliding ways, and 
the bottom of the ship is filled in with a layer of making-up timber 
and closely spaced hardwood wedges. 

Up to this stage the weight of the ship is still taken by the original 
keel and bilge blocks, but the wedges are now gradually hardened up, 
thus transferring the weight from the blocks to the ways, and the keel 

240 



LAUNCHING A LINER 

and bilge blocks are carefully removed, until finally the whole weight 
is taken on the launchways. 

Along the amidship, or flat bottom of the ship, the making-up 
consists of only one layer of timber, but towards the ends of the ship, 
where the transverse section of the vessel resembles a " V " in shape, 
making-up becomes a much bigger job. It consists of large baulks of 
timber, cut and fitted to suit the shape of the ship, so that they will 
take their fair share of the load. These end supports are called " pop- 




[By courtesy of Messrs. John Brown <5- Co., Lid. 
THE "AQUITANIA" ON THE STOCKS. 

pets," and those at the forward end are especially important, as they 
not only have to support their share of the weight of the ship, but 
to withstand the stress on the forward cradle when the vessel is partly 
waterborne. The launching weight of a 20,ooo-ton liner would be 
about 14,000 tons, and if you can imagine a beam of this weight, and 
about 600 feet long, supported at one end (as a ship is when partly 
waterborne) and the other end resting on the fore poppets, it will give 
you some idea of the pressure on this part of the ship's structure and 
the forward portion of the sliding ways. It is for this reason that 



W.B.E. 



241 



LAUNCHING A LINER 



the declivity of the ways is increased towards the water's edge. The 
extra sharp declivity ensures the vessel having a rapid run over the 
most critical point, which is when she is about two-thirds in the water 
and one-third on the ways. 

One of the most interesting features about the launching ways is 
the system of " triggers." These triggers lock the sliding way in 
position over the ground way, and are kept in a vertical or cocked 
position by hydraulic rams. 
Immediately before the 
vessel is launched the last 
few keel and bilge blocks 
are knocked out, so that 
the triggers are now the 
only things preventing the 
vessel sliding down the 
ways. When the signal is 
given the lady performing 
the ceremony touches a 
button or lever, releasing 
the rams, thereby allow- 
ing the triggers to slip 
into the horizontal or 
closed position, and the 
vessel begins slowly to 
slide into the water. In 
order that there may be 
no Honbt ahnnt thp 
vessel starting, it is usual 
to provide a hydraulic ram at the forward end of each sliding 
way, so that if the ship is a little " lazy," she can be given a 
start by operating the rams. Although fortunately not common, 
cases are recorded of vessels which have refused to move after 
all the checks have been released, and even then have only moved a 
few inches under the pressure of the rams, while there are other cases 
of vessels sticking half-way down the slips. This failure to launch 
can usually be ascribed to one of two reasons. Firstly, in very frosty 
weather the tallow and soft soap on the ways may have frozen and 
bound the sliding way to the fixed one. When the temperature is 
very low it is usual to keep fires under the ship for a few days before 




lBy WMrtesJ , of Messrs . John D* & Co., Ltd. 
A PNEUMATIC RIVETER CUTTING PORTHOLES IN THE 

SIDE OF A LINER. 



242 



LAUNCHING A LINER 

the actual launch. Secondly, owing to soft ground or insufficient 
camber, the ways may have sunk a little in the centre, or possibly 
not have had enough declivity to enable the vessel to obtain sufficient 
speed to carry her over the critical point, just when the stern lifts 
and the pressure on the fore supports is greatest. 

At this period of the launch it is not uncommon to see blue smoke 
arising from the ways. This is due to the heat generated by the friction 
of the sliding way moving over the ground way, and boiling the tallow, 
and even sometimes setting fire to it. 

The time taken from the start of the vessel moving down the 
ways until she is fully afloat varies with the length and weight of the 
ship. A heavy vessel would pick up speed more quickly than a light 
structure, and, of course, a ship 300 feet long will reach the water more 
quickly than a liner 900 feet long. The weather conditions also affect 
the matter, so that the time may be anything from 35 to 65 seconds, dur- 
ing which the vessel may attain a speed of from 10 to 14 miles per hour. 

This brings us to the question of checking the movement of the 
ship once she is afloat. 

