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Full text of "Report of the State Mineralogist"

IgtmmtSlTY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



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in 2012 with funding from 

University of California, Davis Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/reportofstatemin15cali 



CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU 

FERRY BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO 

^LETCHER HAMILTON State Mineralogist 

San Francisco] [December, 1917 

REPORT XV 

OF THE 

STATE MINERALOGIST 



Mines and Mineral Resources 



OF PORTIONS OF 



CALIFORNIA 



Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report 
Biennial Period 1915-1916 




CALIFORNIA STATE PRINTING OFFICE 

SACRAMENTO 

19 19 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY Cr CALIFORNIA 
Da v I S 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Administrative Statement xxiii 

Participation of the California State Mining Bureau in the Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition xxxiii 

PART I. 

Preface 3 

Chapter I. Alpine County. 

Introduction 5 

Table of Mineral Production 6 

General Features , 6 

Mining Districts 7 

The Mogul and Monitor Districts 8 

Rock Formations of the Districts 8 

Silicification of the Districts , , 9 

Origin of the Silicification B 10 

The Ore Deposits 11 

Minerals of the Ores 12 

Amount of Ore 14 

Mines 14 

The Curtz Claims 14 

The Hercules Company 23 

Silver Mountain District 25 

Silver King District 26 

Mineral Water , 27 

Grover's Hot Springs , 27 

Bibliography 27 

Chapter II, Inyo County. 

Introduction and Acknowledgments 29 

Location and description 29 

Hydrology 29 

Climate and water supply , 29 

List of watering places in Inyo County 34 

Topography and drainage 38 

Culture ; 39 

Mode of travel and routes 39 

Hints for travelers in machines 40 

Water, gas and oil 41 

Outfit 41 

Provisions 42 

Fuel 42 

Roads and railroads 42 

Vegetation 44 

Animal Life 44 

General Geology and History 45 

Distribution of igneous and sedimentary rocks 45 

Folding and faulting 47 

Erosion j. 4S 

Character of rocks and rain storms . 48 

Influence of vegetation and wind storms 49 

Geological Formations Mapped 53 

Cambrian 53 

Silurian 53 

Devonian 54 

Carboniferous a — 54 

Triassic 54 

Miocene-Pliocene 55 

Quaternary 55 

Igneous rocks 1 55 



IV _ CONTENTS. 

Pagk 

Economic Geology 55 

History of mining development — ,- 55 

Table of mineral production 56 

Economic conditions 56 

Transportation 56 

Power 5 6 

General character of the ore deposits 5S 

Deposits in, or in contact with, granite 5S 

Pegmatite dikes 58 

Quartz veins — 58 

Deposits in limestone and other Paleozoic or Mesozoic sediments 58 

Quartz veins 58 

Irregular masses . 58 

Replacement deposits 58 

Contact veins 58 

Tertiary deposits 58 

Quartz veins 5S 

Gold and copper ores along contacts 59 

Sedimentary deposits 

Quaternary deposits 59 

Soda and salt deposits ■. 59 

Taele of Mining Districts in Inyo County 59 

Descriptions of Mines 6u 

Antimony 

Borax 62 

Copper ^4 

Dolomite --- 74 

Gold ? 5 

Gypsum 8d 

Iron 87 

Lead-Silver-Zinc 87 

Marble — m 

Mineral water H L> 

Molybdenum H^ 

Niter 11T 

Potash 119 

Quicksilver 

Salt — — 

Soda 

Sulphur 126 

Talc 126 

Tungsten 128 

Volcanic ash or pumice 133 

Bibliography 131 

Chapter III, Mono County. 

Introduction 135 

Table of Mineral Production 137 

Antelope Valley Region 138 

Character of rocks 139 

Minerals 139 

Bodqi and Masonic Region 143 

( leology 113 

Bodie District 149 

! 'fSTRICT 160 

Patterson iustrict 165 

Lake, Wkst Shore and Vicinity 167 

IRTINB 173 

ICxnbral Water 174 

Bibliography 175 



121 
123 



CONTENTS. V 

PART II. 

Page 

Preface - 179 

Chapter I, Butte County. 

Introduction . 181 

Description 181 

Power 181 

Transportation 182 

Geology 182 

Mineral Production 183 

Table of Mineral Production 184 

Asbestos 185 

Chromite 185 

Crushed Rock 186 

Diamonds 187 

Gold , 187 

Dredging 187 

Drift Mines 198 

Hydraulic Mines 209 

Placer Mines 210 

Quartz Mines 211 

Manganese 224 

Bibliography 225 

Chapter II, Lassen County. 

Description 226 

Railroad Facilities 227 

Mining Conditions 227 

Table of Mineral Production 228 

Copper 228 

Gold 229 

Hayden Hill Mining District 229 

Diamond Mountain Mining District 235 

Mineral Springs 236 

Chapter III, Modoc County. 

Description 239 

Railroad Facilities 240 

Table of Mineral Production 240 

Coal 241 

Copper 241 

Gold 241 

High Grade Mining District 241 

Winters Mining District 251 

Mineral Springs 252 

Salt 253 

Chapter IV, Sutter County. 

Description 254 

Geology 255 

Mineral Resources 255 

Clay 256 

Coal 256 

Gold 256 

Natural Gas 256 

Limestone 256 

Stone 25? 



-46i04 



VI _ CONTENTS. 

Chapter V, Tehama County. Page 

Description 25 S 

Geology 258 

Mining -— 258 

Mineral Resources 25') 

Table of Mineral Production 259 

Chromite 259 

Clays 2 60 

Copper 2 61 

Gold 261 

Manganese 262 

Mineral Springs 262 

Salt 266 



PART III. 
Preface 269 

Chapter I, El Dorado County. 

Introduction 271 

Description 2 71 

Power 271 

Transportation Facilities 271 

Roads 

General Geology 

Mineral Production 

Table of Mineral Production 

CHSOMIi'E 

Copper 

General Geology of "Mother Lode" in El Dorado County 

Gold 2 79 

Quartz Mines 279 

Placer Mines 300 

Lime and Limestone 304 

Marble , 304 

Quicksilver ._ 3 06 

Slate 306 



Chapter II, Placer County. 

Introduction 30! 

Description 31 ( 

Geology zii 

Mineral Production 31: 

Table of Mineral Production 31^ 

Mining Districts and Active Mines in Each 3K 

Asbestos •__ 32( 

Brick and Clay '. 32: 

Chromite or Chromic Iron 32< 

Coal 3 21 

Copper 

Gold, Silver and Platinum 

Quartz Mines 

I »iii't Mines 

I [ydraulic Mines — ; 

Racer Mines 

I dredgers 

Granite 38i 

Ebon 

Limestone 

MaonbsITE 

• A I. I'M NT 

• \i. Water 

Molybdenite 

rz _- 

Talc oh Soapbtone 



CONTENTS. VI 1 

Chapter III, Sacramento County. Page 

Introduction 4 00 

Description 100 

Location, Boundaries and Area 400 

Population and County Seat 400 

Topography and Drainage 400 

Power 400 

Transportation 401 

Economic Geology J 01 

Mineral Production 401 

1 Table of Mineral Production 402 

Brick 402 

Natural Gas 404 

Gold 405 

Table of Dredge Production 406 

Tabular History of Sacramento County Dredgers 408 

Drift Mining 413 

Miscellaneous Stone 413 

Crushed Rock 413 

Granite 416 

Chapter IV, Yuba County. 

Introduction 419 

Description 419 

Location and Boundaries 413 

Area 419 

Population and County Seat 419 

Topography and Drainage 419 

Vegetation 419 

Power 42 

Transportation 420 

General Geology 420 

Economic Geology 420 

Mineral Production 421 

Table of Mineral Production.--- — 422 

Mining Districts and Active Mines 422 

Asbestos 423 

Bauxite 424 

Clay 424 

Copper 424 

Gold 425 

Dredgers 425 

Tabular History of Dredging in Yuba County 428 

Drift Mines 438 

Hydraulic Mines 439 

Placer Mines 441 

Quartz Mines 443 

Mineral Paint 456 

Platinum 456 

Sand 456 

Talc or Soapstone 458 

Bibliography 459 



PART IV. 

Preface 4 63 

Chapter I, Los Angeles County. 

Introduction 465 

Organization and Boundaries 465 

Bibliography . 466 

Physiography - : ___ 466 

Mountain ranges z. __ 466 

Rivers 468 

Geology l 468 



VIH CONTENTS. 



Topographic Maps 

Mineral Resources 

Table of Mineral Production 

Metals 

Antimony 

Chromium < 

Copper 

Gold 

Auriferous gravels of Casteca, Palomas and Santa Feliciana canons. 

San Gabriel Mountain placers 

Quartz veins 

Iron 

Lead 

Manganese 

Silver — — 

Zinc 

NONMETALLIC MINERALS 

Abrasives 

Barytes 

Borax 

Building materials 

Building stone 

Granite 

Marble 

Sandstone 

Serpentine and steatite 

Trachyte 

Crushed stone and sand 

Rock crushing plants 

Lime 

Portland cement 

Artificial stone 

Clays 

Brick clay 

Pottery clay 

Coal 

Feldspar 

Fuller's earth 

Gems 

Beach stones 

Graphite 

Gypsum 

Infusorial or diatomaceous earth 

Magnesite 

Mineral paint 

Mineral waters 

Petroleum and natural gas : 

Potash 

Salt 

Silica 

Glass 



:.l: 



Chapter II, Orange County. 

Introduction ___._■ 

0H0LOGY . 

Mineral Resources 

Table of Mineral Production-- ____________ :____„_ 

Mktai.s _ __. 

Gold .___' ___ __.„____„ v 

Quicksilver 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

nonmetals 5 19 

Clay 519 

Coal 51!) 

Gypsum 519 

Limestone 520 

Petroleum and natural gas 520 

Stone industry 521 

Other nonmetallic minerals 521 

Bibliography . 521 

Chapter III, Riverside County. 

Introduction 522 

History 522 

Topography 522 

Geology 523 

Mineral Resources 524 

Table of Mineral Production 524 

Metals 524 

Antimony 524 

Copper 524 

Ironwood or McCoy Mountain District ! 525 

Palen Mountains 526 

Gold 527 

Perris gold mines * 527 

Gavilan mines 528 

Pinacate district 529 

San Jacinto Mountain region 535 

Pifion Mountain district 535 

Monte Negro district 536 

Chuckawalla district 538 

Hodges Mountain ; 541 

Arica Mountain district 541 

Santa Maria Mountain district 542 

Bendigo district (Riverside Mountains) 542 

Iron 544 

Iron ores of Eagle Mountain 545 

Manganese _^_^ 545 

McCoy Mountains 546 

Tin , 547 

NONMETALS , — 550 

Asbestos . . 550 

Cement '. 553 

Natural rock cement 553 

Portland cement 553 

Uses of Portland cement 554 

Riverside Portland Cement Company '. 555 

Clays :: r77 - 559 

Plastic clays of Riverside County _ _ 559 

Geology of the Temescal Valley clays 560 

Clay and clay industries _ 560 

Origin of clays ----. - 5*1 

Chemical composition . 562 

Physical properties '. ! T — , — 562 

Potters' clay 564 

Slip clay 1 -— ■- 565 

Fire clay '. ~, 566 

Operating companies 567 

Coal 574 

Fuller's earth, -— -,- 574 

Gems ,574 

Tourmaline -574 



V CONTENTS. 

Nonmetals — Corti-ucd. Page 

Gypsum ^ 7 ~ 

Corona deposits : ° 7 ^ 

Magnesite 5 ' 9 

Mineral springs 580 

Saline deposits = 581 



Borax . 
Potash 



Building stone 



581 

582 



Salt l S2 n 

Stone industry 583 



583 



Granite 584 

Crushed rock 586 

Sand 587 

Bibliography 589 



PART V. 

Preface 593 

Chapter I. Monterey County. 

Introduction 595 

Description 595 

Location 595 

Topography 595 

Geology 595 

Mineral Resources 596 

Table op Mineral Production 596 

Asphaltum 596 

Clay 596 

Coal 597 

Copper 598 

Chromite 598 

dlatomaceous earth 598 

Feldspar — 601 

Fuller's Earth 602 

Gold 602 

Los Burros District 602 

Jolon District 606 

Parkfield District 606 

Lime and Limestone 606 

Magnesite 607 

Marble 607 

Mineral Water 607 

Nickel 613 

Quicksilver 613 

Salt 614 

Glass Sand 614 

Sand 614 

Silver . 615 

Chapter II, San Benito County. 

History and Geography 616 

Geology, Areal and Structural 617 

Mineral Resources 621 

Table of Mineral Production _ 621 

Antimony 622 

Asphalt 624 

Bauite 624 

I'.n ■[ m iNuus Rock : 1 626 

Brick 626 

CBMBNT : 626 

I 'into. mit k 630 

Clayv 630 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



Coal __ 

Copper 

Dolomite 

dlatomaceous earth. 

Gems 

Gold 

Gypsum 

IROX 



Lime and Limestone. 

Magnesite 

Manganese 

Mineral Water 

Petroleum 

Quicksilver 

Stone Industry 



Page 
(i'jn 
631 
633 
636 
636 
637 
638 
639 
640 
643 
644 
645 
646 
647 
671 



Chapter III, San Luis Obispo County. 

History and Topography 

Transportation . 

Geology 

Mineral Resources — 

Tabie of Mineral Production 

Antimony 

Asphalt 

Bituminous Sandstone 

Brick 

Chromite 

Copper 

Gold 

Infusorial Earth 

Iron 

Limestone 

Manganese 

Mineral Water 

Mineral Springs and Wells 

Petroleum 

Quicksilver 

Salines 

Stone Industry 

Building and Monumental Stones 

Crushed Rock, Sand and Gravel 



674 
6X5 
675 
675 
675 
676 
676 
677 
679 
680 
685 
687 
688 
688 
689 
689 
690 
691 
697 
698 
721 
722 
722 
724 



Chapter IV, Santa Barbara County. 



Introduction . 
Topography _. 

Streams 

Water Supply 
Climate 



Transportation 

Mineral Resources 

Table of Mineral Production- 
Asphalt and Bituminous Rock. 

Barytes 

Brick 

Chromite 

Copper 



Diatomaceous Earth (see Infusorial) 

Gold 

Gypsum 



Infusorial Earth 

Limestone 

Manganese 

Mineral Springs _. 



727 
727 
728 
728 
729 
729 
729 
729 
730 
734 
735 
735 
735 

736 
736 
737 
739 
741 
741 



Mi 



CONTENTS. 



Natural Gas __. 

Petroleum 

Platinum 

Quicksilver 

Sandstone 

Stone Industry 



Chapter V, Ventura County. 



Introduction 

Topography 

Streams 

Climate 

Transportation r 

Mineral Resources 

Table of Mineral Production. 
asphalt and bituminous rock. 
Borax 



Brick and Tile 

Cement, Natural Rock. 
Gold 



Gypsum 

Infusorial Earth 

Limestone 

Mica 



Mineral Paint _ 
Mineral Springs 

Molybdenite 

Natural Gas 

Petroleum 

Phosphates 

Platinum 

Sandstone 

Stone Industry 



Preface 



PART VI. 



Introduction 
History 



Chapter I, San Bernardino County. 



Topographic Maps 
Geology 



Topography 

Transportation 
Water 



Mining Districts _- 

Mineral Resources 

Table of Mineral 

Metals 



Production. 



Copper 
Gold _. 
Iron _. 



Lead-Zinc 

M.I II L 

Silver 

Tungsten - 
Vanadium 



CONTENTS. 



Xlll 



•NON METALLIC MINERALS 

Asbestos 

Barytes .,_. 

Borates 

Cement 



Clay 

Dolomite 

Feldspar 

Fluorspar 

Fuller's Earth 

Gems 

Graphite 

Gypsum 

Infusorial Earth 

Lime and Limestone- 
Marble 

Mineral Paint 

Mineral Water 

Niter 



Petroleum 

Salines 

Sandstone 

Stone Industry 

Strontium 

Talc 



Page 
852 
852 
853 

. 853 
856 
860 
862 
862 
863 
863 
863 
868 
868 
871 
871 
879 
883 
883 
890 
891 
892 
896 
896 
898 
899 



Chapter II, Tulare County. 

;Description 

Mineral Resources 

Table of Mineral Production 

I Antimony 

Asbestos 

i Clays 

[ Chromite - 

Copper 

Gems 

Feldspar 

Gold 

Granite 

Graphite 

Gypsum 



Iron 

Limestone 

Magnesite 

Manganese 

Mineral Springs 
Stone Industry . 
Zinc-Lead 



900 
904 
904 
904 
905 
905 
906 
908 
910 
911 
912 
915 
917 
917 
917 
918 
919 
940 
941 
946 
947 



APPENDIX. 



Publications of the California State Mining Bureau. 
Index 



955 
959 



3—46904 






x iV ILLUSTRATIONS. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 



East entrance to the California State Mining Exhibit, Palace of Mines, P. P. 

I. E., 1915 xxxi: | 

West entrance and model dredger, in California State Mining Exhibit, Palace 

of Mines, P. P. I. E., 1915 xxxii 

Center of exhibit and attendant's desk at California State Mining Exhibit, 

Palace of Mines, P. P. I. E., 1915 xxxiv 

Gold and platinum display in east safe, P. P. I. E., ]915 xxxv 

Gold display in west sa:e, P. P. I. E., 1915__ xxxvi. 

Miniature hydraulic mine, designed and exhibited by the California State 

Mining Bureau xxxvii 

Hydraulic giant and model hydraulic mine, P. P. I. E., 1915 xxxix.^ 

Model stamp mill, ore and building stone, and photograph displays, P. P. I. E., 

1915 — 

Peg model of the Midway Oil Field, P. P. I. E., 1915 

Alpine County. 

Gold-bearing outcrops on the north side of Mogul Valley on property of the 

Curtz Consolidated Mines Company 

West side of gold-bearing outcrop on the south side of Mogul Valley on the 

property of the Curtz Consolidated Mines Company 

View of the Great Mogul Lode, on the property of Curtz Consolidated Mines 

Company 

Flume on the East Carson River for power house of the Curtz Consolidated 

Mines Company 

Map of Curtz Consolidated group 

Map of properties in Monitor Mining District 

Section showing workings of the Morning Star Mine of the Curtz Consolidated 

Mines Company 

Power house of the Curtz Consolidated Mines Company 

Batteries in old mill of the Curtz Consolidated Mines Company 

Ore dump at Curtz tunnel and concentration plant 

Aerial tramway at the Alpine Mine 

Mill of the Hercules Consolidated Mining Company 

Power plant of the Hercules Consolidated Mining Company 

Dump of the old Isabella Mine — 

Inyo County. 

The "desert rat," or prospector, crossing Amargosa Valley 

Mt. Whitney, highest point in United States, viewed from Lone Pine 

Furnace Creek, or Coleman Ranch and salt flat, lowest point in United States. 

View westward from trail to Keane Wonder Mine, showing Keane Wonder 

camp, Death Valley and Mt. Whitney in distance ; lowest and highest 

points in United States 

Owens Lake, looking southwestward from road south of Cerro Gordo 

Town of Keeler and Owens Lake, Mt. Whitney range in distance 

Mt. Whitney and the Sierras from Lone Pine 

Emigrant Spring in Emigrant Canyon, on road from Mesciuite Flat to Harris- 
burg 

A Sunday bath at the old Amargosa borax well, south of Zabriskie 

View of Silver Lake, San Bernardino County, after flood by Mojave River, 

January, 1916 — 

A corduroyed road. Mesquite flat, Death Valley 

Using a "Pull-U-Out" attached to a "dead man," Amargosa Flat, near Sara- 

toga Springs, Death Valley 

< huckawalla at Chloride Cliff. An inhabitant of rocky places 

Tertiary cinder cone north of Tin Mountain, which has broken through 

Miocene-Pliocene sandstones and covered them with loose volcanic material 

View eastward from Shoshone, across Amargosa Valley, showing old Cambrian 

,,,. tamorphice in background and terraces of Pleistocene gravels and clays, 

largely volcanic material, in foreground 

Folded borax beds at Biddy McCarty Mine, south of Ryan, capped by late 
Tertiary volcanic rock 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XV 

-View eastward of Mormon Point, Death Valley, showing alluvial cones built AGE 
up of rock fragments, brought down from the hard Cambrian metamorphic 

rocks by torrential waters 49 

^'The Racetrack," Ubehebe district. View northeastward toward Tin Mountain, 

Panamint Range 4 9 

View of Death Valley and Black Mountains from the Carbonate Mine. Part of 

lowest land in United States 50 

Wind storm carrying sands from Searles Lake northeastward into the Slate 

Range 51 

|View eastward across Death Valley, towards Saratoga Springs, showing wind- 
blown sands which fill valleys along west slope of Black Mountains 51 

View northward of Mesquite Flat. Grapevine Mountains in the distance 52 

Mesquite Flat, Death Valley, showing character of wind-blown sands and the 

influence of mesquite bushes in preventing their drifting 52 

View of Power Station No. 2 and pipe line of Nevada-California Power Com- 
pany on Bishop Creek 56 

5am for Station No. 3 of Nevada-California Power Company on Bishop Creek__ 57 
General view of Station No. 5 of the Southern Sierras Power Company on 

Bishop Creek 57 

3urro train, ore chute and ore bin at Wildrose Canyon Antimony Mine 61 

Camp at Wildrose Canyon showing trucks used for hauling antimony ore to 

Trona 62 

pid Amargosa Borax Works, south of Zabriskie. Worked in 1876 63 

Did Coleman Borax Works, two miles north of Furnace Creek Ranch 64 

irst locomotive used to haul borax out of Death Valley, at Death Valley 

Junction 64 

iew eastward showing borax formation at Biddy McCarty Mine and lava 

capping at Ryan 65 

re bins and town of Ryan, looking northwestward down Furnace Creek 65 

View northwestward showing method of mining Colemanite at Biddy McCarty 

quarry. Lower Biddy McCarty Mine in distance 66 

Hauling borax with gasoline train from Lizzie V. Oakley Mine to Ryan for 

shipment 66 

Concentration mill of Pacific Coast Borax Company at Death Valley Junction- 67 

Rotary roasters at mill of Pacific Coast Borax Company, Death Valley Junction 67 
packing concentrates at the plant of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, Death 

Valley Junction 68 

Darwin, looking northward 70 

Joso Copper Company Mine, Darwin 72 

Cashier Mine, Harrisburg 76 

/"iew, looking northeastward, of mill and tanks at Chloride Cliff Mine, Funeral 

Range 77 

Jolden Treasure Mine and camp. East side of Death Valley, thirty miles west 

of Zabriskie 78 

dcCausland Mill in Death Valley, five miles below the Golden Treasure Mine, 

in the Amargosa Mountains 79 

Ceane Wonder Mine and head of tramway 80 

Ceane Wonder Mill. View northeastward 80 

£eane Wonder Cyanide Plant. View southwestward 81 

lamp at Skidoo, on west side of Tucki Mountain 83 

lill and cyanide plant at Skidoo Mine, Skidoo 84 

Jypsum deposit of the Pacific Coast Borax Company near Ryan 86 

'arbonate Mine and camp in Panamint Range, on west side of Death Valley 89 

riew of Zabriskie looking northward. Shipping point for Carbonate and Ibex 

mines . 90 

loisting plant and head of aerial tram of Cerro Gordo Mine 91 

r iew eastward from Cerro Gordo Mine showing camp, dump, head of tramway 

and old slag dump. Owens Lake and Mt. Whitney in distance 91 

Jhristmas Gift Mine, near Darwin 92 

luster Mine, Darwin 93 

haft at Daisy Mine on the east flank of Inyo Mountains 94 

r iew eastward of Gunsite Mine and camp of Tecopa Consolidated Mining Com- 
pany, seven miles southeast of Tecopa 95 

Iain working level of Gunsite Mine 96 

line dumps and compressor plant at Ibex Mine, fifteen miles west of Zabriskie, 

in Amargosa Range 97 



xy j ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 



one mile below 



102 
103 ; 

103 

104 
105 
106 
107 



Ignacio (in foreground) and Ventura Mines in Inyo Mountains, 

the Cerro Gordo Mine ' _^ 

Old smeHer and hoist at Lane Mine near Darwin. Property of Darwm ^ 

Development Company """ -r^o^Hr, <)9 

Excavating for Murex Concentration Mill at Lane Mine, near Darwin.- ^ J» 

Luckv Jim Mine, near Darwin ---- 1„7~« 

Entrance to Nancy Hanks Mine, on the east flank of the Inyo Mountains- 

Noonday Mine. Tecopa Consolidated Mining Company 

ttravitv tram and ore bin at Noonday Mine .""""7 

Od Tecopa Smeiter, south of Noonday Mine. Kingston Range m d.stance. 
Ophir Mine, four miles east of The Tanks, southern Inyo County.—- 
Promontory Mine, near Darwin. Darwin Development Company ~ 

Ubeheoe Lead Mine and tractor for hauling ore fifty-two mdes ^Bonnie ■ 

Claire, Nevada -- 112 

Marble quarry of the Inyo Marble Company north of Keeler 'I'V^'Z 

NUer beds south of Owl Springs, showing method of prospectmg and doing M 

^"w^afoYo^^^^^^ 1 

of Keeler ~ 122 

Sacking salt at plant of Owens Valley Salt C * 1 *^— ~~ ~~ 124 

Soda works of Inyo Development Company, north of Keeler ^ 

Natural Soda Products Company plant, south of Keeler 

Simonds Talc Mine. California Talc Company 

Open cut and tunnel at Simonds Talc Mine, southeast of Keeler 

Tramway Talc Mine, north of Keeler 

AeroXne Mine at Tungsten, eight miles west of Bishop, Inyo County— - 
tevenly"flv7 ton roller mill being constructed to handle ore from the Aeroplane I 

Looking™ J 

Mines Company, eight miles west of Bishop 

Mono County. 

Map of a portion of Mono County 

Map of a portion of Mono County 

View of upper end of Green Creek Canon """"i" 14 

Glacial striae on bedrock at head of Green Creek, above East Lake- 14 

Glacial moraines on Green Creek ig 

Panoramic view of Bodie 

View of Mono Lake from the west side 

Mill of Standard Consolidated Mine 

Cyanide plant of the Standard Consolidated Mine ■ 

Cake, ready to wash, at Standard Cyanide Plant ■ 

Moore filter basket at Standard Cyanide Plant -« 

Pouring gold-silver bullion at Standard Consolidated Plant at Bodie 

Map of Standard Consolidated Mine workings 

New Bodie mill and tailings ponds 

Map of Masonic Mining District 

Workings of Pittsburg-Liberty Mine 

\i,w of Mono craters from the east side 

Crystal Lake Gold Mining Company's mill in Leake Canon, near Lundy 

Butte County. 
Rock crushing plant of the Natomas Consolidated of California at Oroville— 

,,,„„ ,,, dredge on Honcut Creek 

1|unt , ,. ar edge of the Oro Water, Light & Power Co 

Kennedy Ranch dredge on Honcut Creek 

Natoma No. 3 dredge on Feather River 

on Na , dredge of the Oroville Dredging Co 

Pacific No. - dredge on Butte Creek 

pacific No. 4 dredge on Feather River 

Tum „., entrance to Lucky John Drift Mine 

TunI1(1 ,,, ^ Morris Ravine Leasing Co 

Grav. 1 I. in ano dump, south of Old Glory Mine 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

piew northeastward from a bridge two miles south of Pentz, showing hydraulic 
tailings from the old Cherokee hydraulic mine 

i Joist and transformers at the Banner quartz mine 
toist and mill at the Bumble Bee Mine ., 



Lassen County. 



rolden Eagle Mine and Mill- 
ketch map of Hayden Hill_ 



Modoc County. 

)utcrop of discovery vein on Oregon claim, High Grade 

ketch map of High Grade Mining District 

haft house and ore bins, Modoc Mines Company 

Sunshine tunnel, High Grade Mining District, showing typical 

High Grade Hill 

less Mine and Mill, Winters Mining District 



'rock piles" of 



Sutter County. 
darysville Buttes, from the southeast 

Tehama County. 

f|ew of Big Hot Springs Valley, Morgan Springs 

lotel and bath houses, Tuscan Springs 



El Dorado County. 
hrome mining at the Pilliken property, 10 miles northeast of Folsom_ 

fading chrome ore, from the Pilliken property, at Folsom 

Hoist and 5-stamp mill at Pacific mine, Placerville 

Bhaw mine at El Dorado showing mill 

Sherman mine at Placerville showing head frame 

l^iew of quarry and loading bins at the Mountain quarries 

Storage bins at Mountain quarries 

Cureka slate quarry, north of Placerville 



Placer County. 
Model hydraulic mine of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, at the Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition 

Sdap of Ophir mining district 

Hydraulic gravel banks at Iowa Hill 

Hobart building, San Francisco, faced with architectural tile 
ireman's Fund Insurance building, San Francisco, faced 
tile 



Did clay pit north of Lincoln showing andesite capping 

Slay pit northwest of Lincoln showing method of working. 

Dairy Farm Copper mine, northeast of Sheridan 

Valley View mine, northeast of Lincoln 

Lost Emigrant mine 

Oro Fino mine, Ophir district 

Devil's Horn, Deadwood ridge 

Dutch Flat showing the location of Federal Drift mine 

Glenn mine, Canada Hill district 

Monumental mine, Canada Hill district 

[View of hydraulic banks along railroad near Gold Run 

Panorama of old hydraulic workings north of Gold Run- 
Pacific Blue Lead Drift mine 

Pacific Slab mine near Last Chance 

Old hydraulic bank of the Paragon mine, near Bath, showing stratification of 

gravels 

Stewart gravel mine near Gold Run 

Old hydraulic workings just north of Gold Run 

[Lost Camp placer mine, Blue Canon 

.Park and Brown hydraulic mine, Canada Hill district 

Pine Nut hydraulic mine, Canada Hill district 

Gravels in American River just below Rattlesnake Bridge. 

Gravel bars in American River just above Rattlesnake Bridge-. 



with architectural 



XV11 
Page 

210 
211 
213 



231 

235 



243 

244 
248 

250 
252 



254 



263 
266 



275 
275 
295 
297 
298 
305 
306 



309 
319 
321 
323 

324 
325 
325 
328 
330 
344 
346 
356 
358 
359 
365 
366 
367 
369 
369 

370 
373 
375 
376 
377 
378 
381 
381 



XV1H ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PagbJ 
Sluicing bench gravels along the North Fork of the American River, east of 

Colfax , 382 

Diving outfit used for recovering gold from the deep pools in the bed of the 

American River east of Colfax 383 

Gardella gold dredge north of Auburn Ravine, 4 miles northeast of Lincoln 384 

Pacific gold dredge near Mammoth Bar on the American River 385 

California granite quarry, Rocklin 387 

Delano granite quarry, Rocklin 388 

Pacific granite quarry, Rocklin 389 

Magnesite outcrop northeast of Iowa Hill 391 

Brockway hot springs 393 

Sacramento County. 
Gas wells and gas holder of the Sacramento Natural Gas Company, at the foot 

of Y street, Sacramento 404 

Gas wells Nos. 8 and 9 of the Sacramento Natural Gas Company, on the east 

bank of Sacramento River, south of Sacramento 405 

Natoma Reclaiming Dredger No. 4, under construction in November, 1915, near 

Nimbus, Sacramento County 407 

Natoma Reclaiming Dredger No. 4, operating near Nimbus, Sacramento County, 

in September, 1916, showing bucket line 410 1 

Natoma Reclaiming Dredger No. 4, operating near Nimbus, Sacramento County, 

in September, 1916, showing the arrangement of the tailings stackers 410 

Natoma No. 1 dredger being rebuilt, as a reclaiming dredge, near Fair Oaks, 

Sacramento County, in September, 1916 411 

Natoma No. 1 dredger being rebuilt, as a reclaiming dredge, near Fair Oaks, 

in November, 1916 412 

Natoma No. 9 dredger operating south of Natoma, Sacramento County 413 

Bucket line of Natoma Dredger No. 9, operating south of Natoma, Sacramento 

County 414 

Loading cobbles with steam shovel near Natoma rock crushing plant, Fair Oaks 415 

Natoma rock crushing plant near Fair Oaks 416 

Granite quarry at Folsom State Prison, Sacramento County 417 

Dam across the American River at Folsom State Prison, Sacramento County... 417 
View down the American River, showing granite outcrops near the Folsom 

State Prison, Sacramento County 418 

Yuba County. 

Map of Yuba River Basin 425 

View of Marigold dredgers, Nos. 3 and 4 426 '.. 

View southwestward showing Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company Dredger 

No. 13 427 

View of Marigold Dredger No. 3 429 

View of Marigold Dredger No. 4 430 

View of Marigold Dredger No. 5 430 

Gravel deposits in the Yuba River below Park's Bar Bridge 431 

Pacific gold dredge under construction below Park's Bar Bridge 431 

Dredger No. 13 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Co 432 

View of dredgers, Nos. 9, 11 and 14, of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Co.__ 432 

Dredger No. 14 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Co 433 

Bucket line of Yuba Dredger No. 14 434 

Dredgers, Nos. 14 and 15 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Co 435 

Dredger No. 15 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Co 435 

View of Yuba dredgers, Nos. 7, 8, 12 and 13 436 

Proposed government settling basin, south of the Yuba River 437 

Reclaiming gold dredge of the Natomas Consolidated Company, near Folsom, 

Sacramento County _- 437 

Hoist and arrastra at the Wheaton mine, near Smartsville 438 

Plant of the Tar Mining Company at Smartsville 440 

Mill and cyanide planl at the B. A. C. mine, Brownsville 444 

Holsl at the California Mother Lode mine, Indiana Ranch 446 

Mill at the Santa Rosa mine, Rackerby 454 

Dragline buckel loading cars at plant of the Pratt Sand Company, Marysville__ 457 
ciniri.siM '11 bucket loading sand at the plant of the Yuba River Sand Company, 

Marysville 458 



ILLUSTRATIONS. xix 

Los Angeles County. Page 

t^ock crushing plant of Russell-Greene-Foell Co 485 

D lant of the Simons Brick Co., Boyle Heights, Los Angeles 489 

|3anta Monica plant of Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co 492 

1 ^os Angeles Trust and Savings Bank Building 495 

J follow building tile used in wall construction 497 

Ivfission style burned clay roofing tile 498 

iDutcrop of graphite vein on Prince No. 1 claim of California Graphite Co 501 

1 Tramway and graphite claims of California Graphite Co . 502 

I Potash plant of the American Products Co. at Long Beach 510 

|£elp storage and furnaces, American Products Co 510 

Riverside County. 

l3anta Rosa volcanic plateau from Murrietta Hot Springs 523 

i3avilan Flat, looking north from Jumbo mine 528 

|3anta Rosa mine, looking west 530 

[Santa Fe mine, looking southwest from the Santa Rosa 530 

[Surface view of Indian Queen and Little Maggie claims 531 

pood Hope mine, looking north 533 

[Lucky Strike mine (formerly Ophir) looking south 534 

kremescal (Cajalco) tin mine, looking northeast 547 

|View northward from head of Palm Canon 551 

[Face of cut where asbestos has been mined 552 

Riverside Portland Cement Co. plant as seen from Fairmount Park 555 

Quarries of Riverside Portland Cement Co 555 

[Limestone quarry of Riverside Portland Cement Co 556 

Cement plant of Riverside Portland Cement Co 558 

Clay pits of Alberhill Coal & Clay Co., at Alberhill 566 

[Alberhill Coal & Clay Co. pit at Alberhill 567 

Clay pit of Alberhill Coal & Clay Co 568 

jClay pit of Alberhill Coal & Clay Co 569 

Ipiant No. 1 of Pacific Sewer Pipe Co. at Terra Cotta 570 

California-Clay Manufacturing Co. pits near Alberhill 571 

California-Clay Manufacturing Co. pit near Alberhill 572 

Panoramic view of new works of Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co., at Alberhill 573 

Looking N. 50° W. along strike of gypsum deposits, Santa Maria Mountains 578 

Looking eastward along the strike of the gypsum beds 578 

Monterey County. 

West face of Pico Blanco, five miles from coast of Monterey County 599 

View northward, towards the Ventana, from Slates' trail at summit of Part- 
ington Ridge 599 

View southeastward from Slates' trail 600 

Looking northward up the coast from Cape San Martin 601 

Looking west, from an elevation of 1200 feet, on the main Pine Ridge trail from 

Gorda 601 

Jens Feldspar Quarry, near Chualar 602 

Hauling feldspar from Jens Quarry, near Chualar 603 

San Benito County. 

The Big Pinnacles, looking northwest 618 

Rock formation of The Pinnacles 619 

A mountain split in two ; effect of an immense earth slide. Near Pinnacles 620 

Gabilan (Fremont) Peak, showing outcrop of barite under oak tree in center — 625 

Partially constructed plant of the Old Mission Portland Cement Company 627 

Map of properties of Old Mission Portland Cement Company. 629 

Cross-section of Mascovich coal mine 632 

Dolomite deposit, eleven miles from Hollister 634 

Haskins dolomite quarry, near Hollister 635 

Plate I— Benitoite (colored) 636 

Benitoite mine, Dallas Mining Company 637 

Gabilan or Fremont Peak 641 

Lime kilns, Old Mission Portland Cement Company's plant 642 

Magnesite outcrop of Sampson Magnesite Lode claims 645 



XX ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Pagi 

A shipment of 300 flasks of quicksilver from the New Idria mine 647 

Plate II — Map (colored) of New Idria District 648 

New 20-ton Scott furnace, Alpine quicksilver mine 650 

Condensing pipes of quicksilver retorts at the Alpine mine 65] 

Rotary furnace, Aurora quicksilver mine 652 

Retort plant, Florence Mack quicksilver mine <»56 

Old and new prospect tunnels, Florence Mack quicksilver mine 65' 

Characteristic outcrops, Los Picachos Peak, Hernandez quicksilver mine 659 

Panoramic view of New Idria mine, plant and town 66: 

Plate III — Outline of ore body, New Idria mine ( 

No. 4 furnace at New Idria mine 665 

Barrel condensers, New Idria mine 666 

Blower and stack from fine ore furnace, New Idria mine 66 

San Luis Obispo County. 

Budan Spring 69 

Municipal baths, Paso Robles 69 

Newsom's Arroyo Grande Warm Springs resort 695 

Paso Robles Hot Springs bathhouse 69 

Reduction works, Cambria Quicksilver Co 701; 

Plat of Red Hill workings, Cambria mine 703 

Outcrop and tunnel, Doty mine 707 

Old coarse-ore quicksilver furnace at Keystone mine , 708 J 

Furnace and condensers, Klau quicksilver mine 710 

Reduction plant and mill, Oceanic quicksilver mine 713 

Section along strike, Oceanic mine 715 

Free public library, San Luis Obispo 723 

Templeton sand plant, operated by the California Highway Commission 726 

Santa Barbara County. 

Bituminous sands at Higgins mine, Carpinteria 730 

Mining bituminous sands at Higgins mine, Carpinteria 731 

Mining with hot spades at Higgins mine 732 

Plant for treating bituminous sands at the Higgins mine 732 

Well drilled in bituminous shales at Carpinteria 733 

Limestone quarry of the Union Sugar Co., southwest of Lompoc 739 

Face of limestone quarry, showing limestone conglomerate at left and contact 

with blue shale at right 740 

Veronica Valley, location of Veronica, Bythenia and Moore Mineral springs 743 

Upper workings at Snow Group (Los Prietos quicksilver mines) 747 

Ventura County. 

Outcrop of colemanite-bearing beds at Stauffer 755 

Gypsiferous shales containing colemanite, Stauffer 756 

Columbus mine at Stauffer 757 

Russell borate mine, at Stauffer 758 

Outcrop of natural cement rock on property of Ventura Cement Company 763 

Matilija Canon, looking northward 764 

San Bernardino County. 

Characteristic exposure of tuffs near Victorville, San Bernardino County 777 

The "Gibraltar of the Mojave" River, at Victorville 779 

Colorado River ferry hear Needles, California 780 

Primitive transportation on the desert by burros 781 

Modern transportation and desert mountains 781 

Santa Fe Railway bridge over the Colorado River below Needles 782 

Orange Blossom Extension Mine 789 

Camp of Goldstone 806 

M.i in shaft of the Goldstone Mining Company 806 

Open rut work at original strike, at Goldstone Mine 807 

High-grade ore sacked for shipment at the Red-Bridg Mine 808 



ILLUSTRATIONS. Xxi 

Open cut mining at Red-Bridg property, showing face of metamorphosed sedi- 
ments 809 

Mill and head-frame at shaft of the Ozark Mine 813 

Mine dumps and compressor plant at the Ibex Mine, 15 miles southwest of 

Zabriskie, in the Black Mountains 821 

Owl Holes Manganese Mine, one mile northwest of Owl Hole Spring, in the 

Owl Mountains : 822 

Old camp of Calico, looking south from Calico Mountains. Dry Lake in 

middle distance 825 

Cyanide plant of the Daggett Reduction Company in process of construction, 

five miles north of Daggett 825 

Mill of the Olivier-Funk-Osborn Company south of Calico. 826 

Panoramic view of Atolia, looking westerly from Osdick group 831 

Home-made, hand-driven, dry concentrator, working scheelite placer ground 

at Atolia — , - 833 

The Winans combination jig and sluice in operation near Atolia on placer ground 

carrying scheelite 834 

Stebbins dry concentrator : 835 

Stebbins dry concentrator in operation, concentrating scheelite from placer 

wash on Leonard group near Atolia 836 

West end of the "Spud Patch/' Atolia Mining Company, at Atolia 837 

At east end of the "Spud Patch," Atolia Mining Company 838 

Ivanpah Valley, looking northward from base of New York Mountains 840 

Carbonate tunnel on property of J. R. Comerford, et al, Cliff Canon, New York 

Mountains 842 

Tungsten ore at mouth of Carbonate tunnel. The wolframite shows as black 

spots in the rock 843 

Exposure of pegmatitic dyke, carrying hubnerite, and wolframite, at western 

extremity of outcrop of the Tungsten King Group, New York Mountains — S44 
Eastern extremity of the outcrop on the Tungsten King Group, New York 

Mountains — -. 845 

Looking southward from the Tungsten King Group in the New York Mountains 846 
Dry concentration mill of Lombard and Main, Signal district, 8 miles north of 

Goffs — _— _ 847 

Custom mill at Goffs, built by H. I. Reynolds for concentrating tungsten ores 

of the Signal and New York Mountain districts 848 

Rock crusher and hand jigs at well on the Lord and Irish property, Signal 

district -- 848 

Eureka shaft of the Boose, Michael and Buchanan Company lease, Signal 

district 849 

Camp of the Louisiana-California Mining Company, Signal district, 8 miles 

north of Goffs 850 

New mill of the Louisiana-California Mining Company 850 

Hardinge ball mill in plant of the Louisiana-California Mining Company. 

Clean-up pan in the foreground 851 

Plant of the Southwestern Portland Cement Company, 1 mile north of Victor- 

ville 859 

Quarry of the Southwestern Portland Cement Company, 5.6 miles northeast of 

the plant 860 

Clay beds exposed in Tertiary sediments at Calico, on claim of M. Mulcahy, 

et al. 862 

Mining gypsum with plow and scraper at Dry Lake deposit of the Pacific 

Consolidated Cement Plaster Company, near Amboy 869 

Steam engine used to haul gypsum to the plant of the Pacific Consolidated 

Cement Plaster Company, at Amboy 869 

Plant of the Pacific Consolidated Cement Plaster Company, at Amboy S70 

White Marble Claim No. 1, showing large dumps of undersize limestone at left 

of photo, which is sold for flux and plaster. Baxter and Ballardie Quar- 
ries at Baxter, California S74 

White Marble Claim No. 2, showing large undeveloped deposit of white marble 

suitable for building or monumental purposes at Baxter and Ballardie 

Quarries 



XX11 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 
The "Pit Quarry" on White Marble No. 1, showing method of quarrying the 

Baxter and Ballardie limestone deposits 877 

Three Colored Marble Quarry, showing large broken blocks at face of quarry 882 

The Arrowhead, at Arrowhead Hot Springs 884 

The Steam Caves, at Arrowhead Hot Springs 885 

Mill of the Consumers Salt Company, at Saltus, 3 miles east of Amboy 893 

Drilling at Searles Lake 895 

Camp of the American Trona Company previous to the construction of the 

new plant at Trona, Searles Lake, California 895 

New million dollar plant of the American Trona Corporation being built at 

Trona, on the northwest edge of Searles Lake, for the extraction of soda 

and potash from the brine of Searles Lake 896 

PLATES. 

I. Geologic cross-section through Goldstone District 804 

II. Cross-section of Goldstone District showing quartz-system, looking south- 
westward 805 

III. Map showing approximate relative positions of the principal tungsten 

groups at Atolia, California 832 

IV. Map of the White Marble Group Limestone Quarries at Baxter, Cal 873 

Tulare County. 

Sear's Clay Deposit, 8 miles southeast of Ducor 905 

Number 1 Quarry of California Granite Company, east of Porterville 916 

Number 2 Quarry of California Granite Company 917 

Lemon Cove Lime Quarry, near Lemon Cove 919 

Rotary magnesite calcining kiln of the California Magnesite Company, at 

Porterville 920 

Showing lining of rotary kiln for calcining magnesite 921 

Open cut. Blue Crystal Mine, near Lindsay 924 

Burr Bros. Magnesite Mine, near Lindsay 925 

Magnesite vein 3 feet thick. No. 3 workings of Lindsay Mining Company 928 

Magnesite mines of the Lindsay Mining Company, near Success 929 

Slickensided magnesite, showing movement along the vein, in tunnel of the 

Lindsay Mining Company 930 

Magnesite mines of the Porterville Magnesite Company, north of Porterville 931 

Loading chute of the Porterville Magnesite Company 932 

View showing outcrop of horizontal veins on Porterville Magnesite Company's 

property 933 

Showing gash vein on the south of the Western Hill, of the Porterville Magnesite 

Company's property 934 

Magnesite vein dipping 12° S., 4' wide, on north end of the Porterville Magne- 
site Company's property 935 

Rotary calcining kiln of the Porterville Magnesite Company 936 

Magnesite mines of the Tulare Mining Company, near Success 937 

Magnesite calcining kilns of the Tulare Mining Company 938 

No. 1 Spring at California Hot Springs, 30 miles southeast of Porterville 941 

View of hotel at California Hot Springs , 942 

Grant Rock and Gravel Company's quarry, northwest of Visalia 947 

View of Mineral King Mining District, looking east 948 

View of Mineral King Mining District, looking north 949 

PLATES.. 

I. Map showing Magnesite Deposits in the vicinity of Porterville 939 

II. Sketch map of Magnesite Deposits of Tulare Mining Company 940 



ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT. 

The general survey of the mineral resources of California, which 
was inaugurated during the sixty-fourth and sixty-fifth fiscal years, 
was vigorously prosecuted during the sixty-sixth and sixty-seventh, 
the results of this effort being included in the volume presented 
herewith. 

With but few exceptions, detailed data relative to the mines, quar- 
ries, and oil wells of every county in the state are now available for 
the information of the general public, in no matter what phase of the 
industry they may be interested. 

It will be noted that an attempt has been made to also convey help- 
ful advice to the prospector, particularly as regards the counties con- 
taining vast stretches of desert and arid regions where climatic condi- 
tions are unfavorable, and where it is often a matter of life and death 
to secure water and food, and sometimes fuel and other supplies. 

In addition to the work, the result of which is made available through 
the medium of this volume, the activities of the Bureau have been 
broadened to an extent never before undertaken, and it is believed 
that the ends attained have fully justified the time and money 
expended. 

"War demands for practically every mineral produced in the state 
have been responsible for unwonted activity in mining, and as a result 
the inquiries, both personal and written, which have been daily received 
and answered, make up a volume of labor which does not appear in 
the printed records, but which consumes a large proportion of the time 
of the State Mineralogist, as well as that of his staff. 

Publications. 

As a means of meeting new and special demands, as well as of for- 
warding the general development of the mineral resources of Cali- 
fornia, it is a pleasure to report the following finished work which has 
been accomplished, aside from the material contained in this report : 

Bulletin No. 69, on the "Petroleum Industry of California," men- 
tioned in the biennial report of 1913-1914 as being in preparation, was 
issued in October, 1914. It covers the subject of our crude oil resources 
very thoroughly, and is accompanied by a folio of eighteen areal, 
structural, and geological maps. 

Bulletins Nos. 70 and 71, annual statistical reports for the calendar 
years 1914 and 1915, respectively, show the mineral production of 
California for those periods. This annual bulletin has been enlarged 
and improved in every respect, and in addition to the mere figures of 



XXIV MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

output there have been included descriptions of the uses and charac- 
teristics of many of the mineral substances found in this state, as well 
as a brief mention of their occurrence. 

Geologic Map of California, lithographed in 17 colors, which makes 
available for reference for the first time a detailed record of the geology 
of every portion of the entire state. Accompanying this map has been 
issued Bulletin No. 72, entitled "Geologic Formations of Calif ornia." 

Following the above, Bulletin No. 73 was issued for free distribution, 
entitled "First Annual Report of the State Oil and Gas Supervisor of 
California." This report contains 278 pages and 26 illustrations, out- 
lines the work and policy of the Department of Petroleum and Gas, 
describes in detail causes of damage to oil wells by infiltrating water, 
contains typical geological cross-sections and other technical matter, 
oil well logs, etc., for the information and guidance of the operator in 
the field. This report also shows the production of petroleum in Cali- 
fornia, the area of proved oil lands, contains a review of work in the 
various fields which was completed during 1915 and 1916, describes 
practical methods of shutting off water, contains data on strength of 
casing, and cause for failure of derricks, describes the manufacture of. 
gasoline from natural gas, and includes a directory of oil companies, 
showing date of incorporation, capital stock, number of wells and 
location of property. 

Mineral Production of California. 

As a means of briefly indicating the immense forward strides which 
mining has recently taken here, the following tables have been included, 
showing the comparative yield of mineral substances of California for 
the calendar years 1914 and 1915, as compiled from the returns received 
at the State Mining Bureau in answer to inquiries sent to producers: 

The following table shows the values of the several minerals produced 
in California during the calendar years 1914 and 1915 : 



ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT. 




XXV 


Substance 


1914 


1915 


A.ntimonv ore - _ _ __ ____ 




$35,666 


Asbestos -_ _ _ _ __ 


$1,530 

3,000 

166,618 

1,483,500 

2,288,227 

6,558,148 

9,434 

167,552 

28,806 

4,055,375 


2,860 


Barvtes _ _ _ __ _ __ __ 


620 


Bituminous rock _ __ _ 


61,468 


Borax _ __________ 


1,663,521 


Brick 


1,678,756 


Cement __ _ _ 


6,044,950 


Chromite _ _ 


38,044 


Olay (pottery) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 


133,724 


Coal __ 


26,662 


Copper _ __ _ _ __ __ 


7,169,567 


Dolomite ____ 


14,504 


Feldspar 


16,565 

5,928 

3,970 

20,653,496 

78,375 

80,350 

5,128 

183,198 

378,663 

517,713 


9,000 


Fuller's earth _ _ _ _ _ 


4,002 




3,565 


Gold 


22,442,296 




48,953 


Infusorial earth _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ 


62,000 


Iron ore _ _ _ __ 


2,584, 


Lead ________ _ _ _ 


225,426 




286,304 


Limestone _ _ __ 


156,288 


Lithia _ _ 


1,365 


Magnesite _ _ __ 


114,380 

1,500 

48,832 

847 

476,169 

1,049,470 

47,487,109 

14,816 

460' 

1,000 

230,058 

557,846 

583,553 

45,322 

22,688 

813,938 


283,461 




49,098 


Marble 


41,518 




1,756 


Mineral water _ _ _ _ 


467,738 




1,706,480 


Petroleum __ _ __ _ _ _ 


43,503,837 


Platinum __ 


21,149 


Potash __ . _ 


19,391 


Pumice _ __ 


6,400 


Pyrite _____ _ _ _ 


293,148 




1,157,449 


Salt . _ _ ._ 


368,737 


Sandstone . _ 


8,438 


Silica (sand and quartz) _ 


34,322 


Silver _ _ 


851,129 


Slate _ __ 


5,000 




4,500 

115,396 

4,860,357 

180,575 

20,381 


14,750 


Soda -- 


83,485 




5,011,108 


Tungsten concentrates . - - - - - 


1,005,467 


Zinc 


1,617,383 






Totals _ 


$93,314,773 


$96,663,369 







XXVI 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The following table shows the value of the mineral production of th< 
various counties in the state for the calendar years 1914 and 1915 : 



County 


1914 


1915 


Alameda _.„ 


$870,427 


$861,683 


Alpine , _ _ 




Amador __ 


3,211,109 

1,755,782 

2,005,954 

32,251 

1,149,321 

5,938 

149,226 

7,484,473 

30,553 

233,332 

250,529 

2,085,112 

28,040,296 

740 

63,503 

4,568 

4,665,504 

203,009 

554,137 

187,505 

560 

UllJOl 

1,252 

16,060 

114,254 

971,748 

3,330,940 

8,831,763 

1,097,098 

161,308 

1,580,805 

2,629,244 

436,259 

1,616,537 

315,267 

119,889 

129,930 

63,465 

246,478 

2,686,309 

266,956 

1,642,958 

5,047,838 

725,129 

385,825 

1,683,866 

326,144 

2 5,882 


4,063,762 


Butte 


1,622,245 


Calaveras 


2,161,893 


Colusa __ 


16,003 


Contra Costa _. 


1,309,505 


Del Norte 


4,524 


El Dorado 


428,336 


Fresno 


8,152,300 


Glenn ___ 


46,667 


Humboldt 


358,686 


Imperial 


77,433 


Inyo . 


2,771,042 




25,335,184 


Kings __ 


18,608 




72,534 


Lassen __ _ _ _ 


870 




4,168,612 


Madera __ _ „_ 


145,063 




160,528 


Mariposa 


412,326 




24,536 


Merced __ 


94,032 




8,681 


Mono _.._ 


109,425 




84,986 


Napa 


884,221 


Nevada „ _ _ _. 


3,492,946 


Orange 


6,617,112 


Placer _ _ 


963,860 


Plumas 


745,715 


Riverside _ . 


1,349,591 


Sacramento _- _ __ __ __ __ _____.. 


2,562,281 




642,065 


San Bernardino 


2,674,042 




211,129 


San Francisco __ __ . _ __ 


128,270 




248,394 


San Luis Obispo 


227,632 




177,891 


Santa Barbara 


3,984,966 




635,229 


Santa Cruz __ _. 


1,581,531 




8,350,133 


Sierra __ . 


729,518 




514,094 


Solano 


1,335,923 




276,104 


Stanislaus 


191,771 


Sutter . 




Tehama ___ 


300 

747,282 

161,252 

1,050,928 

1,000,729 

736 

2,823,282 

1,530 


4,702 




499,511 


Tulare . 


184,599 




1,171,438 


Ventura 


904,767 


Yolo 


2,040 


Yuba 


2,862,430 


Asbestos, unapportioned ___ _____ ___ _ 








Totals 


$93,314,773 


$96,663,369 







includes output of a gold dredge in Stanislaus! County. 2 See Merced. 



ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT. XXVii 

Other Activities. 

In addition to the foregoing, work on a set of county mineral maps 
of standard size and scale has been satisfactorily forwarded, although 
considerable time will yet elapse before it will be possible to make them 
available for distribution. These maps will show the location of every 
known mineral property in the various counties, as well as being up 
to date as regards highways, wagon roads, towns, post offices, stage 
routes, streams, etc. 

The work of the Petroleum Department has continued to expand, 
and arrangements have been provided for specially constructed office 
quarters in two of the principal oil fields, which will provide ample 
space for filing valuable records in fireproof vaults. In these build- 
ings there are also to be maintained peg models of the oil fields for 
the benefit of those interested. 

The Mineral Museum which is maintained by the Bureau in the 
Ferry Building, San Francisco, has always been one of its most inter- 
esting adjuncts. This museum is visited by many thousands of persons 
annually, and it affords striking visual evidence of the diversity of 
the mineral products of the state in a manner which could be obtained 
by no other means. 

The Laboratory, in which free determinations are made of all 
mineral specimens sent in by citizens of the state, is an assistance to 
the mining public which can not be adequately estimated. Not only 
prospectors, but engineers and geologists in large numbers, avail them- 
selves of the opportunity thus presented to obtain accurate and authori- 
tative information relative to samples and specimens of doubtful or 
unknown value which they have discovered or otherwise obtained. 
This assistance is of particular value as regards the rarer minerals, the 
appearance of which may often be unfamiliar even to mining men of 
long experience. 

The Library, Reading Room and general offices in the Ferry Building 
have been renovated and remodeled, with the single idea in view of 
increasing the ability of all members of the Bureau to satisfactorily 
serve the interests of those who call for information and advice. 

The Library is well known to the western mining public. It contains 
more than 5000 volumes of scientific and technical reference books 
covering all features of the mineral industry, as well as allied subjects. 

Future Plans. 

As regards the future plans of the Bureau, it may not be amiss to 
state that there is in press a compilation of the United States and 
California Mining Laws, brought up to date. A catalog of the publi- 
cations of the Bureau from the date of its inception in 1880 is also 



XXVI 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The following table shows the value of the mineral production of the 
various counties in the state for the calendar years 1914 and 1915 : 



County 


1914 


1915 


Alameda __ 


$870,427 


$861,683 


Alpine _ 




Amador . 


3,211,109 

1,755,782 

2,005,954 

32,251 

1,149,321 

5,938 

149,226 

7,484,473 

30,553 

233,332 

250,529 

2,085,112 

28,040,296 

740 

63,503 

4,568 

4,665,504 

203,009 

554,137 

187,505 

560 

UllJOl 

1,252 

16,060 

114,254 

971,748 

3,330,940 

8,831,763 

1,097,098 

161,308 

1,580,805 

2,629,244 

436,259 

1,616,537 

315,267 

119,889 

129,930 

63,465 

246,478 

2,686,309 

266,956 

1,642,958 

5,047,838 

725,129 

385,825 

1,683,866 

326,144 

2 5,882 


4,063,762 


Butte 


1,622,245 


Calaveras 


2,161,893 


Colusa __ 


16,003 


Contra Costa „ 


1,309,505 


Del Norte 


4,524 


£1 Dorado _. 


428,336 


Fresno 


8,152,300 


Glenn 


46,667 


Humboldt 


358,686 


Imperial _ 


77,433 


Inyo . 


2,771,042 




25,335,184 


Kings _ _ __ __ _ 


18,608 




72,534 


Lassen 


870 




4,168,612 


Madera 


145,063 




160,528 


Mariposa 


412,326 


Mendocino 


24,536 


Merced 


94,032 


Modoc _.. _ . 


8,681 


Mono 


109,425 




84,986 


Napa 


884,221 




3,492,946 


Orange __ . ___ 


6,617,112 




963,860 


Plumas 


745,715 




1,349,591 


Sacramento 


2,562,281 




642,065 


San Bernardino 


2,674,042 


San Diego 


211,129 


San Francisco 


128,270 


San Joaquin __ 


248,394 


San Luis Obispo 


227,632 


San Mateo __ __ 


177,891 


Santa Barbara 


3,984,966 




635,229 


Santa Cruz . 


1,581,531 


Shasta _ __ _ _ _ 


8,350,133 


Sierra 


729,518 




514,094 


Solano 


1,335,923 




276,104 


Stanislaus 


191,771 


Sutter 




Tehama __ __ 


300 

747,282 

161,252 

1,050,928 

1,000,729 

736 

2,823,282 

1,530 


4,702 




499,511 


Tulare 


184,599 




1,171,438 


Ventura 


904,767 


Yolo 


2,040 


Yuba 


2,862,430 










Totals ._ 


$93,314,773 


$96,663,369 







includes output of a gold dredge in Stanislaus County. 2 See Merced. 



ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT. XXV11 

Other Activities. 

In addition to the foregoing, work on a set of county mineral maps 
of standard size and scale has been satisfactorily forwarded, although 
considerable time will yet elapse before it will be possible to make them 
available for distribution. These maps will show the location of every 
known mineral property in the various counties, as well as being up 
to date as regards highways, wagon roads, towns, post offices, stage 
routes, streams, etc. 

The work of the Petroleum Department has continued to expand, 
and arrangements have been provided for specially constructed office 
quarters in two of the principal oil fields, which will provide ample 
space for filing valuable records in fireproof vaults. In these build- 
ings there are also to be maintained peg models of the oil fields for 
the benefit of those interested. 

The Mineral Museum which is maintained by the Bureau in the 
Ferry Building, San Francisco, has always been one of its most inter- 
esting adjuncts. This museum is visited by many thousands of persons 
annually, and it affords striking visual evidence of the diversity of 
the mineral products of the state in a manner which could be obtained 
by no other means. 

The Laboratory, in which free determinations are made of all 
mineral specimens sent in by citizens of the state, is an assistance to 
the mining public which can not be adequately estimated. Not only 
prospectors, but engineers and geologists in large numbers, avail them- 
selves of the opportunity thus presented to obtain accurate and authori- 
tative information relative to samples and specimens of doubtful or 
unknown value which they have discovered or otherwise obtained. 
This assistance is of particular value as regards the rarer minerals, the 
appearance of which may often be unfamiliar even to mining men of 
long experience. 

The Library, Reading Room and general offices in the Ferry Building 
have been renovated and remodeled, with the single idea in view of 
increasing the ability of all members of the Bureau to satisfactorily 
serve the interests of those who call for information and advice. 

The Library is well known to the western mining public. It contains 
more than 5000 volumes of scientific and technical reference books 
covering all features of the mineral industry, as well as allied subjects. 

Future Plans. 

As regards the future plans of the Bureau, it may not be amiss to 
state that there is in press a compilation of the United States and 
California Mining Laws, brought up to date. A catalog of the publi- 
cations of the Bureau from the date of its inception in 1880 is also 



XXV111 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

in press; likewise, a preliminary report on manganese and chromium, 
which is to be followed by a bulletin on the same subject, the manu- 
script of which has been practically completed, and will be sent to the 
printer at an early date. 

Field work has been completed, and compilation is well under way, 
on bulletins which will cover the following subjects: Quicksilver 
Resources of California, including chapters on metallurgy and ore 
dressing; Magnesite in California; Tungsten, Molybdenum and Vana- 
dium in California. 

Steps have also been taken to prepare a preliminary report, similar 
to the one on manganese and chromium, which will include information 
primarily intended to assist the buyer and seller of mineral substances 
in getting in touch with each other as regards nickel, molybdenum, 
antimony, tin, tungsten, graphite, strontium, and potash. 

Plans have also been completed for the installation of a complete 
file of the Bureau's publications in its branch offices at Los Angeles, 
Santa Paula, Santa Maria, Taft, Bakersfield, and Coalinga. Not only 
will all publications be available for reference at these points, but 
bulletins and reports which are issued for free distribution will be 
supplied in sufficient numbers to meet the requirements of the loca 
public. 



Acknowledgment. 

The hearty co-operation of the California mining public, which has 
at all times been accorded members of the Bureau, is a very important 
item, and one which has made possible the successful carrying out of 
the various plans which have been here enumerated. Sincere 
appreciation and thanks for this co-operation is hereb}' gratefully 
acknowledged. 

It may appear, in some individual instances, that little compensation 
is received for the time and attention asked by the Bureau, but such 
minor sacrifices may result in great benefit to the mining public, as 
well as to the entire nation, when the information obtained has been 
correlated and placed in its proper position relative to the problem 
which may require solution. 

The State Mineralogist also takes pleasure in making this public 
acknowledgment of the enthusiastic and efficient services which have 
been rendered by all members of the Bureau staff, and as a means of 
emphasizing this fact, and also illustrating the proportions which the 






ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT. XXIX 

Bureau has attained, there follows the personnel of the staff as of 
June 30, 1916 : 

Personnel. 

F. McN. Hamilton, State Mineralogist. 

R. P. McLaughlin, State Oil and Gas Supervisor. 

W. W. Thayer, Secretary and Cashier. 

M. J. Kirwan, Deputy State Oil and Gas Supervisor. 

R. B. Moran, Deputy State Oil and Gas Supervisor. 

Chester Naramore, Deputy State Oil and Gas Supervisor. 

R. E. Collom, Deputy State Oil and Gas Supervisor. 

Walter W. Bradley, Mining Statistician. 

Edgar Woodcock, Determinative Mineralogist. 

W. Burling Tucker, Field Assistant. 

Emile Huguenin, Field Assistant. 

Clarence A. Waring, Field Assistant. 

J. J. McDonald, Assistant Mining Statistician. 

W. E. Condon, Geological Draftsman. 

A. H. Brod, Laboratory Assistant. 

Henry McCann, Clerk. 

E. M. Connor, Stenographer. 

Emma Cooney, Stenographer. 

Walter A. Greer, Stenographer. 

Edith Husted, Stenographer. 

I. M. Johnson, Stenographer. 

Arthur Nagle, Night Watchman. 

H. F. Williams, Janitor. 

FLETCHER HAMILTON, 

State Mineralogist. 
December, 1916. 



4—46904 



XXX MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

Sixty-sixth Fiscal Year. July 1, 1914, to June 30, 1915. 

Receipts. 

Balance from sixty-fifth fiscal year $358 87 

Appropriation, sixty-sixth fiscal year 40,000 00 

$40,35S 87 

Disbursements. 

Geological salaries $9,276 96 

Bureau salaries 12,738 31 

Traveling expenses 5,038 20 

Rent 1,935 00 ^ 

Laboratory 241 44 

Library 159 23 

Museum — _ 36 79 

Postage 919 49 

Sundries 4,057 46 

Printing 5,853 51 

■ 40,256 39 

Balance of fund not expended 102 48 



$40,358 87 

Sixty-seventh Fiscal Year. July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916. 

Receipts. 
Appropriation sixty-seventh fiscal year $45,000 00 

Disbursements. 

Geological salaries $9,869 81 

Bureau salaries , 18,697 30 

Traveling expenses 3,486 44 

Rent 1,990 12 

Laboratory and museum 343 45 

Library 288 43 

Postage 1,001 02 

Printing 3,484 66 

Sundries 5,255 58 

$44,416 81 

Balance of fund not expended 583 19 



$45,000 00 



PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 



XXXI 




East entrance to the California State Mining Exhibit, Palace of Mines, P. P. I. E.. 1915. 






JCXX11 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. XXX111 



PARTICIPATION OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU 
IN THE PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 

The State Mineralogist co-operated with the California State Com- 
missioner since the State Mining Bureau received no appropriation 
with which to finance a mining exhibit. Assistants were detailed to 
! various sections of the state and a representative exhibit of California's 
minerals was gathered together and placed in the commodious quarters 
offered just east of the central dome of the Palace of Mines. 

The arched entrance on the east side of the exhibit included an 
adaptation of the great seal of the State of California, while on its 
sides were portrayed, by sculpture, the various mineral industries of the 
state. The west arch entrance had, at its approach, a working model 
'gold dredge, while through the arch visitors viewed a life size portrait 
cf Governor Hiram W. Johnson, executed in native mineral colors. 

The arched entrance on the east side of the exhibit included an 
site which were two safes in which valuable gold specimens were 
displayed. The north end of the space was occupied by a model 
hydraulic mine, a glass model of the Mammoth Copper mine, a model 
assay office, an arrastre, and a working stamp mill. The south end 
was equipped with model 10-stamp mill, paint exhibit, and display 
(of photographs of California mines, mills, dredgers, etc. Ores of each 
^mineral occurring in the state were arranged, alphabetically by 
counties and mines, in large show cases. On a large platform above 
the central portion of the exhibit was a peg model of the Midway- 
Sunset oil fields. 

A collection of gold and platinum specimens loaned to the State 
Mining Bureau were arranged in two safes. Excellent specimens of 
crystallized and wire gold from the Bondurant mine, Mariposa County, 
and the Sugarman mine, Tuolumne County, were particularly note- 
worthy. Kich specimens from the Lookout Mine, El Dorado County, 
the Alaska mine. Sierra County, and the Homes-take mine, Siskiyou 
County, showed what values are found in the California mines. Gold 
nuggets from . Siskiyou and Trinity counties and platinum nuggets 
from Trinity County were representative of the placer mining industry. 



XXXIV 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




. 




^ 





PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. XXXV 








1 1!^^™™| 1 


I* 




■j ~ 


n ' >, i 


Ak?&. %ju»* ^fBP a. -J «^f; <a«f 


Kfc-Ef* 11 ^ ||^ JL "^ > ' <WL -" ^ 


w_2 





Gold and platinum display in east safe of California State Mining Exhibit, Palace of Mines, 

P. P. I. E., 1915. 



XXXVI 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Gold display in west safe of California State Mining Exhibit, Palace of Mines, 

P. P. I. £., 1915. 



PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 



XXXV11 




XXXV111 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The miniature hydraulic mine, designed and exhibited by the State 
Mining Bureau, was a working example of one method used for extract- 
ing gold from the buried river channels of the Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains. Three small monitors played streams of water against a gravel 
bank, the water passing down through sluice boxes where the gold 
was caught on riffles. The coarse gravel was caught in a cement 
retaining dam and the cleared water, carrying a small amount of fine 
silt, was carried in ditches and flumes to valley farms for irrigation 
purposes. 

A working model of Yuba Gold Dredge No. 14 occupied a cement 
basin in the center of the Palace of Mines. The hull and machinery 
were built on a scale of 1 to 20 ; the ladder and buckets were built on 
a scale of 1 to 12, and a one-sixth horse-power electric motor one six- 
teen-hundredth the size of that used on No. 14, ran the bucket line and 
ladder-hoist winch. The model demonstrated the process of extracting 
gold in the Feather, Yuba, and American rivers, in northern California, 
where gravels, often buried to a depth of 70 feet, are excavated and 
passed over gold-saving tables. 

A model ten-stamp mill with amalgamation and concentrating 
tables was operated by electric power. It demonstrated the most prac- 
tical method of extracting the metallic content from gold-bearing ores. 
An arrastre and a working stamp mill placed side by side demonstrated 
the advance made in milling methods. 

An up to date assay office included jaw crusher, pulverizer, furnace 
and balances. Ore samples were run during certain hours each day for 
exhibition purposes. 

A peg model of the Midway oil field was installed on a platform over 
the center of the exhibit and was reached by stairs on either side. The 
model, about 18 by 24 feet, clearly portrayed the underground struc- 
ture of the Midway-Sunset oil field, so that any layman might obtain 
a good general idea of the underlying principles of oil geologv. Both 
the horizontal and vertical scale used were 150 feet to one inch. Each 
well was represented by an aluminum peg, the top of which represented 
the surface elevation of the well. The bottoms of the wells were marked 
on the pegs by heavy black lines. A narrow black sea-level line on each 
peg clearly outlined the horizontal plane to which all measurements 
were referred. Red lines on the pegs represented the various thick- 
nesses of oil sands and these were correlated by being connected with 
red string. Water sands were indicated by dark green lines on the 
pegs. The monoclinal and synclinal structures were easily traceable. 

A large case of gold ores from every gold producing county in the 
state showed clearly the wide range of variation in the different types 
of gold occurrence. 



PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 



XXXIX 




xl 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. xli 

Silver with its commonly associated minerals were represented by 
aeveral specimens of high-grade ore from San Bernardino and other 
bounties, and by a large ease of specimens from the Cerro Gordo mine, 
Inyo County. 

The quicksilver mines were particularly well represented by fine 
specimens of ore, both average and high grade, and by the refined 
product. 

A variety of rich tungsten ores and several fine specimens of native 
antimony were exhibited from Kern County. 

Copper specimens from all parts of the state were arranged in a 
[large case so that the different character of ores might be compared. 
'Shasta County was particularly well represented, and a large glass 
model of the Mammoth mine showed the complete workings and out- 
! lined the ore-body. A large specimen of copper, silver, lead, zinc 
'ore from the Afterthought mine, Shasta County, represented a rich 
ore. which has as yet not been worked profitably because of metallur- 
gical difficulties. 

Rich iron, chrome, and manganese ores, and magnesite, asbestos, clay, 

tale, glass sand and diatomaceous earth Avere arranged in appropriate 

t cases. Building stones such as granite and limestone were displayed on 

I open tables where the visitor might more closely observe their qual- 

" ities. Gem materials, including a few cut stones of tourmaline, kunzite, 

beryl and opal were characteristically arranged in cases in the center 

of the exhibit. 

Medals of honor were awarded to the California State Mining 
! Bureau for its collective exhibit of the mineral resources of the state 
| and model of a typical hydraulic mine. In conjunction with the 
California state exhibit, the Bureau was also awarded a medal of 
honor for a collection of crystallized and wire gold, leaf gold, nuggets, 
free gold in quartz with associated minerals and high-grade gold ores. 
Medals of honor were awarded to participating counties as follows: 
Alameda — Marble, limestone, magnesite, quartz, glass sand, kaolin, 
clays, and borax. 
Imperial — Pumice stone. 

Kern — Petroleum, building stone, marble, limestone, gypsum, diato- 
maceous earth, gold, silver, chromite, iron, and manganese. 

Los Angeles — Building stone, brick, diatomaceous earth, salines, and 
salt. 

Monterey — Salt and asphalt. 

Riverside — Marble, limestone, quartz, glass sand, rare minerals and 
gems, clay products, copper, manganese, tin, lead, chromite, and iron. 



xlii 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. xliii 

San. Bernardino — Building stone, limestone, gypsum, fluorspar, talc, 
?ems and precious stones, graphite, copper, gold, silver, lead, chromite, 
ron, tungsten, sulphur, salines, and marble. 

San Diego — Gems and building stone. 
■ Santa Barbara — Petroleum and diatomaceous earth. 

Santa Clara — Comprehensive exhibit of quicksilver ores, marble, and 
nineral products. 

Shasta — Gold, silver, iron ore, pig-iron smelted by electric process, 
ead, zinc, manganese, marble, limestone, gypsum, stalactites, and 
asbestos. 

Siskiyou — Placer gold and gold quartz, copper, lead, building stone, 
mica, tourmaline, and mineral waters. 

Solano — Building stone and cement. 

Ventura — Marble, limestone, and gypsum. 

Amador, Mariposa, Trinity, Tuolumne, El Dorado, Sierra, Plumas, 
and Yuba counties were represented by individuals or by companies, 27 
of whom received medals of honor. 

A grand prize was tendered to the Kern County Protective Asso- 
ciation for its remarkable peg model of the Midway-Sunset oil field, 
characterized by the jury as "a model of great technical, educational 
and industrial value." Gold and silver medals were given to the 
collaborators of the model. Gold medals were awarded to the Cowell 
Lime and Cement Company for their exhibit of Mt. Diablo cement; to 
the Mammoth Copper Company for its mine model and exhibits of 
ores and copper products, and to the Straub Manufacturing Company 
of Oakland for their stamp mill. Silver medals were awarded to the 
Cerro Gordo Mining Company for their exhibit of silver, lead, and 
zinc ores; to F. B. Schuyler for an exhibit of tourmaline from San 
Diego County, and to Mrs. Arthur Rogers for polished Santa Clara 
County marble. A bronze medal was given to A. Blanc of San Fran- 
cisco for his exhibit of native antimony from Kern County. A medal 
of honor was given Fred Grotefend of Redding for his exhibit of gold 
and copper specimens from Shasta and Trinity counties. 

Conclusion. \ j] 7} J ~~~|j 

It is felt that the California state mining exhibit was especially 
successful because of the active interest and stimulus given it by the 
Dffice of the State Mineralogist. The state's prominence as a mineral 
producer received substantial recognition by the international jury of 
awards at the exposition. 



PART I 



Alpine County 
Inyo County 
Mono County 



By ARTHUR S. EAKLE, Ph.D., EMILE HUGUENIN, R. P. McLAUGHLIN, 
and CLARENCE A. WARING, Field Assistants 



PREFACE. 



The group of counties here presented lies southeast of Lake Tahoe 
along the eastern boundary of California. They flank the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains to the east and southeast and include Mono and 
Owens lakes. 

Of the three counties, Inyo is the best provided with transportation 
facilities and power. The southeastern and central portions of Mono 
County are fairly well served, but Alpine County has neither railroads 
nor power lines and is only partially served by roads. 

The counties present a diversity of mining interests and offer induce- 
ments to those who are used to mining under difficulties. High trans- 
portation costs, high wages, and high general operating expenses all 
tend to discourage the operation of low grade properties. 

Acknowledgment is made of the courtesies extended by the mine 
owners and operators throughout the region, whose assistance made this 
report possible. 



ALPINE COUNTY. 

By Arthur S. Eakle, Ph.D., Field Assistant. 
Field work in July, 1914, and July, 1915. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Mining began in Alpine County over fifty years ago, and during the 
first twenty years a large amount of ore was taken out. 1 Long and 
expensive tunnels were run which never paid for themselves, and the 
ore that was obtained could not be successfully treated at the mine, 
although much money was expended in mills, roasting and amalga- 
mating plants. The mines were for the most part abandoned as 
unprofitable and towns of several thousand inhabitants completely 
disappeared so that not a vestige of them remains. Alpine County at 
the last census contained but 300 inhabitants and it has but one town — 
Markleeville— -which is the county seat. The abandonment of the mines 
of the county was not due to exhaustion of ore, of which there is an 
abundance, but rather to the fact that the average value was low, and 
being mostly a base ore requiring special smelting with smelters far 
distant and no adequate method for good concentration, it could not be 
handled at a profit. Very little of the ore was free milling and mills 
were built for this kind of ore. In fact the county contains evidences 
of reckless expenditure of capital in erecting plants which were abso- 
lutely worthless. For a long period of time there has been no mineral 
returns from the county, and the only mining that has been done has 
been in the line of development work and proving up the value of the 
properties. 



J Min. Res. W. of Rocky Mts. 1871, pp. 51-53; 1873, pp. 11-16. 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 
Table of Mineral Production of Alpine County, 1880-1915. 





Gold 


Silver 


Copper 




Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Miscellaneous 


1880 


$17,133 

2,000 

20,000 

10,000 

5,000 

400 


$24,146 

2,100 

10,000 

5,000 

4,000 








1881. _._ 








1882 








1883 






1884 








1896 








1897 




1901 


23,568 

10,359 

2,701 

4,827 

575 

537 


2,860 

3,770 

146 

145 


8,377 


$1,319 




1902— 




1903 








1904 








1905 








1909 


4 







Unapportioned, 1900-1909 $5,465 


1913— 




1914 








1915 
























Totals 


$07,100 


$52,171 


8,377 


$1,319 


$5,465 



Totals. 

Gold $97,100 

Silver 52,171 



Copper 

Unapportioned 



1,319 
5,465 



Grand total $156,055 

After the Comstock strike, the county was prospected pretty thor- 
oughly and there are plenty of tunnels and holes to testify to the work 
done. Practically nothing so far has been published about the ore 
bodies which are so extensively indicated by outcrops. The Eighth 
Annual Report of the State Mineralogist, William Irelan, Jr., published 
in 1888 gives the best description of the mines and what was being done 
at that period. The bullion output at that time was very little, and in 
fact it has never been in any way proportionate to the amount of ore 
extracted. In the above-mentioned report, Mr. Irelan predicted that the 
output of bullion from the county would probably increase to much 
larger proportions and perhaps in a short time. It is now nearly thirty 
years since that prediction was made and it has not been fulfilled, yet 
the prediction was justified, and the present writer has no hesitancy in 
repeating it with the belief that it will soon be a reality. 

GENERAL FEATURES. 
Practically the entire area of the county is occupied by mountain 
ridges and peaks. It is crossed by the great granite mass of the Sierras 
and flanking the granites on the east are flows and eruptions of Tertiary 
volcanics, largely andesites. The ridges and peaks of granite and of 
andesite attain an elevation between 7000 and 8000 feet, while some of 
the peaks rise to the height of over 10,000 feet. Deep canons dissect 
the ridges, breaking up the country into hills and crags. There are 



ALPINE COUNTY. 7 

ft few valleys, mostly above 5000 feet in elevation, and as the county 
is well watered these valleys serve as grazing land for stock. Little 
agricultural work is done, but wheat and alfalfa can be grown. The 
summer season is naturally short with liability to heavy frosts at any 
time, so general produce raising is not undertaken and all supplies have 
to be brought into the county. 

The principal streams are the two forks of the Carson River. The 
East Fork, or East Carson, has its rise in the south central part of the 
county and flows northward through its canon across the state line into 
Nevada, watering the broad and fertile Carson Valley. The West Fork, 
or West Carson, rises in the western part of the county and flows 
through Hope Valley and then eastward through its canon and also 
helps water the Carson Valle^v. There are many important creeks flow- 
ing into these main streams, some of which furnish a permanent supply 
of water, like Markleeville Creek, Silver Creek, Wolf Creek, Silver King 
Creek and Monitor Creek. The Mokelumne River has its source in the 
southwestern part of the county on the western side of the divide. 
Besides the flowing streams, there are several lakes, and the Blue Lakes 
are the most important and used for water supply. The county is well 
watered and well timbered. Two good highways make the county 
accessible. The main road connects Markleeville with Minden and con- 
tinues south through the East Carson Canon to Silver Creek Canon and 
thence westerly over the divide into Calaveras County through Big 
Trees. Minden is the southern terminus of the Virginia and Truckee 
Railroad, a short road running south from Reno, and all supplies and 
mail are brought to Markleeville by daily stage from this station. At 
Woodfords a branch road forms the second highway. This runs westerly 
through the West Carson Canon and down through Hope Valley to the 
Blue Lakes region. A road connecting with this goes to Lake Tahoe, 
and auto tourists make the trip from the lake by the Alpine scenic roads 
through the county and over the pass to Angels. 

A short road goes from Markleeville to Grover Hot Springs. Off 
from the few roads the country is accessible only by trail. 

MINING DISTRICTS. 
So many claims were located in the early days that the county was 
pretty well divided up into districts. Most of the claims were never 
worked and few of the districts ever produced any bullion. The 
records of these old districts have become a matter of history and tradi- 
tion. The old districts described in the 8th Annual Report above 
referred to were the "Monitor," the "Mogul," the "Silver Mountain," 
the "Silver King" and the "Hope Valley" and "Blue Lakes" districts. 
The records of these districts are mostly of tunnels run so many feet 
into the mountains and then abandoned. 



8 JMINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Monitor and Mogul districts have been the most important an( 
more recent work has been done in them. The others have been desertec 
for years. 

This report is mainly devoted to the two principal districts, for an^ 
future mining in the county will probably be chiefly done in them. 

THE MOGUL AND MONITOR DISTRICTS. 

These two districts are contiguous and the claims border respectively 
on the Mogul and Monitor canons, which are about one and a half mih 
apart. The districts are some six miles south of east of Markleevilh 
and a road branches off from the main highway and follows up th( 
Monitor canon to the mining sections of the districts. Loope, or Monitor, 
as it was first called, was the mining camp for the Monitor district, 
and was once a thriving town with a post office and daily stage; now 
only a more or less dilapidated hotel building remains to mark the spot. 
The road from Loope ascends in the canon between Colorado Hill and 
Morning Star and other hills on the east, and taps the Mogul district. 
The two principal hills from which ore has been formerly mined are the 
Colorado Hill, on which many of the claims of the Monitor district are 
located, and the Morning Star Hill, which contains the principal claims 
of the Mogul district. The accompanying maps of claims (Plates I and 
II) will give some idea of their situation in the two districts. 

The Curtz Consolidated Mines Company with office in Oakland own 
seventeen claims in the Mogul district and tunnels exist on some of them. 
There are several groups of claims in the Monitor district, those owned 
by the Hercules Consolidated Mines Company of Reno being the most 
important. Other groups are the Lincoln, the Globe and the Flint. 
Very few of the claims of either district have been patented. The 
Morning Star Mine of the Curtz Company and the Colorado No. 2 of 
of the Hercules Company are the two most famous mines of the county 
and both have produced considerable bullion. 

ROCK FORMATIONS OF THE DISTRICTS. 

This particular section of the county is wholly volcanic and the rock 
is andesite of Tertiary and later eruptions. The main country rock 
forming the hills containing the ore bodies is a compact and somewhat 
porphyritic andesite from an ash-gray to practically black color. The 
volcanic rock of the region varies greatly in texture, and eruptions have 
apparently succeeded eruptions and flows. Much of the rock is very 
coarse breccia or agglomerate with large fragments of grayish andesite 
cemented by ash and cinder, forming coarse tuff-breccias. The main 
rock is a hornblende-biotite andesite, but the magnesian silicates are not 
prominent in most of the rock. Feldspars or the phenocrysts and 



ALPINE COUNTY. 9 

rroundmass of the rock and the feldspar phenocrysts show characteristic 
ilbite twining and are labradorite. The feldspar of the base shows 
much calcite with epidote and chlorite stains as alteration minerals. 
Small grains of magnetite and pyrite can be seen in the thin section. 
Occasionally the mass of rock shows a flow structure and in its weather- 
ing a banded or schistose effect is produced. Slate-like and schist-like 
3iitcrops of the weathered rock occur in Monitor canon. Black basaltic 
masses occur exposed along the highway which seem to be a basaltic 
phase of the andesite rather than true basalt. This black rock is finer 
grained, but still retains the porphyritic structure of the andesite. 
The groundmass contains granular augite, but the phenocrysts are 
feldspathic. 

The only other volcanic rock in the immediate district is a glossy 
pcrlite or obsidian. It occurs on Morning Star Hill in an outcrop of 
Light gray translucent lava and appears to be a later dike intrusion 
in the andesite. The dark andesite masses forming the wall-rock of the 
canons is continually breaking off into angular, sharp-edged fragments, 
forming a sharp shingle. The rock is full of incipient fractures and 
joints, and disintegration more than decomposition is the result, espe- 
cially from the freezing and thawing action of winter. 

SILICIFICATION OF DISTRICTS. 

There is no other section of California in which silicified bodies of 
rock more or less mineralized have been formed on a scale of such 
magnitude as occur in this region. Huge outcrops of cherty and jaspery 
rock jut above the surface of the hills and extend in some cases several 
thousand feet with a width of thirty or more feet. They appear as 
ridges and isolated jagged bodies above the till covered hills, owing to 
their hard siliceous nature and weathering action has tended to leach 
out much of their feldspathic material, leaving practically chalcedonic 
and jaspery silica masses. The oxidation of their iron and manganese 
contents have given them shades of pinks, reds, yellows, browns and 
blacks, as surface colorations. There is a wall-face exposure of beauti- 
fully painted rock in tints of golden yellow and pink and red on the 
Flint group of claims in the Monitor district. These silicified outcrops 
cut across the hills in differing directions, and. cross cutting in the 
mines has shown the presence of others not perceptible on the surface, 
so there is no common strike for them, although the main ridges in the 
Mogul district have a north and south direction of elongation. On the 
Morning Star Hill the outcrops appear as separate isolated patches, and 
in order to connect them up into one zone of silicification, considerable 
displacement by faulting must be assumed. The small sketch (Plate I) 
of the outcrops of this district made by J. 0. B. Applegreen shows how 



: 



10 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

these outcrops may have become displaced, yet there is no actual proof 
that these bodies originally formed one continuous zone. 

The dip of the outcrop on the Morning Star Hill appears to be to 
the south and as much as 45%, but the dip is deceptive and judged by 
the enclosing andesite. Tunnels into the side of the hill below the out 
crops have shown this and probably most of these silicified masses stand.l 
practically vertical. While the exposed portions of these silicified bodies i 
are hardened siliceous rock, beneath the surface the bodies are softer 
and in general quite friable, easily crushed and altered. Much of it : 
is granular quartz intermixed with feldspathic material. Hard masses 
of grayish flint are occasionally encountered surrounded by softer^ 
material. The only accessible tunnels in the Mogul districts are highs 
up and in the zone of constant oxidation and alteration, consequently 
the whole mass is bleached white and kaolinized, with frequent seams 
of white clay. Much of this condition has been brought about by 
acidified surface waters, and it is quite impossible to say how much hasr 
been due to ascending solutions. These silicified zones are prevalent 
in the andesites flanking the Sierras on the east and extending over 1 
Nevada. 

Origin of the silicification. 

The formation of these great bodies of silicified rock has been due to! 
ascending hot solutions, altering and silicifying the andesite. These 
hot waters have coursed upward through channels, fissures and pores 
of the volcanic rock, entirely changing its character by dissolving andi 
leaching of much of the feldspathic and silicate contents of the rock and 
leaving or precipitating a silico-feldspathic mass with seams of 
chalcedony and clay. Some of the channels have extended for long^ 
distances and the siliceous material forms a long outcrop, such as thei 
' ' Great Mogul Ledge, ' ' as it is called. Other channels have been short, 
causing the formation of isolated bodies. It is quite possible that the' 
Kennebeck Mountain and some of the outcrops on the hills may be ofj 
this character. 

The bodies are considered as lodes in the districts, but they are not 
fissure-fillings and do not in general have well-defined walls. Of course, 
there are cases where the former fissures may have become filled with the; 
altered rock and thus forming veins, but the general mass has its origin 
in impregnation of porous andesite rock by the hot solutions. Thai 
solutions were the magmatic waters associated with the volcanic erup- 
tions of the andesite, welling up through the rock and transposing it.1 
The depth to which these bodies may attain is only surmisable. They] 
may run down the full depth of the andesite in a wide body or theja 
may pinch out. Just how deep the andesites are can not be determinedj 
Solutions may traverse a fissure until a porous, easily affected mass oil 



ALPINE COUNTY. 11 

i he rock is encountered, with the result that the silicified mass is simply 
jj m enclosed body. Only the upper portions of these bodies have so far 

>een penetrated. There has been no attempt to drill or go down 
ilirectly on one of them to prove its downward direction or size. Long 
l unnels have been run from the sides of the hills to strike them, without 
[sufficient accurate data concerning them, and in this way money has 

teen expended without returns. 

THE ORE DEPOSITS. 

! All of these silicified bodies are mineralized, and at the present time 
»f profitably working very low grade rock, all of them can be classed as 
)re bodies. Mineralization accompanied the silicification and alteration 
and probably the minerals were precipitated from alkaline solutions. 
[These solutions must have had a complex composition. In addition to 
(being sulphide solutions they contain arsenic and antimony, with the 
result that the sulphosalts are quite prominent in the ores as well as the 
common sulphides, such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena, 
sphalerite, etc. The sulphosalts occur probably in the higher portions 
of the deposit with the sulphides predominating below, but this is a 
hypothetical statement. Silver and copper are the principal metals, 
although gold forms an important part of the ores. The silver and 
copper as minerals appear to be present as sulphantimonites and sulph- 
arsenites rather than as simple sulphides. The mining that has been 
'done indicates that a marked difference exists in the ore deposits of 
Colorado Hill from those of the Morning Star Hill. The andesite rock 
occurs in various phases of structure, but there is nothing to prove dif- 
ferent periods of eruption or different periods in the formation of the 
(silicified bodies. There is, however, a difference in the minerals. The 
! Morning Star deposits are essentially copper, the chief mineral besides 
, pyrite being the sulpharsenite enargite, whereas the deposits of Colo- 
; rado Hill are essentially silver, with lead and zinc and but little copper. 
; Furthermore, the zones in the western side of the districts bordering 
the Carson River Canon have much free gold associated with silver 
minerals, and this occurrence appears to be quite local. Gold and silver 
occur throughout the whole section, but the first not in free state and 
the second not always as a recognizable silver mineral. Arsenic appears 
more abundant in the Mogul district and has consequently caused the 
formation of enargite rather than chalcopyrite, which latter is the 
copper mineral of the Monitor district. Also manganese appears to be 
more abundant in the Monitor district and the black oxides coat the 
walls of the tunnels. However, not enough underground work has been 
done to justify conclusions about the relative abundance of the various 
minerals. 



12 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

THE MINERALS OF THE ORES. 

Pyrite is the commonest of the sulphides. It is disseminated h 
crystals and grains throughout much of the rock and also has beer 
found massive. It contains gold, but only in small amounts. The assays 
of the outcrops in the Mogul district show values in gold from one to 
five dollars and this has been derived largely from the oxidized pyrite 
Enargite appears so far to be limited to the Morning Star Hill of the 
Mogul district. It was first struck in 1863 by running a tunnel into the 
hill to pierce an outcropping body of rock. Very rich masses of it were! 
found and assays showed values up to $300 per ton. An analysis oil 
the enargite was made by E. W. Root in 1868, which gave 

Sulphur - 31.68% 

Copper 47.21 

Arsenic 14.06 

Antimony 6.19 

99.14% 




Photo No. 1. Curtz Consolidated Mines Co. Showing mountain of gold-bearing outcrops o» 
north side of Mogul Valley coursing north and south across valley. Outcrops course alsc 
east from mountain. 



Antimony apparently replaces the arsenic to a considerable extent and 
the mineral is grading toward famatinite. The sulphantimonite, enar- 
gite, is black while famatinite is reddish brown, and this latter color is 
seen in some of the ore. The analysis takes no account of the gold and 



ALPINE COUNTY. 



13 



hrer which it carries. One ounce of gold and 100 ounces of silver have 
een obtained. Wherever the enargite occurs the ore becomes high 
rade, averaging $50 to $100 per ton. It is not disseminated evenly in 
he deposits, but rather as pockets. It is intimately associated with 
yrite and the two minerals seem to have been crystallized together, 
'here is no indication that any of it occurs other than as a primary min- 
ral of the deposit. Its composition would indicate that it belongs to the 
'pper zone of the deposits and may be succeeded lower down by the sul- 
phide of copper. At present the lowest level is 480 feet and it is present 
m. this level in abundance. 




to No. 2. Curtz Consolidated Mines Co. West side of outcrop on south side of Mogul 
Valley showing site of proposed tunnel which will cut the lode 500 feet below surface. The 
feasibility of quarrying the whole mass from this point, 3000 feet in length, under moun- 
tain of outcrop seen in Photo No. 1, will be noted. 



It is difficult to differentiate the silver minerals, and it is only in the 
(pre from the mines in the Monitor district that we see them. Much 
pf the richer siliceous rock has gray metallic granular sulphides blotch- 
hng the rock. Argentite, polybasite, pyrargyrite, stephanite, stro- 
meyerite and argentiferous galena and tetrahedrite have been observed. 
[Perhaps argentite, polybasite and tetrahedrite are the main silver min- 
erals. Gold as already stated occurs free in some portions of the dis- 
tricts and it can be panned from the ore of the Alpine Mine. It is 
present in the ore of all the mines presumably in the pyrite and other 



14 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

sulphides and in the enargite. Tellurides are said to have occurred in 
the Colorado No. 2 mine. Streaks of pyrite and of clay and silica are 
occasionally encountered which assay several ounces in gold. 

Practically all of the minerals cited in Bulletin No. 67 of this Bureau 
for Alpine County came from these districts. 

Amount of ore. 

Silicification has taken place on such a colossal scale that it leaves no 
question about the amount of available rock. There are millions of tons 
of it. The only question that can arise concerns its grade ; whether it fl 
sufficiently mineralized and carries values enough for profitable work- 
ing. With our present facilities for handling very low grade ore, it does 
not seem that there should be any difficulty here. The pyrite is lotW 
grade but the ore does not depend upon the pyrite for its average. The 
mining that has been done in the past has conclusively proved the exist- 
ence of high grade ore, some of it very high grade, and it has proved 
further that these high grade bodies are likely to be encountered fre- 
quently, and raise the general average value of the ore considerably 
above the safety margin. Much rich ore has been taken from these 
mines, mostly during the first twenty years after discovery, but the ; 
deposits have scarcely been touched. 

THE MINES. 

The two principal companies controlling the properties of these dis- 
tricts are the Curtz Consolidated Mines Company with an office in 
Oakland, and the Hercules Consolidated Mining Company with head- 
quarters in Reno, Nevada. Besides these, there are individual claims, 
some with old tunnels, but all of them idle. Neither of the companies 1 
has done active mining for some time and their properties are for sale. | 

The Curtz Claims lie mostly in the Mogul district and the hold- ■ 
ings consist of seventeen claims, on some of which old tunnels exist. 
The most famous ground controlled by the company is the old Morning 
Star Mine. On the hill above the workings several outcrops of the 
brown stained jasper rock occur, and in 1863 a tunnel from the north 
side of hill was run to cut one of these outcrops. At a distance of 775 j 
feet from portal a large body of pure enargite mixed with pyrite was 
encountered, the mass ranging from 10' to 15' thick and 20' to 30' loni>\ 
It was very rich ore, but at that time arsenical copper ores were I | 
metallurgical problem to treat. Some of the ore was sent to Swansea, 
"Wales, for smelting, after long hauling across the Sierra to the coast, J 
but of course this could not be done with the average ore and conse-j 
quently little has been done with any but the highest grade. The j 
tunnel was continued through the hill and connected with a shaft r 
at a distance of 922 feet from portal, and then was further continued J 






ALPINE COUNTY. 



15 




T3 

C 
re 

. w 

~ 5 

.i_> re 

10 4> 

re.n 
O M 

c « 

M re 

"8 a. 

3 2 
o h 



o o 



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re 
a 
6 
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16 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




ALPINE COUNTY. 



17 



MAP OF 

CURTZ CONSOLIDATED GROUP 

MOGUL DISTRICT 

ALPINE COUNTY, CAL. 



I0OO £000 




STATE MINING BUREAU 
FLETCMR HAMILTON, State M/nera/ogist 



CROSS- SECT/ ON ON A- 



Plate J 



W.e.CONOON. De/. 



2—46904 



18 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



MAP or 

PROPERTIES IN 



Monitor Mining District 

ALPINE COUNTY, CAL. 




STATE MINING BUREAU 
FL £ TCHCR ha m/l TOM Sfefe M/nera/og/st: 



w £ Conoo/y, Oe 



Plate II. 



ALPINE COUNTY. 



19 




20 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



to opening on the south side of hill, but this was never finished. Drifts 
were made from this level and ore was encountered in various places 
which carried good values. In the large chamber from which the i 
enargite was stoped, a winze was sunk to the 225-ft level and a tunnel 
connection made with the shaft. Not much work was done on this] 
level. The shaft was continued down to 280 feet. All of the lower 
level is apparently flooded and much of the main tunnel of the mine is 
now inaccessible, although it can easily be cleared out. The draining 
off of the water below is more of a problem. In order to unwater these 
lower workings and at the same time prove up ore-bodies at a lower 
depth, the present company after it obtained control began a new 



x / 


sj^s. , : 


, ^^^^^%^ 




r~'' m Wsm 


HewH - »tt 

25TfslR--- »j 






f ; __ H 


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_ 


PZAku ^ 




1 m i 


iWB : : SB* J j 11 

HsKCLans 
PlKa 


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illiff 






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BL-'-^oh 



Photo No. 5. Old Alpine Mill, on East Carson River, now used for power house by the 
Curtz Consolidated Mines Co. 



tunnel at the 480-f t. level on the southwest side of hill in the Georgiana 
claim, and this tunnel has been run some 2000 ft., but work has ceased 
and the connection with an extension of the old shaft of the Morning 
Star Mine has not been made. In their new tunnel good enargite has 
been encountered and assays have yielded over $50 per ton for the ore. 
The lowest workings in the hill are therefore only 480 feet deep from 
surface. How far down the enargite may continue is problematical. 
There is a strong possibility that bodies of chalcocite may occur due toi 
secondary enrichment of the sulphide. Plate III shows vertical section 



ALPINE COUNTY. 



21- 



>f the Morning Star. As only ore of the highest grade could be profit- 
ibly shipped in those early days, it is quite probable the dumps may 
rield much payable ore. 

The Alpine Mine also belongs to the Curtz Company. It occurs in 
;he extreme western part of the Mogul district and the two or three adit 
runnels are just at the head of a short canon opening out into the Car- 
>on River Canon. It is so conveniently situated above the river that an 
lerial tramway has been constructed to send down the ore to the mill 




Photo No. 6. Stamp batteries in the old mill of the Curtz Consolidated Mines Co. 

below. This mine was believed to be rich in free-milling gold and the 
stamp mill below was constructed to treat it. The workings are inac- 
cessible and only a little of the ore from the mine can be seen. Some of 
it sent down to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition assayed 
)ver $100 per ton in gold and silver, amalgamating over $50 in gold. 
How the ore averaged is not known by the writer. This mine occurs 
in the Colorado Hill on its northern side. The ore is largely flint and 
chalcedony in a softer iron stained clay-like material and the siliceous 
mass has gray granular silver minerals in it. The ore is amenable to 
amalgamation and cyanidation.. 

The Orion Mine has its two tunnels a little distance to the west of the 
Morning Star and lower down the hillside, the lower one near the floor 
of the Mogul Canon. Five hundred or more feet of tunnel were con- 



22 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



structed and a vertical shaft 110 feet deep. The upper tunnel was 
200 feet and the lower 300 feet. It is said a body of ore was struck 
in lower tunnel some 6 feet wide which assayed $212 silver, $25 gold 
and 50% lead. Ore from the upper tunnel ran 10% copper, $15 silver 
and $5 gold. These figures do not of course represent the average ore. 
They may be all right for samples. 

These four mines of the Curtz Company represent all that has been 
done in underground work in the district, and this work to a large 
extent was done from 30 to 50 years ago. The district has been a long 
time sleeping, but is destined to be awakened suddenly. 

Equipment: The Curtz Company owns the old 35-stamp mill on the 
Carson River which was built to treat the Alpine ore. It is useless as a 
stamp mill, but could be utilized, if necessary, for the Alpine ore if the 
tailings were impounded. How r ever, it has been converted into an 
electric power house and the present equipment can develop 250 h.p., 
w r hich can be increased to any desired capacity. 




Photo No. 7. Curtz Consolidated Mines Co.'s ore dump at Curtz Tunnel, and 50-ton con- 
centrating test plant. Showing south end of outcrop of Morning Star Lode. Georgia 
Lode courses toward and cuts out Morning Star Lode at end of outcrop on summit. 

The company has recently built a new mill on the .hill near tl 
Georgiana tunnel. This is equipped with a Huntington rotary mil 
capable of crushing 100 tons daily — four concentrators and thr( 
slimers. The mill machinery is run by electric power. Water for coi 
centration is conserved in two large tanks and sufficient water cai 
probably be developed on the hill for concentration. The present 
method of water concentration for this ore is not economical, as less 
than (>()'/,' is saved. Concentration by flotation will have to take itsj 






ALPINE COUNTY. 



23 



place and the mill equipped for this method. A boarding house and 
assay office complete the equipment. 

The Hercules Company owns claims situated wholly in the 
Monitor district. Their mines are the Colorado No. 2 and the Advance, 
both of which have their adit tunnels near the bottom of the Monitor 
Creek Canon. The mines are in the Colorado Hill on its south side and 
the ore extracted has been largely silver ore. 

The old Colorado No. 2 was the best mine of this district and statistics 
show that it was a good producer. There are two tunnels to this mine 




Photo No. 8. End of aerial tramway, Alpine Mine. 

connected by a winze. The upper or Tarsus tunnel is 500 feet long and 
the lower tunnel, the Colorado No. 2, is 1400 feet in length and lies 325 
feet below the upper and 600 feet below the surface of the hill. It is 
said that $625,000 was taken from this mine in a comparatively short 
time, the ore averaging $12 per ton. The ore is also in a siliceous gangue 
and the outcrop is seen above. It is an ore of mixed sulphides and 
sometimes lead and zinc are very prominent as sulphides. The rock is 
mainly low grade, but rich streaks are found which raise the general 
average. The rich streaks have shown ruby silver, argentite and poly- 
basite or stephanite. According to old reports of this district there 
were no walls for the ore bodies. It is a case of silicification and 
impregnation of the rock, and definite walls are not likely to exist. 

The Advance tunnel is a few hundred feet west of the Colorado 
No. 2 and about 100 feet lower. It is headed to connect eventually 
with the Colorado No. 2 by shaft and also strike the same body of ore 



24 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 





** ' -fi^ 'infirm Al yfe.... 


%? 





Photo No. 9. Mill of the Hercules Consolidated Mining Co., 
Monitor District, Alpine County. 




Photo No. 10. 



Power plant of the Hercules Consolidated 
Mining Co. 



ALPINE COUNTY. 25 

at a lower depth and the estimated distance still to run is about 300 
feet. Some recent mining has been done and the tunnel is now about 
2000 feet long. The concentrates of the ore have been shipped by haul- 
ing to Minden. The average is low, but streaks of good ore occur. One 
now in sight is a thin seam of rhodochrosite containing blackish silver 
minerals. Manganese is a characteristic of the ore bodies in this dis- 
tricts and some of the tunnels have black coatings of the oxide on the 
walls. The other tunnels in the immediate vicinity are the Lincoln and 
the Globe. These are owned privately, and no ore has been produced 
from them for years. The Lincoln is in the Colorado Hill, a short dis- 
tance west of the Advance and is about 2000 feet long. The Globe is 
further down the creek and on the south side of the canon. 

The sketch of the claims in the Monitor district shows the position 
of the principal tunnels. 

The Hercules Company has an electric power house on the Carson 
River about one mile below the Curtz Mill, and it can develop all the 
power necessary to mine and mill the ore. At the mine there is a 
20-stamp mill and 10 Frue vanners run by electric power. These con- 
centrators also are inadequate, not making a clean concentration and 
probably flotation will have to be introduced. The Monitor Creek 
furnishes abundant water for concentration. All the mining in the two 
districts has been done by hand drilling. The cost of mining and mill- 
ing can be reduced to a very low figure. The bodies of ore are easily 
reached by comparatively short tunnels from the sides of the hills. 
Much of the ore is quite friable and easily crushed. Electric power 
is installed and electric drills can materially increase the daily ton- 
nage of ore extracted. An equipment by either company which would 
mine and crush from 500 to 1000 tons a day, together with a good con- 
centration process would permit of working with profit a very low grade 
iore, lower probably than what the average ore of the district yields. 
There is a haul at present of about twenty-six miles to railroad, but 
with active mining resumed on a large scale, there are possibilities of 
the railroad being extended to the districts. Preliminary surveys have 
, already been made for the extension from Minden. Not much can be 
said of the other mining districts which once had active camps. They 
are desolate and deserted. 

SILVER MOUNTAIN DISTRICT. 

This district is about five miles southwest of the Monitor district. 
The main highway leaves the Carson River and follows up the Silver 
Creek, passing through the mining district at the base of Silver Moun- 
tain. About thirty years ago, Silver Mountain City existed with a 
population of 4000. The only sign of a former town is the stone wall 



26 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



of a small jail. This district has the I.X.L., the Exchequer and Penn- 
sylvania mines, and these produced ore once. The principal mines of 
the district were owned by the Isabel Mining Company of London, 
with Louis Chalmers as mine manager. Judging from the wreckage 
of old mine buildings, this company must have expended a vast amount; 
of money in experimental plants for treatment of the ore. Roasting 
plant, amalgamating plant, mill and other buildings have gone to ruin.- 
A tunnel called the Isabella was run into the base of the mountain to 
strike the body outcropping some 2000 ft. above. The tunnel was made" 
wide with double track after 4400 feet of fruitless tunneling was done. 
The work was abandoned, as this apparently ended mining in the dis- 
trict. The ore occurs in siliceous bodies in the volcanic andesite. Silver' 
Mountain is a volcanic peak with these same siliceous and mineralized! 
bodies. 




Photo No. 11. Dump of the old Isabella Mine, Silver Mountain District, Alpine County. 

SILVER KING DISTRICT. 

This district lies about fifteen miles south of the Monitor district 
and is reached by trail through Bagley Valley. In this section the 
volcanic andesites disappear and are succeeded by granite and' 
metamorphics. Some of the granite ridges are capped with later vol- 
canics. Mining was started in this district, but was not carried very 
far, as the ore proved too low grade to work in that isolated region, 



ALPINE COUNTY. 27 

t seemed to be an auriferous pyrite disseminated in a schist. Work 
vas started here and considerable money spent because assays which 
'vere erroneous showed high gold content. 

MINERAL WATER. 
Grover's Hot Springs, Mrs. H. A. Grover, Markleeville, owner, 
lire about 4 miles west of Markleeville near the southern extension of 
che Sierra Valley fault, and on the south side of Markleeville Creek. 
There are 10 or 12 springs and seepages in two marshy areas about 
100 yards apart at the edge of a meadow. The temperature ranges 
(from 128° F. to 146°. The place is used as a camping resort, and there 
Is a pool for bathing. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 131. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

(California State Mineralogist, Report VIII. by Wm. Irelan, Jr., pp. 36^1, 1888. 

Bulletin No. G7, by Arthur S. Eakle, p. 204, 1914. 
Mineral Resources West of the Rocky Mountains, by R. W. Raymond, pp. 51-53, 

1871 ; pp. 11-1G, 1873. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, W. S. Paper 338, by Gerald A. Waring, p. 131. 1915. 



2S 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




INTO COUNTY. 29 



INYO COUNTY. 

By Clarence A. Waring and Emile Huguenin, Field Assistants. 
With Mining and Geologic Reconnaissance Map by Clarence A. Waring. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The field work for this report was carried on during the months of 
March and April of the year 1916. The expedition made use of a light 
automobile, which proved a very rapid and efficient instrument for 
covering the great wastes of desert gravel and sand, as well as the steep 
mountain roads. 

The writers devoted most of their attention to the mines in operation 
throughout Inyo County, but endeavored to obtain reliable information 
concerning the many prospects and claims which hold considerable 
promise. The geologic map is partly a compilation, with additions and 
alterations introduced from personal observations. 

Appreciation is expressed for the uniform courtesy and helpfulness 
tendered by the owners and operators of the mines. 

LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION. 

Inyo County lies along the eastern border of California and is 
bounded on the north and south by Mono and San Bernardino counties 
respectively. The western boundary extends to the Sierran divide. The 
county has an area of 10,224 square miles, being the second largest 
county in California. Independence is the county seat, while Bishop, 
with about 2000 inhabitants at present, is the center of population. 
Since the great increase in mining activity during the last year the 
population has increased considerably, so that at present there is prob- 
ably an average of one inhabitant to each square mile of territory. 
"Within the borders of the county are both the highest point and the 
lowest point in the United States. Mount Whitney has an elevation of 
14,501 feet, while the lowest point in Death Valley, at Salt Flat, is 
280 feet below sea level. 

HYDROLOGY. 

CLIMATE AND WATER SUPPLY. 

The climate of Inyo County is controlled principally by the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, which cause the moist, cool winds to precipitate 
practically all their moisture on the high mountains, or on their west 
side. The winds are thus dry after they pass the Sierras and tend to 
absorb moisture from the soil and vegetation of the already desiccated 
country. 



30 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 



Whitney, the highest point in the United States. 
Viewed from Lone Pine, Inyo County. 



Elevation 14,501 feet. 




Photo No. 3. Furnace Creek, or Coleman Ranch and Salt Flat, the lowest point in the 
United States. Elevation — 280 feet. Viewed from the mouth of Furnace Creek. 



INYO COUNTY. 31 

The average rainfall in the Owens Valley region is between three 
and four inches, while there is no appreciable rainfull east of the Inyo 
and White mountains. The melting snows of the Sierras furnish Owens 
Valley with an abundance of water, but the snowfall on the peaks of 
the desert region and the slight rainfall usually evaporate without 
entering the soil and furnish only a temporary water supply to the 
miners, who must melt the snow over fires, or use the water that accumu- 
lates in natural "tanks" or rock bowls. The whole region, however, is 
subject to electrical storms, which often cause temporary local floods. 

Only two rivers receive sufficient water to extend beyond the base of 
(the mountains. The others sink at once into the desert gravels or settle 
in playas. The water of Owens River is now partially used for the 
Los Angeles aqueduct and the balance flows southward into Owens Lake, 
I where it evaporates. The Amargosa River rises in springs north of 
Beatty, Nevada, and flows southward, intermittently, across the Amar- 
Igosa Desert and through Franklin Lake to Resting Springs Lake. It 
[enters a narrow canon south of Tecopa, between Black and Kingston 
mountains, and there spreads out, forming a great dry wash, where it is 
joined by the South Amargosa, which rises in Silurian Lake. The river 
takes a broad turn to the westward around the south end of Black 
Mountain and enters Death Valley flowing northwestward in the region 
of Saratoga Springs. 

The headwaters of the Amargosa are fine fresh water, but it becomes 
briny with salt, borax and niter in the region of Resting Springs Dry 
Lake, and leaves salt patches along its course all the way into Death 
Valley. 

Many of the springs are fed, only temporarily, by local precipitation, 
and dry up during the summer. The main dependable springs, however, 
such as Furnace Creek and Grapevine Springs, arise along fault lines 
across Paleozoic rock strata and are fed from great distances by rain- 
fall or snowclad peaks. Although many of the springs, in the valley 
especially, are highly charged with the sulphates of sodium and magne- 
sium, making them unfit and harmful for drinking purposes, one can 
probably not go anywhere in the region where he will be over 30 miles 
from potable water. Boiling of somewhat stagnant water of the springs, 
kills all minute animal and vegetable life and renders it safe for 
drinking purposes. It is not only lack of water that is fatal to pros- 
pectors in the region, for the intense heat and aridity have exhausted 
and stifled the life of prospectors when their canteens were full. The 
temperatures in Death Valley have been known to run as high as 140° F. 

On account of the generally poor quality of water in the region, it is 
well to drink freely at the good springs and very little of the poor spring 
water. In place of drinking during the day, a small pebble carried 



32 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES, 

under the tongue creates sufficient irritation to cause a flow of saliva 
to keep the mouth moist. A generous supply of canned fruit and 
vegetables among the provisions often furnishes enough solution for the 
system without much water. 

"When traveling in the desert, free use should be made of a map and 
compass, and landmarks noted along the way, which will enable the 
traveler to locate himself approximately on the map. With the north 
star at night and the sun in the day one should have no serious trouble 
in keeping his directions straight. If lost, however, it is best to retrace 
one's steps or build a signal fire. 



INYO COUNTY. 



33 




3—46904 



34 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 
WATERING PLACES IN INYO COUNTY. 1 



J The following list of watering places has been compiled from notes taken in 
the field, together with springs listed by Messrs. W. C. Mendenhall and Gerald A, 
Waring, in U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Papers Nos. 224 and 338. The list has 
also been reviewed and added to by Mr. A. M. Strong, of Los Angeles, former Inyo 
County Surveyor. 



Name of spring or well 


Location 


Character and Quantity of water 


Antelope Springs 


SW. edge Deep Springs Valley- 
See Centennial Springs. 
8 miles NE. of Darwin on road 

to Panamint Valley. 
In MazoUrka Canon, 10 miles 

NE. of Independence. 
20 miles S. of Furnace Creek 

Ranch, in Death Valley. 
See Dodd's Spring. 
Several on W. side of Black 

mountains. 
At old Amargosa borax works, 

1 mile SW. of Zabriskie. 
10 miles W. of Zabriskie 


Small; good water. 

Good; small supply. 

Good. 

Brackish; obscured by sand;' 
tules. 

Small seasonal springs. 

Well; flowing water into 

trough. 
Good; supply limited. 
Good; supplies 3 bbls. a day. 

Plenty of good water. 
Small; piped to mine. 

Good; small amount; left 

hand trail. 
Large medicinal hot springs. 
Good water; plenty. 
Good, clear water- plenty. 
Good; plenty. 
Good water. Plenty; piped 

to Darwin. 
Good water; 8 bbls. per day. 

Good water; pumped. 

Plenty of good water. 

Good water; supply limited. 
Good water in two springs. 

Fair water; small quantity. 
Fair water; old well seldom 

used. 
Good water; large quantity. 


Arab Spring 


Argus Spring 


Barrel Springs 


Bennett's Wells 


Bird Spring 


Black Mountain Springs. _ 

Borax Well ' 




Burro Spring 


6 miles in air line S. of Tin 
Mountain. 

9 miles NW. of Coso 

Springs 5 miles N. Cerro Gordo. 
See Morrison Ranch. 
See Furnace Creek Springs. 

7 miles NW. of old mill in S. 
Death Valley Narrows. 

15 miles NE. of Little Lake 

At Coso, 8 miles SW. Darwin.. 
14 miles NW. of Skidoo 


Centennial Springs 


Cerro Gordo Water Supply 

China Ranch 

Coleman Springs 


Confidence Springs 


Coso Hot Springs 

Coso Well __ 


Cottonwood Creek 


Cow Creek 


8 miles NE. Furnace Creek Rch. 
4 miles NW. Coso; 2 miles NE. 

Coso Peak. 
Head of Boundary Canon; 8 
miles N. of Keane Wonder. 
On T. & T. R. R., 50 miles S. of 

Beatty, Nevada. 
S. end of Deep Springs Valley, 

18 miles NE. of Alvord. 

7 miles S. of Ubehebe Peak 

In Emigrant Canon; 4 miles W. 

of Skidoo. 
6 miles N. Furnace Creek Ranch 
10 miles N. Death Valley Jet 

E. edge of Death Valley, near 
mouth of Furnace Creek. 

9 miles SE. of Ubehebe Peak... 
E. side Death Valley; 3 miles 

W. of Staininger's Ranch. 

3 miles SE. of Greenwater 

3 miles N. of Coso Hot Springs. 
In Boundary Canon; 5 miles 

NW. of Keane Wonder. 

NW. edge of Saline Valley 

3 miles SE. of Zabriskie 

E. face of Examiner Peak, W. 

of Saline Valley. 
W. edge of Death Valley; NW. 

of Mesquite Flat. 


Crystal Springs _ 


Daylight Springs 

Death Valley Junction 


Deep Springs 


Dodd's Springs .__ 


Emigrant Springs 


Fountain Springs _ 


Franklin Well __ _ 


Furnace Creek Springs 


Goldbelt Spring 


Good water; 20 bbls. per day. 


Grapevine Springs 


Good; large supply from 


Greenwater Spring 


bench. 
Fair; small supply. 


Haiwee Springs 


Large supply of good water. 


Hole in the Rock Spring 


Good water; small seep in a 


Homestead Canon 


hole. 
Good supply. 
Used for bathing and rail- 1 

road. 
Good supply; used for mine 

and mills. 
Fair; uncertain quantity. 

Good supply; piped to ranch. 
Good water; 30 bbls. per day. 

Good supply. 

Fair; uncertain quantity. 

Fair; uncertain quantity. 


Hot Springs 


Hunter and Keynot Canons 

Indian Springs 


Junction Springs 


Keane Spring 


4 miles NW. of Chloride Cliff- 
See Willow Springs. 

NW. edge of Saline Valley 

On SW. edge of Mesquite Flat; 

often obscured by sand. 
In Death Valley wash; 6 miles 

SW. of Staininger's Ranch. 


Lane Pump _ _ 

Lead Canon 

A'lef.quite Well 


Mesquite Spring 





INYO COUNTY. 
Watering Places in Inyo County — Continued. 



35 



Name of spring or well 


Location 


Character and quantity of water 




4 miles SE. of Tecopa 


Excellent water; large supply. 
Good water; plenty. 


Mountain Spring 


W. slope Argus Range; 20 miles 

E. of Little Lake. 
30 miles NE. ot Alvord Station 

Big Pine. 
Scattered along SE. edge of 

Owens Lake. 
11 miles NE. Furnace Creek 

Ranch. 
7h miles in airline S. of Tin 

Mountain. 
5 miles NE. of Tecopa.-. 


Oasis (Mono County) 


Springs and wells; good; 


Owens Lake Springs 


plenty. 
Brackish but usable; plenty. 


Poison Spring 


Poor, but usable in small 


Rest Spring 


quantities; seep; dangerous. 
Good; supplies 3 bbls. daily. 




Upper springs good for 


Ring or Ruiz Well 


On Mesquite Plat, 2 miles SW. 

of Surveyor's Well. 
2J miles S. of Lower Haiwee 

Dam, I mile W. of road. 
1 mile W. of Salt Lake, Saline 

Valley. 
Near Salt Creek, 6 miles SE. of 

Stovepipe Wells. 
N. end Salt Plat, Death Valley_ 

rn N. end of Lost or Death Val- 
ley; mouth of Tule Canon. 

Pipeline from Telescope Peak to 
Skidoo, via Harrisburg. 

In Grapevine Canon: 12 miles 
NE. of Tin Mountain. 

SE. edge of Mesquite Flat 

NE. corner of Mesquite Flat... 

At old smelter, 8 miles SE. of 

Tecopa. 
6 miles N. of Trona on Searles 

Lake. 

12 miles E. of Big Pine on road 
to Deep Springs Valley. 

3 miles SE. Surveyor's Well 

1| miles SE. of Thimble Peak, 
10 miles NW. Keane Wonder. 

3 miles NE. of Tecopa 


drinking. 
Brackish water; 4-foot well 


Rose Spring 


often obscured by sand. 
Small; little used. 


Saline Valley Springs 


Fair quality; good supply. 


Salt Creek Wells 


Brackish water; 2 shallow 


Salt Well 


wells. 
Very salt; used for stock 


Sand Springs 


only. 
Strong sulphur. 


Skidoo Water _ 


Excellent snow water from 


Staininger's Ranch 


Telescope Peak. 
Excellent water; large supply. 


Stovepipe Wells 


Brackish water; two 5-foot 


Surveyor's Well 


wells; large supply. 
Good water; 5-foot well; 


Tecopa Well 


camp. 
Excellent water; plenty. 


The Tanks _ 


Good water piped from tun- 


Toll House Spring 


nel near mouth of Argus 
Canon. 
Small; used for watering 


Triangle Spring 


stock. 


Tule Spring No. 1 

Tule Spring No. 2 


Good water; limited supply. 


Tule Springs 


15 miles S. of Furnace Creek 
Ranch, Death Valley. 

On NE. edge of Saline Valley... 

On road to Saline Valley, 25 
miles N. of Salt Works. 

In Wildrose Canon, on road to 
Skidoo. 

At antimony mine camp, Wild- 
rose Canon. 

3 miles E. Thimble Peak; 10 
miles N. Keane Wonder. 

4 miles NE. of Darwin in Dar- 
win Canon, at Lane Pump. 




Warm Spring 

Waucoba Springs 


Plenty of good water. 
Small; used for watering 

stock. 
Excellent water; large flow. 


Wildrose Spring 


Wildrose Spring No. 1 


Willow Spring 


Good water; 10 bbls. daily. 
Excellent water; plenty. 


Willow Springs 





On the east side of Death Valley several springs, such as those at 
Furnace Creek and the Grapevine Springs, arise along faults and 
furnish a constant water supply. On the west side of Death Valley, 
water is found at Blackwater Spring, Death Valley Canon, Hanaupah 
Canon, Hungry Bill's Ranch, Arrastra Springs and Anvil Springs. 



36 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 





INYO COUNTY. 



37 



In the Panamint Valley Drainage all the large canons on both sides 
ontain springs or small living streams. On the east side from north 
o south these are Mysterious Canon, Wildrose Canon, Tuber Canon, 
Tail Canon, Hall Caiiou, Surprise Canon, Pleasant Canon, Middle Park 
Gallon and South Park Canon. On the west side from north to south 
hey are Mill Creek, Darwin Wash, Modoc Canon, Snow Canon, Wood 
]!anon, Knights Canon, Revenue Canon, Shepherd Canon and Water 
)anon. 

In the Searles Lake Drainage there are a number of small springs on 
he west side which are used as a water supply for the works at Trona. 
"hese are designated by the names of the carious in which they occur as 
ollows: Bruce Caiion, Parson's Canon, Argus Cafion and Joe Peter- 
on 's Canon, respectively 10, 8, 6 and 4 miles north of Trona. Most of 
hese springs are connected with the water system and furnish about 
5 miners inches. 

In the extreme southeast portion of the county there are some wells 
md springs along the Amargosa River and in the Kingston Mountains. 




Photo No. 8. 



Emigrant Spring, in Emigrant Canon, on road from Mesquite Flat to Harris- 
burg, Inyo County. 



38 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 9. 



A Sunday bath at the old Amargosa Borax Works well, south of Zabriskie, 
Inyo County. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE. 

The main mountain ranges of Inyo County, without exception, run 
in a northwest-southeast direction, parallel to the Sierra Nevadas. 
From west to east the series of elevations and depressions is as follows: 
Sierra Nevada Mountains; Owens Valley; White and Inyo mountains 
with the Argus Range ; Eureka, Saline and Panamint valleys ; Panamint 
Range; Death Valley; Amargosa Range; Amargosa Valley and Nopah 
Range. 

Owens River empties into Owens Lake, which at one time no doubt 
overflowed southward past Little Lake and through China Lake and 




Photo No. 10. View of Silver Lake, San Bernardino County, after the flood by the Mojave 
River, January, 1916. The water tank to the extreme right marks the old location of the 
depot and townsite. 






INYO COUNTY. 39 

Salt Wells Valley into Searles Lake. These latter lakes are at present 
dry and receive only a slight drainage from their surrounding mountain 
r^ges during occasional desert storms. 

The Panamint Valley is the settling basin for any waters falling on 
the west slope of the Panamint Range and the eastern slopes of the 
Argus and Slate ranges. 

Death Valley receives all drainage from the Amargosa River and may, 
at times, have received waters from the Mojave River. During the 
winter of 1915-1916 waters from Mojave River flooded the town and 
railroad at Silver Lake, and a rise of a few feet in the water level would 
have carried water into Silurian Lake and into Death Valley. 

The mountain ranges as a rule are steep and rugged, due to the desert 
erosion of the hard metamorphic strata and volcanic rocks, and to 
faulting. The bases of the mountain ranges are well defined, and long 
gentle slopes of wash gravels and sands extend, often for miles, to the 
rims of the flat alluvial settling basins. 

CULTURE. 

MODE OF TRAVEL AND ROUTE. 

The expedition which sought information for this report, started from 
San Francisco on March 8, 1916, and entered the county at Tecopa, by 
way of Fresno, Bakersfield, Mojave, Atolia, Pilot Peak and Riggs. 
Death Valley was crossed from Owl Hole to Saratoga Springs. From 
Saratoga Springs, Tecopa is accessible by machine by way of the Ibex 
mine and Zabriskie. A blind road following around the eastern side 
of the hills north of Saratoga Springs escapes the dune sand encoun- 
tered on the west side road to the Ibex. The sand and gravel of the 
Amargosa Valley east of Saratoga Springs is very deep, and the road 
from Riggs to Tecopa along the Tonopah and Tidewater railroad is 
impassable by machine. 

