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Full text of "Works. With an English translation by Wilmer Cave Wright"





T. E. PAGE, LiTT.D. AND W. H. D. ROUSE, Litt.D. 


























INDEX 513 




VOL. 11. 



The Sixth Oration is a sermon or rather a scolding 
addressed to the New Cynics, and especially to one 
of their number who had ventured to defame the 
memory of Diogenes. In the fourth Christian 
century the Cynic mode of life was adopted by 
many, but the vast majority were illiterate men 
who imitated the Cynic shamelessness of manners 
but not the genuine discipline, the self-sufficiency 
(avTOLpKiLo) which had ennobled the lives of Antis- 
thenes, Diogenes and Crates. To the virtues of 
these great men Julian endeavours to recall the 
worthless Cynics of his day. In the two centuries 
that had elapsed since Lucian wrote, for the edifica- 
tion of degenerate Cynics,^ the Life of the Cynic 
Demonax, the dignified and witty friend of Epictetus, 
the followers of that sect had still further deter- 
iorated. The New Cynics may be compared with 
the worst type of mendicant friar of the Middle 
Ages ; and Julian saw in their assumption of 
the outward signs of Cynicism, the coarse cloak, 
the staff and wallet, and long hair, the same hypo- 
crisy and greed that characterised certain of the 
Christian monks of his day.^ The resemblances 

^ Cf. Bernays, Luhian und die Kyniker, Berlin, 1879. 
!» 224 c. 


between the Christians and the Cynics had ah-eady 
been pointed out by Aristides/ and while in Juhan's 
eyes they were equally impious^ he has an additional 
grievance against the Cynics in that they brought 
discredit on philosophy. Like the Christiaijs they 
were unlettered, they were disrespectful to the gods 
whom Julian was trying to restore, they had flattered 
and fawned on Constantius, and far from practising 
the austerities of Diogenes they were no better than 
parasites on society. 

In this as in the Seventh Oration Julian's aim 
is to reform the New Cynics, but still more to 
demonstrate the essential unity of philosophy. He 
sympathised profoundly with the tenets of Cynicism, 
and ranked Diogenes with Socrates as a moral 
teacher. He reminds the Cynics whom he satirises 
that the famous admonition of Diogenes to " counter- 
mark " 2 or " forge " a new coinage is not to be taken 
as an excuse for license and impudence, but like 
the Delphic precept "^ Know Thyself" warns all 
philosophers to accept no traditional authority, no 
convention that has not been examined and approved 
by the reason of the individual. His conviction 
that all philosophical tenets are in harmony if 
rightly understood, gives a peculiar earnestness 
to his Apologia for Diogenes. The reference in 
the first paragraph to the summer solstice seems 
to indicate that the Oration was written before 
Julian left Constantinople in order to prepare 
for the Persian campaign. 

^ Aristides, Orations 402 d. 

^ The precise meaning of the phrase is uncertain ; it has 
been suggested that it arose from the custom of altering or 
' ' countermarking " coins so as to adapt them for the regular 
currency ; see 192 c, Oration 7. 208 d. 

B 2 



"Avco 7roTafjL(ov, tovto Brj to Trj<; 7rapoi/jLLa<;. dvrjp 
K.vvLKo<; Atoyevr) (j>rjcrl /cevoSo^ov, /cal ylrv')(^poXov- 
Telv ov ffovXerac, crcpoSpa ippwfievo^; to a-oyfia koI 
(K^tpiySyv KoX TT}v rfkiKuav aKjxd^wv, <»9 av fir] tl \^ 
KaKov XdpT), Kol Tavra tov Oeov tol^ Oeptvac'; 
Tpovrat? 7]Srj 7rpo(Tc6vTO<i. dWd /cal ttjv iBcoBrjv 
TOV 7roXu7ro8o9 KcofKoBel kul (^rjac tov Aooyevrj tt}? 
dvoia^i /cat KevoBo^La<; eKTeTLKevai lKavd<; ^ Bitca^ 
odcyirep vtto Kcoveiov t?)? Tpo(f>ri'^ Bia^OapevTa. 
ouTO) TToppco TTOV (TO(pia<i iXavv6i, a>aT€ eiricTTaTai 
(Ta^w<^ OTC KUKOV 6 6dvaT0<;. tovto he dyvoelv 
vTreXdfM^avev 6 ao(^o<^ ^ooKpdTrjf;, dXXd koI /jL6T 
eKelvov Ai,oy6V7)<;. dppcoaTovvTi yovv, (pacTLv, 
^ KvTiaOeveL jxaKpdv kol BvaavdXrjTrTOv dppwGTiav 
^l^LBlov eTriBco/cev 6 Aioyev7]<; elircav' el (j>iXov B 
XPvK^f''^ vTrovpyia^. ovToy^i ovBev a>€T0 Becvbv 

iKayhi- Naber adds. 




Behold the rivers are flowing backwards,^ as 
the proverb says ! Here is a Cynic who says 
that Diogenes ^ was conceited^ and who refuses 
to take cold baths for fear they may injure him, 
though he has a very strong constitution and is 
lusty and in the prime of life, and this too though 
the Sun-god is now nearing the summer solstice. 
Moreover he even ridicules the eating of octopus 
and says that Diogenes paid a sufficient penalty 
for his folly and vanity in that he perished of 
this diet ^ as though by a draught of hemlock. 
So far indeed is he advanced in wisdom that he 
knows for certain that death is an evil. Yet this 
even the wise Socrates thought he did not know, 
yes and after him Diogenes as well. At any rate 
when Antisthenes* was suffering from a long and 
incurable illness Diogenes handed him a dagger 
with these words, '' In case you need the aid of 

^ A proverb signifying that all is topsy-turvy : cf. Euri- 
pides, Medea 413> Troraixonv lepoiu ^oDpovai trayai. 

'^ Of Sinope : he was the pupil of Antisthenes and is said 
to have lived in a jar in the Metrouni, the temple of the 
Mother of the Gods at Athens ; he died 323 B.C. 

^ For the tradition that Diogenes died of eating a raw 
octopus cf. Lucian,jS'a/e of Creeds 10. 

^ A pupil of Socrates and founder of the Cynic s^ct. 


eKeivo^i ovBe aXyetvov rov Odvarov. aXX! r]^el^ ol 
TO aKTjiTTpov eKelOev 7rapa\a^6vT€<; vrro fjbel^ovo^; 
(ro(f)[a<; tafiev on ')(^aK67rov 6 6dvaT0<;, koX rb 
vocrelv hetvorepov avrov (^afiev^ rov Oavdrov, rb 
pcyovv Be '^aXerrcorepov rov vqaelv. 6 jJbev yap 
voaoiv /laXafCox; ead^ ore Oeparreverai, oyare 
yiveaOai rpv<pr}v avr6')(^pr)fjia rr)v dppwariav, 
dW(o<; re kclv fj irXovcno^. eOeacrd/jbrjv roc kol C 
avro<; vrj Ata rpv<pcovrd<; riva<; ev ral^ vocroL<^ fid\- 
\ov Tj rovrov^ avrov<i vyialvovra^' Kairot ye koX 
rare Xa/x7rpco9 erpv(f)(ov. 66ev fioL kol rrapearr] rrpo^ 
riva<; rS)V eraipwv elirelv, co? rovroi^ dfieivw rjv 
olfceraLf; yeveaOat fiaXkov r) Bearrorai^y koX ireve- 
aOai rov /cplvov yvfjLvorepoL<; ovaiv rj ifKovrelv 
(OGirep vvv. rj yap av erravaavro voaovvre<; d^a 
Kal rpv^Mvre^. rb fiev Br) voaorv(^elv /cal vocrrj- D 
XeveaOat rpv<f)r)\(o<i ovrcoal rive<; ev KaXw irocovv- 
rar dvrjp Be rov Kpvov^ dve^ofievof; teal OdXiro^; 
Kaprepcov ov-^l fcal rwv vocrovvrwv dOXioarepov 
irpdrrei; dXyel yovv aTrapa/iivdrjra. 

Aevpo ovv r;yLtefc9 virep roiv K-Vvlkcov oiroaa Bt- 
Baa KaXfov rjtcovGajjiev ev koivw KaraSoyfJuev (TKoirelv 
rol<i eirl rbv fflov lovat rovrov ol<; el fiev ireia- 
OeZev, ev olBa, ovBev ol ye vvv eTrt'^ecpovvre^ 182 
Kvvi^eiv ecrovrau ')(eipov<i' aTrecOovvre^ Be el puev 
ri Xapunpbv Kal ae/juvbv eTnrrjBevo-ecaVf virep- 
(pwvovvref; rov Xoyov rov rj/juerepov, ovrt roi^^ 

^ (pafiev Hertlein auggests, <paai MSS, 


a friend." So convinced was he that there is 
nothing terrible or grievous in death. But we 
who have inherited his staff know out of our greater 
wisdom that death is a calamity. And we say 
that sickness is even more terrible than death, 
and cold harder to bear than sickness. For the 
man who is sick is often tenderly nursed, so that 
his ill-health is straightway converted into a luxury, 
especially if he be rich. Indeed I myself, by Zeus, 
have observed that certain persons are more luxurious 
in sickness than in health, though even in health 
they were conspicuous for luxury. And so it once 
occurred to me to say to certain of my friends 
that it were better for those men to be servants 
than masters, and to be poor and more naked 
than the lily of the field ^ than to be rich as 
they now are. For they would have ceased being 
at once sick and luxurious. The fact is that some 
people think it a fine thing to make a display of 
their ailments and to play the part of luxurious 
invalids. But, says someone, is not a man who has 
to endure cold and to support heat really more 
miserable than the sick ? Well, at any rate he has 
no comforts to mitigate his sufferings. 

Come now, let me set down for the benefit of 
the public what I learned from my teachers about 
the Cynics, so that all who are entering on this 
mode of life may consider it. And if they are 
convinced by what I say, those who are now 
aiming to be Cynics will, I am sure, be none 
the worse for it : and if they are unconvinced 
but cherish aims that are brilliant and noble, 
and set themselves above my argument not in 

^ A proverb, but Julian may allude to Matthew 6. 28. 


prjixaatv aWa rol^ epyoL^;, pvSev ifJiirohLOV 6 ye 
r)/jLer€po<i otaec \6yo(;' el he viro \L')(yeia<^ rj 
/jLa\aKia<i i], to Ke<paX,acov iv ecTrco ^vve\(M>v ev 
^pa'^et, T7]<i o-co/jLaTiKrjf; rjSovrjfi SeSovXcofievot, roiv 
\oycov oXiywprjaeiav TrpodKaTayeXdcravref;, (acnrep B 
iviore rcov TraiBevrrjpLcov /cat twv Si/caarTjpicov ol 
Kvve<; To?9 TrpoTTvXaioL^i irpoaovpovaiv, ov (^povrl^ 
YinTOKKeihr}' fcal yap ovBe rcov KvviSicov rjfuv 
fxeXei ra roiavra ifKt^fjLpLeXovvTdyv. Sevpo ovv 
avwOev ev /€ecf)a\aioc<; Sce^eXOcofiev ec^e^rj^ rov 
\oyov, Lva virep e/cdcrrov rb TrpoarjKov aTroBiBovref; 
avTOi re evKoXcorepov drrepyaacofjieOa rov6^ orrep 
Bcevoi]6r)/jiev /cal aol Troi'^aco/iiev evrrapaKoXovOrjrov. 
ovKovv eireihr) rov KWiafiov elSo? n cf)iXoao(f)La<; C 
elvac (TVfjL^ejSrj/cev, ovrc (j)avX6rarov ovSe drifjiora- 
rov, dXXa T0i9 KpariaroL^ evd/jLiXXov, oXiya 
rrporepov virep avrrj<; prjreov r)puv ecrn r?}? 

H rwv OeSiv etV dvOpcoTrov^; BoaL<i d/jia (j)avordr(f> 
TTvpl Bed TlpojuLTjOecof; Kara7refi(f)6€L(Ta ^ e^ rfkiov 
fjuerd T^9 '^pfiov /xeplBo^; ou^ erepov eart rrapd 
rrjv rov Xoyov kol vov BiavojJLrjv o ydp rou 
TipopLTjOev^;, r) rrdvra iTrir poirevovaa ra Ovrjrd 
rrpovoia, irvevfxa evdep/xov oiairep opyavov viro- D 
^dXXovaa rfj (fyvaec, drraai pLereBcofcev da-cofid- 
rov Xoyov fiere(T')(e Be exaarov ovirep yBvvaro, 
rd /xev dyfrvy^a aoofjuara rr]<; €^eco<!; fiovov, ra <f)urd 
oe Tjorj /cat, rr]<; ^o)r]<; ^ ra L,(pa he y^L'^^?, o he 

' KaTaveij,((>0e'i(Ta Reiske would add. 

^ TTjs (wris Wright CM^aTos Hertlein, MSS. Petavius 
suspects corruption, 



words only but in deeds^ then my discourse will 
at any rate put no hindrance in their way. But 
if there are others already enslaved by greed or 
self-indulgence, or to sum it up briefly in a single 
phrase, by the pleasures of the body, and they there- 
fore neglect my words or even laugh them down — ^just 
as dogs sometimes defile the front porticoes of schools 
and law-courts, — " 'Tis all one to Hippocleides," ^ 
for indeed we take no notice of puppies who 
behave in this fashion. Come then let me pursue 
my argument under headings from the beginning 
in due order, so that by giving every question 
its proper treatment I may myself more conveniently 
achieve what I have in mind and may make it 
more easy for you also to follow. And since it 
is a fact that Cynicism is a branch of philosophy, 
and by no means the most insignificant or least 
honourable, but rivalling the noblest, I must first 
say a few words about philosophy itself. 

The gift of the gods sent down to mankind with 
the glowing flame of fire ^ from the sun through the 
agency of Prometheus along with the blessings that 
we owe to Hermes ^ is no other than the bestowal of 
reason and mind. For Prometheus, the Forethought 
that guides all things mortal by infusing into nature 
a fiery breath to serve as an operative cause, gave 
to all things a share in incorporeal reason. And 
each thing took what share it could ; lifeless bodies 
only a state of existence ; plants received life besides, 

^ Herodotus 6. 129 ; Hippocleides, when told by Cleisthenes 
that by his unbecoming method of dancing he had "danced 
away his marriage," made this answer which became a 

2 An echo of Plato, Philebus 16 c ; cf. Themistius 338 c. 

^ e.g. eloquence, comrnerce, and social intercourse. 


dvOpo)7ro<; ical XoycKrj^; "^vxfjf;. elal fiev ovv oc 
fjLiav olovrat 8ia tovtcov Trdvrcov rifcetv (pvaiv, elal 
Be oc Koi Kar elho^; ravra 8ca<pepei,v. aWa juijirco 
TOVTO, fiaXXov Se fjLrjBe ev Ta> vvv Xoyo) tovto e'fe- 
ra^eaOot), irX'qv ifceivov ')(^dpi,v, on, rrjv <^iXo(TO(j>Lav 183 
€6^', odairep TtV6<^ VTroXa/ji^dvovac, t6')(V7jv re'xyoiv 
Kol e7rt.a'T7]/jL7)v eTnaTrj p^wv , etre opboicocnv Oecp ^ Kara 
TO Bvvarov, eW\ oirep 6 J1v6lo<; e<^r}, to VvodOi 
cravTov viroXd^oi ti,<;, ovBeu Bvoiaei Trpo^i tov 
Xoyov diravTa yap TavTa (ftauveTai 7rpo<; aXXrjXa 
KOL p,dXa olfC€i(o<; €')(pvTa, 

^Ap^oop^eda Be TrpoiTov diro tov TvmOl aavTov, 
€7r€iBr} Kol Oelov ecTTi tovto to TrapaKeXevcrp^a. 
ov/covv 6 ytyvooa/ccov avTov eto-eTac pev Trepl 'v/'^f %^9, B 
CLaeTat Be koX Trepl acop.aTO<;. kol tovto ovk 
dpKeaei piovov, co? eaTOV dvOpco7ro<; '^l'%^ '^pcopyivrj 
(TcopLaTi, puadelvy dXXa koL avTr}^ Trj<; yjrvx^'^ eV- 
eXevaeTai ttjv ovatav, eireiTa dvi-^vevaei, Td<; 
Bvvdpei^;. koX ovBe tovto puovov apKeaei avTw, 
dXXa Kai, eX ti Trj<; ■\jrv')(^f](; ev rjptu eVrt KpetTTOv 
/cat OecoTepov, oirep Br) 7rdvTe<; dBcBdKTCOf} Tretdo- 
puevoi Oelov ti eivai vopblt^opev, koI tovto eviBpv- C 
adat 7rdvTe<; ovpava> kolvo)<^ viroXap^dvop^ev. eTTCcov 
Be av6i<; Ta<i dp^a<; tov acopaTO^ aKeyjreTai, etre M 
(TVvOeTOV eiTe dirXovv eaTiv euTa oBw Trpo/Saivcov 
virep Te app,ovia<; avTov koi irdOov^ fcal Bvvdpew^ 
/cat TrdvTCOV d7rXci)<; mv BecTat 7rpo<s Btapovrjv. 
ein^eyfrec Be to peTa tovto koX ap')(^DLl^ Te^vcov 
^ eef Klimek, Oeoifp Hertlein, MSS, 




and animals soul^ and man a reasoning soul. Now 
some think that a single substance is the basis of 
all these, and others that they differ essentially ac- 
cording to their species. But this question we must 
not discuss as yet, or rather not at all in the present 
discourse, and we need only say that whether one 
regards philosophy, as some people do, as the 
art of arts and the science of sciences or as an 
effort to become like God, as far as one may, or 
whether, as the Pythian oracle said, it means " Know 
thyself," will make no difference to my argument. 
For all these definitions are evidently very closely 
related to one another. 

However, let us begin with " Know thyself," 
since this precept is divinely inspired. ^ It follows 
that he who knows himself will know not only about 
his soul but his body also. And it will not be enough 
to know that a man is a soul employing a body, but 
he will also investigate the essential nature of the 
soul, and then trace out its faculties. And not even 
this alone will be enough for him, but in addition he 
will investigate whatever exists in us nobler and 
more divine than the soul, that something which we 
all believe in without being taught and regard as 
divine, and all in common suppose to be established 
in the heavens. Then again, as he investigates the 
first principles of the body he will observe whether 
it is composite or simple ; then proceeding sys- 
tematically he will observe its harmony and the 
influences that affect it and its capacity and, in a 
word, all that it needs to ensure its permanence. 
And in the next place he will also observe the first 

^ Of. 188 B; Juvenal, Satires 11. 27; E caelo descendit 



. ivimVi v<j> d)v ^orjOetrai tt/oo? Siafiovrjp to crMfia, 
olov larpiKrjfi, yewpyia^, erepcov tolovtwv. ov /jltjv D 
ovSe TO)v a')(^prjaTwv koX irepiTTOiv ri TravrdTracriV 
ayvorja-eL, iirel kol ravra ^ 7r/)09 KoXaKCiav rod 
7ra07]TLKOV Trj<; '^v')(rj<^ y/mcov iirivevoTjrai. Trpoa- 
XLTraprjaai /juev yap rourot? airoKVYjaei al(T')(^pov 
o16/jL€vo(; to tolovtov, to hoKovv epy(oB€<; ev avTol^ 
(pevycov' to 5' oXov oirola UTTa Sofcec koI olaTtaiv 
dp/jLOTTei tt}? -y^v^Tjf; juuepecrtv, ovk dyvoijcrec. (JKoirei 
Srj, €L fjLT] TO eavTov yvMvai Trdarj^; jjuev eVtcTTT^yLtTy?, 
7racr?79 5e Te^vrj^; rjyetTaL re d/jua kol tov<; KaOoXov 
\6yov<; avv6i\r](f>e. TcuTe yap dela Bia r/}? ivovarjf; 184 
rjfjuv 6ela<; p,epiho(; Ta t6 OvrjTa Sid t?}? Ovr]ToeLhov<; 
fiocpa^; 7r/309 T0VT0t,<^ ^irpoarjKeiv €(f>r) to fiCTa^v 
TOVTcov ^(pov elBevai, top dv6pco7rovf,^ tw /lev /caO^ 
6/caaTov dvrjTov, Tq> ttuvtI Se dddvaTOVy kol fievTOi 
Kal TOP eva Kal tov KaO' eicaGTOv avyKeladai i/c 
Ov7]T7]<; /cal dOavdTov fiepiSof;. 

"^'Ort jxevTOL Kal to tw 6eS) KaTa hvvafjbiv op^oiov- 
aOai OVK oKko tl ecTTLV rj to ttjv e^tKTrjV dvOpco- 
TTOi? yvoiCTLv Tcov ovTcov irepi'7roLr)(7a(Tdaty'jrp6hriXov 
ivrevOev. ov yap iirl ttXovtw XPVP'dTCJV to Oclov B 
fiaKapi^ofJiev ovhe eir dXkrp tlvX tcov vo/juc^ofjuevcov 
dyaOcov, aXV oirep ^^Ofir)p6<; ^r^ai 

Oeol Si Te irdvTa Xaaaiy 
KoX fievToi KOI irepl Ato9 

AXXa ZeL'9 irpoTepo^^ yeyovei Kal TrXecova ySer 

^ ravra Hertlein suggests, ra MSS. 

^ irpo(r'f}K€iv — &v6puirov, Hertlein suggests, cf. Maximus of 
Tyre 4. 7 ; ^^t; to fxera^h rod ^^ov ejvai rhu &vdpa)iroy MSS, 



principles of certain arts by which the body is 
assisted to that peniianence, for instance, medicine, 
husbandry and the like. And of such arts as are 
useless and superfluous he will not be wholly 
ignorant, since these too have been devised to 
humour the emotional part of our souls. For 
though he will avoid the persistent study of these 
last, because he thinks such persistent study disgrace- 
ful, and will avoid what seems to involve hard work 
in those subjects ; nevertheless he will not, generally 
speaking, remain in ignorance of their apparent 
nature and what parts of the soul they suit. Reflect 
therefore, whether self-knowledge does not control 
every science and every art, and moreover whether 
it does not include the knowledge of universals. For 
to know things divine through the divine part in 
us, and mortal things too through the part of us 
that is mortal — this the oracle declared to be the 
duty of the living organism that is midway between 
these, namely man ; because individually he is 
mortal, but regarded as a whole he is immortal, and 
moreover, singly and individually, is compounded of 
a mortal and an immortal part. 

Further, that to make oneself like God as far as 
possible is nothing else than to acquire such know- 
ledge of the essential nature of things as is attainable 
by mankind, is evident from the following. It is not 
on the score of abundance of possessions that we 
count the divine nature happy, nor on the score of 
any other of those things that are commonly believed 
to be advantages, but it is because, as Homer says, 
" The gods know all things" ;^ and indeed he says 
also of Zeus, " But Zeus was older and wiser." ^ 

1 Odyssey 4. 379. ^ Iliad 13. 355. 



€7na-Tt]fjLr) yap rjfxoiv ol Oeol SLa(f)6pov<Ji,v, 't^yelrai C 
yap taa)<i /cal avTol^; twv kuXoov to auTov<; jlvcI)- 
cTKeiv 0(T(p Sr) KpeiTTOV€<^ rjficjv elat rrjv ovcrtav, 
TOcrovTO) yv6vT€<; eavTov<i ta-')(pvcn ^eXnovcov yvS)- 
aiv. firjSel^ ovv r/fjulv rrjv (j>iKoao(^iav et? iroXKa 
Siaipeiro) firjBe 6t9 iroWa t€/jlp€tco, fxdXkov Be /jlt) 
7roXXa9 €K ficdf; iroLeLrw. (oairep yap dXrjdeca jxia, 
ovTco Be Kal (^CKoao^ia p^la' Oav/iaarov Be ovBev, 
el KCLT aXka<; Kal a\Xa<s oBov^i eir avrrjv rropevo- 
fjLeSa. eirel kclv, et t*9 Oekot tcou ^evcov rj val fMa D 
Ata TMV TToXat iroXirSyv eiraveXOelv eh AO'^va';, 
BvvaiTO fjbev Kal irXelv Kal ^aBi^eiv, oBevcov Be 
ol/jLat Bia yrj^ rj rat? ifKaTeiai'^ ')(^prjadai \e(o<f>6poi<; 
rj rah dTpaiTol<; Kal (tvvt6/jLOL<; oBol'^' Kal Trkelv 
fievTot Bvvarov irapa tov^ alyidXovf;, Kal Br) Kal 
Kara tov HvXtov yepovra re/jLvovra irekayo^^ fxeaov, 
fjurj Be TOVTO Ti,<s rj/mlv 7rpo(f)eper(o. el rive<; rayv Kar 
avTa<; lovrcov TOb'i oBov^ direTrXav-qOrjaav Kal aX- 
\a')(^ov TTov yevofjievoL, KaOdirep viro Trj<i KipKrjf; 17 185 
TCJV Acorocj^dycov rjBovrjf; rj Bo^tj^ tj tlvo^ dXkov 
BeXeaaOevrefi, direXeLcfyOrjaav rod irpoao) ^aBi^eiv 
Kal ecjiLKvelaO aL^Tov reXov<;, tov<; 7rpo)TevcravTa<i Be 
ev eKaarr) tcov aipeaecov aKoTreiTco, Kal Trdvra 
evpTjaei. avfx^oiiva. 

OvKovv jjiev ev AeX^ot? deo^ to Tvcodc aavTOv 
irpoayopeveii 'HpaKXecTo^i Be " eBt^7}ad/jLrjv e/jbecov- 
TOV, aXXa Kai livuayopa^ ol re air eKeivov 
/JLe')(pi ^eo(j)pdcrTov to KaTo, BvvafXiv OfioiovcrOac 
de(p (f)a<TL, Kal yap Kal ^ApcaTOTeXr)<i» b yap rj/jLeh 



For it is in knowledge that the gods surpass ourselves. 
And it may well be that with them also what ranks 
as noblest is self-knowledge. In proportion then as 
they are nobler than we in their essential nature^ that 
self-knowledge of theirs is a knowledge of higher 
things. Therefore^ I say^ let no one divide philosophy 
into many kinds or cut it up into many parts^ or 
rather let no one make it out to be plural instead of 
one. For even as truth is one, so too philosophy is 
one. But it is not surprising that we travel to it 
now by one road, now by another. For if any 
stranger, or, by Zeus, any one of her oldest in- 
habitants wished to go up to Athens, he could either 
sail or go by road, and if he travelled by land he 
could, I suppose, take either the broad highways or 
the paths and roads that are short cuts. And 
moreover he could either sail along the coasts or, 
like the old man of Pylos,^ '^'^ cleave the open sea." 
And let no one try to refute me by pointing out that 
some philosophers in travelling by those very roads 
have been known to lose their way, and arriving 
in some other place have been captivated, as though 
by Circe or the Lotus-Eaters, that is to say by 
pleasure or opinion or some other bait, and so have 
failed to go straight forward and attain their goal. 
Rather he must consider those who in every one of 
the philosophic sects did attain the highest rank, and 
he will find that all their doctrines agree. 

Therefore the god at Delphi proclaims, " Know 
Thyself," and Heracleitus says, " I searched my- 
self" ;2 and Pythagoras also and his school and his 
followers down to Theophrastus, bid us become like 
God as far as possible, yes and Aristotle too. For what 

^ Nestor ; Odyssey 3. 174. ^ Heracleitus fr. 80. 


TTore, TOVTO o Oeb^ del. yeXotov ovv av eirj rbv 
deov eavTOV jjlt) elBevar Kofjuhfj yap ovBev e'laerai 
Tcov dXkcov, elirep eavrov dyvoolr)' irdvra yap 
auTO? ear IP, elirep /cal iv eavro) Kal irap kavr^ 
€')(€L tS)v oirwcrovv ovrcov ra? alrLa<;, etre dOavdrcov 
dOavdrov^i, eore eTriKTjpayv ov dv7)Td<; ovSe eirLKrj- 
povy, dL^iov<; Se Ka\ ixevovcra'^ del Kal at tovtoi<; 
elcrlv alrlai, Trjf; decy€V6cria<;. dXX! ovto<; fiev 6 Q 
\0709 ia-TL fiei^cov. 

'Ori Be fita re ecmv dXrjOeia Kal (f)i\,0(TO(f)i,a p,ia 
Kal TavTq<; elclv epacrral ^vfjuiravref; mv re vTre/nvrj- 
aOrjv /xiKpM TTporepov a)v re ev Blkt] vvv eliroipa dv 
Tovvo/ia, T0V9 Tov KfcTt6ft)9 ofitkrjrd^; \eyco, ot ra? 
7ro\€t9 l86vTe<; dTrohthpaaKOvaa^; to Xiav dKpat- 
(pve^ Kal Kadapov t^9 iXevOepia^; tov kvvo^ idKe- 
iracrav avTov Mcnrep olfjuac irapaTreTda jxacrtv D 

OLKOVOfJiia Kal TJj '^p7]/jUaTCaT0Kfj Kal TTJ 7ry0O9 TTJV 

yvvacKa crvvoBo) Kal TracSoTpocpia, Xv olfiat t<z?9 
TToXeaiv avTov eyyvOev eTncTTrjo-axTL <pv\aKa' oti 
he TO VvoiyBi aavTov Ke<f)d\aiop TiOevTac (f)L\oa'0(f)- 
la<;, ov fiovov ef cov KaTefidWovTO ^vyy pa fju/jbdrcov 
virep avTov tovtov 7r€ca6elr)<; dv, etirep e9e\oL<i, 



we are sometimes^ God is always. ^ It would there- 
fore be absurd that God should not know himself. 
For he will know nothing at all about other things if 
he be ignorant of himself. For he is himself every- 
thing, seeing that in himself and near himself he 
keeps the causes of all things that in any way what- 
ever have existence, whether they be immortal 
causes of things immortal, or causes of perishable 
things, though themselves not mortal or perishable ; 
for imperishable and ever-abiding are the causes 
of perpetual generation for the perishable world. 
But this line of argument is too lofty for the 

Now truth is one and philosophy is one, and they 
whom I just now spoke of are its lovers one and all ; _ 
and also they whom I ought in fairness to mention now 
by name, I mean the disciples of the man of Citium.^ 
For when they saw that the cities of Greece were 
averse to the excessive plainness and simplicity of the 
Cynic's freedom of manners, they hedged him about 
with screens as it were, I mean with maxims on the 
management of the household and business and 
intercourse with one's wife and the rearing of 
children, to the end, I believe, that they might make 
him the intimate guardian of the public welfare.^ - 
And that they too held the maxim " Know Thyself" Vy '^ '" 
to be the first principle of their philosophy you may Y^^ 
believe, if you will, not only from the works that 
they composed on this very subject, but even more 

1 Cf. Oration 4. 143 a. 

- Zeno of Citium in Cyprus, the founder of the Stoic 

^ Julian seems to mean that Zeno and the Stoics could not 
accept without mpdification the manner of life advocated by 
the Cynic Crates. 




aWa TToXif irXeov diro rov rrj? ^iKoao^La<; reXovs' 

TO yap o/JLoXoyovfM€VCo<; ^r]v ry <f)V(76L t6\o<; eiroir)- 186 

aavTO, ovirep ov'^ olov re rv^elv rov dyvoovvra, 

Tt? Kal oirolo'; 7re<^VKev' o yap dyvooyv ocTTL^i 

icTTiv, ovK etaerai S^irovOev 6, n Trpdrretv eavrq) 

7rpo(T7]K€i, coairep ouS' 6 ^ rov olSypov dyvocov 

etaerac, etre avro) rifivecv elre fir) 7rpoai]K€i, Kal 

OTOV Set T& aihrjpu) 7rpo<; to Svvaadac rb eavrov 

TTpoLTTetv dX\! OTi /jlcv t) (f)LKoao<pLa fiLa re ecrrt Kal 

7rdvT€(; CO? eVo? eiTrelv 6vo<; tlvo<; icfyie/bievoL oSol^ iirl 

Tovro Sia<p6poi<; rjXOov, d7r6')(pr] roaavra vvv elirelv. B 

virep he rov Kvvkt/jlov aKeirreov ert.'^ 

Efc /jL€V ovv eireiroii^TO rol's dvSpdat fierd tlvo^ 

cTTTOvSrjf;, dX\d firj /xerd irathidf; rd avyypdfjLfjLara, 

T0UT0£9 ixPV^ e7r6/jL€vov e7n')(^etpelv CKaara mv 

hiavoovjJbeOa irepl rov irpdyfJiaro^ e^erdl^eiv rov 

evavriov Kai, el pbev i^aivero TOt? TraXatoZ? o/xoXo- 

yovvra, fjLrjroL yjreuSojjLaprvpLcbv rjfuv eTrLaKrJTrreiVy 

el 8e pur), rore e^opit,eiv avrd rrj<; dKorj^ axTTrep 

A.6rjvaloL rd yjrevSr] ypd/npuara rod yirjrpcpov. 

eirel he ovhev eariv, &>? 6(f)7)v, roLovrov ai re ydp C {| 

OpvKovpbevai Aioyevov<; rpaycpStai ^iXiaKOv npo^ 

Alyivyrov Xeyovrat elvaty Kai, el Aioyevovf; Br) ^ 

elev, ovhev droirov eari rov (70(f>ov Trai^eiv, eirel 

Kat rovro rroWol cfyaivovrac rcop (f)t\ocr6(f>ci)p 

^ ovS' 6 Hertlein suggests, ovSe MSS. 

2 6Tt Hertlein suggests, ^Stj Reiske, darly MSS. 

•^ St; Hertlein suggests, 66 MSS. 

1 8 


from what they made the end and aim of their 
philosophic teaching. For this end of theirs was life 
in harmony with nature,, and this it is impossible for 
any man to attain who does not know who and of 
what nature he is. For a man who does not know 
himself will certainly not know what it is becoming 
for him to do ; just as he who does not know the 
nature of iron will not know whether it is suitable 
to cut with or not, and how iron must be treated so 
that it may be put to its proper use. For the 
moment however I have said enough to show that 
philosophy is one, and that, to speak generally, all 
philosophers have a single aim though they arrive 
at that aim by different roads. And now let us 
consider the Cynic philosophy. 

If the Cynics had composed treatises with any 
serious purpose and not merely with a frivolous aim, 
it would have been proper for my opponent to be 
guided by these and to try in each case to refute 
the opinions that I hold on the subject ; and then, 
if they proved to be in harmony with those original 
doctrines, he could not attack me for bearing 
false witness ; but if they proved not to be in 
harmony, then he could have barred my opinions 
from a hearing, as' the Athenians barred spurious 
documents from the Metroum.^ But, as I said, 
nothing of that sort exists. For the much-talked-of 
tragedies of Diogenes are now said to be the work 
of a certain Philiscus ^ of Aegina ; though even if 
they were by Diogenes there would be nothing out 
of the way in a wise man's jesting, since many 
philosophers have been known to do so. For 

1 Cf. Oration 5. 159 b. ^ q^ Oration 7. 210 d, 212 a. 

c 2 


TroLTjcravrefi' iyiXa rot,, cf)aarl, koX Arj/noKpcTO^^ 

opcov airovhd^ovTa^ tov^ avOpdnrov^' fir) St) tt/oo? 

T^9 Traihia'; hvtmv a7rol3\eTT(£>[xev, cocnrep ol 

fjLavOdveLv tl cnrovhalov rJKLCTTa ipaypre^;, irokei D 

irapa^dWovre'^ evSaifiovc, ttoWcov fiev leptav, 

•koWmv he diToppr)Twv rekeroov irXijpei, koI 

fivpLcov evSov leperov dyvcov ev dyvot'; jxevovTODV 

')(wpioi<;' avTOv Be eve/ca TroA-X^j/ct? tovtov, Xeyoa 

he Tov KaOapevetv ra eicrco irdvra, ra Trepcrra 

KoX /3he\vpa Kol (f)av\,a t>}9 TroXeo)? direXyXaKocrc,^ , 

Xovrpa hrj/jLocrca kol ')(^afJiaLTV7rela koX KairrjXeta 

KOL Trdvra dirXS)^; ra roiavra' elra ci')(^pt rovrov 

yevop^evot €L(tq) p>r) irapiaaiv.^ 6 pbev yap toI<; 

roLovTOi<; €vtv)(cov, elra tovto ^ olrjdel^i elvat rrjv 187 

TToXiV dOXio^ p^ev d7ro(f)vy(t)v, dOXtcorepof; he Kdrco 

peiva^, e^ov virep^avra pbiKpov Ihelv rov Xco/cpdrrj' 

')(^pr)aopjai yap eKeivoL<^ eyco toI<; prjpaaLV, ol<^ 

^AXKi^Ldh7]<; eTraivcov XcoKpdrr}. (fyrjpX yap hrj ttjv 

K.vvoKr)v (f>LXo(T 0(f) Lav 6p,OLOTdT7]v elvac TOt<; ^ec- 

X7]V0L<i TOVTOi<; T0t9 iv Tot9 eppioyXv^tioi<i KaOvf- 

p.evot-<i, ovariva^; epyd^ovrac ol hTjp^covpyol avp- 

iyya<; rj avXov<; €')(0VTa<i' ol hi')(^dhe '^ hioi,-)(jdevTe<^ B 

evhov (paivovrat dydXp^ara €%o^'Te9 deSiv. co? av 

o^v pLY) TOLOVTOV TL irddwpiev, oaa eiraL^e ravra 

avTov eairovhaKevaL vop^Laavre^' earL p.ev ydp tl 

Kal ev eKeivoL^ ovk a'^pr^arov, o K.vvLcrp,b<i he eaTLV 

^ awe\7i\aK6<Ti Naber, a'Trc\r]\aKa<Ti Hertlein, MSS. 
^ iraplaaiv Cobet, irapiaaiv Hertlein, MSS. 
3 ot Stx«S€ Hertlein suggests, cf. Symposium 215, ol Sf 



Democritus also, we are told, used to laugh when 
he saw men taking things seriously. Well then 
I say we must not pay any attention to their 
frivolous writings, like men who have no desire at 
all to learn anything of serious interest. Such men 
when they arrive at a prosperous city abounding in 
sacrifices and secret rites of many kinds, and con- 
taining within it countless holy priests who dwell in 
the sacred enclosures, priests who. for this very 
purpose, I mean in order to purify everything that is 
within their gates, have expelled all that is sordid 
and superfluous and vicious from the city, public 
baths and brothels, and retail shops, and everything 
of the sort without exception : such men, I say, 
having come as far as the quarter where all such 
things are, do not enter the city itself. Surely a 
man who, when he comes upon the things that have 
been expelled, thinks that this is the city, is de- 
spicable indeed if he depart on the instant, but still 
more despicable if he stay in that lower region, when 
he might by taking but a step across the threshold 
behold Socrates himself. For I will borrow those' 
famous phrases of Alcibiades in his praise of Socrates,^ 
and I assert that the Cynic philosophy is very like 
those images of Silenus that sit in the shops of the 
statuaries, which the craftsmen make with pipes or 
flutes in their hands, but when you open them you 
see that inside they contain statues of the gods. 
Accordingly, that we may not make that sort of 
mistake and think that his jesting was sober earnest 
(for though there is a certain use even in those jests, 
yet Cynicism itself is something very different, as I 

1 Plato, Symposium 215. 



erepov, 009 avriKa /uLoXa Sel^ac Tretpdao/juar Bevpo 
iScofjuev 6^ef?}9 cltto to)v epycov, axrirep al eft^i^eu- 
ovcrai Kvve<^ ixeradeovcn ra Orjpia. 

'HyefjLova fxev ovv ov pahiov evpelv, i(f> ov 
avevkyicai y^pj) irpwTov avrOj el kul r^z/e? vtto- C 
\ap,l3dvov(TLV ^AvTiaOevei tovto koI Aioyev^i 
irpoarjKeiv. tovto yovv eoiKsv Olvofxao's ovk 
cLTOTTCo^; Xeyeiv 6 K.vvi(Tp.o<; ovtc AvTiad6VL(Tp.o<; 
icTTLV ovT€ Aioyeviap^of;. Xeyovat p,ev yap ol 
yevvaioTepoi tojv kvvmv, oti koI 6 ixeya^ 'UpaKXij^;, 
MCTirep ovv tcov dXkcov dyaOcov rjfuv^ atTio<^ 
KaTeaTrj, ovto) Be koI tovtov tov ^iov irapdhetypu 
TO p^kyiGTov ^ KaTeXiTrev dvOpd)7roi,<;. iyoD Be 
VTrep T(ov Oeoyv kol tmv eh deiav Xrj^tv iropev- 
OevTCov ev(pr)p,€LV edeXwv Treldop^ai [lev koI irpo D 
TovTOV Tiva<i OVK ev "'E\X77<7£ pbovov, dXka kul 
^ap^dpOL^ ovTco (ptXoao^Tjo-ar ^ avTrj yap rj (j)tXo- 
(TO<f)ia Koivrj tto)? eoc/cev elvai Koi (jyvai/ccoTdTT) Kal 
SeiaOac ovS' rjaTcvoaovv 7rpayp.aTeoa<i' dWa 
d'Tr6')(^p7] fjiovov ekecrOai to. airovhala dpeTYj<i eVt- 
Ovpia Kal (pvyfj KaKia^, Kal ovt€ ^l^Xov<; dveXL^ai 
hel p.vpia^' TToXvp^aOia ydp, (f)aac, voov ov 
BtBdaKer ovTe dXXo ti tmv tocovtcov iraOelv, oaa 
Kal ola ird(T')(pv(TLV ol Bed twv dXXcov alpeaecov 
l6vT€<;, dXXd aTToypv P'ovov Bvo TavTa tov HvOlov 188 

^ Before atnos Cobet omits ns. 

^ Before KarfAnrey Cobet omits ovtos. 

^ OVTCO (pi\oao<pr\(Tai Reiske suggests, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 



shall presently try to prove), let us consider it in due 
course from its actual practice and pursue it like 
hounds that track down wild beasts in the chase. 

Now the founder of this philosophy to whom we 
are to attribute it, in the first instance, is not easy to 
discover, even though some think that the title 
belongs to Antisthenes and Diogenes. At least the 
saying of Oenomaus ^ seems to be not without good 
grounds : " The Cynic philosophy is neither 
Antisthenism nor Diogenism." Moreover the better 
sort of Cynics assert that in addition to the otl^er 
blessings bestowed on us by mighty Heracles, it was 
he who bequeathed to mankind the noblest example 
of this mode of life.^ But for my part, while I 
desire to speak with due reverence of the gods and 
of those who have attained to their functions, I still 
believe that even before Heracles, not only among 
the Greeks but among the barbarians also, there 
were men who practised this philosophy. For it seems 
to be in some ways a universal philosophy, and the 
most natural, and to demand no special study what- 
soever. But it is enough simply to choose the 
honourable by desiring virtue and avoiding evil ; and 
so there is no need to turn over countless books. 
For as the saying goes, " Much learning does not 
teach men to have understanding." ^ Nor is it 
necessary to subject oneself to any part of such a 
discipline as they must undergo who entel* other 
philosophic sects. Nay it is enough merely to 
hearken to the Pythian god when he enjoins these 

^ Of Gadara, a Cynic philosopher whose date is probably 
the second century a.d.; cf. 199 a, 209 b, 210 d, 212 a. 

^ Lucian, Sale of Creeds 8, makes Diogenes say that he had 
modelled himself on Heracles. 

^ Heracleitus fr. 16, By water. 



irapaivovvToi; a/covcrac, to TvmOl cravrov koX 
JJ apa^dpa^ov to vo/jLia/jLa' nre^rjvev ovv tj/jliv 
ayo%?7709 T?7? (f>c\ocro^La^ oairep olp^at rol^ ''EWrycri 
/caricrrr) roiv KaXcov dTrdvrcov alrio^, 6 T779 
'E\,Xa8o9 Koivo<; Tjye/jLcbv /cat vo/jlo06T7]<; /cat ^a- 
aL\ev<;, ev A€\(f)OL<; ^609, ov eTreiSr) ^7) Oefii^; rjv 
TL hiokadelvy ovBe 97 Atoyeiwv; iTrtrrjSeioTrif; eXaOe. 
TrpovTpeyjre Be avrov ovy^ Mairep tov<; dWov<; 
eireaiv evreivayv rrjv irapaiveaiv, dX}C epyo) B 
SiSdcTKcov byTL ^ovXerai (TVfi^o\t/ca)<; Sid Bvocv 
ovofJidTOiVy TLapa')(^apa^ov eiTToov to vo/bLia/j^a- to 
ydp TvatOt aavTov ovk ifceivw jjbovov,^ dXkd koX 
rot's dWoi<; €(f>rj kol Xeyei, Trpo/cetrai ydp olfjuai 
rov rep^vovf;. rfvprjKap.ev Br] tov dp')(^r]yeT7)v rrjf; 
(f)LXocro(})ia<i, ft)9 ttov /cat o Bai/movtof; (j)7)cnv 'la//,* 
^Xi')(p<i, dXXd Koi T0v<; Kopv(f)aLov<; ev avrj], 
^AvTiaOevrj kol Atoyivrj koI Kpdrrjra, oh rod 
^iov (TKOTTO^ rjv Kai TeXo9 avTOv<i oI/jLai yvcovac 
Kol tS)V Kevoyv vTreptBelv Bo^c^v, dXrjd€La<; Be, rj 
TrdvTcov fJLev dyaOoyv deol<^, Trdvrcov Be dv6 pcoiroL^ 
r^yelrau, oXy, ^acriv, iTriBpa^aaOai rfj Biavoia, C 
959 olp^ai KoX YVXdT(ov Kol HvOay6pa<i koI So)- 
Kpdrrjc; ol re i/c rov riepiTrdrov koI Ztjvcov euexa 
iravra virep.eivav irovov, avrov<; re i6eXovTe<i 
yvoivai Kol p,r} Keval<i eireadat Bo^aa;, dXXd rrjv 
ev T0L<; ovdLv dXijdetav dvcxyevaai, 

1 ixovov Hertlein suggests, irpwrov MSS. 



two precepts, " Know Thyself," and " Falsify the Jo^-C^ 
common currency." ^ Hence it becomes evident to 
us that the founder of this philosophy is he who, I 
believe, is the cause of all the blessings that the 
Greeks enjoy, the universal leader, law-giver and 
king of Hellas, I mean the god of Delphi. ^ And 
since it was not permitted that he should be in 
ignorance of aught, the peculiar fitness of Diogenes 
did not escape his notice. And he made him incline 
to that philosophy, not by urging his commands in 
words alone, as he does for other men, but in very 
deed he instructed him symbolically as to what he 
willed, in two words, when he said, " Falsify the 
common currency." For "Know Thyself" he 
addressed not only to Diogenes, but to other men 
also and still does : for it stands there engraved in 
front of his shrine. And so we have at last dis- 
covered the founder of this philosophy, even as the 
divine lamblichus also declares, yes, and we have dis- 
covered its leading men as well, namely Antisthenes 
and Diogenes and Crates ; ^ the aim and end of 
whose lives was, I think, to know themselves, to 
despise vain opinions, and to lay hold of truth with 
their whole understanding ; for truth, alike for gods 
and men, is the beginning of every good thing ; ^ and 
it was, I think, for her sake that Plato and 
Pythagoras and Socrates and the Peripatetic 
philosophers and Zeno spared no pains, because they 
wished to know themselves, and not to follow vain 
opinions but to track down truth among all things 
that are. 

1 Cf. Oration 7- 208 d, 211 b, 211 c. ^ Apollo. 

^ Of Thebes, the Cynic philosopher, a pupil of Diogenes ; 
he lived in the latter half of the fourth century B.C. 
* Plato, Laws 730 b. 



^ipe ovvy eireihr) 'TTe<j)rjvev ovk aXko fjbev eirtrr)- 
Sevaa^; TlXdrcov, irepov he Aioyivrjf;, ev Si tl koI 
ravTov el yovv epoLTO Tt<; tov ao<f)ov HXdrcova ''to 
Vv(f)0L aavTov irocrov v6v6/uLi/ca<; d^tov;^^ ev olSa on 
TOV iravTOf; dv (p^jaece, Kal Xeyec Se ev ^AXKi^idBj}' D 
8evpo St) to fJLeTa tovto (j^pdaov tj/mv, m Baifiovte 
TlXdTcov Kal Secov eKyove " Tlva Tporrov ')(^pr} 
7r/?09 Ta9 tS)v ttoXKcov hiaKelaOai B6^a<;,^^ TavTd 
T€ epel Kal eTi 7rpo<^ rourot? 6\ov rjjjblv eiruTd^ei 
SiapprjSrjv dvayvwvai tov "KpiTCOva SidXoyov, ov 
(palveTat irapaivSyv ^(OKpdTr]<; /nrjBev (ppovTi^eiv 
rjfid^ Twv TOiOVTWv (fiTjcrl yovv " 'AXXa tl r][Mv, 
w jxaKdpie KpuTcov, ovtco tt}? tcov ttoWcov Sof?;? 18 
fieXei; ' eiTa r}fjbel<^ tovtcjv vireptSovTes: diroTeL- 
X^^eLV aTrXw? o\jt(i)(tI Kal diroairdv dvSpa^ dWij- 
\q)v e6eXop,ev, 01)9 6 T/79 d\7]6eia<^ avvi^yayev 
epa)9 Yj Te 'Trj(; B6^r)(; vTrepo^jrla Kal rj 7r/309 
TOV ^TjXov Tr}9 dpeTTj^i ^vfMTTvoia; el Be TlXdTcovL 
fjuev eBo^e Kal Bed tcov Xoywv avTa epyd^eaOai, 
Acoyevei Be d'7re)(^pr) ra epya, Bid tovto d^i6<; eaTtv 
v(p vficov aKoveiv KaKOi^; ; 6 pa Be //-^ Kal tovto 
avTO T(p iravTl KpelTTov eaTiv, iirel Kal HXdTcov 
e^o/jLvv/uLevo<s ^aiveTai ra ^vyypd/jL/xaTa. '*Ov yap B 
ecTi JlXdTcovof;,^' (f)r)a[,, " ^vyypa/jifia ovBev ovB^ 
eaTai, Ta Be vvv (^epofMevd eo'Ti, XcoKpaTov^;, dvBp6<i 



And now, since it has become evident that 
Plato was not pursuing one aim and Diogenes 
another, but their end was one and the same : 
suppose one should inquire of the wise Plato : 
What value do you set on the precept " Know 
Thyself" ? I am very sure that he would answer 
that it is worth everything, and indeed he says 
so in the Alcibiades.^ Come then tell us next, 
divine Plato, scion of the gods, how one ought 
to be disposed towards the opinions of the many ? 
He will give the same answer, and moreover he will 
expressly enjoin on us to read his dialogue the 
Crito,^ where Socrates is shown warning us not 
to take heed of such things. At any rate what 
he says is : " But why, my dear good Crito, are 
we so concerned about the opinion of the multitude?" 
And now are we to ignore all this evidence, and 
without further question fence off from one another 
and force apart men whom the passion for truth, 
the scorn of opinion, and unanimity in zeal for 
r virtue have joined together? And if Plato chose 
to achieve his aim through words, whereas for 
Diogenes deeds sufficed, does the latter on that 
account deserve to be criticised by you ? Nay, 
consider whether that same method of his be 
not in every respect superior ; since we see that 
Plato for himself forswore written compositions. 
" For " he says,^ " there are no writings by Plato 
nor ever will be, and what now pass current as 
his are the work of Socrates, the ever fair and 

^ Alcihiades i. 129 a. 2 Crito 44c c. 

3 Epistle 2. 314 c ; Julian quotes from memory and slightly 
alters the original ; Plato meant that in his dialogues he had 
suppressed his own personality in favour of Socrates. 



fcaXov Koi i^eou." ri ovv r)/jLe2<i ov/c e/c twi/ epycov 
Tov Aioyevovf; (TKOTrovfiev avrov top K.vvi(t^6v, - 
OCT Ti9 icTTiv; 

OvKovv iireihrj (rcofiaro^ jxeprj /juev ianvy 
olov 6<j)6d\ixoi, irohe^, ')(^6tpe<;, akXa Be iiri- 
arvfi^atvec, T/?t%e9, 6vv')(€<!i, pviro^i, toiovtcov Trepcr- 
Tcofidrcov yevo<i, wv avev aco/ia av6 pcoinvov afirj- 
^(^avov elvac, irorepov ov ye\ot6<; iorrtv 6 /neprj C 
vofjulaaf} ovv'^a<; rj Tpi')(jDL^ r) pvirov koX to, BvorooSrj 
Tcov irepcTTcofMaTcov, aXV ov ret ri/jLCcoTara /cal 
airovBata, irpcorop fiev ra aladrjrijpLa koI tovtcou 
avTO)v arra avveaeo)^ r]fuv eart fxaWov air La, 
olov 6(l)6a\/JLOV<;, a/cod<i; virovpyel yap ravra 
7r/309 (ppovrjcrtv etre iyKaropcopvyfievrj rfj '^v^fj, . 
ft)9 av ddrrov KadapOelaa Bvvairo rfj KaOapa 
'X^prjcrdai ^ Kal aKLvrjTfp tov <j)povelv Bwdfjuei, elre, 
axTTrep tiv€<; OLOvrat, KaOdirep BC 6')(^eT0iv tolovtwv 
ela^epovarjfi rrj<; '^v'xfjf;. avWeyovaa ydp, (^aai, D 
ra Kara fjuepo^; alGdrniara Kal avve')(pv(ja rfj 
fiVTjfjLjj yevva ra? i7rLO-Tv/jLa<i. iyo) Be, el fXTj ri 
TOLovTov rjv evOeov rj rekeiov ip^TroBc^o/jLevov Be ^ 
vTT dWayv ttoWmv Kal ttolklXcov, o to)v eKTO<; 
TroietTai rqv dvriXrj'y^Lv, ovB^ av Bvvarov olfiai 
yeveaOai tcov alaOrjrcov rrjv^ avrLXTj-^iv. dXX^ 
OVTO^ fieV O X0709 ov TOl^ vvv 7rpo<T7]Kec. 

AiOTrep eiravaKTeov iirl ra p^iprj rrjf; (^iXo(TO(f>ia<^ 190 
T^9 KVVLKrjf;. (paLvovrat fiev By Kal ovrot Bc/uuepr] 

^ TTj Kudapq. x.P^o-^at Hertlein suggests, t?j ye 00s apxv MSS., 

2 5€ Hertlein suggests. ^ tV Naber suggests. 



ever young." Why then should we not from 
the practice of Diogenes study the character of 
the Cynic philosophy ? 

Now the body consists of certain parts such 
as eyes, feet and hands, but there are besides 
other parts, hair, nails, ordure, a whole class of 
accessories of that sort without which the human 
body cannot exist. Then is it not absurd for a 
man to take into account such parts, I mean hair 
or nails or ordure or such unpleasant accessories, 
rather than those parts that are most precious 
and important, in the first place, for instance, 
the organs of perception, and among these more 
especially the instruments whereby we apprehend, 
namely the eyes and ears ? For these aid the 
soul to think intelligently, whether it be buried 
deep in the body and they enable it to purify itself 
more readily and to use its pure and steadfast faculty 
of thought, or whether, as some think, it is through 
them that the soul enters in as though by channels.^ 
For, as we are told, by collecting individual 
perceptions and linking them through the memory 
she brings forth the sciences. And for my own 
part, I think that if there were not something 
of this sort, either incomplete in itself or perfect 
but hindered by other things many and various, 
which brings about our apprehension of externals, 
it would not even be possible for us to apprehend 
the objects of sense-perception. But this line of 
argument has little to do with the present question. 

Accordingly we must go back to the divisions of 
the Cynic philosophy. For the Cynics also seem to 

^ Cf. Lucretius, De Rermn Natura 3. .359 foil.; Sextus 
Enipiricus, Adversus Mathematicos 1. 350. 



rrjv (j)L\o€ro(f)Lav vofxiaavTe^ MCTTrep o 'ApidTOTeXrjf; 
KoX U.\dr(ji)Vy Oeodpi^iJbaTiicrjv re kol irpaicrLKrjv, 
avTo TOVTO ^ (f\)vevT6<^ BrjXovoTi Kal vorjaavre^, 
ft)9 olfcecov eariv dv0p(O7ro<; (f)va€t irpd^ei Kal 
iTTiarrjiir}. el he rrjf; <^VGtKrj<i rrfv Oecopiav ^ 
e^eKKivaVy ovhev tovto tt^o? tov \oyov. eirel Kal 
^coKpdTrj<i Kal irXetovef; aXXoc Oecopia /jbev ^au- 
vovrai )(^prj(Td/j,€VOC TroWfj, ravrrj Be ovk dWov 
')(dpLVy aXXd T7]<i Trpd^eco'i' eVet Kal to iavrov 
yvcbvaL TOVTO ivofiiaav, to puaOelv aKpi^ui^^, tl B 
fiev aTTohoTeov '^f%^, tL Be aatfiaTC aTreBoaav Be^ 
cIkotco'^ 7)<yep,oviav fxev ttj "^vXTIi VTrrjpecnav Be tQ> 
awfJuaTi. (palvovTai, Br) ovv dpeTrjp eir iTr^BevaavTe^i , 
iyKpdTecav, dTV(j)iav, eXevdepiav, e^co yevo/juevoL 
TravTO'^ (^Oovov, Bei\ia<;, BeiaLBai,fiovia<i. dX}C ovy 
rjfjieLf; TavTa virep avTMV BiavoovfieOa, Trat^eiv Be 
avT0v<; Kal Kv^eveiv irepl rot? ^tXraTot? vtto- 
Xa/JL^dvofiev, ovT(a<i virepiBovTa^; tov aci)/jiaTo<i, C 
0)9 o XcoKpdTT}'^ e(f)rj Xeycov 6p6o}<i fxeXeTTjv elvai . 
OavdTov Tr)V <piXoao<plav. tovto eKelvot Ka0* 
eKdaTrjv iQ/juepav e7nTr)BevovTe<; ov ^rfkwTol fxaWov 
rjfjULV, dOXtot Be Tive^ Kal iravTeXax; dvorjTOi 
BoKovauv * dvd^ OTov Be ^ 70^9 7r6vov<; virefxeLvav 
TOVTOV^;^ ov')^ 0)9 avTOf; elira^, K€voBo^La<; eveKa. 
Kol yap^ 7rw9 vtto tmv aXKwv eirrjvovvTO o)/xa 

1 avrh TOVTO Hertlein suggests, avrov MSS. 
^ tV Ofojplav Hertlein suggests, irphs Ti)v Qeupiav MSS., 
deojplas Petavius. 

■* 5e after aTreSoaaf Hertlein suggests, re MSS. 

* SoKovaiv Hertlein suggests, SoKovaip, MSS. 

•'"' 5e Hertlein suggests, S^ MSS. 

^ TovTous ; ovx ^s Hertlein suggests, tovtovs, ws MSS. 

' Koi yap Hertlein suggests, kuLtoi MSS. 



have thought that there were two branches of 
philosophy, as did Aristotle and Plato, namely 
speculative and practical, evidently because they 
had observed and understood that man is by 
nature suited both to action and to the pursuit of 
knowledge. And though they avoided the study of 
natural philosophy, that does not affect the argument. 
For Socrates and many others also, as we know, 
devoted themselves to speculation, but it was solely 
for practical ends. For they thought that even self- 
knowledge meant learning precisely what must be 
assigned to the soul, and what to the body. And to 
the soul they naturally assigned supremacy, and to 
the body subjection. This seems to be the reason ^ 

why they practised virtue, self-control, modesty and 
freedom, and why they shunned all forms of envy, 
cowardice and superstition. But this, you will say, is 
not the view that we hold about them, for we are to 
think that they were not in earnest, and that they 
hazarded what is most precious ^ in thus despising the 
body ; as Socrates did when he declared, and rightly, 
that philosophy is a preparation for death. ^ And 
since this was the aim that the Cynics pursued daily, 
we need not emulate them any more than the others, 
but we are to think them miserable beings and 
n altogether foolish. But why was it that they / /lA/^> 
endured those hardships ? Surely not from ostenta- ^ 
tion, as you declared. For how could they win 

^ Plato, Protagoras 314 a. ^ Phaedo 81a. 



7rpo(T(j)€p6/jL€POL (TapKia; Kairoi ovhe avro^i iirai- 
v€Tr}<i el. Tov yovv rotovrov rpl/Scova Kal rrjv D 
k6/jl7]v, coairep at ypacfyal rcov dvSpcov, airofjuixov' 
jJLevo^; elO* o /j,T]Se avTO<^ a^cdyacrTov v7ro\afi/3dv€t<;, 
TovTO evBo/ci/jLelu otec irapa rw ifkrjOec; Koi el? 
fxev rj Sevrepof; eir'pvec rore, ifKelv 8' ovv rj Befca 
jjbvpidhef; viro rrjf; i/aurta? koi ^SeXvpla^ Scearpd- 
(f)rjaav tov aTOfxa^ov koI aTroatroi, yeyovaaiv, 
dypi's avTov<; ol depdirovref; dveXa^ov oa/jualf; fcal 
fjLvpoL<; Kol TT6/Jb/jLaaiv. ouTft)? o K\€Lvb(; 77/OC09 epyo) 191 
KaTeTrKrj^aro ye\oi(p /jl€v dv0p(O7rot<; roiovrot?, 

OloL vvv ^poToi elaiv, 

ovK dyevvel 3e, p,a tov<; Oeov^i, et rt? avrb Kara 
TTjv Aioyevovi i^rjy^craLTo crvvecriv. OTrep yap 6 
^(OKpdrrjf; virep aurov (f)r)criv, on rw Oew vo/jll^cov 
Xarpelav eKreXelv iv rep rov Bodevra ')(pr]ap,ov 
virep avTov Kara irdvTa aKonrSyv i^erd^ecv rov 
iXeyKTCKOv rjaTrdaaro ^iov, rovro koX Atoyevrjf; 
ol/jLUi auv6L8(b(; kavrw, Trvdo'^prjarov ovcrav Tr)v 
<f)LXoo-o(j)Lav, €pyoL<i wero helv i^eXey')(^€iv irdvra 
Kot fir} h6^aL<^ dXXcov, Tvyov pev dXT^Biau, rv^ov 
Se ■y^evheai TrpoaireiTovOevaL. ovkovv ovhe el tl 
Yiv6ay6pa<^ e<p7], ovSk et rt? dXXo^ rw HvOayopa 
TrapairXrjaio^, d^Loiriaro'^ eSoKei rw Aioyevet. 
TOV yap Oeov, dvd pcoirwv he ^ ovheva Trj<; (ptXo- 
(T0(^ia(; dp')(7)y6v eVeTTOtT/ro. tl Sijra tovto, C 
epet?, Trpo? t^z/ tov iroXviroho'^ ehcdhrjv; eyoo aoi 

Tr)v crapKOipaylav ol p,ev dvOpdyiroi^ viroXafi- 
^ ^dvovat KaTCL (f)varcv, ol Be rjKKjra tovto epyd^e- 
^ S€ after avOpiairoov Hertlein suggests. 


applause from other men by eating raw meat ? 
Certainly you yourself do not applaud them for this. 
At any rate, when you imitate one of those Cynics 
by carrying a staff and wearing your hair long, as it 
is shown in their pictures, do you think that you there- 
by gain a reputation with the crowd, though you do 
not yourself think those habits worthy of admiration ? 
One or two, indeed, used to applaud him in his own 
day, but more than ten times ten thousand had their 
stomachs turned by nausea and loathing, and went 
fasting until their attendants revived them with per- 
fumes and myrrh and cakes. So greatly did that re- 
nowned hero shock them by an act which seems absurd 
to men "of such sort as mortals now are," ^ though, 
by the gods, it was not ignoble, if one should explain 
it according to the intention of Diogenes. For just as 
Socrates said of himself that he embraced the life of 
cross-examining because he believed that he could 
perform his service to the god only by examining in 
all its bearings the meaning of the oracle that had 
been uttered concerning him, so I think Diogenes 
also, because he was convinced that philosophy was 
ordained by the Pythian oracle, believed that he i -^^z^^. 
ought to test everything by facts and not be influenced \ X-r*^, 
by the opinions of others, which may be true and 
may be false. Accordingly Diogenes did not think 
that every statement of Pythagoras, or any man like 
Pythagoras, was necessarily true. For he held that 
God and no human being is the founder of philosophy. 
And pray what, you will say, has this to do with the 
eating of octopus ? I will tell you. 

To eat meat some regard as natural to man, while 
others think that to follow this practice is not at all 

1 Iliad 5. 804, 




aOai IT poarjKeiv avOpcoTrco Biavoovvrai, kclI iroXv^ 
6 irepl TOVTOV avaXayrai ^ X6yo<;. eOekovTV ovv 
<joi p^Tj paOvpielv ecrp^ol irepl rov tolovtov ^l^Xcov 
^avrjCTOVTaL. tovtov<; Aooyivrj^; e^ekey)(eiv (hero 
Belv. Bt6vorj6r} ryovv ovTco^' el pev airpaypa- 
TevT(o<; eadiodv rt? adp/ca^;, Mairep olpai tmv 
aXXcov e/caarov Orjpicov, 0I9 rovro eveipev rj ^vcn^, D 
d^Xa^(o<; avro /cat dveTra^Ocj^, pioXXov Be kol 
p£Ta TYj^ Tov crooyLtaro? dxpeXecaf; epyd^oLTO, Kara 
(f)vatv elvac Trdvrax; rrjv crapKocfiayLav vireXa^ev 
el Be Tt9 evrevdev yevoiro /SXd^rj, ov'^n tovto 
dvdpcoTTOV TO epyov cacof; evopitaev, dX\! a^eKreop 
elvai Kara Kpdro^i avrov. el<; p,ev ovv av elrj 
TOLOVTOV virep rov TrpdypuaTOf; tcrco^ ^caiorepof; 
\0709, erepof} Be olKetorepo^; rep Kwcap^o), el Trepl 
TOV TeXov<; avrov irporepov en aa^earepov BieX- 

^ArrdOeiav yap Trotovvrai to reXo^;' rovro Be 192 
Lijov earl to) Oeov yeveadat. alcrdav6pbevo<; ovv 
L(7co<; avrov Acoyevr}<; ev p,ev rol^ dXXoL<; diracnv 
d7ra6ov<i, vrro Be rfj<; roi.avrr)<; eBcoBrjf; p,6vov Opar- 
rop^evov Kal vavrLthvro^ Kal Bo^rj Kevfj puaXXov^ 
rj Xoycp BeBovXo) puevov (Tdp/C€<; yap elaov ovBev 
rJTTOv, Kav pbvpidKLf; avrd^ e'yjrijcrr], kclv virorpLp,- 
piacn pbvpiOL^ Tt9 avrd<; /capvKevarj' Kal ravrrjf; 
avrov d(f)eXeadai Kal Karaarrjaai iravrdiraaiv 
e^dvrrj r7]<; BetXia<; (pyOv '^prfvai. BetXLa ydp eariv, B 
ev laOiy ro yovv roiovrov. eirel irpo^ rr}<; (&€(Tp,o- 
<l>6pov el arapKMv r)'\jrrjpevcov dirrop^eda, rov %a/9iz/ 

^ avdXcoTai Hertlein suggests, SeiKuurai MSS. 
'^ fxaWov Hertlein suggests, /jlopov MSS. 



appropriate for man, and this question has been ^j^j^ 
much del)ated. And if you are wiUing to make the ^v-?j»J^ 
effort, you can see with your own eyes swarms of 
books on the subject. These Diogenes thought it 
his duty to refute. At any rate his own view was as 
follows. If one can eat meat without taking too 
much trouble to prepare it, as can all other animals 
to whom nature has assigned this diet, and can do it 
without harm or discomfort, or rather with actual 
benefit to the body, then he thought that eating 
meat is entirely in accordance with nature. But if 
harm came of it, then he apparently thought that 
the practice is not appropriate for man, and that he 
must abstain from it by all means. Here then you 
have a theory on this question, though perhaps it is 
too far-fetched : but here is another more akin to 
Cynicism, only I must first describe more clearly the 
end and aim of that philosophy. 

Freedom from emotion they regard as the end j:/ 
and aim ; and this is equivalent to becoming a god. , 
Now perhaps Diogenes observed that in the case of 
all other foods he himself had no particular sensa- 
tions, and that only raw meat gave him indigestion 
and nausea, and took this for a proof that he was 
enslaved to vain opinion rather than reason ; for 
flesh is none the less flesh, even though you cook it 
any number of times or season it with any number 
of sauces. This, I say, was why he thought he ought 
to rid and free himself altogether of this cowardice ; 
for you may be sure that this sort of thing is 
cowardice. And in the name of the Law-Giving 
goddess,! tell me why if we used cooked meats we do 

^ Demeter, who regulated the customs of civilised life, 
especially agriculture : her festival was the Thesmophoria. 


D 2 


ovx*' f^^f' aTrXo)? avTa<; 7rpoa(f)€p6/jLe0a, (j)pd<Tov 
rjixlv, ov yap e^e^? erepov elirelv fj on ovtco vevofi- 
LdTav Kol ovTO) avveidia-fJbeda. ov yap Srj irpiv fiev 
eyjrrjOrjvac /3Be\vpa 7ri(f>VKei/, i'^rjdevra Se ykyovev 
avTMV dyporepa. ri Srjra ixpV^ TrpaTTeiv tqv ye C 
irapd Oeov Ta')(9evTa KaOdirep arparrjyov Trdv fiev 
i^eXelv to vofiLafia, \6y(p he Kal dTitrjOeia Kplvac 
rd TTpdyfiara; TrepiLhelv avrov virb ravTijf; rrj^ 
B6^7}<^ ivo'^ovfjuevov, d)<; vofii^ecv otl Kpea^ /xiv 
iaTiv ey^rrjOev dyvov Kal iBcoSt/iov, fxri KarepyaaOev 
he viro rod Truyoo? fivaapov irco^; ^ /cal ^heXvpov; 
oi/Tft)? el fMvrj/ii(ov; ovto)<; el (T7rovBalo<i ;o<i toctovtov 
ovechi^cov ra> /cevoho^cp, Kara ae (pdvat, ALoyevet, D 
KUT ifie he Tft) cnrovhatordra) Oepdirovn Kal 
v'TrrjpeTTj rod Uvdiov, rrjif rov ttoXuttoSo? ehcohrjv 
KaTehrjhoKa'^ [xvpiov^ Tapt%0L'9, 

'I%^i)9 6pvL6d<^ T€ (j)iXa(; 6* on ')(elpa<; 'Ikolto, 

KlyviTTio^ ye u)v, ov rcov lepecov, dWd tmv ira/x- 
(pdycov, ol<i Trdvra iaOietv v6iM0<i ci)9 \d')(^ava ypp- 
Tov ypcopl^ecii olpuai roov VaXiXaiwv rd prjfiara. 193 
/jLLKpov jxe iraprjkOev elnreli^, otl Kal Traz^re? dvO- 
pwTTOt TrXyaiov oIkovpt€(; 6aXdTTr)<;, ijSr] he TLve<^ 
Kal TMV TToppco, ovhe 0ep/jL7]vapT€^ KaTappo(f)ov(nv 
e')(^LVov<;, oaTpea Kal Trdvra dirXo)^ rd rotavra' 
elra €Keivov<; fxev v7roXa/jL/3dveL<; ^rjXcorovf;, dOXiov 
he Kal ^heXvpov rjyfj Acoyepr), Kal ovk evvoel^, &)9 
ovhev fjLaXXov ravra eKelvcov earl crapKia' wXrjp 

^ irws Hertlein suggests, tffus MSS. 



not eat them in their natural state also ? You can 
give me no other answer than that this has become a 
custom and a habit with us. For surely we cannot 
say that before meat is cooked it is disgusting and 
that by being cooked it becomes purer than it was 
by nature. What then was it right for him to do 
who had been appointed by God like a general in 
command to do away with the common currency and 
to judge all questions by the criterion of reason and 
truth ? Ought he to have shut his eyes and been so 
far fettered by this general opinion as to believe that 
flesh by being cooked becomes pure and fit for food^ 
but that when it has not been acted upon by fire 
it is somehow abominable and loathsome ^ Is this 
the sort of memory you have ? Is this your zeal 
for truth ? For though you so severely criticised 
Diogenes the vain-glorious^ as you call him — though 
I call him the most zealous servant and vassal of the 
Pythian god — for eating octopus^ you yourself have 
devoured endless pickled food, ^' Fish and birds and 
whatever else might come to hand." ^ For you 
are an Egyptian, though not of the priestly caste, 
but of the omnivorous type whose habit it is to eat 
everything ^'^ even as the green herb."^ You recog- 
nise, I suppose, the words of the Galilaeans. I 
almost omitted to say that all men who live near the 
sea, and even some who live at a distance from it, 
swallow down sea-urchins, oysters and in general 
everything of the kind without even heating them. 
And then you think they are enviable, whereas you 
regard Diogenes as contemptible and disgusting, and 
you do not perceive that those shell-fish are flesh 
just as much as what he ate ? Except perhaps that 

1 Odyssey 12. 331. ^ Genesis 9. 3. 



fc<j<tf9 ravra €K6lvcop hta^epet to3 tcl fiev elvai 
fiaXOaKa, ra Be aKXTjporepa. avaifxo^ yovp 
ean fcal nToXuTrov; wcrirep eKelva, ejnylrv^a Be B 
icrri Kol ra oarpaKohepjia KaOcnrep koL ovro^' 
TjSerac yovp kol Xvirelrai,, o tmv i/jLxjnj^wv 
fiakiCTTd eartv lSlou. ivcxXeLTO) Be fJbrjBev rjfjbd^ rj 
UXarayvLKr} ravvv Bo^a e/uLyjrv^^^a vrroXajji^dvovcra 
Kai ra (pVTa. aXX ore fxev ovri aXoyov ^ ovoe 
irapdvofiov ovBe d(Tvvr)Oe<; u/mv 6 yevvalo^ elpyd- 
aaro Aioyevrj^, el /jlt) ray aKXrjporepfp fcal fiaXa- 
Kcoreprp, rjBoup t€ Xaifiov kol drjBia rd rotavrd 
Tt9 e^erd^oL, irpoByXov olpbau T0fc9 oirooaovv eire- 
aOai Xoy(p BvvafievoL^;. ovk dpa Tr}v ot)fjLO(j)ayiav 
^BeXvTTecrOe ol tcl TrapaTrXycna Bpoyvre^, ovk cttI C 
TOiV dvai/jicov fjbovov ^mcop, d\Xd kol eVl tmv al/jua 
iXovTcov. /cat TOVTcp Be I'tro)? Bta<j)epea$e 7rp6<; 
eKelvoVi ore 6 puev aTrXw? ravra Kal Kara (pvcriv 
(pr]6r} y^prjvat rrpoac^epeaOai, dXal Be vfiet<; Kal 
TToXXot? dXXoL<; dprvcravre<; rjBovi]'; eveKa, rrjv (pvcrcv 
07rft)9 ^idcrrjaOe. kol Brj rovro fiev iirl rocrovrov 

T?}9 K.vvLK7](; Be <^LXoao<^ia<; ctkotto^ jiev eari D 
Kal TeX-09, Mairep Br) Kal rrdcrrjf; <pLXoao(f)ia<^, ro 
evBaifMOvelv, ro Be evBaifiovelv ev rep ^rjv Kara 
' ^vaiv, dXXd pur] 7rpo<^ rd^ rcdv iroXXcov B6^a<=;. eirel 
Kal rol<; ^vrol<^ ev irpdrreiv av jx^aivei Kal pbevroL 
Kal ^<poL<^ rrdcTiV, orav rov Kara (pvacv eKaarov 
dvepLrroBiar(o<; rvy^dvrj reXov<;' dXXd Kal ev roL<i 
6eoL<; rovro eanv evBacpLOvla'i 6po<i, ro e^eiv 
avrov<; coarrep 7r€(f)VKaaL Kal eavrcov elvat. ovkovv 194 
^ oijTi. &hoyotf Hertlein suggests, ov xaAeTrbi/ MSS. 



they differ in so far as the octopus is soft and shell- 
fish are harder. At any rate the octopus is bloodless, 
like hard-shelled fish, but the latter too are animate 
things like the octopus. At least they feel pleasure 
and pain, which is the peculiar characteristic of 
animate things. And here we must not be put out 
by Plato's theory^ that plants also are animated by 
soul. But it is now, I think, evident to those who 
are in any way able to follow an argument, that what 
the excellent Diogenes did was not out of the way 
or irregular or contrary to our habits, that is if we do 
not in such cases apply the criterion of hardness and 
softness, but judge rather by the pleasure or distaste 
of the palate. And so it is not after all the eating 
of raw food that disgusts you, since you do the like, 
not only in the case of bloodless animals but also 
of those that have blood. But perhaps there is also 
this difference between you and Diogenes, that he 
thought he ought to eat such food just as it was and 
in the natural state, whereas you think you must 
first prepare it with salt and many other things 
to make it agreeable and so do violence to nature. 
I have now said enough on this subject. 

Now the end and aim of the Cynic philosophy, , 
as indeed of every philosophy, is happiness, but ^fj^^ 
happiness that consists in living according to . "T" 
nature and not according to the opinions of the J^ j 
multitude. For plants too are considered to do well, »'£^J}^ 
and indeed all animals also, when without hindrance 
each attains the end designed for it by nature. Nay, 
even among the gods this is the definition of happi- 
ness, that their state should be according to their 
nature, and that they should be independent. And 

^ Timaeus 77 b, 


' thp: orations of julian, vi 

Kal TOi<; avOp(t)7roi,<; oif^ erepcoOi ttov ttjv evSac- 
fioviav airoiceKpv jMfxevrjv irpoo-rJKet iroXvirpayfiovelv' 
ovBe d6T0<i ov^e TrXdravo^; ovSe aWo tl tmv ovtwv 
^(pwv rj (^UTWi/ '^pvad Trepcepyd^erai Trrepa koX 
<f>vXka, ovhe 07rft)9 dpyvpov^ e^ei tov<; ^Xaarov^ 
Tf rd irXvjKTpa Kal /cevrpa (rcBrjpd, fidWov Be 
dBa/JbdvTiva, dW 0I9 avrd i^ dp')(ri<; rj (fyvaL^; 
iKoa/jurjae, ravra el pco/juaXea fcal tt/jo? rd'^of; av- 
Tol<; rj 7rpo9 dXKrjv virovpyovvra irpoayevotro, 
fjbdXiara dv ev irpdrreiv vo/jll^ol kol evOrjvelaOac. B 
TTft)? ovv ov yeXolov, ei rt? dvO pro7ro<; y€yov(o<; e^ay 
TTOV TTjv €vSat/jLOViav TreptepydaatTO, ttXovtov kol 
yevo<; koX cfyiXcov Bvvafiiv koI Trdvra aTrXw? rd 
TOiavra rod Travro^ d^ta vo/jll^cop ; el fiev ovv 
rjiuv 7] (f>v(7i<; Mcrirep rol^ ^^oi<; avrb tovto 
direhcdKe fjiovov, to aco/juara fcal '\jrv')(^d<; e^eiv 
€KeivoL<; 7rapa7rXr)o-ia<;, coare /jitjSep irXeov iroXv- 
irpayfjbovecv, ijpKec Xoittov, axTTrep rd XoLird fwa, C 
T0t9 (Ta)fxaTiK0i<^ dpKelaOaL irXeoveKTrjfjbaaLv, ev- 
ravOd ttov to evBat/jLovelv TroXvTrpayfiovovaiv. 
eirel he rjiilv ovBev tl TrapairXrjaia '^vx*l T0i9 dX- 
XoL<; eveo-jrapTat ^cooif;, aXX* etre /caT^ ovaiav hua- 
(f)epov<Ta eiTe ovcna /nev dSLd(f>opo<;, evepyeia he 
jJbovr) KpeiTTcov, wairep olfjLai to fcadapbv rjhr] 
'X^pvaiov Tov (TVfjLTre^vpfievov Ty sjrdfji/jLa)' XeyeT at 
yap Kai ovto<; o X0709 Trepl Trj<; '^/^l'%^}9 ft)9 dXrjdr)(; 
VTTO Tivcov r)/jL€L<; St) ovv eTTecSrj crvvicrfiev avTol<; D 
ovcTL TOiv ^axov ^vveTcoT€poi<i' /caTd yap tov Upco- 
Tayopov /jLvOov eKeivoi^ puev r] (j)vac<; coairep fjLrjTi]p 



so too in the case of human beings we must not be 
busy about happiness as if it were hidden away out- 
side ourselves. Neither the eagle nor the plane tree 
nor anything else that has life^ whether plant or 
animal, vainly troubles itself about wings or leaves of 
gold or that its shoots may be of silver or its stings 
and spurs of iron, or rather of adamant ; but where 
nature in the beginning has adorned them with such 
things, they consider that, if only they are strong and 
serviceable for speed or defence, they themselves are 
fortunate and well provided. Then is it not absurd 
when a human being tries to find happiness somewhere 
outside himself, and thinks that wealth and birth 
and the influence of friends, and generally speaking 
everything of that sort is of the utmost importance }^ 
If however nature had bestowed on us only what 
she has bestowed on other animals, I mean the 
possession of bodies and souls like theirs, so that we 
need concern ourselves with nothing beyond, then it 
would suffice for us, as for all other animals, to con- 
tent ourselves with physical advantages, and to pursue 
happiness within this field. But in us has been 
implanted a soul that in no way resembles other 
animals ; and wliether it be different in essence, or 
not different in essence but superior in its activity 
only, just as, I Suppose, pure gold is superior 
to gold alloyed with sand, — for some people hold 
this theory to be true of the soul, — at any rate 
we surely know that we are more intelligent 
than other animals. For according to the myth in 
the Protagoras,! nature dealt with them very gener- 

1 Plato, Protagoras 321 A, b ; Plato however says that the 
theft of fire by Prometheus saved mankind, and that later 
^eus bestowed on them the political art. 



ayav (f>t\oTL/Li(o<i KOL /jL€yaXoB(op(o<; 'jrpocrrjve'^Orj, 
rjfjblv Be civrl ttuvtcov eic Ai6<i 6 vov<; tSoOrj' rrjv 
evBaifjLOViav evravda Oereov, iv tw Kpariarfp koX 
airovBaLOTCLTw tmv iv r)fuv» 

ZKoirec Bi], TavT7]<; el fjut] /juaXiaTa tt)? irpoaipe- 
o-eo)? rjv AioyevT]^, 09 to fxev crMfia toZ? ttovoi^ 
dveBrjv 7rapel)(^ev, h>a avrb tt}? <pvaeco<; pco/jLaXeo)- 
repov Kaiaa-Trjar), irpdrreiv Be r)^iov jjlovov oirocra 195 
av (jiavfj T(p Xoytp TrpaKTea, rot/? Be Ik rov 
a(OfjiaT0<; e/jLTTLTTTOvra^; rfj ylrv^fj 0opv^ov<;, ola 
TToWaKifi r)/j,d<; dvay/cd^et tovtI to TrepiKeip^evov 
avTov ")(^dpiv TroXvTTpay/jLovelv, ovBe eu /juepei 
irpoaieTO. viro Be ravrrjf; rij^ dcrK7]<T€Ci)(; 6 durjp 
ovTCt) fxev eo-'^ev dvBpelov to aco/jua &)? ovBel^; olp,ai 
TMV TOf? crTe<pavLTa<; dycoviaa/jievcov, ovrco Be Bte- B 
reOrj rrjv '>\rv)^rjv, ojare evBac/jbovecv, ware /3acrt- 
Xeveiv ovBev eXarrov, el /jlt} koI irXeov, 009 01 rore 
elooOeaav Xeyeiv^'Ei\Xr]ve<s, rov fMeydXov /SaaiXeoo^, 
Tov Heparjv Xeyovre^;. dpd aoi /jLiKpd (fyatveral 

"AiroXis:, doiKO<;, irarpiBo'^ eaTepyj/jievo^, 

ovK o^oXov, ov Bpa)(/J.rjv, e)(cov ^ ovB^ olKerrjv, 

dXX" ovBe juid^av, rjf; 'ETrt/^ofyOO? eviropoiv ovBe roiv 
Oewv (prjaLV et? evBaiixovia<i Xoyov eXarrovaOat, 
irpo<i fiev tov? deov^ ovk ipi^cov, rov Bokovvto^ Be C 
Tol^ dvO pwTTOi<; evBac/novecrrdTOv evBac/jboveo-repov 
^cov Kol eXeye ^fjv evBat/movearepov. el Be dircareL'^, 

^ Ixw ou5' olKiTttu Kaibel, ovk oiKfTrju ix^^ Hertlein, MSS. ; 
Hertlein prints the second verse as prose. 

42 \ 


ously and bountifully, like a mother, but to com- 
pensate for all this, mind was bestowed on us by 
Zeus. Therefore in our minds, in the best and 
noblest part of us, we must say that happiness 

Now consider whether Diogenes did not above all \ 
other men profess this belief, since he freely exposed " 
his body to hardships so that he might make it 
stronger than it was by nature. He allowed himself^ 
to act only as the light of reason shows us that we 
ought to act ; and the perturbations that attack the 
soul and are derived from the body, to which this 
envelope of ours often constrains us for its sake to 
pay too much attention, he did not take into account 
at all. Thus by means of this discipline the man 
made his body more vigorous, I believe, than that of 
any who have contended for the prize of a crown in 
the games : and his soul was so disposed that he was 
happy and a king no less if not even more than the 
Great King, as the Greeks used to call him in those 
days, by which they meant the king of Persia. Then 
does he seem to you of no importance, this man who 
was " cityless, homeless, a man without a country, 
owning not an obol, not a drachma, not a single 
slave," ^ nay, not even a loaf of bread — and Epicurus 
says that if he have bread enough and to spare he is 
not inferior to the gods on the score of happiness. 
Not that Diogenes tried to rival the gods, but he 
lived more happily than one who is counted the 
happiest of men, and he used actually to assert that 
he lived more happily than such a man. And if you 

^ Cf. Letter to Themistms 256 d ; Nauck, Adespota 
Fraymenta 6 ; Diogenes Laertius, 6. 38, says that this was a 
favourite quotation af Diogenes ; its source is unknown. 



€py(p TreipaOel^ eKeivov rov ^iov /cat ov T(p Xoyrp 

^epe St] irpoiTov avrov ^la tcov Xoycov iXej^co- 
jxev. apd aoL 8ok6l tmv iravrcov ayaOwv avdpco- 
TTOt? rjyeiaOai, tovtcov Btj tmv TroXvOpvXyrcov, 
eKevOepiav; ttw? ycup ov <p'^crei<;; eirel koX ra D 
y^p-qpuara koI ttX-oOto? koX yevo<i /cat aco/jLarof; 
la')(y<; /cal AraXXo? Kai Trdvra dir\(a<^ ra roiavra 
St^a T^9 iXevOepia'i ov rov So/covvto<; rjvrv^rjKevai, 
Tov KT7](Tap,€vov Be avrov iariv dyaOd; riva ovv 
vTroXa/jLjSdvop^ev rov SovXov; apa p,r) rrore eKelvov, 
ov dv Tvpioop^eOa Spa'X^p.cov dpyvpiov roawv rj pbvalv 
hvolv rj ypvalov ararypcov SeKa; epeL<; hrjirovOev 
rovrov euvai dXr)Oci)<; BovXov. dpa 8t' avro rovro, 
on ro dpyvpiov virep avrov ra> ircoXovvn Kara- 
/3€/3X7]Kaf.t€V; ovro) p,evrdv elev ol/cerat Kal otto- 196 
<rof9 ra)v al')(^p.aX(orcov Xvrpovp^eOa. Kairoi /cal 
ol vop'OL rovrof^ diroSeScoKaai, rrjv eXevOepiav 
awOelatv oiKaCe, /cal T^yLtet? avrov<^ aTroXvrpovp^eda, 
ou^ iva BovXevcrcocTLV, dXX^ iva ayaiv eXevOepoL. 
6pa<; ft)9 ov'X^ iKavov ianv dpyvpiov Kara/SaXeiv e? 
rb diro(^rjvai rov XvrpwOevra BovXov, dXX^ i/ceiv6<; 
ear IV ft)9 dX7)6a}<; 8ovXo<^, ov /cvpi6<; ecrriv erepo^ 
wpocravay/cdaai Trpdrreiv 6,ri dv KeXevrj, Kal p^r) 
/SovXop^evov KoXaaai Kai, rb Xeyopbevov virb rov 

KaKal<; oBvvrjai TreXd^eiv; 

opa Brj rb pberd rovro, el p,r} Kvpioi 7rdvre<^ r]p.6)v B 
elaiv, 01)9 dvayKaiov r)p,iv Oeparreveiv, iva pbrfhev 
dXySypbev p/ifBe Xvircop^eOa KoXa^opevoi irap avrcov. 



do not believe me, try his mode of life in deed and 
not in word, and you will perceive the truth. 

Come, let us first test it by reasoning. You think, 
do you not, that for mankind freedom is the beginning 
of all good things,! I mean of course what people are 
always calling good ? How can you deny it ? For 
property, money, birth, physical strength, beauty and 
in a word everything of the sort when divorced from 
freedom are surely blessings that belong, not to him 
who merely seems to enjoy them, but to him who is 
that man's master ? Whom then are we to regard as a 
slave ? Shall it be him whom we buy for so many silver 
drachmas, for two minae or for ten staters ^ of gold ? 
Probably you will say that such a man is truly a 
slave. And why ? Is it because we have paid down 
money for him to the seller ? But in that case the 
prisoners of war whom we ransom would be slaves. 
And yet the law on the one hand grants these their 
freedom when they have come safe home, and we on 
the other hand ransom them not that they may 
become slaves, but that they may be free. Do you 
see then that in order to make a ransomed man a 
slave it is not enough to pay down a sum of money, 
but that man is truly a slave over whom another man 
has power to compel him to do whatever he orders, 
and if he refuse, to punish him and in the words of 
the poet "to inflict grievous pains upon him"?^ Then 
consider next whether we have not as many masters 
as there are persons whom we are obliged to con- 
ciliate in order not to suffer pain or annoyance from 
being punished by them ? Or do you think that the 

1 Cf. 188 c, Plato, Laws 730 b. 

'•^ The stater or Daric was worth about a sovereign. 

3 Iliad 5. 766. 



Y) TOVTO 016C KoKacTLV fjiovov, Si T^9 e7ravaT€tvo/jLevo^ 
Tr)v l3aKT7]pLav KaOiKOcro rov OiKerov; KairoL ye 
TOLOvrov ovBk ol Tpa')(yTaTOt. twv BecnroTMv iirl 
TrdvTCOv TTOcovai rcov olfceTcov, aXXa fcal X0709 
dpKel iroWaKi^ koI dTreiXrj. /xiJTTOTe ovv, w ^tXe, C 
vofxiar)^ eivat e\ev6epo<i, d')(^pt<; ov jacrrrjp cip')(^€i' 
(Tov Kol rd evepOev yaarpof; 0% re rov irapaa^elv 
rd 7r/0O9 '^Bovrjv koX ravrd^ diroKcoXva-ai, /cvpioi, 
/cal el TovTcov Se yevoLO KpetTTCOv, eo)? dv 8ov\evrj<; 
Ta?9 Tojv iroXXcov Bo^ac^, oviro) rrjf; eXevOepia^ 
edtye<i ovBe eyevaco rov ve/crapo^, 

Ov /jbd TOV ev (TTepvoLatv ifiol^i TrapaSovra 

Kol ov TOVTO cf)r)/jLi, fo)9 diTepvOpLacrai 'X^prj Trpo^ D * 
iravTa^i kol irpaTTeiv to. fjir) irpaKTea' aXX' mv 
direxo/jLeOa /cal oaa irpaTTOfxev, /jLtj Bid to to2<; 
7roXXoi9 BoKelv (TirovBata 7rft)9 ^ rj <pavXa, Bed 
TOVTO TTpaTTco/jiev Kol aTTe^co/jieOa, dXX* otl tS) 
X6y(p Koi Tft) ev rjfilv Oew, tovt earl Ta> va>, raOra 
icTTLV diropprjTa. tov<; puev ovv 7roXXov(; ovBev KcoXvec 
Tat9 Koivac<; eTreaOai, B6^ai<;' apbeivov ydp tovto 
TOV iravTairaacv direpvOpidv e'^ovao ydp dvdpco- 197 
TTOi (pvaec 7r/309 dXrjOecav olKeica' dvBpl Be yBrj 
Kard vovv ^mvtl koX 701)9 opdov<; evpelv re Bvva- 
fievM Kol Kplvat X6yov<^ irpoarjKev to irapaTrav 
ovBev erreaOai toI<; vop,t^o/jLevoi<; vtto tmv ttoXXmv 
ev Te /cat 'xelpov TrpdrTeadai. 

^ TouTo Hertlein suggests, toCto MSS. 
^ TTws Hertlein suggests, TrdpTws MSS. 



only sort of punishment is when a man lifts up his 
stick against a slave and strikes him ? Yet not even 
the harshest masters do this in the case of all their 
slaves, but a word or a threat is often enough. Then 
never think^ my friend, that you are free while your 
belly rules you and the part below the belly, since 
you will then have masters who can either furnish 
you the means of pleasure or deprive you of them ; 
and even though you should prove yourself superior 
to these, so long as you are a slave to the opinions of 
the many you have not yet approached freedom or 
tasted its nectar, " I swear by him who set in my 
breast the mystery of the Four ! " ^ But I do not 
mean by this that we ought to be shameless before 
all men and to do what we ought not ; but all that 
we refrain from and all that we do let us not do or 
refrain from, merely because it seems to the multitude 
somehow honourable or base, but because it is for- 
bidden by reason and the god within us, that is, the 
mind. 2 As for the multitude there is no reason why 
they should not follow common opinions, for that is 
better than that they should be altogether shameless, 
and indeed mankind is predisposed to the truth by 
nature. But a man who has attained to a life in 
accordance with intelligence and is able to discover 
and estimate right reasons, ought on no account 
whatever to follow the views held by the many about 
good and bad conduct. 

^ An oath used by the Pythagoreans, who regarded the 
teti'ad, the sum of the first four numbers, as symbolical 
of all proportion and perfection ; cf. Aetios, Placita 1. 7. 
Pythagoras, Aureum Carmen 47, Mullach va fxa rhv a/xerepa 
>pvxS. TrapaS6pTa TerpaKTvv. 

'^ Cf. Oration 268 d ; Euripides fr. 1007 Nauck 6 vovs yap 
^fxuv ioTTiv (V eKaa-rcp de6s ; lamblichus, Protrepticus 8. 138. 



OvKovv eTTethrj to fjuev iart rt;? yfrvx^^i rjfiMV 
Oeiorepov, o Brj vovv fcal ^povrjaiv (f)afi€P koI 
Xoyov TOP (TLyay/jLevop, ov Krjpv^ icrrlv 6 hia t^q 
(f)(i>vr]<{ ovTocrl X0709 irpoloiiv i^ ovopbdrcov fcal 
prj/jLarcov, erepov Be ri tovto'. avve^evKrai ttolkLXov 
Koi iravTohairov, opyfj Kal eTnOvfita ^v/jL/JLtye^; re B 
kal 7ro\v/ce(f)a\ov drfpiov, ov irporepov XPV T^po? 
Ta9 S6^a<; roop iroWcov drevcof; opdv Kal dSca- 
TpeTTTO)?, irplv av tovto hafjidcrwpbev to Orjptop kclL 
ireiGCOfjiev viraKOvcrau tm Trap" tjimv 6ew, fidWov he 
Oeiw. TOVTO yap iroXkol tov Aioyevovf; ^r}Xo)Tal . 
edaavTef; ^ eyevovTO iravTopefCTat Kal paapol Kal 

TMV OrjpLCOV OvBe eZ/09 KpeUTTOV^, OTL Be OVK ifJiO^i 6 

\0709 eVrt, TrpcoTov epyov epoi aoi Aioyevovf;, e^' C 
o5 yeXdaovTat fiev ol ttoXXol, ifiol Be eivau BoKel 
crefjLVOTaTOv. eireiBri yap tl<; tmv vecov ev 6')(X(p, 
7rap6vT0<^ Kal tov Acoyevov;, drreTrapBev, errraTa^ep 
eKelvo^ TTJ ^aKTTjpla (f)d(;' elTa, c5 KaOapfia, pbrjBev 
a^iov TOV Brjfioaia Ta TOiavTa Oapaelv 7rpd^a<; 
evTevOev rj/jLcv dp')(r] B6^rj<; KaTa^povelv ; ovtco^ 
(peTO ')(^prjvai irpoTepov ffBovrj^; Kal dvfiov KpeiTTOva 
yeveaOai, irplv" eirl to TeXeuoTaTOv eXdelv tmv 
iraXaia/jidTcop, 'diroBvadfjievov 7rpb<; Ta^i tmp D 
TToXXcou 3o^a9 at p^vpiwv KaKMV aLTcai yivovTat 

T0i9 TToXXofc?. 

Gi^a: olada 07r&)9 T0v<i fiev veov^ t^9 
i^iXoao^ia<i airayovoiv, aXXa eir dXXoL^; tcop 

^ Cv^uTol idaaPTes Hertlein suggests, (rfAuxrayres MSS. 
^ vp\p Hertlein suggests, kuI rp'nov MSS. 



Since therefore one part of our souls is more 
divine, which we call mind and intelligence and 
silent reason, whose herald is this speech of ours 
made up of words and phrases and uttered through 
the voice ; and since there is yoked therewith 
another part of the soul which is changeful and 
multiform, something composite of anger and appetite, 
a many-headed monster, we ought not to look 
steadily and unswervingly at the opinions of the 
multitude until we have tamed this wild beast and 
persuaded it to obey the god within us, or rather 
the divine part. For this it is that many disciples 
of Diogenes have ignored, and hence have become 
rapacious and depraved and no better than any 
one of the brute beasts. And to prove that this is 
not my own theory,^ first I will relate to you some- 
thing that Diogenes did, which the many will 
ridicule but to me it seems most dignified. Once 
when, in a crowd of people among whom was 
Diogenes, a certain youth made an unseemly noise, 
Diogenes struck him with his staff and said " And 
so, vile wretch, though you have done nothing 
that would give you the right to take such liberties 
in public, you are beginning here and before us 
to show your scorn of opinion ? " So convinced 
was he that a man ought to subdue pleasure and 
passion before he proceeds to the final encounter of 
all ^ and strips to wrestle with those opinions which 
to the multitude are the cause of evils innumerable. 

Do you not know how people lure away the young 
from philosophy by continually uttering now one 

^ Euripides /?\ 488; Misopoyon 358 t>. 
'^ Cf. Oration 1. 40 b, 2. 74 c, notes. 




<f>iXoa6(f)(ov 6pv\ovvT€^; ol Tlvdayopov koL 
nXarcoi'o? Koi 'ApLaToriXov; yopevraX 'yvrjaiOL 
y6r)T€<i elvat Xiyovrac koi aocfyiaTol koI rervcpco- 
fjuevoL KOL cl)app,aK€L<;. r<ov K.vvtK(bv ei ttov rt? 198 
fyeyove (T7rovBalo<;, iXeeivof; BoKer p^ip^vrj/iac yovv 
iyco irore rpo(j>i(o<^ etVoz^TO? tt/qo? p.€, iTrecSr} rov 
eraipov elBev ^lcf)L/c\ea av')(^p,ripav eyovra rrjv 
Kofir^v KoX KareppcoyoTa ra aripva ip^dnov re 
iravTCLTTadL <pav\ov iv heivw ^etyLtwi^i* Tt9 cipa 
BaijJLWV TovTOv eh ravTrjv TrepLeTpeyjre ttjv av/j,- 
(popdv, ij(f}^ rj(; avTo<; pbev iXeeivo^;, iXeeivorepoi Be 
ol Traripe^i avrov, dpiyjravTef; avv eirifJiekeLa koL 
7raiBevaavT€<; co? eveBe'^^ero airovBaico^, 6 Be ovrco B 
vvv Tre pLep'^erat, irdvTa a<^6t9, ovBev roiv irpoaaL- 
TovvTcov KpeiTTcov; eKsivov fxev ovv iyci) ovk olB' 
OTTft)? TOT€ fcarecpcovevadp^rjv ev p^evroi ye taOi 
Tavra kol ^ virep rcov d\7)d(a<; kvvmv tol*? ttoXXoi'? 
BLavoov/jLepov<i. /cat ov tovto Beivov earLV, a)OC 
6pa<i OTL Kol itXovtov dyairav TreiOovaL koI ireviav 
fxiaelv Kol Tr)v yaarepa depaTreveiv koI tov 
a(o/jLaTO(; eve/ca Trdvra vTro/jueveiv ttovov koX 
TTLaiveiv rov Tr]<^ a/tu^t}? Beaphv Kal Tpdire^av 
TraparidearOaL TroXvTeXrj Kal p^T^Beirore vvKTcop C 
KadevBetv p^ovov, dXKa rd roiavra Trdvra Bpdv ev 
TO) GKOT(p XavOdvovra; tovto ovk eaTi tov Tap- 
rdpov 'x^etpov; ov ^ekTiov icTTLv virb rrjv ^dpvjSBiv 
Kal TOV K.coKVTbv Kal p,vpia<; 6pyvi,d<; Kara yrj^ 
Bvvat, rj irecrelv et? tolovtov ^lov alBoioi<; Kal 
yacTTpl BovXevovTa, Kal ovBe tovtoc^ avrXw? 
Giairep Ta Oypla, irpdyp^ara Be e')(eLV, ox; av Kal 

^ Tavra /col Hertlein suggests, /col toCto MSS. 


slander and then another against all the philosophers 
in turn ? The genuine disciples of Pythagoras and 
Plato and Aristotle are called sorcerers and sophists 
and conceited and quacks. If here and there among 
the Cynics one is really virtuous he is regarded with 
pity. For instance I remember that once my tutor 
said to me when he saw my fellow-pupil Iphicles with 
his hair unkempt and his clothes in tatters on his 
chest and wearing a wretched cloak in severe winter 
weather : " What evil genius can have plunged 
him into this sad state which makes not only 
him pitiable but even more so his parents who 
reared him with care and gave him the best education 
they could ! And now he goes about in this condition, 
neglecting everything and no better than a beggar ! " 
At the time I answered him with some pleasantry 
or other. But I assure you that the multitude hold 
these views about genuine Cynics also. And that 
is not so dreadful, but do you see that they 
persuade them to love wealth, to hate poverty, 
to minister to the belly, to endure any toil for the 
body's sake, to fatten that prison of the soul, to 
keep up an expensive table, never to sleep alone 
at niglit,^ provided only that they do all this in 
the dark and are not found out ? Is not this worse 
than Tartarus ? Is it not better to sink beneath 
Chary bdis and Cocytus or ten thousand fathoms 
deep in the earth ^ than to fall into a life like 
this, enslaved to lust and appetite, and not even 
to these simply and openly, like the beasts, but 
to take pains so that when we act thus we may 

1 Cf. Plato, Epi.Hth8 326 b. 

^ An echo of Xenophon, Anabasis 7. 1. 29. 

E 2 


Xddoifiev VTTO TO) a KOTO) ravja i^epya^ofievoi; 
KairoL TTOGdd tcpeiTTOV aire')(€(T6aL iravTCLTraaiv D 
avTMv; el he /jltj pahuov, ol Aioyevov^; vo/jloi koX 
KpdrrjTO^i virep tovtcov ovk dri/jLaareor epwra 
\veL XifJLo^, dv he lovrcp y^prjcrOaL firj Bvvr),^ ^p6')(p^. 
OVK olaOa, on ravra eirpa^av e/celvoL tw jSio) 
ScB6vTe<; ohov evTe\eLa<;; ov yap e/c tmv /jLu^o- 
(f)dy(ov, <p7]alv 6 Aioyevr]<;, ol Tvpavvoi, dX)C iic 199 
TCdv BecTTPOvvrcov TToXf TeXco9. /cal 6 K/OttT??? fievroi 
TreTTOLTj/cev Vjxvov eh rrjv EvreXeLav 

^acpe, 6ed Beairoiva, aoipMV dvhpoiv dydTrrjjjba, 
EvTeXiT), KkeLvrj<; eyyove '^w^pocrvvrj^;. 

ecTTfo Sr) fjurj Kara top OlvofJiaov 6 kvwv dvaiBr)'^ 
/jLr)Se dvaia-')(vvro<i fxrjBe virepoirrr^fi iravTcov o/jlov 
Oeiayv re koI dvOpcoTrlvcov, dWd evXa^rj'^ ixev rd 
7r/909 TO Oelov, oyairep Atoyepr)^' eTreladi] yovv B 
eKelvo<; rw Uvdlo), koX ov ixeTefxeKrio-ev avro) ireia- 
devrr el he, on jur) irpoarjet firjhe eOepdireve tou? 
ved)^ fir)he rd dydXfjLura fii^he roix; ^(Ofiov'^, oierai 
n<; dOeoTTjTOf; etvac crrj/jLetov, ovk 6p6oi<; vofii^er 
yv ydp ovhev avrw tmv tolovtcov, ov Xi^av(0T6<;, ov 
aTTOvht], ovk dpyvpioVy oBev avrd TrpiaiTO. el he 
evoei irepl deoiv opdoy^y rjpKei tovto jjlovov avrfj ydp 
avTOv<; eBepdireve^ rfj '^v'^fj, hihovf; olfiat rd 
nfjucorara rcov eavrov, to KaOocnodaai ryv eavTOv 
'yjrv'^rjp hid rcov evvoicov. direpvd pidTco he /jltj- C 
hafjbox;, dXX^ e7r6/jbevo<; tw Xoyw Trporepov fiev 
avTw ')(eLpor]6e^ KaTacTrjaaTW to iraOrjpuinKov 

^ Styj/?; 'Hertlein suggests, cf. Diogenes Laertius 6. 5. 2 ; 

2 idepdveve Hertlein suggests, idepdw^vae MSS. 



be hidden under cover of darkness ? And yet 
how much better is it to refrain altogether from all 
this ! And if that be difficult the rules of Diogenes 
and Crates on these matters are not to be despised : 
" Fasting quenches desire, and if you cannot 
fast, hang yourself." ^ Do you not know that those 
great men lived as they did in order to introduce 
among men the way of plain living? "For/' says 
Diogenes, " it is not among men who live on bread 
that you will find tyrants, but among those who eat 
costly dinners." Moreover Crates wrote a hymn 
to Plain Living : " Hail, goddess and Queen, darling 
of wise men. Plain Living, child of glorious Tem- 
perance." 2 Then let not the Cynic be like Oenomaus 
shameless or impudent, or a scorner of everything 
human and divine, but reverent towards sacred things, 
like Diogenes. For he obeyed the Pythian oracle nor 
did he repent of his obedience. But if anyone 
supposes that because he did not visit the temples 
or worship statues or altars this is a sign of impiety, 
he does not think rightly. For Diogenes possessed 
nothing that is usually offered, incense or libations 
or money to buy them with. But if he held right 
opinions about the gods, that in itself was enough. 
For he worshipped them with his whole soul, thus 
offering them as I think the most precious of his 
possessions, the dedication of his soul through his 
thoughts. Let not the Cynic be shameless, but led by 
reason let him first make subservient to himself the 
emotional part of his soul so that he may entirely do 

^ Diogenes Laertius 6. 86 ; Palatine Anthology 9. 497 ; 
Julian paraphrases the verses of Crates, of. Crates fr, 14, 
Diels. 2 Palatine Anthology 10. 104. 



Trj<; ylru')(^fj<; /xoptov, ware iravrdiraa-LV e^ekelv 
avTO fcal /jbrjSe on Kparel rcbv rjhovwv elBivac. 
eh TOVTO yap ajieivov eXdelVy el^ to kul, el Trao-^et 
Tfc9 TO, Tocavra, oX.a)9 dyvorjcrar tovto Be tj/mv 
OVK dWco^ Tj 8td T(ov yv/ubvaacMV irpoaylveTai. 
Xva he jiTj Ti^ VTToXd^r) fie ravra aX-Xo)? Xeyeov, 
CK tS)V Tracy vlcov }^pdrrjTo<; 6\iya oroL Trapaypd-yjro)' D 

M.vrj/jLOcrvvrjf; KaX Zrjvbf; ^OXv/jlttIov dyXad refcva, 
yLovcrac Ilteyot^e?, /cXvre jjlol ev^ofjiivw' 

^oprov del avve')(0)<^ Sore yaaTepi, rjre fjuoi alel 
Xft}yot9 BovXoavvr)<; Xcrov eOrj/ce ^iov. 

^ Ik * Ik 

^fl^eXtfiov Be <f)iXoi<;, /jlt) yXvKepov TiOere. 
^py/Liara 3' ov/c eOeXco crvvdyeiv KXvrd, Kavddpov 
oXf^ov ^ 
IslvpixriKo^ T d(j)evo<; '^p'^/mara fiac6fjLevo<; , 200 

^AXXd hiKaioavvq^ fjLeTe)(^eLV Kal irXovrov dyei- 
peiv ^ 
^v(f)opov, evKTrjTOVi Tifiiov eh dperrjv. 
Twi^ Be TV')((MV 'Eip/jirjv /cal Movo-a? IXdao/ju 
Ov Ba7rdvai<^ Tpv(f>epah, dXX^ dperah 6crtat9. 

el 'X,pv ^01 Trepl tovtwv ypdcpetv, e%ft> rrXeiova rov B 
dvBpo^. evTV')(ci>v Be rw l^aipwvel YVXovrdp'^M tov 
K.pdrr)To<; dvaypdyjravrc ^iov ovBev eK irapepyov 
fiavOdpetv BeTjaet rov dvBpa. 

'Aw' eTravLco/jiev eir eKelvo irdXiv, on •y^pj) rov 
dp)(^6fievov Kvvi^ecv avrw irporepov eTmLfjudv C 

1 ixfiov Wright, cf. 213b, olrov MSS., Hertlein. 
"^ ayeipfiv Cobet, ayivelv Hertlein, MSS. 



away with it and not even be aware that he is superior 
to pleasures. For it is nobler to attain to this, I 
mean to complete ignorance whether one has any 
such emotions. And this comes to us only through 
training. And that none may think I say this at 
random I will add for your benefit a few lines from 
the lighter verse of Crates : ^ " Glorious children of 
Memory and Olympian Zeus, ye Muses of Pieria, 
hearken to my prayer ! Give me without ceasing 
victuals for my belly which has always made my life 
frugal and free from slavery. . . . To my friends 
make me useful rather than agreeable. As for 
money I desire not to amass conspicuous wealth, 
seeking after the wealth of the beetle or the sub- 
stance of the ant ; nay, I desire to possess justice 
and to collect riches that are easily carried, easily 
acquired, of great avail for virtue. If I may but win 
these I will propitiate Hermes and the holy Muses 
not with costly dainties but with pious virtues.'' If 
it be of any use to write for you about such things I 
could recite still more maxims by this same Crates. 
But if you will read Plutarch of Chaeronea, who 
wrote his Life, there will be no need for you to learn 
his character superficially from me. 

But let me go back to what I said before, that he 
who is entering on the career of a Cynic ought first 

^ I.e. parodies such as the verses here quoted which parody 
Solon's prayer /r. 12, Bergk ; cf. 213 b. 



TTtKpM^; KoX e^eXey^^ecv kol firj KokaKeveiv, aSXa 
e^erd^etv 6, ri fxakKTra avrov dKpipo)<^, el rfj 
TToXvTeXeta tmv cmioav ')(aipeL, el (TTpoofivi]<; ^elrac 
/juaXaKrjf;, el rifirjf; rj 86^r](; earlv '^TTcoVy el tovto 
^r)\o2 TO Trepi/SXeireadac Kai, el koL Kevov ecr}, 
TLfiLOu oficof; vo/jLL^eo. /jLTjSe 669 crv/jL7repi,(f)opav 
o^\(ov KaOv^eiaOco} <yevea0o3 8e TpV(j)r](; firjSe D 
CLKpw, (fyaai, tm SaKTvXo), eft)? av avrrjv 7ravTe\S)<i 
Trartjarj. rore r/Si; Kal to)V tocovtcov, av irpoa- 
iTLiTTr}, Oiyelv ovhev KoyXvec. eirel koI tmv 
ravpcov olkovo) tov<; daOevearepov^ e^iaraaOai 
Trj<; dye\7)<; Kal KaO^ eavrov^; ve/jLO/j£vov<; dyeipecv 
rrjv l(T')(vv ev /nepei Kal Kar oXlyov, eW^ ovrco^ 
eiTLevai Kal TrpOKaXecaOai Kal Tfj<i dyeXT]^; d/jL^ca- 
^Tjrelv Tol<; TrpOKare^ovatv, co? fjuaXXov d^cco- 
repov^ TrpotcTracrOac. o(tti<; ovv Kwl^eiv edeXei 
fjbrjre tov rpL^cova fujre rrjv irrjpav fjbrjre rrjv jSaK- 201 
Trjpiav Kal ttjv Kofjurjv dyairaTO) jjlovov, tV wcTTrep 
ev Kcofjbrj jSaSl^rj Kovpeicov Kal hihaa KaXeidov evSeel 
dKapTO<; Kao dypa/jufjuaro^;, dXXd tov Xoyov dvTl 
TOV (TKrjTTTpov Kal TTjv kvcTaaiv dvTl Tl}? TTTjpa^i 
T>;9 KVVLKTjf; vTroXafi/BaveTO) ^LXo(7o<^La^ yvcopia- 
fxaTa. irapprjaia he ^(^pycrTeov avTO) TrpcoTOV 
OTTOcrov 7re(pvKev d^Lo<; e7nBei^a/jL€V(py wairep oljiai 
J^paTrjf; Kal ALoyevr}<;, ol irdaav fiev direvXrjv 
TV')(7)<; Kal ecTe TracStdv eiTe irapoiviav 'Xprj cfjdvac B 

1 Kadv(p€l<Tdw Herblein suggests, Kadetadw MSS. 


to censure severely and cross-examine himself, and 
without any self-flattery ask himself the following 
questions in precise terms : whether he enjoys 
expensive food ; whether he cannot do without a 
soft bed ; whether he is the slave of rewards and the 
opinion of men ; whether it is his ambition to attract 
public notice and even though that be an empty 
honour ^ he still thinks it worth while. Nevertheless 
he must not let himself drift with the current of the 
mob or touch vulgar pleasure even with the tip of 
his finger^ as the saying is, until he has succeeded 
in trampling on it ; then and not before he may 
permit himself to dip into that sort of thing if it 
come his way. For instance I am told that bulls 
which are weaker than the rest separate themselves 
from the herd and pasture alone while they store up 
their strength in every part of their bodies by 
degrees, until they rejoin the herd in good condition, 
and then they challenge its leaders to contend with 
them, in confidence that they are more fit to take the 
lead. Therefore let him who wishes to be a Cynic 
philosopher not adopt merely their long cloak or 
wallet or staff or their way of wearing the hair, as 
though he were like a man walking unshaved and 
illiterate in a village that lacked barbers' shops and 
schools, but let him consider that reason rather than 
a staff and a certain plan of life rather than a wallet 
are the mintmarks of the Cynic philosophy. And 
freedom of speech he must not employ until he have 
first proved how much he is worth, as I believe was 
the case with Crates and Diogenes. For they were 
so far from bearing with a bad grace any threat of 

^ An echo of Euripides, Fhoenissae 551, Trepi0\4ir€<Teai 
TifjUoVy K€vhv fieu oly. 



ToaovTOV airkarypv rov SvctkoXox; ivejKelv, oyare 
d\ov<; fxev viro tmv fcaraTrouTicrrcav 6 Aioyevrj'i 
eTrat^ev, 6 Kparrj^; Be €Br)fjLoaiev€ rrjv ovaiav, elra 
TO aoyjJia ^Tut/SeU eaxcoTrrev eavrov eh ttjv 
'^(oXorrjra tov aK6Xov<; koX to KvpTov tmv cofX(oVy 
iiropeveTo he eirl t<x9 tmv c^iXwv earia*^ a/c\7]T0<i 
Koi ^ KeKkrjfxevo^, hiaWd&acov tov^ ol/cecoTdTovf; 
aXX^XoL^;, eliroTe aTaatd^0PTa<i aiorOoiTOy eireTifia 
Be ov fjueTO, inKpia^, dWa fJbeTa ')(dpLT0f;, ov^ iva C 
avK0(f)avTe2v BoKJj tov<; or(o^povL(T6evTa<^, od^eXelv 
Be eOeXcov avTov<; re eK€ivov<; koi tov<^ aKOvovTa^, 

Kal ov TOVTO rjv to Trporjyov/jievov avToh TeXo9* 
dW , oTrep €<f>r)v, eaKoirovv otto)? avTol fiev 
evBaifJiovrjaovaLV,'^ efieXe Be avTo2^ t&v dWcov toct- 
ovTov oaov ^vvieaav olpbai (pvaei kolvcovlkov koI 

TTOXCTCKOV ^(pOV TOV avdpCdTTOV elvai, Kol TOU? <TV/jL- 

7ro\iTevofievov<; cocfieXrjaav ov rot? irapaheiyiMaaL 
fiovov, dWd Kol T0t9 X6yoc<?. 6aTL<; ovv dv eOeKrj D 
K.vviKO(i elvat koX o-TrovBaiO'; dvrjp, avTov irpoTS- 
pov e7rL/Jie\r)0eh, coaTrep ALoy€vr]<; /cat K.pdTr]<; 
e^eXavveTCO fjuev Tr]<; yjrv')(^rj<; diravTa ex 7rdarj<; to, 
TrdOr], 6pda> Be e'mTpey\ra<^ tcl Kad^ eavTOv Xoyo) 
Kol v(p KV^epvdadd). Ke<pd\aLOV yap rjv, 0)9 eyo) 
ol/jLai, TOVTO T^9 Aooyevov<; <f>i\oao^ia<;. 

Et Be eTaipa iroTe TrpocrrjXdev 6 dvr)p' KaiTOL 
fcal TOVTO TV')(pv dwa^ rj ovBe dira^ eyeveTO' 
OTav r]fuv Ta dWa KaTa tov Atoyevrj yevrjTai 202 

^ Before KiKXr^fxivo^ Cobet adds /cot ; cf. Oration 8. 250 c. 
^ ivhaifiovi\(rov<riV Hertleiu suggests, evSai/JLovfiacocnv MSS. 



fortune, whether one call such threats caprice or 
wanton insult, that once when he had been captured 
by pirates Diogenes joked with them ; as for Crates 
he gave his property to the state, and being 
physically deformed he made fun of his own lame 
leg and hunched shoulders. But when his friends 
gave an entertainment he used to go, whether 
invited or not,^ and would reconcile his nearest 
friends if he learned that they had quarrelled. 
He used to reprove them not harshly but with 
a charming manner and not so as to seem to 
persecute those whom he wished to reform, but 
as though he wished to be of use both to them 
and to the bystanders. 

Yet this was not the chief end and aim of those 
Cynics, but as 1 said their main concern was how 
they might themselves attain to happiness and, as I 
think, they occupied themselves with other men only 
in so far as they comprehended that man is by nature 
a social and political animal ; and so they aided their 
fellow-citizens, not only by practising but by 
preaching as well. Then let him who wishes to be 
a Cynic, earnest and sincere, first take himself in 
hand like Diogenes and Crates, and expel from his 
own soul and from every part of it all passions and 
desires, and entrust all his affairs to reason and 
intelligence and steer his course by them. For this 
in my opinion was the sum and substance of the 
philosophy of Diogenes. 

And if Diogenes did sometimes visit a courtesan 

— though even this happened only once perhaps or 

not even once — let him who would be a Cynic first 

satisfy us that he is, like Diogenes, a man of solid 

1 Thucydides 1. 118. 



(TTTovSaco';, av avrw ^ cjjavrj kol tocovtov tl 
Spdv^ (f)av€p(Jt)<; ev 6^6a\fxol<; ttcivtcov, ov fjuefjuyfro- 
fxeda ovhe alnaaofieOa. Trporepov puevroL rrjv 
Atoy€VOv<i rjpuv €7rcS€i^dpL€vo<; evpudOecav /cal rrjv 
dyx^iVOLav /cal rrjv ev rol<i a\Xoi<; airaatv eXev- 
OepiaVy avrdp/ceiav, ScKaiocrvvrjv, crcocfypoavvrjv, 
evXd^eiav, 'X^dptv, tt pocro')(^v , (i)? p,r)hev elKrj purjSe 
fidrijv pLTjSe d\6ya)<; Trotelv iirel /cal ravra rrjf; B 
Aioyevov; icrrl (f)i,\oao(f)La<; ol/ceca' irarebTO) Tvcfyov, 
KaraTTai^eTw rcov ra puev dvay/cata Trj<^ (j>vae(DS 
epya KpvirrovTwv iv crKortp' (j)'r]p,l Se ro)v Treptr- 
Tco/mdrcov ra<; €/CKpLcrei<;' iv pieaat^ he Tal<; dyopal^ 
/cal ral^ iroXeaiv eircrySevovrcov ra iSLaiorara Kal 
firjSev rjpbMV ol/ceta rrj (f)vcr€i, 'X^pripbdrcov dpirayd<;, 
avKocf)avTLa<i, ypa(j)a<; dBL/cov<;, Bcco^ei^; aXXcov 
TOLovTcov (Tvp^eT(oho)v irpaypidTWv. ewel /cal 
Aioy€V7j<i ecre direiraphev etre aTreirdTrjaev elre C 
oKXo Ti TocovTOv eirpa^ev, odaTvep ovv Xeyovaiv, 
ev dyopdy rov e/celvcov irarcov rvcjyov eiroieiy BiSda- 
Kwv avTov<;, on 7roWa> (fyavXorepa Kal %aXe7rco- 
repa tovtcov eTTLTTjSevovaL. rd puev ydp earcv r)puv 
irdo-L Kara (fjvo-tv, rd 8e q)<; eVo? elirelv ovBevl, 
iravra Be e/c Bia(rTpo^rj<; einTijBeveTat. 

'AA,X' ol vvv Tov ALoyevov<; ^rjXwral to paarrov 
Kal Koviporarov eXopLevoL to Kpelrrov ouk elBov 
(TV T€ eKelvddV elvai cepuvorepof; eOiXcov direnrXavrj- D 

1 ahr^ Cobet, ovTu> Hertlein, MSS. 

2 hpavy Petavius, pavai Hertlein, MSS. 



worth, and then if he see fit to do that sort of thing 
openly and in the sight of all men, we shall not 
reproach him with it or accuse him. First however 
we must see him display the abilit}^ to learn and the 
quick wit of Diogenes, and in all other relations he 
must show the same independence, self-sufficiency, 
justice, moderation, piety, gratitude, and the same 
extreme carefulness not to act at random or without 
a purpose or irrationally. For these too are cha- 
racteristic of the philosophy of Diogenes. Then let 
him trample on vaingloriousness, let him ridicule 
those who though they conceal in darkness the 
necessary functions of our nature — for instance the 
secretion of what is superfluous — yet in the centre 
of the market-place and of our cities carry on 
practices that are most brutal and by no means akin 
to our nature, for instance robbery of money, false 
accusations, unjust indictments, and the pursuit of 
other rascally business of the same sort. On the 
other hand when Diogenes made unseemly noises or 
obeyed the call of nature or did anything else of 
that sort in the market-place, as they say he did, he 
did so because he was trying to trample on the 
conceit of the men I have just mentioned, and to 
teach them that their practices were far more sordid 
and insupportable than his own. For what he did 
was in accordance with the nature of all of us, but 
theirs accorded with no man's real nature, one may 
say, but were all due to moral depravity. 

In our own day, however, the imitators of 
Diogenes have chosen only what is easiest and least 
burdensome and have failed to see his nobler side. 
And as for you, in your desire to be more dignified 



^r/9 Tocrovrov Trj<; Aioyevov<; Trpoacpeaecof;, cocrre 
avTov eXesLvov ev6/jLtaa<;. el Se tovtoi<; fiev rjirlcr- 
T€t9 virep dv8po<i \€yo/jLei>oc<i, ov ol 7rdvT€(;"KWr)V€<i 
Tore iOavfiaaav /juera ^(OKparrj koX UvOayopav 
iirl UXdrcopof; /cat ^ ApcaTorekov^, ov yeyovev 
cLKpoarrj'^ 6 rod auxppovecTTdTov koI avveTcoTdrov 
TiTjvcovo^; /caOrjyep^cov, ov<i ovfc et/co? "^v diravra^ 
diraTrjOrivai irepl dvSpo<; ovtw (j^avXov, ottoIov av 
SLaKCop,(pS€L<;, 0) ^eXrcare, taco^ dv tl irXeov 203 
idKoirrjaaf; irepl avrov koX Troppcoripco TrporjXOefi 
rrjf; ep/JTeipia<^ TdvSp6<;. Tiva yap ovk i^eTrXrj^e 
Tcov ^EXX't]vo)v 7) Ai,oyevov<; Kaprepia, ^aacXcfcrj^i 
OVK €^co ixeyaXo'^v')(ia<s ovaa, koI (ptXoTrovia; 
eKdOevhev dvrjp eVt arL^dho^ iv rSi ttLOw j^eXnov 
rj p^eya^ fiacrCXev'^ viro roU iiTi')(^pvaoL<i opocfyoL^; iv 
rfi paXOaKfi KXivrj, rjaOie rijv pudl^av tjSiov rj av vvv 
Td<; XiK€XL/€d<; iaOiei'i rpaTre^af^, iXovero 'xjrv^p^ ^ B 
TO a(op.a 7r/309 depa ^Tjpalvcov dvrl tmv oOovlayv, 
ol<; aij aTTopdrTj], (piXoaocfxoTaTe. irdvv croi 
irpoarjKei KwpLwhelv eKelvov, otl tcareipydaw tov 
'Sip^rjVy ft)9 Sep^iaTOKXrjf;, fj tov Aapelov, ct)9 o 
MaKcBobv ^AXe^avBpo^. el ap,iKpd rd^ 8i^Xov<; 
dveXiTToyv e/JLeXera^ coairep r)p,el<i ol ttoXltlkoI kol 
7roXv7rpdyp,ove<;, eyva)^! dv, oirco^ ^AXe^av8po<; 
dyaadrjvaL Xeyerac rrjv Acoyevov^ fieyaXoyfrv^iav, 
dXX^ OVK earc crot tovtcov ovBev, 009 ep^ol BoKel, 

1 ^vxpv Naber, dep/j.^ Hertlein, MSS. 


than those early Cynics you have strayed so far from 

Diogenes' plan of life that you thought him an object 

of pity. But if you did not believe all this that I 

say about a man whom all the Greeks in the 

generation of Plato and Aristotle admired next to 

Socrates and Pythagoras^ a man whose pupil was the 

teacher of the most modest and most wise Zeno^ — and 

it is not likely that they were all deceived about a man 

as contemptible as you make him out to be in your 

travesty, — well, in that case_, my dear sir, perhaps you 

might have studied his character more carefully and 

you would have progressed further in your knowledge 

of the man. Was there, I ask, a single Greek who 

was not amazed by the endurance of Diogenes 

and by his perseverance, which had in it a truly 

royal greatness of soul ? The man used to sleep in 

his jar on a bed of leaves more soundly than the 

Great King on his soft couch under a gilded roof ; he 

used to eat his crust ^ with a better appetite than 

you now eat your Sicilian courses ^ ; he used to bathe 

his body in cold water and dry himself in the open 

air instead of with the linen towels with which you 

rub yourself down, my most philosophic friend ! It 

becomes you well to ridicule him because, I suppose, 

like Themistocles you conquered Xerxes, or J3arius 

like Alexander of Macedon. But if you had the 

least habit of reading books as I do, though I am a 

statesman and engrossed in public affairs^ you would 

know how much Alexander is said to have admired 

Diogenes' greatness of soul. But you care little, I 

suppose, for any of these things. How should you 

^ Cf. Dio Chrysostom, Oration 6. 12, Arnim. 
^ A proverb ; Sicily was famous for good cooking ; cf . 
Plato, ^e/>w6/^c 404 D ; Horace, Odts 1. 1. 18, " Siculae dapes." 