There are few shipyards in Great Britain where there is sufficient 
room, or a large enough area of deep water, to allow the vessel to run 
free until she can be brought to a standstill by dropping her own 
anchor ; in the majority of shipyards the river into which the vessel 
has to be launched is narrow, and she must be brought up as soon as 
possible. To accomplish this, six or eight large coils of heavy chain 
cables or steel plates are placed at intervals on the ground, along each 
side of the ship ; the coils or plates vary in weight from 80 to 100 tons 
each, the number varying with the size and weight of the ship and with 
the distance in which it is desired to pull her up. These piles of plates 
or chains are called " drags," and are connected by heavy wire ropes, 
or chain cables, to strong eyeplates riveted temporarily to the sides 
of the ship. The length of check wire is so arranged that the aftermost 
pair of drags begin to operate immediately the stem of the ship drops 
over the end of the ways, the second pair when she has run about 
another 30 feet, and so on, until the vessel is brought to a standstill. 
By this arrangement the brake, or check, is put on gradually, and does not 
inflict too great a shock to the check cables or connections to the hull. 

Immediately the vessel is at rest tugs are in attendance to take 
charge, and the check ropes are released, so that she can be towed to 
her fitting-out basin for completion. 



243 




KING EDWARD BUILDING STATION. 

TRAINS THAT RUN WITHOUT DRIVERS 

LONDON has now a Tube Railway, between six and seven miles long, which does 
not carry passengers at all and which few members of the public ever see. It is used 
for transporting letter and parcel mails between the principal District Post Offices 
and Railway Stations. The internal diameter of the tunnel is only 9 feet, and this 
accommodates separate tracks for west-bound and east-bound traffic, each of 2 feet 
gauge. The most interesting fact about the line, however, is that the trains are 
operated without drivers ! 

The position and destination of each wagon is notified to the control officer, who, 
by means of levers in the cabin, sets points for the particular route desired and ener- 
gizes certain sections of the line with current. The train then comes to rest at the 
proper section of the platform, or runs through the station without further attention. 




[By courtesy of the Engineer-in-Clnef,G.P.O. 
A DRiVERLESS TRAIN OF THREE WAGONS. 




A GREAT POWER HOUSE IN CANADA. 



[E. ff. A. 



A hydro-electric power station for low " head." The water from the lake above passes through the turbines 
in the power house and thence to the " tail race " seen in front. 



EVER since Man recognized the many advantages of using " power " 
in excess of that of his own muscles, he has looked longingly 
at the waterfalls and the swiftly moving streams. It was obvious that 
he had there a source of power which, to use the poet's phrase, " runs 
on for ever," and which was his for the taking, provided he could 
devise means of harnessing it to the implements he wished to drive. 
From the earliest times crude water-wheels have been in use, consist- 
ing of a series of baffles mounted on a wheel and immersed in the water 
in such a way that the flowing of the stream caused the wheel to rotale. 
Such wheels have long turned the heavy grindstones used in converting 
corn into flour, and even to-day, in this age of wonderful engineering 
skill, you may, perhaps, in a country ramble come across an old-fash- 
ioned farm-house where a picturesque water-wheel improved some- 
what from the crude form at first used is employed for grinding the 
corn or driving the chaff-cutters and other machines on the farm. 

A century or so ago water-wheels were largely used for driving 
the cotton-spinning machinery in the northern counties of England ; 
in fact, the weaving industry established itself in that part of the coun- 
try because it was possible to obtain water-power for driving the looms. 
But the use of water-wheels in the old way meant that the machinery 
they drove had to be located near the stream itself, since the power 



245 



MAKING WATER WORK 




JET FROM NOZZLE AT FULL PRESSURE. 



could only be transmitted a short 
distance by means of the shafts, 
pulleys and belts which were the 
methods then available. With 
the rapid growth of the cotton 
industry some other source of 
power had to be found. Fortu- 
nately, the steam engine was dis- 
covered about this time and so 
the industry continued to 
develop in the districts in which it was first established. 

While, however, small amounts of power could be obtained from 
streams and rivers by the water- 
wheel, the swift rivers in the up- 
lands and the waterfalls in the 
mountain gorges could not be 
harnessed in this way at all, since 
it was impossible, in the days 
before railways, to establish an 
industry (together with homes for 
the people employed in it) in dis- 
tricts far from towns. Thus the 

use of water-power on an exten- SECTION OF NOZZLE m posmON NEAR 
sive scale remained a dream. BUCKETS. 