From Tecopa the lead-silver mines in the Nopah Range were visited. 
From Zabriskie side trips were made to the Ibex, Carbonate and Golden 
Treasure mines, and then to the old Greenwater camp and the borax 
works at Death Valley Junction, with quarries at Ryan. Death Valley 
was again entered by way of Furnace Creek, and the road along the 
east side of the valley was followed to the Keane Wonder mine. A good 
road from Keane Wonder to Beatty, Nevada, was found and followed 
northward to Bonnie Claire, from which place a tractor road was 
followed into the Ubehebe district. On the return to Beatty, a trip 
was made to Chloride Cliff and then a crossing of Death Valley made 
up the Salt Creek road, along the south end of Mesquite Flat and south- 
ward up Emigrant Wash, to the old Harrisburg camp. After visiting 
Skidoo, the region about Ballarat and the Slate Range, north of Trona, 
was covered and a return made to Wildrose Canon and across the north 



40 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



end of Panamint Valley to Darwin. From Darwin, trips were made into 
the Coso region and on to Keeler and Cerro Gordo. Owens Valley was 
worked from Lone Pine to Bishop, and side trips were made into the 
Inyo and Deep Springs mountains, and Round Valley. The return to 
San Francisco was made by way of Little Lake, Mojave, Los Angeles, 
Tejon Pass, Bakersfield and Fresno. About 2700 miles were traveled 
during the ten weeks spent in the field. 

HINTS FOR TRAVELERS IN MACHINES. 

Since so much prospecting is now being done in automobiles, it is 
deemed fitting to include a few suggestions which may be of help in 
desert regions. 

The best months for traveling in eastern Inyo County are from March 
to June, inclusive. During the summer months the heat is intense, 
water scarce and the sands dry and loose. The winter months are very 
cold and storms sudden and severe, but the sands are often moist, or wet, 
and hard. When traveling, even in a light machine, one should have a 
helper, and carry extra water, gasoline, oil, casings and inner tubes. 
For the tool kit, a small shovel and a set of differential pulleys, such as 
the "Pull-U-Out," is often a "life-saver" when attached to a "dead- 
man" or plank 2 /; x 6"x 5' long, buried in a trench 2 feet deep. For 
deep sand or gravel, soft or deflated tires often enable the machine to 
pull through, or twigs of brush laid across the sand to corduroy the 
road are often essential. When the machine is stuck in the sand, it may 
be cranked out, if the spark plugs are removed to relieve the cylinder 
compression, and the low gear used. 

Water, Gas and Oil. While covering this territory, the writers 
found that a 5-gallon can each of gasoline and water, a 5-gallon and a 




Photo No. 11. A corduroyed road. Mesquite Flat, Death Valley. 




* -hd*^ * 




Phov 



No. 12. Using a "Pull-U-Out" attached to a "deadman," Amargosa Flat, near Saratoga 
Springs, Death Valley. 



'2-gallon desert water bag, and 6 quarts of lubricating oil were not too 
much for the necessarily long runs between supply stations in the Death 
Valley region, especially since several side trips had to be made. 

Water. Good water should be obtained at Mojave, Granite Wells 
at Pilot Knob, Furnace Creek Ranch, Keane Spring, Daylight Spring 
(on the road from Keane Wonder to Rhyolite), Harrisburg (from the 
Skidoo pipeline), Skidoo, Wildrose, The Tanks (north of Searles Lake), 
Darwin and in Owens Valley. The water at Owl Hole Spring is very 
alkaline and that at Saratoga Springs, Tecopa, Zabriskie, Death Valley 
Junction and Stovepipe well only less so. 

Gas and Oil. Gasoline and oil are very high-priced in the eastern 
,part of the county but may be purchased at Mojave, Atolia, Tecopa, 
Zabriskie, Death Valley Junction, Beatty (Nevada), Trona (San Ber- 
nardino County), Darwin, Keeler and any of the towns in the Owens 
Valley. In some cases it may be necessary to use distillate, which can 
>often be purchased from those operating motor trucks or tractors at 
Riggs, Zabriskie and Bonnie Claire. 

Outfit. It is always well to carry provisions enough for a few 
days longer than it is expected the trip will take. A folding canvas 
bucket, fry pan, long-handled 2-quart stew kettle, can opener and paper 
towels are all the cooking utensils needed. The eating utensils should 
include plates, saucers, cups, knives, forks, table and teaspoons. A 
i convenient table can be made of cushions or suitcases set on boxes or 
boulders. Warm sleeping bags made of a double thickness of all wool 
comforters and sheet, inclosed in canvas, or their equivalent, should be 



42 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



provided. Linen mesh or other good absorbent underwear, with both 
thin and wool shirts and both khaki and wool suits, and an overcoat, 
should be provided for the extremes of temperature from day to night 
and extremes of elevation from 250 feet below sea level, in Death Valley, 
to 9000 feet above at Cerro Gordo. A panama hat or other similar 
shape, with shading and light weight qualities, furnishes good protec- 
tion. Ordinary heavy top shoes are sufficient, unless considerable 
walking on side trips is to be done, when hob-nailed top boots should be 
used. A large sheet of khaki canvas 9' x 16' is very useful for machine 
cover or to spread on the sand under beds. 

Provisions. Along the principal routes of travel at railway and 
stage stops and at the larger mines, eating and lodging can usually be 
obtained. In desert travel, away from these scattered points, a supply 
of provisions should be taken sufficient for the entire journey. Where 
a machine is used, canned goods are not burdensome and are quickly 
prepared, and provide an excellent variety. A varietal selection from 
the following list will be found satisfactory, allowing for a hearty meal 
at night and a lunch at noon : 



Meats, etc. 


Cereals 


Vegetables 


Fruits 


Miscellaneous 


Bacon. 


Grapenuts. 


Potatoes for bak- 


Apples. 


Wrapped bread. 


Eggs. 


Corn flakes. 


ing in fire. 


Oranges. 


Soda crackers. 


Canned tuna. 


Cream of wheat. 


Onions for bak- 


Lemons. 


Sweet cookies. 


Canned tongue. 


Germea. 


ing in fire. 


Canned pears. 


Coffee. 


Canned roast 


Rolled oats. 


Baked beans. 


Canned peaches. 


Tea. 


beef. 


Flap jack flour. 


Canned aspara- 


Canned apricots. 


Sugar 


Canned corned 




gus. 


Canned cherries. 


Salt. 


beef. 




Canned spinach. 


Crabapple jelly. 


Matches. 


Canned oysters. 




Canned string- 


Maple syrup. 




Canned milk. 




beans. 
Canned tomatoes. 


Grape juice. 





Fuel. The roots of dead sagebrush, often partially buried in sand, 
usually furnish sufficient fuel for camp fires, but a small "sterno," or 
''Canned Heat" outfit, is very compact and convenient for a quick 
lunch. Vacuum bottles are also great time savers for hot lunches. 

Roads and Routes. The map accompanying this report shows the 
main roads and thoroughfares. As a rule, the roads in the west side of 
the county are fairly well kept up, while practically no work at all is 
done on roads in the eastern part of the county. Where mines are work- 
ing, the necessary road work to get to and from the mines is done by the 
owners or operators of those mines. In most cases only a small amount 
of work is necessary to make the desert roads passable, but a freshet 
may undo the results of the labor in a very few hours. In a county so 
large, it could hardly be expected to keep all the roads up, but there 
seems no legitimate reason for not keeping at least four good thorough- 
fares open across the county, especially since it would be the best means 






INYO COUNTY. 43 

if fostering the mining industry, which is the sole industrial hope of all 
he region east of Owens Valley. Furthermore, such thoroughfares 
hould be provided with water stations, which could be done by cleaning 
)iit or developing existing springs along the routes. 
; At present two routes are open: 

1. The Midland Trail, or Deep Spring Valley Toll Road, starts from 
3ig Pine and Alvord and passes through Payson Canon, Deep Spring 
v r alley. Oasis, Palmetto and Lida, to Goldfield. 

1 2. Another leaves the main Owens Valley Midland Trail at Lone Pine 
md passes through Swansea, Keeler and Darwin, and thence northeast- 
ward over a 20% grade in the Argus Range and down into Panamint 
Valley, thence up Wildrose Canon to Harrisburg, and down the long, 
deep gravelly Emigrant Wash and across the sandy Mesquite Flat and 
Salt Creek into Death Valley, thence up Keane Wonder Wash, where a 
good road is found leading from the Keane Wonder Mine to Rhyolite, 
Nevada. 

Both these routes could be kept easily passable with a reasonable 
amount of work and the lowering of a few grades. 

Two other routes could be opened up with a few connecting roads : 

1. The Big Pine and Saline Valley road leaves Big Pine and Alvord 
and passes up Waucoba Canon and down Marble Canon to Saline Valley. 
This road is hardly passable between Marble Canon and Saline Valley, 
and has no connection with the Ubehebe road past Ubehebe Peak, Tin 
Mountain and Staininger's Ranch to Bonnie Claire, Nevada. Were 
the two roads connected and kept in repair, many of the mines might 

' be opened up and made producers by interested capital. The Waucoba 
Canon-Eureka Valley road is open only as far as the Loretto Mine. 

) ; This road, with a small amount of work, could be made passable to 
Palmetto, by way of Willow Creek. 

2. The Darwin-Ballarat road, by way of Shepherd Canon and south 
I from Ballarat through Wingate Pass to Death Valley, where it connects 

with the road past Bradbury Spring to Zabriskie. The grade through 
Shepherd Canon was impassable in the spring of 1916, but this route, 

, with proper attention, should offer additional inducements to the opening 

ji up of many mines which are dependent on transportation facilities. 

Railroads. As yet Inyo County is only partially served by rail- 
roads. The Southern Pacific company has a broad-gauge line from 
Mojave to Owenyo, where it connects with their narrow-gauge line from 

< Keeler to Tonopah Junction, Nevada. The latter should be broad- 
gauged to reduce freight rates. This line serves the Owens Valley, and 
with a branch from Searles to Trona, serves fairly the Panamint Valley. 

. With a spur from a few miles northeast of Spangler, San Bernardino 
County, around the south end of Slate Range into Panamint Valley, a 

f very rich district would be quickly opened up. 



44 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Tonopah and Tidewater railroad, which follows the Amargosa 
River through the extreme eastern part of the county, serves with spur 
tracks the Tecopa lead-silver mines and the Furnace Creek borax mines. 
A proposed spur track from Valjean, to tap the nitrate deposits in the 
region of Saratoga Springs, is a move in the right direction to get a rail- 
road on into Death Valley, to make accessible and economically valuable 
the many gold, silver, lead, manganese, gypsum and borax deposits lying 
idle in the immediate vicinity. 

VEGETATION. 

In the well-watered Sierran foothills, on the west side of Owens 
Valley, willows and locust trees thrive, and fruit trees, such as stand the 
extremes of heat and cold, do fairly well. Alfalfa grows rapidly, and 
stock raising is becoming an industry of considerable proportions. 
Pinon pine and juniper trees are found above the dry timber line, on the 
mountains, even in the arid eastern part of the county, and furnish fuel 
and timber for the mines. The pinon cones bear excellent nuts, which are 
gathered in the fall by the Indians for winter food. 

Desert yuccas, or ' ' Joshua trees, ' ' are abundant in the upper alluvial 
wash slopes, and their trunks are used in many mines for light timbering 
and logging. Barrel cactus, the prickly pear and several branching 
cacti are usually associated. 

Mesquite grows usually in the well- watered sandy flats and furnishes 
good shade. Sagebrush usually covers the dry mountain slopes and flats, 
while creosote brush and desert holly occupy the lower alluvial slopes. 
In the spring months from March to July, California wild flowers are 
quite abundant on the slopes and washes. Among those noticed in April 
and May, in all the mountain ranges east of Owens Valley, were the 
evening yellow primrose, blue larkspur, yellow dandelion, pink and 
white geranium, yellow poppy, sage, sunflower, purple asters and helio- 
trope, cream cup, bluebirds' eyes, baby blue eyes, yellow marianas, white 
forget-me-nots, fringed white gilia, false mallow, yellow and white 
daisies and yellow buttercups. 

Green spots about the springs are usually marked by cottonwood, 
willow, oak, wild rose, cane, grasses or berry vines. Forage grasses are 
usually to be found on the upper alluvial slopes. 

ANIMAL LIFE. 

Native wild mountain sheep roam the Inyo, Panamint and Amargos* 
ranges. Coyotes and jack rabbits are found on the plains. A fe) 
cottontail rabbits and birds are usually found near the springs. Prairie 
dogs and lizards are abundant everywhere, with but few rattlesnakes. 
Chuckawallas are abundant on the rocky slopes. Ants, scorpions and 
tarantulas are common. Mosquitoes are found near the water holes and 
in the vicinity of melting snows. 



INYO COUNTY. 



45 




Photo No. 13. Chuckawalla at Chloride Cliff. An inhabitant of 
rocky places. 



GENERAL GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 

DISTRIBUTION OF IGNEOUS AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 

The entire western side of the county presents the steep eastern slope 
of the Sierra Nevada mountains (see photo No. 7), which are made up of 
granite. This rock also forms the backbone of the Inyo and White 
mountains and of the Panamint Range. 

East of Owens Valley, old Paleozoic metamorphic sediments, consist- 
ing of limestones, quartzites and schists make up most of the mountain 



46 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



ranges. These are badly folded and faulted, due principally to granitic 
intrusions. 

Overlying the Paleozoic metamorphics of the Inyo Mountains, in 
places, are an unconformable series of Mesozoic metamorphic rocks, 
consisting of crystalline limestone, and slates which in places are 
fossiliferous. 




Photo No. 14. Late Tertiary cinder cone north of Tin Mountain, Inyo 
County, which has broken through Miocene-Pliocene sandstones and 
covered them with loose volcanic material. 



5 



The post- Jurassic (middle Mesozoic) uplift in this region was acco 
panied by granitic intrusions and the great fault along the east face 
the Sierras; also by mountain-making to the eastward, at which time, or 
following, the Inyo-White, Panamint and Amargosa mountain ranges 
were formed more or less parallel to the fault line. 



INYO COUNTY. 



47 



Intrusions of porphyry and diorite followed, with outbursts of rhyo- 
lite, andesite and basalt. A large area of volcanism was formed in the 
Coso Mountains, and lava broke out along fractures on both sides of 
Death Valley and eastward. Molten rock also flowed from the main 
fault along the Sierras, eastward across Owens Valley south of Big Pine 
and north of Bishop. 

In the meantime early Tertiary sediments were being deposited in 
the Death Valley region, and Saline deposits were forming from the 
evaporating sea water. 




Photo No. 15. View eastward from Shoshone, across Amargosa Valley, showing old Cambrian 
metamorphics in the background and terraces of Pleistocene gravels and clays, largely 
volcanic material, in the foreground. 

Smaller uplifts and earth movements took place during the readjust- 
ment of the cooling mass, and Pleistocene lake deposits were laid down in 
several of the large inclosed basins, such as in the lower Amargosa and 
Waucoba canons. 

Slight elevations since have been recorded by terraces, and the lower- 
ing of the elevation at which the recent sediments are now being 
deposited. 

FOLDING AND FAULTING. 

The Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic strata are everywhere 
intensely folded and fractured, and displacements of several feet are 
common. Faults have had a great deal to do with the formation of ore 
bodies since they have provided fissures for the deposition and migration 
of mineral bearing solutions ; not only that, but they have in places cut 



48 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



off ore bodies and so displaced them that it makes the mining industry 
one which has need for scientific investigation and help by the geologist 
Since all the mines east of the Owens Valley are dry, the ores have beeii 
oxidized to great depth, and no sulphide enrichment has apparently 
taken place. On the other hand enrichment has taken place rather fron, 
an oxidation and leaching process which has slowly broken down thJ 
sulphides. The Tertiary strata are as a rule gently folded, except irj 
areas where they have been intruded by later volcanic rocks. The] 
Pleistocene sediments are practically horizontal and occur as terraces 
aloner the rims of the older strata. 




Photo No. 16. Folded borax beds at Biddy McCarty Mine, south of Ryan, Inyo Coun 
capped by late Tertiary volcanic rock. 

EROSION. 

The hard granite and metamorphic rocks resist desert erosion to such 
an extent that they stand out, as a rule, and present very steep, rugged' 
surfaces. Where faulting and fracturing has occurred, it permits of the 
loosening of large angular rock fragments, which are easily picked up] 
by the torrential storms and carried down into the lowlands. The finest 
sediments are carried down in suspension, by the water, to fill the low 
basins, where they are deposited as mud, often over large areas. The 
"Racetrack," (see Photo No. 18), in the Ubehebe district, is an example 
of the latter process, which has formed a large level mud-flat about 
a grandstand of granite. This track was used by the Indians for 
horse races, and during the Greenwater "boom" was used for auto- 
mobile races. 




J hoto No. 17. View eastward of Mormon Point, Death Valley, showing alluvial cones built 
up of rock fragments, brought down from the hard Cambrian metamorphic rocks by tor- 
rential waters. 



' 




>hcto No. 18. "The Racetrack," Ubehebe district, Inyo County. View northeastward towards 
Tin Mountain, Panamint Range. 

In the regions of Miocene-Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments and 
/oleanics, erosion is much more rapid, and the canons present almost 
vertical faces of cnly partly consolidated material. 

Windstorms (see photo No. 20) are a common and characteristic occur- 
ence in the desert. They are severe and often last for several days, 
carrying sands and loose material for thousands of feet into the air and 
)ften depositing it miles away. Bushes and brush (see photo No. 23) 
.end to hold the sand and prevent its shifting, often causing the sand to 
ule up several feet high, as on Mesquite Flat, Death Valley. 

4—46904 



50 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 







INYO COUNTY. 



51 




loto No. 20. Wind storm carrying sands from Searles Lake northeastward into the Slate 

Range, Inyo County. 




hoto No. 21. View eastward, across Death Valley, towards Saratoga Springs, showing wind- 
blown sands, which fill the valleys along the west slope of the Black Mountains. 



52 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 22. View northward of Mesquite Flat. Grapevine Mountains in the distancj 






i 




Photo No. 23. Mesquite Flat, Death Valley, showing character of wind-blown sands and tr 
influence of mesquite bushes in preventing their drifting. 



INYO COUNTY. 53 

GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS MAPPED. 

;AMBRIAN SYSTEM. 

The oldest rocks known to be exposed in the county are the Cambrian 
letamorphics, which have been altered and fractured by the underlying 
ranite. They are found in all the main mountain ranges east of Owens 
^alley. 

The basal member consists of highly folded and contorted limestone 
nd slate which are overlain conformably by a considerable thickness of 
Jluish dolomite marble. This marble was found to contain unidentifiable 
hrcular fossil remains, where exposed in the Estelle tunnel and at the 
Santa Rosa mine in the Inyo Range. Massive limestone overlies the 
narble and in places is perhaps over 2000 feet thick. A fine-grained 
[ark quartzite overlies the limestone and is interstratified with slate and 
Irgillaeeous material. These are overlain by from 2000 to 3000 feet of 
loral limestone and shale. Sandstones and slates complete the series. 
Arenaceous limestones of these upper beds carry trilobites in places. 

The following fossil localities are reported 2 by Mr. R. B. Rowe of 
he U. S. Geol. Survey to have yielded Cambrian fossils : 

1. Three and one-half miles east of Twelve Mile Springs. Trilobites 
)f Trenton or Lower Cambrian. 

2. Seven miles east of Resting Springs, 1500' from the top of a 
1000' section of Lower Cambrian. The trilobite Hyolithes and a 
)rachiopod were found. 

3. In the pass east of Resting Springs. Cambrian fossils 800' 
)eneath dark blue limestone. 

4. On the road from Pahrump Ranch to Furnace Creek along the 
lorth edge of Kingston Range. Low r er Cambrian fossils from gray 
haly sandstone. 

ULURIAN. 

Silurian metamorphic limestones and quartzites overlie the Cambrian 
n portions of the Inyo, Panamint and Grapevine mountains. In the 
xrapevine Mountains they have been mapped by Ball 3 as the Ordovician, 
r Lower Silurian, and the Upper Silurian. The Lower Silurian con- 
ists of 2700' ± of banded Pogonip limestone overlain by a considerable 
hickness of Eureka quartzite. An unconformity separates these from 
he Upper Silurian, Lone Mountain gray limestone, which is about 400' 
I hick in the Amargosa Range. 

In Mazourka canon, on the west flank of the Inyo Range, the Ordo- 
dcian is well exposed. The lower beds consist of 3600' ± of heavy 
jfcdded limestone, while above are 800' of quartzitic shale, and limestone 



*U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 208, pp. 196-198, 1903. 
3 U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 308. 



54 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

which is, in places, fossiliferous. On the east flank of the Inyo Moun 
tains these strata are intensely folded, faulted and brecciated. 

DEVONIAN. 

The Devonian metamorphics lie unconformably on the Silurian, ami 
their basal member is a conglomerate. On the west flank of the Iny 
Mountains, between Citrus and Aberdeen, the formation consists o 
about 1400' ± of impure limestone, which is cherty in part and in place 
carries fossils. Considerable Devonian may be included in the area eas 
of Pyramid Peak, northwest of Death Valley Junction, mapped a| 
Silurian. 

CARBONIFEROUS. 

The Carboniferous is exposed along the southwestern part of the Iny 
Mountains, where sections have shown it to be 3000' thick. It rests wit); 
angular accordance with the underlying Devonian, but a basal conglom 
erate suggests a slight unconformity. The strata consist of a success 
sion of heavy bedded limestone and about 2000' of interbedded lime 
stones and slates, which weather in brilliant tints and in places carr 
Fusulina. A massive conglomerate made up of chert fragments usuall 
caps the formation. Considerable Carboniferous may be included i] 
the area east of Pyramid Peak, northwest of Death Valley Junctior 
mapped as Silurian. 

TRIASSIC. 

Lower or Middle Triassic metamorphics are exposed along the south 
west flank of the Inyo Mountains from the Reward Mine southward t 
Swansea. They consist of about 5000 feet of thin bedded limestone an< 
calcareous slates, together with some hard, massive, black shales. Th 
strata weather to brilliant tints, buff and terra cotta prevailing. The 
lie in apparent conformity with the Carboniferous, save where brough 
into contact by faulting. 

The following localities are reported 4 by Dr. Jas. P. Smith to hav 
yielded Triassic fossils: 

1. Lower Triassic in the Inyo Range on the east side of Owens Valley 
1^ miles east of the Union Spring near the McAboy trail over the Unio 
Wash leading into Saline Valley. The locality is 3 miles east o 
Skinner's Ranch and 15 miles SB. of Independence. Fossils occur i 
gray limestone not over 12 feet thick that outcrops on the south side j 
the canon near the trail. 

2. Middle Triassic in the same region as locality 1 is one mile eas 
of Union Spring on the south side of McAboy trail leading over Unio 
Wash to Saline Valley. Fossils occur in a bed of dark limestone nc 
over 4' thick and 800' stratigraphically above the stratum of foss 



<U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper No. 40, p. 20, 1905. 



INYO COUNTY. 55 

bearing Lower Triassic. The calcareous shales in which the fossil 
bearing limestone occurs are apparently conformable with the Lower 
Triassic beds. 

MIOCENE-PLIOCENE. 

Lake beds, bordering the Black and Funeral mountains, carrying cole- 
manite in places, are thought to be of Miocene-Pliocene age. They 
consist of over 1,000 feet of white, yellow and green consolidated clays, 
friable sandstones, with ironstone concretions, rounded and subangular 
gravels and thin limestone lenses. 

The nitrate bearing beds south of Tecopa, in the Owl Mountains, and 
along the east side of the narrows of Death Valley, near the old Con- 
fidence Mine, are thought to be of Pliocene age. They consist of 800' ± 
of soft clays of a creamy, yellow color. 

QUATERNARY. 

The gently tilted conglomeratic beds in the region of Shoshone, in the 
Amargosa River valley; on the west side of the Coso Range and south 
of Owens Lake ; and in the Waucoba Canon, east of Big Pine, are 
believed to be Pleistocene lake beds. They consist of up to 150 feet of 
sands, conglomerate and agglomerate, or volcanic materials. 

Recent gravels and sands make up the washes, while the finer sediment 
settles in the basins and many undrained valleys. Recent sedimentation 
in places is over 1000 feet deep. 

IGNEOUS ROCKS. 

Granitic rocks form the cores of most of the mountain ranges, where 
they were intruded during the post-Jurassic, or Sierran, uplift. These 
intrusions were followed by magmatic segregations and intrusions of 
porphyritic and quartzitic rocks. 

During Tertiary sedimentation volcanic rocks were exuded and cover 
large areas in the Black Mountains, Coso Range and the tableland north 
of Bishop. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

During the year 1915, the following minerals were being produced in 
Inyo County : antimony, borax, copper, dolomite, gold, gypsum, lead, 
marble, pumice, silver, zinc, salt, soda, talc, and tungsten. Deposits of 
iron, molybdenum, niter, potash, quicksilver, and silica also occur but 
have not as yet been developed. 

The following table shows the mineral production from the year 1880 
to 1915, inclusive, and the development of the mining industry. 

HISTORY OF MINING DEVELOPMENT. 

Mining began in 1861 with the establishment of the Russ mining 
district east of Independence. There was considerable activity from 
1869-1877, when the Cerro Gordo and Darwin districts yielded base 
bullion. The Southern Pacific narrow-gauge railroad to Keeler, from 



56 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Nevada, stimulated the industry somewhat, but the low price of silver 
did not encourage the industry. In 1907 a revival of interest took place 
when the footwalls of the old Cerro Gordo mine were found to carry 
large amounts of zinc. The industry has increased steadily since, and 
the call for minerals during the European war has stimulated prospect- 
ing and the opening up of many old mines. Never was the industry in 
a more prosperous condition than at present. 

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

Mines located in the region of Owens and Amargosa valleys are easily 
accessible from the Southern Pacific and Tonopah and Tidewater rail- 
roads. Eoads and trails make the interior of the county accessible, but 
hauling is difficult because of steep grades and deep sands. 

POWER. 

Electric power, generated in the Sierras west of Bishop, is available in 
the northern and western parts of the county. The eastern, southeastern 
and central portions of the county are dependent on internal combustion 
engines, and these are often prohibitive because of high freight rates. 

Two companies at present have hydroelectric plants on Bishop Creek. 
The Nevada-California Power Co., owning three plants, confines its 




Photo No. 24. View of Power Station No. 
Co., on Bishop Creek, Inyo County. 
Ferguson. 



2 and pipe line of the Nevada-California Power 
Generates 6000 k.w. Courtesy of Mr. P. R. 






tt*VSJC«. 

SCIENCES 













INYO 


COUNTY- 


-Table of Mineral Production (b> 


year) 1880-1915. 
















Gold. 


Off 


Lead 


Copper 


Zinc 


B vX.' 


Soda 


Soapstone and Talc 


Marble 


Miscellaneous and unapportloned 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Tons 


Value 


Tons 


Value 


Cubic feet 


Value 


Kind 


Value 


1880 


$48,648 
170,000 
220,000 
90,000 
80,000 
24,998 
20,156 
10,649 
25,000 
193,957 
62,432 
35,466 
13,930 
25,945 
52,639 
92,142 
238,507 
159,840 
137,107 
114,187 
213,655 
162,406 
74,397 
66,045 
150,474 
135,959 
19,449 
57,241 
308,873 
457,486 
408,509 
574,945 

369,758 
237,310 

275,000 
317,906 


$173,916 
























20 tons antimony 
































130,000 
38,000 
82,000 




























1883 






















































































101,670 
103,370 
75,000 




























1S8" 




























1888 


































._ 
















1890 


88,320 
112,730 
35,995 
62,475 
83,640 
188,329 
108,619 
50,063 
73,503 
57,529 
113,483 
56,573 
14,484 
18,200 
7,122 
29,741 
13,358 
44,440 
30,900 
47,117 
129,590 
45,678 

45,316 
136,854 

255,000 
127,894 












































































1893 






























900,(100 
1,498,000 
1,220,000 
564,000 
580,000 
662,000 
971,000 
601,000 
257,500 
95,000 
121,000 

208,018 
261,140 
683,401 
2,364,137 
2,866,227 
1,182,122 

1,207,593 
3,322,308 

4,626,934 
4,323,639 


$27,000 
46,438 










$81,298 
40,000 
24,900 


1,530 
1,900 
3,000 

7,000 

1,000 

112,937 


$20,000 
47,500 






12,600 
10,000 
3,000 


$62,500 
50,000 
24,000 




IStr" 
































ISO" 


19,176 
21,170 
28,135 










154,000 










49,829 


$3,986 






33,000 

13,901 
24,250 
36,394 
26,400 






4,000 


12,000 






















50,000 
50,000 












11K)1 


24,040 
9,013 
3,420 
5,270 
16,247 
11,857 
13,096 
28,244 
131,199 
127,385 
53,195 

54,342 
146,182 

180,450 
203,211 


8,566 
1,100 
23,450 
25,508 
151,606 
4,145 
6,779 
6,820 
39,888 
58,801 
27,889 

48,584 
113,860 

336,423 
154,722 


1,349 

126 

3,098 

3,252 










































20,000 
3,000 

17,000 
1,200 
1,000 


20,000 
8,000 

17,000 
4,800 
4,000 


























Unapportioned, 1900-1909. 
45,000 tons rubble 






800 
1,356 
938 
















144,213 


$8,598 


•8,162,727 






















•496,250 










1910 


7,489 
3,486 

8,016 
17,648 
















•7,149,523 

399,641 
4,625,162 
















1,050 
1,000 

1,513 


$5,250 

2,060 
14,000 










1912 






1913 _ 


449,701 

20,381 
573,620 


3,200 
3,500 


11,500 
10,500 


Rubble 


835 


1914 






1915 


















$5,645,375 


$2,915,086 


28,863,600 


$1,224,510 


1,057,970 


$152,086 


12,318,539 


$1,052,200 


$8,466,870 


157,387 


$1,642,750 


3,953 


$25,710 


78,400 


$219,300 


$1,695,259 







),645,375 
!,915,086 

1.221. 510 



SCIENCES 



INYO COUNTY. 



57 



)perations exclusively to the state of Nevada. Plant No. 2 generates 
tfOO k.w. ; No. 3, 6750 k.w. ; and No. 4, 6000 k.w. 
The Southern Sierras Power Co., has two hydroelectric plants on 

i Bishop Creek and leases No. 3 of the Nevada-California Power Co. 

[plant No. 5 generates 1500 k.w., and No 6, 2000 k.w. Their lines 
>xtend from the plants on Bishop Creek down the Owens Valley, with 
>ranch to Keeler; to Big Pine; to Palmetto, Nevada, with branch to the 
joretto Mine; and northward to Lundy, Mono County. 




Photo No. 25. Dam for Station No. 3 of the Nevada-California Power Co., on Bishop Creek, 
Inyo County. Leased by the Southern Sierras Power Co. Courtesy of Mr. P. R. 
Ferguson. 







Photo No. 26. General view of Station No. 5 of the Southern Sierras Power Co., on Bishop 
Creek, Inyo County. Generates 1500 k.w. Courtesy of Mr. P. R. Ferguson. 



58 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE ORE DEPOSITS. 

The deposition of minerals took place principally during the post- 
Jurassic and pre-Tertiary period and again during the Tertiary period. 

POST-JURASSIC AND PRE-TERTIARY DEPOSITS. 
Deposits in, or in Contact with, Granite. 

1. Pegmatite dikes, carrying small amounts of gold, copper, hubnerite 
or scheelite, associated with garnet, epidote, magnetite, muscovite or 
hornblende. These are found at Tungsten, 8 miles west of Bishop ; near 
Goldbelt spring, Ubehebe district; and at the tungsten properties, two 
miles southwest of the Loretto mine. They often occur along contacts of 
granite with limestone. Values are usually in tungsten. 

2. Quartz veins, filling fissures, joints and brecciated zones, carrying 
predominantly pyrite and chalcopyrite with gold and copper, or galena 
and sphalerite with silver. Molybdenite is also found occasionally. 
Impregnations of the minerals sometimes occur in the wall rock. Values 
are usually in gold, silver and copper ; e. g., the Loretto Copper Mine. 

Deposits in Limestone and Other Paleozoic, or Mesozoic, Sediments. 

1. Quartz veins, filling faults, fissures, joints, bedding planes or br 
ciated zones, usually in the neighborhood of granitic intrusions. Origi: 
sulphides, pyrite, chalcopyrite, or galena. Values usually in gold ai 
silver; e. g., Chloride Cliff and Golden Treasure mines. 

2. Irregular masses and veins, occupying faults, joints, bedding plan 
and brecciated zones. Original sulphides, galena and sphalerite. Calci 
or fluorite commonly associated. Carbonates of lead, zinc and coppe 
zinc silicate, copper and lead sulphates, lead molybdate, or native silv 
often present. Oxidized zone deep. Value usually in lead, silver, zin 
Antimony ores occur similarly ; e. g., Cerro Gordo and Wildrose mines. 

3. Replacement deposits, or deposits formed by metasomatism, where 
acid mineral bearing solutions have migrated upwards, acted upon the 
limestone and deposited their mineral. This process is no doubt going 
on continuously and accounts for the enlargement and enrichment of the 
ore bodies in the upper levels in many of the mines, e. g., silver-lead 
mines, throughout the eastern part of the county. 

4. Contact veins between limestone, or other metamorphosed sedi- 
ments, and porphyry dikes. Mineralization probably accompanied the 
intrusion of the dikes. Values in gold, silver, copper, lead or zinc ; e. g., 
Keane Wonder Mine. 



TERTIARY DEPOSITS. 

1. Quartz veins in volcanic rock, carrying gold, silver and copper, 
e. g., Coso Mountains and Greenwater. 






INYO COUNTY. 



59 



2. Gold and copper ores along contacts of Tertiary lavas with Paleo- 
zoic limestone. 

3. Sedimentary deposits interbedded with clays and sandstones, sec- 
ondarily fill fractures in sedimentary deposits, e. g., Colemanite, nitrate 
puad gypsum deposits. 

QUATERNARY DEPOSITS. 

1. Soda and salt deposits formed by Pleistocene and repent, evap- 
orations of inclosed lakes. 



MINING DISTRICTS, METALS AND SHIPPING POINTS. 

Table of mining districts in Inyo County, with location of same with 
reference to nearest shipping point and the predominating metals in 
each: 



District* ' 


Metals 


Location and nearest shipping point 


Beveridge . 


Gold 

Lead, silver, gold__. 
Gold, tungsten 

Lead, silver, zinc, 

copper, gold. 
Gold, lead, copper, 

quicksilver. 
Lead, silver, copper, 

gold. 
Gold, silver, copper, 

lead. 
Copper, gold, lead, 

silver. 
Gold 


Summit of Inyo Mts., 10 miles NE. Mt. Whit- 


Pig Pine 


ney Station; S. P. R. R. 
Western flank of Inyo Mts., E. and SE. of 


Bishop Creek 


Zurick Station; S. P. R. R. 
Eastern foothills of Sierras, 10 miles SW. of 


Cerro Gordo 


Laws Station; S. P. R. R. 
Western slope of Inyo Mts., 5 miles east of 


Chloride Cliff . __ 


Keeler; S. P. R. R. 
Summit of Funeral Mts., 18 miles SW. of 


Darwin ___ __ __ 


Rhyolite, Nevada. 
Western slope of Darwin Hills, 24 miles SE. 


Daylight _ __ _ 


of Keeler. 
Eastern slope Funeral Mts., 15 miles SW. of 


Deep Springs 


Rhyolite, Nevada. 
Deep Springs Valley, 20 miles E. of Laws; 


Echo Canon (Schwab) 


S. P. R. R. 
Funeral Mts., 10 miles NW. of Death Valley 




Gold 


Junction; T. and T. R. R. 
Panamint Range, 60 miles N. of Trona; 


Furnace Creek (Greenwatcr) 


Copper __ _ 


S. P. R. R. 
Ainargosa Range, 60 miles N. of Trona: 


Goldbelt 


Copper, gold, tung- 
sten. 
Gold, silver 

Gold 


S. P. R. R. 
Western flank of Panamint Mts., 30 miles E. 


Grapevine Canon _____ 


of Keeler; S. P. R, R. 
Western slope of Grapevine Mts., 24 miles 


Harrisburg 


SW. of Bonnie Claire, Nev. 
Panamint Range, 5> miles N. of Trona: 


Independence (Waucoba) __ 
Kearsarge 


Lead, silver, gold__ 

Gold, silver 

Gold, silver 

Lead, silver, zinc, 

copper, gold. 
Gold, silver 

Gold 

Lead, silver, zinc___ 

Lead, silver, copper, 
gold. 


S. P. R. R. 
Inyo Mts., 10 miles NE. of Kearsarge; 
S. P. R, R. 


Kelley 


sarge Station; S. P. R. R. 


Lee 


Brown Station; S. P. R. R. 
Eastern spur of Inyo Mts., 30 miles SE. of 


Lee's Camp 


Keeler; S. P. R. R. 
Eastern slope of Funeral Mts., 6 miles W. of 
Leeland; T. and T. R. R. 


Lone Pine 


Lookout (Modoc) 

New Coso 


Station; S. P. R. R. 
Eastern slope of Argus Mts., 30 miles N. of 

Trona; S. P. R, R. 
Eastern slope Coso Mts., 30 miles SSE of 

Keeler; S. P. R, R. 





*U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 507, pp. 115-120. 



60 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



District* 


Metals 


Location and nearest shipping point 


Panamint (Ballarat) 

Poison Spring 

Russ 


Lead, silver, copper 
Gold 

Lead, silver, gold__ 

Lead, silver, zinc, 

copper, gold. 
Gold 


Eastern slope of Panamint Range, 25 miles 

N. of Trona; S. P. R, R. 
Death Valley, 16 miles W. of Leeland; T. and 

T. R. R. 
Western flank of Inyo Mts., 15 miles NE. of 


Saratoga (Tecopa Mt.) 

Sherwin 


Mt. Whitney Station; S. P. R, R. 
Tecopa Mt., 7 miles E. of Tecopa; T. and T. 

R, R. 
Eastern flank of Sierras, 25 miles W. of Laws; 


Skidoo . _ 


Gold 


S. P. R. R. 
Panamint Mts., 60 miles N. Trona; S. P. R. R 


Swansea (Keeler) 


Lead, silver, gold... 

Gold, silver 

Gold .... 


East side of Owens Valley at Keeler; S.P.R.R. 


Tibbcts 




Tinnemaha (Fish Spring).. 


Fish Spring Hills, 10 miles S. of Zurick; 


Tucki Mountain 


Gold _. 


S. P. R, R, 
Tucki Mt., 65 miles N. of Trona; S. P. R. R. 


Ubehebe 


Lead, silver, copper, 

gold, tungsten. 
Lead, silver 

Antimony 

Gold, silver 


Ubehebe Peak and vicinity, 52 miles SW. of 

Bonnie Claire, Nev. 
Eastern flank White Range, 12 miles SSE. 

of Laws, S. P. R. R. 


Union _ __ _ __ 


Wildrose 


Willow 


of Trona. 
Amargosa Range, 15 miles NW. of Zabriskie; 
T. and T. R, R. 





*U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 507, pp. 115-120. 

ANTIMONY. 

Wildrose Mine. Wildrose district. Lies on the western flank of 
the Panamint Mountains, south of Wildrose Canon and 45 miles by road 
north of Trona. Elevation 5000 feet. Irregular veins of stibnite, vary- 
ing in width from a few inches to over a foot, are deposited in schist. 
The general trend of the stringers is E. and W., and their outcrops can 
be traced for several thousand feet along the ridge. Large boulders of 
the stibnite, which on the periphery have been oxidized to a yellowish 
oxide of antimony, are found near the surface. Mined by open cuts and 
narrow drift tunnels. It is impossible to estimate the amount of work- 
ings, as many of the tunnels are filled with waste or are caved. Mined 
intermittently since the early nineties. Taken over by present company 
January, 1915. Present work consists of hand drilling and picking in 
open cuts, and sorting ore from old dumps. All work done by contract 
with Mexican labor; 30 men employed. The ore, averaging 35% or over 
in antimony, is hauled to the railroad at Trona by five 2^-ton Moreland 
auto trucks. Round trip made in 2 days. The ore is shipped to the 
company's smelter at San Pedro, Cal. Owned by the Western Metals 
Co., Security Building, Los Angeles, Cal. M. Elsasser, manager; E. T. 
Ilager, mine superintendent, Trona, Cal. 
Bibl. : Rept. XII, p. 21. 






INYO COUNTY. 



61 




Photo No. 27. Burro train, ore chute and ore bin at Wildrose 
Canon Antimony Mine. 



62 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 28. Camp at Wildrose Canon, showing trucks used for hauling antimony ore to 

Trona. 



Williams and Johnson Prospect. Located on the eastern slope 
of the Argus Mountains, between Revenue and Shepherd canons, 18 
miles by road north of Trona. The deposits of stibnite are said to out- 
crop at intervals over a distance of 1500 feet. An analysis of samples 
taken from croppings averaged 37% antimony. Located April, 1916, 
by Ralph Williams and George Johnson, of Bishop, Cal. Reported to 
have been recently sold to some mining men of Los Angeles, who are to 
begin immediate development. 

Large deposits of antimony are said to occur in the east flank of the 
Panamint Mountains, near the summit of the ridge. As these deposits 
are very inaccessible, they have never been worked and little is known 
concerning them. 

BORAX. 

Borax was first discovered in Inyo County in 1874, in the playa 
deposits of Saline Valley. A "boom" immediately followed, and over a 
hundred quarter-sections of land were entered as borax land at the 
United States Land Office at Independence. The crust containing borax 
was said to be from 6 inches to 2 feet thick. Considerable borax was 
produced from this deposit up to 1895. 5 A few years following the dis- 
covery in Saline Valley, the marshes in the vicinity of Resting Springs 
and of Death Valley, north of Furnace Creek, were found to contain 
borax crusts. Plants were erected for dissolving the impure crust in 
boiling water and re-crystallizing the borax. The borax was hauled, by 
the much advertised 20-mule teams, over the desert 165 miles to Mojave. 



5 See Bull. 24, p. 49; Rept. XIII, p. 46. 



I» INYO COUNTY. 63 

*;iuee much has been written concerning the working of these old 
leposits, no further detail will be entered here. The marsh deposits 
Were abandoned about 1890, due to the discovery of bedded deposits at 
Jorate, 12 miles northeast of Daggett, San Bernardino County. These 
,vere found to be quite extensive and much purer than the playa deposits. 
The value of the Daggett deposits led to extensive prospecting, and 
development of the colemanite deposits in Inyo County resulted. The 
production of borax and boric acid is now derived wholly from coJe- 
manite. The deposits of Inyo County occur in the foothills of the 
Black Mountains east of Furnace Creek. They extend in a narrow belt 
for many miles, and arc owned by the Pacific Coast Borax Co. The 




Photo No. 29. Old Amargosa Borax Works, south of Zabriskie. Worked in 1876. 

southernmost deposit was located 7 miles southwest of Death Valley 
Junction and known as the Lila CV mine. This mine was a continuous 
producer from 1907 to December, 1914. at which time it had been com- 
'pletely worked out. (For description of the Lila C. mine, see U. S. Geol. 
Surv., Mineral Resources of the U. S. 1911, p. 861.) Abandoned Jan- 
uary, 1915, and camp moved to undeveloped deposits in the same belt, 
12 miles northwest of the Lila C. The concentrator was removed to 
Death Valley Junction and a narrow-gauge railroad was built from the 
Junction to the new camp of Ryan. 

The Pacific Coast Borax Company is at present the only producer 
of borax in Inyo County and is mining colemanite at four adjacent 
properties, namely: The Biddy McCarty, Grand View, Lizzie V. Oak- 
ley and Played Out mines. The main camp, called Ryan, is at the 
Biddy McCarty mine, 20 miles north of west of Death Valley Junction. 
The Death Valley railroad, a narrow-gauge road controlled by the same 
company, connects Ryan with Death Valley Junction. Gasoline trains 



64 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



are used for hauling ore from the outlying mines to the storage bins at 
Ryan. 

The borate-bearing beds of this vicinity are part of a series of 
Tertiary lake beds, which consist of thin-bedded light-colored shales. 




Photo No. 30. Old Coleman Borax Works, 2 miles north of Furnace Creek Ranch. 




Photo No. 31. First locomotive used to haul borax out of Death Valley, at Death Valley 
Junction. Photo by H. Knight. 

Underlying these shales are thick beds of coarse sandstone and tuff. 
The sandstone exposures form conspicuous bluffs at the camp of Ryan, 
below the Upper Biddy workings. The borate-bearing beds are capped 
with basalt, which forms the crest of the ridge back of the mine. The 






INYO COUNTY. 



65 



-olemanite deposits are distinctly bedded and vary in thickness up to 
JO feet. The strata have been considerably faulted so that there is no 
*reat regularity to the deposits. 




H Photo No. 32. View eastward, showing borax formation at Biddy McCarty Mine, and lava 

capping at Ryan. 

The purest deposits are usually found nearest the capping. The 
heaviest beds so far uncovered are found at the Upper Biddy workings. 
They are from 20' to 70' thick and are worked by quarrying. A tunnel 
jteO feet long connects the quarry with a gravity tram, by which the 




Photo No. 33. Ore bins and town of Ryan, looking northwestward down Furnace Creek. 

5—4' 



66 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



ore is dumped to the storage bins at the railroad. This is largely first- 
class ore, being practically pure colemanite. The colemanite occurs 
massive and more or less crystallized. The crystals occur both in 
prismatic form, varying from minute size up to a couple of inches in 




Photo No. 34. View northwestward, showing method of mining colemanite at Biddy McCarty 
Quarry. Lower Eiddy McCarty Mine in the distance. 

length, and in radiating or plumose structure in the beds. Underlying 
the purer beds, colemanite is found as stringers in the shale, due to 
leaching and recrystallization of the upper beds. It is also found 
mingled with shaly matter which ore is necessarily concentrated. The 




Photo No. 35. Hauling borax with gasoline train from Lizzie V. Oakley Mine to Ryan for 
shipment. Train is just rounding curve to the right. 



INYO COUNTY. 



67 



ond-class, or mill ore. is mined by tunnel and stope. The main 
rking tunnel of the Upper Biddy, through which the second class 
I is trammed, is 210 feet long. It is connected by chute to upper 
ifts and stopes that lie below the quarry. 













i 


1 



iPhoto No. 36. Concentration mill of the Pacific Coast Borax Company at Death Valley 
Junction, Inyo County, California. 




Photo No. 37. Rotary roasters at mill of Pacific Coast Borax Company, Death Valley Junction. 



68 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The mining is all done by hand drilling, as the colemanite is very 
friable. About 150 men are employed at the group, producing 50 tons 
of first-class ore and from 150 to 200 tons of second-class ore. The first- 
class ore is shipped directly to the refineries at Alameda, Cal., or 
Bayonne, N. J. All second-class ore is concentrated at Death Valley 
Junction. 




Photo No. 38. 



Sacking concentrates at the plant of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, Death 
Valley Junction. 



Concentration process: The ore is fed into a No. 5 gyratory crusher 
and passed through rolls, spaced so as to crush to J" size, or finer. A 
belt-conveyor elevates the crushed ore to 2 large steel storage tanks from 
which it is automatically fed to four 6'x50' rotary roasters. The 
roasters are fitted with inner chambers which carry the ore so that the 
flame does not come in direct contact with the ore. Crude oil is used 
for fuel. The roasting temperature is 1300° F. The colemanite 
decrepitates to a fine white powder and is separated from the shaly 
particles and impure portions which do not break down by passing over 
2-J-mrsh shaking screens. The powder, averaging 42% B 2 3 , is sacked 

!ipon cooling and shipped to the refineries, for the manufacture of 
fcfrric acid and borax products. The mill makes a 44% recovery. 
Thirty tons of dust, averaging 45% B 2 ;5 , are recovered each week. 
The dump averages 4% B 2 3 . A 280-h.p. Diesel engine supplies power 



INYO COUNTY. 69 

tor operating the mill. Thirty men employed. Pacific Coast Borax 
Co.. owner, Syndicate Bldg., Oakland, Cal. R. C. Baker, president; 
\V. P. Wempahl, secretary; John Ryan, general manager; H. W. Faulk- 
ner, mine superintendent ; F. W. Corkill, mill superintendent. 

COPPER. 

Although there are deposits of copper in many localities in Inyo 
County, there has been very little production from ore bodies that 
contain copper as the predominating metal. The greatest production 
lias been that in association with gold, silver and lead ores containing 
small percentages of copper. The present high price of copper has 
done much toward the development of some old properties and the 
^prospecting for new. After the failure of the Greenwater district in 
1908, practically all copper mining ceased until the rise in the price of 
that metal during 1915. At present there is considerable activity 
in the Ubehebe district. 

Districts. 

The Ubehebe District is located northeast of Keeler, embracing 
that territory bounded on the west by Saline Valley, on the south by 
spurs of the Inyo Range extending to Hunters Mountain, on the east 
by the continuation of the Panamint Range, and on the north by the 
Last Chance Mountains, comprising an area about 15 miles long and 
nearly as wide. Ubehebe Mountain is the most conspicuous topo- 
graphical feature of the district, rising to an elevation of 5570 feet. 
The mountains are composed of granite, quartzite and lime, with occa- 
sional diorite dikes. The ores are found mostly in the limestone, on 
the contact with the granite, or close to it. The veins are generally 
w r ell defined and wide, the gangue rock consisting of siliceous iron, 
quartz and calcite. The ores are principally the oxides and carbonates 
of copper, with some ehrysocolla and occasionally sulphides. 

Due to its inaccessibility and lack of water, the district suffers a 
great disadvantage. The only available water is that at Dodd's Springs 
and Quartz Springs, 6 miles north and southeast, respectively, of 
Ubehebe Mountain. 

Bibl. : Bull. 50, pp. 301-315. 

The Darwin, or New Coso District, lies 24 miles southeast of 
| Keeler, along the western slope of the Darwin Hills, which trend in a 
northwest direction. The length of the range is approximately six 
miles. This region is composed of limestone overlying granite, intruded 
by numerous porphyritic and dioritic dikes. As in the Ubehebe district, 
the veins are found along the contact, or in the lime, close to the contact, 
'but are not known to occur in the granite. The vein matter consists of 
siliceous iron, quartz and massively crystalline calcite, carrying the 



70 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



oxides of copper and iron, galena and carbonate of lead, silver and a 
little gold. 

Water is piped by gravity from the Coso Mountains, a distance of 
8 miles, to Darwin, and sold for mining purposes. The Darwin Develop- 
ment Co. has a well at the lower end of Darwin Wash that is ample for 
mining and milling purposes. The ore is hauled by motor trucks and 
teams to the railroad at Keeler, at a cost of $6.00 to $7.00 per ton. 

The Greenwater District is located on the eastern slope of the 
Black Mountains south of Furnace Creek and north of 36° N. latitude. 
It is about 15 miles by road southwest of Death Valley Junction, a 
station on the Tonopah & Tidewater Railroad. This district came into 




Photo No. 39. Darwin, looking northward. 



piominence in 1906, when Charles Schwab and associates became inter 
ested. Many claims were taken up, and the town of Greenwater was 
established. The life of the camp, however, was very short, and one' 
deserted cabin is all that remains of the old town. 

The ore, consisting of oxides of copper, principally malachite, chryso- 
colla, azurite, cuprite and melaconite, occurs in dikes of siliceous iron in 
eruptive 1 rocks, largely andesites and rhyolites. Shafts were sunk to 
500 feet on the veins, but no sulphides were encountered. Very little 
ore was shipped from this district, as most of the work was development. 
All work ceased when the price of copper fell during the panic of 190q 
Practically no work has been dune in this district since. 
Bibl.: Bull. r>(), pp. 317- 324. 



. 



INYO COUNTY. 71 

Mines. 

American Mine is situated 12 miles Avest of Zabriskie, a station 

on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, on the eastern slops of the 

Black Mountains and four miles south of Sheephead Springs. The 

ore occurs in a vein of barytes in a laminated schist along the contact of 

monzonite and granite. The vein is said to average from 18" to 2' wide, 

carrying sulphides of copper with some silver and gold. The mine was 

located in 1902, and from 1906 to 1914 is said to have produced $10,000. 

i'Ore shipped averaged 4% copper, 15 ozs. silver, and $4.00 in gold per 

I ton. Development consists of a 50-foot incline shaft on the vein, 

175-foot tunnel, and 80 feet of drifts. This property has recently been 

■purchased by J. J. Rodgers, of Zabriskie, and C. B. Zabriskie, of the 

Pacific ('oast Borax Co.. who are now developing it. 

Anton and Pabst or Inyo Mine. Lee district. 16 miles in air line 
east of Keeler. This property recently leased to "Tex" Hall, of 
Keeler, who has twelve men working. Ore hauled about 30 miles to 
the railroad at Keeler. John C. Anton, Jr., and David Pabst, Lone 
Pine. Cal., owners. 

Bibl. : Bull. 50, p. 306. 

Blue Jay Mine, Ubehebe District. Located on the east side of 
Saline Valley. Tunnel 100 feet, winze 35 feet deep, crosscut 25 feet. 
Ore : malachite and chalcocite. Outcrop 60 feet wide and 500 feet long. 
Bibl. : Bull. 50, p. 310. 

Butte Group, consisting of 6 claims in the Ubehebe district. 
Located midway between the Racetrack and Dodd's Spring. Wagon 
road to property from Bonnie Claire. Nevada, 65 miles. One hundred 
tons of ore. averaging 24% copper and $10.00 in silver and gold per ton, 
were shipped in 1912. Development consists of three tunnels on the 
vein, totaling 300 feet in length. The greatest vertical depth below 
the outcrop is 150 feet, Assessment work only. Owners, R. C. Spear, 
E. L. Spear and B. R. Hunter, Lone Pine, Cal. 

Copper King Group. A group of claims in the Ubehebe district 
are reported to belong to Jack Salsbury, San Francisco, Cal. 

Copper King Mine, Ubehebe district, 2 miles south of the Race- 
track. Sixty miles by tractor road to Bonnie Claire, Nevada. Eleva- 
tion 4000 feet. Water must be hauled over trail from Dodd's Spring, 
4-| miles south. The ore, consisting of oxides and occasional sulphides 
of copper, occurs in a vein along the contact of lime and granite. 

Strike is E. and W. ; dip. S. Outcrops for 1500 feet along the con- 
tact. Development consists of two 40-foot tunnels and 50 feet of drifts. 
No production. Idle. Owners, R. McMahon, C. W. Bretz, G. K. 
Collins. Bishop, Inyo County, Cal. 



72 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Copper King and Star Mines, Ubehebe district. Idle. See Bull. 
50, pp. 309-310. 

Coso Copper Company (Ridgeway Mine) in New Coso district, 
1 mile southeast of Darwin and 25 miles, by road, southeast of Keeler. 
Elevation 4850 feet. Fissure vein in the limestone, averaging 4 feet 
in width. The vein matter, consisting of siliceous iron, quartz and cal- 
cite, carries oxides of copper and iron, silver and gold. Strike N. 
45° W., dip 65° SW. Opened by a 120-foot shaft on the vein, with 
short drifts at 20-foot and 45-foot levels. Stoping on both drifts. 
A 4 h.p. gas engine hoist used for hauling ore. Fifty tons of ore 
shipped from this property during April, 1916, by the lessees, Chas. 
Grimes and Harry Long, of Pasadena. Nine men employed. John H. 
Thorndike, manager. 




Photo No. 40. Coso Copper Company Mine, Darwin. 

Coso Copper Claims, Coso district, 30 miles, by road, SE. oi iveeler. 
Contact vein 6' wide on limestone hanging and granite footwall, carry- 
ing oxides of copper and iron. Four men employed sinking shaft on 
vein. Owners, Dr. I. J. Woodin, Walter Moore and Adolph Rominger, 
Independence, Cal. 

Green Monster Mine. Seven miles east of Independence on west 
flank of Inyo Range. Idle. Recently bonded to Thomas F. Butler, San 
Francisco. Owned by Martin Luther, San Jose. 

Bibl. : Bull. 50, p. 306 ; U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, p. 120. 



INYO COUNTY. 73 

Greenwater Mine, Greenwater district, 15 miles southwest of Death 
Valley Junction. Ed Bahten, of Silver Lake, holds lease on property 
and is working in open cut above old shaft. Vein exposed 10 feet wide, 
carrying malachite, azurite and chrysocolla. One carload shipped early 
in March, 1916. Owned by Greenwater Death Valley Copper Company. 
Bibl. : Bull. 50, pp. 317-322. 

Inyo Copper Mines and Smelter Co. has 19 claims in lime and 
quartzite in the Ubehebe district. Ore on 12 claims is reported to 
vary from 4% to 41% copper with some gold and silver. Idle. R. G. 
Paddock, manager, 2257 Union street, San Francisco. 

Jumbo Mine, Cerro Gordo district, 7 miles southeast of Keeler on 
west slope of Inyo Range. Elevation 5790 feet. The ore occurs in 
irregular lenses in limestone, with well-defined hanging but indistinct 
footwall. The strike of the hanging wall is N. 25° W., dip 68° W. 
Development consists of two tunnels and an open cut. Lower tunnel 
240 feet, upper tunnel 150 feet ; 40-foot winze in upper tunnel. Work 
at present confined to stoping ore bodies in the two tunnels. Seven 
men employed. Ore is packed by burros 1 mile to camp and hauled 
T^miles to Keeler. Shipping approximately 4 tons daily. Said to 
average 8% Cu, 15% Pb, 4 ozs. Ag. Owned by the Darwin Develop- 
ment Company, No. 71 Broadway, New York. F. N. Weeks, consulting 
engineer. 

Loretto Mine. Located on the western slope of Eureka Valley, 
28 miles due east of Big Pine. Elevation 5200 feet at camp. A fairly 
good Avagon road from Big Pine to the camp. Water is hauled 15 miles 
from Willow Spring. The ore body is in granite. The present company 
took over the property in 1907 and sunk an 1800-foot shaft on vein, with 
the hope of reaching the sulphide zone. A large body of low grade 
oxidized copper ore was disclosed, but it was found that the vein appar- 
ently did not continue with depth. Operations on the property were 
therefore discontinued in September, 1915. It is possible that they may 
be renewed later if a satisfactory method is found for treating the low 
grade oxidized ores. No production. Owned by the Loretto Mining 
Company ; president, Thos. A. McDonald, No. Ill Broadway, New York; 
general manager, J. G. Kirchen, Tonopah, Nevada. 

Mountain Copper Group. A group of claims in the Ubehebe dis- 
trict are reported to belong to Mr. Jack Salsbury, San Francisco, Cal. 

Navajo Chief Mine. Ubehebe district, Idle. See Bull. 50, pp. 
303-304. 

Oasis Copper Mine, Deep Springs district. Thirty miles northeast 

of Big Pine and about 2 miles south of Oasis. The ore, oxides of copper 

, principally, occurs in veins in limestone about 50 feet from the 

granite contact. There are three veins exposed on surface for 50', 1000' 



74 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and 3000', respectively, each averaging 4' to 5' in width. Developments 
consist of open cuts and a 50-foot shaft. A 25-h.p. gas engine hoist is 
used at the shaft. Water is hauled 2 miles from Deep Springs Ranch. 
Six men employed to carry on development work since December, 1915. 
Owned and operated by the Oasis Copper Corporation, 25 Broad St., 
New York ; F. N. Weeks, consulting engineer. 

San Rafael Prospect, Wildrose district. Located on the west slope 
of the Panamint Range, one mile north of Tuber Creek and forty miles 
by road north of Trona, the nearest point on railroad. Quartz ledge, 
said to be 12 feet wide on contact of schist and porphyry. Samples 
recently taken from outcrop are said to have assayed 21% lead, 7% 
copper, 4 ozs. silver and $0.85 in gold. Recent location, no develop- 
ment. Owned by Y. Ruiz and L. C. Julian, Lone Pine, Cal. 

Settle Up Prospect, Ubehebe district. Five miles south of Dodd's 
Springs and 60 miles by road southwest of Bonnie Clare, Nev. Elevation || 
4000 feet. Water is hauled from Dodd's Springs 5 miles southeast of 
the mine. The oxidized ores of copper with some chalcopyrite occurs 
along a contact between lime and granite. The vein material is mostly I 
calcite and is said to outcrop for several thousand feet. Some 18 short 
prospect tunnels have been driven at various intervals along the outcrop, 
but no ore has been shipped. Two men employed. Located January, 
1916, by W. S. Ball, J. T. Bradbury and Harry Klein, Venice, Cal. 

DOLOMITE. 

Badgley Quarry, Swansea (Keeler) district. Four miles north of 
Keeler, at the western base of the Inyo Mountains. Eighty acres 
patented, formerly owned by the original Inyo Marble Company (see 
Inyo Marble Co.). The marble beds here are folded and shattered. 
Quarried for use as dolomite. Hand drilling ; one man employed. Spur 
track of the California and Nevada railroad to quarry. Approximately 
forty tons of dolomite per week are shipped to the California Iron and 
Steel Company at Los Angeles, Cal. Owned by W. O. Badgley, Monad- 
nock Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 

Natural Soda Products Company, of Keeler, are shipping about 20 
tons daily of the pure white dolomite from the quarries of the Inyo 
Marble Company to their soda plant south of Keeler. Seven men 
employed at $3.00 per day. The dolomite is used for generating carbon 
dioxide. An analysis of this material determined at the State Mining 
Bureau (Report X, p. 218) follows: 

Carbonate of lime 54.25 per cent 

Carbonate of magnesia 44.45 percent 

I l-ou and silica .00 per cent, 

99.30 






INYO COUNTY. 75 

GOLD. 



Actual gold mining' in Inyo County started with the establishment of 
the Russ mining district, in the Inyo Mountains east of Independence, in 
1861. At about the same period the Kearsarge district was established 
on the eastern flank of the Sierras below Kearsarge Peak at an altitude 
of from 8000 to 10,000 feet. The ores of the latter district were pre- 
dominantly silver, having a low gold content. 

Placers were worked for several years in Mazourka Caiion. This 
canon is on the western slope of the Inyo Mountains, east of Indepen- 
dence. Dry washers were used. The ground was practically exhausted, 
and placer mining in Inyo County ceased. 6 

The gold deposits of the Inj^o and White Mountains have, thus far, 
been the principal producers, although they are now mostly idle. The 
gold ores, which are oxidized and vary in value from low to high grade, 
are found in narrow quartz veins. The veins occur along the borders 
of granitic intrusions or in the surrounding country rock. 7 The Beve- 
ridge district, situated along the summit of the Inyo Mountains east of 
Lone Pine, was the most important gold producing district. It can be 
reached only by trail, and until adequate roads are constructed, there is 
little hope for any further development of that district. 

In recent years gold mining in Inyo County has been principally con- 
fined to the few scattered mines of the Funeral, Panamint and Argus 
mountains. 

Black Eagle Mine (Quartz). Union district. Situated on the west 
flank of the Inyo Mountains, four miles east of Kearsarge station. Ele- 
vation 8300 feet. Idle. Owned by George Lewis, Independence, Cal. 
Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, p. 116. 

Burgess Mine (Ironside Mine) (Quartz). Beveridge district, 10 
; miles northeast of Mount Whitney station. Trail to mine from Mount 
Whitney station. Elevation 9200 feet. Idle. Owned by Mrs. Kate 
Wells, Lone Pine, Cal. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, p. 119. 

Cashier Mine (Lode). Wildrose district. Fifty-five miles north of 
Trona and 9 miles south of Skidoo, at the old town of Harrisburg. 
Elevation 5000 feet. Located in 1905 and worked continuously from 
1906 to 1909. Taken over by the present owners in 1910. The ore, free 
milling gold, occurs in an irregular lens-shaped body, varying from 6" to 
12' in width, in limestone. A 400' incline shaft has been sunk on the 
I ore body and levels driven at 100', 200', 300' and 400'. Considerable 
drifting has been done on the 1st, 2d and 3d levels. The 100-foot is the 
1 main working level and connects with the surface at 350 feet from the 



"See Rep. XIII, p. 182. 

7 Adolph Knopf — Mineral Resources of the Inyo and White Mountains, U. 

S. Bull. 540, p. 112. 



76 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



shaft. The mine is said to have produced 15,000 tons of ore, which 
average $20.00 per ton, practically all of which was taken from the first 
level and above. No ore has been found below 140 feet in the shaft, 
where the ore body appears to pinch out entirely. 



■"■■• : ■■■■■■■ >:;. 



»*u< &SW 



Photo No. 41. Cashier Mine, Harrisburg. 

The ore is treated in a 5-stamp Joshua Hendy mill. The pulp is run 
over amalgamation plates and the tailings cyanided. Capacity of mill 
20 tons per 24 hours. Water is piped to the mill 2 miles from the Skidoo 
pipe line. A distillate engine furnishes power to the plant. Property 
under lease to P. R. Turner and Robert "Weir, who are stoping on the 
100-foot level. They intend to run about 50 tons of ore through the mill 
before the expiration of their lease in October, 1916. Owned by the 
Cashier Mining Company, 809 Hollingsworth Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Cecil R. Mine (Quartz). South Park district. Five miles south of 
Ballarat, on the west slope of the Panamint Mountains. Elevation 1250 
feet. Well denned quartz vein in schist. Strike N. 6° W., dip 21° W. 
Varies from 18" to 5' in width. Free milling. Development consists of 
three tunnels on the vein, 126', 177' and 147', respectively. No equip- 
ment. Idle. Owners, the Cecil R. Mining Company, 1008 Baker- 
Detwiler Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Chloride Cliff Mine (Quartz). Tn Chloride Cliff district, 18 miles 
west of Rhyolite, along summit of Funeral Mountains. Elevation 5300 
feet. Good auto road from Rhyolite or Beatty to the mine. Quartz 
veins containing galena, pyrites and some free gold, are deposited in 



INYO COUNTY. 



77 



limestone along contact of quartzite. Said to average $23.00 per ton. 
The formations have been considererably folded and faulted. There are 
5 well defined veins, each averaging from 3' to 3^' in width. Their trend 
is XE.-SW. Development consists of 7 tunnels, the longest of which 
is 400 feet and the shortest 100 feet. The greatest length driven on the 
vein is 320 feet. Greatest vertical depth below outcrop, 800 feet. No 
production. Development work only. Purchased in 1908 by the present 
owners. Mill erected April 1916, consisting of 7-foot Lane mill, 
Deister concentrators and small cyanide plant. Operated only a few 
days, due to shortage of water; 60-foot well sunk one mile from mill 
pumped dry. Idle. Owned by J. Irving Crowell, Donald Finley and 
Chas. Parsons, Rhyolite, Nev. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Bull. 285, pp. 72, 73. 




Photo No. 42. View, looking northeastward, of mill and tanks at Chloride Cliff Mine, Funeral 

Range, Inyo County. 

Coso Milling Company are erecting a custom mill at the Marigold 
Mine, 7 miles south of Darwin. The mill consists Of two 1000-lb. triple 
discharge stamps, 1 concentrator, 15 h.p. Fairbanks-Morse gas engine for 
power. Pumping plant installed in creek 1500 feet below mill. Expect 
to start milling in June, 1916. Will charge flat rate of $10.00 per ton. 
Manager, J. O. Lee, Darwin, Cal. 

Eureka Mine (Quartz). Situated in the Inyo Mountains, 9 miles 
northeast of Independence. Elevation 4000 feet. Idle. 
Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, pp. 115, 116. 

Gold Spur Mine (Quartz). South Park district, approximately 15 
miles south of Ballarat. The ore occurs in gneiss. A 300-foot chute 



78 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



averages 4 feet in width. Outcrops on surface 1000 feet. Said to aver- 
age $9.00 per ton. Owned by P. W. Gray and Mr. Thurman of 
Ballarat. 

Golden Eagle Group (Quartz). Located in the Beveridge district. 
Development consists of a 200-foot and a 60-foot winze; 100 tons of 
ore hand-sorted and treated at the Keynote mill are said to have 
averaged $100.00 per ton. Idle. Owned by John C. Anton, Lone Pine, 
Cal. 

Golden Treasure or Ashford Mine (Quartz). Situated in the west] 
orn slope of the Funeral Mountains, 30 miles, by road, due west of 
Zabriskie. Elevation 2000 feet. Wagon road to mine. Free milling 
gold is deposited in fissure veins in gneiss. There are four veins on 
property, the main one, the Golden Treasure, varies from 30" to 4' in 
width, and carries some chalcopyrite. Occasional specks of free gold can 
be seen in the quartz. Said to assay up to $325.00 per ton and to average 
$40.00 per ton. A 180-foot tunnel has been driven on main vein and 
50-foct winze in tunnel. Greatest vertical depth below outcrop 2000 
feet. Over 2000 feet of tunnels and drifts on the four veins. Mine 




Photo No. 43. 



Golden Treasure Mine and camp. East side of Death Valley, 30 miles west 
of Zabriskie. 



located in 1906. Development work only until 1914. In November, 1914 
it was taken under bond and lease by B. W. McCausland, who erected a 
mill 5 miles below mine, in Death Valley. The mill included : a jaw 
e rusher, 10- foot Lane mill, 1 Wilfley table, 1 Deister slime table. Well 
sunk in Death Valley to furnish water for mill. Ore hauled by motor 
truck from mine to mill. Ceased operations, September, 1915, and prop- 
erty reverted to original owners, due to failure to make first payment 



INYO COUNTY. 



79 



under terms of lease. No records available as to production during this 
period. Owners, Henry J., Lewis R., and Harold Ashford, Zabriskie, 
Oal. 

Harrisburg Mine (Quartz). Located in the Wildrose district, 55 
miles north of Trona, and adjoins the Cashier mine. Quartz vein on 
contact of lime and granite. Strike N. and S., dip E. Development 
consists of a 40-foot crosscut tunnel and several shallow pits. Ten tons 
of ore treated at Cashier mill yielded $50.00 per ton. Owned by 
J. P. Augerebery, Harrisburg, Cal. 

Holy Roller Prospect, South Park district. Ore said to average 
$4.90 per ton. Twenty-foot flat deposit in limestone, near schist; 5000 
tons in sight. Water available. Idle. Owned by A. C. Porter of 
Ballarat. 



Photo No. 44. 



McCausland Mill, in Death Valley, 5 miles below the Golden Treasure Mine, 
in the Amargosa Mountains. 



Keane Wonder Mine (Quartz). South Bullfrog district, is in Sec. 
6, T. 29 N., K. 1 E., 22 miles by auto road west of Rhyolite, on the west 
'slope of Funeral Mountains, at an elevation of 3400 feet. Two lenti- 
cular ore bodies in schist lie almost parallel, about 100 feet apart. The 
quartz lenses vary up to 30 feet in width and have been stoped to the 
surface. They lie almost flat. The ore carries very little pyrite, and 
averages $8.00 per ton. Worked through two main tunnels. Impossible 
to estimate extent of work as the stopes are caved. Mined with air 
drills. Ore hauled to mill by gravity aerial tramway, which operates a 
jaAv crusher at mine bin. Ore is crushed to 2" size before being sent to 
mill. 



80 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 



Keane Wonder Mine 



The mill is located at edge of Death Valley at an elevation of 1100 
feet. It consists of 20 stamps and amalgamation plates. Crude oil is 
used for fuel for steam power plant to operate the mill. The tailings 
are treated at the cyanide plant below mill. The leaching cyanide pro- 
cess consists "of a six-day treatment beginning .with *3%.'KGN -,;SoL , Zinc 
boxes used for precipitation. Bullion runs ,400 to^w'fine in gold and 
silver. Ratio of gold to silver 1^ : 1. Mine said 5 ; 1 6 have produced 




Photo No. 46. Keane Wonder Mill. View northeastward. 







Photo No. 47. Keane Wonder Cyanide Plant. View southwestward. 

$1,100,000. Closed down. May, 1916. as the developed ore bodies were 
worked out. Company to be organized before doing any further develop- 
ment. Owned by the Francis Mohawk Mining and Leasing Co., B. H. 
Tatem Estate, and State Bank and Trust Co., of Carson, Nevada. 
Agent and manager, F. N. Fletcher of Reno, Nevada. 

Keynote Mine (Quartz). Beveridge district, 10 miles NE. of 
Owenyo, a station on the California and Nevada Railroad, on the east 
slope of the Inyo Mountains. Elevation 7500 feet. The vein follows a 
granite and porphyry contact, Strike N.-S., dip 42° W. Development 
consists of 7 tunnels, varying from 150' to 750'. Tunnels connected by 
winzes and raises. Greatest vertical depth delow outcrop 1800 feet. 
Ore free milling. Formerly treated in arrastra and later in 5-stamp 
mill. Water piped from Hahns Creek, 3 miles south. Worked contin- 
uously from 1878 to 1886, then periodically up to 1907. Assessment 
work, only, since. There is said to be over 20,000 tons of ore, that will 
yield $8.00 per ton, on dumps. Owned by O. S. Williams, 318 West 
Ave. 53, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Bibl. : Rep. of the Director of the Mint upon Production of Pre- 
cious Metals in U. S., 1883, p. 159 ; U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, p. 112; 
Register of Mines, Inyo County, 1902. 

Lost Burro Mine (Quartz). Ubehebe district, 55 miles SW. of 
Bonnie Claire, Nevada, in Panamint Range. Elevation 5350 feet. 
Fissure veins in granodiorite, striking N.-S., slight dip to east. Veins 

6—46904 






82 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



, 



' 



vary from 4' at outcrop to 6" ; appear to pinch out with depth. Sever; 
short tunnels driven along vein. Ore said to average $25.00 per ton. Nfc 
production. Excavation made for 5-stamp mill and cyanide plant, that 
were never erected. Water to be piped 8 miles from spring on Tin 
Mountains. Idle. Owned by Lost Burro Mining Company, L« 
Angeles, Cal., W. IT. Blackmer, president. Reported sold to im 
Montana-Tonopah Mines Company, Chas. E. Knox, Berkeley, Calif ornifc] 
superintendent and manager. According to reports in January, 19l| 
a mill is under construction. 

Marigold Mine (Quartz). Coso district, 7 miles south of Darwin 
and 30 miles southeast of Keeler, on east slope of the Coso Mountains. 
Elevation 6000 feet. The vein is in granite. Width 6" to 4' ; 7 tunnels 
totaling 2000 feet driven on vein. No stoping. Said to be 200 tons of 
ore on dumps that will average from $30.00 to $40.00 per ton. Ore to be 
treated at custom mill, now being built by the Coso Milling Company. 
Are to begin stoping in mine upon completion of mill. Owned by J. 0. 
and L. W. Lee, Darwin, Cal. 

Merry Christmas Mine (Quartz). Modoc district. Situated in 
Snow Canon, 28 miles north of Trona on the east slope of the Argus 
Range at an elevation of 3700 feet. The deposit consists of 4 quartz 
veins following a contact between andesite and granite. The main vein 
is 4' wide. Ore is base, carrying about \\% lead and some copper. Said 
to average $11.00 per ton. A 700-foot tunnel driven on main vein. 
Greatest vertical depth below outcrop, 325 feet. The mill equipment 
consists of five 1000-lb. stamps, 1 Wilfley table, 25 h.p. Western gas 
engine. H. E. Robertson has bond and lease on property, employing 
5 men. Owned by Snow Canon Mining and Milling Co., Dallas, Tex. 

Mountain View Mine (Quartz). Beveridge district. It adjoins the 
Keynote Mine on the west slope of the Inyo Mountains. The ore body 
consists of a well defined quartz vein 3 feet in width, carrying rusty gold 
and chalcopyrite. Assays of some hand samples showed 4 ozs. gold per 
ton and 18% to 30% copper. Tunnel driven on vein 165 feet. No 
production. Company now being organized to develop property, to be 
known as North American Metal Mines Company. S. R. Brough, I. W. 
Hellman Bldg., Los Angeles, trustee. 

O. B. J. Mine (Quartz). South Park district. Situated in Tuber 
Canon, 15 miles north of Ballarat. The ore is free milling quartz, said 
to average $7.00 per ton. Main tunnel 1000 feet. Six stamp mill and 
amalgamation tables. Water piped 2-J miles from spring. Ten men 
employed. Owners: Clair Tyler, J. P. Flint and J. C. Kennedy, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

The Pine Mountain Group of seven gold claims is reported to have 
been leased by Chas. W. Alvord. A quartz ledge in granite is said to 



IXYO COUNTY. 83 

ige 4' in width and to assay $20.00 per ton. The property is located 
itbout 2 miles north of Parson Canon on the toll road to Deep Springs 
'alley. 

. Radcliff Mine (Quartz). South Park district, east of Ballarat. 
laartz vein. Strike NW. and SE., dip 60 D W. Inclined shaft 500 feet. 
Sulphides in lower workings. A 20-stamp mill and steam power plant ; 
£,000 tons of tailings stored for future treatment. Idle since 1903. 
rwners: Craig Grocery Co., Los Angeles. Tax title owned by W. D. 
harke, Los Angeles, 
t Bibl. : Beg. of Mines. Inyo, Co.,. 1902. . . 

Reward" and Brown Monster, or Eclipse, Mine (Quartz). Buss (or 
■dependence) district. 2 miles east of Manzanar station. Idle. 

Bibl.: Rep. VIII, p. 263; Rep. XII, p. 136; Rep. XIII, p. 180; 

Reg. of Mines Inyo Co. 1902; Rep. of the Director of U. S. 

Mint. 1883, 1884, p. 160: U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, pp. 116-118. 
, Skidoo Mine (Quartz). Wildrose district, 65 miles by auto road 
orth of Trona. Elevation 6500 ft. Two systems of quartz veins occur 





Photo No. 48. Camp at Skidoo, on west side of Tucki Mountain, Inyo County. 

n a pegmatite granite. The main vein system strikes N.W.-S.B. and 
lips from 30° to 40° S.W. The other system, E.W., dips 60 X. 
V^eins average from 18" to 2' in width, with a maximum of 4'. The ore 
s free milling and values average about $15.00 per ton. Outcrops of 
ught veins are now being mined making a total of 2000 feet. There is 
\ 300-foot incline shaft on the E.-AV. system and a 300-foot vertical 
shaft on the main system. Greatest depth on vein. 240' with over one 
aiile of tunnels and drifts. Ore is hauled to the mill through tunnels. 



* Reported to have been recently opened up and running a mill and oil flotation 
plant. 



84 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The mill equipment consists of : ten 850-lb. stamps, five 1150-lb. stamps; 
and amalgamation tables. Table tailings run to cyanide plant, leaches 
9 days and precipitated in zinc-boxes. Mill operated by water power 
conveyed in 8" pipe line 21 miles from Telescope Peak. Pipe lin^ 
installed at a cost of over $200,000 ; 35 men employed at the mine, 6 a 
mill. Property located in 1906 ; mill erected 1907. Mill burned dowi 
and reconstructed in 1913. Total production to date over $1,500,000. 
Owner, Skidoo Mines Co., Skidoo, Cal. C. W. Cross, president; L. W 
Orynski, superintendent. 




Photo No. 49. Mill and Cyanide Plant at Skidoo Mine, Skidoo, Inyo County. 

Union Mine (Quartz). Russ district, Sec. 14, T. 14 S., R. 36 E. ; i 
M.D.M., 3 miles NW. of Owenyo, near base of Inyo Mountains. Ele-J 
vation 5500 feet. Wagon road to property. Well defined quartz] 
vein, averaging 5 ft. in width, in metamorphosed lime. Outcrop can be 
traced several thousand feet. Strike E.-W., dip N. 65°. Low grade ore 
carrying some galena and silver. Average value, gold $3.00, lead 3%, 
silver 5 ozs. Development consists of 5 tunnels, driven on vein, totaling, 
approximately 2000 feet. Greatest vertical depth below outcrops 
1900 feet. There is said to be sufficient water in the lower three tunnels 
for all mining and milling purposes. A 6" pipe line from creek,! 
4500 feet, to mine. Mill on property : 7"x9" Blake crusher, 12"x20" 
Allis rolls, 15 h.p. distillate engine. Development work only. No pro- 
duction. Idle. Owners, W. L. Skinner, C. B. Skinner, R. Volmer, Lone| 
Pine, Cal. 

Bibl.: Reg. of Mines, Inyo County, 1902. 



INYO COUNTY. 85 

Wilshire-Bishop Creek Mine (Quartz). Bishop Creek district, 22 
lies SW. of Laws. Good wagon road to mine. Eastern flank of 
terras. Elevation 8500 feet. Inaccessible during winter and spring 
ie to heavy snowfall. Since the property was idle and the mine 
►oded, it was not visited. Mine is said to have produced 5000 tons of 
■e. which averaged $11.00 per ton. Equipment consists of a 10-stamp 
ill and an all-sliming cyanide plant. Capacity 50 tons per 24 hours, 
reatment as follows : Ore crushed in weak KCN solution by ten 1250-lb. 
amps, concentrated on double-deck Deister table. Concentrates 
kipped to smelter. Table tails passed to 5'xl6' tube mill and crushed 
» 150 mesh or finer. Tube mill discharge thickened in 24' Dorr thick- 
ier and passed to four agitation tanks. Pulp elevated to Portland 
Iter and pregnant solution precipitated in zinc boxes. Electric power 
sed. supplied by the Southern Sierras Power Co. Mine shut down 
ctober, 1915, as company was unable to operate at a profit. A new 
pmpany. to be known as the Consolidated Wilshire Mining Co., is being 
pganized to take over the stock of the old company on an assessment of 
cents a share ; this to be used to double capacity of present plant. The 
romoters think that by doubling the mill capacity, the cost per ton 
ill be sufficiently reduced to show a profit. Owner, Rocky Point Con- 
tlidated Mines Co. ; president, Gaylord Wilshire, Hollingsworth Bldg., 
os Angeles. 

Wonder Mine (Quartz). Saratoga district, north of Ibex mine. 
nnrtz vein said to carry gold and copper. Two 75-foot shafts on vein. 
•Id mill at property. Idle. Recently purchased by S. F. Brock, mana- 
er of the Ibex mine. Equipment to be installed at Ibex mine. 

Yucca Mine (Quartz). Coso district, 8 miles by road south of 
farwin. Elevation 6000 feet. Highly oxidized quartz veins in granite. 
r ein matter and granite soft and decomposed. Width 2" to 18". Strike 
[. and S., dip 30° E. Outcrops 300 feet. Two incline shafts on vein 
00 feet deep, connected by levels at 120 feet and 165 feet. Numerous 
lallow shafts 8' to 20' deep, from which good ore has been shipped. 
lined by auger drills and picks. During 1915 shipped over 20 tons 
Lreraging $136.00 per ton. Will haul second-class ore 2\ miles to mill 
f Coso Milling Co., upon completion of mill. Worked continually since 
908 by the owner, L. D. Owen, Darwin, Cal. 

GYPSUM. 

Acme Cement and Plaster Co. Large deposit of gypsum on China, 
r Morrison Ranch, 1 mile northeast of Acme station on the Tonopah 
nd Tidewater Railroad. Spur track to mine. Worked by open cut 
nd tunnels. Shipping 1000 tons per month to plaster plant at Los 
Angeles. Company manufactures hard (wall) plaster only. Treatment 



86 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




« a 

c 



C u 
n o 

(J ni 

o 

*0 



O «H 

£° 

3 >» 

&*> 

o 



INYO COUNTY. 87 

consists of grinding to 100 mesh and calcining. Crude oil used for 
fuel. Sixteen men employed. Home office No. 750 S. Alameda St., Los 
Angeles, Cal. F. A. Brown, superintendent. 

Pacific Coast Borax Co., owns an extensive deposit of gypsum in 
the foothills of the Black Mountains, 1 mile from the Death Valley rail- 
road. Undeveloped. Company anxious to lease deposit for freight 
charges. Mr. John Ryan, Syndicate Bldg., Oakland, general manager. 

IRON. 

J. C. Roper and John Amick, of Independence, own a deposit of 
iron in Inyo Mountains, 7 miles east of Kearsarge Station. Ore is spec- 
ular hematite, said to carry $4.96 in gold. Tunnel and shaft on prop- 
erty'. No production. Idle. 

Coso Copper Claims. Large deposits of iron ore, formerly used 
for flux at the Darwin smelters, occur on the claims of Dr. I. J. Woodin, 
"Walter Moore and Adolph Rominger. Idle. 

LEAD, SILVER, ZINC. 

These three metals are grouped under one heading as they occur 
closely associated in many of the mines. 

The earliest mining in Inyo County was that of the lead-silver ores 
in the southern part of the county, by Mormon colonists, previous to 
1859. In 1860 Dr. French started in search of the celebrated "Gunsite" 
lode. He entered the Coso and Darwin canons, making many locations, 
and penetrated as far as Furnace Creek, where were found the old 
furnaces used to reduce the lead-silver ores. 8 The famous Cerro Gordo 
district was discovered between 1862 and 1866. Zinc ores were first 
mined in 1907, with the discovery of large bodies of smithsonite in the 
old lead stopes at Cerro Gordo. 

The remarkable increase in the value of the metals during 1915 has 
caused a general revival of the mining industry, with the result of 
reopening old mines and developing many new properties. The Cerro 
Gordo district is said to have yielded a total to date of over $15,000,000, 
and the Darwin district approximately $3,000,000. 

Districts. 

The Cerro Gordo District is in the southern part of the Inyo Range, 
embracing Cerro Gordo Peak, 5^ miles in an airline east of Keeler. It 
is reached by wagon road from Keeler. The ore bodies form irregular 
lenticular masses inclosed in limestone. The ores are principally argen- 
tiferous galena, cerrusite, and zinc carbonate, or smithsonite. The 
deposits were first worked by the Mexicans on a small scale in 1866 and 
the ores smelted in vasscs. In 1869 they were taken over by American 



^Report of the Director of the Mint uoon the Production of Precious Metals in 
the U. S. during the year 1883, p. 153. 



88 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

interests and a period of great activity followed. Two smelters were 
erected at Cerro Gordo, and a third one near the shores of Owens Lake. 
Scarcity of water and fuel, combined with high transportation costs, 
made mining and smelting costs prohibitive. The mines were shut down 
in 1877, as the large, rich bodies of argentiferous galena had been 
worked out. The completion of the railroad to Keeler in the early 
eighties revived interest, and the mines were worked periodically for 
many years. The two most famous mines of the district, the Santa 
Maria and Union, were consolidated in 1876, and are now known as the 
Cerro Gordo mine. Having been described in other publications, no 
further details will be repeated here concerning this district. 

Bibl. : Min. Res. West of the Rocky Mts., R. W. Raymond, 1870, 
pp. 17-19 ; 1873, pp. 18-22 ; 1876, pp. 30-32. Report of Direc- 
tor of Mint upon the Production of Precious Metals for year 
1883, pp. 161-163 ; 1884, pp. 102, 103. Rep. of the State Min- 
eralogist, 1890, pp. 213, 214. U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, Adolph 
Knopf, pp. 95-110. 
The Darwin District, briefly described under the heading "Copper," 
is essentially a lead-silver district. The ore deposits, principally bodies 
of argentiferous galena and its oxidation products, range from contact 
metamorphic deposits to fissure veins in limestone. The gangue is 
calcite and fluorite, often coarsely crystallized. The district was most 
active from 1875 to 1877, during which period three smelters were 
erected. Slag dumps mark their locations. At that time all freight had 
to be hauled by team across the desert, 275 miles, from Los Angeles. 
The richer and more easily mined ore bodies were soon exhausted, and 
the expense being very high, mining subsided and the district lay dor- 
mant for many years. The recent activity of the Darwin Development 
Company in reopening a group of the old mines has revived interest in 
the district. Should their "oil concentration" mill now being erected 
prove thoroughly successful, it will undoubtedly increase the general 
development of the whole district. Considerable low grade ore is 
exposed in the workings of many of the old properties. A full descrip- 
tion of this district is given by Adolph Knopf, "The Darwin Silver-Lead 
Mining District," U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 580-A. 

Mines. 

Baxter Mine (Lead-silver). Resting Springs district. Four miles 
east of Evelyn, a station on the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad, and 
on the western slope of Resting Springs Mountain. The deposit is a 
lenticular ore body inclosed in limestone. Development consists of two 
shallow shafts and a short tunnel. One man working. Ore hauled in 
4-ton wagon to railroad. Total production about 200 tons. Owner, 
J. P. Madison, Shoshone. 



INYO COUNTY. 



89 



Blue Dick Mine (Lead-silver, Zinc). Located in the Kingston 
fountains, near the San Bernardino County line, southeast of Tecopa. 
)re is said to be deposited in a fissure vein in limestone. Several car- 
oads shipped during 1914. Analysis of ore shipped: Lead, 32% to 
>.v , : zinc, 6^ ; silver, 6 to 12 ozs. ; gold, a trace. About 500 feet of 
unnels and drifts on the property. Idle. Owner, Henry Lang, Tecopa. 

Carbonate Mine (Lead-silver). Carbonate district, 42 miles north- 
vest of Zabriskie. Near base of east slope of Panamint Mountains, at 
restern border of Death Valley. Elevation 1200 feet. AVater is hauled 
o mine from Zabriskie. The country rock is limestone, which has been 
treatly faulted. Diabase occurs as dikes intruding the limestone; basalt 




Mlp^dBff^. w 



' - . - ' - • ■ 



'hoto No. 



51. Carbonate Mine and camp in Panamint Range, on the west side of Death 

Valley. 



•ts surface flows. The ore, principally carbonate of lead, is deposited 
n irregular lenticular masses along a fault-plane. Width of ore body, 
' to 15'. Trend N. 10°-30° E. The greatest vertical depth below apex, 
75 feet. Development consists of three tunnels, driven on the ore 
)ody. Upper tunnel 100' long, 60' below apex. Second tunnel 
.50' long, 30' on dip of vein (45°) below first. Lower tunnel (main 
vorking tunnel) 400' long, 100' below r second. Ore is dumped into 
teserve bin below third tunnel, from which it is loaded into trucks. 
Hauled to Zabriskie in 4-ton motor trucks, at a cost of about $15.00 per 



w 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



ton. The trucks proved unsatisfactory and Holt caterpillar-type tractors 
have replaced them, at a lower hauling cost. About forty tons per week 
shipped to United States Smelting and Refining Company, Salt Lake. 
Ore shipped averages 35% to 40% lead, carrying \ oz. silver for each 
3% of lead. Worked continuously since 1914; four men employed. 
Owned by the Carbonate Lead Mines Company; president, John Salis- 
bury, Hotel St. Francis, San Francisco ; manager, R. M. Jones, Zabriskie. 




Photo No 



View of Zabriskie looking northward. 
Ibex Mines. 



Shipping point for 



>onate and 



Cerro Gordo Mine (Lead-silver, Zinc). Situated near the summit 
of Cerro Gordo Peak, 8 miles by road east of Keeler. Elevation 8500 
feet. As noted under Cerro Gordo district, the mine is a consolidation 
of the old Santa Maria and Union mines. "Worked continuously from 
1869 to 1876, and periodically up to 1907. Subsequently taken over by 
the Four Metals Mining Company, which erected a smelter east of 
Keeler and built an aerial tramway from the mine to the smelter. Com- 
pany went into insolvency and litigation followed. In 1911, L. D. 
Gordon was granted a lease on all zinc deposits in the mine, and exploita- 
tion of the large zinc ore bodies on a commercial basis followed. The 
Gordon lease was operated continuously until September 18, 1915, and 
resulted in a large production of zinc ore. Upon the expiration of 
Mr. Gordon's lease it was taken over by the company and has been 
operated continuously since. 

The country rock at the mine is fine-grained white marble, associated 
will) some inter-stratified slate and a number of diorite and porphyry 
dikes. The lead-silver ore bodies are lenticular masses enclosed in 
marble near the contact with the dikes and occasionally have a sla 






INYO COUNTY. 



91 




Photo No. 53. Hoisting plant and head of aerial tram of Cerro Gordo Mine, Inyo County. 

foot wall. They trend in a general NE. direction, dipping SE. 70° to 
80°. The San Felipe vein, containing tetrahedrite, azurite and mala- 
chite, in a gangue of quartz and barite, cuts across the lead-silver ore 
bodies, trending N. 20° W. and dipping 70° SW. The zinc ore, smith- 
sonite, forms irregular masses along the limestone footwall of the old 
lead stopes. Its presence was unsuspected until its discovery in 1907. 

Development : There are said to be over 28 miles of tunnels and drifts 
in the Cerro Gordo mine. The ore now mined is worked through the 
Belshaw shaft, 900 feet deep, with levels at 200', 400', 550', 700' and 




Photo No. 54. View westward from Cerro Gordo Mine, showing camp, dump, head of tram- 
way, and old slag dump. Owens Lake and Mt. Whitney Range in the distance. 



92 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



900'. From the 900-foot level a winze was driven 250 feet deep. Work 
during the past few years has been confined to mining the zinc ores in 
the old stopes above the 500-foot level. 

Net earnings of the company for a period of five months ending 
February 29, 1916, amounted to $40,260, according to the report sub- 
mitted to the stockholders. This is said to have been made principally 
from shipments of zinc. 

A large body of zinc ore has been opened up above the 200' level 
since the mine was visited in May, 1916. 

Electric power was installed at the mine in January, 1916, supplied by 
the Southern Sierras Power Company. Equipment consists of a 100 h.p. 
electric hoist, Ingersoll-Rand compressor of 640 cubic feet capacity, and 
100 h.p. oil-burning boiler to operate old steam plant in case of break- 
down of power line. A Leschen aerial tramway, 29,560 feet long, carries 
the ore to the railroad at Keeler. Capacity of tramway 16 tons per hour. 
Twenty tons of ore, averaging not less than 28% zinc (no lead or silver), 
are shipped daily to United States Smelting and Refining Company at 
Salt Lake. Sixty men are employed. Owned by the Cerro Gordo Mines 
Company, First National Bank Bldg., San Francisco; L. D. Gordon, 
vice president and general manager; J. C. Climo, superintendent. 
(See Bibl. Cerro Gordo District.) 

Christmas Gift Mine (Lead-silver). Darwin district, 2 miles north 
of Darwin. Elevation 5300 feet. Adjoins the Lucky Jim Mine. Idle. 
Owner, L. D. Skinner, Lone Pine, Cal. 

Bibl. : Rept. VIII, p. 226 ; Rept. X, p. 211 ; Rept. of the Director 
of the Mint, Precious Metals in U. S., 1883-1884; U. S. G. S. 
Bull. 580-A, pp. 10-12. 




Photo No. 55. Christmas Gift Mine, near Darwin. 



- 



INYO COUNTY. 93 

Cliff Mine (Silver). Kearsarge district, 12 miles west of Inde- 
pendence. Elevation over 8500 feet. Inaccessible 6 months during the 
year. No work done for forty years. Owned by John Naylor of Inde- 
pendence. For details of the Kearsarge district, see Ross Brown's 
Report in Mineral Resources West of Rocky Mts., 1868, p. 177, and 
Report of Director of Mint, 1883, p. 157. 

Cliff Mine. Deep Spring district. A silver mine 5 miles south of 
Oasis, Mono County, but in the White Mountains of Inyo County, is 
reported to have been leased to Ed. J. King and J. C. King of San 
Francisco. The mine includes a large acreage and a large dump of 
good ore. It is reported that considerable ore has been blocked out by 
the old workings. It is proposed to haul the ore to Coaldale, Nevada, by 
motor trucks. 

Columbia Mine (Lead-silver). Darwin district. Idle for many 
years. Recently taken over by the Darwin Development Co., which is 
to develop it in connection with their other properties in that vicinity. 
Bibl. : Adolph Knopf, U. S. G. S. Bull. 580, pp. 17, 18. 

Custer Mine (Lead, Silver, Gold). Darwin district, 1 mile east of 
Darwin. Elevation 4100 feet. The ore, principally lead carbonate and 




Photo No. 56. Custer Mine, Darwin. 

galena, is found in bunches in a large irregular body of coarsely crystal- 
line calcite. Fluorite occurs associated with the ore, or in the vicinity 
of the ore pockets, and its presence serves as a guide in the exploration 
for ore. Pyrite occurs in the calcite, and on the 400-foot level large 
bunches of it are exposed. The development consists of a 400-foot 
incline shaft, with levels at 100', 200', 300', and 400'. Equipment con- 



94 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



sists of a 15 h. p, gas engine lioist and a 3-drill air compressor. The mine 
is said to have produced over $250,000 on ore averaging 30% lead, 150 
to 200 ozs. silver and $4.00 in gold. Three men employed. Drifting is 
being carried on along the 400-foot level. The mine is under lease to 
Frank IT. Long and Charles Grimes, of Pasadena; John H. Thorndike, 
manager. 

Bibl. : Reg. of Mines, Inyo County, 1902 ; Adolph Knopf, U. S. G. S. 

Bull. 580, pp. 15, 16. 

Daisy Mine (Lead-silver). Twenty-six miles south of east of Big 

Pine in the Waucoba unorganized district. On the east flank of Inyo 

Mountains. Elevation 7575 feet. Auto road to mine from Big Pine 




Photo No. 57. Shaft at Daisy Mine on the east flank of the Inyo Mountains. 

(Saline Valley road). Fissure vein in limestone, varying from 6" to 2' 
wide. The ore is essentially coarsely crystallized galena and some lead 
carbonate, in a quartz and quartzite gangue. Vein strikes N. and S., 
dips steeply to the west. Sinking shaft on vein to a depth of 100 feet. 
Several prospect tunnels driven on vein, which can be traced along sur- 
face for several thousand feet. Hand drilling. Four men employed. 
Development work only. Owners, Hercules Mining Company, (Incor- 
porated for 1,000,000 shares @ 10^ share), Wallace, Idaho. Manager, 
D. T. Bedell. 

Defiance Mine (Lead-silver). Darwin district. Idle since 1910. 
Owned by Patrick Reddy Estate, Wm. Metson, Monadnock Bldg., San 
Francisco, trustee. 

Bibl. : Rept. of the Director op the Mint, Precious Metals in 

U. S, 1883-1884; Rept. VIII, p. 226; X, p. 211; XII, p. 24; 

U. S. G. S., Bull. 580-A. 



INYO COUNTY. 95 

Gibraltar Mine (Lead-silver). South Park district,. SE. of Ballarat 
in the Panamint Mountains. Elevation approximately 7000 feet. Ore 
occurs in lenses. in limestone; 30% lead-carbonate ore, carrying 20 ozs. 
silver. Shipped by way of Trona by the Trojan Mining Company of 
Seattle, who formerly owned the mine. Owned by Domingo and Clairen, 
Ballarat, Inyo County, Cal. 

Gunsite Mine (Lead-silver). Resting Springs district, 7 miles east 
of Tecopa. Elevation 2350 feet. Spur track, of the Tonopah and Tide- 
water Railroad, to the mine from Tecopa. The country rock is dolomite, 



Photo No. 58. View eastward of Gunsite Mine and camp of Tecopa Consolidated Mining 
Co., 7 miles southeast of Tecopa. 

overlaying quartzite. The ore is deposited in a vein, varying up to 20 
feet in width, in the dolomite. Strike N. 45° W., dip N. 35°-50° E. The 
ore is principally carbonate of lead, with occasional stringers of galena. 
The vein matter is decomposed lime and iron oxides which are very easy 
to mine by hand work. A 1000-foot incline shaft has been sunk on the 
vein, with levels every hundred feet along the incline. Considerable 
drifting has been done on the 4th and 7th levels. The 4th level connects 
with the surface and is at present the main working tunnel. Equipment 
consists of a 73 h.p. gas engine and 15 h.p. Fairbanks-Morse hoist. 
The company owns and operates a locomotive for hauling ore and sup- 
plies from the mine to Tecopa. The ore averages from 7% to 12% 
lead, 7 to 12 ozs. silver, $1.50 in gold, and is shipped to the smelters 
at Salt Lake. A 75-ton concentration mill is being installed near 
the Amargosa River, just south of Tecopa and includes a Ball mill, 
tube mill, jigs and Wilfiey tables. A distillate engine supplies power. 
The mine was discovered and first worked in 1865. A smelter erected in 
the district a few years later now lies in ruins. Idle for many years. 



96 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Taken over and operated continuously since 1912 by the present com- 
pany; fifteen men employed. Adjoins Noonday Mine, owned and 
operated by same company. Owners, Tecopa Consolidated Mining Com- 
pany, L. D. Goodschall, vice president and general manager, Tecopa, | 
Cal. 

Bibl. : Rept. of the Director of the Mint, Precious Metals in 
U. S., 1883, p. 166. 




Photo No. 59. Main working level of Gunsite Mine. 



Hiram Shaw is working a lead-silver prospect 15 miles northeast 
of Shoshone in the north end of the Nopah Range. No production. 

Ibex Mine, or Arcturus (Lead-silver, Zinc). Situated in the Black 
Mountains, 16 miles southwest of Zabriskie and 6 miles north of Sara- 
toga Springs. Elevation 1300 feet. Although this property is recorded 
in Inyo County, it is actually located in San Bernardino County. 

The deposit is a vein, averaging 3' to 5' wide, in dolomite. Strike 
N.-S., dip E. The vein can be traced on the surface along its strike for 
1800'. The ore is argentiferous galena and carbonates of lead and zinc. 
Occasional bodies of anglesite and linarite are associated with the galena. 
Shipping ore is said to have averaged 44% lead, 33% zinc, 16 ozs. silver 
and $16.00 in gold. Development consists of 4 tunnels, the longest being 
100 feet on vein. Mining at present is confined to gouging out rich ore 
bodies near the surface; 19 men employed at $4.00 per shift. Ore is 
sacked at the tunnels and packed on burros down to the camp where it is 
transferred to a 4-ton Kelly quad motor truck, which hauls it to 
Zabriskie. From 7 to 8 tons are produced daily. Located September, 



INYO COUNTY. 



97 



1914. Worked since January, 1916, by the Ibex Spring Mining Com- 
pany, of which S. F. Brock is manager. Property recently reported 
purchased by the Goodsprings Mining Co., of Nevada. 




Photo No. 60. Mine dumps and compressor plant at Ibex Mine, 15 miles west of Zabriskie, 

in Amargosa Range. 

Ignacio Mine (formerly Saint Ignacio), (Lead-silver). Cerro Gordo 
district, 6 miles by road east of Keeler. Elevation 7800 feet. The 
deposit is a well-defined quartz, fissure vein in limestone. Strike N.-S., 
dip E. Average width 8' to 10'. The ore is essentially argentiferous 
galena, which in places is oxidized to the carbonate. Linarite, the double 




Photo No. 61. 
7—46904 



Ignacio (in foreground) and Ventura Mines in Inyo Mountains, 1 mile below 
the Cerro Gordo Mine. 



98 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

sulphate of lead and copper, is occasionally found with the galena, but 
not in commercial quantities. Development consists of a 500-foot shaft 
and a 2000-foot main working tunnel. Considerable drifting and stoping 
has been done. The mine was first worked from 1867 to 1882 but has been 
idle for many years and was taken over by the present owners in 1915. 
Work is confined to stoping above the main tunnel; and 7 men are 
employed. The first-class ore is hauled by team to Keeler, at a cost of 
$2.50 per ton, and shipped to Salt Lake. Second-class ore is trammed to 
a mill below the tunnel. The mill consists of one 9" x 15" Blake 
crusher; five 750-lb. stamps; one Wilfley concentrator; one Robertson 
concentrator; three separate gas engines used to operate makeshift 
plant. Mill operated one shift daily, crushing 6 tons. Concentrates 
shipped to smelter. Owned by the Ignacio Mining Company ; president, 
P. M. Price, San Diego, Cal. ; superintendent, F. C. Everett. 

Bibl. : R. W. Raymond, Min. Resources W. of Rocky Mts., 1870, 

p. 17 ; S. M. B. Reg. of Mines, Inyo County, 1902. 
Independence Mine (Lead-silver). Darwin district, adjoins the 
Defiance Mine and is of the same ownership, the Estate of Patrick Reddy. 
Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. of Director of Mint, Precious Metals in U. S., 1883, 

p. 164; 1884, p. 103. State Mineralogist Rept., VIII, p. 226; 

X, p. 211; Reg. of Mines, Inyo County, 1902; U. S. G. S. Bull. 

580, pp. 14, 15. 
Lane Mine (Lead-silver). Darwin district, Sec. 13, T. 19 S., R. 
40 E., M.D.M., 2 miles NE. of Darwin, on east flank of Darwin Hills. 
Elevation 4100 feet. Well defined vein, inclosed in lime, varying up to 




Photo No. 62. Old smelter and hoist at Lane Mine near Darwin. Property of Darwin 

Development Co. 



IXYO COUNTY. 



99 



feet in width. Strike N. 65° E.. dip 80°-85° N. The ore, galena 
nd lead carbonate, occurs in bunches in the vein. Gangue, fluorite and 
alcite. Some veinlets of chrysocolla are exposed in the lowest workings 
f the mine. Mine is opened by two shafts, 300 feet apart, 750' and 
25' deep, respectively. Levels at each 100 feet in depth connect the 
hafts. There are over 2000 feet of drifts in the mine. A 12 h.p. gas 
ngine hoist is installed at one shaft and a 30 h.p. steam power hoist at 
nother. A 25-ton capacity single stack, water-jacket blast furnace 
rected here several years ago ; operated only a few months. A Murex 




Photo No. 63. Excavating for Murex Concentration Mill at Lane Mine, near Darwin. 



il concentration mill is being installed to treat second-grade ores of the 
roup of mines operated by this company. The capacity of this mill is 
aid to be 25 tons and will be ultimately increased to 250 tons. 

The mine is said to have produced $500,000. Actual development will 
e undertaken upon completion of the mill. Owners, Darwin Develop- 
lent Co.. 71 Broadway. New York: F. X. Weeks, consulting engineer. 
Bibl. : Rept. XII, p. 24; Rep. XIII, p. 32; IL S. G. S. Bull. 580-A. 

Lee Mine (Emigrant Mine;, (Lead-silver, Zinc). Lee district, east 
f Cerro Gordo, 26 miles by auto road from Keeler. Said to have pro- 
uced lead ore rich in silver. Under lease to J. R. LeCyr, of Lone Pine, 



100 



MINES AND MINERAL) RESOURCES. 



who is working two men on a zinc deposit exposed in old workings 

Owned by Dr. I. J. Woodin and William Skinner of Independence, Cal. 

Bibl. : Rept. of Director op Mint, Precious Metals in U. S., 1883 

p. 163. 

Lucky Hike Prospect (Lead-silver). Located in the Waucoba un 

organized district, 28 miles east of Big Pine. Elevation 7060 feet 

Some large bunches of galena found in quartz croppings along top oi 

low hogbacks. Country rock, calcareous slate and schist. Formation?, 

shattered and quartz does not appear to be in place. Driving crosscu; 




Photo No. 64. Lucky Jim Mine, near Darwin. 

tunnel at base of hill, hoping to strike vein in place; 3 men employ 
Owners, Lloyd Bedell, F. M. Bedell, V. Richardson, Big Pine, Ir 
County, Cal. 

Lucky Jim Mine (Lead-silver). Darwin district, 2 miles north 
Darwin, adjoins the Christmas Gift Mine. Good auto road to Keeler, 
miles distant. The country rock limestone intruded by a porphyry d 
The vein cuts across lime beds striking N.-S. and dipping 65° to 80° 
The ore consists principally of the oxidized ores of lead carrying a li 
silver but no gold. Galena occurs in bunches in the vein. The min 
operated by a 300-foot vertical shaft, and a 300-foot incline s 
600 feet from the bottom of the vertical shaft. Drift levels are dri 



INYO COUNTY. 101 

bout every hundred feet. Considerable stoping on the vein has been 
lone above the 300-foot level. The ore body is now being stoped 
•elow the 300-foot level. It is the intention of the company to sink the 
-ertical shaft to the 600-foot level, or deeper, to avoid handling ore 
wice in hoisting. The vertical shaft is equipped with a hoist run by a 
listillate engine. Incline shaft from 300-foot level equipped with com- 
pressed air hoist; 25 h.p. Diesel type engine to operate 32 h.p. corn- 
lessor. Machine drills are to be installed in mine. Some 30 men are 
mployed. From 8 to 10 tons of first-class ore (averaging $40.00 lead 
md silver) are hauled daily, with Knox tractor, to Keeler. The ore is 
shipped to Salt Lake. An aerial tramway is to be built to the Lane mill, 
vhere the low-grade ores will be concentrated. The mine was located in 
L874 and taken under bond and lease by the present company in Decem- 
er, 1915. Said to have produced $1,500,000. Darwin Development Co., 
1 Broadway, New York; P. N. Weeks, general manager; J. E. Rea, 
Superintendent. 

Bibl. : Mix. Res. W. of Rocky Mts., 1876, p. 25 ; Rept. of Director 
of Mint, Precious Metals in U. S., 1883, p. 163 ; State Mineral- 
ogist Rept. VIII, p. 226; X, p. 211; XII, p. 21; Reg. of Mines, 
Inyo County, 1902; U. S:G. S. Bull. 580, pp. 12, 13. 
Minneatta Mine (Lead-silver, Zinc). Located in the Lookout 
'Modoc) district 28 miles north of Trona. East slope of Argus Moun- 
tains. Elevation approximately 3000 feet. Under lease to Grim and 
£5extcn, of Los Angeles, Cal. Present work confined to mining zinc 
(carbonate exposed in eld stopes. Ore hauled to Trona in 2J-ton motor 
buck, making one trip daily. Twelve men are employed. Owned by 
V. J. Gunn, Independence, Cal. 

Bibl.: R. W. Raymond, Min. Res. West of Rocky Mts., 1876,; 
p. 32; Rep. X, p. 212. 
Modoc Mine (Lead-silver). Lookout district, 30 miles north of 
jTrona, 2 miles .north of the Minneatta Mine. Elevation 3500 feet. Idle 
for many years. 

Bibl.: Rept. XII, p. 24; Rept. XIII, p. 32; Reg. of Mines, Inyo 
County, 1902 ; Rep. of Director of Mint, Precious Metals in 
U. S., 1883, p. 164; 1884, p. 104. 

Monster Mine (Lead-silver). Situated on the east slope of the 
Inyo Mountains, northwest of the Saline Valley. Located in 1907. 
Large body of argentiferous galena mined. No work for several years. 
Relocated January 1, 1916, by Frank Butler and Sam Watson, of Big 
Pine. Inyo County, "Cal. Idle. 

Bibi. : Adolph Knopf, U. ft G. S. Bull. '540, p. 111. 
- Montezuma Mine (Lead-silver), is 10 miles by road southeast of 
Big Pine on the western slope of the Inyo Range. Elevation 4700 feet. 



102 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The country rock is limestone and slates, which have been greal 
shattered and faulted. The vein follows the trend of a major fai 
NW.-SE. The ore is chiefly lead carbonate, in a gangue of iron oxu 
and decomposed lime. Galena in a quartz gangue is also encountered. 
Development consists of two tunnels, the lower driven to crosscut the 
vein. Greatest depth on vein 240 feet. The ore is trammed to a reserve 
bin at the camp in 1-ton cars, operating on a 3-rail gravity tramway 
1000 feet, on a 30° incline. Teamed to Elna, a station 2 miles east of the 
mine on the California and Nevada railroad. Four trips are made daily- 
carrying 2\ to 3 tons per load. A furnace erected at Elna in the, 
early eighties has been dismantled. The ore is shipped to the Salt 
Lake smelters. Ten men are employed at $3.50 per day. The mine is 
bonded to John Mitchell, Lone Pine, Cal. 

Bibl. : Rept. of Director of Mint, Precious Metals in U. S., 1883, 

p. 158 ; 1884, p. 100 ; S. M. B. Rept. XIII, p. 32 ; Reg. of Mines, 

Inyo County, 1902 ; U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, pp. 109, 110. 

Nancy Hanks (Lead-silver). Located in the Waucoba unorganized 

district, 28 miles by road southeast of Big Pine, on east flank of Inyo 




Photo No. 65. Entrance to Nancy Hanks Mine, on the east flank of the Inyo Mountains. 



Mountains. Elevation 8250 feet. The ore is a quartz vein, carrying 
bunches of coarsely crystalline galena, in a formation of limestone 
and shale. The country rock, as exposed in a 60-foot tunnel driven 
on the vein, is crushed and shattered and the vein does not appear to be; 
in place but lies flat along this crushed zone. The property is difficult of 
access and is reached by the Big Pine road to the Daisy mine and by 






INYO COUNTY. 



103 



trail from the Daisy mine two miles up a ridge. Located January, 1916 ; 
started development April 1, 1916. There were 3 men employed. Owned 
by George B. Warren, Big Pine, Cal. 

Noonday and Grant Mines (Lead-silver, Zinc). Located in the 
Resting Springs district, 9 miles southeast of Tecopa and 2 miles south- 
east of the Gunsite Mine. Elevation 2880 feet. Railroad spur to Noon- 
day Mine. The deposit is a continuation of the Gunsite vein, striking 
N. 40° AY., dip 45° NE. The ore is in general the same as that at the 




Photo No. 66. Noonday Mine, Tecopa Consolidated Mining Co. 




Photo No. 67. Gravity tram and ore bin at Noonday Mine. 



104 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Gunsite mine, but some zinc carbonate is found in the upper tunnel. 
The mine is opened by a 400-foot incline shaft and 3 tunnels. Upper 
tunnel, called the surface tunnel, at collar of shaft, is 400 feet long. The 
second tunnel on the 100-foot level is 400 feet. The main working 
tunnel, or 200-foot level, is 200 feet in length. The main working tunnel 
is driven through the hill to connect with the Grant Mine. The latter 
is situated 900 feet across a gully from the south portal of the main 
tunnel. A 60-foot shaft has been sunk at the Grant and drifting has 
been done along the vein at the bottom of the shaft. Ore is trammed to 
storage bins at the railroad through the Noonday tunnel. Fifteen men 










■*#■ 




* 






Photo No. 68. Old Tecopa Smelter 

employed at $3.50 per day. From 500 to 1000 tons of ore have been 
shipped to a Salt Lake smelter from the group of mines operated by the 
Tecopa Consolidated Company since 1912. Second-class ore (lower 
than 6% Pb) will be concentrated upon completion of the mill. (See 
Gunsite Mine). 

Opal Mine (Lead-silver). Waucoba unorganized district, 26 miles 
southeast of Bishop and adjoining the Daisy Mine. Elevation 7160 feet. 
Two parallel veins, about 100 feet apart, striking N. 20° W., dip 
30°, are inclosed in limestone. The veins are 18" wide and carry galena. 
Development consists of four 30 foot to 50 foot shafts sunk on the two 
veins. Idle. "Worked for assessment only. Owned by "Walter Bird and 
Russel Steward, of Big Pine, Cal, 






INYO COUNTY. 



105 



Ophir Mine (Lead-silver, Zinc). Situated 10 miles northeast of 
Yona, at the base of the Slate Kange. Elevation 2100 feet. The ore 
ody consists of a vein, varying in width from 6" to 4', inclosed in lime- 
one. The vein material is highly oxidized, containing essentially car- 
onates of lead. Galena occurs occasionally as bunches in the vein, 
inc carbonate occurs in the walls, but mining has been chiefly 
arried on in the lead ores. The ore is said to average 40% Pb, with a 
3w ozs. of silver. The -mine is opened by a 120-foot 60° incline shaft 




Photo No. 69. Ophir Mine, 4 miles east of The Tanks, southern Inyo County. 



Kn the vein. Drifts are being driven at the 60-foot and 100-foot levels, 
^he shaft is equipped with a 12 h.p. gas engine hoist. Mining with 
auger drills; 4 men employed. Opened November, 1915, and worked 
Continuously since. Ore is hauled to Trona in three 2|-ton motor trucks, 
making two round trips daily. Owners, T. Thorkildsen and T. H. Rosen- 
burg, 320 Trust and Savings Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Promontory Mine (Lead-silver). Located in the Darwin district, 
K§ miles south of Darwin. Elevation 5000 feet. Wagon road to mine. 
The ore body is highly oxidized and inclosed in lime. Strike N. 20° W., 
dip 30°. The ore consists of lead carbonate and galena. Opened to a 
depth of 320 feet on the vein by an inclined shaft. Five levels. It was 
impossible to estimate the amount of work done, since the shaft is caved 
below the 180-foot level. Present work is confined to drifting on the 
180-foot level. The hoist is run by a 6 h.p. gas engine. The mine was 
first worked in 1874 and taken over in December, 1915, by the present 



106 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



company, which is developing it in connection with their other mines 
Four men working. Darwin Development Company, 71 Broadway, New 
York. 







m 



Photo No. 70. Promontory Mine, near Darwin. Darwin Development Co. 

Raven Mine (Lead-silver). Ubehebe district, 60 miles southwest 
of Bonnie Claire, Nevada, and 5 miles north of Dodds Springs. Eleva- 
tion 3800 feet. A tunnel is being driven in hard white limestone, to cuti 
a vein which outcrops on the mountain several hundred feet above. The 
tunnel was 300 feet long when visited. Over 1500 feet of tunnels, mostly 
crosscuts. Several stringers of good ore encountered. Thirty tons of 
ore, averaging 60% lead, ready for shipment. Two men working. 
Owned by J. Crook and A. Farrington of Big Pine, Cal. 

Redwing Mine (Lead and Zinc). Resting Springs district, 4 miles 
northeast of Shoshone, on west slope of Resting Springs Mountains. 
Vein, containing carbonates of lead and zinc, inclosed in limestone. 
Opened to a depth of 90 feet, on 45° incline. Drifts east and west of 
shaft at 20-foot level. Formerly mined only for lead. Now being mined 
for zinc ores by R. M. Jones of Zabriskie. Owned by R. J. Fairbanks of I 
Shoshone, Inyo County, Cal. 

Royal Group (Spear Mine), (Lead, Silver and Zinc). Cerro Gordo 
district, 1 mile north of Cerro Gordo Mine, along top of ridge 8 miles 
cast of Keeler. Elevation 8400 feet. Claims: Lead King, Lead Queen, 
Lead Prince, Princess, Dutchess, Czar, Bluff. Development consists of 1 
100-foot incline shaft with 100' drift on 50-foot level and 175' drift on 



INYO COUNTY. 



107 



100-foot level. Equipped with 6 h.p. gas engine hoist. Fifty-foot winze 
sunk from 100-foot level, and 75' drift from bottom of winze. The ore 
occurs as galena, lead carbonate and zinc carbonate as replacement along 
contact of limestone with diorite dikes. Said to have produced 1000 tons 
of lead-silver ore that averaged 35% to 40% lead, 35 to 40 ozs. silver, 
$2.00 to $3.00 gold. The zinc ore runs 40% and over. The ore body 
varies from 1 to 15 feet thick and strikes NW.-SE. Idle. "Worked for 
assessment only. Owned by K. C. Spear of Lone Pine, Cal. 

Santa Rosa Mine (Lead-silver). Lee district, east of Cerro Gordo 
and 26 miles by road from Keeler. Elevation 7000 feet. The country 
rock is limestone, intruded by coarsely crystalline porphyritic dikes. 




Photo No. 71. Santa Rosa Mine. 



The ore is deposited in veins along the limestone and igneous contacts. 
There are two systems of veins, the principal one trends N.-S. and the 
lesser one E.-W. Average width 4 feet. Ore is galena, with its oxida- 
tion products, chiefly lead carbonate. The E.-W. veins carry oxides of 
copper in small amounts, as well as lead. The many excellent outcrops of 
rich ore bodies w T ould indicate a high degree of mineralization ; however, 
the ore bodies are apparently superficial. Many shafts have been sunk 



108 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

on the different outcrops, but the values do not continue with depth. The 
mine is opened by a main tunnel 200 feet long, 240 feet below a very 
promising outcrop. Many drifts, crosscuts and upraises were driven 
from the tunnel, but the rich ore was in all cases found close to the sur- 
face. Mine idle for several years, reopened April, 1916. The dump 
below the main tunnel is said to average 13% lead, with 1 oz. silver for 
each 1% of lead. "Work consists of hand-sorting the ore from the old 
dumps and doing some drifting in the main workings ; 4 men employed. 
Ore hauled to Keeler, at $6.50 per ton, and shipped to smelter. J. H. 
Price, superintendent. Owners : Independent Lead Silver Mining Com- 
pany, Syndicate Bldg., Oakland, Cal. 

Silver Reef Prospect (Lead-silver). South Park district, 6 miles 
east of Ballarat, near summit of Panamint Range. Ore is said to vary 
from 2% to 18% lead and carries from 12 to 98 ozs. silver. Development 
consists of 16 open cuts, one 16-foot shaft and a 26-foot tunnel along the 
vein. Idle. Owner, J. A. Gilliam, Ballarat, Cal. 

Silver Rule Mine (Lead-silver, Zinc), recorded in Inyo County, is 
actually in San Bernardino County, about J of a mile south of Inyo 
County line. Seventeen miles east of Morrison's Siding, on the Tonopah 
and Tidewater railroad, on the north flank of the Kingston Mountains. 
Elevation 4600 feet. Ore body contains carbonates of lead and zinc. 
Opened by two tunnels, the upper 220 feet, the^ lower 120 feet. Formerly 
worked for the lead-silver ores. About 140 tons shipped during 1910, 
which averaged 48% lead, 26 ozs. silver, $0.60 gold per ton. The 
unsuspected zinc ores were thrown on the dumps. Three men employed 
sorting the zinc ore from the old dumps. Packed on burros to camp at 
Crystal Springs, at $3.00 per ton and hauled by team to railroad at 
$5.00. About 30 tons ready for shipment. Owner, John Chambers, 
Tecopa, Cal. 

Troeger's Tunnel, Cerro Gordo district, is 4.7 miles by road east 
of Keeler, on the west flank of Inyo Mountains, below the Cerro Gordo 
Mine. Elevation at tunnel 6010 feet. The tunnel, started in 1909 and 
now "6700 feet long, is being driven to crosscut the San Felipe vein, which 
outcrops 2500 feet aboVe. S'trike of tunnel/N. 57° E. Formation, lime- 
stone. At 3700 feet from the portal a fault zone about 150 feet in width 
was encountered. This zone is traversed by numerous quartz stringers, 
whi.ch contain small amounts of tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite and 
pyrite. Drifts were driven for several hundred feet both N. and S., from 
the tunnel, along this zone. At 6000 feet from the portal a narrow quartz 
vein was encountered carrying sulphides of copper and lead. The 
owners expect -to cut the San Felipe vein within another 100 feet. 






INYO COUNTY. 



109 




Photo No. 72. Troeger Tunnel of the Estelle Mining Co., east of Keeler. 

Equipment consists of 32 h.p. distillate engine, air compressor and 
(machine drills. Water is piped by gravity, 10,000 feet, from mountain 
springs to the plant. No production ; 4 men employed. Owned by the 
Estelle Mining Co., 310 South Grand St., Los Angeles, Cal., R. C. 
Troeger, general manager and secretary. 

Bibl. : Adolph Knopf, U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, p. 110. 

Ubehebe Mining Company (Lead-silver). Ubehebe district, 52 
miles by road southwest of Bonnie Claire, Nevada. Elevation 3930 feet. 
The country rock is limestone, intruded by diorite dikes. The deposit is 
an irregular lenticular replacement in the limestone, varying up to 15 
feet in width. The ore consists principally of oxidized ores of lead, car- 
bonate and lead sulphate, with occasional bunches of galena. Develop- 
ment consists of two tunnels, the upper 60 feet long and the lower, con- 
nected by a 50-foot winze, 100 feet long. No ore has been encountered 
in the lower tunnel. The upper tunnel is in an ore body which appears 
to have been faulted from the main deposit, croppings of which appear 
along the summit of a low ridge several hundred feet above the mine. 
Some ore was shipped from these main upper deposits after the mine 
was visited. The displaced ore body was being worked when visited, 
and was practically worked out. Ore is hauled by contract to Bonnie 
Claire ; two Yuba tractors of 10-ton capacity were being used. Round 
trip made in 52 hours. Said to haul the ore at a cost of $8.00 per ton. 
Mine worked since November, 1915. Up to April the mine had produced 
200 tons of 60% lead ore. Three men employed. Owner, W. W. Water- 
son, Bishop, Cal. 



110 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 73. Ubehebe Lead Mine, and tractor for hauling ore 52 miles to Bonnie Claire, 

Nevada. 



Ventura Mine (Lead-silver). Cerro Gordo district, 6J miles by 
road east of Keeler. Situated on the western flank of the Inyo Moun- 
tains, below the Cerro Gordo Mine. Elevation 7800 feet. The country 
rock is limestone and diorite and the ore body is deposited along a fault 
plane in the limestone. The limestone beds strike N. 80° W. and the 
ore body strikes N. 35° W. The mine is opened by a 150-foot vertical 
shaft and a main working tunnel cutting the shaft at the 100-foot level. 
The main tunnel runs N. 35° E., then swings N. 35° W., and follows 
125 feet along the fault. The ore is mainly lead carbonate and silver. 
Some zinc carbonates have been left unworked. The property was taken 
under 3-year lease on April 1, 1916, by IT. G. Eldridge who is shipping 



INYO COUNTY. Ill 

jout 20 tons of ore per month, said to average 48% lead and 20 ozs. in 
lver per ton. Two men working. Owned by the Ventura Mining Com- 
any of New York. 

MARBLE. 

The marble deposits of Inyo County occur on the southwestern flank 
: the Inyo Range and extend for about 6 miles northeastward from 
wansea station. The mountain range here consists of folded and 
uilted sediments of Carboniferous and Triassic age, altered by regional 
etamorphism to slates, quartzites and marbles, intruded by occasional 
isic dikes. The marble outcropping along the base of this range shows 
thickness of at least 500 feet. The beds are tilted at a high angle, 
ipping northwestward into the mountain. They are fractured and 
mlted, so that the marble is considerably shattered at the surface, 
he marble is dolomitic, generally fine-grained, hard, and very resistant 
) weathering, as indicated by the sharp corners and fresh surfaces of 
le talus blocks. Three varieties are found, a pure white marble, a 
dutiful yellow marble and a variegated marble of white ground mass, 
enetrated by dendridic markings of manganese. The white marble is 
- le one upon which most of the quarrying has been done. This takes 
beautiful polish, as is exemplified by its use in the Mills Building, of 
an Francisco. 

i These deposits were first quarried in 1888 by the original Inyo Marble 

I ompany, of San Francisco, of which M. J. McDonald was president. 

he quarries lay idle for a number of years due to the shattered condi- 

on of the marble and the expense in obtaining large blocks. Assess- 

1'ient work was not kept up and the claims w T ere relocated by the present 

Iwners, now known also as the Inyo Marble Company. 