(TTTovSalov' iToOev; ttoWov <ye fcal Bel' yvvaucwv 
ddXicov redav/juaKa^i ^iXoveiKMV ^ fSlov. 

Efc fjL€v ovv o Xoyof; ri irXeov iTroLrjcrev, ovk ifiov 
/jLoXkov rj GOV icTTi /cepBo^;' el Be ovBev irepaivojJLev 
eK Tov irapaxPVM'^ nrepl tcop tolovtcov (nrvevcnl 
TO Bt) Xeyofievov avveipavTe^;' ecrrt yap irdpepyov 
TjfjLepaLV Bvolv, co? taaaiv at MoOcrat, jxaXkov Be 
Kal (TV ^ avT6<;' Trapafjueverco fxev aoi oiroaa 
iTpoadev eyv(OfC€t<;, ^/xiv Be ov fiera/jLeX'tja-ec tt}? 
6*9 TOV avBpa ev^r]ixia<;. 

^ <pi\oveiKuf Hertlein suggests, (piXuv vcKphv, MSS. 
^ aif Reiske adds, irapaficviru flip aoi Reiske conjectures, 
lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 



care ? Far from it ! ^ You admire and emulate the 
life of wretched women. 

However, if my discourse has improved you at all 
you will have gained more than I. But even if I 
accomplish nothing at the moment by writing on 
such a great subject thus hastily, and, as the saying is, 
without taking breath '^ — for I gave to it only the 
leisure of two days, as the Muses or rather you your- 
self will bear me witness — then do you abide by 
your former opinions, but I at any rate shall never 
regret having spoken of that great man with due 

^ Demosthenes, De Corona 47. 

2 Demosthenes, De Corona, 308, cf. Vol. 1. Oration 5. 178 d. 


VOL. n. F 



The Seventh Oration is directed against the 
Cynic Heracleios, who had ventured to recite before 
an audience when Julian was present a myth 
or allegory in which the gods were irreverently 
handled. Julian raises the question whether fables 
and myths are suitable for a Cynic discourse. He 
names the regular divisions of philosophy and decides 
that the use of myths may properly be allowed only 
to ethical philosophers and writers on theology : 
that myth is intended always as a means of religious 
teaching and should be addressed to children and 
those whose intellect does not allow them to 
envisage the truth without some such assistance. 
In Sallust's treatise On the Gods and the World he 
gives much the same account of the proper function 
of myths and divides them into five species^ giving 
examples of each. " To wish to teach the whole 
truth about the gods to all produces contempt 
in the foolish, because they cannot understand, 
and lack of zeal in the good ; whereas to conceal 
the truth by myths prevents the contempt of the 
foolish and compels the good to practise philosophy." ^ 
This is precisely the opinion of Julian as expressed 

^ Munay's translation of Sallust in Four Stages of Oreeh 
Religion^ New York, 1912, 



in the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Orations. Though 
both Julian and Sallust explain the myths away they 
are never rationalistic, and never offer the least excuse 
for scepticism. Julian's explanation of the Semele 
myth,^ which makes Semele an inspired prophetess 
and not the mother of Dionysus, tends to the 
greater glory of the god. The conclusion is that 
Heracleios should not have used myth at all, but 
in any case he used the wrong sort and wrote 
in the wrong spirit. He should have used such 
a myth as that composed by Prodicus the sophist 
on the Choice of Heracles at the Crossroads, an 
allegory which is more than once cited by Julian 
and was a favourite illustration in later Greek 

To show Heraclius what he might have written 
with propriety Julian adds a parable of his own 
modelled on that of Prodicus. In this he himself 
plays the part of a second Heracles, and takes 
the opportunity t<4. vilify Constantius and point out 
his own mission of reformer and restorer of order 
and religion to the Empire. Throughout the parable 
there are striking resemblances with the First 
Oration of Dio Chrysostom, and Asmus^ has made 
a detailed comparison of the two writers to prove 
that Julian wrote with Dio before him. In many 
of these parallels both Julian and Dio can be traced 
to a common classical source, usually Plato, but there 
is no doubt that Julian was thoroughly familiar 

1 Oration 7, 219. ^ Ci. Vol. I, Oration 2. 56 d. 

^ Asmus, Jvlian nnd Dion Ghrysostomus, 1895 ; cf. 
Praechter, Archiv fur Geschichfe der Philosophie 5. Dion 
Chrysostomus als Quelle Julians. Julian only once mentions 
Dio by name, Oration 7, 212 c. 



with the work of Dio and often used the same 
illustrations. Themistius^ however uses the Prodicus 
myth in much the same words as Dio, and it is 
imitated also by Maximus of Tyre.^ 

In conclusion Julian praises the earlier Cynics 
and criticises the later, in much the same words as 
he had used in the Sixth Oration. 

^ Themistius, 280 a. 

2 Maximus of Tyre, Dissertation 20. 



nEPi TOY nax ktnisteon kai ei npEnEi th kyni 


'H TToWa yiverai. iv fiaKpSi ^^povw' rovro ck 
T^9 K(o/jb(pBia<; aKTjKooTi fJLOi irpwrjv eTTrjXOev eK^or)- 
(Tai, OTTTjvLKa 7TapaK\r)6evTe^ rjKpoayiieOa kvvo^ 
ovrc ropbv ovBe <yevvalov v\aKTOvvTO<;, dXX' coairep 
at rlrdai fjbv0ov<; ahovro^ kol ovSe rovrov^; vjtco^ 
SiariOe/juevov. irapa^pVf^^ /^^^ ovv irrrjXOe /jLoi 
StavaaravTi BcaXtxraL rov avWoyov iirel Se B 
iXPV^ ^cTf^^p ^v Oedrpqy Kfo/ji(pSovfjLev(ov' HpaKXeov^; 
fcal Atovv(Tou irapa tmv K(o/jLfpSo)v aKoveiv, ov rov 
XiyopTO^, dXXd roiv auveiXey/jieucov %a/otz^ viri- 1 

fietva, fJboXXov he, el ■)(p^ ri kol veavcKcorepov ' 

eiirelv, rjfMoJv avroiv eveKa koI tov fir) hoKelv vtto 
8€Ccn8acjjLOVia<i fxaXXov rj hiavoia^ evae^ovf; koI C 
XeXoyicr/jLevT)^;, Mairep at TreXetdBe^;, vtto Toyv prj- 
fiarLcov (TO^rjde\<; dvaTrrrjvai. e/juevov Se eKelvo 

TTyOO? ifiaVTOV eliTwv 

^erXaOt Stj, KpaBirj, koI Kvvrepov dXXo ttot 

dvda')(ov Koi kvvo<; Xrjpovvrof; oXlyov rj/juepa^ 




" Truly with the lapse of time many things come 
to pass ! " ^ This verse I have heard in a comedy 
and the other day I was tempted to proclaim it 
aloud, when by invitation we attended the lecture of 
a Cynic whose barking was neither distinct nor 
noble ; but he was crooning myths as nurses do, and 
even these he did not compose in any profitable 
fashion. For a moment my impulse was to rise and 
break up the meeting. But though 1 had to listen 
as one does when Heracles and Dionysus are being 
caricatured in the theatre by comic poets/^ I bore it 
to the end, not for the speaker's sake but for the 
sake of the audience, or rather, if I may presume 
to say so, it was still more for my own sake, so 
that I might not seem to be moved by superstition 
rather than by a pious and rational sentiment and 
to be scared into flight by his miserable words 
like a timid dove. So I stayed and repeated to 
myself the famous line " Bear it my heart : yea 
thou didst of yore endure things yet more shame- 
ful." ^ Endure for the brief fraction of a day even 

J Eupolis fr. 4. 2 cf. Misopogon 366 c. » Odyssey 20. 18. 



fjbopiov, ov irpMTOV (jLKOvei^ T03V de(i)v l3Xa(T(f)r}/jLov- 
/jL6P(ov, ovx ovto) tcl Koiva 7rpdrrofjL€v /caXw?, 
ov^ OVTO) tS)V Ihiwv €V6Ka crQ)<f)povov/jL€v, ov 
/jLrjv ovBe evrv')(eL<; ia-fiev, Mare Ta<; aKoa^ 205 
KaOapa<; e'Xeiv rj to reXevralov yovv ra ofifiara 
fir) Kexpa-vOat tol<; TravToBa7ro2<i tovtovI tov 
a-ihrjpov yevov^ ao-eprjixaa-LV. iirel 8e SaTrep 
ivBeetf; rffidf} rwv roiovrayv KafCMV av67r\rja€v ov/c 
evaycov 6 /cveov prj/judrcop tov dptaTOV t(ov Oeayv 
ovofidaa's, ft)? /ju'^ttotc M^eXe fjbrjT €K€tvo<; elirelv 
fXYfTe rjfxel<i aKOVcrai, Sevpo TreipaOwfiev avTOv 
i(f)^ vixMv BiSd^ac, irpMTov fxev otl tw kvvX Xoyov^ B 
jxaXXov rj jjbvOovi Trpoo-rjKei ypd^eiv, euTa ottolu'; 
fcal TLva^ XPV '^oietaOai ra? BiaaK€vd<; tcov fivdcov, 
€i Tt dpa Kol (piXoaocj^ia irpoahelrai t?}? /mv6o- 
ypa^La<^y iirX nracn he virep T779 tt/oo? toi)? Oeov^; 
evXafieia'i oXuya BtaXe^ofiar tovto ydp fjuot kol 
T?79 et9 vjJbOb^; TrapoBov yeyovev acTtov /caiTrep ovk 
ovTi avyypa^LKw koI to iv tw TrXrjOei Xeyeiv 
(aairep dX\o ti tcov iira')(jdo)v kol (T0(f>tcrTiK(bv 
TOV e/JLTrpocrdev ')(p6vov TrapaLTrjaafjuivo). pbiKpd Be C 
virep TOV fjbvOov KaOdirep Ttva yeveaXoyiav Lcrco(; 
OVK dvdpfJboaTOV efjuol re cf)dvaL vfuv re uKovaai. 

Tr)v fiev ovv dp')(r]V oiroOev rjvpeOr] kol o<ttl<; 6 
7r/0ft)TO9 eircx^eipijaaf; ro 'yjrevBo^; TriOavoi^ crvv- 
delvai 7r/?09 ctxpeXecav rj -^v')(ayoi)yLav tmv aKpow- 
fjbevcov, ov fiaXXov evpoi tl<; av rj ec Tt9 eTTL'^etpijo-eie 
TOV TrpcoTov TTTapovTa rj '^(^pefjbylrd/jLevov dra^rjTelv. 
el Be, a>(77rep l'jnrel<i ev SpdKij koI BerraXta, D 



a babbling Cynic ! It is not the first time that thou 
hast had to hear the gods blasphemed ! Our state 
is not so well governed, our private life is not so 
virtuous, in a word we are not so favoured by fortune 
that we can keep our ears pure or at any rate 
our e3'^es at least undefiled by the many and various 
impieties of this iron race. And now as though we 
had not enough of such vileness this Cynic fills our 
ears with his blasphemies, and has uttered the name 
of the highest of the gods in such wise as would he 
had never spoken nor I heard ! But since he has 
done this, come, let me in your presence try to teach 
him this lesson ; first that it is more becoming for a 
Cynic to write discourses than myths ; secondly, 
what sort of adaptations of the myths he ought 
to make, if indeed philosophy really needs mytho- 
logy at all ; and finally I shall have a few words to 
say about reverence for the gods. For it is with this 
aim that I appear before you, I who have no talent 
for writing and who have hitherto avoided addressing 
the general public, as I have avoided all else that is 
tedious and sophistical. But perhaps it is not 
unsuitable for me to say and for you to hear a few 
words about mj'^th in general as a sort of genealogy 
of that kind of writing. 

Now one could no more discover where myth was 
originally invented and who was the first to compose 
fiction in a plausible manner for the benefit or 
entertainment of his hearers, than if one were to try 
to find out who was the first man that sneezed or the 
first horse that neighed. But as cavalry arose in 
Thrace and Thessaly ' and archers and the lighter 

^ 'iTTTrers eV <r)6TTaAia Ka\ Spd'cr) was a well-known proverb ; 
cf. Oration 2. 63 c, d, 



To^orai Se fcal ra KovSorepa tmv oirXwv iv ^IvSlo, 
KOI Kp'^TTj Kol K.apLa avecfyavrj,^ rfj (f)V(T€t t?;? 
')^(opa<; aKo\ovdovvT(ov oljjbai rwv iTrcrrjSev/jLdreov, 
ovTco Tt9 vTToXa/jL^dvei Koi eirl tmv aWcov irpay- 
fidrayv, iv oh CKao-ra TL/judrat, pudXio-ra irapa 
TovTddv avTct Kal Trpayrov TjvprjaOar rciyv dyeXatcov 
eoiK6v dvOpcoTTcov eivav to ye i^ ^PXV^ ^ fivOof; 206 
evprjfxa, kclI Biap^vet i^ cKeivov pie'^pi Kal vvv Trap* 
avroi<^ iToXirevofJievov ro Trpdy/jua axrirep aXKo ti 
TMV dfcpoafjbdrayv, auXo? kol KvOdpa, repi/reo)? 
€V€fca fcal ■yjrv^aycoytaf;. axTTrep yap ol^ opviOe^ 
'iTTTaorOaL Kal velv ol^ l')(jdve<; ai re eXa^oi Oelv 
eTretSt} irecf^vKaa-cv ovSev rov SiBa'X^drjvai irpoa- 
heovraiy kclv Sycrrj ri<; kclv KaOelp^rj, Trecpdrai 
Ofiax; ')(^prjcrOat tovtoi<; rot^; /iiopiot<;, tt/jo? a avv- 
oihev avTol^i 7re(pvK6ai, ravrl ra ^wa, ovto)<; olfiai 
Kai TO T(ov dvdpcoTTcov yevo<^ ovk aXXo ri rijv B 
yjrvy^rjv e')(ov t) Xoyov Kal iTncrTrj/jurjv Mairep eyKaO- 
ei,py/jL€vrjVy o Sr) Kal Xeyovaiv ol ao<j)ol Bvva/JLLV, 
eirl TO fxavddveiv re ^ Kal ^rfretv Kal ttoXvit pay jjlov- 
elVf ft)9 TT/jo? oLKetoraTOV eavrw tmv epycov, 
rpeirerar Kal ot« puev ev/jbevr)'^ ^609 Ta%ecw9 eXvcre 
rd Seafid Kal rrjv hvvafxtv 6^9 evepyetav r^yaye, 
Tovrqy irdpeo-rcv €v6v<; iTnarTj/jLTj, Tot9 B686/jLevot<; 
Be en, Kaddirep otfiai ^I^lcov vecfyeXy tlvI ^ dvrl T779 C 
Oeov Xeyerai irapavairavadcrOai, rovroL<^ dvr 
aXr\6ov<^ yjrevSrjf; ^ evrerrjKe 86^a- yiverat yap 

1 After Kapia Reiske suggests ai^4<pav7f. 
^ 01 Cobet adds. ' ol Cobet adds. 

^ T€ Hertlein suggests, n MSS. 
^ 'l^ioov v^<pe\r] tivI Cobet, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 
^ rovTois olvt' a\ridovs ^evd^s Cobet, laouna Hertlein, MSS., 
4vT4TriK€ Wright, rfrrjKe Hertlein, MSS. 

76 . . 


sort of weapons in India_, Crete and Caria— ^inee the 
customs of the people were I suppose adapted to the 
nature of tlie country ^V-just so we may assume about 
other things as well^ahat where anything is highly 
prized by a nation it was first dis^vered by that 
nation rather than by any other. jMDn this assump- 
tion then it seems likely that mytti was originally 
the invention of men given to pastoral pursuits, 
and from that day to this the making of myths is 
still peculiarly cultivated by them, just as they first 
invented instruments of music, the flute and the lyre, 
for their pleasure and entertainment!^ For just as it 
is the nature of birds to fly and ofjfsh to swim and 
of stags to run, and hence they need not be taught 
to do so ; and even if one bind or imprison these 
animals they try none the less to use those special 
parts of themselves for the purpose for which they 
know they are naturally adapted ; even so 1 think 
the human race whose* soul is no other than reason 
and knowledge imprisoned so to speak in the body — 
the philosophers call it a potentiality — even so 1 say 
the human race inclines to learning, research and 
study, as of all tasks most congenial to it. And when 
a kindly god without delay looses a man's fetters 
and brings that potentiality into activity, then on 
the instant knowledge is his : whereas in those who 
are still imprisoned false opinion instead of true is 
implanted, just as, I think, Ixion is said to have 
embraced a sort of cloud instead of the goddess.^ 
And hence they produce wind-eggs ^ and monstrous 

^ i.e. Hera; cf. Pindar, Pythian 2. 20 foil.; Dio Chrysoatom 
4. 130, Arnim. 
'^ Cf. Plato, Theaetetu8 151 e. 



evrevSev avrocs:^ ra vTTTjve/jLia koI repaTa)Brj ravrl 
Trj<; a\r)6ov<i i7rtaTrjfjLrj<; olov etSayXa drra Kal 
aKial' TrpuTTOVo-c yovv irpo Trjs tmp aXrjOcjv eVt- 
arrj/jLTji; ra yjrevBr) koX SLSdcrfcovat ye fiaXa Trpodvfji- 
0)9 fcal /JLav6dvov(Tiv atcnrep oI/jlul 'X^pr^cnov rt fcal 
davfjbaarov. el S* oXo)? '^p'^ ri Kal virep tmv tov<; 
pAjdov^ TO TrptoTOV TrXaacLVTcov diroXoyi^aaaOaL, D 
Bofcovcn /jlol ral^ twv iraiBuov y^v^^al^;, (IdGizep at 
TLTdai irepi ra? o8ovTO(f)vta<; Kvrjcno)GLv avTol<; 
(TKVTLva drra irpoaapToyai!^ ralv yepoivy Xva avrtav 
TTapafJbvOrjawvTai to irdOo^y ovto) Se Kal ovtol tco 
i/ru^aptft) TrrepocpvovvTt Kal irodovvTi ifXeov elhevau 
tl, SiBdaKeadaL Be ovttco TaXTjOrj Bvvaixevw ravra 
€7ro)(€T6V6LV, MCTTrep dpBoPT6<; dpovpav Bty^Morav, 
'iva Br) olfiai avTcov tov yapyaXiafibv Kal ttjv 
oBvvrjv Trapa/jLvOrjcTcovTat. 

Tov Be tolovtov Trpo/BauvovTO^; Kal irapa tol^ 207 
^'^Wr}(Ti,v €vBoKi/jLOvvTO<;, ei\KV<jav evTevOev ol 
7roi7}Tal TOV alvov, 09 tov jxvdov Bia^epet t& fjurj 
7r/ao9 TracBa^;, dWd 7r/909 dvBpa^ TreTrotrjaOac Kal 
/jLTf y^vyaywylav p^ovov, dXkd Kal irapalveaiv e')(€iv 
Tivd. ^ovXeTao yap eTnKpvirTop^evo^ irapaivelv re 
Kal BcBdcTKecv, OTav 6 Xeywv to (fyapepco'^ elirelv 
evXa^TjTai, ttjv irapa twv aKovovTwv v(f)op(i)/jL€vo<i B 
d'Tre')(deLav» ovtoh tol Kal 'HcrtoSo9 avTo ^aiveTai 
TreTroLTjKdof}' Be yu-era tovtov ^ Kp')(iXo')(p<i ataTrep 
'*}Bv<Tfid Tl 7reptTo6el<i ttj iroiricreL, p.v6oL^ ovk 
oXiydKi^ eyp'qaaTO opcov, 0)9 cIko^;, ttjv p.ev vtto- 

^ avTois Wright, avToi Hertlein, MSS. 

^ trpoffapTwcrt Hertlein suggests, Trpotraprov MSS. 

7S .--' X 


births,, mere phantoms and shadows so to speak 
of true science. And thus instead of genuine 
science they profess false doctrines, and are very 
zealous in learning and teaching such doctrines, 
as though forsooth they were something useful and 
admirable. But if I am bound to say something in 
defence of those who originally invented myths, I 
think they wrote them for childish souls : and I 
liken them to nurses who hang leathern toys to the 
hands of children when they are irritated by 
teething, in order to ease their suffering : so those 
mythologists wrote for the feeble soul whose wings 
are just beginning to sprout, and who, though still 
incapable of being taught the truth, is yearning for 
further knowledge, and they poured in a stream of 
myths like men who water a thirsty field, so as to 
soothe their irritation and pangs. ^ 

Then when the myth was gaining ground and 
coming into favour in Greece, poets developed from 
it the fable with a moral, which differs from the 
myth in that the latter is addressed to children and 
the former to men, and is designed not merely to 
entertain them but conveys moral exhortation besides. 
For the man who employs fable aims at moral exhorta- 
tion and instruction, though he conceals his aim and 
takes care not to speak openly, for fear of alienating 
his hearers. Hesiod, for instance, seems to have 
written with this in view. And after him Archilochus 
often employed myths,^ adorning and as it were 
seasoning his poetry with them, probably because he 

^ The whole passage echoes Plato, Phaedrus 251. 

"^ Cf. Archilochus /rr. 86, 89 ; Archilochus used the beast- 
fable or parable : Julian here ignores his own distinction and 
uses the wider term 'myth.' Hesiod used myth as well as 



Oeaiv, fju fjuer^ei, t?)? rocavrij^; '^^v'xa'ycd'yLa^ eV^ew? 
e^ovaav, aa(f)a)<; Se eyvcoKw^i, on arepo/iieui] jxvdov 
7roif]ai<; eiroiroua fjuovov iariv, iarepTjTai, Se, to? ap 
ecTTOL Tt9, kavTTjf;, ov jap ejL XeiTreraL Troirjai^, 
yBva/jLara ravra irapa t% TrotrjTiKrj^ Mou<r7^9 
iBpe-^aro, fcal TrapeOrj/ce ye avrov tovtov ')(^dpLV, C 
OTTcog fiT] o-iWoypd<^o<i Ti9, aXXa iroLrjTr)^ 
v6/jll(tO eiij. 

'O 8e Br) Tcov fivdcov ^'Ofirfpo^; rj SovKvBi87)<i rj 
UXdrcov, fj 6, TL ^ovXei KaXelv avrov, AtcrajTro? r]v 
6 XdfjLiof;, BovXo<i rrjv rv^rjv^ jmoXXov rj rrjv irpoai- 
peavv, ovK d(f)p(ov p,r)v^ ovSe kut avro tovto dvrjp. 
w yap 6 v6/jL0<; ov fjuereSiBov Trapprjaia^, Tovrcp 
TTpoarj/cov rjv i(rKi,aypa(f)rjfjL,ei'a<; ra? (jv/jL^ovXd<i 
Kal ireiTOLKiXfjLepaf; rjBovy Kal ^dpin irapacpipeiv, 
(oairep ol/juai rcov larpSyv oi puev iXevOepot to Beov 
eirirdrTovcnv, idv Be dfia TC<i ol/cerr)^ yivrjrai rrjv D 
TVXW '^^^ '^h^ TC'X^yrjv larpo^i, irpdyp^ara e^ei 
KoXaK€V6iv dfia Kal depaireveiv tov BeairoTrjv 
dvayKa^ojxevo^;. el jxev ovv Kal Ta> kvvI irpoa- 
rjKei. Tavrrjf; t^? BovXeia^;, Xeyera), ypa(j>eTQ), 
7rapa')(^(opeLr(o r^? p,vdoXoyia<; aura) Tra? octtlctovv, 
el Be /jl6po<; elvai cj^rjanv eXev6epo<i, iirl tl XPV' 
aerai tol<; /jlvOoi<;, ovk olBa, irorepov Xva to 
iTLKpov Kal BdKVov T^9 avfM^ovXr]<i rjBovfj Kal 
'X^dpLTL Kepdaa<; dfia re ovrjarj Kal d'jro(fivyr) to 208 
irpoaXa/Selv tl irapa tov ovcvafievov KaKov; dXXd 
TOVTO ecTTL Xlav BovXoTTpeTTe^. aXX' d/jbeivop dv 
Ti9 BiBa')(Peir) jxr) to, Trpdy/xaTa aKovcov avrd firjBe 

^ rifv Tvxnv Cobet, oh tV tvxv*' Hertlein, MSS. 
^ juV Hertlein suggests, fiev MSS. 



saw that his subject matter needed something of 
this sort to make it attractive, and he well knew 
that poetry without myth is merely versification^ and 
lacks, one may say, its essential characteristic, and so 
ceases to be poetry at all. Therefore he culled these 
sweets from the Muse of Poetry and offered them to 
his readers, in order that he might not be ranked 
merely as a writer of satife but might be counted a 

But the Homer of myths, or their Thucydides, or 
Plato, or whatever we must call him, was Aesop of 
Samos, who was a slave by the accident of birth rather 
than by temperament, and he proved his sagacity by 
this very use of fable. For since the law did not 
allow him freedom of speech, he had no resource but 
to shadow forth his wise counsels and trick them out 
with charms and graces and so serve them up to his 
hearers. Just so, I think, physicians who are free- 
born men prescribe what is necessary, but when a 
man happens to be a slave by birth and a physician 
by profession, he is forced to take pains to flatter and 
cure his master at the same time. Now if our Cynic 
also is subject to this sort of slavery, let him recite 
myths, let him write them, and let everyone else 
under the sun leave to him the role of mythologist. 
But since he asserts that he alone is free, I do not 
know what need he has of myths. Does he need to 
temper the harshness and severity of his advice with 
sweetness and charm, so that he may at once benefit 
mankind and avoid being harmed by one whom he ' 
has benefited } Nay, that is too much like a slave. 
Moreover, would any man be better taught by not 

1 Plato, Phaedo 61 b. 




TO, eV avTol<i ovofULTa Kara Tov KiofitKov ttjv 
(TKacfyrjv aKd<J3r)v Xeyovra; d\}C dvrl tov /juev 
Beivo^ TOV ^aeOovTa tl ^ 8eov opo/jbdaai,; tl Se B 
')(^paiveLv ovk eiiayw^ ttjv enrMW^iav tov ^acriXecofi 
tiXiOv; Tt9 o€ o Slav Kai rt? o Zeu? rwv ')(^ajuat, 
ip')(^o/ji6vcov dvOpGOTTcov d^co<; KokeldOaL, Xv CKeWev 
irr avTov<; /jueTaOcofiev 7)/j,q)v rd^ hiavoia^; KaiTOi, 
el Kal TOVTO olov re rjv, d/jL€ivov rjv avTov<; ovofjud- 
aai TO 1*9 dv0p(O7rov<;. rj 'yap ou^- ovtm KpecTTOV 
Tfv elireLV dvOpcoirtfcd Oe/jLevov^i ovofiaTa; p^dWov 
he ovSe defievov^;, ijp/cec yap oaairep i^/ilv ol yovec^ C 
eOevTo. aXX' el yLt^re fiaOecv i(TTi paov '^ Btd tov 
7rXd(T/jLaT0<; firjTe rco 1^vvlicS> irpeirov ifkaTTeiv Ta 
Toiavra, tov x^P^^ ^^'^ i(f)6Lcrd/jLe6a tov iroXvTe- 
A.0O9 dva\(o/jLaT0<i, 7rp09 Se Brj Kal icfyOeupafiev tov 
Xpovov 7rXdTT0VT€<i fcal avvTuOevTe^ fMvOdpLa, cItu 
\oyoypa(f)ovvT€^ /cal eKpLav6dvovTe<^ ; 

'AXA-' lfcrft)9 o fiev \0709 ov (prjcrt Belv dvTt tmv 
dXrjOojv Kat p^rj ireirXaa p,ev(i^v Ta yjrevSr] Kal ire- jy 
irXaap^eva irapd tov Kvv6<i, w p^ovw t?}9 iXevdepia^; 
p^eTecTTLv, iv tol<; kolvoi(; aheaOai a-vW6yoL<;, rj 
(TvvrjOeia Be ovtm'^ yeyovev diro t^ioyevov<^ dp^ap^evr] 
Kal K/0ttT77TO9 d^po T(bv e^6f/}9. ovBev ovBap^ov 
TrapdBetyp^a tolovtov evprjaei^' eKelvo yap d(f)ir)p,t, 
T6ft)9, OTL Tft) K.vvlkS TO v6/j>i,ap.a TTupaxctpaTTOVTi 

^ ri Seou ovofxdaai ; t/ Reiske, dcov hvo^idaai, rhv Hertleiu 

- ^otov Hertlein suggests, pd^iov MSS. 
^ ovTOD Hertlein suggests, avrcf) MSS. 



hearing facts as they really are, or called by their 
real names, like the comic poet who calls a spade a 
spade ? 1 What need to speak of Phaethon instead of 
So-and-so ? What need sacrilegiously to profane the 
title of King Helios ? Who among men that walk 
here below ^ is worthy to be called Pan or Zeus, as 
though we should ascribe to those gods our human 
understanding ? And yet if indeed this were possible 
it would have been better to give the men their own 
names. Would it not have been better to speak of 
them thus and to bestow on them human names, or 
rather not bestow, for those that our parents gave us 
were enough ? Well then if it is neither easier to 
learn by means of fiction, nor appropriate for the 
Cynic to invent that sort of thing at all, why did we 
not spare that wasteful expense,^ and moreover why 
did we waste our time in inventing and composing 
trivial myths and then making stories of them and 
learning them by heart ? 

But perhaps you will say that though reason 
asserts that the Cynic, who alone of men can claim 
to be free, ought not to invent and compose lying 
fictions instead of the unvarnished truth and then 
recite these in public assemblies, nevertheless the 
custom began with Diogenes and Crates, and has been 
maintained from that time by all Cynics. My answer 
is that nowhere will you find a single example of 
such a custom. For the moment I do not insist on 
the fact that it in no wise becomes a Cynic who 
must " give a new stamp to the common currency " ^ 

^ Literally a boat : a proverb ; Anonym. Com. Or. Fray. 
199. 2 iii^fi 5, 442 ; Hesiod, Theogony 272. 

^ An echo of Plutarch, Antonius 28 : rh iroKvnK^aTaTov, 
ws'fii.vTi<p<jov elirev, avdXoDfia, rhv XP^^^^' 

^ Cf. Oration 6. 188 a, b. 



rfj (jvvrjOeia 7rpocre')(^€cv ovSa/ii(o<i 7rpoaiJK€i, to) 
\6y(p Be avTW /jlovo), koI to TroLrjTiov 6vpLaK€LV 209 
OL/coOeu, aXSJ ov fxavddvetv e^codev. el 8' ^Avtl- 
a-devr]<{ 6 XoyKpaTLKO^; (oairep 6 'Hevocjicov evia 
Sia Tcbv /jlvOcov (iTT^yeWe, fiijTt ^ tovto ae e^a- 
irardro)' koI yap jxiKpov varepov virep rovrov croi 
SiaXe^ofiar "^ vvv Se eKelvo /hoc irpo^ twv yiovacav 
(ppdcrov virep rov Kvvcor/jbou, irorepov inrovotd t/? 
e(7Ti Kol ^lo<; ovfc dv6 pcainvo^ , dWa OrfptcoSrjf! 
y^v')(r)<^ hid6eaL<; ovhev KaXov, ovSev GirovhaZov 
ovhe dyadov vofii^ovaT)^ ; Sour) yap av viroXa- B 
^elv 7roWoi<; Trepl avrov ravra Olvofiao'^. et tL 
(TOi Tov ravra yovv eireXdelv efjLeXrjaev, eTreyvco^; 
av aa(f>(o<i ev rfj rov kvvo^ avrocfxoPLa koI rw 
Kara roiv ')(^pr)ar'r)pi,a>v Kal rrdaiv drrXta^i olf; 
eypayjrev 6 dvrjp. roLovrov Be 6vto<; rov rrpdy/jia- 
T09, coare dvyprjadai fiev drraaav rrjv tt/jo? rov<; 
6€0v<; evXd^etaVy r/ri/jbdaOaL Be rrdaav dvOpcoTrtvrjv 
(fypovrjacv, vojxov Be fjurj rov o/jlcovv/jlov rw KaXw kol 
BiKalfp TreTrarrjadat fiovov, dXXd Kal roi/? eK rcov C 
Oecov r)/jLiv coairep eyypa^evra^ ral<^ i^u^at?, v<j> 
wv Trdvre^i dBcBdKr(o<i elvai 6el6v rt ireirelafxeOa 
<a\ irpo^ rovro d(f>opdv err avro re olfxai arrevBetv , 
ovrco BiariOefjuevoL ra? '^v')(a^ rrpo<i avro oicrrrep 
olfjuai rrpo<i ro </)C09 rd ^Xeirovra, irpb^ rovrw Be el 
Kal 6 Bevrepofi e^eXavvotro vofjuo^ lepo^ o)v (pvcrei 
Kal Oelo^y rcov aXXorplcov rrdvrrj Kal 7rdvrco<; 

^ fiTiTi Cobet fi-hroi Hertlein, MSS. 

2 SiaAei^ofjLai Cobet, 8ir]yf}aofxai Spauheim, Hertlein, V 



to pay any attention to custom^ but only to pure 
reason^ and he ought to discover within himself 
what is right for him to do and not learn it from 
without. And do not be misled by the fact that 
Antisthenes the disciple of Socrates, and Xenophon 
too, sometimes expressed themselves by means of 
myths ; for I shall have something to say to you 
on this point in a moment. But now in the 
Muses' name answer me this question about the 
Cynic philosophy. Are we to think it a sort of 
madness, a method of life not suitable for a human 
being, but rather a brutal attitude of mind which 
recks naught of the beautiful, the honourable, or the 
good ? For Oenomaus ^ would make many people 
hold this view of it. If you had taken any trouble to 
study the subject, you would have learned this from 
that Cynic's '' Direct Inspiration of Oracles " and 
his work '' Against the Oracles," in short from 
everything that he wrote. This then is his aim, to 
do away with all reverence for the gods, to bring 
dishonour on all human wisdom, to trample on all 
law that can be identified with honour and justice, 
and more than this, to trample on those laws which 
have been as it were engraved on our souls by the 
gods, and have impelled us all to believe without 
teaching that the divine exists, and to direct our 
eyes to it and to yearn towards it : for our souls are 
disposed towards it as eyes towards the light. 
Furthermore, suppose that one should discard also 
that second law which is sanctified both by nature 
and by God, I mean the law that bids us keep our 
hands altogether and utterly from the property of 

} Cf. Oration 6. 187 c. 



a7r6%ec7^at Ke\ev(ov koX iMrjre ivXoyq) jirjre iv epyro 
firjre ev avral^; ralf; \av6avovcrai<; t^9 '^v'xf]^ D 
evepyeiaifi ravra iinTpeiroav avyyelvt oairep r}pXv 
Koi T/79 T€\eiordTr)<; iarlv rjye/jLoyv Bi,Kato(TVi'r]<;' 
ap ovK eart ^apdOpov to Trpdy/jba d^tov; dp ov 
Tov<i ravra eiratvovvra^; Mcnrep rov^ <^app,aKov<i 
iXPV^ ou OvaO\oi<; rraiofievov^ ^ iXavvea-dac 
Kovcporepa yap iarc rwv d^t/crj/jidrcov rj ^7]p.La' 
\ldoL<; Se ^aX\ofi€VOV<; diTo\(i)\evai,; Soacfyepovac 
yap ovroL Tt, 7rpo<; ro)v Oeojv elrre fioi, rcov err^ 210 
ep7)fiLa<; Xrjarevovrcjp /cal /car€iXr](j)6rcov ra? 
aKTa^; iirl r& XvfialveaOat rol<; KarairXiovai; 
Kara(ppovovvr€f; Oavdrov, (pao-lv cdairep ov 
KdKeLVoi<^ o-vvo/jLaprov(Tr]<; ravrrjal r^? d7rovoia<i. 
(fyycrl yovv 6 KaO" vfid^; fiev iroirjrrj^; Kal ^v6o\6yo<;, 
ft)<? Be 6 TlvOiof; \r)aral<; ')(po)/jL6VOi<; dvelXev, rjpco^ 
Kal haifjbwv, virep rcov Xy^opbivcov rr}v OdXarrav 

Old re Xrji(7rijpe<;, vrrelp dXa roi r dXowvrai 
^I'L'^a? TrapOefxevoL. B 

ri ovv en erepov ^7)r€t<; vrrep rrj<; drrovola^ rS)v 
Xyaroov p>dprvpa; ttXtjv el /jltj fcal dvBpeiorepovf; 
dv etTTot ri<i rMv roiovrwv fcvvcov eK€Lvov<; rov<; 
Xrfcrrd<;, lra/jLcorepov<; Se ro)V Xjjarcov eKeivwv rov^i 
Kvva^ rovrovcrl, ol fiev yap avvecSore^ avrol^ 
ovro) iJbO')(6ripov rov ^iov ov fidXXov Bid ro rov 
Oavdrov Beo^ r) rrjv ala')(vvr]v t«9 eprjfjLLaf; irpo- 
^dXXovrac, ol S' dpa ire ptrrar over iv ^ ev rro fieo-w C 
rd KOLvd vopi^Lfjia avy')(^eovre<;, ov^l rro Kpeirrova 

^ vaio/Lievovs Cobet, TToKf/LLov/xevovs Hertlein, MSS. 
^ Upa TrepnraTovaiv Hertlein suggests, apaarptiftovTai koi 
"KipiTro/TovcTiv Cobet, kvairoTovaiv MSS. 



others, and permits us neither by word or deed 
or in the inmost and secret activities of our souls 
to confound such distinctions, since the law is our 
guide to the most perfect justice — is not this conduct 
worthy of the pit ? ^ And ought not those who 
applauded such views to have been driven forth, 
not by blows with wands, like scapegoats,^ for that 
penalty is too light for such crimes, but put to death 
by stoning ? For tell me, in Heaven's name, how 
are such men less criminal than bandits who infest 
lonely places and haunt the coasts in order to despoil 
navigators ? Because, as people say, tliey despise 
death ; as though bandits were not inspired by the 
same frenzied courage ! So says at any rate he -^ who 
with you counts as a poet and mythologist, though, as 
a Pythian god proclaimed to certain bandits who 
sought his oracle, he was a hero and divinity — I mean 
where, speaking of pirates of the sea, he says : "I jke 
pirates who wander over the sea, staking their lives."* 
What better witness can you require for the desperate 
courage of bandits ? Except indeed that one might 
say that bandits are more courageous than Cynics of 
this sort, while the Cynics are more reckless than 
they. For pirates, well aware as they are how 
worthless is the life they lead, take cover in desert 
places as much from shame as from the fear of death : 
whereas the Cynics go up and down in our midst 
subverting the institutions of society, and that not 

^ The pit or chasm at Athens into which the bodies of 
criminals were thrown ; cf. Xenophon, Hellenica 1. 7. 20. 

'^ For the ceremony of driving out the scapegoat see 
Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion 97 ; Frazer, Golden 
Bough, Vol. 3, p. 93. ' i.e. Homer. ^ Odyssey 3. 73. 



Kol /caOapoyripav, dWa rw ')(€Lpova Kol ^h^Xvpo)- 
ripav iireLcrdyecv iroXcTeiav. 

Ta? dva(f>€poiieva<; he eU rov Atoyev^] rpaycphia^, 
ovaa^ /JL€V fcal 6/juoXoyov/jLevci)<; ^ J^vvlkov tlvo^ 
(Tvyypdfi/jLara, d/x(f)ca^7}T0V/ji6va<i Be Kara tovto 
aovov, eire rov hihaaKdXov, rov Aioy€vov<;, elauv, D 
eiT€ rov /jLa6rjTov ^iXlctkov, Tt9 ov/c dv eTreXOcov 
^BeXv^aiTO Kol vofilaeiev VTrep/SoXrjv dpprjrovp- 
yia<; ovBe ral^; eTaipaL<; diroXeXeli^OaL ; Tal<i 
Olvofidov Be evTV')((av' eypa'^^re yap koX Tpay(pBia<i 
TOt? XoyoL^ T0Z9 eavTou TrapairXTjaiaf;, dppijrtov 
dpprjTorepa koX KaKMV irepa, Koi ovKeO' o, n (f)co 
Trepl avTMV afto)? e%ft), kuv rd Is/iayvrjTwv KaKa^ 
KCiv TO TepfJbepiov, Kav Trdcrav aTrXw? avTOL<; 
€7rL(l)dey^cofjLaL rrjv rpaywBiav /Merd rov aarvpov 211 
Kol T?79 Kcojiia)Bia^ kol rov fiL/jLov, ovrco rrdaa [xev 
ala')(^porr]<;, rrdaa Be drrovoia 7rpo<; VTrep^oXrjV ev 
eKeivat<i t& dvBpl rrei^CXore^vTlTCit' fcal el puev 
ifc rovrodv rL<i d^iol rov J^vvkt/jlov ottoIo^ rt? ecrriv 
rffuv eiTiBel^ai, ^Xaai^r^fJbOiv rov<; 6eov<;, vXaKrcov 
rrpo^ drravra^, oirep e(f>riv dp'X^ofievo's, crco, ')(w- 
peiroa,'^ yrjv rrpo yrj<;, orroi ^ovXoiro' el B\ orrep 6 
deo<i ecjyrj Atoyevec, rb vofjuccrfjua Trapa^apd^a^; eVl 
rr)V TTpo ravrrj<; €lpr)/jLevrjv viro rov 6eov avpu^ovXr^v 
rperrocro, rb Tvoodi aavrov, orrep ^rjXwaavre^ eirl 
rcov epycov Aioyevrj<; koI ¥ipdrr}(; (fyaivovrai, rovro 
7]Br) rov iravros d^iop eycoye (f^alrjv dv dvBpl koX 

^ 6/j,o\oyoviJ.4va}s Cobet, SfioXoyov/neuas Hertlein, MSS. 
* Xopflro) Hertlein suggests, x«'P«'Ta> MSS. 



by introducing a better and purer state of things 
but a worse and more corrupt state. 

Now as for the tragedies ascribed to Diogenes^ 
which are, and are admitted to be, the composition of 
some Cynic — the only point in dispute being whether 
they are by the master himself, Diogenes, or by his 
disciple Philiscus, — what reader of these would not 
abhor them, and find in them an excess of infamy not 
to be surpassed even by courtesans ? However, let 
him go on to read the tragedies of Oenomaus — for 
he too wrote tragedies to match his discourses — and 
he will find that they are more inconceivably infamous, 
that they transgress the very limits of evil ; in fact I 
have no words to describe them adequately, and in 
vain should I cite in comparison the horrors of 
Magnesia,^ the wickedness of Termerus ^ or the whole 
of tragedy put together, along with satiric drama, 
comedy and the mime : with such art has their 
author displayed in those works every conceivable 
vileness and folly in their most extreme form. 

Now if from such works any man chooses to demon- 
strate to us the character of the Cynic pliilosophy, 
and to blaspheme the gods and bark at all men, as I 
said when I began, let him go, let him depart to the 
uttermost parts of the earth whithersoever he 
pleases. But if he do as the god enjoined on 
Diogenes, and first " give a new stamp to the com- 
mon currency," then devote himself to the advice 
uttered earlier by the god, the precept " Know 
Thyself," which Diogenes and Crates evidently 
followed in their actual practice, then I say that 
this is wholly wortliy of one who desires to be a 

^ A proverb ; cf. Archilochus/r. 27, Bergk. 

^ A robber whom Theseus killed ; Plutarch, Theseus 11. 



(TTparr^yelv koI (^iKoao^elv iOeXovn. ri he enrev 
6 060^, ap tcrixev; on rry? rayv ttoWwv avrw B6^rj<; 
iirera^ev virepopav /cat 7rapa')(^apdTr€ov ov rrjv C 
aXrjOeLav, aXka to vo/JLia-fia. to Se VvmOi cravrov 
iv TTOTepa O^^ao/jbeOa jxoipa; irorepov ev rfj rov 
vo/jbLcrp,aro(;; rj tovto ye avro rrjf; ak7jdeia<; etvat 
KecfxiXaoov drj(Top,ev koI rpoirov eiprjadai rov 
Jlapa'xcipa^ov to v6fitap,a Bia t^? ^ VvayOt aavrov 
aTTOcfxicreco^; oyairep yap 6 ra vojiL^o/iieva iravrd- 
iraaiv drifJidaa^, eir avrrjv Se rj/ccov rr^v d\r]6ecav 
ouS' VTrep eavTov roL<; vofjUL^ofiivotf;, dXXa toI<; 
6vT(o^ ovai Orjaerai, oi/to)? olfxai fcal 6 yvov^; D 
eavTov oirep earov (iKpt^oj^; ecaeraL koI ov)(^ oirep 
vofiL^erai. irorepov ovv ovx o Ilu^to? oXrjOr}'; re 
eart Oe6<^, koX Awyevrj^; rovro eireTreio-To (Ta(j>(a^, 
09 ye avTU) ireLaOeX^ dvrl (f)vydBo<; direhei')(6r] ov 
Tov TJepa-oov ^aaiXeoLx; fxei^cov, aXX', &)? r) ^rjixTf 
irapeBco/cev, avrw rw fcaraXvaavTC to Uepacov 
Kpdro^ Kol Tal<^^HpaK'\,€ov<; dfitWcofievcp rrrpd^eatv, 
virep^dWeaOat he rov 'A^tWea (f>cXoTifiov/xeva) 
^rfXcoTOf;; ol'to? ovu 6 ^coyevr)^ ottolo^ ti<; tjv rd 
re '7rpb<; TOv<i Oeov<; koI to, tt/^o? dvOpdiirov^ fxr) hua 212 
tS)V Olvop,dov Xoycov /jL7)he to)v ^cXlctkov rpayw- 
ht(ov, al^i eTnypdyjrafi rb Atoyevov*; ovofia t?}? Beia^ 
TToXXa TTore Kare^^evaaro Ke<f)aXr]<;, dXXa he oiyv 
ehpaaev epycov 6'Trol6<; ti<; rjv yvwpi^ecrOw, 

"^^XOev et9 ^OXv/jLTTLav iirl rl 7rp6<; Ato?; 7va tou<; 
dya)vi,crra<; Oedcrr^rai; tl he; ov^f, koI ^IcrO/uLiots 

^ T^s Cobet, Tx/5 TOV Hertiein, MSS, 


leader and a philosoj)her. For surely we know what 
the god meant ? He enjoined on Diogenes to 
despise the opinion of the crowd and to give a new 
stanip^ not to truth, but to the common currency. 
Now to which of these categories shall we assign 
self-knowledge ? Can we call it common currency ? 
Shall we not rather say that it is the very summary 
of truth, and by the injunction " Know Thyself" we 
are told the way in which we must '' give a new 
stamp to the common currency " ? For just as one 
who pays no regard whatever to conventional 
opinions but goes straight for the truth will not 
decide his own conduct by those opinions but by 
actual facts, so I think he who knows himself will 
know accurately, not the opinion of others about him, 
but what he is in reality. It follows then, does it not ? 
that the Pythian god speaks the truth, and more- 
over that Diogenes was clearly convinced of this since 
he obeyed the god and so became, instead of an exile, 
I will not say greater than the King of Persia, but 
according to the tradition handed down actually 
an object of envy to the man ^ who had broken the 
power of Persia and was rivalling the exploits of 
Heracles and ambitious to surpass Achilles. Then 
let us judge of the attitude of Diogenes towards 
gods and men, not from the discourses of Oenomaus 
or the tragedies of Philiscus — who by ascribing 
their authorship to Diogenes grossly slandered that 
sacred personage — but let us, I say, judge him by 
his deeds. 

Why in the name of Zeus did he go to Olympia } 
To see the athletes compete ? Nay, could he not 
have seen those very athletes without trouble both at 

^ i.e. Alexander. 


TOV<; avTcyvq koI Jlava07]vaLoi<; OedcradOai ^i%<x 
Trpayfidrcov olov re rjv; dWa iOeXcov CKel rol^ 
KparlaroL^; dvyyevecrdaL rcov 'KXXtjvcov; ov yap B 
^laO/jLQvBe e^oLTcov; ovk av ovv evpoi^i aXXrjv alriav 
rj TTfV eh TOP Oeov deparretav. el B* ovk e'fe- 
TrXdyrj top tcepavvov ovSe 67a) pa rov^; 6eov<^ 
iroWoiv TToWaKi^ ireipaOel^i Bcocttjp^lcov i^eirXdyqv . 
aXV oyu-ft)9 ovTw hrj re rou? 6eov<^ TrecppiKa fcal 
<f>ik(0 fcal ae^co Kal d^op^at /cal irdvO a7rXw9 tcl 
TOiavra 7rpo<; avTov<; 7rdcr')(0), oaairep dv rt? Kal 
ola TTyoo? dyaOov<^ Secnrora^;, tt/jo? SiBaaKdXov^, 
7r/?09 7raT€pa<;, 7rpb<; Kr)hepb6va<;, irpof; Trdvra rtTrXw? 
rd Tocavra, Mare oXlyov helv vrro rS)v aoyv prjpd- C 
rcov Trpwrjv e^avearyv. rovro puev ovv ovk 0Z8' 
ovriva rpoTTov erreXOov taax; (TicoTrdaOac heov 

AioyevTj^; Be koX rrevr]^ o)V Kal '^prip.drwv evBerjf; 
eh ^OXvp^TTiav e^dBc^ev, AXe^avBpov Be rjKetv 
eKekeve rrap eavrov, et rw marb'^ 6 Alwv. ovrco 
TTpeireiv ev6p,i^ev eavrw p,ev (pocrdv errl rd lepd D 
rwv Oeodv, ra> ^atrcXiKcordro) Be rcov Kad^ eavrov 
errl rrjv eavrov avvovaiav. a he 7rpo<i ^ Kp-^iBapov 
yey pa(f>ev, ov ^aaiXiKal 7rapaivea€i<; elcriv; ov 
pLOVOV Be ev rol^ X6yoL<; rjv 6 Aooyevrjf; deoae^i]<;, 
dXXd yap Kal ev rot<; epyoi<;. eX6p,evov yap avrov 
oiKetv Ta9 ^K6r}va<i eireiBrj ro Baipoviov eU rrjv 
K.6pLv6ov diT'^yayev, d^edeh vrro rov Trpiapuevov 
rrjv rroXiv ovKer (otjOt] Belv eKXiTretv eTreiretaro 213 
yap avrov to?9 6eol<; p^eXeiv eh re rrjv Kopovdov ov 



the Isthmian games and the Panatlienaic festival ? 
Then was it because he wished to meet there the 
most distinguished Greeks ? But did they not go to 
the Isthmus too ? So you cannot discover any other 
motive than that of doing honour to the god. He 
was not, you say, awestruck by a thunderstorm. Ye 
gods, I too have witnessed such signs from Zeus 
over and over again, without being awestruck ! Yet 
for all that I feel awe of the gods, I love, I revere, 1 
venerate them, and in short have precisely the same 
feelings towards them as one would have towards 
kind masters ^ or teachers or fathers or guardians or 
any beings of that sort. That is the very reason why 
I «ould hardly sit still the other day and listen to 
your speech. However, I have spoken thus as I was 
somehow or other impelled to speak, though perhaps 
it would have been better to say nothing at all. 

To return to Diogenes : he was poor and lacked 
means, yet he travelled to Olympia, though he bade 
Alexander come to him, if we are to believe Dio.^ 
So convinced was he that it was his duty to visit the 
temples of the gods, but that it was the duty of the 
most royal monarch of that day to come to him for 
an interview. And was not that royal advice which 
he wrote to Archidamus ? Nay, not only in words 
but in deeds also did Diogenes show his reverence 
for the gods. For he preferred to live in Athens, 
but when the divine command had sent him away to 
Corinth, even after he had been set free by the man 
who had bought him, he did not think he ought to 
leave that city. For he believed that the gods took 
care of him, and that he had been sent to Corinth, 

1 Plato, Phaedo 63 c. 

^ Dio Chrysostom, Oration 4. 12, Arnim, 



/jLuTt^v ovSe /card riva crvvTV')(iav, rpoirov Se rwa 
vTTi) rdv deoiv el(T7r67re/x<pOat, opcov Tr)V iroXiv 
Tpv(\)S)(jav TOdv ^A67]vaL(ji)v fjbdWov /cat Seo/ievrjv 
fji€i^ovo<; fcal yevvaiorepov awcfypoviarov. 

Tt Si; ov-)(l fcal rov }LpdrrfTO^ fiovaLKa /cal 
yapUvra (peperac ttoWcl Seiyfiara r^}? 7rpo(; rov'^ 
6€ov<; ocnorriTo^i re koI evXajBeia^; ukove yovi^ 
avrd irap' i^fjuwv, el aot fit] a')(o\r) yiyove fJiaOelv B 
i^ eK€iV(Dv avrd. 

Mvrj/iioavi>r)<; kol Zi7]vo<!;^0\v/jL7riov dyXaa refcva, 
M-Ovaat, 11^6/3^^69, fcXvre fxoi ev^ofievM' 

^oprov ifirj avv€')(f} Sore yaarepc, /cal Sore %ft>^t9 
Aov\o(TVpr)<;, fj Srf \ltov eOrjKe ^iov. 

T^ ¥r ^ ^ 

fl(f>e\cjuLov Se (f>i\oi(;, firj <y\vKepov rlOere. 
^prjfjbara 8' ovK iOekco avvdyeiv fcXvrd, Kav- C 
Odpov oX^ov 
M.vp/JLrjKo'i T d(j>€VO<; ')(^p7]/j.aTa jiaiofievo^, 
'AWa St/caLoavv7}<^ iJiere')(eLv /cal irXovrov dyei- 
peiv ^ •*■ 

l&v(f)apov, evKTqrov, riiiiov eh dperrjv. 
Tcov Be TV')((t)v 'Epfif^v /cal M.ovcra<i IXdao/ju 
Ov hairdvai'^ Tpv(j)epal<;, dXX^ dpeTal<; 6(T[ac<;. D 

opa<i ore TOv<; 6eov<; ev<pr}/jLa)v, ov^l Be o)? crv jSXaa- 
(f)r}/iicov Kar avrcdv 7]V')(eTo; iroaai yap e/carofi^at 
Trj<; o(Tia<i ela\v dvrd^iac, rjv /cal 6 BaifM)VLO^ ^vpi- 
7rlSr}<i opdo)^ vp^vrjaev el7ra>v 

'Ocria iTOTva Oecov, ocrla; 
^ ayeii}€iv Cobet, aaivrj Hertlein, MSS. 


not at random or by some accident, but by the gods 
themselves for some purj)ose. He saw that Corinth 
was more luxurious than Athens, and stood in need 
of a more severe and courageous reformer. 

To give you another instance : Are there not 
extant many charming poems by Crates also which 
are proofs of his piety and veneration for the gods ? 
1 will repeat them to you if you have not had time 
to learn this from the poems themselves : 

" Ye Muses of Pieria, glorious children of Memory 
and Olympian Zeus, grant me this prayer ! Give me 
food for my belly from day to day, but give it with- 
out slavery which makes life miserable indeed. 
. . . . Make me useful rather than agreeable to 
my friends. Treasure and the fame thereof I desire 
not to amass ; nor do I crave the wealth of the 
beetle and the substance of the ant. But justice I 
desire to attain, and to collect riches that are easily 
carried, easily acquired, precious for virtue. If I 
attain these thing* I will worship Hermes and the 
holy Muses, not with costly and luxurious offerings, 
but with pious and virtuous actions." ^ 

You see that, far from blaspheming the gods as 
you do, he adored and prayed to them ? For what 
number of hecatombs are worth as much as Piety, 
whom the inspired Euripides celebrated appropriately 
in the verses " Piety, queen of the gods. Piety " ? ^ 

1 Cf. Oration 6. 199 d. ^ Bacchae 370. 



rj TOVTo ae XeXtjOeif, ore iravra, koI tcl jjuef^aka 
Kol TCL afJLLKpdy ficTO, T>}<? 6a la^ TOL<i Oeol^ Tvpoaar^o- 
fxeva TTjv ia7]v e^ei Svva/jbtp, ia-reprjfievT] 8e t?)? 
oauaf; ov)( eKarofi^r] fxa Oeov<;, aWa rj Tr)(; ^0\v/jl- 
iridho^ ')(^LkL6pi^rj di>aX(OfMa fxovov iarlv, dWo Se 214 
ovSev; oirep olfiac jLyvcoaKcov 6 KpdT'r]<{ avro^ re 
Bid /ju6vr)<; '^9 el^^ei^ ocrta? tov<; Oeov^; iri/jia avv 
evcf^rjfjLLO, Kol rovs dXKov^ iBihaaKC fir] rd hairavr]- 
fiara rrjf; 6aLa<^, dXka ttjv oalav iKCLvcov TrpoTLfjudv 
iv rat? dyiaT€Lai<;, TOtovro) Se red dvhpe rcoBe 
yevo/ievco rd tt/oo? tol/? 6eov^ ovk dtcpoarrjpia 
avveKpoT€iTr]v ^ ovS* ioairep ol ao(f>OL 8c elKovwv 
KoX fJbvOcov roi<i (f)iXoL<; avveyiyveadT^u' ^ Xeyerat 
yap VTT FavpcttlBov kuXox; B 

'A7r\ov<; 6 fjLvOo<; t?}? dXrjOeta'^ 6<^v' 

(TKiaypa<ftia^ ydp <^r)cn rov ^jrevBr] kol dBiKOv Bel- 
arOai. rt? ovv 6 rpoirof; avTOc<; t^9 (Tvvovo-ia<; eyi- 
v€TO ; TMV Xoywv rjyelro rd epya, kol ol rrjv 
irevlav tl/jLmi^t€<; avrdl TrpSiroi cfyaivovrai^ kol tmv 
Trarpuxov j(^prifidT(ov vTrepcBovref}, ol rrjv drv^iav 
da7racrd/jL€Voc Trpcoroi Tr)p evreXeiav rjaKovv Bid C 
TrdvTcov, ol TO TpayiKov koI ao^apov eK tcjp 
dXXoTpicov i^aLpovvT6<; ^i(ov (pKOVv avTol TrpcoTOt 
ra? dyopdf; rj Td tmv Oeoiv T€/jL6vrj, Ty TpvSfj Be 
Kol irpo TMv prjfjudTayv Bod tcov epywv eiroXefjuovv, 
epyoi^ eK.ey)(pvTe^, ov Xoyw ^oo)VTe^, oti to) Atl 
GVfJb^aaiXeveLV e^eaTiV ovBevo'^ r) a/jULKpcov irdvv 

^ avveKpoTeirr\v Cobet, Hertlein approves, ffWiKporurov 

' ffvve'yiyvcadnv Cobet, Hertlein approves, ffjyeylyveffdoy 
MSS. ^ <pa,lvovrai Hertlein suggests, ((pa'ivovro MSS. 



Or are you not aware that all offerings whether great 
or small that are brought to the gods with piety 
have equal value, whereas without piety, I will not 
say hecatombs, but, by the gods, eveii the Olympian 
sacrifice ^ of a thousand oxen is merely empty ex- 
penditure and nothing else ? ^ This I believe Crates 
recognised, and so with that piety which was his 
only possession he himself used to honour the gods 
with praises, and moreover taught others not to 
honour expensive offerings more than piety in the 
sacred ceremonies. This then was the attitude of 
both those Cynics towards the gods but they did 
not crowd audiences together to hear them, nor did 
they entertain their friends with similes and myths, 
like the wise men of to-day. For as Euripides well 
says,^ ^'^ Simple and unadorned is the language of 
truth." Only the liar and the dishonest man, he 
says, have any use for a mysterious and allusive style. 
Now what was the manner of their intercourse with 
men ? Deeds with them came before words, and 
if they honoured poverty they themselves seem 
first to have scorned inherited wealth ; if they 
cultivated modesty, they themselves first practised 
plain living in every respect ; if they tried to 
expel from the lives of other men the element of 
theatrical display and arrogance, they themselves 
first set the example by living in the open market 
places and the temple precincts, and they opposed 
luxury by their own practice before they did so in 
words ; nor did they shout aloud but proved by their 
actions that a man may rule as the equal of Zeus 
if he needs nothing or very little and so is not 

^ i.e. in honour of Ol^'inpian Zeus. 

'^ Cf. Themistius 182 a. ^ Fhoenissae 472. 




Be6/jL€vov ovSe TTapei^o'^^Xovfievov vtto tov ao)/jLaTO<it 
eTreTLfiwv 8e roi? a/jLaprdpovcnv, rjvi/ca e^fav ol 
TTTaia'avTe^, ovk airoOavovTa^ e^Xaacfy'^fiovv, rjvlfca D 
Kot TMV i')(6pS)v ol /jL€Tpco)Tepoc (TTrevSovTac T0l<i * 
aireXOovaiv. e^et he 6 ye aXrj6ivo<i kvwv 
e'xPpov ovSeva, /cav to aco/Jbdriop avrov rt? 
Trard^r), /cav rovvopba TrepteX/crj, /cav XoihoprjTat 
KOI ^\aa(j)7]fifj, SioTt TO fxev t^9 e')(6pa^ yiverai 
7rpb<; dvTLTraXov, to Se vTrepjBalvov rrjv tt/oo? 
erepov d/JuWav ei/vola TtfidaOat <j>CkeZ' /cav t^9 215 
erepay^ exv '^pos avrov, /caddirep oljiau ttoWoI 
7r/909 rov<^ 6eov<;, e/celvM /lev ovk ecmv e')(dp6(i, ovBe 
yap l3\a^€p6<i, avTo<; Be avrw ^apvrarov einTidels:^ 
TifjL'qfjba rrjv rov KpeiTTovo^ ayvoiav ep7)p.o<^ XeuTreTai 
T/79 e/cetvov Trpoaraaiaf;. 

'AXX el fxev vvv /jlol irpov/ceiro irepX K.vvia/jLov 
ypd<p€Lv, elirov av virep tovtwv en ra TrapLardfievd B 
fjbOi Tciyv elprjfjLevcov caco^ ovk eXdrrco' vvv Be diro- 
Bi,B6vre<; ro erf i^e^e? ry Trpoatpecrei irepl rov irora- 
irov's elvat '^(pr) rov^ TrXaTTOfxevov^ tmv julvOcov 
ecpe^rj'i aKOTray/jbev. Larct)<; Be rjyelraL Kal ravrr)'^ 
T^9 ey')(eLprj(7e(0'^ eKeivr], oiroia rivl (f)L\oao(j)ia 
TrpoarjKov rj fivOoypacjiia. (palvovTat yap ttoWoI 
fcab Twv (f)i\oao(f}0)v avrb Kal rcov deoXoycov Troirj- 
aavrefi, Mairep ^Op(j)ev<; jxev 6 TraXaioTaro^; evOecd^; 
(^iXoao^rjaa^, ovk oXiyoi Be Kal ro)v per eKelvov 
ov fjLTjv dXXa Kal 'Bt€VO(f>cbv (fyaiverat Kal ^AvriaOe- C 
vrj*; Kat HXdrcov rrpocr'^prjo-dfievoL TToXXa^ov roL<; 
jjLvOot<;, wad rj/jblv 7re(f)7]vev, el Kal jiirj rS) K.vvLKa), 
(f>LXoao(f)(p yovv rivi TTpoarjKeiv t] yuvdoypa'^ia. 

^ eiriTidils Hertlein suggests, iirideU MSS. 


hampered b}^ his body ; and they reproved sinners 
during the hfetime of those who had offended but 
did not speak ill of the dead ; for when men are 
dead even their enemies, at least the more moderate, 
make peace with the departed. But the genuine 
Cynic has no enemy, even though men strike his 
feeble body or drag his name in the mire, or slander 
and speak ill of him, because enmity is felt only 
towards an opponent, but that w hich is above personal 
rivalry is usually loved and respected. But if anyone 
is hostile to a Cynic, as indeed many are even to the 
gods, he is not that Cynic's enemy, since he cannot 
injure him ; rather he inflicts on himself the most 
terrible punishment of all, namely ignorance of one 
who is nobler than himself; and so he is deserted 
and bereft of the other's protection. 

Now if my present task were to write about the 
Cynic philosophy, I could add many details about 
the Cynics, not less important than what I have said 
already. But not to interrupt my main theme, I 
will now consider in due course the question what 
kind of myths ought to be invented. But perhaps 
another inquiry should precede this attempt, I mean 
to what branch of philosophy the composition of 
myths is appropriate. For we see that many 
philosophers and theologians too have employed it, 
Orpheus for instance, the most ancient of all the 
inspired philosophers, and many besides of those that 
came after him. Nay what is more, Xenophon as 
we know and Antisthenes and Plato often introduced 
myths, so that it is obvious that even if the use of 
myth be not appropriate for the Cynic, still it may be 
so for some other type of philosopher. 

H 2 


M.i./cpa ovv virep tmv Trj<; (f)i,Xoao<j)ia<i etre 
fjLopiwv etre opydvcov irpoppr^reov} eart yap ov 
/Mja TO Sca(f>€pop 6iT0T6p(o<i dv Tt9 To3 7rpa/CTC/ca> '^ 
Kal Tft) (j)V(TC/cw TO Xoyt/cbv TrpoaapiO/jufj' avay- D 
Kolov yap 6fxoico<; (fyaiveTao kut d/jLtpoTcpa. Tpiwv 
Sr) TOVTcov av6i<; e/cacTTOv eh Tpla Te/jUveTac, to fiev 
(f)V(TiKov eh TO deoXoyiKov Kal to irepl tcl p^adrj- 
/jiaTa Kal TpiTov to irepl ttjv tcoj' yivop^evwy Kal 
ciiroXXvpAvayv Kal twv dcSlcov /xev, acop^aTcov Se 
6/jL(i)<i dewpiav, tL to elvai avToh fcal rt? r) ovaia 
eKaaTov tov irpaKTLKOV he to /xev 7rp6<i 'eva 
dvSpa, rjOiKov, oIkovo/jllkov Se to irepl p^iav OLKiav, 


XoyiKOv TO pev dTroheiKTLKOv Sid tcjv dXrjd&v, to 

Be Bid TMV ivBo^cov ^uacrTiKOv, to Be Bed to)v 216 

<j)aLvop.€V(ov evBo^cov TrapaXoyia-TLKOv, ovtcop By 

ToaovTcov TOiv T^9 (f)iXo(70(f)La<; p,ep(bv, el /xr; tl p,e 

XeXijOe' Kal ovBev davp^aaTov dvBpa ffTpaTLcoTi^v 

pLT) Xiav e^aKpi^ovv pLrjB^ e^ovvx^'Z^i'V ra TOiavTa, 

are ovk eK ^c^Xicov d(TKO]aeco<i, diro Be T7]<; irpoa- 

TV')(pvcrr)<^ avTd e^eo)? d7ro<pdeyy6p.evov' ecreaOe 

yovv puoL Kal vpbeh p>dpTvpe<;, el Ta? r)p,epa^ Xoyi- 

(jaicrOe,^ iroaai Tive<i elaiv at p^eTa^v TavTr}<;'T€ Kal 

T?7? €vay')(p'^ r]puv yevop,evr)<i aKpodaew^ ocrcov re 

rjp^tp d(T')(oXt(ov TTXr)peL<^' a\X', OTrep €(j)r)v, el Kai B 

Tl, TrapaXeXetTTTac irap epLOV' KaiTOt vop>i^a) ye 

purjBev evBelv ttXtjv 6 irpoaTuOeh ovk e')(0p6<i, 

dXXd (f)LXo<; ecnac. 

^ irpopprfTeov Reiske, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 

^ T^ irpuKTiK^ Hertlein suggests, t^ re ifOiK^ MSS. 

^ Koyiaaiads Cobet, Koyiaeade Hertlein, MSS. 



I must first then say a few words about the sub- 
divisions or instruments of philosophy. It does not 
make much difference in which of two ways one 
reckons logic_, whether with practical or natural philo- 
sophy^ since it is equally necessary to both these 
branches. But I will consider these as three separate 
branches and assign to each one three subdivisions. 
Natural philosophy consists of theology^ mathematics, 
and thirdly the study of this world of generation and 
decay and things that though imperishable are never- 
theless matter, and deals with their essential nature 
and their substance in each case. Practical philosophy 
again consists of ethics in so far as it deals with the 
individual man, economics when it deals with the 
household as a unit, politics when it deals with the 
state. Logic, again, is demonstrative in so far as it 
deals with the truth of principles ; polemic when it 
deals with general opinions ; eristic when it deals 
with opinions that only seem probabilities. These 
then are the divisions of philosophy, if I mistake not. 
Though indeed it would not be surprising that a 
mere soldier should be none too exact in these 
matters or not have them at his fingers' ends, seeing 
\hat I speak less from book-knowledge than from 
observation and experience. For that matter you 
can yourselves bear me witness thereto, if you count 
up how few days have elapsed between the lecture 
that we lately heard and to-day, and moreover the 
number of affairs with which they have been filled 
for me. But as I said if I have omitted anything — 
though I do not think I have — still if anyone can 
make my classification more complete he will be '^ no 
enemy but my friend." ^ 

^ Plato, Timaeus 54 a. 


TovTcov Srf Twv /jL€pMV ovT€ rq> Xoyifcu) 
irpoa-rjKeL r?}? /jLV0oypa(f)La<; ovre rov (j)V(Tt,KOv^ 
T^ fiadrj/juaTi/CM, /jlovov Si, eLirep dpa, rov 
TTpaKTLKOV Tw 7rpb<; eva ytvofievo) fcal rov OeoXo- 
yc/cov T(p rekeariKW Koi p^vcm/ca)' (f)iX6i yap C 
r) (f)vai(i Kpvirreadat, /cal to airoKeKpvfjbixevov 
T^9 TMV Oewv ov(TLa<; ovk avi')(eTai yvfivol<; et<? 
a/caOdprovf; aKoa<; piTrrea-OaL prjpjaaiv. oirep he 
Br) TOdv ')(^apa/CTijpa)V rj air6ppr)T0<^ (pvaif; axfyeXelv 
7r€(f)VK€ KoX ayvoovfievrj' OepaTrevet yovv oh -^vyh'^ 
fjLOVOv, aXXa koX crcopura, koI Oecjv iroiel irapov- 
<Tia<;' TOVT olp^ai iroWdKi^ yiyveaOai koi Blo, 
T(ov fjLvOcov, orav eh Ta9 rwv irdXXoiv clkocl^ ov D 
Bvvafieva^ ra Oeca fcaOap(t)<^ Be^acrOai Bi alviy- 
p^drayv avToh fjbera t^? pLvOcov (T/crfvo7roda^ 


^avepov Be tjBt} yevofxevov tlvl koX iroicp 
<j)tXoao^ia<; ecBec /cat fivdoypacpetv eaO* ore irpocr- 
7]Ker Trpo? yap rw \6y(p fiaprvpeo tovtol<; rj tmv 
TTpoXa^ovTcov dvBpMV irpoaipecn^;. eirel Kal ITXa- 
rmvL TToWa /jbefjLvdoXoyrjraL irepX twv ev aBov 
Trpayp^drcov OeoXoyovvri Kal Trpo ye rovrov rep 
rrjq KaXXiOTT?;?, ^ AvnaOeveL Be Kal HevocfycovTi 217 
Kal avrfp UXdrcovc irpay/jLarevop^evoLf; r)6iKd<^ 
Tiva^ viroOeaei^ ov irapepyco^;, dXXa /jLerd tlvo<; 
efjip,eXeia<; rj rcov p,v6a)v iyKarap^e/jLiKTai ypa^-t], 
01)9 cr' ^ e')(^prjv, eoTrep e^ovXov, p,i,p,ovfievov dvrl 
fxev 'UpaKXeovf; fieTaXa/jb/Sdveiv Ylepaeoyf; rj Srjaecof; 

^ Tov (pvaiKov T(f Hertlein suggests, t^ (pvoriK^ o^re MSS, 
2 (t' ixpVJ^ Hertlein suggests, ixPV^ MSS. 



Now of these branches of philosophy, logic has no 
concern with the composition of myths ; nor has 
mathematics, the sub-division of natural philosophy ; 
but they may be employed, if at all, by that depart- 
ment of practical philosophy which deals with the 
individual man, and by that department of theology 
which has to do with initiation and the Mysteries. 
For nature loves to hide her secrets,^ and she does 
not suffer the hidden truth about the essential 
nature of the gods to be flung in naked words to the 
ears of the profane. Now there are certain charac- 
teristics of ours that derive benefit from that occult 
and unknown nature, which nourishes not our souls 
alone but our bodies also, and brings us into the 
presence of the gods, and this I think often comes 
about by means of myths ; when through riddles and 
the dramatic setting of myths that knowledge is 
insinuated into the ears of the multitude who 
cannot receive divine truths in their purest form. 

It is now evident what branch and what sort of 
philosophy may properly on occasion employ myths. 
And to support my argument I call to witness the 
authority of those philosophers who were the first to 
use myths. Plato for instance in his theological 
descriptions of life in Hades often uses myths, and 
the son ^ of Calliope before him. And when Antis- 
thenes and Xenophon and Plato himself discuss 
certain ethical theories they use myths as one of the 
ingredients, and not casually but of set purpose. 
Now if you too wished to use myths you ought 
to have imitated these philosophers, and instead of 
Heracles you should have introduced the name of 

1 Heracleitus fr. 123, Diels ; cf . Themistius 69 b. 
'^ Orpheus, 



rivb<; ovofia koI tov ^Avt cad eveiov rvrrov €y')(apdT- 
T€iv, avrX Be Trj<i TlpoSifcov aKfjvoTrouaf; d/j,(f>l tolv^..^ 
d/j,(f)OLu TovroLv deolv erepav ofioiav eladyeiv ^ B 

TO Oearpov. ^ 

'ETrel he koi tmv reXearLKMv /jlv6cl>v iirepjvrj- 
aOrjv, (f)€p€ vvv OTToiovf; elvai. XPV tov^ eKaripcp 
Tcov fjuepcbv dp/JbOTTOVTa^ avTol /ca6^ eavrovf; Ihelv 
ireipaOSifJLev, ovKert /xaprvpcov iraKaiMv iv irdcn 
irpoaSeofievot, ewofjievoi Be veoi,<i o'^yeaiv dvBp6<;, ov 
eyci) fierd tov<; Oeov^ ef tV?;? ^AptaroreXec koi 
TiXaTCdVL dyafiai re reOrjTrd re, ^rjal Be 01)% C 
vTrep irdvTcov ot'ro?, dX)C virep tmv TcXea-rcKcbv, 
ov<s irapeBco/cev rjfuv ^Op(f)6v<; 6 rd^; dytcoTdraf; 
reXerd^; KaTaarTjo-dfievo^i. to ydp ev Tot9 p^vdot^i 
direp^^aivov avT& tovtm irpooBoiroLel tt/^o? ttjv 
dXijdetav. oaw yap /idXXov irapdBo^ov eart /cat 
repaTO)Be<; to acvLyp^a, roaovrtp p.dXXov eoiKC 
Biap^aprvpeaOaiy p,7) Tot? avroOev Xeyop,evoL<; 
Tnareveiv, dXXd rd XeXrjdora Trepiepyd^eaOaL /cat 
p,7} TTporepov dcpLcrraaOat, irplv dv viro 6eol<i rjye- D 
p,ocnv iK(f)avrj yevop^eva tov ev r]pZv TeXeay, p,dX- 
Xov Be TeXecaxTtj vovv koI el Bt] tc KpeiTTOv r)p,lv 
virap'xei tov vov, uvtov tov evb^ koI TdyaOov polpd 
Tt? oXiyrj TO Trdv dp£pL(TTO)<; e'^ovcra, T779 yfrv^}]^; 
TrXijpco/jLa KoX ev to* evl koI dyaOo) (TVve')(ovaa 



Perseus or Theseus^, let us say^ and have written in 
the style of Antisthenes ; and in place of the 
dramatic setting used by Prodicus/ in treating 
of those two gods ^ you should have introduced into 
your theatre another setting of the same sort. 

But since I have mentioned also the myths that 
are suited to initiation^ let us ourselves indepen- 
dently try to see what sort of myths they must be 
that suit one or the other of those two branches of 
philosophy ; 3 and no longer need we call in the aid of 
witnesses from the remote past for all points, but we 
will follow in the fresh footprints of one"* whom 
next to the gods I revere and admire,, yes, equally 
with Aristotle and Plato. He does not treat of all 
kinds of myths but only those connected with 
initiation into the Mysteries, such as Orpheus, 
the founder of the most sacred of all the Mysteries, 
handed down to us. For it is the incongruous 
element in myths that guides us to the truth.^ I 
mean that the more paradoxical and prodigious the 
riddle is the more it seems to warn us not to believe 
simply the bare words but rather to study diligently 
the hidden truth, and not to relax our efforts until 
under the guidance of the gods those hidden things 
become plain, and so initiate or rather perfect our in- 
telligence or whatever we possess that is more sublime 
than the intelligence, I mean that small particle of 
the One and the (jood which contains the whole in- 
di visibly, the complement of the soul, and in the One 
and the Good comprehends the whole of soul itself 

^ i.e. in his allegory the Choice of Heracles ; Xenophon, 
Memorabilia 2. 1.2; Julian, Oration 2. 56 D. 
2 i.e. Pan and Zeus ; cf. 208 b. 
^ i.e. ethics and theology; cf. 216b. 
* lambhchus; cf. Oration^. 157 d. ^ Cf. Oration 5. 170. 




iraaav avrrfv Sia rijf; v7r6p€)(0V(T'r]<; koI ^copLorrj^; 
avTOV Kol i^7]pr)fjbevrj<; 7rapovaia<;. dWa ravra 
fxev d/jbipl TOP /jbeyav Aiovvaov ovk olo 07rco<; 
CTrifkOe fxoi ^a/c^^evovri pbavrjvai' tov /Sovv Be 218 
CTTLTiOijfjLi TTJ yXcoTTT)' TTcpl TOiV dpprjTWv yap 
ovSev 'X^pT) Xeyetv. dWd fioi Oeol fiev eKeLycov koX 
v/jLMV Se T0t9 TToXXot?, 6(T0L Teco<; eare rovrcov 
dfjLVTjTOL, T7)v ovrjaiv 8oL€V. 

'Tirep Be &v elirelv re kol aKOvaat depuL^; 
Kal dvefJLecTTjTOV dpL^orepoi^ earl, Tra? \6yo^ 
7rpo(f)epo/jL6Vo<; €K re Xe^eo)? icaX huavoia^ 
avyKeuTai. ovkovv eireihr] Kal 6 pLuOo<; \6yo<; 
tI<; eanv, e/c Svoiv tovtolv crvy/ceio-eTat. aKo- B 
TTM/iiev Be eKarepov avrcov. eanv dirXi] rt? iv 
Xoyw iravrl Btdvoia, Kal fievTot Kal Kara cr^rj/jia 
Trpodyerai, rd TrapaSety/Jbara Se dfjb^olv iari 
TToWd, TO puev ovv 6V dirXovv iari Kal ovhev 
heir at iroLKiXia^, to K eax^pLaTLafievov €')(€L 8ia- 
^opd<; iv eavTW TroWdff, mv, ec tl croc tt}? prjTO- 
piKTi^ ifiekr^aev, ovk d^vv€TO<; el. tovtcov Bt] tmv 
KaTa hidvoiav a)(rjpidTcov dpfioTTec tw fxvdw Ta 
irXelaTa' TrXrjv epLOiye ovO^ inrep tmv ttoWmv ov6^ 
virep tS)v dirdvToyv ccttI Ta ye vvv prjTeov, dX}C 
virep Bvolv, tov Te ae/ivov KaTa ttjv hidvoiav Kal 
tov d7repi(f)aLV0VT0(;. Ta Be avTa TavTa Kal irepl C 
W;z^ Xe^iv yiveTai. /jLop(f)ovTat yap tto)? Kal crXH- 
jxaTL^eTai Trapa tcov /jlt) irpo^epojievdov ecKy fjirjB^ 
(oaTrep ')(eLiidppov^ eXKOVTcov avp(f)eTov<; prfpLdTwy 
€K Trj<^ TpioBov dXXd toIv Bvolv tovtolv y OTav 
fiev virep tmv QeioDV Tr^^aTTcopbev, aefivd ^(^prj Trdvv 



through the prevailmg and separate and distinct 
presence of the One. But I was impelled I know not 
how to rave with his own sacred frenzy when I spoke 
like this of the attributes of great Dionysus ^ ; and 
now I set an ox on my tongue : ^ for I may not 
reveal what is too sacred for speech. However^ may 
the gods grant to me and to many of you who 
have not as yet been initiated into these Mysteries 
to enjoy the blessings thereof! 

And now to confine myself to what is lawful for us, 
both for me to say and for you to hear. Every 
discourse that is uttered consists of language and the 
thought to be expressed. Now a myth is a sort of 
discourse and so it will consist of these two. Let us 
consider them separately. In every discourse the 
thought is of two kinds, either simple or expressed 
in figures of speech ; and there are many examples 
of both kinds. The one is simple and admits of no 
variety, but that which is embellished with figures 
has in itself many possibilities of variation with all 
of which you are yourself familiar if you have 
ever studied rhetoric ; and most of these figures of 
thought are suited to myth. However I need not 
now discuss all or indeed many of them, but only 
two, that in which the thought is dignified and that 
in w^hich it is paradoxical. The same rules apply 
also to diction. For this is given a certain shape 
and form hy those who do not express themselves 
carelessly or sweep in the refuse of language from 
the highways like a winter torrent. And now to 
consider these two types. When we invent myths 
about sacred things our language must be wholly 

■^ Cf. Oration 4. 144 a. 

'^ A proverb for mysterious silence ; cf. Theognis 815 ; 
Aesch. A(/, 36. 



TO, p^fiara elvai koI ttjv Xe^tv 009 evi fidXcara 
(Tcocppova Kol Kdkrjv koX toi<; Oeol^ irpeirwheard- 
TTjv, TMV al(T')(p(i)V 8e fjirjSkv /cat ^acrt^irjixoDv rj D 
8v(Ta€^cov, OTTW? fjirj TM irXTjOei ri}? Tocavrrj^; 
dp)(^r]yol OpaavTr]TO<i yevcofieda, /jlclWov Be koI 
Trpb Tov ifKrjOov^ avrol to Trepl rou? deov^ rjcre- 
jSfjKevaL 7rpoXd^o)fjL6v. ovBev ovv direfx^alvov 
elvat ^(^pr) irepl ra? TOtavra<; Xe^e^?, dXXa aejiva 
irdvTa fcal KaXa koX ixeyaXorr peirrj koI 6ela /cal 
/caOapd Kol r?}? tcov Oewv overlap eh Bvvapav 
eaTO')(aa-iJbeva' to Be Kara rrjv Bidvoiav direfju- 219 
^alvov TOV ')(^pr]crL/jbou yiyvo/iievov X^P^^ eyKpiTeov, 
ft)9 av fxr) TLVO<; virofjivrjaewf; e^coOev 01 dvdpcoTTOi, 
BeofievoLy dXX viro tmv ev auTa> Xeyofievcov tm 
fivOo) BiBaaKOfievot to Xavddvov /jucoadai koI ttoXv- 
Trpay/jLOvelv v^^ rjyefioai toI<; Beol^ TrpoOvfirjdelev. 
IBov yap eycoye ttoXXcjv i]K0vaa XeyovTcov avOpco- 
ttov fjuev TOV Aoovvcrov, eireiTrep eK XefjLeXrjf; eyeveTO, 
6eov Be Bid 6eovpyia<i fcal TeXe(TTLKrj<;, coairep tov B 
BeairoTTjv HpuKXea Btd T779 ^acrcXtKrj^; dpeT7j<i eh 
TOV "OXv/jlttov vtto tov iraTpo^ avrj^^ai tov Ato?. 
dXX^, S) Tdv, eiirov, ov ^fz^tere tov jjlvOov (f)avepco<; 
alvcTTOfievov. irov yap rj yeveah eaTiv coo-jrep 
'lipaKXeov<;, ovtw Brj^ Kal Aiovvaov, e^ovo-a fiev 
TO fcpecTTov /cal virepexpv Kal e^rjprj/jLevov, ev Ta> 
^€Tpicp Be 6/JLco<; ert Tr]<; dvO pcoTTivrjf; ^vcre(o<; 
fievovcra Kai ttco? df^OfxoLovp^evrj 7rpo<; rj/judf;; 'Hpa- C 
KXrj<; Be XeycTac iratBiov yeveaSai Kal KaTa 
fjuLKpov avT(p TO aMfxa to Oelov einBovvai, Kal 

1 5^ Cobet, 5e Hertlein, MSS, 


dignified and the diction must be as far as possible 
sober, beautiful, and entirely appropriate to the 
gods ; there must be nothing in it base or slanderous 
or impious, for fear we should lead the common 
people into this sort of sacrilegious rashness ; or 
rather for fear we should ourselves anticipate the 
common people in displaying impiety towards the 
gods. Therefore there must be no incongruous 
element in diction thus employed, but all must be 
dignified, beautiful, splendid, divine, pure, and as far 
as possible in conformity with the essential nature of 
the gods. But as regards the thought, the incon- 
gruous may be admitted, so that under the guidance 
of the gods men may be inspired to search out and 
study the hidden meaning, though they must not 
ask for any hint of the truth from others, but must 
acquire their knowledge from what is said in the 
myth itself.^ For instance I have heard many 
people say that Dionysus was a mortal man because 
he was born of Semele, and that he became a god 
through his knowledge of theurgy and the Mysteries, 
and like our lord Heracles for his royal virtue was 
translated to Olympus by his father Zeus. " Nay, 
my good sir," said I, "do you not perceive that 
the myth is obviously an allegory ? " For in what 
sense do we regard the " birth " of Heracles, yes, and 
of Dionysus as well, since in their case birth has 
superior and surpassing and distinctive elements, 
even though it still falls within the limits of human 
nature, and up to a certain point resembles our 
own? Heracles for instance is said to have been 
a child, even as we are ; his divine body grew 
gradually ; we are informed that he was instructed 

1 Cf . Oration 5. 170 B.C. 




^OLTTJarai SiSa(TKd\ot<; laToprjrai, koI aTpaTeixra- 
aOac Xeyerai, koI Kparr^aai ttuvtcov, Kafielv Be 
6/jLC0<; Kara ^ to acofia. Kalroi avro) ravra fxev 
VTrrjp^e, /ji€i,^6p(o<i Se r) Kar avdpwTrov. ore yap ev 
TOL<; airapydvoi^ diroirui'yaiv rov<; hpaKovra^ Koi 
7r/0O9 avra 7rapaTaTT6/Jb€uo<; ra rr}? (f)va6(o<i 
cTTOtx^^^* OoXirr] fcal KpvpiOv<;, elra to2<^ diropwrd- D 
TOfc<? KCii d/jLa^coTaTOLfi, evheia Xeyco rpo(f)P]<i koI 
iptifxia, Koi rrjv St, aurov iropeiav oLpuai, rod 
ireXdyovf; irrrl rt;? ^y0u<j^9 Kv\ifco<;, fjv eyco vo/jll^o) 
fid TOv<; 0€ov<; ov KvXcfca elvai, ^ahicrai Be 
avTov o)? eirl ^r}pd<; tt}? daXdrrrjf; vevofMifca. 
tI yap diropov r/v ^Upa/cXet; rt S* ov)(^ virrjKovaev 
avTov Ta> delay /cat KaOapcordrfo crco/jLari, tmv 
Xeyofjuevoav tovtcov aroi'^eLcov BovXevovTcov avrov 
rfj Brj/jLiovpyiKy Kal reXeaiovpyS) rov d)(^pdvTov 220 
/cat Kadapov vov Bvvdfiet; ov 6 fieya^ Zev<i Bid 
Trj<; TLpoi'oia^ AOrjvd'^, einaTrjaa^ avra) <^vXaKa 
Tr)v Oeov TavT7]v, 6Xr)v i^ oXov 7rpoe/jL€vo<; avrov, '^ 
T(p KoapLW awrrfpa ec^vrevcrev, elr iiravrjyaye Bid 
Tov Kepavviov irvpo'^ Trpb^ eavrov, vtto tw Oeiq) 
avvOrip^an t^? al6epLa<; avyrj<^ ij/ceiv Trap* eavTov 
Tw TvaiBl KeXev(Ta<i. aXX' 4jTrep jxev tovtcov ifjuoL 
T€ Kal vfilv t\eft)9 'Hyoa/cX-^}? etr). 

Ta Be T^9 Acovvcrov 6pvXov/jLevr)(; fiev yeveaeay^, 
ovar)(; Be ov yeveaecof}, dXXd BaLp.opia<; eK^dv(Te(jd<i B 
Kard Ti ToZ? dv6 po)7ri,Kol<; irpocreoiKev; t) fX'^T'yjp 

^ Kara Cobet, koI Hertlein, MSS. 
2 Cf . Oration 4. 149 b. 



by teachers ; ^ they say that he carried on wars and 
defeated all his opponents, but for all that his body 
had to endure weariness. And in fact all this did 
in his case occur_, but on a scale greater than human. 
For instance, while still in swaddling clothes he 
strangled the serpents and then opposed himself to 
the very elements of nature, the extremes of heat 
and cold and things the most difficult and hardest 
to contend with, I mean lack of food and loneliness ;2 
and then there is his journey over the sea itself in 
a golden cup,^ though, by the gods, I do not think it 
was really a cup, but my belief is that he himself 
walked on the sea as though it were dry land.* For 
what was impossible to Heracles ? Which was there 
of the so-called elements that did not obey his 
divine and most pure body since they were subdued 
to the creative and perfecting force of his stainless 
and pure intelligence ? For him did mighty Zeus, 
with the aid of Athene goddess of Forethought, 
beget to be the saviour of the world, and appointed 
as his guardian this goddess whom he had brought 
forth whole from the whole of himself; and later on 
he called him to his side through the flame of 
a thunderbolt, thus bidding his son to come to him 
by the divine signal of the ethereal rays of light. 
Now when we meditate on this, may Heracles be 
gracious to you and to me ! 

As for the commonly received legend about the 
birth of Dionysus, which was in fact no birth but a 
divine manifestation, in what respect was it like the 
birth of men ? While he was still in his mother's 

^ Cf. Dio Chrysostom, Oration 1. 61, Arnim. 2 cf. 230 b. 
^ Apollodorus, Bihliotheca 2 ; Athenaeus 11. 470. 
* This is perhaps a passing sneer at the Christians and 
need not be taken too seriously. 



avrov Kvovcra, (fyaalv, virb rrj^ '''H^a? l^rjXorvTrov- 
(TTj^i ^^aTrarrjOelaa rov epaaTr/v e^eXiirdprjaev 
TjKeLV, ft)9 irapa Tr)v yafierrjp eUoOe (Potrdv, 7r/30? 
eavTijv elra ovk avaa')(piJLevov to crw/jidriov tmp 
/CTVTrrjfjidrcov ^ rov Afc09 vtto tov Kepavvov /care- 
^Xeyero. irdvrwv 8' ofjbov irvpovfxevwv, 'Kp/jbrj 
Kekevaa^; 6 Zev^; dpirdaai rov Aiopvo-ov Koi refxcdp 
TOV avTov /jbrjpov eppdiTTer euTa eKeWev, rjvL/ca 
€T€\€or(f)Opi]dr] TO ^pe^o<^, odBIvcop 6 Zeu? eVt Ta<; C 
vv/jL^a<i epx^Tar to Avdi pd/jL/jua Be avTat t& 
fxrjpSi TTpoaeTraBovaat tov BiOvpafi^ov rjfjLiv eh 
^ft>9 irpoTj'yayov' elra e/jidvr), (pacrlv, 6 ^€09 vtto 
Trj<} '^Hpa?, eiravcre S' avTU> ttjv voaov rj M.iJTi^p 
tS)v Oecov, 6 Be rjv avTiKa Oe6<^. eXirovTo yovv ov 
At^a? avTw KaOdTrep H^a/cXet ovBe ToXgo)? ovBe 
TeXa/uicbv ovB ' TXa? ovB "A^Br)po<;, dWa ^dTvpoi 
KoX Ba/c^al KaX Ilaz^e? kol Bai/jLovcov aTpuTid. D 
6pa<; 67rco<; dvOpwiriKr] jjuev rj (nropa Bed tcov 
Kepavvicov, rj 8' d'7roKV7](Tt,<; dv6 pwTriKWTepa, dfju^olv 
Be Tolv elprjfievoiv irpoaoiJbOLOTepa toI<^ dvdpco7rivoi<; 
TO, epya; rt ovv ov KaTa^dWovTe^; tov Xrjpov 
eKelvo TrpcaTOV virep tovtcov LCfMev, co? SefjLeXrj 
cro(f)i] TO. dela; 7rac9 ydp rjv J^dBfiov tov ^0ivtK0<;, 
tovtol<; Be fcal 6 Oeo(; cro(f)Lav [xapTvpel 

Ti6KXd<; koI ^0Lvi/€e<; 6Bou<^ /maKapcov eBdrjaav 

Xeymv. aiaOeadai ovv fioc Bo/cel tov Oeov tovtov 221 
irpcoTTj Trap^^RXXijcn /cal Trjv eao/jievrjv e7n(f>dv€iav 

^ (na/xdriou ev twv KTvirrj/jidrcDP Friederich ; Hertlein approves 
but would omit fp : SufidTiov ev t&v KTr^fiaTcav Hertlein, MSS. , 
rh Su/xdnov ev KTvin)jxa twv Reiske, ivaK-ii^^avTos Arnoldt. 



Womb she, as the story goes, was beguiled by jealous 
Hera to entreat her lover to visit her as he was 
wont to visit his spouse. And then her frail body 
could not endure the thunders of Zeus and began to 
be consumed by the lightning. But when every- 
thing there was being devoured by flames, Zeus bade 
Hermes snatch Dionysus forth, and he cut open his 
own thigh and sewed the babe therein. ^ Then in 
due course when the time was ripe for the child's 
birth, Zeus in the pangs of travail came to the 
nymphs, and they by their song over the thigh 
"Undo the stitching " ^ brought to light for us the 
dithyramb. Whereupon the god was driven mad by 
Hera, but the Mother of the Gods healed him of his 
sickness and he straightway became a god. And he 
had for followers not, like Heracles, Lichas for 
instance or lolaus or Telamon or Hylas or Abderos, 
but Satyrs, Bacchanals, Pans and a whole host 
of lesser divinities. Do you perceive how much of 
human there is in this generation through the fire of 
a thunderbolt, that his delivery is even more human, 
and that his deeds, even more than these two that 
we have mentioned, resemble those of human beings ? 
Now why do we not set aside all this nonsense and 
recognise herein first the fact that Semele was wise 
 in sacred things ? For she was the daughter of 
Phoenician Cadmus, and the god himself bears 
witness to the wisdom of the Phoenicians ^ when he 
says " The Phoenicians too have learned many of the 
roads travelled by the blessed gods." '^ I think then 
that she was the first among the Greeks to perceive 

1 Cf . Euripides, Bacchae 279 foil. ^ Qf, Pindar /r. 85. 

3 Cf. Oration 4. 134 a. 

■* An oracular verse from an unknown source. 


thp: orations of Julian, vii 


avTov ovK 6t9 fjLUKpav Trpoayopevaaaa KLvrjaai 
fiev Oar TOP rj irpoafJKOv rjv tlvcl tmv irepl avrov 
opytcov, OVK avaa')(piievrj tov el/jLapfievov irepLfjuelvaL 
')(^p6vov, elra avaXoaOrjvat, tt/jo? tov 7rvpb<i rov 
pvevTo^i €7r avrrjv. €7ret oe edeoo/CTo to) Hit 
KOivfi iracTiv avdpoturoi^ ivBovvat o.p')(r)v Kara- 
ardaeco^i krepa^ koX fiera^aXelv ^ avTov<; ck tov 
po/jbaSiKov ^iov TTpo<s TOV rj/j,€p(oT6pov, e^ ^IvScov 6 B 
Atoi^fcro? avTOTTTO^i i^aiV€TO Sai/jbcov, eTTt^OLTOiv 
Ta9 TToXet?, ayayv fieO^ eavrov arpaTcav TroWrjv 

Sat/JbOvlcOV TiVOiV ^ Kol Bt8oV<i dvOpOiTTOL^; KOLvfj fiev 

aTraaL <tvix(3o\ov T979 i7n<j>aveia<; avrov ro rfj^i 

r)/jL€pLBo<; (pvrov, v(j)^ ov fioc hoKovaiv, €^r)p.€pa)6ev- 

rav avroc(; rwv irepl rov jBiov, "^Wrjve^ rrf^ 

iTTcovv/jiiaf} avrb ravrr)<; d^LMaat, firjrepa 8' avrov 

rrpGaei'Trelv rrjv ^e/xeXrjv Sid rrjv rrpopprjaLv, dWcoi; 

T€ Kal rod Oeov rificovro^; avrrjv, are 7rpa)Tr)v lepo- C 

cf)avriv rrj<i en /jieX\ovar)<i im^OLrrjo-ea)^. 

Ovo-rjf; Se, co? dv rt? dKpt^c!)^ aKoiroiv e^erdaete, 

rrj<i l(TTopia<; TOiavrrj^;, ol rov Acovvaov 6(7ri<^ iror 

earl Oecov ^r)rovvT€(; rdXijOe^; e^oz^ &)<? €(f)r)v et9 

fjLvOov hiecTKevaaav, aU^Lrropievoi rrjv re ovcrlav 

rov deov Kal rrjv ev rol<; vo7]roL<; rrapd r& nrarpl 

Kvi](Jiv Kal rov dyevvrjrov avrov tokov ev rq> 

KOdfKp ^ ev rw TravTi, Kal rdWa ec^e^?}? oaa 

rov Qrjreiv rjv a^ta, (ppa^eiv be <y ov paota e/uboi, 

^ Ix^ra^aXeiv Hertlein suggests, fierafidWeiv MSS. 

^ Tivwv Hertlein suggests, nvh MSS. 

^ KSfffiai . . . KttT . . . yfiaT . . . ^iv V, lacuna MSS. 

^ &^ia, (ppd^iiv Se 7' ov oaSia i/xoi Hertlein suggests, lacuna 




that there was to be before long a visible manifes- 
tation of this god, and that she foretold it^ and 
then that, sooner than was fitting, she gave the 
signal for certain of the mystic rites connected with 
his worship, because she had not the patience to 
wait for the appointed time, and thus she was 
consumed by the fire that fell upon her. But when 
it was the will of Zeus to bestow on all mankind in 
common a new order of things, and to make them 
pass from the nomadic to a more civilised mode 
of life, Dionysus came from India and revealed 
himself as very god made visible, visiting the cities 
of men and leading with him a great host of beings 
in some sort divine ; and everywhere he bestowed 
on all men in common as the symbol of his mani- 
festation the plant of " the gentle vine " ; and since 
their lives were made more gentle by it the Greeks 
as 1 think gave it that name ; ^ and they called 
Semele the mother of Dionysus because of the pre- 
diction that she had made, but also because the god 
honoured her as having been the first prophetess of 
his advent while it was yet to be. 

Now since this is the historical truth of these 
events if they are accurately considered and examined, 
those who sought to discover what sort of god 
Dionysus is worked into a myth the truth which 
is as I sg,id_, and expressed in an allegory both the 
essential nature of the god and his conception in his 
father Zeus among the intelligible gods, and further 
his birth independently of generation in this our 
world. 2 ... in the whole universe, and in their proper 
order all those other facts which are well worth 

^ i^jjL^pU = the vine ; ifi/xepos = gentle. 

2 Here follows a lacuna of several words. 

I 2 


rv^ov fiev koX Bta ro aypoelv ert irepi avTcov to B 
aKpt/Se^, Tv^ov he kol ovk eOeXovrc tov Kpv(j>iov 
afxa KOL (f)av€pov Oeov axnrep ev dedrpo) nrpo^aX- 
Xeiv ciKoatf; av6^eTd(TT0t<; koX Stavoiai^; eirl iravra 
/jLoXXov rj TO (f)iXo(TO(f>elv rerpajJifxevaL^;. 

'AXX' virep jxev tovtwv carco Ai6vv(to<; avTO^, 
f/5 Koi TTpoo-evxop'Cii Ta9 re e'yu-a? koX Ta^i v/jLeripa^; 
iK^aK')(ev(TaL (f>peva(; iirl rijv dXrjdr] tmv 6eS)v 
yvSiaiv, oi)9 av /jlt) iroXvv d^aK^evroL ')(^povov tc5 
OeS) /jU6V0VT€<i oTToaa 6 TlevOev^^ TrdOcofiev, Xcrio^ 222 
fxev KOL ^o)VTe<^y 7rdvra>(; 8e dirdXkayevrefi rod 
cra)fiaTO<;. orw yap av^ /jlt} to TreTrXydva/mevov 
Tr]<; f&)?}9 VTTO T?79 €VO€lBov(; koi iv tw /jiepLO-rat 
7ravTe\co<; dBiacperov oX7}<; re iv iraciv dficyov^; 
irpovTrapxoixJrj^; ovala^; rod Aiovvaov reXecriovp- 
yrjOfj ^ Bid T7J9 irepl tov deov ivOeov PaK')(eia<^, 
TOVTO) KLvSvvo^ €7rl TToXXcL pVTjVai Tr]V ^(OIJU, 
pvelaav Se ScecnrdaOai kol hLacnraadelaav ot^e- 
(xOar TO Be pvelaav koi Biacriraadelaav purj irpo- B 
Geyjuav Tt9 T0t9 prjixaaLV vBdrcov firjSe Xivov 
firjpLvOov dKpodado), ^vvieTO) 8e Ta Xeyofxeva 
TpoTTOv dXXov, bv HXdrayv, bv UX(otIvo<;, ov 
Ilop(pvpLO<;, bv 6 BaifJbovio^ I«yL6/SX/%09. 09 S' 
dv fJLT) TavTT} TTOifj, yeXdaeTUL fiev, caTco fjuevTOL 

^ U^vBfvs tfcaOe MSS. ; Hertlein would omit fttade. 

2 h.p Hertlein would add. 

^ reXcaiovpyqd^ Hertlein suggests, rcXcffiovpynde'n} MSS. 



studying but too difficult for me at any rate to 
describe ; partly perhaps because I am still ignorant 
of the precise truth about them/ but perhaps also 
because I am unwilling to exhibit as in a theatre 
this god who is at once hidden and manifest,, and 
that^ too, to ears that have not sought after truth and 
to minds disposed to anything rather than the study 
of philosophy. 

However let Dionysus himself decide about these 
things, though I do indeed implore him to inspire 
my mind and yours with his own sacred frenzy 
for the true knowledge of the gods, so that we 
may not by remaining too long uninspired by him 
have to suffer the fate of Pentheus, perhaps even 
while we are alive, but most certainly after death 
has freed us from the body. For he in whom the 
abundance of life has not been perfected by the 
essential nature of Dionysus, uniform and wholly 
indivisible as it is in the divisible world and pre- 
existing whole and unmixed in all things, he I say 
who has not been perfected by means of the 
Bacchic and divine frenzy for the god, runs the risk 
that his life may flow into too many channels, and as 
it flows be torn to shreds, and hence come to 
naught. But when I say "flow" or "torn to shreds" 
no one must consider the bare meaning of the words 
and suppose that I mean a mere trickle of water or 
a thread of linen, but he must understand these 
words in another sense, that used by Plato, Plotinus, 
Porphyry and the inspired lamblichus. One who 
does not interpret them thus will laugh at them no 
doubt, but let me assure him that it will be a 

1 Of. Plato, Republic 382 d. 



'^apBcoviop yeXwv eprj/juo^; o)v ael rrj<; rcav Oewv 
yv(ocr€(0<;, ^9 avrd^iov ovSe to iratrav 6/jlov jjuera 
tt}? tmv 'Vcofjuaicop iiriTpoirevcTat rrjv ^ap/Sdpwv C 
^(oye Oeifirjv dv, ov fxa rov ifxov Be(T7roTt]v^'H.Xiov. 
aWa jjLe TraXiv ov/c 010 ocrri? uewv eiri ravr 
e^dK'xevaev ov Trpoekofievov. 

Ov Be €V€K€v ecftrjv avrd' Kara fiev rrjv Btdvotav 
d7r€fi(l)alvovT6<; orav ol /jlvOoi yiyvcovrat irepl tmv 
6ei(ov, avToOev y/Mv coairep ^ocoai, kol Bta/Jbaprv- 
povrai fjUT) iriareveiv aTrXw?, dWd to \€\r)6o<; 
(jKoirelv KoX Biepevvdadai. ToaovTO) 8' ecrrt 
KpeiTTOv iv TovTOL^ Tov (Tejuivov TO direfKpaLVOv, 
6a(p Bed fiev eKeivov koXov^ Xiav Kal jxeydXov^ 
Kal dyaOov%, dvdpcoTrov^; Be oficof; 701/9 6eov<; D 
KLvBvvo<; vo/jbicrai,, Bid Be tmv direficfiaLvovTcov 
virepiBovTa^ tmv ev tw ^avepw Xeyo/juevcov iirl Tr)V 
€^yprjfievr)v avToov ova-lav /cal virepe'xpvaav irdvTa 
ra ovTa KaOapdv vorjatv iXirl^; dvaBpafielv. 

AcTcat jjbev ovv avTai tov ttjv TeXeo-Tifcrjv Kal 223 
/jLVCTTaycoyov (j)iko(ro(f)iav to. fiev prjfJbaTa iravTo^; 
/jloXXov evayrj Kal crefjuvd TrpocfyepeaOai, KaTd Be 
Tfjv Btdvoiav dXXotOTepav iTOielcrOaL Tr)v e^7]yi](Tcv 
TMV TOLOVTWv. 6 Be Trj<; TMV t/Omv e7ravopd(i)aeco<; 
eveKa tou<; X6yov<; irXdTTCov Kal /jlvOov<; irapdycov 
BpdTco ^ TOVTO p^rj 7ry0O9 dvBpa<;, dXXd irpo^ 7ralBa<; 

^ Spdrw Tovro Hertlein suggests, irpurov rqS MSS. 


Sardonic laugh^^ since he will be forever deprived of 
that knowledge of the gods which I hold to be more 
precious than to rule over the whole world_, Roman 
and barbarian put together^ yea^ I swear it by my 
lord Helios. But again some god or other and no 
choice of my own has made me rave with this Bacchic 

To go back then to what led me to say all this. 
Whenever myths on sacred subjects are incongruous 
in thought, by that very fact they cry aloud, as it 
were, and summon us not to believe them literally 
but to study and track down their hidden meaning. 
And in such myths the incongruous element is even 
more valuable than the serious and straightforward, 
the more so that when the latter is* used there is risk 
of our regarding the gods as exceedingly great and 
noble and good certainly, but still as human beings, 
whereas when the meaning is expressed incongruous 
there is some hope that men will neglect the more 
obvious sense of the words, and that pure intelligence 
may rise to the comprehension of the distinctive 
nature of the gods that transcends all existing 

These then are the reasons why that branch of 
philosophy which is connected with initiation and 
the doctrines of the Mysteries ought by all means to 
be expressed in devout and serious language, while 
as regards the thought the narrative may be ex- 
pounded in a style that has stranger qualities. But 
one who is inventing tales for the purpose of reform- 
ing morals and inserts myths therein, does so not for 
men but for those who are children whether in years 

^ A proverb for forced laughter, cf . Odyssey 22. 302 ; 
Plato, Republic 337 a. 



^TOi KaO^ rfKiKiav r} T(j) <\)povelvy Trdvrco^ Be rwv 
\6^(i)V TOVTCOv B€0/jiivov<;. el fiev ovv r)fi€l<s crot 
iratBef: e^dvrjfiev elre iyo) etre ^AvaroXiof; ovtocti, B 
(TvyKarapid fiei he rovrtp koX tov M-Cfji/jLopiov Kal 
Tov Xa\ov(TTiov, 7r/909 TouTOt? 8e, el ^ovXec, koI 
roif<; dWov; efr}?, ^KvTiKvpa^ col hel' tl yap av 
dfCKL^oiTo Tt?; eirel Trpo? tmv Oewv koI Trpo? avrov 
TOV /JLvOov, fidWov Be tov kolvtj irdvrwv ^aauKew^ 
*HXtof, Tl (TOL fxeya rj jxiKpov TreTroirjTat, epyov; 
tIvl TrapeaTTjf; dycovi^o/jbevo) fieTa tov Slkulov; Tiva 
eOepdirevaa^ irevOovvTa, roS Xoyoi StBd^a^, oti C 
fiT) KaKov 6 6dvaT0<; fxrjTe tw iradovTi fjLrjTe toI^ 
olKeioi^ avTov; rt? B^ acTcdaeTai ere Trj<^ eavTov 
/jLeipaKL(TK0f; aco^pocrvvrff;, otl TreTTOirjKaf; avTov 
€^ dcrwTov adxppova koI koKov ov to aw/jLa /jlovov, 
dWd TToXi) fidWov ttjv -yjru^rjv <f>aivea6ai', Tiva 
Be d(TK7}o-cv eTTOirjaw tov ^lov; tl Be (tol d^iov 
TTJ^ Ai,oyevov<; fiaKTr)pia<; rj val fid Ata Trj<; 
'7rapprjo'La<; TreiroiTjTai; epyov otei jxeya ^aKT'qpiav 
Xa^elv Tj Tpi')(a<^ dvelvai, koI TreptvoaTelv Td<; I) 
iro\.eL<; koI Ta (TTpaTOTreBa, koI to2<; fiev ^eXTicr- 
TOi^ XoiBopelcrOai, toi'9 Be ')(eipiaTOV<; Oepaireveiv; 
elire 7rpo<; tov Alo<; Kal 7rpo<; tovtcovI twv dfcpoo)- 
fievcov, OL Be v/jbd<; ttjv (j)L\ocro(^iav eKTpeirovTat, 
dv6* OTOv 7rpo<; fxev tov fiaKapcTrjv K.a)vaTdvTiop 
eh It aXtav ^\6e<;, ovfceTC fxevTOi Kal fiixP'' '^^^ 
VaWiwv; KauToi iropevOel'^ 7rpo<i ^yita?, el fir}Bev 
dXko, ^vvecvat yovv <tov tyj^ (fxovi]^ fidWov 



or intelligence, and who on all accounts stand in 
need of such tales. If, however, you took us for 
children, me, for instance, or Anatolius here, and you 
may reckon with us Memmorius also and Sallust and 
add if you please all the others in due order, then 
you need a voyage to Anticyra.^ For why should 
one pretend to be polite ? Tell me, I ask, in the 
name of the gods, and of myth itself, or rather in the 
name of Helios the King of all the universe, what 
have you ever accomplished, great or small ? When 
did you ever champion one who was resisting 
oppression and had right on his side ? When did 
you ever comfort the mourner and teach him by 
your arguments that death is not an evil either for 
him who has suffered it or for his friends ? What youth 
will ever give you the credit for his temperance, and 
say that you have made him show himself sober in- 
stead of dissolute, and beautiful not merely in body 
but far more in soul ? What strenuous discipline 
have you ever embraced ? What have you ever 
done to make you worthy of the staff of Diogenes or 
still more, by Zeus, of his freedom of speech ? Do 
you really think it so great an achievement to carry 
a stafl' and let your hair grow, and haunt cities and 
camps uttering calumnies against the noblest men, 
and flattering the vilest? Tell me in the name of 
Zeus and of this audience now present, who are dis- 
gusted with philosophy because of men of your sort, 
why was it that you visited the late Emperor Con- 
stantius in Italy but could not travel as far as Gaul ? 
And yet if you had come to me you would at any 
rate have associated with one who was better able to 

^ Hellebore, supposed to be a cure for madness, grew at 
Anticyra ; hence the proverb : cf. Horace, Satires 2. 3. 166. 



hwafievM TrXrjaid^eiv eyu-eXXe? av0p(O7r(n. tL he 22 
Koi TO TTepL^oirav iravra'X^ov koX irape^eiv Trpd- 
y/iara rat's rjfxiovoi^;; clkovo) he eycoye koX tol<; 
T^9 r)fjLi6vov<; ekavvovcnv, ot /judWov vfia<^ rj roix; 
(TTparta)ra<i 7re(f>piKaai' ')(^prja6ai yap avroZ<; rols 
^v\oi<; ^ iiKovo) Tivd<i vfjbMV 'X^aXeTTcorepov rj rol^ 
^L(f)eatv eKelvoL, yiyveaOe ovv avTOL<; evKorcixs 
(fyo^epooTepoc. TrdXai fiev ovv vfuv eOep^rjv iyo) 
rovTO TO ovo/Jia, vvvl he avrb eoiKa koI ypd'^etv. B 
d7roTaKTiard<; rtvaf; ovop^d^ovauv ol hvcrcre^el'^ 
VaXCkaloL' tovtcov ol TrXeuov^ pLCKpa irpoepbevoi 
TToWa irdvv, /mdWov he rd Trdvra iravra'xpdev 
^vyKO/jbi^ovai, /cal TrpocrKTMVTac ^ rb rL/judordaL 
KOi hopv(f>opetaOac fcal depairevecrOat. tolovtov 
Ti KoX TO v/jberepov epyov eari, ttXtjv tao)^ rod 
'X^pT^fMarl^ea-dai. tovto he ov irap u/za? yiyverai, 
irap rjfjbd<i he' avvercorepot yap eapuev rwv dvoyrcov 
eKeivwv I'cro)? he koI hid to /jurjhev vfUV elvai irpo- 
a')(r)ijba tov ^opoXoyelv ev7rpoad)7rco^, ottoIov C 
eKeivoi<^y fjv Xeyovaiv ovk olh oirco^ eXeTjfioavvTjv, 
Ta 8' dWa ye Trdvra earlv v/jlIv re KaKelvotf; 
irapairXricna. KaraXeXoiirare rrjv irarpiha oyairep 
ifcetvoi, rrepK^OLrdre irdvrrj Kal rb err par 6- 
irehov hiay^XTjaare pudWov eKeiVcov /cal Irap^oo- 
repov ol fJLev yap KaXovfJievoi, vpuel^ he Kal 
direXavvoiievoL. Kal ri ')(^p}](Trbv eK rovrcov v/mv 
eyevero, fidXXov he Kal rjpiZv rol<; dXXoi<;; dvrjX- D 
6ev 6 ^ KaKXriTTtdhrj^, elra 6 Xepriviav6<;, elra 6 
X.vrp(ov, elra ovk olha rraihdpiov 6, n ^avObv Kal 
evfiTjKe^;, elra <jv, Kal pjeB* vfjLcav dXXot hl<; roaovroi. 

^ Tois ^vXois Hertlein would add ; Naber suggests BdKTpois. 
^ irpoffKTwvTat Hertlein suggests, irpoarjv olfxai MSS, 



comprehend your language. What do you gain by 
travelHng about in all directions and wearing out the 
very mules you ride ? Yes^ and I hear that you 
wear out the mule drivers as well, and that they 
dread the sight of you Cynics even more than of 
soldiers. For I am told that some of you belabour 
them more cruelly with j^our staffs than do the 
soldiers with their swords, so that they are naturally 
more afraid of you. Long ago I gave you a nick- 
name and now I think I will write it down. It is 
"monks/' ^ a name applied to certain persons by the 
impious Galilaeans. They are for the most part men 
who by making small sacrifices gain much or rather 
everything from all sources, and in addition secure 
honour, crowds of attendants and flattery. Some- 
thing like that is your method, except perhaps for 
uttering divine revelations : but this is not your 
custom, though it is ours ; for we are wiser than those 
insensate men. And perhaps too there is this difference 
that you have no excuse for levying tribute on 
Specious pretexts as they do ; which they call ^'^alms," 
whatever that may mean. But in all other respects 
your habits and theirs are very much alike. Like 
them you have a])andoned your country, you wander 
about all over the world, and you gave more trouble 
than they did at my headquarters, and were more in- 
solent. For they were at any rate invited to come, but 
you we tried to drive away. And what good have you, 
or rather, what have the rest of us derived from all 
this ? First arrived Asclepiades, then Serenianus, 
then Chytron, then a tall boy with yellow hair — I 
don't know his name — then you, and with you all 

^ Or "solitaries" ; the word also means "heretic"; but 
Julian evidently alludes to Christian monks who lived on 



TL ovv €K T7)9 vfjL€T€pa<i duoBov yiyovcv dyadov, 
0) XaxTTOc; rt? ycrOero TroXt? 17 rt? lBia)T7]<; Trj<; 
v/jL€T6pa<; Tvapprjcna^; ov/c d(f)p6vco<; /juev to e^ 
ap')(r]<; eiXeaue rrjv em rov ovde loeiv vfia<; ueKovra 
ffaaiXia rropeiav, dve\66vTe<; he dcppovearepov 
avrfj Kal d/juaOearepov kuI p^avLwhearepov e'xprj- 
aaaOe, KoXaKevaavre^; ap,a Kal vXaKTijaapre^ Kal 
fftfiXia 86pt€<; Kal ravra 7rpo(Ta')(6rjvai ^ irpoa- 221 
Xi7rap7](Tavre<;; ovheva v/jlmv olp,ai iyo) roaav- 

TCLKL^i eh <f}LX0Cr0(f)0V (f)0t,T7](TaC, 6(TdKL<^ et? 

dvTiypa<^e(o<;y oicne vfuv ^ A^Kahrj p^eta Kal KvKeiov 
dvrl T?79 riofc/ctXry? T€ r]v tmv ^aaoXeLfov rd 

OvK dird^eTe ravra; ou Kara^aXelre vvv 
yovv, el Kal purj rrporepov, ore vpZv ovhev eari 
irXeov drro rr)^ K6pbr)<; Kal rij(; 0aKrr}pia<i; ttw? Se 
Kal ykyovev u^' vp,(jdv evKara<^pov'r]ro^ ?; (f^iXo- 
crod)La; rcov prjropoKcov ol Bvap^adecrraroc Kal ovS* B 
vir avrov rov pactXeoD^ 'JLpp^ov rrjv yXcorrav 
eKKaOapOrjvai hwdp^evoi, ^pevtoOrfvai he ovSe 
7r/909 avrr)^ rrf^; ^ K6rjvd<i avv r(p 'Epp^y, rovro €k 
T779 dyopalov Kal 7repLrpe')(0vcrr)<; dpirdaavref; 
evrpe')(eia<;' ovSe yap ev irapoLp,ia Treptcpepop^evov 
avro yiyva)aKov<Ji to on ^6rpv<; 7rpb<; ^orpvv 
Trerraiverai' 6pp,co(Ttv eirl rov J^vviap^ov ^aKrrj- 
pia, rpL^cov, Kop/q, ro evrevdev dpuadia, Opdo-o<;, C 
irapborrjf; Kal rrdvra dirXcof; rd roiavra, rrjv 
avvropbov, (paaiv, oBov Kal avvrovov eirl rrjv 

^ irpoffaxOfjvai Hertlein suggests, irpaxQ^ivai MSS. 


twice as many more. And now^ my good sirs, what 
good has come from your journey ? What city or 
individual has had any experience of your alleged 
freedom of speech ? Was it not foolish of you to 
choose in the first place to make this journey to an 
Emperor who did not even wish to set eyes on you ? 
And when you had arrived, did you not behave even 
more foolishly and ignorantly and insanely in flatter- 
ing and barking at me in the same breath, and 
offering me your books, and moreover imploring that 
they should be taken to me ? I do not believe that 
any one of you ever visited a philosopher's school as 
diligently as you did my secretary : in fact the 
entrance to the Palace stood for you in place of the 
Academy and the Lyceum and the Portico. 

Have done with all this nonsense ! At any rate 
lay it aside now if not before, when you can get no 
advantage from your long hair and your staff. Shall 
I tell you how you have caused philosophy to be 
lightly esteemed ? It is because the most ignorant 
of the rhetoricians, those whose tongues not King 
Hermes himself could purify, and who could not 
be made wise by Athene herself with the aid of 
Hermes, having picked up their knowledge from 
their industry in frequenting public places, — for 
they do not know the truth of the current proverb, 
" Grape ripens near grape " ^ — then all rush into 
Cynicism. They adopt the staff, the cloak, the long 
hair, the ignorance that goes with these, the 
impudence, the insolence, and in a word everything 
of the sort. They say that they are travelling the 
short and ready road to virtue. ^ I would that you 

^ A proverb to express emulation ; cf. Juvenal 2. 81. 
'^ Plutarch, Erotici p. 759, says this of the Cynics ; cf. 
Diogenes Laertius 7. 121. 




ap€Tr)V lepac ' o<p€\op kol v/jLel<s rrjv /juafcpav eiro- 
peveaOe' pdov av hC €K€Lvr}(; rj Slcl Tavrrj^i ijXOere. 
01) K tare, on fjLeyoiKa^ e^ovaiv al crvvrofxoL ra? 
'X^aXeiroTqTaf; ; koI Mairep ev ral^ \€w<^6poi<^ 6 fiev 
TTjV (TvvTOfiov iXdelv hvvr)6el<^ paov iKTrepUiai rr)v 
kvkXo), ovKert fxevroi, rb avdiraXiv 6 fcvKXo) rropev- 
Self; eXOoi av Trdvrcof; kol rrjv eTriTOfiov, ovrco Br} ^ D 
Kal iv rfj (j)LXoao<j}ia reXof; re eart /cat cip')(r) jila 
yimvau re eavrov kol d^ofJLOiwdrjvai Tot<; d€OL<;' 
^PXV H'^^ °^^ eavrov yvcovaL, reXo^ Se rj Trpo^ tou? 
Kpeirrova^ 6^oi6rri<^. 

'' Oar i<i ovv K.vvlko'; elvai iOeXec,-7rdvrcov virep- 
cBcov roiv vo/jLiafjidrcov /cal rcov dv0 pcoirivwv 
Bo^cov, eh eavrov Kal rov deov errearpaTrrat 
rrporepov. eK€iv<p ro ')(^pvaiov ovk eari ')(^pvaiov, 
ov^ rj '\lrd/jL/jiO<; '\lrd/jLfjLO(;, el 7rpb<i d/xoi^r/v rc<; 
avra i^erd^oi /cal rr)^ d^La^ avrcbv eir ir pe-y^reiev 
avrw rtjjirjrfi yeveaBav 'yrjv yap avrd olhev 22( 
d/jL(f)6r€pa. TO airavioorepov he Kal ro paov dv- 
6p(i)7rcov elvat Kevoho^ia^ ravra Kal dfjuaOia'^ vevo- 
liLKev epya' ro ala')(^pov rj KaXbv ovk ev roL<; 
eiraivoviJievoL^ r) 'yjreyo/jLevoi,'^ riOerai, dXTC ev rfj 
cf)va€r (pevyei ra<; Tre/otrra? rpo(f)d<;' aTToarpe- 
<f}€rao Be rd d<ppoBLaLa. ^ta^o/jievov Be rod 
aQ)/jLaro<i, ov Bo^y TrpoarerrjKev ovBe Trepc/jLevei rbv 
/jidyecpov Kal rd virorpifxiiara Kal rrjv Kviaaav, 
ovBe rrjv ^pvvrjv ovBe rrjv AatBa ovBe rrjv rov 
Belvof; ^ irepiPXeirerat yafjuerrjv ovBe rb Ovydrpiov B 
ovBe rrfv depdiraivav dX\! &)? evi fidXiara eK ro)v 

^ Uvai Cobet, irop^vS^^Qa Hertlein suggests, lacuna V. 

2 S^ Cobet, 56 Hertlein, MSS. 

^ rov hflvos Cobet, rov Se Hertlein, MSS. 



were going by the longer ! For you would more 
easily arrive by that road than by this of yours. 
Are you not aware that short cuts usually involve 
one in great difficulties ? For just as is the case 
with the public roads^ a traveller who is able to take 
a short cut will more easily than other men go all 
the way round, whereas it does not at all follow that 
he who went round could always go the short cut, 
so too in philosophy the end and the beginning are 
one, namely, to know oneself and to become like 
the gods. That is to say, the first principle is self- 
knowledge, and the end of conduct is the resem- 
blance to the higher powers. 

Therefore he who desires to be a Cynic despises 
all the usages and opinions of men, and turns 
his mind first of all to himself and the god. For 
him gold is not gold or sand sand, if one enquire 
into their value with a view to exchanging them, 
and leave it to him to rate them at their proper 
worth : for he knows that both of them are but 
earth. And the fact that one is scarcer and the 
other easier to obtain he thinks is merel}'^ the result 
of the vanity and ignorance of mankind. He will 
judge of the baseness or nobility of an action, not by 
the applause or blame of men but by its intrinsic 
nature. He avoids any excess in food, and renounces 
the pleasures of love. When he is forced to obey the 
needs of the body he is not the slave of opinion, nor 
does he wait for a cook and sauces and a savoury smell, 
nor does he ever look about for Phryne or Lais or 
So-and-so's wife or young daughter or serving-maid. 
But as far as possible he satisfies his body's needs 



TT po(nv')(^6vT(Dv (117017X7] a a<^ r^iv Qepaireiav rod 
(Tco/jLaro'i /cat rb ivo'^Xovv e^ avrov irapwadfievo^y 
avcodev ck rrj<^ ^OXv/xirov Kopv(f)r]<; iirijSXiirei tov^ 

"Att;? iv XeifiMVL Kara ctkotov '^XdaKOvra^;, 

virep oXiycov iravrdiracnv diroXavaecov viro/ievov- 

ra<i oaa ovBe irapa top K^cokutov koI rov ^ A-^^^epovra 

6 pvXovcriv ol KOfiyjroTepoc ro)v irocrfTMP. rj (tvvto- 

/AO? 0809 eartv avrrj. Bel yap avrov dOpoco^; Q 

€K(TT7]vaL eavTOv /cal yvojvat, on Oelo^ iari, kuI 

TOP vovv fjikv Tov iavrov ar/ourft)? Kal dfjueraKLvrj- 

Tft)9 avve')(^6iv ev TOi<; Oeioc^ Kal d')(^pdvT0L<i Kal 

KaOapOL<^ vorjixaaiv, oXiywpelv 3e irdvrnr] rov 

<7a)/xaT09 Kal vopLi^eiv avro Kara rov HpdKXecrov 

KOirpLcov iKjSXrjTOTepov, ck tov paarov Be avT(p 

Td<; 6epairela<i diroirXijpovv, ea)<i dv 6 Oeo<; coairep 

6pydv(p TO) (Tco/juaTi ')(^prjcr6ac iirirdrTy. 