With the coming of electricity 
(or rather the knowledge of how 
to use it) all this was changed. 
The power of the waterfall and 
of the swiftly running river can 
now be compelled to drive large 
" turbines" or bladed wheels, 
and these in turn made to drive 
electrical generators from which 
current can be transmitted over 
miles of wild and barren country 
to the industrial areas, driving 
our machinery, lighting our 
homes, and performing in- 





JET FROM NOZZLE DIFFUSED TO REGULATE 
THE POWER DEVELOPED BY THE WHEEL. 



246 



MAKING WATER WORK 



numerable other tasks that used to involve a great deal of human 
drudgery. Once it was realized that electricity could be easily 
and cheaply generated by means of water-power, the science of 
water-power engineering or to give its more correct title, " hydro- 
electric engineering " advanced by leaps and bounds. Instead of 
employing slow-moving and inefficient water-wheels we now have 
various efficient forms of water turbine which, rotating at high speed 
or else driving through gearing, enable the utmost proportion of the 

power of the water to be 
converted into electrical 
energy. To-day there are 
water turbines in which a 
single "wheel " will develop 
no less than 60,000 horse- 
power, and each horse- 
power may be taken as 
representing the hard 
labour of at least ten 
strong men. 

When water-power is 
mentioned, our thoughts 
turn at once to the mighty 
Niagara Falls on the river 
which in that part separ- 
ates Canada from the 
United States. The rush- 
ing waters of these 
stupendous falls have been 
harnessed both on the 
Canadian and the American 
sides, and you will gather 
some idea of the rapidity with which the employment of water- 
power has developed from the fact that it was only in 1895 that 
the first installation was laid down at Niagara, this being indeed 
the first water-power installation of any kind in the continent of 
America. The total power of this early station was 15,000 horse-power, 
there being three turbines of 5,000 horse-power each. To-day, on 
the Canadian side alone, the total power developed is approximately 
1,000,000 horse-power. Put in another way, it may be said that this 







[By courtesy of the English Electric Co., Ltd. 
A LARGE PELTON TURBINE WATER-WHEEL. 

Jets of water at high speed strike the buckets, as shown in 
the pictures on previous page, and thus cause the wheel to 
rotate. This wheel will develop 15,000 horse-power. 



247 



MAKING WATER WORK 



represents the labour of 10,000,000 able-bodied men, or considerably 
more than that of the entire population of London and its surround- 
ings. Even that is not all, for Niagara has no seven- or eight-hour day, 
but works all day and all night, so that the figure should be at least 
trebled. 

If you are fortunate enough to be able to visit the Niagara Falls, 
or any other place where water-power is obtained, you will not find 

any machinery resemb- 
ling in the slightest the 
old-fashioned water- 
wheel ; indeed, you may 
find a difficulty in dis- 
covering any buildings at 
all suggestive of a power 
house. As a matter of 
fact, the water which is 
used to drive the turbines 
is led either through pipes 
or along specially con- 
structed canals to the power 
house, this usually being a 
stately and even picturesque 
building in which the 
water turbines and the 
electric generators they 
drive are installed. The 
power house may even be 
a considerable distance from 
the falls, the object being 
to attain as big a " head," 
or height of water above 
the turbines, as possible. 
Where, as at Niagara, an ever-increasing number of stations using 
water is being erected, each has to be built farther and farther 
from the actual falls. Thus, for the Queenston Power Station, the 
water is led from a point well above the Niagara Falls along a natural 
river for about 4^ miles, thence along a specially constructed canal 
for a further 8J miles to a point on the cliffs well below Niagara, 
where it falls through huge pipes to turbines, placed in a power house 




[Sport & General. 
CONSTRUCTING THE QUEENSTON-CHIPPAWA CANAL. 

This leads the water from Niagara for a distance of 8J miles 
to the water turbines. The canal is 48 feet wide, and has at 
this point a depth of 140 feet. 



248 



MAKING WATER WORK 

at the river-level. In this way these turbines are enabled to work 
under a " head " of 305 feet. 

Because of the continual drawing of water from numerous points 
above the falls it is feared that if the development of hydro-electric 
power schemes were to continue unfettered, the falls would ultimately 
be drained dry. The amounts to be taken are now carefully regulated. 
Not only places near Niagara, but cities several hundred miles away 
use this energy for lighting their streets and houses, doing their cooking, 




[Ronne & Washburn. 
THE NIAGARA FALLS VIEWED FROM AN AEROPLANE. 