Inyo Marble Company, D. H. Dunn et al., of Los Angeles, have 

led locations on twenty-four 160-acre claims, along the total length of 

le marble outcrops, including the property of the old Inyo Marble 

j ompany. A spur track of the California and Nevada Railroad runs to 

le quarry. Water for working purposes is obtained from artesian 

[ells. There are three openings along the outcrop, the largest and 

liost important of which produces the white marble. When visited, 

Iirge talus blocks of this white marble were being hand broken and 

flipped 7 miles south to the plant of the Natural Soda Products Com- 

I any for generating carbon dioxide. (See Dolomite.) A number of 

firge blocks of the white marble were lying at the base of the quarry, 

■3ady for shipment, but no further w r ork was being done. 

Bibl.: Rept. X, 215; Rept. XII, 392; Rept. XIII, 628; Bull. 50, 
pp. 99, 100 ; Mining and Sci. Press, July 20, 1912. 






112 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 74. Marble Quarry of the Inyo Marble Co., north of Keeler. 



MINERAL SPRINGS. 

The descriptions of the mineral springs of Inyo County are h( 
quoted from the report of Mr. Gerald A. Waring, "Springs of d 
f ornia, ' ' Water Supply Paper 338, issued by the U. S. Geol. Surv., 1! 

A few saline waters that are obtained from wells and lakes hi 
become known as mineral-spring waters and therefore may be mentioi 
among the saline springs. 

Castalian Mineral Water, which has been sold for medicinal 
has been obtained either directly from Owens Lake, in Inyo County, 
from springs close to its shore. An analysis that is thought to represe 
the bottled water is here tabulated with analyses of water from Owe 
Lake. The analyses indicate that the waters are similar in charad 
if not identical, being primary saline and alkaline : 



INYO COUNTY. 



113 



analyses of Castalian Mineral Water and Water From Owens Lake, Inyo County, 

California. 

(Constituents are in parts per million.) 




1 


2 


3 


4 


Properties of reaction: 

Primary salinity 

>ndary salinity 


56 



44 

Trace 

(?) 


57 





43 

Trace 

(?) 


55 



45 

Trace 
(?) 


54 




Primary alkalinity 

ndary alkalinity 

tiary alkalinity 


46 

Trace 

(?) 


Constituents 


By 

weight 


React- 
ing 
values 


By 

weight 


React- 
ing 
values 


By | React- 

weight ing 
values 


By 

weight 


React- 
ing 
values 


lodium (Na) 


29,300 
1,188 


1,273.5 
30.4 


21.660 

2,750 

Trace 




941.7 

70.4 

Trace 




26,840 
1.548 


1.167.0 
39.6 


81,180 

3.448 

57 

Traces 

Trace 

34 

15 


3,530.0 


Irotassium (K) 


8S.2 




8.2 


Rubidium (Rb) and caesium 
|_(Cs) 










Traces 












Trace 


I Calcium (Ca) 


Trace 
Trace 
Trace 


Trace 
Trace 
Trace 


Trace 
Trace 


Trace 
Trace 


13 

4.7 
9.2 
12 

7.065 


.7 

.4 

.3 

1.3 

147.2 


1.7 


i Magnesium (Mg) 


1.2 


' *ron (Fe) 




Uuminum (Al) 


Trace 

9.360 

Trace 

13,440 


Trace 
191.8 

Trace 
378.9 


(a) 48 

21.170 

948 

52.900 


5.3 


1 Sulphate (SOO 


7,530 


156.9 


440.7 


\ titrate (XOa) 


15.3 


\ Chloride (CI) 


20.200 

Traces 

325 

16,710 

Trace 


569.7 

Traces 

20.3 

557.0 

Trace 


18.220 


514.0 


1.492.0 


\ Bromide (Br) and iodide (I). 
Sulphide (S) 
















► Oarbonate (CO3) 


13,152 
Trace 


438.4 
Trace 


16,500 
190 


549.9 
4.4 


(b) 48.880 
329 
156 
238 
297 


1,607.0 


tfetaborate (BO2) _ 


7.8 


Arsenate (AsOi) 


3.4 


Phosphate (POi) _ 


Trace 
245 


Trace 
8.1 


Trace 
164 


Trace 
5.4 








Silica (S1O2) 


207 


6.9 


9.7 








75,498 


60,526 


70,608.9 


209,700 





(a) Iron and aluminum oxides expressed as aluminum, rt>) Calculated. 

1. Castalian mineral water. Analyst, Thomas Price (1880). Authority, U. S. Geol. Survey, 
Sull. 32. 

2. Owens Lake. Analyst, Oscar Loew (1876). Authority, Wheeler report. 

3. Owens Lake. Analyst, T. M. Chatard (1886). Authority, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 60. 

4. Owens Lake. Analysts, C. H. Stone and F. M. Eaton. Authority, Am. Chem. Soc. Jour., 
. 1169, 1906. 



Coso Hot Springs. Near the southwest corner of Inyo County 
there is a group of hot springs that are especially remarkable because of 
:the acid character of their water. They have long been known as Coso 
Hot Springs, as they are on the eastern slope of the Coso Range. The 
main group is about 12 miles east of Haiwee railroad station, and is 
beside a road that leads eastward to Coso and other mining camps. The 
rocks of the region are largely granite, but this material is covered in 
some places by lava and lava craters of a recent geologic period of 
eruption. 

At the principal spring, which is in granite material, in a pit about 
50 feet by 100 feet in diameter and 10 feet deep, vapor and hot, sour 



8—46904 



114 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



water rise through a white mud that is apparently formed by the decom 1 
position from the rock. In summer the water in this pit is low, but ill 
winter, as a result of increased condensation and decreased evaporatioi I 
due to cooler weather, it is nearly half full. 

The following analyses show that it contains unusually large amount I 
of sulphate of iron and aluminum, and silica. The most remarkable 
feature, however, is the high tertiary salinity. The discordance of th< 
two analyses is apparently due, in part at least, to a change in th» 
character of the water. In connection with the large iron and sulphate 
content, it is of interest to note that minute crystals, apparently ® 
pyrite (iron sulphide), collect as a film on the water and also form 01 
the clay at the side of the pool. 

Analyses of Water From Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California. 

(Constituents are in parts per million.) 



Properties of reaction: 

Primary salinity 

Secondary salinity _. 

Tertiary salinity 

Primary alkalinity _ 
Secondary alkalinity 
Tertiary alkalinity _ 



o 
5 

90 



(?) 



Constituents 



By 

weight 



Keacting 
values 



By Reactinj 

weight values 



Sodium (Na) 

Potassium (K) ___ 

Lithium (Li) 

Ammonium (NEU) 

Calcium (Ca) 

Magnesium (Mg) 

Iron (Fe) 

Aluminum (Al) __ 
Hydrogen (H) _.. 
Sulphate (SOO _. 

Nitrate (NOs) 

Chloride (CI) _.__ 
Carbonate (CO3) 
Metaborate (BO2) 
Phosphate (PO*) 
Silica (S1O2) 



49 
11 
Trace 
Trace 
45 
2.4 
122 
201 
16 
2,308 
Trace 
Trace 




Trace 



2,754.4 



2.13 

.29 

Trace 

Trace 

2.25 

.20 

4.98 

22.22 

15.98 

48.05 

Trace 

Trace 

.CO 



Trace 



59 

34 

83 

56 

12 

1,400 



40 





Trace 

411 



2,188 



2.8 

2.S 

2.9 

6.2i 

ll.ff 

29.11 

.01 

l.i: 

.0(. 

.0< 

Trad 

13.51 



1. Main spring. Analyst, Oscar Loew (1876). Authority, Wheeler report. 

2. Main spring. Analyst and authority, F. M. Eaton (1910). 



The place has become a camping resort for people afflicted witr ! 
rheumatism, which is said to be relieved by baths in the hot mud 
Bathing pits are dug in the cooler mud near the spring, and the materia 
is worked up to the desired consistency. Close to the main spring is ar 
area of steam vents, about 25 by 50 yards across, which contains several 1 
pools that furnish clear water for washing and cooking. This area afl 



INYO COUNTY. 115 

arnishes sufficient heat for cooking, kettles containing food being 
laeed in shallow pits, covered with sacks, and allowed to remain until 
le food is done. 

Another area of hot vapors and mud in a ravine northwest of the 
nain spring has been filed on as a placer claim for mining medicinal 
;Vud. The material at this place is somewhat finer in texture than that 
t the main spring. 

Hot Springs near Tecopa. About 2 miles north of Tecopa railroad 
ration two hot springs issue on alkaline slopes that border the eastern 

de of an alkaline marsh along Amargosa Kiver. The springs rise in 
its that have been dug about 10 yards apart, and their combined flow 
I; about 225 gallons a minute. The observed temperatures were 108° 
ad 109° F. Near the springs are heavy alkaline deposits of soda and 
ommon salt, and the water tastes noticeably, though not disagreeably, 
K. the alkalies. In 1908 the water was piped to a railroad watering tank 
|alf a mile westward. It has also been used to some extent for bathing 
It a pool near the springs. 

| The water issues at the southwest base of a steep hill of quartzite that 
aps about 15° NE. The structure suggests that the hill forms part of a 
inge that has been faulted and tilted in the manner characteristic of 
le Basin ranges and that the springs rise along the zone of fracture, 
ither warm seepages rise in marsh land a mile southward and probably 
lave the same origin. 

Hot Spring South of Bishop. At the base of the Sierra, about 8 
jiiles south of Bishop a spring of considerable flow that is utilized for 
pmestic supply and also for dipping sheep has a temperature of about 
30 . Like the springs farther north, in Long Valley, its water has no 
istinctive taste nor odor and is probably mineralized in only small 
imount. 

I Volcanic rocks are present a few miles north of Bishop, and lava cones 
order the valley several miles south of the spring ; but its water issues 
com granitic rocks, and the unusually high temperature seems more 
Irobably to be caused by rising from a considerable depth along a fault 
one than by contact with masses of lava that have not yet cooled. 

Poison Spring. This spring is on the western border of Death 
'alley, 7 miles northwest of the Furnace Creek ranch. It yields salty 
rater that probably also contains sulphates, whose sickening effect on 
'lirsty travelers has given the spring its name. 

Salt Springs North of Furnace Creek Ranch. The sink or lowest 
prtion of Death Valley, in the eastern part of the state, is crusted 

ith impure salt, and at several places along its borders small springs 
jfsue whose waters are strongly saline. One group of springs of this 
laracter, is situated about 10 miles north of the Furnace Creek ranch 



116 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



"' 



at the northeast border of Death Valley, where a slight amount 
salty water issues. : ' ; m - 

Salt Springs South of Furnace Creek Ranch. About 4 miles soul 
of the Furnace Creek ranch saline water forms a small wet area at tl 
east edge of Death Valley. The flow is slight, and the water is too s 
to be drinkable. 

Vapor Vents West of Coso Hot Springs. Along the branches < 
a ravine 3 miles west of Coso Hot Springs there is an area sever 
acres in extent in which much vapor issues, and the ground is impre 
nated with sulphur and alum, but in 1908 no water was flowing. A ter 
perature of 203°, which is probably the boiling point at this elevatic 
(about 4300 feet), was recorded in the vapor vents. These vents a) 
in an area of lava where there are a number of small volcanic crater 
and the surface is partly covered with fragments of pumice and obsidia 
At the vapor vents the rock has been extensively altered by solfatar 
action and reduced to a siliceous sinter, but a mud similar to that at tl 
Coso Springs was not observed. The difference is probably due part 
to the fact that there is not sufficient water at the vapor vents to form 
mud, and partly because they issue through lava, which does not becon 
kaolinized as readily as does the granitic rock at Coso Hot Springs. 

Warm Spring Near Little Lake. A small amount of lukewar! 
odorless water issues in a spring about 300 yards from Little Lake ar 
near the base of a lava bluff 25 or 30 feet high. The spring has not bee 
developed nor used to any extent during recent years and is known on 
locally. Perhaps the chief point of interest concerning it is its positic 
with respect to the lava bluff. The primary alkaline and saline chara 
ter of the water is shown by the following early analysis : 

Analysis of Water From Warm Spring, Near Little Lake. 

(Constituents are in parts per million.) 



Properties of reaction: 

Primary salinity 

Secondary salinity _ 

Tertiary salinity 

Primary alkalinity . 
Secondary alkalinity 
Tertiary alkalinity .. 



Constituents 



By 


Reactii 


weight 

■ 


values 


328 


14. 


Trace 


Tra 


48 


2 


Trace 


Tra 


54 


1 


1G3 


1 


327 


10. 


Trace 


Tra 



Sodium (Na) 

Potassium (K) _, 
Calcium (Ca) _. 
Magnesium (Mg) 
Sulphatei (SO<0 . 

Chloride (CI) ... 
Carbonate (CO3) 
Silica (S1O2) ._._ 



Analyst, Oscar Loew (187G). Authority, Wheeler report. 



INYO COUNTY. 117 

Warm Springs in Panamint Valley. About 4 miles north of Bal- 
,rat, on the eastern edge of Panamint Valley, is a spring similar to the 
ae in Saline Valley. Its water is tepid and is noticeably sulphuretted, 
id its yield is only about 40 barrels a day (1 gallon a minute). It 
;>rms a small watering place on a road leading northward from 
allarat. 

Warm Spring in Saline Valley. There are a few thermal springs 
l minor importance in the desert region of eastern California. One of 
lese springs is at the northeast side of Saline Valley, about 25 miles 
^fc direct line east of Independence. It yields a small flow, and its 
ater is not of high temperature. There are several cool springs a short 
istance westward from it and also to the southeast that form watering 
laces in this part of the desert. 

MOLYBDENUM. 

Lucky Boy Prospect. Union district, 7 miles east of Kearsarge 
tation on the east flank of the Inyo Mountains. Elevation 7000 feet, 
lolybdenum occurs scattered through a quartz vein along a contact 
etween granite and limestone. A 15" vein can be traced for 500 feet 
long surface. The ore is said to contain 2.5% molybdenum. No 
•reduction. Located April, 1916, by H. M. Myers and J. E. Brown, of 
ndependence, Inyo County, Cal. 

Molybdenum claims have recently been staked out by F. A. Campbell 
q the upper part of Lone Pine Creek. The molybdenite occurs as small 
akes in a quartz gangue. The extent of the deposit is not yet known, 
s it is covered by snow during part of the year and has not been 
Prospected. 

NITER. 

The existence of niter in the low, rolling hills along the Amargosa 
liver has been known since the early eighties. The niter beds are 
ituated in the southeastern part of Inyo County, extending across the 
pundary line into the northern part of San Bernardino County. The 
liter hills have a soft rounded surface and vary in size from 50 feet 
!n height and covering a few acres, to several hundred feet in height 
jmd. covering many acres. 

Geology: The underlying rocks of the district are slates and schists 
)f the Jura-Trias period, highly metamorphosed. Next above are early 
Tertiary clays, deposited during a long period of subsidence. The clays 
ire bedded, on the upturned edges of the older rocks, in horizontal 
trata for a thickness of 800 feet. The formation of the niter-bearing 
lills occurred in the early Tertiary period and are the result of sedimen- 
tary marine deposits slowly accumulating in thin layers. These beds 
aave been worn by erosive agencies into soft rounded hills and knobs. 



118 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The hills are covered with a crust or surface coating which is compare 
tively smooth and follows the contours of the hills. The crust, varyinn 
from a few inches to over a foot in thickness, is termed "caliche." Tht 
"caliche" contains the salines which have been concentrated on thtj 
surface as a "result of the upward capillary flow of water from below^ 
induced by the constant and rapid evaporation at the surface in < 
comparatively rainless region." 9 The niter is a very soluble whitfl 
crystalline salt that readily permeates the clay. While the "caliche' 
contains a higher percentage of the niter, the clay layers underlying 
this crust also contain niter. This is due to the process of erosion and 
the wearing away of the clay beds by rains and floods. The niter it 
readily taken into solution and held by the underlying strata. 

"With the niter are associated sodium chloride, sodium sulphate' 
calcium sulphate, and magnesium sulphate. The proportions of the 
various salts vary as is shown in the following table, taken from Bull 
No. 24. 



Niter 

Sodium chloride — 
Sodium sulphate __. 
Calcium sulphate _. 
Magnesium sulphate 
Insolubles 



7.28 

6.36 

.60 

.20 

1.30 

84.26 



100.00 



14.50 

7.56 

.70 

.10 

2.80 

74.34 



27.40 
21.15 

2.05 
1.04 
2.00 



100.00 



100.00 



46.50 
25.30 

5.30 
.30 

1.20 
21.40 



100.00 



1.2< 
17.JK! 



100.0C 



The average from 104 samples of caliche taken from 104 claims in 1 
this vicinity was 9.54% niter. 

Bibl. : Bull. No. 24, "The Saline Deposits of California," issued bjf 

the California State Mining Bureau. 

Confidence Beds, consisting of 2400 acres, are situated along the 

south side of Death Valley at the "Narrows," northwest of Saratoga 

Springs. Analyses of caliche, as given by Gilbert Bailey, in Bulletin 24, ; 

show the highest per cent in niter to be 1.90 and the lowest as 0.76. An 

average of four samples was 1.7%. Undeveloped. These beds are held 

by the owners of the Valley, Round Mountain, Owl, and Saratoga Beds, 

of San Bernardino County. Owners, California Nitrate Development 

Company, 40 California St., San Francisco. 

Bibl. : Bull. 24, pp. 165, 174. 



"•Gilbert E. Bailey, Bull. 24, p. 160. 



INYO COUNTY. 



119 







Photo No. 75. Niter beds south of Owl Springs, showing method of prospecting and doing 
assessment work. The beds strike N. 74° E. 

Upper Cafion Beds. Resting Springs district. Situated along 
)oth sides of the Amargosa River on the Morrison Ranch and extending 
nto San Bernardino County. These beds are easily accessible, as the 
Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad traverses the claims. "Water for work- 
ng purposes can be obtained in sufficient quantities from the Amargosa 
iliver. Beds prospected by digging trenches in the caliche, which varies 
from 6" to 18" in thickness. Present development shows from 5% to 
I0 r r niter. From 11 to 18 miles of trenches dug. 

Gross tonnage as shown by trenches 328,500 

Reduced to tons commercial 118,000 

Value at $50.00 per ton $5,900,000' 

Owned by the Pacific Nitrate Company, Consolidated Realty Bldg., 
Los Angeles; president, Walter R. Fales. 

Bibl. : Bull. 21, pp. 165, 170-172. 

POTASH. 

The production of potash upon a commercial basis in Inyo County 
in the immediate future is probably assured, after much experimental 
work on the waters of Owens Lake. The composition of salts dissolved 
in waters of the lake was determined periodically from 1866 to 1914, 
under the direction of the United States Geological Survey. The 



120 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

percentage of potash in the anhydrous residue of the salts is abou i 
2.00 (See U. S. G. S. Bull. 580, p. 258). 

Potash also occurs in small amounts in the saline deposits of Deatl 
Valley and Saline Valley. These deposits were prospected at differem 
periods and often reported as being rich in potash. During 1912-1913 j 
Mr. Hoyt S. Gale, of the United States Geological Survey, directed A 
series of tests of these saline deposits. The results of the tests of thd 
Death Valley deposits are as follows: 

Analysis of Surface Salt From Death Valley. 

(George Steiger, Analyst.) 

NaCl -, 94.54% 

KC1 .31% 

Na 2 SO* 3.53% 

CaS0 4 2H 2 .79% 

Moisture .14% 

Insoluble residue .50% 

99.81% 

Quoting Mr. Gale, "The solid material of the deposits underlying! 
the lowest part of the valley to a depth of 100 feet may be assumed to 
average about 19% moisture, and after this has been dried out, the 
dried material averages about 65% of soluble salts. Of these soluble' 
salts, only about .0.72% has been shown to be potash, or 1.13%] 
potassium-chloride, the form in which the salt is doubtless present in 
this deposit." (For further detail on this deposit, see U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Bull. 540, pp. 407-415.) 

The results of the tests for potash in the salt deposits of Salineii 
Valley were practically negative, varying from .05% to 1.29% potash,! 
of total salts. (See U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 540, p. 420.) This lowj 
content does not warrant the production of potash upon a commercial 
basis. 

Inyo Development Company erected an experimental plant during 
1915 for the manufacture of potash salts, at its soda plant on the shores 
of Owens Lake. The process was described in detail by Mr. Carl 
Elschner, chemist of the company, in the Mining and Scientific Press, 
issue of January 29, 1916. Briefly, it is as follows : The brine resulting 
from the precipitation of the sodium carbonate is concentrated in solar 
evaporating vats. In the vats it is exposed in layers of a few inches. 
The vats are arranged in such a way that the liquid, after partial evap- 
oration, can be withdrawn from the crystallized salt crusts. The 
purpose of the evaporating and crystallizing process is to enrich the 
mother liquor with potash, and get out the other salts as free from 
potash as possible. Impure carbonate of sodium is first crystallized, 
and the solution drawn to another vat. The crystallization of NaCl 






INYO COUNTY. 121 



follows, and the liquid is drawn off again. Sudden precipitation, from 
# oversaturated solutions, makes the process a complicated one, and care 
is necessary to see that no potash precipitates. The final solution con- 
tains sulphuric, carbonic, some boric, chlorine, potassium, and sodium 
^'ions. It is evaporated to dryness and the salt crusts resulting dried 
I out and ground. The whitish potash fertilizer salts represent a mixture 
1 of the carbonates, sulphates, and chlorides of potash and soda, in 
li varying proportions. 

The first run of the experimental plant produced salts running 
I 20.41% KC1; 2d run, 29.40% KC1; 3d run, 34.05% KC1. The plant 

iis expected to be operating on a commercial basis within the year. 
Natural Soda Products Co., have been experimenting on their brine, 
and are erecting a plant for the extraction of potash. We are not 
informed as to their "vacuum" process, which is a secret one, developed 
by Mr. Noah Wrinkle, secretary of the company, but await the results 
with interest. 

QUICKSILVER. 

' Chloride Cliff Mine (see page 72) . A vein " in limestone contain- 
ing cinnabar and metacinnabarite was recently discovered on one of the 
claims of this gold mine. A tunnel 80 feet deep driven on the vein 
exposed some fairly rich ore. No production. Idle. Owned by Crowell, 
Findley and Parsons of Rnyolite, Nevada. 

SALT. 

Sodium chloride is deposited as the major ingredient in the saline 
crusts of Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Salt Wells Valley, and in the 
waters of Owens Lake. It occurs in smaller amounts in the niter beds 
that border the Amargosa River. Salt was formerly produced as a by- 
product at the borax works of the Salt Wells Borax Company. The only 
production in the county is now from the Saline Valley deposits. 
Bibl. : Bull. 24, "The Saline Deposits of California." 

Owens Valley Salt Company has under lease from the Saline Val- 
ley Salt Company, 2000 acres in the lowest depression of the Saline 
Valley. It is 12 miles in an airline northeast of Swansea, where the 
company's mill is situated. The deposit is very inaccessible, but is 
usually reached from the railroad by trail over the Inyo Range. The 
Saline Valley road from Alvord up Waucoba Canon is rather poor and 
roundabout. 

The salt is deposited in an old lake bed covering several square miles. 
Of this area about one square mile is composed of a smooth, white salt 



122 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 76. Mill and tramway terminal of Owens Valley Salt Company, 3 miles north of 

Keeler. 




Photo No. 77. Sacking salt at plant of Owens Valley Salt Co. 



INYO COUNTY. 123 

crust, formed by dissolving the surrounding impure salt crust with water 
from a nearby spring, and recrystallizing it by solar evaporation. The 
jecrystallized salt is said to 99.32% NaCl. It is harvested during the 
summer months and shipped, over an aerial tramway 13f miles in length, 
to the mill. The tramway, built by the Trenton Iron Works, is equipped 
with 800-lb. buckets, and is operated by electric power, as is the mill, 
supplied by the Southern Sierras Power Company. There are five sta- 
tions along the line at which the buckets are automatically changed. 
Seventeen men are required for the tramway. Operated only during 
the summer months. 

The mill treatment is as follows : The salt is shovelled into a bin 
which automatically feeds into a large rotary, oil burning, drying 
furnace. Subsequently elevated to rolls, where the salt is crushed to the 
desired sizes and passed over shaking screens to classify the different 
sizes. Five classes of salt are produced, varying from the natural crys- 
tallized rock salt to pulverized table salt. Approximately thirty tons 
arc produced daily at a cost of $2.75 per ton, segregated as follows: 

Gathering salt in field $0.50 

Tramming 1.50 

Milling .75 

Forty men are employed in Saline Valley during harvest season, April 
to December. Thirty men are employed at mill throughout the year. 
Operated since May, 1915, by leasing company. Manager, W. J. Savage, 
American Bank Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. Superintendent, John A. 
Lewis. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Bull. 540, pp. 116-420. 

SODA. 

The only soda produced in California is derived from the waters of 
Owens Lake. This lake lies between the Sierra Nevada Mountains on the 
west and the Inyo Range on the east and has no outlet. It covers an area 
of 97.2 square miles. The water is a dense brine, containing common 
salt, soda, borax, and other soluble salts. These soluble salts were 
evidently derived by the slow accumulation and concentration of the 
waters of the Owens River, which enters this basin from the north. A 
typical analysis of the composition of the salts dissolved in the lake 



124 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



waters, as determined under the direction of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
is as follows (calculated to percentage of anhydrous residue) : 

Specific Geavity 1.195. 

CI 24.82 

S0 4 9.93 

C0 3 24.55 



P0 4 __ 
B 4 7 _ 

N0 3 - 

Na — . 
K _— 
Li ___. 
Ca _— 
Mg __. 
Si0 2 _. 
ALO3 i 
Fe 2 3 ] 
As 2 3 . 



.11 
.14 
.45 
38.09 
1.62 
.03 
.02 
.01 
.14 

.04 
.05 



Total anhydrous salts, percentage of original sample 21.37. 

Bibl. : Bull. 24, pp. 94-98 ; U. S. G. S. Bull. 580, pp. 252-264, The 

Owens Basin. 

Inyo Development Company has operated a soda plant, on the 

shores of Owens Lake, 1 mile north of Keeler, since 1885. The process is 

briefly as follows : The lake water is pumped into large clay vats, vary 










Photo No. 78. Soda Works of Inyo Development Co., north of Keeler. 

ing in size from one acre to 20 acres, to a depth of from 6" to 8". It is 
concentrated by solar evaporation until the carbonates are precipitated. 
The mother liquid, containing potash, sulphates, chlorides, etc., is drawn 
into other vats, where the solution is further concentrated for the pro- 
duction of potash (see Potash). The trona (hydrous carbonate of soda) 



INYO COUNTY. 



125 



forms in a crust about f " thick and is gathered once a year. The crust 
is washed free of impurities and introduced into an oil-burning furnace, 
where it is reduced to the carbonate. An air blast, at the furnace dis- 
charge, cools the ash, which is then conveyed to rolls and pulverized. 
Plant operated by electric power supplied by the Southern Sierras 
Power Co. From 18 to 20 tons, of heavy ash only, are produced daily. 
The trona is gathered during October, November and December of each 
year, employing over a hundred men during that period. Mexican labor 
is employed at $2.50 per day. The mill is operated from June 1st to 
December 31st with twenty men employed. Home office, 218 Mills Bldg., 
San Francisco, Cal., A. B. Davis, vice president and general manager. 
Bibl.: Rept. VIII, p. 226; Rept. XII, p. 409; Kept. XIII, p. 646. 
Natural Soda Products Company. Plant situated on east shore 
of Owens Lake, 2 miles south of Keeler. This company is producing 
bicarbonate of soda, as well as soda ash. Their process is radically 
different from that of the older company. . . . , . 




Photo No. 79. Natural Soda Products Co. plant south of Keeler. 



The lake water is concentrated in clay vats by solar evaporation and 
then pumped to two 1000-gallon settling tanks. Subsequently pumped 
to eight 15,000-gallon tanks. Carbon dioxide, generated from dolomite, 
is passed up through the bottom of these cylindrical tanks, into which 
are introduced a series of screens to break up the C0 2 gas. The carbon 
dioxide precipitates the soda, and the latter is drawn from the bottom 
of the tank and passed through an Oliver filter; then introduced into 
furnace and reduced to ash. The tailing solution (mother brine) is to 
be used for the extraction of potash (see Potash). Daily production 



126 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



approximately thirty tons. Company reorganized 1915 and have pro- 
duced steadily since. Home office, Keeler. President, W. W. Waterson, 
Bishop ; superintendent, E. W. Walter. 

SULPHUR. 

Small deposits of sulphur are reported one mile southwest of Coso 
Hot Springs and in the mountains east of Big Pine. 

TALC. 

California Mineral Corporation, formerly known as the Pacific 
Mineral Products Co., owns a deposit of talc 8 miles southwest of 
Zabriskie. Auto road to the deposit. The talc is pure white, occurring 
along the contact of limestone and diorite. The deposit is irregular and 
varies up to 12 feet in width. Mined by open cuts and tunnels. 
Worked intermittently since 1912. Shut down September, 1915, due to 
litigation over ownership. Company recently reorganized, and expects 
to resume operations shortly. President, G. P. Eisenmayer, Citizens 
National Bank Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Simonds Talc Mine. Darwin district, 17 miles by road south- 
east of Keeler. Elevation 5850 feet. The deposit occurs in a crushed 
zone in limestone over a width of 70 feet. Strike of deposit N. 45° E., 
dip vertical. The talc varies in color from gray to pure white, and is 




Photo No. 80. Simonds Talc Mine. California Talc Co 



INYO COUNTY. 127 

hard and slippery. It is foliated and shattered, as is the inclosing lime- 
stone beds. Suitable for grinding purposes only. Very free from grit. 
Worked by open cuts and tunnel. Working tunnel 140 feet long, cutting 
talc beds 70 feet wide. Connected by raise to open cut above. Trammed 




Photo No. 81. Open cut and tunnel at Simonds Talc Mine, southeast of Keeler. 

to wooden chute to bin. Truck loaded from bin. Hauled to Keeler in 
4-ton auto truck. Two trips daily. Shipped to grinding plant, 175 
Hooper Street, San Francisco. Two men employed. Owners, California 
Talc Company (formerly Groah Mineral Company), 3075 Army St., 
San Francisco. Superintendent, E. E. Simonds, Keeler. 

Tramway Talc Mine (Hoff and Mayes Mine), is situated 3J miles 
northwest of Keeler, at the base of the Inyo Mountains, near the mill of 
the Saline Valley Salt Company. Elevation 3800 feet. Irregular deposit 
of talc along fault plane in metamorphosed limestone. The talc varies 
in color from grayish green to black. Very hard and slippery, and said 
to be free from grit. About forty tons shipped to the John D. Hoff 



128 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Asbestos Co., of Oakland, in 1915, was the only production. Idle. 
Owners, J. A. Mayes et al., Keeler, Inyo County,- Cal. 




QPSSS; 



Photo No. 82. Tramway Talc Mine, north of Keeler. 

TUNGSTEN.* 

The enormous increase in the price of tungsten during the early par 
of this year has been responsible for extensive prospecting in Iny 
County. Before the European war, the average price was $7.00 per 
unit (a unit is each 1% in tungsten trioxide). In February, 1915, the 
price was $40.00 per unit. It had risen to $50.00 per unit in February 
of 1916 and then jumped to $105.00. That was the highest price 
reached. It dropped to $80.00 per unit in March, and since then has 
gradually decreased. The quotation at the time of this writing is from 
$30.00 to $40.00 per unit, with indications pointing towards a further 
decrease. 

The tungsten ores thus far discovered in Inyo County are mainly 
confined to two districts, namely : in the vicinity of Bishop, and in the 
Ubehebe district south of the Racetrack. One small occurrence was also 
noted northeast of Big Pine. 






* Since this report went to press, a report on the "Tungsten Deposits of North- 
western Inyo County" by Adolph Knopf, has been published by the U. S. Geol. Survey 
as Bull. 640-L. The Nobles, Boyd and Welch, Chipmunk, Mineral Dome and McVan 
prospects, located after the field was covered by the writers, have been described. 
The Nobles property, now called the Last Chance, has recently been reported as 
being opened up with a tunnel by Cooper Shapley, superintendent of the Round 
Valley Tungsten Company, who expect to install a mill. 



\ 



INYO COUNTY. 129 

Districts. 

Bishop District. The tungsten mines of this district are located 
west and south of Bishop, in the low foothills bordering the Owens 
Valley. The country rock is granite intruding limestone. The ore is 
deposited in garnetiferous dykes or ledges along the contact of the 
limestone with the granite, and was probably formed at the time of the 
granite intrusion. The dyke rock or ledge matter consists essentially of 
small crystals of scheelite, garnet, epidote, pyrrhotite, pyrite, magnetite, 
rose quartz, and biotite. The character of the ore varies, and crystals 
that are prominent in one portion of the dyke may be entirely lacking in 
other portions. Malachite is occasionally found in the ore, close to the 
lime footwall. The percentage of scheelite in the ore varies, but in 

• general is very low, less than 1%. Rich pay streaks, said to run up to 
30%, are occasionally encountered. The dykes are massive, varying 
in width up to 60 feet. 

Ubehebe District. The tungsten claims of the district are located 
south of the Racetrack, in the vicinity of Dodds Spring and Goldbelt 
Spring. Keeler is the nearest shipping point. An auto road runs from 

; Keeler to Lee's Pump, approximately 30 miles. Trail from Lee's Pump 
to the locations. The district might also be entered by road from Bonnie 

i Claire, Nevada, by way of the Lost Burro Mine; but about 5 miles of 
new road would have to be constructed. 

The tungsten ores of this district are deposited in narrow veins in 
granite, close to limestone, or at the contact of the granite and limestone. 
The ores are scheelite and hiibnerite. They are not found associated in 
the same vein, but occur separately. Scheelite is found in the footwall 
side of copper veins deposited along granite and limestone contacts. The 
first discoveries of its existence in the district was on the dumps of old 
copper prospects. Hiibnerite has been found in well-defined fissure veins 
in the granite, close to the limestone contact. The discovery of tungsten! 
in this region is very recent, so that very little work has as yet been done 
to determine the extent of the veins. "Shorty" Harris, of Keeler,, 
shipped out a few hundred pounds of high grade scheelite from the 
vicinity of Hunters Mountain, early in March. This led to extensive 
prospecting, but to date we have no record of any further production. 

Mines. 

Aeroplane Mine. Bishop district, 8 miles by road due west of 
Bishop. Elevation 5800 feet. This property was purchased by the pres- 
ent owners early in 1916, and actual development commenced in April, 
1916. The ore body is irregular, varying from 10' to 40' in width. It 
outcrops near the summit of rugged mountains, 600 feet in elevation 
above the mill site. A trail has been built up to the workings from the 
mill. Mined by quarry and tunnel. The tunnel is about 50 feet below 

&-46904 



: 



130 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 













.4 : '^jfcc 


1 «5^3fipfv 



Photo No. 83. Aeroplane Mine at Tungsten, 8 miles west of Bishop, Inyo County. 

the quarry, and a raise has been driven to connect with the quarry, 
through which the ore will be handled. A rich streak of ore, said to run 
30% scheelite was encountered in driving the tunnel. When visited, a 
75-ton concentration mill was being installed. It was planned to 
crush to about 10 mesh, using rolls to avoid sliming, and concentrating 
on tables. Mill ran one month on ore that is said to average over 2 per 
cent. Power supplied by the California and Nevada Power Company. 




Photo No. 84. 



Seventy-five ton roller mill being constructed to handle ore from the Aero- 
plane Mine, near Bishop, Inyo County. 



INYO COUNTY. 131 

Water is obtained from springs and creek below mine. An aerial tram- 
way is to be built from the mine to the mill. Thirty men employed. 
Owners. The Standard Tungsten Co., H. W. Hellman Bldg., Los 
Angeles, Cal. L. E. Porter, superintendent. 

Alvord Group. Ubehebe district, 60 miles southeast of Bonnie 
Claire. Nevada, and 5 miles west of Goldbelt Springs. Scheelite occurs 
on the footwall of ledge containing copper and iron, on contact of lime- 
stone and granite. Ledge said to be 10 feet wide, and outcrops for 300 
feet. Xo development. Located April, 1916, by William Elliot, Ray 
Spear, and Ross Spear of Lone Pine, Inyo County, Cal. 

Buckshot Prospect, Bishop district, is 12 miles by road due south 
of Bishop, at foot of eastern flank of the Sierras. Elevation 4700 feet. 
The ore body outcrops in a large lens-shaped mass on a granite and lime- 
stone contact. Over 4000 tons of ledge matter exposed on surface, which, 
it is estimated, will average about 1% scheelite. Up to the time it was 
visited, only a shallow pit had been sunk on the ore. Recently taken 
under bond and lease by Charles W. Alvord, of Bakersfield, Cal. 

Monarch Tungsten Mine, Ubehebe district, approximately 35 miles 
north of east of Keeler, between Dodd's Springs and Goldbelt Springs. 
Road from Keeler to within 4 miles of mine. The ore is hiibnerite, 
occurring in bunches in a fissure vein in granite. Average width of 
vein 22". Strike NW., dip almost vertical. A 50-foot shaft has been 
sunk on the vein, with two 50-foot drifts driven from bottom of shaft. 

The hiibnerite played out at the 50-foot level, but the vein continues. 
Are sinking shaft with expectations of finding the hiibnerite with depth. 
Located July, 1915, by the Monarch Tungsten Company, Denver, Colo- 
rado ; president, Fred C. Allen ; secretary and manager, Frank D. Allen. 

Scheelite Group is 25 miles northeast of Big Pine on the road to 
the Loretto Mine and Eureka Valley. Northeast flank of Inyo Moun- 
tains, overlooking Eureka Valley. Elevation 6700 feet. The country 
rock is granite and limestone. Scheelite is found on the footwall side of 
a copper-bearing vein. The vein is in granite, about 100 feet above a 
limestone contact. Exposed by three shallow cuts, spaced about a 
hundred feet apart, along the strike. Width of vein 12". At the time 
visited, the scheelite had only been found in one location on the vein. 
Considerable development work must be done before it can be deter- 
mined whether the scheelite occurs in sufficient quantities to mine on a 
commercial basis. S. G. Drouillard claims to have taken out 400 lbs. of 
ore which averaged 40% scheelite, while exploiting the vein for copper 
nine years ago. No production since. Now being developed by the 
owners, S. G. Drouillard, Frank L. Over and W. H. Leffingwell of 
Bishop, Inyo County, Cal. 



332 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



.: ; ..— ~- ■ ' ; ■ 


lite " ' - '•-:<- 




■ i 


/■<-s ^ ' : ^. '- 


■ -■.-. . ■ - 


.:,«." 


'.,■,-,*£... vA- ■> . . ■ - - ".'■ -. . . y r /sr-- '. 


:fe 


•-■■■■ -•••- - 



Photo No. 85. Little Sister Ledge, to the left, and camp of the tungsten miners at Tungsten, 
8 miles west of Bishop, Inyo County. 




Photo No. 86. Looking northward towards town of Tungsten, and mill site of the Tungsten 
Mines Co., 8 miles west of Bishop, Inyo County. 



INYO COUNTY. 133 

Tungsten Mines Company, Bishop district, owns a group of claims 
adjoining the Aeroplane Mine, 8 miles west of Bishop. The development 
to date is confined to the Little Sister claim. The garnetiferous dyke 
outcrops on this claim for 375 feet, over top of hill. It is at least fifty 
feet in width. This ore body is said to average 0.6% scheelite. A 
tunnel is being driven 165 feet below the outcrop to cut the dyke. 
Ma chine drills are used. At the time visited, owners were excavating 
for the erection of a 300-ton concentration mill, to be located a few 
hundred feet below the Standard Company's mill and southwest of the 
Jackrabbit claim. An aerial tramway is to be installed from the Little 
Sister tunnel to the mill. Expect to employ at least 150 men upon 
completion of the mill. L. L. Stevens, of Bishop, general manager. 

A town site, to be known as Tungsten City, was surveyed in the canon 
below the properties of the Standard and Tungsten Mine companies. 
When visited it had somewhat the appearance of a "boom" camp, as 
great activity was manifested in the erection of tents, boarding houses, 
offices, etc. 

VOLCANIC ASH, OR PUMICE. 

A bed of tuff is deposited in the Pleistocene sediments of the Amar- 
gosa Valley at Shoshone. The bed is impure, carrying some lime with 
the tuff, and is not adaptable for use in the manufacture of glass. 
R. J. Fairbanks, of Shoshone, shipped several carloads of this silica t« 
a San Francisco firm, to be used for scouring soap, etc., No recent pro- 
duction. Idle. 



134 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Bailey, Gilbert E. — 

The Saline Deposits of California. California State Mining Bureau, Bulletin 24, 
1902. 

Ball, Sydney H.— 

A Geologic Reconnaissance in Southwestern Nevada and Eastern California. 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 308, 1907. 

Campbell, M. R.— 

Reconnaissance of the Borax Deposits of Death Valley and Mohave Desert. U. S. 
Geol. Survey, Bull. 200, 1902. 

Fairbanks, H. F. — 

Notes on the Geology of Eastern California. Am. Geologist, Vol. 17, 1896, p. G7. 

Free, E. E.— 

Nitrate Prospects in the Amargosa Valley, near Tecopa, Cal. U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Bureau of Soils, Circ. No. 73, 6 pp., 4 figs., Dec. 26, 1912. 

Gale, Hoyt S — 

The Lila C. Borax Mine, at Ryan. U. S. Geol. Survey. Mineral Resources of 

the U. S. in 1911. Pt. II., p. 861. 
Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint Basins, Southeastern California, 
U. S. G. S. Bull. 580-L. 

Hill, Robert T.— 

Marble Deposits of the Inyo Mountains. Min. & Sci. Press, Vol. 105, pp. 86, 87, 
July 20, 1912, 

Knopf, Adolph. — 

Mineral Resources of the Inyo and White Mountains, California. U. S. Geol. 

Survey, Bull. 540, pp. 81-120, 1914. 
The Darwin Silver Lead Mining District, U. S. G. S. Bull. 580- A. 
Tungsten Deposits of Northwestern Inyo County, California. U. S. Geol. Survey, 
Bull. 640-L. 

Lee, Chas. H. — 

Water Resources of a Part of Owens Valley, California. U. S. Geol. Survey, 
W. S. Paper, No. 294, 1912. 

Lee, W. T.«— 

Geology and Water Resources of Owens Valley, California. U. S. Geol, Survey, 
W. S. Paper, No. 181, 1906. 

Mendenhall, Walter C. — 

Some Desert Watering Places in Southeastern California and Southwestern 
Nevada. U. S. Geol. Survey, W. S. Paper, 224, 1909. 

Spurr, J. E. — 
Geology of Nevada South of the Fortieth Parallel and Adjacent Portions of Cali- 
fornia. U. S. Geol. Survey. Bull. 208, 1913. 

Walcott, C. D. — 

The Post-Pleistocene Elevation of the Inyo Range. Jour. Geol. Vol. 5, No. 4, 1897, 
pp. 340-8. 

The Appalachian Type of Folding in the White Mountain Range of Inyo County, 
California. Am. Jour. Sci. 3d Series, Vol. 49, 1895, pp. 169-174. 

Waring, Gerald A. — 

Springs of California. U. S. Geol. Survey. W. S. Paper 338, 1915. 



MONO "COUNTY. 135 



MONO COUNTY. 

By Arthur S. Eakle, Ph.D.. and R. P. McLaughlin, Field Assistants. 
Field work in 1914 and 1915. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Mono County was. created April 24, 1861, and consists of 3030 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north and east by the state of Nevada, on 
the south by Inyo County, and on the west by Madera, Tuolumne and 
Alpine counties. The county is extremely mountainous, the western 
portion lying among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, whose principal 
peaks rise to elevations of over 13,000 feet. The greater portion of the 
county, in its larger features, is a broad table land at an altitude 
of from 5000 ft. to 7000 ft. above sea level, traversed by a series of 
approximately parallel ranges running northerly and southerly which 
rise several thousand feet above the plateau. Quoting from the report 
of H. A. Whiting, 1 "These ranges have been determined by those 
grand displacements which characterize the Great Basin structure. 
They are, therefore, like the Sierra Nevada itself, orographic blocks 
bounded by faults and so tilted that their upturned edges form moun- 
tain crests with a steep descent on one side and more gentle slope in 
the opposite direction. Among such ranges two grand mountain 
masses are preeminent rivaling the Sierra Nevada in height and 
majesty; they are the Sweetwater Mountains, along the eastern 
border of the county in its northern portion, and the White Mountains, 
crossing its extreme southeast corner." 

In the high Sierras glaciers exist. These are the remains of 
"glaciers of large size which formerly flowed down the high Sierras 
and deposited moraines of great magnitude, on which terraces of the 
quaternary lake that formerly filled the Mono basin to a depth of nine 
hundred feet, are distinctly traced. ' ' 2 

Mono Lake is the remainder of this great inland sea, and is the only 
large body of water in the county. It lies ten miles south of Bodie at 
an elevation of 6426' above sea level (October, 1909, U. S. G. S.), 
with an approximate area of 1100 square miles. This lake is of the 
same character as Owens Lake, described in our Inyo County report, 
containing the carbonate and sulphate of soda, sodium chloride, etc. 
For a detailed description of this lake the reader is referred to the 
account cited in the footnote. 2 

Owens River, in the south, which takes its rise in a high peak of the 
Sierras and flows southward emptying into Owens Lake, and Walker 

J State Mining Bureau, Report VIII, pp. 353-354. 
2 U. S. G. S., Monograph XI, p. 267. 



136 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

River, which flows northward into Nevada, are the principal streams; 
however, the numerous large streams which flow down the east flank of 
the Sierras furnish excellent water power during the greater portion 
of the year. 

Mining is the principal industry of the county, although at present 
very little work is being done. Its period of greatest activity was 
during the late seventies and early eighties, when the population 
increased from about 400 to over 7000. The population is now about 
2000. This county suffers the disadvantage of being very inaccessible. 
The only railroad in the county is the Nevada-California Railroad 
which cuts the southeast corner for a distance of 68 miles. The 
greater portion of the county is reached by stage lines from Nevada. 
With increased transportation facilities there will undoubtedly be 
great mining activity, as there are many highly mineralized vein sys- 
tems that under present conditions can not be profitably worked. 

The following description of the mining districts and mineral 
resources of Mono County have been written by Arthur S. Eakle, Ph.D. 
and R. P. McLaughlin, who spent several months in the field in prepar- 
ation for the same. Dr. Eakle made a trip through the northern por- 
tion of the county in the Antelope Valley region during the summer o 
1915 to supplement and complete the report of R. P. McLaughlin pre 
viously prepared, on the older mining districts, principally the Bodie 
and Masonic districts. 

Bibl. : In addition to the references given in the text of this report, 
the following give some account of the earliest history of mining 
in Mono County : Min. Res. W. of Rocky Mts., 1868, pp. 177-179; 
1871, p. 28; 1873, p. 16; 1874, pp. 22, 27; 1876, p. 32. 



MONO COUNTY. 



137 



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138 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

ANTELOPE VALLEY REGION. 

The area of Mono County which is chiefly described under this head- 1 
ing is situated in the eastern side of Antelope Valley in Townships j 
8 and 9, Range 23 East, adjacent to the California-Nevada state line.! 
Antelope Valley extends south from the state line for a distance of I 
ten miles and is about four miles wide near the state boundary. A 
good stage road connects the valley, with Minden, the nearest railroad % 
station and this road continues south through the valley and central 
portion of Mono County to Bridgeport and beyond. Topaz, in the 
west-central part of the valley, and Coleville, three miles further up jj 
the valley, are two small settlements containing post offices. The valley i 
land is mostly owned by the Antelope Valley Land and Cattle Com- 1 
pany, and has been converted by irrigation into a fine afalfa and stock I 
ranch. The West "Walker river flows northerly through the valley and I 
furnishes plenty of water for irrigation. Much of the low land of the]* 
valley is often inundated by the river overflowing its banks, making i 
marshes and sloughs. The valley is 5000 feet in elevation, and prac- I 
tically nothing but alfalfa can be raised. 

The valley lies between high ridges of granite and metamorphic \ 
gneisses and schists, which cover the larger part of Mono and Alpine I 
counties, these ridges being a portion of the series of metamorphics on I 
the east flank of the Sierras. The valley on its western side is faced I 
by a high escarpment of gneisses, schists, and granites and these ridges i 
rise to a height of 7000 and 8000 feet. The west side is almost a con-i| 
tinuous wall, broken near Coleville by a smaller side valley, known as I 
Little Antelope Valley. This valley has the appearance of an amphi- j 
theatre perched several hundred feet above the main valley. The floor jj 
of this valley is composed of the till and wash from the mountains \ 
back of it. Roderique Creek flows through this valley and a branch 
road follows up this creek and canon, past the Golden Gate mine and j 
over the ridges into Alpine County connecting with the road through 
Monitor Canon. At present this road is unimproved and not much I 
more than a trail. 

The eastern side of Antelope Valley is in marked contrast to the ! 
western in topography, and in character and composition of the hills. 
At the extreme southern end or apex of the valley the granitic ridges on 
both sides of the valley converge and leave only a narrow canon through 
which the West Walker river rushes into the valley. The granitic 
ridges strike northeast from this point and have in their west flank a 
series of lower ridges and hills of metamorphic limestone and volcanic 
andesite. These hills border the valley and present weathered and 
rounded surfaces with sloping sides. 



MONO COUNTY. 139 

Character of the rocks. 

Gneisses and schists are the prominent rocks which form the scarp 
in the west. The gneiss is a light gray, hornblende-biotite rock and 
shows its banded character very plainly on the wall faces along the 
valley. The schist is the common, dark gray, muscovite-biotite schist, 
easily splitting along its schistose cleavage. This schist is abundant 
at the head of Little Antelope Valley, forming high ridges along Rode- 
rique creek. The wall of rock at the head of the valley is granite and 
this massive igneous rock covers much of the country to the south. It 
is mostly a light gray, hornblende-biotite granite with white feldspars 
but occasionally the feldspars are colored reddish, imparting a pink 
'color to the granite. The rock is very uniform in structure and would 
make excellent building and ornamental granite. 

The hills on the eastern side of the valley are of greater mineral- 
ogical interest and importance because of the presence of crystalline 
limestone and contact deposits of minerals. 

A limestone belt borders the valley and forms a wall for a few miles. 
It strikes north and south and its southern end probably rests against 
the granitic or gneissic hills, while its northern end terminates at 
Lobdan canon. This belt of limestone is approximately 3000 feet 
wide but has been intersected by intrusive masses and dikes of 
diabase and covered by gravel and conglomerate in portions of it. A 
section up White Way canon shows solid limestone for about 700 feet 
followed by an intrusive mass of diabase 300 feet, and then a covering 
of coarse gravel conglomerate and till for 1000 feet until the limestone 
again appears forming the eastern part of the belt. The limestone has 
all been metamorphosed into a crystalline limestone and marble by the 
general metamorphism of the original sedimentary rocks of the region 
and has been further and more intensely metamorphosed locally by the 
diabase and andesite intrusions. East of the limestone belt porphy- 
ritic andesite occurs followed by schist and granite. The main deposits 
of minerals in the limestone have been near and along the contact with 
the andesite. The mineralized portion of the belt is perhaps 750 feet 
thick and the adjacent andesite has also been altered and mineralized. 

The Minerals. 

Prospectors have been over the ground in this district and left their 
traces in small holes and claim monuments but no work has even been 
done which would prove the existence of any deposits large enough to 
warrant the investment of capital. Small outcrops of minerals occur 
and the general indication is that the deposits are pockets in the lime- 
stone and it is problematical if they are of large size. The remoteness 
from a railroad precludes the shipment of any but high grade ore and 
the district will probably remain idle until good bodies of such ore are 



140 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

found. The district is known as the "West Walker River Mining Dis- I 
trict and it contains gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and iron il 
minerals, and barite, marble and building stone. 

Gold occurs in the disseminated pyrite and also as free gold. The 
porphyritic andesite which occurs in contact with the limestone has I 
been altered and mineralized by solutions so that it appears as a soft, ] 
friable mass of white and iron-stained, kaolinized feldspathic rock, 
containing seams and veins of white clay and porous silica. These j 
seams occasionally run quite high in gold as shown by panning and 
assays, but all of those exposed in the pits are mere streaks and soon I 
pinch out. The rock containing these richer streaks is too low grade 
for working so the value of the claims depends upon the frequency 
and grade of the veinlets. On the western slope of Round Mountain i 
some prospect holes show seams which readily pan gold and run as 
high as $300 per ton. Only shallow pits have been dug which do not 
prove the value of the claims. This mineralized and silicified porphyry 
is quite extensive in the region and may contain rich pay seams. 

The only gold produced in the district has come from the Golden 
Gate Mine, in the hills in the western side of the valley. This mine 
is located in Roderique Canon at the head of Little Antelope Valley, 
about three miles from Coleville. This mine has changed hands several 
times since its discovery in 1898 and is now owned by Brown & Dono- 
van. It is for sale or lease and no ore is being mined. The property 
consists of fifteen claims on the hills enclosing the canon. The ore is 
free milling gold ore and auriferous pyrite. Veinlets and stringers of 
quartz and lenticular bodies of sulphides occur in a ferruginous schist 
at its contact with diabase. The steep sides of the canon permit of 
adit tunnels at different levels and the present workings consist of five 
of these levels with three adits. There is an abundant supply of water 
for milling furnished by the creek and the owners have erected a 
10-stamp mill in the north side of the cafion and an aerial tramway 
to connect the mine and mill. The mill is at present idle. There are 
no concentrators and the owners depend on the mill for returns. Four 
men are at present employed in development work. All work is 
done by hand drilling. This mine has also been described by 
R. P. McLaughlin. 3 

This section also contains the famous "White Metal" which is 
so hard and tough that it can not be broken or flattened by hammer 
blows. A short distance up an adjacent canon which opens into Little 
Antelope Valley, the writer was informed that a deposit occurred 
which produced this white metal when fused. A climb to this deposit 
for specimens showed it to be a ledge of white granular quartzite in 



'Soo p. 165, post. 



MONO COUNTY. 141 

which pyrite grains and crystals were thickly disseminated. It is said 
that London mining men after seeing specimens came over to inspect 
the deposit but nothing ever resulted from their visit. The "white 
metal" was obtained by heating the pyrite in a forge where the 
charcoal contaminated the iron, reduced it and converted it into a 
steel button. The pyrite is auriferous, assaying $9.00 per ton. 

Silver and lead occur in the limestone as argentiferous galena. No 
silver minerals have been found and it is probably associated with the 
lead and copper sulphides. There are pockets of galena in the rock 
assaying several ounces of silver, but these pockets can not be depended 
upon as a silver proposition. In some of the calciferous altered por- 
phyritic rock iron and lead carbonate have resulted by oxidation and 
may carry a few ounces of silver as shown in Round Mountain. Cop- 
per outcrops in several places show malachite and azurite as stains and 
good specimens. The original mineral is chalcopyrite which is asso- 
ciated with garnet, most of the outcrops being garnetiferous rock. 
They are not presumably of importance as copper deposits. 

The district shows much iron and the hills are stained yellow and 
red by the alteration of the iron minerals, especially pyrite. Pyrite is 
common in porphyry and to some extent in limestone. On one of the 
claims, known as the South 40, there is an outcrop of massive magne- 
tite associated with a black hornblende rock containing tourmaline. 
An old tunnel run into the hill to top this deposit has revealed a large 
body of magnetite as a contact deposit. This magnetite contains a 
small percentage of zinc and cadmium as sulphides intimately mixed 
with the magnetite. Attention was first called to this deposit by speci- 
mens of the magnetite coated a bright lemon and orange yellow with 
the rare sulphide of cadmium, greenockite. The cadmium is evidently 
associated with the zinc, and while of some value as specimens, it has 
little or no commercial value. An analysis of the magnetite shows the 
amount of the two sulphides to be very small, about one per cent. The 
amount, however, would probably vary. 

At the northern end of the limestone belt a deposit of barite occurs 
and outcrops of the mineral indicate that a large deposit of the mineral 
occurs. Specimens obtained from a small hole show it to be a massive 
white pure barite. This deposit may prove of value in the future and 
several claims have been located on it. 

Some of the limestone has been metamorphosed into pure white 
marble and there is an old marble quarry in White Way Canon which 
is now owned by Ed. Davis. The marble was quarried from the bed 
of the creek and some large blocks have been taken out by drilling and 
used for monumental work. The marble has a decided rift and 
appears somewhat columnar in its structure instead of homogeneously 
and uniformly granular; consequently crushing strength and perhaps 



142 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

its durability would not be equal to that of a fine-grained compact 
marble. The quarry has long been idle as the long haul to the railroad 
and shipment to a market render transportation charges prohibitive. 

This section of Mono County has not been thoroughly prospected 
and it presents some attractive features for the investment of a little 
capital to open up some of the ore outcroppings. 

The main road follows the western edge of the valley at the foot of 
the western granitic walls and enters the canon of the river and con- 
tinues due south along the banks of the river to Hardy Station or 
Blackburn. The canon is narrow with sheer walls and precipitous 
sides of granite for the greater part of the distance. Near the Toll- 
gate the granites on the east have a capping of black volcanic rock and 
as the road turns east from Blackburn it passes through a region of 
later eruptive rock. 

At Fales Hot Springs, obsidian, pitchstone, tuff and old travertine 
deposits occur. The more recent volcanic activity, which is evidenced 
by the high volcanic peaks south of the springs and the pumice and I 
obsidian boulders, is still further in evidence by the boiling water on 
this spring. If the county were well-populated this would undoubtedly 
become a well patronized resort. The volcanic character of this sec* ; 
tion is seen on the road to Bridgeport. About one mile southeast of 
the town of Bridgeport about one-half mile east of the road to Bodie, 
the large deposit of travertine occurs which has been described in 
former reports of the bureau and which McLaughlin mentions. 4 The 
travertine or lime carbonate occurs in several ridges of varying 
lengths, the longest several hundred feet. These ridges are somewhat 
covered and stand ten to fifteen feet above the surface, with an ellip- 
tical form generally, being slightly higher than the diameter of the 
base. It seems probable that this section was formerly occupied by 
pools which were fed by hot springs at the bottoms, the waters being 
charged with lime and soda carbonates held in solution. As the water 
trickled over the edges of these pools, the carbonates were precipitated 
by evaporation, forming a vein with fluted surfaces. With the cessa- 
tion of spring flows and drying up or breaking of the walls, the pools 
became emptied leaving these veins standing. Most of the material is 
gray, discolored by iron and of very poor quality as a marble. In 
some portions the iron oxides have stained the travertine deep red 
and brown and a quarry was opened in 1895 and slabs of the material 
were used in the old City Hall in San Francisco. Some pieces could 
be obtained which would make good slabs marked by pleasing designs, 
but the most of the material is pitted and unfit for use. Not much of 
the material was ever quarried. There still remain small hot springs 
charged with the bicarbonates, and the bottoms of the pools are coated 



4 See p. 173, post. 



MONO COUNTY. 143 

rhite with the alkalies. Some attempt was formerly made to extract 
;>da from the pools. All of the elliptical ridges are split asunder along 

Ifceir central line leaving a cleft several feet deep and a foot or more 

|a width. It seems probable that on the release of water pressure and 
ettling of the base these cracks were brought about. The rock is not 
ery coherent and a little movement of the base on one side could 
asily account for the breaks. The section between Bridgeport and 
>odie and around the latter town has been well covered by R. P. 

i IcLaughlin who gives descriptions of the mines in the following 

I iapters. 

BODIE AND MASONIC REGION. 
■Neology. 

The mineral resources of this region can best be understood by a brief 
iption of the geologic features which are shown on the accompany- 
i ng map. upon which the section lines correspond to those shown upon 
f he Bridgeport Topographic Quadrangle of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
fc't should be remembered that the geologic work was hurriedly done, 
jueing simply a reconnaissance. 

The oldest rock in the region is the metamorphic series which consists 
► »f schist, quartzite. altered slate and similar rocks. It possibly belongs 
o the same series as the so-called slate, extending along the eastern flank 
hf the Sierra Nevada and which is mentioned later. One of the most 
i >rominent exposures of this series is in the vicinity of Rough Creek. 
■bout 4 miles north of Bodie. where it consists of some large croppings 
)f chalcedonic quartzite. dark, almost black quartzite. showing con- 
torted lines either of bedding or flow under pressure. In other places 
is near the state line T. 5 N., R. 27 E.. the quartzite has scarcely lost 
he appearance of a fine, hard sandstone with gently dipping beds and 
ilso varies to the appearance of black flint and white porcelain. Cinna 
lar in a 2-foot vein of chalcedony is located in this vicinity. 5 and some 
work was done many years ago. None was observed during this visit. 

That portion of the series near the town of Masonic consists mostly 
pf fine grained mica schist. That portion of the series on the wagon 
road about six miles south of Masonic shows light colored, slightly 
altered shale. The small areas in Sec. 34. T. 5 X.. R. 26 E.. are 
interesting on account of their isolation and small extent. Most of this 
rock is breccia and a light colored tuff or altered sandstone. Faulting 
is evidenced by slickensided exposures. Some prospect work has been 
done for quicksilver, but none was observed by the writer. 

As seen from the above brief notes the series is very complex, 
probably having originally consisted largely of sediments which have 
been altered by heat and pressure during the upheaval of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains and the accompanying granitic intrusion. 

8 Annual Report State Mineralogist, 1S88, p. 356. 



144 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



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MONO COUNTY. 



145 




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146 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




MONO COUNTY. 147 



The granite shown around the town of Masonic varies in different 
portions of the area, but is usually coarse grained, showing feldspar 
crystals frequently a half inch long. It is broken by several series of 
joint planes. To the north of town their strike is northeast and south- 
west, dipping about 60" towards the northwest, while south of town the 
most prominent fractures strike nearly east and west and dip north- 
ward. Probably the entire mass has been subjected to severe strains 
and movements, causing some of the more prominent jointing planes. 
Along the southern and eastern borders of the met amorphic area, one- 
half mile west of Masonic, the relation of the two series is plainly seen. 
That the granite is the younger is shown by its intrusion as dikes, 
several feet wide, for a distance as much as 50' into the schist, which 
is generally laminated parallel to the contact line between the two 
formations. 

The silicified zones are among the most important features shown on 
the map, as in them occur most, if not all, of the ore bodies of the 
Masonic district. North of the main road through the district, in 
Section 1."). is a bold quartz or quartzite outcrop several hundred feet 
wide and over one hundred feet high, being one of the most noticeable 
portions of the silicified areas. These zones doubtless exist in places 
where considerable fracturing and possibly movement has taken place 
in the granitic country rock. 

As shown on the two accompanying maps the zones correspond 
closely with the general direction of the jointing planes in the granite. 
It is also suggested by some observations, notably about 200' SE. from 
the Serita shaft, that there may have been intrusions of igneous dikes 
along some of the fractured areas. In general the rock in these zones is 
quartz, but not in the usual vein formation. It is usually dark colored 
or rusty in appearance and the walls of the zone are not clearly dis- 
tinguished, especially upon the surface of the ground. It is made up of 
large quartz boulders, silicified granite, breccia and some clay as from 
decomposed country rock. The ore of the district has an open or 
porous appearance and consists of light colored chert and coatings of 
ehalcedonic quartz accompanying breccia of light colored angular frag- 
ments cemented in a dark brown groundmass. Its appearance is 
unusual as compared with other ore bodies of the surrounding country, 
which doubtless accounts for its comparatively recent discovery. It 
indicates that after quartz began to be deposited there were many 
disturbances in the channels, opening, closing, and crushing. Irregular 
shaped ore bodies are to be expected. 

The rock immediately east of Bodie has been described as horn- 
blende andesite and that immediately surrounding it (mapped as basic 
lava) is also andesite, but of a much coarser texture. Their difference 
in color is marked, the outlying rock weathering to a pink while the 



148 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Glacial striae or scoring on bedrock (metamorphic) above East Lake at head of Green Creek, 
Mono County. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 




Glacial moraines on Green Creek, Mono County. View looking down creek from below mouth 
of canon proper. The two ridges on either side are lateral moraines, which at their upper 
end are 500 feet high. The meadow in the middle-ground is due to silting up of the lake 
which was formed by the terminal, glacial moraine whose position is marked by the line 
of aspen trees crossing the valley. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 






MONO COUNTY. 149 

hornblende andesite weathers to a reddish brown. The surrounding 
lava flows lap onto the andesite, which was probably standing as a hill 
l&ng before the volcanic flows occurred. There is some evidence, such 
•asicnal inclusions of chert at a depth of about 500', in the mines, 
that the older andesite broke through the underlying metamorphic 
rocks. The relation between the andesite and overlying andesite can b? 
feen east of the Standard mill and more plainly at Sigourney Flat, 
where the sharp hill, around which the wagon road winds (SW. J of 
S c. 21. T. 1 N., K. 27 E.) consists mostly of the lava capping, the 
contact dipping southward. 

The andesite is a most important reck economically as it contains 
all the quartz veins of the Bcdie district. These veins are a most 
interesting feature, geologically, which has been fully described, as 
after noted. The most northern exposure of quartz veins in the 
Bodie andesite is at the Svndicate Mine and extends south more or 
ontinuously for three miles to Sigourney Flat. Only the northern 
half of these croppings have been productive. 

The rocks mapped as basic lava are of several varieties and may 
include some which would not strictly fall under that name. Along 
the road a mile and a half south of Masonic it is basalt. About three 
miles south of Bodie it is bedded volcanic tuff and also tuff composed 
of angular boulders of various sizes cemented by the finer tuff, while 
occasional dikes of dark igneous rock are plainly seen protruding 
through and above the tuff. About two miles north of Bodie on Table 
Mountain the most recent lava is seen having flow r ed out from the cone- 
shaped crater known as Beauty Peak, which is situated on the Nevada- 
California boundary line. The original smooth surface of this particu- 
lar flow is but little disturbed, while the older flows are much eroded. 
The entire mass has a characteristic and monotonous appearance, form- 
ing pink or dark brow-n rounded hills. The formation possibly attains 
a maximum thickness of 500' in some places. Along the road in Cot- 
tonwood Canon, 3 miles south of Bodie, the volcanic breccia or con- 
glomerate has a damp appearance and is frequently referred to as an 
oil seepage. Its appearance is really due to magnesium salts which 
are hydroscopic. 

In the following descriptions many old, idle or abandoned properties, 
are omitted as nothing could be added to previous reports. 

BODIE DISTRICT. 

This mining district has been and still is the most important in 
Mono County. Up to the end of 1888 it had produced $18,097,922 in 
gold and silver and from that time until the end of 1912 over $6,150,000 
has been produced. The district was organized in 1860 and in 1863 a 
New York company began mining operations on the property later 



150 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

known as the Syndicate, now the New Bodie, but failed and the district 
was practically idle and deserted until 1872, when rich ore was dis- 
covered in one of the old claims and milled in arrastras on Rough 
Creek. In 1876 a San Francisco company began mining on what is 
now known as the Standard property, less than half a mile from the 
ore bodies discovered some 16 years previous. In two years rich strikes 
created great excitement and much development work was carried on 
by about 50 companies, however, expectations were not realized and 
about 1880 the camp declined. The above facts and a description of 
the geological occurrences to which little can, even now, be added, were 
set forth by H. A. Whiting in 1888.° 

Subsequent history of the camp is interesting principally on account 
of the long period of activity upon lower grade ore deposits all within 
the early defined limits. A recital of developments of new mining and 
particularly metallurgical methods in this district gives an outline of 
the advance of knowledge of gold mining in California, as many new 
methods have seen early trials here under managers who have since 
achieved world-wide fame. 

About 1890 concentration with Frue vanners was tried as an experi- 
ment and leaching of tailings valued at $7 to $8 per ton at a cost on 
$3.50 was an innovation. In 1892-1893 a hydroelectric plant with 12J 
miles of transmission line was built under direction of Mr. T. H. Leg- 
gett, to economize in milling, as wood at $10 per cord had been costing 
$2000 per month to crush 50 tons per day in a 20-stamp mill. 7 Success- 
ful operation reduced milling .cost to $1.46 per ton. 

Standard Con. Mining Co. For many years, only this concern hasj 
been operating in a large way and as similar methods are likely to 
be applied to any of the remaining ore bodies worked in the future the 
following data from the company's annual reports, kindly furnished by 
C. E. Grunsky, Jr., formerly superintendent 8 , are interesting. 



"Report VIII, pp. 382 to 401. 

7 Report XII, p. 419. 

8 Mr. Grunsky was succeeded by Chester A. Allen, who continued as superintendent 
to February 23, 1915, when the property was transferred to J. S. Cain of Bodie. The 
tailings ponds were exhausted in October, 1913, since which, until October, 1916, 
the slime plant has not been in operation. No ore was treated during 1914, nor in' 
the early part of 1915, but development was continued. 

Under date of October 16, 1916, Mr. Cain writes that good ore is being obtained by 
leasers on several levels of the mine, from small veins, assaying from $100 to $300 
per ton, and that the mill is crushing ore from the 318' level yielding $250 per ton 
on the plates. Also, they are hoisting ore averaging over $200 from the 528' level 
from a point 1000' east of the Standard shaft. Good ore is being opened up on the 
350' level south of the Bulwer tunnel, about 50' west of the Standard shaft; and on 
the 200' level of the Bodie tunnel, 400' south of the Syndicate ground. These various 
veins were found by crosscutting. The slime plant is again in operation treating 
tailings from the mill direct. The Lent shaft is being unwatered, and it is intended 
to unwater the Standard to at least below the 800' level, as it is claimed that there 
is silver ore on that level. The photograph of the mine map reproduced herewith 
was obtained through the courtesy of Mr. Cain. 



SCIENCES 
LIBRARY 



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46804— Page 150 



MONO COUNTY. 



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152 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



If 



The veins at present being worked are small, probably averaging & 
about a foot in width, most of them having a dip of over 70°. The i 
great number of veins in the property is indicated by the fact that! 
during the year 1912 development work was done on 35. Probably! 
there are several hundred within the area of the company's ground. 

The veins are nearly parallel, having a north and south direction and 
the distance between them probably averages 30 feet. All mining is 
hand work, either drills or "picker bars" being used to put in powder. 
Mule trains deliver the ore in one ton cars from underground ore chutes 
through adits to the 20-stamp mill. No mining below about 500' from 
the surface of the ground has ever been profitable and nearly all the 
ore extracted in the district has been from above the water level, which 
is now 521' in the Lent shaft. Pumping from the mine is only to 
supply the mill and cyanide plant. 

During the years 1911 and 1912 mining costs per ton of ore have been 
as shown by the following subdivision : 

Development— 1911 1912 

Labor $4,304 $3,701 

Supplies 1.077 1.089 

Power 0.038 0.067 

$5.419 $4,857 

Stoping — 

Labor $4,735 $4,335 

Supplies , 2.478 1.448 

Power 0.042 0.078 

7.255 5.861 

Totals $12,674 $10:781 



Ore is crushed in a 20-stamp mill and the cyanide treatment of the 
tailings consists of sliming in a tube mill and filtering by vacuum 
filter. 






MONO COUNTY. 



15o 




ill of Standard Consolidated Mine at Bodie. Incline at left is for ore cars. High-line 
flume conveys tailings to cyanide plant. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 







Ygwy^mmmy, 


£ 'P " ^ — , ... „ >. 


f'Jalu SWj/ii 


p^ ■/ ill 

/ ' 2 



Moore vacuum filter and tanks in cyanide plant of Standard Consolidated, Bodie. 
Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 



154 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 
Results of Stamp Milling. 





Ore 


Saved 
by mill 


Ounces 
amalgam 


Value 
tailings 
per ton 




Year 


Tons 
milled 


ValU", 

per ton 


Stamp 
duty 


1911 


8,798 
8,150 


$14 74 
11 72 


$59,381 03 
48,252 13 


15,876 
12,537 


$7 99 
5 80 


2.5 


1912 


2.3 







Cost Per Ton Milling, 1912 (8,150.38 Tons). 

Labor -- $0. 

Supplies— 

25 battery shoes 

62 battery dies 

l boss heads 



Liners 



319 screens 

6 mill plates 

1,777 ounces quicksilver 

Belting 

Fire wood 

Sundries 

Bullion charges- 
Express 

Treatment 

Distribution accounts- 
Bullion room 

Stable 

Yard 

Power plant 

Assay office 

Blacksmith shop 

Machine shop ____ 



.004 

.011 

.012 

.034 

.011 

.009 j 

.070 

.134. 

.042 

.020 



.100 
.205 
.041 
.033 ! 
.042 



Total _ $1,922 

Previous to 1905 cyanide treatment had been applied only to such 
tailings as could be leached with the consequence that over 100,000' 
tons of tailings valued at about $5.00 and consisting of about 75% slime 
had accumulated. In that year the slime plant, erected under the 
superintendence of T. J. Hoover, began treating the accumulated tailing: 
and also that delivered from the mill. Some of the results of the slime 
plant are here shown. 



Results of Slime Treatment. 



Year 


Tons treated 

besides 

mill runs 


Extraction 
(pe: cent) 


Cost 
per ton 


1906 . 


7,527 
8,557 
12,667 
19,538 
21,073 
15,916 
16,569 


89.4 
88.6 
90.0 
87.7 
88.2 
90.7 
89.7 


$2 43 


1907 


2 78 


1908 


2 48 


1909 


2 73 


1910 


2 01 


1911 •__. 


9 64 


1912 


2 10 







About 1910 the filter baskets were changed from the Moore to the 
Butters type of arrangement. 



MONO COUNTY. 



155 




End view. 

Moore Filter Basket, in cyanide plant of Standard Consolidated, Bodie. 

Photos by Walter W. Bradley. 



156 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Pouring a 2300-ounce bar of gold-silver bullion at Standard Consolidated Mine, Bodie. 
Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 



Some further details of the slime treatment during 1912 are as fol- 
lows: 

Assay Per Ton. 



Tons from mine, 8,024 

Tons from ponds, 16,568. 
Tails 



Gold Silver Total 



$5 43 

4 83 

61 



15 



$5 80 

5 63 

76 



MONO COUNTY. 



157 



Number of tanks charged 617 

Per cent moisture 71 

Per cent on 100 mesh 31 

Tons solution handled 101,919 

Cyanide, pounds per ton, solution 1.5 

Lime, pounds per ton, solution .36 

Filtering hours- 
Cake, hours 2.3 

Wash, hours 2.6 

Hours, cycle 121 

Cake thickness, inches .79 

Tube mill, running hours 2,666 

Value zinc room solutions, heads $1.62 

Value zinc room solutions, tails .03 





Consumption 1912. 








Total, 
pounds 


Pounds 

per ton 

ore 






25,270 

359,870 

2,298 

11,616 

24,700 


1.0 


Lime __ 


14.6 


Lead acetate _. __ 


.1 


Zinc 


.5 


Pebbles ______ _ _ _ 


1.0 









Cost 
Labor 


Per Ton, 


Slime Plant, 


1912 


(24,593.36 tons). 


$0,854 


Supplies — 
Cyanide - --- 










.269 


Lime _ ___ 










.192 


Zinc __ 










.058 


Pebbles 










.020 












.013 


Belting 










.007 


Wood 










.031 


Sundries - - 










.190 


Bullion charges- 
Express 










.052 


Treatment 










. __ .019 


Distribution accounts — 
Bullion room _ 










.059 


Stable __ 










.117 


Yard 










.035 


Power plant __ _. 










.081 


Assay office 










.024 


Blacksmith shop 










.026 


Machine shop 










.053 














Total 


$2.10 



Interesting, as showing the closeness with which old deposits are now 
worked, it may be noted that in 1913 lessees w T ere profitably sweeping 
the top crust from the tailing discharged from the slime plant. The 
tailing bed was about 10 ft. deep of an average value of $0.75 per ton, 
having stood four years. A concentration of values in the top crust, 
probably by capillary attraction and evaporation, had caused about J 
inch to have a value of about $15.00 per ton. Four men carefully swept 
up about 10 tons of this crust per day, which was then run through 
the company plant. 

The future of this property, and to some extent the district, is shown 
by the following facts. Most of the veins pinch to mere seams at a 
vertical distance of 500' to 700' from the surface and lose their value 



158 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

at a depth of 400' to 500', particularly the north and south veins. 
Deep workings establishing these facts are at the Lent shaft 1200' 
deep and the Standard shaft 1200' deep, the collar of the Lent being 
about 200' vertically lower than the Standard. 

Lent shaft explorations, in which water now stands at the 521' level, 
are as follows : 

80O' level 600' of drifts. 

1,000' level 1,060' of drifts; 1,100' of cross cuts. 

1,200' level 1,100' of drifts ; 1,000' of cross cuts. 

This shaft when operated required pumping from 800,000 to 900,000 
gallons per 24 hours. 

Standard shaft explorations are at present partly open above the 700' 
level, below that point the following work was done : 

TOO' level — 960' cross cuts east, 500' crosscuts west, about 1,000' of drifts in 

barren ground. 
1,000' level — 1,140' crosscuts east, 300' crosscuts west, and over 1,000' of other 

work. 
1,200' level— 500' crosscut east. 

Bibl.: Reports VIII, p. 385, XII, p. 183, XIII, p. 231; Report of 
Director of IT. S. Mint, 1883, pp. 173-175. 

Southern Consolidated. This property adjoins the Standard Con- 
solidated on the south and comprises the following old companies: 
Noonday, Red Cloud, Addenda, Oro, and Defiance (in all 12 claims of 
which 9 are patented). 

Only development work has been done since 1882. At the Noonday, 
Oro, and Red Cloud there are steam hoists at the shafts, each of which 
has three compartments. The Red Cloud shaft is about 900' deep, 
water now standing at 490'. The formation is the same as in the 
Standard Mine, namely many steep-dipping parallel veins in andesite, 
making a description of the underground works almost impossible, even 
if data were at hand. It is stated that about five miles of work has been 
done. 

In the workings at present open, there are several unstoped veins 
2 / -3 / wide said to carry from $10.00 to $15.00 per ton in gold and 
silver. Doubtless mining of these ore bodies will take place at some 
future time. 

Production of the property 9 from 1877 to 1888 was, 

Noonday $1,023,289 50 

Red Cloud 10,927 50 

Oro 14,155 GG 

Addenda and Defiance 

Total .$1,048,372 06 

"Report VIII, 1888, p. 397. 




PWVSIOi 

SCIENCES 
LI9RAR' 



Cal. Photo by courtesy of J. S. Cain. 



MONO COUNTY. 



159 



I The fineness of the Noonday bullion varied. The highest percentage 
bf gold by weight being 18.5 in 1880, falling to 8.6% in 1882, the 
remainder being silver. 

Ownership rests with the Southern Cons. Mining Co. J. S. Cain of 
Bodie. president. 

Bibl. : Reports VIII, p. 396, XII, p. 182, XIII, p. 230. 

New Bodie Mine (formerly known as the Syndicate). This prop- 
erty adjoins the Standard on the north, many of the veins continuing 
across the line and the same underground conditions prevailing. It was 
here that the previously mentioned work was done in 1863. There are 3 




New Bodie (old "Syndicate") mill and tailings ponds, near Bodie. 
Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 

patented claims. For many years the mine has been and is now worked 
principally by leasers whose ore is crushed and leached, during the 
summer months, at a 20-stamp, steam power, mill on the property. The 
work has been profitable (leasers usually making fair wages), by open- 
ing up new veins near the surface and of comparatively short extent. 
A number of adits open the ground, the lowest being about 700' ver- 
tically below the croppings. A quotation from H. A. Whiting 10 shows 
some of the conditions — "Not only have these younger lodes their 
largest development in the Standard Mine, but they have there been 
the most productive. North of that they are more numerous, but 



"Report VIII, p. 388. 



160 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

smaller. In the Syndicate mine, on the extreme north end of thi 
mineral belt, the veins become unproductive at a horizon about 50 feel 
below the Osceola tunnel; or, about 250 feet below the croppings or] 
Bodie Bluff. This mine has been thoroughly prospected east and west] 
at two localities, over its whole width of 1200 feet, by crosscuts from 
the Syndicate tunnel which is 500 feet below the Osceola tunnel. 
Numerous small veins of quartz are met with in these crosscuts, but they 
are all barren of ore, or so nearly so as not to repay extraction." 

At the end of 1888 a total production of $584,711.21 was reported, 
dividends having been $48,308, and assessments $38,728.75. Percentage 
by weight of gold in the bullion varied from 33 to 45. From 1892 
until 1906 the production is said to have been about $30,000 per year 
from ore averaging $12.00 per ton. 

Bibl.: Reports VIII, p. 387, XII, p. 184, XIII, p. 232; Report of 
the Director of the U. S. Mint, 1883, p. 175. 

MASONIC DISTRICT. 

This district lies about 16 miles, by wagon road, northwest of Bodie 
and about two miles distant from the California-Nevada boundary line, 
at an elevation of about 8,000'. It is the most recent camp in the 
country where any considerable amount of work has been done, an<f 
this together with the fact that ore of high grade has been mined makes 
its description important. 

Masonic and the neighborhood has been known slightly for many 
years and some prospecting had been done, but discovery of valuable 
ore took place August 1, 1902, when J. M. Bryan, Kaleb Dorsey, and I 
J. S. Phillips made locations on what has since been called the 
Pittsburg-Liberty Mine. They had followed numerous croppings of 
white ("bull") quartz veins, in the granite, without good results and 
finally panned some cf the dark porous croppings prominent in the 
neighborhood with encouraging results. The three partners were old- 
time miners who regularly spent a portion of their time working for 
wages and the remainder in prospecting. 

Not until three years after the locations were made was ore in work- 
able quantity or value found, and no considerable production was 
obtained until 1907 when they shipped to the Selby smelter near San 
Francisco, a car load of ore (17 tons) which netted them $1040 per 
ton. This was the product of five men's work during the summer and 
at a depth of only 15 feet. An option was given to George Wingfield 
and a payment of $47,000 received. The option resulted in sinking 
a 100' shaft and driving a 47' crosscut. However, title did not pass 
from the locators clue to their not consenting to alteration of terms and 
they, upon taking charge of the property, again shipped ore to the 



MONO COUNTY. 



161 



imount of three carloads, the poorest of which gave them a profit of 
fever $700 per ton. 

The Pittsburg-Liberty Mining Company was formed and a 10-stamp 
steam power mill was erected about a mile down the canon. The mine, 
operated until 1910, reported production being $600,000 to $700,000 
and has since been idle. No very large profit is said to have resulted 
and the corporation is at present bankrupt. This is remarkable when 
•it is considered that the maps show only about 6000' of drifts and 
crosscuts. 

Plate IV. Masonic Mining District, Mono County. 




T6A/-ftZf£-A>/.D. 



1. 


Pittsburg claim. 


5. Hermine claim. 


9. 


Home View adit. 


2. 


Liberty claim. 


6. Jump-Up-Joe claim. 


10. 


New York shaft. 


3. 


Liberty No. 2 claim. 


7. Rough and Ready adit. 


11. 


Sarita shaft. 


4. 


Pittsburg No. 2 claim. 


8. adit. 


12. 
13. 


Lost Horse shaft. 
Pittsburg-Liberty adit 



Several veins or zones were stoped, most of them dipping at angles 
from 70° to 90°. The greatest depth stoped below the croppings was 
about 150'. The lower works being obstructed at the time of this 
examination no observations could be made as to the geologic reason 

11-46904 



162 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

for loss of value. Assay plans show very irregular shapes and values 
of the ore bodies. Most of the value is gold, some ore running as high 
as $300 per ton and from inspection of assay plans it seems probable 
that the average value was about $20. No machinery was used in the 
mine. Stopes and drifts were supported by nut pine timber from the 
surrounding hills. Chutes to the lower adits furnished outlet to the 
wagon road running to the mill. Timber is cut under permit from the 
U. S. Forest Service at an average price of $1.75 per cord. The accom- 
panying sketch shows the amount of underground work on the four 
principal levels. Some of the most noticeable facts indicated by the 
map are: five veins striking N. 25° W. and dipping to the east, devel- 
oped upon the upper or 130' level; three of them developed on the 
second or 172' level; exposure by one crosscut under the entire group 
of veins on the third or 271' level; and the lower tunnel or 413' level 
cuts almost all of the mineral zone about 100' south of the most pro- 
ductive portion. An area 300' square covers most of the workings. 

The east wall of the silicified zone, according to description by 
J. M. Bryan, is shown on the map of the 413' level. North of the 
main tunnel the general dip is said to be toward the east while on the 
south side of the tunnel the dip is westerly. Horses, of granite are 
said to have been common in the mineralized or silicified zone. 

Possibility of extension of known ore bodies or other finds is the 
most important economic question relating to the district. The geo- 
logic features and positions of some of the prospecting works are shown 
on the accompanying map of the district. 

The Serita Mine is a property upon which recent interest h 
centered. It lies almost a half mile west of the Pittsburg-Liberty, an 
is owned and operated by F. W. and Geo. C. Stall. A vertical sha 
218' deep and two crosscuts, 100' north and 80' south, on the 100 
level are the principal workings. A gasoline hoist with buckets con 
stitutes the equipment. The ore, as seen in the shallow surface cuts 
is porous chert and chalcedony accompanied by breccia similar to th 
Pittsburg-Liberty ore. Walls are indistinct and difficult to identif; 
but there seems to be from 4' to 10' of ore which is said to carry free 
gold from $3 to $40 per ton. North from the Pittsburg-Liberty the 
following work has been done along the silicified zone: 

Jump-Up-Joe Mine. This property is owned by the Field of Gold 
Mining Co., of which W. A. R. Loose of Bodie is manager. The 
croppings of close-grained brown and black quartzite carry considerable 
coarse gold, readily distinguished by the naked eye. An adit of about 
100' length runs southwesterly into the silicified rock with a winze 
about 50' deep near the entrance. Little or no work has been done 
since the early days of the camp. No considerable production by the 
company is reported. 



MONO COUNTY. 



163 




«7y'4c«*/ 






* \ 






! 






V 


2< i2 


jpS 




Plate V. — Pittsburg-Liberty Mine, Masonic District. 



164 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Hermine claim is owned by August Seiler. A number of shorM 
adits and shafts have been opened by the owner and other parties] 
working under option. The prominent croppings of quartzite pre-i 
viously mentioned contain most of the surface works on this claim.. 
Little or no ore has been extracted. 

Rough and Ready Mine. An adit in search of a northward exten- 
sion of the Pittsburg ore, stands open for a distance of about 300' 
running N. 55° W. Only granite is exposed with the exception of aj 
10' dike of dark fine grained rock, dipping N. 65° W. at an angle of j 
48° at 180' from the entrance. There is no evidence of alteration or] 
movement except a clay seam on the west side. Adjoining the Rough] 
and Ready but on the opposite side of the hill near the summit, an adit] 
runs in S. 70° E. a distance of 350' all the way in the silicified rock. 

Home View Mine. Near the west side of the silicified zone but in 
the granite the Home View adit was run in a southerly direction about 
900'. No ore is reported to have been encountered and the appear-, 
ance of the dump indicates that most of the work was in granite or 
blue clay gouge. 

It will be seen that a northward extension of the ore bodies has not 
as yet been exposed. 

Toward the south the zone does not extend much beyond the Liberty 
claim, gradually dying out in the granite. Numerous surfaces trenches 
in this vicinity have not developed ore. 

To the east of the Pittsburg-Liberty zone there are numerous smaller 
silicified zones having an easterly and westerly strike in the granite. 
Several of the larger ones are shown on the map. Considerable work' 
in this area has been done without favorable results. 

New York Mine. This claim is near the Serita in the same zone. 
A shaft was sunk about 50' and some surface work done. Spots oft 
ore of good value have been reported. 

Lost Horse Mine. This claim is situated on one of the smaller but 
prominent zones shown on the map. A great deal of trenching was 
done and a shaft sunk about 50'. No important results are reported. 
The croppings are of quartzite and breccia very much stained with 
iron. The marked difference in appearance from the payable ore on 
nearby claims is the absence of chalcedonic quartz. 

There are similar geologic occurrences farther toward the west, in 
Sec 20. Locations have been made which are said to show some ore] 
Among the more prominent are the two following: 

Lake View Mine. The claim is situated west of the center of Sec. 
20 on the west hill slope. Development work consists of an adit 176' 
long with various winzes and raises, all in silicified rock. There is 
25' of ore exposed on the surface said to average $4 per ton. J. M. 



'; 



MONO COUNTY. 165 



ffryan is one of the owners. It is contemplated that a small mill will 
soon be built. 

Red Rock Mine. In the northern part of Sec. 20, on one of the 
dlieified zones. A 50' shaft, and several adits about 25' long comprise 
the work done. There is said to be some pay ore exposed at present. 
Owner, Jas. Logan. 

Several properties at various points in the northern portion of the 
county have been developed and merit description. Most of them were 
visited previously by the writer. 

Golden Gate Mine. Situated near Coleville, in Sec. 26, T. 8 N., 
R. 22 E. Formerly owned by Golden Gate Mining Co., of which 
Joe A. Brown was president. Two veins dipping S. 60° W. in schist 
and slate at an angle of 38° have been stoped for distances of 105' and 
160' for a height of 60' at an average width of 4'. Five adits furnish 
entrance to the mine. Their lengths in order from the lowest to the 
[uppermost are 1800', 640', 1200', 300', and 100'. Equipment com- 
prises a 10-stamp mill, without concentrators, operated by water power. 
Water available is said to be 33 miner's inches with a fall of 538'. An 
aerial tramway 2300' long carries ore from the mine down to the mill. 
The property has been operated several times under option to pur- 
chase. The last results of such operations, from Sept. 1, 1912 to April 
13. 1913, are reported by the owner as follows: Tons crushed 6848, 
yielding $33,646.47 at a cost for tramming and milling of 42^ per ton. 

Operations are expected to resume shortly. 11 

Al Mono Mine is 3 miles southeast of the Golden Gate, working 
three men, adit 800' long, ledge said to be 2' wide and in 1902 to have 
yielded $300 per ton on a three-ton shipment. Operators afterward 
relinfuiished their claim to the property. Present owners, J. A. Shir- 
ley et al. Ore carrying gold, silver, and lead is reported of recent 
discovery by Ed. Davies of Topaz, near the summit of the Sweetwater 
Range and about two miles northeast of the old Lindsey marble quarry. 

About two miles southeast of the Golden Gate mine Dr. O 'Connor of 
Coleville has recently been engaged in opening an adit on a prospect. 

PATTERSON DISTRICT. 

The district was active from 1880 to 1884 over an area extending 
about six miles north and south, (between Frying Pan and Sweet- 
water Canons) and three miles east and west having produced about 
$500,000. 12 

Among the properties in the Patterson district are the following 
upon which information has been obtained : 

Silverado Mine is situated on the west side of the Sweetwater 
Valley, about three miles from the Nevada-California boundary line 

"See also p. 140, ante. 
"Report VIII, 1888, p. 361. 



166 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

in Sec. 19, T. 7 N., R. 25 E. The property comprises 8 unpatented 
claims owned by Columbia Cons. Mines Co., John J. Phelan, Pres. 
123 Sanford Bldg., Bridgeport, Conn. The ledge dips westerly at ar 
angle of about 30°, having a width of from 2' to 5'. There are three 
adits on the vein, the upper being 150' long, the middle one 800', and 
the lower 600'. Values are in the form of silver chloride occurring in 
spots. It is said that previous to 1896 there was a total production oi 
$20,000, the ore being packed out on mules, and that since then pos- 
sibly $5,000 has been produced. During recent work under an option, 
which lapsed, sampling results showed 28 inches of ore running between 
$15 and $30, about 500 tons of sorted ore on the dump averaging $25. 
Smelter assay certificates dated 1911 showed the following results: 

Sorted ore, 0.29 oz. gold; 241.01 oz. silver. Concentrates, 0.47 $ 
gold; 1484.18 oz. silver. 

The equipment consists of a 10-stamp, steam power mill and perco- 
lation cyanide plant. 

Bibl. : Rep. of Director of U. S. Mint, 1883, p. 176. 

Star and Great Western Claims. Situated in Sec. 14, T. 7 N., R. 24 
E. near the summit of the Sweetwater Mountains at the head of Sweet- 
water Canon. Two patented claims, owner Martin Jones, 634 Ashbury 
street, San Francisco. No production is reported but a mill test of 
five tons of sorted ore from the last-mentioned claim is said to have 
returned 47 ounces of silver per ton (85% extraction). The vein is 
said to be 4' to 11' wide cropping for 700' dipping N. 76° E. An 
adit 135' on the vein and 9 open cuts, 75' apart, constitute the develop- 
ment. On the Star are two veins 3' wide and said to assay about 20 
ounces in silver per ton. An adit 85' on the vein and a 35' winze are 
the developments in ore. 

Summers Consolidated Mine is near the head of Ferris Canon. 
Four patented claims owned by Mrs. Jas. Acheson of Sweetwater, Nev. 
A 5-stamp mill was operated until October, 1885. Reported produc- 
tion about 5100 tons of ore yielding $254,446. Several adits were 
opened, the longest being 1240' and the vein was developed for 700' 
on the dip (dip 65° except in lowest works where it is steeper). Two 
shoots each about 125' long and 3' wide were opened. Ore was packed 
to the mill, nothing less than $18 (silver at $1.29) was taken. These 
figures were kindly furnished by Mr. Martin Jones who was superin- 
tendent during final operations. 

On the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada Mountains at an elevation 
of about 9000' are two properties upon which some work has been 
done as follows: 

Dunderberg Mine. Situated a mile south of Green Creek, Sec. 19, 
T. 3 N., R. 25 E. Patented, recently sold to the state for unpaid taxes. 






MONO COUNTY. 167 

Two crosscut adits were run, one being about 900' long and 200' above 
the other which is 1700' long. A winze 100' deep was sunk from the 
lower adit and a great deal of drifting was done on the vein in various 
places. An adit was started on Green Creek about 800' lower, to tap 
the vein but was run only 500'. The ledge dips westerly about 45° 
having a width of 3' in the upper tunnel and 9' in the lower. Some 
of the ore near the surface is said to have carried values in gold as 
• high as $20 to $40 per ton. A great deal of iron sulphide was encoun- 
tered (said to be over 50%), and a heavy flow of ice cold water. 

A 20-stamp mill, driven by w T ater power, with 5 Frue vanners and 
a chlorination plant, were erected. No work has been done since 1902. 
Bibl. : Reports XII, p. 178 ; XIII, p. 227 ; Min. Res. W. of Rocky 
Mts, 1873, p. 16. 

Ward Mine. One mile south of the Dunderberg; Sec. 30, T. 3 N., 
R. 25 E. The vein is 16"-24" wide, in granite and dips 60° south. 
Work done is as folloAvs : 210' incline shaft ; adit 210' long at tne 10U' 
level, where there are drifts 150' and 100' west and east respectively, 
each showing ore for about 40' from the shaft. A 4-stamp w r ater power 
mill is on the property. Ownership has changed frequently, the last 
relocator being E. L. Page. 

Bibl.: Report XIII, p. 232. 

MONO LAKE, WEST SHORE AND VICINITY. 

This very interesting region has been thoroughly described by Israel 
C. Russell 13 and only slight mention will be made of the various forma- 
tions as shown on the accompanying map. 

A portion of the Metamorphic series and all of the Basic Lava for- 
mations are extensions of the areas in the Bodie and Masonic region 
and are described under that head. The most noticeable feature in 
the metamorphic series as seen in the region now under consideration 
is that the sedimentary origin is clearly shown. In some places, as 
west of Lundy, it distinctly shows stratification and yet is so dense 
and fine grained as to resemble an igneous rock. About a half mile 
east of Lundy are seen large conglomerate boulders containing pebbles, 
mostly quartz or quartzite, from |" to 8" in diameter cemented in a 
ground mass which is entirely schistose. The pebbles are mostly 
oblong in shape hut show little fracturing. Along the steep hillside 
north of the mouth of Mill Creek Canon the series contains hard bedded 
limestone. In Levining Creek Canon, about four miles from the 
mouth, is coarse crystalline calcite and on Williams Butte near Crater, 
is an outcrop about 50' long of white quartzite, closely resembling 

l3 U. S. G. S., 8th Annual Report, Part I, pp. 261-394. 



168 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

marble. The met amorphic series has in places been found to contain 
gold bearing veins. 

The granite which contains a number of gold bearing quartz veins 
varies from coarse-grained, light-colored to fine-grained, dark-colored 
granodiorite. It is frequently intruded by dikes. The contact between 
the granite and metamorphic is usually sharp and distinct but in some 
places particularly in Levining Creek Canon they are in a confused 
condition. 

Glacial drift is chiefly composed of granite boulders and sand of all 
sizes indiscriminately piled together. Near the mouth of Mill Creek 
Canon, near the center of Sec. 13, T. 2 N., R. 25 E., an unsuccessful 
attempt was made to wash this glacial gravel with hydraulic giants 
for its supposed gold content. 

The Lake Deposit varies considerably from place to place. Accord- 
ing to Russell it contains marl, clay, and diatoms in many places, 
more particularly on the eastern side of Mono Lake. Along the west- 
ern side of the lake it contains more sand, gravel, and volcanic ash. 
He mentions measurements of exposures 200' in thickness and states 
that the total thickness must be much greater. The margin of the 
deposit as shown on our map follows closely the old shore line of 
Quaternary times, when the surface of the water was over 700' above; 
its present position. During 1908 two efforts were made to obtain 
oil b}^ drilling in this formation. One well near Dechambeau's ranch 
is about 900' deep and one near the southwestern shore of Paoha 
Island is about 1500' deep. Both struck hot water. The only indi- 
cation of oil in the region, so far as known to the writer, is a spring 
near the eastern shore of Paoha Island, and the negative evidence 
afforded here is shown by a quotation from Russell 14 "On the west 
shore of Hot Spring Cove another thermal spring, called Petroleum 
Spring, on account of its odor, rises at a point a few feet above the 
lake margin and discharges a few gallons of Avater a minute. Its 
temperature is 96° F. A partial analysis of its water shows that it 
contains 0.8775 grams of solid matter to the liter, consisting of car- 
bonates, chlorides, and silicates of calcium, magnesium, sodium and 
potassium." Such a careful observer would scarcely have omitted to 
mention the fact had there been any evidence of oil other than the odor. 
There is little or no reason to suppose that any other drilling in the 
basin would give more satisfactory results than obtained at the two 
wells mentioned. 

The most important mineral product found in the Lake deposit is 
lime. At many points it occurs in the form of tower-shaped deposits 
around old springs. Along the lumber railroad running to Bodie are 



J4 U. S. G. S., 8th Annual Report, Part I, p. 289. 






MONO COUNTY. 



169 



al such deposits. One of them has been quarried for many years 
nd burned in a kiln. It has supplied practically all the lime used 
In the cyanide plants of the surrounding country. Owner, T. Moyle 
f Bodie. 

The isolated position of the lake and its seldom visited islands have, 
ince the time of ''Mark Twain's" earliest writings, afforded ample 
•pportnnity for fiction regarding their rare mineral deposits. Occa- 
ionally the fiction is intended for that large class of readers classed 
3 investors. 




Mono Craters, Mono County, from east side. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 

The lucent Volcanics are composed of basaltic lava flows, cones 
or craters of volcanic ash, as in the Mono Craters, or pumice and 
accompanying flows of obsidian or volcanic glass, all of which have 
been minutely described by Russell. No economic importance attaches 
to these at present, with the possible exception of the vast supplies 
of pumice which may at some time be called upon for structural or 
other purposes. Pieces of almost any density, from the glassy form 
to the porous, which is lighter than water, can be obtained in sizes 
ranging from dust up to several feet in diameter. The finer frag- 
ments form part of the soil along the southern shore of the lake, which 
produces hay and similar crops upon being irrigated. 

The waters of the lake are strongly alkaline, containing about 5% 
of salts, principally sodium chloride, carbonate, and sulphate. Several 



170 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



tons of this salt are reported being obtained annually by evaporating 
over fire. The reported price paid at the point of production was 
$0.10 per pound, to be used for medicinal purposes. 

In former times the salt was used at Bodie in amalgamating pans to 
keep the quicksilver clean. 

The forest near the southeastern shore of the lake furnishes lumber 
and mining timber for most of the surrounding country, being delivered 
by railroad to Bodie and thence distributed by team. Preparations 
are under way to more extensively irrigate the lands surrounding the 
lake, which are fertile where water is available, climatic conditions 
being considered. 




Crystal Lake Gold Mining Company's Mill in Lake Canon, near Lundy, 
Elevation, 9500 feet. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 



Mono County. 



The principal and practically the only mineral resource that has 
been exploited in the region are those of the gold-bearing formations. 
All the mines upon which any great amount of work has been done 
with recent years are here enumerated. 

The Crystal Lake Mine (formerly known as the May Lundy), two 
miles above Lundy, is the largest mine in the neighborhood of Mono 
Lake. The deposit was discovered in 1879 and has been operated I 
large part of the time since then. Previous to 1888 the total produc- 
tion was about $876,000 and from that date until the present, it is 
estimated by R. T. Pierce, who has been manager of the property for 



MONO COUNTY. 171 

many years, to have been from $1,700,000 to $2,000,000. All records, 
however, were destroyed by fire a few years since. 

Two veins, the May Lundy and West, are covered by a patented 
claim and about 20 locations. The May Lundy vein can be traced for 
some 6000' and the other for about half that distance. The country 
rock is granite, in which the veins dip westerly at an average angle 
of 45°. 

An adit about f of a mile long cuts the May Lundy vein about 
1500' from the outcrop. In the upper levels the vein is about 2J' 
wide and in the lower levels is about 3J' wide. Drifting on the 
various levels has been done as follows : No. 1 tunnel, 100' ; No. 2 
tunnel, 900' ; No. 3 tunnel, 1400' ; Lake View level, 3100' ; and about 
1400' on a level 200' above the lowest adit. A great deal of stoping 
has been done. 

Equipment is most complete. A 20-stamp mill is situated near the 
main adit. Electric power is supplied from a nearby stream falling 
1000' in a very short distance. Gold and a very little silver is carried 
in hard white quartz. The property is at present idle and it is 
impossible to obtain as much information as would be desirable. The 
writer is familiar with the property, however, from previous work. 

Severe winters are the most serious obstacle to operations, the eleva- 
tion being from 8000' to 11,000' at different parts of the property. The 
mine may be expected to appear on the producing list for some years 
in the future. 

Log Cabin Mine. Situated in Sec. 1, T. 1 N., R. 25 E., at an eleva- 
tion of about 9000'. Owners, H. H. Clark and Luther G. Brown of 
Los Angeles. It comprises 15 unpatented claims, which were located 
in 1908. The country rock is metamorphic slate and quartzite. The 
principal ledge of quartz is about two feet wide, with a northwesterly 
course. About J mile SE. of the NW. corner of the section, an adit 
was driven approximately 300' long, southerly along strike of forma- 
tion to gain depth under an 80' vertical shaft about J mile farther 
south, which was sunk in quartz croppings about 2' wide. A gasoline 
hoist is being erected on this shaft. About J of a mile southeast from 
the adit is an old 40' incline shaft sunk on 2' of quartz, dipping NE. 
at an angle of 80°. Machinery and supplies are hauled from Benton, 
a distance of 50 miles, at a cost upwards of $0.65 per hundred pounds. 
Very rich float rock has been reported in this vicinity and the recent 
activity on this property has given it considerable local importance. 

About a mile north from the Log Cabin are several old prospects 
upon which a little work has been carried on for years, among them 
are the following: 



172 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Charleston Mine. Situated in N. J of Sec. 36, T. 2 N., R. 25 E. 
Owner, J. P. Hammond of Mono Lake. This property consists of 
eight unpatented claims; discovered in 1886. Several adits have been 
run in the crushed and broken slate. The lower is the longest, running 
northerly about 500' and having over a 100' of branching drifts and 
crosscuts. In places there is 2' of quartz. The upper adit and 
branches total about 200', showing from 1" to 12" of quartz in places. 
There are other shallow works still higher. A small stamp mill 
adjoined the lower workings, but was recently destroyed by a snow- 
slide. No considerable production is reported. 

Bibl.: Reports VIII, p. 385; XII, p. 177; XIII, p. 227. 

Golconda Mine. Situated in S. i of Sec. 36, T. 2 N., R. 25 E. 
Owner, John Mattly et al. of Mono Lake. Development consists of 
several hundred feet of adits in the crushed slate formation. There 
are four unpatented claims. No production. 

North of Mill Creek Canon on the steep mountain flank facing Mono 
Lake are several old properties in what was previously known as the 
Jordan District. Considerable work was done here, particularly on 
the Goleta. 

Goleta Mine. NE. i of Sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 25 E. Owner, J. S. 
Cain of Bodie. Seven patented claims. A 40-stamp mill was erected 
in 1896 and a great deal of development work done, one adit alone 
being 1500' long. Operations ceased in 1901 and practically all equip- 
ment was removed. No account is to be had of the ore extracted in 
paying quantity. 

Bibl. : Reports XII, p. 178, XIII, p. 228. 

The Parrett Mine is about one mile west of Lundy, SW. ^ of Sec 
19, T. 2 N., R. 25 E., and consists of 11 unpatented claims. Owned 
by Jasper Parrett estate. For thirty years it was worked by the 
owner, mostly by surface cuts, the longest adit being 200'. Ore was 
packed by burros to an arrastra operated, during the summer, by an 
18' overshot water wheel. Capacity of the arrastra is from 1J to 
3 tons per 24 hours. Ledges are from 8" to 7' wide, but only the 
smaller ones were worked, they are in metamorphic rock near granite. 
The ore is a hard, white quartz bearing free gold, galena, and pyrite. 
No accurate report of production is to be had, but it seems to have 
been enough to have supplied all necessities to the owner since the 
discovery in 1877. 

Bibl.: Reports XII, p. 182; XIII, p. 230. 

Casa Diablo Mine is situated in Sees. 21 and 22, T. 4 S., R. 32 E., 
22 miles from Bishop by wagon road, nearest railroad station Hamil. 
Owned by Sierra Development Co., Chicago, 111. Consists of 14 un- 
patented claims, discovered in 1895. Work was discontinued in 1911. 






MONO COUNTY. 173 

Total production of gold and silver is said to be about $50,000, most 
of which was turned out in 1910. 

There are three ledges between granite walls dipping north at an 
angle of about 58° from horizontal, their widths vary from 8" to 2\' . 
The average value is said to be $12 per ton, some running as high 
as $20. About 70% of the values are reported to be free milling, 
while the remainder is contained in sulphides, of which there is about 
3% in the ore. 

Development work consists of an adit 1600' long and about 4000' 
of drifts. Equipment consists of a 100 h.p. electric plant with 4 miles 
of transmission line ; a 10-stamp mill with one Frue vanner, and a 
leaching plant. There is a 20 h.p. hoist and a compressor supplying 
3 Lyner drills. Eight miles of pipe bring water from Rock Creek. 
There is also a saw mill providing lumber from pine timber 3 miles 
distant. Mine timber is supplied by pifion trees growing upon the 
property. 

TRAVERTINE. 

About one mile southeast of the town of Bridgeport is a deposit 
of travertine w r orthy of note. The property is patented and belongs 
to the California Travertine Co., E. P. Gray of Los Angeles, president. 

In 1895 a quarry was opened and some of the rock shipped, princi- 
pally for work on the City Hall at San Francicso. Two slabs 4J' x 6' 
were the largest of which there is record. The quarry is at the south 
end of the deposit and consists of an open cut about 200' long, 20' 
wide and the same depth. About 10' of soft overburden covers the 
hard rock. A tunnel, now caved, at one time drained the cut, which 
is now partly filled with water. There are some 50 rough pieces on 
the dump and a few roughly dressed having the following dimensions : 
3' x 6' x 2\' . The stone has a handsome appearance, being red to 
brown in color with fantastic figures. The deposit is about a half 
mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, nearly surrounded by older 
basic lava hills. The southern exposure forms a sloping bluff about 
200' above the creek bottom which drains the locality. Springs and 
marshy ground occupy the central portion of the deposit. A soft, 
friable local deposit is still forming at the eastern margin of the main 
deposit where hot springs arise. The recent deposits are in the form 
of ridges several hundred feet long coursing northeast and southwest. 
A cross section of one of these ridges is semicircular, the height and base 
each being about 30 feet. A crevice, about a foot wide and from V 
to 4' deep, follows along the crest of each ridge, carrying hot water 
from the springs. That these crevices are probably developed by the 



174 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

settling of the sides of the ridges is indicated by the parallelism of the J 
tortuous sides. 

Bibl.: Report XIII, p. 640; U. S. G. S. Water Supply Paper 1 
338, pp. 132-136. 

MINERAL WATER. 

There are a number of mineral springs in Mono County, some of ] 
which would become popular resorts were they accessible to a larger 
population. Among these have already been mentioned Fales Hot 
Springs, near Bridgeport, and the springs around Mono Lake. The, 
following is a list of mineral springs of the county: 

Artesian Springs, at Oasis, owned by J. H. Forman, Oasis. Used 
for irrigation. 

Banner Spring, in the Inyo National Forest, 11 miles west of south 
from Benton. Used for domestic purposes. 

Benton Hot Springs, 300 yards northwest of Benton postoffice, 
owned by the Benton Mining Co. Used for irrigation. 

Bertrand Ranch Springs, 6 miles east of north from Benton. Used 
for irrigation. 

Black Lake Springs, 2 miles north of west from Benton, owned by 
Peter Gilhoed. Used for irrigation. 

Buckeye Hot Spring, about 5J miles south of west from Bridge- 
port, on the north bank of Buckeye Creek, and in the Mono National 
Forest. Temperature 140° F. Used occasionally for bathing. 

California Travertine Co. Spring. (See under Travertine.) 

Casa Diablo Hot Springs, 45' miles northwest of Bishop. 

Fales Hot Springs, 13 miles northwest of Bridgeport, Samuel Fales, 
owner. It is on the road to Minden, Nevada. The temperatures range 
from 129° F. to 141°. There is a stage station and hotel there, and 
the springs are also utilized by camping parties. 

Mono Basin Springs, at several points in and around the edge of 
Mono Lake. 

Moran Spring, 13 miles west of south from Benton, in the Inyo 
National Forest. 

River Spring, 10 miles west of north from Benton. A. Matlock 
of Bishop, owner. Used for irrigation. 

Whitmore Tub Springs, in Long Valley, 38 miles northwest of 
Bishop. Unused. 

Bibl. : U. S. G. S. Water Supply Paper 338, pp. 132-136, 145-147, 
322, 336-337. 






MONO COUNTY. 175 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

alifornia State Mineralogist : 

Reports: VIII, pp. 353, 354, 356, 361, 382-401, 1888; XII, pp. 177, 184, 419, 
1S94 ; XIII, pp. 227, 232, 640, 1895-6. 

lineral Resources West of the Rocky Mountains : 
1868, pp. 177-179 ; 1871, p. 28 ; 1S73, p. 16 ; 1874, pp. 22, 27 ; 1876, p. 32. 

jport of the Director of the U. S. Mint, on production of the New Bodie mine, 
pp. 175-176, 1S83. 

[j. S. Geological Survey Publications : 
Annual Report VIII, pt. I, by I. C. Russell, pp. 261-394, 1886-7. 
Monograph XI, by I. C. Russell, p. 267, 1885. 

Water Supply Paper 338, by Gerald A. Waring, pp. 132-136, 145, 147. 322, 
336-337, 1915. 









PART II 



The Counties of 



Butte, Lassen, Modoc, 
Sutter and Tehama 

By W. BURLING TUCKER and CLARENCE A. WARING, Field Assistants 



12-46904 



PREFACE. 

The counties presented in the grouping herewith, really comprise 

:o groups, geographically : one, Butte, Sutter and Tehama in the 

ntral and upper Sacramento Valley; and the second, Lassen and 

odoc, on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, at the 

>rtheast corner of California. The first three are important agri- 

iltural counties, with Butte County also an important producer of 

)ld and timber. The last two counties, being more mountainous, their 

rincipal industries are cattle raising and mining. Being east of 

le Sierra Nevada divide, Lassen and Modoc belong in part to the 

reat Basin Region which covers the State of Nevada. 

We have endeavored to list all mineral properties, both active and 

rospective, and desire to here express our appreciation to the many 

wners and operators, whose co-operation and courtesy have assisted 

1 the preparation of this report. 






BUTTE COUNTY. 

By Clarence A. Waring, Field Assistant. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The field work in Butte County was completed in December, 1916. 
bout three weeks were spent along a route including Chico, Center- 
ille, Nimshew, Hupps, Magalia, Stirling, Cherokee, Oroville and 
orbestown. Many of the mines were visited and information was 
stained concerning many of the old mines and prospects. Mention 

made of all mines both operative and inoperative with a hope that 

word about the development of old properties may enlighten new 
rospectors. 

Appreciation is here expressed to the owners, superintendents and 
: liners for their kindly assistance and co-operation in helping to bring 
lis report up to date. 

DESCRIPTION. 

i Butte County is located in the north-central part of the state. It 

i ; bounded on the north by Tehama and Plumas counties, on the south 

[y Sutter and Yuba counties, on the east by Plumas and Yuba counties, 

rid on the west by Glenn and Colusa counties. It has an area of 

1 76-i square miles supporting a population, in 1910, of 27,301. 

>roville, the county seat, originally incorporated in 1857, has a popu- 

ition of 3859, while Chico, originally incorporated in 1872, has a 

opulation of 3750. 

The county includes a considerable area of flat low valley land, east 

f the Sacramento River and northwest of the Feather River, which 

roduces grain, rice, hops, alfalfa, and citrus and deciduous fruits. 

i 'lays in this portion of the county are available for the manufacture 

• f brick, and certain gravels are being dredged for gold. The north- 
astern portion of the county extends into the Sierras and in places 
eaches an elevation of 7000 feet. In this upper portion of the county 
lining and timbering are the principal industries, although a few 
pples, berries, etc., are grown. 

ower. 

The greater part of Butte County is well provided with electric 
»ower, since four companies are in the field. 
The Northern California Power Company has a line entering the 

• lorthwestern part of the county and extending to Chico and westward 
Jnto Glenn County. Their generating plant is in Shasta County, on a 

'ranch of Battle Creek, near Manton. 



182 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Oro Electric Corporation, with generating plants on the up v r 
Feather River, has lines extending southward through Yankee Hill i d 
Oroville to a point northwest of Honcut, where they turn westwd 
across the county with branches to Gridley and Biggs. 

The Pacific Gas and Electric Company has generating plants ,t 
De Sabla and Centerville on Big Butte Creek supplied by water frn 
Round Valley, Concow and Hutchinson reservoirs. Power li j 
extend from Centerville to Oroville and southwestward into Yia 
County; also from Centerville southward into Sutter County \vh 
branch lines to Biggs and Gridley. 

The Great Western Power Company with generating plant at Is 
Plumas on the Big Bend of the North Fork of the Feather River } s 
a trunk line southward, along a line 4 miles east of Oroville, o 
Sacramento. No power is at present distributed in Butte Corny 
from this line. 

Transportation. 

The county is well served by railroads and roads. 

The Northern Electric Railroad enters the county from the sofcl 
passing through Rio Bonito, Tres Vias and Durham to Chico, wit! a 
branch from Tres Vias to Oroville. 

The Southern Pacific enters the county from the south throi[] 
Gridley, and crosses the western side of the county through Bi^, 
Nelson, Chico, Nord and Cana with a branch line from Chico, up lb 
Butte Creek, to the Diamond Lumber Mill at Stirling. This comp^ 
also has a line entering the county through Honcut, running norl- 
ward to Oroville and extending up the east side of Feather River, ic 
the timber lands, with terminal at Brush Creek. 

The Western Pacific Feather River route enters the county frfc 
the south, passes through Oroville, and follows the Featlier River if, 
its North Fork into Plumas County. 

The main state highway has been ordered surveyed paralleling i< 
Southern Pacific Railroad through Gridley, Biggs and Chico, while j( 
portion northwest of Chico has been laid out. Good macadam roa 
have been built in the western portion of the county, while li 
mountain roads have been graded in the eastern, more mountain* i 
portion. 

GEOLOGY. 

The bedrock series of the higher portion of Butte County is mil 
up principally of granite and granodiorite, which have intruded I 
older diabase and amphibolite with their overlying slates, quartzi 1 .' 
and limestones of Carboniferous age. The amphibolite lies in a t 
generally with NW.-SE. trend along the west side of the granitic ar 






! 



BUTTE COUNTY. 183 

The series has in places been intruded by basic serpentine and acid 
quartz veins. Considerable areas are covered by sediments, including 
auriferous gravels, and volcanic rocks. The volcanic series consists of 
an older basalt overlain by andesite conglomerate, tuff and breccia, 
all of Tertiary age and in places overlain by a later basalt or dolerite 
of probable Pleistocene age. 

The western portion of the county consists largely of alluvial 
gravels, sands and clays sloping gently from the foothills towards the 
Sacramento River to the west. 

MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

Since 1880 Butte County has produced brick, chrome, copper, 
diamonds, gold, lead, limestone, mineral paint, mineral water, plat- 
inum, silver and stone. 

The production of chrome increased very decidedly in 1916, but 
several of the properties have since been worked out. The copper, 
lead and silver were recovered by the smelter, from gold ores. The 
diamonds are found in the cleanups from placer gold gravel. 

The dredgers in the region about Oroville have kept up the gold 
production for several years. Gold production apparently reached 
its height in 1908, when gold to the value of $3,139,398 was produced. 
Since then the production has gradually diminished until now it is 
slightly more than half what it was in 1908. Platinum is recovered 
from the dredger gold in the process of refining. 

The following table of mineral production in Butte County covers 
the industry since 1880, the earliest time for which production figures 
are available: 



134 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



£1 



! ! 



Amount, 
tons — 



.9 .9 

'3 "3 
P. P. 



a a 



■ 9 
! ! o 



Value. _ 



88888 

w in oo to in 



LO (N 8 O 

NONM 



i-H O **< 00 O t- 

Oi CM i-H Oi C4 00 

r^ i-T cm ■* oo I-? 

co co t- to 



MIOM 

° s? ■* 

moon 
w S O 



co >^ "^ ^ ,0 " ,Q 
. 3 « « X2 p J2 , 

2 -& o - to 

« « - _ o a cj a cj a « » . 
^ M M <v-z£ "C .9 "5 .9 -* -* -^ 
.2 .2 .2 9 pq 3 pq ^ pq ^ .2 .2 .2 
pq pq pq 3 — ~— "— pq pq pq 



22 hmw to to 2 m 

.£ ► „ o o o o 
, -a B S a a a a 

13 o v r O'03335^33! 

a « S « 5 .« w .52 .2 



8 3 



Silver, 
value. 



00 lO c 

to oo e 


O g 
A CO to 


cSg 
Oi CO 


to 


to 


oo" to 



CM •** CO t~ 00 

owifjoo 

WHOOfflb 

cm i> o oo cm 



CM 'fHL'JHO't 

t-^ co to to in •>* eo 



Ounces 



o io 



Value. 



SS S 8 

eg to -n* to 



O (MOO 
to rH O to 

to to to Ol 



S 8 



S8§ 

cm co oo 



88 8 



O LO O 



HrtHfJIN CM 



Gold. 

value 



aOlNOMNlOftHMHOlOMtOa 00 
tOOOONNttaiOt-tOHNOJOO 1> 
10HOlO!Offi^Om<0(NM01000lfl ©i 



OC^00lMO5DC0'*(0t 
«Ot-©iO«NMM» 



CO rH 00 
CO LO -» rf< 



(MOt-OCO 
IO O fi ■* ® 
LO LO I- CO CO 

<n" n co to a 

CO O 



^ aaiNiiot- 

© t- CO CO 00 O Oi 



SCO CO Op 00« ■* CO uir 
X> rH Oi -* CO M N N io 
i-H rH CM CO CM CO" CM CM CM Of CM l-T rH 



Diamonds, 
value. _. 



1288 



Pounds 



cb Cb Co Cn Co 6) w 35 



OHNM^ifl 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO* Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi 'A Oi Oi Oi Oi 









EUTTE COUNT Y. 185 



TABLE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION OF BUTTE COUNTY— Continued. 
Totals. 



opper $2 

)iamonds 725 

fold 24,089,694 

.ead 51 

lin.ral water 22,187 

'latinum — 7,452 

iilver - - 154,835 

Stone industry 621,336 

Jnapportioned 120,860 



Total (1880-1915, inclusive) $25,017,142 

MINERALS AND MINES. 
ASBESTOS. 

Asbestos is reported to have been found near Blinzig, north of the 
dig bend in the North Fork of Feather River, by J. C. Martin. The 
asbestos is of the amphibole variety and occurs in serpentine. The 
Bxtent of the deposit has not been determined since no development 
yvork has been done. 

Serpentine areas of considerable extent occur in the amphibolite 
and slate areas along a line drawn southeastward from Big Bar to 
Clipper Mills. Small veins of asbestos are in places found along 
fracture planes in the serpentine. 

CHROMITE. 

The demand for chrome during the last two years created consid- 
erable interest and old prospects which had lain idle for years were 
opened up and ore was shipped from some of the better ones. 

The Clipper Queen prospect near Clipper Mills is owned by 
Geo. Woolley who has a 24-ft. prospect shaft on a chimney of chrome 
said to be from 2 ft. -"8 ft. wide and 30 ft. long. Idle. 

Curtis Bros, have developed a deposit of chrome near Pentz from 
which some ore is reported to have been shipped from Oroville and 
Durham in April, 1916. It has been operated by John Marchant of 
San Francisco. 

Mr. N. Lambert of Nimshew is reported to have deposits of 48% 
chrome near Magalia in the SW. ± of Sec. 2, T. 22 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M. 
It is 4 miles from the Butte County Railroad. Two or three lenses 
of chrome are said to have been prospected but no ore has been 
shipped. 

The Zenith Mine is in Sec. 6, T. 19 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., about 
2J miles northeast of Forbestown at an elevation of 2940 ft. Chrome 
occurs as kidneys in serpentine with talc. The ore was taken out by 
an open cut along an old shallow tunnel, and some was also grubbed 



186 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



from the soil near the surface. Apparently most of the shipping ore 
was taken from a kidney from 6 ft.-20 ft. wide, 12 ft. deep and 
75 ft. long, having a course N. 30° E. 

The property was closed down when visited in September, 1916 
but it was learned that 25 cars of ore were carried, by motor trucks 
to Oroville and shipped to the United States Steel Corporation 
Owned by the California Manganese Company and leased by E. A 
Dickey and F. M. Driesbach of Oakland, under the name of Zenitt 
Chrome Mining Company. 

CRUSHED ROCK. 

Crusher No. 2 of the Natomas Consolidated of California is 
operating at Oroville. It crushes cobbles from the old dredge tailings 
converting them into rock suitable for building purposes. 



. 



mm 






Photo No. 1. — Rock crushing plant of the Natomas Consolidated of California at Oroville. 
Capacity 1000 tons of crushed rock per day. 

The dredge tailings are loaded into dump cars by a Bucyrus No. 4<! 
steam shovel and hauled 1^ miles to the crushing plant. The grave 
is crushed and then screened to four sizes as follows: 2J"-1£": 
1£"-1", I"— |, f" to dust. The crusher equipment consists of: On<j 
18" x 36", one 24" x 36" and two 10" x 36" jaw crushers. Electricity 
is used for power. 

The plant has a capacity of about 1000 tons of crushed rock pe: 
day and employs 23 men. The production of this plant is gradually 
being cut down, since the company's plant at Fair Oaks, Sacramento ( 
County, is large enough to supply the demand and is nearer to tfr 
market. 

Owned and operated by the Natomas Consolidated of California | 
Rock Crushing Department, Forum Building, Sacramento; H. W 
Thome, manager, at Oroville. 






BUTTE COUNTY. 187 

DIAMONDS. 

Diamonds have been found in the placer diggings at Thompson 
Flat two miles north of Oroville and in the old Cherokee hydraulic 
mine. The diamonds have been found mostly by " f ossickers. " In 
1915 three white diamonds of first quality, weighing 1 carat each, 
and six small diamonds some of which were of gem quality, were 
found at Cherokee. In 1916 a diamond, which when cut was valued 
at $125.00, was found in the old Cherokee mine by John Hufford, 
while another valued at $52.00 was found by Ben Jutz. 

GOLD— DREDGING. 

Gold dredging in California was first carried on in the Oroville 
district, where W. P. Hammon and Warren Treat in 1898 sank test 
pits in the gravels. The results of their findings was brought to the 
attention of Thomas Couch, a Montana mining man, by Frank T. 
Southerland, and the Couch No. 1 dredge was built. Soon after this 
the Feather River Exploration Company was organized, the stock of 
which was held by Lewisohn Bros, of New York, Thos. Couch, W. P. 
Hammon and Frank T. Southerland. 

Dredging in the Oroville field has been a great financial success. 
The greater part of the field has already been dredged and it is 
estimated that it will be worked out in about five years. At the end 
of the year 1916, eleven dredgers were being operated by the following 
seven companies, or parties: 

Gardella 1 

Kentucky Ranch 1 

Natomas Consolidated 3 

Oroville Dredging, Ltd. 2 

Oro Water, Light and Power Company 1 

Oroville Union 1 

Pacific 2 

The following table gives a condensed history of dredging in Butte 
County since its inception. 



188 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



TABULAR HISTORY OF 



Company 



1898— W. P. Hammon and 
Thos. Couch. 

1898— Feather River Explora- 
tion Co. Taken over in 
Jan., 1906, by the Feather 
River Development Co. and 
in Jan., 1909, by the Na- 
tomas Consolidated of Cal. 

1899— Ki a Oro Gold Dredging 

Co. 
1900— Marigold 



1900— Lava Beds Dredging 
Co. Taken over by the 
Oro Water, Light and 
Power Co. 