Tavra p^ev ovv oix; (ftaal ravrj)} iiravd^co Be 

oOev i^i/Srjv. iirecBr) yap roi)? p.v9ov<i irpoarjKei, 

Trpo? iralBa^i rjTOi rw (f)povelv, Kav dvBp€<i mctlv, r) I) 

Kal Tot? KaO^ TiXiKiav iraiBapiOi^; dirayyeXXecv, 

i^eracrreov otto)? p^7]Te et? Oeov^ p^ijre eh dvdpco- 

irov<; irXrj/jL/j,€X€(; tj, Kaddirep evay')(p<^, Bvcrae^i^; ti 

p7]6eirj' Kal irpoaeri tovto ev diraaiv dKpi^cof; 

ffaaavLareov, el ircdavo^;, el to2<; irpdypxiat irpoa- 

(^vrj^, el p>v66<^ ecrriv dXrjOa)(i 6 irXarTop^evo'^. iirel 

TO ye vvv viro aov ireirotrjjjLevov ov fjLv06<i eaTC ao^i • ^ 

KaiTOi TOVTO ye eveavievaco' dXX /nev pvOo<; 

^ ws (paal ravrri Cobet, cf. Oration 4. 148 b, lacuna Hert- 
lein, MSS. 

2 aos' Hertlein suggests ; a6s, ws 4^vts MSS. 



with whatever comes to hand, and by thrusting aside 
all hindrances derived from the body he contem- 
plates from above_, from the peaks of Olympus, other 
men who are " Wandering in darkness in the 
meadow of Ate/' ^ and for the sake of a few wholly 
trifling pleasures are undergoing torments greater 
than any by the Cocytus or Acheron such as the 
most ingenious of the poets are always telling us 
about. Now the true short cut to philosophy is this. 
A man must completely come out of Tiimself and 
recognise that he is divine, and not only keep his 
mind untiringly and steadfastly fixed on divine and 
stainless and pure thoughts, but he must also utterly 
despise his body, and think it, in the words of 
Heracleitus, "more worthless than dirt." ^ And by 
the easiest means he must satisfy his body's needs so 
long as the god commands him to use it as an 

So much for that, as the saying is.^ Now to go 
back to the point at which I digressed. "* Since, as I 
was saying, myths ought to be addressed either to 
those who though grown men are children in intelli- 
gence, or to those who in actual years are mere 
children, we must take pains to utter in them 
no word that is offensive to gods or men or 
anything impious, as was done recently. And more- 
over we must in all cases apply careful tests to see 
whether the myth is plausible, closely related to the 
matter discussed and whether what is invented 
is really a myth. Now what you composed lately 
is not your own myth though you boasted that it 
was. Nay, your myth was an old one and you did 

^ Empedocles, /r. 21, Diels. ^ Heracleitus, fr. 96, Diels. 
'^ Cf. Oration 4. 148 b. * 223 a. 



ear I 7ra\at6<;, i(f)rjp/jLO(Ta^ 8e avrov crv irpdyjJLaacv 22' 
erepofc?, oirep olfiai, Troceiv eloodaaiv ol rfj TporrcKfj 
y^poiifjievoL TMv vorj/judrcov Karaa/ceufj' ttoXu? he ev 
TOVTOif; 6 Ilayoto? eart 7roc7}T7J<;. eoiKa^ ovv ovhe 
ireTTOtrjKMf; /jlvOov, m ^vveTOOTare, fidrrjv veavieve- 
aOai' KaiTOL tovto rirdrj^i epyov earXv evrpa- 
irekov. UXourdp'^ov Be el ra pvOiKci Scriyrj/jLaTa 
Tiov acop etaco ')(^eipa)v d(j)lKTo, ovttot av eXeXrjOec 
ae, Tivi. 8ia(f)ep€i irXdaai re e^ ap^i}? pivOov /cat 
rov KeifMevov e^app^ocrac irpdypiaaiv olfceLoi<i. dX)C B 
iva //,/; ae rrjv avvrop^ov oSevovra yStySXot? ep^^a- 
Xcop p.aKpal'; Kol 8vae\tKT0i<i eVtcr^ft) p^cKpd kol 
TreSrjaco' av Se ovBe rov A'yjp,oaOevou<; dKrJKoa^; 
p,v6ov, ov eiroirfaev o YiaLavLev<; iTpo<i rov<i ^Adrj- 
valov^, 'qviKa 6 ^aKehoov e^yrec TOv<i ^Adr)vaLov<; 
prjTOpaf;. e")(^p^v ovv ri tolovto irXdaai' rj tt/oo? 
Twi^ Oeoov epyov rjv elirelv puvOdpiov n tolovtov; 
dvayKdaev^ he p,e kol pLvOoiroiov yeveadai. 

WXovaiw dvhpl irpo^ara rjv ttoXXcl koX dyeXai C 
^00) u KOL aliroXia irXare alywv, Tttitol he avrCo 
iroXXdKi'; pLvpiat eA.09 Kara ^ovKoXeovro, Kal 
7roLp,ev€<s hovXoL re koX eXevdepoi p^LaOcoroi, Kal 
^ovKoXoi ^OMV Kal alyoyv aiTToXoL Kal linTOc^op^ol 
Tojv iTTTToyv, Kai irXelara KTqpLara. tovtcov he 
avTW TToXXa p.ev o irarr^p direXeXoiireL, iroX- 
XairXdaca he avrb^ eireKTrjaaTO,^ irXovrelv SeXcdv 

^ iirfKTTjaaro Naber, iKT-ftaaro Hertlein, MSS. 


but adapt it to fresh circumstances, as I believe 
people are in the habit of doing who use tropes 
and figures of thought. The poet of Paros ^ for 
instance is much given to this style. It seems then 
that you did not even invent your myth, my very 
clever friend, and that yours was an idle boast. 
Though in fact the thing is done by any nurse with 
an inventive turn. And if the mythical tales of 
Plutarch had ever fallen into your hands you would 
not have failed to observe what a difference there is 
between inventing a myth from the beginning and 
adapting to one's own purpose a myth that already 
.exists. But I must not detain you even for a 
moment or hinder you on your way along that short 
cut to wisdom by making you embark on books that 
are long and hard to read. You have not even 
hearcJ^ of the myth by Demosthenes which he of 
the Paeanian deme addressed to the Athenians 
when the Macedonian demanded that the Athenian 
orators be given up. You ought to have invented 
something of that sort. In Heaven's name was it 
too hard for you to relate some little myth of the 
kind ? You will force me too to become a 
myth-maker. _. 

A certain rich man ^ had numerous flocks of sheep f 
and herds of cattle and "ranging flocks of goats ""^ 
and many times ten thousand mares " grazed his 
marsh-meadows." ^ Many shepherds too he had, 
both slaves and hired freedmen, neatherds and goat- 
herds and grooms for his horses, and many estates 
withal. Now much of all this his father had 
bequeathed to him, but he had himself acquired 

^ Archilochus. '^ Constantine. 

'•" Iliad 2. 474. " Iliad 20. 221. 

K 2 



iv ^ifcy T€ Kol irapa Sl/ctjv e/i-eXe yap avrcp tmv ^ 
dewv oXljov. eyevovTO he avTO) yvvaiKe^; TroWal D 
Kol vtet? e^ avTMP koI Ovyarepe^, ol^ eKelvo^ 
Biaveifia^; rrjv ovalav eireira ireXevrrjaev, ovBkv 
auTOu? ol/covo/jLia<; irepL SiSd^a^;, ovS^ otto)? dv tl<; 
hvvaiTO ra rotavra Kraadac /jlt) irapovra rj ira- 
povra SLa<pv\dTT€LV. qyero yap vtto d/jiaOia(; 
dpKelv TO 7r\r}6o<;, eTret /cal avro^ tjv ov fidXa 
eTTLO-TTj/jLcov T^9 TOLavTr)<i Te%i^^9, are fir) Xoyco 
7rpoaeiX7]cf)co<i uvttJv, dXXd avvrjOeia rivl /cal 
ireipa fiaXXov, wairep ol cf)avXoL TOiv larpoyv e/c.221 
T^9 ifM7r€Lpla<i jjLovov l(i)fjL€V0L T0U9 dvOpcoTTOVf;, odev 
KaX 8ia(f)6vy6i, rd iroXXd tmv voarj/jbdrcov avroix;. 
dpKelv ovv vofjLL(Ta<i to 7rXrj6o(; tmv vUcov tt/?^? to 
<f)vXd^ai Tr)v ovaiav ovSev e^povTicrev OTTcof; 
eaovTai cnrovhaloL. to he dpa avTol<^ VP^^ Trpco- 
Tov /jLev TOdv 6t9 dXXrjXov<i dhtKy/uidTcov. eTTidvfiwv 
yap eKaaT0<^ toairep 6 TraTrjp TToXXd e')(eLV Kal 
/jbovot; irdvTa iirl top 7reXa9 eTpdjreTO. T6Ct)9 fiev B 
ovv TOVTO eirpdTTeTO, TrpoaaireXavov he fcal ol 
^vyyevel^i, ovS' avTol TraihevdevTe^; KaXco^, T//9 
T(ov iraihcdv dvoia^ t€ Kal d/jLaOia<;. eiTa eirifx- 
TvXaTO (povcov irdvTa, Kal r} TpayiKr] KaTdpa vtto 
Tov haifjbovo^ eU epyov r^yeTO' t<z iraTpwa yap 
Otjktw aihrjpw hLeXdy')(^avov, Kal r/v irdvTa dKoa}ua<^ 
TrXrjpr]' iraTpwa puev lepd KaTeaKdiTTeTO irapa TOiv 
Traihwv oXiycopijOevTa TrpoTepov vtto tov TvaTpo^i 
Kal dTToavXrjOevTa tcov dvaOrjfidTcov, a eTeOeiTO C 

' ouT^J rS>v Klimek, ahrc^ Koi rwv Hertlein, MSS. 


many times more, being eager to enrich himself 
whether justly or unjustly ; for little did he care for 
the gods. Several wives he had, and sons and 
daughters by them, among whom he divided his 
wealth before he died. But he did not teach them 
how to manage it, or how to acquire more if it 
should fail, or how to preserve what they had. For 
in his ignorance he thought that their mere numbers 
would suffice, nor had he himself any real knowledge 
of that sort of art, since he had not acquired his 
wealth on any rational principle but rather by use 
and wont, like quack doctors who try to cure their 
patients by relying on their experience only, so that 
many diseases escape them altogether.^ Accordingly 
since he thought that a number of sons would suffice 
to preserve his wealth, he took no thought how to 
make them virtuous. But this very thing proved to 
be the beginning of their iniquitous behaviour to one 

another. For every one of them desired to be as 

wealthy as his father and to possess the whole I 
for himself alone, and so attacked the brother that 
was his neighbour. Now for a time they continued 
to behave thus. And their relatives also shared in 
the folly and ignorance of those sons, since they 
themselves had had no better education. Then 
ensued a general slaughter, and heaven brought the - 
tragic curse ^ to fulfilment. For" by the edge of the i 
sword they divided their patrimony" and everything 
was thrown into confusion. The sons demolished the 
ancestral temples which their father before them had 
despised and had stripped of the votive offerings 

1 Cf. Plato, Charmides 156 e. ^ 

'^ The curse of Oedipus on his sons ; cf. Euripides, 

Phoenissae 67 ; Plato, Alcihiades 2. 138 c ; Aeschylus, Seven 

Against Thebes 817, 942. 



TTapa ttoWmv fiev koI aWcov, ou% TjKtara Se rcov 
irpoiraToprov avrov. KaOaipov/jievcov Se tmv lep(av 
dvrp/coBojjLelro iraXata koX via jnuij/naTa, Trpoayo- 
pevovTO^ avTOL^ rov avropbdrov fcal ti}? tu%?7<?, ore 
dpa ttoWmv avTOi<; Berjcrec fjLvrjfjbdrwv ovk eh 
fjuafcpdv, iireihri'Trep avTol<^ oXiyov efieXe tmv OeSyv. 
Udvrcov ovv 6/iiov (pvpofiivayv koX ^vvreXov puevrtiv 
ydpbodv T6 ov ydp^cov koX ^e^rfkov pievayv opbov rolf; 
6eioi<s Tcbv dvOpcoTTLVcov, rbv Ala eXeo9 VTrrjXdev D 
elra aTriBcbv 7rp6^ rov ^'HXcov m iral, eTirev, 
ovpavov Kal yrj<; dp-^aiorepov ev Beoi<^ ^Xdo-rrjp^a, 
pLvrjacKafceiv ert hiavofi tt}? virepo'^ia^; dvSpl 
avOdhei Kal roXp^rjpo), 09 ae diroXiirdyv aura) re Kal 
yevei airio^;^ eyevero rcov rrfKiKOvrmv iraOrjP'drcov; 
Tj vopbi^ei^, on firj ')(^a\e7raLvet(; avrrp pbrjh^ dyavaK- 229 
T€t9 /at;^' 67rl TO yevo^ avrov rov<; olarov<^ 67]yei<i, 
eXarrov elvai ravrr)'^ acrio<; avrw rrj<; ^vp,(popd<;, 
ep7)pbov avrov rrfv oiKiav d<^ei^; aXX', e^rfy KaXco- 
fiev ra? Mofc/3a9, et tttj ^or]6rjreo<^ o dvrjp ecrriv. at 
oe VTTTjfmvaav avriKa rw iXu. Kai puev JtlAto9, 
ioairep evvoMV re Kal Xoyi^6pi,evo^ avrb<; iv eavrw, 
'rrpoaeL'^ev eh rbv Ala irrj^a^ rd opipara. rcjv 
M.oi,pct)v Be rj nrpeaj^vrdrr]' KcoXueroz^, e<^rj, co 
rrdrep, 17 'Oacorrj^; ^vv rfj Alkt), crbv ovv epyov 
i<rrlv, eireiTTep rjpbdf; eKeXevaa^ vrreiKaOelv avrah, B 
Tretcrat Kal eKeiva<^. dX')C epual ydp eiaiv, e(f)r], 
Ovyarepe^i, Kal d^iov Brj epeadai avrd<;' ri roivvv, 

^ yevei atrios Cobet, ytvei koI vaifflu a^rios Hertlein, MSS. 


that had been dedicated by many worshippers, but 
not least by his own ancestors. And besides de- 
raoHshing the temples they erected sepulchres ^ both 
on new sites and on the old sites of the temples, as 
though impelled by fate or by an unconscious 
presentiment that they would ere long need many 
such sepulchres, seeing that they so neglected the, 
gods. r- ' — 

Now when all was in confusion, and many mar- 
riages that were no marriages ^ were being con- 
cluded, and the laws of god and man alike had 
been profaned, Zeus was moved with compassion 
and addressing himself to Helios he said : " O my 
son, divine offspring more ancient than heaven and 
earth, art thou still minded to resent the insolence of 
that arrogant and audacious mortal, who by forsaking 
thee brought so many calamities on himself and 
his race ? Thinkest thou that, though thou dost not 
show thine anger and resentment against him nor 
whet thine arrows against his children, thou art 
any less the author of his destruction in that thou 
dost abandon his house to desolation ? Nay," said 
Zeus, " let us summon the Fates and enquire whether 
any assistance may be given the man." Forthwith 
the Fates obeyed the call of Zeus. But Helios who 
was as though absorbed in thought and inward 
debate yet gave constant heed and fixed his eyes on 
Zeus. Then spoke the eldest of the Fates : " O our 
father. Piety and Justice both restrain us. Therefore 
it is thine to prevail on them also, since thou hast 
ordered us to be subservient to them." And Zeus 
made answer, " Truly they are my daughters, and it 

^ The Christian churches were so called because they were 
built over the tombs of the martyrs. "^ i.e. between cousins. 


w TTOTvla, ^arov; aWa rovrov fiev, elTrerrjv, w 
wdrepy auTO? eZ Kvpio^. GKoirei 8e oirco^; iv avOpdi- 
7T0L<; o TTOvripo^ ovToal tt}? dvoaLOvpyia<; ^rjXo^; /irj 
TravrdiraGLV iinKpaTrjCTei} irpo^ d/j,(f)6r€pa, elirev, 
iycb aKeylro/JLat. Koi at ^olpat TrXrjatov Trapovaao 
TTOLvra i'TreK\(t)6ov, co? o Trarrjp ijBovkeTO. C 

Aeyeiv Se o Zei)? ap')(eTai irpo^ tov^'HXlop' tovtl 
TO TratBlov, e^rj' ^vyy€ve<i Be rjv avrcov dpa irapep- 
pLfXfievov iTov Kai dpiekovjxevoVy dB6\(f)iBov^ e/ceivov 
Tov TrXovaiou /cat dveyjnb^ tmv fcXrjpovojucov tovto, 
€<j>rj, GOV iariv CKyovov. Ofjuoaov ovv to ifiov re 
Kal TO (Tov^ aKYjirrpov, rj jjltjv iTrifJLeXrjaeaOaL Bia- 
(j>€p6vTco(; avTOV Kal iroLfJuavelv avro Kal depa- 
irevaeLv rrj<; voaov. opa^ ydp oVw? olov viro D 
Kairvov pvTTOv re dvaTreTrXr^araL Kal Xiyvvoff, 
KivBvv6<; T€ TO viTO (TOV (Tirapev iv avT(p irvp diro- 
(TjSrjvai, rjv firj av ye Bvaeac dXKrjv. aol Be eyco Te 
^vy')((opo) Kal at M.o2par Kofic^e ovv avTo Kal 
Tpe<f)e. TavTa dKovaa<s 6 ^acnXev^; ''HX^o? r)v- 
<j)pdvOr} Te r](j6el<i tw ppe<f>et, <T(oi^6fievov €ti KaOo- 
pMV iv avT(p aiTLvOripa jiuKpov ef eavTOv, Kal to 
ivTevOev €Tpe(f)ev iKelvo to iraiBiov, i^ayaycov 

€K &* aifiaTO^ €K T€ KvBoifJbOV 

*E/c T dvBpoKTaairjf;, 23C 

o TraTyp Be o Zeu? iKeXevae Kal ttjv *AOr)vdv ttjv 
dfxrjTopa, T7]v irapOevov dfia tw 'HAico to rrauBd- 
pLov iKTpe(f>et>v, iirel Be iTpd(j)rj Kal veavia<^ iye- 


UpMTOv viT7]vrjTr)<;, Tovirep x^pieaTdTrj ij^rjy 

^ i/riKpar-fiffei Hertlein suggests, iwcKpaT-qar'p MSS* 
^ rh trhv Hertlein suggests, <rhp MSS, 



is meet that I question them. What then have ye to 
say^ ye venerable goddesses? " '' Nay, father/' they 
rephed, " that is as thou thyself dost ordain. But be 
careful lest this wicked zeal for impious deeds 
prevail universally among men." " I will myself look 
to both these matters/' Zeus replied. Then the 
Fates approached and spun all as their father 

Next Zeus thus addressed Helios : " Thou seest 
yonder thine own child." ^ (Now tiiis was a certain 
kinsman of those brothers who had been cast aside 
and was despised though he was that rich man's 
nephew and the cousin of his heirs.) " This child/' 
said Zeus_, " is thine own offspring. Swear then by 
my sceptre and thine that thou wilt care especially 
for him and cure him of this malady. For thou 
seest how he is as it were infected with smoke and 
filth and darkness and there is danger that the spark 
of fire which thou didst implant in him will be 
quenched, unless thou clothe thyself with might.^ 
Take care of him therefore and rear him. For I and 
the Fates yield thee this task." When King Helios 
heard this he was glad and took pleasure in the 
babe, since he perceived that in him a small spark 
of himself was still preserved. And from that time 
he reared the child whom he had withdrawn " from 
the blood and noise of war and the slaughter of 
men." ^ And father Zeus bade Athene also, the 
Motherless Maiden, share with Helios the task 
of bringing up the child. And when, thus reared, 
he had become a youth " With the first down on his 
chin, when youth has all its charms," * he learned 

1 Julian himself. 2 7/^-^^^? 9. 231. 

'^ Iliad 11. 164. ^ Iliad 24. 348. 




KaTavor)aa<; tmv kcikcov to ttX^^o?, oTroaov n Trepl 
TOv<; ^vyy€veL<; avrov koI tou? avey^iov^ eyejovec, 
iSerjae fiev avrov et? rov rdprapov irpoeaOai irpp^ 
TO fiiyeOo^ tmv KaKMV iKirXayei^. irrel he "HXto? B 
evfJb€vri<; cbv fiera t^}? Tlpovoia<; ^AOrjvd^; virvov nva 
fcal Kiipov ifi/SaXcbv ttj^ einvoLa^; TavTr)<; aTrijyayev, 
avdi<; aveyep6el<^ aireiaiv €t9 ipr^fxiav. elra eKel 
\i6ov TLva evpcov fiLKpov aveiravaaTO koX tt/oo? 
avrov icrKoirei, Tiva rpoirov eKipev^erai tojv Toaov- 
T(ov KaKOiV TO p.eye6o<^' rjhrj yap avTco iravra 
€cf)aLV€T0 /jL0')(6r)pd, KoXov Be ovSev ovhafMov reo)?. C 
'Kp/jLTJ^; ovv avrS' Kal yap el')(^ev oIk6L(i)<; 7rpo<; 
avTov Mcnrep rjXifCLcoTrjf; veavicrKO^ cf)avel<; '^cnrd- 
aaro re (pc\,o(f)povay<; /cai, Aevpo, eiirev, rjyefKav aot 
€70) eo-ofiai \€L0T6pa^ ^ Kal ofiaXecTTipaf; oSov 

TOVTi TO /JLLKpOV VTTep^dvTl TO (TKoXloV Kal dlTO- 

to/jUOV ycopioVy 01) irdvTa^ 6pd<; TrpoairTaiovTa^ Kal 
diTLovTa's evTevdev ottlo-w. Kal 6 veaviaKo^ dinwv 
(ityero fjuerd TToWrj^; ev\a^€ia<; €')(wv izap eavTW 
t<po9 re Kai acririba Kai oopv,'' yvjjbva be avTcp 
Teft)9 Tjv TO, irepl ttjv Ke^aXyv. TreiroiOw^ ovv avTw D 
TTporjyev eh to irpoaco Bta Xeta? oSov Kal dOpvirrov 
KaOapa<i re irdvv Kal Kaprrol^; ^pL9ov(Tr]<; avdeai 
re TToXXofc? Kal dyaOoL^;, ocra earl Oeol<^ <piXa, Kal 
BevSpecri klttov Kal hd<pvr)^ Kal pbvppivr^f;, dyayoiv 
Be avTov eTTi to fieya Kal v'\jrr)\bv 6po<;, 'EttI 
TOVTOVy 6(f)rj, TTJf; Kopv(f)7](; 6 Trarrjp irdvrwv 
KdOfjTai TMV Oecov. opa ovv evravOd eariv 6 
/jLeya<; kovBvvo^' otto)? avTov o)^ evayearaTa 
iTpoo-Kwrjaet^y alTrjarj Be irap avTOV 6, tl av 

^ \€ioT€pas, Klimek, \eias Hertlein, MSS. 

2 56pv Hertlein suggests, iia.xo'i-pav MSS ; cf. 231 C. 



the numerous disasters that had befallen his kinsmen 
and his cousins, and had all but hurled himself into 
Tartarus, so confounded was he by the extent of 
those calamities. Then Helios of his grace, aided 
by Athene, Goddess of Forethought, threw him into 
a slumber or trance, and so diverted him from that 
purpose. Then when he had waked from this he 
went away into the desert. And there he found 
a stone and rested for a while thereon, debating 
within himself how he should escape evils so many 
and so vast. For all things now appeared grievous 
to him and for the moment there was no hope 
anywhere. Then Hermes, who had an affinity for 
him,i appeared to him in the guise of a youth of his 
own age, and greeting him kindly said, " Follow me, 
and I will guide thee by an easier and smoother road 
as soon as thou hast surmounted this winding and 
rugged place where thou seest all men stumbling 
and obliged to go* back again," Then the youth set 
out with great circumspection, carrying a sword and 
shield and spear, though as yet his head was bare. 
Thus relying on Hermes he went forward by a road 
smooth, untrodden and very bright, and overhung 
with fruits and many lovely flowers such as the gods 
love, and with trees also, ivy and laurel and myrtle. 
Now when Hermes had brought him to the foot of a 
great and lofty mountain, he said, " On the summit 
of this mountain dwells the father of all the gods. 
Be careful then — for herein lies the greatest risk 
of all^ — to worship him with the utmost piety and 
ask of him whatever thou wilt. Thou wilt choose. 

1 i.e. as the god of eloquence. 

2 Plato, Republic 618 b. 



eOeXyfy' eXoLo Be, o) iral, tcl ^eXnaTa. ravra 23] 
elrroiV aireKpyy^rev eavrov Kpfii)^ tt/iXlv. 6 he 
e^ovXero fiev irapa rov 'E/>yLtoO nrvdeaOai, tl irore 
airrjaaaOai y^prj Trapa rov irarpo^ rcou Oewv, 009 
he irX'qaiov ovra ov KarelSev, ^Ev8er)<; pbev, e(f>rj, 
KaXt) he oficof; rj ^Vfjb^ovXrj. alrdypieOa ovv ayadf/ 
TVXP '^^ Kpdriara Kaiirep ovitm cra^co? tov Trarepa 
roiv Oeoov opcovre^;. fl ZeO Trdrep 7) 6, tl aoi <^iXov 
ovo/iia /cat otto)? ovofid^eo-dar heiKvve fioc rrjv eirl 
ae (pepovaav ohov avco. KpeirTOva yap fioo tcl eKel B 
(fyalveTaL '^copLa Trapa ae /lavTevopLevM to irapa 
orol KaXXo^ cltto Trj<; ev tovtol^ odev ireiropevfieOa 
Teo)<; dyXata<;. 

Ev^ajxevM TavTa etre virvo^i tl<^ etTe eKaTaarL^ 
eTrrjXdev. 6 he avTw heLKVvaLv avTOV tov "IAXlov. 
eKTrXayel^ ovv 6 veavL(TKO<; vtto t^9 Oea<;, 'AXXa 
aol fiev, elirev, &> Oewv iraTep, tcov re dXXcov Kal 
TovTcov eve/ca TrdvTcov ifiavTov (f)ep(ov dvaOrjaw, C 
irepL^aXoov^ he toI^ yovaai tov 'HXtou TCL<i -^elpaf; 
dirpl^ eXyeTO aco^eLv eavTOv heofMevo^;. 6 he /caXe- 
aa<; ttjv ^AOtjvclv eKeXeve irpoiTov dvaKplveLv avTov, 
oiroca eKopLLaev oirXa. iirel he ecopa ttjv re dairiha 
Kal TO ^L(l)o<; p^eTO, tov hopaTc;, 'AXXa ttov (tol, 
e<f)7j, M TraL, to VopyoveLov Kal to Kpdvo^; 6 he, 
Kat TavTa, elire, puoyL^ €/CTr]ad/jir)v' ovhelf; yap rjv 
6 ^VfMTTOVcov ev Trj TMV avyyevcov OLKLa TrapeppLpu- 
pLevw. lauL ovv, CLirev o pueya'^ riXLO^, otl ae 
7^a^'Tft)9 %/>^ eiraveXdelv eKelae. evTavOa ehelTO D 

^ irepi^aXtav Cobet, irepi^dXAwy Hertlein, MSS. 


my child, oi^lj what is best." So saying Hermes 
once more became invisible, though the youth was 
fain to learn from him what he ought to ask from the 
father of the gods. But when he saw that he was 
no longer at his side he said, '^'^The advice though 
incomplete is good nevertheless. Therefore let me 
by the grace of fortune ask for what is best, though 
1 do not as yet see clearly the father of the gods. 
Father Zeus — or whatever name thou dost please 
that men should call thee by,i — show me the way 
that leads upwards to thee. For fairer still methinks 
is the region where thou art, if I may judge of the 
beauty of thy abode from the splendour of the place 
whence I have come hither." 

When he had uttered this prayer a sort of 
slumber or ecstasy came over him. Then Zeus 
showed him Helios himself. Awestruck by tliat 
vision the youth exclaimed, " For this and for all 
H- thy other favours I will dedicate myself to thee, O 
Father of the Gods !" Then he cast his arms about 
the knees of Helios and would not let go his hold 
but kept entreating him to save him. But Helios 
called Athene and bade her first enquire of him what 
arms he had brought with him. And when she saw 
his shield and sword and spear, she said, " But where, 
my child, is thya^gis^ and thy helmet?" "Even 
these that I have," he replied, " I procured with 
difficulty. For in the house of my kinsfolk there 
was none to aid one so despised." " Learn there- 
fore," said mighty Helios, " that thou must without 
fail return thither." Thereupon he entreated him 

^ Cf. Aeschylus, Agamemnon J60. 

2 Literally "the Gorgon's head," which formed the centre 
of the ajgis or breastplate of Athene ; cf. 234 a. 



fJbY} irefjureiv avrov eKelcre ttoXiv, aXXa Kare^eti', 

CO? ov/ceO^ varepov eTrav/j^ovra, aTToXov/xevov Be 

VTTO Tcov 6K€i fca/ccov. ct)9 Be iXcTrdpec BaKpvcov, 

AA-A,a veo^ a, €<p7j, kul afxvrjrof;. lai ovv Trap 

vfjudf}, 0)9 UP /jbVTjOeiTjf; d(7<pa\(o<; re eKel BtdyoL^i' 

')(^pr) yap a aTrievac koI Kadaipeiv eKelva irdvra rd 

dae^TJfiara, irapaKoKelv Be e/jue re fcal rrjv ^ Kdr^vdv 

Aral Toi'9 dXkov(; 6eov<;. aKovaa^ ravra 6 veavl- 23 

cr/co9 elariJKei Giwirf). /cal 6 fieya^i ''HXt09 eVt 

TLva (JKOTTidv dyaycov avrov, ^9 to jxev dvo) (j)cor6<; 

Tjv rr\rjpe<i, ro Be viro/cdrco /jLvpia<i d^\vo(;, Bi -^9 

coairep Bi^ vBaro<^ dfivBpov ro </)C09 Baicvelro rrj<;*€K 

rov ^aaiXeco^; avyrj<; lAXiov, Opdf;, elire, rov 

dveyjrtbv rov K\r)pov6fjLOp; Kal 6<i, 'Opo), ecfirj. Tt 

Be; TOL'9 ^ovKoXov^i rovroval Kal rov^ iroifieva'^; 

Kal rovrov^ opdv elirev 6 veaptaKOf;. TToTa7ro9 ovv B 

Tt9 (Tot o /cXrjpovojjiOf; (j^alverai; Trorairol 3' av ol 

7rociJL€ve<; re Kal ^ovkoXol; Kal 6 VeavlaKo^;, 'O fxev 

fXOLy €<f>7], B0K6L vvard^ecv rd iroXXd Kal KaraBvo- 

fievo^i^ XeX7jd6ra)<; rjBvTraOecv, rcjv TTOL/uievcov Be 

oXiyov fiev ean ro darelov, ro irXijOof; Be 

IMO')(d'r]pov Kal 67]pt(oB€<i. eadiei yap Kal iriirpdaKeL 

rd rcpo^ara Kal dBcKel BcttXtj rov Beairorrjv. rd 

re yap TrolfiVLa avrov ipOelpet Kal ck ttoXXmv 

fxiKpd dirocfiepov dpaadov elvai (f)7jcn Kal oBvperat. C 

KairoL Kpelrrov tjv rov<i ixia6ov<i drrairelv evreXel^ 

rj (pOetpeiv rrjv ttoI/ulvtjv. *Av ovv, e^rj, ae eyoo 

juuera ravrrjal ri)<; ^A6r)vd(;, eirirdrrovTO^ rov 

^ KaTOibvofiivos Naber thinks corrupt, but cf. Letter to the 
Athenians 285 a. 



not to send him to earth again but to detain 
him there, since he would never be able to mount 
upwards a second time but would be overwhelmed 
by the ills of earth. But as he wept and implored 
Helios replied,, "Nay, thou art young and not yet 
initiated. Return therefore to thine own people 
that thou mayst be initiated and thereafter dwell 
on earth in safety. For return thou must, and 
cleanse away all impiety and invoke me to aid thee, 
and Athene and the other gods." When Helios 
had said this the youth remained silent. Then 
mighty Helios led him to a high peak whose upper 
region was filled with light but the lower with the 
thickest mist imaginable, through which, as through 
water, the light of the rays of King Helios pene- 
trated but faintly. " Thou seest," said Helios, "thy 
cousin the heir? " ^ "I see him," the youth replied. 
" Again, dost thou see yonder herdsmen and shep- 
herds ? " The youth answered that he did. " Then 
what thinkest thou of the heir's disposition ? And 
what of his shepherds and herdsmen ? " " He seems 
to me," replied the youth, " to be .for the most part 
asleep, sunk in forgetfulness and devoted to pleasure ; 
and of his shepherds a few are honest, but 
most are vicious and brutal. For they devour 
or sell his sheep, and doubly injure their master, 
in that they not only ruin his flocks but besides 
that they make great gain and return him but 
little thereof, while they declare with loud complaint 
that they are defrauded of their wages. And yet 
it were better that they should demand and obtain 
their full pay than that they should destroy the 
flock." "Now what if I and Athene here," said 

^ Constantius. 



A«09, dvrl rov K\r)pov6fMov rovrov irdvrwv eirl- 
rpoTTOv rovTcov KaracrrTjcrco — ; iraXcv evravOa 6 
veavi(TKo<; dvrei'xeTo koX iroWd LKeTevev avrov 
fjueveiv, 6 he, M^ Xtaz^ ciTrecOrjf; eao, (f>rjalf fii] 

a^ dire^^Oijpco, co? vvv exirayX* i^iXrjcrar, ^ 

Kol 6 veaviaKO^, 'AW', c5 jjueyLare, etirev, "YiXte 

KaX ^Adrjvd, ae re koI avrov iTri/bLaprvpo/jbai tov 

Ala, j(^prjade fiOL 7rpb<; 6, rt IBovkeaOe. ttoXiv ovv D 

6 'Ep//-^}? d(f)vco <pav€l<i iiroiriae rov veavicTKov 

6appa\e(iiT€pov. rjhrj yap Scevoelro t% re oiriaay 

TTopeia^ Ka\ Tri<i eKelcre hLarpi^rj^; rjvpT^KevaL rov 

rjyefjLova. KaX rj ^ KOrjvd, M.dvOav€, elirev, m \ware, 

7rarpb<; dyaOov rovrovl rov 6eov Kal ifibv /3Xa- 

arrjfia, rovrov, e(pr}, rov K\r]pov6fjLov ol ^eXriaroi 

fiev ovK evcppaivovcrt, rcov Troifievwv, ol KoK.aKe<^ 8e 

Kol ol /jLO)(^9r}pol SovXov fcal viTO')(eipLov ireTroirjvrai. 

aviJb^aivei ovv avr<M irapd p.ev rcov iineLKMv fjur] 233 

(f>iX€Ladac, rrapd he rcov vofJLL^ofxevwv (j^iXetv^ et? 

rd fieyiara dhiKelaOai' dKorrei ovv 67rco<; eirav- 

e\6(ov fJUT] rrpo rov <f>L\,ov Oijaec rov /coXaKa' 

Sevrepav ctKove /jlov irapaLveaiv, m iral- vvard^oov 

ovro<; e^airardrai rd iroWd' crv Se vPj(f>e Kal 

yprjyopei, fjurj ae Sid t^9 tov (f)iXov 7rapprjcria<; 6 

KoXa^ e^arrarrjaa^ \d6oL,^ ^^^aX/ceu? old rt? yeficov 

Kairvov Kal /jLap[Xr)<}, e^cov Ifidriov XevKov Kal rd B 

Trpoacoira ra> 'y^ifjuvOiw Ke^piafjbevo<^, eira avrw 

SoL'}]<i yrjfxat nva rcov awv dvyarepwv. rplrrji; 

iirdKOve fiov TrapaLveaecof;, Kal fidXa l(T')(yp(a<i 

<f>vXarre aavrov, alhov he Kal rj/jidf; fiovov, dvhpoiv 

^ (piXeiv Cobet, (plxwv Hertlein, MSS. 
2 \ddoi Hertlein suggests, Xadji MSS. 



Helios, " obeying the command of Zeus, should 
appoint thee to govern all these, in place of the 
heir?" Then the youth clung to him again and 
earnestly entreated that he might remain there. 
'^' Do not be obstinate in disobedience," said Helios, 
" lest perchance I hate thee beyond measure, even 
as I have loved thee." ^ Then said the youth, -^ Do 
thou, O most mighty Helios, and thou, Athene, — and 
thee too, Father Zeus, do I call to witness, — dispose 
of me as ye will." Then Hermes suddenly appeared 
once more, and inspired him with greater courage. 
For now he thought that he had found a guide for 
the journey back, and for his sojourn on earth. 
Then said Athene, " Attend, good youth^ that art 
born of myself and of this god, thy noble sire ! The 
most virtuous of the shepherds do not please this 
heir, for flatterers and profligates have made him 
their slave and tool. Thus it is that he is not 
beloved by the good, and is most deeply wronged by 
those who are supposed to love him. Be careful 
then when thou returnest that he make thee not his 
flatterer rather than his friend. This second 
warning also do thou heed, my son. Yonder man 
slumbers, and hence he is often deceived, but do 
thou be sober and vigilant,^ lest the flatterer assume 
the frankness of a friend and so deceive thee ; which 
is as though a smith covered with smoke and cinders 
should come wearing a white garment and with his 
face painted white, and thus induce thee to give him 
one of thy daughters in marriage.^ My third 
warning to thee is this : do thou very zealously keep 
watch over thyself, and reverence us in the first 

^ Iliad 3. 415. ^ Ptttr 1. 5. 8 ; Thessalonians 1. 5. 6. 

^ An echo of Plato, Republic 495 e. 




Be ocTTi^ rjfiLV rrpocrofioLof; eanv, ciWov Be firfBeva- 
opa^ OTTOJf; TOVTov TOP yXiOiov ejBXa^^ev alo-'^vvr) 
KoX TO \iav (iyav elvai KaraTrXrjya ; 

Kat o /xeya? ''HXto? av6i<i rov \6yov Sia- 
Be^djievo^ elireV' 'EiXofievo^; (j)iXov<; o)? (f)L\oi<; C 
XP^f /x^3e avToiJf; oLKera^ fiyBe Oepdirovra'; 
vofit^e, irpocnOi Be avTot<; e\ev6ep(o<; re Koi 
dirXovaraTa koI yevvalcof;, fir] Xeycov fiev dXXa, 
<j)pov(ov Be erepa irepX avroiv- 6pa(; on kol 

TOVTOV TOP KK/qpOVOfMOV TOVTO €7reTpi'^€V, T) 7r/>09 

T0U9 <f)iXov^ dTTKTTia; ^iXei tov<; dp^oixivov^ 
wcTTrep r)jjb€l<; ere. ra Trpo? r}p,d<; rjyeiada) gov tmv 
KaXo)v diravToyv' ecr/juev yap gov /cat evepyeTul koi D 
f^iXoL KoX (TcoTrjpe<;. aKovaa^; TavTa 6 veavicr/cof; 
BteyyOr] kuI BrjXof; tjv ciTravTa ijBr] rot? 6€0L<i 
Treid 6 /jbevof;. 'AXX' l6c, ecprj, iropevov fieTa dyaOr](; 
iXTTiBof;. r)/xei^ yap aoi TravTaxov avveao/jieda 
iyci) TG Kal 'AOr)vd Kal '^^pfirj^; oBe Kal avv rjfuv 
ol 6eol TrdvTe<; ol ev ^OXv/juTrq) Kal ol irepl tov 
depa Kal ttjv yrjv Kal irdv TravTaxpv to Oelov 
yivo<;, eo)? dv Ta t€ 7rpo<; 7]fid<; 6(tlo<; rj<i Kal ra 
TT/oo? Tov^ (fylXov^; maTo^ Kal to, tt/jo? tov^; 
vTTTjKoovf; (f)tXdvdp(07ro(;, dp^oov avTcov Kal rjyov- 234 
fjLevo<^ iirl Ta ^eXTCdTa' dXXd /jtrJTe Tal^ aeavTov 
jjbrjTe Tal<; eKeivcov ^ e7rL0v/jLiat<; BovXevcov vireiKd- 
6r)<;, e%&)z^ ovv ttjv TravoTrXiav,^ f)v eKOfJuaa^s 
7rpo<; T^/xa?, aTnOc 7rpoaXa/3o)P TavTTjv puev ttjv 
BaBa Trap* ifiov, iva aoi Kal iv Ty yfj (f)co<i 
Xafxirr) jxeya Kal fxr^Bev eTTL'TroOfi'^ toov TrjBe, 
TavTrjal Be ^AOi^vd^i t7J<^ KaXrj^i to tc Vopyovetov 

^ rals iKfifCDV Cobet, eKelvcay ra7s Hertlein, MSS. 
2 T^v iravoirX'iav Hertlein suggests, iravoirXlav MSS. 



place^ and among men only him who resembles us, 
and no one besides. Thou seest how false shame 
and excessive timidity have injured this foolish man." 
Then mighty Helios took up the tale and said, 
" When thou hast chosen thy friends treat them as 
friends and do not regard them as thy servants 
and attendants, but let thy conduct towards them 
be generous, candid, and honourable : say not one 
thing about them while thou thinkest another. 
Thou seest that it was treachery to his friends that 
destroyed this heir. Love thy subjects even as we 
love thee. Prefer our worship to all other blessings. 
For we are thy benefactors and friends and pre- 
servers." At these words the youth became calm 
and showed plainly that he was already obedient in 
all things to the gods. ^' Come," said Helios, "now 
depart with good hope. For everywhere we shall be 
with thee, even I and Athene and Hermes here, and 
with us all the gods that are on Olympus or in the 
air or on earth and the whole race of gods every- 
where, so long as thou art pious towards us and loyal 
to thy friends, and humane towards thy subjects, 
ruling them and guiding them to what is best. But 
never yield to thy own passions or become the slave 
of theirs. Keep the armour that thou hast brought 
hither, and depart, but first receive from me this 
torch so that even on earth a great light may shine 
for thee and that thou mayst not long for the things 
of earth. And from fair Athene here receive an 



Koi TO Kpdvo'^' iroWa yap, opa<;, iarlv avrfj, koI 
hih(0(TLV ol<; av edeXrj. Soiaet oe aoi koX 'Ejppirj^ B 
')(^pv(Tr)V pd^Bov. €p')(ov ovv rfj iravoirXLa /coa/jLrj- 
^ei9 raurr) Sia Trdar)^; fxev yrj^, Bia Trdarji; Be 
6d\dTTr](;, d/jLeraKiv^rcof; TOt? r^fjuercpoL^ 7rei.06/ji€vo(; 
vofioL^i, Kol fj/qhei^; <j€ /jbijre dvhpcdv /JLrjre yvvaiKcov, 
fitjre T03V oIk6L(dv fxrjre twv ^evwv dvaTreiarj rwi/ 
ivTo\(x)v ^ eKXaOeaOat tmv rj/iierepcov. efJLjxevwv yap 
avTa2<i rj/Mv fiev ear) (jaXo^; Kol Tifjiio^, alSoLO<; 
Be T0Z9 dyaOoL<; r)p.(ov VTrrjperai^i, ^o^epo^ Be 
dv6 poDTTOL^ TTovrjpol'i KOI Ko KoBalfioaiv. 1<t6l Be C 
aeavTQ) ra aapKia BeBoadai r7]<; Xeirovpyia^ 
eveKa TavTrjai. /BovXofieOa ydp aoc rrjv rrpo- 
yovLKrjV oLKiav alBol tmv irpoyovwv aTroKaOrjpai. 
fie/jLvrjao ovv, ore rrjv 'yjrv'^rjv dddvarov e%et9 ical 
eicyovov rjfierepav, e7r6fiev6<; re rjfilv on 6eo^ 
ear} fcal rov rifxerepov O'^jrec avv rifitp irarepa. 

ovTo are fivuo<; are aX7]orj<^ earc A0709 ovfc 
olBa. TO irapa aov Be TreiroiTj/ievov, Tiva jBovXei 
TOP Tldva, TLva Be elvai tov Ala, el fjurj tovto,^ D 
fo)9 ecTfiev eyco re Kal crv, av fxev 6 Zey?, 67a) Be 
6 Tldv; 0) TOV yeXolov '^evBoTravo^;, yeXoioTepov 
jjLevTOi vrj TOV ^Aa/cXr]7riov tov rrdvTa jiaXXov 
Tj Aio(; dvOpcorrov. TavTa ov/c ecrriv are^i/w? 
€K fxaivopAvov ^ cTToixaTo^i ovTi TTjv evOcov, dXXd 
TTjv eKTrXrjKTOv fiavlav; ovk olaOa, on Kal 6 
'EaXf.icovevf; ehwKeu virep tovtcov TOt<; 6eol<s Blktjv, 235 
on, avOpcdTTo^ mv eVe^et/jei Zei"? elvai; to Be 
eK TWi/'Hcrto^ou Xeyofxevov virep tcov ovofiaordvTcov 

^ rav 4vTo\a>v Hertlein suggests, fproKwv MSS. 

^ TouTo Hertlein suggests, rovrou MSS. 

2 l.iaii'0/j.evov Hertlein suggests, rov ^aivoix4vov MSS. 



aegis and helmet. For as thou seest she has many, 
and she gives them to whom she will. And Hermes 
too will give thee a golden wand. Go then thus 
adorned in full armour over sea and land, steadfastly 
obeying our laws, and let no man or woman or 
kinsman or foreigner persuade thee to neglect our 
commands. For while thou dost abide by them thou 
wilt be loved and honoured by us and respected by 
our good servants and formidable to the wicked and 
impious. Know that a mortal frame was given to 
thee that thou mightest discharge these duties. For 
we desire, out of respect for thy ancestor to cleanse 
the house of thy forefathers. Remember therefore 
that thou hast an immortal soul that is our offspring, 
and that if thou dost follow us thou shalt be a god 
and with us shalt behold our father." 

Now whether this be a fable or a true narrative I 
cannot say. But in your composition, whom do you 
mean by Pan, and whom by Zeus unless you and I 
are they, that is, you are Zeus and I am Pan ? 
What an absurd counterfeit Pan ! But you are 
still more absurd, by Asclepius, and very far in- 
deed from being Zeus ! Is not all this the utter- 
ance of a mouth that foams with morbid rather 
than inspired madness ? ^ Do you not know that 
Salmoneus ^ in his day was punished by the gods for 
just this, for attempting, though a mortal man, to 
play the part of Zeus ? Then too there is the 
account in Hesiod's poems of those who styled them- 

1 Plato, PhaedruH 244 foil. 

2 Odyssey 11. 235 ; Pindar, Pythian 4. 143 ; Salmoneus was 
destroyed by a thunder-bolt for imitating the thunder and 
lightning of Zeus. 



€avTov<; T0fc9 tmv Oeoiv ovojiaaiv, ''\{pa<; re Koi 
Aio<;, el /bbijiro) koI vvv aKriKoa<;, e^o) aoi avj^voy- 
var ovSe yap eiraihoTpL^rjOir)^ /cdX(b<i ovBe erv^a 
KaOrjje/jLovo'!;, ottolov ire pi rov^ 7rot,r]Ta<i eyco 
rovTovl Tov (j)iX0(r6(j)0Vy pueB* ov eirl ra irpoOvpa 
r7]<i <f)L\oaro(f)La<; rfkOov vir nvhpl TeXeaOrfaofxevo^, 
ov vevojXLKa tmv Kar e/juavrbv ircivrcov Sta<pepeiv. B 
o Be fie Trpo iravrcov dperrjv aaKelv koX Oeov<i 
oLTravTcov tcov kuXcov vofil^etv rjye/jLova^ eSlSaa/ceV' 
el fiev ovv tl irpovpyov ireTroirjKev, avrb^ av elSelrj 
Kal Trpo TOVTOv ye ol ^aackec^ Oeor rovrl Be 
e^rjpei to /iiavi(oBe<; Kal 6paav, Kal eireipaTo fxe 
iroielv ejJiavTov aaxppoveaTepov. eyco Be Kaiirep, 
<09 olcrda, tol*; e^coOev TrXeoveKTijfiao- lv eTTTepco- 
fjbivo'i vTTeTa^a oyu-o)? ep,avTov tm KadrjyejLLovi, C 
Kal Tol'^ eKeivov <^ikoi<; Kal r/XtKicoTaif; Kal 
av[Jb(j>oiT7]Tal<i, Kal mv tJkovov eiraivovpLevcov irap 
avTov, TovTcov eairevBov aKpoaTT]^; elvai, Kal 
^ipXia TavTa aveyiyvcaaKOV, bizbaa auro? Boki- 

Oi;Tft)9 rjpjelf; v<^ 7)y epboai TeXovfJuevoi, <piXo- 
(T0(f)(p jjuev T(p TO, Trj<i TrpoTratBeLa^; /jue TeXe- 
aavTiy (f)iXo(T 0(f) COT dra> Be t& to, irpoOvpa Tri<i 
^LXo(JO^La<i Bei^avTi, apbiKpa p^ev Bia tcl^ e^co6ev 
rjpZv irpocnrecjovda^ d(T')(pXia<^ y 6/j.(o<; 8' ovv dire- D 
Xavaapbev T'f]<; 6p6rj<; dytoyrj<;, ov ttjv avvTO/iiov, 
fjv av (})7]^, dXXct Trjv kvkXw TropevOevTe^;' KaiTOi 
VT) Tou? 6eov<; eirl ttjv dpeTr)v otl gov 
avvTop,coTepav eTpaTro/jurjv. €760 p^ev yap avTTj^, 



selves by the names of the gods, even of Hera and 
of Zeus, but if you have not heard of it till this 
moment I can excuse you for that. For you have 
not been well educated, nor did fate bestow on you 
such a guide to the poets as I had — I mean this 
philosopher ^ now present : and later on I arrived at 
the threshold of philosophy to be initiated therein 
by the teaching of one "^ whom I consider superior to 
all the men of my own time. He used to teach me 
to practise virtue before all else, and to regard the 
gods as my guides to all that is good. Now whether 
he accomplished anything of real profit he himself 
must determine, or rather the ruling gods ; but at 
least he purged me of such infatuate folly and 
insolence as yours, and tried to make me more 
temperate than I was by nature. And though, as you 
know, I was armed ^ with great external advantages, 
nevertheless 1 submitted myself to my preceptor and 
to his friends and compeers and the philosophers of 
his school, and I was eager to be instructed by all 
whose praises I heard uttered by him, and I 
read all the books that he approved. 

Thus then I was initiated by those guides, in the 
first place by a philosopher who trained me in the 
preparatory discipline, and next by that most perfect 
philosopher who revealed to me the entrance to philo- 
sophy ; and though I achieved but little on account 
of the engrossing affairs that overwhelmed me from 
without, still for all that I have had the benefit of 
right training, and have not travelled by the short 
road as you say you have, but have gone all the way 
round. Though indeed I call the gods to witness, I 

^ Maximus of Ephesus. ^ lamblichus. 

"^ Literally "winged." 



el /Jif) <j>oprLKov elirelv, eirl rol^ 'irpo6vpoL<^ earrjKa, 
(TV Be Kol tS)v irpodvpoiv el iropp(d. aoX 8e aperr]^ 
rj Tol<i aol^s aBe\(f>0L<i — , a(j)€\a)v Be to Bvcrcfirj/jLov 
TO XeLTTofjuevov avTo<^ avaifkrjpayaov el /SovXcl 
Be, fcal Trap' tj/jLmv avTo avda^ov 7rpao}<; Xeyo- 
fjuevov, — Tt9 /J£T0vaLa; Traaiv €7riTi,/xa<; avTo^ 23i 
ovBev d^iov eTraivov irpaTTcov, eTraivel^; (f>opTtK(o<; 
0)9 ovBe\<i TOt)V dfiaOecrTaTOiyv prjTopcov, ol<; Sid 
TTjv TMV Xoycov aTTopiav kclI to /jltj e^^iv evpelv 
CK Twv TrapovTcov 6, TC ^(b(Tt,v, T} A77X09 eTrepx^Tat, 
/cat Tj ArjTcb fxeTa tmv TratBoov, eiTa kvkvol Xiyvpbv 
aBovT€<; /cat eTr7]')(pvvTa avToi<; Ta BevBpa, XeifJUMve^ 
T€ evBpoaoi p,aXaK7]<; iroa^ kol ^aOeia^ TrXrjpetf;, 
f] T€ €/€ TMV dvOewv oBfiTj KOI TO eup avTo Kal 
TLve^ el/cove^; TOiavTai, irov tovto ^laoKpaTrjf; B 
ev T0i<i €yKco/ijbia(TTt>fcoL<; iiroirjae X6yoi<;; ttov Be 
Tcov TraXaLcov tl<; dvBpayv, o't Tal<; Moucrat9 
eTeXovvTO yvr^aiw^y dXX oif^ coairep 01 vvv; 
d(f>Lr)/jLi, Be Ta e^rj(;, tva firj Kal irpo^ toutov<; 
d'TTe')(dav6fievo<i d/ia to?9 re (pavXoTdToif; tmv 
K.vvL/c(ov Kai TO)v prjTopcov TTpoaKpovcraiixi' 0)9 
ejjboiye 7rp6<; re Tot'9 KpaTi(TTOV<; twi^ K.vvtK(bv, 



believe that the road I took was really a shorter road 
to virtue than yours. For !_, at any rate, if I may say 
so without bad taste, am standing at the entrance, 
whereas you are a long way even from the entrance. 
" But as for virtue, you and your brethren — ," ^ omit 
the ill-sounding phrase and fill in the blank yourself ! 
Or rather, if you please, bear with me when I " put 
it mildly " ^ — '' what part or lot have you in it ? " You 
criticise everybody, though you yourself do nothing 
to deserve praise ; your praises are in worse taste 
than those of the most ignorant rhetoricians. They, 
because they have nothing to say and cannot invent 
anything from the matter in hand, are always 
dragging in Delos and Leto with her children, 
and then " swans singing their shrill song and 
the trees that echo them," and " dewy meadows 
full of soft, deep grass," and the " scent of 
flowers," and *" the season of spring," and other 
figures of the same sort.^ When did Isocrates ever 
do this in his panegyrics ? Or when did anyone of 
those ancient writers who were genuine votaries of 
the Muses, and not like the writers of to-day ? 
However, I omit what I might add, lest I should 
make them also my enemies, and offend at once the 
most worthless Cynics and .the most worthless 
rhetoricians. Though indeed I have nothing but 
friendly feelings for the really virtuous Cynics, if 

^ A direct quotation from Demosthenes, De Corona 128 ; 
the word omitted by Julian is ndQapixa = "off-scourings," or 
' outcast," addressed by Demosthenes to Aeschines. 

^ An echo of Xenophon, Anabasis 1. 5. 14. 

^ For this device of introducing hackneyed poetical and 
mythological allusions cf. Themistius 330, 336 c ; Aristides, 
Oration 20. 428 d ; Himerius, Oration 18. 1. Epictetus 
3. 282. 



€v Ti9 apa eart vvv TotovTO<;, ical Trpo? toi'9 
yevvaiov^ p^ropd^ io-rt (f)i\a ^ iravra. tmv /jlev q  
8rj ToiovTcov Xoycov, el kol irokv ttXtj^o? eirippel' \ 
Kal ovK ecTTLv 6a ov ov')(l Xeyeiv edekwv tc^ ck 
Trdvv BayjriXoixi dvTKrjcreLev civ iridov rr)? irpo- 
K€ifi€V7](; y/jLLU da')(p\ia<^ €V6Kev dcpe^o/jLai. /UKpd 
Be 'in Tft) Xoyo) 'irpoa6e\<^ oiairep 6(f)\7]fMaTL to 
ivBeov iiT dWo tl rpe^^ofxaL, TavTrjvl rrjv ^vy- J) 
ypa^r)v avrov irov TrXrjpooaa^;. 

Tt? ovv 7] T(ov HvdayopcKMV ev\dp6La irepl to, 
TMV Oecov ovofiara, rl^ Se rj Il\dTO)vo<; ; TroraTro? 
Se rfv iv tovtol^ 'AyOicrroreX?;?; dp ovk d^iov avro 
ISelv; Tj TOP fjuev Xdfjbiou ovhel<; dvrepel tolovtov 
yeveaOau; Kal yap ovre to ovofiara Oecov ev rfj 
a^paylhi <f>opelv eireTpeirev ovre ro*6pK(p ')(^prja6aL 
7r/307r€Ta)9 T0i9 TO)v deoiv ovofxaatv. el Be vvv 
XeyoifjLL, ore Kal eh Klyvirrov eiropevdrj Kal 237 
Yiepaa<; elBe Kal Travra'X^ov irdpra eiretpdOr) rd 
fjbvarrjpLa roov decov eTroTrrevaao Kal reXecrdrjvat 
TvavTOia^ Travra'^ov reXerdf;, epco fjuev t(Tco<; dyvw- 
crrd aoi, yvcopifjua fjuevroo Kal (Ta(f)fj rot? 7roWoL<;. 
aXXa Tou ilXarcovaf; aKOve' to o efiov oeo<;, co 
IIpcoTap'X^e, 7rpo<i Ta tmv Oecov ovojxaTa ovk eaTt 
KttT dvOpcoTTOV, dXkd irepa tov [xeyiaTOV cfyo^ov. 
Kal vvv Tr]v fiev ^A^poSuTijv, otttj eKeivrj (j>i\ov, 
TavTTj TTpoaayopevcji)' ttjv S* rjSovijv olBa &)<? B 
ecTTi iroiKiXov TavTa ev ^lXtj^co XeyeTac, Kal 
TOiavTa €Tepa irdXtv ev TifiaLcp' TTiciTevecv yap 

1 ^I'Ao Cobet, (piXiKo. Hertlein, MSS. 


indeed there be any such nowadays^ and also for all 
honest rhetoricians. But though a vast number 
of illustrations of this sort flow into my mind — for 
anyone who desired to use them could certainly 
draw from an ample jar ^ — I shall refrain because of 
the present pressure of business. However I have 
still somewhat to add to my discourse^ like the 
balance of a debt, and before I turn to other matters 
let me complete this treatise. 

I ask you then what reverence for the names of 
the gods was shown by the Pythagoreans and by 
Plato ? What was Aristotle's attitude in these 
matters ? Is it not worth while to pay attention to 
this ? Or surely no one will deny that he of Samos ^ 
was reverent ? For he did not even allow the names 
of the gods to be used on a seal, nor oaths to be 
rashly uttered in the names of the gods. And if 
I should go on to say that he also travelled to Egypt 
and visited Persia, and everywhere endeavoured to 
be admitted to the inner mysteries of the gods and 
everywhere to be initiated into every kind of rite, I 
shall be saying what is familiar and obvious to most 
people, though you may not have heard of it. How- 
ever, listen to what Plato says : ^^ But for my part, 
Protarchus, I feel a more than human awe, indeed a 
fear beyond expression, of the names of the gods. 
Now therefore I will address Aphrodite by what- 
ever name pleases her best ; though as for pleasure, 
I know that it has many forms." This is what 
he says in the Philebus -^ and he says the same sort 
of thing again in the Timaeus.* For he says that we 

^ A proverb for wealth ; cf. Theocritus 10. 13. 
2 Pythagoras. ^ Philebus 12 c. 

^ Timaeus 40 d ; Julian fails to see that Plato is not 
speaking seriously. 


a7rXw9 d^ioL Kol %ft)/3t9 aTToBei^ewf; \€yo/JL€VOi<^, oaa 

virep rct)v dewv (fjaacp ol Trocrjrai. ravra Se 

TrapeOrjKa, fit] irore aoL Trapda'^Tj 7rp6(f)a(TiV, oxiirep 

olfiai T03V UXarcovLKcov ttoXXoZ?, 6 ^o)KpdTr}<; 

elpwv otiv (pvaeL rrjv JT\,aTQ)i>iKr}v drLfidcrai So^av. 

i/c€L yap ou^ o 'ZfOKpdrrjf;, dXSJ o TtyLtat09 ravra C 

\iyet rjKiara mv eipwv. Kairoi rovro ye eariv ov')(^ 

vyie^s fJirf rd Xeyofjueva i^erd^eiv, dWa rov^; \eyov- 

ra^, fcal rb tt/oo? riva<; ol Xoyoc ylyvovrai. ^ovXei 

Srjra ^ to fMcra rovro rrjv irdvcro^ov vTrayopevcro) 

<r€i,pi]va, rov rov Xoyiov rvirov Eppjov, rov ray 

^AttoWcovc Kal rai^; M-Ovaat^; (f^iXov; 6Kecvo<^ d^iol 

T0U9 eirepwroivras rj ^rjrelv oXa)9 67ri')(€ipovvra^ , 

el Oeoi elcriv, ov')(^ ft)9 dvOpcoirovfi diTOKpio-ea)^ rvy- 

')(dveLVy dXX! 0)9 rd Orjpia KoXdaeco<^. el Be dveyvd)- D 

K€t<; rov (TvararLKov ^ avrov Xoyov, 09 coaiTep rr)<^ 

YiXdrayvo^, ovrco Br) ^ Kal rrj<; eKeivov Biarpt^rj^; 

irpovyeypairro, eyvccx; dv irpo rrdvrcov, on rd 7rp6<; 

Toi'9 Oeovf; eva€l3€t<; elvat kol fiefivijaOai irdvra rd 

fivarr^pia Kal rereXeadat rd<; dyi(ordra<^ reXera^ 

Kal Bid irdvrcDv rcov /juadrj/jbdrcov rj'^Oat, T0fc9 eiaat 

rod Trepiirdrov ^aBL^ovai 7rpo7]yopevro. * 

Su Be 07rft)9 rj/jLiv fjur) rov Atoyevr] Trpo/SaXcov 238 

axTirep re /xop/jLoXvKelov eK(j)o/37Jaei<;.^ ov ydp 

ifivrjOrjy (j)aaiv, dXXd Kal 7rpo<; rov irporperrofxevov 

fjLV7)0rjvai, TeXolov, elirev, S) veaviaKe, el rov<; /xev 

reX(i)va<; ocei ravrrjf; eveKa rrj<^ reXeri)^ Koivcovrj- 

aeiv rol^ ocfiol^ rcov ev aBov KaXcov, ^ AyrjaiXaov 

^ S^To Cobet adds, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 
^ ffvarariKhv Cobet, aaraTiKhu V, Hertlein, ^vcrrariKhv 
Reiske, eva-rariKhv Spanheim, ^ Si] Cobet, 8e Hertlein, MSS. 
^ 'Trp07}y6p€VTo Cobet, irporiyopevero Hertlein, MSS. 
^ 4K<l>ok'hffets Cobet, iK<f)ok'h<rris Hertlein, MSS. 

156 ^ 


ought to believe directly and without })roof what we 
are told, I mean what the poets say about the gods. 
And I have brought forward this passage for fear 
that Socrates may furnish you with an excuse, — as 
I believe he does to many Platonists because of his 
natural tendency to irony, — to slight the doctrine of 
Plato. For it is not Socrates who is speaking here, 
but Timaeus, who had not the least tendency to 
irony. Though for that matter it is not a sound 
principle to enquire who says a thing and to whom, 
rather than the actual words. But now will you 
allow me to cite next that all-wise Siren, the living 
image of Hermes the god of eloquence, the man 
dear to Apollo and the Muses ? ^ Well, he declares 
that all who raise the question or seek to enquire at 
all whether gods exist ought not to be answered as 
though they were men but to be chastised as wild 
beasts. And if you had read that introductory 
sentence which was inscribed over the entrance to 
his school, like Plato's, you would most surely know 
that those who entered the Lyceum were warned to 
be reverent to the gods, to be initiated into all 
the mysteries, to take part in the most sacred 
ceremonies, and to be instructed in knowledge of 
every kind. 

And do not try to frighten me by bringing forward 
Diogenes as a sort of bogey. He was never initiated, 
they tell us, and replied to some one who once 
advised him to be initiated : "It is absurd of you, 
my young friend, to think that any tax-gatherer, 
if only he be initiated, can share in the rewards 
of the just in the next world, while Agesilaus and 

^ Aristotle. 


Be Kol ^Fj7rafjL€iv(i)vBav iv rfo /Sop/Bopro KeiaeaOac, 
TOVTO, 0) veaviCTfce, ^aOv Xiav earl koI Beofxevov 
i^rjyijcrecofiy &)9 ifiavrov ireiBw, pbei^ovo^y oirola^; ^ B 
i)iuv avral Bolev at Oeal Tr)v iTrivoiav vo/j,[^a) Be 
avTr}v 7]Brj /cat BeBoaBai. ^aiveraL 'yap 6 Aioyevrjf; 
0^%, cocnrep u/^et? a^covre, Bva(Te^rj<^, aX)C i/ceivoi*;, 
MV /JLtKpw irpoaOev eTrefjLvrjadrjv, 7rpoa6/JLOto<;. airi- 
Bisiv yap €69 Tr]v irepiaTaaiv rrjv KardXa^ovaav 
avTov, elra €l<; ra? eVroXa? ^Xeirwv rov Uv6lov 
Kal avviel^ ^ oTi TOP fjbvovfjievov €^p^]v ttoXito- 
ypa(f>r]$7jvac Tvporepov Kal ^Adrjvacov, el fcal /jltj C 
(jiixTeLy TO) vo/jlo) ye yeviaBac, tovto ecpvyev, ov to 
pAJTjOrjvai, vop-i^wv avTov eJvai tov Koafiov iroXi- 
T7}V, Kal Tat9 oXat? TMV Oecov ov(TiaL<;, ai tov 6\ov 
KOLV^ KoajjLOv eTTLTpoTrevovcnv, aXX ov Tal<; Ta 
fJbepr] KaTav€C/JLa/jievat(> avTOv, Bca /jLeya\o(f)pocyvvrjv 
a^LMv av/jLTToXLTeveadar to Te vo/jll/jlov ov Trape^rj 
alBol Tcov Oeoiv, KaiTOi ToXXa iraToyv Kal irapa- 
')(apdTTCi)V' avTov t€ ovk eTravrjyayeVi oOev D 
aajievo^ rjXevdepoiTO. tl B tjv tovto; to 7roXeco<; 
fita<; BovXevaaL v6fioi,<; eavTov Te vTroOelvai touto), 
oirep rjv avdyKrj iraOelv ^ A6r)vai(p yevofxevo). ttw? 
yap OVK e/jieXXev 6 tmv Oewv eveKev el<^ ^OXvfJLiriav 
^aBl^cov, 6 Tu> TLvOlq) TreLa6el<; Kal (^iXoaocj^ricra^ 
toairep 2^(DKpdTr]<^* (pyal yap Kal avTO<i elvai 
TIvOlov oiKoi Trap eavTw, oOev avTM Kal 7) oppbtj 

^ biroias Hertlein suggests, Stt&js MSS. 
^ (Tui'ieh Hertlein suggests, <Tvvf\i MSS. 



Epameinondas are doomed to lie in the mire." ^ 
Now this, my young friend, is a very hard saying 
and, I am persuaded, calls for more profound 
discussion. May the goddesses themselves grant us 
understanding thereof ! Though indeed I think that 
has already been bestowed by them. For it is 
evident that Diogenes was not impious, as you aver, 
but resembled those philosophers whom I mentioned 
a moment ago. For having regard to the circum- 
stances in which his lot was cast, and next paying 
heed to the commands of the Pythian god, and 
knowing that the candidate for initiation must 
first be registered as an Athenian citizen, and if 
he be not an Athenian by birth must first become 
one by law, it was this he avoided, not initiation, 
because he considered that he was a citizen of the 
world ; and moreover such was the greatness of his 
soul that he thought he ought to associate himself 
with the divine nature of all the gods who in 
common govern the whole universe, and not only 
with those whose functions are limited to certain 
portions of it. And out of reverence for the gods he 
did not transgress their laws, though he trampled on 
all other opinions and tried to give a new stamp to 
the common currency. And he did not return to 
that servitude from which he had joyfully been 
released. What servitude do I mean ? I mean that 
he would not enslave himself to the laws of a single 
city and submit himself to all that must needs befall 
one who had become an Athenian citizen. For is it 
likely that a man who in order to honour the gods 
journeyed to Olympia, and like Socrates embraced 
philosophy in obedience to the Pythian oracle, — for 

^ Diogenes Laertius 6. 39. 

thp: orations of julian, vii 

7r/909 <f)iXoao(f)Lav iyevero' Traptevac tmv avaKTo- ^ 239 
ptav eiaw koX fidXa da/jLevco^, el fir] rovro i^eKXcve 
TO viroOelvai v6fioi<i eavrov Koi SovXop d7ro<p7jvai, 
7ro\cT€La<; ; aXXd Bia tl /jltj Tavrrjv avrrjv elire rrjv 
alrlav, i/c tmv ivavTLCOv Be ttjv 7rapacpovfjL6pr}p ov 
a/jLLKpd rrjf; roiv fivarrjpLayv a6p,vor'r]TO<;; i(T(o<; /lev 
av Tt9 ra rocavra KaiTivOayopa jxakLdTa eTTLGKif)- 
yjreceVy ovk opOco^; \oyL^6/jL€Vo<;. ovt€ yap p-qreov 
irdvra ecrriv, avroiv re ol/jLat tovtcov, oiv Oep^i^ 
(^dvai, evia irpo^ roij^; ttoXXoi'? ac(07rr)Teop eipau 
/jLOi ^alperat. (papepd Be o/jlco^; eVrl kul tovtcop rj B 
alria. Karaporjaa<; yap dpbeXovpra p^ep t^9 irepX 
TOP ^iop opOorrjTO^i, iirl Be tm pLepvrjaOai pAya 
^popovpra^ TOP irapaiPOVPTa avTa> ToiavTa, aw- 
(f)popL^Q)p dp,a KoX BcBd(T/c(op avTOP, oti tol^ ^ pep, 
ol<i afto)? TOV pvrjOrjpai /SefficoTai,, Kal p,r) pLvr]- 
delaip 01 6eol ra? dpoi^d<; d/cepaiov<; cf)vXdTT0vac, C 
TOfc? Be p,o-)(6r)pol<^ ovBep ecrTi irXeop, /cap ecaco tmp 
lepcop elcK^prjawau Trept^^oXcop. rj yap ov TavTa 
Kal 6 lepo(pdpT7](; irpoayopevei, oan^i %6?/?a p^ 
KaOapo^ Kal opTipa p^rj XPV' TOUTOi? dirayopevcop 
pLT] pLveldOat; 

T/ Trepan rjplv eaTai t(op Xoycop, el TUVTa pn^irw 
ae TTeiOei; 

^ jxeya (ppovovvra Cobet, iuLeya\o<f)pouovPTa Hertleill, MSS» 
'^ ro7s Naber, tovtois Heitlein, MSS. 



he says himself that at home and in private he re- 
ceived the commands of that oracle and hence came 
his impulse to philosophy ^ — is it likely I say that such 
a man would not very gladly have entered the temples 
of the gods but for the fact that he was trying 
to avoid submitting himself to any set of laws and 
making himself the slave of any one constitution ? 
But why, you will say, did he not assign this reason, 
but on the contrary a reason that detracted not a 
little from the dignity of the Mysteries ? Perhaps 
one might bring this same reproach against Pythagoras 
as well, but the reasoning would be incorrect. For 
everything ought not to be told, nay more, even of 
those things that we are permitted to declare, some, 
it seems to me, we ought to refrain from uttering to 
the vulgar crowd. ^ However the explanation in this 
case is obvious. For since he perceived that the 
man who exhorted him to be initiated neglected to 
regulate his own life aright, though he prided himself 
on having been initiated, Diogenes wished at the 
same time to reform his morals and to teach him 
that the gods reserve their rewards without stint for 
those whose lives have earned them the right to be 
initiated, even though they have not gone through 
the ceremony, whereas the wicked gain nothing by 
penetrating within the sacred precincts. For this is 
what the hierophant proclaims, when he refuses the 
rite of initiation to him " whose hands are not pure 
or who for any reason ought not ! ^ " 

But where would this discourse end if you are 
still unconvinced by what I have said ? 

^ Diogenes like Socrates claimed that he had a SatjxSviov, a 
private revelation to guide his conduct ; cf. 212 d. 

^ Cf. Oration 4. 148 a, note. 

^ This was the irpSpprjcris or praefatio sacrorum ; cf. Livy 
45. 5. 



M 2 


The Eighth Oration is a "speech of consolation" 
(jrapafxvOrjTLKos A.oyos), a famiHar type of Sophistic 
composition. In consequence of the attacks on 
Sallust by sycophants at court, and moreover jealous 
of his friendship with Julian, Constantius ordered 
him to leave Gaul. In this discourse, which was 
written before the open rupture with Constantius, 
Julian alludes only once and respectfully to his 
cousin. But Asmus thinks he can detect in it a 
general resemblance to the Thirteenth Oration of 
Dio Chrysostom, where Dio tries to comfort himself 
for his banishment by the tyrant Domitian, and that 
Sallust was expected to appreciate this and the 
veiled attack on Constantius. Julian addresses the 
discourse to himself, but it was no doubt sent to 

After Julian's accession Sallust was made prefect 
in 362 and consul in 363. He was the author of 
a manifesto of Neo Platonism, the treatise On the 
Gods and ike World, and to hiin was dedicated 
Julian's Fourth Oration. ^ 

1 cf, vol. i. p. 351. 





*AXX* el fit) Koi irph^ ae StaXex^^irjv ocra tt/^o? 
ifjuavTov SteXe^Orjv, 67r€t,Sij ere ^ahi^eiv eTrvOofirjv 
■)(^pr}vai irap' rjjjboyv, ekarrov e-^eiv olyao/iiai tt/oo? 
'!Tapay^V')(r)v, o) (f)i\€ eralpe, fxaXXov he ovhe rrjv 
(ip^f]V TreTTopiaOai riva paaroovrjv ifiavro) vo/xicoy 
^9 croi je ov pberahehwKa- Kot,vcov7]aavTa<i yap B 
r;/xa9 aXX'i]\oL<i iroXXcov puev dXyetvcop, ttoWcoj^ 
8e Tjhecdv epycop re koX Xoycop, ev irpdyfiacriv IBioi^ 
re Kai STj/jLoaioif;, oXkoi kol enrX arparoTreSov, 
fcoivov ^ evpifTKeaOai '^prj rcov irapovrcov, oirold 
iroT dv T), TraicovLov dKo<^. dWd rt? dv 7)fuv rj 
rrjv ^Op(f)eco<; fiL/iijaaiTO '^ Xvpav rj rot? ^eiprjvwv 
dvT7]^7]creL€ ^ /jueXeatv rj to vrjTrevOh e^evpoi 
(^dpfxaKOv; etre X0709 rjv e/cetvo TrXijprjf; Al- 
yvirTLoav Sirjyrjfjbdrcov, eW^ oirep avrb^; e'7roir]crev, 
ev T0t9 e7ro/jLevoL<; evvcjyyva'^ rd TpcocKa TrdOrj, C 
toOto T^}9 FjXevr}<; Trap ALyvirrtcov fjLa6oua7]<^, ou^ 
baa'^ ^XX7]ve<i Kai T/3<we9 dXX7fXov<^ eSpaaav, dXXd 
TToraTTOv^ etvai '^prj Tov<i X6yov<i, ot Ta9 fiev 



^ Koiyhv Wright, Kaivhv Hertlein, MSS. 

^ hv — fiifi-fiaatro Hertlein suggests, ixifxiiairai MSS. 

^ avTrix^'^et^ Hertlein suggests, a,vTrjx'{}0'^t MSS, 





Ah, my beloved comrade, unless I tell you all 
that I said to myself when I learned that you were 
compelled to journey far from my side, I shall tliink 
I am deprived of some comfort ; or rather, I shall 
consider that I have not even begun to procure some 
assuagement for my grief unless I have first shared 
it with you. For we two have shared in many 
sorrows and also in many pleasant deeds and words, 
in affairs private and public, at home and in the 
field, and therefore for the present troubles, be they 
what they may, we must needs discover some cure, 
some remedy that both can share. 

But who will imitate for us the lyre of Orpheus, 
who will echo for us the songs of the Sirens or dis- 
cover the drug nepenthe ? ^ Though that was perhaps 
some tale full of Egyptian lore or such a tale as the 
poet himself invented, when in what follows he wove 
in the story of the sorrows of the Trojans, and Helen 
had learned it from the Egyptians ; I do not mean 
a tale of all the woes that the Greeks and Trojans 
inflicted on one another, but rather tales such as 

^ Odyssey 4. 227 ; a sophistic commonplace ; cf. 412 d, 
Themistius 357 a ; Julian seems to mean that the nepenthe 
was not really a drug but a story told by Helen. 



a\yr)B6va<i a(l>aiprj(TOV(Ti twv '^v')(^uyv, €V(f)pO(7vvrf(; 
Be Kol ya\'^vr)<; atrioc KaraarrjaovTaL. Kal yap 
7ro)9 eoifcev r]hovr) koL Xvirr) rrj<; avrrj<; Kopv(f)r]<; 
i^fjipdat, Koi irapa fiepof; aWT/Xat? avTi/juedi- 241 
araaOai. tmv Trpoa-TrtTrrovTcov Se Kal ra Xuav 
€py(t)B7] (jiacrlv ol <TO<f)ol rw vovv €)(rfVTi (f^epetv 
ovK iXcLTTova T7]<^ 8v(TKo\ia<; Tr)v evirdOeiav, eirel 
Kal rrjv fxekLTrav eK Trj<i BpL/nvrdrrjq Troa? r?}? 
Trepl Tov TfirjTTOV ^vofi€vr)<; yXvKelav dvLfiacrdat 
Bpocrov Kal tov yLteX^ro? eh'ai Brfp^tovpyov. dWa 
Kal tS)v (TcofjudTCdv oaa puev vyLeiva Kal pwfuiKea 
KaOeaTTjKev, viro tcop tv^ovtcov Tp6(f)€TaL cnricov, B 
Kal rd Bvayeprf BoKovvra TroWdKC^ eKeivoL^ ovk 
d^\a^rj fiovov, dWa Kal t?}? 1<t^vo<; atria 
ykyovev ocroof; Be Troz/Ty/ow? €)(^6i, ^vaei Kal rpocfyy 
Kal iirLTrjBevcrei to crco/jua, rov Trdvra ^iov vocrrj- 
\evop.evoi<;, rovroi^ Kal rd Kov(f)6rara /Sapurdra^; 
eX(o6e rrpocrriOevaL (3Xd^a<;. ovkovv Kal rfj^ Bta- 
voia<; oaot p,ev ovrcof; iirep.eXrjOrjaaVy co? fjurj 
7rafi7rovT]p(o<; e')(^etv, dXX* vyiaivetv /u-er/^tco?, el 
Kal fjLT) Kara rr)v ^ Pi.vria6evov^ Kal Xo)Kpdrov<; 
pca/jiijv /jurjBe rrjv l^aXXiad evov^ dvBpeiav puyBe C 
rrjv UoX€/j,(ovo<; dirdOeiav, dXX Mare BvvaaOat 
ro jj^rpiov ev roL<i roiouroL^; alpeiaOai, rv')(pv dv 
Kal ev BuaKoX(orepoc<s ev(f)paivoivro. 

^Kyco roL Kal avr6<; Trelpav ifiavrov Xa/ju^dvcov, 
07r&)9 7rpo<i rr)v arjv iropeiav e')(w re Kal e^co, 
roaovTov ooBvpijOrfv, oaov ore Trpwrov rov e/juavrov 
KadrjyefJLova KareXtTrov oXkoi' rrdvrwv yap dOpoayf; 
elayet pue ixvrjp/q^ t^9 ro)V ttovcov KOivwvia^, mv 
dXXriXoL<i avvBcTjveyKap^ev, t^9 dirXdarov Kal 



they must be that will dispel the griefs of men's 
souls and have power to restore cheerfulness and 
calm. For pleasure and pain^ methinks, are con- 
nected at their source ^ and succeed each other in 
turn. And philosophers assert that in all that befalls 
the wase man the very greatest trials afford him as 
much felicity as vexation ; and thus, as they say, 
does the bee extract sweet dew from the bitterest 
herb that grows on Hymettus and w^orks it into 
honey.^ Even so bodies that are naturally healthy 
and robust are nourished by any kind of food, and 
food that often seems unwholesome for others, far 
from injuring them, makes them strong. On the 
other hand, the slightest causes usually inflict very 
serious injuries on persons who by nature or nurture, 
or owing to their habits, have an unsound constitu- 
tion and are lifelong invalids. Just so with regard 
to the mind : those who have so trained it that it is 
not altogether unhealthy but moderately sound, 
though it do not indeed exhibit the vigour of 
Antisthenes or Socrates, or the courage of Callis- 
thenes, or the imperturbability of Polemon, but so 
that it can under the same conditions as theirs adopt 
the golden mean, they, 1 say, will probably be able 
to remain cheerful in more trying conditions. 

For my part, when I put myself to the proof to 
find out how I am and shall be affected by your 
departure, I felt the sam© anguish as when at home 
I first left my preceptor.^ For everything flashed 
across my mind at once ; the labours that we shared 
and endured together ; our unfeigned and candid 
conversation ; our innocent and upright intercourse ; 

1 Plato, Phaedo 60 b. ^ Qf Oration 2. 101 A. 

' Mardonius, 



KaBapa^ evrev^eoa^, rrjt; ciBoXov kol hLKaia<; D 
o/JLi\ia<;, rfj'i iv airaaL to?? fcaXols /cocvo7rpayLa<;, 
T^9 7r/909 Tov<i TTOvrfpov^; iaoppoTTov T€ Kol a- 
fierafieXijrov irpodvp.ia'; re xal op/jurj^, w? /jlct^ 
aWrjXcov earTj/iiev 7roWdKt<; laov OvfjLov €^ovt€<;, 
o/jLorpoTTOt KoX iToOetvol <^i\oi. 7rpd<; Be av TOVTot<; 
eiarjet. ixe fivijfir] rod Olcodr) S' 'OBvor6v<;- elpX 
yap €70) vvv eKeivw 7rapa7rX7]aL0<;, eTrel ae fiev 
Kara top '^Kfcropa ^€09 e^^jyayev e^co ^cXmv, 
<up oi avKocf)dvTai TvoXXaKc^; acprJKav eVl ae, 242 
fiaXXov he eh i/jue. Sea aov rpcoaat /BovXofjbevoi, 
ravrrj fie /jlovov dXcoat/jLOv viroKafJi^dvovre^ el 


Kai irpo'^ Tov<; Kvvhvvov^ dir poi^aalarov kolvcovov 
Tr}9 (Tvvovaia<s areprjaetap. ov firjv eXarrov olfjuai 
ae hia rovro ciXjelv rj eyco vvv, ore croi tmv 
irovwv Kol Tcbv KLvBvvcov eXaTTov jjbereaTLV, dXXa B 
Koi irXeov vTrep e/jLov SeSievat koI T^79 e/xrj^; 
/ce(f)aXrj<;, jjufj ri TrdOy. koi yap roi Kal auT09 
ovK iv hevrepcp tmv e/jucov edefirjv rd ad, Kal aov 
Be ofMoio)^ 6')(pvT0^ 7r/309 r)iJLd<; yaOo/jurjv. odev 
et/coTO)? Kal fJbdXa BaKvofJuai, on aoc, rwv dXXwv 
€V6Ka XeyeLV Bvvafievcp 

OvSev fieXei fJLor rajbud yap A:aXw9 e;^€f, 

Moz/09 elfil XvTTTjfi atrio^ koi (fypovriBo^} Q 

aX^a TOVTOV puev e^ c(Trj<i, 0)9 eoixe, Kotvcovov/jLeVy 
av fiev virep rjjjLcbv dXycov jjlovov, eyo) Be del ttoOmv 
TTjv arjv avvovaiav Kal t?79 (f)tXia<; /jL€/jLvr]/ievo^, 
rjv eK Trj<; dpeTrj<^ fiev fjudXiara Kal irporjyovfjievcof;, 

^ fiouos — (ppovri^os Brambs regards as a verge ; Hertlein 
prints as prose. 



our co-operation in all that was good ; our equally- 
matched and never-repented zeal and eagerness in 
opposing evildoers. How often we supported each 
other with one equal temper ! ^ How alike were our 
ways ! How precious our friendship ! Then too 
there came into my mind the words, " Then was 
Odysseus left alone." ^ For now I am indeed like 
him, since the god has removed you, like Hector,^ 
beyond the range of the shafts which have so often 
been aimed at you by sycophants, or rather at me, 
since they desired to wound me through you ; for 
they thought that onl}^ thus should I be vulnerable 
if they should deprive me of the society of a faithful 
friend and devoted brother-in-arms — one who never 
on any pretext failed to share the dangers that 
threatened me. Moreover the fact that you now 
have a smaller share than I in such labours and 
dangers does not, I think, make your grief less than 
mine ; but you feel all the more anxiety for me and 
any harm that may befall my person.* For even as I 
never set your interests second to mine, so have I ever 
found you equally well disposed towards me. I am 
therefore naturally much chagrined that to you who 
with regard to all others can say, " 1 heed them not, 
for my affairs are prosperous," ^ I alone occasion sor- 
row and anxiety. However this sorrow it seems we 
share equally, though you grieve only on my account, 
while I constantly feel the lack of your society and 
call to mind the friendship that we pledged to one 
another — that friendshij) which we ever cemented 
afresh, based as it was, first and foremost, on virtue, 

1 Iliad 17. 720. « m^^fi n 401. 

' Iliad 11. 163. ^ Iliad 17. 242. 

^ Nauck, Adespota fragmenta 430. 



eireira teal Sea rrfv y^peiav, fjv 670) /jl€v ctol, ctv 
Sk ifxol <TVV€')(^oi)<i 7rap€crp^€<?, dvaKpaOevre^; dW7]\oc<i 
d)fio\oy7jaafX€v, ov^ opKOL<; ovSk ro(avTat-<; dvdy- 
KaL<^ ravra irtarovfievoi, axrirep 6 @7;a-eL'9 Kal D 
UetpiOov;, dW i^ oav del ravrd voovvre^; koI 
TrpoacpovfievoL /caKov fiev Bovvac royv ttoXltcov 
TLVi TOCTOVTOV Sico \eyei,v dTrea^ofiev, ware ovBe 
e^ovXevcrafieda irore /mera dWyXcov ')(^p7]arov he 
et TL yeyovev rj /3e/3ov\evTai /cotvfj Trap" y/uucov, 
Tovro aX\oL<; eiTrelv f^eXijaei. 

n? fjL€v ovv eiKOT(o<^ dXyS) rot? irapovaiv, ov 
(f)LXov /jbovov, dXXa /cat. avvepyov iriarov, Bolt] 8e 6 243 
BaLfJbwv, Kal fpo^ oXiyov d-jraXXarTOfievo^;, ol/jbat 
Kol ^fOKparrj top fieyav t?}? dperrj<; KrjpvKa Kal 
BiBdcTKaXov efxoiye avvofioXoyrjo-etv e^ (ov eKelvov 
yvcopi^ofieu, Xeyco Be rcov UXdrcovo^; Xoywv, 
reKfJuaipofxevo'^ virep avrov. (prjal yovv ore KaXe- 
TTCorepov icf^aLvero fioi 6pOco<; ra iroXiriKa BiOiKelv 
ovre yap avev (ptXcov dvBpcov Kal eraipcov Trcarcov 
olov re eivat irpdrreiv, ovt eviropelv rovroyv 
^vv TToXXfj paaT(ov7j. Kairoi tovto ye el IlX,a- 
Tcopt /juel^ov ecfyaivero rov Biopurreiv rov "AOco, tl B 
')(pr) irpoaBoKav r)/jLd<; virep avrov tov<; rrXeov 
a7roXei7ro^evov<i rrj<^ eKelvov avveaeoo^ re Kal 
yvoL>fxr]<^ rj Kelvo<^ rov Oeov; e/jbol Be ovBe tt}? 'X^pelafj 
fjLOVOv €V€Ka, Tjv dpTiBi,B6vre<; dXX^Xoi<i ev ri) 
TToXireia pdov eXypixev irpo^ rd irapd yvcofirjv viro 
rrj<; Tvyrj^ Kal tmv dprtraTTofMevcov i^fuv wparro- 
[leva, dXXa^ Kal t^? [xovr^q del fjbot- SaXircoprj^ re 

^ oWo Reiske supplies, lacuna Hertlein : after irparrSn^vq. 
several words are lost, 



and secondly on the obligations which you con- 
tinually conferred on me and I on you. Not by 
oaths or by any such ties did we ratify it, like 
Theseus and Peirithous, but by being of the same 
mind and purpose, in that so far from forbearing to 
inflict injury on any citizen, we never even debated 
any such thing with one another. But whether 
anything useful was done or planned by us in 
common, I will leave to others to say. 

Now that it is natural for me to be grieved by the 
present event, on being parted for ever so short 
a time — and God grant that it may be short !— from 
one who is not only my friend but my loyal fellow- 
worker, I think even Socrates, that great herald and 
teacher of virtue, will agree ; so far at least as 1 may 
judge from the evidence on which we rely for our 
knowledge of him, 1 mean the words of Plato. At 
any rate, what he says is : '' Ever more difficult did 
it seem to me to govern a state rightly. For neither 
is it possible to achieve anything without good 
friends and loyal fellow-workers, nor is it very easy 
to obtain enough of these." ^ And if Plato thought 
this more difficult than digging a canal through 
Mount Athos,^ what must we expect to find it, we 
who in wisdom and knowledge are more inferior to 
him than he was to God .'' But it is not only when I 
think of the help in the administration that we gave 
one another in turn, and which enabled us to bear 
more easily all that fate or our opponents brought to 
pass contrary to our purpose ; but also because I 
am destined soon to be bereft also of what has ever 

^ Julian quotes from memory and paraphrases Epistle 
7. 325 c. 

"^ This feat of Xerxes became a rhetorical commonplace. 


Kot repyjreoy^ epBefjf; ov/c et? fxaKpav eaeaOat C 
fiiXkcov, €Ik6t(0<; SaKVO/juai re koI BeSrjy/jiat Tr)v 
€/Jbavrov KapBiav. e? riva yap ovTO)<i earai fjuoi 
\oLiTov evvovv aTTo/BXiylraL (plXov; tlvo<; Sk ava- 
Gykddai T^9 ah6\ov kolI KaQapa'^ irapprjaia^;; tw 
§6 rjixiv (TVfjL^ovXevaec fiev i/jL(f)p6v(o<;, iiriri/Jbrja-ec 
^e fi6T €vvoLa<;, iirippcoaeL Be 7rpo<i to, koXcl %ft)/9t9 
av6aBeia<i kol TV<pov, irapp^qaidcreTai Be to ircKpov 
d<f>€\cbv Tcov Xoycov, ioairep ol tmv <f>ap/jbdfC(ov D 
d<l>aipovvT€<; fxev to Xuav Bv(T')(^epi<^, dTroXeiTrovTe^ 
Be avTo TO '^p7]aL/jL0v; dWa tovto puev e/c t?}? (T7]<; 
(f)i\La<i 6(j)e\o<; eKapTrcofrdfirjv. toctovtodv Be 6/jlov 
eaTepjjfjbevo^, tlvcov dv evTroprjaaip.i Xoycov, oi yue, 
Bid TOP orbv TTodov ad re fiijBea arjv t€ dyavo<ppo- 
crvvrjv avTrjv irpoeadai, ttjv ylrv^rjv KivBvvevovTa, 
ireio-ovatv dTpepLelv Koi <j>epeiv oaa BiBcoKev 6 ^eo? 
yevval(o<;; eh tuvto yap eoiKev avT(p vocov 6 fieya^; 244 
avTOKpdTcop TavO^ ovto) vvvl ^ovXevcraddat. tL 
TTOTe ovv dpa ')(^pr) BiavorjdevTa /cal TLva<; eVwSa? 
evpovTa irelaai Trpdco'i €')(eiv virb tov 7rdOov<; dopv- 
^ovfievrjv ttjv yfrv^ijv; dpa rjpbiv ol Za/jL6\^tB6<; 
eiai /jLi/jLTjTeoL Xoyoi, Xeyw Be Td<i ex Spd/crj^i 
eirayBd^i, a? ^AO'^va^e (pepcov 6 ^coKpaTt]^ rrph tov 
Trjv oBvvTjv Idadai t'j}? Ke(paXr}<; irrdBeLv rj^lov Ta> 
KaXw Kap/jiiBrj; rj tovtov<; /j,kv are Brj fxei^ova^ 
Ka\ irepl /jL€l^6vcov ov Kcvr)Teov, wairep ev OedTpco 



been my only solace and delight, it is natural that I 
am and have been cut to the very heart.^ For in the 
future to what friend can I turn as loyal as your- 
self? With whose guileless and pure frankness shall 
1 now brace myself ? Who now will give me prudent 
counsel, reprove me with affection, give me strength 
for good deeds without arrogance and conceit, and 
use frankness after extracting the bitterness from 
the words, like those who from medicines extract 
what is nauseating but leave in what is really 
beneficial ? ^ These are the advantages that I reaped 
from your friendship ! And now that I have been 
deprived of all these all at once, with what argu- 
ments shall I supply myself, so that when I am in 
danger of flinging away my life out of regret for 
you and your counsels and loving kindness,^ they 
may persuade me to be calm and to bear nobly 
whatever God has sent ? * For in accordance with 
the will of God our mighty Emperor has surely 
planned this as all else. Then what now must 
be my thoughts, what spells must I find to per- 
suade my soul to bear tranquilly the trouble witli 
which it is now dismayed ? Shall I imitate the 
discourses of Zamolxis^ — I mean those Thracian 
spells which Socrates brought to Athens and de- 
clared that he must utter them over the fair 
Charmides before he could cure him of his head- 
ache ? ^' Or must we leave these alone as being, 
like large machinery in a small theatre, too lofty for 

^ Aristophanes, Achamians 1 ; cf. 248 d. 

- A commonplace; Plato, Laws 659 E ; Julian, Caesars 
314 c ; Dio Chrysostom 33. 10 ; Themistius 63 b, 302 b ; 
Maximus of Tyre 10. 6. » Odyssey 11. 202. 

* Demosthenes, De Corona 97 ; cf. Julian, Epistle 53. 439 d. 

^ Cf. Caesars 309 c note. ^ Plato, Charmides 156 n. 



fjLiKpo) /jLr)'^ava<; fjueydXa^, dXX' €K tmv efiirpoaOev B 
epycov, MV eTTvOofxeOa ra /c\ea, <prjalv o 7r()07]Tr)<;, 
toairep eK X€t/jL(Ji)vo<; SpeyjrdfjLevoL ttolklXov koI 
7ro\ueiSov<^ ^ dvOrj rd KdWiara ^Irv^ayfoyija o fjuev 
avrov<i T0fc9 Scrjyqfjiacn, fiiKpa rwv ifc (f>iXo(TO(f)La<i 
avroL<; irpoaTtOevre';; wairep yap 61 pat toZ? \iav 
yXv/ceaiv ol irapeyxeovre^ ovk olS' oiroV drra 
<f)dp/jbaKa TO rrrpoaKopa avroiv d^atpovatv, ovtco 
Tot9 Bcrjy7]p.aat,v €K (f)iXoao<pia(; evca 7rpoaTidep,eva 
TO BoK€LV €^ laTopia<i dp^aua'i oVKov iireiadyeLV, C 
ovBep Beov, koI TrepiTTTjv dSoXecr^Lav d^aipelTai. 

Ti TrpMTOv; tl S* eireiTa; tL 8' vaTaTiov kutu- 

TTOTcpov ft)? 6 %K7)7rL(ov eKetvo^, 6 Tov AaiXiov 
dyairrjcrafi koX (j^tXrjOel^ to Xeyofievov cacp ^vyu> 
Trap* eKeivov irdXiv, rjBecof; fiev avTfo crvvrjv, 
eirpaTTe Be ovBev, ojv /jLT) irpoTepov eic€ivo<^ ttvOolto 
KoX (^Tjaeuev elvai irpaKTeov; 66ev ot/juaL koX Xoyov 
Tvapkaye tol<; viro cpdovov tov ^KrjTTLoyva XocBo- D 
povatv, ot)9 7rocr)Tr}(; puev o AatXto? etr] tmv epycov, 
*A(f)pcKavo<; Be 6 tovtcov viroKpLTr)'^. auTrj tol koI 
rjfuv 77 fpVH'V TrpooTKei/raL, teal ov fiovov ov Bv^e- 
paivay'^ 'Xaipw Be 67r' avTrj irXeov. to yap Tot<; 
opOoy^ vir dXXov yvwaOelat TteicrOrjvaL fjuei^ovo'^ 
dpeTTjfi^ 6 Tirjvwv iroieiTai yvcopLcrfia tov yvMval 245 
Tiva avTov e^ avTov Ta BeovTa, ttjv 'HatoBov 
/xedap/jLOTTcov prjcriv, 

OuTo? fiev 7ravdpi(TT0<;, 09 ev elirovTi iriOTjTai 

^ iroXveiSovs Cobet, noKvreXovs Hertlein, MSS. 
^ ov fjL6vov OV SutrxepatVoK x°-h<^ 5e Hertlein suggests, cf. 
37 B, 255 D ; KoX x°-h^ 7^ MSS. 

' iiper^s Hertlein suggests, rrjs aperijs MSS. 



our purpose and suited to greater troubles ; and 
rather from the deeds of old whose fame we have 
heard told, as the poet says/ shall we gather the 
fairest flowers as though from a variegated and 
many-coloured meadow, and thus console ourselves 
with such narratives and add thereto some of the 
teachings of philosophy ? F'or just as, for instance, 
certain drugs are infused into things that have too 
sweet a taste, and thus their cloying sweetness is 
tempered, so when tales like these are seasoned by 
the maxims of philosophy, we avoid seeming to drag 
in a tedious profusion of ancient history and a super- 
fluous and uncalled-for flow of w^ords. 

" What first, what next, what last shall 1 relate ? " ^ 
Shall I tell how the famous Scipio, who loved Laelius 
and was loved by him in return with equal yoke of 
friendship,'^ as the saying is, not only took pleasure 
in his society, but undertook no task without first 
consulting with him and obtaining his advice as to 
how he should proceed ? It was this, I understand, 
that furnished those who from envy slandered Scipio 
with the saying that Laelius was the real author 
of his enterprises, and Africanus merely the actor. 
The same remark is made about ourselves, and, far 
from resenting this, 1 rather rejoice at it. For to ac- 
cept another's good advice Zeno held to be a sign of 
greater virtue than independently to decide oneself 
what one ought to do ; and so he altered the saying 
of Hesiod ; for Zeno says : " That man is best who 
follows good advice" inste^jid of "decides all things 
for himself." ^ Not that the alteration is to my 

1 Iliad 9. 524. '^ Odyssey 9. 14. ^ Theocritus 12. 15. 
^ Hesiod, Worhs and Days 293, 295 %s avr<f irdvra vo-fjar) ; 
Diogenes Laertius 7- 25. 



XeyMV dvTi tov vorjarj irdvO^ eavrcp. efiol Se ov 
Bid TOVTO ')(apiev elvac BoKcr 7rei6o/iac yap dXrjOe- 
arepov /jl€v WaioBov Xeyetv, dfxi^olv Se dfjueivov 
UvOayopav, 09 Kal rfj Trapoifila Trapecr^e rrjv 
dp)(r)v Kol TO XeyecrOai KOiva ra (^lXwv eSwKe rw 
/3L(p, ov B7]7rov rd ')(^pr)ixaTa XeY&Ji' jjlovov, dWd Kal B 
Tr)v rod vov Kal Trj<; (ppovrja€Q)<; KOivwviaVj Mad' 
oaa fjuev evp6<; avro'^, ovhev ekarrov ravra tov 
ireiddevTO^; eariv, oaa Be tmv aa)v vireKpLydfi/qv, 
TovTcop avTOiv cIkoto)^ to Xaov //.ere^et?. dXkd 
ravTa jxev oTroTepov [xdWov dv (f)aivr)Tat, Kat^ 
6aTep(p irpoarjKeL, Kal toI<^ ^aaKuvoc^ ovBev earai 
ifKeov eK tmv \6ycov. 

^YipZv Be eiraviieov irrrl tov AcppLKavov Kal tov 
AaiXiov. iireiBr) yap dvrjprjTO jxev rj Kap^n^^^ 
Kal Ta irepl ttjv Atffvrjv diravTa rr}? 'Pw/xr^? C 
iyeyovei BovXa, irkp/nei fiev ^A(f)pi,Kav6<i tov 
AaiXtov dvr]yeT0 Be eKelvo^ evayyeKia ttj TraTpiBi 
<pep(DV' Kal 6 XktjttIcov tj^Octo jxev diroXeiTrofievof; 
TOV cf)LXov, ov firjv dirapafJLvOrjTov avT& to 7rdOo<i 
a)€To. Kal TOV AaiXiov Be Bva'X^epalveiv elKo^, 
eireiBr) fjuovo^ avriyeTo, ov firjv d(p6pr]Tov eiroLelTO 
Trjv av/j,(f)opdv. eirXet. Kal Karcoi/ diroXiircov oXkoi 
Tov<; avTOV avvrj9ei<^, Kal TIvOay6pa<i, Kal YlXaTcov 
Kal ^rifjboKpLTO'i ovBeva 7rapaXafi6vT€(; kolvwvov 
Tr]<i 6B0V, KaiTOi TToXXov^ oIkoi tmv (plXTaTCOV D 
diroXiinrdvovTe^. earpaTevaaTO Kal He/ai/cX?}? 
€7rl TTju 'Zd/jLov ovK dycov TOV ^ Ava^ayopav, Kal ttjv 
Kv^oiav irapeaTijaaTO rat? p^ev eKeivov ^ovXal<i, 
eTreTralBeuTO yap vir eKeivw, to a(bp.a Be ovk e(f)eX- 
Kofievo^i oiairep dXXo tc tcov dvayKaicov irpo^ Td<; 246 

^ Koi Oareptp Hertlein suggests, Oarepcf} MSS. 


liking. For I am convinced that what Hesiod says 
is truer, and that Pythagoras was wiser than either 
of them when he originated the proverb and gave 
to mankind the maxim, " Friends have all things in 
common." ^ And by this he certainly did not mean 
money only, but also a partnership in intelligence 
and wisdom. So all that you suggested belongs just 
as much to me who adopted it, and whenever I was 
the actor who carried out your plans you naturally 
have an equal share in the performance. In fact, to 
whichever of us the credit may seem to belong, it 
belongs equally to the other, and malicious persons 
will gain nothing from their gossip. 

Let me go back now to Africanus and Laelius. 
When Carthage had been destroyed ^ and all Libya 
made subiect to Rome, Africanus sent Laelius home 
and he embarked to carry the good news to their 
fatherland. And Scipio was grieved at the 
separation from his friend, but he did not think 
his sorrow inconsolable. Laelius too was probably 
afflicted at having to embark alone, but he did not 
regard it as an insupportable calamity. Cato also 
made a voyage and left his intimate friends at 
home, and so did Pythagoras and Plato and Demo- 
critus, and they took with them no companion on 
their travels, though they left behind them at home 
many whom they dearly loved. Pericles also set out 
on his campaign against Sanios without taking 
Anaxagoras, and he conquered Euboea by following 
the latter's advice, for he had been trained by his 
teaching : but the philosopher himself he did not 
drag in his train as though he were part of the 

^ Diogenes Laertius 8. 10 ; Pythagoras persuaded his dis- 
ciples to share their property in common. ^ Cf. Livy 27. 7. 


N 2 


fidy^^af;. Kairoi koX tovtov uKOvra, (paatv, Adrjvaiot 
T)}? 7r/909 Tov SLSdaKoXov direaTrjGav avvovaia<;. 
d\X' €(j)epev &)? avr)p €fi(^p(ov cov^ 7r)v avoiav royv 
avTov TToXcTcov iyKpaTM^i /cal 7rpaco<;. koX 'yap 
dvdyKTj rfj Trarpiht, KaOdwep /jurjrpl BiKaico<; /jl€v ov, 
^ctXeTTft)? Se OfjLcof; i)(^ov(7r} 7rp6<; Tr)V avvovaiav 
avTMv, €iK€iv Q)€TO ')(^pr]vat, TavTa, ft)9 61ko<;, 
XoyL^ofievo^;' aKoveiv ^e y^pr] tojv €^rj<i &>? rod 
HepiKXiov^i avrov' 'Kfiol 7roX,t9 fiev iari koX 
7raTpl<; 6 /cocrfiof;, Koi (j^iXoc Oeol /cal haipuove^ 
Kol 'jrdvT€<i oaoL Kal oirovovv ^ aTrovSaloi. XPV B 
Se Kal rrjv ov ^ yeyovap^ev Tifjudv, iireLSt] rovTo 
6el6<i iari vofiof;, Kal TreiOeaOal ye ol<; dv iirirdTTr) 
Koi /JLT} ^id^eaOai jxr^^e, 6 (prjacv rj irapoLfjua, 
7rp6<; Kevrpa XaKrl^eiv dTrapairr^Tov ydp iart 
TO XeyojJLevov ^vybv rrj^ dvdyKT]^. ov p^rjv oSvpriov 
ovBe Oprjvrjreov i<f) ol<; eTrcTdrTet rpa^^vrepov, 
dXXd TO irpdyp.a XoyoaTeov avro. vvv diraXXdr- 
recrOai tov ^ Ava^ayopav d(j>* tj/jlojv KeXevei, Kal Q 
TOV dpKTTOv ovK Q-^ofieOa T<jdv eTaipwVy Bi ov 

'^')(^06fl7]V fieV TTJ VVKTL, OTl fJLOl TOV <f)iXov OVK 

iSecKvvev, r)fjiepa he koi rjXiw x^P^^ i^TnaTd/jLTjv, 
OTL jjLOL Trapeiyev opdv ov /judXiaTa yjpayv. aXX* 
el fjuev 6/jL/jLaTd aoi SeScoKeu rj (f)vaL(;, o) TlepLKX€t.<i, 
fiovov Mairep rot? Orjpioi^,^ ovBev direLKo^i ecrrt 
are 8ca(f>ep6vTa)(; dx^eaOar el Si aoi -yjrvy^rjv eve- D 

^ &*/ Hertlein would add. 
^ Swovovu Cobet, Uttov Hertlein, MSS. 
^ TTfv ov Hertlein suggests, ot MSS. 
* Oripiois Cobet, opviaiv Hertlein, MSS« 



equipment needed for battle. And yet in his case 
too we are told that much against his will the 
Athenians separated him from the society of his 
teacher. But wise man that he was, he bore the 
folly of his fellow-citizens with fortitude and mild- 
ness. Indeed he thought that he must of necessity 
bow to his country's will when, as a mother might, 
however unjustly, she still resented their close 
friendship ; and he probably reasoned as follows. 
(You must take what I say next as the very words oi 

" The whole world is my city and fatherland, and 
my friends are the gods and lesser divinities and all 
good men whoever and wherever they may be. Yet 
it is right to respect also the country where 1 was 
born, since this is the divine law, and to obey all her 
commands and not oppose them, or as the proverb 
says kick against the pricks. For inexorable, as the 
saying goes, is the yoke of necessity. But we must 
not even complain or lament when her commands 
are harsher than usual, but rather consider the 
matter as it actually is. She now orders Anaxa- 
goras to leave me and I shall see no more my best 
friend, on whose account the night was hateful to 
me because it did not allow me to see my friend, 
but I was grateful to daylight and the sun because 
they allowed me to see him whom I loved best.^ 
But, Pericles, if nature had given you eyes only as 
she has to wild beasts, it would be natural enough 
for you to feel excessive grief. But since she has 

1 Cobet rejects this sentence as a gloss ; but Julian 
perhaps echoes Plato, Menexenus 246 c. 

2 This a very inappropriate apphcation to Pericles of the 
speech of Critoboulos in Xenophon, Symposium 4. 12 ; cf. 
Diogenes Laertius 2. 49. 



TTvevcre fcal vovv ivrj/cev, v(f)' ov ra /mev iroWa 
tS)v yeyevT) /jLevcov Kaiirep ov irapovra vvv opaq 
Bia Trj<; /juvijfirj<;, ttoWcl Be koI tmv i(TOfievcov 
6 Xoyccr/jLO'i avevpiGKwv Mcrirep o/xfjuaaiv opav 
irpocrPaXKei tw vu>, koI tmv ivecTTOOTCov ov ra 
nrpo Twv Ofi/judrcou rj (fyavracria puovov aTTorvirov- 
fxevr} BiBaxnv avrw Kpiveiv kol KaOopav, aWa 
/cat ra iroppco koX pbvpiddL araBccov dirwKiaixiva 
Tcov yevo/juevcov irapa iroBa kol irpo tcov 6<^da\pLMV 247 
BeiKvvaiv ivapyearepov, n 'X^prj roaovrov dviaaOai 
Kol (7%eTXtft)9 (pepecv; ore Be ovk dfidpTvpo<; 6 

X0709 e(TTi fMOt, 

N0O9 opjj Kol vov<; d/covec 

(prjalv o Xc/ceXtcoTTjf;, ovrox; o^v ')(^priixa koX Td')(eL 
')(^p(t)/jL€vov dp,rj')(dv(p, mctO* ojav nvd to)v Baifiovayv 
0/Jirjpo<; iOeXy Ke')(^p'r]/uLevov diriGTW •jropela^; ein- 
Bel^ai Td')(€L, 

IZ9 or av al^r) voo'^ avepo<; 

^rjai. TovTUf roi ')^pQ)/i€vo(; paara puev ^AO-^vrjdev B 
S'yjreL rov ev Icovla, paara Be e/c KfiX-rcoz^ rov ev 
*lX\vpiot'^ Kal Spafcrj, Kal rov ev KeXrot? ck 
SpaK7]<; Kal ^iWvpLcov. Kal yap ovB\ coairep rol<^ 
(f)vroL<; OVK evi a(o^ea6at rrjv avvrjOnr] '^copav fiera- 
jSaWovaiv, brav rj rcdv aypcov rj Kpdcn<; evavria, 
Kal TO?? dv6pd)7roL<i avfi^alvei rorrov €K roirov 
fiera^dWovatv rj Bia^deipeadai, 7ravreX(o<i rj rov 
rpoTTov dfiei^eLV Kal /jLerarlOeaOac rrepl a)v 6p6o)^ 
TTpoaOev eyvcoKeaav. ovkovv ovBe rrjv evvoiav C 
dfi^Xvrepav 6)(eLV €Ik6<;, el fjurj Kal fiaXXov dyairav 



breathed into you a soul, and implanted in you 
intelligence by means of which you now behold in 
memory many past events, though they are no longer 
before you : and further since your reasoning power 
discovers many future events and reveals them as it 
were to the eyes of your mind ; and again your 
imagination sketches for you not only those present 
events which are going on under your eyes and 
allows you to judge and survey them, but also reveals 
to you things at a distance and many thousand 
stades ^ removed more clearly than what is going on 
at your feet and before your eyes, what njeed is 
there for such grief and resentment ? And to show 
that I have authority for what I say, 'The mind 
sees and the mind hears,' says the Sicilian ; ^ and 
mind is a thing so acute and endowed with such 
amazing speed that when Homer wishes to show 
us one of the gods employing incredible speed in 
travelling he says : * As when the mind of a man 
darts swiftly.' ^ So if you employ your mind you 
will easily from Athens see one who is in Ionia ; 
and from the country of the Celts one who is in 
lllyria or Thrace ; and from Thrace or Illyria one 
who is in the country of the Celts. And moreover, 
though plants if removed from their native soil when 
the weather and the season are unfavourable cannot 
be kept alive, it is not so with men, who can remove 
from one place to another without completely de- 
teriorating or changing their character and deviating 
from the right principles that they had before 
adopted. It is therefore unlikely that our affection 
will become blunted, if indeed we do not love and 

1 The Attic stade = about 600 feet. 
* Epicharmus/r. 13. ' Iliad 15. 80. 



KoX arepyeiv eirerai yap v^pc<; fiep Kopw, epw^ 
Be ivBela. koI ravrr) roivvv e^ofiev jSeXnoVf 
€7nT6ivo/jL€vrj<; r)fuv t^9 tt/oo? aXkrj\ov<; euvoia^, 
KaOe^o/Jbip re aXX'^Xov; ev rat? eavroiv hLavoiaL^i 
lBpufjLevov<; wcnrep aydX/jLara. Koi vvv fiev eyco 
Tov ^Ava^ayopav, av6c<; Be €/celvo<; oylrerac i/jue' 
/cooiXvet Be ovBev koX afia ^Xeireiv aXXriXov<;, D 
ov')(l crapKia koI vevpa koi /uiopcf>7]f; rvTrco/Jua, 
arepva re e^ecKaa-fieva irpoi; ap')(eTV'Trov crcofjuaro^;' 
KairoL KaX rovro fccoXvec TV)(pv ovBev rat? Bcavoiai<i 
rjfiMV €/Jb(f)aivea6ar dXX^ el<; rrjv dperrjv Kal ra<; 
irpd^ei^ Kal tou? X6yov<; Kal ra? oficXia^i Kal 
TO.? ivrev^et,<;, a? iroXXaKi^ eirotrja-dp^eOa jjuer 
dXXrjXwVy ovK dpLovaw^; vfjbVOVvre<; iraiBeiav Kal 
BcKaioavuTjv Kal rov eTrcTpoirevovra vovv ra 
Ovr)Ta Kal ra dvOpcoTTcva, Kal irepl 7roXiTeia<i Kal 248 
v6/jL0)V Kal TpoTTCov d/9eT^9 Kal ')(pr]aTCOv eirirr)- 
Bev/jbdrcov Bie^wvTe<;, oaa ye tj/mv eTrrjei ^ ev KatpS) 
TOVTcov fie/jLvrjfievoL<i. ravra evvoovvTe<;, rovroif; 
Tp€(f)6fievoL Tot9 eiSftiXoi? TV')(pv ovk oveipoDv 
vvKrepcov^ lvBdXp.a(Tt irpoae^ofjiev ovBe Keva Kal 
fidraca irpoajBaXel ra) vS) (pavrdcr/jiara TTOvrjpo)^ 
VTTO T»}9 Tou a(Ofiaro<; Kpdaeo)<; aLcr07)ai,<i BiaKei- 
jxivT). ovBe yap avrrjv TTapaXr^-y^ofjieda rr^v at- 
aOrjaiv virovpyelv rjfiiv Kal vTrrjpeTeicrOar dXX* B 
d7ro<f)vycbv avrrjv o vov<; ifi/jLeXeTijcrei Tovroi<i 
7r/oo9 Karavorjaiv Kal avve6 la jjlov tS>v affcofjudrcov 

^ iiT'^ei Reiske adds. 

^ vvKTipwv Cobet, vvKrepivwv Hertlein, MSS. 




cherish each other the more for the separation. For 
' wantonness attends on satiety/ ^ but love and long- 
ing on want. So in this respect we shall be better 
off if our affection tends to increase, and we shall 
keep one another firmly set in our minds like holy 
images. And one moment I shall see Anaxagoras, 
and the next he will see me. Though nothing 
prevents our seeing one another at the same instant ; 
I do not mean our flesh and sinews and " bodily 
outline and breasts in the likeness " ^ of the bodily 
original — though perhaps there is no reason why 
these too should not become visible to our minds— ^ 
but I mean our virtue, our deeds and words, our 
intercourse, and those conversations which we so 
often held with one another, when in perfect 
harmony we sang the praises of education and 
justice and mind that governs all things mortal and 
human : when too we discussed the art of govern- 
ment, and law, and the different ways of being 
virtuous and the noblest pursuits, everything in 
short that occurred to us when, as occasion served, 
we mentioned these subjects. If we reflect on these 
things and nourish ourselves with these images, we 
shall probably pay no heed to the ' visions of dreams 
in the night,' ^ nor will the senses corrupted by the 
alloy of the body exhibit to our minds empty and 
vain phantoms. For we shall not employ the senses 
at all to assist and minister to us, but our minds 
will have escaped from them and so will be exercised 
on the themes I have mentioned and aroused to 
comprehend and associate with things incorporeal. 

^ Theognis 153. t'iktu toi K6pos lifipiv, '6rav kuk^ oAySos 

^ Euripides, Phoenissae 165, fxop<pr)s riiraij.a crrepva r' 
ilrjKafffieva. ^ Nauck, Adespota trag. frag, 108. 



Bteyetpo/iJievof;' va> yap Brj Kal ra> Kpeirrovi (Tvve- 
(TfieVy Kal ra rrjv acaOrjcnv dirocfyvyovTa Kai 
SteaTrjKora tm totto), /jlclWov Se ovSe BeofMCva 
TOTTOV apdv T€ Kul alpelv 7r€<f)VKa/jL€Vf oaoi^ d^la)<; 
^e^icorai Trj<; roLavrrjf; Oea^^ ivvoovvre<i avrrjv Kal 


'AXX' o fjiev YiepiKXrj^, are Br) fj,eya\6(j)pcov 
avrjp Kal rpacpel'i eXef^e/ao)? iv iXevOepa ry TroXec, C 
v-yjrrjXorepoi^i iyjrvx^aycoyeL X6yoi<; avrov iycb Be 
yeyovMf; ck tcjv oIol vvv (Bporoi elatv av6 payiriKO)- 
repoi^ i/j,avrdv deXyco Kal irapdyw X6yoL<;, Kal to 
Xiav TTLKpov cK^aipo) Tr}<; Xvirr)^, irpo^ eKaarov tcjv 
del fJbOL TrpoaTnTTTOVTcov diro tov TrpdyfjuaTO^ 
Bva')(€pa)V re Kal droTTcov (fyavTaa/jbdrcov i(f)ap- D 
fMo^etv TLvd Trapa/uLvOiav Tretpco/jbevofi, (acrirep iway- 
Brjv Oripiov Br^yfiaTL BdKVOVTO<; avrrjv ecrod rrjv 
KapBiav r^jjiMv Kal Td<i <^peva^. eKelvo tol irpcorov 
earl fioi rcov <f)aLvo/i6vcov Bv(j')(epfjiv, vvv iyco 
/iiovo^ diroXeXeL'^o/jLaL KaOapdf; eV8e^9 o/ubiXiaf; Kal 
iXevdepa^ ivrev^eayf;' ov yap eart /xoc T€co<i 6t^ 
BiaXi^o/jbat Oappwv ojjlovqx;. irorepov ovv ovB* 
i/juavTM BiaXeyeaOai paBtov eari /not; dXX d^ai- 
prjaerai /jbi rt? Kal rrjv evvocav Kal irpoaavayKdcrei 
voelv erepa Kal daufid^eiv Trap* a ^ovXo/mli; rj 
TOVTO fiev icTTt ripa^ TjBrj Kal irpoaofiotov t& 
ypdcfyecv e^' vBaro^; Kal t« XiOov eyjretv Kal tS> 
iTrra/Jievayv opvlOcov epevvdv cx^V '''V^ irrrjcreco'i; 
ovKOvv €7r€i,Br) TOVTCov r)fid<; ovBel^i d^aipelraij 249 
crvveo-ofieda BrjirovOev avroi 7r(t)<^ eavTol<;i to*©? Be 
Kal 6 Bat/jLcov vTToOrjcrerai rt ')(^pr)<Trov' ov yap 
6tiV09 avBpa eavTov iiriTpeyjravTa rep Kpeirrovi, 



For by the mind we commune even with God^ and 
by its aid we are enabled to see and to grasp things 
that 'escape the senses and are far apart in space^ 
or rather have no need of space : that is to say^ all 
of us who have lived so as to deserve such a vision, 
conceiving it in the mind and laying hold thereof." 

Ah, but Pericles, inasmuch as he was a man of 
lofty soul and was bred as became a free man in 
a free city, could solace himself with such sublime 
arguments, whereas I, born of such men as now 
are,i must beguile and console myself with arguments 
more human ; and thus I assuage the excessive 
bitterness of my sorrow, since I constantly endeavour 
to devise some comfort for the anxious and uneasy 
ideas which keep assailing me as they arise from 
this event, like a charm against some wild beast 
that is gnawing into my very vitals ^ and my soul. 
And first and foremost of the hardships that I shall 
have to face is this, that now I shall be bereft of our 
guileless intercourse and unreserved conversation. 
For I have no one now to whom I can talk with any- 
thing like the same confidence. What, you say, 
cannot I easily converse with myself ? Nay, will not 
some one rob me even of my thoughts, and besides 
compel me to think differently, and to admire what 
I prefer not to admire .'' Or does this robbery amount 
to a prodigy unimaginable, like writing on water or 
boiling a stone,^ or tracing the track of the flight of 
birds on the wing ? Well then since no one can 
deprive us of our thoughts, we shall surely commune 
with ourselves in some fashion, and perhaps God 
will suggest some alleviation. For it is not likely 
that he who entrusts himself to God will be utterly 

1 Iliad 5. 304. 2 cf . 243 c. » Two familiar proverbs. 



TravTOLTracTiv dfieXrjdrjrat xal KaraXeKpdrji'ai irav- 
reXw? eprijjbov' aXX! avrov fcal o ^eo? ')(elpa 6))v 
{j7repea')(e koI 6dpcro<; ivSiBcoai ^ kol p,evo^ ifjuirvel B 
Koi rd irpaKrea TiOiiatv eVt vovv Koi roiv fjurj 
7rpaKT€(ov d(^L(TTr)atv. elirero rot kol XcdKpaTei, 
haifjbovia (f)covr} KcoXvovcra irpdrTeiv ocra /xr) XP^^^ 
Tfv ^rjal Se KaVOjirfpo^ virep 'A^^^XXeo)?* ro) yap 
iirl (ppeal Orj/cev, w? tov 6eov Koi ra? evvoia<^ 
rj/jLCt)v iy€LpovTO<^, orav e'm(7Tpe^a<^ o vov^ et9 
eavTov avT(p re irporepov ^vyyevrjrai Kai tw 6e(p 
Bi eavTov /jlovov, /ccoXvofievo^; vir ovhevo^. ov yap C 
oLKorji^ 6 vov<^ helrab irpo^ to p^adelv ovhe fjurjv 6 
66o<^ (f)a)vi}^ 7r/>09 TO SLSd^at rd Seovra' dXk' 
aia07Ja€co<; e^co Trdcrnjf; diro rod Kpeirrovo^ r) 
jjbeTOvaia yiverai tw va>' nva fxev rpoirov Kal 
OTTw^ ov axoXr) vvv eTre^ievai, to 3' otl yiveTai 
StjXov^ Kal aacf)6L<; ol /jidpTvpef;, ovk dSo^oi Tive<; 
ovS* iv TTj Is/leyapewv d^iot TUTTecrOai fiepihi, dWd D 
Twv aTrevey/ca/jLevcov iirl (T0(f)La Td irponTeta.^ 

OvKovv eVefSr) ^PV TTpoo-SoKav Kal Oeov rjpuv 
irapecrecrOaL 7rdvTQ)<; Kal rj/jid(; avT0v<; avTol<i avve- 
aeaOaiy to \iav hva^^pe^ d^aipeTeov io-Ti t^9 
XvTTijf;. eVel Kal tov ^OBvaaia fiovov iv TJj vrjcrw 
KaOeipyfjLevop krrTd tov<^ 7rdvTa<; iviavTOV's, cIt^ 
oBvpofievov, tt)? jiev a\Xr](; eiraivo) KapTepia^, tcov 
6pr)V(ov Be OVK dyafjuav. tl ydp 6(f)€Xo<; ttovtov iir 250 
l^OvoevTa BepKeaOai Kal Xei/Setv BaKpva; to 

^ fvSlSctai Hertlein suggests, Ubwa-i MSS. 
2 Stj\ov Cobet, SrjAoi Hertleiu, MSS. 
* Tpwrcta Cobet, vpura Hertlein, MSS. 


neglected and left wholly desolate. But over him 
God stretches his hand/ endues him with strength, 
inspires him with courage, and puts into his mind 
what he must do. We know too how a divine 
voice accompanied Socrates and prevented him from 
doing what he ought not. And Homer also says 
of Achilles, " She put the thought in his mind," ^ 
implying that it is Cjod who suggests our thoughts 
when the mind turns inwards and first communes 
with itself, and then with God alone by itself, 
hindered by nothing external. Ti'or the mind needs 
no ears to learn with, still less does God need a 
voice to teach us our duty : but apart from all sense- 
perception, communion with God is vouchsafed to 
the mind. How and in what manner I have not 
now leisure to inquire, but that this does happen is 
evident, and there are sure witnesses thereof — men 
not obscure or only fit to be classed with the 
Megarians,^ — but such as have borne the palm for 

It follows therefore that since we may expect that 
God will be present with us in all our doings, and 
that we shall again Benew our intercourse, our grief 
jnust lose its sharpest sting. For indeed in the case 
of Odysseus ^ too, who was imprisoned on the island 
for all those seven years and then bewailed his lot, I 
applaud him for his fortitude on other occasions, but I 
do not approve those lamentations. For of what avail 
was it for him to gaze on the fishy sea and shed 

1 Iliad 9. 420. 2 in^^ j 55 

'^ The Megarians on inquiring their rank among the Greeks 
from the Delphic oracle were told that they were not in the 
reckoning at all, ujiiels 8' ol m^yap^ls ovk ev \6ycf} oi»5' eV 
apiQix'^ ; cf. Theocritus 14. 47. 

^ Cf, Dio Chrysostom 13. 4, Arnim. 



^e jxr) TrpoecrOai firjS^ (iTrayopevaat tt^o? T7;^' tv^tjv, 
rtXX-' avhpa /jL6)(pi<i ea^drayv yevecrOai ttovcov^ kul 
KLvhvvwv, TOVTO cfioiye (fiaiverat jiel^ov rj Kara 
avdpcoTTOv. ou Si] BiKUtov iTraLvelv fiev avTov<i, fiv 
fjajxeladai Be, ovBe vofxii^eiv, 0)9 iK€Lvoi<; /lev 6 ^€09 
7rpodv/ii(o^ avveXdfjb^ave, rov<; Be vvv irepioy^reraL B 
T?j9 dpeTri<i opMP dvTL7rotovfiivov<;, Bt r}vir€p dpa 
fcaKeivocf; e^ciipev ov yap Bed to /cdWo^i rov 
(Ta)/jLaTO<i, eirei roc rov Nipea fxaXkov e^prji^ dya- 
irdaOai, ovBe Bed Ttjv l(T')(yv, direipfp ydp oaw 
J^aiCTTpvyovefi Kal KvK\o)7r€<; rjaav avrov Kpelr- 
TOL'9, ovBe Bed TOP irXovTov, ovrw ydp dv efxeivev 
diropOrjTOfi Tpota. ri Be Bel Trpdy/jiara e'X^eiv 
avTOV eTn^rjTOvura rrjv alrtav, Bt rjp ^OBvoraea 
^r}(Tiv o 'iToir)Tr]<; 6eo(f)tXr], avrov ye e^bv dKoveiv; C 

OvveK €7r7)T7]<; iaac Kal dyylvoo<i Kal 6%e^/3ft)i'. 