On the Canadian side alone one million horse-power is obtained by making the water work as described in 

this article. 

driving their trams, and running the machinery in a host of farms and 
factories of all kinds. 

Two distinct types of water turbine have been developed for use 
in modern hydro-electric power stations. For low " heads " of watei 
we use what is known as the Francis, or reaction, type of turbine, 
while for high " heads " the Pelton wheel, or impulse, type of turbine 
is employed. The Francis turbine is not greatly dissimilar from the 
old-fashioned water-wheel, since it is the pressure of the water upon 

249 



MAKING WATER WORK 



the vanes or blades of the wheel which causes it to rotate. The water 
is led to a casing shaped somewhat in the form of a huge snail, near 
the middle of which are arranged a number of guide blades which serve 
to direct the water on to the vanes of the wheel mounted at the centre. 
The direction of the guide blades can be altered to suit the load coming 
on to the electric generator driven by the wheel. The vanes on the 

wheel are so ar- 
ranged that the 
maximum rotational 
effect is obtained as 
the water passes 
over them before it 
reaches what is 
termed the " tail 
race," the large open 
space outside the 
power house where, 
having done its work, 
the water returns to 
the river or stream 
from which it came. 
With the Pelton 
type of turbine we 
have one or more 
nozzles which direct 
a jet of water at 
high velocity on to 
a series of vanes or 
buckets arranged 
around the rim of 
the wheel. Owing 
to the great "head" 
of water available above the nozzle the force exerted by the jet is 
enormous, and it is this force, acting on the buckets, which causes the 
wheel to rotate. In some stations where turbines of this type are 
employed a "head " of water exceeding 5,000 feet is available ; this means 
that the water rushes from the nozzles at a velocity of more than 500 
feet per second, or 320 miles an hour, which is five times faster than the 
speed of an express train. Some idea of the force exerted by this jet 

250 




[E. N. A. 
A HYDRO-ELECTRIC STATION IN THE MOUNTAINS OF NORWAY. 

The tremendous " pipe-lines " conduct the water from the high-level lake 
to the power station in the valley. 



MAKING WATER WORK 

will be gained from the statement that if the amount of water discharged 
by the nozzle is one gallon per second the work done is equivalent to 
90 horse-power. 

Unfortunately, there are not many examples of the harnessing of 
waterfalls in Great Britain owing to the fact that so few parts of the 
country are mountainous. In Scotland and in North Wales water- 
power is available and to a certain extent is being harnessed to produce 
electricity, but it is to such mountainous countries as Switzerland, 
Norway, and certain parts of France that we must go to see water-power 
generated on an extensive scale. In Switzerland so widely is the 
electricity so generated used for driving machinery in work-shops, 
operating railways, lighting, heating, cooking, and for almost all purposes 
that water-power has come to be called " white coal." Even in the 
most remote villages you will find electric light in the chalets and shops. 

In Great Britain we have abundant supplies of " black coal," but 
Nature has not been generous to us in the matter of " white coal." 
When our black coal becomes exhausted, as it must, no doubt the 
ingenuity of our engineers will develop means of harnessing the sluggish 
rivers which flow through these islands, despite the fact that the head 
of water available may not exceed 2 or 3 feet. But it is possible that 
some totally new method of obtaining electricity may be devised which 
will render us independent alike of "black coal" and "white coal." 
ALFRED REGNAULD, B.Sc.(Eng. Lond.), A.R.C.Sc., M.I.E.E. 




NOT A SNAIL BY ANY MEANS. 

A gigantic water turbine of the Francis, 
or reaction, type under construction. It is 
so big that the largest railway engines 
could run through it. The power de- 
veloped by such a machine is equal to the 
manual labour of thousands of men. 



251 





AN AUTOMATIC TELEPHONE RECEIVER. 



THE DIAL SWITCH. 



"ARE YOU THERE?" 

THE NEW AUTOMATIC TELEPHONES 

AS all children know whose homes are " on the phone," the 
telephones we have used so long are gradually being replaced 
in large cities, including London, by automatic telephones. With 
these we no longer need to call " Exchange," but can ourselves " ring 

up " the number 
required by merely 
putting a finger 
successively on the 
proper figures, pull- 
ing the revolving 
dial clockwise round 
to the finger stop 
and letting go. 
After a time or two, 
it seems very simple, 
but if you could get 
behind the scenes 
you would be sur- 
prised at the amount 

[Topical . , . , , . 