1901— Oroville Gold Dredging 
Co. 

1901— Indiana Gold Dredging 
and Mining Company. Re- 
incorporate in 1907 as the 
Indiana Gold Dredging Co. 



1901— Boston and Oroville 
Mining Co. Taken over by 
the Oroville Dredging Ltd. 



Garden Ranch Dredging Co. 



1902— Boston and California 
Dredging Co. Took over 
holdings of the Leggett & 
Wilcox Co. Taken over 
by Oroville Dredging Ltd. 



Dredge number 



Couch No. l._. 
Couch No. 2-- 
Oouch No. 3__. 
Feather R. No. : 
Feather R, No. ! 
Feather R. No. ! 
Feather R. No. - 



Feather R. No. 5 



Kia Oro No.l— . 



No. 1 

No. 2 

Lava Bed No. 1 
Lava Bed No. 2 



Lava Bed No. 3 



No. 1 

Indiana No. 1___ 

Indiana No. 2___ 



Indiana No. 3.__ 
Boston No. l-._ 

Boston No. 2_._ 
Continental 

Boston No. 4___ 



Cal. or Leggett 
No. 1 



Cal. or Leggett 
No. 2 



Cal. No. 3. 



Type of con- 
struction 



Risdon 

Risdon 

Risdon 

Couch No. 1. 
Couch No. 2. 
Oouch No. 3. 
Risdon Couch 

No. 4 

Risdon 



Risdon 



Risdon 
Risdon 



West. Eng. 

Const. 

Bucyrns 

West. Eng. 

Const. 

Bucyrus 

Marion 

Company 
and Bucyrus 

West. Eng. 
Const. Co. 
Bucyrus ma- 
chinery 



Bucyrus 



Risdon 



Risdon . 
Bucyrus 



Boston Ma- 
chine Shop 
Marion __. 

Marion 
machine __. 



Risdon 



West. Eng. 
Const, and 
Bucyrus 

Boston Ma- 
chine Shop 
and Marion 



Year com- 
missioned 



Mar. 
June 
June 
Mar. 
June 
June 

Dec. 
Jan. 



1,'98 
8,'00 
8, '00 
1/98 
8,'0O 
8, '00 

10/02 
1903 



May, 1899 
Jan., 1900 



1900 



July, 1903 



Dec. 4,'04 
Feb., 1901 



July 4,'01 

Feb., 1903 

Dec, 1907 

July, 1901 

July, 1902 
1901 

May, 1906 



Mar., 1932 



Dec, 1902 



Oct., 1904 



Number 

and type of 

buckets 



Close conn 



Close conn 



79 close c. 



80 close c. 



Close conn 



Close conn. 



Close conn. 
Close conn. 



68 close c. 
Dippers. . 



Close conn 



Close conn 



Close conn. 



BUTTE COUNTY DREDGERS. 


BUTTE 


COUNTY. 


189 


Type of 
screens 


Type and area 
of riffles 


Dredge capacity, 
cu. yds. in 30 
days. Based on 
actual operation 


So 1 * 
s So 

1 «$ 

1 ** a 


a 

01 

a 
3 
p. 

TO 
a> 

a 

1 

1 


is? 

P c- 1 

"TOO 

5 8 c 

§*% 

8b* 


o o 
p p 

ft ° 

F 


Remarks 




























































40.000 








6.0 
6.0 

6.0 
6.0 

4.0 












Revolving Cocoa matting _ 


40,000 
40,000 

31,800 










Revolving Cocoa matting-— 








Wrecked by floods in 1907 and dis- 
mantled. 
Taken over by the Pacific Gold 


28 












Dredging Co. 
Elevator dredge. 














Elevator dredge. 














Shaking 






40 






8.0 

8.0 


















20,000 














35 

36 
36 
32 


48.82 


2,645,330 


7.5 
7.5 

6.58 


Wrecked by flood March 17, 1907. Dis- 
mantled. 

Wrecked by flood March 17, 1907. 


Shaking 
Shaking 
Revolving 

Revolving 
Revolving 




21,000 
21,000 
39,956 








Machinery used in construction of 
Indiana No. 3. 

Partly destroyed by floods of Janu- 
ary 15, 1909. Reconstructed in July, 
1909. 

Put out of commission in 1908 because 


Hungarian riffles 

Hungarian riffles 
Hungarian riffles 










gravel became too tight to handle 
economically. First had 5 cu. ft. 
open link buckets. 
First had 5 cu. ft. open link buckets. 












Put out of commission in 1908. 
Worked out the property November, 
1909. First built in 1899 with open 
link buckets. 


93,000 
30,000 

39,415 

60,000 
92,000 


28 













In Wyman Ravine District. Worked 












6.23 


out property in 1909. 

First had 5 cu. ft. open link buckets. 
Sold to L. and J. Gardella. 


Shaking 


Hungarian riffles 


36 












Dredged its way to the Viloro prop- 
erty in 1909. Formerly had 4 cu. 
ft. open link buckets. 











190 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



TABULAR HISTORY OF BUTTE 



Company 



1902— Oroville Gold Dredging 
and Exploration Co. Taken 
over by the Oroville Dredg- 
ing Ltd. 



1902— Gardella, L. 



Gardella, L. and J 

1902— Cherokee Gold Dredg- 
ing Co. 

1902— American Gold Dredg- 
ing Co. Taken over by 
Pacific Gold Dredging Co. 

1902— Pennsylvania Dredging 
Co. 



1902— Butte Gold Dredging 
Co. 



1903— El Oro 



1904— Leggett (Jas. H.) Gold 
Dredging Co. Later— Leg- 
gett Gold Mining Co. 



1904— Central Gold Dredging 
Co. 



1904— Ophir Gold Dredging 
Co. Consolidated with the 
Central or Nevada Gold 
Dredging Co. 

1904— Viloro Syndicate Ltd. 



Dredge number 



Exploration or 
Biggs No. 1- 

Exploration or 
Biggs No. 2_. 



Explor. No. 3- 



Gardella or 
Honcut _ 



Gardella 

Cherokee No. 1__ 

American No. L 

American No. 2_ 
Pennsylvania — 



Butte No. 1. 



El Oro No. l-_. 

El Oro No. 2__. 
Leggett No. 3_. 

Leggett No. 4_. 
Central No. l._. 



Nevada 
Ophir .. 



Viloro No. 1. 



Viloro No. 2 or 
Cal. No. 3— - 



Type of con- 
struction 



Risdon 



West. Eng. 
Const, and 
Bucyrus 

Boston Ma- 
chine Shop 
and Marion 

Risdon 



Risdon . 
Bucyrus 

Bucyrus 



Bucyrus 

Golden State 
Miners Iron 
Works, S. P. 

West. Eng. 
and Const. 
Co. Bucyrus 

Link Belt 
Machinery 
Co., Chicago 

Link Belt Ma- 
chinery Co. 

Risdon 



Risdon 



West. Eng. 
Const, and 
Bucyrus _.-. 

Central No. 1 

West. Eng. 
Const, and 
Bucyrus — 

West. Eng. 
Const, and 
Bucyrus — 



Marion 



Tear com- 
missioned 



April, 1902 

1905 

Oct. 20, '06 
May 1,'02 



Oct. 12/07 
Oct., 1902 



Nov., 1902 



Nov. 1,'02 



Nov. 26, '02 



Dec. 26,'03 

Jan. 22,'08 
Mar. 31,'04 



Sept., 1909 

May, 1904 
May 15,'04 

Aug. 4/06 
Oct. 30,'04 

Oct. 30/04 



Number 

and type of 

buckets 



78 close c. 

Close conn. 

Close conn. 
28 open link 



Open link 
Close conn 



54 close c. 



90 close c. 



90 close c. 



Close conn. 
35 open link 



Open link 



92 close c. 



77 close c. 



72 close c. 



! $ 



*Record in April, 1908. 

a Average in 1908. 

2 Capacity said to be 75,000 cubic yards. 

3 Average for 5| years. 



4 Average in 1908. 

'Acres monthly. 

8 3,500,000 cubic yards to January 1, 



BUTTE COUNTY. 



191 



TV 


DREDGERS— Continued. 












Type and area 
of riffles 


Dredge capacity, 
cu. yds. in 30 
days. Based on 
actual operation 


3 a> « 

PoB 

1 "» 


o 

s 

w 

& 

a. 
n 
a> 
& 
i 


a ro p 

SP 4 ' 

i 


1" 


Remarks 


n ing 
















Hungarian riffles 


*109,630 


30 












90,000 


35.5 










y ing Risdon return 




10 






13 


Dismantled in August, 1909, and moved 










to Honcut Creek, where it began 
dredging in February, 1910. Formerly 
California No. 1 dredge. 
In Wyman's Ravine. 














7.0 
3.0 
3 


Taken over in 1909 by the Natomas 






60,000 
90,000 








Consolidated. 
Taken over by the Pacific Gold Dredg- 












ing Co. 


1 n a le- 
arns. 


800 square feet— 


43,830 


28 




6 


8.5 




ciak'g 


750 square feet— 


47,640 


36 


40 





7.0 


Dismantled in July, 1910. 


cak'g 


420.7 square feet- 


1 45,590 


30 


34 


10 






aag 




2 75,000 
3 68,166 


30 

30 
10 


34 
7 1.13 


10 
11 


5.0 

14 




rring 


Longitudinal 
angle irons and 
cobbles. _. 


Worked out the property and dis- 







mantled in June, 1909. 
In Wyman's Ravine. Leggett No. 3 
reconstructed. 






40,000 
4 44,334 


30 
36 








Reincorporated as the Nevada Gold 

Dredging Co. 
Ophir and Nevada Gold Dredging Co., 


ving 


Hungarian 










Consolidated. 






*44,334 


36 








• I 


ng 


Hungarian 1,000 
square feet 




36 








Viloro No. 1 destroyed by fire Octo- 














ber 18, 1909. 


ving 














Purchased from California Oroville 
















DTedging Ltd. 



665,000 cubic yards to January 1, 1909. 
,655,000 cubic yards to January 1, 1909. 
,500,000 cubic yards to January 1, 1909. 



12 1,800,000 cubic yards during first three years. 
13 Gravel said to average 16 cents per cu. yd. 
"Gravel said to average 15 cents per cu. yd. 



192 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 










TABULAR HISTORY OF 


BUTTE 1 


Company 


Dredge number 


Type of con- 
struction 


Year com- 
missioned 


Number 

and type of 

buckets 


td 
c 

o 2. 

!» 


W 
crs> 

§g 

Sg- 


1906— Oro Water, Light and 


Lava Bed No. 2 


West. Eng. 










Power Oo. Took over the 




Const, and 










Lava Bed Dredging Co. 




Bucyrus 


July, 1903 


Close conn. 


5 


208 


and the Marigold Gold 


Lava Bed No. 3 


West. Eng. 










Dredging Co. 




Const, and 














Bucyrus 


Dec. 4/04 


Close conn. 


5 


203 




Empire 


West. Eng. 
Const, and 














Bucyrus 


April 22/06 


82 close c. 


5 


225 




Victor 


West. Eng. 














Const, and 














Bucyrus 


Sept. 4,'07 


Close conn. 


5 


225 




Hunter 


West. Eng. 














Const, and 














Bucyrus 


Aug. 13,'07 


82 close c. 


5 


225 


1906— Pacific Gold Dredging 


Pacific or Perry 












Co. A subsidiary of the 
Yukon Gold Dredging Co. 


No. 1 


West. Eng. 
Const, and 




















Took over the American 




Bucyrus 


May 1,'06 


84 close c. 


n 


300 


Gold Dredging Co. and the 


Pacific or Amer- 












Kia Oro Gold Dredging Co. 


ican No. 1 




Oct., 1902 • 


Clos3 conn. 


4 




Pacific or Amer- 














ican No. 2 


West. Eng. 
Const, and 














Bucyrus ____ 


April, 1904 


Close conn. 


5 


208 




Pacific No. 4 


West. Eng. 
Const, and 














Bucyrus 


Jan. 26, '08 


80 close c. 


7 j 300 


1906— Gold Run Dredging Co. 


Baggett No. 1__ 


Risdon Iron 






1 






Works 


May 26/06 


37 open link 


7 215 


1906 — Oroville Dredging Lim- 


California No. 2 




Jan. 1,'03 


Close conn. 


5 ! 


ited. Took over the Bos- 


California No. 3 




Oct., 1904 


Close conn. 


7 




ton and California, Boston 


Explor. No. 1— _ 




April, 1902 


Open link 


3 




and Oroville, Oroville Gold 


Explor. No. 2__. 




Feb. 17, '05 


Close conn. 


5 




Dredging and Exploration 


Explor. No. 3-__ 




Oct. 20,'06 


Close conn. 


7 




Co. 


Boston No. 4___ 




May 2, '06 


Close conn. 


7 






Continental 




June, 1899 


Close conn. 


4 




1909— Natomas Consolidated 


Cherokee or 




of California. (Leather 


Feather No. 1_ 


Bucyrus 


July, 1902 


Closs conn. 


5 


205 


River Division.) Took over 














the Cherokee and Feather 


Feather No. 1__ 


Yuba Const. 










River Exporation Cos. on 


(formerly 


Co. Marion 


Dec. 22/06 


68 close c. 


7i 


460 


January 1, 1909. 


Feather No. 2) 
Feather No. 2.. 


Yuba Const. 












( formerly 


Co. Marion 


Mar. 26/08 


80 close c. 


n 


460 




Feather No. 3) 














Feather No. 3— 


Yuba Const. 


Sept. 10/11 


79 close c. 


15 


735 




Feather No. 4.. 


Risdon 
Feather R. 














No. 4 


Mar. 10/02 


Open link 


31 


- 


1909— Kentucky Ranch Gold 


Kentucky No. 1_ 


Risdon 


May 1/09 


32 open link 


5 


,5 


Dredging Co. 














1909— Butte Creek Cons. 


Butte Creek 


Ed L, Smith 










Dredging Co. 




design and 
Taylor Iron 
and Steel Co. 














machinery 


May 1/09 


39 open link 


11 


375 



c Acres per month. 
"Built for 36 feet; average 28 feet. 
1C 1,500,000 cubic yards to January, 1910. 



1(i Gravel averages 9 cents per cubic yard. 
"Average of all dredges 5.34 cents during the 
year July, 1906, to July, 1907. 



'. 



BUTTE COUNTY 



193 



IJNTY 


DREDGERS — Continue 


d. 










-pe of Type and area 
reens of riffles 

I 


Dredge capacity, 
cu. yds. in 30 
days. Based on 
actual operation 


~ ! i 

B St3 
"If* 


o 

XD 

Cu 
d 
rs. 

a 

& 


Total cu. yds. 
dredged, bank 
measurement- _ 


►3 

piO 

B"tj 


Remarks 


kin fe 
-king 
jolving 

olving 






36 
40 
38 

38 
38 

«84i 










• 




















Leak in hull and turned over in pond. 












1909. 














jshak'g 


Holmes 


117,205 


62 


le 


4.44 
16 

18 

1C 5.0 

17 














«36 

"29 

35 
av. 3(. 












11,000 








Solving 


3G0 ___ . 


28 


15 






Gravel averages 12J cents per cubic 




vard. Gross output per cubic yard 
















in 1906-1907 was 11.23 cents. 
































































Worked out the property and closed 


Uking 

,-olving 

solving 
Solving 


Hungarian 




45 
25-40 

25-40 

40 








down November, 1909. 
Formerly the Cherokee dredge. Closed 






18246 

18210 
i 8 246 

"10 


9,766,000 

10,560,000 
13,714,000 

i 8 445,0OO 


4.41 

3.69 
3.60 

7.64 
20 


down December 31, 1909. 
Gravels average from 9 cents to 14 






cents per cubic yard. 
Grav Is average from 9 cents to 14 






cents per cubic yard. 






cents per cubic yard. 

Gravels average from 9 cents to U 
cents per cubic yard. Closed down 
December 31, 1909. 

On Honcut Creek. 


Ivolving 

ivolving 


Risdon double 
return 264 sq. ft. 

Manganese steel 
riffles 624 sq. ft. 


30,000 


18 
37 


214 




Sold to Trinity Star Gold Dredging 
Co. in 1916. 






8 To Jun 
l8 To 19K 
' 13—469* 


e 30, 1916. 
). 










2 °Gn 
ai Aci 


ivel said to aver. 11 to 12 cents per cu. yd. 
*es per month. 



194 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The Butte Creek Consolidated dredge was located on Butte Creek 
in 1916. It originally had 39-11 cu.-ft. open-link buckets with a 
capacity of 30,000 cu. yds. of gravel per month. It was sold to the 
Trinity Star Gold Dredging Company, who dismantled it in 1916 for 
shipment to Lewiston, Trinity County. C. E. Mason, superintendent, 
Chico. 

The Honcut dredge, operating on Honcut Creek, is owned by 
Lawrence Gardella of Oroville. It is a Risdon dredge with 5 cubic- 
foot buckets, revolving screen, pumps and 50-ft. bucket elevator run 




Photo No. 2. — Honcut dredge on Honcut Creek, southeast of Oroville, Butte County. 

by electric motors. Power is taken from the line of the Oro Light ; 
and Power Company. The dredge is provided with about 600 sq. ft. of 
riffles. When visited in December, 1916, it was expected to finish the 
ground in about three months after which the dredge was to be dis- 
mantled and moved to Trinity Connty. 

The Hunter dredge is operating on the east side of Feather River 
below Oroville. It is a Bucyrus dredge with 76-6 cu.-ft. close-con- 
nected buckets which will dig 37 feet below the water line. Nine men 
were employed in 3 shifts of 8 hours each. When visited in Decem- 
ber, 1916, the dredger was digging from 26'-30' below the water line 
and handling from 163 to 200 cu. yds. per hour. Owned by the Oro 
Water, Light and Power Company of Oroville ; C. G. Leeson, manager. 



BUTTE COUNTY 



193 




>hoto No. 3. — Hunter dredge of the Oro Water, Light and Power Company, on the east side 
of the Feather River below Oroville. 

The Kentucky Ranch dredge is operating on Honcut Creek in 
Sec. 18, T. 18 N. ? R. 5 E., M. D. M., 10 miles southeast of Palermo. 
Lt is a Risdon dredge equipped with 54-5 cu.-ft. close-connected 
rackets, revolving screen, conveyor belt stacker, and head lines. The 
ivinch rcom is on the main deck. The ground is difficult to work on 
iccount cf large boulders. The dredge is getting old and it is expected 
;o work only until it goes to pieces. Owned by the Kentucky Ranch 
jold Dredging Company, Lawrence Gardella, manager; D. P. Roderic, 
Iredgemaster, Oroville. 




Photo No. 4. — Kentucky Ranch dredge on Honcut Creek, southeast of Oroville. 



196 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The Natomas Consolidated of California has three dredges on the 
Feather River southwest of Oroville. Two of these have 7^ cu.-ft. 
close-connected buckets, while a third has 15 cu.-ft. buckets. Elec- 
tricity is obtained from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. 

The depth to bedrock is about 40 ft., the pay gravel being covered 
with hydraulic tailings. The bedrock is soft and the dredgers dig 
into it about 18 inches. Natomas Consolidated of California, Forum 
Building, Sacramento. Emery Oliver, general manager. 




Photo No. 5. — Natoma No. 3 dredge on the east side of Feather River below Oroville. 

The Oroville Dredging Limited is operating two dredgers near- 
Thermalito on the west side of Feather River. Boston No. 4 dredge, 
has 65-7 J cu.-ft. buckets with a capacity of 120,000 cu. yds. per month. 
It is of the Marion winch type good for 32 ft. below the water line,, 
and has 400 sq. ft. of riffles. When visited it was digging to a depth 
of 25 ft. and was operated by three 8-hour shifts of 3 men each. 
Exploration No. 3 dredge is the same size as Boston No. 4 but has a I 
crown deck 4 ft. wider, and a Bucyrus winch. Owned by the Oroville 
Dredging, Ltd., James Osgood, manager, San Francisco. Geo. Feath- .; 
erton, superintendent, Oroville. 

The Oroville Union Gold Dredging Company is a combination of 
the old Oroville and Pennsylvania companies. It holds 40 acres of I 
land on the west side of Feather River south of Oroville and is oper- \ 
ating the old California No. 3 dredge. The dredge has been in eom-| 
mission for over 14 years and now handles about 75,000 cu. yds. of 






BUTTE COUNTY. 



197 



ivel per month. The gravels average over 11^ per cu. yd. and it 
less than 4|^ per cu. yd. to handle it. W. H. James, president; 
I. G. Nisbet, manager, Oroville. 




Photo No. 6. — Beaton No. 4 dredge, of the Orovi!!e Dredging Con-any, operating on the 
we3t side of Feather Kiver below Oro\ iile. 

The Pacific Gold Dredging Company has two Bucyrus dredgers in 
the county. Pacific No. 3 has been operating in Sec. 3, T. 21 N., 
R. 2 E., on Big Butte Creek, for about two years. The channel is 
about i mile wide and 20 ft. deep. The dredge is equipped with 
G cu.-ft. buckets and shaker screen and has a capacity of about 120,000 
cu. yds. per month. It is expected that the ground will be worked 



out in another year. 




Photo No. 7.— Pacific No. 3 dredge on Big Butte Creek, eight miles east of Chico. 



198 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Pacific No. 4 is operating on the west side of Feather River south- 
west of Oroville. It is equipped with 78-7 cu.-ft. close-connected 
buckets and shaker screen and handles about 4500 cu. yds. of gravel 
per day. When visited in December, 1916, it was digging through 
tailings in order to reach a new piece of ground. 0. C. Perry, 
manager, Oroville. 




Photo No. 8. — Pacific No. 4 dredge on the west side of Feather River, southwest of Oroville. 



GOLD— DRIFT MINES. 

Drift mining in Butte County has been more active during the 
last year. Several properties were being opened up when visited but 
few were as yet on a producing basis. 

The Bader Gold Mining Company has started to open up a channel 
1J miles southwest of Magalia in Sec. 1, T. 22 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M. A 
new 150-ft. tunnel has been run N. 75° E. at an elevation of 1900 ft., and I 
a 70-ft. raise run north to strike the gravel. 

The property has been worked off and on for the last 25 years. 
It was hydraulicked until the soft shale of the west rim began to 
slide, after which a 1000 ft. tunnel was driven. Attempts to drift 
met with failure on account of slides. The new work has been carried 
on along the west rim in porphyry and slate bedrock. 

The gravel consists of granite wash and the gold found in it is said 
to have been oxidized but coarse, with grains about the size of 
cjacumber seeds. Geo. B. Mowry, superintendent, Magalia. 
Bibl. : Kept, XIII, p. 82, 1895-6. 



EUTTE COUNTY. 199 

The Bader Bros, drift property is in the E. \ of Sec. 36, T. 23 N., 
R. 3 E., M. D. M., % mile southwest of Magalia. A 1000-ft. tunnel in 
.slate is said to have crossed a channel which is said to be 30 ft. wide. 
Idle. Owned by H. F. Bader of Magalia. 

The Bay State mine is reported to be 1J miles southwest of Nim- 
shew on the east side of Big Butte Creek. Elevation 2000 ft. ; 100 A. ; 
channel course NE.-SW.. A 300-ft. tunnel in slate and 200-ft. tunnel 
in granite. Gravel free. Idle. 

Bibl. : Kept. VIII, p. 117, 1888. 

The Bangor drift mine is reported to be 1 mile east of Bangor. 
A 2400-ft. channel. Idle. 

Bibl.: Repts. XI, p. 164, 1892; XII, p. 80, 1894; XIII, p. 82, 1896. 

The Burgstrasser or Kickapoo drift mine is 6 miles west of 
Strawberry Valley, elevation 3500 ft.; 100 A.; 300-ft. bedrock tunnel, 
12 ft. raise; 300 ft. gangway, 6 ft. of gravel, no breasting. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 83, 1895-6. 

The Bushness drift mine is reported to be located on Blackhawk 
Creek. Development work is reported to consist of sinking and 
drifting on a gravel channel. Leased by Messrs. Poung, Hughes and 
Hogan of Oroville. 

The Butte Belle drift mine is 2^ miles southwest of Lovelock in 
Sec. 3, T. 23 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M. It includes 159 A. in the Butte Min- 
ing District. Development consists of a bedrock tunnel in serpentine 
run 550 ft. to intersect a channel N. 10° W. along Big Butte Creek. A 
well-defined gold-bearing vein crosses the property. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XII, p. 81, 1894. 

The Butte King mine adjoining, was abandoned in 1894. The Brown 
Ravine mine adjoining, with 160 A. had a 105-ft. bedrock tunnel 
in granite with an 8-ft shaft, but these were abandoned on account of 
water. A lower 260-ft. tunnel was being run in 1890. Idle. Owned 
by Graham and Braden of Stirling. 

Bibl.: Rept. X, p. 146, 1890; XII, p. 81, 1894; XIII, p. 83, 1895-6. 

The Butte Queen drift mine in Sec. 20, T. 25 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M., 
is 4 miles west of Philbrook, at an elevation of 6225 ft. Coarse gold 
is reported to have been taken from a tunnel which encountered 5 ft. 
of gravel under a 150-ft. lava cap. The bedrock is granite and schist. 

The Carr prospect is 1 mile northeast of Philbrook in the SE. I of 
Sec. 7, T. 25 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M. A new 60-ft. incline shaft was 
reported as being run by 5 men who expected to strike gravel at 



200 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

150 ft. Owned by Mr. Stone of San Francisco; J. B. Carr, superin- 
tendent. 

The Catskill drift property lies 1 mile northwest of Bangor. 
Elevation 750 ft. ; 800 A. It is reported that a channel running E.-W. 
had 12'-14' of gravel on the bedrock which ran $2.50 per cu. yd. Sand 
and gravel from 3' to 6' thick overlie the gravel. Development work 
consists of a 210-ft, double compartment shaft with the main gangway 
900' E. and 300' W. Breasting has been carried on from 8' to 18' high 
and 40' wide. An 85 h.p. engine ran a 6" jackhead pump, hoist and 
two 10-ft. arrastras. Water was obtained from the Forbestown ditch. 
Idle. 

Bibl.: Kept. XII, p. 82, 1894; XIII, p. 84, 1895-6. 

The Cole or Butte Star drift mine is 1^ miles west of Nimshew in 
Sec. 22, T. 23 N., R. 3 E. Elevation 2470 ft. A channel capped with 
lava is reported to run N. 10° E. A 606-ft bedrock tunnel in slate 
has been run and the gravel channel followed for 2400 ft. Water was 
obtained from Centerville. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. X, p. 144, 1890. 

The Contention drift mine is reported to be f mile southwest of 
Lovelock in Sec. 36, T. 23 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M. Elevation 2800 ft.; 
60 A. A lava-capped channel 30 ft. wide runs E.-W. and is opened up 
by a 190-ft. bedrock tunnel which continues 65 ft. across the channel. 
The gravel is reported to be 4 ft, deep along 30 ft. of the tunnel and 
to have yielded coarse gold. The channel has been followed down 
stream. Water was obtained from Little Butte Creek. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 84, 1895-6. 

The Dog" Hill drift mine is 1J miles west of Chaparral. Elevation 
5800 ft.; 80 A. A 200 ft. channel is reported to have a NE.-SW. 
course and to have a 150-ft. capping of lava. Two tunnels have been 
run but are said to have been too high. A third tunnel was run in 
bedrock. Idle. 

Bibl.: Rept. XII, p. 82, 1894; XIII, p. 84, 1895-6. 

The Emma drift mine is reported to be near Nimshew. A tunne 
was driven by the Nimshew Gold Mining Company, but the channel was 
lost and thought to have been faulted. The property was leased to 
A. H. Rugh who is reported to have taken out a nugget valued at $726 
in November, 1915. 

The Feather River or Blue Hog mine near Magalia has been worked 
intermittently ever since 1882. Coarse, rounded gold was taken from 
a channel which had 50 ft. of gravel capped with lava, through an 
800-ft. bedrock tunnel in serpentine. A crosscut was made at the 



in 

„ 






BUTTE COUNTY. 201 



south end of the old workings in 1916 by 4 men superintended by E. F. 
Wood worth. The channel exposed is said to be 100 ft. wide. Owned 
>y J. A. Fairchild, AY. R. Rowland and J. Coin of Los Angeles, who 
impose the Feather River Land and Mining Company. 

! The Gold Hill mine on the west branch of Feather River about 
3 miles from Magalia is reported to have been reopened by Oakland 
parties who held an option from M. A. Glover. The leasing company 
2onsists of H. C. Hanson, G. H. Bibb, J. W. Thatcher and Henry M. 
Thatcher. 

The Golden Summit Blue Gravel mine is reported to be 7 miles 
3ast of Inskip at an elevation of 6300 ft. ; 159 A. The channel course 
is SW. and carries coarse gold. Development work consists of a 900-ft. 
tunnel. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 86, 1895-6. 

The Gregory property is 9 miles east of Chaparral on the same 
channel as the Butte King and Butte Queen mines to the south. Five 
feet of lava-capped gravel is reported to be opened up by a 530-ft. 
tunnel, 12 ft. shaft on the pitch of the rimrock and a 200 ft. drift across 
the channel. 

Bibl. : Rept. XII, p. 84, 1894. 

The Index or Wylie drift mine is in Sec. 3, T. 22 N., R. 3 B., 
M. D. M., 3^ miles southeast of Nimshew on Middle Butte Creek; 380 A. 
Elevation 1250 ft. The channel courses NE. and carries from 3'-4' 
of blue gravel on bedrock of slate and serpentine. Old workings in 
1890 consisted of a 300-ft. main tunnel with branches of 40', 60' and 
35'; also 80' of drifts. Development in 1895 consisted of a 300-ft. 
incline and a 100-ft. bedrock tunnel. Water was obtainable for 9 
months of the year from Middle Butte Creek. 

Bibl.: Rept. X, p. 138, 1890; XIII, p. 86, 1895-6. . 

The Irwin mine is J mile northeast of Centerville at an elevation of 
500 ft. and includes a 240 acre patent. A channel f mile long is said 
to have a course NE.-SW. Gravels are said to be exposed 700 ft. deep 
and overlain by 700 ft. of lava. Two tunnels are said to have been 
run 200 ft. and 240 ft. long. The Pacific Gas & Electric Company 
ditch passes within \ mile of the property. Idle for 20 years. Owned 
by T. R. Bennington, of Halleck, San Bernardino County ; A. C. Smith, 
of Portland, Oregon, and J. M. Irwin, of Chico, c/o De Sabla stage. 

The John Dix mine is 6 miles northwest of Lovelock on the North 
Fork of Big Butte Creek at an elevation of 2000 ft. The property is 
reported to have had 200 acres, on the Portuguese Point Channel, devel- 
oped by a 2800-ft. incline. In 1895 about 2800 ft. of channel had been 



2C2 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

worked through an incline and the gravel breasted out 300 ft. wide and 
from 4' to 5' high. The course of the channel is NE.-SW. A hoist was 
run by 400 inches of water from the west branch of Butte Creek. The 
gold was caught in 200 ft. of 18" flume lined with slat riffles. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. XII, p. 85 ; XIII, p. 87. 

John's prospect is in Sec. 7, T. 25 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M., near Stir- 
ling. Coarse gold occurs in a gravel channel which is being opened up 
by Mr. Johns of Stirling. 

Jones Brothers and Reese mine is reported to be 10 miles east of 
Chaparral House in Sec. 29, T. 25 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M. It was thought 
to be a southerly extension of the Butte King and Butte Queen mines. ; 
Where the channel breaks out the bedrock is slate and has an elevation I 
of 6140 ft. A 450-ft. tunnel in gravel near the west rim connects with! 
an old tunnel on the east rim by a crosscut drift. In 1894 the graved 
was washed in 120 ft. of riffled flume with water from the tunnel. 
Bibl. : Rept. XII, p. 85, 1894. 

The Kelly Hill prospect is in the W. J of Sec. 27 and SE. J of 
Sec. 28 cf T. 23 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., 2 miles southeast of Nimshew. 
It includes a 430-acre patent and a 1.4 acre claim. A channel coursing 
NE.-SW. carries coarse gold. The gravel is said to be 176 ft. deep and 
capped with 700 ft. of lava. Four bedrock tunnels have been run 700', 
600', 500' and 250' long and the gravel in places is said to have paid 
well. In the 250-ft. tunnel the gravel prospects but a channel has not 
been encountered. Owned bj^ Eugene J. de Sabla of Burlingame, 
Anna Pierson of San Francisco and A. C. Hanson of Chico, c/o de 
Sabla stage. 

The Kidd mine near Nimshew has been opened up during the last 
year by 4 men who ran a tunnel in slate. The bedrock pitched off and 
the owners think they were on a bar and have now found the main 
channel. Owned by Nimshew Exploration Company, consisting of 
Fred Walker et al., of Nimshew. Geo. Slimer, superintendent. 

The Kirby or Indian Springs mine is in the SE. £ of the NE. J and 
the SE. i of Sec. 34, T. 24 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., 1J miles northwest of 
Hupps. Elevation 2400 ft. The holdings include 6 claims of which 
5 are patented. The channel is said to run NE.-SW. and to carry 
smooth, coarse-wash gold. An old shaft was sunk 150 ft. deep but 
after about 40 ft. of drifting was done, it caved and was lost. A new I 
shaft 103 ft. deep was being sunk 90 ft. north of the old one and it 
was expected to strike the channel at 160 ft. in depth. About 100 gal- 
lons of water per minute were encountered and it was being handled 
by 1 centrifugal and 1 jackhead pump. Sawed timber was being 



EUTTE COUNTY. 



203 



used which cost $24.00 per M. delivered at the mine. Electricity is 
secured from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company by a 2-mile line 
bwned by the Kirbys. Owned by G. W. Kirby of De Sabla. Option 
held by E. S. Armstrong, et al., of Los Angeles. N. Touroff, super- 
intendent. 

The Lucky John mine in Sec. 11, T. 22 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., is 

2 miles north of Paradise and adjoins the Mineral Slide mine to the 
east. Some 1100 ft. of the old tunnel has been opened up and a 
100 ft. incline raise retimbered to reach the gravel. About 320 ft. 
of tunnel have been run along the lower gravel which is being washed. 




Photo No. 9. — Tunnel entrance to Lucky John drift mine near Paradise. 

The pay gravel of the channel has not yet been reached. Three men 
[ were employed by John D. Hubbard of Paradise, superintendent and 
! part owner. Owned by Jno. D. Hubbard and Jas. Spears, Mills 

Building, San Francisco, and P. J. Dunn of San Jose. 

I The Lynch and Brown prospect is on unsurveyed land 2 miles east 
of Inskip at the junction of Fish Creek and Brown's Ravine. Gravel 
is being taken from a 180-ft. incline shaft. Owned by Lynch and 
Brown of Inskip. 

The Magalia, Perschbaker or Lucretia drift mine is on Little Butte 
: Creek, 3 miles northeast of Magalia at an elevation of 2800 ft. The 
channel was worked through a 502-ft. perpendicular shaft to bedrock 
which had a grade of 12' in 100'. The channel from 4/-20' wide was 
supposed to be a branch of the deep channel under Magalia Ridge. The 
channel was worked out. 

Bibl.: Repts. XII, p. 87, 1894; XIII, p. 89, 1895-6. 



204 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Mesilla Valley Blue Gravel or Welch mine is 1 mile north of 
Pentz at an elevation of 1020 ft. The property includes 240 acres 
and is reported to include a blue-gravel channel 25 ft. deep capped 
with lava. A 200-ft. bedrock tunnel in slate was run and a 400-ft. 
gangway up the channel had been completed in 1895. Water was 
obtained from the Miocene ditch. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 89, 1895-6. 

The Mineral Slide mine is 3 miles southwest of Magalia in Sees. 3 
and 10, T. 22 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., at an elevation of 1000 ft. The j 
property includes a 390 A. patent and a water right on Butte Creek 
located in 1881. Coarse gold is reported to occur in a channel 4'-8' deep, 
J mile wide and 1 mile long and to be capped with from 700'-900' of 
lava. The concentrate is said to carry 2-J% platinum. 

The channel was first worked through an incline and later through 
a drain tunnel. A new drain tunnel, to be 1500 ft. long when com- 
pleted, was in 1200 ft. when visited. This new tunnel is driven by 
blasting and washing the reck from the face of the tunnel with 
water frcm a 12" Avood stave pipe reduced to 6". When gravel is 
reached it is planned to install electrically driven buckets to carry 
the gravel to the tunnel sluice boxes from which it will be washed 
out into a revolving screen and through more sluice boxes. 

Six men were employed in driving the tunnel by S. P. Moody, 
superintendent. Owned by G. M. Gooday (J), L. Cohn (J) and 
S. P. Moody (JJ, composing the Mineral Slide Gold Mining Com- 
pany. G. M. Gooday, president, Magalia. Leased to C. H. Hand and 
J. F. Cowen of Salt Lake. 

The Monitor mine is on the south fork of Feather River. It is 
reported that a shaft is being sunk to the bottom of a gravel deposit. 
Equipment consists of a 20 h. p. boiler, steam pump and hoist. 

The Morris Ravine or Butterfly mining property includes a 1200- 
acre patent in Morris Ravine 3 miles northeast of Oroville. The 
mine was abandoned in 1909 after the Goodall Company had run a 
1400-ft. tunnel into the side of the hill. New development work 
consists of a 500-ft. tunnel run N. 20° E. and 500 ft. of drifts. 
Work was being carried on, in December, drifting and crosscutting 
looking for gravel. 

The tunnel has been run in slide material brought down by under- 
cut tin»; Table Mountain by hydraulicking in the early days. The 
face of the tunnel is only a short distance beyond the plane of slipping 
and is 7 ft. above the bedrock in soft white sands of the lone formation. 
The white sands carry no value but gravels on the bedrock carry 
rough rusty gold. 






BUTTE COUNTY. 



20: 



Owned by the Goodall Estate Company, San Francisco. Leased by 
the Morris Ravine Leasing Company, W. T. Baldwin, president; 
R. S. Kitrick, secretary; C. L. Bills, treasurer; and H. W. Te Grunde, 
manager, Oroville. 

The Napa and Solano Counties Company or Best mine is reported 
to be 3 miles west of Lovelock in Sec. 27, T. 24 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., 
at an elevation of 2100 ft. The property includes 40 acres which is 




Photo No. 10. — Tunnel of the Morris Ravine Leasing Company near Table Mountain, four 

miles north of Oroville. 

reported to have a channel running NE.-SW. Development consists 
of a 650-ft. bedrock tunnel in slate and serpentine and a 30-ft. 
raise. Breasting has been carried on from 50'-100' wide, 5'-6' deep 
and 600' long. Water was obtained from the mine. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, pp. 82-89, 1895-6. 

The Nimshew or Pewperingtuno mine is \ mile west of Nimshew 
at an elevation of 1625 ft. It includes 400 acres on which five chan- 
nels are reported. These are said to be, from 10'-40' wide, 2' deep 
with a general course of N. 47° E. In 1895-6 three tunnels had been 
run 1300', 1600' and 1100' long. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 89, 1895-6. 

The Old Glory mine in Morris Ravine, 3 miles northeast of Oroville, 
includes 60 acres. Development work in December, 1916, consisted 
of a 400-ft. tunnel run west at an incline of 30°. It is expected to 
strike the main pay channel at about 600 ft. but it is planned to 
extend the tunnel to 1000 ft. in length, under South Table Mountain. 



206 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The tunnel is being driven by hand drilling. A 4-ft. undershot wheel 
runs the hoist and a No. 3 air blower. The gravel is dumped into a 
bin and washed through 250 ft. of sluice boxes by water from the 
water wheel. Water is obtained from Morris Ravine. Owned by 
Richard Phillips of Oroville. 

The Palace mine is 2 miles west of Lovelocks at an elevation of 
2100 feet. The property includes 260 acres on which a lava capped 
channel is reported to have a NE.-SW. course. The gravels are 




Photo No. 11. — Gravel bin and dump, showing new work being carried on just south of 
the Old Glory mine in Morris Ravine near the base of South Table Mountain. 

reached by a 300-ft. bedrock tunnel in slate and are from 2'-4' deep 
and 80' wide. In 1895 a 1250-ft. gangway followed up the channel 
of which 800 ft. was breasted. The gravel was washed through the 
tunnel with water from Cherokee ditch. Idle. 

Bibl.: Repts. XII, p. 87, 1894; XIII, p. 90, 1895-6. 



The Parry or Alki mine is 4 miles northeast of Magalia at an 
elevation of 1700 ft. The property is reported as consisting of 320 
acres with a 12-mile water ditch from the west branch of Feather 
River. A 30-foot overshot wheel ran 4 pumps since the gravels werf 
worked through a 1000 ft. incline shaft. Idle. 
Bibl.: Rept. XIII, p. 82, 1895-6. 






The Porphyry Point mine is reported 3J miles north of Magalia 
including 30 acres. A channel is thought to run NE.-SW. Develop 
ment work consists of a 75-ft. bedrock tunnel in porphyry and a 
90-ft. incline shaft. Idle. 

Bibl.: Rept. XII, p. 88, 1894; XIII, p. 91, 1895-6. 






BUTTE COUNTY. 207 

\ The Princess, Aurora, or Church property consists of 320 A., 
\l miles northeast of Magalia at an elevation of 2400 ft. A channel 
oursing N. 30° E. is reported to be 70 ft. wide with 3 ft. of blue gravel 
•pened up by a 330-ft. incline shaft. The bedrock is serpentine. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, pp. 82, 91, 1895-6. 

The Republican mine is reported as 4 miles northwest of Lovelocks 
it the forks of Butte Creek. A channel coursing south of east has a 
)edrock of slate and granite. Worked through a 400-ft. tunnel with 
l60 ft. of sluices lined with hungarian and slat riffles. Idle. 
Bibl.: Kept. XII, p. 88, 1894. 

The Robbers' Roost or Oro Fino mine is in Sec. 10, T. 23 N., R. 3 E., 
\1. D. M., 2 miles north of Nimshew at an elevation of 2100 ft. The 
property i ncludes 270 A. on which a channel courses NW.-SE. 
Development consists cf a 2700-ft. bedrock tunnel in slate run due 
iouth with a crosscut run east which struck another channel. The 
vvidth cf the main channel is from 25' to 140' and it has been breasted 
10 ft. wide. The gravel was run through sluice boxes. New work 
m the Robbers' Roost was carried on just south of the old Oro Fino 
tor a few weeks during the fall of 1916, but this ceased in October. 
Owned by Mr. Scribner of San Francisco. W. F. Anderson, superin- 
tendent. Nimshew or 302 El Nido Apts., Oakland. 

Bibl.: Repts. XI, p. 160, 1892; XII, p. 86, 1894; XIII, p. 89, 
1895-6. 

The Royal Drift Mining Company is reported to have several claims 
on the west branch of Butte Creek among which are the Straughn 
[Channel, Royal Drift and Clarke. J. H. Durst of Wheatland inter- 
ested. Allan Veatch, engineer. 

The South Fillbrook property is reported in Sec. 20, T. 25 N., 
R. 5 E., M. D. M., at an elevation of 6000 ft. In 1890 a 180-ft. bedrock 
tunnel was being run SE., in granite and conglomerate, to strike a 
gravel channel. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. X, p. 146, 1890. 

The Steifer or P. B. Steifer mine in Sec. 13, T. 23 N., R. 3 E., 
M. D. M., is 3^ miles north of Magalia near Coutolenc at an elevation 
of 2600 ft. The property consists of 80 acres of patented railroad land 
on which a channel is said to have been discovered in 1855. 

The channel is said to have a course NW.-SE. and to carry from 
2'-4' of uncemented gravel with a few large boulders. It is about 80 
ft. wide and capped with two flows of lava. It is opened up by a 
500-ft, 2-compartment shaft 4' x 10J' with 250' of drifts. The gravels 



208 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

thus far taken out have been sluiced but are said not to have paid; 
for mining. 

Equipment consists of one double-drum hoist with both steam and 
electric connection; one 120 h.p. steam duplex compressor; one 75 h.p. 
electric compressor; one 35 h.p. electric compressor and four 4-stage 
turbine pumps, each with a capacity of 700 gallons per minute. Two, 
power houses have recently been built on the west branch of Feather 
River, each capable, it is said, of generating 350 volts. 

When operating, about 26 men are employed, who take out about 70 
cars of material. Miners receive $3.00 per shift and muckers $2.50 . 
per shift. Owned and operated at intervals during the last 13 years 
by the P. B. Steifer Mining Company of Coutolenc, a stock company 
with P. B. Steifer, president; M. V. Steifer, secretary; and S. M. 
Steifer, treasurer. 

The Strang prospect is J mile west of Oregon City at an elevation 
of 1375 ft. and includes 240 acres. A 100-ft. tunnel on the property 
was run too high. In 1895 a 50-ft. shaft was being sunk below the 
tunnel level. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 93, 1895-6. 

The Tabbe prospect in T. 22 N., R. 5 E., is near Rock Creek about 
6 miles SE. of Concow. The property includes 4 claims and 1 exten- 
sion consisting of 520 acres unsurveyed. Water is ditched \ mile, 
from Little Rock Creek. A channel is said to occur, on the property, 
with granite bedrock. A 200-ft. tunnel is said to have been run in 
bedrock but struck the channel too high. It is planned to run another 
tunnel. Owned by J. N. Stanley, Wm. Delaney of French Gulch, 
W. H. King of Pulga or Flea Valley, and G. A. Stanley of Magalia. 

The Taylor prospect is near Pentz and nuggets are reported to 
have been taken out by a Mr. Clark of Chico. 

The Turner mine is 1 mile east of Bangor on a channel reported to 
be 40 ft. wide with a course NW.-SE. Pay gravel is reported to have 1 
averaged 8 ft. deep on a bedrock of slate. The channel was opened 
up by two 50-ft. shafts on either side of the channel with drifts run 
from each across the channel. The gravel was run through an arras- 
tra which loosened up the gold from the cement gravel. Idle. 
Bibl.: Rept. XII, p. 89, 1894; XIII, p. 93, 1895-6. 

The Undine property on Butte Creek, 15 miles from Chico is under 
lease to Geo. F. Dyer and the Undine Operative and Mining Company 
of Chico. 



B-UTTE COUNTY. 209 

The Wescott mine is on the south edge of Philbrook Valley at an 
levation of 6000 ft. It consists of 1 claim adjoining the Butte King 
nd Butte Queen claims. A 600-ft. bedrock tunnel was run under the 
ivest rim and coarse gold in cement gravel taken out. Idle. 
Bibl.: Kept. X, p. 140, 1890. 

The Willard claim is 1 mile northeast of Magalia and consists of 
claims located in 1852. The property has yielded to date seven 

arge nuggets valued at from $2000 to $10,690 apiece. A quartz ledge 
reported near a slide from Sawmill hill. Owned by F. H. Dakin, 

^o. 110 Sutter St., San Francisco. 

The Wilson mine is 3J miles north of Magalia at an elevation of 
Z500 ft. It consists of 1200 acres on which are a 200-ft. shaft to bed- 
rock and a 300-ft. bedrock tunnel but as yet no channel has been 
fopened up. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 94, 1895-6. 

The Woods property is in Sec. 26, T. 24 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., 4 miles 
lorth of Lovelocks. It consists of 160 acres on which three bedrock 
tunnels in slate 800', 700' and 200' have been run in an easterly direc- 
:ion. Some stoping has been done in the 70-ft. tunnel and coarse gold 
n blue gravel taken out. Water is ditched 1| miles from Little Butte 
Creek. Idle. 

Bibl.: Rept. X, p. 140, 1890. 

GOLD— HYDRAULIC MINES. 

Hydraulic mining has not been carried on in Butte County in 
'ecent years. Present laws would demand the construction of debris 
'lams before active w r ork could be undertaken. 

The Spring Valley or Cherokee hydraulic mine, | mile east of 
Cherokee, was located in 1854 and consists of 1500 acres in Sees. 4, 

28, 29, 32 and 33 of Tps. 20 and 21 N., R. 4 E., M. D. M. Hydraul- 
icking at this property was stopped by the anti-debris laws in Octo- 
ber, 1890. Working the property by drifting has not been considered 
feasible. Water for hydraulicking was taken from the headwaters of 
Big Butte Creek and the west branch of Feather River and the mine 
tailings were dumped into Sawmill Ravine from which they were 
conveyed into Dry Creek. 

During the 36 years in which hydraulicking was carried on about 
150 acres were worked to bedrock, with a 500-ft. face and nearly as 
much was worked to within 15 ft. of bedrock. The latter, lower, 



H— iam 



210 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

cement gravel required blasting. In 1895 several small companies 
had leased portions of the bedrock and were cleaning it up. Since 
then "fossickers" have done some work. Idle. Owned by the Spring 
Valley Gold Mining Company. J. B. Whitcombe of Cherokee, 
receiver. 

Bibl. : Eepts. X, p. 124, 1890 ; XIII, p. 92, 1895-6. 




Photo No. 12. — View northeastward from a bridge two miles south of Pentz showing 
hydraulic tailings from the old Cherokee hydraulic mine. 

GOLD— PLACER MINES. 
(Surficial or Sluicing.) 

Gold is being recovered by small parties of miners in many of the! 
creeks and ravines throughout Butte County. Nuggets of considerable! 
size are sometimes found and in some localities platinum is associated. 

In Bald Rock Canon the Middle Fork Mining Company has been 
taking gold from the loose gravels in the rough creek bed. Their 
equipment consisted of an electric blasting outfit, 5-ton hoist, and' 
barge on which was mounted a Corliss engine which ran an air pumpi 
supplying a diving suit. The gravel taken out is reported to have 
averaged $7.00 per yard. The method of working does not permit of 
many yards per day and the values contained are necessarily uncertain. 

The company consists of S. Hansen, J. Martin Sivertsen and John 
Schmitt, all of Oroville, and is reported to have been organized for 
the purpose of raising money to buy a gravel pump and other equip- 
ment. The permit allows the company to issue 28,000 shares of stock 
to the members of the company in exchange for their claim and all 
equipment, and to sell 22,000 shares at $1.00 per share to net not less 
than $.90 per share to carry out their purpose. 



BUTTE COUNTY. 



211 



GOLD— QUARTZ MINES. 

Considerable activity has been manifested by the quartz mines in 
utte County the past year. Several of the old mines, and prospects 
:e being re-equipped for operations on' a larger scale. Among the 
tore noteworthy are the Banner, Bumblebee, Gold Bank, Kinkaid, 
[ascot, Oklahoma Wonder and Springer. 

The American Eagle property is 4^ miles west of Merrimac. In 
390 it was reported to have a 5-ft. quartz vein in granite striking 
E.-SW. and dipping 45° E. Development consisted of a 600-ft. 
mnel and a 1700-ft. tunnel with three raises to the surface. A small 
mount of stoping was done and the ore was run through a Dodge 
x-k breaker, a 5-ft. Huntington roller mill and over two Triumph 
rocentrators. Idle. 

Bibl. : Kept. X, p. 128, 1890. 




[Photo No. 13. — Hoist and transformers at the Banner quartz mine south of Monte de Oro 
and four miles northeast of Oroville. 
The Banner mine is 5 miles northeast of Oroville at an elevation of 
►80 ft. The property consists of 220 acres including 4 patented 
laims, the Old Banner, South Banner, Amosky and Clark. Early 
.vork was mostly done on the Little Banner vein which was about 18" 
vide and dipped NE. This vein connected with the Big Banner vein 
it a depth of 200 ft. The Amosky vein is reported to parallel the 
,wo Banner veins although it is probable that it is the same vein that 
« being, exploited at the present, workings of the Banner, The vein 
n the Banner mine averages 4 ft. wide while in the Amosky it is said 
o be 7 ft. wide on the 200-ft. level. The veins strike N. 15° E. The 
Banner vein dips 75° E. in a footwall of slate and a hanging wall of 
hetamorphic sandstone. 



212 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Development work at the Banner consists of a 2- compartment shai 
to 400 ft. but open only to the 200-ft. level on which drifts are bein 
run N. 15° W. by 6 men in 2 shifts. Equipment consists of a 20 h.j 
electric motor to run the hoist and a 75 h.p. electric motor to run 
compressor. A 20 h.p. motor runs a 2-stamp Joshua Hendy mi 
equipped with one 4' x W and one 4' x 7' amalgamation table. Th 
plant receives power from a new 4-mile line, built by the company 
from the Pacific Gas & Electric Company. 

Development work at the Amosky consists of a 600-ft. 2-compari 
ment shaft, open and timbered to the 200-ft. level. The shaft run 
N. 20° E. at an incline of 35°. Equipment consists of a Lambei 
steam hoist with Nagle boiler. The ore is trammed about 50 ft. t 
a bin. 

It is planned to install a larger mill and concentrating equipmen 
Owned by the South Banner Mining Company. Geo. E. Gardner 
president ; Richard Phillips, secretary-treasurer and manager s 
Oroville. 

The Bishop and Wells property is 3^ miles west of Merrimac. It i 
reported that a 3-ft. quartz vein occurs between granite and porphyn 
striking N.-S. and dipping 45° W. Development consists of a 100-f 
tunnel on the vein. Equipment consisted of five 300-lb. stamps opei 
ated by an 8-ft. hurdy wheel driven by water from Clear Creek unde 
a 40-ft. head. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 83, 1895-6. 

The Bluebird mine is reported as 2\ miles north of Inskip at a 
elevation of 3850 ft. A 4" vein in decomposed porphyry strikf 
NE.-SW. and dips NW. Development consisted of a 30-ft. shaft an 
open cuts. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 83, 1895-6. 

The Bootjack group consists of 5 claims in Sec. 10, T. 19 N., R. 6 E 
M. D. M., near Porbestown. A quartz vein carrying free gold an 
pyrite is said to be 7 ft. wide at the surface and 15 ft. wide on th 
100-ft. level. The ore is said to assay about $6.00 per ton. Develoj 
ment consists of a 120-ft. shaft and a 15-ft. drift on the 100-ft. leve 
Equipment consists of a 60 h.p. steam boiler, hoist, 1-ton skip, a 3-dri 
compressor, 1 machine drill and 500 ft. of cable. Idle. Owned 
Manuel Fernandez of Porbestown. 



; 



The Bullion mine is \\ miles from Forbestown in Sec. 3, T. 20 N 
R. 6 E., M. D. M. It consists of 1 claim adjoining the Keystone proj 
erty to the west. Development consists of a 60-ft. tunnel in greei 
stone. The ore was milled in an arrastra in 1890. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. X, p. 128, 1890. 



BUTTE COUNTY. 213 

The Bumblebee mine is in the NW. J of Sec. 27, T. 20 N., R. 4 E., 
f. P. M., 4 miles northeast of Oroville at an elevation of 1090 ft. It 
insists of 2 claims, the Josephine and Bumblebee, including 36 acres. 
l quartz vein strikes E.-W. and dips S. 33° between a limestone 
x)twall and slate hanging-wall. It outcrops at the surface about 200 
t. below the mine in a ravine which was placered in the early days. 

Development consists of a 180-ft. incline shaft and 400 ft. of old 
;opes. Mine equipment includes a 40 h.p. International kerosene 
agine, Gardner, 10" x 10" compressor, and air drills ; an 800-f t. steam 




Photo No. 14. — Hoist and mill at the Bumble Bee quartz mine on the west side of Oregon 
Gulch, six miles northeast of Oroville. 

uxiliary hoist and 40 h.p. boiler with a 3000-gallon supply tank 250 
t. above the plant. 

. The mill equipment consists of an 8" x 10" Blake jaw crusher, a 
8" x 4' ball mill and Eckleson concentrating table run by a 15 h.p. 
nternational kerosene engine, and ball mill with worm feed guaran- 
tee! for 36 tons in 24 hours, through 40-mesh screen. The mill equip- 
lent and kerosene engine are all new. Water for the mill is obtained 
rom the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's ditch 75 ft. above the 
[rill. Four men were employed in the mine. Owned by the Butte 
rold Mining Company, No. 505 Consolidated Realty Building, Los 
mgeles. C. B. Ford, president; C. D. Falstead, secretary and treas- 
rer; W. M. Ford, general manager at Oroville. 

The Burlington group near Forbestown is reported to have been 
aken over by the Ralston Development Company, organized by W. C. 
Jalston of San Francisco, with an authorized capital of $3,000,000 
or the purpose of acquiring and operating the Burlington claims, 



214 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

the option for which calls for' $130,000. The company has been per 
mitted to sell 20,000 shares at par, $3.00 per share, to net not less than 
$2.50 per share. 

The Butte Creek property is on Big Butte Creek, 1 mile east of 
Nimshew. An 18" quartz vein strikes NW.-SE. and dips 45° E. 
between a footwall of slate and a hanging wall of limestone. Twc 
tunnels 160' and 80' long and 70' apart were run on the vein and the 
ore blocked out was stoped. The mill consisted of ten 750-lb. stamps 
and two Frue concentrators run by water-power. 

It is reported that 22 tons of ore were shipped to the Selby smelter: 
in November, 1915, to determine the value of the property. Operated 
b}^ a company including Frank Whittock and K. D. Crowder of Chico 
Bibl. : Repts. XII, p. 82, 1894; XIII, p. 83, 1895-6. 

The Cain prospect is J mile south of Inskip at an elevation of 
4250 ft. A quartz vein in slate strikes E.-W. and dips north. A tun- 
nel has been driven on the vein. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 83, 1895-6. 

The Carlisle property includes 640 acres 2|- miles southeast of 
Forbestown, on the south fork of the Feather River, at an elevatior/ 
of 1275 ft. A 9-ft. vein of ribbon quartz is reported to carry free 
gold with galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite. It strikes NE.-SW. and'; 
dips 50° NW. between slate and porphyry. The vein has been pros 
pected by a shaft and two crosscut tunnels. Water power is avail' 
able. The tunnels are reported to have recently been opened. 
Brbl: : Rept, XIII, p. 83,- 1895-6. 

The Clark Brothers mine is 10 miles east of Yankee Hill in ■ the! 
Concow district at an elevation of 2300 ft. A 135-ft. tunnel is reporter 
to have been run along the vein and the ore milled in a 12-ft. arrasta; 
Idle. 

Bibl/: Rept. XIII, p. 84, 1895-6. 

The Crystal Hill property is reported as 3 miles northwest ok 
Enterprise at an elevation of 1100 ft. An 18" vein in granite strikes 
E.-W. and dips vertical. Development consists of a 100-ft. tunnel ancy 
a raise to the surface. The ore was milled by four 750-lb. stamp:;" 
run by water power. 

Bibl; : Rept." XIII, p r 84, 1895-6. 

The Crystal Peak property is reported to be 3 miles north ol 

Enterprise at an elevation of 1100 ft. A 50-ft. quartz vein in granit< 

strikes E.-W. and dips vertical. Ore from a 150-ft. tunnel on the veil 

Was milled by two 750-lb. stamps operated by water power. Idle. « 

Bibl: Rept. XIII, p. 84, 1895-6. 



I 



BUTTE COUNTY. 215 

The Defiance property is reported to be 9 miles north of Oregon 
pity. Two parallel veins between slate and porphyry were developed 
»y a 90-ft. shaft. 

Bibl. : Kept. XII, p. 82, 1894. 

The Dutch Ravine property is reported to be 3 miles south of 
Hurleton. A quartz vein from 2'-5' wide strikes N.-S. and dips W. in 
slate. A 135-ft. shaft was sunk on the vein. 
Bibl.: Rept. XII, p. 82, 1894. 

The Edna M. or Buzzard property is reported to be 2\ miles west 
f Inskip at an elevation of 3850 ft. A 3" seam of quartz strikes NE.- 
SW. and dips SE. Two tunnels 80 ft. and 200 ft. long connected by 
raise followed the seam which carried high values. A 400-ft. 
crosscut tunnel was also rim. The quartz was panned and the tail- 
ings were run through an 8-ft. arrastra operated by a 9-ft. undershot 
wheel run by water from Cherokee ditch. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 85, 1895-6. 

The Eureka quartz mine is on the property of the old Mugford 
drift mine in Sec. 3, T. 22 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., 2J miles SW. of 
Magalia. It consists of a 240-acre patent on which a dike of porphyry 
from 40' to 60' wide is said to be enriched by cross stringers of quartz 
and to assay from $0.40 to $123.00 per ton. The gold occurs free and 
with sulphides. The dike is said to be exposed along the surface for 
about i mile. 

A 290-ft. tunnel witli entrance 75 ft. below the outcrop of the dike 

has not yet crosscut it since it is said to dip away from the direction 

in which the tunnel has been run. Equipment consists of a 6 h.p. gas 

i engine, jackhead pump and 2 mine cars. Owned by Chas. Crowder 

(i) and H. W. Whitten (1) of Chico. 

The Excelsior or Mammoth mine is 4 miles northwest of Inskip at 
an elevation of 3925 ft. It is reported that a 3-inch seam of quartz 
in slate strikes N.-S. and dips vertically. Development work consists 
of a 240-ft. tunnel and a 100-f*. shaft on the vein. The mill con- 
sisted of four 350-lb. double-stem stamps with square shoes and dies. 
Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept, XIII, p. 85, 1895-6. 

The Exposition 1915 mine at Lumpkin is reported to be developing 
an 18-inch quartz vein. Development consists of a 125-ft. tunnel on 
i- the ledge with 200 tons of ore blocked out. The ore is reported to 
mill $12.00 per ton, while the concentrated sulphurets are reported to 
assny up to $80.00 per ton. A stamp mill on the property is run by 
water power. Owned by Frank C. Burroughs and A. F. Thorselius of 
Lumpkin. 






216 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Fitzpatrick property is f mile from Inskip at an elevation of 
4250 ft. A quartz vein in granite is reported to strike N.-S. and dip 
60° E. A 495-ft. tunnel has been run. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 85, 1895-6. 

The Gallagher and Perkins property is in Sees. 10 and 15, T. 24 N., 
R. 4 E., M. D. M., near Kimshew. An 18-inch quartz vein, reported to 
occur along a contact of granite and porphyry, strikes N. 30° E. and 
dips 30° W. Development work consists of a 130-ft. tunnel on the 
vein and a 60-ft. crosscut tunnel. A 10-stamp mill stood on the prop- 
erty in 1890. Water was obtained from the mine. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. X, pp. 133-4, 1890. 

The Gold or Rees Ledge property is in Sec. 21, T. 25 N., R. 5 E., . 
M. D. M., at an elevation of 6050 ft. A quartz vein in slate strikes 
NW.-SE. and dips W. The free-milling ribbon quartz is reported to 
have averaged $20.00 per ton. A tunnel was started in 1890 to tap 
the vein at a depth of 300 ft. below the surface. Idle. 

Bibl.: Rept. X, p. 133, 1890. jj 

The Gold Bank group of mines is located £ mile northeast of 
Forbestown at an elevation of 2820 ft. The property as consolidated 
includes the Gold Bank Group, Golden Queen, Shakespeare and Miller, 
consisting of 1035 acres with timber lands; also the "R. R.," Gold • 
Quartz, Conjunction Gold Quartz, Oroville No. 1 (Placer) and Oro- 1 
ville No. 2 (Placer) consisting of 255 acres. A patent was applied 
for in 1916. 

Development consists of an 8'x8' lower tunnel driven 1600 ft. to 
intersect a vein of quartz 500 ft. vertically below the mine workings. | 
Mining equipment consists of a 4-drill Rand compressor and power 
drills. Mill equipment consists of an old 40-stamp mill with amal- 
gamation plates and 16 Frue concentrators. Water is obtained from 
the Forbestown ditch. 

At the old Gold Bank mine 5 stamps were reported to be operating 
in November, 1915, and 10 stamps in December, 1915, during which 
time $8000.00 in gold was produced. The concentrates were shipped 
to a Utah smelter. 

Owned by the Forbestown Consolidated Gold Mines Company, M. J. 
Cooney of Forbestown, manager; Fred J. Stoer, secretary and treas- 
urer. Under bond and lease to the California Gold Mines Company 
of Salt Lake City, Chas. W. Reese of Salt Lake, general manager. 

The Golden Eagle property is 3 miles north of Paradise in Sec. 3, 
T. 22 N., R. 3 E., M. D. M., on the SE. portion of the Mineral Slide 
drift property. An 8-ft. vein, cut by Little Butte Creek, strikes NW.- 
SE. and dips 45° NE. Development work consists of a 500-ft. tunnel 



L BUTTE COUNTY. 217 

:ind an 86-ft. shaft on the vein, while south of it are two tunnels 150' 
and 400' long. A mill, in 1890, was equipped with a rock breaker, 
Hendy self-feeder, 20 stamps, 6 concentrators and a reverberatory 
roasting furnace. Idle. 

Bibl.: Kept. X, p. 135, 1890. 

The Golden Fissure property is 3J miles west of Enterprise at an 
elevation of 1500 feet. A 4-ft. quartz vein strikes E.-W. and dips ver- 
tically in granite. Development Avork in 1895 consists of a 100-ft. 
tunnel. 

Bibl.: Kept. XIII, p. 86, 1895-6. 

The Golden Queen property is J mile north of Forbestown. A 
20-ft. quartz vein strikes NE.-SW. and dips N. 20°. The ore was 
•sorted in the mine and the low grade used for filling. The picked ore 
averaged $5.00 per ton in free gold and H% sulphurets. The ore is 
reported to carry pyrite, galena and some telluride. 

Equipment in 1892 consisted of a No. 2 Gates crusher and ten 750-lb. 
stamps operated by water power. Apron, sluice plates, blankets, 
$luices and 16-ft. buddle were used to save the gold. 
Bibl.: Rept. XI, p. 162, 1893. 

The Golden Summit property is 18 miles east of Powellton in 
Sec. 21, T. 25 X., R. 5 E., M. D. M., at an elevation of 6600 ft. It 
consists of a 320-acre patent on which an 8-ft. quartz vein strikes N. 
:66° E. and dips vertically between syenite and greenstone. 

Development in 1895 consisted of a 250-ft. incline shaft tapped at 
100-ft. depth by a 400-ft. drain tunnel. Drifts were run 400' east and 
400' west on the 100-ft. level, and 300' east and 250' west on the 200- 
ft. level. Equipment consisted of ten 800-lb. stamps and two Wood- 
3ury concentrators run by steam power. 
Bibl.: Rept. XIII, p. 86, 1895-6. 

The Golden Thread property is on Secret Creek 2\ miles northwest 
of Inskip, at an elevation of 3550 ft. A 2-inch seam of quartz carry- 
ing coarse gold strikes NE. and dips W. in decomposed rock. Devel- 
opment work in 1895 consisted of open cuts and tunnels with stoping 
to the surface. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 86, 1895-6. 

The Inskip property is \ mile southwest of Inskip in Sec. 29, 
T. 25 N., R. 4 E., M. D. M. Two parallel veins, one of which is from 
6"-3' and another 2%' wide are about 20 ft. apart. A 100-ft. drift 
pm between the two veins is reported to have developed 125 ft. of 
backs. Crosscuts were run to the vein. The ore was hand sorted and 



218 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

run through an 8-ft. arrastra operated by a 16-ft. overshot wheel 
with water from the Cherokee ditch. 
Bibl. : Kept. XII, p. 84, 1894. 

The Keystone property is reported to consist of one claim -J mile 
northwest of Forbestown in Sec. 3, T. 20 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Devel- 
opment work consisted of a 120-f t. incline shaft on the vein at an 
angle of 45°, an 80-ft. perpendicular shaft and a tunnel in green- 
stone. Idle. 

Bibl.: Kept. X, p. 127, 1890. 

The Kinkaid mine is in Sec. 7, T. 21 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M., near 
Shields Gulch, 6 miles northwest of Berry Creek. The property in- 
cludes 157 acres of patented land purchased from the railroad. 

A 10-ft. quartz vein in porphyry strikes NW.-SE. and dips 15° NE. 
The ore is said to mill $7.00 per ton in free gold; $6.00 in gold per ton 
is recovered by cyaniding and the tailings assay $6.00 per ton. The 
sulphides are concentrated. 

Development consists of a 100-ft. tunnel and 50-ft. winze. Experi- 
mental equipment consists of a Kendall 1-stamp mill and a Chilean 
rotary mill run by two 6 h.p. gasoline engines; a jaw crusher run by 
an 8 h.p. gasoline engine ; and a concentrator run by a 2 h.p. gasoline 
engine. Three men were employed in December, 1916. Owned by 
M. P. Kinkaid of Oroville and Mr. O'Neill of Nebraska. Jack H. Kin- 
kaid, superintendent. 

The Lost Treasure consists of one claim on Dutch Gulch, f mile 
north of Inskip, in Sec. 28, T. 26 N., R. 4 E., M. D. M. Pockets of gold 
were found in quartz stringers, some of which were 12 inches wide in 
altered syenite. In 1894, a 150-ft. tunnel was reported to have been 
driven NE. along the strike of the quartz veins. 
Bibl. : Rept. XII, p. 86, 1894. 

The Lucky Bob prospect is 4 miles north of Oroville. A 2-ft. quartz 
vein in slate and greenstone is reported to strike W. of N. and dip 
55° W. A 550-ft. tunnel was driven along the vein. 
Bibl.: Repts. XII, p. 86, 1894; XIII, p. 87, 1895-6. 

The Mascot property is in the SW. \ of Sec. 27, T. 20 N., R. 4 E. 
M. D. M., 5 miles northeast of Oroville, at an elevation of 980 ft. 
consists of a 40-acre patent on which two veins are being worked. 
6"-18" sugary quartz vein exposed in a 75-ft. upper tunnel strikes 
10° W. and dips 40° NE. A vein striking N. 35° E. is being worke< 
in a tunnel 75 ft. in elevation below the upper tunnel. Stoping hi 
been carried nearly 30 ft., to the surface, for a distance of 30 fl 
along 1 lie vein in the upper tunnel. 



BUTTE COUNTY. 219 

Mine equipment consists of a bunk house, shop, car, etc. A Joshua 
Heudy triple-discharge 3-stamp mill was being installed in December, 
1916. 

Owned by Wm. Ford and C. A. Grummet of Oroville, and Jas. 
Wvkoff of Woodleaf. Option held by W. T. Baldwin, manager, of 
Oroville, and John Upton, superintendent. 

The Matheson or Meredith property is A\ miles north of Nimshew 
on the south side of Big Butte Creek, in Sec. 2, T. 23 N., R. 3 E., 
M. D. M., at an elevation of 2000 ft. A 10-inch quartz vein is reported 
to strike NW.-SE. and dip 30° E. between a footwall of slate and a 
hanging wall of serpentine. Mill equipment consisted of eight 850-lb. 
stamps and a 4-ft. Huntington roller mill. Water was ditched 1 mile. 
Idle. 

Bibl. : Repts. XIII, p. 88, 1895-6 ; X, p. 135, 1890. 

The Mattie property is 8 miles east of Oroville, near Miner's Ranch, 
at an elevation of 1100 ft. An 8"-30" quartz vein strikes E.-W. and 
dips 40° S. between greenstone and slate. Two prospect shafts 400' 
apart were 10' and 50' deep. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 88, 1895-6. 

The Mosquito Creek property is reported to be \ mile east of 
Coutolenc, at an elevation of 2750 ft. Three parallel quartz veins are 
reported to occur in slate, one of which strikes N.-S. and dips 60° 
E. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 89, 1895-6. 

The Mount Ida property is 2J miles northeast of Hurleton at an 
elevation of 1430 ft. An 18-inch quartz vein in diorite strikes N.-S. 
and dips 54° W. Development work consists of a 25-ft. shaft, tunnel 
and open cuts. Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 89, 1895-6. 

The New Oregon, Forty-nine or Red Point mine is \\ miles east of 
Enterprise at an elevation of 1625 ft. It consists of a 160-acre patent 
on which a 12-ft. quartz vein strikes E.-W. and dips 60° S. between 
slate and porphyry. Development work in 1895 consisted of 2 cross- 
cut tunnels with short drifts. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 89, 1895-6. 

The Oklahoma Wonder property is 5 miles northeast of Oroville in 
Sec. 27, T. 20 N., R. 4 E., M. D. M., adjoining the Mascot mine. An 
18" sugary quartz vein carrying free gold strikes N. 75° W. and dips 
35° S. Development consists of a 10-ft. incline shaft just started. 



220 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

An old mill with five 250-lb. stamps has been installed, with 3' x 4' 
plate and Challenge feed, to work the upper oxidized ore. The decom- 
posed vein material near the surface pans very well and the surface 
thereabouts has been ground sluiced in the early days. Owned by 
Mary I. Hedge of Oroville. Option held by W. T. Baldwin and John 
Upton of Oroville. 

The Owl property is 2 miles northwest of Inskip at an elevation of 
3925 ft. A rich seam of quartz in porphyry strikes N. and dips W. 
The ore was milled in an 8-ft. arrastra. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 90, 1895-6. 

The Pactolian property is 2 miles north of Hurleton at an elevation 
of 1600 ft. A 2'-8' quartz vein strikes NE.-SW. and dips SE. between 
diorite and slate. Development work consisted of a tunnel. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 90, 1895-6. 

The Palo Alto property is 3 miles north of Merrimac. It is reported 
to include a 3-ft. quartz vein striking N.-S. and dipping 75° E. between 
granite and porphyry. The vein has been opened up by five tunnels. 
Equipment consisted of a 12 and a 10-stamp mill operated by water 
power, a Blake rock crusher and 2 Prue concentrators. Idle. 
Bibl.: Repts. X, pp. 129-130, 1890; XIII, p. 90, 1895. 

The Phoenix property includes three claims 3 miles south of 
Hurleton in Sec. 28, T. 19 N., R. 5 W., M. D. M., at an elevation of 
1600 ft. A 2'-8' quartz vein strikes N.-S. and dips vertically. Devel- 
opment consists of a 105-ft. shaft, short drifts along the vein and 
some stoping. 

In 1894 the mine was equipped with a horse-whim hoist and the 
mill with a Dodge rock breaker, with Stanford self-feeder and a 
Bryan roller. 

Bibl.: Repts. XIII, p. 90, 1895-6; XII, p. 87, 1894. 

The Pinkston property is 10 miles east of Yankee Hill, at an 
elevation of 2300 ft. A 2'-4' quartz vein is reported to strike N.-S. 
and dip vertically. Development consists of a 60-ft. shaft and 80 ft. 
of drifting on the vein. The stamp mill has been removed. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 90, 1895-6. 

The Poumarat property is on Little Butte Creek, 1^ miles northwest 
of Lovelocks, at an elevation of 2600 ft. A 2-ft. vein in slate strikes 
N.-S. and dips 45° E. Development consists of a 100-ft. two-compart- 
ment shaft with a 100-ft. drift N. on the 70-ft. level. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 91, 1895-6. 






BUTTE COUNTY. 221 

The Rainbow property consists of a 40-acre patent on Jordan Hill, 
4 miles northwest of Yankee Hill in Sec. 29, T. 22 N., R. 4 E., M. D. M. 
A 2J-ft. quartz vein strikes E.-W. and dips 50° N. between slate and 
serpentine. Development consists of an incline shaft with drifts east 
and west. A 5-stamp mill stood on the property in 1895-6. 
Bibl. : Repts. XI, p. 58, 1892 ; X, p. 131, 1890. 

The Ramona or Skipper property includes 40 acres 1J miles south 
of Magalia, at an elevation of 1900 ft. Two quartz veins, from 3'-10' 
wide, in syenite are reported to strike N. 65° E. and dip 75° SE. 
Development in 1895 consisted of a 46-ft. tunnel on the vein; and the 
equipment included ten 850-lb. stamps. Water was obtained from the 
Cherokee and Miocene ditches. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 91, 1895-6. 

The Rawhide property consists of 1 claim, 2 miles north of Inskip, 
at an elevation of 4300 ft. A quartz vein from 4'-30' wide strikes N.-S. 
and dips 75° E. in slate. Development consisted of a 25-ft. incline shaft 
and a 25-ft. tunnel on a stringer of the main vein. 
Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 91, 1895-6. 

The Resumption properly is 3J miles east of Hurleton at an 
elevation of 1800 ft. A 3-ft. vein, reported to strike NE. and dip 
NW., has been opened up by a tunnel. The ore was run through a 
Phoenix mill. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 92, 1895-6. 

The Rock River property consists of 3 claims located 9 miles north 
of Oroville, in Sees. 4 and 9, T. 20 N., R. 4 E., M. D. M., at an elevation 
of 1200 ft. A quartz vein from 20" to 3' wide strikes N. 48° W. and 
dips 45° SW. along a contact of slate and diabase. Development work 
consists of a 300-ft. incline shaft on the vein with three levels. Three 
drifts have been run north 300', 275' and 160', while two 100-ft. 
drifts have been run south. A 15 h.p. engine ran a hoist and No. 4 
Dow pump. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 92, 1895-6. 

The Roeper or Midas property is 1J miles west of Inskip. Three 
quartz veins strike NE.-SW. along a contact of slate and porphyry. 
It is said that one vein is low grade, another carries sulphides and a 
third carries free gold. The latter vein is said to vary from 4" to 
12" wide. Development work done during the last 5 years consists of 
a 1500-ft. tunnel and considerable crosscutting. 

Owned by the Chico Consolidated Gold Mining Company. John 
Roeper, manager, 416 Second st., Chico. Reported sold to J. H. Sharp 
of San Francisco. 



222 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Southern Cross mine in Sec. 32, T. 20 N., R. 6E, M. D. M., 
near Enterprise, is reported to have opened up a quartz vein in 
granite which varies in width from a seam up to 6 ft. It strikes NE.r 
SW., dips 60° NW. and is developed by a 200-ft. tunnel. Mill equip- 
ment consisted of four 850-lb. stamps, 2 Banner mills, a ball mill and 
a "Woodbury concentrator. Owned by L. Rosenthal of San Francisco. 
Bibl.: Register of Mines and Minerals, Butte County, pp. 8 and 
9, 1903. 

The Spring Valley property consists of 42 acres located 2 miles 
southeast of Cherokee, at an elevation of 1600 ft. A 5-ft. quartz vein 
is reported to strike N. 80° W. and to dip 40° E. Development consists 
of a 400-ft. tunnel on the ledge and an 800-ft. crosscut tunnel with a 
28-ft. raise to the vein. Mill equipment consisted of ten 850-lb. stamps. 
Idle. 

Bibl. : Rept. XIII, p. 92, 1895-6. 

The Springer or Gold Dike property is 2 miles north of De Sabla 
and 8 miles northwest of Magalia in the E. § of Sec. 34, T. 24 N., 
R. 3 E., M. D. M., at an elevation of 2350 ft, The roads are good 
during the dry season. The property includes 6 claims, the Paul 
Jones Placer, American Ravine Placer, Trenton Placer, Tiger Lily 
Quartz, Twilight Quartz, and D. A. Matheson Quartz. 

The porphyritic dike from 200'-400' wide and 1 mile long has 
been prospected by sluicing and found to carry rough coarse gold 
associated with quartz stringers. It is estimated that the ore will 
average about $1.00 per ton milled while the cost of mining and 
milling will not exceed $0.50 per ton. The recovery of gold by 
milling is expected to be about four times greater than by sluicing. 

The ore is blasted and handled by a steam shovel, on benches and 
in open cuts, which dump it in chutes which lead to receiving bins. 
Equipment consists of a churn drill, an American No. 28 steam 
shovel with f cu. yd. bucket, 200-ton receiving bin, grizzly, 16" x 30" 
jaw crusher, ball mills (two 6' x 5', one 5' x 3', one 4'x3'), 6 Deister 
Simplex concentrating tables, amalgamation tables. Plans call for a 
700-ton mill bin with conveyor belt from the receiving bins, a 50 h.p. 
electric motor to run the crusher and a 5 h.p. motor to run 3 Challenge 
feeders. 

Electricity will be obtained from the Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company. Water is secured from American Ravine. The tailings 
will be turned into the west branch of Butte Creek. 

Twelve men were employed in December, 1916, during the installa- 
tion of equipment, buildings, etc., by IT. M. Thompson, superintendent.- 
Owned by the Springer Consolidated Mining Company of New York. 



BUTTE COUNTY. 223 

The Shakespeare property is at Forbestown. A 4-ft. quartz vein in 
syenite and greenstone is reported to strike N.-S. and dip 80° W. 
Development consists of a 250-ft. shaft with some drifting. In 1894 
the mill was equipped with thirty 1000-lb. stamps, 12 Frue concen- 
trators and a chlorination plant. Idle. 

BibL: Repts. XII, p. 88, 1894; XIII, p. 92, 1895-6. 

The Slater property is 2\ miles east of Enterprise at an elevation 
of 1100 ft. A 7 "-4' quartz vein in granite strikes E.-W. and dips 
N. Development consists of a 190-ft. crosscut tunnel and a 200-ft 
shaft on the vein with some stoping. Equipment in 1895 consisted 
of a 10-ft. arrastra run by steam power. A 2^-mile ditch carried water 
from Slater ravine. Idle. 

Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 92, 1895-6. 

The Standard Gold and Silver Companies mine is at Oregon City, 
8 miles northwest of Oroville at an elevation of 1425 ft. It consists 
of two claims en which four 18" parallel quartz veins occur in green- 
stone and syenite. The veins strike NW.-SE. and dip 35° SW. 

Development work consists of a 487-ft. single-compartment incline 
shaft with 4 levels. Drifts in 1895 were as follows : 135-ft. level drifts 
N. 219' and S. 227'; 239-ft. level, drifts N. 197' and S. 200'; 387-ft. 
level, drifts N. 48' and S. 105'. Ore is reported to have been stoped 
from the second level to the surface. The mine made considerable 
water. 

Equipment in 1895 consisted of a 20 h.p. engine which ran 
3 Knowles pumps and several Hooker pumps, a 4-ft. Bryan roller-mill, 
Midas amalgamator and 2 Frue vanners. Idle. 
Bibl,: Kept. XIII, p. 93, 1895-6. 

The St. Lawrence property is 2 miles north of Inskip at an elevation 
of 4325 ft. A quartz vein in slate strikes NW. and dips E. Devel- 
oped by open cuts and shallow pits. Idle. 
Bibl. : Kept. XIII, p. 93, 1895-6. 

The Sunbeam property near Yankee Hill has a 3^-ft. quartz ledge 
reported as being developed by J. L. Charles, Wm. and Ray Develter, 
Gus Forthous and L. H. Fields of Oroville. A 5-stamp mill was 
reported to be under construction in February, 1916. 

The Triumph prospect is near Lumpkin. A quartz vein is being 
prospected by open cuts. Water is available. Owned by F. A. 
Thompson of Goldfield, Nevada. 

The Wild Yankee or Bessie property is 3| miles northwest of Inskip 
at an elevation of 3925 ft. Three veins are reported to strike NE.-SW. 
and dip nearly vertical. The principal vein is 4 ft. wide, in syenite, 
and prospected by a tunnel and open cuts. There are two tunnels 



224 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and an incline on the other veins. The ore was milled by an 8-ft. 
arrastra run by water power. 

Bibl. : Kept. XIII, pp. 82 and 94, 1895-6. 

MANGANESE. 

Considerable manganese ore was shipped from Butte County in 
1916. The large ore bodies, so far as development work has shown, 
were taken out, but it is possible that other deposits would bear more 
detailed investigation. 

The Binet prospect is west of Clipper Mills. Insufficient work has 
been done to determine the size of the deposit. An option is held by 
J. A. Knox of Oakland. Owned by E. C. Binet of Clipper Mills. 

The Powell property consists of a 120-acre patent in Sec. 35, 
T. 20 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 1 mile north of Clipper Mills. The man- 
ganese deposit is 8 inches wide and strikes N. 65° E. A 30-ft. shaft has 
exposed the ledge at its bottom. A 50-ft. open cut exposes 30 ft. of 
ledge matter carrying more or less manganese. This ledge strikes 
E.-W. and dips 30° N. 

Small kidneys of chrome ore in serpentine have also been found on 
the property but no deposit of any size has been opened up. 

Owned by E. V. Powell. Leased by Davis and Horning of Oroville 
who had not begun work when the property was visited. 

The Woolley or Bear Canon mine is in Sec. 35, T. 20 N., R. 7 E., 
M. D. M., 1J miles northwest of Clipper Mills. A ledge of manganese 
ore strikes E.-W. and dips N. in amphibolite near an area of serpen- 
tine. A body of ore from 4'-20' wide and 50' long was opened up by 
a tunnel and stoped out in 1916. About 220 tons of 40% ore was 
shipped by the Noble Electric Steel Corporation who leased the prop- 
erty. The ore was hauled from the mine to Oroville by motor trucks 
for $6.00 per ton. Owned by Geo. W. Woolley of Clipper Mills. 



MINERAL SPRINGS. 

The following brief descriptions are taken from IT. S. Geological 
Survey Water Supply Paper No. 338, 1915. 

Henderson Spring is at an elevation of 3450' in the bottom of the 
canon of Big Butte Creek, 11 miles by road and trail north of Stirling 
City. Cold mineralized water issues from a steep bank of slate and is 
I'scd for drinking purposes by miners of the vicinity. 

Mount Ida Spring is situated 6 miles east of Oroville at an elevation 
of 800' in a wide ravine at the base of slopes of schistose rock. The 
wjilcr- was well known to the Indinns and later to white settlers, and 
formerly supplied a small drinking pool. A shaft lias now been sunk 
to a depth of 13 feel to bedrock and a joint of pipe cemented into the 






BUTTE COUNTY. 225 

fissure from which the water issues. The clear fresh carbonated 
water is used locally for drinking purposes and was at one time 
bottled by the Oroville Soda Works. Owned by Judge J. C. Gray 
of Oroville. For an analysis of this spring water see U. S. Geological 
Survey Water Supply Paper No. 338, p. 230, 1915. 

Richardson Springs are situated in the canon of Mud Creek, 12 
miles north of Chico. Saline water issues from tuffaceous sediments 
and is utilized for drinking and bathing purposes. 

Three of the four principal springs rise within 30 yards of each 
other, between the hotel and bathhouse. Two of these form cemented 
drinking pools of slight discharge in which the water is strongly 
saline and sulphuretted. The central spring of the three rises in a 
concrete standpipe to a height of several feet above the ground and 
its water is thence conducted by a small flume to a heating boiler at 
the bathhouse. The yield is about 2| gallons per minute. The fourth 
spring, known as Montgomery Spring, rises in a cemented drinking 
pool about 300 yards farther eastward and yields about 2 gallons per 
minute of mildly sulphuretted water. A cemented drinking basin 
surrounds a fifth spring, known as Iron Spring, on the side of a ravine 
about 100 yards north of the main springs. The overflow is slight 
and the water has no distinctly mineralized taste. Natural gas from 
certain of these springs is stated to be utilized at the resort. For 
analyses of these waters see U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply 
Paper No. 338, p. 292, 1915. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Dickerson, R. E. The Eocene of Oroville South Table Mountain. 

Bull. Dept. of Geol. Univ. of Cal., Vol. 9, No. 17, pp. 388-395, 

May, 1916. 
Diller, J. S. U. S. Geol. Surv. Annual Rept. XIV, Pt. 2, p. 418, 

1894. 
Lindgren, Waldemar. The Tertiary Gravels of the Sierra Nevada 

Mountains, U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper No. 73, pp. 82-101, 

1911. 
State Mineralogist's Reports VIII, pp. 116-120, 1888; X, pp. 124- 

146, 1890; XI, pp. 150-165, 1892-; XII, pp. 80-89, 1894; XIII, 

pp. 82-95, 1895-6 ; Register of Mines and Minerals of Butte 

County, December, 1903. 
Turner, H. W. Further studies in the Geology of the Sierra 

Nevada Mountains. Seventeenth Annual Report, U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey, Pt. I, 1895-6, p. 540 et seq. 

The Rocks of the Sierra Nevada, Fourteenth Annual Report 

of the U. S. Geological Survey, Pt. 2, pp. 435-496, 1892-3. 

15—46904 



226 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



LASSEN COUNTY. 

By W. Burling Tucker. Field Assistant. 
Field Work in September, 1915. 






DESCRIPTION. 

Lassen County, in the northern part of the state, is bounded on the 
south by Plumas and Sierra counties, on the west by Shasta, on the \ 
north by Modoc, and on the east by the state of Nevada. 

The county has an area of 4680 square miles. It is a succession of I 
mountain ranges, those in the western half being heavily timbered, and 
interspersed with valleys, both large and small, wherein are located I 
numerous lakes, of which there are twenty-two. The most prominent I 
of these is Eagle Lake, which lies twelve miles north of Susanville, near i 
the center of the county, among the eastern spurs of the Sierra Nevada ] 
range. It is fourteen miles long by six miles wide, having an area of 
28,000 acres, and an elevation of over 5000 feet. Apparently, it has 4 
no outlet, but Willow Creek, which takes its rise immediately below the 
lake from several large springs, is supposed to be fed by the lake. 

It is surrounded by mountains, some of them clothed with heavy pine t 
timber that reaches to the water's edge. To the northeast, Fredonyer's I 
Peak rises to an altitude of 8,000 feet. Honey Lake Valley is situated I 
in the southeastern part of Lassen County, and comprises some 225,000 '( 
acres of agricultural land. About the center of the valley is located 
Honey Lake, a vast expanse of water, with a surface of 64,000 acres, 1 
at an elevation of 3949 feet above sea level. It is fifteen miles long i 
from east to west, and four to twelve miles wide at its highest stage, ')] 
when it attains a depth of ten feet ; the water is alkaline. Two streams j 
empty into this lake, Susan River from the west, and Long Valley Creek I 
from the south. Surrounding this fertile valley on all sides are won- I 
derful mountain ranges varying in elevation to almost 8000 feet above 1 
the sea. In the northern part of the county, sending their waters into 
the Pacific, we have a second Willow Creek and the Pit River. The 
mountains, too rough and high for agricultural purposes, afford excel- 
lent grazing, and therefore are devoted entirely to stock raising. Due 
to the recent volcanic activity of Lassen Peak, it is interesting to note 
that the Cinder Cone, which lies ten miles northeast of Lassen Peak, is 
situated in the southwestern part of the county, between Snag Lake 
and Lake Bidwell. The slopes of this cinder cone are covered witli a 
loose material of scoria, lapilli, and a dull black volcanic sand. 

This cinder cone is regular in form, with a smooth, dark surface. It 
rises to an elevation of 640 feet above the lowest point of its base 



LASSEN COUNTY. 227 

.6907 feet above the sea) with an average diameter of 2000 feet below 
uul 750 feet across the top. 1 

The pit has a depth of 240 feet, with a narrow bottom and partially 
>laggy slopes. The greater part of this country is covered with sheets 
)f basaltic lava, volcanic ash and scoria; only occasionally do we find 
exposures of sandstones and shales, and some marl and clays. 

The principal industries of the county are stock raising, dairying, 
nining, and lumbering. 

RAILROAD FACILITIES. 

Lassen County is reached and traversed by three different railroads : 
The Western Pacific crosses the county east and west in the southern 
part ; the Southern Pacific Railroad comes in from the east, starting at 
Pernley, on the Central Pacific about thirty miles east of Reno, Nevada, 
n"and continues through Honey Lake Valley as far as Westwood, where 
the headquarters of the Red River Lumber Company are located; the 
Nevada-California-Oregon Railroad, commencing at Reno, Nevada, and 
snding at Lakeview, Oregon, traverses the entire length of the east side 
Df the county. 

MINING CONDITIONS. 

Owing to the larger part of the country being covered by eruptive 
overflows, which obscure all indications of the presence of valuable 
mineral, there are only two places in the county where mining has been 
carried on, resulting in bullion shipments, the most prominent of which 
lis the Hayden Hill mining district. 

In the neighborhood of Susanville in the granite on the Diamond 
Mountain range, there has been some prospecting and development in 
[the past, but at present there is only a small amount of activity in this 
district. 

South of Coopervale in Sees. 29 and 32, T. 28 N., R. 10 E., some good 
|eopper prospects have been developed, showing values in gold and 
;silver. Among the mineral resources of this county are copper, gems, 
gypsum, gold, silver and sulphur. 



'J. S. Diller, U. S. G. S., An. Rep. VIII, 395-432. 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 
LASSEN COUNTY— Table of Mineral Production. 



Year 


Gold, 
value 


Silver, 
value 


Copper 


Stone 

industry, 

value 


Unappor- 
tioned 

> 


Pounds 


Value 


1880 


$25,900 
71,000 

100,000 
20,000 
50,000 
15,000 
25,812 
24,108 
50,000 
97,503 
14,890 
3,676 
15,400 












1881 


$1,000 

20,000 

5,000 










1882 










1883 ___ 










1884 










1885 


150 
135 
304 
200 
215 
300 










1886 










1887 










1888 •_ 










1889 . 










1890 










1891 








1892 






" 




1893 












1894 _ 


35,283 
25,000 
40,300 
49,100 
37,460 
28,898 
19.S07 
5,900 
23,410 
91,102 
116,993 

4 
4 












1895 












1896 












1897 


850 
300 










1898 










1899 










1900 . 


676 

200 

244 

1,203 

1,515 










1901 _ 








■ 


1902 _ 










1903 










1904 










1905 










1906 












1907 








1908 


7,284 
-116,327 
1 82,180 


783 

*1,463 

*972 










1909 








3 $217,521 


1910 _ 








1911 








1,522 


1912 












1913 




2 
10 


2,259 
19.089 


2 $350 
2 2,539 


$2,030 
775 
870 




1914 






1915 


















Totals 


$1,193,333 


$35,522 


21,348 


$2,889 


$3,675 


$219,045 





Total Mineral Production of Lassen County, 1880-1915 (Inclusive). 



Copper 2 

Gold 

Silver 

Stone industry 

Miscellaneous and unapportioned. 

Total 



Sf2,889 

1,193,333 

35,522 

3,675 

219,043 

$1,454,462 



COPPER. 

Mountain Meadows Copper Mine. This property is situated 6 miles 
south of Coopervale, in Sees. 29-32, T. 28 N., R. 10 E. The holding* 
consist of ten claims: 5 patented are, Copper Queen, Copper King 
Native Copper No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4, and five locations, giving 750C 
feet along the lode. The veins occur in a meta-andesite conglomerate 

"Includes gold and silver in Lassen, Modoc and Colusa. 

includes precious metals of Lassen and Colusa. 

2 Copper production erroneously reported from Lassen County in the years 1913 and 1914, 01 
account of shipping point being Doyle, while producing copper mines were located in Plumas 
County. 

3 Unapportioned, 1900-1909. 

4 Combined with figures of other counties. 



LASSEN COUNTF. 229 

strike N. 29° W. and dip N. 61° E. The copper ores carry gold and 
silver values. Developments consist of shaft 100 feet deep and a tunnel 
300 feet long, besides numerous open cuts on the veins. Idle. Moun- 
tain Meadows Copper Co., 316 Mars Bldg., Sioux City, Iowa, owners. 

GOLD. 

The Hayden Hill mining district has been described in Bulletin 594 
of the United States Geological Survey by James M. Hill, and we have 
drawn freely from that paper in what follows: 

HAYDEN HILL MINING DISTRICT. 

This district is in the north central part of the county. The town of 

Hayden Hill is near the head of the west fork of Willow Creek, 16 

[miles south of Adin. at the west base of the low, rounded knob from 

which it is named. The nearest point on the Nevada-California-Oregon 

Railroad is Likely, about 30 miles east-northeast of Hayden Hill. 

Topography. 

The town of Hayden Hill lies at an elevation of 5400 feet, at the west 
base of the hill of that name, which attains an elevation of 6357 feet. 
This hill rises about 900 feet above the relatively level basalt-covered 
iplains. On the south and west it has gentle even slopes to a point 
within 75 feet of the summit, which takes the form of a sharp peak. 
fOn the north and west it is very different as branches of Willow Creek 
have cut in close to the hill. On the north, there is an abrupt rise of 
150 to 300 feet near the summit, below which the slopes are very steep 
for another 300 feet. On the east the hill rises 1200 feet in a little 
over a mile with a rather flat bench 1000 feet wide, 500 feet below 
the summit. 

Geology. 

Hayden Hill is composed of buff-colored to yellowish rhyolite tuffs. 
The bedding is distinct, being in some places horizontal and in others 
dipping very low to west-southwest. These beds differ in appearance, 
some of them being composed of rather coarse conglomeratic material, 
and others being fine-grained consolidated muds. At the summit of the 
hill these tuffs have been brecciated and silicified and cemented by 
white quartz. This hard rock forms the peak at the top of the hill, and 
the scarp along the north side. 

The silicification and brecciation appear to have occurred in a fault 
that was slightly concave to the south-southeast, and which has raised 
the beds to the southeast forming Hayden Hill. This fault zone strikes 
about N. 50° E., and the amount of vertical displacement seems to have 
been greater to the east-northeast near the summit of the hill than in 
the vicinity of the town of Hayden Hill. The low flat to the south and 



230 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

southwest of the hill is underlain by a soft, partly consolidated dirty 
buff-colored rhyolite tuff. The tuffs are probably of Tertiary age. 

Ore deposits. 

The veins of Hayden Hill are confined to the area west of the summit, 
and the richest of them occur in the long even-sloping southwest side. 

The most productive veins were the Providence, Golden Eagle, Juni- 
per, Brush Hill, and Hayden Gulch. There are two distinct sets of 
veins, one striking about N. 68° W. and the other N. 38° E. The 
northeast veins appear to be younger than the northwest veins, and 
movement along the Providence vein has displaced the Golden Eagle, 
as at the northwest end of all the levels the Golden Eagle swings to 
the north on approaching the Providence. The two northeast veins, 
near the main shaft of the Golden Eagle, clearly cut that vein. 

Structure of the veins. 

As a rule the veins of Hayden Hill have steep dips. In general the 
northwesterly fissures dip 60°-70° NE., though in many places in the 
Golden Eagle Mine the vein is vertical. 

The northwesterly fissures are as a rule nearly vertical, but at the 
junction of the Providence and Golden Eagle veins the Providence has 
a dip of 45° SE. Most of the fractures are 1 foot to 10 feet wide, but 
some are as wide as 25 feet. The filling of all the veins is a soft, con- 
solidated fault breccia of the adjacent wall rock, much of the material 
being as small as sand grains. Both the country rock and the ore are 
more or less iron-stained and the richest ore contains a large amount of 
pyrolusite. This rich ore occurs in irregular pockets throughout the 
main vein. The rich veins are remarkable for the small amount of 
quartz they contain. The gold in these veins occurs as small nuggets. 
It is not flattened, but is so fine that some particles will float when dried.: 
It is never found in the fragments of rock, but always in the fine sandy 
and claylike material. This metal is a combination of gold and silver, 
worth about $14.00 an ounce. 

Origin of the shoots.* 

The concentration of gold with manganese in certain well-defim 
shoots in the productive veins, and the fact that almost no sulphh 
minerals are present in them, lead one to conclude that the valuabl 
ores are all secondary, due to concentration by oxidizing waters wil 
a general downward movement. The present ground-water level, 
shown by the Golden Eagle shaft, is about 625 feet below the surfae< 
which is in the oxidized zone to present depth of shaft, 835 feet. The 
veins are certainly younger than the rhyolite tuffs, which are of Ter- 
tiary age. 



2 J. M. Hill, op. cit. 



LASSEN COUNTY. 



231 



MINES. 

Blue Bell Mine. See our Rep. IX, p. 213 ; XII, p. 148 ; and XIII, 
p. 200; Bulletin 594, U. S. G. S. This mine is situated on southwest 
slope of Harden Hill, at an elevation of 5400 feet. Development con- 
sists of vertical shaft having a depth of 160 feet. Idle. II. P. Anderson 
and Albert Chittock of Hayden Hill, owners. 

Brush Hill Mine. See our Rep. X, p. 276; XI, p. 241; XII, p. 148; 
XIII, p. 200 ; Bulletin 594, U. S. G. S. It is situated on Hayden Hill, 
at 6500 feet elevation. Developments : vertical shaft 500 feet deep ; 
shaft 270 feet vertical and then 130 feet on incline. Idle. George A. 
Keller of Buffalo, N. Y., owner. 




Golden Eagle Mine and Mill. Hayden Mining District. 

Daisy Dean Mine. It is situated one mile southeast of Hayden Hill, 
on the north slope of Buckskin Hill. Shaft sunk to a vertical depth of 
200 feet, on vein striking N. 35° W. in a rhyolite tuff. Levels were 
driven on the vein at 50', 100' and 200'. Idle. H. C. Watson of 
Bieber, Cal., owner. 

Golden Eagle Mine. See our Rep. X, p. 275 ; XII, p. 149 ; and XIII, 
p. 200; Bulletin 594, U. S. G. S., pp. 30 to 38. It 'lies on the southwest 
slope of Hayden Hill. Holdings consist of 160 acres, including the 
following claims: Golden Eagle, Providence, Evening Star, Aileen, 
White Swan, Vincuna, and Tailings Placer claim. Two veins have 
been developed on this property; the Golden Eagle vein strikes N. 45° 



232 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

W., dipping 75° NE., while Evening Star or Providence vein has a 
course of N. 38° E. with a vertical dip. 

The Golden Eagle vein varies in width from V to 25'. The length 
along the lode on Golden Eagle vein is 3100 ft., while on Evening Star 
vein it is 4500 feet. Southwest of Golden Eagle vein, a 6' x 10' 2-com- 
partment shaft has been sunk to a vertical depth of 835 feet. Levels 
have been driven on the vein at 150', 200', 300', 400' and 500' to the 
end lines of the Golden Eagle claim. The vein has been stoped out 
from 400' level for a distance of 400 feet east of shaft. West of shaft 
for about 300 feet the vein has been stoped from 400' to 220' level. On 
150' level, crosscut from shaft 40' north to vein, with a drift 500' east, 
and 560' west on main vein ; at 60' west of shaft there is a drift 240' 
west on a sub-parallel vein. On 220' level a crosscut was driven 20' 
north to vein with drifts 680' east and 400' west ; at a point 40' west of 
shaft there is a drift 300' west on a sub-parallel vein. On 300' level, 
vein was cut 75' north of shaft, and drifted on 600' east and 600' west 
with a drift 300' east on sub-parallel vein. These parallel veins are 
from 20' to 40' apart on this level. On 400' level, crosscut 80' north 
of shaft to vein, with drifts 360' east and 580 feet west. On 500' level, 
crosscut 85' north to vein, with drifts 140' east and 250' west. 

Milling. Owing to the fact that all the gold is free and is contained 
only in the fine material in the veins, crushing was early discovered 
to be unnecessary, so all ore was dried and screened, and only the fines 
milled. 

There is a 150-ton mill and cyanide plant on the Golden Eagle claim. 
The ore from the mine was dried in a 10' x 20' Benjamin furnace, then 
put through a 1-inch mesh trommel, the oversize from which went onto 
dump. The undersize from the trommel was again dried in two 3' x 10' 
revolving furnaces and crushed to 4-mesh between rolls. It was again 
sized in a 4-mesh trommel, the oversize returning to the rolls, and the 
undersize dropping to a storage bin. The sized pulp was leached in 
twelve 50-ton cyanide tanks. 

From the amount of fines contained in the dumps it appears that 
the drying had not been complete. It is reported that, owing to the 
large amount of slimes that was mixed with the coarse ore in the leach- 
ing tanks, which prevented proper percolation of the solutions, prob- 
ably only about 50% extraction was made on the ores treated by this 
plant. Six men are employed retimbering shaft. Lassen Mining Com- 
pany, 1004 Alaska Commercial Building, San Francisco, Cal., owners. 

Gray Goose and Sunrise Mines (Hayseed and Hay den Gouge). 
They are situated on Hayden Hill to the northeast of the Golden Eagle 
claim, at an elevation of 6300 feet. Two veins have been developed 
on this property; the Hayseed vein has a course of N. 68° W. while 
Hayden Gouge vein strikes N. 45° E., both veins having a vertical dip. 



LASSEN COUNTY. 233 

There are three shafts ou the property with depths of 300 feet and a 
tunnel on the Sunrise claim 400 feet long. Idle. Barney Fillingin of 
Harden Hill, owner. 

Idaho and Leora Mines. These mines are situated on the plain 
lying southwest of Hayden Hill. The vein on the Idaho claim strikes 
N. 35° W. and has a vertical dip. A shaft has been sunk on this vein 
to a vertical depth of 100 feet, developing a vein having an average 
width of 2 feet. The course of the vein on the Leora claim is E.-W., 
dipping 65° N. Two shafts have been sunk on this property, one being 
an incline on the vein 60 feet deep, the other shaft is sunk north of vein 
to a vertical depth of 100 feet. Idle. W. Snyder, John Bowden and 
O. L. Nave of Hayden Hill, owners. 

Jumper and Mount Vernon Mines. These mines are situated on the 
summit of Hayden Hill, about a mile northeast of the town of Hayden 
Hill. Holdings consist of the following claims: Jumper, Mount Ver- 
non, Burbank, Early Rose, Snow Flake. 

The Mount Vernon claim is the only one that has been developed to 
any extent. The vein on this claim strikes N.-S., dipping 70° E. A 
shaft has been sunk to a vertical depth of 120'; at the 120' level, a 
crosscut has been driven 30' east to vein, at which point, a winze has 
been sunk 100' on the vein. The vein is a quartz-filled fissure, having 
an average width of 8 inches, and shows some pyrite. The formation 
is a rhyolite tuff. Idle. O. L. Nave of Hayden Hill, owner. 

Juniper Mine. See our Rep. IX, p. 212; XII, p. 150; and XIII, 
p. 201. It is situated on the west side of Hayden Hill, at 6325' eleva- 
tion. There are two veins on the claim; a N.-S. and an E.-W. vein; the 
developments have been confined to the latter near the crossing with 
the former. The workings consist of two shafts, one 300 feet deep, and 
the other 126 feet. Both workings are caved. Idle. G. H. Knight; 
J. Harvey Estate, of Adin, California; T. A. Roseberry Estate, of 
Susanville, California ; John McFarling Estate, of Calistoga, California, 
owners. 

Lucky Star (North Star) Mine. It is situated north of the town of 
Hayden Hill, at an elevation of 6100 feet. The vein is 2J feet wide, 
course nearly N.-S., dips about 45° W. between brecciated rhyolite 
walls. Developments consist of vertical shaft on south end of claim 
100 feet deep. Crosscut tunnel 210 feet long. At a point 45 feet east 
of portal a brecciated, rhyolite dike was cut 30 feet in width, with ore 
occurring on both sides of this dike. A drift has been driven on the 
west side of this dyke 175 feet south, also on east side a distance of 125 
feet south, developing good ore on both walls of the dike. The ore from 
'the mine is screened over 1" screen, the through size going to storage 
bin, while oversize material goes to waste dump. The sized material is 



234 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



treated in two 10-ton leaching vats, the sands being given a six days 
treatment. Capacity of cyanide plant is three tons per day. Two men 
are employed. Under lease to G. J. Steel et al. of Alturas, California. 
Mrs. B. Arnett of Hay den Hill, owner. 

PRODUCTION OF HAYDEN HILL. 

There are no accurate figures of the production of Hayden Hill. 
Approximate estimates of the gold and silver output for certain mines 
furnished by residents of Hayden Hill to James M. Hill of U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, are as follows : 

Juniper $600,000 



Brush Hill 

Evening Star . 
Hayden Gouge 

Blue Bell 

Providence 

Hayseed 

North Star __. 
Golden Eagle . 



400,000 

200,000 

20,000 

100,000 

78,000 

150,000 

20,000 

*25,000 

Golden Eagle f 1,000,000 



Total $2,593,000 

The following figures from 1880 to 1911 are taken from the reporl 
of the Director of the Mint, and those for some years include the whole 
of Lassen County, during which time there were few producing mines 
outside of Hayden Hill. 

Production of Hayden Hill District, Lassen County. 



Year 


Cold 


Silver 


1880 to 1883 


$307,712 
39,109 
50,000 


$26,285 
3^3 
200 


1887 


1S88 


1889 


1890 


14,890 

3,676 

15,400 


200 


1891 _ _ 


1892 




1893 





1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
10(17 
1908 
1909 
1910 
L911 



35,283 

25,000 

40,300 '< 

49,100 

37,460 j 

28,898 

19,807 

5,900 

19,810 

93,599 

115,993 

142,000 

397,105 



850 
300 



676 

200 
217 
1,203 
1,514 
2,C20 
1,169 



6,724 
115,475 

81,060 
2,500 



121 

1,450 

958 

277 



$1,646,801 



$37,973 



*Previous to 1901. 
fUnder Lassen Mining Co. 



LASSEN COUNTY. 



- a 




-•res - .. .: : -;:., 



x»uktv, c*i_, woimc locat.ok c^ --- 



As will be seen, 1 s a die f abont $600.00"' n the 

two sets of figures - a due probably to the method of eollr 

statistics in the early days, and the larger figures are considered more 
nearly correct. 

DIAMOND MOUNTAIN MINING DISTRICT. 

This district lies seven miles to the southw— S isanville. on the 

si ~:*n flank of the Diamond Mountain Divide. During the pas! 

spasmodic attempts have been made to develop the quartz veins that 

occur in the granite of this main div: 

The only property in this district that has any recent developments 

is the Gold Belt Mine. The others are either abandoned, or only a 

small amount of surface ] ng has been done on them to hold the 

claims. 



236 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Gold Belt Mine. See our Rep. X, p. 274; and XII, p. 149. It is 
7| miles southwest from Susanville and comprises 1500 by 600 feet. 
The vein strikes N. 45° E. and has a vertical dip, in granite, averaging 
4 feet in width. Developments consist of two tunnels. The lower 
tunnel crosscuts the vein at a distance of 185 feet from portal ; a drift 
has been driven 185 feet southwest on the vein. Fifty feet above the 
lower tunnel, a tunnel has been driven on the vein southwest 150 feet, 
and all ore stoped out to the surface. The quartz is pockety — the 
general run of the ore not being over $3.00 per ton. The gold runs 
about $12.00 to the ounce. Idle. George N. McDow of Susanville, 
California, owner. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 
A large number of warm and hot springs issue from the lava-cov- 
ered region of Lassen County. In a few places there are lake bed 
deposits of partly consolidated sands and cla} r s. Areas of alluvium 
form occasional patches of meadow and valley land while in the 
neighborhood of Eagle and Honey lakes are found a number of warm 
and hot springs. The water from these springs is mostly saline in 
character. 



Amedee Hot Springs. (See Water Supply Paper 338, by G. A. 
Waring, U. S. G. S.) These springs are situated at Amedee in Honey 
Lake Valley. In the alluvial land which slopes westward toward 
Honey Lake, scalding water forms several groups of shallow pools, 
mainly at six places in a belt about 600 yards long that trends nearly 
southward. About J mile S. 30° W. from the southernmost of these 
main groups another hot spring forms a pool in the salt grass land. 
Temperature of springs is 172° to 204° F. The water is saline. 

Analysis by F. M. Eaton, 1909. 








Constituents 


Parts per million 




By 

weight 


Reacting 
values 


Sodium (Na) 


232 
4.9 
18 
Trace 

1.8 

269 

161 

27 

94 

Present 


10.18 


Potassium (K) 


.13 


Calcium (Ca) .__ 


.90 


Magnesium (Mg) _._ 




Iron (Fe) 


• ) 




Aluminum (Al) __ \ 


.06 


Sulphate (SO*) 


5.60 


Chloride (CI) __ 


4.62 


Carbonate (CO3) 


.91 


Silica (S1O2) 


3.12 


Carbon dioxide (CO2) __ __ __ 


Present 










810.7 












LASSEN COUNTY. 



237 



Bassett Hot Spring. (See Water Supply Paper 338, by G. A. 
Waring, U. S. G. S.). It is situated 2J miles east of Bieber, in Big 
Valley. The water rises with a temperature of 173° F. from a fissure 
in tuffaceous sandstone. Total flow of the spring is approximately 
175 gallons per minute. The water has no distinct odor or taste, but 
the analysis shows the water to be moderately mineralized primary 
saline water of the sulphate type. 



Analysis by F. M. Eaton, 1909. 








Parts per million 


Constituents 


By 

weight 


Reacting 
values 



Sodium (_\a) / 

Potassium (K) \ 

Calcium (Ca) 

Magnesium (Mg) 

Sulphate (SO*) 

Chloride (CD 

Carbonate (COs) 



9.74 

1.68 
Trace 

7.85 

2.85 

.70 



Highrock Spring. Situated 10 miles southeast of Atnedee, on the 
Highrock ranch. A large thermal spring rises at the edge of Honey 
Lake Valley from basaltic lava that forms the hills to the east. This 
spring has a flow of 525 gallons per minute. Temperature 86° F., 
alkaline. The water is used for domestic supply and irrigation. 

Shaffer Hot Springs (Braubecks). (See Water Supply Paper, 338, 
by G. A. Waring, U. S. G. S.) These springs are situated at Hot 
Springs Station on the Nevada-California-Oregon Railroad. 

The principal spring rises with vigorous ebullition in a pool about 
ten yards in diameter, and is from one to two feet deep. Tempera- 
ture 204° F. The flow of main spring is about 175 gallons per 
minute. Two other hot springs that discharge about 65 and 10 gal- 
lons per minute, respectively, also six or more hot pools that have no 
surface overflow, are formed in the nearly level salt grass area in a 
distance of about 125 yards southwest of the main spring. 

Analysis of water from main spring by G. E. Colby of U. S. G. S. 





Constituents 


Parts per million 




By 

weight 


Reacting 

values 


Sodium (Na) _. . __. 


304 

9.4 
12 

0.4 
349 
207 


13 22 


Potassium (K) _ 


.21 


Calcium (Ca) ... _____ 


.60 


Magnesium (Mg) __ ___ _ _ __ __ _ 


.03 


Sulphate (SO.) 


7.27 


Chloride (CD 


5 84 


Carbonate (COa) 




Silica (Si0 2 ) 


131 


4.34 










1,012.8 





238 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Stone Breaker Hot Springs. These springs are 8 miles southeast of 
Bieber, in Big Valley. There are six pools and springs in a belt 
extending 275 yards in a southerly direction; about 250 yards east 
there are four other hot pools. The highest temperature recorded 
was 165° F. Flow from the hottest spring is 125 gallons per minute. 
The hot water rises from a tuffaceous sandstone. 

Mud Springs. There are extensive hot mud springs situated about 
15 miles northeast of Honey Lake. 



MODOC COUNTY. 239 



MODOC COUNTY. 

By W. Burling Tucker, Field Assistant. 
Field Work in August, 1915. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Modoc County, situated in the northeastern part of the state, is 
bounded on the south by Lassen County, on the west by Siskiyou, 
on the north by the state of Oregon, and on the east by the state of 
Nevada. 

Modoc County has an area of 3823 square miles. It is a succession 
of valleys, that in the past were inland lakes, and which follow one 
another through the country from north to south. In the northern 
end of the county are notable Goose Lake, Tule Lake, and the three 
lakes of Surprise Valley. These valleys are separated by low volcanic 
'ridges, being bordered by bluffs of volcanic rocks. 

The lava flows, with which the county is to a large extent covered, 
evidently had their source from Lassen Butte in the southern part of 
jthe county, and the peaks in the Warner Range for the northern flows. 
| Probably some of the flows emanated from Mount Shasta to the west. 

The Warner Range of mountains which divides the Goose Lake 
country from the Surprise Valley section, attains in several places 
| a height of over eight thousand feet. This range is a branch of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

Pit River, one of the main sources of the Upper Sacramento River, 
takes its rise in this county and, with its tributaries, supplies the 
county fairly well with water. It starts from some large springs 
below the south end of Goose Lake. This river drains all the country 
west of the Warner Range of mountains. The most productive areas 
'agriculturally are Round, Stone Coal, Hot Springs, Goose Lake and 
Surprise valleys. Round Valley has a diameter of eight miles, sur- 
rounded by eruptive hills, and is largely' devoted to grain raising. 
This valley gets its water supply from Rush Creek. Stone Coal 
•Valley is twelve miles long by one mile wide. This valley, sur- 
rounded with low-lying, well-timbered hills covered with good pine 
timber, is named from a strata of coal which occurs along Stone 
Coal Creek in exposures of shale. Hot Springs Valley is twenty-five 
miles long and four miles wide, deriving its name from a number of 
hot springs that rise in the valley. Alturas, the county seat, is at the 
junction of the three valleys— Goose Lake, South Fork and Hot 
Springs. Surprise Valley lies to the east of Warner Range and is 
sixty miles long and about six miles wide. It has, at one time, been 



240 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

an inland sea. At present it contains three lakes — the Upper, Mid- 
dle and Lower lakes, the waters of which are strongly alkaline. On 
the east side of these lakes to the state line the country is all desert. 1 
The town of Cedarville lies east of Middle Lake. At the head of 
Upper Lake, Mount Bidwell rises to a height of 8450 feet; at its foot 
is the town of Fort Bidwell. The largest sheet of water is Goose 
Lake, which is 45 miles long and eight miles wide and has a depth of fj 
about twenty feet. 1 
The principal industry of the county is stock raising. Owing to the j 
heavy flow of lava over a large part of its area, only two mineral! 
belts have been developed in the county; the High Grade District,! 
located in the Warner Range of mountains in the northeastern part of * 
the county, near the state of Oregon boundary line, and the Winters- 
District, situated in the southern part of the county, a few miles i 
north of the Lassen County line. ] 

RAILROAD FACILITIES. 

The Nevada-California-Oregon Railroad traverses the entire length 
of the east side of the county, commencing at Reno, Nevada, and end- 1 
ing at Lakeview, Oregon. From the principal stations on this rail- i 
road the remote parts of the county are reached over good wagon 1 
roads. 

Among the known mineral resources of Modoc County are : clay, 1 
coal, copper, gold, iron, quicksilver, salt and silver. 

MODOC COUNTY— Table of Mineral Production. 




Gold, 
value 


Silver, 
value 


Salt 


Stone 

industry, 

value 


Other 

minerals, 

value 


Year 


Tons 


Value 


1880 


.*10,000 
20,000 












1881 __ 


$1,500 










1882 










1883 


50,000 
60,000 
60,000 












1884 












1885 _. 












1888* 












1910 


5,4^8 
19,875 
27,893 
6,061 
1,000 
7,557 


75 
363 
494 
94 
10 
104 










1911 










1912 


50 

40 

40 

t 


$800 

720 

720 

t 






1913 . 






1914 






1915 


$300 


$720: 




Totals 


$267,824 


$2,640 


130 


$2,240 


$300 


$72d; 




Total mineral production, Modoc County, 1880-1915 (ir 
Gold 


el.) 

$237,824 




2,(540 


Salt 


2,240 


SI one industry 

Other minerals ._. 

Total . 


30( 
72( 


) 
) 


$273,72^ 


.. 1 


*1886 to 1910 no 
tOombined und 


mineral pr 
2r "Other m 


oduction. 
inerals." 









MODOC COUNTY. 241 

COAL. 

In Stone Coal Valley along the creek of that name in the exposure 
of shales there is a stratum of lignite coal which has a strike of N. 65° 
W., and a dip of 25° N. Only a small amount of development has 
been done on this coal. 

COPPER. 

On the east slope of a spur of the Warner Range, about seven miles 
south of Fort Bidwell, some very promising indications of copper 
have been discovered, but owing to. the remoteness of the district 
from railway transportation, only a small amount of development 
and prospecting has been done on the properties. 

Seitz Copper Mine. It is situated seven miles south of Fort Bid- 
twell, and 25 miles SE. of "Willow Ranch Station on the Nevada-Cali- 
fornia-Oregon Railroad. The claims are located on the east slope of a 
spur of the Warner Range, at an elevation of 5860 feet. Holdings con- 
sist of six claims: Little Ben, Josiah, Christy, Dream, Charity, and 
Blue Jay, giving 3000 feet on the lode. A series of narrow veins 
occur in a porphyritic andesite, and have a general strike of N. 65° E., 
dipping 60° SE. Developments consist of shaft 90 feet deep and a 
tunnel 336 feet long, which connects with bottom of the shaft. The 
ores developed carry cuprite, malachite, azurite, and some native cop- 
per. A large number of shallow open cuts have been made on the 
different veins which have a width of two inches to eight inches — 
some high grade ore has been shipped from this property. Two men 
are employed. Mrs. W. B. Yonkin and W. B. Seitz of Fort Bidwell, 
owners. 

GOLD. 

HIGH GRADE MINING DISTRICT. 

In the following description the writer has drawn freely on a report 
of this district by James M. Hill of the United States Geological 
Survey. 

Location. 

The High Grade District is located in the extreme northeast corner 
of the county, in the Warner Mountains. Its northern boundary is 
the Oregon line ; its eastern boundary is about seven miles west of the 
Nevada-California line, and its western boundary is Goose Lake 
Valley. 

History of Mining in this District. 

The discovery of gold in the High Grade camp was made on the 

Oregon claim at the south end of the district in 1905 by a sheep 

herder, who sold to J. O. Kafader, of Fort Bidwell. The first real 

boom took place in the summer of 1905, but the autumn of 1909 and 

•the spring of 1910 witnessed the big rush to the district. 

lfc-46904 



242 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Accessibility. 

Fairport, on the Nevada-California-Oregon Railway, is ten miles 
west of the district, and it, with the town of New Pine Creek, Oregon, 
which is a mile off this road, is the supply point for the mines. The 
roads from Fairport to High Grade are steep but good. 

Timber and Water. 

High Grade is plentifully supplied with timber and water for 
mining purposes. 

Topography. 

The Warner Mountains in the vicinity of High Grade are rugged, 
but have a fairly even crest at an elevation of 7500 feet. Mount Bid- 
well, about three miles southeast of the camp, attains an elevation of 
8550 feet. The west front of the range has an abrupt rise of 1000 feet 
above the level floor of Goose Lake Valley, which is about 5000 feet 
above sea level. This rise is along a fault which follows the east side 
of the valley for some distance. The canon cut by Pine Creek, which 
is followed by the High Grade road, has very steep sides. The east 
front of the Warner Mountains has also a very abrupt rise. The mines 
in the High Grade district are located along the summit of the range 
at the headwaters of New Pine Creek. The most prominent peak on 
this divide is Yellow Mountain, which has an elevation of 8000 feet. 

Geology. 

In the High Grade district there are four distinct types of extru 
sive lavas. The oldest rock exposed along the lower western side oi 
the district is a dark grained andesite ; above this is a white to yellow 
rhyolite. Above this rhyolite on the flat eastward slope of Alturat 
ridge there is a purplish flow rhyolite with very fine lamellae. A 
fresh porphyritic augite basalt is exposed on the west flanks 
Mount Bidwell. 

The andesite which covers the western part of the district is com 
posed of dark-gray to green flows, dipping east at low angles. Or 
the ridge about two miles west-northwest of High Grade the yellowisl 
rhyolite overlies the andesite. This contact is again seen about 40(' 
feet below the summit of Discovery Hill, at an elevation of 7700 feet 
The rhyolite that forms all of Yellow Mountain and High Grade Hill , 
and the northern part of Discovery Hill, is white, but weathers yellow 

On Alturas Ridge there is a small area of thinly laminated purpL , 
rhyolite. The augite basalt on the west flank of Mount Bidwell i 
perfectly fresh greenish-black porphyry that weathers dull brown. 



1 



Ore Deposits. 

There are three distinct types of ore deposits in the High Grad' 
district. (1) Veins in granular rhyolite with some replacements o< 
the walls. (2) Veins in andesite. (3) Veins and replacements h 









MODOC COUNTY. 



243 



lassy rhyolite. The veins in the granular rhyolite yield the largest 
mount of ore. 

' The principal veins occur in nearly east- west vertical fissures, and 
Iso to some extent in north-south and northwest-southeast fractures. 
In practically all the veins post mineral movements have in places 
rushed the ore and produced gouge, which, though seen in places 
etween the walls and vein quartz, is commonly found in the quartz 
-here the wall rock was too tough to fracture. The clay gouge of 
lmost every vein constitutes the richest ore. 




Outcrop of discovery vein on Oregon Claim, High Grade. 

The veins in granular rhyolite are found on High Grade Hill, on 
Uturas Ridge, and the north side of Discovery Hill. In all these 
>laces the granular rhyolite has been more or less silicified, particu- 
arly along zones of brecciation, the result being that the rock has 
»ecome particularly hard. 



214 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



On High Grade and Discovery Hills this hard altered rhyolite ha? i 
weathered into so-called "rock piles." In these veins the best ore. I 
occurs in shoots which pitch east or southeast on the veins at medium^ 
angles. 

The veins in andesite are confined mostly to the south side oi 
Discovery Hill. The andesite is cut by a number of small white! I 



U.S.GEOLocioai. SUDvc Y. 










^;^;(; *y*tt» -r 



MIN£. 
«o««a o/r/«/, 
I. AlosKa Bel 

2 Alturas 

3 .. Nt I 

t • riot I 

S •• Free 

4 AreJittci 

7 Bad B./l 'I 
3 3itj Bono a* " 

I* Crown p a ; n \ 
IS Dandy it 

Ife Diamond. I 
n Emerald. \ 

is fi/^a/jtf y 

20 Fnc/aC. Mar, I 
2' G- ldr* a .t L 
2a Co/^ Wtctja'-V 
23 Haphj, 75m.. J. 

25 HuclrJebxrr . 

z& .. y, ! 

27 lnd<rpe-ndt,< 

28 3osefh me M \ 



37 .' I 

56 r1i-.f<ih 

•W. Modoc <">,„, If; 

<2 Hormnj S/iMI I 
+5 Movr>f*,n- 1 
■04 Nauntorn. I 

^7 OIJ C/orif I 
«/ Ore-yon. I 

50 P;o(c ftj« V' 
J/. Pr infer Boy. II 
52 AW Nora iL 
J3 Red <?</*»** Id 



6/ IqmarocK. 
(,2- Topaz. 
t~5 Trfo Jac/ts 
Ui Uncle Joe . 
£5 Vol/ey Vier<r. 
U. Whiie Qt/m 
67 White Riola 
(.1 Yellow Joe/,. 
6? Yukon /VS / '|. 

7, ., rS a 3. >' 



A. Pig Fai 

B. ConSOl. 
C Castor 



Basalt Glassy rhyoii'tc. Rhyolite Andesite Mill 

SKETCH MAP OF HiOH GRADE MINING- DISTRICT. 

quartz stringers, which strike west-northwest and east-northeast, anc 
which in some places unite to form fair sized veins, as on the Nortl 
Star, Oregon and Sunset claims. Most of the larger veins strike 
about N. 60° W. and dip 70° to 75° S. Post mineral movement has 
formed gouge along the walls, and in some places has crushed th< 
veins. 