BrjXov ovv ft)9, eXirep r]fuv ravra Trpoo-yevoiro, to 
KpeZrrov ovk eWeLyjreL ra irap eavrov, dWd Kal 
Kara rov BoOevra irdXat, TTore AaKeBaifjiovloi^ 
')(^pr)a- fjbov KaXovfi€v6<; "e Kal dK\7]ro<; 6 Oeo^ 

TouT0^9 ifxavrbv ylrv^^aycoyrja-a^ eV eKecvo ro D 
/jLepo<; aTreifii irdXiv, o BoKet rfj fiev dXr}6eia 
fjLLKpov etvat, 7r/J09 Bo^av Be ofico^; ovk dyevve<i. 
OfjLTjpov roi (paat BelaOac Kal rov ^AXe^avBpov, ov 
BrjTTOv crvvovro<;, dXXd Kr)pvrrovro<i Mcrirep *A^fcX- 
Xea Kai UarpoKXov Kal Acavra<; d/ji<pco Kal rov 

^ Tr6va)v Hertlein suggests, <f>6fi<»v MSS. 


tears ? ^ Never to abandon hope and despair of one's 
t'ate^ but to play the hero in the extremes of toil and 
danger^ does indeed seem to me more than can be 
expected of any human being. But it is not right 
to praise and not to imitate the Homeric lieroes, or 
to think that whereas God was ever ready to assist 
them he will disregard the men of our day, if he 
sees that they are striving to attain that very virtue 
for which he favoured those others. For it was not 
physical beauty that he favoured, since in that case 
Nireus ^ would have been more approved ; nor 
strength, for the Laestrygons ^ and the Cyclops were 
infinitely stronger than Odysseus ; nor riches, for 
had that been so Troy would never have been 
sacked. But why should I myself labour to discover 
the reason why the poet says that Odysseus was 
beloved by the gods, when we can hear it from 
himself? It was "^Because thou art so wary, so 
ready of wit, so prudent.""^ It is therefore evident 
that if we have these qualities in addition, God 
on His side will not fail us, but in the words of 
the oracle once given of old to the Lacedaemonians, 
" Invoked or not invoked, God will be present 
with us." ^ 

Now that I have consoled myself with these 
arguments I will go back to that other consideration 
which, though it seems trivial, nevertheless is gener- 
ally esteemed to be not ignoble. Even x\lexander, 
we are told, felt a need for Homer, not, of course, to 
be his companion, but to be his herald, as he was for 
Achilles and Patroclus and the two Ajaxes and 

1 Odyssey 5. 84 2 m^fi 2. 673. 

3 Odyssey 10- 119 foil. * Odyssey 13. 332. 

5 Cf Oration 6. 201 c ; Thucydides 1. 118. 




^ XvriXo^ov. aXk! 6 fiev virepopMv ael roiv irap- 

OVTWVy €<pl6fJ,€P0<i Se TWV (ITTOVTCOV OVK T^ydiTa 

TOt? KaO eavTov ovBe rjpKelro rot? Sodelar kol 
eiirep erv^eu ^O/juijpov, rrjv 'AttoW'wi'o? /Vw? av 251 
iir6dr)<Te \vpav, rj rot? Tlr)\€a)<s €fC€2vo<; e^vfxvriae 
iyd/jLoi,<;, ov r^? 'Ofjbrjpov arvveae(o<^ tovto irXda/jua 
vofxiaa^, dXX! dXyOh epyov evv<^avdev tol<; eireaiVy 
Mcnrep olfiai to 

'Hco? fiev KpoKOTTCTrXn*; iKuSparo iraaav eir alav 
'HeXto? S' dvopovae 

l^prjTT} Ti9 'yoL iarl, 

Koi baa rotavrd (^acriv ot 7roL7]Tai, hrjXa koI 
irapyrj rd fxev ovra kol et? rjfidf; ere, rd he yiyvo- 

'AXXa TO) fiev etre /jLeyeOo^; dperrjf; virepe^ov^ B 
Koi TMV irpocrovTMV dyaOSyv ovSa/ico^i iXdrTcov 
(Tvveai^ el^i roaavrrjv iTrcdvfilai' rrjv -yjrv^rjv e^t^yev, 
Mare fiei^ovcov rj Kara tol'9 dWov(; opeyeoOai,'^ 
eW^ virepjSoXrj ti<; avSpelw^ teal ddpaov<; et? d\a- 
^oveiav dyovaa ^ koI tt^oo? av6dSetav ^Xeirovaa, 
d^eiad(D aKOirelv ev fcowo) rot? 0ov\o/jiei>oi,<i eirai- 
velvrj '\^ey€LV avrov, et rt? dpa koX ravrr)^ viroXajM- C 
^dvei Tr}9 fiepiSo<; irpoa^'^Keiv eKeivcp. yfiel^; he toI<^ 
nrapovaiv dyaTTMvre^ del /cal tmv dirovTWV rjKLara 
jxeTaTTOiovixevoL arepyofxev fxev, oiroTav 6 KTjpv^ 

^ virepexov Naber, inrdpxov Hertlein, MSS. 
^ 6p4ye(r9ai Petavius, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 
^ ayovaa Cobet, ptirovaa Hertlein, . . . ovaa V. 



Antilochus. But Alexander^ ever despising what he 
liad and longing for what he had not, could never be 
content with his contemporaries or be satisfied with 
the gifts that had been granted to him. And even if 
Homer had fallen to his lot he would probably have 
coveted the lyre of Apollo on which the god played 
at the nuptials of Peleus ; ^ and he would not have 
regarded it as an invention of Homer's genius but 
an actual fact that had been woven into the epic, 
as when for instance Homer says, " Now Dawn 
with her saffron robe was spread over the whole 
earth " ; ^ and '' Then uprose the Sun " ; "^ and " There 
is a land called Crete " ; * or other similar statements 
of poets about plain and palpable things partly 
existing to this very day, partly still happening. 

But in Alexander's case, whether a superabundance 
of virtue and an intelligence that matched the 
advantages with which he was endowed exalted his 
soul to such heights of ambition that he aimed 
at greater achievements than are within the scope of 
other men ; or whether the cause was an excess 
of courage and valour that led him into ostentation 
and bordered on sinful pride, must be left as a 
general topic for consideration by those who desire 
to write either a panegyric of him or a criticism ; 
if indeed anyone thinks that criticism also can 
properly be applied to him. I on the contrary can 
always be content with what I have and am the 
last to covet what I have not, and so am well con- 
tent when my praises are uttered by a herald who 
has been an eyewitness and comrade-in-arms in all 

^ Iliad 24. 63. ^ m^j^^ g j 

3 Odyssey 3. 1. " Odyssey 19. 172. 




eiraivfi, Oearrj^ re Koi o-vvaycovKrrrjf; irdvTWV rjfuv 
yeyovax;, /jLtj Toif<; \oyov<; irapahe^dfjievo^ eh X^pi^v 
Kol d'TTe')(6eiav elKfj ireirXaajJievovf;' dpnel he tj/jllv 
Koi (f>L\€LV ofxoXoyoyv /movov, e? Se to, dXXa aLoairr]- 
Xorepo^ St)v /cal rcov WvOayopa TeXeaOevTcov. 

^l^vtavOa virepx^Tai /not kclL to OpvXovfxevov, D 
to? ovK et9 ^\XXvpiov<i fiovov, dXXd koI el<; SpaKa<; 
d^i^ /cat Tov^i irepl rrjv OdXarrav eKeivrjv olfcovv- 
Ta<;''EiXXr)va<;, ev olq yevoixevw pbOL koi Tpa(f)evTi 
TToXu? evrerrj/cev epco<; dvhpMV re Kol ^w/^tfoz^ Kal 
iroXecov. tcra)9 Se ov (f)avXo<; ovBe eKeuvcov evarro- 
XeXeiTrrai rah '>\rv)(^ah epa)<; rj/jucov, oh ev olS* on 
ro Xeyofxevov dcnrdcnof; eXdcov dv yevoto, SiKaiav 252 
djioL^rjv avrcScSov^ avroh virep mv r)fjLd<; aTToXe- 
Xoc7ra<; evOdhe, fcal rovro fiev ov^ ft)9 eu^oyu-ez^o?* 
eTrel to ye levac tt/jo? r/fJbd^ rrjv avrrjv rax^ax; 
dfietvov dXX^ 0)9, el yevocro, Kal irpo<; rov9^ e^cov 
OVK d7rapa/xvO^TO)<; ovSe d'^v^ayaiyrirw^ evvoo), 
a-vyxaipwv iKeLvot<;, on ae rrap r/fioiv o'^ovrai. 
K^eXroh yap ifiavrov rfhr] 8td ae crvvrdrrco, dvBpa 
eh T0U9 7rp(orov<; rcov 'EiXXrjvcov reXovvra Kal Kar 
evvofjbiav Kal Kara dperrjv rrjv dXXrjv, Kal pr/ropeiav B 
aKpov Kal (f>iXocro(f)ia<; ovk aTreipov, rj<; ''EiXXr)ve<; 
fjLovot rd Kpdnara jjuereXijXvdaat,, Xoyw rdXr)6e<;, 
uxTirep ovv 7re(l>VKe, dr]pevaavre<;, ovk dirLarroLf; 
fMvOoi<; ovBe irapaho^w repareia irpoaexeiv rj/judf;, 
coairep ol iroXXol rayv ^ap^dpcov, edo-avre^;. 



that I have done ; and who has never admitted any 
statements invented at random out of j)artiahty or 
prejudice. And it is enough for me if he only admit 
his love for me, though on all else he were more 
silent than those initiated by Pythagoras. 

Here however I am reminded of the report current 
that you are going not only to Illyria but to Thrace 
also, and among the Greeks who dwell on the shores 
of that sea.i Among them I was born and brought 
up, and hence I have a deeply rooted affection for 
them and for those parts and the cities there. And 
it may be that in their hearts also there still remains 
no slight affection for me : I am therefore well 
assured that you will, as the saying is, gladden their 
hearts by your coming, and there will be a fair 
exchange, since they will gain in proportion as I 
lose by your leaving me here. And I say this not 
because I wish you to go — for it were far better if 
you should return to me by the same road without 
delay — but the thought in my mind is that even for 
this loss I shall not be without comfort or consola- 
tion, since I can rejoice with them on seeing you just 
come from us. I say " us,'' since on your account I 
now rank myself among the Celts,^ seeing that you are 
worthy to be counted among the most distinguished 
Greeks for your upright administration and your 
other virtues ; and also for your consummate skill in 
oratory; in philosophy too you are thoroughly 
versed, a field wherein the Greeks alone have 
attained the highest rank ; for they sought after 
truth, as its nature requires, by the aid of reason 
and did not suffer us to pay heed to incredible fables 
or impossible miracles like most of the barbarians. 
^ The Propontis. ^ Sallust was a native of Gaul. 

o 2 


'AXXa KoX rovTO /mev 07r(i)<i irore e%ei, ravvv 
a(f)€i(TOfi). ae Bi' irpoirefiireiv rjSrj yap a^iov fxer 
€V(j)7}fua^' dyoi fxev 6eo<=; evfjievrj^, ottol ttot av 
Serj TTopeveaOai, SeVio? he viroBe^oiro koX ^ikio^i C 
€vvov<;, dyoi re Bed yrj<; acr^aXw?* kclv irXelv Bej], 
(TTopevvvaOco rd KVjjbara' irdau Be ^aveiri<^ <^tXo9 
KoX Ti/jLto^, r)Bv<; fxev irpoaicov, d\yeivo<; Be ciTroXei- 
TTcov avTov^' arepycov Be rj/judf; ijKiara 'Tro6r}(reia<; 
dvBpb<; iralpov koX ^iXov iriarov KOLVcovlav. 
evfjuevrj Be kol tov avro/cpdropd croi 6eo<; diroi^rjveie 
KaX rd dWa irdvra Kard vovv BlBolt], kol ttjv D 
o^KaBe Trap rj/jidf; iropeiav d(7(f)a\rj Trapaa/cevd^oc 
/cat Ta'Xjelav. 

Tavrd aot jxerd rwv koXcov KayaOcov dvBpoov 
avvevyoyiai, kol en 7rpo<; tovtol<; 

Ov\e re kol jxeya ')(^alpe, Beol Be tol oX^ia Bolev, 
Noarrjaat olKovBe (plXrjv e? irarpiBa yalav. 



However, this subject also, whatever the truth 
about it may be, I must lay aside for the present. 
But as for you — for I must needs dismiss you with 
auspicious words — may God in His goodness be your 
guide wherever you may have to journey, and as the 
God of Strangers and the Friendly One ^ may He 
receive you graciously and lead you safely by land ; 
and if you must go by sea, may He smooth the 
waves ! ^ And may you be loved and honoured 
by all you meet, welcome when you arrive, regretted 
when you leave them ! Though you retain your 
affection for me, may you never lack the society of a 
good comrade and faithful friend ! And may God 
make the Emperor gracious to you, and grant you all 
else according to your desire, and make ready for 
you a safe and speedy journey home to us ! 

In these prayers for you I am echoed by all good 
and honourable men ; and let me add one prayer 
more : " Health and great joy be with thee, and may 
the gods give thee all things good, even to come 
home again to thy dear fatherland ! " "^ 

^ These are regular epithets of Zeus. 

2 Theocritus 7. 57. '^ Odyssey 24. 402 ; and 10. 562. 




On the strength of his AristoteHan " Paraphrases " 
Themistius may be called a scholar, though hardly 
a philosopher as he himself claimed. Technically he 
was a Sophist : that is to say he gave public lectures 
(eTTiSci^cts), wrote exercises after the Sophistic 
pattern and went on embassies, which were entrusted 
to him solely on account of his persuasive charm. 
But he insisted that he was no Sophist, because he 
took no fees ^ and styled himself a practical philoso- 
pher.2 He was indifferent to the Neo- Platonic 
philosophy ,2 and, since Constantius made him a 
Senator, he cannot have betrayed any zeal for the 
Pagan religion. From Julian's Pagan restoration he 
seems to have held aloof, and, though Julian had 
been his pupil, probably at Nicomedia, he did not 
appoint him to any office. Under the Christian 
Emperor Theodosius he held a prefecture. There is 
no evidence for a positive coolness, such as Zeller* 
assumes, between Themistius and Julian, and we 
know too little of their relations to assert with some 
critics that the respectful tone of this letter is 
ironical.^ It was probably written after Julian had 

1 Themistius 260 c, 345 c. 

2 245 D. 3 33^ 295 b. ^ Yo\. 5, p. 742. 

^ Libanius Epistle 1061 mentions an Oration by Themistii;s 
in praise of Julian, but this is not extant. 



become Emperor^ though there is nothing in it that 
would not suit an earUer date ; it is sometimes 
assigned to 355 when JuHan was still Caesar. The 
quotations from Aristotle are appropriately addressed 
to Themistius as an Aristotelian commentator. 



©EMUTini *IA020*ni 

'E7C0 aoL ^e^atoiaaL /juev, coairep uvv ypd(f)€i,<;, 
Ta9 iXTTiBaf; /cat (7(f)oSpa ev')(pfiaiy SeBocKa Be firj 
Bi,a/jidpT(o, fjL6i^ovo<; ova7]<; tt}? L'Trocr^ecrea)?, ^v 
vTrep ifiov irpo^ re tou? aXXof 9 diravra'; ical en 
fjLoXXov 7r/309 aeavTov iroifj' kul (juol Trakat, fiev 
olofjiiva) 7rp6<; re top ^ AXe^avBpov koI tov MapKov, 
Koi et Tt9 aXXo9 'yeyovev dperfj B'ia(f)6p(op, elvac B 
TTjv dfiiXkav <j)pLKr) Tt9 irpoarjei /cal Beo<; Oav/juaa- 
Tov, /JLT) TOV fiev diTokenreaOaL iravreXoy^s t^9 
avopeia^ oo^co, tov oe T779 TeX6ta9 apeTTjf; ovoe eir 
oklyov e(f)iK(i)/jLai. eU TavTa dcjjopcbv dveTreido/jbrjv 
TTJV a^oX^jv eiraivelv, koX tmp 'Arrt/cwz/ BiatTrj/jid- 
T(ov ^ at'T09 re yBeca eiJbefjLvrjfjLrjv koI toI<^ (^lXol'^ 
vfilv TTpoaaBeiv rj^iovv, Mairep ol tcl ffapea cpopToa 
ipepovTef; ev toI^ ft)Sat9 einicov^it^ovcnv avTol<; 
TTJV TaXaiTTcopiav. crv Be jjlol vvv /mel^ov eiroirj' C 
<7a9 Bid Trj<} evay^o^ eTna-ToXrjq to Beo<^ koI 
TOV dywva tco iravTi ')(^a\e7r(t)Tepov eBet^a<;, ev 
TavTTj irapd tov deov TeTd')(6aL jjce Trj fiepiBi \eycov, 
ev y irpoTepov 'VLpaKkrjq fcal Acovvaof; eyeveadrjv 
(j>iXocro<l)OVVTe<i 6/jlov zeal ^a(Tc\evovTe<; koX irdaav 

1 hiaiT-n^aruv Naber, StrjyrjuaTwv Hertlein, MSS. 


1 EARNESTLY dcsirc to fulfil your hopes of me even 
as you express them in your letter, but I am afraid I 
shall fall short of them, since the expectations you 
have raised both in the minds of others, and still 
more in your own, are beyond my powers. There 
was a time when I believed that I ought to try 
to rival men who have been most distinguished for 
excellence, Alexander, for instance, or Marcus ; ^ but 
I shivered at the thought and was seized with terror 
lest 1 should fail entirely to come up to the courage 
of the former, and should not make even the least 
approach to the hitter's perfect virtue. With this in 
mind I convinced myself that I preferred a life of 
leisure, and I both gladly recalled the Attic manner 
of living, and thought myself to be in sweet 
accord with you who are my friends, just as those 
who carry heavy burdens lighten their labour by 
singing. 2 But by your recent letter you have in- 
creased my fears, and you point to an enterprise in 
every way more difficult. You say that God has 
placed me in the same position as Heracles and 
Dionysus of old who, being at once philosophers and 

^ The Emperor Marcus Aurehus. 

2 Apparently an echo of Dio Chrysostom, Oration 1. 9, 




a')(^6Sop T779 eimroXa^ovarjf; KaKLa<; avaKadaipo- 254 
fxevoi yrjv re kuI OaXarrav. /ceXeuet? Be irdaav 
airoaeiadfievov (T')(^o'\,'fj<; evvoiav koX paaroovrj^; 
(TfcoirelVj oTTco^ rr)<; viroOeaefo^ a^tft)9 aywycovfJieOa' 
elra iir avTot<; rwv vofiodercov /jbifivrjaai, XoXcovo';, 
HiTTaKov, AvKovpyov, koX tovtwv airdvTwv /jl€l- 
^ova '^prjvac Trap* rjfjLMv Xe^et? rov<; dvOpayirov^ iv 
Blkt) vvv irepLfjieveiv, tovtoi<; iyo) rot? XoyoL^ 
evTV')((ov i^eTrXdyrjv /jui/cpov' aol fxev yap vireXdfM- B 
ffavov ov8a/Jbco(; Oe/jucrbv KoXaKeveiv rj yjrevBecrOaL, 
ijnavTO) Be avveiSo)^ ^vaeco^ fiev eveKa hia^epov 
ovhev ovT€ i^ dp')(7]<^ ovre vvv virdp^av, (f)iXo- 
<T0<^ta9 Be ipaaOevTi fiovov ra? yap iv fieao) aiyM 
TV')(a<;, ai jxoi rov epcora toutov dreXr) t€(o<; 
i<pvXa^av' ovk €l')(pv ovv 6, ri ')(^pr] Trepl tmv 
TOiovT(ov Xoycov <Tvp,/3aX€LV, eo)? inl vovv rjyayev 
6 Beo^, p>rj TTore dpa irpOTpeireiv iOeXeif; Bid rcov C 
iTrauvcov /cal rcov dycovojv Bet^at to jxeyeOo^;, ol^ 
dvdyKJ] TTaaa rbv iv TroXiTeia ^covTa Trapa^e/SXi)' 
ddaL Tov diravra '^^povov. 

TovTO Be d7roTpe7rovT6<; icm irXeov rj tt/jo? tov 
fiiov irapopfJbMVTO^. Mairep yap et tl<; tov iropOfjbov 
TOV irap vpXv irXewv /cal ovBe tovtov paBiw^ ovBe 
€vk6Xco<; xj(j)i(7Tdp.evo<; aKovoi irapd tov p,avTiKf]v 
eirayyeXXopAvov Te')(V7jv, o)<; '^pecov avTov. tov D 
Alyalov dvap^eTprjaat Kal tov ^lovtov Kal tt}? efo) j 
daXd(Tar](; d'^aaOai, Kal " NOz^ jxev^^ 6pa<^ 6 irpo- \ 

(f)rjTr)<^ Xeyoi ** Teuxv '^^f' ^t/^eva^, eKel Be yevojievos 



kings, purged almost the whole earth and sea of the 
evils that infested them. You bid me shake off all 
thought of leisure and inactivity that I may prove 
to be a good soldier worthy of so high a destiny. 
And besides those examples you go on to remind me 
of law-givers such as Solon, Pittacus, and Lycurgus, 
and you say that men have the right to expect from 
me now greater things than from any of these. 
When I read these words I was almost dumb- 
founded ; for on the one hand I was sure that it was 
unlawful for you as a philosopher to flatter or deceive ; 
on the other hand I am fully conscious that by nature 
there is nothing remarkable about me — there never 
was from the first nor has there come to be now, — 
but as regards philosophy I have only fallen in love 
with it (I say nothing of the fates that have inter- 
vened ^ to make that love so far ineffectual). I could 
not tell therefore how I ought to interpret such ex- 
pressions, until God brought it into my mind that 
perhaps by your very praises you wished to exhort 
me, and to point out how great are those trials to 
which a statesman must inevitably be exposed every 
day of his life. 

But your method is more likely to discourage than 
to make one eager for such an existence. Suppose that 
a man were navigating your strait/ and were finding 
even that none too easy or safe, and then suppose some 
professional soothsayer should tell him that he would 
have to traverse the Aegaean and then the Ionian 
Sea, and finally embark on the outer sea. " Here," 
that prophet would say, "you see towns and harbours, 

^ Euripides, Orestes 16. 

2 The Bosporus ; Themistius was probably at Constanti- 



ovBe (TKOTTLav ovBe irerpav oyjrei, aX)C dyaTrrjaei^ 
fcai vavv iroppwOev kutiBcov Trpoaenrelv tou? ifi- 
7r\€0VTa<i, Kol ii]<i <yrj<; oy^re irore dyjrd/JLevo^i , tw 
Oew TToWdfCi^ irpoaev^rj, 7rpo<; avrw yovv tw TeXec 
rov ^Lov TV')(jelv op/juov koI ttiv t€ vavv acoav 255 
TTapaBovvai kol tov<; €/jL7r\€0VTa<; diraOel^; Tol<i 
OLKeLoc^; KaKwv irapacrTrjaai koX to aoifxa Trj 
firjTpl yf] Bovvai, tovto Be eaofjuevov ta(D<i ahrfKov 
ecrrat aoi P'^XP'' '^^'^ reXevrata^i 6Keivr)<^ r)fjLepa<i' 
ap otei TOVTwv dKovcravra tmv \6y(ov eKetvov 
TToXtv y av ^ oIksIv eXeaOau 7rXrja[ov OaXdaar)^, 
ov)(l Be x^Lpetv elirovra irXovrw koI tol<; ef 
ip/JTopia^ dya6ol<; irepiyiyvop.kvoi^, yvcopip^ayv ttoX- 
Xmv, ^evLKTj^; ^iXia^iy laropia'^ iOvcov koI iroXecov B 
virepiBovra cro(j)bv d7ro(f)aiV€cv rov rod Neo/cXeof?, 
09 KeXevei Xadelv jSccoaavra; /cal av Be eoiKa<; 
TOVTO KUTap^aOoDV TrpoKaTaXajjbPdveiv rj/jud^; Tal<; 
eU Tov ^^TTLKovpov XoiBopiai^ Kol Trpoe^aopetv ttjv 
TOiavTTjv yva>fjL7]v. <pr)(; yap ttov a^oXrjv eiraLvelv 
dirpdyp^ova Kal BiaXe^eL^; ev 7rept7rdT0i<; Trpoo-ij/ceiv 
eKeivw' iyo) Be oti (xev ov KaXa)<; EiTTLfcovpo) C 
TavTa eBoKCi, rrdXai Kal cr(f)6Bpa TreiOopbar el Be 
irdvO' ovTLVovv eirl irdXtTeLav tt par peireiv d^iov, 
Kal TOV rjTTOv ire^vKOTa Kal rov ovTrco TeXecof; 
Bwdfievov, eV/ irXelaTOV LaQ)<; BtaTroprjaac XPV- 
Xeyovcrt ydp tol Kal tov ZcoKpdTrj iroXXov^ p^ev ov 
(T(f)6Bpa ev(f)V(0(;'^ e^ovTa^i dirayayelv tov ^7]p,aT0<;, 

* y Uv Hertlein suggests, yovv MSS. 
^ evcpvws Reiske adds. 



but when you arrive there you will see not so much 
as a watch-tower or a rock, but you will be thankful 
to descry even a ship in the distance and to hail her 
crew. You will often pray to God that you may, how- 
ever late, touch land and reach a harbour, though that 
were to be the last day of your life. You will pray 
to be allowed to bring home your ship safe and 
sound and restore your crew unscathed to their 
friends, and then to connnit your body to mother 
earth. And this indeed may happen, but you will 
not be sure of it until that final day." Do you 
think that such a man after being told all this would 
choose even to live in a sea-port town ? Would he 
not bid adieu to money-making and all the advantages 
of commerce, and caring little for troops of friends 
and acquaintances abroad, and all that he might 
learn about nations and cities, would he not ap- 
prove the wisdom of the son of Neocles ^ who bids 
us " Live in obscurity " ? Indeed, you apparently 
perceived this, and by your abuse of Epicurus you 
tried to forestall me and to eradicate beforehand 
any such purpose. For you go on to say that it was 
to be expected that so idle a man as he should com- 
mend leisure and conversations during walks. Now 
for my part I have long been firmly convinced that 
Epicurus was mistaken in that view of his, but 
whether it be proper to urge into public life any and 
every man, both him who lacks natural abilities and 
him who is not yet completely equipped, is a point 
that deserves the most careful consideration. We 
are told that Socrates dissuaded from the statesman's 
profession 2 many who had no great natural talent, and 

^ Epicurus ; his advice was Aa0e fiiwaas. 

'^ Literally "from the fiv/J-a" i.e. the stone on the Pnyx 
from which the Athenian orator addressed the people. 



/cal TXavKoyva eKelvov, 'B^evoi^MV Xeyer tov he ^ 
Tov KXeiviOV TralSa Trecpadrjvac fiev iirta^^^eLV, ov D 
hvvrfOrjvai he irepiyeveaOat, tov veaviorKov r?}? 
6p/JL7]<;. rjjjL€i^ Be Kul aKovTa^ Koi ^vvcevra^ avrcov 
TrpocravayKdao/jiev, Oappelv virep ti]\lkovto)v ep- 
70)1' KeXevovre^i, S)v ovk dperr] fjuovov iarlv ovhe 
Trpoaipeai^ 6p6r} Kvpia, iroXv he irXeov rj tv^V 
Kparovaa Travra'^ov fcal f^ia^op^evrj peireiv 'pirep 
av eOeXr) rd Trpdy/jLara; ^pvatinro^ he hoKel rd 
fiev dXXa ao<pb(; elvau koI vop,io'07jvac hLKaioa^, 
dyvoTjaa^i he rr/p Tup^T^j/ Kol to avrop^arov koi 
Tiva^ dXXa<i alria'^ ToiavTa^ e^coOev rot? irpaKTi- 256 
«0fc9 'irapep/irtiTTOvaa<; ov cr<f>6hpa op^oXoyovpueva 
Xeyeiv ol<^ 6 ^(povof; r)p,d^ hid p^vpicov ivapyo)^ 
hchdafcec Trapahecyp^drcov. irov ydp evrv^rj koI 
pbaKdpiov K^drcova (pi'jo-op^ev; irov he Alcoifa top 
Xt^fceXKorrjv evhaipuova; 0I9 tov pAv dTToOavelv 
epueXev tcr(o<i ovhev, tov he p^rj Xeiireiv uTeXel^ Td<i 
7rpd^ei,<;y 6<^' a? e'f «yo%^9 MppTjaav, koI acfyohpa B 
epueXsy KOI irdvTa dv elXovTO rraOelv virep tovtov. 
(T^aXevTe^ he ev eKeivoi^ el puev ev(T')(7]pi6v(o<^ 
e<f>epov, Mairep ovv XeyeTUt, Tr)v TV')(r]v irapa- 
pbvdLav ea-')(pv etc t?}? aper^? ov pUKpdv, evhaipiove^ 
he OVK dv XeyoLVTo tmv KaXXiaTcov irpd^ecov 
htrjpLapTrjKOTe';, irXrjv tcro)? hid T7]V Xtcolktjv 
evaTaatv tt/oo? ^v prjTeov, 009 ov tuvtov ecTTiv 
eTraLvelaOaL koX p^aKapi^ecrOai, koI el (^vaei to 
^(pov evhaipbovia<i opeyeTUi, KpelTTov elvav to icaT C 

^ KoX r\avKcova . . . \4yer rhu Se Wyttenbach, rKavKwva 54 
iKe7vov cos 'E€vo(j>wp \4yii, koI rhv Hertlein, MSS. 



Glaucon too, Xenophon ^ tells us ; and that he tried 
to restrain the son of Cleinias ^ also, but could not 
curb the youth's impetuous ambition. Then shall 
we try to force into that career men who are 
reluctant and conscious of their deficiencies, and 
urge them to be self-confident about such great 
tasks ? For in such matters not virtue alone or 
a wise policy is paramount, but to a far greater 
degree Fortune holds sway throughout and compels 
events to incline as she wills. Chrysippus ^ indeed, 
though in other respects he seems a wise man and 
to have been rightly so esteemed, yet in ignoring 
fortune and chance and all other such external 
causes that fall in to block the path of men of affairs, 
he uttered paradoxes wholly at variance with facts 
about which the past teaches us clearly by countless 
examples. For instance, shall we call Cato a fortunate 
and happy man ? Or shall we say that Dio of Sicily 
had a happy lot ? It is true that for death they 
probably cared nothing, but they did care greatly 
about not leaving unfinished the undertakings which 
they had originally set on foot, and to secure that 
end there is nothing that they would not have 
endured. In that they were disappointed,* and I 
admit that they bore their lot with great dignity, as 
we learn, and derived no small consolation from 
their virtue ; but happy one could not call them, 
seeing that they had failed in all those noble enter- 
prises, unless perhaps according to the Stoic con- 
ception of happiness. And with regard to that same 
Stoic conception we must admit that to be applauded 
and to be counted happy are two very different 

^ Memorabilia 3. 6. 1. ^ Alcibiades. 

^ The Stoic philosopher. 



iK€ivr]v fiaKaptarov reXo? tov kut dpcTfjv eirai- 
verov. rjKLGTa he ^tXel rrj^ ev8ai/JL0VLa<; rj ^e^aoo. 
Tr)<; Tjj Tv^Tj Tnareveiv. fcal tou? iv irokiTeia 
^(t)vra<; ov/c evecmv avev ravrrj^i avairvelv to 
Btj Xeyo/jievov * * *^ dXr)6ct)<; Oecopovvre^ elre koX 
TreiroirjKaaL koI (TTpaTrjybv Xoyq),'^ Kaddirep oi 
rh^ lhea<^ elre /cat yfrevBco^; ^vvTidevT€<;, iv tol<; 
dcoyjjbaTOL^i Kol vorjTotf; Ihpvadai irov rcov TV)(ai(ov 
virepdvcd irdvrwv, rj tov ^loyevov^ eKelvov 

"KttoXlv, aoLKov, TraTpLhof; iaTeprjfxevov, T) 

ovK e^ovTa fxev et? '6,tl irap avTrjf; ev irdOy koI 
TOvvavTLOv iv Tivi (T<paXfj' TOVTOV Be bv rj crvvq- 
Oeia KaXelv eloiOe KaVOfxr^po^ tt^wto?, 

*Ilt Xaoi T iinTeTpd^aTaL /cal Toaaa /jbifirjXev, 

TTw? dv Ti9 e^o) TV'yr]'^ uTrayaycov tyjv Oeauv <f)v- 
Xdaaoi; irdXiv K 6 avTov viroTidelf; TavTy ttoctt]^ 257 
avTO) Selv oirjaeTai irapaaKevrjf; ^ koI (^povrjaew^ 
7rrjXiKr]<; wcrre Ta^; e^' eKdTepa powd^;, Kaddirep 
TTvevfiaTO^ KVf3epV7]Trjv, €vor)(r)p,6v(o<; (l)ep€iv; 

Ovfc ecTTt Oav/jLacTTOv dvTiTd^aaOac irpocTTroXe- 
/jLovarj jjLovov avTrj, "TroXv Be OavfiaaLonTepov * TOiv 
virap^dvTwv Trap avT7]<^ dyaOcov d^iov (^avrfvai. 
TOVToi^ ixeyL(TT0<i edXo) ^aatXev<; 6 ttjv 'Acr/ar 

^ After \ey6fjLevou several words are lost. 
^ \6y(f} Reiske, \6yoi Hertlein, M^S. 
^ irapaoTKevris Hertlein would read, rrjs -n-apaa-KeuTJs MSS. 
^ davuacTiwTepou MSS. ; Hertlein following Cobet reads 
6av/jLaaT6Tcpov but in later Preface would restore MSS. reading. 



things, and that if every living thing naturally desires 
hai)piness/ it is better to make it our aim to be 
congratulated on the score of happiness rather than 
to be applauded on the score of virtue. But happi- 
ness that depends on the chances of Fortune is very 
rarely secure. And yet men who are engaged in 
public life cannot, as the saying is, so much as 
breathe unless she is on their side . . . and they 
have created a merely verbal idea of a leader who 
is established somewhere above all the chances of 
Fortune in the sphere of things incorporeal and 
intelligible, just as men define the ideas, whether 
envisaging them truly or falsely imagining them. 
Or again they give us the ideal man, according to 
Diogenes " The man without a city, without a home, 
bereft of a fatherland," ^ that is to say, a man who 
can gain nothing from Fortune, and on the other 
hand has nothing to lose. But one whom we are 

in the habit of calling, as Homer did first, " The 
man to whom the people have been entrusted and 
so many cares belong," ^ how I ask shall we lead 
him beyond the reach of Fortune and keep his 
position secure ? Then again, if he subject himself 
to Fortune, how great the provision he will think 
he must make, how great the prudence he must dis- 
play so as to sustain with equanimity her variations 
in either direction, as a pilot must sustain the 
variations of the wind ! 

Yet it is nothing wonderful to withstand Fortune 
when she is merely hostile, but much more wonderful 
is it to show oneself worthy of the favours she bestows. 
By her favours the greatest of kings, the conqueror * 

^ Cf. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1. 10. 6. 

2 Cf. Oration 6. 195b, note. ^ Iliad 2. 25. '» Alexander. 


p 2 


fcaraaTpeylrdfjuevof; Aapetov kol 'S^ep^ov '^^aXcTro)- B 
repo'i Koi fxaXkov dXa^ow <j>av€i'^y iirethr] rrj<=; 
eKeivwv «/o%^}9 Karearri KvpLO<;, rovTOi<; d\6vT6<; 
To2<; ^eXecnv dpBr]v (ittcoXovto Tlepaat, M.aK€B6u€<i, 
6 TMV ^ Adrjvalcov Srj/uLOf;, XvpaKOvcnot, rd AaKeSat- 
fjLcovLMv reXr], 'Fcofiaicov crrparTjyol /cat iir* avToZ<; 
avTOKpdrope^; pLvpioi. ttoXv /j,7]ko<; dv yevoLTO 
7rdpTa<; diraptdfiovfievw rov<i hid ttXovtov fcal 
VLKa^ fcal rpviprjv diroXofievov^' ocroc Se viro rcov 
SvcTTrpayLcov e7riKXvadevTe<; BovXoi fiev dvr iXev- C 
depodVy TaireLvol he dvrl yevvaiwv Kat cr(f>68pa 
evreXelf; dvrl rwv irpoaOev aefivMV diraaiv w- 
(j)07)aav, TL fie ;^/3^ vvv MGirep e/c BeXrov /jueraypd- 
(j>ovTa KaraXeyetv; ei ydp M(f)€X€V o tmv dvOpco- 
TTCov /3io<; diropelv irapaheiy [Jbdraiv roiovrcdv. dX}C 
ovT€ earlv ovt dv yevotro irore tmv tolovtwv 
ivBer^q TrapaBeiy/jidTcov, eo)? dv to tmv dvOpcoTTcov 
Sia/jievrf yevo^. 

"Otl Be ovK eyo) fi6vo<; rrjv tv')(7]v eirl TrXetcrTOV T> 
ev TOi<i iTpaKTeoL^ Kparetv vevo/jLt/ca, Xeyotfi dv 
rjBrj aoi rd rod HXdrcovo^; e/c tmv Oav/jbacrloyv 
N6/jbcoVy elBoTi fjuev koX BiBd^avrL fie, diroBeL^uv Be 
oicTirep Tov /jlt) paOvp^etv Troiovfjuevo^; 7rapayeypa(f>d 
(Toi Tr)v prjacv a)Be 7rco<; e'X^ovaav. " ©eo? fjuev 
iravra teal /nerd 6eov TV')(r] koi Kaipo^; rd dvOpdo- 
TTiva BtaKv/SepvctXTL ^v/juiravra. rj/jbepcorepov fiT]v 
TovTOi<^ crvy^coprjaac rpirov Belv eirecrOat re'yyrjv.^^ 258; 
elra ottolov elvai ')(^pr] tov Te')(viTriv fcal Br]fiLovpyov 
TMV KoXcov Trpd^ecov kol (^aauXea delov ^ viro- 
ypd(f)(ov' " VovoocTfccov 6 K.p6vo<; dpa, KaOdirep 
rjijuel^, ^rjcri, BieXi^XvOafjiev, co? dvd pcdireia (f)VcrL(; 
^ ^etoj' Hertlein suggests, dehv MSS. 



of Asia was ensnared^ and showed himself more cruel 
and more insolent than Darius and Xerxes^ after he 
had become the master of their empire. The shafts 
of her favours subdued and utterly destroyed the 
Persians^ the Macedonians^ the Athenian nation, 
Spartan magistrates_, Roman generals^and countless ab- 
solute monarchs besides. It would be an endless busi- 
ness to enumerate all who have fallen victims to their 
wealth and victories and luxury. And as for those 
whoj submerged by the tide of their misfortunes, from 
free men have become slaves, who have been humbled 
from their high estate after all their splendour and 
become poor and mean in the eyes of all men, what 
need now to go through the list of them as though I 
were copying it from a written record ? Would 
that human life afforded no such instances ! But it 
does not nor ever will lack such, so long as the 
race of man endures. 

And to show that I am not the only one who 
thinks that Fortune has the upper hand in practical 
affairs, I will quote to you a passage from that 
admirable work the Laws of Plato. You know it 
well and indeed taught it to me, but I have set 
down the speech which runs something like this, 
and offer it as a proof that I am not really in- 
dolent. " God governs all things and with God 
Fortune and Opportunity govern all human affairs : 
but there is a milder view that Art must needs go 
with them and must be their associate." ^ He then 
indicates what must be the character of a man who is 
the craftsman and artificer of noble deeds and a 
divinely inspired king. Then he says : " Kronos there- 
fore, as I have already related, knew that human 

1 Laws 709b. 



ovhajifi ovhe/jbia iKavr) ra avOp^inva BcoiKOvcra 
avTOKparcop irdi^ra /jlt) ou^ v^peax; re teal ahtKia^; 
/ji€(TTOva'0ai, ravT ovv hiavoovfievo^ i(pi(TTr] rore B 
^aaiXeaf; /cal dp^ovra<; rat? iroXecnv tj/jlcov ovk 
dvdpo)7rov(i, dXXa yevov^; Oeiorepov koX djjbelvovo^, 
Salfjbovaf;, olov vvv rj/juel'? Bpco/jLev rot? iroifivloi'^ kcli 
oacov rjfjuepOL elatv dyeXar ov ySoi)? poo)v ovhe alya<; 
alyMV dp')(^ovTa<; Trotovjxeu avTOL<; Tcva<;, a\V r)/jbet<; 
avTMV SeaTTo^o/jLev, dfjueivov iKelvcov yevo<^. ravrov 
Br) Koi 6 Oeo'^ ^cXdvdpci)7ro<; mv yipo<; dfieivov rj/MCOv 
i(f)LaT7j TO TMV BaL/uLovcDv, Sid 7roX\^9 /mev av- 
Tol^ pa(TTcov7}<;, Bod TToXX^? 8' r/fitv, iirc/JueXo- C 
fievov rjfJLMV, elprjvr]v re Koi alBo) fcal Br) d(f)Boviav 
BiKr)(; 7rap€')(^6/jL€VOv, daracrLaara kov evBai/juova 
rd TO)v dvdpcoTTcov direipyd^ero yevr). Xeyei By kul 
vvv ovTo<; 6 A-0709 dX7)6eia ')(p(t)/jLevo';, oacov tto- 
XeoDv fir) 060'^, dXXd rt? dp'xei dvr)T6<;, ovk ecrri 
KaKOdv avTol<^ ovBe irovcov dvd-xjrv^i^;' dXXa fii- 
fieiaOaL Betv 'f)[Jbd<^ oierat. irdar) /n'tJX^^V "^^^ 
iirl Tov Kpovov Xeyofievov 0lov, /cal oaov iv r))uv D 
dOavacria^ eveari, rovrcp Treed ofievov^; Br^fiocna 
KoX IBia Ta9 T6 OLK'^cretf; koX Td<; TroXet? Bcoikclv, 
Tr)v TOV vov Btavojjbr)v ovojJLa^ovTa^ vo/jlov. el Be 
dv6p(a7ro<; el? rj oXiyap'X^ia Tt<; r) Br)/jLOKpaTLa 
y^vxr)v e^ovaa r)Bov(Ov KaX e7n6v/jLLcov 6peyo/JLevr)v 
Kul 7rXr)povo-daL tovtcjv Beo/ievrjv dp^ei Br) TroXeco? 259 
Tivo<; rj IBiooTOV KaTa7raT^aa<; Toij(; vo/bLov^;, ovk 
e<7TL (T(OTr)p[a<i fir)')^avr)^^ 



nature when endowed with supreme authority is never 
in any case capable of managing human affairs with- 
out being filled with insolence and injustice ; there- 
fore^ having regard to this he at that time set over 
our cities as kings and governors not men but beings 
of a more divine and higher race, I mean demons ; thus 
doing as we do now for our flocks and domestic herds. 
We never appoint certain oxen to rule over other 
oxen or goats to rule over goats, but we are their 
masters, a race superior to theirs. In like manner 
then God, since he loves mankind, has set over us 
a race of beings superior to ourselves, the race of 
demons ; and they with great ease both to themselves 
and us undertake the care of us and dispense peace, 
reverence, aye, and above all justice without stint, 
and thus they make the tribes of men harmonious 
and happy. And that account is a true one which 
declares that in our day all cities that are governed not 
by a god but by a mortal man have no relief from 
evils and hardships. And the lesson is that we 
ought by every means in our power to imitate that 
life which is said to have existed in the days of 
Kronos : and in so far as the principle of immortality 
is in us we ought to be guided by it in our manage- 
ment of public and private affairs, of our houses and 
cities, calling the distribution of mind Maw.'^ But 
whether the government be in the hands of one 
man or of an oligarchy or democracy, if it have a 
soul that hankers after pleasure and the lower appe- 
tites and demands to indulge these, and if such a 
one rule over a city or individual having first trampled 
on the laws, there is no means of salvation." ^ 

^ A play on words : Siavofx^ and vofjios are both connected 
with v4fxw = '' to distribute." ^ Laws 713-714; Julian 

condenses and aligKtly alters the original. 



TavTTjv iydo aot rrjv prjaLV i^eirlTrjhe^ oXrjv 
Trapeypwylra, fxr) jjue KXeineLV V7ro\d^r}<; koL 
KUKOVpyeLV /jlv6ov<; ap'X^aiovf; Trpo^epovra, TV)(pv 
fxev i/ji(f)€pM(;, ov firju a\r)6o)<^ Trdvrrj ^vyKci- 
fievovf;. dX}C 6 ye dXr)6r)<; vTT^p avrcbv X6709 
Tt (f)r}cnv; dKovec(; otl, kuv avOpwrrof; rt? fl '^V 
(fyvcret, Oelov elvai XPV '^V 'Trpoatpeaei koX hai- 
fjiova, irdv aTrXco^ i/c^aXovra to Ovtjtov koI 
Or) pledge's TTJf; "ylrv^rj^, ttXtjv 6a a dvdyKT] hia B 
rrjv Tov awfxaTo^ TrapafieveLV acorrjpiav; ravra 
et Ti<; ivvocov SeSoLKev eVl rrfKiKovrov eXxo- 
fi€VO<; ^iov, apd aoi cf^alverac rrjv ^^irtKovpeiov 
Oavfid^cLV dirpayixoavvqv koX tol'9 k'^ttov^ koI 
TO 7rpod<TT€COv TMV ^AOr]V(ov^ KoX ra? /j,vppLva<; 
Kol TO X(OKpdTOv<; hwjxdTiov; dXX! ovk eaTLV ottov 
ye iyo) TavTa irpoTLfiijo-af; toov ttovcov cjcpdrjv. 
rjhiCTTa av aoL tov^ efxavTOV irovov^ Bie^rjXOov Koi 
Ta eiriKpeixaadevTa irapa tmv (fyiXcov kol ^vyyevwv, 
0T€ T?}9 rrap v/jllv '^pX^f^V^ iraiheia^, Sei/jiaTa, C 
el fir) (Tcf)oBpa avTo<; r)'maTaao. tcl he iv ^Icovla 
7r/0O9 TOV Kol yevei irpoar^KOVTa /cal ^iXia fxaXXov 
olfcelov ovTa fiot Tvpa^OevTa irpoTepov virep dvBpo<; 
^evov fiLKpa 7ravTeX(b<; yvcopL/nov fioi yevofievov, 
TOV cro(f)LcrTOV (J)7}/jll, XeXrjOev ovBev ae. dirohrjiJiia'i 
he ov)( vTreaTrjv TOiv ^iXcav eveKa; /caiTot Ka/^re- 
pL<p puev oL(j0* 07rft)9 frvvrjpdfi'rjv irpo^ tov eTolpov D 
Tjiuv d(f)t,Ko/ji€vo<i ^Apd^LOv aKXt/To^, vTrep avTOV 
herjaofievof;. virep he tcov Tfj<; 6av/jLacria<; ^ApeTrj<; 
KTr)jjidTO)v fcal oyv eTreirovOeL irapd tmv yeiTovcov 

'A(?7jj'w»' Cobet, 'AOrjvalwv Hertlein, MSS. 


I have purposely set down the whole of this speech 
for you lest you should think that I am cheating and 
defrauding by bringing forward ancient myths which 
may have some resemblance to the truths but on 
the whole are not composed with regard to truth. 
But what is the true meaning of this narrative ? You 
hear what it says, that even though a prince be 
by nature human, he must in his conduct be divine 
and a demi-god and must completely banish from 
his soul all that is mortal and brutish, except what 
must remain to safeguard the needs of the body. 
Now if, reflecting on this, one is afraid to be con- 
strained to adopt a life from which so much is 
expected, do you therefore conclude that one ad- 
mires the inaction recommended by Epicurus, the 
gardens and suburbs of Athens and its myrtles, or 
the humble home of Vo^crates ? But never has any- 
one seen me prefer these to a life of toil. That toil 
of mine I would willingly recount to you, and the 
hazards that threatened me from my friends and 
kinsfolk at the time when I began to study under 
you, if you did not yourself know them well enough. 
You are well aware of what I did, in the first place, 
in Ionia in opposition to one who was related to me 
by ties of blood, but even more closely by ties of 
friendship, and that in behalf of a foreigner with 
whom I was very slightly acquainted, I mean the 
sophist. Did I not endure to leave the country for the 
sake of my friends ? Indeed, you know how I took 
the part of Carterius when I went unsolicited to our 
friend Araxius to plead for him. And in behalf of the 
property of that admirable woman Arete and the 
wrongs she had suffered from her neighbours, did I 



ovK eh rrjv ^pvyiav to Sevrepov d^tKOfiijv ev 
ovhe oKot^ /jltjctI 8vo, aadevov<i ijBr) fioi Traz^reXw? 
6Vto9 tov (Ta)/xaTo<; Blcl rrjv iTnyevofievrjv viro rrj<; 
TrpoTepov KUKOTraOeia^ appwajiav; aWa Br) to 
TeXevTolov irpo tt)? el<i ttjv 'EWdBa j€vofjL€vr](; 
tj/jllv dcpi^eax;, 6t6 irepl tcov i(T')(^dTcov, a)9 av 
eliroiev at iroWoi, KLvBvvevoav e^ct) tm aTpaToireBw 
nrapifxevoVi OTroLa^ €ypa<pov i7naTo\a<; irpo^ ae 260 
vvv virofivrjo-drjTL, fi'^woTe 6Bvp/j,MV irXrjpei^, /jL7]tl 
pbLKpov fj TaireLvov t) \iav dyevve^ i')(^ovaa<^. 
diTLCdV Be eirl ttjv 'KWdBa Trakiv, 6t€ /xe (pevyeiv 
iv6p,L^ov 7rdvTe<;, ou% o)? ev iopTy ttj fieylcrTrj 
TTJV Tvxr}v eiraLvSiV rjBiaTrjv e(^'r)v elvac ttju dfioi- 
firjv ifJLol Koi TO Br] Xeyopuevov B 

)(^pvaea ^aX/cetwi^, e/car^a^oc evvea^oicov 

e(f)r]v dvTr]Wd')(daL; ovt(o<; uvtI t?}? e/iiavTOv 
ecTTta? TTJV 'K\\dBa Xa%a>i/ eyavvfirjv, ovk dypov, 
ov K7)ttov, ov BcofidTLOP cKel KeKTr)p,evo<;. 

^KkXa ta(o<; eocKa iyco ra? fiev Bvairpayiaf; ovk 
dyevvo)'^ (f>epeiv, tt/jo? Be ra? nrapa t?}? tv^V^ 
Bcoped^i dyevvrj<; rt? elvac koX puKpo^, 6 ye dyairwv 
ra? ^Ad^va<; /jloXXov tov vvv irepl r/fjudf; oyKov, ttjv 
cr')(p\r)v BrjTTOvOev eKelvrjv eTracvcov, Bid Be to 
irXrjdo^ TMV TTpd^ecov tovtov alTid)/jLevo<; tov ^lov ; C 
dWd firj TTOTe ')(pr] irepl r^fjioiv dp^eivov Kpiveiv, ovk 
eh dirpa^lav Kal irpd^iv ff\e7rovTa<?, fiaXXov Be eh 
TO VvmOl aavTov Kal to 

"EpBoi 8* eKaaT0<; tJvtlv elBeir) Te')(y7)v, 



not journey to Phrygia for the second time within 
two months^ though I was physically very weak from 
the illness that had been brought on by former 
fatigues ? ^ Finally, before I went to Greece, while I 
was still with the army and running what most 
people would call the greatest possible risks, re- 
call now what sort of letters I wrote to you, never 
filled with complaints or containing anything little 
or mean or servile. And when I returned to Greece, 
when everyone regarded me as an exile, did I not 
welcome my fate as though it were some high festival, 
and did I not say that the exchange to me was most 
delightful, and that, as the saying is, I had thereby 
gained "gold for bronze, the price of a hundred 
oxen for the price of nine " ? ^ So great was my joy 
at obtaining the chance to live in Greece instead of 
in my own home, though I possessed there no land 
or garden or the humblest house. 

But perhaps you think that though I can bear 
adversity in the proper spirit, yet I show a poor 
and mean spirit towards the good gifts of Fortune, 
seeing that I prefer Athens to the pomp that now 
surrounds me ; because, you will doubtless say, I 
approve the leisure of those days and disparage my 
present life because of the vast amount of work that 
the latter involves. But perhaps you ought to judge 
of me more accurately, and not consider the question 
whether I am idle or industrious, but rather the 
precept, " Know thyself," and the saying, " Let 
every man practise the craft which he knows." ^ 

^ We know nothing more of the events here mentioned. 
^ A proverb derived from Iliad 6. 236, where Glaukos ex- 
clianges his golden armour for the bronze armour of Diomede. 
^ Aristophanes, Wasps 1431. 



M.€L^ov e/JLoiye cfyalverac ro jSao-tXevecv r] Kar 

av6 pwTTOv KoX <^i)ae(ti<i helaOai SaL/jLOVicorepa^ 

^aatXev^, ojcnrep ovv /cat HXdrayv eXeye- koI vvv UJ 

* AptcrTOTe\ov<; eh ravro crvvreivovTa Trapaypdylrco 

\6yov, 01) yXavKa *A07)vaiOi<; aycov, aX)C on /jlt] 

iravrdiraacv dfjueXo) roiv eKelvov Xoycov eTriBeL/cvv- 

fjLevo<;. ^rjal Be o dvrjp iv roL<; ttoXctlkoI^; auy- 

ypd/jLfjiaaLV' '* Et Se St] ti<^ dptorrov Oelr] to 

^aatXeveadai Tal<; TroXeac, ttw? efet ra irepX tmv 

T6KVC0V ; irorepov koI to yevo<; Sec ^aaCXeveiv; 

dXXa yiyvopbevcov ottolol nve^ erv')(^ov, j^ajBepov. 

dXXd ov irapaBooaec Kupco<; o)v toI<; T6KVot<;; dXX 261 

ovK 6Ti pdhiov rovTO TricTTevaat,' 'y^aXcTTOv yap 

Kal /jL€l^ovo'^ dperri^ rj /car dvOpcoTrivrjv <^vcnv.^ 

€^rj<; Be irepl rov /card vo/juov Xeyo/nevov jSaaiXeco^; 

Bce^eXOcov, co? ^ earlv vTrr/perrji; Kal (f)vXa^ rcov 

voficov, Kal TOVTov ovBe ^aatXea KaXcov, ovBe top 

TOLovTov elBo<; TroXireia^ ^ olofxevo^;, TrpoarlOTjorr 

** Uepl Be T»}9 Tra/uL^acnXeLa^ KaXov/jLevr]<;, avrrj 8* B 

icrrl Ka6^ fjv cip^ec irdvTWv Kara rrjv avrov jBovXr)- 

Giv 6 /SaaiXev^y BoKec tktlv ovBe Kara (pvaLV elvai 

TO Kvpiov eva Trdvrrov elvai tmv iroXiTOiV tol<; 

yap 6/jlolol<^ <f)vcreL to avTo BiKaiov dvayKalov 

elvai^ elTa fieT oXiyov (j^rjaiv' " 'O fiev ovv tov 

vovv KeXevcDv dp')(eLV BoKel KeXeveiv dp')(eLv tov 

Oeov Kal Tov<; vofjbov^' 6 Be dvOpcoirov KeXevcov 

1 as Klimek, '6s Hertlein, MSS. 

^ rhy roiovrov eJSos TroKireias Hertlein suggests, of. Aristotle 
Politics 3. 16, 1287 a, rh roiovrov elSos MSS. 



To me, at any rate, it seems that the task of 
teigning is beyond human powers, and that a king 
needs a more divine character, as indeed Plato too 
used to say. And now I will write out a passage 
from Aristotle to the same effect, not '^' bringing owls 
to the Athenians," ^ but in order to show you that I 
do not entirely neglect his writings. In his political 
treatises he says : " Now even if one maintain the 
principle that it is best for cities to be governed by 
a king, how will it be about his children ? Ought 
his children to succeed him.'* And yet if they 
prove to be no better than anybody else, that would 
be a bad thing for the city. But you may say, 
though he has the power he will not leave the 
succession to his children ? It is difficult indeed to 
believe that he will not ; for that would be too hard 
for him, and demands a virtue greater than belongs 
to human nature." ^ And later on, when he is 
describing a so-called king who rules according to 
law, and says that he is both the servant and 
guardian of the laws, he does not call him a king at 
all, nor does he consider such a king as a distinct 
form of government ; and he goes on to say : "^ Now 
as for what is called absolute monarchy, that is to say, 
when a king governs all other men according to his 
own will, some people think that it is not in 
accordance with the nature of things for one man 
to have absolute authority over all the citizens ; 
since those who are by nature equal must necessarily 
have the same rights." ^ Again, a little later he says : 
" It seems, therefore, that he who bids Reason rule 
is really preferring the rule of God and the laws, 

^ A proverb ; cf. "bringing coals to Newcastle." 

2 Aristotle, Politics 3. 15. 1286b. 3 /^^-^ 3, ig, 1287a. 



Letter to tHemIstiU^ 

TTpoaTiOrjaL kol Orjpca' rj re yap €7ndv/ua roiov- C 
Tov Koi 6 6v/jL0<; 09 ^ Si,a(TTp€(f>€c fcal Tov^ apiaTOU<; 
dvBpa<{' Scoirep avev ope^eox; o vov<; v6p,o<; eariv. 
6pd<i, (f)iX6(TO(po^ eoifcev evravda aa^oi^ cltti- 
arovvTL Kol KareyvayKon Trj<; av0p(O7rLvrj<; ^uo-eco?. 
<f>r}(Tl yap ovrco pijpaTC tovto Xiycov ovSe/iiav 
a^i,6')(^pewv eivai c^vctlv avOpcoirlvijv irpo^ roaavrrfv 
TVXV^ y'jrepo')(rjv' ovre yap rcov iraihcov to kolvtj D 
T0?9 TToXtrat? (rvficfyipov irponpLav dvOpcorrov ye 
ovra paSiov viroXap.^dvei, Ka\ iroWwv op^oi^v 
dp)(€LV ov ZiKaiov elvai (^rjat,, kol t€Xo<; iTridel*; tov 
KoXocfiMva TOL<^ epirpoadev X6yoi,<; vopuov p,ev elval 

(f)7](Tl TOV VOVV %ft>/3k 6p€^€(0<;, (p pLOVCp Ttt? 

7ro\LT€La<; iirLTpiiretv ^(^prjvat, dvhpo)v he ovSevL 6 

yap iv avTOL<; vov<;, kclv wcriv dyaOoi, avpireTrXeK- 

Tai Ovp,(p Kal eTTiOv/Jiia, Orjpioof; ^aXeTTwrarot?. 

TavTa ep>ol BoKel rot? tov Il\dTa)vo<; dKpco<; 262 

6p,o\oy€LV, irpcoTov pev oti KpeuTTova "X^pr} twv 

dp^op^evcdv elvai tov dp^ovTa, ovk eTrcTTjBevcrei 

povov, oKka fcal (pvaec hia^epovTa' oirep evpeiv 

iv dvdp(07roi<; ov paBiov ^ . . . Kal TpiTOv oti irdar) 

P'VX^^V 1^^'^^ BvvapbLV v6p,0L<; TTpoaeKTeov ovk ck tov 

TrapaxprjP'a Kei,pevoL<i ovSe co? eoiKe vvv TeOelaiv 

vir dvBpcov ov rravTr) kuto, vovv jSe^icoKOTCov, dXX^ 

ocTTi? paXXov TOV vovv Ka0ap6el<; Kal Tr)v "^v^^v 

OVK et9 Ta irapovTa d(f)opcov dBiKrjpaTa ovBe eh B 

^ ts Hertlein would add. 

^ Several words indicating the second point, enumerated 
seem to have been lost. 



but he who bids man rule, adds an element of 
the beast. For desire is a wild beast, and passion 
which warps even the best men. It follows, there- 
fore, that law is Reason exempt from desire." You 
see the philosopher seems here clearly to dis- 
trust and condemn human nature. For he says 
so in so many words when he asserts that human 
nature is in no case worthy of such an excess of 
fortune. For he thinks that it is too hard for one 
who is merely human to prefer the general weal of 
the citizens to his own children ; he says that it is 
not just that one man should rule over many who 
are his equals ; and, finally, he puts the finishing 
stroke ^ to what he has just said when he asserts that 
'^'^law is Reason exempt from desire," and that 
political affairs ought to be entrusted to Reason 
alone, and not to any individual man whatever. For 
the reason that is in men, however good they niay 
be, is entangled with passion and desire, those most 
ferocious monsters. These opinions, it seems to me, 
harmonise perfectly with Plato's ; first, that he who 
governs ought to be superior to his subjects and 
surpass them not only in his acquired habits but also 
in natural endowment ; a thing which is not easy to 
find among men ; . . . thirdly, that he ought by every 
means in his power to observe the laws, not those 
that were framed to meet some sudden emergency, 
or established, as now appears, by men whose lives 
were not wholly guided by reason ; but he must 
observe them only in case the lawgiver, having 
purified his mind and soul, in enacting those laws 
keeps in view not merely the crimes of the moment 

1 Cf. Plato, 2'heaetetus 153. 



Ta? irapedTcdG-a^ rv^a'^ ridrjcn tov<; vo/jlov^, dWa 
Ttjv T?79 TToXtreta? (f)vaiv KarafiaOayp fcal to 
SiKaLov olov^ i(TTi Tjj <pva€i KdX irorairov icm 
TahiKTjixa redeafievo'^ rfj (pva-ec, eW^ oaa Bwarov 
iariv eKeWev ivravOa fieracpepcov kul nOeU vofiov; 
T0t9 TTokirai^ KOivov<^, ovT€ €t9 (jiiXcav 0VT6 eh 
e'^dpav d(f)opa)v ovre et? 'yeirova koI ^vyyevrj' C 
Kpelaaov Se, el p^rj^e rot? /ca6^ eavrov dvOpot)7rot<;, 
aWa Toh varepov rj ^6V0L<i ypdyjra'i dTroTrep/rroL 
vop.ov<;, €'xa>v ye ovSev ovSe ekiTL^wv irpo^ avrov<; 
e^euv lBlcotikov avvdXXaypa. eTrel /cat tov XoXcova 
TOP (To^ov dKovco yLtGTa T(av ^iXwv (Tvp^^ovXevad- 
p,evov virep t7}9 toov ')(^peo3V dvacpeaeco^; tol^j p,ev 
ev7ropLa<; d(f>opp,r)v, avrtp he alcr^vvrj<i alriav irapa- 
a^elv, Kol ravra rw iroXiTevp^aTi top Srjp.ov eXev- 
BepdxjavTa. ovtw^ ov paSiov ecrrc rd<; TotavTa<; D 
eKcpvyelv Krjpa<i, kclv tov avTov vovv 7rapda')(r) tc<; 
aTradr) Trpo^ ttjv iroXiTeLav. 

'^A ^eS^o)? eyo) 7roXXd/ct<; etKOTCdf; eiraiVM tov ^/x-- 
irpoaOev jSlov, koI aol Treidop^evo^ p^dXiaTa TavTa 
eycb Btavoovp^cu, ov^ otl p^oi tov ^rjXov irpo^; 
eKelvov<^ pLovov e(j>r]<; irpoKeladau tol'? avhpa^, 
^oXcova KOL AvKovpyov fcal TiiTTaKov, dXXd kol 
OTi pbeTa^rivai pue (f)r)^ eK Trj<^ viroaTeyov <^iXo- 
(ro(f)ia<; tt/oo? ttjv vTraidpLOV. coairep ovv, el tS> 263 
%aX67r&)9 icai p,oXL<; vyieLa<i ^veKa t?}9 avTov yvp,- 
va^opuevw pL€TpL(0(; oc/caSe irpovXey6<^, otl *' Nw 
^/C€i9 669 ^OXvpLiriav koI p.eTa^e/3ijKa<i e/c Trj<i ev 
T& ScopbaTLcp TraXalaTpaf; eirl to aTdSiov tov Ato9, 
ov OeaTCLf; e^ei^; tov^; re d'iTavTa')(o6ev ^'^iXXrjvaf; 

^ oUv Hertlein suggests, h MSS. 


or immediate contingencies ; but rather recognises 
the nature of government and the essential nature of 
justice, and has carefully observed also the essential 
nature of guilt, and then applies to his task all the 
knowledge thus derived, and frames laws which 
have a general application to all the citizens without 
regard to friend or foe, neighbour or kinsman. And 
it is better that such a lawgiver should frame and 
promulgate his laws not for his contemporaries only 
but for posterity also, or for strangers with whom he 
neither has nor expects to have any private dealings. 
For instance, I hear that the wise Solon, having 
consulted his friends about the cancelling of debts, 
furnished them with an opportunity to make money, 
but brought on himself a disgraceful accusation. ^ 
So hard is it to avoid such fatalities, even when 
a . man brings a passionless mind to the task of 

And since this sort of thing is what I dread, it is 
natural that I should often dwell on the advantages 
of my previous mode of life, and I am but obeying 
you when I reflect that you said not only that I 
must emulate those famous men Solon, Lycurgus 
and Pittacus, but also that I must now quit the 
shades of philosophy for the open air. This is as 
though you had announced to a man who for his 
health's sake and by exerting himself to the utmost 
was able to take moderate exercise at home : " Now 
you have come to Olympia and have exchanged the 
gymnasium in your house for the stadium of Zeus, 
where you will have for spectators Greeks who have 

^ Before Solon's measure to cancel debts was generally 
known, some of his friends borrowed large sums, knowing 
that they would not have to repay them. 




KUi TTpcoTOVfi y€ TOV<; cravrov TToXtra?, virep a)V 
dyayvL^ecrOaL XPV' tivcl'^ he /cal tmv ^ap/Sdpwv, 
ot)<; ifCTrXrj^ai, ')(^p€cov, (po^epcoripav avrol^ rrjp 
TrarpiSa to ye eh ae vvv y)Kov einhei^avTa^' Kare- 
ySaXe? dv evOeco<; koI rpefjuetp e7roi7)(ja<^ irpo Trj<; 
dycovLa's' ovtco Kdpbe vvv vo/jLi^e BiaredrjvaL rolf; B 
T0L0VT0L<; \oyoL<;. /cal irepl p,ev tovtcov etre 6p6o)<i 
eyvwKa vvv eXre ev fiipet acpdWofiai rov Trpoarj- 
KOVTO<; eire koI tov iravTOf; BiafMaprdvo), BcBd^ec<i 
avTiKa fjbdXa. 

Tirep Be mv diroprjaai /jlol 7rpo9 rrjv eTTKTToXrjv C 
T^v arjv TvapecTTT], o) (fylXr) KecfyaXrj /cal irdcrrj^ 
efjboiye r^yiti;? d^ia, ^ovXofiai BrfXcoaar aacfyearepov 
yap 7rct)9 VTrep avTMV eTnOv/jLco fiaOelv. ecprjada 
on TOV ev ttj irpd^et, irapd tov ^cXoaocpov iirai- 
vel<^ ^iov, Koi TOV ^ApicTTOTeXr) tov ao(f)bv e/cdXet(; 
jxdpTVpa, TTjv evBaifJbOviav ev T(p irpaTTeuv ev Tide- 
fjbevov, Kol TTjv Bia^opdv a/cojrovvTa tov t€ iroXi,' 
TL/cov jSiov /cat Trj<; ev ttj decopua ^(orj<;, BiaTropelv 
arra irepl avTcov, /cal ttjv jJbev decopiav ev dXXoi<; 
TTpOTL/jidv, eiraivelv Be evTavOa tov^ tmv KaX(ov 
irpd^eoDv dp')(^iTeKTOva<^. tovtov<; Be avTO<i fiev J) 
elvai (j>rj(; toi)? ^aaiXea^, ^ Apco-T0T6Xr)<; Be etprj/cev 
ovBa/jLOv KaTa ttjv vtto aov irpoaTeOelaav Xe^cv, 
irXeov Be OdTepov ef a)v Trapayeypacpaf; dv t*9 
vorjaeie, to yap " MaXtcrra Be irpaTTeiv Xeyofiev 
KvpLco<; /cal toov i^coTepoKMv irpd^ecov tov<; Tal<; 
Biavoiai^; dp^LTeKTOva^^ '* et? Tom vofioOeTaf; Kal 



come from all parts, and foremost among them youi* 
own fellow-citizens, on whose behalf you must enter 
the lists ; and certain barbarians will be there also 
whom it is your duty to impress, showing them your 
fatherland in as formidable a light as lies in your 
power." You would have disconcerted him at once 
and made him nervous before the games began. 
You may now suppose that I have been affected in 
the same manner by just such words from you. And 
you will very soon inform me whether my present 
view is correct, or whether I am in part deceived as 
to my proper course or whether indeed I am wholly 

But I should like to make clear to you the points 
in your letter by which 1 am puzzled, my dearest 
friend to whom I especially am bouna to pay 
every honour : for I am eager to be more precisely 
informed about them. You said that you approve 
a life of action rather than the philosophic life, 
and you called to witness the wise Aristotle who 
defines happiness as virtuous activity, and discussing 
the difference between the statesman's life and the 
life of contemplation, showed a certain hesitation 
about those lives, and though in others of his writings 
he preferred the contemplative life, in this place you 
say he approves the architects of noble actions. But 
it is you who assert that these are kings, whereas 
Aristotle does not speak in the sense of the words that 
you have introduced : and from what you have quoted 
one would rather infer the contrary. For when he 
says : " We most correctly use the word ' act ' of those 
who are the architects of public affairs by virtue of 
their intelligence," ^ we must suppose that what he 

Aristotle, Politics 7. 3. 1325b. 

Q 2 


rov<; iroXiTLKov^ (PtXoaocj^ov^ fcal Travra^; airXM^; 
rov<i v(p T6 Kol \6yfp Trpdrrovra^;, ov')(l Be eh TOv<i 
avTOUpyov'^ /cal tmp iroXLTiKMv irpd^ewv epydra^i 264 
elprjaOai vo/jLtcneov' 0*9 ovk diro'^^^pr) fjuovov evdv- 
fjLTjdrjvai /cat KaravorjcraL kolI to Trpa/criov toI<; 
dXXoL<; (ppdcrat, irpoarjKeL he avTo2<; eKaara jiera- 
'^(^eipi^eaOaL fcal Trpdrreiv o)V ol vofiOL Stayopevova-t 
KOL TToXXdKLf; OL Katpol TrpoaavayKd^ovac, ttXtju 
el fiT) TOP dp'^LreKTova KaXov/buev, KaO direp" O fi/npo^ 
TOP 'Hpa/cXea /caXelv etcoOev ev rfj iroiTjaev " fieyd- 
X(i)V eirddTopa epywvy avTovpyorarov dwdpTcov 

Et he TOVT dX7jO€<; viroXafi^dvofjiev 7) /cat fjuovov B 
ev Tft) irpdrreiv rd KOLvd cf)ap.ev evBai/jLOPa^; tov<; 
Kvptov; ^ 6vTa<; koI fia<TiXevovTa<; ttoXXcjp, tl irore 
irepl Xoyfcpdrovq epov/nev; TivOayopav he /cal 
Arjfio/cptrov /cal tov KXa^ofieviov ^Ava^ayopav 
t(T(o<; Bid TTjv Oewplav Kar dXXo (pTjaeof; evhai- 
fjbova<i' S(OKpdT7}<; Be ttjv OecDpiav irapairrjadixevo'; 
/cal TOV TTpaKTLKOv dyaTTTjca^; ^iov ovBe t^9 7a- 
fjuerrjf; rjv T779 avrov /cvpio<i ovBe tov 7raiB6<;' yirov C 
ye Bvolv Tj TpiMV ttoXctcov e/ceivo) /cpuTelv V7ry)p')(ev; 
dp' ovv OVK rjv e/c€Lvo<; irpaKTLKo^;, eirel /j,r]Bevo<; rjv 
Kvpio^; eyd> pkv ovv ^AXe^dvBpov (f)r)fjbl fiel^ova 
TOV Xco(f>povba/cov /caTepydaaadai, ttjv IlXdT(ovo<; 
avT(p (To^lav dvaTideL<i, ttjv 'Bevo<pcbvTO(; aTpa- 
TTjyiav^ TTJV ' AvTco-devov^; dvBpelav, ttjv *E/)6- 
Tpi/crjv <f)LXoao(f)iav, Tr)V iSJleyapiKrjVy tov K.efir]Ta, 

^ iv Tff trparrfiv . . . rovs Kvpiovs Hertlein suggests, rovi iv 
TCf irpdmiy . . . Kvpiovs MSS. 



says applies to lawgivers and political philosophers 
and all whose activity consists in the use of intelli- 
gence and reason_, but that it does not apply to those 
who do the work themselve.s and those who transact 
the business of politics. But in their case it is not 
enough that they should consider and devise and 
instruct others as to what must be done^ but it is 
their duty to undertake and execute whatever the 
laws ordain and circumstances as well often force 
on them ; unless indeed we call that man an archi- 
tect who is "well versed in mighty deeds/' ^ a phrase 
which Homer in his poems usually applies to 
Heracles^ who was indeed of all men that ever 
lived most given to do the work himself. 

But if we conceive this to be true, or that only 
those are happy who administer public affairs and who 
are in authority and rule over many, what then are 
we to say about Socrates ? As for Pythagoras and 
Democritus and Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, you will 
perhaps say that they were happy in another sense 
of the word, because of their philosophic speculations. 
But as forSocrates who,having rejected the speculative 
life and embraced a life of action, had no authority 
over his own wife or his son, can we say of him that he 
governed even two or three of his fellow-citizens ? 
Then will you assert that since he had no authority 
over any one he accomplished nothing ? On the 
contrary I maintain that the son of Sophroniscus ^ 
performed greater tasks than Alexander, for to him 
I ascribe the wisdom of Plato, the generalship of 
Xenophon, the fortitude of Antisthenes, the Eretrian^ 

1 Odyssey 21. 26. '-^ The father of Socrates. 

^ This school was founded by Phaedo in Elis and later was 
transferred by Menedemus to Eretria. 



TOP ^i/JL/jblav, TOP ^^alBcova, fivpiov^ aWov^' kuI D 
ovircD (pTj/jbl Ta<; yevofieva^ tj/jllv ivOevB* airoiKlaq, 
TO AvKCLOV, TTfv %Todv, TO.? ^ A/caSrf/jLelaf;. tl<; ovv 
iaot)Orj 8ia Tr]v ^ AXe^dvhpov vifcrjv; Tt9 TroXt? 
ajxeivov (okyj^t]; rt? avTOV yeyove ^€\tl(ov IBico- 
Tr)<; dvrjp; 7r\ov(Tia)T6pov(; fiev yap ttoWou? av 
€vpoi<;, ao(f)oi)T€pop Se ovheva ovSe awc^povecTTepov 
avTOV avTov, el firj fcai fJuaWov dXa^ova Kai 
vTrepoirTrjv. oaoi Be crco^ovTai vvv €K (f)L\oao(f)ia<;, 
Sea TOP ^ayKpuTTj crco^ovTaL. koX tovto ovk eyco 
/jl6vo<;, * ApiaTOTeXrj^; Be 7rp6Tepo<;^ eoiKev evvorj<7a<^ 265 
elirelv, on fir) ixelov avTW TrpocrrjKei <^povelv eirX Ty 
OeoXoycKT] auyypa^f} tov KaOeXovTO^; T7]v Uepacou 
BvvafjLLV. Kai jjuol BoKel tovto eK€Lvo<; 6p6S)<; ^vv- 
vorjcrar vlkclv fiev yap dvBpeia^ eaTi fidXiaTa Kai 
T^9 TU%^9, KeiaOco Be, el ffovXei, Kai Trj(; evTpe'^ov<; 
TavTT]^ (l)pov7](Teco<;, d\7]0et<; Be virep tov deov B6^a<; 
dvaXa^elv ovk dpeT7]<; fiovov Trj<; reXcta? epyov 
eaTiv, aXX' eTnaTrjcreLev av rt? et/coTCt)9, iroTepov B 
'X^pr] 70V TOiovTOV dvBpa rj Oeov KaXelv. el yap 
opOS)^ e')(eL TO Xeyofxevov, otl 7re(f>VKev CKaaTov 
viro Twv oIkglcov yvcopi^eaOai, ttjv Oeiav ovaiav o 
yvcopLcraf; Oelo^; Ti9 av elKOTco^ vojjllI^olto, 

^ irpSrepos Hertlein suggests, itp6rfpov MSS, 


and Megarian ^ philosophies, Cebes, Sinimias,^ Phaedo 
and a host of others ; not to mention the offshoots 
derived from the same source, the Lycemn, the Stoa 
and the Academies. Who, I ask, ever found salvation 
through the conquests of Alexander? What city 
was ever more wisely governed because of them, what 
individual improved ? Many indeed you might find 
whom those conquests enriched, but not one whom 
they made wiser or inore temperate than he was by 
nature, if indeed they have not made him more 
insolent and arrogant. Whereas all who now find 
their salvation in philosophy owe it to Socrates. 
And I am not the only person to perceive this fact 
and to express it, for Aristotle it seems did so before 
me, when he said that he had just as much right to 
be proud of his treatise on the gods as the conqueror ^ 
of the Persian empire. And I think he was perfectly 
correct in that conclusion. For military success is 
due to courage and good fortune more than any- 
thing else or, let us say, if you wish, to intelligence 
as well, though of the common everyday sort. But 
to conceive true opinions about God is an achievement 
that not only requires perfect virtue, but one might 
well hesitate whether it be proper to call one who 
attains to this a man or a god. For if the saying is 
true that it is the nature of everything to become 
known to those who have an affinity with it, then 
he who comes to know the essential nature of God 
would naturally be considered divine. 

^ The Megarian school founded by Euclid was finally 
absorbed by the Cynics. 

■^ Simniias and Cebes were Pythagoreans ; cf. Plato, Phaedo, 
where they discuss with Socrates. 

* Alexander ; Julian seems to be misquoting Plutarch, 
M or alia 78 d. 



AXX' eVetS?; ttoXiv ioLKa/j,€v et? rbv Oewprjfia- 
TLKOV opfJbTjaavTe^ /3lov tovto) irapajBdWetv rbv 
irpaKTiKoVy ef a/5%^9 TrapacTrjaa/jiivov koX aov rrjv 
<TvyKpL(TLV, avToyv iKCivcov, a)v iTre/jLvrjadrj^;, ^ Apelov, C 
NiKoXaov, %paavWov koI iS/lovacoviov fivrj/juo- 
vevaco. tovtcov yap ou^ ottco^ tl^ r]v Kvpuo^ Trj<^ 
avrov TToXeft)?, aX)C 6 puev ^' Kpeio^, co? (^acri, kol 
Si,So/JLevr)v avT(p ryv AtyvTrrov €7rirpo7r6vcrat 
iraprjTTjaaTOy SpdavWofj Be Tc/SepLcp iriKpw kol 
(jyvcrec %aXe7r&) rvpdvvcp ^vyyevofJievo^y el firj Sta 
T(bv KaTa\ei<p6 evTCov vtt avrov \6ycov direXoyrj- 
aaTO, Bei^a<^ oottl^ yv, a)(f>\ev av el<; re\o<; al(T')(v- D 
vr)v avairdWaKTov, ovrcof; avrov ovBev Mvqaev rj 
TToXcreta, NAA:oXao9 Be irpd^ecov fiev ov [xeyaKwv 
avrovpyo<; yeyove, yvcopifjuo^ Be ean fjuaWov Bia 
rov<; inrep avrSiv \6yov<;, Kal M.ova(ovco<; i^ oiv 
eiradev dvBpeiay^ /cal vr] AC yvey/cev iyKpar(o<; rrjv 
ro3V rvpdvvcov ayjuorrjra yeyove yvcopcfio^;, laccx; ovk 
eXarrov evBaifJLOvoyv e/celvcov rcov ra? /jLeyd\a<; 
iinrpOTrevadvrcov ^a(TL\eia<;. "ApeLo<; Be 6 rr)v 
einrpoirrjv rrj<; Klyvirrov TrapaLrrjad/jbevof; e/ccbv 266 
avrov arrearepei rov Kparlarov rekov<; el rovr 
(pero fcvpccorarov. av Be avro<; rjfuv dirpaKro^ el, 
fjb7]re arparrjyayv /nyre Brjp^rjyopcov fjbrjre eOvov^ rj 
TToXeo)? ap')((Dv; aW ovk av <^ai7] vovv e')((Dv 
avrjp. e^earc ydp aoc (f)i\oa6<f)Ov<; 7roXXov<; drro- 
<^r)vavri, el Be fir), rpei<^ rj rerrapa^ /Luei^ova rbv 
^iov evepyerrjaac roov dvOpcoTTcov ttoWcov ofjuov 
^aaiXecov. ov /jLCKpd<^ ydp fjueplBof; 6 (f)L\6ao<po<^ B 



But since 1 seem to have harked back to the Hfe 
of contemplation and to be comparing it with the 
life of action^ though in the beginning of your letter 
you declined to make the comparison, I will remind 
you of those very philosophers whom you mentioned, 
Areius,^ Nicolaus,^ Thrasyllus,^ and Musonius.* So 
far from any one of these governing his own city, 
Areius we are 'told refused the governorship of Egypt 
when it was offered to him, and Thrasyllus by becom- 
ing intimate with the harsh and naturally cruel tyrant 
Tiberius would have incurred indelible disgrace for 
all time, had he not cleared himself in the writings 
that he left behind him and so shown his true 
character ; so little did his public career benefit 
him. Nicolaus did not personally do any great deeds, 
and he is known rather by his writings about such 
deeds ; while Musonius became famous because he 
bore his sufferings with courage, and, by Zeus, 
sustained with firmness the cruelty of tyrants ; and 
perhaps he was not less happy than those who 
administered great kingdoms. As for Areius, when 
he declined the governorship of Egypt he deliberately 
deprived himself of the highest end, if he really 
thought that this was the most important thing. 
And you yourself, — may I ask, do you lead an inactive 
life because you are not a general or a public speaker 
and govern no nation or city } Nay, no one with 
any sense would say so. For it is in your power by 
producing many philosophers, or even only three or 
four, to confer more benefit on the lives of men than 
many kings put together. To no trivial province 

^ Cf. Caesars 326b note. ^ A historian under Augustus. 
^ The Platonic philosopher and astrologer, cf. Tacitus, 
Annals 6. 21. * The Stoic philosopher exiled by Nero. 



7rpo€(TT7)K€v, ovSc, KaOdiTep e(^>79, avfjb^ov\7J<i earc 
fioinjf; rfjfi virep tmv kolvwv eKelvo^ KvpLo^, ovSe r) 
TTpa^L^i eh Xoyov avOi^ avrw Trepuo-rarat, €py(p Se 
fie^accov Tov<i X070U9 fcal ^aLv6fJb€vo<^ roiovTO^y 
oiroiov; jBovXerai tov<; aWovq elvat, Trcdavayrepof; 
av elrj /cat tt/jo? to Trpdrreiv dvvai,/jLcorepo<; rcov i^ 
€7nTd<yfjLaT0<; iirl ra? KaXdf irpd^eLq irapop- C 


AXX eTravLreov eh dp')(r]v real avfnrepavriov 

rrjv eTnaToXrjv fj^ei^ova tcrco? ovaav rov Seovro^;. 

ean he ev avry rb Ke^dXaiov, otl /uLijre rov irovov 

<f)€vy(i)v jJLrjre rrjv rjSovrjv Orjpevcou /jLyre dirpay- 

^ocrvvq^ Kal pacrrcoj/ry? epcov rov ev ry TroXireia 

Bvaxepalvfo ^lov d\\\ oirep e(f)r}u i^ dp-^r)^, ovre 

TTaiheiav efiauTO) crvz/ei^cb? rocravrrjv ovre <f)vaeQ)^ D 

VTrepo^ijv, Kal TTpoaeri BeBico^, fjurj (bi\o<T(pLav, ^9 

epcov ov/c ecpLKOfMrjv, eh tov<; vvv dvOpco7rov<; ovSe 

aWco<; evSoKt/jbovcrav hia^aXXco, irdXai re eypacjiov 

i/celva Kal vvu rd<; irap' vficov eirLTiiJbrjaei^ direXv- 

crdfjurfv eh Svva/jLcv. 

AtSoiT) Se 6 deo<; t7)v dpio-rr^v tv')(7)v Kal 

(ppovrjo-LV d^iav rrj^; tv')(7](;, o)? eyo) vvv €K re 

Tov KpeiTTOvo'^ TO ye irXeov Kal irap vfjuSyv tmv 

<j)L\o(TO<f)ovvTcov aTrdarj /Jirj^avfj ^ /3or)0r)Teo<; elvai 267 

fioi SoKCi), irpoTeTayjJbevo^ vfiojv Kal TrpoKtvSvvevcov. 

el Be Tc /jiet^ov dyaOov t?}? rj/neTepa^; 7rapacrKevrj<; 

Kal r)<i vTrep e/iiavTOV yvcoiiir}<; e^co Toh dvOpcairoi'^ 

Bl tj/jlmv 6 deo^i irapday^oL, ')(^a\e'TraiveLv ov 'yprj 

7rpo<; TOf? e/iiov(; \oyov<;. iyo) yap ovBev ejxavTS) 

^ anda-p fi-qxavy follows vfiwv in MSS, ; Hertlein suggests 
present reading. 



is the philosopher appointed, and, as you said yourself, 
he does not only direct counsels or public affairs, nor 
is his activity confined' to mere words ; but if he con- 
firm his words by deeds and show himself to be such 
as he wishes others to be, he may be more convincing 
and more effective in making men act than those 
who urge them to noble actions by issuing commands. 

But I must go back to what I said at the begin- 
ning, and conclude this letter, which is perhaps 
longer already than it should be. And the main 
point in it is that it is not because I would avoid hard 
work or pursue pleasure, nor because I am in love 
with idleness and ease that I am averse to spending 
my life in administration. But, as I said when 
I began, it is because I am conscious that 1 have 
neither sufficient training nor natural talents above 
the ordinary ; moreover, I am afraid of bringing 
reproach on philosophy, which, much as I love it, I 
have never attained to, and which on other accounts 
has no very good reputation among men of our day. 
For these reasons I wrote all this down some time 
ago, and now I have freed myself from your charges 
as far as I can. 

May God grant me the happiest fortune possible, 
and wisdom to match my fortune ! For now I think 
I need assistance from God above all, and also from 
you philosophers by all means in your power, since I 
have proved myself your leader and champion in 
danger. But should it be that blessings greater 
than of my furnishing and than the opinion that I 
now have of myself should be granted to men 
by God through my instrumentality, you must not 
resent my words. For being conscious oi no good 



(7VV€tB(b<; dyadov ttXtjv rovro fxovov, ore fjur^Be 

otofxat rk jjieyiara e^^ov e'xcov re^ ovBev, 009 

opa? avTo^y el/coTCi)^ /Sow Kal fxaprvpofxat ^rj 

/jL€yd\a irap tj/jlcov dirairelv, dXkd rw 6ew to B 

irdv iirirpe'TreLV' ovrco yap iyco rcov re iWec/JL- 

fidrcov elrjv av dvevdvvo^ Kau, yevo/ievcov drrdvTwv 

Be^CMV, evyvcofjLOdv dv Kal 'fierpio^ eorjv, ovk 

dWorpiocf; i/xavrbv €pyoi<; eirtypdcjxov, rw dew 

he, oiairep ovv BuKaiov, TrpoaavareOeiKox; drravTa 

avTOf; re etaopiai Kal vfid^ irpOTpeircd rrjv %a/3ti^ 


^ T6 Hertlein suggests, ye MSS. 



thing in me, save this only, that I do not even think 
that I possess the highest talent, and indeed have 
naturally none, I cry aloud and testify ^ that you 
must not expect great things of me, but must entrust 
everything to God. For thus I shall be free from 
responsibility for my shortcomings, and if everything 
turns out favourably I shall be discreet and moderate, 
not putting my name to the deeds of other men,^ 
but by giving God the glory for all, as is right, it 
is to Him that I shall myself feel gratitude and I 
urge all of you to feel the same. 

^ Demosthenes, De Corona 23. - Cf. Caesars 323 b. 




Of the manifestoes addressed by Julian to Rome, 
Sparta, Corinth, and Athens, defending his acceptance 
of the title of Emperor and his open rupture with 
Constantius, the last alone survives. It was written 
in Illyricum in 361, when Julian was on the march 
against Constantius, and is the chief autliority for 
the events that led to his elevation to the Imperial 
rank. Julian writes to the Athenians of the fourth 
Christian century as though they still possessed the 
influence and standards of their forefathers. He 
was well known at Athens, where he had studied 
before his elevation to the Caesarsliip and he was 
anxious to clear himself in the eyes of the citizens. 
For the first time lie ventures to speak the truth 
about Constantius and to describe the latter's 
ruthless treatment of his family.. His account of the 
revolution at Paris is supplemented by Ammianus 
20, Zosimus 3. 9, and the Epitaph on Julian by 





HoW&v eipyaa jjuevcov to?? Trpoyovoc^; vjulcov, e<^' 
ol? ovK iK€LVOi<; [Jbovov Tore i^rjv, dWa /cal vjmv 
vvv e^ecTTL (fyiXoTLfiecadat, koI ttoWcov iyr]yep/jL€- 
pcov rpoTratcov virep re d7rdarj<i Trj<; 'KXXdBo<; /cocvfj 
Kol Kar ihiav virep avrrj^; r?}? TroXeo)?, ev ol^ 
TjycoviaaTO p^ovr] 7rp6<; re tov<; dWovf; "KXXrjvaf; 
fcal TTyoo? Tov ^dpjSapov, ovhev eari rrfXiKOVTOv 
epyov ovBe dvSpayaOla roaavTrj, 7rp6<; fjv ovk B 
evean /cal Tac<; dWaa dfjLLXXrjOrjvac TroXecn. 
rd p,ev yap /xe^' vfjLwv /cal avrat, rd Be /car 
ISiav elpydaavTO. Kal tva fir) p,e[juvr]p,evo<; eTrecra 
dvTiTrapa/SdXXcov rj Trporofidv erepa^ erepav ev ol^ 
Bi.a/jL<pi,a^rfTovaL vo/jUicrOelrjv rj Trpb^; to XvaireXovv, 
coairep ol p^Tope<;, evBeearepov iiratvetv ra? iXar- 
TOVfjieva<;, tovto ideXw (ppdcrac p,6vov virep vp^cov, o5 C 
jULTjSev dvTLiraXov e^o/jLep i^evpelv irapd tol^ dX- 
Xot9 "EiXXr](TLV, i/c T7}9 TraXaidf; cf)r]/jLrj<; eh rj/jud^; 
TTapaSeSo/jLevov. dp'^ovroyv fiev Aa/ceSacpovlcov ov 
fila Tr)v dp-)(i]vy dXXd Bo^r) BLKatoavvr}<; TrapeiXeaOe, 


Many were the achievements of your forefathers 
of which you are still justly proud^ even as they 
were of old ; many were the trophies for victories 
raised by them, now for all Greece in common, 
now separately for Athens herself, in those days 
when she contended single-handed against all the 
rest of Greece as well as against the barbarian : 
but there was no achievement and no display of 
courage on your part so prodigious that other 
cities cannot in their turn rival it. For they too 
wrought some such deeds in alliance with you, and 
some on their own account. And that I may not by 
recalling these and then balancing them be thought 
either, to pay more honour to one state than to another 
in the matters in which they are your rivals, or 
to praise less than they deserve those who proved 
inferior, in order to gain an advantage, after the 
manner of rhetoricians, I desire to bring forward on 
your behalf only this fact to which 1 can discover no- 
thing that can be set against it on the part of the other 
Greek states, and which has been assigned to you by 
ancient tradition. When the Lacedaemonians were 
in power you took that power away from them not 
by violence but by your reputation for justice ; and 



/cal TOP ^ ApiareiSrjV top SiKatov ol Trap* vfitu 
iOpey^ravTO vofioi. fcaiToi ye ravra outo)? ovTa 
Xa/jL7rpa rcKfiTjpia Bia XajuLTrpoTepcov ol/xai, tmv 269 
epycov ofjL(o<; eTncrrcoaaaOe. ro /jLEv yap So^ai 
Bifcacoi^ to"ft>9 dv T6) Kal ■\lrevBco<; avfju^alrj, koI 
TU)(pv ov irapdho^ov iv 7roXkoi<^ <pau\oc<; eva 
yeveaOai airovBatov. rj yap ov)(l Kal irapa 
M?;Soi9 v/jLvelrai ri^; ATjtoKrj^; "Affapi<; re iv 
'Tirep^opeoL^ Kal 'Az^a^a/^crt? iv XKv6at<;; virep 
wv Tovro rjv Oavfiacrrov, on irapa toI<; aScKco- 
Tdroi<; yeyovore*^ eOveai rrjv Slktjv o/xo)? irifirjaav, 
Tft) fiev akr^dci}^, 6 he Trj<; ^^eta? X^P^^ TrXarro- B 
lievo<^. Brjfjiov Be oiXov Kal iroXiv ipaarTa<; epycov 
Kal \6ya)V BiKaiwv efoj t/;9 Trap v/mv ov paSiov 
evpelv. jBovXo/jLac Se t'/^a? evof; tmv Trap iifuv 
ttoWmv ye ovrcov epycov vTropuvrjcrai. Se/jLLcrro- 
KXeovi yap pbera ra ^rjBiKa yvco/jbrjv elcnjyeLcrdaL 
Btavoovfjuevov Xddpci Kara^Xe^ai ra vecopia rcov 
'EiXX7Jvcov, elra fir] roXfjbMVTO'^ eh rov 8r]fiov C 
XeyetVy evl Be o/jLoXoyovvTo<s irtaTevcreiv to diroppr]- 
Tov, ovirep av 6 Brj/jio<^ x^ipoTovyjcraf; TrpoeXrjTaiy 
Trpov^dXeTO fiev 6 Brjfiof; tov ^ KptaTeiBr^v 6 Be 
aKovaa^ Tr]<; yvco/j,rj<; eKpvyfre f^ev to prjdev, 
i^rfveyKe Be el<; tov Brjp^op, (W9 ovTe XvcrtTeXecTTepov 
ovTe dBcKcoTepov etr) tl tov ^ovXev/iiaTO<;' Kal 



it was your laws that nurtured Aristides the Just. 
Moreover, brilliant as were these proofs of your 
virtue, you confirmed them by still more brilliant 
actions. For to be reputed just might perhaps 
happen to any individual even though it were not 
true ; and perhaps it would not be surprising that 
among many worthless citizens there should be found 
one virtuous man. For even among the Medes 
is not a certain Deioces ^ celebrated, and Abaris ^ 
too among the Hyperboreans, and Anacharsis '^ among 
the Scythians ? And in their case the surprising 
thing was that, born as they were among nations 
who knew nothing of justice, they nevertheless 
prized justice, two of them sincerely, though the 
third only pretended to do so out of self-interest. 
But it would be hard to find a whole people and 
city enamoured of just deeds and just words except 
your own. And I wish to remind you of one out 
of very many such deeds done in your city. After 
the Persian war Themistocles * was planning to 
introduce a resolution to set fire secretly to the 
naval arsenals of the Greeks, and then did not dare 
to propose it to the assembly ; but he agreed to 
confide the secret to any one man whom the people 
should elect by vote ; and the people chose Aristides 
to represent them. But he when he heard the 
scheme did not reveal what he had been told, but 
reported to the people that there could be nothing 
more profitable or more dishonest than that advice. 

1 The first King of Media ; reigned 709-656 B.C. 

2 A priest of Apollo whose story and date are uncertain. 

^ A Scythian prince who visited Athens at the end of the 
sixth century b. o. ; cf , Cicero, TiLsculan Disputations 5. 32 ; 
Lucian, Anacharsis. 

* The story is told in Plutarch, Themistodea. 



7) TToXc^ airey^rrf^iaaro irapa'X^prj/Jba /cal iraprjrrj- 
aaro, Trdvv ye vrj ACa iJbe<ya\oy^v')(a)(; /cal ov 
iXPV^ '^po'TTov dvSpa<; viro fidprvpt rfj (ppovt/jLO)- D 
rdrrj Oew Tp€(f)0/Ji6VOV<;. 

Ovfcovp el ravra Trap* vfjuv /jukv r}v iraXai, 
(Tco^erai Se ef eKeivov koI et? vfia^; en Tr)(; tmv 
irpoyovoov dperrj'^ Mairep eixirvpevfid tl ap^iKpov, 
€lic6<i ecTTLV v/jLd<; ovK et9 to p,eyeOo<; tmv irparro- 
fievcov d(f)Opav ouSe e'l r^? Mairep St' depo<; lirrd- 
fievo<; Sea t^}? 77)9 i^dScaev dfirj^dvw Td')(^ei 
/cal drpvTCp pfiofirj, a/coTrelv Be oto) ravra /nerd 
rod SiKaiov Kareipyacrrai, Kara av fxev (paivrjrat 270 
^vv Sifcrj irpdrrwv, IBia re avrov ta(o<; Kal 
hrjfjboaia Trai/re? erraLvelre, rrj^ hiKr]^ he oXtyay- 
prjaa^; drifid^OLro av irap^ v/jumv el/cora)^. ovBev 
yap o{/Tft>9 earlv co? to BiKaiov dBeXcjiov <^povrjaei. 
Tov<i ovv dri/jid^ovraf; rovro BtKai(o<^ av Kal 
o)? €69 rrjv Trap vfilv Oeov dcre^ovvra^ e^eXavvoire. 
^ovKofiaL ovv vfjulv ra Kar ifiavrov ovk dyvoova 
fiev dirayyeVkaL Be 6/iico<;, 0770)9, ei n XeXijOev etA:o9 B 
Be evca Kal oaa jndXcara roL<; iracn yvaxrdrjvac 
rrpoarjKer vjuv re Kal BC v/ncov rot^ dWoL<i 
' YiKXr^ai yevoiro yvdypifjia. fjbrjBelf! ovv vrroXd^rj 
fjbe Xrjpeiv rj (pXvapelv, el irepl rcov rrdcriv odarrep 
ev 6<f)daXfJbol<i yeyovoroDv ov irdXat jjlovov, dXXa 
Kal fiLKpw irporepov, Troceladal<; e'iTi')(eLpr}- 
aatfit Xoyov^' ovBeva yap ovBev dyvoeXv ^ovXo[xaL 
rcbv ifiavrov, XavOdveiv Be dXXov dXXa elKo^;' 



Whereupon the city at once voted against it and 
rejected it^ very nobly^ by Zeus^ and as it behoved 
men to do who are nutured under the eyes of the 
most wise goddess.^ 

Then if this was your conduct of old^ and from 
that day to this there is kept aUve some small 
spark as it were of the virtue of your ancestors, 
it is natural that you should pay attention not to 
the magnitude merely of any performance, nor 
whether a man has travelled over the earth with 
incredible speed and unwearied energy as though he 
had flown through the air ; but that you should rather 
consider whether one has accomplished this feat 
by just means, and then if he seems to act with 
justice, you will perhaps all praise him both in public 
and private ; but if he have slighted justice he will 
naturally be scorned by you. JFor there is nothing 
so closely akin to wisdom as justice. Therefore 
those who slight her you will justly expel as showing 
impiety towards the goddess who dwells among you. 
For this reason I wish to report my conduct to 
you, though indeed you know it well, in order that 
if there is anything you do not know^ — and it is 
likely that some things you do not, and those 
in fact which it is most important for all men to 
be aware of — it may become known to you and 
through you to the rest of the Greeks. Therefore 
let no one think that I am trifling and wasting 
words if I try to give some account of things that 
have happened as it were before the eyes of all 
men, not only long ago but also just lately. For 
I wish none to be ignorant of anything that 
concerns me, and naturally everyone cannot kn#w 

1 Athene. 



ap^ofiav 5e airo rwv Trpoyovayv irpMTOv tmv C 

Kat oTi fJL€V TCL 7rpo9 Trarpo^ rj/jLtv ivrevOev 
oOevirep Kal KayvaravriM ra irpof; irarpof; Mp/xr]- 
rai, (pavepov. too yap rj/JLerepM irarepe yeyovarov 
ttSeX<jf)ft> TTarpoOev. ovtco Be irXrjaiov r/fidf; 6vTa<; 
avyyevel^i 6 <j)t\av6pci)7r6TaTO<i ovto<; ^aaiXev^; 
ola elpydaaro, e^ jjuev avey^iov^ ifiov re icai 
kavTOV, TTarepa Be top efjiov} eauTov Be OeloVy 
Kal Trpoarert kolvov erepov rov irpo^^ Trarpo^i D 
Oelov aBeX<p6v re ifxov rov irpea^vTarov aKpiTOV<^ 
KTelva<^, e/uue Be /cat erepov dBeXcpbv ifibv edeXrjaaf; 
jiev /crelvai, reXo? Be eTn^oKwv ^vyrjv, d(j)^ rj<; 
ifjue fjuev d^ijKev, eicelvov Be oXtyq) irporepov tt)? 
(T^ayrjf; e^eBvae^ to tov Katcrapo? ovo/JLa, rt 
/jue Bet vvv Mcnrep e/c TpaywBia^; ra dpprjTa 
dvajJbeTpelcrOat; fieTefieXTjae yap avTw, (j^aat, 
Kol iBTjx^rj B€LV(o<;, aTraiBlav re evTevdev vofu^ec 271 
BvaTV')(elv, TCL re 69 rot'? TroXe/jbtov^ tov<; Tlepcra<; 
ovK euTL'^w? irpcLTTeLV eK TovTcov vTroXa/jb^dvet. 
Tavra eOpvXovv ol irepl Tr}v avXrjv TOTe Kai 
TOV /la/capiTrjv dBeX(f)OV ifiov TdXXov, tovto 
vvv irpoiTov aKOvovTa to ovojxa' KTeiva'^ yap 
avTOv irapd tou? vojulov^ ovBe tmv TraTpwcov 
fieTaXa^ecv etacre Tacjxov ovBe Trj<; evayov<; y^Lcoae 

"Oirep ovv ecftrjv, eXeyov TOcravTa Kal Br) Kal B 
eiretOov rj/judf;,^ otl to, julcv d7raTr]6el<; elpydaaTo, 
TO, Be ffua Kal Tapa)(^aL<; etfa? draKTOV Kal 

1 rhv ifihv Hertlein suggests, ifibv MSS. 
^ i^eSvfft Hertlein suggests, ippvcraro oi/Se Cobet, ipptxraro 
MSS. ^ Tj/jLus Hertlein, Reiske suggest, iifxas MSS. 



every circumstance. First I will begin with my 

That on the father's side I am descended from the 
same stock as Constantius on his father's side is 
well known. Our fathers were brothers^ sons of 
the same father. And close kinsmen as we were, 
how this most humane Emperor treated us ! Six 
of my cousins and his, and my father who was his 
own uncle and also another uncle of both of us on the 
father's side, and my eldest brother, he put to death 
without a trial ; and as for me and my other brother,^ 
he intended to put us to death but finally inflicted 
exile upon us ; and from that exile he released 
me, but him he stripped of the title of Caesar just 
before he murdered him. But why should I " recount," 
as though from some tragedy, " all these unspeakable 
horrors ? " ^ For he has repented, 1 am told, and 
is stung by remorse ; and he thinks that his unhappy 
state of childlessness is due to those deeds, and 
his ill success in the Persian war he also ascribes to 
that cause. This at least was the gossip of the 
court at the time and of those who were about 
the person of my brother Gallus of blessed memory, 
who is now for the first time so styled. For after 
putting him to death in defiance of the laws he 
neither suffered him to share the tombs of his 
ancestors nor granted him a pious memory. 

As I said, they kept telling us and tried to 
convince us that Constantius had acted thus, partly 
because he was deceived, and partly because he 
yielded to the violence and tumult of an undis- 

1 Gallus. 

^ Euripides, Orestes 14, rl r&ppryr' avafieTp-fjffaaOai fie Se?; 



Tapa'yoi)hov<^ crrpaTevixaro^. roaavra rjfjLLv iirfjSov 
iv aypw tlvl rtav ev K^airTraSoKia KaraKeKXeta- 
/juevoc<;, ovheva icovre^ TrpoaeXdelv, rov fieu airo 
TYj^ ev TpdWecTL ^ (f>vyrj<; dvaKaXeadfievoi,, ifjie 
Se KO/jLiSfj jieipoLKLOv en tmv hi^aa KaXeicov dira- 
yayovTe<;. 7rft)9 av evravOa (f)pdcraL/jLL irepl rcov 
e^ eviavTOiV, ov<^ev dXXorpicp KTrjixaTi Std>yovT6<;,^ 
axTTrep ol irapd tol<; Tlepaacf; ev to2<; <f)povpLOi<; 
TT/povfievoL, /jbr)Bevo^ r)[uv irpocriovro'^ ^evov pirjhe 
TMv irdXaL yvwpijjbwv einTpeirofJbevov tlvo<^ w? 
?7//,a9 (f)oiTdv, Sie^co/mev dTroKeKXeicrfievoc 7ravTo<; 
fjbev /jbaO'^/juaro^ a-irovhaiov, Trdarjf; Se eXev6€pa<i 
evT€v^ert)<;, ev rat? Xa/jL7rpal<; ol/cereiai'; rpecftofievot 
Koi T0t9 r)/u(ov avTMv SovXoi<; Mairep eraipoi^; D 
avyyv /JLva^ofievoL; irpoo-rjei yap ovBel<; ovBe eVe- 
Tpeirero tmv rjXiKCcorayv. 

^EiVrevOev eyo) /nev /xoyt? dipecOrjv Sid rov^; 
d€OV<s 6UTf%ft)9, Be dBeX(f)o<; 6 ejubo^ eh tt^v avXr)v 
KaOeip'xP'^ BvaTV)(^co<;, eXirep n^ dXXo<; tmv Trwirore. 
KoX yap et rt Trepl tov rpoTrov dypiov kol 
Tpa')(p TOV eKeivov fcarec^dvr), tovto ck ttj^ 
opeiov Tpo(f)i)(i avvrjv^rjOr). BtKaio^ ovv ol/juai 
fcal TavT7]v e'^ecv rrjv alrcav 6 ravrr]^ rj/jblv 
7r/0O9 ^iav fjueraBovf; T779 Tpo^rj<^, ^9 ij^e fiev 
ol Oeol Bia Trj<; (^tXo(TO(j)ia<; KaOapov dire^rivav 272 
Kai e^avTTj, rw be ovO€l<; evedcofcev. evuu<; yap 
diro T(ov dypa)V 69 rd jSaalXeLa irapeXOovri 

^ oTrb tJjs 61' TpdWeai (pvyrjs Hertlein suggests, airh rpa, 
(pvyrjs V, airo rpa (pvy^s Petavius. 
^ 8idyovT€s Hertlein suggests, 5iayay6pT€s MSS. 



ciplined and mutinous army. This was the strain 
they kept up to soothe us when we had been 
imprisoned in a certain farm ^ in Cappadocia ; and 
they allowed no one to come near us after they had 
summoned him from exile in Tralles and had dragged 
me from the schools, though I was still a mere boy. 
How shall I describe the six years we spent there ? 
For we livied as though on the estate of a stranger, 
and were watched as though we were in some 
Persian garrison, since no stranger came to see 
us and not one of our old friends was allowed to 
visit us ; so that we lived shut off from every liberal 
study and from all free intercourse, in a glittering 
servitude, and sharing the exercises of our own slaves 
as though they were comrades. For no companion 
of our own age ever came near us or was allowed to 
do so. 

From that place barely and by the help of 
the gods I was set free, and for a happier fate ; but 
my brother was imprisoned at court and his fate was 
ill-starred above all men who have ever yet lived. 
And indeed whatever cruelty or harshness was re- 
vealed in his disposition was increased by his having 
been brought up among those mountains. It is 
therefore I think only just that the Emperor should 
bear the blame for this also, he who against our will 
allotted to us that sort of bringing-up. As for me, 
the gods by means of philosophy caused me to 
remain untouched by it and unharmed ; but on my 
brother no one bestowed this boon. For when he 
had come straight from the country to the court, 
the moment that Constantius had invested him with 

1 The castle of Macellura. 



iireihrf irpayrov ainw TrepceOrjKev d\ovpy6<i Ijudrtov, 
avTLKa (pdovecv dp^dfievo^i ov irporepuv eiravcraTO 
TrpXv KadeKelv avrov, ovSe rw TrepieXelv to 
TTopcfivpovv IpoLTtov dpKeadei^. Kairot rou ^rjv 
yovv d^w<;, el firj ^acnXeveiv e(f)aiV6T0 e7rtT7;Seto9. 
dxy ixpv^ avTOV koX tovtov (TTepeadai. ^vyx^' 
pS)j Xoyov ye irdvTW^ viroaxovra irporepov, B 
axTTrep tov^; KaKOvpyov^. ov yap Br) tou? pbev 
\r)crTd<; 6 v6fio<; dirayopevev Ta> hrjcravri KreLvetv, 
Tou? d(j)aLpe6evra<; Be rtyLta?, a? el^pv, ical yevo- 
fjuevovg e^ dp^ovrcov l8icoTa<; d/cpLTOV<; (f)7)(7l Selv 
dvatpeladai. tl ydp, el tmv d/jLaprrj/jbdrcop eI;^e^' 
dTTOcfiTjvaL Tov<i alriovf;; eSeSovro ydp avrw C 
TLvcov eTTiaToXai, '}ipdKXeL<;, ocra^i exovaac kut 
avTov KaTr]yopia<;, ecp^ aU eKelvo^ dyavaKrvjaa'^ 
dxparecTTepov fiev koI rj/ciara ^acJiXiKM^ e^rjKe 
T(£> OvfjLfp, Tov fxevTOi fiTjSe ^TjV d^Lov ovSev eireirpd- 
Xei' 7rw9 ydp; ov% ovTO<i earcv dv0p(O7roi<; diraai 
fcocvof; "FiWrjacv dfia koI ^ap^dpoi^; 6 pofjLO<;, 
dfjLvveaOac tov<; dBcKLa^ virdpxoPTa'^; dW tVo)? 
jxev rjfjLvvaTO iriKporepov. ov fjurjv e^o) iravTrj 
TOV 6fc/coT09* TOV ydp e^Opov vir opyrjf; elKo^i 
Tt Koi TTotelv, eiprjTat koX irpdaQev. aXK et? D 
ydpiv evo<; avSpoyvvov, tov KaTaKOLfiiaTov, fcai 
irpoaeTi tov tmv fiaye[po)V eTriTpoTrov tov dveyjnov, 
TOV Kaiaapa, tov ttj^; dBeXcfyrjs dvSpa yevo/iievov, 



the purple robe he at once began to be jealous of 
him^ nor did he cease from that feeling until, not 
content with strijjping him of the purple, he had 
destroyed him. Yet surely he deserved to live, even 
if he seemed unfit to govern. But someone may say 
that it was necessary to deprive him of life also. I 
admit it, only on condition that he had first been 
allowed to speak in his own defence as criminals are. 
For surely it is not the case that the law forbids one 
who has imprisoned bandits to put them to death, 
but says that it is right to destroy without a trial 
those who have been stripped of the honours that 
they possessed and have become mere individuals 
instead of rulers. For what if my brother had 
been able to expose those who were responsible 
for his errors } For there had been handed to him 
the letters of certain persons, and, by Heracles, 
what accusations against himself they contained ! 
And in his resentment at these he gave way in 
most unkingly fashion to uncontrolled anger, but 
he had done nothing to deserve being deprived 
of life itself. What I Is not this a universal law 
among all Greeks and barbarians alike, that one 
should defend oneself against those who take the 
initiative in doing one a wrong ? I admit that he did 
perhaps defend himself with too great cruelty ; but 
on the whole not more cruelly than might have been 
expected. For we have heard it said before ^ that an 
enemy may be expected to harm one in a fit of anger. 
But it was to gratify a eunuch,''^ his chamberlain 
who was also his chief cook, that Constantius gave 
over to his most inveterate enemies his own cousin, 

^ Cf. Demosthenes, Against Meidias 41. 

^ Eusebius ; cf. Ammianus Marcellinus 14. 11 ; 22. 3. 



TOP Trj<; aSeXcpLSrjf; Trarepa, ov koI avTo<; irporepov 
^v a'yayoiievo^ rrjv aSeT^^v, 7rpo<{ hp uvtm 
TO(TavTa OeMV ofjuoyvicov virrjp'^e hiKaia, KTelvav 
irapeBcoKe rol<; i^OlaroL^;' ifie Be acprJKe /Jboyi<; 
kirra, p/rjvcov oXcov kXKvaa'^ '^jjBe Ka/celae kul 
7roi,i]adfjL€vo<; efi(f>povpov, ware, el fir] dewv n^ 27 ( 
eOe\r)aa^ /xe acodrjvaL rrjp /caXrjp koX ar/adrjp 
TO TTjpOKavTd jjboi TTapkayep ev/xeprj l^vae/Suap, 
ovB* CLP iyo) rdf} ^(elpa^ avrov rore Sceipvyop. 
KaiTOL fJbCL Tot'9 Oeov^i ouS* opap /jlol (pave\<i dBe\<po<i 
e'ire'JTpd')(eL' /cal yap ovSe avprjp avrm ovBe 
6q)0iT(0P ovoe epaot^ov Trap avrop, oKiyaKi<; oe 
€ypa(j)op /cat, virep oXiycop. 0)9 ovp diroc^vywp B 
eKclOep da/juepo<; iiropevo/jirjp iirl rrjp r?}? fi7)Tpb<; 
ear Lap' irarpwop yap ouSep uTr^/o^e p,oi ovBe 
6fC6KT7]fjurjp Ik ToaovTcop, ocrcop et/co9 rjp irarepa 
fcefcrijaOaL top ifiop, ovk iXa^LaTrjp /BmXop, ovk dp- 
BpdrroSop, ovk oIklup' 6 ydp tol KaXof; YiaypaTdp- 
TLo^ eKXrjpopofjbrjcrep dpT e'yLtoO ttjp iraTpcpap overlap 
diraaaPy ifioL re, OTvep ecprjp, ovSe ypv /xeTeBcoKep 
avTr}<^' dXXd koI Ta> dB€X(f)a) Tatfiw tcop TraTpwwp 
eBcoKCP oXiya, irdpToyp avTOP d^eXop.epo'^ tcop 


' Oaa p,ep ovp errpa^e 7rp6<} fie irplp opojxaToq G I 
fiep p^eTaBovpau p,oL tov aefjiPOTaTOv, epy(p Be 
eh TTLKpoTdTTjP Kul ')(^aXe'TT (OT dTT^v ifJL^aXelp Bov- 
XeLap, el Kal p.rj TrdpTa, ra TrXecaTa yovp 6jjbCi)<; 



the Caesar J his sister's husband, the father of his 
niece, the man whose own sister he had himself 
married in earlier days_,^ and to whom he owed so 
many obligations connected with the gods of the 
family. As for me he reluctantly let me go, after 
dragging me hither and thither for seven whole 
months and keeping me under guard ; so that 
had not some one of the gods desired that I should 
escape, and made the beautiful and virtuous Eusebia 
kindly disposed to me, I could not then have es- 
caped from his hands myself. And yet I call the 
gods to witness that my brother had pursued his 
course of action without my having a sight of 
him even in a dream. For I was not with him, nor 
did I visit him or travel to his neighbourhood ; and I 
used to write to him very seldom and on unim- 
portant matters. Thinking therefore that I had 
escaped from that place, I set out for the house that 
had been my mother's. For of my father's estate 
nothing belonged to me, and I had acquired out 
of the great wealth that had naturally belonged to 
my father not the smallest clod of earth, not a slave, 
not a house. For the admirable Constantius had in- 
herited in my place the whole of my father's 
property, and to me, as I was saying, he granted not 
the least trifle of it ; moreover, though he gave my 
brother a few things that had been his father's, he 
robbed him of the whole of his mother's estate. 

Now his whole behaviour to me before he granted 
me that august title 2— though in fact what he did 
was to impose on me the most galling and irksome 
slavery — you have heard, if not every detail, still the 

^ The sister of Galkis was the first wife of Constantius. 
^ The title of Caesar. 



CLKrjfcoare^ TTopevofxevov Srj"\oi7rov eirl Tr)V eartav, 
dyaTrrjTM^; re koI fioyif; aTTOcroy^o/jLevov, (TVK0<f}dvT7j<i 
Tt9 dv6(j)dvrj irepl to '^ipfiiov, 09 to?? eKel irpdy- 
jxara eppay^ev co? vecorepa Bcavoov/jLevoL^' care D 
hrjiTOvOev dKofi rov ^A^pcKavov Kal rov Maplvov 
ovKovv vfjLd<; ovBe 6 ^rjXc^ eXaOev ovhe ocra 
iiTpd')(6'q irepl roijf; dv6pco7rov<;. dW co? tovto 
avTcp Karefir^vvOr] to irpdyp^a, koI ^<; i^ai- 
<l>vr)<;, aXXo9 o"f/co<^ai/T^9, e/c KeXTcap yyyecXev 
6<T0V ovTTCi) TOP XtXovavov avTw TToXe/jLiov dva- 
^aveladai, Vetera? rrayTdiraaL Kal (po^rjOel^; avTiKa 
eir ifxe ireixirei, Kal /jUKpov et? ttjv 'KXXdBa KeXev- 
<Ta^ v7ro')(^ci)pfjcrai irdXiv eKeWev eKoXei irap eavTov, 274 
ovirco irpoTepov TeOeapbevo^; irXrjv dira^ fjuev iv 
KaTTTraSoKLa, drra^ Be iv ^WdXia, dya)vicra/jL€vr}<; 
^vae^ia^, 0)9 dv virep t>)9 (T(OTr]pia<; ttj^ ifiav- 
Tov BapprjaaLfJUL. KaoTOL ttjv avrrjv avT(p ttoXiv 
ef a)Kr](ra p/qvMV, Kal fJievTOU Kal VTr6(T')(eT6 fie 
Oedaeadai TrdXtv. aXV 6 d6ol<; e')(dpo<^ dvSpo- 
yvvo^i 6 iTLGTO'^ avTov KaTaKOi/jLtaTTjf;, eXaOe p,ov 
Kal aKcov evepyeTr)(; yev6fi6vo<;' ov yap etacrep 
evTV')(€lv p.6 7roXXdKi<; avro), tv^ov p^ev ovBe B 
ideXovTL, ttXtjp dXXd to Ke^dXauov eKelvo^ rjv 
cjKvei yap 0)9 dv p^rj tivo<; avvrjOeia^ iyy€Vop,evrj<; 
r)p,LV 7rpo<i dXXijXov^i erreiTa dyairrjOeiriv Kat iricr- 
TO^ dva(j)av€l<^ iiriTpairei'qv tl. 

JJapayevopevov Bij pe t6t€ irpcoTov diro t^9 
'EXXa5o9 avTiKa Bid tcov irepl ttjv OepaTreuav 

^ aK7}K6ar€ Cobet, T^KovcraTe Hertlein, MSS. 
'^ 5t) Hertlein suggests, 56 MSS. 




greater part. As I was sayings 1 was on my way to 
my home and was barely getting away safely^ beyond 
my liopes_, when a certain sycophant ^ turned up near 
Sirmium ^ and fabricated the rumour against certain 
persons there that they were planning a revolt. You 
certainly know by hearsay Africanus ^ and Marinus : 
nor can you fail to have heard of Felix and what was 
the fate of those men. And when Constantius was 
informed of the matter,, and Dynamius another 
syco})hant suddenly reported from Gaul that 
Silvanus * was on the point of declaring himself his 
open enemy, in the utmost alarm and terror he forth- 
with sent to me, and first he bade me retire for 
a short time to Greece, then summoned me from 
there to the court ^ again. He had never seen me 
before except once in Cappadocia and once in Italy, 
— an interview which Eusebia had secured by her 
exertions so that I might feel confidence about 
my personal safety. And yet I lived for six months 
in the same city ^ as he did, and he had promised that 
he would see me again. But that execrable eunuch,^ 
his trusty chamberlain, unconsciously and involun- 
tarily proved himself my benefactor. For he did not 
allow me to meet the Emperor often, nor perhaps 
did the latter desire it ; still the eunuch was 
the chief reason. For what he dreaded was that if 
we had any intercourse with one another I might be 
taken into favour, and when my loyalty became 
evident I might be given some place of trust. 

Now from the first moment of my arrival from 
Greece, Eusebia of blessed memory kept showing me 

^ Gaudentius. ^ A town in Illyricum. 

^ For the account of this alleged conspiracy cf. Ammianus 
Marcellinus 15. 3. ^ Cf. Oration 1. 48 c ; 2. 98 c, d. 

^ At Milan. ^ Milan. "^ Eusebius. 




€vvov')((t)v 7) fiaKaplrL<i ^^iiae^ia Kai \iav e(f)iXo- 
(ppovecTO. /jLiKpbv Se varepov iireXOovro^ rovrov 
Kol yap TOL Kol ra irepl %t\ovavbv eireTrpaicro' C 
XoLirov etaoho^ re etV 'Tr)v avXrjv BiSorac, koX to 
Xeyofievov rj SerraXi/cr) Trepc^dXXeTac TreidavdyKT]. 
dpvovfiivov yap fiou rr)v avvovaiav o-repeco? iv 
Tot9 paaiXeioL^i, ol fiev (aairep iv Kovpeiw avveX- . 
Oovre^ diTOKeipovGi rbv Trcoycova, ')(Xaviha he 
dfi(f)C€Vvvovcn Kal o-%?;/xaTtfoucrti/, 009 tot€ vireXdfjL- 
jBavov, irdvv yeXolov cTTpaTL(OTr]v' ovhev ydp fwi D 
Tov KaXXcoTTLa/jbov TOi)v KaOap/jbdrcov rjpixo^ev 
ifidSt^ov Be ovx coairep eKelvoL irepi^XeTrwv Kal 
cro^cov ^ dXX^ et? yrjv ^XeTTCov, locnrep elOta/jbrjv 
VTTO TOV dpeyjravTOf; /le TraiSaycoyov. totc fxev ovv 
avTot<; irapeayov yeXcoTa, fiiKpov Be vaTepov vtto- 
yjriav, cItu dveXafjLyjrev 6 toctoOto? (f)Oovo<i. 

'AXX' ivTavOa ')(^p7] /jltj irapaXeiTreiv etcelva, ttw? 
iyo) arvp€)(^Q)pr)(Ta, ttw? iBe^^ofiTjv ^ 6ix(i)p6(f)io^ ^ 
eK€LVOi<; yeveaOaiy ov<; rjTnaTd/jirjv TravTi p^ev p,ov 
Xv/jLr]vap.evov<; tm yevec, vTTcoTTTevov Be ovk eh 275 
/juaKpav e7ri/3ovX€V(70VTa<i Kal ep.01, 7rr]yd<; p,€V 
ovv OTTOo-ag d(f)r}Ka BaKpvcov Kal 6pr)Vov<; 0L0v<i, 
dvaTeivayv eh ttjv aKpoiroXiv ttjv nrap vplv Ta<^ 
')(elpa^, 6t€ eKaXovpjrjv, Kal ttjv 'A67]vdv LKeTevcov 
(Tco^eLV TOV iKeTrjv Kal p,r} eKBiBovai, ttoXXoI 
TO)V Trap vfjilv eopaKOTe^ elau p.oi p,dpTvpe<i, avTrj 
be rj 6/609 Trpo twv aXXcov, OTt Kat vavaTOV 
rjTTjadp.rjv irap avTrj<; AOrjvrjai irpo t^9 TOTe B 

^ TrepijSAeVwv . . . (To^S>v H&viXein BXXgge&iB, •nepi^KitrovTfs . . . 
ffo^ovvTes MSS, 

^ iS€x6H''n^ Naber, he el\6ix't]v Hertlein, MSS. 
^ dlxa>p6(pios Cobet, SfjLopdcpios Hertlein, MSS. 



the utmost kindness through the eunuchs of her 
household. And a Uttle later when the Emperor 
returned — for the affair of Silvanus had been con- 
cluded — at last I was given access to the courts and, 
in the words of the proverb, Thessalian persuasion ^ 
was applied to me. For when I firmly declined 
all intercourse with the palace, some of them, as 
though they had come together in a barber's shop, cut 
off my beard and dressed me in a military cloak and 
transformed me into a highly ridiculous soldier, as 
they thought at the time. For none of the decora- 
tions of those villains suited me. And I walked not 
like them, staring about me and strutting along, but 
gazing on the ground as I had been trained to do 
by the preceptor ^ who brought me up. At the 
time, then, I inspired their ridicule, but a little later 
their suspicion, and then their jealousy was inflamed 
to the utmost. 

But this I must not omit to tell here, how I 
submitted and how I consented to dwell under the 
same roof with those whom I knew to have ruined 
my whole family, and who, I suspected, would before 
long plot against myself also. But what floods of 
tears I shed and what laments I uttered when I was 
summoned, stretching out my hands to your Acro- 
polis and imploring Athene to save her suppliant 
and not to abandon me, many of you who were 
eyewitnesses can attest, and the goddess herself, 
above all others, is my witness that I even begged 
for death at her hands there in Athens rather than 

^ Cf. Oration 1. 32 a. The origin of the proverb is obscure ; 
cf. Cicero, Letter to Atticiis 9. 13. '^ Mardonius. 

s 2 


oSov, ft)9 /Ji€V ovv ov 7rpovS(OK€v 7) 0eo<; rov 
iKer'QV ovoe e^eowKev, epyou^ ebei^ev ^ 7]<yr)(TaTo 
yap a'jravTa')(ov fMOi Koi Trapearrjaev airavra'y^oOev 
TOv<; <^v\aKa<^y i^ HXiov koI XeXTjvrjf; dyyeXov^ 

Xvve^T] Si TL Koi TOiovTov. eX6(t)v e? to MeSto- 
Xavov (OKOvv ev tlvl Trpoaa-reiw. ivravOa eirefXTrev 
l^vac/Sia TToXXfiKL^; 7rp6<i fxe ^iXo<^povov fievr) koX 
ypd^eiv KeXevovaa koI Oappeiv, virep orov dv 
heayfiai. ypd'y^a^ iycJo 7rpb<i avrrjv iTnaroXyv, C 
fidXXov Se iK€TrjpLav opKov^i €)(ovaav tolovtov^' 
OvTCO Traial ')(p7Jaaio KXr}pov6/jLOi<s' ovtco rd Koi 
rd Oeo^ aoL Botrj, Trefiire /le ocfcaSe ttjv ra^t- 
<7Tr]Vf ifcelvo virecSop.rjv o)? ovk da(f)dX€<; et? 
rd ^aalXeia Trpo? avroKpdropo^; yvvalKa ypdfJi- 
fiara elcrTripirecv. iKerevaa Br) roi'? Oeoix; vv/crcop 
SrjXcoaai fxoi, el ')(^pr) TrepTreiv irapd rrjv ^aaiXlSa 
TO ypap^/jiarelov ol he eTnjTreiXijaav, el irep'^aLfJH, 
Odvarov dtd'X^icrTov. a)<i Be dXrjOrj ravra ypdc^ca, D 
KaXco Tou? 6eov^ diravra^ p^dprvpa^. rd piev Brj 
ypd/ipara Bid tovto eirea^ov elcrTrep-yjrai,. e^ eKei- 
V7](i Be pLOi rrjf; vvkto<^ Xoycapo^i elafjXdev, ov koI 
vpd^ Laco<; d^tov aKOvaai. ^vv, 6(f)7)v, eyco roL<; 
6eoL<; avTiTdrreaOaL Biavoovpuai, kuI virep ep^avrov 
^ovXeveaOat Kpelrrov vevopiKa tmv Trdvra elBo- 
rcop. KaiTOL (ppov7jcn<; dv6 pcdirivrj irpo^ to irapov 
dcpopcoaa puovov dyairr^Tfh^ dv Tvypi kclI pioyi^ rov 276 
7r/309 oXiyov dvapuapTrjTOV. Bioirep ovBe\<; ov6^ virep 
rSiveU rpLaKoarov^ eTO<; ^ovXeverai ovre virep rcov 
'^Brj yeyovoToyv to pev ydp Trepcrrov, to Be dSvva- 

^ $Sei^€v Hertlein suggests, eVeSej^ej' MSS. 