ASSEMBLING THE NEW AUTOMATIC TELEPHONES READY FOR * WOriC mVOiVe< Dy 

DISTRIBUTION TO SUBSCRIBERS. the change-over 

252 




AUTOMATIC TELEPHONES 



and by the unerring clever- 
ness of the electrical adjust- 
ments which establish and 
cut off so many thousands 
of connections without any 
human interference. 

There is not space here 
to tell how it is done, but 
the photographs give some 
idea of the preliminary 
work of bringing the thou- 
sands of labelled cables to 
the distributing frame. In 
London the number of con- 
nections which have to be 
made is over five millions! 





[Illustrations Bureau. 

FIXING TAGGED CABLES TO A DISTRIBUTION FRAME. 

253 



Illustrations Bureau. 

ENDLESS CARE AND PATIENCE ARE 
REQUIRED IN DEALING WITH SO 
MANY THOUSANDS OF CABLES. 

When the subscriber takes 
his receiver off the hook 
the work of establishing the 
desired connection is done 
by a series of what are 
known as " pre-selector " 
and " selector " switches 
which pass their "wipers" 
over hanks of " contacts " 
representing possible con- 
nections and then un- 
erringly pick out first the 
" thousands " figure, then 
the "hundreds "and "tens," 
and finally the unit. 




A WASH AND BRUSH UP FOR THE "FLYING SCOTSMAN." 



A FOUR-HOURS' TOILET 
FOR GIANT LOCOMOTIVES 

(Photographs reproduced by courtesy of the London and North Eas'.ern Railway Co.) 

MANY who have seen " The Flying Scotsman," or some other 
famous " flyer," leave the terminus have no doubt wondered 
how it is possible to keep these giant locomotives so well groomed. 
The secret is that every day they undergo a four-hours' preparation 
before drawing up to the platform. 

At the depot outside King's Cross Station, where the great " Paci- 
fic " locomotives " sleep " when off duty, engines are to be seen almost 
everywhere some coming in from duty and others going out. The 
difference between the two is as marked as that between workmen 
going to their toil and the same men returning at the end of the day. 

First, the engines receive attention from the boiler-smiths. 
Then the fire-boys set the fire going by throwing live coal into the fire- 
box, so that by the time the driver comes on duty the boiler has a head 
of 80 Ib. of steam. Every two or three days the boiler is thoroughly 



254 



A LOCOMOTIVE'S TOILET 

cleaned, and barrowloads of scale (like the " fur " that is found in the 
ordinary household kettle) are removed. Scale, soot and other impuri- 
ties quickly collect in the internal pipes of a locomotive, and as there 
are 3,800 feet of these pipes in a " Pacific " locomotive it is very neces- 
sary to keep them clean, for the impurities considerably reduce the 
power and also cause a greater consumption of coal. At King's Cross 
the pipes are cleaned in about twenty minutes by an ingenious washing 
appliance, which is actuated by the steam of the boiler itself. 

The whole of the paint-work is then gone over by the cleaners, 
and the bright parts the steel and the brass are polished. Mean- 
time, the driver and his mate have arrived and proceed to oil-up and 
take in water. The importance of lubrication is very great on 
these hard-working engines. Two kinds of oil are used one for lubri- 
cating the axle-boxes, valve-motions and other working parts, the 
other for lubricating the interior of the valve-chests and cylinders. 
Each driver receives a certain ration of oil according to his day's run. 

Although the cleaning of a locomotive may not appear a romantic 
occupation it must be remembered that it is from the ranks of the 
cleaners that the drivers of express trains are recruited. Cleaning 
engines enables the future driver to gain considerable knowledge of the 
working parts, and he becomes familiar with the controls. From being 




FINISHING TOUCHES. 
255 



A LOCOMOTIVE'S TOILET 

a cleaner he works his way up through various grades, first becoming 
a shunting fireman, then local goods fireman, main line fireman and 
express passenger fireman. Before he becomes a driver, however, he 
has to pass a stiff examination in regard to the mechanism and work- 
ing of the engine, and there are also sight tests, colour tests and so on 
to say nothing of signalling tests and routine running. Even then 
he will probably have to spend many years as driver of goods engines 
and of passenger engines on branch lines before he is trusted with 
the control of a main-line passenger engine, arid especially of such a 
beauty as the " Flying Scotsman." v 




CLEANING OUT THE SMOKE-BOX. 



256 



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