The veins in the glassy rhyolite occur on Alturas Ridge, where thj, 
Alturas shaft has been sunk on a north and south fracture in glass} 
rhyolite ; the fissure is quite tight and shows some pyrite. 



rli 



ii 



MODOC COUNTY. 245 

MINES. 

Alturas Mines (quartz). See Bulletin 594, U. S. G. S., p. 47. They 
re situated on the north slope of Alturas Ridge, nine miles east of 
pw Pine Creek, Oregon. Holdings consist of the following claims: 
lturas No. 1, No. 2, No. 4, Little Fawn, and Alturas Triangle, 
vertical shaft has been sunk on a north and south fracture to 
depth of 125 feet. This fracture cuts a glassy flow rhyolite. 
yrite has been deposited as the matrix of the breccia together with 
luish, white and amethystine quartz. Idle. Alturas Gold Mining 
jompany, owner. C. W. Canfield, Oakland, Cal., manager. 

Bidwell Discovery Mines. See Bulletin 594, U. S. G. S., p. 46. 
'hese mines are situated on the south slope of Discovery Hill, about 

ght miles NW. of Fort Bidwell. Claims are as follows: Oregon, 
alifornia, Gold Wedge, Archerton, Hardtack and Nine-thirty, with 

00 feet on the lode. The veins on these claims occur in the andesite. 
he Oregon-California vein strikes N. 60° W. and dips 20° S. Width 
four inches to one foot. It consists of white quartz stained with 
monite, and in some places stained with a green copper silicate. The 

in stands out distinctly against the dark andesite walls. Develop- 

ents consist of a tunnel which crosscuts the vein 150 feet from 
ortal, with a drift west on the vein 150 feet, and east 170 feet. 

In the west drift, a crosscut w r as driven south 80 feet cutting a 
arallel vein w r hich was drifted on forty feet west, showing four to 
ght inches of quartz. The occurrence of the gold is very fine and 
m not be seen in the quartz. There is a Kendall 1-stamp mill on 
he property. Two men are employed. Bidwell Discovery Gold 
lining Co., Fort Bidwell, Cal., owner. C. D. Kafader, president. 

O. Kafader, secretary and manager. 



Big Four Mine. It is situated eight miles east of New Pine Creek, 
Oregon, on the Fairport and High Grade road. Claims : Big Bonanza, 
onanza King, Golden Treasure, and Golden Knight, with 3000 feet 
n the lode. 

On the property there is a massive outcrop of highly silicified rhyo- 
te. which strikes N. 60° E. This outcrop carries values for a width 
150 feet. An incline shaft has been sunk 100 feet on a N. 30° 
V, vein, which dips 70° NE. This vein varies in width from two 
nches to two feet, and cuts granular rhyolite. The ore consists of 
hyolite and quartz in a clay matrix. The vein was drifted on both 
orth and south on the 30' and 40' levels. Ore is being mined from 
he silicified outcrop by means of a surface open cut. The ore is 
lauled from open cut in dump carts to mill, where it is crushed by 
ive stamps, weighing 1000 lbs. dropping 105 per minute, and crush- 
ng two tons per stamp through a 60-mesh screen. The pulp from 



lie 
[ill 



246 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

battery flows over amalgamating plates 18 feet long by 5 feet wicki 
and which have a slope of 2J inches per foot. The mill is driven by 
steam power. Six men are employed. The property is under lease 
to C. W. Tyler and Carl Monsees. Big Four Mining Company 
Alturas, Cal., owner. 

Eugene Mine. This mine is situated on the east slope of Discover) 
Hill, nine miles east of New Pine Creek, Oregon. Here is a series oJ 
east and west fractures in rhyolite. Developments consist of a tunneJ 
270 feet in length and a series of shallow open cuts. Idle. Richard 
Mason et al., of High Grade, OAvners. 

Fern Mine. It is situated on the east slope of Alturas Ridge, nine 
miles east of New Pine Creek, Ore. Holdings: Fern Fraction, Fair' 
port No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3. The vein has a course of N. 70° W., dips 
80° S. It varies in width from 2" to 12". The fracture is filled with 
brecciated country rock cemented with quartz. Developments con 
sist of shaft 40 feet deep and a series of shallow open cuts. Idle 
Fairport Merger Gold Mining Co., New Pine Creek, Ore., owners. 

Fort Bidwell Consolidated Mines. See U. S. G. S. Bulletin 5< 
p. 46. These mines are situated on the north side of Discovery Hi] 
about eight miles east of New Pine Creek, Oregon. Holdings consist 
of the following claims: Mountain View, Sugar Pine, Missing Link' 
Diamond Fraction, Old Glory and Valley View, with 2650 feet on the 
lode. The developments have been on the Mountain View and Sugai 
Pine claims. The vein on the Mountain View strikes N. 70° W. ano 
dips 75° S. This vein cuts the rhyolite and the underlying andesite 
Some very high grade ore is reported to have been extracted from z 
winze, where the ore occurred on the hanging wall in a heavy iron 
stained gouge. Some of the vein quartz shows a copper silicate stain; 
On the Mountain View claim, a crosscut tunnel has been driven 15C 
feet to vein, with a drift east 250 feet on the vein. 

Two shoots of ore were developed, one being 40 feet in length, anc 
the other 50 feet long. At intersection of crosscut tunnel, and drift, i 
winze was sunk on the vein to a depth of 75 feet. About 100 feel 
east of this winze, a second winze was sunk to a depth of 35 feet 
The vein on the Sugar Pine strikes N. 80° W., and dips 60° to 70° S 
The vein ranges in width from 4" to 5', and consists of partly brecci 
ated rhyolite. Throughout the vein there is considerable iron-stainec 
clay that is reported to carry gold values. The walls of this vein are 
stained with a heavy coating of limonite and some hematite. The 
wall rock for two feet on either side of the vein is a low grade ore 
The Sugar Pine vein has been developed and worked from three tun- 
nels driven on the vein: No. 1 Tunnel (lower) 350' long; No. 2 Tun-, 
nel, which is 70' above No. 1, has a length of 200'; No. 3 Tunnel is 






MODOC COUNTY. 247 



:0' above No. 2 and is 90' long. The ore has been stoped out from 
tfo. 1 to No. 3 Tunnel for a length of 75 feet. It was trammed from 
so. 1 Tunnel to bins, from which it was transported by an aerial 
ramway over ridge to ten-stamp mill on the Mountain View claim, 
distance of 3200 feet, Idle. Fort Bidwell Consolidated Mining 
ompany, Hodges Building, Detroit, Mich., owner. 

Gold Peak and Klondike Mines. They are situated nine miles east 
)f New Pine Creek, Oregon, on the north slope of Discovery Hill. 
The vein varies in width from 2" to 12" ; strikes N. 70° "W. and dips 
30° S. The developments consist of a series of shallow shafts and 
runnels. Idle. J. T. Maupin, E. Coshes et al, Fort Bidwell, Cal., 
Wners. 

Gold Shore Mine. This mine is situated nine miles E. of New Pine 
Creek, Oregon, on High Grade Ridge. Holdings consist of four 
claims — Daisy, Inner Fraction, New Year and Gold Shore. The main 
Ifissure strikes N. 60° W. and dips 80° S. ; and varies in width from 
2" to 5'. Developments : shaft 26 feet deep sunk on the vein, which 
•shows five feet of vein material. A crosscut tunnel 250 feet long was 
driven to cut the above vein, but owing to displacement of the vein, 
it was not found on the tunnel level. Idle. Gold Shore Mining Co., 
New Pine Creek, Ore., owner. 

Last Dollar Mine. It is situated nine miles E. of New Pine Creek, 
Oregon, on the west slope of High Grade Hill. Vein strikes N. 75° E. 
and dips 80° S. Width twelve inches. Shaft 45 feet deep sunk on 
the vein. Idle. E. T. Weisendanger of Los Angeles, owner. 

Modoc Mine. See U. S. G. S. Bulletin 594, p. 45, by James M. Hill. 
It is situated nine miles E. of New Pine Creek, Oregon, on the crest 
of High Grade Hill. Holdings consist of 259 acres of patented land 
in Sec. 36, T. 48 N., K, 15 E. The main shaft was sunk to 50 ft. level 
Ion a vertical fracture that strikes N. 70° E. in a silicified fault 
I breccia. The fissure is three inches to fifteen inches in width, with a 
clay gouge on both walls. The highest grade ore developed in this 
property is a soft heavily iron-stained breccia of wall rock and quartz 
with a clay gouge between the central band of quartz and the walls 
of the vein. In this ore the matrix of the breccia has been partly 
I leached. The wall rock is somewhat iron-stained for several feet from 
' the vein, with numerous quartz stringers running through it in all 
directions. Developments : The east shaft which is the main vertical 
shaft, has been sunk to a vertical depth of 212 feet. At a point 180 
feet west of main shaft, an air shaft was sunk to a vertical depth of 
.125 feet, intersecting the workings from main uhaft on the 50' and 100' 
levels. Drifts have been driven east and west on the vein on the 50', 



248 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

100' and 200' levels. On the 50' level there is a drift west 240', and 79' 
east. On the 100' level, drift 365' west and 15' east. On the 200' 
level, drift 275' west and 66' east. The 200' level was driven on a 
mud seam, and at a point 230' SW. of shaft a vein having a strike of 
N. 70° E. and. dipping 80° S was cut. About 90' SW. of west shaft 
a winze was sunk to a depth of 50' on an intersection of three frac- 
tures, and a vein having a course of N. 70° E. and dipping 85° S. 
This vein varies in a width from 6" to 18". The vein filling is a white 
quartz with clay gouge on both walls. In a crosscut south of winze 
on the 100 ft. level a crushed zone 25 ft. in width was cut, which is 
highly mineralized with pyrite, and strikes N. 25° W. Twenty men 







r-i 




j i. mmk 




ArT.;,;.uui 








"■ .. ::*±:\, "'■ : .S' ; '. 





Shaft house and ore bins, Modoc Mines Company. High Grade mining district. 

are employed. Modoc Mines Company, Kestner Bldg., Chicago, 111., 
owner. William Wrigley, Jr., president. N. E. Guyot, manager. 

Morning Star Mine. It is nine miles east of New Pine Creek, Ore- 
gon, on the east slope of High Grade Hill. Claims : Morning Star and 
Snowdrift. Two veins have been developed — the Morning Star vein 
strikes N. 30° E. and dips 70° W. j the Snowdrift vein has a N.-S. 
course with a dip of 80° W. Developments: Shaft 60 ft. deep and a 
tunnel 200 ft. in length. Two men employed. J. E. Dunnavin and 
Prakes Brothers, owners. 

Mountain Summit and Quartzite Mines. They are situated eight 
miles east of New Pine Creek, Oregon. On Mountain Summit claim 
there is a shaft 50 feet deep, sunk on N. 70° W. fissure. Two shafts 
have been sunk on the Quartzite claim to the depth of 50 feet, with a 



MODOC COUNTY. 249 

small amount of drifting from each shaft. Idle. J. 0. Kafader et al., 
of Fort Bid well, owners. 

Mountain Sheep Mine. It is situated nine miles east of New Pine 
Creek, Oregon, on the east slope of Alturas Ridge. The vein strikes 
N. 70° W. and dips 75° S. It varies in width from 2" to 2'. 
Developments: Tunnel 90' long, and a series of shallow shafts from 
25' to 50' deep. Idle. Fleming Bros, of New Pine Creek, Oregon, 
and Jamison and Wylie, of Alturas, Cal., owners. 

North Star Mine. It is situated eight miles NW. of Fort Bidwell, 
on the south slope of Discovery Hill. There are two narrow quartz 
veins on this property, striking N. 70° W. and dipping 75° S. 
Developments : Upper tunnel crosscut the vein 78 ft. from portal, with 
a drift 30 ft. west on vein. About 200 feet below this crosscut a 
tunnel has been driven 42 feet to vein, which has been drifted on 190 
feet west. One man employed. J. T. Maupin and G. F. Maupin of 
Fort Bidwell, Cal., owners. 

Shasta View Mine. It is situated 8 miles east of New Pine Creek, 
Oregon, on the west slope of Discovery Hill. This property has been 
worked through the Mountain View tunnel. At a point 90 feet east 
of the crosscut tunnel on the Mountain View claim, a crosscut has 
been driven southwest 138 feet to the Shasta View vein, that strikes 
N. 80° W., with a dip of 80° S., and a drift has been driven east on 
the vein 75 feet. This vein cuts both the granular rhyolite and the 
underlying andesite, and varies in width from 2" to 15". The vein 
shows crystallized quartz and clay gouge; at places it is copper 
stained. Idle. Richard Mason and G. F. Maupin of Fort Bidwell, 
Cal., owners. 

Sunset Mine. It is situated 8 miles northwest of Fort Bidwell on 
the south slope of Discovery Hill. The Sunset vein cuts both the "granu- 
lar rhyolite and the underlying andesite. The vein has a strike of 
N. 60° W. and dips 75° S. It varies in width from 2" to 2'. In the 
rhyolite it contains the typical brecciated quartz cemented ore, but 
in the andesite it consists of white quartz. It is developed by a series 
of open cuts, and a shaft 65 feet deep, also by a long tunnel lower 
down on the hill, which has over 800 feet of crosscuts and drifts. 
This tunnel, which has been driven in the andesite, has not developed 
any pay ore. Two men are employed sinking a shaft on the crest of 
Discovery Hill. J. N. Van Coughnet, E. McCoughrey et al., of Fort 
Bidwell, Cal., owners. 

Sunshine-High Grade Gold Mines. They are situated on High 
Grade Hill, about 9 miles east of New Pine Creek, Oregon. Claims : 
Sunshine, Yellow Jacket, and Gascow Fraction. On the Sunshine 



200 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



claim a shaft has been sunk to a depth of 60 feet on a narrow open 
fissure which strikes N. 75° W. and dips 85° S. The vein varies from 
2" to 8" in width, and cuts a silicified rhyolite, which shows only- 
slight brecciation. The richest ore from this vein is a mixture of 
brownish-colored clay gouge and quartz. A tunnel 300 feet long has 
been driven on this vein, connecting with the shaft about 150 feet 
from portal. From the tunnel level. two winzes have been sunk to a 




Sunshine tunnel, High Grade mining district, showing typical "rock piles" of High Grade Hill. 

depth of 50 feet on the vein. The north end of the Yellow Jacket 
claim is underlain by a silicified rhyolite breccia, in which there are 
a number of fractures that strike N. 75° W. The ore on this claim- 
consists of a hard, silicified breccia. A shaft has been sunk to a 
depth of 70 feet on one of these fractures. Idle. Sunshine-High 
Grade Gold Mining Co., owner ; Felix Green, president ; J. S. Taylor, 
secretary, New Pine Creek, Ore. 

Tamarack Mine. It is situated on the east slope of Discovery 
Hill, about 8 miles northwest of Fort Bidwell. Developments consist 
of a crosscut tunnel 130 feet in length, and a series of shallow shafts 
and open cuts. Idle. A. C. Lowell of Fort Bidwell, owner. 

White Quartz (Red Quartz, Evening Star and Klondike) Group of 
Mines. These properties are situated on east slope of Alturas ridge, 
about 9 miles east of New Pine Creek, Oregon. On these claims there 
are a series of parallel north and south fractures cutting a granular 
rhyolite. Developments consist of a series of shallow shafts and open 
cuts. Idle. W. D. Broaddus and J. E. Dunnavin of Fort Bidwell, 
owners. 






MODOC COUNTY. 251 

WINTERS MINING DISTRICT. 

The Winters Mining District is about 35 miles west-southwest of 
Alturas, 16 miles north of Adin, and 3^ miles south of Pit River. It 
lies on the southwest of Scheffer Mountain just east of the Adin- 
Alturas road. The only developed property in this district is the 
Hess Mine. 

Geology. 

This district lies in the great area of volcanic rocks which covers so 
much of northeastern California. The rocks in the vicinity of the 
mines are porphyritic. 

Ore Deposits. 

The ore deposits strike west-northwest in a zone of slight displace- 
ment along which the flows north of the fault zone have been raised 
with relation to those south of it. This zone has been traced for about 
2 miles east and west and is scarcely more than one-half mile wide. 
The brecciated country rock is associated with all the ore mined. The 
vein filling consists of quartz and calcite, the former largely replacing 
the latter. 

MINES. 

Dixie Queen Mines. They are 16 miles north of Adin, and lie east 
of the Hess Mine. Developments consist of a crosscut tunnel 300 ft. 
long and a series of shallow shafts and open cuts on the vein. The 
vein has a general E.-W. strike and dips 50° S. Idle. Dixie Queen 
Mining Co., Los Angeles, Cal., owner. 

Hess Mine. It is 16 miles north of Adin on a ridge southwest of 
Scheffer Mountain, and about one-fourth of a mile east of the Adin- 
Alturas road, at the head of the south fork of Stone Coal Creek. The 
Hess vein strikes E. and dips about 50° S. and has a width of 4' to 6'. 
It occurs along a zone of faulting, which has produced a breccia of 
basalt 4' to 12' wide, consisting of quartz, calcite and adularia cement- 
ing fragments of the wall rock. An incline shaft 300 feet deep has 
been sunk on the vein, and levels driven on the vein at 120', 150', 200' 
and 250'. On the 120' level the vein has been drifted east 100' and 
west 65'. On the 150' level there is a drift 25' west and 140' east. 
The 200' level has been extended 150' east. There is a drift 250' west 
and 170' east on the 250' level. The ore shoot developed was 80' long 
at the surface; at the 120' level 150' long, and at the 150' level it is 
65' long. On the 200' and 250' levels this ore shoot is about 100' long. 
The richest ore occurred along footwall of vein. The incline shaft 
cuts a fault on the 200' level, the vein being faulted to the south. 
The length of throw has not been determined. The strike of this fault 
is N. 15° W. with a dip to the east. On the 250' level this fault was 



252 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



picked up 40' east of shaft. No ore has been developed west of fault. 
About 550' east of main incline a vertical shaft has been sunk to a 
depth of 110'. This shaft was sunk for main working shaft, but 
operations were suspended before its completion. 









*** ...■ .... ;...r.,.. 



Hess mine and mill, Winters Mining District, Modoc County. 



Mill : A 6" x 8" Dodge crusher. Ten stamps weighing 500 lbs. 
each. A 20-ton cyanide plant. The gold which occurs in very fine 
particles is said to be hard to save by amalgamation, but good results 
were obtained by cyanidation. Two men employed on development 
work. Hess Gold Mines Co., owner ; F. M. Jamison, president ; A. K. 
Wylie, secretary. Alturas, Cal. 

Modoc-Mammoth Mines. They are situated 16 miles north of Adin, 
on ridge east of Stone Coal Valley. Several shafts were sunk on 
these claims but no ore was developed. Idle. Modoc-Mammoth 
Gold Mining and Milling Co., owner; F. M. Jamison, president; 
Dennis Kane, secretary. Alturas, Cal. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

Throughout Modoc County there are a number of hot and warm 
springs which are of deep-seated origin. The waters of these 
springs are used extensively for domestic and irrigation purposes. 
As a rule the waters from these springs have no distinct odor or taste, 
and are only slightly mineralized of an alkaline type. The following 
enumerated springs have been described in the "Water Supply Paper 
338, on Springs of California," by Gerald A. Waring of the United 
States Geological Survey: 






MODOC COUNTY. 253 

Allen Warm Springs. These springs are situated 9 miles west of 
Alturas on the Alturas and Adin road. The water is only slightly 
mineralized, of an alkaline type. The flow is approximately at the 
rate of 275 gallons per minute. Temperature being about 81° F. 
The water is employed for domestic uses as well as for irrigation. 

Bottle Spring. It is about 10 miles south of Pothole Spring, and 
near the northern end of Fairchild Meadow. It yields cold water, 
| and the amount is said to vary greatly with the season. 

Boyd Spring. It is situated near the eastern side of Upper Lake in 
Surprise Valley. Temperature of water is about 67° F. Used for 
irrigation purposes. 

Kelley's Hot Spring. It is located on the Alturas and Adin road 
about 20 miles west of Alturas, or 4 miles northwest of Canby. A 
pool about 12 yards in diameter has been formed in a semicircular 
depression in the alluvium of the northern side of Pit River Valley. 
In the center of this pool the water boils up with such force as to 
dome up about one foot high. It discharges about 325 gallons per 
minute. Temperature of 204° F. The water has no distinctly 
mineralized taste, though it is said to stimulate the action of the 
kidneys. 

Pothole Spring. This spring is situated in a small marshy area at 
the western base of Blue Mountain, about 35 miles northwest of 
Alturas. The water rises in a deep clear pool a few feet in diameter, 
and is noticeably above normal temperature, but probably less than 
70° F. The flow from this spring is small. 

A number of springs occur in this county that have no designated 
names, and their locations will be herewith described as follows : 

About 8 miles north of east from Kelley's Hot Spring a stream 
named Hot Creek is formed by a number of hot springs that rise on 
the north side of the valley that borders Pit River. Near the head of 
Canon Creek, south of the valley of Pit River, are a number of warm 
springs. On the west side of the canon of Bidwell Creek, about a 
mile north of Fort Bidwell, are a number of hot springs whose tem- 
perature ranges from 90° to 110° F. At points about 2 and 3 miles, 
respectively, north of Lake City, hot water rises in the meadow land 
that borders Upper Lake. Between Upper and Middle lakes, on the 
east side of Surprise Valley, are three small hot springs. 

SALT. 
The Surprise Valley Salt Works, S. S. and E. H. Buck, Cedarville, 
produce a small tonnage of salt annually by solar evaporation of the 
alkaline lake waters there. 



254 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



SUTTER COUNTY. 

By Clarence A. Waring, Field Assistant. 
Field Work in December, 1916. 

Sutter County lies just north of Sacramento County, California, 
mainly between the Sacramento and Feather rivers. It is bounded on 
the east by Yuba and Placer counties, on the west by Colusa and Yolo 
counties and on the north by Butte County. The county includes an 
area of 611 square miles, supporting a population in 1910 of 6328 per- 
sons. The assessed valuation of the county in 1916 was $13,472,178. It 
was named in honor of the distinguished pioneer, General John A. 
Sutter. Yuba City, the county seat and largest town, had a population 
exceeding 1600 in 1914. 

The county is excellently provided with transportation. The Feather 
and Sacramento rivers are navigable by small craft all the way to 




Photo No. IS. — View of Marysville Buttes, Sutter County, from the southeast. Photo by 

Walter W. Bradley. 

Sacramento. The main Southern Pacific Railroad from San Francisco 
to Portland enters the county near Yuba City and passes northwestward 
through Lomo and Live Oak. The Northern Electric (Colusa Branch) 
Railroad crosses the county from east to west through Yuba City and 
northward from the same place. The Northern California Railway 
(S. P. Co.), enters the southern end of the county and follows the west 
side of Feather River northward to Yuba City. The Northern Electric 
and Western Pacific Railways cross the southeastern portion of the 
county, from north to south, west of Pleasant Grove. The county is 
well served by wagon roads. 



SUTTER COUNTY. 255 

Power lines of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and Oro Elec- 
tric Corporation, practically surround the county and cross its southern 
end. Electricity is thus available for both power and lighting purposes 
in practically every part of the county. 

The north central portion of the county is marked by the Sutter or 
Marysville Buttes, the South Butte of which is 2128 ft. in elevation. 

The Buttes occupy a circular area about 10 miles in diameter, but 
strips about 2 miles wide along the more gentle eastern and western 
slopes are cultivable. The remainder of the county consists of lowland 
with a gentle southwesterly slope, a great portion of which is capable 
of producing a wide range of crops. Considerable of the western 
portion of the county consists of low tule land capable of being 
reclaimed. 

GEOLOGY. 

The geology of Sutter County has been covered in considerable detail 
by H. AY. Turner, 1 and AY. Lindgren. 1, 2 Paleontological papers describ- 
ing the Eocene formation of the Marysville Buttes have been written 
by AY. L. Watts.. :; J. G. Cooper, 4 and R. E. Dickerson. 5 

Aside from the Buttes, Sutter County is covered with deep alluvial 
soil. The Buttes consist of a core of andesite surrounded by upturned 
lone sedimentary strata overlain by andesite tuff and breccia. The 
sedimentary strata have been shown to be of Eocene age and were tilted 
in all directions from the center of the Buttes when the andesite 
intrusion took place. The andesite core has later been broken through 
in places by rhyolite. 

MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Sutter County has to date been but a slight mineral producer, 
although a few metals such as gold, silver and quicksilver have occa- 
sionally been found in the Marysville Buttes. No systematic work 
has been undertaken since the results of prospective work have not 
warranted it. Coal, clay and natural gas have also been found, but 
little has been done with them. It is reported that rock in the Buttes 
suitable for road metal is being crushed and used by the road super- 
visors. The only commercial mineral production in Sutter County, 
noted in the statistical records of the State Mining Bureau, was: 
Macadam, $5,000 in 1908. There was some also in 1916, but the 
amount is not to hand at this writing. 



IT. S. Geol. Surv. Folio No. 17, Marysville, 1895. 

2 U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper No. 73, pp. 23-25, 1911. 

3 Calif. State Min. Bur. Bull. 3, pp. 9-10, 1894. 

4 Calif. State Min. Bur. Bull. 4, pp. 36-45, 1894. 

5 Bull. Dept. of Geol., Univ. of Calif., Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 257-298, pis. 11-14. April. 



256 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

CLAY. 

Clay beds of considerable extent occur in the sedimentary Eocene 
strata of the Marysville Buttes. These should be available for the 
manufacture of brick and pottery. 

COAL. 

Thin seams of lignite occur in certain of the beds of the lone . 
formation in the Marysville Buttes. It is reported to have been found 
in the South Butte Valley and 3 miles south of Pennington and also 
in a 35-ft. well south of Sutter City. The beds lie above strata of clayj 
and are overlain by gravelly sand. The coal is probably of too poor 
quality to be of economic importance. 

GOLD. 

No gold-bearing quartz veins have been found in the Marysville 
Buttes, but certain coarse gravels occurring in the sedimentary lone 
strata have been found to be auriferous. The volcanic mud-flows con- 
taining gravel have also been found slightly auriferous. The gravels 
consist of waterworn pebbles of quartz, metamorphic sedimentary rock, 
diabase, granite and serpentine, and no doubt were carried from the 
Sierra Nevada by rivers. 

The gulches and ravines in certain localities have been washed during 
the rainy season and fine, well-rounded gold recovered. An occasional 
large piece of gold, worth as high as five dollars, is found. 






NATURAL GAS. 

Small quantities of gas have been encountered in wells, drilled for 
water, at Yuba City. Since none of the wells penetrated below 200 ft..i 
they probably did not reach any gas-bearing sedimentary strata under- 
lying the alluvium. A 20-ft. well, drilled in 1864 about 1 mile southwest- 
of South Butte, in lone, clay and sandstone is reported to have yielded' 
a small flow of natural gas. A second well reported to have been drilled, 
in 1892 close to the first one, struck no gas and ran into massive eruptive 
rock. 

The lone strata appear to carry natural gas throughout the region and' 
in certain localities may be found to yield a commercial supply. Such! 
localities will probably not be found in the immediate vicinity of the 
buttes but sufficiently remote where undisturbed strata may be pene- 
trated. 

LIMESTONE. 

An impure gray limestone is reported to occur, just south of South 
Butte, in beds of the lone formation which lie in a nearly vertical, 
position. A tufa (spring deposit) consisting principally of calcite is 



j- SUTTER COUNTY. 257 

reported to occur in an area of volcanic tuffs about 1000 ft. south of 
the South Pass road, 1^ miles south-southeast of the South Butte. 

These lime deposits should be valuable as a natural binding material 
for road metal. 

STONE. 

A quarry in the rhyolite rock 3 miles northwest of Sutter City, has 
furnished some building stone which was used locally. 

It is reported that the county supervisors are at present using 
crushed rock from the Buttes for road metal. The volcanic rocks 
should furnish an excellent material for roads and the supply is easy 
, of access and unlimited. 



17—46904 



258 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



TEHAMA COUNTY. 

By W. Burling Tucker, Field Assistant. 
Field Work in September, 1915. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Tehama County is situated in the upper part of the Sacramento 
Valley. It extends east to the summit of the Sierras, on the west to 
the crest of the Coast Range Mountains. The county itself comprises 
an area of 2893 square miles and is about evenly divided on both sides 
of the Sacramento River. For nearly 50 miles this river wends its way : 
through the center of the county. 

Rising in the Sierra Nevadas and flowing westward into the Sacra- j 
mento River are Los Molinos River, Deer, Antelope, Paynes, and 
Battle creeks — all perennial streams, and supplying unlimited water j] 
for irrigation purposes. 

Starting in the Coast Range Mountains and running eastward into 
the Sacramento River are Cottonwood, Elder, and Toms creeks. The 
town of Red Bluff, the county seat, lies at the head of river navigation; 
on the Sacramento. The county comprises valley, foothill, and moun- 
tain lands, used principally for agricultural, horticultural, and graz- 
ing purposes. 

The eastern and western portions of the county are covered with 
extensive growths of fine timber, the lumber industry being an 
important source of revenue. 

GEOLOGY. 

The eastern half of the county is covered with sheets of lava, whi 
had their origin from and around Lassen Peak. The central part 
the county shows an extended plateau of gravels, sands and clays, ! 
which extend to the serpentines and metamorphic rocks of the Coast ; 
Range. 

MINING. 

Little mining is being done in this county at present. Chromic ! 
iron, indications of oil, coal, copper and manganese occur in the! 
western part of the county. Some development work has been done i 
on the chrome deposits which occur in a belt of serpentine, near the! 
western boundary of the county in the Coast Range Mountains. 

About 10 miles west of Paskenta some promising prospects of i 
manganese ore are being opened up. 

Mineral springs are abundant throughout the county, some of which I 
are widely known for their medical purposes, the most noted being 
Tuscan Springs, near Red Bluff. 



|. TEHAMA COUNTY. 259 

MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Among- the mineral resources of the county are : brick, chromite, 
3opper, gold, manganese, marble, mineral water, salt, silver, and the 
ptone industry. 

TEHAMA COUNTY— Table of Mineral Production. 


Year 


Gold, 
value 


Chrome 


Brick 


Mineral water 


Salt, 
value 


Stone, 
value 


Other 


Tons 


Value 


M 


Value 


Gallons 


Value 


erals, 
value 


f.880-1884 

894 

1(895 


$22,000 




















1,680 

950 

56 


$12,680 

9,025 

475 
















500 


$2,500 












|l896 














897 _ 








10,000 
54,000 
10,000 


$2,400 
8,000 
18,000 








898 








200 
300 
325 
300 
500 
600 
500 
650 
700 
400 
400 


1,400 
1,800 
2,200 
2,000 
3,500 
4,500 
3,500 
5,000 
5,600 
3,200 
3,000 








y,'i 














MO 














9<>1 








20,000 


4,000 








9("' 5 














(903 








5,000 


2,500 








^904 . . 














905 








8,000 
8,000 
550,000 
20,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 


4,000 

4,000 

55,000 

2,000 

500 

500 

500 








<Xlli 












907 












<* * 


. „ | 




300 
300 
300 






909 










910 






600 


3,600 






J911 _ 










1912 






225 
300 


1,300 
1,800 








913 






75 

100 

1,000 


42 
100 
500 




$600 




.914 :: 






200 
* 




915 




* 


* 


400 


2,700 


750 


$752 


Totals. 






$22,000 




$22,180 

























Included under "Other Minerals." 

Total mineral production, 1880-1915 (inch)- 
Gold _. 


$22,000 




22,180 


Brick 


47,600 


Mineral water _ - 


102,042 


Salt 


1,100 


Stone industry 


1,350 


Other minerals _. __ „ . __ _ _ 


752 






Total 


$197,024 


CHROMITE. 





A belt of serpentine having a general north and south trend runs 
Ithrough the southwestern part of the county. This belt is on the 
fewer eastern slope of the Coast Range Mountains. In this serpentine, 
float of chromite is found in a great number of places. Most of the 
mining operations on these deposits have been conducted in the 
Neighborhood of the north fork of Elder Creek. 

Basler Mining and Development Company's chrome deposits are 
situated in Sees. 4 and 8, T. 25 N., R. 7 W., about 28 miles southwest 
bf Red Bluff. 



260 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The chromite occurs in lenses in the serpentine. This company 
controls 11 claims along a belt of serpentine striking north and south. 
Owing to their remoteness from railway transportation, only a small 
amount of development has been done on these claims. 

M. J. Cheatham of Eed Bluff, owns deposits of chromite in Sec. 16, 
T. 24 N., R. 7 W. They were formerly worked by the Tehama Con- 
solidated Chrome Company of Red Bluff. (See Reports, X, p. 692; 
XII, p. 38 ; XIII, p. 50 ; also Bulletin No. 38, p. 272, of the California 
State Mining Bureau.) These deposits have been mined in 3 places 
and ore was shipped from the property in 1898. The ore was hauled 
a distance of 30 miles to Red Bluff, which was the nearest shipping 
point. 

Noble Electric Steel Company's chrome mine. See our Reports, 
X, p. 692 ; XII, p. 38 ; XIII, p. 50. This property is situated on the 
north fork of Elder Creek, in Sec. 16, T. 25 N., R. 7 W., about 28 miles 
west of Red Bluff at an elevation of 2000 feet. The ground has been 
taken up as a surface claim covering 640 acres. The deposits consist 
of a series of separate lenses inclosed in the serpentine, and 10 to 
12 of such lenses have been developed. The largest of these lenses 
is about 60' in length by 60' in width, located in a gulch which runs 
into Elder Creek. They have been worked in the past by a system 
of open cuts. The serpentine belt in which these deposits occur is 
about 3 miles in width, and can be traced through the county. It has 
a general north and south trend. To the east of this belt the country 
rock is slate, while on the west the formation is a syenite. Chrome 
iron has been proved to occur for at least 10 miles along this belt. i 
In all the gulches running into Elder Creek are also noticed quantities 
of magnesite. 

On the opposite side of the creek from where the chrome ore was 
mined there is a vein of pectolite about 20' wide, which courses north! 
and south and dips west in the serpentine. In this vicinity along 
the banks of Elder Creek are several saline springs. 

Fifteen men were employed building a wagon road up Elder Creek' 
to these deposits, with the plan of mining and shipping the ore to< 
the Noble Electric Steel Company's electric smelter at Heroult, Shasta; 
County. 

CLAYS. 

There are undoubtedly several clay deposits in the Sacramento 
River bottom lands of Tehama County, but very few have been used 
for the manufacture of brick. 

O 'Conner Brothers of Red Bluff, own a clay deposit on the Reed 
Tract, in Sec. 29, T. 27 N., R. 3 W. The deposit covers an area of 



li 






TEHAMA COUNTY. 261 



bver 19 acres, about 5 of which have been worked by pits, showing a 
good quality of brick clay for a depth of from 8' to 11', underlaid by 
gravel. The bricks are made in a soft-mud machine worked by horse 
power. They are sun dried and burned in open kilns. The full 
Capacity of brick yard, when running, is about 16,000 bricks per day. 
The bricks are used locally. 

COPPER. 

California and Massachusetts Copper Mines. These properties are 
situated on the north slope of Tom Head Mountain, about 40 miles 
west of Red Bluff. The holdings consist of 3 claims, namely: 
(Sulphide, Uncle Sam, and Spring. The deposit occurs in the form of 
a vein striking N. 75° W. and dipping 65° N. in diabase. This vein 
is capped on the surface by iron gossan. The ore is chalcopyrite, 
associated with pyrite. Developments consist of two tunnels, at an 
elevation of 4150' ; a crosscut tunnel has been driven south into the 
(mountain 420', cutting the vein at a distance of 150' from the portal, 
then drifts run east and west for a distance of 200'. 

The width of ore developed on this level was about 5'. Several 
winzes have been sunk from this level on the vein to depths of 30'. 
About 150' above this tunnel there is another tunnel 366' long, which 
iintersectecl the vein at 66' south of portal, with drifts east 150 feet 
and west 100' on the vein. The ore developed on this level varies in 
width from 4' to 20'. The ore so far developed has a very low copper 
i content. The equipment on the property consists of an 80 h.p. boiler, 
12" x 14" x 14" Sullivan air compressor, cars and track, with tool and 
[blacksmith shops. Idle. California and Massachusetts Copper Mines 
Co., owner, William Wrigley, Jr., president; J. C. Cox, secretary. 
Kestner Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

GOLD. 

In former days some placer mining was carried on in the upper 
reaches of the Sacramento River, but this has entirely ceased. 

Gold bearing quartz veins have been discovered on Tom Head 
Mountain, in the Coast Range Mountains, and also in the neighbor- 
hood of Paskenta. Due to their remoteness from railroad transporta- 
tion, only a small amount of prospecting has been done on the veins 
in these districts. 

Bowers Creek Mine is a prospect 10 miles west of Paskenta, situ- 
ated on the east slope of Beauty View Butte. The vein strikes N. 50° 
W. and dips 60° in the diabase. A tunnel has been driven 30' on the 
vein, which averages 18" in width. Idle. D. H. Thurston, E. P. 
Logan et al., of Paskenta, owners. 



262 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

MANGANESE. 



Some very promising deposits of manganese ore have been found 
on Beauty View Butte, about 10 miles west of Paskenta. Only super- I 
ficial work has been done on these deposits, on account of their I 
distance from railway transportation. The nearest shipping point is 1 
the town of Corning, on the Southern Pacific Railroad — a distance of j 
30 miles. These deposits are located in a belt of serpentine which 
strikes north and south. The manganese occurs in a lenticular bed 1 
interstratified with red and gray jasper. The ore, when fresh, is a 
hard, black, massive variety, steel blue in color, with a well developed 
conchoidal fracture. On an exposed surface it becomes soft and w 
breaks up into fine black powder. The ore contains a large amount 4 
of silica in the form of quartz veins and unaltered chert. The deposits 1 
are made up of a series of irregular lenticular bodies, more or 
less isolated and separated by many feet of barren rock. The general I 
strike of these deposits is N. 20° W. Five to six outcrops of man- 
ganese ore were noticed, varying in width from 10' to 30'. 

Elva Manganese Mine is a prospect 10 miles west of Paskenta, situ- 
ated on south slope of Beauty View Butte. It lies in Sec. 20, T. 23 N., 
R. 7 W. C. S. Benner of Paskenta, owner. 



Manganese Peak Mine. This prospect is situated on Beauty View 
Butte, north of Bowers Creek. Two claims have been taken up, called 
Manganese Peak and Success. The deposits of manganese ore on 
these claims from the outcrops, appear to be quite extensive, and in 
places show a width of 10' to 30'. The only work on these outcrops 
are a few shallow open cuts. Idle. Alonzo Luce, Virgil Apperson 
et al., of Willows, Cal., owners. 

Rosy and Sophie Manganese Mines. Situated in Sec. 14, T. 24 N., 
R. 7 W., M. D. M., on ridge south of Elder Creek. C. S. Benner and | 
D. H. Thurston, of Paskenta, Cal., owners. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

(See Water Supply Paper No. 338 on Springs of California, by 
G. A. Waring, of United States Geological Survey.) 

Colyear Springs. These springs are situated high on the mount a in 
side north of the North Fork of Elder Creek, 35 miles west of Red- 
Bluff. Six springs here rise in a cemented place 5 yards in diameter,- 
among the pine trees, on a moderate slope. One of the largest yields 
cold sulphur water, while the others are only slightly sulphuretted. 
On the slope about 8 yards above these springs, there is a clear water 
spring that yields 4 to 5 gallons a minute. Dr. J. A. Owen of Red | 
Bluff, owner. 



TEHAMA COUNTY. 263 

Morgan Springs. They are situated on the Morgan Ranch, about 
>50 miles northeast of Red Bluff. There are a group of 25 springs and 
pools scattered for a distance of J mile in a meadow along Mill Creek ; 
this meadow is termed Big Hot Spring Valley. Most of them are 
quiet pools of small flow, as a rule less than 5 feet in diameter and 
relatively shallow. A number of them contain thick algous growths, 
and several deposit native sulphur. A number of springs steam and 
sputter from vents in a hard conglomerate along the banks of the 
creek. One of the northernmost of these spriDgs seems to have a 
true geyser action, for it issues from a shallow basin 3 feet in dia- 
meter, in which the water comes to a state of vigorous ebullition and 




View of Big Hot Springs Valley. Morgan Springs. 

then subsides. The place is used as a summer resort, there being a 
number of houses and tents which are rented by the owner during 
the summer months. Along the creek are a number of bathhouses 
and a swimming pool. There are also several vapor bathhouses built 
over vents at the creek edge. W. E. Hamlin of Mineral, Cal., owner. 

Tuscan Springs. These springs are situated 10 miles northeast of 
Red Bluff, near the head of the canon of Salt Creek. Tuscan Springs 
were discovered in 1856 by Dr. John A. Veatch, who, in a chemical 
examination of the waters, discovered crystals of borax, said to be the 
first borax found in the state. The springs are situated at ari eleva- 
tion of 1000 feet above sea level. The canon of Salt Creek widens 
at its head to a small valley surrounded by rugged cliffs, and the 
springs issue along the main creek and its branches in this open area. 



264 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The springs rise in a dark shale and sandstone, the latter material 
being veined in places by calcite. The structure shows that the beds 
have been folded into a small arch or anticline. Dips of 50° on the 
western side of the fold are observed. 

The occurrence of usable quantities of illuminating gas is worthy 
of mention in connection with this anticlinal structure. The sedi- 
ments are overlain by volcanic tuff, which forms the cliffs of the 
cafion walls. As many as 50 springs are claimed for the locality. 
Spring houses protect some of those that are most used for drinking 
purposes. Water from another spring supplies evaporating trays, in 
which occasional amounts of medicinal salts are prepared for sale. 
Two other springs rise in cemented reservoirs about 15' and 20' in 
diameter. Gas from one of these, which is called the Natural Gas 
Spring, is piped to a tank higher on the hillside for use in lighting 
purposes in hotel and cottages; and water from the other spring, 
which is called the Fountain Spring, supplies the baths and swimming 
pool. Most of the springs rise in brick and cemented basins. All 
springs are within 250 yards southeast of the hotel, which is on higher 
ground overlooking them. Most of the springs have a small flow, 
but all are strongly mineralized. Some are strongly sulphuretted as 
well as saline. The following analyses indicate that they are primary 
saline waters, remarkably uniform in composition for springs of such 
high mineral content, the chief difference being in the high sulphate 
content of Spring No. 1. There is a remarkably high potassium con- 
tent in all but the Natural Gas Spring. 



TEHAMA COUNTY. 



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Sodium (Na) ... 
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206 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Tuscan Springs are open all the year round. The waters are 
reported to be especially beneficial for blood and skin diseases, also 
for malaria, kidney, liver and rheumatism. E. B. Walbridge Estate, 
Red Bluff, owner. Mrs. E. B. Walbridge, manager. 




View of hotel and bath houses, Tuscan Springs, Tehama County. 

White Sulphur Spring. There is a small, cool sulphur spring about 
1J miles northeast of Mineral post office, which is near the southern 
base of Lassen Peak. It issues in a ravine 15 yards from the eastern 
bank of Summit Creek, and about 150 yards east of the stage road. 
The spring issues from basaltic lava, at the rate of 8 gallons per minute, 
of cold, noticeably sulphuretted water, which deposits small amounts 
of sulphur. It is the only cold spring seen in the Lassen Peak region, 
the other sulphur springs being of a notably thermal character. 
A. L. Conrad of Red Bluff, owner. 

SALT. 

See Tuscan Springs, under Mineral Water. 






PART III 



The Counties of 



El Dorado, Placer, 
Sacramento, Yuba 



By W. BURLING TUCKER and CLARENCE A. WARING. 

Field Assistants. 



PREFACE. 

The group of counties here presented lies west of Lake Tahoe and 
includes the northern end of the Mother Lode of California. It 
includes a strip across the Sierra Nevada Mountains east of Sacra- 
k mento as well as a strip along the foothills of the same range and a 
portion of the Sacramento Valley. 

Generally speaking, the group is fairly well provided with trans- 
portation facilities and electric power, especially in the western por- 
tion. These factors should lend encouragement to a greater develop- 
ment of the region, for the cost of extensions to the outlying districts 
is not prohibitive. 

The group presents a diversity of mining interests which made the 
work of especial interest. An endeavor has been made to make this 
report a directory of all mines in these counties as well as describing 
those being operated. 

Acknowledgment is made of the courtesies extended by the mine 
owners and operators throughout the region, whose assistance made 
this report possible. 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 

By W. Burling Tucker, Field Assistant. 
Field Work in December, 1914. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The following report represents only a little over a month's field 
work in the county, as owing to the season of the year, the north and 
eastern sections of the county were covered with snow. Hence, it 
was impossible to investigate the more remote mining districts; but, 
by combining the writer's personal observations on the principal 
properties with other data from reliable sources, all deposits of any 
importance have received attention, and are accurately recorded. 

DESCRIPTION. 

El Dorado County has the distinction of being the scene of Mar- 
shall's discovery of gold at Coloma, and the earliest beginning of the 
modern era of gold mining. 

El Dorado County is bounded on the north by Placer, on the south 
by Amador, on the east by Alpine County, and the state of Nevada, 
and on the west by Sacramento and Placer counties. The Middle 
Fork of the American River separates this county from Placer, while 
the Cosumnes separates it from Amador County. These rivers, with 
their numerous branches, constitute the principal streams found in 
El Dorado County. In the eastern part of the county at an altitude 
of about six thousand feet, a number of lakes occur ; Lake Tahoe, the 
most important body of fresh water in California, being partly in this 
county, and is one of the scenic wonders of California. 

Three-fourths of this county, including the more mountainous parts, 
are heavily w T ooded, the timber consisting of stately forests of pine, 
spruce and cedar. The balance is covered with a more scattered 
growth of oak and inferior pine, there being very little timber of any 
kind in the extreme western portion of the county. 

POWER. 

Electric power is furnished to the mines by the Western States 
Power Company, and water by the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Power Company. 

TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES. 

From San Francisco and other important trade centers, this county 
has the benefit of good railroad communication by means of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad to Sacramento, from which point a branch 



272 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

line of the same system over the Sacramento and Placerville Railroad 
to Placerville passes through Shingle Springs, El Dorado and Diamond i 
Springs, with terminus at Placerville. 

ROADS. 

The main state highway, which is at present under construction,! 
runs from Sacramento via Folsom and Placerville to Lake Tahoe and 
Carson City, Nevada, the proposed route running directly east through 
the center of the county. The principal mining districts are in easy 
communication by means of good wagon roads with different rail- 
way points. 

GENERAL GEOLOGY. 

The western margin of the county is followed by a belt of the' 
Calaveras formation, greatly broken by later intrusions and in part 
accompanied by greenstone tuffs of the Carboniferous age. The latei 
Jurassic, Mariposa formation, accompanied by large masses of green- 
stones and greenstone tuffs, traverses the western area in a narrow 
band from north to south. East of these rocks the Calaveras for- 
mation, having a prevailing northerly trend, occupies the greater 
eastern part of the county. A large area of gabbro-diorite lies near 
the western margin ; numerous serpentine areas of elongated form are i 
found in the same vicinity. 

Gabbro, gabbro-diorite and serpentine belts traverse the county 
along a line from about one mile east of Placerville to a mile east of 
Georgetown. 

The main granitic area of the high Sierra makes up the eastern 
part of the county. Tertiary auriferous gravels are exposed nean 
Placerville. Rhyolitic tuffs lie in the old stream beds on the Long 
Canon divide and especially underneath the Placerville and Newtown 
divides. Andesitic tuff-breccias cap many of the ridges from the 
Cosumnes to Long Canon, but the largest masses are found on the 
Placerville and Newtown divides. 

MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

The principal mineral resources of El Dorado County, many of 
them undeveloped, are: Asbestos, Barytes, Chromite, Clay, Copper, 
Gems, Gold, Iron, Molybdenum, Limestone, Quartz Crystals, Quick- 
silver, Glass-sand, Slate, Soapstone, Silver and Miscellaneous Stone. 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 



273 



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274 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Total mineral production of El Dorado County from 1880 to 1915 
inclusive : 

Copper $26,164 

Gold 13,888,556 

Lime 243,444 I 

Limestone 22,343 

Stone industry 29,364 

Silver 87,377 

Slate 481,910 

Miscellaneous and unapportioned 276,473 

$15,055,631 
CHROME. 

Pilliken Chrome Mine. Located 10 miles northeast of Folsom, 
Sacramento County, and one mile northwest of Flagstaff Hill, in Sec. 
28, T. 11 N., R. 8 E., M.D.M. Elevation 1100'-1240'. 

The chrome occurs as lenses in serpentine and is in places associ- 
ated with a fine-grained reddish quartzite carrying small inclusions of! 
chromite. 

The lower workings, at an elevation of 1100', consist of a 100' 
tunnel crosscutting the ore body which strikes E.-W. and dips 15° N.< 
The ore has been stoped to the surface and 800 tons are said to have 
been taken out. 

The old upper workings, at an elevation of 1240', consist of a 
60-foot tunnel at the end of which the ore has been glory-holed to the 
surface. The ore body has a strike N.-S. and dips 35° W. 

New works to the south of the old upper workings, at an elevation' 
of 1100', have followed an ore body striking N.-S. and dipping 23° E. 
A 30-foot open cut and 40' incline stope show a 12' face of solid 
chrome ore. Another lens of ore has been opened up, at an elevation* 
of 1140', just west of the last described workings. The ore body here 
strikes N.-S. and dips 35° E. A stope 50' long and 40' deep, with a, 
horse of serpentine in the center, shows a 4' chimney of ore. 

Twenty-five men, including nineteen miners, were employed when 
the deposit was visited in September, 1916. Leased to the Noble 
Electric Steel Corporation, Heroult, Shasta County, by George Pilliken 
of Folsom, owner. 

COPPER. 
General Geology of the Copper Belt. 
The copper belt of El Dorado County passes through the lower] 
western portion, along the edge of the Sacramento Valley, including ' 
about 25 miles of the "foothill copper belt." Along this line the v 
belt mentioned displays many copper deposits that have been pros- I 
pected in a superficial way. They are but a little north of the section, j 
of the belt through Amador and Calaveras counties, in which the chiei I 






V.]. DORADO COUNTY. 



275 




hrome mining at the Pilliken property, El Dorado County; 10 miles northeast of 
Folsom, Sacramento County. Photo by C. A. Waring. 




Loading chrome ore, from the Pilliken property, at Folsom. Photo by 
C. A. Waring. 



276 MINES 'AND MINERAL- RESOURCES. 

development and production of this copper belt have occurred . 
While a number of the best developed copper properties display 
very wide veins carrying ores that often assay well, and continuous 
gossan cappings of copper-bearing lodes which can be traced for miles 
no producing mines of importance have been developed in El Doradc 
County. Some of the ore bodies carry good values in gold and silver 
along with good percentages of copper sulphides. 

The copper ores occur as vein deposits along the granodiorite ir; 
the zone of contact metamorphics, and one prospect lies south oJ 
Deer Creek in the amphibolite schist. Also small masses of copper, 
pyrites occur in the serpentine and amphibolite about two miles wes: : 
of Greenwood. There is every indication of an east and west bell] 
in the foothill section. The Lilyama and Pioneer mines are on the 
east belt, while the Alabaster Cave Mine is on the west belt. Another' 
belt might include the Noonday and E. E. mines, east of El Dorado 
These two are just at the east line of the Mariposa slates. Abou^ 
three miles north is the Larkin copper mine, on the same belt, as i ; 
is. along the east edge of the Mother Lode formation. About twelv< 
miles north are the El Dorado copper mine and other properties, thai] 
occur just east of the Mother Lode formation. 

MINES. 
Alabaster Cave Mine. Bull. 50, pp. 211-212. The property i| 
located on 180 acres of patented land in Sees. 10 and 15, T. 11 N.'i. 
R. 8 E. ; elevation 800' ; 5 miles from Newcastle station, on Southerr 
Pacific Railroad. Owner, W. Russell, Santa Cruz, California; 
Developments consist of three shafts, two of 50' and one of 300', am\ 
two tunnels, one of 100' and one of 30'. The vein matter consisted 
partly of mineralized diabase, and 8' to 10' of ore, composed of, 
oxides, malachite, azurite, and some unaltered sulphides near thu| 
surface, and of sulphides, chalcopyrite, bornite, etc., in depth/ 
Reported to average 3% to 4% copper with some values in gold" 
and silver. Idle. 

Bob or Iron Crown Mine. Sec. 13, T. 12 N., R. 10 E. Vein 40'J 
wide between serpentine and slate. Values reported as $7.00 in golcft 
silver 1.58 oz. and some copper. Developed by shaft in east wall an<i! 
by shallow cuts. Gossan cap. Owned by S. B. Selkirk and Gee it 
W. Dent. 

Bibl. : Bull. 50, pp. 219-220, 1908. 

Cambrian Mine. Sec. 23, T. 11 N., R. 9 E. Ten miles from Placeiv 
ville. Three veins of talcose schist and limestone between granodi | 
orite and serpentine. Veins from 50' to 70' apart and average 6 to 8m 
in width. Dip east. Ore consisted of chalcopyrite, malachite, cirprit , 






ELr DORADO- -COUNTY. • - 277 

id native copper carrying some gold. Reported to average 10% 
pper. Developed by tunnels. Owned by the Cambrian Mining and 

illing Co. 
• Bibl.: Bull. 50, pp. 213-214, 1908. 

Contraband Copper Mine. See our Bull. 50, pp. 214, 216, "The 
opper Resources of California." It is situated 2 miles southeast 
: Georgetown and 20 miles east of Auburn on the Southern Pacific 
ailroad. Elevation 3550'. Vein about 12' wide, between hanging 
all of micaceous schist and diabase footwall. Strike N. 80° E., dip 
i° N. Ore : oxides, native copper and sulphides reported to contain 

high as 18% copper, with gold and silver values. There is also an 
bestos deposit on the property. Development consists of several 
innels and shallow shafts. Idle. Woodside-Eureka Mining Co., 
)4 Bacon Bldg., Oakand, Cal., owner. 

Cosumnes Copper Mine. See our Bull. 50, p. 214. It is situated 
| miles northeast of Fairplay. The vein strikes NE.-SW., and is a 
ineralized limestone and amphibolite schist. The limestone belt is 
)0' wide, showing sulphides in limestone near the surface. • The ore 
sulphide, malachite, azurite and oxide, with reported values of 
ver 4% copper, also some gold and silver. The property has been 
eveloped by three tunnels. Idle. Rio Vista Gold & Copper Co., 
wner. 

E. E. Copper Mine. See our Bull 50, pp. 218-219. It is located 
miles east of El Dorado in Sec. 18, T. 9 N., R. 11 E. The ore occurs 
lenses in a meta-diabase. The strike of vein is N. 4° E., dip 85° E. 
he ore is copper sulphide associated with pyrite, carrying gold and 
lver values. Developments: a vertical shaft 85' deep with 300' of 
bifts; two tunnels, one 300' long, the other 100'. Property worked 
iff and on by the owner. Joseph Schuppi of El Dorado, owner. 
Larkin Copper Mine. See our Bull. 50, p. 217. This property is 
tuated 4 miles south of Placerville, and 1^ mile west of Diamond 
prings, on the Southern Pacific Railroad. The vein is 3' wide with 
hist walls, and strikes N. 20° E., dip 80° E. Ore: chalcopyrite, 
mlachite, pyrite, iron oxide, with gold and silver values. Develop- 
ments : 160' vertical shaft, with crosscut 45' east on 150' level, which 
^ut a vein 15' east of shaft; drift north 100' on the vein. Idle, 
barren Larkin of Placerville, owner. 

'. Lilyama Mine. See our Bull. 50, p. 212. It is located 11 miles 
outheast of Auburn on the Southern Pacific Railroad, in Sec. 3, 
'. 11 N., R. 9 E. A belt of limestone between granodiorite and quartz- 
orphyry walls carries ore in the form of lenses. Thecroppings are 
•cssan and nearly pure black iron oxide (magnetite). The ore con- 
ists of sulphides of copper associated with pyrite. The ore is reported 



278 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

to run as high as 10% copper with gold and silver values. Develop 
ments : Tunnel 350' long and shaft 25' deep. Idle. Kobert Crockei 
& Co. of Placerville, owner. 

Noonday Copper Mine. See our Bull. 50, p. 220. It is situatec 
4J miles east of El Dorado, in Sec. 18, T. 9 N., R, 11 E. The on 
occurs as lenses in a meta-diabase. The vein is 7' wide ; strik( 
N. 4° E., dip 85° E. The ore consisting of bornite and chalcopyrit( 
associated with pyrite, is reported to have yielded 5% to 9% copper' 
with about $3.00 in gold per ton, and a little silver. Development* 
consist of a vertical shaft 200' deep with 280' of drifts on the vein 
There is a 60 h.p. boiler and single drum hoist on the property 
Idle. Peyton Chemical Co. of San Francisco, owner. 

Oest Mine. Sec. 4, T. 13 N., R, 8 E. Vein between diorite anc 
schist carries chalcopyrite, pyrite, native copper and malachite 
Developed by shaft. Idle. Owned by H. Oest of Auburn. 
Bibl. : Bull. 50, p. 217, 1908. 

Pioneer Copper Mine. See our Bull 50, p. 213. Situated 2J milei 
east of Pilot Hill, and about 11 miles southeast of Auburn, Places 
County. The deposit is in the form of a mineralized limestone 50' t<| 
60' wide, with a granodiorite footwall and quartz-porphyry hanging 
wall. The mineralized zone strikes north and south, with a dip toward: 
the west. The ore occurs in lenses in the limestone. The develop 
ments consist of a tunnel 900' long, and two shafts, 90' and 100' ii* 
depth. Idle. William Haker of New York City, owner. 

Robert Mine. Sec. 13, T. 9 N., R. 11 E. Three and one-half foo 
quartz vein between schist and slate. Developed by shaft and tunnel 
Owned by W. L. and L. Robert. 
Bibl. : Bull. 50, p. 216, 1908. 

GOLD. 

General Geology of "Mother Lode" and Gold Bearing Belts of El Dorado County. 

The most important mines of El Dorado County are located on th 
Mother Lode in an area of Mariposa slates, traversing the county fron 
north to south. The Mother Lode, which must not be considered j 
continuous vein, but rather as a belt of parallel, though sometime 
interrupted, quartz-filled fissures, can be traced continuously as fa 
north as the St. Lawrence mine on the Georgetown divide. Alonj 
it are found many celebrated mines, such as the Nashville, Montezuma 
Church Union, Pacific, Poverty Point and Gopher-Boulder. The vein 
run parallel to the strike of the slates, or cut them at a very a cut 
angle. The dip is nearly always to the east, and usually at a somewha 
less steep angle than thai of the surrounding slates. Along the veins o 



EL DOR-UK) COUNTY. 

the Mother Lode frequently run narrow streaks of amphibolite-sehist 
and serpentine. The eastward bend in the strata caused by the in- 
trusive granodiorite in the vicinity of Plaeerville is closely followed 
by th - North of the St Lawrence mine the Mother Lode is not 

well defined. The quartz veins are more frequently interrupted and 
are replaced by a peculiar kind of deposit, the ,; seam diggings." In 
s . a certain belt of slate is impregnated with minute irregular 
quartz veins, frequently very rich in gold. Such seam diggings occur 

•rgia Slide. Spanish Dry Diggings rreenwood and other pi 
From the St. Lawrence one branch of auriferous quartz deposits runs 
up towai \s gel wn and Oxeorgia Slide. Another belt begins by 

the Esperanza mine, north of th- St Lawrence, and continues with 
frequent interruptions to the Sliger vein and Oregon bar. both on the 
middle fork of the American Eiver. On both s of the great 

serpentine belt, running from Volcanoville to the Cosumnes granodi- 
orite area, near the contact are numerous small quartz veins, very rich 

ttered bunches and pockets of gold. Few permanent mines are 
found, however, along thes ntaets The only important mining 
district in the eastern part of the county is that of Grizzly Flat. A 
long stretch on the contact of slates and granodiorite. from the middle 
fork of the Cosumnes to the **Buttes. " is mineralized and accompanied 
by a great many auriferous quartz veins, the most prominent of which 
is that at the Mount Pleasant mine. 

This county, which in past years has produced a very large amount 
of gold, is at present passing through a temporary period of inactivity, 
due partly to scarcity of water. The eomr - abundant legit- 

imate and promising opportunities to those with both capital and 
• handle large low grade min - 

GOLD MINES— QUARTZ. 
Adams Gulch Mine. See our Report XII. p. 101. It is 2 miles 
north of Nashville, at 1200' elevation, and comprises the following 
claims: Adams Gulch. White Oak. Sullivan and Stony Point, including 
l tol : _ ree T\ vein strikes X. 10 c W., dip 6«:> : E. Width 
of vein is 4' in Mariposa slates. Developments consist of two tunnels ; 
upper tunned m 180* long, lower crosscut tunnel has a length of 220'. 
Two men are employed cleaning out and driving lower tunnel. J. C. 
Heald of Xashville. owner. 

Adjuster and Hustler Mines. They are situated 2 miles south of 

Diamond Springs m Mathenas Creek. Vein strikes X. 20 : E.. dip 

poi slates Two tunnels on property, one 123'. the 

othe: Long. Two men employed. R. B. Seward, of Diamond 

tigs, owner. 






280 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Adjuster Mine. A prospect 3 miles east of El Dorado. Vein 
strikes north and south in slate. Average width of vein is 5'. Develop- 
ment : crosscut tunnel 250' to vein, with a drift 50' north and 75' south 
on vein. Idle. 0. A. Ingram, of El Dorado, owner. 

Alpine (Union Consolidated) Mine. See our Report VIII, pp. 167, 
168. Situated 2\ miles southwest of Georgetown, at an elevation of 
2550'. Comprises the following claims: Leap Year, Manhattan Placer 
mine, Alpine, Alpine Jr., with a total area of 180 acres. The forma- 
tion is amphibolite schist. The strike of the vein is N. 25° W., dip 
60° E., with average width of 12'. Shaft sunk on the vein to 100' 
level from which point to 400' level the shaft is in the footwall of vein. 
The vein has been developed on the 100', 200', 300', 400' levels. On 
the 100' level, drifts N. 150', S. 400' ; on the 200' level, drifts N. 75', 
and S. 400' ; on 300' level, drifts 100' N. and 450' S. ; on the 400' level 
drifts 50' N. and 450' S. The ore is free milling with 1J% to 2% 
pyrite. Idle. Lucero Gold Mining Co., Inc., 530 Wilcox Bldg., Los 
Angeles, owner. 

Argonaut Mine. See our Report X, p. 176. It is one mile east of 
Greenwood. The vein has an average width of 15' ; strikes NW. and 
SE., dip 60° E. Tunnel 500' on vein. Idle. Ford & Co., of Auburn, 
Placer County, owner. 

Baldwin (National) Mine. See our Report XII, p. 102. It is 
two miles east of Nashville. Consists of one claim 3000' in length by 
300' wide. The vein has an average width of 15', strikes N. 10° E., 
dips 60° E. in Mariposa slates. There is a shaft 200' deep sunk on 
a 70° incline. The vein has been developed on the 100' and 170' levels. 
On the 100' level there is a drift 50' N., and 50' S. ; on the 170' level, 
drift 60' N. and 150' S. The vein has been stoped from 100' level to 
surface. The present workings are confined to a quartz stringer lead 
in footwall of main vein. The equipment consists of 80 h.p. boiler, 
single drum hoist, and 6-foot Huntington mill. The property is under 
lease to O. N. Hirst, of Nashville. Three men are employed. E. J. 
Baldwin Est., of San Francisco, owner. 

Baltic Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 133. Situated 8 miles north- 
west of Grizzly Flat, at 4250' elevation, and comprises four claims. 
A 12" vein strikes NE. and SW. and dips 50° E. between slate walls. 
Developments consist of tunnel 500' long and an incline shaft 130' 
deep. Idle. Reeg & Sciarossi, of Placerville, owners. 

Balmaceda Mine. It is \\ miles northeast of Nashville, on ridge 
east of north fork of Cosumnes River. There are two parallel veins 
in Mariposa slates, which strike N. 20° E., dip 65° E. The veins have 
an average width of 4'. A tunnel 500' long has been driven on west 
vein. The ore has been stoped out above tunnel level to surface on 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 281 

ore shoots, which have a length of 40' to 100'. Two men are employed. 
J. C. Heald, of Nashville, owner. 

Barnes-Eureka (Greenstone) Mine. See our Report XII, pp. 102 
and 112. Situated 3 miles northeast of Shingle Springs, on ridge 
east of Slate Creek. There are two claims: Barnes and Eureka. The 
yein occurs on contact between serpentine and diabase. The vein has 
in average width of 2', and strikes N. and S., with a dip 45° E. It 
3arries free gold with arsenical pyrites and tellurides of gold. Two 
incline shafts on the property, having depths of 250' and 350'. Idle. 
R. K. Berry, J. J. Blair, of Placerville, owners. 

Beattie and Parsons Consolidated Mine. (Seam Diggings.). See 
our Reports XI, p. 203; XII, p. 102; XIII, p. 133. It is 1J miles 
lorth of Georgetown, on the porphyry seam belt. The formation is 
traversed by slates and schists, and intercepted by numerous gold 
bearing quartz seams. Idle. Ida Barklage Brown et al., of George- 
town, owners. 

Bidstrup Mine. It is 2 miles south of El Dorado. Vein 12" wide 
in granodiorite. Strike north and south. Developments: shaft 35' 
ieep, tunnel 185' long. Idle. W. I. Bidstrup, of El Dorado, owner. 

Big Chunk Mine. It is J mile east of Kelsey. Developments: 
incline shaft 100' deep, tunnel 150' in length. Idle. Mrs. Margaret 
Smith, of Kelsey, owner. 

Big Four Mine. It is a prospect one mile south of Garden Valley. 
Worked as a pocket mine. Idle. Mrs. M. E. Rhodes and John 
Hurley, of Garden Valley, owners. 

Big Sandy Mine. See our Report X, p. 173. It is i mile south 
from Kelsey, at elevation of 1900' and comprises the following claims: 
Grey Eagle, Big Sandy, and Marshall mill site. On Mother Lode 
belt in Mariposa slates. The vein has an average width of 500' with 
a strike of N. 12° W., dips 70° E. Developments consist of a vertical 
shaft 334' deep, with levels at 74', 124', 227', and 323', with crosscuts 
west to vein from shaft, and drifts north and south on vein. Old 
•10-stamp mill on property. Idle. Big Sandy Mining Co., care Chas. 
Breyman, Nasby Bldg., Toledo, O., owner. 

Black Hawk Mine. It is a prospect, situated f mile south of Kelsey. 
Vein 4' wide in Mariposa slate. Tunnel 250' long on vein. Idle. 
Oscar Reeg and Blair Estate, of Placerville, owners. 

Blue Bank Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 134. It is 9J miles 
northwest of Shingle Springs. The vein is 18" wide, strikes N. and S., 
dips 74° W. in amphibolite schist. Tunnel 120' long on vein, with 
100' incline below tunnel level. Idle. Murphy Bros., of Shingle 
Springs, owners. 






282 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 






Blue Rock Mine (Seam Diggings). See our Keport XI, p. 20 
It is 1^ miles north of Georgetown, on porphyry seam belt. There is 
a zone of schists and slates traversing the formation, which is inter- 
sected by numerous gold bearing quartz seams. Idle. Flynn Bros., 
et al., of Georgetown, owners. 

Boneset Mine. See our Report XII, p. 104. It is a prospect 6 
miles north of Shingle Springs. Vein 15' wide in gabbro-diorite. Strike 
NE. and SW. ; dip 70° N. Tunnel 140' long, crosscuts vein at depth 
of 40'. Idle. M. E. Gates, of Sacramento, owner. 

Bordt Mine. See our Report XII, p. 104. It is a prospect ^ mile 
east of Greenwood. East and west vein, dip 60° N. in slate. Idle. 
W. Bordt, of Greenwood, owner. 

Boulder Mine. See our Report XIII, pp. 135-136. It is 8 miles 
nortlrwest of Shingle Springs. Vein 8' wide in granodiorite ; strike 
NE. and SW., dip 35° NW. Work was carried on through four 
tunnels. A 20-stamp mill on property. Idle. Boulder Mining Co., 
care F. W. Williams, 163 Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, owner. 

Bower Mine (Seam Diggings). See our Report XI, p. 204. Situ- 
ated at Greenwood, on the porphyry seam belt. Zone of slates and 
schists 30' to 100' wide, traversing the porphyry with quartz seams 
carrying gold. Has a reported production of $2,000,000. Idle. Cali- 
fornia Water Co., owner. 

Bright Hope Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 136. Located 1 mile 
northeast of Georgetown. Vein 6' wide in Mariposa slate; strike NE. 
and SW., dip 60° SW. Development: tunnel 400' long, shaft 80' 
deep. Idle. Mrs. Gibbs and W. H. Hulbert, of Georgetown, owners. 

California Jack Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 136. It is 3 
miles southwest of Georgetown. Vein 12' wide strikes N. and S., dip i 
60° E., in Mariposa slates. Developments consist of crosscut tunnel 
350' to vein with drift north 200' on vein. Shaft 90' deep. Idle. 
Mrs. E. M. Potts and A. L. Jeffrey, 527 Citizens National Bank Bldg., 
Los Angeles, CaL, owners. 

Cedarberg Mine. See our Reports XII, p. 106; XIII, p. 137. ! 
Located 2\ miles northwest of Greenwood. The formation is an] 
amphibolite schist. Vein 1^' wide, strikes N. and S. and dips 57° E.; 
Developments consist of a shaft sunk on 57° incline to a depth of) 
318', with levels at 100', 200', 300'. Idle. J. T. Smith, of Greenwood, 
owner. 

Central Mine. It is situated 3 miles south of El Dorado on the 
Mother Lode belt. There are three parallel veins cutting the Mariposa 
slates, which have a general strike of N. 10° E., dipping 60° E. De-ji 
velopments: tunnel 800' long. Idle. Seymour Hill, of El Dorado, 
owner. 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 283 

Chaparral Mine. It is 2 miles southwest of Kelsey. Vein 6' wide 
with a diabase footwall and slate hanging wall. Vein strikes NW. and 
SE.. dip 70° E. Shaft 200' deep. Tunnel 50' long. Idle. Philip 
Stingle, of Boston, and Margaret Kelly, of Kelsey, owners. 

China Hill Mines. See our Report XII, p. 106. It is a pocket mine 
situated 3 miles southwest of El Dorado. The vein occurs in a horn- 
blende porphyry, and has average width of 5'. Strike X. and S., dip 
70° E. Developments consist of crosscut tunnel 200' to vein with drifts 
north and south for a distance of 200', giving 130' of backs. There 
is a 5-stamp mill on property. Idle. China Hill Mining Co., "W. M. 
Langtry, president; J. E. Fox, secretary, Placerville, owner. 

Church Mine. See our Reports VIII. p. 191; X, p. 171: and XII. 
p. 106; also, Bull. 18, p. 92. This property is situated 2 miles south- 
east of El Dorado. Comprises two claims : Church and Golden Fleece, 
with 2300' on the lode. Three veins occur in the Mariposa slates. 
These veins have a general north and south course, and dip 74° E. 
The veins have an average width of 5' to 10'. The shaft has three 
compartments, and was sunk to a vertical depth of 1350'. The vein has 
been developed on 100', 200', 300', 350', 500', 600', 700', 850', 1000', 
and 1200' levels. The course of the Kidney vein was north and south 
as far as the 350' level, on which level the vein is 40' west of shaft. 
From the 350' to 500' level this vein dips 45° E. Below the 500' level 
the vein straightens up to 74° and has a course of XE.-SW. From 
the 500' level to surface the ore occurs in kidneys. The ore shoot 
from the 500' level to 1200' level is continuous, but below the 1200' 
level the shoot shortened up to a length of 25'. A crosscut was driven 
from the shaft 1400' east. On the 1200' level there is a crosscut from 
shaft to vein 625' east, from which point a winze was sunk on the 
vein to a depth of 150'. This vein shoAved 4' of quartz with a gouge 
on both walls, in the bottom of winze. The vein has been stoped out on 
ore shoots from 1200' level to surface. There is a double drum, water- 
power hoist on the property. Idle. Seymour Hill, of El Dorado, 
owner. 

Collins & Bacchi Mine. It is a prospect near Garden Valley, com- 
prising 126 acres of patented land. Idle. J. G. Hibbs, of Wawa, 
Pa., owner. 

Cousin Jack Mine. See our Reports XII, p. 107; XIII, p. 138. 
It is situated 5 miles southwest of Grizzly Flat. Vein 12" wide occurs 
in the slates, with a course N.-S., dip 60° W. Developments consist 
of 300' upper tunnel, 250' above a lower tunnel which has a length 
of 400'. Idle. Mrs. M. Jeffrey, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Crown Point Mine. See our Report XII, p. 107. It is 2 miles 
southeast of Diamond Springs. Three veins occur in Mariposa slate 



284 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and strike N. 27° E., dip 72° E. These veins have an average width 
of 4'. Developments consist of a shaft 500' deep, sunk on an angle of 
72°, and a tunnel 512' long. The mine has been developed from the 
shaft on the 100', 200', 300', and 400' levels. The tunnel intersects 
shaft at a depth of 300'. Idle. James Eichards, of Placerville, owner. 

Crusader Mine. Situated 3 miles south of Diamond Springs, on 
Mathenas Creek. Comprises the following claims: The Crusader, Alta, 
Gibraltar, with 3000' on the lode. The vein occurs in Mariposa slates, 
having an average width of 3' ; strike N. 20° E., dip 80° W. Shaft 
100' deep sunk on 70° incline. The shaft intersects vein 50' below 
collar. On the 100' level a crosscut was driven west to vein, a distance 
of 20', with a drift north 20' and south 75'. An ore shoot 100' long 
with an average width of 300' was developed. Idle. Seymour Hill, 
of El Dorado, owner. 

Crystal Mine. See our Report XII, p. 107. It is 5 miles south of 
Grizzly Flat. Idle. L. L. Alexander, of Omo ranch, owner. 

Crystal Mine. See our Report XII, pp. 107-108. It is 3J miles 
south of Shingle Springs. North and south vein with an amphibolite 
schist footwall and serpentine hanging wall. The vein has an average 
width of 3' and dips 50° E. Developments consist of incline shaft, 
250' deep, and a crosscut tunnel 350' long. Idle. G. Phelps, Paul 
Lewis, and Barrett Bros., of Shingle Springs, owners. 

Crystal Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 138. It is a prospect -J 
mile north of Cool. Idle. E. Terry, C. Ashley, and C. Schulz, of Cool, 
owners. 

Daily and Bishop Mine. See our Report XIII, pp. 138-139. It is 
2J miles south of Grizzly Flat, on Clear Creek. Idle. Bishop, et al., 
of Grizzly Flat, owners. 

Dalmatia Mine. See our Reports X, p. 174; XI, p. 201; and XII, 
p. 177. Situated ^ mile east of Kelsey ; on the porphyry seam belt, with 
an ore zone from 20' to 50' wide, which strikes N. 10° W., dip 25° E. 
Developments: incline shaft 200' deep, tunnel 1200' long; with an 
open cut 500' in length. There is a 10-stamp mill on property. Idle. 
William A. Bell, No. 5, "The Cliff," Black Rock, Brighton, England, 
owner. 

Darling (Chanced Upon) Mine. See our Report XI, p. 202. It is 
3 miles northeast of American Flat, in Slate Mountain Range. Vein 
having an average width of 2', occurs in Calaveras slate; strike NW. 
and SE., dip 78° E. Shaft 190' vertical. Idle. P. G. Gilpin, of 
San Francisco, owner. 

Davidson Mine. See our Report XII, p. 108. Situated 2 miles 
northwest of El Dorado, at an elevation of 1700'. The vein occurs in 
Calaveras slates west of Mother Lode belt. The course of vein is N. 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 285 

10° W., dip 74° E., and average width of 2'. An incline shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of 280', with drifts north and south on vein, on 
100' and 200' levels. Equipment on property consists of 80 h.p. boiler, 
2-drill Rix compressor, and 5-stamp mill. Idle. Central El Dorado 
Mining Co., Paris, France, owner. 

Eagle King Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 178 ; XII, pp. 108-109 ; 
and XIII, p. 139. It is located 1J miles northwest of Grizzly Flat, on 
ridge south of north fork of the Cosumnes River. The vein occurs on 
the contact between the granodiorite and mica schist. Strike N. 20° 
E., dip vertical. The quartz carries 3% sulphurets, with galena, zinc, 
and pyrite. Developments consist of a tunnel 1200' long and a winze 
from tunnel level 60' deep. There is a 10-stamp mill on property. 
Idle. E. W. Witmer and John Melton Estate, of Placerville, owners. 

Eagle Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 139. It is 2J miles north of 
Grizzly Flat. The vein occurs in granodiorite. Vertical shaft 240' 
deep and tunnel 780' long. Idle. Mrs. Kate Smith and S. Kendrick, 
of Grizzly Flat, owners. 

Edner Mine. See our Reports XII, p. 109 ; XIII, pp. 139-140. It is 
a prospect, 7 miles east of Fairplay. The vein occurs in granodiorite ; 
strike N. and S., dip 65° W. Tunnel 150' in length, shaft 50' deep. 
Idle. Charles Edner, of Omo Ranch, owner. 

Esperanza Mine (Seam Diggings). Situated | mile east of Green- 
wood, on the porphyry seam belt. Idle. Paul Rici, et al., of Green- 
wood, owners. 

Esperanza Mine. See our Reports X, p. 175; XII, p. 109. It is 
1 mile northwest of Garden Valley, on ridge west of Manhattan Creek. 
Vein 5' wide occurs in slate; strike N. 20° W., dip 60° E. Develop- 
ments consist of vertical shaft 600' deep and tunnel 260' in length. 
Ten-stamp mill on property. Idle. Garden Valley Mining Co., St. 
Johns Bldg., Chester, England, owner. 

Eureka Mine. See our Reports XI, p. 203; XII, p. 109. It is 
situated in the town of Georgetown. Three parallel veins occur in the 
Mariposa slates, which strike NE.-SW. and dip 60° E. The veins 
have an average width of 6' to 10'. There is an incline shaft 240' 
deep with 500' of drifts on veins. Idle. E. B. Lee, of New York 
City, owner. 

Falls Mine. It is 3 miles south of Diamond Springs, on Mathenas 
Creek. Crosscut tunnel 200' long cutting Mariposa slates. One man 
employed driving crosscut tunnel to intersect vein. Joseph Diechsler, 
of Diamond Springs, owner. 

Fisk Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 140. Situated 1| miles north 
of Placerville. Vein occurs between serpentine on west and black 



286 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

graphitic slate on east. Two tunnels have been driven on vein. Idle. 
J. H. Skinner, of Placerville, owner. 

French Mine (Seam Diggings). See our Report XII, p. 110. It 
is i mile west of Greenwood, on the porphyry seam belt. Idle. Cali- 
fornia Water and Mining Co., owner. 

French Hill Mine (Seam Diggings). See our Report XII, p. 110. 
It is 6 miles north of Greenwood, on porphyry seam belt. Shaft 100' 
deep, tunnel 100' long. Idle. A. J. Johnson and E. S. Hadley, of 
Sacramento, owners. 

Frog Pond and Marigold Cons. Mines. These properties are situ- 
ated -J mile north of Garden Valley. The owners are mining a series 
of flat seams which occur in porphyry, containing arsenical pyrites 
which are very rich in gold. Two men employed. S. W. Collins and 
C. K. Norris, of Garden Valley, owners. 

Garden Gate (McNulty) Mine. See our Report XII, p. 117. It is 
3 miles south of El Dorado. Shaft 400' deep, and crosscut tunnel 450' 
to vein, with winze from tunnel level 450' deep sunk on the vein. There 
is a 10-stamp mill on the property. Idle. J. B. Drury, of St. Louis, 
Mo., owner. 

Gardner Consolidated Mine. It is 1 mile north of Placerville, on 
ridge east of Big Canyon Creek. The vein has an average width of 
5', with a course of N. 40° E., dip 70° E. The formation is a Mariposa 
slate. Developments consist of crosscut tunnel 400' to vein with drifts 
north and south, for a distance of 500'. Idle. W. H. Myers, of 
Placerville, owner. 

Garfield Mine. See our Report XII, p. 110. It is 1 mile south of 
Volcanoville. Idle. Garfield Mining Co., owner. W. C. Green, of 
Georgetown, agent. 

Garfield & Excelsior Cons. Gold Mines. See our Report XII, p. 111. 
It is 1 mile northeast of Greenwood. Idle. F. H. Bilty, et al., of 
Greenwood, owner. 

Georgia Slide Mines (see Beattie & Parsons, Blue Rock, also Mul- 
vey Point and Pacific). 

German (Haeger) Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 142, and Bull. 19, 
p. 90. Situated 4 miles south of El Dorado. The vein occurs in Mari- 
posa slates, on the footwall of the Mother Lode. Strike N. 10° E., dip 
60° E. Developments were carried on through a shaft 500' deep sunk 
on an angle of 60°. There is a 10-stamp mill on the property. Idle. 
Seymour Hill, of El Dorado, owner. 

Gold Mountain and Monitor Mines. These properties are situated 
2 miles south of Nashville. Idle. Mrs. B. E. Carter and Mrs. L. S. 
Santbin, of Nashville, owners. 



i:r. DORADO COUNTY. - s * 

Golden State Mine. See our Reports XI, p. 204; XII, p. 111. It is 
4 miles northeast of Georgetown on the porphyry seam belt. Idle. 
Ida Barklage Brown, of Georgetown, owner. 

Good Luck Mine. It is 2 miles east of Diamond Springs. Vein 
18" wide occurs in the Mariposa slates. Strike N. 20° E., dip 45° E. 
Developments consist of shaft 250' deep, and two tunnels, one 200', the 
other 300' in length. There is a 5-stamp mill on property. Idle. Good 
Luck Mining Co., care Robert Mitchell, 7(j Kensington, London, Eng- 
land, owner. 

Gopher-Boulder Mine. See our Report VIII, p. 175, also Bull. 18, 
pp. 98-99. Situated \ mile north of Kelsey. The vein is 30' to 100' 
wide, but low grade. A shaft has been sunk on the vein 250' on an 
\ angle of 35 c and a large open cut has been made in a zone of quartz 
and greenstone schist. A crosscut tunnel has been driven 300' to 
Gopher vein, and over 500' of drifting and crosscutting has been done 
on this vein. There is a 20-stamp mill on the property. Idle. W. A. 
Bell. No. 5 "The Cliff." Black Oak. Brighton. England, owner. 

Grand Victory Mine. See our Reports VIII. p. 194 ; X. p. 178 ; and 
XII. p. 112. It is on Squaw Creek. 7 miles southeast of Placerville, at 
2100' elevation, and comprises 160 acres of mineral land on which are 
quartz locations. The ore body is a black quartzite. lying in slate of 
the Calaveras formation near the granodiorite contact, striking NW.- 
pE. and dipping vertically. Two ore bodies developed have widths 
of 64' and 125'. with slate intervening. Developments consist of a 
vertical shaft 500' deep and a tunnel 500' in length. There is a 
10-stamp mill on the property. Idle. Grand Victory Gold Mining 
Company, care John C. Wright, of Indianapolis, Ind., owners. 

Griffith Mine. See our Report XII. p. 112. It is ^ mile southeast 
\ of Diamond Springs. Comprises the following claims : Manzanita King, 

Manzanita Queen. Potosi, Collar, and 180 acres of mineral land. Two 
I shafts were sunk on the property. The north shaft has a vertical 

depth of 700' and the south shaft. 450'. The vein strikes N. 27° E., 

dip 72 : E. Average width of 5'. Idle. Jumper Gold Syndicate 

Mining Co.. Stent. Tuolumne Countv, owner. 



Guilford (Poverty Point) Mine. It is situated 2^ miles north of 
Placerville. on ridge south of the south fork of the American River. 
Comprises the following patented claims : Iowa. Hidden Treasure, Ban- 
tam. Baltic, Humming Bird, Poverty Point. Brighton, Bell and Fortuna, 
total holdings amounting to 500 acres, with 5000' on the lode. Two 
parallel veins occurring in the Mariposa slates have been developed 
en this property. These veins strike X. 20° TV., with a dip of 70° E. 
The east vein is 30' east of west vein. These veins have an average 



288 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

width of 5'. A diabase dike follows the vein and in places is highly 
siliceous. Two ore shoots have been developed, 200' and 400' in 
length, with an average width of 5'. The property has been developed 
through four tunnels : Iowa Tunnel, 500' ; Baltic Tunnel, 1500' ; Baltic 
No. 2 Tunnel, 600' ; Poverty Point Tunnel, 700'. The ore is free mill- 
ing with 3% pyrite. Compressor and mill are run by water-power, the 
water being obtained from the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Power 
Company ditch under a head of 560' at mill. 

Mill : 9"xl5" Blake Crusher, 15 stamps weighing 850 lbs. per stamp, 
dropping 95 per minute, with 6" drop, crushing 3 tons per stamp 
through 20-mesh screen. The pulp from batteries after flowing over 
amalgamating plates, flows to three Wilfrey tables and two 4-foot Frue 
vanners. An extraction of 85% is made in mill, with a loss of 20^ per 
ton in tailings. Concentrates have a value of $80.00 per ton. Twenty- 
five men are employed. Guilford Gold Mining Co., Placerville, owner. 
A. Baring-Gould, president and general manager; E. W. Witmer, sec- 
retary; William Christian, superintendent. 

Grouse Gulch Mine. See our Report XII, p. 113. It is \\ miles 
west of Grizzly Flat. Idle. Mrs. K. Smith, of Grizzly Flat, and I. W. 
Smart, of Placerville, owners. 

Hillside Group of Mines. These properties are situated 4 miles 
south of El Dorado, comprising : Hillside No. 1, Hillside No. 2, Hillside 
No. 3, Hillside No. 4, Hillside No. 5, Hillside Extension, Tasmania, 
Chihuahua, O'Campo, Oro Blanco, Santa Fe and Bismark, a total 
holding of 240 acres with 7500' on the lode. Series of parallel veins 
occurring in the Mariposa slates, with a general strike of N. 20° E., dip 
70° E. Developments : crosscut tunnel 500' long and a lower tunnel 
with a length of 200'. There is a 5-stamp mill on the property. Two 
men are employed driving lower tunnel. Hillside Mining Co., care 
E. E. Bender, 64 Fremont st., San Francisco, owner; W. E. Blackmer, 
of El Dorado, superintendent. 

Idaho Mine. It is 3 miles south of El Dorado. Idle. Sidney 
Pringle, of San Francisco, owner. 

Ida Livingston. It is a mile north of Kelsey. Idle. A. W. Craig 
et al., of San Francisco, owners. 

Independence Mine. It is a pocket mine, 2 miles southwest of 
El Dorado. Idle. Independence Quartz Mining Co., 806 19th st., 
Des Moines, Iowa, owner. 

Inez Central Mine. See our Reports XI, p. 171, and XII, p. 114. 
Situated 3 miles east of Nashville. Idle. S. H. Maginess, of Placer- 
ville, owner. 

Isbell & Blue Lead Group. These properties are located 1 mile 
south of Garden Valley. On Isbell claim there is a shaft 250' deep; 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 289 

on Blue Lead the shaft has a depth of 150'. Idle. M. P. Bennett, of 
Placerville, owner. 

Ivanhoe Mine. See our Report X, pp. 175-176. It is J mile north- 
west of Garden Valley. Idle. H. Warren Russell, of Garden Valley, 
owner. 

Josephine Mine. See our Report VIII, pp. 165-166. It is | mile 
east of Volcanoville. Development consists of five tunnels on the vein. 
Idle. J. A. Shields, of San Francisco, owner. 

Kelsey Gold and Silver Mine. Situated 1 mile south of Kelsey, on 
ridge northwest of south fork of the American River. Lower tunnel 
150', upper tunnel 400' in length. Idle. Mother Lode Mines Com- 
pany of California, 32 Hancock St., Jersey City, N. J., owner. 

Lady Blanche Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 147. It is 2\ miles 
east of Fairplay. Idle. J. E. Stratton, of San Francisco, Cal., owner. 

Lady Emma Mine. See our Report, XIII, pp. 147-148. It is 1 
mile east of Kelsey. Idle. Charles E. Hand, of Placerville, owner. 

Larkin Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 148, and Bull. 18, p. 93. 
Situated \ mile east of Diamond Springs. The great dolomitic vein 
passes through this property, in addition to which there are several 
other less prominent veins. It is upon one of the latter, which occurs 
in the hanging-wall slates of the dolomitic vein, that past operations 
have been conducted. This vein is accompanied by a small dike 
of diabase. The dolomitic veins is 80' wide, and is altered to a talc 
schist. West vein has a course of N. 20° E., dip 74° E., while east 
vein has a vertical dip. The shaft has been sunk to a vertical depth 
of 800'. Levels were driven north and south on the vein at 100' 
intervals. Over 4000' of drifts have been run in this mine. There is 
a 10-stamp mill on the property. Idle. Larkin Mining Co., San Fran- 
cisco, owner. 

Last Chance (Sugar Loaf) Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 158. 
It is 2 miles east of Nashville. Comprises 1427 acres of mineral ground. 
A shaft has been sunk on the Last Chance vein to a depth of 600' on 
70° incline, also a shaft 260' deep on the Monarch vein. There is a 
10-stamp mill on the property. Idle. Dr. A. C. Smith, of Portland, 
Oregon, owner. 

Lincoln Mine (Seam Diggings). See our Report XIII, p. 148. 
It is \\ miles northwest of Georgetown, on the porphyry seam belt. 
Idle. M. D. Haskins, of Georgetown, owner. 

Log Cabin (Darrow) Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 149. It is 5 
miles southeast of Shingle Springs. Tunnel 600' long. Idle. A. 
Darrow, of Shingle Springs, owner. 



19-46904 



290 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Lone Jack Mine. See our Report X, p. 176. It is 1 mile north- 
west of Garden Valley. Idle. Campbell & Metson, of San Francisco, 
owners. 

Lone Star Mine. See our Report XII, p. 116. It is 4 miles south- 
east of El Dorado. Comprises the following claims: Lone Star, "Wild 
Rose, Old Abe, South Star, and Recall. A series of parallel veins in 
Mariposa slates, which have been developed by a crosscut tunnel 500' 
long. Idle. S. H. Maginess, of Placerville, owner. 

Lone Star Mine. See our Report XII, p. 116. It is situated 1 
mile south of Nashville. Vein 7' wide occurring in Mariposa slates; 
strike N. 10° E., dip 60° E. A shaft has been sunk on this vein to a 
depth of 100'. Idle. J. C. Heald, of Nashville, owner. 

Lookout Mine. Worked as a pocket mine, and is 3 miles south 
of El Dorado. Idle. Seymour Hill and Grant Hill, of El Dorado, 
owners. 

Lookout and K. K. Mines. See our Report XIII, p. 149. They 
are in Quartz Cafion, 1 mile south of Volcanoville, and comprise two 
claims. Idle. Wilson Cary, of Georgetown, owner. 

Loveless Mine. It is a pocket mine, situated 4 miles south of 
El Dorado. Vein of quartz 12" wide occurs in a casing of slate in i 
diabase, and strikes north and south, dip 47° W. Developments con- 
sist of a crosscut tunnel 160' to vein, with drift north and south on the 
vein for a distance of 300' ; also a shaft 90' deep. Two men employed. 
L. T. Loveless & Bros., of El Dorado, owners. 

Lucinda Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 149. It is 3 miles west of 
Grizzly Flat. East and west vein in granodiorite. Idle. Mrs. Nail 
and D. Gallagher, of Grizzly Flat, owners. 

Lucky Jack Mine. It is 2 miles south of El Dorado. There is a 
series of blanket veins which strike north and south in granodiorite. 
Work is carried on through a series of shallow shafts. Two-stamp mill I 
on the property. Two men employed. Thomas Murphy, of Logtown, 
owner. 

Lucky Marion Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 150. It is | mile 
west of Greenwood. Idle. Lucky Marion Mining Co., of St. Lonis, 
Mo., owner. 

Mameluke Hill Mine (Seam Diggings). It is 1 mile north of 
Georgetown, on ridge south of Canon Creek. Idle. Mameluke Hill 
Mining Co., Ira Vaughn & Son, 36th St. and San Pablo Ave., Oakland, 
Cal., owners. 

Mammoth Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 150. It is a prospect, 
located 8 miles northwest of Shingle Springs. There is a 10-stamp 
mill on the property. Idle. Jasper Jurgens, of Lotus, owner. 






EL DORADO COUNTY. 291 

Manhattan-California Mine. Situated 2 miles northeast of Nash- 
ville. Comprises 77 acres of mineral land. Shaft 400' deep. Idle. 
Manhattan-California Mining Co., W. T. Hyatt, of Sacramento, owner. 

Marguerite Mine. It is situated 4 miles south of Placerville. 
Three parallel veins have been developed in slate of Mariposa forma- 
tion, which strike north and south and dip 70° E. Developments con- 
sist of a vertical shaft 300' deep, and a tunnel 200' in length, with 
1200' of drifts on veins. Equipment : 80 h.p. boiler, single drum hoist 
and Rix compressor. Idle. Marguerite Mining Company, care W. W. 
Tenney, secretary, 510 Battery St., San Francisco, owner. 

Mathenas Creek (Schneider) Mine. See our Keports VIII, p. 190; 
XI, p. 172; XII, p. 117. It is 2 miles south of Diamond Springs. 
Idle. Mathenas Quartz Mines and South Co., owner. 

Melton Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 177; XII, p. 117. It is 2J 
miles northeast of Grizzly Flat, on ridge south of the north fork of 
the Cosumnes River. Idle. Isaac P. Lampson, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
3wner. 

Miller (Ribbon Rock) Mine. It is a prospect, 2J miles south of 
Placerville. Idle. Moses Miller, of Placerville, owner. 

Montana Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 151. It is 1 mile south 
of Volcanoville, on ridge north of Otter Creek. Idle. J. Helmers et al., 
of Georgetown, owners. 

Montezuma Mine. See our Reports XII, p. 118; XIII, p. 151; 
also Bull. 18, p. 91. Situated \ mile north of Nashville, on slope of 
ridge east of the north fork of the Cosumnes River. Comprises the 
following claims: Mariposa, Montezuma, East Montezuma and North 
Extension of the Montezuma. The vein occurs in the slates of the 
Mariposa formation. The vein has an average width of 7', with a 
course of N. 20° E., dipping 57° E. A two-compartment 4'xlO' shaft 
has been sunk on an angle of 57° to a depth of 440'. Three levels have 
been driven on vein. On 160' level there is a drift 200' S. and 90' N. 
On 360' level drift N. 330' and S. 400'. There is a drift from the 
Havilah shaft on the 1200' level, 1285' N. into the Montezuma claim. 
Equipment: Giant compressor, single drum hoist, driven by 55 h.p 
motor, and a 10-stamp mill. This property is under bond to the Cali- 
fornia Exploration Co., who propose to sink the 2-compartment shaft 
to the the 1200' level of Havilah shaft. Electric power is furnished 
by AVestern States Power Co. Water is obtained from the north fork 
cf the Cosumnes River by a ditch 1^ miles long, capacity of 1800 miner's 
inches. Idle. J. C. Heald, of Nashville, owner. 

Morey Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 178 ; X, p. 178 ; and XII, 
p. 118. It is 1 mile west of Grizzly Flat. Idle. E. R. Morey, of 
Grizzly Flat, owner. 



292 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 






Mount Hope Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 178. It is 3 miles 
north of Grizzly Flat, on ridge north of north fork of the Cosumnes 
River. Idle. Sierran Mining Co., care Judge Wildman, of Norwalk, 
Ohio, owner. 

Mount Pleasant Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 178; X, p. 178; 
and XII, p. 118. This property is situated | mile west of Grizzly 
Flat. Controls 259 acres of mineral ground, which gives 5156' on 
the lode. The mine is on the east belt, which is well defined by a 
succession of quartz veins. The belt at the Mount Pleasant is 300': 
wide, dips vertical, strikes N. 13° E. The three largest veins strike 
diagonally through the lode, at small angles of from 2° to 10° from- 
the NE.-SW. strike of the lode. These quartz veins are in the grano-) 
diorite or along its contact with the mica schist and in the micaii 
schist northerly from the contact line of the formation. The quartz 
veins in the mica schist, east of the granodiorite formation, at the 
southern end of the property have the same strike as the lode. The 
three principal quartz veins are very nearly parallel in strike, but do 
not overlap. Each has one or more spurs and lesser parallel veins,- 
and is thus, itself, the center of a small vein system. The quartz bodies 
of the veins are lenticular masses. The ore is concentrated in shoots.- 
The quartz contains free gold, galena, zinc blende and pyrite. The 
three principal veins are called the Earl, McKane, and Big Vein. A 
shaft has been sunk to a depth of 1065' on the vein, with levels driven 
on the vein at 100' intervals. Workings amount to over 9000' of drifts. 
On 1000' level there is a drift 750' north. This level is being continued 
north to intersect ore shoots that have been stoped out from 700' level 
to surface. Equipment consists of hoist, compressor, and 10-stamp] 
mill. Twelve men are employed. Mount Pleasant Cons. Gold Mining! 
Co., Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco, owner; Larry King,, 
superintendent. 

Mulvey Point and Pacific Mines (Seam Diggings). These proper- 
ties are situated 1 mile north of Georgetown, on porphyry seam beltJ 
Idle. Ida Barklage Brown et al., of Georgetown, owners. 

Nashville (Havilah) Mine. See our Reports XII, p. 119, and XTII, 
p. 151. Situated at Nashville on the north fork of the Cosumnes River; 
Comprises the following claims: Havilah, East Havilah, Northeast 
Nashville. A vein from 5' to 20' wide occurs in the slates of the Mari- 
posa formation. Strike N. 10° E., dip 60° E. A shaft has been sunt 
on this vein to a depth of 1200' with levels at 100' intervals. The 1200' 
level was driven north 1500' into the Montezuma claim, which joins this 
property on the north. The ore is free milling with 2% pyrite. This 
property is under bond to the California Exploration Co., of London, 



I EL DORADO COUNTY. 293 

England, who plan to work it in conjunction with the Montezuma Mine. 
Jdle. Joshua Hendy Machine Works, San Francisco, owner. 

New El Dorado Mine. See our Report XII, p. 119. It is 2\ miles 
northeast of Greenwood. Idle. W. N. Martin, of Oakland, owner. 

New Garibaldi Mine (Seam Diggings). See our Report XIII, 
p. 152. It is 2-J miles west of Greenwood on the porphyry seam belt. 
Idle. J. B. Hayes, of San Francisco, owner. 

Oak Mine. See our Report XII, p. 119. It is 5 miles southwest of 
Grizzly Flat. Idle. J. Ryan, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Ohio Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 152. It is 1 mile east of 
Greenwood. Idle. B. W. Katzenstein, of Sacramento, owner. 

Omo Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 152. Situated 8 miles east of 
Fairplay. Idle. G. W. Mock, of Omo ranch, owner. 

One to Sixteen and Vulture Mines. They are 1 mile north of 
Placerville. Idle. W. A. Craddock, of Placerville, owner. 

Oriflamme Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 189 ; XI, p. 172. It is 
3 miles east of Diamond Springs. Idle. S. H. Maginess, of Placerville, 
owner. 

Oro Fino (Big Canon) Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 174; XII, 
pp. 103, 479 ; and XIII, p. 133 ; also Bull. 18, p. 96. It is situated 5 
miles south of Diamond Springs, in Big Canon. The vein, which is 40' 
wide, consists of a dike-like mass of diabase breccia which has become 
silicified and impregnated with finely disseminated auriferous pyrite. 
Many small seams of calcite traverse the rock in every direction. Both 
hanging and footwall are diabase, but little altered even in close 
proximity to the vein. A vertical shaft has been sunk to a depth 
of 200' where it turns to an incline of 40°, and continues to a depth of 
540' on the vein. The dike strikes north and south and dips 40° E. 
There are levels on the vein at 100', 200', 300', 500', and 700'. The 
ore has been stoped out from the 500' level to surface for about 200' 
| north and south of the shaft. The values in the ore are in the sulphides, 
which contain about 3% auriferous pyrite. The present work is con- 
fined to development operations on the 700' level. A 5-drill Rix com- 
pressor driven by water power furnishes air for machine drills and 
single drum hoist. The property is under option to the Tredwood 
Syndicate, Ltd., of London, England. Twelve men are employed. Hay- 
ward, Hobart and Lane Estates, Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Fran- 
cisco, owner. C. H. James, general manager; C. C. Marsh, superin- 
tendent. 

Pacific Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 183; X, p. 173 and XII, 
p. 120. This mine which is situated at Placerville, comprises the follow- 
ing claims: Epley, Crescent, Webber, Farraday, Henrietta, Albright 



294 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Mill Site, Webber Placer Mine, Excelsior Placer Mine, Albright ( 
Placer Mine, Oregon Hill, Pacific, Maryland, Rose, North Atlantic, 
Climax, Chester, Ida Mitchell, Keegan, Davey, Young, Harmon, i 
Old Harmon, Franklin Placer Mine, Gross, Van Hooker, Eureka, 
Brown Bear, White Bear, Cinnamon Bear, Grizzly Bear, Spanish 
Hill Placer, and Texas Hill Placer mines. The quartz mines extend 
a mile south of the American River to Webber Creek, a distance 
of three miles. The hydraulic and placer mines are located in Chili | 
Ravine and on Spanish and Nigger Hills. The total holdings of the 
company amount to 1400 acres, with 4^ miles along the lode. The veins 
run parallel to the Mariposa slates, or cut them at an acute angle. The ] 
Pacific vein occurs in a zone of ankerite and mariposite which zone is ! 
300' wide on the 700' level. By a series of diamond drill holes this 
ankerite zone was shown to have narrowed up to a width of 125' on the I 
2000' level. The Pacific vein strikes N. 25° W., dipping 70° E., and is \ 
from 4' to 12' wide. This vein was lost on the 700' level and appears 
to have been faulted to the east between the 300' and 400' levels. The 
ore is free milling with 2% pyrite. During the past year an extensive 
prospecting campaign was prosecuted with diamond drills to determine I 
if the ore bodies continued in depth, but the results were unsatisfactory, j 
Over 8000' of diamond drill holes were driven from the winze at the 
1700' and 2000' stations. At the 1700' station, 3 holes were driven at 
different points, from 600' to 700' in length. On the 2000' station 8 
holes were driven in a fan shape from 300' to 1200' in length, but 
results obtained were not very encouraging; therefore this method of 
prospecting was abandoned. A vertical shaft has been sunk to a depth 
of 700'. About 200' north of this shaft a winze was sunk on a 70° 
incline to a depth of 1365'. The shaft was sunk in the black slate foot- 
wall to the 700' level, cutting the Pacific vein on the 300' level. The 
winze from 700' level is in black slate footwall from 1600' to 2000' 
levels. An extensive amount of drifting has been done on 100', 200', 
300', 400', 500', 600', and 700' levels. Drifts: on 300' level, N. 200' j 
on 500' level, N. 1000', and S. 1500' ; on 700' level, N. 1200' and S. 250'j 
All the above work was on the Pacific vein. On the 700' level about 
220' north of crosscut from shaft to Pacific vein a crosscut has been 
driven 85' east, which encountered a talc ore body, 75' long and 7' wide. 
This crosscut was continued 130' into black slate hanging wall, but na 
ore was encountered. All the present work is confined to stoping opera- 
tions on the talc ore body. 

Mine equipment: Double drum flat rope hoist driven by waterpower, 
22i"xl4"xl8" Laidlaw-Dunn Gordon compressor. A 5-stamp mill 
crushes 3 tons per stamp through 30-mesh screen; concentrates are 
saved on a No. 4 Deister table. Water for power is obtained from 
the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Power Co. ditch. The Pacific 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 



295 



mine is at present under lease to P. D. Burdt and J. W. Santa, 
of Placerville, who are milling the ore from dumps and from the 
talc ore body developed on the 700' level. Eight men are employed. 
Placerville Gold Mining Co., Placerville, owner; president, Alexander 
Baring; secretary and general manager, A. E. May. 




Pacific Mine, Placerville, El Dorado County. A view of hoist and 5-stamp mill. 

Philadelphia and Gold Note Mines. See our Reports XII, p. 120; 
XIII, p. 153. They are situated 8 miles south of Grizzly Flat, compris- 
ing the following claims : Gold Note, Philadelphia, "White Hall, Woolara. 
There is a 10-stamp mill on the property. Idle. J. B. Polk and Parker 
Bros., of Omo ranch, owners. 

Pocahontas Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 154. It is 4 miles 
south of El Dorado. All machinery has been dismantled and sold. 
Shafts are caved. Idle. Quincy I. Chase, of San Francisco, owner. 

Polar Bear, White Bear and Empire Group. They are situated 

3 miles south of Grizzly Flat. Idle. J. Q. Wrenn, G. H. Werntz et al., 
of Placerville, owners. 

Pyramid Mine. See our Reports XII, p. 121 ; XIII, p. 154. It is 

4 miles northwest of Shingle Springs. Idle. Pyramid Mining Co., 
Auzerais Bldg., San Jose, owner. 

Rainbow Mine. It is a prospect, lj miles west of Garden Valley. 
Idle. J. Ramsdell and C. M. Root, of Garden Valley, owners. 

Red Hill Mine. Situated 2 miles northwest of Garden Valley. A 
vein 10' wide occurs in the Mariposa slates; strike N. 20° W., dip 70° 
E. An incline shaft has been sunk on the vein to a depth of 100' and 
vein drifted on 350'. The ore is free milling with 2% pyrite. Five 



296 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

men are employed on development work. There is a 2-stamp mill on 
the property. Red Hill Mining Co., St. Louis, Mo., owner; W. Gill, 
superintendent. 

Red Wing Mine. Situated 3 miles south of El Dorado. A vein 
5' wide occurs in the slates of the Mariposa formation; strike N. 10° 
E., dip 70° E. The vein has been developed by two tunnels, an upper 
125' long, and a lower crosscut tunnel 525' in length; at a point 
450' from portal of tunnel a vein 6' in width was cut, which is in the 
form of a stringer lead.- A drift is being driven north of this vein. 
This tunnel gives 260' of backs on the vein. Five men are employed. 
W. H. James, J. E. Lawyer, P. J. Loveless, of El Dorado, owners. The 
property is under bond to W. F. Deaner, of San Francisco, J. I. Noce, 
superintendent. 

Richmond Mine. It is 8 miles east of Fairplay. There is an 8- 
stamp mill on property. Idle. E. W. Witmer, of Placerville, owner. 

Rising Sun (Potter) Mine. It is 1 mile northwest of Kelsey. Idle. 
R. Filippini Estate and A. Forni, of Placerville, owners. 

River Hill (Gentle Annie) Mine. (For Gentle Annie Mine see our 
Reports X, p. 177, and XII, p. 111. For River Hill Mine, see our 
Report XIII, p. 141.) The property is situated 1| miles north of 
Placerville. Comprises the following claims : Belle, Logan, Jackson, 
Lyon, Bona Sate, Gentle Annie, Hall, Surplus, Lucky Star, Sobrante, 
Independent, Keystone, New Era, also mineral rights to 160 acres of 
adjoining land. The vein strikes N. 25° W., dipping 72° E. It has 
an average width of 5' occurring in the slates of Mariposa formation. 
A shaft has been sunk on the vein to a depth of 1550'. The Gentle 
Annie shaft has a depth of 600' on the vein. All machinery has been 
dismantled and sold. Both shafts are caved. Idle. G. M. Clark, 
of Stockton, owner. 

Rosecranz Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 171; X, p. 176. It is 
1 mile northwest of Garden Valley. Idle. H. S. Morey, Richard 
Rowland and R. Filippini, of Placerville, owners. 

Ryan Mine. It is 1 mile south of Kelsey. Idle. M. B. Ryan of 
Placerville, and Barrett Bros., of Shingle Springs, owners. 

Selby Mine. It is 4 miles south of Placerville. A vertical shaft 
has been sunk to a depth of 240'. Idle. Warren Larkin, of Placer- 
ville, owner. 

Shan Tsz Gold (Shaw) Mines. See our Reports VIII, p. 193; X, 
p. 181 ; and XII, pp. 114 and 481. Situated 2 miles northwest of 
El Dorado, on ridge north of Dry Creek. The ore body is in the form 
of a quartz schist dike 100' wide, occurring in contact with meta- 
morphics and slates of the Calaveras formation. The general strike 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 



297 



>f this dike is N. 10° E., and dips 85° E. The ore is free milling with 3% 
>yrite. Rich pockets of free gold are found on contact of dike with the 
surrounding formation. Developments consist of shaft 135' deep and 
tunnel 400' long crosscutting the dike. Drifts have been driven N. 
200' and S. 300' on the footwall contact. The tunnel gives 150' of 
backs and the ore is being mined from open cut above tunnel level. 
Ore is trammed from tunnel to mill and dumped over 2" grizzly, 
the coarse material being crushed through a Feldsmiths No. 3 gyratory 
crusher. From mill bins the ore is fed to three 10-foot Lane mills, 
each driven by a 25 h.p. motor. Capacity of mill is 150 tons per 
24 hours. Twenty-five men are employed. H. DeC. Richards, 621 
Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, owner ; Willis Lawrence, superintendent. 




Shaw Mine, El Dorado, El Dorado County, showing mill. 

Slager Mine. See our Report XII, p. 123. It is 4 miles north of 
Greenwood, on ridge south of middle fork of the American River. 
Idle. William Roush & Co., of Greenwood, owner. 

Sherman Mine. Situated 1 mile north of Placerville on ridge south 
of Big Canon Creek. Comprises 70 acres of mineral ground. The 
vein occurs in the slates of the Mariposa formation, and has an average 
width of 5'; strike N. 20° W., dip 74° E. A shaft has been sunk on 
an angle of 74° to a depth of 750', and 1250' north of the shaft on 
750' level a winze has been sunk on the vein to a depth of 350'. On 
the 100' level, drift N. 100' and S. 150'; on 200' level, drift N. 700' 
and S. 100' ; on 300' level, drift N. 700' and S. 150' ; on 400' level, 
drift N. 1400'; on 500' level, drift N. 900' and S. 150'. Two pay 
shoots were developed which had a length of 60'. These shoots had a 



298 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



trend 38° north. The ore is free milling with 3% pyrite. The 
equipment on property consists of: double drum hoist, and Giant air 
compressor driven by 125 h.p. motor. Mill: two 10" x 20" Blake 
crushers, 10 stamps weighing 1000 lbs. per stamp, 3 Wilfrey tables 
and two Frue vanners. Electric power was secured from the Western 
States Power Company. Idle. John Wright, of Indianapolis, Indiana, 
owner. G. M. Clark, of Placerville, agent. 




Sherman Mine, Placerville, El Dorado County. A view Of headframe. 

St. Clair Mine. It is 1 mile northwest of Kelsey. Idle. John 
Peters and Thomas Gregory, of Kelsey, owners. 

St. Lawrence Mine. See our Report XI, p. 202. Situated 2 miles 
northeast of Kelsey. Vein 6' wide occurs in the slates of the Mariposa 
formation; strike N. 10° W., dip 60° E. An incline shaft has been i 
sunk to depth of 900' with a winze from 900' level 200' deep. Idle. 
Mierson Banking Company, Placerville, owner. 

Starlight Mine. See our Report XII, p. 157. It is 2J miles south 
of El Dorado. Vertical shaft 500' deep. Idle. Starlight Mining Co., 
206 Sansome St., San Francisco, owner. 

Stillwagon (St. Lawrence) Mine. See our Reports X, p. 179; XII, 
p. 123. It is 7 miles east of Fairplay. Idle. S. A. Laine, of Omo 
ranch, owner. 

Stuckslager Mine. Sec our Reports VI, Part II, p. 43; XII, p. 124 J 
and XIII, p. 158. It is 1 mile south of Lotus. Idle. W. B. McKinney 
and C. II. Grube, of Lotus, owners. 

Sunday Mine. It is 1J miles northwest of Grizzly Flat. Tunnel 
600' long. Shaft 110' deep. Idle. E. W. Witmer and John Melton 1 
Estate, Placerville, owners. 



I 






EL DORADO COUNTY. 299 

Sunrise Mine. It is 1 mile northeast of Kelsey. Idle. Mrs. Cora 
Grady, 311 N. 3d St., Victor, Colo., owner. 

Superior (Tin Cup) Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 187; X, p. 172. 
There is a shaft on the property, 400' deep, sunk on an angle of 74°. 
Equipment : 60 h.p. boiler, single drum steam hoist. Idle. W. H. 
Martin, of San Francisco, owner. 

Taylor (Idlewild) Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 168; X. p. 176; 
XI, p. 205 ; XII, p. 113 ; and XIII, p. 145. Situated 1\ miles northwest 
of Garden Valley. Vein strikes northwest and southeast, dip 50° NE. 
and occurs on contact of a narrow belt of amphibolite schist and slate. 
Shaft 1200' deep, sunk on an angle of 50°. Idle. W. E. Deane, of 
San Francisco, owner. 

Treat Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 178 ; XIII, p. 179. It is 2J 
miles north of Grizzly Flat. Idle. Mrs. John D. Treat, of Oakland, 
owner. 

Trench (Yellow Jacket) Mine. See our Report XII, p. 125. It is 
1 mile south of Voleanoville. Idle. Mrs. Kate F. Lewis, Ithaca, N. Y., 
owner. 

Tullis (Diamond) Mine. See our Report XIII, p. 159. Situated 2\ 
miles south of Diamond Springs. Idle. Tullis Mining Co., San 
Leandro, Alameda County, owner. 

Union (Springfield) Mine. See our Report VI, Part II, p. 43. 
It is situated 3 miles south from El Dorado, at 1180' elevation, and 
comprises the following claims: Honey Ranch, Alabama, Union 
Clement Placer, Lot 4. Location giving 1300' on lode; five veins 
occurring in the slates of the Mariposa formation have been proven on 
this property. Their general strike is N. 16° E., dip from 60° to 79° 
E., with an average width of 5' to 10'. Four ore shoots were developed 
from 100' to 250' in length. The Springfield shaft has been sunk to a 
vertical depth of 1640'. This shaft is located 320' east of vein, the 
hanging wall vein crossing the shaft at 1200' level, while the west gouge 
vein intersected the shaft about 60' above 1600' level, and lies about 
15' east of shaft. Over 21,000' of crosscuts and drifts have been run 
on this property from the Springfield and Clement shafts, the latter 
shaft being 900' deep, sunk on an angle of 70°. The production from 
this mine is reported to have been in the neighborhood of $5,000,000. 
The ore is free milling with 1^% to 2% pyrite. The ore shoots 
developed have been stoped out from the 1300' level to the surface. 
There is a 20-stamp mill on the property. Twenty men employed on 
development under supervision of H. H. Lang, consulting engineer. 
John A. Finch Estate, owners. Chas. Hussey, agent, 507 Empire 
State Bldg., Spokane, Washington. 



300 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Vandergreft Mine. It is 3 miles north of Nashville. Incline shaft 
250' deep. Tunnel 100' long. There is a 10-stamp mill on the prop- 
erty. Idle. J. P. Vandergreft, of Placerville, owner. 

Vann Mine. See onr Report XIII, p. 161. It is J mile north of 
Georgetown. Idle. W. L. Dickerson, of San Francisco, owner. 

Webster Mine. See our Report XII, p. 126. It is 2-J miles north- 
east of Georgetown. Idle. D. C. Webster, of Georgetown, owner. 

Welch Gold Mines. See our Report XII, p. 126. Located \ mile 
northeast of Greenwood. Idle. Henry Welch Mining Co., San Fran- 
cisco, owner. 

Wilhelm and Last Chance Mines. They are 8 miles southeast of 
Auburn, Placer County, on ridge east of north fork of the American 
River. Idle. G. E. Lukens, of Auburn, owner. 

Woodland Mine. This property is located 3 miles east of El 
Dorado, on Mathenas Creek. Vein 12" wide occurs in the slates of the 
Mariposa formation. Strike N. and S., dip 80° E. The ore is free 
milling with 2% pyrite. A vertical shaft has been sunk to a depth 
of 200' and levels driven on the vein at 100' and 150' from collar of 
shaft. Mill : 5 stamps, weighing 1000 lbs. per stamp ; one Wilfrey 
table. The mill is driven by 25 h.p. gasoline engine. Six men are 
employed. Woodland Mining Co., Sacramento, owner; C. Willhite, 
president; F. Smith, secretary; Edward Hollinsworth, superintendent. 

Woodside Mine. Situated at Georgetown, comprising the Iowa, | 
Brooklyn, Eureka, and Woodside mines. Vein 3' wide in slate, strikes 
N.-S. and dips 60° E. A shaft has been sunk on vein to a depth 
of 210'. Idle. Woodside-Eureka Mining Co., Bacon Bldg., Oakland, 
owner. 

Zentgraf Mine. See our Reports VIII, p. 200; XIII, pp. 161-162. 
Situated 8 miles east of Newcastle, Placer County, on the north fork 
of the American River. Idle. P. C. Drescher, of Sacramento, owner. 

GOLD MINES— PLACER. 

Since our last report very little activity has been shown in mining 
the auriferous gravel deposits of the ancient river channels that are 
located in the vicinity of Placerville, Georgetown, Volcanoville, Grizzly 
Flat, Henry Diggings, Omo House and Indian Diggings. These 
gravel deposits have been extensively mined in the past and have a 
large record for production of gold. 

Alveoro Gravel Mine (Drift). Situated 3 miles east of Placerville. 
The channel has a north and south course. The gravel is partially 
cemented and capped by 300' of andesitic tuff. The channel is 100' 
to 300' wide, with a depth of gravel from 6' to 30'. A tunnel 4000' 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 301 

long has been driven on main channel; there are two incline shafts 
from 400' to 500' deep. Idle. S. H. Maginess, of Placerville, owner. 
Armstrong & Roberts Gravel Mine (Drift). See our Report XII, 
p. 101. Situated 3| miles south of Grizzly Flat. Idle. W. T. 
Armstrong, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Badger Hill Placer Mine (Drift). Situated 7 miles northeast of 
Placerville. Idle. George Riever, of Placerville, owner. 

Benfelt Placer Mine (Drift). See our Reports VIII, p. 197; XII, 
p. 179. It is 2 miles east of Placerville. Idle. J. D. Benfelt, of 
Smith's Flat, owner. 

Blacklock Mine (Drift and Hydraulic). See our Report XIII, 
p. 134. Situated 1| miles northeast of Placerville. Idle. S. H. 
Maginess, of Placerville, owner. 

Buckeye Hill Gold Mine (Drift). See our Report XII, p. 105. 
It is 9 miles northeast of Georgetown. Idle. Ida Barklage Brown 
et al., of Georgetown, owners. 

California Mohawk Mining Co's. Mines (Drift). They are located 
at Fairplay, comprising the following placer claims : Bean Hill, Jolly 
Annie, Fairplay, Betty Wolly, River Hill, Blue Stocking, with three 
miles along the channel. Idle. California Mohawk Mining Co., 206 
J St., Sacramento, owners. D. A. Disbrow, of Sacramento, agent. 

Canon Creek Fluming Company's Mine (Drift). See our Reports 
XII, p. 105; XIII, p. 142. It is 3 miles northwest of Georgetown. 
Comprises 300 acres of patented mineral land, and 4 miles of the bed 
of Canon Creek below Georgia Slide. Idle. Gold Bug Mining Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio, owner. 

Channel Bend Mine (Drift). See our Report XIII, p. 137. Situ- 
ated 10 miles northeast of Georgetown, on the middle fork of the 
American River. Idle. Channel Bend Mining Co., San Francisco, 
owner. 

Confederate Mine (Drift). See our Report XIII, p. 138. It is 2J 
miles southwest of Fairplay, at 2725' elevation, and comprises 40 acres. 
Idle. D. M. Dunn and A. F. Gillespie, Fairplay, owners. 

Dividend Placer Mine (Ground Sluicing). See our Report XIII, 
p. 108. It is 2J miles west of Shingle Springs. Idle. II. D. C. 
Hodgkins, of Shingle Springs, owner. 

Franklin Placer Mine (Drift). See our Report XIII, pp. 140-141. 
It is 2\ miles east of Placerville, on the Coon Hollow Channel. Idle. 
Dr. W. W. Stone and J. Q. Wrenn, of Placerville, owners. 

Gignac Mine (Drift). Situated on Texas Hill, near the town of 
Placerville. Idle. Dr. "W. W. Stone, of Placerville, owner. 



302 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Giltedge Mine (Drift). See our Report XIII, p. 142. It is 3 miles 
south of Fairplay, on ridge south of Cedar Creek. Idle. Norton & 
Amsden, of Omo, owners. 

Gold Channel Mine (Drift). See our Report XII, pp. 114, 115, 117, 
118. Situated 8 miles northeast of Georgetown, comprising the fol- 
lowing placer claims : Kentucky Flat, Norris Consolidated Placer Mine, 
Mississippi, Kenna and Morgan. Total holdings, 2134 acres. Idle. 
Gold Channel Mining Co., care W. H. Foss, 159 Lincoln St., Boston, 
Mass., owner. 

Gray Eagle Cliff Mine (Drift). See our Report XII, p. 112. Situ- 
ated near Volcanoville, comprising 100 acres of mineral land. Idle. 
D. C. Webster, of Georgetown, owner. 

Grizzly Flat Placer Mine (Drift). See our Report XIII, p. 144. 
Located at Grizzly Flat. Idle. L. Gilson, of London, England, owner. 

Hayward (Indian Diggings) Mine (Drift). See our Report XIII, 
p. 145. Situated at Indian Diggings, and comprises 358 acres. Idle. 
Hayward, Hobart & Lane Estates, Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco, Cal., owner. 

Horseshoe Flat Mine (Drift). Situated 2^ miles east of Newtown, 
comprising the following claims : Maginess, Eureka, Laura Hill, Horse- 
shoe. Total holdings of 400 acres. Idle. S. H. Maginess, of Placer- 
ville, owner. 

Kumfa Placer Mine (Drift). It is 2 miles east of Placerville at 
Smith's Flat. Idle. W. P. Carpenter, of Smith's Flat, owner. 

Linden Placer Mine (Drift). See our Reports VIII, p. 196; XII, 
p. 115. It is 1 mile southeast of Placerville on the Coon Hollow chan- 
nel. Comprises the following placer claims : Cedar Springs, Globe, 
Linden, Confidence, with total holdings of 150 acres. Idle. Linden 
Mining Company, Boston, Mass., owner. 

Mooney Placer Mine (Drift). See our Report XII, p. 118. It is 
8 miles east of Placerville. Idle. C. P. Winchell, of Placerville, 
owner. 

Mount Gregory Mine (Hydraulic). See our Report XIII, p. 151. 
Situated 3 miles east of Volcanoville on ridge north of Missouri 
('anon. Idle. A. Phelps and Porter, of Georgetown, owners. 

Payne Gravel Mine (Drift). See our Report XII, p. 120. It is 
3 miles south of Grizzly Flat on ridge south of Clear Creek. Idle. 
J. M. McClean, of Grizzly Flat, owner. 

Potts and Maginess Mine (Drift). Situated f mile east of New- 
town. Comprises 100 acres of mineral ground on the Newtown chan- 
nel. Idle. S. II. Maginess et al., of Placerville, owners. 






EL DORADO COUNTY. 303 

Rising Hope Gravel Mine (Drift). Situated 3 miles southeast of 
[Placerville on Texas Hill. Comprises 218 acres of mineral land. The 
ancient river channel has a north and south course. The channel is 
capped with 300' of andesite tuff. The gravel is cemented, has a 
depth of 2' to 7', and the channel is about 700' in width. A tunnel 
has been driven 1700' in slate bedrock to tap the channel, and over 
7000' of development drifts have been driven on the property. The 
mine is on the junction of the Newtown and Smith's Flat channels. 
At present writing', driving the tunnel to tap the main channel and 
[grading for a mill. Reported that a large tonnage of good grade 
gravel has been developed. Ten men are employed. S. M. Warren 
Company, Exchange Place, New York City, owner; G. W. Englehart, 
general manager; Charles Hansen, superintendent. 

Riveria Placer Mine (Drift). It is J mile east of Placerville on 
Coon Hollow channel. Idle. Dr. J. Q. Wrenn, of Placerville, owner. 

Stewart Mine (Drift). See our Reports X, p. 180; XII, p. 123. 
It is 1J miles southeast of Placerville. Idle. Ideal Mining Co., 2111 
Fifth St., San Diego, owner. 

Toll House Mine (Drift). See our Report X, p. 179. Situated 
1 3 miles northeast of Placerville on ridge north of Rock Creek. Com- 
prises the following placer claims : Hook and Ladder, Henry Clay, 
Cowan; total holdings, 13-1 acres. Idle. Selah Chamberlain, of San 
I Francisco, owner. 

Try Again Placer Mine (Drift). It is 3^ miles east of Placerville. 
!ldle. Charles Varozza, of Placerville, owner. 

Union Gravel Mine (Drift). Situated 2J miles east of Placerville, 
on ridge north of White Rock Creek. The channel has a course of 
XE.-SW. and is capped with andesitic tuff 100' thick. The character 
of gravel is blue cemented with quartz boulders. Depth of 6" to 4', 
with a width of 400'. Developments consist of two incline shafts 
412' and 285' deep. Idle. Union Consolidated Gold Mining Co., 
Placerville, owner. J. E. Fox, of Placerville, agent. 

Zimmerman Mine (Drift). Situated 1 mile south of Pacific on 
ridge south of south fork of the American River. Comprises 240 acres 
of mineral land. Four men are employed on development work. Pre- 
volcanic Channel Gold Mining Co., Placerville, owner; J. II. Zim- 
merman, of Placerville, manager. 



^W^ }j£^ LIME AND LIMESTONE 



304^ /P*^^ ^^ MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



i? Alabaster Cave Lime Quarry. See our Bulletin 38, pp. 67-68. 