'■^ TpiaKoarhv Hertlein suggests, TpiaKoatoaThv MSS. 



my journey to the Emperor. That the goddess 
accordingly did not l)etray her sujipUant or abandon 
him she proved by the event. For everywhere slie 
was my guide, and on all sides she set a watch near 
me, bringing guardian angels from Helios and Selene. 
What happened was somewhat as follows. When 
I came to Milan I resided in one of the suburbs. 
Thither Eusebia sent me on several occasions mes- 
sages of good-will, and urged me to write to her 
without hesitation about anything that I desired. 
Accordingly I wrote her a letter, or rather a petition 
containing vows like these : " May you have children 
to succeed you ; may God grant you this and that, if 
only you send me home as quickly as possible I " But 
I suspected that it was not safe to send to the palace 
letters addressed to the Emperor's wife. Therefore 
I besought the gods to inform me at night whether 
I ought to send the letter to the Empress. And 
they warned me that if I sent it I should meet 
the most ignominious death. I call all the gods to 
witness that what I write here is true. For this 
reason, therefore, I forbore to send the letter. But 
from that night there kept occurring to me an 
argument which it is perhaps worth your while also 
to hear. "Now," I said to myself, '^l am plan- 
ning to oppose the gods, and I have imagined that I 
can devise wiser schemes for myself than those who 
know all things. And yet human wisdom, which 
looks only to the present moment, may be thankful 
if, with all its efforts, it succeed in avoiding mistakes 
even for a short space. That is why no man takes 
thought for things that are to happen thirty years 
hence, or for things that are already past, for the one 



TOV' aXV virep tmv iv %6/3o-t Koi mv apx^^ Tive<i 
elaLV rjhr) koI aTrep/jLara. <^povr)(Ti<^ Se 97 irapa 
Tot9 ^eot? eVl TO fJbrjKLarov, fiaXKov he cttI itclv 
fiXiirovaa fjurjvvet re 6pOco(; koI Trpdrrei to Xwov 
ULTiot yap elcnv avTol Kaddirep twv 6vto)V, ovtco 
Be Kal TMV ia-ofievcov, ovkovv elK0<; avTOv<; virep B 
TMV TrapovTCov eTTiGTacrOai. reo)? fxev ovv ehoKei 
fioL KaTCL TovTO (TVV€T(OT€pa TTJ^f efjLTTpoadev r} 
hevTepa yvoo/jir]. aKOTTcov Be et? to BiKaiov evdew<; 
€^r)V' Elra av fiev dyavafCTel^;, el ti to)v acov KTrj- 
/jbaTcov diroaTepoir) ae r^? eavTOv %/37;crea>9 17 /cal 
diroBiBpacTKot KaXovfievov, kclv tTTTTO? Tv^rj kclv C 
TTpo^aTOV fcciv fiouBtov, dv6p(07ro<; Be elvai povKo- 
fxevo<; ovBe t&v dyeXalcov ovBe twi/ Gvp^eTcoBwv, 
dXkd TMV eTTLeLKcov Kol fieTpicov cLTToaTepelf; creav- 
Tou Tov^i deov<; kol ovk €7n,Tpe7T6t<; ecj) o, tl av 
eOekdyai '^p'^cracrdai, aoi ; opa /jlt] 7r/)09 ro) Xiav 
d(f)p6v(o<; Kal TOiv BiKaucov twv rrpo^ rou? 9eov<^ 
6XLya)po)(; 7rpdTT7]<;. rj Be dvBpeia rrov Kal rt?; yeXol- 
ov. €toi,/jLO<; yovv el Kal dwirevaaL Kal KoXaKevaai 
Beei Tov OavdTOV, e^ov diravTa KaTa^aXelv Kal toI^ D 
Oeol^ eTrLTpeyjrai irpaTTeiv 009 ^ouXovTat, BieXo/nevov 
TT/JO? avTovf; ttjv eTrofMeXecav Tr)V eavTOV, KaOdirep 
Kal 6 Xo)KpdTr)<; y^lov, Kal to, jxev iirl aol irpdT- 
T€LV &)9 av evBe'XTjTaL, to Be oXov eir iKeivoi<; 
iToielorOaiy KCKTrjcrOai Be fiTjBev /jbrjBe dpird^eiVy tcl 



is superfluous, the other impossible, but only for what 
lies near at hand and has already some beginnings 
and germs. But the wisdom of the gods sees very 
far, or rather, sees the whole, and therefore it directs 
aright arid brings to pass what is best. For they are 
the causes of all that now is, and so likewise of 
all that is to be. Wherefore it is reasonable that they 
should have knowledge about the present." So far, 
then, it seemed to me that on this reasoning my 
second determination was wiser than my first. And 
viewing the matter in the light of justice, I imme- 
diately reflected : " Would you not be provoked if 
one of your own beasts were to deprive you of its 
services,^ or were even to run away when you called 
it, a horse, or sheep, or calf, as the case might be ? 
And will you, who pretended to be a man, and not 
even a man of the common herd or from the dregs 
of the people, but one belonging to the superior and 
reasonable class, deprive the gods of your service, and 
not trust yourself to them to dispose of you as they 
please } Beware lest you not only fall into great 
folly, but also neglect your proper duties towards the 
gods. Where is your courage, and of what sort 
is it ? A sorry thing it seems. At any rate, you are 
ready to cringe and flatter from fear of death, and 
yet it is in your power to lay all that aside and 
leave it to the gods to work their will, dividing 
with them the care of yourself, as Socrates, for 
instance, chose to do : and you might, while 
doing such things as best you can, commit the 
whole to their charge ; seek to possess nothing, 
seize nothing, but accept simply what is vouchsafed 

^ An echo of Plato, Phaedo 62 c ; cf. Fragment of a Letter 
297 A, 



StSo/xeva Be Trap* avTMV a<^eA-&>9 ^ he'X^eadai. lav- 
rrfv eyo) vofiLaa<; ov/c da^aXrj /jlovov, aXXa irpe- 277 
TTOvaav avhpi /jierpiw yrw/ir/v, iirel koI to, tmv 
OeMV io-rjfiaive ravrr)' to yap eVtySouXa? evXa- 
^ovfievov ra? fieWovcraf; et? alaxpov koX Trpovirrov 
efjb^aXelv eavrov klvBvvov Beivcofi e^aivero fiot 
6opv^6)he<i' el^ai koX inrrjKOvaa, koX to /xev 
ovojJLOL fioi Ta%eft)9 koi to 'xXaviBcov 7r€pie/3X7]0r} 
Tov Kaiaapo^' 77 Be iirl tovtw BovXela fcal to Ka0* 
eKaaTTjv r)p,epav virep avT7]<; Trj<^ '^^XV'^ eiriKpep.d- 
fxevov Beo(; 'UpaKXet^; oorov koi olov KXelOpa B 
Ovpoiv, 6vp(opot, Tcov olKeTMV at %et/969 epevvco- 
fievau, fir) Tt9 p^oi irapa tcov (f)iX(ov ypa/ji/jLaTiBiov 
KOfii^p, Oepaireia ^ei>r)' /jl6Xc<; i^Bvvyj6rjv olKeTa<; 
efiavTov TeTTapa<;, iraiBdpia jjuev Bvo KOfjuBfj p.c/cpd, 
Bvo Be /jL€L^ova<^, eh ttjv avXrjv olKeioTcpov pue 
OepairevaovTa^; elaayayelv, wv el? p^oi puovo^ /cat 
TO, irpo^; Oeov<i (TvveLBoi)^ koL <»9 eveBe^^TO XdOpa 
avpLTTpdTTcov eireiriaTevTO Be tmv (3l^Xl(ov piov C 
Tr)v <pvXa/c^v, wv p^ovo^; tmv ep,ol ttoXXmv eTalpcov 

KoX (J>lXcOV TTIO-TMV, 6^9 laTpO^, 09 KUi, OTL <^iXo<^ WV 

eXeXrjOet, avvaireBrj prfaev . ovtm Be eBeBieiv ejo) 
TavTa Kai '^o^oBeo)'^ el')(ov irpo^ avTd, waTe /cat 
fiovXopevov^ elaievuL tmv (fyiXwv ttoXXov^ Trap* 
e'yLte fcal pidX aKcov e/ccoXvov, . IBelv puev avTov^; 
eiriOvpiMV, OKVMV Be eKeivoL^ re koi epLUVTO) yeve- 
adai (Tvp(f)op(ov aiTio<;. dXXd TavTa pbev e^coOev 
iaTt, TdBe Be ev avToc<i T0t9 irpdypuiaL, D 

1 a<piKS>5 Cobet, aafaXus Hertlein, MSS. 


to you by them." And this course I thought was not 
only safe but becoming to a reasonable man^ since the 
response of the gods had suggested it. For to rush 
headlong into unseemly and foreseen danger while 
trying to avoid future plots seemed to me a topsy-turvy 
procedure. Accordingly I consented to yield. And 
immediately I was invested with the title and robe 
of Caesar. 1 The slavery that ensued and the fear 
for my very life that hung over me every day, 
Heracles, how great it was, and how terrible ! My 
doors locked, warders to guard them, the hands of 
my servants searched lest one of them should convey 
to me the most trifling letter from my friends, 
strange servants to wait on me ! Only with difficulty 
was 1 able to bring with me to court four of my own 
domestics for my personal service, two of them mere 
boys and two older men, of whom only one knew of 
my attitude to the gods, and, as far as he was able, 
secretly joined me in their worship. I had entrusted 
with the care of my books, since he was the only one 
with me of many loyal comrades and friends, a 
certain physician ^ who had been allowed to leave 
home with me because it was not known that he was 
my friend. And this state of things caused me such 
alarm and I was so apprehensive about it, that 
though many of my friends really wished to visit 
'me, I very reluctantly refused them admittance ; for 
though I was most anxious to see them, I shrank 
from bringing disaster upon them and myself at the 
same time. But this is somewhat foreign to my 
narrative. The following relates to the actual course 
of events. 

Cf. Ammianus Marcellinus 15. 8. 
Oreibasius ; cf. Letter 17. 



Tpca/cocTLovf; e^rjKovrd fioc 8ov<; crrparccoTaf; et? 
TO TMV KeXrwi^ eOpo^ dvareTpa/jLfjLevov eareiXe, 
fieaovvTOf; ySrj rov 'X^eifMMVO^, ovk dp')(oirra jxaXkov 
TMv eKelae orrparoTreBcov rj toI^ eKelcre err parity ol<; 
viraKovovra} eyeypairro yap avrol^ koI ivere- 
raXro hiapprjhrjv ov tou9 irdXefiiovf; fiaXXov rj ifie 
7rapa(f)v\dTTetv, co? dv firj vecorepov re irpd^aL/jLc. 
ToijTcov Se bv €(j)7ju TpoTTOv y€vo/jL€vcov, irepl rd<; 
Tp07rd<; ra? Oepivd^; €7riTp67rei jjlol ^aSi^ecv et? rd 278 
arparoTreSa to ax^fia koI rrjv ecKova TrepioiaovTi 
Tr)V eavTOV' koX yap tol /cal tovto etprjro Kal 
iyeypaTTTo, on to?? FaXXot? ov ^aaiXea BlBoycrcv, 
dXXd rov rrjv eavrov tt/jo? iiceivov<; elKova ko- 

Ov KaKco<i Be, ft)9 dKTjKoare, rod irpcorov arpa- 

T7]yr)devT0<; ivtavrov Kal 'Trpa')(j9evT0^ airov- 

BaioVy 7rpo<^ rd ')(eL[jidBia irdXiv iiraveXOcbv el^ rov B 

ea'X^arov Karecrrriv klvBvvov. ovre yap dOpoi^eiv 

i^rjv fjioi arparoTreBou' €Tepo<i ydp ^v 6 rovrov 

KvpLo<;' avT6<; re ^vv oXLyoi'^ dTTOKeKXeicr puevo^, 

etra irapa ra)v irXijaLov TroXecov alrrjdel^ eiriKOv- 

piav, (i)v eZ^oz^ to rrXelarov iKelvoL^; Bov<;, auT09^ 

aTreXeicfiOrjv piovo^. eKelva p^ev ovv ovt(o<; iTrpd^dij 

rore. &)? Be Kal 6 ro)v arparoTreBcov dp^cov ev 

VTTOylna yev6pevo<i avrch iTaprjpeOi] Kal diTrfKXdyr) 

rrj<; dp^ri<^, ov acfyoBpa eTnrrjBeio<i Bo^a^;, eycoye C 

evop,icr6y^v rjKLara airovBalo^ Kal Beivb<; arparrjyo^, 

are irpaov e/iavrov iTapaa')(d>v Kal p,irptov. ov 

^ vwaKovovra Hertlein suggests, viraKovarovra MSS, 
2 avrhs MSS., Cobet, [avrhs] Hertlein, 



Constantius gave me three liundred and sixty 
soldiers, and in the middle of the winter ^ despatched 
me into Gaul, which was then in a state of great 
disorder ; and I was sent not as commander of the 
garrisons there but rather as a subordinate of the 
generals there stationed. For letters had been sent 
them and express orders given that they were to 
watch me as vigilantly as they did the enemy, for 
fear I s^iould attempt to cause a revolt. And 
when alJ Lhis had happened in the manner I have 
described, about the summer solstice he allowed 
me to join the army and to carry about with me 
his dress and image. And indeed he had both said 
and written that he was not giving the Gauls a 
king but one who should convey to them his 

Now when, as you have heard, the first campaign 
was ended that year and great advantage gained, 
I returned to winter quarters,^ and there I was 
exposed to the utmost danger. For I was not even 
allowed to assemble the troops ; this power was 
entrusted to another, while I was quartered apart 
with only a few soldiers, and then, since the neighbour- 
ing towns begged for my assistance, I assigned to 
them the f^reater part of the force that I had, and 
so I myself was left isolated. This then was the 
condition of affairs at that time. And when the 
commander-in-chief 3 of the forces fell under the 
suspicions of Constantius and was deprived by him 
of his command and superseded, 1 in my turn was 
thought to be by no means capable or talented 
as a general, merely because I had shown myself 
mild and moderate. For I thought I ought not 

1 355 A. D. '^ At Vienne. ^ Marcellus. 



yap (pfjbriv Selv ^vyofMaxecv ovBe irapaarparrj'yelu, 
el fjurj rrov tl ro)v ^av iiriKLvSyvcov icopcov rj Seov 
yeveaOai Trapopco/jLevov rj koX ttjv dp')(r)v /jltj Seov 
yeveaOai yiyvofjuevov. aira^ he Koi hevrepov oh 
Kady]KovT(jd<^ fxoi nvwv ')(^p7]aafi6]^a)v, ifjuavrov wridr)v D 
')(prjvat, Tt/jbdv rrj o-icotttj, kol tov Xolttov rrjv 
')(\auiha irepte^epov Koi rrjv eiKova' tovtcov yap 
TO rrjviKavTa BievoovfJb7)v d7ro7re(f>dvOai, Kvpio<;. 

*E^ a)v o J^ayvardvTW^ vofiiaa^; oXiyov ^ fxev 
eTTLhwcreiv, ovk eh roaovrov Be /jbera^oXrj^; rj^etv 
rd TOdv KeXrcoz^ irpdyixaia, BiSayal /jlol t(ov 
arpaTOTreBcov rrjv rfye/xovlav rjpo'^ ^PXV' '^^^ 
aTparevco fxev dKfid^ovTo<; rod ctltov, ttoWmv 
irdvv Tepfiavcov irepl rd^ 7re7ropOr]/jbeva<i ev KeX- 279 
Tot9 TToXet? aSeco? KaToiicovvTwv. to fiev ovv 
ttXtjOo^ twv TToXemv irevre ttov Kal reaaapdKovrd 
e(TTL, TeL^V T^ BcrjpTraa/uLeva Bi'^a tcov irvpycdv Kal 
TMv eXaaaovcov (f>povpi(ov. 979 S' evefjuovro 7779 eirl 
rdhe TOV 'Vtjvov 7rdcrr)<i 01 ^dp^apoi to jxiyedo^; 
OTTOdov diro TMV TrrjyMV avTCOv dp)(^6/j,evo(; d)(^pc tov 
^Vlfceavov TrepiXajJilSdveL' TpiaKoaia Be direlyov 
TY]<^ rfOVO<; TOV Vrjvov aTdBia 01 irpo^ Vfidf; oIkovv- 
Te<s €a')(aTOiy Tptirkdcnov Be yv ctl tovtov TrXaTo^ 
TO KaTaXei^Oev eprjfxov vrro Trj<; XerfKacria^, evOa B 
ovBe vefxeiv e^rjv toU KeXToh Ta ^oaKrjfiaTa, Kal 
TToXei^ TLve<; eprj/jLoi tcov evoiKovvTwv, ah ovirw 
irapoctKOVv 01 ^dp^apoL, ev tovtol<; ovaav KaTa- 
Xa^oav iycb ttjv VaXaTiav ttoXlv re dveXa^ov ttjv 

^ oX'iyov Hertlein suggests, oxlycf MSS. 


to fight against my yoke or interfere with the general 
in command except when in some very dangerous 
undertaking I saw either that something was being 
overlooked^ or that something was being attempted 
that ought never to have been attempted at all. 
But after certain persons had treated me with 
disrespect on one or two occasions, I decided that for 
the future 1 ought to show my own self-respect by 
keeping silence, and henceforth I contented myself 
with parading the imperial robe and the image. For 
I thought that to these at any rate I had been given 
a right. 

After that, Constantius, thinking that there would 
be some improvement, but not that so great a 
transformation would take place in the affairs of 
Gaul, handed over to me in the beginning of spring ^ 
the command of all the forces. And when the 
grain was ripe I took the field ; for a great number 
of Germans had settled themselves with inpunity 
near the towns they had sacked in Gaul. Now the 
number of the towns whose walls had been dismantled 
was about forty-five, without counting citadels and 
smaller forts. And the barbarians then controlled 
on our side of the Rhine the whole country that 
extends from its sources to the Ocean. Moreover 
those who were settled nearest to us were as much 
as three hundred stades from the banks of the Rhine, 
and a district three times as wide as that had been 
left a desert by their raids ; so that the Gauls could 
not even pasture their cattle there. Then too there 
were certain cities deserted by their inhabitants, 
near which the barbarians were not yet encamped. 
This then was the condition of Gaul when I took 

1 357 A.D. 



^ Ay ptTTTTLvav eVl tw *Pr]U(p, irpo fJLrjvoiv kakwKvldv 
TTOV ScKa, KoX rel-^of; 'Apyivropa TrXrjaiov 7rpo<; 
Ta?9 vTrcopeiaLf; avrou rov Hoceyov, koI efxa'xead- 
fxr^v ov/c ttAcXeoi?. tVo)? /cat eh i/yLta? d(f)iKeTO rj C 
TOiavrr) /xa^?;. €v6a roiv Oecov hovrcov jjlol tov 
^aaiXea tcov iroXefJuioav aly^fxaKwrov, ovk iipOovrjaa 
TOV KaropOco/xarof; K.(ov(TTavTL(p. Kalrou el yur; 
dptajx^eveiv i^rfv, d7rocr(f)dTTeiv rov iroXefiLov 
Kvpio<; Tjv, Koi jxevTOt Bed 7rd(Trj<; avrov dyayv t^9 
KeXr/So? Tai<i iroXeaiv iTnheLKvveiv koI oiairep 
evTpv(j>dv TOV ^voBo/juapiov tul^ av/ji(popal<;. tov- D 
T(ov ovBev (prjdrjv Belv irpdTTetv, dWd tt/oo? tov 
K.a)vcrTdvTLov avTov evOico^i aTreTre/xi/^a, t6t6 diro 
TMP KovdBcov /cat %avpo/jLaTcov irravLovTa. avve^rj 
TOLVVv, ifJLOv fxev dycovLcrafJievov, i/ceivov Be oBev- 
aavTo^ fiovov /cai (f)i\io)<i ivTV')(^6vT0<^ to?9 irapoL- 
Kovcrt, TovldTpov eOvecTLv, ov^ Vfidf;, dX)C e/celpov 

To Brj fieTa tovto BevTepo<; evtavTo<; kol t/jito?, 
Kai TrdvTe^ jxev dTreXrjkavTO tt]^ VaXaria^ ol 
^dp^apoL, ifkeldTau Be dve\t](f)Or]aav tcov iroXecov, 
7ra/jL7rXrjOel<; Be dirb Trjf; Bp€TTaviBo<; vav<; dvTj- 
')(dr)(jav. e^aKOCFLcov vrjSiv dvrjyayov cttoXov, ojv 280 
Ta9 TeTpafC0(na<; ev ovBe 6Xot<; firjal BeKa vavirrj- 
yrjadjuLevo<; 7rdaa<; elarjyayov eh tov 'Frjvov, epyov 
ov pcKpov Bid Toi'9 €7rcKei/jLevov<i koX TrapoiicovvTa^ 
ttXtjgiov l3ap^dpov(;. 6 yovv ^XcopevTiof; ovTco^i 
(peTO TOVTO dBvvaTOV, wcrre dpyvpov Bia^iXia^i 



it over. I recovered the city of Agrippina ^ on the 
Rhine which had been taken about ten months earUer, 
and also the neighbouring fort of Argentoratum,^ 
near the foot-hills of the Vosges mountains, and 
there I engaged the enemy not ingloriously. It may 
be that the fame of that battle has reached even your 
ears. There though the gods gave into my hands 
as prisoner of war the king ^ of the enemy, I did not 
begrudge Constantius the glory of that success. 
And yet though I was not allowed to triumph for it, 
I had it in my power to slay my enemy, and moreover 
I could have led him through the whole of Gaul and 
exhibited him to the cities, and thus have luxuriated as 
it were in the misfortunes of Chnodomar. I thought 
it my duty to do none of these things, but sent 
him at once to Constantius who was returning from 
the country of the Quadi and the Sarmatians. So it 
came about that, though I had done all the fighting 
and he had only travelled in those parts and held 
friendly intercourse with the tribes who dwell on the 
borders of the Danube, it M^as not I but he who 

Then followed the second and third years of that 
campaign, and by that time all the barbarians had 
been driven out of Gaul, most of the towns had been 
recovered, and a whole fleet of many ships had 
arrived from Britain. I had collected a fleet of 
six hundred ships, four hundred of which I had had 
built in less than ten months, and I brought them all 
into the Rhine, no slight achievement, on account of 
the neighbouring barbarians who kept attacking me. 
At least it seemed so impossible to Florentius that 
he had promised to pay the barbarians a fee of two 

Cologne. '^ Strasburg. ^ Chnodomar. 



Xirpa^ virea'^ero fxiadov airoriaeiv tol^; /3ap- 
^dpoi^ VTrep rr}? TrapoBov, koI 6 KayvardvTLO'i 
virep TOVTov fjLadcov i/cotvcocraTO yap avrw irepl 
T?)? 8oo"6a)9* eTreareiXe iTp6<i fxe to avro Trpdrreiv ^ ^ 
Ke\€vaa<;, el firj Travrdiracriv ala')(^p6v p^oi (^avelrj. 
'irSi<^ he ovfc Tjv ala')(^p6v, ottov VLcovaravTiq) roiov- 
Tov e<pdvr), Xiav elwOort Oepaireveiv tov<; ^ap-' 
l3dpov<i; eSoOrj /jltjv avT0t<; ovhev dX>C eir avrov^i 
arrpaTevaaf}, dp^vvovTwy fiot /cal TrapecrrcoTcov tmv 
6eo)v, V7rehe^dp,7}v fxev puolpav rod SaXucov eOvov;, 
^apd^ov^ he e^ijXaaa, TroXXa? ySoO? koI yvuata 
fjuerd iraLhapiwv avWa^cov. ovro) he 7rdvTa<i 
e(f)o^rjaa fcal irapecrKevaaa KaTairrrj^ai, rrjv ep>r)v 
e<^ohov, Mare Trapa^prj/jua Xa^etv 6firjpov(; koI rfj C 
(TLTO'TTOiJLTTia TTapacT^eLV dacpaXi] Kop^th^v. 

yiaKpov eaTL Travra dTraptOp^eladac kul rd KaO^ 
eKaarov ypdcpeiv, oaa ev eviavTOL<; errpa^a rer- 
rapai' ra fcecfidXaia hi' rplrov eirepaicodrjv Kalaap 
€Ti Tov Prjvov' hiap^vplov^ diT'pTrjcra irapd rcov ^ap- 
^dpcov VTrep tov Ptjvov ovTa<; al^/j.aXd)TOu<;' e/c hvolv 
dyoavoLv koX pad'^ 7roXiopKLa<^ ')(^lXlov(; e^eXcov e^co- 
yprjaa, ov Tr}v d)(pr}aTOv rjXiKiav, dvhpa<; he rjffcov- 
Ta'i' eiTep/>^a tw l^cDvaTavTiw TeTTapa^i dpLOp,ov<i D 
Tcov KpaTi(TT(ov TTe^MV, T/^et? dXXov<; tmv eXaTTO- 
vcov, lirirewv TdypaTa hvo rd evTipuoTaTa' TroXetf; 
dveXaj^ov vvv pbev hrj tmp Oecav eOeXovTwv Trda-a^;, 
TOTe he dveiXijcpeiv eXdTTov^ oXiyw tcov Tecraapd- 
KovTa. pLdpfvpa^i /caXo) tov Aia koX 7rdvTa<; 
6eov<i TToXtou^ou? re Kal opoyviovi virep r?}? e/i?;? 
7rpoaLpecre(o<i eh avTov Kal TrtcrTGO)?, otl tolouto<} 

^ 4ire<TTei\e rrpSs jme rh avrh Trpdrr^iv Horkel, (iriffniXev avrh 
'np6s jxe, TTpdrreiv Hertlein, MSS. 



thousand pounds weight of silver in return for a 
passage. Constantius when he learned this — for 
Florentius had informed him about the proposed 
pa3niient — wrote to me to carry out the agreement, 
unless I thought it absolutely disgraceful. But how 
could it fail to be disgraceful when it seemed so even 
to Constantius, who was only too much in the habit 
of trying to conciliate the barbarians ? However, no 
payment was made to them. Instead I marched 
against them, and since the gods protected me and 
were present to aid, I received the submission of part 
of the Salian tribe, and drove out the Chamavi and 
took many cattle and women and children. And I 
so terrified them all, and made them tremble at my 
approach that I immediately received hostages from 
them and secured a safe passage for my food 

It would take too long to enumerate everything 
and to write down every detail of the task that 
I accomplished within four years. But to sum it all 
up : Three times, while I was still Caesar, I crossed 
the Rhine ; twenty thousand persons who were held as 
captives on the further side of the Rhine I demanded 
and received back ; in two battles and one siege 
I took captive ten thousand prisoners, and those not 
of unserviceable age but men in the prime of life ; I 
sent to Constantius four levies of excellent infantry, 
three more of infantry not so good, and two very 
distinguished squadrons of cavalry. I have now with 
the help of the gods recovered all the towns, and by 
that time I had already recovered almost forty. T 
call Zeus and all the gods who protect cities and our 
race to bear witness as to my behaviour towards 




yeyova irepl avTOV, dlov av eiXofxr^v iyoD vlov irepi 
i/xe yeveaOai. Terl/jut^Ka jxev ovv avrov w? ou^ei? 281 
Kaiadpwv ovBeva tmv e/jLirpoaOev avroKparopcov. 
ovhev yovp €t? rrju Tr)p.epov virep eKeivcav e^Kokel 
fjbOL, KoX Tavra TrapprjaLao-a/jLivw irpb^ avrov, aXka 
jeKoiovf; alria^ opy7]<; dvaTrXdrreL. AovTrTriKLvov, 
(f)t]ai, Kol Tyoet? dXkov^ dvOpcoirov^; KaTea')(e<i' ov<; 
el KOL KTeiva^ r)iX7]v €7n^ov\evaavTa<i efMOiye 
(j>av€p(o<i, exp^v T^^ vTrep tmv ira66vT(ov opyrjv 
d(f)eLvac Trj<{ o/jbovola^; eveKa. tovtov<; Se ovBev 
d^^pi SiaOelf; w? Tapax(o8€i,<; (f)va€t, koI iroXefio- B 
TTOLov^; KaTea^ov, iroWa Trdvv BairapMv ei? avrov^i 
6K TO)V hrjfjLocTLwv, d(j)e\ofjL6VO<; S' ^ ovhev tmv virap- 
XovTcov eK€LV0L(;. opdre, ttw? eire^ievaL tovtol^ 6 
K.oyva-TdvTw; vo/noOerec. 6 yap x^XeTralvcov virep 
TMV irpodrjKovTcov fiySev ap* ovk oveihi^ei fjLoc kuI 
Kareyeka ri;? fMcopiaf;, on rbv ^ovea irarpo^, 
dBeXtpcov, dveyjrioov, aTrdar)^ w? eVo? elirelv r7J<; 
KOLvrj(; rjficov ecrria? Kal avyyev€ia<i rov Stj/jliov et? 
Tovro idepdirevaa; o-KoirelTe he ottoj^; kol yevo- C 
fievo^i avTOKpdrcop en 6€pa7revTiKM<; avru) irpoarj- 
ve)(6'r]v ef mv eTrearecXa. 

Kat rd irpo tovtov he oirolo'; Ti? yeyova irepl 
avrov evrevdev eto-eaOe. ala06/jLevo<;, on rcov 
d/jbapravo/jLevayv /cXypovofjujao) fxev avro^ rr)v 
dho^iav Kal rov klvSvvov, e^epyacrOrjaerai he 
€repoi<i rd irXelara, irpcorov fiev iKerevov, el ravra D 

^ 5' after a<l)€\6iJ.evos Hertlein suggests. 


Constantius and my loyalty to him, and that I 
behaved to him as 1 would have chosen that my 
own son should behave to me.^ I have paid him 
more honour than any Caesar has paid to any 
Emperor in the })ast. Indeed, to this very day 
he has no accusation to bring against me on that 
score, though I have been entirely frank in my 
dealings with him, but he invents absurd pretexts 
for his resentment. He says, " You have detained 
Lupicinus and three other men." And supposing I 
had even put them to death after they had openly 
plotted against me, he ought for the sake of keep- 
ing peace to have renounced his resentment at their 
fate. But I did those men not the least injury, and 
I detained them because they are by nature quarrel- 
some and mischief-makers. And though I am spend- 
ing large sums of the public money on them, I have 
robbed them of none of their property. Observe 
how Constantius really lays down the law that I 
ought to proceed to extremities with such men ! 
For by his anger on behalf of men who are not 
related to him at all, does he not rebuke and ridi- 
cule me for my folly in having served so faithfully 
the murderer of my father, my brothers, my cousins ; 
the executioner as it were of his and my whole 
family and kindred ? Consider too with what defer- 
ence I have continued to treat him even since I 
became Emperor, as is shown in my letters. 

And how I behaved to him before that you shall 
now learn. Since I was well aware that whenever 
mistakes were made I alone should incur the dis- 
grace and danger, though most of the work was 
carried on by others, I first of all implored him, if 

^ Cf. Isocrates, To Demonicus 14 

T 2 


TrpaTTetv avTtp (f^alvoiTo kolI Travro)^ e/ie irpocra- 

yopeveiv /caicrapa hehoypuevov eHr}, avhpa^ a<ya6ov<i 

Kol cr7rovSaiOV<; Sovvai /xoi tov<; inTovpyovvra^;' 6 

Se irporepou eScoKe tov<; yLto^^^/ooraTOf?. ft)? 8e 6 

fiev el? o TTOVT^poraTOfs koL fidXa aajxevo^;^ vtttjkov- 

aev, ovoei^ oe rj^tov tcov aXXcop, avopa oooayoriv ukcov 

e/jLol Kol fiaXa ayadov '^oKovcttlov, o<; 8ca ttjv 

dperrjv evdeco'^ avrw ^e<yovev VTroirro^;. ovk dp- 

K€aOel<i 670) Tw TOiovT(p, ^Xeircov Se tt/jo? to 

hid(f)opov Tov TpOTTOu Kol KaTav6r]aa<i^ Tw puev d^av 

avTov TTLarevovra, to5 Be ovS^ o\g)9 Trpoae'^ovra, 282 

T^9 Be^id'i avTOv koI tcov <yovdTwv d-y^rdfievo^' 

TovTwv, e<pr)v, ovSei^; eaTi jjlol avvrjOrj^; ovBe 

f/eyouev efJiTTpoaOev eTnaTdfjuevo^ Be avToix; e/c 

(f)7]/jLr]<;, (TOV KeXevaavTO^, eTaipov<i epiavTov teal 

(f)LXov<i vopLi^w, Toi^ irdXaL yvwpipLOt^; eir tar]^ 

Tip^oiv. ov pLYjv BiKaiov Tj T0VT0i<; €7nTeTpd(f)6ac Ta 

epLCL rj Ta tovtcov r)p,tv crvyfCivBvvevo-ac. tl ovv 

iKeTevQ); ypa7rT0v<; r]p!Lv Bb<i coairep vopiov^, tIvcov B 

d7re')(ea6ai ')(^pr) koX ocra irpdTTetv eTrcTpeirec^;. 

BrjKov ydp, OTi TOV piev iretOopLevov e7raiveaeo<y, tov 

Be uTreiOovvTa KoXdaetSy el Kal 6, tl pidXtaTa 

vopii^o) puyBeva direidriaeiv. 

'Oaa piev ovv e7re)(^eipr)aev 6 TlevTdBto<; avTi/ca 

KaivoTopbelvy ovBev ')(pr) Xeyecv dvTeirpaTTov Be 

eyco 7r/9o? nrdvTa, Kal yiveTai pLOi Bvapevr}<i eKeWev. 

elr' dXXov Xa^oov Kal irapaaKevdaa^ BevTepov Kal 

TpiTOv, UavXov, VavBevTLov, toz;? ovopuaaTOV'^ eV C 

^ &(rfi€Pos Hertlein suggests, aornevws MSS. 
^ ^KiTTcav . , . Karav6r\aas Horkel, Karav6r}<Tas . . . )8Ae7r«</ 
Hertlein, MSS. 



he had made uj) his mind to that course and was 
altogether determined to proclaim me Caesar, to give 
me good and able men to assist me He however at 
first gave me the vilest wretches. And when one, the 
most worthless of them, had very gladly accepted 
and no one of the others consented, he gave me 
with a bad grace an officer who was indeed excellent, 
Sallust, who on account of his virtue has at once 
fallen under his suspicion. And since I was not 
satisfied with such an arrangement and saw how his 
manner to them varied, for 1 observed that he trusted 
one of them too much and paid no attention at all to 
the other, I clasped his right hand and his knees and 
said : " I have no acquaintance with any of these 
men nor have had in the past. But I know them by 
report, and since you bid me I regard them as my 
comrades and friends and pay them as much respect 
as I would to old acquaintances. Nevertheless it is 
not just that my affairs should be entrusted to them 
or that their fortunes should be hazarded with mine. 
What then is my })etition ? Give me some sort of 
written rules as to what I must avoid and what you 
entrust to me to perform. For it is clear that you 
will approve of him who obeys you and punish him 
who is disobedient, though indeed I am very sure 
that no one will disobey you." 

Now I need not mention the innovations that 
Pentadius at once tried to introduce. But I kept 
opposing him in everything and for that reason he 
became my enemy. Then Constantius chose another 
and a second and a third and fashioned them for his 
purpose, I mean Paul and Gaudentius, those notor- 
ious sycophants ; he hired them to attack me and 



eyLte /jLiorOcocra/nevo^; avKO(pdvTa^, ^aXovartov /jL€v 
CO? ifjLol (f)LXov arrocTTrjvaL TrapacTKevd^ei, Aovkl- 
Xiavbv Se SoOrjvac BtdSo)(^ov avriKa. koX fiiKpov 
varepov fcal ^X(op6PTCo<; rjv e'^6po<^ ifjuol Bia to.? 
irXeove^La'^y ah rjvavTWv/jirjv. ireiOovaiv ovroc tov 
KcovaravTiov d^eXeaBau /xe to)v arparoTreBcov 
dirdvTwv, Lcr(0<; tl kol vtto ri]^ ^7}XoTV7rLa<; tmv 
/caropOco/jLarcov Kvc^ofievop, kol ypd<pei ypafi/jLara D 
ttoWt}? fjL€v dTt/iiLa<; eh e/xe iTXtjprj, KeXroh Be 
avdajaatv direiXovvTa' fjuLKpov yap Beo) cf>dvaL to 
GrpanwrtKov dirav dBcaKpircof; to /bia'y^L/jLcoTaTOv 
dirayayelv Trj<^ TaXaTLa<:; eKeXevaev, eTrtra^a? tovto 

TO epyOV AoVTTTTLKiVCp T€ Kal TtVTWVLCp, ifiol Be ft)9 

^v irpof; /xr)Bev evavTLcoOeirjv avToh eTreaTeiXev. 

EiVTauOa fxevTOL Tiva Tpoirov to, tmv Oecou 
ecTTOL/jL dv epya 7rpo<; v/jud^;; BcevoovfjLrjv iJbdpTVpe<^ 283 
Be avTOL' irdcrav drroppi'^a^i ttjv /3a(7cXi,Kr)v ttoXv- 
TeXetav Ka\ TrapaaKevrjv rjav^d^eiv, irpaTTeLv 
Be ovBev 6X(o<;. dvefxevov Be ^^XcopevTiov irapa- 
yeveadai Kal tov AovTnriKivov rjv yap 6 fxev irepl 
Tr}V Wievvav, 6 Be ev Tah ^peTTavlai<^. ev tovtm 
6opv^o<i 7roXv<; rjv irepl 7rdvTa<; tov<^ iSioora? Kal B 
Toi'9 (TTpaTL(OTa<;, Kal ypdcf)eL rt? dvcovvfiov ypafi- 
fiaTetov ^ eh ttjv daTvyeiTOvd fioi ttoXlv tt/jo? tov<; 
HeTovXdvTa^ TOVTOval Kal KeXroi;?* ovo/nd^eTac 
Be ovTco TO, Tdy/juaTa' ev m iroXXd fiev eyeypaiTTO 
KaT eKeivov, ttoXXoI Be vTrep tj}? VaXXtoyv irpo- 
Boaua^ oBvpfJLOi' Kal /mevTOi Kal ttjv efirjv dTc/nlav 
TO ypajJLfJbaTelov (Tvyypdyjra'; dircoBvpeTo. tovto 
KOfXLcrOev eKivrjae 7rdvTa<;, ot tcl K.covcrTavTLov 
fiaXiaTa e<i>povouv, eTriOecrOai fioi KaTa to Kap- C 

1 ypa/jfjiaTtiou Horkel adds, SeKrov Naber. 



then took measures to remove Sallust, because he 
was my friend^ and to appoint Lucilianus immediately, 
as his successor. And a little later Florentius also 
became my enemy on account of his avarice which I 
used to oppose. These men persuaded Constantius, 
who was perhaps already somewhat irritated by 
jealousy of my successes, to remove me altogether 
from command of the troops. And he wrote letters 
full of insults directed against me and threatening 
ruin to the Gauls. For he gave orders for the with- 
drawal from Gaul of, I might almost say, the whole 
of the most efficient troops without exception, and 
assigned this commission to Lupicinus and Gintonius, 
while to me he wrote that I must oppose them in 

And now in what terms shall 1 describe to you the 
work of the gods ? It was my intention, as they will 
bear me witness, to divest myself of all imperial 
splendour and state and remain in peace, taking no 
part whatever in affairs. But I waited for Florentius 
and Lupicinus to arrive ; for the former was at 
Vienne, the latter in Britain. Meanwhile there was 
great excitement among the civilians and the troops, 
and someone wrote an anonymous letter to the town 
near where I was,^ addressed to the Petulantes and 
the Celts — those were the names of the legions — full 
of invectives against Constantius and of lamenta- 
tions about his betrayal of the Gauls. Moreover the 
author of the letter lamented bitterly the disgrace 
inflicted on myself. This letter when it arrived 
provoked all those who were most definitely on the 
side of Constantius to urge me in the strongest terms 
to send away the troops at once, before similar letters 

. ^ Julian was at Paris. 



repcoTUTOV, ottox; rjBrj tov? (TTpaTLWTa<i eKirefx- 
yjraLfii, irplv Kot eh tou? dWovf; apidfiov^ o/juota 
pt(f)rjvat. /cat yap ovBe dXXo<^ ri? nraprjv tmv 
SoKovvTcov €vv(o<^ ^X^^^ ifioL, Ne/SpiSio^ Si, Uev- 
Tdhio<i, A€K€VTio<;, 6 irap avrov Tre/jUcpOeh iir 
avTO TOVTO J^covaravTiov. Xeyovro'; Be fiov ')(^prjpai, 
irepifjbeveiv ert AovirinKtvov koI ^Xcopevriov, ou8eW 
riKovaev, dXk eXeyov Travre^} Tovvavriov on Set 
TTOoelv, el p^T) l3ovXopaL rat's it poka^ovaau^ vtto- 
ylriat^; wairep aTroBei^cv Kal T€Kp,r]pcov rovro 1) 
irpoadelvat. elra irpoaeOeaav w? NOi/ p.ev eicirepi- 
(pOevTcov avToyv aov earc to epyov, d^iKopevwv Se 
rovTCOv ov aol tovto, aXX* eKeivoc^ Xoyielrai 
J^(ov(TTdvTt,0(;, av Be ev alria yevrjar). ypdyjrai S^ ^ 
pbe eirecaav avro), p^aXXov he e/BtdaavTO' TreiOerac  
p^ev yap eKelvo^, ^'^^P e^ean Kal p,r) 7reia6rj- 
vai, ^id^eaOaL he ol<; dv e^fj, rod irelOecv ovhev 
TTpoaheovrar ovkovv ovhe ol ^caaOevre<i tmv 
ireireKTpbevwv elalv, dXXd tcov dvayKaadevrcov. 
ecTKOirovp.ev evravOa, TTOiav ohov avTov<; ')(^pr} 284 
fiahi^eiv, htTTTJf; ovarj<i. eyob puev rj^iovv erepav 
rpaTTTJvai, ol he av0i<i dvayKa^ovcriv e/ceivrjv levai, 
p,r] Tovro avTO yevopevov oxjirep dcpopp^rjv rcva 
ardcrecof; rol^ (TrpaTi(OTaL<i irapdcr^r) /cal Tapa')(7j<; 
Tivo<; alriov yevrfTai, elra araacd^eiv dira^ dp^d- 
p,evoi irdvra d6p6w<; rapd^cocrtv. eho/cei to heo<i 
ov iravTdiracnv dXoyov elvac tcov dvdpcoTrcov. 

^HX^e Ta TdypuaTa, vTnjvrrjaa /card to vevop,i- 
apbevov avTol^, e^eaOai T7J<; ohov irpovTpeyjra' p,iav B 

^ S^ Hertlein would add. 


could be scattered broadcast among the rest of the 
legions. And indeed there was no one there belong- 
ing to the party su})posed to be friendly to me, but 
only Nebridius^ Pentadius, and Decentius, the latter 
of whom had been despatched for this very purpose 
by Constantius. And w hen I replied that we ought 
to wait still longer for Lupicinus and Florentius^ no 
one listened to me^ but they all declared that we 
ought to do the very opposite, unless I wished to add 
this further proof and evidence for the suspicions 
that w ere already entertained about me. And they 
added this argument : " If you send away the troops 
now it Avill be regarded as your measure, but when 
the others come Constantius will give them not you 
the credit and you will be held to blame." And so 
they persuaded or rather compelled me to write 
to him. For he alone may be said to be persuaded 
who has the power to refuse, but those who can use 
force have no need to persuade as well ; then again 
where force is used there is no persuasion, but a man 
is the victim of necessity. Thereupon we discussed 
by which road, since there were two, the troops 
had better march. I preferred that they should take 
one of these^ but they immediately compelled them 
to take the other, for fear that the other route if 
chosen should give rise to mutiny among the troops 
and cause some disturbance, and that then, when 
they had once begun to mutiny, they might throw 
all into confusion. Indeed such apprehension on 
their part seemed not altogether without grounds. 

The legions arrived, and I, as was customary, went 
to meet them and exhorted them to continue their 
march. For one day they halted, and till that time 



rffiepav iTrefieivev, d')(pL<i 779 ovSev fihetv iyoo tmv 
^ejSovXevfievcov avTOc<;' corro) Zeu^/'HX^o?, "Aprj(;, 
^A6r}vd KoX TrdvTe^i Oeoi, od<; ovBe iyyv^ dcpLKero 
fiov Tt? TotavTr) virovoia d')(^pL Zei\7](i avTrj<^' o^^ia^i 
he 7]Sr] iT6p\ rjXlov hvcrp^a^ ifirjvvOrj /not, koI avrifca 
rd ^aaiXeta irepieiXrjTTTo, Koi i^ocov 7rdvT€<;, ere 
(f)povTi^ovT6<; jULOV Tt xph TTOielv KOI 0U7TC0 acfioBpa 
7nar6voiJTO<;' erv^ov yap eri, t/;? yafierrj^; ^ct)<Trj<; C 
fjbOL dva7ravcro/jL6vo<; Ihia 7rpo<i to irXrjaiov virepwov 
dvekOdiv. elra eKeWev dveTreirraTO yap 6 Tol')(p<^' 
7rpo(T€KVPr)(Ta Tov Ala. yevoixevrj^; he en p,eL^ovo<; 
Trj<; ^orj^ koI dopvjSovfievcov irdvTCdv ev to2<; ffacn- 
Xetot?, rjTeopbev tov 6eov hovvat Tepa<;. avTap 6 y 
r)iMV Bel^e Kal rjvcoyei TretaOfjvai, Kal jjltj irpoaev- 
avTiovaOat tov GTpaTOTrehov ttj TrpoOvfiia. 
yevofievcov o/z-ft)? ifMol Kal tovtcov tcoi^ ayfielcov, ovk D 
el^a eTOi/jLco<;, aXX' dvTea^ov el<; oaov yhvvd/mijv, 
Kal ovT€ Trjv Trpoaprjaiv ovTe tov aTecpavov irpocr- 
le/jitjv. iirel Be ovt€ el? cbv ^ ttoWmv i^Bvvd/jLTjv 
KpaTecv oX Te tovto /SouXofievoc yeveaOai Oeol tov<^ 
pev Trapdy^vvov, ip^ol Be eOeXyov ttjv yvd)p,'tjv, wpa 

TTOV TpiTT) (T')(eBoV OVK olBa 0VTlv6<^ p,0t (TTpaTld)T0V 

BovTO<; pLavLdKTjv TrepieOep^rjv Kal rjXOov el<; Ta 
^aaiXeia, evBoOev dir avTfj<;, d><; laaaiv ol Beoi, 
(TTevMV TTJ^ KapBia<^. KaiToi XP^^ BiJTrovdev tti- 285 
aTevovTa tw (j)7]vavTi OeSt to Tepa<; Oappelv dXV 

^ i3v Cobet, rS)u Hertlein, MSS. 


I knew nothing whatever of what they had 
determined ; I call to witness Zeus, Helios, Ares, 
Athene, and all the other gods that no such sus{)icion 
even entered my mind until that very evening. It 
was already late, when about sunset the news was 
brought to me, and suddenly the palace was sur- 
rounded and they all began to shout aloud, while I 
w^as still considering what I ought to do and feeling 
by no means confident. My wife was still alive and 
it happened, that in order to rest alone, I had gone 
to the upper room near hers. Then from there 
through an opening in the wall I prayed to Zeus. 
And when the shouting grew still louder and all 
was in a tumult in the palace I entreated the 
god to give me a sign ; and thereupon he showed 
me a sign ^ and bade me yield and not oppose myself 
to the will of the army. Nevertheless even after 
these tokens had been vouchsafed to me I did not 
yield without reluctance, but resisted as long as I 
could, and would not accept either the salutation '^ 
or the diadem. But since I could not singlehanded 
control so many, and moreover the gods, w^ho willed 
that this should happen, spurred on the soldiers and 
gradually softened my resolution, somewhere about 
the third hour some soldier or other gave me the 
collar and I put it on my head and returned to the 
palace, as the gods know groaning in my heart. 
And yet surely it was my duty to feel confidence 
and to trust in the god after he had shown me 
the sign ; but I was terribly ashamed and ready to 

1 Odyssey 3. 173 

rJTiofJiev 8e Qihv (prjuai repas, avrap '6 7' t]ij.7v 

2 i.e. the title of Augustus. 



par'y^uvo/JLTjv Beivw^; kol KareBvo/jirjv, el Bo^at/jLt /jltj 
7n(TT(it)<; O'XP'' T^^ou? uirafcovaaL KcovaravTua. 

HoXXt}? ovv ovcrr}<; irepl ra ^aalXeia Karrj^eia^;, 
TovTov evOv^ 01 K(ov(TTavTLov <^i\oi Tov /caipov 
dpTrdaai hiavoriOevTe^ eirL^ovXrjv /jLOL paTrrovaiv 
avTLKa fcal hieveijxav roi^ crrpaTLciiTai^i ')(^pr}/iiaTa, 
Bvolv Odrepov TrpoaBoKcovref;, 7) hiaarrja-eiv dXkr)- 
Xof9 ^ Kol iravrdiraaiv einBrjaeG-Oai^ /jloc (pavepcix;. B 
alcrOo/jLevofi rt? tmv iTrLTeray/juevcov rfj TrpooBfp tt}? 
e/jL7]<i <ya/jb6r7J<; \d6pa TrpaTTO/nevov avro ifiol fjuev 
irpoiTov ifjbrjvvaev, 0)9 Be ecopa pue pLrjBev  irpoae- 
'X,ovTa, 7rapa(f)pov^(Ta<; coairep ol OeoXriirTOt Brjfio- 
cna jBodv yjp^aro Kara rrjv dyopdv "AvBpe<; 
crrpaTLOJTai Kai ^evou koX TroXtraL, p^rj irpoBoyre 
TOV avTOKpdropa. elra ep.Tri'TneL OvfjLo<; et? rot'? 
arpaTLcora'^, kol 7rdvre<; eh rd ^aaikeia pLerd to)v 
ottXcov edeov. KaraXa^ovre^ Be pie ^covra kol C 
'X^apevT€<; coairep ol tov<; ef dveXiricrroiv o^devra^ 
(f)iXov<; dXXo<i dXXoOev TrepiejSaXXov koX irepte- 
irXeKov Kal eVt tmv copucov €<pepov, kol rjv ttco? to 
irpdypua 6ea<i d^Lov, evdovaiaapuw jdp ea>Ket. co? 
Be pie dTTavTa')(^o6ev 'TrepiecT')(^0Vy e^rjTovv diravTa^ 
T0v<i K(ovaTavTiOV ^tXou? eVt TipLwpla. tttjXlkov 
'^ycovLo-dpLTjv dycova acoaai ^ovX6pL€vo<; avTov^;, D 
ocraatv ol Oeol irdvTe^. 

AXXd Br) Td pueTd tovto ttw? tt/oo? tov 
Kcova-TdvTiov Bieirpa^d/jLTjv; ovirw koX Trjpiepov 
ev Tol^ Trpcx; avTov e7ri(TToXat<; ttj BoOeicrt] 

1 iirieija-faeai Cobet, eVteeV^ot Hertlein, MSS. 


sink into the earth at the thought of not seeming 
to obey Constantius faithfully to the last. 

Now since there was the greatest consternation 
in the palace, the friends of Constantius thought 
they would seize the occasion to contrive a plot 
against me without delay, and they distributed 
money to the soldiers, expecting one of two things, 
either that they would cause dissension between me 
and the troops, or no doubt that the latter would 
attack me openly. But when a certain officer 
belonging to those who commanded my wife's escort 
perceived that this was being secretly contrived, he 
first reported it to me and then, when he saw that I 
paid no attention to him, he became frantic, and like 
one possessed he began to cry aloud before the 
people in the market-place, " Fellow soldiers, 
strangers, and citizens, do not abandon the Emperor! " 
Then the soldiers were inspired by a frenzy of rage 
and they all rushed to the palace under arms. And 
when they found me alive, in their delight, like men 
who meet friends whom they had not hoped to see 
again, they pressed round me on this side and on 
that, and embraced me and carried me on their 
shoulders. And it was a sight worth seeing, for they 
were like men seized witli a divine frenzy. Then 
after the}^ had surrounded me on all sides they 
demanded that I give up to them for punishment the 
friends of Constantius. What fierce opposition I had 
to fight down in my desire to save those persons is 
known to all the gods. 

But further, how did I behave to Constantius after 
this ? Even to this day I have not yet used in my 
letters to him the title which was bestowed on me 



fJLOi vapd TMV deSiV eircovvfjiia /cexPVH-^^f Kaiaapa 
3e, ifiavTov yey pacj^a, kol TreireiKa to 1/9 arpartcoTa^ 
6/JLoaac /jlol /jLijSevbi; €7ndv/jL7Ja€Lv, elirep ij/xlv 
eTrLrpeyjrecev a^ew? olKelv ra<; VaWia<;, rol^ 
7r€7rpay/jL6V0L<i avvaLvead^;. airavra ra irap i/jLol 286 
rdy/jLara 7r/309 avrov eTreji'^ev i7ri(TTo\d<;, ik€- 
revovra irepl ttj^; 7rpo<: aXXT^Xou? rjjjLLV 6pLovoia<;. 
6 Se dvTi TOVTWv eirefiaXev rj/xlv tov(; /Sap^dpovq, 
i'X^dpov he dvr)y6p6V(je pie Trap* eKeivoL^;, Koi 
pii(j6ov<^ ereXeaev, otto)? to TaWicjv eOvo'^ TropOrj- 
deirj, ypd(f)(ov re ev Tol<i ev ^IrdXla TrapacfyvXdrTeLv 
Tov<; €K TO)v TaWiCJv irapeKeXevero, /cat irepl B 
Tov^ VaXkiKov<; 6pov<; ev Tal<; irXrjaiov iroXeatv 
et9 TpiaKoaia<s pLvpcdSa<; pLeSifivcov irvpov kut- 
eipyaa/jbevov ev rfj l^poyavTia, roaovrov erepov 
irepl Ta9 KoTTta9 "AX7ret9 ft)9 eir e/xe (rrparevacov 
ifceXevae irapaaKevacrOrjvai, fcal ravra ov Xoyoi, 
aa<p7] Be epya. koi yap a9 yeypa^ev eiriaroXd^^ 
vrro TMV ffapfidpcov /cop.icrOeiaa<; eBe^dpuyv, Kal 
Ta9 Too0a9 Ta9 TrapeaKevacr/uLevaf; /careXa^ov 
/cal Ta<; eTnaToXa<=; Tavpov. 7r/909 tovtol^; en G 
vvv p,OL ct)9 KaicrapL ^ ypd(f)ei, koi ovBe avvOr)- 
creaOai TrcoTrore Trpo^i pe VTrecrrr), aXX' ^FATriKrrjrov 
Ttva TMV TaXXiwv'^ eiriaKOirov eTrep.yjrev 009 Triard 
pLOi irepl T?}9 d(T<^aXeia<; T7J<i efiavrov irape^ovra, 
KUL TovTO OpvXel Si 6X(ov auTov TMV eTTtaToXcov, 
ft)9 ovK d(f)atpr)a6p,evo<i rod ^rjv, virep Be Trj<i 
TLp,7j<{ ovBev pLvrjiMOvevei. eyw Be tov^ puev opKOV^ 

^ ws Kalarapi Hertlein suggests, Kaiaapi MSS. 

2 Athanasius says that Epictetus was bishop of Centum- 
cellae ; hence Petavius suggests KepTovfiKfWtov for twv 



by the gods^ but I have always signed myself Caesar, 
and I have persuaded tlie soldiers to demand nothing 
more if only he would allow us to dwell peaceably in 
Gaul and would ratify what has been already done. 
All the legions with me sent letters to him j)raying 
that there might be harmony between us. But 
instead of this he let loose against us the barbarians, 
and among them proclaimed me his foe and paid 
them bribes so that the people of the Gauls might be 
laid waste ; moreover he wrote to the forces in Italy 
and bade them be on tlieir guard against any who 
should come from Gaul ; and on the frontiers of 
Gaul in the cities near by he ordered to be got ready 
three million bushels of wheat which had been 
ground at Brigantia/ and the same amount near the 
Cottian Alps, with the intention of marching to 
oppose me. These are not mere words but deeds 
that speak plain. In fact the letters that he wrote 
I obtained from the barbarians who brought them to 
me ; and I seized the provisions that had been made 
ready, and the letters of Taurus. Besides, even now 
in his letters he addresses me as "Caesar" and 
declares that he will never make terms with me : but 
he sent one Epictetus, a bishop of Gaul,^ to offer a 
guarantee for my })ersonal safety ; and throughout 
his letters he keeps repeating that he will not take 
my life, but about my honour he says not a word. 
As for his oaths, for my })art I think they should, as 
the proverb says, be written in ashes,*^ so little do 
they inspire belief. But my honour I will not give 

^ Bregentz, on Lake Constance. 

^ Epictetus was bishop of Centumcellae (Civita Vecchia) ; 
see critical note. 

^ cf. '* Write in dust " or *' write in water." 



avrov TO rrj^ TrapoiiMtas olfxai helv eh T^(f)pav 
^pd(^eiv, ovTO)^ elal Tnaroi' rrj'^ TLfirji; Be ov rov D 
KoKov Kol TrpeirovTO^; ixovov, oKka kol t^? twv 
(J)l\(op evefca awrrjpia^ avTe')(pixar teal ovTro) 
(Prjfu Tr)v iravra'xpv 7/79 ^vpLval^ofjuevriv micplav. 

Tavra eTreia-e fie, ravra i^dvr) fjuoi hiKaia. 
Koi TrpMTOv jJLev avrd toI<^ Trdvra opcoat koI 
cLKovovcnv dve6eiM7]v deo2<;. elra dvadp£vo<; irepl 
rrj^i e^oSov kol yevofievcov koXmv tmv lepcov Kar 
avTTjv eK€ivr]v rrjv rffiepav, ev fj rot? arpaTidiTaL^ 
irepl T?}? eirl rdSe Troyoeta? e/xeWov BcakeyeadaL, 287 
vTrep T€ T7}9 e/jLUvrov awTrjpla^ kol ttoXv rrrXeov 
virep T?79 T03V kolvmv evirpayia^ kol Tfj<; dTrdvrcov 
dvdpciiiTwv eXevdepia^; avrov re rov KeXrwi^ 
€avov<;, ot9 rjorj rot? TroXefiioc^ e^eocoKCV, ovoe 
TMV irpoyoviKoiiV (jyeiad/jLevof; Td<^(ov, 6 tov(; dWo- 
rpiov^ irdvv Oepairevayv, (orjOrfv helv edvrj re 
nrpoaka^e'iv ra Svvarmrara kol ')(^pijjjLdrci)v iropov^ 
BiKaiordrcov e^ dpyvpelcov KgX '^pvaeccov, /cal 
el p^ev dyairrjaeiev en vvv yovv rrjv tt/jo? 7;/>ta9 
6p,6voiav, etcro) rS)v vvv e')(ppbev(t)v p,eveiv, el Be B 
TToXep^eiv Biavoolro kol p-rjBev drro rrj<; irporepa^ 
yvoiip/r]<^ ')(aXdaeieVi 6, n av fj rol<; deol^ (f)i\ov 
Trdax^tv rj irpdrreiv, ct)9 aXayjbov dvavBpia '\jrv)(^fj<; 
Kol Biavola^ dpbaOla rj irXrjdev<i daOeve- 
(Trepov avrov (jyavrjvai. vvv pulv yap el rco rfKrjdei 
Kparrjcreiev, ovk e/ceivov ro epyov, dWa rrj^i 
TToXvy^eiplaf; eariv el Be ev ral<s VaXXiai'^ 
irepip^evovrd p^e Kal ro ^fjv dyairoovra /cal 
BiaKXivovra rov klvBvvov drravra^oOev 7repi,fco'\jra<i C 



up, pai'tly out of regard for what is seemly and 
fitting, but also to secure the safety of my friends. 
And 1 have not yet described the cruelty that he is 
practising over the whole earth. 

These then were the events that persuaded me ; 
this was the conduct I thought just. And first I 
imparted it to the gods who see and hear all things. 
Then when I had offered sacrifices for my depar- 
ture, the omens were favourable on that very day 
on which I was about to announce to the troops that 
they were to march to this place ; and since it was 
not only on behalf of my own safety but far more for 
the sake of the general welfare and the freedom of 
all men and in particular of the people of Gaul, — for 
twice already he had betrayed them to the enemy 
and had not even spared the tombs of their ancestors, 
he who is so anxious to conciliate strangers ! — then, I 
say, I thought that I ought to add to my forces 
certain very powerful tribes and to obtain supplies of 
money, which I had a perfect right to coin, both 
gold and silver. Moreover if even now he would 
welcome a reconciliation with me I would keep to 
what I at present possess ; but if he should decide 
to go to war and will in no wise relent from his 
earlier purpose, then I ought to do and to suffer what- 
ever is the will of the gods ; seeing that it would be 
more disgraceful to show myself his inferior through 
failure of courage or lack of intelligence than in 
mere numbers. For if he now defeats me by force 
of numbers that will not be his doing, but will be due 
to the larger army that he has at his command. If 
on the other hand he had surprised me loitering in 
Gaul and clinging to bare life and, while I tried to 
avoid the danger, had attacked me on all sides, in 


VOL. II. - U 


KUTeXaffe, KV/cX(p fMep vtto tmv jSap/Sdpcov, Kara 
arofjba 5e viro twv avrov arparoTriScop, to 
iraOelv re olfiac ra €<T')(aTa irpocrrjv kol ere rj 
TMV Trpay/jbdrcov ai(T')(yvr] ovSe/JLid<; iXdrrcov f^/z-ta? 
Tot9 ye (Tco^poaL. 

Tavra otavor)OeL<;, dv8pe<i ^AOrjvaloL, rot? re 
(TV(TTpart(OTaL<; roh ifiolf; Btrj\6ov koX irpo^; 
KOLVOv<i TOiv irdvrwv ^l^XkrjVdiV TroXtra? ypd(^(o. 
Oeol he ol TrdvTcov Kvpioi aviJLixa')(iav rjfMv rr/v D 
eavTcov, Mairep virea-rrjaav, el<; reXo^ Solev koI 
irapda'X^ocev rat? ^ K6r)vaL<i v(p^ rjixCyv re eh ocrov 
8vva/jii<i ev TTaOelv koX tolovtov<^ <^X'^^^v e? del 
Tou? avTOKparopa^;, ot fjudXiorra kol StacfyepoPTCj^; 
avTd<; aiheaovrai ^ kol dyaTrriaovaiv. 

^ oXZiffovrai Cobet, iXvovrai Hertlein, MSS. 



the rear and on the flanks by means of the barbarians, 
and in front by liis own legions, 1 shoukl 1 believe 
have had to face complete ruin, and moreover the 
disgrace of such conduct is greater than any punish- 
ment — at least in the sight of the wise.^ 

These then are the views, men of Athens, which I 
have communicated to my fellow soldiers and which 
I am now writing to the whole body of the citizens 
throughout all Greece. May the gods who decide 
all things vouchsafe me to the end the assistance 
which they have promised, and may they grant to 
Athens all possible favours at my hands ! May she 
always have such Emperors as will honour her and 
love her above and beyond all other cities I 

^ Demosthenes, Olynthiac 1. 27. 

u 2 






Julian was Supreme Pontiff, and as such felt re- 
sponsible for the teachings and conduct of the 
priesthood. He saw that in order to offset the in- 
fluence of the Christian priests which he thought 
was partly due to their moral teaching, partly to 
their charity towards the poor, the pagans must 
follow their example. Hitherto the preaching of 
morals had been left to the philosophers. Julian's 
admonitions as to the treatment of the poor and of 
those in prison, and the rules that he lays down for 
the private life of a priest are evidently borrowed 
from the Christians. 

This Fragment occurs in the Vossianus MS., in- 
serted in the Letter to Themistius} and was identified 
and published sei)arately by Petavius. It was i)ro- 
bably written when Julian was at Antioch on the 
way to Persia. 

' p. 256 C, between rh h\} Ktyofitvov and koI '7re'iroir]Ka<ri. 



7r\r)v rjv €t9 rov ^aaiXea eTriSayaiv 

araKTOvvrdf; Tiva<^, avTLfca fiaXa koXcl^ovctlv' eirl 
he TOL'9 ov iTpocTiovTa^ Tol<i deoL<; ea-ri to Tcai/ 
TTOvrjpcov Sacfi6v(ov rerayiJuevov <f)v\ov, u^' ^v ol B 
iroXKol 7rapot(TTpov/jL€vot tmv dOecov dvaTreWovrai 
Oavardv, &)? dvaTTTrjao/jbevoi vryoo? rbv ovpavov, 
orav diroppri^cocn rrjv '^v^V^ I3iai0)<;. elal Be ot 
KOI ra? eprjfiLa<; dvrl tmv iroXecov Scmkovctiv, 01/T09 
TavOpcoTTOV (f)V(Tec TToXiTLKOv ^(pov KoX rjjjiepov, 
Saifioaiv eKBeBop,evoL Trovrjpolf;, v(^ oiv el<; Tavrrjv 
ayovrac rrjv fito-avOpcoTriav. tjBt) Be koX Beapa kcu 
k\ocov<; e^rjvpov ol ttoWoI tovtcov outco iravra- 
ypdev avTOv<; 6 KaKo<; avveXavvei, Baip,a)v, w 
BeBcoKaaiv eKovTe^ eavTOv^, diroaTavTef; tmv 
diBicov Kol (TcoTTjpcov Oewv. dX)C virep p,ev tovtwv C 
d'Tro')(^p'r) Toaavra elirelv 66ev B^ e^e^rjv eh rovro 



..... Only ^ that they cliastise, then and 
there, any whom they see rebelling against their 
king. And the tribe of evil demons is appointed to 
punish those who do not worship the gods, and 
stung to madness by them many atheists are induced 
to court death in the belief that they will fly up 
to heaven when they have brought their lives to a 
violent end. Some men there are also who, though 
man is naturally a social and civilised being, seek out 
desert places instead of cities, since they have been 
given over to evil demons and are led by them into 
this hatred of their kind. And many of them have 
even devised fetters and stocks to wear ; to such a 
degree does the evil demon to whom they have of 
their own accord given themselves abet them in all 
ways, after they have rebelled against the everlasting 
and saving gods. But on this subject what I have 
said is enough, and I will go back to the point at 
which I digressed. 

^ The beginning is lost : Julian has apparently been de- 
scribing the functions of good demons, and now passes on to 
the demons whose task is to punish evil-doers ; cf. Oration 
2. 90 b. 



AiKaLO'iTpa'yia<; ovv ri]^ fiev Kara tov^ ttoXi- 
TiKov<; v6/jbov<; evBrjXov on fieXijaei Tol<i einrpoiroL^; 
T(ov TToXecov, irpeiroi 8* av koX vimv eh Trapaivecnv 
TO fjbr) Trapa^aivecv lepoiff; oWa? tmv Oeoiv tov<; 
v6/jlov<;. eVet Se rov lepartKov ^lov elvat ')(^pr) rov 289 
iroXiTLKov ae/jLvorepov, atcriov iirl rovTOv koX 
BtBaKreop' e-^ovrai, Be, to? elK6<i, ol ^eXriOVi' eyco 
fJbev yap ev^ofjbai koI 7rdvTa<;, eXiri^o) Be tou? 
€7rt,ei,K€L<s ^vaet fcal cnrovBaiov;* eTriyvaxTovTaL yap 
olK€iov(; 6vTa<^ eavTOL<; tou9 X6yov<i. 

^A(TK7jTea TOLVvv TTpo irdvTcov r) <f)ikav6p(07ria' 
Tavrrj yap eirerat iroWa fiev kuX aXXa tmv 
dyaOwVy e^alperov Be Brj teal fieyiaTov r) irapa reov B 
Oeayv ev/jieveca. KaOdirep yap ol T0t9 eavTCJv 
BeaTToraif; crvvBiariB efxevoi irepi re ^ikLa<^ Kal 
(TirovBaf; Kal epcora^; dyaTTMVTai irXeov tmv 
opioBovXcov, ovTco vojjLLGTeov (pvcret (f)i\,dvOpo)7rov 
ov TO Oelov dyairav rot'? <pc\avdp(07rov<i tS)v 
dvBpwv. 7j Be (f)i\av9pco7rLa ttoWt) Kal •Travroia' 
Kal to '7T€(j)etafjbevQ)<; KoXd^etv tov<; dv6pco7rov<i iirl C 
To3 ^eXTiovi TMV KoXa^ojjuevcov, Mo-jrep ol BiBd- 
(TKaXot TO, TraiBia, Kal to Ta<i 'x^peia^i avTcov 
eiravopdovv, fxtcrirep ol Oeol Ta<^ rjiierepa^i. opaTe 
oaa rj/jblv BeBcoKaaiv eK r^? 7779 dyaOd, Tpo<f)a<; 
7ravT0ia<^ Kal o7roaa<; ovBe ofiov iraai Tol<i ^mol^, 
eTrel Be ere'xpr^p.ev yv/juvol, Tah re tmv ^wcov i^fid^; 
dpi^lv eGKeiraaav Kal tol^ eK T779 yrj^ (f)VOfjLevoi<; 
Kai Tot<; eK BevBpwv. Kal ouk ^pKecrev a7rXft)9 ovBe 
avToa^eBi(t)<;, KaOdirep Mft)fo-^9 e(j>7] tov<; %iTW- D 


Though just conduct in accordance with the laws 
of the state will evidently be the concern of the 
governors of cities, you in your turn will properly 
take care to exhort men not to transgress the laws of 
the gods, since those are sacred. Moreover, inasmuch 
as the life of a priest ought to be more holy than the 
political life, you must guide and instruct men to 
adopt it. And the better sort will naturally follow 
your guidance. Nay I })ray that all men may, but 
at any rate I hope that those who are naturally good 
and upright will do so ; for they will recognise that 
your teachings are peculiarly adapted to them. 

You must above all exercise philanthropy, for 
from it result many other blessings, and moreover 
that choicest and greatest blessing of all, the good 
will of the gods. For just as those who are in 
agreement with their masters about their friendships 
and ambitions and loves are more kindly treated 
than their fellow slaves, so we must suppose that 
God, who naturally loves human beings, has more 
kindness for those men who love their fellows. Now 
philanthropy has many divisions and is of many kinds. 
For instance it is shown when men are punished in 
moderation with a view to the betterment of those 
punished, as schoolmasters punish children ; and 
again in ministering to men's needs, even as the 
gods minister to our own. You see all the blessings 
of the earth that they have granted to us, food 
of all sorts, and in an abundance that they have not 
granted to all other creatures put together. And 
since we were born naked they covered us with the 
hair of animals, and with things that grow in the 
ground and on trees. Nor were they content to do 
this simply or off-hand, as Moses bade men take 



va<i Xa^etv hep/jbaTLVov^;, a}OC opare ocra eyevero 
T^9 ^Kpydv7)<^ ^AOrjvdfi ra Bcopa. irolov oivfo 
%/O^Tat ^(fiov; irolov ikaico; TrXrjv el' tktiv r)p.6l<; 
Kol TOVTCOV fierahihofjuevy ol rot'; avOpcoiroLf; ov 
fjueraSiBovTe^;. rl Be tmv daXarricov ctrw, rl Be 
TOiv ')(^ep(Tai(ov Tot<; ev rfj OaXdrrrj '^prjraL; ')(^pvaov 
ovTTw \eyco kov ')(a\Kov kol alBrjpov, 0I9 Traaiv ol 
Oeol ^airXovTOVf; rjfMaf; e7roL7]aav, ov)(^ 'iva oveiBo^i 
avTCJV 7repiopM/jL€V irepLvocnovvTa^ rov<; TreVryra?, 
aXXo)? re orav koX e7necK€i<; Tive<; rv^wai rov 290 
TpoTTOVy 0L<; Trarpwo'^ fiev K\rjpo<i ov jeyovev, viro 
Be iieya\o'\\rv')(La<^ rjKLa-Ta e7rtdvfjL0VVTe<; ')(prjfidTCOV 
irevovTat. tovtov^; opcovre^; ol ttoWoI tou? Oeov^; 
oveiBi^ovatv. airioi Be Oeol fjuev ovk elal rrj<; 
TOVTcov irevla';, rj Be tj/jlcov tmv fceKrrjfjievayp 
dirXrjaTia /cat to2<; dv6 pcoTTOi^ virep tmv OeMV ovk 
oXtjOov^; vTrdXrjy^eM'^ aWia ylveTai kol TrpoaeTi 
T0t9 Oeol^ 6veiBov<; dBiKov. tl yap diracTOVfjuev, B 
iva ')(^pv(Tov Mcnrep toI<^ 'PoBioi<; 6 Oeb^; varj toI^ 
TrevrjcTLv; dWa el kol tovto yevouTO, ra^eo)? r)/.i€l(; 
v7ro^a\6/jL€vot rou? olKeTa^ koX 7rpo6evTe<; irav- 
Ta^ov TO, dyyeia irdvTa^; aTreXdaofiev, 'iva fiovot 
TO. KOLvd TMV OeMV dpTrdcTM/jbev BSypa. dav/jbdcreie 
S' dv T£9 elfcoTM<;, el tovto fiev d^iotfjuev ^ ovt€ 
7re(^i'/co9 yiveadaL /cal d\vai,Te\e<i irdvTT], ra 

* o^tot/tey Hertlein suggests, a^iovfuv MSS. 


 coats of skins,^ but you see how numerous are the 
gifts of Athene the Craftswoman. What other 
animals use wine, or olive oil ? Except indeed in 
cases where we let them share in these things, even 
though we do not share them with our fellowmen. 
What creature of the sea uses corn, what land animal 
uses things that grow in the sea? And I have not yet 
mentioned gold and bronze and iron, though in all 
these the gods have made us very rich ; yet not to 
the end that we may bring reproach on them by 
disregarding the poor who go about in our midst, 
especially when they happen to be of good character — 
men for instance who have inherited no paternal 
estate, and are poor because in the greatness of their 
souls they have no desire for money. Now the 
crowd when they see such men blame the gods. 
However it is not the gods who are to blame for their 
poverty, but rather the insatiate greed of us men of 
property becomes the cause of this false conception of 
the gods among men, and besides of unjust blame of 
the gods. Of what use, I ask, is it for us to pray that 
God will rain gold on the poor as he did on the 
people of Rhodes .'' ^ For even though this should 
come to pass, we should forthwith set our slaves 
underneath to catch it, and put out vessels everywhere, 
and drive off all comers so that we alone might seize 
upon the gifts of the gods meant for all in common. 
And anyone would naturally think it strange if we 
should ask for this, which is not in the nature of 
things, and is in every way unprofitable, while we do 

^ Genesis 3. 21. 

2 Pindar, Olympian Ode 7. 49 ; this became a Sophistic 
commouplace. Cf. Menander (Spengel) 3. 362 ; Aristides 

1. 807; Libanius 31. 6, Foerster ; Philostratus, Imagines 

2. 270. 



Svvara Be fxr) irpdrTOfiev. rt? yap ck tov /xeraEi- C 
Sopat, Tot? TreXa? iyevero Trevrji;; eyia roc TroWaKCf 
T0t9 Seofi€POL<s irpoefievo'^ eKTrjadfiriv avrd irapa 
6eo3v ^ iroWaTrXdaia KaiTrep mv <^av\of{ ^prj/jLa- 
rcarrj^, kol ovheirore fiou fi€T€fieXr}a€ TTpoefiepo). 
Kol ra jxev vvv ovk av 6L7roL/jLr fcal yap av eiTj 
iravTeko)^ dXoyov, el tou? l8iQ)Ta<^ d^ccoaai/jLi, 
^aaiXiicalf; irapa^dXkeaOaL ')(^oprjyiai<;' dXX ore D 
€TL ervyx^i'Vov l8td)Tr)(;, avvoiha efxavrw tovto 
diro^av iroXXdKi'^. dTreacoOr) /jloi TeXeco<i o KXrjpo^ 
T^9 rijOr}^;, e)(^6/ijLevo<; vir dXXcov ffcaio) 9 e'/c ^pa'X^ecov 
Mv el')(^ov dvaXiaKOVTL rot? BeofxevoL^ kuI fjuera- 

K.oiV(i)vrjTeov ovv t(ov ')(^prjfJLdT(Dv diraaiv dv6p(o- 
7roi9, dXXa T0t9 fJ'€P eirteL/ceaLV eXevOeptwrepov, 
Tol<; Be diropoi'^ Kal 7revrj(riv oaov eirapKecrai ry 
'X^pela. (f)alr]v 8* dv, el Kal irapdSo^ov elirelv, ore 
Kal rol<i TTOvrjpoi^" eadrjTO^ Kal Tpo(f>rj<;6ai,ov av eirj 
IxeTahihovar toJ yap dvOpcoiriv^ Kal ov T(p rpoiro) 291 
SiBofiev. Sioirep olfiav Kal tov<; ev Sea/jLCorrjpia) 
KaOecpy/nevov^i d^ioyreov ttj^ roiavrrjfi iin/jLeXeia^. 
ovBep yap KcoXvaei rrjv Slktjv 17 roiavrrj (j)t,Xav- 
OpcoTTia. ^(^aXeTrov yap dv ecrff ttoXXmv diro- 
K€KXeL(rfjLevcDv iirl' Kplaec, Kal rSiV /xev ocfiXrjaovTcov, 
TOiv he d6(0(ov d7rocf)av6r)cro/JLev(i)v, /jlt) Bed toi'9 
dvaLTLOV<; oIktov riva vefiecv Kal T0t9 Trovrjpolfit 
dXXd Tcov TTOvrjpSiv eveKa Kal irepl Tot'9 ovBev B 
r)BiK7)K6Ta<i dvr)Xea)(; Kal diravOpdnrcd^; BiaKeta-Oat. 

^ irapa Biwv Hertlein suggests, irap avrwu MSS. 
•^ Trovripo7s Hertlein suggests, irohefiiois M8S. 



not do wliat is in om* power. Who, I ask, ever became 
poor by giving to his neighbours ? Indeed I myself, 
who have often given lavishly to those in need, have 
recovered my gifts again many times over at the 
hands of the gods, though I am a poor man of 
business ; nor have I ever repented of that lavish 
giving. And of the present time I will say nothing, 
for it would be altogether irrational of me to com- 
pare the expenditure of private persons with that of 
an Emperor ; but when I was myself still a private 
person I know that this hapj)ened to me many times. 
My grandmother's estate for instance was kept for me 
untouched, though others had taken possession of it 
by violence, because from the little that I had I spent 
money on those in need and gave them a share. 

We ought then to share our money with all men, 
but more generously with the good, and with the 
helpless and poor so as to suffice for their need. 
And I will assert, even though it be paradoxical to 
say so, that it would be a pious act to share our 
clothes and food even with the wicked. For it is to 
the humanity in a man that we give, and not to his 
moral character. Hence I think that even those 
who are shut up in prison have a right to the same 
sort of care ; since this kind of philanthropy will not 
liinder justice. For when many have been shut up 
in prison to await trial, of whom some will be found 
guilty, while others will prove to be innocent, it 
would be harsh indeed if out of regard for the guilt- 
less we should not bestow some pity on the guilty 
also, or again, if on account of the guilty we should 
behave ruthlessly and inhumanly to those also who 
have done no wrong. This too, when I consider it. 



eKetvo he ivvoovvri fxoi iravTaTraaLV aSiKov Kara- 
<f>aiV€Tar "B^gvlov ovofxa^ofiev Aia, koI ycyvofjieda 
Toiyv ^KvOcop KaKo^evcorepoL. ttco? ovv o ^ov\o- 
fi€VO<; Tw Hewo) dvaai Ail (f)OLTa Trpo? tov vecov; 
jjLeTa iroiaTTOV (ruveihoro'^, iirCkaOofievo^ tov 

iTpo<; yap Al6<; elaiv a7ravT€<; 
IItco)(^ol t6 ^elvoi re' B6(tl^ 5' oXiyrj re <^l\7] re; 

Ila)? Be 6 TOV 'EiTaipeiov BepairevdiV Ala, opcov C 
7 01/? TreXa? €vSe€L<i '^(^pijfjLdTcov, ecTa pirjh oaov 
Bp(t')^fit'j<; ixeTahihov^i, oteTai tov Aia Ka\(x)<; Oepa- 
ireveiv; otuv et? TavTU aTTiScOy Traz/reXw? a')(^avr]<^ 
yivo/juac, ra? puev iirwwixia^; tmv Oecov afxa tw 
Koapuw tw e'f ap)(^rj(; Mairep el/cova^; ypairTa^; opcov, 
epy(p he vcf)* rjfiMV ovSev tolovtov iTnTrjBevojxevov. 
OfJLoyvLOi XeyovTao Trap' tj/jlIv Oeol koX Zeu? oixo- I^ 
yvio^i, e^ofiev Be coairep Trpo<; aXkoTpiov<; tov^ 
avyy€vel<;' avOpwiro^ yap dvdpdoTro) Kal eiccov Kal 
dKcov Tra? ecTTC avyyevrj^;, elVe, Kaddirep XeyeTai 
wapd Tivcov, i^ ev6<^ re Kal fXLd<i yevovafiev 7rdvTe<i, 
eW^ oTTCoaovp dWax;, dOpoco^i vTToaTTja-dvTcov r)/jLd<; 
TMV Oecov d/jLa tw KoajJLW rcG e^ dp-)(rj<^, ou^ eva Kal 
fjbiav, dXKa iroXKov^ dfia Kal iToWd<^. ol yap eva 292 
Kal [Xiav Svv7}devTe<i oIol re rjaav dfia Kal iroWov; 
Kal TroWd<; viroaTrjaaL.^ Kal yap ov Tpoirov tov 
Te eva Kal T'qv fiuav, tov avTov Tpoirov tou? 
TToXXou? Te Kal ra? TroXXa?. et? re to Btd^opov 

^ vTfoarriffai Reiske would add. 


seems to me altogether wrong ; I mean that we call 
Zeus by the title " God of Strangers," while we show 
ourselves more inhosj)itable to strangers than are 
the very Scythians. How, I ask, can one who wishes 
to sacrifice to Zeus, the God of Strangers, even 
approach his temple ? With what conscience can he 
do so, when he has forgotten the saying " From Zeus 
come all beggars and strangers ; and a gift is precious 
though small " ? ^ 

Again, the man who worships Zeus the God ol' 
Comrades, and who, though he sees his neighbours 
in need of money, does not give them even so much 
as a drachma, how, I say, can he think that he is 
worshipping Zeus aright ? When I observe this I 
am wholly amazed, since I see that these titles of the 
gods are from the beginning of the world their ex- 
press images, yet in our practice we pay no attention 
to anything of the sort. The gods are called by us 
"gods of kindred," and Zeus the "God of Kindred," 
but we treat our kinsmen as though they were 
strangers. I say " kinsmen " because every man, 
whether he will or no, is akin to every other man, 
whether it be true, as some say, that we are all de- 
scended from one man and one woman, or whether it 
came about in some other way, and the gods created 
us all together, at the first when the world began, not 
one man and one woman only, but many men and 
many women at once. For they who had the power to 
create one man and one woman, were able to create 
many men and women at once ; since the manner of 
creating one man and one woman is the same as that 
of creating many men and many women. And^ 

1 Odijssey 6. 207. 

2 The connection of the thought is not clear, and Petavius 
thinks that something has been lost. 



nTTO^XtyJravra rdv e6u)V^ koX tmv vofKdv, ov /ji^]V 
dWa Kol oirep earl fiel^ou /cal Tifjuwrepov koI 
Kvpicorepov, et? rrjp roiv 6eo)v (j)7]p,r)v, fj TrapaSeSoraL 
Sea TMV dp^aicoi/ ijfjLtv OeovpyMV, &)<?, ore Zev^; B 
€Koa/jL€t ra iravra, arayovwv aifiarof; lepov ire- 
(TOVcrSiV, i^ a>v ttou to tml> dvd poairwv ^Xaarrjaeie 
761^09. Kot ovT(0(; ovv avyyevelf; yivofieOa iravref;, 
€v fiev €^ 61^09 Kal /jLid^, €K Bvoiv dvd pcoiroLV 6pT€<i 
ol TToWoi Kal TToWat, el Si, KaOdirep ol Oeoi 
<f)aat, Kai '^pr} TnGTevetv iTTifiaprvpovPTcop tmv 
epycov, €K TMV OeMV vrai^re? yeyovoTe'^. otl he 
7roXXou9 cipLa dvOpMirov^; yeveaOai fiapTvpel tcl C 
epya, prjOrjaeTai /xev aKKa')(pv hi aKpi^eia^;, 
evTavOa Be dpKeaec toctovtov elirelv, M<i e^ evb^ 
fiev Kal yLim9 ovaiv ovtc toi'9 vofiovf; elKO<; eirl 
TOCTOVTOV irapaWd^ai ovTe oXKm^ ttjv yrjv v(f)^ evo^ 
e/jL7r\7)a6rjvai irdaav, ovBe el TeKva ~ dfxa TroWd 
Kaddirep al ave<; ctiktov avTol^ at yvvalKe^, 
TravTa')(ov Be dOpoM<; (f)VTevadvTMv tmv ^ OeMv, 
ovirep Tporrov o el<;, ovtm Be Kal ol iT\eiov<i irpo- 
rfkdov dvOpMirot Tol^; yevedp')(^ai,^ 6eoL<^ aTroKXrjpM- 
6evT€<;, ol Kal Trporjyayov avTOv^;, dirb tov Br)p,i- J) 
ovpyov Ta9 'sjrv)(^d(; TrapaXapL^dvovTe^ ef atwi/09. 

l^aKelvo B d^iov ivvoelv, 6a 01 irapd tmv ep^irpo- 
adev dvdXMVTai \6yoi irepl tov (f>vaei kolvmvikov 
etvai ^Mov TOV avOpMirov. ypiel^ ovv ol TavTa 
el7rovT€<; kol BiaTd^avTe^i dKocvMv^TM<; irpo<^ tov<; 

^ 46up Hertlein suggests, ayadwv Petavius, 7]0wv MSS. 

-' riKva Hertlein would add. 

' (pvTfvadvTwv tS)v Hertlein suggests, vtvaavToov MSS. 



one must have regard to the differences in our 
habits and laws, or still more to that which is higher 
and more precious and more authoritative, I mean 
the sacred tradition of the gods which has been 
handed down to us by the theurgists of earlier days, 
namely that when Zeus was setting all things in 
order there fell from him drops of sacred blootT, and 
from them, as they say, arose the race of men. It 
follows therefore that we are all kinsmen, whether, 
many men and women as we are, we come from two 
human beings, or whether, as the gods tell us, and 
as we ought to believe, since facts bear witness 
thereto, we are all descended from the gods. And 
that facts bear witness that many men came into the 
world at once, I shall maintain elsewhere, and 
precisely, but for the moment it will be enough to 
say this much, that if we were descended from one 
man and one woman, it is not likely that our laws 
would show^ such great divergence ; nor in any case 
is it likely that the whole earth was filled with 
people by one man ; nay, not even if the women used 
to bear many children at a time to their husbands, 
like swine. But when the gods all together had 
given birth to men, just as one man came forth, so 
in like manner came forth many men who had been 
allotted to the gods who rule over births ; and they 
brought them forth, receiving their souls from the 
Demiurge from eternity.^ 

It is proper also to bear in mind how many dis- 
courses have been devoted by men in the past to 
show that man is by nature a social animal. And 
shall we, after asserting this and enjoining it, bear 

^ Julian here prefers the Platonic account of the creation 
in the TimaeuH to the BibHcal narrative. 

X 2 


7rK7](TLOv e^ofxev; e/c By twi^ Totovrcop i)6oi)V re fcal 

iTnTrjBev/Jidrcov €KaaTO<i rj/jicov 6p/jL(*)/jL€P0^ euXaySeta? 

rrj<; €69 Tovf Oeoix;, 'X^prja-TorrjTO^i rrjfi et9 dvOpco7rov<;, 293 

dyv€ia<; rrjf; irepl to aMfia, rd t% evaepeia<; epya 

TrXrjpovTco, 7r€cpd)fievo<; Se dei ri irepl rcov Oecop 

€V(T€j3€<; ScapoelcrOai kov perd tlpo^ dTTO^XeTrcop 

619 ra lepa tmp OeSyp koI rd dydXpLara 7ip^rj<; koX 

OGiorrjTo^y aeP6p,6PO({ coairep dp el TrapoPTat; ecopa 

T0f9 Oeov;. dydXpura yap koX l3cop,ov^ real 7rfy0O9 

aa^earov (pvXa/crjp koI irdpra tt7rX(W9 rd rotavra 

avp^^oXa ol irarepe^ eOePTO t/}9 irapovaia^ tmp 

OeSiP, ov^ '{pa ifcetpa Oeov<; pop,icra)p,6P, aW' iva B 

01* avTcop TOi'9 6eov(i Oepaireva-wpiep. iireihr) yap 

Tjp,d<i opTWi ip o-(ojjLaTi (Twp^aTLKO)^ ^ ehei iroLelaOaL 

Tolf; $€0i<; Kol Ta9 Xarpeia^, dacoparoi Si elaip 

avTOL' Trpcora p,ev eSet^ap r]p2p dydXpiara to 

oevTepop diro tov TrpcoTOV tmp Ocmp yepo^ irepl 

iraPTa top ovpapop kvkXw Treptcpepop^epop. Bvpa- C 

p,6prj<i 3e ovBe T0VT0i<i diroSihoadai Trj<; depaireia^ 

ao)puTiK(o<;' dTTpoaSed ydp iaTi (j)V(Tei' eTcpop - 

€7rt 7^9 i^rjvpedr] yepo<; dyaXpidTWP, et9 o Td(; 

6epa7r€La<; iKTe\ovPT€<; kavTol^ evp6pel<^ Tov<i 

Oeoif^ KaTa(TTr)(Top,ep. Mcnrep ydp ol t(op ^aai- 

Xecop OepairevoPTe^ elKOPW^, ovSep Seop^epcDP, 0/1.0)9 

i^eXKOPTai ttjp evpoiap €t9 eavTov<;, ovtco kuI ol 

Oeojp 6€paiTevoPT€<s t<x dydXp^aTa, SeopApcop ovBep D 

TMP 6eu)p, 6p,(0(; TrelOovaip avTov<; iirap^vpeip a^i(TL 

^ aufxariKiUs Petavius, Hertlein approves, ffwuariKas MSS. 
^ cTcpou Hertleiu suggests, Sevrepov Reiske, rplrov MSS. 


ourselves unsociably to our neighbours? Then let 
everyone make the basis of his conduct moral 
virtues, and actions like these, namely reverence 
towards the gods, benevolence towards men, per- 
sonal chastity ; and thus let him abound in pious 
acts, I mean by endeavouring always to have pious 
thoughts about the gods, and by regarding the 
temples and images of the gods with due honour 
and veneration, and by worship})ing the gods as 
though he saw them actually present. For our 
fathers established images and altkrs, and the main- 
tenance of undying fire, and, generally speaking, 
everything of the sort, as symbols of the presence 
of the gods, not that we may regard such things as 
gods, but that we may worshij) the gods through 
them. For since being in the body it was in bodily 
wise that we must needs })erform our service to the 
gods also, though they are themselves without bodies; 
they therefore revealed to us in the earliest images 
the class of gods next in rank to the first, even 
those that revolve in a circle about the whole 
heavens. But since not even to these can due 
worship be offered in bodily wise — for they are by 
nature not in need of anything ^ — another class of 
images was invented on the earth, and by performing 
our worship to them we shall make the gods propitious 
to ourselves. For just as those who make offerings 
to the statues of the emperors, who are in need of 
nothing, nevertheless induce goodwill towards them- 
selves thereby, so too those who make offerings to the 
images of the gods, though the gods need nothing, 
do nevertheless thereby persuade them to help and 

* of. St. Paul, Ac-l.-i 17. 25, " neither is he worshipped with 
men's hands, as though he needed anything," 



fcal KtjSecrOar Belyfia yap eariv 009 aXrjdo)^ 
6(Ti6Tr]TO<; T) irepl ra hvvara irpoOvfjuia, koI 6 
ravTr)v TrXrfpoyv evSrjXov on fjL€t.^6v(o<; i/ceivrjv 
aTTohiBojaiv, o 8e rcov Swarcov oXcycopayv, elra 
7rpoa7roiov/jL€VO(; rcov ahwdrcav opeyeadai SrJXo? 
ear IV ov/c eKelva /jLerahicoKoyv, aWa ravra irapo- 294 
pMV ovBe ytip, el /jbtjBeuof; 6 ^eo? Seirai, Sea rovro 
ovBev avTCp Trpoo-oiareov ovSe yap tt}? Sta Xoycov 
€V(f)rjfi{,a<; Selrat.. ri ovv; evXoyov avrov airo- 
(TjepfjaaL koI TavTrj<;; ovBap,co<;. ov/c apa ovBe B 
Trj<; Sia tmv epy(ov et? avrov yiyvofievrjf; rifirj^;, 779 
ivofioOerr^aav ovk iviavrol Tpet9 ovSe rpLa')(iXL0i, 
7ra9 Be 6 nrpoXa^oDV aloDV ev rrdat roi<i r7]<; yrj<^ 

*A(f>opa)vr€(; ovv eh ra rcov decov dydX/juara fjurj C 
roi vo/jLL^cofiev avra XlOov^ elvai p.r]he ^vXa, fjbrjBe 
fxevroL TOi'9 Oeov'i avrov^ elvai ravra. ical yap 
ovBe rd<; ^aatXiKa^ eiic6va<^ ^vXa Kal Xldov Kal 
')(^aXKov XeyofJiev, ov jjbrjv ovBe avroij^ rov^ /3a- 
cnXea's, dXXa elKova^ ^aaiXecov. 6arc<; ovv ean 
(f>cXo^a(riX€v<; rjBeoo^; opa rrjv rod ^aatXeco^; el- 
KOPtti Kai 0(rri<i ean <pLXo7rai<^ rjBeax; 6pd rrjv rov D 
7raioo9, Kal oarcf; ^cXorrdrcop rrjv rov irarpo^. 
ovKOVv Kal 0(Trt<; (f)iX60eo<; r)Beo)<i eh ra rcov Oeoov 
dydXpbara Kal rd^; elK6va<^ dTrofiXeirei, ae^ofie- 
vo's ctfia Kai (f)pirra)v e^ d(^avov<=; 6pMvra<^ eh av- 
rov rov<i 6eov<^, et ri<^ ovv olerai Belv avrd py]Be 
^Beipecrdai Bid ro Oecop dira^ elKova'^ KXijdrjvaij 


to care for them. For zeal to do all that is in one's 
power is, in truth, a proof of piety, and it is evident 
that he who abounds in such zeal thereby displays 
a higher degree of piety ; whereas he who neg- 
lects what is possible, and then pretends to aim at 
what is impossible, evidently does not strive after 
the impossible, since he overlooks the possible. For 
even though God stands in need of nothing, it does 
not follow that on that account nothing ought to be 
offered to him. He does not need the reverence 
that is paid in words. What then ? Is it rational 
to deprive him of this also ? By no means. It fol- 
lows then that one ought not to deprive him either 
of the honour that is paid to him through deeds, an 
honour which not three years or three thousand 
years have ordained, but all past time among all the 
nations of the earth. 

Therefore, when we look at the images of the 
gods, let us not indeed think they are stones or 
wood, but neither let us think they are the gods 
themselves ; and indeed we do not say that the 
statues of the emj)erors are mere wood and stone 
and bronze, but still less do we say they are the 
emperors themselves. He therefore who loves the 
emperor delights to see the emperor's statue, and he 
who loves his son delights to see his son's statue, 
and he who loves his father delights to see his 
father's statue. It follows that he who loves the gods 
delights to gaze on the images of the gods, and 
their likenesses, and he feels reverence and shudders 
with awe of the gods wlio look at him from the 
unseen world. Therefore if any man thinks that 
because they have once been called likenesses of the 
gods, they are incapable of being destroyed, he is, it 


iravTeKod^ acppwv elvai fxoi ^aiverai. XP^^ y^P 
hrjiroudev avra firjBe vtto avd pwirwv ^evkaQai. to 295 
Be VTT dpBpo<; ao(f)ov /cat dyadov yevo/nevov vtto dv- 
6pa)7rov TTOVTjpov Kol d/jLa6ov^ ^Oaprjvai SvvaTat. 
rd Be VTTO rwv Oecov ^Mvra dyaXfiara fcaracTKeva- 
aOevra Trj<; d^avov<^ avrcov oucrta?, ol irepl rov 
ovpavov KVK\(p (f)€p6/ji6VOL Oeoi, fxevei rov del 
Xpovov diBia. fjb7)Bel<i ovv dTnaTeiTco 6eol<^ opoiv 
KOi dKOV(oVt ft)9 ivv^pLcrdv tlv€<; et? rd dydX/Mara 
fcal TOV<; vaoix;. dp" ovk dvOpcoirovf} ^/977crTOU9 
direKTeivav ttoWol, KaOdrrep XcoKpdrrj fcal Aicova B 
KOi rov fieyav ^F/fiireBori/jLOv; o)v ev olB^ ore fidX- 
\ov €/Jb€\7)(Te Tot9 Oeol^. dX)C opdre, otl kol rovTcov 
(f)6apTov elBoref; to aoyfia crfi/e^coprycrai/ el^ai Ttj 
(f)VO'€t /cac vTTOxooprjcrai, Blktjv Be dirrjTrjaav 
vcTTepov irapd tmv KTecvdvTcov. o Br) avve^rj 
(f>av€p(a<; icfy rjfiMV eVt iravTcov twv lepoavXcov. 

Mr; Set? ovv diraTaTO) XoyoL^ firfBe TapaTT€T(o 
irepl TTj^ 7rpovoia<i r)iJbd<;. ol yap rj/jLcv oveiBi^ovTe^; C 
Ta TotavTa, tmv lovBaicov ol tt po<^rjTai, tl irepl 
Tov ved) <f>rj(T0VGL tov irap avTol^ TpcTOV dvarpa- 
irevTO'^y eyetpo/jbevov Be ovBe vvv; €70) Be elirov ovk, 
ovetBi^cov €KeLvoi<;, 09 ye roaovroLf; vcrrepov %/)o- 
voL<; dvacrrrjaaadaL BLevorjOrjv avrov et? ti/jltjv tov 
/cXrjOevTO^ eir avTM Oeov' vvvl Be expv^^H'V^ 
avT(p Bel^ai ^ovXo/xevo^, otl tmv dvOpcoTTLVcov D 
ovBev dffiOapTov elvai BvvaTac koI 01 rd roiavTa 



seems to me, altogether foolish ; for surely in that 
case they were incapable of being made by men's 
hands. But what has been made by a wise and good 
man can be destroyed by a bad and ignorant man. 
But those beings which were fashioned by the gods as 
the living images of their invisible nature, I mean 
the gods who revolve in a circle in the heavens, 
abide imperishable for all time. Therefore let no 
man disbelieve in gods because he sees and hears 
that certain persons have profaned their images and 
temples. Have they not in many cases j)ut good 
men to death, like Socrates and Dio and the great 
Empedotimus ? ^ And yet I am very sure that the 
gods cared more for these men than for the temples. 
But observe that since they knew that the bodies even 
of these men were destructible, they allowed them to 
yield to nature and to submit, but later on they 
exacted punishment from their slayers ; and this ]ias 
happened in the sight of all, in our own day also, in 
the case of all who have profaned the temples. 

Therefore let no man deceive us with his sayings 
or trouble our faith in a divine providence. For as for 
those who jiiake such profanation a reproach against 
us, I mean the pro})hets of the Jews, what have they 
to say about their own temple, which was overthrown 
three times and even now is not being raised up 
again ? This I mention not as a reproach against 
them, for I myself, after so great a lapse of time, 
intended to restore it, in honour of the god whose 
name has been associated with it. But in the 
present case I have used this instance because I wish 
to prove that nothing made by man can be inde- 

' Of Syracuse, whose cUim to be immortal was accepted 
by the Sicilians. 


>ypd^ovT€<; iXripovv vpocprjrai, ypaSuoL^; ylrvxpoU 
6/jLL\ovvTe<;. ovSev Be olfxai KwiXveu rov /lev 
Oeov elvat p.e'yav, ov /Jirjv (nrovBaiwv 7rpo<f)t^TO}v 
ovBe i^ijyrjTMV rv)(elv. atriov he, on, ttjv eavrcav 
yjrvxv^ ov Trapeaxov dTroKaOrjpai T0t9 iyKVfc\LOL<; 
fjbaOrjpaaiv ovBe dvol^ai /JLefiv/coTa Xiav rd Ofipara 
ovSe dva/cadrjpai rrjv eTnKeL/ievrjv avrol'^ dy\vv, 296 
dX>C olov <^co? fiiya Bi^ 6/jbi')(X7j<; ol dvOpwrrot ^\e- 
7rovT6<; ov KaOapo)^ ovBe €l\LKptvco<;, avro Be 
eKelvo vevo/jLtKoref; ov'yl 0W9 Kadapov, dWa Trvp 
Kol Twv irepl avTO nrdvrwv ovre^ dOeaTOi ^ooiai 
fieya' ^piTrere, ^o^ela-Oe, irvp, <f>\6^, Odvaro^;, 
/jbd^aipa, po/jL(j)aLa, 7roXkot<; ovofiaai pbiav e^rjyov- 
/juevoL Tr]v ^XaTrrtKrjv rov ttu/jo? Bvva/juv. dXX* 
virep fjbev tovtwp IBia /SeXroov irapaarrjaai, ttoctm B 
(pavXoTepoi tmv irap' ijfuv ovrot yeyovaai ttoltjtmv 
ol tS)V virep rov Oeov Xoywv BtBda/caXoL. 

TVpo(T7^fcei Be ov rd rcbv Oewv ixbvov dydXpuara 
TTpocFKVvelv, dXXd koI tov<; i'aov<; Koi rd refjuevr] 
Kol T0V<^ j3(i)pbov^' evXoyov Be kol toi)? lepea<i 
Tifxdv 0)9 XeiTovpyoi)^ OeSyv koI v7rr]peTa<; koI 
BcaKovovvTa<i rj/jucv rd 7r/)09 tov<; deov<;, crvveirt- 
<T')(yovTa^ rfj €K Oeayv 6t9 rj/Jbd^; tmv dyaOoiv Boaer C 
irpodvova-L ydp iravrcov /cal v7repev)(^ovrai,. Bl- 
fcatov ovv aTToBiBovai irdaiv avrol'^ ovk eXarrov, 
el fir] Koi irXeov, r} rolf; ttoXitikol'; dp^ovai Ta9 
Ti/jid<;. el Be Tt9 oierac tovto eir Tcr^/s ')(^pr}vai 
vejJLecv avToh Kol Tot9 TroXijiKoi^i dp^ovaip, eirel 


structible, and that those prophets who wrote such 
statements were uttering nonsense, due to their 
gossipping with silly old women. In my opinion 
there is no reason why their god should not be 
a mighty god, even though he does not happen to 
have wise prophets or interpreters. But the real 
reason why they are not wise is that they have not 
submitted their souls to be cleansed by the regular 
course of study, nor have they allowed those studies 
to open their tightly closed eyes, and to clear away 
the mist that hangs over them. But since these 
men see as it were a great light through a fog, not 
plainly or clearly, and since they think that what 
they see is not a pure light but a fire, and they fail 
to discern all that surrounds it, they cry with a loud 
voice : " Tremble, be afraid, fire, flame, death, a 
dagger, a broad-sword !" thus describing under many 
names the harmful might of fire. But on this sub- 
ject it will be better to demonstrate se})arately how 
much inferior to our own })oets are these teachers of 
tales about the gods. 

It is our duty to adore not only the images of the 
gods, but also their temples and sacred precincts and 
altars. And it is reasonable to honour the priests 
also as officials and servants of the gods ; and because 
they minister to us what concerns the gods, and they 
lend strength to the gods' gift of good things to us ; 
for they sacrifice and pray on behalf of all men. It 
it therefore right that we should pay them all not 
less, if not indeed more, than the honours that we 
pay to the magistrates of the state. And if any one 
thinks that we ought to assign equal honours to them 
and to the magistrates of the state, since the latter 


KciKelvoL rpoTTOV TLva rol^ deol<i lepaTevovo-t, 
<f>vXaK€<; 6vT€<i tmv vo/jlcov, dWa rd ye ri]<; evvoia<; 
Trapd TToXv )(pr} vefxeiv rovTOi<;. ol fiev yap D 
^K'XCLLoi Kaiirep iroXefxiov ovra tov lepea irpocT- 
erarrov alheladai tu> ^aaiXel' rj/jLelf; Be ovBe 
TOv<; (f)iXov<; alBovfxeda tou9 ev^ofjievovf; virep 
l)lJL(t)V Koi 6vovTa<s. 

'AXV eTreiTrep 6 \6yo<; eh rrjv irdXai iroOovfie- 
vr)v dp'^7]v iX'qKvOev^ d^iov elvai /jlol BoKel SieX- 
6elv e^e^?}?, q'tto16<; tl^ mv o lepev^ avro<; re 
BLKai(o<; riixTjOrjaerai koX tou? Oeov^ ri/JbdcrOai 
iroiTjaei} to yap yfierepov ov 'X^prj aKoirelv ovSe 
e^erd^eov, dWd eax; dv lepev^ ti<; ovofjbd^rjrai, 297 
Ttfjuav avTov XPV '^^^ Oepaireveiv^ el Be etr] irovr)p6<^^ 
d^aipedevra rrjv lepwavvrjv ft)? dvd^iov aTTOcpav- 
Oevra irepiopdv eox; Be irpoOvei Kal Kardp^erai Kal 
TrapLararat rot^; 6eol<;, 609 to rt/uLicorarov tmv decov 
KTrjiia TTpoa^Xeirreo^; eariv r^filv fierd alBov<i Kal 
ev\a^ela<^. droirov ydp, el tov<; fiev \iOov<;, ef mv ol 
^(o/jLol TreTroirjvraiy Btd to KaOiepwaOat T0Z9 6eoi<i 
dyaiTbiybev^ oti /J^op^rjv e^ovai, Kal cr)(r}fMa irpe- 
TTOV, 669 't]v elai KaTeo-Kevaafjuevoi XeiTovpyiav^ B 
dvBpa Be Ka6coai(o/jLevov rot? Oeolf; ovk olrjaofJieOa 
'X^pijvat Tifjbdv, Lcrco<i viroXrjs^eTai ti^;' dWd 
dBtKovPTa Kal e^a/napTdvovTa iroWa tmv 7rpo<s 

^ Koci — iron](r€i Hertlein suggests, lacuna M8S. 
2 ayaTToofiey Hertlein suggests, ayanritrofxiu MSS. 



also are in some sort dedicated to the service oi' the 
^ods, as being guardians of the laws, nevertheless we 
ought at any rate to give the j)riests a far greater 
share of our good will. The Achaeans, for instance, 
enjoined on their king i to reverence the priest, 
though he was one of the enemy, w^hereas we do not 
even reverence the priests who are our friends, and 
who pray and sacrifice on om* behalf. 

But since my discourse has come back again to 
the beginning as I have so long wished, I think it 
is worth while for me to describe next in order 
what sort of man a priest ought to be, in order that 
he may justly be honoured himself and may cause 
the gods to be honoured. For as for us, we ought 
not to investigate or enquire as to his conduct, 
but so long as a man is called a priest we ought to 
honour and cherish him, but if he prove to be 
wicked we ought to allow his priestly office to be 
taken away from him, since he has shown himself 
unworthy of it. But so long as he sacrifices for us 
and makes offerings and stands in the presence of 
the gods, we must regard him with respect and 
reverence as the most highly honoured chattel ^ of 
the gods. For it would be absurd for us to pay 
respect to the very stones of which the altars are 
made, on account of their being dedicated to the 
gods, because they have a certain shape and form 
suited to the ritual for which they have been 
fashioned, and then not to think that we ought to 
honour a man who has been dedicated to the gods. 
Perhaps someone will object — " But suj)pose he does 
wrong and often fails to offer to the gods their sacred 

^ Agamemnon; Iliad I. 23. 

2 cf. Plato, Phaedo 62 c ; Letter to the Athenians 276 b. 



Toi/? deoifi o(Ti(ov; eyo) 3>/ (j^rjfii ^pTJvat top fiev 
TOiovTov €^6\ey)(^6iv, Xva firj irovr^po^ mv evo')(\.fi 
rovq ueouf;, ea)? b av ^g^Xey^rj ^ rt?, fit) art/J^a^ecp. 
ovBe yap evXoyov eTnXa^ofjLevov^i ravrrj^ Trj(: C 
d(f)op/jirj(; ov rovToyv fiovov, aWa Koi rSiV iirLTr}- 
BeLcov Tip.d(r6ai rrjv TLfxr)V Trpoaacf^aipeLa-dat. earw 
Toivvv oyairep ap'^^cov, ovro) 8e koI lepcvf; Tra? 
alSecri/jLo^j eTrecSr) koX diTocpaaifi icrri Oeov too 
^uhvp^aiov rotavrr]' 

"OaaoL 69 dprjTTJpa^; draaOaXirfat vooto 
^AOavdrcov pe^ov<T dirocfxiyXia, fcal yepdeacnv 
^AvTua ^ovX6vov(TLv dSeLCTideoLcn Xoyta/jLOif;, J) 

Ov/ceO^ oXrjv ^lotolo hieKirepooyo-iv drapTrov, 
^'Oaaoi irep fiaKapeacrip iXco^Tjcravro deoiaiv^ 
^Q,v Kelvoi OeoaeiTTOv eXov Oepairr^i^a rifji'qv, 

Kol ttoXlv ev aXXot<i o 0€6<; (f)r)cn 298 

HdvTa(i fiev depdirovra^ ip.ov<; 6Xo7J<i KaKo- 
T77T09 — , 

Kai (f)r)acv virep tovtcov Blktjv irmOrja-eiv avTOL<;. 

TIoXXmv Se elprj/xevcov roiovrcop irapd tov Oeov, 
81' oiv eveari p.ad6vTa<i oiro)^ 'X^pr] Ttpbdv koI 
Oepairevetv tov<; lepea^, elprjo-eral /jloc Sid irXec- 
ovcov iv dXXoL^' diro^pT] Be vvv, on /x^ a^eBLd^a) 
/iirjBiv, iinBel^ai rrfv re 6k tov Oeov Trpopprjaov B 
KUL TO eTTLTayfia tmv avTov Xoycov Ikuvov 
rjyovp.evofi. e'i ti<; ovv d^toTTicTTOv VTreiXrjcpev 
ifie BiBdaKaXov tmv tolovtwv, alBeaOe\<i tov 

^ 6|€Ae7|7j Hertleiii suggests, e^eKeyxy MSS. 


rites ? " Then indeed 1 answer that we ouglit to 
convict a man of that sort, so that he may not hy 
his wickedness offend the gods ; but that we ought 
not to dishonour him until he has been convicted. 
Nor indeed is it reasonable that when we have set 
our hands to this business, we should take away their 
honour not only from these offenders but also from 
those who are worthy to be honoured. Then let 
every priest, like every magistrate, be treated with 
respect, since there is also an oracle to that effect 
from the Didymaean god : ^ " As for men who w ith 
reckless minds work wickedness against the priests 
of the deathless gods and j)lot against their privi- 
leges with plans that fear not the gods, never shall 
such men travel life's j)ath to the end, men who 
have sinned against the blessed gods whose honour 
and holy service those priests have in charge." "^ 
And again in another oracle the god says : " All 

my servants from harmful mischief ;"^ and he 

says that on their behalf he will inflict punishment 
on the aggressors. 

Now though there are many utterances of the god 
to the same effect, by means of which we may learn 
to honour and cherish priests as we ought, I shall 
sj)eak on this subject elsewhere at greater length. 
But for the present it is enough to point out that 1 
am not inventing anything offhand, since I think 
that the declaration made by the god and the 
injunction expressed in his own words are sufficient. 
Therefore let any man who considers that as a 
teacher of such matters I am worthy to be believed 

^ Apollo. 

^ All oracle from an unknown source : these verses occur 
again in Epistle 62. 451 a. " 8c. I will protect. 


Oeov ^KCLVU) ireiBeaOio koX TOv<i lepea^; tmp 
Oe'a)v Tifidro) BiacfiepovTCjfi' oirolov Se avrov elvai 
XPly iretpdaopbai vvv elTrelv, o^;^ €veKa aov' tovto 
fxev yap el /jurj to vvv i^TncrrdfjLijv, dfia fiev rov 
KaOrjje/jLovo^;^ dfia Se tmv fjueyicTTcov Oeoiv fiaprv- 
povvTcov, ore Tr)v Xeirovpyuav ravrrjv hiaOrjar) C 
/ca\(b<;, oaa ye el<; Trpoaipeaiv rjKei rrjv crrjv^ ovS* 
av €T6\/u,i]ad aot /jLeraSovvac roaovrov irpdy- 
fjiUTO^i' aXX' oTTCt)? ep^?79 evrevOev BcBda-Ketv toi'9 
dWov<i, ovK ev Tat9 iroXeat /jlovov, dXXd kul iv 
TO?? dypoL<^ evXoycorepov koI eir e^ovaia^, &>? ovk 
OLKodev avTCL voel<i Koi Trpdrrei^i fxavo^, ^'%^^? ^^ 
KoX ifie (TV/jLyjn^cpov aeavro), BoKOVvrd ye elvat 
Bid Toif^ Oeov*; dp'^cepea /Jbiyco-rov, d^tov fxev ov- 
BajMa)<; 7rpdy/j,aT0<; roaovrov, ^ovXofievov Be elvau 
Kol Trpoo-ev^o/jbeuou del to2<; Oeol<;. ev yap tcrdi, D 
jieydXa^ rjfuv ol 6eo\ fxerd ttjv reXevTrjv eXTnBa*; 
eTTayyeXXovrac. Treto-reov Be avjol^i TrdvTco^. 
dyjrevBetv yap elcodacrtv ov)( virep eKelvcov fiovov, 
aXXa Kai ro)v ev too plo) Tcooe. ol oe oia 
Trepiovaiav Bwdfiecof; oloi Te oWe? Kal t?}? iv t& 299 
y8t&) TOVTO) irepcyeveadaL Tapa')(rj(i Kal to uTaKTOv 
avTov fcal to uXXokotov eiravopOovv dp ovk ev 
eKeivw fjuaXXov, oirov Bi,rfprjTac Ta /jLa'X^o/iieva, X^P^' 
o-Oelcnjf; /xev tt}? dOavdTov '^v^V'^-t 7^? Be yevo- 
/jbevov Tov veKpov o-fw/iaro?, iKavol Trapaa^^^^ 
eaovTat tuvO^ oaairep eirr^yyeiXavTO toI<^ dv- 
OpdyTTOL^; etSore? ovv, otl /jLeydXa^i e^^tv eBoaav 
320 . 


show due respect to the god and obey him, and 
honour the priests of the gods above all other men. 
And now I will try to describe what sort of man a 
priest himself ought to be, though not for your 
especial benefit. For if I did not already know 
from the evidence both of the high priest and of 
the most mighty gods that you administer this 
priestly office aright — at least all matters that come 
under your management — I should not have ventured 
to confide to you a matter so important. But I do so 
in order that you may be able from what I say to 
instruct the other priests, not only in the cities but 
in the country districts also, more convincingly and 
with complete freedom ; since not of your own self 
do you alone devise these precepts and practise 
them, but you have me also to give you support, 
who by the grace of the gods am known as sovereign 
pontiff, though I am indeed by no means worthy 
of so high an office ; though I desire, and more- 
over constantly pray to the gods that I may be 
worthy. For the gods, you must know, hold out 
great hopes for us after death ; and we must 
believe them absolutely. For they are always 
truthful, not only about the future life, but about 
the affairs of this life also. And since in the super- 
abundance of their power they are able both to 
overcome the confusion that exists in this life and 
to regulate its disorders and irregularities, will they 
not all the more in that other life where conflicting 
things are reconciled, after the immortal soul has 
been separated from the body and the lifeless body 
has turned to earth, be able to bestow all those 
things for which they have held out hopes to man- 
kind? Therefore since we know that the gods 




ol Oeol T0t9 lepevai Ta? (i/jLOL^d<;, eyyvovi avrov<; 
iv iraa-L Ti]<i a^ia<; twv Oeiav KaTaaKevdacdjxev^ a)V B 
7r/oo9 T^ ifKrjdr) y^pr] Xeyeiv Seiy/jua top kavrSiv 
eK<hepovTa<; jSiov. 

Ap/criov Be tj/jlcv tt)? tt/jo? tov? Oeoiff; evae^€La<;. 
ovTco yap r)fjLd<; irpeirei Toh ^eot? XeiTOvpyetv o)? 
irapedTr^KOdiv avTOL<; koI bpOicri jxev i7/x-a9, ov'X^ 
6pci)fjL€V0L<; Be v(j)^ r)fiMv koX to Trdarjg avyi)^ Ofjufia 
KpeiTTOv ci'^pi TOiv dTroKpvTTTOjjLevcov rj/jLLv Xoyc- C 
afjLMv BiaTeTU/cocnv. otl Be ovk e/xo? o X0709 
0^709 e<TTLV, dWa tov Oeov, Bed ttoWcov fiev 
elpr^jievo^ Xoycov, e/jiol Be BrjTa d7r6')(^prj teal eva 
Trapadefievcp Bvo Bi evo<i TrapaaTrjauL, 71009 P'^v 
opMoriv ol deal irdvTa, 7rw9 Be eirl toI^ evcreffeaiv 

HdvTr) ^ocffeir) TeTUTUi TavvaLcrK07ro<; aKTU^;' 
Kai Te Bid cTTepecjv %&)/9€t dobv op,p,a TreTpdcov, D 
Kal Bid Kvavet]^ d\o^ ep%€Tat, ovBe e Xrjdei 
Tl\rjdv<; daTCpoecrcra 7rakLvBiV7]TO<; lovaa 
Ovpavov eU d/cdfjiavTa <70^^9 kutu Oea-fiov 

OvS* 6 era vepTeplwv vireBe^aTo <\)v\a KafxovTcov 
TdpTapo<; aY\i'oevT09^ vtto ^o^ov dlBo^ etaco' 300 
Rvo-effiaiv Be jBpoTol^ ydvvp,av Toaov, oaaov 


^'0(T(p Be XiOov Kal ireTpa^! diraaa jnev '^v^V, 
iToXij Be irXeov rj tcov dvdpcoTTcov olKeioTepov e^^ec 
Kal (TvyyeveaTepov 7r/909 toi'9 Beov^;, ToaovTO) 
fjbdXXov elKo^i ecTTL paov Kal evepyeaTepov BC avTrj^; 

^ ax>^v6€vros Hertlein suggests ; ax^vSetrcrav MSS. 


have granted to their priests a great recompense, let 
us make them responsible in all things for men's 
esteem of the gods, displaying their own lives as 
an example of what they ought to preach to the 

The first thing we ought to preach is reverence 
towards the gods. For it is fitting that we should 
perform our service to the gods as though they 
were themselves present with us and beheld us, and 
though not seen by us could direct their gaze, which 
is more powerful than any light, even as far as 
our hidden thoughts. And this saying is not my" 
own ^ but the god's, and has been declared in many 
utterances, but for me surely it is sufficient, by 
bringing forth one such utterance, to illustrate two 
things in one, namely how the gods see all things 
and how they rejoice in god-fearing men : " On all 
sides extend the far-seeing rays of Phoebus. His 
swift gaze • pierces even through sturdy rocks, and 
travels through the dark blue sea, nor is he unaware 
of the starry multitude that passes in returning 
circuit through the unwearied heavens for ever by 
the statutes of necessity ; nor of all the tribes of 
the dead in the underworld whom Tartarus has ad- 
mitted within the misty dwelling of Hades, beneath 
the western darkness. And I delight in god-fearing 
men as much even as in Olympus." ^ 

Now in so far as all soul, but in a much higher 
degree the soul of man, is akin to and related to the 
gods, so much the more is it likely that the gaze of 
the gods should penetrate through his soul easily and 

1 Euripides, fr. 488 Nauck ; cf. 197 c, 358 d, 387 b, 391 
this phrase became a proverb ; cf . Lucian, Hermotimus 789. 

2 An oracle from an unknown source. 


')(a)peLV TMV Oecov to ofi/na. 6ea ^ Se ri^v ^iXav- B 
OpcoTTLav Tov deov 'ydvvddai <j)d(JKOVTO<; rfj twv 
€V(T6^(0P dvSpcov hiavola ocrov ^OXv/jLttm tm kuOu- 

pcOTUTO). TTCOfi ^ rj/llv OUTO? OU^l Kol dvd^€i Ttt? 

yjrvx^^ V/^cov aTTO rod ^ocpov koL tov Taprdpov 
fxer evae^eia^i avTa> TrpocriovTcop; olBe fiev yap kuI 
TOV(; ev TO) Taprdptp KaraKeKKeia fxevov^' ovSe yap 
if(6Lva T^9 TMV Oeodv eKTo^ iriiTTeL 8vvdfjL€co^' 
iirayyiWeTai Se rot? evo-e/Beai, tov "OXv/jlttov uvtI C 
TOV TapTdpov. hioTrep ')(^pr) fidXcaTa TOiV r^? 
evae^eia^ hpycov dvTex^aOai irpooriovTa^ jxev rot? 
Oeol'^ /JL€T evKa^eia^t aiay^pov firjBev /xrJTe XeyovTa^ 
IXTjTe aKovovTa^. dyveveiv Se ')(^p7) tov<; lepew; ovk 
epycov jxovov aKaOdpTcov ovBe daeKycav irpd^ewv, 
dWa Kal p7]/jLdTa)v /cat aKpoafxaTcov tocovtcov. 
i^ekaTea tolvvv icTlv rjfuv irdvTa to, €7ra')(6rj 
cTKw/jLfjLaTaf irdaa Be dcreXyrjf; 6/bLi\[a, Kal 67rco<; 
elBevai e')(r)<^ o fiovXofiac (f>pd^eLV, lepcofjuevo^; ri? 
fjL')]T€ *Ap^tXo^oz^ dvayivooaKiTO) /jltjtc 'IiTTroovaKTa D 
/jLi]T€ aXkov TLva TMV Ta TotavTa ypa^ovTwv. 
diroK\LveT(D Kal Trj<; 7ra\acd(; KcojjLwBla^^ oaa ttj^; 
TOLavTrjf; lBea<;' dfieivov fiev ydp' Kal 7rdvTco<; 
irpeiTOL B dv rjfilv 97 (jiiXoGO^La fiovrj, Kal tovtcov 
01 Oeovf; r)ye^ova<s TrpocrTrjcrdfievot t^9 eavTMV 
iraiBeia'^, coaTrep^ TlvOay6pa<; Kal TLXdTcov Kal 

AptO-T0T€\7)(} ot T€ dfjL(j)l 'KplXnTTTTOV Kal TiTjVCiiVa, 

TTpooreKTeov jiev ydp ovt€ irdaiv ovtc tol<; TrdvTcov 
Boy/jLaacv, dWd eKeivoL^ puovov Kal eKelvcov, oaa 301 

1 dea Brambs, MSS., Oe^ Reiske, Cobet, Hertlein. 

2 irws Hertlein suggests, iravTus MSS. 
^ SxTirep Hertlein suggests, '6Trep MSS. 



effectively. And observe the love of the god for 
mankind when he says that he delights in the dis- 
position of god-fearing men as much as in Olympus 
most pure and bright. How then shall he not lead 
up our souls from the darkness and from Tartarus^ if 
we approach him with })ious awe ? And indeed he 
has knowledge even of those who have been im- 
prisoned in Tartarus — for not even that region falls 
outside the power of the gods, — and to the god- 
fearing he promises Olympus instead of Tartarus. 
Wherefore we ought by all means to hold fast 
to deeds of piety, approaching the gods with 
reverence, and neither saying nor listening to 
anything base. And the priests ought to keep 
themselves pure not only from impure or shameful 
acts, but also from uttering words and hearing 
speeches of that character. Accordingly we must 
banish all offensive jests and all licentious inter- 
course. And that you may understand what I 
mean by this, let no one who has been consecrated 
a priest read either Archilochus or Hipponax ^ or 
anyone else who writes such poems as theirs. And 
in Old Comedy let him avoid everything of that 
type — for it is better so — and indeed on all accounts 
philosophy alone will be appropriate for us priests ; 
and of philosophers only those who chose the gods 
as guides of their mental discipline, like Pythagoras 
and Plato and Aristotle, and the school of Chrysippus 
and Zeno. For we ought not to give heed to them 
all nor to the doctrines of all, but only to those 
philosophers and those of their doctrines that make 

^ Hipponax of Ephesus, a scurrilous poet who wrote in 
choliambics (the skazon) and flourished about the middle of 
the sixth century B.C. ; cf. Horace, Epodes 6. 12. 



evae^eia'i iarl 7roir)TCfca Koi BiBdaKci irepl 6eMV 
TTpWTOv fiev ft)9 elaiv, elra to? Trpovoovai tmv rfjSe, 
Kal to9 ipyci^ovraL fjuev ovBe ev kukov ovt€ dvOpco- 
7rov<; ovT€ dWy\ov(; (f)Oovovvr€<i koX l3aaKaivovT6<^ 
KUL 7rok€fiovvTe<;, oirola ypd<^ovTe<; ol, /juev irap^ 
rjixlv TTOLTjral KaTe<^povr]Or](jav, ol Be tmv ^lovBalcov 
'7rpo(l)rJTai Boar era /jbevw^i avy/caraaKevd^ovTe^i viro B 
Twv dOXicov TOVTcov TMV TTpoapei/jbdvTcop eauToi/? 
T0t9 Ta\c\aioL<; dav/jbd^ovraL 

UpeTTOt 8' av rjfxlv l(TTOpiai<i ivTvyx^dveiv, oiroaat 
(TVP€'ypd(j>7](Tav eVt TreTroirj/jievoi^ tol<; epyoi^' oaa 
Be ecTTLV ev laTOpia<; eoBec irapa rol^ e/jLTrpoadeu 
dTTTjyyeX/jbeva irkdajxara Trapatrrjreov, epcorcKa^ 
vTToOecTei^ Kol irdvra aTrXw? to, roiavra. KaOdirep 
yap ovBe 6S09 Trdaa roi<; lepo)/jLevoL<; dp/juoTTei, 
TeTd')(Oac Be ')(^prj /cat TavTa<;, 01/70)9 ouBe dvd- C 
yvcoo-fia irdv lep(op,ev(p Trpeirei. eyylverat ydp 
Tf.9 Trj yjrv')(^f] BidOeat'; vtto tmv Xoycov, Kal Kar 
oXiyov eyelpei Ta9 eTriOv/xla^, elra €^ai(j)V7j<; 
avdinei Beivr]V <f>X6ya, 7rpb<; rjv ol/xai ^(^pr] TToppco- 
6ev Traparerd'^Oat,. 

M.7]T€ ^Ei7nKovpeLO<i elaiT(o X6709 jjirjTe Tiyppco- 
i^eto9* TjBrj jxev ydp KaXo)^ iroiovvre^ ol Oeol Kal 
dvrjprjKaaLV, coare eiTLXeiireiv Kal rd irXelorra D 
TMV ^l/SXlcov. o//,ft)9 ovBev KcoXvet tvttov %a/3ty 
eTrifjivrjadrjvat jxev Kal tovtcov, ottolcov xph fidXiaTa 
TO 1*9 lepea<; direyeGQai Xoycav, el Be Xoyrov, ttoXv 
TTpojepov evvoiMv, ouBe ydp oifiat ravTov icniv 


men god-fearing, and teach' concerning the gods, first 
that they exist, secondly that they concern them- 
selves with the things of this world, and further that 
they do no injury at all either to mankind or to one 
another, out of jealousy or envy or enmity. I mean 
the sort of thing our poets in th^e first place have 
brought themselves into disrepute by writing, and 
in the second place such tales as the prophets of 
the Jews take pains fd invent, dfld are "admired for 
so' doing by those miserable men who have attached 
themselves to the Galilaeans. 

But for us it will be appropriate to read such 
narratives as have been composed about deeds that 
have actually been done ; but we must avoid all 
fictions in the form of narrative such as were cir- 
culated among men in the past, for instance tales 
whose theme is love, and generally speaking every- 
thing of that sort. For just as not every road is 
suitable for consecrated priests, but the roads they 
travel ought to be duly assigned, so not every sort 
of reading is suitable for a priest. For words breed 
a certain sort of disposition in the soul, and little by 
little it arouses desires, and then on a sudden kindles 
a terrible blaze, against which one ought, in my 
opinion, to arm oneself well in advance. 

Let us not admit discourses by Epicurus or 
Pyrrho ; but indeed the gods have already in 
their wisdom destroyed their works, so that most 
of their books have ceased to be. Nevertheless 
there is no reason why I should not, by way of 
example, mention these works too, to show what 
sort of discourses priestSi-must especially avoid ; and 
if such discourses, then much more must they avoid 
such thoughts. For an error of speech is, in my 



ajidprr^fjia y\(t)TT7j<; Kal htavoia<^, aXV i/celvrjv 
')(^pr) jxaktcrTa Oepaireveuv, €09 Kal t^9 y'K(OTTr}(; 
€K€LV7} crvv€^ajjLapTavova7}<;. eKfiavOdvetv '^prj tov? 
Vfivovi TOiv OeSyv elal he ovtol ttoXXoI fiev Kal 
KaXol ireTTOirj/jLevoc ird\aio2<i koX veoL<;' ov /JLr)v 
aXX* €K€iVov<; Treipareov eirtaraaOaL tov<; ev TOi<; 
lepot^ aBofjLevov^. ol TrXelarot yap vir avrcov 
rSiv Oecov iKerevOepTcov iSodrjcrav, oXiyou he rtz/e? 302 
i7Toi>i]0rjaav Kal irapa dvOpcoTrcov, vtto irvevfiaTO^ 
evOeov Kal i/ru^?}9 djSdrov T0i9 KaKol<; eirl rfj tmv 
OeSyv npbfi (TvyKelfievoi. 

TavTa ye d^iov iir CTT^heveiv Kal ev^eaOat 
TToWdKLf; T0t9 OeoL<; Ihia Kal hrj/jLoaia, /judXicrra 
jjbev Tpl<i TY}^ rj/juepa';, el he firj, TrdvTCO^; opOpov ye ^ 
Kal heiXyt;' ovhe yap evXoyov dOvrov dyeiv rj/nepau 
fj vvKTa TOP lepco/jLevov dp^rj he 6pdpo<; fjuev rjfjLepa^;, B 
6^fria he vvkt6<;. evXoyov he d/jLcj^orepcov T0fc9 Oeol^i 
d'Trdp')(e(j6aL rcov hiacTTrjixdrayv, orav e^a)6ev t^9 
lepaTiKri<i ovre^ rvy^dvcofiev Xeirovpyua^;' &)9 rd 
ye ev T0t9 lepot<;, ocra irdrpLO'^ hoayopeveo z^oyu.09, 
(pvXdrretv Trpeirec, Kal ovre irXeov ovre eXarrov 
TL TTOLrjreov avrcov dlhta ydp iaro rd roiiv OeMV 
coare Kal y/jLd<; ')(pr} ixifielaOaL ttjv ovaiav avrcoVy 
Xv avTov<i iXao-KcofjueOa hcd tovto irXeov. C 

Et fxev ovv rfixev avro'^v')(^al fiovai, to crco/jLa he 
7ryoo9 fir^hev rjjjuv hiQ)')(Xei, KaX(b<; dv el')(^ev eva jivd 
Tol<; lepevcrcv d(f)opi^eLv ^iov eirel he ou^ lepevaiv 
a7rXw9, dXXd Kal r(p ^ lepei irpoa'^Kec fxovov, o hrj 
Kara tov Katpov Trj<; XeiTovpyia<; e7n,T7)hevTeov, 

^ ye Hertlein suggests, re MSS. 

2 r^ Wright, &s Hertlein, MSS. The meaning is not clear 
and Petavius suspects corruption. 



opinion^ by no means the same as an error of the 
mind, but we ought to give heed to the mind first of 
all, since the tongue sins in company with it. We 
ought to learn by heart the hymns in honour of the 
gods — and many and beautiful they are, composed 
by men of old and of our own time — though indeed 
we ought to try to know also those which are being- 
sung in the temples. For the greater number were 
bestowed on us by the gods themselves, in answer 
to prayer, though some few also were written by 
men, and were composed in honour of the gods by 
the aid of divine inspiration and a soul inaccessible 
to things evil. 

All this, at least, we ought to study to do, and 
we ought also to pray often to the gods, both in 
private and in public, if })ossible three times a day, 
but if not so often, certainly at dawn and in the 
evening. For it is not meet that a consecrated 
priest should pass a day or a night without sacrifice ; 
and dawn is the beginning of the day as twilight is 
of the night. And it is proper to begin both periods 
with sacrifice to the gods, even when we happen 
not to be assigned to perform the service. For it 
is our duty to maintain all the ritual of the temples 
that the law of our fathers prescribes, and we ought 
to perform neither more nor less than that ritual ; 
for eternal are the gods, so that we too ought to 
imitate their essential nature in order that thereby 
we may make them propitious. 

Now if we were pure soul alone, and our bodies 
did not hinder us in any respect, it would be well 
to prescribe one sort of life for priests. But since 
what he should practise when on duty concerns the 
individual priest alone, not priests absolutely, what 



rl 8e Tc5 ^ lepareveiu dv$p(07r(p Xa^ovTi o-vy^^^co- 
prjTeov, orav €kto<; rj t?)? iv to2<; lepol<i \€iTOvp<yia<;; 
ol/jiai Se 'x^pijvai rov lepea irdvTwv d^vevaavra D 
vvKTa Koi rjp.epaVy elra oWtjv eV ctur^ vvKra 
KadrjpdfjLevov 0I9 Siayopevovaiv ol Oeafjuol Kadap- 
yLto?9 ouTco<; el<T(o (fioCTwvra rod lepov fiiveiv 6(Ta<; 
av rjixepa<; 6 vopuo^ Kekevrj. TptaKovra puev yap at 
Trap' Tj/jiLV elacv iv 'Fco/jurj, Trap' aXXot? Se aXXtw?. 
evXoyov ovv ol/nao fxeveiv d7rdo-a<; TavTa<; Ta9 
ri/jiepa<s iv toi<; Upoc^; (piXoaoipovvTa, koI fiyre 
eh oiKLav ^ahl^eiv fi'^re eh dyopdv, dXXd /jbrjhe 303 
dpxovra irXrjv iv roh lepoh opdv, iTri/JbeXeladai 
Se T779 Trepl to Oelov 6epaireia<; avrbv icpopMvra 
nrdvra koI BtardTTOVTa, TrXrjpaiaavra 8e rm 
r)jj,epa<; elra erepcp iTapa')((Dpelv ttj^ XeiTovpyia^. 
iifi he rov dvdpcoirivov TpeTrofieva) ^Lov i^earco 
'kov ^ahi^eiv eh OLKLav (f)iXov koX eh eariacnv 
diravTCiv 'jrapafcXTjOevra, /jlt) TrdvTcov, dXXd tcjv B 
^eXrlcTTCov' iv tovtw he koI eh dyopdv irapeXOelv . 
ouK CLTOTTOV oXiydfcifiy rjyefJiova re irpoaeiirelv koX 
eOvov^ dpyovrai koX roh euXoyco^; Beofievoi^ oaa 
ivhex^rai PorjOrjcrai. 

Tipeirei he olfiac roh lepevonv evhov fiev, ore 
XeiTOVpyovaiv, iaOrjrc '^(prjcrdat pjeyaXoTTpeire- 
o-rdrrj, tmv lepMV he efo) rfj avvrjOei hi')(^a ttoXv- 
^ T^ Hertlein suggests, ws MSS. 


should we concede to a man who has received the 
office of priest, on occasions when he is not actually 
engaged in service in the temples? I think that 
a priest ought to keep himself pure from all con- 
tamination, for a night and a day, and then after 
purifying himself for another night following on 
the first, with such rites of purification as the 
sacred laws prescribe, he should under these con- 
ditions enter the temple and remafn there for as 
many days as the law conmiands. (Thirty is the 
number with us at Rome, but in other places the 
number varies.) It is {)roper then, I think, that he 
should remain throughout all these days in the 
sacred precincts, devoting himself to philosophy, 
and that he should not enter a house or a market- 
place, or see even a magistrate, except in the 
precincts, but should concern himself with his 
service to the god, overseeing and arranging every- 
thing in person ; and then, when he has completed 
the term of days, he should retire from his office in 
favour of another. And when he turns again to the 
ordinary life of mankind, he may be allowed to visit 
a friend's house, and, when invited, to attend a 
feast, but not on the invitation of all but only of 
persons of the highest character. And at this time 
there would be nothing out of the way in his going 
occasionally to the market-place and conversing 
with the governor or the chief magistrate of his 
tribe, and giving aid, as far as lies in his power, to 
those who have a good reason for needing it. 

And it is in my opinion fitting for priests to wear 
the most magnificent dress when they are within the 
temple performing the services, but when they- are 
outside the sacred precincts to wear ordinary dress, 



T€\€ia<;' ovBe yap evXoyov rolf; BeBo/juivoi^ r^fxlv eirl 
Ti/Jbfj Oecov eh K€voBo^iav KaTa)(^pi]aOai koX TV<f)ov 
ficLTaiov. o6ev d(peKT€ov rjfiiv iaOrjrof; TroXvreke- C 
(Trepan; iv ayopa /cal ko/jLttov ^ Kal 7rdar]<; 
aTrXw? dXa^ov6La<;. ol yovv 6eol Ttjv roaavrrjv 
dyacrd€VT€<; ^Afx^Lapdov cra)(f>po(Tvvrjv, iireiBr) rov 
arparev/JLarof; ^i/ceivov KareBiKacrav (f)Oopdv etSw? 
T€ avrb<; avveaTpaTevero koI rjv a<f)evKTOv avrw 
Bia TovTo TO ireTTpcojjbevov, diri^r^vav avrov aXKov 
ef dWov Kal fieriarrjo-av eh Xrj^iv Oeiav, irdv- 
Tcov yovv TMV eTTiaTparevadvTcov rah Syj/Sai^ 
eirl TMV dairiBcov irplv /caTepydaaadai arj- D 
jbLttTa ypacpovTcov /cal eyecpovTcov tcl Tporraca 
KaTCb T% GVfjb^opd^^ TMV K.aBfjLeL(ov, 6 tmv Oecov 
op,L\'i]Tr}<; d(Tr]/jLa fxev eirecTTpdTevev e^f^v oirXa, 
TrpaoTTjTa Be Kal amcppoavvi^v co? Kal ^ vtto tmv 
TToXejjLLcov e/xapTvpeoTO, Bioirep olfxai ')(pr) Kai 
Tou? iepea<; 7]iJba<^ to, irepl ra? eaOrjTaf; acocppovetVy^ 
Iva Tvy')(^dvco/jiev evjjievMV tmv Oecov o)? ov fiiKpd 
ye eh avTov<; e^a/jLapTdvojuev Brj/xov/jievot ra? 
iepa<; eo-OrJTa^} Kal Brj/jioacevovTe<; Kal 7rap€')(^ovTe<i 304 
a7rXft)9 irepi^XeTTetv Toh dvOpct)7roi<; cjairep tl 
OavfiaoTTov. el yap tovto * avfi/Salvei, ttoXXoI 
ireXd^ovaiv rjiuv ov KaOapoi, Kal Bid tovto %/>at- 
veTai Ta tmv Oecov av/jL^oXa, to Be Kal r]ixd<i 

^ Kara rrjs (rvix<bopa5 Hertlein suggests, koX ras aviKbopas 
2 0)5 Kal Hertlein would add. 

' 7) Has — <T03<ppovi1v Cobet suggests, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 
* et yap tovto Hertlein suggests, itircp e/c tovtov MSS. 


without any extravagance. For it is not rational 
tliat we should misuse, in empty conceit and vain 
ostentation, what has been given to us for the honour 
of the gods. And for this reason we ought in the 
market place to abstain from too costly dress and 
from outward show, and in a word from every sort of 
pretentiousness. For consider how the gods, because 
they admired the perfect moderation of Amphiaraus,^ 
after they had decreed the destruction of that famous 
army — and he, though he knew that it would be so, 
went with the expedition and therefore did not 
escape his fated end, — the gods I say transformed 
him completely from what he had been, and removed 
him to the sphere of the gods. For all the others 
who were in the expedition against Thebes engraved 
a device on their shields before they had conquered 
the enemy, and erected trophies to celebrate the 
downfall of the Cadmeans ; but he, the associate of 
the gods, when he went to war had arms with no 
device ; but gentleness he had, and moderation,^ as 
even the enemy bore witness. "Hence I think that 
we priests ought to show moderation in our dress, in 
order that we may win the goodwill of the gods, 
since it is no slight offence that we commit against 
them when we wear in public the sacred dress and 
make it public property, and. in a word give all men 
an opportunity to stare at it as though it were some- 
thing marvellous. For whenever this happens, many 
who are not purified come near us, and by this means 
the symbols of the gods are polluted. Moreover 

^ Cf. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes ; Euripides, Plioe- 
nissae 1118 

6 fidpTis ^AiJL<piapaos ov (rrj/iet' excov 
v$pi(rfx4v\ aWa crucppSuws &(r7]fi ottAo. 



avTOU(f ov^ lepaTLKvd^ ^covra^; lepecov cadPjra 
irepiKcladat 7r6ar)<s earl Trapavofxia^i koI kutu- 
(fypoprjaeay^i €t9 toi;? 6eov<i; elprjcrerai p,ev ovv rjpuv 
Kal irepl rovrcov ev aX\ot<; ^ Be* aKpi/SeCaf;' vvvX ^e 
ft)? Tvircp irpo^ ere ypd^co irepl avrcov. 

Tofc9 aaeXyecrL Tourot? 6€drpoi<; twv lepewv B 
[xrjhelf; jiirjSa/jLOV irapa^aWeTW fjurjSe eh rrjv oiKiav 
elcrayerco Tr)v iavrov' irpeirei yap ovBafiM^. Kal 
el fxev otov re rjv e^eXdaai iravTaTracnv avra 
tS}v Oedrpcov, axrre avra irdXiv dirohoifvaL tw 
^iovv(T(d KaOapd yevofxeva, TrdvToof; av eireipdOriv 
avrb 7rpoOv/jL(o<; KaracTKevdaaL vvvl he ol6pLevo<; C 
TovTO ovre Swarov ovre aXXo)?, el Kal SvvaTOP 
(pavelr], avfju^epov av avro yeveadat, rauTT;? jxev 
dTreo-yo/jLrjv iravTairaai tt}? ^tXoTt/i-ta?' d^Lc^ he 
Toif^ iepea<; v7ro')(^ci)prjaaL Kal aTroaTrjvao rS> hrjpbM 
TYj^ ev T0?9 dedrpoKi daeXyela'^. /jL7]8el<i ovv lepev^i 
et9 Oearpov elalrco, fiTjSe e^eVft) ^ (piXov BvixeXiKov 
firjBe dp/jiaT7]\drr)Vi /JL7]he op'xrjaTrjf; /jurjSe fupboq 
avTOv rfj Ovpa irpoaiTO)' rot? lepot<i dyoyaiv 
eTnTpeirw fiovov tco ^ov\ofiev(p TrapajSdWeiv, D 
wv aTrrjyopevTat, /juere^eiv ovk dymvla^ /iiovov, 
dWa Kal 6ea<; Tal<; yvvai^lv. virep he t5)v 
KVvr)yealcov to hel Kal Xeyeiv, oaa Tal<^ iroXeaLv 
el(T(o Tcov Oedrpcov crvvTeXetrat, co? a^e/creoz/ 
rovTcov ea-rlv ov^ lepev(n [xovov, dWd Kal 
Traccrlv lepecov; 

^Hv fjLCV ovv t(jft)9 Trpb rovToyv elprjadai, KaXov, 
odev Kal 07rft)9 XPV "tov^ c€pea<; dTroheiKvveiv ovhev 
he aTOirov eU tovto /jloi tov^; Xoyov^; Xrj^ai. eyco 305 

* iv &\\ois Cobet would add ; cf. 298 a. 

^ exeVco Petavius suggests, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 



what lawlessness it is, what arrogance toKvards tlie 
gods for us ourselves when we are not living the 
priestly life to wear the priestly dress ! However, of 
this too I shall speak more particularly in another 
place ; and what I am writing to you at the moment 
is only a mere outline of the subject. 

No priest must anywhere be present at tlie 
licentious theatrical shows of the present day, nor 
introduce one into his own house ; for that is alto- 
gether unfitting. Indeed if it were possible to banish 
such shows absolutely from the theatres so as to re- 
store to Dionysus those theatres pure as of old, I should 
certainly have endeavoured with all my heart to 
bring this about ; but as it is, since I thought that 
this is impossible, and that even if it should prove to 
be possible it would not on other accounts be ex- 
pedient, I forebore entirely from this ambition. But_ 
I do demand that priests should withdraw themselves 
from the licentiousness of the theatres and leave 
them to the crowd. Therefore let no priest enter a" 
theatre or have an actor or a chariot-driver for his 
friend ; and let no dancer or mime even approach his 
door. And as for the sacred games, I permit anyone 
who will to attend those only in which women are 
forbidden not only to compete but even to be spec- 
tators. With regard to the hunting shows with dogs 
which are performed in the cities inside the theatres, 
need I say that not only priests but even the sons of 
priests must keep away from them ? 

Now it would perhaps have been well to say 
earlier from what class of men and by what method 
priests must be appointed ; but it is quite appro- 
priate that my remarks should end with this. I say 



(f)7i/iii TOv<)! €v Ta?9 TToXeac ^eXrtarovf; teal jjuciKicrTa 
jxev (f)i\o6e(OTdTOV<;, eTreira (f)iXav6pco7rordTov<;, 
idv T€ 7rev7jT€<; cocrcv edv re TrXovawr hidKpi(JL<^ 
earo) 7r/?09 tovto fjurjB^ rjrt<T0vv dcpavovf; /cal 
iirK^avov^s' 6 yap Sea TrpaorrjTa XeXrjOax; ov Bia 
TTjv Tov d^Lco/jLarof; d(f>dv€iav hiKaio^; icrri kco- 
XvecrOaL. Kav irev7]<; ovv y rt^; 8?;yLtoT7;9 e%a)z^ 
iv eavTO) Bvo ravra, to re <f)iX60eov Kal to 
(f)LXdv0pco7rov, lepevf; aTroBeLfcpvaOo). Sely/jua Be B 
TOV (^CXoOeov fjbev, el tou? olKeiov; diravTa^ eh 
TTjv irepl Tov<^ Oeov<i euae^eiav elaaydyoc, tov 
(f)cXavdp(07rov Be, el Kal e^ oXiycov evKoXonf; 
KOLvcovel Toh BeojjLevoi^ Kal jxeTaBiBayai Trpodv/juco';* 
ev TroLelv eTn^ecpoov ocrov; dv olo^ re 97. 

TipoaeKTeov yap jidXicTTa Ta> jxepeu tovtw, Kal 
T7]v laTpeiav evTevOev iroirjTeov. iTretBr) yap olfiat 
(TVvejBr) T0U9 Trev7]Ta<^ dixeXelaOaL 7rapopcofMevov<; 
vTTo Tcbv lepecov, ol Bvcr<7€^eL<i TaXiXatot KaTavorj- C 
(TavTe<; eireOevTO TavTjj ttj (fiiXavOpMiria, Kal to 
')(elpL(jTOV Tcov epycov Bed tov evBoKifJuovvTO^^ tmv 
eTnTrjBev/jbdTcov eKpdTvvav. Mcrirep yap ^ ol Ta 
TraLBia Bid tov 7rXaKovvTO<i e^a7raT(bvT€<; Tq> Kal 
St? Kal Tpl<; irpoeaOai ireiOovaiv aKoXovdelv 
eavTo2<;, eW\ OTav diroa-Trjacoai jroppco tcov olKelcov, 
e/j,^dXXovTe<; eh vavv direBovTo, Kal ykyovev eh 
diravTa tov e^rj<; fiiov iriKpov to Bo^av 7rpo<; oXiyov 

^ evSoKifiovvTos Hertlein suggests, KaWia-rov Sokovvtos 
Reiske, boKovvros MSS. ^ yap Hertlein would add. 


that the most upright men in every city, by prefer- 
ence those who show most love for the gods, and 
next those who show most love for their fellow 
men, must be appointed, whether they be poor or 
rich. And in this matter let there be no distinction 
whatever whether they are unknown or well known. 
For the man who by reason of his gentleness has not 
won notice ought not to be barred by reason of his 
want of fame. Even though he be poor and a man, 
of the people, if he possess within himself these two 
things, love for God and love for his fellow men, let 
him be appointed priest. And a proof of his love 
for God is his inducing his own people to show 
reverence to the gods ; a proof of his love for his 
fellows is his sharing cheerfully, even from a small 
store, with those in need, and his giving willingly 
thereof, and trying to do good to as many men 
he is able. 

We must pay especial attention to this point, and 
by this means effect a cure. For when it came 
about that the poor were neglected and overlooked 
by the priests, then I think the impious Galilaeans 
observed this fact and devoted themselves to 
philanthropy. And they have gained ascendancy / 
in the worst of their deeds through the credit / 
they win for such practices. For just as those whofA 
entice children with a cake, and by throwing it tq \ 
them two or three times induce them to follow \ 
them, and then, when they are far away from their 
friends cast them on board a ship and sell them 
as slaves, and that which for the moment seemed 
sweet, proves to be bitter for all the rest of their 
lives — by the same method, I say, the Galilaeans 




yXvfcv, Tov avTov Kal avrol rpoirov ap^dfievoi Sea D 
Trjfy \€yo/xiinj<; Trap' avTol<; dyaTrrjf; Kal v7roho')(rj<; 
Kal BcaKOVLa<i Tpaire^MV eVrt yap (oairep to epyov, 
ovTco Be Kal tovvo/mi Trap* avTol^ ttoXu* TrXelaTovfi 
ivTjyayov et? ttjv d6e6rr)Ta. *  # 



also begin with their so-called love-feast, or hospi- 
tality, or service of tables, — for they have many 
ways of carrying it out and hence call it by many 
names, — and the result is that they have led very 
many into atheism ^ 

^ The conclusion is lost, and may have been suppressed by 
Christian copyists. 




The Caesars^ otherwise entitled in the MSS. 
Symposiuin or Kronia (Latin Saturnalia) was written 
at Constantinople in 361 and was probably ad- 
dressed to Sallust^ to whom Julian had sent his lost 
work the Kronia. ^ The interlocutor in the pro- 
cemium ^ is almost certainly Sallust. 

" Caesar " was in Julian's time a Roman Emperor's 
most splendid title, and was regularly used by the 
barbarians when they referred to the Emperor. 
The idea and the working out of the satire is 
Lucianic and _ there are echoes here and there of 
Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead, but Julian is 
neither so witty nor so frivolous as Lucian. In 
s})eaking of the gods he allows himself a licence 
which is appropriate to the festival, but would 
otherwise seem inconsistent with the admonitions 
addressed to priests in the Fragment of a Letter. 
His conception of the State and of the ideal ruler 
is Greek rather than Roman. 

1 cf. Oration 4. 157 c. ^ 395 a. 




^ETretBrj hihcoaiv 6 Oeo<; irai^eLV eari yap Kpovia* 
yeXoiov be ovoev ovoe repirvov oioa eyco, to /jlt} 
Karayekaara ^pdaai (fypovrlSo^ eoiKCV elvai a^vovy 

ft) (f>l\6T7J<i. 

EZra Tt9 ovTco vra^u? icTTC koX ap')(^alo^, w 
Katcrayo, ftxrre koI irai^eiv 7re(f>povTicr/jL€va; iyot) 
(pfir)v Tr)v TratBcav dvecrlv re elvai yjrvx^^ koX 
diraWayrjv tmv (fypovriScov. 

'0/3^(W9 ye (TV rovTo v7ro\afi^dv(ov, efiol he B 
ov ravrrj eoLKev diravrav to %/D77/ia. Treipv^a yap 
ovSa/jL(o<; eTrLTriheiO<i ovTe aKcairTeiit ovTe TrapaSelv 
ovT€ yeXoid^eiv. eireX Be ')(^pr) tw vofitp ireideardau 
Tov deov, ^ovXei aroL ev 7ratStd<; fiepei /jlvOov Sie^- 
e\0(o TToWa Laco<; e')(pvTa aKorjf; a^ia; 

Aeyoi,<; av Koi fidXa dcr/jbevo), eirel /cal avTo^ C 
ovK aTifjud^o) Toiff; fivOovf; ovBe iravTdiTaaLv 
e^eXavvfa tou? opOS)^ €')(pVTa<i, aKoXovOd <Joi 
Te Kal (f)t\q) tm ctw, fiaXXov he tS> KoivSi, 
YiXdToyvL Biavoovixevo^i eirel fcal avTto ttoWo, 
ev fivOot<i eaTTOvBaa-Tai, 




" It is the season of the Kronia,^ during which the 
god allows us to make merry. But, my dear friend, 
as I have no talent for amusing or entertaining I 
must methinks take pains not to talk mere non- 

" But, Caesar, can there be anyone so dull and 
stupid as to take pains over his jesting ? I always 
thought that such pleasantries were a relaxation of 
the mind and a relief from pains and cares." 

" Yes, and no doubt your view is correct, but that 
is not how the matter strikes me. For by nature 1 
have no turn for raillery, or parody, or raising a 
laugh. But since I must obey the ordinance of the 
god of the festival, should you like me to relate to 
you by way of entertainment a myth in which there 
is perhaps much that is worth hearing .^ " 

" I shall listen with great pleasure, for I too am not 
one to despise myths, and I am far from rejecting 
those that have the right tendency ; indeed I am of 
the same opinion as you and your admired, or rather 
the universally admired, Plato. He also often 
conveyed a serious lesson in his myths." 

1 Better known by its Latin name Saturnalia, Saturn is 
the Greek Kronos. 



Ae7et9 val fia Aua ravra dXT/^T}. 

l(-9 oe Kai iToraiTo^ o /jbVuo<;; 

Ov tS)v TraXaiMV rt?, ottoLov; Al'crcoTro? iiroiri- 307 
aev, aXX' eire TrXdafia Xiyoi^; 'Etp/jLov' ttcttv- 
a/jL€VO<; yap avrov eKeWev aoi <j>pd(T(o' eire koI 
rdXTjOef; ovtco<; e^ei elVe //-tft? rt? ccttlv d/jL<f)olv, 
avTO, ^aal,^ hei^ei to irpayfjua. 

Tourl jJbev ovv r)hr} fJLvOtKO)^ a/jba koI pr)TopiKM<; 
i^eipyaa-rai aoi to irpooifMLOv oKkd fioL top 
Xoyov axjTov, ottoIo'^ Trore iaTiv, ^Brj Bti^eXOe. 

M.avOdvoi<; dv. 

%v(t)v 'Pft)/LtuXo9 TO. Yipovia 7rdpTa<; eKaXei B 
Tou? ^eoy?, KoX Brj kuI avTov<; ^ tov<; Kaiaapa^. 
KXlvai Be eTvyyavov irapecTKevaa- fievai Tolf; fiev 
6eol^ dvco KaT avTo, ^aaiv, ovpavov to fieTewpoVy 

OvXv/jb'7r6vS\ 001 <f)aal Oewv eSo? da<^aXe<; alei. 

XeyeTai yap fJbeO* 'UpaKXia irapeXdelv eKelae 

jcal 6 K^vpLVo^, w Srj ')(^pr) KaXelv avTOV 6v6p.aTL, 

Tjj Oeia Tre i6o/jLevov(; <j)'t]p.rj. TOt<; jxev ovv 6€ot<; 

eKelae irapeaKevaaTO to avfiTroaLov vir avTrjv Be C 

TTjv o-eXrjvrjv errl fieTedypov tov depo<; iBeBoKTO 

Tou? fcaio-apa<; Beiirvelv. dvel')(e Be avTov<; rj re 

TMV (Tco/jidTcov Kov^oTTjq, ditep eTvyyjxvov 'r)p^ie- 

afxevoi, KoX rj 7repi<f>opd ttj^ aeXijvrjf;. KXtvat fiev 

ovv eKeiVTO T€TTape<;, evTpevel*; rot? fieyi(TT0i<; 

Oeot<;. e^evov piev rjv rj tov J^povov (ttiXj3ov(T7]<; 

Kal TToXXtjv ev Ta> pueXavc koX Oeiav avyrjv Kpv- 

TTTOva-y}';, wo-re ovBe\<; 0I09 re rjv avTi^XeireLv* 

* 0a(ri Cobet, lacuna V., Hertlein, eirtSe^let MSS. 
^ avTovs Hertleiii suspects to be an interpolation 



" By Zeus, that is true indeed ! " 
" But what is your myth and of what type ? " 
"Not one of those old-fashioned ones such as 
Aesopi wrote. But whether you should call mine an 
invention of Hermes — for it was from him I learned 
what I am going to tell you — or whether it is really 
true or a mixture of truth and fiction, the upshot, 
as the saying is, will decide." 

" This is indeed a fine preface that you have 
composed, just the thing for a myth, 'not to say an 
oration ! But now pray tell me the tale itself, what- 
ever its type may be." 
^^ Attend." 

At the festival of the Kronia Romulus gave s 
banquet, and invited not only all the gods, but the 
Emperors as well. For the gods couches had been 
prepared on high, at the very apex, so to speak, of 
the sky,2 on " 01ym})us where they say is the seat of 
the gods, unshaken for ever." ^ -For we are told 
that after Heracles, Quirinus also ascended thither, 
since we must give Romulus the name of Quirinus 
in obedience to the divine will.* For the gods 
then the banquet had been made ready there. 
But just below the moon in the upper air he had 
decided to entertain the Emperors. The light- 
ness of the bodies with which they had been in- 
vested, and also the revolution of the moon sus- 
tained them. Four couches were there made ready 
for the superior gods. That of Kronos was made 
of gleaming ebony, which concealed in its black- 
ness a lustre so intense and divine that no one 

^ i. e. not a fable with a moral nor an animal fable. 
2 Cf. Plato, Phatdrus 247 b. =* Odyssey 6. 42. 

4 Cf. Oratim 4. 149 b, 154 D. 



eiratT^e Be ravro irpo^ ttjv e^evov €K€lvt]v to, D 
ofjL/juiTa St* vwep^oXrjv Tr}<; \a/jL7rr]S6vo<;, oirep olfiat 
7r/909 ijXiov, orav avrov tw hi(TK(p tl<; drevearepov 
Trpoo-fiXeTrrj. rj Se tov Ato? '^v dpyvpov fiev 
(TTiXTTVorepai ')(pvaiov he XevKOTepa. tovto etre 
rjkeKTpov XPV i^aXelv etre dXXo rt Xeyeiv, ov 
(TcpoBpa el'xe jjlol yv(opifjLco<; 6 'Epfirj*; ^pdaat. 
')(^pvarodp6v(o Be Trap* eKarepov iKaOe^eaOrjv^ rj re 
/ii^rrjp KoX r) dvydrrjp, "Hpa fiev irapa tov Aia, 308 
'Pea Be irapa tov Kpovov, to Be tmv Oecov /caXXo? 
ovBe eKelvo<; eTre^yei tc3 Xoyw, fiel^ov elvai Xeycov 
avTo Kal V(p OeaTov, aKofi Be Kal prjixaaLV ovTe 
7rpooLa6rjvaL paBiov ovtc irapaBe')(drjvaL BvvaTov, 
ov^ ovT(o Ti? €(7Tat Kal (pavetTac /jbeyaX6(f>(t)vo<i, 
&aTe TO fieyeOo<i eKelvo ^pdcrai tov KdXXov<;, 
oTToaov eTnirpeireL Tjj tmv Oecov oyjrei. 

UapeaKevacTTO Be Kal tol<; dXXoL<; OeoU eKaaTca B 
dpovof; rj kXIvt) KaTa irpecr^eiav. rjpi^e Be ovBeL<;, 
d\V oTrep "Ofirjpof; 6p6S)<^ ttolmv e(f>7}, BoKetv jjlol 
irapa twv Mouo-wi^ avTMV dKrjKoayf;, e'xeiv eKacTTov 
TMV Oeodv Opovov, e(f> ov 7rdvTCt)<; avTM 0€fiL<; 
KadrjaOac (TTepeojfi Kal dfJbeTaKLvriT(o^' eirel Kal 
Trpo<i TTjv Trapovalav tov iraTpo^ e^avoaTd/jievoi 
TapaTTOvaiv ovBap^M^ tcl^ KadeBpa^ ovBe fieTa- 
^alvovaiv ovBe v(f)ap7rd^ovcnv dXXrjXcov, yvcopl^ei C 
Be eKaaTO^; to irpocrrJKOv aura). iravTcov ovv 
kvkXo) tmv BeMV KaOijfievcov, 6 XeiXrjvb<; ep(OTiKO)<; 
€X€iv fJbOL BoKcov TOV Aiovvaov KaXov Kal veov Kal 

* iKade^eadrjp Hertlein suggests, iKaOe^erov V,, ^Kade^drriv 




could endure to gaze thereon. For in looking at 
that ebony, the eyes suffered as much, niethinks, 
from its excess of radiance as from the sun when 
one gazes too intently at his disc. The couch of 
Zeus was more brilliant than silver, but paler than 
gold ; whether however one ought to call this 
" electron," ^ or to give it some other name, Hermes 
could not inform me precisely. On either side of 
these sat on golden thrones the mother and daughter, 
Hera beside Zeus and Rhea beside Kronos. As for the 
beauty of the gods, not even Hermes tried to describe 
it in his tale ; he said that it transcended descrip- 
tion, and must be comprehended by the eye of the 
mind ; for in words it was hard to portray and 
impossible to convey to mortal ears. Never indeed 
will there be or appear an orator so gifted that he 
could describe such surpassing beauty as shines 
forth on the countenances of the gods. 

For the other gods had been prepared a throne or 
couch, for everyone according to seniority. Nor did 
any dispute arise as to this, but as Homer said,^ and 
correctly, no doubt instructed by the Muses them- 
selves, every god has his seat on which it is 
irrevocably ordained that he shall sit, firmly and im- 
movably fixed ; and though they rise on the entrance of 
their father they never confound or change the order 
of their seats or infringe on one another's, since 
every one knows his appointed place. 

Now when the gods were seated in a circle, 
Silenus, amorous, methinks, of Dionysus ever fair and 

1 Cf. Martial 8. 51. 5 : " Vera minus flavo radiant electra 
metallo " ; it is often uncertain whether electron means amber, 
or a combination of ^ gold and ^ silver. 

* This is not in our Homer, but Julian may have in mind 
Iliad 11. 76. 



rw irarpl tS> Ail TrapaTrXrja-Cov TrXrjaiop avrov, 
Tpo(f)€v<; Tt9 ola Kol TraiBaycoyo^;, KaOrjorro, rd re D 
aXXa ^iXoiraiyfjLova kol (jyCXoyeXayv /cat %a/)i- 
ToBoTTjv^ ovra top Oeov ev(f)paiva)v Koi Brj kol rip 
aKdJiTTeLV TCL TToWcL KoX yeXoid^eiv. 

II9 Be KoX TO TMV Kacadpcov (TVve/ceKpoTrjTO^ 
crvfMTTOo'toVy elayeL irpfaTo^ 'louXio? K.aL<Tap, vtto 
(fyiXoTLfilaf; avro) ffov\6/jL6vo<; ipiaau rw Ad irepl 
Trj<; fxovapxicL'^) €t9 ov 6 X€L\r)vo<; /3\ei|ra?, "Opa, 
elirev, w Zei), p^rj ere 6 dvrjp outo? vtto (piXap^la^ 
d<^e\eadai KaX rrjv ^aaCkeiav BiavorjOfj. koI ydp, 
Q)9 opa,'iy earl puiya^ koI Ka\6<i' ipuol yovv, el /cal 
prjBev aX\o, ra yovv irepl rrjv Ke^akrjv eari 309 
7rpo(T6pLOLO<;. irai^ovTo^ en roiavra rov XeiXrjvov 
fcal TMV Oeoov ov ai^oBpa TrpoaexovTcov avTO), 
^OKTa^iavo^s e7rei<rep')(^eTat TroWa dp,eL^(ov, coairep 
ol %ayLtatXeoi^T€9, '^(^poopLaTa koL vvv puev 0D')(^ptcbvy 
avdt^ Be epvOpo^ yivbp^evo^i elra pueXa^i kol ^o(f)a)- 
Br)<; Kal <rvvv€(f)0]<;' dvUro 8* avdi,<; eh ^AcppoBiTrjv B 
Kal Xayotra?, elvai re rjOeXe Ta9 ^oXa<; tmv 
opLpLdrcov oTTolo'^ ecTTLV 6 pieya^i '^HXto?* ovBeva 
yap ol tS)v d,7ravT(*yvT(ov ^ avTi^Xeireiv tj^lov. koL 
6 XetXyvo^, l^a^al, e(l)rj, rod iravToBairov tovtov 
Orjplov tL ttot dpa Beivov r)pLd<; epydaerai; 
Tlavaat,, elire, X7)p(ov, 6 ^AttoXXcov eyo) yap 
avTov TovrcpX 7ir)V(ovL irapaBov^ avriKa vpulv 
diro(f>av(a 'X^pvaov aKrjpaTov. dXX^ idc, elirev, w C 
TirjvoDVi eTTcpieXijOrjTi, rovpbov 6pip,pLaT0<;. 6 Bk 

^ XapiTod6Tr]u Spanheim, cf . 148 d, x<^P^^^'^V*' Hertlem, MSS. 
^ avveKfKpSrriTO Hertlein suggests, ffw^Kporiiro MSS. 
•* airavrdovToiv Spanheim, -KAvroiv Hertlein, MSS. 


ever young, who sat close to Zeus his father, took 
his seat next to him on the pretext that he had 
brought him up and was his tutor. And since 
Dionysus loves jesting and laughter and is the giver 
of the Graces, Silenus diverted the god with a 
continual flow of sarcasms and jests, and in other 
ways besides. 

When the banquet had been arranged for the 
Emperors also, Julius Caesar entered first, and such 
was his passion for glory that he seemed ready to 
contend with Zeus himself for dominion. Where- 
upon Silenus observing him said, " Take care, Zeus, 
lest this man in his lust for power be minded to 
rob you of your empire. He is, as you see, tall and 
handsome, and if he resembles me in nothing else, 
round about his head he is very like me." ^ While 
Silenus, to whom the gods paid very little attention, 
was jesting thus, Octavian entered, changing colour 
continually, like a chameleon, turning now pale now 
red ; one moment his expression was gloomy, sombre, 
and overcast, the next he unbent and showed all the 
charms of Aphrodite and the Graces. Moreover in 
the glances of his eyes he was fain to resemble 
mighty Helios, for he preferred that none who 
approached should be able to meet his gaze.^ " Good 
Heavens!" exclaimed Silenus, "what a changeable 
monster is this! What mischief will he do us?" 
" Cease trifling," said Apollo, "after I have handed 
him over to Zeno ^ here, I shall transform him for you 
straightway to gold without alloy. Come, Zeno," he 
cried, "take charge of my nursling." Zeno obeyed, 
and thereupon, by reciting over Octavian a few of his 

^ Silenus is usually represented as bald. 

^ .Suetonius, Awjmtm 16. ^ The Stoic philosopher. 



vTraKovaa^, elra eTrao-a? avrw fiiKpa Ttav Soy/xd- 
T(ov, wcTTrep ol ra<^ Za/JL6\^i,Bo<; i7ra)Ba<i Opvkovv- 
r€9, d'7re(f)7)vev avhpa eficfipova fcal adxfypova. 
l|T/3tT09 iireiaeBpajxev avTol<; Ti^epio<i <r€/jLv6<; tol 
TTpoo'coTra koX ^Xocrvpo^;, acocppov re dfia kuI 
TToXe/iiiKov ^XeTTcov. i7rL<TTpa(f)evT0<; Be 7rpo<; rrjv 
KaOiBpav M^Orjaau oiTeiXai Kara rbv vcjtov fivpuat, 
KavT7]p6<; Tiv€<i KoX ^ea/jLaTU koX TrXrjyal ^aXeTrat D 
Kal /xct)Xft)7re9 vtto re dKoXaaia<i koX a)fi6Tr)T0<; 
"yJTMpal TLve^ Kav Xe^xw^^ otoi^ eyKeKavfiivat, eW^ 
6 X€lX7}vo<; 

'AXXoto? fjLOL, ^ecve, (f>dvrj(; veov 7) to irdpoiOev 

etTTcov eBo^ev avrov (paiveaOac (nrovBawTepo^;. 
Kal 6 Ai,6vv<T0<; 7rpb<; avrov, Tt Brfra, elirev, m 
TrainrlBiov airovBd^eif; ; Kal 09, 'EfeTrX-T^fe /xe 
yipcov ovTOcrl, 6 Sdrvpo^i, e(f>7j, Kal ireiroLrjKev 
€KXa66/jL€Vov ifiavTOv ra<; ^0/jLr)piKa<; irpo^aXeaOaL 
/jLov(Ta<;. aXXd ae, elirev, eX^eo rcov mtcov 310 
Xeyerat yap avTo<; Kal ypafi/MiTcaTTjv rcva tovto 
epydaaaOat,* oI/jloo^cov fiev ovv, elirev, iv tw 
vy](TvBpl(p' Ta9 Ka7r/oea9 alvnTopLevof;' rbv aOXvov 
ciXiea ^»7%€Ta). rama eri, irai^ovTcov avTwv, 
eTreiaep'Xj^TaL Orjpiov Trovrjpov. elra ol Oeol 
7rdvT6<i direaTpey^rav ra ofifiara, Kara avrbv 
BlBcoaiv 7) Alkt) ral<; Iloi,vai<i, at Be eppcyfrav et9 B | 



doctrines,! in the fashion of those who mutter the 
incantations of Zamolxis,^ he made him wise and 

The third to hasten in was Tiberius, with counten- 
ance solemn and grim, and an expression at once 
sober and martial. But as he turned to sit down 
his back was seen to be covered with countless 
scars, burns, and sores, painful welts and bruises, 
while ulcers and abscesses were as though branded 
thereon, the result of his self-indulgent and cruel 
life.^ Whereupon Silenus cried out, " Far different, 
friend, thou appearest now than before," ^ and 
seemed more serious than was his wont, ^^ Pray, 
why so solemn, little father?" said Dionysus. "It 
was this old satyr," he replied, " he shocked me and 
made me forget myself and introduce Homer's 
Muse." "Take care," said Dionysus, "he will pull 
your ear, as he is said to have done to a certain 
grammarian."^ " Plague take him," said Silenus, *^^in 
his little island " — he was alluding to Capri — " let 
him scratch the face of that wretched fisherman." ^ 
While they were still joking together, there came 
in a fierce monster.^ Thereupon all the gods turned 
away their eyes from the sight, and next moment 
Justice handed him over to the Avengers who 

^ Julian probably alludes to the influence on Augustus of 
Athenodorus the Stoic. 

2 A deity among the Thracians, who according to one tradi- 
tion had been a slave of Pythagoras ; cf. Herodotus 4. 94 ; 
Plato, Charmides 156 d ; Julian 8. 244 a. 

^ Cf. Plato, Gorgias 5'lbT>, e; Bepublic 611 C ; Tacitus, 
Annals 6. 6 ; Lucian, Cataplus 27. 

* Odyssey 16. 181 ; there is a play on the word irdpoidev 
which means also " in front." 

* i.e. Seleucus ; cf. Suetonius, Tiberius 56, 70. 
^ Suetonius, Tiberius 60. '^ Caligula. 


VOL. II.- A A 


Tdprapov. ovSev ovv ecryev 6 'Xetkrjvo'; virep 
avTOV (f)pdaai. rov KXavoiov Se e7reLae\66vro<^, 
6 ^ecXrjvb^ ap)(^6rac tou? ^ ApicrTO(f)dvov(; 'IvrTrea? 
dheiv, cLvrX rov Atj/jlov ^ KoXaKevwv Srjdev rov 
KXavScov. elra 7rp6<; rov JLvplvov dinhcov, 'A8t- 
Kel^^ eiirev, w K.vpiV€, rov aTToyovov aycov et? to 
av/j,7r6aLOV Bi^a ro)V aTreXevdepcov ^apKia(Tov 
Kal IldWavro<i. a)OC Wi, elire, Tre/jiyjrov eV eKCi- 
vov<;, el ^ovkei 6e, /cal eVt rrjv yafjLerrjv Mecro-a- 
Xivav. eari yap eKeivoov Bi)(a rovrl tt;? rpa- C 
y(pBia<i TO Bopv(f)op7]fjLa, fiL/cpov Seco (j)dvaL, koX 
d^jrv^ov. e'Tr€Lcrep')(eraL Xeyovri r& ^etkrjvcp 
l^epcov fierd rrj<^ KiOdpa^ Kal rrj<; Bd^vr)<;. elra 
diro^Xe^lra^ eKetvo^ Trpo? toz^ ^ AiroXXcova, Ovrof;, 
elireVi ern ere irapaa Kevd^erai. Kal 6 /SaatXev^; 
^AttoXXcov, 'AXX' eycoye avrov, elwev, ajroare- 
<j)av(t)(Ta>, on fie pur] irdvra pbLpLelrau pirjSe ev ol? 
fjLe pLi/jLelrac yuyverai pLov pLipL7]rr)<; hiKaio<;. diro- 
are(f>avco6evra Se avrov 6 Ko) /cuto? €vdeco<; 

'Ett^ toi;t^ TToXXol Kal iravrohairol crvverpe^ov, I) 
^LvSLKe<;, TdXjBai, "OOwve^, BoriXXcoi. Kal 6 
'2,eiXr]v6<i, Tovrcov, elire, r(bv pLOvdp')(cov rb a-pbrjvof;^ 
iroOev e^7]vpi]Kare, o) deol; ru(f)6pL60a yovv viro 
rov Kairvov' ^eiherau yap ovBe rwv dvaKropcov 
ravrl rd Orjpia. Kal 6 Zeu? aTnBwv 7rpo<i rov 
dheX(^ov avrov ^dpainv Kal rov Ovearracnavov 311 
hel^a<^, Yiepbire, elire, rov crfiiKpivrjv rovrov diro 
r7]<; Alyvirrov ra')(e(D<i, tva rr}v (pXoya ravrijv 
Karacr^eay r(bv iralBcov Be rov irpea/Svrepov 

^ A-{]fxov Cobet, St)ijlou Hertlein, MSS., Ar}fxo<T04vovs Span- 
helm. '■^ T^ a/xrjpos Hertlein suggests, rhu d^/mov MSS. 



hurled him into Tartarus. So Silenus had no chance 
to say anything about him. But when Claudius 
came in Silenus began to sing some verses from the 
Knights of Aristophanes/ toadying Claudius, as it 
seemed, instead of Demos. Then he looked at Quirinus 
and said, " Quirinus, it is not kind of you to invite 
your descendant to a banquet without his freedmen 
Narcissus and Pallas. ^ Come," he went on, " send 
and fetch them, and please send too for his spouse 
Messalina, for without them this fellow is like a 
lay-figure in a tragedy, I might almost say lifeless." ^ 
While Silenus was speaking Nero entered, lyre in 
hand and wearing a wreath of laurel. Whereupon 
Silenus turned to Apollo and said, " You see he 
models himself on you." "I will soon take off that 
wreath," replied Apollo, " for he does not imitate 
me in all things, and even when he does he does it 
badly." Then his wreath was taken off and Cocytus 
instantly swept him away. 

After Nero many Emperors of all sorts came 
crowding in together, Vindex, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, 
so that Silenus exclaimed, " Where, ye gods, have ye 
found such a swarm of monarchs } We are being 
suffocated with their smoke ; for brutes of this sort 
spare not even the temple of the gods."^ Then Zeus 
turned to his brother Serapis, and pointing to Ves- 
pasian said, "Send this niggard from Egypt forthwith 
to extinguish the flames. As for his sons, bid the 

1 Knights 1111 foil. 

2 Their riches were proverbial, cf. Juvenal 1. 109 ; 14. 32. 

3 Tacitus, Annals 11. 12 ; Juvenal 10. 330 foil. 

** An allusion partly to the smoke of civil war, partly to 
the burning of the temple of Jupiter Capitoline under 
Vitellius ; the temple was restored by Vespasian ; Tacitus, 
Annals 4. 81. 


A A 2 


fi€V Trai^eLv Kekeve /lera tt}? ^ A(f)poBiT7)^ Trj<; 

TTavB'^/JbOV, TOP V€COT€pOV 8e TW ^LKeXiKO) Orjpta) 

7rapa7f\,r)(rL(o<; /cXoia> Zrfaov. iraprjXOev eirl tov- 
T0fc9 yepcov ocfidrjvac Ka\6<;' Xafiiret yap ecmv ore 

Kol iv T(p yijpCL TO KoXXo^' €VTV')^€lv TTpaOTaTOf;, 

'y^prj/marLO-aL otKaLorarof;. yBiaOrj rovrov 6 Set- B 
Xrjvb^; fcal cLTreaLcoTrrjaev. elra 6 ^Kpfirji;, 'Tirep 
Be TovTov, elirev, ovBev y/juv Xeyei<;; Nal fia 
Al, €(f>rj, fie /jL(f)0 fiat, ye vfuv t^9 aviaorriTOfi. 
TO) yap (povL/co) OrjpLO) t/jW irevre veifiavTe<; 
evtavTovf; eva fi6Xi<i eScoKare tovtg) fiaaiXevGat. 
^AXKcL firj fi€fi(j)ov, elirev 6 7iev<i' elad^co yap C 
iirl TOUTft) 7roXXov<; KayaOov^. evdecof; ovv 6 
Tpaiavof} elarjpj^ero (fiepwv eirl tmv Mficov ra 
rpoiraLa, to re reriKov /cal to TVapOiKov. IBwv 
Be avrov 6 ^eiXr)vo<i e<f)7)y Xavddveiv re dfia Ka\ 
aKovecrOai ^ovXofievo^^/' D^pa vvv tco Beairorr} Ad 
aKOTretP, otto)? 6 TavvfiyjBrjf; avrw ^povpijaerat. 

MeTa rovrov erreL(7ep')(erai ^aOelav e')((ov rrfv 
virrivrfv dvrjp ao/Sapo'i rd re aXXa fcal Brj kuI D 
fiovaiK7)v epya^6fievo<;, et? re rov ovpavov d^opoiv 
TroXXdKL<; Kal iroXvirpayfiovSiv rd diropprjra. 
rovrov be tO(ov o ZeiXrfvof: e(pr], it oe vfitv ovro<; 
6 (TO(f)iarr)<; BoKel; ficov ^Avrivoov rfjBe irept- 
(TKorrel; ^paadrco n^ avro) firj Trapelvai ro 
fieipaKLOV ev6aB\ Kal rravadrw rov Xrjpov Kal 
T^9 (f)XvapLa<; avrov. eirl rovroi,<; dvrjp el(Tep')(erai 312 
(Ta)(f)pci)v, ov rd 69 ^A^poBirrjv, dXXd rd 69 rr/v 
TToXirelav. IBcov avrov 6 XetXrjvof; etjirf, Ba/3afc 
rrj<; (TfiiKpoXoyia<^' el<; elvai fioi BoKel ra)v 
Biairpiovrcov ro KVfiivov 6 rrpea^vrrff; 0UT09. 
i7reLaeX6ov(T7)<; Be avra> rrjfi rcov dBeX^tov ^vvcopi- 



eldest ^ sport with Aphrodite Pandemos and chain the 
younger'-^ in the stocks like the Sicilian monster."^ 
Next entered an old man/ beautiful to behold ; for 
even old age can be radiantly beautiful. Very mild 
were his manners, most just his dealings. In Silenus 
he inspired such awe that he fell silent. "What!" 
said Hermes, "have you nothing to say to us about 
this man } " "Yes, by Zeus," he replied, "I blame 
you gods for your unfairness in allowing that blood- 
thirsty monster to rule for fifteen years, while you 
granted this man scarce one whole year." "Nay," 
said Zeus, " do not blame us. For I will bring in 
many virtuous princes to succeed him." Accordingly 
Trajan entered forthwith, carrying on his shoulders 
the trophies of his wars with the Getae and the 
Parthians. Silenus, when he saw him, said in a 
whisper which he meant to be heard, " Now is the 
time for Zeus our master to look out, if he wants to 
keep Ganymede for himself." 

Next entered an austere-looking man ^ with a 
long beard, an adept in all the arts, but especially 
music, one who was always gazing at the heavens 
and prying into hidden things. Silenus when he 
saw him said, " What think ye of this sophist .'' 
Can he be looking here for Antinous ? One of you 
should tell him that the youth is not here, and make 
him cease from his madness and folly." Thereupon 
entered a man^ of temperate character, I do not 
say in love affairs but in affairs of state. When 
Silenus caught sight of him he exclaimed, " Bah ! 
Such fussing about trifles ! This old man seems to 
me the sort of person who would split cumin seed."^ 

^ Titus. ^ Domitian. ^ Phalaris of Agrigentum. 

* Nerva. ^ Hadrian. ^ Antoninus Pius. 

^ A proverb for niggardliness ; of, Theocritus 10. 50. 



So9, Bt^/dou Kol AovKiov, BecvM^i 6 XeiXrivof; 
avvecTTaXr). irat^eip yap ovk el^ei' ou5' eVt- 


ra Trepl tov vlov fcal rr)v yvvacKa TroXvirpay/jLOvayv 
d/jLapTij/jLara, rr}v jiev on nrXeov rj TrpoarJKev B 
eirevdrjaev, dX\ct)<; re ovSe Kocrfxiav ovaav, rw 
he OTi rrjv ap'yr^v avvairoWv jxevrfv TrepLelSev, 
€')((ov KOL ravra airovSalov Krjhearrjv, 09 twv 
re KOiVMV av Trpovarrj Kpelrrov kol 8r) Kai rod 
7raiBb<i avTov /SeXrcov av eireiJLekrjOr] rj avTO<; 
avTOV. Kaiirep ovv ravra iToXvTrpayfJLOVoiv fjhelro 
ro /xiyeOoq avrov rrj<; dperrj^' rov ye jju-qv viea 
ovBe rod (TKCi)(f)6rjvat vofil(Ta<; d^wv a(f>rj/cev C 
emirre yap Kal avro<; et? yrju ov Bvvafi€VO<; 
XaraaOai ^ Kal irapofjbaprelv rots rjpcoo-t.v. 

^Kireiaepxerai Tiepriva^ rcb avfjUTroalo) rrjv 
a(^ayr]v oBvpofievos. rj Alkt) Be avrov KareXeij- 
aacra, 'AW* ov ')(CLLpr}aovcnv, elrrev, 01 rovrcov 
alrior Kal av Be, m Tieprlva^, rjBiKet,'; kolvcovcov 
rr}<; e7n0ov\rj<:, oaov iirl rols aKefip^aaiVy rjv 
6 MdpKOV rrals eTre^ovXevdrj. /juerd rovrov 6 D 
Xel3rjpo<;, dvrjp iriKpia'; yeficov Kal^ KoXaariKos. 
'Tirep rovrov Be, elirev 6 ^€tX7)v6<;, ovBev Xe7ft)- 
(f)ol3ov/jLac yap avrov ro Xiav drrrjve's fcac arrapai- 
rrjrov. ws Be ep^eXXev avra> Kal ra iraiBapia ^ 
avveiCTLevaL, rroppwOev avra BieKcoXvaev Mti/o)?. 
emyvov<; Be aa^M<^ rov fiev vecorepov d(f)rJKe, rov 

1 'iaraaBai Cobet, "inacTQai Hertlein, MSS. 

2 Koi before KoKa(rriK6s Hertlein suggests. 

•■' TraiZdpia Cobet, MSS., -naiMplhia Hertlein, V., m. 



Next entered the pair of brothers^ Verus ^ and 
Lucius.^ Silenus scowled horribly because he could 
not jeer or scoff at them, especially not at Verus ; 
but he would not ignore his errors of judgment in 
the case of his son ^ and his wife,* in that he 
mourned the latter beyond what was becoming, 
especially considering that she was not even a vir- 
tuous woman ; and he failed to see that his son was 
ruining the empire as well as himself, and that 
though Verus had an excellent son-in-law who would 
have administered the state better, and besides 
would have managed the youth better than he could 
manage himself. But though he refused to ignore 
these errors he reverenced the exalted virtue of 
Verus. His son however he considered not worth 
even ridicule and so let him pass. Indeed he fell to 
earth of his own accord because he could not keep 
on his feet or accompany the heroes. 

Then Pertinax came in to the banquet still 
bewailing his violent end. But Justice took pity 
on him and said, " Nay, the authors of this deed 
shall not long exult. But Pertinax, you too were 
guilty, since at least so far as conjecture went you 
were privy to the plot that was aimed at the son of 
Marcus." Next came Se verus, a man of excessively 
harsh temper and delighting to punish. "Of him," 
said Silenus, " I have nothing to say, for I am 
terrified by his forbidding and implacable looks." 
When his sons would have entered with him, Minos 
kept them at a distance. However, when he had 
clearly discerned their characters, he let the 
younger ^ pass, but sent away the elder ^ to atone 

1 Verus was the family name of Marcus Aurelius. 

2 Lucius Verus. •* Coramodus. ^ Faustina. 
^ Geta, ^ Caracalla. 



Be TrpeajSvTepov Ttficopiav eirefx^^e Tio-ovra. Ma- 313 
Kplvo^ ivravda (j)vya<i p,iai,(f)6vo(;- elra to ifc t^<? 
EyLte<J779 TracSdpiov iroppco irov rcov lepSyv airrfkav- 
vero TrepLpo\(DV. 6 ye firjv Xvpof; ^ KXe^avhpo^ 
iv eaydroi^ ttov Kadrtaro rriv avrov ava(bopdp 
iroTVLdipbevo^. Kai o ZecXrjvof; eirKTKOiTrrwv avTOv 
elirev^ 'O p^Sype /cal pukya vr)ine, Trj\cKovro<; o)v 
ovK avTo^i VPX^^ "^^^ (TeavTOV, rd 'x^prjpara Be 
€SiSov<; rfi prjrpl /cal ovk eTreiadrjf;, 6a(p KpecTTOV B 
dvdXicTKeiv rjv avra toI<; (f>i\oL(; rj 6r)aavpi^€Lv. 
'AXX' eycoye, elirev rj Alkij, Trdvra^ avTov<;, oaoi 
pberaLTiOL yeyovaai tovtwv, KoXaadrjcropevovq 
irapahdxTOi). koX ovt(d<; dveidr] to puecpdKiop. iirl 
rovTw iraprfkOev etaco TaWirjvo<; p^erd rov ira- 
Tp6<s, pev rd Secrpd t^9 al^paXcoaia<; e^coi^, 
o Be (TTokfi re Kal Ktvrjaet ')(^pa)pbevo<; puaXaKcoTepa C 
oidirep at yvvatKe<;. Kal 6 XeiXrjvb^ tt/jo? pev 

Tt9 0UT09 6 XevKoX6(^a<;, 
Upoirap 09 rjyeirat arparov; 

€(j)rj, 7r/309 Be top FaXXirjvov, 

' O9 fcal '^pvcrbv e^^cov Trdvrrf Tpv(f)a r)VTe /covprj- 

TOVTfo Be o Zcf 9 elTre t^9 eicelcre Oolvt]^ eK^rjvai. 

TouTot9 eireKTepX^Tai Y^XavBio^;, eh bv dwi- D 
3oi^Te9 01 deol 7rai/T69 rjydaOijcrdv re avrov rrj^ 
peyaXoyjrv^iaf; Kal eTrevevaav avrov rw yevei, rr)v 
dp^ijv, BiKaiov elvau vopicravre^ ovrw ^iXoirdrpi- 
Bo<; dvBp6<; eirl irXelarov elvaL ro y€vo<; ev rjye- 
pbovia. rovroi<i iireLcreBpapLev Avpr}Xtavb<; wairep 
diroBiBpdaKwv rov^; etpyovra<; avrbv irapd ra> 

1 elirev Herilein suggests, iirelTrev MSS, 


for his crimes. Next Macrinus, assassin and fugitive, 
and after him the pretty boy from Eniesa^ were driven 
far away from the sacred enclosure. But Alexander 
the Syrian sat down somewhere in the lowest ranks 
and loudly lamented his fate.^ Silenus made fun of 
him and exclaimed, " O fool and madman ! Exalted 
as you were you could not govern your own family, 
but gave your revenues to your mother : ^ nor could 
you be persuaded how much better it was to bestow 
them on your friends than to hoard them." " I 
however," said Justice, " will consign to torment all 
who were accessory to his death." And then the 
youth was left in peace. Next entered Gallienus 
and his father,^ the latter still dragging the chains 
of his captivity, the other with the dress and lan- 
guishing gait of a woman. Seeing Valerian, Silenus 
cried, "^ Who is this with the white plume that leads 
the army's van .^ " ^ Then he greeted Gallienus with, 
"He who is all decked with gold and dainty as a 
maiden." ^ But Zeus ordered the pair to depart 
from the feast. 

Next came Claudius,'^ at whom all the gods gazed, 
and admiring his greatness of soul granted the empire 
to his descendants, since they thought it just that 
the posterity of such a lover of his country should 
rule as long as possible. Then Aurelian came rush- 
ing in as though trying to escape from those w^ho 
would detain him before the judgment seat of Minos. 

^ Heliogabalus ; cf , Oration 4. 150 d, note. 

* Alexander Severus was assassinated in 235 a.d. 

^ Mammaea. 

^ Valerian died in captivity among the Persians. 

^ Euripides, Phoenissae 120. 

» Slightly altered from Iliad 2. 872. - 

' Cf. Oration l.^D. 



Mti^wi* TToXkal yap avro) o-vvLaravro BtKao twv 
dScKcov (f)6v(ov, Kol €(f>ev>y€ ra? ypa(j)a<; KaKco'i 
a7roXoyov/ji6vo<;. "HX,f09 Be ov/jio<i BeaTrorrjf; avrSt 314 
7r/909 T6 ra dWa ^or)da)V, ou% ij/cLcrra Be kol 
TT/oo? TOVTO avTO avvrjparo, <j>pdaa<; ev T0t9 Oeoif;, 
AW' aTririae rrjv BiKr^Vy tj \e\r)Oev rj BoBelaa 
Ae\(l)OL<; iiavrela 

AiK6 TrdOr) TO, T epe^e, Bifcrj k Wela yevoiTo; 

TovTfp avv€Laep')(eTaL Tlpo/So^, 09 €^Bop,7jfcovra 
7roXet9 dvacTTijcraf; ev ovBe 0X0^9 eviavTot<; enrrd B 
Kai TToWa irdvv aoo(f)povco<; olKOvop,7](Ta<;, dBuKa Be 
7re7rov6ay<^ viro rcov dOecop, ercp^dro rd re dXXa 
Kol r(p TOi'9 ^ovea<i avro) rrjv Bifcrjv eKrlaai. 
aKcoTTTeiv Be avrov 6fjLco<; XecXrjvo^ eTreipdro, 
KairoL TToWcov avrw cncoirdv TrapaKeXevo/nevcov 
aXX , tiare, e<p7], vvv yovv ot, avrov tou9 e^i^9 
(ppevcoOrjvai. ovk olaOa, ft) Upo/Se, on ra rriKpa C 
<f)dp/jLaKa fjLLyvvvre^ 01 larpol tw jjieXiKpdrw irpod- 
(pepovat; av Be au(Trr]po<; rjcrda Xiav Kal rpa')(y<i 
del etfccov re ovBapiOV' 7reTT0v9a<i ovv dBiKa fiev, 
el/cor a Be 6/jLco<;. ov yap eanv ovre Xttttwv ovre 
^oo)v dp'X^etv ovre yfiiovcov, rjKLara Be dvOpcorrcov, 
firj n Kal rcov Ke'-^aptafxevcdv avrol<^ ^vy^copovvra, 
cocnrep ead ore rol<; dadevovaiv ol larpol puKpa 
evBcBoaaiVy Xv ev roX^ p,eit,oGiv e^^coacv avrovf; D 
rn-eiOo/jLevov^;. Tt rovro, elirev 6 Aiovvao^;, w rrarr- 
TTua; <pLXoao(f)0'^ tj/jllv dvecpdv')]'^; ov ydp, o) iral, 



For many charges of unjustifiable murders were 
brought against him, and he was in flight because 
he could ill defend himself against the indictments. 
But my lord Helios ^ who had assisted him on other 
occasions, now too came to his aid and declared 
before the gods, "He has paid the penalty, or have 
you forgotten the oracle uttered at Delphi, ^ If 
his punishment match his crime justice has been 
done ' ? " 2 

With Aurelian entered Probus, who in less than 
seven years restored seventy cities and was in many 
ways a wise administrator. Since he had been un- 
justly treated by impious men the gods paid him 
honours, and moreover exacted the penalty from his 
assassins. For all that, Silenus tried to jest at his 
expense, though many of the gods urged him to be 
silent. In spite of them he called out, " Now let 
those that follow him learn wisdom from his example. 
Probus, do you not know that when physicians give 
bitter medicines they mix them with honey } ^ But 
you were always too austere and harsh and never 
displayed toleration. And so your fate, though 
unjust, was natural enough. For no one can govern 
horses or cattle or mules, still less men, unless he 
sometimes yields to them and gratifies their wishes ; 
just as physicians humour their patients in trifles so 
that they may make them obey in things more 
essential." "What now, little father," exclaimed 
Dionysus, '^'^have you turned up as our philosopher .f* " 

1 Cf . Oratio7i 4. 155 b. 

- An oracular verse ascribed to Rhadamanthus by Aris- 
totle, Nic. Ethics 5. 5. 3 ; attributed to Hesiod, Fragments 
150 Goettling ; it became a proverb. 

^ Plato, Lams 659 e ; a rhetorical commonplace ; Them- 
istius 63 B. 



€<l>rj, KoX (TV (f)i\6ao(f)0<; vir i/iov yeyova^; ovk 
oiaOa, OTL Kal o XcoKpdrrjf;, iocKcb<; ifJLoi, ra 
7rp(0T€ta Kara rrjv (f)L\oao<f)iav aTrrjviyKaTO rS)V 
Ka0* eavTov avdpooTTwv, el rdBeXcpa) iriaremt^ otl 
iaTiv dy^evhrjfi; ea roivvv r)/jLd<; firj iravra yeXola 
Xeyeiv, dWd Kal airovhala. 

"Ert hiaXeyoiJievcov avrcov 7rpo<; dWyXov;, 6 re 315 
Ka/909 ct/iia rol^i Tracer iv elacpprjaai /SovXrjOel^; et? 
TO crvfjLTroaLov direKrjXaTO irapd rrf; ALKr}<^, Kal 6 
AioKXrjTcavof;, dycov pueO^ eavTOv Ma^L/jicavd) re rob 
Bvo Kal Tov i/jLOv TrdTTTTOv KcovcTTavTiov, ev KOajJLtp 
Trporjyev. et')(^ovTO he dXXvjXwv rco %et/9e, Kal 
epdhi^ov OVK ef 6(7779, aXX' ola X^P^^ '^^'^ V^ irepl 
avTov, T(av jxev axrirep Bopvcfyopovvrcov Kal irpoOelv B 
avTOV ^ovXo/jbevcov, rod 8e etpyovro^' ovhev yap 
r]^Lov irXeoveKTelv. 009 he ^vviei Kd/j,vovro<^ eavrov, 
hov<; avTol^ diravra, oaa e^epev eirl tmv m/jlcov* 
avro<s €vXvTO<; e^dSc^ev. rjydcrOrjaav ol deol tmv 
dvhpoiv T7JV o/jLovoiav, Kal eireTpe'^^av avroc'i nrpo 
TToXXcbv irdvv KaOrjaOat. heLVM<^ he ovra tov 
M.a^i,/xLavov aKoXaarov 6 XeiXr)vo<; eTriaKcoTrrecv 
jxev OVK rj^Lov, to he tmv ^aacXecov ovk elaehex^TO C 
(TvaaiTLOV. ov yap fiovov Ta €69 ^ A(f>pohlT7]v rfv 
TTavToiav acreXyeiav dGeXyr)<^, dXXd Kal (f>iXo7rpdy- 
/jb(OV Kal diTiaTO'^ Kal ov to, irdvTa tw TeTpa^ophw 
avv(phoiv. e^TjXaaev ovv avTov rj Alktj Tax^(o<s. 
€CTa airrjXOev ovk olha oiroi 7779* eTreXaOojJi/qv yap 
avTO irapa tov Ep/jLov TroXvirpayfiovfjaac. tovtm 
he Ta> iravapfJioviw TeTpayophco irapacpveTat. heivbv 



"Why, my son," he repHed, "did I not make a 
philosopher of you ? Do you not know that Socrates 
also, who was so like me,^ carried off the prize for 
philosophy from his contemporaries, at least if you 
believe that your brother ^ tells the truth ? So you 
must allow me to be serious on occasion and not 
always jocose." 

While they were talking, Carus and his sons tried 
to slip into the banquet, but Justice drove them 
away. Next Diocletian advanced in pomp, bringing 
with him the two Maximians and my grandfather 
Constantius.^ These Tatter held one another by the 
hand and did not walk alongside of Diocletian, but 
formed a sort of chorus round him. And when they 
wished to run before him as a bodyguard he pre- 
vented them, since he did not think himself entitled 
to more privileges than they. But when he realised 
that he was growing weary he gave over to them all 
the burdens that he carried on his shoulders, and 
thereafter walked with greater ease. The gods 
admired their unanimity and permitted them to sit 
far in front of many of their predecessors. Maximian 
was so grossly intemperate that Silenus wasted no 
jests on him, and he was not allowed to join the 
emperors at their feast. For not only did he indulge 
in vicious passions of all sorts, but proved meddle- 
some and disloyal and often introduced discord into 
that harmonious quartette. Justice therefore banished 
him without more ado. So he went I know not 
whither, for I forgot to interrogate Hermes on this 
point. However into that harmonious symphony of 

^ Cf. Plato, Symposium. 215 ; cf. Julian, Oration 6. 187 a. 
2 A reference to the oracle of Apollo which declared that 
Socrates was the wisest man of his times. 
^ Cf . Oration i . 7 a, b. 


/cat rpa^v Kal Tapa^foSef; avarr^fia. Tov<i fxev ovv D 
hvo ovhe TMV irpoOvpwv ayjraadai tt}? tmv ripayayv 
ayopd<; T) AiKT} crvve'y^coprjae, Alklvlov Se fie')(^pt tmv 
irpoOvpwv iXOovra, iroWa /cal droTra TrXrjix- 
fjieXovvra ra^eo)? o M.ivco(; e^rfkaaev. 6 Kwz/- 
aravrlvof; Se iraprfkOev elarw koX irokiJv eKaOeaOrj 
')(^p6vov, elra fier avrov ra Traihia. Mayvevjlo) 
yap ovK rjv €l(7oSo<;, on firjSev vyt€<; eVeTT/ja^et, 316 
Kairoi iroWa ehoKei Treirpd'^OaL t« dvBpl KaXd' ol 
Oeol Be 6p(ovr€<;y on fir} rdvra ck Ka\rj<; avTq> 
TreTTOLTjTac 8ia6€cr€Q)<^, eicov avrov oljjbca^eiv diro- 

Ovcrrj<; Br) TOLavrrf^ rrjf; d/jbcfn rb Belirvov irapa- 
cr/cevrj<^, iiroOovv fiev ovBev ol deoi, irdvTa yap 
e^ovcnVf avrcav he tcov rjpcocov iSoKct tQ> 'Fip/jifj 
BiaTretpdcrOac, Kal Ta> Ad tovto ovk otto yvwfir}^ 
r}v. ehelro Be Kal 6 K.vpLvo<; '^Brj nvd fjuerdyeiv 
eKeWev irap eavrov. ^HpaKXrj<; Be elirev, Ovk B 
dve^o/JLai, w Kvplve' Bid rl yap ovyl Kal tov epiov 
^AXe^avBpov eirl to Belirvov irapeKaket^; aov 
TOLVvv, elirev, w Zev, Beofjuat, ei nva tovtcov 
eyvcoKa^; dyeiv 7rpb<; rj/jbd^;, rjKeiV tov ^AXe^avBpov 
KeXeve. tL yap ov)(l KOivfj tcov dvBpcov diroTreLpd)- 
fievoL Tw ffeXTLOvc TcOifieOa; BiKaia \eyeiv 6 t% 
^A\K/uL7]vr}(; eBoKec tm Ad. Kal €7retae\06vTO<f C 
avTOv T0fc9 rjpcocnv ovTe 6 Kalaap ovTe dWo<; ta9 
viraviaTaTO' KaraXa^cbv Be o-^oXdl^ovorav KaOe- 
Bpav, fjv 6 TOV ^e^Tjpov iral^ eireiroiriTO eavTw, 
€Ke2vo<; yap direXrjXaTO Bid ttjv dBeX^OKTOvlav, 


f*our there crept a terribly harsh and discordant stl'aitl. 
For this reason Justice would not suffer the two ^ so 
much as to approach the door of that assembly of 
heroes. As for Licinius, he came as far as the door, 
but as his misdeeds were many and monstrous Minos 
forthwith drove him away. Constantine however 
entered and sat some time, and then came his sons.^ 
Magnentius ^ was refused admission because he had 
never done anything really laudable, though much 
that he achieved had the appearance of merit. So 
the gods, who perceived that these achievements 
were not based on any virtuous principle, sent him 
packing, to his deep chagrin. 

When the feast had been prepared as I have 
described, the gods lacked nothing, since all things 
are theirs. Then Hermes proposed to examine the 
heroes personally and Zeus was of the same mind. 
Quirinus thereupon begged that he might summon 
one of their number to his side. "Quirinus," said 
Heracles, " I will not have it. For why did you not 
invite to the feast my beloved Alexander also ? Zeus, 
if you are minded to introduce into our presence any 
of these Emperors, send, I beg of you, for Alexander. 
For if we are to examine into the merits of men 
generally, why do we not throw open the competi- 
tion to the better man } " Zeus considered that 
what the son of Alcmena said was only just. So 
Alexander joined the company of heroes, but neither 
Caesar nor anyone else yielded his place to him. 
However he found and took a vacant seat which the 
son * of Severus had taken for himself — he had been 

^ i.e. the two Maximians, the colleagues of Diocletian. 
^ Constantine II, Constans and Constantius. 
3 Cf. Oration 1: 31, 33 foil. ^ Caracalla. 



iv€Kddt(T€. KoX 6 %€L\r]vo<; eTnaKcoTTTcov rbv Kvpl- 
vov/'Opa, elirey fjnr) irore ovtoi €p6<; elcnv^ avrd^iot 
rovTOvl Tov VpatKov. Ma Ata, ecTrev 6 K.vplvo<;f 
olfiaL 7roXA,ou9 elvat fir] ')(eipova<^. ovtco Be avrov 
ol e/jLol TedavfiaKaGLV eyyovoL, wcrre fjbovov avrov D 
eK TravTcov, oaoi 'ye'yovaciv rjyefjiovef; ^evoi, ovo- 
fid^ovo't Kol vo/jLi^ovcTL fieyav. ov fxrjv €tl kol 
TMv Trap kavTol^ yeyovoTMV otovrai p^ei^ova rov- 
Tov, X(T(a<; pev viro (f>iXavTLa<; re TTad6in6<;, tacof; Be 
Kal ovT(i)<; €')(ov' elaop^eda Be avriKa p.d\a tojp 
dvSpcov dTTOTretpcop^evoL. ravra p^dXicrra Xeycov 6 
J^vplvof; T^pvOpia, Kal 877X09 yv dycoviMV virep rcov 
diroyovwv rcov eavrov, pirj irov ra Sevrepeta 
Xa/8oz^T69 OL'x^covTat. 

Mera tovto o Z€v<} r}peTo tov<; 6eov<^, irorepov 317 
')(^pr] 7rdvTa<; iirl tov dySiva /caXeiv rj, KaOdirep iv 
T0fc9 yvpLVLKol<; dy(h(TL yiverai, 6 rov 7roXXa9 az^e\o- 
p,evov VLKa<; KpaTriaa<^, evo<i irepiyev6pevo<i, ovhev 
eXarrov Bofcel KUKelvcov yeyovevai KpeLcracov, oc 
TrpoacTrdXacaav piev ovSap,a)^ avrw, rov Kparrj- 
OevTO^ he rjTrov<; iyevovro. Kal iSoKet Trdacv rj 
Tocavrr) o'(j>68pa e/z/xeXw9 e^eiv i^erao-tfi. ckij- B 
pvTT€V ovv 6 ^ppbrjf; Trapievai ILaiaapa kol tov 
^OKTa^tavov iirl tovtw, Tpa'iavov Be Ik TpiTcov, 
C09 7roX6p,LK(OTdTov<;. elra yevopLevr)<i (ri(07rrj<i 6 
/8a(JtXeu9 }^p6vo<; ^€yjra<; et9 tov Aua davpud^eiv 
€(f)r}, TToXepbLKOV^ pbev avTOKpdTopa<; opcov eirl tov 
dycjva tovtovI koXov pievov^ , ovBeva pbevTOL <^lX6- 
ao(pov. 'E//.ofc Be, elirevy ov^ tjttov elcnv ol 
TOLOVTOi (piXoc. KaXecTe ovv ecaeo Kal tov C 

^ €v6s elaiv auTti^ioi Naber, ephs 2>aiv ovk avrd^ioi Hertiein, 
MSS. ; V omits ovk. 



expelled for fratricide. Then Silenus began to rally 
Quirinus and said, " See now whether all these 
Romans can match this one Greek." ^ "By Zeus," 
retorted Quirinus, " I consider that many of them 
are as good as he ! It is true that my descendants 
have admired him so much that they hold that he 
alone of all foreign generals is worthy to be styled 
^the Great.' But it does not follow that they think 
him greater than their own heroes ; which may be 
due to national prejudice, but again they may be 
right. However, that we shall very soon find out by 
examining these men." Even as he spoke Quirinus 
was blushing, and was evidently extremely anxious 
on behalf of his descendants and feared that they 
might come off with the second prize. 

Then Zeus asked the gods whether it would be 
better to summon all the Emperors to enter the lists, 
or whether they should follow the custom of athletic 
contests, which is that he who defeats the winner of 
many victories, though he overcome only that one 
competitor is held thereby to have proved himself 
superior to all who have been previously defeated, 
and that too though they have not wrestled with the 
winner, but only shown themselves inferior to an 
antagonist who has been defeated. All the gods 
agreed that this was a very suitable sort of test. 
Hermes then summoned Caesar to appear before 
them, then Octavian, and thirdly Trajan, as being 
the greatest warriors. In the silence that followed, 
Kronos turned to Zeus and said that he was astonished 
to see that only martial Emperors were summoned to 
the competition, and not a single philosopher. " For 
my part,'' he added, " I like philosophers just as well. 

^ Of. Plato, Laws 730 d ; Julian, Misopogon 353 d. 



Mdpfcov. iirel he /cat 6 MdpKO<; KXrjOel^; iraprfkOe, 
<r€/jLv6<; dyav, vtto rtav ttovcov g^wv rd re ofjUfiara 
Koi TO TTpoGonTTov VTTO Ti avvearoKp^evov, koXXo^ 
Be dp,rj')(^avov ev avT(p tovtco BecKvixov, ev (h irap- 
elyev eavrov aKofxy^ov /cat d/caXX(O7ri,crT0V' rj re 
rfap v'lrrjvr} ^adela iravrd^aatv tjv avro) koX rd 
Ijjbdria Xird koX a-axppova, koI vtto rr}? ivBeLa<; 
roiv rpo(f)6)v tjv avra> ro crcofia Boavyeararov kul D 
Bca^aveararov (oairep avro olfiai to KaOapcorarov 
Kal eikiKpLveararov <^co9' errel Kal ovro<i rjv etaw 
rcov lepMV irepi^oXwv, 6 Ai6vv(ro<; eiTrev, 'H 
fiaatXev Kpove Kal Zev irdrep, apa d^wv ev 
6eol<^ dreXe<!i elvai n; rcov Be ov ^apevcov, Etcra- 
ycofiev ovv nva Kal dTroXavaeco^; epaarrjv evOaBi. 
Kal 6 Zi€v<;, 'AXX' ov Oefjuirov etaco (poLrdv, elirev, 
dvBpl /JLT] rd rjfierepa ^rjXovvn. Ti,yveo-6o) roivvv, 
elrrev^ irrl rcov TrpoOvpcov, 6 Ai,6vv(to<;, avrol^ t) 
KpiGi^. aXX*, el rovro BoKel ravrrj, KaXcofJuev 318 
dvBpa ovK drroXefiov fiev, r/Bovrj Be Kal diroXavaei 
')(eLpo'r)dearepov. rjKero) ovv d')(^pi rcov wpoOvpcov 
6 K.(ovaravrlvo<;. eTrel Be iBeBoKro /cat rovro, 
rlva ')(pr] rpoTTOv avrov^ d[XiXXd(T6ai, yvoapjr] 
rrpovreOr}. Kal 6 p^ev '^pp.rjf; r)^iov Xeyeuv eKaarov 
ev p>epei irepl rcov eavrov, riOeadat Be rov<; 6eov<; 
rrjv 'y^Tj^ov, ov p^rfv eBoKec ravra rep ArroXXcovt 
KaXcof; e')(eLV' dXrjdeia<; yap elvai, Kal ov inOavo- B 
rrjro<; ovS" alpLvXia<^ ev 6eol<^ eXeyxov ical e^eraaiv. 
^ovX6p,evo<; Be 6 Zet/? dp^cporepotf; ^apt^ecr^at KaL 
dfia irpodyeiv eirl rrXeov avrol<; rrjv avvovaiav, 
OvBev, elire, KcoXvec Xeyeiv p^ev avrol^ emrpe'^ai, 
fiLKpd rod vBaro^ €7rcp,erp7]aavra<;, elra varepov 



So tell Marcus ^ to come in too." Accordingly Marcus 
was summoned and came in looking excessively 
dignified and showing the effect of his studies in 
the expression of his eyes and his lined brows. His 
aspect was unutterably beautiful from the very fact 
that he was careless of his appearance and unadorned 
by art ; for he wore a very long beard, his dress was 
plain and sober, and from lack of nourishment his 
body was very shining and transparent, like light 
most pure and stainless. When he too had entered 
the sacred enclosure, Dionysus said, " King Kronos 
and Father Zeus, can any incompleteness exist among 
the gods ? " And when they replied that it could 
not, "Then," said he, 'Het us bring in here some 
votary of pleasure as well." '^^ Nay," answered Zeus, 
" it is not permitted that any man should enter here 
who does not model himself on us." " In that case," 
said Dionysus, "let them be tried at the entrance. 
Let us summon by your leave a man not unwarlike 
but a slave to pleasure and enjoyment. Let 
Constantine come as far as the door." When this 
had been agreed upon, opinions were offered as to 
the manner in which they were to compete. Hermes 
thought that everyone ought to speak for himself in 
turn, and then the gods should vote. But Apollo 
did not approve of this plan, because he said the 
gods ought to test and examine the truth and not 
plausible rhetoric and the devices of the orator. 
Zeus wished to please them both and at the same 
time to prolong the assembly, so he said, "There is 
no harm in letting them speak if we measure them a 
small allowance of water,"^ and then later on we can 

^ Marcus Aurelius. 

^ A referen.ce to the water-clock, clepsydra. 

B B 2 


avepcdTav /cat diroireLpaaOaL tyj^ efcdarov SiavoLaf;, C 
Kal o X€LXrjvo<i iirco'icdi'mcov, 'AXX* ottg)? >u,i;, vofu- 
aavT€<; avrb ve/crap elvai, Tpaiavof; re kol ^hXe^av- 
hpo^ dirav eKpoiptjaovcTL^ to vScop, elra d(f>e\ovvraL ^ 
T0U9 aXXou9. Kol 6 Ho(T€LS(bv, Ov rovfiov vSarof;, 
elirev, aXka rov v/juerepov irdnfJbaTO^ epaarai ro) 
dvhpe iyeveaOrjv. virep tmv aeavrov rooyapovv D 
d/jL7re\(ov puaXXov r) tcov ifieov Trrjjcov a^LOV iarL 
aoL SeSiivai. koI o XeiXrjvb^; Srj'^Oel'i iaidura, kol 
Tot<i dy(ovL^opAvoi<i EK TOVTOV TOP vovv TT poa el'X^ev . 
htpfiTj^ be eKTjpvTrev' 

"Ap')(ei fjbev dycov 


ddXcov TafjLia<;, 

Kaipo<^ he KoXel 

/jbrjKerc fJueWeiv. 

dWa K\vovr€<i 

TCLv dfierepav 

KtjpvKa /Sodv 31 9 1 

ol TTplv ^aac\rj<;, 

eSvea TroWd ' 


Koi 7ro\e/jLoi(Ti, 

Sdiov €7^09 

6')]^avTe<;, ofiov 

ypa)/jL7)<; re fxeyav 

'iTLvvT6(^pova vovv, 

LT, i<;'dvTL7ra\ov 

XaTaade Kpuatv, B 

* iKpo(pi}(rov(ri Hertlein suggests, ^KpQ<p-i]ffuai MSS. 
2 d<^eAoG»'Toi Hertlein suggests, a(p4\a)VTai MSS. 



cross-examine them and test the disposition of each 
one." Whereupon Silenus said sardonically^ "Take 
care, or Trajan and Alexander will think it is nectar 
and drink up all the water and leave none for the 
others." " It was not my water/' retorted Poseidon, 
"but your vines that these two were fond of. So 
you had better tremble for your vines rather than 
for my springs." Silenus was greatly piqued and 
had no answer ready, but thereafter turned his 
attention to the disputants. 

Then Hermes made this proclamation : 

'^ The trial that begins 
Awards to him who wins 
The fairest prize to-day. 
And lo, the hour is here 
And summons you. Appear ! 
Ye may no more delay. 
Come hear the herald's call 
Ye princes one and all. 
Many the tribes of men 
Submissive to you then ! 
How keen in war your swords I 
But now 'tis wisdom's turn ; 
Now let your rivals learn 
How keen can be your words. 



ol? T€ <^povr]cnv 
deadaL ficoTi)<i, 

oh T aVTt^LOV<i 

KaKCL TToXX' ep^at 

fcal ')(^pr](TTa <j)i\ov<; 

reKfjuap ^corov 

vevofjLiaro koKov, 

0Z9 0^ r/Siarrjv 

cLTToXavaLv 6')(eLV 

rep/jLara /ii6')(0cov C 

Balrdf; re yd/jLov<; r, 

ofifjLaat reprrvd, 

fxaXaKa^i re ^epeov 

ia-Orjraf; ofMOV 


rrrepl 'X,€ipa<; dKpa<; 

■y^ekiOLaL <f>dv7) 


VLKr)<; Se T€\o<; 

Zrjvl [JbeKrjaei. 

Totavra rov '^pfjuov Kr]pvTTOVTO<; eKXrjpovvTO' D 
Kai TTft)? (TwehpafLe rfj rov<; 6 K\rjpo<; 
(f)tXo7rpcoTia. tovto eKelvov fMV eiroirjO'e yavpov 
KCLi (To^apoorepov iBerjcre Be Std tovto /xifcpov koI 
f^evyeiv ttjv Kpiav 6 ^AXe^avBpo^' dWd rrapa- 
OappvvMV avTOV 6 fxeya^ 'H.paKXrj(; eTrecr^e. Sev- 
Tepo9 Se eV eKeivcp XiyfLv e\a')(€v *A\6^avBpo<;' 
iirl Be tS)v e^r]<; ol KXrjpoi, tol<; efcdcTTov '^p6voi<; 320 
(TV/jLTrporjXdov. rjp^aTC ovv 6 K.aL(rap wBr 'E/Ltot 
fiev, 0) Zev kol 6eoi, yevkadai ev TrfKmavTr] 



Wisdom, thought some, is bUss 
Most sure in Hfe's short span ; 
Others did hold no less 
That power to ban or bless 
Is happiness for man. 
But some set Pleasure high. 
Idleness, feasting, love, 
All that delights the eye ; 
Their raiment soft and fine. 
Their hands with jewels shine. 
Such bliss did they approve. 
But whose the victory won 
Shall Zeus decide alone." ^ 

While Hermes had been making this proclamation 
the lots were being drawn, and it happened that the 
first lot favoured Caesar's passion for being first. This 
made him triumphant and prouder than before. But 
the effect on Alexander was that he almost withdrew 
from the competition, had not mighty Heracles 
encouraged him and prevented him from leaving. 
Alexander drew the lot to speak second, but the 
lots of those who came next coincided with the 
order in which they had lived. Caesar then began 
as follows : " It was my fortune, O Zeus and ye 

^ In this doggerel made up of tags of anapaestic verse, 
Julian reproduces in the first five and last two verses the 
proclamation made at the Olympic games. The first three 
verses occur in Lucian, Demonax 65. 



(Tvvi^rj TToXec fiera to(tovtov<^ dvBpa<;, caare rrjv 
/lev ocrcov ov TrcoTrore aWr) TroXt? e^aa-uXevae 
/SacTiXeveLV, rals Se dyaTrrjrov to koI to, hevrepa 
KOfJiiaaaOaL. rh yap iroXi^ airo TpLa)(iXia)P 
avSpMv ap^a/jLevT] iv ovSe 6\ol<; ereaiv e^aKoaiOL<; B 
iirl yrj'; r]\6e irepara rot? ottXok;; irola he eOvi) 
TO(TovTov<; avhpa^ ayaOov<; re kol ttoT^/jllkov^; 
'TTape(T')(eTo koX vofjLodeTiKOv<;; 6eov<; Se erip/y^aav 
oi/TO) rive^; iv Br) Toaavrrj koI rrjXiKavTr) iroXei 
y€v6/JL€vo<; ov tov<; kut ifiavrov jjlovov, aXXa kuI 
Tov(; TTcoTTore iraprjXOov to?? epyoi<;. /cat rwv 
i/jLMV fjuev TToXiTOJv ev olBa ft)9 ov8el<; avrnronjo-eral 
jjbot Tcov irp(OTeia)V' el Se ^AXe^avBpo'; ovroal C 
ToX/jba, Tiva TMV epycov tmv eavrov tol<; e'/z-ot? 
d^col TrapajSaXelv ; tcjco? rd UepcrcKa, Mcirep ov^ 
eopUKm iyrjyep/JLeva /not Tocravra Kara lio/iirr/iov 
Tpoirata; KairoL rt? hetvoTepo^ arparr/yo^ yeyove, 
Aap€Xo<; r/ TLo/jlttt/io^;; irorepw Be dvBpetorepov 
r/KoXovdec arpaTOTreSov; rd /lev ovv /iia')(^i/ia)TaTa 
TCOV Aapei(p irporepov vTraKOVovrcov eOvcov ev rfj D 
J^apcov /loipa Tlo/nrrjLo<^ el'^^ev eiro/ieva, tou? he eK 
tt}? Rvpdo7rr/<;, ot rr/v ^Aauav TroXXaKi,*; iroXe/iov 
iirdyovcrav erpeyfravro, koI rovToyv avrcjv tov<{ 
dvBpecordrovf}, ^IraXov^;, ^lXXvpi,ov<;, KeXrou?. dXX' 
eTrecBr) tcov J^cXtcov vire/ivr/aOr/v, dpa rot? TeTt/coi<; 
epyoL<^ AXe^dvBpov tt/v t?}? KeXr^/cr}? dvTLTaT- 
TO/xev KaOalpecTLv; ovto<; dira^ eTrepatcoOrj tov 
laTpov, eyco BevTepov tov 'Vr/vov Tep/JUVCKov 
av TovTO TO i/iov epyov. tovto) 8e dvTecrTr/ /lev 



other gods, to be born, following a number of great 
men, in a city so illustrious that she rules more 
subjects than any other city has ever ruled ; and 
indeed other cities are well pleased to rank as 
second to her.^ What other city, I ask, began with 
three thousand citizens and in less than six centuries 
carried her victorious arms to the ends of the earth ? 
What other nations ever produced so many brave 
and warlike men or such lawgivers ? W^hat nation 
ever honoured the gods as they did ? Observe then 
that, though I was born in a city so powerful and so 
illustrious, my achievements not only surpassed the 
men of my own day, but all the heroes who ever 
lived. As for my fellow-citizens I am confident that 
there is none who will challenge my superiority. 
But if Alexander here is so presumptuous, which of 
his deeds does he pretend to compare with mine ? 
His Persian conquests, perhaps, as though he had 
never seen all those trophies that I gathered when I 
defeated Pompey ! And pray, who was the more 
skilful general, Darius or Pompey ? Which of them 
led the bravest troops ? Pompey had in his army the 
most martial of the nations formerly subject to 
Darius,^ but he reckoned them no better than 
Carians,^ for he led also those European forces which 
had often repulsed all Asia when she invaded 
Europe, aye and he had the bravest of them all, 
Italians, Illyrians, and Celts. And since I have 
mentioned the Celts, shall we compare the exploits 
of Alexander against the Getae with my conquest of 
Gaul } He crossed the Danube once, I crossed the 
Rhine twice. The German conquest again is all my 
doing. No one opposed Alexander, but I had to^ 
1 Cf. Oration 1. 8 c. ^ Darius III. ^ ^f^ Oration 2. 66 c. 



ovBe eh, iyoj Trpo? ^ApLo/Soarov '^jcovccrdfMrjv. 321 
TrpwTO? eToXfirjcra 'Vco/jiaLcov €7n/3rjvat rrj<^ ifCTo<s 
Oa\d(T(Trj(;. koX tovto tjv tcro)? to epyov ou 6av- 
fxaarov. Kairoi rrjv roX/nav koL ravTijv a^iov 
Oav/jbdcrar dWa to jnel^ov /jlov, to diro^rjvaL rrjf; 
V6a)(; TTpoyrov /cat rov^; 'EXyQeTtoL'9 cncoTTcb kclI to 
TMV ^l^rfpayv eOvo^i. ovBevb<; €tc twv VaXaTC/cwp 
€7r€/j,v7J aOr]v, irXelv ^ rj TpLaKO(Tia<; v7rayayo/JLevo<; 
TToXei?, dvSpMV Se ovk iXdcraov^; y hiaKocna^ 
/jLvpt,dSa(;. ovTcov Se tovtcov jiioi, tolovtcov epycoVy 
€/c€Lvo fjbel^ov rjv /cat ToX/JLTjpoTCpov. i'X^p^v yap B 
yLte Kol 7r/?09 avTOV'^ StaycovL^ecrOat tov<; vroXtra? 

Kol KpaTslv TMV dfjud'^CDV KOi dviKTjTWV V(i)/JLaba)V. 

€CTe ovv TrXtjOec ti<; Kpuvei irapaTd^eoov, t/oI? 
ToaavTaKL^^ irapeTa^dp/rfv, ocrdKt^ virep AXe^av- 
8pov KOfjLTrd^ovaiv ol to, irepl avTOv creixvo- 
iroLovvTe^ , etVe TrXiqOet iroXewv al')(^iJLaX(OT(av, ov 
Trj<i 'Acrta? fiovov, dXXa kol Trj<; Evpd)7r7]<; Ta C 
TrXelaTa KaTeaTpeyjrdfjbrjv. ^AXe^av8po<s AtyviTTOv 
eiTYjXOe ^ OewpMV, iyo) 8e crv/jbTrocna avyKpoToyv 
KaTeiroXefJiTjcra. ttjv Be /meTd to KpaTrjcrai, irpao- 
TTjTa ^ovXecrOe e^eTdaai Tr)v irap e/caTepw; eyo) 
/cat Tot9 TToXefjbioi^ avveyvcDV eiraOov yovv vir 
avTMv oaa ijjbeXrjae Ty Alktj' 6 Be Trpo? toI<^ 
7roX€/uLLOL<; ovBe tmv (puXcov direcryeTO, eTi ovv D 
yjoi irepX to)v irpcoTeicov dfi(f)Lcr0^jTetv olof; re earj; 
KOL OVK avToOev KOL (TV Trapa')((i)pr}(jei^ fieTa tmv 
dXXcov, dXXa dvayKd(Tei<^ fxe Xeyeiv, oirco^i crv jxev 
e')(^prj(T(d 7rLKpa)(; (^7;/3atot9, e^oo Be tol<s E^X^eTboi<i 

m ^ 'ir\e7v Cobet, -irXeou Hertlein, MSS. 

2 iirT]\d€ Hertlein snggestSfirepirjXOe Cobet, iraprikd^ MSS. 


contend against Ariovistus. 1 was the first Roman 
who ventured to sail the outer sea.^ Perhaps this 
achievement was not so wonderful_, though it was a 
daring deed that may well command your admira- 
tion ; but a more glorious action of mine was when I 
leapt ashore from my ship before all the others. ^ Of 
the Helvetians and Iberians I say nothing. And 
still I have said not a word about my campaigns in 
Gaul, when I conquered more than three hundred 
cities and no less than two million men ! But great 
as were these achievements of mine, that which 
followed was still greater and more daring. For I 
had to contend against my fellow citizens them- 
selves, and to subdue the invincible, the unconquer- 
able Romans. Again, if we are judged by the 
number of our battles, I fought three times as 
many as Alexander, even reckoning by the boasts 
of those who embellish his exploits. If one counts 
the cities captured, I reduced the greatest number, 
not only in Asia but in Europe as well. Alexander only 
visited Egypt as a sight-seer, but I conquered her while 
I was arranging drinking-parties. Are you pleased to 
inquire which of us showed more clemency after vic- 
tory ? I forgave even my enemies, and for what I 
suffered in consequence at their hands Justice has 
taken vengeance. But Alexander did not even spare 
his friends, much less his enemies. And are you still 
capable of disputing the first prize with me ? Then 
since you will not, like the others, yield place to me, 
you compel me to say that whereas I was humane 
towards the Helvetians you treated the Thebans 

1 The " inner" sea was the Mediterranean. 
^ Caesar, De Bello Gallico 4. 25, ascribes this to the stan- 
dard-bearer of the tenth legion. 



(f)i,\av0p(O']TQ)<;; crv fxev 'yap eKeivwv KdreKavaa^; Ta<; 
TToXet?, iyo) 8e Ta<; viro tmv olfceicov ttoXltmv Kexav- 
fiiva<; TToXet? avearrja-a. Kalroi ovtl ravrov^ tjv 
fjbvpiwv TpaiKcov Kparrjcrai koX irevTeKaiBeKa fivpL- 
dSa^; i7n(f)€pofM€va(; virocrrrjvai. iroKXa elirelv e')((ov 322 
€TL irepX e/iavTOV /cat rovBe, ro) firj a')(o\r]v cuyeiv 
r)Ki(JTa TO Xeyeiv i^efieXerTjaa. Btoirep ')(pr} avy- 
yvco/jLTjv vfjLd<; e^ecv, i/c 3e tmv elprj/jLevwv kol irepX 
TCdv fir) prjdevToyp rrjv to-rjv Kal BiKaiav i^eracnv 
TTowv/jLevovf; dTroBiBovac jxol to TrpwTelov. 

ToiavTa elirovTo^ tou Kai(Tapo<i koI Xeyetv ert 
^ovXo/jL€Vov, /jLoyt^i Kal 'KpoTepov 6 ^KXe^avhpof; 
fcapTepcdv 0VK6TC KaTe(T')(6v, dXXa /jLCTa Ttz/09 
Tapa'xri^ i^oX dycovia<;, ^Kyot) Be, elirev, &> Zev Kal B 
Oeoi, fie'X^pi rtVo? dve^ojJLai atcoTry Trj<; 6pa(TVT7]T0<; 
T?}? TOVTov; Trepan; yap ovBev eaTiv, ft)9 opaTe, 
ovT€ TMV eh avTov eiraivcdv ovtc tmv et? eyu.e 
^Xaacfirj/jLOMV. ixP^^ ^^ I'cr 0)9 pbdXLCTTa /lev d/jLCpoLv 
^eiBea-dar Kal yap elvai 7r&)9 dpL^oTepa BoKei 
7rapa7rXr](7Lco^ eira'^di)' irXeov Be tov Ta/iid Bia- 
avpeiv aXXo)? re Kal jUbL/jLrjTrjv avTwv yevopLevov. 
6 Be eh TOVTO rjXOev dvai(T')(yvTia^y wcrre ToXfirjo-ai, C 
TCL dpyeTVira K(oiJb(pBelv tmv eavTOv epyoav. ixPV^ 
Be, 0) J^ataap, uirop.VTjaOrjvai, ere to)v BaKpvcov 
eKeivcov, a Tore d^rjKa^, aKpocofievof; to)v vTro/jLvrj- 
fiaTcov, oaa TreTroLTjTat irepl tcov e/iicov irpd^ecov. 
dXX^ 6 Uop^TTijiO'; eirrjpe ere p^Tct tovto, KoXa- 
Kevdeh pbev irapd tmv ttoXltcov tcov eavTov, 
yev6/jL€Vo<; Be ovBeh ovBapLov. to /nev yap D 
aTTO At/3u779 6pia/jb^evaac, ov /jLeya epyov, 

^ oUri ravrhv Hertlein suggests, rl roaovTov MSS. 


Oruelly. You burned their cities to the ground, but 
I restored the cities that had been burned by their 
own inhabitants. And indeed it was not at all the 
same thing to subdue ten thousand Greeks, and to 
withstand the onset of a hundred and fifty thousand 
men. Much more could I add both about myself 
and Alexander, but I have not had leisure to practise 
public speaking. Wherefore you ought to pardon 
me, but from what I have said and with regard to 
what I have not said, you ought, forming that de- 
cision which equity and justice require, to award me 
the first prize." 

When Caesar had spoken to this effect he still 
wished to go on talking, but Alexander, who had with 
difficulty restrained himself hitherto, now lost pati- 
ence, and with some agitation and combativeness : 
" But /," said he, " O Jupiter and ye other gods, how 
long must I endure in silence the insolence of this 
man ? There is, as you see, no limit to his praise of 
himself or his abuse of me. It would have better be- 
come him perhaps to refrain from both, since both are 
alike insupportable, but especially from disparaging 
my conduct, the more since he imitated it. But he 
has arrived at such a pitch of impudence that he 
dares to ridicule the model of his own exploits. Nay, 
Caesar, you ought to have remembered those tears 
you shed on hearing of the monuments that had 
been consecrated to my glorious deeds. ^ But since 
then Pompey has inflated you with pride, Pompey 
who though he was the idol of his countrymen was 
in fact wholly insignificant. Take his African 
triumph : that was no great exploit, but the feeble- 

^ At Gades, on seeing a statue of Alexander; cf. Sue- 
tonius, Julius Caesar 7. 



opofiacrroTaTov iirolricrev tj tmv tot€ VTrdreov 
/jLokaKia. rov BovXlkop Be i/cecvov TroXe/jbov, 
ovBe 7r/909 dvBpa<{ yevo/xevov, aWa TTpo? tov<; 
')(eLpi(TTOv^ Tcbv OLKeTOiV, oKKoL fjiev /caretpydcravTO, 
¥ipd(T<TOL Kol AovfCLOi, Tovvofjua Be KoX Tr)v iiTL'ypa- 
(j>7)v ecrx^ Yiopnrr)io<;. ^Apfievlav Be koI ra irpoa- 
oifca TavT7)(; KareiroXifJiTjae KovKOvXko^, edpidfx- 
^evae Be diro tovtcov IIo/ATrTyto?. elr e/coXaKevaav 323 
avTov ol TToXlrac Kal IS/ieyav (hvo/juaaav, ovra 
TLVo<; TMV TTpb euvTov /juei^ova; ri yap eKeivw 
TOcrovTov eirpd')(6r), rjXiKOV yiapiw r) '^KYjiriccxTL 
T0t9 Bvo rj Tft) irapa top K.vpLvov rovrovl ^ovpi(p, 
09 fxiKpov avp/rrecrovcrav ttjv tovtov ttoXlv dvearrj- 
aev; ovroi yap ovfc dXXorpiOL^ epyoi^, coairep 
ev iroXiTLKal^ olfcoBo/jLLai<i Kal BaTravtjfiacriv vir 
dXX(ov Kara^rjOetaacfi Kal e7rcTeXeaOec(Tai<i ere- B 
po<; dp'X^cov e7reypd(f>r) fxiKpa Kovidaa^; rov Tol')(pv, 
ovTco ral^ aXXorpiai^; e7reypd(f)7]crav irpd^eaiv 
dp'^CTeKTOve^ Be avTol Kal BrjfiLovpyol yevofxevot 
rdv KaXXuarcov ^^Lcodrjo'av ovopbdrcov. ovBev ovv 
davpiaGTOv, el KCKpdrrjKa^ YiopLirrjiov BaKTvXfp 
Kvayp^evov Kai raXXa aXooireKO^ puaXXov tj XeovTO^. 



ness of the consuls in office made it seem glorious. 
Then the famous Servile War ^ was waged not 
against men but the vilest of slaves, and its suc- 
cessful issue was due to others, 1 mean Crassus and 
Lucius,^ though Pompey gained the reputation and 
the credit for it. Again, Armenia and the neigh- 
bouring provinces were conquered by Lucullus,^ yet 
for these also Pompey triumphed. Then he became 
the idol of the citizens and they called him ^ the 
Great.' Greater, I ask, than whom of his prede- 
cessors ? What achievement of his can be compared 
with those of Marius * or of the two Scipios or of 
Furius,^ who sits over there by Quirinus because he 
rebuilt his city when it was almost in ruins ? Those 
men did not make their reputation at the expense of 
others, as happens with public buildings built at the 
public expense ; I mean that one man lays the 
foundation, another finishes the work, while the last 
man who is in office though he has only whitewashed 
the walls has his name inscribed on the building.^ 
Not thus, I repeat, did those men gain credit for the 
deeds of others. They were themselves the creators 
and artificers of their schemes and deserved their 
illustrious titles. Well then, it is no wonder that you 
vanquished Pompey, who used to scratch his head 
with his finger-tip '^ and in all respects was more of a 

^ Led by Spartacus 73-71 B.C. ; Appian, Civil Wars I. 
116-120. '^ Lucius Gellius ; Plutarch, Crassus. 

^ Licinius Lucullus the conqueror of Mithridates. 

* Caius Marius the rival of Sulla. 

** FuriusrCamillus repulsed the Gauls 390 B.C. ; cf . Oration 
1. 29d. « Cf. Letter to Themistiiis, 267 b. 

■^ A proverb for effeminacy ; cf. Plutarch, Pompeius 48 ; 
Juvenal 9. 133, qui digito scalpunt uno caput ; Lucian, The 
Jihetoriciuii' s Guide Al. 



iireiBr) yap avrov rj TV')(r) 'irpovSco/cei^, r} top e/ii- 
irpoaOev ')(^p6vov avrw Trapeiary/cei, ra^^^ecof; cKpa- 
Tr](Ta<; p^ovov. koX on Scivottjtl p,€v ovhep^ta 
Kpeirrwv iyevov, (f)avep6v' koI yap iv evheia ^ 
yeyovco^ ^ rwv iTrcrySetcov can Be ov p^iKpov, 
ft)9 olaOa, TOVTO dp^dpTrjp^a arpaTr)yov' teal P'fJ'XV 
(Tvp^^aXwv r)Tr^Or}<^. el Se Ilop.7njio<; vir a<^po- 
avvr]<i re kuI dvoia<; rj rov pbr) BvvaaOac tmv 
ttoXltcov ap^eiv ovre, rjVLKa eScL rpi^eiv rov 
TToXepov, vTreperidero ttjv p^d^rjv ovre rfj vlkt] ^ 
VLKOiv eire^yeL, vtto toI<; OLK€Lot<^ dp,aprrjp,acn 
Kol ov^ VTTO TOL^; (TOL<; e(T(f)aX'r) (jTpaTr)yr)p,aai. D 

YiepaaL he 7ravra')(^ov /caXw? kuI (f)povLp.Q)<^ irape- 
GKevaa-pbevoi irpb^ ttjv r}p,€T€pav (i\kt)v evehoaav, 
eirel Be ov rov irpaTTeiv aTrXw?, aXka fcal rov 
TCL Bifcaia Trpdrrecv dvSpa dpiarov Kal ^acnXea 
irpoa-rjKei p^eraTroieladaL, eyco p,ev virep twv 
^iKk'qvcDV Tov^ Hepaaf; diryTTjcra BLktjv, fcal rov^i 
*KXXr}vt/cov<; TToXeyLtou? eiraveCkop/r^Vy ov')(l ryv 
'KWdSa Xvirelv ySofXo/iet'o?, dWd tov(} kco- 
Xvovrdf; fie Bia^aiveiv Kal Bi/ca^ diraireiv rov 
Hepcrrjv eTriKOTrrcov. ait Be rou? Tepp.avov<i Kal 324 
raXdTa<i KaTe7ro\ep,'r]aa<;, eirl rrjv TrarpiBa ttjv 
aeavTOv 7rapacrKeva^6p.evo<;, ov ri yevoir av ')(elpov 
rj fiiapcorepov; eirel Be axrirep Biaavpcop tmv 
p,vpi(ov efjLvr)p,6vevaa<i TpaiKMV, ore p.ev Kal vp.el<i 
evrevOev yeyovare Kal rd TrXelara rrj^; 'IraXta? 
wK7]aav ol TpaiKOi, Kaiirep elB(o<; o/xw? ov irapa- 
Be^ofiai, TOVTcov Be avrcov oklyov edvo<;, Alrcokov^ 


59 D 


^ 7670VC0J Petavius, Naber, •yk'^ovas Hertlein, MSS. 

'^ Tp viKTji before vikS>v Hertlein suggests ; cf. Oration i. 


fox than a lion. When he was deserted by Fortune 
who had so long favoured him, you easily overcame 
him, thus unaided. And it is evident that it was not 
to any superior ability of yours that you owed your 
victory, since after running short of provisions ^ — no 
small blunder for a general to make, as I need not 
tell you — you fought a battle and were bqaten. And 
if from imprudence or lack of judgment or inability 
to control his countrymen Pompey neither postponed 
a battle when it was his interest to protract the war, 
nor followed up a victory when he had won,^ it was 
due to his own errors that he failed, and not to your 

The Persians, on the contrary, though on all occa- 
sions they were well and wisely equipped, had to 
submit to my valour. And since it becomes a virtu- 
ous man and a king to pride himself not merely on 
his exploits but also on the justice of those exploits, 
it was on behalf of the Greeks that I took vengeance 
on the Persians, and when 1 made war on the Greeks 
it was not because I wished to injure Greece, but 
only to chastise those who tried to prevent me from 
marching through and from calling the Persians to 
account. You, however, while you subdued the Ger- 
mans and Gauls were preparing to fight against your 
fatherland. What could be worse or more infamous ? 
And since you have alluded as though insultingly to 
' ten thousand Greeks,' I am aware that you Romans 
are yourselves descended from the Greeks, and that 
the greater part of Italy was colonised by Greeks ; 
however on that fact I do not insist. But at any rate 
did not you Romans think it very important to have 

^ At Dyrrhachiuni ; Plutarch, Julius Caesar. 
2 An echo of Plutarch, Apophthegmata 206 d. 




\ey(o T0U9 irapoLKOvvrafi rj/juv, ov (f)l\ov<i fiev B 
€')(eLV fcal av/jifid')(^ov<; eiroirjaaaOe irepl ttoWov, 
7ro\€/ji(i)06VTa<; Se v/juv varepov Bl aaBrjiroTe 
alrla^; ovk aKtv8vuco<i viraKoveLV v/jllv '^vayKdaare; 
ol Se 77/309 TO yrjpa^;, ca? av etiroi rt?, t?}? 
'EWttSo?, KoX ovSe 7rda7]<;, dXX' eOvovf; fiL/cpov, 
rjvLKa iJKfjbaQe to htKXrjVLKov, ovo on ecrri 
yiyiwaKOfJievov, fJuiKpov Seco ^dvac, /jLoyif; dp/ce- 
(Tavre^;, rive^ dv iyevecrde, el TT/ao? aKfid^ovrat; C 
Koi o/jLOvoovvra^ rovf; ^^FiWrjva^ TroXep-elv vjid^ 
iSerjaev; eirel fcal Uvppov hia^dvT0<i 6^' t'/xa? 
tare 07r<w9 eTrrrj^are. el Be ro Uepacov Kparrjaat 
jjbiKpov pofii^ei^; KoX to ttjXlkovtop epyov Biacrvpec^, 
oXiyr)^ irdw r?}? VTrep top TiyprjTa iroTafjuov 
VTTO UapOvaicov ffa(Ti,\€vo/j,ev7]<i ')(oi)pa^, cttj irXeov 
rj TpiaKoaia TToXefiovvTe^, Xeye p,0L, Sc fjv alTiav 
OVK cKpaTijauTe; ^ovXei aot <^pda(o; tu UepaMv D 
uyLta? elp^e ^eXrj. <J)paardT(o Be croi ire pi avTCOV 
^ApT(oviO<i ^ 6 7racBoTpt^7}6el<; eirl cTTpaTyyia irapd 
aov. eyed Be ev ovBe oXoc^; eviavTol^ Be/ca 7rpo<i 
TovTOL<; fcal ^IvBcov yeyova Kvpio^. eiT ifxoX 
ToX/jba<; dfi(j)La0r}T€tv, 09 i/c TraiBapiov aTpaTTjy&v 
epya eirpa^a TrjXLKavra, waTe ttjv fjbV')]fjLr]v, Kaiirep 
OVK d^L(o<; VTTO Tcov avyypa<f)e(ov v/jbvr)devT(ov, 
ofjLco^ ^ av/jLTrapa/jbeveLv Ta> ^i(p, KaOdirep tmv 325 
Tov Y^oXXlvLkov, tov/jlov ^aaLXe(o<i, ov Oepdircov 
iyo) Kol ^r)Xo}Tr)<i eyevo/iTjv, ^AyoXXei puev dfitX- 
Xcofievo^ T(p Trpoyovcpy ^HpaKXea Be Oav/jud^cov 
Kol e7r6/iievo<i, UTe Br) KaT '[^(yo^; Oeov dvOpco7ro<;. 

^ 'Avrdvios Cobet rejects, since Julian prefers to substitute 
descriptive phrases for names. 

2 V^i Cobet, (ifius Se Hertlein, MSS. 



as friends and allies one insignificant tribe of those 
very Greeks, 1 mean the Aetolians, my neighbours ? 
And later, when you had gone to war with them for 
whatever reason, did you not have great trouble in 
making them obey you ? Well then, if in the old 
age, as one may say, of Greece, you were barely able 
to reduce not the whole nation but an insignificant 
state which was hardly heard of when Greece was in 
her prime, what would have happened to you if you 
had had to contend against the Greeks when they were 
in full vigour and united ? You know how cowed you 
were when Pyrrhus crossed to invade you. And ii 
you think the conquest of Persia such a trifle and 
disparage an achievement so glorious, tell me why, 
after a war of more than three hundred years, you 
Romans have never conquered a small province 
beyond the Tigris which is still governed by the 
Parthians ? Shall I tell you why ? It was the arrows 
of the Persians that checked you. Ask Antony to 
give you an account of them, since he was trained 
for war by you. I, on the other hand, in less 
than ten years conquered not only Persia but India 
too. After that do you dare to dispute the prize 
with me, who from childhood have commanded 
armies, whose exploits have been so glorious that 
the memory of them — though they have not been 
worthily recounted by historians — will nevertheless 
live for ever, like those of the Invincible Hero,^ my 
king, whose follower I was, on whom I modelled 
myself ? Achilles my ancestor I strove to rival, but 
Heracles I ever admired and followed, so far as a 
mere man may follow in the footsteps of a god. 

* Heracles. 

c c 2 


"Otra fjL^v ovv ixpfjv, o) deol, tt/oo? tovtov 
airoXoyrjaacrdai' KairoL /cpelrrov 'qv vTrepcSetv 
avTov' etprjrat. el Be rt, iriKpov v(f>^ rjp^oyv B 
eTrpd'X^Orj, ovri TravrdiraaLV eh dvaniovf; dvOpw- 

TTOf?, aXXo. Tj TToWaKL^ Kol eTTL TToXXot? TT/OOO"- 

KpovcravTa<; r} to) Katpo) p,7} fca\(o<; pijSe irpe- 
TTOVTW^ ^(^prjcrap^evovf;, r^KokovOr^cre yovv eirl pev 
roh Bid TOP Kaipov e^apaprrjOelcnv rj p^erapekeia, 
ar(o(f>pcov irdvv koX tmv e^rjpaprrjfcorojv acareipa 
Baipbwv, Tou? Be Sawep (fyiXortpovp^ivovf; eirl C 
TO) 7roWdKi<i d'Tre')(6dve(j9ai, koX irpoaKpovecv 
ovBev (pp/qv dBiKOv iroielv /coXd^wv. 

'ETTCfc Be etprjro Koi rovrw arpuTLcoTiKcoTepov 
6 X0709, eVl TOP ^Ofcraffiavov rrjv vBpiav €<f}epev 
6 Tov UoaeoBcoPOf; Oepdircovy eiripLerpoiv avrat 
Tov vBaTO<; eXaaaov Bid tov Kavpov, dXXox; re 
Kol pvrjo-i/caKcbv avTa> rrjq eh tov Oeov VTreprj- 
(f)avLa<;. fcal 09 eTreiBr) avvrjKev vno ay^fz/ota?, D 
d(j)eh TO Xeyetv tl rrepl toov dXXoTplcov, '£70) 
oe, ecirev, (o nev /cat, veoi, tov ocacrvpeiv pev tu 
T(f)v dXXayv epya Koi piKpd iroielv d(f)e^opai, irepX 
Be tS)v epavTOv tov irdvTa 7roi7](Top,aL Xoyov. veo^ 
TrpovaTTjv T779 epavTOV TroXeoi)? oiicnrep ovro^ 6 
j€vva2o<; ^AXe^avBpo^, KUTcopOcoaa Be VeppxtviKovf; 
TToXepovf; Mairep 6 eph<; TraTrjp ovrocrl K-aiaap. 326 
avpLirXaKeh Be Toh epL^vXioL^ dywcnv AcyvTTTov 
puev irepl to ^Aktwv KaTevavp^d^rjaa, UpovTOv 
Be fcal K.daa'cov irepX tov<; ^iXiirirov'^ KaTeiroXe- 
p>rj<ra, koX tov Tlopuirrjiov TralBa Se^Tov irdpepyov 



" Thus much, ye gods, I was bound to say in my 
own defence against this man ; though indeed it 
would have been better to ignore him. And if some 
things I did seemed cruel, I never was so to the 
innocent, but only to those who had often and in 
many ways thwarted me and had made no proper or 
fitting use of their opportunities. And even my 
offences against these, which were due to the emer- 
gency of the time, were followed by Remorse, that 
very wise and divine preserver of men who hav« 
erred. As for those w^hose ambition it was to show 
their enmity continually and to thwart me, I con- 
sidered that I was justified in chastising them.' 

When Alexander in his turn had made his speech in 
martial fashion, Poseidon's attendant carried the 
water-clock to Octavian, but gave him a smaller allow- 
ance of water, partly because time was precious, but 
still more because he bore him a grudge for the dis- 
respect he had shown to the god.^ Octavian with his 
usual sagacity understood this, so without stopping to 
say anything that did not concern himself, he began : 
*^ For my part, Zeus and ye other gods, I shall not 
stay to disparage and belittle the actions of others, 
but shall speak only of what concerns myself. Like 
the noble Alexander here I was but a youth when I 
was called to govern my country. Like Caesar 
yonder, my father,"^ I conducted successful campaigns 
against the Germans. When I became involved in 
civil dissensions I conquered Egypt in a sea-fight 
off Actium ; I defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi : 
the defeat of Sextus, Pompey's son, was a mere 

^ Suetonius, Augustus 16 ; during the campaign against 
Pompey when the fleet of Augustus was lost in a storm, he 
swore that he would win in spite of Neptune. 

2 Augustus was Julius Caesar's nephew, and his son only 
by adoption. 



iO^/jLTjv Trj<; ifiavTOV arparrj'yia'i. ovtw S^ 7rapea")(pv 
ifiavrbv t§ ^L\oao(f)la yeiporjOrj, atcrre koX ttj^ 
' A6r]vo8(opov irapprjaCaf; 7)vea')(piM7)v, ovk dyavuK- 
Twy, a\X' €v(f)paivofi6vo'i iir avrfj, kcli tov dvSpa B 
KaOdirep iraiSaycoyov rj irarepa /jloXXov alSov- 


€7nypd(f>ofiac, koX o\(o<^ ovSev icrriv vcj)' r)p,($iv et? 
Tr)v (fnXoaoipiav dfiaprrjOev. viro Se tS)V ifi- 
(fivXlcou crrdaecov Tr)v Vco/j/rjv opcov eh tov ^ 
eax^Tov iXavvovaav iroXXaKifi klvSvvov ovt(o 
Btede/jurjv to, irepl avTTjVj Mare elvac, el fir) Bi 
v/jbd<i, 0) 6eoi, TO Xolttov dSafjbavTLvrjv. ov yap C 
rah dp,€Tpoi<i iinOvfilai'; eiKcov eTriKraaOaL nrdv- 
Tc«)9 avrfj BcevoyOrjVy opia he BiTrd, &(T7rep xnro 
TTJ<; ^u<T€ft)9 diroBeSecyfjLeva,^ "lorrpov kol Ey- 
(jipdrrjv 7rora/jLOV<i iOefirjv. elra vTrord^a^; rb 
%Kv6S)v /cat %paK(t)v eOvo^, eTrtp^erpovvrwv v/jlcov 
rrj<; ffacrcXeia^; jjlol tov ')(p6vov, ov TroXe/jbov dXXov 
i^ dXXov TTepLecTKOTrovv, dXXd et? vofioOecriav Koi 
TMv CK TOV TToXefiov (TVfjb^opMv iiravopdcixnv Tr)v D 
(T'^oXrjv SieriOe/jiTjv, ovBevb^; vo/xi^cov tS)v irpo ep,av- 
Tov ')(^€tpov /Se^ovXevcrOat, p,dXXov Be, el ^p?; Oap- 
pTjcravTa (jidvai, Kpecaaov tc!)v TTcoiroTe TrjXiKavTa'^ 
r)y€/JL0Via<i eTTLTpoTrevadvrcov. at fiev yap rah 
arparriyiaLfi evaTreOavov, i^ov Xolttov r)av')(^d^eLV ^ 
xal fiTf crrpareveaOaL, TroXep^ovs €k rroXepcov 
eavroh, Mairep ol (^CXott pay pove<; BiKa<; Kara- 
(TKevd^ovref;' ol Be Kal 7roXep.ovp.evoi, rf) rpv(l)ff 327 
7rpoaei)(Ov, ov p,6vov rrj<; perd ravra ev/cXeLa<; rrjv 

^ rhv Hertlein wonld add. 

^ aiToSeSeiy/xeva Cobet, airoSeSofxeva Hertlein, MSS. 

^ 7i(TvxdCfiu Reiske adds. 



incident in my campaign. I showed myself so gentle 
to the guidance of philosophy that I even put up 
with the plain speaking of Athenodorus,^ and instead 
of resenting it I was delighted with it and revered 
the man as my preceptor, or rather as though he 
were my own father. Areius - I counted my friend 
and close companion, and in short I was never guilty 
of any offence against philosophy. But since I saw that 
more than once Rome had been brought to the verge 
of ruin by internal quarrels, I so administered her 
affairs as to make her strong as adamant for all time, 
unless indeed, O ye gods, you will otherwise. For I 
did not give way to boundless ambition and aim at 
enlarging her empire at all costs, but assigned for it 
two boundaries defined as it were by nature herself, 
the Danube and the Euphrates. Then after con- 
quering the Scythians and Thracians I did not 
employ the long reign that you gods vouchsafed me 
in making projects for war after war, but devoted my 
leisure to legislation and to reforming the evils that 
war had caused. For in this I thought that I was 
no less well advised than my predecessors, or rather, 
if I may make bold to say so, I was better advised 
than any who have ever administered so great an 
empire. For some of these, when they might have 
remained quiet and not taken the field, kept making 
one war an excuse for the next, like quarrelsome 
people and their lawsuits ; and so they perished in 
their campaigns. Others when they had a war 
on their hands gave themselves up to indulgence, 

^ A Stoic philosopher; cf. pseudo-Lucian, Long Lives 21. 
23; Suetonius, AKyimlus ; Dio Chry-iostom 33. 48. 

2 Letter 51. 4H4: A ; Letter to Themisfiu.'^ 265 c; Themistius 
63 D. . 



aLa')(pav Tpv(f)r)v 7rpoTt/jL(avT€<;, dWa koX tt}? 
aa)T7]pLa<; avTr]<f. eyco fjL6v ovv ravra Bcaiwov/xevo^ 
ovK d^iM Trj<i ^(eipovo^i i/iavrov /i€pL8o<;' o, rt, 8' 
av v/jLtv, 0) Oeoi, ^aivrjTat^ rovro cIko^ iarcv e/M 
hrjTTovdev crrepyeiv. 

AiBorai ixera tovtov tw Tpaiavo) rod Xeyeiv 
i^ovcna. o Be, Kanrep hwafxevo^ \eyeLv, vtto 
paOvfiia^' eTTiTpeiTeLV yap eldiOei ra iroXka tm B 
^ovpa ypd(p6Lv virep avrov' <^deyy 6 fxevo^i jjudWov 
rj Xiycov, eireBeiKwev avrotf; to re Tercfcov teal to 
UapOi/cbv TpoiraLov. yriaTO Be to yrjpa^ co? ov/c 
iiTLTpe'y^av avTa> toc'; TiapOiKol^i Trpdy/Jbaatv iire^- 
ekOelv. KOI 6 ^eiXrjvo^iy 'AXX', w fidraLe, 6<^r), 
eiKOGi ^e^acriXevKa^ 6T7), ^AXe^avSpo^; Be ovr'ocrl 
BcoBeKa. TL ovv a^et? alTidadai Trjv aavTOv 
Tpv(f)r}V Tr)v Tov )(^p6vov [xefK^r} arevoTijTa; irap- 
o^vvOelfy ovv VTTO TOV a/cco/jL/biaTO's, ovBe yap rfv C 
e^o) TOV BvvaaOai prjropeveLV, vtto Be t?}? <f)iXo- 
TToaia^ dfi^XvTepo'^ eavTOv 7roWdKi<; rjVy 'Eyw 
Be, elirev, o) Zev Kal Oeoi, ttjv dp^rjv irapaXa^cov 
vapKwaav o^anrep Kal BidXeXvfievrjv vtto re t?}? 
oXkoi iroXvv ')(^p6vov e7rcKpaTr)adar)<^ TvpavviBo<; 
Kal T?}9 tcovTgtcov v^pecofi, fJLOvo^ vrrep Tov"laTpov D 
eToX/jLTjaa irpoaXa^elv eOvr), Kal to TeTMV eOvo<; 
e^elXov, 6i tcov TTocuroTe . fxa'x^iiJbWTaTOi yeybvaaiv, 
ovx ^TTO dvBpeia^i jjlovov tov aaofjuaTo^;, dXXd Kal 
o)V eweiaev avTOv<} 6 Ti/jLcofjLevo^; Trap' avTol<; Zd- 
/jloX^l<;. ov yap diroOvrjCTKeiv, d'KXd fieTOiKi^ecrOai 

V0/ULi^0VT€9 eTOlflOTepOV aVTO TTOlOVCriV 7} dXXoi ^ 

Td<; diroB'r][jbia<; vTvopAvovaiv. eirpd')(d'r) Be jjloi to 
^ &\\oi Reiske adds. 


and preferred such base indulgence not only to 
future glory but even to their personal safety. When 
I reflect on all this I do not think myself entitled to 
the lowest place. But whatever shall seem good to 
you^ O ye gods, it surely becomes me to accept with 
a good grace." 