Situated 7 miles east of Newcastle, Placer County, on ridge southeast 
of the middle fork of the American River. The limestone lies in a 
stratum 50' thick enclosed by mica schist. The character is crystal- 
line, granular, white, clouded white and blue limestone. Quarry 50' 
deep by 300' long, by 50' in width. Idle. W. T. Holmes Lime Com- 
pany, Monadnock Bldg., San Francisco, owner. 

Cave Valley Limestone Quarry. See our Bulletin 38, p. 68. Situ- 
ated 9 miles east of Newcastle, Placer County. The limestone is 
crystalline, granular, white, clouded white, and blue in color. Idle. 
H. Cowell, of San Francisco, owner. 

Mountain Quarries, owned by the Pacific Portland Cement Com- 
pany, F. G. Drum, president; F. E. Erline, secretary; offices, 832 
Pacific Bldg., San Francisco. 

The Mountain Quarries are situated 6 miles northeast of Auburn, 
on the ridge south of the middle fork of the American River. The 
limestone occurs in the form of a lens in amphibolite schist. The 
general strike of this lens is north and south. The width of the deposit f 
is from 300' to 400'. Its depth has been proven to be 800 feet by 
means of diamond drill holes. The limestone is worked from an open 
quarry, the broken material falling through a 600' shaft to ore bins 
in a tunnel, from which it is trammed a distance of 620 feet to stor- 
age bins located on the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The 
broken rock is shipped to the company's cement plant located at 
Cement, near Fairfield, Solano County. About 1200 tons a day are <[ 
shipped from the quarries to this plant. 100 men are employed. 

MARBLE. 

Bind & Company, of Placerville, own a deposit of marble 2 miles \ 
south of placerville on Webber Creek. The color is white, mottled and 
blue gray. Undeveloped. 

Hayward, Hobart and Lane Estates of San Francisco own a deposit 
of crystalline limestone at Indian Diggings, which is undeveloped on 
account of its distance from transportation. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

The following brief descriptions are taken from IT. S. Geological 
Survey Water Supply Paper No. 338, 1915: 

Glen Alpine Springs. Two cold carbonated springs, located 7 miles 
south of Tallac near Lake Tahoe appear to issue from granite at an 
elevation of 6850'. Cottages and tents provide accommodation foa 
100 guests. Owned by Mrs. J. E. Gray, Mrs. G. W. Pierce and 
Mrs. J. L. Ramsay. For an analysis of the water see U. S. Geological 
Survey Water Supply Paper No. 338, p. 236, 1916. 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 



305 




View of quarry and loading bins, Mountain Quarries, El Dorado 
County. Pacific Portland Cement Co., owners. Photo by C. A. 
Waring. 



2O-4fi904 



306 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Rubicon Springs. Four cold carbonated springs are located 12 
miles west of south of McKinney in the region of Lake Tahoe. They 
issue from granodiorite at an elevation of 6060' on the east side of the 
.Rubicon River. A small hotel and three log cabins provide accom- 
modations for guests. Owned by R. Colwell of McKinney. 

A Sulphur Spring issues beside the American River, near Kyburz 
station between Placerville and Lake Tahoe at an elevation of 4000'. 
It is near the junction of the Silver and South forks of American 
River. Used locally for drinking purposes. 

Three Sulphur Springs issue from the south side of Rubicon River I 
below the mouth of Five Lakes Creek about 13 miles southwest of 
Lake Tahoe. The springs are little known and very inaccessible. 

Wentworth Springs are near Gerle Creek, 5 miles directly west 
from Rubicon Springs. Two groups of carbonated springs issue 
along a wash in schistose rock. The springs are utilized by occasional 
campers. 

QUICKSILVER. 

Bernard Cinnabar Mine. See Bulletin 27, p. 190; U. S. G. S. 
Mon. XIII, p. 384. It is located two miles west of Nashville, on 
Fanny Creek, south of Big Sugar Loaf Mountain. The deposit of 
cinnabar occurs in the slates of the Calaveras formation. Idle. 
Bernard Cinnabar Mining Co., 127 Montgomery St., San Francisco, 
owner. 

SLATE. 

California Slate Quarry. It is 2 miles north of Placerville, located 
on the north and south banks of the American River. The character 
of the deposit is a blue-black slate containing pyrite. The pyrite 
appears to be confined to certain layers of slate. The quarries are] 
located on both banks of the river. Idle. N. L. Kohn, of Placerville, 
owner. 

California-Bangor Slate Quarry. Situated 1 mile northwest of 
Kelsey, on Dutch Creek. The property consists of 432 acres. It is onj 
the same belt of roofing slates as that of the Eureka quarry. The; 
character is a blue-black slate of good quality, with a high tensile, 
strength. The strike of the cleavage is S. 25° E. The quarry has notj 
been worked for a number of years. California-Bangor Slate Co., 406 j 
First National Bank Bldg., Oakland, owner. 

Chili Bar Slate Quarry. See our Bulletin 38. Situated 2 miles! 
northwest of Placerville, in Sec. 36, T. 11 N., R. 10 E. Idle. J. G j 
Mothersole, of Placerville, owner. 

Eureka Slate Quarry. This property is situated 1 mile south oil 
Kelsey and 7 miles north of Placerville. Comprises 640 acres oil 1 
patented mineral land. The property was operated steadily froir i 



1 



EL DORADO COUNTY. 



307 



1903 to 1909, and a very fine quality of roofing slate produced. The 
slate is blue-black in color, in the most part free from impurities, with 
a high tensile strength. The strike of cleavage is S. 25° E. The 
marry opening on the north side of the canon is 90' high by 200' long. 
The quarry on the south side of the canon has a face over 200' long 
md 70' high on one end and 200' high on the other end. This quarry 
lias been sunk to a depth of 90' below the canon. The waste product 
from these quarries ran about 85%. The capacity of quarry when 
under operation was 100 squares of roofing slate per day. 




View of storage bins of Mountain Quarries, El Dorado County. Owned by the Pacific 
Portland Cement Company. Photo by C. A. Waring. 

Equipment: 150 h.p. compressor, 5 hoisting engines, slate trimming 
machines, saw tables, rubbing bed and planers. The product was 
/transported from quarry by an aerial tram across the American River 
to Placerville. This tram is 3 miles long, there being a distance of 
13,000' between terminals, with 26,000' of drawing rope; was operated 
*by 35 h.p. Pelton motor. Water was secured from the Truckee General 
Electric Co. ditch, by pipe line 1^ miles long; with a head of 500'. 
Since the property was visited, operations have been resumed under 
the personal supervision of W. J. Dingee, 898 Monadnock Bldg., San 
Francisco, owner.* 



*Since the above was written, it is stated that the Eureka Quarry has been sold 
(June, 1916) to the Sierra Slate Corporation, of New York. The new company 
expects to reopen the property on a large scale, and prepare for market from 1000 
to 3000 squares per month. A "square" of slate is a sufficient number of pieces to 
cover 100 square feet of roof. 



308 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Eureka Slate Quarry, north of Placerville, El Dorado County. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

California State Mineralogist, Reports on Mines: VIII, pp. 164-202, 1888; X, 
pp. 169-182, 1890; XI, pp. 200-207, 1892; XII, pp. 101-127, 1894; XIII, pp. 
131-165, 1895-6. Bulletins: No. 27, Quicksilver Resources by Wm. Forstner 
p. 190, 1908; No. 38, Structural and Industrial Materials, pp 67, 68, 150-153 
262, 297, 350-372, 1906 ; No. 50, Copper Resources by W. E. Thorne, pp. 
210-220, 1908; No. 57, Gold Dredging by W. B. Winston and Chas. Janin 
p. 11, 1910. Register of Mines and Minerals in El Dorado County by J. F 
Armstrong, 1904. Geological Map of the Mother Lode Region by H. W 
Fairbanks, 1896. 

U. S. Geological Survey Publications: Geologic Folios Nos. 3 and 11, Reprint? 
of Placerville and Jackson Quadrangles, 1914; No. 31, Pyramid Peak Quad- 
rangle, 1896; Professional Paper No. 73, Tertiary Gravels of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains by Waldemar Lindgren. 1911. 



PLACER COUNTY. 309 



PLACER COUNTY. 

By Clarence A. Waring, Field Assistant. 
Field Work in October and November, 1915. 

INTRODUCTION. 

North of the "Mother Lode" region lies a district rich in mineral 
esources which needs only the stimulus of capital and stable, enterpris- 
lg men to further develop its latent resources. Hydraulic mining, 
r hich occupied the early workers, is now "tied up" as it were, by 
?deral antidebris legislation, which disheartened the operators and 
aused stagnation of the mining industry in general. Drift mining is 



-ioto No. 1. Model of a typical Hydraulic Mine of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Installed 
by the State Mining Bureau in the Palace of Mines, Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion, San Francisco, 1915. 

till being carried on and offers a few good opportunities. Quartz 
fining, with a few exceptions, is rather dormant and in need of capital 
b open up the prospects and old shafts, idle following a considerable 
eriod of depression. 

Dredging is now one of the principal means of recovering gold in 
lis region and holds considerable promise for the immediate future, 
■he diversity of mining methods has made the work particularly 
iteresting. 

The writer has endeavored to obtain accurate information on pros- 
ects, as well as on operative mines, realizing that in the future our 
reatest resources lie in the many undeveloped and only partially 
respected properties. It is to be regretted that time did not permit 
isits to many prospects which are no doubt worthy of note. 

An attempt has been made to make this report a directory of all the 
lines in the counties covered, as well as reports on those which are 
^tive. 



310 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Acknowledgment is here made of the uniform courtesy and assistance 
of operators, employees and prospectors who made this report possible 
and made the work unusually pleasant. 

Extending as it does, from the Sacramento Valley to the summit of 
the Sierras, Placer County offers a diversity of mining interests as] 
well as a diversity of climate. In the middle fifties this county, with 
an estimated annual production of over $6,000,000* in gold, produced 
nearly one-tenth of all the yellow metal taken from the entire state. 
In 1914, with a production of $600,000 in gold, the county claims only 
about one-thirty-fifth of the total production. It is true that we had no- 
dredgers in the early days, and these have maintained the high yearly 
state production. Considering, however, the fact that state production! 
is only one-third what it was in the middle fifties, we see that thei! 
Placer County production has fallen off abnormally. The only reason, 
seen for this slump in production is the marked inactivity of the drift 
and quartz mines which await only capital and enterprising, stable menj 
to open them up and give a general feeling of confidence to the whole 
populace. The production table does not show a sudden decline in gold 
output; the decrease has been gradual but steady since 1894, and has 
fallen from $1,850,000 to $600,000, or to less than one-third in the last 
twenty years. Together with the decrease of gold production has beer 
the shifting of population. Iowa Hill, which in 1859 claimed a voting' 
population of 1249, now has only 69, and other mining towns havr 
dwindled to small villages or disappeared entirely. Over 500 mining 
claims were recorded in 1887. Only 135 properties are now active, i.e. 
being worked or having assessment work done. These are distributee 
as follows: 40 quartz, 44 drift, 15 placer, 3 dredge, 3 hydraulic 
1 asbestos, 2 chrome, 2 clay, 3 copper, 20 granite, and 2 magnesite 
Of the 135 active properties, 64 were said to be producing in 1916 anc 
are distributed as follows : 6 quartz, 18 drift, 12 placer, 2 hydraulic 
3 dredge, 2 chrome, 2 clay, 1 copper, 18 granite. 

A revival of interest in mining is coming, in fact, many of the olcj 
properties are now being leased and work begun. This new activity! 
will, no doubt, be more permanent than that of the old hydraulic days 
and the mining industry will be on a firm foundation for years to come 

DESCRIPTION. 

Name, derivation of. 

Placer County derives its name from the Spanish word "placer/ j 
meaning a place where gold dust is found mixed with sand, earth o:| 
gravel. II 



'California Registers for 1856-7 and 1858-9. 



PLACER COUNTY. 311 

Location and boundaries. 

It was organized in 1851, and extends from Bear River and the north 
line of T. 17 N, southward to the American River and its middle fork. 
It is bounded by Yuba and Nevada counties on the north, by the state 
of Nevada on the east, by El Dorado and Sacramento counties on the 
south, and by Sutter County on the west. 

Area. 

The county embraces 1484 square miles, and has an average length 
of over ninety miles, and an average breadth of about 13 miles. 

Population. 

The census of 1910 placed the county thirty-first in rank with a 
population of 18,237. Auburn, the county seat, is a city of the sixth 
class, with a population of 2376 in 1915. 

Valuation. 

The assessed valuation of the county properties in 1915 was 
$14,947,936. 

Topography. 

The topography varies from a low valley land of 100 feet or more 
above sea level, about Roseville and Lincoln, to rolling foothills in the 
neighborhood of 1000 feet about Newcastle and Auburn, and rugged 
mountainous slopes about Alta and eastward which reach an elevation 
of over 7800 feet at Summit. 

Vegetation. 

The vegetation and forestry vary with the elevation. In the low 
western region the valley oaks predominate, while in the foothills the 
live oak and digger pine are plentiful. In the higher territory laurel 
oaks, bull pine, sugar pine and cedars predominate. Deciduous fruits 
and grapes do particularly well as high up as Colfax. 

Drainage. 

The county is well drained by the Bear River to the northwest, and 
by the American River with its numerous forks to the south, east and 
central parts. The extreme east drains by way of Lake Tahoe into the 
Truckee River, which flows into the state of Nevada. 

Power. 

The river system of Placer County is particularly well placed to 
furnish water capable of producing an enormous amount of hydro- 
electric power, besides being afterwards available for irrigation 
purposes. In the days of hydraulicking many large flumes and ditches 
were constructed to carry water for monitors, besides smaller ones for 
running water wheels to operate stamp mills and arrastras. At present 
the principal flumes have been taken over by the Pacific Gas and 
Electric Company which, with a system of artificial lakes, furnishes 



312 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

a constant water supply to its many power houses which transmit 
electricity to the many cities of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley and 
San Francisco Bay regions. The northern and western portions of 
Placer County are thus well supplied by branches of the main power 
lines, one of which follows the railroad from Alta to Sacramento with 
power houses at Drumm, Alta, Auburn and Newcastle; another line 
from Colgate power house in Yuba County runs southward to Sacra- 
mento, crossing the county through Van Trent and Lincoln. 

The eastern part of the county is less fortunate, but private capital 
has installed a small plant in Volcano Canon which supplies electricity 
for lighting at Forest Hill and for the mines in that vicinity. A branch 
line of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company connects at Alta and 
passes eastward through Damascus and Forks House to the Black 
Canon Mine near Westville. 

Transportation. 

The county is perhaps more fortunate than many others, since the 
main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad crosses its western end and 
follows along the full length of its northern side. A branch of the 
Southern Pacific from Roseville through Loomis, Lincoln and Sheridan 
to Marysville furnishes excellent transportation for the extreme 
western portion of the county. The Nevada County Narrow Gauge 
Railway from Colfax to Nevada City furnishes transportation in 
Placer County for a small region southeast of the Bear River and north 
of Colfax. Automobile and wagon roads traverse the county and follow 
the principal valleys and ridges, making most of the mines fairly 
accessible. 

GEOLOGY. 

Placer County furnishes an excellent field for geologic work, and 
although geologic maps 1 have been published of the whole region, there 
are many problems in geologic history which are open to discussion and 
intensive work. It is to be regretted that more detailed work has not 
been carried northwestward beyond the "mapped" limits of the Mother 
Lode (Folio No. 63) to determine more surely the possibilities of certain 
veins carrying mineral of commercial value with depth. It does not 
seem reasonable that a lode so persistent should hold out such excellent 
opportunities as far north as 120° 30' and then disappear so suddenly 
or become barren, especially since the same granodiorite formation 
which underlies the Mariposa slates, diabase and amphibolite, is yield- 
ing such excellent returns in the region about Grass Valley. The fact 
is that veins do occur that have not been systematically mapped. 
Although the main "Mother Lode" is apparently shattered in the 



J U. S. Gcol. Survey, Folios Nos. 18, 39, 66 and reprints of 3, 5 and 11. 






PLACER COUNTY. 313 



region north of 120° 30', the main lode formations continue northward 
from Enterprise, Amador County, through Placerville and George- 
town, El Dorado County; Colfax, Placer County; Grass Valley and 
Nevada City, Nevada County, and northwestward towards Challenge, 
Yuba County. The special report 2 on the Grass Valley and Nevada 
City region is the only detailed area covered by the work done north 
of the area covered by the Mother Lode Folio, excepting that on the 
Ophir District 3 which can not, strictly speaking, be considered on 
the main lode. During the twenty odd years since the publication of 
these reports, the industry seems to have been left to take care of itself, 
and no detailed maps of the inter lying vein systems have been made. 
• To be of greatest economic value, geological reports should precede and 
point out opportunities rather than follow up development work which 
often depends on some accidental find which creates popular interest. 
Detailed reports on new territory should create an interest and lead to 
development work, should conditions warrant. 

The reader is referred to the aforementioned Geologic Folios and 
Annual Reports for the geology of the county. 

MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

The mining industry in Placer County is confined at present to the 
i production of gold, silver, copper, lead, clay and stone. The greatest 
value is obtained from the gold production. The silver and lead are 
i derived from the refining of the gold and copper. The copper produc- 
tion for 1915 showed a decided increase over that for 1914 because of 
renewed activity by leasers. 

Granite is quarried extensively in the region about Rocklin and 
furnishes building stone, monumental stone, and paving blocks. Clay 
is produced principally near Lincoln. 

Seventeenth Annual Report of U. S. Geol. Survey, 1895-6, Pt. II, pp. 13-263. 
fourteenth Annual Report of U. S. Geol. Survey, 1892-93, Pt. II, 249-285. 



314 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



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316 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

MINING DISTRICTS. 

Since few well defined mining districts exist in Placer County the 
following twenty-two districts have been selected from names in com- 
mon usage throughout the region, together with those used on the books 
of the County Recorder of Placer County. Additions and changes have 
been made to a recent list 4 compiled from geographical names. The 
properties in italics are producing. 

The Blue Canon (Emigrant Gap) district includes all quartz, drift, 
and placer mines in the region about Blue Canon. Slate and andesite 
are the prevailing formations. Active properties: Red Rock Quartz, 
Von Avery Quartz, Wild Yankee Drift and Lost Camp Hydraulic. 

The Butcher Ranch district includes all quartz and placer mines in 
the region extending from Sheridan's and Oregon Bar, to and includ- 
ing Mammoth Bar on the middle fork of the American River. Diabase 
and slate are the prevailing rocks of the district. Active properties: 
Christmas Hill Quartz, Dewey Quartz, El Dorado* and Placer Dredge, 
and Pacific Dredge. 

The Canada Hill district includes all quartz, drift, and placer mines 
in the region about Canada Hill, Sailor Canon, Secret Canon, and 
Westville. It lies about 40 miles by wagon road about N. 78° E. of 
Colfax, which is the nearest railroad station on the Southern Pacific. 
Slate and andesite are the prevailing formations. Active properties: 
Black Canon Quartz, Herman Quartz, Gold King Quartz, Golden 
Reward Quartz, La Trinidad Quartz, Prairie Flower Quartz, Canada 
Hill Drift, Fulton Drift, Monumental Drift, Reed Drift, and Park and 
Brown Hydraulic. 

The Cisco district includes all quartz and placer mines in the region 
about Cisco. Slates, schists and granodiorite with andesite capping in 
places, are the formations represented. No operative properties. 

The Colfax district (recorded as the Illinois district and includes 
the Capehorn district) includes all quartz mines and quarries in the 
vicinity of the town of Colfax, on the Southern Pacific Railroad, and 
placer mines on the Bear River and North Fork of the American River. 
Gabbro, diabase, serpentine, slate and amphibolite are the principal 
formations. Active properties : Big Oak Tree Quartz, Red Bird Quartz, 
Collins Placer, Estey Placer, Gillett Placer, Thenis and Adams Placer 
and Zelma Bell Placer. 

The Dairy Farm (Van Trent) district includes the copper-gold 
mines in the region about eight miles east and northeast of Sheridan, 
which is on the Oregon branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

'Bulletin No. 507, U. s. Goo]. Survey, 1912, pp. 6 and :»3-!)6. 
^Italicized properties producing. 



PLACER COUNTY. 317 

Anrphibolite and diabase are the prevailing formations. Active proper- 
ties: Dairy Farm Copper* Valley View Copper, and Bobtail Gold- 
Copper. 

The Damascus (includes Pioneer district) district includes all 
quartz mines in the canon of the North Fork of the American River, 
north of Damascus, and all placer mines in the region of Damascus 
and Red Point. The district lies about 18 miles N. 75° E. of Colfax. 
The automobile route is by way of Forest Hill, since the Iowa Hill 
wagon road is very steep. Slate capped in places by andesite are the 
prevailing rocks. Active properties: Pioneer Quartz, North Star 
Quartz. Eureka Drift. Jarvis or Bob Lewis Drift. Outhouse Consoli- 
dated or Sellier Drift, Potato Flat iron Placer, West Chrome. 

The Deadwood district includes all the quartz, drift and placer 
mines on Deadwood ridge and in Indian Creek and the North Fork of 
the Middle Fork of the American River. The district lies east of 
Colfax and is reached by auto road, in dry season, by way of \Yestville, 
a total distance from Colfax of about 45 miles. A pack trail from 
Michigan Bluff cuts the distance from Colfax to 30 miles. Slate with 
andesite capping are the prevailing formations. Active properties : 
Rip Van AYinkle, or Page and Buckman Quartz, and Devil's Basin 
Consolidated Drift. 

The Dutch Flat (Gold Run, Towle) district, includes the drift and 
placer gold mines, the chrome mines and the asbestos mines in the 
region of the towns of Dutch Flat, Gold Run. Shady Run and Towle, 
all on the Southern Pacific Railroad. Gabbro, serpentine, slate and 
amphibolite, capped by andesite, are the predominating formations. 
Active properties: Rawhide Quartz. Federal Drift. Dyer Drift, Dutch 
Flat Drift, Haub Drift, Indiana Hill Drift.-Moody Ridge Drift, Stewart 
Drift, Towle Magnesite. Morgan Asbestos. 

The Forest Hill district includes all quartz, drift and placer gold 
mines on the Forest Hill divide, including those about the region of 
Bath. Baker Divide. Mayflower. Yankee Jim's, Spring Garden Camp, 
Todd's Valley and Paradise. The divide is reached by a 15-mile stage 
road from Colfax, or 30 miles from Auburn. Serpentine, slate and 
amphibolite, capped with andesite, are the prevailing formations. 
Active properties: Dry Hill Quartz. Eureka Consolidated Quartz, Inter- 
national Quartz, Mitchell Quartz, Dardanelles Drift, Excelsior Drift, 
Florida Drift. Grey Eagle Drift, Maus Drift. Mayflower Drift, Para- 
gon Drift. 

The Gold Hill district includes all quartz and placer mines and 
dredging ground in the region of Gold Hill and Virginia, 6 miles east 
of Lincoln. It includes the Belmont and Three Stars properties. 



Italicized mines producing. 



318 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Granodiorite is the country rock. Active property: Gardella Gold 
Dredge* 

The Hotaling district includes the iron and limestone deposits in 
the region about Hotaling, 5 miles by road northwest of Clipper Gap, 
the nearest railroad station. Diorite, granodiorite and slate are the 
formations represented. No active properties. 

The Iowa Hill district includes all the quartz, drift and placer 
mines north to the North Fork of the American River and along Shirt- 
tail Canon and Indian Creek in the region about what is known as the 
Iowa Hill Divide, including Succor Flat, Wisconsin Hill, Independence 
Hill, Strawberry Flat and Monona Flat camps. The district lies about 
eight miles by road east of Colfax. Slate and amphibolite with andesite 
capping are the prevailing rocks. Active properties : Blue Wing Quartz, 
Carey Drift, Dewey Drift, Mohawk Drift, Penn Valley Drift, Santa Fe 
Drift, Union Drift, Waterhouse or Big Dipper Drift, Welcome Drift, 
Booth Placer, Kinder River Placer, Pine Avenue Placer, San Francisco 
Placer, Placer Counties Magnesite, Turner and Butler Chrome. 
Bibl. : Rep. X, 1890, p. 419. 

The Last Chance district includes all quartz, drift and placer mines 
in the region about Last Chance, Bald Mountain (Duncan Peak), and 
Duncan Cafion, including the Blue Eyes property, and the French 
Meadows region. The district is reached by trail 14 miles from Michi- 
gan Bluff, or by wagon road about 50 miles from Forest Hill and Bald 
Mountain. Slates with andesite capping are the principal formations. 
Active properties : Hermit Quartz, Dixie Queen Drift, Glenn Consoli- 
dated Drift, Hometicket Drift, Jack Robison Drift, Pacilc Slab Drift, 
Placer Gravel or El Dorado Drift, Red Star Drift, Park and Brown 
Hydraulic, and Pine Nut Hydraulic. 

The Lincoln district includes the region about the city of Lincoln, 
where clay and building stone are quarried. Eocene sedimentary rocks 
and andesite prevail. Active properties: Gladding -McBean Clay, Lin- 
coln Clay. 

The Michigan Bluff district includes all quartz and placer mines 
in the region of Michigan Bluff, Baker's Ranch and American Bar mine, 
near the Middle Fork of the American River. Serpentine, amphibolite 
and slate, with andesite capping are the common rocks. Active proper- 
ties: Bunker and Nihill Quartz, Champion Quartz, Daniel Webster 
Quartz, Franklin Drift, Golden Sheaf Drift, Gorman Drift, Marian 
Drift, Swift Shore Drift, Turkey Hill Consolidated Drift, Bogus 
Thunder Placer, De Maria Placer, Lehigh Placer, and Pleasant Bar 
Placer. 



^Italicized mines producing. 






MAP OF 

OPHIR MINING DISTRICT 

PLACER CO. CAL. 




PHYSIOL 

SCIENCES 



PLACER COUNTY. 319 

The New England Mills (Weimar) district, includes all quartz 
mines in the region south of Powell Hill and about Weimar and Apple- 
gate. The mines lie chiefly east of the Southern Pacific Railroad. 
Placer deposits along the American River are also included. Slate and 
some intrusive serpentine are the principal formations. Active proper- 
ties : Alameda Quartz, Annie Laurie Quartz, Big John Quartz, Black 
Oak* Quartz, Ruby Quartz. 

The Ophir (includes Auburn) district lies south and west of 
Auburn and north of Newcastle. It includes all quartz and placer mines 
about Ophir and Duncan Hill. Granodiorite and amphibolite are the 
common country rocks. Active properties: Crandall Quartz, Eureka 
Quartz, Hathaway Quartz, Hope Quartz, Little Banner Quartz, Oro Fino 
or Bullion Quartz, Spanish Quartz. 

Bibl. : Rep. X, 1890, pp. 427-430; Annual Rep. XV, U. S. G. S., Pt. 
II, 1892-3, pp. 243-284. 

The Ralston Divide district includes all drift and placer mines 
along the divide between Long Canon on the south and the Middle Fork 
of the American River on the north. The district is very inaccessible 
and is reached only by a steep trail 15 miles from Michigan Bluff or by 
a circuitous road via French Meadows, about 50 miles from Soda Springs 
Station near the Summit. Slate and andesite are the principal forma- 
tions. Active property : Ralston Divide Drift. 

The Rock Creek district includes all quartz mines north of Auburn, 
in the region south of the Hotaling district. Serpentine, diabase and 
amphibolite are the principal formations represented. No active 
properties. 

The Rocklin (Loomis) district includes all granite quarries and 
placer deposits in the region about Rocklin. Granodiorite and andesite 
are the formations. Active quarries : Alexson, Anderson, Andrews, Cali- 
fornia, Delano, Escola, Griffiths, Hebrick, Hendrickson, Huhtala, Leed, 
Oscar Kesti, Kesti, Liikola, Maki, Pacific, Pisila and Alio, Union and 
Wickman. 

The Tahoe district includes all the eastern part of the county adja- 
cent to Lake Tahoe. It includes all gold and molybdenite prospects and 
mineral springs scattered throughout a large area of varied formations, 
chief among which are granodiorite and slate overlain by andesite and 
basalt. Active properties: Chicago Quartz, Joe Dandy Quartz, Lost 
Emigrant Quartz. 



^Italicized mines producing. 



320 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

MINERALS AND MINES. 

ASBESTOS. 

The principal asbestos minerals are amphibole and serpentine. Tremo- 
lite and actinolite, two varieties of amphibole, are often found in such 
form that the fibres are fine, flexible, easily separated by the fingers and 
look like flax. These varieties are called "asbestos," "hornblende as- 
bestos, " or " amphibole asbestos, ' ' and are closely allied with the pyrox- 
ene and hornblende rocks. Chrysotile is a silky fibrous variety of ser- 
pentine which is superior in quality to amphibole asbestos. Chrysotile- 
asbestos so far as known occurs principally as ' ' vein ' ' or cross fibre, but 
also as "slip" fibre along fracture planes. Amphibole or hornblende 
asbestos is not known to occur other than as "slip" fibre. Chrysotile 
has been quarried in Canada to a depth of over 200 feet, and it is known 
to extend to a depth of over 400 feet. The deposits occur irregularly as 
a rule, and quarrying of large low-grade deposits is necessary to make 
such adventures paying or to properly develop the deposits. Explora- 
tion work by shafts is entirely misleading in determining the quantity 
in deposits of chrysotile. The deposits as a rule yield about 0.25 to 0.75 
of one per cent chrysotile from the total rock quarried. The veinlets of 
chrysotile average \" to \" in width. The Canadian serpentine in which 
chrysotile occurs is of Cambrian age, while that in California is mostly 
Post-Jurassic or younger, geologically speaking. 

As to acid-resisting qualities, amphibole asbestos is often preferable 
to chrysotile, since in order to resist acids the fiber should contain bases 
and silica in the proportion as 1 :1. Chrysotile contains bases in the pro- 
portion as 3 :2, and is attacked by very weak acids which dissolve the 
bases and leave almost pure silica without apparently destroying the 
fibrous condition. Boiling in dilute hydrochloric acid effects the same 
result. Chrysotile, however, withstands a temperature of 2000° to 
3000° F. with no visible effect, although it becomes rather brittle upon 
losing a portion of its water of crystallization at high temperatures. 
Flame tests made by the writer on Canadian asbestos show that the tips 
of the fibers fuse and the fiber becomes very brittle in an ordinary 
Bunsen burner almost as easily as with specimens from California. 

Bibl. : Mineral Resources of the U. S. 1914, Pt. 2, p. 98. Mines 
Branch Bull. No 69, Canada Department of Mines, 1910. 

Large deposits of chrysotile occur in Shasta and Trinity counties and 
it is reasonable to expect economic deposits in and around the serpentine 
areas of Placer County. Although the California chrysotile is not so 
fine a product as the Canadian, it could be used for most building 
purposes. 






PLACER COUNTY. 



321 



The Morgan Asbestos Co. has opened up several small slip-fibre 
veins of amphibole (tremolite) asbestos, near a serpentine area south of 
Towle. The mineral has good acid resisting qualities but fuses rather 
easily. The fiber is long and of a lustrous gray-green color, silky and 
almost as fine as that of Canadian asbestos. It spins readily into very 
tough, flexible threads. Assessment work only was being carried on by 
the principal owner, Thomas E. Morgan, in the fall of 1915, but it is - 
reported that an eastern asbestos firm has taken an option on the 
property and intends to open it up. The company office is at 1516 
Franklin Street, Oakland. 

The commercial application of tremolite is rather limited, but it could 
be used satisfactorily in the manufacture of fibrous wall powder and of 
mineral wool. 

D. J. Sullivan, of Towle, and H. L. Kent and J. H. Johnson, of 
Auburn, are reported to have located deposits of asbestos and lime- 
stone near Towle, while John Mclnnis, of Forest Hill, is reported to 
have an asbestos prospect north of Butcher Ranch. 

The Placer County Properties Co., formerly the Sprague-Keasby 
Asbestos and Magnesia Co., have four claims along a ledge of white slip 
fiber tremolite asbestos, about J mile east of Iowa Hill. The names of 
the claims from north to south are as follows : Blue Wing, Washington 
Consolidated, Dewev Consolidated and Clear Fiber. 




Photo No. 2. View northeastward towards Iowa Hill, showing old hydraulic gravel banks. 
The X marks the outcrop of asbestos on the Blue Wing claim and approximately the 
location of the old Blue Wing or Ostrom quartz mine. 

On the Blue Wing claims, in the SW. | of NE. J of Sec. 28, T. 15 N., 
R. 10 E., the asbestos ledge has been exposed in the bedrock of the old 
hydraulic workings and on the slope of the south side of the North Fork 
of the American River Canon. It lies at the contact of serpentine to the 
west and Cape Horn slates to the east, is about 15 feet wide and exposed 

21-46904 



322 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

for 100 feet. Specimens of the mineral from the northern exposure are 
a white, flax-like fiber about eight inches long, which does not fuse 
readily, is flexible and fairly strong. The same ledge is exposed in a 
small ravine on the Washington Consolidated claim. Where exposed to 
the surface waters, the asbestos is entirely changed to silica, but retains 
the fibrous structure to some extent, resembling silicified wood. The 
ledge is similarly exposed on the north side of the Dewey Consolidated 
claim, but is probably not over 6 feet wide. The same ledge is said to 
be exposed on the Clear Fiber claim to the south, and is said to be cut 
through by the old drift tunnel of the Morning Star mine in Indian 
Canon. 

The nearest shipping point is at Colfax, 8 miles by steep mountain 
roads. No development work to speak of has been done. A 20-foot 
tunnel run into the ledge on the Washington Consolidated claim is caved. 
A shaft on the Blue Wing claim would probably be the more successful 
means of development. 

The four claims include about 164 acres. S. M. Sprague, manager, 
Auburn ; Mrs. Gertrude Shelley, secretary, 326 Ochsner Building, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

BRICK AND CLAY. 

Sand and clay suitable for brick, terra cotta, tile, etc., underlie a 
considerable territory in the region about Lincoln. The greatest initial 
expense is that of opening up the pits so that the clay may be quarried 
conveniently and cheaply. The best clay beds lie at depths of from 10' 
to 50' below the surface and are of upper Eocene, or lone age. 

Gladding, McBean and Co., have a large plant at Lincoln, where 
they make a specialty of architectural tile and brick, vitrified sewer pipe, 
tile, etc. The plant is at an elevation of 170 feet and occupies about 
25 acres, while the company holds about 400 acres of clay lands in Sees. 4, 
9 and 10, of T. 12 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Water is obtained from the 
Lincoln gravity system from the South Yuba Ditch of the Pacific Gas 
and Electric Co. The company was organized in 1875, incorporated in 
1886 and has operated continuously for forty years. 

The clay beds in the different pits vary considerably in both quality 
and thickness. A section in the north pit shows soil 2', volcanic breccia 
10', fireclay 10', pipe clay 6' and fine, white terra cotta clay 20'. The 
south pit is being worked by teams and hand labor and shows soil 11 
volcanic breccia 12', light sandy clay 8', fine sand 4', sandy yellow 
clay 7', sandy clay and gravel 6' and clay below. Photo 6 shows how the 
material is worked in benches and loaded directly onto the cars which 
transport it to bins adjoining the manufacturing plant. The steam 
shovel is shown at work stripping off the volcanic breccia, which is broken 



PLACER COTXTY 



328 




loto No. 3. Hobart Building, San Francisco, faced with architectural terra cotta, manufac- 
tured by Gladding, McBean & Co. plant at Lincoln, Placer County. 
Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 

p by blasting" and dumped as waste from a spur track to the north, 
t the pit illustrated, the sequence of rock strata is as follows : andesite 
ipping 10', fine sand 16', gravelly clay 15', pottery clay 20' or more, 
aderlain by a bed of lignite. The occurrence of small rolling knolls on 
e valley plain, indicating a doming of the sedimentary strata, brings 
ie clay beds nearer the surface and permits of better drainage for the 
<ts which can be worked only during the dry season. 



324 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The clay is handpicked at the pit and transported to the plant, where 
it is ground and tempered, then pressed by machinery and moulded by 
hand. The raw forms are then dried in heated rooms and later burned 
in kilns. Seventeen kilns are used for sewer pipe and brick and fifteen 
for architectural terra cotta. Electricity, steam and air are used for 
power, and oil for fuel. About 200 men are employed, including archi- 
tects, foremen, pressers and common labor. Quarrying of the clay costs| 
from 5 to 6 cents per ton, stripping off the andesite costs about 4 or A 




Photo No. 4. Headquarters of Firemen's Fund Insurance Co., San Francisco, faced wit' 
architectural terra cotta manufactured by Gladding, McBean & Co. plant at Linco'.r 
Placer County. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 

cents per ton more. The clay, ground and delivered to the presses, cost 
about 65 cents per ton. About 600 tons per day are taken from the pit 
during the dry season. 

Owned by Gladding, McBean and Company, 311-317 Crocker Build 
ing, San Francisco; president, P. McBean; vice-president, A. J. Glad 
ding; secretary, Athol McBean. 

Bibl.: Rep. X, 1890, p. 415 and Plate I. Bull. 38, 1006, pp. 219? 
220. 






PLACER COUNTY. 



325 




Fhoto No. 5. Old northern pit of Gladding, McBean & Co., two miles north of Lincoln 

showing andesite capping. 




Photo No. 6. Main clay pit of Gladding, McBean & Co., one and one-half miles northwest of 
Lincoln, Placer County; showing method of working. 

The Lincoln Clay Products Company property is located 2 miles 
northwest of Lincoln at an elevation of 130'. They hold 237 acres in 
the north half of Sec. 4, T. 12 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. The deposits are 
similar to those nearer Lincoln, and the product is all shipped, no manu- 
facturing being carried on. The clay is quarried by hand labor, loaded 
on dump cars, elevated by a 20 h.p. electric hoist to a platform, weighed 
and loaded directly into railroad cars for shipment. A J mile spur 



326 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

track connects with the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad. 
The pit is 40' deep and 500' in diameter. Two gasoline locomotives are 
used for hauling the clay cars, and the company owns 2 miles of track. 
The company employs 25 men and it is said ships 25,000 tons of material 
which sells for about $1.00 per ton. Drill holes for water are said to 
have gone through 112 feet of clay. 

Owned by Lincoln Clay Products Company ; M. J. Dillman, president, 
Lincoln ; Ed. S. Brown, secretary, Sacramento. 

Other deposits of clay have been reported 5 in the region of Dutch 
Flat and Shady Run, and on Rich Flat south of Auburn. These still lie 
undeveloped on account of the limited demand for such materials. 

CHROMITE OR CHROMIC IRON. 

Several small detached deposits of chomite in or near areas of serpen- 
tine have been reported. One of these about 2^ miles from Dutch Flat 
is said to have about 400 tons of ore in sight. Two small deposits are ' 
reported on the Forest Hill divide, one of which is being prospected by 
John Mclnnis, of Forest Hill. Specimens have also been seen from a I 
deposit reported by S. P. Collins to be one mile from Auburn. A speci- 
men from Mr. R. L. Dunn is reported to be from the SE. J of Sec. 21, 
of T. 14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M., near Weimar with about 100 tons of ore 
in sight. 

Turner and Butler Mine. Iowa Hill district. Considerable ore ! 
was shipped from this property in the fall of 1916. The ore occurs as 
kidneys in serpentine and is said to run over 40 per cent chrome. 

Owned by Messrs. Turner and Butler of Iowa Hill. 

West Chrome Mine. Damascus district. Ore was shipped in the 
fall of 1916, from the property of Wm. West in the Green Valley region, I 
9 miles southeast of Towle. The property was leased by the California 
Manganese Company, who packed the ore on mules 6 miles and then 1 
hauled it to Towle station on the Southern Pacific Railroad. Three men < 
were employed at the mine. It is said that about 100 tons of ore wereijj 
available at the property and the cost delivered at the railroad was 
$5.00 per ton. 

COAL. 

A bed of lignitic coal underlies the clay beds northeast of Lincoln in 
Sec. 9, T. 12 N., R. 6 E. The bed is of upper Eocene or lone age and is ; 
from 5' to 12' thick. The quality of the coal is too poor to be marketable < 
and all enterprises so far have been unprofitable. 

Bibl. : Rep. VII, 1887, p. 151. U. S. G. S. Folios 3, 5 and 11, 1894.; 
Reprinted 1914, Sacramento, p. 4. 



'Bull. No. 38, Cal. State Min. Bur., 1906, pp. 218-220. 



PLACER COUNTY. 327 

COPPER. 

The Sierra Nevada Mountain range includes a copper belt 6 "which 
runs for about 500 miles through the eastern side of the state, with a 
width of from 50 to 75 miles. The deposits are mainly concentrated 
along a mineral belt which appears high in the range to the north, sweeps 
southeastward toward the central valley of the state, and then continues 
for about 300 miles southeasterly through the western foothills, to dis- 
appear in Kern County near the southern end of the range." From 
Nevada County southward this is known as the Foothill Copper Belt, 
and all the deposits in western Placer County are included in this belt. 

The Algol prospect, in Sec. 9, T. 13 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., about 
9 miles northeast of Lincoln, has been abandoned. Mineralized lenses 
of ore varying from 20" to 10' in width were encountered. The develop- 
ment work consisted of two 120' shafts, with 200 feet of drifts. The ore 

I is malachite, with some native copper and gold. Seven shallow shafts 
sunk at intervals, south of those on the Algol property, towards Coon 

i Creek, and outcrops of copper bearing rocks on the Lardner and Keiler 
ranches, probably indicate the continuation of the same copper bearing 
formation. 

The Big Pine prospect in Sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., has 
a 170-foot shaft. Considerable chalcopyrite was encountered. Idle. 

The Dairy Farm Mine located in the SW. i of SE. J of Sec. 27, 
T. 14 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., eight miles northeast of Sheridan has been 
', worked since 1913, under lease by the Van Trent Mining Company, 
Mr. M. A. Newman, manager, Van Trent, Placer County, California. It 
is owned by the Dairy Farm Mining Company, E. B. Braden, president, 
812 Merchants Exchange Building, San Francisco. 

The property includes 160 acres of patented land south of the Bear 
River from which water is obtained. Electric power is obtained from 
the Colgate branch of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. 

The mine was first worked for gold and silver, which occurred free 
with iron oxides. At about 85 feet in depth sulphides were encountered 
which averaged about 3% copper, with occasional values in gold. The 
mine has been worked principally for copper ever since, and the 100-ton 
capacity cyanide plant has fallen into disuse. The ore occurs as lens- 
shaped bodies in amphibolite schist. The main ore body varies from 
10' to 60' in width and strikes N. 2° W., with a dip of ubout 60° E. 

The present workings consist of a 3-compartment incline shaft to a 
depth of 590 feet, with about 1000 feet of drifts, cuts and raises on each 
level. Stoping is at present being carried on in the 200 and 300-foot 
levels, and about 500,000 tons of ore is blocked out. The shrinkage 

6 Bull. No. 50, 1908, p. 174. 



328 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

system of mining is used, and about 150 tons of wall rock is taken out 
to every 350 tons of ore. 

The mine is equipped with a 600-ton hoist, a 70-foot, 4-post head frame 
and a 1200 cubic foot Laidlaw-Gordon air compressor, with 12 Waugh 
and Water-Leyner drills. The ore is crushed with a 14" x 24" Buchanan 
crusher and raised by a 125' link line elevator. The ore is sorted on a 
40-foot hand conveyor and the tailings carried away on a 200-foot waste 
conveyor. 




Photo No. 7. Dairy Farm Mine, eight miles northeast of Sheridan, Placer County. The only 
producing copper mine in Placer County in 1915. 

The ore is transported by a narrowgauge railroad to a point northwest 
of Sheridan, whence it is shipped by the Southern Pacific Railroad to 
Richmond. The ore is finally shipped by steamers to Oregon, where it 
is smelted. About 45 men are employed in the mine and 30 on top, 
including those on the railroad. About 350 tons of ore are taken out 
each day and the expense, delivered at the cars near Sheridan, is said to 
be less than $1.70 per ton. Timber for the mine is shipped from San 
Francisco and costs from $15.00 to $18.00 per thousand feet laid down 
at the mine. 

Other copper mines f and prospects which have not been operated in 
recent years are as follows : 

The Davenport prospect, located in Sec. 15, T..12 N., R. 8 E., is 
a prospect 1 mile south of Auburn. The ore consisted of chalcopyrite, 
malachite, with some iron oxides and pyrite in slate. The ore body 
strikes S. 3° E. and is about 2 feet wide. Development consists of a 
70-foot incline shaft. Equipment consisted of a small hoist operated by 
a 10 h.p. steam engine. N. E. Davenport, Sacramento, owner. 



tBull.. No. 50, 1908, pp. 205-211. 



PLACER COUNTY. 329 

The Elder prospect, in Sec. 4, T. 13 N., R. 6 E., is 4J miles west of 
Clipper Gap, at an elevation of 1550 feet. The ore consisted of chalco- 
pyrite, malachite and cuprite, with some pyrite and iron oxide. The 
wall rock is diorite and granodiorite. The ore body strikes N. 5° W., 
and dips 80° E. Development consists of a 25-foot vertical shaft. Idle. 

Globe Consolidated. Ophir district. Sec. 8, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., 
M. D. M. Development work consists of a 250' incline shaft. The ore 
was malachite and chalcopyrite associated with pyrite. Three shifts of 
5 men each were worked for a few months in 1916 by leasers who are said 
to have shipped 2 cars of ore to Kennett, Shasta County. 

Owned by C. R. Tracy, Auburn, California. 

The Greenhorn prospect is located on the west side of Greenhorn 
Creek, near its confluence with the Bear River. The prospect shows 
disseminated chalcopyrite near a serpentine-slate contact. The prospect 
is near the road from Colfax to You Bet. 

The Nevada Mining Company, L. G. Schuster, of Auburn, manager, 
have prospected in Sec. 32, T. 14 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. The ore con- 
sists of chalcopyrite and malachite, with some pyrite and iron oxide 
present. The ore body, at the contact of diorite and slate, strikes N. 50° 
W. and dips 30° E. Development consists of a 55-foot, two-compart- 
ment shaft. 

The Thomen prospect is located 8 miles north of Auburn, in Sees. 4 
and 5, T. 13 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. The ore consisted of chalcopyrite and 
malachite with some pyrite and iron oxides present. The ore body, in 
schist, strikes N. 5° "W. and dips 80° E. Owned by A. Thomen, of 
Auburn. Idle. 

The Valley View or Whiskey Diggings mine is located in Sec. 24, 
T. 13 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., 6 miles NW. of Lincoln, at an elevation of 
400 feet. The property is owned by the Western Consolidated Gold and 
Copper Co. F. K. Lippitt, president, Petaluma; Mrs. Edith Lockwood, 
secretary, Bacon Block, Oakland. It includes 90 acres of patented land. 
The lode, as indicated by gossan on the surface, is reported to be 200 feet 
wide and 1000 feet long. The ore consists of chalcopyrite, cuprite and 
some native copper, associated with pyrite and iron oxides, and some 
zinc sulphide. It is low grade and much the same kind of ore as pro- 
i duced at the Dairy Farm mine. The ore body strikes N. 60° W. and 
dips 72° NE. in schist. Development work consists of a 170-foot shaft 
and 400 feet of adits. Equipment consists of a hoist and two 5-foot 
Huntington mills. The mine was worked at first for gold, which oc- 
curred free in the gossan near the surface. Sulphides were encountered 



330 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



at depth. Sixteen men were employed in September, 1916. Reported 
sold to J. E. Landis and W. C. Gaylord, in March, 1916, for the 
Guggenheim interests. 




Photo No. 8. Valley View Mine, or Whiskey Diggings, six mile:; northeast cf Lincoln, 

Placer County. 

GOLD, SILVER AND PLATINUM. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Gold and silver in Placer County occur in quartz veins and in gravels! 
The quartz veins occur generally in three belts, in which they are irregu; 
larly scattered. The belt which lies in the main line of the "mothei 
lode" follows the Mariposa slates, the continuity of which is broker' 
north of Garden Valley, El Dorado County, where the Middle Pork ol 
the American River cuts across it. These slates, however, reappear ix 
considerable area north of the river, especially east of Weimar, and con] 
tinue unbroken northward to Colfax. The same enriched belt in diabase 
grancdiorite and amphibolite, may be traced northwestward throng! 
Grass Valley, Nevada County, and Challenge, Yuba County. 

East and west of the main belt are two offshoots of the main vein sys 
tern which, so far as present development shows, are more productive 
than the "mother lode" in Placer County. The eastern branch diverge 
southeast of Georgetown, El Dorado County, and is traced by a belt o 
serpentine, gabbrodiorite and amphibolite, which pass under the Fores' 
Hill and other divides and reappear along the line of the following 
localities: Drummond Mine; Succor Flat; just west of Hayden Hill 
south of Towle; west of Washington, Nevada County; and throng) 
Alleghany, Sierra County. 



PLACER COUNTY. 331 

The western branch begins to diverge southwest of Placerville, El 
Dorado County, and passes northwestward through Ophir, Placer 
County, and Albin Hill and Brown's Valley, Yuba County. 

Considering this vein system as a whole, one is impressed with the 
variations of country rock in which the enrichment occurs. These 
range all the way from the very basic peridotites and serpentines, 
through the less basic diabases and more acid granodiorites. The 
concentrated occurrence of the yellow metal seems to be due more to 

i some little known process of magmatic segregation rather than to in- 
fluences of the country rock through which it is disseminated. The 
only influence that the country rocks seem to have had has been the 
later secondary enrichment or impoverishment of the original ore 
bodies. 

The original source of the platinum has not been definitely ascer- 
tained, although it is thought to occur disseminated in the more basic 
rocks. It is found, thus far, only as placer along with the gold and 
silver. 

The gold in the gravel deposits was originally washed from the 
quartz veins during the process of erosion. It became concentrated in 
the river channels by long periods of stream erosion and re-erosion as 
the mountains were being uplifted and reshaped during periods of 
crustal movement of the earth. When the Sierra Nevada Mountains 

' were finally uplifted, these river beds were raised high and dry and 
were covered over in many places by volcanic flows of lava, mud and 
tuff, which have served to cap large deposits of the gravels and prevent 
their erosion. Modern streams have cut through these lavas and 

. ancient river channels and have gone on concentrating the gold just 

i as it was concentrated before the uplift. These ancient gravel channels 
have been worked successfully both by hydraulicking and by drifting, 
the latter method being used where the capping is hard and thick. 
The former method can now be carried on only when suitable restrain- 

, ing dams are built for storing the tailings to prevent injury to navi- 
gable streams or their adjacent lands. 

QUARTZ MINES. 

Adams Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 20, T. 12 N., E. 8 E., M. D. M. 
2\ miles southwest of Auburn. Elevation 1,050 feet. Fifteen-inch 
vein of quartz with galena and sulphurets in slate. Strike E.-W., dip 
60°. 200-foot shaft. Idle. Owned by Calvin T. Adams, Newcastle. 



Alameda Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 25, T. 
14 X., R. 9 E., M. D. M. Elevation 1400 feet. 120-foot dike in slate, 
carrying disseminated quartz, galena and iron. Strike N.-S. Dip 
45° E. Open cut 600-feet and tunnel 275 feet. Assessment work 



332 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

only. The Long Point mine adjoins it to the south. Owned by J. F. 
Wise and Martin Partridge, of Colfax. 

American Bar Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 33, T. 14 N., 
R. 11 E., M. D. M. Elevation 1800 feet. Two miles SW. of Michigan 
Bluff. Quartz with galena and pyrite in slate. Strike N.-E., dip 
S.-E. Shaft forty feet and tunnel 1950 feet. Water ditch three miles 
from Stitchner's Gulch. Idle for past 15 years, except a little prospect 
work. Owned by J. A. Shields, Josephine Mine, El Dorado County. 

Annie Laurie Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sees. 
24 and 25, T. 14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M Elevation 2000'. One hundred- 
foot dike, carrying free gold and sulphurets in quartz stringers. Strike 
NW.-SE., dip 40° E. Tunnel 50 feet. Assessment work only. Ala- 
meda Mine adjoins to the south. Owned by R. H. Young and E. Vore, 
of Weimar. 

Bazacoo Mine. Butcher Ranch district. Sees. 22 and 26, T. 13 N., 
R. 9 E., M. D. M. Elevation 1700 feet. Eighteen-inch vein of ribbon 
quartz in slate. Strike NW.-SE., dip NE. Shaft 40 feet. Tunnel 400 
feet. Patented. Idle. Owned by Sheridan Bros., Butcher Ranch. 

Beauty Mine. Canada Hill district. Sec. 9, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., 
M. D. M. Elevation 6200 feet. A 2-foot quartz vein in slate, carries 
free gold with some galena and pyrite. The vein can be traced for 
130 feet on the surface. It strikes N. 45° E. and dips 70° W. A 180- 
foot tunnel crosscuts the vein and 50 feet of drifting on the vein has 
been done. Equipped with hand outfit, windlass and shed. Ore 
averages $10.00 per ton. Claims called the Beauty and Big Beauty. 
Assessment work only. Owned by Henry Snyder, of Grass Valley, 
Cal. 

Belle Union Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 35, 
T. 14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M. Two miles SE. of Weimar. Elevation 
2000 feet. Eight feet of broken slate and quartz along a fracture 
in slate. Strike NE.-SW. Dip 80° SE. Tunnel 295 feet. Water 
power. Idle. Owned by D. Jones, Clipper Gap. 

Belvoir Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 18, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. 
Elevation 1000 feet. Quartz vein carrying free gold and pyrite in 
granodiorite. Strike NE.-SW., dip 45° SE. Shaft 180 feet. Tunnel 
800 feet. Steam power. Idle. Owned by J. Kaiser, Ophir. 

Big Blue Mine. Dutch Flat (Gold Run) district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., 
R. 10 E., M. D. M. Two miles NE. of Gold Run. Elevation 3050 
feet. Five-foot quartz vein with galena and sulphurets. Strike 
N.-S., dip E. Shaft 170 feet. Idle. Owned by Moody and Garety, 
of Gold Run. 

Big John Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 25, 
T. 14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M. Three miles east of Weimar. Elevation 






PLACER COUNTY. 333 

2,200 feet. Claims Tiger, Buena Vista, Ruby and Blue Bell. Twenty- 
foot dike with amphibolite footwall and slate hangwall. Strike N.-S., 
dip 45° E. Development consists of 50-foot open cut and 75-foot 
tunnel, also 20-foot shaft and 90-foot incline. Take out enough gold 
each year to pay for assessment work. Owned by Ed. Bigley, E. B. 
jOdell, M. L. Odell and E. EL, J. A. and M. A. Hinchey, of Weimar. 

Big Oak Tree Mine. Colfax district. SE. J of Sec. 33, T. 15 N., 
R. 9 E., M. D. M. One mile west of Colfax. Elevation 2300 feet. 
Eighteen-inch vein of quartz, carrying free gold and pyrite, in diabase. 
Strike NE.-SW., dip 80° N. Incline shaft 180 feet. Drift of 40 feet on 
120-foot level. This mine was closed about 1888 by an injunction 
obtained by the Rising Sun Mine, the owners of which claimed that the 
Big Oak Tree vein was a fork or spur of the Rising Sun patented vein, 
which lay between two of their north-south veins. 

Three shifts of four men each were engaged in pumping out the Big 
Oak Tree mine during the months of September and October,- 1915. 
An assay made for the writer of the mineralized quartz taken across the 
vein when the mine was pumped out ran $0.80 in gold per ton. Installa- 
tion of new machinery with electric power was contemplated. Owned 
by J. C. Valentine of San Francisco. Leased by a Colfax syndicate, of 
which D. A. Russell, D. Falconer, D. A. Gillen and J. Toman, of Colfax, 
are the board of directors. 

Black Canon Mine. Canada Hill district. Sees. 2, 3 and 10, T. 
15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M. Three miles east of Westville. Elevation 
5,500 feet. Quartz ledge in slate and metamorphic-sandstone, carries 
free gold and pyrite. Development work consists of a 300-foot shaft 
and two tunnels : No. 2, 400 feet long, and No. 3, 200 feet long. Equip- 
ment of the mine consists of an Ingersoll Rand Imperial Compressor, 
capacity 650 feet of air per minute, which runs air drills, a piston 
machine and a jack hammer at 90 pounds pressure. The 37 h. p. electric 
hoist is good to a depth of 500 feet. The 20-stamp mill, run by two 
25 h.p. motors, has 1050 pound stamps or a capacity of 50 tons of ore 
per day. A 10" x 12" jaw crusher is run by a 10 h. p. motor. Power 
is secured by a 13-mile line from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 
at Alta. A 100 h. p. transformer is installed near the mine. Water is 
pumped by a 5 h. p. motor from Black Canon Creek for the compressors, 
the overflow running to the batteries. There is plenty of pine timber 
on the property, and a sawmill is operated by the mine. The ore in the 
chutes averages $7.00 per ton, while the balance averages about $1.00 per 
ton. Probably an average of all the ore milled would be $3.00 per ton. 
Mining and milling costs about $2.20 per ton. The property has a shop, 
26-room bunkhouse, large dining-room, and office. Owned by E. C. 
Cavanaiiffh and Judse Aiken Estate, of San Francisco, and the Dickson 



334 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Estate, of Titusville, Pennsylvania. J. Cullen, San Francisco, seei 
tary ; E. B. Quigley, superintendent and manager, Westville. 

Black Oak Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 
T. 14 N.. R. 9 E., M. D. M. Three miles south of Weimar. Elevation 
1875 feet. Three-foot quartz vein carrying 3% sulphurets in slate. 
Strike N. 10° E., dip 65° E. Tunnel 150 feet, run to cut ledge. Drift 
N. 400 feet and S. 600 feet. Old shaft sunk in north drift. Equipped 
with tracks and push car. The Northern Light property adjoins the 
Black Oak to the northeast. Four men have been cleaning out the old 
workings preparatory to opening them up. Owned by Drexler Estate 
of San Francisco f , Mr. Wyman, of Applegate, J, and J. A. Graves, of 
Weimar, J. Leased to John and Ed. Major and Frank Cannon, of 
Weimar, who have temporary quarters just south of the mine. 

Black Spanish No. 2. Ophir district, Sec. 7, T. 12 N., E. 8 E., 
M. D. M. Quartz vein in granodiorite. Idle. Owned by J. E. Walsh, 
East Auburn. 

Blue Bell Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., R. 11 E. 
Elevation 3000 feet. Two and one-half miles southeast of Shady Run. 
Four-foot free milling quartz vein in slate. Developed by tunnels. 
Patented. Idle. Owned by A. Percival Crittenden, of Towle. 

Blue Wing or Ostrom Mine (formerly the Pritchard Gravel Mine). 
Iowa Hill district. Sec. 28, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. One and one- 
half miles NE. of Iowa Hill. Elevation 2800 feet. Twenty-foot quartz 
vein, with some free gold and sulphurets, between slate and serpentine. 
Strike N. 35° E. Dip 38°. Tunnel 150 feet. Shaft 30 feet. Claims, 
Blue Wing and Wolverine. The vein outcrops for about 500 feet, and is 
exposed both in the bedrock of the old hydraulic works and on the side 
hill which slopes steeply down to the American River. So-called assess- 
ment work is done yearly. An asbestos ledge claimed by the Placer 
County Properties Company is exposed about 100 feet west of the 7 ' 
quartz vein. Water is available from the Gleason ditch, about J mile 
east. Owned by W. A. Hilliard, of Grass Valley. 

Bobtail Mine. Dairy Farm district. Sec. 18, T. 13 N., R. 7 E. 
M. D. M. Seven miles northeast of Lincoln. Elevation 500 feel 
Three-foot quartz vein with diorite foot wall and slate hanging wall. 
Strike NW.-SE., dip NE. Shaft 60 feet. Drift 90 feet. Hand wor 
with windlass. Ore said to run about .$10.00 per ton. Owned by Wm. 
Recknagel, of Auburn, who thinks the ledge is very much like that a1 
the Dairy Farm. 

Bonanza Mine. Damascus district. Sec. 11, T. 15 N., R. 11 E. 
M. D. M. One mile northeast of Damascus. Elevation 3200 feel 
Four-foot quartz vein carrying free gold. Slate wall rock. Shaft 6( 



PLACER COUNTY. 335 

eet and one tunnel. Idle. Owned by Jerry J. Sullivan, San 
Yancisco. 

Bibl. : Placer County Register of Mines, 1902. State Min. Bur. 

Bonnie Bee Mine. Blue Canon district. See. 3, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
I. D. M. Three miles northwest of Blue Canon. Elevation 3,450 feet, 
^hree quartz veins, 4 feet, 6 feet and 12 feet wide; carrying free gold 
nd sulphurets, in slate. Strike NW.-SE., dip 90°. Shaft 30 feet, 
'unnel 140 feet. Some drifting. Water power was used. Electricity 
vailable. Mill. Idle. Owned by J. L. Waggoner Estate, Dutch Flat, 
nd Bonnie Bee Gold Mining and Development Company. 

Boulder Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 18, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. 
'atented. One-half mile east of Ophir. Elevation 950 feet. Two-foot 
uartz vein in granodiorite. Strike N. 40° W., dip SW. 45°. Shaft 
50 feet. Tunnel 300 feet. Water power w T as used. Electricity now 
vailable. Mill. Idle for several years. Owned by Jack Smith, 
^eased by E. Lavelle, of Ophir. 

Buena Vista Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 24, 
\ 14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M. Adjoins the Red Bird mine to the south. 
Vee gold and pyrite in a 6-foot to 25-foot ledge of decomposed quartz 
a slate. Strike N.-S. Tunnel 125 feet. Mill tests are said to have 
un $6.00 in gold and $4.00 in sulphides. Owned by Ed. Bigley, of 
Colfax. 

Bunker and Nihill Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 32, T. 14 N., 
i. 11 E., M. D. M. Three miles southwest of Michigan Bluff. Quartz 
ein. carrying free gold in slate. Owned by H. H. Bunker and J. A. 
tihill, of Michigan Bluff. 

Burner Prospect. Forest Hill district. Sec. 14, T. 13 N., R. 9 E., 
[. D. M. Strike N. 12° W., dip 45° E. Shaft 29 feet. Tunnel 40 feet. 
»re said to assay $6.00 per ton. Owned by J. W. Burner, Forest Hill. 

Butt's Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 21, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. 
|l four-foot quartz vein, in granodiorite, carries free gold with some 
alena and sulphurets. Strike E.-W. Dip 45° S. Shaft 40 feet. 
I'unnel 800 feet. Five-stamp mill. Ore reported to have averaged 
3.00 per ton. Idle for over 15 years. 

Calf Pasture Mine. Rock Creek district. Sec. 34, T. 13 N., R. 8 E., 
[. D. M. Three and one-half miles north of Auburn. Elevation 1000 
set. Eight-foot vein of quartz in amphibolite. Strike NW.-SE. 
iip 90°. Incline shaft 250 feet. Drifting 40 feet. Claims, Calf Pas- 
ire, Calf Pasture Extension. Patented. Adjoins the Rock Creek 
itine. Idle. Owned by W. E. Dean, Kohl Building, San Francisco. 

California Quartz Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., 
[. D. M. Two and one-half miles southwest of Auburn. Eighteen-inch 



336 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

quartz vein, carrying free gold in amphibolite. Strike approximately 
E.-W., dip 50° S. One hundred feet of open cut along vein. Patented. 
Idle. Owned by a Mr. Hubbell, of Auburn, in 1902. 

Bibl. : Register of Mines and Minerals, 1902. Cal. State Min. Bur. 

Cash in Dump. Tahoe district. Sixteen miles southeast of Soda 
Springs Station by wagon road. Elevation 5480'. Thirty-foot incline 
shaft on 18" vein of quartz striking N. 30° W. and dipping 32° SW. 
The vein is decomposed and porous near the surface and carries some 
iron sulphide. Three claims adjoin the Chicago Mine. Eight assays 
of the surface quartz are said to have averaged $51.00 per ton. Owned ' 
by H. M. Black and H. J. Ellert of Virginia City. 

Centennial Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., 
M. D. M. Elevation 1180 feet. One 18-inch quartz vein in amphibolite, 
carrying pockets of free gold and sulphurets. Strike N. 80° W. Dip ; 
70° S. Tunnel 1100 feet. Owned by Walsh Bros., Freeman Hotel, 
Auburn. 

Central Mine. Damascus district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M. Three miles north of Damascus on the North Fork of the 
American River, north of Humbug Canon. Elevation 2200 feet. Five- 
foot quartz vein, carrying sulphurets, in slate. Tunnel 300 feet. Water 
power. Mill. Idle. Owned by Lee Dorer, of Towle. and H. T. Power, 1 
of San Francisco. 

Champion Mine, Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 15, T. 14 X., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M. One and one-half miles northeast of Michigan Bluff. Three 
foot vein of quartz, carrying free gold, in slate. Shaft 120 feet. Assess 
ment work only. Owned by Daniel Webster Mining Company, made up 
of F. A. Leach, A. Dibble and Mr. Hampton, of Michigan Bluff. 

Cherokee Mine. Last Chance district. Three seams of ribb 
quartz, in slate, carrying sulphurets. Strike NW.-SE., dip 70 
Shaft 55 feet. Drifts 200 feet. Water from Deep Canon. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rep. XII, 1893-4, p. 206. 

Chicago or Falls Creek. Tahoe district. Sixteen miles southeasl 
of Soda Springs Station by wagon road, in Sec. 32, T. 16 N., R. 1-4 E.. 
M. 1). M. Elevation 5200'. Upper tunnel 52'. Lower tunnel 15' 
Eighteen-ineh quartz vein strikes N. 30° W. and dips 35° E. in lime- 
stone. The vein carries considerable pyrite, chalcopyrite and free gold 
Oxidized ore is said to assay $61.00 per ton while the sulphides assaj 
$17.00 per ton in gold, 4 oz. silver and 8% copper. There is an excel 
lent mill site 30' from the tunnel, on Wubbena Creek which carriei 
from 10" to 12" of water during the dry season. Owned by Tom Youn| 
of Cisco. Leased by H. J. Ellert of Virginia City and F. L. Bradley 
M. A. and S. B. Wright of Berkeley, who shipped some ore in October' 
1916. 



up 



PLACER COUNTY. 337 

Christmas Hill Mine. Butcher Ranch district. Sec. 26, T. 13 N., 

?\. 9 E.. M. D. M. One mile southeast of Butcher Ranch. Elevation 

feet. A 300-foot porphyry dike in slate carries quartz stringers. 

Strike X.-S. Open cut 350 feet. Owner works in mine every year. 

Dwned by J. A. "Ware, of Butcher Ranch. 

Conrad Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 

J miles west of Auburn. Elevation 1150 feet. Thirty-inch quartz 
rein, carrying free gold, galena and sulphurets, in amphibolite. Strike 
pproximately E.-W., dip 70° S. Shaft 130 feet. Tunnel 700 feet. 
Patented. Adjoins the Centennial, to which it is parallel. Owned by 
Xm. Walsh. Freeman Hotel, Auburn. 

Crandall Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 8, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
| miles west of Auburn. Elevation 950 feet. A two-foot vein of 
uartz in amphibolite, carries sulphurets. Strike XE.-SW., dip 70° SE. 
Shaft 70 feet. Tunnel 400 feet. White-Rogers 5-stamp mill. Worked 
y hand drills. Water power. Owned by Wm. Jull, of Auburn. 

Crater Hill Mine. Ophir district, Sec. 12, T. 12 N., R. 7 E., 
.1. D. M., 3| miles west of Auburn. Elevation 1200 feet. Patented. 
^ 2^-foot quartz vein, in amphibolite, carries galena and sulphurets. 
trike X. 80 c W., dip 48° S. Shaft 800 feet. Dump has been sorted 
nd values taken out. Idle. The Kittler property is southeast of the 
>ater Hill, in the SW. corner of Sec. 7, T. 12 X., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 

miles west of Auburn. A quartz ledge on the property, in grano- 
uorite, carries galena and sulphurets. Strike E.-W., dip 45° S. 
•haft 150 feet. Tunnel 400 feet. Idle. Owned by George A. 
Qdrich, of Auburn. 

Bibl. : Rep. X, 1890, p. 433. 

Dahlonega. Blue Canon district. Sec. 12, T. 16 X., R. 11 E., 
1. D. M., 2 miles south of Emigrant Gap. Elevation 5350 feet. A 
ft-foot quartz vein in slate carries sulphurets. Strike XE.-SW., dip 
E. Tunnel 480 feet stoped to surface. In another tunnel run 100' 
Aver the ore did not pay. Steam power. Mill burned. W T orked, off 
•nd on. for 40 years. Owned by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company. 
Ir. Tripp of Redlands, president ; A. E. Rudell of San Bernardino, 
*retary. 

Bibl. : Register of Mines and Minerals, 1902. Cal. State Min. Bur. 

Daniel Webster. Michigan Bluff district. Sees. 15 and 16, T. 14 X., 
:. 11 E.. M. D. M., H miles northwest of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 
300 feet. Claims, Daniel Webster and Champion. Placer patent. Two 
Feins of free milling quartz, two feet and five feet thick, occur in slate, 
.trike XE.-SW., dip 80° E. Shaft 125 feet. Drifts 200 feet. Assess- 
ment work only. Owned by Daniel Webster Mining Company, made up 
f F. A. Leach, A. Dibble and Mr. Hampton, of Michigan Bluff. 
I 22- ; 



338 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Debb Mine. Dutch Flat (Shady Run) district. Sec. 4, T. 15 N., 
R. 11 E., M. D. M., 2 miles northwest of Shady Run. Elevation 3850 
feet. Patented. A four-foot quartz vein, in slate, carrying galena and 
sulphurets, was discovered in the bed of the old hydraulic mine. Shaft 
60 feet. Drift 60 feet. Idle. Owned by A. Percival Crittenden, of 
Towle. 

De Maria or Garbe Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Located 5 
miles southeast of Michigan Bluff. Includes 30 acres or more of ! 
unpatented land. Free crystallized gold occurs in quartz seams in a 1 
porphyry dike and is washed by the placer process. Owners, C. J. 
De Maria and Mr. Garbe, of Spring Garden. 

Dewey Prospect. Butcher Ranch district. Sec. 22, T. 13 N., R. 9 E., s 
M. D. M. Prospecting has been done on a quartz vein in slate west of \ 
the U. S. or Carlson ranch, by E. B. Gilbert, of Butcher Ranch. 

Dewey and Stocker or Burt Mine. Forest Hill district. Sec. 30, 
T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., two miles northeast of Forest Hill. Quartz 
vein in slate. Tunnel 1200 feet. Development work only. No orei 
milled. Idle. Owned by Mrs. S. Burt, of Forest Hill. 

Don Prospect. Tahoe district, One-fourth mile east of the Lost 
Emigrant mine. Elevation 6700'. An 18" vein along a fracture in 
schist. Strike N. 80° E. and dip 70° S. Fifty-foot tunnel. Assess- 
ment work only. Owned by John Lass and Walter J. Wren of Vir- 
ginia City. 

Dorer Mine. Dutch Flat (Towle) district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., R. 11 B. 
M. D. M., 2\ miles SE. of Shady Run. Elevation 4016 feet. Free mill- 
ing quartz vein in slate. Strike N.-S., dip E. Tunnel 450 feet. Idlei 
L. R. Dorer, of Towle, owner. 

Bibl.: Rep. VII, p. 468; Rep. VIII, p. 207. 

Drummond Mine. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 1, T. 14 N., R. 10 
M. D. M., 3 miles southeast of Iowa Hill. Elevation 3,600 fe 
Patented. Two veins of quartz in slate. Strike N. 60° W., dip 80° NE 
Shaft 50 feet. Tunnel 810 feet. Idle. Owned by Hon. C. F. Reed am 
Mr. J. E. Walsh, Freeman Hotel, Auburn. 

Dry Hill Mine. Forest Hill district. Sees. 31 and 32, T. 14 I 
R. 11 E., M. D. M., 2 miles southeast of Forest Hill. Three claims 
Quartz stringers, carrying crystallized free gold, in slate. Drifts 150 1 
feet. Worked off and on for fifteen years. Owned by L. C. Lorenz 
and C. J. De Maria, of Spring Garden. 

Eclipse Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M 
2£ miles west of Auburn. Elevation 1000 feet. Patented. A quart 
vein in granocliorite carries galena and sulphurets. Strike N. 70° E 
dip 45° S. Shaft 297 feet. Old mill used water power. Idle. Owne 
by Eclipse Milling Company of Auburn. 
Bibl.: Rep. X. 1890, p. 433. 



: 



PLACER COUNTY. 339 

Eureka Consolidated. Forest Hill district. Sec. 1, T. 13 N., R. 9 E., 
nd Sec. 31, T. U N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., one mile northwest of Spring 
farden and 6 miles southwest of Forest Hill. Elevation 2000 feet 
pproximately. Six claims. Quartz stringers scattered through 200 
get of amphibolite. Strike N. 11° W., dip 45° E. The ore is said to 
ssay $5.00 per ton. Owned by O. F., Wm. and G. Seavey, W. A. 
hepherd, H. Adams, and G. Coffin, of Forest Hill. 

Eureka Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 13, T. 12 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 
our miles west of Auburn. Elevation 900 feet. Claims, Eureka 
lo. 1, Eureka Extension No. 1, Eureka No. 2, Eureka Extension No. 2. 
ncludes about 69 acres. A two-foot quartz vein, in granodiorite, 
arries free gold, pyrite and galena. Strike N. 75° W., dip 68° S. 
developed by a 280-foot shaft on Eureka No. 1, with 1000 feet of 
rifting on the 130-foot and 280-foot levels. Equipment of the mine 
msists of a 15 h. p. motor, which runs a compressor that furnishes 
ir for six Waugh drills. Electricity is also used for the hoist, to a 
apth of about 1500 feet. Milling with two California Roller Quartz 
[ills, run by electricity, costs about $2.00 per ton. Amalgamation 
ibles are used, and the sulphides are sent to the Selby smelter. Two 
lifts of twenty men each are employed, and about thirty tons of ore 
er day are milled. The ore is said to average about $10.00 per ton. 
ine lumber from the divide costs about $13.00 per thousand. Lagging 
L id stulls cost about $2.50 and $6.50 per thousand, respectively, de- 
vered at the mine. Electricity is secured from the Pacific Gas and 
lectric Company. Owned and operated by the Borealis Consolidated 
'ines Company; president, Dr. G. W. Hillegass, Oakland; manager, 
. P. Stephenson, Freeman Hotel, East Auburn. 

Fall Ravine. Last Chance district. Sec. 14, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., 
'.. D. M., 10 miles northeast of Last Chance, on the south side of Bald 
ountain, near Flat Ravine. Elevation 6000 feet. A three-foot 
lartz vein, in slate, carries galena and sulphurets. Strike N.-W., dip 
)° E. Shaft 350 feet. Tunnel 598 feet. Drifting 60 feet. Idle. 
wned by M. Savage, of Forest Hill. 
Bibl. : Rep. XII, 1898-9, p. 208. 

Gem Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 2, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 

miles north of Red Point. Elevation 3200 feet. Patented. Quartz 

ins scattered through a 100-foot belt in slate. Strike NW.-SE., dip 

>° XE. Shaft 70 feet. Tunnel 1200 feet. Idle for several years. 

Iwned by John Rablin, of Dutch Flat. 

Gold Blossom. Ophir district. Sec. 12, T. 12 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 
ur miles west of Auburn. Elevation 700 feet. Patents, the Ohio, 

')ld Blossom, Back Action and Harrison or Gold Blossom No. 2. 

'iree-foot vein of quartz in granodiorite, carrying free gold, galena 



340 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and pyrite. Strike •E.-W., dip 85° S. Three compartment shaft 840 
feet deep in center of property Crosscuts every 100 feet to the ledge. 
Drifts 450 feet. Ten-stamp mill at shaft No. 1 and a 20-stamp mill 
at shaft No. 2. Electric power available. The ore is reported to. 
average upward of $7.50 per ton in free gold and $0.75 in sulphurets. 
Considerable ore is blocked out. Idle. Owned by the Reed Estate,; 
Auburn; J. H. Toler, manager; A. C. Lowell, executor. 

Bibl. : Annual Rep. XIV, U. S. G. S., Pt. II, p. 270. Rep. X, 
Cal. State Min. Bur. 1890, p. 431. 

Gold King Mine. Canada Hill district. Sec. 8, T. 15 N., R. 13 E.,.' 
M. D. M., 10 miles east of Westville and 40 miles from Colfax, thel 
nearest railroad station. Elevation 5860 feet. Twenty acres. A 
banded quartz ledge in schist carries free gold, pyrite, arsenopyrite 
and galena. The vein is from 12" to 20" thick on the hangwall, striken 
N. 10° E. and dips 60° W. A 200' tunnel cuts the ledge at 120' 
and follows the vein for 80'. Ore milled ran about $3.50 per ton' 
Assays said to run from $8.00 to $10.00 per ton. Owned by Jas. G] 
Dodds, Elizabeth T. Bell, and Nels Forthun, of Westville. Leased by' 
Henry J. Snyder and John Henessy, of Grass Valley, who have taker 
up the Gold Queen and Gold Prince claims, north and south respectively 
of the Gold King. 

Golden Reward. Canada Hill district. Sec. 5, T. 15 N., R. 13 E 
M. D. M., 10 miles east of Westville. Elevation 6000 feet, approxij 
mately. Five claims, called the Golden Reward group. Twenty acre?! 
A three-foot quartz vein, in slate, carries free gold and sulphides. Th,^ 
main N.-S. vein dips 45° and is cut by an E.-W. vein. Crosscut 
tunnel 300 feet. Ten-stamp mill. Assessment work only. Owned b J 
Mrs. Wm. Bell and son, of Westville. 

Golden Rule Mine. Rocklin district. Center of Sec. 17, T. 11 N] 
R. 8 E., M. D. M., two miles southwest of Rattlesnake Bar and eigl. 
miles east of Rocklin. Elevation 750 feet. A three-foot quartz veir'j 
in granodiorite, carries free gold. Tunnel 1358 feet. Idle. Owne.J 
by Wm. Kendall, of Sacramento. 

Golden Scepter or Ellen Dip. New England Mills district. Sec. I 
T. 13 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M., two miles east of Applegate in CodnYl 
Canon. Elevation 1625 feet. A thirty-foot mineralized belt betwetl 
serpentine and slate carries values which were concentrated on til 
surface and hydraulicked in the early days. Strike N.-S., dip 90 ( 
Shaft 16 feet. Tunnel 270 feet. Later prospecting has not uncover* i 
a main vein. Assessment work only is now being carried on by til 
owners, Ed. Vore, of Applegate and E. Ephraim. 

Golden Sheaf Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 27, T. 14 ?| 
R. 1 1 E., M. 1). M., one-half mile south of Michigan Bluff. Claims, ll 



PLACER COUNTY. 341 

}hunk (quartz), and Beehive (placer). Idle. Owned by the Golden 
>heaf Mining Company ; E. P. Thompson, of Michigan Bluff, manager. 

Golden West Mine. Blue Canon district. Sec. 25, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
,1. D. M., three miles southeast of Blue Canon. Elevation 3000 feet. 
Patented. A 200-foot ledge in slate, carrying quartz stringers. Shaft 
00 feet. Tunnel 1500 feet. Drifting 500 feet. Idle. Owned by 
leuben H. Lloyd, San Francisco. 

Bibl. : Register of Mines and Minerals, 1902. Cal. State Min. Bur. 

Great Western. Canada Hill district. Eighteen miles SE. of Ciscc 
q Sec. 31, T. 15 N., R, 13 E., M. D. M. Elevation 5000'. Four 
een claims including 270 acres. A quartz ledge in diorite carries 
ree gold and sulphides. A 430' tunnel run to crosscut the ledge 
lid not strike it, since apparently the vein dips rather flat. Assays 
iear the surface of the vein are said to have run from $16.00 to $20.00 
>er ton. Owned by the Great Western Mining Company. Mr. Kelley, 
•resident ; Martin Winters, secretary, Pier 36, North River, New York. 

Green Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 8, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
wo miles northwest of Auburn. Patented. Eighteen-foot vein of 
tuartz in slate. Values in pockets. Shaft 300 feet. Mill. Idle. 
)wned by Wm. Kendall, of Dutch Flat. 
Bibl. : Rep. XII, 1893-4, p. 209. 

Hathaway or Butts Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 18, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., 
ML D. M., three and one-half miles southwest of Auburn. Patented. 
\djoins the Eureka mine on the east. Elevation 675 feet. A three- 
'oot quartz vein in granodiorite carries argentiferous galena, auriferous 
write and zinc blende. About 2% of the ore is sulphurets. The 
♦oncentrated sulphurets are reported to have run as high as $230 per 
on. Strike of veins N. 75° W., dip 75° S. Shaft 756 feet. Tunnel 
;37 feet. Drifting 3,500 feet. Equipped with old 20-stamp (850 
bs. each) mill and 4 Woodberry concentrators. Electricity is now 
ivailable for power. Bonded by Dr. G. W. Hillegass and associates of 
Oakland and E. P. Stephenson, of East Auburn. The same parties 
mve bonded the Eureka, Kirkland and Kirkland Extension patents. 

The Hathaway was taken over in 1916 by the Borealis Consolidated, 

he controlling interest of which is held by J. C. Winters of New York. 

'he mine was being dewatered in October, 1916, and the shaft retim- 

>ered. The property will be worked in conjunction with the Eureka. 

Bibl. : Rep. X, 1890, p. 429. 

Herman Mine. Deadwood district. Sec. 29, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., 
.1. D. M., 5 miles south of Westville. Elevation 4500 feet. Patented 
448 acres. Three veins of ribbon quartz varying from three feet to 
en feet wide, in slate, carry free gold and silver, with pyrite and 
galena. Strike N. 10° E., dip 67° E. The veins can be followed. for 



342 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

1500 feet on the surface. Incline shaft 100 feet. Crosscut to ledge 
1500 feet. Shaft 450 feet. Drifting on 100-foot level, N. 250 feet 
and S. 250 feet ; on 200-foot level, N. 400 feet and S. 200 feet ; on 300- 
foot level, N. 100 feet and S. 150 feet. No drifting on 450-foot level. 

The mine was pumped out in July, 1915, and has produced on an 
average of 50 tons of ore per day since August 10, 1915. It is equipped 
with five air drills and. two Water-Leyner drills. The ore is drawn 
from the mine in one-ton cars by mules. Two 200 h. p. steam boilers 
furnish power for an electric generator for lighting purposes, an air 
compressor and 1 Worthington and 1 Blake pump. Wood for fuel 
costs $3.00 per cord. 

The mill has thirty 1200-pound stamps, which have a six-inch drop, 
J 00 times per minute. The ore is crushed to 24 mesh and the pulp 
passes over amalgamation plates. The tailings are not impounded. 

From thirty to fifty men were employed in October 1915. When; 
visited in September, 1916, poles to obtain electric power from the 1 
Black Canon line were on the ground but the mine had been shut down! 
and was rapidly filling with water. Good ore is reported in the lower 
workings. Owned by the Herman Property Syndicate. Operated by 1 
the Pennsylvania Gold Mining Co., 2001 First National Bank Bldg., 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; C. H. Stolzenbach, Pittsburgh, Pa., president; 
Samuel H. Brockunier, superintendent, Westville, Placer County, Cal. 

Hermit Prospect. Last Chance district. Section 30, T. 15 N., 
R. 13 E., M. D. M., five miles northeast of Last Chance, in Deep Canon. 
Elevation 5500 feet. Quartz ledge in slate, carrying sulphides. Shaft 

10 feet. Drift 20 feet. Owned by John Lass, of Summit. 

Hope Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M.J 
1J miles southwest of Auburn. Elevation 1142 feet. Patented.! 
Eighteen-foot quartz ledge, in slate, carrying sulphurets. Shaft 7Cj 
feet. Handwork, with windlass and pump. Owned by Andrew John- 
son, of Ophir. 

International Quartz Mine. Forest Hill district. Sec. 12, T. 13 N. j 
R. 9 E., M. D. M., 7 miles southwest of Forest Hill. Free gold alon^' 
the footwall of a 50-foot porphyry dike. Assays are said to run fron 
$3.75 to $15.00 per ton. Owned by Patrick Mclnnis, of Butcher Ranch 

Joe Dandy. Tahoe district. One mile south of the Lost Emigran 
mine. Elevation 6935'. Decomposed vein material, in decompose( 
limestone, strikes N. 70° E. and dips 70° SE. Opened up by a 34 
shaft and 25' drift east along. the vein material. The vein materia 
pans. Claims, Joe Dandy and Billy Boy. Owned by John Lass, o: 
Virginia City, and L. D. Heath, of Los Angeles. 

Julia Mine. Damascus district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M 

11 miles NE, of Damascus. Four-foot quartz vein in slate. Strik 






PLACER COUNTY. 343 



XE.. dip SO' E. Tunnel 80 feet. Idle. Owned by J. D. Sullivan and 
A. P. Crittenden, of Towle. 

Julian Mine, formerly the Bowlder Claim. Opliir district. South- 
east corner of Sec. 7, T. 12 N., R, 8 E., M. D. M., three miles west of 
Auburn. Three-foot vein of ribbon quartz, carrying sulphurets, in 
granodiorite. Strike N. 10° E., dip 45° E. Tunnel 300 feet on vein. 
Shaft connects with tunnel at depth of 115 feet. Claim now covered 
by an orchard. Idle. Owned by Mrs. Dr. M. Schnabel, of Newcastle. 
Bibl. : Rep. XII. 1893-4, p. 205. 

LaFollette or Nob Hill Mine. Canada Hill district. Sees. 7 and 8, 
T. 15 X.. R. 13 E.. M. D. M., 8 miles east of Westville. Elevation 5,930 
feet. Twelve-inch quartz ledge, in metamorphic sandstone, carries free 
gold, arsenopyrite, galena and sphalerite. Open cut 200 feet along 
vein. Ninety-foot tunnel. Twenty acres. Adjoins Gold King claim. 
Ore said to assay about $10.00 per ton. Owned by Henry Snyder, of 
Grass Valley. 

La Trinidad or Sterritt Mine. Canada Hill district. Sec. 34. 
T. 16 X., R. 13 E., M. D. M., eight miles south of Cisco. Elevation 
6000 feet. On the North Fork of the American River, in Sailor Canon. 
Patented. Four-foot quartz vein in slate, carrying free gold, strikes 
IrW.-SE. and dips 45 : NE. Tunnel 200 feet, caved; 500' drift with 
700' raise used as ore chute. Ten-stamp mill. Last leased to the 
Viking Company who installed considerable machinery. Most of the 
oxidized ore is said to have been stoped. The ore is said to have assayed 
$3.45 per ton. Owned by the New York Mining Company; Geo. F. 
Dennel, Cisco, superintendent ; George Montgomery, of Mills College, 
manager. 

Little Banner Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 22. T. 12 X., R. 8 E., 
' M. D. M.. 2 miles southeast of Auburn on the slope of the American 

River. Two claims. Three-foot to ten-foot quartz vein, in grano- 
'• diorite. carries free gold and pyrite. Strike NB.-SW., dip SE. Tunnel 
[ 1,000 feet. Shaft 100 feet. Five hundred feet of drifts on the 100- 
> foot level. The value of the ore ranges between $6.00 and $16.00 
' per ton. Equipment in 1915 consisted of a California Roller Quartz 
. Mill. Owned by Charles Glover. Leased by Dr. G. W. Hillegass and 

associates, of Oakland; superintendent, E. Stephenson, East Auburn. 

Live Oak Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 23, 
T. 14 X.. R. 9 E.. M. D. M.. two miles northeast of "Weimar, in Live 

i Oak Ravine. Free gold in a quartz vein in slate. Owned by Geisen- 
dorfer Estate. Bonded by Mr. Dan J. Williams, of Weimar, who is 

j reported to have installed a Williams Xew Stamp and to have 4 men 
working. The ore is reported to assay $15.00 per ton in the 175' shaft. 



344 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Lost Emigrant Mine. Tahoe district. Sec. 32, T. 16 N., R. 14 E., 
M. D. M., 12 miles by road southwest of Soda Springs station. Eleva- 
tion 6700 feet. Twelve-inch to 4-foot quartz vein in diabase porphy- 
rite, carries free gold and pyrite. Strike NW.-SE., dip 30° SW. 
Shaft 115 feet. Incline 500 feet. Drifting, 400 feet on 65-foot level, 
50 feet on 300-foot level, 50 feet on 500-foot level. Old steam hoist and 
4 1000-lb. stamps. Idle. Six hundred tons of tailings on the dump 
are said to assay $10.00 per ton. Owned by F. L. Heath et al., Donner 
post office, Placer County, Cal. 




Photo 9. Lost Emigrant Mine, eight miles southwest of Soda Springs, Placer County. 
Snow Mountain in the distance. 

Lundquist Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
two miles southwest of Auburn. Reported to have had a 12-foot quartz 
vein, in slate, carrying free gold and sulphurets. Strike NE.-SW., dip 
40° E. Shaft 120 feet. Tunnel 200 feet. Idle. Owned by Mrs. 
Lundquist, of Auburn. 

Malmberg. Ophir district. Sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
1 mile southwest of Auburn. Patented. Quartz vein in amphibolite. 
Shaft 110 feet. Idle. Owned by Mr. J. Malmberg, of Auburn. 

Marguerite. Rock Creek district. Sec. 3, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
1^ miles north of Auburn. Elevation 1360 feet. Patented. Reported 
to be a 5-foot quartz vein in serpentine. Strike NW.-SE., dip 80° SW. 
Shaft 310 feet. Idle. Owned by San Francisco parties. 

Mars Quartz Mine. Damascus district, 5 miles west of Westville, 
near the Pioneer mine. Patented. Eighty acres. Three quartz veins, 
in slate, carrying gold and silver. One vein is reported to be 20 feet 
wide. Tunnel 500 feet. Three-stamp mill. Ore is said to average 
$3.50 per ton. Idle. Owned by Sam Wolford, Grass Valley, Cal. 






PLACER COUNTY. 345 

Minna Ricca. Ophir district. Sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
two miles west of Auburn. Elevation 1,000 feet. Eeported to have 
been a 16-foot quartz vein, in slate, carrying free gold and sulphurets. 
Strike NE.-SW., dip 85° E. Shaft 150 feet. Tunnel 300 feet. Con- 
siderable good ore was taken from a chute. Idle. Owned by J. E. 
Walsh, East Auburn. 

BibL: Rep. X, 1890, p. 433. 

Mitchell Mine. Last Chance district. Located in El Dorado Canon. 
Worked off and on since 1855. Owned by H. F. Adams, of Forest 
Hill, and Ben Taber (1/5), of Auburn. 

Mollie Stark. Ophir district. Sec. 21, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
H miles southwest of Auburn. Elevation 850 feet. Patented. Three 
veins of white quartz, in granodiorite, carry free gold and silver as- 
sociated with galena and sulphurets. Strike NW.-SE., dip 74° SW. 
Shafts 40 feet and 18 feet. Incline 130 feet. Tunnel 200 feet. Drift- 
ing 270 feet. Idle. Owned by Mrs. Asa B. Eastwood, of Newcastle. 

Moore Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 17, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
two miles southwest of Auburn. Elevation 1050 feet. Patented. 
Eight-foot quartz vein, in slate, carries free gold and sulphurets. Strike 
E.-W., dip 45° S. Shaft 300 feet. Idle. Owned by J. M. White, of 
Auburn. 

North Star Mine. Damascus district. Reported to be in the neigh- 
borhood of the Pioneer mine. Seven-foot quartz ledge carrying free 
gold. Tunnels 80 feet and 90 feet. Owned by E. J. Power, E. J. Young 
and Henry F. Power, Berkeley. 

Number Two Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 10, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. 3\I., one-half mile northeast of Gold Run. Elevation 2875 feet. 
Reported as a 12-foot quartz vein in slate. Strike N.-S., dip E. Open 
cut 80 feet. Shaft 40 feet. Idle. Owned by E. A. Moody and Mr. 
Garety, of Gold Run. 

Old Pacific Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 25, T. 12 N, R. 7 E., M. D. M., 
one mile southwest of Newcastle. Reported as an 18-foot quartz vein, 
in granodiorite, carrying free gold, native silver and sulphurets. Strike 
E.-W., dip S. Shaft 200 feet, Idle. Owned by Mrs. Dr. M. Schnabel, 
of Newcastle. 

Oro Fino Mine. Ophir district. Sees. 7 and 8, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., 
M. D. M., 4 miles west of Auburn. Elevation 1,002 feet. Claims: 
Bullion, Bullion No. 1, Bullion No. 2, Golden Eagle, Bellevue, Last 
Chance, Buckeye, California and Smith's Extension. Two-foot quarts 
vein in amphibolite. Strike E.-W., dip 65° S. Inclined two-compari,- 
ment shaft 300 feet. Old Bellevue shaft 312 feet, with the following 



346 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

drifts: 75-foot level, 370 feet drift; 117-foot level, 340 feet drift; 17( 
foot level, 200 feet drift ; 224-foot level, 460 feet drift ; 312-foot level, 
730 feet drift. The 312-foot level connects with the Bullion No. 1 shaft, 
from which the ore is being worked and the water pumped. About 
one-half the ore between the Bellevue and Bullion No. 1 shafts has been 
stoped out. It is practically new ground between Bullion No. 1 and the 
old Bullion shaft, which is 100 feet deep with 100 feet of drift. 




Photo No. 10. — Headframe and mill of the Oro Fino Mining Co., on Bullion 
No. 1, Ophir District. 

Electric power is secured from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. 
The equipment of the mine consists of a 350-foot air compressor, air 
drills, l|-ton skips and telephone to the 300-foot level. A 75 h.p. 
electric motor runs the 10-stamp (1000-pound stamps) Joshua Hendy 
mill, two No. 5 Deister concentrators and 4-foot Joshua Hendy amalga- 
mation barrel. About 28 men are employed. 

About 30 tons of ore per day of 24 hours is milled. Mill tests are ! 
reported to have run from $17.00 to $18.00 per ton. About 70% of the fj 
gold is recovered on the amalgamation plates, while from 25% to 30% 
is recovered from the sulphurets. The ore taken as a whole averages 
about $7.00 per ton. Work in September, 1916, was being carried on 
in the 400' level. 

Owned by the Oro Fino Mining Company ; II. Gridley, superintend- 
ent, East Auburn. 

Pacific Slab Mine. Last Chance district. Sec. 33, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., 
M. D. M., I mile southwest of Last Chance. Quartz vein in slate, 
exposed in bedrock of drift mine. The ledge hns not been worked. 

I 



PLACER COUNTY. 347 

Owned by the Pacific Slab Consolidated Mining Company, 1007 Monad- 
noek Building, San Francisco; W. T. Davis, superintendent at drift 
mine. 

Paragon. Forest Hill district. A quartz vein averaging 4 feet in 
width was encountered in the main tunnel of the Paragon drift mine 
about 300 feet from the portal at the contact of serpentine and amphib- 
olite. The vein is exposed for over forty feet and strikes N. 65° E., 
dip 66° SW. The gravel is reported much richer near this vein. No 
developments. Owned by J. F. Thompson, of Bath. 

Patrick Consolidated. Canada Hill district. Sec. 10, T. 15 N., R. 
12 E., M. D. M., two miles southeast of Westville. Elevation 4800 feet. 
Three-foot quartz vein, carrying free gold, in slate. Strike NE.-SW., 
dip SE. Tunnel 550 feet. Idle. Owned by G. W. Snyder, of Damascus. 

Pioneer Mine. Damascus district. Sees. 10 and 3, T. 15 N., E. 11 E., 
If. D. M., two miles northwest of Damascus. Elevation 3800 feet. 
Patented. Two quartz veins, one 14 feet wide carrying free gold and 
sulphurets. The wall rock is slate. Strike NE.-SW. Dip 80° E. 
Shaft 1200 feet. Tunnel 2300 feet. Drifts 2500 feet. Twenty-stamp 
mill. Employ thirty to forty men all year. Production between 50 and 
60 tons per day. Owned by the Pioneer Gold Mines Company, 600 Thos. 
Clunie Building, San Francisco; C. M. Bandy, general manager; Fred 
Jost, superintendent at the mine. 

Prairie Flower. Canada Hill district. Forty acres in Sec. 9, T. 15 
N., R, 13 E., M. D. M., 8 miles east of Westville. Elevation 5,800 feet. 
Three-foot vein of ribbon quartz in slate carries free gold and pyrite. 
Strike N. 45° E., dip 70° W. Lower tunnel 1000 feet. Drift 500 feet, 
New 100-foot shaft. Stoped from lower tunnel to the surface for 400 
feet along the vein. The last work consisted of a 50-foot winze and 
60-foot shaft below the lower level. Water from Van Cliff Canon 
furnishes power for five-1000 lb. stamps. Ore said to run between $6.00 
and $10.00 per ton. and average $8.00 per ton between the two levels. 
Owned by Mrs. Wm. Bell and son, of Westville. 

Quien Sabe Mine. Canada Hill district. Sec. 9, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., 
M. D. M., 8 miles east of Westville. Elevation 5,300 feet. Forty acres. 
A 2-foot quartz vein, in metamorphic sandstone, carries free gold and 
pyrite, strikes N. 5° W., dips 75° W., and follows the bedding plane 
of the metamorphic rocks. A tunnel crosscuts the ledge at 60 feet and 
follows the vein for 40 feet, A lower tunnel 150 feet long has not 
reached the vein. A 160-foot pipe line from Van Cliff Canon, a branch 
of Antoine Canon, furnishes power for a Hendy triple discharge 2-stamp 
mill, for six months of the year. Other equipment consists of 36-inch 
Pelton waterwheel and a jaw crusher. The ore is said to mill from 



348 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

$3.00 to $8.00 per ton. Concentrated sulphides are said to have run 
about $380 per ton. 

Owned by Peter Hinst and J. G. Dodds of Westville. 

Rawhide Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 4, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., three miles southeast of Towle. Two porphyry dikes 4 feet 
and 6 feet thick, in slate, carry free gold. Strike NW.-SE.; dip 45° 
NE. Open cut 20 feet. Shaft 70 feet. Tunnel 600 feet. Drifting 
110 feet. Ten stamp mill. "Water power. Fifteen men reported to be 
working in October, 1916. Idle in September, 1916. Owned by the 
Helester Gold Mining Co. Leased by Frank B. Keever. Frank Chase, 
Towle, foreman. 

Razzle Dazzle. Ophir district. Sec. 20, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
1^ miles east of Newcastle. Elevation 950 feet. Patented. Fourteen 
feet of decomposed quartz, carrying pyrite, in slate. Strike NW.-SE., 
dip 70° NE. Shaft 180 feet. Drift 60 feet. Idle. Owned by G. L. 
Threlkel, of Newcastle. 

Reciprocity Mine. Gold Hill district. Sec. 11, T. 12 N., R. 7 E., 
M. D. M., three miles northwest of Ophir. Elevation 595 feet. A four- 
foot quartz vein, in granodiorite, carries gold and silver. Open cut 30 
feet. Shaft 20 feet. Idle. Owned by I. Meyer, of Lincoln. 

Red Bird Consolidated. New England Mills (Weimar) district. 
Sec. 24, T. 14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M. Elevation 2000 feet. Auriferous 
quartz stringers in Mariposa slate. The mineralized ledge is about 25 
feet wide and carries free gold and pyrite. Tunnel 200 feet. Double 
crosscut with 16-foot chamber. The Buena Vista mine adjoins the Red 
Bird No. 1 claim to the south, while the Red Bird No. 2 adjoins it to the 
north. The ore is said to average about $10.00 per ton. Owned by 
G. A. Tubbs, Colfax. 

Red Rock Mine. Blue Canon district. Sec. 24, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., three miles southeast of Blue Canon. Elevation 4200 feet. 
Patented. Ten-foot quartz vein in slate. Strike NW.-SE., dip W. 
Mill moved. Water power. Idle for several years. Owned by N. B. 
Willey, Blue Canon. 

Rip Van Winkle Mine. Formerly called the Lady Bedford or Page 
and Buckman Mine. Deadwood district. Sec. 29, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., 
M. D. M., six miles south of Westville. Four-foot to ten-foot vein of 
ribbon quartz in slate, carrying galena and pyrite. Strike NW.-SE., 
clip 50° E. Shaft 60 feet. Tunnel 1200 feet. One mile southeast of 
the Herman mine. Ore is said to average $3.00 per ton. Old two- 
stamp mill dismantled in September, 1916. Assessment work only. 
Ore shoot said to have been lost by a fault. Owned by B. S. Buckman, 
of Michigan Bluff, and J. G. Dodds, of Westville. 



PLACER COUNTY. 349 

Rising Sun Mine. Colfax district. Sec. 33, T. 15 N., R. 9 E., 
M. D. M., one mile northwest of Colfax. Elevation 2290 feet. Forty 
acres patented. One laminated quartz vein from 6 inches to 3 feet 
wide with several stringers, in diabase. The vein carries free gold, 
pyrite and chalcopyrite and strikes E.-W., with a dip 85° S. 

Development consists of a shaft in the center sunk to the fourth level, 
with levels at 60', 111', 187', 268' and 350'; a second shaft (6 ft. x 
12 ft.), with three compartments, to the east of the first has nine levels 
and is about 751 feet deep. The levels are 111', 187', 268', 350', 431', 
511', 590', 668' and 751' below the surface. A third shaft to the west 
of the main shaft has two levels at 111' and 187'. The wall rock is 
hard and usually no timbering is required. A tunnel has been driven 
over 300 feet from a point .3 of a mile northwest of the property on 
the south slope of Bear River Canon It was the intention to work the 
mine more cheaply from the tunnel, but it has never been completed. 
The shafts are now caved at the surface. 

It is reported that 80% of the auriferous value is free gold, while the 
balance is obtained from the concentrated sulphides which run from 
$150 to $200 per ton. Little work has been done below the fifth level 
and considerable low grade ore still remains above the fifth level. All 
improvements, including mill, hoist, etc., have been destroyed by fire. 
Assays made for the writer ran as follows: 

No. 1. Quartz vein material from dump at Rising Sun Mine, $1.10 
per ton. 

No. 2. Mineralized schist from same dump at Rising Sun Mine, $0.40 
per ton. 

The power line of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, from Alta, 
passes within one mile of the property. 

Owned by Marie A. Valentine Estate, New York, and Werry Bros., 
Colfax. 

Roosevelt. Tahoe district. Seventeen miles southeast of Soda 
Springs Station in Sec. 4, T. 15 N., R. 14 E., M. D. M. One claim 
adjoining the old Lost Emigrant mine. An oxidized vein is 3^' wide 
on the surface and 7' wide at the bottom of a 28' shaft. Quartz vein 
in diabase porphyrite. Owned by F. L. Heath et al., Donner, Cal. 

Rublin Mine. Last Chance district. Sec. 34, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., 
M. D. M. On south side of the ridge towards Last Chance from the 
Pacific Slab mine. Shaft 150'. Tunnel 860' was run to tap the vein 
at 500' below the surface, but it is said that it was run too far south 
and never hit the vein. The tunnel was driven by machine drills sup- 
plied with air from a compressor run by water power. Idle. Owned 
by Messrs. Foley, McCarty and Casen of Chicago who bought it of 
D. M. Ray of Last Chance. 



350 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Ruby Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 25, T. 
14 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M., three miles east of Weimar near the American 
River. Elevation 2200 feet. Four-foot porphyry dike in slate, carrying 
free gold and sulphides. Strike N.-S., dip 45° E. Incline shaft 126 
feet. Drift north 15 feet, south 14 feet. Ore said to assay $1.00 to 
$40.00 per ton. Assessment work only. Owned by E. H. Hinchey, 
Weimar, Cal. 

Saint Lawrence Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 7, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., 
M. D. M., 3J miles west of Auburn. Elevation 1000 feet. Patented. 
An 18-inch quartz vein in granodiorite carries free gold associated with 
pyrite and galena with some stibnite. Strike N. 70° W., dip 35° S. 
Shaft 300 feet. Tunnel 1000 feet. A 50 h. p. hoist and ten-stamp 
mill lie idle. Owned by the Reed Estate, of Auburn. 
Bibl. : Rep. XIV, U. S. G. S., Pt. II, 1892, p. 271. 

Salig Mine. Rock Creek district. Sec. 3, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
1J miles north of Auburn. Elevation 1300 feet. Patented. Quartz 
vein in slate, carrying free gold and silver in sulphurets and galena. 
Strike NW.-SE., dip 75° E. Shaft 200 feet. Idle. Owned by A. L. 
Smith, of Auburn. 

Salsic Mine. Rock Creek district. Sec. 3, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
f of a mile northwest of Auburn. One-foot quartz vein carrying free 
gold, pyrite and galena, in slate. Strike N. 45° W., dip 75° E. Idle. 
Owned by Smith and Fulweiler, of Auburn. 
Bibl. : Rep. XII, p. 212, 1893-4. 

Secret Town Mine. Gold Run district. Sec. 10, T. 15 N., R, 10 E., 
M. D. M., 1| miles southeast of Gold Run. Elevation 2875 feet. Two- 
foot quartz vein in slate. Strike NW.-SE., dip 60° E. Shaft 75 feet. 
Tunnel 20 feet. Idle. Owned by E. A. Moody and J. E. Everhart. 

Shady Run or Midas Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sees. 27 and 28, 
T. 16 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 1-| miles northeast of Shady Run. Eleva- 
tion 2700 feet. Patented, 640 acres. Stringers of quartz, carrying 
arsenopyrite and 3% sulphurets in a 38-foot porphyry dike. Strike 
NW.-SE., dip 90°. Shaft 140 feet, tunnel 570 feet. Six drifts. 
Water-power mill. Idle. Owned by R. Watson, Midas. 

Southern Cross Mine. Damascus district. Sec. 4, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., four miles northwest of Damascus. Patented. Three quartz 
veins, 2|-', 4' and 5' wide in slate carry free gold, sulphurets and galena. 
Strike NW.-SE., dip 60° E. Tunnel No. 1, 700 feet; No. 2, 500 feet. 
Mill burned. Idle. Owned by E. L. Ford, of Towle, and A. W. 
Nicholls, of Berkeley. J. E. Hines, superintendent, Rock Springs, 
Wyoming. 



PLACER COUNTY. 351 

Spanish Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 7, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
2J miles northwest of Auburn. Elevation 1050 feet. Patented. Six- 
teen-foot vein of quartz, carrying free gold, in granodiorite. Strike 
NW.-SE., dip 45° NE. Shaft 200 feet. Bonded to Brown, DeCon 
and Company, of San Diego. Reported to be installing a hoist and 
compressor, and to have leased the mill on the Peachy Consolidated 
property. Owned by the Reed Estate, Auburn. 

Texas Mine. Blue Canon district, Sec. 20, T. 16 N., R. 12 E., 
M. D. M., four miles south of Emigrant Gap. Elevation 5600 feet. A 
three and one-half foot quartz vein, in slate, carries sulphurets. Strike 
N.-S., dip 60° E. Shaft 110 feet. Tunnel 400 feet, was never com- 
pleted to bottom of shaft. Idle for 4 years. Owned by the Halsey 
Estate, of Towle. J. L. Gould, Alameda, president. Reported bonded 
to the Oakland Consolidated Gold Mining Company, Oakland, Cal. 

Three Stars or Columbia Mine. Ophir district. Sec. 2, T. 12 N., 
R. 7 E., M. D. M., 7 miles west of Auburn. Elevation 850 feet. 
Patented. Claims : North Star, Middle Star and Morning Star. Two 
quartz veins, carrying free gold, silver and sulphurets, in granodiorite. 
Shafts 524 feet and 724 feet, Incline 541 feet, Drifts 3,176 feet. 
"Water-power mill. 

The Morning Star has a 90-foot shaft and 95-foot incline on a 12- 
inch vein of free milling quartz in granodiorite. Strike NE.-SW., 
dip 45°. Idle. 

Owned by the Columbia Gold and Silver Mining Co., E. H. Vance, 
1911 Webster St., Oakland. 

Tiger Mine. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 25, T. 14 
N., R. 9 E., M. D. M., three miles east of Weimar. Elevation 2200 
feet, A three-foot quartz vein in slate carries free gold. Strike N.-S., 
dip 45° E. Open cut 50 feet. Shaft 30 feet. Incline 90 feet. Tunnel 
50 feet. Adjoins the Red Bird No. 1 Mine. Idle. Owned by Ed. 
Bigley, J. W. Hinchey and Mr. Odel, of Weimar. 

Tyler Mine. Near Clipper Gap. Thirteen-foot ledge of quartz, 
carrying sulphurets. Tunnel 190 feet. Owned by Levi Tyler, of 
Clipper Gap. 

Van Avery Mine. Blue Canon district. Sec. 14, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., H miles southeast of Blue Canon. Elevation 4625 feet. 
Patented. Three quartz veins, one 6 feet wide, carrying free gold and 
sulphurets, in slate. Strike NW.-SE., dip 77° W. Tunnel 600 feet. 
Water power. Idle for 20 years. Buildings burned. Said to have 
never paid. Owned by L. Balliet, of San Francisco. 

Washington Mine. Forest Hill district, Sec. 30, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., H miles east of Forest Hill. Elevation 3400 feet. Patented. 



352 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Two veins of ribbon quartz, 3 feet and 20 feet wide in diabase and ser- 
pentine. Strike N. 74° W., dip 80°. Tunnel 1400 feet. Water power. 
Mill removed. Idle for some time. Owned by A. M. Nihill, of Nevada 
and Jack Nihill, of Michigan Bluff. 

Wubbena Mine. Tahoe district. Sec. 32, T. 16 N., R. 14 E., M. D. 
M., 10 miles southeast of Soda Springs station on the Southern Pacific 
railroad. Elevation 6500 feet. Twenty-foot quartz vein, carrying 
free gold, in diabase. Strike north of west, dip south. Shaft 50 feet. 
Incline shaft 100 feet. Tunnel 50 feet. Idle. Prospect only. Owned 
by Herbrant, Eustice and Co., of Woodland. 

GOLD— DRIFT MINES. 
Allbright Mine. Kocklin district. Sec. 36, T. 12 N., R. 7 E., M. D. 
M., 2 miles east of Penryn. Surface hydraulicked. Bedrock tunnel 
reported to have been run 500 feet in slate and upraise made to the 
loose gravel, but little pay found. Idle. 
Bibl. : Rep. XII, p. 204. 

Alta Mine. Dutch Flat district. At Alta. Alta Gold Mining and 
Development Co., held f mile along the cement "White" and "Blue" 
channels. A 2000-foot tunnel was started to top the gravels. Idle 
since Mr. J. E. Doolittle, of Dutch Flat, the superintendent, died. 

American Hill. Canada Hill district. In Sec. 24 T. 15 N., R. 12 E., 
M. D. M. In Lost Canon, 4 miles by trail southeast of Secret House. 
Gravels similar to those at Canada Hill occur. A large channel 250' 
wide and % mile long and a small channel from 6' to 40' wide are said 
to occur. Work is said to have been mostly done along the south rim of i 
the large channel. 

Owned by Ben Denton of Westville. 

Avalon Mine. Forest Hill district. Avalon Mining Company of 
San Francisco, ran a tunnel. Abandoned. 

Azalea, or Blue Canon Mine. Blue Canon district. Sec. 22, T. 16 
N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 2 miles southwest of Blue Canon. Elevation 
4000 feet. Patented 360 acres. One and one-half miles on channel. 
Tunnel 3300 feet ; did not strike a pay channel. Free wash gravel car- 
ried low values. Water-power. Prospect work only. Owned by the 
Azalea Gold Mining Company, J. B. Knapp, president, Blue Canon. 

Baker Divide Mine. Forest Hill district. Portions of Sees. 12, 
13 and 18, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. On the Baker Divide, three 
miles northeast of Forest Hill. Elevation 2838 feet. Tunnel 3300 
feet in cement gravel. Upraise 125 feet. Drifting 375+ feet. Idle. 
Owned by Mrs. Soule and Mr. Bacon, Bacon Block, Oakland. 
Bibl.: Rep. VIII, p. 466. 






PLACER COUNTY. 353 

Baker Ranch Prospect. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 17, T. 14 N., 
R. 11 E., M. D. M., near the road from Forest Hill to Michigan Bluff. 
Elevation 3700 feet. Two short tunnels in a gravel channel. Gravel 
panned for values. Some work during rainy season. Owned by Mr. 
F. B. Ellsworth, of Baker Ranch. 

Bald Mountain Mine. Last Chance district. Portions of Sees. 21, 
22 and 28, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., M. D. M., in Flat Ravine, 10 miles south- 
east of Westville. Elevation 5800 feet. 160 acres. 10,000 feet is 
claimed along a north-south channel extending from Bald Mountain to 
Millers Defeat, 800' tunnel and 1000' drift along rim of channel. New 
200' tunnel 300' lower in elevation than the 800' tunnel. 100' shaft 
with 150' drift and 600' along channel caved. Two 60' shafts caved. 
Channel said to be 200' wide where crosscut. Gravels said to have 
paid $6.00 to $7.00 per man in upper part of channel where drifted. 
Claim overlapped on the northwest by the Fall Ravine quartz mine. 
Idle. Owned by A. Harpending, 2607 Fruitvale Ave., Oakland, Cal. 
Fred "W. Venzke, original locator, Westville, Cal. 

Banner Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 34, T. 16 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M. At Dutch Flat. Elevation 3100 feet. Patented. Cement 
gravel. Shaft 50 feet. Owned by E. C. Uren, Nevada City. 

Bartley Consolidated Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 26, T. 16 N., 
R. 10 E., M. D. M. Elevation 3600 feet. Patented 110 acres. Large 
deposit of low grade, free wash, blue gravel. Depth 200 feet. Channel 
4000 feet. Tunnel 1400 feet. Idle. Owned by Wm. Rablin, of Dutch 
Flat. 

Belle Verne Prospect. Last Chance district. Sees. 26 and 35, T. 
15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M. Across Grouse Canon from the Hometicket 
mine. Elevation 4800 feet. Eighty acre claim. Channel said to run 
east-west on the south side of Grouse Canon and may be 2000 feet long. 
'Gravel is 2 feet deep and 30 feet wide and is capped with andesite. 
Tunnel 50 feet driven towards channel. Owned by George H. Smith, 
of Last Chance. 

Ben Franklin Mine. Forest Hill district. One hundred and sixty 

• acres on Swindle Hill near Yankee Jim's. Elevation 2350 feet. Near 

forks of Brushy Creek and Devil's Canon. Bedrock tunnel 1200 feet. 

Upraise 50 feet. Idle. Owned by Joe Gilbert and R. C. Burry, of 

Forest Hill. 

Bibl. : Rep. XII, 1893-4, p. 205. 

Big Bar Prospect. Last Chance district. Sec. 20, T. 14 N., R. 13 E., 
M. D. M. Large bar in Duncan Canon below the Blue Eyes property. 
Ground was tested for value and it was found to have been drifted by 
Chinese in the early days. Abandoned by Messrs. Threlkeld and Blohm, 
of San Francisco, and W. T. Davis, of Last Chance. 

23—46904 



354 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Big Gun. Forest Hill district. Idle. J. F. Thompson, Bath. 

Bigelow. Forest Hill district. Idle. J. F. Thompson, Bath. 

Black Hawk Mine. Forest Hill district. Sees. 13 and 14, T. 14 N., 
R. 10 E., M. D. M., 3 miles north of Forest Hill. Idle. Owned by 
W. A. Freeman Estate, Thomas Nichols, manager, Auburn. 

Blue Eyes Prospect. Last Chance district. Sec. 32, T. 15 N., R. 13 
E., and Sees. 5, 7, 8 and 17, of T. 14 N., R. 13 E., M. D. M., 2500 acres. 
Assessment work done on a bedrock tunnel. Channel not yet reached. 
Tunnel reported to be too high. Old hydraulic work was done in the 
Pine Nut pit. Owned by S. S. Caples, of Michigan Bluff. 

Bogus Thunder. Michigan Bluff district. No information. 

Bowen Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 10, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., 2 miles northeast of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 3400 feet. 
Bowen claim patented. Hold 2000 feet on a gravel channel. Assess- 
ment work only on other claims. Owned by Mrs. F. A. Bowen and sons 
of Michigan Bluff. 

Brooklyn and Olympia Prospect. Last Chance district. Sees. 26, 
35 and 36, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M., one mile northeast of Last 
Chance. Elevation 4580 feet. Two hundred and thirty-five acres. 
Reported as one mile along a cement gravel channel. Tunnel 800 feet 
follows channel. Owned by Messrs. Threlkeld and Blohm, of San 
Francisco; W. T. Davis, superintendent, at Last Chance. 

Burns Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 22, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., one-half mile north of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 3500 feet. 
Two hundred acres. Early work on cement gravel channel. Tunnel 
800 feet. Shaft 130 feet. Channel lost. Assessment work only. 
Owned by the Michigan Bluff Mining Company ; secretary, Wm. Burns, 
Placer County Bank, East Auburn. 

Canada Hill Mine. Canada Hill district. Sees. 4, 5 and 9, T. 15 N., 
R. 13 E., M. D. M., 8 miles east of Westville. Elevation 6300 feet. 
Patented. Three hundred and ten acres. Reported to have one mile 
along a channel of free wash gravel. Old tunnel 1500 feet caved. New 
tunnel has entered gravel. Twelve men employed in November, 1915. 
Owned by Mr. E. H. Armstrong, of Grass Valley. 

Carey Mine. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 27, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. I). 
M. At Monona Flat. Elevation 3200 feet. One hundred and twenty 
acre claim. Cement gravel channel with slate bedrock and andesite 
capping. Course of channel N. 20° "W. Tunnel 250 feet. Some drift- 
ing. Channel is reported to be from 6 inches to 4 feet deep and 100 
feet wide. One thousand eight hundred pound hand-cars are used to 
carry the gravel to a bin, where it is washed by water from Indian 
Canon. "Work is carried on all year. Two men work and mine about i 



! 



PLACER COUNTY. 355 

18 cars per day. The gravel averages $1.00 per car. Owned and 
operated by Mr. Bonham, of Iowa Hill. 

Cedar Creek Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M., 1J miles south of Dutch Flat. Elevation 3500 feet. Four 
hundred and sixty acres. Reported to embrace 1J miles along a 
channel of free wash gravel. A bedrock tunnel 7 feet x 9 feet is 2200 
f feet long. The gravel channel is reported to have been about 40 feet 
wide. Of the four upraises, only one is open. Idle. Property in 
charge of Mr. F. K. W. Develey, of Blue Canon. Owned by J. L. Gould, 
of Alameda. 

Bibl. : Rep. VII, p. 206. 

Copper Bottom Mine. Iowa Hill district. Patented. Idle. 
Owned by John Peters, of Sheridan. 

Dam Mine. Damascus district. Sees. 23 and 26, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., 2\ miles southeast of Damascus. Elevation 3715 feet. 
Patented 174 acres. Reported to have had four miles along a 
channel with free wash gravel 500 feet deep. Main 7500-foot tunnel 
is caved. Power plant removed. Idle. Owned by the Damascus 
Mining Company, Margaret Ogden, president, Monadnock Building, 
San Francisco. 

Damascus or Sunny South Mine. Damascus district. Sees. 14, 15 
and 23, of T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., one mile southeast of Damascus. 
Elevation 3748 feet. One thousand five hundred and forty-eight acres 
of claims. White and blue cement gravel channels 900 feet deep. 
Tunnel 9000 feet. Worked out. Idle. The Red Point Mine is said to 
be on a continuation of the same channel. Owned by the Hidden 
Treasure Mining Company, of Michigan Bluff ; H. T. Power, 625 Call 
Building, San Francisco. 

Dardanelles Mine. Forest Hill district, Sees. 34 and 35, T. 14 N., 
R. 10 E. ; M. D. M., li miles southwest of Forest Hill. Elevation 2600 
feet. Patents, Dardanelles and Oro. Area 312 acres. Reported to 
be a 2500-foot channel of cement gravel on slate. Tunnel 3000 feet. 
'Handwork. Two men working. Car capacity one ton. Work about 
four tons per day, tunneling, and eight tons per day breasting. Gravels 
average about $1.50 per ton. Prospect work only by the leasers. 
Owned by T. L. Chamberlain, of Auburn. Leased by Chester F. Bow- 
man and Samuel G. Bow y man, of Forest Hill. 

Devil's Basin Consolidated. Includes the Lofruth Mine. Dead- 
wood district. Sec. 1, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., and Sec. 25, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., 
|M. D. M., \ mile north of Deadwood. Elevation 3700 feet. Claims: 
Harkness, Washington, Elk Horn, Devil's Basin Consolidated, Devil's 
Basin and Rattlesnake. Tunnel 5000 feet. Worked by the owners. 



356 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



R. Lofruth, of Deadwood, and J. E. Ferguson, of Michigan Bluff, who 
employ two men. Some good gravel is said to have been struck in 
October, 1915, which ran $3.50 per car. 

Devil's Gate. H. G. Munger, 525 Adler St., Portland, Ore. 




Photo No. 11. Devil's Horn, in Devil's Basin, on the eastern 
slope of Deadwood Ridge, at head of the trail to Last Chance. 
The "horn" shows how the andesite has intruded the slates and 
gravels in places. 

Dewey Consolidated Mine. Iowa Hill district. Sees. 33 and 34, 
T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., \ mile southeast of Iowa Hill. One hundred 
and thirty-seven acres. Running tunnel to strike what is supposed to 
be a part of the "Blue Lead" channel. Property recently surveyed. 



rLACER COUNTY. 357 

Owned by A. and B. Rossi, of Sacramento (-J), and P. T. Langenour, 
J. W. Monroe, J. L. Stephens, Harvey Willoughby, Daniel Woods and 
J. P. Keene, of Woodland; and Manuel Chapman and Ralph Sparks, 
of Winters (|). J. P. Keene is superintendent. 

Dixie Queen Mine. Last Chance district. Sees. 9, 16 and 17, T. 
14 N., R. 13 E., M. D. M., 9 miles southeast of Last Chance on the west 
side of Duncan Canon and south of the Blue Eyes property. Elevation 
4000 feet. Two hundred and forty acre claim. Cement gravel channel 
on slate with capping of andesite. Course of channel SW. Tunnel 
700 feet. Breasted for 240'; 600' of crosscuts. Gravel washed in 
sluice boxes by water from Duncan Creek. Cars hold 1800 lbs. Equip- 
ment consists of: hand outfit for 8 men, shop and cabin. Two men 
work steadily and employ two others. Gravels average $1.00 per car. 
Said to have been $5000.00 taken out since 1906. Owned by Joseph 
Scherer and John Franks, of Last Chance. 

Dutch Flat Blue Lead. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 3, T. 15 N., 
R. 10 E., M. D. M. Small patented claim adjoining the Federal Drift 
Mine. Cement gravel, blue lead. Gravel from 50 feet to 110 feet deep. 
Tunnel 1000 feet. Shaft 400 feet, Owned by C. S. Jordan, of Dutch 
Flat, and J. L. Gould, of 16 Ensloe Ave., Alameda. 

Dyer or Wisconsin Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 35, T. 16 N., 
R. 10 E. 3 M. D. M., I mile west of Dutch Flat. Elevation 2800 feet. 
Twenty acres. Cement blue gravel channel in slate. Channel 300 feet. 
Tunnel 800 feet. Seven men drifting and breasting. Gas engine runs 
air compressor equipped with one Sullivan air drill. Distillate costs 
$0.12 per gallon at the property. Gravel is washed in hopper with 
100 feet of sluice boxes. Owned by J. L. Gould, 16 Ensloe Ave., 
Alameda. Leased by Messrs. Fred Husler and Chas. Wachter, locally 
known as the ' ' Swiss Boys. ' ' 

Eagle Bar Mine. Forest Hill district. Wm. Duffy, Forest Hill. 

Elite. Dutch Flat district. Sees. 31 and 32, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., one mile southeast of Shady Run. Elevation 3950 feet. 
Four hundred and twenty-five acres. Gravel reported to be 500 feet 
deep. Shaft 153 feet. Tunnel 1100 feet. Idle. Owned by R. Monroe 
et al., of Dutch Flat. 

Eureka. Damascus district. Includes 3,000 acres in Sees. 17, 18, 
19 and 20, in T. 15 N., R. 12 E., and in Sees. 24 and 25 of T. 15 N., 
R. 11 E., M. D. M., \\ miles southeast of Forks House. Elevation 
4400 feet. Free wash gravel. Tunnel 4000 feet. Prospecting only 
at present. Owned by the Eureka Consolidated Drift Mining Co. ; 
J. A. Ferguson, superintendent, Forest Hill, and Chas. Leach, U. S. 
Mint. 

Excelsior. Forest Hill district. Sec. 26, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. 
M. Worked through the New Hope, 3500 foot bed-rock, tunnel with 



358 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



portal in Sec. 35, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. One-half mile southeast 
of Forest Hill. The channel is on the Blue Lead and was located in 
the early 70 's but was not worked until 1913. The company now owns 
all claims between the Dardanelles and the Gore, including also the 
Banner and the Garland Mill Slope, including about 2000 acres. The 
channel northeast of here has all been worked out through the May- 
flower and Paragon tunnels. The channel varies from 20 feet to 100 
feet wide and has a course about N. 20° E. The bed rock is slate and 
the cement blue gravel requires blasting. Work consists of drifting 
along the channel and stoping out the chambers. Mine equipment con- 
sists of a 350-cubic-foot air compressor and eight Ingersoll and Sullivan 
air drills. Electric power, 700 h. p., is brought from Horseshoe Bar. 

The gravel is screened through a revolving grizzly lined with T-rails 
and the fine material run through a 6-stamp triple discharge mill. Six 
months gravel was blocked out when visited in September, 1915. Water 
is obtained from the tunnel, through which drain the old Harley shaft 
and Independence slope. Owned by Excelsior Gold Mines Co., Inc., 
M. Jenks, president, San Francisco; R. B. Elder, manager, Berkeley. 

Federal Drift Mine. Dutch Flat. Sec. 34, T. 16 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M. Elevation 3000 feet. Patented land in town of Dutch Flat. 
One hundred and twenty-five acres. Slate bed rock. Channel thought 
to be a branch of the Dutch Flat Blue Lead and strikes approximately 
N. 80° E. A two-compartment vertical shaft over 80 feet deep struck 
gravel in November, 1915, but water was encountered. A mule whim 
was used for hoisting and five men were employed. Owned by the 
Federal Drift Mining Company, Dr. W. B. Coffey, president; W. T. 
Watson, superintendent, Dutch Flat. 