Trajan was allowed to speak next. Though he had 
some talent for oratory he was so lazy that he had 
been in the habit of letting Sura write most of his 
speeches for him ; so he shouted rather than spoke, 
and meanwhile displayed to the gods his Getic and 
Parthian trophies, while he accused his old age 
of not having allowed him to extend his Parthian 
conquests. '' You cannot take us in," said Silenus ; 
" you reigned twenty years and Alexander here only 
twelve. Why then do you not put it down to your 
own love of ease, instead of complaining of your short 
allowance of time .^ " Stung by the taunt, since he 
was not deficient in eloquence, though intemperance 
often made him seem more stupid than he was, 
Trajan began again. "O Zeus and ye other gods, 
when I took over the empire it was in a sort of 
lethargy and much disordered by the tyranny that 
had long prevailed at home, and by the insolent 
conduct of the Getae. I alone ventured to attack 
the tribes beyond the Danube, and I subdued the 
Getae, the most warlike race that ever existed, which 
is due partly to their jjhysical courage, partly to the 
doctrines that they have adopted from their admired 
Zamolxis.^ For they believe that they do not die 
but only change their place of abode, and they meet 
death more readily than other men undertake a 
journey. Yet I accomplished that task in a matter 

^ Cf. 309c, Oration 8. 244 a and note. 



epyov TOVTO iv imavrot^; ta(o<; ttov irevre, irdvrwv 
he on TOiv irpo ifiavrov^ yeyovorcov avroKparopcop 328 
w(f)drjv TOt<; v7rr]K6oi<; irpaorarof; fcal ovre K.aLaap 
ovToal irepl tovtcov d/jL<f)ia^r)T'^aetev dv /not ovr 
aXXof; ovBe et?, evBrjXov iari ttov. Trpo^i Tlap- 
Ovaiov^ Be, irplv piev dhiKelaOai rrap avroyv, ovk 
o)/jl7jv Belv 'X^prjaOac toI<s ottXo^?* dhiKOixn Be 
eTre^rjXdov ovBev vtto Trj<; rfKiKia'; KwXvOei^y KaLTOi 
BlBovtcov piOL TOiv vopbwv TO pLTj (TrpareveaOai. 
TOVTCOV Bt) tolovtcov ovtcov, dp" ov')(l KOLi TtpbdaOat, B 
nrpo TCdv dXkwv elpX BiKaio<;, irpao^ piev 7rpo<; tov<; 
virriKoov^, ^o^epo^ Be irpo^ tov^; 'JTo\epbiov<^ Bta- 
(f)€p6vTC0<; yevopuevof;, alBecrdel^; Be kol ttjv vpeTepav 
eKyovov ^ (piXoaocf^lav; TotavTa o Tpaiavo<; eiiroav 
eBoKei Tjj TrpaorrjTi irdvTcov KpaTelv, fcai BrjXot 
TTft)? rjaav ol Oeol pudXiaTa r)aOevTe<; eirl tovtw. 

ToO Map/^of Be dp'X^opbevov Xeyeiv, 6 ^et\r)vo<; 
rjpepba 7r/oo9 tov Aiovvcrov, ^AKovacopbev, ecprj, tov Q 
^TCOLKov TOVTOvi, TL TTOTe dpa TMV TTapaBo^cov 
eK€LV(ov epel koX TepaaTicov BoypbdTcov. o Be diro- 
/^Xe-v/ra? 7r/)09 tov Aua /cal tou9 6eov^, ^AX\ 
epLotye, elirev, m ZeO teal deoi, Xoycov ovBev Bel kol 
dycovo^. el pbev yap r/yvoelTe Tcipud, TrpoarJKov rjv 
epuol BiBdcTKeLV vp^d^;' eirel Be tcTTe koX XeXrjdev 
vpLd<s TMV djrdvTcov ovBev, avToi puoi TipuaTe t^9 D 
d^la'^. eBo^e Brj ovv 6 y[dpK0<; ra re dXXa 

^ 4/xavTou Hertlein suggests, i/xov MSS. 
2 eKyovov Wright, ^yyovov Hertlein, MSS, 



of five years or so. That of all the Emperors who 
came before me ^ I was regarded as the mildest in 
the treatment of my subjects, is, I imagine, obvious, 
and neither Caesar here nor any other will dispute it 
with me. Against the Parthians I thought I ought 
not to employ force until they had put themselves in 
the wrong, but when they did so I marched against 
them, undeterred by my age, though the laws would 
have allowed me to quit the service. Since then 
the facts are as I have said, do I not deserve to be 
honoured before all the rest, first because I was so 
mild to my subjects, secondly because more than 
others I inspired terror in my country's foes, thirdly 
because I revered your daughter divine Philosophy?" 

When Trajan had finished this speech the gods 
decided that he excelled all the rest in clemency ; 
and evidently this was a virtue peculiarly pleasing to 

When Marcus Aurelius began to speak, Silenus 
whispered to Dionysus, " Let us hear which one of 
his paradoxes and wonderful doctrines this Stoic will 
produce." But Marcus turned to Zeus and the other 
gods and said, " It seems to me, O Zeus and ye other 
gods, that I have no need to make a speech or 
to compete. If you did not know all that concerns 
me it would indeed be fitting for me to inform you. 
But since you know it and nothing at all is hidden 
from you, do you of your own accord assign me such 
honour as I deserve." 

Thus Marcus showed that admirable as he was in 
other respects he was wise also beyond the rest, 

^ For this idiom cf. Milton, Paradise Lout 4. 324. 
"Adam the goodliest of men since born 
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve." 



Oavfidcrco^ Tt9 elvai koX ao(f>6<; 8t.a<f)€povr(o^ are 
oljJLai SiaytvaxTKcov, 

Aeyetv ff ottov xPV '^^^ crcydv ottov koXov. 

T^ K.eov(rravTivw fiera rovrov Xeyecv iire- 
rpeiTOV. 6 he irporepov fiev eOdppei rrjv dywviav. 
©9 Zk cLTrepXeTTev eU tcl twv dXXcov epya, fjuKpa 
iravrdiracriv elSe rd eavTOv. Bvo yap rvpdvvov<^, 329 
el ye ypV TdXrjdrj (^dvai, KaOyprjKei, rov fxev 
diroXefMov re koX fiaXaKov, rov he ddXiov re koI 
hid TO yrjpa^i dadevrj,^ d/jbcporepco he 6eol<; re koX 
dvdpcoTTotf; eyjdicrTa). rd ye /jltji' eh tou9 /3ap- 
^dpov^i rjv yeXola avro)- (f)6pov<; yap (acrirep 
irereXeKec,^ koX 7rpo9 rr)v Tpv(f>r)v a(l)€(opa' iroppco 
he elcrrrjKei rcov 6ea)V avrr] irepl rd irpodvpa rijf; 
^eXr)V7)<;' epcoTiKO)^; re ovv eZ^ei^ avrrjf;, Kal 0X09 
7rpo9 €K€iV7]v ^XeTTcov ovhev efieXev avrw irepl Trj<; B 
VLKr)<;.^ CTrel he ixPV^ ^^*' ctvrbv elirelv ri, Tavrrj 
rovTWv fcpeLTTcov, 6(f)7j, eljjLi, Tov M.aK€h6vo<; fjuev, 
on 7r/309 ^Vct)jiiaLov<; Kal rd VepjxavLfcd Kal %kv- 
diKd yevrj Kal ou'^l 7rpo9 to 1)9 ^ Act cava v^ ^ap- 
^dpov<i rjycovKrd/jLrjv, Kaiaapof; he Kal OKra- 
^lavov r<p /jlt), KaOdirep ovroi, nrpo^ KaXov<; 
KayaOov^ iroXira^i araaidaai, Tot9 fiiapwrdrotf; 
he Kal TrovypordroLf; tmv rvpdvvcov i'jre^eXOe'lv. 
Tpalavov he roh p^v Kard rcov rvpdvvcov dvhpa- G 
ya6riiJLa(Tiv ecKOTco^; dv Trpori/jirjOeiiji', rw he 7)v 
ovro<i irpoaeKTrjo-aro yaapav dvaXa^elv Lao<; dv 
ovK dTrecKOTcof; vopLi^oip,i]V, el p,r) Kal p^el^ov iart 

^ aadevrj Sylburg adds. 

^ After ir€T€\4Kfi Cobet suspects that several words are 
lost. ' v'lK-ns Cobet, MSS, Sikvs Hertlein, V, M. 



because he knew " When it is time to speak and 
when to be silent." ^ ,^-j 

Constantine was allowed to speak next. On first ' 
entering the lists he was confident enough. But 
when he reflected on the exploits of the others 
he saw that his own were wholly trivial. He had 
defeated two tyrants, but, to tell the truth, one 
of them 2 was untrained in war and effeminate, the 
other 3 a poor creature and enfeebled by old age^ 
while both were alike odious to gods and men. 
Moreover his campaigns against the barbarians 
covered him with ridicule. For he paid them 
tribute, so to speak, while he gave all his attention 
to^JPleajiSlice, who stood at a distance from the gods 
near the entrance to the moon. Of her indeed he 
was so enamoured that he had no eyes for anything 
else, and cared not at all for victory. However, as 
it was his turn and he had to say something, he , 
began : - _* 

*' In the following respects I am superior to 
these others ; to the Macedonian in having fought 
against Romans, Germans and Scythians, instead of 
Asiatic barbarians ; to Caesar and Octavian in that 
I did not, like them, lead a revolution against brave 
and good citizens, but attacked only the most cruel 
and wicked tyrants. As for Trajan, I should naturally 
rank higher on account of those same glorious 
exploits against the tyrants, while it would be only 
fair to regard me as his equal on the score of 
that territory which he added to the empire, and I 
recovered ; if indeed it be not more glorious to regain 

* Euripides, /r. 417 Nauck. 
^ Maxentiua. ' Licinius. 



TO dvaKT^aaadai tov Kr^craaOai. Map^o? B^ 
ovToarl aicDTTCov vrrep avrov 7rd<riv r/fiXv tmv 
Trpcoreuoyv i^LO-raraL. koI 6 '^eiXrjvof;, *AXX' 97 
TOV(; ^A8(i)vcBo^ /CTjTTov^i CO? epya rjfuv, w Kq)V- 
aravTive, aeavrov 7rpo(f>€p€L<;; tl Be, elirevy elalv 
0^9 Xey€i,<; ^ABcoviSof; Kr]7rov<;; 0U9 al yvvacKe^, e(fyr), D 
Tft) T^9 ^A(f)po8i,T7)<; avBpl <j>vTevov(TLV oarpaiCiOLS 
i7raiuLr](rdfx€i/at yrjv Xa^aviav ')(\or}(TavTa Be 
ravra irpo^ oXiyov avriKa airofxapaLverai. koI 
6 Kcov<TTavTLVo^ TjpvOplaaev, avTLKpv<^ eiriyvovf; 
TOLOvrov TO eavTov epyov. 

'}i(TV)(La<^ Be y€Vo/j,evr]<; ol p,ev eayKeaav irepifie- 
veiVy OTO) Orjo-ovrat rrjv virep rcov irpwreiayv ol Oeol 
'\lrr]<f)ov' ol 3* MOVTO Beiv Ta9 irpoaipecret^ eh rovfi- 
<l>ave<i Tcov avBpSiv irpodyeiv koI ov KpLveiv eK^ rcov 330 
ireTrpay/jievcov avroh, cjv 77 Tu^?; /nereTTOceiTo to 
irXelaTov /cal ttclvtcov avTcov KUTa^oaxra irapei- 
(TTiJKeL ir\r]v ^OicTafiiavov fiovov. tovtov Be 
evyvcojjLOva irpo^ eavTrjv elvai eXeyev. eBo^ev ovv 
Tol<; 6eoL<; eiTLTpe'^ai koI tovto t5> ^p/jLJj, koI 
eBoaav avro) 7rp(OTOv ^AXe^dvBpov Trvdea-Oai, tl B 
vopiaeie KaXXca-TOv Kot 7rpb<; tl ^Xcttcov epydaaiTO 
fcal irddoL nrdvTa oaairep BeBpdxot re Kal 
weirovdoi. 6 Be €(f)rj, To TrdvTa vlkclv. elra, 
elirev 6 'Kpfirji;, olei aoL tovto TreTroLrjaOac; Kal 
fidXa, et^Tj 6 ^AXe^avBpo<i. 6 Be %€tXi]vo<i TcoOa- 
a-Titca)<; p,dXa yeXdaa<;, ^AXXd eKpdTovv ye aov 
iroXXdKL<; at rj/jueTepai 6vyaT€pe<;, alvLTTOjMevof; tcl^ 
d/jL7reXov<;, tov ^AXe^avBpov ola Bi] Tiva puedvaov C 

^ oh Kpiv^iv ^K Hertlein suggests, ovk €k MSS. 


than to gain. As for Marcus here, by saying nothing 
for himself he yields precedency to all of us." " But 
Constantine/' said Silenus, "are you not offering us 
mere gardens of Adonis ^ as exploits ? " " What do 
you mean/' he asked, " by gardens of Adonis ?" "I 
mean," said Silenils, " those that women plant in 
pots, in honour of the lover of Aphrodite, by scraping 
together a little earth for a garden bed. They bloom 
for a little space and fade forthwith." At this 
Constantine blushed, for he realised that this was 
exactly like his own performance. 

Silence was then proclaimed, and the Emperors 
thought they had only to wait till the gods decided 
to whom they would vote the first prize. But the 
latter agreed that they must bring to light the 
motives that had governed each, and not judge them 
by their actions alone, since Fortune had the greatest 
share in these. That goddess herself was standing 
near and kept reproaching all of them, with the 
single exception of Octavian ; he, she said, had 
always been grateful to her. Accordingly the gods 
decided to entrust this enquiry also to Hermes, and 
he was told to begin with Alexander and to ask him 
what he considered the finest of all things, and 
what had been his object in doing and suffering all 
that he had done and suffered. " To conquer the 
world," he replied. "Well," asked Hermes, "do 
you think you accomplished this? " " I do indeed," 
said Alexander. Whereupon Silenus with a malicious 
laugh exclaimed, "But you were often conquered 
yourself by my daughters ! " by which he meant his 
vines, alluding to Alexander's love of wine and 

* A proverb for whatever perishes quickly ; cf. Theocritus 
15. Frazer, Attis, Adonis and Osiris, p. 194. 

. 399 


Kal <f)L\oivov (TKto'TrTcov. fcal 6 ^AXi^avSpo^i are 
8r) ye/j,(ov TlepnrarrjTiKMP irapaKova ixdrcov, Ov ra 
a'\^v')(a, 6(f)r}, vlkclv ovhe yap aya>v ri/jilv iari tt/oo? 
ravra' aXXh ttolv fiev avOpcoircoy, irav he drjpicov * 
y€VO<;. Kol o ^etXrjvof; wairep ol 6av/jLd^ovT€<; 
elpwyiKM's fiaXa, ^lov, lov, €<f)7}, tmv SiakeKrcKcbv D 
KiyKXlBcov. avTO<; Be -qfuv ev irorepw aavrov 
Orfaev^ yeveiy rS)v d'^v)(cov rj rcov i/jL'yjrv'X^oyv re kol 
^(avTcov; /cat 09 axrirep dyavaKTijaa^;, Etv(j)7]/jbec, 
€<f>7]' viro yap //-eyaXo^^up^ta?, on Srj /cat 6eo<; 
yevoifJLTjv, ixaXkov S* eirjv, iireTreicTfjb'qv. Avrov ovv, 
elirev, rjTT^6r)<; aeavrov TroWaKc^. *AXX' avrov 
eavTov, elirev 6 ^A\e^avBpo<;, Kparelv Kal rjrrda-OaL 
6fJLcopvp,ct)<; Xeyerac ifiol Se rjv virep rcov Trpov 331 
aXXof 9 X6709. Ba^al rrjf; Sia\€/€TiKrj<;, elirev, 
07rft)9 r^fjbodv ra ao(j)[crfiaTa SceXey^etf;. dX)C rjPLKa, 
elirev, ev ^\vhol<^ erpactOr]^ Kal 6 YievKe(JTr)(; eKeuTO 
irapa ere, ai) Se i^rjyov '\lrv)(^oppay(ov t7}9 7r6\eo)<;, 
apa rjTTOdv rjada rod Tpcoaavrci, rj Kal eKelvov 
eviKa<i; Ovk eKelvov, e<f)r), fiovov, dWd Kal avrrjv 
e^eTTopdrjaa rrjv ttoXlv. Ov <tv ye, elnrev, m 
/jLaKapte' av /juev yap eKeicro Kara rov 'OfirjpiKbv 
'^FiKTopa 6\i,yoSpavecov Kal yjru^oppaycov' ol 8e B 
Tjywvi^ovTO Kal evLKcov. 'Hyov/ievcov y rjjjbSiVy 
eLTTev o A\e^avBpo<i. Kal 6 ^eL\r]v6<^, IT 0)9; oX ye 
400 . 


intemperate habits. But Alexander was well stocked 
with Peripatetic subterfuges, and retorted, "In- 
animate things cannot conquer ; nor do we contend 
with such, but only with the whole race of men and 
beasts." "Ah," said Silenus, "behold the chicanery 
of logic ! But tell me in which class you place your- 
self, the inanimate or the animate and living ? " At 
this he seemed mortified and said, " Hush ! Such 
was my greatness of soul that I was convinced that I 
should become, or rather that I was already, a god." 
" At any rate," said Silenus, " you were often defeated 
by yourself." ^'^Nay," retorted Alexander, "to 
conquer oneself or be defeated by oneself amounts 
to the same thing. I was talking of my victories 
over other men." " No more of your logic ! " cried 
Silenus, " how adroitly you detect my sophisms ! But 
when you were wounded in India,^ and Peucestes ^ 
lay near you and they carried you out of the town at 
your last gasp, were you defeated by him who 
wounded you, or did you conquer him .-^ " "I con- 
quered him, and what is more I sacked the town as 
well." '^'^ Not you indeed, you immortal," said 
Silenus, "for you were lying like Homer's Hector in 
a swoon and at your last gasp. It was your soldiers 
who fought and conquered." " Well but I led them," 
said Alexander. " How so ? When you were being 
carried away almost dead } " And then Silenus 

^ At the storming of the capital of the Mallians, probably 
the modern city Multan, in 326 B.C., of. Plutarch, Alexarider ; 
Lucian, Dialogues of the Dead 14. 

^ Peucestes was wounded but saved Alexander's life ; 
Pliny 34. 8. 



€(l>€p€aOe fjiiKpov v6Kpoi; clra ySe rcav ef Fivpi- 

"Orav Tpoiracov TroXe/Jiicov arrjar) arparo'^. 

Koi 6 Aioi'vao^i, TlavaaL, elirev, co iraTnrihLOVy 
Totavra Xeycov, jjlt] ae ovro<; oivola rov KXelrop C 
ipydaijTac.^ kol 6 *A\€^avSpo<; ipvO pLdaa<^ • re 
a/jba Kol coairep <TV'y'xydel<=i viro tmv BaKpvcov ra 
o/jL/jLara eamira. koI oBe fxev oyBe eXrj^ep o X0709. 

'O Be 'Eip/JLTJ'i i]p6T0 irdXiv rov Kaiaapa, Xol Be, 
elirev, co K-alcrap, tl<; eyevero aK07ro<; rov fiiov; 
To irpwreveiv, e^rj, rrj^ epbavrov koI /jLr)B€VO<; p^rfre D 
elvai fi'^re vopbi^eaOai^ Bevrepov. Tovro, elirev o 
'KpjJLTj^, daa^h earr nrorepov yap, elire,^ Kara 
ao(f)Lav rj rrjv ev rot? Xo-yot? Betvorrjra rj TroXe- 
/jLlktjv ifiTreiptav 7) iroXiriKrjv Bvvapnv; Yiv fiev 
ovv, €<pr) 6 K.aLcrap, rjBv puoi tmv iravrcov ev iraaiv 
elvau 7rp(t)T(p' tovtov Be ov Buvdfievo<i eTTiTv^^^etv to 
Bvvaadac /jLeyiaTOv irapa To'i<^ i/juavTOv iroXiTai^ 
e^TjXayaa. Xv Be, elirev, iBwrjOrj^; pueya; 7rpo<; avrov 332 
o %€LXr}v6<;. KOL 09, Yldpv ye, ecfyrj' Kvpio<; yovv 
avT(ov iyevofjLijv. *AXXd rovro fiev, eiTrev, iBv- 
vrj6r](;' dyaTrrjdrjvat Be vtt avrcjv ov'^ olo<; re 
eyevov, kol ravra TroXXrjv puev vTroKpLvdfievoq 
Mcrirep ev Bpafiari koI crfcrjvfj (piXavOpcoiTLav, 
ala')(^pM<; Be avrov^ 7rdvTa<; KoXa/cevcov. Etra ovk 
dyairrjOrjvaL Bokm, elirev, vtto rov BrjpLOV rov Blco- B 

^ rhp KAciTOJ' ^Spaaev ipydaTjTai MSS. ; Hertlein suggests 
omission of fduaa-eu. 

2 fi^rc ejpai fx-fjTe vo/xiCf:<rdat Hertlein suggests, ehai /x-ftre 
vofxiC^aeai MSS. 

^ etVe Hertlein suggests ; cf. 333 d, il-ne MSS. 



recitAi the passage in Euripides ^ beginning " Alas 
how unjust is the custom of the Greeks, when 
an army triumphs over the enemy — " But Dionysus 
interrupted him saying " Stop, little father, say no 
more, or he will treat you as he treated Cleitus." At 
that Alexander blushed, his eyes became suffused 
with tears and he said no more. Thus their con- 
versation ended. 

Next Hermes began to question Caesar, and said, 
"And you, Caesar, what was the end and aim of 
your life?'' "To hold the first place in my own 
country," he replied, " and neither to be nor to be 
thought second to any man." " This," said Hermes, 
" is not quite clear. Tell me, was it in wisdom that 
you wished to be first, or in oratorical skill, or 
in military science, or the science of government } " 
" I should have liked well," said Caesar, " to be first 
of all men in all of these ; but as I could not attain 
to that, I sought to become the inost powerful of my 
fellow-citizens." " And did you become so very 
powerful } " asked Silenus. " Certainly," he replied, 
"since I made myself their master." " Yes that you 
were able to do ; but you could not make yourself 
beloved by them, though you played the philan- 
thropic role as though you were acting in a stage- 
play, and flattered them all shamefully." "What ! " 
cried Caesar, " I not beloved by the people ? When 

1 Andromache 693 foil. : the passage continues "Tis not 
those who did the work that gain the credit but the general 
wins all the glory." Cleitus was killed by Alexander at a 
banquet for quoting these verses. 

D D 2 


^avTOf; ^povTov /cat Kdaatov; Ovk eireidi'j ae 
direKTeivav, e(f)r)' Scd rovro fiev yap avTOv<; o 
BrjfjLOf; iylrrj^iaaTO elvau virdrov^' dWd Bed to 
dpyvpLOV, eTreiSr} roov BiaOrfKcov dKpoaaafievou 
fjLicrOov ecopcov tt}? dyavaKTrjaeco^; avrols ovroi^ tov 
TV^ovra 7rpo(T€yy€ypa/jL/jLevov. 

A')]^avTo<; Be koX tovBg tov \6yov, tov *0/CTa- C 
^iavov av6i<; 6 'l^pfjbi]<; eKivei. %v Be, elirev, ovk 
epel<i rj/jblv, tL KaWiaTOV eVoyLttfe? elvai; koI 6<i, 
Bacr^XeOcrai, e0?7, Ka\(a<;. Ti Be iaTi to /caXw?, co 
Se/3acrTe, cfypdcrov, eVel tovto ye eaTt koI T0t9 
7rov7]poTdTOL<; Xeyeiv. (peTo yovv koI Atovv(Tio<; 
Ka\a)(; jSacriXevecv koI o tovtov /jucapdoTepof; ^Aya- 
OoKKrj^. 'AW IVre, ecTreu, o) Oeoi, o)? rr poire p^iroDV D 
TOV OvyaTpuBovv ijv^dfjurjv vpuv ToXpuav jxev avT(p 
Bovvai Tr)v K.aL(Tapo<;, BetvoTijTa Be ttjv TIo/jltttjiov, 
Tv^V^ Se Tr)v ejjLTjv. IToXXa, elrrev 6 ^etXr)v6<i, koX 
OeMV 6Vtg)9 adHTrjpoov epya Beofieva avv€<p6pr](Tev 
0VT09 6 Kopo7r\dOo<;. Etra Blu tl tovto, e(f>rj, to 
ovofxd fJbOL yeXolov ovtco^ eOov; '^H yap ovk 
€7rXaTT69 rjfjblvy elirev, ooairep eKelvot Ta9 vvfx(j>a<i, w 
^efiaaTe, Oeov<;, a)v eva Kal TrpojTov tovtovI 
J^aiaapa; koI 6 fiev ^OKTa^iavo^ Mairep Bva- 333 
(oirovp^evo^i d7re<Tt,(07rr]a€v. 

'O Be 'E/)yLt?79 7r/?09 tov Tpaiavov ^e^]ra<;, Xv 
Be, efcTTe, tl Bcavoov/jievo^ eirpaTTef; oaairep eirpa- 
^a9; liSyv avTCJV AXe^dvBpqy aax^povecTTepoVt 

' oijToi V, Cobet, of/T4 Hertlein. 


they punished Brutus and Cassius ! " " That was not 
for murdering you/' replied Silenus_, "since for that 
they elected them consuls ! ^ No_, it was because 
of the money you left them. When they had heard 
your will read they perceived what a fine reward was 
offered them in it for such resentment of your 

When this dialogue ended, Hermes next accosted 
Octavian. "Now for you," he said, "will you please 
tell us what you thought the finest thing in the 
world?" "To govern well," he replied. "You must 
say what you mean by ' well,' Augustus. Govern 
well ! The wickedest tyrants claim to do that. 
Even Dionysius,^ I suppose, thought that he governed 
well, and so did Agathocles ^ who was a still greater 
criminal." "But you know, O ye gods,"« said 
Octavian, "that when I parted with my grandson* 
I prayed you to give him the courage of Caesar, the 
cleverness of Pompey, and my own good fortune." 
" What a many things," cried Silenus, " that do need 
really saving gods have been jumbled together by 
this doll-maker ! " " Why pray do you give me that 
ridiculous name.'*" asked the other. "Why," he re- 
plied, "just as they model nymphs did you not 
model gods,^ Augustus, and first and foremost Caesar 
here ? " At this Octavian seemed abashed and said 
no more. 

Then Hermes addressing Trajan said, " Now you 
tell us what was the principle that guided all your 
actions ? " "My aims," he replied, "were the same 

^ This is not aecording to history. The Senate gave 
Brutus and Cassius proconsular power in their provinces. 
"^ Tyrant of Syracuse 405-367 B.C. 

^ Tyrant of Syracuse 317-289 B.C. ^ Caius Caesar. 

^ Julian refers to the custom of deifying the Emperors. 



elirev, d)pe')(Or]v. koI 6 %6t\rjv6<;, 'Httt;^?;? fiev 
ovv} elire, /cat crv tmv ayevvearepwv. o /juev yap 
BufJiov TO irXelarov tittwv ^v, <rv 8e al(T')(pd<; 
r)Bov'f]<; Koi iiroveiZiaTOv. BaW' et9 /JuaKapiav, B 
elTrev 6 At6vv<T0<i, eVel aKWirrei^; av 7rdvra<; 
avTOv<i KoX TTOLel^ ovBev virep eavrSiv Xeyecv. 
aX}C eiT* iiceiVMv et^e croc ')(^copav ra aKco/bbfiara' 
'TTp6(Te')(e he vvv, otto)? dvTiXrj'\lr7j rov M.dpKov. 
SoK€L yap elval fxoi ttoj? dvr^p Kara rov XijbbcovLBrjv 
reTpdycovo^ avev 'yjroyov jervyfievo'^. 6 'E/j/a^? 
he ySXe'v/ra? et? tov MdpKOV, Sol he, elirev, (o 
Brjpe, Tt KdWiarov ihoKei tov /3lov TeXo<; elvau; 
Kal 09 r)pe/jia ical aa}<pp6v(o<^, To /jLL/jielaOai, C 
€<f)r}, T0U9 deov<;. eSo^e /juev ovv ev6e(o<; rj 
d7r6KpLcn<; ovK dyevvrj^;, dXka Kal tov 7ravT0<i 
d^ia. dWd Kal 6 ^KpiJbrj<; ovk e^ovXeTO ttoXv- 
irpayfiovelv, 7re7r6t,cr/jievo<; otl irdvTa 6 Ma/3/co9 
aKoXovOco^; epel. Tot9 fJ^ev ovv dXXoi<; 6eol<^ eSoKet 
ravTT]' fJb6vo<; 8e 6 SeiXr)v6(;, 'AXX' ov fid tov Alo- 
vvaov dve^ofjbai tovtov tov cro^iaTov. tl hrjiroTe 
yap 7] aO (,€<;, elire,^ Kal eiTLve^; ovx ^crTrep rjfiecf; dp,- D 
^poaia<^ Te koi veKTapo<;, dpTOV Se Kal otvov; 'AXX 
eycoye, elirev, ov^ V'^^p ovv cpp,7)v Tot'9 Oeovf; /juofiel- 
crOai, TavTT) irpocrecfiepo/jLyv acTca Kal Trora* to 
(TM/jia Be eTpe(f>ov, tcray^ fiev yjrevBco';, iretdop^evo^ 
Se, OTL Kal Ta vfieTepa acofiaTa BeiTai ttj^; 
€K Tcov dvadvfMcdaecov Tpo(prj(;. ttXtjv ov Kara 
TavTd ye vixd^ elvai /jLLp,7)Teov<s, dXXd Kara ttjv 
Bidvocav vireXa^ov. oXiyov 6 Xei,Xtjvb<; Bta7ropi]cra<;^ 334 

^ fxev ovv Hertlein suggests, odv MSS. koI before ffh Cobet 
adds. ^ elire Hertlein suggests, of. 331 d, elire MSS. 

•^ Siairop-fja-as Reiske suggests to complete the construction. 



as Alexander's, but I acted with more prudence." 
"Nay," said Silenus, "you were the slave of more 
ignoble passions. Anger was nearly always his weak 
point, but yours was pleasure of the vilest and most 
infamous sort." "Plague take you!" exclaimed 
Dionysus, " You keep railing at them all arid you 
don't let them say a word for themselves. However, 
in their case there was some ground for your 
sarcasms, but now consider well what you can find 
to criticise in Marcus. For in my opinion he is a 
man, to quote Simonides, ^four-square and made 
without a flaw.' " ^ Then Hermes addressed Marcus 
and said, " And you, Verus, what did you think the 
noblest ambition in life ? " In a low voice he answered 
modestly, "To imitate the gods." This answer they 
at once agreed was highly noble and in fact the best 
possible. And even Hermes did not wish to cross- 
examine him further, since he was convinced that 
Marcus would answer every question equally well. 
The other gods were of the same mind ; only Silenus 
cried " By Dionysus I shall not let this sophist off so 
easily. Why then did you eat bread and drink wine and 
not ambrosia and nectar like us ? " " Nay," he replied, 
"it was not in the fashion of my meat and drink 
that I thought to imitate the gods. But I nourished 
my body because I believed, though perhaps falsely, 
that even your bodies require to be nourished by the 
fumes of sacrifice. Not that I supposed I ought to 
imitate you in that respect, but rather your minds." 
For the moment Silenus was at a loss as though he 
\ Simonides /r. 5 Bergk. 



wairep viro ttvktov Be^cov 7rXriy€i<f, EiLprjTai, /juei/ 
<TOL TOVTO, elire, tv')(ov ovk aroTrax;, ifiol Be, 
€<f>rjf ^pdcrov, n Trore ev6fii^e<; elvai rrjv rcov 
Oecjv fiifMrjo-iv; koI 09, ^elcrOai fjuev co? e\a')(i(TT03v, 
elf TTOielv 8e ft)? o, ri iiakLara TrXeicrroi/?. Mwi/ 
ovVy elirev, ovBevo<^ iBeov; /cal 6 Ma/^/co?, '£70) fxev 
ovBev6<;, icro)<; Be to (Tw/xdrcov fiov fiLKpojv. B6^ai>- 
T09 ovv /cat TOVTO 6pdM<; elprjKevac tov IS/LdpKov, B 
TO TeXo9 cLTTopovp.evo'i o ^et\r}vo<; iTrccfyveTai toi<; 
irepl TOV iralBa koL tt^v ya/jueTrjv avTW BoKOvaiv 
OVK opOcofi ovBe /caTCL Xoyov TreTroirjaOai, ttjv fiev 
OTL Tat9 r]p(i)lvai^ iveypayjre, tw Be oti ttjp 
r)yep,oviav eTreTpeyjrev. ^Fi/jLi/jbrjcrd/jirjv, elire, koX 
KaTa TOVTO TOL'9 0eov<;' ^OfjLrjprp p^ev yap €7rei06p.rjv 
XeyovTt irepX Trj<; yapeTrjq, otl apa, 6aTL<; dyaOo^ C 
Koi i')(^€(f>pcov, TTjV avTov (f)L\eei fcal KrjBeTar nrepl 
Be TOV TratBo^ avTov tov Af.09 diroi^acnv e%ft)' 
alTL(op,evo<^ yap tov "Apea, JId\ai av, elirev, 
e^ef3\r)ao tw Kepavvcp, el prj Bod to iralBd ae 
eivac TjydiTWV. dW(o<; re Kal ovBe m/htjv e'^ft) 
TOV TracBa Trovrjpov ovtq)^; eaeaOai. el Be t) 
veoT7)<^ ecf) e/caTepa peyd\a<; iroiovpevr) poird^ 
eiTL TO yelpov 7]ve')(0Y}, ov)(l irovrjpS) t^j; r}yep,ovLav 
eireTpe'\^a, Gvvr\ve')(dy] Be tov \a^6vTa Trovrjpov 
yeveaOai. Td re ovv irepl ttjv yvvat/ca ireiroir^Tai D 
pML KaTa i^rjXov 'A^tXXeft)9 tov delov, Kal ra 
Trept TOV iralBa KaTa pipbrjatv tov pueyiaTOv Ai6<;, 
aX\ft)9 T€ Kal ovBev KaivoToputjaavTi. TraiaL 
Te yap voptpLov €7nTpe7recv Taf; BiaBo^d^, Kal 


had been hit by a good boxer,^ then he said " There 
is perhaps something in what you say ; but now tell 
me what did you think was really meant by ' imitat- 
ing the gods.' " " Having the fewest possible needs 
and doing good to the greatest possible number." 
" Do you mean to say," he asked^ " that you had no 
needs at all ? " " I/' said Marcus, " had none, but 
my wretched body had a few, perhaps." Since in 
this also Marcus seemed to have answered wisely, 
Silenus was at a loss, but finally fastened on what 
he thought was foolish and unreasonable in the 
Emperor's behaviour to his son and his wife, I mean 
in enrolling the latter among the deified and entrust- 
ing the empire to the former. " But in that also," 
said the other, " I did but imitate the gods. I 
adopted the maxim of Homer when he says ^the 
good and prudent man loves and cherishes his own 
wife,' 2 while as to my son I can quote the excuse of 
Zeus himself when he is rebuking Ares : ' Long ago,' 
he says, ^ I should have smitten thee with a thunder- 
bolt, had I not loved thee because thou art my son.' ^ 
Besides, I never thought my son would prove so 
wicked. Youth ever vacillates between the extremes 
of vice and virtue, and if in the end he inclined 
to vice, still he was not vicious when I entrusted the 
empire to him ; it was only after receiving it that he 
became corrupted. Therefore my behaviour to my 
wife was modelled on that of the divine Achilles, 
and that to my son was in imitation of supreme Zeus. 
Moreover, in neither case did I introduce any 
novelty. It is the custom to hand down the succes- 
sion to a man's sons, and all men desire to do so ; as 

^ Plato, Protagoras .S89 e Smren virh ayaOnv ttvktov ir\7)j€is. 
'^ Iliad 9. 318. - •' A paraphrase of liiad 5, 897. 



TOVTO aTrarre? euxovrac, t/jv re ya/jberrjv ovk 335 
iyo) 7r/9ft>T09, dWa fxera iroWov^i aWov^ erifi'qaa. 
ta<o<; Be to fiev dp^aaOac tmv TOLOvrayu ovk 
ecTTiv evXoyov, to 8e €7rt ttoWmv yevofjuevov tov<; 
olKeiOTCLTOV^; dirocyrepelv eyyv^ dBiKia^. dW 
eXaOov efiavTov eyoii fxaKporepa diroXoyov^vo'; 
7rpo9 eihoTa^i vfidf;, o) ZeO Kal Oeor Zioirep fioi, 
Tr}9 irpoTrereia^ TavTriai avyyvcofiove^ yevoiaOe. 

Uavaa/Jbevov Se Kal TovBe tov \6yov, top 
K(ov(TTavTtvov 6 '^pfirjf; Tjpero, ^v Be tI koXov B 
€v6/JLcaa<;; UoWd, elire, fCTrjadfMevov TroWa %apt- 
aaaOai, TaL<; t e7n6v/juaL(; Tot^ eavTOV koI 
TaL<; ra)V (pLXcov vTrovpyovvra. dvaKay')(^daa^ 
ovv 6 2etX?;i^09 jjueya, 'AXV -^ Tpa7re^iTr](; elvai, 
€<pr}, 6ek(ov eKeXrjOei^ aeavTOV o-^ottccov koX 
Ko/jb/iicoTpLa<i piov ^(f)v; ^ rjviTTeTO S* avTa TrdXai 
fjbev r} Te ko/mt} to re elBo<i, drdp vvv koI rf 
yv(t)/jbrj (TOV KaTr^yopel. tovtov fjuev ovv 6 ZeiXrjvof; 
TTLKporepov TTft)? fcaOtjyjraTO. 

ZKoirrjf; Be yevo/ievrj'; €(}>epov ol OeoX XdOpa C 
Ttt? '>^r)<^ov<;. eiTa eyevovTO vroXXat tm ^apKw. 
KOivoXoyqadjievo^ Bk o Zeix; IBia tt/jo? tov TraTepa 
TTpoaeTU^e Kr)pv^ai Ta> 'Fjp/jifj. 6 Be iK)]pvTT€v, 
"AyBpe*; ol irapekOovTe^; eVt tovtovI tov dywva, 
vofioL Trap* 7]fuv elai Kai Kpiaeu^ ToiavTac 
yivovrai. Mare real tov viKMVTa ')(aipeLV koI tov 
'^TTCo/jievov /JLT) /jLe/jxf)eaOaL. TropeveaOe ovv, eiirev, 
oiroi <f)i\ov eKaaTO), viro Oeol<; rjye/MoaL ^ieoao/ubevoL D 
TO evTevOev e\ea6co 8' €KaaTo<^ eavTw tov 
TrpoaTaTTjv t€ /cat rjye/JLOva. jjueTa to Krjpvytia 

^ fw" Cobet, i-yuv Reiske, ^x*^" Hertlein, MSS. 


for my wife I was not the first to decree . divine 
honours to a wife, for I followed the example of 
many others. It is perhaps absurd to have intro- 
duced any such custom, but it would be almost an 
injustice to deprive one's nearest and dearest of 
what is now long-established. However, I forget 
myself when I make this lengthy explanation to you, 
O Zeus and ye other gods ; for ye know all things. 
Forgive me this forwardness." 

When Marcus had finished his speech, Hermes 
asked Constantine, '^'^And what was the height of 
i^our ambition ? " " To amass great wealth," he 
answered, "and then to spend it liberally so as 
to gratify my own desires and the desires of my 
friends." At this Silenus burst into a loud laugh, 
and said, " If it was a banker tjiat you wanted 
to be, how did you so far forget yourself as to 
lead the life of a pastrycook and hairdresser ? '' 
Your locks and your fair favour ^ betokened this 
all along, but what you say about your motives 
convicts you." Thus did Silenus sharply reprove 

Then silence was proclaimed and the gods cast a 
secret ballot. It turned out that Marcus had most 
of the votes. After conferring apart with his father,^ 
Zeus bade Hermes make a proclamation as follows : 
" Know all ye mortals who have entered this contest, 
that according to our laws and decrees the victor is 
allowed to exult but the vanquished must not com- 
plain. Depart then wherever you please, and in 
future live every one of you under the guidance of 
the gods. Let every man choose his own guardian 
and guide." 

^ Ilidd 3. 55. - Kronos. 



TOVTO 6 fjL€V ^AXi^avSpo^; eOei 7rpb<; tov 'UpaKXea, 
*OKTa^iav6<; Be tt/jo? tov ^ AiroWfova, d/j,(f)Oiv 
Se airpl^ el')(^eTo tov Aib^ koI K.p6vov Ma/j/co?. 
7r\av(OfjL€vov Se ttoXXo, koI 'TrepiTpe')(pvTa tov KaTe\erjaa<i o /uL€ya<=; "A/0779 V t€ 
^AippoBiTT) Trap* eavTOv^ i/caXeaaTijv Tpa'iavo<; 
Be irapa tov AXi^avBpov eOet 009 eKeivtp avyKaO- 
eSov/u,evo<s. 6 Be Kcov(TTavTtvo<;, ov^ evpLcTKayv 336 
ev 6eol<; tov ^lov to dp')(^€TV7rov, eyyvOev ttjv 
Tpv(f)r}V KaTiBoov eBpa/jue irpo^ avTrjv r} Be viroXa- 
^ovaa /xa\a/cct)^ koX irept^aXovaa Tol<i Trrj'^eat 
7r67rXofc9 T€ avTOV 7roiKLXoL<; da/c^craa'a kol KaX- 
XwiTiaaaa irpo'^ ttjv ^AacoTLav cuTrrpfayev, iva 
Kol TOV ^lijaovv evpcov dva<JTpe<f)6/ji€vov /cat 
irpoayopevovTa iraaiv, ""'Ocrrt? (f)Oopev^, oorTi<; 
IJbLaL<^6vo<^, ocTTi? evayrj<^ kol j3BeXvp6<^, ltco OappMV B 
diro^avS) yap avTov tovtoh t<£ vButl Xovcra^ 
avTiKa KaOapov, fcav irdXiv evo')(o^ tol<; avTol<^ 
yevrjTac, Bcoco) to <TTrjOo(; irXrj^avTi kol ttjv 
fce(f)dXr)v iraTa^avTi KaOapw yeveaOai^^ cr^oBpa 
d(7/jLevo<; evcTV^^ev avTa>, avve^ayay<hv t?)? tmv 
Oecdv dyopd<; tov<; iralBa'^. eireTpi^ov 8' avTov 
Te KdKelvov<i ou^ tjttov Trjf} a^eor^ro? ol ira- 
XajjbvaloL Baifiove^, alfjudTwv o-f776i^ft)i^ TLvvvfievot 
Bi/ca<^, eft)9 Zeu9 Bid tov KXavBiov koI Kci)z/- 
aTavTiov eBcoKev dvairvevaai. 



After this announcement, Alexander hastened to 
Heracles, and Octavian to Apollo, but Marcus attached 
himself closely to Zeus and Kronos, Caesar wandered 
about for a long time and ran hither and thither, till 
mighty Ares and Aphrodite took pity on him and 
summoned him to them. Trajan hastened to Alex- 
ander and sat down near him. As for ConstantineTT 
he could not discover among the gods the model of 
his own career, but when he caught sight of Pleasure, 
who was not far off, he ran to her. She received him 
tenderly and embraced him, then after dressing him 
in raiment of many colours and otherwise making 
him beautiful, she led him away to Incontinence 
There too he found Jesus, who had taken up hisj 
abode with her and cried aloud to all comers : "He 
that is a seducer, he that is a murderer, he that is^ 
sacrilegious and infamous, let him approach without / 
fear ! For with this water will I wash him and will 
straightway make him clean. And though he should / 
be guilty of those same sins a second time, let him I 
but smite his breast and beat his head and I willj 
make him clean again." To him Constantine camel 
gladly, when he had conducted his sons forth from( 
the assembly of the gods. But the avenging . 
deities none the less punished both him and them 
for their impiety, and exacted the penalty for the 
shedding of the blood of their kindred,^ until Zeus 
granted them a respite for the sake of Claudius and 


^ Introduction to Volume I. p. vii. 
^ Constantius Chlorus. 



Sot Se, 7r/309 jy/xa? Xeywv o ^pfirj^y hehwKa top C 
irarepa MiOpav iinyvcovar av h avrov tmv 
evToXoyv e')(ov, Trelcr/jia fcal opfxov aacpaXr) ^(ovrl 
T€ aeavTw 7rapa(TK€vd^(ov, koI r)PL/ca av evdevhe 
dwiepai her), fierd t»)9 dyadrj^; eXTrtSo? yyefiova 
6eov evfjLevrj KaOia-Ta^ aeavrw. 



"As for thee/' Hermes said to nie, " I have 
granted thee the knowledge of thy father Mithras. 
Do thou keep his commandments, and thus secure 
for thyself a cable and sure anchorage throughout 
thy life, and when thou must depart from the world 
thou canst with good hopes adopt him as thy 
guardian god." 




VOL, 11. ^ E E 


y' Julian came to Antioch on his way to Persia in 

the autumn of 361 and stayed there till March, 362. 
The city was rich and important commercially, but 
in Julian's eyes her glory depended on two things, 
the famous shrine of Apollo and the school of 
rhetoric ; and both of these had been neglected by 
the citizens during the reign of Constantius. A 
Christian church had been built in Apollo's grove 
in the suburb of Daphne, and Libanius, Antioch's most 
distinguished rhetorician, was more highly honoured 
at Nicomedia.i Julian's behaviour at Antioch and 
his failure to ingratiate himself with the citizens 
illustrates one of the causes of the failure of his 
Pagan restoration. His mistake was that he did 
not attempt to make Paganism popular, whereas 
Christianity had always been democratic. He is 
always reminding the common people that the true 
knowledge of the gods is reserved 'for philoso- 
phers ; and even the old conservative Pagans did 
not share his zeal for philosophy. Antioch moreover 
was a frivolous city. The Emperor Hadrian three 
centuries earlier had been much offended by the 
levity of her citizens, and the homilies of Saint 

^ cf. Libanius, Oration 29. 220, where he warns the people 
of Antioch that Caesarea had already robbed them of one 
sophist by the offer of a higher salary, and exhorts them not 
to neglect rhetoric, the cause of their greatness. 



Chrysostom exhibit the same picture as JuHan's 
satire. His austere personaHty and mode of Hfe 
repelled the Syrian populace and the corrupt officials 
of Antioch. They satirised him in anapaestic verses, 
and either stayed away from the temples that he 
restored or, when they did attend in response to his 
summons, showed by their untimely applause of the 
Emperor that they had not come to worship his gods. 
Julian's answer was this satire on himself which he 
addresses directly to the people of Antioch. But he 
could not resist scolding them, and the satire on his 
own habits is not consistently maintained. After he 
had left the city the citizens repented and sent a 
deputation to make their peace with, him, but in 
spite of the intercession of Libanius, who had accom- 
panied him to Antioch, he could not forgive the 
insults to himself or the irreverence that had been 
displayed to the gods. 


E E 2 


ANTioxiKOS^ H MisonnrxiN 

^AvaKpioVTL T(p TTOLrjTfj TToXXo, eTTOiTJOrj fiiXrj 

')(apievTa' Tpv<pdv yap eXa'xev €k /jLoipayv AX- 
/caLO) 3* 01) Ken ovh^ 'Ay9^fcXo^« to) Xlapicp rijv 
fiovaav eBcoKev 6 Oeb<; et? ev(j)poavva^ kol i^Bova<; 
Tpi'yjrar /jUO'^Oelv yap dXXore aXXco^; avayKa^o- 
fievoi rfj p^ovaiKj} tt/do? tovto i^pcovro, Kov^orepa B 
7roLovvT€<; avTot<; oaa 6 Bau/jbcov iBlSov rfj el <;tov<; 
dScKovvTaf; XoiSopla. ifiol Be airayopevei fiev o 
v6fio<; eir 6v6/ijLaTO<i alTiacrdai tov<^ aBLfcov/JLevov^; 
fjLev ovBev, elvac S* e'm')(^eipovvTa<^ Bva/jLevei<;, acpai- 
pelrac Be rrfv ev rot? /xeXeai /jLovaiKr}v 6 vvv ein- 
KpaTcov ev rol^; eXevdepot^ t^9 iTaLBeia<i t/ootto?. 
aia'X^iov yap elvai BoKet vvv /jlovo-cktjv eirLTrjBeveLV, 
T) irdXai irore eBo/cec to irXovTelv clBlkox;. ov fiyv C 
d^e^ofjuat Bid tovto t?)? ifiol BvvaTrjf; €K /jlovctcov 
eTTiKOvpla^, edeaa-dfjLTjv tol Kal tov^ vwep tov 

^ " The Discourse at Antioch " is an alternative title in 

the MSS. 



Anacreon the poet composed many delightful 
songs ; for a luxurious life was allotted to him by 
the Fates. But Alcaeus and Archil ochus of Paros ^ 
the god did not permit to devote their muse to 
mirth and pleasure. For constrained as they were 
to endure toil, now of one sort, now of another, they 
used their poetry to relieve their toil, and by 
abusing those who wronged them they lightened 
the burdens imposed on them by Heaven. But 
as for me, the law forbids me to accuse by name 
those who, though I have done them no wrong, try 
to show their hostility to me ; and on the other 
hand the fashion of education that now prevails 
among the well-born deprives me of the use of the 
music that consists in song. For in these days men 
think it more degrading to study music than once in 
the past they thought it to be rich by dishonest 
means. Nevertheless I will not on that account 
renounce the aid that it is in my power to win from 
the Muses. Indeed I have observed that even the 

^ In the seventh century B.C. Alcaeus of Lesbos and 
Archilochus both suffered exile, and the latter fell in battle 
against Naxos. For the misfortunes of Alcaeus, cf. Horace, 
Odes 2. 13. 



*Prjvov fiap^dpov^ aypta /juiXTj Xefet ireiroLr^fieva 
irapairXrjcrLa toi<; Kpo)y/Jiol<; rcov rpa'X^v ^ocovrcov 
opviOcov ahovra^ koI €v(f)paivofi6vov^ eirl rotf; 
fiiXeaiv. elvai yap oifxai av fx^aivei toI<; (f)avXoc<; 338 
TTjv fiovaiKTjv \vTT7)pol<; /jL6v Tot? deoLTpoi^;, aerial 
K avTol^ r)hi(7T0L<;. o Sr) kol avrb^ ^vvvorjaa<i 
etcoOa 7r/909 e/navrov Xeyeiv oirep o ^la/jujvia^ ovk 
diro T779 t(j')79 fiev ^^eo)?, diro he tt}? ofioiaf;, d)9 
ifiavTov irelOcdy /jbeyaXocfypoavvrji;, ore Srjra rat^ 
/jbovaai<i aSco fcal ifiavro). 

To 8' acTfJua ire^fj fiev Xe^ei ireiroirjTaiy Xoihopia^ 
K e^et TToXka^ koX fieyaXa^;, ovk et? dWovf; fid 
Aia* 7rco9 ydp; aTrayopevovro^i rov vofxov et? B 
Be Tov TTOirjrrjv avrov /cal tov ^vyypacpea. to ydp 
et9 eavTov ypd^ecv ecre eTraivov^ etre yfroyov; 
etpyei vofjbo^ ovhei<;. eiraivelv fiev Sr] kol acf)68pa 
iOeXcov ifjiavTOV ovk 6^(^(0, ylreyecv Be fivpla, kol 
TrpcoTov dp^d/juevof; diro tov irpocrcoTrov. tovtco 
ydp olfiaL (pvaet yeyovoTi fxr) Xiav KaXw /ultjB' 
evTrpeirel /jltjB* aypaiw viro BvaTpoTria^i Koi Bvcr- 
KoXia<i auTO? irpoaTedeiKa tov /BaOvv tovtovX C 
TTtoycova, BiKa<^ avTO 7rpaTT6fievo<i, co? eoLKev, ov~ 
Bevo^ fxev dXXov, tov Be /jlt] (j)V(TeL yeveaOat KaXov. 
TavTa TOi BiaOeovTwv dveyopuai tS)v (fydeipwv 
Mairep ev X6')(^fjLr] tmv Orjpicov. eorOieiv Be Xd/3p(o<^ 
7) TTiveiv ')(^avBov ov avy^o) pod jiiar Bee ydp otfzai 
'Trpoae')(eLV, /jlt) XdOco avyKaTa^ayoov ^ Ta9 rpl'^a'; 

^ (TvyKaracpayibv Cobet, koI ffvyKara<pa,yuiv Hertlein, MSS. 


barbarians across the Rhine sing savage songs com- 
posed in language not unlike the croaking of harsh- 
voiced birds, and that they delight in such songs. 
For 1 think it is always the case that inferior 
musicians, though they annoy their audiences, give 
very great pleasure to themselves. And with this in 
mind I often say to myself, like Ismenias — for though 
my talents are not equal to his, I have as I persuade 
myself a similar independence of soul — " I sing for 
the Muses and myself." ^ 

However the song that I now sing has been 
composed in prose, and it contains much violent 
abuse, directed not, by Zeus, against others — how 
could it be, since the law forbids ? — but against the 
poet and author himself. For there is no law to 
prevent one's writing either praise or criticism of 
oneself. Now as for praising myself, though I should 
be very glad to do so, I have no reason for that ; but 
for criticising myself I have countless reasons, and 
first I will begin with my face. For though nature 
did not make this any too handsome or well-favoured 
or give it the bloom of youth, I myself out of sheer 
perversity and ill-temper have added to it this long 
beard of mine, to punish it, as it would seem, for 
this very crime of not being handsome by nature. 
For the same reason I put up with the lice that 
scamper about in it as though it were a thicket for 
wild beasts. As for eating greedily or drinking with 
my mouth wide open, it is not in my power ; for I 
must take care, I suppose, or before I know it I shall 
eat up some of my own hairs along with my crumbs 

^ For Ismenias of Thebes cf. Plutarch, Pericles, The saying 
became a proverb ; cf. Dio Chrysostom, Oration 78. 420 ; 
Themistius 366 b ; Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, " I have 
lived mihi et Mxtds in the University." 



TOt? dpTOi<;. virep he rov <f)ikela6aL Kal (ptXelv D 
TjKLcrra aXyo). Kalroi Kal tovto e^^^eiv eoi/cev 6 
ircoycov Mairep ra aSXa Xvirrjpov, ovk lirLTpkiTwv 
KaOapa Xetot? Kal Sea tovto olfjuai yXvKepcoTepa 
')(jEt\.6aL %6tXr7 irpoafioLTTeiVy oirep tjBtj rt? ecpij tcoi/ 
epyao-afievcov ^vv tm Tiavl Kal ttj KaWioTry et? 
Tov Ad(f)VLv iroirjfjbaTa. vfieif; Se (f)aT€ Betv Kal 
G")(pLvia TrXeKGiv ivOivBc Kal ^Tot/ijLO<; irape^^eiv, 
fjv fjbovov eXKetv BvvrjdrJTe Kal jjlt) to.? cut piTTTOv^; 
vfJbSiv Kal /bba\aKa<; ')(elpa<; r] Tpa')(yT'q<i avTMV 
heiva ipydarfTai. vofxiar) 8e /iT^Set? hva^x^epaivetv 
ifie tS> aKcofifiaTi. StBcofjLC yap avT0<; ttjv alTiav 339 
oddirep ol TpdyoL to yevetov e'^^cov, e^ov ol/juat Xelov 
avTo TTOielv Kal yjrikov, oirolov ol KaXol tmv irai- 
Bcov 6')(ovaiv aTracrai re ai yvvalKe<i, al<; ^vaet 
TrpoaeaTL to epdcrfiLov. vfiel^ Se Kal ev tw yrjpa 
^rfkovvTe^ Tov<; v/ulmv avTCOV vlea<; Kal Ta<; Ouya- 
Tepa<^ VTTO d^poTr)TO<^ ^lov Kal tcro)? diraXoTrjTO'i 
TpoTTov Xelov eVtyLteXft)? epyd^eaOe, tov dvBpa 
viro<^aivovTe^ Kal iTapah6LKvvvTe<^ hia tov p,€Ta)7rov B 
Kal ov'X^ Mairep iQfi€l<; €k tcov yvddcov. 

'EyLfcOfc Sk OVK dTrexprjae fiovov rj ^aOvTi)^ tov 
yeveioVy aXXa Kal ttj K€(f)a\fj irpoaeaTiv av')(^iJb6(;, 
Kal oXiydKi<; Kelpofiat Kal ovv^i^ofxaLy Kal tov9 
SaKTvXov<; viro tov KaXd/juov to, ttoXXo, e^o) 
/iieXava^. el Be ^ovXecrOe tl Kal tmv diroppriTcov 
fjbaOelv, ecTTL (Jlol to (TTri6o<i Saav Kal Xdatov coairep 



of bread. In the matter of being kissed and kissing 
I suffer no inconvenience whatever. And yet for 
this as for other purposes a beard is evidently 
troublesome^ since it does not allow one to press 
shaven " lips to other lips more sweetly " — because 
they are smooth, I suppose — as has been said already 
by one of those who with the aid of Pan and 
Calliope composed poems in honour of Daphnis.^ 
But you say that I ought to twist ropes from it ! 
Well I am willing to provide you with ropes if only 
you have the strength to pull them and their 
roughness does not do dreadful damage to your 
"unworn and tender hands." ^ And let no one 
suppose that I am offended by your satire. For 
I myself furnish you with an excuse for it 
by wearing my chin as goats do, when I might, 
I suppose, make it smooth and bare as hand- 
some youths wear theirs, and all women, who 
are endowed by nature with loveliness. But you, 
since even in your old age you emulate your own 
sons and daughters by your soft and delicate way 
of living, or perhaps by your effeminate dispositions, 
carefully make your chins smooth, and your manhood 
you barely reveal and slightly indicate by your 
foreheads, not by your jaws as I do. 

But as though the mere length of my beard were 
not enough, my head is dishevelled besides, and I 
seldom have my hair cut or my nails, while my 
fingers are nearly always black from using a pen. 
And if you would like to learn something that 
is usually a secret, my breast is shaggy, and covered 

^ Daphnis is the hero of bucolic poetry ; Julian echoes 
Theocritus 12. 32 hs St /ce irpoafid^rj y\vK€pwTepa x^t^fo"' X^^^V- 
2 Odyssty 22. 151 ; of. Zonaras*13. 12. 213, Dindorf. 



Tcor XeovTcov, onrep ^aaiXevovai tmv OrjpLcov, ovBe 
eiroirjaa Xelov avro TrcoTrore Sea hvcrKo\iav koI 
fiiKpoTrpeTreiav, ovBe aXXo re fiepo^; rod (Tco/jLaro<; C 
€ipya<7d/jLr}v Xelov ovBe fiaXaKov. elirov 7' av 
v/juv, €1 Tt9 "^v fiot, Kol aKpo^opSayv wcnrep t« 
K.iK€pQ)vr^ vvvX S* ov/c ecTTL. /cat el'^ crvyyivo)- 
(TK6T6, cfypdcro) vpZv KOL ^ erepov. ifjLol yap ovk 
airo^pxi '^0 aMfia elvai toiovto, 7rpo<; Be koX Blacra 
Tray^aXeTTO? iTnrrjBeverai,. etpyco rcov Oedrpcov 
e/juavTov vir d^eXryplaf;, ovB>* elaco t*}? avXrjf; 
7rapaSe')(^o/jLai rrjv dvfieXrjv €^(o ttj^ vovfjLrjvia<; rod 
eTof9 VTT dvai(Tdr]aLa<;, wairep riva (fiopov rj D 
BaafJLov el(T(f)€pci)v kol d7roSi,Bov<i aypoiKO'^ oXiya 
e^fov OVK iineiKel Becnrorr). kol t6t€ Se elcreXOcov 
rol<^ d<f)oaLOVfjLevoL<^ eocKa. * Kefcrrjfjiac Be ovBeva, 
Kai ravra ^aai,Xev<; d/covcov fieya<;, 09 KaOdirep 
VTTap^o^ 7] arparriyo^ Bid Trdar)^ rrjf} oLKOv/juevijc; 
dp^ei Twv ixifjicdv kol tmv 7]vl6x(^v' oirep vf^eU 
opwvre's oXiy(p irporepov 

dvafJbifJbvrjaKeaOe vvv 
i]^r)<; eKeivrj^ vov t' eKeivov koI (fypevMv.'^ 

*Hv fjuev ovv Lcrco<; /cal tovto ^apv /cal Bely/ia 340 
evapye^i fMox^VP^^^ rpoTrov ir po a t 107] fxi, Be iyco 
Ti Kaivorepov del' fjnaOi ra? CTrTroBpofiLa^, coawep 
01 'X^prj fiara oocfyXrj/coTef; ra<; dyopd<^. oXiydKi^; 
ovv eh avrd^i ^olto) ev rai^; eopTal<; tmv Oewv 

' KiKepcoui Naber, cf. Plutarch, Cicero, Klfxwvi Hertlein, 
MSS. 2 ^i Reiske, & Hertlein, MSS. 

^ vfuy Kal Reiske, fieu Hertlein, MSS. 

* avajuifivf^a-Kca-d^ — <pp€vS>v Hertlein writes as prose ; Brambs 
identified as a fragment of Cratinus. 



with hair, like the breasts of lions who among wild 
beasts are monarehs like me, and I have never in my 
-life made it smooth, so ill-conditioned and shabby 
am I, nor have I made any other part of my 
body smooth or soft. If I had a wart like Cicero,^ I 
would tell you so ; but as it happens I have none. 
And by your leave I will tell you something else. I 
am not content with having my body in this rough 
condition, but in addition the mode of life that I 
practise is very strict indeed. I banish myself from 
the theatres, such a dolt am I, and I do not admit 
the thymele ^ within my court except on the first day 
of the year, because I am too stupid to appreciate 
it ; like some country fellow who from his small 
means has to pay a tax or render tribute to a harsh 
master. And even when I do enter the theatre I 
look like a man who is expiating a crime. Then 
again, though I am entitled a mighty Emperor, 
I employ no one to govern the mimes and chariot- 
drivers as my lieutenant or general throughout the 
inhabited world. And observing this recently, ^' You 
now recall that youth of his, his wit and wisdom." ^ 

Perhaps you had this other grievance and clear 
proof of the worthlessness of my disposition — for 
I keep on adding some still more strange character- 
istic — I mean that I hate horse-races as men who 
owe money hate the market-place. Therefore I 
seldom attend them, only during the festivals of the 

^ cf. Plutarch, Cicero, who says that Cicero had a wart on 
his nose. 

'^ i e. the altar of Dionysus which was set up in the 

3 CvditmnH, Eimidaefr. 1; cf. Synesius, Episfle 129 ; Julian 
refers to Constantius, whom the people of Antioch now com- 
pare with him. 



ovhe Siij/jLepevci), KaOdirep elcodeaav 6 re aveyjno^; 
€/jbb(; Koi 6 6elo<; teal o dB6\(f)b<; o op^oirdrpio^. 
6^ Be Tou? irdvra^; Oecofievo^; Spofiovf;, ovS^ avrovf; 
ft)9 dv T£9 ipcbv Tov TTpdyfjbaTO'i rj vol /xd Aia /jltj B 
IJLi<jo)u avTo /jLTjBe d7ro(TTpe(f>o/jL€vo<;, dafievo^ diraX- 

AWa ra fiev e^co ravra' KairoL iroarov 
elp7)Tai fioi fjuepo^ tmv ificbv eh u/ta? dSiKrjfidrcov; 
ra he evhov dypvTrvot vv/cref; ev (m/SdSi,, koI 
TpO(f>r) 7ravrb<; rjTTODv Kopov iriKpov r)6o<; nroiel 
Kai rpvipcoay iroXei iroXe/jLLov. ov fjLrjv v/jloou 
y eve/ca rovro iTnrijSeveraL Trap* ifiov' Seivrj 
Be TL^ e/c TracBapiov [le Kal dvorjro^ dirdrr) 
Karaka^ovaa rfj yaarpl TroXefielv eireiaev, ovBe 
eTrtrpeTrco ttoWmv e/bbTTL/jLTrXaadai atrtcov avrfj. C 
6\i,yt(TrdKi<^ ^ ovv e/mol royv irdvrwv efxecraL avve^r). 
Kai fJLefJLvqfxaL avro iraOdyv i^ orov fcalaap eyevo- 
fjLTjv aira^ diro av/jb7rTQ)fiaT0<s, ov 7rXrjapov7J<;. 
d^Lov Be viro/jLvrja-drjvai BtrjyTjfiarof; ovBe avrov 
Trdvv ')(apievTo<i, ifiol Be Bid tovto fid\i(TTa 


^FiTvy')(^avov e^ce) ')(eiixd^cov irepl rrjv (j)L\r]v D 
KovKenav ovo/jid^ovat 5' ovrcof; ol KeXrot twv 
YlapLaiwv rrjv TroXi^vrjv eari B* ov /jueydXr} V7]ao<; 
eyKeifxevT) rw Trorafio), kol avrrjv kvkXg) irdaav 
rel^o^ TrepiXa/j^^dvet,'^ ^vXtvai 3* eV avryv 
a/jL(porep(oOev eladyovai ye<pvpai, /cat 6XiydKt<; 
o 7rorafjLo<^ eXaTTOvrat Kal fiei^cov yiverai, rd 
TToXXa B eartv 07roto<s o)pa 6epov<; koI yeijJbMVO'^, 

^ oAiyicrrdKis Hertlein suggests, oXiydias MSS. 

^ TrepiKu/i.ddvei Cobet, KaTaAa/jL^dyei Hertlein, MSS. 



gods ; and I do not stay the whole day as my cousin ^ 
used to do, and my uncle ^ and my brother and my 
father's son.^ Six races are all that I stay to see, 
and not even those with the air of one who loves 
the sport, or even, by Zeus, with the air of one who 
does not hate and loathe it, and I am glad to get 

But all these things are externals ; and indeed 
what a small fraction of my offences against you 
have I described ! But to turn to my private life 
within the court. Sleepless nights on a pallet and 
a diet that is anything rather than surfeiting make 
my temper harsh and unfriendly to a luxurious city 
like yours. However it is not in order to set an 
example to you that I adopt these habits. But in 
my childhood a strange and senseless delusion came 
over me and persuaded me to war against my belly, 
so that I do not allow it to fill itself with a great 
quantity of food. Thus it has happened to me most 
rarely of all men to vomit my food. And though I 
remember having this experience once, after I 
became Caesar, it was by accident and was not due 
to over-eating. It may be worth while to tell the 
story which is not in itself very graceful, but for 
that very reason is especially suited to me. 

1 happened to be in winter quarters at my beloved 
Lutetia — for that is how the Celts call the capital of 
the Parisians. It is a small island lying in the river ; 
a wall entirely surrounds it, and wooden bridges 
lead to it on both sides. The river seldom rises and 
falls, but usually is the same depth in the winter as 

. ^ Constantius. 

^ Count Julian who had been Governor of Antioch. cf. 
Letter 13. ^ Callus his half-brother. 



v^cop 7]8taTOV fcal KaOapcorarov opdv koI Trivetv 
iOekovTi 'Trape')((i>v. are yap vtjctov oiKovvra^ 
vSpeveaOai /jLaXiara ivOevhe XPV' Y^verat 8e 
KoX ')(eL!xci)v ifcel irpaorepo^ elre vtto T779 Oipfir]^; 341 
Tov oifceavov- crrdSia yap aTre^e* ~''i>v evvaKOcimv 
ov irXelw, Ka\ SiaSiSoraL rv^bv Xn/rrr] Tt9 avpa 
TOV vBarof;, elvai he Bok€l depfiorepov to OaXaTTCOv 
TOV yXvK€o<;' ecTe ovv 6k TavT7]<^ elre eK tcvo<; 
aXXrj<; acTta^ d(f)avov<; e/juoi, to Trpdyfid iaTi 
TOiovTOV, dXeetvoTepov e^ovcnv ol to '^coplov 
OLKOvvTe<; tov ')(6LiJiO)va, Ka\ (fyveTao Trap' avTol<; 
dfiTreXo^ dyaOij, kuI avKO.^ ijSr] elcnv ot ^ ip/q'^avrj- 
aavTOy <TKeTrd^ovTe<; avTO,^ tov ')(eLp.(i}vo^ Mairep B 
ip,aTL0i^ Tjj KaXap^rj tov irvpov Ka\ TOtovTot^; 
Tiaiv, bcra elwOev eipyeiv Tyv Ik tov depo<i 
67nytyvop,€vr}v TOt<; Bev8pot,<^ ^Xd/Srjv. eyeveTO Srj 
ovv -^ecp^oiv TOV elcodoTO^i crc^oBpoTepo^, Kal 
7rap6(f)ep€V 6 7roTap.o<i axTTrep /jLap/j,dpov TrXa/ca?* 


eat/cet p^dXtaTa tcl KpvGTciXXa^ pueydXa fcal 

eTrdXXrjXa (f)6pop,eva' /cal Br) Kal (jvve')(7) iroielv 

7]Brj TOV TTopov ep^eXXe Kal to pevpua yecj^vpovv. C 

ft)? ovv iv TovTOi<; dypccoTepof; rjv tov avvrjOov^y 

eOdXireTO Be to BcopudTiov ovBap^co^;, ovirep eKd- 

OevBov, bvirep elcodet, Tpoirov viroyaioi^;^ Kap,LVOi<; 

TO, TToXXd Tcov oLKyp^dTcov €K€L deppbaiveadaiy 

Kal TavTa e^ov €VTpe7r(o<; irpo^ to TrapaBe^aoSai 

Tr)V eK TOV Trvpo<=; dXeav avve^y S* olpuat Kal 

1 eia-iv ot Cobet, rivis elaiv oi Hertlein, MSS. 
'^ Thv — KpvcTTaWa Hertlein suggests, ^ e(j;«-€i fidAiara tov 
XevKov rovTov to. KpvaraKXa, MSS. 

^ vTToyaiois Naber, cf. Pliny Ep. 2 17 ; virh rats Hertlein, 




in the summer season, and it provides water which is 
very clear to the eye and very pleasant for one who 
wishes to drink. For since the inhabitants live on 
an island they have to draw their water chiefly from 
the river. The winter too is rather mild there, 
perhaps from the warmth of the ocean, which is not 
more than nine hundred stades distant, and it may 
be that a slight breeze from the water is wafted so 
far ; for sea water seems to be warmer than fresh. 
Whether from this or from some other cause obscure 
to me, the fact is as I say, that those who live in 
that place have a warmer winter. And a good kind 
of vine grows thereabouts, and some persons have 
even managed to make fig-trees grow by covering 
them in winter with a sort of garment of wheat 
straw and with things of that sort, such as are used 
to protect trees from the harm that is done them by 
the cold wind. As I was saying then, the winter 
was more severe than usual, and the river kept 
bringing down blocks like marble. You know, I 
suppose, the white stone that comes from Phrygia ; 
the blocks of ice were very like it, of great size, and 
drifted down one after another ; in fact it seemed 
likely that they would make an unbroken path and 
bridge the stream. The winter then was more 
inclement than usual, but the room where I slept 
was not warmed in the way that most houses are 
heated, I mean by furnaces underground ; and that 
too though it was conveniently arranged for letting 
in heat from such a fire. But it so happened 
I suppose, because I was awkward then as now, and 



Tore Bia a KaiorrjTa rr)v ifirjv koI rr)v et? ifjuavrov 
irpMTOv, ft)9 €Ik6<;, airavO payiriav i^ovXofirjv yap 
idi^eLv i/juavrbv avkyeaOai rov aepa ravrrj'; 
dvevB€(o<; €')(pvTa T'fj<; ^orjOeCa^;. <»9 3e o '^cl/jlcov 
eTTeKpoLTeL kolI ael /jl€l^(op iireyivero, Oep/jLrjpaL D 
fiev ovS* o)? iirirpe'yjra TOi<; v7rrjpeTai,<; to OLKrjfia, 
SeStft)? Kcvrjaac rrjv iv tol<; tol'^ol<; vypoTTjra, 
KOfiLcraL ^' evBov ixeXeuo-a irvp K€Kav fxevov koX 
dvdpaKa<; Xa/XTrpou? airodkaQai iravTe\(t)<; fxeTpiov;, 
ol Be Kaiirep 6vT6<i ov iroXXol TrajxirXTjOelf; cltto 
TMV Toi')((ov dT/jLov<; eKivrjaav, v(j) u)v tcareBapOov, 
i/jLTTtfMTrXa/jiivTjf; Be jjlol tt}? K€(f)aXrj(; iBerjcra fjuev 
dTTOTrvLyrjvai, KOfitaOeh S* ef«, Ta)v larpMV 342 
TrapaivovvTOdv diroppl'^ai rrjv ivreOelcrav dpn 
Tpo<pijv, OUT I [xa A La 7roXXr)v ovaap, e^e^aXov, 
Kal iyevo/uiTjv avru/ca paoov, oiare fjuoi yeveaOai 
KOV(f)OT€pav rrjv vvKra Kal rrj'^ vaTepaia<^ irpdr- 

T61V OfTLWep edeXoLjJLL. 

OvTOD jxev ovv iyo) fcal iv KeXrot? Kara rov 
Tov M^evdvBpov AvaKoXov avrb^ ifiavra) irovovi 
irpocreriOriv. aXX' 77 ILeXriav fiev ravra paov 
€(f>€pev dypoL/cia, ttoX*? 3' evBaifKov Kal jjuaKapia 
Kal iroXvdvO pwiro^ eoKOTcof; d^derai,, iv y iroXXol B 
fxev op^rjarau, ttoXXoI 8' avXyral, fil/jboi Be 
7rXeiov<; tmv ttoXltcov, alBa)<; S' ovk eariv dp^^^ov- 
Tcov. ipvOpidv yap irpeTrei tol<; dvdvBpoi<i, eVet 
T0fc9 ye dvBpeioi^y uiairep v/jLel<i, ecoOev Kw/xd^eiv, 
vuKTcop rjBvTTadelv, otl tcov vofjucov vTrepopdre fjurj 



displayed inhumanity first of all, as was natural, 
towards myself. For I wished to accustom myself 
to bear the cold air without needing this aid. And 
though the winter weather prevailed and continually 
increased in severity, even so I did not allow my 
servants to heat the house, because I was afraid of 
drawing out the dampness in the walls ; but I 
ordered them to carry in fire that had burned down 
and to place in the room a very moderate number of 
hot coals. But the coals, though there were not 
very many of them, brought out from the walls 
quantities of steam and this made me fall asleep. 
And since my head was filled with the fumes I was 
almost choked. Then I was carried outside, and 
since the doctors advised me to throw up the food 
I had just swallowed, — and it was little enough, by 
Zeus — , I vomited it and at once became easier, so 
that I had a more comfortable night, and next day 
could do whatever I pleased. 

After this fashion then, even when I was among 
the Celts, like the ill-tempered man in Menander,^ 
" 1 myself kept heaping troubles on my own head." 
But whereas the boorish Celts used easily to put up 
with these ways of mine, they are naturally resented 
by a prosperous and gay and crowded city in which 
there are numerous dancers and flute players and 
more mimes than ordinary citizens, and no respect 
at all for those who govern. For the blush of 
modesty befits the unmanly, but manly fellows like 
you it befits to begin your revels at dawn, to spend 
your nights in pleasure, and to show not only by 

^ cf. Oration 3. 113 C, note. Cobet thinks that the verse 
in Menander, Duskolos was avrhs 5' i/xaurc^ Trpoa-TiOrjiJii robs 




Xoyo) BiBdcTKeLV, aXXa rot? epyoi,^ evheiKwcrOai. 
KoX yap ol vofjboi cpoffepol Bia tov<; ap')(ovra<^- 
&<TT€ 6aTL<; ap'xpvra v^pLaev ovto<; ck irepiOvaLa^ 
T0U9 v6/jL0v<; KareTrdrrjaev' ci)9 3 evrt tovtol^ C 
ev(ppat>v6fjb€Poi BrjXov iroielTe 'iroXka')(pv fjuev, ovx 
TjKLCTTa B* iv Tal<i dyopal<; fcal ev toI<; dearpoi^;, 

dlTO fJL€V Tft)I^ KpOTCOV KOI dlTO TT]^ ^Or]<; 3^/1,09, 

01 S' ez^ riXet ro) yvcopifioorepoL /jloXXov eivai /cat 
ovofJid^ecrOai nrapd iraaiv d(f) a)v et9 Ta<; rocavra^; 
eoprdfi iSairavrjaav rj ^oXcov 6 ^AOrjvalofi cltto 
T^9 7ryoo9 KpoLcrov Tov AvBcbv ^aatkea avvovaia<;, 
KcCKoi Be iravTe'^ koI /jueyaXoc Kai XeloL kul 
dykveioi, vkoi re o/iota)9 icai irpea^vrepOL ^rjXcoral J) 
T^9 evBaL/MOVLa^i tmv ^aiaKcov, 

Y/ifxard T i^Tj/jLpt^d Xoerpd re depjxd koi evvcuf; 

dvrl T^9 6(Ti,a<; aTroBe^ofievoL. 

" Trjv Br) arjv dypoLKiav KoX diravO pcoinav Kal 
aKaiorrjra tovtol<; dpjuLoaetv v7reXa^e<^; ovt(o<; 
dvorjTOV i(TTL (70L Koi (\>avXoVi o) irdvTcov dv- 
OpcoTTCJV d/jLa6e<TTaT€ Kal (piXaire'X^drjfjboveo-TaTe, 
TO Xeyofxevov vtto rSiv dyevveaTarcov aox^pov 
tovtX '\^v')(^dpiov y Br) av Kocr/jbelv Kal KaXXwiri^eiv 
(Tco^poavvr) ^prjvao vofML^€i<;; ovk 6pdct)<f, on irpS)- 
Tov /JL€V r) ao)(f)pocnjvrj OyTC ttot eaTiv ovk lapueVy 343 
ovojJLa 8' avTr)<i dK0V0VT6<; /jlovov epyov oif^ opoi)iev, 
ei S* oirolov av vvv e7nTr)BeveL^ iaTiVy iiricrTaaOaL 
/j,€V OTi deol^ ^(^pr) BovXevetv Kal v6/jlol^, ck roiv 



your words but by your deeds also that you despise 
the laws. For indeed it is only by means of those 
in authority that the laws inspire fear in men ; so 
that he who insults one who is in authority^ over 
and above this tramples on the laws. And that you 
take pleasure in this sort of behaviour you show 
clearly on many occasions_, but especially in the 
market-places and theatres ; the mass of the people 
by their clapping and shouting, while those in office 
show it by the fact that, on account of the sums 
they have spent on such entertainments, they are 
more widely known and more talked about by all 
men than Solon the Athenian ever was on account of 
his interview with Croesus the king of the Lydians.^ 
And all of you are handsome and tall and smooth- 
skinned and beardless ; for young and old alike you 
are emulous of the happiness of the Phaeacians, and 
rather than righteousness you prefer ^'^ changes of 
raiment and warm baths and beds." 2. 

"What then .^ " you answer, "did you really 
suppose that your boorish manners and savage ways 
and clumsiness would harmonise with these things ? 
O most ignorant and most quarrelsome of men, is it so 
senseless then and so stupid, that puny soul of yours 
which men of poor spirit call temperate, and which 
you forsooth think it your duty to adorn and deck 
out with temperance ? You are wrong ; for in the 
first place we do not know what temperance is and 
we hear its name only, while the real thing we 
cannot see. But if it is the sort of thing that you 
now practise, if it consists in knowing that men must 
be enslaved to the gods and the laws, in behaving 

^ For Solon's visit to Croesus at Sardis cf. Herodotus 1. 29. 
2 Odyssey 8. 249. 

F F 2 


taeov Be roL<i ofiOTi/jLOi^ 'rrpo(T<f)epecr6ai, Kal rrjv ev 
TouTot? v7repo^r]v (jyepetv Trpaorepov, iiTLfjieXeldOai 
Kal nrpovoelv, otto)? ol TrevrjTe^ viro twv ttXov- 
TOvvTcov yjKLaTa ahiKrjaovTaif Kai virep rovrov 
Trpdy/juara e^etr, oirola €Iko<; ecm aoL yeveaOat 
TToWaKt^;, aTT€')(6ela<^i 6pyd<i, XotSo/ota?" etra Kal B 
ravra (I)ep6i,v eyKparoi)^ Kal fir) ')(a\eiraiveiv fjLr)8 
eTTirpeTreip tw Ovfiw, iraiBaywyelv he avrov, &)9 
ivBe')(€TaL, Kal aw^povi^eiv el Be Kal tovto rt? 
epyov Oelro aco(f)poavv7]<;, dire^eadai 7rdar]<^ r)Sovr]<; 
ov \iav dirpewov^ ovK iirovetSlaTov BoKOvarj*; ev 
T(p cf)avepa), ireireLcr [xevo'i a)? ovk earcv iBia crco- 
(ppovelv Kal XdOpa top BrjjxocTia Kai (pavepo)^ C 
aKoXaarov elvau deXovra Kal Tepirofxevov Tol<i 
6edTpoL<^' el Br) ovv oWo)? r) crcocppoavvr) tolovtov 
eariv, aTroXwXa? fiev avro^;, diroWveLf; Be rjfid<; 
OVK dve)(^ofievov<; aKoveiv irpoiTOV ovofxa Bovkeia^ 
ovre 7r/309 6eov^ ovre 7rpo<; vofxov^' r)Bv yap ev 
irdori TO ekevOepov. 

"'H Be elpcovela iroa-r); BeairoTT)^ elvau ov (pr)<; 
ovBe dve')(r) tovto aKOvwv, dWd Kal dyavaKTel^t 
cocTTe rjBr) €7r€t(Ta<i tou? irXeiaTovf; eddBa^ TrdXai D 
yevofievovf; dc^eXelv (w? eiTi<^dovov ri)? dpxv'^ tovto 
to ovofxa, BovXevecv S' r)/jLd(; dvayKd^ecf; dp^ovcri 
Kal vojjioi^. KaiTOL ir6(T(p KpelTTOv r)v ovofid^eaOai 
fjuev ae BeairoTTjV, epyw Be edv 'r)fjM<i eivac eXev- 
Bepov^i, ft) TCL jjbev ovofJuaTa TrpaoTaTC, iriKpoTaTe 


with fairness to those of equal rank and bearing 
with mildness any superiority among them ; in 
studying and taking thought that the poor may 
suffer no injustice whatever at the hands of the rich ; 
and^ to attain this, in putting up with all the annoy- 
ances that you will naturally often meet with, hatred, 
anger, and abuse ; and then in bearing these also 
with firmness and not resenting them or giving way 
to your anger, but in training yourself as far as possible 
to practise temperance ; and if again this also one 
defines as the effect of temperance that one abstains 
from every pleasure even though it be not excessively 
unbecoming or considered blameworthy when openly 
pursued, because you are convinced that it is impos- 
sible for a man to be temperate in his private life 
and in secret, if in public and openly he is willing to 
be licentious and delights in the theatres ; if, in 
short, temperance is really this sort of thing, then 
you yourself have ruined yourself and moreover you 
are ruining us, who cannot bear in the first place 
even to hear the name of slavery, whether it be 
slavery to the gods or the laws. For sweet is liberty 
in all things ! 

" But what an affectation of humility is yours ! 
You say that you are not our master and you will not 
let yourself be so called, nay more, you resent the 
idea, so that you have actually persuaded the major- 
ity of men who have long grown accustomed to it, to 
get rid of this word ' Government ' as though it 
were something invidious ; and yet you compel us to 
be enslaved to magistrates and laws. But how much 
better it would be for you to accept the name of 
master, but in actual fact to allow us to be free, you 
who are so very mild about the names we use and so 



Be ret epya; tt/oo? he tovtoi<; airoKvaiei^ jBca^o- 344 
fi€Vo<; fiev T0U9 TrXouertou? iv Si,Ka(TT7jpiot<i fierpid- 
^eiv, T0U9 Trei^ra? Be eXpyei^ (TVKO<^avTelv. ac^el? 
he rrjp aKrjvrjv koI tol'9 /JLifiov; Kol tov<; 6p')(7)ara^ 
aTToXooXefcaf; rj/jLCJv rr)V iroXiv, Mcrre ovSev rjfuv 
ayaOov virdp')(eL irapa crov irXrjv rrjf; ffapvrrjrof;, 
95? avexofievoL /irjva e^Bo/LLov tovtovX to fiev eu- 
')(ea6aL TravTco^; aTraXXayrjvai rov toctovtov kukov 
T0t9 irepl TOL'9 Ta<^oi'9 KaXLvBov/jb€voL<; ypaBloL'^ 
^vvexf^pV^^cifiev, r]fjbel^ he avro hca t?)9 y/jicou avrSiV 
evTpaTreXia'i e^etpyaadfjueda ^dXXovre^ ae T0fc9 B 
(TKoo/jbfiaatv axTTrep ro^ev/juaat. arv he, w yevvale, 
TTCtx; dve^rj ra Jlep(7c!)v ^eXr], ra rjixerepa rpecra^ 
(TKco/jL/jiara; " 

'ISou, ^ovXo/jiat TrdXcv dir dXXrj<; dp')(^rj<; e/jiavrw 
XoihoprjcraadaL. ** ^otTa<; 6^9 to, lepd, hvcr/coXe koX 
hvarpoire kol Trdvra iJbO')(drjpe. avppeX hia ae rd 
irXrjOr) irpo^i rd re/jievrj kol jievroi koX ol irXeiov<^ 
TMV iv reXei, kol d'TTohi')(pvTai ae avv ^ofj fierd 
KpoTcov Xa/jL7rp(o<; iv to?9 refievecrtv cdairep iv Tot<; 
dedrpoci. n ovv ovk dya7ra<; ovh* e7raive2<;, dXX C 
eVt%ei/96t9 elvat ao^(OT€po<; rd roiavra rov Tlv- 
OioVy KoX hrj/ji7]yopec<; iv rm nrXrjOet,, Kal KaOdirrr} 
Tcov ^ocovTCOV 7rcKp(0<; avrb hr} rovro Xeycov, ax; 
'T/ji€t<; TCOV Oecov eveKev 6XiydKi<^ el<; rd refievr) 
<TVvep')(e(T6e, avvhpajiovre^; he hi ifxe iroXXr}^ 
dKoajjbia^i dvaTTLfJiTrXaTe rd lepd. Trpeirei K dv- D 
hpdo-i adocfypocTL KeKoafi7)fievco<; ev'^eaOai, (riyfj 



very strict about the things we do ! Then again you 
harass us by forcing the rich to behave with modera- 
tion in the lawcourts, though you keep the poor from 
making money by informing.^ And by ignoring the 
stage and mimes and dancers you have ruined our 
city, so that we get no gpod out of you except your 
harshness ; and this we have had to put up with 
these seven months, so that we have left it to the old 
crones who grovel among the tombs to pray that we 
may be entirely rid of so great a curse, but we our- 
selves have accomplished it by our own ingenious 
insolence, by shooting our satires at you like arrows. 
How, noble sir, will you face the darts of Persians, 
when you take flight at our ridicule ? " 

Come, I am ready to make a fresh start in abusing 
myself, " You, sir, go regularly to the temples, ill- 
tempered, perverse and wholly worthless as you are ! 
It is your doing that the masses stream into the 
sacred precincts, yes and most of the magistrates as 
well, and they give you a splendid welcome, greeting 
you with shouts and clapping in the precincts as 
though they were in the theatres. Then why do 
you not treat them kindly and praise them ? Instead 
of that you try to be wiser in such matters than the 
Pythian god,^ and you make harangues to the crowd 
and with harsh words rebuke those who shout. 
These are the very wordsyou use to them : ^ You hardly 
ever assemble at the shrines to do honour to 
the gods, but to do me honour you rush here in 
crowds and fill the temples with much disorder. 
Yet it becomes prudent men to pray in orderly 

^ i.e. bringing false accusations, which was the trade of 
the sycophant or blackmailer. 
2 Apollo who was worshipped at Daphne near Antioch. 



nrapa tmv deSiv alrovfjievoi^ ra ayaSd. tovtov 
ovK rjKpoaade rov vo/jlov Ofxrjpov 

ovS^ ft)9 'OSuo-cret'? €7r€<r%e rr]v ^vpvicXeiav eKire- 
TrXrjy/jLevrjv viro fxeyeOov^ rov KaropOco/xarof;, 

'Ev 6ufjLM, ypr)v, %atpe /cat t(7')(eo /irjS' oXoXv^e; 

Ta9 o€ or) \.pa)ada(; ovri 7rpo<i top iipiaixov tj rcva 
Twv TOVTOV OvyaTcpcov Tj vlecov, ov /uLTjp ou8' avTov 
TOP ^'RfCTOpa' fcaiTOc tovtm <prjalr co? Ocm tol/? 345 
TpSia<^ 6v)(^€aOar ev')(pfJLeva^ 8e ovk ehei^ev ev ttj 
iroiTjaeL ovts yvvaiKa^ ovt6 dvSpa<;, dXXa tj} 
^AOrjva oXoXvyrj irdcraLy <f)r}cri, ')(elpa<; dvea')(pv, 
l3apl3apCKov (Jiev koI tovto kol yvvai^l irpeirov, 
ov /JLr)v dvocrcov tt/oo? T0V<i 6eov<i wairep to irap* 
vfjLMv iTOLovfJievov. i7ratv€LT€ yap dvTi to3v OeSyv 
Tov<; dvdp(i)iTov<;, fjbdXXov Be dvTt tmv Oewv tov^ B 
dv9p(i)'Trov<; rjfjid^ KoXaK€V€T€. KaXXiaTOv S' eaTLv 
olfiai firjS' eKeivuv^ KoXaxeveov, dXXd depaireveuv 
cF(D<j>p6v(o<;. * 

'I^ov, irdXiv iyo) to, avvrjOr] t6^vct6vcl> Xe^etSia 
Koi ovh^ ifiauTM o-u7%ft)yOft) (f)6eyyea6ai &)? eTV^^ev 
aSew? fcal iXevOepco'^, dXXd viro T7]<; avvr]dov<; 
(TKatoTr]TO<; koI ijJLavTov avKo^avTO), TavTa rt? 
/cat TotavT dv Xeyoi 7rpo<; dvBpa<i ov to, 7rpo<; 
Tou? dp'yovTa<^ fiovov, dXXd /cal to, irpo^ tov<; C 
Oeov<; iXevOepov; elvai OeXovTa^, otto)? tl<; evvov; 



fashion, and to ask blessings from the gods in silence. 
Have you never heard Homer's maxim, " In silence, 
to yourselves"! — , or how Odysseus checked Eury- 
cleia when she was stricken with amazement by 
the greatness of his success, " Rejoice, old woman, in 
thy heart, and restrain thyself, and utter no loud 
cry"?2 And again. Homer did not show us the 
Trojan women praying to Priam or to any one of his 
daughters or sons, nay not even to Hector himself 
(though he does indeed say that the men of Troy 
were wont to pray to Hector as to a god) ; but in his 
poems he did not show us either women or men in 
the act of prayer to him, but he says tliat to Athene 
all the women lifted up their hands with a loud cry,^ 
whicii was in itself a barbaric thing to do and suit- 
able only for women, but at any rate it displayed no 
impiety to the gods as does your conduct. For you 
applaud men instead of the gods, or rather instead 
of the gods you flatter me who am a mere man. But 
it would be best, I think, not to flatter even the 
gods but to worship them with temperate hearts.' " 

See there I am again, busy with my usual 
phrase-making ! I do not even allow myself to speak 
out at random fearlessly and freely, but with my 
usual awkwardness I am laying information against 
myself. It is thus and in words like these that 
one ought to address men who want to be free 
not only with respect to those who govern them 
but to the gods also, in order that one may be 
considered well-disposed towards them, "like an 

1 Iliad 7. 195 

rScpp' vfi^h ivx^crde Ail KpovicoiH, &vaKTi. 
(TtyTj 4(p' ufj.eiaii', 'iva fx^ Tpa>4s ye irvdocVTai. 

2 Odyssey 22. 411. » /^^-^^ q ^qi 



avTot^; (ocTTrep irarrjp 7]7no<; vojiiaOeir), (fivaet 
irovrfpo^ ojv axrirep iyo). ave'xpv tolvvv avrSfV 
jiiaovvTCOv Kol \oi,8opovvrci)v \d6pa rj /cat (f)a- 
V€p&<;, €7r€t-Sr} KoXaKevcLV ipo/jnaa^ tov<; ev rot? 
lepol^ opfjbfi /ilia ^ are €7raLvovvra<;. ov yap oljiiat 
BievoijOr/f; otto)? ap/juoaei tcov avBpcJv ovre TOL<i 
iircrrjBevfiacriv ovre tol<; fyStoi? ovre roL<; rjOeauv. 
etev. aXX' ixeivo tl<^ ave^erai aov; KaOevheif; 
ft)? iiTLTrav vvKToyp fxovo^ ovh eariv ovBev, 6 crov D 
rov aypcov ical avrnjuepov /jiaXd^ei Ovjiov diroKe- 
Kketarai he irdar) 'TravTa')(ov irdpoSof; yXvKvOvfiCa' 
Kal TO fieytarov rSiv KaKMV, on TOiovrov ^cov 
jSlov ev^paivr} Kal ireiroir^aai ra^ K0iva<; Kardpa*; 
ySov7]v. elra dyavaKrel^;, ef rov ra rotavra 
dKoveL<;; e^ov elBevai %a/3ti/ roZ<i vir evvoia<^ ifju- 
/jLeXecrrepov ae vovOerovatv ev toi<; dvaTraiaroi^; 
diro'^^CKSiaaL fiev ra? Trapeid^, KaXa Be diro 
(javTOv TrpcoTOv dp^dfxevov BeiKVvetv Trdvra t& 
BrjiJiw T(£> (fxXoyeXcoTi r&Se ded/jLara, /JLifiovf;, 346 
6p')(7)(nd<;, r/Kiara alax^vofievaf; yvvalica^y irai- 
hdpia Trepl fcdWov<; dfiiXkcofieva ral^ yvvat^Lv, 
avBpa<^ dTreyjrtXcofjievov^ ovri ra? yvdOov^; /jLovov, 
dXXd Kal dirav to (XMfJLa, XeioTepoi rwi^ yvuacKcov 
O'TTco^ (f>aivoiVTO TOL<; evTvyx^dvovcTLV, eoy^ra?, iravrj- 
yvpeifiy ovTv /jua Aia ra? Upd^;, ev al<; XPV or(^(ppo- 
velv dXi,<i fjuev yap eKeivoav ecTTiVy oycrTep rr}? 

1 bpfi^ fiia Naber, dpd>fi€v6y Hertlein, MSS. 


indulgent father/' ^ even though one is by nature 
an ill-conditioned person like myself : " Bear with 
them then, when they hate and abuse you in secret 
or even openly, since you thought that those who 
applauded you with one accord in the temples were 
only flattering you. For surely you did not suppose 
that you would be in harmony with the pursuits 
or the lives or the temperaments of these men. I 
grant that. But who will bear with this other habit 
of yours ? You always sleep alone at night, and there 
is no way of softening your savage and uncivilised 
temper — since all avenues are closed to anything that 
might sweeten your disposition, — and the worst of all 
these evils is that you delight in living that sort of 
life and have laid pleasure under a general ban. Then 
can you feel aggrieved if you hear yourself spoken 
of in such terms ? No, you ought to feel grateful 
to those who out of kindness of heart admonish 
you wittily in anapaestic verse to shave your cheeks 
smooth, and then, beginning with yourself, first 
to show to this laughter-loving people all sorts 
of fine spectacles, mimes, dancers, shameless women, 
boys who in their beauty emulate women_, and 
men who have not only their jaws shaved smooth 
but their whole bodies too, so that those who meet 
them may think them smoother than women ; yes 
and feasts too and general festivals, not, by Zeus, 
the sacred ones at which one is bound to behave 
with sobriety. No, we have had enough of those, 
like the oak tree in the proverb ; ^ we are completely 

' Odyssey 5. 12. 

2 The phrase 5pGs Koi irerpa, literally, "the oak tree and 
the rock " became a proverb for something hackneyed ; cf. 
Hesiod, Theogony 35, A\A^ tit? |Uoi ravra irepl dpvv ^ irepl 
Tr4rpriv ; 



Spv6<i, Kol TToXvf; 6 Kopo<; avrodv. edvaev 6 Kalaap B 
iv T^ tot) Aio? UTra^, elra iv rco rrj<; Tv)(7]<;, eh 
TO Trj<; A7]/jLr]Tpo<i rph e(f)e^rj<; i^dSiaev eiriXe- 
Xijo-fiaL yap eh to tt}? Ad<]>V7js- oaaKC^; elarfKOov 
refievo<i, irpoSodev fiev oXiycopia tmv ^vXclkcov, 
rah Se t(ov ddecjv dvBpcov roX/jLai^; dcpaviaOev. rj 
%vpwv 7]Kec vov/j,7)VLa, /cal 6 /calcrap avdt,^ eh 
^cXiov Ato9' elra rj 7rdyKOLVo<; eoprrj, koI o 
Kalcrap eh rb t^? Tu^?;? ep'^erai re/juevof;. eiri- C 
(T^cov he rr)v diroc^pdha irdXiv 69 ^lXlov Alo<; ra<; 
ev)(^d<; dvaXa/jL^dvec Kara ra Trdrpia. Kal rh 
dve^erat rocravrdKC<; eh lepa (f)Oi,rc()vro<; Kaiaapo^y 
e^ov aira^ r] ot? evo')(XeLv Tot? ueotff, emreXeiv be 
ra<; 7ravrjyvpec<; e/cetVa?, oTToaat Koival fiev elat 
rravrX ra> S'^/juw Kal wv e^earo iJbere)(^eiv ov roh 
eirKTrafxevoif; fjuovov 6eov<i} dXXa Kal roh cov ^ 
iarcv r) ttoXl'? rrXrjprj'^; rjSovTj 8e ttoXXtj Kal 
')(dpire'^y oTToia^i dv n^ ev^paivouro Si7}veKco<; 
KapiTovfJuevo^y opcop 6p)(^ov/jLevov<; avSpa^; Kal irai- D 
Bdpia Kal yvvaia rroXXd. 

^'Orav ovv ravra Xoyiacojjbai.^ fiaKapi^co fxev 
vp,a^ T?79 evhaip^ovia^, ep^avrw 8e ovk dx^ofiai' 

"^ fi6vov deovs Hertlein suggests, deovs MSS. 
2 Tols Sv Naber, S>v Hertlein, MSS. 



surfeited with them. The Emperor sacrificed once 
ill the temple of Zeus^ then in the temple of 
Fortune ; he visited the temple of Demeter three 
times in succession." (I have in fact forgotten 
how many times I entered the shrine of Daphne, 
which had been first abandoned owing to the 
carelessness of its guardians, and then destroyed 
by the audacious acts of godless men.^) " The 
Syrian New Year arrived, and again the Emperor 
went to the temple of Zeus the Friendly One. 
Then came the general festival, and the Emperor 
went to the shrine of Fortune. Then, after refraining 
on tlie forbidden day,^ again he goes to the temple 
of Zeus the Friendly One, and offers up prayers 
according to the custom of our ancestors. Now 
who could put up with an Emperor who goes 
to the temples so often, when it is in his power 
to disturb the gods only once or twice, and to 
celebrate the general festivals which are for all 
the people in common, those in which not only 
men whose profession it is to have knowledge of 
the gods can take part, but also the people who 
have crowded into the city ? For pleasure is here 
in abundance, and delights whose fruits one could 
enjoy continuously ; for instance the sight of men 
and pretty boys dancing, and any number of 
cliarming women." 

When I take all this into account, I do indeed 
congratulate you on your good fortune, though I do 

^ The Christians invaded the shrine of Apollo at Daphne 
and the priests of Apollo abandoned it to them. Julian 
destroyed the Christian Church there and restored the wor- 
ship of Apollo. 

'^ Literally the "day not to be mentioned," i.e. "unholy 
day," nefandua dies, on which business was suspended, 



(f)iXa yap earl fioo Kara riva 6eov o(T(o<; ravra. 
hioirep ovK dyavaKToyy ev care, rol^; ^va')(epaivov(ri 
fjLOV T(p ^L(p Kol TTJ irpoaipedeL. Trpoo-riOrj/iL 8' 
avTO^; ocra Svvarov iarC fiot toc<; €^9 ijjLavrbv 
(TK(Ofi/jbaat /jL€L^6v(0(; eVt/cara^ewt' ifiavTOv ravracrl 
Ta<; \oihopia<;y 09 vtto a<ppoavvr)(; ov (Tvvrj/ca, 347 
TTorairov i^ ^PX^^ '^^ rrjahe t^9 irokeo)^ '^Oo<;, 
Kol ravra rcov rjXtKicorcov rS>v i/JLcov, 009 ep/ivrov 
TreiOcOy ^t/SXia aveki^a^ ovSevo^i dpi6fibv iXdrreo. 
Xeyerai roi rrore rov errcovv/jiov rijaSe rri<^ TroXecofi 
^acrtXea, p,aX\ov he ovirep eiroovv fio^; ijSe rj rroXtfi 
(TvvwKicrOrj' TreTroXiarat ^ pev <ydp vtto ^ekevKov, 
rovvop,a Be e^ei oltto rov ^eXevKov iraiBof;' ov Brj 
^aai hi virepl^oXrjv djSporrjrof; fcal rpv(j)rj<; epoyvra B 
del Kal epcopevov reXo<; dhi/cov epcora rrjfi eavrov 
p7jrpvLd<; ipaadrjvar /cpvirrecv 8' eOeXovra ro 
irddo'i ov hvvaadaiy ro aoypa h avra> Kara 
p^iKpov rrjKopevov dcjiavcofj OLx^adat, Kal vrroppelv 
Ta9 hvvdpbeL^;, Kal ro rrvevpia eXarrov elvai rov 
(TwijOov^;. efpKei h^ olpxii rd ^ Kar avrov alvij- 
puart,, cra^f] pev ovk i^ovarj<; alriav rri<; voaov, 
pbdXXov he ovh^ avrrj<i, '^ri^; irori iari, (f>aLVopevrj(;, C 
ivap<yov<; 8' ovcrr]<; rrj^ irepl ro pueipaKiov dade- 
veia<^. evOdhe peya^ d6Xo<; larpS irpovreOr) ra> 
XapbiO) rrjv voaov, r)rm irore iartv, e^evpelv. 6 
he v7rovorj(Ta<^ eK rcov ^Opurjpovy rive^i rrore elacv 

^ vevdAiarai Cobet, Hertlein approves, Tre-Trolrirai MSS. 
^ ra Hertlein suggests, rh MSS. 



not reproach myself. For perhaps it is some god 
who has made me prefer my own ways. Be assured 
tiien that I have no grievance against those who 
quarrel with my way of life and my choice. But 
1 myself add, as far as I can, to the sarcasms against 
myself and with a more liberal hand 1 pour down on 
my own head these abusive charges. For it was due 
to my own folly that I did not understand what has 
been the temper of this city from the beginning ; 
and that too though I am convinced that I have 
turned over quite as many books as any man of my 
own age. You know of course the tale that is told 
about the king who gave his name to this city — or 
rather whose name the city received when it was 
colonised^ for it was founded by Seleucus, though it 
takes its name from the son ^ of Seleucus — ; they 
say ^ then that out of excessive softness and luxury 
the latter was constantly falling in love and being 
lovedj and finally he conceived a dishonourable 
passion for his own step-mother. And though he 
wished to conceal his condition he could not, and 
little by little his body began to waste away and to 
become transparent, and his powers to wane, and his 
breathing was feebler than usual. But what could 
be the matter with him was, 1 think, a sort of riddle, 
since his malady had no visible cause, or rather it 
did not even appear what was its nature, though the 
youth's weakness was manifest. Then the physician 
of Samos ^ was set a difficult problem, namely to 
discover what was the nature of the malady. Now 
he, suspecting from the words of Homer* what is 

^ i.e. Antiochus. ^ cf. Plutarch, Demetrius. 

^ i.e. Erasistratus. 

^ The phrase occurs in Heaiod, Works and Days 66, but 
not in Homer. 



al yvto^opoL fieke^oivat, koI otl TroWaKK; ovk 
aaOeveia o-a)/jLaTO<;, aW appwana ylrvyij*; alria 
ylyverai Tr)Keh6vo<; tm adOfjuarc, koX to /JLetpaKLOv 
opoiv viro T€ rj\iKLa^ Kai avvrjOeiaf; ovk avacppo- 
BiTov, oBbv irpaireTO rocavrrjv eVt rr)v rov voarj- 
fiaro^ Orjpav. KaOi^ei ttXtjctlov t^9 KXivr)<; a<j)opS)v D 
et9 TO TrpoacoTTov tov /meipaKLOv, irapievaL K6kevaa<^ 
Ka\ov<; Te koI Ka\a<i airo ri}? fiaatkiSof; ap^a- 
fievov^i. 7) S* ft)9 rjXOev, iTna-Keyjrofjiepr) hrjdev 
avTov, avTLKa iSlBov to, avvOrjfjLaTa tov irddovf; 
6 veavia^, aaOfia to)v 0X1/3 ofievcov i^(f)i€Ly eTve^eiv 
yap avTO Kivov[xevov Kaiirep a(p6Spa edekwv ov^ 
oIo9 T6 YfVy Kol Tapa')(r] rjv tov irvevfJiaTo^ /cal 
TToXv TTepl TO 7rp6ao)7rov ipvdrjfjia. raOra opMv 348 
6 iaTpo<; TTpoadyec tm aTcpvo) ttjv yelpay icai 
€.iTr]Ba B€iV(o<; rj Kaphia kol e^w 'Uto. roiavTa 
CLTTa erra(7')(ev €fC€LV7]<; Trapov(T7]<^' iirel Be dirrjX- 
deVy eTTiovTcov aXXcov, dTpe/jia<^ el^^e koI rjv 6/jloio<; 
T0t9 ovBev 'Trda')(ovaL. (JwiBoav Be to 7rd6o<^ 6 
^^pa(Ti(JTpaTO<^ (f)pd^€i 7rpo9 tov jBaatXea, kol 
09 VTTO lov (piXoTratf; elvat, 7rapa')(^(op€LV 6(f)r) tco 
TratBl Tr}9 yafxeTrj^. 6 Be avTL/ca ixev r/pvrjaaTO' 
Te\evT7]aavT0<^ Be tov TraTpo^ fjLLKpov vaTepov, 
r)v irpoTepov BiBojii€vr]v avTa> X^P^^ evyevo)^ 
ypvy']6rj, pudXa KpaTaLO)<; /leTeBtco^ev. 

AvTio^fp p^ev Br) TavTa e7roi,7]0r]. to2<^ B^ dir B 
€K€Lvov y€vo/jLevot,(; ov ve/jueaLf; ^rjXovv tov olfCLaTrjv 



the nature of "cares that devour the limbs," and 
that in many cases it is not a bodily weakness but 
an infirmity of soul that causes a wasting of the 
body ; and seeing moreover that the youth was very 
susceptible to love because of his time of life and his 
habits, he took the following way of tracking down the 
disease. He sat near the youth's couch and watched 
his face, after ordering handsome youths and women 
to walk past him, beginning with the queen ^ 
herself. Now when she entered, apparently to see 
how he was, the young man at once began to show 
the symptoms of his malady. He breathed like one 
who is being choked ; for though he was very 
anxious to control his agitated breathing, he could 
not, but it became disordered, and a deep blush 
spread over his face. The physician on seeing this 
laid his hand to his breast, and found that his heart 
was beating terribly fast and was trying to burst 
forth from his breast. Such were his symptoms 
while she was present ; but when she had gone 
away and others came in he remained calm and was 
like a man in a normal state of health. Then 
Erasistratus saw what ailed him and told the king, 
and he out of love for his son said that he would give 
up his wife to him. Now the youth for the moment 
refused ; but when his father died not long after, he 
sought with the greatest vehemence the favour 
which he had so honourably refused when it was 
first offered to him.^ 

Now since this was the conduct of Antiochus, I 
have no right to be angry with his descendants when 

^ Stratonice. 

^ In Plutarch's version Antiochus married Stratonice dur- 
ing his father's lifetime. 




^ Tov eiT^vvfiov} wcrirep yap ev rol<; (f)VTol<; €LKo<i 
icTTL BiahiSoo-Oat p^^XP^ iroXkov ra? TrocorrjTa';, 
L(Tco^ Be KoX iiriirav o/jLOia ra fiera ravra rot? 
e^ a)v €^\daTr](T€ (f)V6adaL, ovro) koI iirl tmv 
avOpdairwy elvat eiKo^ irapaTrXrjaia ra 7)07) tmv 
aTToyovojv rol<^ irpoyovoL^. iyo) rot koI avro<; 
€yv(DV ^Adr]vaiov<; '}LXX'i]vcov <^i\otlijlot<itov^ kclI C 
(jiCkavd payTTOTCLTOV^' Kairoi rovro ye eineiKO)^ ev 
TrdcTiv elBov tol<; "^Wrj(TLV, e%ft) S' virep avroiv 
elireZv, to? Koi (f)tXo6eoL /jbaXtara irdvTwv elal 
Kol Se^iol ra 7rpb<; tou9 ^evov<;, fcaOoXov puev 
"EXX^i^e? 7rdvTe<;, avrojv 8' 'EXX'^vcov irXeov 
TOVTO e^Q) fiaprvpeLV ^K6r}vaiOi<^. el he ifceivoi 
Stacrco^ovaiv eiKova rr]<s TraXata? ev rot? riOeatv 
dperrjf;, 6t/co9 BijTTovOev to avrb VTrdp-y^eov kul 
%vpoL<^ Kal ^ Kpa^iOL<^ koI KeXrot? ical @pa^l 
KoX Jlalo(Ti Kal TOt? ev fjueao) Keip^evocf; %paicMv 
Kal UaLovoov eV avTal<^ larpov Tal<^ tjocti D 
Mucrot?, oOev Brj Kal to yevo<^ eaTi /not irdv 
dypotKov, avaTTjpov, dSe^tov, dva<pp6SLT0v, ep,- 
p.€vov T0L<; KptdetaLV dp,eTaKLvrjT(i}<i' a Brj irdvTa 
earl Beiyp^aTa Beivr)^ dypoiKia<^. 

KiTovpLau TOLvvv vTTep epuavTov WpCOTOV (TVy- 
yvcoprjv, ev puepeu Be Kal vplv vefxca tcl iraTpca 
tprjXovaiv, ovB^ ev ovelBei 7rpo<^epopbat to 

^ev(TTai T* opxWTai Te xppoiTvirLrjaiv dpLCTTOi, 349 
TOvvavTiov Be dvT eyKCopLioyv vp,iv Trpocrelvai 
^ ivwpvfxov Hertlein suggests, bfiMWfiov MSS. 


they emulate tlieir founder or him who gave his 
name to the city. For just as in the case of plants 
it is natural that their qualities should be trans- 
mitted for a long time, or rather that, in genera^, the 
succeeding generation should resemble its ancestors ; 
so too in the case of human beings it is natural 
that the morals of descendants should resemble 
those of their ancestors. I myself, for instance, 
have found that the Athenians are the most 
ambitious for honour and the most humane of 
all the Greeks. And indeed I have observed that 
these qualities exist in an admirable degree among 
all the Greeks, and 1 can say for them that more 
than all other nations they love the gods, and 
are hospitable to strangers ; I mean all the Greeks 
generally, but among them the Athenians above 
all, as I can bear witness. And if they still preserve 
in their characters the image of their ancient virtue, 
surely it is natural that the same thing should 
be true of the Syrians also, and the Arabs and 
Celts and Thracians and Paeonians, and those who 
dwell between the Thracians and Paeonians, I mean 
the Mysians on the very banks of the Danube, 
from whom my own family is derived, a stock 
wholly boorish, austere, awkward, without charm 
and abiding immovably by its decisions ; all of which 
qualities are proofs of terrible boorishness. 

I therefore ask for forgiveness, in the first place 
for myself, and in my turn I grant it to you also 
since you emulate the manners of your forefathers, 
nor do I bring it against you as a reproach when 
I say that you are " Liars and dancers, well skilled 
to dance in a chorus " ; ^ on the contrary it is in the 

1 Iliad 24. 261. 

G G 2 


(f>rj/jLi, irarplfov ^rfKov eTrcnjBev/jidrcov. CTrel Kai 

''0/jb7)po<i iiraivSiv rbv hvroXvKov (f)7)aL irepielvai 


KXeTTTOcrvvrj 6^ op/co) re. 

fcal i/jLavTov rrjv (TKacoTTjra kol rrjv dfjLaOiav 
/cat TTjv hv<TKo\iav Kol TO p,r} paBiO)<; p^aXdrreaOai B 
fjLTjBe €7rt To2<; Seop,6Voi(; rj Tot<; e^airarSiaL ra 
ifiavTOV TTOLelaOai prjSe ral^ ^oal<; eoKCiV koX 
ra TOiavra arepyo) ovel^rj. Trorepa jxev ovv eari 
Kov^orepa, OeoL<; tcrco^; SrjXov, iireiirep dvOpcoTrwv 
ovSelf; 0I69 Te rjfjblv iartv virep tmv Si,a<f)opa)V 
/3pa^€vaar ireicro/jLeOa yap ouSayu-co? avrS) Zta 
(pcXavTuav, 6avp.d^etv yap elKO<^ ra eavrov e/ca- 
(TTOv, drip^d^etv Be rd irapd rot? dXkocf;. 6 Be 
T& rd ivavTia ^rjXovvri vificov avyyvco/iirjv elvai 
fiot BoK€t Trpaoraro^. 

^RyoD Be evvorjcra^ evpiCTKco Kal erepa Betvd C 
ifJbavTov elpyao-fievov. iroXei yap irpoorioDV iXev- 
Oepa, Tov av')(/jiov rcov rpi'X^olyv ovk dve'X^o/jLevrj, 
wairep ol fcovpecov d7ropovvTe<i dKapTO<; Kal ^aOv- 
yeveLo<; elo-eBpa/juov ev6/jLLcra<; dv %p,iKpiV7]v opdv 
ri ^pacrvXeovra, BvaKoXov Trpeo-fivrrjv rj (rrparid)- 
Tr}v dvorjTOV, e^ov ^avfjvai rm KaXXanna puw iratBa 
aypalov Kal yeveadai fieipdKuov, ei /jltj rrjv rjXcKLUV, 
TOV rpoTTOv ye Kal rrfv d^porrjra tov 'jrpoo'oo'rrov. T> 
**OvK olada dvOpdaiTOL^ ofiiXelv, ovh^ €7racveTr)<; 



pl^ce of a panegyric that I ascribe to you emulation 
of the practice of your forefathers. For Homer too 
is praising Autolycus when he says that he 
surpassed all men "in stealing and perjury." ^ 
And as for my own awkwardness and ignorance 
and ill-temper^ and my inability to be influenced, 
or to mind my own business when people beg me 
to do so or try to deceive me and that I cannot yield 
to their clamour — even such reproaches I gladly 
accept. But whether your ways or mine are more 
supportable is perhaps clear to the gods, for among 
men there is no one capable of arbitrating in our 
disagreement. For such is our self-love that we 
shall never believe him, since everyone of us 
naturally admires his own ways and despises those 
of other men. In fact he who grants indulgence 
to one whose aims are the opposite of his own is, in 
my opinion, the most considerate of men. 

But now I come to ponder the matter I find that I 
have committed yet other terrible sins. For though 
I was coming to a free city which cannot tolerate 
unkempt hair, I entered it unshaven and with a long 
beard, like men who are at a loss for a barber. One 
would have thought it was some Smicrines ^ he saw, 
or some Thrasyleon, some ill-tempered old man or 
crazy soldier, when by beautifying myself I might 
have appeared as a blooming boy and transformed 
myself into a youth, if not in years, at any rate in 
manners and effeminacy of features. " You do not 
know," you answer, " how to mix with people, and 

1 Odyssey 19. 396. 

^ Smicrines is a typical name in New Comedy for an 
avaricious old man ; Thrasyleon is said to have been used by 
Menander as the name of a boasting soldier, ' ' miles gloriosus." 



el Tov SeoyviSot;, ovSe fjitfJ'fj rov dcpofjLoiovfievov 
rat? Trerpat? ttoXvitovv, aX}C rj Xeyo/juevrj Mvko- 
VLO<; aypoLKia re /cat a/juaOia koX a^eXTtjpia 
7rpo<i 7rdvTa<; iircTrjBeverai irapa aov. XeXrjOe 
ae on ^ ttoXXov Bel ravra elvai KeXrot kclI 
SpaK€<{ KoX ^iWvpioL; ou;^ ^pa<;, oTroaa jjuev 
iv TTJ TToKec Tavry /caTrrjXela; av he dire'^Odvr} 350 
TOi? KairrfKoi^ ov ^vy')((opo)v oiroaov ^ovXovrac 
TTcoXelv avTOV<;^ tm ByjfiM rd eirLTrjheia koX rol<i 
eTTLBrj/jbovcnv. ol he tov<; KeKrr}/jievov<; rrjv yrjv 
alriMVTai. au he fcal tovtov^ e'xPpovf; nroiel 
cravrS rd htKata TToielv drayKd^cov. ol he iv 
TeXet T^9 TToXeo)? d/jL(f)OLv jJuere'XpvTe^i ralv ^rj- 
fiiatv, axTTrep ol/juai irporepov e^aipov hL')(p6ev 
KapTTOV/iievoL ra? w^eXeta?, /cat 009 KeKTrj/jievoL B 
Kol 0)9 Ka7rrjXevovre<;, rd vvv elKorw^ XvirovvraL 
he d/iKporepoyv d<j)7)pr]/ub€V0i Ta9 e'mKepheia<^. 6 
be Tcov Zivpcav orj/juof; ov/c e')(CDv /jbeuveiv ovoe 
KophaKi^etv d^derat. av he alrov d(^6ovov irape- 
^fov olei Tpe^eiv avrou^; iKavcof;. eKelvo he aov 
')(apiev, on ovhe ottq)^ l'xPv<i iv rfj iroXei TTerpalo^ 
earai a-Koirel^' dXXd koI Trptmjv fieficfiop^ivov 
Tcvof;, ft)9 ovre l')(6vhicov ovre opvidcov ttoXXwv 

1 (re ({t£— Set Cobet, ae — S€7u Hertlein, MSS. 
- avTovs Reiske, ahrots Hertlein, MSS, 



you cannot approve of the maxim of Theognis,^ for 
you do not imitate the polypus which takes on the 
colours of the rocks. Nay rather you behave to all 
men with the proverbial Myconian ^ boorishness and 
ignorance and stupidity. Are you not aware that we 
here are far from being Celts or Thracians or 
Illyrians ? Do you not see what a number of shops 
there are in this city ? But you are hated by the 
shopkeepers because you do not allow them to sell 
provisions to the common people and those who are 
visiting the city at a price as high as they please. 
The shopkeepers blame the landowners for the high 
prices ; but you make these men also your enemies, 
by compelling them to do what is just. Again, those 
who hold office in the city are subject to both 
penalties ; I mean that just as, before you came, 
they obviously used to enjoy profits from both 
sources, both as landowners and as shopkeepers, so 
naturally they are now aggrieved on both accounts, 
since they have been robbed of their profits from 
both sources. Then the .whole body of Syrian 
citizens are discontented because they cannot get 
drunk and dance the cordax.^ You, however, think 
that you are feeding them well enough if you 
provide them with plenty of corn. Another charming 
thing about you is that you do not even take care 
that the city shall have shell-fish. Nay more, when 
someone complained the other day that neither 
shell-fish nor much poultry could be found in the 
market, you laughed very maliciously and said that a 

^ Theognis 215 foil, advises men to imitate the adaptability 
of the polypus. 

2 Mykonos was an island in the Cyclades whose inhabitants 
were proverbial for poverty and greed. 

^ The cordax was a lascivious dance. 



evpLCTKO/jLevoyv iv ayopdy rwOacrrLKOv /j,dka eye- C 
Xao-a9, aprov koX olvov koI iXauov rrj aot)(f)povi 
TToKei Be IV <f)dfjLevo<;, xpecov S* ijSr) rfj Tpv^coay 
TO yap Kot l')(6va)v fcal opvtOicov Xoyov iroielo-Oai 
iripa rpvcjirjf; elvai koX rj<i ovBe rot? iv ^WaKrj 
fivrjarrjpat /meTrjv d(Tekyeia<^. oro) Se ovk iv 
'qBovfj Kpea veua kol Trpo^dreia acrecaOat, tmv 
ocrirpioav dTTTOfievo^ ev iTpd^et. ravra iv6fMi(Ta<; 
Spa^l vofioOerelv To2<i areavrov TroXirat^i r} T0t9 D 
dvaiaOrjTOL^^ TaXdracf;, oX ere iTraiSorpi/Srjaav 
KaO* yfiMV " TTpivivoVj €r<f)€vBd/jLVLVOv,^' ov/cert 
fiivTOi Kol " ^apa6covoiJbd')(pVi^ dXX! ^ Kyapvea 
fiev i^ rjixLceia^i, drjBi] S* dvBpa iravrdiraaL /cat 
dvOp(07rov dxctptv. ov Kpelrrov rjv oBcaBevai jxvpcav 
rr)V dyopdv ^aBi^ovT6<^ aov Kal TraiSa? rjyeladai 
KaXov<;, et? ou? diro^Xe^^ovcnv ol iroXlrai, kol 
')(ppov<i yvvaiKoyVy oirolot irap rjjjblv Xaravrai KaO^ 
€Kd(7Trjv r)/jLepav; " 

*E//,€ Be vypov pXeireLV ptTrrovvra iravra'xpv 351 
TO, ojbLfjLara, 67rco<; v/ticv KaX6<;, ovri rrjv '^v')(riv, 
d\Xa TO TrpocrcoTTOV o(f)d€Lr]v, o t/ootto? ov avyyw- 
pet. €<TTL ydp, ft)? i»yLt€A9 KpLvere, '\jrv')(^fj<; dXrjOivbv 
KdXXo<; vyp6T7]<; ^lov. ifie Be o TraiBaycoyo^i iBi- 
BaaKev eh yrjv ^XeTrecv e? BtBacrKaXov (fyocTcovTa' 
Oearpov 8' ovk elBov irplv jxaXXov KOfirjaai Trj<; 



well-conducted city needs bread, wine and olive oil, 
but meat only when it is growing luxurious.^ For 
you said that even to speak of fish and poultry is 
the extreme of luxury and of profligacy such as was 
beyond the reach of even the suitors in Ithaca ; and 
that anyone who did not enjoy eating pork and 
mutton '^ would fare very well if he took to 
vegetables.^ You must have thought that you were 
laying down these rules for Thracians, your own 
fellow-citizens, or for the uncultured people of 
Gaul who — so much the worse for us ! — trained you 
to be 'a heart of maple, a heart of oak,' though 
not indeed ' one who fought at Marathon ' ^ also, 
but rather to be half of you an Acharnian and 
altogether an unpleasant person and an ungracious 
fellow. Would it not be better that the market 
place should be fragrant with myrrh when you walk 
there and that you should be followed by a troop of 
handsome boys at whom the citizens could stare, and 
by choruses of women like those that exhibit them- 
selves every day in our city } " 

No, ray temperament does not allow me to look 
wanton, casting my eyes in all directions in order 
that in your sight I may appear beautiful, not indeed 
in soul but in face. For, in your judgment, true 
beauty of soul consists in a wanton life. I, however, 
was taught by my tutor to look on the ground when 
I was on my way to school ; and as for a theatre, 
I never saw one until I had more hair on my chin 

^ Plato, Repnblic 372 k. 

^ The suitors of Penelope lived on pork and mutton. 
^ Literally "pulse." 

■* Aristophanes, Acharnians 180 uses these words to de- 
scribe the older, more robust generation of Athenians. 



/tf€^a\^9 TO yeveiov, ev ifceivo) Se Trj<; rfKiKia^ IZia 
(xev KoX Kar efULVTOv ovBeTrore, rpirov he rj re- 
Taprov, €V i<TT€, HarpoKXw iirirjpa (f)6p(ov ap')((ov B 
eTriraTrev olK€to<; 0}v ifiol /cal avayKolo^' eVuy^^^a- 
vov he IhtcoTrjf; err crvyyvcore ovv i/jLOi' StSto/xt 
yap ov avT ifiov hLKauorepov pbidrfaeTe rov ^ikair- 
e^Srjfjbova Traihay(oy6v, 09 fie kol rore eKviret 
piav 680V ievai hihacrKwy koX vvv atTi6<; ian fiot 
Tjjf; 7r/oo9 v/jLa<i aiTe')(jd€ia'^, evepyaadfievof; rfj '\lrv')(^f} Q 
Kal axrirep €VTV7r(oaa<i oirep iya) fiev ovk iffov- 
Xofirfv Tore, 6 he ct)9 St; tl ')(apiev ttolmv p^dXa 
7rpoOv/JbGi)<; everiOet,, KoXSyv olfiaL crefjLvorrjTa rrjv 
dypoLKiav /cal (roxppoavvrjv rrjv dvaiadrjcriav, dv- 
hpeiav he to fir) ei/cetv Tal<; eTndv/iiiaL^; p/qh^ 
evhaip^ova ravry yiveaOai. €(f>r) he p^ot iroXkd/cif;, 
ev tcrre, vai p^a Ala Kal p,ovaa<^, 6 7raihaya)yb<; en 
Trathapiti) Kopuihy, M?; ere irapaTreiOeTco ro irXrjOo'^ 
Twv rjXifccwTMV eirl tcl dearpa ^epopuevov ope^^Orjvai D 
TTore Tavrrjal T779 Oea<;. iTnrohpopLia^i i'mdvp.el^ ; 
ean irap* Opirjpw he^icorara TreTroirjpLevr)' Xa^oov 
eire^iOi to ^l^XLov. tov<; TravTopbipbov^ aKovei^ 
6p)(7]aTd<i ; ea ^(^aLpeiv avTOV<;' dvhpLKOiTepov irapd 
Tot9 ^aia^iv 6p')(eiTai tcl puetpdKLa' av 8' e%ei9 
Kidap(phov TOP ^7]pLLov Kal cohov TOV ArfpLohoKop. 



than on my head,^ and even at that age it was never 
on my own account and by my own wish, but three 
or four times, you must know, the governor who was 
my kinsman and near relative, " doing a favour 
to Patroclus," ordered me to attend ; it was 
while I was still a private individual. ^ Therefore 
forgive me. For I hand over to you instead of 
myself one whom you will more justly detest, I 
mean that curmudgeon my tutor who even then used 
to harass me by teaching me to walk in one straight 
path ^ and now he is responsible for my quarrel with 
you. It was he who wrought in my soul and as it 
were carved therein what I did not then desire, 
though he was very zealous in implanting it, as 
though he were producing some charming character- 
istic ; and boorishness he called dignity, lack of 
taste he called sobriety, and not yielding to one's 
desires or achieving happiness by that means he 
called manliness. I assure you, by Zeus and the 
Muses, that while I was still a mere boy my tutor 
would often say to me : " Never let the crowd of 
your playmates who flock to the theatres lead you 
into the mistake of craving for such spectacles 
as these. Have you a passion for horse races ? 
There is one in Homer,^ very cleverly described. 
Take the book and study it. Do you hear them 
talking about dancers in pantomime ? Leave them 
alone ! Among the Phaeacians the youths dance 
in more manly fashion. And for citharode ^ you 
have Phemius ; for singer Demodocus. Moreover 

^ Xenophon, Symposium 4. 28. 