Photo No. 12. 



View eastward towards the town of Dutch Flat, 
the location of the Federal Drift shaft, 



The X in center marks 



PLACER COUNTY. 



359 



Fitzpatrick. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 32, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. 
D. M., one mile west of Iowa Hill. Tunnel 2000 feet. Two men pros- 
pecting on an old property. Owned by M. E. Poor, Monona Flat, 
Iowa Hill. 

Florida. Forest Hill district. Sec. 25, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. 
M., one mile northeast of Forest Hill. Elevation 3550 feet. Patented. 
Cement channel. Tunnel 650 feet. Some development work being 
done. Owned by Mr. Rice. 

Flying Fish. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 34, T. 16 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M., i mile southwest of Dutch Flat. Elevation 3100 feet. Ten 
acres. Cement gravel. Idle. Ow r ned by Ed. C. Uren, Nevada City. 

Franklin. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 10, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., 2 miles northeast of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 3400 feet. 
Tunnel 800 feet. Expect to strike Bowen channel in another 100 feet. 
Two men employed. Owned by A. Dixon, of Michigan Bluff. 

Gleason Mine. IoAva Hill district. Said to be three miles southeast 
of Iowa Hill. Patented. Cement gravel channel with slate bedrock. 
Idle. Owned by Gleason Consolidated Mining Co., 3793 Twentieth St., 
San Francisco; Miss M. T. Gleason, Iowa Hill. 

Glenn Mine. Last Chance district. Sees. 22, 27, 28 and 34, T. 15 
N., R. 13 E., M. D. M., 6 miles east of Last Chance. Elevation 5000 
feet. Cement channel on the northwest side of Duncan Canon. Drift- 
ing up the channel has been carried on recently by Mr. F. A. Moss, 
who with Mr. M. C. Threlkeld, leases the property from the owners, 
G. R. Cowen, of San Francisco, Geo. McCauley and K. A. Robinson, of 
Auburn. 




Photo 13. Glenn Mine, eight miles east of Last Chance, Placer County 



360 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The course of the lower channel is N. 60° W. and it has been covered 
with andesite. A later channel deposited gravels on top of the andesite 
and was capped by a more recent lava flow. The bedrock consists of 
schist and is steep and cut full of potholes. The pay gravel is from 
10' to 100' wide. Equipment consists of shop, tools, snowsheds, bunk 
house and superintendent's house. Former work seemed to have been 
northeast of the channel, and considerable work was done by the 
present operators before the channel was opened up. 

Gold Ring or J. D. Peters Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 1, T. 15, 

N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., 2J miles southwest of Towle. Elevation 1500 
feet. Sixty-three acres. Cement gravel channel 30 feet wide. Idle. 
Owned by Mr. West, of Green Valley, or Towle. 

Golden Channel. Blue Canon district. Sec. 1, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M. Elevation 4800 feet. One and one-half miles southwest of 
Emigrant Gap. Patented. Four hundred and eighty acres. Reported 
as free wash gravel 130 feet wide. Could not find a pay channel. 
Shaft 105 feet. Idle for 14 years. Owned by J. "W. Hyatt, Emigrant 
Gap. 

Golden Nugget. Blue Canon district. Sec. 12, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., two miles northeast of Blue Canon. Elevation 4000 feet. 
Patented 640 acres. Reported to include one mile of channel, carrying 
free wash gravel 450 feet deep and 75 feet wide. Tunnel 325 feet. 
Idle. Owned by C. M. Everhart, of Gold Run. 

Golden River or Red Point Mine. Damascus district. Sees. 12, 13, 
14, 23 and 24, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., and Sees. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 18, of I 
T. 15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M., one mile north of Forks House. Elevation 
3827 feet. Patented. One thousand feet of free wash gravel. Tunnels 
over 18,000 feet. The gravel is said to have been about worked out. 
Idle. Owned by the Societe des Mines de Golden River, of Paris, 
France. Leased to Messrs. Bird and J. A. Ferguson, of Forest Hill. 

Golden Sheaf. Michigan Bluff district. E. S. Thompson, Michigan 
Bluff. 

Golden Star. Iowa Hill district at Succor Flat. Tunnel, 675 feet. 
Prospecting for blue gravel. Owned by N. E. Booth and R. L. Wills, 
of Auburn. Leased to Robert McClanahan, of Iowa Hill. 

Golden Streak. Iowa Hill district. Said to be a channel 80' wide, 
5000' long and varying from 0' to 8' deep capped by 400' of lava. A 
1200' bedrock tunnel is contemplated to reach the gravels. 

Owned by the Golden Streak Mining Co., Henry Lobner, F. H. and 
Walter Schulze, F. D. Kuenzley, and P. W. Crider, of Colfax. 



i 



'- 



PLACER COUNTY. 361 



Golden West. Canada Hill district. Sees. 4 and 5, T. 15 N., R. 13 
E., M. D. M., eight miles east of Westville. Elevation 6500 feet. 
Claims: Big Hill (150 acres) and Bunker Hill (140 acres). Patented 
400 acres. Claim 1 mile along a channel, of red and blue gravel, 130' 
wide. Development work consists of an incline shaft and a 2200' bed- 
rock tunnel which, it is said, lacks only 200' of work to reach the channel. 
Some gravel from an upper tunnel is said to have run $5.00 per car. 
The operators are reported about to resume work after four years 
idleness. E. H. Armstrong, of Grass Valley, manager. 

Gorman Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 27, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., 
M. D. M., one mile south of Michigan Bluff Drifting in cement gravel 
channel. Owned by A. Gorman, of Michigan Bluff. 

Grey Eagle. Forest Hill district. Sees. 5 and 6, T. 13 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M., five miles southwest of Forest Hill, on Owl Creek. Elevation 
2400 feet. Hold all claims eastward to the Franklin and are negotiat- 
ing for others, which will extend the holdings to the San Francisco 
claim. Present holdings include about 6000 feet of cement gravel 
channel with a volcanic capping. The gravel averages 5 feet thick and 
50 feet wide. Little timbering is necessary. Present working consists 
of a 3000-foot bedrock tunnel in slate, which crosscuts the E.-W. channel. 
Drifting has been carried eastward along the channel for 4000 feet. The 
gold is fine like bran, the largest pieces being valued at about $1.00. 
Tunneling costs about $11.00 per foot. When visited in October, 1915, 
the mine equipment consisted of an air compressor and six air drills. 
The gravel is drawn in one-ton cars by a horse to an old 10-stamp mill, 
repaired for temporary use. The camp included an office and bungalow, 
warehouse, shop, change room and 12 bunk houses. Water is pumped 
from the mine by one 2-inch centrifugal pump, one 4-inch single acting 
pump and one 7-inch duplex pump, which lift 10 inches of water 50 
feet. Electricity is obtained from the Excelsior line, owned by the 
Pacific Gas and Electric Co., and costs 1^ cents per K. W. H. Twelve 
men were employed. Freight from Auburn costs \ cent per pound. 

New equipment contemplated consists of a revolving screen and con- 
veyor belt; a three-stamp triple discharge Hendy mill with 24-mesh 
screen. The fine gravel will be run through sluices, while all gravel 
1 inch or over will be crushed. 

Owned by the California Chief Development Co. ; Walter Fitch, 

i president, Eureka, Utah; Chas. L. Austin, manager, Forest Hill. 
Hard Climb. Last Chance district. Sees. 3 and 9, T. 14 N., R. 
13 E., M. D. M., 6 miles southeast of Last Chance, on Duncan Ridge 
on the southeast side of Duncan Canon. Elevation 4000 feet. Four 
hundred acres in claims. A lava capped channel is worked by those 



362 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

interested when water is available. In 1908 a tunnel was run 75 feet 
into gravel and some gold taken out. About 60 feet lower and 100C 
feet north of the first tunnel, another tunnel was run 40 feet on the! 
channel, but the gravel encountered did not carry much value. A 
new 200' tunnel, in conglomerate and 50' of gravel, is said to loot 
promising. Owned by F. M. Tillotson, Hiram W. McCullough and 
Chas. H. Hilton, of Last Chance, and Mrs. Mary Haviland, of Michigan 
Bluff. j 

Hassler. Ophir district. In Long Ravine, 2 miles southeast of 
Auburn on the road to Folsom, Sec. 28, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. 
Prospecting is being carried along a NW.-SE. channel, said to be 2"-; 
12' deep, 75' wide and 1000' long. The channel is capped with lava, 
gravel, mud, etc. Development consists of a 340' incline shaft on an 
angle of 30°. The values are said to run out to the rims of the channel 
on the bedrock. Equipment consists of a 25 h. p. steam hoist used to. 
raise the gravels, and a 1600 lb. car. The gravels are said to run, 
from $4.00 to $14.00 per ton, and 150 cars are on the dump ready for| 
washing. 

Owned by Harold Powers, San Francisco, and E. C. Gaylord et al.,1 
of Auburn. Leased by J. W. Wright, Frank Wooldridge and G. P. 
Johnson of East Auburn. 

Haub. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 28, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M.J 
\ mile northeast of Shady Run. Elevation 3720 feet. Thirty-three! 
acres. Reported as free wash white gravel. Channel 40 feet wide.j 
Tunnel 960 feet. Shaft 30 feet. Some work being carried on. Owned] 
by Robert Watson, of Blue Canon. 

Bibl. : Register of Placer County Mines, 1902, Cal. State Min. Bur.: 

Hermit or Great Channel. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 3, T. 11 
N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., four miles north of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 
3400 feet. Free wash gravel. Shaft 75 feet. Tunnel 2200 feet. Idle.) 
Owned by Mrs. Bowen and sons, of Michigan Bluff. 

Hidden Treasure. Damascus district, Sees. 26, 27, 34 and 35, of 
T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 5 miles north of Michigan Bluff. Elevation j 
3644 feet. Patented 1545 acres. Reported as free wash gravel. | 
Channel 300 feet wide. Tunnel 8300 feet. Electric power was used for j 
traction, hoisting, pumping and blower. Idle since fall of 1914. Owned 
by the Hidden Treasure Mining Co., of Michigan Bluff; Harold T. j 
Power, secretary, 625 Call Building, San Francisco. 

Bibl.: Rep. VIII, p. 469; Rep. IX, pp. 29-120; Rep. X, p. 451; | 
Rep. XII, p. 209. 



PLACER COUNTY. 363 

Hogsback Mine. Canada Hill district. Sees. 2 and 3, T. 15 N., 
I. 12 E., M. D. M., three miles east of Westville. Elevation 4524 feet. 
Patented 1545 acres. Reported as free wash gravel. Tunnel 2500 
eet. Thought to be the same channel that was worked at Red Point, 
die. Owned by Compagnie des Mines et Minerals, 26 Rue de Chateau- 
Ion, Paris, France; J. A. Ferguson, superintendent, Forest Hill. 
Bibl. : Rep.VIII, p. 472. 

Homestake. Forest Hill district. Sec. 31, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M. 
). M., two miles south of Bath, in Volcano Canon. Elevation 1260 
eet. Idle. Owned by M. Savage, of Forest Hill. 

Home Ticket. Last Chance district. Sees. 26 and 35, T. 15 N., 
I. 12 E., M. D. M., one mile east of Last Chance. Elevation 4700 feet. 
Venty-one claims. Cement gravel channel in slate averages 7 feet 
hick. A channel with a northerly direction is cut by one with an 
ast-west course. Tunnel 4300 feet. The gravel is mined by hand 
vork and then washed in hoppers by water from a reservoir in Grouse 
uanon, owned by the Pacific Slab Mine. During the dry season 
carcity of water compels them to chute the water for sluicing. Between 
5 and 20 men are employed. Owned by J. F. Thompson, of Bath, and 
•thers. Frank B. Keefer, president, San Francisco. Leased by D. M. 
lay, of Last Chance. 

Indiana Hill. Dutch Flat district. Sees. 9 and 10, T. 15 N., R. 10 
p., M. D. M., 1| miles southeast of Gold Run. Assessment work only. 
)wned by J. L. Sparhawk, Iowa Hill. 

Jack Robison. Last Chance district. Sec. 16, T. 14 N., R, 13 E., 
J. D. M. Elevation 4070'. An 80' tunnel in loose gravel has pene- 
rated a blue gravel. Equipment consists of bunk house and shop, 
^he gravels are sluiced by water dammed up from the mine. The 
'hannel is thought to run diagonally across the ridge in a NE.-SW. 
lirection. Owned by S. S. Caples, Michigan Bluff. 

Jarvis or Bob Lewis Mine. Damascus district. Sees. 14 and 15, 
K 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., \ mile northeast of Damascus. Elevation 
5850. One hundred and sixty acres. Cement gravel channel said to 
>e 400 feet wide. Fourteen hundred foot tunnel. Owned by H. M. 
Farvis, of Mobile, Alabama. Leased to Geo. Brown, Orin Jones, Jack 
>eighton and Bob Craig, of Last Chance, who have been drifting along 
he channel and j>roducing since June, 1915. 

Jupiter Consolidated. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 11, T. 14 N., R. 10 
3., M. D. M., 3J miles southeast of Iowa Hill. Patented 250 acres. 
Reported to have a channel one and one-half miles long in free wash 
travel on the north side of Shirttail Canon. Shaft 250 feet. Idle, 
)wned by the McGeachin Company. 



364 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Live Oak. New England Mills (Weimar) district. Sec. 22, T. 1* 
N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., 2 miles northeast of Weimar in Live Oak ravine 
Elevation 2000 feet. Owned by the Geisendorfer Estate. Bonded t< 
Dan J. Williams, of Weimar. 

Lost Camp. Blue Caiion district. SE. Corner of Sec. 23, T. 16 N. 
R. 11 E., M. D. M., 1-| miles southeast of Blue Canon on the north fori 
of the North Fork of the American River. Elevation 4500 feet. Su 
hundred acres. Tunnel 300 feet. Now operated as a hydraulic mine 
Owned by George F. Miller, of Blue Canon. 

Macedon Mine. Canada Hill district. Sec. 1, T. 15 N., R. 12 E. 
M. D. M., four miles east of Westville. Elevation 5000 feet. Patentee 
110 acres. Reported to have 3000 feet along a free wash grave 
channel which is about 70 feet wide. Tunnel 200 feet. Owned bj 
Dr. C. W. Richards and Mrs. A. Snyder, of Sacramento, and Mr. Rey 
of the Britton & Rey Co., San Francisco. 

Maguire, or Foss Mine. Dutch Flat district near Lowell Hill 
Worked by drifting in the early days. Wm. Maguire and wife th< 
present owners reported to be going to hydraulic the gravels. 

Marian Mine. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 35, T. 14 N., R. 11 E. 
M. D. M., two miles south of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 3800 feet 
One hundred and eighty -five acres in claims. Cement gravel channe 
in slate with andesite capping. Tunnel 600 feet. Development worl 
only. The owner expects to strike the channel in about 50 feet. Ownec 
by E. A. Hills, of Michigan Bluff. 

Maus Tunnel. Forest Hill district. Sec. 36, T. 14 N., R. 10 E. 
M. D. M., one mile east of Forest Hill. Elevation 3000 feet. This 
claim lies between the Excelsior and the. Paragon properties, but doe* 
not extend northwestward as far as the probable course of the Blu( 
Lead channel. Tunnel 1000 feet. It is reported that 500 feet mor( 
of tunnel with raises will be run. 

Bibl. : Grass Valley Union, October, 1916. 

Mayflower Mine. Forest Hill district. Parts of Sees. 22, 23, 24 
25 and 26, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., two miles northwest of Foreslj 
Hill. Elevation 2700 feet. Claims: Eastern, Portuguese and Brushy 
Slide. Patents: You Bet, Center Hill, Orono, Hancock and Watson; 
Banner, Coates, Slater, Live Oak, Rockby Point, High Run, Justice 
Nil Desperandum, Gore and Freeze Out. Twenty-six hundred acres; 
Three cement gravel channels in slate. The Orono channel averages! 
40 feet wide, and a 3500-foot bedrock tunnel has been driven in mining! 
it. The Blue Lead channel averages 300 feet wide, and a 14,800 fool 
bedrock tunnel has been driven in course of mining it. The Upper 
Lead channel averages 250 feet wide and a 3500-foot tunnel in bedrock 
and gravel has been driven. In a shaft which was sunk to bedrock 









PLACER COUNTY. 



365 



bout 325 feet of blue gravel was passed through. Drifting is being 
urried on in all three of these channels. Two air compressors serve 
Bven machine drills and a forge. The gravel is trammed in lj-ton 
ars. 

Water and steam power are used, depending on the abundance of 
-ater and time of year, to run a 20-stamp mill which crushes the gravel, 
'he pulp passes over amalgamation plates and then over riffles. Sixteen 
len are employed and the miners move about 3^ cars of gravel per man 
er day. It is claimed that the net production of this mine during 
he last forty years has been about $3,600,000. 

Owned by the Mayflower Gravel Mining Company; Geo. L. Duffy, 
•resident, 2352 Mission Street, San Francisco. 

Missouri Mine. Forest Hill district. Sees. 33 and 34, T. 14 N., 
i. 10 E., M. D. M., one mile southeast of Yankee Jim's. Elevation 2650 
eet. Tunnel run but apparently struck little gravel. If carried south- 
ward into the San Francisco claim, this tunnel might encounter gravel, 
die. 

Mohawk. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 26, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., 
hree miles north of east of Iowa Hill on Succor Flat. Elevation 3200 
eet. Claims: Gravel channel, with a north-south course, in amphib- 
•lite. Incline shaft. Two men said to have been working for two 
-ears. Hand labor. Owned by N. E. Booth, of Colfax. 

Monumental. Canada Hill district. Sec. 4, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., M. 
). M., 8 miles east of Westville. Elevation 5300 feet. Five claims. 




Photo 14. Tunnel entrance to Monumental Mine, Canada Hill District, Placer County. 

rwo hundred acres. Adjoins the Golden "West property. A gravel 
channel running N. 60° W. is about 80 feet wide, with andesite 
capping. Tunnel 400 feet with some drifting. A 5 h. p. gasoline 



366 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



engine is used to run a barrel mill 8' long x 30" in diameter for loosen 
ing up the values. Eighty feet of sluice boxes. Three men work al 
year. Eighteen hundred feet of Keed channel worked out. Som 
gravel is poor while other carries values up to $8.00 per car. Owne< 
by Peter F. Hinst, E. W. Smith and A. A. Bissell, of Westville. 

Moody Ridge. Dutch Flat district. Sees. 3 and 10, T. 15 N., R. 1( 
E., M. D. M., two miles east of Gold Run. Elevation 3650 feet 
Patented 120 acres. Some tunneling. Remains undeveloped. Ownet 
by Mr. Moody, of the Pacific Hardware Company, of San Franciscc 




Photo No. IS. View northeastward up the railroad right of way near Gold Run, showing 
hydraulic gravel banks and pit to the right. 

Morning Star. Iowa Hill district. Sees. 33 and 34, T. 15 N., R. 1( 
E., M. D. M., one mile northwest of Iowa Hill. Elevation 2700 feet 
Patented 160 acres. Reported to have 5500 feet along a gravel channel: 
Tunnel 4800 feet. Shaft 488 feet. Idle. Owned by the McGeachii 
Co., H. T. Power, Call Building, San Francisco. 

Bibl. : Rep. VIII, p. 472 ; Rep. IX, p. 29 ; Rep. X, p. 420 ; Rep. XII 
p. 211. 

Mountain Chief. Michigan Bluff district. Sec 34, T. 14 N., R. Ill 
E., M. D. M., 1J miles south of Michigan Bluff, northwest of the Nortlji 
Fork of the American River. Idle. Owned by Fred Outhouse, oft 
Forest Hill. 

New Baccarat. Lincoln district. Sec. 23, T. 12 N., R. 6 E., M 
D. M., three miles southeast of Lincoln. Shallow drifting in residua 
gravels. One hundred and sixty acres. Tunnels 325 feet. Idle 
Owned by Lincoln parties. 






PLACER COUNTY. 



367 



* 



2S 



ox: 



c 

If 

> 

°r 

re <u 



368 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

New Basil Consolidated. Canada Hill district. Sees. 2, 3, 10 anc 
11, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M., 2J miles east of Westville. Elevatiori 
4900 feet. Three hundred and eighty acres. Cement gravel channel 
Tunnel 3000 feet ran out of channel. Shaft 160'. The Black Canon 
Quartz Mine occupies a portion of this property, and it is intended tc] 
obtain electric power from the Black Canon Power Line for driving i 
new shaft. Idle. Owned by R. F. McLeod, 350 California St., Sar 
Francisco. 

North America Prospect. Dutch Flat district. Sees. 28 and 29 
T. 16 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., one mile northeast of Shady Run oj 
Midas. Tunnel 150 feet. Idle. Owned by L. K. Develey and brother 
of Blue Canon. 

Occidental. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 3, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., anc 
Sec. 34, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. Elevation 3300 feet. Patented 17: 
acres. Cement gravel channel. Tunnel 3100 feet. Probably workecl 
out. Idle. Owned by W. E. Wretman, Garden City Bank Bldg., SaJ 

Jose. 

Oro. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 10, T. 14 N., R. 11 E, M. D 
M., 2J miles northeast of Michigan Bluff. Elevation 3500 feet. Idl ; 
for several years. Owned by A. Dixon, of Michigan Bluff, as are als'Ij 
the Willey and Yule and Willey claims which lie north of the Turke; 
Hill consolidated. 



Outhouse Consolidated or Sellier Mine. Damascus district. Sec 
34, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 6 miles north of Michigan Blufi 
Nine hundred and twenty acres. Claims: Never Fail (160 acres) 
Maintop (160 acres), Electric (160 acres), Golden Promise (160 acres) 
Up-to-Date (160 acres), and Brimstone (120 acres). A 310-foot shaf 
on the Mountain Sheaf claim is said to have struck the rim of a channe 
Assessment work is being carried on in this shaft and in a shaft on th 
Georgia claim. Using a 12 h. p. gasoline engine to pump water. Threi 
men employed. Owned by the Outhouse Consolidated Mining Co 
Mr. Fred Outhouse, president, Forest Hill. 

Pacific Blue Lead or George Fulton. Canada Hill district. Seci 
4 and 5, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., M. D. M. Elevation 6320'. Four hundre 
and thirty acres. Claim 1 mile along a blue channel 11' deep and 15( 
wide in which the gravel benches above the bedrock ran from $0.50 \ 
$37.00 per car; also 1 mile along a white channel 6'-14' deep and 12£ 
wide from which 1000 cars are said to have averaged $2.50 per ca: 
The channels run East-West and the main bedrock tunnel 450' Ion 
struck white gravel and crossed the channel into the rim of the bin 



PLACER COUNTY. 



369 



hannel. The gravels are washed in sluice boxes and the tailings 
lumped into Flat Ravine. 

Owned by Leo P. Harris, Westville or 2279 West Twentieth St., 
jos Angeles. 




D hoto 17. Camp, at the Pacific Blue Lead Drift Mine, Canada Hill District, Placer County. 

Pacific Slab Mine. Last Chance district. Sees. 27, 28, 33 and 34, 
. 15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M., 1J miles southwest of Last Chance. Twelve 
dies by steep trail from Michigan Bluff. Five hundred and twelve 
3res. Claims : Pacific Slab, Bob Lewis, New York and Ohio. Dis- 
wered about 1852 and worked off and on ever since. The channel is 
l slate capped by andesite and the gravel is fairly well cemented. The 
ay gravel consists of the lower 5 feet of gravel above bedrock, but the 




hoto No. 18. View eastward of the Pacific Slab Mine, Last Chance District, showing 
office, cook house, gravel bin and hydraulic monitor. 

24-4G90* 



370 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



gravel is in places 20' to 50' deep. The channel has been followed foi 
over 4000 feet. A 215-foot raise provides ventilation and entrance for 
supplies. Six-foot split pine costs $9.50 per thousand, while \\" x 6'' 
x 5' lagging costs $20.00 per thousand, and 3-foot lagging costs $15.0( 
per thousand. The mine is equipped with a 6" x 6" Gardner air 
compressor, run by a 30" Pelton-Doble water-wheel under a head oi 
130', which serves air drills. 

About 3500 feet from the portal of the tunnel a 40-foot channel 2 
deep from the northeast has cut the main channel in two. In September 
1916, work was being carried on in the small channel by 4 men wh( 
took out about 8 cars of gravel per day. Owned by the Pacific Slal 
Consolidated Mining Co., M. C. Threlkeld, president, 1007 Monadnoeli 
Building, San Francisco; Chas. H. Blohm, secretary; W. T. Davis 
superintendent at the mine. 




Photo No. 19. Hydraulic bank above the old Paragon tunnel at Bath, Forest Hill District, 
showing lens-shaped gravel strata. 

Paragon or Breece and Wheeler Mine. Forest Hill district. Sees: 
19, 24 and 30, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 2 miles northeast of Fores 
Hill. Elevation 2900 feet. Five hundred acres patented. Cemen 
gravel channel in amphibolite and serpentine capped by andesite. 1 j 
tunnel If miles long follows the channel and connects with the May 
flower tunnel. There are estimated to be about 15 miles of drifts 
Three channels were worked. The main or "Blue Lead" channe 
averaged 300 feet wide and the gravel is said to have averaged $4.5' 
per car of 16| cubic feet. The Paragon channel, 150 feet higher thai; 
the "Blue Lead," averaged 45 feet wide and is said to have averaged 
$10.00 per car. The Orono or volcanic channel averaged about 25' 



PLACER COUNTY. 371 



feet wide and the gravel is said to have averaged $5.00 per car. The 
Paragon lead, to a distance of 3000 feet from the portal of the main 
tunnel, is said to have produced $900,000. The Orono channel is said to 
have been worked for 1800 feet and produced $75,000. The gravel was 
crushed in a Blake crusher and a 10-stamp mill. The pulp was passed 
over amalgamation plates and through sluice boxes and the tailings run 
into Volcano Canon. Two men in the mine are doing development work 
to determine the direction of the Paragon channel at a point about one 
tmile in the Blue Lead tunnel. Owned by J. F. Thompson, Box 178, 
Long Beach, Cal. 

Penn Valley. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 27, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. 
D. M., at Monona Flat, 1J miles northeast of Iowa Hill. Elevation 
3200 feet. Patented 120 acres. Gravel channel in amphibolite with 
gravel capping. Tunnel 3000 feet. Present work consists of prospect- 
ing. Owned by B. T. Jamieson and Robert Smith, of Iowa Hill. 

Placer Gravel Gold or the El Dorado Mine. Last Chance dis- 
trict. Sec. 26, T. 15 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M., | mile northeast of Last 
Chance. Elevation 4700 feet. Claims: El Dorado .of 160 acres and 
others. Said to include 4000 feet along a cement gravel channel in 
slate. The channel course is approximately N. 35° W., and capped 
with andesite. The pay gravel is said to be 40 feet wide and 6 feet 
deep. Bedrock tunnel 4000 feet. Channel is worked through a 30-foot 
raise. Loaded cars run by gravity and each hold one ton of gravel. 
Each miner handles two cars of gravel per day. The mine lies north 
of the Home Ticket and is thought to be on the same "Big" channel 
which occurs in the Pacific Slab mine. It has been leased for the past 
two years by H. E. Gorman, Berry Griffin and Roy Anderson, of Last 
Chance. Owned by the Pacific Slab Gold Mining Company ; Mr. D. M. 
Ray, of Last Chance, part owner. Marshal Sherbert, secretary. 

Placer Queen. Canada Hill district. Eighteen miles east of West- 
ville. Elevation 623t)'. A 3000' tunnel is said to have been run but 
to have been above the channel. A lower tunnel is contemplated to 
strike the channel which is thought to run E.-W. towards Canada Hill. 
Owned by the Placer Queen Gold Mining Company. Leased by W. 
Duffy, of Michigan Bluff. 

Ralston Divide Gravel Mine. Ralston Divide district. Sees. 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, of T. 13 N., R. 12 E., Sees. 4, 5, 6, 7, of T. 13 N., 
R. 13 E., Sees. 22, 23, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, of T. 14 N., R. 13 E., and 
Sees. 34 and 35, of T. 14 N., R. 12 E., M. D. M. Elevation 3500 to 5000 
feet. Ten thousand acres. Reported to have 10 miles along the Ralston 
Divide capped w r ith andesite, which is underlain by gravel channels. 
Considerable prospecting has been carried on for several years. Scarcity 
of water permits work to be carried on only part of the year. In 
September, 1916, 8 men were doing hydraulic and drift work on the 



372 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Pat Goggins property on the Ralston Divide. Owned by the California 
and Hawaiian Development Co., Alaska Commercial Building, San 
Francisco; W. Duffy, manager, Michigan Bluff. 

Red Star. Last Chance district. Three miles east of Last Chance. 
Claims : Red Bird No. 1 and Red Bird No. 2. The Buena Vista claim 
adjoins Red Bird No. 1 to the south. The channel appears to be rather 
scattered and no good values have been found. Old 250' tunnel with 
two branches in search of pay gravel. New 325' tunnel with two 50' 
branches. "Water is obtainable by a long ditch from Duncan Canon. 
At present water is taken from the tunnel. Gravel from the old tunnel 
is said to have run about $0.10 per car. Equipment consists of shop, 
car, and tools. Assessment work only, by D. M. Ray and M. Savage of 
Forest Hill. Was bonded by Graham and Cates, Pacific Building, San 
Francisco, who did considerable development work. 

Reed Mine. Canada Hill district. Sec. 8, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., M. 
D. M., 8 miles east of Westville. Elevation 6000 feet. Reed claim, 80 
acres; White claim, 70 acres. Cement gravel channel, with NE.-SW. 
course, in schist. Tunnel 1800 feet. The pay gravel is reported to be 
100 feet wide and 5 feet thick. Drifting under the old hydraulic works 
is said to have about worked out the channel. Owned by Mr. J. D. 
Meredith, of Grass Valley. Bonded to Mr. Henry Snyder, of Canada 
Hill. 

Rough and Ready. Forest Hill district. Sees. 35 and 36, T. 14 N., 
R. 10 E., M. D. M., one mile east of Forest Hill. Idle. Channel 
probably worked out. 

Sailor Canon. Canada Hill district. Sec. 34, T. 16 N., R. 13 E., 
M. D. M. Patented. Cement gravel channel. Reported as having an 
1800-foot tunnel. Some gravel is said to have run $2.00 per car. Idle. 
Owned by the Sailor Canon Gravel Mining Company; W. H. Duffy, 
superintendent, San Francisco. 
Bibl. : Rep. X, p. 426. 

Santa Fe. Iowa Hill district. Ten acres in claims. Tunnels: 
No. 1, 1000 feet; No. 2, 400 feet, are said to lie above and below the 
Canada Hill channel. Thought to be the same channel as that found 
at the Monumental mine. Owned by Morgan Green & Co., of Auburn. 

Shaw Brothers Mine. Dutch Flat. One-half mile south of Alta. 
Idle. Shaw Brothers, deceased. 

Shell or Shackleton. Blue Canon district. Said to have J mile 
along a lava capped channel. An old tunnel, now caved, was in 4' of 
wash gravel. A slide is said to have covered up the ravine, and work 
thus far has consisted of building a reservoir and washing off the 
loose slide material. Where bedrock has been exposed good values* 
have been found. -The owners intend to begin drifting soon. Owned 
by Perry and A. V. Shell, of Blue Canon. 






PLACER COUNTY. 



373 



Small Hope. Forest Hill district. Sec. 27, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. 
D. M., 3^ miles north of Forest Hill. Forty acres. Cement gravel 
channel. Reported to have 2000 feet of tnnnel. Idle. Owned by 
Mr. Federer and James Nicholson, of Sacramento. 
Bibl.: Rep. XII, p. 212. 

Southern Cross. Dutch Flat District, Sec. 34, T. 16 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M., J mile northeast of Dutch Flat. One hundred and forty acres. 
Gravel channel reported to be 40 feet wide. Tunnel 300 feet. Idle. 
Owned by George Nicholls, of Dutch Flat. 

Bibl. : Register of Mines, 1902, Cal. State Min. Bur. 

Spring Garden Consolidated. Forest Hill district. Sees. 5, 6, 7 
and 8, T. 13 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. Patented 530 acres. Reported to 
include 5000 feet along a gravel channel. Owned by N. W. Nash, of 
Sterling, Cal. Reported sold at sheriff's sale on Aug. 10, 1915, for 
$1,650.00. 

Bibl. : Auburn Herald, Aug. 14, 1915. 

St. George. Forest Hill district. Sec. 33, T. 14 N., R, 10 E., M. 
D. M., H miles southeast of Yankee Jim's. Elevation 2700 feet. Idle. 
A. M. Col well, manager, at Yankee Jim's. 

Starr Mine. Last Chance district, Sec, 26., T. 15 N., R. 12 E., 
M. D. M. Elevation 4800 feet. Idle. L. C. Haines, manager, West- 
ville. 




Photo No. 20. Stewart Gravel Mine, near Gold Run. The tailings pile, from the drift 
workings, may be seen just back of the superintendent's house. 



Stewart Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 9, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. 
D. M., one mile south of Gold Run. Said to include 3000 acres lying 
south of the Southern Pacific railroad and 15,000 feet of channel, of 



374 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

which only 2000 feet have been worked. The channel is said to be 400 
feet wide and the blue cement gravel 80 feet wide. Water is obtained 
by the company's own ditch from Canon Creek. Fifteen Chinamen 
employed. Owned by the Stewart Gravel Mining Co., Mrs. G. A. 
Stewart, president ; J. D. Stewart, secretary, East Auburn. 

Swift Shore. Michigan Bluff district. Sees. 34 and 35, T. 15 N., 
R. 11 E., and Sees. 2 and 3, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., three miles 
north of Michigan Bluff near the head of Volcano Canon. Tunnel 810 
feet along a gravel channel. Worked continuously for forty years. 
Two men working make wages. Owned by J. S. Vickford, of Michigan 
Bluff. 

Tagpole Consolidated. Canada Hill district. Sec. 6, T. 15 N., 
R. 13 E., M. D. M., 6 miles east of Westville. Elevation 5500 feet. 
Owned by J. L. Sparhawk, of Iowa Hill. 

Truro. Iowa Hill district. Sees. 21 and 22, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., 
M. D. M., 3 miles east of north of Iowa Hill. Elevation 1000 feet. 
Patented. Tunnel 350 feet. Idle. Owned by J. L. Pearson, of Iowa 
Hill. 

Turkey Hill Consolidated. Michigan Bluff district. Includes the 
Boston and South Dakota and the Weske. Portion of Sees. 9, 10, 15 
and 16, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., 2 miles north of Michigan Bluff. 
Patents: Weske No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3. Main tunnel over one mile. 
Gravel channel varies between 100' and 300' wide. Two men pros- 
pecting. Owned by the Turkey Hill Consolidated Gravel Co., Wm. 
Muir & Sons, principal stockholders, Michigan Bluff. 

Union Mine. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 28, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. 
M., one mile north of Iowa Hill. Elevation 2900 feet. Cement gravel. 
Tunnel 1200 feet. Assessment work only. Owned by Wm. Hales and 
son, of Iowa Hill. 

Volcano. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 15, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M. 
D. M., 1-J miles north of Michigan Bluff in Volcano Canon. Idle. 
Owned by Mr. Wm. Muir, of Michigan Bluff. 

Waterhouse, Big Dipper or Harmon. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 3, 
T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M., 2 miles southeast of Iowa Hill, in New 
York Canon between Prospect and Wisconsin Hills. Patents: Big 
Dipper, Morning Star, Jupiter, Occidental and Weber. Water ditch 
from Shirttail Canon. Tunnel 700 feet. Two men prospecting and 
running a tunnel. Owned by the McGeachin Mining Co., J. E. Rose, 
manager, Iowa Hill. 

Watts Prospect. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 26, T. 15 N., R. 10 E. 
M. I). M., at Monona Flat, two miles northeast of Iowa Hill. Patentee 
An east-west gravel channel in amphibolite capped with andesite 
Tunnel 3000 feet. Idle. Owned by John Watts, of Colfax. 



PLACER COUNTY. 375 

Welcome Consolidated. Iowa Hill district. Five miles south of 
olfax. Two hundred and forty acre claim. Tunnel 420 feet. Two 
en doing assessment work. Owned by Mr. Schwab, of Iowa Hill. 
Wild Yankee. Blue Canon district. Three and one-half miles east 
I Shady Run. Gravel deposit forty feet deep. Tunnel 100 feet, 
rved. Assessment work only. Owned by F. K. W. Develey, of Blue 
afion. 

X-Ray. Canada Hill district. Ten miles east of Westville. Two 
dies north of Sailor Flat on the south slope of the North Fork of the 
.merican River. Three hundred and twenty acres. Two channels 
sported and two tunnels 300' and 600' said to have been run but not 
3 have struck the channels. The main lower channel is said to be the 
ame as that at the Placer Queen mine. Owned by F. Stevens, of San 
Tancisco. 

GOLD— HYDRAULIC MINES. 

Since the Federal antidebris laws of 1893 went into effect, hydraulic 
lining in Placer County has practically ceased. The tailings from the 
)utch Flat region were washed into the Bear River, where, with those 




Photo No. 21. Old hydraulic workings, just northwest of Gold Run. The bedrock is 
rapidly being covered by a growth of pine trees, the largest of which probably date 
back to 1893. 

Tom You Bet, Red Dog and other districts in Nevada County, they 
illed the river bed in places 10 feet to 20 feet deep. Dams have been 
projected by the California Debris Commission at points both north 
md west of Colfax, on the Bear River, to restrain tailings from these 
districts, but the sites have been held at such exorbitant prices by the 
owners that it has not been economically possible to carry out the plans. 
When such methods can be applied the dams can be paid for by a tax 
^n those operating. These dams could act as storage reservoirs for 



376 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



water supply, from which hydroelectric power could be generated, 
well as for the gravel tailings, and would be beneficial to the country 
in many ways. 

The gravel tailings from Gold Run, Iowa Hill, Yankee Jim's, Forest 
Hill, Bath, Michigan Bluff and the Ralston Divide, all found their way 
into the American River. Restraining dams could be built in the 
forks of this river, should it be permitted and receive proper financial 
backing. 

Lost Camp. Blue Caiion district. Sec. 23, T. 16 N., R. 11 E., M. 
D. M., 2 miles southeast of Blue Canon on the Southern Pacific Railroad: 




Photo No. 22. Lost Camp Placer Mine, Blue Canyon, Placer County. 



PLACER COUNTY. 377 

An old road leads from Blue Canon to the property. Elevation 4500'. 
Six hundred acres. Water is obtained from the Pacific Gas and Elec- 
tric Co. for 10 cents per miner's inch. Hydraulic monitors are used 
under a 100 foot head. The course of the channel is East-West and 
it is about f mile long and is J mile wide at the lower end. The 
gravels in the main channel are about 65' deep. About 1200' of sluice 
boxes are used, 550' of which are in a tunnel. The grade of the boxes 
is 7" to every 16'. Most of the gold is caught in the upper eight boxes 
and some nuggets run as high as $80.00 in value. Coarse gold is 
obtained from the lower gravels and fine gold from the upper. The 
tailings are caught by a dam, in Blue Canon Creek, constructed of 
gravel held by wire fencing. Owned by Geo. F. and J. J. Miller, of 
Blue Canon. 

Park and Brown. Last Chance district. Sec. 21, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., 
M. D. M., 12 miles northeast of Last Chance near the wagon road from 
iWestville to Last Chance over Bald Mountain. Elevation 6480'. One 




Photo No. 23. Park and Brown Hydraulic Mine, four miles southeast of Canada Hill, 
Placer County. Duncan Peak lies in the distance to the right. 

Hundred and sixty acre placer claim. The deposit consists of meta- 
norphic sandstone and shale, of red and yellow ochre colors, with a 
stockwork of quartz stringers up to 18" in thickness. The surface has 
oeen decomposed and the values concentrated in the upper 3' to 6'. 
The deposit covers an area on a side hill about 400' wide and 1500' long. 
Hydraulicking has been carried on for six years and about f of the 
"surface has been worked. Water is obtainable for about six weeks in the 
spring by a ditch from the head of Deep Creek. A head of from 50' 
:o 150' is used for the monitor. It is said that about $1500 per season 
s cleaned up. It is possible that the bedrock could be worked on a 
arge scale and run through a stamp mill to recover the values from 
> ne quartz stringers. Water could be piped from the head of Deep 
Uanon. Owned by C. McKinley, of Auburn, and A. Harveson, of 
^ast Chance. 



378 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Pine Nut or Lincoln Consolidated. Last Chance district. Sec. 20, j 
T. 14 N., R. 13 E., M. D. M. Nine miles northwest of Last Chance on 
a branch wagon road from the Bald Mountain road. Elevation 4000'. 
Claims: Lincoln and "White Prairie. Two hundred and eighty acres. 
The channel, where exposed, is from 12' to 15' deep and was opened up 
by an 85' tunnel. "Water is obtained by a 1^ mile ditch from Spruce 







Photo No. 24. Installing sluice boxes for hydraulicking at the Pine 
Nut Mine, Canada Hill District, Placer County. 



PLACER COUNTY. 



379 



anon. Equipment consists of 1200' of 11 inch pipe, 1 monitor and 
Y of sluice boxes. The owners are preparing to put in a dam in a 
•anch of Duncan Canon. Owned by Fred C. Davidson and George 
iherer, of Last Chance. 

Following is a list of some of the hydraulic mines in Placer County, 
1 idle, which could probably be operated profitably should restraining 
ims be constructed at a low enough cost : 



District 



Section 



Twp. 



Range 



Owner and address 



? Gun 

»ld Run 

ttle Bear River 

>lar Star 

■nd .— 

utnern Cross _ 



Michigan Bluff. _ 
Dutch Flat I 



22 
4 and 



Dutch Flat 
Dutch Flat 
Forest Hill 
Dutch Flat 



...I 34 and 35 16 N. 

_J 34 and 35 16 N. 

.__! 3 and 4 13 N. 

.__ 34 and 35 16 N. 



14 N. 

15 N. 



he. 

10 E. 



10 E. 
10 E. 
10 E. 
10 E. 



J. F. Thompson, Bath, Cal. 
Gold Run Ditch and Mining 

Co., J. L. Gould, Mgr., 

Alameda, Cal. 
Wm. Nicholls, Jr., Berkeley. 
Wm. Nicholls, Jr., Berkeley. 
G. L. Duffy, Michigan Bluff. 
Wm. Nicholls, Jr., Berkeley. 



GOLD— PLACER MINES. 
(Surficial or Sluicing.) 

Considerable placer mining is carried on along the rivers in Placer 
Dimty by parties of from one to three men. Some of these miners 
3rk on claims owned by old settlers and pay a royalty, while others 
jrk independently and prospect wherever the gravels pan favorably, 
'orkmen with rockers and longtoms recover on an average of $2.00 per 
iv in gold per man. Occasionally a rich streak of gravel or pocket 

found. 

Acacia Claim. Damascus district. Sec. 14, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. 
. M. Idle since 1906. Reported to be leased to Oakland parties, 
wned by George McAuley, of Auburn. 
» Bibl. : Colfax Record, Oct. 8, 1915. 

Bear River Claim. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 4, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., 
. D. M., li miles southwest of Dutch Flat. Elevation 2500 feet. 
3ported to have 5000 feet along the bed of the Bear River. Idle. 
Wed by E. C. Uren, of Nevada City. 

Bear River Extension. Colfax district. Sec. 14, T. 15 N., R. 9 E., 
I. D. M., 3£ miles north of Colfax. Elevation 2000 feet. Patented 

mile along the Bear River. Worked in 1902 with an hydraulic ele- 
ctor. Idle. Owned by E. R. Waring, formerly of Colfax. 

Bear River Tunnel Co. Colfax district. Sec. 6, T. 15 N., R. 9 E., 
id Sees. 5, 6 and 7, of T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. Elevation 2200 



380 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



feet. Patented. Five miles along the bed of Bear River. In 190: 
the tailings were concentrated. Idle. Owned by E. C. Uren, o 
Nevada City. 

Bogus Thunder. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 19, T. 14 N., R. 1 1 
E., M. D. M., six miles east of Michigan Bluff by trail. Two hundre< 
and fifty acres in claims. Loose gravel bars along the North Fork of th 
Middle Fork of the American River. Owned by S. S. Caples, o 
Michigan Bluff. Leased by B. E. Caples and W. S. Tripp, of Michigai 
Bluff. 

Booth River Claim. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 29, T. 15 N., R. 10 E 
M. D. M., 1J miles northwest of Iowa Hill. Elevation 1300 feet. Thre 
claims in bed of North Fork of American River. Gravels are sluicec. 
The two Booth brothers work together on the claim. The gravels ar 
said to be mostly old hydraulic tailings, and that about $120.00 in gol<| 
per month is recovered, except occasionally when rich finds are mad( 
It was reported that in about two and one-half months of the fall o 
1915 over $2900 was taken out. Owned by John Booth, of Iowa Hill. 

Cambridge. Iowa Hill district. Sees. 9, 16, 17, 19 and 20, T. 14 N 
R. 10 E., M. D. M., 4 miles south of Iowa Hill. Patented. Four mile 
of tailings in the bed of Shirttail Canon. The gravels were sluiced 
1902. Idle. Owned by Mrs. Stemple, of Colfax. 

Canon Creek Tailings. Dutch Flat district. Sec. 10, T. 15 N., I' 
10 E., M. D. M., li miles northeast of Gold Run. Elevation 1310 feen 
Ten acres. One and one-half miles along Canon Creek. Idle. Ownei 
bv the Stewart Gravel Mines, Inc., of East Auburn. 



i 



Collins. Colfax district. Sec. 31, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. 
Reported to have 7000 feet of gravel tailings along North Fork of 
American River below the Booth claims, extending up the river fror 
\ mile above the Forest Hill bridge. Three claims called the Bostor 
Armis and Keystone. Leased to Petit Bros, and Mr. Brown, of Colfaj 
Gold is recovered by sluicing old tailings along the river. About $3.0 
per day in gold per man is reported to be recovered. Owned by W. I 
Fowler, of Colfax. 

Gillett. Colfax district. Sec. 31, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. JV 
Twelve acres along the bed of the North Fork of the American Rive) 
Sluicing during dry season. Owned by F. N. Gillett, of Colfax. 

Haney Consolidated. Last Chance district. Sec. 4, T. 14 N., R. 1 
E., and Sec. 33, T. 15 N., R. 13 E., M. D. M. East of the Blue Eye 
• I lilt mine, on the northwest side of Duncan Caiion. Reported to hoi 
one mile along Bloody Ravine, the bottom of which was cleaned up i; 






PLACER COUNTY. 



381 




Photo No. 25. Gravels in the American River just below (west of) Rattlesnake bridge. 
Old hydraulic tailings may be seen on the terrace to the right. Considerable of the 
gravel in the river has come from the hydraulic mines above. Property of M. A. Kelley, 
of Auburn. 



854. It is thought by the owner that some gold can still be obtained 
rom the flats and sides of the ravine. Owned by Thos. F. Haney, of 
iast Chance. 




Photo No. 26. Gravel bars along the American River, just above (east of) Rattlesnake 
bridge. Old hydraulic tailings are said to cover virgin auriferous gravels in these bars 
which could be worked to advantage by hydraulic elevators. The hard, rugged, granitic 
bedrock would probably make dredging unfeasible. 



382 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Horseshoe Bar. Michigan Bluff district. Two miles southwesl 
Michigan Bluff. No mining now carried on. Used only for a powe 
plant, which supplies the Excelsior drift mine. 

Kelly. Auburn district. Sec. 9, T. 11 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M. Grave 
bars for one mile along the American River north of Rattlesnake Bai 
Owned by M. A. Kelly, of Auburn. These gravels have recently beei, 
prospected and pan well in gold. 

Kinder River. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 28, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., ty 
D. M. One mile north of Iowa Hill. Claim along the north fork of th 
American River, adjoining the Booth claim. Two men sluicing on 
small scale. Owned by Mr. Schworb, of Iowa Hill. 

Lehigh. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 30, T. 14 N., R. 11 E., M 
D. M. Sluicing was carried on but the gravels are practically worke* 
out. Owned by J. F. Thompson, of Bath. 

Martin. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 31, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M 
2 miles west of Iowa Hill, along the bed of the North Pork of th 
American River. Twenty acres. Some sluicing was carried on in th 
gravel tailings. Idle. Owned by F. P. Gallaher, of Colfax. 



Photo No. 27. Sluicing bench gravels on the south side of the North Fork of the America 
River, one-half mile below the Iowa Hill bridge, east of Colfax. A small gas engir 
is used to pump water from the river into the sluice boxes. 

Pine Avenue. Four miles west of Iowa Hill on the North Fork o 
the American River. Near the Booth claim. Assessment work only. 

Pleasant Bar. Michigan Bluff district. Sec. 33, T. 14 N., R. 11 E 
M. D. M., 2\ miles southwest of Michigan Bluff. Was worked with 
hydraulic elevator and sluices. Assessment work only. Owned b^ 
E. Kavanaugh, No. 40 el st., Sacramento. 






PLACER COUNTY. 



383 



Potato Flatiron. Damascus district, near Red Point. Four men 
said to be working. Owned by Oakland and Alameda parties. Leased 
by Jack Creighton, manager, of Damascus. 

Rocky Bar or Estey. Colfax district. Sec. 1, T. 14 N., R. 9 K, 
Iff. D. M.. 3 miles east of Colfax and J mile below the Iowa Hill bridge 
on the North Fork of the American River. The property is reached by 
a trail along the south side of the American River from the Iowa Hill 
road. Elevation 1050'. Claims ' ' Swastika, " " First Chance, " ' ' Rocky 
Bar," "Rocky Bar Extension." The claims include bench gravels 
along the river which are shoveled into sluice boxes and washed with 
water pumped from the river by a small gasoline engine. A diving suit 
is worn by the owner who recovers gold from the deep pools in the bed 
of the river. Owned by 0. L. Estey of Colfax. 

Various attempts have been made to recover gold from the American 
River bed and from the Feather River bed in Butte County. Coarse 
gold has been recovered from the bedrock in rough places where a dredge 
could not be operated and where the river channel could not be diverted 
without unwarranted expense. The use of divers' suits is an ambitious 
attempt to recover gold, but the difficulty and slowness of working under 
water must necessarily make the work expensive and in many cases 
prohibitive to financial success. The method will probably never become 
of great economic importance. 




Photo No. 28. Diving outfit used for the recovery of gold from the deeo pools in 
the bed of the North Fork of the American River, east of Colfax. 

San Francisco. Iowa Hill district. Sec. 4, T. 14 N., R. 10 E.. M. 
D. M., claim one mile southeast of Iowa Hill, adjoins the Harman, or 
Big Dipper, claim. Worked by the owner, S. Delmu, of Iowa Hill. 



384 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Swamp Angel Mine. Dutch Flat district. Sees. 7 and 18 of T. 16 
N., R. 11 E. Four miles north of Towles at Lowell Hill. Worked 
when water is available. Owned by A. W. Hawkins of San Luis Obispo. 

Theniss and Adams. Colfax district. Sec. 1, T. 14 N., R. 9 E., 
M. D. M. Gravel bars on the west side of the North Fork of the 
American River, just above the bridge on the stage road from Colfax 
to Iowa Hill. Elevation 1200 feet. The gravel is loose and about 6 feet 
deep. The gravel is not worked to bedrock and is washed in a hand 
rocker. The fine gold is caught on an old carpet, while the finest prob- 
ably escapes. Two men save about $16.00 in gold per week. Worked 
by Martin Theniss and F. C. Adams, of Colfax. 

Zelma Bell. Colfax district. Sec. 19, T. 14 N., R. 10 E., M. D. M. 
Along the bed of the North Fork of the American River, north of the 
mouth of Shirttail Canon. Forty acres. Owned by the Zelma Bell 
Mining Co. Assessment work only. 

GOLD— DREDGES. 

Dredging is being carried on along the Middle Fork of the American 
River and along Auburn Ravine. In 1915 three dredgers produced 
$93,812 in gold. Large deposits of gravel in the Bear River await a 
feasible means for working them. The nature of the bedrock is such 
that they might be dredged. 

El Dorado and Placer Gold Mining and Power Co. Butcher Ranch 
district. Sec, 35, T. 13 N., R. 9 E., M. D. M., 1| miles south of Butcher 
Ranch, near Poverty Bar. About 3^ miles up the Middle Fork of the 
American River from the Pacific or Yukon dredge. The gravel bars 
are partially covered by hydraulic tailings and average about 25 feet 
in depth. The dredger hull is 45' x 85', and carries a line of 79 buckets 
of 3J cu. ft. capacity each. It is capable of dredging 35 feet below 
the water line. Five electric motors have an aggregate of 220 h. p. and 
receive their current from an extension from the line of the Pacific 
dredger. Three shifts of four men each operate the dredger. Owned 
by the El Dorado Gold Mining and Power Company, W. B. Pennycool 
J. J. Madigan, W. D. Sullivan and Chas. Malin, all of Vallejo. arc 
financially interested. 

Gardella Gold Dredge Co. Gold Hill district. Sec. 8, T. 12 N., 
R. 7 E., M. D. M., £ mile northwest of Virginia and north of the road 
from Lincoln to Newcastle. Elevation 350 feet. 

The gravels being worked were partially drifted in the early days by j 
the Chinese and are comparatively fine and angular, there being mo 
coarse boulders, such as are found in the main stream channels. The 
deposits average about sixteen feet in depth, the upper portion being 
clay. The pay gravel varies from V to 8' in thickness and lies on a 



PLACER COUNTY. 



385 



granitic bedrock. The channel is about 900 feet wide, and about 6 
rears work for one dredge has been outlined. A 160-foot front is 
forked and about 75,000 cubic yards of gravel are handled each month. 
The gravel is said to average about 12|^ per cubic yard, the cost of 
vorking being about 7^ per cubic yard. The land is low and is some- 
times partially covered by overflow from Auburn Ravine during the 
f-ainy season. Three shifts of men, of three men each, including dredge- 
nasters, are employed on the dredger, while three men are employed 
uost of the time cutting trees and brush. The sale of oak wood from 
he trees probably pays for the cost of clearing. The dredge was built 
py the Risdon Iron Works and has 62 5-cubic-foot. close-connected 




Photo No. 29. Gardella Dredge, near Virginia, four miles northeast of Lincoln, working 
gravel and alluvial deposits north of Auburn ravine. 



mckets. The boat is 40' x 90'. Electricity is obtained by tapping the 
nain Pacific Gas and Electric Company's line from Drumm, at Ophir. 
The motors on the dredge develop about 500 h. p. 

The company owns portions of the Peterson, Conley and Chevalier 
'anches, including 105 acres, besides having options on other property. 
Dwned by the New Castle Gclcl Mining Company, Lawrence Gardella, 
)f Oroville, manager. 

The Gaylord gold dredge which was working on the American River, 
oelow Rattlesnake Bar near Loomis, was reported closed down in 
November, 1915. The ground was worked out. The dredge was a small 
me with 3-cubic-foot buckets, and six men were employed. 

Oroville Dredging Company. Dairy Farm district. Sec. 31, T. 14 
^., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 5 miles northeast of Sheridan and one-half mile 

25— 46904 



386 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 






south of the Bear River. Elevation 954 feet. Two Risdon dredgers 
were operated several years ago, but have been removed. Owned by 
W. P. Hammon, of Oroville. 

Pacific Gold Dredging Company, subsidiary of the Yukon Gold 
Dredging Company. Butcher Ranch district. Sec. 5, T. 12 N., R. 9 E., 
M. D. M. On the Middle Fork of the American River near Mammoth 
Bar. The dredger is of the Bucyrus type and is equipped with a line 
of 77 7|-cubic-foot buckets, and a shaker screen made of one-inch cast 
manganese steel. About 4500 cubic yards of gravel are handled daily. , 
The gravel averages 28 feet deep and consists of loose gravel with, 




Photo No. 30. Bucyrus Dredger of the Pacific Gold Dredging Co., working near Mammoth I 
Bar on the Middle Fork of the American River. 

boulders. The bedrock is slate, which is decomposed in places one footi 
deep. The gravel probably averages considerably over 10^ per yard/ 
while the bedrock probably averages over $1.00 per yard. Owned by the! 
Pacific Gold Dredging Company, S. R. Guggenheim, president, 417' 
Hobart Bldg., San Francisco; Chas. K. Lipman, secretary; H. C. ! 
Perring, superintendent, Auburn and Oroville. C. A. Anderson, 
dredgemaster. 

GRANITE. 

The quarries in the granodiorite east of Rocklin are the only ones! 
producing granite in the county. The quarries northeast of Rocklin in! 
the region of Loomis and Penryn are all idle. The granodiorite at 
Rocklin is light-colored and fine-grained and composed principally oil 
quartz and feldspar, with fine crystals of hornblende and scales oil 
biotite. The rock quarried at Penryn is coarse-grained and composed* 1 



PLACER COUNTY. 387 

Principally of quartz and feldspar, with quite large crystals of horn- 
■lende and flakes of biotite. 

Alexson, Gabriel and Company. Formerly the Placer Granite Com- 
>any. Rocklin district. "Worked by G. Alexson and son and son-in-law. 
)wned by Gabriel Alexson. of Rockland. 

Anderson Quarry. Rocklin district. Worked by 0. Anderson and 
hree sons and son-in-law. Owned by Oscar Anderson, of Rocklin. 

Andrews-Quinn Quarry. Rocklin district. Owned and worked by 
)scar Andrews, of Rocklin. 

California Granite Company. Rocklin district. Sec. 19, T. 11 N., 
. " E.. M. D. M. Eight acres owned, which includes the old Mantvla 




Photo No. 31. California Granite Quarry at Rocklin, Placer County, looking north. 

uarry. The company also leases the old Waters quarry. Equipped 
ith a steam hoist, electric compressor and three derricks. Air hammer 
rills and wedges are used for splitting the blocks. Two saws are in 
se; one a revolving wheel 7 feet in diameter, with teeth set at an angle 
f 26°, which will cut IS inches to a depth of 30 inches in 46 minutes; 
nd a California Granite Cutter consisting of steel plates \ inch thick, 
-t as teeth along a horizontally moving frame. Steel shot are fed to 
he cutting edges of both of these saws. From 50 to 100 men are 
sually employed. Owned by the California Granite Company. Adolph 
'ernu, president ; A. Bocci. 518 Sharon Bldg., San Francisco, secretary ; 
ohn Hall, superintendent, Rocklin. The same company is also oper- 
ting a granite quarry near Porterville, Tulare County. 



388 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Delano Granite Company. Rocklin district. Sec. 20, T. 11 N., R 
7 E., M. D. M., 80 acres leased for quarry purposes. Steam hoist, 2 der 
ricks, air compressor and hammer drills. Produce about 15,000 cubic 
feet of stone yearly. Costs about 50^ per cubic foot to quarry and loar 
on the cars. Sold for 75^* per cubic foot laid on the cars at Rocklin 
The stone is sold chiefly for building and monumental purposes 
Owned by the Delano Granite Company, Inc., L. E. Delano, president 
I. T. Delano, secretary, Rocklin. 









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Fhot 


o No. 


32. 


Delano Quarry, east of Rocklin, 


Placer County, 


looking 


southward. 



Escola, Kaivola and Tuperinan. Rocklin district. Sec. 30, T. 11 N 

R, 7 E., M. D. M. Quarry southeast of Rocklin, with derrick. Sej 
curbstone and rip-rap. The three owners do their own work. 

Griffith's Quarry. Penryn. Sec. 35, T. 12 N, R. 7 E., M. D. 12 
Coarse grained granodiorite. Quarry idle. One man works occasional! 
getting out tombstones from granite already quarried. Owned b 
David Griffith, of Penryn. 

Hebrick Quarry. Rocklin district, Sec. 30, T. 11 N., R. 7 E., 1 
D. M. Small quarry being worked by L. Hebrick and two brothers an 
father. Leased by Louis Hebrick from his father. 

Hendrickson Quarry. Rocklin district. Sec. 30, T. 11 N., R. 7 E 
M. D. M. Small granodiorite quarry being worked for curbstone by tl 
two Hendrickson brothers, a cousin and a son-in-law. Owned by Ilen< 
rickson Bros, and Company. 

Huhtala and Kanasto Quarry. Rocklin district. Mr. Huhtala ar 
two sons and Mr. Kanasto work a quarry on rented ground. Equr/ 
ment consists of a steam hoist. 



PLACBR COL' NT V. 



389 



Oscar Kesti Quarry. Kockliu district. Sec. 19, T. 11 N., R. 7 E., 
L D. M. Owned by Oscar Kesti who, with his son and one hired man, 
i;ets out curbstone and rip-rap. 

Kesti Quarry. Rocklin district. Sec. 30, T. 11 N., R. 7 E., M. D. 
I. Messrs. Sam and Otto Kesti work a rented quarry. Sam Kesti 
Jso owns a quarry in the same section which he with two helpers works 
or curbstone and paving blocks. 



Leed Quarry. 
n£ and rubble. 



Rocklin district. Werner Leed produces some curb- 



Liikola Quarry. Rocklin district. Ed Liikola rents a quarry and 
ometimes employs one man. 

Maki Quarry. Rocklin district. Jacob Maki rents a quarry and 
akes out curbstone, paving bricks and rip-rap. 

Pacific Granite Company. Rocklin district. Sec. 29, T. 11 N., 
. 7 E.. M. D. M. Elevation 204 feet. One mile southeast of Rocklin. 




Photo No. 33. Pacific Granite Quarry, one mile southeast of Rocklin, Placer County. 

>pur track to quarry. Own the old Copp quarry and rent the Werner 
..eed quarry. Equipped with steam hoist and electrically operated 
ompressor. Hammer drills are used, with 100 lbs. air pressure, and 
bout one foot per minute can be drilled. A specialty is made of 
Mausoleums and building stone. About 35^ per ton is received for 
iip-rap. From 6 to 8 men, all of whom are interested in the company, 
io their own work. Carl Ranta, president, Rocklin; Wm. Maki, secre- 
arv. Rocklin. 



390 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. ^> O ^ 

Pisila and Aho Quarry. Rocklin district. Sec. 30, T. 11 N., R. 71 
E., M. D. M. Equipped with steam hoist. Rented and worked by 
Messrs. Pisila and Aho, of Rocklin. 

Union Granite Company. Rocklin district. Sec. 30, T. 11 N., R. 
7 E., M. D. M., \ mile spur track from Rocklin. Four acres leased at 
25^ per ton royalty. Equipped with one steam hoist. Hand drills are 
used. Street curb and monumental stone are sold at 49^ and 70^ per 
cubic foot, respectively, at the quarry. Mat Ruhkala, manager, Rocklin. 

Wickman Quarry. Rocklin district. Sec. 30, T. 11 N., R. 7 E., 
M. D. M. Owned by Oscar Wickman, who works the quarry aided by 
his two sons and two hired men. 
Idle Quarries are as follows : 

Adams and Waldo, Rocklin. 

Brady and Began, Rocklin. 

Carlaw Bros., Loomis. 

Dunns Quarry, Rocklin. 

Hoyt's Quarry, Rocklin. 

Hytiman's Quarry, Rocklin. 

Janiala Jacob Quarry, Rocklin. 

Kakkinan, Rocklin. 

Marks Quarry, Rocklin. 

Perno Quarry, Rocklin. 

Roberts Quarry, Penryn. 

IRON. 

A considerable deposit of magnetic iron ore occurs along the contac 
of the Calaveras slates with granodiorite near Hotaling, 5 miles north 
west of Clipper Gap. Lack of a cheap fuel has prevented furtheij j 
development, but with electric power near-by the propert}' should b<l | 
valuable. Over 15,000 tons of pig iron were produced in 1883 by th< 
California Iron and Steel Company, later the Phoenix Iron and Lim* 
Company. Several thousand tons of hematite ore are reported to be oi 
the dump and the remains of the old smelting furnace and buildings ar 
still to be seen. 

Bibl.: Rept. IV, pp. 237-239, 1884; Bull. 38, pp. 298-9, 1906. 

LIMESTONE. 

Lenses of limestone occur commonly associated with the metamor 
phic rocks throughout the county, but are seldom of large enough extenl 
or, if so, near enough to transportation, to be economically valuable. 1 
lens of considerable size is cut by the Middle Fork of the America! 
River, 5 miles northeast of Auburn and is being worker! on the E' 



PLACER COUNTY. 391 

Dorado side of the river by the Pacific Portland Cement Co. The por- 
tion of the deposit in Placer County will no doubt be worked in time. 
Small deposits northward in the same belt occur two or three miles 
south of Clipper Gap. A lens one mile north of Hayden Hill, three 
miles southeast of Towle, cut by the North Fork of the American River, 
is about two miles from the railroad, but no development work has been 
done. 

The Holmes Lime Company owns a lime quarry near Newcastle 
but it has been idle the past few years. H. W. Postlewaite, president. 
380 Monadnock Building, San Francisco. 

The Spreckels Sugar Company is reported to have purchased the 
Mason property near Applegate in Sees. 8 and 9, of T. 13 N. ; R. 9 E., 
M. D. M. The company is reported to have secured the property for a 
limestone deposit which is suitable for sugar refining. The rock will be 
shipped to company's refineries on San Francisco bay. 

MAGNESITE. 

Magnesite deposits have been located in the serpentine area 5 miles 
northeast of Iowa Hill, in Canon Creek. -]- mile south of Towle, and on 
the south slope of Bear River. 2| miles north of Towle. The magnesite 
occurs as stockwerk in the serpentine, with an occasional widening of 
the veins. 

The Placer County Properties Company, formerly the Sprague- 
Keasby Asbestos and Magnesia Co.. holds 400 acres in claims in Sec. 13, 




Photo No. 34. Outcrop of magnesite on the Snowball Claim, 5 miles northeast of Iowa Hill. 

of T. 15 N, R. 10 E.. and Sees. 7 and 18, of T. 15 N., R, 11 E., M. D. M., 
about five miles northeast of Iowa Hill. The topography to the north, 
on the slope towards Giant Gap is very steep, but that of the Snowball 



392 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

(160 A.) claim is more gentle. There is an abundance of timber and i 
water on the latter claim. 

Three outcrops of magnesite, about the size of that on the Snowball j 
claim (see Photo No. 34), occur on the south slope of the North Fork 1 
of the American River. A tunnel, originally driven into the serpentine I 
bedrock in search of gold bearing gravels, cuts through a stockwerk I 
of magnesite veins, varying from threads up to eight inches wide. Not 1 
enough magnesite is exposed in this tunnel to pay for mining it, but it I 
proves the continuity of the veins with depth. The tunnel is driven at I 
a considerable distance east of the main magnesite outcrops, so it does I 
not reveal their size, with depth. 

The property has not yet been sufficiently developed to either prove 
or disprove its value. It could be developed on a small scale and the! 
product calcined on the property at comparatively small cost. This 1 
would be the more feasible plan, since the product would have to be I 
hauled 30 miles by way of Forest Hill to Colfax. Whether the proceeds I 
from the product would pay for the development work is questionable, I 
but such a plan might partially defray expenses while at the same time I 
it would determine the value of the property. Owned by the Placer I 
County Properties Co., S. M. Sprague, president, East Auburn; Mrs. -I 
Gertrude Shelley, secretary, 326 Ochsner Bldg., Sacramento. 

Bibl. : U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 540, pp. 501-503, 1913. Min. Res. oil 
theU. S, 1914, Pt. II, p. 579. 

Towle Magnesite deposits. Outcrops of magnesite in the region of ] 
Towle occur in brecciated serpentine. An outcrop is reported in the bed I 
of Canon Creek, in Sec. 6, T. 15 N., R. 11 E., M. D. M., about J mile I 
south of Towle station; another in Sec. 24, T. 16 N., R. 10 E., about 2j| 
miles north of Towle on the south side of Bear River; and a third in J 
Sec. 36, T. 16 N., R. 10 E. No development work has been done on any! 
of the deposits to determine their commercial value. 

Owned by J. H. Johnson, of East Auburn, and J. D. Sullivan, of H 
Towle. J 

Bibl. : Min. Res. of the U. S., 1914, Pt. II, p. 579. 

MINERAL PAINT. 

Ochre has been reported on the Chamberlain-Keena-Shepard I 
property, near Gold Run. The deposit is probably of little importance. I 



PLACER COUNTY. 393 

MINERAL WATER. 
The following mineral spring descriptions by Gerald A. Waring are 
lrgely taken from U. S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper No. 
38; with additional information included by the writer. 

"Brockway Hot Springs. The only noteworthy thermal springs in 
le basin of Lake Tahoe are at the north end of the lake, near Stateline 
'oint, at a fishing and boating resort, known as Brockway, where in 
909 a hotel and four cottages provided accommodations for 100 people, 
'he springs rise in the lake, within a few feet of the shore, bubbling 
p from numerous vents principally at two localities. One of these 
realities is at the boat pier, where one spring has been cemented so as 
3 form a drinking basin near the lake edge." A temperature of 




Photo No. 35. Brockway Hot Springs and bathing pool on the northern shore of Lake 

I Tahoe, Placer County. 

20° F. was recorded in this spring, and the discharge was about 3 gal- 
3ns a minute when visited in September, 1916. A spring behind the 
•ar had a temperature of 140° F. A warm swimming pool has been con- 
tracted by placing a concrete wall around the springs in the lake and 
n 18 room bath house built. The temperature of the bathing pool is 
16° F. Water from another group of springs, which is situated in 
he lake near its edge, about 150 yards northwestward, is pumped to a 
ank nearby and used for bathing and for laundry purposes. The 
emperature of this spring in September, 1916, was 130° F. The water 
b faintly sulphureted, but seems to be only slightly mineralized 
therwise, for it is very soft and excellent for laundry use. 



394 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

"The springs rise from granodiorite which is overlain on the slopes 
above by andesitic lava, A probable fault has been mapped by Lind- 
gren 7 as passing southeastward through the lake, about one-third of 
a mile west of the springs. 8 The fault appears to furnish the most 
plausible explanation for the existence of the springs. ' ' 

Owned by M. Lawrence and H. 0. Comstock, Brockway Hot Springs, 
Cal. 

"Cisco Iron Spring. A cold spring that yields perhaps 8 gallons, 
a minute is situated in a small depression in a group of alders on a| 
gentle slope on the southern side of the canon of South Fork of Yuba 
River, half a mile north of Cisco railroad station and 100 yards south 
of the wagon road. The soil is deeply iron stained for a number of] 
yards along the overflow channel. The spring is well known locally, as 
it furnishes excellent cold drinking water. The surrounding rocks are 
the slates, and schists derived from them, that have been mentioned; 
in speaking of the sulphur springs near South Fork of Yuba River, 
a mile or two upstream from the iron spring." 

When visited in September, 1916, the temperature of this spring- 
was 44° F. and flowed 2 gal. per min. Iron was being deposited along 
the overflow. 

"Deer Park Springs. In the canon of Bear Creek, 8 miles in s 
direct line southeast of Summit Soda Springs, four small springs form 
drinking pools of cool, mildly carbonated water that deposits consider- 
able iron. They were formerly known as Scott Springs but are no"w; 
known as Deer Park Springs. The place has been conducted as a resort; 
since the eighties. In 1909 a hotel, a dining hall, and seven cottage* 
provided accommodations for 150 guests. The buildings are situatec 
in a little flat on the northwestern side of Bear Creek, and the spring* 
are on a hillside 150 to 200 yards eastward, across the stream. Smal 1 
rustic houses have been erected over the springs, two of which art; 
beneath one roof. Two of them are known as Soda Springs, one as the 
Sulphur Spring and one as the Iron Spring. Their waters have the 
distinctive tastes indicated by these designations and differ somewha 
though not markedly in composition, as is shown by the following 
analyses of three of them; all are secondary-alkaline, primary-salim 
waters." 



7 Lindgren, Waldemar, Geol. Atlas. Truckee folio (No. 39), U. S. Geol. Survey, I89*i 
"This fault is not shown on Map No. 1 of the atlas accompanying the report of th 
California State Earthquake Commission, probably through oversight. 



' 



PLACER COUNTY. 



Analyses of water from Deer Park Springs, Placer County, Cal. 



395 



Analyst, G. E. Colby (1909). A 


uthority, owner, 
million.) 


Constituents are in parts per 




Soda No. 1 


Soda No. 2 


Sulphur 


Properties of reaction— 


33 


13 
54 
17 


19 



13 

68 

7 


31 


Secondary salinity -- 





Per-salinity 





Primary alkalinity - 


13 


Secondary alkalinity 


56 


Subalkalinity 


17 


uu^cuxuxiuik.7 __ 





Constituents 



By 

weight 



Reacting | By 
values weight 



Reacting 
values 



By 

weight 



Reacting 
values 



Calcium (Ca) 

Magnesium (Mg) 
Sulphate (SO*) . 
Chloride (CI) .... 
Carbonate (CO3) 
Silica (SiC-2) 



L Total solids 
arbon dioxide (CO2) 

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S). 



160 

174 
45 

297 
76 



7.99 

3.62 
1.27 
9.90 
2.52 



990 

Present Present 



84 

39 

367 



900 

Present 



10.29 

1.75 

1.09 

12.23 

1.03 



114 
111 



210 
53 



Present 



670 
Present 
Present 



5.69 
2.31 



6.99 
1.76 



Present 
Present 



"The springs rise in an area of granitic rock that is probably an 
eastward extension of the material that forms the mountains to the 
west. At the springs this rock is decomposed to gravel and to kaolin- 
like clay. It is nearly surrounded by andesitic lava, which covers the 
islopes less than 100 yards east of the springs. ' ' 

("Florence Spring. A quarter of a mile northeast of Summit Soda 
Springs, on the northern side of the stream, there is a carbonated 
spring that is locally called Florence Spring. It has a considerably 
'larger flow than the springs of the Summit group, and it is not so 
strongly carbonated, but it probably contains more iron, for the water 
.tastes of iron and deposits much iron along its overflow channel. The 
spring has not been improved, but it has been used to some extent for 
drinking." 

"Heath Soda Springs. Five miles in a direct line westward from 
the Summit Springs in the canyon of North Fork of American River, 
on its northern side, are the carbonated springs known as Heath Soda 
Springs. They yield considerably more water than the Summit Springs 
but are not so strongly carbonated. They have not been improved, and 
as the place is not easily accessible it is rarely visited. The springs 
issue in an area of granitic rock, within a quarter of a mile of the 
western border of an area of altered slates; andesitic lava covers the 
slopes 2 miles northward and westward." Owned by the North Fork 
Association. 



396 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

"Iron Springs near Lake Tahoe. A mile northwest of McKinney, 
on the western side of Lake Tahoe, two small iron springs rise in the 
woods on a gentle slope about 350 yards above the main wagon road 
and form pools about a foot in diameter and a foot in depth, four yards 
apart, which are used for drinking. The water tastes distinctly ferru- 
ginous and has deeply iron stained the soil for about 75 yards below 
the springs. The staining is probably caused by the fact that the water 
contains a small amount of carbon-dioxide, which holds the iron in 
solution until this gas has escaped, when the iron is precipitated and 
deposited along the overflow course." 

"The springs issue from lake deposits of sand and gravel near the 
base of steep slopes of andesitic lava. ' ' 

When visited in September, 1916, the lower spring flowed i gal. per 
min. and had a temperature of 49° F. 

Analysis of Water from Lake Tahoe, Cal. 
(Analyst F. W. Clarke. U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 330, p. 122.) 



Constituents 



By 

weight 



Reacti 
value 



Sodium (Na) 

Potassium (K) _. 
Calcium (Ca) ___. 
Magnesium (Mg) 
Sulphate (SOi) _. 
Chloride (CI) ... 

Bromide (Br) 

Carbonate (COs) 
Silica (SiOa) 



Total 



1-1 



72.9 



McGlashan Mineral Spring is located on the Truckee River, 9 miles 
south of Truckee. The water is strongly carbonated, carries iron, and 
arises in decomposed granite and boulders. A small bottling plant is 
operated by J. G. Kirchner, leaser. 

"Powderhorn Creek Carbonated Spring. A small, cool, carbonated 
spring lies near the mouth of Powderhorn Creek, 5J miles in a direct 
line southwest of Deer Park Springs, but it is unimproved and is known 
mainly to hunters and fishermen. Small carbonated springs of similar 
character probably issue at other places in this region, but they are of 
little note and are known chiefly to the local sportsmen." 

"Salt Springs on North Fork of American River. On the western 
bank of North Fork of American River, about 2 miles east of Colfax, 
there are a few saline and alkaline seepages that are known to local 
hunters as salt licks, or deer licks. Springs that yield perhaps 10 
gallons a minute issue 25 or 30 feet above the river from a bank at the 



I 



PLACER COUNTY. 397 

^anonside. There is said to be a considerable saline deposit along 
their courses in summer, but when the locality was visited the small 
deposit that was seen consisted mainly of soda and alum. The sur- 
rounding rock is slate of Carboniferous age, which has been described 
by Lindgren. 9 The saline material is apparently derived from these 
aid sediments." 

"Sereno Creek Carbonated Spring. About 3 \ miles south of Soda 
Springs station, a short distance east of the road, is a small spring that 
forms a drinking pool. It is on the eastern side of the canon of Sereno 
Creek, near the base of steep slopes of andesite that overlies rhyolitic 

lava." 

"Sulphur Spring on Middle Fork of American River. A small 
pring of strongly sulphureted water is situated in the canon of Middle 
Fork of American River, about 20 miles west of Tahoe. The water 
issues at the base of a bluff of morainal material, on the southeast side 
of the stream. It has been visited by fishermen and others who 
penetrate this portion of the Sierra, but it is not well known." 

'Summit Soda Springs. A number of groups of small carbonated 
springs lie in the Sierra west of Lake Tahoe. One of the northernmost 
of these groups has long been known as Summit Soda Springs, although 
the springs are about 13 miles by road south of Summit station, on the 

S Southern Pacific Go's railroad. The springs are situated in a little 
flat beside North Fork of American River, and in the late eighties or 
early nineties a hotel was built, and the place was conducted as a resort 
for several years. The hotel burned in 1898, however, and since then 
the property has not been open to the public." 

When visited in September, 1916, the owner, Mr. Joseph W. Stan- 
ford of Warm Springs, Alameda Co., had built a private stone mansion 
[and caretakers ' quarters on the property. Only two springs were being 
used. 

"Four cool, carbonated springs rise in the flat on the south side of 
the North Fork, and a fifth rises at the edge of the stream. Three of 
them have been enclosed by spring houses and are used as drinking 
springs. All have small flows, but they are strongly carbonated and 
deposit noticeable amounts of iron. The following analyses of one of 
the principal springs show the water to be moderately alkaline and 
saline. 



8 Lindgren, Waldemar, U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas, Colfax folio (No. 66), pp. 1-2, 
1900. 



398 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Analyses of Water from Main Spring, Summit Soda Springs, Placer County, Ca 
(Constituents are in parts per million.) 






Properties of reaction: 
Primary salinity _._ 
Secondary salinity ... 

Tertiary salinity 

Primary alkalinity _ 
Secondary alkalinity 
Tertiary alkalinity . 



Constituents 


By 

weight 


Reacting 
values 


By 

weight 


Reacting 
values 




238 

8 

210 

20 

22 

10 

272 

201 

Trace 

33 


10.34 248 


10.76 

Trace 

9.14 

1.73 

.82 

1.77 

7.69 

13.94 ' 


Potassium (K) __ 


.20 

10.48 

1.64 

.79 

1.11 

7.69 

15.76 

Trace 

1.09 


Trace 

183 
21 
23 
16 

272 


Calcium (Ca) ___ __ 


Magnesium (Mg) . __ _. _ _ „ _ 


Iron (Fe) . __ _. 




Chloride (CD 


Carbonate (CO3) .— _. 


Mctaborate (BO2) _ _ __. 




Silica (SiO.O . 


35 


1.16 




Totals 


1,014 




941 










Carbon dioxide (CO2) - - 


1,593 


72.41 1,586 


72.09 




i. Analyst and authority, Winslow Anderson (1888). 

2. Analyst, J. P. Rudolph (1878). Authority, U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 32. 

"On the hillside 2C0 to 500 yards southward, there are four other 
carbonated springs which have been developed only to the extent of; 
excavating small basins about them." 

"The main springs issue in an area of granitic rock, the minor ones, on! 
the hillside to the southeast, issue from schists that are a result of con- 
tact metamorphism between the granitic rock and slates. A mile south- 
ward the slopes are covered with andesitic lava, and Tinker Knob, 3 
miles to the east, is a volcanic mountain. 10 " 

"Near the road, 2 miles westward, downstream from the Summit 
Springs, there are considerable deposits of lime carbonate, and small 
quantities of carbonated water still seep at a few points in them. North 
of the railroad, on the wagon road to Truckee, there are also carbonate 
deposits that are the work of mineral springs." 

"Sulphur Springs near South Fork of Yuba River. In the canon 
of South Fork of Yuba River, less than a mile north of Cisco railroad 
station, are two small, springs, one of which forms a drinking spring 
near the wagon road on the southern side of the river. The other is; 
some distance farther upstream, on the northern side of the river, and; 


10 A detailed description of the geology of this region is given by Waldemar Lindgren, 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Truckee folio (No. 39), p. 5, 1897. 



PLACER COUNTY. 399 

as been little used. Their waters are only faintly sulphureted. The 
)cks of the locality consist of slates, in part altered by contact meta- 
lorphism. that are of Jurassic and Tria.ssic age." 

MOLYBDENITE. 

A pegmatitic vein carrying large, pure flakes of molybdenite has 
een found in granodiorite somewhere near the Rubicon River by 
fr. Sherry AYillits. of Auburn. The size and extent of the deposit could 
ot be learned. 

QUARTZ. 

Quartz crystals have been sold commercially from a vein near Shady 
on by Mr. J. Churchill, of 42 E. Main street, Stockton. The deposit 
as not been worked for over two years. 

TALC. 

• Talc or soapstone occurs rather commonly along fracture planes in 
lany of the mines. A deposit has been reported in the Bobtail mine 
1 the Rock Creek district. Owned by Wm. Recknagel, of Auburn. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

California State Mineralogist, Reports on Mines: VIII, pp. 461-475, 1888; X, 
pp. 410-434, 1890; XI, pp. 319-322, 1892; XII, pp. 203-213, 1894; XIII, pp. 
272-2S7, 1895-6. Bulletins: No. 38, Structural and Industrial Materials, pp. 
218-220, 1906; No. 50, Copper Resources by W. E. Thome, pp. 174, 205-211, 
190S: No. 57, Gold Dredging by W. B. Winston and Chas. Janin, p. 11, 1910. 
Register of Mines and Minerals in Placer County by Ivan H. Parker, 
February, 1902. 

U. S. Geological Survey Publications: 

Annual Reports : XIV, pt. 2, Gold-Silver Veins of the Ophir District, pp. 
2 49-28 5, 189 2-3 ; XVII, pt. 2, Gold-Quartz Veins of Nevada City and Grass 
Valley, pp. 13-263, 1895-6. Bulletin No. 540, pp. 501-503, by Hoyt S. Gale, 
1913. Geologic Folios: Nos. 3 and 5, Reprints of Placerville and Sacramento 
Quadrangles, 1914: No. 18, Smartsville Quadrangle; No. 39, Truckee Quad- 
rangle : No. 66, Colfax Quadrangle. Mineral Resources of the United States, 
pt. II. 1914, by Chas. G. Yale and Hoyt S. Gale, pp. 567, 579. Professional 
Paper No. 73, Tertiary Gravels of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, by Waldemar 

ILindgren, 1911. Water Supply Paper No. 338, Springs of California, by Gerald 
A. Waring, 1915. 



400 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 

By Clarence A. Waring, Field Assistant. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Two weeks were devoted in October, 1916, to the mineral industry 
of Sacramento County. Appreciation is here expressed for the eourteow 
treatment and cooperation of the several operators. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Location, boundaries and area. 

Sacramento County is bounded on the north by Sutter and Place 
counties; on the south by the San Joaquin and Mokelumne rivers an< 
Dry Creek; on the east by El Dorado and Amador counties, and on th 
west by the Sacramento River and Steamboat and Sutter Sloughs. 

The county was organized in the year 1849 and covers an areafl 
983 square miles. 

Population and county seat. 

The population of the comity in 1913 was 90,000—75,000 of whici 
were centered in Sacramento, the county seat and State Capitol, siti 
ated at the confluence of the American and Sacramento rivers. 

Topography and drainage. 

Sacramento County lies mainly in the central valley of California 
extending from the Sierran foothills on the east down to the Sacn 
mento River on the west. The highest elevations in the county soutl 
east of Folsom are less than 900 feet, while the lowest in the southwestern 
portion of the county are slightly below. sea level. 

The eastern portion of the county is well drained from the nort 
by the American River, which empties into Sacramento River, and b 
the Cosumnes River and Dry or Jackson Creek, which drain into Sa- 
Joaquin River by way of Mokelumne River. The western portion < 
the county is largely low land protected from flooding by levees. 

Power. 

Two power lines of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company enter tl 
city of Sacramento from the northeast. The Great Western Power lhj 
crosses the western side of the county from north to south, making 
detour east of the city of Sacramento. The American River Electr 
Company, owned by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, serves til 
eastern part of the county with power lines, following the America 
River from Folsom to Sacramento and following the State Highwi 
from Sacramento to Stockton. J 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 401 

Transportation. 

The Southern Pacific main line enters the city of Sacramento from 
the southeast from Stockton and passes northeastward through the 
county to Roseville, Placer County. The company has branch lines 
from Sacramento to Placerville, El Dorado County by way of Folsom, 
and from Sacramento south, along- the east side of Sacramento River to 
Walnut Grove. The Western Pacific main line crosses the west side of 
the county from south to north through the city of Sacramento. 

The Central California Electric Traction railway runs from Sacra- 
mento southeastward through the county to Stockton. The Oakland, 
lAntioch and Eastern Electric railway crosses the river at Sacramento 
and runs south westward to San Francisco. The Northern Electric 
•aihvay runs north from Sacramento to Marysville. 

Good highways radiate from the city of Sacramento to Stockton, 
jPolsom and Roseville. Branch roads make all parts of the county easily 
iceessible. River boats ply between Sacramento and San Francisco and 
furnish a cheap means of transportation. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY.* 

The higher northeastern portion of Sacramento County, in the region 
jast and southeast of Folsom, is made up of diabase, amphibolite schist 
ind slate. 

To the extreme northeast in the region of Represa these old meta- 

-norphics are intruded by granodiorite, which is being quarried for 

stone. Ancient river gravels overlie these older rocks in the region of 

Mormon Island, where they were placered in the early days. 

I Along the lower foothills sedimentary strata of upper Cretaceous 

i'Chico) and upper Eocene (lone) age are exposed. These strata are 

lomposed of shales, sandstones, clays, sands and gravels interbedded 

vith volcanic tuffs and breccias. They are overlain along the edge of 

he valley by alluvium. Where the American River enters the valley, 

)road terraces have been left on either side. These terraces are made 

ip principally of gravels and sands which are being dredged for their 

fold content. Certain clays in the valley alluvium have been found to 

')e suitable for the manufacture of brick, tile and terra cotta. Sands in 

he Sacramento River are being utilized for sand lime brick and for 

oncrete work. Certain of the deeper alluvial sands have been found to 

r ield natural gas, which is thought to be derived from underlying older 

edimentary deposits. 

* *For a geologic map of eastern Sacramento County see U. S. Geol. Survey, folio 
eprint 3, 5 and 11, 1914. 






402 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

The mineral production of Sacramento County during the year 1915 
consisted of gold, silver, platinum, brick, natural gas and granite, valued 
at $2,632,658. The county stands tenth among the counties of the state 
as a mineral producer and fourth as a gold producer. 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY— Table of Mineral 


Productior 


, 1880-1915 (inc.). 


Year 


1 
Brick 


4 

Natural 
Gas 


3 

Gold 


5 

Platinum 


6 

Silver 


2 

Copper 


7 

Miscellaneous 
stone 


1880 






$342,514 

425,000 
400,000 
480,000 
270,000 
353,522 
283,000 
158,525 
150,000 
210,075 
193,584 
142,830 










1881 








$1,003 






1882 












1883 












1884 














1885 














1886 














1887 








176 






1888 












1889 














1890 














1891 _ 








4 






1892 






121,900 








1893 _ 




90,090 
70,326 

145,872 

133,050 
93,050 

57,301 

115,906 

176,007 

229,034 

425,894 

335,646 

419,287 

668,382 

986,624 

790,973 

1,166,055 

1,669,814 

1,386,874 

1,812,826 

1,712,587 

2,503,633 











1894 _ .- 


$56,250 

65,625 

44,200 
16,700 










75,000 CU. ft. 


1895 










State's use. 
85,000 cu. ft. 


1896 










State's use. 
$12,018 


1897 — 











90,413 


1898 


*1,500 | 

44,000 i $12,000 

93,600 1 "10.000 








18,135 


1899 








14,249 


1900 _ - _ 


53,400 
62,180 
78,198 
120,000 
30,000 
135,000 
108,000 
128,624 
63,491 


11,750 




986 

5)4 

330 

234 

75 

206 

3,640 

2,034 




17,296 


1901 - 




$316 


10,808 


1902 


31,200 
30,518 
39,200 
43,564 
52,874 
52,874 
55,000 
60,000 
49,203 
83,890 
96,000 
36,000 
40,000 
54,000 




19,516 


1903 






20,398 

26,161 

34,000 

19,920 

18,561 

195,628 

235,210 

210,287 

133,344 

197,733 


1904 _ 






1905 


$700 
20O 




1906 _ 




1907 





1908 




1,621 
2,856 




1909 






1910 






4,606 
3,047 
3,544 
3,406 




1911 _ 


76,571 
161,535 
144,191 
160,923 

82,973 







1912 






1913 







238,476 


1914 


2,164,491 1 7,000 
2,131,813 6,217 


3,500 
3,151 





253,235. 


1915 




284,127 








Totals ... 


$1,726,961 


$758,073 


$22 S23.485 | $14,117 


$34,960 


$316 


$2,049,515 


*Pottery. 




Mir> 


IERALS 
BR 


AND M 
ICK. 


[NES. 




i 



The Independent Pressed Brick Company, formerly the Sacramento 
Sand Brick Company, is manufacturing sand-lime brick on the east 
bank of the Sacramento River, just above the Southern Pacific Railroad 
shops in the city of Sacramento. Fine sharp sand is teamed from the* 
bed of the Sacramento River. Lime is crushed and raised by a small 






SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 403 

c^et elevator to a pulverizer. The lime is then measured and dumped 
i a large revolving mixer with the proper proportion of sand. The 
t materials are thoroughly mixed and subjected, while being mixed, 
lets of steam for about 20 minutes. The product is run through a 
i.ker brick machine and the green bricks piled on cars which are run 
I brick cylinders. The cylinders hold 9,000 bricks each and in them 
ibricks are subjected to steam for 9 or 10 hours, at which time the 
Less is complete. The finished bricks are piled in sheds for ship- 

i.t. 

ny color of finished bricks may be produced by adding the desired 
>(r to the mixing cylinder. The finished bricks are claimed to 
siune harder the longer they stand since the lime tends to recrystallize. 
i plant has a capacity of 12,000 bricks daily. 

rude oil, supplied from two 20,000 gallon tanks, is used as fuel for 
Berating steam in a 60 h. p. boiler. "Water is raised, by a 3 h. p. 
[trie motor, from a 50' well into a 20,000 gallon tank for use at the 
lit. 

i»wned and operated by the Independent Pressed Brick Company, 
kfn Trede, president; F. A. Wilcox, vice president; Mrs. J. Trede, 
letary, all of Sacramento. 

he Muddox Pottery Co. manufacture sewer pipe from clay 
[lined from Amador County. The plant is at Thirtieth and L 
Jets, Sacramento. H. C. Muddox, owner. 

he Panama Pottery Co. manufacture ornamental pottery from clay 
tiimed from Lincoln, Placer County. The plant is at Twenty-fourth 
fcet road. Sacramento. 

he Riverside Brick Yard, owned by the Sacramento Transporta- 
I Company, is located near Riverside, about three miles south of 
framento city limits. Loamy soil, clay and sharp sand are steam- 
i/eled from the lowlands near the Sacramento River and hauled to the 
Ik works upon the bank of the river in dump cars drawn by steam 
(-motives. The material is tempered with water, thoroughly mixed in 
i; mills and run through Monarch brick machines. The green bricks 
t dried in tiers in the drying yard and are then ready for burning in 

mtinuous kiln 250' long, 60' wide and 12' high. The burned bricks 
t loaded on river barges ready for shipment. Common building 
l;ks only are manufactured. About 85 men are employed during the 
i>k-making season ; enough bricks being made ahead to run the kilns 
ling the winter. Between 5 and 6 million brick, per year, are pro- 
*ed and sold in San Francisco and Sacramento. Equipment consists 
i 1 Marion steam shovel with a 1J cu. ft. bucket on a 40' x 100' wood 
k, 2 locomotives and 32 dump cars, 4 Monarch brick machines (2 now 
cise), 2 continuous kilns (1 in use). Coal is used for fuel throughout 



404 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



the plant and about 2J tons are consumed in a kiln in 24 hours to pr 
duce 35,000 brick. Twenty-five men are employed all year. A 250 h. 
Corliss steam engine runs a shaft for all the brick machines, which a 
operated for from 3 to 4 months of each year and require about 30 m( 
for each machine. The steam shovel digs to a depth of about 12 fe 
and is operated only about 2 months of each year. The company 
plant at Freeport has been inoperative for several years. 

The company office is at Front and N streets, Sacramento. P. < 
Harney, president ; H. Rolff, superintendent at the plant. 
Bibl. : Rept. X, pp. 506-8, 1890. 

The Sacramento Clay Products plant is located on lot 16 of Rand 
del Paso, about 4 miles northeast of Sacramento on the Southern Paci: 
Railroad near the main highway to Roseville. Clay is taken from ne 
the plant, mixed with clay from Lincoln, Placer County, and temper, 
with water. The stiff mud is run through presses. The plant J 
equipped with 1 Berg brick press, 2 American clay machines, 1 hollo 
tile machine and 4 kilns. Crude oil is burned in the kilns. Fourth 
men are employed. The company manufactures fire brick, face brk 
hollow tile and Denison interlocking tile. 

Owned by the Sacramento Clay Products Company, J. P. Dargi 
manager, 311 Ochsner Building, Sacramento. 




Photo No. 36. 
foot of Y 
is housed 



Wells Nos. 1, 6. 
street, Sacramento. 



7, and 2 of the Sacramento Natural Gas Company, at 
Well No. 1 is to the left of the gas holder while N 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 



405 



NATURAL GAS. 

'he Sacramento Natural Gas Company owns eight producing gas 
lis in the city of Sacramento on the east side of Sacramento River. 
m wells range from 1380' to 2935' in depth. Natural gas is brought 
t by artesian water and caught in traps which empty into large storage 
I'.tainers, the water flowing into the river. Water from well No. 3 is 
ud in the Sacramento Swimming Baths. Gas is reported to have 
Nn first struck at a depth of 293 feet, but the larger flows come from 

reater depth. The eight wells produce in the neighborhood of 250,000 
I ft. of gas per day, which is consumed in the city of Sacramento. 
Ip company has an auxiliary plant for the manufacture of gas from 
ide oil. 

Hleramento Natural Gas Company, 427 J st., Sacramento, J. N. 

isen, Manager; H. C. Keyes, Secretary. 
Bibl. : Kept. X, p. 505 ; 1890, Bull. 3, pp. 5-15, 1894. 




o No. 37. Wells Nos. 8 and 9 of the Sacramento Natural Gas Company, on the east 
k of the Sacramento River. Well No. 9 is just south of the club house in the picture. 

GOLD. 

rold was taken from the bed of the American River and from its 

ches solely by placering and sluicing until 1899, when the first gold 

dge was put in operation in the county. After the first rich surface 

n-ups were made, the gravels remaining were too deep to be worked 

Comically on a small scale. The successful operation of dredgers, 

| recovering the gold from deep gravels, has kept up the county gold 

iduction since their institution. The reclamation dredges being used 

J.the Natomas Company the last year are highly satisfactory and 

r r use in other dredging fields should be encouraged. 



406 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Since dredging operations began the gold production and number 
dredgers operating each year is as follows : 



Year 



Gross 
value 



Increase^ 

or 
decrease- 



Companies operating 



dredgers 



1899 
1900 

1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 

1905 

19C6 

1907 
19C8 

1909 

1910 
1911 
1912 

1913 

1914 
1915 

1916 



$17,200 
47,619 

155,194 

102,097 

348,990 

569,124 

921,300 

649,511 
1.1C9.196 

1,531,136 

1,369,594 
1,805,071 
1,672,797 

2,498,603 

2,161,653 

2,129,781 



$17,091,866 



+$17,200 
+30,419 

+107,575 

—53,097 

+246,893 

+220,134 

+352,176 

—271,789 
+459,685 

+424,940 

—164,542 
+435,477 
—132.272 

+825,806 

-336,950 
—31,872 



Colorado-Pacific 

Colorado-Pacific 

Ashburton 

Colorado-Pacific 

Ashburton 

Syndicate 

Colorado-Pacific 

Ashburton 

Syndicate 

Colorado-Pacific 

Ashburton 

Syndicate 

Colorado-Pacifie 

Ashburton 

Syndicate 

Folsom Development Co. 

Colorado-Pacific 

Ashburton 

Syndicate 

El Dorado 

Natoma 

Colorado-Pacific 

Ashburton __- 

Syndicate 

El Dorado - 

Natoma 

El Dorado 

Natoma 

Ashburton 

El Dorado 

Natoma 

Ashburton 

El Dorado 

Natoma 

Ashburton 

Natoma 

Ashburton 

Natoma 

Natoma 

Union 

Ashburton 

Natoma 

Union 

Ashburton 

Natoma 

Wilkesbarre (or Union) _ 

Natoma 

Wilkesbarre 

Indiana 

Natoma 



Total dredge production. 



10 



10 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY 



407 



The best gold values are found along the ancient courses which the 
American River took to reach the valley. These old channels and their 
terraces are, in most cases, covered with from 20 to 70 feet of gravel, 
sand and alluvium, in places interbedded or overlain by beds of volcanic 
material. The north side of the American River, west of Folsom, is 
made up almost entirely of volcanic material which carries little or no 
value and covers the gravels so deep as to make dredging unprofitable. 
The bed of the river and the two terraces en the south side have yielded 
good values. The gravels in the lower terrace average between 6 and 8 
cents per cubic yard, while those on the upper terrace average between 
8 and 9 cents per cubic yard. The channel gravels are underlain by 
volcanic tuff and slate, from 12" to 18" of which is dredged to recover 
any values which may have worked into it. The main bedrock is not in 
all cases reached by the dredgers, but where the slate is reached excellent 
values are found. 




Photo No. 38. Dredger No. 4 of the Natomas Consolidated of California, under construction 
in November, 1915. The first reclaiming gold dredge bui:t in California. 



The following table shows the history of dredging in Sacramento 
County since its beginning: 



408 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

TABULAR HISTORY OF SACRA 





d 








w 


W 


Company 


a 

K 

2 
o 


Type of 
construction 


Year 
commissioned 


Number and 
type of 
buckets 


2 § 

a -a c * 
p-43 




Colorado-Pac. Gold Dredg- 


1 


Risdon (steam) 


April, 1899 


Open link 


H 




ing Co. 

Ashburton or New England 


2 


Risdon (elec.) 


1902 




5 




1 


Bucyrus 


Mar. 1,1900 


Double lift 






Exploration Co. 








Open link 


n 






2 


Bucyrus 


May, 1908 


Single lift 
Close conn. 


7 


z 


Syndicate — 


1 


Risdon 


1901 


Open link 


5 




Folsom Development Co 


1 


Western Eng. 














Const., Bucyrus 


Feb. 20,1904 


Close conn. 


51 






2 


Western Eng. 














Const., Bucyrus 


Mar. 16, 1904 


Close conn. 


51 






8 


Company Const., 














Bucyrus 


Jan. 1, 1905 


87 close conn. 


81 


490 




4 


Company Const., 














Bucyrus 


Nov. 15, 1905 


68 close conn. 


13 


415 




6 


Western Eng. 














Const., Bucyrus 


Dec. 10, 1905 


73 close conn. 


9 


540 




6 


Western Eng. 














Const., Bucyrus 


Mar. 8, 1908 


86 close conn. 


9 


790 


El Dorado Gold Dredging Co. 


1 


Risdon 


April 25, 1905 


Open link 


7 


....... 


Wilkes-Barre Dredging Co._- 


1 




Nov. 10, 1914 









Natoma Development Co., 


1 


Yu>~a Const. Co., 










(absorbed the Colorado 




Bucyrus 


May 10, 1908 


61 close conn. 


131 


645 


Pacific, Syndicate and 


2 


Yuba Const. Co. 


April 22, 1908 


Close conn. 


8 




Natomas Vineyard prop- 


3 


Yuba Const. Co. 


July 2, 1908 


61 close conn. 


8 




erties.) 














Natomas Consolidated ( ab- 


1 


Natoma, No. 1 


Dec. 1916 


67 close conn. 


15 


711.5 


sorbed the Natoma Devel- 


2 


Natoma, No. 2 


April 22, 1908 


68 close conn. 


U 


463 


opment Co., El Dorado 


3 


Natoma, No. 3 


July 2, 1908 


72 close conn. 


81 


438 


Gold Dredging Co., Folsom 


4 


Folsom, No. 4 


Nov. 15, 1905 


67 close conn. 


15 


600 


Development Co. and 














"Wilkes-Barre Dredging Co. 1 ) 
















• 


Folsom, No. 5 


Dec. 10,1905 


82 close conn. 


9 


528 




6 


Folsom, No. 6 


Mar. 8, 1908 


86 close conn. 


9 


505 




7 


Folsom, No. 3 


May, 1913 


98 close conn. 


9 


613 




8 


Yuba Cons. Co. 


Jan. 23,1911 


83 close conn. 


15 


1,122 




9 


Yuba Cons. Co. 


Avg. 10,1911 


83 close conn. 


15 


1,146 




ia 


Yuba Cons. Co. 


Sept. 30, 1912 


83 close conn. 


15 


1,165 




U 


Yuba Cons. Co. 


Nov. 10, 1914 




9 


505 







SACRAMENTO COUNTY 
ENTO COUNTY DREDGERS. 



409 





d 


O 


> 


a 


a 


o 






Oggffi 




►1 fO 


§§ 




sgl 




'ype of 


3 2S* 
3. n E.™ 


<•> re a- 

S 


<1> u> 
P. 


a 


*5 




Remarks 


creens 


i 
i 




p. 


D. 


a 


1 w 
1 






aker 


35,000 




25 


1,460 


960,000 




Dismantled 1903. 


aker 


60,000 




54 


1,460 


2,100,000 




Dismantled 1906. 


aker 


115,000 


26 


155 


2,555 


6,000,000 


7.8 


Dismantled 1906. 


l aker 


90,000 12-48 


8 


210 


450,000 


8 


Dismantled 1913. 


•aker 
'aker 




103 
54 


2,012 
1,655 


3,000,000 
2,995,000 




Closed down 1906. 


56,000 Av. 45 


Dismantled Aug. 20, 1908. 


'aker 


Av.17 


150 


1,380 


5,350,000 




Dismantled Jan. 14, 1909. 


Ivolving 


180,000 30 


*81.5 


1,460 


*3 ,600,000 




Dismantled May, 1912, and ma- 
















chinery used in building Natoma 
















No. 7. 


ivolving 


250,000 


Av. 20 


*209 


1,140 


*6,5O0,0OO 


3.0 


Renamed Natoma No. 4. Dis- 
mantled. 


volving 


50-75 


*39 


1,110 


*3,500,0O0 




Renamed Natoma No. 5. Still 














operating. 


Solving 


130,000 Av. 60 


*18.9 


285 


*1,565,598 


5.8 


Renamed Natoma No. 6. Still 
operating Monitor equipment. 






40 

§26 


1,335 
474 


1,260,000 
1,601,000 


8.46 


Dismantled 1909. 




~~ 


Discontinued operations Feb. 29, 




| 










1916. 


.'aking 


250,000 1 Av. 19 


t60.02 


225 


*3,048,254 


2.4 




Ivolving 


162,000 Av. 24 


U6.38 


135 


*626,300 


2.4-3.1 




-Volving 


102,000 Av. 42.5 


8.50 


180 


583,900 


3.9 




.volving 


270,000 32 


§611.00 


§2,584 


§21,812,000 


3.22 


Rebuilt Feb.-Nov., 1916, as re- 


'. volving 


170,000 : 35 


§368.00 


§2,727 


§14,789,000 


4.00 


claiming dredge. 


! volving 


140,000 40 


§272.00 


§2,729 


§13,567,000 


4.48 




Evolving 


250,000 22 


§499.00 


§2,287 


§18,177,000 


3.01 


Rebuilt Nov. 1, 1914,-Jan. 13, 1916, 
as reclaiming dredge. 


Evolving 


140,000 50 


§139.00 


§2,577 


§11,412,000 


5.96 


Sank June 8, 1913. Resumed op- 
erations Nov. 2, 1913. 


1 volving 


130,000 50 


§131.00 


§2,721 


§11,010,000 


6.58 


Extensive repairs May 22-July 31, 
1913. 


ivolving 


180,000 60 


§174.00 


§2,259 


§9,518,000 


6.00 


Sank May 4, 1912. Resumed op- 
erations May 14, 1913. 


evolving 


200,000 


60 


§94.00 


§1,519 


§9,401,000 


5.5 J 


Burned Oct. 20, 1911. Resumed 
operations Jan. 20, 1913. 


ivolving 


200,000 


60 


§122.00 


§1,778 


§11,673,000 


5.84 




Ivolving 


200,000 


60 


§140.00 


§1,363 


§9,120,000 


5.27 




j volving 






§5.00 


§76 


§353,000 


4.87 


Acquired from Wilkes-Barre 
















Dredging Co. on Mar. 28, 1916. 


*To J a 


nuary 1, 


If 


09. tD 


tiring eig 


ht mon 


ths. JPirs 


t eight i 


nonths. §To June 30, 1916. 






410 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 39. Reclaiming Dredge No. 4 of the Natomas Consolidated of California, show! 
bucket line, operating: at Nimbus. Sacramento County. September, 1916. 




Photo No. 40. Reclaiming Dredge No. 4 of the Natomas Consolidated of California, sho I 
the arrangement of the tailings stackers. Operating at Nimbus, Sacramento Cotfj 
September, 1916. 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 



411 



The dredgers of the Natomas Consolidated are all run by electricity 
supplied by the Great Western Power Company and the Western States 
Gas and Electric Company. The tendency the last few years has been 
to build the boats with steel hulls and enlarge the bucket capacity. 
The latest type of boat in this field is the reclaiming gold dredge of 
which Natomas No. 4 is a working example. This dredge is equipped 
with 15 cubic foot buckets and revolving screen the same as the other 
large type dredgers, but additional tailings stackers have been added. 
Two stackers handle the coarse discharge from the revolving screen, 
while two other stackers handle the fines from the riffles. The lengths 
of the four stackers are so arranged that the coarse material is deposited 
nearest the boat and the fine material at a distance, so it will run back 
towards the boat and fill the interstices between the cobbles. The revolv- 
ing motion, back and forth, of the boat distributes the tailings evenly 
across the fill. The land needs but little leveling to fit it for agricultural 
purposes again and the Natomas Company maintains its own reclaim- 
ing department, which is replanting the dredged grounds to orchards 
and vineyards. Emery Oliver, manager, Forum Building, Sacramento. 
Bibl.: Bull. 57, pp. 174-205. 




Photo No. 41. Dredge No. 1 of the Natomas Consolidated of California, being rebuilt as a 
reclaiming dredge, near Fair Oaks, Sacramento County. September, 1916. 



412 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES, 




3 
•a . 

V to 






-So 

.z, *•> 

O 4) 

cH 

O rt 

oh 



zo 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 413 




Photo No. 43. Dredger No. 9 of the Natomas Consolidated of California, operating south 
of Natoma, Sacramento County. 

GOLD— DRIFT MINING. 

The Gray Mining Company are drifting from the bottom of a 40' 
shaft near the head of Alder Creek, at the old "Rhodes Diggings," 3 
miles southeast of Folsom. Elevation 350'. Early work in this region 
consisted of surface placering, and then the Embach Mining Company 
did some drifting from a shaft fitted with electric hoist. Present work 
is being Carried on about one-half mile further up the creek, where 
coarse gold is being taken from blue gravel on a slate bedrock. The 
channel is thought to run north-south and to be about 50' wide and 
4000' long. It is covered with volcanic gravel and tuff and present 
work consists of opening up the channel. Equipment consists of a 
16' hoist and horse whim ; 1\ H.P. distillate engine and valveless rotary 
pump. Three men are employed in the mine and three work on the 
surface. 

The company, consisting of D. P. Gray and son E. R. Gray of Fol- 
som, and C. J. Heeseman of Oakland, are leasing the ground from 
John A. Britton of San Francisco. 

MISCELLANEOUS STONE. 

Crushed rock. 

The Natomas Consolidated of California, owns a large rock crushing 
plant at Fair Oaks w T hich converts dredge tailings to a commercial 
product. Pebbles and boulders are loaded by a steam shovel, with 2\ 
cu. yd. bucket, into dump cars having a capacity of 4 cu. yds. each. 
Two narrow gauge locomotives and 30 dump cars are used. Clean 
gravel is dumped into bins and carried by a 380' conveyor belt to a 



414 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 44. 



Bucket line of Dredger No. 9 of the Natomas Consolidated of Californi 
operating at Natoma, Sacramento County. 



revolving screen. Dirty or wet gravel is passed through a revolving 
screen, 6' in diameter and 30' long with J" holes, where it is washed; 
everything over \" passing to the conveyor belt with the dry clean 
gravel. The fine slickens is washed down a flume and distributed over 
the leveled land. The gravel is then carried to a screen W in diametei 
by 30' long with 2V' perforations. Everything over 2J" in diametei 
is crushed, the dust washed out, and run through sizers for the follow- 
ing: i" x £", J" x 1", 1J" x 2J", dust x f". The balance of the 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 



415 



aterial is stored as washed gravel. The following crushers are used: 
ne 42 " x 26" jaw crusher, 7-36" x 10" jaw crushers and 1-48" Symons 
rusher. A conveyor belt passes under all of the discharge belts and 
ly mixture of sized rock can be obtained. The railroads are arranged 
ider the conveyor belts so that the cars run from the yard by gravity, 
he production of the plant is about 1500 tons of crushed rock and 
X) tons of washed gravel in 10 hours. 

Natomas Rock Crushing Department. Forum Building. Sacramento, 

Alaska Commercial Building, San Francisco. 
Bibl. : Bull. 57. p. 203. 




Photo No. 45. Loading cobbles with steam shovel for Natoma Rock Crushing Plant near 

Fair Oaks. 



416 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 46. Natoma Rock Crushing Plant near Fair Oaks. 



GRANITE. 

The Folsom Granite Quarry is situated on the east bank of t 
American River at Folsom State Prison. The grounds include 483.' 
acres, practically all of which is made up of granodiorite and diaba 
The quarry sites are about 50 feet above the bed of the river and ji 
east of the canal. 

Early work was carried on in diabase, the contact of which, with t 
granodiorite crosses the American River just north of the site of t 
old rock crusher. The farther this rock was quarried into the hill t 
deeper it was decomposed until 100' back from the river bank a lA 
face shows 50' of decomposed rock. Work was also carried on 
granodiorite in an old quarry just below the dam, but better rock 1 
been opened up at the quarry now being worked just east of the prig 
power plant. The granodiorite is dark and medium-grained and 1 
prison buildings built of it in 1888 show no sign of weathering. A 
work is done by prison labor. Equipment consists of hand and harnn 
drills, two derricks, and a tramway to the prison grounds. The convi 
are taught to quarry, cut stone and do the masonry and some have e\ 
attempted sculptural work. 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 



417 




Photo No. 48. Dam across the American River at Folsom State Prison, built of granite 
blocks from the prison quarry by convict labor. 



27—16904 



418 



MINES AND MINKRATj RESOURCE. 







Photo No. 49. View down the American River from the Folsom Prison dam, showing granite 
outcrops along the river bed and along cuts made for the outlet canal. The prison build- 
ings and walls were built of granite blocks by convict labor. 



The granite blocks have been cut for use in the prison buildings, wal 
dam, canal, etc. Rip-rap is used along the canal and about 8000 to 
per year is sold for railroad ballast. 

Owned by the Folsom State Prison, J. J. Smith, warden, Represa 
California. 



: 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 






California State Mineralogist, Reports on Mines: VIII, pp. 556-7, 1888- 3 

pp. 496-514, 1890; XI, pp. 334-336, 1892; XII, pp. 225-227, 1894; XIII ' pp. 

316-318, 1895-6. Bulletins: No. 38, Structural and Industrial Materials, pp.; 

47, 48, 225, 253, 320, 362-4, 370, 1906; No. 57, Gold Dredging by AV B. 

Winston and Chas. Janin, p. 6, 1910. 
U. S. Geological Survey Publications: 

Geologic Folio No. 5, Reprint of Sacramento Quadrangle. Professional Paper 

No. 73, Tertiary Gravels of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, by Waldemar L,ind- 

gren, 1911. 



YUBA COUNTY. 419 



YUBA COUNTY. 



By Clarence A. Waring, Field Assistant. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Four weeks were spent by the writer, in August, 1915, doing field work 
lin Yuba County. All available information was first obtained at Marys- 
jville and vicinity, after which the route took in Browns Valley, Straw- 
Iberry Valley, Eagleville, Woodleaf, Challenge, Rackerby, Oregon House, 
(Dobbins, Comptonville, Smartsville, Waldo and Wheatland. 

The writer endeavored to obtain reliable information concerning all 
operating mines, old mines and prospects. 

Appreciation is here expressed for the courteous treatment and coop- 
eration of the several mine owners and operators. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Location and boundaries. 

Yuba County lies in the north central part of the state and borders 
the east side of the Feather River. It is bounded on the northwest 
by Butte and Plumas counties, on the southeast by Placer and Nevada 
counties and on the east by Sierra County. 

Area. 

It was organized in 1850 and covers an area of 625 square miles, or 
1400,000 acres. 

Population and county seat. 

The population in 1910 was 10,042, of which 5,430, or over one-half, 
'were at Marysville, the county seat, situated at the confluence of the 
{Feather and Yuba rivers. 

Topography and Drainage. 

Extending as it does, from the Feather River into the middle western 
(slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Yuba County includes diversified 
(topography and climate. The main drainage systems of the Yuba and 
Bear rivers and IToneut Creek carry all waters to the southwest into 
Feather River. 

Vegetation. 

Trees in the valley region consist of oaks and willows, while in the 
foothills oaks and digger pine predominate. In the more elevated east- 
ern portion of the county, red pine, sugar pine, fir, cedar, and laurel- 
oak are abundant, and lumbering is one of the principal industries. 
Grains do well in much of the region. Rice and hops are yielding good 
returns in the region about Marysville and Wheatland, respectively. 



420 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Power. 

The western and southeastern parts of the county are well providec 
with power lines. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company, with powei 
plant at Colgate, has a line southwestward through Smartsville, wit! 
branches to "Wheatland, Yuba County, and Van Trent, Placer County; 
also a branch northwestward through Bangor, Butte County. Anothei 
line eastward to Nevada City, with branch northward to Alleghany, 
Sierra County, serves the southeast corner of Yuba County. Branches 
from the main lines could easily be extended to most any part of th( 
county. 

Water power is available in many of the streams during the wintei 
and spring. Internal combustion engines are often cheap ani 
practicable. 

Transportation. 

The San Francisco and Portland line of the Southern Pacific railroa( 
crosses the southwestern part of the county through Wheatland an< 
Marysville, while the Northern California line of the same company rui 
northward from Marysville. 

The Western Pacific railroad crosses the west side of the county and 
is paralleled south of Marysville by the Northern Electric railroadj 
which crosses the Feather Eiver north of Marysville. 

Fair mountain roads tap all the northeastern and mountainous por-? 
tions of the county. 

GENERAL GEOLOGY. 

The general geology of Yuba County is similar to that in the adjoin- 
ing, Nevada and Placer, counties. 

The main central portion of the county consists generally of gabbn 
cliorite and granodiorite grading off on either side into the more bash 
diabases, which in turn grade into metamorphic, amphibolitic rocks 
Schists and slates in places overlie the igneous rocks and are intrude* 
by serpentine in the northern part of the county. Alluvial sands an< 
gravels cover the entire western portion of the county, while auriferoi 
gravels, in places, lie along the old channel courses. 

The general trend of the rock formations is northwest-southeast. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

The areal geology of Yuba County has been covered by U. S. Ge( 
logical Survey Folios Nos. 17, 18 and 43, but no detailed work has beei 
done on the geologic occurrence and association of ore bodies. 



YUBA COUNTY. 421 

The northeastern portion of the county is crossed from southeast to 
northwest by the serpentine, slate and amphibolite belt which accom- 
panies the Mother Lode southward. The region includes many quartz 
veins which in places carry gold values with pyrite. The veins are, as a 
rule, pockety. 

The central portion of the county is made up of granodiorite, gabbro- 
diorite, diabase and amphibolite schist, which have a northwest-south- 
east trend and include quartz veins carrying gold with pyrite, galena and 
chalcopyrite. In the western portion of the area the veins carry a larger 
proportion of copper sulphides, and a belt along the foothills which car- 
ries good gold values from concentration on the surface carries fair 
copper values with depth. 

Ancient river channels throughout the northeastern and central por- 
tions of the county carry considerable gold. 

Asbestos, chrome and manganese are usually associated with ser- 
pentine areas, while talc is often found along fracture planes in the 
schists. 

The western portion of the county is made up of gravel and alluvial 
wash from the mountains to the east. The gravels in places carry gold 
values, which make them good dredging land. 

Sand in the bed of Yuba River is used for construction work, and 
clay beds along the alluvial slopes are available for brick and pottery. 

MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

The mineral production of Yuba County during the years 1914 and 
1915 consisted of gold, platinum, silver and sand. The demand for 
minerals during the last year has encouraged the opening up of other 
prospects which are now adding to the state's production of chrome 
and manganese. 

Other mineral deposits of possible economic value, but as yet undevel- 
oped, are : asbestos, clay, copper, ochre, and soapstone. 



422 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

YUBA COUNTY— Table of Mineral Production, 1880-1915 (incl.). 



Year 


Brick 


Clay 


Gold 


Macadam 


Mineral 
water 


Sand 


Silver 


Miscel- 1 
laneouaB 


1880 






$943,860 
800,000 
750,000 
455,000 
250,000 
207,448 
149,203 
162.426 
150,000 
112,053 
141,781 
37,576 
44,218 
30,839 
107,480 
111,482 
171,687 
141,638 
166,865 
189,927 
280,366 
188,908 
155,630 
125,830 
139,528 
324,135 








$438 
1,300 




1881 _. 














1882 








1883 

















1884 








1885 
















3886 
















1887 
















1888 
















1889 












15 




1890 














1891 
















1892 
















1893 _ 
















1891 
















1895 __ 
















1890 








1897 
















1898 
















1899 
















1900 _— — 












4,625 

846 

2 

41 




1901 












1902 














1903 














1904 


$3,000 


$750 
80 










1905 




$800 
800 
720 




369 




1906 










1907 






1,766,770 
2,031,486 
2,469,865 
3,204,273 
2,997,072 
2,7 r >3,408 
2,491,505 
2,800,000 
2,703.710 






6,187 
9,997 
4,156 
5,372 
5,299 
6,198 
7,571 
6,000 
5/254 




1908 


10,000 
6,600 




$3,750 
5,650 






1909 








^^568,5^ 


1910 - 






1911 _. 










$9,318 

15,526 

8,063 

14,895 

149,292 




1912 












1913 








1914 _ 






2 2,377 


1915 . 










24,174 














Totals 


$19,600 


$830 


$29,558,969 


$11,400 


$2,320 


$197,094 


$63,670 


$575,115 



iUnapportioned, 1900-1909. 
2 Platinum. 

MINING DISTRICTS AND ACTIVE MINES. 

The following mining districts listed by the United States Geological 
Survey, 1 with the addition of the Strawberry Valley district, are here 
outlined, together with the names of the active mines in them. Names 
of producing mines are italicized. 

The Browns Valley district includes all quartz and placer mines 
along Browns Valley Ridge, 10 miles northeast of Marysville. Diabase 
and amphibolite schist are the prevailing rock formations. Active prop- 
erties : None in 1916. 

The Brownsville district includes all quartz, placer and drift mines 
in the region about Brownsville, which lies 34 miles northeast of Marys- 
ville and 36 miles east of Oroville. It includes Rackerby, Challenge and 
Woodleaf. The prevailing country rock is granodiorite and diabase. 
Active properties : B. A. C. Quartz Mine, Beehive or Mt. Hope Quartz, 



l J. M. Hill, Mining Districts of the Western United States. 
Bull. 507, pp. 112-13, 1912. 



U. S. Geol. Survey 



YUBA COUNTY. 423 

er Quartz, Easy Money Quartz, Horseshoe Quartz, Santa Rosa 
Juartz. 

The Camptonville district includes all quartz and placer mines in 
luba County east and south of the North Yuba River, in the region 
Lbout Camptonville, 47 miles northeast of Marysville and 23 miles north 
)f Nevada City. The prevailing country rock is granodiorite, diabase 
md amphibolite, slate, quartzite and limestone. Active properties: 
\ r one. 

The Dobbins or Indiana Ranch district includes all quartz and 
olacer mines in the region about Dobbins, 30 miles northeast of Marys- 
ville. It includes Oregon House, Frenchtown and the region west of 
he Yuba and North Yuba Rivers. The prevailing country rock is 
*abbrodiorite and diabase. Active properties : California Mother Lode* 
Eich Quartz, Good Title Quartz, Red Cross Quartz. 

The Marysville (Yuba Basin) district includes all placer and dredg- 
Bg property along the lower Yuba River. Alluvial sands and gravels 
ire the mineral carriers. Active properties : Marysville Dredging Co., 
Pacific Gold Dredging Co., Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Co., Marys- 
ville Sand Co., Pratt Building Material Co., Yuba River Sand Co. 

The Smartsville district includes all quartz and placer mines, in 
STuba County, in the region of Smartsville, 27 miles east of Marysville 
and 14 miles west of Grass Valley. It also includes Waldo, or Cabbage 
Patch, and Sicard Flat. Diabase is the prevailing country rock. Active 
properties: Boston Hill or Barton, Wheat on or Julius Ccesar, Alcalde 
Placer, Archimedes Placer, Industry Bar Placer, Lone Tree Quartz. 

The Strawberry Valley, or Eagleville district, includes all quartz 
md placer mines in Yuba County, in the region about Eagleville, Straw- 
berry Valley and Clipper Mills, Butte County, and southward to the 
North Yuba River. Gabbrodiorite, slate, amphibolite and serpentine 
are the prevailing rock formations. Active properties : None. 

The Wheatland district includes all placer mines in Yuba County 
along the lower part of Bear River. Alluvial sands and gravels are the 
pineral carriers. Active properties : None. 

MINERALS AND MINES. 
ASBESTOS. 

Small amounts of amphibole slip-fiber asbestos occur in the serpen- 
tine areas of the northern portion of Yuba County. No deposits of 
commercial importance have been developed, but the following pros- 
pects and outcrops were noted : 

1. Small seams in serpentine exposed in old hydraulic workings at 
'Galena Hill, in Sec. 35, T. 19 N., R. 8 E., at an elevation of 2900 feet, 
on the property of W. S. Godfrey, of Camptonville. 



♦Names of producing mines are italicized. 



424 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 






2. Small seams exposed in serpentine 1J miles east of south of C 
lenge on Pike County Hill, at an elevation of 3000 feet. No work. 

3. Small seams along contact between serpentine and slate in the 
shaft of the Mt. Hope quartz mine at an elevation of 3100 feet, in 
Sec. 8, T. 19 N., R. 7 E., near Challenge. 

4. Small seams in serpentine in road-cut and old tunnel in Sec. 18 
T. 19 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., on road from Challenge to the Mt. Hope 
Mine. 

5. Very small seams in serpentine exposed by hydraulic work in the 
old Kingbird drift mine in Sec. 36, T. 20 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M. Eleva 
tion 3800 feet near Clipper Mills, on patented land. 

6. Small seams in serpentine in road-cut one mile west of Strawber 
Valley. 

7. The Butte County Pine and Hardwood Co. have sunk a 20-fo 
prospect shaft, one-half mile below the Mount Hope Mine, near the ro 
to Orovile, at an elevation of 3000 feet. White slip fiber amphibc 
asbestos of fair quality occurs more or less irregularly along a se 
pentine-slate contact. 

BAUXITE. 

Bauxite has been reported 1 from the J. F. Dempsey Ranch, 2 mi 
southeast of Smartsville. Analysis of samples taken from the deposi 
have proved it to be only a white siliceous clay. 

The deposit was encountered while running a 300-foot tunnel 
cross-cut a supposed copper bearing ledge which carries pyrite only 

CLAY. 

Shipments of clay were occasionally made, before 1905, by D. 
and R. H. Durst, of Wheatland, to Gladding, McBean and Compai 
of Lincoln, Placer County. 

The black clay loam used was 6 feet deep and overlain by 18 incl 
of soil. Deposits similar to that on the Durst Ranch are abundant 
the valley portion of Yuba County. 

A siliceous, white clay, formerly reported to be bauxite, was take 
from a tunnel on the J. F. Dempsey Ranch, 2 miles southeast 
Smartsville. Kaolin to be used in the manufacture of fire brick hi 
recently been reported to be shipped from the Dempsey Ranch, 
Oakland. 

COPPER. 