2 i.e. before he had been appointed Caesar. ^ of. 352 0. 
^ The chariot race in Ili<id 2.3. 

^ The citharode played and sang to the lyre : Phemius was 
at the court of Odysseus in Ithaca ; Demodocus in Phaeacia. 




eari xal <f>vra Trap avro) iroWa repTrvorepa 
aKovcrai rwv opcofievcov 

ArjXq) B'^ iTore rolov WttoWwi/o? irapa jBoy/jiov 
^oiviKo^ veov epvof; avep'^^ofjievov ivorjcra. 352 

Kal T) hevhprjea-cra tt)? KaA-f^/roi)? vrjao^; /cat ra 
TrjS YLipKrj^ airrjXaia Kal 6 ^ AXkLvov /cfjirof;' ev 
tcrOi, TovTcov ovhev o^jrei repirvoTepov. 

*Apa TToOelre Kal rovvo/jua v/jbli> (f^pdaco rov 
TraiSaycoyov, Kal oari^ mv y€vo<; ravra eXeye ; 
^dp^apo<i VT) 6eov<; Kal Oed<i, Xkv07)<; fiev to yevo^, 
6fM(ovvfjbo<; Be rov tov B,ep^r)v dvaiTeiaavTO<; cttI 
TTjv EiXXdSa arparevaai, Kal to iroXvO pvXrjTOV 
TOVTO Bt) Trpo firfvoov jxev eiKoat TrpoaKwovfievov B 
ovofia, vvvl Be Trpocpepofjuevov dvT dBiKrjixaro^; Kal 
oveiBov^, evvov')(^o<i rjv, viro ray/jiat reO pafjufxevo^^ 
TTaTTTTtpy rrjv firjrepa rijv efxrjv OTTCOf; dydyoi Bia 
tS)v ^OfjLijpov Kal ^}1(7l6Bov TroLTj/judrcDi'. eirel B^ 
eKeivTj irpcoTOV ifjue Kal [movov reKovaa fjurjalv 
varepov 6Xiyoi<^ ereXevTycrev vtto rrjf; dfjirjTopo^ 
irapBevov ttoXXcov av/i^opcov eKKXairelaa Koprj C 
Kal vea, p^er eviavrov e^Bop^ov avrw irapeBoOrjv. 
ouTO<; ef eKeivov ravra dveireKrev dywv e? BiBa- 
(TKoXov p^iav obov aXXrjv o ovr avro^ eubevai 



there are in Homer many plants more delightful to 
hear of than those that we can see : ^ Even so did I 
once see the young shoot of a date palm springing 
up near the altar of Apollo on Delos.' ^ And 
consider the wooded island of Calypso and the caves 
of Circe and the garden of Alcinous ; be assured that 
you will never see anything more delightful than 

And now do you want me to tell you also my 
tutor's name and the nationality of the man who 
used to say these things ? He was a barbarian^ by 
the gods and goddesses ; by birth he was a Scythian, 
and he had the same name ^ as the man who 
persuaded Xerxes to invade Greece. Moreover he 
was a eunuch, a word which, twenty months ago,^ 
was constantly heard and revered, though it is now 
applied as an insult and a term of abuse. He had 
been brought up under the patronage of my grand- 
father, in order that he might instruct my mother"* 
in the poems of Homer and Hesiod. And since she, 
after giving birth to me her first and only child, 
died a few months later, snatched away while she 
was still a young girl by the motherless maiden ^ 
from so many misfortunes that were to come, I was 
handed over to him after my seventh year. From 
that time he won me over to these views of his, and 
led me to school by one straight path ; and since 

^ Odysseus thus refers to Nausicaa in Odyssey 6. 162. 

^ i.e. Mardonius ; it was a Sophistic mannerism to use 
such a periphrasis instead of giving the name directly ; see 
vol. i. Introduction, p. xi. 

^ Constantius was under the influence of the powerful 
eunuchs of his court ; they had been expelled by Julian, but 
Mardonius was an exception to his class. 

** Basilina. ^ Athene. 



OiXcov OUT €/j,ol ^ahi^EiV ^vy^Mpoiv €7ro[rjcrev 
aire'xOdveadal fjue iraaiv Vfuv. dW\ el So/cel, 
a Tre 1(7 a) fie 6 a tt/jo? avrov eyd) re kol vfiei<; rrjv 
d7re)(^deiav Xvaavre^. ovre yap 'qTriaraTo irpo^ 
v/jLcif; d(f)i^6jjLevov ovt\ el to, fiaXtcTTa (^oirdv 
fieWoi/jbC, on /cal dp')((ov TrpoaeSoKa, koI roaavrrjv D 
dp-)(riv, ocrrjv eScoKav ol Oeoi, iroXXa ofiov ^taad- 
fjbevoLy ireiaOrjTe fioi, koX tov BoSovra kol top 
he^ofxevov. e(OKei yap rjpbSiv ovSeTepo<; edeXeiv 
ovre 6 St,Sov<; ryv Tt/bLrjv rj 'XJ^piv rj 6,ti (J)l\ov vjuv 
avTO ovofjbd^etv Sovvat, /cal 6 \a/jb^dvcov, (09 lo-acnv 
ol OeoX 7rdvT€<;, d\'rjOa)<i rjpvelTO. Kal Brj tovto fiev 
OTTT] Tol<; 6eol<i (f>iXov e%et re /cal efet. rv^ov Be 6 
7raiSay(Dyo<; el Trpovyvco tovto, TroWrjv av eiroirj- 353 
aaTO 7rpo/jb7]0eiav, 67rco<i o, tl fidXiaTa v/mv (f>avei,7)v 

EZra ov/c e^ecTTiv diroOecrOaL vvv Kal peTapiadelv 
ei Ti irpoTepov rjp^v dypoiKOV ri6o<; eveTpd^rj ; 
"EiOo^, ipaal, SevTeprj ^vat^' ^vaei, pbd')(ea6ai 8' 
epyov, eTMV Tpid/covTa fieXeTrfp dcpecvai irayyaXe- 
irov dX\(o<i Te /cal pueTa TOcravTrjf; eyyevopbev7)v Trj<i 
')(a\eiroT'r]TO<;' epuol Be 7]B7] TrXeico tovtwv ecrrtz/. 
Elei^* dWd Ti 7ra6cbv avTb<; eV^^et/jet? d/cpodaOaL .B 
rrepl tmv avpb^QXaicov Kal BiKd^eiv ; ov yap Brj Kal 
TOVTO ae 6 TTaiBayfoyo^; eBiBaaKev, 09 ovB^ el dp^eL<; 
TjiriaTaTO, Aeipb<; Be dveireiae yepcov, bv Kal v/jLe2<; 


neither he himself desired to know any other nor 
allowed me to travel by any other path, it is he who 
has caused me to be hated by all of you. However, 
if you agree, let us make a truce with him, you and 
I, and make an end of our quarrel. For he neither 
knew that I should visit you nor did he anticipate 
that, even supposing 1 was likely to come here, it 
would be as a ruler, and that too over so great an 
empire as the gods bestowed on me ; though they 
did not do so, believe me, without using great 
compulsion both towards him who offered and him 
who accepted it. For neither of us had the air of 
being willing ; since he who offered that honour or 
favour or whatever you may please to call it, was 
unwilling to bestow it, w^hile he who received it was 
sincere in steadily refusing it. This matter, however, 
is and shall be as the gods will. But perhaps if my 
tutor had foreseen this he would have exercised much 
forethought to the end that I might, as far as 
possible, seem agreeable in your eyes. 

What then, you will ask, is it not possible even 
now for me to lay aside my character, and to repent 
of the boorish temper that was bred in me in 
earlier days ."* Habit, as the saying goes, is second 
nature. But to fight with nature is hard ; and to 
shake off the training of thirty years is very difficult, 
especially when it was carried on with such painful 
effort, and I am already more than thirty years old. 
"Well and good," you answer, "but what is the 
matter with you that you try to hear and decide 
cases about contracts ? For surely your tutor did 
not teach you this also, since he did not even know 
whether you would govern." Yes, it was that terrible 
old man who convinced me that I ought to do so ; 



ft)<? ovra fxaXiCTTa abniorarov rcoi' efiMv eTTLTr^hev- 
fjbdrwv 6p6(t)<s iroiovvre'i ^vXkoiSopecre fioL, /cal 
TOVTov 8\ €v Lare, hir aXXcov e^^jTrarrj/jLevov. 
ovofiara ijKec TTyoo? v/jbd<i iroWdfca Kcojii(p8ov/jL6va, 
YlXdrcov Kol ^(Ofcpdjrjf; koI ^ ApLcrTOTeXr)^; kol 
%€6^paaT0(;. 6K6iVoi<; 6 yepcov ovTo<i irecadeh vir C 
d<f)poavvr]'i, eireira ifie veov evpcov, ipaarrjv Xoyayp, 
dveTretaev, &)9, el ra irdvra eKeivcov ^r)X(OTr)<; ye- 
voL/j,r]v, dfieLvcov €(Top,ai. rcov p-kv aXXcov dvO pcoTrcov 
taw^ ovhev6<i' ov yap elvai p^ot, 7rpo<i avTov<i rrjv 
dpbtXXav ep,avTOv he Trdvrco^. e'700 Si' ov yap 
el')(pv o,Ti> TTOiM' TT€Lade\<i ovKen Bvvap>ac p^erade- 
adai, /cal ravTa eOeXcov 7roXXd/ci<;, dXX^ ovetSi^co D 
pkv epbavTWy Sloti p,r) ttocm irdaiv dSecav^ aTrdvTwv 
dBL/c7]p,dTcov' vTreicrc Be pie Ik royv YiXaTwvo'^ ocra 
6 ^AOrjvato<; Ste^PjXOe ^evo(}, " Tlpiw; p,ev 8r) fcal o 
pLTjBev dBiKOiV, 6 he pbr)B^ eTTLTpeTTcov rot? dhiKovaiv 
dSofcetv irXeov rj SL7rXa(TLa<i Tipbrj<^ d^w<^ e/ceivov 
6 puev yap ev6<^y 6 Be ttoXXojv dvrd^io<i erepcov, 
pbrjvvoov TTjv TOiv aXXcov to?? dp^^^ovaiv dBiKiav, 
Be Kal (TvyKoXd^cDv eh Bvvapbiv Tol<i dp')^ovaiv, 354 
pieya<i dvrjp ev iroXeu Kal reXeio<;, ovto<; dvayopeve- 
aOco viKr](f)6po(; dperr)^. rov avrov Br) rovrov 
eiraivov Kal irepl a(o(f)poavvr]<i 'X^pr] Xeyetv Kal 
irepl (f>pov7]aea)(i Kal oaa dXXa dyaOd tl<; KeKTr/- 

^ Ttaaiv 6.hiiav Cobet, Traai vaa-av &Seiav Hertlein, MSS, 


and 3'^ou also do well to help me to abuse him, 
since he is of all men most responsible for my 
way of life ; though he too, you must know, had 
in his turn been misled by others. Theirs are 
names that you have often met when they are 
ridiculed in Comedy — I mean Plato and Socrates, 
Aristotle and Theophrastus. This old man in his 
folly was first convinced by them, and then he 
got hold of me, since I was young and loved 
literature, and convinced me that if I would 
emulate those famous men in all things I should 
become better, not perhaps than other men — for it 
was not with them that I had to compete — but 
certainly better than my former self. Accordingly, 
since I had no choice in the matter, 1 obeyed him, 
and now I am no longer able to change my character, 
though indeed I often wish I could, and I blame 
myself for not granting to all men impunity for all 
wrong-doing. But then the words of the Athenian 
stranger in Plato occur to my mind : '^ Though he who 
does no wrong himself is worthy of honour, he who 
does not allow the wicked to do wrong is worthy of 
more than twice as much honour. For whereas the 
former is responsible for one man only, the latter is 
responsible for many others besides himself, when 
he reports to the magistrates the wrong-doing 
of the rest. And he who as far as he can helps 
the magistrates to punish wrong-doers, himself being 
the great and powerful man in the city, let him 
I say be proclaimed as winner of the prize for 
virtue. And we ought to utter the same eulogy 
with regard to temperance also, and wisdom and 
all the other good qualities that such a man 
possesses, and which are such that he is able 




rac, Svvara firj /lovov avrov €^€lp, dWa koI 

lavra eoibaaKe fie vo/jul^(ov lolcottjv eaeaoar 
KoX yap ovBe Trpovyvo) ravrrjp €k Ato? fioc rrjv B 
TV')(r]v ecro/jLevr)v, eh fjv vvv 6 deo^ (f)6p(ov Karearr}- 
aev. iyo) Be al<7)(^uvofjL€vo<; ap^cov ISkotov <f)av- 
k6Tepo<; elvat, XeXrjda i/juavrop, ovSev Seov, v/juv 
T^9 aypoiKia<; /jueraSiSovf; t% i/JLavrov. Kal fie 
erepo^ rSiv YWdroivo^ vofjucop vTro/jLvrjaOevra ifiav- 
Tov TreiroirjKev aTre^OdveaOac tt^o? vjia^, 6<i (f)7]ai, 
Seiv alSct) Kal a(0(f)poavv7)v da/cetv tol/? dp'^ovTa<; 
Kol Tou? irpecT^VTepov^, iva rd irXijOrj tt/jo? avrov^ C 
diro^Keirovra koct jxriTaL. fJLovw ovv /jlol, jxaXXov 
he ^vv oXlyocf; iTTLTrjSevoPTL vvv tovto tt/oo? Odrepa 
irepiecTTrj koX yeyovev ovk direcKOTOD^; iv ovelBei. 
eiTTa yap eafxev oiBe Trap* v/jlIv ^evoc veijXvBe^;, el? 
Be Kal ttoX/t?;? uyLterepo?, 'Kpfi^ 0tXo9 Kal ifioi, 
Xoycov dyado<i BrjfXLovpyofSy 61^ ovBiv iari irpo^ riva 
av/jL^oXaiov, ovB^ dXXrjv oBov /SaBl^o/jLev rj 7r/309 
TO, T(t)v 6e6)v lepd, Kal oXtydKt,^, ov iravref;, et? rd J) 
dearpa, ireiroirj/jLevoi to BvaKXeecrTarov rcov epyoyv 



not only to have them himself but also to impart 
them to other men." ^ 

These things he taught me when he thought that 
I should be a private citizen. For he certainly did 
not foresee that there would be assigned to me by 
Zeus this lot in life to which the god has now 
brought me and has set me therein. But I, because 
I was ashamed to be less virtuous as a ruler than 
I had been as a private citizen, have unconsciously 
given you the benefit of my own boorishness, 
though there was no necessity. And another of 
Plato's laws has made me take thought for myself 
and so become hateful in your eyes : I mean the law 
which says that those who govern, and also the older 
men, ought to train themselves in respect for others 
and in self-control, in order that the masses may 
look to them and so order their own lives aright. 
Now since 1 alone, or rather in company with a 
few others, am now pursuing this course, it has had 
a very different result and has naturally become 
a reproach against me. For we here are only 
seven persons, strangers and newcomers in your 
city, — though indeed one of our number is a fellow- 
citizen of yours, a man dear to Hermes and to 
me, an excellent craftsman of discourses.^ And 
we have business dealings with no man, nor do we 
go by any road that does not lead to the temples of 
the gods ; and seldom, and then not all of us, do 
we go to the theatres, since we have adopted the 
most inglorious line of conduct and the most 

^ riato, Laws 730 d. 

2 Julian refers to Libanius the famous rhetorician ; with 
him were also Maximus of Ephesus, Priscus, Himerius and 
Oieibasius the physician. 

H H 2 


Koi eirovet^KTTOTaTov ^ rov ^iov re\o^' iirirpe- 
yjrovaL fJLOL 7ravT0)<; Oi tmv EtWrjvwv (TO(f>ol (f)dvai 
Tt T(bv Trap* vfilv iiniroKa^ovTwv' ov yap e^o) 
TTW? civ avro /laXXov iv^ei^aifjurjii' eirl rrj<^ fxeai- 
Teia^ avrov<; erd^afxev, ovtco irepl ttoWov ttolov- 
fieOa TO irpoaKpovetv v/jlIv koI dire^O dveaO at, Siov 
dpeaKeiv /cat dayireveiv. 6 Belva e^cdcraro rov 
helva. Ti rovTO, a> jubcape, irpo^ ae; Koovcovetv i^ov 
fjuer €vvoLa<; tmv dSiKyfidToyv, d(f)6l<; to KepSo<; 
€')(dpav eiravaipfi, koI tovto ttolmv 6pd(o<i otei 355 
TTOLelv Kol ^povelv virep twv creavTOV. Xoyiaa- 
crdau ixP^^* ^"^^ "^^^ f^^^ dSc/covfjuevcov ovBel^; 
alTiCLTai T0U9 ap')(pvTa<;, dWa tov dSt/CTjaavTa, 
6 3' dScfccov eiTa 6lpyofievo<;, a^el? fjbefi(f)6aOaL 
TOV dhiKovjxevoVi eh tov^ dpxovTa<; Tpeirei to 

*Ei^bv ovv viro Trj<^ ev\oyc(TTia<; TavTrjf; d7r6)(e- 
a6at fiev tov Ta Sb/cai^a TTOuelv dvay/cd^eiv, 
iirLTpey^at S' mdaTcp TrpdTreuv o, tl av iOeXrj /cat B 
SvvaTO^y fj' TO ydp Tt)^ TroXeoj? r)6o<^ ol/nac tolovtov 
ecTTLV, e\ev0€pov Xluv av Be ov ^vvel^; apx^aOai, 
avToi)^ [xeTCL <ppov7]a6(o<; d^tot<;; ovS' d7re^Xe'^a<^ 
ocrr) KOL p^XP'' '^^^ ovcov ecTTiv ekevOepia Trap 
avTol^ Kal T(hv /cap^rjXcov; dyovai tol kul TavTa<^ 
01 pbiadwTol Sl<1 tcov (jtowv (oairep Ta^; vvp,(f)a<;' 
ol ydp viraidpLOi aTevwirol Kal al TrXaTetat t&v 
6B(bv ovK iirl TovT(p Brjirov TreTroLrjvTaL, t<Z XP^~ 

1 inopeiSia-rSraTov Hertleiu suggests, firovciSiaTop MSS. 


unpopular aim and end of life. The wise men 
of Greece will surely allow me to repeat some of 
the sayings current among you ; for I have no 
better way of illustrating what I mean. We have 
stationed ourselves in the middle of the road^ so 
highly do we prize the opportunity to collide 
with you and to be disliked^ when we ought rather 
to try to please and flatter you. "So-and-so has 
oppressed So-and-so." "Fool! What business is it 
of yours? When it was in your power to win his 
good-will by becoming the partner in his wrong- 
doing, you first let the profit go, and incur hatred 
besides ; and when you do this you think that you 
are doing right and are wise about your own affairs. 
You ought to have taken into account that, when 
men are wronged, not one of them ever blames the 
magistrates but only the man who has wronged him ; 
but the man who seeks to do wrong and is prevented 
from it, far from blaming his proposed victim, turns 
his grievance against the magistrates. 

'^ Then when it was in your power by the aid of tliis 
careful reasoning to refrain from compelling us to do 
what is just ; when you might have allowed every 
man to do whatever he pleases and has the power to 
do, — for the temper of the city is surely like that, 
excessively independent — do you then, I say, fail to 
understand this and assert that the citizens ought to 
be wisely governed ? Have you not even observed 
what great independence exists among the citizens, 
even down to the very asses and camels ? The 
men who hire them out lead even these animals 
through the porticoes as though they were brides. 
For the unroofed alleys and the broad highways 
were certainljr not made for the use of pack-asses, 



aOat avralf; Tov^i KavBrfKiov^, aX>C eKetvat /uuev 
av'To ^r) TOVTO Koajjuov nvo^ ^v€fca irpoKeivrai koX 
7ro\vT€k€ia<; , XPV^^^^ ^^ ^"^^ eXevdepia^ ol ovol G 
/SovXovTao rat? aroalf;, etpyei S' avTov<; ovBel^; 
ovBevo^i, 'iva firj rrjv iXevOepiav a(l>eXr]Tar ovtco<; 
t} 7roA,i9 eanv eXevuepa. av oe a^LOL<^ rov^i ev avrfj 
veaviaKOv^ dyetv rjcrv^Lav koI fjudXtcrra fjbev (f>po- 
velv 0, TV (TOi (fytXov, el Se fiT], (^deyyecrdai oarov 
av r}he(0<^ aKov(Tr)<i?- ol Se v'TT eXevdepia^ elcodaac 
Kcofid^eLV, del fxev eiriecKcof; avrb Trotowre?, iv Se 
rat? eopTaL<; irXeov. 

"ESoj/cai; TTore rS)v tolovtwv aKoy/jUfiaTayv 'Vco- 
/naloc^ TapavTtvoL St/ca?, otl fJueOvovre^ ev toI<; D 
AiovvcnoL<!; v^ptaav avrcov ttjv it pea ^eiav . 
v/jLelff Se ecrre twv Tapavrivcov rd Trdvra evhat- 
/xovecTTepoL, dvri fiev oXiyuyv rj/juepMV oXov evira- 
6ovvT€<; eviavTov, dvrl he tmv ^evcov Trpea^ecov eh 
avToij^ e^v^pi^ovre^ tou? dp')(ovTa^ teal tovtchv . 
€t9 Ta9 eVt rov yevelov Tpi')(^ci<; /cal rd ev ro2<; \ 
vofjLi(T/iiaat )(^apdy/iiaTa. ev ye, o) iroXiTao aca- 356 
<j)pov€<;, oi re irai^ovre^ rd rotavra /cat ol tmv 
Trai^ovTcov diroSe'^o/iievoo koI aTroXavovref;. BrjXov 
ydp, OTL Totf; fiev rjBovrjv irape'^ei to Xeyeiv, Tov<i 
Be TO aKpodadai tmv tolovtcov aKco/jL/juaTcov ev- 
^palvei. TavTr)<; v/jllv eyoD r?}? ofiovoia^i avv^Bo/juai, 
KoX ev ye irouelTe fjbia Brj TroXt? 6vt€<; Td TOiavTa, 
<B9 eKelvo ye ovhafjuov (nrovBaiov ovBe ^rjXwTov 
etpyeiv real KoXd^ecv tmv vecov to d/coXaaTOv. B 
irapaipeladai ydp eaTC koX diroO paveiv t?79 eXev- 
Bepia^; to 'Ke^dXaiov, el ti<; d<f>eXoLTO tov Xeyeiv 

^ aKov<rri5 Hertlein suggests, aKova-ais MSS. 


but they are provided merely for show and as an 
extravagance ; but in their independence the asses 
prefer to use the porticoes, and no one keeps them 
out of any one of these, for fear he should be robbing 
them of their independence ; so independent is our 
city ! And yet you think that even the charming 
youths in the city ought to keep quiet and, if possible, 
think whatever you like, but at any rate utter only 
what is agreeable for you to hear ! But it is their 
independence that makes them hold revels ; and this 
they always do handsomely, but during the festivals 
they revel more than usual." 

Once upon a time the citizens of Tarentum paid 
to the Romans the penalty for this sort of jesting, 
seeing that, when drunk at the festival of Dionysus, 
they insulted the Roman ambassadors.^ But you are 
in all respects more fortunate than the citizens of 
Tarentum, for you give yourselves up to pleasure 
throughout the whole year, instead of for a few 
days ; and instead of foreign ambassadors you insult 
your own Sovereign, yes even the very hairs on his chin 
and the devices engraved on his coins. '^ Well done, 
O wise citizens, both ye who make such jests and ye 
who welcome and find profit in the jesters ! For it 
is evident that uttering them gives pleasure to the 
former, while the latter rejoice to hear jests of this 
sort. I share your pleasure in this unanimity, and 
you do well to be a city of one mind in such matters, 
since it is not at all dignified or an enviable task to 
restrain and chastise the licentiousness of the young. 
For if one were to rob human beings of the power to 

^ In 272 B. c. the Romans took Tarentum. 

2 The people of Antioch ridiculed the Pagan symbols, such 
as the figures of Helios, the sun-god, which Julian had 
engraved on his coinage. 


KOi Trpdrreiv '6,tl ^ovKovjai tov<; avOpQ)7rov<i. 

opdox; ol>v vfjbel^ tovto et8oTe9, '6tl Set ra iravra 

i\evOepov<; elvac, iTpcjTov iTreTpiyfrare ral^; yvvat^lv 

ap'^eiv auTcov, Xva vfMv ooai \iav iXevOepai koX 

a/coXaaroi, elra eKeivaL^ ^vve')((opriaaTe avdysLV ra 

TTaihia, fxr) irore vplv dpXV^ ireipcopLeva Tpax^T€pa<; C 

eirevra (i7ro(j)av6'p BovXa, kcll yevofieva /jueipaKia 

TrpMrov alhelaOat hLha')(Ofi tov<; irpea^vrepov^, 

VTTo Be tt)? ovtco KaKTJf; crvvrj0eia<^ evXa^earepa 

yevrjrai, 7r/909 tol'9 dp^ovraf;, koX Te\o<^ ovk et9 

dvBpas, dX^J eh dvBpdiroBa reXicTavre^ koI yevo- 

fjLevoL <rco(l>pov€<; /cal iineLKel<; koI KoafxioL Xddcoai, 

Bia<^OapevT€^ Travrdiracn. ri ovv at yvvaiKe^;; eiri 

ra <T(f)eT€pa cre/SacrpaTa dyovaiv avrd Bt* r)Bovrj<;, 

o Br) p^aKapLcoraTOV elvai (paiverai koX TroXvTLprj- D 

Tov OVK dv6 pdiiroL'^ piovovy dXXd /cal 0rjpiois. 

evOev dlpuaL avp-^aivei pidXa vpXv evBaip^ocnv elvai 

irdaav dpvovpievoi^ BovXeiav, dirb rrjf; eh tov<; 

deovt; dp^apbevof^ ^ Trpcorov, elra Tol'9 v6p,ov<; Kal 

rpiTOV Tol'9 vopLOipvXafcaf; r)p,d<;. aTorroi re dv 

€cr)pL€v rjpLeh, el tmv 6eo)v Treptopcovrcov ovrco^ 

eXevOepav rrjv iroXvv Kal ovk eTre^tovrcov dyava- 

KroL7)pLev Kal y^aXeTraivotpbev. ev yap tare on 357 

TavTrj<i rjpLLv eKOLVfDVTjcrav ol Oeol Ti]<; dTLp,ia<i 

Trapd rfj TroXei. 

o At, (paaiv, ovoev rjOLKr^ae rrjv iroXiv ovoe to 

KaTTTra. tl puev earc tovto t/}9 vp^erepa^ ao^ia^ 

TO atviypa ^vvelvai ^(^aXeTrov, tv^ovtc^ S' rjpueh 

^ ap^a/xevois before wpwrov Hertlein suggests, Klimek otto- 
(TTCLffi rrjs for airh ttjs. 



do and say what they please, that would be to take 
away and curtail the first principle of independence. 
Therefore, since you knew that men ought to be 
independent in all respects, you acted quite rightly, 
in the first place when you permitted the women to 
govern themselves, so that you might profit by their 
being independent and licentious to excess ; secondly, 
when you entrusted to them the bringing up of the 
children, for fear that if they had to experience any 
harsher authority they might later turn out to be 
slaves ; and as they grew up to be boys might be 
taught first of all to respect their elders, and then 
under tho influence of this bad habit might show too 
much reverence for the magistrates, and finally 
might have to be classed not as men but as slaves ; 
and becoming temperate and well-behaved and orderly 
might be, before they knew it, altogether corrupted. 
Then what effect have the women on the children ? 
They induce them to reverence the same things as 
they do by means of pleasure, which is, it seems, the 
most blessed thing and the most highly honoured, 
not only by men but by beasts also. It is for this 
reason, I think, that you are so very happy, because 
you refuse every form of slavery ; first you begin by 
refusing slavery to the gods, secondly to the laws, 
and thirdly to me who am the guardian of the laws. 
And I should indeed be eccentric if, when the gods 
suffer the city to be so independent and do not 
chastise her, I should be resentful and angry. For 
be assured that the gods have shared with me in the 
disrespect that has been shown to me in your city. 

"The Chi," say the citizens, " never harmed the 
city in any way, nor did the Kappa." Now the 
meaning of this riddle which your wisdom has 



€^rjyrjT(t)v oltto t?}9 vfi€Tepa<; 7roXeG)9 iStBd')(^dr]/jL€v 
ap')(a^ ovo/Jbdrayv elvai ra ypd/jL/xara, SrjXovv S' 
ideketv TO fiev Uptcrrov, to 8e K-covaravrcov. 
dve')(€(TO€ ovv fiov XeyovTOf; fxera Trapprjaiaf;. B 
6V fjbovov vfjua^i 6 K.(ov(TTdvTLo<:; rjhiKT}aev, on 
/j,€ Kaicrapa 7roirj(Ta<; ovk direKreivev co? rd ye 
aXka vfuv /jlovol'^ ifc Trdvrcov ^Vw/iatcov itoWmv 
Bocev ol 6eo\ K^covaravricov ireLpaOrjvai, p^aXkov 
Be TMV eKeivov <^l\(ov tt)^ irXeove^ia^. ep,0L yap 
6 dvrjp Kol dve'yjnbf; eyevero koI <j)L\o(i. eirel 
Be TTpb T7J<; (^iXia^ ecXero rrjv e')(6pav, elra rjpZv 
ol Oeol Tov 7r/0O9 dWrfKov^; dyoiva \iav e^pd- 
^evaav (fnXavOpcoTrco^;, eyevop/qv avTa> 7n(TT6Tepo<i C 
</)t\o9 rj TTpocreBofcrjaev ^^eiv fie irplv e')(6pov 
yeveadai. tI ovv oteaOe p^e rol^ eiceivov Xvirelv 
iyKoypLLOi^, 09 d'yOop^ai toZ<; \oLBopovp,evot<; avrw; 
^pL(TTov Be dyairoivre^; €')(eTe 'jro\tov')(pv dvrX 
TOV ^cb<; KoX TOV Aa<f)vaLov kol Trj<} K.aWto7rr)<^, 
rj TO aoc^Lcrpua vp^cov direyvpLvaxrev. Kp.tcr7jvol 
^pLCTTOv iiroOovv ol TTvp €p,^aX6vTe<; T0t9 Td(f)oi<; 
Twv VaXiXalcov; iXvirrjaa S' iya) Tiva<; ^Ep^Larjvojv 
TTcoTTOTe; vp^wv puevTOL TToXXoiff} Kol oXLyov Beco D 
<f)dvai, TTaz/ra?, ttjv ^ovXrjv, tov<; eviropov^y tov 
Brfpbov. 6 puev yap BrjpL0<; d')(6eTaL poi tw irXeicTTW 
piepeiy p,d\Xop B^ a7ra9 dOeoTrjTa •npoeXopbevo^, 



invented is hard to understand^ but I obtained inter- 
preters from your city and I was informed that these 
are the first letters of names, and that the former is 
intended to represent Christ, the latter Constantius. 
Bear with me then, if I speak frankly. In one thing 
Constantius did harm you, in that when he had 
appointed me as Caesar he did not put me to death. 
Now for the rest may the gods grant to you alone 
out of all the many citizens of Rome to have 
experience of the avarice of many a Constantius, or 
I should say rather, of the avarice of his friends. For 
the man was my cousin and dear to me ; but after 
he had chosen enmity with me instead of friendship, 
and then the gods with the utmost benevolence 
arbitrated our contention with one another, I 
proved myself a more loyal friend to him than he 
had expected to find me before I became his enemy. 
Then why do you think that you are annoying me 
by your praises of him, when I am really angry with 
those who slander him ? But as for Christ you love 
him, you say, and adopt him as the guardian of your 
city instead of Zeus and the god of Daphne and 
Calliope ^ who revealed your clever invention ? Did 
those citizens of Emesa long for Christ who set fire 
to the tombs of the Galilaeans ? ^ But what citizens 
of Emesa have I ever annoyed ? I have however 
annoyed many of you, I may almost say all, the 
Senate, the wealthy citizens, the common people. 
The latter indeed, since they have chosen atheism, 
hate me for the most part, or rather all of them hate 
me because they see that I adhere to the ordinances 

1 There was a statue of Calliope in the market-place at 

2 The people of Emesa burned the Christian churches and 
spared only one, whi&h they converted into a temple of 




on TOL^ '7rarpiot<; opd tt)? ay tar eta's 6€crfjL0t<; 
irpoaKeifjievov, ol he Bvvarol KcoXvofjuevot ttoWov 
irdvra ircoXelv apyvpioVy 7rdvre<; Be inrep tmv 
op^rjaTMv Kal twv Oedrpwv, ou% on tol/? aWov<^ 
dTroarepco rovrayv, dXk' on /xeXei p,ot tmv toiov- 35i 
T(i)V rjTTOv rj T(ou iv rolf; reXp^aac ^arpd^cov. 
elra ovk elKOTw^; ep^avrov Karr)'yopM Tocraura? 
d'TTe^Oeia<; \a^d<^ irapaay^ovro';; 

'AXX' o Pft)/Aato9 Kdrcov, otto)? p,ev ^^o^v 
TToyycovo^ ovk olBa, Trap' ovnvovv he tmv iirl 
(r(0(f) poavvy Kal p£ya\oylrv^ia Kal to p^eyiarov 
avSpeCa fieya (p povovvrcov d^io<; iiratvelcrOai, 
TrpoaiQiv TTjSe rfj iroXvavOpdyircp Kal rpvcpepd Kal 
irXovaria ttoXsi tov<; e(f)7]^ov<; I8ci)v ev to) irpo- T) 
aareKp p^era rcov dp^ovrcov iaraXp^evov<; co? eVt 
nva 8opv<popLav evopLiaev aurov X^P^^ vp>oiv tov<; 
irpoyovov^ rrjv irapaaKevrjv irdaav TreTTOtrjaOar 
Kai Odacrov diro^d'^ rov Ittttov Trpofjyev dp,a 
Kal TT/oo? T0U9 7rpoXa^6vTa<; tmv (ptXcov Bvax^- 
paivwv C09 p^r/vvrdf; yevopbevov^ avrol<^, on Kdrcov 
Trpoadyei, Kal dvaTreiaavra'^ eKhpap^etv. oVro? 
S* ev TOiovTOL^ avrov Kal SoaTropovvro'; r]pepia 
Kal epv6pL(t)VT0<;, o yvpuvaaiapxp^ irpoahpapbwv, 
11 ^evSy €(f>7}, TTOv Ar)pL7]Tpto<;; rfv S* outo? C 
difeXevBepo<^ Tlop^Trrjiov, K€Kr7]pL€vo<i ovcriav ttoX- 
Xrjv irdw puerpov S' avrrjfi el TroOelre pbaOelv 
oip,at yap vp^d^ eK irdvrwv rwv Xeyopuevcov 7rpo<; 



of the sacred rites wliich our forefathers observed ; 
the powerful citizens liate me because they are pre- 
vented from selling everytliing at a high price ; but all 
of you hate me on account of the dancers and the 
theatres. Not because I deprive others of these 
pleasures, but because I care less for things of tliat 
sort than for frogs croaking in a pond.^ Then is it 
not natural for me to accuse myself, when I have 
furnished so many handles for your hatred ? 

Cato the Roman_,2 however, — how he wore his beard 
1 do not know/ but he deserves to be praised in com- 
parison with anyone of those who pride themselves 
on their temperance and nobility of soul and on their 
courage above all, — he, I say, once visited this popu- 
lous and luxurious and wealthy city ; and when he 
saw the youths in the suburb drawn up in full array, 
and with them the magistrates, as though for some 
military display, he thought your ancestors had made 
all those preparations in his honour. So he quickly 
dismounted from his horse and came forward, though 
at the same time he was vexed with those of his 
friends who had preceded him for having informed 
the citizens that Cato was approaching, and so 
induced them to hasten forth. And while he was in 
this position, and was slightly embarrassed and 
blushing, the master of the gymnasium ran to meet 
him and called out " Stranger, where is Demetrius ? " 
Now this Demetrius was a freedman of Pompey, who 
had acquired a very large fortune ; and if you want 
to know the amount of it, — for I suppose that in all 

^ A proverb to express complete indifference. 

- The anecdote which follows is told by Plutarch in his 
Cato the Younger and also in his Pompeius. 

•^ Julian must have known that in Cato's day the Romans 
never wore beards. 




TavTTjv fidXtara ayp/ubycrOat rijv aKor)V' iyoo top 
elirovra (ppdao), Aa/jiO(f>iXa> Ta> 3idvva> ireTToiif)- 
Tai avyypd/jifjuiTa roLavra, ev ol<; hpeirofxevo^; ck 
^l^Xcov iroWayv^ eipydaaro X6yov<; 'qhi(TT0V<s 
ve(p (piXrjKoo) koX Trpea^vrepa)' cfiiXet yap ro 
yrjpa<; eiravdyeiv avdc<i eZ? rrju to)v vicov <\)iX7)- 
Kotav TOv<s d(^7)XLKearepov^' oOev ol/jbai avfi^auvet 
viov<; KoX 7ryO€<T/3ura9 e^ tcr?;? elvau (piXofivdov;- 
elev. 6 Be Srj K^drcov ottco^ aTnjvrrjae ro) yvpuva- 
(Tidpj((p ^ovXeaOe (f>pdao); /jurj fie Xoihopelv viro- 
Xd^7]Te T7)V iroXiv ovk earcv 6 X0709 6//-09. 
el' Tt9 d^L/crac irepit^epofJievT] koX eh v/id(; aKorj 359 
^atpcovecof; dvBp6<i i/c tov ^avXov y6vov<;, o 8r) 
Xeyerat irapd rayv dXa^ovcdV <j)LX6ao(f)OV' ov By 
KoX avTO<; OVK i(f)iK6p,rjv /juev, 7]v^d/j,r]v Be viro 
d/jLa6ia<i KOLvayvrjaai Kal /xeracr^eti^. ravTa ovv 
eKelvo^ e^paaev, 0)9 Kdrcov direKpLyaTo jxev 
ovBeVi l3o7]aa(; Be fiovov old tl^; eixTrXr^KTO^ koI 
dvorjTO^i dvOpco7ro<;, '^O t^9 KaKoBaifiovo^ 7r6Xew9, 
diriitiv (p'xeTO. 

Is/ir) Bt) Oav/xdcrrjTe, tovto el Kal ey(i> pvvl 
Trdcr^co 7r/0O9 vfJid<;, dvrjp dypid)Tepo(i eKeivov Kal B 
6pa(TVTepo<i ToaovTw Kal avOaBearepo^y oaov ol 
KeXrot 'Foyjjialcjv. 6 fiev yap eKelae re'xSelf; 
eyyij^ rjXOe yrjpco^^ d/jua tol<; 7roXiTat9 Tpe<j)6/Jbevo<;' 
e/jLol Be KeXrol Kal Tepfiavol Kal Bpv/i6(; 'FjpKvvw^i 
efxeXev dprt irpMTOv 6^9 dvBpa^i reXovvro, Kal 
BuerpL'^a ttoXvv rjBr) -^^povop, atairep ta9 KVvrjyeTr}*; 
1 iK ^i^Kusv iroXKwv Hertlein suggests, ^/c rS>v voWwv MSS. 


that I am now telling you are most anxious to hear 
this, — I will tell you who has related the story. 
Damophilus of Bithynia has written compositions of 
this sort, and in them, by culling anecdotes from 
many books, he has produced tales that give the 
greatest delight to anyone who loves to listen to 
gossip, whether he be young or old. For old age 
usually revives in the elderly that love of gossip 
which is natural to the young ; and this is, I think, 
the reason why both the old and the young are 
equally fond of stories. Well then, to return to 
Cato. Do you want me to tell you how he greeted 
the master of the gymnasium ? Do not imagine that 
I am slandering your city ; for the story is not my 
own.^ If any rumour has come round, even to your 
ears, of the man of Chaeronea,^ who belongs to that 
worthless class of men who are called by impostors 
philosophers,— I myself never attained to that class 
though in my ignorance I claimed to be a member of 
it and to have part in it, — well he, as I was saying, 
related that Cato answered not a word, but only cried 
aloud like a man stricken with madness and out of 
his senses, ^^ Alas for this ill-fated city!" and took 
himself off. 

Therefore do not be surprised if I now feel towards 
you as I do, for I am more uncivilised than he, and 
more fierce and headstrong in proportion as the Celts 
are more so than the Romans. He was born in 
Rome and was nurtured among Roman citizens till 
he was on the threshold of old age. But as for me, I 
had to do with Celts and Germans and the Hercynian 
forest^ from the moment that I was reckoned a 
grown man, and I have by now spent a long time 

^ cf. Fragment of a Letter 299 c, note. '^ Plutarch. 

^ cf. Caesar, Gallic War, 6. 24. a no 


dypiocf; ofiiKwi' koX aviMirXeKOfievo^ drjpiOc<;, yOecriv C 
ipTvy)(^dvo)if ovre dioireveiv oure KoXaKevetv elSo- 
(TiVi aTrXax; 8e koI iX€v6epa)<i eic rov laov iraat 
TrpoacpepeaOai. jeyovev ovv jjloi fiera Tr)v e/c 
TraiBcov Tpo(f)r)v 7] t€ ev /jLetpaKiOL<; oBb^ Sia tmv 
HXdrcovof; koI ^ KpiaroTeXov^ Xoywv ouSafic!)<i 
€7rLT7}B€LQ)v Sy/jLoc*; ivTvy')(aveiv oIo/jL€vol<; vtto 
Tpv(prj<} evhaiiMOveardroi^ ^ elvai, rj re ev dvhpdcnv 
avTOvpyla irapd rol^ fjLa)(^L/j,o)rdTOL<^ koI OvfjuKO)- 
TaT0t9 Toyv eOvMP, oirov rrjv yafirfKiav A^poBlrTjv 
Kal rov fJbeOvBoTrjv Aiovvaov ydfiov re evsKa 
Kol TraiSoTTodaf; olpov re o'jroarjf; eKdarw hvva- 
Tov TTOo-eo)? to-aac fiovov. daiXyeca 8' ovk earcv D 

> "/)/ '^Vf'/O '?'V«'a V 

€v TOi? u€aTpoc<; 0V06 vppc^, ovbe eX/cec rt? ecao) 
rrj<i aKr]vrj(; rov KophaKa. 

Aeyerat rot /jbLKpa> irpoaOev 009 evOevBe eKclae 
Tt9 J^aTTTraSoKr)!; cpvyd'^, ev rfj irap vpXv Tpa<^ei<^ 
TTOkei irapd tm ')(^pvao^6(p' yvcopi^ere BrfTTovBev 
ov Xe7&)* fjuaOcbv ottov kol epuadev, 0)9 ov Beov 
o/JLiXelv yvvat^i, ixeipaKiOL<=i S eTTi^eipelvy ovk 
olBa OTToaa evOdSe hpdaa^ kol iraOoov, eirecBr} 360 
irapd Tov eKelae ^aatXea irpwriv d(f)LK6T0, /jLViJ/jlj} 
rodv rrjSe 7roWov<i fiev 6p^r]aTd<^ avrol^ eira- 
yayelv, a\Xa Be rd evrevdev dyaOd roiavra, 
KOL Br) fcal Te\,09 ft)9 eveBerjaev en /corvXtorrov' 

^ eTrtTTySe/cDj/ — olofiivois — euSat/iovecTTdtTOis Hertlein suggests, 
iviTr]B€icf> St]ijlois euTvyxavciv koL virh rpuc^Tjs evSai/novfcrTdTif} 




there, like some huntsman who associates with and is 
entangled among wild beasts. There I met with tem- 
peraments that know not how to pay court or flatter, 
but only how to behave simply and frankly to all 
men alike. Then after my nurture in childhood, my 
path as a boy took me through the discourses of 
Plato and Aristotle, which are not at all suited for 
the reading of communities who think that on 
account of their luxury they are the happiest of men. 
Then I had to work hard myself among the most 
warlike and high-spirited of all nations, where men 
have knowledge of Aphrodite, goddess of Wedlock, 
only for the purpose of marrying and having children, 
and know Dionysus the Drink-Giver, only for the sake 
of just so much wine as each can drink at a draught. 
And in their theatres no licentiousness or insolence 
exists, nor does any man dance the cordax on their 

A story is told of them that not long ago a certain 
Cappadocian was exiled from here to that place, a 
man who had been brought up in your city in the 
house of the goldsmith — you know of course whom 
I mean, — and had learned, as he naturally did learn 
there, that one ought not to have intercourse with 
women but to pay attentions to youths. And when, 
after doing and suffering here I know not what, he 
went to the court of the king in that country, he 
took with him to remind him of your habits here a 
number of dancers and other such delights from this 
city ; and then finally since he still needed a coty- 
list ^ — ^you know the word and the thing too — he 

1 We do not know what sort of performance was given 
by a cotylist ; he was evidently a mime and may have played 
with cups ; kot^Atj = a pint-cup. 



rovTO S' vfjL6L<; care 7rpo<; tm epyo) to ovo/jua' koX 
TOVTOV ivdivBe eKoXei ttoOco teal epcorc Trj<; aepbvrj(; 
Trap v/Jblv BcaLTrjf;. ol KeXrot Be tov fiev kotv- 
XiaTTjv rjyvorjaavy ehe^aTo yap avTov avTiKa ra B 
jSaalXeia, to 1)9 o/)%r;o-Ta9 Be eiriTpaTrevTa^ eTri- 
Beifcvuo-Oat ^ ev tw OeaTpw r^i/ Te^vrjv ecacrav 
olo/juevoc TOL<; vv/jL(f>o\'^7rTOL<; avTov^ eoiKevai. Kal 
Tjv avTOL^ eKel TrapaTrXr^aLw^ ifiol KaTayeXaaTo- 
TaTov TO deaTpov aW 01 fiev oXuyoL ttoXXmv 
KaTeyeXwv, iyco Be ^vv oXiyoi^ evddBe yeXolo'^ 
vpZv airacn ra iravTa (patvo/jLat. 

Kal ovK ayavaKTCt) tw Trpdy/JbaTC. Kal yap av C 
etrfv dBiKO'^ el [xr] Kal rot? rrapovac (JTepyoLfJn, 
Bia(j>ep6vT(o^ dairaadfievo^; iicelva. KeXrol p,ev 
yap ovTO) fie Bo 6/jL0WTr)Ta Tpoircov rjyaTrrja-av, 
wcrre eToXfjui^aav ov')(^ oirXa pbovov virep ifiov 
Xa^elv, dXXd Kal ')(^pr)iiaTa eBcoKav iroXXd, Kal 
TrapauTOv p^evov oXiyov Kal e^cdcravTo Xa^elv, Kal 
7r/909 TrdvTa eTOL/jL(o<; vinfjKovaav. Be Brj p,eyiaTOv, 
eKeWev eh vjubd^i i^epero iroXv to epov ovop^a, 
Kal e/Socov irdvTe^; dvBpetov, avveTOv, BiKacov, ov 
7roXep,(p povov op^LXrjaai Betvov, dXXa Kal elpijvy D 
')(^p'^aaaOai Be^iov, evirpocriTOv, irpaov vp.el'^ Be 
avTol(; dvTiBeBctiKaTe vvv evdevBe irpoiTov p^ev, otl 
Trap" ep^e to, tov Koapbov irpdyp^aTa dvaTeTpairTac 
(TvvoiBa Be ovBev dvaTpeircav epiavTW ovt€ €KQ)V 
ovTe aKcov eiTa, a)9 eK tov ircoycovof; puov •^pr) 
irXeKeiv (T)(^otvia, Kal otl TroXepuoi tw X?, Tr66o<; Be 
vp>a^ eXcreiGi tov KdTrira. Kal vpZv ye avTO ol 

^ eirideiKwa-dai Hertlein would add. 


invited him also from here, because of his longing 
and love for the austere mode of life that prevails 
with you. Now the Celts never made the acquaint- 
ance of the cotylist, since he was at once admitted 
into the palace ; but when the dancers began to 
display their art in the theatre, the Celts left them 
alone because they thought that they were like men 
stricken with nympholepsy. And the theatre seemed 
to the men in that country highly ridiculous, just as 
it does to me ; but whereas the Celts were a few 
ridiculing many, I here along with a few others seem 
absurd in every way to all of you. 

This is a fact which I do not resent. And indeed 
it would be unjust of me not to make the best of 
the present state of things, after having so greatly 
enjoyed the life among the Celts. For they loved 
me so much, on account of the similarity of our 
dispositions, that not only did they venture to take 
up arms on my behalf, but they gave me large sums 
of money besides ; and when I would have declined 
it, they almost forced me to take it, and in all things 
readily obeyed me. And what was most wonderful 
of all, a great report of me travelled thence to your 
city, and all men proclaimed loudly that I was brave, 
wise and just, not only terrible to encounter in war, 
but also skilful in turning peace to account, easy of 
access and mild-tempered. But now you have sent 
them tidings from here in return, that in the first 
place the affairs of the whole world have been turned 
upside down by me — though indeed I am not con- 
scious of turning anything upside down, either 
voluntarily or involuntarily ; secondly, that I ought 
to twist ropes from my beard, and that I war against 
the Chi and that you begin to regret the Kappa. 

I I 2 

The satires of julian 

TToXioifXpL rrjaSe tt}? ttoXcg)? Oeol BiirXovv Boiev, M 
on 7rpo9 Tovrq) koI Ta<i a(7TvyeLTova<; io-vKo(f)av- 361 
r^arare TroXet? te/ja? kol 6/jioBov\ov<; ifwl, o)? hr] 
Trap avTMV etr) ra eh e/jue ^vvTcdivra, ov ev olS* 
OTi (f)i\ov(TLV eicelvai jjlclWov r) tov<; iavrcov vlea^;, 
01 TO, fjL6v T(ov OeSiV avearrjaav avriKa re/iivrj, 
Tovf; rdcjyovf; Be tmv adecov averpe^^av 7rdpTa<;^ 
OLTTO Tov (Tvv6r)[JbaT0^, Brj BeBorat irap' ifiov 
irpwrfv, oi;Ta)9 eirapdevre^ tov vovv /cat fMerewpoi 
yevbjxevoi rrfv BcdvoLav, &)? fcal irXeov iire^eXOelv 
T0t9 eh TOi'9 6eov<; 7r\r)/jL/j,€XovcrLV rj ^ouXofievw B 

flOl TjV. 

Ta 8' vfierepa' ttoXXoI fxev eyecpo/nevov^; aprt 
TOI'9 ^(Ofiov; dveTpeyfrav, oix; rj 7rpaoT7;9 tj/jlcov 
eBlBa^e /jl6Xi<; '^av'x^d^eiv. iirel Be dTreire/JLylrd/jueOa 
TOV veKpov TYj^ Aa0z^7;9, ol /nev df^ocriovfievoL to, 
7r/D09 TOI'9 Oeov<; ef v/jlmv dvTeBo)Kav Toh virep tmv 
Xeiyjrdvcov rjyavaKTrjKoai tov ve/cpov to Tefxevo^ G 
TOV Aacpvaiov deov, ol Be ecTe Xa66vTe<; ecTe fir) to 
TTvp evelaav ^ eKeivo, Tot9 fiev iTTcBrj/uLovaL twv ^evayv 
<f>pt>K(oBe<;, vfjLcov Be t& Boj/no) /juev rjBovrjv irapaa'^ov, 

^ ^v^laav Hertlein suggests, I5et|av MSS. 


Now may the guardian gods of this city grant you a 
double allowance of the Kappa ! ^ For besides this 
you falsely accused the neighbouring cities, which 
are holy and the slaves of the gods, like myself, of 
having produced the satires which were composed 
against me ; though I know well that those cities 
love me more than their own sons, for they at once 
restored the shrines of the gods and overturned all 
the tombs 2 of the godless, on the signal that was 
given by me the other day ; and so excited were 
they in mind and so exalted in spirit that they even 
attacked those who were offending against the gods 
with more violence than I could have wished. 

But now consider your own behaviour. Many of 
you overturned the altars of the gods which had only 
just been erected, and with difficulty did my 
indulgent treatment teach you to keep quiet. And 
when I sent away the body from Daphne,^ some of 
you, in expiation of your conduct towards the gods, 
handed over the shrine of the god of Daphne to 
those who were aggrieved about the relics of the 
body, and the rest of you, whether by accident 
or on purpose, hurled against the shrine that 
fire which made the strangers who were visiting 
your city shudder, but gave pleasure to the mass of 

^ i.e. may they hav^e two such rulers as Constantius. 

2 i.e. the sepulchres over which tlie Christian churches 
were built ; cf. 357 C, note. 

^ Babylas, Bishop of Antioch, had been buried in the grove 
of Daphne, and the priests of Apollo retired from it. When 
the church over his tomb was demolished by Julian he 
removed the body of St. Babylas to Antioch, and that night 
(October 22. 362 a.d.) the people of Antioch burned the 
temple of Apollo which Julian had restored. Cf. Johannes 
Chrysostomos, De S. Babyla et contra Julianum ; and 
Libanius, Monody on the Temple of Apollo at Daphne. 



VTTo Be rrj<; fiovXrj^ afieXriOev /cat elaen a/jueXov- 
lievov, ifJLol /jL€i> ovv iSoKei kol irpo rod 7rvpo<; 
aTrdXeXoLirevai rov vecov o 6eo<;, eTreor^firjve yap 
elcreXOovTL fiOL irpcoTov to dyaX/uba, koI tovtov 
fjbdprvpa KaXo) rov fxeyav ' HXtoi^ tt/jo? tou? 
ainaTOVVTa^, vp,a<; Be VTro/jivrjcraL ^ovXofJbai Kai 
dXXijf; a'7re')(d6ia<i eyu.?}?, eirena, oirep etcoOa iroieiv D 
iineiKO}'^, oveiBiaai e/xavro) kol virep ravrrj^ fcal 
Karrjyoprjcrat, kol fjbe/jiyjraaOat. 

AeKaTM yap ttov fMrjvl rep Trap vpZv apidpbov- 
fievfp' Amov olfiac tovtov v/jL6l<; irpoaayopeveTe' 
Tov 6eov TOVTOV TraTpLo^; iaTLV eopTrjy kuI eBei 
cnrovBfj 7rpo<i ttjv Aa(f)vr)v airavTciv. iyco fiev ovu 
(iTTo TOV K.acriov Ato9 67rt tovto eBpajiov, olofievo^ 
ivTavOa pudXiaTa tov ttXovtov zeal t^9 (^iXo- 
Tifjbia<i vfjLwv diroXavaeiv. ecTa dveirXaTTov Trap' 
ifiavTw TTOfjLTnjv, Morirep oveipaTa opcbv, lepela koI 362 
(TTrov8d<; Kal ')(opov^ tw Oeo) Kal OvfiidfjiaTa /cal 
Tou? €(f)ij^ov(; €K€i TTcpl TO Tefxevo^ OeoirpeTreaTara 
jjiev Ta<; '>^v')(a^ KaTea KevaG jxkvov^, XevKy 8' eadrjTt 
Kal fieyaXoirpeTrel KeKoafiyifievov^. 009 Be etaco 
TraprjXOov tov t€/jL€VOV<;, ovts Ov/jLid/juaTa /caTe- 
Xa^ov 0VT6 TToiravov ovtc lepelov. avTiKa fjuev 
ovv eOavfiaaa Kal ^firjv e^co tov Tefievov^ elvat, 
irepLfJueveiv S' vjjba^, ifie Brj TLfjbcbvTa<; 0)9 dp')(^L€pea, B 
TO (Tvv6r)p,a Trap i/juov. eTrel Be rjpoixrjv, tI p,eXXec 
dveiv rj TToXi^i iviavaiov eopTr)v dyovaa tw Oedi), 6 



your citizens and was ignored and is still ignored 
by your Senate. Now, in my opinion, even before 
that fire the god had forsaken the temple, for when 
I first entered it his holy image gave me a sign 
thereof. I call mighty Helios to bear me witness of 
this before all unbelievers. And now I wish to 
remind you of yet another reason for your hatred of 
me, and then to abuse myself — a thing which I 
usually do fairly well — and both to accuse and blame 
myself with regard to that hatred. 

In the tenth month, according to your reckoning, 
— Loos I think you call it — there is a festival founded 
by your forefathers in honour of this god, and it was 
your duty to be zealous in visiting Daphne. Accord- 
ingly I hastened thither from the temple of Zeus 
Kasios,^ thinking that at Daphne, if anywhere, I 
should enjoy the sight of your wealth and public 
spirit. And I imagined in my own mind the sort of 
procession it would be, like a man seeing visions in a 
dream, beasts for sacrifice, libations, choruses in 
honour of the god, incense, and the youths of your 
city there surrounding the shrine, their souls adorned 
with all holiness and themselves attired in white and 
splendid raiment. But when I entered the shrine I 
found there no incense, not so much as a cake, not a 
single beast for sacrifice. For the moment I was 
amazed and thought that I was still outside the 
shrine and that you were waiting the signal from me, 
doing me that honour because I am supreme pontiff. 
But when I began to inquire what sacrifice the city 
intended to offer to celebrate the annual festival in 
honour of the god, the priest answered, " I have 

^ Kasios was the name of a mountain near Antioch where 
there was a temple of Zeus. 



l€p€v<; elirev iyo) fiev rjKoa ^epwv oLKodev rw Oem 
XV^^ ^Gpetov, Tj TToXt? Be ra vvv ovBev rjVTpe- 

^KvravOa 6 ^LXairexOrnioyv eyco 7r/309 rrjv ^ov- 
\r)V dv67ri6LK€l<; irdvv hi6Xe')(P'r)v X6yov<;, o)v taco^ 
ovK aroirov /cat vvv /jivr]p,ovevaai. " ^eivov^ 
€(f)r}v iyci), ** r^i^ roaavrijv ttoXlv outco twv Oe&v 
oXiyaypco^ e^^tv, C09 ovBefiia TrapoiKovaa raif; 
ia')(P'TLal<; rod Ylovrov kco/jlt)' fivpLov; KXrjpov^ C 
7^9 Z8ta9 KeKTTj/juevrj, rw irarpiw Oeo) vvv Trpcorov 
iiTLGTd(Tr]<; eoprrjf; iviavaiov, eireihr} Bteo-KeSaaav 
ol Oeol rfjf; ddeorrjro'^ rrjv v€(f)6X7]v, fjLiav opviv^ 
virep avrrj^ ov irpoadyeii rjv ixPW p^dXiara fiev 
Kol Kara (j)vXd<; ^ovOvrelv, el Be fir) pdBtov, eva 
ye^ KOLvfj Trdcrav virep avrrj^; irpoa^epeiv tq) 6e(p 
ravpov. vfjLMV 3' eKaaTO^ IBlo, fiev et9 rd Belirva D 
Kol Td<^ eopTd<; ^atyoe^ BaTravcofjuevoi;, kol ev olBa 
7roXXov<; v/jlcjv irXelara €t9 rd Belirva rod Mal- 
ovjjbd XP^/^ct'T'Ct' diroXeaavra'^, virep S' v/icov avrcov 
Kol T^9 (Twrrjpia^ Tr}<; 7roXea>9 ovBeh Ovei ovre 
IBia Twv TToXiTcov ovre tj ttoXl^; kolvtj, fiovof; S' 
lepeifi, ov ol/jbat Bo/caiorepov rjv dirb rod ttXijOov^ 
tS)v TrpoacjiepofjLevcov Ta> 0ea> Trap* vfjboyv oiKaBe 
diTLevaL /jieptBa<i e^ovra. T0fc9 fiev yap lepevaiv 
ol Oeol KaXofcdyaOia rifidv avTOv<; /cal dpeTrj<; 
iTnTTjBevaei irpoaera^av koI Xetrovpyelv acplat rd 
elKOTa' TTpeTret, S* olfJuaL r^ iroXei Oveuv IBla Kai 363 

^ fiiav opvip Hertlein suggests, 6pyiv MSS. 
2 eva ye Hertlein suggests, eVo MSS. 



brought with me from my own house a goose as an 
offering to the god^ but the city this time has made 
no preparations." 

Thereupon, being fond of making enemies, I made 
in the Senate a very unseemly speech which perhaps 
it may now be pertinent to quote to you. " It is a 
terrible thing/' I said, " that so important a city 
should be more neglectful of the gods than any 
village on the borders of the Pontus.^ Your city 
possesses ten thousand lots of land privately owned, 
and yet when the annual festival in honour of the 
god of her forefathers is to be celebrated for the first 
time since the gods dispelled the cloud of atheism, 
she does not produce on her own behalf a single bird, 
though she ought if possible to have sacrificed an ox 
for every tribe, or if that were too difficult, the whole 
city in common ought at any rate to have offered to 
the god one bull on her own behalf. Yet every one 
of you delights to spend money privately on dinners 
and feasts ; and I know very well that many of you 
squandered very large sums of money on dinners 
during the May festival. Nevertheless, on your own 
behalf and on behalf of the city's welfare not one of 
the citizens offers a private sacrifice, nor does the city 
offer a public sacrifice, but only this priest ! Yet I 
think that it would have been more just for him to 
go home carrying portions from the multitude of 
beasts offered by you to the god. For the duty 
assigned by the gods to priests is to do them honour 
by their nobility of character and by the practice of 
virtue, and also to perform to them the service that 
is due ; but it befits the city, I think, to offer both 
private and public sacrifice. But as it is, every one 

1 cf. Themistius 332 p. 



Brj/jLoaia' vvvl 8e vfiMv €KaaTo<! iTnTpeirei fxev rfj 
yvvat/cl iravra eK^epeiv evBoOev eh tov<; TaXi- 
Xaiovi, Kol rpe(f>ovaac airb tmv vfjLerepwv eKetvai 
Toiff; TrivrjTa^; iroXv t?}? aOeoTrjTo^ ipyd^ovrai 
Oavfjba 7rpo<; Tov<i TOiv tolovtcov Beo/Jbivov<;' ean 8e 
TOLovTOv OLfiat TO TrXelaTov twv di'O pcoTTcov yeuof;' 
v/ii€L<i S* avTol TrpojTov jjuev tmv et? tov<; d€ov<; 
TLficov d/jL€\(t)<; e^ovre^ Trpdrreiv ovBev droirov 
VTroXa/jb^dvere' irpoaeiai 8' ou^et? rwv Seo/juevcov B 
T0fc9 i€pol<^' ov yap eanv olfiai iroOev Bcarpacf^fj. 
Kol yeveOXia /mev ti<; ecrrtcov lKav(b<; irapacrKevd^et 
helirvov Kul dpcarov, eVt TroXvTeXr] rpdire^av tou? 
(f>iXov(; TrapaXafiffdvcov eviavaiov 8' eoprrjf; oi/crr;? 
ovBel^ eKOfjuaev eXaiov et? Xv')(yov rw dew ovSe 
awovBrjv ovB^ lepelov ovBe Xi^avcorop. iyo) fiev 
ovv^ ovK ol8a, OTTCof; dv Tt9 ravTa dvrjp dyaOo^i C 
opiov irap' vfuv d'jToSe^aiTO, vo/jll^(o 8* eycoye pirjBe 
T0fc9 ^eot9 dpecTKeiv.^^ 

^otavra eliruyv rore fiifivrjfjiai, koX 6 puev 6eo<i 
€fiaprvpr)ae fiov Tot9 X6yoi<;, ft)9 prjirore wi^eXev, 
i/cXtTTcov TO irpodaTSLov, o iroXvv eTrjpTjae 'X^povov, 
ev eKeiVY) ttj ^dXy Tpe^jra^ dXXa'^ov tmv Kpa- 
TOvvTcov Tr]V Bidvoiav Kot to) %et/?€ ^taadp.evo<^. 
vfuv 8* dTr'r]')(dbpuY]v iyco ttoccov dvorJTCOf;. ^XP^^ 
yap crtcoTrdv, coairep olfxai iroXXol Ka\ dXXoc twv 
avvei<jeX66vTCi)v i/iioL, Kal /jlt) iroXvirpayixovelv 
fjbTjB^ iTTiTtfidv. dXX^ viro •npoireTeia^ iyco Kal D 

* fjifv olv Hertlein suggests, fikv MSS. 



of you allows his wife to carry everything out of 
his house to the Galilaeans, and when your wives 
feed the poor at your expense they inspire a great 
admiration for godlessness in those who are in need 
of such bounty — and of such sort are, I think, the 
great majority of mankind, — while as for yourselves 
you think that you are doing nothing out of the 
way when in the first place you are careless of the 
honours due to the gods, and not one of those in 
need goes near the temples — for there is nothing 
there, 1 think, to feed them with — and yet when any 
one of you gives a birthday feast he provides a dinner 
and a breakfast without stint and welcomes his 
friends to a costly table ; when, however, the annual 
festival arrived no one furnished olive oil for a lamp 
for the god, or a libation, or a beast for sacrifice, or 
incense. Now I do not know how any good man 
could endure to see such things in your city, and 
for my part I am sure that it is displeasing to the 
gods also." 

This is what I remember to have said at the time, 
and the god bore witness to the truth of my words — 
would that he had not ! — when he forsook your 
suburb which for so long he had protected, and again 
during that time of storm and stress ^ when he 
turned in the wrong direction the minds of those 
who were then in power and forced their hands. 
But I acted foolishly in making myself odious to you. 
For I ought to have remained silent as, I think, did 
many of those who came here with me, and I ought 
not to have been meddlesome or found fault. But 

^ Julian probably alludes to the riot which took place at 
Antioch on account of the famine in 354, when the populace 
killed Theophilus the Governor and were punished for the 
murder by Constant|us. 



rrjf; KaTayeXdarov KoXaKeia^' ov yap Brj vofii- 
areov vir evvoia<; ifiol rore elprjaOai roiJf; vrpo? 
v/jLd<; \6yov<;, aXK ol/iiaL So^av dr)pev(ov evXa^eia^; 
T€ 6t9 Tou? deov<; /cal eh v/md^ evvoia^ aZoXov 
TOVTO 8' iarriv olfiai irayyeXoio^i KoXaKeia' woXXa 
vfJbSyv /jbdrrjv Kare'X^ea, hiicaLa tolvvv ipyd^ecrOe 364 
fju€ rSiV iTrcTCfiijcretov eKeivcov dp^vvop^evoi Koi 
ivaXXdTTovTe<; rd )(^(opia. iyco p,ev viro tw 6e& 

7r/309 Tft) /StWyLtft) KoX T0t9 TOV dydXfiaTO^i X')(Ve(TLV 

iv 6Xiyoi<; vp,(bv KarehpaiMOV vp,el<; 8' errl rrjs; 
dyopd^ iv TO) B'^/JLM Sid tmv iKavoyv rd rooavra 
^(apLevTi^edOat ttoXltmv. ev ydp icrre, Trdvre^; 
ol XeyovTe<; KOLVovvraL irpo^ rov<i aKovopra^; tov<; 
X6yov<i, KoX 6 ^vv rjSovr] rcov ^Xaa<f>7]ixLWV d/cpoa- 
adp,6vo<^, /jb€Tex(ov rr)? t(T7)<; '^Bovr}<; dirpayfjio- B 
vecrrepov rov XeyovTO<;y K0Lva)v6<; ecrrt rr}? alTLa<^. 

Efcp7/T<x« ovv vpuv hi oXr)<i Koi yKpoarai, Trj<; 
TToXeo)? oTToaa eh tovtovI ireiraiicTai top cpavXov 
ircoycova koI top ovSev eiriBei^avTa vp,iv /caXov 
ov8e iirtSei^ovTa rpoirov. ov yap iTriSei^ec ^iov 
vjjLLV, oirolov v/xeh del fiev f^Jre, irodelre he opdv 
Kal iv Toh dp')(^ovcnv. virep piev hrj tmv ^Xa(T(f)rj- 
fiLOJV, a? IBla re Kal hrjfioa-la /care^eare /xof C 
7raL^ovTe<; iv Toh dvairala-Toif;, i/MiVTov irpoaKUT- 


I poured down all these reproaches on your heads 
to no purpose, owing to my headlong temper and a 
ridiculous desire to flatter, — for it is surely not to be 
believed that out of goodwill towards you 1 spoke 
those words to you then ; but I was, I think, hunting 
after a reputation for piety towards the gods and for 
sincere good-will towards you, which is, I think, the 
most absurd form of flattery. Therefore you treat 
me justly when you defend yourselves against those 
criticisms of mine and choose a different place for 
making your defence. For I abused you under the 
god's statue near his altar and the footprints of the 
holy image, in the presence of few witnesses ; but you 
abused me in the market-place, in the presence of 
the whole populace, and with the help of citizens 
who were capable of composing such pleasant 
witticisms as yours. For you must be well aware 
that all of you, those who uttered the sayings about 
me and those who listened to them, are equally 
responsible ; and he who listened with pleasure to 
those slanders, since he had an equal share of the 
pleasure, though he took less trouble than the 
speaker, must share the blame. 

Throughout the whole city, then, you both uttered 
and listened to all the jests that were made about 
this miserable beard of mine, and about one who 
has never displayed to you nor ever will display any 
charm of manner. For he will never display among 
you the sort of life that you always live and desire 
to see also among those who govern you. Next 
with respect to the slanders which both in private 
and publicly you have poured down on my head, 
when you ridiculed me in anapaestic verse, since I 
too have accused myself I permit you to employ that 



t)yop^(Ta<; vfilv eimpeiroi ')(^prjo-Oa(, /juera fjuei^ovof; 
avTO) Tvappr^crLa^, &)? ovhev vp,d<; iyo} Bca tovto 
ircoiTOTe heivov ipydcrop^at a^drToyv rj tvittohv 
Y) B(A)v Tf cLTroKKeicov rj KoXd^cov. ttw? ydp; 09, 
eTreiirep v/jlIv ifiavTov iinBeL^af; fiera tcov (fyiXcov 
(T(0(f)povovvTa, (^avkorarov Ihelv v/nlv kol drjSe- 
ararov, ovSev eVeSetfa koXov Oia/xa, p^eraaTrjvat D 
T^9 7roX6a)9 ^ eyvcoKa kol viro^wprjaai, Treirei- 
a/jL€VO<; fjikv ovSap,cio<}, on iravra)^ iK6iV0L<; dpkcrw, 
7r/509 01)9 TTopevoixaL, KpLvoav 8' alpercorepov, el 
BiajjudproLfic rod Bo^at yovv eKeivoi^ Ka\o<; xdya- 
66<i, iv fxepei p^eraSovvat iraau ttj^ drjBia^ Trj<; 
ip,avTov Kal pur) rrjv evBaipbOva javrrjv diroKval- 
(jai iroKiv Mairep inro Bva(oBia<; rrj^ ipurj^; pberpio- 
Tr)TO<; fcal to)v epiOiv iTrcrySelcov rrj^; crcocppocrvvr]^. 

^Hp^wv yap ovBeh dypov ovBe ktjttov iirplaro 365 
Trap' vpblv ovBe oliciav wKoBoprjaev ovB^ eyrjp^e 
Trap vp.(av ovo e^eocoKev et9 vp^a<i ovoe r}paaur)p,ev 
TOiv Trap vpXv KaXcov, ovB^ i^rfKcixrap^ev ^Aaavpiov 
ttXovtov ovB^ eveup^dpLsda Ta<; Trpo(TTaaia<; oiiBe 
TrapaBwaarevecv r)pLlv rfveayopjedd Tiva<i tcoi^ eV 
TeXei ouS' iTreiaap>ev top Brjp^ov eh Trapaa-Keva^ 
BeuTTVcov rj Oedrpcov, ov ovt(o<; eTroirjaapbev Tpv(f)dv, 
Otiare aywv a')(p\r)V aTTO rr)^ evBeta'i tov<; dva- B 
Traiarovi eh TOL/9 alrLov^ avrw T779 ev6r]via<; 
^vveOrjKev, ovB' eTreypd-^apev ')(^pv(Tiov ovBe jjrrj- 
aapLCV dpyvpiov ovBe r)v^rjcrap,ev <f>opov<;' dWa 

^ rrjs v6\€oi)s Hertlein suggests, tV '>r6\iy MSS. 



method with even greater frankness ; for 1 shall 
never on that account do you any harm, by slaying 
or beating or fettering or imprisoning you or punish- 
ing you in any way. Why indeed should I ? For 
now that in showing you myself, in company with 
my friends, behaving with sobriety, — a most sorry 
and unpleasing sight to you — I have failed to show 
you any beautiful spectacle, I have decided to leave 
this city and to retire from it ; not indeed because I 
am convinced that I shall be in all respects pleasing 
to those to whom I am going, but because I judge it 
more desirable, in case I should fail at least to seem 
to them an honourable and good man, to give all 
men in turn a share of my unpleasantness,^ and not 
to annoy this happy city with the evil odour, as it 
were, of my moderation and the sobriety of my 

For not one of us has bought a field or garden in 
your city or built a house or married or given in 
marriage among you, or fallen in love with any of 
your handsome youths, or coveted the wealth of 
Assyria, or awarded court patronage ; ^ nor have we 
allowed any of those in office to exercise influence 
over us, or induced the populace to get up banquets 
or theatrical shows ; nay rather we have procured for 
them such luxurious ease that, since they have respite 
from want, they have had leisure to compose their 
anapaests against the very author of their well-being. 
Again, I have not levied gold money or demanded 
silver money or increased the tribute ; but in 

^ Demosthenes, Against Meidiaa 153 airoKvaiei yap ariUcf 
Koi avaiadrfaiq,. 

■^ TTpoa-raala is sometimes used of the Imperial protection 
of a municipal guild, and that may be Julian's meaning here. 



7r/)09 T0t9 eWel/JLfiaa-Li^ avelrai iraai twv cWl- 
a/xevcov elcr^opoiv to TrefjLTrrov. ovk oifiat, 5* 
i^apKelv TO aw^povelv i/ie, dWa Kal ^ [xeTpiov 
^%a) vaX fJLa Ala /cat 6€ov<;, co? ep>avTov TreiOo), 
Tov elaayyeXea, KaXco<i v(j)^ v/jlmv eTriTt/jLrjOevTa, 
BtoTC yepcov oiv Kal (f)a\aKp6<; ypi/xa tcl irpoaw 
Boa SvcTTpoTTiav aia')(vveTai KOfiav e^oTTiaOev, C 
(oairep "0/jL'r)po<; eiroir^cre tou? "A^avTa<;, ovBev 
S* i/C€LVov (j^avXoTepov^ avSpa<; olkoi irap ipbavTco 
hvo Kal Tp€L(;, dWa Kal Terra/^a?, el ^oiikeade 
he vvvl Kal irefiTTTov. 

'O he fjLOL 6elo<i Kal 6/xci)vv/jL0<; ov BiKatoTaTa 
jiev v/jLCOV TTpovaTrj, fie')(^pL^ erreTpeTTOv ol 6eol 
^vvelvai rjfjLLV avTov Kal ^v/jUTrpaTTeiv; ov irpo/jbr]- 
decTTaTa Be irdaat^i eire^rfKde Tal^; olKovoixiai^ 
TTj'^ 7r6\eo)(;; r)pA,v fiev ovv iBoKet TavTa KaXd, 
irpaori^f; dp)(^6vTcov fieTa acocfipoavvrjfi, (pofxeOd re D 
viMv LKavo)^ Bid TOVTcov KaXol (pavelaOat tmv 
eTriTrjBeufidTcov. eirel Be v/Jbd<; rj re ^aOvTy<; 
drrapeo-KeL tov yeveiov Kal to dTrjpbeXrjTOV tmv 
Tpi,')(^S)V Kal TO fiT) Trapa^dWeiv tol<; OedTpot<s 
Kal TO d^iovv ev tol<; lepo2<; elvai crefivovf; Kal 
irpb TOVTWV dTrdvTcov rj irepl Td<; KplaeL<; r][jbOiv 
dayoXla Kal to tt}? dyopd<; eipyeiv ttjv ifKeov- 
e^lav, eKovTe^ v/jllv i^LdTd/jieOa rrj? 7roX,6a)9» 366 
ov yap olfiac paBiOV ev yrjpa fieTaOefievcp Bia- 
<f)vyeLv TOV Xeyofievov virep tov IktIvo^s fivOov. 
XeyeTai ydp tol tov iKTCva (f)covr)v e')(0VTa irapa- 
TrXfjcTiav T0t9 dWoi<; opviacv einOeaBaL tw %yO€- 
fjL€Ti^eiv, wairep ol yevvaloi tmv Xittcohv, eiTa tov 

^ aWa Kol Reiske would add. 


addition to the arrears^ one-fifth of the regular 
taxes has been in all cases remitted. Moreover I 
do not think it enough that I myself practise self- 
restraint, but 1 have also an usher who, by Zeus and 
the other gods, is moderate indeed, as I believe, 
though he has been finely scolded by you, because, 
being an old man and slightly bald in front, in his 
perversity he is too modest to wear his hair long 
behind, as Homer made the Abantes wear theirs.^ 
And I have with me at my court two or three men 
also who are not at all inferior to him, nay four or 
even five now, if you please. 

And as for my uncle and namesake,^ did he not 
govern you most justly, so long as the gods allowed 
him to remain with me and to assist me in my work ? 
Did he not with the utmost foresight administer all 
the business of the city ? For my part I thought these 
were admirable things, I mean mildness and modera- 
tion in those who govern, and I supposed that by prac- 
tising these I should appear admirable in your eyes. 
But since the length of my beard is displeasing to 
you, and my unkempt locks, and the fact that I do 
not put in an appearance at the theatres and that I 
require men to be reverent in the temples ; and 
since more than all these things my constant atten- 
dance at trials displeases you and the fact that I try 
to banish greed of gain from the market-place, I 
willingly go away and leave your city to you. For 
when a man changes his habits in his old age it is 
not easy, I think, for him to escape the fate that is 
described in the legend about the kite. The story 
goes that the kite once had a note like that of other 
birds, but it aimed at neighing like a high-spirited 

^ Iliad 2. 542. '^ Julian, Count of the East. 




fjiev eTTiXadofievov, to Se ov Bvvrjdevra eXeiv 
LKavayf; a/jL(f)OLV (rrepeadac kol (f)av\orepav tmv 
aXk(ov opviOcov elvai, ttjv <p(0V7]v. b Sr) /cal B 
auTO? evXa^ov/xac Tradelv, dypoLKLa<; re a/ia Kal 
5e^toT>7T09 ajjuaprelv. 7]Br} yap, a)9 /cal u/tet? avTol 
(Tvvopdre, ttXtjctiov ia/juev ideXovTCDv deSyv, 

EuT6 jJLOi XevKol ixeXaivoi^ ava/jbe/juL^ovrac rptp^e?, 

Tt^^o? €cf)r] 7rOLr)T7]<;. 

Kiev. aXXa t^? a')(apiaTia^, irpo^; Oewv kol 
Alo(; ayopaiov Kal iroXiov^ov, virocyeTe Xoyov. 
r]BiK7]a6e rt Trap* ifxov kolvtj TrcoTrore rj Kal ^ Ihla, 
Kal Slk7)v virep rovrov Xa/Seiv ov BvvdfievoL C 
<pav€p(0<; Sid t(ov dvairaiaroav r]fid^, oicrirep ol 
KcofjbfpBol Tov 'UpaKXea Kal rov Aiovvaov eXKovcri 
Kal TrepL^epovacv, ovtco Be Kal v/jL€l<; iv Tafc9 dyo- 
pai<i e'KLTpilSeTe XoiSopovvre^; rj rov jxev iroielv tl 
^aXeirbv 6^9 vfid<; direa'y^o/jLrfv, rov Xeyeiv he vfJLa^ 
KaK(o<; ovK d7re€r^6/jLr)v, Xva jxe Kal vfiei<; Bed tmv 
avTMv lovre^ dfivvrjcrde; rlf; ovv vjntv eariv atria 
TOV 7ry0O9 r}/j,d<i TrpocrKpova-fiaTO'; Kal T779 dire- 
'^Oeia^; eyob ydp ev olBa Beivov ovBeva vjjboiv ovhev D 
ovhe dvrjKeaTOv epyao-d/jLevo^; ovre ISua tov<; dvSpa^i 
0VT6 KOLvfi TTjv TToXiv, ot'3' eiTTcdv ovBev (f)Xavpov, 
dXXd Kal eTracveaaf}, 009 eBo^e jnoi TrpocnJKeiv, Kal 
/jLeTaBov<; ')(^pr]oT0v rivof;, oaov 6tVo9 rju tov eirt- 
6v/jL0VVTa yLtera tov BvvaTov 7roXXov<; ev woieiv 
dvOpoo7rov<i. dBvvarov B ev tare Kal T0t9 ela<^e- 

^ ^ KoX Hertlein suggests, koX MSS. 



horse ; then since it forgot its former note and could 
not quite attain to the other sound, it was deprived 
of both, and hence the note it now utters is less 
musical than that of any other bird. This then is 
the fate that I am trying to avoid, I mean failing 
to be either really boorish or really accomplished. 
For already, as you can see for yourselves, I am, 
since Heaven so wills, near the age " When on my 
head white hairs mingle with black," as the poet of 
Teos said.i 

Enough of that. But now, in the name of Zeus, 
God of the Market-place and Guardian of the City, 
render me account of your ingratitude. Were you 
ever wronged by me in any way, either all in common 
or as individuals, and is it because you were unable 
to avenge yourselves openly that you now assail me 
with abuse in your market-places in anapaestic verse, 
just as comedians drag Heracles and Dionysus on 
the stage and make a public show of them ? ^ Or can 
you say that, though 1 refrained from any harsh 
conduct towards you, I did not refrain from speaking 
ill of you, so that you, in your turn, are defending 
yourselves by the same methods ? What, I ask, is 
the reason of your antagonism and your hatred of 
me ? For I am very sure that I had done no terrible 
or incurable injury to any one of you, either separ- 
ately, as individuals, or to your city as a whole ; nor 
had I uttered any disparaging word, but I had even 
praised you, as I thought I was bound to do, and 
had bestowed on you certain advantages, as was 
natural for one who desires, as far as he can, to 
benefit many men. But it is impossible, as you know 
well, both to remit all their taxes to the taxpayers 

^ Aiiacreon/r. 77, Bergk. '^ cf. Oration 7. 204 b. 


K K 2 




povcn (Tvy')((op6tv airavra koI SiBovao irdvra tol<; 36 
elcoOoai Xafji^dvetv. orav ovv (f)av(o ji/qhev iXar- 
Ttwcra? T(ov BrjfjLoaicov avvrd^ecov, oaa^; elwOev r; 
^aaiXifcr) vifietv Sairdvr), vfuv S* dvelf; tmv elatpo- 
poyv ovK oXiya, ap ovk alvLy/jbari to irpaypu 

'AXX' oTToaa fxev KOivfj irpo<; 7rdvTa<; TreTroLrjrai 
Tou? dp')(pixevov<i vir i/juov, TrpeiroL av atwirav, iva 
/jlt) ZoKoirjv Mairep e^€7riTr)Se<; avroir pocrcoTro^i iirai- B 
vov^ aBecv ijxavrovy koI ravra eTrayyetXdp.evo^; 
TToWa^ Kol dae\yeaTdTa<^ v^p€L<i /carwx^ear ra 
he Ihia fioi tt/oo? vfMd<; ireirotr^p^eva TTpoirero)^ jjuev 
Ka\ dvo7]Tco<;, ijKtara Se v<f)' v/iicov d^ca d'^api- 
arelordai, irpeiroL dv ol/xai, Trpocj^epecv wairep Tiva 
ifid oveuBrj roaovrw tmv efnrpoaOev ^aXeTrcore/^a, 
rov T€ av')(^/jbOv tov nrepl ro 7rp6(Ta)7rov kol Trj<; 
dva(^poBiaia^y ocrw koI dXrjOecTTepa ovra rfj ^jrv^r] 
fjidXiaTa TTpoarjKei. koX Stj irporepov eiryvovv C 
vfiaf; ci)9 iveBe'xero [jlol (pcXoTificof} ovk dva/jL€Lva<; 
rrjv irelpav ovh oirco^ e^ofiev 7rpo<; dXX'qXovf; 
ivOvfj/qSei^, dXXa voiJLiaa<i v/jLd<; jxev '^KXXrjVcov 
TralSafiy ifiavrbv Si, el koX yevo^ io-rl fjuoi SpaKcov, 
EXXijva 7 0A9 iTTCTTjEevfiaaiv vTreXdfi^avov, on 
fidXiCTTa dXXyXov^; dyaTrrjaofiev. €v fjbev Sr) tovto 
earco fjuoc t^9 Tr/JOTrereta? 6v6tBo<;. eTreira irpea- 
^evaafievoi,^ vjmv irap ifxe kol dcf^iKO/jLei^oci vcrre- 
poc<; 01) Tcov dXXcov fiovov, dXXd Kal ^ AXe^apSpitov D 


and to give everything to those who are accustomed 
to receive gifts. Therefore when it is seen that 
I have diminished none of the public subscriptions 
which the imperial purse is accustomed to con- 
tributCj but have remitted not a few of your taxes, 
does not this business seem like a riddle ? 

However, it becomes me to be silent about all 
that I have done for all my subjects in common, lest 
it should seem that I am purposely as it were singing 
my praises with my own lips, and that too after 
announcing that I should pour down on my own head 
many most opprobrious insults. But as for my actions 
with respect to you as individuals, which, though the 
manner of them was rash and foolish, nevertheless 
did not by any means deserve to be repaid by you 
with ingratitude, it would, I think, be becoming for 
me to bring them forward as reproaches against 
myself; and these reproaches ought to be more 
severe than those I uttered before, I mean those 
that related to my unkempt appearance and my lack 
of charm, inasmuch as they are more genuine since 
they have especial reference to the soul. I mean 
that before I came here I used to praise you in the 
strongest possible terms, without waiting to have 
actual experience of you, nor did I consider how we 
should feel towards one another ; nay, since 1 
thought that you were sons of Greeks, and I myself, 
though my family is Thracian, am a Greek in my 
habits, I supposed that we should regard one 
another with the greatest possible affection. This 
example of my rashness must therefore be counted 
as one reproach against me. Next, after you had 
sent an embassy to me — and it arrived not only later 
than all the other embassies, but even later than 


TMV iiT AlyvTTTQ), TToXv /ji€V dv7]Ka '^pvaiov, TToXv 
8* dpyvptov, <j)6pov<; 8^ TrafiirXrjOeLf; Ihia irapa rh^i 
aXXa<; TroXet?, eireira rov ^ovXevrrjpuov rov Kard- 
Xoyov SiaKoa-ioi^ l3ov\€vrat<i dv€7r\7]pcoaa (pet- 
ad/JL€vo<} ov8€vo<;. eaKoirovv yap otto)? t) 7roA,t<? 
v^Siv earac fiei^cov koI Bvparcorepa. 

AeSco/ca ovv vfuv kol diro rcov iiTLTpOTrevcrdvToyv 
Tou? 6r](Tavpov<; tol'9 €/jlov^ kol diro tmv ipyaaa- 368 
fievfov TO vofXiCTfia tov<; TrXovaicordrov^; eXofJuevoi^ 
e%€tz/* vfiel^; 8* eiceivoDV fiev ov tov<; 8vvafjL€vov<; 
eiKeade, Xa^ofxevoi he tt)? dcpopfirjf; elpydaaa-Oe 
TrapuTrXijaia iroXei fiev ovSa/jL(t)<; evvofJbovfJLevr), 
irpeTTOvra K v/jlcov aXXo)? tw rpoirw. /SovXeaOe 
€V0<; v/jLd<; iiTrofivijcrco ; ^ovXevrrjV 6vo/id(TavT€<i, ™ 
Trplv irpocrypacprjvat, rrp fcaraXoyo), jjuerecopov Trj<; 
BlKTjf} ov(Tr]<;, vTTepdXere Xeirovpyia rov dvOpcoirov. 
dXXov dir dyopa<; elXKvaare Trevrjra Kal i/c tcjv B 
dTravra')(pv fjuev aTroXeXei/jL/ieucov, Trap" v/mv Be Bid 
irepLTTrjv (f)povr)aiv dfieL^o/uiivcov Trpo? -^pvaiov 
(rvpif>€T(ov evTTopovvra fxerpia^; ovcna<; eXXeaOe 
Kocvcovov. TToXXd Toiavra irepl Ta<^ ovofjbaaia^ 
KaKOvpyovvTwv vfxoyv, eireiBr] purj irpo^ diravra 
a-vve')(^copi]aafi€v, a)V re ev elpyaadfjLeOa rrjv %a/o«z^ 
d7r€aT€pi]0r]/jLev, koI mv dTTe(T')(pii66a ^vv BiKrj rrap 
v/jlcov Bu(T')(^epaLv6iJLe9a. 

Kat ravra fxev rjv twv fXiKpSiv irdvv Kal ovrrco C 
Bwdfieva ttjv ttoXlv iKiroXe/JLcoaar to Be By 



that of the Alexandrians who dwell in Egypt, — I 
remitted large sums of gold and of silver also, and 
all the tribute money for you separately apart from 
the other cities ; and moreover I increased the 
register of your Senate by two hundred members 
and spared no man ; ^ for I was planning to make 
your city greater and more powerful. 

I therefore gave you the opportunity to elect and 
to have in your Senate the richest men among those 
who administer my own revenues and have charge of 
coining the currency. You however did not elect 
the capable men among these, but you seized the 
opportunity to act like a city by no means well- 
ordered, though quite in keeping with your character. 
Would you like me to reiliind you of a single instance ? 
You nominated a Senator, and then before his name 
had been placed on the register, and the scrutiny of 
his character was still pending, you thrust this 
person into the public service. Then you dragged 
in another from the market-place, a man who was 
poor and who belonged to a class which in every 
other city is counted as the very dregs, but who 
among you, since of your excessive wisdom you 
exchange rubbish for gold, enjoys a moderate 
fortune ; and this man you elected as your colleague. 
Many such offences did you commit with regard 
to the nominations, and then when I did not 
consent to everything, not only was I deprived of 
the thanks due for all the good I had done, but 
also I have incurred your dislike on account of all 
that I in justice refrained from. 

Now these were very trivial matters and could not 
so far make the city hostile to me. But my greatest 

^ The Senatorship was an expensive burden. 


fieyicTTOv, €^ ov TO ficya ijpOr) yLticro?, d(f>CKO/jL€vov 
/jlov 7r/>09 vfid<; o Srjfjuof; iv tm Oedrpw, irviyoixevo^ 
VTTO T03V TrXovcrLwv, d(f>rJK€ <pcovr)v irpcoTov ravrrjv' 
" Havra ye/iiei, iravra ttoXXoO.'* t^9 e7novar)(; 
hie\e')(67]v iyci) toI<^ SuvaTol<i v/jloou iTTcx^etpoov 
ireideiv, ore Kpelrrov icrnv v7rept.B6vTa<; clSlkov D 
KT'qae(t)<i ev iroirjcrai irdXiTas; koI ^€V0v<}. ol Ce 
iTrayyeCKafxevoL rod irpdyp^aro^; eTnp^eXrjdeaOat 
fjb7]V(ov e.^rj^ rpicov inrepthovTO^i jxov Kal irepiixelvav- 
T09 ovr(o<i 6\oyct)pco<i el')(pv tov Trpdy/Jiarof}, 009 
ou8et9 av rjXiTKTev. iirel K ecopcov dXr^Or) rrjv rod 
hrjiJbov ^covrjv Kal rrjv dyopdv oy^ vir euBeia^;, aX,V 
VTT dirXrjaTLa^ tmv K€KTrjp,6vcop (rTevo')(copov/ji€V7]v, 369 
era^a juuerpLov iKacrrov rl/jLrj/jia /cat SrjXov iwoLrfaa 
irdcnv. iirel 3' yv tcl fiev dXXa Trap avTol<i TroXXd 
irdvv Kal yap rjv 6lvo<^ Kav eXaiov Kal rd Xotird 
Trdvra' (TLtov 3* 6v86co<i el')(pv, d<^opia<^ Becvrj^; 
VTTO TMV efJuirpoaOev av^l^^v yevo/juevrj'^, eSo^i /10c 
irefjureiv 6l<^ ^aXKiSa Kal 'lepdv ttoXlv Kal 7roX6t9 
Ta9 irept^, evdev elarjyayov vfuv fierpoav rer- 
rapdKOvra p^vpidSa^;. ft)9 S dvdXwro Kal tovto, 
TTporepov fxev irevrdKi^^ 'x^lXlov'^, eirrdKi'^ %iXtou9 3' B 
V(TT€pov, elra vvv /nvplov^, oij<i i'TrL')(a)pi6v icm 
Xoiirov ovofid^eLV /iioUovf;, dvaXiaKov criroVy irdv- 
Ta9 oiKoOev €')((DV. diTO T?59 AlyvTTTOV KOfJLLo-Qevra 
fjLOL aiTov eScoKa rfj iroXei, irpaTTOfievo^ dpyvptov 
ovK eirl BeKa p^erpcov,^ dXXa irevTeKaLheKa ro- 

^ OVK iTrl—fMfTpwv Heitlein suggests, ov Kara — fierpa MSS. 


offence of all, and what aroused that violent hatred of 
yours, was the following. When I arrived among 
you the populace in the theatre, who were being 
oppressed by the rich, first of all cried aloud, " Every- 
thing plentiful ; everything dear ! " On the follow- 
ing day I had an interview with your powerful 
citizens and tried to persuade them that it is 
better to despise unjust profits and to benefit the 
citizens and the strangers in your city. And they 
promised to take charge of the matter, but though 
for three successive months I took no notice and 
waited, they neglected the matter in a way that no 
one would have thought possible. And when I saw 
that there was truth in the outcry of the populace, 
and that the pressure in the market was due not to 
any scarcity but to the insatiate greed of the rich, I 
appointed a fair price for everything, and made it 
known to all men. And since the citizens had 
everything else in great abundance, wine, for instance, 
and olive oil and all the rest, but were short 
of corn, because there had been a terrible failure 
of the crops owing to the previous droughts, I 
decided to send to Chalcis and Hierapolis and the 
cities round about, and from them I imported for 
you four hundred thousand measures of corn. And 
when this too had been used, I first expended five 
thousand, then later seven thousand, and now again 
ten thousand bushels — " modii " ^ as they are called 
in my country — all of which was my very own 
property ; moreover I gave to the city corn which had 
been brought for me from Egypt; and the price 
which I set on it was a silver piece, not for ten 
measures but for fifteen, that is to say, the same 

^ The modius was a bushel measure. 


(TOVTOV, oaov iirl roiv Si/ca irporepov. el Se 
rooravra fierpa Oepov^ rjv irap vpZv rov vo/jLia/jia- 
T09, TL irpocrhoKCLV ehei rr^vLKavra, rjviKa, (fyrjalv 6 
Bota)Tt09 TToirjTT]^, '^aXeirop yeveadai, rov Xl/jUou C 
cttI Sco/jLan; ap* ov nevre fioyt^i koI d'ya7rrjT0t)<; 
aXXct)9 re koI ttjXikovtov '^eifjLcovo^; eTriyevofxevov; 

Ti ovv vfjiSyv 01 irXovaioi; rov jxev eirl 
Twv aypMV alrov XdOpa direhovro TrXetoz^o?, 
i^dprjaav Be rb kolvov rol<; Ihioi^i dvaXco/Jiaar 
KOi ov'y^ rj 7ro\i9 fiovov eirl tovto auppel, ol D 
irXelaroi Be koI eK tmv dypcov avvrpeyovcTLv, 
o /jLovov iarlv evpelv iroXv /cal evcovov, dpTov<; 
oDVOv/uievoL. Kalroo rl^; pbefjivr^rai irap' v/mv evOr)- 
vovpLevrj<i rr}? 7ro\6ft)9 TrevTe/caiBeKa /jberpa crirov 
iTpaOevra rov ')(^pvaov; ravrrjf; eve/cev vp.LV aTrrj- 
'ydop7]v 67ft) TTjf; 7rpd^eo)<;, ore rov olvov vpZv 
ovK eTrerpe^jra /cat rd Xd')(ava fcal ra? oirwpa^ 
dTToBoadaL ')(^pv(Tov, /cat rov viro rcov irXovaicov 
dTTOKeKXeta p,evov ev rat? diroOriKai^ alrov dpyvpov 
avroL<; koX ^(pvcrov e^ai(f)vr]<; Trap* vfjicov yeveaOat. 370 
e/cetvoL p.ev yap avrov e^co rrj<; TroXeco? BteOevro 
KaX(t)<i, ipyaadp^evoc rol^; dvOpcoTroc^; XipLov dXoi- 
rjrijpa ^poreiov, co? 6eo<; e<^r) rov<; ravra emrr)- 
Bevovra<i i^6Xey)(cov. rj iroXif; 8* ev d(j)6ovta 
yeyovev dprcov evefca fiovov, dXXov 8* ovBev6<i. 

^vvirjv p,ev ovv kol rore ravra ttolojv on p,Tf B 
irdcriv dpeaoip^L, irXrjv e/jueXev ovBev ep^ol' rep yap 



amount that had formerly been paid for ten measures. 
And if in summer, in your city, that same number of 
measures is sold for that sum, what could you 
reasonably have expected at the season when, as the 
Boeotian poet says, ^'^It is a cruel thing for famine to 
be in the house." ^ Would you not have been 
thankful to get five measures for that sum, especially 
when the winter had set in so severe ? 

But what did your rich men do ? They secretly 
sold the corn in the country for an exaggerated 
price, and they oppressed the community by the 
expenses that private persons had to incur. And 
the result is that not only the city but most 
of the country people too are flocking in to buy 
bread, which is the only thing to be found in 
abundance and cheap. And indeed who remem- 
bers fifteen measures of corn to have been sold 
among you for a gold piece, even when the city 
was in a prosperous condition ? It was for this con- 
duct that I incurred your hatred, because I did not 
allow people to sell you wine and vegetables and 
fruit for gold, or the corn which had been locked 
away by the rich in their granaries to be suddenly 
converted by you into silver and gold for their bene- 
fit. For they managed the business finely outside 
the city, and so procured for men "famine that 
grinds down mortals," ^ as the god said when he was 
accusing those who behave in this fashion. And the 
city now enjoys plenty only as regards bread, and 
nothing else. 

Now I knew even then when I acted thus that I 
should not please everybody, only I cared nothing 

^ This does not occur in Hesiod or Pindar. 
2 A phrase from an unknown oracular source. 



dBifCovfieva) Trk'^Oet ^orjOelv (pfirjv ')(^prjvat, Kal 
Tol<; d<l)iKvovfjL€voi<; ^6vol<;, ejxov re evexa Kal tmv 
(TvpovTcov r)/juv dp')(^ovT(jdV. eirel 8' olfxai crvfju/Sai- 
vei Tovf; /JL€V dinevaL, rrjv iroXtv S* elvav rd tt/oo? 
€fi€ yv(ti/jLr}<; fiid^' ol fiev yap fjbiaovcnv, ol K vir 
i/jLOV Tpa(j)€VT6<; d')(^apL(TTovaiv' ^ABpaareLa iravra 
iTnrpeyjraf; e? dXko eOvo^^ olxv^o/juai Kal Brj/jiov ere- 
poi^y ovSev uyLta? vTro/jLvrjaa^; wv iviavTOt<; efiirpoaOev C 
ivvea BiKaia Spa)vre<; et? aXX'^Xovf; elpydaacrde, 

(j)6p(OV /jL€V B7]fJL0<; CTtI Ttt? OLKia'^ TCOV BvvaTMV 

^vv ^ofi Tr]v (p\oya Kal diroKTivvv<^ rov dp')(pvTa, 
BiKTjv 8' avOi,<; dTTOTivcov virep rovrcov, mv opyi- 
^6fjb€vo<; ScKaL(o<; eirpa^ev ovKeri /jL€TpLco<;. 

Tirep TLVO^ ovv 7rpo<; Oeoiv d^apiarov/jLeda; 
ore Tpe(f>o/jL€V vfid^; oiKodev, o p^expi' (T^/Jbepov D 
VTTrjp^ev ovBefxia TroXec, Kal Tp6(f)0/JL€V ovrco 
Xa/jLTrpcj^; on rov KardXoyov v/jlmv rjv^'^crafiev; 
brt K\e7rT0VTa<^ kXovre^ ovk iire^riXOoixev; €vo<; 
Tj 8vo ^ovXecrOe vfxd<; vTro/jLVTJaco, jult] rt? VTroXd/Srj 
G')(rjfxa Kal pijropeiav elvai, Kal irpoairoirjcnv to 
TTpdyfia; 7^9 KXrjpov(i ol/juac rpLa'X^tXiov'; 6(f)aT€ 
dcriropov^ elvai Kal yrrjaaaOe Xa^elv, Xa^ovTe^ 



about that. For I thought it was my duty to assist 
the mass of the people who were being wronged, and 
the strangers who kept arriving in the city both on my 
account and on account of the high officials who were 
with me. But since it is now, I think, the case that 
the latter have departed, and the city is of one mind 
with respect to me — for some of you hate me and 
the others whom I fed are ungrateful — I leave the 
whole matter in the hands of Adrasteia^ and I will 
betake myself to some other nation and to citizens of 
another sort. Nor will I even remind you how you 
treated one another when you asserted your rights 
nine years ago ; how the populace with loud clamour 
set fire to the houses of those in power, and mur- 
dered the Governor ; and how later they were pun- 
ished for these things because, though their anger 
was justified, what they did exceeded all limits.^ 

Why, I repeat, in Heaven's name, am I treated 
with ingratitude ? Is it because I feed you from 
my own purse, a thing which before this day has 
never happened to any city, and moreover feed 
you so generously ? Is it because I increased the 
register of Senators ? Or because, when I caught 
you in the act of stealing, I did not proceed 
against you ? Let me, if you please, remind you 
of one or two instances, so that no one may think 
that what I say is a pretext or mere rhetoric 
or a false claim. You said, I think, that three 
thousand lots of land were uncultivated, and you 
asked to have them ; and when you had got them 

^ The avenging goddess who is more familiarly known as 

'■^ In 354 A. D. there was a riot at Antioch in consequence of 
scarcity of food ; Constantius sent troops to punish the 
citizens for the murder of Theophilus the Governor of Syria. 



B^ evelfiacrOe 7rdvT€<; ol fir) Beo/jievoc. tovto efe- 
TaaOev av€(f)dvrj o-acf>a)f;. a(f)€X6fjL€V0(i S* avTOV<s 
iyo) ro)v i'x^ovTcov ov SiKai(o<i, koI TroXvirpay/jio- 
vrjaa^ ovBev virep tcov efiirpoa-deu, oiv ea'X^ov 
dreXeU, ov<; fidXcara ixP^^ viroreXel^i elvai, 371 
Tat9 fiapvTdrai^ eveLfia \eiTOvpylac<; avTov^ r?}? 
ttoXgo)?. Kol vvv dreXei^; €')(pv(Tiv ol Kad" CKaarov 
vfuv ipiavTov liriroT pO(f)OvvTe^ 7779 KXrjpov^ iyyv<; 
Tpi(T')(^cXlov<;, eiTLVoia fiev koX oIkovo/jllo, tov deiov 

TOVfjLOV Kal OfJLCOVV/JLOV, ')(dpiTL B i/jifj, O? Bt) TOl'9 

iravovpyov; kol ArX-eTrra? ovrco /coXd^cov elKorcof; 
vfMtv (f)aLVO/jLai, tov koo-jjlov dvaTpeiretv, eS yap B 
Xare on 7rpo<; tov<; roiovrovf; rj Trpaorrjf; av^ei 
Kal Tpe^et, rr)v iv T0t9 dvOpwiroi^ KaKiav. 

'O X0709 ovv fJioi Kal ivravOa irepdaTarai, irdXiv 
eh oirep ^ovXojJLai. TrdvTcov yap ifjuavTW tcov KaKcov 
aLTto<^ yiyvofjiaL 6^9 d^dpcaTa KaTaOifievo^ -qdrj 
Taf; '^dpLTa'^. dvoLa<i ovv iaTL Trj^ i/jirjf; tovto 
Kal ov Trj<; vfieTepa^; eXevdepia^i* eyco fiev Brj 
TCL 7rpo<; vfid<; elvai TreLpdaojjLai tov Xolttov avve- 
TCOTcpo^' ' Vfjilv Be 01 Oeol Trj<; et9 ^yu.a9 evvoia^ C 
Kal TLfJLTj^, rjv eTi/JLTJaaTe Brj/jboo-ia, Ta9 djMOi^d^ 



you all divided them among you thougli you did 
not need them. This matter was investigated and 
brought to liglit beyond doubt. Then I took the 
lots away from those who held them unjustly, 
and made no inquiries about the lands which they 
had before acquired, and for which they paid no 
taxes, though they ought most certainly to have 
been taxed, and I appointed these men to the 
most expensive public services in the city. And 
even now they who breed horses for you every 
year hold nearly three thousand lots of land 
exempt from taxation. This is due in the first place 
to the judgment and management of my uncle 
and namesake ^ but also to my own kindness ; and 
since this is the way in which I punish rascals 
and thieves, I naturally seem to you to be turning 
the world upside down. For you know very well 
that clemency towards men of this sort increases 
and fosters wickedness among mankind. 

Well then, my discourse has now come round 
again to the point which I wished to arrive at. 
I mean to say that I am myself responsible for 
all the wrong that has been done to me, because 
I transformed your graciousness to ungracious ways. 
This therefore is the fault of my own folly and 
not of your licence. For the future therefore in my 
dealings with you I indeed shall endeavour to be 
more sensible : but to you, in return for your good 
will towards me and the honour wherewith you have 
publicly honoured me, may the gods duly pay the 
recompense ! 

1 cf. 340 A, 365 c. 



ABANTES, the, 497 

Abaris, 245 

Abderos, 113 

Academies, the, 231 

Academy, the, 125 

Achaeans, the, 317 

Acheron, 129 

Achilles, 91, 189, 191, 387, 409 

Acropolis, the, 259 

Actium, 389 

Adonis, gardens of, 399 

Adrasteia, 509 

Aegean, the, 205 

Aegina, 19 

Aeschines, 153 

Aeschylus, 107, 133, 141, 333 

Aesop, 81, 347 

Aetios, 47 

Aetolians, the, 387 

Airicanus, 257 

Agamemnon, 317 

Agathocles, 405 

Agesilaus, 157 

Agrippina, city of, 271 

Ajaxes, the, 191 

Alcaeus, 421 

Alcibiades, the, 27 

Alcibiades, 21, 209 

Alcinous, 461 

Alcmena, 367 

Alexander the Great, 63, 91, 93, 

191, 193, 203, 211, 229, 231, 367, 

373, 375, 377, 379, 381, 389, 393, 

399, 403, 407, 413 
Alexander, Severus, 361 
Alexandrians, the, 503 
Alps Cottian, the, 287 
Ammianus Marcellinus, 241, 258, 

257, 205 
Amphiaraus, 333 
Anacharsis, 245 
Anacreon, 421, 499 

Anatolius, 121 

Anaxagoras, 179, 181, 185, 229 

Anthology, Palatine, 53 

Anticyra, 121 

Antilochus, 193 

Antinous, 357 

Antioch, 295, 418, 419, 427, 429, 

Antiochus, 447, 449 
Antipater, 131 
Antisthenes, 2, 5, 23, 25, 85, 99, 

103, 105, 169, 229 
Antoninus Pius, 357 
Antony, M., 387 

Aphrodite, 155, 351, 357, 413, 481 
Apollo, 25, 37, 87, 91, 157, 159, 

193, 245, 351, 355, 365, 371, 413, 

418, 439, 445, 461, 475 
ApoUodorus, 111 
Appian, 383 
Arabs, the, 451 
Araxius, 217 
Archidamus, 93 

Archilochus, 79, 89, 131, 325, 421 
Areius, 233, 391 
Ares, 283, 409, 413 
Arete, 217 

Argentoratum (Strasburg), 271 
Ariovistus, 379 
Aristides the Just, 245 
Aristides the rhetorician, 153, 301 
Aristophanes, 175, 219, 355, 457 • 
Aristotelian Paraphrases of Themi- 

stius, 200 
Aristotle, 15, 31, 51, 63, 105, 155, 

157, 200, 211, 221, 227, 231, 325, 

363, 465, 481 
Asclepiades, the Csmic, 123 
Asclepius, 149 
Asia, 213, 377, 379 
Asmus, 70, 165 
Ate, 129 


L L 


Athenaeus, 111 

Athene, 111, 125, 137, 139, 141, 

143, 145, 147, 247, 249, 259, 283, 

301, 441, 461 
Athenians, the, 19, 131, IM., 213, 

221, 241, 451, 457 
Athenians, Letter to the, 242-291 
Athenodorus, 353, 391 
Athens, 15, 87, 93, 95, 175, 183, 217, 

219, 241, 243, 259 
Athos, Mount, 173 
Augustus, Emperor, 233, 853 
Axu-elian, 361, 363 
Autolycus, 453 

Babylas, 485 
Bacchanals, the, 118 
Basilina, 461 
Bernays, 2 
Bitliynia, 479 
Bosporus, 205 
Brigantia (Bregentz), 287 
Britain, 271, 279 
Brutus, 389, 405 
Bvuiion, 423 

Cad means, the, 333 

Cadmus, 113 

Caesar, Caius, 405 

Caesar, Julius, 351, 367, 369, 375, 

379, 381, 389, 397, 403, 413 
Caesarea, 418 
Caesars, The, 344-415 
Caligula, 353 
Calliope, 103, 425, 475 
Callisthenes, 169 
Calypso, 461 
Cappadocia, 251, 257 
Capri, 353 
Caracalla, 359, 367 
Caria, 72 
Carians, the, 377 
Carterius, 217 
Carus, 365 
Cassius, 389, 405 
Cato, 209 

Cato the Younger, 477, 479 
Cebes, 231 
Celts, the, 195, 279, 377, 429, 433, 

451, 479, 483 
Centumcellae, 287 
Chaeronea, 479 
Chalcis, 505 
Chamavi, the, 278 


Charmides, 175 

Charylxlis, 51 

Chnodomar, 271 

Chrisostomos, Johannes, 485 

Christ, 475 

Clirysippus, 209, 325 

Chrysostom, Saint, 419 

Chytron, 123 

Cicero, 245, 259, 427 

Circe, 461 

Citium, 17 

Claudius, Emperor, 355, 361, 413 

Clazomenae, 229 

Cleinias, 209 

Cleisthenes, 9 

Cleitus, 403 

Cocytus, 51, 129, 355 

Commodus, 359 

Constance, Lake, 287 

Constans, 367 

Constantine, 131, 367, 371, 397, 
399, 411, 413 

Constantine II, 367 

Constantinople, 3, 205, 342 

Constantius, 2, 70, 121, 143, 165, 
175, 197, 200, 241, 251, 258, 255, 
257, 259, 267, 269, 271, 273, 275, 
279, 281, 285, 367, 418, 427, 429, 
461, 475, 485, 491, 509 

Constantius Chlorus, 365, 413 

Crassus, 383 

Crates, 2, 17, 53, 65, -67, 59, 83, 
89, 95, 97 

Cratinus, 427 

Crete, 77, 193 

Crito, the, 27 

Critoboulos, 181 

Croesus, 435 

Cyclades, the, 455 

Cyclops, the, 191 

Cynics, the, 2, 3, 231 

Cynics, To the Uneducated, 4-65 

Cyprus, 17 

Damophilus, 479 

Danube, the, 271, 377, 391, 393, 

Daphne, 418, 439, 445, 475, 487 
Daphnis, 425 
Darius, 63, 213 
Darius III, 377 
Decentius, 281 
Deioces, 245 
Delos, 153, 461 


Delphi, 363 

Delphic oracle, 189 

Demeter, 35, 445 

Demetrius, the freedman, 477 

Democritus, 21, 179, 229 

Demodocus, 459 

Demonax, 2 

Demosthenes, 65, 131, 153, 175, 

237, 253, 291, 495 
Die of Sicily, 209, 313 
Die Chrysostom, 63, 70, 71, 77, 93, 

111, 165, 175, 189, 203, 391, 423 
Diocletian, 365, 367 
Diogenes, the Cynic, 2, 3, 5, 19, 23, 

25, 27, 29, 33, 35, 37, 39, 43, 49, 

53, 57, 59, 61, 63, 83, 89, 91, 93 

157, 159, 161, 211 
Diogenes Laertius, 43, 53, 125, 

159, 177, 179, 181 
Diomede, 219 
Dionysius, 405 
Dionysus, 70, 73, 107, 109, 111, 

113, 115, 117, 203, 335, 349, 353, 

363, 371, 395, 403, 407, 427, 475, 

481, 499 
Domitian, 165, 357 
Dynamius, 257 
DjTrachium, 385 

Egypt, 155, 233, 355, 379, 889, 

503, 505 
Egyptians, the, 167 
Emesa, 361, 475 
Empedocles, 129 
Empedotimus, 313 
Epameinondas, 159 
Epicharmus, 183 
Epictetus, 2, 153 
Epictetus Bishop, 287 
Epicurus, 43, 207, 217, 327 
Erasistratus, 447, 449 
Eretria, 229 
Euboea, 179 
Euclid of Megara, 231 
Euphrates, the, 391 
Eupolis, 73 
Euripides, 5, 47, 49, 57, 95, 97, 113, 

133, 185, 205, 249, 323, 333, 361, 

397, 403 
Europe, 377, 379 
Eurycleia, 441 
Eusebia, 255, 257, 261 
Eusebius, 253, 257 

Fates, the, 135, 187 

Faustina, 359 

Felix, 257 

Florentius, 271, 273, 279, 281 

Frazer, 87, 399 

Furius Camillus, 383 

Gadara, 23 
Gades, 381 
Galba, 355 
Galilaeans, the, 87, 123, 327, 337, 

475, 491 
Gallienus, 361 
Gallus, 269, 253, 255, 429 
Ganymede, 357 
Gaudentius, 257, 277 
Gaul, 121, 165, 183, 195, 257, 267, 

269, 271, 279, 287, 289, 377, 379, 

Gauls, the, 885 
Genesis, 37, 301 
Germans, the, 269, 385, 389, 397, 

Geta 359 

Getae, the, 357, 377, 393 
Gintonius, 279 
Glaucon, 209 
Glaukos, 219 
Graces, the, 351 
Greeks, the, 385, 387, 451 

Hades, 103 

Hadrian, 357, 418 

Harrison, J., 87 

Hector, 171, 401, 441 

Helen, 167 

Heliogabalus, 361 

Helios, 83, 119, 121, 135, 137, 139, 

141, 143, 145, 147, 261, 283, 363, 

379, 471 
Hera, 77, 113, 151, 349 
Heracleitus, 15, 23, 103,129 
Heracles, 23, 70, 7-3,^1, 103, 105, 

109, in, 113, 203, 229, 347, 367, 

375, 387, 413, 499 
Eeraclius, To the Cynic, 73-161 
Heraclius the Cynic, 69, 70 
Hercynian forest, 479 
Hermes, 9, 113, 125, 139, 141, 147, 

149, 157, 347, 349, 357, 365, 367, 

369, 371, 373, 375, 399, 403, 405, 

407, 411, 415 
Herodotus, 9, 353, 435 



Hesiod, 79, 83, 149, 177, 179, 363, 
443, 447, 507 

Hierapolis, 505 

Himerius, 153, 467 

Hippocleid^s, 9 

Hipponax, 325 

Homer, 13, 33, 37, 45, 73, 81, 83, 
87, 119, 131, 137, 145, 167,171, 
175, 177, 183, 187, 189, 191, 193, 
197, 211, 219, 229, 409, 425, 435, 
441, 443, 447, 451, 453, 459, 461, 
467, 497 

Horace, 63, 121, 325, 421 

Hylas, 113 

Hymettus, 169 

Hyperboreans, the, 245 

lamblichus, 25, 47, 105, 117, 151 

Iberians, the, 379 

Illyria, 183, 195 

lUyrians, the, 377 

lUyricum, 241 

India, 77, 115, 387, 401 

lolaus, 113 

Ionia, 183 

Ionian Sea, the, 205 

Iphicles, 51 

Ismenias of Thebes, 423 

Isocrates, 150, 275 

Isthmus, the, 93 

Italians, the, 377 

Italy, 121, 287 

Ithaca, 459 

Ixion, 77 

Jesus, 327, 413 

Jews, the, 313 

Julian, Count, 249, 429, 497 

Jupiter Capitoline, 355 

Juvenal, 11, 125, 355, 383 

Kasios, Mt , 487 
' Kronia, the lost, 343 
Kronia, the, 343, 345 
Kronos, 213, 215, 345, 347, 369, 
371, 413 

Lacedaemonians, the, 191, 243 

Laelius, 177 

Laestrygons, the, 191 

Lais, 127 

Lesbos, 421 

Leto, 153 

Letter, Fragment of a, 296-339, 343 

Libanius, 200, 241, 301, 418, 419. 

467, 485 
Lichas, 113 
Licinius, 367, 397 
Livy, 161, 179 
Loos, the month, 487 
Lotos-Eaters, the, 15 
Lucian, 2, 5, 23, 245, 323, 343, 353. 

375, 383, 391, 401 
Lucilianus, 279 
Lucius Gellius, 383 
Lucius Verus, 359 
Lucretius, 29 
Lucullus, 383 
Lupicinus, 275, 279, 281 
Lutetia (Paris), 429 
Lyceum, the, 125, 157, 231 
Lycurgus, 205, 225 
Lydians, the, 435 

Macedonians, the, 213 

Macellum, 251 

Macrinus, 361 

Magnentius, 367 

Magnesia, 89 

Mallians, the, 401 

Mammaea, 361 

Maratlion, 457 

Marcellus, 267 

Marcus Aurelius, 203, 359, 371, 

395, 399, 407, 409, 411, 413 
Mardonius, 169, 259, 461, 463 
Marinus, 257 
Marius, Caius, 383 
Martial, 349 
Matthew, Gospel of, 7 
-Maxentius, 397 
Maximians, the, 365, 367 
Maximiis of Ephesus, 151, 467 
Maximus of Tyre, 71, 175 
Medes, the, 245 
Mediterranean, the, 379 
Megarian philosophy, 231 
Megarians, the, 189 
Memmorius, 121 

Menander the dramatist, 433, 453 
Menander the rhetorician, 30 
Menedemus, 229 
Messalina, 355 
Metroum, the, 5, 19 
MUan, 257, 261 
Milton, 395 
Minos, 359, 361, 367 
Misopogon, the, 49, 371, 420-511 



Mithras, 415 

Mithridates, 383 

Moses 299 

Mother of the Gods, 5, 113 

Multan, 401 

Murray, 69 

Muses, the, 65, 153, 157, 349, 421, 

Musonius, 233 
Mykonos, 455 
Mysians, the, 451 
Mysteries, the, 103, 105, 107, 109, 

119, 161 

Narcissus, the freedman, 355 

Nausicaa, 461 

Xaxos, 421 

Xebridius, 281 

Nemesis, 509 

Xeocles, 207 

Xero, 233, 355 

Xerva, 357 

Xestor, 15 

Xicolaus, 233 

Xicomedia, 200, 418 

Xireus, 191 

Octavian, 351, 389, 397, 399, 405, 

Odysseus, 171, 189, 191, 441, 459, 

Oedipus, 133 
Oenomaus, 23, 53, 85, 91 
Olympia, 91, 93, 97, 159, 225 
Olympus, 109, 129, 147, 323, 325, 

Oreibasius, 265, 467 
Orpheus, 99, 105, 167 
Otho, 355 

Paeonians, the, 451 

Pallas, the freedman, 355 

Pan, 83, 105, 113, 149, 425 

Paris (Lutetia), 241, 279 , H'O^ 

Parisians, the, 429 ^ ' 

Paros, 421 

Parthians, the, 357, 387, 395 

Patroclus, 191, 459 

Paul, St., 309 

Paul, a sycophant, 277 

Peirithous, 173 

Peleus, 193 

Penelope, 45?- 

Pentadius, 277, 281 

Pentheus, 117 

Pericles, 179, 181, 187 

Peripatetics, the, 25 

Perseus, 105 

Persia, 155, 231, 295, 387 

Persia, king of, 43, 63, 91 

Persians, the, 213, 385, 439 

Pertinax, 359 

Petavius, 29, 30 

Peter, St., 145 

Petulantes, the, 279 

Peucestes, 401 

Phaeacians, the, 435, 459 

Phaedo, 229, 231 

Phaethon, 83 

Phalaris, 357 

Phemius, 459 

Philebus, the, 155 

Philippi, 389 

Philiscus, 19, 91 

Philostratus, 301 

Phoenicians, the, 113 

Phrygia, 219, 431 

Phryne, 127 

Pindar, 77, 113, 149, 301, 507 

Pittacus, 205, 225 

Plato, 9, 21, 25, 27, 31, 39, 41, 51, 
63, 70, 77, 79, 81, 93, 99, 101, 
103, 105, 117, 119, 133, 139, 145, 
149, 155, 157, 169, 173, 179, 181, 
213, 221, 223, 231, 263, 307, 317, 
325, 345, 347, 353, 363, 365, 369, 
409, 457, 465, 467, 481 

Pliny, 401 

Plotinus, 117 

Plutarch, 55, 83, 89, 125, 131, 231, 
245, 383, 385, 401, 423, 427, 447, 
449, 477, 479 

Pnyx, the, 207 

Polemon, 169 

Pompey, 377, 381, 383, 385, 389, 
405, 477 

Pontus, the, 489 

Porphyry, 117 

Portico, the, 125 

Poseidon, 373, 389 

Praechter, 70 

Priam, 441 

Priscus, 467 

Probus, 363 

Prodicus, 70, 105 

Prometheus, 9, 41 

Propontis, the, 195 

Protagoras, the, 41 


Proterchus, 166 

Pylos, 15 

Pyrrho, 327 

Pyrrhus, 387 

Pythagoras, 15, 22, 25, 33, 41, 51, 

63, 155, 161, 179, 195, 325, 353 
Pythagoreans, the. 47, 155, 231 
Pythian oracle, 11, 16, 23, 33, 53, 


Quadi, the, 271 

Quirinua, 347, 355, 367, 369, 383 

Rhadamanthus, 363 

Rhea, 349 

Rhine, the, 269, 271, 273, 377, 423 

Rhodes, 301 

Romans, the, 379, 385, 397, 471, 

Rome, 241, 331, 391, 475, 479 
RomiUus, 347 

Salii, the, 273 

Sallust, Address to, 166-197 

Sallust, 69, 70, 121, 165, 277, 279, 

Salmoneus, 149 
Samos, 81, 155, 179, 447 
Sardis, 435 
Sarmatians, the, 271 
Saturn, 345 
Satyrs, the, 113 
Scipio Africanus, 177, 179 
Scipios, the, 383 

Scythians, the, 245, 305, 391, 397 
Selene, 261 
Seleucus, 353 
Semele, 70, 109, 113, 115 
Serapis, 355 

Serenianus, the Cynic, 123 
Severus, Emperor, 359, 367 
Sextus Empiricus, 29 
Sextus Pompeius, 389 
Sicilians, the, 313 
Silenus, 21, 349, 351, 353, 355, 357, 

359, 861, 363, 365, 369, 373, 393, 

395, 399, 401, 403, 405, 407, 409, 

Silvanus, 257, 259 
Simmias, 231 
Simonides, 407 
Sinope, 5 
Sirens, the, 167 

Sirmium, 267 

Smicrines, 453 

Socrates, 5, 21, 25, 27, 81, 33, 85, 
157, 159, 161, 169, 173, 175, 189, 
207, 217, 229, 231, 313, 365, 465 

Solon, 65, 205, 225, 435 

Sophroniscus, 229 

Sparta, 241 

Spartacus, 383 

Stoa, the, 231 

Stoics, the, 17 

Stratonice, 449 

Suetonius, 351, 353, 381, 389, 391 

Sulla, 383 

Sura, 393 

Synesius, 427 

Syracuse, 313, 405 

Syria, 509 

Syrians, the, 451 

Tacitus, 233, 353, 355 

Tarentum, 471 

Tartarus. 51, 139, 323, 325, 355 

Taurus, 287 

Telamon, 113 

Teos, 499 

Termerus, 89 

Thebans, the, 379 

Thebes, 25, 333 

Themistius, Letter to, 202-237, 43, 

97, 103, 383, 391 
Themistius, 9, 71, 153, 167, 175, 

200, 201, 363, 391, 423, 489 
Themistocles, 63, 245 
Theocritus, 155, 177, 189, 197, 357, 

399, 425 
Theodosius, 200 
Theognis, 107, 185, 455 
Theophilus, Governor of Antioch, 

491, 509 
Theophrastus, 15, 465 
Theseus, 89, 105, 173 
Tliesmophoria, the, 35 
Thessalonians, 145 
Thessaly, 75 
Thrace, 75, 183, 195 
Thracians, the, 353, 391, 451, 457 
Thrasyleon, 453 
Thrasyllus, 233 
Thucydides, 81, 191 
Tiberius, 233, 353 
Tigris, the, 387 
Timaeus, 157 
Timaeus, the, 165 



J Titus, 357 

; Trajan, 357, 369, 
405, 413 

^ Tralles, 251 
Trojans, the, 167 
Troy, 191, 441 

Valerian, 361 
i Vespasian, 355 
I Vienne, 267, 279 
I Vindex, 355 
I Vitellius, 355 
J Vosges Mts., 271 

373, 395, 397, 

Xenophon, 51, 85, 87, 105, 153. 
181, 209, 229, 459 ' 

Xerxes, 63, 173, 213, 461 

Zamolxis, 175, 353, 393 

Zeller, 200 

Zeno, 25, 63, 177, 325, 351 

Zeus, 17, 41, 43, 83, 93, 105, 109, 
111, 113, 115, 135, 137, 141. 145 
149, 197, 283, 305, 307, 351 367 
369, 395, 409, 411, 413 445 467. 

„ 475, (Kasios) 487, 499 

Zonaras, 425 

Zosimus, 241 


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