The Ayer Mine on the Brady ranch, 4 miles west of Smartsville, 
in Sec. 35, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M., on patented land at an elevati< 
of 300 feet. The ore consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite in a quai 
vein. Some calcite is present. The vein is about 3 feet wide as expose 
by the gossan and strikes N. 40° W. The dip is nearly vertical. A 



Register of Mines and Minerals, Cal. State Mining Bureau, October, 1905. 







Marigold] 

Qv 



TI5N. 
MAP OF THE 



YUBA RIVER BASIN 

YUBA CO. CAL 



AREA DREDGED 

(To September 1915) 

Fletcher Hamilton, State Mineralogist, 

1916. 



" " i i ' T 
' i . 



YUBA COUNTY. 



425 



hirty-foot shaft has been sunk on the vein, which has walls of slate. 
[die. Owned by Frederick Ayer, of Marys ville. 

A deposit of copper reported on the John Dempsey ranch, in Sec. 
J, T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., one mile south of Smartsville at an eleva- 
ion of 750 feet, shows only pyrite. Prospecting for copper in 1911 by a 
L26-foot shaft and two 135-foot tunnels disclosed only sulphur and 
>yrite. The strong sulphuretted water of a spring near the mouths of 
he tunnels acts on scrap iron and leaves a deposit of ferrous iron, which 
>xidized to ferric iron and then to red iron oxide in a short time. 

GOLD— DREDGERS. 

Gold dredging along the Yuba River commenced in the latter part of 
L903. Since operations began the gold production and number of 
Iredgers operating each year is as follows : 



Companies operating 



Number 

of 
dredgers 



Total 
dredgers 



1903 
3904 
1905 
1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

Total 



$25,736 

74,263 

188,967 

1,205,165 

1,688,032 

1,969,069 

2,441,919 

3,172,476 

2,964,737 

2,716,197 



+$48,527 

+114,704 

+1,016,198 

+482,867 

+281,047 

+ 472,840 

+730,557 

—207,739 

—248,540 



2,420,455 
2,755,734 
2,676,090 


—295,742 
+335,279 
—79,644 






$24,298,840 







W. P. Haminon arid R. D. Evans 
W. P. Hammon and R. D. Evans 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Tuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Yuba Cons. Gold Fields 

Marysville Dredging Co 

Pacific Gold Dredging Co 



The map shows the area which has been dredged thus far. 

The gold occurs in pay streaks in old river gravels which overlie a 
Dedrock of volcanic tuff and are overlain by from 10' to 40' of hydraulic 
failings. The bedrock lies from 30' to 110' from the surface and, as a 
rule, carries no values. 

The Yuba River furnishes abundant water for floating the dredgers, 
which handle al 1 the gravel and a few inches of the bedrock. The total 
gravel handled averages from 10^ to 30^ per cubic yard. 

In 1916 there were two companies operating, with a third company 
building a dredger. 



426 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




YUBA COUNTY. 



427 




428 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



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Cost per 
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meausrements. 



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Depth dredged 
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YUBA COUNTY. 



429 



The Marysville Dredging Company is operating three dredgers 

rthwest of Marigold, a dredging town 8 miles northeast of Marysville. 

Dredgers Nos. 3 and 4 each have 84 9-cubic-foot buckets, and each 

ndles about 2,500,000 cubic yards of gravel per year, covering an area 

i from 20 to 25 acres. They excavate to a depth of from 50' to 80', 

j d operate on an average of about 88% of the time. The total cost of 

< eration, material, labor, electricity, repairs, general expense (includ- 

• preciation and fixed charges), taxes and insurance, is less than 

, per cubic yard. The gravels are thought to average about 15^* per 

(bic yard. The tailings conveyor belts last about 8 months. Electric 

wer is used to operate each dredge and two shifts of 3 men each are 

oployed. The tables are cleaned up every ten days. 




'hoto No. 52. View northwestward of Marigold dredge No. 3, one mile northwest of 
Marigold, Yuba County. September, 1915. 



430 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



%*»*<?, 




Photo No. S3. View northwestward of Marigold dredge No. 4, one mile northwest of 
Marigold, Yuba County. September, 1915. 




Photo No. 54. Marigold Dredge No. 5 operating at Marigold, Yuba County. September, 1911. 

The company builds its own dredges, the machinery being furnishel 
by the Union Iron Works, of San Francisco. The dredges complel 
cost about $200,000 each. 

The head office of the company is at 14 Ashburton Place, Bosto:! 
Mass., and its president is P. Lothrop Ames. The local office is 31 
Marigold, with Thos. D. Harris, manager, and A. D. Snodgras 1 
cashier. 



YUBA COUNTY. 



431 



The Pacific Gold Dredging Company, formerly the Yukon Gold 
redging Company, controlled by the Guggenheim Mining Syndicate, 
; s secured about one and one-half miles along the Yuba River, extencl- 
jg from the property of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company 
- the river narrows. It lies below the Parks Bar bridge in Sec. 25, 

16 N., R 5 E., M. D. M., and is reached from the Browns Valley road. 




Pto No. 55. Gravel deposits, consisting of hydraulic tailings overlying pay gravels, in the 
► I Yuba River below Park's Bar Bridge. The arrow marks the location of the new Pacific 
I dredger. September, 1916. 




P« o No. 56. Pacific Gold Dredge under construction below Park's Bar Bridge on the Yuba 
River, Yuba County. September, 1916. 



432 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The compan}' in September, 1916, had 50 men at work constructing a 
Marion type dredge with 100 9-cubic-foot close-connected buckets anc 
revolving screen. The hull is 12' deep, 60' wide, and 135' long. The 
boat will have a rated h. p. of 700 and will dig 70' below the water line 
The dredger will probably be running by 1917. R. Guggenheim, presi 
dent, 417 Hobart Building, San Francisco ; Chas. K. Lipman, secretary 
H. C. Perring, superintendent, Marysville. 

The Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company is operating elevei 
dredges on their property north and northwest of Hammonton, a towr 1 




Photo No. 57. 



Yuba Consolidated dredger No. 13, one and one-hal 
Hammonton. September, 1915. 



west of 




Photo No. 58. View westward from the tailings pile of Yuba dredge No. 14 in the foregroi 
and Nos. 11 and 9 in the distance. September, 1915. 



YUBA COUNTY. 



433 



of dredging people named after W. P. Hammon. The property adjoins 
that of the Marysville Dredging Company to the north and northeast. 
The company owns the old settling basin south of Hammonton and also 
considerable land south of Browns Valley in the region of Dry Creek, 
all of which is dredgeable. 

The eleven dredges are all run by electricity and were mostly designed 
and built by the Yuba Construction Company of Marysville. The 
latest dredges are now built with steel hulls, excavate to a depth of from 
70' to 80' below the water line, handle about 10,000 cubic yards of 
gravel per day and cost from $300,000 to $500,000 each. 

The yardage handled is figured from bank measurements since there 
s about 20% expansion while working. Recovery of values ranges 
jetween 70% and 100%. The total cost of operation runs slightly 
oelow 5^ per cubic yard. The gold values average between 16^ and 17^ 
3er cubic yard. 

The dredger crews on the small boats consist of 1 dredgemaster, 
L winchman, 2 oilers and 1 helper. The large boats require an extra 
)iler. A repair crew of 25 men and a shop crew of 20 men are em- 
)loyed for the 11 dredges, besides teamsters, truckmen, etc. Wages 
pe as follows : dredgemaster $150.00 per month, winchman $4.00 per 
•lay. oilers $3.00 per day, helpers $2.50 per day, shop men $2.50 to $5.00 
oer day. 




hoto No. 59. Dredger No. 14 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields working 2 miles north- 
east of Hammonton. September, 1915. 



I 



2&-46904 



434 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 




Photo No. 60. View of the bucket line of dredger No. 14 of the 
Yuba Consolidated Goldfields, 2 miles northeast of Hammonton. 






The dredge buckets and screens are made of manganese steel, which 
gives twice the service of the old type made of carbon steel. The 
buckets cost about $400 each, and their lips last from 9 to 12 months 
The tailings conveyor belts last from 8 to 12 months and cost about 
$11.00 per foot. 



YUBA COUNTY. 



435 




Photo No. 61. 



Dredgers Nos. 14 and 15 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company 
operating near Hammonton. Yuba County. September, 1916. 




tioto No. 62. Dredger No. 15 of the Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company, operating near 
Hammonton, Yuba County. The largest gold dredger in the world. September, 1916. 

The Yuba Consolidated Goldfields Company is incorporated under 
le laws of the state of Maine. The officers are George L. Huntress, 
resident; R. E. Paine, 50 Congress St., Boston, Mass., secretary- 
measurer; W. P. Hammon, managing director; Newton Cleveland, 
rarysville, Cal., general manager. 



43fi 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



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YUBA COUNTY. 



437 




Photo No. 64. View eastward up the Yu'ca River, just north of Marigold, showing abandoned 
settling basin and concrete outlet intended by the Government to prevent floods. The 
dredge tailings form very effective barriers for flood control. The proposed settling basin 
will probably be dredged by the Yuba Consolidated Goldfieids Company. 




Photo No. 65. Reclaiming gold dredge, of the Natomas Consolidated of California, at Natoma. 
The tailings stackers of this dredge deposit the cobbles underneath and spread the silt 
on top — just the reverse of the old type dredgers. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 



438 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



GOLD— DRIFT MINES. 

Three drift mines were being worked in Yuba County, at the time 
visited. Prospectors occasionally do a little work in some of the old 
mines, searching for gold gravel, but only on a small scale. 

The Big Bend Blue Lead mine, near Bangor, has a 2500' tunnel. 
The channel is said to be 100' wide and from 5' to 20' deep. The 1080 
acres includes the old Catskill property near the old Grove, Bishop, 
Reifus and Turner properties, which are on the same channel and were 
worked through shafts. The channel is supposed to be a continuation 
of the one at Smartsville. Owned by F. F. Ford and C. G. Fowler, of 
San Francisco. 

The Boston Hill or Barton Mine, formerly known as the Never- 
sweat, is located in Sec. 36, T. 20 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., near Clipper 
Mills in the Strawberry Valley district. The deposit consists of coarse 
gravel, overlain by andesite. Two tunnels have been run, a lower one 
900 feet long and an upper one 300 feet. Improvements consist of a 
shop and a bunkhouse. The channel is thought to be the same as that 
at the Kingbird mine. Owned by C. F. Adams and "Walter Walker, of 
Clipper Mills, who are working the mine. 

The Old Pittsburg Drift Mine, in Sec. 17, T. 19 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 
near Camptonville on the North Yuba River, is worked occasionally 
during the winter by prospectors. It has been abandoned by the 
owners. 

Paul Ehmann and Richard Cainne were doing assessment" work on 
the west side of Lone Tree Hill. Work done consists of a 150-foot 
incline shaft with drifts. The ore assays from $1.50 to $12.00 per ton. 

The Wheaton or Julius Caesar Mine, located in Sec. 29, T. 16 N., R. 
6 E., M. D. M., 1 mile northwest of Smartsville, is on the old Blue 



ipr _ a 1 ^^9is§tt»i^MJ 


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1 








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— 



Photo No. 66. 



Hoist and arrastra run by water power at the Wheaton drift mine near 
Smartsville, Yuba County. 



YUBA COUNTY. 439 

Gravel property, leased from the Excelsior Water and Mining Company 
by Mr. A. G. Wheaton and son, of Smartsville. The mine is on the 
south side of a ravine near Sucker Flat, at an elevation of 600 feet. 

Development consists of a 120-foot 45° incline shaft and drifts. 
Development work was being carried on when visited, and it was stated 
to pay for itself. Twelve cubic yards of gravel per day are hoisted in 
a 17 cubic foot skip. Pay gravel averages $1.50 per cubic yard. All 
work thus far has been carried on along the south rim. Three gravels are 
encountered : a soft, blue bedrock gravel averages about $3.00 per yard ; 
a hard cement pay dirt averaging about $2.00 per yard ; and a loose red 
gravel averaging about $1.00 per yard. 

Equipment consists of a hoist and two 12-foot arrastras run by 
waterpower. Water is obtained from the Excelsior Water and Mining 
Company, through an 8-inch pipe, at 10^ per miner's inch. 

GOLD— HYDRAULIC MINES. 

No hydraulic mining is now carried on in Yuba County. Antidebris 
legislation is too exacting to permit small owners to operate, since the 
dams required would probably cost more than could be realized from 
working the gravels. Some of the more important old mines which 
might be placed on a producing basis are as follows : 

The Bean Boys Mine, located in the SW. J of Sec. 1, T. 19 N., R. 7 
E., M. D. M., near Clipper Mills, Strawberry Valley district. Elevation 
3450 feet. The gravels are from 10' to 12' deep in a branch of the 
North Fork of Yuba River. Water was obtained from Hampshire and 
Grizzly creeks. A log dam 50 feet long and 4 feet high, which was con- 
structed to hold the debris, has been washed out. A ?5-foot head is 
obtained for the water which is carried through a 7-inch pipe, to a 
1^-inch nozzle on a canvas hose. The owner, Mr. Rufus Bean, of 
Clipper Mills, intends to reconstruct the dam and finish working out 
the gravels. 

The Deer Creek, Enterprise, Pittsburg and Smartsville Consolidated 

hydraulic mines near Smartsville are all now patented property and 
owned by the Excelsior Water and Mining Company, of Sacramento. 
They have not been worked, save by prospectors and pocket hunters, in 
recent years. 

Bibl. : Register of Mines in Yuba County, 1905, State Min. Bur. 
The Golden Needle Mine, located in Sec. 34, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. 
D. M., Brownsville district, is patented and owned by Messrs. Pierce, 
Chadbourne, Woods and Dobbyns, of Brownsville. It is at an elevation 
of 2150 feet, and water is obtainable from the Forbestown ditch. The 
deposit consists of wash gravel carrying coarse gold. A log dam was 
Imilt for holding the debris. Two nozzles can be used under an 80-foot 
head. 



440 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The Horse Valley Mine, in Sees. 34 and 35, T. 19 N., R. 8 E., M. D. 
M., near Camptonville, is controlled by a Mr. Leacher, from Penn- 
sylvania. Elevation 2900 feet. Water is obtainable from Willow Creek. 
A tunnel has been run to obtain a grade for the sluice boxes. A cement 
debris dam is contemplated on Brandy Creek. 

The Kingbird Mine, located on Sec. 36, T. 20 N., R. 7 E., in the 
Strawberry Valley district near Clipper Mills, is patented and owned 
by Messrs. E. H. Adams and R. Bean. Elevation 3800 feet. Water is 
obtained from Hampshire Creek. The old channel was 1,500 feet long 
and the loose gravel from 30 to 180 feet deep, has a bedrock of serpen- 
tine. A 14" pipe was used to supply the monitors. Considerable 
tunneling was done. Idle. 

The Nevada Mine, located in Sees. 8 and 9, T. 18 N., R. 8 E., M. D. 
M., in the Camptonville district, is patented and owned by R. H. and 
R. W. Postlethwaite, of San Francisco. Elevation 2000 feet. The 
gravel is 15 feet deep, with a two-foot capping of andesite. A 3-mile 
ditch carried water from a tributary of the North Yuba River and 
supplied 4 giants under a 400-foot head. Idle. 

The New Blue Point Gravel Mine, leased by the Tar Mining Com- 
pany, is owned by P. Campbell Estate, of Smartsville, and located near 




Photo No. 67. View of office, dredger and conveyor belt, also gravel slide which closed 
operations, at the property of the Tar Mining Company, Smartsville, Yuba County. 

Sucker Flat one-half mile north of Smartsville. Elevation 600 feet. 
The company intended to hydraulic the gravel banks, use a dredger to 
catch the values, and stack the tailings with aerial trams. A large slide 
stopped operations, and it is thought that the values did not show up 
ns expected, 



YUBA COUNTY. 441 

Equipment consists of the following : one 8-inch and one 6-inch moni- 
i> to wash down gravels; 1500 feet of 36-inch pipe line; two large 
•tional hoists for boulders, made by the American Hoist and Derrick 
>mpany, St. Paul, Minn., capacity 30 tons each and run by electricity ; 
iba Construction Company dredger with 7^-cubic-foot buckets; 2 
500-foot aerial wire rope trams, built by A. Leachen & Sons Co., St. 

Ink, Mo. ; office with concrete vault, draughting room, etc. 
It is said that $600,000 worth of stock was sold, a large portion of 

nich was invested in equipment. Idle. 
The Railroad Hill property in Sec. 36, T. 19 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., 

i two miles NW. of Camptonville at an elevation of 2800 feet. The 

1 is 30 feet deep, with no capping. Water is obtainable from 

•ench Creek by a 2-mile ditch. This old property is sluiced occasion- 

i y by prospectors. 
The Union Mine in Sees. 22 and 23, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., of 

fe Brownsville district, is owned by the Union Gravel Mining Com- 

jny of Brownsville. Elevation 2300 feet. Forty-acre patent. Water 

(tained by a -J-mile ditch from a tributary of the Yuba River, fur- 

nhed one monitor under a 60-foot head. Idle. 
The Weeds Point Mine is located in the NE. J of the NW. J of Sec. 

I T. 19 N., R, 8 E., M. D. M., two miles northwest of Camptonville. 

] was reported that preparations were being made in October, 1915, to 

Lild a concrete restraining dam for tailings so that the mine might be 

1 draulicked. 
The York Mining Company operated on New York House Flat, 1| 

lies west of Challenge, in Sec. 25, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. About 

picres were hydraulicked and the property is said to be worked out. 

He. Owned by Mulberry Foss, Forbestown, Butte County, Cal. 

GOLD— PLACER MINES (Surficial or Sluicing). 
IjOonsiderable placer mining is carried on along the streams and 
■rines of Yuba County, particularly during the spring months. Fol- 
fcring are the names of properties and parties operating in the fall 
■1915. 

The Alcalde Placer is in the bed of Yuba River about 8 miles north- 
pt of Browns Valley. It is owned by W. R. Hendricks, of Browns 
"Mley, and worked by B. A. Schubert, who took out about $150.00 in 
w J summer of 1914. 

The Archimedes Placer in the N. J of N. \ of T. 16 N., R. 6 E., M. D. 
J, near Smarts ville, is owned by E. A. Forbes, of Browns Valley, 
f e property consists of a river claim in hydraulic tailings, worked 
v h sluice boxes. 



442 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Boston Consolidated which is owned by L. F. Pratt, Georf 
Hardy, Chas. Mason et al., includes the Boston Boys claim and othe: 
along the Yuba River northeast of Browns Valley. 

The Bright Star is a river claim in the bed of Yuba River ne; 
Parks Bar Bridge in Sec. 20, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Elevation 2( 
feet. Owned by W. J. Forbes, of Browns Valley, and J. E. Ebert, . 
Marysville. Sluice boxes are used. Reported sold to the Pacific Go. 
Dredging Co., in 1916. 

The George placer is in Sec. 17, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 3 mil 
north of Dobbins. The placer is on a 160-acre patent, at an elevatir 
of 2250 feet. The ground is sluiced in a deep ravine, a branch 
Labadie Creek, during the rainy season. The loose gravel varies frcjj 
2 feet to 20 feet in depth. The bedrock is rough and the gold is coarj 
The large bowlders are piled along the center of the ravine. Owned I 
M. E. George, of Dobbins, who works the deposit in the winter time. 

The Industry Bar placer lies 10 miles northeast of Browns Vail 
and 2\ miles above the Alcalde Placer. It is just above the mouth 
Keystone Ravine on the south side of Yuba River. The river bedj 
worked every summer. 

The Landers Bar placer adjoins the Alcalde placer to the south a. 
lies 7 miles northeast of Browns Valley, just above the narrows of Yu^ 
River. It adjoins the property of the Pacific Dredging Company )< 
the south and includes the full width of the river. The gravels are fr<J 
30' to 40' deep, including an overburden of hydraulic tailings. Owrl 
by B. A. Schubert, of Browns Valley. 

Placering in gravels west of Smartsville is being carried on f 
Mr. Spencer and others of Smartsville. 

Idle placers follow : 

Fillmore Hill, SE. J of SW. \ of Sec. 29, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., M. D. 
near Smartsville. Owned by the S. O. Gunning Estate, of Marysvii 

Forbes, in Sees. 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16 and 17, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., M.I 
M., near Smartsville, owned by E. A. Forbes, of Browns Valley. 

Golden Gate, in SW. J of NE. \ of Sec. 34, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., <e 
mile south of Smartsville, owned by the Excelsior Water and Mining m 

Lone Cedar, in Sec. 4, T. 17 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., near OrejJ 
House. 

Lone Jack, in Sec. 16, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M., near Broil 
Valley. 

Joe Losey, in SE. J of NE. J of Sec. 19, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., nirj 
Browns Valley. Forty-acre patent. Raised benches above the Y'H 
River. Gravel 4 feet to 100 feet. One-quarter mile back from riveiB 
the hillside. Owned by Joe Losey. 



YUBA COUNTY. 443 

Montclair in the W. i of the SW. J of Sec. 21, T. 16 N., E. 6 E., M. 
M., 1J miles NW. of Smartsville in the bed of Yuba River. Idle. 
Mosquito, 6 miles SE. of Brownsville in the Dobbins district. 
1'ospected only by the owners, C. E. Morey and John Nelson, of 
>bbins. 

GOLD— QUARTZ MINES. 

The quartz veins of Yuba County have yielded many rich pockets of 
-■old and have furnished the gold which is now being placered and 
(edged in the river channels. The county offers considerable oppor- 
Inity for prospectors and pocket hunters, and certain groups of veins 
mid no doubt be worked profitably and milled. Since the presence of 
msiderable copper with the ores makes cyaniding unprofitable, some 
station system would seem more feasible. 

Abbot Mine. Brownsville district. In SW. J of Sec. 8, T. 18 N., 

; 6 E., M. D. M., at Rackerby. Elevation 1430 feet. Patented 159 

Three-foot quartz vein, carrying 5% sulphurets, at granite- 

rphyry contact. Strike W. 40° E. Dip 70° NW. a 65-foot 2-compart- 

;nt shaft follows the vein from the surface. Equipped with old head 

ame. About 100 tons are reported to have been taken out and milled 
I the Santa Rosa mine. The ore milled about $5.00 per ton. Mine 
Is not been worked since 1906. Owned by N. B. Abbott, of Rackerby. 

Albion King Mine. Smartsville district. One-half mile NW. of 
faldo in Sec. 33, T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Elevation 500 feet, 
"itented. Two-fcot quartz vein along contact of porphyry with slate. 
: like N. 45° W. Dip 45° W. Open cut 40 feet. Idle for three years. 
«.vned by Wm. B. Ross, of Waldo. 

Arbucco Mine. Brownsville district, 1J miles NE. of Challenge 
Sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., on road from Woodleaf to the 

t. Hope Mine. Patented. Elevation 3000 feet. Three-foot vein of 
i)bon quartz at contact of serpentine with granite. Strike N. 30° E. 

p 45° N. Workings caved. Idle for years. 

B. A. C. Mine. Brownsville district. One mile north of Browns- 
He in Sec. 26, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Elevation 2600 feet, 
itented 224 acres, with a good stand of pine, fir, spruce and cedar, 
ater is obtainable from the South Feather Ditch Company, but the 
ine makes enough water for present operations. Four-foot quartz 
in, wih free gold and pyrite, in diabase. Strike N.-S. Dip 41° E. 
»vo hundred and fifty-foot incline shaft. Six hundred feet of N.-S., 
■if ting on 110-foot level. Hand drilling. Steam power. Wood costs 
h.25 per cord. Equipment consists of hoist, jaw crusher, 5-stamp mill 
th 12-mesh screens, ball-mill, amalgamation tank, two 3-foot diam- 
t x 10-foot depth agitating tanks and zinc precipitating cones. 






444 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The cyanide plant was being installed when visited in August, 191 
When operating it was expected to employ about 20 men in the mir 
and 10 men on the surface in 3 shifts. Miners receive $3.00 per day. 

The ore is said to average $12.00 per ton. Operations reported 
have closed down in October, 1915, to develop more ore. 

Owned by J. H. Batcher, W. S. Graham, B. F. Hartley and Mrs. B. j 
Campbell, who are called W. S. Graham and Co., with home office ; 
Brownsville. J. C. Campbell, mine superintendent. 




Fholo No. 68. View northward of the mill and cyanide plant of the 
B. A. C. mine at Brownsville, Yuba County. 

Beehive or Mount Hope Mine. Brownsville or Mount Hope distri« ( 
Sec. 8, T. 19 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., two miles south of Woodleaf on maj 
road from Woodleaf to Oroville. Elevation 3050 feet. Four claims, o 
of which is patented. Eighty acres. Four-foot to 6-foot vein of ribb 
quartz, carrying pyrite, along contacts of quartz diorite and sehi 
Strike N. 80° E. ; dip 45° E. ; 200-foot incline shaft; 150 feet of drifti.1 
on the 100-foot level. New 400-foot tunnel being run for drainage 
now 300 feet long. Hand labor, steam hoist and air compressor ; 4-fc 
wood for fuel costs about $3.50 per tier. Mill includes eight 750-i 
stamps, 2 amalgamation tables and one Frue concentrator. 

When visited in September, 1915, the incline shaft was caved at 
depth of 20 feet, and some work had recently been done to open it i 
The machinery was in fair condition, but the buildings were beginni, 
to go to pieces. Owned by Mrs. M. A. G. Blake, of Oakland. Leas; 
on May 15, 1914, to J. D. Johnston, of Newport, Rhode [sland, 
David T. Graham, of Glendale, 1^<>s Angeles County, Cal. 
Bibl. : Rep. XIII, p. 501 ; XII, p. 317. 






YUBA COUNTY. 445 



Beaver, Union, Cassa or Golden Mary Mine. Brownsville district. 

\ i of Sec. 34. T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., H miles southwest of 

frownsville. Elevation 2450 feet. Claims: Golden Ribbon, G. R. 

Buth Extension, G. R. North Extension, Big Oak, Big Oak North 

Ltension. Grey Bonnet, Grey Bonnet North Extension, Grey Bonnet 

ith Fraction. A 6-foot quartz ledge carrying pyrite and chalcopyrite 

ntact of granite and porphyry. Strike N. 15° W.; dip 38° W. ; 

ot incline shaft. Drifts: N. 165' on 100-foot level; SW. 114' and 

V on 100-foot level; 83' N. on 133-foot level. About 80 feet of 

■utting has been done on the surface. Hand drilling. Ore hoisted 

i bucket drawn by 40 h. p. Standard Distillate engine. One Joshua 

ftndy crusher, one 5-foot Huntington mill, with 16-inch rolls and one 

toot x 10-foot amalgamation table. Two miners and a hoistman 

aployed. The tailings are turned into a small creek near by. There 

i considerable pine, fir, spruce and cedar on the property. Water 

i obtained from the Forbestown Ditch at $0.10 per miner's inch. 

(vned by C. C. Beaver, of Browns Valley. Leased by the Cassa Gold 

lining Co., of which Mr. McAnnini is president, and George Gale, 

oe Building. San Francisco, secretary-treasurer. Mr. W. A. 

hinders, of Oakland, is superintendent. 

Bibl. : Rep. XIII, p. 500, 1896. 

Bessie Mine. Browns Valley district. One-half mile north of 

1'owns Valley in Sec. 16, T. 16 N., R. 5 E.. M. D. M. Elevation 270 

fet Patented. A 3-foot quartz vein carried some free gold in places. 

rike N.-S.; dip 35° W.; 40-foot incline shaft; 100 feet of drifting. 

Ivners hoped to run into Flag vein towards which the Bessie vein was 

might to dip. Assessment work only. Owned by Byron Burris, of 

s Valley. 

Bismark Prospect. Smartsville district. One-half mile south of 
Kaldo in Sec. 33. T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Elevation 400 feet. 
1 tented. Tunnel 550 feet. Greatest vertical depth 200 feet. Work 
■is discontinued before the ledge was struck. Idle for 15 years. 
r.ie ore shows a few colors by panning. 

Black Maria. Smartsville district. SE. corner of Sec. 20, T. 16 N., 

1 6 E.. M. D. M., 2 miles northwest of Smartsville. Patented. Eleva- 

1»n 350 feet. Eighteen inch quartz vein in slate. Strike N. 20° "W. ; 

: SW. : 40-foot shaft ; 175 feet of drifts. Idle. Owned by S. O. 

•inning Estate, Marysville, Cal. 

Boa Prospect. Smartsville district, 2 miles northwest of Smarts- 
* le. in Sec. 29, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Elevation 650 feet. Four- 
pt quartz vein in slate carries sulphurets. Strike N. 45° W. ; dip 

' SW. ; 100-foot shaft. Idle for seven years. Abandoned by M. C. 
-?eker, of Camp Meeker, Sonoma County, Cal. 
Bibl. : Rep. XIII, p. 499. 



446 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Bullard's Bar Prospect. Dobbins district. Six miles northwe. 
of Dobbins in NW. J of Sec. 13, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M. Elevatio 
1900 feet. Patented. Eighty -five-foot quartz vein at contact of granil 
and slate. Strike N.-S. ; dip 45° E.; shaft 15 feet; tunnel 155 fee 
Owned by George A. Mix, of Bullard's Bar, and bonded to C. L. Cran 
Idle. 

Burns Prospect. Smartsville district. Three-quarters of a mi] 
northeast of Smartsville. Elevation 500 feet. Three-foot quartz vei 
in slate. Strike NW.-SE.; dip NE.; 50-foot shaft; 200-foot tunnet 
Assessment work only. Owned by J. Burns, of Smartsville. 
Bibl. : Rep. XIII, p. 499. 

California Mother Lode or Eagle Gold Mine. Indiana ranch di 
trict, 32 miles northeast of Marysville; 2 miles northwest of Dobbin' 




Photo No. 69. New work on the Mother Lode vein at Indiana Ranch, near Dobbins, Yu 

County, California. 

Elevation 1860 feet. Twelve claims, including the Eagle Gold, Del 
ware and Frisco Fraction. Two hundred and forty acres. The Moth- 
Lode vein averages about 3 feet in width and can be traced on tl] 
surface for about a mile, along a slate-diabase contact. It has sever; 
parallel stringers, and strikes N.-S., with a dip of about 65° to tl 
east. The ore carries free gold, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite ai 
tellurides. 

The old workings, where most of the work has been done, were id] 
when visited in August, 1915. The equipment consisted of electr 1 
hoist, 10-stamp mill and tube mill. The old shaft is 300' deep and h ! 
five levels at 65', 100', 140', 200' and 300'. The tailings are impoundej 



YUBA COUNTY. 447 

A new 60-foot vertical shaft with 160-foot drift to the south was 
ling worked near Indiana Creek when visited. Six men were em- 
pyed, 2 on the surface and 4, in two 8-hour shifts, underground. A 
1-foot hoist, with 20 h. p. motor, air compressor and one air drill were 
ling used. Miners received $3.50 and did about 4 feet of development 
vrk per day. The new workings make about 75 inches of water, 
hwer is furnished by the Colgate line, and costs about $.06 per k. w. h. 
r ie ore is hauled to Marysville by a 3-ton Packard truck. Considerable 
pe, fir, cedar and spruce grow on the property. Owned by the Cali- 
Iniia Mother Lode Mining Co., of San Francisco; president and 
imager, W. C. Wilkins; treasurer, C. S. Brooks; mine superintendent, 
] L. McPherson, Dobbins, Yuba County, Cal. 

Chandler Mine. Brown's Valley district. Two miles south of 
towns Valley in Sec. 22, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M. Elevation 200 
J3t. Patented 160 acres ; 30 feet of vertical shaft. A rich pocket was 
ftrked out with horse whim about 30 years ago. Idle. Owned by 
^igust Eymard, of Browns Valley. 

Cleopatra Prospect. Smartsville district. In Sees. 28 and 29, T. 

N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., one mile northwest of Smartsville. Elevation 

30 feet. Patented in 1914. A 4-foot quartz vein, in diorite, carries 

Is gold. Vein strikes N. 45° W. and dips 45° SW.; 45-foot shaft. 

lie. Owned by Chas. P. Ayer, Boston, Mass. 

Conwell Prospect. Indiana ranch district. Sec. 23, T. 18 N., R. 7 

, M. D. M., 4 miles northeast of Dobbins. Adjoins the Summit Hill 
rne to the north; 90-foot incline shaft. Idle for 30 years. 

Dakota Prospect. Brownsville district. One and one-half miles 
I rthwest of Brownsville. Idle for 20 years. Property now home- 
ftaded by C. C. Beaver. 

Dannebrog Group. Browns Valley district. In Sec. 16, T. 16 N., 
." 5 E., M. D. M., at Brown's Valley. Elevation 250 feet. Patented. 
f iirty-inch quartz vein carrying free gold, pyrite and chalcopyrite in 
(abase, strikes N. 35° W. ; 900-foot incline shaft on vein; 1000 feet of 
« if ting. Idle for 20 years. Owned, together with the adjoining, idle, 
pwkeye and Pennsylvania mines, by the Rideout Bank, of Marysville. 

The Hawkeye is opened up by 25', 40' and 50' shafts with 200' of 
• if ting, and showed an 18" to 2' vein of free milling quartz; about 
:*0 tons were milled in the Pennsylvania mill. 

The Pennsylvania Mine has a 180-foot shaft near the old mill. Three 
-iges are said to have been followed in a 100-foot fissure. Equipment 
•nsists of a ten-stamp mill and one Baer Mill. Idle for three years. 

ie ore is said to have run from $7.00 to $500 per ton. The property 

is turned over to the Rideout Bank by F. W. Johnson, of Marysville. 



448 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

It is thought, by the owners, that the property could be worked at 
profit under good management. 

Bibl. : Rep. XIII, pp. 499-500, 1896. 

Deadwood or Miller Prospect. Brownsville district. Sees. 15 an 
16, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. Three miles NW. of Brownsvill 
Elevation 2660 feet. A 5-foot quartz vein. Strike NE.-SW. ; dip SI 
Several shallow shafts. Idle. Owned by C. W. Roberts and Mr. Fry 
of Forbestown, Butte County. 

Easy Money Prospect. Brownsville district. In Sec. 19, T. 19 N 
R. 7 E., M. D. M. One mile northwest of Challenge. Elevation 260* 
feet. Quartz vein strikes N. 25° W. and dips 70°W. Three hundre 
and fifty-foot tunnel being driven to drain 40-foot shaft. All hand labc 
by leasers. The 350-foot tunnel cut a 5-foot quartz ledge at 310 fee 
On land of Southern Pacific railroad company. Two claims, tl 
Easy Money and Easy Money Extension; owned by Mr. Harvey, (' 
Brownsville. Work being done for one-half interest by F. Foster an 
T. Reis, of Challenge. 

Eich Prospect. Indiana ranch district, near Oregon House. Eigh 1 
inch quartz vein. Strike N.-S. Dip 50° "W. Outcrops on surfa< 
for 300 feet ; 10-foot shaft. Hand labor with windlass. Patented 6£ 
acres. Owned by Mrs. Kate Eich and two sons, A. J. and H. D. Eic". 
of Oregon House. 

Fairview Prospect. Browns Valley district. Sec. 9, T. 16 N., I 
5 E., M. D. M., one mile northwest of Browns Valley. Elevation 3£ 
feet. Three-foot quartz vein, in porphyry, carrying free gold. Stril 
N.-S. Dip 45° W.; 35-foot shaft; 30-foot drift. Idle for sever 
years. Owned by Whittier and Stevens, of Browns Valley. 

Garbet Prospect. Brownsville district. East of Santa Rosa Mil 
and northeast of Rackerby. A 2-foot quartz ledge. Ore said to hai 
milled $6.00 per ton. Owned by Mr. Garbet, of Rackerby. 

George Prospect. Indiana ranch district. Sec. 17, T. 18 N., R. 
E., M. D. M., three miles north of Indiana Ranch. Elevation 2250 fee 
Patented 160 acres. Pine, spruce, and cedar on property. A 30-in( 
quartz vein, in granite, carrying free gold and pyrite. Strike NE.-SW 
dip 45° E. Shaft 14-foot. Hand labor. Owned by M. E. George, < 
Dobbins. 

Golden Key. Brownsville district. In SW. cor. Sec. 33, T. 19 K 
R. 6 E., M. D. M., 1£ miles NE. of Rackerby. Elevation 2300 fee 
Patented. A 2-foot quartz vein at diorite-porphyry contact. Stril 
E.-W. ; dip vertical; 60-foot open cut; 30-foot and 50-foot shaft 
Idle for over 14 years. Owned by W. J. Mellon, of Challenge. Lease 
to G. S. Peynton, of the Santa Rosa Mine. 






YUBA COUNTY. 449 

Good Hope. Smartsville district. Sec. 34, T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M. D. 
[., f mile southeast of Waldo. Elevation 400 feet. An 18-inch quartz 
ein along slate-porphyry contact. Strike N. 45° W. ; dip 45° SW. ; 
50-foot shaft. Old four-stamp mill. Idle. Owned by Mrs. Eva C. 
anford, of Waldo. 

Good Title or Templar No. 1. Indiana ranch district. NW. corner 
f Sec. 20, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 3 miles northwest of Dobbins. 
Uevation 2150 feet. Patented. A 30-inch quartz vein carrying 1% 
ilphurets. Old workings caved. Seven hundred-foot lower tunnel 
pen and being worked by Mr. Williams and two sons. Hand labor. 
.Vater power in winter and 8 h. p. gas engine in summer. Mill with 
wo 275-pound stamps, built by Union Iron Works, has a capacity of 

tons in 24 hours. Cyanide tank with one ton capacity every six days. 
Jwned by T. J. Williams and two sons and sister-in-law, of Dobbins. 

Hansonville Mine. Brownsville district. Sees. 5 and 8, T. 18 N., 
t. 6 E., M. D. M., ^ mile east of Rackerby. Patented. A 3-foot quartz 
ein, carrying 3% sulphurets, along contact of serpentine and 
; orphyry ; 220-foot shaft ; 40-foot incline, 475-foot drift. Idle. Owned 
y Mrs. Pierce, of Brownsville ; L. A. Wyman, of Boston, Mass., agent. 

Hibbert and Burris. Browns Valley district. In Sec. 16, T. 16 N., 
!. 5 E., M. D. M., I mile northwest of Browns Valley. Patented. A 
-foot quartz vein in diorite. Strike E.-W. ; dip 40° N. ; 170-foot 
jhaft; 360-foot tunnel. Idle. Owned by B. Burris and Mrs. E. Hib- 
,ert, of Browns Valley. 

Higgins or Elk Prospect. Dobbins district. In Sec. 19, T. 18 N., 
It. 7 E., M. D. M. Elevation 2300 feet. The 5-stamp mill stood near 
lie California Mother Lode tailings pile and has not worked for 20 
ears. A pockety quartz vein varying from V to 9' in width has a 
trike NE.-SW., and dipped nearly vertical. Owned by the Elk Gold 
flining Co., but reported to have been relocated by S. Bishop and F. L. 
IcPherson, of Dobbins. 

Hillside Prospect. Dobbins district. Sec. 23, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. 
). M. Four miles northeast of Dobbins. Elevation 2750 feet. Pat- 
nted. An 18" to 2' quartz vein, carrying pyrite and chalcopyrite. 
Strike N. 45° W. ; dip vertical ; 60- foot incline shaft. Idle for 6 years. 
)wned by R. L. Hill, Jr., 1169 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 

Horseshoe. Brownsville district. SW. cor. Sec. 21, T. 19 N., R. 7 
3., M. D. M., li miles northeast of Challenge. Elevation 3200 feet, 
'atented. Eighteen-inch vein of ribbon quartz, carrying free gold, in 
chist. Strike N.-S. ; dip 75° W. ; 90-foot shaft and 450-foot drainage 
unnel. Pine, fir, and cedar on property furnish fuel at $3.50 per tier. 
Equipment consists of a Joshua Hendy boiler, Ingersol-Rand air com- 
•ressor, one 2f inch cylinder Ingersol-Rand butterfly drill. Seventy - 

29-46904 






lb 



450 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

five pounds air pressure is used. Three men employed. Owned b; 
Fred C. Clemens and Mrs. Addie Clemens, of Challenge, and Josep 
Supple, of Oregon. 

Jefferson Mine. Browns Valley district. SE. cor. Sec. 16, T. 16 N 

E. 5 E., M. D. M., % mile south of Browns Valley. Elevation 250 feer 
Patented. A 12-foot quartz vein in diabase. Strike N. 10° W. ; di 
45° E.; 800-foot incline; 1500 feet of drifting. Said to have pai 
$3,000,000 in dividends down to the 600-foot level. Idle. Owned b 

F. W. Johnson, of Marysville. 

Bibl. : Reps. XIII, p. 501 ; XII, p. 321. 

Last Chance or Dexter. Browns Valley district. In Sec. 16, T 
N., R. 5 E., M. D. M., f mile NW. of Browns Valley. Elevation 
feet. A 6" to 2' quartz vein, carrying free gold and sulphides, alon 
diorite-porphyry contact. Strike N.-S. ; dip 45° W. ; 90-foot shaf 
Mill with five 800 lb. stamps run by 20 h. p. gas engine. Owned b 
Chas. Yates et al., of Marysville. 

Leal Prospect. Brownsville district. In Sec. 26, T. 19 N., R. 6 I 
M. D. M., \ mile west of north of Brownsville, near the Leal sawmi 
Elevation 2500 feet. Patented 120 acres. Quartz vein 200 ft. long i 
diabase carries sulphides; 20-foot shaft on a pocket from which it 
said $2,000.00 has been taken out. Owned by M. Leal, of Brownsvill 

Lillian Francis or Scott Mine. Indiana ranch district. Sec. 30 
18 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M. Elevation 1700 feet. Patented 156 acre ■ 
Two quartz veins, called the Scott and South Scott, lie along the conta 
between serpentine and porphyry and vary from 18 inches to 30 inch 
wide. Strike N.-S. ; dip vertical. Hoist run by 8 h. p. gas enginj 
Pump run by 20 h. p. steam engine. Two-stamp mill run by 20 h. 
gas engine. Tailings impounded. 

Assays of the ore are as follows : 

1 Gold, $10 50 Silver, $0 05 

2 Gold, 8 06 Silver, 10 

3 Gold, 2 88 Silver, 13 



Average Gold, $7 15 Silver, $0 09 

The veins are said to have been very rich near the surface fro 
erosional concentration and the ravines have all been placered. 
Costs are as follows : 

Wood delivered $3 50 per cord 

Distillate 14 per gallon 

Freight from Honcut 40 per hundred 

Freight from Marysville 50 per hundred 

Mining timber delivered 05 per foot 

Lagging delivered 5 00 per M. 

Miners demand $3.00 per day of 8 hours. J 






YUBA COUNTY. 451 



The Pacific Gas and Electric Co's plant at Colgate furnishes the 
region with power. Water is obtained from a creek on the property 
ind there is a sparse stand of pine and oak trees. Owned by Mr. 
Chester Merriam, of Dobbins. 

Little Kingbird. Strawberry Valley district. Sec. 36, T. 20 N., 
3. 7 E.. M. D. M. One mile northeast of Clipper Mills. Elevation 
3850 feet. Patented 680 acres. A 12-inch quartz vein, carrying sul- 
phides, in amphibolite. Strike NW.-SE. ; dip 50° NE. ; 125-foot incline 
;haf t ; 400-foot tunnel ; 50-foot drift at end of tunnel. Development is 
>aid to have cost $2.50 per foot. Yellow and sugar pine, fir, spruce 
md cedar cover the property. Water is obtainable from a tributary 
bf Grizzly Creek. 

. About one mile east of the Little Kingbird is the so-called Big 
Ledge, or Kingbird, prospect. A 16-foot shaft has been sunk in a 20- 
foot solid quartz ledge which strikes N. 70° E. The quartz carries a 
* r ery small amount of sulphide but looks rather barren. Owned by the 
Little Kingbird Mining Co., of Clipper Mills. Those interested are 
Parish and Rufus Bean, of Clipper Mills, W. J. Mellon, of Challenge, 
T. E. Ebert, of Marysville, and a Los Angeles party. 

Lone Tree. Smartsville district. In Sec. 20, T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M. 
D. M., 4 miles northwest of Waldo. Elevation 650 feet. Patented 80 
acres. An ' 18-inch quartz vein, carrying free gold, in slate. Strike 
N". 40° W. ; dip vertical; 100-foot incline shaft. Hand drilling. Horse 
rthim. Intended to install a 5-stamp mill with 20 h. p. gas engine; 
1 men employed. Development work mostly on a new incline shaft, 
200 feet below the old shaft of Jack Stevens. Assays of the ore ran 
3etween $10.00 and $29.00 per ton. Owned by F. Ayer, of Smartsville. 
Leased by H. L. and C. F. Johnson, H. L. Hite and C. E. Kibbie, of 
Waldo. 

Lucan Prospect. Brownsville district. East of Rackerby. A 200- 
foot shaft and four 10-foot prospect pits. Idle. Owned by W. H. 
Carlin, of Rackerby. 

Manwaring Prospect. Smartsville district. Sec. 33, T. 15 N., R. 6 
E., M. D. M. Considerable drifting. Idle. 

Manzanita or Abbie Mine. Brownsville district. Sec. 28, T. 19 N., 
R. 6 E., M. D. M., three miles west of Brownsville. Elevation 2400 feet. 
An 8-foot quartz porphyry vein along contact of diorite and slate. 
Strike E.-W.; dip 45° N.; 300-foot shaft; 60-foot tunnel; 195 feet of 
drifts. It is reported that a new hoist is being installed. Owned by 
Boston parties. Mr. Young, of Brownsville, superintendent. 



452 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The Marc Anthony Gold and Silver Mine belongs to the same group 
as the Black Maria. Located in Sees. 20 and 28, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., 
M. D. M., f mile north of Timbuctoo. A 6-foot quartz vein in slate; 
195-foot incline; 30-foot tunnel; 225 feet of drifts. Idle for 3 years. 

Napa and Oro. Brownsville district. Sec. 16, T. 19 N., R. 6 E.j 
M. D. M., 4 miles northwest of Brownsville. Property corners on road 
from Forbestown to Oroville. Elevation 3000+ feet. An 8-foot quart? 
vein in porphyry. Strike N.-S. ; dip 45° W. ; 45-foot shaft. Watei' 
from Forbestown ditch. Pine trees on property. Owned by B. D 
Dobbyns, of Brownsville, and P. S. King and W. Collins, of Napa. 

Nineteen Hundred and One. Browns Valley district. Sec. 16, T 
16 N., R. 5 E., M. D. M. One mile north of Brown's Valley. Elevatioi: 
260 feet. Patented. Two 3-foot quartz veins in diabase. Striki 
N.-S.; dip 45° E. ; 40-foot shaft. Idle. Owned by E. F. Forbes, oi l 
Marysville, and B. Burris, of Browns Valley. 

Northern Light. Brown's Valley district. Sec. 16, T. 16 N., R. { 
E., M. D. M., i mile north of Browns Valley. Elevation 250 feet 
Patented. A 3-foot quartz vein in slate. Strike N.-S. ; dip 40° E 
35-foot shaft. Idle. Owned by Mrs. Ella Porter, of Browns Valley. 

North Star or Eagleville Mine. Strawberry Valley district. Ii 
Sees. 20 and 21, T. 20 N., R. 8 E., M. D. M., two miles northeast o 
Strawberry Valley. Elevation 3700 feet. Patented. There are l\ 
narrow quartz stringers, from 2" to 18" wide, in slate and granite 
Strike N. 47° E. • dip from 65° to 87° SE. ; 150-foot vertical shaft; 250 
foot south drift and 400-foot north drift. Hand labor. Equipment cod 
sists of steam boiler, one 2-stamp Gates improved mill, 16-foot amalga 
mation table and 12-foot concentrating table. Ore is said to have milled 
$6.00 per ton. Sulphides stored. Idle. Owned by G. W. Lund, 
Willows, Nora I. Haines, of Oakland, and Richard Schumann. 

Nugget and Coronado Mining and Milling Co. Smartsville distrid 
Sec. 20, T. 16 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., 2 miles northwest of Smartsvilld, 
Elevation 300 feet. A 4-foot vein of free milling quartz along contac 
of slate and granite. Strike N. 45° W. ; dip 45° W. ; 80-foot inclin 
shaft. Unpatented. Abandoned. 

Ora Lewa. Brownsville district. In Sec. 7, T. 18 N., R. 6 E., fti 
D. M., one mile west of Rackerby. Elevation 2100 feet; patented 
178 acres. There are 10 small pockety quartz stringers striking bot 
E.-W. and N.-S. in porphyry along granite contact. Dip 45° S. and I 
73-foot shaft and 60-foot drift caved. Owned by J. E. Ebert, of Mary; 
ville, and W. J. Mellon, of Challenge. 



YUBA COUNTY. 453 

Peerless Mining Co. Smartsville district. In Sec. 28, T. 16 N., 
L 6 E.. M. D. M., one mile northwest of Smartsville. Elevation 340 
?et. Unpatented. A 6-foot quartz vein, carrying sulphurets, along 
iorite-slate contact. Strike N. 45° W. ; dip 40° S. ; 140-foot incline ; 
50-foot tunnel. Assessment work onty. James Byrne, manager, 
martsville, California. 

Rattlesnake. Browns Valley district. Sec. 9, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., M. 
>. M., one mile north of Browns Valley. Elevation 260 feet. Patented. 
ji 18-inch vein of free milling quartz in diorite. Strike E.-W. ; dip 
0° X. ; 300-foot incline shaft ; 500 feet of drifts. No equipment, 
lie. Owned by Mr. George Smithurst, of Browns Valley. 
Bibl. : Rep.^ XIII, p. 502. 

R. C. Mine. Brownsville district. In Sec. 26, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. 
». M., J mile east of Brownsville, near main stage road to Woodleaf. 
levation 2200 feet. Patented. A 4-foot quartz vein along diorite- 
ate contact. Strike N.-S. ; dip 45° E. ; 137-foot shaft ; 800-foot tunnel, 
vaterpower available. Part of B. A. C. property. Bonded by W. S. 
raham and Co., of Brownsville. 

Red Cross Gold Mine. Dobbins district. Sec. 29, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., 
t. D. M., one mile north of Dobbins. Elevation 1950 feet; 8 claims 
ad a fraction of which 2 claims are patented ; 40 acres. Pine, fir and 
>dar on property. Two blanket veins of decomposed quartz, from 8" 
) 18" thick, lie 20' and 40' below the surface. Strike N. 70° W. and 
lp 70°. Old shallow tunnels caved; 40-fcot new shaft and sinking, 
^and windlass ; 2\ h. p. gas engine runs pump. Water level at 30 feet 
blow surface. Handpicking; no blasting required. Ore said to run 
■orn $20.00 to $50.00 per ton. Prospecting is said to have been carried 
a for 5 months. Two men employed at $3.00 per day. Owned by 
ed Cross Gold Mining Company, R. E. Brannan, president, Gladstone 
r otel. Chicago; J. C. Merriam. vice-president, Dobbins; Patrick 
rannan, secretary, Marysville ; John J. Wyatt, managing director, 
'obbins. 

Red Ravine Mine. Dobbins district. Sec. 30, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. 
. M., two miles northwest of Dobbins. Elevation 1750 feet. Pine, fir, 
>dar and oak trees on property. Water available in Indiana Creek, 
n 18-inch quartz vein, carrying free gold and.sulphides with sylvanite, 
ong a diorite-porphyry contact. Strike N.-S.; dip 80° E. ; 90-foot 
Laft; 100-foot north drift; 75-foot south drift. "O. and S." steam 
lgine, which runs a No. 1 Garden City fan and a pump. A 2-stamp 
ill and old Frue concentrator. It is said that $65,000 was taken from 
e main shaft at a depth of 35 feet. Owned by the Red Ravine Mining 
Dmpany, of Marysville, which levied an assessment of $.002 per 



454 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

share in July, 1916, for development purposes. Harry Bell, president. 
Dobbins; H. A. Geach, secretary, Marysville. 

Rogers Mine. Brownsville district. Sec. 6, T. 18 N., R. 6 E., M. D. 
M., one mile northwest of Rackerby. Elevation 1500 feet. Pine andi 
oak trees on property. Water from Honcut Creek or the Forbestowr/' 
ditch. Patented 227 acres. An 18-inch quartz ledge carrying free gold* 
with chalcopyrite along slate-porphyry contact. Strike N. 45° E. ; dip 
30° S. ; 150-fcot tunnel which follows the ledge for 50 feet. A 3-stam^ 
mill run by water from Honcut Creek. Idle. Owned by Mr. Johr; 
Rogers, of Rackerby. 

Santa Rosa Mine. Brownsville district. Sec. 5, T. 18 N., R. 6 E. 
M. D. M., i mile north of Rackerby. Elevation 1770 feet. Patented^ 
Three-foot quartz vein in slate. Strike E.-W. ; dip vertical; 475-fooj 
tunnel. Equipment consists of five 700-lb. stamps, one 5' x 12' amalga 
mation table and 2 Frue concentrators. Leased by G. S. Peynton^ 
Rackerby, Cal. 




Photo No. 70. Mill at the Santa Rosa Mine, near Rackerby, Yuba County, California. 

Seaborg and Davis. Brownsville district. Sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 
E., M. D. M., li miles north of Rackerby. Elevation 2300 fee 
Patented 160 acres. Five quartz veins varying from 2' to 30' wid 
along contact of porphyry and diorite. Strike N.-S. ; dip 50° W 
100-foot incline shaft put down by contract for $12.00 per foot. Lur 
ber costs $18.00 per M. from the lumber mills near Rackerby. Wat 
available from the Forbestown ditch at $0.10 per miner's inch. Id) 
Owned by J. E. Ebert, of Marysville, and W. J. Mellon, of Challenge, 



I 



YUBA COUNTY. 455 

Slag or Old Flag Mine. Browns Valley district. Sec. 9, T. 16 N., 
. 5 E.. M. D. M., J mile north of Browns Valley. Elevation 280 feet, 
atented. Two veins of ribbon quartz, varying from 10' to 4' wide, 
ong contact of serpentine and porphyry. Strike N. 45° W. ; dip 35° 
\Y. : 300-foot incline; 800-foot drift. Idle for 25 years. Owned by 
[is. E. Hibbert, of Browns Valley. 

Bibl.: Rep. XIII, p. 502, 1895-6. 

Smithurst Mine. Browns Valley district. Sees. 8 and 9, T. 16 N., 

. 5 E., M. D. M., 2 miles north of Browns Valley. Elevation 300 feet. 

atented. Six-inch to 3-foot quartz vein in diorite. Strike N.-S. ; 

ip 45° W. ; 70-foot incline shaft, with 100-foot drift north and 100-foot 

rift south. Workings full of water and said to be caved. Winze sunk 

t end of south drift. Steam power. Equipment consists of pumps, 

oilers, blacksmith shop, 1898 model Risdon mill with five 850-lb. 

amps, bunkhouse. Ore said to average $20.00 per ton. Idle since 

fell. Owned by George W. Smithurst, of Browns Valley. 

Spanish Mine. Brownsville district. Sec. 33, T. 19 N., R. 6 E., M. 
(>. M., 1J miles northeast of Rackerby near the Golden Key mine. Ele- 
ction 2100 feet. Claim on government land. Pine and cedar on 
property. Water available from Forbestown ditch. A 7-foot quartz 
fdge along contact of porphyry and diorite. Strike N.-S. ; dip 30° W. ; 
10-foot open cut ; 50-foot double compartment shaft open and timbered; 
b tons of the old dump milled $4.00 per ton. Owned by W. J. Mellon, 
if Challenge. Option held by G. S. Peynton. 

i Spotted Cow Prospect. Dobbins district. Sec. 15, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., 
jl. D. M., 4 miles northeast of Dobbins and 1J miles northwest by trail 
rom Summit House. Contains 20-acre location on railroad land. A 
0-foot quartz ledge in granite. Strike E.-W. ; dip 45° S. ; 30-foot 
[rift. Idle. Owned by F. B. Binninger, of Dobbins. 
I Summit Hill Mining Co. Dobbins district. In Sees. 22, 23 and 26, 
f T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. D. M., 4 miles northeast of Dobbins, on main 
oad to Bullard's Bar. Elevation 2530 feet. Pine, fir, spruce and 
edar on property. A 3' to 6' quartz vein along contact between slate 
nd granite. Strike N. 20° E. ; dip 47° NW. ; 260-ft. incline shaft. On 
!60-foot level, 100-foot south drift; 100-foot level, 300-foot south drift. 
Workings flooded with water. Large dump. Idle. Owned by O. H. 
rreenewald. 310 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Sweet Vengeance. Browns Valley district. In Sees. 4, 5 and 9, 
P. 16 N., R, 5 E., M. D. M., 1J miles north of Browns Valley. Eleva- 
ion 360 feet, Patented. A 20-foot quartz vein in diorite. Strike N- 
>.; dip 60° W. ; 350-foot incline, 2-compartment shaft with 100-foot 
lorth drift and also a south drift. Shaft flooded. No equipment, 
die. Owned by A. F. Jones, Tonopah, Nevada. 



456 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Templar No. 3. Dobbins district. Sec. 29, T. 18 N., R. 7 E., M. D, 
M., J mile east of Indiana Ranch. A 2-foot quartz vein in granite. 
Strike NE.-SW. ; dip 12° E. Worked out to 50 feet in depth. Idle. 
Owned by J. Merriam, Dobbins. 

Too Handy. Browns Valley district. Sec. 22, T. 16 N., R. 5 E., 
M. D. M., one mile southeast of Browns Valley. Patented. A 12-inch 
quartz vein; 30-foot shaft. No equipment. Idle. Owned by Mr. 
Sweezy, of Sacramento, and Mr. McAustin, of Live Oak. 

Twentieth Century Wonder Mine. Brownsville district. In Sec. 5. 
T. 18 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., \ mile north of Rackerby. Patented 78 
acres. A 6" to 3' quartz vein, carrying free gold, in diorite. Strike 
E.-W. ; 100-foot incline shaft on vein connects with 200-foot tunnel 
Equipment consists of a hoist run by a gas engine, 5-stamp mill and 
Deister concentrator. Idle for one year. Owned by Mrs. Josephine 
Rose de Marshall, of Rackerby. Option held by a Mr. Peynton. 

Whitney. Smartsville district. Sec. 3, T. 14 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M. 
one mile southeast of Waldo. Elevation 200 feet. Patented. Six-fool 
quartz vein in diorite. Strike N. 45° W. ; dip 60° E.; 50-foot shaft 
14-foot drift. Idle. Owned by J. E. Ebert, of Marysville. 

William Arthur Mine. Brownsville district. Sec. 5, T. 18 N., R. ( 
E., M. D. M., \ mile north of Rackerby. Elevation 1750 feet. Patentee 
120 acres. Water available from Forbestown ditch. An 18" to 2 
quartz stringer, carrying free gold, in diorite. Strike N.-S. ; dip 35' 
W. ; 30-foot incline shaft. The ore pans. Owned by M. P. Beaver, o: 
Rackerby. 

MINERAL PAINT. 

On the Dempsey ranch, in Sec. 3, T. 15 N., R. 6 E., M. D. M., nea 
Smartsville, is a 12-foot hill capping of light red volcanic tuff whicl 
could probably be used for. mineral paint. The ore would have to b< 
hauled 14 miles to Wheatland. The property is patented and owne( 
by Mr. John Dempsey, of Smartsville. 



tli' 



PLATINUM. 

Considerable platinum is recovered each year by dredgers along 
Yuba River. The production by counties has not been segregated unti 
the last few years. Although platinum occurs with the gold in th- 
drift and hydraulic mines, it is not often recognized nor saved. 

SAND. 

Sand is being shipped quite extensively from the bed of the Yub; 
River just east of Marysville. A large amount was used by the count; 
in the construction of a new concrete bridge east of Marysville, am* 






. 



YUBA COUNTY. 



457 



ntractors have been shipping large quantities to be nsed in the state 
ighway. 

The Marysville Sand Company, J. W. Walker, superintendent, is 
oerating from the leYee just east of Marysville in Sec. 24, T. 24 X.. 
. 3 E., M. D. M. The company has a spur track from the Northern 
leetric but also ships by way of the Southern Pacific and Western 
acinc railroads. 

The company has a lease on a portion of the bed of Yuba River 900 
>et wide and 2.000 feet long. A 21 cubic foot drag line bucket is 
oerated by a 4 h. p. donkey engine. A 60-foot derrick carries the 
1-inch steel carrier cable. The bucket averages a trip every 1| 




ioto No. 



71. View northward of the drag-line bucket of the Marysville Sand Company, at 
Marysville, Yuba County, California. 



inutes. About 300 cars of 55 tons each are shipped per month. One 
lgineer and three helpers are employed. The sand is taken from the 
ver wet. loaded directly into cars and shipped to points along the 
acific coast. The company has been operating since May 1, 1915. 
The Pratt Building Material Company, W. A. Smith, 615 C street, 
"arysville, superintendent, is operating in the bed of the Yuba River 
I Sec 24. T. 15 N.. R. 3 E., M. D. M., 300 yards below the Yuba River 
and Company. Equipment consists of a one-cubic yard drag-line 
icket operated by a donkey engine which loads one bucket in 1| 
invites directly into the cars. An engineer and two helpers are em- 
loved. 



458 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The wet sand is taken from the river and is sold to the State High- 
way Commission and to local contractors for $0.20 per ton. About 150 
fifty-ton cars are shipped monthly. The claim has been worked for 
two years. 

The Yuba River Sand Company, E. H. Oliver, president, L. L. 
Green, secretary, Marysville ; is operating 100 feet southwest of the 
Southern Pacific railroad bridge near Marysville. Equipment consists] 
of a f cubic yard clamshell bucket, operated by a donkey engine, which J 
makes a trip every J minute. Sand is taken out, wet, from a pit in the 
bed of the Yuba River and loaded directly into the cars on a spur tract 
from the Southern Pacific railroad run out on the river bed. About 1$ 
cars of 40 cubic yards each were being shipped each month for use or 
the state highways. 




Photo No. 72. View northward of the clamshell bucket and hoist of the Yuba River Sane 
Company, in the bed of the Yuba River, at Marysville, California. 

TALC OR SOAPSTONE. 

A deposit of soapstone outcrops at Galena Hill, near Camptonvill 
just below Weeds Point, the hydraulic mine near the mouth of tl 
sluice tunnel. The deposit is about 8 feet thick and parallels a quan 
vein, but has never been opened up. 

Others deposits of talc have been reported, but they have, as a rulj 
been found to be small and to lack convenient transportation facilitie 



YUBA COUNTY. 459 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

California State Mineralogist, Reports on Mines: X, pp. 496-514, 1890; XI, 
pp. 515-6, 1892: XII, pp. 316-323, 1894; XIII, pp. 499-503, 1895-6. Bulle- 
tins: No. 38, Structural and Industrial Materials, pp. 56, 110, 145, 230, 
259-265. 342-375. 1906 : No. 50, Copper Resources by W. E. Thorne, p. 205, 
1908 : No. 57, Gold Dredging by W. B. Winston and Chas. Janin, pp. 10 and 
164. 1910. 

U. S. Geological Survey Publications : 

Geologic Folios: No. 17. Marysville Quadrangle, 1895; No. 18, Smartsville 
Quadrangle, 1S95 : No. 43, Bidwell Bar Quadrangle, 1898. Professional Paper 
No. 73. Tertiary Gravels of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, by Waldemar Lind- 
gren, 1911. Water Supply Paper No. 338. Springs of California, by Gerald 
A. Waring, 1915. 



PART IV 



Los Angeles County 
Orange County 
Riverside County 

By FREDERICK J. H. MERRILL, Ph.D., Field Assistant. 



PREFACE. 



The reports presented herewith on the mines and mineral resources of 
los Angeles, Orange and Riverside counties were prepared by Dr. 
. J. H. Merrill from field observations during the summers of 1914 
id 1915. As noted in the introduction to Riverside County, he was 
isisted in the latter part of the 1914 season by Mr. Clarence A. Waring 
: the staff of the Bureau. 

We regret to announce that Dr. Merrill died in Los Angeles, Novem- 
t 29, 1916. He was a graduate of Columbia School of Mines, and was 
j tate Geologist of New York from 1890 to 1904. He was the author of 
ie report of the California State Mining Bureau, 1914, on the Mines 
id Mineral Resources of Imperial and San Diego counties. 

The counties covered in this present grouping — Los Angeles, Orange 
id Riverside — though possessing other and quite diverse mineral re- 
urces are important producers of two main items, namely: structural 
aterials and petroleum. 

Thanks are due to the many companies, owners and operatives in the 
rritory concerned for their cooperation in furnishing data for this 
i port. 

FLETCHER HAMILTON, 

State Mineralogist. 

December, 1916 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 

Field Work in 1915. 
INTRODUCTION. 

This report on the mineral resources of Los Angeles County is based 
work done in past years by the State Mining Bureau and published 
i its reports Nos. VIII to XIII, as well as in several of its bulletins, 
id upon the personal work of the writer in visiting, so far as possible, 
le various mineral deposits and the persons controlling and operating 
iem. 

While there is no production of metals here, there is a great wealth 
nonmetallic minerals, and their production, in 1914, amounted to 

,665,504. Further, the rapid growth of the city of Los Angeles, 
id its great consumption of industrial materials, especially those used 

building, has led to the erection, within the city limits, of a number 
I manufacturing plants of much commercial importance, which convert 
/w materials into merchantable products. For much valuable informa- 
3n and guidance in the survey of this county, the writer wishes to give 
le acknowledgment to the Los Angeles Chamber of Mines and Oil and 

its able secretary, Mr. G. M. Swindell. 

It is peculiarly true of this county that the county seat is the center 

accurate information concerning its resources, so that much detail 
as obtained in Los Angeles as to history and ownership, which could 
)t be secured at the properties. 

While diligent effort has been made to cover the field thoroughly, it 

n scarcely be expected that every deposit of every kind has been 
>served and noted, but it is hoped that the reader will make due 

lowance for unavoidable omissions. 

ORGANIZATION AND BOUNDARIES. 

This county, organized by act of legislature in February, 1850, lies 
tween 33° 45' and 34° 50' of north latitude and between 117° 36' 
Ld 118° 50' of longitude west from Greenwich. Its general form is 
at of a quadrilateral, measuring about 70 miles from north to south 
d 65 from east to west. 

It is bounded north by Kern County, east by San Bernardino and 
luth by Orange County and the ocean, which, together with Ventura 
)imty, forms its west boundary, the ocean shore-line amounting to 
out ninety miles. It comprises five thousand six hundred square miles, 
1 about three million five hundred and eighty-four thousand acres, a 
rge proportion of which is mountainous, and, in the northeast, is 
eupied to the extent of about twenty townships, by the Mojave Desert, 
•flat sandy country with little water, cut up by ranges of low hills of 
'srtiary rocks. 

Sft-46904 



466 



MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Throughout the following report references are given to the pubiica 
tions of the State Mining Bureau, but, for convenience, in genera 
reading, a list is here given of the publications of that bureau in whicl 
the minerals of Los Angeles County are described. 



Report 



VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



Pages 



1890 
1892 
1894 
1896 



335-342 — 

189-210 _ 

277-283 

243-248 

25 and 151-153 

54, 203-205; 504; 614-5; 624; 629; 639; 643 



W. A. Goodyea: 
E. B. Preston. 
E. B. Preston. J 
W. H. Storms. I 
W. H. Storms. I 
Various. 



Bulletins 


Authors 


Dat 


11. Oil and Gas of Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties. 

19. Oil and Gas of California 

23. Copper Resources of California ___ 


W. L. Watts 

W. L. Watts 

Various 


18 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 


24. Saline Deposits of California 


G. E. Bailey 

Various 

Various 


38. Structural and Industrial Materials of California.. 

50. Copper Resources of California 







PHYSIOGRAPHY. 

The chief topographic features of this county are the mountai 
ranges, the valleys and the great Los Angeles plain which stretches fro 
the foothills to the sea. Since the mountains are the most striking 
the eye, they may well be first described. 

Mountain ranges. 

Chief among these is, in the east, the San Gabriel Range, wmV 
extends with northwest trend 45 miles from the Cajon Pass to tl 
Soledad Caiion. It forms, on the north, a background to the landsca] 
of Los Angeles and two of its peaks, Mounts Lowe and Wilson, respe 
tively 5650 and 5700 feet in height, are very familiar to tourists, Mou 
Wilson being also the site of an important astronomical observato 
under the supervision of the Carnegie Institution. Six miles southed 
of Mount Wilson is Monrovia Hill, 5390 ft. Other prominent pea 
near Mount Lowe are Mount Markham, 5760 ft. and Mount San Gabri 
6152 ft. The foregoing are in the southern division of the San Gabr 
Range, or in what may be termed its frontal portion. Immediate 
north of this, lie the canons and gorges occupied by the West Fork 
the San Gabriel River. Northeast of this deep drainage channel is t! 
main portion of the range, which trends about N. 80° W., and contai 
all the highest peaks. On the east is Mount San Antonio, familial 
known as "Old Baldy, " measuring 10,080 ft. and serving as a conJ 
point in the boundarj' line between Los Angeles and San Bernard] 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 467 

Katies. Southeast of Mount San Antonio and near it are four other 
p.ks, Telegraph, Sugar Loaf, Ontario and Cucamonga, which are 
puped with it as the San Antonio Mountains. Four miles west of 
Miint San Antonio is Iron Mountain, 7517 ft. high. 

Ubout twenty miles northwest is North Baldy, 9389 ft. high, and five 
ces southwest of North Baldy is Mount Islip measuring 8240 ft. Five 
Ees still farther southwest of Waterman is Pine Mountain, 5903 ft., 
ii miles north of Pine Mountain is Pacifico Mountain, 7078 ft., and 
ilut six miles southwest of Pine Mountain is Strawberry Peak, 6150 
■ in altitude. Seven miles northwest of the last, is Mount Gleason, 
3, 3 ft., this having been the center of an old gold mining district. The 
i:ribution and conformation of the peaks of the range are well shown 
wthe U. S. Geological Survey topographic sheet known as Southern 
Difornia No. 1, scale 1/125,000 or about four miles to one inch, and, 
mix of its component quadrangles on the scale of one inch to one mile, 
Iwn, in this area, as Tujunga, Rock Creek, San Antonio, Pasadena, 
Pnona, and Cucamonga. 

tUoose usage has given to the San Gabriel Range the name of Sierra 
kldre, but, while this term has thus been freely used by inaccurate 
psons, it must be said that there is no justification, either geologic or 
v graphic, for so applying the Spanish name of the long, broad and 
fc;y Mexican mountain range, of which the two great branches parallel 
$ coast lines of our sister republic and unite in the south, forming a 
Nte V. The east branch of the Sierra Madre is cut by the Rio Grande 
l<r El Paso, Texas. The west branch is traversed by the internationa 
Iindary near the southeast corner of Arizona and between it and the 
Cifornia ranges is the great depression of the Colorado Desert. 
pBrefore, strictly speaking, the Sierra Madre Range does not occur 
i all in California and the name should not be used here. 

)ther ranges in Los Angeles County are the Sierra Santa Susana and 
ft! Sierra Santa Monica. The former, which is structurally the con- 
tiuation of the San Gabriel Range, lies north of San Fernando Valley, 
fewest extension in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties being called 
fcra Santa Ynez, and the Santa Monica Range flanks the coast, extend- 
I from the ocean in Ventura County eastward to the Los Angeles 
R r er. The Santa Susana and Santa Ynez ranges are chiefly formed of 
pary sedimentary rocks but the San Gabriel Range is mainly crystal- 
&b, its central axis consisting of granite with gneisses and schists on 
it flanks. 

*arallel with the San Gabriel Range, from which it is separated by 
il valleys called La Canada and Tujunga and bordering, on the north, 
tl east end of the San Fernando Valley, is the Verdugo Range, formed 
Ijnly of teritary sedimentary rocks with some granite intrusions. 



468 ' MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The sedimentary rocks are of relatively low altitude, the highest poiil 
in the Santa Susana Range being only 3756 ft., while the highest of tl 
Santa Monica Mountains, Saddle Peak, measures but 2836 ft. and til 
highest point in the Verdugo Mountains measures but 3134 ft. 

Rivers. 

Los Angeles County has two principal rivers, San Gabriel and LI 
Angeles. The San Gabriel takes its source in San Gabriel Range, haviil 
two principal branches, of which the West Fork rises on the north slojl 
of Mount San Gabriel in T. 2 N. R. 12 W., S. B. M., and the variol 
creeks that form the east branch rise in T. 3 N. R. 8 W., S. B. M. T: 
two branches unite in Sec. 29, T. 2 N. R. 9 W., S. B. M., and the streal 
thus formed, flows thence southwest, reaching the ocean through All 
mitos Bay. The river emerges from its canon about one mile northwel 
of Azusa and its broad dry wash extends 8 or 9 miles southwest 1 
El Monte, where, at its western margin, rises the Rio Hondo. Tl 
stream, paralleling the San Gabriel, flows seaward to a point three mill 
southwest of Downey and there unites with the Los Angeles RivJ 
receiving the flow of the latter and bearing its name in its course soul 
to Long Beach Harbor. 1 

The Los Angeles River rises in the Santa Monica Mountains, nel 
Ventura County, and flowing thence through San Fernando Valley eel 
and south, unites near Compton with the Rio Hondo, its waters emptyi}! 
into Long Beach Harbor. Its principal tributary is the Arroyo Set! 
which rises north of Pasadena, in the mountains west of Mount Lo?j 
and, as its name indicates, shows running water only after heavy rafrl 

The San Gabriel, in the upper part of its course, is torrential, ecl 
tributing thereby largely to the topographic changes that take placeil 
the mountain flanks and in the canons, denuding large areas inf$l 
place and throwing up accumulations of wash and debris in othel 
During heavy rains in the canons changes of water level of ten al 
twelve feet in less than half an hour are frequently recorded. Yl 
notwithstanding the large amount of water that passes over this ri\l 
bed for the greater part of the year, the water sinks beneath the surfcl 
before reaching the ocean. 

GEOLOGY. 

The first professional study of Los Angeles County in this branch 1 
science was made in 1853-4 by Dr. Thomas Antisell, who accompanil 
the expedition sent by the U. S. Government, under Lieut. R. S. "Willis ■ 
son, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railrc. 
from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The reports of t 
expedition were published at Washington as U. S. Senate Documer 
in 1857. Doctor Antisell's Report is in Vol. VII. 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 469 

lln 1855 Dr. J. B. Trask, first State Geologist of California, spent some 

Inths in field work covering Los Angeles County and vicinity, his 

lults being published in Vol. VII, No. 14, Sacramento, 1855, under 

I; title of "Report on the Geology of the Coast Mountains, etc." In 

Is report Dr. Trask discusses the structure of the San Gabriel and San 

fc*nardino ranges and of the plain of Los Angeles, giving some atten- 

Bq to artesian waters. 

■n 1889, under the California State Mining Bureau, a study of the 

lieral resources of this county was made by Mr. E. B. Preston, his 

Rort being printed in the IXth Report of the State Mineralogist, 

pes 189-210. This supplemented the observations of W. A. Goodyear, 

Ide in 1872 and published in 1888, in the Vllth Report of the State 

fcieralogist. 

■n 1897 Mr. W. L. Watts made a study of the Los Angeles oil field 

m others adjacent, which was published in C. S. M. B. Bulletin 

R. 11, "Oil and Gas Yielding Formations of California." 

m. later study of this region, with special reference to petroleum, was 

Ide from 1901 to 1906 under the auspices of the U. S. Geological 

Irvey, by Messrs. George H. Eldridge and Ralph Arnold. Their results 

K published in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin No. 309. 

hi detailed discussion of the Geology of Los Angeles and vicinity, by 

1. Arnold, is given in Bulletin 309, on pages 143-157, and is illustrated 

ba geologic map, Plate XVIII. 

Ik publication of the U. S. Geological Survey issued in 1915, Bulletin 

I. 613, Guide Book of the Western U. S., Part C, contains a very com- 

pte resume of the local geology, along the line of the Santa Fe 

Filway. by Mr. N. H. Darton and others, and is made specially read- 

le and instructive by a series of local maps. 

■To these volumes the reader is referred for details which are there 

ire clearly presented than they could be in any abstract prepared by 

I present writer. 

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. 

■lie engraved topographic quadrangles of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
fler nearly all of Los Angeles County. Consequently, most of it is 
bluded in the sheets known as Southern California Nos. 1 and 3, on 
I scale of 1/250,000, or about four miles to one inch. Part of the 
iinty, at the west, falls within the Camulos and Tejon quadrangles, 
o the scale of 1/125,000 or two miles to one inch. The central, eastern 
■i southern portions of Los Angeles County, are covered by the 
Mowing fifteen quadrangles, on the scale of 1/62,500 or one mile to 
m inch ; Santa Susana, Fernando, Tujunga, Rock Creek, San Antonio, 
C abasas, Santa Monica, Pasadena, Pomona, Cucamonga, Redondo, 
Iwney, Anaheim, San Pedro, and Las Bolsas. The extreme southeast 



470 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

corner of the county falls within the Corona quadrangle, scale 1/125,1 
or two miles to one inch. Several general maps of the county have b| 
compiled but none of them deserves special mention. 

MINERAL RESOURCES. 
The mineral products of this county, aggregated, in 1914, ne;y 
$5,000,000. The materials contributing to this aggregate, are wh| 
nonmetallic. In the following pages, are given, with all possi 
accuracy, the details of distribution and ownership concerning ie 
various minerals which are discussed in the order given in the Tie 
of Contents. 

METALS. 

The following metals occur in Los Angeles County: antinul 
chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, silver, and zinc. 

Only one metal, gold, has been produced in Los Angeles Countvi* 
appreciable quantity. The traditions and records of placer mi: if 
show a substantial production early in the 19th Century but no oi 
metal out of several which have been found here has ever attained ly 
commercial importance. In the following pages the record has e 
made as complete as possible. 

ANTIMONY. 

This metal is extensively consumed in the alloy with lead knowjl 
type metal. It has never been mined commercially in Los Antes 
County and but one occurrence has been recorded. This was at J; 
caster 1 but no details are available and the locality has been forgo* 
At the present time the high market price of this metal makes tj 
matter of much interest and its ores will, doubtless, be eagerly sci 
for by prospectors. 

In the reference given below, 1 antimony is also noted as occuifl 
seven miles from Los Angeles but no one now living recalls 
discovery. 

The Western Metals Company, M. Elsasser, manager, H. N. £ 
son, secretary; with offices in the Security Bldg., Los Angeles ha 
an 'antimony smelter in operation at Harbor City in this co 
The ores treated are derived from various sources along the 
Coast, including points in Alaska and South America. A small 
nage is being obtained at the present time from Calif ornian r| 
principally in Inyo and Kern counties. A high grade "star mU 
is produced. 

ig, S. M. B. Bulletin 38, p. 359. 



'1 



■ 

'-' Mffi 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY— Table of Mi 



Production. 






Gold. 


xs 


Petroleum 


Asi'li.ilt- 
(Tons) 


i'm'ou. ft.'V" 


Gypsum 


Salt 


3= 


Mineral water 


Brick 


Clay 


Sandstone and 
serpentine 


ln.lustry.8 


Miscellaneous and uii.i|iiK>rtl<nHil 




Year 


Barrel, 


Value 


Amount j Value 


Ton, 


Value 


TOO, 


Value 


Gallons 


Value 


M 


value 


Tons 


value 


Cubic feet 


Valuo 


Quantity and bind 


Value 


1880 

1881 

1882 


13,000 
17,000 
20,000 

2l!500 
25,000 
20,000 
38,203 


$66 300 








































30,000 




























































































































1881 

1885 






















































































6,750 










































1887 


















































































97 


























-1 








































I 



















































































I 










































1 1 














34,500 
23,330 
35,468 
40,608 
21,300 

13,132 
5,508 

10,312 
7,209 
8,674 
12,402 
15,035 




4T5.C50 
979,695 
953,734 
1,327,011 
1,462,871 

1,409,356 
1,722,887 

2,304,432 
2,198,496 
1,960,604 
2,190,000 

2,854,564 
2,814,000 

4,318,739 

6,214,347 

6,409,392 

5,127,266 

4,924,288 
4,484,590 
4,143,690 

3,558,690 
2,931,098 


$617,uii3 
732,817 
812,800 
1,327,011 
1,462,871 

1,109,356 
1,722,887 

1,062,038 
1,075,868 
1,294,866 
1,289,910 

1,056,188 
908,800 

4,082,052 
3,513,192 

3,185,433 

3,313,972 
2,798,384 
2,672,680 
1,957,279 
1,843,661 






3,790 
1,900 

2,500 
3,500 














45,800 
36,868 

55,725 
44,435 

79,195 
128,719 
109,563 

101,079 
108,414 
136,202 

148,723 

160,259 
174,832 

133,557 
88,669 


235,000 
228,290 

275,925 
264,825 

706,334 
707,827 
853,810 

895,272 
800,163 
1,195,892 

1,361,653 

1,442,913 
1,692,258 
1,752,106 

1,244,971 
820,312 


. 






47,750 
30,625 

24,332 

118,185 
83,826 
69,021 

36,904 
598,616 
182,377 

E24.C91 

553,076 
955,668 

1,0(8,810 
053,434 

1,022,131 














37,820 










































"2,500 
•750 

•89 


3,000 
3,750 














17,250 















5 tons infusorial earth 






















50 


$500 








"1,151 
'5,000 


100,000 
■1,600 

119,430 

250,000 
516,500 

15,208 
591,193 


























4,576 
130 

890 

115 

5,000 

30,533 
41,350 

17,500 

25,934 

14,027 

450 

15,650 
11,929 

7,425 
8,263 
6,507 


10,776 
390 

800 

115 

5.000 

16,066 
34,250 

20,500 

55,274 

26,688 

800 

41,025 
12,028 
20,135 
14,566 
1,511 










35.500 


0,650 

8,000 
7,560 
12,000 

12,000 
12,000 
10,000 

0,000 
7,592 
10,000 


















"10,000 
»16,767 
128,308 

"30,425 

"23,718 
125,920 

"2.5,000 
"40,740 

1 45i872 

2 1,287,794 
2 1,250,000 
J l,729,035 


20,000 
24,480 
20,000 

36,000 
48,000 
30,000 

12,000 

16,113 
46.370 
40,000 
60,000 












11)02 








22 
73 
100 


11,500 

12,000 
10,000 


43,500 

50,000 
75,000 
50,000 




95,000 
123,750 
175,000 

383,000 
573,075 
266,315 

319,491 

229,019 
76,495 
255,095 
331,151 
330,171 


7,084 
31,250 

35,100 
42,857 
19.C8S 

23,909 

17,256 
6,333 
13,140 

8,023 
29,491 


3 29,211 

=8,784 

"847 

=21,196 

3 G,292 


9,734 

9,950 
1,694 
19,076 






1903 






} 219 tons soapstone 

1 709 tons glass sand 




1904 












1905 






























864 


2 


$8,500 
9,500 

4,900 

5,000 
3,000 
2.5CO 
2,100 
700 


■j 1,000 cubic feet marble 


3,000 














1909 












Unapportioned, 1900-1909 


842,530 


1910 


1 60 tons feldspar _ 

1 80 tons glass sand 


720 




t 
2,322 


27 














1,100 cubic feet marble 

1,800 tons glass sand - 

\ 1.S00 tons glass sand 

/ Other minerals 

\ 13,203 tons borax 

/ 10 tons potash — 

Other minerals 




1913 . 


2 78,672 
77,578 
75,000 

120,782 






1,800 

24o!uOO 
349,669 


1911 . . 






1915 










!__.._ 


330,020 


Totals . 


$804,140 


$216,582 


63,795,400 


$40,772,671 




$3,561,125 


87,761 


$479,781 


134,252 


$409,093 


$36,200 


3,461,427 


$252,956 


2,021,994 


$16,252,628 


190,329 


$260,514 




$99,039 


$3,564,711 




$1,894,072 









gas, thousand cubic feet. 



3 Sandstone. 

'Serpentine. 

^Includes granite, crushed rock, rubble, pa 

"Includes baritc, borax, potash, salt. 



" 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 471 

CHROMIUM. 

Chromite, the common ore of this metal is but little known in Los 
Angeles County. Only two occurrences have been reported. One is 
one mile west of Harold Station on the S. P. R. R. in T. 5 N., R. 11 W., 
S. B. M. The owner of one claim located on the deposit is Nick Evert, 
1027 W. 16th St., Los Angeles. Another is said to be quite close to 
the railroad station at Acton, T. 5 N., R. 13 W. The ownership of 
this is unknown. 

Chromium compounds are largely used in pigments and dyes, the 
so-called chrome yellows and greens being familiar to all. Chromium 
salts are also used as mordants in dyeing. The metal is largely used 
in alloys with iron and steel on which it has a marked hardening 
effect, chrome steel being used for armor and projectiles. Another 
extensive use is in making refractory brick and furnace linings. The 
chief output of chromite for the United States is from California, in 
the counties of Siskiyou, Glenn, Shasta, Calaveras, and Fresno. 

COPPER. 

On page 346 of Bulletin No. 50 mention is made of some copper 
claims which were under development in 1908, when that Bulletin 
was issued. 

None of them became a producer and they have been nearly for- 
gotten. The descriptions given are copied here as a matter of history. 

Palm Development Company. This company superficially devel- 
oped some claims twenty- three miles northeast of Acton or 12 miles 
southeast of Palmdale and three miles southeast of Little Rock Creek, 
in Sec. 30, T. 5 N., R. 10 W., San Bernardino meridian. (See Rock 
Creek Quadrangle, U. S. G. S.). The ore occurred in a porphyritic 
dike, which averaged 180 feet in width. The mineralized zone may 
be traced for one and a half miles. Three shafts had been sunk. 
While some ore was encountered in these shafts, they failed to show 
any denned ledge or continuous deposit. The ore was chiefly malachite 
and carried gold and silver. The claims were leased to Messrs. Elliott 
and Leavitt, who erected a leaching plant. E. M. Ross and Joseph 
H. Call, of Los Angeles, owners. 

An extension of the claims of the Palm Development Company was 
owned by William M. Van Dyke of Los Angeles. 

Free Cuba. Half a mile south of the railroad station at Acton. This 
property was first worked about 1860, and abandoned. The old shaft 
was later cleaned out, and at the bottom, 200 feet from the surface, 
samples of native copper were found. The deposit is in a quartz vein, 
23 feet wide in granite. Ira L. Houser of Acton, owner. 



472 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Mooney and Williams Claim. Two miles south of Acton. Me 
were at work developing the property, and, in the tunnel, some fa 
copper ore had been encountered. The character of the ledge w* 
similar to that of the Free Cuba. Mooney and Williams of Actoi 
owners. 

Between Acton and Ravenna, in 1889, were a group of copper clain 
worked by the Emma Consolidated Mining Company, concernin 
which Mr. E. B. Preston writes as follows: 2 

"This property consists of the following ledges: The Emma Ledg 
four feet wide, ranging to the northeast and southwest, and dipping 1 
the east very slightly, containing silver and copper in quartz. A sha: 
has been sunk to a depth of seventy-five feet, and a tunnel run in fh 
hundred feet, but will have to be continued another one hundred feet 1 
strike the vein, which it should do at a vertical depth of four hundre 
feet. The tunnel is six by eight feet with an air shaft. Wood an 
water are plentiful in the vicinity of the mine. The Bullion vein 
situated on the same hill, and in close proximity to the Emma. It rui 
parallel with the Emma, and dips towards it. The ledges can be see 
in a deep cutting with a width of eight feet. The ore carries gol< 
silver and copper. 

"The Pacific is the extension of the Bullion on the same vein. Tl 
London crosses the other two veins, running almost east and west. The 
are four full claims and were located in 1888, but had been worke 
years before for a French syndicate. The Pacific has a shaft forty fe 
deep, showing a well defined, six-foot ledge containing gold, silver an 
copper ores. The London ledge is about three feet wide, containin 
copper and silver. It has an incline shaft forty feet deep, showing 
well defined, six-foot ledge, containing gold, silver and copper ore 
The London ledge is about three feet wide, containing copper and silve 
It has an incline shaft seventy-five feet deep and a tunnel one hundre 
feet long, which will ultimately tap the ledge at a depth of about thre 
hundred feet. The ores are carbonates and sulphides in quartz; tit 
country rock is granite. The value of the Bullion and Pacific ores, froi 
tests made, is $4.00 in gold and $15.00 in silver. 

"The Emma vein contains 15 % copper and 15 ounces of silver. Tl 
Bullion and Pacific dip to the west, the Emma to the east and the Londo 
to the south. About two and one-half miles south of Acton, close to tl 
railroad and at an altitude of two thousand two hundred feet, a shai 
was sunk to a depth of thirty-five or forty feet on a strong vein ( 
copper and silver ore; but, at that depth, the parties sinking, encour 
tered so much water that they abandoned the property." 

2 C. S. M. B., R. IX, p. 194. 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 473 

GOLD. 

^ While Los Angeles County, at this time, has no producing gold mine, 
[his precious metal is rather widely distributed over its area and, at 
imes in the past, has been recovered in substantial amounts, from some 
districts. Here, as elsewhere in the world, gold was first found in placer 
deposits and, in this class, there have been two principal areas of 
broduction. 

The placers, which were early worked by priests of the Spanish Mis- 
sions at San Fernando and San Gabriel, were in the Casteca 3 Canon 
District northwest of Newhall, in Soledad Canon northeast of Newhall, 
Lnd farther eastward in the canons of the San Gabriel River in the 
Inountain range of the same name. 

I "While these placer fields were once very productive, mining operations 
:n them have been so long suspended that little information is to be had 
In the ground. 

• It seems best, therefore, to quote reliable data already published and 
'he following descriptions are, in part, from the report of E. B. Pres- 
on. 4 in part from that of W. H. Storms 5 and in part, from a paper 
ead in 1858 before the Pioneer Association of Los Angeles County, by 
V. W. Jenkins. 

.URIFEROUS GRAVELS OF CASTECA, PALOMAS, AND SANTA FELICIA 

CANONS. 6 
(See Camulos and Tejon Quadrangles — U. S. G. S.) 

f Going northwesterly from Newhall about six miles to the crossing of 
'he Santa Clara Eiver at Casteca we enter the mouth of Casteca Canon 
iq which is a creek of the same name. Following up this creek about 
ix miles, we find extensive deposits of auriferous gravel, northwest. 
Iroing northwest over the divide from Palomas Canon we enter Santa 
^elieiana Canon, where placer deposits were long ago worked. 

In this region, about forty miles northwest from Los Angeles, were 
iscovered, in 1834, the placers of San Francisquito, Placerita, Casteca, 
nd Santa Feliciana, which were worked between the years of 1834 and 
838, by priests of the San Fernando and San Buena Ventura Missions, 
nder the supervision of Francisco Lopez, for the San Fernando Mis- 
sion, and Jose Bermudez for the San Buena Ventura Mission. 

In the latter part of 1838, one Francisco Garcia was piloted to and 
hown by Francisco Lopez, the placer at Santa Feliciana. 

Garcia went to Sonora, Mexico, in 1839 and in 1840 returned with 
fO Mexican placer miners, and, during the latter part of 1840 and the 
rrst part of 1841, took from the Santa Feliciana Gulch, two hundred 

I' 'Sometimes spelled Castaic and Castac, but the form used above has the weight 
f priority. 

I 4 C. S. M. B., R. IX, p. 201. 

r S C. S. M. B., R. XI, p. 248. 

e C. S. M. B., R. IX, p. 201. 



474 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and twelve lbs. of gold, avoirdupois weight, as weighed by D. W. Ale? 
ander, who, in 1855, made affidavit to this effect. At the time the abov 
gold was taken from this gulch, it was named, by Garcia, Santa Fell 
ciana, 7 and has retained this name to the present day. 

After the rush during 1855 and 1856 to Kern River, Slate Range an' 
Cerro Gordo, and what is now known as Randsburg, many of the peopl 
thence drifted into Santa Feliciana, Casteca and San Francisquito. 

During the years 1857 and 1858 there were not less than six thousan 
people mining for gold in the last named places. 

This territory was visited in 1872, by W. A. Goodyear and in 188 
by E. B. Preston, of the State Mining Bureau. Mr. Goodyear 's descrij 
tion appears in Report VIII, p. 332, and that of Mr. Preston is printe 
on pages 201-203 of the IXth Report of the State Mineralogist. H 
statement is, in part, as follows: I 

"The richest part of the gravel is not exclusively on the bedrock, h\ I 
in streaks in the gravel, that can be plainly distinguished by a hea\ 
deposit of Iron Oxide. These lie, in places, considerably above tl j 
bedrock and sometimes above one another. The accounts of the yia 1 
from this gravel, which was worked years ago, are very conflicting. TI| 
Mexicans are said to have formerly taken out large sums, a statemei 
which the extent of their workings, in some places, would seem 
corroborate. Later workers on the ground put the yield, per cubic yar 
rather low, but, even at their figures, if, as was thought possible, wat 
could be brought from Piru Creek, all this immense tonnage of gra\ 
could be made to pay something handsome above expenses. The heig 
of the gravel is hard to estimate, it having been cut out so much. It h 
been given as averaging ninety feet, but that is probably rather nig 
Between these gravel hills and Casteca Canon is a range of hills coj 
posed mostly of sandstones and cemented conglomerates, crown 
beyond by a range of metamorphic rocks, which show some quartz ven 
that have been prospected by tunnel, but are now entirely abandoned. 

"Crossing Casteca Canon, opposite the mouth of Palomas, and goiij 
northeasterly up over the hills, we again find a large area of auriferol 
gravel on the other side of Charlie Canon, that was once taken up b}| 
New York company. Their ground comprised an area of nine thousal 
acres, extending up both sides of the Cafion La Dura. To work til 
ground by hydraulic method, the only way in which it could I 
advantageously disposed of, required the bringing in of a ditch frJ 
Elizabeth Lakes, a distance of four miles, in which a large fall woil 
be obtained. The gravel here differs from that of Santa Feliciana, I 
that it is harder, more cemented with iron. The bedrock, where se I 
is sandstone; the gravel is not as smoothly washed as in the other, 
good deal of work has been done in these canons by Mexicans 



T A Spanish name expressive of rejoicing. 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 475 

Americans with pan and rocker. The gravel is about six feet thick in 
the canons. The gold is not coarse as in Santa Feliciana Canon. 

A third company was organized, under the name of the Nevada Gold 
Mining Company, which claimed three thousand five hundred acres 
between Elizabeth Lakes and Casteca Junction. It held a water right 
of one thousand miner's inches out of the Casteca Canon." 

Mr. Goodyear writes of these placers as follows: 

"The average elevation of this placer area is one thousand four 
hundred feet. This gold belt, which is about ten miles long from south- 
east to northwest and about eight miles in width, though chiefly sedi- 
mentary, is the northwest extension of the San Gabriel Range. The 
auriferous tracts are situated mainly in T. 5 N., R. 16 W., S. B. M., and 
the gravel averages ninety feet in depth. The surface slope from the 
highest to the lowest point of gravel averages one hundred and fifty feet 
to the mile. The gravel dips south with the bedrock. This deposit is 
cut through by numerous small gulches running in various directions, 
each gulch having been worked, off and on, in a small way, for some 
thirty years. A portion of this ground was purchased, about 1888, by 
an English syndicate." 

As described by Mr. W. H. Storms, R. XI, p. 248, there were placers 
north of Newhall and northeast of Casteca in the gulches known as Dry 
Canon, El Canon de Los Muertes or Dead Men's Canon, and, in the San 
Francisquito, all of which produced a large amount of gold. These 
Newhall placers were formerly worked systematically and cheaply, and, 
it is said, with good results. 

The San Gabriel Mountain Placers. 8 

The southerly slope of this range was the site of a placer field worked 
by the priests of the San Gabriel Mission and also, by the native Cali- 
fornians prior to the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill, and abandoned 
in 1848, in consequence of that event. 

Later, placer mining was carried on along several gulches in that 
region, and generally with satisfactory results. 

In 1889, a company, made up of residents of Redlands, expended 
quite a sum of money in the construction of a dam and a rim-rock 
tunnel, and in laying down eight hundred feet of sluice boxes for work- 
ing a gravel claim located and owned by them in San Antonio Canon. 
This tunnel cut what was evidently an ancient river channel, the con- 
tents of which paid beyond the company's expectations. Some drift 
operations have also been carried on at considerable elevations in these 
mountains, and along Lytle Creek, farther east, where placers have been 
worked ever since 1860. 



8 Xth Rep., p. 519. 



476 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Concerning the San Gabriel Canon placers, Mr. W. A. Goodyear 
wrote as follows : 9 

''In September, 1874, the writer made a trip up the San Gabriel 
Canon, some three or four miles above its mouth, and twenty-four or 
twenty-five miles from Los Angeles. The rocks here are all granitic. 
There is some auriferous gravel scattered about, high up on the spurs 
of this range, similar in its general character to that which forms the 
great hydraulic mines (now for some years utterly stopped by injunc- 
tions of the United States Courts) on the western flank of the Sierra 
Nevada, in the more central counties of the state. 

" There is every reason to believe that these high and ancient aurif- 
erous gravels of the San Gabriel Range and also the great mass of the 
whole range itself, from the Cajon Pass west, nearly or quite to the 
Los Angeles River, belong to the same geological ages, and derived their 
origin from the same causes as those of the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada. The amount of denudation which has taken place since these 
ancient gravels were deposited has, of course, been something enormous, 
and no man can measure it." 

In the western part of this range, along the Soledad Canon and north- 
east of Newhall, as well as between Lang and Ravenna, placers were 
reported in 1894. 10 At present, however, there is no production from 
these fields. 

Besides these inland placers above described, deposits of auriferous 
sand have been found sparingly on the sea coast, and some years ago 11 
a company was formed to recover gold from beach sands at Ballona, 
now known as Playa del Rey. 

QUARTZ VEINS. 

Vein mining for gold in this county has been practiced in several 
areas. They are all described in the early reports but all have beeni 
unproductive for some years. 

In the northwestern part of the county were several gold districts 
which were reached from Acton Station on the S. P. R. R. One of them 
was Cedar Mountain District, 12 comprising parts of Townships 4, 5, and 
6 North in Ranges 12 and 14 West. Much of this district lay north 
and west from Acton. The chief properties here were the Red Rover 
and New York mines. Now idle. 

Southeast of Acton about seven miles, was the Mount Gleason Dis- j 
trict, 13 centering around the peak of that name in Sees. 25, 26, 35, 36, j 
T. 4 N., R. 13 W., S. B. M. The chief mines here, in 1896, were the j 



°VIIIth Report, State Mineralogist, p. 340. 

10 R. XII, p. 152. 

n R. XIII, p. 203. 

52 C. S. M. B., R. IX, p. 191. 

,S R. IX, p. 195; R. XIII, p. 204. 






LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 477 

Padre, Mount Gleason, Kelly, Peerless, and the Casa Grande mines, 
named Gold Bullion, Log Cabin, Veteran, Golden Rule, and Old Town. 

Sixteen miles southeast of Acton was the Monte Christo group of 
mines, comprising Dos Robles, Mikado, Monte Carlo, and Monte Christo 
and, near by, the Tujunga Group, 14 including the Baltic, Boston, Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, Nevada, and Pacific. 

The mines of these groups have been idle for many years and little is 
remembered concerning them. 15 

Another region of gold-bearing quartz veins was in the San Gabriel 
Range, adjacent to the caiions of the San Gabriel River. 

Here, on North Baldy Mountain, in Sees. 7 and 8, T. 3 N., R. 8 W., 
S. B. M., are the claims of the Big Horn and Called Back Mines. 

These are now owned by the Lowell and California Development 
Company, 712 Story Bldg., Los Angeles, and are being developed under 
lease by Mr. Seeley W. Mudd, of Los Angeles. 

The corporation holds fifteen claims and two mill sites, all of which 
are patented. The vein is described as twenty-five feet wide on a contact 
between gneiss and schist. The strike is N. 40° to 60° E. and the dip 
20° NW. By isolated outcrops it has been proved for 2500 to 3000 ft. 
A 600-ft. tunnel cuts the vein 400 ft. below the outcrop. There is a 
ten stamp mill on the ground but no production has been achieved. 

Other gold quartz veins, which have not lately been materially pro- 
ductive, are in the San Gabriel Canons. One of these was the Kelsey 
Mine 16 near Fellows Camp, which is reached from Azusa. Nearby was 
the Allison Mine and the Victoria. 17 Still other veins in the San 
Gabriel Range, are noted in Report XI, p. 247. 

Near Los Angeles two prospects have been opened but have never been 
producers. These were : The Cahuenga Mine, 18 described in 1896 as 
seven miles north of Los Angeles. This may have been in the hills of 
Griffith Park and near the Cahuenga Pass, but it has long been for- 
gotten. There is, however, a tradition of an old prospect in Laurel 
•Canon near Hollywood. 

The Dawn Mine. This is near the bottom of Millard Canon on the 
•southwest slope of Mount Lowe. The vein, which occurs in granitic 
'rocks, strikes nearly east and west and its dip is nearly vertical. The 
mineralization is with iron sulphides, rich in gold. Considerable devel- 
opment work has been done by adits but no large body of ore has been 
opened. The foregoing data are from a report by Mr. J. Nelson Nevius 
of Pasadena. The owner of the property is Mr. M. T. Ryan, 4083 
Moneta Ave., Los Angeles. 

U R. XIII, p. 204. 

15 R. VIII, p. 332 ; R. IX, p. 191 ; R. XI, p. 246 ; R. XII, p. 153 ; R. XIII, p. 204. 

18 C. S. M. B., R. XIII, p. 203; R. XI, p. 243; R. XIII, p. 204. 

1T R. XIII, p. 205. 

18 R. XIII, p. 203. 



478 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

IRON. 

Iron ores are rare in this county, but a few occurrences are noted in 
Bulletin No. 38, page 297. As a matter of history the record is copied 
here. 

A deposit of magnetite lay within 200 yards of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, at Russ Station (Soledad Canon). Only a little development 
work had been done. Some years ago a small furnace, using oil as fuel, 
was erected at the deposit, but proved a failure. 

The owners of this deposit in 1906 were John Carroll, Fourth and 
Junipero streets, Long Beach, and J. D. Rivard, 2915 Downey Avenue, 
Los Angeles. 

Another deposit was called the Iron Mack ; H. Reblick, Acton, and 1 
E. L. Baker, 713 West First Street, Los Angeles, owners. This was in . 
Sec. 36, T. 6 N., R. 14 W., S. B. M. at the head of Mint Canon, about ten 
miles northwest of Acton, and was described as a deposit of low-grade 
material, containing some small pockets of magnetite, accompanied by 
some manganese ore. From a pit less than 10 feet deep, some ore was 
shipped a few years prior to 1906. 

The writer is informed, on reliable authority, that these ores 
proved to contain titanium and consequently were not of commercial 
importance. 

LEAD. 

This metal is not abundant in this county and its ores have not been 
mined commercially. Associated with silver it occurs sparingly at a 
few localities and as noted under Silver has been reported from the old 1 ' 
Silver Mountain Mines 19 east of Casteca Canon. This lies in T. 6 N., R. : i 
16 W. A small production of lead from the Kelsey mine in San Gabriel 
Canon, five miles from Azusa, was reported in 1892. 20 In association' 
with silver and zinc sulphides lead in small quantities was reported from; 
Santa Catalina Island in 1890. 21 It does not appear that any of these! 
deposits have been developed or worked to any extent since they were! 
originally reported to the State Mining Bureau. 

MANGANESE. 

But little of the ore of this metal is known in this county. The onl) 
reported deposit is one belonging to A. Mayet, 328 Higgins Bldg., Lofi 
Angeles. It lies four miles west of Palmdale, T. 6 N., R. 12 W., S. B. Mi 
The holdings amount to nine claims. There is said to be seven feet oi 
ore averaging 45 to 48% of Mn0 2 with 8 to 10% of silica. No produc- 
tion is reported thus far. 



19 R. IX, p. 20.?. 
20 R. XI, p. 24 r j. 
21 R. X, p. 279. 






LOS ANGELAS COUNTY. 479 

SILVER. 

This precious metal has been found at but few points in this county, 
lly four localities having been recorded. These were (I) The Silver 
fountain Mining District, east of Casteca Canon, see Report IX, p. 
)3-4; (II) the San Gabriel Canon, north of Azusa, see R. XI, pp. 243- 

and R. XIII, p. 204; (III) on Santa Catalina Island, see R. X, pp. 
f9-80, also R. XII, p. 25; (IV) in R. IX, p. 194, is mentioned the 
mma vein, between Acton and Ravenna which, in addition to copper, 
as said to carry 15 oz. of silver. This ground is not now worked. 

There is no record of productive operations in the Silver Mountain 
istrict, since 1889. The Kelsey Mine, five miles north of Azusa, in 
an Gabriel Canon, has been idle since 1892; likewise the Sierra Madre 
ilver Mining Company's mine, since 1895; and the small veins once 
rospected on Santa Catalina Island have lain untouched so long that 
le most diligent search by the writer fails to find any man who worked 
a them when they were prospected in 1890. According to the state- 
lent in R. X, p. 279, on this island, the silver was contained in galena 
ssociated with zincblende. 

It is rumored that a primitive form of smelting was formerly pran- 
ced here in small rude furnaces. 

ZINC. 

This important metal is in great demand to alloy with copper in mak- 
lg brass and is also much used in protecting iron from rust in the 
rocess known as galvanizing. 

But little has been reported in Los Angeles County and at only two 
>calities. One of these was the Kelsey Mine in San Gabriel Canon 
ve miles north of Azusa, 22 the other was on Santa Catalina Island, 23 
a Black Jack Mountain and at the junction of Silver and Grand 
afions. At the time of Mr. Preston's visit to the second locality in 
390 but little development had been done and no production achieved, 
nd since that time the deposits have been abandoned and forgotten, 
ie Banning company, which owns the island, having devoted its 
aergies to seeking income from other sources. 

NONMETALLIC MINERALS. 

The nonmetals are commercially the most important among the 
lineral products of this county. In 1914 their aggregate value was 
pwards of $4,000,000. 

The presence here, of the metropolis of southern California, has 
eveloped a great demand for materials employed in the building trades 

"R. XI, p. 243. 
*R. x, p. 279. 



480 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

and all important deposits of minerals used in the manufacture of struc j 
tural materials have been energetically developed and worked. Lor 
Angeles County, therefore, produces a large part of the nonmetalli< I 
minerals locally consumed and their record consequently occupies manvj 
pages and the larger portion of this county report. 

The following nonmetals are found or produced in Los Angeleri 
County: Abrasives — corundum;* barite; borax; building materials—^ 
building stone, granite, marble, sandstone, serpentine and steatite j 
trachyte, crushed stone and sand, lime, Portland cement, artificial 
stone; crays — brick and pottery; coal;* feldspar;* fuller's earth j 
gems; graphite; gypsum;* infusorial earth;* mineral paint; mineral 
water; petroleum and natural gas; potash; salt. 

ABRASIVES. 

Corundum. In San Antonio Canon, about five miles above Uplands ij 
is a large body of syenite containing ruby corundum. The rubiej 
occur in small prismatic crystals, and might be utilized as an abrasive! 
if they can be concentrated economically out of the mass of thi] 
syenite. 

BARYTES. 

(Heavy spar.) 

This mineral, in composition, barium sulphate, is comparatively rar j 
in Los Angeles County. It has been reported from Azusa 24 but thjl 
locality is not well known. It is also found in the west fork of Sa-'l 
Dimas Canon, T. 1 N., R. 9 W., whence a small tonnage is reported ti 
have been shipped recently. The owners of this latter deposit are C. "\ I 
Foresman, John Bradley, and Geo. Rogers of San Dimas. 

Barytes or barite is chiefly used as a pigment and to a small extent it I 
the manufacture of glass. 

BORAX. 

The production of this mineral in Los Angeles County amounted i I 
1914 to nearly $500,000. This was chiefly the output of the Sterlin ; 
Borax Company of 320 Trust and Savings Bldg., Los Angeles, Tho I 
Thorkildsen, president, of which the mine is five miles north of Lang j 1 
Tick Canon. This corporation controls some 1,200 acres and mines j 
large deposit of colemanite. In a mill on the property, the cruel 
material is separated from such impurities as clay and shale, and ca I] 
cium borate is shipped to Pittsburgh and Chicago to be refined in I 
commercial borax. 

The deposit is probably a tilted lake bed and is of great interest bill 
the management request that no details be published. 



♦Not produced. 
2 *Bull. 38, p. 360. 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 481 

At San Fernando is the manufacturing plant of the Paradise Borax 
lining Company, which controls no borax deposit, and of which the 
roduct is chiefly mineral paint, sold under the trade name of Silumnia 
."alsomine. Among the officers of this corporation are 0. C. Gray, 
resident, and W. S. Booher, secretary, both of San Fernando. This 
eposit will be further mentioned under ''Mineral Paint." 

BUILDING MATERIALS. 

BUILDING STONE. 

Not many years ago building stone or rock of attractive appearance 
nd. durable qualities which could be cut or dressed to a convenient form 
nd size for building operations was a matter of much importance and 

substantial asset to any state or county, but with the lapse of time 
nd the development of new methods of construction, brick, terra cotta, 
ad concrete have been so extensively substituted for cut stone, that the 
itter has become of minor importance and many deposits of material 
)rmerly available and in demand now lie unnoticed. In this report, 
Dace will be given only to building stones formerly worked or now in 
se for special purposes. 

Among the building stones occurring in this county are the following, 
[though they are not all produced commercially : granite, marble, ser- 
entine, sandstone, volcanic tuff and trachyte. 

ranite. 

No stone of this class has been worked in this county except by crush- 
lg plants for concrete. 

In Bulletin No. 38, p. 28, is the following description : 
E. M. Ross, Glendale. On the Glendale ranch, Verdugo Canon, 
miles from Los Angeles, and three-fourths of a mile from the rail- 
ed is a body of very dark hornblende biotite granite, somewhat 
mded (gneissic), taking a very high polish, and very well adapted 
>r monument work and for trimming the light-colored granites and 
arbles. No development work. 

Much granite is exposed in the San Gabriel Range but the outcrops 
re high and inaccessible. 

arble. 

No stone of this class has lately been worked in Los Angeles County, 
lough there is a record of a Southern California Marble Company with 
quarry operated near Neenach by John Rebman of Los Angeles. This 
icord can not now be verified as Mr. Rebman has moved to Arizona. 
Crystalline limestone, which, in some localities makes a high class 
arble, is described by W. A. Goodyear 25 as occurring in Pacoima 
anon near San Fernando. It does not appear, however, that this 
aterial has been used for other purposes than making lime. 



25 Bull. 38, p. 100; also, R. XIII, p. 629. 
31— iGtKii 



482 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Prof. K. T. Hill of the U. S. Geological Survey, states that on the' 
southeast slope of the Tehachapi Range, and the northwest border of 
the Antelope Valley, limestone outcrops extensively with northeast and 
southwest strike, dipping steeply into the mountains. The strike of 
these beds should carry them into the northwest corner of Los Angeles 
County, but no record can be found that they are now worked there. 

In Bull. No. 38, p. 100, is a record of this limestone belt as 
worked in Kern County 26 in 1906. On page 367 of the same bulletin 
are data suggesting that it was, at that time, worked in Los Angeles 
County. In R. XIII, 1896, p. 629, is a note of a marble quarry 
in Antelope Valley, forty miles northeast of Lancaster. This is 
clearly incorrect, as the limestone above mentioned lies northwest of 
Lancaster. 

Sandstone. 

Chatsworth Park Quarry: (see Bulletin 38, p. 128). This 
property comprises 160 acres in Sec. 13, T. 2 N., R. 17 W., S. B. M 
It is about 1^ miles west of Chatsworth station, on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad and was formerly connected by a spur track with the main 
road. The locality is at the northeast end of the Simi Hills, a ruggej 
range of sandstone strata, folded and faulted, their dip being plainly 
visible from the southward. 

The stone of the quarry is arkose or feldspathic sandstone, rather i 
fine-grained and heavily bedded. When fresh it is bluish-gray, but 
near the surface it weathers to a tawny color. This weathering 
extends to an irregular depth, but the demarcation between the weath-J 
ered and fresh stone is very distinct. It is said, that when quarried] 
for dimension stone, it can be split regularly along the run, but that 
when quarried for large blocks, as done for the substructure of thel 
San Pedro breakwater, it breaks along uneven surfaces. As shown byl 
some samples it usually resists exposure to the atmosphere in a satis- !■ 
factory manner. 

Near Garvanza, on N. Avenue 64, is the Church of the Angels, built 
in 1887, of the tawny-colored stone, which as yet shows no signs oil 
deterioration. 

In Los Angeles, corner of Fifth and Hill streets, is the house of thcjj 
California Club, built of an olive-gray stone from the Chatsworth 
Quarry, but much stained by the leaching of soluble salts. Christ 
Episcopal Church, corner Twelfth and Flower streets, Los Angeles, is 
constructed of Chatsworth sandstone and also the city police station 
and jail on First Street, near Hill, and the Southern California Edison 
Company's building, East Fourth Street, near Main. A few private 
residences also have been built of this stone. At the shore end of the 



20 See, also, Report on Kern County, 1915. 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 483 

Southern Pacific Railroad pier at Santa Monica, some of this stone 
vas used for rip-rap. Below high water level, where kept moistened 
>y seawater, it remains quite hard, but above high-water mark, the 
exposed stone is rather soft and somewhat disintegrated. 

The geologic age of the rock in this quarry is Upper Cretaceous or 
]hico, as mapped on Plate III of the folio accompanying Bulletin 
so. 69 of the State Mining Bureau. 

The quarry was opened by the California Construction Company, 
vhich (about 1900) took the contract for building the San Pedro 
breakwater. At present the property is held by the Los Angeles Trust 
md Savings Bank as trustees for creditors of the California Construc- 
ion Company, which has forfeited its corporate rights through non- 
myment of taxes, but it is now represented by the president, W. N. 
lamaker, care of First National Bank, Los Angeles. 
f No rock has been quarried here for years, the quarry having been 
lismantled and its equipment and spur track removed. 
| Judging from examples of this sandstone in use, it is an important 
milding stone, and it is to be hoped that the quarry may again be 
>pened. 

ierpentine and Steatite. 

(Report X, p. 280; R. XII, p. 402; R. XIII, p. G39 ; Bull. 38, p. 147.) 

i On Santa Catalina Island, which is owned by the Banning Company, 
>94 Pacific Electric Bldg., Los Angeles, is a deposit of serpentine, 
ormerly worked commercially under lease by F. C. Carey, 772 San 
Fernando Street, Los Angeles. The deposit is about a mile from 
Umpire Landing on the north shore of the island and in a depression 
;nown as Potts' Valley. 

The rock is fibrous in structure but takes a fine polish. There are 
wo varieties, hard and soft. The soft variety may be sawed into 
labs of any length. The hard variety is worked with ordinary stone- 
utter 's tools. This stone has been used in several buildings in Los 
Ingeles for ornamental, sanitary and electrical purposes, also for 
ining fireplaces. The dark green columns at the entrance to the 
lenne Building are of this material. Sanitary slabs and electrical 
Qsulators manufactured from this stone are said to give great satis- 
action. The soft variety was supplied in slabs one inch thick f. o. b. 
jOs Angeles, for 75 cents a running foot. The hard variety was 
upplied in similar slabs at the rate of $2.50 a running foot. The 
tuarry has not been worked since 1913. 

Near the south side of the isthmus on this island there is also a 
arge body of steatite. It is said that about 400 tons of this rock 
: Fere supplied every year to plasterers, soap factories, druggists, and 
oundry-men, but it has not been worked for about eight years. 



484 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Trachyte. 

This volcanic rock, consisting chiefly of orthoclase feldspar, lias 
been quarried on Santa Catalina Island, between Avalon and Empire 
Landing, according to the following note 27 made in 1894. 

"The Lang Quarry is situated on Santa Catalina Island. It is said 
that although this stone is admirably suited for building purposes, 
the greatest demand for it has been as rubble rock, for use in railroad 
construction and harbor improvements. It is stated that 150,000 tons 
of this rock have been used during the last fifteen years. This rock 
can be supplied f. o. b. at Los Angeles, at the rate of from $3.00 to 
$4.00 a cubic yard. 

As stated in Bulletin 38, p. 155, trachyte from this quarry was used 
in the old breakwater betw r een Terminal Island and Deadman's Island 
and, to a small extent, in the great government breakwater at San 
Pedro, but blocks of sufficient size were difficult to obtain. 

Crushed stone and sand. 

The extended and ever increasing use of concrete for buildings and 
pavements makes the supply of crushed stone a matter of great 
importance. The stone chiefly crushed in this county for concrete is 
granite, of which boulders and cobblestones, in immense numbers, 
are distributed widely over the river washes which form where the, 
mountain streams emerge from their rocky caiions, bearing along, in 
their torrential flow, great quantities of fragments from the canon 
walls. So, it has long been a custom to install crushing and screening ( 
plants on these river washes to separate the sand from the cobbles: 
and crush the latter, thus providing two of the most important constit-' 
uents of concrete. Such crushing plants are operated on the Pacoima,:; 
Tujunga, Arroyo Seco, and San Gabriel washes by various companies* 
which will be mentioned in detail. The economy of this procedure! 
is obvious, as the cost of quarrying the rock from its native ledge 
is wmolly eliminated, the expense of handling small boulders and 
cobbles being very trifling. 

Rock crushing plants. 

The largest plants near Los Angeles are operated on the wash of the. 
Gabriel River. Two of these belong to the Pacific Rock and Gravel 
Company, 498 Pacific Electric Bldg., Los Angeles, W. L. Hodges, presi-J 
dent, A. C. Stone, secretary. One is west of Azusa, near the tracks! 
of the Pacific Electric Railway where the company controls 2500 acres,! 
and the other two and one-half miles southwest, near the tracks of the ; 1 
Santa Fe Railway. This last, which was erected and formerly! 
operated by the San Gabriel River Rock Company, is now being! 
dismantled owing to damage from the floods of January, '16, and is 1 



27 R. XII, p. 404. See, also, R. X, p. 279. 






LOS ANGELES COUNTY 



485 



3eing reinstalled at a safer distance from the present river channel. 
A. third plant is operated on the same wash near Baldwin Park (see 
Photo No. 1) by the Russell-Greene-Foell Company, of 814 Hig- 
Bldg., Los Angeles. This corporation also has a plant at Declez. 
>an Bernardino County. 
A few miles northwest of Los Angeles, in the San Fernando Valley, 
the crushing plant formerly operated by the Tujunga Rock Com- 
pany. This plant adjoins the tracks of the S. P. R. R.. near Roscoe 
tation. in T. 5 N., R. 14 W. It is now controlled by the Los Angeles 
Stone Company, mentioned below. The output is sand, gravel and 
Tushed stone, amounting to 1500 tons per day. 




ioto No. 1. 



Rock crushing plant of Russell-Greene-Foell Co., in the Sc 
wash near Baldwin Park. Photo by Walter W. Bradley. 



In Pasadena the California Rock and Gravel Company operates a 
•rusher at Lester Ave. and Arroyo Seco. Quite near is the plant of 
he Baldwin Construction Company. 

* On the same arroyo in Pasadena, near the Ostrich Farm, is a small 
•rushing plant operated by W. W. McGregor. 

In Los Angeles a rock crushing plant is operated on the gravels of 
he Arroyo Seco by the Los Angeles Rock and Gravel Company, at 
Vw-nue 35 and Pasadena Ave. 

Robert Beyrle formerly operated a crusher at 462 Avenue 20. and 
't N. Avenue 19 and Arroyo Seco, is a small crushing plant operated 
ty the City of Los Angeles for street repairs. 



486 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

At 26th and Alameda streets the Consumers Rock and Gravel Com- 
pany produce sand and gravel from what was once a river bed. No 
crushing plant of importance is operated. 

A similar business is conducted near by, at 2599 E. 26th Street, by 
the Western Rock and Sand Company. 

Northwest of Glendale, between Montrose and La Crescenta, on a 
wash of granite boulders brought down by a stream, flowing from a; 
canon, in the San Gabriel Range, two miles west of the Arroyo Seco, 
is a crushing plant erected about 1914, but not now in operation. 

Crushing plants operated in connection with quarries are few in' 
this county. The following are, however, of consequence : 

On the east slope of Brush Canon, near Hollywood, a crushing 
plant is operated on a crystalline rock by the Los Angeles Stone 
Company, 1316 Baker-Detwiler Bldg., Los Angeles, H. S. Feraud. 
president, Geo. H. Clark, secretary. 

The product is crushed stone and is used mainly for concrete. The 
capacity of this plant is 1000 tons per day. 

This company, through an allied corporation, the Acton Rock Com- 
pany, also operates an extensive plant near Acton on the S. P. R. R 
where a crystalline rock is quarried and crushed. 

At San Dimas a crushing plant was formerly operated by the Sar 
Dimas Rock Company, but this is now controlled by Los Angela 
County and used to give employment to prisoners in the county jail 

The San Fernando Rock Company, unincorporated, 1006 Wright &■ 
Callender Bldg., Los Angeles, H. S. Wood, owner, operates a crushing 
plant near San Fernando on the wash of Pacoima Creek. Thr 
plant is on the northeast side of the S. P. R. R. tracks about one-thir( 
mile southeast of San Fernando Station. The material crushed ill 
granitic boulders and cobbles brought down from Pacoima Canon hi 
the San Gabriel Range. 

H. O. Richwine of Gardena has a gravel pit at Bixley, and a sane 
pit at Redondo, from which a small tonnage is taken annually fol 
local use in concrete. 1 

Lime. 

Owing to the scarcity of limestone in this county, little of thi 
building material has been produced and none is being made a 
present from local rock. One outcrop near Spadra was formerl I 
worked and a lime kiln operated there, by the Pomona Lime Con 
pany, now defunct. Some lime has been made in Los Angeles froi 1 
limestone brought in by the railroad. 

In the VHIth report of the State Mineralogist, pages 340-341 1 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY. 487 

printed in 1888, Mr. W. A. Goodyear, who wrote in 1872, described 
some occurrences of limestone near San Fernando as follows : 

"In the Pacoima Caiion, on the northeastern side of the San Fer- 
nando Valley, some three and one-half miles from San Fernando 
Station, and eight hundred to one thousand feet above the valley, 
Dr. J. S. Turner has a limestone quarry in the granite. The lower 
!oothills of the mountains are here unaltered shales and sandstone, 
lipping southerly. The limestone, at the quarry, is highly crystalline, 
[t seems to vary much in purity, containing in places considerable 
lisseminated epidote, and being also here and there irregularly and 
capriciously intermixed with granite. To produce a uniformly good 
quality of lime from this quarry will require a careful sorting of the 
^oek. Yet, some of it seems very pure, and samples from the top of a 
freshly burned kiln slaked quickly and thoroughly, yielding, to all 
ippearance, a beautiful quality of lime. There is no timber here, 
md the fuel hitherto used for burning the lime was sagebrush. The 
zranite here also varies much in character. Some of it is very felds- 
^athic, with very little mica, and much magnetic iron. 

"Some three or four miles southeast from here, and only two miles 
Northwest of Pacoima Caiion, are the limestone quarries of Mr. Wil- 
son, who has been burning more or less lime here for a number of 
years. The limestone burned here is all crystalline and a heavy body 
of it is enclosed in mica schist and gneissoid rocks. The latter are 
^ften curiously intermixed with the limestone itself in ways not easily 
3xplicable, the whole being very highly metamorphosed. Neither 
epidote nor graphite was seen here." No lime has been made here 
cor many years. 

■ At the present time the demand for lime in Los Angeles is in part 
supplied by the Los Angeles Lime Company, H. de Garmo, president, 
and L. A. Stahl, secretary. This corporation has its warehouses at 
1522 E. Scherer Street, Los Angeles, where they sell lime, made from 
imestone outside of the county. Three sources of supply are drawn 
ipon: Grand Canon, Arizona; Tehachapi, Kern County; and Colton, 
Ban Bernardino County. 

Portland cement. 

This important building material is not made in Los Angeles 
bounty. The great plants at Riverside, Colton and Oro Grande, make 
.t unnecessary to establish a plant in this county. The County Board 
)f Supervisors, however, controls the large plant built by the city of 
(jos Angeles at Monolith, Kern County, to supply the construction of 
"he new city aqueduct, and this plant is in operation at present. 

i 



488 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Artificial stone. 

As the methods of constructing buildings improve, much attention ! 
is given to replacing cut stone blocks and slabs by moulded blocks I 
of artificial stone made of Portland cement and sand or crushed rock. 
Thus are made a great variety of articles used in building, bricks, 
ashlars, window sills, lintels, copings, columns, plinths, and many i 
other objects of attractive appearance and durability, at a cost far 
below that of cut stone. 

Color and texture is given to these building units by using suitable I 
varieties of crushed rock, marble giving a white color, granite anj 
agreeable gray and red jasper contributing a warm reddish color. 

In Los Angeles, the chief manufacturers of such products are the 
Stengel and Krebs Stone Company, 252 "W. Thirty-seventh St., and 
the Tay-Mac Company, 1313 E. First St. 

At Long Beach are the H. H. Hamilton Art Stone Company., 7J 
Obispo Ave., and Harrison McLintick, 1408 Hellman Ave. 

The Alpine Plaster Company of 1503 Alameda St., makes a business 
of preparing the materials which are mixed with Portland cement tc 
form artificial stone. At present this company grinds silica, granite 
and marble, which are consumed in the foregoing industry. 

A similar business is transacted by the Pacific Mineral Product! 
Company, of 201 N. Avenue 19. This corporation grinds granite 
jasper, silica and marble for artificial stone and manganese for glass 
making. 

CLAYS. 

Brick Clay. 2S 

The brick clay deposits within the limits of Los Angeles and vicinitj 
consist principally of loam (clay mixed with sand), which contain! 
numerous inclusions of pebbles. These clays are mostly marin< 
deposits of the late Pleistocene, formed when the land was depressec 
below its present level. In the northeastern part of the city, the clays 
are underlain by sand. East of the Los Angeles River, on Boyl< 
Heights, near Boyle Ave. and Seventh St., clay forms an upper stra 
turn, from 5 to 10 feet thick, containing numerous lenses of sand? 
material. It is underlain by sand and gravel. Northeast of this, nea: 
the corner of Step